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Full text of "Flora of Indiana"




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17 



FLORA of INDIANA 



BY 



CHARLES C. DEAM, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D. 

Research State Forester 



/\ 




INDIANAPOLIS: 

WM. B. BURFORD PRINTING CO., CONTRACTOR FOR STATE PRINTING AND BINDING 

19 4 



For sale by the Department of Conser- 
vation at the cost of publication, $3.50. 
Send order to State Forester, State 
Library, Indianapolis, Ind. 



STATE OF INDIANA 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 



JUNE, 1940 



Published by the 

Department of Conservation, Division of Forestry 

Indianapolis, Indiana 




The Deam Oak (Quercus Deamii Trelease) 

This oak is a cos. between the white and chinquapin oaks (X Quercus alba X Muhlenbergii ) . It was 
discovered Oct 9 1904, by Lent A. Williamson and his son E. Bruce Williamson on the border of a woods 
a on K State Road 116 about 3 miles northwest of Bluffton. Wells County. Indiana. In 1904-5 the author 

£S£S aLttti^rjsauara tfifsaa ass gmt AS 

In March.1989. the tree measured 90 inches in circumference at breast height. 



FOREWORD 



It is difficult to write a suitable foreword to such a notable book. 

In his "Flora of Indiana" Dr. Deam has set new standards of excel- 
lence in many lines. 

The most casual examination shows that it was based upon painstaking- 
field studies — field studies covering years of time and involving thousands 
of miles of travel. While local lists were carefully studied no plant was 
admitted to the Flora upon their authority, it was admitted only as these 
field studies proved its presence in the state, or it could be verified by 
actual specimens in accessible herbaria. I know of no other State Flora 
based upon long continued field studies and in which every plant admitted 
is based upon an actual and accessible specimen. 

The work is notable because of its accuracy. Dr. Deam, not content to 
rest upon his own taxonomic acumen, has referred every critical genus 
and species to specialists for their confirmation or correction. Scores of 
shipments of such specimens to these specialists were made up to the 
very date of publication. It is safe to say that in no other regional Flora 
has such meticulous care been taken to secure absolute accuracy in de- 
termination, as well as the very latest word in these special studies. The 
Flora of Indiana is accurate and up to date in an unusual degree. 

The clearness of the floral picture is increased by a series of unique dis- 
tribution maps showing not only location but the time of the occurrence 
of various seasonal phases. 

Perhaps as illuminating as any single feature of the Flora are the 
incidental ecological notes that appear on almost every page. From the 
unity of treatment that characterizes the text, plant associations stand out 
with amazing distinctness. It adds greatly to the value of the book that 
while no attempt is made to emphasize these features, they take their 
place in the picture of the flora of the state and aid in its interpretation, 
as into this book has entered the experience of former taxonomic work 
by the author. His Trees of Indiana, Shrubs of Indiana, and Grasses of 
Indiana are models of what such reports should be as to completeness, 
accuracy, and widespread utility. 

The canvas is of course larger in Flora of Indiana but there has been 
no sacrifice of accuracy, no lessening of the purpose lying back of all these 
books — that they should be useful to citizens of Indiana. 

The Flora of Indiana will be a treasure trove to education from the sec- 
ondary schools to the university. It will be a stimulus and guide to nature 
lovers; it will be of immense practical value to every agriculturist and 
horticulturist. It will have its place in libraries, and it is a great book by 
an author whom I have been proud to claim as a personal friend for 
nearly half a century. 

Stanley Coulter, 

Dean (Emeritus) School of Science, 
Purdue University. 

(5) 




Table of Contents 



PAGE 

Foreword 5 

Introduction 9 

Abbreviations of names of authors 21 

Key to the Families 25 

Ferns, fern allies, and vascular plants of Indiana 36 

Excluded species 1019 

Summary of families, genera, species, varieties, forms, and hybrids composing the Flora. . 1107 

List of new forms and new combinations 1112 

Names of collecting places that are no longer in current use 1113 

List of Indiana collectors whose specimens have been seen or referred to in the Flora. . . . 1115 

Glossary of terms used in botanical description in the Flora 1120 

Some habitat terms defined as used in the Flora 1125 

Bibliography 1 130 

Maps showing temperature zones in Indiana 1162-1163 

Map showing floral areas in Indiana 1164 

Finding County Map of Indiana 1165 

Index 1167 



>i ! 



(7) 



INTRODUCTION 



The first flora of Indiana was a "Catalogue of the phaenogamous and 
vascular cryptogamous plants of Indiana" by the Editors 1 of the Botanical 
Gazette and Prof. Charles R. Barnes, published in 1881. To this was 
added a supplement in April, 1882. These listed 1,194 species native to 
the state and 140 species that had been introduced. 

Stanley Coulter in 1897 compiled a list of Indiana plants by families 
(Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1897: 158-165. 1898). This list contains 124 
families, 534 genera, and 1,369 species, an increase of only 35 species. 
The names of the species are not given and the totals include both native 
and introduced species. 

The second flora was "A Catalogue of the flowering plants, ferns, and 
fern allies indigenous to Indiana" by Stanley Coulter, published in 1900. 
He lists 1,765 species but this number includes both native and introduced 
species and some erroneous reports. I have studied this catalogue and as 
I interpret the species, the list should read 1,400 native species, 177 estab- 
lished exotics, 34 not yet established, and 154 species to be excluded for 
various reasons. It should be borne in mind that when this catalogue was 
published the author was not able to verify reports as critically as has 
been done in the present flora. At that time reports by recognized botan- 
ists were accepted. It must be remembered that our early botanists did 
not have access to large herbaria and had few books or perhaps only 
one book to guide them in naming plants. 

Since the publication of these floras much work has been done in the 
state by various botanists. Among the principal collectors the following 
persons may be mentioned: Edna Banta, A. R. Bechtel, Chas. M. Ek, Ray 
C. Friesner, Ralph M. Kriebel, Marcus Lyon, Jr., Scott McCoy, Madge 
McKee, J. A. Nieuwland, J. E. Potzger, Paul Weatherwax, Winona Welch, 
and T. G. Yuncker. 

Improved highways and the automobile have greatly facilitated collect- 
ing. I have been collecting for 40 years. Since 1914 I have used an auto- 
mobile, traveled over 125,000 miles, and collected in each of the 1,016 
townships in Indiana. My accession numbers are now over 59,000. 

The plan of this flora is to include all the species native to Indiana, 
although a few are now known only from herbarium specimens, and in- 
troduced plants that are known to be established. Introduced plants that 
have been reported as escapes without data concerning their establish- 
ment are carried in an excluded list with all the data which I can assemble. 
If one of the excluded species is later found to be established, the data 
here recorded may be of service. In the excluded list are included also 
species that are no longer regarded as segregates, species which have 
been erroneously reported for the state, and those which do not have 
sufficient data to warrant their inclusion. 



1 J. M. Coulter and Stanley Coulter. 

(9) 



10 

The present flora is an attempt to bring up to date our knowledge of 
the ferns, fern allies, and flowering plants of Indiana. It became neces- 
sary to adopt a rule or standard by which a species could be admitted 
or excluded from the flora, and it was decided to admit only those species 
which have one or more herbarium specimens to verify their occurrence. 
An exception has been made in the case of Adlumia fungosa which I saw 
in a woods in La Porte County. Doubtless a few species have been ex- 
cluded that do occur in the state. I refer specifically to Podostemum 
ceratophyllum and Elatine minima which have been reported and have 
Indiana within their general range. I have, however, made strenuous 
but unsuccessful efforts to find specimens of both these species. I have 
admitted a few species where I have seen no specimen but the evidence 
for their existence in Indiana is convincing. 

My study has been made primarily from specimens in my own her- 
barium which numbers more than 65,000 sheets, more than 47,000 of 
which are from Indiana. In addition I have examined all the Indiana 
specimens in all of the other Indiana herbaria which total 36,936 sheets 
but these were studied only sufficiently to check the identification. The 
keys and measurements have been made from my own specimens. The 
ecological notes have been taken also from my specimens. 

No effort or expense has been spared to have my specimens named 
correctly. In order that specimens belonging to critical genera be au- 
thentically named, I have sent them to specialists to be determined or to 
have my identifications verified. I wish here to express my sincere ap- 
preciation to the following persons who have examined my specimens in 
the groups upon which they are authorities : L. H. Bailey for Rubus and 
Vitis; C. R. Ball for Salix; J. H. Barnhart for Utricidariaceae; Ezra 
Brainerd (deceased) for Viola; Agnes Chase and A. S. Hitchcock (de- 
ceased) for Gramineae; H. S. Conard for Nymphaeaceae; Carl Epling 
for Labiatae in part ; M. L. Fernald for Potamogeton and various species ; 
Ray C. Friesner for Solidago; Frederick J. Hermann for Carex and 
Juncaceae; Lawrence E. Hicks for Lemnaceae; Milton S. Hopkins for 
Arabis in part; Theodor Just for Chenopodiaceae; Rogers McVaugh for 
Lobelia; P. A. Munz for Onograceae in part; E. J. Palmer for Crataegus 
and miscellaneous species; Francis W. Pennell for Scrophulariaceae; 
Rosendahl, Butters, and Lakela for Heuchera and Sidlivantia; Paul 
Standley for Houstonia in part; E. E. Watson (deceased) for Helianthus; 
C. A. Weatherby for assistance for many years on ferns ; Louis C. 
Wheeler for Euphorbia; Edgar T. Wherry for Polemoniaceae; K. M. 
Wiegand for Amelanchier and Oxalidaceae; and T. G. Yuncker for 
Cuscuta. I wish here to thank all others who named or checked over 
small groups or who loaned me Indiana specimens for study. 

Distribution of Indiana Plants. — The general distribution of a species 
is given in a closing paragraph after the discussion of the species. The 
state distribution is shown by a map. Published records that do not cite 
specimens are omitted but sometimes one or more may be discussed. 
Some more or less complete county floras have been published without 



11 

verifying specimens; no reference is made to these except that when a 
species is reported which does not occur in Indiana, it is discussed and 
placed in the excluded list where it belongs. 

Those plants whose mass distribution is to the south or southwest of 
Indiana and always found in cultivated grounds, are probably introduced. 
These are discussed in the text. 

The date of flowering of a species is given in the vertical column at 
the left of the map. No effort has been made to collect plants at their very 
earliest or latest flowering dates, and dates and the number of specimens 
have been taken from my collection only. 

The distribution on the map is by counties and is indicated by letters 
which are symbols for the herbaria in which specimens are deposited. I 
have seen all the Indiana specimens in both public and private herbaria 
in Indiana and many specimens cited outside of Indiana. Those which I 
have not seen are ones cited by recent authors. Hermann has seen all of 
the Carex and Juncaceae cited. 

It was impracticable to go through all the herbaria of the United 
States. The principal collectors of Indiana plants are known and I have 
seen their plants except those of E. J. Hill which are deposited in the 
herbarium of the University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois ; those of H. 
Walton Clark and B. W. Evermann from Marshall County which are 
deposited in the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, and the National 
Herbarium, Washington, D. C. ; and those collected by L. M. Umbach 
which are in the herbarium of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wisconsin. Since Hill and Umbach did most of their collecting in the 
counties along Lake Michigan whose flora is well represented later by 
my own work, and by that of Marcus Lyon, Jr., J. A. Nieuwland, and 
others it is doubtful if these former authors found anything not later 
collected and reported. They reported all the rare things they collected 
and I have examined all of these rarities. 

When the area of the county is too small to hold all the reports, those 
of private herbaria have been omitted. 

The herbaria indicated by symbols and their location are as follows: 

A A Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. 

B Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Ba Private herbarium of Edna Banta, Bloomington, Indiana. 

C University of California, Berkeley, California. 

Cm Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Cu Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

D Deam Herbarium, Bluffton, Indiana. (Later to be located at Indiana University, 

Bloomington, Indiana.) 

Dk South Dakota Agricultural College, Brookings, South Dakota. 

DP DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana. 

F Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois. 

Fr Franklin College, Franklin, Indiana. 

G Cray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

H Private herbarium of Frederick J. Hermann, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Hi Private herbarium of Lawrence E. Hicks, Columbus, Ohio. 

I Umiversity of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

IU Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 

K Private herbarium of Ralph M. Kriebel, Bedford, Indiana. 



12 

L Private herbarium of Marcus Lyon, Jr., South Bend, Indiana. 

M University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

MC Private herbarium of Scott McCoy, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Mi University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

MK Private herbarium of Madge McKee, Goodland, Indiana. 

Mo Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Mvv Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

X National Herbarium, Washington, D. C. 

XD. University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana. 

XW Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 

XV New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York. 

Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 

I' Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Pa University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Ph Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Po Pomona College, Claremont, California. 

S Private herbarium of A. S. Slavin, Rochester, New York. 

Sw State College of Washington, Pullman, Washington. 

St Stanford University, Stanford University, California. 

T Private herbarium of R. M. Tryon, Jr., Chicago, Illinois. 

W Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

We Private herbarium of Paul Weatherwax, Bloomington, Indiana. 

Wi University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Botanical Descriptions. — The botanical descriptions have been drawn 
almost exclusively from specimens I have collected because they have been 
at hand. Technical terms have been avoided whenever possible and the 
few found necessary to use are defined in a glossary. The measurements 
in the keys have been taken from herbarium specimens and are given in 
the metric system and those in the descriptive text are in English terms. 
The frequent use of "more or less, usually, and generally" is objectionable 
to some people but to me these expressions are the shortest, the most 
definite, and most comprehensive way of expressing the wide limits of a 
qualitative or quantitative character. The ampersand (&) is used be- 
tween joint authors and joint collectors. 

Botanical names of native plants are printed in bold face type and are in 
accordance with the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature. When 
the names given in Gray's Manual, edition 7 and Britton and Brown's, 
Illustrated Flora edition 2 differ from those in the bold face type for the 
same plant they are regarded as synonyms and are printed in italics. 
Botanical names in the text are printed in italics. Botanical names of 
introduced plants and common names are printed in SMALL capitals. 

The accented pronunciation of the botanical names is indicated as fol- 
lows: the grave C) accent indicates the long English sound of the vowel, 
and the acute ( ' ) accent indicates the short or otherwise modified sound. 

The use of the term "variety typica" to designate the typical form of a 
species is limited to those species where I have found it used as such. 

The common names are those given as such in "Standardized Plant 
Names," with few exceptions. In many instances I do not agree with this 
authority but 1 believe it is in the best interest of uniformity for me to 
accept the names given in the aforementioned work. In rare instances 
I have given two common names and the reason for so doing. Many of 



13 

our plants do not have accepted common names and I have left these 
without them. 

In the writing of the manuscript an effort has been made to conform to 
some supreme rule. In spelling and in the use of the hyphen Webster's New 
International Dictionary, latest edition has been followed with few ex- 
ceptions. Since there is no universally accepted standard of colors, al- 
though Ridgway's "Color standards and color nomenclature" is used by 
mammalogists, ornithologists, and some botanists, and since color terms 
have been loosely used by authors to convey color concepts, I believe it is in 
the interest of uniformity to delete all hyphens between color terms because 
they add nothing to clarify the concept, except where used by Ridgway 
when they represent a definite color. The "Style Manual of the United 
States Government Printing Office," 1935, edition has been followed with 
few exceptions. The outstanding innovation is the omission of the period 
after abbreviations used in the metric system. The exception is that while 
this authority does not begin proper names of specific and subspecific names 
with a capital letter, I am following the International Botanical Rules and 
I am using capital letters. I wish to go on record as vigorously opposing 
the practice of decapitalizing specific or subspecific names derived from 
proper nouns. Biological Abstracts has been followed in the matter of 
abbreviating and listing bibliographic data. 

The keys and how to use them.— The key to the families has been 
copied with a few changes from Robinson & Fernald's Gray's Manual, 
edition 7, published in 1908 and adapted to the species which occur in 
Indiana. The reason that I have adopted this key is that I have used it 
since its publication and I have found it satisfactory. Other botanists with 
whom I have conferred upon this subject all agree that the key is all 
that is to be desired. I wish to express my thanks for the privilege of using 
it. Keys to genera and species, except those of the parts contributed by 
others, I have written myself and they are all artificial. 

A general key is given to assist the student in learning to which family 
an unknown plant belongs. It is arranged in pairs of leads. The second 
lead of a pair repeats the data given in the first lead but in a negative 
form. Each succeeding set of leads is placed 2 spaces to the right and 
some of the sets are preceded by a pair of letters to make them more easily 
located, especially when one of the pair is very far from the other with 
many intervening leads. 

To name a plant, read the first lead. If it fits your plant, proceed to the 
next set of leads. If it fits the first lead of this set, proceed to succeeding 
leads until it leads to a family or genus. If it does not fit a lead, try the 
opposing lead. If it fits, proceed to the first part of the next set of leads. 
Accept or reject leads until the key leads to a family or genus. The task 
is not as easy as it may seem. After you have followed the key to a family 
you may find the plant does not fit the family. Then you must retrace 
the steps taken and be more careful to be sure the terms are understood. 
Errors are usually the result of haste, misunderstanding of terms used, 
or of poor or inadequate material for naming. The key may call for a 



14 

character your specimen does not have. Then outside aid must be sought. 
One who is interested in naming the flora of a region should have one or 
more manuals of botany that go into more detail than can be given in a 
flora of this kind. An illustrated manual will be of great assistance. 

After you have reached the family name, turn to the page in the book 
where the family is found and proceed through the family key to the 
species. 

Sequence of families and genera. — The sequence of families and genera 
and their interpretation is that of the "Genera Siphonogamarum" by 
C. G. de dalla Torre and Dr. H. Harms. This sequence is in accord with 
the "Engler and Prantl" system of classification which is in current use 
by most authors. I am aware that several newer systems of classification 
have been offered but students are not unanimous in accepting them. An 
exception has been made in the Graminae in which the sequence is that 
of Hitchcock's Manual of Grasses which is used by most students of grasses. 

It is to be noted that the numbers that precede family and generic names 
in our manuals and floras differ. This disagreement follows because each 
author treats a different area and he numbers only the families and genera 
that are found within the area he considers. The innovation in this flora 
is that the numbers of families and genera refer to the families and genera 
of the whole plant kingdom and are the numbers assigned to them by dalla 
Torre and Harms. This system places no limit upon expansion if one 
wishes to build up an herbarium and makes it easy to incorporate it into a 
large herbarium. Plants in an herbarium should not be arranged alpha- 
betically but according to their relationship. 

Indiana, its location, drainage, and climate. 

Indiana is one of the north-central states. It is about 153 miles wide 
and 275 miles long between the most distant points. The southern boun- 
dary is low water line of the north side of the Ohio River and the northern 
boundary is Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan. The most southern 
point is in 37° 40' north latitude and the most northern point is in 41° 50' 
north latitude. In longitude it lies between 84°49' on the east and 88°2' 
on the west. 

The land area occupies 36,045 square miles besides 280 square miles of 
rivers and interior lakes and 230 square miles of Lake Michigan. 

The whole of the state has been glaciated except the south-central and 
southwestern parts (see map on page 1164). The highest point in the state 
is in Randolph County, 1,285 feet above sea level, and the lowest is at the 
mouth of the Wabash River, 313 feet. The average elevation is about 
700 feet. 

About nine-tenths of the state drains westward and south westward into 
the Mississippi Basin and about a tenth, located in the northern part, 
drains into the St. Lawrence Basin. 

The average annual precipitation is about 39 inches. The average 
annual temperature is about 52 degrees Fahrenheit. The average growing 
season is about 158 days in the northern part of the state and 188 days in 
the southern part. (See plates on pages 1162 and 1163.) 



15 



Floral Areas of Indiana (See map on page 1164.) 

To assist in understanding the distribution of a species in the state and 
at the same time give some idea of its habitat, I have divided the state into 
seven areas. These are not all strictly floral areas but for convenience they 
may be so considered. The limits of the ranges of certain species within 
the area determine one boundary of that area. 

Dune area 

The dune area is bounded on the north by the waters of Lake Michigan 
and on the south for the most part by the Michigan Central Railroad. It 
is about four miles wide at the west end and half a mile wide at the east 
end. In Lake County this area consisted of low dunes, for the most part 
from 5 to 15 feet high, alternating with sloughs and interdunal flats. In the 
extreme northwest part of it were Wolf Lake, Berry Lake (now extinct), 
and Lake George. The greatest variety of plants of this area were found 
in this county. In the east part of Lake County the dunes begin to rapidly 
increase in height and high dunes continue to Michigan City. The highest 
dune is Mount Tom in Dunes Park, Porter County and is 192 feet high. 
The dunes proper are almost pure sand but were formerly well wooded. 
The sloughs and interdunal flats are more or less mucky. 

The following list is of plants known in Indiana only from this small 
area and all are of northern range. Those preceded by "?" are probably 
extinct and those preceded by "o" are now known from one colony only. 



Ammophila breviligulata 
? Botrychium simplex 

Cakile edentula var. lacustris 

Carex folliculata 

o Carex Richardsonii 

? Ceanothus ovatus 

Cirsium Pitcheri 
o Clintonia borealis 
? Corallorrhiza trifida 

Cornus canadensis 

Cyperus Houghtonii 
o Equisetum variegatum 

Euphorbia polygonifolia 

Hudsonia tomentosa var. intermedia 
o Myosotis laxa 

Oryzopsis asperifolia 
? Panicum lucidum 



? Panicum scoparioides 
? Panicum subvillosum 

Pinus Banksiana 
o Polygala paucifolia 

Potentilla Anserina 
o Potamogeton pusillus 
? Psilocarya nitens 
? Pyrola secunda 

Ptelea trifoliata var. Deamiana 
? Rhynchospora cymosa 

Salix adenophylla 
o Scirpus subterminalis 

Shepherdia canadensis 
o Solidago Deamii 

Solidago Gillmani 
o Thuja occidentalis 



Lake area 

The lake area occupies the northern part of the state, southward to the 
Tipton Till Plain but is not sharply separated from it. For practical pur- 
poses the south line of this area may be considered to coincide with the 
north line of the Tipton Till Plain which may be given roughly as a line 
extending westward from Fort Wayne to Huntington, Logansport, and 
Monticello to the state line. South of this line are a few, nearly extinct 
small lakes. There is one in each of the following counties: Wells, Black- 
ford, Grant, and Warren. Deep peat deposits in Hamilton and Madison 
Counties indicate extinct lakes. 



16 

The area has a great variety of habitats ranging from lakes and rivers, 
bogs and marshes, dry sand and gravelly places, prairies, and remnants 
of prairies (oak openings) to the mesophytic forest. Within this area about 
300 species of a northern range find their southern limit. Within this area 
a small number of plants have been found also that have their mass distri- 
bution on the Coastal Plain and the Lower Mississippi Valley. Among these 
are Panicum albemarlense, Panicum spretum, Panicum verrucosum, 
Cyperus dentatus, Eleocharis melanocarpa, Eleocharis Torreyana, Fim- 
bristylis puberula, Scleria pauciflora var. caroliniana, Scleria reticularis, 
Scleria setacea, and Hypericum adpressum. These are found in a few- 
marshes and on their borders between low dunes in section 2 a mile east 
and a mile and a half south of Tefft, Jasper County, or about 4 miles south 
of the Kankakee River. A few of these species occur also in the dune area 
and in a few adjacent counties in like habitats. I have not botanized the 
marshes in adjacent sections to ascertain how widely these species are 
spread or whether additional species may be found. The whole area for 
a width of about 5 miles from Bass Lake in Starke County westward to 
the Illinois line, a distance of about 50 miles is, for the most part, a series 
of low dunes and interdunal marshes. I am of the opinion that these Coastal 
Plain plants have migrated into Indiana through the Mississippi Valley 
rather than through the Mohawk Valley and the Great Lakes area as 
Peattie and Svenson suggest. To this list of plants should be added Styrax 
americana which is found along the Kankakee River and is not found again 
until the Patoka River Basin is reached in Dubois County. Mikania scan- 
dens is found along the Kankakee River just east of Baum Bridge, Porter 
County. I have not found it elsewhere in Indiana although it has been 
reported. This very disjunct distribution suggests migration from the 
Mississippi Valley by streams through Illinois. Recently several Coastal 
Plain plants have been found in Minnesota which adds weight to the 
theory that our Coastal Plain plants came into Indiana through the Missis- 
sippi Valley. 

Tipton Till Plain 

This area is not strictly a botanical one but is given as such for the con- 
venience of discussing distribution and habitat. Excepting the prairie 
area it nearly coincides with the physiographic area given it by Malott 
(Handbook of Geology). It is bounded on the north by the "lake area" 
and on the south by the southern boundary of the Wisconsin drift. The 
surface of this area is comparatively level although marked by many ter- 
minal moraines. The soil is mostly neutral or only slightly acid. The soil 
acidity factor may be the one which prevents plants from migrating into 
it from the Illinoian drift area where the soil is much more acid. Within 
this area some plants from all directions reach their limits of distribution 
in Indiana. This area contains the best agricultural land of the state and 
in the brief period of a hundred years almost all of the woodland has dis- 
appeared and the whole is now under cultivation. As a consequence it is 
now impossible to learn just how far plants invaded this area and what 
stopped them. Too, our distribution maps show few records because the 



17 

plants in this area are rare or have been exterminated by cultivation. The 
area, however, contains some extinct lake areas and springy places which 
accounts for the many lake area plants in it. 

Illinoia/n Drift Area 

This area lies south of the Tipton Till Plain, north of the glacial bound- 
ary, and east of the Lower Wabash Valley area. It is divided into an 
eastern and a western lobe. The topography varies from level areas to 
deeply cut ravines. The flora of the two parts has several species not in 
common. The Appalachian flora has entered in a small degree the eastern 
part while the southwestern flora has entered the western part. In Clark, 
Jefferson, Jennings, and Ripley Counties are level, poorly drained areas 
with an acid soil that are locally known as "flats." These may be divided 
into high and low "flats." The principal tree species of the "high flats" 
are beech, sweet gum, tulip, and black gum. Often a depression a foot in 
depth will result in a "low flat" wooded with swamp chestnut oak, swamp 
white oak, pin oak, southern red oak, and red maple. Sometimes the low- 
est places will consist of a pure stand of pin oak. All of the species named 
will not be found in the same "flat" but usually two or three of them will 
be the dominant species. The western part has some low areas but these 
are usually wooded with pin oak and shingle oak, associated with hickory. 
In the western lobe are sand dunes that have a peculiar flora. Such a sand 
area forms the terrace of the Wabash River from north of Terre Haute 
southward to Posey County. In Knox County in places its width increases 
to more than a mile. On this sandy terrace are found plants not found 
elsewhere in Indiana which have their mass distribution in the Lower 
Mississippi Valley. East of the North fork of White River in the north- 
western part of Daviess County are many low dunes upon which, and in 
the low places between them, occur several Coastal Plain plants. Among 
those that are restricted to this area are Gymnopogon ambiguus and Gaura 
filipes. 

Prairie Area 

This area is small and the boundary very irregular. The many small 
prairies and "oak openings" that occur throughout the lake and Tipton Till 
Plain areas are not included in this area. Our distribution maps may show 
a prairie species fairly well distributed over the whole of northern Indiana 
which does not mean that the whole area is an uninterrupted prairie. 
There was probably not a county in the lake and Tipton Till Plain areas 
that did not have one or more areas of an acre or more in prairie. The 
tension zone between the prairie and the forest is one of the most interest- 
ing studies in plant geography. The whole area is now devoted to agri- 
culture and since no one made a record of its plant life before cultivation, 
our knowledge of it must now be gleaned from the few plants that have 
survived along railroads and roadsides and in cemeteries and waste places. 
Every year our roadsides are mowed and the rights of way of railroads 
are mowed and usually burned, so that the extermination of our native 
prairie plants will soon be complete. 



18 

Lower Wabash Valley 

This is a narrow strip of alluvial land on the east side of the Wabash 
River from Parke County southward to the Ohio River and thence up the 
Ohio River to Little Pigeon Creek in Warrick County. To it belong also 
the short alluvial extensions of the White and Patoka Rivers. The whole 
area is usually inundated each year at flood stage. Among the trees re- 
stricted to these lowlands are Acer rubrum var. Drummondii, Carya Pecan 
(with few exceptions), Celtis laevigata (with few exceptions), Forestiera 
acuminata (with one exception), Gleditsia aquatica, Gleditsia texana, 
Taxodium distichum, and Quercus lyrata (one exception). Other plants 
are Aristolochia tomentosa, Echinodorus radicans, Hottonia inflata, Lep- 
tochloa panicoides, Ludwigia glandulosa, Spigelia marilandica, Trache- 
lospermum difforme, and Vitis palmata. All these species belong to the 
flora of the Mississippi Valley and find their northeastern limit in this area. 

U n glaciated area 

This area may be divided into eastern and western parts. The western 
part is included by Malott in the Wabash Lowland and is bounded on the 
east by Anderson Creek to St. Meinrad and then extends northwestward 
to the glacial boundary. The eastern half of this part is hilly and wooded 
mostly with oaks. The western part has gently sloping or low hills and is 
wooded on the high ground with beech, tulip, and sugar maple and in 
the lowland with oak, hickory, elm, and sweet gum. I do not regard this 
as a botanical area but only a part of a region where some southern 
plants reach the northern limit of their distribution. In it, however, we 
have Dicliptera brachiata and Crotonopsis elliptica that have not been 
found outside of it. 

The eastern part of the unglaciated area is mostly hilly and broken, 
being divided by the broad valley of White River. I think a good com- 
mon name for it would be the "Chestnut Oak Upland" area, because this 
species of oak crowns the crests of all of the high ridges of the area and 
these ridges are popularly known as "chestnut oak ridges" or "knobs." 
Malott divides the area into three parts. The most eastern he calls the 
Norman Uplift, the middle the Mitchell Plain, and the western the Craw- 
ford Upland. With the exception of one small restricted area I think 
these uplands can be considered as one botanical unit. Pinus virginiana, 
Virginia pine, crowns the crests of the highest ridges in Floyd County, 
the western part of Clark County, a fragment of the southwestern part 
of Scott County, and a few places on the southeast boundary of Wash- 
ington County. The total area of pine is quite small and might well be 
considered a separate botanical area if there were one more species pecul- 
iar to it. 

Within the chestnut oak area many plants reach their northern limit. 
Some, such as Bumelia lycioides, Oxydendrum arboreum, Ligusticum 
canadense, Eragrostis capillaris, and Aconitum uncinatum, have merely 
crossed the Ohio River. Others such as Smilax Bona-nox, Gentiana villosa, 
Melothria pendula, Kalmia Mifolia, Galactia volubilis, and Cirsium vir- 
ginianum have penetrated 5 to 25 miles. Others such as Quercus montanu 



19 

and Cunila origanoides have covered the whole area but not beyond it 
except on a small knob in Jefferson County, one in Spencer County, and 
one in Warrick County. Gaultheria procumbens and Tsuga canadensis 
are evidently relicts on this old rock area. There also remains Carex picta 
which offers a problem in disjunct distribution. This Carex is frequent 
in Brown County in certain places near the glacial boundary and is found 
sparingly in Monroe, Jackson, Lawrence, Morgan, and Owen Counties. 
I have watched carefully for this species elsewhere in Indiana but have 
failed to discover it. It is known only in the area mentioned in Indiana, 
in Tennessee, Alabama, and in one place in Louisiana. Another in- 
teresting relict of this area is Betula lutea which has a few specimens 
struggling for existence on the walls of the gorges about a mile south- 
east of Taswell, Crawford County. It is associated here with Tsuga 
canadensis. 

State Flower 

The Indiana flora is rich in the number of native species that are attrac- 
tive and beautiful. Out of our abundance of native flowers we should 
be able to select one for our state flower. I take this opportunity which 
may be my last to voice my protest against designating as a state flower 
one that is not a well known native of the state nor even a native of the 
United States. Our first state flower was the carnation of Europe. I 
assisted in having this changed in 1923 to the flower of the tulip tree 
which is found in every county of Indiana except in the prairies. It is 
recognized as one of the most stately trees of the United States. In 1931 
the legislature named the blatant zinnia the state flower, Zinnia elegans 
(a native of Mexico). Why advertise some foreign country and our 
ignorance of our native plants ? I appeal to readers to take a pride in our 
state and in our native plants. I hope that our next legislature will not 
consider the state flower only as a buttonhole bouquet and will name one 
of our many native flowers to represent us and cease paying homage to 
any other country. 

Acknowledgments 

I have received help and suggestions from many persons to whom I 
wish to make grateful acknowledgment. First to the persons previously 
mentioned who have examined my specimens in difficult genera, I tender 
my sincere thanks. 

I wish especially to thank those who have contributed difficult parts of 
the text: Frederick J. Hermann of the University of Michigan for the 
text of Carex, J uncus, and Luzula; Theodor Just of the University of 
Notre Dame for the text of Chenopodiaceae ; and Ernest J. Palmer of the 
Arnold Arboretum for the text of Crataegus. These authors have with 
few exceptions followed the phraseology of the flora. 

I owe much to Stanley Coulter, until recently Dean of the School of 
Science, Purdue University, who encouraged me to write a flora of Indiana 
and who enlisted the aid of the Department of Conservation. He has also 
read most of the manuscript and has been helpful in many ways. 



20 

C. A. Weatherby of the Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts, has 
promptly answered my many letters relative to botanical nomenclature. I 
wish to express my appreciation for this special service and reading proof. 

Paul Weatherwax of Indiana University has read the manuscript and 
given me helpful suggestions. 

Frederick J. Hermann of the University of Michigan has read both the 
manuscript and the proof and has been exceedingly helpful in many ways. 

Mrs. Leland Winch, of West Lafayette, Indiana, nee Harriet M. Gragg, 
has typed the manuscript. She has been most helpful in the English com- 
position and has been an accurate, earnest, and conscientious assistant. 

I wish to express my sincere thanks to E. P. Wilson for his interest and 
efforts in having the Flora published in the best manner possible ; also for 
the making of the county and botanical area maps. 

Our thanks are also due to J. H. Armington of the U.S. Weather Bureau 
for the two full page maps, showing the rainfall and temperature of 

Indiana. 

I wish to acknowledge the great assistance of my wife, Stella M. Deam, 
who has, during the past forty years, helped to collect and prepare speci- 
mens, has read copy and proof, and has shared the financial burden the 
work has entailed. 

Lastly, I wish to thank the Department of Conservation for the oppor- 
tunity of doing this work and publishing the results. 

Conclusion 

Active work of writing the flora was begun about seven years ago. Much 
data on the distribution of rare species yet remain to be collected but since 
I have just passed my seventy-third birthday it seems wise to conclude 

the work. 

Chas. C. Deam. 

Bluff ton, Indiana, Sept. 28, 1938. 

P.S. In order to keep the nomenclature up to date while the flora was 
going through the press it was necessary to make the changes in footnotes 
and omit some of the synonyms. 
Feb. 15, 1940. Chas. C. Deam. 



21 



ABBREVIATIONS OF THE NAMES OF AUTHORS 



Adans. — Adanson, Michel. 

A. DC. — De Candolle, Alphonse. 
Ait. — Aiton, William. 

Ait. f. — Aiton, William Townsend. 
All. — Allioni, Carlo. 
Anders. — Andersson, Nils Johan. 
Andrz. — Andrzejowski, Anton 

Lukianowicz. 
Am. — Arnott, George A. Walker. 
Arrh. — Arrhenius, Johan Pehr. 
Asch. — Ascherson, Paul. 

B. & H. — Bentham, George, and Hooker, 

Joseph Dalton. 
Bab. — Babington, Charles Cardale. 
Bail!. — Baillon, Henri Ernest. 
Baldw. — Baldwin, William. 
Barnh. — Barnhart, John Hendley. 
Bart.— Barton, William P.C. 
Bartr. — Bartram, William. 
Beauv. — Beauvois, A. M.F.J. Palisot de. 
Benn. — Bennett, Arthur. 
Benth. — Bentham, George. 
Bernh. — Bernhardi, Johann Jacob. 
Bess. — Besser, Wilhelm S.J.G. von. 
Bickn. — Bicknell, Eugene P. 
Big el. — Bigelow, Jacob. 
Biv. — Bivona-Bernardi, Antonio. 
Bjornstr. — Bjornstrom, Friedrich Johann. 
Boeckl. — Boeckeler, Otto. 
Boenn. — Boenninghausen, C.M.F. von. 
Boerh. — Boerhaave, Hermann. 
Boiss. — Boissier, Edmond. 
Borkh. — Borkhausen, M.B. 
Br., A.Br. — Braun, Alexander. 
Br., P.Br. — Browne, Patrick. 
Br., R.Br. — Brown, Robert. 
Briq. — Briquet, John. 
Britt. — Britton, Nathaniel Lord. 
BSP. — Britton, Nathaniel Lord, Sterns, 

E. E., and Poggenberg, Justus F. 
Buch. — Buchenau, Franz. 
Burm. f. — Burman, Nikolaus Laurens. 
C. & S. — Chamisso, Adalbert von, and 

Schlechtendal, D.F.L. von. 
Carr. — Carriere, Elie Abel. 
Casp. — Caspary, Robert. 
Cass. — Cassini, Henri. 
Cav. — Cavanilles, Antonio Jose. 
Celak. — Celakovsky, Ladislav. 
Chapm. — Chapman, Alvan Wentworth. 
Chr., C.Chr. — Christensen, Carl. 
Clairv. — Clairville, Joseph Phillipe de. 
Clayt. — Clayton, John. 
Coss. — Cosson, Ernest. 
Coult. — Coulter, John Merle. 
Cov. — Coville, Frederick V. 



Cyrill. — Cirillo, Domenico. 

Darl. — Darlington, William. 

Davenp. — Davenport, George Edward. 

DC. — De Candolle, Augustin Pyramus. 

Dene. — Decaisne, Joseph. 

Desf. — Desfontaines, Rene Louiche. 

Desr. — Desrousseaux, Louis Auguste 
Joseph. 

Desv. — Desvaux, Augustin Nicaise. 

Dietr. — Dietrich, Albert. 

Dill. — Dillenius, Johann Jacob. 

Dougl. — Douglas, David. 

Dv.fr. — Dufresne, Pierre. 

Duham. — Du Hamel du Monceau, H.L. 

Dumont. — Du Mont de Courset, G.L.M. 

Dumort. — Dumortier, Barthelemy C. 

Eat. — Eaton, Amos. 

Eggl.— Eggleston, Willard Webster. 

Ehrh. — Ehrhart, Friedrich. 

Ell— Elliott, Stephen. 

Endl. — Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus. 

Engelm. — Engelmann, George. 

Farw. — Farwell, Oliver A. 

F&rn. — Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 

Fisoh. — Fischer, F.E. Ludwig von. 

Forst. — Forster, J.R. and George. 

Fourn. — Fournier, Eugene. 

Fresn. — Fresenius, J.B.G.W. 

Froel. — Froelich, Joseph Aloys. 

Gaertn. — Gaertner, Joseph. 

Gatt. — Gattinger, Augustin. 

Gaud. — Gaudichaud-Beaupre, Charles. 

Germ. — Germain, Ernest. 

Gilib. — Gilibert, Jean Emmanuel. 

Gmel. — Gmelin, Samuel Gottlieb. 

Gmel., J.F. — Gmelin, Johann Friedrich. 

Gmel., J.G. — Gmelin, Johann Georg. 

Godr. — Godron, Dominique Alexandre. 

Grab. — Grabowski, Heinrich Emanuel. 

Graebn. — Graebner, Paul. 

Gren. & Godr. — Grenier, Charles, and God- 
ron, D.A. 

Grev. — Greville, Robert Kaye. 

Griseb. — Grisebach, Heinrich R.A. 

Gronov. — Gronovius, Jan Fredrik. 

Guss. — Gussoni, Giovanni. 

H. & A. — Hooker, William Jackson, and 
Arnott, G.A. Walker. 

Hack. — Hackel, Eduard. 

Hartm. — Hartman, Carl Johan. 

Hassk. — Hasskarl, Justus Carl. 

Haussk. — Haussknecht, Carl. 

HBK. — Humboldt, F. Alexander von, Bon- 
pland, Aime, and Kunth, C.S. 

Heist. — Heister, Lorentz. 

Herb. — Herbert, William. 



99 



Hitchc. — Hitchcock, Albert Spear. 

Hocfist. — Hochstetter, Christian Frederich. 

Hoffm. — Hoffmann, George Franz. 

Hook. — Hooker, William Jackson. 

Hornem. — Hornemann, Jens Wilken. 

Houtt. — Houttuyn, M. 

Hubb.— Hubbard, F. Tracy. 

Huds. — Hudson, William. 

Jacq. — Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph. 

Jord. — Jordan, Alexis. 

Jkss. — Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de. 

Juss., B. — Jussieu, Bernard de. 

Karst. — Karsten, Hermann. 

Koel. — Koeler, George Ludwig. 

Krock. — Krocker, Anton Johann. 

Ktze. — Kuntze, Otto. 

L. — Linnaeus, Carolus, or Linne, Carl von. 

L.f. — Linne, Carl von (the son). 

Laestad. — Laestadius, Lars Levi. 

Lag. — Lagasca, Mariano. 

hall. — Ave-Lallemant, J.L.E. 

Lam. — Lamarck, J.B.A.P. Monnet. 

Lamb. — Lambert, Aylmer Bourke. 

Laxm. — Laxmann, Eric. 

Leavenw. — Leavenworth, Melines C. 

Ledeb.- — Ledebour, Carl F. von. 
Lehm. — Lehmann, J.G.C. 

Lesp. & Thev. — Lespinasse, Gustave, and 
Theveneau, A. 

Less. — Lessing, Christian Friedrich. 

Leyss. — Leysser, Frederich Wilhelm. 

L'Her.— L'Heriter, de Brutelle, C.L. 

Lightf. — Lightfoot, John. 

Lindl. — Lindley, John. 

Lodd. — Loddiges, Conrad. 

Loisel. — Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, J.L.A. 

Loud. — Loudon, John Claudius. 

Lour. — Loureiro, Juan. 

Macb. — Macbride, J. Francis. 

Mack. — Mackenzie, Kenneth Kent. 

MacM. — MacMillan, Conway. 

Marsh. — Marshall, Humphrey. 

Maxim. — Maximowicz, Carl Johann. 

Medic. — Medicus, Friedrich Casimir. 

Meisn. — Meisner, Carl Friedrich. 

Merr. — Merrill, Elmer D. 

Mert. & Koch. — Mertens, Franz Karl, and 
Koch, Wilhelm Daniel Heinrich. 

Mett. — Mettenius, Georg Heinrich. 

Mey. — Meyer, Ernest Heinrich F. 

Mey., C.A. — Meyer, Carl Anton. 

Mey., G.F.W. — Meyer, Georg Friedrich 
Wilhelm. 

Mich. — Micheli, Pier' Antonio. 

Michx. — Michaux, Andre. 

Michx.f. — Michaux, Francois Andre. 

Mill.— Miller, Philip. 



Moq. — Moquin-Tandon, Alfred. 

Muell. Arg. — Mueller, Jean (of Aargau). 

Muench. — Muenchhausen, Otto Freiherr 

von. 
Muhl. — Muhlenberg, H.E. 
Murr. — Murray, Johann Andreas. 
Neck. — Necker, Noel Joseph de. 
Nees — Nees von Esenbeck, Christian 

Gottfried. 
Nees & Eberm. — Nees von Esenbeck, T.F. 

L., and Ebermaier, K.H. 
Newm. — Newman, Edward. 
Nieuivl. — Nieuwland, Julius Arthur. 
Nutt. — Nuttall, Thomas. 
Pall. — Pallas, Peter Simon. 
Pari. — Parlatore, Filippo. 
Pers. — Persoon, Christian Hendrik. 
Peterm. — Petermann, Wilhelm Ludwig. 
Planch. — Planchon, Jules Emile. 
Plum. — Plumier, Charles. 
Poir. — Poiret, Jean Louis Marie. 
Poll. — Pollich, Johann Adam. 
R. & P. — Ruiz, Lopez Hipolito, and Pavon, 

Josef. 
R. & S. — Roemer, J.J., and Schultes, 

August. 
Raf. — Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.S. 
Rehd. — Rehder, Alfred. 
Reichenb. — Reichenbach, H.G.L. 
Richards. — Richardson, John. 
Rivin. — Rivinius, August Quirinus. 
Rodr. — Rodriguez, Jose Demetrio. 
Roem. — Roemer, M.J. 
Rostk.— Rostkovius, F.W.G. 
Rottb. — Rottboell, Christen Fries. 
Rupp. — Ruppius, Heinrich Bernhard. 
Rupr. — Ruprecht, Franz J. 
Rydb. — Rydberg, Per Axel. 
Salisb. — Salisbury, Richard Anthony. 
Sarg. — Sargent, Charles Sprague. 
Schk. — Schkuhr, Christian. 
Schleich. — Schleicher, J.C. 
Schleid. — Schleiden, Matthias Jacob. 
Schneid. — Schneider, Camillo. 
Schrad. — Schrader, Heinrich Adolph. 
Schreb. — Schreber, Johann D.C. von. 
Schwein. — Schweinitz, Lewis David de. 
Scop. — Scopoli, Johann Anton. 
Scribn. — Lamson-Scribner, Frank. 
Ser. — Serin ge, Nicolas Charles. 
Shuttlw. — Shuttleworth, Robert. 
Sibth. — Sibthorp, John. 
Sieb. & Zucc. — Siebold, P.F. von, and 

Zuccarini, J.G. 
Sm. — Smith, James Edward. 
Sin., J. — Smith, John. 
Sm., J.D. — Smith, John Donnell. 



>3 



Sm., J.G. — Smith, Jared Gage. 

Soland. — Solander, Daniel. 

Spreng. — Sprengel, Kurt. 

Sternb. — Sternberg, Caspar. 

Steud. — Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb. 

St. Hil. — St. Hilaire, Auguste de. 

Sudw. — Sudworth, George B. 

Sulliv. — Sullivant, William Starling. 

Sw. — Swartz, Olaf. 

T. & G. — Torrey, John, and Gray, Asa. 

Thunb. — Thunberg, Carl Pehr. 

Tidestr. — Tidestrom, Ivar. 

Ton: — Torrey, John. 

Tourn. — Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de. 

Traut. — Trautvetter, Ernest Rudolph. 

Trel. — Trelease, William. 

Trev. — Treviranus, Christian Ludolf. 

Triyi. — Trinius, Karl Bernhard. 

Tucker~m. — Tuckerman, Edward. 

Turcz. — Turczaninow, Nicolaus. 

Undemv. — Underwood, Lucien Marcus. 

Vaill. — Vaillant, Sebastien. 



Vent. — Ventenat, Etienne Pierre. 

Vict. — Marie-Victorin. 

Vill. — Villars, Dominique. 

Wahlb.— Wahlberg, Pehr Frederik. 

Wahl. — Wahlenberg, Georg. 

Waldst. & Kit. — Waldstein, F.A. von, and 

Kitaibel, P. 
Wa/flr .—Wallroth, K.F.W. 
Walp. — Walpers, Wilhelm Gerhard. 
Walt.— Walter, Thomas. 
Wang. — Wangenheim, F.A.J, von. 
Wats. — Watson, Sereno. 
Wats. E. E. — Watson, Elba Emanuel. 
Wendl. — Wendland, Johann Christoph. 
Wettst. — Wettstein, Richard von. 
Wieg. — Wiegand, Karl M. 
Willd. — Willdenow, Carl Ludwig. 
Wimm. — Wimmer, Friedrich. 
With. — Withering, William. 
Wormsk. — Wormskiold, M. von. 
W ulf.— Wulfen, Franz Xavier. 



Key to the Families' 



(Carried out, in some cases, to genera. The numbers preceding the fam- 
ily and generic names refer to their sequence in the class to which they 
belong.) 

PTERIDOPHYTA 

Plants without true flowers, reproducing by spores (without embryos) ; fernlike, moss- 
like, rushlike, or aquatic plants. 
A. Plants floating, with small, 2-ranked leaves; sporocarps borne on the under side 

of the stem Salviniaceae, p. 59. 

A. Plants terrestrial or submerged, not floating B. 

B. Stems conspicuously grooved and jointed, their nodes covered by toothed 

sheaths; sporangia borne on the scales of terminal, dry, conelike spikes 

Equisetaceae, p. 59. 

B. Stems not conspicuously grooved, without sheathing joints C. 

C. Leaves closely imbricated, short or long-linear (from a cormlike base); 
sporangia sessile, axillary. 
Stem short, cormlike; leaves linear, in a rosette; sporangia borne in a cavity 

on the inner side of the leaf-base Isoetaceae, p. 66. 

Stem elongate, creeping or branching; leaves very short, crowded or imbri- 
cated. 
Plants small and mosslike; spores of two sizes. . . . Selaginellaceae, p. 65. 

Plants not resembling mosses ; spores all of one size 

Lycopodiaceae, p. 63. 

C. Leaves (fronds) not closely imbricated D. 

D. Leaves (fronds) 4-foliolate, cloverlike ; aquatic Marsileaceae, p. 102. 

D. Leaves (fronds) not 4-foliolate, broad, flat, fernlike, more or less pin- 
nately or ternately divided or entire; terrestrial E. 
E. Sterile and fertile fronds flat, entire; the fertile ones ending in long- 
stalked, simple spikes Ophioglossaceae, p. 37. 

E. Sterile and fertile fronds not entire F. 

F. Fertile fronds or fertile portions of the fronds conspicuously unlike 

the sterile; sporangia not on the lower surface of green leaves G. 

G. Rootstock almost none; the solitary (rarely 2) fronds appearing to 

rise from a cluster of fleshy roots; lower segments sterile, the 

upper ones fertile and bearing 2-ranked, globular sporangia. 

Botrychium, p. 38. 

G. Rootstock well developed, elongate or stout, the roots fibrous; fronds 
numerous H. 
H. Sporangia globose, thin-walled, 2-valved, densely crowded, not 

2-ranked Osmundaceae, p. 40. 

H. Sporangia within firm, 2-ranked, globose and distinct or connected 

in beadlike segments Onoclea, p. 45. 

F. Fertile fronds or segments essentially like the sterile; sporangia borne 
on the lower surface or on the margins of green segments. 

POLYPODIACEAE, p. 42. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 

Plants with true flowers containing stamens or pistils or both, reproducing by seed 
(containing an embryo). 
Ovules not in a closed ovary; trees and shrubs with needlelike or scalelike, mostly 
evergreen leaves; flowers monoecious or dioecious (Gymnosperms) . 

1 See Introduction, p. 13. 

(25) 



26 Key to the Families 

GYMNOSPERMAE 

Flowers solitary, axillary; seed solitary, enveloped in a pulpy disk (berry- 
like) 5. Taxaceae, p. 66. 

Flowers borne in catkins; fruit a cone or a several-seeded berry 

6. Pinaceae, p. 66. 

Ovules borne in a closed ovary which, at maturity, becomes the fruit; herbs or 
woody plants, with broad or narrow, evergreen or deciduous leaves (Angio- 
sperms) J. 

ANGIOSPERMAE 

J. Embryo with a single cotyledon; early leaves always alternate (leaves some- 
times whorled), mostly parallel-veined (net-veined in Araceae and Dios- 
coreaceae; parts of the flower in threes or sixes, never in fives; stems with- 
out a central pith or ringlike layers, but with woody fibers distributed 
through them ; our species, except in the genus Smilax, herbaceous ( Monocoty- 
ledons) K. 

MONOCOTYLEDONEAE 

K. Plant scarcely differentiated into stem and leaf, small, usually lens-shaped, 

ellipsoid or oblong; free-swimming aquatics without true leaves 

24. Lemnaceae, p. 279. 

K. Plant with stem and leaves L. 

L. Perianth free from the ovary or none M. 

M. Perianth lacking, or of scalelike or bristle-form divisions N. 

N. Flowers enclosed or subtended by scales (glumes) ; plants grasslike, 
with jointed stems, sheathing leaves, and 1-seeded fruit. 
Stems hollow, round or flattened; leaf sheaths split; anthers attached 

at the middle 19. Gramineae, p. 93. 

Stems solid, usually more or less triangular; leaf sheaths not split; 

anthers attached at the base 20. Cyperaceae, p. 181. 

N. Flowers not enclosed in scales (though sometimes in involucrate 
heads) O. 
O. Plants immersed aquatics, branching and leafy, the upper leaves 
often floating. 

Leaves opposite or ternate; pistils solitary, naked 

12. Najadaceae, p. 84. 

Leaves alternate or 2-ranked; pistils aggregated into heads or 
clusters. 
Fruit in heads, the nutlets composing it tightly compact, with 

prominent, conical style bases mostly 2-4 mm long 

10. Sparganiaceae, p. 72. 

Fruit in clusters; nutlets not tightly compact, the style bases 
usually short or very slender 

11. POTAMOGETONACEAE, p. 75. 

O. Plants terrestrial or of a marsh habitat. 

Leaves petiolate, the blades net-veined 23. Araceae, p. 277. 

Leaves not petiolate, linear or sword-shaped, parallel-veined P. 
P. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

Flowers and fruit in a cylindrical spike. . .8. Typhaceae, p. 71. 
Flowers and fruit in heads. 

Heads spheroidal, pubescent, involucrate 

30. Eriocaulaceae, p. 283. 

Heads globose, glabrous, not involucrate 

10. Sparganiaceae, p. 72. 



Key to the Families 27 

P. Flowers perfect. 

Plants with flowers in a dense spike (4-7 cm long), borne on the 

margin of a long, 2-edged scape; rhizome aromatic 

694. Acorus, p. 277. 

Plants not as above, the flowers not in spikes; rhizomes not 
aromatic. 

Carpels 3-6, more or less united, separating at least when 

ripe 14. Juncaginaceae, p. 85. 

Carpels 3, completely united, not separating at maturity. 

36. Juncaceae, p. 290. 

M. Perianth always present, herbaceous or colored, neither scalelike nor 
bristle-form Q. 

Q. Pistils numerous, in a head or ring 15. Alismaceae, p. 86. 

Q. Pistil one, compound (cells or placentae mostly 3) R. 
R. Stamens 3. 

Flowers racemose or spicate 14. Juncaginaceae, p. 85. 

Flowers in dense, scaly heads 29. Xyridaceae, p. 282. 

Flowers cymose 36. Juncaceae, p. 290. 

R. Stamens 4 1119. Maianthemum, p. 318. 

R. Stamens 6 S. 

S. Stamens all alike and fertile. 

Ovary of 3-6 carpels, separating at maturity 

14. Juncaginaceae, p. 85. 

Ovary not deeply cleft (often angled or lobed). 
Divisions of the perianth alike or nearly so. 

Plants rushlike; perianth small, greenish or purplish brown. 

36. Juncaceae, p. 290. 

Plants not rushlike 38. Liliaceae, p. 303. 

Divisions of the pedianth unlike; the 3 sepals green and 2 or 
more of the petals colored. 
Stem leaves ovate or oblong, in a whorl of 3; flowers solitary, 

terminal 1138. Trillium, p. 321. 

Stem leave of a linear type, not in whorls; flowers in umbels. . 

33. Commelinaceae, p. 283. 

S. Stamens dissimilar, or only 3 with fertile anthers. 

Perianth of 6 yellow, petaloid segments 

Erythronium americanum, p. 314. 

Perianth of 3 herbaceous sepals and 2 or 3 colored ephemeral petals 

(petals rarely white) 33. Commelinaceae, p. 283. 

Perianth tubular, 6-lobed, mostly colored 

34. PONTEDERIACEAE, p. 287. 

L. Perianth present, adnate to the ovary. 

Stamens 1 or 2; flowers irregular; seeds many.... 50. Orchidaceae, p. 335. 
Stamens 3 or more; flowers mostly regular or nearly so. 

Plants immersed aquatics 17. Hydrocharitaceae, p. 91. 

Plants terrestrial. 
Flowers dioecious; jjlants twining; leaves net- veined 

43. DlOSCOREACEAE, p. 330. 

Flowers perfect; leaves parallel-veined. 

Stamens 6 40. Amaryllidaceae, p. 328. 

Stamens 3; leaves 2-ranked 44. Iridaceae, 332. 

Embryo with a pair of opposite cotyledons; leaves net-veined (except in Eryngium) ; 
parts of the flower mostly in fours and fives; stems formed of bark, wood, and 
pith, increasing in size by the annual addition of a new layer (rarely two) to 
the outside, next to the bark (Dicotyledons.) T. 



28 Key to the Families 

DICOTYLEDONEAE 

T. Corolla none; calyx present or lacking U. 

U. Flowers monoecious or dioecious (rarely polygamous), one or both sorts in 
catkins or dense heads V. 
V. Staminate or pistillate (not both) flowers in catkins or catkinlike heads. 
Pistillate flowers in a short catkin or catkinlike head. . . .64. Moraceae, p. 394. 
Pistillate flowers single or clustered; the staminate in slender catkins (except 
in Fagus) . 
Leaves pinnate; pistillate flowers and fruit naked. .60. Juglandaceae, p. 365. 

Leaves simple; pistillate flowers 1-3 in a cup or involucre 

62. Fagaceae, p. 378. 

V. Staminate and pistillate (both) flowers in catkins or catkinlike heads W. 
W. Ovary many-ovuled; fruit many-seeded. 

Ovary and pod 2-celled; seed not tufted 3298. Liquidambar, p. 523. 

Ovary and pod 1-celled; seeds hairy-tufted 56. Salicaceae, p. 352. 

W. Ovary 1- or 2-celled; cells 1-ovuled; fruit 1-seeded. 

Parasitic on trees; fruit a berry 67. Loranthaceae, p. 402. 

Trees and shrubs, not parasitic. 

Calyx regular in fertile flower, succulent in fruit. . . .64. Moraceae, p. 394. 
Calyx none or rudimentary and scalelike. 

Style and stigma simple ; leaves palmately angled or lobed 

124. Platanaceae, p. 523. 

Styles or long stigmas 2. 

Pistillate flowers 2 or 3 at each scale of the catkin 

61. Betulaceae, p. 373. 

Pistillate flowers single under each scale; nutlets naked, drupelike 

57. Myricaceae, p. 365. 

U. Flowers not in catkins X. 

X. Ovary or its cells containing only 1 or 2 (rarely 3 or 4) ovules Y. 
Y. Pistil composed of more than one carpel; carpels distinct or nearly so. 

Stamens insterted on the calyx; leaves with stipules. .126. Rosaceae, p. 524. 
Stamens inserted on the receptacle. 

Leaves punctate with transparent glands 3990. Zanthoxylum, p. 632. 

Leaves not punctate with glands. 

Calyx present, usually colored or petal-like 

91. Ranunculaceae, p. 454. 

Calyx none; flowers in a spike 52. Saururaceae, p. 352. 

Y. Pistil simple or compound but without distinct carpels Z. 
Z. Ovary free from the calyx, which is sometimes lacking a. 
a. Stipules (ocreae) sheathing the stem at the nodes. 

Calyx none ; trees 124. Platanaceae, p. 523. 

Calyx present, commonly petal-like; herbs. .77. Polygonaceae, p. 405. 
a. Stipules not sheathing the stem or lacking b. 
b. Herbs c. 

c. Plants aquatic, submerged or nearly so. 

Leaves whorled, dissected; style 1...89. Ceratophyllaceae, p. 4:">4. 

Leaves opposite, entire; styles 2; ovary 4-celled 

148. Callitrichaceae, p. 646. 

c. Plants not aquatic d. 

d. Styles 10; ovary and berry 10-celled. .83. Phytolaccaceae, p. 433. 
d. Style, if any, and stigma 1. 

Flowers unisexual; ovary of the fertile flowers 1-celled 

65. Urticaceae, p. 397. 

Flowers perfect; pods 2-celled, 2-seeded 

2883. Lepidum, p. 487. 



Key to the Families 29 

d. Styles 2 or 3 or branched; ovary 1-4 celled e. 

e. Leaves palmately lobed or divided, the terminal ones sometimes 

simple 64. Moraceae, p. 394. 

e. Leaves not palmately lobed or divided f. 

f. Ovary and capsule 3-celled; juice usually milky 

147. EUPHORBIACEAE, p. 636. 

f. Ovary 1-celled; juice not milky g. 

g. Leaves stellate-pubescent beneath 

4350. Crotonopsis, p. 638. 

g. Leaves not stellate-pubescent beneath. 

Stipules scarious 2475. Paronychia, p. 442. 

Stipules none. 
Leaves opposite. 

Flowers in heads or spikes, these often panicled; 

anthers 1-celled 79. Amaranthaceae, p. 427. 

Flowers sessile in the forks of a branching inflores- 
cence 2483. Scleranthus, p. 444. 

Leaves alternate. 

Flowers and bracts scarious 

79. Amaranthaceae, p. 427. 

Flowers small, chiefly greenish, no scarious bracts. . . . 
78. Chenopodiaceae, p. 418. 

b. Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves opposite. 

Fruit 1-celled, a single samara 243. Oleaceae, p. 751. 

Fruit 2-celled, a double samara 163. Aceraceae, p. 654. 

Fruit 3-celled, not winged 169. Rhamnaceae, p. 659. 

Leaves alternate. 

Ovary 3-celled 169. Rhamnaceae, p. 659. 

Ovary 1- or 2-celled. 

Styles and stigmas 2 63. Ulmaceae, p. 390. 

Style and stigma 1. 

Anthers opening lengthwise 214. Thymelaeaceae, p. 694. 

Anthers opening by uplifted lids 102. Lauraceae, p. 480. 

Z. Ovary inferior or so closely and permanently invested by the calyx as to 
appear so. 
Plants parasitic on the branches of trees 67. Loranthaceae, p. 402. 

Plants not parasitic on trees. 

Plants aquatic 225. Haloragidaceae, p. 710. 

Plants not aquatic. 

Herbs with calyx colored like a corolla. 

Leaves opposite, simple 80. Nyctaginaceae, p. 432. 

Leaves alternate. 

Leaves simple 2112. Comandra, p. 402. 

Leaves compound 3381. Sanguisorba, p. 573. 

Trees or shrubs. 

Leaves scurfy 215. Elaeagnaceae, p. 695. 

Leaves not scurfy. 

Style 1; flowers solitary, in pairs or in umbel-like clusters 

6151. Nyssa, p. 728. 

Styles 2 123. Hamamelidaceae, p. 533. 

X. Ovary or its cells containing many ovules h. 
h. Calyx none; ovary and fruit naked. 

Aquatic herbs 113. Podostemaceae, p. 512. 

Shrubs or trees 123A. Altingiaceae, p. 533. 

h. Calyx present j. 
j. Ovary superior k. 

k. Ovaries 2 or more, separate 91. Ranunculaceae, p. 454. 



30 Key to the Families 

k. Ovary single m. 

m. Ovary 5-celled, 5-beaked; leaves scattered 

. . . . 3173. Penthorum, p. 514. 

m. Ovary 3-5-celled; leaves opposite or whorled 

84. Aizoaceae, p. 434. 

m. Ovary 1- or 2-celled. 

Leaves compound 91. Ranunculaceae, p. 454. 

Leaves simple. 

Style 1 216. Lythraceae, p. 695. 

Styles 2-5 87. Caryophyllaceae, p. 435. 

j. Ovary and pod inferior. 

Ovary 1-celled; stamens 8-10 3199. Chrysosplenium, p. 519. 

Ovary 4-celled; stamens 4 5793. Ludwigia, p. 700. 

Ovary 6-celled; stamens 6-12 74. Aristolochiaceae, p. 403. 

T. Corolla and calyx both present n. 
n. Corolla of separate petals o. 

o. Stamens numerous, at least more than 10 (rarely 9 or 10 in Polanisia) , and 
more than twice as many as the sepals or calyx lobes p. 
p. Calyx entirely free and separate from the pistil or pistils q. 
q. Pistils several or many, wholly distinct or united at the base into a strongly 
lobed or several-beaked ovary r. 

r. Aquatic plants with peltate leaves 88. Nymph aeaceae, p. 450. 

r. Terrestrial plants. 
Plants climbing. 

Leaves alternate 94. Menispermaceae, p. 477. 

Leaves opposite 2542. Clematis, p. 463. 

Plants not climbing. 

Filaments of stamens united into a tube 175. Malvaceae, p. 666. 

Filaments not united. 

Stamens on the calyx 126. Rosaceae, p. 524. 

Stamens on the receptacle or disk. 
Trees or shrubs. 

Sepals and petals imbricated; fruit aggregate 

95. Magnoliaceae, p. 478. 

Sepals and petals valvate ; fruit not aggregate 

98. Annonaceae, p. 479. 

Herbs; inflorescence simple; pistils several, simple 

91. Ranunculaceae, p. 454. 

q. Pistils strictly one as to ovary; the styles or stigmas may be several s. 

s. Leaves punctate with translucent dots 187. Hypericaceae, p. 671. 

s. Leaves not punctate t. 
t. Ovary simple, 1-celled. 

Ovules 2 126. Rosaceae, p. 524. 

Ovules many. 

Leaves 2- or 3-ternately compound or dissected 

91. Ranunculaceae, p. 454. 

Leaves peltate, lobed 2558. Podophyllum, p. 475. 

t. Ovary compound. 
Ovary 1-celled. 
Sepals 2 (rarely 3), caducous; sap milky or colored; placentae 

parietal 104. Papaveraceae, p. 481. 

Sepals 2 ; sap watery ; placentae central 

85. PORTULACACEAE, p. 434. 

Sepals 4; sap watery; placentae parietal. .107. Capparidaceae, p. 510. 

Sepals 3 or 5, persistent; sap watery; placentae parietal 

193. Cistaceae, p. 677. 



Key to the Families 31 

Ovary several-celled. 

Calyx valvate in the bud. 

Herbs or rarely shrubs; stamens united; anthers 1-celled 

175. Malvaceae, p. 666. 

Trees ; anthers 2-celled 174. Tiliaceae, p. 665. 

Calyx imbricate in the bud. 

Leaves tubular with a flange at the top, radical 

110. Sarraceniaceae, p. 511. 

Leaves petiolate, mostly peltate or flattish; plants aquatic 

88. Nymphaeaceae, p. 450. 

p. Calyx more or less adherent to a compound ovary. 
Ovary 7-30-celled. 

Cells many-ovuled ; aquatic herbs 88. Nymphaeaceae, p. 450. 

Cells 10, each 1-ovuled; shrubs or trees 3343. Amelanchier, p. 531. 

Ovary 6-celled 2170. Asarum, p. 403. 

Ovary 1-5-celled. 

Plants without leaves (in the popular sense), more or less spiny; petals 

many, yellow 210. Cactaceae, p. 694. 

Plants with leaves. 

Sepals or calyx lobes 2; ovules arising from the base of a 1-celled ovary. . 

85. PORTULACACEAE, p. 434. 

Sepals or calyx lobes more than 2. 

Leaves opposite; stipules none 117. Saxi frag ace ae, p. 514. 

Leaves alternate. 

Stipules present 126. Rosaceae, p. 524. 

Stipules none; shrubs 241. Styracaceae, p. 751. 

o. Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals u. 

u. Stamens of the same number as the petals and opposite them. 

Ovaries 3-6, separate; herbaceous vines (rarely woody in Indiana) 

94. Menispermaceae, p. 477. 

Ovary only one. 
Ovary 2-4-celled. 

Calyx lobes minute or obsolete; petals valvate 170. Vitaceae, p. 661. 

Calyx 4- or 5-cleft; petals involute 169. Rhamnaceae, p. 659. 

Ovary 1-celled. 

Anthers opening by uplifted lids 93. Berberidaceae, p. 475. 

Anthers not opening by uplifted lids. 

Style 1, unbranched; stigma 1 237. Primulaceae, p. 744. 

Styles, style branches or stigmas more than 1. 

Sepals or calyx lobes 2 85. Portulacaceae, p. 434. 

Sepals or calyx lobes 3-5 4350. Crotonopsis, p. 638. 

u. Stamens not of the same number as the petals or if of the same number 
alternate with them v. 
v. Calyx free from the ovary, i. e. ovary wholly superior w. 
w. Ovaries 2 or more, wholly separate or somewhat united x. 

x. Stamens united with each other and with a large thick stigma com- 
mon to the 2 ovaries 248. Asclepiadaceae, p. 764. 

x. Stamens free from each other and from the pistils y. 
y. Stamens on the receptacle, free from the calyx. 

Leaves punctate with translucent dots 137. Rutaceae, p. 632. 

Leaves without translucent dots. 

Trees 4124. Ailanthus, p. 632. 

Herbs. 

Ovaries or lobes of the ovary 2-5, with a common style. 

Ovary 2- or 3-lobed 152. Limnanthaceae, p. 647. 

Ovary 5-lobed 129. Geraniaceae, p. 623. 

Ovaries with separate styles or sessile stigmas 

91. Ranunculaceae, p. 454. 



32 Key to the Families 

y. Stamens inserted on the calyx. 

Plant fleshy ; stamens not twice as many as the pistils 

115. Crassulaceae, p. 513. 

Plant not fleshy; stamens not twice as many as the pistils. 

Stipules present 126. Rosaceae, p. 524. 

Stipules none 117. Saxifragaceae, p. 514. 

w. Ovary 1 z. 

z. Ovary simple with 1 parietal placenta 128. Leguminosae, p. 582. 

z. Ovary compound, as shown by the number of its cells, placentae, styles, 
or stigmas A. 
A. Ovai'y 1-celled. 
Corolla irregular. 

Petals 4; stamens 6 104A. Fumariaceae, p. 482. 

Petals and stamens 5 198. Violaceae, p. 681. 

Corolla regular or nearly so. 
Ovule solitary. 

Trees or shrubs 153. Anacardiaceae, p. 648. 

Herbs 105. Cruciferae, p. 484. 

Ovules more than one. 

Ovules at the center or bottom of the cell. 

Petals not inserted on the calyx. .87. Caryophyllaceae, p. 435. 
Petals inserted on the throat of a bell-shaped or tubular calyx. 

216. Lythraceae, p. 695. 

Ovules on 2 or more parietal placentae. 

Leaves punctate with transparent dots 

187. Hypericaceae, p. 671. 

Leaves with gland-tipped bristles. . .112. Droseraceae, p. 512. 
Leaves neither punctate nor bristly-glandular. 
Petals 4. 

Stamens essentially equal ; pod usually stipitate 

107. Capparidaceae, p. 510. 

Stamens unequal, 2 being shorter than the other 4; pod 

sessile 105. Cruciferae, p. 484. 

Petals 3 or 5. 

Ovary stipitate 203. Passifloraceae, p. 693. 

Ovary sessile. 

Calyx 5-lobed or of 5 equal sepals 

117. Saxifragaceae, p. 514. 

Calyx of 3 equal or 5 very unequal sepals 

193. Cistaceae, p. 677. 

A. Ovary 2-several-celled B. 
B. Flowers irregular C. 

C. Anthers opening at the top 145. Polygalaceae, p. 633. 

C. Anthers opening lengthwise. 

Stamens 12 and petals 6 on the throat of the gibbous calyx 

5478. Cuphea p. 698. 

Stamens 5-10 and petals hypogynous or nearly so. 

Ovary 3-celled; trees or shrubs 4721. Aesculus, p. 658. 

Ovary 5-celled; hero s . 168. Balsaminaceae, p. 659. 

B. Flowers regular or nearly so D. 

D. Stamens neither just as many nor twice as many as the petals. 
Trees or shrubs. 

Stamens fewer than the 4 petals 243. Oleaceae, p. 751. 

Stamens more numerous than the petals 

163. Aceraceae, p. 654. 



Key to the Families 33 

Herbs. 

Petals 5 187. Hypericaceae. p. 671. 

Petals 4 105. Cruciferae, p. 484. 

D. Stamens just as many as or twice as many as the petals E. 
E. Ovules and seeds only 1 or 2 in each cell. 
Herbs. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious 

147. Euphorbiaceae, p. 636. 

Flowers perfect and symmetrical. 

Cells of the ovary as many as the sepals. 

Ovary 2- or 3-celled 152. Limnanthaceae, p. 647. 

Ovary 5-celled 129. Geraniaceae, p. 623. 

Cells of the ovary twice as many as the sepals. 

Leaves abruptly pinnate 

135. Zygophyllaceae, p. 631. 

Leaves simple 132. Linaceae, p. 629. 

Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves compound. 

Leaves 3-foliolate, punctate 4069. Ptelea, p. 632. 

Leaves pinnate, not punctate. . .165. Sapindaceae, p. 658. 
Leaves simple. 

Blades palmately veined 163. Aceraceae, p. 654. 

Blades pinnately veined. 
Leaves alternate. 

Shrubs, climbing 4625. Celastrus, p. 653. 

Shrubs, erect 157. Aquifoliaceae, p. 651. 

Leaves opposite 158. Celastraceae, p. 653. 

E. Ovules, and usually seed, several or many in each cell F. 
F. Leaves compound. 

Trees or shrubs 161. Staphyleaceae, p. 654. 

Herbs; leaves alternate or all radical 

130. OXALIDACEAE. p. 626. 

F. Leaves simple. 

Stipules present between opposite leaves 

189. Elatinaceae, p. 677. 

Stipules none when the leaves are opposite. 
Style 1. 

Stamens free from the calyx 233. Ericaceae, p. 733. 

Stamens inserted on the calyx. .216. Lythraceae, p. 695. 
Styles 2-5 or splitting into 2 in fruit. 

Stamens free from the calyx; leaves opposite 

87. Caryophyllaceae, p. 435. 

Stamens inserted on the calyx.. 233. Ericaceae, p. 733. 
v. Calyx tube adherent to the ovary, at least to its lower half G. 

G. Tendril-bearing and often succulent herbs. .275. Cucurbitaceae, p. 892. 
G. Tendrils lacking H. 

H. Ovules and seed only 1 in each cell. 
Stamens 5 or 10. 
Trees or shrubs. 

Leaves simple, not prickly 3345. Crataegus, p. 533. 

Leaves compound or prickly 227. Araliaceae, p. 712. 

Herbs. 

Fruit dry, splitting at maturity; styles 2 

228. Umbelliferae, p. 714. 

Fruit berrylike; styles 2-5, separate or united 

227. Araliaceae, p. 712. 

Stamens 2, 4 or 8. 

Style and stigma 1; fruit a drupe 229. Cornaceae, p. 728. 



34 Key to the Families 

Styles or stigmatic branches or sessile stigmas usually more than 1; 
fruit not a drupe. 

Shrubs or trees 123. Hamamelidaceae, p. 523. 

Herbs. 

Style 1; stigma 2-4 lobed 224. Onagraceae, p. 699. 

Styles or sessile stigmas 4 225. Haloragidaceae, p. 710. 

H. Ovules and seed more than 1 in each cell. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Sepals or calyx lobes 2 ; ovules borne at the base of the ovary 

85. PORTULACACEAE, p. 434. 

Sepals or calyx lobes 4 or 5; placentae 2 or 3, parietal 

117. Saxifragaceae, p. 514. 

Ovary 2-many-celled. 

Anthers opening by pores at the apex. . .223. Melastomaceae, p. 698. 
Anthers not opening by pores. 

Stamens inserted on or about a flat disk which covers the ovary. 

158. Celastraceae, p. 653. 

Stamens inserted on the calyx. 

Style 1; stamens 4 or 8 (rarely 5) 224. Onagraceae, p. 699. 

Styles 2 or 3, distinct; stamens 5 or 10 

117. Saxifragaceae, p. 514. 

n. Petals more or less united I. 

I. Stamens more numeixms than the lobes of the corolla J. 
J. Ovary 1-celled. 

Placenta 1, parietal 128. Leguminosae, p. 582. 

Placentae 2, parietal 104A. Fumariaceae, p. 482. 

Placenta at the center or base of the ovary 241. Styracaceae, p. 751. 

J. Ovary 2-celled; cells 1-ovuled 145. Polygalaceae, p. 633. 

J. Ovary 3-many-celled K. 

K. Stamens free from the corolla. 

Style 1 ; leaves simple 233. Ericaceae, p. 733. 

Styles 5 ; leaves 3-foliolate 130. Oxalidaceae, p. 626. 

K. Stamens attached to the base or tube of the corolla. 

Saprophytic herbs without green foliage 6169. Monotropa, p. 737. 

Not saprophytic; foliage green. 

Trees or shrubs; anthers mostly 2-celled. 

Filaments united at the base, forming a tube 6411. Styrax, p. 751. 

Filaments free from each other. 

Style 1 233. Ericaceae, p. 733. 

Styles 4 240. Ebenaceae, p. 751. 

Herbs; anthers 1-celled 175. Malvaceae, p. 666. 

I. Stamens not more numerous than the corolla lobes L. 

L. Stamens of the same number as the corolla lobes and opposite them. 

Corolla appendaged with scales inside; ovary 5-celled; trees or shrubs 

239. Sapotaceae, p. 750. 

Corolla not appendaged with scales inside; ovary 1-celled; herbs 

237. Primulaceae, p. 744. 

L. Stamens alternate with the corolla lobes or fewer M. 
M. Ovary free from the calyx tube (superior) N. 
N. Corolla regular O. 

O. Stamens as many as the corolla lobes P. 
P. Ovaries more than 1, or if 1, deeply lobed Q. 
Q. Ovaries 2, or if 1, 2-horned. 

Stamens united 248. Asclepiadaceae, p. 764. 

Stamens distinct. 

Stipules or stipular membrane or line between opposite leaves; 

ovary 2-horned 245. Loganiaceae, p. 754. 

Stipules none; ovaries 2 247. Apocynaceae, p. 760. 



Key to the Families 35 

Q. Ovary deeply 4-lobed. 

Leaves alternate 252. Boraginaceae, p. 787. 

Leaves opposite 254. Labiatae, p. 798. 

P. Ovary 1, not deeply lobed R. 
R. Ovary 1-celled. 

Seed 1; corolla scarious 269. Plantaginaceae, p. 867. 

Seed several-many. 

Leaves entire, opposite 246. Gentian aceae, p. 754. 

Leaves toothed, lobed, or compound. 

Whole upper surface of the corolla white-bearded; leaflets 3, 

entire 6543. Menyanthes, p. 760. 

Corolla not conspicuously bearded; leaves, if compound, with 

toothed leaflets 251. Hydrophyllaceae, p. 784. 

R. Ovary 2-10-celled. 

Leafless twining parasites 6968. Cuscuta, p. 770. 

Leaves opposite, their bases connected by a stipular line 

245. Loganiaceae, p. 754. 

Leaves alternate or, if opposite, with no trace of stipules. 
Stamens free from the corolla or nearly so. 

Style 1 233. Ericaceae, p. 733. 

Style none ; stamens attached to the base of the corolla 

157. Aquifoliaceae, p. 651. 

Stamens on the tube of the corolla. 
Stamens 4. 

Leafy-stemmed ; leaves opposite ; corolla petaloid 

253. Verbenaceae, p. 795. 

Acaulescent; corolla scarious. . .269. Plantaginaceae, p. 867. 
Stamens 5 or rarely more. 

Fruit of 2 or 4 seedlike nutlets 252. Boraginaceae, p. 787. 

Fruit a few-many-seeded pod or berry. 
Styles 2. 
Pod few, mostly 4-seeded.. .249. Convolvulaceae, p. 770. 

Pod many-seeded 251. Hydrophyllaceae, p. 784. 

Style 1, often branched. 

Branches of the style (or at least the lobes of the 
stigma) 3. 

Plants twining 7003. Ipomoea, p. 776. 

Plants not twining 250. Polemoniaceae, p. 778. 

Branches of the style or lobes of the stigma 2 or rarely 4, 
or 1 (in Solanaceae). 

Seed few, mostly 4 249. Convolvulaceae, p. 770. 

Seed many 256. Solanaceae, p. 826. 

O. Stamens fewer than the corolla lobes. 
Stamens with anthers 4, in pairs. 

Ovary 2-celled; cells several-seeded 266. Acanthaceae, p. 864. 

Ovary 2-4-celled; cells 1-seeded; ovary not lobed; style apical 

253. Verbenaceae, p. 795. 

Ovary 4-celled, 4-lobed; style basal 254. Labiatae, p. 798. 

Stamens with anthers only 2 or rarely 3. 

Ovary 4-lobed 7326. Lycopus, p. 821. 

Ovary 2-celled, not 4-lobed. 
Herbs. 

Acaulescent; corolla scarious 269. Plantaginaceae, p. 867. 

Leafy-stemmed; corolla not scarious 7579. Veronica, p. 845. 

Trees or shrubs 243. Oleaceae, p. 751. 

N. Corolla irregular S. 

S. Stamens with anthers 5. 



36 Key to the Families 

Ovary deeply 4-lobed around the style 7118. Echium, p. 794. 

Ovary not deeply lobed, many-ovuled. 

Filaments or some of them woolly 7460. Verbascum, p. 834. 

Filaments not woolly 7396. Hyoscyamus, p. 1087. 

S. Stamens with anthers 2 or 4. 
Ovules solitary in the 1-4 cells. 

Ovary 4-lobed; style arising from between the lobes 

254. Labiatae, p. 798. 

Ovary not lobed; style from the apex. 
Ovary 1-celled; fruit pointing backwards. .268. Phrymaceae, p. 866. 

Ovary 2-4-celled ; fruit not pointing backwards 

253. Verben aceae, p. 795. 

Ovules 2-many in each cell. 

Ovary imperfectly 4- or 5-celled 260. Martyniaceae, p. 860. 

Ovary 1- or 2-celled. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Parasites without green foliage, terrestrial ; stamens 4 

261. Orobanchaceae, p. 860. 

Not parasitic, chiefly aquatic or mud plants ; stamens 2 

264. Lentibulariaceae, p. 862. 

Ovary 2-celled. 
Trees or woody climbers; placentae parietal. . Bignoniaceae, p. 858. 
Herbs, rarely trees; placentae in the axis. 

Seed (mostly numerous) not borne on hooks 

257. SCROPHULARIACEAE, p. 882. 

Seed (2-12) borne on hooklike processes of the placentae 

266. ACANTHACEAE, p. 864. 

M. Ovary adherent to the calyx tube (inferior) T. 
T. Tendril-bearing herbs; anthers often united. . .275. Cucurbitaceae, p. 892. 
T. Tendrils none U. 

U. Stamens separate V. 

V. Stamens free from the corolla or nearly so, as many as its lobes; 

stipules none; sap milky 276. Campanulaceae, p. 893. 

V. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 

Stamens 1-3, always fewer than the corolla lobes 

273. Valerianaceae, p. 890. 

Stamens 4 or 5; leaves opposite or whorled. 
Ovary 2-5-celled. 
Leaves opposite or perfoliate but never whorled, rarely provided 

with true stipules 271. Caprifoliaceae, p. 878. 

Leaves either opposite and stipulate, or whorled and destitute of 

stipules 270. Rubiaceae, p. 870. 

Ovary 1-celled ; flowers in dense involucrate heads 

274. Dipsacaceae, p. 892. 

U. Stamens united by their anthers, these joined in a ring or tube. 

Flowers separate, not involucrate ; corolla irregular 

276A. Lobeliaceae, p. 895. 

Flowers in an involucrate head 280. Compositae, p. 899. 



Ophioglossum Ophioglossaceae 37 

PTERIDOPHYTA. Ferns and Fern Allies 

Note: Ferns and their allies have always been an attractive subject of 
study and many persons have made intensive studies of them and have 
designated many of the minute differences by special names. No attempt 
has been made here to evaluate the status of these variations and the com- 
mon interpretation of them has been accepted. 

In this treatment the term frond is used to mean the expanded portion of 
the leaf of a fern. 

[Students who wish to use the stipe to assist in the determination of the 
ferns are referred to "An analytical key for the ferns of the Northeastern 
States, based on the stipes," by C. E. Waters, published in 1903 and re- 
published as a supplement to the American Fern Journal, vol. 18: no. 
2. 1928.] 

1. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Presl Adder's Tongue Family* 

Sporangia cohering in a simple spike; fronds (leaves) one, rarely 2 or 3, entire; 

veins reticulate 1. Ophioglossum, p. 37. 

Sporangia in pinnate or compound spikes, rarely in a simple spike but not cohering; 

fronds (leaves) not simple; veins free 2. Botrychium, p. 38. 

1. OPHIOGLOSSUM [Tourn.] L. Adder's Tongue 

Fronds mostly rounded or obtuse at the apex, rarely acute but never apiculate 

1.0. vulgatum. 

Fronds more or less acute at the apex and apiculate 2. 0. Engelmanni. 

1. Ophioglossum vulgatum L.** Common Adder's Tongue. Map 1. 
Local in various habitats in the southern half of the state. It is always found 
in dense shade and most commonly associated with beech, especially in low 
beech and sweet gum woods. Ordinarily it seems to prefer a slightly acid 
soil. It has been found in Lake County by several collectors, where it is 
evidently rather frequent. I have a specimen collected by Edwin D. Hull 
near Liverpool, Lake County, which was growing under some shrubs in 
almost pure sand with cranberry. Mr. Hull found more than 30 fruiting 
specimens at this time at the place mentioned above. Besides the counties 
shown on the map it has been reported from Crawford, Harrison, and 
Wayne Counties. 

Markle (Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1915: 357. 1916) in 1914 found near 
Gary, Lake County, many plants with more than one leaf. He reports "of 
a total of two hundred plants, selected at random, ninety-one had one leaf 
above ground, one hundred and five had two leaves, and four had three 
leaves". 

la. Ophioglossum vulgatum f. pseudopodum Blake. (Rhodora 15: 87. 
1913.) This is a form in which the sterile blade is narrowed below into a 
stalklike base a fourth to two thirds as long as the expanded portion. This 
form has been found in St. Joseph County by R. M. Tryon, Jr. 

P. E. I., Ont. to Alaska, south w. to Fla. and Mex. ; also in Eurasia. 

* R. T. Clausen checked the determination of all my specimens and rendered 
valuable help. 

** For a discussion of this species and varieties see Rhodora 41:494-499. 1939. 



38 



Ophioglossaceae 



Botrychium 













— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

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June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 


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Map 1 
■n L. 




50 

Map 2 



Botrychium simplex E.Hitchcock 




35 

Map 3 

Botrychium multifidum 
var silaifolium (Presl) Brown 



2. Ophioglossum Engelmanni Prantl. There is a fragmentary specimen 
in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden which R. T. Clausen 
has seen and reported in the Mem. Torrey Club 19: no. 2:140. 1938 as be- 
longing to this species. Clausen in a letter to me dated June 1, 1938, con- 
firms his examination of the specimen and determination. The specimen 
was collected by L. M. Underwood in June, 1893, on the campus of Indiana 
University. 

Nw. Va., s. Ohio and 111. to Mo., southw. to cent. Fla., La., Tex., and Ariz. ; 
cent, and s. Mex. 



2. BOTRYCHIUM Sw. Grapefern 

Fronds small, mostly 1-3 cm long, simple and roundish or pinnately 3-7-lobed 

1. B. simplex. 

Tronds larger, more than 3 cm long, ternate. 

Fronds on long petioles (arising from near the base of the stem), bipinnate- 
pinnatifid. 
Sterile frond with all the segments of about the same size and shape; segments 

ovate or obovate, the terminal ones not elongate 

2. B. multifidum var. silaifolium. 

Sterile fronds with segments of different size and shape. 

Ultimate divisions of the frond cut into linear segments; segments more or less 

notched at the apex 3. B. dissectum. 

Ultimate divisions of the frond not dissected but variously and unevenly cut. 
Divisions of the pinnae oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, more or less acute. 

Segments of frond many more than 9 3a. B. dissectum var. obliquum. 

Segments usually about 9 3b. B. dissectum var. tenuifolium. 

Divisions of the pinnae broadly ovate and obtuse 

3c. B. dissectum var. oneidense. 

Fronds sessile (arising from near or above the middle of the stem), the short- 
stalked primary divisions once or twice pinnate and these in turn once or twice 
pinnatifid 4. B. virginianum. 

1. Botrychium simplex E. Hitchcock. HITCHCOCK GRAPEFERN. Map 2. 
I have seen specimens from three collections. The first was collected in 
1910 by W. N. Clute along the Michigan Central Railroad near Glen Park, 
Lake County. A second specimen was collected in 1929 by Marcus W. Lyon, 
Jr., on the wooded border of an interdunal flat in Porter County. R. T. 



Botrychium 



Ophioglossaceae 



39 



Clausen has seen this specimen and confirms the identification, 
was collected by J. A. Nieuwland at Dune Park, Porter County. 
P. E. I. to Pa., westw. to Oreg. and Calif. 



The third 



2. Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr. var. silaifolium (Presl) 
Broun. (Botrychium tematum var. intermedium D. C. Eaton.) Map 3. 

This report is based upon specimens collected by Marcus Lyon, Jr., and 
R. M. Tryon, Jr., in the Dunes State Park, Porter County. Tryon reported 
his specimens as Botrychium dissectum f. elongatum. R. T. Clausen and 
E. T. Wherry have seen these specimens and refer them to this species. 

Maine to Que., and B. C, southw. to N. J. and Oreg. 




o 5o 

Map 4 



Botrychium dissectum Sprenc 




50 
Map 4a 
Botrychium dissectum 
var. obliquum (Muhl ) Clute 




3. Botrychium dissectum Spreng. (Botrychium obliquum var. dissec- 
tum (Spreng.) Clute.) Cutleaf Grapefern. Map 4. Local throughout 
the state in either dry or moist soils. All of my specimens are from wood- 
land; some are from white oak woods, some are from beech and sugar 
maple woods, and one specimen was found associated with sweet gum and 
white elm. 

N. B. and N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla., Mo., Ark., and Mex. 

3a. Botrychium dissectum var. obliquum (Muhl.) Clute. {Botrychium 
obliquum Muhl.) Oblique Grapefern. Map 4a. Infrequent throughout 
the state in wet or dry woodland. Most of my specimens were found in 
low, flat woods associated with sweet gum and beech, and a few were 
found in dry woodland with beech and sugar maple. 

A form with less divided and oblong pinnae has been described by E. W. 
Graves (Amer. Fern Jour. 22: 50-52. 1932) as Botrychium obliquum var. 
oblongifolium. Graves named one of my specimens from Marion County 
and one from Crawford County as belonging to this variety. Since fern 
students are not agreed upon the status of this fern, I record the data 
without comment. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to Fla., Mo., and Tex. 



40 



OSMUNDACEAE 



Osmunda 



3b. Botrychium dissectum var. tenuifolium (Underw.) Farw. I have 
a specimen of this variety collected in a low woods about 3 miles northwest 
of Leavenworth, Crawford County, which is referred to this variety by 
both R. T. Clausen and E. T. Wherry. This variety is found chiefly in the 
southern states. 

3c. Botrychium dissectum var. oneidense (Gilbert) Farw. According 
to Clausen's determination this variety occurs in De Kalb, Howard, Porter, 
and Steuben Counties. 

4. Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Rattlesnake Fern. Map 5. 
This is strictly a woodland species and is found in moist, rich woods of 
many kinds throughout the state. For a treatment of the varieties of this 
species and a key to them see Butters' discussion (Rhodora 19: 207-215. 

1917). 

Lab. to B. C, southw. to Fla., La., Ariz., and Wash. ; also in Mex., W. I., 

and Eurasia. 



2. OSMUNDACEAE R. Br. Royal Fern Family 

1. OSMUNDA [Tourn.] L. 

Fronds bipinnate, the fertile ones fertile at the summit. . .1. 0. regalis var. spectabilis. 
Fronds pinnate, the sterile pinnae deeply pinnatifid, the lobes generally entire. 

Fertile fronds with fertile pinnae near the middle; no tuft of wool at the base of 

the pinnae 2 - 0. Claytoniana. 

Fertile fronds separate from the sterile ones; pinnae of sterile fronds with a tuft 
of wool in the axils. 
Pinnae of sterile fronds with entire segments and the fertile frond entirely fertile. 

3. O. cinnamomea. 

Pinnae with the basal segments on the lower side (or rarely on both sides) much 
elongated and deeply and sharply toothed, other segments normal or nearly 

so 3a. 0. cinnamomea f. auriculata. 

Pinnae (at least some of them) of fertile fronds more or less sterile (usually the 

lower ones) 3b. 0. cinnamomea f. frondosa. 

Pinnae (at least some of them) of sterile fronds with lobes more or less cut or 
pinnatifid 3c. 0. cinnamomea f . incisa. 




Miles 
56 

Map 6 



Osmunda regalis 
var. spectabilis (Willd.)Gray 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec. 





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Map 7 



Osmunda Claytoniana L 





Map 8 



Osmunda cinnamomea L. 



Osmunda Osmundaceae 41 

Supplementary Key for the Separation of Sterile Fronds of Some 
Species That Superficially Look Much Alike. 

In my early study of ferns I was not aware that sterile fronds could be 
identified. Sterile specimens of Osmunda and Pteretis much resemble each 
other and I had never been able to find the last named genus until I was 
able to identify the sterile specimen. Since that time I have found several 
colonies and I think if all of our fern students knew how to separate these 
genera that many more colonies of Pteretis would be found. Likewise 
there is a possibility that sterile specimens of Woodiva?'dia virginica and 
certain species of Athyrium and Dryoyteris might be confused with Os- 
munda. Hence this key. 

Veins simple, not forked; pinnules entire; vascular bundles in stipe 7 Pteretis. 

Veins not simple, more or less forked. 

Veins usually forked once ; vascular bundle in the stipe 1 ; stipe stramineous. 

Sterile fronds with tufts of wool at the base of the pinnae . . Osmunda cinnamomea. 

Sterile fronds without tufts of wool at the base of the pinnae 

Osmunda Claytoniana. 

Veins with areolae on both sides of the midrib with which simple or rarely forked 

veins connect the margin; vascular bundles more than 5; stipe dark brown. 

Woodwardia. 

1. Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) Gray. (Rhodora 21: 
179. 1919.) (Osmunda regalis of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, 
Illus. Flora, ed. 2, not L.) Royal Fern. Map 6. Frequent in the lake area 
and infrequent to local south of it. It is not especially particular as to its 
habitat except that it must be a moist or wet one. It is found mostly in 
low woods, about ponds and lakes, and less frequently in the open in wet 
prairies. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Fla. and Miss. 

2. Osmunda Claytoniana L. Interrupted Fern. Map 7. Infrequent 
to local throughout the greater part of the state. Besides the counties 
shown on the map, there are reports from thirteen additional counties. It 
seems to prefer the moist bases of black and white oak slopes. In the 
southern part of the state it is found on the slopes of deep, wooded ravines. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. C., Ky., and Mo. ; a variety also in s. Asia. 

3. Osmunda cinnamomea L. CINNAMON FERN. Map 8. Frequent in the 
lake area, becoming infrequent to local south of it. In the lake area it is 
usually common in tamarack bogs and swamps about lakes, and in the 
southern part of the state it grows in low, fiat woods, associated with sweet 
gum and red maple. Throughout its range it is found only in wet soil in 
bogs or about ponds and marshes and rarely on shaded slopes. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Fla., La., and N. Mex. ; also in Mex., S. A., 
W. I., and Eurasia. 

3a. Osmunda cinnamomea f. auriculata (Hopkins) Kittredge. (Bull. 
Conn. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. 48: 12. 1931.) This form has the 
basal segments much elongated and deeply and sharply toothed on the 
lower side or rarely on both sides. The other segments are normal or 
nearly so. It has been found in Porter County by R. M. Tryon, Jr. 



•12 Polypodiaceae Osmunda 

3b. Osmunda cinnamomea f. fronddsa (T. & G.) Britt. (Cat. Plants of 
New Jersey, p. 312. 1890.) This form has the fertile frond partly leafy, 
the fertile and sterile pinnae variously intermixed. I found this unusual 
form in Lagrange County and Nieuwland found it in St. Joseph County. 

3c. Osmunda cinnamomea f. incisa (Huntington) Gilbert. (List North 
American Ptericlophytes, pp. 13, 28. 1901.) This form usually has acutely 
toothed or lobed segments. I found it in De Kalb County. 

3. POLYPODIACEAE R. Br. Fern Family 

Fronds conspicuously dimorphic, the fertile ones with divisions greatly contracted or 
berrylike, brown when fully mature. 
Sterile fronds pinnatifid, the veins netted; fertile fronds bipinnate, the divisions 

berrylike 4. Onoclea, p. 45. 

Sterile fronds bipinnatifid, the veins free; fertile fronds pinnate, the divisions linear, 

strongly ascending 3. Pteretis, p. 44. 

Fronds not conspicuously dimorphic, all green. 

Sori marginal, the indusium appearing to consist of the reflexed margin of the seg- 
ments of the frond or of a marginal cup. 
Fronds with sporangia borne in minute cuplike indusia near the notches of the 
segments, the sori separate; fronds bipinnate, the lower surface well covered 

with short, erect, glandular hairs 7. Dennstaedtia, p. 50. 

Fronds not as above. 

Stipes stout (2-4 mm in diameter), commonly solitary, green (stramineous or 

pale brown in dried specimens) 15. Pteridum, p. 57. 

Stipes less than 2 mm in diameter, commonly clustered (brown to blackish). 
Pinnules pubescent above and below with long, white hairs, densely so along 

the margins below , 13. Cheilanthes, p. 56. 

Pinnules glabrous or with a few scattered hairs. 

Indusia of pinnules continuous; fronds coriaceous, pinnate or bipinnate. 

12. Pellaea, p. 55. 

Indusia definitely interrupted on the fanlike margin of the pinnule; fronds 
delicate, branched at the summit, the branches definitely pinnate. 

14. Adiantum, p. 57. 

Sori dorsal, not marginal (except in Dryopteris marginalis) . 

Sori and indusia (when present) more or less circular, or reniform. 

Fronds pinnate, pinnules narrowly oblong-lanceolate with an auricle at the 
base of the upper margin, the stipe and rachis thickly covered with scales ; 
pinnules of fertile fronds contracted; sori confluent. .6. Polystichum, p. 50. 
Fronds not as above. 

Stipe, rachis, and lower surface of the pinnae more or less glandular-puberu- 

lent; stipe and rachis deciduously chaffy 1. Woodsia, p. 43. 

Stipe, rachis, and lower surface of pinnae not, or not all, more or less glandu- 
lar-puberulent. 
Fronds deeply pinnatifid, the divisions confluent at the base; sori naked; 

blades of fronds coriaceous 16. Polypodium, p. 57. 

Fronds not as above. 

Indusia attached in the center or lacking, if lacking then the rachis 

pubescent and chaffy 5. Dryopteris, p. 45. 

Indusia attached by a broad base on the side toward the midrib and partly 
under the sori, opening on the opposite side. . .2. Cystopteris, p. 43. 
Sori elongated, oblong to linear, often curved. 

Sori in rows parallel to the midribs of the pinnae and along the midveins of the 

segments 11. Woodwardia, p. 55. 

Sori not disposed as above. 



Woodsia 



POLYPODIACEAE 



43 



Blades of fronds simple, long-attenuate at the apex, cordate at the base, en- 
tire or undulate 9. Camptosorus, p. 53. 

Blades once to several times divided. 

Sori straight or slightly curved; fronds mostly 10-40 cm long 

10. Asplenium, p. 53. 

Sori often curved over the ends of the veins; fronds mostly 35-90 cm long. 
8. Athyrium, p. 51. 

1. WOODSIA R. Br. Woodsia 

1. Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. Common Woodsia. Map 9. Infre- 
quent to rare in the southern part of the state and very local northward 
to the counties shown on the map. Probably not found in Indiana north 
of the counties shown on the map. It no doubt occurs also in Wabash 
County but I have not been able to find it. It is usually found in shallow soil 
on rocky slopes. It prefers sandstone but is also found on limestone. 

Cent. Maine to Wis., B. C, and Alaska, southw. to Ga., Ala., Tex. 
and Ariz. 

2. CYSTOPTERIS Bernh. 

Fronds lanceolate, attenuate, often bulblet-bearing on the lower surface of the upper 
part ; segments and teeth crowded ; rachis not winged ; pinnules mostly oblong, 

very obtuse; indusium truncate on the free side, minutely glandular 

1. C. btdbifera. 

Fronds ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, not bulblet-bearing; segments and teeth more 
distant, decurrent on the slightly margined rachis; pinnules mostly oval, more 
pointed ; indusium acute or acuminate, and often lacerate on the free side, not 
glandular 2. C. fragilis. 

1. Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. (Filix bulbifera (L.) Underw.) 
Berry Bladder Fern. Map 10. Infrequent in the southern part of the state, 
becoming very local to absent in the northern part. This species grows 
only in wet places or places that are usually constantly kept moist in shady, 
rocky ravines and in pockets or crevices of shaded cliffs. It is usually found 
along the outlets of springs in southern Indiana. My Steuben County speci- 
men was found in an old tamarack bog. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Ga., Ala., Ark., and Iowa. 













— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


















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Map 10 



Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. 




Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. 



44 Polypodiaceae Cystopteris 

2. Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. {Filix fragilis (L.) Underw.) 
Brittle Fern. Map 11. This species prefers the deep, rich leaf mold of 
beech and sugar maple and white oak woods and is frequent to common 
throughout the state south of the Wabash River where woods of this kind 
are found. North of the Wabash River it is infrequent to very rare. It is 
absent in the southern part of the state in the areas where low, flat woods 
occur. It is found in exposed places on sandstone ridges and bluffs. 

Students sometimes find difficulty in distinguishing this species from 
Woodsia obtusa. The stipe of the last named species is covered more or 
less densely with short, stipitate glands while the stipe of Cystopteris is 
entirely glabrous or with only a few glands near the summit. 

The Cystopteris fragilis species complex has been restudied by C. A. 
Weatherby. He has recently described a new variety to which, in my 
opinion, all or most all of our specimens belong. It is described as follows : 

"Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. protrusa Weatherby. (Rhodora 
37: 373-375. 1935.) Rootstock creeping, only sparsely beset with bases 
of old fronds, the growing point hardly paleaceous, produced 2-4 cm beyond 
the fronds of the season ; well-developed blades nearly bipinnate-pinnatifid, 
11-22 cm long, 5-11.5 cm wide, pinnae ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
pinnules toward the base of the pinnae deltoid-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
subacute, usually shortly but distinctly petiolulate, deeply pinnatifid into 
oblong, obtuse lobes ; in juvenile or depauperate blades less lobed and more 
obtuse; indusium about 0.5 mm long, shallowly lobed or nearly entire at 
apex. Southern New York, south in the piedmont and the mountains to 
Alabama, west to Minnesota and Missouri." 

My specimens have been examined by two fern specialists and they 
agree that most of them belong to this variety and some can not be deter- 
mined with certainty. 

A form of this species with large, abundant sori has been named f. 
magnasora Clute (Fern Bull. 9: 65. 1901). 

The true species has a range to the north of Indiana. In order to refer 
specimens to their correct variety and form it is usually necessary for 
them to have the indusium and rootstock which most of our specimens lack. 
Since it is impossible to correctly name all of our specimens I have decided 
that it is best to regard all of them as belonging to a species complex and 
they are so indicated on the map. 

Newf. and Lab. to Alaska, southw. to Ga., Ala., Kans., Ariz., and s. Calif. 

3. PTERfiTIS Raf. 

Rachis glabrous throughout its entire length or only glabrate above the lowest pinnae 
and polished below them 1. P. nodulosa. 

Rachis more or less puberulent to pubescent throughout, at least above the lowest 
pinnae; rachis below the lowest pinnae usually not polished 

la. P. nodulosa f . pubescens. 

1. Pteretis nodulosa (Michx.) Nieuwl. (Rhodora 21: 178. 1919.) 
(Onoclea Struthiopteris and Matteuccia Struthiopteris of most authors.) 
Ostrich Fern. Map 12. This species is, no doubt, very local in the 



Onoclea 



POLYPODIACEAE 



45 



K ^Sv" I 






Jan. 




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Fe b. 




Jy 






- 1 — H — 





Mar. 
Apr. 


1 




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June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 


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Pteretis nodulosa (Michx ) Nieuwl, 




6 ~3o 
Map 12a 
Pteretis nodulosa 
f pubescens (Terry) Fern. 




~76 

Map 13 



Onoclea sensibilis L 



state although it may have been overlooked because of its close resem- 
blance to Osmunda, cinnamomea. My specimens are mostly from alluvial 
flood plains of small streams. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va. and Iowa. 

la. Pteretis nodulosa f. pubescens (Terry) Fern. (Rhodora 37: 219. 
1935.) Map 12a. This form is not well marked in Indiana. 

4. ONOCLfiA L. 

1. Onoclea sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern. Map 13. Frequent through- 
out the state in low places in woodland, about lakes, and along roadsides. 

Forma obtusilobata (Schkuhr) Gilbert is a form with fronds inter- 
mediate between the normal fertile and normal sterile phases, bipinnate 
or nearly so, the pinnules flat and nearly free-veined, rarely partly fertile. 
This form has been found in Porter County by R. M. Tryon, Jr., who says 
it is not infrequent in meadows that have been mowed in the early part of 
the year. There is a specimen from Porter County in the herbarium of 
the University of Notre Dame. 

A form with the frond fertile, or somewhat so, on one side and sterile on 
the other is forma hemiphyllddes (Kiss & Kummerle) Weatherby (Amer. 
Fern Jour. 26 : 16. 1936) . This form was found on the right of way of the 
Chicago, South Shore, and South Bend Railroad near Tremont, Porter 
County. The right of way was mowed earlier in the year. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Fla. and Okla. 



5. DRYOPTERIS Adans. 

Indusia lacking; blades of fronds triangular or ternate. 

Blades ternate with the divisions nearly equal and petiolate, glabrous; rachis wing- 
less. (See excluded species no. 2, p. 1019.) D. Linnaeana. 

Blades bipinnatifid ; pinnae sessile and more or less decurrent on the rachis. 

Fronds as wide as or wider than long, usually light green, finely puberulent or 
glandular beneath; veins of the pinnules on the lowest pair of pinnae several 
times forked 1. D. hexagonoptera. 



46 POLYPODIACEAE Dryopteris 

Fronds longer than wide, dark green, more coarsely pubescent beneath and with 

prominent brown scales along the rachis; veins of the pinnules on the lowest 

pair of pinnae simple or once forked. (See excluded species no. 3, p. 1019.) 

D. Phegopteris. 

Indusia present; blades of fronds not triangular or ternate. 

Rootstocks creeping; veins simple or once forked; fronds lanceolate in outline. 
Lowest pinnae gradually decreasing in size toward the base; the lowest usually 

less than 1 cm long; veins simple; indusia glandular 2. D. noveboracensis. 

Lowest pinnae scarcely smaller than the middle ones. 

Veins of sterile fronds generally forked; sori crowded; indusia without glands. 

3. D. Thelypteris var. pubescens. 

Veins simple; sori distant; indusia glandular. (See excluded species no. 4, 

p. 1020.) D' simulata. 

Rootstocks short, suberect; fronds cespitose, never pubescent, their veins, at least 
the lowest, more than once forked. 

Sori marginal 4. D. marginalis. 

Sori not marginal. 

Pinnae widest above the base; basal scales of stipe dark chestnut color; sori 
mostly 3-7 pairs; the largest fern of the genus (in Indiana) . .5. D. Goldiana. 
Pinnae widest at the base; basal scales of stipe not so dark colored as the 
preceding. 
Surface of indusium glabrous. 
Fronds bipinnatifid or pinnate. 

Basal scales of stipe lance-linear, caudate-attenuate; segments with 
parallel sides, serrate at the rounded apex and obscurely so, if at 
all, on the sides, the teeth rarely somewhat spinulose; sori usually 
on the lower half of the segment. (See excluded species no. 5, 

p. 1020.) D. Filix-mas. 

Basal scales of stipe wider; teeth of segments more or less spinulose; 

sori not restricted to the lower half of the segment. 

Fronds linear-oblong or lanceolate in outline; pinnae 5-8 cm long, 

triangular-oblong or the lowest pair somewhat triangular-ovate, 

usually the lower half of the frond conspicuously decreasing in 

size toward the base 6. D. eristata. 

Fronds wider; pinnae 8-15 cm long, oblong-lanceolate, the lower half 

of the frond not decreasing in size toward the base 

6a. D. eristata var. Clintoniana. 

Fronds bipinnate, tripinnate, or tripinnatifid, segments with spinulose teeth. 

Basal inferior and superior pinnules of the lowermost pinnae subopposite, 

rarely more than 4 mm apart; the inferior 1-6 cm long, if more, then 

twice as long as the superior; pinnules of the middle pinnae often 

only toothed; pinnules pinnatifid or pinnate 7. D. spinulosa. 

Basal inferior and superior pinnules of the lowest pinnae remote, 0.5-2 
cm wider apart; the inferior 3-10 cm long, 2-4 times as long as the 
superior; pinnules pinnatifid or pinnate. (See excluded species no. 7, 

p. 1020.) D. spinulosa var. americami. 

Surface of indusium glandular. 

Frond commonly minutely glandular especially on the rachis and rachillae, 

tripinnatifid or sometimes tripinnate; pinnae slightly ascending to 

divergent, the basal inferior pinnule shorter than to rarely exceeding 

the second inferior one ; scales of stipe usually dark brown at base. 

Mature indusium 0.8-1.4 mm wide; pinnae gradually tapering to apex. 

7a. D. spinulosa var. fructuosa. 

Mature indusium 0.5-0.8 mm wide; pinnae usually narrowed rather 

abruptly to prolonged lance-linear tips 

7b. D. spinulosa var. intermedia. 

Frond not minutely glandular but more or less chaffy, bipinnate or tripin- 
natifid S. D. Boottii. 



Dryopteris 



POLYPODIACEAE 



47 




50 

Map 14 



Dryopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) C.Chr 




50 

Map 15 



Dryopteris noveboracens i s (L.) A.Gray 




M5 

Map 16 
• ryYptens Thelypteris 

var pubescens (Lawson) A. R. Prince 



1. Dryopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) C. Chr. (Phegopteris hexagon- 
optera (Michx.) Fee.) Winged Woodfern. Broad Beechfern. Map 14. 
Frequent in the southern half of the state, becoming less frequent north- 
ward and even rare in some of our northern counties. This is a woodland 
species found in all kinds of dry soils. It is found more frequently associ- 
ated with black and white oak and only occasionally with beech and sugar 
maple. 

Cent. Maine to w. Que. and Minn., southw. to Fla., La., Iowa, and Okla. 

2. Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) A. Gray. {Aspidium noveboraceiise 
(L.) Sw.) New York Fern. Map 15. This species is found only in 
slightly acid soil, hence its zonal distribution. It is infrequent to local in 
the northern part of the state where it usually occurs in black and white 
oak woods. It is rare or absent in the Tipton Till Plain, becoming infre- 
quent to frequent southward in the hard, white clay soil of beech and 
sweet gum woodland. In the southern part of the state is is usually closely 
associated with beech. 

Newf. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Ark. 

3. Dryopteris Thelypteris (L.) A. Gray var. pubescens (Lawson) A. R. 
Prince. {Aspidium Thelypteris of Gray, Man., ed. 7, not Sw. ; Dryopteris 
Thelypteris of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, not A. Gray; and 
Thelypteris palustris of authors, not Schott.) Marshfern. Map 16. 
Common in the lake area and infrequent south of it. In the lake area it is 
common in tamarack bogs, sedge marshes, and on the low borders of lakes. 
South of this place it is found in springy and marshy areas. 

Se. Newf., Que. to Man., southw. to Ga., Tenn., and Okla. 

4. Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray. {Aspidium marginale (L.) 
Sw.) Leather Woodfern. Map 17. This species is, for the most part, 
restricted to the outcrops of sandstone or nearby residual soils which are 
the product of sandstone in the southern part of the state. Most of my 



48 



POLYPODIACEAE 



Dryopteris 




<T~ "To 

Map 17 



Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray. 



— 






6 











Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 






D 


' "i 




\ 


|V 


" 




D 






D 
DP 

r 1 - 




-I 






D 




i 




rtA 




Dec C 




10 B 

I ' 

B 

k 1 y 

D 1 
D t/ 

-1 D X \J 


/ Miles 






? 




f f D 


Dry 


op 


ens 


Gol< 


"K 70 50 

if ^ / Map 18 
fana (Hook.) A.Gray. 




o ~~3o 
Map 19 



Dryopteris cristata ILJ A.Gray. 



specimens are from wooded bluffs and slopes along streams. In addition 
to my collections, it has been reported from Clark, Floyd, Monroe, and Vigo 
Counties. It has been reported also from the dune area, and on May 30, 
1935, R. M. Tryon, Jr. showed me large colonies of it on a north, wooded 
slope in Memorial Park about a mile east of Michigan City. It is, without 
question, a native here. 

A form in which the pinnae are toothed or lobed has been named and 
has been reported from Indiana. I have a few specimens with some of 
the pinnae toothed but I do not think it is worth while to name such 
minor fluctuations. 

N. S. to B. C, southw. to Ga., Ala., Ark., Kans., and Okla. 

5. Dryopteris Goldiana (Hook.) A. Gray. (Aspidium Goldianum 
Hook.) Goldie Fern. Map 18. Infrequent to rare throughout the state 
in deep humus, usually on the slopes of wooded ravines. 

Cent. Maine to Minn., southw. to N. C, Tenn., and Iowa. 

X Dryopteris Goldiana X marginalis Dowell. This hybrid was found in 
Martin County by R. M. Tryon, Jr. (Amer. Fern Jour. 28: 74. 1938.) 

5. Dryopteris Goldiana (Hook.) A. Gray. (Aspidium Goldianum 
Crested Woodfern. Map 19. This species is restricted nearly to the lake 
area where it is frequent in tamarack bogs and in low woods, usually in 
masses of decaying organic matter. There are, however, reports of it 
from Grant, Howard, and Monroe Counties. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to N. C. 

6a. Dryopteris cristata var. Clintoniana (D. C. Eaton) Underw. 
(Aspidium cristatum var. Clintonianum D. C. Eaton and Dryopteris Clin- 
toniana (D. C. Eaton) Dowell.) Clinton Woodfern. My only specimens 
of this fern are my no. 47776 from La Porte County and one collected by 
Tryon in Porter County. 

N. H. to Wis., southw. to N. C. 



Dryopteris 



POLYPODIACEAE 



49 




50 

Map 20 



Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F.Muell.) Wan 




50 

Map 20a 
Dryopteris spinulosa 
var. intermedia (Muhl.) Underw. 




Map 21 
Dryopteris Boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw. 



X Dryopteris cristata X spinulosa C. Chr. is a closely allied form which 
is represented in my collection by a single specimen. It is my no. 54091 
from Lagrange County, which was determined by C. A. Weatherby. 

7. Dryopteris spinulosa (0. F. Muell.) Watt. (Aspidium spinulosum 
(O. F. Muell.) Sw.) (Amer. Fern Jour. 26: 65-69. 1936.) Toothed Wood- 
fern. Map 20. The greater number of specimens are from the lake area 
where it is usually frequent in wet woods, especially about ponds, in 
tamarack bogs, and on the wet, wooded borders of lakes. Sometimes it is 
found in dry woods after the water level has been lowered. This is one of 
our commonest and most attractive ferns. It usually grows in clusters of 
from 5 to 10 fronds. 

Lab. to the Selkirks and Idaho, southw. to Va. and Ky. 

7a. Dryopteris spinulosa var. fructuosa (Gilbert) Trudell. (Rhodora 
28: 146. 1926.) My specimens are from tamarack bogs and very low 
woods. I have no data concerning its general distribution. 

7b. Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia (Muhl.) Underw. (Rhodora 
21: 178. 1919 and Rhodora 22: 196. 1920.) (Aspidium spinulosum var. 
intermedium (Muhl.) D. C. Eaton and Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) 
Gray.) Common Woodfern. Map 20a. I have only a few specimens of 
this fern although it has been reported from 10 counties not shown on the 
map. It has a wide distribution in the state and seems to favor wooded 
ravines. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to N. C. and Mo. 

8. XDryopteris Boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw. (Aspidium Boottii Tuck- 
erm.) Boott Woodfern. Map 21. I reported this fern from Noble and 
Wells Counties but I now refer my specimens to other species. R. M. Tryon, 
Jr. has found it in La Porte and Porter Counties. His determinations have 
been checked by fern specialists. This species is regarded by some fern 



50 



POLYPODIACEAE 



Polystichum 




"50 

Map 22 
Polystichum acrostichoides 

(Michx.)Schott 




50 

Map 23 
Dennstaedtia punctilobula 
li'chx.) Moore 

















— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. C 














D 




D 







° ^~ 




S 






'{*-, 














D 




i D 

/ 10 T 




B 
D 


B 

BP _ 


bud 

D » 


B DI 


B 

no 


T , h 


B 

D 

DP 

10 


1 1 










B 
DP 

D 




1 HO 


D 

n 

1 


[ ' 


s ° 


1 ° / J\ 

o | L^i 


rJ D 





i 

K 1 ' 


f 1 B 
1 B 




D 


As i 1 


J// Miles 


1 p <\Jl 
Athynum p; 


>J^W ^ Map 24 

cnocarponlSprenglTidestr 



students as a hybrid between Dryopteris cristata and Dryopteris spinulosa 
var. intermedia. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Va. 

6. POLYSTICHUM Roth 

1. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. Christmas Fern. Map 
22. This is a woodland species preferring the lower part of the slopes of 
deep wooded ravines. It is infrequent to rare in some of the northern 
counties, becoming frequent to common in the southern half of the state, 
especially among the hills. In protected places in the southern part of the 
state it is evergreen. 

N. S. to Ont. and Wis. ; southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

la. Polystichum acrostichoides f. incisum (Gray) Gilbert. (Polystichum 
acrostichoides var. Schiveinitzii (Beck) Small.) I have a specimen of this 
form from Daviess County. It has, however, been reported from several 
other counties throughout the state. 

lb. Polystichum acrostichoides f. crispum Clute. This is a form with 
the margins of the pinnae crisped and ruffled. It has been found by R. M. 
Tryon, Jr. in Porter County. 



7. DENNSTAfiDTIA Bernh. 

1. Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore. (Dicksonia punctilobula 
(Michx.) Gray.) Hay-scented Fern. Map 23. This fern seems to be 
rare in the state. It prefers the sandstone and shaly rocks of deep, wooded 
ravines. Williamson, in "Fems of Kentucky," says it was found along 
Silver Creek north of Louisville, Kentucky. It was rather common in a 
rocky ravine in Turkey Run State Park. Outside of Indiana in suitable 
habitats it often becomes an annoying weed in pastures. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Mo. 



Athyrium 



POLYPODIACEAE 



51 




50 

Map 25 



Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. j- 


I 








B 


r i 


B 




B 




V 


K 










B 

r 1 




-I 






B 




1 B 


"7 B 


r 




- i 

D 1 S^ t 

*TBa D D J 

D A 

/ Miles 


J- 


D 
B 


i 

B B r 

K J ■/ 

D U- 
B 1 k^~/ 








r ) 8 
I / » ° 

1 D 


Athyrium asplenio 


des (Mi 


50 

Map 26 

:hx.) Desv. 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 


UK 1 


D 




B 
















s 


fr 1 














X 


D 




" 






r 


1 


■^z 


J 


r 1 




Oec.f- 










D 


l p 1 J^i 




j 




/ Miles 




Athy 


ium 


angusl 


P\ / 50 

Map 27 

um(W;ild.)Presl 



8. ATHYRIUM Roth 

[Butters. The genus Athyrium and the North American ferns allied to 
Athyrium Filix-femina. Rhodora 19 : 170-197. 1917. Pinkerton. Ferns of 
Missouri. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20 : 54-57. 1933.] 

Fronds pinnate. 

Pinnae entire ^ A - pycnocarpon. 

Pinnae deeply pinnatifid 2. A. acrostichoides. 

Fronds bipinnate. 

Rhizomes creeping, not densely covered with persistent bases of old fronds; stipe 
usually about as long as the blade; scales of stipes very few, rarely persistent, 
yellowish brown or tawny; blades widest near the base; young indusia with 

glandular cilia; spores somewhat nigrescent, wrinkled 3. A. asplenioides. 

Rhizomes horizontal, completely concealed by thick, fleshy bases of old fronds; stipe 
about half as long as the blade; scales of stipes varying from Mars Brown 
(Ridgway Standard) to nearly black; blades widest near the middle, the lower 
pinnae shorter and often deflexed ; indusia toothed or short-ciliate, never glandu- 
lar; spores yellow, smooth or slightly papillate. 
Sori confluent at maturity and usually covering the lower side of the fertile 
pinnules; fertile frond contracted. 
Longest pinnae of fertile frond 5-12 cm long; pinnules 4-12 mm long; pinnules 
of sterile fronds oblong, obtuse, slightly toothed or lobed. . .4. A. angustum. 
Longest pinnae of fertile frond 1-2 dm long; pinnules 12-25 mm long, pinnatifid; 
sori several on each of the lower segments, often horseshoe-shaped; pinnules 
of sterile fronds oblong-lanceolate, strongly toothed or pinnatifid, some- 
what acute 4a. A. angustum var. elatius. 

Sori usually separate and distinct at maturity; fertile fronds not contracted; 
pinnules lanceolate, subacute, strongly toothed or pinnatifid, the segments 
toothed 4b. A. angustum var. rubellum. 

1. Athyrium pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Tidestr. (Asplenium angustifol- 
ium Michx. and Asplenium pycnocarpon Spreng.) Narrowleaf Spleen- 
WORT. Map 24. Infrequent to frequent in southern Indiana, becoming less 
frequent to rare northward. It prefers deep humus and is most commonly 
found on the slopes of ravines in beech woods. 

W. Que to Wis., southw. to Ga., Ala., Mo., and Kans. 



52 



POLYPODIACEAE 



Athyrium 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aufc 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



Id 


) D 




T 

L j 


/ D 


D 




^_ 


D 


"( 




3 




T 


i 




: ' — 






— i 1 ° i r^ 





Miles 



50 

Map 27a 
Afhyrium angustum 
var. elatius (Link) Butters 





Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. C 


f 






D 


3 D 


r 


11 D 




j 


D 


V 


f^ 


D ° 


D 


"1 




r 1 




X 








P 


D 


■r' d f p i 

IBs pl J, ' 

/ Miles 


J 


D 


D 














var. 


Athyrium angusturr 
rubellum (Gilbert) B 


3 50 

Map 27b 

utters 




~^0 

Map 28 



Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link. 



2. Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv. (Asplenium acrostichoides 
Sw. and Athyrium acrostichoides (Sw.) Diels.) Silvery Spleen wort. 
Map 25. Infrequent in southern Indiana, becoming rare in the northern 
part. It prefers a moist, deep humus soil in ravines and protected places 
in beech and sugar maple or white oak woods. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Mo. ; also in Asia. 

3. Athyrium asplenioides (Michx.) Desv. Map 26. This species and 
the next species and its varieties are the results of dividing an aggregate 
that formerly had been designated as A. Filix-femina. For a detailed 
study of this group see Butters' "Synoptical treatment of the Lady Fems 
of Eastern North America" (Rhodora 19: 188-197. 1917). Butters has 
gone into great detail in his study of the species and discusses "sun" and 
"shade" forms. Some recent authors are disposed to regard some of the 
forms as merely ecological variations. See Wiegand's comment on varieties 
of the next species in "The Flora of the Cayuga Lake Basin," page 32. 1926. 
Pinkerton in "Ferns of Missouri" (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 55. 1933) 
says : "This species and A. angicstum are very difficult to distinguish. It is 
often necessary to have the whole plant, fruiting and not too mature, to be 
absolutely certain. I have taken the character of the spore as my ultimate 
criterion." 

I can not satisfactorily separate the species and their varieties and 
would not publish on them were it not that C. A. Weatherby has named 
nearly every one of my specimens. I hereby wish to express my appre- 
ciation of the difficult task of naming so many of my specimens of this 
complex. 

Infrequent in the southern counties but frequent in its habitat. It 
prefers a hard, white, moist, clay soil and is usually found in low, flat 
woods associated with beech and sweet gum or sweet gum and pin oak. 
It is also found in residual soil at the base of sandstone cliffs and in sand- 
stone soil on wooded slopes. 

Mass., Ohio to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



Camptosorus Polypodiaceae 53 

4. Athyrium angustum (Willd.) Presl. (Rhodora 19: 190-197. 1917.) 

(Asplenium Filix-femina of most authors.) Map 27. Infrequent in moist, 
rich woods throughout the state. 
Lab. to Man., southw. to s. N. E., the mts. of Pa., and Mo. 

4a. Athyrium angustum var. elatius (Link) Butters. Map 27a. This 
variety is infrequent throughout the state and found in rich beech and 
sugar maple and white and black oak woods. 

Maine to Minn., southw. to R. I., N. Y., and Mo. 

4b. Athyrium angustum var. rubellum (Gilbert) Butters. Map 27b. 
This variety is infrequent throughout the state. The habitats of my speci- 
mens are notable because of lack of uniformity. I have one specimen from 
a tamarack bog and others from low, flat woods in hard, white clay soil, 
dry black and white oak woods, bluffs of the Ohio River, and rich, moist 
woods. 

Newf. to Que., Ont., Minn., southw. to N. Y., Pa., Ohio, and Mo. 

9. CAMPTOSORUS Link 

1. Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link. Walking Fern. Map 28. 
Infrequent in the southern part of the state, becoming rare to absent in the 
northern part. It grows in the shade in shallow soil on calcareous rocks on 
rocky ledges, usually along streams. It is not usually abundant unless it is 
found in deep shade and on rocks with considerable moisture. 

Cent. Maine to Ont. and Minn., southw. to Ga. and Kans. 

la. Camptosorus rhizophyllus f . auriculatus Clute. (Amer. Bot. 35 : 102. 
1929.) This is a named form infrequently found with the species in this 
state. It has the basal lobes of the leaves prolonged into slender tips. 

10. ASPLENIUM L. Spleenwort 

Frond long-attenuate at the apex. 

Stipe greenish 1. A. pinnatifidum. 

Stipe black and polished 3. A. ebenoides. 

Frond not long-attenuate at the apex. 

Frond pinnate; stipe and rachis polished, dark reddish brown. 

Pinnules sessile, oblong or oblong-linear, mostly 10-30 mm long, and distinctly 

auricled on the upper margin at the base 2. A. platyneuron. 

Pinnules subsessile, roundish-oblong or oval, 3-7 mm long, not auricled on the 

upper margin 4. A. Trichomanes. 

Frond laxly 2-3-pinnate, ultimate segments long-cuneate at the base and finely 
toothed at the apex; stipe and rachis green 5. A. cryptolepis. 

1. Asplenium pinnatifidum Nutt. PlNNATiFlD SPLEENWORT. Map 29. 
Rare in pockets of dry soil on cliffs in the area of sandstone outcrops. 
Usually closely associated with Asplenium Trichomanes but less frequent. 

Se. Pa., Ohio, and Ind. to Mo., southw. to Ga. 

2. Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. Ebony SPLEEN WORT. Map 30. 
Infrequent in the southern half of the state where it is restricted to the 
unglaciated and sandstone areas. It probably reaches its greatest size on 
shady slopes of some of the loess banks of the southwestern counties. In 



54 



POLYPODIACEAE 



Asplenium 




50 

Map 29 



Asplenium pinnatifidum Nutt. 




50 

Map 30 



Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. 













— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov 


f 













r~~ 




\ 


f^ 






" 








X 










r 


.1 


m 


J 


1* 




Dec.f- 




i 
i ' — 

a 

D . 

k ( r 


J Miles 












As 


plenosorus ebeno 


H\ / 50 
Map 31 

des (Scott) Wherry 



the northern half of the state it is either absent or restricted again to the 
soils of sandstone outcrops and to the sand areas about Lake Michigan 
where it is only local. I have never seen it except in slightly acid soil, and 
when transplanted into an alkaline environment, even with great care and 
in a half bushel of the soil in which it grew, it gradually disappeared in 
a few years. 

S. Maine to Ont., and Colo., southw. to the Gulf States and Tex. 

2a. Asplenium platyneuron f. serratum (E. S. Miller) Hoffm. This is a 
form with some of the pinnae more or less deeply and irregularly serrate. 
I think this is merely a nutritional form. A fine example of this form was 
found in Perry County by R. M. Tryon, Jr. 

3. X Asplenosorus* ebenoides (Scott) Wherry. {Asplenium ebenoides 
Pv. R. Scott.) Scott Spleenwort. Map 31. This fern is a hybrid between 
Asplenium platyneuron and Camptosorns rhizophyllus . (Slosson. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club. 29: 487-495. 1902.) Three colonies of this hybrid were 
discovered in Lawrence County by Ralph M. Kriebel who fully described 
them in Amer. Fern Jour. 23 : 52-59. 1933. Mr. Kriebel is one of the best 
amateur botanists Indiana has ever had, and it is to his discriminating 
collecting that we owe not only an authentic Indiana record of this hybrid 
fern but also the records of three hybrid oaks and many other rare plants 
of Lawrence County. 

Vt. to Mo. and southw. 

4. Asplenium Trichomanes L. Maidenhair Spleenwort. Map 32. 
Infrequent to rare in pockets of soil on cliffs in the area of sandstone 
outcrops of the state. 

Nearly throughout N. A. except in the extreme northern part and in 
Mex. ; also in Eurasia. 

5. Asplenium cryptolepis Fern. (Rhodora 30: 41-43. 1928.) {Asplen- 
ium Ruta-muraria of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. 

Amer. Fern Jour. 27: 56. 1937. 



Woodwardia 



POLYPODIACEAE 



55 




50 

Map 32 



Asplenium Trichomanes L. 




50 

Map 33 



Asplenium cryptolepis Fern. 




50 

Map 34 



Woodwardia virginica IL ) Sm. 



Flora, ed. 2, not L.) American Wall-rue Spleen wort. Map 33. My only 
specimens are from the rocks of the bluff of the Ohio River near Madison 
and in Cliffy Falls State Park, Jefferson County. It was reported also from 
Clark and Floyd Counties by the editors of the Botanical Gazette in their 
list of the plants of Indiana, published in 1881. In 1939 R. M. Kriebel 
found it in the eastern part of Clark County. 
Vt. to n. Mich., southw. to N. C, Ala., and Mo. 

11. WOODWARDIA J. E. Smith 

1. Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm. (Anchistea virginica (L.) Presl) 
Virginia Chainfern. Map 34. This fern is infrequent to very local in the 
area shown on the map. Usually where it is found it is common. It grows 
in bogs and marshes. Its preferred habitat is old tamarack bogs and its 
most common associate is Chamaedaphne. 

The sterile fronds of this species resemble those of Osmunda, Dryopteris, 
and Athyrium, but the fronds of Woodwardia may be distinguished by the 
areolae in the venation along the midrib. 

N. S. to Fla., La., and Ark., chiefly along the coast; also inland in the 
Great Lake Region. 



12. PELLAEA lank Cliffbrake 

Stipe, rachis, and rachilla pubescent with long multicellular hairs, usually more or 
less densely so, especially on the rachilla, scabrous to the touch. .1. P. atropurptirea. 

Stipe, rachis, and rachilla glabrous or with a few scattered hairs, smooth to the touch. 
2. P. glabella. 

1. Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. Purple Cliffbrake. Map 35. 
Infrequent to very local in shallow soil on calcareous rocks. These rocks 
usually are the perpendicular cliffs and ledges along streams but are often 
small or large detached fragments at the base of cliffs. Sometimes it is 
found in the seams of stratified rock outcrops only a few feet high. It 
grows in both shade and sun, preferring shade of medium density. My 



56 



POLYPODIACEAE 



Cheilanthes 



Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec. 











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t 




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Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link, 




o ~To 
Map 36 



Pellea glabella Mett. 




"So 

Map 37 

Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx) Watt 



Wabash County specimen was found about a mile southeast of Lagro on 
Hanging Rock, which is 84 feet high. It is probably extinct there now 
since that place has become a picnic ground. 

Vt, N. Y. and n. Mich, to S. Dak., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Ariz. 

2. Pellaea glabella Mett. Smooth Purple Cliffbrake. Map 36. This 
species was not separated from the preceding species even in Britton and 
Brown, Illustrated Flora, edition 2, published in 1913. Pickett (Amer. 
Fern Jour. 4: 97-101. 1914) wrote an article entitled "A peculiar form of 
Pellaea atropurpurea Link" and set forth the differences at length, but he 
did not give it a name until in a later article (Amer. Fern Jour. 7: 3-5. 
1917.) Butters (Amer. Fern Jour. 7: 77-87. 1917) took up the subject 
and listed the specimens at the Gray Herbarium to show the range of the 
two species. 

This species has the habitat of the preceding but it is less frequent. Pel- 
laea atropurpurea is regarded as the southern representative of the genus 
in our area and has a mass distribution to the south of a line connecting 
Kansas and Connecticut. Pellaea glabella is regarded as the northern 
representative of the genus in our area and has its mass distribution north 
of that of Pellaea atropurpurea. 

Vt., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Pa., Ohio, Ind., Mo., and Okla. 



13. CHEILANTHES Sw. Liffern 

Fronds bipinnate, hirsute, especially beneath; hairs straightish, jointed, and often of 

a rusty color, especially on the stipe 1. C. lanosa. 

Fronds tripinnate, tomentose with white hairs. (See excluded species no. 10, p. 1020.) 

C. tomentosa. 

1. Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) Watt. Hairy Lipfern. Map 37. I 
have found this species on the exposed cliffs along White River at the 
McBride Bluffs about 5 miles north of Shoals in Martin County. I have 
also found it in three places in Perry County. It is infrequent on the 
stones capping the high cliffs along the Ohio River about 5 miles east of 



Adiantum 



POLYPODIACEAE 



57 














— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 


4 D 
/ w 

/ KD 










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i/ Map 40 
virginianum L 



Cannelton, on the top of low, rocky ledges about 8 miles east of Cannelton, 
and in the shade on a low cliff in the woods of Wm. Stahl about 3 miles 
south of Mt. Pleasant. The plants were numerous here but were small 
(mostly less than 2 dm high) because they grew in the shade. 
Conn, to Kans., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

14. ADIANTUM [Tourn.] L. 

1. Adiantum pedatum L. Maidenhair Fern. Map 38. Infrequent to 
frequent throughout the state in deep humus in many kinds of soils and 
with many kinds of associates. It prefers shade and shelter from wind, 
hence it is most often found in protected places. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Ga., La., and Kans., and locally westward 
to Utah and Calif. ; also in Asia. 

15. PTERlDIUM Scop. 

1. Pteridium latiusculum* (Desv.) Hieronymus. (Pteris aquilina of 
Gray, Man., ed. 7, not L. and Pteridium aquilinum of Britton and Brown, 
Illus. Flora, ed. 2, not Kuhn.) Bracken. Map 39. Infrequent but locally 
common throughout the lake area in dry, sandy soil or in dry prairie habi- 
tats. It is found also locally in a few of the southern counties on wooded 
sandstone ridges. 

Newf. to Wis., and Wyo., southw. to D. C, W. Va., 111., and Ariz. 



16. POLYP6DIUM [Tourn] L. 

Blades of fronds glabrous, green 1. P. virginianum,. 

Blades of fronds densely scaly beneath, grayish. 2. P. polypodioides var. Michauxianum. 

1. Polypoium virginianum L. (Rhodora 24: 125. 1922.) (Polypodium 
vulgare of American authors, not L.) Common Polypody. Map 40. 
Local on the ledges of rocks in the area of the state where outcrops of 

* Variety pseudocaudatum (Clute) Maxon is now known from Crawford and Knox 
Counties. 



58 



POLYPODIACEA 



Polypodium 













[ 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 


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(L ) Watt 
lauxianum Weatti 




TO 

Map 42 



Azolla carolmiana Wflld. 




50 

Map 43 



Equisetum arvense L. 



sandstone and knobstone occur. There are, however, a few reports for it 
outside of this area. For example, Phinney reported it from the area 
composed of Delaware, Jay, Randolph, and Wayne Counties, saying: 
"Common. Moist woods". Van Gorder reported it from Noble County, say- 
ing : "A common plant of moist woods". Neither of these authors report the 
Christmas fern which occurs in their area, and, without doubt, their 
reports for this Polypodium should be referred to Polystichum. Bradner 
reported Polypodium from Steuben County but he also reported Poly- 
stichum. In this instance I think he may have had a sterile specimen of 
Polystichum and thought it was a Polypodium. This species was reported 
from the vicinity of Lake Michigan by three authors. I have always 
questioned these reports because my idea of the habitat of this species is 
that of outcrops of sandstone rocks. Doubtless Buhl had the same idea 
when he said (Amer. Midland Nat. 16: 250. 1935) that this report should 
be deleted for lack of confirming specimens. To my great satisfaction 
(because I always prefer to confirm rather than to deny a report) on May 
30, 1935 through the courtesy of R. M. Tryon, Jr. I was shown a colony 
of this species on a wooded dune in the Dunes State Park. Mr. Tryon has 
had this colony under observation for several years and reports that it is 
gradually diminishing. The plant is growing in dense shade on the north 
side of a high dune which is well protected from the wind. Doubtless this 
species was infrequent to frequent in the dunes before it had to compete 
with fire and civilization. 

Lab., Newf. to Man., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Mo. 

2. Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt var. Michauxianum Weath. 
(Contrib. Gray Herb. 124: 31. 1939.) (Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt 
of recent authors.) Resurrection Fern. Map 41. Very local in a few coun- 
ties in the southern part of the state. It is usually found in large mats, 
clinging to almost perpendicular cliffs or on large detached fragments of 
rock below the cliff. I found it once in Posey County in the crotch of a 
large bur oak tree which grew on the border of one of the numerous sloughs 
in the bottoms. It grew at a height of about 10 feet above the ground but 



Azolla Salviniaceae 59 

I did not take a specimen because I was not prepared to care for it. This 
is the only specimen I have ever seen on a tree in Indiana although it is 
common in this habitat in the South. 

Md., 111., and Mo., sotithw. to Fla. and Tex. ; Guatemala. 

4. SALVINIACEAE Reich. Salvinia Family 

1. AZOLLA Lam. 

1. Azolla caroliniana Willd. Water Fern. Map 42. This species is 
found in stagnant water along streams, about lakes, and in dredged ditches. 
It is doubtless much more frequent than our map indicates. I did not know 
the species until recent years and I suspect that many collectors are not 
acquainted with it. It is usually found associated with duckweeds. This 
species was first reported from Indiana by Prince Maximilian in 1839. It 
has been reported so far from Starke and St. Joseph Counties. 

Mass., Ont. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Ariz., and Mex. ; also in tropical 
Amer. 

5. EQUISETACEAE Michx. Horsetail Family 

1. EQUISETUM [Tourn.] L. 

[Schaffner. How to distinguish the North American species of Equis- 
etum. Amer. Fern Jour. 13: 33-40; 67-72. 1923. Diagnostic key to the 
species of Equisetum. Amer. Fern Jour. 22 : 69-75 ; 122-128. 1932.] 

J. H. Schaffner, our foremost authority on the genus Equisetum, has 
seen and named all of my specimens. The following key has, for the most 
part, been adapted from Schaff ner's keys. 

Stems without or with little chlorophyll, unbranched at first or permanently so, always 
terminating in a blunt cone. 
Sheaths bright reddish brown and translucent, their teeth comparatively long, 
cohering in 3 or 4 broad lobes; fertile stems finally developing whorls of com- 
pound green branches; internodal ridges sometimes with rows of siliceous 

spinules. (See excluded species no. 13, p. 1021.) E. sylvaticum. 

Sheaths not reddish brown and translucent, their teeth not cohering in 3 or 4 broad 

lobes. 

Teeth of the sheaths light brown, membranous, usually soon becoming green; stems 

soon developing whorls of 3-angled, green branches, with deltoid, membranous 

teeth; internodal ridges sometimes with rows of spinules. (See excluded 

species no. 14, p. 1021.) E. pratense. 

Teeth of the sheaths dark brown, rigid, only slightly membranous at the margins ; 
stems withering promptly after the spores are shed; sheaths rarely slightly 

green; internodal ridges without spinules 1. E. arvense. 

Stems green or with green branches, with or without cones. 

Teeth of the lower sheaths of the main stem cohering in 3 or 4 broad lobes, com- 
paratively long, bright reddish brown, and translucent, not deciduous; branches 
of the whorls prominently compound, horizontal or often curving downward, 
especially on the fertile shoots; stomata in bands; internodal ridges with or 
without 2 rows of siliceous spinules; cones not apiculate. (See excluded 

species no. 13, p. 1021.) E. sylvaticum. 

Teeth of the sheaths of the main stem neither united in 3 or 4 broad lobes nor bright 
reddish brown, deciduous or persistent. 



60 Equisetaceae Equisetum 

Stems usually not branched above the ground unless the plants are injured, or 
the branches few, irregular and sporadic; stomata in regular rows; teeth of 
the sheaths or their bristle-tips usually soon deciduous, but several species 
with persistent teeth or the teeth forming pagodalike caps; cones with or 
without a point. 
Teeth of the sheath persistent or only their bristle-tips deciduous, white- 
margined, not sharply differentiated from the sheath; sheath segments and 
lower part of teeth distinctly quadricarinate; stems 5-10-grooved, erect in 
tufts, evergreen; cones apiculate. 
Ridges of internodes prominently biangulate (2 ridges to a sheath tooth), with 
a double row of rounded tubercles. 
Sheaths cylindric, tight, often crusty, partly or completely black; stems 
rather large to medium, sometimes rather slender. . . .2. E. trachyodon. 
Sheaths campanulate, usually discoloring tardily; stems mostly very slender 

and small 3. E. variegatum. 

Ridges of internodes not biangulate, with a single row of tubercles or cross 

bands of silica 4. E. Nelsoni. 

Teeth of the sheath soon deciduous, sharply differentiated from the sheath ; main 
stem usually tall, 10-many-grooved, with a large central cavity. 
Sheaths cylindrical, short, appressed, or only slightly dilated when young, at 
first green, but soon turning black or gray, commonly gray with black 
bands above and below, often split in age; stems usually very rough, ever- 
green; sheath segments of the main stem tricarinate; ridges of the inter- 
nodes with one row of tubercles; cones apiculate 5. E. prealtum. 

Sheaths more or less funnel-shaped, elongate, green, the limb normally with a 
narrow black band, sometimes the lower sheaths with bands of gray or 
black below; stems evergreen or annual; cones with or without a point. 

Cones tipped with a rigid point 6. E. laevigatum. 

Cones rounded or the tip merely acute ; limb of the long green sheath dilated 

upwards I.E. kansanum. 

Stems usually much branched with several to many whorls of branches, rarely 
with only few sporadic branches; stomata in broad bands or scattered in the 
grooves of the internodes or only on the sheaths; teeth of the sheaths per- 
sistent; cones not apiculate. 
Branches hollow, usually simple, terete, both fertile and sterile stems green; 
plants of wet soil or growing in water, sometimes without or with only 
sporadic branches; sheaths of the main stem usually appressed, 15-20- 
toothed; stems usually many-grooved, with a very large central cavity and 

thin wall 8. E. fluviatile. 

Branches solid, simple or compound, mostly sharply 3- or 4-angled; fei'tile stems 
brown and at first without branches, soon withering or developing green 
branches when mature; usually in moderately moist or dry situations. 
Teeth of the branches with subulate tips; branches usually 4-angled (some- 
times 3-angled) ; fertile stems withering after the spores are shed 

1. E. arvense. 

Teeth of the branches not subulate-tipped, deltoid, merely acute or long-acute, 
usually white-membranous; branches generally 3-angled, very slender, 
fertile stems developing green branches after the spores are shed. (See 
excluded species no. 14, p. 1021.) E. pratense. 

1. Equisetum arvense L. Field Horsetail. Map 43. Infrequent to 
frequent throughout the state. Where it is found it usually forms large 
colonies, especially in its preferred habitat along railroad embankments. 
It prefers a moist, sandy soil, usually lean in organic matter, but it is also 
found in moist places on the borders of bogs and along streams. It grows 
in both shade and sun and its appearance is so erratic and it is so wide- 
spread that I am not able to tell what controls its distribution. Once I saw 



Equisetum 



Equisetaceae 



61 




Map 44 
Equisetum trachyodon A Br. 




Equisetum vanegatum Schleich 



~~ 55 

Map 46 

Equisetum Nelsoni (Eaton) Schaffner 



where it had almost covered a sandy fallow field in the valley of Pigeon 
River. The plant is extremely variable and many varieties have been 
named, several of which have been reported from Indiana. According to 
Schaffner these variations are all ecological and not worth recognition. 
Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. C. and Calif. ; also in Eurasia. 

2. Equisetum trachyodon A. Br. (Equisetum vanegatum var. Jesupi 
A. A. Eaton). Rough-toothed Scouring-rush. Map 44. My only speci- 
mens are from Pokagon State Park from the wet, sandy shore of the east 
side of Lake James and from the east side of Crooked Lake, Noble County. 

Que. and Ont., southw. to Conn, and 111. ; also in Eurasia. 

3. Equisetum variegatum Schleich. Variegated Scouring-rush. Map 
45. My only specimen is from the grassy border of a dried-up slough in 
the dunes about a quarter of a mile south of Pine, Lake County (now along 
Clark Street in Gary about a quarter of a mile south of Lake Michigan). 
It has been reported also from Porter and La Porte Counties. This 



— 


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Feb. 
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Apr. 

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July 

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So 

Map 49 



Equisetum kansanum Schaffner 



62 



Equisetaceae 



Equisetum 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



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Equisetum fluviatile L. 




50 

Map 5 
Lycopodium Selago 

var. patens (Beauv.) Desv. 



Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 





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Map 52 



Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. 



species much resembles the next one and is closely associated with it. 
Lab. to Alaska, southw. to Maine, N. Y., and Wyo. ; also in Eurasia. 

4. Equisetum Nelsoni (A. A. Eaton) Schaffner. (Equisetum variegatum 
var. Nelsoni A. A. Eaton.) Nelson Scouring-rush. Map 46. Wet, moist, 
or dry, sandy borders of lakes and sloughs. 

N. Y. to Mich., Ind., and 111. 

5. Equisetum prealtum Raf. (Equisetum hyemale var. affine (En- 
gelm.) A. A. Eaton). Tall Scouring-rush. Map 47. Infrequent through- 
out the state. It is usually found in rather moist, sandy soil and on the 
slopes of the banks of streams ; sometimes the habitat may even be springy. 
It grows in colonies, and these sometimes may extend along the bank for 
several rods. It rarely occurs in other habitats but is found along railroad 
embankments and in wet prairie habitats. 

Canada to Mex. 

6. Equisetum laevigatum A. Br. Smooth Scouring-rush. Map 48. 
Infrequent in sandy to very sandy soil in the greater part of the state. It 
is most commonly found on railroad embankments and less frequently in 
moist, sandy soil of the slopes of the banks of streams and lakes. 

Conn., N. J. to B. C, southw. to N. C, La., and Mex. 

7. Equisetum kansanum Schaffner. (Equisetum laevigatum of A. A. 
Eaton, not A. Br.) Kansas Scouring-rush. Map 49. Infrequent in north- 
ern Indiana and probably rare in the southern part of the state. It has a 
very wide range of habitat but is most frequently found in moist soil in 
prairies; it is, however, also found on the wet, marl borders of lakes and 
other moist habitats. 

Mainly in the western Mississippi Basin, Ohio to Mont, and B. C, 
southw. to Mo., N. Mex., Ariz., and Calif. 

8. Equisetum fluviatile L. Water Horsetail. Map 50. Infrequent in 
northern Indiana in marshes and bogs, in the dune area on the low borders 
of sloughs, and rarely in wet prairies. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Va., Nebr., and Oreg. ; also in Eurasia. 



Lycopodium 



Lycopodiaceae 



63 




50 

Map 53 



Lycopodium inundatum L. 




55 

Map 54 



Lycopodium obscurum L. 

















Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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(Fern.)Blanchard 


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Map 55 
irme 



6. LYCOPODIACEAE Michx. Clubmoss Family 
1. LYCOPODIUM L. Clubmoss 

[Wilson. The identity of Lycopodium porophilum. Rhodora 34 : 169-172. 
1932. The spores of the genus Lycopodium in the United States and 
Canada. Rhodora 36 : 13-19. 1934.] 

Sporangia in the axils of normal leaves, not forming a well marked terminal spike. 
Leaves linear-attenuate to lanceolate, entire (sometimes with a few minute serra- 
tions toward the apex), usually widest below the middle; plants yellowish 
green, tufted, erect or slightly decumbent at the base. . . 1. L. Selago var. patens. 
Leaves oblanceolate, widest near or above the middle, serrate or entire, arranged in 
alternate zones of shorter and longer leaves, the shorter ones more frequently 
bearing sporangia in their axils; stems bright or dark green, in loose clusters, 
decumbent. 

Blades of leaves serrate 2. L. liicidulum. 

Blades of leaves entire or slightly serrate, often some of them of a linear type. 

(See excluded species no. 17, p. 1022.) L. lucidulum var. occidentale. 

Sporangia borne only in the axils of the upper (bracteal) leaves, forming a spike. 

Bracteal leaves linear-attenuate from a distinctly broadened ovate base 

3. L. inundatum. 

Bracteal leaves scalelike, yellowish, very different from those of sterile part of the 

stem. 

Ultimate sterile branches with their leaves mostly 5-10 mm wide, free portion of 

leaves more than 3 mm long. 

Stems creeping on the surface of the ground with short, leafy branches, the 

leaves linear, bristle-tipped at apex; fertile branches terminating in a 

slender peduncle (1-1.5 dm long), bearing 2-4 slender cylindrical spikes. 

(See excluded species no. 15, p. 1021.) L. clavatum. 

Stems subterranean, bearing scattered upright branches resembling miniature 
coniferous seedlings; leaves merely acute at the apex; spikes 1-3, essentially 

sessile 4. L. obscurum. 

Ultimate sterile branches with their leaves less than 5 mm wide; free portion of 

leaves less than 3 mm long. 

Horizontal stems rather deeply buried in the ground; branchlets bluish green, 

1-1.75 (2) mm wide; leaves on ventral and dorsal sides of the branchlets 

about equal. (See excluded species no. 18, p. 1022.) L. tristachyum. 



64 Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium 

Horizontal stems on or near the surface of the ground; branchlets yellowish 

green, (1.5) 2-3 mm wide; leaves on the ventral side of the branchlet 

much shorter than those of the dorsal side. 

Branchlets with new growth clearly separated from the old growth by a 

constriction; branches mostly horizontal, or some erect, irregularly 

divided; spikes 1-3. (See excluded species no. 16, p. 1021.) 

L. complanatum. 

Branchlets lacking new growth at the tips, having attained their full growth 
the first year, therefore lacking constrictions; branches erect, the 
branchlets disposed in the form of a funnel, appearing fan-shaped in 
herbarium specimens; spikes 1-6, usually 4 5. L. flab elli forme. 

1. Lycopodium Selago L. var. patens (Beauv.) Desv. (Lycopodium 
porophilum Lloyd & Underw.) Map 51. I have this variety from three 
places in Crawford County where I found it in dry soil in pockets of cliffs 
of the knobstone or sandstone, and from Martin County where it was found 
in dry soil pockets of the sandstone cliffs about a mile north of Shoals. 

Que. to Wis., southw. to n. Vt. and Ky. 

2. Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. Shining Clubmoss. Map 52. Very 
local. It grows in deep humus, sometimes forming large colonies. In the 
lake area it is generally found in decadent tamarack bogs and southward 
in moist, shaded woodland, although my Clay County specimen was found 
in the open among rocks along Croy Creek. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. E., N. Y., Ind., Iowa, and Wash., and in 
the mts. to S. C. 

3. Lycopodium inundatum L. Map 53. Very local. It grows in wet, 
somewhat acid sandy soil, usually on the borders of lakes and in the dunes. 
It has also been reported from Marshall County. I have twice found it 
associated with cranberry and hair-cap moss. In 1937 I revisited the 
Steuben County station and found that it has been exterminated there. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Pa., 111., Idaho, and Wash. ; also in 
Eurasia. 

4. Lycopodium obscurum L. Groundpine. Map 54. Very local. In 
addition to my specimens it has been reported from Lake, Montgomery, 
Porter, and St. Joseph Counties. One of my specimens is from a small 
colony at the base of a north beech slope, bordering a soft maple swamp, 
and the other is also from a swamp bordering a lake. 

My specimens are not typical and seem to be intermediate between the 
species and the var. dendroideum (Michx.) D. C. Eaton. 
Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. C. and Ind. 

5. Lycopodium flabelliforme (Fern.) Blanchard. (Rhodora 13: 168-171. 
1911.) (Lycopodium complanatum var. flabelliforme Fern.) Map 55. 
Extremely local. Found on moist, rocky slopes. 

This species is regarded by many authors as a variety of Lycopodium 
complanatum. Blanchard (Pvhodora 13: 168-171. 1911) made a special 
study of this species and L. complanatum in the field, and after nearly ten 
years' observation, concluded that the two were distinct species. Victorin 
(Contrib. Lab. Bot. Univ. Montreal, no. 3: 62-63. 1925) confirms Blanch- 



Selaginella 



Selaginellaceae 



65 




o— ~38 
Map 56 



Selaginella apoda (L.) Fern. 





Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Auj 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 


DP 







a 




r r** 






\ 




\ 


(r 1 






" 








X 










r 




■ k 


J- 


t 




Dec. C 






/ Miles 














Sela 


ginel 


a ru 


x? ^ Map 57 

pestris (L.) Spring 




6 58 

Map 58 



Isoetes Engelmanni A. Br 



ard's observation of characters which seem to me also to be sufficient 
to regard this form as a species rather than a variety. These two 
species have definite geographical ranges which add to this opinion. The 
range of L. complanatum in North America extends from Newfoundland 
through the greater part of Canada to Alaska and southward to northern 
Michigan, northern Wisconsin (not reaching New England), and Wash- 
ington. L. flabelliforme is much more southern, occurring from New- 
foundland, Nova Scotia, and the lower valley of the St. Lawrence River 
westward to Minnesota, southward to North Carolina and Kentucky. 
Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Ky. 



7. SELAGINELLACEAE Underw. 
1. SELAGINELLA Beauv. Selaginella 

Leaves comparatively few, of 2 sizes, 4-ranked, spreading in 2 planes, ovate, acute or 
cuspidate; plants usually a light green, of a wet or moist habitat 1. S. apoda. 

Leaves very numerous, alike, appressed, widely overlapping, many-ranked, linear- 
lanceolate, grooved on the back, ending in a slender, whitish awn; plants grayish 
green, of a very dry habitat 2. S. rupestris. 

1. Selaginella apoda (L.) Fern. (Rhodora 17: 68. 1915.) (Selaginella 
apus Spring.) Basket Selaginella. Map 56. Occasionally throughout the 
lake area, becoming infrequent to local in the southern part of the state. 
It is, no doubt, more frequent than our map indicates. It prefers moist, 
grassy places and in the lake area it is usually in calcareous, sandy soil. 
In Dubois County I found it in a low woods in a hard, white clay soil with 
sweet gum. 

Maine and Ont. to the Rocky Mts., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring. Rock Selaginella. Map 57. 
Local. Found only on dry, exposed sandstone rocks and in dry sand in the 
dune area. It has also been reported from Montgomery County. Under- 
wood (Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1893: 257. 1894) says the report from 



66 Taxaceae Taxus 

Gibson County in the State Catalogue was an error. 
N. S. and Ont., southw. to Ga. and Mo. 

8. ISOETACEAE Underw. Quillwort Family 

1. ISOETES L. Quillwort 

[Pfeiffer. Monograph of the Isoetaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 9: 
79-232. 8 pi. 1922.] 

1. Isoetes Engelmanni A. Br. Engelmann Quillwort. Map 58. 1 have 
found this species in artificial ponds in hard, white clay soil in three 
counties, and in low woods in similar soil but richer in humus in Harrison 
County. The colony in Floyd County is on the east side of the road south 
of Martinsburg in an old mill pond on the Philip McGuirk farm. It is 
abundant here and of large size. 

Southern N. H. and Vt. to Ga., westw. to Mo. 

SPERMATOPHYTA. Seed Plants or Flowering Plants 

5. 1 TAXACEAE Lindl. Yew Family 

18. 1 TAXUS [Tourn.] L. Yew 

1. Taxus canadensis Marsh. Canada Yew. Map 59. This species is 
local and is restricted to the sides of the steep slopes and cliffs along Sugar 
Creek in Turkey Run State Park, Parke County, to like habitats along 
Sugar Creek in the "Shades" in Montgomery County, and along Big Wal- 
nut Creek about 3 miles northeast of Bainbridge, Putnam County. It is 
usually found under hemlock. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Va. and Iowa. 

6. PINACEAE Lindl. Pink Family 

Leaves linear, in bundles of 2, 3, 5 or more than 5. 

Leaves in bundles of 2, 3 or 5 22. Pints, p. 67. 

Leaves in bundles of more than 5 (single on new shoots) 24. Larix, p. 68. 

Leaves linear and solitary, or scalelike. 
Leaves all linear. 

Blades obtuse 27. TSUGA, p. 68. 

Blades sharp-pointed. 

Leaves green on both sides, alternate 35. Taxodium. p. 69. 

Leaves glaucous beneath, opposite, or whorled 45. Juniperus. p. 70. 

Leaves all scalelike, or scalelike on fruiting branchlets and linear and sharp-pointed 
on sterile branchlets or juvenile plants, usually green on both sides. 
Spray of branchlets flat; leaves all scalelike, the dorsal and ventral ones differing 

from the lateral ones; fruit a cone of 8-12 imbricated but opposite scales 

42. Thuja, p. 69. 

Spray of branchlets not flat; leaves all scalelike or on most specimens some 

branchlets with linear and sharp-pointed leaves; fruit berrylike, bluish black, 

glaucous 45. Juniperus, p. 70. 

1 See paragraph 2 on page 14 of introduction. 



Pinus 



PlNACEAE 



67 




~~ 30 

Map 59 



Taxus canadensis Marsh. 



1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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Pinus 


Strobus L 


50 

Map 60 




o ^^3 
Map 6 

Pinus Banksiana Lamb. 



22. PINUS [Tourn.] L. Pine 

Leaves 5 (rarely more) in a bundle, 6-12 cm long 1. P. Strobus. 

Leaves 2 or 3 in a bundle. 

Scales of cones unarmed; leaves in 2's, 2-5 cm long 2. P. Banksiana. 

Scales of cones tipped with a short spine; leaves 2 or 3 in a bundle. 

Spine of cone-scale 2-3 mm long, curved ; leaves twisted, 4-8 cm long 

3. P. virginiana. 

Spine of cone-scale about 1 mm long; leaves straight, 7-13 cm long. (See ex- 
cluded species no. 20, p. 1022.) P. echinata. 

1. Pinus Strobus L. Northern White Pine. Map 60. This species 
is local and is usually found in limited numbers, except along Bear Creek, 
Fountain County and Big Pine Creek in Warren County where there were 
formerly many acres of it. In the dune area it was scattered in its dis- 
tribution with a large colony here and there. There formerly were several 
acres of it in a bog east of Merrillville, Lake County, but it has now nearly 
disappeared. 

In our area its favored habitat was wet woods or boggy places, on the 
dunes along Lake Michigan, on cliffs and high banks along Bear Creek, 
Fountain County, and in a like habitat including adjacent lowland in 
Warren County along Big Pine and Kickapoo Creeks. 

Newf. to Man., southw. in the mts. to n. Ga., Tenn., and Iowa. 

2. Pinus Banksiana Lamb. Jack Pine. Map 61. This pine is found 
only on the dunes near Lake Michigan. I can recall when it was common 
on the low dunes in Lake County but it has now nearly disappeared on 
account of advancing civilization. 

N. S. to n. N. Y., n. Ind. to Minn., northw. 

3. Pinus virginiana Mill. VIRGINIA Pine. Map 62. This species is re- 
stricted to the crests of some of the ridges of knobstone in three counties. 
On some of the ridges it formed dense stands, but, on the whole, the species 
is not a strong competitor of the other species. It, however, promptly 
invades abandoned fields within and adjacent to the area of its natural 



68 



PlNACEAE 



Larix 




5o 

Map 62 



Pinus virgin] jna Mill. 




50 

Map 63 



Lanx lancina (Du Roil Koch 




50 

Map 64 



Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. 



distribution. Also when planted in a favorable habitat, it freely escapes. 
Notable examples of its escape are on the knobstone in northern 
Washington County, on the bluffs along Raccoon Creek in Owen County, 
and in Monroe County in a grove about 4 miles northwest of Ellettsville 
and about Weimer's Lake 2i/ 2 miles west of Bloomington where it has been 
established for more than 50 years. A colony of about 3 acres in Orange 
County about 8 miles southeast of Paoli and just north of Danner's Chapel 
originated from a tree planted in the church yard. Some of the trees have 
already been cut for saw logs. R. M. Kriebel reports several large colonies 
in Lawrence County. He has traced the origin of each colony to a planted 
tree. In the knobstone area this species is truly "an old field" species. 
Within a 25-year observation I have seen it cover abandoned fields although 
it is a species difficult to transplant. 

Long Island, N. Y., to Ind., southw. to S. C. and Ala. 

24. LARIX [Tourn.] Mill. Larch 

1. Larix laricina (DuRoi) Koch. Tamarack. Map 63. Infrequent to 
frequent in bogs and on the low borders of lakes and streams throughout 
the lake area. It was formerly more or less common in many places that 
have been drained and are now farmed. It has suffered much during the 
past few years due to drought and is becoming scarce because of drainage 
and cutting. 

Lab. and Newf., N. W. Territory, southw. to N. J., n. Pa., n. 111., and 

cent. Minn. 

27. TStJGA [Endl.] Carr. Hemlock 

1. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Eastern Hemlock. Map 64. Local 
in the state and usually restricted to a fringe of trees on the tops and 
slopes of high sandstone bluffs along streams. Rapidly disappearing in 
some of its stations. 

N. S., N. B. to Minn., southw. to Del., s. Ind., Wis., and in the mts. to 
Ga. and Ala. 



Taxodium Pinaceae 69 

35. TAXODIUM Richard 

1. Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Richard. Southern Cypress. Map 
65. The cypress is restricted to five counties in the southwestern part of 
the state. Collett (Rept. Ind. Geol. Surv. 5: 338. 1874) estimated that 
20,000 acres of the southwestern part of Knox County were "covered with 
a fine forest of cypress." In this whole area there are now only a few 
straggling specimens left. In Little Cypress Swamp in the extreme south- 
western corner of Knox County the species still persists and is reproducing 
in small numbers. There were a few cypress sloughs in Posey County but 
the trees have been slaughtered in most of them. There are no objections 
to judicious cutting but an attempt to annihilate a species without sufficient 
cause seems a tragedy. I found a few trees along Cypress Creek in War- 
rick County about 20 years ago but I was not able to find them recently. 
It has also nearly disappeared in Vanderburgh County. Baird & Taylor 
reported it from Clark County but I am excluding this report for lack of 
confirming specimens or convincing proof that it really did exist in this 
county. There is, however, some evidence to support this report. Audubon 
is quoted as having taken Rafmesque into extensive canebrakes in Indiana 
north of Louisville, and Victor Lyon, former surveyor of Clark County, 
also told me that he had seen large native pecan trees in the Silver Creek 
bottoms. I have not been able to study this area sufficiently to find other 
associate species of the cypress, and I leave this report to be confirmed. 

I have never seen this species growing in Gibson County, but late in 
1935 I met Smith White, who was 71 years old and who had always lived 
in the Gibson County Bottoms, and he told me, in the presence of three 
other persons, that it had never occurred in that area except for a single 
tree in a slough in a woods on the farm of C. B. Balse, about 3 miles south 
of East Mt. Carmel. These other three men had also seen the tree to which 
he referred. 

Atlantic coast from Del. to Fla., westw. along the Gulf to Tex. and 
northw. in the Mississippi Valley to Ind. 

42. THUJA L. 

1. Thuja occidentals L. Northern White Cedar. Map 66. There are 
three old reports for this species from Lake County and I have an Umbach 
specimen collected near Pine. I collected it about 2 miles east of Indiana 
Harbor in 1906 but I have not seen it since in this county. No doubt later 
reports are based upon the early reports. Several authors report it from 
Mineral Springs bog, Porter County and Lyon reports a few trees near 
Tamarack. I have seen it in only two places in Porter County and, doubt- 
less, there are only two colonies of it in the county. In the Mineral Springs 
bog there are quite a number of trees 4-6 inches in diameter but their 
number is rapidly decreasing. Buried remains of this species have been 
found as far south as Henry County. 

E. Que. to Man., southw. to Pa., Tenn., 111., and Minn, and in the mts. 
to N. C. 



70 



PlNACEAE 



Juniperus 





Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 


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hum (L.) L. 


) 50 

Map 65 

Z. Richard 




50 

Map 66 



Thuja occidentalis L. 




50 

Map 67 
Juniperus communis 

var. depressa Pursh 



45. JUNIPERUS [Tourn.] L. Juniper 

Leaves mostly in whorls of o, glaucous beneath, all linear and sharp-pointed, mostly 
7-15 mm long; stem divided at the surface of the ground, the several subdivisions 
or branches decumbent and growing to great lengths, rarely one branch becoming 
a leader 1. J. communis var. depressa. 

Leaves not in whorls, scalelike on fertile branchlets and linear on sterile branchlets, 
generally green on both sides, the scalelike ones 1-2 mm long and the linear ones 
mostly less than 10 mm long; stems erect with lateral branches like those of other 
trees 2. «/. virginiana var. crehra. 

1. Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Juniperus sibirica of 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Prostrate Juniper. Map 67. 
This species has an erratic distribution and grows in widely different 
habitats. It is frequent in the dunes near Lake Michigan where a single 
plant will form a large clump. I found specimens in Steuben County in a 
decadent tamarack bog, one of which had a spread of about 25 feet. The 
branches were in a whorl and the plant was circular in shape with the 
tips of the decumbent branches usually 4-7 feet high. In Elkhart County 
I found a specimen in hard, clay soil 3 miles northwest of Goshen. This 
specimen maintained an erect branch with a very strong taper. It had just 
been cut and the upright branch was made into a small fence post. At the 
base where the tree was cut off it was a foot in diameter and it had many 
radiating branches that were several inches in diameter. I saw this variety 
growing in both Jefferson and Wayne Counties in shallow soil on rocky 
slopes. In 1923 I transplanted a seedling about 6 inches high from the 
dunes into a black loam soil and it grew erect until it reached a height of 
about 3 feet when the leader began to become decumbent and three 
branches at the surface began to elongate. After 12 years all the branches, 
numbering about 50, are decumbent and radiate in all directions, forming 
a circular clump 15 feet across, the branches being 4-6 feet high. This 
variety also occurs in Montgomery County. 

Lab. to B. C, southw. to Conn., N. Y., and in the Rocky Mts. to Colo, 
and Utah. 



Typha 



Typhaceae 



71 




50 

Map 68 
Juniperus virginiana L. 
var. crebra Fernald & Griscom 




50 

Map 69 



Typha latifoha L. 




2. Juniperus virginiana L. var. crebra Fernald & Griscom. (Rhodora 
37: 131-133. 1935.) {Juniperus virginiana f. Bremerae Standley & Mac- 
bride.) Eastern Red Cedar. Map 68. In a recent study of the species 
Fernald & Griscom found that our spirelike trees of the north and interior 
are not like the ovoid type of tree of the south. The leaves of adult branch- 
lets of the northern form are narrower and attenuate at the apex while 
those of the southern form are rather broadly deltoid and obtuse or merely 
subacute. The mature fruit of the north has sweet flesh and the seed 
shallow pits at the base while those of the south have flesh with a pitchy 
taste and deep pits at the base. Caution must be used in separating the two 
forms by the character of the leaves because of transitional forms. All the 
specimens I have examined belong to the northern variety. 

The eastern red cedar is found throughout the state although there are 
no records from the southwestern part. It is rare to infrequent in the 
northern part except along the St. Joseph River where it is frequent on 
its banks or close to them, becoming rare in the central part of the state, 
and frequent to common in the southern part in the unglaciated area and 
east of it. This tree seems to prefer calcareous soils, and in the unglaciated 
area some eroded and abandoned fields have grown up thickly with it. It 
has a wide range of habitats for I have seen it even in the "flats" in Clark 
County. I am of the opinion that in the primitive forest this species was 
restricted to high bluffs and banks of streams and eroded slopes where it 
could compete with other species. While it is tolerant of shade it is rarely 
found in the dense forest. 

N. S. to w. Ont. and S. Dak., southw. at least to Mo. and Va. 



8. TYPHACEAE J. St. Hil. Cattail Family 

49. TYPHA [Town.] L. Cattail 

Staminate and pistillate parts of spike contiguous; stems stout, usually 1-2 m high; 
leaves flat, the lower ones 12-23 mm wide; sterile flowers shorter than the hairs; 
pollen grains in 4's; stigmas fan-shaped; mature pistillate spikes about 2.5 cm 
in diameter 1- T. latifolia. 



72 Sparganiaceae Sparganium 

Staminate and pistillate parts of spike usually separated by an interval of 0.5-6 cm; 
stems slender, usually 8-12 dm high; leaves more or less dorsally convex, the 
lower ones mostly 4-7 mm wide; sterile flowers scarcely shorter than the hairs; 
pollen grains single; stigmas linear; mature pistillate spikes 10-18 mm in 
diameter 2. T. angustifolia. 

1. Typha latifolia L. Common Cattail. Map. 69. Found in ditches, 
ponds, marshes, gravel pits, and marshy places about lakes and along 
streams. It is frequent in the lake area, becoming infrequent to local in 
the southern part of the state where its habitat is rarely found. 

Throughout temperate N. A. ; cosmopolitan. 

2. Typha angustifolia L. Nakrowleaf Cattail. Map 70. This species 
is usually found on the borders of larger bodies of water than the preced- 
ing species, but it seems to adapt itself to nearly the same habitats. Near 
my home is a small gravel pit that has not been in use for about 10 years, 
and it is now filled with both species of cattails, this species occupying 
about a fourth of the space. It is to be noted that the pistillate part of the 
spike sometimes divides. I have one specimen with a 5-parted spike. I 
also have a specimen of the preceding species that has a 3-parted spike. 
This species, as well as the preceding one, is variable, and several varieties 
have been named. A giant form of this species is found on the east side 
of Tippecanoe Lake in the southern part of Noble County. Peattie's var. 
calumetensis seems to me to be an ecological form. Its diminutive size I 
attribute to the pollution of the Grand Calumet River near where it is 
found. In the summer when the soil along the bank is exposed it is slimy 
and reddish. 

N. S. to Fla., mainly along the coast, and inland mostly about the Great 
Lakes ; almost cosmopolitan. 

10. SPARGANIACEAE Agardh Bur-reed Family 
54. SPARGANIUM [Tourn.] L. Bur-reed 
[Fernald. Notes on Sparganium. Rhodora 24: 26-34. 1922.] 
The following key has been adapted from this paper : 

Achenes broadly obpyramidal, sessile, truncate or retuse at the summit, 4-8 mm in 
diameter; stigmas 2; anthers 1.5-2 mm long; sepals nearly equaling the achenes. 

1. S. eurycarpum. 

Achenes fusiform, short-pedicelled, beaked, 1.2-3 mm in diameter; anthers 0.5-1.6 mm 
long; sepals from much shorter than to two thirds as long as the achenes. 
Staminate heads 2-20 (rarely only 1) ; fruiting heads 1.2-3.5 cm in diameter; mature 
achenes strongly fusiform, 5.5-14 mm long, the stipe 1-4 mm long, the slender 
beak 1.5-6 mm long; plants erect. 
Pistillate heads or branches strictly axillary ; achenes with the beak abruptly con- 
tracted above the dilated base; leaves 6-12 mm wide, without a scarious 
margin. 
Leaves stiffish, at least the middle keeled; inflorescence branched, some branches 
all staminate, or some both staminate and pistillate, with 1-4 pistillate 
heads and up to 8 staminate heads; stigmas 2-4 mm long; fruiting heads 
usually 3-7, 2.5-3.5 mm in diameter; achenes lustrous, the body 5-7 mm 
long- and 2.5-3 mm thick, the beak 4.5-6 mm long; anthers 1-1.6 mm long. 

2. S. androcladum. 



Sparganium 



Sparganiaceae 



73 




^50 

Map 71 



Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. 




"50 

Map 72 
Sparganium androcladum 

(Engelm.) Morong 



1 
1 
1 


Jar>. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

Juno 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


D 








D 


D 








D 











t ^ 




1 




















i 








r 




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c 

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X 












w/ 


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Sparganium 


JA / o 50 
J Map 73 

imericanum Nutt. 



Leaves soft and mostly translucent, flat or obscurely keeled; inflorescence simple 
or, if branched, the branches strict with 1-3 pistillate and 1-6 staminate 
heads; stigmas 1-2 mm long; fruiting heads 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter; achenes 
slightly lustrous, the body 4.5-5.5 mm long, about 2 mm thick; anthers 

0.8-1.2 mm long o. S. americanum. 

Pistillate heads usually supra-axillary; achenes shining, the beak more gradually 

narrowed upward; leaves 3-9 mm wide with a scarious margin near the base. 

Plants commonly erect and emersed; leaves flat or slightly keeled, little, if at 

all, dilated at the base (except for the scarious margin) ; staminate half of 

the inflorescence 2-10 cm long, of 4-9 scattered heads (if shorter and with 

fewer leads, the plant very low and with ribbonlike, translucent, erect, lower 

bracts) ; beak of achenes 2-4.3 mm long; sepals appressed, cuneate-spatu- 

late, scarcely narrowed to a claw. 

Pistillate heads (1) 2-4, remote or subremote, at maturity 1.5-2.7 cm in 

diameter, the lowest borne 1-6.5 dm above the base of the plant; staminate 

half of the inflorescence 2-10 cm long, of 4-9 heads 4. S. chlorocarpum. 

Pistillate heads 1-3, at least the upper usually approximate, at maturity 
1.2-2.2 cm in diameter, the lowest borne 0.1-1.8 dm above the base of the 
plant; staminate half of the inflorescence 1-4 (5) cm long, of 2-5 heads. 

4a. S. chlorocarpum var. acaule. 

Plants commonly submerged or floating, sometimes emersed; leaves rounded on 
the back, the middle and upper with dilated and subinflated sheathing 
bases; staminate half of the inflorescence 1-3 cm long, of 1-4 (rarely 6) 
crowded heads; beak of achene about 2 mm long; sepals loosely ascending, 
with slender claw and dilated tip. (See excluded species no. 26, p. 1023.) 

S. angusti folium. 

Staminate head 1; fruiting heads 5-12 mm in diameter; achenes ellipsoid or 
slenderly obovoid-fusiform, 3.5-5 mm long; stipe obsolete or up to 1 mm long, 
beak obsolete or up to 1.5 mm long; inflorescence simple, the heads all axillary; 
sepals elliptic to cuneate-spatulate, a half to two thirds as long as the achene; 
plants usually floating. (See excluded species no. 27, p. 1023.) . . . .S. minimum. 

1. Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Giant Bur-reed. Map 71. Infre- 
quent to frequent in the lake area and rare or possibly absent from the 
southern part of the state. There are only three reports for it south of 
Hamilton County, and it is barely possible that these should be referred 
to the next species. It is found in wet places, mostly in ditches. It also 



74 



Sparganiaceae 



Sparganium 




50 

Map 74 



Sparcjanium chlorocarpum Rydt 



Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 





<* 






D 








I 


1 


j- 






m 








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Miles 





Map 75 
iparqanium chlorocarpum 

/ar. acaule (Beeby)Fern. 




occurs on the low borders of lakes, streams, and sloughs and in ponds 
and springy places. 

N. S., Maine, Que. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Mo., Utah, and Calif. 

2. Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong. {Sparganium lucidum 
Fern. & Eames.) Map 72. My only specimen is from a slough about 4 
miles northwest of Grayville, Sullivan County. A specimen reported from 
St. Joseph County should now be referred to Sparganium chlorocarpum. 
The species of this genus are not well known, hence their distribution is 
not, as yet, understood. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Fla. and westw. 

3. Sparganium americanum Nutt. (Including var. androcladum Fern. 
& Eames of Gray, Man., ed. 7.) Map 73. Infrequent in the lake area and 
probably very local south of it. All of my specimens are from ditches, 
sloughs, and outlets of lakes. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Mo. 

4. Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb. {Sparganium diversifolium of au- 
thors.) Map 74. All of the specimens, with one exception, and reports are 
restricted to the lake area where it is infrequent. It is found in habitats 
similar to those of the preceding species. 

Newf. to Iowa, southw. to N. J., N. Y., and Ind. 

4a. Sparganium chlorocarpum var. acaule (Beeby) Fern. {Sparganium 
diversifolium var. acaule (Beeby) Fern. & Eames and Sparganium acaule 
(Beeby) Rydb.) Map 75. All of my specimens are from the lake area 
except one which was found in Hancock County in a springy place along 
a creek. It is infrequent but probably more common in the state than the 
species. The habitat is that of the other species of the genus. 

Newf. to N. Dak., southw. to Va. and W. Va. 



Potamogeton Potamogetonaceae 75 

11. POTAMOGETONACAE Engl. Pond weed Family 

Flowers perfect, borne in spikes; anthers 4; leaves alternate, or the upper ones 
sometimes opposite 58. Potamogeton, p. 75. 

Flowers unisexual, axillary; stamens 1 (2) ; leaves mostly opposite, filiform, 1-nerved, 
entire 62. Zannichellia, p. 84. 

58. POTAMOGETON [Tourn.] L. Pondweed 

[Morong. The Naiadaceae of North America. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 
3: 11-65. 36 pi. 1893; Fryer and Bennett. Potamogetons of the British 
Isles. 1-94. 60 col. pi. 1915; Hagstrom. Critical Researches on the Potamo- 
getons. 1-281. 119 fig. Stockholm 1916; Fernald. The Linear-leaved North 
American Species of Potamogeton, Section Axillares. Mem. Gray Herb. 
3: 1-183. 40 pi. 1932.] 

Note : M. L. Fernald named and cited many of my specimens during the 
writing of his monograph, and these specimens have greatly aided me in 
the study of this difficult genus. I have also made free use of his mono- 
graph, and I wish to acknowledge this assistance. 

I have never made a special effort to collect Potamogetons, and some 
species have probably been overlooked; some which once occurred in the 
state have doubtless been exterminated. Drainage has destroyed the plants 
in many places. Cottages now surround most of our lakes, and the dredg- 
ing of all kinds of aquatic vegetation to improve bathing beaches will 
doubtless lead to extermination of some species. Many specimens are 
covered more or less with a deposit of lime which may obscure such 
characters as veins in the leaves. This can be removed at least in part by 
gently brushing with a round bristle brush (about size no. 4), or in case 
of badly incrusted linear-leaved specimens, it can be removed by immersing 
them in dilute hydrochloric acid. After such treament the specimens 
should be washed and dried between blotters. 

A. Plants with both floating and submerged leaves; floating leaves more or less 
coriaceous, usually on petioles half as long to much longer than the length of 
the blades; submerged leaves thin, ranging from linear to ovate, or sometimes 
reduced to a mere petiole. 
R. Submerged leaves bladeless; floating leaves large, 17-29-nerved. 

Floating leaves mostly broadly elliptic, subcordate at the base (rarely rounded), 

21-29-nerved; fruit mostly 4-5 mm long, stramineous or greenish 

1. P. natans. 

Floating leaves mostly narrowly elliptic, narrowed at the base, usually 2-5 

times as long as wide, 17-23-nerved ; fruit usually reddish (phase of this 

species, having the blades of submerged leaves rotted off) 

2. P. americanus. 

B. Submerged leaves lanceolate to ovate or linear. 

Blades of floating leaves 31-55-nerved, rounded at the base; blades of sub- 
merged leaves mostly 25-39-nerved ; fruit 4-5.5 mm long, usually reddish. 

3. P. amplifolins. 

Blades of floating leaves with fewer than 31 nerves. 
C. Submerged leaves linear, 0.2-13 mm wide. 

Peduncles of spikes from the axils of submerged leaves, mostly less than 1.5 
cm long; fruit up to 1.5 mm long. 
Blades of submerged leaves with bristle tips, 0.2-0.6 mm wide. 



76 Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton 

Leaves thin, distinctly several-nerved; fruit with a sharp ridge on the 

back, the sides concave 4. P. capillaceus. 

Leaves 1-nerved (under high magnification 3-nerved) ; fruit rounded on 
the back, the sides convex. (See excluded species no. 32, p. 1024.) 

P. Vaseyi. 

Blades of submerged leaves rounded, subobtuse or acute at the tips, 

0.5-2 mm wide. 

Submerged leaves obtuse, usually rounded at the tip; the connate leaf 

sheath much longer than the free stipular tip; the space between the 

midrib and the faint lateral nerves usually filled with lacunae; fruit 

1.3-2.2 mm long, mostly about 2 mm long. (Should be sought in 

northern Indiana.) P- Spirillus. 

Submerged leaves subobtuse to acute; the connate leaf sheath about half 
the length of the free stipular tip; the midrib of leaves rarely with 

lacunae; fruit 1-1.5 mm long 5. P. diver si folius. 

Peduncles from the axils of submerged leaves, more than 1.5 cm long. 
Floating leaves obtuse at the apex; submerged leaves 6-14 cm long and up 
to 10 mm wide, ribbonlike, the sides nearly parallel ... 14. P. epihydrus. 
Floating leaves acute at the apex; submerged leaves 1-3 cm long, 2-13 mm 

wide, apiculate, broadest about the middle 

6. P. gramineus var. graminifolius. 

C. Submerged leaves lanceolate to ovate; floating leaves large. 

Floating leaves broad and distinctly cordate at the base, 25-37-nerved ; sub- 
merged leaves 9-19-nerved; fruit 3-4 mm long 7. P. pulcher. 

Floating leaves mostly broadly or narrowly elliptic, rounded or narrowed at 

the base, generally 17-27-nerved; submerged leaves 7-29-nerved; fruit 

3-4 mm long. 

Blades of floating leaves usually narrowly elliptic, narrowed at the base; 

submerged leaves not recurved. 

Submerged leaves usually strongly mucronate; mature fruiting spikes 

mostly 7-8.5 mm wide ; fruit green 8. P. angustifolius. 

Submerged leaves acute or acuminate, mostly 17-23-nerved; mature fruit- 
ing spikes generally 9-11 mm wide; fruit usually tinged red 

2. P. americanus. 

Blades of floating leaves rounded at the base, 17-27-nerved; submerged 
leaves long, usually recurved, 13-29-nerved 9. P. ilhnoensis. 

A. Plants with all the leaves submerged. 

1). Blades of leaves lanceolate, oblong or broader, not linear. 
Leaves sessile or short-petiolate, not clasping. 

Margins of blades finely and sharply serrulate 10. P. crispus. 

Margins of blades entire or some with a few minute teeth. 
Submerged leaves all mucronate, or long-acuminate. 

Fruit 2-2.5 mm long; submerged leaves 2.5-8 cm long 

6. P. gramineus var. graminifolius. 

Fruit 3-4 mm long; submerged leaves 4-20 cm long. 

Fruit distinctly 3-keeled 8. P. angustifolius. 

Fruit with rounded, scarcely keeled sides 11. P. lucens. 

Submerged leaves all large, not mucronate 3. P. amplifolius. 

Leaves with blades clasping the stem for half or more of its diameter. 

Blades slightly clasping, lanceolate, rounded and cucullate at the apex (in 
dried specimens often bifid), mostly 10-30 cm long; fruit 4-5 mm long, the 
middle dorsal rib prominent and sharply keeled; stipules large, usually not 

shredded 12. P. praelongus. 

Blades strongly clasping, lanceolate to ovate-orbicular, 1-8 (11) cm long, obtuse 
or acute; fruit 2.5-4 mm long, the dorsal ribs inconspicuous and rounded; 
stipules short and mostly shredded 13. P. Richardsonii. 



Potamogeton PotamogetonaceaE 77 

D. Blades of leaves linear. 
Leaves ribbonlike, 2 mm or more wide, with a broad, coarsely cellular-reticulate 

space on each side of the midrib, 5-7-nerved; stipules very obtuse 

14. P. epihydrus. 

Leaves narrower, if 2 mm wide, without broad cellular-reticulate spaces along 
the midrib. 
E. Blades free from the stipules. 

Leaves more than 7-nerved, 2-5 mm wide; peduncles stout, 1.5-5.5 cm long, 
1-1.6 mm thick; fruit 3.5-5 mm long, with one strong, usually crested, 

keel on the back 15. P. zosteriformis. 

Leaves 1-7-nerved; fruit not more than 3 mm long. 

Blades 5-7-nerved, usually with a pair of glands at the base, 1.5-3.5 mm 
wide, usually 2-2.5 mm wide, rounded or short-mucronate at the apex; 
stipules 7-11 mm long; fruit 2-3 mm long, rounded on the back. 

16. P. Friesii. 

Blades 1-3-nerved (if some leaves 5-nerved, plant not agreeing with the 
other characters of the preceding species). 
Leaves 1-nerved (under high magnification 3-nerved) ; fruit strongly com- 
pressed with the sides almost fiat, 1.6-2.2 mm long. (See excluded 

species no. 32, p. 1024.) P- Vaseyi. 

Leaves 3-nerved, rarely some of them 5-nerved. 

Blades usually without basal glands; peduncles 0.4-3 cm long, clavate; 
spikes subcapitate, 2-6-flowered, in fruit 2-8 mm long; sepaloid con- 
nectives 0.4-1 mm long; fruit compressed, 1.8-2.5 mm long, with a 
thin or acute, undulate or coarsely dentate dorsal keel. 
Primary leaves 4-10 cm long, 1.4-2.7 mm wide, 3-5-nerved, midnerve 
with 1-3 rows of lacunae on each side at the base; stipules 0.7-1.8 
cm long; fruit 2-2.5 mm long, beak broad at the base, 0.2-0.4 mm 
long; winter buds sessile in the axils or on short (rarely elon- 
gate) branches 17. P. foliosus var. genuinus. 

Primary leaves 1-7 cm long, 0.3-1.5 mm wide, 1-3-nerved; midnerve 
without marginal lacunae or with a single row on each side below 
the middle; stipules 3-11 mm long; fruit green, 1.8-2.3 mm long, 
beak slender, 0.3-0.8 mm long; winter buds terminating the mostly 

elongate branches 17a. P. foliosus var. macellus. 

Blades usually with a pair of basal glands; peduncles 1-9 cm long; spikes 
interruptedly cylindric, of 2-5 remote whorls of flowers or sub- 
globose, in fruit 0.6-1.5 cm long; sepaloid connectives 1-2.5 mm 
long; fruit plump, 1.9-3 mm long, rounded on the back, dorsal keel 
obscure. 
Spikes subglobose, continuous or slightly interrupted, 2-8 mm long in 

fruit ; leaves 3-7 cm long, rounded or acute at the apex 

18. P. pusillus var. mucronatus. 

Spikes cylindric, of 2-5 remote whorls of flowers, in fruit 0.6-1.5 cm 
long. 
Stipules strongly fibrous, becoming whitish. 

Leaves mostly rigid, obtuse or abruptly contracted to muci-onate 

tips ; stipules strongly fibrous 

19. P. striotifolius var. typicus. 

Leaves firm, scarcely rigid, very gradually tapering to a slender 

tip ; stipules less strongly fibrous 

19a. P. striotifolius var. rutiloides. 

Stipules scarious-membranaceous or subherbaceous, greenish or 
brownish. 

Primary leaves 1-3 mm wide 20. P. panormitanus var. major. 

Primary leaves only 0.3-1 mm wide 

20a. P. panormitanus var. minor. 



78 



POTAMOGETONACEAE 



Potamogeton 




o 

Map 77 
Potamogeton americanus 
Cham.&Schlecht 



1 

3 

1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


B 


yx 1 

f 


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U Miles 












Potamoget 


>n amphfolius 


50 

Map 78 
Tuckerm 
















Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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f 










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^~ 








Jv 






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r 










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r 




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fJ Miles 




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amogeton 


tt 


P\ 10 50 
Map 79 

pillaceus Poir. 



E. Blades with the stipules more or less adnate to the base. 
Leaves 4-8 mm wide, auricled at the base, stiffly 2-ranked, with a cartilaginous, 
finely and sharply serrate margin or the margin entire. 

Margins of blades finely and sharply serrate ■ 21. P. Robbinsii. 

Margins entire 21a. P. Robbinsii f. cultellatus. 

Leaves less than 4 mm wide, not auricled at the base, their margins not finely 

serrate. 

Spikes from the axils of submerged leaves subglobose, sessile or on 

peduncles only a few mm long; fruit compressed, with concave sides. 

Submerged leaves obtuse, usually rounded at the tip; the connate leaf 

sheath much longer than the free stipular tip; the space between the 

midrib and faint lateral nerves usually filled with lacunae; fruit 

1.3-2.2 mm long. (Should be sought in northern Indiana.) 

P. Spirillus. 

Submerged leaves subobtuse to acute at the tip, the connate sheath about 
half the length of the free stipular tip; midrib of leaves rarely with 

lacunae; fruit 1-1.5 mm long 5. P. diversifolius. 

Spikes from the axils of submerged leaves elongate, with separated whorls 
of flowers, usually 1 to several cm long; fruit 3.5-4.5 mm long, usually 
with a beak about 0.5 mm long 22. P. pectinatus. 

1. Potamogeton natans L. Map 76. All of my specimens are from 
lakes in the northern part of the state. Usually found in all of our lakes. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to n. N. J., Pa., Nebr., and Calif.; throughout 
the world in temperate climates. 

2. Potamogeton americanus Cham. & Schlecht. Map 77. Frequent in 
the lake area and rather local south of it. It is found mostly in streams, 
and less often in lakes, dredged ditches, old canals, ponds, gravel pits, and 
old stone quarries. 

N. B. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Tex., Calif., Mex., and W. I. ; also in the 
Old World. 

3. Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerm. Map 78. Frequent in our lakes 
and very local elsewhere. I have it, however, from a dredged ditch in Jen- 
nings County. 

N. S. to B. C, southw. to n. N. J., Ky., Mo., Kans., and Calif. 



Potamogeton 



POTAMOGETONACEAE 



79 




50 

Map80 



Potamogeton diversifolius Raf 




50 

Map 81 
Potamogeton gramineus 

var. graminif olius Fries 




50 

Map 82 



Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerm. 



4. Potamogeton capillaceus Poir. Map 79. This species was reported 
by Fernald (Mem. Gray Herb. 3: 111. 1932) as having been found by Hill 
and by Chase in Goose Pond, near Dune Park, Porter County. This pond 
is located mostly in section 28 about 4 miles northwest of Porter. 

Coastal Plain from Maine to Fla. and Tex., and in Ind. and Wis. ; also 
in Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

5. Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. {Potamogeton hybridus Michx. of 
Gray, Man., ed. 7.) Map 80. All of my specimens are from the southern 
half of the state, although it has been reported repeatedly from the dune 
area. The reports from the northern part of the state should probably be 
referred to some other species. 

L. I., Pa., s. Ind., Wis., Minn., Mont., s. Oreg., southw. to Ga., Tex., Calif., 
and n. Mex. 

6. Potamogeton gramineus L. var. graminif olius Fries. {Potamogeton 
heterophyllus of recent authors.) Map 81. Rather frequent in shallow 
water in our lake area. 

Throughout the greater part of N. A. 

7. Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerm. Map 82. My only specimen is from 
a pond in Sullivan County. It has been reported from the dune area. 

Maine to Fla. and westw. to Mo. 

8. Potamogeton angustifolius Berchtold & Presl. Map 83. Rather- 
frequent in the lakes that I have studied and probably well distributed in 
the lake area. It has been reported from the dune area. 

Mass., Que., Wyo. to Calif., southw. to Fla. and Tex.; also in W. I., 
Eurasia, and Africa. 

9. Potamogeton illinoensis Morong. Map 84. Infrequent in the lakes 
throughout the lake area. 

Ind. to Minn., southw. to Mo. 



80 



POTAMOGETONACEAE 



Potamogeton 




50 

Map 83 
Potamogeton angustifolius 
Berch.&Pres! 




50 

Map 86 



Potamogeton lucens L. 




~^0 

Map 84 



Potamogeton i 1 1 i noensi s Morong 




50 

Map 87 



Potamogeton praelongus Wulfer 




~^0 

Map 85 



Potamogeton crispus L. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


D 

f 

J 








D D 








\ 


|V 




" 






<w 




" 






r, 


-hU 


Dec <- 




i 
■ ' — 



















Potamogeton Richardsonn 
(Bennett) Rydb. 



Miles 
0"^ "S3 

Map 88 



10. Potamogeton crispus L. Map 85. I have found this species in 
both Cedar Lake and Wolf Lake in Lake County. It was reported from 
Wolf Lake as early as 1913. In 1937 I found a few plants in shallow water 
on the south side of Lake Cicott, Cass County. Doubtless it is not common 
in this lake because a few years ago I spent a half day in a boat in search 
for pondweeds in this small lake and I did not find it. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Mass. to Ont., southw. to Va. and Mo. 

11. Potamogeton lucens L. Map 86. Infrequent in our lakes. It is 
difficult to distinguish this species from Potamogeton angustifolius if float- 
ing leaves and fruits are not present. 

N. S. to Calif., southw. to Fla. and Mex. ; also found in W. I., Eurasia, 
and Africa. 

12. Potamogeton praelongus Wulfen. Map 87. Infrequent in the lakes 
of the lake area. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Conn., N. J., Ind., Iowa, Mont., and Calif. 



Potamogeton 



POTA MOGETON ACEAE 



81 



Jan. 
Feb 
Mar- 
Apr. 
May 
June 
July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Dec. 



~l 


"T — 


/ 


*■ 


c 


\\\- 


Hv\ 


- 1 | 






r^/ Miles 



50 

Map 89 



Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. 




'" 50 

Map 90 



Potamogeton zosterif ormis Fern. 




13. Potamogeton Richardsonii (Bennett) Rydb. Map 88. In a few of 

our northern lakes. 

Que. to Mack, and B. C, southw. to N. E., N. Y., Ind., and Nebr. 

14. Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. Map 89. Our only specimen is one 
collected in 1936 by R. M. Tryon, Jr. It was found in State Line Creek in 
La Porte County. It has been reported but, no doubt, all other reports 
should be referred to other species. 

N. B., Que. to Minn., southw. to N. J., W. Va., 111., and Iowa; also on the 
Pacific coast from Wash, to Calif. 

15. Potamogeton zosteriformis Fern. (Mem. Gray Herb. 3: 36-40. 
1932.) {Potamogeton zosterif olius of American authors.) Map 90. Fre- 
quent in the lakes of the lake area from which there are many reports. 
Sterile specimens of this species closely resemble sterile specimens of 
Heteranthera dubia from which they can be separated by the abruptly 
acute leaf tips. Those of Heteranthera dubia have the blades gradually 
tapering at the apex into a blunt tip. 

Que., n. Alberta to s. B. C, southw. to Va., Ohio, n. Ind., n. 111., n. Iowa, 
Nebr., nw. Mont., and n. Calif. 

16. Potamogeton Friesii Rupr. Map 91. In a few of our northern 
lakes. 

Southern Lab. to B. C, southw. to N. S., Conn., N. Y., Mich., Iowa, and 
Wash. ; also in Eu. 

17. Potamogeton foliosus Raf. var. genuinus Fern. Map 92. Infrequent 
throughout the state in creeks, small rivers, ditches, and gravel pits but 
rarely in lakes. 

Western N. Y., Ont., Mich., Wis., s. Man. to Wash., southw. through 
the U. S. to W. I. and Cent. Amer. 

17a. Potamogeton foliosus var. macellus Fern. (Mem. Gray Herb. 3: 
46-51. 1932.) Map 92a. The distribution of the variety is indicated on 



82 



POTAMOGETONACEAE 



Potamogeton 




50 

Map 92 
Potamogeton foliosus Raf. 

var. genulnus 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Auj 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



I u 


-T— "T^ 

I 
/ D 




D s 




D 


rV" 




| J— 






j 


IT 




7]_J-f"° 





Miles 



o 50 

Map 92a 
Potamogeton foliosus 
var. macellus Fern. 




^5 
Map 93 

Potamogeton pusillus 
var. mucronatus (Fi'eber) Graebn. 



the map. The habitat is that of the species, although I have more speci- 
mens from lakes. 

Cape Breton Island, N. S., Que. to Mack., southw. to Fla., Mo., Kans., 
Nev., and Calif. ; also in Hawaii. 

18. Potamogeton pusillus L. var. mucronatus (Fieber) Graebn. Map 93. 
Our only report is that of Fernald. The specimen was collected by E. B. 
Williamson in Crooked Lake, Steuben County, June 17, 1900, and is de- 
posited in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Sw. Greenland, Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. S., s. N. E., L. I., Del., 
s. Minn., Mont., and Vancouver Island ; Eurasia. 

19. Potamogeton strictifolius Bennett var. typicus Fern. (Mem. Gray 
Herb. 3: 56-57. 1932.) Map 94. There are specimens from only a few of 
our northwestern lakes. 

Vt. to Sask., southw. to Mass., cent. N. Y., s. Ont., n. Ohio, n. Ind., n. 
Wis., s. Minn., n. Nebr., and Utah. 

19a. Potamogeton strictifolius var. rutiloides Fern. (Mem. Gray Herb. 
3: 57-60. 1932.) Our only Indiana specimen was collected by Scovell 
& Clark in Lake Maxinkuckee, Marshall County, and is deposited in the 
herbarium of the Field Museum. 

Sw. Que. to Mack., southw. to Vt., nw. N. Y., s. Mich., nw. Ind., s. 
Minn., n. Nebr., and Utah. 

20. Potamogeton panormitanus Biv. var. major G. Fischer. Map 95. 
My only specimens are from a dredged ditch in Jasper County and from a 
small lake in De Kalb County. 

Magdalen Islands and Gaspe Co., Que. to n. Alberta and s. B. C, 
southw. to Va., Ark. to s. Calif., and south-central Mex. ; Cuba, Azores, 
and Eurasia. 



Potamogeton 



POTAMOGETONACEAE 



83 





50 

Map 95 
Potamogeton panormitanus 
var. major G. Ffscher 




"To 

Map 95a 
Potamogeton panormitanus 
var. minor B'v. 




o 50 

Map 96 



Potamogeton Robbinsii Oakes 




o To 

Map 97 



Potamogeton pectinatus L. 




o 50 

Map 98 
Z annYchellia palustris L. 
/ar. major (Boenningh.l Koch 



20a. Potamogeton panormitanus var. minor Biv. Map 95a. Our 
specimens are from northern lakes. 

Mass. to n. Man. and s. B. C, southw. to Md., s. Ala., La., Tex., and 
w. Mex. ; Eurasia. 

21. Potamogeton Robbinsii Oakes. Map 96. In a few lakes of the lake 
area. 

N. B. to n. Ont., southw. to Del., Pa., n. Ind. ; also Wyo. and s. B. C. 

to Nev. 

21a. Potamogeton Robbinsii f. cultellatus Fassett. (Rhodora 35: 389. 
1933.) Fassett cites a specimen of this form which was collected by J. T. 
Scovell in Lake Maxinkuckee and which is now in the Gray Herbarium. 

Conn., Ont., Mich., Ind., and Wis. 

22. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Map 97. This in frequent to common in 
all of our lakes in the lake area. 

Newf . to B. C, southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. ; also in Eu. 



84 



Najadaceae 



Zannichellia 




~ 50 

Map 99 



Najas flexilis (Wflld.) Rostk.& Schmidt 




o 50 

Map 100 



Najas guadalupensis (SprengJ Morong 




5 50 

Map 101 



Najas gracillima (A.Br.) Morong 



62. ZANNICHELLIA [Micheli] L. 

1. Zannichellia palustris L. var. major (Boenningh.) Koch. HORNED 
Pondweed. Map 98. I found this pondweed to be frequent in one foot of 
water on the southwest side of Cedar Lake, Lake County. I found it in 
Pulaski County about 13 miles west of Winamac, in Little Monon ditch 
where it is crossed by State Road 14. It has been reported from Wolf Lake, 
Lake County, by Peattie and from Vigo County by Blatchley. It may be 
more frequent in the state than our reports indicate. 

In fresh or brackish water nearly throughout North America, except 
the extreme north ; widely distributed in the Old World. 

12. NAJADACEAE Lindl. 
64. NAJAS L. Naiad 

[Clausen. Studies in the genus Najas in the northern United States. 
Rhodora 38: 333-345. 1936.] 

Leaves mostly (0.4) 0.5-1 mm wide and 1-1.5 cm long, gradually widening into a 

clasping base. 

Styles (including the stigmas) filiform, 0.8-2 mm long; fruit lustrous, indistinctly 

marked with 30-50 longitudinal lines, enclosing obscure hexagonal areolae; 

leaves gradually tapering from the base into a long drawn out point, the fine 

teeth numerous 1- N. flexilis. 

Styles (including the stigmas) stouter, 0.1-0.6 mm long; fruit dull, more distinctly 
marked with about 10-20 longitudinal lines which enclose rectangular areolae; 
leaves linear, with a rounded or merely acute apex, the teeth not so numerous 

as in the preceding species but more conspicuous 2. N. guadalupensis. 

Leaves mostly 0.25 mm wide, ranging from 0.2-0.3 mm wide and 1.5-2.5 cm long; fruit 
somewhat curved, dull, the surface longitudinally marked with short, oblong 
reticulations 3. N. gracillima. 

1. Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt. Map 99. So far as known, 
this species is restricted to the lake area of the state. It is found princi- 
pally in lakes and in a few rivers. A variety robusta Morong is a stouter 



Triglochin 



JUNCAGINACEAE 



85 




o 50 

Map 102 



Triglochin maritima L. 



2 

1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


i 


D 




D 
10 


D 








r 




\ 


|V 


" 








t 




X 










1 




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cheuchzeria palustrfs 
var americana Fern. 



form that rarely fruits, and, according to Clark, (Lake Maxinkuckee 2: 

173. 1920), grows on muddy bottoms in deeper water than the species. 

Md., Ohio, Ind., 111., Iowa, Idaho to Oreg., and northw. into Canada. 

2. Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong. Map 100. This species is 
found in lakes and is restricted to our lake area. I have never taken notes 
concerning the habitats of this or the preceding species, but all that I have 
collected were found on sandy or marly bottoms in less than 4 feet of 
water. 

Basin of the St. Lawrence River to Minn., and Oreg., southw. to Fla. 
and Mex., W. I., and S. A. 

3. Najas gracillima (A. Br.) Morong. (Najas gracillima (A. Br.) 
Magnus of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) 
Map 101. This species was reported in 1876 by Schneck as found in the 
"deeper ponds" of the Lower Wabash Valley. Our only specimens were 
collected in 1935 by Kriebel in Lawrence County. 

Maine, N. Y., Wis., and Minn., southw. to Mass., Conn., N. Y., Ind., and 
Mo. 

14.*JUNCAGINACEAE Lindl. Arrow-grass Family 

Stem scapose; leaves all radical; flowers bractless, many, in a spikelike raceme; 

ovaries 3-6, united until maturity 66. Triglochin, p. 85. 

Stem leafy; flowers bracteate, few, in a loose raceme; ovaries 3, nearly distinct, 

divaricate 67. Scheuchzeria, p. 86. 



66. TRIGLOCHIN [Riv.] L. Arrow-grass 

Fruit oblong or ovoid, mostly 3-6 mm long and 2-3.5 mm wide, rounded at the base; 
carpels 6 (rarely 3 but none seen in Indiana), not beginning to separate first at 
the base 1. T. maritima. 

Fruit linear or clavate, mostly 7-8 mm long, about 1 mm wide, tapering to a narrow 
base; carpels 3, separating first at the base 2. T. palustris. 



86 Alismaceae Scheuchzeria 

1. Triglochin maritima L. (Fernald. Some variations of Triglochin 
maritima. Rhodora 5: 174-175. 1903.) Map 102. Infrequent in a few 
counties in the lake area. It prefers calcareous soil and grows on the 
marly borders of lakes and in springy places. I have seen it growing with 
the next species in marl so strongly alkaline that only a few plants could 
survive. In such a habitat it will usually be associated with EleocJuiris 
pauciflora. - — 

Lab. to Alaska, southw. to N. J. and Mex. 

2. Triglochin palustris L. Map 103. Very local in marly springy areas 
on marly shores of lakes in our northern counties and in a marly springy 
place in Henry County. 

Greenland to s. Maine along the coast, and inland to the Great Lakes, 
westw. to Colo, and Alaska ; found also in Eurasia. 

67. SCHEUCHZERIA L. 

1. Scheuchzeria palustris L. var. americana Fern. (Rhodora 25: 177-. 
179. 1923.) Map 104. Very local in some of the counties of the lake area. 
I have it only from two counties but it has been reported also from 
Cass, Fulton, Lake, Marshall, Porter, and St. Joseph Counties. It is usually 
found in sphagnum with pitcherplant and cranberry. 

Newf. to Hudson Bay and Alaska, southw. to N. J., Pa., Wis., and Calif. 

15. ALISMACEAE DC. Water-plantain Family . 

Flowers in a panicle, the branches bearing whorls of flowers in verticils of 3-10 flowers 
each; flowers perfect; carpels in a single series, forming a ring on a small 

receptacle 70. Alisma, p. 86. 

Flowers in verticils; carpels in several series on a convex receptacle. 

Flowers in verticils of 3-9 or more, in plants of average vigor with some of the 
verticils with more than 3 flowers; leaf blades large, cordate or subcordate at 

the base, usually with 5-7 primary veins; flowers all perfect 

75. Echinodorus, p. 87. 

Flowers mostly in verticils of 3, or 1 or 2 at a node; leaf blades sagittate or 

lanceolate, usually with more than 5-7 veins. 

Fruiting pedicels very thick, usually 2-5 cm long, at least the lowermost widely 

spreading or recurved; sepals mostly suborbicular, large, surrounding the 

mature fruit; lower verticils of flowers pistillate, the upper ones staminate; 

stamens 9-15 76. Lophotocarpus, p. 88. 

Fruiting pedicels not conspicuously thick, ascending; sepals not broad and sur- 
rounding the fruit at maturity, usually reflexed; staminate flowers on 
separate scapes or at the top of the scape above the pistillate ones; stamens 
numerous 78. Sagittaria, p. 88. 

70. ALISMA L. Water-plantain 

Petals 1-2 mm long; anthers subspherical, 0.3-0.5 mm long; styles 0.2-0.3 mm long, 
curved at the apex; achenes 1.5-2 (2.5) mm long 1. A. sub cord atum. 

Petals 3.5-6 mm long; anthers oblong, 0.6-0.9 mm long; styles 0.4-0.7 mm long, slightly 
curved; achenes 2.5-3 mm long 2. A. Plantago-aquatica var. brevipes. 

1. Alisma subcordatum Raf. (Alisma Plantago-aqiiatica of Gray, Man., 
ed. 7 and of Indiana authors, in part, not of L.) Map 105. Infrequent to 



Echinodorus 



Alismaceae 



87 





50 

Map 105a 
Alisma Plantago -aquatica L. 
jar. brevipes (Greene) Samuelsson 



frequent throughout the state, being more common in the lake area where 
dredged ditches are more frequent. It is found in muddy or mucky soil 
in ditches, ponds, and sloughs and about lakes. 
N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Alisma Plantago-aquatica L. var. brevipes (Greene) Samuelsson. 
Found only in our northern counties with the habitat of the preceding 
species. This species was unknown to me until I studied my specimens. 
It is probable that now since I know it, I could find it in more of our 
northern counties. I have specimens from Lake, Elkhart, and Newton 
Counties. This is the boreal representative of the genus. 

N. S., Maine, Col. to Wash. 



75. ECHINODORUS Richard 

Scapes (stems) reclining or prostrate, 7-15 dm long, usually rooting at the nodes; 
leaves cordate, blades 4-15 cm long; flowers in verticils at the nodes, their pedicels 
2-5 cm long in fruit ; beak of achene a fourth as long as the body. . . 1. E. radioans. 

Scapes erect, 10-30 cm high; leaves cordate, 2-11 cm long; pedicels stiff, 12-15 mm 
long in fruit; beak of achene half as long as the body 2. E. cordifolius. 

1. Echinodorus radicans (Nutt.) Engelm. Map 106. This species is 
restricted to the Lower Wabash Valley where it is found on the muddy 
borders of old river channels. Very local. 

D. C. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Echinodorus cordifolius (L.) Griseb. Map 107. The only specimen 
of this species known to have been collected in Indiana is one in the 
herbarium of DePauw University. It was collected by Blatchley on 
the south side of Conover's Pond, now drained, which was located in the 
southeast corner of sec. 9, now within the city limits of Terre Haute, 
Vigo County. This species was reported from Tippecanoe County by 
Wilson, but his specimen can not be located. 

Ind.. 111. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



88 



Alismaceae 



Lophotocarpus 



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.opfiotocarpus calycinus 
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Map 109 



Sagittaria latifolia Willd. 



76. LOPHOTOCARPUS Th. Durand 

1. Lophotocarpus calycinus (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. Map 108. Re- 
stricted to the southern part of the state where it is found in artificial 
ponds and in sinkholes. All of my specimens were found in such habitats 
except one, which was from a muddy slough along White River in Greene 
County. When once established in a pond or sinkhole, it soon becomes the 
dominant plant, usually almost crowding out all other species. It is fast 
migrating northward, and I now find it in places where it was absent 20 
years ago. None of our early authors reported it. Probably introduced. 

Del. to S. Dak., southw. to Ala. and N. Mex. 

la. Lophotocarpus calycinus f. maximus (Engelm.) Fern. (Rhodora 
38: 73. 1936.) This is a very wideleaf form with blades up to 3 dm wide 
and with 18-21 nerves. Miss Edna Banta found it in an artificial pond 
in Jefferson County. 

Ohio and southw. 

lb. Lophotocarpus calycinus f. depauperatus (Engelm.) Fern. (Rho- 
dora 38: 73. 1936.) I collected a specimen of this form in an artificial 
pond on the August Bocard farm on the road between Corydon and Mill- 
town, about a mile south of DePauw, Harrison County. 



78.[SAGITTARIA L. Arrowhead 

Leaves all sagittate, rarely somewhat hastate, or some without lobes, the basal lobes 

as long as, shorter, or longer than the terminal one; pistillate heads never sessile; 

filaments of stamens glabrous. 

Bracts ovate, obtuse or rarely merely acute, usually 4-8 (10) mm long; achenes 

mostly 2-3 mm long; beaks of achenes, 0.5-2 mm long, horizontal, arising from 

the inner margin and pointing inward; leaf blades usually about 1.5 dm long 

(sometimes up to 4.5 dm long or as short as 3 cm long). 

Bracts and pedicels pubescent. (See excluded species no. 35, p. 1024.) 

S. pubescens. 

Bracts and pedicels glabrous ; scape not ribbed or rarely so ; faces of achenes not 
keeled or crested. 



Sagittaria 



Alismaceae 



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Sagittaria latifolia 


var. obtusa (Muhl.) Wieg. 




Sagittaria cuneata Sheldon 



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Mack. & Bush 



Terminal lobes of leaves of an ovate type, wider than linear. 

Apex of terminal lobe of leaves acute; plants usually monoecious; scapes 

usually terete 1. S. latifolia. 

Apex of terminal lobe of leaves obtuse or rounded; plants usually dioecious. 

la. S. latifolia var. obtusa. 

Terminal lobes of leaves linear lb. S. latifolia f . gracilis. 

Bracts lanceolate or long-cuneate, usually long-acuminate at the apex, sometimes 

merely acute in Sagittaria cuneata; beaks of achenes erect or if curved, bent 

outward from an erect base. 

Beaks of achenes very short, less than 0.5 nun long, usually about 0.3 mm long; 

achenes 2-2.5 (3) mm long, strongly obovoid, their faces not keeled or 

crested; leaves mostly 4-15 cm long, sagittate or sagittate-hastate; bracts 

mostly 6-12 mm long 2. S. cuneata. 

Beaks of achenes 0.5-2 mm long, usually about 1.5 mm long, arising from the 

inner edge of the achene and forming with the top of the achene a minute 

sinus, sometimes some of the beaks diverging; achenes keeled on each face 

and their margins more or less notched. 

Each face of the achene with a single keel ; sinus at the top of achene (between 

the wing and beak) wide and rounded; scapes strongly ribbed; bracts 

acuminate, mostly 8-25 mm long 3. S. brevirostra. 

Each face of the achene with two or more crested keels and sometimes with one 
or two short, intermediate ones ; sinus at the top of the achene deeper and 

narrower, sometimes almost closed by the outwardly curved beak 

4. S. australis. 

Leaves all entire or with a few leaves lobed; blades linear, lanceolate, or elliptic; 
filaments of stamens more or less glandular-pubescent; plants growing in shallow 
water or in very wet places. 
Pistillate heads sessile; beak of achene about 1.5 mm long; body of achene about 

3 mm long 5. S. rigida. 

Pistillate heads pedicellate; beak of achene very short, mostly 0.3-0.75 mm long, 
lateral; body of achene about 2 mm long 6. S. graminea. 

1. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Common Arrowhead. Map 109. The ex- 
treme variability of the leaves of this species has led authors to describe 
several forms, one of which has been reported from Indiana. I think that 
much of the variations in leaf pattern is due to habitat. This species is 



90 



Alismaceae 



Sagittaria 





50 

Map 114 



Sagittaria rigida Pursh 




S3 

Map 115 



Sagittaria gramlnea Michx, 



restricted mostly to the lake area with a few outlying stations. It 
has been reported in various parts of the state because, no doubt, it has 
not been separated from Sagittaria brevirostra. It is found on the muddy 
borders of streams, ponds, and lakes and in ditches. It is rather frequent 
in its habitat but its habitat is more or less local. Since there has been 
no recent revision of the genus, the general distribution is not definitely 
known and the best that can be done is to accept that of our most recent 
authors. 

N. B. to B. C, southw. to Fla. and Calif. 

la. Sagittaria latifolia var. obtusa (Muhl.) Wieg. (Rhodora 27: 186. 
1925.) (Sagittaria latifolia f. obtusa (Muhl.) Rob.) Map 110. This form 
is probably local or infrequent throughout the state. The habitat is that 
of the species. The general distribution is not known. 

lb. Sagittaria latifolia f. gracilis (Pursh) Rob. This is a rare form 
in our area. In 1936 I studied some large colonies on the marl border of 
the northwest part of Crooked Lake, Steuben County. On the shore and 
as far out as I could wade with boots, the typical form of the species 
occurred. Beyond this, which I examined with a boat, the roots of the 
marsh plants formed a floating mass among which the linear-lobed form 
was frequent. Among them could be found plants with all the leaves 
with two lobes. Others could be found where a single plant would have 
leaves with two lobes, one lobe, and others without lobes (mere phyl- 
lodia). 

2. Sagittaria cuneata Sheldon. (Sagittaria arifolia Nutt.) Map 111. 
All of our specimens are from the lake area where it is local, although 
there are no reports from the dune area. Found on the muddy or wet, 
sandy borders of streams, lakes, and ponds and in ditches. 

N. S., Que. to B. C, southw. to Conn., Kans., N. Mex., and Calif. 

3. Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush. Shortbeak Arrowhead. Map 
112. This plant is found probably throughout the state and is probably 



Anacharis Hydrocharitaceae 91 

our most common species. This arrowhead is more robust than Sagittaria 
latifolia with which it is sometimes associated. It is found on the muddy 
shores of streams, ponds, and sloughs and in ditches. I have seen speci- 
mens from Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, and Tennessee. 

4. Sagittaria australis (J. G. Smith) Small. Map 113. This is a south- 
ern species which is known only from Perry County. It is found on muddy 
shores. 

Pa., Va., and Ind. to Ala. 

5. Sagittaria rigida Pursh. (Sagittaria heterophylla Pursh.) STIFF 
Arrowhead. Map 114. This species is essentially northern in its distribu- 
tion and is practically restricted to our lake area with a few locations 
south of it. It is infrequent and found on muddy borders and in ditches. 
The leaves are extremely variable, ranging from linear to rather broadly 
elliptic. Three forms have been named, but I believe these ecological 
fluctuations do not merit names. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to N. J., Tenn., and Kans. 

6. Sagittaria graminea Michx. Map 115. Infrequent in a part of the 
lake area and local southward. This species is usually found in shallow 
water or in very wet places about lakes, ponds, and artificial ponds and 
in ditches. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

17. HYDROCHARITACEAE Asch. Frogbit Family 

Leaves less than 2 cm wide. 

Plants with long, leafy submerged stems ; spathes very small, sessile 

87A. Anacharis, p. 91 

Plants stemless, submerged, with long narrow leaves ; spathes peduncled 

89. Vallisneria, p. 92. 

Leaves more than 2 cm wide 97. Limnobium, p. 92. 

87A. ANACHARIS Bab. & Planch. Waterweed 

[Victorin. L' Anacharis canadensis. Contrib. Lab. Bot. Univ. Montreal 
18: 1-43. figs. 7. 1931.] 

K. M. Wiegand has made an extensive study of the species of this genus 
in the Cayuga Lake Basin and has published his findings in the "Flora of 
the Cayuga Lake Basin," by Wiegand & Eames. I have taken the following 
key from this work, and I here make acknowledgment for its use. 
Leaves 1.2-4 mm wide (averaging 2.13 mm) ; spathe of the staminate flower oblong- 
linear, 11-13 mm long, constricted at base into a stipelike part, the orifice gaping, 
2-lobed ; staminate flower remaining attached by means of a long filiform peduncle ; 
sepals or mature bud of the staminate flowers 3.8-5 mm long; anthers 2.2-2.5 mm 

long; sepals or mature bud of the pistillate flowers 2.3-2.7 mm long 

1. A. canadensis. 

Leaves 0.7-1.8 mm wide (averaging 1.3 mm) ; spathe of the staminate flower globose, 
apiculate, the body about 2 mm long; staminate flower sessile, breaking out of the 
spathe and rising free to the surface before anthesis; sepals or mature bud of 
the staminate flowers 2-2.5 mm long; anthers 0.8-1.1 mm long; sepals or mature 
bud of the pistillate flowers 1.2-1.8 mm long 2. A. occidentalis. 



92 



Hydrocharitaceae 



Vallisneria 




o 5o 

Map 116 



Anacharis canadensis (Michx.) Planch. 




~5o 

Map 117 



Anacharis occidentalis (Pursh) Vict. 




^3 
Map 118 



Vallisneria americana Michx. 



1. Anacharis canadensis (Michx.) Planch. (Eiodea of Gray, Man., ed. 7 
and Philotria of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Canada Water- 
weed. Map 116. Frequent to common in most of our lakes, ponds, slow 
flowing streams, and ditches of the lake area, becoming rare southward 
because its habitat is not found. It prefers clear and calcareous waters. 
Wiegand, in his study of the species, concludes that Anacharis canadensis 
is dioecious and that Anacharis Planchonii is the pistillate form of the 
species. 

Que., N. E. to Sask. and Wyo., southw. to N. Y., Ky., and 111. 

2. Anacharis occidentalis (Pursh) Vict. (Contrib. Lab. Bot. Univ. 
Montreal 18: 50: 1931.) {Philotria angustifolia of Britton and Brown, 
Illus. Flora, ed. 2 and Eiodea Nuttallii (Planch.) St. John.) Western 
Waterweed. Map 117. This species has the habitat of the preceding 
species but is less frequent. Most of our specimens are from the lake 
area. 

Southern Maine to Wis. and Oreg., southw. to D. C, Mo., and Nebr. 

89. VALLISNERIA [Micheli] L. 

1. Vallisneria americana Michx. (Rhodora 20: 108. 1918.) {Vallisneria 
spiralis of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) 
Wild Celery. Map 118. Infrequent to frequent or even common in the 
lakes of the lake area and rare in our streams, except those of the lake area 
where it may be common. The sepals of my specimens and those which I 
have measured in the field are rounded at the apex and 3-3.5 mm wide 
and 3-5 mm long, usually slightly less than 4 mm long. The peduncles 
of the staminate inflorescences are mostly about 1 cm long and the leaves 
are 6-8 mm wide. The widest leaf I have been able to find was 9 mm wide. 

Cent. Maine to S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



97. LIMNOBIUM Richard 
See excluded species no. 38, p. 1024. 



Gramineae 93 

19. GRAMlNEAE Juss. Grass Family 

[Hitchcock. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. 1040p. 1096 
fig. 1935. Deam. Grasses of Indiana. 356p. 81 pi. 1929.] 

The sequence of genera, nomenclature, and concept of species are those 
of Hitchcock, "Manual of the Grasses of the United States." In a few in- 
stances, however, where a named form of a species is distinct in Indiana 
and is not given in Hitchcock's Manual, it is added here in the belief that 
it will be appreciated by students who are making an intensive study of 
the grasses. 

It is to be noted that the numbers of the genera are not consecutive; 
this is because they are the ones used in Hitchcock's Manual. For the 
benefit of students who prefer to follow the sequence of genera as they 
occur in Dalla Torre and Harms' General Siphonogamarum, those numbers 
are also added, following the number used in Hitchcock's Manual. 

KEY TO THE TRIBES 

Plants woody, culms perennial 1. Bambuseae, p. 94. 

Plants herbaceous, culms annual. 

Spikelets 1-many-flowered, 1 terete or laterally compressed; sterile lemmas or in- 
completely developed florets above the fertile ones, except in Uniola and the 
Phalarideae, in each of which the spikelet has at least 3 florets, the lower 2 
sterile or rudimentary, and in Arrhenatherum, which has 2 florets, the upper 
perfect, the lower staminate. 
Glumes present, rarely one of them obsolete. 

Spikelets 3-flowered in plan, the uppermost floret perfect, the lower 2 staminate 
or represented by sterile lemmas, which may be reduced to minute scales. 

7. Phalarideae, p. 144. 

Spikelets 1-many-flowered, no incomplete florets below the perfect ones, except 

in Uniola, Phragmites, and Arrhenatherum, none of which has spikelets 

3-flowered in plan. 

Inflorescence of spikes or racemes, either solitary, digitate, racemose, or the 

spikelets never long pedicellate. 

Spikelets solitary or in clusters of 2-6, alternate on opposite sides of the 

axis; spike solitary, terminal 3. Hordeae, p. 113. 

Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or racemes, the spikes or racemes solitary or 

several 6. Chlorideae, p. 141. 

Inflorescence a panicle, open or contracted, sometimes spikelike. 

Spikelets 1-flowered 5. Agrostideae, p. 125. 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

Glumes shorter than the lowermost floret (see also Sphenopholis) ; lemmas 
usually awnless, if awned, the awn terminal or from a minutely 

bifid apex 2. Festuceae, p. 95. 

Glumes at least as long as the lowermost floret (shorter in Sphenopholis) ; 
lemmas awnless or with the awn attached to the back or from a bifid 

apex 4. Aveneae, p. 121. 

Glumes obsolete. 

Flowers perfect, each having a pistil and at least 1 stamen. .8. Oryzeae, p. 145. 

Flowers imperfect, staminate and pistillate flowers in different spikelets 

9. Zizanieae, p. 146. 

1 Spikelets of Panicum are apparently 1-flowered but examination shows them to be structurally 2- 
flowered. The upper flower is fertile and the lower one is represented usually only by a lemma which is 
the outer or loose one of the spikelet. 



94 



Bambuseae 



Arundinaria 





V 








Jan. 

Feb 












Mar. 
Apr. 
May 




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July 
Aug. 






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Map 119 
Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. 




50 

Map 120 



Bromus stenlis L. 




Map 121 
Bromus tectorum L. 



Spikelets essentially 2-flowered in structural plan, the lower floret represented by a 
sterile lemma, the first glume sometimes lacking; various types of imperfect 
flowers common; spikelets never strongly compressed laterally. 
Spikelets usually not in pairs; fertile lemmas thicker or firmer than the glumes 

and sterile lemmas 10. Paniceae, p. 147. 

Spikelets in pairs (sometimes in threes), one member sessile, the other (or others) 
pedicellate (occasionally both sessile or pedicellate), the pedicelled member 
often variously reduced in structure, represented by only a pedicel or a 
microscopic rudiment in extreme cases; fertile lemmas thin and papery; 
glumes firmer. 
Spikelets in pairs, one sessile and perfect, the other pedicellate and usually 
staminate or neuter (the pedicellate one sometimes obsolete), rarely both 

pedicellate; lemmas hyaline 11. Andropogoneae, p. 177. 

Spikelets unisexual, the pistillate below, the staminate above, in the same in- 
florescence or in separate inflorescences 12. Tripsaceae, p. 181. 



1. BAMBUSEAE Nees. Bamboo Tribe 

1M14'. ARUNDINARIA Michx. Cane 

[Galloway. Bamboos : their culture and uses in the United States. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Bull. 1329 : 1-44. illus. 1925.] 

Panicles on leafy branches; culms as much as 10 m high 1. A. gigantea. 

Panicles on leafless shoots from creeping rhizomes. (See excluded species no. 39, 
p. 1025.) A. tecta. 

1. Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Chapm. (Arundinaria macrospenna 
Michx. of Gray, Man., ed. 7, of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, and 
of Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Southern Cane. Map 119. This species is 
restricted to southern Indiana. I have found it only in the counties border- 
ing the Ohio and Wabash Rivers. Kriebel, however, found it along Beaver 
Creek near Huron, Lawrence County, and there is a place named "cane 
marsh" in Greene County which indicates that it, at one time, did occur 
in that county. This species is usually found in lowlands that are periodi- 



1 The first number refers to the numbers used in Hitchcock's Manual of Grasses of the United States. 
- The second number refers to the numbers used in Dalla Torre and Harms' Genera Siphonogamarum. 



Bromus Festuceae 95 

cally inundated. I have seen it on rocky wooded slopes, however, and on 
the top of the bluff of the Ohio River, where it was 200 feet above the 
water. In my opinion fire and grazing have been instrumental in limiting 
its distribution on the uplands. 

Se. U. S. from Va. to Mo. and Okla., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. FESTUCEAE Nees. Fescue Tribe 

Plants stout, usually 1.5-2.5 m high; inflorescence large, plumelike; rachilla plumose. 

26. Phragmites, p. 111. 

Plants much shorter, rarely as high as 1.5 m; inflorescence not plumelike; rachilla not 
plumose. 
Lemmas prominently 3-nerved, without a cobwebby base. 
Lemmas more or less villous on the nerves. 

Nodes of stem glabrous; plants mostly 75-125 cm high, basal parts smooth to 

the touch 31. Triodia, p. 113. 

Nodes of stem pubescent; plants mostly 25-60 cm high, basal parts rough to 

the touch 32. Triplasis, p. 113. 

Lemmas not villous on the nerves, glabrous or scabrous. 
Lemmas less than 5 mm long; fruit less than 5 mm long. .12. Eragrostis, p. 108. 

Lemmas about 8 mm long; fruit about 5 mm long 15. Diarrhena, p. 110. 

Lemmas 5-many-nerved (the intermediate pair in some species of Poa obscure). 
Spikelets with 2 or 3 empty lemmas above the 2 or 3 fertile florets, or with 1-4 
sterile lemmas below the 6 or 7 fertile florets. 

Sterile lemmas above the fertile florets 28. Melica, p. 111. 

Sterile lemmas below the fertile florets 20. Uniola, p. 110. 

Spikelets without sterile lemmas (terminal florets often not developed). 
Lemmas awned. 

Lemmas awned or awn-tipped from a minutely bifid apex. 

Grain pubescent at the summit ; callus of florets not bearded 

2. Bromus, p. 95. 

Grain not pubescent at the summit; callus of florets bearded 

29. Schizachne, p. 112. 

Lemmas awned from the tip, rounded on the back; grain not pubescent at 

the summit 3. Festuca, p. 99. 

Lemmas awnless. 

Spikelets strongly flattened, subsessile in 1-sided clusters at the ends of long 

naked branches, these spreading in anthesis, erect in fruit 

21. Dactylis, p. 111. 

Spikelets neither strongly flattened nor in clusters. 

Florets cobwebby at the base 10. Poa, p. 104. 

Florets not cobwebby at the base. 

Lemmas plainly 7-nerved, scarious at the apex 6. Glyceria, p. 102. 

Lemmas 5-nerved, sometimes 2 of the nerves obscure. 

Lemmas 8-11 mm long 2. Bromus, p. 95. 

Lemmas mostly less than 8 mm long. 

Lemmas keeled on the back 10. Poa, p. 104. 

Lemmas rounded on the. back 3. Festuca, p. 99. 

2-389. BROMUS L. Bromegrass 

[Shear. A revision of the North American species of Bromus occurring 
north of Mexico. U. S. Dept. Agric. Agrost. Bull. 23 : 1-66. 1920. Wiegand. 
Notes on some East- American species of Bromus. Rhodora 24: 89-92. 
1922.] 

[Note: Measurements of spikelets, glumes, and lemmas do not include awns.] 



96 Festuceae Bromus 

First glume 1-nerved (rarely 3-nerved in Bromus latiglumis, the leaves of which have 
prominent flanges at the base). 
Awns 12-25 mm long, straight. 

Spikelets glabrous or more or less scabrous ; awns about 25 mm long 

1. B. sterilis. 

Spikelets pubescent; awns mostly 12-17 mm long 2. B. tectorum. 

Awns less than 12 mm long or sometimes lacking. 

Branches of panicle compact, erect or slightly spreading at maturity; glumes 
and lemmas glabrous or more or less scabrous but not pubescent; sheaths 
usually glabrous. 
Creeping rhizomes present; sheaths glabrous (sometimes late shoots pubescent) ; 

lemmas awnless or with awns up to 3 mm long 3. B. inermis. 

Creeping rhizomes lacking; sheaths glabrous or somewhat pilose; lemmas with 

awns 5-6 mm long. (See excluded species no. 42, p. 1025.) B. erectus. 

Branches of panicle loose, drooping; glumes and lemmas more or less pubescent; 

sheaths usually pubescent. 

Glumes glabrous except the scabrous midnerve or sometimes the whole surface 

more or less scabrous. 

Nodes usually 4-6; lemmas strongly pubescent near the margin on the lower 

half to three-fourths, their backs glabrous or scaberulous; plants of a 

marsh or prairie habitat, flowering in July 4. B. ciliatus. 

Nodes 10-20; lemmas more or less pubescent, especially on the back; plants of 
dry woods, ravines, and dry banks of streams, flowering from July to 

September 5. B. latiglumis. 

Glumes more or less pubescent all over; lemmas more or less pubescent, 
especially on the back ; plants of dry woods, ravines, and dry banks ; plants 
flowering from May to July. 
Nodes 4-6; sheaths shorter than the internodes or the lower ones longer, not 
flaring at the summit. 

Sheaths and blades more or less villous 6. B. purgans. 

Sheaths and blades (except the lower ones) glabrous 

6a. B. purgans f . laevivaginatus. 

Nodes 10-20; sheaths longer than the internodes, at least the 4 lower ones 

longer; plants flowering from July to September 5. B. latiglumis. 

First glume 3- or 5-nerved. 

Sheaths glabrous 7. B. secalinus. 

Sheaths pubescent. 

Lemmas awnless or with awns less than 5 mm long. 

Glumes and lemmas glabrous or scabrous on the nerves; awnless or with short 

awns 8. B. brizaeformis. 

Glumes and lemmas silky-pubescent all over ; awns mostly 2-3 mm long 

9. B. Kalmii. 

Lemmas with awns more than 5 mm long. 

Glumes and lemmas more or less silky-pubescent 10. B. mollis. 

Glumes and lemmas glabrous or somewhat scabrous. 

Branches of the panicle rather stiffly spreading or drooping, not flexuous; 

awns straight 11. B- commutatus. 

Branches of the panicle slender, lax or flexuous 12. B. japonicus. 

1. Bromus sterilis L. Map 120. Our only report of this species is of 
a colony which I found along Tanners Creek about a half mile southeast 
of Guilford, Dearborn County. It was well established here along the 
roadside. 

Nat. of Eu. ; N. E. to 111., southw. to Va. and Ala., and in the west from 
B. C. to Calif, and Colo. 



Bromus 



Festuceae 



97 





50 

Map 123 



Bromus ciliatus L. 






Map 124 



Bromus latiglumis (Shear! Hitchc. 



2. Bromus tectorum L. Downy Chess. Map 121. This species is 
now found throughout the state and has become a pernicious weed in all the 
northern counties where a sandy soil is found. It is found along roadsides 
and in waste places, hayfields, pastures, and fallow fields. 

Nat. of Eu. ; throughout the U. S. as far south as Va. and Miss. Common 
on the Pacific coast. 

3. Bromus inermis Leyss. Smooth Brome. Map 122. I do not know 
that this species has been intentionally sown to any extent in Indiana but 
it is now found frequently along railroads and roadsides in sandy soil in the 
northern half of the state. I found one farmer in Lagrange County who 
had sown it with success in a field of blow-sand soil. 

Native from central Europe to China; used in the western states as a 
hay and pasture grass and now found as an escape in the northern half 
of the United States. 

4. Bromus ciliatus L. Fringed Brome. Map 123. Infrequent in marshes 
and springy areas of the lake region. I found a specimen in Steuben 
County with all the sheaths glabrous except the lowest one. This is Bromus 
ciliatus f. denudatus VViegand (Rhodora 24: 91. 1922) which Fernald 
now regards as the typical form of the species. (Rhodora 32: 70. 1930.) 

Newf. to Wash., southw. to N. J., Tenn., Iowa, w. Tex., and s. Calif. 

5. Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc. (Bromus altissimus Pursh, 
Bromus purgans of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, and including 
Bromus incanus (Shear) Hitchc.) Map 124. Infrequent throughout the 
state. This species seems to prefer dense shade and is found most often on 
wooded slopes along streams and in ravines, in fact, it is rarely found far 
distant from a stream. This species was separated from the form with 
densely pubescent sheaths by most authors but Hitchcock has united the 
two forms under this name. 

Maine to e. Mont., southw. to N. C, Tenn., Tex., and N. Mex. 



98 



Festuceae 



Bromus 




30 

Map 125 



Bromus purgans L. 




50 

Map 126 



Bromus secalinus L. 




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Bromus commutatus Schrad. 



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Bromus japonicus Thunb. 



6. Bromus purgans L. Canada Brome. Map 125. Infrequent to fre- 
quent throughout the state in dry places, rarely in wet places, in black and 
white oak woods and less frequent in beech and sugar maple woods. 

Mass. to Alberta, southw. to Fla. and Ariz. 

6a. Bromus purgans f. laevivaginatus Wieg. (Rhodora 24: 92. 1922.) 

This is a form of the species that has all the sheaths glabrous except 
sometimes the lowest one. 

7. Bromus secalinus L. Chess. Map 126. Frequent to common in all 
parts of the state. It is found almost everywhere in cleared grounds except 
in pastures. It is most abundant in wheatfields and waste grounds. In 
Indiana it is called cheat. 

Nat. of Eu. ; now found throughout the U. S. 

8. Bromus brizaeformis Fisch. & Mey. Rattlesnake Chess. My only 
specimen is from a waste place near the water works, Michigan City, in 
La Porte County. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental grass. 



Festuca Festuceae 99 

Nat. of Eu. ; rare in e. U. S. from Mass. to Del. and occasional in the 
Pacific Coast States. 

9. Bromus Kalmii Gray. Kalm Chess. Map 127. Infrequent on low, 
open dunes and in marshy and springy places in the lake region. 

Maine to Minn, and S. Dak., southw. to Md. and Iowa. 

10. Bromus mollis L. {Bromus hordeaceus of recent authors.) Soft 
Chess. Map 128. In 1913 I found this species to be frequent along the 
roadside near the water works in Michigan City, La Porte County. 

Nat. of Eu.; in e. U. S. from N. S. to N. C, and abundant on the 
Pacific coast. 

11. Bromus commutatus. Schrad. Hairy Chess. Map 129. This 
species is now frequent to common throughout the state and is our most 
common chess. It is found almost everywhere in cultivated and waste 
grounds and along roadsides and railroads. 

Nat. of Eu. ; now well established in most parts of the U. S. and abun- 
dant in the Pacific Coast States. 

12. Bromus japonicus Thunb. (Bromus patulus Mertens & Koch of 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Japanese Chess. Map 130. This 
species is now found throughout the state in habitats similar to those of 
Bromus commutatus. 

Native of the Old World; now found throughout the United States 
except the Gulf States. 

3-385. FESTUCA L. Fescue Grass 

[Piper. North American species of Festuca. Contr. U. S. Nation. 
Herb. 10: 1-42. 1906.] 

Leaves involute, setaceous or capillary, less than 1.5 mm wide; internodes of rachilla 

more or less scabrous. 

Annual; some of the sheaths partly or entirely retrorsely pubescent, rarely all of 

them glabrous; spikelets mostly 5-13-flowered; lemmas more or less scabrous 

all over; stamens 1, generally included at anthesis. 

Lower glumes 3.5-4.5 mm long; awns of lemmas 3.5-7 mm long.. . .1. F. octo flora. 

Lower glumes 2.3-4 mm long; awns of lemmas 1-3 mm long 

la. F. octo flora var. tenella. 

Perennial; sheaths glabrous; spikelets 3-8-fiowered ; lemmas scabrous only toward 
the apex; stamens 3, generally protruding at anthesis. 
Culms in loose tufts, decumbent at the usually red, fibrillose base; awn of lemma 

shorter than the body; blades smooth 2. F. rubra. 

Culms erect. 

Lemmas 3-3.8 mm long, awnless; spikelets 5-8 mm long; leaves capillary 

3. F. capillata. 

Lemmas 4-5 mm long, short-awned; spikelets 7-10 mm long; leaves narrow but 

not capillary 4. F. ovina. 

Leaves flat, more than 1.5 mm wide; internodes of rachilla glabrous. 
Lemmas 5-7 mm long; spikelets 9-25 mm long; panicles nearly erect or slightly 

curved, branches short 5. F. elatior. 

Lemmas 4-4.5 mm long; spikelets mostly 5-7 mm long; panicles usually open and 
nodding at maturity if of normal size, branches long. 



100 



Festuceae 



Festuca 




o 5o 

Map 131 



Festuca octoflora Walt. 




50 

Map 132 
Festuca octoflora 
var. tenella ( Wi lid.) Fern. 




Lemmas mostly subacute; mature panicles strongly curved; spikelets somewhat 
scattered at the ends of the panicle-branches 6. F. obtusa. 

Lemmas more acute; mature panicles drooping; spikelets more clustered at the 

ends of the panicle-branches ; florets more uniformly 3 or 4 to a spikelet 

7. F. paradoxa. 

1. Festuca octoflora Walt. Map 131. This species, as now known, is 
restricted to the southern part of the state. It, and also the variety, are 
more or less local because their habitat is local. On the whole, it is more 
or less frequent and is found in bare, sandy, sometimes very sandy soil. 

N. J. to Okla., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

la. Festuca octoflora var. tenella (Willd.) Fern. (Rhodora 34: 209-211. 
1932.) Map 132. The variety is doubtless found in every county of the 
state where its peculiar habitat is found. The slightly acid property of 
the sandy soil in which it is found doubtless restricts its appearance in 
the Tipton Till Plain. 

Maine, Que., B. C, southw. to Ga., Ark., Tex., and Calif. 

2. Festuca rubra L. Map 133. This grass was found by Madge 
McKee in a vacant lot in Goodland, Newton County. It was well estab- 
lished here. It was found in 1935 by R. C. Friesner at 3711 N. Gladstone 
Ave. in Indianapolis, where it had taken possession of the lawn. It is 
probably established in many other places throughout the state where it 
has been introduced in lawns in grass seed, but it has not been detected 
because of its close resemblance to Festuca ovina and Poa pratensis. In 
1937 I found it along a roadside near a house in Noble County. 

Lab. to Alaska, southw. in the mts. in the west to Ariz., in the Allegheny 
Mts. to Ga., and along the Coastal Plain; probably mostly introduced in 
the Eastern States. 

3. Festuca capillata Lam. (Rhodora 18: 235. 1916.) (Festuca ovina 
var. capillata (Lam.) Hack.) Hair Fescue. Map 134. I have a letter from 



Festuca 



Festuceae 



101 



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Festuca ovina L 




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Map 136 



Festuca elatior L. 



A. A. Hansen who says this species is established in the vicinity of 
Lafayette, Tippecanoe County. 

Newf. to Mich., southw. to N. C. and 111., and in Oreg. 

4. Festuca ovina L. (Fernald. The allies of Festuca ovina in eastern 
America. Rhodora 37: 250-252. 1935.) Sheep Fescue. Map 135. This 
species prefers sandy soil and has been found in several places in open 
woodland and waste places. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Maine, Mich, to N. Dak. and southw. to S. C. and 111. and 
N. Mex. ; also on the west coast from Alaska to Wash. 

5. Festuca elatior L. Meadow Fescue. English Bluegrass. Map 
136. Infrequent to frequent throughout the state. It is most frequent along 
roadsides and in waste places and has sparingly escaped to open woodland. 
Introduced as a forage plant. The Indiana farmers whom I have interro- 
gated call it English bluegrass. 

Nat. of Eurasia ; throughout the cooler parts of N. A. 

6. Festuca obtusa Spreng. (Festuca nutans Spreng.) Nodding Fescue. 
Map 137. Infrequent to frequent throughout the state in woodland of 
many kinds. 

N. S., Que. to Man, southw. to Fla. and e. Tex. 

7. Festuca paradoxa Desv. (Opusc. 105. 1831.) (See Amer. Jour. Bot. 
24:33. 1937.) (Festuca Shortii Kunth.) Short's Fescue. Map 138. This 
species is easily recognized in the field but herbarium material is difficult 
to determine. I have seen it growing in Posey County. I have herbarium 
material from Decatur County which I believe belongs here. In Posey 
County it grows in hard, white clay soil in low, open woodland with pin 
oak. 

Pa. to Iowa, southw. to S. C. and e. Tex. 



102 



Festuceae 



Glyceria 




~3o 
Map 137 



Festuca obtusa Spreng 




50 

Map 138 



Festuca paradoxa Desv. 




dp/ 50 

Map 139 



Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. 



6-383. GLYCERIA R. Br. Mannagrass 

Spikelets 2-8 mm long. 

Second glume about 1 mm long 1. G. striata. 

Second glume about 2 mm long. 
Lemmas 1.4-2.5 mm long. 

Leaves 2-4 mm wide; panicles contracted (less than 5 cm wide) ; spikelets 3- or 

4-flowered. (See excluded species no. 44, p. 1025.) G. melicaria. 

Leaves mostly 5-15 mm wide; panicles open (more than 5 cm wide); spikelets 

4-7 flowered 2. G. grandis. 

Lemmas 3-3.5 mm long. 

Second glume 1-nerved; florets smooth and glossy; lemmas abruptly acute; 

anthers about 0.5 mm long 3. G. cayiadensis. 

Second glume 3- or 5-nerved; florets not smooth and glossy; lemmas obtuse; 

anthers 1-1.5 mm long 4. G. pallida. 

Spikelets 10-40 mm long. 

Lemmas obtuse, about equaling the palea. 

Spikelets 10-15 mm long; lemmas hispid only on the nerves; anthers about 1 mm 

long ; grain 1.5 mm long 5. G. borealis. 

Spikelets 15-30 mm long; lemmas hispid on the nerves and on the spaces between 

them; anthers 1-1.5 mm long; grain 2-2.5 mm long 6. G. septentrionalis. 

Lemmas acute; palea about 1.5 mm longer than the lemma 7. G. acutiflora. 

1. Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. (Proe. Biol. Soc. of Washington 41 : 
157. 1928.) (Glyceria nervata ( Willd.) Trin. and Panicularia nervata 
(Willd.) Ktze.) Fowl Mannagrass. Map 139. Frequent throughout the 
state in wet soil in ditches, marshes, and wet woods, along streams, 
and about ponds and swampy places. 

Newf. to B. C., southw to Fla., Tex., and n. Calif. 

2. Glyceria grandis Wats. (Panicularia grandis (Wats.) Nash.) 
American Mannagrass. Map 140. This species grows in very wet places 
or in shallow water in ponds or in ditches. I have found only a few plants 
in three counties. 

P. E. I. to Alaska, southw. to Ohio, Tenn., Iowa, Nebr., N. Mex., and 
e. Oreg. 



Glyceria 



Festuceae 



103 



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Map 141 

Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trin. 













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Map 143 



Glyceria borealis (Nashl Batchelder 




Map 144 
Glyceria septentnonalis Hitchc. 




50 

Map 145 



Glyceria acutiflora Torr. 



3. Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trin. (Panicularia canadensis 
(Michx.) Ktze.) Canada Mannagrass. Map 141. Infrequent in the lake 
area where it is found in wet habitats in marshes, ditches, and springy 
places and about ponds. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Md. and 111. 

4. Glyceria pallida (Torr.) Trin. (Panicularia pallida (Torr.) Ktze.) 
Pale Mannagrass. Map 142. This grass has been found infrequently in 
a few of our northern counties. It grows in a very wet habitat, usually 
in shallow water or in ponds that dry up in midsummer. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to N. C. and Mo. 

5. Glyceria borealis (Nash) Batchelder. (Panicularia borealis Nash.) 
Northern Mannagrass. Map 143. This plant is doubtless very rare in 
Indiana. The habitat is the same as that of the preceding species. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Conn., Ind., Iowa, S. Dak., and in the mts. 
to N. Mex. and Calif. 



104 Festuceae Poa 

6. Glyceria septentrionalis Hitchc. {Panicularia septentrioyudis 
(Hitchc.) Bickn. and Glyceria plicata of Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Eastern 
Mannagrass. Map 144. Infrequent to somewhat frequent in the lake area 
and local in the southern part of the state. It has the habitat of the 
preceding species, growing only in very wet places or in shallow water. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to S. C. and e. Tex. 

7. Glyceria acutifldra Torr. (Panicularia acutiflora (Torr.) Kuntze.) 
Map 145. In 1919 I found this grass in an artificial pond in Harrison 
County. The pond was revisited in 1935 and this species was still a common 
plant in it. R. M. Kriebel found it in 1934 in a sinkhole on the farm of 
Julius Blackwell, about two and a half miles northeast of Springville, 
Lawrence County. On July 29, 1935, he found about a half acre in a but- 
tonbush swamp of about three acres on the Cobb farm about two miles 
northeast of Avoca, Lawrence County. Here it was associated with 
Cephahinthiis occiolentalis, Populus heterophylla , Rosa palustris, Glyceria 
septentrionalis, and Ranunculus flabellaris. 

N. H. to Mich., southw. to Del. and Tenn. 

10-378. POA L. Bluegrass 

Annual, usually less than 40 cm high. 

Lemmas not cottony at the base, plainly 5-nerved; mature anthers 0.7-1 mm long. 

1. P. annua. 

Lemmas cottony at the base, 3-nerved or with two additional obscure ones; mature 

anthers about 0.2 mm long 2. P. Chapmaniana. 

Perennial, usually more than 40 cm high. 

Lemmas not cottony at the base 3. P. autumnalis. 

Lemmas cottony at the base. 

Plants bluish green; culms from creeping rootstocks, not tufted, distinctly 
flattened; panicles contracted after anthesis and usually less than 1 cm wide 
(shade forms sometimes slender and spreading and as wide as 2 cm), 

branches of panicle erect; first glume 3-nerved 4. P. compressa. 

Plants green (not bluish) ; culms terete or only slightly compressed; panicles 
more or less expanded after anthesis, at least 2 cm wide, branches ascending 
or spreading; first glume 1-nerved except in P. Wolfii. 

Lemmas glabrous 5. P. langitida. 

Lemmas pubescent or scabrous, at least on the keel. 
Marginal nerves of lemmas glabrous. 

Sheaths smooth; intermediate nerves of the flowering glume obscure; 
spikelets 4-6 mm long; anthers 0.4-0.7 mm long, pink; ligule 1 mm 
long or less; inflorescence silvery green, without spikelets close to the 

rachis 6. P. ahode>:. 

Sheaths scabrous; intermediate nerves prominent; spikelets 3.2-3.0 mm 
long; anthers 1.6 mm long, pale; ligule 5-6 mm long; inflorescence 
yellowish green or purplish, with normal rays and, in addition, many 

spikelets on short branches closer to the rachis 7. P. trivially. 

Marginal nerves of lemmas pubescent. 
Intermediate nerves of lemmas obscure. 

Plants slender, lax; ligules less than 2 mm long; anthers often purple, 
0.5-0.8 (1) mm long; branches of panicles in 2's (rarely in 3's). 
8. P. paludigena. 

Plants robust; ligules more than 2 mm long; anthers 0.8-1.4 mm long; 
branches of panicles in .'!'s or more 9. P. palustris. 



Poa 



Festuceae 



105 













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Poa autumnalis Muhl. 



Intermediate nerves of lemmas prominent. 
Lemmas 2.5-3 mm long. 

Midnerve of lemmas pubescent only on the basal half; lemmas acute or 
subacute ; plants with creeping rootstocks ; anthers purple, mostly 

1.4-1.5 mm long; 10. P. pratensis. 

Midner/e of lemmas pubescent the entire length; lemmas obtuse; 
plants without creeping rootstocks; anthers purple, 1.6-1.8 mm 

long 11. P. sylvestris. 

Lemmas 4-4.5 mm long. 

Anthers 1-1.5 mm long; lemmas acute 12. P. Wolfii. 

Anthers 2-2.5 mm long; lemmas obtuse 13. P. cuspidata. 

1. Poa annua L. Annual Bluegrass. Map 146. This grass is found 
throughout the state in almost all sorts of habitats except in very wet 
places. It is most often found in lawns, gardens, orchards, and waste 
places about dwellings. It is, however, found in logging roads in dense 
woodland, in pastures, and along roadsides. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Newf . and Lab. to Alaska, southw. to Fla. and Calif. ; also 
in tropical America at high altitudes. 

2. Poa Chapmaniana Scribn. Chapman Bluegrass. Map 147. This 
species is restricted mostly to southern Indiana where it is usually found 
in hard, white, slightly acid, clay soil in fallow fields where it is often abun- 
dant and usually associated with Alopecurus carolinianus, Myosotis vir- 
ginica, and Arabis virginica. Since all of my specimens are from fallow 
and cultivated fields, it seems that one would be justified in assuming that 
it is being introduced from the area to the south of us. In 1937 it was an 
abundant weed in an Iris farm near Bluffton, Wells County. 

Del. to Iowa, southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

3. Poa autumnalis Muhl. Map 148. This species, as I know it, is a deep 
woodland grass found in slightly acid soil in low beech and sweet gum, pin 
oak, and red maple woods. All of our specimens are from southern Indiana, 
although it is reported to occur in Michigan. 

N. J. to Mich, and 111., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



106 



Festuceae 



Poa 




5 50 

Map 149 



Poa compressa L. 




50 

Map 150 



Poa languida Hitchc. 




50 
Map 151 



Poa alsodes Gray 



4. Poa compressa L. Canada Bluegrass. Map 149. Found throughout 
the state almost everywhere except in very wet places and in dense wood- 
land. It often forms a good part of permanent pastures but is inferior to 
Kentucky bluegrass. It is sometimes confused with the last named species 
from which it is easily separated by its flat stem. Roll the stem between 
the fingers to ascertain if flat or round. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Ga., Ala., Okla., N. Mex., 
and Calif. 

5. Poa languida Hitchc. (Proc. Biol. Soc. of Washington 41 : 158. 1928.) 
(Poa debilis Torr. of Gray, Man., ed. 7, of Britton and Brown, Illus. 
Flora, ed. 2, and of Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Map 150. This is an infrequent 
grass in our northern counties. It is strictly a dense woodland species, and 
is usually found on black and white oak ridges, sometimes in moist 
locations. 

Newf., Que. to Wis., southw. to Pa., Ky., and Iowa. 

6. Poa alsodes Gray. Map 151. This is a rare woodland species found 
in a few of our northern counties and in one southern county. It is usually 
found in dry soil in beech and sugar maple woods although I have one 
specimen that was found in a low woods associated with white elm and 
soft maple. 

Maine to Minn., southw. to Del., and in the mts. to N. C. and Tenn. 

7. Poa triviAlis L. Rough Bluegrass. Map 152. Although I have 
found this species only once in the state, it has been reported from five 
counties. In 1936 it was found in Grant County by J. E. Potzger. It is 
often used in mixtures of lawn grass seed, and I was told by the superin- 
tendent of parks at La Porte that it was the grass he had found to thrive 
in shade. It is remarkable that it has not been found more often. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Newf., Ont. to S. Dak., southw. to Va. and W. Va., and 
on the Pacific coast from s. Alaska to n. Calif. 



Poa 



Festuceae 



107 




50 

Map 152 



Poa trivialis L. 




50 

Map 153 



Poa paludigena Fern & Wiec 




50 

Map 154 



Poa palustris L. 



8. Poa paludigena Fern. & Wieg. (Rhodora 20: 126. 1918.) (Poa 
leptocoma Trin. of Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Map 153. Only a few specimens 
of this rare grass have been found, and in widely separated counties. In 
Lagrange County it grew in tussocks of sphagnum about tamarack and in 
Dubois County it grew in a swamp in sphagnum about Alnus rugosa. 

N. Y., Mich., and Wis., southw. to Pa., Ind. and 111. 

9. Poa palustris L. (Poa triflora Gilib. of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton 
and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Fowl Bluegrass. Map 154. An infrequent 
grass in the lake area in marshes and in wet prairies. 

Newf. and Que., southw. to Va., Ind., Mo., N. Mex., and Calif. ; Eurasia. 

10. Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Bluegrass. Map 155. Frequent to 
common in all of the limestone areas of the state and rare or absent from 
the areas of acid soil. It is our principal pasture grass and is found almost 
everywhere, often as a weed in gardens. This species is here regarded as a 
native and by others as introduced into Indiana. See the discussion in 
Deam's Grasses of Indiana. 

Native in northern N. A. and introduced from Eu. ; throughout the 
U. S. except in the arid regions. 

11. Poa sylvestris Gray. Map 156. This is strictly a woodland species 
and is infrequent to frequent throughout the state. It is found in moist 
soil and prefers beech and sugar maple woods, but it is found also in other 
types of woodland. 

N. Y. to Wis., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

12. Poa Wolfii Scribn. Wolf's Poa. Map 157. I found this species in 
Jay County and Miss Madge McKee found it in a mesophytic forest along 
the Iroquois River in Newton County. In 1937 it was found by J. E. 
Potzger in Grant County. 

Ohio to Minn, and Mo. 



108 



Festuceae 



Eragrostis 




50 

Map 155 



Poa pratensis L. 




/ 50 

Map 156 



Poa syl vestris Gray 




5 ~30 

Map 157 



Poa Wolfii Scnba 





—1ft 
Map 159 



Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Stead. 




56 

Map 160 



Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Link. 



13. Poa cuspidata Nutt. (Poa brachyphyUa Schultes.) Known from 
Indiana only by a specimen collected in 1837 near New Albany by Dr. A. 
Clapp, which is now in the herbarium of Wabash College. I found it in 
southern Ohio the last of March in a habitat that convinces me that it can 
still be found in Indiana if search is made in early spring in the knobs on 
the ridges of Virginia pine and chestnut oak. 

Pa., Ohio, Ind., southw. to Ga. and e. Tenn. 



12-341. ERAGROSTIS Host Lovegrass 

Culms creeping and rooting at the nodes 1. E. hypnoides. 

Culms not creeping and rooting at the nodes. 
Perennials. 

Sheaths villous along the margins, rarely smooth; panicles mostly purplish, 
broadly spreading, more than half as wide as long; glumes about 1 mm long; 

lemmas 1.8-2.5 mm long, obtuse 2. E. spectabilis. 

Sheaths glabrous along the margins; panicles mostly yellow, narrow and elongate, 
not half as wide as long; glumes mostly 2-3 mm long; lemmas mostly 2.5-3 
mm long, acute. (See excluded species, no. 50, p. 1026.) E. trichodes. 



Eragrostis 



Festuceae 



109 



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rankii CA. Meyer 




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Map 163 



Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees 



Annuals. 

Keels of glumes and lemmas more or less glandular. 

Spikelets 2.5-4 mm wide; anthers 0.5 mm long 3. E. cilianensix. 

Spikelets about 2 mm wide; anthers 0.2 mm long. (See excluded species no. 49, 

p. 1026.) E. poaeoides. 

Keels of glumes and lemmas not glandular. 
Sheaths generally longer than the internodes; spikelets of lateral branchlets 
spreading; spikelets of terminal panicles 2-5-flowered. 
Culms branching only at the base; pedicels of lateral spikelets mostly 5-10 

mm long or longer; grain with a longitudinal groove 4. E. capillaris. 

Culms branching at the base and at each node or nearly so; pedicels of 
lateral spikelets mostly 1-3 mm long; grain without a longitudinal 

groove 5. E. Frankii. 

Sheaths shorter than the internodes; spikelets of lateral branchlets appressed 
or only slightly spreading; spikelets of terminal panicles usually 5-16- 
flowered (shade forms often 2-5-flowered). 

Lateral nerves of the lemmas plainly visible, at least at the base 

6. E. pectinacea. 

Lateral nerves of the lemmas not plainly visible. 

Lemmas obtuse, their sides glabrous. (See excluded species no. 48, p. 1026.) 

E. pilosa. 

Lemmas subacute, their sides more or less scabrous. (See excluded species 
no. 47, p. 1026.) E. mexicana. 

1. Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) BSP. Creeping Eragrostis. Map 158. 
Infrequent throughout the state but more frequent in the southwestern 
part where its habitat is more frequent. It is found on sandy or gravelly 
bars in ditches, creeks, and rivers and on the sandy shores of lakes. It is 
also found in muddy habitats along streams and in dried-up ponds and 
sloughs. In the latter habitats it often forms large mats. 

Que. to Wash., southw. through Mex. and W. I. to Argentina; not found 
in the Rocky Mts. 

2. Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. {Eragrostis pectinacea of 
Gray, Man., ed. 7, Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, and Eragrostis 
spectabilis var. sparsihirsuta Farw.) Purple Lovegrass. Map 159. This 
species is frequent to rare in sandy to very sandy soils throughout the 



110 Festuceae Diarrhena 

state and in hard, white clay soil in certain areas in the southern part of 
the state. It may be absent from a few counties of the Tipton Till Plain. 
Maine to Minn., southw. to Fla., Ariz., and n. Mex. 

3. Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Link. (Eragrostis megastachya 
(Koeler) Link of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Eragrostis major Host of Britton 
and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Stinkgrass. Map 160. Infrequent to 
frequent throughout the state. It prefers sandy soil and is frequently a 
common grass in such soil about dwellings and in gardens and other culti- 
vated grounds. It is generally found in cultivated grounds, in waste places, 
and along roadsides. 

Nat. of Eu.; Maine to Wash., southw. throughout the U. S. ; through 
Mex. and W. I. to Argentina. 

4. Eragrostis capillaris (L.) Nees. Lacegrass. Map 161. This is an 
infrequent grass of southern Indiana which is found in poor soil, mostly 
on the open crests and slopes of black oak and black oak-white oak ridges. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to Ga. and e. Tex. 

5. Eragrostis Frankii C. A. Meyer. FRANK'S LOVEGRASS. Map 162. 
Infrequent to rare in all parts of the state. It prefers sandy soil and is 
most often found on sandy bars of streams, along roadsides, and in pastures 
and barnlots. 

N. H. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Kans. 

6. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees. {Eragrostis Purshii Schrad. 
and Eragrostis caroliniana (Spreng.) Scribn.) Map 163. This is our most 
common species of the genus and is frequent throughout the state. It pre- 
fers the open in sandy or muddy soils, and is found mostly along roadsides 
and railroads and in waste places and fallow fields. It is less frequent on 
sandy bars and muddy borders of streams and ditches. 

Maine to N. Dak., southw. to Fla. and e. Tex. 

15-356. DIARRHENA Beauv. 

1. Diarrhena americana Beauv. (Diarrhena diandra (Michx.) Wood 
and Kory carpus arundinaceus Zea.) Map 164. This is a woodland grass 
usually found with oak, beech, and sugar maple. It is local to infrequent 
and is often found on rocky wooded slopes as where it occurs in Clifty 
Falls State Park. 

W. Va. to Mich, and S. Dak., southw. to Tenn., Ark., Okla., and e. Tex. 

20-365. UNIOLA L. 

1. Uniola latifolia Michx. Broadleaf Uniola. Map 165. This is an open 
woodland species and is found mostly in our southern counties although 
Miss Madge McKee found it along the Iroquois River in Newton County. 
It is found in greatest abundance in slightly acid, hard clay soils of the 
bottomlands. It occurs, however, in upland woods and even on the rocky 
cliffs along the Ohio River. 

Pa., N. J. to 111. and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



Dactylis 



Festuceae 



111 




50 

Map 164 



Diarrhena americana Bea 




50 

Map 165 



Uniola latifolia Michx 



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21-372. DACTYLIS L. 

1. Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard Grass. Map 166. This species has 
now escaped in all parts of the state, commonly so in limestone areas. It 
has been sown for both hay and pasture. It affords early pasture and is 
drought resistant. I think its use is now on the decline. 

Nat. of Eurasia; Newf. to se. Alaska, south w. to Fla. and cent. Calif. 

26-333. PHRAGMITES Trin. 

1. Phragmites communis Trin. Common Reed. Map 167. This grass 
is found in wet marshes, on mucky borders of lakes and streams, and in 
springy places in general, hence it is found mostly in our lake area. Here 
it was once frequent, but it is now rather local on account of drainage. 

N. S. to B. C, southw. to Fla. and Calif. ; also in Mex., W. I. to Chile and 
Argentina. It is also found in Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. 

28-355. MELICA L. 

Upper surface of leaves generally glabrous and the lower surface generally pubescent; 
spikelets with 2 fertile florets ; lateral nerves and midrib of the lemmas fading out 
before reaching the hyaline apex; panicles simple or nearly so 1. M. mutica. 

Upper surface of leaves generally pubescent and the lower surface scabrous or smooth; 
spikelets with 2 or 3 fertile florets; lateral nerves and midrib of lemmas usually 
reaching the apex; panicles compound 2. M. nitens. 

1. Melica mutica Walt.* Two-flower Melic. Map 168. This is a local 
grass in a few of the southern counties, where it is found on the rocky 
crests or slopes of black oak ridges, and is rarely associated with beech 
and sugar maple. I have seen this species a good many times but have 
found only a few tufts here and there and only a few culms to a tuft. 

Md. to Iowa, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Melica nitens (Scribn.) Nutt. Three-flower Melic. Map 169. This 
species is very local but usually abundant where found. Its habitat is so 
varied that it seems worth while to give the habitat in which specimens 

* Plants with spreading pubescent sheaths are Melica mutica f. diffusa (Pursh) 
Fern. (Rhodora 41: 501. 1939.) I have it from Crawford and Perry Counties. 



112 



Festuceae 



Melica 



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Melica mutica Walt. 




Map 171 
Triodia f lava (L.) Smyth 











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have been found. In Harrison and Clark Counties it occurs on top of 
bluffs between 200 and 300 feet high along the Ohio River and at the very 
edge of the bluff. I found a few specimens in an alluvial flat along a small 
stream in Harrison County. In Greene County I found it along a railroad 
and I assume that this single specimen was a waif. In Tippecanoe County 
it occurs as a common plant near the top of the very high gravelly bank 
of Big Wea Creek southwest of Lafayette. In Wabash County I found a 
few plants on "hanging rock." This is a large rock isolated by erosion, 
standing 84 feet high on the low bank of the Wabash River near Lagro. 
Pa. to Iowa and Kans., southw. to Ky., Ark., Tex., and Ariz. 



29-355A. SCHIZACHNE Hackel 

1. Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen. (Melica striata (Michx.) 
Hitchc. of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and A vena Torreyi Nash of Britton and Brown, 
Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Map 170. My only specimen was found along the 



Agropyron 



HORDEAE 113 



Wabash River on the top of the first rocky bluff east of Georgetown or 
about 6 miles west of Logansport. 

Newf. to s. Alaska, southw. to Pa., Ky., S. Dak., and Mont, and in the 
mts. from B. C. to N. Mex. ; also in Siberia and Japan. 

31-335. TRIODIA R. Br. 

1. Triodia flava (L.) Smyth. (Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc. of Gray, Man., 
ed. 7 and Tridens flava (L.) Hitchc. of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 
2.) Purpletop. Map 171. Infrequent to frequent or even locally common. 
Possibly absent in a few counties where the soil is neutral and there are 
no sandy areas. It prefers open, sandy soil; and it is usually most 
abundant in prairie habitats. 

N. H. to Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

32-335A. TRlPLASIS Beauv. 

1. Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chapm. Map 172. This species is local 
in the dry sand of the dunes about Lake Michigan and common in a similar 
habitat in Newton County about three miles northwest of Morocco where 
it occurs in open sandy woods and fallow fields over an area at least 4 
miles long and a mile wide (1938). 

N. H. to Minn., and Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



j»_ 



3. HORDEAE Lindl. Barley Tribe 

Spikelets solitary at each node of the rachis (rarely 2 in species of Agropyron, but 
never throughout) . 
First glume (except in the terminal spikelet) lacking; spikelets placed edgewise to 

the rachis 47. Lolium, p. 120. 

First glume present; spikelets placed flatwise to the rachis. 

Glumes 1-nerved; spikelets with 2 perfect florets 42. Secale, p. 115. 

Glumes 3-many-nerved. 

Glumes lanceolate or linear; spikelets 3-many-flowered. . . 39. Agropyron, p. 113. 

Glumes ovate; spikelets 2-6-flowered 40. Triticum, p. 115. 

Spikelets 2-6 at each node of the rachis. 
Spikelets all alike, 2-6-flowered. 

Glumes well developed, about as long as the florets, nerved ; spikes densely flowered, 

the spikelets mostly imbricated 43. Elymus, p. 115. 

Glumes obsolete or bristlelike, nerveless; spikes loosely flowered, the spikelets 

widely spreading 45. Hystrix, p. 118. 

Spikelets not all alike, (rarely 2- or 3-) 1-flowered, in 3's at each joint, the lateral pair 
pedicellate, usually aborted 46. Hordeum, p. 119. 

39-405. AGROPYRON Gaertn. Wheatgrass 

Creeping rootstocks present; anthers about 4 mm long. 

Spikelets mostly 4-6-flowered, 9-17 mm long 1. A. repens. 

Spikelets mostly 7-12-flowered, 15-28 mm long 2. A. Smithii. 

Creeping rootstocks lacking; anthers about 1.5 mm long. 

Spikelets awnless or rarely a few with awns, the awns rarely up to 5 mm long 

3. A. pauciflorum. 

Spikelets all awned; awns usually all 6 mm long or longer 4. A. subsecundum. 



114 



HORDEAE 



Agropyron 




50 

Map 173 



Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. 




Miles 
50 

Map 174 



Agropyron Smithii Rydb. 




"^5 
Map 175 



Agropyron pauciflorum (Schwem.) Hitchc. 



1. Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Quackgrass. Map 173. This 
species has become well established in the northern two thirds of the state, 
especially along roadsides and railroads where there is no effort to extermi- 
nate it. It is most abundant in the lake area where it sometimes covers 
acres of cultivated fields and pastures. Most of the landowners have de- 
spaired of exterminating it and merely use control measures. It is now 
known that it can be eradicated by the use of chemicals, and every land- 
owner should proceed without delay to exterminate it. 

The extreme variability of this species has caused some confusion in its 
recognition. It has been decided to treat the varied forms as a species 
complex. Those who wish to divide the forms should see Fernald on the 
American variations of Agropyron repens in Rhodora 35 : 182-185. 1933. 

Nat. of Eurasia; Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. C, Ark., and Calif. 

2. Agropyron Smithii Rydb. Bluestem Wheatgrass. Map 174. All 
of my specimens were found along railroads, where the colonies will doubt- 
less persist and spread. Apparently it does not propagate as vigorously as 
the preceding species, but, when discovered, it should be eradicated. This 
is a western species that has been introduced eastward of Iowa and Kansas. 

N. Y., Mich, to Alberta and Wash., southw. to Ohio, Kans., Tex., Ariz., 
and Calif. 

3. Agropyron pauciflorum (Schwein.) Hitchc. {Agropyron tenerum 
Vasey of Gray, Man., ed. 7, Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, and 
Agropyron caninum var. tenerum (Vasey) Pease & Moore of Deam, 
Grasses of Ind.) Slender Wheatgrass. Map. 175. Very local. Found 
in both dry and moist habitats in a few of our northern counties. 

Lab. to Alaska, southw. to the mts. of W. Va., Mo., N. Mex., Calif., and 
nw. Mex. 

4. Agropyron subsecundum (Link) Hitchc. (Agropyron caninum f. 
pubescens (Scribn. & Smith) Pease & Moore and Agropyron trachycaulum 
(Link) Malte.) Bearded Wheatgrass. Map 176. This species is local in 



Elymus 



HORDEAE 



115 



8 
1 








f 








D 
D *e 


Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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nk) Hftchc. 




50 

Map 177 



Elymus canadensis L. 




a few of our northern counties, where it is found in dry, sandy or clayey 
soil on the crests of low dunes, on wooded banks about lakes, and in 
springy places and marshes. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to the mts. of Md., Ind., Nebr., N. Mex., 
Ariz., and Calif. 

40-408. TRITICUM L. Wheat 

Wheat is a winter annual and it often grows where it finds lodgment 
along roads, paths, fields, and waste places, but it does not persist. It has 
been reported from Porter County by Lyon under the name of Triticum 
aestivum and from Jasper County by Welch as Triticum sativum. 

Wheat properly belongs with the excluded species because it fails to 
perpetuate itself. 

42-407. SECALE L. Rye 

Rye is a winter annual which springs up where it may be scattered 
along roads, in fields, and in waste places, but it will not persist. It has 
been reported from Jasper County by Welch. 

Rye properly belongs with the excluded species because it fails to per- 
petuate itself. 



43-411. ELYMUS L. Wild-rye 

[Note: Measurements of glumes and lemmas include their awns, and measurements 
of paleas are those of the first floret of a spikelet taken from the middle of the spike.] 

Awns long and, at maturity, curved outward; paleas mostly 10-13 mm long 

1. E. canadensis. 

Awns straight; paleas mostly 6-9 mm long. 

Glumes 0.5-1 mm wide (rarely up to 1.3 mm wide), straight or only slightly bowed 
out at the base, mostly 3-nerved above the middle; spikes long-exserted. 
Blades glabrous above and beneath; paleas 7-8 mm long; grain 5-6.5 mm long. 
2. E. riparins. 



116 



HORDEAE 



Elymus 




Map 179 



Elymus villosus Muhl. 













1 — 1 


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Feb 








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Mar. 
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L <(j-\f Map 180 




Elymus villosus 


f. ark 


ansanus IScribn. & Ball) Fern. 




Blades villous above, smooth or scabrous beneath; paleas 5.5-7 mm long; grain 
4-4.5 mm long. 

Lemmas and glumes hirsute 3. E. villosus. 

Lemmas and glumes glabrous or sparingly strigose-hispid 

3a. E. villosus f . arkansanus. 

Glumes mostly 1.3-2.5 mm wide (rarely as narrow as 1 mm), generally conspicuously 
curved outward and indurated at the base, usually more or less dilated above 
and twisted, generally plainly 5-nerved on the upper half (sometimes 3- or 
4-nerved), the basal part generally rounded and nerveless. 
Spikes included at the base or barely exserted. 
Spikelets with awns more than 3 mm long. 

Glumes and lemmas glabrous or scabrous on the margins only; upper surface 

of leaves usually scabrous (rarely pubescent) 4. E. virginicus. 

Glumes and lemmas hirsute ; upper surface of leaves glabrous 

4a. E. virginicus var. intermedins. 

Spikelets awnless or some with awns up to 3 mm long 

4b. E. virginicus var. submuticus. 

Spikes generally long-exserted. 

Glumes and lemmas hirsute; upper surface of leaves villous 

4c. E. virginicus var. australis. 

Glumes and lemmas glabrous or strigose-scabrous. 

Blades glabrous above; awns generally 5-15 mm long 

4d. E. virginicus var. jejunus. 

Blades hirsute above ; awns generally 15-30 mm long 

4e. E. virginicus var. glabriflorus. 

1. Elymus canadensis L. Canada Wild-rye. Map 177. Infrequent to 
locally common in sandy soil along roadsides and railroads, in open wood- 
land, on open dunes, and in prairie habitats. It becomes very local south 
of the lake area and probably is absent from some of the southern counties. 
It is extremely variable in the size of the spikes and in the density of 
the pubescence of the spikelets. 

Que. to s. Alaska, southw. to Ky., Mo., Tex., and Ariz. 

2. Elymus riparius Wieg. (Rhodora 20: 84-86. 1918.) Map 178. This 
is a recently described species and is infrequent probably throughout the 



Elymus 



HORDEAE 



117 




Map 182 
Elymus virginicus 

var. intermedius IVasey) Bush 











2 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

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var. submuticus Hook. 




50 

Map 184 
Elymus virginicus 

var. austrahs (Scribn. & Ball) Hitchc. 



state. It is a low ground grass which is usually found on wooded, alluvial 
areas and along streams. 

Maine, Que., and Mich., southw. to N. C, Ohio, Ind., and Mo. 

3. Elymus villosus Muhl. {Elymus striatus of recent authors, not 
Willd.) Map 179. Infrequent to frequent throughout the state. This 
species prefers a dry and rather sandy soil, although it is sometimes 
found in moist situations. It is found mostly on wooded slopes, crests or 
ridges, on alluvial banks, and rarely in the open along roadsides. 

Vt. to Wyo., southw. to N. C, Ala., and Tex. 

3a. Elymus villosus f. arkansanus (Scribn. & Ball) Fern. (Rhodora 
35:195. 1933.) {Elymus striatus var. arkansanus (Scribn. & Ball) Hitchc. 
and Elymus arkansanus Scribn. & Ball.) Map 180. This form has been 
found in only a few counties. It grows in habitats similar to those of 
the species. 

Mass. to Ind. and Iowa, southw. to Md., Mo., and Okla. 

4. Elymus virginicus L. Virginia Wild-rye. Map 181. Frequent to 
common throughout the state. It grows in wet or moist soil and is found 
mostly in alluvial areas along streams and ditches, in low places in wood- 
land, and along roadsides. 

The upper surface of the leaves is usually glabrous or somewhat sca- 
brous or rarely with a few hairs on the veins. I have, however, a few 
specimens with the upper surface of the blades softly pubescent. I think 
these plants should have a distinguishing name. They are from Fayette, 
Marion, Starke, and Warrick Counties. 

Newf. to Alberta, southw. to Fla. and Ariz. 

4a. Elymus virginicus var. intermedius (Vasey) Bush. (Amer. Midland 
Nat. 10: 60. 1926.) {Elymus virginicus var. hirsutiglumis (Scribn.) Hitchc. 
and Elymus hirsutiglumis Scribn.) Map 182. Infrequent throughout the 
state in habitats similar to those of the species. 

Maine to Iowa, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



118 



HORDEAE 



Hystrix 




50 

Map 185 



Elymus virginicus 
Var. jejunus (Ramaley) Bush 




50 

Map 186 
/mus virginicus 

var. glabriflorus (Vasey) Bush 




Map 187 
Hystrix patula Moench 



4b. Elymus virginicus var. submuticus Hook. (Elymus curvatus Piper.) 
Map 183. A rare form with the habitat of the species. 

Que. to Wash., southw. to R. I., Ohio, Ky., Okla., and Mont. 

4c. Elymus virginicus var. australis (Scribn. & Ball) Hitchc. {Elymus 
austraUs Scribn. & Ball.) Map 184. This form has been found in a few 
places in the southern half of the state on wooded ridges and on post 
oak flats. 

Vt. to Iowa, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

4d. Elymus virginicus var. jejunus (Ramaley) Bush. Map 185. This 
rare form is known only from Umbach's specimen collected "on the sands 
at Pine," Lake County, on June 29, 1898. Hitchcock does not recognize this 
variety in his recent manual. 

4e. Elymus virginicus var. glabriflorus (Vasey) Bush. (Elymus glabri- 
florus Scribn.) Map 186. This variety has been found in several coun- 
ties, and doubtless it will be found to be well distributed in the state 
when intensive work is done. It is a woodland grass found in both moist 
and dry situations. 

Maine to Kans., southw. to Fla. and N. Mex. 



45-412. HYSTRIX Moench 

Spikelets glabrous \, H. patula. 

Spikelets pubescent la. H. patula var. Bigeloviana. 

1. Hystrix patula Moench. (Hystrix Hystrix (L.) Millsp.) Bottle- 
brush. Map 187. This is an infrequent to frequent grass throughout the 
state. It is a woodland species, but is often found growing in open places 
along fences and roadsides. It prefers dry soil and occurs in almost all 
types of woodland. 

Maine, Ont., Mich., and Minn., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Ark. 



Hordeum 



Hordeae 



119 




50 

Map 188 
fystrix patula 

war. Bigeloviana (Fern ) Deam 



8 
1 








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Mar. 

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Aug 

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Map 189 
Nutt. 




50 

Map 190 



Hordeum nodosum L. 



la. Hystrix patula var. Bigeloviana (Fern.) Deam. Map 188. The 
habitat of the variety is the same as that of the species. It is sparingly 
found in northern Indiana and is rare in the southern part of the state. 

N. S. to N. Dak., southw. to Conn., Ohio, Ind., and Mo. 



46-410. HORDEUM [Tourn.] L. Barley 

[Wiggans. Classification of the cultivated varieties of barley. Cornell 
Agric. Exper. Sta. Mem. 46: 365-456. 1921.] 

Rachis of spikes disarticulating. 

Awns of the glumes less than 20 mm long. 

Glumes of fertile spikelets dilated above the base 1. H. pusillum. 

Glumes of fertile spikelets not dilated above the base 2. H. nodosum. 

Awns of the glumes more than 20 mm long 3. H. jubatum. 

Rachis of spikes not disarticulating. (See excluded species no. 55, p. 1027.) . .H. vulgare. 

1. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley. Map 189. This species 
is found usually in slightly acid soils in waste places and fallow fields and 
along railroads and roadsides. It is infrequent to local in the southern 
counties and has been found in four of our northern counties in waste 
places and along railroads. I think that this species has been introduced 
into the state and I am so recording it. Spillman found it in Knox County 
in 1890, and, although Schneck reported a wild barley earlier, there is no 
specimen to verify the report. Our early authors, Baird & Taylor, Barnes, 
Clapp, J. M. Coulter, and Young, who collected intensively in some of the 
Ohio River counties, did not report a wild barley of any kind. This 
evidence, in addition to its habitats, convinces me that it has invaded the 
state since that time. 

Del. to Wash., southw. to Fla., s. Calif., and Mex. 

2. Hordeum nodosum L. Meadow Barley. Map 190. Hansen (Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 37 : 320. 1928) reported this species from Vanderburgh 
County. He sent me a specimen to have his determination verified. Hansen 



120 



HORDEAE 



Lolium 




Hordeum jubatum L. 




50 

Map 192 



Lolium perenne L. 




~ S3 
Map 193 



Lolium multiflorum Lam. 



says: "Found growing abundantly in Vanderburgh County during July." 
I do not have any data except the county locality, so I have not been able 
to visit the place to ascertain whether it persists or is spreading. I am 
including this species in our flora upon his authority. Since this is a 
western species, it has been introduced here and should be so regarded. 

Mont, to Alaska, southw. to N. Mex., Calif., and in S. A. ; introduced in 
some of the eastern states. 

3. Hordeum jubatum L. Foxtail Barley. Map 191. This species has 
become well established in the northern half of the state, especially in the 
lake area where it has already become a veritable pest. It is found mostly 
along roadsides and railroads and in waste places, fallow fields, and 
pastures. It is extremely doubtful that this species is a native of Indiana. 

Newf. and Lab. to Alaska, southw. to Md., 111., Mo., Tex., Calif., and 
Mex.; introduced in the Eastern States. 



47-395. LOLIUM L. Ryegrass 

Glumes shorter than the spikelets. 

Lemmas mostly 5-6 mm long, awnless (sometimes short-awned) ; spikelets mostly 

5-10 (12) -flowered 1. L. perenne. 

Lemmas mostly 7-8 mm long, awned ; spikelets mostly 10-20-flowered 

2. L. multiflomm. 

(Humes as long as or longer than the spikelets. (See excluded species no. 56, p. 1027.) 
L. temulentum. 

1. Lolium perenne L. Perennial Ryegrass. Map 192. This species is 
doubtless sparingly found throughout the state. It has been sown inten- 
tionally as an adulterant of grass seed in meadows and lawns. It is now 
found as an escape along roadsides, on the unkept borders of lawns, and 
in waste places. Besides one small colony which I have seen, I have no 
evidence to indicate that it is more than an occasional escape. Usually 
known in commerce as English Ryegrass. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Va. and Calif. 



Koeleria 



Aveneae 



121 




50 

Map 194 



Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. 




o 50 

Map 195 



Sphenopholis nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. 




50 

Map 196 



Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. 



2. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Italian Ryegrass. Map 193. This rye- 
grass has been found in several counties in the state in lawns, parks, and 
golf grounds and may be considered established. 

Nat. of Eu. ; common on the Pacific coast, infrequent eastward. 

4. AVENEAE Nees. Oat Tribe 

Spikelets not over 5 mm long. 

Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes. 

Inflorescence spikelike; plants of a dry, sandy habitat 52. Koeleria, p. 121. 

Inflorescence a widely spreading panicle; plants of a springy habitat 

55. Deschampsia, p. 123. 

Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes. 

Florets all perfect, awnless 53. Sphenopholis, p. 121. 

Florets unlike, the lower perfect, awnless, the upper staminate and bearing a 

hooked awn 59. Holcus, p. 124. 

Spikelets more than 5 mm long. 
Lemmas awned from the back. 

Annual; spikelets more than 10 mm long 57. Avena, p. 123. 

Perennial; spikelets less than 10 mm long 58. Arrhenatherum, p. 123. 

Lemmas awned from between the two apical teeth 60. Danthonia, p. 124. 

52-346. KOELERIA Pers. 

1. Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. Junegrass. Map 194. Infrequent to 
local in the northwestern counties where it grows in dry sand on dunes and 
sand hills, rarely on gravelly hills. The species is variable. The inflores- 
ence expands in anthesis, and becomes spikelike afterward. 

Ont. to B. C, southw. to Del., Mo., La., Calif., and Mex. 



53-344. SPHENOPHOLIS Scribn. Wedgegrass 

Sheaths and blades softly pubescent, sometimes only the sheaths pubescent. 

First glume fully a third as wide as the second; glumes subequal; lemmas more or 
less scabrous all over (at least the exposed apical end scabrous) ; anthers mostly 
0.8-1.2 mm long; spikelets 3-4 mm long 1. S. nitida. 



122 Aveneae Sphenopholis 

First glume less than a third as wide as the second; lemmas smooth (rarely 

slightly scabrous at the apex) ; anthers mostly 0.5-0.8 mm long. 

Spikelets 3-4 mm long; second glume narrowly obovate or wider, subacute or 

blunt at the apex; rachilla-internode below the second floret usually about 

1 mm long; anthers mostly 0.5-0.6 mm long; panicles usually lax. (A rare 

form of this species.) 2. S. intermedia. 

Spikelets mostly about 2.5 mm long (rarely up to 3 mm or longer) ; second glume 

broadly obovate, about as wide as long, broadly rounded or truncate at the 

apex; rachilla-internode below the second floret about 0.5 mm long; anthers 

about 0.8 mm long; panicles usually contracted. .3a. S. obtusata var. pubescens. 

Sheaths and blades glabrous, smooth or scabrous. 

Spikelets 3-4 mm long; second glume narrowly obovate or wider, subacute or blunt 
at the apex; rachilla-internode below the second floret usually about 1 mm 
long; anthers mostly 0.5-0.6 mm long; panicles usually lax. (Our common 

form of the species.) 2. S. intermedia. 

Spikelets usually about 2.5 mm long (rarely up to 3 mm or longer) ; second glume 
broadly obovate, about as wide as long, broadly rounded or truncate at the 
apex; rachilla-internode below the second floret about 0.5 mm long; anthers 
about 0.8 mm long; panicles usually contracted 3. S. obtusata. 

1. Sphenopholis nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. Map 195. Rather frequent in 
the unglaciated area of southern Indiana and rare in the northern part 
of the state. It is generally found on black and white oak ridges and 
rarely with beech. It prefers a rich soil of weathered sandstone and it may 
be entirely absent in neutral or alkaline soils. 

A glabrous form of this species has been described but it may not occur 
in Indiana as all of my 41 specimens are copiously pubescent. 
Mass. to N. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. {Sphenopholis pallens of 
recent authors.) Slender Wedgegrass. Map 196. Infrequent to frequent 
throughout the state. It prefers a dry soil and is found in many habitats. 
Usually frequent in beech and sugar maple woods, white oak woods, and 
white oak and black oak woods; less frequent in moist or wet woodland, 
bogs, and fallow fields and along railroads. I have a specimen with pubes- 
cent sheaths and leaves, which was found growing in sphagnum in a 
decadent tamarack bog just east of Pokagon State Park, Steuben County. 
This is the only pubescent specimen I have out of 79 Indiana specimens. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Fla. and Ariz. 

3. Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. Prairie Wedgegrass. Map 
197. Infrequent to local throughout the state. Its habitat varies from the 
crests of ridges in the "knobs" to low sand ridges and old lake and river 
bottoms. 

Maine to B. C, southw. to Fla., Ariz., Calif., and Mex. 

3a. Sphenopholis obtusata var. pubescens (Scribn. & Merr.) Scribn. 
This is a form with the sheaths and upper and lower surface of the leaves 
pubescent. I have it from only the southern part of the state where it 
occurs in Crawford, Perry, and Posey Counties. I segregate this form 
from the species for the benefit of other workers who may be interested 
in the geographical distribution of the form. 



Deschampsia 



AVENEAE 



123 



2 
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Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

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Oct. 

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ata (Mic 


50 

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ix.) Scribn. 













2 


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Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 


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eschampsia ca 


f\l ° 50 

J Map 198 
espitosa (L) Beauv. 




50 

Map 199 
Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Mert.&Koch 



55-270. DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. Hairgrass 

Blades flat or folded, stiff; awn included or slightly exserted, straight.. .1. D. caespitosa. 

Blades filiform, fiexuous; awn exserted, geniculate, twisted. (See excluded species 

no. 58, p. 1027.) D. flexuosa. 

1. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. Tufted Hairgrass. Map 198. 
I found this species to be a frequent grass in very marly soil in the outlet of 
a marly, springy place about 6 miles southwest of South Bend, St. Joseph 
County, and in a cold, marly, springy place on the border of Mill Creek 
about a mile north of Mill Creek, La Porte County. Only a few plants 
were seen at the latter station. Bradner reported this species from Steuben 
County and his determination was, no doubt, correct, but no specimen has 
been seen. 

Greenland to Alaska, southw. to N. J., W. Va., Ind., 111., N. Dak., N. Mex., 
and Calif. 



57-273. AVENA L. O 



AT 



Lemmas pubescent with long, brown hairs. (See excluded species no. 60, p. 1027.) 

A. fatua. 

Lemmas glabrous or nearly so. (See excluded species no. 61, p. 1027.) A. sativa. 



58-275. ARRHENATHERUM Beauv. 

1. Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Mert. & Koch. Tall Oatgrass. Map 
199. This is an infrequent escape throughout the state. All of my speci- 
mens and those that I have seen are from roadsides. Usually not common 
where it is found although, in a few instances, it was found for a mile or 
more along roadsides. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Newf. to B. C, southw. to Ga., Tenn., Iowa, Idaho, 
and Calif. 



124 



AVENEAE 



Holcus 



1 






\ 






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Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

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July 

Aug 

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Oct. 

Nov. 






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Ho 


Icus 


lanatus L. 


50 

Map 200 




50 

Map 201 



Danthonia spicata IL.) Beauv. 













18 
9 


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Mir 

Apr 

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June 

July 

Aug 

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Oct. 

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smagrostfs 


-^V Map 202 
canadensis (Michx) Beauv 




Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray 



50 

Map 205 



Calamovilfa longifolia (HookJ Scribn. 



59-257. HOLCUS L. 

1. Holcus lanatus L. (Ginnania lanata (L.) Hub., Rhodora 18:234. 
1916.) Velvet Grass. Map 200. As yet, this species is a rare escape in 
Indiana. Weatherwax found it in a hayfield in Owen County in 1918. 
In 1933 he found it along a roadside in Brown County about 15 miles east 
of Bloomington, and in 1934, about one and a fourth miles west of Mer- 
riam, Noble County. Kriebel, in 1935, found about a dozen plants under 
a beech tree in an open woods in sec. 18, Pleasant Run Township, Law- 
rence County. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Maine to Iowa, southw. to Ga. and La. ; common on the 
Pacific coast, and in B. C, Idaho, and Ariz. 



60-280. DANTHONIA Lam. & DC. 

Ligule a band of short hairs usually less than 0.5 mm long 1. D. spicata. 

Ligule a band of hairs usually 2-4 mm long. (See excluded species no. 62, p. 1027.) 
D. compressa. 



Calamagrostis Agrostideae 125 

1. Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Poverty Oatgrass. Map 201. Infre- 
quent to common in all parts of the state. It is common in poor soil in 
open woods on the crests of ridges in southern Indiana, becoming less 
frequent to rare in the rich, neutral soils of the central part of the state, 
and again appearing as frequent on black and white oak ridges of the 
northern counties. It is found also in post oak flats. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Fla., e. Tex., e. Kans., and in the mts. of 
N. Mex. and Oreg. 

5. AGROSTIDEAE Kunth. Timothy Tribe 

Lemmas 1-nerved. 

Callus pilose 63. Calamovilfa, p. 126. 

Callus glabrous. 

Keels of glumes glabrous or more or less scabious 76. Sporobulus, p. 135. 

Keels of glumes softly ciliate 79. Heleochloa, p. 1027. 

Lemmas more than 1-nerved. 

Spikelets articulated below the glumes. 

Inflorescence a loose panicle 67. Cinna, p. 129. 

Inflorescence a dense spikelike panicle 69. Alopecurus, p. 129. 

Spikelets articulated above the glumes. 
F'irst glume with 3 or 5 nerves. 

Inflorescence spikelike; lemmas about 2 mm long 72. Phleum, p. 130. 

Inflorescence paniculate; lemmas more than 2 mm long 85. Aristida, p. 138. 

First glume 1-nerved or nerveless. 

Lemmas indurate, much firmer than the glumes. 

Lemmas awnless, glabrous 81. Milium, p. 137. 

Lemmas awned, pubescent at least at the base. 

Awns readily falling; callus blunt 82. Oryzopsis, p. 137. 

Awns persistent; callus sharp-pointed, pubescent. 

Lemmas 1-awned 84. Stipa, p. 138. 

Lemmas 3-awned (sometimes the lateral pair short).. 85. Aristida, p. 138. 
Lemmas not indurate, thinner than the glumes. 
Spikelets (exclusive of awns) 9 mm or more long. 

Lemmas with an inconspicuous awn; glumes as long as the body of the 

lemma 62. Ammophila, p. 126. 

Lemmas long-awned; glumes minute or lacking 

80. Brachyelytrum, p. 136. 

Spikelets not over 5 mm long, usually less. 

Second glume 3-nerved 61. Calamagrostis, p. 125. 

Second glume 1-nerved. 

Glumes (at least the first one) slightly longer than the lemma; first glume 
slightly longer than the second or glumes equal in length, awnless; 

lemmas thin ; palea obsolete or lacking in our native species 

64. Agrostis, p. 126. 

Glumes generally shorter than the lemma, the first one obsolete, or shorter 
than the second; if the first glume is as long as or longer than the 
lemma, the glume with an awn 1-2 mm long; lemmas rather firm; 
paleas present in normal lengths 75. Muhlenbergia, p. 131. 

61-248. CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. Reedgrass 

[Stebbins. A Revision of some North American species of Calamagrostis. 

Rhodora32: 35-57. 1930.] 

Blades usually flat or sometimes involute toward the tips, mostly 4-8 mm wide; panicle 
usually expanded or loose; spikelets usually 3-3.5 mm long, rarely only 2.5 mm 



126 Agrostideae Ammophila 

long; lemma thin, glabrous or more or less sparsely scabrous; callus hairs three 

fourths to as long as the lemma 1. C. canadensis. 

Blades involute, except sometimes near the base, usually less than 4 mm wide; panicle 
narrow, contracted; spikelets usually 3.5-4.2 mm long; lemmas firmer, scabrous all 

over; callus hairs usually two thirds to three fourths as long as the lemma 

2. C. inexpansa. 

1. CalamagTOstis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. (Inman. Calamagrostis 
canadensis and some related species. Rhodora 24 : 142-144. 1922) . Blue- 
joint. Map 202. Frequent in marshes, wet prairies, and mucky places in 
general in the lake area, but local southward because its habitat is lacking. 
Where found, it often covers large areas and was formerly the source of 
"wild hay" in the state and known as little bluestem grass. Since most 
of the areas of its habitat have been drained and farmed, it has now 
become infrequent. 

Greenland to Alaska, southw. to Md., N. C. (Roan Mt.), Mo., Kans., 
and Calif. 

2. Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray. Northern Reedgrass. Map 203. 
This is an infrequent species in the lake area, where it prefers marly 
marshes and springy places, although it is sometimes found in habitats 
associated with pin oak and chokeberry. It is also found in prairie habitats. 
Stebbins divided the species into varieties and, according to him, our 
Indiana specimens belong to var. brevior (Vasey) Stebbins. Hitchcock, in 
his Manual of Grasses, does not divide the species. According to Stebbins, 
the distribution of the variety is as follows : 

Newf., Que. to B. C, southw. to N. Y., Ind., Minn., Colo., Ariz., and Calif. 

62-249. AMMOPHILA Host 

1. Ammophila breviligulata Fern. (Rhodora 22: 70-71. 1920.) 
(Ammophila arenaria of American authors, not Link.) Beachgrass. Map 

204. Infrequent on the dunes bordering Lake Michigan. This species is 
used in this country as a soil binder. 

On dunes from Newf. to N. C, and on the shores of the Great Lakes 
from Lake Ontario to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. 

63-250 CALAMOVILFA Hack. 

1. Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. Longleaf Reedgrass. Map 

205. This species is found in dry, shifting sands on the dunes about Lake 
Michigan and on a few shifting dunes in Jasper and Newton Counties. 

Mich, to Alberta, southw. to Ind., Colo., and Idaho. 

64-242 AGROSTIS L. Bentgrass 

[Hitchcock. North American species of Agrostis. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bur. 
Plant Ind. Bull. 68: 1-68. 1905. Piper. The agricultural species of bent 
grasses. U. S. Dept. of Agric. Bull. 692: 1-26. 1918. Malte. Commercial 
bent grasses (Agrostis) in Canada. Reprinted from Annual Report for 
1926, National Museum of Canada, 105-126. 1928.] 



Agrostis 



Agrostideae 



127 




50 

Map 206 



Agrostis alba L. 



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uds. 



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iottiana Schulles 



Palea about half as long as the lemma. 

Plant perennial from strong creeping rhizomes, without creeping and rooting 
stolons; culms erect or only slightly decumbent at the base, not rooting at the 

lower nodes ; panicle open or spreading 1. A. alba. 

Plant perennial without rhizomes, with creeping and more or less rooting stolons; 
culms usually decumbent at the base and rooting at the lower nodes; panicle 

usually contracted, sometimes open 2. A. palustris. 

Palea minute or lacking. 

Lemmas awned 3. A. Elliottiana. 

Lemmas awnless. 

Plants generally found growing in the open, usually flowering and maturing before 
August 1; basal leaves narrow, stiff, mostly involute; panicles diffuse, gen- 
erally purplish at maturity, the branches beginning to divide beyond the 
middle. 
Spikelets mostly 2-2.5 mm long; glumes connivent in fruit, covering the grain; 
anthers mostly 0.5 mm long ; flowering in northern Indiana from about June 

3 to July 10 A. A. scabra. 

Spikelets mostly 1.4-1.9 mm long; glumes not connivent in fruit, exposing the 
grain; anthers mostly about 0.2 mm long; beginning to flower in northern 
Indiana the last of May and maturing the fruit usually by the middle of 

June 5. A. hy emails. 

Plants generally found growing in woods, usually flowering after August 1; basal 
leaves flat, wider than in the two preceding species, generally lax; panicles open 
or spreading, green or nearly so at maturity, the branches beginning to divide 
mostly at or below the middle 6. A. perennans. 

1. Agrostis alba L. (Agrostis stolonifera var. major (Gaud.) Farw. 
and Agrostis palustris of recent American authors, not Huds.) Redtop. 
Map 206. This species has been commonly sown as a pasture and hay 
grass in all parts of the state, especially in the southern part. It has 
abundantly escaped everywhere and is found along roadsides and railroads 
and in fallow fields, pastures, and waste places. 

Besides the commercial redtop, seed of other species of the bentgrasses 
have been imported and sown in lawns and on golf courses. Several strains 
of each species have been developed and some European authors credit one 
species with 15 varieties and subvarieties. The species are separated with 



128 



Agrostideae 



Agrostis 





" 50 

Map 210 



Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) BSP. 













17 
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Tuckerm. 



difficulty and the task is complicated by the addition of the many cultivated 
forms. 

Nat. of Eurasia ; in all the cooler parts of the U. S. 

2. Agrostis palustris Huds. (Agrostis alba var. maritima (Lam.) 
G. F. W. Mey., Agrostis maritima Lam., and Agrostis stolonifera var. 
compacta Hartman of Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Creeping Bent. Map 207. 
The few specimens of this species I have seen were found on the low borders 
of streams, usually with a part of the colony in the running water. 

Nat. of Eurasia; introduced in the northern part of the U. S., and 
occasionally as far south as Tex. and N. Mex. 

3. Agrostis Elliottiana Schultes. Elliott Bentgrass. Map 208. Fre- 
quent to common throughout the area shown on the map in hard, 
white clay soils with a pH value ranging from 6-6.6. The mass distribution 
occurs in moist fallow fields and pastures. It is also found on washed slopes 
and on crests of ridges in open woodland. The species is usually associated 
with Agrostis hyemalis from which it is easily separated by its scabrous 
feel, smaller size, and awned lemmas. 

Md. to 111., Mo., and Kans., southw. to Ga., Ala., and e. Tex.; Yucatan. 

4. Agrostis scabra Willd. (Agrostis hyemalis of recent authors, in 
part.) (Rhodora 35: 207-209. 1933.) Northern Ticklegrass. Map 209. 
In low sandy and mucky soils in the northern counties. This species very 
much resembles the next one but it is separated from it by its larger size, 
its broader and flat cauline leaves, larger panicle, longer-pedicelled spike- 
lets, longer spikelets, longer anthers, its later flowering season, and its 
northern range. This species flowers, on the whole, at least a half month 
later than the next one. 

Lab. and Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Pa., Ind., Iowa, Nebr., N. Mex., 
Ariz., and Calif. 



Cinna Agrostideae 129 

5. Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) BSP. (Agrostis antecedens Bickn. and 
Agrostis hyemalis of recent authors, in part.) Ticklegrass. Map 210. 
This species is infrequent to common in all parts of the state. It prefers 
a slightly acid soil, hence it is infrequent to absent in the neutral soils of 
the central counties. In the southern counties it occurs, in hard, white 
clay soil and is usually common in fallow fields, on washed slopes, along 
clayey roadsides, and in moist, sandy and mucky places in our northern 
counties. 

Mass. to Iowa and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

6. Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. Autumn Bent. Map 211. 
Infrequent to frequent in all parts of the state except in the prairie areas. 
This is a woodland species which seems to prefer a slightly acid soil and 
is found in black and white oak woods, pin oak woods, aspen thickets, 
at the bases of sandstone ledges, and rarely in prairie habitats or 
fallow fields. This species shows great variation which I assume to be the 
result of varying amounts of light, soil acidity, and nutriment. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and e. Tex. 

67-241. CfNNA L. 

Spikelets 5 mm long; panicle rather dense, the branches ascending. . . 1. C. arundinacea. 
Spikelets 3.5-4 mm long; panicle loose, the branches spreading or drooping. (See ex- 
cluded species no. 68, p. 1028.) C. latifolia. 

1. Cinna arundinacea L. Woodreed. Map 212. Frequent to rather com- 
mon in all parts of the state. It grows in wet soils in almost all kinds of 
habitats except in pure sand. This is a woodland species but is sometimes 
found in wet clearings if shaded by rank vegetation. 

Maine to S. Dak., southw. to Ga. and e. Tex. 

69-225. ALOPECURUS L. Foxtail 

Spikelets about 5 mm long. . . . : 1. A. pratensis. 

Spikelets less than 3 mm long. 

Lemmas awned on the back about midway between the base and apex, the awn 

usually included, sometimes exserted but not for more than 1 mm 

2. A. aequalis. 

Lemmas awned on the back at about a fourth the length of the lemma above the 
base, the awn exserted about 2-3 mm 3. A. carolinianus. 

1. Alopecurus pratensis L. Meadow Foxtail. Map 213. Specimens 
of this species have been collected in Tippecanoe County, and I have it 
from Wells County, where it was well established when collected in 1932. 

Nat. of Eurasia; introduced from Newf. and Lab. to Alaska, southw. 
to Del., Iowa, Idaho, and Oreg. 

2. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. (Alopecurus geniculatus var. aristulatus 
Torr. of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Alopecurus geniculatus Michx. of Britton 
and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Short-awn Foxtail. Map 214. This grass 
is infrequent in the lake area and local south of it. It grows in shallow 



130 



Agrostideae 



Phleum 




50 

Map 212 



Cinna arundinacea L. 




~T5 

Map 215 



Alopecurus carolinianus Walt. 















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Muhlenbergta capillarls (LamJ Trin. 



water and on the muddy borders of ponds and swamps that usually become 
dry in midsummer. 

Greenland to Alaska, southw. to Pa. 

3. Alopecurus carolinianus Walt. (Alopecums ramosus Poir. of Deam, 
Grasses of Ind.) Map 215. Infrequent to local in the greater part of the 
state. In the northern part it is found in mucky soil about ponds and in 
ditches, and in the southern part it is usually found in slightly acid, white 
clay soil in fallow fields, and usually associated with one or more of the 
following plants : Poa Chapmaniana, Agrostis hyemalis, Myosotis vir- 
ginica, and Arabis virginica. 

N. J. to B. C., southw. to Fla., Tex., Ariz., and Calif. 



72-223. PHLfeUM L. 

1. Phleum pratense L. Timothy. Map 216. This species has abun- 
dantly escaped in all parts of the state. It is usually found in either dry 



Muhlenbergia Agrostideae 131 

or moist soil along roadsides and railroads and in fallow fields, pastures, 
and waste places. 

Nat. of Eurasia; throughout the U. S. 

75-215. MUHLENBERGIA Schreb. Muhly 

[Note: In this genus the measurements of the spikelets, glumes, and lemmas do not 
include the awns, unless so stated. In observing nodes and internodes, both the lower 
and the upper ones of the plant should be examined.] 

Panicles diffuse, more than 2.5 cm wide, usually 10-20 cm wide 1. M. capillaris. 

Panicles not diffuse, less than 2.5 cm wide. 

First glume obsolete ; second glume not over 0.6 mm long, very obtuse 

2. M. Schreberi. 

First glume not obsolete; second glume more than 0.6 mm long, not obtuse. 

Spikelets 1.5-2.2 mm long; glumes shorter than the lemmas (if as long, see opposing 
lead). 

Lemmas acute to acuminate, not awned 3. M. sobolifera. 

Lemmas awned 3a. M. sobolifera f . setigera. 

Spikelets more than 2.2 mm long. 

Lemmas not pilose at the base (on the callus). 

Culms without creeping rootstocks; anthers about 1-1.5 mm long 

4. M. cuspidata. 

Culms with creeping scaly rootstocks; anthers about 0.5 mm long 

5. M. glabriflora. 

Lemmas short-pilose at the base (on the callus). 
Nodes and infranodes glabrous. 

Panicles included at the base, rarely short-exserted ; anthers about 0.5 mm 
long. 

Lemmas without awns, or some with short awns up to 2 mm long 

6. M. mexicana. 

Lemmas awned ; awns usually 5-10 mm long 

6a. M . mexicana f . commutata. 

Panicles usually very long-exserted ; anthers about 0.8 mm long 

7. M. brachyphylla. 

Nodes and infranodes not glabrous. 

Nodes and infranodes puberulent; anthers about 0.8 mm long. 

Glumes longer than the lemma ; panicles more than 5 mm wide 

8. M. racemosa. 

Glumes usually two thirds to three fourths as long as the lemma; panicles 

generally less than 5 mm wide 9. M. tenuiflora. 

Nodes glabrous; infranodes puberulent, rarely nearly all glabrous, but not 
polished below the node; anthers about 0.5 mm long. 
Culms usually puberulent below the panicles; spikelets crowded on the 
branches, glumes about as long as the lemmas. 

Lemmas awnless 10. M. foliosa. 

Lemmas awned, awns 4-10 mm long 10a. M. foliosa f. ambigua. 

Culms generally glabrous below the panicles; spikelets not at all crowded 
on the branches; glumes about two thirds as long as the lemmas. 

Lemmas awned 11. M. sylvatica. 

Lemmas awnless 11a. M. sylvatica f. attenuata. 

1. Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. Map 217. My only specimen 
was collected October 7, 1921, about 3 miles east of Elizabeth, on an open 
wooded, rocky hillside, bordering the roadside of the Elizabeth Road to 
Stewart's Landing, Harrison County. It was still persisting here in 1938. 

Mass., Ind., and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; W. I. and e. Mex. 



132 



Agrostideae 



Muhlenbergia 




o 5o 

Map 218 



Muhlenbergia Schreben J. F.Gmel, 




o 5o 

Map 219 



Muhlenbergia sob o li f era (Muhl)Trin. 




50 

Map 220 



Muhlenbergia cuspidata (Nult.) Rydb. 



2. Muhlenbergia Schreberi J. F. Gmel. Nimblewill. Map 218. Infre- 
quent to frequent throughout the state. It is found usually in dry soils 
and less frequently in moist soils in open woodland, clearings, woods pas- 
tures, and pasture fields. It is usually conspicuous in pasture fields because 
stock graze around it, preferring other herbage. It is also found about 
dwellings and in lawns and is an obnoxious weed in flower gardens. 

N. H. to Wis., e. Nebr., southw. to Fla., Tex., and e. Mex. 

3. Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin. Map 219. This species is 
found principally in the southern half of the state. It is strictly a wood- 
land species and occurs on wooded slopes, preferring those along streams. 
It is found in both beech and sugar maple, and black and white oak 
woodland. 

N. H. to Iowa, southw. to Va., Tenn., and Tex. 

3a. Muhlenbergia sobohfera f. setigera (Scribn.) Deam. This is a form 
with awned lemmas. I am referring my no. 32921 from Sullivan County 
to this form. 

Ind. to Ark. and Tex. 

4. Muhlenbergia cuspidata (Nutt.) Rydb. PLAINS Muhly. Map 220. 
This species is infrequent on the high, gravelly bank of the north side of 
Big Wea Creek where the Shadeland Road crosses the creek about 4 miles 
southwest of Lafayette. Its associates make it certain that it is a native 
here. 

Mich., Wis. to Alberta, southw. to Ohio and N. Mex. 

5. Muhlenbergia glabriflora Scribn. (Rhodora 9: 22. 1907.) Map 221. 
This species, as now known, is restricted to seven of our southwestern 
counties. It is found in hard, white clay soil in moist or wet places, usually 
in pin oak woods or in the pin oak and post oak flats of the southwestern 
part of Posey County. Probably locally frequent and possibly well distrib- 
uted in the southwestern counties where its habitat is found. 

Md., Ind., 111., Mo., and Tex. 



Muhlenbergia 



Agrostideae 



133 



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Muhlenbergia mexicana (U Trin. 




513 

Map 223 



Muhlenbergia mexicana 
f. commutata (Scribn.) Wieg. 



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Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) BSP. 



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s (Will'd) BSP. 



6. Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. Wirestem Muhly. Map 222. 
This species is frequent to common in all parts of the state except in our 
northern counties, where it becomes rare to infrequent. It prefers a moist 
soil but will grow and thrive in almost all kinds of soils. It prefers open, 
alluvial soil along streams where it often forms exclusive stands. It is an 
obnoxious weed when it invades cultivated fields because it propagates from 
underground stems. 

N. B. to N. D., southw. to the mts. of Ga. and Tex. 

6a. Muhlenbergia mexicana f. commutata (Scribn.) Wieg. (Rhodora 
26: 1. 1924.) Map 223. I have specimens of this long-awned form from 
the counties shown on the map. 

Maine, Que., and S. Dak., southw. to Va. and Mo. 

7. Muhlenbergia brachyphylla Bush. (Araer. Midland Nat. 6: 41-42. 
1919.) Map 224. Probably infrequent to rare in the southern part of the 
state. At a distance it so closely resembles Muhlenbergia tenuiflora that 



134 



AUKOSTIDKAK 



m unit* nuei gut 




"To 

Map 227 
Muhlenbergia foliosa 
(Roem. & Schult.) Trin. 




it may not be detected. On close observation, however, it is easily separated 
from this species by its glabrous nodes and infranodes. It is found in low, 
flat woods and on wooded slopes. I am not well enough acquainted with 
this species to understand its habitat. 
Ind. to Nebr., southw. to Tex. 

8. Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) BSP. Marsh Muhly. Map 225. 

This is an infrequent grass of the lake area. It is found in marshes and 
springy places. Our plants south of the lake area are from springy places. 
Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va., Md., Ky., Okla., and Ariz. 

9. Muhlenbergia tenuiflora ( Willd.) BSP. Map 226. Local or infrequent 
throughout the state. It is strictly a woodland species and is found on the 
tops and slopes and along the bases of wooded slopes, usually of the black 
and white oak type. 

Vt., Ont., Wis. to Iowa, southw. to Va., Tenn., and Okla. 

10. Muhlenbergia folidsa (Roem. & Schult.) Trin. Map 227. Infrequent 
in the lake area and local south of it. It is generally found in marshes 
and springy places, usually about lakes and in ditches. 

Maine to Que. and Mont., southw. to N. C, Ind., N. Mex., and Ariz. 

10a. Muhlenbergia foliosa f. ambigua (Torr.) Wieg. (Muhlenbergia 
ambigua Torr.) This form has the habitat of the species. I have it from 
Kosciusko, Lagrange, Marshall, Starke, Steuben, Warren, and Whitley 
Counties. 

11. Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torr. (Muhlenbergia urn b rasa Scribn.) Map 
228. Infrequent throughout the state. It is usually a low ground, wood- 
land species found on the borders of streams, ponds, and swamps, and 
rarely on dry, wooded slopes. 

Maine to S. Dak., southw. to AJa., Tex., and Ariz. 

11a. Muhlenbergia sylvatica f. attenuata (Scribn.) Palmer & Steyer- 
mark. I have this form from only Carroll, Clark, and Posey Counties. 



Sporobolus 



Agrostideae 



135 




r— 1 


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Sporobolus neglectus Nash 



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rr.) A.Gray 



76-230. SPOROBOLUS B. Br. Dropseed 

Lemma appressed-pubescent on the sides, at least near the base. 

Plant annual, more or less decumbent at the base; terminal panicles included (very 

rarely one free), lateral panicles common; spikelets 3.5-6 mm long 

1. S. vaginiflorus. 

Plant perennial, erect, not decumbent at the base; terminal panicles free (rarely one 
partly included), lateral panicles absent (rarely one or more present); spike- 
lets about 5-6 mm long 2. S. clandestinus. 

Lemma glabrous on the sides, the keel usually somewhat scabrous. 
Spikelets of the terminal panicles 2-3 mm long. 

Plant annual; sheaths not bearded at the throat (sometimes a few long hairs on 
the inside); terminal panicle less than 7 cm long, usually included, contracted 

and spikelike ; grain about 1-1.5 mm long 3. S. neglectus. 

Plant perennial; sheaths conspicuously bearded at the throat; terminal panicle 
more than 7 cm long, usually almost free and widely spreading at maturity 

(sometimes included and spikelike) ; grain about 1 mm long 

A. S. cryptandrus. 

Spikelets of the terminal panicles 3.5-5 mm long. 

Glumes acuminate or aristate, the second one about 1-2 mm longer than the first; 
panicles free at maturity and widely spreading; grain orbicular, smooth. 

5.5. heterolepis. 

Glumes obtuse, the second one about 1 mm longer than the first; panicles usually 
included, contracted; grain flattened, reticulate 6. S. asper. 

1. Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.) Wood. Map 229. Infrequent to com- 
mon in all parts of the state. It prefers poor, dry soils and is rarely absent 
from the borders of limestone highways. It seems to be spreading for I 
have seen it spread over a fallow field and over vacant lots in a few years. 
It can now be found almost everywhere along roads made of crushed rock, 
in waste places, on washed slopes, and in poor soil in pastures. 

Maine, Ont. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Tex., and Ariz. 

2. Sporobolus clandestinus (Spreng.) Hitchc. (Including Sporobolus 
canovirens Nash.) Map 230. Infrequent in very sandy soil in prairie 
habitats in the counties shown on the map. The range will doubtless be 
extended to include the counties about Lake Michigan. 

Conn, to 111. and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



136 



Agrostideae 



Brachyelytrum 











1 

3 


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Apr. 

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Map 233 

VGray 




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Map 234 



Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth 




3D 

Map 235 



Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. 



3. Sporobolus neglectus Nash. Map 231. Infrequent throughout the 
state. It seems to have much the same habitat as Sporobolus vaginiflorus 
and is often found with it. 

Maine, Que. to N. Dak. and Wash., southw. to Md., Tenn., Tex., and Ariz. 

4. Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray. Sand Dropseed. Map 232. 
Infrequent in dry, sandy soil in the area shown on the map. The specimen 
from Lawrence County was found in an old stone quarry and the Marion 
County specimen was found in a waste place on North Meridian Street in 
Indianapolis. I regard these plants as waifs. The fact that the panicle 
sometimes remains in the sheath and does not expand has caused a form 
to be named. I am following Hitchcock, considering the form to be without 
taxonomic significance. 

Maine, Ont. to Alberta and Wash., southw. to N. C, Ind., La., and Ariz. 



5. Sporobolus heterolepis Gray. Prairie Dropseed. Map 233. 
species is infrequent to very local in a few of our northern counties, 
found in dry or moist prairie habitats. 

Que. to Sask. and Wyo., southw. to Conn., 111., Ark., and e. Tex. 



This 
It is 



6. Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth. Map 234. This species is infre- 
quent throughout the state. It is doubtful that this species is a native. 
I have noted its advent into the state during the past few years. It now 
often forms complete stands for rods along railroads, highways, and 
adjacent fields. It will no doubt, in time, become a weed. 

Vt., Mich, to N. Dak. and Utah, southw. to La. and N. Mex. 



80-216. BRACHYELYTRUM Beauv. 

1. Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. Map 235.. Infrequent to 
frequent in all parts of the state where beech and sugar maple woods or 
black and white oak woods are found. It prefers dry slopes and, for 
this reason, it is often very local in some counties. I have botanized Wells 



Milium 



Agrostideae 



137 



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Milium effusum L. 



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1 50 

Map 237 

Hitchc. 




50 

Map 238 



Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx 



County for 40 years and I have not found it, possibly because woods in 
which it grew are now cultivated fields. 
Newf. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Okla. 

81-213. MILIUM L. 

1. Milium effusum L. Map 236. This species is very local and is found 
in peaty woods with soft maple or in mucky or springy places with skunk 
cabbage. 

N. C, Que. to Minn., southw. to Md. and 111. ; also in Eurasia. 

82-210. ORYZOPSIS Michx. Ricegrass 
Blades narrow, involute; spikelets (exclusive of awns) less than 5 mm long; awns not 

more than 2 mm long l.O. pungens. 

Blades broad, flat; spikelets (exclusive of awns) more than 5 mm long. 

Leaves mostly basal; blades of culm generally less than 2 cm long, scabrous above. 

2. O. asperifolia. 

Leaves scattered along the culm; blades of culm more than 2 cm long, pubescent 
above. 3. O. racemosa. 

1. Oryzopsis pungens (Torr.) Hitchc. Map 237. A few tufts of this 
species have been found in Porter County over a limited area about a 
quarter mile east of Waverly Beach in the Dunes State Park. This is the 
only locality now known in Indiana. 

Lab. to B. C, southw. to Conn., Ind., S. Dak., and N. Mex. 

2. Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. Map 238. This species is known only 
from La Porte and Porter Counties where it is found on open wooded dunes. 

Newf., Man., B. C, southw. to Conn., Ind., S. Dak., and N. Mex. 

3. Oryzopsis racemosa (J. E. Smith) Ricker. Map 239. The specimens 
found in the southern part of the state are from rocky woods and those 
from the northern part are from moist or dry, sandy woods. It is very 
local and I cannot account for its widely different habitats and limited 
distribution. 

Que. to Minn., and S. Dak., southw. to Del., Ky., and Iowa. 



138 



Agrostideae 



Stipa 



2 
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Map 239 
nith) Ricker 




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Map 240 



Stipa avenacea L. 




50 

Map 241 



Stipa comata Trin.& Rupr. 



84-209. STIPA L. Needlegrass 
[Hitchcock. The North American species of Stipa. Contr. U. S. Nation. 
Herb. 24: 215-289. 1925.] 

Glumes about 10 mm long h S. avenacea. 

Glumes about 15-40 mm long. 

Lemmas 8-12 mm long 2. S. comata. 

Lemmas 15-22 mm long 3. S. spartea. 

1. Stipa avenacea L. Blackseed Needlegrass. Map 240. Local in 
dry, sandy soil in a few of our northern counties. 

Mass. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex., mostly on the Coastal Plain. 

2. Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr. Needle-and-thread. Map 241. This 
species is known only from a high gravelly hill on the northeast side of 
Diamond Lake, Noble County. 

Ind. and Mich, to Yukon Territory, southw. to Tex. and Calif. 

3. Stipa spartea Trin. Porcupine Grass. Map 242. Local to infre- 
quent or frequent on open sand knolls, sand ridges, and dunes, or rarely 
on open gravelly places in the northwestern part of the state. 

Ont, to B. C, southw. to Pa., Ind., Kans., and N. Mex. 

85-208. ARISTIDA L. Three-awn Grass 
[Hitchcock. North American species of Aristida. Contr. U. S. Nation. 
Herb. 22 : 517-586. 1924. Henrard. A critical revision of the genus Aristida. 
vii+701p. 1928. Supplement: 702-747. 1933. Rijks Herbarium. Leiden.] 

Awns of lemma united into a column, 10-15 mm long, articulated with the lemma. 

1 . A . tuberculosa. 

Awns of lemma not united into a column and not articulated with the lemma. 
Lemmas (exclusive of awns) less than 12 mm long. 

Central awn of lemma coiled at the base at maturity; lateral awns rarely more 

than 1.5 mm long 2. A. dichotoma. 

Central awn of lemma not coiled at the base, but abruptly bent outward, usually 
to a 45-90 degree angle, sometimes with a slight twist at the base; lateral 
awns usually more than 1.5 mm long. 



Aristida 



Agrostideae 



139 





Map 243 
Aristida tuberculosa Nutt . 




50 

Map 244 



Aristida dichotoma Michx 



Glumes mostly 4-5 mm long; lemmas (exclusive of awns) generally 4-5 mm 

long, their central awns usually 5-15 mm long 3. A. longespica. 

Glumes mostly 6-11 mm long; lemmas (exclusive of awns) generally 6-8 mm 
long, their central awns usually 15-25 mm long. 
Plant annual, 20-40 cm high; first glume shorter than or equaling the second. 

4. A. intermedia. 

Plant perennial, 40-70 cm high; first glume generally longer than the second. 

5. A. purpurascens. 

Lemmas (exclusive of awns) more than 12 mm long. 

Central awn of lemma about 20 mm long, lateral awns much shorter, usually 

1.5 mm long 6. A. ramosissima. 

Central awn of lemma about 25-70 mm long, lateral awns usually about 5-10 mm 
shorter than the central one 1. A. oligantha. 

1. Aristida tuberculosa Nutt. Map 243. Local in the northwestern part 
of the state where it grows in almost pure sand on old beaches and low 
dunes. 

Mass. to Ga. and Miss, near the coast ; around the southern end of Lake 
Michigan, and locally in Wis., 111., Iowa, and Minn. 

2. Aristida dichotoma Michx. Map 244. Infrequent to frequent in the 
southern half of the state. It is usually a common plant where it is found. 
It prefers hard, white clay soil in abandoned and fallow fields, on washed 
slopes, and along clayey roadsides. 

All the species of this genus, when found in habitats similar to those 
just mentioned, are known in Indiana as poverty grasses. 

This species is often confused with A?*istida longespica from which it 
may be separated by its dichotomously branched culms, its shorter terminal 
panicles, its tighter second glume, the coiled central awn, and its straight 
lateral awns being 1 mm long. In the other species the glumes are usually 
much looser and the lateral awns of the lemma are much longer, diverging, 
or widely spreading. 

This species was reported from Marshall County by Clark but there is 
no verifying specimen. 

Maine to Mich. (Hemes) and e. Kans., southw. to s. Fla. and Tex. 



140 



Agrostideae 



Aristida 




~^0 

Map 245 



Aristida longespica Pon 













1 
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Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

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Aug 

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cnbn.& Ball 













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Map 247 
Poir. 



3. Aristida longespica Poir. (Aristida gracilis Ell.) Map 245. Infre- 
quent to frequent, but plentiful where found, in the southern part of the 
state. Usually abundant in hard, white clay soil in low, flat, fallow fields 
and in habitats similar to those of the preceding species. Probably also 
infrequent in the sandy areas of the northwestern part of the state, 
although there are specimens only from Starke County. Our specimens 
vary somewhat in the length of their awns, but I do not think the varia- 
tion has any taxonomic value. 

N. H. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex., especially on the Coastal Plain. 

4. Aristida intermedia Scribn. & Ball. Map 246. This species seems to 
be local but abundant where it is found. I have seen acres of it in Newton 
County in the old lake bed, and in Noble County it forms large colonies 
on the former bottom of Tippecanoe Lake. Local in moist, sandy soil on 
interdunal flats about Lake Michigan, in moist sandy, prairie habitats, 
and on moist sandy borders of lakes. 

Ind. to Nebr., southw. to Miss, and Tex. 

5. Aristida purpurascens Poir. Map 247. Infrequent in very dry sand 
in the northwestern part of the state and in a similar habitat in Knox 
County. Its habitat is found in contiguous counties, and doubtless its 
range will be extended. 

Mass. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

6. Aristida ramosissima Engelm. Map 248. This is an infrequent grass 
of the southwestern counties in hard, white clay soil in abandoned and 
fallow fields, on washed slopes, along clayey roadsides, and infrequently 
in yellow clay soil. 

Ind. to Iowa, southw. to Tenn., La., and Tex. 

7. Aristida oligantha Michx. Prairie Three-awn Grass. Map 249. 
Like the other species of the genus, this species is partial to a slightly acid 
soil and is infrequent to frequent in the southern half of the state where 



Leptochloa 



Chlorideae 



141 




50 

Map 248 
Anstida ramosissima Engelm. 




50 

Map 249 



Aristida oligantha Mich*. 



4 
3 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec. C 




















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ormis (Lam.) Beauv. 



its habitat is found. It is usually found in hard, white clay soil in aban- 
doned and fallow fields, on washed slopes, along clayey roadsides, and 
locally in sandy soil in the northern counties. 
Mass. to S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

6. CHLORIDEAE Kunth. Grama Tribe 

Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes; large coarse grasses, usually more than a 

meter high 99. Spartina, p. 143. 

Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes; grasses shorter than the preceding. 

Spikes digitate or, in Eleusine, one or rarely 2 spikes remote (rarely as distant as 
2.5 cm) . 
Spikelets 1-flowcred. 

Spikelets awnless 95. Cynodon, p. 143. 

Spikelets awned 102. Chloris, p. 144. 

Spikelets more than 1-flowered. 

Rachis extending beyond the florets into a naked sharp point; second glume and 

at least the lowest lemma cuspidate 94. Dactyloctenium, p. 142. 

Rachis not extending beyond the florets and not ending in a sharp point; glumes 

and lemmas not cuspidate 93. Eleusine, p. 142. 

Spikes racemose, on an axis more than 5 cm long. 

Spikes ascending or widely spreading, slender, elongate. 

Lemmas with an awn 4-6 mm long 101. Gymnopogon, p. 143. 

Lemmas awnless 90. Leptochloa, p. 141. 

Spikes drooping, dense, short 104. Bouteloua, p. 144. 



90-307. LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. Sprangletop Grass 

[Hitchcock. North American species of Leptochloa. U. S. Dept. Agric. 
Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 33: 1-21. 1903.] 

Sheaths papillose-pilose; second glume acute; grain 3-angled, grooved on the side 

toward the palea 1. L. filiformis. 

Sheaths smooth; second glume obtuse; grain compressed, not grooved. .2. L. panicoides. 

1. Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv. Red Sprangletop. Map 250. 
Infrequent in the counties along the Ohio River. It grows in sandy soil 
on the slope of the bank of the Ohio River where it is washed at flood 



142 



Chlorideae 



Eleusine 




o "30 
Map 251 



Leptochloa panicoides (Presl 1 Hitchc. 




50 

Map 252 

Eleusine indica (L.)Gaertn. 




5o 

Map 253 



Cynodon Dactylon (|_.) Pers. 



stages. Also found in sandy, alluvial fields along the Ohio River, and rarely 
in a similar habitat away from the river. Usually rather plentiful where 
it occurs. 

Va. to s. Ind. and e. Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex., s. Calif., and 
throughout tropical America. 

2. Leptochloa panicoides (Presl) Hitchc. (Leptochloa floribunda Doell 
of Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Map 251. In 1916 I found a few specimens of 
this species in a large, miry, muddy flat in what is locally known as 
Pitcher's Lake, about 5 miles west of Mt. Vernon, Posey County. Pitcher's 
Lake is in reality a shallow lagoon about 2 miles long and a half mile wide. 
It is filled with water during the winter months and is usually nearly or 
entirely dry in autumn. This grass was found with Lindemia, Cyperus, 
Acnida, and Leersia oryzoides. I revisited the place in 1920 and found a 
few more specimens. The Indiana specimens are the only ones known 
north of Mississippi. The species is rare, having been found only in 
Indiana, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and southward to Brazil. 

93-304. ELEUSINE Gaertn. 

1. Eleusine Indica (L.) Gaertn. Goosegrass. Map 252. This species is 
doubtless found in every county of the state although our records are less 
frequent in the northern counties. It prefers a moist, sandy habitat and 
is found about dwellings, along roadsides and footpaths and in waste 
places, pastures, and cultivated fields. 

Nat. of the Old World ; Mass. to S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; occa- 
sional in Oreg. and Calif. 



94-305. DACTYLOCTENIUM Willd. 
See excluded species no. 71, p. 1028. 



Cynodon 



CHLORIDEAE 



143 




o 50 

Map 254 



Spartina pectinata Link 




"M 

Map 255 



Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) BSP. 




Map 256 
Bouteloua curtfpendula (MichxJ Torr. 



95-282. CYNODON Richard 

1. Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. (Capriola Dactylon (L.) Ktze. Ber- 
muda Grass. Map 253. This grass has become sparingly established in 
the state and I predict that in time it will become a grass used frequently 
for lawns and pasturage. It thrives well in sandy soil where bluegrass 
will not. 

In a waste, vacant lot in Bluffton, Wells County, two large colonies 
have been established for several years and these were not injured by a 
temperature of twenty-one degrees below zero of the winter of 1935-1936. 

Introduced in America, and found in the warm regions of both hemi- 
spheres. Md. to Okla., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. ; occasionally northw. 
from N. H. to Mich, and Oreg. 

99-283. SPARTINA Schreber 

[Merrill. The North American species of Spartina. U. S. Dept. Agric. 
Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 9: 1-16. 1902. Saint-Yves, Alf. Monographia Spartin- 
arum. Candollea 5 : 19-100. Dec. 1932.] 

1. Spartina pectinata Link. (Spartina MicJiauxiana Hitchc.) Prairie 
Cordgrass. Map 254. This species is infrequent or rarely frequent and 
seems to be restricted to the lake and prairie areas and to the slope of the 
bank of the Ohio River, usually in crevices of shale. In the lake area, it is 
found on the low borders of lakes and streams and in marshy places. In 
the prairie area, it is found in wet places, usually closely associated with 
Calamagrostis canadensis. 

Newf., Que. to e. Wash, and Oreg., southw. to N. C, Ky., 111., Ark., Tex., 
and N. Mex. 

101-290. GYMNOPOGON Beauv. 

1. Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) BSP. Map 255. On September 19, 
1934, I found a large colony of this species in very sandy soil on the crest 
of a sand ridge in an open place in a woods in sec. 35 about 5 miles north- 



144 Phalarideae Hierochloe* 

west of Washington, Daviess County. In 1938 Kriebel found it here and 
in a woods a mile southwest of Plainville and in a woods 4 miles north of 
Washington. 

Coastal Plain, N. J., Fla., and Tex. ; in the Mississippi Valley, Ind., Tenn., 
Kans., and southw. 

102-288. CHLORIS Sw. 

See excluded species no. 72, p. 1029. 

104-195. BOUTELOUA Lag. Grama Grass 

1. Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. (Atheropogon curtipendulus 
(Michx.) Fourn.) Side-oats Gram A. Map 256. Very local in the state 
and usually restricted to small areas. It is found in dry soil, either sandy 
or clayey, on sandy knolls, gravelly hills and slopes, and on bluffs of 
streams. 

Maine, Ont. to Mont., southw. to Md., W. Va., Ala., Tex., Ariz., and s. 
Calif. ; introduced in S. C. 

7. PHALARIDEAE Link. Canary Grass Tribe 

Glumes 1-nerved; sterile lemmas awned 109. Anthoxanthum, p. 144. 

Glumes 3-nerved (sometimes the lateral pair of the first glume faint) ; lemmas not 
awned. 

Glumes very thin, not keeled 108. Hierochloe, p. 144. 

Glumes firm, strongly keeled 110. Phalaris, p. 144. 

108-206. HIEROCHLOE R. Br. 

1. Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. (Hierochloe odorata (L.) Wahl., 
Savastana odorata (L.) Scribn., and Hierochloe odorata var. fragrans 
(Willd.) Richt.) Sweetgrass. Map 257. Infrequent in some of our north- 
ern counties where it is usually found in open marshes. I have one speci- 
men from mucky soil of a fallow cornfield. 

Lab. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Ind., Iowa, Oreg., and in the mts. to 
N. Mex. and Ariz. 

109-205. ANTHOXANTHUM L. 

1. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Sweet Vernalgrass. Map 258. While 
this grass has been reported from all parts of the eastern United States, 
in Indiana it has been reported from only 2 counties in addition to those 
shown on the map. Found along railroads and in pastures, waste places, 
and meadows. 

Nat. of Eurasia; Greenland and Newf. to La. and Mich., and on the 
Pacific coast from B. C. to n. Calif. 

110-204. PHALARIS L. Canary Grass 

Inflorescence 6-16 cm long; glumes not dilated above the middle; fertile floret about 
3.5 mm long 1. P. arundinacea. 

Inflorescence 2-4 cm long; glumes dilated above the middle; fertile floret about 5 mm 
long. (See excluded species no. 73, p. 1029.) P. canariensis. 



Leersia 



Oryzeae 



145 




50 

Map 257 
Hierochloe odorata (U Beauv. 




50 

Map 258 



Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 




50 

Map 259 



Phalaris arundinacea L. 



1. Phalaris arundinacea L. Reed Canary Grass. Map 259. This species 
is infrequent in the lake area and local south of it. In most places in the 
lake area it seems to be a native while southward it is doubtless an escape. 
It is usually found in marshes but will thrive in almost any habitat. It 
is recommended as a fodder plant for low grounds, especially in the north- 
west. My observation and personal experience with it is that it is wise 
not to plant it if one wishes ever to get rid of it. I have found it as difficult 
to exterminate as most pernicious weeds. 

Nat. of Eurasia; N. B. to se. Alaska, southw. to N. C, Ky., Okla., N. Mex., 
Ariz., and ne. Calif. 

la. Phalaris arundinacea var. picta L. This is a variety with the 
leaves striped with white. It is often used in cultivation and found as an 
escape in colonies along roadsides and in waste places. 



8. ORYZEAE Kunth Rice Tribe 
112-194. LEERSIA Sw. 

Culms compressed; foliage more or less scabrous or scabrous-pubescent; spikelets 3-3.5 
mm long (rarely one 4 mm long), 1-1.3 mm wide; stamens 1 or 2; grain about 2.5 

mm long, 1 mm wide 1. L. virginica. 

Culms terete; foliage more or less hispid; spikelets 4.1-5 mm long, 1.5-4 mm wide; 
stamens 2 or 3; grain 3-3.5 mm long, 1.5-1.8 mm wide. 
Spikelets oblong, 1.5-1.8 mm wide; stamens 3; grain about 3 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. 

2. L. oryzoides. 

Spikelets broadly oval to nearly orbicular, 3-4 mm wide; stamens 2; grain about 3.5 
mm long, 1.8 mm wide 3. L. lenticularis. 

1. Leersia virginica Willd. (Homalocenchrus virginicus (Willd.) 
Britt.) Whitegrass. Map 260. An infrequent to frequent grass in low 
woodland of all kinds in all parts of the state. It is usually found where 
the mineral soil is exposed, hence it is most frequent on old logging roads. 

Que. to S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



146 



ZlZANIEAE 



Zizania 



1 
11 

21 

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1 








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Map 261 



Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. 




2. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. (Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll.) 
Rice Cutgrass. Map 261. This species is found throughout the state 
but on account of its habitat and light requirements it is infrequent. It 
prefers full sunlight and is found in low, wet places, especially along 
ditches, old river channels, outlets of springs, in springy places, and about 
lakes. The species varies considerably. In late flowering forms, sometimes 
the panicles do not expand and are included. Rarely forms with smooth 
sheaths are found. 

Maine, Que. to e. Wash., southw to Fla., Tex., Colo., Ariz., and s. Calif. ; 
also in Eu. 

3. Leersia lenticularis Michx. (Homalocenchrus lenticularis (Michx.) 
Scribn.) Catchfly Grass. Map 262. This grass seems to be restricted 
to the stream courses of the southwestern part of the state and the valley 
of the Kankakee River. It is usually found in low ground in woods, on 
the borders of ponds, about sloughs, and in ditches. It is infrequent but 
where found often plentiful. 

Ind. to Minn., southw. to S. C, Fla., and Tex. 



9. ZIZAMEAE Hitchc. Indian Rice Tribe 

113-190. ZIZANIA L. Wildrice 

[Fassett. A study of the genus Zizania. Rhodora 26 : 153-160. 1924.] 

Pistillate lemmas thin and papery, dull, finely striate, scabrous over the whole surface; 

aborted spikelets slender and shriveled, less than 1 mm thick 1. Z. aquatica. 

Pistillate lemmas firm and tough, with a lustrous and coarsely corrugate surface, 
scabrous on the margins, at the summit, along the awn, and sometimes along the 
nerves, otherwise glabrous; aborted spikelets with a distinct body 1.5-2 mm thick. 
Culms 60-120 cm high; blades generally less than 10 mm wide; lower pistillate 
branches with 2-6 spikelets; lower or middle staminate branches with 5-15 spike- 
lets la. Z. aquatica var. angustifolia. 

Culms mostly 125-275 cm high; blades generally 10-50 mm wide; lower pistillate 
branches with 11-29 spikelets; lower or middle staminate branches with (20) 
30-60 spikelets lb. Z. aquatica var. interior. 



Zizania 



Paniceae 



147 





Map 264 
Digitaria fihformi's (L.) KoeL 




Map 265 
Digitaria Ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. 



1. Zizania aquatica L. (Zizania palnstris of recent authors, not L.) 
Annual Wildrice. Map 263. Infrequent to local in the lake area in 
dredged ditches, sloughs, and swamps. 

This grass affords protection and food for water birds, especially wild 
ducks, and it is now often planted for these purposes. 

The following are popular publications on this subject: Wild rice; 
its uses and propagation, by Brown and Scofield. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bur. 
PI. Ind. Bull. 50: 1-23. 7 pi. 1903; Wild rice, by Fyles. Dept. Agric. 
Dominion of Canada, Bull. 42, n.s. 1-20. 1920; Propagation of wild-duck 
foods, by McAtee. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 465. 1917. 

Que. to N. Dak. and Idaho, southw. to Fla., and La. 

la. Zizania aquatica var. angustifolia Hitchc. (Zizania palustris L.) 
Northern Wildrice. This variety has the habitat of the species. 
N. B., Que., and N. Dak., southw. to N. Y. and Nebr. 

lb. Zizania aquatica var. interior Fassett. This is a form of the species 
which Fassett recognizes but Hitchcock does not. It seems to be distinct 
in our area. Its habitat is that of the species. 



10. PANICEAE R. Br. Millet Tribe 

Spikelets enclosed in globose spiny burs 137. Cenchrus, p. 177. 

Spikelets not as above. 

Spikelets subtended by 1-several scabrous bristles; inflorescence a spikelike panicle. 

135. Setaria, p. 176. 

Spikelets not subtended by bristles. 

Spikelets awned or with an acuminate and spiny-hispid second glume and sterile 

lemma 133. Echinochloa, p. 174. 

Spikelets not awned nor spiny-hispid. 

Spikelets in slender one-sided racemes, subsessile and in two rows; first glume 
obsolete. 
Spikelets obovate to suborbicular or, if narrowly elliptic, the rachis broadly 

winged 128. Paspalum, p. 149. 

Spikelets lanceolate or elliptic, on a narrow rachis. .. .121. Digitaria, p. 148. 



148 Paniceae Digitaria 

Spikelets in an open or contracted panicle. 

Fruiting lemma firm, with flat, hyaline margins; pedicels 3-angled at the 

summit 122. Leptoloma, p. 148. 

Fruiting lemma chartaceous-indurate, the margins inrolled 

129. Panicum, p. 150. 

121-166A. DIGITARIA Heist. Crabgkass 

[Nash. The Genus Syntherisma in North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club 25 : 289-303. 1898.] 

Lower blades glabrous or nearly so; mature fertile lemmas (fruit) dark brown or 
black, about 2 mm long. 

Lower sheaths papillose-hirsute ; rachis wingless, about 0.3 mm wide 

1. D. filifomiis. 

Lower sheaths glabrous or with a few straggling hairs; rachis winged, about 1 mm 

w j(je 2. D. Ischaemum. 

Lower blades more or less pubescent; mature fertile lemmas (fruit) light gray to 
light drab, about 3 mm long 3. D. sanguinalis. 

1. Digitaria filiformis (L.) Koel. (Syntherisma filiforme (L.) Nash.) 
Map 264. This species is known from only eleven counties and reported 
from Marshall County. It is very local but common enough where found. 
My specimens are from very sandy soil in shallow depressions on low, 
sandy ridges in open woodland, in a moist prairie habitat, and in dry, 
sandy soil in pastures. 

N. H. to Iowa and Kans., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Mex. 

2. Digitaria Ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. (Digitaria humifusa Pers. 
and Syntherisma Ischaemum (Schreb.) Nash.) Smooth Crabgrass. Map 
265. Infrequent in the northern part of the state and frequent to com- 
mon in moist, clayey flats in the southwestern counties. Like the next 
species, it is found almost everywhere except in dense woodland and very 
wet soil. It prefers a moist, sandy soil and is found generally in culti- 
vated fields, pastures, meadows, and waste places and along roadsides. 
In the southwestern counties in the moist, clayey, fallow fields, it forms 
dense mats over large areas. 

Nat. of Eurasia; Que. to N. Dak., southw. to S. C, Tenn., and Ark. 

3. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (Syntherisma sanguinalis (L.) 
Dulac.) Crabgrass. Map 266. This species is a common weed throughout 
the state, especially in truck gardens, lawns, gardens, and cultivated 
grounds of all kinds. 

Nat. of Eu. ; throughout the U. S., more common in the East and South. 

122-166C. LEPTOLOMA (has, 

1. Leptoloma cognatum (Schult.) Chase. Map 267. This grass is found 
in very sandy soil on sand ridges and sandy knolls, usually in fallow fields, 
along roadsides, and in open woodland. 

N. H. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex., and westw. to Ariz. 



Paspalum 



Paniceae 



149 




50 

Map 266 



Digitaria sanguinalis (U Scop. 




50 

Map 267 
Leptoloma cognatum (Schult.) Chase 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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Paspalum f luitans (Ell.) Kunth 



128-161. PASPALUM L. 

[Chase. The North American species of Paspalum. Contr. U. S. Nation. 
Herb. 28: 1-310. 1929.] 

Racemes more than 10 to a panicle 1. P. fluitans. 

Racemes fewer than 10 to a panicle. 
Spikelets 2.5-3.2 mm long. 

Spikelets solitary 2. P. drculare. 

Spikelets in pairs 3. P. pubiflorum var. glabrtim. 

Spikelets 1.5-2.4 mm long. 

Blades from sparsely to rather densely pilose, rather thin. 

Spikelets 2 mm long A. P. pubescens. 

Spikelets about 1.5 mm long. (See excluded species no. 77, p. 1029.) . .P. setaceum. 

Blades puberulent on both surfaces, with long hairs intermixed, or the lower 

surface nearly or quite glabrous except a few long hairs along the midrib 

and margin, usually rather firm 5. P. stramineum. 

1. Paspalum fluitans (Ell.) Kunth. (Paspalum mucronatum Muhl. and 
Paspalum repens Berg.) Map 268. Infrequent to local in the state and 
restricted to the muddy banks of ponds, sloughs, and streams. The oldest 
specimen seen was one collected in 1836 near New Albany by Dr. Clapp. 

S. C. to Ind., Kans., and Tex., southw. to Argentina. 

2. Paspalum circulare Nash. Map 269. Infrequent to frequent in the 
southern part of the state where it is usually found in hard, white clay 
soil in roadside ditches, low places in woodland, and fallow fields. The 
specimen from Marion County was found along the Monon Railroad and 
doubtless was introduced. 

Conn, to N. C. and Miss., northw. to Ind., Kans., and westw. to Tex. 

3. Paspalum pubiflorum Rupr. var. glabrum Vasey. Map 270. Infre- 
quent in a few of our southern counties. Usually found in moist, 
sandy soil in ditches and in low ground. It is a common plant in the 
street gutters in the southeastern part of Mt. Vernon. 

N. C. to Ind. and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



150 



Paniceae 



Panicum 




50 

Map 269 



Paspalum circulare Nash 




o 50 

Map 270 
Paspalum pubiflorum 

var. glabrum Vasey 




50 

Map 271 



Paspalum pubescens Muhl. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec. 



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Map 272 



Paspalum stramineum Nash 




50 

Map 273 

Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. 




Map 274 



Panicum flexile (Gatt.) Scnbn, 



4. Paspalum pubescens Muhl. (Including Paspalum Muhlenbergii 
Nash.) Map 271. This species is found sparingly in the northern two 
thirds of the state and is infrequent to frequent in the southern part. It 
prefers moist, sandy soil but adapts itself to many habitats. It is usually 
found in pastured fields and woodlots. 

Vt. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5. Paspalum stramineum Nash. Map 272. A few specimens of this 
species have been found in a few of the northwestern counties in very 
dry, sandy soil along roadsides and in waste places. 

Ind. to Minn., southw. to Tex., Ariz., and nw. Mex. 



129-166. PANICUM L. Panicum 

[Hitchcock and Chase. The North American species of Panicum. Contr. 
U. S. Nation. Herb. 15: 1-396. 1910. Fernald. Realignments in the genus 
Panicum. Rhodora 36: 61-87. 1934.] 



Panicum Paniceae 151 

Annual or perennial grasses of various habit, foliage, and inflorescence ; 
spikelets disarticulating below the glumes, arranged in open or compact 
panicles, rarely racemose, 1- or 2-flowered, the lower flower usually repre- 
sented by a sterile lemma and palea, the palea usually not developed or 
rarely lacking, when 2-flowered the lower staminate only; glumes 2, 
asually very unequal, the first smaller and often minute, the second 
;ypically equaling the sterile lemma, the latter of the same texture and 
simulating a third glume ; stamens 3 ; fertile lemma chartaceous-indurate, 
Lhe nerves obsolete, the margins inrolled and enclosing a palea of the 
same texture. 

KEY TO SECTIONS OF INDIANA PANICUM. 

Basal leaves similar to those of the culm; plants not forming winter rosettes. 
First glume truncate or triangular-tipped, usually about a fourth (rarely longer) 
as long as the acute or acuminate glabrous spikelet; annual 

1. DlCHOTOMIFLORA, p. 156. 

First glume not truncate, more than a fourth as long as the spikelet, usually a third 
to nearly half as long; annual or perennial. 
Spikelets 2-5 mm long, smooth, or the keels more or less scabrous, but the spikelet 
not warty. 

Annual 2. Capillaria, p. 156. 

Perennial. 

Spikelets on long pedicels in large, open panicles; plants with creeping root- 
stocks 3. Virgata, p. 158. 

Spikelets on short pedicels, arranged close together in one-sided branches in 
large panicles; plants without creeping rootstocks. .4. Agrostoidea, p. 158. 

Spikelets 1.8-2 mm long, warty 5. Verrucosa, p. 159. 

Basal leaves not similar to those of the culm; plants forming winter rosettes. 
Culm leaves elongated, not over 5 mm (rarely 6 mm) wide, more than 20 times as 
long as wide; spikelets 2.2-4 mm long, beaked in P. depauperatum and its 

variety; autumnal phase branching at the base 6. Depauperata, p. 160. 

Culm leaves not elongated (if elongated, glabrous on both surfaces with spikelets 2.2-3 

mm long, or the blades softly pubescent on both surfaces and the spikelets 1.8-2 

mm long) ; autumnal phase branching above the base or remaining simple. 

Plants with elongate foliage aggregated at the base, light green, softly pubescent, 

the basal leaves not in distinct rosettes in autumn; ligules nearly obsolete; 

spikelets 1.8-2 mm long; autumnal phase branching near the base, forming 

close, fiat tufts, with reduced panicles 7. Laxiflora, p. 161. 

Plants not as above. 

Uppermost leaves elongate, generally longest, stiff, widely spreading, 3-8 (10) 
mm wide and up to 22 cm long, glabrous on both surfaces ; sheaths glabrous 
or only the margins pubescent; spikelets 2.3-3 mm long 

8. BlCKNELLIANA, p. 162. 

Uppermost leaves and spikelets not as above. 

Culms glabrous or only the nodes pubescent; spikelets not over 3 mm long. 
Ligules less than 1.2 mm long, usually nearly obsolete. 

Culms bearded at the nodes, at least the lower ones (rarely only the upper 

ones puberulent in P. mattamuskeetense) 9. Dichotoma, p, 162. 

Culms not bearded at the nodes. 

Spikelets more than 1.8 mm long 9. Dichotoma, p. 162. 

Spikelets less than 1.8 mm long 13. Sphaerocarpa, p. 170. 

Ligules 2-5 mm long 10. Spreta, p. 164. 

Culms and sheaths more or less strongly pubescent; if glabrous except the 
nodes, the spikelets more than 3 mm long. 
Ligules 2-5 mm long 11. Lanuginosa, p. 164. 



152 Paniceae Panicum 

Ligules not more than 2 mm long. 

Spikelets nearly spherical at maturity, less than 1.8 mm long; blades 

glabrous, firm, cordate 13. Sphaerocarpa, p. 170. 

Spikelets elliptic or obovate, more than 1.7 mm long (except in P. 
columbianum) . 
Blades not cordate at the base. 

Spikelets less than 3 mm long 12. Columbiana, p. 169. 

Spikelets more than 3 mm long 14. Oligosanthia, p. 171. 

Blades cordate at the base. 

Spikelets 2.5-2.9 mm long 15. Commutata, p. 172. 

Spikelets 3-5 mm long 16. Latifolia, p. 173. 

KEY TO THE INDIANA SPECIES OF PANICUM 

A. Spikelets glabrous. 

Spikelets 3 mm long or longer. 
Annual. 

Spikelets 4-5 mm long and more than 1.8 mm wide. (See excluded species no. 

82, p. 1030.) P. miliaceum. 

Spikelets 3-4 mm long, less than 1.8 mm wide 2. P. flexile, p. 157. 

Perennial. 

Panicles 20-40 cm long; spikelets gaping or curved at the apex. 
Ligules 2-4 mm long; first glume two thirds to three fourths as long as the 

spikelet 6. P. virgatum, p. 158. 

Ligules less than 1 mm long; first glume a third to half as long as the 

spikelet 7. P. anceps, p. 159. 

Panicles 3-8 cm long; spikelets not gaping or curved at the apex. 

Blades elongated, not over 5 mm wide and more than 20 times as long as 

wide; spikelets beaked or pointed at the apex. .11. P. depauperatum, p. 160. 

Blades not elongated, less than 20 times as long as wide; spikelets blunt at 

the apex 43. P. Scribnerianum, p. 171. 

Spikelets less than 3 mm long. 

Spikelets warty 10. P. verrucosum, p. 159. 

Spikelets not warty. 

Annual; basal leaves similar to those of the culm; plants not forming winter 
rosettes; panicles more than 12 cm long (except in depauperate plants). 
Sheaths glabrous. 

Spikelets 2-3.5 mm long, usually about 2.9 mm long (rarely a few as short 
as 2 mm), acute; plants usually large and spreading, 50-100 cm long. 

1. P. dichotomiflorum, p. 156. 

Spikelets 1.8-2.2 mm long, usually about 2 mm long, blunt; plants shorter 

and more slender than the preceding 

la. P. dichotomifloruvi var. puritanorum, p. 156. 

Sheaths pubescent. 

Pulvini of the panicle hispid. 

Panicles included at the base, usually large, about as wide as long, gen- 
erally about half as long as the whole plant; blades thickly papillose- 
hispid above and beneath 3. P. capillare, p. 157. 

Panicles exserted, ovoid, usually not as large as the preceding, about a 
third as long as the whole plant; blades sparsely hirsute above and 

beneath 4. P. philadelphicum, p. 157. 

Pulvini of panicle glabrous 5. P. Gattingeri, p. 157. 

Perennial; basal leaves not like those of the culm; plants forming winter 
rosettes; panicles not over 12 cm long, except those of Panicum agrostoides 
which are much longer. 
Pedicels mostly about half as long as the spikelets; spikelets subsecund on 

the lower side of the branchlets of the inflorescence 

9. P. agrostoides, p. 159. 



Panicum Paniceae 153 

Pedicels mostly longer than the spikelets; spikelets not subsecund on the lower 
side of the branchlets of the inflorescence. 
Spikelets not more than 1.8 mm long. 

Nodes bearded; ligule less than 1 mm long; sheaths usually covered more 

or less with white spots 16. P. microcarpon, p. 162. 

Nodes not bearded; ligule more than 1 mm long; sheaths without white 

spots 22. P. sprettim, p. 164. 

Spikelets 1.9-2.8 mm long. 

Sheaths or some of them usually marked more or less with white spots, 
the overlapping margin usually glabrous; spikelets more than 2.2 

mm long (mostly 2.3-2.5 mm long) 21. P. yadkinense, p. 164. 

Sheaths not marked with white spots, the overlapping margin pubescent; 
spikelets 2-2.8 mm long. 

Spikelets 2.3-2.8 mm long 15. P. Bicknellii, p. 162. 

Spikelets 2-2.2 mm long. 

Plants of dry ground; culms erect, rarely autumnal plants reclin- 
ing 17. P. dichotomum, p. 163. 

Plants of bogs and swamps ; culms weak, soon becoming decumbent 

and trailing 20. P. lucidum, p. 163. 

\. Spikelets pubescent. 
Blades mostly more than 15 mm wide. 

Sheaths, at least the lower ones and those of the branches, papillose-hispid; 

spikelets 2.7-3 mm long (rarely longer) 46. P. clandestinum, p. 173. 

Sheaths not papillose-hispid. 

Nodes retrorsely bearded; spikelets 4-4.5 mm long. 

Blades glabrous or nearly so on both surfaces 48. P. Boscii, p. 174. 

Blades velvety to the touch beneath 48a. P. Boscii var. molle, p. 174. 

Nodes not retrorsely bearded, glabrous or minutely appressed-pubescent. 

Spikelets 3.2-3.7 mm long 47. P. latifolium, p. 174. 

Spikelets 2.5-3 mm long 45. P. commutatum, p. 173. 

Spikelets 1.4-1.6 mm long 39. P. polyanthes, p. 170. 

Blades mostly less than 15 mm wide. 

Blades elongated, not over 5 mm wide and more than 20 times as long as wide. 
Spikelets beaked, mostly 3.2-3.8 mm long (rarely as short as 3 mm). 

Sheaths pilose 11 . P. depauperatum, p. 160. 

Sheaths glabrous or nearly so. .11a. P. depauperatum var. psilophylhmi, p. 160. 
Spikelets not beaked, 3 mm or less in length (rarely 3.2 mm long). 

Spikelets 2.7-3.2 mm long; panicles narrow, usually less than a third as wide 

as long; ligules mostly about 1 mm long 12. P. perlongum, p. 161. 

Spikelets 2.2-2.7 mm long; panicles usually more than a third as wide as 
long; ligules mostly less than 1 mm long. 

Sheaths pilose 13. P. lineari folium, p. 161. 

Sheaths glabrous or nearly so.. 13a. P. lineari folium var. Werneri, p. 161. 
Blades not elongated or, if elongated, more than 5 mm wide. 
Spikelets 3 mm or more long. 

Spikelets beaked, somewhat curved, smooth except the scabrous keels 

7. P. anceps, p. 159. 

Spikelets obovate, not curved, more or less pubescent with spreading hairs. 
Ligule less than 0.5 mm long; blades papillose-hispid above and beneath; 

spikelets papillose-hispid 41. P. Leibergii, p. 171. 

Ligule more than 0.5 mm long; blades not papillose-hispid; spikelets not 
papillose. 
Culms and at least the lower sheaths with an appressed pubescence; 
ligules mostly 1.5 mm long with longer hairs intermixed; spikelets 

oblong-obovate, mostly 3.5-4 mm long and 1.7-1.9 mm wide 

42. P. oligosanthes, p. 171. 



154 Paniceae Panicum 

Culms and sheaths with a spreading pubescence; ligules about 1 mm 
long; spikelets bluntly obovate, mostly 3-3.5 mm iong and 2 mm 

■wide 43. P. Scribnerianam, p. 171. 

Spikelets less than 3 mm long. 

Sheaths retrorsely pilose 14. P. xalapense, p. 161. 

Sheaths not retrorsely pilose. 

Basal leaves like those of the culm; plants not forming winter rosettes. 

Spikelets 1.8-2.3 mm long; fruit not stalked 9. P. agrostoides, p. 159. 

Spikelets 2.4-2.8 mm long; fruit with a basal stalk 0.2-0.4 mm long. 

8. P. stipitatum, p. 159. 

Basal leaves not like those of the culm; plants forming winter rosettes B. 
B (to left to save space). 
B. Culms glabrous or only the nodes pubescent. 

Ligule more than 1.5 mm long; spikelets 1.3-1.6 mm long. 

Panicles narrow, a fourth to a third as wide as long (somewhat wider in anthesis) ; 

spikelets elliptic 22. P. spretum, p. 164. 

Panicles open, two thirds as wide as long or longer; spikelets obovate 

23. P. Lindheimeri, p. 164. 

Ligule less than 1.5 mm long; spikelets 1.4-2.9 mm long. 
Spikelets 1.4-1.7 mm long. 

Nodes of culms usually copiously barbed with long, lax, retrorse hairs; at 
least the lower sheaths more or less marked with white spots between the 
nerves; leaves usually glabrous, 6-14 mm wide, spreading or the upper 

reflexed 16. P. microcarpon, p. 162. 

Nodes of culms minutely appressed-pubescent. 

Upper three blades usually 10-20 cm long and 25 mm wide, the upper blade 
usually not much smaller than the other two, the blades below the upper 

three usually much smaller; anthers mostly 0.4-0.5 mm long 

39. P. polyanthes, p. 170. 

Upper three blades usually 5-10 cm long and 7-14 mm wide, the upper one 
usually much reduced, the blades below the upper three usually not 
reduced; anthers mostly 0.6-0.8 mm long. . . .40. P. sphaerocarpon, p. 170. 
Spikelets 1.8-2.9 mm long. 
Spikelets 1.8-2.2 mm long. 

Culms soon decumbent and trailing, the nodes usually glabrous or the lowest 
with a few soft spreading hairs; vernal blades spreading, mostly 4-6 mm 

wide; plants of a wet habitat 20. P. lucidum, p. 163. 

Culms erect, never trailing; vernal blades erect or spreading, mostly 4-14 mm 

wide. 

Vernal blades mostly 4-8 mm wide, rarely some of them wider ; lower part of 

culms usually more or less geniculate; lowest nodes of culms usually 

more or less barbed with soft hairs; plants usually of a dry habitat, 

often reclining in the autumnal phase and the nodes glabrous 

17. P. dichotomum, p. 163. 

Vernal blades mostly 6-14 mm wide, more erect; culms not geniculate and 
the nodes usually all glabrous or with only a few soft hairs on the 

lowest; plants of a wet habitat 19. P. boreale, p. 163. 

Spikelets 2.3-2.9 mm long. 

Blades mostly less than 8 mm wide, glabrous on both surfaces, not cordate 

at the base; spikelets oblong-elliptic, 2.3-2.9 mm long 

15. P. Bicknellii, p. 162. 

Blades mostly 8-12 mm wide, cordate at the base, usually pubescent or the 

upper surface glabrous; spikelets elliptic, about 2.5 mm long 

18. P. mattamuskeetense, p. 163. 

B. Culms and sheaths more or less puberulent to strongly pubescent. 
C. Ligule 2 mm or more long. 

Plants grayish velvety-pubescent; spikelets 1.3-1.4 mm long 

24. P. miburne, p. 166. 



anicum Paniceae 155 

Plants pubescent, often villous but not velvety. 
Culms conspicuously pilose with long horizontal hairs, branching before the 

expansion of the primary panicles; spikelets mostly 1.8-1.9 mm long 

25. P. praecocius, p. 166. 

Culms vai-iously pubescent, if pilose the hairs appressed or widely spreading; 
culm not branching before the expansion of the primary panicles. 
Spikelets less than 2 mm long. 

Vernal blades glabrous or nearly so above, 6-10 cm long and 5-10 mm wide. 

26. P. tennesseense, p. 166. 

Vernal blades pubescent above or, if glabrous, smaller than the preceding, 
sometimes pilose above near the base and margins only. 
Spikelets 1.3-1.5 mm long. 

Upper surface of blades puberulent as well as long-villous 

27. P. albemarlense, p. 166. 

Upper surface of blades villous but lacking the short, appressed 
puberulence. 
Axis of panicle pilose, the lowest branches widely spreading; 

spikelets 1.5 mm long 28. P. implication, p. 166. 

Axis of panicle puberulent only, the lowest branches ascending; 

spikelets 1.3-1.4 mm long 29. P. meridionale, p. 167. 

Spikelets 1.6-1.9 mm long. 
Pubescence on upper surface of vernal blades short-pilose, appressed 
at least on the apical half; first glume about a third the length of 
the spikelet, blunt or acute. 

Blades stiff, erect 30. P. huachucae, p. 167. 

Blades lax, spreading. . .30a. P. huachucae var. fasciculatum, p. 168. 
Pubescence on upper surface of vernal blades long-pilose, ascending; 

first glume about half as long as the spikelet, acuminate 

31. P. subvillosum, p. 168. 

Spikelets 2-2.4 mm long. 

Upper internodes shortened; leaves approximate, the blades often equaling 

the panicles; pubescence sparse and stiff. . . .32. P. scoparioides, p. 168. 

Upper internodes not shortened, the pubescence usually copious and rather 

silky. 

Culms, sheaths, and lower surface of blades pilose but lacking the short 

pubescence; center of blades not glabrous; spikelets about 2 mm 

long 33. P. villosissimum, p. 168. 

Culms, sheaths, and lower surface of blades puberulent as well as pilose; 

center of blades glabrous; spikelets 2.1-2.4 mm long 

34. P. pseudopubescens, p. 168. 

C. Ligules not over 2 mm long. 

Spikelets nearly spheric at maturity, less than 1.8 mm long. 

Upper three blades usually 10-20 cm long and 25 mm wide, the upper blade 
usually not much smaller than the other two, the blades below the upper 

three usually much smaller; anthers mostly 0.4-0.5 mm long 

39. P. polyanthes, p. 170. 

Upper three blades usually 5-10 cm long and 7-14 mm wide, the upper one 
usually much reduced, the blades below the upper three usually not 

reduced; anthers mostly 0.6-0.8 mm long 40. P. sphaerocarpon, p. 170. 

Spikelets elliptic or obovoid. 

Blades not cordate at the base, spikelets more than 1.7 mm long except in 
P. columbianum. 

Spikelets mostly 2.8-2.9 mm long 35. P. Deamii, p. 169. 

Spikelets 2-2.2 mm long 36. P. Addisonii, p. 169. 

Spikelets mostly 1.8-1.9 mm long 37. P. tsugetorum, p. 169. 

Spikelets mostly 1.5-1.7 mm long 38. P. columbianum, p. 169. 

Blades cordate at the base. 



156 Paniceae Panicum 

Culms and sheaths usually densely crisp-puberulent (sometimes sparsely so) ; 

blades generally less than 12 mm wide; spikelets 2.2-2.5 mm long 

44. P. Ashei, p. 172. 

Culms and sheaths generally nearly glabrous or only sparsely puberulent 

(not crisp-puberulent); blades or some of them usually more than 12 

mm wide; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long, generally about 2.7 mm long 

45. P. commiitahim, p. 173. 

1. DICHOTOMIFLORA 

Annual plants with smooth culms ; ligule membranous below, densely 
ciliate above; spikelets glabrous; fruit smooth and shining. 

Spikelets 2-3.5 mm long, usually about 2.9 mm long (rarely a few as short as 2 mm), 
acute; plants usually large and spreading, 50-100 cm long. . .1. P. dichotomiflorum. 

Spikelets 1.8-2.2 mm long, usually about 2 mm long, blunt; plants shorter and more 
slender than the preceding la. P. dichotomiflorum var. puritanorum. 

1. Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. Fall Panicum. Map 273. This 
is an infrequent to frequent grass in all parts of the state, being much 
more frequent in the southern part. It prefers a wet or moist soil, and 
is found on the muddy shores of streams; in moist, open places in wood- 
land, especially in old logging roads; and in moist places in stubblefields, 
cornfields, waste places, and roadside ditches. 

Maine to Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

la. Panicum dichotomiflorum var. puritanorum Svenson. (Rhodora 
22: 154-155. 1920.) My only specimen of this variety is from a dried-up 
pond about 3 miles southwest of Tefft, Jasper County, where it was closely 
associated with Panicum spretum. The specimen I reported from Kosciusko 
County I am now referring to Panicum Gattingeri Nash. 

Mass., Conn., L. I., and Ind. 

2. CAPILLARIA 

Annuals; sheaths papillose-hispid; ligules membranous, 1-3 mm long, 
ciliate ; panicles many-flowered, mostly diffuse ; spikelets glabrous, pointed ; 
first glume large, clasping ; fruit smooth and shining. 

Panicles drooping; spikelets 4.5-5 mm long. (See excluded species no. 80, p. 1030.) 

P. miliaceum. 

Panicles erect; spikelets not more than 4 mm long. 
Spikelets mostly 3-3.5 mm long; second glume and sterile lemma 7-9-nerved; pulvini 

glabrous LP. flexile. 

Spikelets mostly 1.8-2.9 mm long; second glume and sterile lemma 5-nerved. 
Pulvini of panicle hispid. 

Terminal panicles generally about half as long as the length of the whole plant 
(except when crowded by other vegetation, when the terminal panicle may 
be much shorter), usually large, about as wide as long, generally included at 
the base; blades thickly papillose-hispid above and beneath, 5-15 mm wide; 

spikelets mostly 2-2.5 mm long 2. P. capillar e. 

Terminal panicles about a third the length of the entire plant, generally about 
half as wide as long, usually long-exserted ; blades sparsely papillose- 
pubescent on both surfaces, 2-6 (8) mm wide; spikelets 1.7-2 (2.2) mm 
long 3. P. philadelphicum. 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



ir,7 




50 

Map 275 



Panicum c a pi 1 1 are L. 



1 

2 

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Map 277 



Panicum Gattingeri Nash 



Pulvini of panicle glabrous (sometimes the lower ones pubescent). 
Leaf blades mostly 6-10 mm wide; spikelets 2 (2.2) mm long; plants yellowish 

green, freely branching at the nodes 4. P. Gattingeri. 

Leaf blades 2-6 mm wide (according to Hitchcock), 1-10 mm wide (according 
to Fernald). (Rhodora 21: 112-114. 1919.) (See excluded species no. 82, 
p. 1030. ) P- Tuckermani. 

1. Panicum flexile (Gatt.) Scribn. Map 274. Infrequent in the north- 
ern and southern counties. In the north it is found in dry or moist, sandy 
soil, usually on the marly borders of lakes, and on interdunal flats. In 
the southern counties it is found in poor, dry soil in open places on the 
crests of ridges, on washed or rocky slopes, and in dry pastures. 

N. Y., Que. to S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Panicum capillare L. Witchgrass. Map 275. A pernicious weed 
in all parts of the state in all kinds of soils and in all kinds of habitats 
except in dense woodland. It shows great variation in size and form, 
depending upon how much it is crowded in growing. In dried-up ponds 
where it germinates late, mature plants may be only a few inches high. 

Maine to Mont., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

3. Panicum philadelphicum Bernh. Map 276. A local to infrequent 
or frequent species found mostly in the southern half of the state. It is 
found in poor soil, probably slightly acid, generally in fallow fields and 
on washed slopes. 

Conn, to Wis., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

4. Panicum Gattingeri Nash. Map 277. Infrequent throughout the 
state. It is usually found in moist, sandy soil along streams, about ponds, 
in old logging roads, and along moist roadsides. 

Panicum Tuckermani Fern, is a closely allied species which I am not 
able to separate from Panicum Gattingeri. Some of my specimens have 
been named for me as Panicum Tuckermani, but I am referring them 



158 



Paniceae 



Panicum 




o 5o 

Map 278 



Panicum virgatum L. 





53 

Map 280 



Panicum stipitatum Nash 



to Panicum Gattingeri until satisfactory characters are found to separate 
them. 

N. Y., Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Tenn. 

3. VIRGATA 

Perennials from stout rootstocks; spikelets gaping at the apex, owing 
to the well developed staminate floret and its palea in addition to the 
perfect one; species mostly maritime, only one in Indiana. 

6. Panicum virgatum L. (Linder. Some varieties of Panicum virgatum. 
Rhodora 24: 11-16. 1922.) Switchgrass. Map 278. This species is found 
as a native in almost all the counties in the state and is now introduced 
in sand ballast along railroads in many counties. It is not a native of 
Wells County but I have found it along railroads in three widely separated 
places in the county. It prefers the open and a sandy soil. Where it is 
found, it is generally common over the extent of its habitat. It is found 
in sandy prairies, "oak openings," on gravelly banks of lakes and streams, 
and along the Ohio River it often grows among the cobblestones of boat 
landings and in the seams of outcrops of shale. 

Maine, Que. to Mont., southw. to Fla., Nev., and Ariz.; Mex. and 
Cent. Amer. 

4. AGROSTOIDIA 

Tufted perennials; culms erect, compressed; sheaths keeled; ligules 
membranous, 0.5-1 mm long; spikelets short-pediceled, lanceolate, pointed, 
glabrous, 5-7-nerved; fruit smooth and shining, with a minute tuft of 
stout hairs at the apex. 

Rootstocks present; blades pilose above toward the base; spikelets 3-3.8 mm long 

7. P. anceps. 

Rootstocks lacking; blades not pilose above toward the base; spikelets less than 3 mm 
long. 
Spikelets 2.4-2.8 mm long, conspicuously secund; fruit with a basal stalk 0.2-0.4 mm 
l on g 8. P. stipitatum. 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



159 




50 

Map 281 



Panicum agrostoides Spreng. 















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Panicum verrucosum Muhl. 




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Map 283 



Panicum depauperatum Muhl. 



Spikelets 1.8-2.3 mm long, not conspicuously secund; fruit without a stalk at the base 
(if stalked, the stalk less than 0.2 mm long) 9. P. agrostoides. 

7. Panicum anceps Michx. Map 279. This species is restricted to the 
southern part of the state where it is infrequent and found in woodland 
in open, wet places about ponds, swamps, and sloughs and in roadside 
ditches. 

N. J. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

8. Panicum stipitatum Nash. Map 280. An infrequent grass in a few 
counties of southern Indiana. It is usually found in hard, white clay 
soil in wet places in swamps, clearings, fallow fields, and ditches. It is 
frequently associated with Panicum agrostoides with which it is often 
confused. 

Conn, to Mo., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

9. Panicum agrostoides Spreng. Map 281. Infrequent to frequent in 
the sandy areas of the northwestern part of the state; more frequent in 
the southwestern part, where it usually grows in large clumps in hard, 
white clay soil in dried-up swamps and on the borders of streams, lakes, 
ditches, sloughs, and old canals. In our northern counties it grows in wet, 
sandy, or muddy soil. 

Maine to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex.; Vancouver Island and Calif. 



5. VERRUCOSA 

Annuals, glabrous; culms weak, divaricately branching, decumbent at 
the base ; ligule ciliate ; panicles divaricate, the branches capillary, spikelet- 
bearing toward the ends. 

10. Panicum verrucosum Muhl. Map 282. This species is very local 
and is found in wet or moist, sandy soil about sloughs near Lake Michigan 
and in marshes and roadside ditches in sec. 12 of Jasper County about 
3 miles southeast of Tefft. We have specimens from only Jasper and 



160 



Paniceae 



Panicum 



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Panicum linearifolium 
^ar. Wernen (Scribn.) Fern. 



Porter Counties although it has been reported from Lake County where 
it probably occurs or was once found. The mass distribution of this species 
is along the Coastal Plain. 

Mass. to Fla., westw. to Mich., Tenn., and Tex. 



6. DEPAUPERATA 

Culms simple, the vernal ones generally 15-35 cm high, the nodes 
ascending-pilose; ligule a band of hairs of irregular length up to 1 mm 
long; blades long-linear; spikelets 2.2-4 mm long, somewhat shrunken at 
the base; palea of sterile floret usually half to two thirds as long as the 
fruit; fruit smooth, glossy, the lemma strongly indurated. The panicles 
of the autumnal phase are borne on short branches from the lower nodes. 

Spikelets beaked, mostly 3.2-3.8 mm long (rarely as short as 3 mm or as long as 4 mm). 

Sheaths pilose IIP. depauperatum. 

Sheaths glabrous or nearly so 11a. P. depauperatum var. psilophyllum. 

Spikelets not beaked, 3 mm long or less (rarely 3.2 mm long). 

Spikelets 2.7-3.2 mm long; panicles narrow, usually less than a third as wide as 

long; ligules mostly about 1 mm long 12. P. perlongum. 

Spikelets 2.2-2.7 mm long; panicles usually more than a third as wide as long; ligules 
mostly less than 1 mm long. 

Sheaths pilose 13. P. linearifolium. 

Sheaths glabrous or nearly so 13a. P. linearifolium var. Werneri. 

11. Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Map 283. Infrequent in southern 
Indiana in open woodland on the crests of black oak, black and white oak, 
and chestnut oak ridges. In the northern part of the state it is local 
except in the dune area, where it is frequent in very sandy soil on open, 
wooded dunes or on sandy knolls and ridges. 

N. S., Que. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

11a. Panicum depauperatum var. psilophyllum Fern. (Rhodora 23: 
193-194. 1921.) This northern variety has the habitat of the species and 
is found only in sandy areas of the northern part of the state. 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



161 




50 

Map 287 



Panicum xalapense H.B.K. 



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Panicum Bicknellii Nash 



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Panicum microcarpon Muhl. 





12. Panicum perlongum Nash. Map 284. This is an infrequent species 
in the sand areas of the northern part of the state. It is found in very 
dry soil on the crests of open dunes and on sandy knolls and ridges, some- 
times in dry, sandy prairies. 

Ind. to Man. and N. Dak., southw. to Colo, and Tex. 

13. Panicum linearifolium Scribn. Map 285. Infrequent in the un- 
glaciated area of the southern part of the state and in sandy habitats of 
the lake area. In the south it is found in open woodland on the crests of 
ridges, and in the lake area it is found in dry, sandy soil on open dunes, 
sandy knolls, and sandy ridges. 

Que., Maine, and Mich., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

13a. Panicum linearifolium var. Werneri (Scribn.) Fern. (Rhodora 23: 
194. 1921.) {Panicum Werneri Scribn.) Map 286. This variety is found 
with the species but is less frequent, especially in the northern part of 
the state. 

Que., Maine to Minn., southw. to Va., Ky., and Tex. 



7. LAXIFLORA 

Vernal culms 15-50 cm high, tufted, erect to spreading; foliage aggre- 
gated toward the base, not in distinct rosettes in autumn; blades pilose 
on one or both surfaces or nearly glabrous, usually short-ciliate ; ligules 
nearly obsolete; panicles sometimes reduced and exceeded by the leaves; 
spikelets pilose, 1.8-2 mm long. 

14. Panicum xalapense HBK. {Panicum laxiflorum of Britton and 
Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, not Lam.) Map 287. An infrequent species in 
the area shown on the map. It is usually found on wooded slopes, most 
often at their bases. 

Md. to 111. and Mo., southw. to Fla., Tex., Mex., and Guatemala; also 
in Santo Domingo. 



162 Paniceae Panicum 

8. BICKNELLIANA 

Perennial ; culms few to several in a tuft ; ligules usually nearly obsolete 
(rarely up to 1 mm long) ; blades elongated, stiffly ascending or spreading ; 
3-8 (10) mm wide, 7-15 cm long; panicles few-flowered; spikelets on long 
pedicels, 2.3-3 mm long, 7-nerved; autumnal form sparingly branching 
from the upper and middle nodes. 

15. Panicum Bicknellii Nash. Map 288. Occasional plants have been 
found on dry, wooded slopes in a few of the southern counties. 

Conn, and Mich., southw. to Ga. and Mo. 

9. DICHOTOMA 

Glabrous as a whole or nearly so, or the nodes and rarely the lower 
sheaths and blades pubescent; ligule minute; spikelets 1.5-2.5 mm long, 
5-7-nerved; autumnal phase freely branching. 

Nodes bearded (at least the lower ones). 

Spikelets 1.5-1.6 mm long 16. P. microcarpon. 

Spikelets more than 1.6 mm long. 

Spikelets 2 (2.2) mm long; blades rarely more than 8 mm wide 

17. P. dichotomum. 

Spikelets 2.3-2.7 mm long; blades 8-12 mm wide 18. P. mattamuskeetense. 

Nodes not bearded (glabrous or puberulent, rarely with a few long hairs). 
Spikelets pubescent. 

Culms erect, never trailing. 

Nodes glabrous (rarely a few with hairs) ; margins of upper sheaths glabrous; 

blades mostly 6-14 mm wide; spikelets 2-2.2 mm long 19. P. boreale. 

Nodes puberulent or somewhat bearded; margins of upper sheaths pubescent 
(rarely entirely glabrous). 

Blades 3-8 mm wide; spikelets 2 (2.2) mm long 17. P. dichotomum. 

Blades mostly 8-12 mm wide; spikelets 2.3-2.7 mm long 

18. P. mattamuskeetense. 

Culms weak, soon becoming decumbent and trailing 20. P. lucidum. 

Spikelets glabrous. 
Sheaths, or some of them, usually marked more or less with white spots, the 
margins glabrous; spikelets more than 2.2 mm long (mostly 2.3-2.5 mm 

long) 21. P. yadkinense. 

Sheaths not marked with white spots, the margins pubescent; spikelets mostly 
2-2.1 mm long. 

Plants of dry ground; culms erect (rarely autumnal plants reclining) 

17. P. dichotomum. 

Plants of bogs and swamps; culms weak, soon becoming decumbent and trailing. 
20. P. lucidum . 

16. Panicum microcarpon Muhl. Map 289. Rather frequent in the 
southern third of the state. It seems to prefer a slightly acid soil and is 
usually found in low, flat woods with sweet gum, pin oak, and beech, al- 
though it is sometimes found in drier situations with different associates. 
The Tryon specimen from La Porte County lacks the white spots on the 
sheaths. 

The report of this species from Marshall County is evidently an error 
in determination ; its habitat is not in that area, and the detailed descrip- 
tion given by the collector does not apply to this species. 

Mass. to 111., southw. to Fla. and e. Tex. 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



163 




o ~~To 
Map 290 



Panicum dichotomum L. 




Panicum mattamuskeetense Ashe 



« 
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Feb. 

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17. Panicum dichotomum L. (Including Panicum barbulatum Michx.) 
Map 290. Frequent in the northern and southern counties. It is usually 
found in open places on the crests and slopes of black and white oak woods 
and less frequently in beech and sugar maple woods. It prefers a poor 
soil and is sometimes found in the dunes growing in almost pure sand. 

Some authors separate from this species, under the name of Panicum 
barbulatum Michx., plants with broad leaves and pubescent nodes. In 
Indiana the two forms intergrade so that I cannot make a satisfactory 
division of them. 

N. B. to 111., southw. to Fla. and e. Tex. 

18. Panicum mattamuskeetense Ashe. Map 291. Our only specimens 
were found in 1935 by Ralph M. Kriebel in the northeastern corner of 
section 16 of Pleasant Run Township, Lawrence County. They were found 
in a shallow drainage ditch near Little Salt Creek bridge between Helton- 
ville and Bartlettsville where they were associated with Panicum clandes- 
tinum. The determination was made by Agnes Chase. Since this was 
written Kriebel found another colony near Huron, about 20 miles distant. 

N. Y., along the coast to N. C, and in Ind. 

19. Panicum boreale Nash. Map 292. A rare grass of marshes in the 
lake area. It is also occasionally found in the mucky borders of ponds 
and lakes. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and Ind. 

20. Panicum lucidum Ashe. Map 293. Our Indiana record is based 
upon Umbach's specimen no. 4962 collected at Dune Park, Porter County, 
which is deposited in the U. S. National Herbarium. Pepoon reports it 
also from the same area. It is an inhabitant of wet woods and sphagnum 
marshes. 

Coastal Plain, Mass. to Fla., Ark., and Tex. ; also Ind. and Mich. 



164 



Paniceae 



Panicum 





50 

Map 294 



Panicum yadkinense Ashe 




3o 

Map 295 



Panicum spretum Schultes 



21. Panicum yadkinense Ashe. Map 294. Infrequent in a few southern 
counties on the slopes and bases of wooded, usually high hills. 

Pa. to 111., southw. to Ga. and La. 

10. SPRETA 

Culms tufted, rather stiff, glabrous or rarely the lower internodes and 
sheaths ascending-pubescent; ligules mostly 2-5 mm long; blades not over 
8 mm wide ; spikelets pubescent, rarely glabrous ; second glume and sterile 
lemma 5-7-nerved; autumnal form with more or less tufted branchlets, 
reduced blades and panicles. 

Panicles narrow, a fourth to a third as wide as long (somewhat wider in anthesis) ; 

spikelets elliptic 22. P. spretum. 

Panicles open, at least two thirds as wide as long; spikelets obovate 

23. P. Lindheimeri. 

22. Panicum spretum Schultes. Map 295. In moist, sandy soil in open 
places and on the borders of marshes that do not yet have a sod of other 
grasses. Local but usually frequent where found. 

Coastal Plain, N. S. to Tex. ; Ind. 

23. Panicum Lindheimeri Nash. {Panicum lanuginosum var. Lind- 
heimeri (Nash) Fern.) Map 296. This species is probably somewhat re- 
stricted to the lake area and to the hilly areas of the southern part of 
the state. It is usually found in dry, sandy soil in open woodland and 
open, dry places, or in moister situations at the bases of sandy slopes, 
and rarely in dry, sandy, clay soil. 

Que., Maine to Minn., southw. to Fla. and N. Mex. ; Calif. 



11. LANUGINOSA 

Plants more or less pubescent throughout; ligules densely hairy, 2-5 mm 
long; blades not over 10 mm wide; spikelets 1.3-2.4 mm long, spreading- 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



165 



4 
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Panicum Lindheimeri Nash 



















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V Map 297 


Panicum 


auburne Ashe 



Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

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Oct 

Nov 

Dec 





D 


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Map 298 



Panicum praecocius Hitchc. & Chase 



pubescent; second glume and sterile lemma 5-7-nerved or 7-9-nerved on 

large spikelets. 

i 

Plants grayish, velvety-pubescent; spikelets 1.3-1.4 mm long 24. P. auburne. 

Plants pubescent, often villous but not velvety. 

Culms conspicuously pilose with long, horizontal hairs 4-5 mm long, and branching 
before the expansion of the primary panicles; spikelets mostly 1.8-1.9 mm long. 

25. P. praecocius. 

Culms variously pubescent, if pilose the hairs appressed or some widely spreading, 
less than 4 mm long; culms not branching before the expansion of the 
primary panicles. 
Spikelets less than 2 mm long. 

Vernal blades glabrous or nearly so above (6-10 cm long and 5-10 mm wide) ; 

spikelets 1.5-1.7 mm long 26. P. tennesseense. 

Vernal blades pubescent above or if glabrous smaller than the preceding, some- 
times pilose near the base and margins only. 
Spikelets 1.3-1.5 mm long. 

Upper surface of blades puberulent as well as long-villous 

27. P. albemariense. 

Upper surface of blades villous but lacking the short, appressed pubescence ; 
vernal plants usually purplish with erect leaves, autumnal plants 
usually greenish; nodes with short hairs, if bearded. 
Sheaths papillose-pilose with no short, appressed pubescence in the 
spaces between the nerves; lower surface of blades with a subap- 
pressed, papillose pubescence and lacking a short, appressed 
pubescence; axis of panicle generally pilose, the lowest panicle- 
branches spreading and tangled 28. P. implicatum. 

Sheaths more or less softly papillose-pilose, some or all of them with a 
short, appressed pubescence on the spaces between the nerves; 
blades erect; lower surface of the blades more or less short ap- 
pressed-puberulent, in addition to a longer pubescence; axis of 
panicle generally puberulent, the lowest panicle-branches ascending 

and not tangled 29. P. meridionale. 

Spikelets 1.6-1.9 mm long; plants green, rarely purplish; nodes mostly bearded, 

usually with long, spreading hairs. 

Pubescence on upper surface of vernal blades short-pilose, rarely long-pilose, 

appressed at least on the apical half (rarely not appressed); nodes 

usually densely pilose with spreading hairs; spikelets rarely less than 



166 Paniceae Panicum 

1.6 mm long; first glume about a third the length of the spikelet, 
blunt, subacute. 

Blades stiff, erect 30. P. huachucae. 

Blades lax, spreading 30a. P. huachucae var. fasciculatum. 

Pubescence on upper surface of vernal blades long-pilose, ascending; first 
glume about half as long as the spikelet, acuminate. .31. P. subvillosum. 
Spikelets 2-2.5 mm long. 

Upper internodes shortened; leaves approximate, the blades often equaling the 

panicle; pubescence sparse and stiff 32. P. scoparioides. 

Upper internodes not shortened; the pubescence usually copious and rather silky. 
Culms, sheaths, and lower surface of blades pilose but lacking short pubes- 
cence; center of upper surface of blades not glabrous; spikelets about 2 

mm long; axis of panicle usually pubescent 33. P. villosissimum. 

Culms, sheaths, and lower surface of blades puberulent as well as pilose; center 
of upper surface of blades glabrous; spikelets 2.1-2.5 mm long (usually 
2.2-2.4 mm long) ; axis of panicle pilose 34. P. pseudopubescens. 

24. Panicum auburne Ashe. Map 297. Our only specimen is one col- 
lected by Hill, July 8, 1913, in dry sand by a woods road at Dune Park, 
Porter County. It is Hill's no. 7 and is deposited in the herbarium of the 
University of Illinois. I have a duplicate of this number. 

Coastal Plain, Mass. to n. Fla. and La. ; Ark. and Ind. 

25. Panicum praecocius Hitchc. & Chase. Map 298. This species is rare 
in the sands of the northern counties. I have, also, a specimen which was 
found in Harrison County, about 3 miles east of Elizabeth on a rocky 
wooded slope along the road leading from Elizabeth to Stuart's Landing 
on the Ohio River. This rocky slope is rich in rare Indiana plants such 
as Eragrostis capillaris. 

Mich, to Minn., southw. to Mo. and e. Tex. 

26. Panicum tennesseense Ashe. (Panicum languinosum var. septen- 
trionale Fern.) Map 299. This is an infrequent grass found throughout 
the state in various habitats. My specimens are from dry sands, moist 
sand on the marly shore of a lake, wooded slopes, and hard, white clay soil 
in a fallow field in the Wabash Bottoms. 

Maine, Que. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Tex. ; westw. to Utah and Calif. 

27. Panicum albemaiiense Ashe. (Panicum meridionale var. albe- 
marlense (Ashe) Fern.) Map 300. I have only one specimen of this grass 
from Indiana and it is in the autumnal phase. I am not able to make a satis- 
factory study of this species from the few specimens at hand. Some au- 
thors refer it to a form of Panicum meridionale, to which it may belong. 
It is found in sandy soils. 

Coastal Plain, Mass. to N. C. ; n. Mich., Wis., Ind. to Tenn. 

28. Panicum implicatum Scribn. (Panicum lanuginosum var. implica- 
tum (Scribn.) Fern.) Map 301. Local to infrequent but common in its 
habitat. It is generally found in moist, sandy soil on the marly borders of 
lakes, in interdunal flats, and rarely in dry, sandy soil. 

I think this grass is restricted to the lake area and that all reports of 
it from south of this area should be referred to some other species, most 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



167 




o 50 

Map 299 

Panicum tennesseense Ashe 













1 


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Panicum implicatum Scrrbn 




50 

Map 302 



Panicum meridionale Ashe 




50 

Map 303 



Panicum huachucae Ashe 




Map 304 
Panicum huachucae 
var, fasciculatum (Torr.) F. T Hubb. 



probably to Panicum huachucae. This Panicum is difficult to separate from 
Panicum huachucae, but usually the length of the spikelet and the color of 
the whole plant are sufficient to distinguish them. 
Newf. to Wis., southw. to Del. and Mo. 

29. Panicum meridionale Ashe. Map 302. Infrequent in the lake area, 
probably rather local. It is found in moist soil on the borders of marshes, 
in interdunal flats, and on the bases of wooded slopes where there are open 
spaces not sodded over with grasses and sedges. This plant usually can be 
distinguished easily from the preceding and the following species by the 
puberulence in the channels between the nerves of the sheaths and some- 
times of the culms, and the puberulent panicle. 

N. S. to Wis., southw. to Ala. 

30. Panicum huachucae Ashe. Map 303. This is a frequent to common 
species of dry ground throughout the state. It is found in open places in 



168 



Paniceae 



Panicum 




50 

Map 305 



Panicum subvillosum Ashe 




50 

Map 306 

Panicum scoparioides Ashe 




Map 307 
Panicum villosissimum Nash 



all kinds of woodland, preferring dry soil but often common in bottom 
lands along streams and in clearings and along roadsides. I have not seen 
it in wet places. 

N. S. to Mont., southw. to N. C. and Tex. ; westw. here and there to Calif. 

30a. Panicum huachucae var. fasciculatum (Torr.) F. T. Hubb. (Pan- 
icum lanuginosum var. fasciculatum Fern, and Panicum huachucae 
var. silvicola Hitch. & Chase.) Map 304. Frequent throughout the state 
and associated with the species. It is doubtful whether this variety is 
distinct from the species. It seems to be only a shade or drought form. 

Que. to Minn, and Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; also in Ariz. 

31. Panicum subvillosum Ashe. Map 305. This species has been found 
only in Lake County and our record is based upon two specimens in the 
U. S. National Herbarium and one in the herbarium of the University of 
Wisconsin. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to N. Y., Ind., and Mo. 

32. Panicum scoparioides Ashe. (Panicum villosissimum var. sco- 
parioides (Ashe) Fern.) Map 306. Known only from Lake County. Our 
record in based upon a specimen in the U. S. National Herbarium, collected 
by Umbach near Gary, June 29, 1909. A duplicate specimen is in the 
herbarium of the University of Wisconsin. 

Vt. to Del.; Mich, and Ind. to Minn, and Iowa. 

33. Panicum villosissimum Nash. Map 307. Local probably throughout 
the lake area. It is found in open places in dry, sandy or gravelly soil, 
usually on black and white oak ridges and in the dunes. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; also in Guatemala. 

34. Panicum pseudopubescens Nash. (Panicum villosissimum var. 
pseudopubescens (Nash) Fern.) Map 308. As now known, this species is 
restricted to the northwestern counties. Further study will doubtless 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



169 




o 58 

Map 308 

Panicum pseudopubescens Nash 













1 
1 
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Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

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Aug 

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Map 309 

£ Chase 




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Map 310 



Panicum Add isonii Nash 



extend its range to a few adjoining counties. It grows in very dry, sandy 
soil in the open on knolls, dunes, and ridges, where it is usually associated 
with black and white oak. 

Conn, to Wis., southw. to Fla., Miss., Mo., and Kans. 



12. COLUMBIANA 

Culms tufted, stiff, crisp-puberulent to appressed-pubescent ; ligules 
usually less than 1 mm long, rarely longer; blades firm; spikelets pubes- 
cent; branches and blades of the autumnal phase appressed or ascending. 

Spikelets 2-2.9 mm long; sheaths usually copiously pilose, short hairs few or lacking. 

Spikelets mostly 2.8-2.9 mm long; vernal blades 7-15 cm long 35. P. Deamii. 

Spikelets mostly 2-2.2 mm long; vernal blades usually all less than 8 cm long 

36. P. Addisonii. 

Spikelets 1.5-1.9 mm long; sheaths sparingly pilose but densely pubescent with short, 
appressed hairs. 

Spikelets 1.8-1.9 mm long 37. P. tsugetorum. 

Spikelets 1.5-1.7 mm long 38. P. columbianum. 

35. Panicum Deamii Hitchc. & Chase. Map 309. Local in a few of the 

northwestern counties, where it is found on open, wooded dunes and sandy 
knolls. 

Ind. and Iowa. 

36. Panicum Addisonii Nash. Map 310. Local in our northern counties, 
Adhere it is found in dry sand on open, wooded dunes and sandy knolls. 

Coastal Plain, Mass. to S. C. ; Ind. 

37. Panicum tsugetorum Nash. Map 311. This is another Panicum 
which is restricted to the northern part of the state and is found in dry, 
sandy or gravelly soils on wooded slopes and dunes. It is included by some 
authors with Panicum columbianum Scribn. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to Ga. and Tenn. 

38. Panicum columbianum Scribn. Map 312. My only specimens are 
from the H. H. Peele woods abouc a mile and a half southwest of Knox, 



170 



Paniceae 



Panicum 




Panicum tsuqetorum Nash 




o 50 

Map 312 



Panicum columbianum Scribn 




Starke County. They were found in dry, sandy soil in a flat, black and 
white oak woods where they were closely associated with Panicum Deamii. 

In 1938 I found it in Steuben County. 

Maine to N. C. ; Ind. 



13. SPHAEROCARPA 

Culms glabrous ; ligule obsolete or nearly so ; blades cordate and ciliate 
at the base; spikelets obovoid-spherical at maturity; second glume and 
sterile lemma 5-7-nerved; autumnal form remaining simple or but spar- 
ingly branching; the thick, white-margined blades of the winter rosette 
conspicuous. 

Upper three blades usually 10-20 cm long and 10-25 mm wide, the upper blade usually 
not much smaller than the other two, the blades below the three usually much 
smaller than the upper three; anthers mostly 0.4-0.5 mm long.. .39. P. polyanthes. 

Upper three blades usually 5-10 cm long and 7-14 mm wide, the upper one usually 
much reduced, the blades below the three upper ones usually not reduced; anthers 
mostly 0.6-0.8 mm long 40. P. sphaerocarpon. 

39. Panicum polyanthes Schultes. Map 313. This species is restricted 
to the southern half of the state and is rather frequent in the counties 
along the Ohio River. It prefers a slightly acid soil and is found in dry 
soil associated with black oak, and in moist soil associated with sweet gum. 
It is also found sparingly in fallow fields. 

Conn., Ind. to Okla., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

40. Panicum sphaerocarpon Ell. Map 314. This species is infrequent 
in the lake area and reappears in the unglaciated area where it is rather 
local. In the lake area it is found in very dry, sandy or gravelly places 
and in the southern part of the state on black oak and black and white 
oak ridges. 

This species much resembles the preceding from which it may easily be 
separated by its larger anthers and usually much reduced upper leaf. It 
also much resembles Panicum microcarpon which has the nodes of the 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



171 




3 


Jan. 

Feb. 

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Apr. 

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June 

July 

Aug. 

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P\ / 50 

Map 315 

ii (Vasey) Scribn. 




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Map 316 

Panicum oligosanthes Schultes 



culms bearded, sheaths with conspicuous white marks, and very short 
ligules. 

Vt, Wis. to Kans., southw. to n. Fla. and Tex. ; Mex. and Venezuela. 

14. OLIGOSANTHIA 

Culms rather stout; spikelets obovate, 3-4 mm long, usually papillose- 
hirsute, strongly 7-9-nerved; autumnal phase with the branches more or 
less crowded toward the summit. 

Ligule less than 0.5 mm long; blades papillose-hispid above and below; spikelets 

papillose-hirsute 41. P. Leibergii. 

I.igule more than 0.5 mm long; blades not papillose-hispid; spikelets not papillose. 
Culms and at least the lower sheaths with an appressed pubescence; ligules mostly 
1.5 mm long with longer hairs intermixed; spikelets oblong-obovate, mostly 

3.5-4 mm long and 1.7-1.9 mm wide 42. P. oligosanthes. 

Culms and sheaths with a spreading pubescence; ligules about 1 mm long; spikelets 
bluntly obovate, mostly 3-3.5 mm long and 2 mm wide 43. P. Scribnerianum. 

41. Panicum Leibergii (Vasey) Scribn. Map 315. Very local in the 
northern part of the state, where it is found in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, 
usually in prairie habitats. The pH value was taken for only one specimen 
and it was 6.01. 

N. Y. to Man. and N. Dak., southw. to Ind. and Kans. 

42. Panicum oligosanthes Schultes. Map 316. Local in the lake area 
and reappearing on the low dunes of the southwestern part of the state. 
It grows in very sandy, dry soils on open, wooded dunes and cleared, open 
dunes and sand knolls. It is usually associated with Panicum Scribner- 
ianum which is the more common species. These two grasses are closely 
related and most easily separated in the field. The leaves of this species 
are narrower and the upper ones are relatively longer and more spreading. 

Mass. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

43. Panicum Scribnerianum Nash. (Panicum oligosanthes var. Scrib- 
nerianum (Nash) Fern.) Map 317. Rather frequent in the lake area 



172 



Paniceae 



Panicum 




50 

Map 317 

Panicum Scribnerlanum Nash 



5 

1 






v 












Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct 

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shel Pearson 




50 

Map 319 

Panicum commutatum Schultes 



where it is found in very sandy, dry soil on open dunes and sand hills and 
sometimes in rather dry, gravelly soil. Our specimens from the western 
part of the state are from sand dunes and sandy knolls. 
Maine to B. C, southw. to Md., Tenn., Tex., and Ariz. 

15. COMMUTATA 

Culms tufted, glabrous or puberulent ; ligule obsolete or nearly so ; blades 
relatively broad, cordate at the base ; spikelets pubescent. 

Culms and sheaths usually densely crisp-puberulent (sometimes sparsely so) ; blades 
generally less than 12 mm wide; spikelets 2.2-2.5 (2.7) mm long... 44. P. Ashei. 

Culms and sheaths generally nearly glabrous or only sparingly puberulent (not crisp- 
puberulent) ; blades or some of them usually more than 12 mm wide; spikelets 
2.5-3 mm long, generally about 2.7 mm long 45. P. commutatum. 

44. Panicum Ashei Pearson. Map 318. This species, as now known in 
the state, is restricted to the unglaciated area, with the exception of a 
typical specimen which I have from Porter County found on a sandy black 
oak and white pine ridge about 4 miles southwest of Michigan City. In the 
southern part of the state it is found mostly on the crests and slopes of 
chestnut oak ridges. 

No single character will separate Indiana specimens of this grass from 
those of the next. The two plants intergrade to such an extent that it is 
questionable whether an attempt should be made to keep them separate, 
even regarding one as a variety, as has been done by Fernald (Rhodora 36 : 
83-87. 1934). If all of our forms of this species complex are considered 
as one species, then the same treatment applied to borderline species in 
other groups would unite them. This case seems to be a decision between 
the "grouping" and the "splitting" of forms (species) . Until an exhaustive 
study is made of the group, any disposition made of these plants must be 
mere opinion or for convenience. For these reasons I am following Hitch- 
cock and treating our plants as two species. Such treatment leaves the 
problem open to future study. 

Mass. to Mich, and Mo., southw. to n. Fla., Miss., and Okla. 



Panicum 



Paniceae 



173 




45. Panicum commutatum Schultes. Map 319. This species is restricted 
usually to the high hills of the unglaciated area, although it is found in 
Jefferson County on the bluff of the Ohio River and in Jennings County on 
the sandstone outcrop along the Muscatatuck River near Vernon. It is 
rather local except in the knobstone, where it is frequent. My no. 27633 
from Clark County is exceptional in that the whole plant is soft-pubescent, 
including both surfaces of the leaves. 

Mass. to Mich, and Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



16. LATIFOLIA 

Culms stout, usually more than 50 cm high; ligules mostly less than 
1 mm long; blades cordate at the base and long-acuminate at the apex, 
usually more than 15 mm wide; spikelets 2.7-4.5 mm long, 7-11 nerved; the 
autumnal phase sparingly branching at the middle nodes, becoming top- 
heavy, and lodging. 

Sheaths, at least the lower ones and those of the branches, papillose-hispid; spikelets 

2.7-3 mm long (rarely longer) 46. P. clandestinum. 

Sheaths glabrous or softly villous (hairs not stiff as in the preceding species) . 

Nodes glabrous or nearly so; spikelets 3.2-3.7 mm long 47. P. latifolium. 

Nodes retrorsely bearded; spikelets 4-4.5 mm long. 

Blades glabrous or nearly so on both surfaces 48. P. Boscii. 

Blades velvety to the touch beneath 48a. P. Boscii var. molle. 

46. Panicum clandestinum L. Map 320. This species is infrequent to 
rare in the northern part of the state ; rare, local, or absent in the central 
counties ; and frequent in most of the southern half of the state. It prefers 
low ground and is more abundant in areas where the soil is slightly acid. 
It is generally found on the moist slopes of streams and ditches. It usually 
forms large colonies, and often specimens with exserted panicles are 
absent, especially in the autumnal phase. 

N. S. and Que. to Kans., southw. to n. Fla. and Tex. 



174 



Paniceae 



Echinochloa 



e 

9 
1 






t 










Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. • 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 








n 




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X 






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) 50 

Map 323 


"Panicum Boscii 
var. molle (Vasey) Hitchc & Chase 




50 

Map 324 



Echinochloa crusgalli (L) Beat 




0^ 50 

Map 325 

Echinochloa Walteri (Pursh) Heller 



47. Panicum latifolium L. Map 321. Rather frequent in dry or moist 
white oak and black oak woods in the lake area. Infrequent to local in the 
southern part of the state where it is largely replaced by the next species 
which is absent in our northern counties. 

Maine, Que. to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Kans. 

48. Panicum Boscii Poir. Map 322. An infrequent species in the south- 
ern half of the state, where it is found in dry woodland, associated with 
black and white oak and white oak and hickory. 

Mass. to Wis., and Okla., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

48a. Panicum Boscii var. molle (Vasey) Hitchc. & Chase. Map 323. This 
variety has the range and habitat of the species in Indiana. It is doubtful 
whether it should be maintained as a variety since I have found culms 
from the same rootstock which would qualify for the species and the 
variety. The general range of the variety is nearly the same as that of 
the species. 



133-166B. ECHINOCHLOA Beauv. 

[Hitchcock. The North American species of Echinochloa. Contr. U. S. 
Nation. Herb. 22: 133-153. 1920. Wiegand. The genus Echinochloa in 
North America. Rhodora 23: 49-65. 1921. Farwell. Notes on the Michi- 
gan flora, II. Michigan Acad. Sci. Rept. 21: 349-350. 1920.] 

Sheaths glabrous (rarely the lower ones somewhat pubescent or papillose-hispid) ; 

second glume pointed, not awned; fruit ovate-elliptic, usually 1.5-2 mm wide 

1. E. crusgalli. 

Sheaths (at least the lower ones) papillose-hispid (rarely glabrous) ; second glume 

with an awn usually 2-10 mm long (rarely shorter) ; fruit elliptic, generally less 

than 1.5 mm wide 2. E. Walteri. 

1. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Barnyard Grass. Map 324. Fre- 
quent to common in all parts of the state. "The common name of this grass 
suggests that it might be a grass restricted to the vicinity of habitations, 



Echinochloa 



Paniceae 



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Map 326 



Setaria lutescens (Weigel) F. T. Hubb. 




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Map 327 
Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. 



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which is not true. While it is found in waste places about barns and dwell- 
ings, it is found in almost all kinds of habitats except dense shade. It 
prefers the sunshine. As to soil requirements, it is found from minimacid 
soils to the marl borders of lakes. It prefers a moist soil but will grow in 
wet or dry places. It is found in roadside and dredged ditches, in low 
places about lakes, in bayous, along streams, and in cultivated fields and 
pastures. 

"I am regarding this species as a polymorphic one. A careful examina- 
tion of more than 60 Indiana specimens shows that sheaths are usually 
glabrous, but sometimes the lower ones are scabrous to more or less papil- 
lose-hispid. The spikelets are usually more or less awned, the awns up to 
3 cm long, but the spikelets of some panicles are all or nearly all awnless. 
In one specimen the primary panicle has awnless spikelets and the axillary 
panicle has awned spikelets. In another specimen the reverse is true. The 
spikelets of some panicles have scarcely any papillose hairs while those of 
others rarely have hairs without the papillose base. The amount and 
length of the pubescence vary on the same plant as well as on separate 
plants. The color of the spikelets varies from green to purple. In ponds 
and sloughs, where germination may be delayed on account of the reces- 
sion of the water, I have seen mature plants only a few inches high in 
fruit while on the higher margin of the same pond would be plants several 
feet high. 

"Some authors have given names to the many forms of this species. 
Some variations have been called species, some varieties, and some forms. 
The limit in assigning names seems to have been reached by Jackson who 
named a 'variegated purple form' of the awnless form (Guide to Nature 
16: 11. 1923). For a discussion of the so-called varieties and forms see 
the literature cited." (Deam, Grasses of Ind. p. 304-305, 1929.) 

Hitchcock, in his manual of the grasses of the United States, also re- 
gards this species as polymorphic, but recognizes an awnless variety. 

N. B. to Wash., southw. to Fla. and Calif. ; Eastern Hemisphere. 



176 Paniceae Setaria 

2. Echinochloa Walteri (Pursh) Heller. Map 325. Infrequent to local 
in the lake area, with one specimen from the muddy flat of a bayou in 
Posey County. In the lake area it is found in wet places about lakes, often 
in shallow water, and at the water edge in rivers. 

Mass. to Fla., and Tex. ; N. Y. to Wis., Iowa, and Ky. 

2a. Echinochloa Walteri f. laevigata Wieg. (Rhodora 23: 62. 1921.) 

This is a form with glabrous sheaths, which I have from Posey and Starke 
Counties. 

135-171. SETARIA Beauv. 

[Scribner & Merrill. The North American species of Chaetochloa. U. S. 

Dept. Agric. Div. Agrost. Bull. 21: 1-44. 1900. Hubbard. A taxonomic 
study of Setaria italica and its immediate allies. Amer. Jour. Bot. 2: 

169-198. 1915. Hitchcock. The North American species of Chaetochloa. 

Contr. U. S. Nation. Herb. 22: 155-208. 1920. Copple & Aldous. The 

identification of certain native and naturalized grasses by their vegetative 

characters. Kansas Agric. Exper. Sta. Tech. Bull. 32: 1-73. 1932.] 

Bristles below each spikelet numerous, at least more than 5, upwardly scabrous. 
Blades usually with a half twist beyond the middle; spikelets about 3 mm long, 
very turgid on the convex side; second glume slightly more than half as long 

as the spikelet 1. S. lutescens. 

Blades without a twist beyond the middle; spikelets 2-2.5 mm long; second glume 
almost as long as the spikelet. 
Fruit disarticulating with the spikelet below the glumes, leaving a cup-shaped scar. 

2. S. viridis. 

Fruit disarticulating above the glumes 3. S. italica. 

Bristles below each spikelet 1 or, by abortion of the spikelets, 2 or 3; bristles down- 
wardly scabrous 4. S. verticillata. 

1. Setaria lutescens (Weigel) F. T. Hubb. (Setaria glauca and 
Chaetochloa glauca of authors.) Yellow Bristlegrass. Yellow Foxtail. 
Map 326. A common weed throughout the state in cultivated grounds and 
waste places and along roads and railroads. 

Nat. of Eu. ; widely distributed in temperate regions. 

2. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scribn.) 
Green Bristlegrass. Green Foxtail. Map 327. A common weed through- 
out the state in cultivated and waste grounds and along roads and rail- 
roads. It is not as common as the preceding species. 

Nat. of Eu. ; common throughout the cooler parts of the U. S., infrequent 
in the southern states and in the mountains; Newf. to B. C, southw. to 
Fla. and Calif. 

3. Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. (Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scribn.) 
Foxtail Millet. Map 328. This species has been sparingly sown as a 
forage crop and has escaped. For detailed information on the value of the 
species as a forage crop and its culture, see H. N. Vinall on Foxtail Millet 
(U. S. Dept. Agric. Farmers' Bull. 793). 

Nat. of Eurasia; escaped in waste places and roadsides throughout the 
U.S. 



Cenchrus 



Andropogoneae 



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4. Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. (Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) 
Scribn.) Bur Bristlegrass. Map 329. This species has been reported 
from 7 counties. It is found sparingly (in waste places) probably through- 
out the state. I have known it in Wells County for 10 years. I first found 
it in a vacant lot in Bluffton and 10 years later I found it along the road- 
side outside of the city. Doubtless wherever it gets a start it will gradu- 
ally spread. 

Nat. of Eu.; Mass. to N. Dak., southw. to Ala., and Mo.; occasionally 
westw. to Calif. 

137-174. CENCHRUS L. 

[Chase. The North American species of Cenchrus. Contr. U. S. Nation. 
Herb. 22: 45:77. 1920.] 

1. Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth. (Cenchrus carolinianus of Gray, Man., 
ed. 7 in part and Cenchrus tribuloides of Britton and Brown, Illus. 
Flora, ed. 2, not L.) Field Sandbur. Map 330. This sandbur prefers dry, 
sandy to very sandy soil and is found throughout the state where its 
habitat occurs. It is local where its habitat is absent and is frequent to 
common in the northern part of the state in the sandy areas, where it is a 
very obnoxious weed. It is found in cultivated grounds and waste places, 
in sandy railroad ballast, and along roadsides. 

Maine to Oreg., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. ; Mexican Plateau, coastal 
region of tropical America, and s. S. A. 



11. ANDROPOGONEAE Presl Sorghum Tribe 

Spikelets all alike, perfect. 

Rachis of the racemes not articulated; panicle fan-shaped, the panicle axis short. 

Miscanthus, p. 178. 

Rachis articulated; panicle axis elongated 143. Erianthus, p. 178. 

Spikelets of two kinds, one sessile and perfect, the other pedicellate, staminate, empty, 
or reduced to a mere scale or pedicel. 



178 Andropogoneae Andropogon 

Spikelets in slender, solitary, or digitate racemes which are terminal or lateral 

145. Andropogon, p. 178. 

Spikelets in terminal panicles only. 

Pedicellate spikelets present; culms solid 147. Sorghum, p. 180. 

Pedicellate spikelets lacking (only the hairy pedicel present); culms hollow 

148. SORGHASTRUM, p. 181. 

143-112. ERIANTHUS Michx. 

1. Erianthus alopecuroides (L.) Ell. {Erianthus diva r teat us (L.) 
Hitchc. of Gray, Man., ed. 7, Britton and Brown, lllus. Flora, ed. 2, and 
Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Silver Plumegrass. This species is known as a 
native only in Perry County where I found it on a wooded slope along the 
Ohio River about 5 miles east of Cannelton. It was also noted in a fallow 
field in the same county. 

Southern N. J., s. Ind., s. Mo., and Okla., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

Erianthus Ravennae (L.) Beauv. Ravenna or Plume Grass. This 
species is a native of southern Europe and is often cultivated. There is no 
record of its escape. It is easily distinguished from the preceding species 
by having three stamens and by its scabrous sheaths. 

Miscanthus sinensis Anders. Eulalia. This grass is a native of China 
and is often cultivated. There is no record of its escape. It is easily dis- 
tinguished from Erianthus by the fan-shaped panicle and by the continuous 
rachis of the racemes. 

145-134. ANDROPOGON L. 

Branches of inflorescence ending in a single raceme 1. A. scoparius. 

Branches of inflorescence ending in a pair or fascicle of racemes. 

Racemes of each branchlet generally 3-7, 5-13 cm long; sessile spikelets 6.5-10 mm 

long; stamens 3 2. A. furcatus. 

Racemes of each branchlet 2 (rarely 3 or 4), 1.5-4 cm long; sessile spikelets less 
than 6 mm long; stamens 1. 
Awns coiled at the base; sessile spikelets generally 4-4.5 mm long, 0.7-0.8 mm wide; 
peduncles of the primary racemes elongated so that the racemes are borne 

beyond the spathes; spathes inflated, at least at maturity 3. A. Elliottii. 

Awns not coiled at the base; sessile spikelets 3-3.5 mm long, about 0.6 mm wide; 
none of the peduncles elongated so that the racemes extend beyond the 
spathes ; spathes not inflated 4. A. virginicus. 

1. Andropogon scoparius Michx. (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) 
Nash of Britton and Brown, lllus. Flora, ed. 2.) Prairie Beardgrass. 
BROOMSEDGE. Map 331. This species occurs throughout the state in poor 
or impoverished soils and moist or dry, sandy soils, and is also rapidly 
becoming established in the better soils of the Tipton Till Plain. It is 
found on washed slopes and interdunal flats, in abandoned fields, and along 
roadsides and railroads. 

The extreme variability of this species has led authors to describe many 
forms. My Indiana specimens show a wide range of variability, yet I hesi- 
tate to refer any of my specimens to a variety. For example, about half 
of my specimens are glabrous, and the other half vary from those with a 
few hairs on the sheaths to those with a villous pubescence. Andropogon 



Andropogon 



Andropogoneae 



179 




50 

Map 332 



Andropogon furcatus Muhl. 




Map 333 
Andropogon Elliottii Chapm. 




53 

Map 334 



Andropogon virginicus L. 



scoparius var. frequens, Andropogon scoparius var. littoralis, Andropogon 
scopaj'ius var. polycladus, and Andropogon scoparius var. villosissimus 
have been reported from Indiana but Buhl (Amer. Midland Nat. 16: 250. 
1935) refers all of them to the typical form. 

Plants along Lake Michigan, growing on the bases of the low dunes in 
West Gary, present, in the field, a striking difference because they are 
smaller and very glaucous. However, an examination of the floral parts 
shows them to be identical, or nearly so, with the typical form. 

Maine, Que. to Alberta and Idaho, southw. to Fla. and Ariz. 

2. Andropogon furcatus Muhl. (Andropogon provincialis Lam. of 
Deam, Grasses of Ind.) Big Bluestem. Map 332. Found sparingly 
throughout the state except in the prairie areas where it is common and 
where, before cultivation, it usually formed complete stands over all of the 
drier parts. This grass prefers a rather dry, sandy habitat but I have 
found it in hard, white clay soil in the Lower Wabash Bottoms and on 
rocky bars in streams. Outside the prairie area it is very erratic in its 
locations. 

Maine, Que. to Sask. and Mont., southw. to Fla., Ariz., and Mex. 

3. Andropogon Elliottii Chapm. (Andropogon Elliottii var. projectus 
Fern. & Grisc.) Elliott Beardgrass. Map 333. As now known, this 
species is restricted practically to the unglaciated area where it is usually 
found with Andropogon virginicus. It is most often found in dry, im- 
poverished soil on washed slopes and in abandoned fields. A variety pro- 
jectus has been named by Fernald & Griscom (Rhodora 37: 139. 1935). 
The Indiana record is based upon my collection no. 26865. This variety is 
described as having the racemes on long-exserted peduncles. This is merely 
the early phase of the inflorescence, and late in the season the long- 
exserted racemes usually fall and the broad sheaths open, exposing the 
subsessile pairs of racemes in their axils. 

Coastal Plain from N. J. to Fla. and Tex., northw. to s. Mo., Ind., and 
Tenn. 



180 



Andropogoneae 



Sorghum 




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Map 335 



Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 



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4. Andropogon virginicus L. (Fernald. A review of Andropogon vir- 
ginicus and Andropogon glomeratus. Rhodora 37: 139-143. 1935.) Broom- 
sedge. Map 334. This species is restricted essentially to the southern half 
of the state where it is local to infrequent or common in slightly acid soil. 
It prefers moist soil but thrives also in dry situations. It is commonly 
found in old, worn out fields, hayfields, and pastures. 

Mass., N. Y., Ind., and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; Mex. 



147-134A. SORGHUM Pers. 

Perennial, with long, creeping rootstocks; spikelets disarticulating from the pedicel at 

maturity 1. S. halepense. 

Annual; spikelets not disarticulating from the pedicel at maturity. 
Spikelets not opening and exposing the grain at maturity. 

Culms usually more than 6 mm in diameter; sheaths longer than the internodes; 

blades mostly more than 20 mm wide 2. S. vulgare var. Dmmmondii. 

Culms usually less than 6 mm in diameter; sheaths shorter than the internodes; 

blades mostly less than 20 mm wide. (See no. 2.). .S. vulgare var. sudanense. 

Spikelets opening, exposing the grain at maturity. (See no. 2.) S. vulgare. 

1. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnson Grass. Map 335. Infre- 
quent but spreading in the southwestern part of the state. It is found 
mostly along roadsides and railroads and sometimes in cultivated fields, 
these usually contiguous to streams or railroads. Several years ago I found 
it in large colonies in the cornfields of the Wabash Bottoms and landown- 
ers were not aware of its weedy nature. While this grass has forage crop 
value, it should be exterminated, because it is difficult to eradicate and car- 
ries the possibility of seeding adjacent areas where it is not desired. 

Native of the Mediterranean region, and found in the tropical and 
warmer regions of both hemispheres. Mass. to Iowa, southw. to Fla. and 
Tex., and westw. to Calif. 

2. Sorghum vulgare var. Drummondii (Nees) Hitchc. Chicken 
Corn. This grass was first reported from Posey and Vanderburgh 
Counties in 1923. I have seen it as a common weed in the cornfields in 



Sorghastrum Tripsaceae 181 

Point Township of Posey County where it often overtopped the corn. A 
pioneer in that vicinity informed me that he thought it was introduced 
about 1890. 

Probably a native of Africa. 

Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense (Piper) Hitchc. Sudan Grass. This 
is an annual grass which has been recently introduced as a forage crop 
but there are no reports that it has escaped and become established. 

Probably a native of Africa. 

Sorghum vulgare Pers. Sorghum. This is the cultivated sorghum, of 
which there are many varieties. It has been cultivated from pioneer 
times in this state, but there are no reports that it has perpetuated itself. 

Nat. of Africa. 

148-134B. SORGHASTRUM Nash 

1. Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Indian Grass. Map 336. This 
is essentially a prairie grass and is found in "oak openings" which are 
remnants of prairies. It is frequent throughout the state where prairie 
habitats occur and is rare or absent elsewhere. It is sometimes found in 
marshy places and its most common associate is Andropogon furcatus. 

Maine, Que. to Man. and N. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Ariz. ; Mex. 

12. TRIPSACEAE Hitchc. Corn Tribe 

157-103. TRIPSACUM L. 

1. Tripsacum dactyloides L. Eastern Gamagrass. Map 337. I have 
found this species only twice. A few colonies were in a low, wet woods 
about three fourths of a mile southeast of the old Spencer School, about 
10 miles southwest of Mt. Vernon, Posey County ; and it was common along 
a ditch through a low field about 5 miles east of Lincoln City, Spencer 
County. I moved two colonies to Bluffton 6 years ago, and they are hardy 
and spreading. 

Mass. to Mich., Iowa, and Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex.; W. I. and 
Mex. to Brazil. 

159-102. ZEA L. 

Zea Mays L. Corn. This is our cultivated corn. It appears spontane- 
ously but does not become established. Origin probably in Central America 
or southeastern Mexico. 

20. CYPERACEAE J. St, Hil. Sedge Family 

Flowers all perfect, rarely some of them with stamens or pistil abortive. 

Basal empty scales of spikelets none, rarely 2, and sometimes 3 in Eleooharis 
Smallii. 
Scales of the spikelets strictly 2-ranked, conduplicate and keeled. 
Flowers without bristles; achenes beakless; inflorescence terminal. 

Spikelets few- to many-flowered, usually elongated or slender 

459. Cyperus, p. 183. 

Spikelets 1-flowered (but of 3 or 4 scales), glomerate in sessile heads 

462. Kyllinga, p. 190. 



182 Cyperaceae Hemicarpha 

Flowers with bristles; achenes beaked; inflorescence axillary 

458. Dulichium, p. 183. 

Scales of the spikelets spirally imbricated. 

Base of style persistent on the achene as a tubercle. 

Spikelets 1; leaves reduced to sheaths; bristles usually present 

469. Eleocharis, p. 198. 

Spikelets several or numerous; leaves blade-bearing; bristles none 

471A. Bulbostylis, p. 206. 

Base of style not persistent as a tubercle. 
Flowers without any inner scales. 

Base of style enlarged; bristles none 471. Fimbristylis, p. 205. 

Base of style not enlarged; bristles usually present. 
Bristles 6 but each 4-6-cleft to near the base, making them appear num- 
erous, silky, usually white, all much exserted; stamens 1-3 

466. Eriophorum, p. 190. 

Bristles 0-8, short, not silky and only rarely whitish and long-exserted, 

sometimes lacking; stamens 2 or 3 468. Scirpus, p. 192. 

Flowers with 1 or more inner scales. 

Bristles 3, barbed 467. Fuirena, p. 191. 

Bristles none 453. Hemicarpha, p. 182. 

Basal empty scales of the spikelets 3 or more. 

Styles 2-cleft; enlarged base of style persistent on the achene as a tubercle. 

Spikelets few-flowered; bristles usually present 492. Rhynchospora, p. 207. 

Spikelets many-flowered; bristles none 472. Psilocarya, p. 207. 

Styles 3-cleft; enlarged base of style not persistent on the achene; bristles none. 
489. Cladium, p. 207. 

Flowers all imperfect. 

Pistillate flower subtended by a flat scale; achene naked, bony, and usually white. 

515. Scleria, p. 209. 

Pistillate flower wholly enclosed by a sac (perigynium), the style protruding through 
an opening at the top 525. Carex, p. 212. 

453. HEMICARPHA Nees & Ain. 

Plants growing in dense clumps, the outer culms recurved-spreading; length of an 
average culm (measured up to the inflorescence), 1-7 cm; height of leaves about 
half the average length of the culms; longest involucral bracts (those appearing 
as continuations of the culms) 2-4.5 cm long; average spikelets 2-4 mm long; scales 
of spikelets generally with short, spreading or recurved tips; achenes terete, 
slightly obovoid, usually about 0.6 mm long and 0.3 mm wide 1. H. micrantha. 

Plants growing in loose clumps, the culms erect or ascending; length of an average 
culm (measured up to the inflorescence), 4-9 cm; height of leaves about a third 
the average length of the culms; longest involucral bracts (those appearing as 
continuations of the culms) 1-1.5 cm long; average spikelets 4-7 mm long; scales 
of spikelets generally appressed; achenes terete or slightly lenticular-obovoid, 
usually about 0.7 mm long and 0.35 mm wide 2. H. Drummondii. 

1. Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax. Map 338. Infrequent to rare 
in the area shown on the map. Found in wet, sandy places on the borders 
of lakes and sloughs and in ditches. 

N. H., the Great Lakes area to Wash., southw. to Fla., Mex., and S. A. 

2. Hemicarpha Drummondii Nees. Map 339. Found only in wet sand 
on the borders of sloughs or in sloughs when dried up, in wet, interdunal 
flats in the dune area, and in a dredged ditch in Newton County. 

W. Ont., Ind., 111. to Ark., Kans., and Tex. 



Dulichium 



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Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. 



458. DULICHIUM Pers. 

1. Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. Map. 340. Generally found in 
sedge marshes or associated usually with some sedge on the low borders 
of lakes, sloughs, and ponds. It is rather frequent in the lake area, be- 
coming rare south of it because its habitat is rare in southern Indiana. 

Newf. to Wash., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

459. CYPERUS [Tourn.] L. 

[Geise. The Indiana species of Cyperus. Amer. Midland Nat. 15 : 241- 
291. 1934.] 

Stigmas 2; achenes lenticular, not 3-angled; spikelets flat; scales falling from the 

rachis at maturity. 

Scales of spikelets stramineous, about 2 mm long, so closely imbricated as to hide 

the achenes even in dried specimens; achenes 0.75-1 mm long, distinctly blackish, 

plump, strongly compressed, strongly obovoid, transverse wrinkles distinct, 

superficial cells oblong 1. C. flavescens. 

Scales of spikelets generally margined with reddish brown, 2-3 mm long; achenes 

lenticular, with transverse wrinkles, gray or brownish gray, mostly 1-1.4 mm 

long, superficial cells more or less quadrate. 

Exserted style branches many, usually exserted 2-4 mm; scales dull, thin, mostly 

about 2.5 mm long, rather loosely imbricated so that at least the base of the 

achene is visible in dried specimens 2. C. diandrus. 

Exserted style branches few, usually exserted 1-1.5 mm; scales lustrous, sub- 
coriaceous, usually 2-2.4 mm long, so closely imbricated that the achenes are 

hidden 3. C. rivularis. 

Stigmas 3; achenes 3-angled. 

Scales long-acuminate at the apex, usually ending in a sharp point, the upper 
fourth to a third of them widely spreading or recurved; plants cespitose, mostly 

3-9 cm high, fragrant when dried 4. C. inflexus. 

Scales and plants not as above. 
Scales slightly outcurved at the apex; spikelets very flat; stamens 1. 

Plants annual, 0.5-3.5 dm high; scales ovate, 3-nerved; achenes about 1 mm long 

and half as wide 5. C. acuminatus. 

Plants perennial, 4-10 dm high; scales oblong, 1-nerved; achenes oblong, about 1 
mm long and 0.3 mm wide 6. C. pseudovegetus. 



184 Cyperaceae Cyperus 

Scales straight on the back to the apex, sometimes a few near the apex of the 

spikelet with slightly curved tips in C. dentatus; stamens 2 or 3. 

Spikelets arranged in globose heads or aggregated in short clusters at the ends 

of the culms or the rays, the common rachis not more than 1 cm long. 

Inflorescence usually composed of 5 or G globose heads, usually one sessile 

or nearly so, the others on rays 2-5 (or more) cm long; culms leafy at 

the base, the leaves mostly more than 15 cm long; spikelets 4-5 mm long, 

2- or 3-flowered, usually maturing a single achene; culms with cormlike 

bases 7. C. ovularis. 

Inflorescence and plant not as above. 

Involucral bracts recurved or widely spreading at maturity, rarely one or 
more erect; leaves narrowly linear, mostly less than 2 mm wide and 
rarely as wide as 3 mm, the lowest leaves of the culm less than 15 cm 
long, rarely one longer; culms below the inflorescence 0.5-1 mm in 
diameter. 
Spikelets in a loose or close, terminal cluster, the principal ones 8-12- 

flowered 8. C. filiculmis. 

Spikelets in compact, terminal, globose or ovoid-globose, usually solitary 
heads, sometimes with one or two smaller heads on short rays, in 
depauperate specimens the heads small and spikelets not compact; 
spikelets all less than 8-flowered or only a few with 8 or more flowers. 

8a. C. filiculmis var. macilentus. 

Involucral bracts erect or ascending; culms usually more than 1 mm in 

diameter below the inflorescence; leaves linear and usually wider than 

those of the preceding group; spikelets usually in flat clusters. 

Scales scarcely or faintly nerved, their margins reddish brown, midnerve 

of scale not excurrent; culms not cormlike at the base, very leafy; 

inflorescence umbellate; spikelets very flat; style branches exserted 

more than 1 mm 9. C. dentatus. 

Scales strongly nerved, their margins hyaline; midnerve of scale excur- 
rent; culms with cormlike bases; inflorescence racemose; style branches 
usually not exserted, or generally not more than 1 mm. 
Culms, leaves, and rays smooth; leaves much shorter than the culm; 
spikelets 5-9-flowered; scales 2-2.5 mm long, the mucro less than 

0.5 mm long; achenes 1.5-2 mm long 10. C. Houghtonii. 

Culms (at least below the inflorescence), margins of leaves, and rays 
rough; spikelets 4-16-flowered; scales mostly 3-4.5 mm long, the 

mucro usually 0.5-1 mm long; achenes 2.5-3 mm long 

11. C. Schiveinitzii. 

Spikelets arranged along an elongated rachis, the rachis usually 1-3 cm long. 
Flowers remote, the successive scales not reaching the bases of the ones above 

on the same side of the rachilla 12. C. Engelmanni. 

Flowers approximate, the successive scales overlapping the bases of those 
above. . 
Scales mostly 2.75-4.5 mm long; culms with cormlike bases. 

Spikelets erect or ascending, more than 2.5 mm wide; achenes ellipsoid, 

about 2.5 mm long and half as wide 11. C. Schweinitzii. 

Spikelets widely spreading or reflexed, less than 2.5 mm wide; achenes 
linear-oblong, mostly 1.5-2 mm long and about 0.3 mm wide except 
in C. strigoszis var. multifiorus. 

Spikelets 4-20-flowered, stramineous, very flat 13. C. strigosus. 

Spikelets 10-35-flowered, reddish brown, terete or nearly so; achenes 
0.75 mm wide and 2 mm long.. . .13a. C. strigosus var. multifiorus. 
Scales less than 2.75 mm long; culms without cormlike bases. 

Scales about 1.5 mm long, reddish brown; flowers very closely imbricated, 
the scales overlapping more than half their length; spikelets 10-40- 



Cyperus 



Cyperaceae 



185 




Cyperus flavescens L. 



3 

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Cyperus 


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Map 343 

unth 



flowered, all of the flowers maturing achenes ; achenes about 0.8 mm 

long and 0.5 mm wide 14. C. erythrorhizos. 

Scales mostly 2-2.5 mm long; flowers not very closely imbricated, the 

scales usually overlapping less than half their length; achenes 1-1.5 

mm long. 
Plants with numerous fibrous roots, annual; culms with 1-4 leaves; 
longest rays of umbel generally less than 5 cm long, rarely one or 
more of them longer; spikelets usually dense, reddish brown, at 

maturity easily broken into segments below the flowers 

15. C. ferruginescens. 

Plants with numerous, scaly stolons that at length bear a tuber; culms 
very leafy; leaves usually more than 4; longest rays of umbels 
usually 4-13 cm long, only rarely all the rays shorter; spikelets 
usually stramineous, sometimes light reddish brown, at maturity 
not separating into segments below the flowers.. .16. C. esculentus. 

1. Cyperus flavescens L.* Map 341. Rare in northern Indiana and in- 
frequent in the southern part in wet, sandy soil on bars in streams and 
ditches, in the outlets of springs, along ditches, and about artificial ponds. 

N. Y. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Mex. ; also in Cent. Amer. and the 
Old World. 

2. Cyperus diandrus Torr. Map 342. Infrequent to rare. My specimens 
were found in wet, sandy soil on the borders of lakes and sloughs and in 
mucky soil in dried-up sloughs and in like habitats along streams. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to S. C. and Kans. 

3. Cyperus rivularis Kunth. Map. 343. Rather frequent throughout 
the state in wet, sandy or gravelly soil on the borders of lakes and streams 
and on bars in ditches and small streams. 

Maine, s. Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Ark. 

X Cyperus Nieuwlandii Geise. (Cyperus flavescens X rivularis.) This 
hybrid was described by Geise (Amer. Midland Nat. 15: 245-246. 1934). 
She reports three specimens collected by Nieuwland in the vicinity of 
Chain Lakes in St. Joseph County. I have seen these specimens and their 
determination seems to be correct. 



* Fernald (Rhodora 41: 529-530. 1939) has shown that the true species belongs to 
Eurasia and Africa and that the plant of eastern North America should be designated 
as Cyperus flavescens L. var. poaeformis (Pursh) Fern. 



186 



Cyperaceae 



Cyperus 



1 

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Cyperus acuminatus Torr & Hook. 




50 

Map 346 



Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. 



4. Cyperus inflexus Muhl. (Cyperus aristatus Rottb.) Map 344. In- 
frequent in wet, sandy or muddy soil on bars in streams and ditches and 
on the shores of lakes and borders of sloughs. Specimens of this species 
when dried have a pleasing odor, similar to that of dried slippery elm 
leaves. 

N. B. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Tex., Calif., and Mex. 

5. Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. Map 345. I have found this 
species only in Crawford and Greene Counties. I am not able to locate my 
Crawford County specimen now. Friesner also found it in Greene County. 
Geise cites a specimen from near Chesterton, Porter County, collected by 
E. T. Harper in 1888. This specimen is deposited in the herbarium of the 
University of Wisconsin. I have seen it and the determination is correct. 

Ind. to N. Dak. and Wash., southw. to Ga., Tex., and Calif. 

6. Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. Map 346. Infrequent in ditches and 
swamps in Point Township of Posey County. It has been found also in 
Gibson, Pike, and Jefferson Counties. Where found it is usually common. 

N. J. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

7. Cyperus ovularis (Michx.) Torr. Map 347. This species is found in 
very dry to moist, sandy habitats. It is local in the southwestern coun- 
ties. It has been reported from Lake County, but Geise did not find a 
specimen. I believe that the Lake County report should be referred to 
Cyperus filiculmis var. macilentus. 

N. Y. to 111. and Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

8. Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. Map 348. Fernald & Griscom discuss 
this species and its varieties in Rhodora 37 : 153-154. 1935. If I interpret 
their discussion correctly the distribution of this species is principally 
on the Atlantic slope and in the Great Plains states. My only specimen 



Cyperus 



Cyperaceae 



187 




o 55 

Map 347 



Cyperus ovularis (Michx) Torr. 




~W 

Map 348 



Cyperus filiculmis Vahl 




50 

Map 349 
Cyperus filiculmis 
var macilentus Fern 



is from a dry, sandy ridge in Gibson County. Geise (Amer. Midland Nat. 
15: 254. 1934) cites specimens from Lake, La Porte, Marshall, Porter, and 
St. Joseph Counties, but I refer these specimens to the variety. 

8a. Cyperus filiculmis var. macilentus Fern. Map 349. This variety 
grows in very sandy soil and is found mostly on sand ridges and dunes, in 
sandy fallow fields, and in the moist intervening sandy areas between sand 
ridges and dunes. In its habitat it is usually frequent, elsewhere it is 
absent. Its distribution in the state is well represented by the map. 

Cent. Maine, sw. Que. to Minn., southw. to Va., Ohio, Ind., 111., and Mo. 

9. Cyperus dentatus Torr. (Including Cyperus dentatus var. cteno- 
stachys Fern.) Map 350. This Coastal Plain species is found in only 
three counties. It is local but usually common where it is found. It 
grows in moist, sandy soil in ditches through marshes and on the wet, 
sandy shore of Bass Lake in Starke County. Specimens with 15-40- 
flowered spikelets have received a varietal name, but since both short and 
long spikelets are found on the same plant it is obvious that the variety 
is only a luxuriant form of the species. 

N. S. to Inch, southw. to N. C. ; principally near the coast. 

10. Cyperus Houghtonii Torr. Map 351. This is a species of the dune 
area and it has been found only in Lake and Porter Counties. 

Mass. to Man. and Oreg., southw. to Va., Kans., and Ariz. 

11. Cyperus Schweinitzii Torr. Map 352. This species grows in very 
dry sand and has its mass distribution on the dunes near Lake Michigan. 
The Warren County specimen was found on the very high, gravelly bank 
along the Big Four Railroad about 2 miles northwest of Covington. 

Western N. Y., s. Ont. to Man., southw. to Ind. and Kans. 

X Cyperus mesochorus Geise. (Cyperus Houghtonii X Schweinitzii.) 
This hybrid is described in Amer. Midland Nat. 15 : 249-250. 1934. Geise 



188 



Cyperaceae 



Cyperus 




50 

Map 350 



Cyperus dentatus Torr. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

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May 

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Cyperus Houqhtonii Torr. 



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Map 353 



Cyperus Encjelmanni Steud, 




55 

Map 354 



Cyperus striqosus L. 




50 

Map 355 



Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl 



cites numerous specimens from Lake and Porter Counties. She also refers 
specimens of my collecting from La Porte, Newton, and Warren Counties 
to this hybrid. 

12. Cyperus Engelmanni Steud. Map 353. Infrequent in the lake area. 
All of my specimens are from the wet, sandy or muck borders of lakes. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and Mo. 

13. Cyperus strigosus L. (Including Cyperus strigosus var. capitatus 
Boeckl., Cyperus strigosus var. compositus Britt., and Cyperus strigosus 
var. robustior Kunth.) Map 354. This species is, without doubt, found in 
every county in the state. The extreme variability of this species has led 
authors to assign botanical names to the variations. I agree with some 
other authors in thinking that the forms are a matter of nutrition or 
of habitat and have no taxonomic value; hence I am referring all forms 
to the species. It is found in moist soil of almost all kinds and in all 



Cyperus Cyperaceae 189 

kinds of habitats. Probably most abundant along ditches and in corn- 
fields. 

Maine, Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

13a. Cyperus strigosus var. multiflorus Geise. This form was de- 
scribed by Geise in Amer. Midland Nat. 15: 253. 1934. I collected speci- 
mens in the dried-up mucky soil on the south side of Lake Cicott, Cass 
County, in 1931 and 1932 which were years of severe drought. I also 
found a few specimens in a similar habitat on the border of an extinct 
lake about 2 miles north of North Liberty, St. Joseph County. The domi- 
nant associate was Cyperus ferruginescens. This plant is conspicuous and 
can be distinguished from any other Cyperus at a long distance. After a 
careful study of this form, it seems to me that it is a hybrid of Cyperus 
strigosus and Cyperus ferruginescens. The plants (2.5-15 cm high) are 
too small for Cyperus strigosus, and the spikelets have about twice the 
number of flowers that average plants of that species have. The cormlike 
base is a character of Cyperus strigosus but the terete, reddish brown 
spikelets belong to Cyperus ferruginescens. 

14. Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. Map 355. Infrequent throughout the 
state but usually common where it is found. It is generally found on the 
muddy shores of streams, in dried-up sloughs, and along ditches. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. 

15. Cyperus ferruginescens Boeckl. (Rhodora 37: 148-150. 1935.) 
(Cyperus speciosus Vahl, in part, of most recent authors.) Map 356. In- 
frequent to frequent throughout the state. It grows in moist, wet, muddy 
or mucky soils of almost all kinds. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. probably to Fla. and Tex. 

16. Cyperus esculentus L. (Including Cyperus esculentus var. lepto- 
stachyus Boeckl.) Chufa. Map 357. Rather frequent in southern Indiana, 
becoming infrequent to rare in the northern part. This species prefers 
moist or wet, rich soil and is found along streams and in cultivated fields 
and truck gardens. I have seen it in dried-up sloughs where it formed 
complete stands. We allowed it to grow unmolested in our arboretum of 
about 3 acres before we knew of its weedy nature and we have been trying 
to exterminate it for about 10 years but still find a plant occasionally. I 
have noted it as a pernicious weed in truck gardens, especially along the 
Ohio River. The tubers are sweet and edible. They have been used as 
food since ancient times, having been found in Egyptian tombs dating 
back to 2400 years before Christ. 

The species is extremely variable in the size of its spikelets. Plants 
with long spikelets have been named but I think they are a result of 
nutrition and should not receive taxonomic names. It is to be noted that 
plants with small inflorescences rarely mature more than a few seed 
while plants with large inflorescences usually mature many seed. 

N. B. to Minn., Nebr., and Alaska, southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. ; also 
found in the tropics; Eurasian. 



190 



Cyperaceae 



Kyllinga 




50 

Map 356 



Cyperus ferruginescens Boeckl. 




o 50 

Map 357 



Cyperus esculentus L. 



3 

6 
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chx. 



462. KYLLINGA Rottb. 

1. Kyllinga pumila Michx. (Cyperus densicaespitosus Mattf. & 
Kukenth. Pflanzenr. 20: 597. 1936.) Map 358. Infrequent in southern 
Indiana and rare or absent from many of our northern counties. It is 
usually found in moist or wet soil along streams, on bars in streams, along 
ditches, and sometimes in cornfields along streams. 

Del., Ohio, 111. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex.; also W. I., Mex., and 
southw. 

466. ERIOPHORUM L. Cotton Grass 

Spikelets solitary; involucre none; scales lead color 1. E. spissum. 

Spikelets 2-several; involucre of 1-several leafy bracts. 

Leaves 1-2 mm wide, channeled their entire length; upper leaf blade shorter than 

its sheath; involucral bract 1; achenes ellipsoid, about 2.5 mm long 

2. E. gracile. 

Leaves 1.5-G mm. wide, fiat at least below the middle; involucral bracts more than 

1; achenes oblong-obovoid, mostly 2.5-3.5 mm long. 

Scales of spikelets with only 1 prominent rib ; stamens 3 ; plants of May and June. 

Upper leaf sheaths dark-girdled at the summit; midrib of scales not extending 

to the apex, the upper part of the scale hyaline and the rib prominent below 

the hyaline apex 3. E. angustifolium. 

Upper leaf sheaths not dark-girdled at the summit; midrib of scales extending to 

the apex 4. E. viridi-carinatu m . 

Scales of spikelets with several prominent ribs; stamen 1; bristles varying from 
tawny to white; plants of August and September, beginning to flower about 
July 15 5. E. virginicnm. 

1. Eriophorum spissum Fern. (Rhodora 27: 208-209. 1925.) (Erio- 
phorum ccdlitrix of recent American authors, not Cham.) Map 359. Our 
specimens were found in tamarack bogs. 

Baffinland and Lab. to Athabaska, southw. to Newf., N. S., N. E., mts. 
of Pa., n. Ind., and Wis. 

2. Eriophorum gracile Koch. Map 360. Borders of sloughs in the dune 
area and elsewhere in marshes and in sphagnum in bogs. 



Fuirena 



Cyperaceae 



191 




50 

Map 359 



Eriophorum spissum Fern. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 



N-r-f \ 


D 




D 


\ 


L_| II 


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( 


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Map 360 



Eriophorum g r a c i I e Koch 




Eriophorum angustifolium Roth 



Newf. to B. C, southw. to Conn., Pa., Ind., Nebr., and Calif.; also in 
Eurasia. 

3. Eriophorum angustifolium Roth. Map 361. Infrequent on the bor- 
ders of sloughs and in marshes and bogs. 

Subarctic Amer., southw. to Maine, Ont., 111., Iowa, and mts. of Colo, 
and Oreg. ; also in Eurasia. 

4. Eriophorum viridi-carinatum (Engelm.) Fern. Map 362. Infre- 
quent throughout our northern counties where it is usually found growing 
in sphagnum in open tamarack bogs and less often in sedge marshes. 

Newf. to Sask. and B. C, southw. to Conn., N. Y., Ohio, Wis., Oreg., 
and in the mts. to Ga. 

5. Eriophorum virginicum L. (Including Eriophorum virginicum f. 
album (Gray) Wieg.) Map. 363. Since the bristles of this species vary 
from tawny to white with intermediate forms, I have not attempted to 
separate our plants on the basis of this character. Nearly all of our 
plants at maturity have white or whitish bristles. It is found in marshes 
and tamarack bogs. 

Newf. to Ont. and Man., southw. to Fla. and Nebr. 



467. FUIRENA Rottb. Umbrella Grass 

1. Fuirena pumila Torr. (Rhodora 40: 396-398. 1938.) (Fuirena 
squarrosa of recent authors, not Michx.) Map 364. This sedge is very 
local, having been found in only a few places in two counties. It grows 
in moist sand in interdunal swamps and in wet sand on the borders of 
lakes. I found it to be rather frequent in wet sand on the south side of 
Walker Lake in Porter County. 

Mass. to Mich, and Ind., southw. to Fla. 



192 



Cyperaceae 



Scirpus 



4 
3 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


1 
f 







ID D 


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phor 
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viridi- car 
'lm.) Fern. 


3 50 

Map 362 
natum 




50 

Map 363 



Eriophorum virginicum L. 



4 






f 








D 


Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 


D / 






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Fuirena squarrosa Mich*. 



468. SCIRPUS [Tourn.] L. Bulrush 

[Sr. M. St. Leona Thornton. The Indiana species of Scirpus. Amer. 
Midland Nat. 15: 292-322. 1934.] 

Sister Thornton's treatment of Indiana Scirpus seems to be compre- 
hensive and authentic. I have seen most of the specimens she cites. I am 
accepting her determinations of the few I have not seen and they also are 
indicated on the distribution maps. 

Involucral bract none. (This is Sr. Thornton's Scirpus pancifloirus which is now re- 
ferred to Eleocharis pauciflora var. Fernaldii Svenson. (See Rhodora 36: 380. 
1934.) 
Involucral bract solitary (the inflorescence appearing as if on the side of the stem). 
Spikelets 1, 6-13 mm long; stem cylindric, conspicuously nodulose, normally growing 
in shallow water but often emersed in dry weather; achenes trigonous, about 
2.5 mm long and about 1.6 mm wide, brown, smooth; bristles retrorsely barbed, 

about equaling the achene 1. S. subterminalis. 

Spikelets normally more than 1. 

Plants usually less than 5 dm high; annuals with tufted roots; culms terete or 

obtusely angled. 

Culms obtusely triangular; mature involucral bract usually divaricate; achenes 

obovoid, unequally biconvex, about 1.7 mm long, surface black with shallow 

and irregular pits; bristles longer than the achene, with increasing width 

toward the base, mostly 0.015 mm wide near the base 2. »S. debilis. 

Culms terete; mature involucral bract usually erect; achenes obovoid, plano- 
convex, 1.5-1.8 mm long, surface black without pits or with very incon- 
spicuous ones; bristles very slender, of almost equal width, generally about 
0.01 mm wide near the base. 

Bristles lacking 3. S. SynitJiii. 

Bristles present, usually 6, sometimes fewer, longer than the achene 

3a. S. Smithii var. setosus. 

Plants usually more than 5 dm high; perennials with creeping rootstocks; culms 
triangular or terete. 
Involucral bract much longer than the inflorescence. 

Culms sharply triangular; involucral bract acute; achenes plano-convex, 
smooth; bristles shorter than the achene 4. S. americanus. 



Scirpus Cyperaceae 193 

Culms obtusely 3-angled with concave sides; leaves nodulose; involucral bract 
blunt; achenes trigonous, smooth; bristles much longer than the achene. 

5. S. Torreyi. 

Involucral bract usually shorter than the inflorescence or merely equaling it. 

Culms rather soft; inflorescence lax, usually drooping; spikelets many, ovoid, 
on long, drooping pedicels; achenes obovoid, 1.5-2 mm long, plano-convex; 
bristles usually longer than the achene 6. S. validus. 

Culms rather stiff and firm; inflorescence erect, the spikelets and pedicels 
erect or ascending, compact; spikelets subcylindric ; achenes obovoid, in 
my specimens ranging from 2.3-3 mm long, unequally biconvex; bristles 
about equaling the achene or slightly shorter 7. S. aciitus. 

Involucral bracts 2 or more. 

Bristles retrorsely barbed or lacking. 

Spikelets large, usually 1.5-4 cm long; achenes trigonous, about 4 mm long 

8. S. fluviatilis. 

Spikelets small, generally less than 1 cm long. 

Bristles scarcely longer than the achene, usually slightly shorter, rudimentary, 

or lacking; scales of mature spikelets with a light reddish background 

suffused with a lead color; achenes colorless, obovoid-oblong, trigonous, 

about 1 mm long. 

Bristles present, about equaling the achene; lower sheaths nodulose; leaves 

usually 10-18 mm wide; major glomerules usually more than 7 mm in 

diameter 9. S. atrovirens. 

Bristles lacking or rudimentary; lower sheaths not nodulose or only faintly so; 
leaves usually less than 10 mm wide; major glomerules usually not over 
7 mm in diameter; rays of inflorescences usually longer than in the 

preceding; glomerules usually not so crowded 

9a. S. atrovirens var. georgianus. 

Bristles twice the length of the achene; scales of spikelets rufous brown with 

green midribs; principal leaves usually 6-8 mm wide 10. S. polyphyllus. 

Bristles smooth or with a few ascending barbs, curly. 

Rays and pedicels smooth or somewhat scabrous below the involucels, not con- 
spicuously striate, both usually drooping; scales reddish brown with strong, 
green midribs prolonged into sharp, short, spreading points; achenes about 
1 mm long, Fawn Color (Ridgway Standard) ; bristles weak, about twice the 

length of the achene, included 11. S. lineatus. 

Rays (except the primary ones) and pedicels strongly upwardly scabrous, con- 
spicuously striate, at least the principal rays inclined to be erect; scales of 
spikelets reddish, sometimes suffused with greenish black, the midrib not 
green, somewhat obtuse at the apex; achenes about 0.8 mm or less in length, 
colorless; bristles curled and much exserted beyond the scales. 
Spikelets mostly sessile, in glomerules of 3-15. 

Involucres and involucels reddish brown; scales reddish brown. 

Spikelets ovoid, 3-6 mm long 12. S. cyperinus. 

Spikelets cylindric, 7-10 mm long 12a. S. cyperinus f. Andrewsii. 

Involucres and involucels drab with a blackish base. 

Rays of normal length, the glomerules distinct, scales brownish, suffused with 

greenish black 12b. S. cyperinus var. pelius. 

Rays abbreviated, the glomerules crowded into dense, irregular masses. 

12c. S. cyperinus var. pelius f. condensatus. 

Spikelets mostly pedicellate, usually arranged in small clusters with the central 
one sessile and the remainder on pedicels of different lengths. 

Involucels red brown or terra cotta 13. S. Eriophorum. 

Involucels dull brown, not reddish 14. S. pedicellatus. 

Involucels black. (See excluded species no. 88, p. 10.'! 1.) S. atrocinctus. 



194 



Cyperaceae 



Scirpus 




50 

Map 365 



Scirpus subterminalis Torr. 



4 
3 


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sus Fern, 




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Scirpus debilis Pursh 




o 50 

Map 369 



Scirpus americanus Pers. 




"To 
Map 367 



Scirpus Smithii Gray 




50 

Map 370 



Scirpus Torreyi Olney 



1. Scirpus subterminalis Torr. Map. 365. My only specimens were 
found in a colony on the muddy border of the south side of Long Lake, 
Porter County, about a mile east of the Lake County line, where it was 
associated with Scirpus validus. In walking the entire length of the lake 
I noted only one colony. This was in very mucky soil from which the 
water had receded just far enough to expose the soil. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. J., Pa., Ind., and Idaho. 

2. Scirpus debilis Pursh. Map 366. This species has been found in a 
few counties only in wet or mucky soil about sloughs in the dunes. 

Maine, Ont. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Nebr. 

3. Scirpus Smithii Gray. Map. 367. On the wet, sandy borders of lakes 
and sloughs. 

Maine, Ont. to Mich., southw. to Pa., Ind., and 111. 

3a. Scirpus Smithii var. setosus Fern. Map 368. Found in habitats 



Scirpus 



Cyperaceae 



195 




Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



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SciYpus acutus Muhl. 




Miles 

5 — 58 

Map 373 

Scirpus fluvi'atilis (Torr.) Gray 



similar to those in which the species is found. This variety is difficult to 
separate from Scirpus debilis. In fact, they are united in Britton and 
Brown, Illustrated Flora, ed. 2. The shape of the stem seems to be the 
only constant character. The divaricating bract of Scirpus debilis is 
very characteristic but it seems that all plants do not have a divaricating 
bract. The shape of the achene can not be relied upon since on the same 
plant one can find plano-convex as well as biconvex achenes. 
Maine and Mass. to 111. 

4. Scirpus americanus Pers. Map 369. Frequent on the sandy shores 
of lakes and on gravelly bars in streams. 

Throughout temperate N. A. ; also found in S. A. and Eu. 

5. Scirpus Torreyi Olney. Map 370. Very local in a few swamps of the 
northwestern part of the state. 

Maine to Man., southw. to R. I. and Minn. 

6. Scirpus validus Vahl. Map 371. This species grows in sandy or 
mucky soil in shallow water (usually 1-4 feet deep) in lakes and along 
streams. It is usually found in every lake of the state and when a lake 
begins to dry up it usually is the first species to occupy the area. 

Throughout temperate N. A.; also found in W. I. 

7. Scirpus acutus Muhl. (Scirpus occidentalis (Wats.) Chase.) Map 
372. Rather frequent in the lake area in habitats similar to those of the 
preceding species. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Mass., cent. N. Y., Mo., Ariz., and Calif. 

8. Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray. Map 373. Infrequent in the lake 
area and in the Lower Wabash Valley. It is usually found in wet places 
about lakes, along streams, and in ditches and ponds. I have seen about 
five acres of it in Knox County on the west side of Swan Pond. 

N. B. to the region of the Great Lakes and Minn., southw. to D. C, and 
Kans. 



196 



Cyperaceae 



Scirpus 




50 

Map 374 



Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. 




55 

Map 375 ' 
Scirpus atrovirens 
var. georgianus (Harper) Fern. 















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Map 376 

Vahl 



9. Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. Map 374. Frequent to common in almost 
all parts of the state. It is usually found in wet, mucky soil in ditches 
and ponds, along streams, and about lakes. One can infrequently find 
a specimen in which the rays of the inflorescence are short and the 
glomerules form a closed head. This form has received a name but I do 
not believe it is of taxonomic significance. 

Maine to Sask., southw. to Ga. and Mo. 

9a. Scirpus atrovirens var. georgianus (Harper) Fern. (Rhodora 23: 
134. 1921.) (Scirpus georgianus Harper.) Map 375. This variety is 
infrequent in the southern half of the state, becoming rare in our north- 
ern counties. The species and variety are distinct in their extremes but 
they so intergrade that their separation is not entirely satisfactory. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to Ga. and Ark. 

9b. Scirpus atrovirens f. proliferus Hermann. This is a viviparous 
form, occasionally with the species. 

10. Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl. Map 376. Infrequent in springy places 
and in low beech and sweet gum woods in the southern half of the state. 
Its associates would indicate that it prefers a slightly acid soil. Viviparous 
forms are rather frequent. 

Western N. E. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Ark. 

11. Scirpus lineatus Michx. Map 377. This is the most common bulrush 
of the state. It is frequent throughout and, for the most part, is found 
in roadside ditches and along low roadsides. It prefers a moist or wet 
soil along streams, in low, open woodland and fallow fields, and about 
lakes and sloughs. 

N. H., Ont. to Oreg., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

12. Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. Map 378. Infrequent throughout 
the state in wet grounds of all kinds. It is more common in the lake area 
in wet places about lakes, in marshes, and along streams ; southward it is 
found in roadside ditches, ponds, sloughs, sinkholes, and springy places 



Scirpus 



Cyperaceae 



197 



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kirpus lineatus Michx. 




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Map 378 



Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth 



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Eriophorum 


56 

Map 378-1 

Michx. 



and along streams. This species is extremely variable throughout its 
range in the grouping or segregation of the spikelets, the color of the 
involucre and involucels, and the color of the scales of the spikelets. 
Some authors do not recognize these differences while others do. I am 
dividing the species into the commonly recognized forms in order that 
those who do wish to separate these forms may have the advantage of 
the experience of other authors. The range of the several forms has not 
yet been ascertained and the range of the aggregate is given here. 
Newf., Ont. to Sask., southw. to Fla. and La. 

12a. Scirpus cyperinus f. Andrewsii (Fern.) Carpenter. (Dole. Flora of 
Vermont, p. 74. 1937.) This form has been found only in Allen County. 

12b. Scirpus cyperinus var. pelius Fern. This form is very local and is 
found in the habitat of the species. I have it only from Allen, Jasper, and 
Whitley Counties. 

Newf. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to Conn., N. Y., Ind., and Wis. 

12c. Scirpus cyperinus var. pelius f. condensatus (Fern.) Blake. Found 
only in La Porte and Porter Counties. Its general range is that of the 
variety. 

13. Scirpus Eriophorum Michx. Map 378-1. A botanical authority has 
referred to this species four sheets of my specimens of the Scirpus 
cyperinus-pedicellatus complex. It is to be noted that Britton and Brown, 
Illustrated Flora, ed. 2, refer this species and the next one to Scirpus 
cyperinus. 

Conn, to Fla., westw. to La. and northw. in the Mississippi Valley to 
Ind. 

14. Scirpus pedicellatus Fern. Map 379. This so-called species is infre- 
quent and is found throughout the state in habitats similar to those of 
Scirpus cyperinus. 

E. Que., southw. to Conn., N. Y., Ind., and Wis. 



198 



(JYPERACEAE 



lueochans 



3 

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Feb 


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dicellatus 


G 50 

Map 379 
Fern. 





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Miles 



50 

Map 380 
Eleocharfs equfsetoides (EIIJ Torr. 




50 

Map 381 
Eleocharis qaudrangulata 
(Michy) R. 8, S. var crassior Fern. 



469. ELEOCHARIS K. Br. Spikerush 

[Fernald and Brackett. The representatives of Eleocharis palustris in 
North America. Rhodora 31 : 56-77. 1929. Svenson. Monographic studies 
in the genus Eleocharis. Rhodora 31 : 121-135, 152-163, 167-191, 199-219, 
224-242. 1929; 34: 193-203, 215-227. 1932; 36: 377-389. 1934; 39: 210- 
231. 1937; 41: 1-19, 43-77. 1939.] 

The following key is adapted from Svenson's monographic studies of the 
genus. Svenson has checked the determination of all of my specimens. 

Scales of mature spikelets persistent; spikelets scarcely thicker than the culms. 
Fruiting culms more than 2 mm in diameter; nerves of scales faint. 

Culms terete, with conspicuous cross-partitions 1. E. equisetoides. 

Culms quadrangular, without cross-partitions. . .2. E. quadrangulata var. crassior. 

Fruiting culms not more than 2 mm in diameter; nerves of scales distinct 

3. E. Robbinsii. 

Scales of mature spikes deciduous; spikelets thicker than the culms. 
Styles 2-cleft. 

Upper sheaths loose, with white, scarious tips 4. E. olivacea. 

Upper sheaths close and firm, not scarious at the tips. 
Annual, with fibrous roots. 

Tubercle (style base) often depressed or saucer-shaped 5. E. geniculata. 

Tubercle more or less conical. 

Width of tubercle less than two thirds that of the achene. 

Achenes smooth; tubercle about half as wide as the achene.. .6. E. ovata. 

Achenes pitted; tubercle about a fourth as wide as the achene 

7. E. intermedia. 

Width of tubercle nearly or quite equal to that of the achene. 

Tubercle deltoid, a third to nearly a half as high as the body of the 
achene; bristles much exceeding the achene. 

Spikelets ovoid-cylindric 8. E. obtusa. 

Spikelets ellipsoid 8a. E. obtusa var. ellipsoidalis. 

Tubercle very low, not more than a fourth as high as the body of the 
achene; summit of achene appearing truncate; bristles equaling the 
achene or rudimentary. 

Bristles about equaling the achene 9. E. Engelmanni. 

Bristles absent or rudimentary 9a. E. Engelmanni f. detonsa. 



Eleocharis Cyperaceae 199 

Perennial, with horizontal rootstocks. 

Culms 0.5-5 mm in diameter (in dried material) at the summit of the upper 
sheath; basal scales of spikelet usually 2 or 3 below the thinner fertile 
scales; median scales acute; tubercle broadly ovate, as wide as long. 
10. E. Smallii. 

Culms 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter at the summit of the upper sheath; basal scales 
of the spikelet solitary, spathiform, usually completely encircling the 
base of the spikelet; median scales obtuse; tubercle conical, as long as 
or longer than wide 11. E. calva. 

Styles 3-cleft. 

Achenes less than 2 mm long; style base not confluent with the apex of the achenes, 
forming a tubercle. 
Surface of the achene regularly marked off by longitudinal and transverse lines. 
Culms not more than 0.5 mm in diameter; achenes obscurely 3-angled; bristles 

equaling or longer than the achene or absent 12. E. acicidaris. 

Culms about 1 mm in diameter ; achenes pyriform ; bristles none 

13. E. Wolfii. 

Surface of the achene smooth or pitted, the pits arranged irregularly or in 
regular, longitudinal lines. 
Achenes smooth. 

Achenes tui-binate-lenticular. 
Bristles longer than the achene. 

Spikelets ovoid-cylindric 8. E. obtusa. 

Spikelets ellipsoid 8a. E. obtusa var. ellipsoidalis. 

Bristles shorter than or equaling the achene 9. E. Engelmannii. 

Achenes triangular; bristles not exceeding the achene or absent. 

Mature achenes nearly black, the body not tapering toward the apex, 
the angles blunt; 1 mm or more long; tubercle closely capping the 

crown of the achene; bristles absent 14. E. Melanocarpa. 

Mature achenes nearly black, the body not tapering toward the apex, the 
angles blunt; 1 mm or more long; tubercle closely capping the crown 

of the achene; bristles absent 14. E. melanocarpa. 

Achenes pitted, the pits arranged irregularly or in regular, longitudinal 
lines. 
Culms slender, erect; style bases depressed. 

Culms 4-8 angled; scales of spikelets obtuse or merely acute, not con- 
spicuously whitened at the apex. 
Achenes Wax Yellow (Ridgway Standard), in age becoming golden 
yellow to dull orange, averaging 1-1.1 mm long (including the 
style base); pits of achene usually shallow; culms usually 6-8- 

angled 16. E. elliptica. 

Achenes Olivaceous (Ridgway Standard); pits of achene usually deep 

with some of the cell-projections verrucose; culms 5-angled 

17. E. tenuis var. verrucosa. 

Culms flattened; scales of spikelets (except sometimes in var. atrata) with 
conspicuously whitened, often bifid, acuminate tips. 

Scales chestnut brown 18. E. compressa. 

Scales conspicuously blackened 18a. E. compressa var. atrata. 

Culms capillary, diffusely spreading; scales obtuse; style base narrow- 
conic, about twice as long as wide; achenes finely pitted in longitudinal 

lines I.E. intermedia. 

Achenes 2-3 mm long; style base confluent with the apex of the achene, not form- 
ing a tubercle. 
Culms 1-2 mm in diameter, (2) 3-10 dm long, flattened, erect, or the sterile 
ones reclining and often rooting at the tips; beak of achene about a third 

as long as the body 19. E. rostellata. 

Culms less than 1 mm wide, 0.5-3 dm high, scarcely flattened, erect; beak of 
achene about a fourth as long as the body. . . 20. E. pauciflora var. Fernaldii. 



200 



Cyperaceae 



Eleocharis 




50 

Map 382 



Eleocharis Rob bin si i Oakes 




o 50 

Map 383 



Eleocharis oh vacea Torr. 




50 

Map 384 



Eleocharis geniculate (U R. & S. 



1. Eleocharis equisetoides (Ell.) Torr. (Eleocharis interstincta of 
authors.) Knotted Spikerush. Map 380. In shallow water on the sandy 
bottoms of some of our northern lakes. 

Mass. to Fla. and Tex. and inland to Mich., Wis., and Mo. 

2. Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michx.) R. & S. var. crassior Fern. 
(Rhodora 37: 393. 1935.) (Eleocharis mutata of Britton and Brown, 
Illus. Flora, ed. 2, not Scirpus mutatus L. and Eleocharis quadrangulata 
of Indiana authors, not Scirpus quadrangulatus Michx.) Angled Spike- 
rush. Map 381. In sandy or mucky soil in shallow water or on the 
borders of lakes, ponds, and sinkholes. 

Mass. to s. Ont., southw. to Ga., Tex., and Mexico. 

3. Eleocharis Robbinsii Oakes. Robbins Spikerush. Map 382. In 
marly soil on the borders of lakes. This species apparently does not fruit 
every year and it may be more frequent in Indiana than our records 
indicate. 

N. S. and s. N. B. to Fla., chiefly along the Coastal Plain, and westw. 
through cent. N. Y. to Mich., Ind., and Ont. 

4. Eleocharis olivacea Torr. (Eleocharis flaccida (Reichenb.) Urban 
var. olivacea (Torr.) Fern. & Grisc. Rhodora 37: 155. 1935.) Bright 
Green Spikerush. Map 383. Wet, sandy or muddy, marl borders of 
lakes. 

N. S., Ont. to Mich., southw. to Fla., Pa., Ohio, and Ind. 

5. Eleocharis geniculata (L.) R. & S. (Rhodora 41: 50-52. 1939.) 
(Eleocharis capitata R. Br. and Eleocharis caribaea (kottb.) Blake.) Map 
384. In wet, marl borders of lakes and in dried-up sloughs. In addition 
to the counties shown on the map, it is known in the Great Lakes area 
only from Washtenaw County, in southeastern Michigan and from south- 
ern Ontario. 



Eleocharis 



Cyperaceae 



201 



1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


o 1 
















J 




S^ 


(r 1 




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Eleo 


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IS 


va 


r\ 7 

a (Roth 


3 50 

Map 385 
1R.&S. 




Eleocharis intermedia 



50 

Map 386 

Schultes 




50 

Map 387 

Eleocharis obtusa (WilldJ Schultes 



6. Eleocharis ovata (Roth) R. & S. OVOID Spikerush. Map 385. My 
only specimen was collected in the bottom of a dried-up dredged ditch about 
4 miles southeast of Conrad in Newton County and determined by H. K. 
Svenson. It has been reported from Lake and Porter Counties by Peattie 
but I have not seen a specimen. 

Local from Newf . and e. Que. to Maine, Vt., Conn., and Mass. ; also in 
Mich., Wis., Minn., and Wash. 

7. Eleocharis intermedia (Muhl.) Schultes. (Rhodora41: 67. 1939.) 
Matted Spikerush. Map 386. Muddy borders of ponds and lakes, wet, 
marl borders of lakes, and in the outlets of springs. 

Que. to w. Ont., southw. to N. J., Pa., Ohio, and Iowa. 

8. Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schultes. Blunt Spikerush. Map 387. 
Throughout the state in muddy or wet places in almost all habitats, prin- 
cipally in ditches, sloughs, swamps, and ponds and on the borders of 
streams and lakes. 

The species is variable and my no. 45541 from Monroe County and no. 
24288 from Posey County are here cited as exceptional plants. 

Cape Breton and e. N. B. to Nebr., southw. to the Gulf of Mexico; 
appearing again in the northwest from B. C. to Calif. ; also in the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

8a. Eleocharis obtusa var. ellipsoidalis Fern. (Rhodora 31: 218. 1929.) 
I have a specimen from a tamarack bog in La Porte County that Svenson 
refers to this variety. 

E. Mass. to Va. and Ind. 

9. Eleocharis Engelmanni Steud. Engelmann Spikerush. Map 388. 
In muddy places in roadside ditches and on the muddy borders of artificial 
and natural ponds. 

S. Maine to Va., westw. through Ind., Tenn., and Mo. to Okla. 



202 



Cyperaceae 



Eleocharis 




o IS 

Map 388 

Eleocharis Engelmanni Steud. 




~30 

Map 389 



Eleocharis S ma 1 1 If Britton 




Map 390 



Eleocharis calva Torr. 




o ~50 

Map 391 
Eleocharis aciculan's R.&S. 
var. typica Swenson 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 

May 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Dec. 



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Map 392 



Eleocharis Wolfii A.Gray 





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Oct. 

Nov. 


i 

r, 


- k 


Dec.f- 




■ — 











Miles 



10 

Map 393 
Eleocharis melanocarpa Torr. 



9a. Eleocharis Engelmanni f. detonsa (Gray) Svenson. (Eleocharis 
Engelmanni var. detonsa Gray.) My specimen was collected in a field 2 
miles northwest of Culver on the muddy border of a pond, where it was 
frequent. Also collected by E. J. Hill in La Porte County. 

Mass., Pa., Mich., Ind., 111. and Ariz. 

10. Eleocharis Smallii Britton. (Eleocharis palustris in part, of Gray, 
Man., ed. 7 and of Indiana authors.) Small's Spikerush. Map 389. In 
muddy, peaty or wet, sandy places in ditches, sloughs, ponds, marshes, and 
like habitats on the borders of streams and lakes. 

Sw. N. S. to Mich, and Nebr., southw. to Del., Pa., Ind., 111., and Mo. 

11. Eleocharis calva Torr. (Eleocharis palustris var. calva (Torr.) 
Gray and Eleocharis palustris var. glaucescens of Indiana authors.) Map 
390. In muddy, sandy or peaty soil in ditches, sloughs, and marshes and 



Eleocharis Cyperaceae 203 

on the borders of streams and lakes. In wet, stony or gravelly places 
along the Ohio River and in springy, marl borders of some lakes. 

Que. to Alberta and Wash., southw. to Fla. and Okla., and n. Mex. ; also 
in Hawaii and e. Asia. 

12. Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. var. typica Svenson. Needle 
Spikerush. Map 391. In the muddy or sandy bottoms or borders of 
ditches, sloughs, streams, and lakes. Sometimes on the springy marl 
borders of lakes. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Fla. and Okla. 

13. Eleocharis Wolfii Gray. Wolf's Spikerush. Map 392. My only 
specimens were found in Jefferson County in low, flat clearings about 31/2 
miles southwest of Hanover and 3 miles southeast of Hanover. 

Ind. to Kans. and La. 

14. Eleocharis melanocarpa Torr. Black-fruited Spikerush. Map 
393. Wet or moist, sandy borders of marshes and sloughs. 

Atlantic coast from Mass. to Texas, and in nw. Ind. 

15. Eleocharis microcarpa Torr. var. filiculmis Torr. (Rhodora 39: 228- 
229. 1937.) (Eleocharis Torreyana Boeckl.) Map 394. Our only specimens 
were found in moist sand in the bottom of a roadside ditch about 2 miles 
southeast of Tefft in Jasper County. 

Atlantic coast from Conn, to Fla. and Tex. ; also in Cuba. 

16. Eleocharis elliptica Kunth. (Rhodora 41: 65. 1939.) (Eleocharis 
capitata var. borealis Svenson. Rhodora 34: 200-202. 1932.) Map 395. 
This sedge seems to have a wide distribution in the state. In the lake area 
it is found in strongly marl borders of lakes and elsewhere in moist prairie 
habitats. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. J., Tenn., Ind., and 111. 

17. Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schultes var. verrucosa (Svenson) Sven- 
son. (Rhodora 41 : 66. 1939.) (Eleocharis capitata var. verrucosa Svenson 
and Eleocharis tenuis of authors.) Map 396. For the most part, our 
specimens are from wet, hard, clay soil of the borders of ponds and wet 
woods. Our Jasper County specimen is from a wet, interdunal flat. 

Va., Ind., 111. to Ark. and Okla., southw. to La. 

18. Eleocharis compressa Sulliv. (Eleocharis acuminata (Muhl.) 
Nees.) Map 397. I have only three specimens from Indiana and these are 
from a wide range of distance and kinds of habitats. The Ohio County 
specimen was found on the slope of the bank of the Ohio River, the 
specimen from Tipton County is from a wet, prairie habitat along the 
railroad just west of Goldsmith, and the specimen from Wabash County 
was found on the border of a small lake. It has been reported from Lake 
and St. Joseph Counties, but I have not seen the specimens. 

W. Que. to Sask. and B. C, southw. to Ga., Okla., and the Pacific States. 



204 



Cyperaceae 



Eleocharis 




0" 50 

Map 394 
Eleocharis microcarpa 
var. filiculmfs Torr. 




50 

Map 395 
Eleocharis elliplica Kunlh 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 















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Map 396 

Eleocharis tenuis IWilld.) Schultes 

var. verrucosa (Sven.l Sven. 













1 
1 

1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

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Map 397 

i Soil. 













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Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

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Map 398 
Torr. 




o ~~ 3o 
Map 399 
Eleocharis pauciflora (LightJ Link 
var. Fernaldii Svenson 



18a. Eleocharis compressa var. atrata Svenson. (Rhodora 34: 218. 
1932.) Under his description of this variety Svenson refers to it Bebb's 
specimen no. 2048 from Lake County which is in the herbarium of the 
University of Wisconsin. There is also a specimen in the Field Museum 
collected by Lansing near Indiana Harbor in 1903. It is labeled Eleocharis 
acuminata (Muhl.) Nees. 

N. Mich., and Wis., southw. to N. Y., Pa., and Ind. 

19. Eleocharis rostellata Torr. Beaked Spikerush. Map 398. Springy 
marshes and wet, marl borders of lakes. 

N. S. to Fla., chiefly in salt marshes along the coast ; rare inland, becom- 
ing common in the alkaline regions of the West; also in Bermuda, Cuba, 
and Mex. 

20. Eleocharis pauciflora (Lightf.) Link var. Fernaldii Svenson. Rho- 
dora 36: 380. 1934.) (Scirpus pauciflorus Lightf.) Few-flowered Spike- 
rush. Map 399. This sedge prefers the wet or moist, marly borders of 



Fimbristylis 



Cyperaceae 



205 




Miles 

Map 400 



Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl 




50 

Map 401 

Fimbristylis autumnalis (UR.&S. 
var. mucronulata (Michx) Fern. 




o 50 

Map 402 



Stenophyllus capillaris (L ) Britton 



lakes and, where such a habitat occurs, it is often found in nearly pure 
stands over large areas. It is also found in a few marshes and along the 
borders of some of the sloughs in Lake County. It has been reported also 
from Newton County. 

Newf. to Que., southw. to n. N. E., N. Y., Ind., and 111. 



471. FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl 

Stigmas 2; achenes lenticular. 

Scales of spikelets, at least the lower ones, puberulent or minutely pubescent; achenes 
slightly obovoid, truncate, about 1.5 mm long, longitudinally pitted, grayish. 

1. F. puberula. 

Scales of spikelets glabrous, glossy. (See excluded species no. 94, p. 1031) 

F. castanea. 

Stigmas 3; achenes 3-angled, colorless. 
Umbels usually simple, sometimes compound ; spikelets ovoid ; achenes about 0.75 mm 

long. (See excluded species no. 93, p. 1031) F. autumnalis. 

Umbels mostly compound; spikelets linear; achenes about 0.5 mm long 

2. F. autumnalis var. mucronulata. 

1. Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl. Map 400. In moist, sandy 
soil in an interdunal flat habitat. It must be very local since I have seen it 
only three times. 

Southern N. Y. to Fla. and La., and from Ont., Mich., Ind., and 111. to 
Kans. and Tex. 

2. Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. & S. var. mucronulata (Michx.) 
Fern. (Rhodora 37: 398. 1935.) {Fimbristylis autumnalis of some 
authors.) Map 401. Moist, sandy, and muddy shores of lakes, sloughs, and 
streams and in ditches. 

This is a highly variable species both as to habit and morphological char- 
acters. When growing in the mud or in moist sand, the plant may be short 
and the umbels simple. When growing in its preferred habitat or among 
vegetation it may be 8-12 inches high. The margins of the leaves may be 
entire or rather closely serrate. The achenes may be plainly reticulated 



206 



Cyperaceae 



Bulbostylis 




o 5o 

Map 403 



Psilocarya nitens(Vahl)Wood 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



r ° 




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Map 404 



Psilocarya scirpoides Torr, 




Cladfum mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. 



crosswise or very faintly so, varying somewhat in length, and free of 
tubercles or covered with them more or less all over the surface. I have 
not seen a specimen of the typical form of this species and the data given 
in the key have been obtained from published studies. Doubtless all Indiana 
plants belong to this variety. 

Conn, to 111., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

471 A. BULBOSTYLIS [Kunth] C. B. Clarke 

''Plant bearing crowded sessile spikelets at the bases of the leaves; spikelets of the 
terminal umbel rather crowded, 3-10 mm long, longer than their pedicels" (Rhodora 
40: 395. 1938) 1. B. capillaris. 

Plant not bearing sessile spikelets at the base of the leaves; lateral spikelets of umbels 

2.5-6 mm long, shorter than the pedicels; pedicels unequal, 0.1-10 mm long 

la. B. capillaris var. crebra. 

1. Bulbostylis capillaris (L) C. B. Clarke. (Rhodora 40: 395. 1938.) 
(Stenophyllus capillaris (L.) Britt.) This change of name came too late 
to change the name on the map. Map 402. I have the typical form of this 
species from Elkhart, Kosciusko, Lagrange, St. Joseph, and Starke Coun- 
ties. The map shows both the typical form and the variety. 

This plant is infrequent in the northern part of the state and rare in the 
southern part. It is found in very dry, sandy soil, usually in fallow fields 
and clearings, on open, sandy knolls and dunes, and the variety sometimes 
in residual soil on the crests of sandstone ridges and on cliffs. 

Southern Maine to Minn., southw. to Va. and Mo. 

la. Bulbostylis capillaris var. crebra Fern. (Rhodora 40: 395. 1938.) 
This variety has the same habitat as that of the species and ranges through- 
out the state. Only thorough field study will convince me that this variety 
is distinct in Indiana. 

Md. to s. 111., southw. to Ga., Ala., Ark., and Tex. 



Psilocarya 



CYPERACEAE 



207 



Jan. 
Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec 





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Map 406 



Rhynchospora alba (LJ Vahl 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec. 



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Map 407 



Rhynchospora capillacea Torr 




472. PSILOCARYA Ton. 

Tubercle short, merely capping the achene, its greatest height much less than 0.5 mm; 

achene strongly transversely wrinkled 1. P. nitens. 

Tubercle sword-shaped, more than 0.5 mm long; achene not strongly transversely 

wrinkled 2.. P. scirpoides. 

1. Psilocarya nitens (Vahl) Wood. Map 403. In sandy soil on the 
borders of sloughs. My only specimen is one collected by Umbach on the 
border of a slough at Dune Park, Porter County, in 1899. Evidently it is 
very local. 

Atlantic coast from Long Island, N. Y. to Fla. and along the Gulf to Tex. 
and along Lake Michigan in Ind. 

2. Psilocarya scirpoides Torr. Map 404. This species is local but com- 
mon to abundant where found. It grows in wet, sandy soil in marshes and 
on the borders of sloughs and lakes. 

Mass. to R. I. and in n. Ind. 

489. CLADIUM P. Br. 

1. Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. (Rhodora 25: 49. 1923.) Map 

405. Rather frequent or locally common where found in the lake area in 
shallow water and on the wet borders of lakes and in marshes and springy 
places. It is usually found in very marly places. 

N. S. to Ont. to Sask. and Minn., southw. to Fla., Ky., and Iowa. 



492. RHYNCHOSPORA Vahl Beakrush 

Mature achenes (exclusive of tubercle) 4.5-6 mm long. 

Bristles longer than the achene 1- R- macrostachya. 

Bristles shorter than the achene 2. R. cornicalata var. interior. 

Mature achenes (exclusive of tubercle) less than 4 mm long. 

Achenes transversely wrinkled; bristles upwardly barbed 3. R. cymosa. 

Achenes smooth; bristles downwardly barbed or smooth. 

Scales of spikelets (when fresh) white or nearly so, becoming tawny with age; 



208 Cyperaceae Rhynchospora 

spikelets in terminal and axillary corymbose heads, perfecting only one flower; 

stamens 2; bristles 9-12 (20) 4. R. alba. 

Scales of spikelets chestnut color; spikelets perfecting more than one flower; 

stamens 3; bristles (5, rarely more. 
Leaves all filiform; spikelets 3-6 in terminal clusters. 

Bristles barbed 5. R. capillacea. 

Bristles not barbed 5a. R. capillacea f. leviseta. 

Leaves wider, flat; spikelets numerous in clusters or heads. 

Bristles barbed 6. R. glomerata var. minor. 

Bristles not barbed 6a. R. glomerata var. minor f. discutiens. 

1. Rhynchospora macrostachya Torr. (Rynchospora corniculata in part, 
of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Map 412. Very local in a few 
counties of the lake area on the sedge borders of lakes and sloughs. 

Mass. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) Gray var. interior Fern. (Rho- 
dora 20 : 140. 1918.) Map 409. This is a tall, coarse sedge found growing in 
wet woods and roadside ditches in a few of the Ohio River counties. Very 
local. 

Ind., southw. to Ala., Ark., and Tex. 

3. Rhynchospora cymosa Ell. Map 410. This species has been reported 
from Lake and Porter Counties. In the herbarium of the University of 
Wisconsin there are 2 sheets from Lake County and 4 sheets from Porter 
County collected by Umbach. These specimens were found in wet, sandy 
soil along sloughs and in bogs.* 

N. J., Pa. to 111., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

4. Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl. Map 406. Mostly in the lake area. 
Infrequent in sedge marshes and bogs, usually on the borders of lakes. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Fla., Ky., and in n. Calif. 

5. Rhynchospora capillacea Torr. Map 407. Local in marly, springy 
places in the lake area, usually associated with the preceding species and 
with Scleria vertidllata. 

N. B., e. Que. to w. Ont., southw. to N. J., Pa., Ohio, Ind., and Mo. 

5a. Rhynchospora capillacea f . leviseta (E. J. Hill) Fem. (Rhodora 37 : 
252. 1935.) Map 408. Local in a few of the northern counties. Usually 
found on marly borders of lakes and in interdunal flats. 

Maine, Ont., Mich., and Ind. 

6. Rhynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl var. minor Britt. (Rhodora 37: 
401-402. 1935. ) (Rynchospora glomerata of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton 
and Brown, lllus. Flora, ed. 2.) Map 411. Infrequent in wet or moist sedge 
borders of lakes and in interdunal flats. This is our most common species 
of this genus and at a short distance it might be confused with Cladium 
mariscoides but the latter is much stiffer in habit. 

N. B. to Ont. and Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

* Collected in Newton County in H»38 by Madge McKee in swampy land about 3 
miles northwest of Morocco. Specimen in her herbarium. 



Scleria 



Cyperaceae 



209 




53 

Map 409 
Rhynchospora corniculata 
var. interior Fern. 




o 50 

Map 412 



Rhynchospora macrostachya Torr. 



— 


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Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

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June 

July 

Aug. 

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Oct. 

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ospora 


y>\ jo so 

Map 410 
cymosa Ell. 













2 


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Mar. 

Apr. 

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Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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/lichx. 




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Map 41 
Rhynchospora glomerata 
var. minor Britt. 















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Scleria reticularis Michx. 



6a. Rhynchospora glomerata var. minor f. discutiens (Clarke) Fern. 
(Rhodora 37: 402-403. 1935.) This form has been seen from only Lake, 
Porter, and Starke Counties. The habitat is that of the species. 

N. J. to Ind. and southw. 



515. SCLERIA Bergius Nutrush 

Achenes smooth, ovoid, about 3 mm long including the basal disk (hypogynium) . 

Hypogynium entirely covered with a white crust 1. S. triglomerata. 

Hypogynium naked at the base, supporting about 9 very short tubercles just below 

the achene 2. S. oligantha. 

Achenes not smooth, spheroidal, 1.5-2 mm long (2.5 mm long in Scleria setacea). 
Achenes irregularly papillose or warty, or transversely wrinkled. 

Culms, leaves, and scales densely pubescent 3. S. panciflora var. caroliniana. 

Culms, leaves, and scales essentially glabrous 4. S. verticillata. 

Achenes irregularly pitted. 

Surface of achene glabrous; achenes 2 mm or less in length; lobes of hypogynium 
emarginate or cleft, somewhat obtuse; culms usually erect; peduncles sessile 
or short ' 5. S. reticularis. 



210 



Cyperaceae 



Scleria 




50 

Map 415 



scleria setacea 




50 

Map 416 



Scleria triglomerata Michx. 




0~~ -^S 
Map 417 



Scleria verticillata Muhl. 



Surface of achene more or less pubescent; achenes 2-2.5 mm long; lobes of hypo- 
gynium acute or acuminate; culms spreading; axillary peduncles long and 
filiform, the spikelets usually drooping 6. S. setacea. 

1. Scleria triglomerata Michx. Map 416. Very local and only a few 
plants found at a place. It grows in moist, sandy soil in prairie habitats or 
in marshes. 

Vt. to Ont. and Wis., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Scleria oligantha Michx. Map 413. On dry rocky, open, wooded 
slopes in three of the Ohio River counties. Very local and only a few 
plants found. 

D. C, Va. to Ind. and Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

3. Scleria pauciflora Muhl. var. caroliniana (Willd.) Wood. Fassett 
(Rhodora 35: 202. 1933) writes that two collections from Miller and three 
from Dune Park in the herbarium of the University of Wisconsin named 
Scleria pauciflora Muhl. should be referred to the variety. I have seen 
these specimens and I agree with Fassett. I have this variety also from 
Jasper County. 

Mass. to Ga. along the coast, cent. N. Y., Ohio, and Ind. to Mo. 

4. Scleria verticillata Muhl. Map 417. Infrequent to frequent in marly 
marshes throughout the lake area. It is rather inconspicuous and is often 
overlooked, although where it is found it usually forms a dense stand. The 
report by Core (Brittonia 2: 23. 1936) for Chase from Shelby County 
should be referred to Shelby, Lake County. Mrs. Chase wrote me that she 
had never collected in Shelby County. 

Mass., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla., Tex., Mex., and W. I. 

5. Scleria reticularis Michx. Map 414. In damp or wet, sandy soil in a 
few marshes of northwestern Indiana. Very local. This species was 
erroneously cited by Core (Brittonia 2 : 82. 1936) as having been collected 
in Greene County by Nieuwland. Nieuwland's specimens of the number 



>cleria Cyperaceae 211 

ited by Core in the herbarium of the University of Notre Dame are from 
'orter County. 
Mass. to Fla., and in n. Ind. 

6. Scleria setacea Poir. (Scleria reticularis var. pubescens Britt.) Map 
15. There is a specimen in the herbarium of the University of Wisconsin 
ollected by Umbach in 1908 near Dune Park, Porter County, which I am 
ef erring to this species. This specimen has the pubescent achenes and 
he long, filiform peduncles of the lateral spikelets but the lobes of the 
ypogynium are not acute or only scarcely so. Witmer Stone, in his "Flora 
f Southern New Jersey," on page 284 says : "The width of the leaves and 
iubescence of the achenes are characters which are very variable." The 
ize of the achenes of our plants is about the same as those of S. reticu- 
iris. While the achenes of typical S. reticularis are glabrous, sometimes 
n achene is found which has a trace of pubescence which is a character 
f S. setacea. 

This species is somewhat frequent on the moist or dry, sandy border of 
lie west end of the second marsh from the north side of section 2 and on 
hie east side of this section about 2i/ 2 miles southeast of Tefft, Jasper 
bounty. It is closely associated with S. triglomerata Michx. and S. pauci- 
lora var. caroliniana (Willd.) Wood. This is an interdunal marsh between 
ather low sand hills which are covered with black oak. The marsh is 
overed with Calamagrostis canadensis. Besides the Sclerias already named, 
n the border of this marsh are found also Hypericum adpressum and 
'anicum verrucosum. This marsh and others nearby are noted for the 
umber of Coastal Plain plants found in them. 

Conn, to the Great Lakes and Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex.; also in 
lex., W. I., and Cent. Amer. 



212 Cyperaceae Carex 

525. CAREX [Dill.] L. Sedge* 

A genus of nearly 2000 species and the largest genus of vascular plants 
in Indiana. Few species have any economic value but the ecological role 
of the genus is of great importance. The species of marshes and muddy 
borders of lakes which form extensive colonies, and to some extent the 
less gregarious species, comprise an essential step in the successional stages 
from open water to the culmination in climax forest or prairie. Much of 
the fertile soils of our region today would still be barren mudflats were it 
not for the part played by these sedges in the conversion of the once vast 
boggy areas into a turf, thus enabling less hydrophytic plants to become 
established and add further to the fertility of the soil. 

For the identification of species in this genus it is nearly always neces- 
sary to have a specimen with ripe fruit (perigynia) and as a rule the 
roots are also essential. In the key closely related species have been grouped 
for convenience into sections, roughly corresponding in size to most of the 
genera in other groups. After only a slight acquaintance with the sedges 
of an area it is generally possible to recognize at sight the group or section 
to which an unknown species belongs, especially since a few of the sections 
(Ovales, Bracteosae, Laxiflorae, Acutae, and Lupulinae) will include the 
great majority of the individuals found in the field. 

The most recent and exhaustive treatment of the species of Carex in our 
area is K. K. Mackenzie's monograph in North American Flora 18 : 1-478. 
1931-35. In the following account this monograph has been freely used in 
the preparation of the keys and in giving distribution. 

NATURAL KEY TO THE SECTIONS OF INDIANA CARICES 

Stigmas two; achenes lenticular; spikes usually bisexual, the lateral sessile 

Subgenus Vignea. 

Stigmas three; achenes triangular; or if stigmas two and achenes lenticular, the 

lateral spikes peduncled; spikes normally unisexual Subgenus Eu-Carex. 

Subgenus Vignea 

Terminal or all spikes androgynous; perigynia not subterete. 

Culms arising singly or few together from long-creeping rootstocks. 

Heads elongate, 2-7 cm long; culms not branching; perigynia thin- or wing- 
margined; not plants of sphagnum bogs. 
Perigynia thin- but not wing-margined, ovate-orbicular, thick-plano-convex, 
3.4-5 mm long; spikes all androgynous; plants of wet habitats 

1. § INTERMEDIAE, p. 218. 

Perigynia narrowly wing-margined, oblong-lanceolate, plano-convex, 4.75-6 mm 
long; lowest spikes usually pistillate, the middle staminate, and terminal 

androgynous; plants of dry sandy habitats 2. § Arenariae, p. 218. 

Heads ovoid, 0.5-1.2 cm long; culms becoming decumbent and branching; perigynia 
neither thin- nor wing-margined, oblong-obovate, thick-plano-convex, 2.5-3.75 

mm long; plants of sphagnum bogs 3. § Chordorrhizae, p. 219. 

Culms cespitose, the rootstocks sometimes short-prolonged with short internodes but 
not long-creeping. 
Perigynia abruptly contracted into the beak; culms not flaccid and not flattening 
in drying. 
Spikes few (generally 10 or fewer), usually greenish. .4. § Bracteosae, p. 219. 

* Contributed by Frederick J. Hermann, University of Michigan. 






Carex Cyperaceae 213 

Spikes numerous, yellowish or brownish at maturity; leaf sheaths often red- 
dotted ventrally. 
Perigynia plano-convex, thin, yellowish; bracts mostly much exceeding the 
spikes ; leaf sheaths usually transversely rugulose ventrally 

5. § MULTIFLORAE, p. 224. 

Perigynia thick-plano-convex or unequally biconvex, brown; bracts mostly 

shorter than the spikes; leaf sheaths not transversely rugulose 

6. § Paniculatae, p. 225. 

Perigynia tapering into the beak or, if abruptly contracted, culms flaccid and 

flattening in drying 7. § Vulpinae, p. 226. 

Terminal or all spikes gynaecandrous or, if androgynous, perigynia subterete and 
spikes 1-3-flowered. 
Perigynia without winged margins, at most thin-edged. 
Perigynia 2-4 mm long. 

Perigynia not thin-edged, ascending or appressed, elliptic 

8. § Heleonastes, p. 229. 

Perigynia thin-edged, spreading, ovoid, usually broadest below the middle 

9. § Stellulatae, p. 230. 

Perigynia 4-5 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, appressed. .10. § Deweyanae, p. 232. 
Perigynia with winged margins 11. § Ovales, p. 232. 

Subgenus Eu-Carex 
Style articulated with the achene, at length deciduous; achenes apiculate or blunt at 
the apex; perigynia closely enveloping the achenes or moderately inflated. 
Spikes solitary, androgynous; perigynia beakless, rounded at the apex, glabrous. 

12. § POLYTRICHOIDEAE, p. 237. 

Spikes one to many, when one the perigynia not as above. 

Lower pistillate scales bractlike; achenes rounded at the apex, strongly con- 
stricted at the base 13. § Phyllostachyae, p. 238. 

Lower pistillate scales not bractlike; achenes apiculate-tipped, not strongly con- 
stricted at the base. 
Achenes with sides convex above, closely enveloped by the perigynia; bracts 

sheathless, scalelike or setaceous 14. § Montanae, p. 238. 

Achenes with flat or concave sides; bracts from sheathless to long-sheathing. 
Achenes closely enveloped by the perigynia; bracts, when present, strongly 
sheathing. 
Perigynia pubescent or puberulent, at least at the base of the beak. 
Bracts either reduced to sheaths or absent. 

Culms not dioecious; spikes more than one; bracts bladeless 

15. § DlGITATAE, p. 242. 

Culms dioecious; spike solitary, bractless 16. § Pictae, p. 243. 

Bracts with well-developed blades 17. § Triquetrae, p. 243. 

Perigynia glabrous 18. § Albae, p. 243. 

Achenes not closely enveloped by the perigynia except at the base. 

Bracts long-sheathing (except in C. prasina of § Gracillimae, a species with 
sharply triangular perigynia which are long- and flat-beaked, nerveless 
except for the prominent lateral pair of nerves) ; achenes triangular 
(except in § Bicolores, species with pulverulent or golden yellow 
perigynia) . 
Beak of perigynium entire, emarginate, or obliquely cut and at length 
bidentate. 
Pistillate spikes short, oblong to linear, erect or, if drooping, the 
perigynia acutely triangular. 

Achenes lenticular; stigmas two 19. § Bicolores, p. 244. 

Achenes triangular; stigmas three. 

Perigynia with few to many strongly raised nerves. 

Perigynia tapering at the base, triangular; achenes usually 
closely enveloped. 



214 Cyperaceae Carex 

Rootstocks elongate, producing long horizontal stolons 

20. § Paniceae, p. 244. 

Rootstocks not elongate, not producing long horizontal stolons. 

21. § Laxiflorae, p. 246. 

Perigynia rounded at the base, suborbicular in cross section; 

achenes loosely enveloped 22. § Granulares, p. 250. 

Perigynia with numerous fine impressed nerves. 

Perigynia tapering at the base, constricted at the apex, obtusely 

triangular; achenes closely enveloped 

23. § Oligocarpae, p. 251. 

Perigynia rounded at both ends, orbicular or orbicular-triangular 

in cross section 24. § Griseae, p. 252. 

Pistillate spikes elongate, linear to cylindric, slender-peduncled, the 
lower drooping. 
Perigynia beakless or short-beaked; terminal spike gynaecandrous 

(except in C. prasina, and rarely in C. gracillima) 

25. § Gracillimae, p. 253. 

Perigynia conspicuously beaked; terminal spike staminate (rarely 
with a few perigynia at the base). 
Pistillate spikes narrowly linear, 3-4 mm wide; culms strongly 

reddish-tinged at the base, aphyllopodic 

26. § Sylvaticae, p. 254. 

Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric, 8-10 mm wide; culms not strongly 

reddish-tinged at the base, phyllopodic 

27. § Longirostres, p. 255. 

Beak of perigynium bidentate 28. § Extensae, p. 256. 

Bracts sheathless or very short-sheathing (rarely the lowest long-sheathing 
in C. lasiocarpa of § Hirtae) . 
Perigynia or foliage (especially the sheaths) or both pubescent. 

Beak of perigynium at most shallowly bidentate; styles very short, 

thickish, leaves not septate-nodulose 29. § Virescentes, p. 257. 

Beak of perigynium strongly bidentate; styles long, slender; leaves 

septate-nodulose 30. § Hirtae, p. 258. 

Perigynia and foliage not pubescent. 
Achenes triangular; stigmas three. 

Perigynia strongly beaked, scabrous 30a. § Anomalae, p. 259. 

Perigynia beakless or short-beaked, not scabrous. 

Perigynia transversely corrugated 31. § Shortianae, p. 259. 

Perigynia not transversely corrugated, papillate. 

Terminal spike staminate; roots closely clothed with a yellowish 

felt 32. § Limosae, p. 260. 

Terminal spike gynaecandrous; roots not clothed with a yellowish 

felt 33. § Atratae, p. 260. 

Achenes lenticular; stigmas two. 

Achenes not constricted in the middle; pistillate scales obtuse to 

acuminate 34. § Acutae, p. 260. 

Achenes constricted in the middle; pistillate scales long-awned 

35. § Cryptocarpae, p. 262. 

Style not articulated, continuous with the achene, persistent, indurated; perigynia mod- 
erately to strongly inflated (only slightly so in some species of § Paludosae and 
§ Pseudo-Cyperi) . 
Perigynia many-nerved, lanceolate, tapering into the beak. 

Spikes solitary, androgynous; perigynia widely spreading or reflexed, early de- 
ciduous; leaf blades involute, 0.5 mm wide 35a. § Orthocerate., p. 263. 

Spikes several; perigynia ascending, not early deciduous; leaf blades flat, 5-15 mm 

wide 36. § Folliculatae, p. 263. 

Perigynia strongly ribbed, usually broader, generally abruptly contracted into the 
beak. 



Carex Cyperaceae 215 

Perigynia finely and closely ribbed 37. § Pseudo-Cyperi, p. 263. 

Perigynia coarsely ribbed. 
Perigynia subcoriaceous; foliage or perigynia or both sometimes pubescent. 

38. § Paludosae, p. 264. 

Perigynia membranaceous; foliage and perigynia not pubescent (except peri- 
gynia sometimes hispidulous in C. Grayii of § Lupulinae). 
Perigynia obconic or broadly obovoid, truncately contracted into a long subu- 
late beak 39. § Squarrosae, p. 266. 

Perigynia from lanceolate to ovoid or globose-ovoid, not truncately contracted. 

Perigynia 7-10 mm long; achenes 2-3 mm long, 1.25-2.5 mm wide 

40. § Vesicariae, p. 267. 

Perigynia 10-20 mm long; achenes 2.5-6 mm long, 2-4 mm wide 

41. § Lupulinae, p. 269. 

ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE SECTIONS OF INDIANA CARICES 

Spike one. 

Perigynia strongly inflated, sessile or nearly so, not becoming reflexed; pistillate 

scales persistent 39. § Squarrosae, p. 266. 

Perigynia not inflated. 

Pistillate scales not foliaceous; perigynia not abruptly beaked. 

Pistillate scales deciduous; perigynia stipitate, at least the lower reflexed at 

maturity 35a. § Orthocerates, p. 263. 

Pistillate scales persistent; perigynia not reflexed. 

Perigynia rounded at the apex ; spike androgynous 

12. § POLYTRICHOIDEAE, p. 237. 

Perigynia abruptly tapering to a pointed, slightly bidenticulate apex; spike 

entirely staminate or pistillate 16. § Pictae, p. 243. 

Lower pistillate scales foliaceous; perigynia abruptly beaked 

13. § Phyllostachyae, p. 238. 

Spikes more than one. 

Stigmas two; achenes lenticular. 

Lateral spikes sessile, short; terminal spike usually androgynous or gynaecan- 
drous. (Vignea.) 
Culms arising singly or few together from long-creeping rootstocks; perigynia 
not subterete. 
Heads elongate, 2-7 cm long; culms not branching; perigynia thin- or wing- 
margined; not plants of sphagnum bogs. 
Perigynia thin- but not wing-margined, ovate orbicular, thick-plano-convex, 

3-4.5 mm long; spikes all androgynous; plants of wet habitats 

1. § Intermediae, p. 218. 

Perigynia narrowly wing-margined, oblong-lanceolate, plano-convex, 4.75-6 
mm long; lowest spikes usually pistillate, the middle staminate, and 

terminal androgynous ; plants of dry sandy habitats 

2. § Arenariae, p. 218. 

Heads ovoid, 0.5-1.2 cm long; culms becoming decumbent and branching; 
perigynia neither thin- nor wing-margined, oblong-obovate, thick-plano- 
convex, 2.5-3.75 mm long; plants of sphagnum bogs 

3. § Chordorrhizae, p. 219. 

Culms cespitose, the rootstocks occasionally somewhat prolonged with short inter- 
nodes but not long-creeping (except occasionally in C. disperma of § Heleon- 
astes which has subterete perigynia). 
Spikes androgynous, many-flowered; perigynia not subterete. 

Perigynia abruptly contracted into the beak; culms not flaccid and not 
flattening in drying. 

Spikes few (generally 10 or fewer) , usually greenish 

4. § Bracteosae, p. 219. 



21G Cyperaceae Carex 

Spikes numerous, yellowish or brownish at maturity; leaf sheaths often 
red-dotted ventrally. 
Perigynia plano-convex, thin, yellowish; bracts mostly much exceeding 
the spikes; leaf sheaths usually transversely rugulose ventrally. 

5. § MULT1FLORAE, p. 224. 

Perigynia thick-plano-convex or unequally biconvex, brown; bracts 
mostly shorter than the spikes ; leaf sheaths not transversely 

rugulose 6. § Paniculatae, p. 225. 

Perigynia tapering into the beak or, if abruptly contracted, culms flaccid and 

flattening in drying 7. § Vulpinae, p. 226. 

Spikes not androgynous or, if so, perigynia subterete and spikes only 1-3- 
flowered. 
Perigynia without winged margins, at most thin-edged. 
Perigynia 2-4 mm long. 

Perigynia not thin-edged, ascending or appressed, elliptic 

8. § Heleonastes, p. 229. 

Perigynia thin-edged, spreading, ovoid, usually broadest below the 

middle 9. § Stellulatae, p. 230. 

Perigynia 4-5 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, appressed 

10. § Deweyanae, p. 232. 

Perigynia with winged margins 11. § Ovales, p. 232. 

Lateral spikes peduncled or, if sessile, elongate; terminal spike usually staminate. 
(Eu-Carex.) 
Style articulated with the achene, at length deciduous; perigynia not lustrous. 
Lowest bract long-sheathing; perigynia pulverulent or golden yellow at ma- 
turity 19. § Bicolores, p. 244. 

Lowest bract sheathless or rarely short-sheathing, perigynia not pulverulent 
or golden yellow. 
Achenes not constricted in the middle; scales not long-awned, 1-nerved. 

34. § Acutae, p. 260. 

Achenes constricted in the middle; scales long-awned, 3-nerved 

35. § Cryptocarpae, p. 262. 

Style continuous with the achene, persistent, indurated; perigynia lustrous 

40. § Vesicariae, p. 267. 

Stigmas three; achenes triangular. 
Perigynia pubescent or scabrous. 

Style articulated with the achene, at length deciduous. 

Achenes closely enveloped by the perigynia; bracts sheathless or nearly so. 
Perigynia obtusely triangular or orbicular-triangular in cross section; plant 

(except perigynia) glabrous 14. § Montanae, p. 238. 

Perigynia sharply triangular; plant pubescent. . . . 17. § Triquetrae, p. 243. 
Achenes not closely enveloped by the perigynia or, if so, the bracts strongly 
sheathing. 
Bracts sheathing, their blades absent or rudimentary; achenes closely en- 
veloped by the perigynia 15. § Digitatae, p. 242. 

Bracts with well-developed blades. 

Bracts sheathless or the lower short-sheathing. 
Perigynia pubescent. 

Beak of perigynium at most shallowly bidentate; styles very short, 

thickish; leaves not septate-nodulose. .29. § Virescentes, p. 257. 

Beak of perigynium strongly bidentate; styles long, slender; leaves 

septate-nodulose .' 30. § Hirtae, p. 258. 

Perigynia scabrous 30a. § Anomalae, p. 259. 

Bracts, at least the lower ones, long-sheathing. 

Beak of perigynium not strongly bidentate ... 21. § Laxiflorae, p. 246. 

Beak of perigynium strongly bidentate 30. ij Hirtae, p. 258. 

Style not articulated, continuous with the achene, persistent, indurated. 

Perigynia less than 1 cm long; spikes cylindric 38. § Paludosae, p. 264. 



Carex Cyperaceae 217 

Perigynia 1 cm long or longer; spikes globose 

C. Grayii in 41. § Lupulinae, p. 269. 

Perigynia glabrous. 

Style articulated with the achene, at length deciduous. 

Achenes strongly constricted at the base, rounded at the apex; lower pistillate 

scales bractlike 13. § Phyllostachyae, p. 238. 

Achenes not strongly constricted at the base, apiculate at the apex; lower 
pistillate scales not bractlike. 
Bracts long-sheathing, at least the lower ones. 
Bracts bladeless or with rudimentary blades. 

Leaf blades filiform 18. § Albae, p. 243. 

Leaf blades not filiform 21. § Laxiflorae, p. 246. 

Bracts with well-developed blades. 

Foliage, especially the sheaths, pubescent or puberulent. 

Perigynia beakless or short-beaked; terminal spike gynaecandrous 
(rarely staminate in C. gracillima) . . .25. § Gracillimae, p. 253. 

Perigynia conspicuously beaked; terminal spike staminate 

26. § Sylvaticae, p. 254. 

Foliage glabrous. 

Beak of perigynium not bidentate, at most emarginate. 

Pistillate spikes short, oblong to linear, erect or, if drooping, either 
on long capillary peduncles or the perigynia acutely triangular. 
Perigynia with few to many strongly raised nerves. 

Perigynia tapering at the base, triangular, closely enveloping 
the achenes. 
Rootstocks elongate, often producing long horizontal stolons. 

20. § Paniceae, p. 244. 

Rootstocks not elongate, not producing long horizontal stol- 
ons 21. § Laxiflorae, p. 246. 

Perigynia rounded at the base, suborbicular in cross section, 
loosely enveloping the achenes. .22. § Granulares, p. 250. 
Perigynia with numerous fine impressed nerves. 

Perigynia tapering at the base, constricted at the apex, obtusely 

triangular, closely enveloping the achenes 

23. § Oligocarpae, p. 251. 

Perigynia rounded at both ends, orbicular to orbicular-tri- 
angular in cross section 24. § Griseae, p. 252. 

Pistillate spikes elongate, linear to cylindric, on slender peduncles, 
the lower usually drooping; perigynia not acutely triangular. 
Perigynia beakless or short-beaked; terminal spike gynaecan- 
drous 25. § Gracillimae, p. 253. 

Perigynia conspicuously beaked; terminal spike staminate. 

Pistillate spikes narrowly linear, 3-4 mm wide; culms strongly 

reddish-tinged at the base, aphyllopodic 

26. § Sylvaticae, p. 254. 

Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric, 8-10 mm wide; culms not 

strongly reddish-tinged at the base, phyllopodic 

27. § Longirostres, p. 255. 

Beak of perigynium bidentate. 

Pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric, on slender drooping peduncles; 

perigynia obliquely cut, at length bidentate 

27. § Longirostres, p. 255. 

Pistillate spikes suborbicular to short-oblong, on short erect or 
ascending peduncles or sessile, perigynia equally bidentate. 

28. § Extensae, p. 256. 

Bracts (lower) sheath less or very short-sheathing. 

Terminal spike staminate (in C. prasina occasionally bearing a few 



218 Cyperaceae Carex 

perigynia) ; perigynia appressed or ascending; leaf sheaths not sep- 
tate-nodulose. 
Perigynia rounded and minutely beaked at the apex; pistillate spikes 

oblong, 1-2.5 cm long 32. § Limosae, p. 260. 

Perigynia tapering into a beak neai'ly the length of the body; pistillate 
spikes linear, 2-6 cm long. .C. prasina in 25. § Gracillimae, p. 253. 
Terminal spike gynaecandrous. 

Perigynia transversely corrugated 31. § Shortianae, p. 259. 

Perigynia not transversely corrugated 33. § Atratae, p. 260. 

Style persistent, indurated, continuous with the achene. 

Perigynia subcoriaceous and firm 38. §Paludosae, p. 264. 

Perigynia membranaceous. 

Perigynia obconic or broadly obovoid, truncately contracted into the long, 

subulate beaks 39. § Squarrosae, p. 266. 

Perigynia from lanceolate to ovoid or globose-ovoid, not truncately con- 
tracted. 
Perigynia lanceolate or ovoid-lanceolate, tapering into the beak. 

Perigynia many-nerved, slightly inflated, 3 mm wide or less, yellowish 

green; achenes 3.5 mm long 36. § Folliculatae, p. 263. 

Perigynia strongly ribbed, strongly inflated, ovoid-lanceolate, 3.5 mm 
wide or more, green; achenes 5 mm long. .41. § Lupulinae, p. 269. 
Perigynia broader, abruptly contracted into the beak, usually strongly 
ribbed. 

Perigynia finely and closely ribbed 37. § Pseudo-Cyperi, p. 263. 

Perigynia coarsely ribbed. 

Perigynia 7-10 mm long; achenes 2-3 mm long, 1.25-2.25 mm wide. 

40. § Vesicariae, p. 267. 

Perigynia 10-20 mm long; achenes 2.5-6 mm long, 2-4 mm wide. 
41. § Lupulinae, p. 269. 

1. § INTERMEDIAE 

Perigynia ovate-orbicular, 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5-1.75 mm wide, abruptly contracted into 
a beak about a fourth the length of the body 1. C. Sartwellii. 

Perigynia elliptic, 4-4.5 mm long, 1-1.3 mm wide, very gradually long-beaked 

la. C. Sartwellii var. stenorrhyncha . 

1. Carex Sartwellii Dewey. Map 418. Occasional in marshes and marly 
sloughs, more rarely in sandy ditches, in the northern half of the state; 
becoming frequent in the dune area. 

Ont. and w. N. Y. to B. C, southw. to 111., Mo., Nebr., and Colo. 

la. Carex Sartwellii var. stenorrhyncha Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 78. 
1938.) Map 418a. Known only from two localities, both in Lake County: 
in a prairie marsh south of Sheffield St. and west of Calumet Ave., two 
miles north of Hammond, Deam no. 53920 (Deam Herbarium) ; and on 
a prairie east of Wolf Lake, Hermann no. 6052 (Type in Gray Herbarium). 

2. § ARENARIAE 

2. Carex siccata Dewey. (Carex foenea Willd., according to Svenson 
in Rhodora 40: 325-329. 1938.) Map 419. Infrequent in the lake area in 
dry open sandy soil and in open black oak woods. 

Maine to Wash, and Mack., southw. to N. J., Ind, Nebr., and in the 
mts. to Ariz. 






Carex 



Cyperaceae 



219 




50 

Map 418 



Carex Sartwelhi Dewe 



Jan. 

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Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

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Aug 

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50 

Map 418a 
Carex Sartwellii 
var. stenorrhyncha Hermann 




Carex siccata Dew 



51 

Map 419 

ey 



3. § CHORDORRHIZAE 

3. Carex chordorrhiza L. f. Map 420. A northern species reaching the 
southern limit of its range in northern Indiana where it is rare. The two 
Indiana collections are from very wet sphagnum bogs ; elsewhere in its 
range it is found also on peaty borders of lakes. The Indiana stations are : 
in a tamarack bog a mile south of Leesburg, Kosciusko County, and in an 
open tamarack bog west of Goose Lake, Whitley County. 

Lab. and Newf . to Keewatin, southw. to N. Y., Ind., Iowa, and Sask. ; 
also in n. Eurasia. 

4. § BRACTEOSAE 

Sheaths tight, inconspicuously or not at all mottled with green and white or septate- 
nodulose dorsally (except sometimes in C. Leavenwortkii) ; leaf blades 1-4.5 mm 
wide. 
Perigynia distended and spongy at the base, usually widely spreading or reflexed at 
maturity. 
Beaks of perigynia smooth, scarcely exceeding the acuminate, deciduous scales. 

4. C. retro flexa. 

Beaks of perigynia minutely serrulate, much exceeding the obtuse or somewhat 
acute, persistent scales. 
Stigmas long, slender, usually not twisted, light reddish; perigynium tapering 

into the beak ; leaf blades 1-2 mm wide 5. C. rosea. 

Stigmas short, stout, strongly twisted or contorted, deep red; perigynium 
abruptly contracted into the beak. 
Leaf blades 1.5-3 (averaging 2.5) mm wide; spikes with 6-20 perigynia; 

perigynia 3.25-4.5 mm long 6. C. convoluta. 

Leaf blades 1-1.75 (averaging 1) mm wide; spikes with 2-6 perigynia; peri- 
gynia 2.25-3 mm long. (See excluded species no. 1, p. 271) . . . . C. radiata. 
Perigynia not distended and spongy at the base, mostly ascending. 
Inflorescence ovoid or oblong-ovoid; spikes densely capitate. 
Scales much shorter than the bodies of the perigynia. 

Perigynia broadest below the middle, round-tapering at the base, with raised 

margins ventrally; beaks long, serrulate 7. C. cephalophora. 

Perigynia broadest at the truncate-cordate base, flat ventrally; beaks short, 

smooth 8. C. Leavenworthii. 

Scales from little shorter to longer than the bodies of the perigynia. 



220 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 





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Carex rosea Schkuhr 



Culms lax; perigynia faintly nerved dorsally; stigmas short.. .9. C. mesochorea. 
Culms stiff, erect; perigynia generally strongly nerved to ribbed dorsally; 

stigmas long, slender 10a. C. Muhlenbergii var. enervis. 

Inflorescence oblong or linear-oblong to elongate and interrupted; spikes not 
capitate. 
Perigynia strongly nerved and low-convex ventrally, the margins usually slightly 

raised 10. C. Muhlenbergii. 

Perigynia nerveless or nerved only at the base ventrally, the margins not raised 
at maturity. 
Perigynia sessile, short-beaked, spreading, 3-3.5 mm long; bracts not broadly 
dilated at the base; scales about the length of and narrower than the 

bodies of the perigynia, cuspidate or short-aristate 

10a. C. Muhlenbergii var. enervis. 

Perigynia stipitate, long-beaked, ascending, 3.5-5 mm long; bracts broadly 
dilated at the base; at least the lower scales exceeding and as wide as 

the perigynia, long-awned. (See excluded species no. 2, p. 272) 

C. austrina. 

Sheaths loose, mottled with green and white and usually septate-nodulose dorsally; leaf 

blades 4.5-8 (in C. aggregata rarely only 3) mm wide. 

Perigynia not deep green at maturity, with border raised ventrally only above the 

middle, the beak a fourth to a third the length of the ovate or suborbicular 

body or, if longer, the ventral suture deep; spikes approximate in a cylindric 

or ovoid head. 

Perigynia ovate, tapering into the beak, typically smooth or faintly nerved 

dorsally, beak very sharply bidentate, the teeth about 1 mm long; pistillate 

scales mostly strongly awned; leaf blades rarely over 5 mm wide 

11. C. gravida. 

Perigynia broadly ovate to suborbicular, abruptly beaked, typically strongly ribbed 
dorsally; beak less sharply bidentate, the teeth about 0.5 mm long; pistillate 
scales mostly acuminate to short-awned; leaf blades often 6-8 mm wide.... 

11a. C. gravida var. Lunelliana. 

Perigynia deep green, the beak a third the length of the ovate body or more or, if 

rarely shorter, the ventral suture shallow. 

Mature perigynia membranaceous, flat ventrally; leaf blades 3-7 mm wide; spikes 

approximate or the lower separate. 

Scales acute or somewhat obtuse, half the length of the bodies of the perigynia; 

stigmas short; sheaths truncate at the mouth, the lower transversely 

rugulose; perigynia narrowly ovate or even elliptic with a narrow, gradually 

contracted beak; culms often slightly winged 12. C. cepJialoidea. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



221 




50 

Map 423 



Carex convoluta Mack, 




50 

Map 424 



Carex cephalophora Muhl 




o 50 

Map 425 



Carex Leavenworthii Dewey 



Scales acuminate or short cuspidate (rarely merely acute), about the length of 
the bodies of the perigynia; stigmas long and slender; sheaths concave 
at the mouth, usually not at all transversely rugulose; culms sulcate and 

white-striate up to the inflorescence, their angles usually smooth 

13. C. aggregata. 

Mature perigynia subcoriaceous, ovate, with border raised ventrally to the base, 
abruptly contracted into a short, stout beak, culms sulcate and white-striate 
only below, minutely winged or thin-margined up to the inflorescence, serrulate 
on the angles; leaf blades 5-10 mm wide; lower sheaths usually transversely 
rugulose; lower spikes usually separate; stigmas short and stout; scales short, 
blunt to acute 14. C. s-parganioides. 

4. Carex retroflexa Muhl. Map 421. Very local in northern Indiana; 
frequent in the unglaciated area of the southwestern counties. A woodland 
species partial to dry rocky white oak woods, especially in sandstone areas. 

Vt. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5. Carex rosea Schkuhr. Map 422. Very common in both dry and moist 
woods. This species and C. convoluta are perhaps the most plentiful wood- 
land sedges in the state as a whole. 

N. S. to N. Dak., southw. to Ga. and La. 

6. Carex convoluta Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 428. 1916.) 
{Carex rosea of authors.) Map 423. Very common in dry and low woods 
of all types. Often in somewhat richer soils than C. rosea. 

N. S. to Man., southw. to Ala., Tenn., and Ark. 

7. Carex cephalophora Muhl. Map 424. Very common in oak and 
beech-maple woods ; occasional along open grassy roadsides and in thickets. 

Maine to Man., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

8. Carex Leavenworthii Dewey. Map 425. Frequent, except in the 
lake area, in open grassy, generally dry or sandy, oak woods and bordering 
thickets; occasionally bordering woods in clay fallow fields. 

Southern N. J., sw. Ont. and Iowa to Fla. and Tex. 



222 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




50 

Map 426 



Carex mesochorea Mack. 




50 

Map 427 



Carex Muhlenbergii Schkuhr 




Map 428 
Carex Muhlenbergii 
var. enervis Boott 



9. Carex mesochorea Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 246. 1910.) 
(Carex mediterranean Mack.) Map 426. Rare or local in pasture fields and 
on open, wooded, grassy slopes. At the Montgomery County station, on an 
open white oak ridge 5 miles west of New Market, it is associated with 
Poa pratensis, Danthonia spicata, Luzula echinata var. mesochorea, Anten- 
naria neglecta and "reindeer moss." 

Southern Mass. and N. Y., to D. C, Tenn., and Ind. 

10. Carex Muhlenbergii Schkuhr. Map 427. Frequent to common in 
the lake area in dry sandy fallow fields and open oak woods and on dunes ; 
occasional in southern Indiana. 

Maine to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

10a. Carex Muhlenbergii var. enervis Boott. (Carex plana Mack. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club 50: 350. 1923.) Map 428. Frequent on slopes, in sandy 
open woods, on wooded dunes, and in dry sandy fields. It is partial to 
somewhat less open habitats than the species and is less often on low or 
level ground, its favorite habitat being on or near the crests of wooded 
dunes, river bluffs, and oak ridges. 

Specimens intermediate between C. Muhlenbergii and var. enervis in 
some or most of their characters seem to be too frequent to warrant the 
treatment of the latter as a species. The ventrally flat perigynium is a 
conspicuous character of typical var. enervis when fully mature or over- 
ripe but it is very inconstant and specimens with a pronounced raised 
border up to maturity are especially frequent. 

Maine to Nebr., southw. to Ala. and Tex. 

11. Carex gravida Bailey. (Including Carex gravida var. laxifolia 
Bailey.) Map 429. Known in Indiana only from the prairie area in the 
westernmost tier of counties where it is found on sandy bur oak ridges 
and sandy and gravelly railroad embankments. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



223 




50 

Map 429 



Carex gravida Bailey. 




50 

Map 430 
"Carex gravida 
var. Lunelliana (Mack-) Hermann 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 













-L 


i 




D 




-1^ 


! 




! 


T 


_7_J 




■_L 










\~y Mi,es 



55 

Map 43! 



Carex cephaloldea Dewey 



Reported from Lake County by Peattie and by Pepoon but no authentic 
specimens could be found. The Lake County reports were probably based 
upon specimens of C. Muhlenbergii in the Field Museum and University of 
Wisconsin herbaria which were collected by Umbach and distributed as 
C. gravida. The report from Fayette County by Deam was based upon a 
specimen of C. aggregata which was referred to C. gravida by Mackenzie. 

Deam no. 43219 is intermediate between C. gravida and its var. Lunel- 
liana. 

Sw. Ont. and Ohio to N. Dak. and Wyo., southw. to Mo. and Kans. 

11a. Carex gravida var. Lunelliana (Mack.) Hermann. (Amer. Midland 
Nat. 17: 855. 1936.) {Carex Lunelliana Mack. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 
615. 1915.) Map 430. On sandy roadsides and railroad embankments in 
the westernmost tier of counties where it is rare. Some of the Benton 
County specimens intergrade slightly with the species but the Vigo County 
plants from very sandy soil on a roadside knoll 5 miles north of Terre 
Haute are a good match with the type material of C. Lunelliana. 

Ind. and Iowa to Tex. and N. Mex. 

12. Carex cephaloidea Dewey. Map 431. Rich woods. In Indiana known 
only from two collections by Deam : beech-sugar maple woods a mile and 
a half west of New Waverly, Cass County; and low woods bordering 
Tippecanoe River north of DeLong, Fulton County. It is probably more 
frequent than the few collections would indicate since it resembles the 
ubiquitous C. sparganioides so closely that it is apt to be passed by as that 
species. 

The Tippecanoe County report by Smith is not supported by a specimen 
nor could any specimen be found to confirm Peattie's report from Lake 
County. 

Specimens of C. alopecoidea (§ Vulpinae) before fully mature, and 
particularly when from an open habitat, often closely simulate C. cepha- 
loidea. These may be most readily distinguished by their acuminate to 
cuspidate or aristate pistillate scales which are more than half the length 



224 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




50 

Map 432 



Carex aggregata Mack. 




50 

Map 433 



Carex sparganioides Muhl. 













, 


Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 


° 

f 

J 




1 D 








J 


~i" 


f 1 "^ 




f 






D 
H 

r 1 


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-/ Miles 










D I 

1 




( 


,are> 


annectens B 


50 

Map 434 
Ickn. 



of the bodies of the perigynia and have a conspicuous green center. In C. 
cephaloidea the pistillate scales are obtuse or at most acute, half the length 
of the bodies of the perigynia or shorter, and are hyaline throughout (never 
becoming coppery-tinged at maturity as in C. alopecoidea) except for the 
faint green midrib. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and 111. 

13. Carex aggregata Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 246. 1910.) 
Map 432. Infrequent on banks of creeks, on dry grassy and partially 
wooded slopes, in low open woods, and as a weed in lawns. The perigynia 
are very susceptible to infection by a smut which often prevents their 
maturing. 

N. J. to D. C, westw. to Kans. and Okla. 

14. Carex sparganioides Muhl. Map 433. Very common in dry woods 
(usually sugar maple, beech or white oak), thickets, and along roadsides. 
One of the most abundant sedges in the state. 

Que. to S. Dak., southw. to Va., Ky., and Kans. 



5. § MULTIFLORAE 

Beak of perigynium much shorter than the body; perigynium subcoriaceous; leaves 
usually shorter than the culms. 
Perigynia mostly broadest at the base, usually nerved dorsally, 2 mm or more wide; 

beak of perigynium prominent, conspicuously cleft 15. C. annectens. 

Perigynia mostly broadest at or below the middle, nerveless dorsally, usually less 
than 2 mm wide; beak of perigynium very small, obscurely cleft; heads gen- 
erally horter and denser 15a. C. annectens var. xanthocarpa. 

Beak of perigynium about equaling the body; perigynium membranaceous; leaves 
normally exceeding the culms. 

Perigynia ovate, the body corky-margined to the base, contracted into the beak 

1(5. C. vulpinoidea. 

Perigynia narrowly lanceolate, the body thin-edged and not at all corky-margined, 
tapering gradually into the beak; teeth of perigynium almost obsolete; plant 
low, densely cespitose; leaves narrow, rigid; inflorescence short, broad, and con- 
gested. (See excluded species no. 3, p. 272) . . . .C. vulpinoidea var. pycnocephala. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



225 




50 

Map 435 



Carex vulpinoidea Michx 



— 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


f 
















r 1 




I 


f <\ -r 


D 


r 






■o 


r 


i 


r 1 




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r, 


tn 


Dec. J— 


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B 

E J / 


U Miles 














C 


arex 


decomposita 


50 

Map 436 

Muhl. 













— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. C 


DP 1 
F 

a 






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— 


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s 

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( ^ 


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DP 


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I 1 


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r 




r 


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■ ' — 


U Miles 












Carei 


diandra Scr 


56' 
Map 437 

rank 



15. Carex annectens Bickn. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 492. 1908.) 
(C. setacea Dewey var. ambigua (Barratt) Fern.) Map 434. Fairly com- 
mon in the southern counties ; infrequent in northern Indiana. In southern 
Indiana it occurs most commonly in low flat woods although it is frequently 
found in wet fallow clay fields; in the northern counties it is usually in 
marshes or pastures. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to Tex. and Fla. 

15a. Carex annectens var. xanthocarpa (Bickn.) Wieg. (Bull. Tor- 
rey Bot. Club 23: 22. 1896; Rhodora 24: 74. 1922.) (Carex xantho- 
carpa Bickn. and Carex brachyglossa Mack.) Known in Indiana from a 
single collection : Deam no. 42927, in a low place in an open post oak flat 
south of Half Moon Pond, 10 miles southwest of Mt. Vernon, Posey 
County. 

The report from Knox County by Deam was based upon a collection 
determined by Mackenzie as C. brachyglossa but the specimen should be 
referred to C. annectens. 

Maine to Iowa, southw. to Va. and Kans. 

16. Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Map 435. One of the commonest sedges 
of swampy places throughout the state. Its favorite habitat is in roadside 
ditches but it is found also in marshes, swamps, low open woods, and 
ravines, on flood plains, and banks of streams and ponds. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Tex., Ariz., and Oreg. 



6. § PANICULATAE 

Leaf blades 3-8 mm wide ; perigynia very abruptly short-beaked, tapering at the base ; 

inflorescence usually 8-15 cm long, obviously branched 17. C. decomposita. 

Leaf blades 1-3 mm wide; perigynia tapering or contracted into the beak, rounded or 

truncate at the base; inflorescence 2.5-5 (8) cm long, obscurely branched. 

Sheaths not copper-colored at the mouth; head little interrupted; perigynia 2-2.5 

mm long, convex ventrally, lustrous, not concealed by the scales. . . 18. C. diandra. 

Sheaths copper-colored at the mouth; head interrupted; perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm long, 

flat or concave ventrally, dull, nearly concealed by the scales .... 19. C. prairea. 



226 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




50 

Map 438 



Carex prairea Dewey 




50 

Map 439 



Carex stipata Muhl. 




50 

Map 440 



Carex stipata var, maxima Chapm. 



17. Carex decomposita Muhl. Map 436. Specimens to confirm the Mar- 
shall and Lake County reports for this very local species could not be 
located. From Pepoon's statement that it is an abundant species in the 
Chicago region it seems very likely that his report was based upon mate- 
rial of C. diandra or perhaps of C. vulpinoidea. Specimens of C. vulpinoidea 
collected by Umbach from the Illinois portion of the Chicago region and 
labeled C. decomposita were found in the University of Wisconsin Herba- 
rium. C. decomposita is represented from Indiana by two collections: 
Deam, June 26, 1898, in bunches of moss on logs in a drained pond, Little's 
woods, Lancaster Twp., six miles northeast of Bluffton, Wells County; 
and Kriebel no. 2221, in a knothole at base of tree in swamp, two and a 
half miles northeast of Avoca, Lawrence County. 

N. Y. to Mich., southw. to Fla., La., and Mo. 

18. Carex diandra Schrank. (Carex teretiuscula Gooden.) Map 437. 
Frequent in the lake area on marly and sandy borders of lakes and in 
swales, marshes, or bogs. The specimen upon which Coulter's report from 
Daviess County was based should probably be referred to C. prairea. The 
specimen could not be located in the Indiana herbaria. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Ind., and Colo. ; also in Eurasia. 

19. Carex prairea Dewey. (Carex teretiuscula var. ramosa Boott and 
Carex diandra var. ramosa (Boott) Fern.) Map 438. Frequent, except in 
southernmost counties, in marshes, tamarack bogs, marly swamps and on 
borders of streams or lakes. 

Que. to Sask., southw. to N. J., Ind., Iowa, and Nebr. 



7. § VULPINAE 

Perigynium tapering into the beak, the body strongly nerved ventrally or perigynium 
very long beaked. 
Perigynium 4-6 mm long, rounded at the base, strongly nerved ventrally, the beak 
1-2 times the length of the body; sheaths not dotted with purple ventrally. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



227 













— 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov 


1 










r 


V 


J 


■L. ' 




p 




H 

ID 

> 

DP 

r 1 


A^ 




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i 

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D t — 1 

J Miles 












Ca 


o 1 
rex li 


eviv 


agin 


ata (Kuke 


j 5d 
Map 441 

ith) Mack. 













— 


Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 
June 

July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 
Nov. 


f 














1 D 
Wl 

D 




\ 


^ 




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■ 


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r 


1 


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| 


/ Miles 










[ D [ 




Carex C 


D ) 

rus 


-corvi Sh 


J 50 

Map 442 
uttlw. 













— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


f 


















\ 


lV 






" 








X 






D 








^k 


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?r 


r 




Dec J- 






i 
i ' — 


/ Miles 














Carex ; 


\ /\ 7 

lopecoidia Tut 


) " '50 

Map 443 
:kerm. 



Sheaths not thickened at the mouth, cross-rugulose ventrally, easily broken, pro- 
longed upward at the mouth. 
Perigynium 4-5 mm long, the beak about the length of the body ; leaf blades 4-8 

mm wide 20. C. stipata. 

Perigynium 5-6 mm long, the beak longer than the body; leaf blades 8-15 mm 

wide 20a. C. stipata var. maxima. 

Sheaths thickened (often cartilaginous) at the mouth, rarely cross-rugulose ven- 
trally, not easily broken, concave or truncate at the mouth 

21. C. laevivaginata. 

Perigynium 6-7 mm long, abruptly enlarged below into a disklike base, obscurely 
nerved ventrally except at the base, the beak 2-3 times the length of the body; 

sheaths dotted with purple ventrally 22. C. Grus-corvi. 

Perigynium contracted into a beak not longer than the body, the body nerveless ven- 
trally except sometimes at the base. 
Sheaths not cross-rugulose ventrally; spikes yellowish or tawny at maturity; per- 
igynium narrow, faintly nerved dorsally, the beak about the length of the body. 

23. C. alopecoidea. 

Sheaths cross-rugulose ventrally; spikes green; perigynium broad, usually strongly 

nerved dorsally, the beak generally about half the length of the body 

24. C. conjuncta. 

20. Carex stipata Muhl. Map 439. Very common in wet habitats 
throughout Indiana. It is usually found on borders of ponds and streams 
and in low woods, roadside ditches, swamps, marshes, bogs, and woodland 
swales. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. C, Tenn., Kans., N. Mex., and Calif. 

20a. Carex stipata var. maxima Chapm. (Carex stipata var. uberior 
Mohr and Carex uberior (Mohr) Mack.) Map 440. Rare; it is usually 
found on the borders of ponds and streams, in low woods, roadside 
ditches, swamps, marshes, bogs, and woodland swales. 

In the western portion of its range transitional forms between this plant 
and C. stipata occur with a frequency which discourages attempts to main- 
tain it as specifically distinct. Of the five collections known from Indiana 
three are typical of var. maxima in all their characters while two (Deam 
no. 36082, with leaves averaging only 7 mm wide, and Deam no. 38688, 



228 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




x conjuncta Boott 




53 

Map 445 



Carex disperma Dewey 




o fo 

Map 446 



Carex trisperma Dewey 



with no perigynia over 5 mm long and some less, with the beaks of the 
perigynia only slightly longer than the bodies but leaves averaging 10 mm 
wide) approach the typical form of C. stipata. 

N. J. and Pa. southw. along the coast to Fla. and Tex., and northw. in the 
Mississippi Valley to Mo. and Ind. 

21. Carex laevivaginata (Kiikenth.) Mack. (Britton and Brown, Illus. 
Flora, ed. 2, 1 : 371. 1913. See also Fernald, Rhodora 17: 231. 1915.) Map 
441. Infrequent in wet ravines, swamps, swales in woods and on muddy 
banks of creeks. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Mo. 

22. Carex Crus-corvi Shuttlw. Map 442. Frequent in southern Indiana 
in low open woods, especially flat pin oak woods ; occasional in northern 
Indiana on borders of ponds in woods. Reported from Lake County by 
Peattie and by Pepoon but no specimens from the county could be located. 

Tenn. southw. to Fla. and Tex.; in the Mississippi Valley from s. Mich., 
s. Minn., and e. Nebr. to La. 

23. Carex alopecoidea Tuckerm. Map 443. Known in Indiana from a 
single collection : Deam no. 41282, in a low place in white oak woods 3 
miles south of Yorktown, Delaware County. No specimens could be 
found to confirm the reports by Peattie and by Pepoon from Lake County, 
by Pepoon from Porter County, and by Phinney from Jay, Randolph, and 
Wayne Counties. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and Iowa. 

24. Carex conjuncta Boott. Map 444. Frequent to common in central 
Indiana; frequent elsewhere except in the lake and prairie areas. Its pre- 
ferred habitat is on wooded alluvial banks of streams, but it is also found 
in low woods and on moist wooded slopes. 

N. J. to D. C. westw. to S. Dak. and Kans. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



229 




50 

Map 447 

Carex canescens L. 

var. disjuncta Fern. 













— 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 


1 






D D 


T A. 




"J 


D V 


^ ^ 






[ 










T 












- 


1 


n V 




X 


J 


J~ 


r 


Dec f- 






> ' — 


















J/ Miles 






Carex 
Jdr. subl 


i/ Map 448 
canescens 

oliacea Laest. 













— 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 


T 


r 






BD y- 1 - 
iri y^ 






' 




i — 


i* 1 














X 










r 


i 


-"k 


J 




Dec. f- 




i ' — 


/ Miles 














c 


arex 


r^V Map 449 
seorsa E.C.Howe 



8. S HELEONASTES 



.25. C. disperma. 



Spikes androgynous; perigynia unequally biconvex 

Spikes gynaecandrous; perigynia plano-convex. 

Lowest bract bristlelike, many times longer than its spike; perigynia 3-3.5 mm long. 

26. C. trisperma. 

Lowest bract much shorter; perigynia about 2 mm long. 

Perigynia distinctly short-beaked, loosely spreading; leaves green, 1-2.5 mm wide. 

(See excluded species no. 5, p. 272) C. brunnescens. 

Perigynia apiculate, appressed-ascending, leaves glaucous, 2-4 mm wide. 

Spikes 6-12 mm long, remote, the lowest 2-4 cm apart; perigynia 2.3-3 mm long. 

27. C. canescens var. disjuncta. 

Spikes 4-7 mm long, subapproximate or remote; perigynia barely 2 mm long. 
27a. C. canescens var. subloliacea. 

25. Carex disperma Dewey. (Carex tenella Schkuhr.) Map 445. Fre- 
quent in the northern counties in sphagnum in tamarack bogs and on 
mucky borders of lakes. Reported from Putnam County by Coulter but no 
specimen from that county could be found. 

Newf. to Yukon, southw. to N. J., Ind., N. Mex., and Calif.; also in 
Eurasia. 

26. Carex trisperma Dewey. Map 446. Restricted to the tamarack bogs 
of the northernmost counties where it is locally plentiful in sphagnum. No 
specimen could be located to substantiate Coulter's report from Putnam 
County. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Md., 111., and Minn. 

27. Carex canescens L. var. disjuncta Fern. Map 447. Frequent in 
the counties along the northern border of Indiana in tamarack bogs or low 
wet woods. 

Lab. to Wis., southw. to Pa. and Ind. 

27a. Carex canescens var. subloliacea Laest. Map 448. Infrequent 
in the northernmost counties in swampy woods and in sphagnum in tama- 
rack bogs. 

Lab. to B. C, southw. locally to Conn, and Ind. 



230 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




— TO 

Map 450 



Carex interior Bailey 



— 






f 










Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


ID /? 






1 




\ 


\^ 














X 








r 


I 


-4c 


r 


r 1 




Dec.j- 




> ' — 


J Miles 


















Carex 


Hi 


y\j o so 

Map 451 
)wei Mack. 




,arex incomperta 



9. § STELLULATAE 

Perigynium broadest near the middle, strongly nerved both ventrally and dorsally, with 

smooth beak 28. C. seorsa. 

Perigynium broadest at the base, with serrulate beak. 

Perigynia 2.25-3.25 mm long, the beak very shallowly bidentate. 

Perigynia nerveless or few-nerved at the base ventrally, brownish or tawny, the 
beak with ventral false suture inconspicuous; scales obtuse; anthers 1 mm or 

less long; leaf blades 1-3 mm wide 29. C. interior. 

Perigynia strongly nerved ventrally, deep green, the beak with ventral false 
suture conspicuous; scales subacute; anthers 1-1.5 mm long; leaf blades 

0.25-1 mm wide 30. C. Howei. 

Perigynia 2.75-4.75 mm long, the beak deeply bidentate. 

Perigynia deep green at maturity, strongly nerved ventrally, the body suborbicu- 
lar or very broadly ovate with raised margins, the beak less than half the 

length of the body, the teeth short, straight, rigid 31. C. incomperta. 

Perigynia stramineous to brown at maturity, faintly nerved ventrally, the body 

ovate to ovate-lanceolate (occasionally broadly ovate in C. sterilis). 

Staminate flowers terminal, basal, or in separate spikes; margin of perigynium 

slightly if at all raised, setulose-serrulate toward the beak; beak of 

perigynium half the length of the body or more, the teeth broad, largely 

hyaline and soft, generally bent or twisted; scales chestnut brown, with 

lustrous white margins 32. C. sterilis. 

Staminate flowers mostly at the base of the terminal spikes; margin of peri- 
gynium serrulate toward the beak, the teeth short, stiff; scales tinged 
yellowish brown, with narrow hyaline margin. 
Perigynia 2.75-3.3 mm long, the beak about a third the length of the body, 

the teeth triangular; scales somewhat obtuse to acute 33. C. laricina. 

Perigynia 3.5-4 mm long, the beak about half the length of the body, the teeth 
subulate; scales acute to somewhat cuspidate. (See excluded species 
no. 9, p. 273) C. cephalantha. 

28. Carex seorsa E. C. Howe. {Carex rosaeoides E. C. Howe.) Map 
449. Rare in wet woods and tamarack bogs in the dune area. The known 
localities for this sedge in Indiana are : Dune Park, Keiser, and Tamarack 
in Porter County and Pine Station (now north Clark Street, Gary) in 
Lake County. 

Mass. to Ga., locally westw. to Ind. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



231 




56 

Map 453 

Carex sterilis Willd. 




— 50 
Map 454 



Carex laricina Mack. 




o n 

Map 455 



Carex bromoldes Schkuhr 



29. Carex interior Bailey. (Carex scirpoides Schkuhr, not Carex scir- 
poidea Michx.) Map 450. Frequent to common except in southern Indi- 
ana ; in tamarack bogs and swamps and on springy banks. 

Newf. to B. C., southw. to Pa., lnd., Kans., Calif, and Chihuahua. 

30. Carex Howei Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 245. 1910.) 

(Carex interior var. capillacea Bailey and Carex scirpoides var. capillacea 
(Bailey) Fern.) Map 451. Known in Indiana from a single collection by 
M. W. Lyon, Jr.: moist woods on dunes at Mineral Springs, Porter 
County, June 17, 1923. 
N. S. to Fla. and La., westw., locally to Mich, and lnd. 

31. Carex incomperta Bickn. (Carex stellulata var. excelsior Fern.) 
Map 452. Occasional in tamarack bogs, generally in sphagnum. 

Mass. and N. Y., to Mich, and lnd., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

32. Carex sterilis Willd. (Carex scirpoides Schkuhr, in part.) Map 
453. Frequent on marshy banks of streams and occasional in open swamps, 
bogs, and springy places in woods. Not known from the unglaciated area. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. J., Pa., and 111. 

33. Carex laricina Mack. (N. Amer. Flora 18: 113. 1931.) Map 454. 
Rare, in tamarack bogs and on mucky borders of lakes in the northeastern 
counties. 

The type collection of this species is Deam no. 10927 from a tamarack 
bog a mile south of Leesburg, Kosciusko County. The other two Indi- 
ana stations for it are : in a bog a mile south of Garrett, De Kalb County, 
and in sphagnum on the border of a small lake in Jackson Twp., Wells 
County. 

Ont. and nw. Pa. to Wis., and southw. to lnd. 



232 Cyperaceae Carex 

10. § deweyAnae 

34. Carex bromoides Schkuhr. Map 455. Frequent to common except 
in the unglaciated area, in wet woods, swamps, and bogs and on borders 
of ponds and springy banks of streams. 

Que. to Wis., southw. to Fla. and La. 

11. § O VALES 

Wing of perigynium not narrowed near the middle of the body; leaf blades of sterile 
culms erect or ascending, usually clustered toward the top; sterile culms often 
poorly developed. 
Perigynia not obovate, widest near the middle or base. 
Leaf sheaths strongly white-hyaline ventrally. 

Perigynia lanceolate to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 3 to 4 times as long as wide. . 

35. C. scoparia. 

Perigynia ovate-lanceolate or broader, at most twice as long as wide. 
Perigynia narrowly to broadly ovate, 3-4 mm long. 

Leaf blades 1.5-4.5 (averaging 2.5) mm wide; sheaths not mott'ed with 
green and white dorsally. 
Perigynia 3-3.5 mm long; spikes closely aggregated, not clavate at base. . . 

36. C. Bebbii. 

Perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm long; spikes not aggregated, usually in a flexuous, 

monilif orm inflorescence, clavate at base 37. C. tenera. 

Leaf blades 2.5-6 (averaging 4) mm wide; sheaths mottled with green and 
white dorsally; perigynia less abruptly beaked and beak narrower than 

in C. tenera 38. C. normalis. 

Perigynia (2.75) 3.5-6.5 mm long, the body suborbicular. 

Perigynia 3.5-5.5 mm long, thick, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, usually plano- 
convex. 
Perigynia averaging (2.75) 3.5-4 mm long, the beak half the length 
of the body or more; achene 1.5 mm long, oblong-ovoid; spikes in a 

moniliform inflorescence 39. C. festucacea. 

Perigynia 3.75-5.5 mm long, the beak less than half the length of the body; 

achenes 1.75-2 mm long, orbicular or suborbicular when fully mature; 

spikes aggregated or in a moniliform inflorescence. 

Perigynia ovate, submembranaceous, few-nerved ventrally, broadest near 

the base, tapering into the beak, the beak broader than in C. brevior, 

especially toward the base 40. C. molesta. 

Perigynia broadly ovate to suborbicular, coriaceous, usually nerveless 
or nearly so ventrally, broadest near the middle, abruptly contracted 

into the beak 41. C. brevior. 

Perigynia 5.6-6.5 mm long, flat and thin, nearly transparent 

42. C. Bicknellii. 

Leaf sheaths green and strongly nerved ventrally nearly to the mouth. 

Scales cuspidate or even obtuse; perigynia nerveless or nearly so ventrally; 

spikes 2-5, aggregated into a stiff head 43. C. suberecta. 

Scales long-acuminate to aristate; perigynia nerved ventrally; spikes 4-8, in a 

very flexuous inflorescence 44. C. Richii. 

Perigynia obovate, the body widest near the top. 

Scales obtuse to short-acuminate; achenes sessile or substipitate; perigynia 1.5-3 
mm wide. 
Tips of perigynia appressed; perigynia with body rounded at apex; spikes ap- 
proximate or aggregated, greenish to silvery brown. 
Perigynia nerveless ventrally; spikes 5-25, densely aggregated; leaf blades 
of sterile culms 3.5-5 mm wide 45. C. cumulata. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



233 





6 33 

Map 457 



Carex Bebbii Olne 



y 















Jan 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


r 














j ■ 




\ 


V 


D 


D 

11 " 


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-I ■ 




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a 






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Dec. C 




— 

X )— 1/ 


/ Miles 















a 


J \ J*\ 7 
Carex tenera Dew 


56 

Map 458 

ey 



Perigynia nerved ventrally; spikes 3-10, aggregated or somewhat separate; 
leaf blades of sterile culms 2.5-3 mm wide; scales either nearly equaling 

perigynia or blunt 46. C. Longii. 

Tips of perigynia spreading; perigynia with body truncate-rounded at apex, 
very abruptly beaked; spikes not aggregated, not silvery; scales acute, con- 
spicuously shorter than the perigynia 47. C. albolutescens. 

Scales long-acuminate to aristate; achenes slenderly stipitate; perigynia 2.5-4 mm 

wide 48. C. alata. 

Wing of perigynium rather abruptly narrowed near the middle of the body; leaf blades 

of sterile culms widely spreading, numerous, not clustered at the apex; sterile 

culms strongly developed. 

Perigynia 3-7 mm long; spikes 4-15 mm long; achenes oblong-oval, 1.5 mm long; 

ligule much longer than wide. 

Tips of perigynia appressed or ascending; perigynia thin, scarcely distended over 

the achenes 49. C. tribuloides. 

Tips of perigynia recurved or widely spreading; perigynia firm, obviously dis- 
tended over the achenes 50. C. cristatella. 

Perigynia 7-10 mm long; spikes 16-25 mm long; achenes linear-oblong, 2.5 mm long; 
ligule as wide as long 51. C. muskingumensis. 

35. Carex scoparia Schkuhr. (Including - Carex scoparia var. condensa 
Fern.) Map 456. Common in marshes and open swampy places ; occasional 
in low open woods and on sandy lake borders. This sedge is frequently 
the dominant plant in marshes or "sedge meadows" where it is usually 
associated with Juncus effusas var. solutus, Juncus Dudleyi, and Carex 
vulpinoidea. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to S. C, N. Mex., and Oreg. 

36. Carex Bebbii Olney. Map 457. Infrequent in marshes and inter- 
dunal swales in Lake County. In Noble County a single collection was 
made by Deam in a ditch along a railroad a mile east of Kimmel. 

Plants of Carex Bebbii lacking sterile culms are occasionally difficult to 
distinguish from C. cristatella especially before the perigynia are fully 
mature. Leaf blades of C. Bebbii, however, vary from 2 to 4.5 mm 
broad, those of C. cristatella from 3 to 7 mm broad. In C. Bebbii the pistil- 



234 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




Map 459 
Carex normalis Mack. 











— 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov 


f 












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!/ Miles 




Carex 


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fest 


Jr\ J 

jcacea Sc 


o So 
Map 460 

ikuhr 













— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov 


71 

H 

sol 

f 




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rJ ° 






Carex mole 


<"\ J o S3 
Map 461 

sta Mack. 



late scales are relatively longer, acuminate to acute or occasionally blunt; 
in C. cristatelki the scales are shorter, with dilated hyaline blunt tips. 
Umbach no. 3651 and Bebb nos. 541 and 874, all from Lake County, are 
intermediate between C. Bebbii and C. cristatella in most of their char- 
acters. Similar material from Michigan has been identified by Mackenzie 
as a hybrid between the two species. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. J., 111., Colo., and Wash. 

37. Carex tenera Dewey. (Carex straminea of recent authors, not 
Willd. ; Carex tenera var. echinodes (Fern.) Wieg.) Map 458. Frequent 
in or near the lake area and in the southern counties in dry or moist, 
usually open, woods, on borders of ponds in woods, and along railroad 
ditches. Generally the heads are fewer-flowered in this sedge than in other 
species of § Ovales and this condition and the widely spreading perigynia 
sometimes result in a superficial resemblance to species of § Stellulatae. 

Que. to Alberta, southw. to D. C, N. C, and 111. 

38. Carex normalis Mack. (Carex mirabilis Dewey, not Host.) Map 
459. Very common in dry or moist woods and thickets. In the eastern 
part of its range this species seems to be partial to dry open habitats, but 
in Indiana it has been most often collected in low or flat woods, shaded 
ravines, marshy habitats on the borders of ponds, and on the flood plains 
of streams. 

Maine to Man., southw. to N. C. and Okla. 

39. Carex festucacea Schkuhr. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 608. 1915.) 
Map 460. Frequent in southern Indiana in low flat woods, especially pin 
oak woods, and on moist wooded slopes; occasional in roadside and rail- 
road ditches in the northern counties. 

Mass. to Ind. and Iowa, southw. to Ga. and La. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



235 





50 

Map 463 



Carex Bicknellii Britton 











— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 




1~T 


■ 


:J 




« 


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— — 


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Carex 


su 


Jerecti 


Map 464 
(Ulney) Britton 



40. Carex molesta Mack. (N. Amer. Flora 18: 151. 1931.) Map 461. 
Infrequent to rare along railroad sidings and roadsides and in ditches and 
dry woodlands. 

N. Y. to Kans. and Nebr. 

41. Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. (Carex festucacea var. brevior 
(Dewey) Fern.) Map 462. Common in dry open woods and moist ditches 
and along railroads and roadsides, especially in the prairie area. 

Que. to B. C, southw. to D. C, Tenn., Tex., N. Mex., and Oreg. 

42. Carex Bicknellii Britt. Map 463. Frequent to common along rail- 
road sidings and grassy roadsides in northern Indiana; rare in the south- 
ern counties and not known from the unglaciated area. Occasional in low, 
moist sandy habitats ; very rare in open woods. 

Maine to Sask., southw. to Del., Ark., and Okla. 

43. Carex suberecta (Olney) Britt. Map 464. Frequent to common, 
except in the southern counties, in open swamps, marshes, and moist 
ditches and on wet sandy borders of lakes. Not known from the un- 
glaciated area. 

Ont. to Va., Minn., and Mo. 

44. Carex Richii (Fern.) Mack. (Carex hormathodes var. Richii Fern. 
and Carex straminea of Svenson, Rhodora 40: 329-330. 1938.) Map 465. 
Rare and local in open swampy woods and borders of ponds in woods, less 
frequently in open non-calcareous marshes or swamps. The known sta- 
tions are all in either the lake area or the unglaciated area. 

Mass. to N. J. and D. C, westw. to Mich, and Ind. 

45. Carex cumulata (Bailey) Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 49: 366. 
1922.) (Carex albolutescens var. cumulata Bailey.) Map 466. Known in 
Indiana only from Newton County where in 1936 a colony was found by 
Miss Madge McKee along a roadside ditch 3 miles northwest of Morocco. 
It is a local species throughout most of its range. 

N. S. to N. J., westw. to Sask. 



236 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




50 

Map 465 



Carex Richii (Fern.) Mack 




o 50 

Map 466 



Carex cumulata (Bailey) Mack. 




50 

Map 467 



Carex Longii Mack. 



46. Carex Longii Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 49: 372. 1922.) (Carex 
albolutescens of recent authors, not Schwein.) Map 467. Infrequent in 
the northwestern counties where it is found in acid swamps and sloughs, 
less often in sandy interdunal swales. 

Mass. to Venezuela; nw. Ind. and sw. Mich.; also in Bermuda. 

47. Carex albolutescens Schwein. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 49: 372. 
1922.) (Carex straminea of Mack., probably not of Willd., Rhodora 40: 
329-330. 1938.) Map 468. Frequent in southern Indiana in low flat 
woods, associated principally with sweet gum and pin oak. It also is found 
rarely along the northern border of the state where it occurs in low woods, 
associated with beech and sugar maple, and occasionally in swamps. 

N. S. southw. along the coast to Fla., westw. along the Gulf to Tex. and 
northw. in the Mississippi Valley to Ind. and sw. Mich. 

48. Carex alata Torr. Map 469. Infrequent in swamps and sandy 
swales in the lake area. It is seldom plentiful in any locality; frequently 
only one or two plants can be found at a station. 

Mass. to Fla. and Tex., westw. to Mich., Ind., and Mo. 

49. Carex tribuloides Wahl. (Including Carex tribuloides var. sang- 
amonensis Clokey.) Map 470. Very common throughout the state in 
swamps, open marshes, low woods, and ditches and on the low borders of 
streams and ponds. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and La. 

50. Carex cristatella Britt. (Carex cristata Schwein., not Clairv.) 
Map 471. Common in low open woods, swamps, marshes, and roadside 
ditches and on flood plains and banks of streams. Rare in the unglaciated 
area. 

Mass. to N. Dak., southw. to Va. and Mo. 

51. Carex muskingumensis Schwein. Map 472. Frequent in low wet 
places in woods where it often forms extensive and pure stands if not 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



2H7 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


171 




1 D 








-•- 










~\ 






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V 










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l, // Miles 




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ex 


al 


bol 


j5\ H 

utescen 


J 50 

Map 468 
s Schwein. 




50 

Map 471 



Carex cristatella Britt, 















Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec.f- 


DP 

T 

171 


F 

L 

A. 


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c 


arex 


■J Map 469 
alata Torr. 




50 

Map 472 



Carex muskingumensis Schwein. 




o 50 

Map 470 



Carex tribuloides Wahl. 




~tt 

Map 473 



Carex leptalea Wahl. 



obstructed by undergrowth. Occasional in buttonbush swamps and wet 
woods and on flood plains. Northward it is usually found with bur oak. 
Ohio and Ky. to Man., Kans., and Ark. 

12. § POLYTRICHOIDEAE 

Perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm long, slightly overlapping; achenes lustrous, obtusely angled. . . . 

52. C. leptalea. 

Perigynia 4-5 mm long, strongly overlapping; achenes barely lustrous, sharply angled. . 

52a. C. leptalea var. Harperi. 

52. Carex leptalea Wahl. Map 473. Common in northern Indiana in 
tamarack bogs and occasional in wet woods. Infrequent in central Indiana, 
in swamps and on banks of streams. It is generally plentiful wherever 
found and in tamarack bogs it is usually associated with Carex trisperma. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Pa., Mo., Colo., and Calif. 

52a. Carex leptalea var. Harperi (Fern.) Stone. (Carex Harperi 
Fern.) Map 474. Rare in central and southern Indiana. In Indiana its 



238 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




50 

Map 4 74 
larex leptalea 
Var, Harperi (Fern.) Stone 













- 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 




1 — 


\y 


1 — ~ 


( ^ 




( 






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Carex 


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Will denowii S 


50 

Map 475 

chkuhr 




50 

Map 476 



Carex Jamesii Schwein. 



habitat is almost invariably at the springy bases of high wooded river 
bluffs and terraces. 

N. J. to Fla., westw. to Ind. and Tex. 

13. § PHYLLOSTACHYAE 

Bodies of perigynia oblong-oval; lowest scale 5-15 mm long; pistillate flowers 3-10; 
staminate scales 2-2.4 mm long, obtuse or somewhat acute; staminate spike 0.7-0.9 
mm in diameter 53. C. Willdenowii. 

Bodies of perigynia subglobose; lowest scale 15-45 mm long; pistillate flowers 2-3; 
staminate scales 1.5-1.8 mm long, truncate, erose, with a dark transverse band 
near the apex; staminate spike 0.4-0.5 mm in diameter 54. C. Jamesii. 

53. Carex Willdenowii Schkuhr. Map 475. Common in southern Indiana 
(mostly in the unglaciated area and the "flats") on dry wooded, especially 
oak, slopes, generally in poor, sandy, acid soils ; rarely in low beech or pin 
oak woods. 

Vt. to Ont. and Ind., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

54. Carex Jamesii Schwein. Map 476. Very common throughout In- 
diana except in the northwestern counties from which we have no records. 
It is a plant of rich woods, occurring in dry neutral soil, especially on the 
slopes of deep ravines. It is most frequently associated with either Carex 
Hitchcoekiana or C. oligocarpa or both. 

Ont. and N. Y. to Iowa, southw. to W. Va., Mo., and Kans. 

14. § MONTANAE 

Fertile culms all alike, elongated (7-40 cm long), bearing both staminate and pistillate 
spikes, basal spikes absent. 
Body of perigynium elliptic to oblong-ovoid, much longer than wide; staminate spike 
slender. 
Perigynia conspicuous in the spikes, not concealed by the scales, 2.5-3 mm long. 
Staminate scales obtuse or short-acute, closely appressed, not cucullate at the 
tip, the midvein usually not extending to the tip; pistillate spikes usually 

not aggregated; culms erect 55. C. artitecta. 

Staminate scales ascending to loosely spreading, the midvein extending to the tip. 
Beaks of perigynia 1.75-2 mm long; staminate spike peduncled, conspicuous, 



;arex 



Cyperaceae 



239 




50 

Map 477 



Carex artitecta Mack. 




50 

Map 478 
Carex artitecta 
subtilirostris Hermann 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec f 


D ["^ 

t 

H 

sd ^ 

JD 

B 

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-~r 


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Carei 


E 


v> Map 479 

nmonsii Dewey 



10-16 mm long, 1.6-2.3 mm wide; pistillate spikes not at all aggregated; 

culms erect 55a. C. artitecta var. subtilirostris. 

Beaks of perigynia 0.5-1 mm long; staminate spike sessile, usually incon- 
spicuous, 2-8 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; at least the upper pistillate spikes 

closely aggregated or congested; culms weak, more or less arcuate 

56. C. Emmonsii. 

Perigynia inconspicuous in the spikes, largely concealed by the scales, 3-4 mm 

long 57. C. nigromarginata. 

Body of perigynium suborbicular to somewhat obovoid, about as long as wide. 
Ligule conspicuous, longer than wide; lowest bract truncate or bifid, abruptly 
awned; leaf blades 2.5-4.5 mm wide; culms generally aphyllopodic, little 

fibrillose at the base, without long, horizontal stolons 58. C. communis. 

Ligule short, much wider than long; lowest bract usually gradually acuminate; 
leaf blades 2.5 (very rarely 3) mm wide or less; culms generally phyllopodic, 
conspicuously fibrillose at the base, with long horizontal stolons; staminate 
spike stout. 

Mature perigynia 1.75-2 mm wide, the body suborbicular in cross section 

59. C. heliophila. 

Mature perigynia about 1.5 mm wide, the body obtusely trigonous in cross 

section 60. C. pennsylvanica. 

Fertile culms of two types, some short (1-5 cm long), partly hidden among the densely 

tufted bases and bearing only pistillate spikes, others elongated (5-11 cm long) 

and bearing staminate spikes only or both staminate and pistillate spikes. 

Leaf blades rather thin, not stiff, erect or ascending, 1.5-3 mm wide; perigynia 

membranaceous, 2.25-4 mm long, the body short-pubescent above. 

Perigynia 2.25-3.25 mm long, 1-1.25 mm wide, the beak about half the length of 

the body; achenes orbicular-obovoid 61. C. umbellata. 

Perigynia 3.25-4 mm long, the beak nearly the length of the body; achenes oblong- 

obovoid, minutely roughened 62. C. rugosperma. 

Leaf blades thick, rigid, widely spreading at maturity, 2-4.5 mm wide; perigynia 
subcoriaceous, 3.5-4.5 mm long, the body glabrous or very sparsely pubescent 
above 63. C. tonsa. 

55. Carex artitecta Mack. (Carex varia Muhl., not Lumnitzer nor 
Host.) Map 477. Common in dry open woods, especially on rocky white 
oak slopes ; occasional in thickets or low woods. 

Vt. to Iowa, southw. to S. C. and Okla. 



240 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 



tu 


" 




~\_ 


r 


v- -}- 


< 


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\* 


wA 


<— \ ^ 


i /i — 

1 — L-^? 







Miles 



50 

Map 480 
Carex nigromarcjinata Schwein. 














— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


D 

\ 
















. 


\ 


fr 1 " 






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C 


arex 


he 


10 


• \ / 

)hila V 


3 50 

Map 482 
ack. 



55a. Carex artitecta var. subtilirostris Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 79. 
1938.) Map 478. Known in Indiana only from the type collection: 
Deam no. 54764, wooded slope along a small creek about 3 miles northwest 
of Clinton, Vermillion County, May 5, 1934. 

Ind. and Tenn. 

56. Carex Emmonsii Dewey. (Carex albicans of authors, doubtfully of 
Willd., Rhodora 40: 330-331. 1938.) Map 479. A coastal plain species 
found sparingly in the northern counties of the lake area. It grows in 
sandy open woods and on moist sandy borders of marshes or thickets in 
the dunes, but its preferred habitat is dry black oak ridges. 

Indiana plants tend to have the culms longer and less arcuate and the 
pistillate spikes fewer and less congested than in the characteristic plant 
of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 

N. S. to Fla. mostly along the coast, and about the Great Lakes. 

57. Carex nigromarginata Schwein. Map 480. A southern and eastern 
species known in Indiana from a single collection : Deam no. 44074A, top 
of the wooded bluff of the Ohio River, about a quarter of a mile north of 
Fredonia, Crawford County, April 24, 1927. 

Conn, to Tenn., Fla., and La., mostly along the coast, and northw. in the 
Mississippi Valley to Mo. and s. Ind. 

58. Carex communis Bailey. Map 481. Common in dry woods of all 
types, particularly on rocky slopes. It is one of the earliest sedges to 
flower and fruit. 

Deam no. 33881 (Gray Herbarium) is abnormal in having the leaf 
sheaths prolonged laterally and ventrally, forming auricles reaching almost 
to the summit of the ligule. Typically the leaf sheaths are deeply concave 
at the mouth. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Ky., and Ark. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



241 




50 

Map 483 



Carex penn sy Ivanica Lan 




50 

Map 484 



Carex umbellata Schkuhr 




50 

Map 485 



Carex rugosperma Mack. 



59. Carex heliophila Mack. (Torreya 13: 15. 1913.) (Carex penusyl- 
vanica var. digyna Bock.) Map 482. A prairie species represented from 
Indiana by two collections by Deam: in a sandy black oak woods 2 miles 
southwest of Tefft, Jasper County, June 6, 1924, and on top of the high 
gravelly bank of Big Wea Creek terrace 4 miles southwest of Lafayette, 
Tippecanoe County, June 3, 1924, and May 24, 1932. At the latter station 
it was plentiful in an open black oak-shagbark hickory grove with such 
other prairie or western species as Androsace occidentalis, Petalo sternum 
purpureum, Arenaria patula, Opuntia Rafinesquii, and, nearby, Muhlen- 
bergia cuspidata, Sporobolus clandestinus, and Erysimum asperum. Other 
associated plants were Festuca octo flora, Poa pratensis, Penstemon hirsu- 
tus, Houstonia longi folia, and Acerates viridiflora. 

Man. to Alberta, southw. to Ind., Mo., and N. Mex. 

60. Carex pennsylvanica Lam. Map 483. Common in northern Indiana, 
less frequent southward, and rare or absent from the southernmost coun- 
ties. Like Carex communis it is a species flowering in early spring, found 
in similar localities but preferring somewhat more open habitats and gen- 
erally in more sterile soils. It usually forms rather extensive colonies, 
sometimes comprising the dominant floor cover in open oak woods. 

N. S. to N. Dak., southw. to S. C, Tenn., and Iowa. 

61. Carex umbellata Schkuhr. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 621. 1915.) 
(Carex abdita Bickn. and Carex umbellata var. brevirostris Boott.) Map 
484. Infrequent in northern Indiana in dry sandy soil, usually in open 
woods ; frequent in southeastern Indiana on crests of rocky wooded ridges 
and river bluffs. This and the two following species may be more common 
than the records indicate because they are low, inconspicuous plants, easily 
overlooked by collectors. 

In this species the longest peduncles are typically not over 8 cm in 
length and generally bear a staminate spike only. But on the dunes the 
prevalent form has elongated peduncles 12-20 cm in length which usually 
bear one or more pistillate spikes in addition to the staminate. This 



242 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




Map 486 



Carex tonsa (Fern.) Bi'ck 



n. 




o To 

Map 487 



Carex Richardsonii R. Br. 




Map 488 
Carex picta Steud. 



form is analogous to the plant which has been called Carex umbellata f. 
vicina (Dewey) Wieg. but the type specimen upon which that form is based 
is the long-beaked plant (C. rugosperma Mack.) so that the name cannot 
be applied to the Indiana plant. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to D. C. and 111. 

62. Carex rugosperma Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 621. 1915.) 

(Carex umbellata of many recent authors, not Schkuhr.) Map 485. Infre- 
quent in the northern tier of counties. It is found in dry, sandy oak 
woods, open drained low woods, and on borders of drained marshes. 
N. S. to Minn., southw. to Md. and Ind. 

63. Carex tonsa (Fern.) Bickn. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 492. 1908.) 
(Carex umbellata var. tonsa Fern.) Map 486. Frequent in the dune area 
on low, open dunes and in dry, open woods. 

Que. to Alberta, southw. to D. C. and Ind. 



15. § DIGITATAE 

Basal spikes present; terminal spikes androgynous; pistillate scales abruptly cuspidate 
or short-awned. (See excluded species no. 15, p. 274.) C. pedimculata. 

Basal spikes absent; terminal spike staminate; pistillate scales blunt to acute 

64. C. Richardsonii. 

64. Carex Richardsonii R. Br. Map 487. Known in Indiana only from 
the dunes at Pine, Lake county. Pine is now within Gary on the east 
side of Clark Street, an eighth of a mile south of Lake Michigan. Here 
on a sandy knoll at the edge of a marsh, Carex Richardsonii is associated 
with Andropogon scoparius, Castilleja coccinea, Erigeron pulchellus, 
Senecio pauperculus var. Balsamitae, Lithospermum canescens, Potentilla 
fruticosa, Carex umbellata and C. aurea, Liatris spicata, Betula papyrifera, 
Pedicularis canadensis, Krigia bi flora, Rhus trilobata var. arenaria, R. 
radicans, R. Vernix, Arabis lyrata, Hypoxis hi7*suta, and Koeleria cristata. 

This is one of the rarest sedges in the eastern states where it is very 
local in its distribution (although its known range seems to indicate that 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



243 



— 


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Carex eburnea Boott 




Carex Garberi Fern. 



it occurs generally at or near the Niagara Escarpment) and its season is 
very brief. After flowering it matures its fruit rapidly and then com- 
pletely withers away. At Pine it is in its prime about May 30. Of the 
six known collections made from this station four were made on May 29 
(1897; 1900; 1904, and 1935), one on May 12 (1877) and one on June 13 
(1935), but at the last date the majority of the perigynia had fallen and 
the plants were already badly withered. 

Western N. Y. and Ont. to Alberta, southw. to 111. and S. Dak. 



16. § PICTAE 

65. Carex picta Steud. Map 488. In Indiana in the unglaciated region 
only where it is local and largely confined to the northern half of the knob 
area (Chestnut Oak Upland). It is found on wooded hilltops under oak, 
chestnut, and beech, generally forming rather extensive colonies. Deam 
has noted that it "has the habit of growing in circular tufts with a hollow 
center" and from this characteristic the species may be readily recognized 
long after its flowering and fruiting season is past. It is the earliest 
sedge to bloom in the state, coming into flower in early April or even in 
late March. 

Ind., Ala., and La. 



17. 



TRIQUETRAE 

66. Carex hirtifolia Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 244. 1910.) 
(Carex pubescens Muhl., not Poir.) Map 489. Very common through- 
out the state in woodland habitats of all types, showing a slight preference 
for beech woods. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to D. C, Ky., and Kans. 



18. § ALBAE 

67. Carex eburnea Boott. Map 490. Apparently restricted to the north- 
western and southeastern corners of the state. In the north it is known 



244 Cyperaceae Carex 

only on the dunes in dry sandy thickets and in open situations. In southern 
Indiana it is found in wet crevices of limestone bluffs near the Ohio River. 

Carex eburnea retains its fruit over a longer period than any of our 
other species due to the tendency of the perigynia to persist in the spikes 
long after maturity. Although the fruit ripens from May to July most 
of the plants have dropped relatively few of their perigynia, as a rule, 
by October and frequently the old prostrate culms from the preceding 
year will be found to have spikes in which many perigynia are still firmly 
attached. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va., Mo., and Nebr. 

19. § BICOLORES 

Pistillate scales averaging three fourths the length of the perigynia or more, reddish 
brown, appressed; terminal spike androgynous, rarely staminate; mature per- 
igynia white-pulverulent, elliptic-obovoid, not translucent or fleshy. .68. C. Garberi. 

Pistillate scales averaging half the length of the perigynia or less, generally pale 
yellowish brown and cuspidate, widely spreading at maturity; terminal spike 
staminate, rarely with a few perigynia at the base; mature perigynia golden 
yellow or brownish, orbicular-obovoid, translucent, fleshy 69. C. aarea. 

68. Carex Garberi Fern. (Rhodora 37: 253. 1935.) (Carex bicolor of 
recent American authors, not All. and Carex Hassei of recent authors, not 
Bailey.) Map 491. Infrequent in the lake area (mostly in the dune 
region) where it grows along the wet sanely edges of swales in the 
dunes and on old lake beds, chiefly in calcareous soils. It is frequently 
associated with Carex Crawei, C. tetanica, C. Meadii, C. viridula, and 
C. Haleana. Apparently it was formerly more plentiful than at pres- 
ent as collections from the Indiana dunes forty and fifty years ago 
are much more numerous in herbaria than recent collections. At Pine, 
where this species is closely associated with Carex tetanica, plants of 
the latter species showing many characteristics of C. Garberi and plants 
of C. Garberi having characteristics of C. tetanica are frequent. The gen- 
eral aspect of such plants and the conditions under which they are found 
are strongly suggestive of hybridization. 

Que. to Mich., Ind., and Wis.; also in Alberta and B. C. 

69. Carex aurea Nutt. Map 492. Frequent on the dunes in Lake 
County. Its habitat is often that of Carex Garberi, on moist sandy edges 
of swales and similar situations, but it is also frequently found in richer, 
mucky soils such as on the border of sloughs and of low wet woods. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Conn., Ind., Nebr., N. Mex., and Calif. 

20. § PANfCEAE 

Culms phyllopodic; stolons deep-seated, slender, whitish; plants of open marly or 
sandy habitats. 
Pistillate spikes linear to linear-oblong, 3.5-4.5 mm wide; perigynia appressed or 
ascending, 2.5-3.5 mm long, slightly excurved and tapering to the apex, very 

minutely beaked or beakless; leaf blades 2-4 mm wide; culms slender 

70. C. tetanica. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



245 




^0 

Map 492 
Carex aurea Nutt. 




50 

Map 493 



Carex tetanica Schkuhr 





Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. (- 


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ey 



Pistillate spikes oblong or linear-oblong, 5-8 mm wide; perigynia spreading at 

maturity, 3-5 mm long, abruptly narrowed at the apex into a minute, more or 

less strongly bent beak; leaf blades 2.7-7 mm wide; culms stout. . . .71. C. Meadii. 

Culms strongly aphyllopodic; stolons superficial; plants of rich humus in shady woods. 

72. C. Woodii. 

70. Carex tetanica Schkuhr. Map 493. Infrequent in northern Indiana 
in marly or sandy soils, bordering marshes and lakes ; becoming frequent 
to locally common on the dunes where it occurs especially on low sandy 
interdunal flats ; rare in southern Indiana, in open post oak flats. 

Mass. to Alberta, southw. to Pa. and Iowa. 

71. Carex Meadii Dewey. {Carex tetanica var. Meadii (Dewey) Bailey.) 
Map 494. Infrequent in the lake area and in southeastern Indiana; fre- 
quent in the dune area. Its habitat is much that of C. tetanica except that 
C. Meadii also occurs in drier soils and in even more open situations. 
Carex Meadii as a rule is readily distinct from C. tetanica except at Pine 
in Lake County where the two species are closely associated and inter- 
mediate forms are frequent. The same is true of C. tetanica and C. Garberi, 
at this station, and, as noted under the latter species, such transitional 
forms may be due to hybridization. 

N. J. to Sask., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

72. Carex Woodii Dewey. (Carex tetanica var. Woodii (Dewey) Wood; 
Carex colorata Mack.) Map 495. Rare in the northern counties. So far 
this species is known in Indiana from three collections only, all by Deam : 
in a moist red and white oak woods 4 miles northwest of Valparaiso, 
Porter County, June 2, 1927, in a rich beech-maple woods 1 mile south- 
east of North Liberty, St. Joseph County, May 23, 1934, and June 13, 
1935 and at the base of a sugar maple slope in Steuben County. At 
the latter locality it was associated with Impatiens biflora, Solidago caesia, 
Viola canadensis, Smilacina racemosa, Polygonum virginianum, Isopyrum 
biternatum, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. 

N. Y. to Man., southw. to D. C. and Mo. 



246 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 



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Carex Woodii Dewey 




o ~T5 
Map 496 



Carex plantaginea Lam. 











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vT ^ Map 497 

areyana Torr. 



21. § LAXIFLORAE 

Bract-sheaths, base of culms, and staminate scales strongly red-tinged.* 

Leaf blades of fertile culms rudimentary, the sheaths concave at the mouth; bracts 

bladeless; perigynia 4-5 mm long 73. C. plantaginea. 

Leaf blades of fertile culms well-developed, the sheaths prolonged upward at the 

mouth; bracts with blades well-developed; perigynia 5.3-6 mm. long 

74. C. Careyana. 

Bract-sheaths not red-tinged, base of culms rarely so; staminate scales tinged greenish 
white to dull reddish brown. 
Perigynia sharply triangular, short-tapering at the base, closely 35-50-nerved. 

Spikes erect, nearly sessile; leaf blades very smooth except for the margins, the 
larger 12-25 mm wide, those of the fertile culms much smaller than those of 

the sterile 75. C. platyphylla. 

Spikes drooping on fiiliform peduncles; leaf blades hispidulous on the veins, 2-12 
mm wide, those of the fertile culms moderately smaller than those of the 
sterile. 
Staminate spike sessile or subsessile, inconspicuous; pistillate spikes approxi- 
mate; lowest bract subspathaceous, exceeding the inflorescence 

76. C. abscondita. 

Staminate spike peduncled, conspicuous; pistillate spikes scattered; lowest bract 
not at all spathaceous, not exceeding the inflorescence. 
Pistillate spikes without a staminate flower at the base; leaf blades 2-5 mm 

wide, erect, green 77. C. digitalis. 

Pistillate spikes with 1-2 staminate flowers at the base; leaf blades 5-12 mm 
wide, weak, glaucous green. 
Angles of the culms blunt, minutely serrulate only below the bracts; edges 
of the bract-sheaths entire; perigynia tapering at the apex, short- 
beaked 78. C. laxiculmis. 

Angles of the culms sharp, minutely serrulate; edges of the bract-sheaths 
minutely serrulate; perigynia rounded or round-tapering at the apex, 
blunt or abruptly very short-beaked. . . .78a. C. laxiculmis var. cojndata. 
Perigynia obtusely triangular (at least below), long-tapering at the base. 

Bract-sheaths smooth on the edges or shallowly serrulate; beak of perigynium 
straight or slightly oblique. 



* This color is often called "purple" in Carex descriptions. It is a close match with 
Ridgway's "Bordeaux" which is 90% red and 10% violet. 



a rex 



Cyperaceae 247 



Sterile shoots developing conspicuous culms; leaves not semi-evergreen; peri- 
gynia rather sharply angled above; pistillate spikes few-flowered, the lower 

on long capillary peduncles 79. C. styloflexa. 

Sterile shoots reduced to tufts of leaves; leaves semi-evergreen; perigynia 

obtusely triangular 80. C. laxiflora. 

Bract-sheaths strongly serrulate on the edges. 

Sterile shoots reduced to tufts of leaves, not forming culms. 

Pistillate scales acuminate to strongly cuspidate, more than half the length of 
the perigynia; beak of perigynium conspicuous, straight or oblique; leaves 

semi-evergreen; staminate spike peduncled, conspicuous 

80a. C. laxiflora var. semdata. 

Pistillate scales broadly obovate-orbicular, half the length of the perigynia or 
less, strongly divergent at the base; beak of perigynium short, abruptly 
bent; leaves not semi-evergreen, the blades 7-30 mm wide; staminate 

spike sessile, very slender, inconspicuous 81. C. albursina. 

Sterile shoots developing conspicuous culms; leaf blades 3-12 mm wide, not 
semi-evergreen; pistillate scales mucronate to long-awned; beak of peri- 
gynium short, abruptly bent. 
Culms not reddish-tinged at the base; lower pistillate spikes not on long 
capillary peduncles; staminate scales usually greenish white or slightly 
tinged with reddish brown; staminate spike typically sessile or very 

short-peduncled; perigynia obovoid, 3-4 mm long 82. C. blanda. 

Culms reddish-tinged at the base; lower pistillate spikes on long capillary 
peduncles; staminate scales strongly tinged with reddish brown; staminate 

spike long-peduncled; perigynia broadly obovoid, 2.5-3.2 mm long 

83. C. gracilescens. 

73. Carex plantaginea Lam. Map 496. Rather infrequent in the north- 
ern counties in rich woods. South of the lake area it is local and found 
mostly in humus on the wooded sandstone slopes of deep ravines, usually 
in dense shade and associated with Hydrophyllum appendiculatum. No 
specimen was found to confirm the report in Coulter's Catalogue from 
Tippecanoe County. 

Que. to Sask., southw. to N. C. and Ky. 

74. Carex Careyana Torr. Map 497. Frequent but local in moist rich 
woods, particularly in ravines. 

N. Y. to Mich., southw. to Va. and Mo. 

75. Carex platyphylla Carey. Map 498. All the Indiana collections of 
this species are from the knob area (Chestnut Oak Upland) with the 
exception of a single collection from Vigo County and one from Putnam 
County. It is found in calcareous soils on dry open woodland slopes. No 
specimen could be found to confirm Bradner's report from Steuben County, 
but the occurrence of the species in the northern counties is not improbable 
since it is known from southern Michigan. 

Que. to Mich., southw. to N. C. and 111. 

76. Carex abscondita Mack. (Carex ptychocarpa Steud.) Map 499. 
A southern and Coastal Plain species found in Indiana in the southern 
counties only. It is rare in dry beech woods and very rare in black-white 
oak woods. 

Mass. to Ind.. southw. to Fla. and La. 



•J IS 



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la Carey 



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Map 499 

Mack. 




77. Carex digitalis Willd. (Including Carex digitalis var. macropoda 
Fern. Rhodora 40: 400-401. 1938.) Map 500. Common in southern 
Indiana; locally frequent in the northern counties. A woodland species 
preferring dry beech woods but frequent also in dry or moist black or white 
oak woods. 

The length of the peduncle of the staminate spike in this species, as in 
Carex laxicvlmis, is extremely variable. An extreme form in which the 
staminate spike is born on a peduncle overtopping the uppermost pistillate 
spike and bract has been described by Professor Fernald as var. macropoda, 
and under this variety he cites Deam no. 27837 from Crawford County 
and no. 27119 from Perry County. In the Deam Herbarium, Deam no. 
44066 from Perry County apparently represents this extreme of the species 
but is too immature to be placed here with certainty. Among the numerous 
intermediate collections Deam no. 20378 from Harrison County and no. 
20592 from Washington County most nearly approximate var. macropoda. 

78. Carex laxiciiimis Schwein. Map 501. Fairly common in woods and 
thickets. Plants intermediate between the species and the following 
variety are not infrequent ; such are Deam nos. 844 ; 24750 ; 35708 ; 35924 ; 
:;<;p»7; 10669; and 51825. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to N. C. and Mo. 

78a. Carex laxiculmis var. copulata (Bailey) Fern. {Carex copulata 
(Bailey) Mack.) Map 502. Frequent in eastern Indiana in dry woods, 
principally white oak and beech; rare in the western counties. The variety 
is said to be a calciphile while the species prefers neutral or only slightly 
calcareous soils. 

N. J. to Mich, and Mo. 

79. Carex stylollexa Buckley. (Carex la xi flora var. styloflexa (Buck- 
ley) Boott.) Map 503. An eastern and southern species chiefly of the 
Coastal Plain known in Indiana from a collection by Mrs. C. C. Deam: 
in moist woods near Adams. Decatur County. May 13, 1911, no. 8149. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



249 




Map 501 




o S3 

Map 502 



^arex laxiculmis 
var. copu lata (Bailey) Fern. 




Map 503 
Carex styloflexa Buckley 



Conn, to Fla. and Tex., mostly along the coast, northw. in the Mississippi 
Valley to s. Ind. 

80. Carex laxiflora Lam. (Carex heterosperma Wahl., Carex anceps 
Muhl. and Carex laxiflora var. patulifolia (Dewey) Carey.) (Including 
Carex striatula Michx., Carex laxiflora var. striatula (Michx.) Carey, and 
"Carex laxiflora" Mack., not Lam., in Small, Manual of the Southeastern 
Flora.) Map 504. Common in dry woods, especially beech-sugar maple, 
throughout the state. 

The form commonly referred to Carex striatula Michx. may deserve 
varietal recognition, at least in the southern part of its range and on the 
Coastal Plain where it attains the extreme of its differentiation, but in 
Indiana intermediates so far outnumber the extremes that all attempts 
to separate it even varietally have been unsuccessful. 

N. S. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

80a. Carex laxiflora var. serrulata Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 80. 1938.) 
Map 505. Known from four counties all in the eastern half of the 
state. Its habitat is that of the species. The type collection (Deam no. 
6458) came from a wooded ravine two miles northwest of Henry ville, 
Clark County, May 25, 1910. 

Pa. and Ind. 

81. Carex albursina Sheldon. (Carex laxiflora var. latifolia Boott.) 
Map 506. Common on wooded slopes, chiefly in limestone areas; rare in 
low, moist or alluvial woods. 

Deam's collection of May 7, 1905, from Blackford County is exceptional 
in having the leaves semi-evergreen and rather rigid. 
Que. to Minn., southw. to Va. and Ark. 

82. Carex blanda Dewey. (Carex laxiflora var. varians of authors, not 
Bailey.) Map 507. Very common throughout the state, doubtless occurring 
in every county. In woods of all types it is the commonest species of this 
section of the genus. The other Indiana species of the C. laxiflora group 



250 



(VPERACEAE 



Carex 




~T3 
Map 504 



Carex I axif lora Lam. 













— 


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Feb. 

Mar. 

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Map 507 




~T3 

Map 505 
Carex laxiflora var. serrulata Hermann 















Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Auj 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


1 

ucl 

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1 ° D 




Ca 


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grac 


ilescens 


o So" 
Map 508 

steud. 



— 






f 




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9 


Jan. 

Feb. 

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Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

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Sept. 

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Nov. 


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C 


arex 


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alb 


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o 54 
Map 506 

Idon 




Map 509 
Carex Haleana Olney 



are rarely found in either very sandy or (except C. gracilescens) very 
moist woods as C. blanda frequently is. 
Que. to N. Dak. southw. to Ala. and Tex. 

83. Carex gracilescens Steud. ("Carex laxiflora" Mack., not Lam., in 
Britton and Brown, lllus. Flora, ed. 2 and Carex laxiflora var. gracillima of 
< .ray. Man., ed. 7.) Map 508. Common in low woods and on wooded slopes. 
It is generally less plentiful where found than is C. blanda at its stations. 

Que. to Wis., southw. to Va. and Ark. 



22. § GRAMLARES 

Staminate spike short-peduncled or sessile; the two upper pistillate spikes usually 
contiguous; rootstocks not long-creeping. 
Perigynia elliptic-obovoid to elliptic-ovoid, 2-2.5 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, ascending, 
not ventricose-squarrose, rounded at the apex, abruptly very minutely beaked. 

84. C. Haleana. 



Carex 



CYPERACEA.E 



251 



— 






T 

F I 






SD 


D » 


Jan. 

Feb. 






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Mar. 






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Nov. 
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L <0"^V Map 510 




2arex granulans Muhl. 





o "~55 
Map 512 



Carex oh'gocarpa Schkghr 



Perigynia broadly ovoid to broadly obovoid, 2.5-4 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, soon 

ventricose-squarrose, tapering at the apex, minutely beaked. .85. C. granularis. 

Staminate spike long-peduncled; spikes all widely separate; rootstocks long-creeping.. . 

86. C. Crawei. 

84. Carex Haleana Olney. (Carex granularis var. Halea?ia (Olney) 
Porter and Carex Shriveri Britt.) Map 509. Infrequent in low ground, 
principally along creeks; occasionally on calcareous sandy shores. More 
frequent northward, and not known from the unglaciated area. 

Que. to Sask., southw. to Va., Ind., and Kans. 

85. Carex granularis Muhl. Map 510. Common throughout the state in 
moist openings, low woods and on banks of creeks, especially in clay soils ; 
frequent in dry open woods. 

Vt. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Ark. 

86. Carex Crawei Dewey. Map 511. Known in Indiana from Lake 
County only where it is locally plentiful on moist sandy interdunal flats. 
Here it is commonly associated with Carex Garberi, C. aurea, C. Meadii, 
and often with C. viridula. 

Que. to Alberta and Wash., southw. to ne. N. J., s. Ala., Tenn., Kans., 
and Wyo. 

23. § OLIGOCARPAE 

Bract-sheaths glabrous, the lower 0.6-2 cm long; perigynia 4 mm or less long; leaf 
blades 2-4.5 mm wide; culms reddish-tinged at the base 87. C. oligocarpa. 

Bract-sheaths strongly hispidulous, the lower 2-6 cm long; perigynia 4.5-5 mm long; 
leaf blades 3-7 mm wide; culms brownish-tinged at the base. .88. C. Hitchcockiana. 

87. Carex oligocarpa Schkuhr. Map 512. Common in rich woods except 
in the three northern tiers of counties where it is rare. It is a plant of 
calcareous soils and its favorite habitats are moist, wooded ravines and 
beech or beech-maple slopes. Occasionally it occurs on dry slopes and in 
open woods. 

Vt. and Ont. to Iowa, southw. to Ala., Ky., and Tex. 



252 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 



— 






t 






D 





Jjn. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 




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. 


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/ Miles 






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Ca 


rex 


Hitcl 


icockiana 


o 56 
Map 513 

Dewey 




50 

Map 514 



Carex conoidea Schkuhr 




15 

Map 515 



Carex amphiloba Steud. 



88. Carex Hitchcockiana Dewey. Map 513. In calcareous or neutral 
soils; common in rich woods and moist ravines and on river banks; rarely 
in dry, sandy woods. It is often associated with Carex Jamesii, C. oligo- 
carpa, C. blanda, and C. gracillima. 

Vt. and Ont. to Wis., southw. to W. Va., Ky., and Mo. 



24. § GRISEAE 

Perigynia elliptic, 1.5 mm wide; bract-sheaths minutely serrulate on the edges; 

peduncles of pistillate spikes rough; leaf blades 2-4 mm wide 89. C. conoidea. 

Perigynia oblong-oval to broadly obovoid, 2- (occasionally 1.5 in C. amphibola) 2.5 mm 
wide; bract-sheaths glabrous; peduncles of pistillate spikes glabrous or nearly so; 
leaf blades 2-18 mm wide. 
Pistillate spikes 3-12 flowered; leaves slightly if at all glaucous, thin and soft; 
bract-sheaths tight. 
Pistillate spikes widely separated, the lower nearly basal; culms strongly reddish- 
tinged at the base; perigynia scarcely turgid; leaf blades 2-4 mm wide, erect; 

achenes slenderly stipitate 90. C. amphibola. 

Lower pistillate spikes not nearly basal; culms brownish-tinged at the base; 
perigynia more or less turgid; leaf blades (2) 4-7 mm wide, ascending; 

achenes substipitate 91. C. grisea. 

Pistillate spikes (12) 15-35-flowered; leaves very glaucous, thick and firm; bract- 
sheaths enlarged upward 92. C. glaucodea. 

89. Carex conoidea Schkuhr. Map 514. Infrequent in the northwestern 
counties in wet sandy fields and on banks of ditches. It is always a very 
local species and this may account for the lack of specimens or reports from 
northeastern Indiana where it should be found. The reports from Putnam 
County by Coulter, from Clark County by Baird & Taylor, and from the 
Low.)- Wabash Valley by Schneck are unsupported by specimens. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Del., Ohio, and Iowa; also in the mts. 
of N. C. 

90. Carex amphibola Steud. (Carex grisea var. angusti folia Boott.) 
Map 515. Frequent in southern Indiana especially in the unglaciated area, 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



253 




~30 

Map 516 



Carex grisea Wahl. 




50 

Map 517 



Carex glaucodea Tuckerm. 




~K 

Map 518 



Carex gracillima Schweln. 



in dry beech, beech-maple, and white oak woods. Reported from Putnam 
and Hamilton Counties by Wilson but no specimens could be found to 
authenticate these reports. 

N. J. to Inch, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

91. Carex grisea Wahl. Map 516. Very common throughout the 
state in rich dry or moist woods and thickets, in ditches, on banks of 
streams, and along roadsides. It is extremely variable in its vegetative 
characteristics and in the shape and size of its perigynia. 

N. B. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

92. Carex glaucodea Tuckerm. Map 517. Frequent in southern Indiana 
on wooded or open hillsides in either dry or moist soils. It is partial to 
slopes and ridges and its most frequent habitats are abandoned roads 
in woods and paths on open grassy hills. No specimens could be located 
to authenticate the reports from Lake County by Coulter and by Peattie. 
All the known Indiana collections have come from within or very near 
the unglaciated area. 

Mass. to Ont. and 111., southw. to N. C. and Ark. 



25. § GRACILLIMAE 

Sheaths (except the lower which are dorsally somewhat hispidulous) and leaves 
glabrous; perigynia less than 2 mm thick. 

Bracts long-sheathing; perigynia bluntly angled, obtuse at the apex 

93. C. gracillmia. 

Bracts sheathless; perigynia sharply angled, tapering into a triangular, often 

twisted, beak nearly as long as the body 94. C. prasina. 

Sheaths and often leaf blades pubescent; perigynia 2-2.5 mm thick 95. C. Davisii. 

93. Carex gracillima Schwein. Map 518. Doubtless found in every 
county in the state. It is common in wooded ravines and in low woods of 
all types, although it shows a preference for open beech or beech-maple 
woods. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Va., Ky., and Mo. 



254 



('YPERACEAE 



Carex 




~33 
Map 519 



Carex prasina Wahl. 




50 

Map 520 

Carex Davisii Schwein. & Torr. 





Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 


f 













r 




\ 


r^ 














X 






*■ 






\ 




m 


^—r 


i 




Dec f- 




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t 1 , 

1 B 
D Jr 

D J D V I 


Id / J 

/ Miles 
















Carex d 


ebilis Mic 


50 

Map 521 

hx. 



94. Carex prasina Wahl. Map 519. Infrequent, becoming frequent in 
the southeastern counties. A species of very wet or springy habitats in 
deep woods, growing generally along streamlets and frequently on bars 
and rocks in streams. 

Que. to Mich., southw. to D. C. and Ky., and in the Alleghenies to Ga. 

95. Carex Davisii Schwein. & Torr. Map 520. Frequent in neutral or 
calcareous soils in low, especially alluvial, beech and beech-maple woods 
and in moist roadside ditches. It sometimes superficially resembles luxu- 
riant forms of Carex grisea from which it may be readily distinguished by 
the terminal spike which is gynaecandrous in C. Davisii and staminate in 
C. grisea. 

Vt. to Minn., southw. to Md., Term., and Tex. 



26. § SYLVATICAE 

Perigynia sessile or substipitate; scales obtuse to short acuminate, usually half the 
length of the perigynia or less; achenes conspicuously stipitate; broadest basal 
leaves 2-4.5 mm wide. 
Perigynia G-10 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, broadest below the middle, very gradu- 
ally tapering toward the apex or the broad portion elongate; pistillate scales 

mostly rounded on the back, rarely tinged with reddish brown 96. C. debilis. 

Perigynia 4.5-7 mm long, broadly ovate-lanceolate, broadest at the middle, abruptly 
tapering at both ends, the broad portion short; pistillate scales mostly keeled 

and tinged with reddish brown 96a. C. debilis var. Rudgei. 

Perigynia strongly stipitate; scales strongly cuspidate or awned, usually more than 
half the length of the perigynia; achenes substipitate or sessile; broadest basal 
leaves 5-10 mm wide. ( See excluded species no. 21, p. 275.) C. arctata. 

96. Carex debilis Michx. Map 521. Infrequent in southern Indiana, 
principally in the southeastern counties, where it is found in low wet 
woods, especially flat or even swampy pin oak and beech-sweet gum woods. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



255 





if o 




D 




Jan. 

Feb. 


I , 


j 


k 


Mar. "" 


1 


May 
June 


V>- 


July 
Aug. "f 


/ 
1 






Sept. y 
Oct. } 
Nov. 


r, 


l 


Dec j— 


i ^ 















Miles 



o — =^ 
Map 522 



Carex debilis var. Rudgei Bailey 




o ~~ To 

Map 523 



Carex Sprengelif Dewey 




Miles 
' 50 

Map 524 



var. 



Carex Oederi 
viridula (Michx.) 



Kijk 



ent 



It is not known in Indiana from the habitat ascribed to it by Mackenzie 
("dry woods and copses," N. Amer. Flora 18: 290. 1935). 
Mass. and s. Ind., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

96a. Carex debilis var. Rudgei Bailey. (Carex flexuosa Muhl., Carex 
tenuis Ruclge, and Carex debilis var. strictior Bailey.) Map 522. Infre- 
quent near the northern border of Indiana where it is found in low 
beech-maple woods. Any specimens which may have formed the basis for 
the report of this variety (as C. tenuis) from Jefferson County in Coulter's 
Catalogue doubtless should be referred to C. debilis. 

Although Carex debilis and its variety Rudgei are geographically widely 
separated in Indiana their ranges overlap farther east. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to Va. and Mo.; also in the mts. of N. C. and 
Tenn. 



27. § LONGIROSTRES 

97. Carex Sprengelii Dewey. (Carex longi7*ostris Torr.) Map 523. A 
local species known in the state only from the lake area. The Miami and 
Noble County stations are in bluegrass sod along roadsides; that of 
De Kalb County, on a wooded flood plain with beech and black maple ; that 
of Steuben County, a low depression in woods ; the Wabash County, the 
side of "Hanging Rock" on the south bank of the Wabash River, southeast 
of Lagro ; the White County, a moist wooded bottom along the Tippe- 
canoe River, northeast of Buffalo. Its usual habitats, outside Indiana, are 
rich rocky woods especially in moist depressions, and on crests of calcare- 
ous river bluffs or the tops of limestone boulders in open woods. It is often 
in large colonies where found. 

N. B. to Alberta, southw. to Del., Pa., Nebr., and Colo. 



256 



( lYPBRACEAE 



Carex 




Miles 
—55 
Map 525 
"Carex Oederi 
var. prolifera H. B. Lord 



- 






' ! 






D 
H 


D 
H 

-0 IT d 
P I H 


Feb 


y' 






Mar 






l 


■1 








H 1 




— 


May 

June 




r 














-l 






July 
Aug 
Sept 


£ 










1 


~ 7 




Oct 












Nov. 


■*—r 


i* 






Dec C— 


1 








1/ Miles 






6 50 




^<j-\f Map 526 


Carex cryptolepis Mack. 





Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


f 




L L 

) KD 
















S 


f^ 


f 


s — 




^ 




r, 


1 

D 


Oec J- 




1 
1 ^ 


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^JJ Miles 








3arex flava 


y b 50 
Map 527 

L. 



28. § EXTENSAE 

Perigynia 2-3 mm long, little if at all deflexed, the beak much shorter than the body; 
spikes oblong, 4-7 mm wide. 
Spikes 2-7, the lower often separate, the terminal usually staminate, conspicuous; 

pistillate scales usually reddish-tinged 98. C. viridula. 

Spikes 4-15, mostly densely aggregated, the terminal usually androgynous with the 
staminate portion very small and inconspicuous; pistillate scales usually very 

slightly if at all reddish-tinged 98a. Carex viridula f. intermedia. 

Perigynia 3.5-6 mm long, at least the lower conspicuously deflexed, the beak equaling 
the body; spikes subglobose, 7-12 mm wide. 
Perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm long, the beak smooth, pale at the tip; scales slightly if at all 
reddish-tinged, largely concealed by the perigynia; leaf blades 1-3 mm wide. 

99. C. cryptolepis. 

Perigynia 4.5-6 mm long, the beak serrulate, reddish-tinged at the tip; scales 
strongly reddish-tinged, conspicuous in the spikes; leaf blades 3-5 mm wide. 
100. C. flava. 

98. Carex viridula Michx. (See, Jour. Bot. 77: 301-304. Nov. 1939.) 
{Carex Oederi var. viridula, Carex Oederi var. pumila (Coss. & Germ.) 
Fern., and Carex irregularis Schwein.) Map 524. Frequent on marly and 
sandy lake borders, and in swales among the dunes. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Ind., N. Mex., Utah, and Calif. 

98a. Carex viridula f. intermedia (Dudley) Hermann, comb. nov. (Carex 
Oederi f. intermedia Dudley, Bull. Cornell Univ. 2:117. 1886.) (Carex 
chlorophila Mack, and Carex Oederi var. prolifera H. B. Lord.) Map 
525. Infrequent in the habitats of the preceding variety. 

the characters employed by .Mackenzie to distinguish his C. chlorophila from 
('. viridula very few seem to hold with any degree of constancy. A careful study of an 
ext< series of both plants has shown the characteristics ascribed to the leaf blades 

and sheaths to be wholly unreliable. The characters used in the above key to separate 
c. chlorophila from c. viridula (the former here considered as a form of C. viridula), 
although often well-marked, are tendencies only and they, together with a generally 
lat<T flowering and fruiting date (contrarj to Mackenzie's note in \. Amer. Flora 18: 

' that C. Oederi, C. viridula, and C. chlorophila "bl n and bear fruit from early 

Bummer until frost"), do nol seem suflicientlj constant to maintain C. chlorophila as a 
species. Qmbach's collections oi June I and 24, L899, and Deam nos. 14412 (June 3, 
1927) and 42172 (Aug. L9, L925) are intermediate in nearly all characters, but on the 
basis of the early fruiting date of the first three they may be referred to C. .viridula 
while the late date of the last would place it nearer f. intermedia. 



Carex Cyperaceae 257 

Between C. viridula and f . intermedia there is a more or less well-defined 
seasonal difference in flowering and maturing of the fruit as may be seen 
from the collection dates with Maps 524 and 525. In Indiana C. viridula 
is in its prime in June ; f . intermedia in August. 

N. Y. to Wis., southw. to N. J. and Ind. 

99. Carex cryptolepis Mack. {Carex flava var. rectirostra Gaudin, in 
part.) Map 526. Frequent in northern Indiana on marly lake borders 
and in marshes rich in marl ; infrequent on wet sandy lake shores. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and Ind. 

100. Carex flava L. Map 527. A widespread species which is common 
throughout most of its range but rare and very local in Indiana. The two 
known localities for it in the state are : marly marsh on the Wolverton 
Estate, 7 miles southwest of South Bend, St. Joseph County, Deam nos. 
54874 and 55079 ; and springy wooded bank of Flat Rock River, three- 
fourths of a mile above St. Paul, Decatur County, Mrs. C. C. Deam nos. 
10766 and 13400. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. J., Ind., and Mont.; also in Europe. 

29. § VIRESCENTES 

Perigynia densely pubescent; spikes about 3-4 mm thick, the lower more or less widely 
separated and peduncled; ligule much longer than wide. 
Pistillate spikes oblong or oblong-globose, abrupt or rounded at the base, the lowest 
5-20 mm long; perigynia broadly obovoid; anthers 0.8-1.6 mm long; leaves 

usually exceeding the culms 101. C. Swanii. 

Pistillate spikes linear, attenuate at the base, the lowest 15-40 mm long; perigynia 
oblong-elliptic or narrowly obovoid; anthers 1.5-2.5 mm long; leaves usually 

shorter than the culms 102. C. virescens. 

Perigynia glabrous; spikes 4-8 mm thick, contiguous or nearly so, sessile or subsessile; 
ligule not longer than wide. 
Perigynia strongly flattened ventrally, rounded at the apex, nerved, achenes with a 

somewhat bent short-apiculate tip 103. C. hirsutella. 

Perigynia turgid, nearly round in cross section, short-pointed at the apex, coarsely 
nerved or ribbed; achenes with a very abruptly bent apiculate tip or style. 
Leaf blades glabrate; perigynia 2 mm long; pistillate scales not pilose, obtuse or 

short-cuspidate 104. C. caroliniana. 

Leaf blades pubescent, especially below; perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm long; pistillate scales 
sparingly pilose, long-acuminate, cuspidate or awned 105. C. Bushii. 

101. Carex Swanii (Fern.) Mack. (Carex virescens var. Swanii Fern.) 
Map 528. Common in clearings in low woods, and in moist open oak 
woods ; infrequent along roadsides, on flood plains, and on wooded slopes. 

N. S. to Wis., southw. to N. C, Tenn., and Ark. 

102. Carex virescens Muhl. Map 529. Fairly common in the southern 
counties, especially in the knob area (Chestnut Oak Upland), on wooded 
bluffs, slopes, and river banks; infrequent in level woods. It is known 
from the lake area from a single collection and most reports from the 
northern third of the state were doubtless based upon material of 
C. Swanii. 

Maine to Ind., southw. to Ga. and Tenn. 



2 58 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




Carei Swanii (FernJ Mack. 



r— 1 






r*~" 


sT~ 








Jan. 

Feb. 


>/ 




D 





Mar. 


4 




l 


C 








J 1 






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i 


[Y^n It- 


J — J - 




June 




a 


'\i — _ 






July 


/ 


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D 


— 


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Sept. 


v 


D 
n 








1 " » 


— 


Oct. 

Nov 






r 




- i 


j 


r 1 - 




Dec (- — 


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V uc 




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H , 


-r' h iJ ( 


) D l [d 


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C-^\ D Id 




*/ 


/V t H 


D H ( S r fc 


J Miles 


r o 


iv d j°^v. 7 


3 50 




vS^^V Map 530 


Carex hirsutella Mack. 



103. Carex hirsutella Mack. (Carex triceps var. hirsuta (Willd.) 
Bailey; "Carex complanata" Mack., not Torr., in Britton and Brown, Illus. 
Flora, ed. 2.) Map 530. Common in southern Indiana, usually in sterile soil, 
in dry open woods and fallow fields and along sandy roadsides ; infrequent 
in low or flat woods; becoming less frequent northward and rare in the 
northernmost counties. 

Maine to Mich., southw. to Ala. and Tex. 

104. Carex caroliniana Schwein. (Carex triceps var. Smithii Porter.) 
Map 531. Frequent in southern Indiana in low flat woods and in clay soil 
in fallow fields. 

N. J. to N. C. and Tex. 

105. Carex Bushii Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 241. 1910.) Map 
532. Known in Indiana only from three stations, found by Deam, all in the 
unglaciated area. It is common in the Posey County locality in low, open 
post oak flats south of Half Moon Pond, 9 miles southwest of Mount 
Vernon. The two localities in Spencer County are in a low fallow field 
one mile north of Bloomfield (4 miles northwest of Chrisney), and in a 
low, open pin oak and post oak flat two miles southeast of Dale. 

Mackenzie has pointed out the marked general resemblance of this 
species to the wholly unrelated Carex Buxbaumii. 
Mass. to Mich., southw. to D. C, Miss., and Tex. 



30. § HlRTAE 

Leaf blades fiat, 2-5 mm wide; culms sharply triangular; achenes straight-apiculate. 

106. C. lanuginosa. 

Leaf blades involute-filiform, 2 mm wide or less; culms obtusely triangular; achenes 

bent-apiculate 107. C. lasiocarpa. 

106. Carex lanuginosa Michx. Map 533. Common in northern Indiana 
in swamps, sloughs, wet ditches, open swampy woods, and on lake borders ; 
infrequent in southern Indiana. This, like the following species, is usually 
plentiful where found, often being the dominant plant in a marsh or on a 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



259 



— 






f 


Y" 






Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 


./" 






Jr 


f ^ 




1 






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Nov. | 1 


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3ar 


ex ( 


aro 


iniana Sc 


1 ~3o 
Map 531 

hwein. 




50 

Map 532 



Carex Bushii Mack. 




lanuginosa 



lake border. It is one of the most widely distributed sedges in North 
America. 

Schneck's report from the Lower Wabash Valley is unsupported by 
specimens; in fact, no material has been seen from any of the south- 
western counties. 

N. B. to B. C, southw. to Tenn., Ark., N. Mex., and Calif. 

107. Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. (Carex filiformis of authors, not L.) 
Map 534. Frequent in the lake area in sloughs and sphagnum bogs and 
on lake borders. Like the preceding species, it often forms large colonies. 

No specimen could be found to substantiate Schneck's report from the 
Lower Wabash Valley, an area far south of the normal range of C. 
lasiocarpa. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. J., Pa., Iowa, Idaho, and Wash.; also in 
Europe. 

30A. § ANOMALAE 
Carex scabrata Schwein. (See excluded species no. 23, p. 275.) 

31. § SHORTIANAE 

108. Carex Shortiana Dewey. Map 535. Common except in northern 
Indiana. It is found in moist open woods and roadside ditches and on 
banks of creeks. 

Attempts to locate a specimen to support Peattie's report from Lake 
County have been unsuccessful and the species is not otherwise known 
in western Indiana north of Tippecanoe County. 

Pa. to Iowa, south, to Va., Tenn., and Okla. 

108a. X Carex Deamii Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 81. 1938.) A sterile 
hybrid between Carex Shortiana and C. typhina which was discovered by 
Deam in Pike County in 1926. The only known locality for it is at the 
edge of a low woods on the east side of the road dividing sections 17 and 18, 
Jefferson Twp., two miles southwest of Otwell. 



260 



('VPERACEAE 



Car ex 





r 

f 

J" 









Jin. 
Feb 










I 








Way 
June 
July 
Aug 


KSl 


Sept 
Oct 
Nov 


r 1 -^- 


_~L 


Dec <- 






LU 













Miles 



5(5 

Map 534 



Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov 


f 











"H D 


V 


t ^l'' 


D 

D 


f 




H 


u^ 


D 

D 


D 


I 

D 
- DP 




8 S 1 

o 





Dec (- 




rj " D 
1 

H 

K 1 y 

^ 

~U°J \) 


r P 

1/ Miles 




lie 


D 


y^D 






uc p 1 

c 


arex 


Sh 


3 3\_ 7 

ortiana D 


o 56 
Map 535 

ewey 




Miles 

o 56 

Map 536 



Carex limosa L. 



32. § LIMOSAE 

109. Carex limosa L. Map 536. Infrequent in tamarack bogs and on 
mucky lake borders in northern Indiana. It is usually found in sphagnum. 

Lab. and Newf . to Yukon, southw. to Del., Iowa, Mont., and Calif. ; 
also in Eurasia. 

33. § ATRATAE 

110. Carex Buxbaumii Wahl. {Carex polygama Schkuhr, not Gmelin.) 
Map 537. Rather common among the dunes; infrequent elsewhere in 
northern Indiana. Among the dunes it is found in swales and on inter- 
dunal flats; elsewhere in marshes and low sandy or marly openings. In 
southern Indiana it occurs in swampy woods. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Ga., Ark., Colo., Utah, and Calif.; also in 
Eurasia. 

34. § ACUTAE 

Beak of perigynium very short, or absent, not twisted; pistillate spikes erect; culms 

relatively slender to the base, very rough above. 

Culms strongly phyllopodic (sterile shoots sometimes aphyllopodic) ; fertile culms 

surrounded at the base by the dried-up leaves of the previous year; perigynia 

strongly flattened, not at all turgid, obovoid, 2.75-3.2 mm long, 1.5-2.75 mm 

wide HI. C. substricta. 

Culms aphyllopodic; fertile culms all or mostly arising laterally and not surrounded 

at the base by the previous year's tufts of leaves; perigynia 2-2.75 mm long, 

1.25-1.75 mm wide. 

Perigynia inflated, strongly biconvex, brownish at maturity, broadly ovate to 

suborbicular, 2-2.25 mm long; pistillate scales divaricate at maturity; ligule 

sligbtly longer than wide; lower sheaths slightly if at all filamentose; stolons 

short, ascending; achenes suborbicular 112. C. Haydenii. 

Perigynia not inflated, closely enveloping the achenes, unequally biconvex, green 

or straw colored, 2.25-2.75 mm long; stolons long, many, horizontal; achenes 

oblong to obovate. 

Lower sheaths not filamentose ventrally, strongly septate-nodulose dorsally; 

ligule much wider than long; pistillate spikes (3) 4-5, the lower 2-10 cm 

long; perigynia ovate or obovate, 1.5-1.75 mm wide 113. C. Emoryi. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



261 




Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 





D } 







u 

F 




\ 


1 


v 


S 


r 




L 


j 


1 


r 


1— 


I >-l — 



Miles 



o 3o 

Map 538 

Carex substricta (Kukenth.) Mack, 




TO 

Map 539 



Carex H ay den i i Dewey 



Lower sheaths filamentose ventrally; ligule much longer than wide; pistillate 
spikes usually 3, the lower 1-6 cm long; perigynia elliptic to narrowly or 
broadly ovate, 1.5 mm wide; pistillate scales appressed at maturity. 
Leaf sheaths glabrous ventrally, without a minute hyaline jagged-ciliate 

margin at the mouth 114. C. stricta. 

Leaf sheaths hispidulous ventrally (and dorsally), usually with a minute 
jagged-ciliate margin at the mouth; leaves usually paler green or 

glaucous 114a. C. stricta var. strictior. 

Beak of perigynium prominent, twisted when dry; at least the lower pistillate spikes 
nodding or recurving; culms usually stout at the base, smooth above; stolons very 
short and ascending or none 115. C. torta. 

111. Carex substricta (Kukenth.) Mack. (In Rydb., Flora Rocky Mts. 
139. 1917.) (Carex aquatilis var. substricta Kukenth.) Map 538. Infre- 
quent but locally plentiful in the northernmost tier of counties in marshes 
and sloughs and on lake or river borders. 

Most of the reports of C. aquatilis from Indiana were doubtless based 
upon specimens of this species. 

Newf. to Wash., southw. to N. J., Ind., and Nebr. 

112. Carex Haydenii Dewey. (Carex stricta var. decora Bailey.) Map 
539. Infrequent in northwestern Indiana in wet prairies, ditches, and low 
clearings in open oak woods. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to N. J., 111., and Mo. 

113. Carex Emoryi Dewey. Map 540. Frequent along banks of creeks 
and in swamps, sloughs, and swales in woods. Not known from the ungla- 
ciated area. 

N. J. and Va. to Man. and Colo., southw. to Tex. and N. Mex. 

114. Carex stricta Lam. (Carex stricta var. angustata (Boott) Bailey.) 
Map 541. Frequent in northwestern Indiana in marshes and open swamps 
and on borders of creeks where it generally forms dense tussocks. Less 
common than the following variety except in Lake County. 



2G2 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




Map 540 
Carei Emoryi Dewey 




~"53 

Map 541 



Carex stricta Lam. 




Miles 

r — tb 

Map 542 
"Carei strlda 
var. strictior (Dewey) Carey 



The dominant plant of "sedge meadows" is most frequently this species 
or var. strictior. 

Maine to N. C, and along the Coastal Plain to Tex. ; also locally in the 
Great Lakes region. 

114a. Carex stricta var. strictior (Dewey) Carey. {Carex strictior 
Dewey.) Map 542. Common in northern Indiana in marshes and road- 
side ditches, often in very marly soil; infrequent southward along the 
western border of the state. 

This plant is reputed to grow in beds (not dense tussocks) while C. 
stricta is supposed to occur in very dense tussocks only. Field observations 
in Indiana, however, do not indicate that this distinction is at all reliable ; 
C. strictior has often been seen to form conspicuous tussocks and C. stricta 
was frequently found in beds. The distinctions ascribed by Mackenzie to 
the foliage characters (leaf blades deep green, channeled and keeled toward 
the base in C. stricta, glaucous to blue-green, flat or nearly so to the base in 
C. strictior) seem to be particularly inconstant. The lowest bract is gen- 
erally larger and more leaflike in var. strictior, but this, too, is merely a 
tendency. P^orms which are transitional in nearly all characters are so 
frequent in Indiana that it seems best to regard C. strictior as not more 
than a variety. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to D. C. (in the mts. to N. C. and Tenn.) and Iowa. 

115. Carex torta Boott. Map 543. Frequent south of the lake area on 
rocky beds of streams, and sand bars in creeks and on their springy banks ; 
rare in woodland swales. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to N. C, Tenn., and Ark. 



35. § CRYPTOCARPAE 

116. Carex crinita Lam. Map 544. Common in swampy woods and 
thickets ; frequent in swales, sloughs, ditches, and swamps. 
Que. to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Tex. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



263 




o 55 

Map 543 



Carex torta Boot t 




^3 

Map 544 



Carex crinita Lam. 



— 


Jar 
Feb 


. 


L 
11 

f 


p' ■ 









Mar. 
Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 








jl 


fr 1 


" 












-i 














r 




J 


J 


r 1 




Dec (- 




i 


1/ Miles 


















Carex f 


in 


iculata 


5(5 
Map 545 

L. 



35A. § ORTHOCERATES 

Carex pauciflora Lightf. (See excluded species no. 28, p. 276.) 

36. § FOLLICULATAE 

117. Carex folliculata L. Map 545. Known in Indiana only from the 
dune area in Porter and La Porte Counties where it is locally frequent on 
mucky borders of wet woods. One collection of Deam's (4 miles northeast 
of Michigan City) is from a sedge marsh. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to D. C. (in the mts. to N. C. and Tenn.) and Ind., 
but best developed on the Coastal Plain. 

37. § PSEUDO-CYPERI 

Teeth of perigynia not over 0.5 mm long; perigynia suborbicular in cross section, 
inflated, membranaceous, spreading; culms stoloniferous; ligule . not longer than 

wide 1 18. C hystricina. 

Teeth of perigynia 0.5 mm or more long; perigynia flattened-triangular, scarcely 

inflated, coriaceous, more or less reflexed; culms not stoloniferous; ligule much 

longer than wide. 

Teeth of perigynia recurved-spreading, 1.2-2 mm long; beaks of perigynia (exclusive 

of the teeth) 1.5-2.2 mm long, equaling or longer than the bodies; perigynia 6 mm 

long 119. C. comosa. 

Teeth of perigynia erect or slightly spreading, 0.5-1 mm long; beaks of perigynia 
(exclusive of the teeth) averaging 1 mm long, shorter than the bodies; perigynia 
4-5 mm long 120. C. Pseudo-Cyperus. 

118. Carex hystricina Muhl. (Carex hystricina var. Dudleyi Bailey and 
Carex hystricina var. Cooleyi Wood.) Map 546. Common in most of the 
glaciated area of Indiana in swamps and wet habitats of all types but 
usually in calcareous soils. 

No corroborating specimen for Schneck's report from the Lower Wabash 
Valley could be found. 

Que. to Wash., southw. to Va., Ky., Tex., and Calif. 

119. Carex comosa Boott. (Carex Pseudo-Cyperus var. americana 
Hochst.) Map 547. Fairly common in northern Indiana on low borders 



264 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 
















Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov 


1 

r i 

_«D> 






D D 
H f 


D J* 





r - 


\ 


i ^ 


D 


f 






a 

I 1 






V 





S 




-^ 


J 


1 « 


Dec C 


— 


■LL 


1/ Miles 




-. 






I ( 




K | 


acu 


Care 
>tns 


x riparra 


" 56 

Map 549 




15 

Map 547 

Carex comosa Boott 



J 



— 






r 








Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 






» 


\ 


r r^° ° 


' D 


1 






V 

r 1 




J 


B 

D . 


D D 


D C 


"^ 


j 


D D 


Dec.f- 




1 ' 

D 


1/ Miles 


k 


j 


D 


rJ d 


° i c 1 






Ca 


rex 


hyal 


inolepis 5 


50 
Map 550 

teud. 




55 

Map 548 



Carex Pseudo-Cyperus L. 




o 53 

Map 551 



Carex subimpressa Cloke 



of lakes (often in shallow water) and in swamps, sloughs, and ditches. In 
southern Indiana it is known only from a single collection from Floyd 
County. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and La. ; also locally in the Pacific Coast 
States. 

120. Carex Pseudo-Cyperus L. Map 548. Rare on lake borders and in 
sloughs and swamps in northern Indiana where it reaches the southern 
limit of its range. Like C. comosa it frequently grows in shallow water, 
rooted in muck. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Conn., N. Y., Ind., and Minn. ; also in Eurasia. 

38. § PALUDOSAE 

Beaks of perigynia much shorter than the hody, the teeth short, about 0.5 mm long, 
erecl or nearly so; foliage glabrous. 
Perigynia glabrous. 



Carex Cyperaceae 265 

Mature perigynia strongly nerved; fertile culms aphyllopodic, strongly reddish- 
tinged at the base, the lower sheaths filamentose ventrally; ligule at least 

twice as long as wide 121. C. riparia var. lacustris. 

Mature perigynia impressed-nerved; fertile culms phyllopodic, less strongly or 
not at all reddish-tinged at the base, the lower sheaths not filamentose 
ventrally; ligule shorter or moderately (less than one and a half times) longer 

than wide 122. C. hyalinolepis. 

Perigynia hairy, the ribs mostly hidden by the short dense pubescence 

122 a. X C. siibimpressa. 

Beaks of perigynia (including teeth) nearly as long as the body; the teeth prominent, 
1-3 mm long, erect to widely spreading. 
Perigynia glabrous; leaf sheaths pubescent; at least the lower leaf blades sparsely 

hairy below toward the base 123. C. atherodes. 

Perigynia hairy; leaf sheaths and blades glabrous 124. C. trichocarpa. 

121. Carex riparia Curtis var. lacustris (Willd.) Kiikenth. (Carex 
lacustris Willd.) Map 549. Common in calcareous soils in marshes and 
ditches and on borders of swamps, lakes, and streams. It often forms ex- 
tensive stands in marshes. This, and to a lesser extent the following species, 
seem to be somewhat periodic in fruiting, at least in the Great Lakes States. 
Often throughout one or more seasons in a large colony, only a few plants, 
if any, will be found with fertile culms. 

Que. to Sask., southw. to Va. and Iowa. 

122. Carex hyalinolepis Steud. (Carex riparia var. impressa S. H. 
Wright and Carex impressa (S. H. Wright) Mack.) Map 550. Common, 
except in the northern three tiers of counties, in roadside ditches and wet 
depressions in low open woods and on flood plains and borders of ponds. 

N. J. to Ont. and Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

122a. X Carex siibimpressa Clokey. (Rhodora 21: 84. 1919; Carex 
languinosa X impressa Clokey, Torreya 16: 199. 1916.) Map 551. Known 
in Indiana from collections by Deam from four counties along the north- 
eastern border, where it is very local but usually occurs in colonies which 
are probably clones. It is found in ditches along roadsides or railroads 
and in low ground in open woods. 

No verifying specimens were found for Clokey's reports from Porter 
and Posey Counties or for Peattie's report from Lake and Porter Counties. 

Ind. and 111. 

123. Carex atherodes Spreng. (Carex trichocarpa var. imberbis Gray 
and Carex trichocarpa var. aristata (R. Br.) Bailey.) Map 552. Rare in 
northern Indiana in marshes and wet prairie habitats. 

Reported from Marshall County by Clark but no specimens could be 
located. 

Ont. to Yukon, southw. to N. Y., Ind., Mo., Kans., Colo., Utah, and Oreg. ; 
also in Eurasia. 

124. Carex trichocarpa Muhl. Map 553. Rare in swamps, low openings, 
and swales in woods ; chiefly in eastern-central Indiana. 

Reported from Madison County by Smith but no specimens were found. 
Que. and Vt. to Minn., southw. to N. J., Ind., and Iowa. 



266 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




— 


Jan. 

Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 

June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
















t~ ° 


\ 


H 1 






r 








D,„ 


-4 




f 










~? D d 


D 


j 


r 1 




Dec C 




i ' — 


A/ Miles 














Carex 


trie 


hocarpa 


50 

Map 553 

Muhl. 




o 33 

Map 554 



Carex FrankFI Kunth 



39. § SQUARROSAE 

Perigynia shorter than the rough-awned scales, 14-20-ribbed; terminal spike usually 
staminate, narrowly linear, small (0.5-2.5 cm long); ligule slightly, if at all, longer 

than wide; achenes about 1.5 mm long 125. C. Frankii. 

Perigynia much longer than the scales, several-ribbed above; terminal spike gynae- 
candrous; ligule much longer than wide; achenes 2.2-3 mm long. 
Beaks of perigynia mostly appressed-ascending; spikes oblong-cylindric; achenes 
obovoid, their sides concave; pistillate scales mostly blunt; style straight 

b e l ow 126. C. typhina. 

Beaks of perigynia widely radiating; spikes oval or oblong-oval; achenes linear- 
oval, their sides almost flat; pistillate scales acute to short-awned; style strongly 
curved or bent below 127. C. squwrosa. 

125. Carex Frankii Kimth. (Carex stenolepis Torr.) Map 554. Not 
known from the two northern tiers of counties. Except in the lake and 
prairie areas very common in ditches and low roadsides and on banks of 
creeks; frequent in swamps, low flat woods, ravines, marshes, and wet 
fallow fields. 

Pa. and N. Y. to 111. and Kans., southw. to Ga. and Tex.; also in S. A. 

126. Carex typhina Michx. (Carex typhinoides Schwein.) Map 555. 
Fairly common in the southern counties, infrequent in northern Indiana, 
and not known from the central portion of the state. Its favorite habitat 
is low flat woods, especially pin oak, but it is also found on borders of 
ponds and in marshes, swamps, and roadside ditches. 

Specimens to confirm Wilson's reports from Hamilton and Tippecanoe 
Counties could not be found. 

Que. to Wis. and Iowa, southw. to Ga. and La. 

127. Carex squarrosa L. Map 556. Common, especially southward, in 
low or swampy woods and roadside ditches; frequent on wet borders of 
ponds and creeks. 

Que. to Wis. and Nebr., southw. to N. C. and Ark. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



267 



— 


Jan. 
Feb 


f 




1 D 





Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec J- 


v_^ 


■C 


\ 


t Av 


D 


f 






r 1 




I 








1 


^H 


J 


r 


i 

D 

1 ' 



1 rV 


^" Pl > ' 

h y 

1/ Miles 


r* D 






L D p* 

1 a o 




H 




Care 


x ty 


phina Mi< 


o 5o 
Map 555 

'hx. 




~T3 

Map 556 



Carex squarrosa L. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 






H 

n - 


1 lf 


~v^ 


i^ 


D 


r 




K 


Wm 


<-±_ ] 






L ' \S 







Miles 



56 

Map 557 



Carex vesicana L. 



40. § VESICARIAE 

Pistillate scales not rough-awned. 

Pistillate spikes oblong to cylindric, 17-many-flowered; leaf blades flat or the margins 
somewhat revolute. 
Perigynia not reflexed; bracts moderately exceeding the inflorescence. 
Achenes not excavated on one side; perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm wide. 

Culms sharply triangular below the spikes, rough; perigynia appressed or 
ascending; teeth of perigynia long or perigynia tapering gradually into 
the beak; lower sheaths fragile, becoming strongly filamentose; ligule 
much longer than wide; rootstocks short-creeping, without long horizontal 

stolons 128. C. vesicaria. 

Culms bluntly triangular below the spikes, smooth; perigynia spreading to 
squarrose at maturity; teeth of perigynia short or perigynia abruptly 
contracted into the beak; lower sheaths not fragile, not becoming 
filamentose; ligule slightly if at all longer than wide; rootstocks with 

long horizontal stolons 129. C. rostrata. 

Achenes deeply excavated on one side; perigynia 5-6.5 mm wide 

130. C. Tuckermani. 

Lower perigynia reflexed or widely spreading, somewhat falcate; bracts many 

times exceeding the inflorescence 131. C. retrorsa. 

Pistillate spikes globose or short-oblong, 3-18-flowered; leaf blades involute 

132. C. oligosperma. 

Pistillate scales rough-awned 133. C. lurida. 

128. Carex vesicaria L. (Including Car ex vesicaria var. monile (Tuck- 
erm.) Fern.) Map 557. Infrequent in the lake area in swamps, swales, 
and swampy woods. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Del., Ind., Mo., N. Mex., and Calif.; also in 
Eurasia. 

129. Carex rostrata Stokes. (Including Carex rostrata var. utriculata 
(Boott) Bailey.) Map 558. Frequent in northern Indiana in marshes, 
swamps, low woods, wet roadside ditches, and swales and on borders of 
ponds and lakes, often in shallow water. It is a very widespread species 
but generally is not plentiful in any one locality. 



268 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 




50 

Map 558 



Carex rostrata Stokes 




Tuck 



ermani 



50 

Map 559 
Boott 




o ~w 
Map 560 



Carex retrorsa Schwein. 



Greenland to Alaska, southw. to Del., W. Va., Ind., S. Dak., N. Mex., and 
Calif. ; also in Eurasia. 

130. Carex Tuckermani Boott. Map 559. Frequent in northeastern 
Indiana; otherwise known in the state only from the dune area and from 
Floyd County. It is found in swales in woods, swamps, and on borders of 
ponds, frequently in shallow water. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to N. J., Ind., and Iowa. 

131. Carex retrorsa Schwein. Map 560. Known in Indiana from two 
collections near the northern border of the state ; edge of swamp, East 
Chicago, Lake County, W. S. Moffatt, July 2, 1893, and, near St. Mary's 
Academy, Notre Dame, St. Joseph County, J. A. Nieuwland, July 9, 1913. 

No corroborating specimens have been seen for the report in Coulter's 
Catalogue from Gibson County, Wilson's report from Hamilton County or 
Schneck's from the Lower Wabash Valley. 

Que. to B. C, southw. to N. J., Ind., Iowa, Colo., and Oreg. 

132. Carex oligosperma Michx. Map 561. Frequent in the dune area, 
otherwise quite local in northern Indiana. It prefers Chamaedaphne and 
tamarack bogs, but is found also in marshes and swales and on borders 
of ponds. 

Newf. to Mack., southw. to Mass., Pa., and Ind. 

L33. Carex lurida Wahl. Map 562. Very common; in southern In- 
diana ubiquitous in swamps, sloughs, ditches, and wet habitats of all types. 

Carex lurida is frequently confused with C. hijstncina and with C. 
lupulina. The following distinctions, in addition to those given in the key 
to the sections, may be useful in separating it from these. The achene of 
C. lurida is strongly rough-papillate; that of C. lupulina is perfectly 
smooth. Also the teeth of the perigynia in C. lurida are very short (aver- 
aging 0.5 mm long) and the stigmas all protrude from one side; in C. 
hijmlinn the teeth are long (0.75-2 mm) and the stigmas radiate irregu- 
larly from the orifice. In C. hystricina the teeth of the perigynia are longer 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



269 




Carex oligosperma Michx. 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec.J- 


r 


L 
I 
1 


D 


1 SD 


D 






p 


D 


-^ 1 


D 




\ 


D K 


'.Hrf 










D 














r 







3 


B 

1 


D UP u 

H 


i- 


D 


Us— 















D 
D 


D r 


J~ 


(1 


ATb™ 


I 


B 


^CfH - 


f*/ 


D 


D 
H 


j J 


OH P 

K ND 1 


J D [ D 







^-1 cf ° 


\$J Miles 




D 1 
p 


D 

c 


arex 


D -r\ 

lurida 


7 50 

Map 562 
Wahl. 




o 13 

Map 563 



Carex Grayii Carey 



and spreading or ascending ; in C. lurida the teeth are erect or appressed, 
the perigynia are more abruptly beaked and the beak is longer and 
narrower. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Vera Cruz, Mex. 



41. § LUPULINAE 

Pistillate spikes globose to short-ovoid; style straight or the bend remote from the 

achene. 

Perigynia radiating in all directions, cuneate at the base, subcoriaceous, usually 

somewhat hispidulous; staminate spike usually subsessile or short-peduncled; 

achenes obscurely trigonous, almost suborbicular in cross section, the angles 

inconspicuous 134. C. Grayii. 

Perigynia ascending, rounded at the base, membranaceous, smooth and shining; 
staminate spike normally long-peduncled; achenes with blunt angles but con- 
spicuously trigonous. 

Perigynia broadly ovoid, about half as broad (5-8 mm) as long 

135. C. intumescens. 

Perigynia narrowly ovoid, a fourth to a third as broad (3.5-5 mm) as long 

135a. C. intumescens var. Fernaldii. 

Pistillate spikes oblong to cylindric; style abruptly bent immediately above the achene. 

Achenes conspicuously longer than wide, the angles not prominently knobbed, the 

sides shallowly concave; pistillate spikes short-oblong to oblong-cylindric. 

Culms arising one to few together from elongate rootstocks; staminate spike 

narrow, 2.5 mm wide, very long-peduncled; pistillate scales blunt to acute, 

rarely short-mucronate; leaf blades 2-6 mm wide 136. C. louisianica. 

Culms cespitose; staminate spike 3-5 mm wide, sessile or short-peduncled; pistillate 

scales acuminate to rough-awned; leaf blades 4-15 mm wide 

137. C. lupulina. 

Achenes not longer than wide, the angles prominently knobbed, the sides deeply 
concave; pistillate spikes cylindric or oblong-cylindric. 
Perigynia ascending or slightly spreading, the beak less than twice the length 

of the body; achenes about as wide as long 138. C. lupuliformis. 

Perigynia widely spreading at maturity, the beak 2-3 times the length of the body; 
achenes much wider than long 139. C. gigantea. 

134. Carex Grayii Carey. (Carex Grayii var. hispidula Gray and 



270 



Cyperaceae 



Carex 





Jin 
fet> 

Mar 

Apr 
May 

June 

July 
Aug 
Sept 
Oct 
Nov 


L 

r » 

V 


t D 




D 
D 


» 




c 




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-I 








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( J 

-1 ■> 1 \ / 


/ ^4 

/ Miles 










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Ca 


rex 


ntun 


ie 


scens F 


) 50 
Map 564 

udge 




~^<5 

Map 565 
Carex intumescens 
var. Fernaldii Bailey 



— 


Jan 




f 











Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 




1 — ,— 
L 




Jk 


fr 1 




"H- 


















r, 


- k 


Dec (- 






1/ Miles 








CL D 


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i o 




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arex 


louisianica E 


50 

Map 566 
ai ley 



Carea: Asa^Grayi Bailey.) Map 563. Common, but local, in low rich woods 
and on banks of creeks and borders of swamps. Widely distributed in the 
state but generally not found in abundance at any one locality. It is one 
of the most conspicuous of the sedges and so is apt to be collected more 
often than some of the inconspicuous species which may be actually more 
common. 

The form known as var. hispidula shows no geographic segregation and 
doubtless does not merit even formal recognition. J. K. Underwood, of the 
University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station, writes that he 
has observed the same plants which one year had hispidulous perigynia to 
be perfectly glabrous the next season. 

Vt. to Wis., southw. to Ga., Tenn., and Mo. 

135. Carex intumescens Rudge. Map 564. Frequent to locally common 
in depressions in low woods (maple, beech, sweet gum or pin oak) and in 
flat woods. 

N. H. to Wis., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

135a. Carex intumescens var. Fernaldii Bailey. Map 565. Infrequent 
in northern Indiana, chiefly in the lake area, in habitats similar to those 
of the species. 

Newf. to Keewatin, southw. to Mass., N. Y., Ind., and 111. and in the mts. 
to N. C. 

136. Carex louisianica Bailey. (Carex Halei Carey.) Map 566. A 
southern species which reaches its northwestern limit in southern Indiana 
where it is infrequent in low open woods, flat woods, and cypress swamps, 
mostly in the unglaciated area. 

N. J. to Ind., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

137. Carex lupulina Muhl. (Carex lupulina var. pedwiculata Gray.) 
Map 567. Very common in swamps, ditches, and low open woods and on 
borders of ponds and rivers. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



Carex 



Cyperaceae 



271 




"TO 

Map 567 



Carex lupulina Muhl. 




50 

Map 570 



Acorus Calamus L 




o 50 

Map 568 
Carex lupulif ormis Sartwell 




Map 571 
Symplocarpus foetidus (L ) Nutt 




^0 

Map 569 
Carex gigantea Rudge 




138. Carex lupuliformis Sartwell. Map 568. Infrequent and local in 
swampy woods, wet ditches, and buttonbush swamps, and on borders of 
ponds. 

Vt. to Minn., southw. to Va., La., and Tex. 

139. Carex gigantea Rudge. Map 569. Rare and local in the southern 
counties in cypress swamps and swampy or low open woods. 

Del. to Ky., Ind., and Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



EXCLUDED SPECIES 

1. Carex radiata (Wahl.) Dewey. Reported, as Carex rosea var. radiata 
Dewey, from Allen County, the Chicago region (including Lake and Porter 
Counties) , and the Lower Wabash Valley but the reports were made before 
this species and C. rosea were clearly understood. The specimen upon 
which the Allen County record was based is C. rosea and doubtless the 



°72 



( \ peraceae Carex 



specimens forming the bases of other reports should be referred to the 

same species. 

Que. to Mich.. Bouthw. to N. C. and Tenn. 

2 Carex austrina (Small) Mack. Deam reported this southern and 
western species from Benton County in 1928 on the basis of a collection 
(Deam no. 18219) which Mackenzie so determined. This collection is C. 
gravida. The specimen in the Deam Herbarium approaches var. Lunelliana 
in its rather broadly ovate, short-beaked perigynia. In his treatment of 
the Cariceae in North American Flora (18: 57. 1931.) Mackenzie does not 
cite Carex austrina from Indiana. 

Mo. and Kans. to Ark. and Tex. 

3 Carex vulpinoidea Michx. var. pycnocephala Hermann. A collection 
by Deam (Steuben County, June 17, 1903) is referred to this variety in 
Rhodora 38: 363. 1936. Since this is the only specimen known from In- 
diana, however, and since it is not entirely typical it seems best to exclude 
it until additional and characteristic material may be found. 

Mich, and Minn. ; probably elsewhere on sandy shores of the Great Lakes. 

4. Carex canescens L. There have been many reports of this northern 
species from Indiana but all specimens so labeled proved to be either var. 
disjuncta or var. subloliacea (except E. J. Hill's no. 60, which is C. tenera.) 
Without doubt typical C. canescens is not found in Indiana. 

Lab. to B. C, locally southw. to Conn, and n. Mich. ; also in Eurasia. 

5. Carex brunnescens (Pers.) Poir. Both Pepoon and Peattie have re- 
ported this sedge from Lake County but no specimens from there could 
be located in the Indiana herbaria, nor in the Field Museum, Chicago 
Academy of Sciences, Gray Herbarium, National Herbarium or the herbaria 
of the Universities of Illinois, Wisconsin, or Michigan. Since the species 
is known from Ohio and from at least as far southwest as Kalamazoo 
County, Michigan, it is not improbable that it does occasionally reach 
northern Indiana. 

Greenland, Lab., and Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. J. (in the mts. to 
N. C.)i Colo., and Wash.; also in Eurasia. 

6. Carex exilis Dewey. A species principally of the Coastal Plain, 
known in the Great Lakes region only from northern Michigan, Ontario, 
and Minnesota. Its occurrence in Steuben County, from which Bradner 
reported it, seems unlikely and it is excluded for want of a confirming 
specimen. 

Lab. to Del. ; locally inland in Vt., N. Y., Ont., Mich., and Minn. 

7. Carex slellulata Gooden. This and Carex Leersii Willd. are now con- 
sidered to be synonymous with C. muricata L. The numerous Indiana 
reports of C. stellulata and C. Leersii may have been based upon almost 
any species of § Stellulatae, probably chiefly upon C. inconvperta and C. 
sterilis. 

8. Carex muricata L. A boreal species known from Greenland to New- 
foundland, Quebec, Alaska, and northern Eurasia. It is hardly feasible to 



Carex Cyperaceae 273 

attempt to make any disposition of MacDougal's report from Putnam 
County in Coulter's Catalogue. Carex muricata of most American authors 
of that period was C. spicata Hudson, a European species of %Bracteosae 
which has become established locally from Nova Scotia to Virginia and 
Ohio. 

9. Carex cephalantha (Bailey) Bickn. This northern and eastern 
species was reported by Pepoon from Lake County as C. stellulata var. 
cephalantha (Bailey) Fern., but no specimen could be found. Its occur- 
rence in Indiana is improbable. 

Newf. to n. Mich, and Wis., southw. to Md., also on the Pacific coast 
in Wash, and Vancouver Island. 

10. Carex Merritt-Fernaldii Mack. Peattie reports this species from 
Dune Park (Porter County) and the Calumet District (Lake County). 
The only specimen which could be found bearing this name, a collection 
by Umbach from Lake County in the University of Wisconsin Herbarium, 
is C. brevior. C. Merritt-Ferimldii has not been found in southern Michi- 
gan and it is not likely that its range extends as far south as Indiana. 

Maine to Man., southw. to Mass. and n. N. Y. 

11. Carex hormathodes Fern. Pepoon includes this species of the salt 
marshes of the Atlantic coast in his "Flora of the Chicago Region" with the 
statement "bogs, not common." Collections upon which this report was 
based could not be found but in all probability they should be referred to 
C. Richii. Deam no. 54013, from near a small creek in a field a fourth 
mile south of Archerville, Tippecanoe County, is more suggestive of this 
species than any other but the specimen is immature. No other Coastal 
Plain species are known from this area so that an occurrence of C. horma- 
thodes here would seem to be almost certainly a chance introduction. 

Along the coast, Newf. to Va., in or near salt marshes. 

12. Carex projecta Mack. (Carex tribuloides var. reducta Bailey.) 
Reported from Hendricks and Marion Counties but the specimens upon 
which these reports were based are C. tribuloides. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to D. C. and Iowa. 

13. Carex foenea Willd. (Carex argyrantha Tuckerm.) Reported from 
the Lower Wabash Valley and from Gibson and Marshall Counties. Speci- 
mens upon which Schneck's report from the Lower Wabash Valley was 
based were not found but they should undoubtedly be referred to some 
other species and the other reports also were probably based upon mis- 
identifications. 

Que. to Mich., southw. to Va. and Ohio. 

14. Carex deflexa Hornem. A far northern species reported from 
Miller (Lake County) by Peattie with the statement "according to Gates." 
No specimen of his could be found, but in the University of Illinois 
Herbarium is a collection of C. Emmonsii which bore the label "Carex 
deflexa Hornem., sandy thicket, Miller, Ind. Agnes Chase no. 1791, May 
30, 1902." The nearest known locality for C. deflexa is on the Keweenaw 



274 Cyperaceae Carex 

Peninsula, Michigan, the extreme northern tip of the Upper Peninsula. 
The report of its occurrence in Indiana is not plausible. 
Greenland to Alaska, southw. to Mass., n. Mich., and B. C. 

15. Carex pedunculata Muhl. Coulter says of this species, in his 
Catalogue, "Specimens I have examined leave no room for doubt as to its 
occurrence in our area," and he ascribes a record from Steuben County 
to Bradner and one from Noble County to Van Gorder. It is more than 
likely that the species occurs, or did occur, in these northern counties 
since it is known from Kalamazoo County, Michigan, and from Jo Daviess 
County, Illinois, but it must be excluded at present for lack of a confirm- 
ing specimen. It should be looked for in rich beech or maple woods in the 
northern counties early in May as it matures early and the fruiting culms 
rapidly wither away. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va., 111., and S. Dak. 

16. Carex livida (Wahl.) Willd. Reported from Clark County by 
Baird & Taylor and from Lake County by Pepoon. No specimens could be 
found and doubtless specimens forming the basis of these reports should 
be referred to some other species. 

Sphagnum bogs, Lab. and Man. to Alaska, southw. to Conn., N. J., Mich., 
Idaho, and n. Calif. ; also in n. Europe. 

17. Carex saltuensis Bailey. (Carex vaginata of American authors.) 
A boreal species reported from Lake County by Higley & Raddin and by 
Peattie (who ascribe the record to Hill) , and by Pepoon, but no collections 
bearing this name could be found. A species which reaches the southern 
limit of its known range so much farther north is not to be expected in 
Indiana. 

Lab. to Yukon, southw. to n. New England, n. N. Y., n. Mich., n. 
Minn., and B. C. 

18. Carex ormostachya Wiegand. (Rhodora 24: 196-197. 1922.) 
Deam's report in 1928 for this species from Porter County was based 
upon a collection (Deam no. 44381) so named by Mackenzie. This collection 
should be referred to C. laxiflora, a determination confirmed (as C. anceps 
Muhl.) by Professor Wiegand in 1935. 

Que. to Minn., southw. to Mass. and Pa. 

19. Carex rectior Mack. (N. Amer. Flora 18: 261. 1935.) (Carex 
granulans var. recta Dewey.) This seems questionably distinct from C. 
granularis. Mackenzie (N. Amer. Flora 18: 262. 1935.) credits it to 
Indiana in addition to Alabama and Louisiana but the two Indiana collec- 
tions referred by him to C. rectior are immature. One (Deam no. 44317, 
Elkhart County) is so immature that it cannot be distinguished fromTTT. 
granularis by means of his key or description; the other (Deam no. 41204, 
Jefferson County) is sufficiently mature to show the perigynia to be 
strongly ribbed and sessile, characters used by Mackenzie to distinguish 
C. granularis from C. rectior. 



Carex Cyperaceae 275 

20. Carex formosa Dewey. Reported from Putnam County by Grimes. 
The specimen upon which this report was based (Grimes no. 540, in 
DePauw University Herbarium) is C. Davisii. In Coulter's Catalogue 
also C. formosa is reported from Putnam County and the record ascribed 
to MacDougal. The collection which formed the basis of this report, too, 
should doubtless be referred to some other species. 

Que. to Wis., southw. to Conn, and N. Y. ; very local. 

21. Carex arctata Boott. Bradner reported this species from Steuben 
County but no specimen could be found so it must be excluded. It is known 
in Ohio and in southwestern Michigan (Kalamazoo County; reported also 
from Berrien County) so that it is quite possible that it is, or was, native 
in dry rich woods in northern Indiana. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Pa. and Ohio. 

22. Carex pallescens L. Both Pepoon and Peattie report this species 
from Lake County, basing the reports on a record by Hill from Berry 
Lake. No specimens have been seen. Smith's report from Marion County 
and Schneck's from the Lower Wabash Valley unquestionably must have 
been based upon misidentifications, and the occurrence of the species even 
in northernmost Indiana is very doubtful. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to N. J., Pa., and 111. ; also in Eurasia. 

23. Carex scabrata Schwein. Reported from Lake County by Higley & 
Raddin and by Peattie but no Indiana specimens could be found. 

N. S. to Ont. and Mich., southw. mostly in the mts. to S. C. and Tenn. 

24. Carex paupercula Michx. A northern species reported from Pine, 
Lake County, by Peattie and by Pepoon (as C. paupercula var. irrigua 
(Wahl.) Fern.) who ascribe the record to Hill. In all probability collec- 
tions upon which these reports were based, but which could not be found 
should be referred to C. limosa. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Pa., Minn., Colo., and Utah; also in n. 
Eurasia. 

25. Carex aquatilis Wahl. A far northern and western species which 
has been reported from Lake, Porter, La Porte, and Marion Counties. All 
material forming the basis of Indiana reports should be referred to other 
species. C. aquatilis of most manuals for this area is C. substricta 
(Kiikenth.) Mack. 

Greenland to Alaska, southw. to Que. and in the w. mts. to N. Mex. 
and Calif. ; also in n. Eurasia. 

26. Carex nebraskensis Dewey. This western sedge has been reported 
from' Fayette, Jefferson, and Tippecanoe Counties by H. S. Jackson, ap- 
parently through the misapplication of a synonym. He lists it as the 
host of a rust and cites for it a correct synonym, Carex Jamesii Torr. 
But Prof. Arthur states that the rust occurs on Carex Jamesii Schwein., 
and without doubt that is the species that Jackson had. 

S. Dak. and Kans. to N. Mex., Calif., and B. C. 



276 Cyperaceae Carex 

27. Carex crinita Lam. var. gynandra (Schwein.) Schwein. & Torr. 
Reported, as Carex gynandra Schwein., by Clark from Lake Maxinkuckee, 
Marshall County. Clark's specimen upon which this report was based was 
found in the National Herbarium and it is typical C. crinita. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to Fla. and La. 

28. Carex pauciflora Lightf. Pepoon reports this species from the 
Chicago region as common in bogs "southeast" (i.e. Lake or Porter 
Counties, Ind.), and Peattie reports it from the Calumet District (Lake 
County). No Indiana specimens could be found except a sheet in the 
herbarium of Notre Dame University bearing the label "By Mineral 
Springs (Porter County), Ind., J. A. Nieuwland, 1918." Since Dr. Nieuw- 
land usually gave the exact collection date for his specimens instead of 
merely the year, as well as a collection number, it seems possible that this 
label may have been made out from memory, rather than from field notes, 
at a date long after the actual collection. If this were so there could be 
some question whether he was really certain that the specimen had been 
collected in Indiana. The present evidence for the occurrence of the 
species in the state is hardly sufficiently conclusive to admit it as a member 
of the Indiana flora. 

Sphagnum bogs; Newf. to Alaska, southw. to Conn., Pa., and Minn., 
and near the Pacific coast to Wash. ; also in n. Eurasia. 

29. Carex Baileyi Britt. {Carex lurida var. gracilis (Boott) Bailey.) 
Reported from Clark, Marion, and Putnam Counties. Specimens were not 
found but doubtless all Indiana reports were based upon incorrect determi- 
nations. 

N. H. to N. Y., southw. in the mts. to Va. and Tenn. 

30. Carex comosa X hystricina var. Dudleyi. A hybrid reported from 
Lake County by Higley & Raddin and by Peattie. No specimens could be 
found. 



Acorus Araceae 277 

23. ARACEAE Neck. Arum Family 

Spadix cylindrical without an obvious spathe, borne on the side of a leaf like scape; 
flowers perfect, perianth present; leaves linear; rootstocks and leaves aromatic. . . . 

694. Acorus, p. 277. 

Spadix subtended by a spathe; leaves broader than the linear type. 

Spadix globose, enveloped in a very fleshy, ovoid spathe; flowers perfect, perianth 
present; mature leaves large, simple, mostly 1.5-2.5 dm wide, malodorous when 

bruised 708. Symplocarpus, p. 277. 

Spadix longer than wide; flowers without a perianth; leaves, if undivided, generally 
less than 1.5 dm wide. 
Spathes flat, divaricate, white within; spadix short-cylindric, the whole surface 

covered with flowers, at least the lower ones perfect 710. Calla, p. 277. 

Spathes convolute, at least below, enveloping the spadix; spadix elongate; flowers 
monoecious or dioecious. 

Leaves sagittate, simple; flowers covering the whole surface of the spadix 

747. Peltandra, p. 278. 

Leaves not sagittate, more or less divided into 3 or more segments; upper part 
of spadix not flower-bearing 786. Arisaema, p. 278. 

694. ACORUS L. 

1. Acorus Calamus L. Sweetflag. Calamus. Map 570. Widely dis- 
tributed in the state, mostly in noncalcareous springy places along streams 
and about lakes. Local in the lake area and in the Tipton Till Plain and 
very local to rare in the unglaciated area. It is usually found in large 
colonies, sometimes covering acres in old stream beds. This species 
flowers and fruits throughout the state. In medicine, the rootstock is 
known as calamus. 

N. S. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; also in Eurasia. 



708. SYMPLOCARPUS Salisb. 

1. Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt. (Spathyema foetida (L.) Raf.) 
Skunkcabbage. Map 571. In noncalcareous springy places throughout the 
state although there are few records from the southwestern and un- 
glaciated parts. While the habitat of this species is usually somewhat 
wetter than that of sweetflag, but otherwise similar, I have never seen 
them growing together. Acorus Calamus, however, prefers sunlight while 
this species prefers dense shade. The colonies vary in size, usually occupy- 
ing all the available space in the habitat. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Iowa. 

710. CALLA L. 

1. Calla palustris L. Wild Calla. Map 572. This species still occurs 
in La Porte County in a decadent tamarack bog about six miles west of 
La Porte and in Noble County in sec. 12 of Washington Township where 
it is found in mucky soil among Cephalanthus on the border of a Chamae- 
daphne bog. It was reported from two places in Noble County by Van 
Gorder but at both of these stations the habitat has been destroyed by 
drainage. It was reported in 1913 from La Porte and St. Joseph Counties 



278 



Araceae 



Peltandra 




5 !3 

Map 573 

Peltandra virgin ica (L ) Kunlh 





L 



Map 575 
Arisaema pusillum (Peck) Nash 



by Nieuwland, who later told me that the St. Joseph County report was 
an error. Peattie reported it on the authority of Nieuwland as found 
at Tamarack Station in Porter County, but I have not seen a specimen. 
There is no specimen from Porter County in the herbarium of the Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame. 

N. S. to Hudson Bay and Minn., southw. to N. J., Pa., Wis., and Iowa; 
also in Eurasia. 

747. PELTANDRA Raf. 

1. Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth. Virginia Arrow-arum. Map 573. 
In shallow water or in wet, mucky soil on the borders of lakes and ponds 
and along streams. Rather frequent in the lake area but rare to absent 
south of this area. The leaf blades of this species are highly variable, and 
a wide variation can be noted between the inner and outer leaves of the 
same plant. Besides the typical form, Blake (Rhodora 14: 102-106. 1 pi. 
1912) adds six forms, one of which has been reported from Indiana. I 
doubt that any of the extreme forms occur in the state although Peattie 
has reported f. hastifolia Blake from the dune region. 

S. Maine to Ont. and Mich., southw. to Fla., La., and Mo. 

786. ARISAEMA Martius 

Leaves pedately divided into 7-13 segments; spathe straight, narrow; spadix elongated 

into a caudate tip much longer than the spathe 1. A. Dracontium. 

Leaves 3-foliolate; lateral leaflets rarely cleft or parted; spathe hooded, rarely straight; 
spadix shorter than the spathe. 
Leaves green beneath; spathes purplish brown within and without; flowering about 

the middle of June; growing in bogs 2. A. pusillum. 

Leaves usually glaucous beneath ; spathes greenish or more or less densely purplish 
brown within, usually green or greenish without, rarely purplish; flowering 
before the middle of June; not growing in bogs 3. A. triphyllum. 

1. Arisaema Dracontium (L.) Schott. DRAGONROOT. Map 574. More or 
less frequent throughout the state, growing in the shade in moist, rich 
soil. 

N. E. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



Arisaema 



Araceae 



279 




o 5o 

Map 576 



Arisaema trlphyllum (L.) Schott. 




6 56 

Map 577 

Sp'rodela polyrhiza (LJ Schle'd. 




56 

Map 578 

lemna cyclostasa (Ell.) Chevalier 



2. Arisaema pusillum (Peck) Nash. (Arisaema deflexum Nieuwland 
& Just, Amer. Midland Nat. 12: 217-220. 1931.) Map 575. A comparison 
of specimens of Arisaema deflexum with a series of specimens of Arisaema 
pusillum from Maine, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and New York shows no 
essential difference. In fact, Arisaema pvisillum itself seems to be only an 
extreme form of Arisaema trlphyllum and it is reduced to synonomy in 
Gray, Manual but is maintained as a species in Britton and Brown, Il- 
lustrated Flora, ed. 2. Wiegand and Eames in their flora of the Cayuga 
basin say: "It has not been possible to separate A. pusillum (Peck) Nash 
in this region from the species (A. trlphyllum) by any constant char- 
acters." My opinion is that this plant as found in Indiana is only a well 
marked form or variety of the next species. It has been found as yet 
only in St. Joseph County where it grew in bogs. 

Maine to N. Y. and Pa., along the coast to n. Ga. and reported in s. 
Mich. 

3. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott. (Arisaema trlphyllum (L.) Torr.) 
Jack-in-THE-Pulpit. Map 576. Infrequent to frequent throughout the 
state in moist, rich woodland. It is a shade-loving species, found from 
the alluvial plains to the crests of the highest ridges and seems to have 
no correlation with Arisaema Dracontlum in its distribution. A study of 
my 69 specimens from Indiana shows that they have green and purplish 
spathes but very few have the hood purplish above, none flower as late 
as the middle of June, and none have been found in bogs. This species 
is extremely variable in the color of its spathe, in the shape of the blade 
of its hood, and in the shape of its leaflets. I have a specimen from 
De Kalb County with 4 leaflets and one each from Lake and Steuben 
Counties with the lateral leaflets parted. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla., La., and Kans. 

24. LEMNACEAE Dumort. Duckweed Family 

[Thompson, Charles Henry. A revision of the American Lemnaceae 
north of Mexico. Ann. Rept. Missouri Bot. Gard. 9 : 1-43. 3 pi. 1898. Hicks, 



280 



Lemnaceae Spirodela 



Lawrence E. The Lemnaceae of Indiana. Amer. Midland Nat. 18: 774- 

789. 1937.] 

Plants of this family are small in size and wholly aquatic, living on or 
under the surface of the water. Anyone interested in the study of this 
family of plants should read the "Lemnaceae of Indiana" by Lawrence E. 
Hicks. All of my specimens have been studied by Prof. Hicks. The follow- 
ing text has been copied from his paper and acknowledgment is hereby 
made. 

Plants with roots and two reproductive pouches from each node. 

Each plant of a group with several roots growing out in a fascicle from the node; 
plants 2.2-6.5 mm wide and 2.4-9.5 mm long, usually reddish below and with 
a red eye spot (the node) above; dorsal surface of living specimens a glossy 
green 794. Spirodela, p. 280. 

Each plant of a group with only one root 795. Lemna, p. 280. 

Plants without roots and with only one reproductive pouch from each node. 

Plants thick and globular 796. Wolffia, p. 281. 

Plants thin and straplike, usually submerged and attached in groups shaped like 
rimless wheels 796A. Wolffiella, p. 282. 

794. SPIRODELA Schleid. 

1. Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. GREATER DUCKWEED. Map 577. 
Locally abundant throughout the state in lakes, ponds, swamps, ditches, 
and sluggish streams. These plants are preyed upon by insects. 

N. S., Ont. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. ; also in Eu., Asia, 
and tropical Amer. 

795. LfiMNA L. 

Plants feather-shaped with the basal portions of the long internodes narrowed into 

petiolelike stems, usually submerged 1. L. trisulca. 

Plants oval to oblong, without petiolelike stems, connecting plants appearing sessile, 
usually floating. 
Shape of plants symmetrical or nearly so. 

Plants deep green, thickish, convex on both surfaces, obscurely 3-veined, cavernous 
throughout, appearing medium thick when pressed, sometimes reddish or 

purplish, especially below; margins thick 2. L. minor. 

Plants usually pale green, lower surface nearly flat, obscurely 1-nerved, cavernous 

in the middle portions only; membranous when dried; margins thin 

3. L. minima. 

Shape of plants unsymmetrical. 

Body of plant obliquely obovate, medium thick, usually deep green with some 
reddish purple, distinctly 3-veined, cavernous throughout; root sheath with 

lateral wing appendages 4. L. perpusilla. 

Body of plant long-oblong, thin, pale green, obscurely 1-veined; root sheath unap- 
pendaged; cavernous in the middle portions only 5. L. cyclostasa. 

1. Lemna trisulca L. SUBMERGED DUCKWEED. Map 578. Found com- 
monly in ponds, shallow lakes, sloughs, and bogs, often growing beneath 
floating species, preferring cold, shaded water. 

N. S., Ont. to B. C, southw. to Fla., Tex., and Calif. ; also in parts of Eu., 
Asia, Africa, and Australia. 

2. Lemna minor L. Lesser Duckweed. Map 579. Throughout the state 



Wolffia 



Lemnaceae 



281 



— 


Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 
June 
July 
Au& 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 


f 












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i- 






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o ~53 
Map 579 

ipi 




Map 580 



Lemna minor L 




but more general in the lake area and in the area drained by the Wabash 
River. 

Throughout continental America except the extreme northern part ; also 
in Eu., Asia, Africa, and Australia. 

3. Lemna minima Phillipi. Least Duckweed. Map 580. The habitats 
are similar to those of the other species of the genus. It is known in 
Indiana only from Allen, Cass, and Sullivan Counties. The only Ohio 
record is from a pond in Paulding County within three or four miles of 
Allen County, Indiana. 

Ohio, Ind., Minn., Wyo. to Calif., southw. to Fla., La., and Tex. ; also in 
Mex., Cent. Amer., into S. A. 

4. Lemna perpusilla Torr. Minute Duckweed. Map 581. Known only 
in the northern third of the state. The only Ohio record is from Mercer 
County within six miles of Randolph County, Indiana. 

Mass., N. Y., Ohio, Ind., Wis., Minn, to N. Dak., southw. to Fla., Ark., 
and Kans. ; also in S. A. 

5. Lemna cyclostasa (Ell.) Chevalier. Pale Duckweed. Map 582. This 
species is local in the lake area and found in organic debris in completely 
stagnant water in swamps and ponds. 

Mass., N. Y., Ohio, Ind., 111., Wis., Wyo. to Nev., southw. to Fla., Tex., 
and Calif. ; also in Jamaica, Mex., Cent. Amer., and S. A. 

796. WOLFFIA Horkel 

Plants globose or nearly so, not punctate, loosely cellular; upper surface convex with 
usually three conspicuous papules; plants not prominent above the surface of the 

water 1. W. Columbiana. 

Plants more or less flattened above and gibbous beneath, brown-punctate, more com- 
pactly cellular; plants prominent on the surface of the water. 
Body of plant rounded-ovate, strongly gibbous, slightly unsymmetrical; dorsal sur- 
face with a single large conical papule 2. W. papulifera. 

Body of plant more or less oblong with upturned acute tip (peanut-shaped), slightly 
gibbous, symmetrical; dorsal surface with a prominent papule near the center. 
3. W. punctata. 



282 



Xyridaceae 



Wolffiella 





50 

Map 583 



Wolf f la columbiana Karst. 




Miles 
56 

Map 584 



Wolffia punctata Griseb. 



1. Wolffia columbiana Karst. COMMON WOLFFIA. Map 583. Locally very 
abundant in permanently stagnant waters that abound in organic debris. 

Mass., N. Y., Mich, to Minn., southw. to Fla., La., and Tex.; also in 
Mex., Cent. Amer., and S. A. 

2. Wolffia papulifera Thompson. Pointed Wolffia. Found in isolated 
small colonies in permanent pools of stagnant water rich in organic matter. 
Known in Indiana only from Posey County. It has been found in only 
eight states. 

Ohio, Ind., 111., Ky., Tenn., Mo., Ark., and Kans. 

3. Wolffia punctata Griseb. Dotted Wolffia. Map 584. Locally abun- 
dant in the habitats of the genus. 

Conn., N. Y., Mich, to Minn., southw. to La. and Tex. 

796A. WOLFFIELLA Hegelmaier 

1. Wolffiella floridana (J. D. Smith) Thompson. STAR WOLFFIELLA. Map 
585. Restricted to wholly stagnant bodies of water and very local in the 
northern range of its distribution. 

Ont., Mich., Wis., and Mo., southw. to Fla., La., and Tex.; also in Mex. 

29. XYRIDACEAE Lindl. Yellow-eyed Grass Family 

826. XYRIS [Gronov.] L. Yellow-eyed Grass 

Base of plant bulbous; lateral sepals wingless, the keel ciliate 1. X. torta. 

Base of plant not bulbous; lateral sepals winged, the keel winged and erose above the 
middle 2. X. caroliniana. 

1. Xyris torta J. E. Smith. (Xyris flexuosa Muhl.) Map 586. Local in 
the northwestern part of the state in moist, sandy soil about lakes and 
in prairie habitats and fallow fields. 

Maine to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Mo. 

2. Xyris caroliniana Walt. Map 587. In the moist, sandy borders of 
lakes, sloughs, and marshes. This species is very local. The fact that a 
few plants were found on the border of a small lake in Wells County 



Eriocaulon 



Eriocaulaceae 



283 








*] D \ 




















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Mar. 


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£p-ls^<j^V ^ Map 587 


Xyris caroliniana Walt 





suggests that it may have been more frequent than our reports indicate 
because the plant is so inconspicuous. 

In the Coastal Plain states from Maine to Fla. and La. ; also in n. Ind. 
and s. Mich. 

30. ERIOCAULACEAE Lindl. Pipewort Family 
828. ERIOCAULON [Gronov.] L. 
1. Eriocaulon septangulare With. (Eriocaulon articulatum (Huds.) 
Morong.) (Rhodora 11: 40-41. 1909.) Map 588. Local but common where 
found, in shallow water on the borders of lakes, usually in marly soil. 
Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and Ind. 

33. COMMELINACEAE Reichenb. Spiderwort Family 
Petals unequal; perfect stamens 3; filaments naked; bracts spathelike 

896. Commelina, p. 283. 

Petals equal; perfect stamens 6; filaments bearded; bracts leaf like or small and 

scarious 911. Tradescantia, p. 285. 

896. COMMELINA [Plum.] L. Dayflower 

[Pennell. The genus Commelina [Plum.] L. in the United States. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club 43: 96-111. 1916.] 

The species of this genus have not been understood, hence most of our 
records are of uncertain identity. I do not attempt to give the synonomy of 
all of our species. 

Spathelike involucre open at the base, the edges not united, ciliate or minutely rough- 
ened; leaves mostly of a lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate type, 4-8 cm long. 
Two posterior petals blue; anterior petal much smaller, narrow, white; capsules 
2-celled; seed 2 in each cell; plants usually much branched; top of leaf sheath 

without long, rusty hairs 1. C. communis. 

All three petals blue, the anterior one much smaller; capsules 3-celled, one cell 

1-seeded and indehiscent; seed 5 2. C. diffusa. 

Spathelike involucre with the edges united at the base, the margins smooth; leaves of 
a linear-lanceolate or lanceolate type, or very wide (2-5 cm) and of a lanceo- 
late or elliptic type. 



284 



COMMELINACEAE 



Commelina 



1 

4 
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Mar. 

Apr. 

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July 

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Map 588 

e With. 




50 

Map 589 



Commelina communis L. 












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Map 590 


Commelina diffusa Burm. f. 



Top of leaf sheath with long, rusty hairs; plants relatively robust and erect; leaves 
mostly lanceolate, usually 2-5 cm wide and 8-20 cm long; all petals blue and 
nearly equal; capsules 3-celled, one cell 1-seeded and indehiscent, the other two 

cells with 2 seed each, sometimes one seed aborting 3. C. virginica. 

Top of leaf sheath without long, rusty hairs; plants rather slender, erect or ascend- 
ing; leaves linear or lance-linear, smaller than those of the preceding; two petals 
blue, one white and much smaller; capsules 3-celled, 1 seed in each cell, 1 cell 
indehiscent, rotund. 
Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate; posterior petals usually 10-15 (20) mm long; 
anterior petal about 1 mm wide; seed of an orbicular type.. .4. C. angustifolia. 
Leaves lanceolate; posterior petals usually 12-25 mm long, the anterior one rudi- 
mentary, usually about 1 mm wide and 3-5 mm long 5. C. erecta. 

1. Commelina communis L. (Pennell. "Commelina communis" in the 
Eastern United States. Bartonia 19: 19-22. 1938.) Common Dayflower. 
Map 589. My specimens are mostly from moist soil along roadsides and 
in cultivated grounds. Three specimens were measured in the field and 
their measurements are as follows: blades of the blue petals 5-11 mm 
wide and about as long; the white one about 3 mm wide and 5 mm long. 

Peattie (Amer. Midland Nat. 10: 130. 1926. Note that in this volume 
there are two pages numbered 130) described and named a form of this 
species. He says this is a form with "the branches in whorls of 3-5 and 
the leaves broadly ovate; large ovate-lanceolate papery bracts accompany 
each verticel." Type specimen in the Field Museum, collected near Pine, 
Lake County, October 31, 1908, by C. W. Duesner. I have seen this 
specimen and I believe it is only a late autumnal form of the species. 

Nat. of e. Asia; Mass. to N. C, westw. to Mo., Kans., and Tex. 

2. Commelina diffusa Burm. f. (Jour. Arnold Arb. 18: 64-65. 1937.) 
(Commelina longicaulis Jacq. and Commelina nudiftora of Britton and 
Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Map 590. In moist, wet, or muddy places along 
streams and in ditches and cultivated grounds in the southern part of the 
state. The petals are very variable in size. Five specimens were measured 
in the field and the measurements are as follows: the blades of the largest 
petals ranged from 2.25-10 mm wide and about as long, the smallest were 



Tradescantia Commelinaceae 285 

about 1.25-4 mm wide and nearly as long. This is a tropical species that 
ranges northward to the southern part of this state. 

N. J. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex., and in tropical Amer. 

3. Commelina virginica L. (Commelina hirtella Vahl.) VIRGINIA Day- 
flower. Map 591. Found only in the southern part of the state in wet 
woods and sloughs and along streams. This is our largest species and 
usually forms colonies. No doubt all early reports of this species for the 
state should be referred to some other species. Commelina erecta of Gray, 
Man., ed. 5 is a synonym of this species and Coulter's and Young's reports 
for it from Jefferson County should be referred to Commelina virginica L. 

Pa. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

4. Commelina angustifolia Michx. Narrowleaf Dayflower. Map 592. 
This species grows in almost pure, fine sand and is found on sand hills 
along roadsides, on high, sandy banks of lakes and streams, and on the 
open dunes about Lake Michigan. Three specimens were measured in the 
field and the blades of the posterior petals averaged from 17-18 mm wide 
and 14-17 mm long and the anterior or white petals averaged about 1 mm 
wide. 

N. C. to Ind., southw. to Fla. and Tex. ; also in Cuba. 

5. Commelina erecta L. (Including the reports of Commelina crispa 
Wooton from Indiana.) I found a specimen along the roadside 2 miles 
west of Yankeetown, Warrick County, which I am referring to this 
species. Pennell (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 107. 1916) reported two 
specimens from the dunes about Lake Michigan as Commelina crispa 
Wooton and I am including them in this species. The name of this species 
should not be confused with the same name applied to other species by 
early authors. 

N. Y. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

911. TRADESCANTIA [Rupp.] L. Spiderwort 

[Anderson and Woodson. The species of Tradescantia indigenous to the 
United States. Contr. Arnold Arboretum 9: 1-132. 1935.] 

Plants glaucous, essentially glabrous throughout, robust, mostly of a dry, sandy 
habitat; flowering from the first of June through the summer; sepals glabrous 

or with a few hairs at the apex, 8-15 mm long; pedicels 1-1.5 cm long 

1. T. canaliculata. 

Plants not glaucous, more or less pubescent throughout; woodland species of a moist 
or dry habitat; sepals pubescent, rarely glabrous. 
Plants dwarf, generally less than 1 dm high, rarely 1.5 dm high, covered all over 
with long, weak hairs; sepals tinted with pink, about 1 cm long. (See excluded 

species no. 127, p. 1033.) T. brevicaulis. 

Plants usually more than 1 dm high, not covered all over with long, weak hairs; 

sepals very green. 

Stems fiexuous, at least above the lowest inflorescence; leaves lanceolate, the 

median ones usually 2-5 cm wide; flowering from the first of June until frost; 

cymes both terminal and axillary; sepals mostly 6-8 mm long; pedicels 1-1.5 

cm long 2. T. subaspera. 

Stems not flexuous; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, the median ones less than 
2 cm wide; sepals 8-15 mm long. 



2«l> 



COMMELINACEAE 



Tradescantia 



• 






f 










Jan. 
Feb 

Mjr 
Apr. 
May 

June 

July 

AuJ 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 












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J 50 

Map 591 
L. 




50 

Map 592 



Commelina angustifolia Michx. 




~M 

Map 593 

Tradescantia cana Mculata Raf. 



Pubescence of pedicels and sepals non-glandular; plants of dry woodland, flower- 
ing from the last of April to the first of June and usually soon dying down; 
cymes mostly terminal, rarely both terminal and axillary; pedicels 1.5-4 
cm long 3. T. virginiana. 

Pubescence of pedicels and sepals glandular. (See excluded species no. 126, 
p. 1032. ) T. bracteata. 

1. Tradescantia canaliculata Raf. {Tradescantia reflexa Raf. of Gray, 
Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Glaucous Spider- 
wort. Map 593. This species prefers the open and is generally found in 
dry, sandy or gravelly soil, along roadsides, on sand hills and high banks 
of lakes, and on the dunes. It is rarely found in swampy places but is 
frequent in moist, prairie habitats. This is a rank growing species with 
several color forms which have been named and which persist under 
cultivation. 

N. C., Ohio to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

la. Tradescantia canaliculata f. albifldra (Slavin & Nieuwl.) comb. nov. 
(Tradescantia reflexa f. albi flora Slavin & Nieuwl. Amer. Midland Nat. 11 : 
600. 1929.) This is a white-flowered form which is rather frequent where 
the species is found. 

lb. Tradescantia canaliculata f. Lesteri (Standley) comb. nov. 
(Tradescantia reflexa f. Lesteri Standley. Rhodora 32: 32. 1930.) This 
is a form with "poppy-red" colored flowers which was found near Tremont, 
Porter County, by Lester A. Beatty. 

lc. Tradescantia canaliculata f. Mariae (Standley) comb. nov. 
(Tradescantia reflexa f. Mariae Standley. Rhodora 32: 32. 1930.) This 
form with white petals, margined with lilac was found near Fowler, Benton 
County, by Mary Bremer. 

2. Tradescantia subaspeia Ker var. typica Anderson & Woodson. 
(Contr. Arnold Arboretum 9: 49. 1935.) (Tradescantia pilosa Lehm.) 
Zigzag Spiderwort. Map 594. Usually infrequent but well distributed 
throughout the state except in the northern part from which there are no 



Pontederia 



PONTEDERIACEAE 



287 




Map 594 
I radescantia subaspera Ker 
var typica Anderson & Woodson 




o 53 

Map 596 

Pontederia cordata L 



records or specimens. It is a woodland species and is rarely found in the 
open. It prefers the moist, rich, wooded terrace slopes along streams and 
the slopes of ravines and is less frequent in level woods. 
Pa. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and La. 

3. Tradescantia virginiana L. Virginia Spiderwort. Map 595. Infre- 
quent but well distributed in the southern two thirds of the state, becoming 
less frequent to very rare in the northern counties. This is a woodland 
species and is rarely found in the open. It is usually found in dry clayey 
soil in white oak, white oak and black oak, and beech and sugar maple 
woods. White and rose colored forms are sometimes found and they 
persist under cultivation. 

Southern N. Y. to S. Dak., southw. to Va., Ky., and Ark. 



34. PONTEDERIACEAE Dumort. Pickerelweed Family 

[Moldenke. Pontederiaceae of North America. N. Amer. Flora 19: 
51-60. 1937.] 

Plants erect; leaves large, cordate to lanceolate; flowers blue, 2-lipped; stamens 6; 

utricle 1-seeded 922. Pontederia, p. 287. 

Plants floating or prostrate on mud; leaves linear, very narrow or reniform; flowers 

yellow, white or pale blue; perianth salver-shaped; stamens 3; capsule many-seeded. 

924. Heteranthera, p. 288. 

922/ PONTEDERIA L. 

[Fernald (Rhodora 27: 80. 1925) gives a key to the "Pontederias of 
temperate North America," which is copied here in part.] 

Leaves cordate at base. 

Leaves narrowly deltoid-ovate, tapering with straight sides from the base to the 

apex 1. p. cordata. 

Leaves broadly ovate, gradually curved from the broad base to the blunt summit 

la. P. cordata f. latifolia. 

Leaves truncate to tapering at base, narrowly deltoid to linear-lanceolate 

lb. P. cordata f. angustifolia. 



288 



PONTEDERIACEAE 



Heteranthera 




"TO 

Map 597 

Heteranthera reniformis R.& P. 




50 

Map 598 



Heteranthera dubia (Jacq) MacM. 




0" 5o 

Map 599 
Juncus effusus L 
var. s&Jutus Fern. & Wieg. 



1. Pontederia cordata L. Pickerelweed. Map 956. This species is fre- 
quent throughout most of the lake area but is absent or very local south 
of it. It must have its base in water most of the time, but otherwise it 
does not seem particular as to where it grows. It seems to grow nearly as 
well in almost pure marl areas as in sandy, muddy, and mucky borders. 
However, I find the largest specimens in mucky borders of lakes. The 
trimorphic flowers of this species are interesting to one who can give the 
time to their study. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Va. and Tex. 

la. Pontederia cordata f. latifolia (Farw.) House. This form, in the 
extreme, is well marked but our specimens seem to intergrade so much 
that it is a question whether the two forms should be maintained. The 
range is the same as that of the species. 

115. Pontederia cordata f. angustifolia (Pursh) Solms-Laubach. This 
form is distinctly marked but I am not certain that another form may not 
be on the same rhizome. On the low, marly shore of the southeast side of 
Simonton Lake, Elkhart County, I made a study of this form. I found it 
farther out in the lake in a zone of water a little deeper than where the 
species grew. The species grew in a dense stand while the form was not 
so dense. I did not realize, until recently, the significance of this form 
although I have found it in several counties. Rather rare in Indiana. 

P. E. I. to Wis., southw. to Ind. and southeast of the Appalachian Mts. 



924. HETERANTHERA H. & P. Mud Plantain 

Leaves reniform; flowers white or pale blue 1. H. reniformis. 

Leaves linear; flowers yellow 2. H. dubia. 

1. Heteranthera reniformis R. & P. MUD PLANTAIN. Map 597. Very 
local in ponds in the southern counties. I have found it on the muddy shore 
of Hovey Lake, Posey County and elsewhere in natural and artificial ponds. 



Heteranthera Pontederiaceae 289 

There is a specimen in the herbarium of DePauw University which was 
collected by D. T. MacDougal in Putnam County, Sept. 12, 1889. 

Conn., Nebr., southw. to Ga. and Tex. ; also in W. I. and to Cent. Amer. 

2. Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Water Stargrass. Map 598. 
Rather frequent in the lake area on the shallow borders of lakes, in the 
Tippecanoe and St. Joseph Rivers, and on sandy bars and mud flats along 
streams, becoming rare in the southern part of the state. It is so inconspic- 
uous that it is usually overlooked. Sometimes it grows in great masses with 
such acquatic plants as Potamogeton and Utricularia. The deepest water 
from which I have a specimen is 4 feet but I know that it grows in even 
deeper water. It is most conspicuous on muddy flats in late autumn when 
the water of its habitat recedes. 

Que. to Oreg., southw. to N. C, Ark. and Ariz. 



290 JUNCACEAE JuilCUS 

36. JUNCACEAE Vent. Rush Family* 

Plants glabrous; capsule usually 3-celled, with very numerous minute seeds 

936. Juncus. p. 290. 

Plants hairy or arachnoid; capsule 1-celled, with 3 large seeds 997. Lnzula, p. 300. 

936. JUNCUS [Tourn.] L. 

Inflorescence apparently growing from the side of the culm, the involucral bract terete, 
erect and appearing like a continuation of the culm; culm leaves reduced to blade- 
less sheaths. (Section Genuini.) 
Stamens 3, opposite the sepals; inflorescence greenish or stramineous; rootstocks 
short-creeping with inconspicuous internodes; culms densely cespitose. 
Sepals not exceeding the petals, rarely exceeding the capsule, 2.5-3.5 mm long, 
slightly if at all spreading, about the same color as the capsule; culms not 

sulcate 1. J. effusus var. solutus. 

Sepals exceeding both the petals and the capsule, 2.7-4 mm long, more rigid and 
spreading, usually lighter in color than the capsule; culms sulcate below the 

inflorescence la. J. effusus var. Pylaei. 

Stamens 6, opposite the sepals and petals; inflorescence dark brown at maturity; 
rootstocks long-creeping with conspicuous internodes; culms usually well sepa- 
rated, arising in a single row. 
Inflorescence not diffuse, 1.5-3.5 cm long; flowers approximate or subapproximate. 

2. J. balticus var. littoralis. 

Inflorescence diffuse, 4-12 cm long; flowers widely separated 

2a. J. balticus var. littoralis f . dissitiflorus. 

Inflorescence obviously terminal or, if not, the involucral bracts fiat or channeled along 
the upper side; culm leaves with well developed blades. 
Leaves flat, or in age involute, not septate (in J. Greenei terete but not septate). 
Flowers borne singly on the branches of the inflorescence, not in heads, each with 
a pair of bracteoles at the base in addition to the bractlet at the base of the 
pedicel. (Section Poiophylli.) 
Inflorescence more than half the height of the plant; flowers scattered along the 

loose forking branches; annual 3. J. bufonius. 

Inflorescence much less than half the height of the plant; perennial. 

Perianth segments obtuse, appressed ; leaf sheaths covering half of the stem or 

more 4. J. Gerardi. 

Perianth segments acute or acuminate, usually more or less spreading; leaf 
sheaths covering a fourth of the stem or less. 
Leaves terete; capsule much exceeding the perianth, reddish or castaneous. 

5. J. Greenei. 

Leaves flat; capsule little if at all exceeding the perianth, green to stramine- 
ous or dull brown. 
Bracts shorter than the inflorescence; flowers conspicuously secund on 
the usually incurved branches; capsule 3-celled; leaves usually less 

than a third the height of the culms 6. J. sectindus. 

Rracts (at least the lowermost) exceeding the inflorescence; flowers not 

conspicuously secund; capsule 1-celled or imperfectly 3-celled; leaves 

usually about half the height of the culms. 

Auricles at the summit of the sheaths very thin, white, and scarious, 

conspicuously produced beyond the point of insertion, 1-3.5 mm 

long; bracteoles blunt. 

Flowers mostly clustered at the tips of the branches I.J. macer. 

Flowers scattered or somewhat secund along the branches. 

* Contributed by Frederick J. Hermann, University of Michigan. 



Juncus Juncaceae 291 

Ultimate floriferous branchlets widely spreading, 0.5-2 cm long.... 

7a. J. macer f. Williamsii. 

Ultimate floriferous branchlets elongate and ascending. 

Ultimate floriferous branchlets rarely over 4 cm long; sepals 
and petals mostly subequal; capsule averaging three fourths 
the length of the acuminate sepals; plant generally stout. . . . 

7b. J. macer f . anthelatus. 

Ultimate floriferous branchlets often 7 cm long; sepals attenuate- 
subulate, usually conspicuously longer than the petals; 
capsule averaging half the length of the sepals; plant gen- 
erally slender, often lax 7c. J. macer f. discretiflorus. 

Auricles at the summit of the sheaths firm, not conspicuously produced 
beyond the point of insertion. 

Bracteoles acuminate to aristate; auricles with the very slight- 
ly produced portion membranaceous, not rigid (easily 
broken), stramineous, often tinged with brown or light 
red, occasionally somewhat cartilaginous along the sides 
below the summit; inflorescence generally loose; perianth 

from appressed to slightly spreading 8. /. interior. 

Bracteoles blunt to acute; auricles cartilaginous, yellow, be- 
coming brown with age, very rigid and glossy, especially 
the short produced portion; inflorescence generally com- 
pact; perianth widely spreading 9. J. Dudleyi. 

Flowers in heads, not bracteolate, i.e., with only the bractlet at the base of the 
pedicel. (Section Graminifolii.) 
Stamens not exserted in fruit; perianth exceeding the obovate, usually dull 
capsule; heads few (2-20), flowers many (5-10) in a head; culms cespitose, 

bulbous at base 10. «/. marginatus. 

Stamens exserted in fruit; perianth usually shorter than the ovoid, shining 
capsule; heads numerous (20-100); flowers few (2-6) in a head; culms 
solitary or few together from an elongate, nodulose rhizome; plant taller 
and coarser. 

Inflorescence loose; heads remote, 2-3 (rarely 6)-flowered 11. J. bifloms. 

Inflorescence compact; heads approximate, 3-6-flowered 

11a. J. bifiorus f. adinus. 

Leaves terete, hollow, septate. (Section Septati.) 
Seeds with tail-like appendages. 

Heads few to many; flowers 5-50 in a head; flowers with mature fruit about 4 
mm long; perianth segments subulate-tipped; capsule equaling or moder- 
ately exceeding the calyx; seed (including tails) 1-1.8 mm long, with con- 
spicuous tails 12. J. canadensis. 

Heads numerous in a diffuse panicle; flowers 3-5 in a head; flowers with 
mature fruit 2.5-3.5 mm long; perianth segments obtuse or nearly so, 
scarious-margined, less rigid; capsule usually much exceeding the calyx; 

seed (including tails) barely 1 mm long, the tails very short 

13. J. brachycephalus. 

Seeds without tail-like appendages. 
Stamens 3, opposite the sepals. 

Capsule tapering evenly to the tip or subulate-beaked, distinctly exceed- 
ing the calyx. 
Heads numerous; flowers 2-7 in a head; inflorescence very large and 

diffuse; capsule gradually attenuate 14. J. diffusissimus. 

Heads few; flowers very numerous in a head; capsule subulate 

15. J. scirpoides. 

Capsule obtuse or acute at the apex, from shorter than to slightly exceed- 
ing the calyx. 



292 Juncaceae Juncus 

Capsule half to two thirds as long as the calyx; sepals rigid, subulate, 
much longer than the petals; heads spherical; culms from thick, 

elongate rhizomes 16. J. brachycarpus. 

Capsule nearly equaling or exceeding the calyx; sepals and petals sub- 
equal; heads usually hemispherical; culms cespitose, not rhizomatous. 
Heads 1-50; flowers several to many in a head; perianth 3-3.5 mm long; 

capsule acute or mucronate 17. J. acuminatus. 

Heads 200-500; flowers few in a head; perianth 2-2.5 mm long; capsule 
shorter, broader, much less rigid, blunt; nodes fewer, less con- 
spicuous, of the same color as the culm 18. J. nodatus. 

Stamens 6. 

Flowers solitary or in pairs, often reduced to fascicles of small leaves 

19. J. pelocarpus. 

Flowers more numerous, in heads. 

Heads spherical, few, large (7-15 mm wide); capsule subulate; sepals 
subulate; involucral bract usually exceeding the inflorescence. 
Plant low, 1-4 dm high; leaf blades erect or ascending; flowers 3-4 mm 

long; petals usually equaling or exceeding the sepals 

20. J. nodosus. 

Plant taller, 4-10 dm high; leaf blades divaricate; flowers 4-5 mm long; 

petals usually shorter than the sepals 21. J. Torreyi. 

Heads hemispherical, more numerous, smaller (6 mm wide or less); capsule 
ovoid or ellipsoid; sepals blunt or acute; involucral bract shorter than 
the inflorescence. 
Sepals and petals acute or acuminate; capsule strongly acute; branches 
of the inflorescence usually widely spreading. .. .22. /. articulatus. 
Sepals and petals mostly obtuse, often scarious at the apex; capsule 
from obtuse to broadly acute or apiculate; branches of the inflores- 
cence rarely widely spreading. 
Heads loosely few-flowered, usually with one or more flowers ele- 
vated on slightly prolonged peduncles; branches of the inflores- 
cence erect or strongly ascending. . .23. J. alpinus var. rariflorus. 
Heads compactly and regularly several- to many-flowered; branches 

of the inflorescence spreading-ascending 

23a. J. alpinus var. fuscescens. 

1. Juncus effusus L. var. solutus Fern. & Wieg. (Rhodora 12: 
90. 1910.) Map 599. Very common in ditches, sloughs, low fields, wet 
open woods, marshes, bogs and on borders of lakes. Often locally abundant. 

N. S. to Wis., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

la. Juncus effusus var. Pylaei (Laharpe) Fern. & Wieg. (Rhodora 
12: 92. 1910.) Map 599a. Infrequent in the northern part of the lake area, 
except on the dunes where it is frequent. A northern variety growing in 
habitats similar to the preceding variety and reaching the southern limit 
of its range in northern Indiana. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to W. Va. and Ind. 

2. Juncus balticus Willd. var. littoralis Engelm. Map 600. Infrequent 
in the dune area where it is found on the sandy borders of sloughs and 
lakes, in interdunal swales and marshes, and in moist depressions of the 
sandy beach of Lake Michigan. The elongate rootstocks of this rush, and 
of the following form, usually radiate in many directions from a common 
center and often attain a length of a yard or even several yards. 

Newf. to N. Y., Pa., and the Great Lakes. 



J uncus 



JUNCACEAE 



293 




^0 

Map 599a 
Juncus effusus L. 

var. Pylaei (Laharpe) Fern. & Wieq. 















— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. C 


UK 
ND "l 

f 


r 





» H 


D S^ 


□ 


D 


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r 1 ! 


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i 


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'J Miles 


J 


r 




1 ' 

H 

K 1 /• 


) 






3 J 








Jun 


cus 


bufonius 1 


o 50 
Map 601 















Jan 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec £ 


D 1 

r i 












r — 


\ 


( ^ 




1 






r 












V Miles 


r 


i ' — 














~yy i'V / o so 
X/^-i/ Map 600 
Juncus balticus Wi'lld. 
var. littoralis Enqelm. 




o 50 

Map 602 



Juncus Gerardi Lofsel 




Miles 

56 

Map 600a 
Juncus balticus 
var. littoralis f. dissitif lorus Enqelm. 




55 

Map 603 

Juncus Greenei Oakes & Tuckerm. 



2a. Juncus balticus var. littoralis f . dissitiflorus Engelm. (Rhodora 25 : 
208. 1923.) Map 600a. Confined to the dune area where it grows in the 
habitats of the variety but is much more common. 

Range of the variety but more common inland. 

3. Juncus bufonius L. Map 601. Common on sandy or clay roadsides 
and abandoned roads in open woods or marshes; frequent on low sandy 
lake shores, in ditches, sandy swales, and low fallow fields. 

Almost throughout North America ; cosmopolitan. 

4. Juncus Gerardi Loisel. Map 602. A Coastal Plain species which Mr. 
C. M. Ek found established in Howard County. He reports a colony about 
5 by 10 feet (July 20, 1935) on dry open ground along the Nickle Plate 
Railway 4 miles east of Kokomo. It is doubtless introduced here. In the 
"Flora of the Indiana Dunes" by Peattie the species is reported from Lake 
County but no specimens could be found. 

Along the coast, mostly in salt marshes, Newf . to Fla. ; also on the nw. 
Pacific coast, in Eurasia, and n. Africa. 



294 



JUNCACEAE 



Juncus 





Q— — 53 

Map 605a 
Juncus macer 
f. Will lamsii (Fern.) Hermann 



5. Juncus Greenei Oakes & Tuckerm. Map 603. Infrequent in the north- 
western counties in sandy soil along low roadsides, in moist depressions on 
the dunes, and especially in prairie habitats along railroads. 

Maine to Vt. and N. J. ; locally in the Great Lakes region. 

6. Juncus secundus Beauv. Map 604. Known in Indiana from a single 
collection : wet clay border of a cattail pond in a fallow field 3 miles east 
of Livonia, Washington County, June 17, 1935, F. J. Hermann no. 6705. 
It has been reported from Putnam County by Wilson but no specimen 
could be found to substantiate the report. 

Maine to Vt. and N. C, and in the Mississippi Valley from Tenn. to 111. 
and Mo. 

7. Juncus macer S. F. Gray. (Jour. Bot. 68: 367. 1930.) (Juncus tenuis 
of authors, not Willd. ; including Juncus monostichus Bartlett.) Map 605. 
Very common in fields, pastures, ditches, open woods, waste places, and 
especially in paths and on roadsides ; infrequent on banks of streams and 
in swampy habitats. 

Juncus monostichus (originally described from Madison County) is a 
pathologic phase of this species in which the peculiar form of the inflores- 
cence, the shortening of the capsules, and the tendency toward sterility 
are induced by a fungus infection. 

Deam no. 55051 is exceptional in having the auricles scarcely prolonged, 
the inflorescence much congested and perianth unusually large. Inter- 
mediates between the species and its forms are frequent; thus Deam nos. 
44784 and 53949, Peattie no. 2102, Lansing no. 2730, and Bechtel no. 13381 
approach f. Williamsii; Deam no. 25456 approaches f. anthelatus; and 
Deam no. 24 approaches f. discretiflorus. 

Almost throughout North America ; adventive in Europe, South America, 
and Australia. 

7a. Juncus macer f. Williamsii (Fern.) Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 82. 
1938.) (Juncus tenuis var. Williamsii Fern, and Juncus macer var. 



Juncus 



JUNCACEAE 



295 




33 

Map 605b 
\luncus macer 
f. anthetatus (Wieg.) Hermann 




50 

Map 607 



Juncus Dudley! Wieg. 




o 3o 

Map 605c 
Juncus macer 
f. discret iflorus Hermann 




55 

Map 608 



Juncus marginatus Rostk, 















1 — 


Jan. 












*1 HI ,1 






Feb. 












Mar. 




1 


J 




Apr. 


DP | 


"l 




rJ 1 




— 


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June 

July 
Aug. 




{ 


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Sept. 








r 


— 


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Nov. 




DP 




- X 


r 




Dec.j- 




i 












— — 








hi f 




'/ Miles 






J-* D 1 J^\ 1 


i 50 




<Jr^V ^ / Map 606 




Juncus interior Wieg. 




o 55 

Map 609 



Juncus biflorus Ell. 



Williamsii Fern.) Map 605a. Sporadic but infrequent in the habitats of 
the species. 

Local but range apparently that of the species. 

7b. Juncus macer f. anthelatus (Wieg.) Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 81. 
1938.) (Juncus tenuis var. anthelatus Wieg. and Juncus macer var. 
anthelatus (Wieg.) Fern.) Map 605b. Common in most of the habitats 
of the species but usually in wetter soils. It is more often found in 
ditches and low fallow fields and on borders of swamps or ponds than is 
the species and much less frequently along paths or dry roadsides. 

Range apparently that of the species except probably absent from arid 
regions. 

7c. Juncus macer f. discretiflorus Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 82. 1938.) 
Map 605c. Frequent in southern Indiana in low woods and swamps and 
on wet or moist clay roadsides and banks of streams. 

Southern Ind. ; doubtless also in Ky., s. Ohio, and s. 111. 



296 



JUNCACEAE 



J uncus 















— 


Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 

May 

June 
July 
Aufc 
Sept 
Oct 


JP L 

1 ° 

H 
1 CP 

h 


F 


' ) D 


D D 
H • 


' _L 

- "-^OP H D 


-OH 


J? H 


r <, 

H | 


J 


Id h 





~n 






4 r 




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i 
■ 


m 


Nov. 




1 




Dec C — 


1 


i I 


""[ 8a 1 J 

-/ Miles 










D / r 




Ju 


DC 


US 


ca' 


adensis >i 


'56' 
Map 610 

.Gay 




6 50 

Map 6 
Juncus brachycephalus 

(Engelm.) Buchenau 




0^ 55 

Map 612 

Juncus diffu sissimus Buckley 



8. Juncus interior Wieg. Map 606. Frequent in moist sandy clearings, 
prairies, fallow fields, open oak flats, and ditches. 

Ind. to Wyo. and Tex. 

9. Juncus Dudleyi Wieg. Map 607. Very common in wet fields, marshes, 
ditches, low open woods, sandy or marly borders of lakes, and other moist 
open habitats. 

Newf. to Sask. and Wash., southw. to Tenn., Kans., and Mex. ; adventive 
in Scotland and Germany. 

10. Juncus marginatum Rostk. Map 608. Frequent in the western 
portion of the lake area and also in southern Indiana where it is chiefly in 
the unglaciated area. It is found in moist sandy clearings, in clay fields 
or meadows, and rarely in marshes and on low prairies and borders 
of ponds. 

Maine to Ont., southw. to Fla. and Nebr. 

11. Juncus biflorus Ell. (Rhodora 37: 156. 1935.) (Juncus aristulatus 
of authors, not Michx. and Juncus marginatus var. biflorus (Ell.) Wood.) 
Map 609. Common in southern Indiana in hard white clay soils of low 
fallow fields and grassy meadows, in roadside ditches, and rare in open 
flat woods; infrequent in the lake area in moist open sandy or gravelly 
habitats, especially on borders of lakes. 

Mass. to Mich., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Mex. 

11a. Juncus biflorus f. adinus Fern. & Grisc. (Rhodora 37: 156. 1935.) 
Deam no. 26197 from a swampy fallow field a mile and a half west of 
Huron, Martin County, is typical of this form. 

12. Juncus canadensis J. Gay. (J uncus canadensis var. lotigicaudatus 
Engelm.) Map 610. Very common in the lake area but infrequent south 
of it. It is found in marshes, swales, bogs, sandy or marly ditches, and on 
low borders or sandy shores of lakes. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and La. 



J uncus 



JUNCACEAE 



297 




o 55 

Map 613 



Juncus scirpoides Lam. 




5o 

Map 614 



Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. 




To 

Map 615 

Juncus acuminatus Michx. 



13. Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buch. (Juncus canadensis var. 
brachycephalus Engelm.) Map 611. Frequent in the northern half of 
Indiana, becoming common in the lake area. It is often associated with 
other rushes, especially with /. nodosus, on low sandy or marly borders of 
lakes, in marshes and sloughs, and on springy calcareous terraces. 

A form of this species having six stamens instead of the more usual 
three has been named J. brachycephalus f. hexandrus Martin (Rhodora 
40 : 460. 1938) and Deam no. 54539A in the Herbarium of the University 
of West Virginia is designated as the type. The six-stamened condition is 
frequent in J. brachycephalus (as in /. canadensis and related species) ; in 
fact most of the Indiana collections have at least a few of the flowers with 
six stamens. As a rule a single plant will have flowers predominantly either 
3-stamened or 6-stamened ; occasionally the number will be about equally 
divided between the two, but rarely, if ever, is a plant found in which all 
of the flowers have reverted to the 6-stamened state. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to N. J., Pa., and 111. 

14. Juncus diffusissimus Buckley. Map 612. Common in southern Indi- 
ana, especially in the unglaciated area, in roadside ditches, low fallow 
fields (mostly in hard white clay soil), swampy open woods, and along the 
banks of or on gravel bars in creeks. 

N. Y. to Ind. and Kans., southw. to Tex. and Ga. 

15. Juncus scirpoides Lam. Map 613. Known in Indiana from only the 
dune area where it is found in open, wet sandy habitats. Of the 22 collec- 
tions seen from Lake and Porter Counties only one was made later than 
1913. Previous to that date the species apparently was frequent to fairly 
common on the dunes. 

No specimen could be found to confirm the reports of Barnes and of Coul- 
ter from Jefferson County. In all probability these reports were based upon 
collections of Juncus brachycarpus, a species common in Jefferson County 
and superficially resembling /. scirpoides. J. brachycarpus is the only one 



298 



JUNCACEAE 



Juncus 









f 










Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 




i 




c 


? » 


\ 


M 














-I 


r 




f 




r 




i 


~r 


r 1 




Dec £ 




— i ° i 


1/ Miles 










1 l 




H 


V 


uncu 


s. n 


3d 


itus Co 


50 
Map 616 

/file 




Miles 
' ' '5(5 
Map 617 



Juncus pelocarpus Mey. 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec. 





ll 1 
D ) ND 


E E 

1 1 


F 



/ 


- D 


11^*-*.* 


—SL 




| J~ 


frVlr- 


' ' 


1 

- i 



Miles 



50 

Map 618 



Juncus nodosus L. 



of all the species with small spherical heads to which Coulter's statement 
under J. scirpoides, "found throughout the state," is applicable. 
N. Y. to Mich., southw. to Fla., Mo., and Tex. 

16. Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. Map 614. Fairly common in southern 
Indiana ; frequent elsewhere except in the central and eastern counties. Its 
favorite habitats are low fallow or grassy fields where the soil is usually a 
hard white clay, and sandy ditches, but it occurs also on wet roadsides and 
in flat woods and on the dunes in sloughs and sandy swales. 

Mass. to Ont., southw. to Ga., Miss., and Tex. 

17. Juncus acuminatum Michx. Map 615. Very common in ditches and 
wet, usually more or less open, habitats of all types ; frequently in shallow 
water in ponds or swamps. Occasionally the heads are proliferous, espe- 
cially after the habitat has been flooded. 

N. S. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

18. Juncus nodatus Coville. (Juncus robustus (Engelm.) Coville, not 
Wats.) Map 616. Infrequent and local. This southern species was 
apparently first collected in the state at its northernmost known station: 
along a wet railroad siding near Lake Maxinkuckee, Marshall County, 
J. T. Scovell and H. W. Clark no. 1468, Oct. 16, 1900. Its usual habitat in 
southern Indiana is on borders of ponds in low, often flooded, pin oak 
woods where it is associated with buttonbush and with Car ex Crus-corvi 
and C. lupuliformis. 

Northern Ind. to Kans., Okla., Tex., and La. 

19. Juncus pelocarpus E. Mey. Map 617. Fairly common in the north- 
western counties, mostly in the dune area. A species of wet open habitats, 
occurring on sandy or mucky borders of ponds, lakes, and swamps and in 
sloughs and swales. The more diffuse proliferous plants are often entirely 
sterile. 

Newf. to N. J., Ind., and Minn. 



20. Juncus nodosus L. Map 618. Fairly common in the northern 



Juncus 



JUNCACEAE 



299 





o To 

Map 620 



Juncus articulatus L. 




50 

Map 621 
Juncus alpinus Vill. 
var. rarif lorus Hartm. 



counties and known from a single locality in Wayne County. It is found 
in a variety of wet habitats : in marshes, bogs, and swales, occasionally in 
ditches and sloughs, but most commonly on low sandy or marly shores. 

No specimens were found to support Schneck's report from the Lower 
Wabash Valley. 

The relatively huge grotesque heads often produced by galls in many 
species of § Septati occur with greatest frequency in this species, although 
they are frequent too in J. Torreyi, J. canadensis and J. acuminatum. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va., 111., and Nebr. 

21. Juncus Torreyi Coville. {Juncus nodosus var. megacephalus Torr.) 
Map 619. Common, especially in the lake area, in ditches, sloughs, and low 
prairies and on the borders of lakes, ponds, and creeks. It grows in both 
clay and sandy soils. 

Mass. to Sask. and Wash., southw. to Ala., Tex., and Ariz. 

22. Juncus articulatus L. Map 620. Known in Indiana from a single 
collection : on an abandoned road through a marsh on the southeast side 
of Lake Wawasee, Kosciusko County, Deam no. 56408, July 19, 1935. 
Here it was abundant in 1935. 

Specimens could not be located to corroborate the reports from Lake 
County made by Coulter, Deam, Peattie, and Pepoon. 

Newf. to Ind. and B. C, southw. to Mass. and N. Y. ; local in n. Calif.; 
also in Eurasia. 

23. Juncus alpinus Vill. var. rariflorus Hartm. (Rhodora 35: 233. 
1933.) (Juncus alpinus var. insignis Fries and Juncus Richardsonianus 
Schultes.) Map 621. Largely confined to the dune area in Indiana where 
it is often locally plentiful on wet sandy or marshy shores of lakes and 
ponds, on borders of sloughs, and in low sandy ditches. 

Que. to B. C, southw. to Pa., Ind., Nebr., and Wash. ; also in Eurasia. 

23a. Juncus alpinus var. fuscescens Fern. Map 621a. A single In- 
diana collection (Bebb no. 663, Clarke Junction, Lake County, Aug. 14, 



300 



JUNCACEAE 



Luzula 



z 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Au& 

Sept 

Od. 

Nov. 


r 



















Jv 


' X 




f 








-I. 




y 












j 






J- 


r, 


Dtc.f— 


1 


T" ' 


Jj Miles 
















\ 


Ju 

r. 


ncu 

fu 


s alpfnus 
scescens 


50 

Map 621a 
Vill. 
r ern. 




1901) is characteristic of this variety, although transitional forms between 
the preceding variety and var. fuscescens are occasional. Its habitats are 
the same as those of var. rariflorus. 
Vt. to B. C. and Mo. 

937. LtJZULA DC. Wood Rush 
[Fernald and Wiegand. The variations of Luzula campestris in North 
America. Rhodora 15: 38-43. 1913.] 

Flowers solitary at the tips of the branches of the inflorescence 

1. L. carolinae var. saltuensis. 

Flowers crowded in spikelike clusters or glomerules. 

Rays of umbel erect or ascending, relatively stout; heads mostly cylindric. 

Cauline leaves large, (7) 9-14 cm long, 4-6 (9) mm wide; filaments equaling the 
anthers; perianth averaging 3 mm long, usually slightly exceeding the capsule; 

heads pale; base of plant rarely producing bulbs 2. L. midtiflora. 

Cauline leaves small, 3-5.5 cm long, 2-3 mm wide; filaments shorter than the 
anthers; perianth averaging 2.5 mm long, shorter than the capsule; heads 
dark; base of plant commonly producing bulbs. .2a. L. midtiflora var. bulbosa. 
Rays of umbel mostly strongly divergent, some elongate and filiform; heads hemi- 
spheric or short-cylindric; leaves mostly clustered at the base of the plant, the 
cauline small, 2-7 cm long, 1.5-3 mm wide. 
Filaments half the length of the anthers or less; perianth conspicuously exceeding 

the capsule, generally 3 mm or more long 3. L. echinata. 

Filaments more than half the length of the anthers; perianth from shorter than 

to slightly exceeding the capsule, generally about 2.5 mm long • 

3a. L. echinata var. mesochorea. 

1. Luzula carolinae S. Wats. var. saltuensis (Fern.) Fern. (Rhodora 
40: 404. 1938.) (Luzula saltuensis Fern., Juncoides carolinae of Britton 
and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, and Juncoides pilosum of American authors.) 
Map 622.* A northern plant known in Indiana from only two collections: 
base of a low wooded slope near pond in woods on the Douglas farm 21/2 
miles southeast of Hamilton, De Kalb County, Deam no. 44268, May 25, 
1927, and about 4 miles north of Notre Dame, St. Joseph County, J. A. 
Nieuwland no. 9115, in 1909. 

* The name of this plant was changed after the map was made. 



Luzula 



JUNCACEAE 



301 




o 50 

Map 624 
Gjzula multiflora 
var. bulbosa (Wood) Hermann 




Miles 
50 

Map 625 
Luzula echinata (Small) Hermann 




0~ ~^o 
Map 625a 
Luzula echinata 
var. mesochorea Hermann 



Newf. to Sask., southw. to N. J. (in the mts. to Ga.), Ind., and Minn.; 
also in e. Asia. 

2. Luzula multiflora (Ehrh.) Lejeune. (Rhodora 40: 83-84. 1938.) 
(Luzula campestris var. multiflora (Ehrh.) Celak., Luzula intermedia 
(Thuill.) A. Nels., Juncoides campestre of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, 
ed. 2, in part, and Juncoides intermedia (Thuill.) Rydb.) Map 623. Con- 
fined to the lake area where it is very common in dry open oak woods, 
especially on hills or slopes, and occasionally in grassy clearings. It is 
frequently associated with Carex pennsylvanica and C. communis. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Pa., 111., Utah, and Calif. ; also in 
Eurasia. 

2a. Luzula multiflora var. bulbosa (Wood) Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 
84. 1938.) (Luzula campestris var. bulbosa Wood and Juncoides bulbosum 
(Wood) Small.) Map 624. Known in Indiana from only the northwestern 
counties and apparently confined to the lake and prairie areas where its 
habitat, very sandy open oak woods, is common. 

N. J. and Pa. to Kans., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

3. Luzula echinata (Small) Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 84. 1938.) 
(Luzula campestris var. echinata (Small) Fern. & Wieg. and Juncoides 
echinatum Small.) Map 625. Fairly common in southern Indiana in dry 
oak woods, especially on wooded slopes and steep river banks. 

N. J. and Pa. to Ga. and Tex., and in the Mississippi Valley at least in 
s. Ind. 

3a. Luzula echinata var. mesochorea Hermann. (Rhodora 40: 84. 
1938.) Map 625a. The most widespread Luzula in Indiana; common south 
of the lake area and very common in the knob area. It is found in dry open 
woods, especially on white oak slopes, knobs or ridges, and occasionally in 
hard clay soil in fallow fields and clearings. 

Ind., doubtless also in Ohio, Ky., and 111. 



302 Juncaceae Juncus 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

1. Juncus coriaceus Mack. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 56: 28. 1929.) 
(Juncus setaceus of authors, not Rostk.) Reported from Lake County by 
Pepoon in the "Flora of the Chicago Region" but no specimen could be 
found. 

Del. to Fla. and La., usually in brackish habitats. 

2. Juncus tenuis Willd. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 56 : 25-27. 1929.) ) Jun- 
cus dichotomies Ell.) This species of the Coastal Plain has been reported 
many times from Indiana but no authentic material from the state could be 
found. The reports from Jasper and La Porte Counties were based upon 
specimens of /. Greenei and that from Gibson County upon an immature 
specimen of /. macer. Other reports likewise were probably based upon 
errors in indentification. 

Conn, to Fla. and Argentina. 

3. Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern. (Juncus canadensis var. 
brevicaudatus Engelm. and Juncus canadensis var. coarctatus Engelm.) 
Reported from Lake County by both Pepoon and Peattie but the one speci- 
men found which had been referred to this species (a collection of Umbach's 
from Pine, Lake County, labeled Juncus canadensis var. coarctatus, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Herbarium) is /. alpinus var. rariflorus. Indiana is 
considerably south of the known range of J. brevicaudatus. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Conn., Pa., and W. Va. 

4. Juncus debilis Gray. (Juncus acuminatus var. debilis (Gray) 
Engelm.) No specimen could be found to confirm the report from Vigo 
County by Blatchley of this eastern and southern species. A specimen in 
the Wabash College Herbarium labeled Juncus acuminatus var. debilis 
(Coulter no. 1918 from Hanover) was probably the basis of Barnes' report 
from Jefferson County. This specimen is /. diffusissimus. 

R. I. to Fla., Miss., and Ark. 



LlLIACEAE 303 

38. LlLIACEAE Adans. Lily Family 

Flowers dioecious; some of the species woody vines. 

Inflorescence umbellate; fruit a 1-4-seeded berry 1151. Smilax, p. 324. 

Inflorescence a spicate raceme; fruit a 3-celled, ellipsoid capsule, 7-10 mm long, 

with linear-oblong seed 950. Chamaelirium, p. 304. 

Flowers perfect or monoecious. 

Leaves all, nearly or quite basal or lacking at flowering time. 
Flowers large, the perianth segments 6-11 cm long. 

Flowers orange 1019. Hemerocallis, p. 308. 

Flowers white 1103. Yucca, p. 316. 

Flowers smaller, the perianth segments less than 6 cm long. 

Plants with solitary flowers; leaves 2, fleshy, mottled. 1076. Erythronium, p. 314. 
Plants not as above. 

Flowers deep blue, reflexed, racemose, many, divisions of perianth united; 

leaves narrowly linear 1095. Muscari, p. 315. 

Flowers not as above. 

Leaves 2-5, usually 2 or 3, mostly 4-10 cm wide. 
Flowers in an umbel, usually 3-6 1117. Clintonia, p. 317. 

Flowers in a raceme, several, white, very fragrant; leaves 2 or 3 

1128. Convallaria, p. 320. 

Leaves not as above. 

Stems and pedicels glandular, the glands usually blackish; leaves grass- 
like 942. Tofieldia, p. 304. 

Stems and pedicels not glandular. 

Plants without a bulbous base; leaves lanceolate, mostly 5-15 cm long, 
7-20 mm. wide, strongly veined; flowers many, tubular, yellowish 
white, in a terminal, spikelike raceme; stems usually with 1 or more 

leaflike bracts 1143. Aletris, p. 324. 

Plants not as above; leaves usually narrow-linear. 

Flowers in a long, terminal raceme, usually bluish but sometimes 

white ; leaves long, linear, the widest usually 8-20 mm wide 

1087. Camassia, p. 315. 

Flowers in terminal umbels or corymbose. 

Midrib of leaves whitish; flowers corymbose 

1089. Ornithogalum, p. 315. 

Midrib of leaves not whitish; flowers all in terminal umbels. 

Bulbs globose, about 1 cm in diameter (in dried specimens), 
without an onionlike odor; leaves present at flowering time. 

1050. Nothoscordum, p. 311. 

Bulbs elongate-ovoid, usually much larger than those of Notho- 
scordum, with an onionlike odor; leaves absent at flowering 
time, mostly 10-20 cm long and 3-6 cm wide; flowers many, 

white (Allium tricoceum) 1049. Allium, p. 309. 

Leaves cauline, rarely with both basal and cauline leaves. 

Flowers large, 4-10 cm in diameter, orange or maroon purple, generally spotted 

within; perianth segments all similarly colored 1072. Lilium, p. 311. 

Flowers smaller or, if large, the calyx green. 
Leaves whorled. 

Blades of leaves parallel- veined; leaves in 2 or rarely 3 whorls; perianth seg- 
ments all similar in color; rootstock white, tuberlike 

1135. Medeola, p. 321. 

Blades of leaves net-veined; leaves 3, in a terminal whorl; sepals green; petals 
white, maroon or purple; rootstock dark, wrinkled. .1138. Trillium, p. 321. 
Leaves alternate. 



304 LlLIACEAE 



Tofieldia 



Mature plants forking at the first or second leaf; leaves perfoliate or sessile; 
flowers solitary and from the axil of the first leaf above the fork or, if 
the flowers are 2, the second flower usually in the axil of the leaf above 
the first flower; flowers yellow or yellowish green, 15-30 mm long; capsules 

3-angled or 3-winged 966. Uvularia, p. 308. 

Mature plants not as above. 
Flowers axillary; fruit a black or red berry. 

Stems simple, very rarely with axillary branches; widest leaves 1-10 cm 

wide; fruit a black berry 1123. Polygonatum, p. 319. 

Stems much branched, usually 1-2 m. high; the so-called leaves in alternate 

clusters, filiform, about 1 cm long; fruit a 1-seeded red berry 

1113. Asparagus, p. 316. 

Flowers in a terminal panicle or umbel. 
Leaves linear, not petiolate. 

Stem and inflorescence glabrous. 

Plants with an onionlike odor, their bases a fleshy bulb; inflorescence 
a terminal umbel, consisting entirely of flowers or sometimes 

partly or wholly of bulblets 1049. Allium, p. 309. 

Plants without the the onionlike odor; flowers in panicles. 

Plants glaucous; panicle sparsely flowered; flowers mostly 8-10 mm 
long, shorter than their pedicels; sepals with a large, dark 

gland near the base 958. Zigadenus, p. 306. 

Plants not glaucous; panicle many-flowered; flowers mostly 5-7 mm 
long, longer than their pedicels; sepals lacking the black gland 

near the base 957. Stenanthium, p. 305. 

Stem and especially the inflorescence pubescent; inflorescence paniculate; 

fruit a 3-celled capsule 959. Melanthium, p. 307. 

Leaves not linear, either sessile or petiolate. 

Flowers dark maroon to nearly black; panicles generally 20-50 cm long, 
basal stem leaves large, narrowed into long, sheathing petioles; 

fruit a capsule 960. Veratrum, p. 307. 

Flowers white; basal stem leaves lacking; fruit a globose, 1- or 2- 
seeded berry. 
Stem leaves generally 2, rarely 3, cordate at the base, usually less 
than 9 cm long, the lower one generally petiolate; perianth of 4 

parts 1119. Maianthemum, p. 318. 

Stem leaves usually more than 3, generally all sessile, usually more 
than 9 cm long; perianth of 6 parts 1118. Smilacina, p. 317. 

942. TOFIELDIA Huds. 

1. Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Pers. Map 626. Found in wet, marly soil 
in a few marshes and springy places in the northern counties. Local and, 
where found, sometimes frequent over the entire area of its habitat. 

Newf. to Minn, and Alaska, southw. to Maine, Ohio, Ind., Oreg\, and in 
the mts. to N. C. 

950. CHAMAELlRIUM Willd. 

1. Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray. Map 627. I found a single plant 
in an exposed place on a limestone slope 3 miles north of Milltown, Craw- 
ford County where it was associated with Comandra Richardsiana and 
Lithospermum croceum. I found another specimen in a woods about 7 
miles southwest of Evansville where it was closely associated with Fagus 
grandifolia, Quercus alba, Cornus Uorida, Sassafras albidum and Phyto- 



Stenanthium 



LlLIACEAE 



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Map 628 
Stenanthium gramineum 
(Ker) Moronq. 



lacca americana. In both instances I found only a single specimen although 
I made extended search for others. Clapp reported it from the barrens near 
New Albany, and Barnes reported it from Jefferson County without com- 
ment. The distribution of this species is erratic and observers do not seem 
to understand what factors are involved. It has been reported from 15 
counties in Ohio but northward it has not been reported until the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan is reached. 

Mass., Mich, to Nebr., southw. to Fla., Miss., and Ark. 

957. STENANTHIUM (Gray) Kunth 

Capsules reflexed at maturity, mostly 7-8 mm long; leaves mostly 6-10 mm wide; plant 
flowering mostly in July 1. S. gramineum. 

Capsules erect at maturity, mostly 7-10 mm long; leaves mostly 10-16 mm wide; plant 
flowering mostly in August 2. S. robustum. 

1. Stenanthium gramineum (Ker) Kunth. Map 628. This species is 
local in Indiana and apparently so throughout its range. It is infrequent 
in sandy soil for half a mile in an open, black and white oak woods on 
the south side of the Tippecanoe River north of Rochester, Fulton County, 
and I found one plant in a sandy prairie habitat a mile north of Rochester. 
There is a small colony on a low, sandy, open black and white oak ridge 
between swamps in section 12 about 2*4 miles southeast of Etna Green, 
Kosciusko County. I found it to be frequent for a short distance in sandy 
soil at the base of a white and black oak slope on the south side of a large 
swamp about 3 miles northwest of Hoover, Cass County. In the same 
colony I found a specimen of the next species. The remainder of my speci- 
mens were found in similar habitats. I have several times transplanted it 
to the open in neutral soil in our garden and it has lived for only a few 
years. 

Va., Ind. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Miss. 

2. Stenanthium robustum Wats. Map 629. I have only two specimens 
from Indiana which I refer to this species. Data concerning this species 
and the preceding one are meager ; some authors do not separate them and 



306 



LlLIACEAE 



Zigadenus 



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Zigadenus glaucus Nutt 




Map 631 
Melanthium virginicum L. 



one has made this a mere form of the preceding. Robert Ridgway was 
interested in this problem and wrote me concerning it. He was firmly 
convinced that the two species are distinct. I quote, in part, from his letter 
to me dated January 13, 1925, Olney, Illinois: "I have several of the former 
(Stenanthium gramineum) transplanted from the "wilds hereabout" and 
one of the latter (Stenanthium robustum) from the Highland Nursery, 
North Carolina. They are planted near together, in identical soil, and all 
local conditions governing them are the same. The first blooms from June 
21 to July 11 (average date July 1) ; while the last blooms from August 
1-24 (average date August 18), a difference of more than six weeks." 

The specific name for this species seems to be well chosen, since the 
whole plant is larger and more robust in all of its parts. The leaves are 
wider, the floral segments longer, the fruit longer, and the stigmas slightly 
longer. The width of the leaves and the position of the mature fruit are 
sufficient to distinguish the species. Since I found both species in the same 
colony I am not entirely satisfied that there are two species of our plants 
but until sufficient data are accumulated I believe it is best to separate 
them, placing them in the taxonomic category which the differences suggest. 

Pa. and Ind., southw. to S. C, Tenn., and Mo. 



958. ZIGADENUS Michx. 

1. Zigadenus glaucus Nutt. (Rhodora 37: 256-258. 1935.) (Zigadenus 
chloranthus of Gray, Man., ed. 7, not Richardson, and Anticlea elegans 
of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Map 630. This species 
is rare and local. I found a few plants in a marly place in the large swamp 
in a woods about 3 miles northwest of Hoover, Cass County. In Lagrange 
County I found a number of specimens in a marsh of about an eighth of 
an acre surrounded by young tamarack ; the area where it was found was 
probably too alkaline for the tamarack, although I found it in a similar 
position but in a very small opening in a tamarack bog about a mile and a 
half southeast of Mongo. I have seen it in only two other places, and 



Melanthium 



LlLIACEAE 



307 



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Uvular fa grandiflora J.E.Smith 




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Uvularia sess'lifolia L. 



both of them were sedge marshes. Blatchley found it in a marsh near 
Lake James, Steuben County. Van Gorder found it in Noble County, in 
sec. 10 of Noble Township. 

Que. to Man., southw. to N. B., n. Vt., n. N. Y., n. Ohio, and n. 111. 

959. MELANTHIUM L. 

1. Melanthium virginicum L. Bunchflower. Map 631. Rare and very 
local. My White County specimen was found in a wet prairie habitat a half 
mile east of Idaville. My Cass County specimen was found in mucky soil 
in a large swamp about 3 miles northwest of Hoover. I found a single 
specimen on a springy, gravelly slope in the open at "Crows' Nest" about 8 
miles north of Indianapolis. It has also been reported from Franklin and 
St. Joseph Counties, from the vicinity of New Albany, and from the area 
of Delaware, Jay, Randolph, and Wayne Counties by Phinney, who 
assigns it to "wet meadows." 

R. I., s. N. Y. to Minn., southw. to n. Fla. and Tex. 



960. VERATRUM [Tourn.] L. 

1. Veratrum Woodii Robbins. Map 632. Local throughout the area 
indicated on the map. Where it is found, however, it is usually frequent 
over a small area. It is usually found in rich soil on the south sides of 
deep ravines, although I found a single specimen in a crevice of a limestone 
cliff along the Muscatatuck River about a mile above Vernon, Jennings 
County. This species interested me years before I knew what it was. I had 
seen the large root leaves and watched to see the plant flower but could 
never find one. I transplanted one to our garden and it was several years 
before it bloomed. I have not kept a record but I estimate that it flowers 
about every 4 or 5 years. This plant, during the 15 or more years that it 
has been under observation, has increased to only two plants. The flowers 
are deep maroon, or some of them almost black. One specimen in particu- 
lar was observed. The inflorescence was 23 inches long and three and a 



308 



LlLIACEAE Uvularia 



half inches wide. The first flowers expanded the last of July and insects 
continued to visit the inflorescence until in September. Harry Dietz, a 
visiting entomologist, observed within five minutes 2 species of Antho- 
myids, 4 species of Muscids, 1 species of Ortalid, 2 species of Phorids, 
and 1 species of Syrphid on one plant. It has been reported also from Cass, 
Greene, Hamilton, Monroe, Putnam, Tippecanoe, and Vigo Counties. 
Ind. to Mo. 

966. UVULARIA L. 

[Anderson and Whitaker. Speciation in Uvularia. Jour. Arnold Arb. 15: 

28-42. 1934.] 

Leaves perfoliate; capsules obtusely 3-angled. 

Blades whitish-pubescent beneath; perianth segments smooth within or nearly so.. 

1. U. grandiflora. 

Blades glabrous beneath; perianth segments granular-pubescent within. (See ex- 
cluded species no. 132, p. 1033.) U. perfoliata. 

Leaves sessile; capsules sharply 3-angled, acute at each end 2. U. sessilifolia. 

1. Uvularia grandiflora J. E. Smith. Big Merrybells. Map 633. Infre- 
quent to frequent in moist, rich soil throughout the state. It is never found 
outside of thick woodland, unless persisting after woodland has been 
cleared, but does well in cultivation in sun or shade. This species has been 
confused by some of our early authors with Uvularia perfoliata, the range 
of which is shown by recent studies to be restricted to the Allegheny Moun- 
tains and eastward to the Coast. 

Que., w. N. Y. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Tenn., and Kans. 

2. Uvularia sessilifolia L. (Oakesia sessilifolia (L.) Wats.) Little 
Merrybells. Map 634. Colonies are infrequently found in the southern 
counties where it grows in hard, clay soil, usually associated with beech, 
beech and sweet gum, and lowland oaks. It propagates mostly from the 
rootstocks and a note on one of my labels reads : "I found, in a low woods 
about 3 miles southwest of Dale, Spencer County, two colonies about 10 X 
20 feet and this species formed a mat over these areas." 

N. B., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Ark. 

1019. HEMEROCALLIS L. Daylii .y 

[Bailey. Hemerocallis: the day-lilies. Gentes Herbarum 2: 143-156. 
1930.] 
Flowers dark, tawny, fulvous or reddish orange, not fragrant, blooming in summer. 

1. H. fulva. 

Flowers light, clear yellow or lemon color, more or less fragrant, blooming in spring 

and summer. (See excluded species no. 133, p. 1033.) H. flava. 

1. Hemerocallis fOlva L. Tawny Daylily. Map 635. This species is 
ornamental and on account of its easy cultivation it has been freely planted 
since pioneer times. It never produces seed naturally in this country and 
propagates entirely by its many tuberous roots. A. B. Stout, of the New 
York Botanical Garden, has succeeded in producing seed by artificial polli- 
nation. He has written many articles on the species and anyone interested 
should read them. 



Allium Liliaceae 309 

This species is found infrequently in small or large colonies throughout 
the state along roadsides and about abandoned habitations. When it is once 
established, nothing can compete with it ; hence it forms pure stands. The 
nativity of the species is not known but most authors give it as Eurasian. 

N. B. to Ont., southw. to N. C. and Tenn. ; escaped from cultivation. 

1049. ALLIUM L 

Blades of leaves elliptic, usually 3-10 cm wide, 15-20 cm long, not present at flowering 

time 1. A. tricoccum. 

Blades of leaves linear, terete or flat, present at flowering time. 
Leaves terete. 

Umbels bulblet-bearing; spathe 1-valved, generally 10-30 mm long; flowers about 
4 mm long; pedicels mostly 15-30 mm long; stamens slightly longer than the 
perianth segments; filaments petal-like, the upper half divided into 3 linear 
divisions, the middle division bearing an anther about 0.5 mm long; introduced 

species 2. A. vineale. 

Umbels not bulblet-bearing; stamens included; filaments linear, entire, bearing an 
anther about 1 mm long. 
Divisions of the perianth elliptic-lanceolate or oval-lanceolate, acute; pedicels 

mostly 8-10 mm long; plant of Eurasia. (Cultivated chive.) 

A. ScJwenoprasum. 

Divisions of the perianth linear-lanceolate, attenuate-acuminate; perianth mostly 
8-15 mm long; pedicels about 5 mm long; plant indigenous at least north- 
ward. (See excluded species no. 134, p. 1033.) 

A. Schoenoprasum var. sibiricum. 

Leaves flat or keeled. 
Umbels bulblet-bearing. 

Spathe 1-valved, the beak more than 1 cm long, usually about 10 cm long; 

summit of the stem curved or coiled before flowering 3. A. sativum. 

Spathe more than 1-valved, the beak short, less than 1 cm long. 

Bulbs not multiplying; leaves flat, narrow, mostly 2-3 mm wide and keeled 
beneath; beak of spathe mostly 3-5 mm long; flowers few, white or 
pinkish, 4-6 mm long; filaments of all of the stamens entire; pedicels 

10-40, usually 15-20 mm long; native species 4. A. canadense. 

Bulbs producing bulblets; leaves flat, mostly 8-16 mm wide, the margins 
scabrous; flowers purplish; filaments of alternate stamens toothed. (See 

excluded species no. 135, p. 1034.) A. Scorodoprasum. 

Umbels not bulblet-bearing. 

Umbels nodding, the 2 bracts persistent; scapes sharply keeled; stamens con- 
spicuously exserted 5. A. c&rnuum. 

Umbels erect, the 2 bracts soon deciduous; scapes terete or nearly so; stamens 
about as long as the perianth segments. (See excluded species no. 136, p. 
1034.) A. stellatum. 

1. Allium tricoccum Ait. Wood Leek. Map 636. Infrequent to rare in 
moist, rich soil throughout the state, although there are no records from 
the southwestern counties. It seems to prefer slopes and woods near 
streams and it is most often found associated with beech and sugar maple. 

N. B. to Minn, and Iowa, southw. to Ga. and Tenn. 

2. Allium vineale L. Crow Garlic. Map 637. My specimens are all 
from southern Indiana where it is one of the most pernicious of all weeds. 
A pioneer who lived in Point Township, Posey County, told me that when 
he was a boy (about 1860) both the garlic and wild onion were common 



310 



LlLIACEAE 



Allium 




50 

Map 635 



Hemerocalh's fulva L. 




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in the woodland. Henry Hollingsworth (Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 1: 311- 
313. 1789, ed. 2) writes that sowing wheat stubble to oats will practically 
eradicate it. This indicates that it has been a weed since early times. 

This species is found along roadsides and streams and in cultivated fields 
and pastures. It is difficult to eradicate because it propagates both by bulbs 
and bulblets. The principal objection to this species as well as to others of 
this genus is that milch cows can not be pastured where it grows because 
the garlic odor is transmitted to the milk. The task of ridding the soil of 
this and other species of this genus is a difficult one, especially if the area 
is subject to overflow because the bulblets are freely transported. Much 
literature has been published on the eradication of this species. Copies of 
this literature may be obtained gratis from the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. and from the Purdue University Agricultural 
Experiment Station, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Nat. of Eu. ; N. H. to Mo., southw. to Ga. and Ark. 

3. Allium sativum L. Garlic. Map 638. Well established on a rocky, 
wooded slope in McCormick Creek State Park, Owen County. Hansen 
(Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 37: 319. 1928) writes that a number of farms, 
gardens, and a cemetery in Jefferson County are infested with the escaped 
form of the cultivated garlic {Allium sativum L.) . It is almost certain that 
if a species of Allium becomes established it will persist unless it is de- 
stroyed by man. 

Nat. of Eurasia. 

4. Allium canadense L. Meadow Garlic. Map 639. Found throughout 
the state. Frequent or common in the southwestern counties in moist soil 
in woodland and cultivated fields, where it sometimes becomes a pernicious 
weed. 

N. B. to Minn, and Colo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5. Allium cernuum Roth. Nodding Onion. Map 640. Infrequent 
throughout the state although there are no records from the southwestern 
counties. Where it is found, especially on the banks of streams, it is gen- 



Nothoscordum 



Liliaceae 



311 




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Map 638 



Allium sativum L. 




50 

Map 639 



Allium canadense L. 



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Allium 


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:ernu urn 


3 50 

Map 640 

Roth. 



erally common except in marshes and springy places. This species has a 
wide range of habitat and distribution. It is usually found on the high and 
dry banks of streams but it is also found in low, sedge marshes, in marly 
springy places, and on gravelly bars in rivers. The color of the flowers 
ranges from white to deep pink. The white form has been named and I 
have it from Wabash County. 

N. Y., Minn, to B. C, southw. to W. Va., Ky., N. Mex., and Calif. 



1050. NOTHOSCORDUM Kunth False Garlic 

1. Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton. False Garlic. Map 641. A few 

colonies of this plant have been found in the southwestern counties but 1 
think it is much more common than our records show. Since it reproduces 
only by seed it may be more restricted than I think it to be. I found it to be 
common in alluvial bottoms about 4 miles northwest of Bloomfield, Greene 
County and also in low ground in the post oak flats south of Half Moon 
Pond in Posey County. 

Va., Ohio, Ind. to Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex.; also in Bermuda 
and Jamaica. 

1072. LtLIUM L. Lily 

Flowers erect; perianth segments narrowed below into claws; bulbs not rhizomatous. 

Leaves lanceolate, mostly in whorls. (See excluded species no. 138, p. 1034.) 

L. philadelphicum. 

Leaves linear, usually scattered on the stem except for a whorl at the summit 

1. L. philadelphicum var. andinum. 

Flowers more or less nodding; perianth segments not clawed; bulbs rhizomatous. 
Leaves all or nearly all in whorls, not bulblet-bearing in the upper axils; stems 
glabrous above; native species. 
Blades all smooth beneath, long-attenuate at both ends; perianth segments 
strongly recurving from near the base, mostly 7-8 cm long; anthers mostly 

(17) 20-25 mm long 2. L. superbum. 

Blades, at least some of them, more or less scabrous on the veins beneath; 
perianth segments recurving or spreading from near the middle; anthers 
mostly 8-12 (17) mm long, sometimes elongating after anthesis. 



.•',12 



LlLIACEAE 



Lilium 






. 


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D 






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S^Cr^-J Map 642 




Lilium philadelphicum 




var andinum (Nutl) Ker 





3 


Jan. 

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July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

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Map 643 

L. 



Perianth segments spreading (not recurving or scarcely so), base of perianth 
a reddish purple; plants of dry, wooded slopes. .3. L. canadense f. rubrum. 

Perianth segments strongly recurved, orange or reddish orange on the outside; 

plants of a moist habitat such as prairies, marshes, and low woods 

4. L. michiganense. 

Leaves all scattered, none in whorls, the upper ones usually bearing black bulblets in 
some of the axils; stem more or less gray-pubescent above; plants escaped from 
cultivation 5. L. tigrinum. 

1. Lilium philadelphicum L. var. andinum (Nutt.) Ker. (Lilium umbel- 
latum Pursh.) Western Lily. Map 642. It is doubtful whether the species 
occurs in the state. All of the specimens I have seen belong to the variety 
and I think all reports of it from Indiana should be referred to the variety. 

All of the reports of the variety and all of my specimens are from 
northern Indiana. Our reports for the species, however, extend the range 
to Hamilton, Vigo, Monroe, Clark, and Jefferson Counties and the Lower 
Wabash Valley. Prince Maximilian, June 10, 1834, reported finding Lilium 
Catesbaei in Knox County north of Hazelton. Since this species as now 
known is not found in Indiana and its flowering season is much later, I 
think this report should be referred to L. philadelphicum var. andinum. 
This lily is local and all the specimens I have seen were found in wet 
prairies or in similar habitats. Coulter, in his report from Jefferson County, 
says : "Common on the sand flats." There is a specimen in the herbarium 
of Wabash College collected in Harrison County by Clapp. 

Ont. to Sask., southw. to Ohio and Ark. 

2. Lilium superbum L. AMERICAN TURK'S-CAP Lily. Map 643. This 
species has been reported from various parts of the state but I think it is 
very rare and that most of our reports should be referred to Lilium michi- 
ijunense. I have found it only three times and always on wooded slopes. 
This species is easily confused with Lilium michiganense if the character 
of the roughness or smoothness of the under surface of the leaves is 
the only one used. The spreading of the perianth, which begins at the 
base, and the length of the anthers will easily separate them, but the 



Lilium Liliaceae 313 

spreading of the perianth is a note often omitted, and herbarium specimens 
do not always clearly show this character. The map shows the location of 
the specimens that I have seen. Birkbeck passed through Indiana in 1817 
and on page 112 of his "Notes on a journey in America from Virginia to 
the Illinois Territory" he says : "The road from Sholt's tavern to this place 
[from thirty-six miles east of Vincennes to Vincennes] is partly across 
barrens, that is, land of middling quality, thinly set with timber, or covered 
with long grass, and shrubby undergrowth; generally level and dry, and 
gaudy with marigolds, sunflowers, martagon lilies, and many other bril- 
liant flowers." We have no way of determining the species of lily Birkbeck 
saw, but I think it was this species, although this is a mere guess. 

From Lilium michiganense this species can be distinguished by several 
characters in addition to those given in the key. It is about half again as 
high; the leaves are more numerous in at least a few of the whorls, and 
all the leaves are longer and conspicuously long taper-pointed at both ends ; 
the more numerous flowers, 3-15, are in umbels or pyramidal racemes, 
while the flowers in the other species are strictly in umbels, generally num- 
bering 1-5 flowers. We have had both species moved from the wild and in 
cultivation for many years and the greatest number of flowers of the first 
has been 21 while of the second I have no record; but, as I recall, the 
number ranges mostly from 3 to 5 in vigorous plants, and these are always 
in umbels. 

N. B., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Va. and Mo. 

3. Lilium canadense L. f. rubrum Britt. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 17: 
125. 1890.) Canada Lily. Map 644. This lily has been confused with the 
next, and possibly all, or nearly all reports for it should be referred to the 
next species. All of my specimens are from rocky, wooded slopes and were 
associated with Vaccinium vacillans and Asclepias tuberosa. This species 
is now considered to be Alleghanian and its distribution is not known 
because of its confusion with the next species. It is known to occur near 
Lawton in Kalamazoo County, Michigan (Nieuwland). 

4. Lilium michiganense Farwell. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 352-354. 
1915.) Map 645. Infrequent throughout the northern part of the state and 
probably rare in the southern part or even absent from the southeastern 
part. It has been confused with the preceding species and our knowledge 
of its distribution and habitat can be now ascertained only from field 
studies or from existing specimens. Almost all of the reports for lilies in 
Indiana must be ignored on account of the recently acquired knowledge 
of the genus. 

Lilium michiganense grows in moist prairie habitats, in mucky soil about 
lakes and in low woods, and in moist, black soil along roadsides and rail- 
roads. Locally it may be common over a small area. When once established 
it is very persistent, competing successfully with blue grass sod. I have 
known it to be a common plant for possibly 25 years in black, moist soil 
along the railroad through the old prairie north of Poneto, Wells County. 
It is to be noted with this species, as with the others, that the available 



314 



LlLIACEAE 



Erythronium 




50 

Map 644 



Lilium canadense L. 




5 ~5o 

Map 645 



Lilium michiganense Farwell 




50 

Map 646 



Erythronium albidum Nutt. 



amount of moisture has a marked effect upon the number of flowers on the 
plants. Where it is driest, most of the plants will have only one flower. 
The distribution is probably nearly as follows: 
Ont., Mich, to Minn., southw. to Ky. and Mo. 

5. Lilium tigrinum L. Tiger Lily. Nieuwland writes (Amer. Mid- 
land Nat. 3: 106. 1913) that this species is an "escape to the woods at 
Notre Dame, growing perfectly wild and maintaining itself and spreading." 
I have paid little attention to plants of any kind that have escaped and this 
species may be more frequent than I know. I have a specimen which I 
found along a railroad about a mile south of Connersville, Fayette County. 

Nat. of China and Japan. 



1076. ERYTHRONIUM L. Trout Lily 

Flowers white or pinkish; stigmas mostly 2-3 mm long, curved outward. .1. E. albidum. 
Flowers yellow ; stigmas usually shorter, erect 2. E. americanum. 

1. Erythronium albidum Nutt. White Trout Lily. Map 646. Infre- 
quent to frequent in moist woods throughout the state, usually more 
frequent and abundant in rich, alluvial flats along streams. This species 
and the next one have been reported from all parts of the state. It has a 
short flowering period, from the last of April to the first part of May, 
which accounts for the few specimens I have collected. This species and 
the next are usually called dogtooth violet in Indiana. 

Ont. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and La. 

2. Erythronium americanum Ker. Common Trout Lily. Map 647. 
Infrequent to frequent throughout the state. Like the preceding species, 
where it is found it usually forms dense colonies because of its mode of 
reproduction. After the seed germinate, it usually takes four years' growth 
to produce a flower. The seedling, from the beginning of the second year, 
produces annual crops of runners and bulbs, each going deeper until the 
necessary depth, size, and vigor are reached to produce a flower, in 



Camassia 



Liliaceae 



315 




o Bo 

Map 647 



Erythronium amencanum Ker 




30 

Map 648 



Camassia scillioides (Raf.) Cor 




5 ^"33 
Map 649 



Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 



addition to the leaf buds which have been produced each previous year. 
Considering the great number of single-leaf plants, the number of flower- 
ing ones is small. This species prefers rich, moist soil of wooded slopes 
in beech and sugar maple woods. It is found also in rich soil in almost 
all kinds of woods and is often abundant on alluvial wooded plains. In 
Indiana it is more frequent than the preceding species. 
N. B., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

1087. CAMASSIA Lindl. 

1. Camassia scillioides (Raf.) Cory. (Rhodora 38: 405. 1936.) (Camas- 
sia esculenta (Ker) Rob. and Quamasia hyacinthina (Raf.) Britt.) 
Common Camas. Map 648. Moist, wooded slopes, usually bordering 
streams. It is found throughout the state, becoming rare or absent in the 
northern counties. 

Pa. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

1089. ORNITHOGALUM [Touin] L. 

1. Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Common Star-of-Bethlehem. 
Map 649. This species has been reported as an escape in many parts of 
the state. I have found it as an escape in considerable numbers in fallow 
fields and in open woodland along streams in the counties shown on the 
map. In some instances it covered an acre or more. The plant grows in 
such masses that it crowds out all other vegetation, and where it is found 
it should be exterminated at once. 

Nat. of Eu. 



1091. MUSCARI [Tourn.] Mill. 

Flowers globose, 3-5 mm long, not fragrant, deep blue ; leaves 6-13 mm wide 

1. M. botryoides. 

Flowers oblong, urn-shaped 4-5 mm long, fragrant, deep blue; leaves 2-3 mm wide. 

2. M . racemosum. 



316 



Liliaceae Yucca 



1. MUSCARI BOTRYOIDES (L.) Mill. Common Grape-hyacinth. This 
species is commonly cultivated and has been reported as an escape in sev- 
eral parts of the state. I have never collected it except in our own orchard 
where it has escaped. 

Nat. of s. Eu. and Asia. 

2. Muscari racemosum (L.) Mill. Starch Grape-hyacinth. There 
are only two reports of this as an escape although it may also be wider in 
distribution than our reports indicate. Nieuwland (Amer. Midland Nat. 
3: 107. 1913) says: "Very well established in a sandy field northwest of 
St. Mary's, Notre Dame, and spreading along a road very fast." In 1910 
I found it frequent to common all over a 10-acre clover field on the Aaron 
Wolfe farm about 7 miles northwest of Corydon. 

Nat. of Eu. 

1103. YUCCA [Rupp.] L. 

1. Yucca filamentosa L. Common Yucca. This yucca has been re- 
ported as an escape several times and remarks have been made as to its 
persistence and its ability to spread. It is frequently planted in cemeteries 
from which it has most often escaped. I recall having seen it covering a 
hillside near a cemetery in Crawford County near the Blue River Church. 
I also saw it in a woods as an escape from a cemetery in Fulton County. 
It is so massive that I have never collected it. 

In the original Coblentz edition of "Travels in the Interior of North 
America" published in 1839-41, Prince Maximilian writes of his travels 
from Owensville, Gibson County to Vincennes, on June 10, 1834, as fol- 
lows : "The region on the other side [north side of the White River, which 
he crossed in the vicinity of what is now known as Hazelton] changes 
considerably ; and here appears in a now again sandy soil nearly the same 
plants as are found in the sandy soil and the prairies of St. Louis, with 
the addition of a few new ones, a fire-colored lily (Lilium catesbaei), the 
great-flowered lady slipper (Cypripedium spectabile), a species of Yucca, 
and many others." It is not known what species Maximilian saw. It may 
have been this one or Yucca glauca Nutt. both of which may have at that 
time extended up the Mississippi Valley into Indiana. 

Nat. from N. C. along the coast to Fla. and westw. to Miss, and Tenn. ; 
beyond this area probably escaped. 

1113. ASPARAGUS [Tourn.] L. 

1 . Asparagus officinalis L. Garden Asparagus. Map 650: Asparagus 
has been reported from many counties and I have found it in several. I 
recall seeing only a few colonies of it, but usually single specimens here 
and there along roads, railroads, and streams and in fallow grounds and 
open woodland. We have had it in cultivation for years and I have rarely 
found a seedling near our cultivated plants but it is sporadic all over 
our field and orchard and along our fences. 

Nat. of Eu. 



Clinton ia 



LlLIACEAE 



317 




Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 



L 






D » 


3 A 




T 




■■ 




i 






iH 


Lpl 


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Miles 



~ 50 

Map 651 
Clintonia borealis (AitJ Raf. 




o "To 

Map 652 

Smilfcma racemosa (L.) Desf. 



1117. CLINTONIA Raf. 

1. Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Bluebead. Map 651. This is a very 
rare plant in Indiana and I have specimens from only three places. I have 
a specimen collected by Umbach on May 14, 1898, in full flower in a swamp 
near Miller, Lake County. I have another specimen discovered by M. W. 
Lyon, Jr., and Mrs. Lyon in a tamarack bog near Dune Park, Porter 
County. In 1935 I collected a specimen discovered by R. M. Tryon, Jr., in 
a decadent bog in the eastern part of Porter County. 

This species will probably reach extinction in Indiana before long. 

Lab. to Man. and Minn., southw. in the mts. to N. C. 



1118. SMILACINA Desf. 

Leaves 2-4, rarely 1; inflorescence pedunculate. (See excluded species no. 139, p. 1034.) 

S. trifolia. 

Leaves 6-many. 

Inflorescence pedunculate, paniculate; perianth segments 1-2 mm long; leaves not 

glaucous. 

Panicles on a peduncle usually less than half the length of the panicle, ovoid or 

pyramidal, 0.7-1.7 dm long, 3-10 cm wide, three eighths to three fourths as 

broad as long; longest branches of panicle 2-6 cm long and with 8-24 flowers. 

1. S. racemosa var. typica. 

Panicles on a peduncle half to one and a fourth times as long as the panicle, 
nearly cylindric, 4.5-8.5 (-13) cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, a fourth to three 
eighths as broad as long; longest branches 1-2.5 cm long and with 6-10 

flowers la. S. racemosa var. cylindrata. 

Inflorescence sessile or nearly so, racemose; perianth segments 3.4-5.5 mm long; 
leaves glaucous 2. S. stellata. 

1. Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. var. typica Fern. False Solomon's- 
seal. Map 652. Infrequent to frequent throughout the state in beech and 
sugar maple and black and white oak woods. 

This species has recently been studied by M. L. Fernald, who records 
his studies in Rhodora no. 478 from which I have made my key. 

Que. to B. C, southw. to N. S., Va., Tenn., 111., Mo., Ariz., and Oreg. 



318 



LlLIACEAE 



Maiantheinum 





o 5o 

Map 654 

Maianthemum canadense Desv. 




30 

Map 655 
Maianthemum canadense 
var. interfus Fern. 



la. Smilacina racemosa var. cylindrata Fern. (Rhodora 40: 406. 1938.) 
This is the southern form of the species. Although the variety and the 
typical form of the species overlap with intermediate forms in Indiana, 
the northern or typical form of the species and the southern form are 
quite distinct. The two forms are found throughout the state. Both forms 
are given on one map because the map was made before the variety was 
recognized. 

N. H., N. Y., s. Ont., Ohio, 111., Kans., and Colo., southw. to Ga. and Ariz. 

2. Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. Starry False Solomon's-seal. Map 
653. Infrequent to frequent in the northern half of the state and rare or 
absent from the southern counties. It prefers moist soil and is most often 
found on moist slopes and springy banks but is also found on dry banks, in 
black and white oak woods, and is most abundant on the sand dunes about 
Lake Michigan. The lower surface of the leaves is very variable, ranging 
from glabrous to densely short-pubescent. Two varieties of this species 
have been described and we have both of them, but I think, judging from 
the descriptions, they are only ecological forms. 

Lab. to B. C, southw. to Va., Ky., Kans., and Calif. ; also in Eu. 



1119. MAIANTHEMUM [Weber in] Wiggers 

[Butters. Taxonomic studies in the genus Maianthemum. Minnesota 
Studies in Plant Science 5: 429-444. 1927.] 

Lower surface of leaves glabrous; margins of blades merely papillate or crenulate 

1. M. canadense. 

Lower surface of leaves pubescent at least on the veins; margins of blades ciliate- 
pubescent la. M. canadense var. interius. 

1. Maianthemum canadense Desf. (Unifolium canadense (Desf.) 
Greene). Two-leaf Solomon's-seal. Map 654. Infrequent but usually 
common where found in low woods and in tamarack bogs throughout 
the northern part of the lake area. I found it in Jefferson County in a 
low, flat woods in soil of a pH value of 5.6 where it was associated with 



Polygon atum 



LlLIACEAE 



319 




50 

Map 656 
Polygonatum pubescens 

(Willd.) Pursh 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



[TO- 





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Map 657 



Polygonatum biflorum (WaltJ El 



6 

20 
2 






D 

1 


-f 




D D 


D 


Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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D 


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D 


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um 


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D JA To 50 
i/ Map 657a 

liculatum (Muhl ) Pursh 



beech, sweet gum, and pin oak. Grimes reported it from Putnam County 
where it was associated with hemlock. 

Plants of this species with 3 leaves have been named Maianthemum 
canadense f. trifolium (Farw.) Vict. (Contr. Lab. Bot. Univ. Montreal 14: 
17. 1929.) 

Lab. to Md. and in the mts. to N. C, westw. to Minn, and northw. 

la. Maianthemum canadense var. interius Fern. (Rhodora 16: 211. 
1914.) Map 655. The variety has about the same range as the species in 
the northern part of Indiana but it is not found in the southern part of 
the state. The species and its variety are of nearly equal abundance but 
one rarely finds the two in the same colony. The mass distribution of the 
variety is about the Great Lakes but it has outlying posts as far east as 
Massachusetts and ranges westward through central Ohio to central Iowa 
and northward. 



1123. POLYGCNATUM [Tourn] Hill 

[Farwell. Notes on Michigan species of Polygonatum. Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club 42: 247-257. 1915. Gates. A revision of the genus Polygonatum in 

North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44: 117-126. 1917. Bush. The 

species of Polygonatum. Amer. Midland Nat. 10: 385-400. 1927.] 

Leaves more or less puberulent beneath, at least on the veins, 6-16 in number, 2-6 cm 

wide and 4-13 cm long, narrow- to wide-elliptic, or slightly ovate-elliptic, generally 

broad at the base, rarely somewhat cuneate; peduncles usually beginning at the 

second leaf axil, rarely beginning at the first or at the third leaf axil, 1-4-flowered, 

usually 1- or 2-flowered, or a mixture of 1 and 2 flowers; flowers 7-12 mm long; 

filaments of stamens more or less papillose; stems usually beginning to curve above 

the second leaf; rhizomes near the surface; plants usually found in thick woodland. 

1. P. pubescens. 

Leaves glabrous beneath, mostly 10-21 in number; blades of wideleaf forms 2.5-10.5 
cm wide and 12-21 cm long, very broadly ovate-elliptic or broadly elliptic, those 
of the narrowleaf forms 1.5-3 cm wide and 6.5-14 cm long, mostly narrow-elliptic 
or oblong-elliptic; peduncles very variable in length, rarely more than one from an 
axil, the first one generally from the third to the fifth leaf axil of the wideleaf 



320 Liliaceae Polygonatum 

forms and from the second to the third leaf axil of the narrowleaf forms; flowers 
single or in twos on the narrowleaf forms and in clusters of 2-8 on the wideleaf 
forms; stems of the narrowleaf forms usually much more curved than those of the 
tall wideleaf forms; flowers mostly 15-19 mm long; filaments of stamens glabrous 
or nearly so; rhizomes deep in the ground (usually 1-1.5 dm); the narrowleaf forms 
usually in woodland, the wideleaf forms usually along roadsides and in clearings 
and open places 2 - P - biflorum complex. 

1. Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh. (Polygonatum bifiorum of 
recent authors.) Hairy Solomon 's-seal. Map 656. Frequent in moist, rich 
woods in the northern two thirds of the state, becoming very rare in the 
southern part. I have 86 specimens of my own collecting from which I 
made this study. 

N. B. and N. S. to Ont., Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. (complex). (Polygonatum com- 
mutatum.) Smooth Solomon's-seal. This species complex is found 
throughout the state: the tall plants with wide leaves usually along 
roadsides and fences and in open places in general except in cultivated 
fields; the small plants with narrow leaves are generally found in moist 
woodland. The fleshy, insipid fruit is eaten by birds and the stony seeds 
are widely distributed. The wideleaf form is of a somewhat weedy nature. 
The rhizomes are deep in the ground and if the terminal end is broken off 
the plant persists. For this reason it is difficult to eradicate from flower 

beds. 

My study of this species complex was made from 155 specimens which 
I have collected from all parts of the state. I am not satisfied with the 
treatment of this species but I am not able to find differences sufficient to 
distinctly separate them. My specimens form a lineal series and when I 
have used the term wideleaf and narrowleaf forms it is in a general sense. 
I do not think they are all the same species and I think a character may 
sometime be found that will separate them satisfactorily. The genus has 
been monographed by three authors and my specimens have been seen by 
one of them but I can not accept their treatment of this complex. 

Since the preceding was written a monographic study of the genus has 
been undertaken by Miss Ruth E. Peck who has studied all my specimens. 
I now learn that this complex is composed of at least Polygonatum biflorum 
(Walt.) Ell. and Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhl.) Pursh. See maps 657 
and 657a. I refer students of this complex to the forthcoming monograph. 

A form of this species from St. Joseph County was described by McGiv- 
ney (Amer. Midland Nat. 9: 662-664. 1925.) under the name of Polygona- 
tum commutatum f. ramosum McGivney. It differs from the species by 
having short branches in the leaf axils and is our only report of this form. 

Western N. H. to Man. and Rocky Mts., southw. to Ga., La., N. Mex., 
and Ariz. 

1128. CONVALLARIA L. Lily-of-the-V alley 
See excluded species no. 140, p. 1035. 



Medeola 



LlLIACEAE 



321 




50 

Map 658 



Medeola virginiana L. 















12 

35 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec C 








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Trillium recurvatum Beck 



1135. MEDEOLA [Gronov.] L. 

1. Medeola virginiana L. Indian Cucumber-root. Map 658. Infre- 
quent throughout the state although there are no records from the south- 
western counties. In the hilly counties it is found mostly in deep, wooded 
ravines and northward it is found mostly in beech woods, on rather acid, 
sandy flats and on the lower parts of slopes about lakes and swamps. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tenn. 

1138. TRILLIUM L. 

[W. A. Anderson. Notes on the flora of Tennessee. Rhodora 36: 119- 
128. 1934.] Note : Description and measurements of the floral parts in the 
key apply to flowers in and after anthesis. 
Flowers sessile. 

Leaves sessile; sepals not reflexed; petals not clawed. 

Petals maroon 1- T. sessile. 

Petals greenish yellow la. T. sessile f. luteum. 

Leaves petiolate, sometimes very shortly so; sepals reflexed; petals clawed. 

Petals maroon 2. T. recurvatum. 

Petals greenish yellow 2a. T. recurvatum i. luteum. 

Flowers pedunculate. 

Leaves petiolate, oval or ovate, obtuse; petals white; filaments as long as the ovary; 

among the first herbaceous plants to flower in Indiana 3. T nivale. 

Leaves sessile or essentially so, sometimes 1 of the 3 with a petiole a few mm long. 
Stigmas slender and of uniform diameter, straight and not curved or coiled at the 
tip, or only slightly so, erect or spreading; petals usually very large and 
obovate, white, turning pink with age, cheir bases ascending, the upper part 
spreading; anthers exceeding the stigmas, mostly 10-15 mm long; ovary 
white, small, globose at maturity; peduncles 3-10 cm long, well above the 

leaves 4. T. grandiflorum. 

Stigmas short, stout, tapering from the base to the apex, recurved or coiled at the 
tip, about half as long as the ovary; petals lanceolate, ovate, oblong-oval or 
obovate, spreading from the base; anthers usually not exceeding but only 
equaling the stigmas; peduncles erect, horizontal or sometimes declined be- 
neath the leaves. 
Filaments half as long as the anthers or longer. 



322 LlLlACEAE Trillium 

Ovary very dark purple; filaments about half as long as the anthers, about 

3.5-4 mm long. (See excluded species no. 142, p. 1035.) T. erectum. 

Ovary white or nearly so; filaments two thirds as long as the anthers or 
longer; anthers pinkish or purplish, 2.5-6.5 mm long. 
Petals 5-9 mm wide; mature anthers 2.5-4.5 mm long. (See excluded 

species no. 141, p. 1035.) T. cernuvm. 

Petals 10-17 mm wide; mature anthei-s 4-6.5 mm long 

5. T. cernuum var. macranthum. 

Filaments very short, about a third as long as the anthers or less. 

Petals white; filaments yellowish white; ovary white or nearly so 

6. T. Gleasoni. 

Petals purplish or maroon; filaments yellowish white, purplish or maroon; 
ovary white or partly purplish or maroon, rarely entirely reddish brown. 
7. T. Gleasoni f . Walpolei. 

1. Trillium sessile L. Sessile-flower Trillium. Map 659. Infrequent 
to frequent throughout the greater part of the state, but becoming rare to 
absent in the southwestern counties. It is found mostly in rich, moist 
woods. 

I have had plants with 4 and 5 leaves and one with greenish yellow 
petals under cultivation and they have come true for at least 10 years. 
I also have plants with 2 and 3 stems from the same rootstock. In one 
instance one stem has 3 leaves and the other has 4 leaves. 

Pa. to Minn., southw. to Va., Tenn., Ark., and La. (Brown). 

la. Trillium sessile f. luteum (Muhl.) Peattie. (Jour. Elisha Mitchell 
Soc. 42: 197. 1927.) This is a form with greenish yellow petals which I 
have found in Adams, Allen, and Wells Counties. Beyer (Torreya 27: 83. 
1927) names this form f. viridiflorum, but since Peattie's treatment ante- 
dates Beyer's by four months, Peattie's name is used here. 

2. Trillium recurvatum Beck. Reflexed-sepal Trillium. Map 660. 
Infrequent throughout the state. All of my specimens are from woodland 
of different kinds although I recall seeing the species along the railroad 
south of Battle Ground, Tippecanoe County. 

Ohio, Mich, to Minn., southw. to w. Tenn. and Ark. 

2a. Trillium recurvatum f. luteum Clute. (Amer. Bot. 28: 79. 1922.) 
Reported from Monroe County by Friesner, and there are specimens in the 
herbarium of Butler University from Lawrence and Montgomery Counties. 
There is a specimen from Johnson County in the herbarium of Franklin 
College. 

3. Trillium nivale Riddell. Snow Trillium. Map 661. In rocky or 
gravelly soil in protected places on steep, wooded slopes, usually along or 
near streams. It is local to very local and probably closely restricted to the 
area indicated on the map after the reports from Clark, Decatur, and 
Marion Counties are added. On account of its very early appearance it 
may not have been collected in many places where its occurs, and it may 
be more widespread than the reports indicate. Authors do not mention that 
the stem in cross section is hexagonal with the angles more or less winged 
and minutely roughened. 

Western Pa. to Minn., southw. to Ky. and Iowa. 



Trillium 



LlLIACEAE 



323 




50 

Map 661 



Trillium nivale Riddell 




o 50 

Map 662 
Trillium grandif lorum (Michx.) Salisb. 




o~~ 50 

Map 663 
Trillium cernuum 
var. macranthum Eames & Wieq. 



4. Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Large-flower Trillium. 
Map 662. This species is frequent in the northeastern part of the state, 
becoming infrequent to rare southward. Friesner reports it from Harrison 
County. It is found mostly in moist woods and is also found in springy 
places in woods, on moist, wooded slopes, and in marshes. 

W. Vt., w. Que. to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Mo. 

5. Trillium cernuum L. var. macranthum Eames & Wieg. (Rhodora 25 : 
191. 1923.) Purple-anther Trillium. Map 663. I found a few specimens 
in a low, wet woods 8 miles east of Michigan City, La Porte County, and 
Peattie reports finding it in moist woods near Mineral Springs, Porter 
County. This variety is northern in its general distribution and in Indiana 
it is found only in the northern counties. 

Vt., Ont. to Sask., southw. to Pa., n. Ind., n. 111., Wis., and Minn. 

6. Trillium Gleasoni Fern. (Rhodora 34: 21. 1932.) (Trillium declina- 
tum (Gray) Gleason). Map 664. This is our common Trillium found 
throughout the state. The fact that the peduncles are often erect as well 
as horizontal or declined has led early authors to determine it also as 
Trillium erectum or Trillium cernuum. The early records are so confused 
that they should be disregarded. Friesner (Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 1: 34- 
36. 1929), after an exhaustive study of this species and its forms, con- 
cluded that there were not two forms (Trillium erectum and Trillium 
Gleasoni) in this state, and that our plant is one highly variable species. 
It is now evident that the true Trillium erectum occurs east and south of 
Indiana. Trillium cernuum, likewise, is out of our area. Its range is chiefly 
along the Coastal Plain and it is represented here only by its var. 
macranthum. 

Southern Mich, to s. Minn., southw. to Ohio and Mo. 

6a. Trillium Gleasoni Fernald forma Walpolei (Farw.) Deam, comb, 
nov. (Trillium cernuum var. declinatum Gray f. Walpolei Farw. Rept. 
Mich. Acad. Science 21 : 363. 1920.) Map 664a. This is a form which is 



324 



LlLIACEAE 



Aletris 




50 

Map 664 



Trillium Gleasoni Fern, 









1 


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Feb. 

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Apr. 

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Map 665 



Aletris farinosa L. 



described as having- the petals, and often the filaments and anthers 
maroon. Specimens occur in this state which also have the ovaries partly 
or entirely reddish brown. These should not, however, be confused with 
either Trillium erectum, which has a very dark purple ovary or with 
Trillium cernuum var. macranthum, which has purplish anthers. Both of 
the last named forms have much longer filaments than f. Walpolei. Doubt- 
less this is Trillium cernuum var. atrorubens Wood. (Rept. Indiana Geol. 
Survey 2: 286-287. 1871.) 

This form seems to occur with the species in all parts of the state. 

1143. ALETRIS L. 

1. Aletris farinosa L. Stargrass. Map 665. Infrequent throughout the 
northern part of the state as indicated on the map. In addition there are 
reports from Floyd and Vigo Counties and Schneck says it was found in 
prairies in the Lower Wabash Valley but is nearly extinct. It is found in 
moist, sandy soil in wet or moist prairies, in prairie habitats in open 
woods, and in open woods. I have made repeated attempts to establish 
this species in our garden but it fails in a few years although I have 
transplanted it into both neutral and sandy soils with an abundance of 
the original soil. 

Southern Maine to Minn., southw. to Fla. and La. 

1151. SMILAX [Tourn.] L. 

[Pennell. Smilax, subgenus Nemexia (Raf.), in the eastern United 
States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 409-421. 1916.] 

Plants herbaceous, without prickles. 

Mature leaves not glaucous beneath but sparsely pubescent with colorless hairs, ovate- 
oblong, very thin, yellow green, glossy above and beneath, mostly cordate at the 
base, sometimes subcordate or even truncate, usually long-acuminate at the 
apex, the margins generally erose and usually more or less ciliate with long 
and short, colorless hairs, blades not decurrent on the petioles or scarcely so; 

segments of staminate flowers mostly 4-5 mm long, lanceolate; fruit black 

1. S. pulverulenta. 



Smilax 



LlLIACEAE 



325 




o 50 

Map 666 



Sm'lax pulverulenta M'chx 




o 50 

Map 667 



Smilax herbacea L. 




50 

Map 668 
Smilax herbacea 
var. lasioneura (Hook) A. DC. 



Mature leaves glaucous beneath, of an ovate type, bluish green, cordate, subcordate 
or truncate at the base, short-acuminate at the apex; margins not conspicu- 
ously erose and lacking the colorless hairs or with a few short ones; fruit 
glaucous. 
Leaves all glabrous beneath; bracts on the stem below the leaves appressed; umbels 

of both pistillate and staminate plants generally with 25-80 flowers 

2. S. herbacea. 

Leaves more or less pubescent beneath with a mixture of short and long color- 
less hairs; bracts on the stem below the leaves loose. 
Umbels of pistillate and staminate plants with more than 25 flowers, usually 
30-110 flowers, sometimes fewer on branches; leaves of an ovate type, 
sometimes very broad and sometimes narrow, especially on branches; 
peduncles usually from the axils of leaves but sometimes 1-3 below the 
leaves, usually longer to many times longer than the petioles, rarely shorter; 
plants usually tall and very large ones in exposed places often bent over, 

generally 1-3 m long 2a. S. herbacea var. lasioneura. 

Umbels of pistillate plants generally with fewer than 20 flowers; umbels of 
staminate plants generally with fewer than 25 flowers (in counting the 
flowers add the scars on the peduncle denoting fallen flowers); mature 
leaves large, broadly ovate, 11-17 cm long and 9-12 cm wide, few, usually 
4-9 to a plant, not tendril-bearing; peduncles 1 or 2 below the leaves or 
opposite the lowest leaf, shorter than the petioles; plants of low woods, 

4-6 dm high 3. S. ecirrhata. 

Plants woody, vines, with prickles. 

Leaves glaucous beneath 4. S. glauca. 

Leaves green beneath. 

Stem more or less stellate-pubescent at least near the base; leaves mostly more 
or less contracted near the middle; denticulations and prickles of leaf margins 

generally colored; margin of leaf thicker than the blade 5. S. Bona-nox. 

Stem glabrous; leaves not contracted near the middle (rarely leaves of a plant 
contracted); denticulations and prickles of leaf margins generally colorless; 
margin of leaf not thicker than the blade. 
Prickles of stem all more or less flattened, the lower half green; peduncles gen- 
erally shorter than the petioles; fruit more or less glaucous; seed usually 

2 or 3 6. S. rotandifolia. 

Prickles of stem round and black; peduncles longer than the petioles; fruit 
black, not glaucous; seed usually 1 7. S. hispida. 



326 



Liliaceae Smilax 



1. Smilax pulverulenta Michx. Map 666. Infrequent to rare in the 
southern part of the state where it is usually found in hard, dry soil on 
wooded slopes, associated with oaks, and rarely in dry, sandy soil. I found 
it also in a low post oak flat south of Half Moon Pond in the southwestern 
part of Posey County. There is a specimen in the herbarium of the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame collected by Nieuwland in St. Joseph County that I 
doubtfully refer to this species. 

Southern N. Y., s. Ind. to s. Mo., southw. to N. C. and Tenn. 

2. Smilax herbacea L. Smooth Carrion-flower. Map 667. This plant 
is variable in size and in its habitat. I found a specimen in Franklin 
County that was 15 feet long. On the whole, plants of the variety are 
larger than those of the typical form. It is infrequent to rare throughout 
the state and is found on wooded slopes and alluvial plains, and rarely in 
the open, usually associated with beech and white oak. 

Out. to Nebr., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Mo. 

2a. Smilax herbacea var. lasioneura (Hook.) A. DC. Map 668. The 
variety has the range and habitats of the species but is much more fre- 
quent,* especially in sandy soil in the northern part of the state where it is 
somewhat frequent along roadsides. 

I admit that I do not know this species and its variety and the next 
species. My attention was first called to them when Pennell revised this 
section of the genus. For several years I have been assembling the aber- 
rant forms in our garden with the hope that a study of them would solve 
the problem, but I have found that the plants of this genus grow very 
slowly and most of the specimens I have planted are not yet old enough for 
study. Ordinarily each rhizome sends up one stem, although I have one 
plant that had 8 stems in 1936 and 9 in 1937. The number of stems from 
a single rhizome seems yet to be ascertained. This variety is so extremely 
variable that it seems that no character will hold to separate a large series 
of plants. I think the complex consists of several forms that might well 
be recognized. We have some plants that reach 4-6 feet in height that are 
simple and others that are usually 3-5 feet that are so much branched that 
they form a compact mass. Some plants will be in flower when others are 
just peeping through the ground. Some will have 1-3 long peduncles below 
all the leaves while others will have the peduncles mostly about the middle 
of the stem. Some plants have wide leaves, few peduncles, and only a very 
few tendrils, and in all the herbaria I have visited they are referred to 
Smilax ecirrhata, but they can always be separated from that species by 
their tendrils and, what I think to be our best character, the fewer-flow- 
ered umbels. Under this variety I have included several forms which I hope 
can be satisfactorily distinguished by someone in the future. 

Ont. and Ohio to Wyo., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Colo. 

3. Smilax ecirrhata (Engelm.) Wats. Map 669. Probably infrequent to 
rare throughout the state, although I recall seeing it rather frequently in 
the Lower Wabash Valley in low woods bordering sloughs, especially in 



Smilax 



LlLIACEAE 



327 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



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Smilax ecirrhata (Engelm.) Wats. 




5o 

Map 670 
smilax glauca Walt, 
var. genuina Blake 




55 

Map 671 



Smilax Bona-nox L. 



Gibson and Vigo Counties. All of my specimens are from low woods on the 
flood plains of streams. 

Ont. to Minn., southw. to Tenn. and Mo. 

4. Smilax glauca Walt. var. genuina Blake. Sawbrier. Map 670. Our 
plant is the typical form of the species, distinguished by Blake (Rhodora 
20: 78-80. 1918) as var. genuina. Infrequent to common in the hilly 
counties of the southern part of the state and extending as far northward 
as Marion and Putnam Counties. It is found in open woodland and in fal- 
low and abandoned fields. When it becomes established in cultivated 
ground, it is difficult to eradicate on account of its deep, tuberous rhizomes 
which, when broken, send up new stems. 

Va. to s. 111., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5. Smilax Bona-nox L. Fringed Greenbrier. Map 671. I have seen 
specimens from only the counties indicated on the map and I think 
Andrews' report from Monroe County can safely be transferred to the 
next species. So far it has been found only on the high hills near the Ohio 
River where it is usually associated with the next species. 

Va., s. Ind. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

6. Smilax rotundifdlia L. Roundleaf Greenbrier. Map 672. This species 
is rare to infrequent in the northern counties, rare or absent in many of 
the counties in the Tipton Till Plain, becoming frequent to common in the 
southern counties. It is found in dry soil in woods, clearings, and aban- 
doned fields where it often forms impenetrable thickets. It forms long 
vines, and, on account of its many prickles, it is an objectionable plant. 

N. S. to Iowa, southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

7. Smilax hispida Muhl. Hispid Greenbrier. Map 673. An infrequent 
species throughout the state. It prefers a moist, rich soil. 

Conn., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Va., Tenn., and Tex. 



328 



Amaryllidaceae 



Hymenocallis 



Jan, 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec 















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Smilax rotund if olia L. 




50 

Map 673 



Smilax hispida Muhl. 




50 

Map 674 
Hymenocallis occidentals 
(Le Conte) Kunth. 



40. AMARYLLIDACEAE Lindl. Amaryllis Family 

Bulbous herbs with flowers on scapes. 

Flowers clustered; filaments united in a cup-shaped crown; anthers long-exserted. 

1194. Hymenocallis, p. 328. 

Flowers solitary. 

Perianth naked in the throat 1181. Zephyranthes, p. 328. 

Perianth with a crown in the throat 1201. Narcissus, p. 329. 

Bulbless herbs with rootstocks or corms. 

Tall plants with large, fleshy, basal leaves; flowers not yellow; anthers versatile 

1219. Agave, p. 329. 

Low plants with linear leaves ; flowers yellow ; anthers not versatile 

1230. Hypoxis, p. 329. 

1181. ZEPHYRANTHES Herb. 
See excluded species no. 146, p. 1036. 



1194. HYMENOCALLIS Salisb. 

1. Hymenocallis occidentalis (Le Conte) Kunth. Spiderlily. Map 674. 
The spiderlily grows in low woodland that is usually inundated each year 
and in soil which is comparatively free from organic matter and which 
becomes very hard during the summer months. The bulbs are usually 6-9 
inches below the surface in a compact, blue clay. It is rather frequent in 
the southern part of Posey County where its habitat is frequent and local 
elsewhere. It is found in the Big Creek bottoms near Wadesville, Posey 
County, local in the bottoms along Pigeon Creek in the northern part of 
Warrick" County and the southern part of Gibson County, and local in its 
habitat along Little Pigeon Creek in Spencer County. It doubtless has a 
range wider than the location given above, but, as I understand its habitat, 
it will be restricted to the peculiar low places along streams and low spots 
in woods of the southwestern counties. Where it is found it is compara- 
tively abundant. 

In a restricted habitat southw. from s. Ind. to Ga. and Mo. 



Narcissus 



Amaryllidaceae 



329 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct 

Nov. 

Dec 



TJ4 







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V 

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Map 675 



Agave virginica L. 




6 35 
Map 676 



Hypoxls hirsuia (L.) Covllle 















Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


f 










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V 


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Map 677 
caulls Bartlett 



1201. NARCfSSUS [Tourn.] L. 

Flowers white, crown small, usually much less than half as long as the perianth 
segments, crisped, red-edged. (See excluded species no. 147, p. 1036.) . . .N. poeticus. 

Flowers yellow, crown equaling or exceeding the perianth segments. (See excluded 
species no. 148, p. 1036.) N. Pseudo-Narcissus. 

1219. AGAVE L. 

1. Agave virginica L. (Manfreda virginica (L.) Salisb.) False Aloe. 
Map 675. Local but rather frequent in southern Indiana. It is generally 
found only in soil of low fertility in open places on the crests and spurs of 
post oak and black oak ridges. It is frequent also in the post oak flats of 
the southwestern part of Posey County. The plants are usually 3-5 feet 
high and not branched. It is perfectly hardy at Bluffton and does well in 
black loam soil. In 1932 we had one plant that was 6.4 feet high and 
that had a long, flowering branch at almost every node, eight branches in 
all. Ralph M. Kriebel found a large colony on top of a limestone bluff 
along White River about a mile below Tunnelton in Lawrence County, 
which had by actual count about 2000 individuals. Outside the range 
shown on the map it has been reported from Daviess, Jefferson, and Scott 
Counties. 

Va. to s. Ohio, s. Ind. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

1230. HYPOXIS L. 

1. Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville. Goldeye-grass. Map 676. Infre- 
quent throughout the state but usually common where it is found, especially 
in marshland in moist, prairie habitats. It seems to prefer an acid habitat 
but I have seen it growing in marly bogs with Parnassia. In southern Indi- 
ana it is found in rather sandy soil on the crests of black oak ridges, on 
sandstone outcrops, and in the post oak flats, while in the northern part of 
the state it is usually found in sandy soil at the base of black oak slopes, in 
mucky soil in marshes, and in moist, black sandy soil in prairies. 

Sw. Maine to Sask., southw. to Fla., e. Kans., and Tex. 



330 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea 

43. DIOSCOREACEAE Lindl. Yam Family 
1252. DIOSCOREA [Plumier] L. 

[Bartlett. The source of the drug Dioscorea, with a consideration of the 
Dioscorese found in the United States. U.S. Bureau of Plant Industry, 
Bull. 189: 1-29. 1910.] 

The rhizomes of the species that occur in Indiana are used in medicine. 
Their great variation in size and shape led Bartlett to make a study of the 
species of the United States. There are authors who have not accepted 
Bartlett's division of the genus and it offers an interesting study to one 
with accumulated data who can restudy the genus with all the species 
under cultivation. All of the species are perfectly hardy at Bluffton. About 
10 years ago I began to plant rhizomes from all parts of the state and I 
now have a considerable number of plants but failure to use permanent 
labels prevents me from drawing conclusions. The following key and treat- 
ment of our species should be regarded as only provisional until our species 
are better understood. 

Lower leaves alternate, approximate, or in whorls of 3 (or 4); rhizomes linear, the 
older ones with lateral branches, dried ones generally 5-8 (10) mm in diameter. 
Internodes, at least the lowermost, more or less spreading-pubescent with stiff, color- 
less or reddish brown hairs mostly 0.2-0.5 mm long; lower surface of the leaves 
pubescent or glabrous; staminate inflorescence axillary, in short and narrow 
panicles up to 6 cm long; pistillate inflorescence in axillary racemes, developing 
up to 10 triangular capsules; capsules usually slightly obovoid or elliptic and 
broader than long, up to 24 mm long; seed broadly winged, up to 16 mm long, 

the body of the seed mostly about 5 mm wide 1. D. hirticaulis. 

Internodes glabrous; staminate inflorescence axillary, in widely spreading panicles up 
to 12 cm long; pistillate inflorescence, capsules, and seed similar to the pre- 
ceding but the racemes usually developing 5 or 6 capsules 2. D. villosa. 

Lower leaves in whorls of 4-9, mostly of 5-7, ovate-cordate; rhizomes more or less 

contorted or, if linear, with many short, knoblike branches, usually (8) 10-15 mm 

in diameter. 

Leaves glaucous beneath, usually until maturity; leaves of lowest whorl 5-9, generally 

6, the margins rarely somewhat undulate, sparsely pubescent on the principal 

veins beneath, rarely a plant with dense pubescence; petioles at the insertion of 

the blade usually more densely pubescent than the blade, glabrous nearly to the 

base; nodes of stem usually minutely puberulent at the base of the petioles; 

capsules up to 6 in a raceme, up to 30 mm long, variable in shape; sometimes 

broadly elliptic and obovoid ones found on the same raceme; seed up to 20 

mm long, the margins colorless, body orbicular, up to 5 mm in diameter; rhizomes 

generally about 10 mm in diameter, contorted, extremely variable in shape, the 

many laterals diverging in all directions 3. D. glauca. 

Leaves green beneath, those of the lowest whorl generally 4-6; margins of the first 
whorl of leaves and often the second and third whorl conspicuously undulate; 
lower surface of blades glabrous (although there are specimens with the lower 
surface densely pubescent that are referred to this species complex); petioles of 
typical specimens glabrous at insertion of the blade as well as at the base; 
internodes generally glabrous (except the pubescent forms); capsules like the 
preceding but usually much larger; seed similar but larger and with a brown 
wing; body orbicular and about 5 mm in diameter; rhizomes mostly about 15 
mm in diameter, generally of a linear type but with numerous knoblike laterals. 
4. D. quaternata. 



Dioscorea 



DlOSCOREACEAE 



331 




o 5o 

Map 678 



Dioscorea villosa L. 













5 

Z 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

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Dioscorea 


A Jo 5o 
Map 679 

g lauca Muhl. 




50 

Map 680 
Dioscorea quaternata (Walt.) Gmel. 



1. Dioscorea hirticaulis Bartlett. Map 677. This species is found in low 
woodland that usually is inundated at some time of the year, associated 
with pin oak, sweet gum, red maple, and black gum. Like all the other 
Indiana species it has both glabrous and pubescent forms and I have 
not seen intermediates. I think that they are distinct but a paucity 
of specimens does not warrant a decision in the matter. 

Va., N. C. to Ga. and Ind. 

2. Dioscorea villosa L. Wild Yam-root. Map 678. Rather frequent in 
the northern half of the state, becoming rare or infrequent in the southern 
part. It prefers moist soil of rich woodland. The lower surface of the 
blades of all the specimens I have seen is densely pubescent. The glabrous 
variety has not been found in the state. This species and the preceding 
can be determined definitely only when the whole plant, including the 
rhizome is at hand. The long, slender rhizomes with few or no laterals 
are conclusive in naming this species. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. to Va. and Tex. 

3. Dioscorea glauca Muhl. (Dioscorea quaternata var. glauca (Muhl.) 
Fern. Rhodora 39: 399-400. 1937.) Map 679. This species prefers 
slopes of deep ravines and is usually associated with beech and sugar 
maple. When the leaves are not glaucous beneath this species is difficult to 
separate from the next species. Small, in his Flora of the Southeastern 
States, separates them on the size of the staminate flowers. In the typical 
form the lower surface of the leaves is sparsely pubescent on the principal 
nerves ; the number of leaves in the basal whorl is usually 6, their margins 
rarely undulate ; rhizomes much branched. The wings of the seed of all of 
my plants are white while those of the next species are brown. 

Pa. to Mo., southw. to S. C. and Ark. 

4. Dioscorea quaternata (Walt.) Gmel. Map 680. Infrequent in the 
state within the area shown on the map. It is found in wooded ravines, on 
the crests of chestnut oak ridges, and on the bluffs of the Ohio River. 



332 Iridaceae Iris 

There are two distinct forms in the state. "The common and typical form 
has the lower surface of the leaves glabrous and the other has the lower 
surface of the leaves rather densely pubescent. 
Va. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and La. 

44. IRIDACEAE Lindl. Iris Family 

Leaves long and narrow, all or at least some of them 1 cm wide; flowers large, at least 

2 cm long; capsules generally more than 1 cm long; perennials with creeping 

rhizomes. 

Flowers blue to lilac (albino forms rare), usually few, more than 3 cm long; sepals 

recurved or spreading while the petals are erect, both usually widest above the 

middle; seeds irregular in shape 1264. Iris, p. 332. 

Flowers orange yellow, mottled with many crimson purple spots, generally less than 
3 cm long; sepals and petals remaining in the same plane, not reflexed, narrow- 
elliptic in shape, persistent and coiled together on top of the ovary after 

flowering; seed globose, black, shining 1285. Belamcanda, p. 333. 

Leaves long and narrow but none 1 cm wide; flowers regular, less than 2 cm long; 
capsules usually globose and less than 1 cm long; seeds globose, small; perennials 
without rhizomes 1286. Sisyrinciiium, p. 334. 

1264/IRIS [Tourn.] L. Iris 

[E. Anderson. The species problem in Iris. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 23: 
457-509. 1936.] 

Plants less than 1.5 dm high; rootstocks slender, creeping near the surface; flowers 
light lavender, appearing the last of April to the last of May; perianth tube usually 

4-5 cm long; sepals crested but not bearded; capsules sharply triangular 

1. 7. cristata. 

Plants more than 1.5 dm high; rootstocks thickened and not very close to the surface; 
flowers blue to lilac, appearing the last of May to the last of June. 
Capsules hexagonal ; stem decumbent or prostrate, bearing flowers from near the 

base 2. I. brevicaulis. 

Capsules 3-angled; stem erect, bearing flowers on the upper part. 

Petals obovate-spatulate, nearly as long as the sepals, thin in texture, readily 
wilting; sepals with a bright yellow, pubescent blotch at the base, the hairs 
longer than the thickness of the sepal; capsule usually long and narrow, inner 
surface dull; seed round to D-shaped, dull, with occasional broad depressions 

as seen under a hand lens 3. I. virginica var. Shrevei. 

Petals lanceolate, much shorter than the sepals, firm in texture, not readily wilting; 
sepals usually without a conspicuous spot at the base, when present, greenish 
or greenish yellow, the pubescence of microscopic hairs shorter than the thick- 
ness of the sepal; capsule short and thick, inner surface shining; seed all 
D-shaped in outline, the surface appearing regularly pitted, the pits in definite 
rows under a hand lens. (Range concides very nearly with that of the 

northern coniferous forest, but should be sought in northern Indiana.) 

/. versicolor. 

1. Iris cristata Ait. Crested Iris. Map 681. Local in the knobstone 
area from Monroe County southward. The Randolph County record is the 
only one from the glacial area. I found it in a low woods with beech and 
white ash. In the knobstone area it is usually found on the bases of 
wooded slopes and where found, it generally forms large colonies. 

Md., Ohio to Mo., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 



Belamcanda 



IRIDACEAE 



333 



2 

6 
















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Apr. 

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50 

Map 682 



Iris brevicaulis Raf 




var. 



^50 

Map 683 
Iris virgin Tea L. 

Shrevei (Small) Anderson 



2. Iris brevicaulis Raf. (Contr. Gray Herb. 114: 41. 1936.) (Iris hexa- 
gona of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Iris foliosa of Britton and Brown, Illus. 
Flora, ed. 2.) Lamance Iris. Map 682. This species, as I have found it, is 
restricted to low, overflow land along streams and to the slopes of overflow 
terraces and slopes bordering streams, ponds, and sloughs. It will, no 
doubt, be found in suitable habitats along all of our principal streams. 
Where it becomes established, it usually forms large colonies. 

Ohio and Ky., westw. to Ark. and Kans. ; also on the Coastal Plain 
(Small). 

3. Iris virginica L. var. Shrevei (Small) E. Anderson. (Ann. Missouri 
Bot. Gard 23 : 469. 1936.) (7ns versicolor in part, of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) (E. Anderson. The problem of 
species in the the Northern Blue Flag, Iris versicolor L. Ann. Missouri Bot. 
Gard. 15: 241-332. 1928.) Virginia Iris. Map 683. This plant has been 
confused, by many authors, with Iris versicolor L. which has a more 
northern range. /. versicolor has been found in the extreme northwestern 
part of Ohio and should be sought in our northern counties and it is for 
this reason that it appears in the key. /. virginica var. Shrevei is more 
or less frequent throughout the state along ditches, banks of streams, the 
borders of lakes, ponds, sloughs, and in low places in general. 

Nieuwland (Amer. Midland Nat. 3: 115. 1913) described a variety of 
/. versicolor which he called var. blandescens and which, no doubt, should 
be referred to some form of this species. 

D. C. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



1285. BELAMCANDA Adans. 

1. Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. (Gemmingia chinensis (L.) Ktze.) 
Blackberry-lily. Map 684. This plant is an escape from cultivation and 
at present is restricted mostly to the southwestern part of the state where 
it has become well established, especially in sandy soil in the western part 
of Sullivan County. My specimens are mostly from the slopes of open 



334 



IRIDACEAE 



Sisyrinchium 





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Map 685 



Sisyrinchium albidum Raf, 




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Map 686 



Sisyrinchium graminoides Bic knell 



woodland that have a sandy soil. I found it well established over an area 
of about 2 acres south of Battle Ground, Tippecanoe County, where it was 
growing in dry, gravelly soil in open woodland. 

Nat. of Asia. ; Conn, to Kans., southw. to Ga. and Tex. 

1286. SISYRINCHIUM L. Blue-eyed-grass 

Spathes sessile and terminal. 

Spathes 2, with a single, outer, leaflike bract 1. S. albidum. 

Spathes solitary. 

Outer, elongate bract with margins free to the base; capsules pale. (See excluded 

species no. 153, p. 1037.) S. campestre. 

Outer bract with the margins united above the base. 

Pedicels loosely spreading, much exceeding the inner bract; capsules 2-4 mm 

long. (See excluded species no. 154, p. 1037.) S. mucronatum. 

Pedicels suberect, scarcely exceeding the inner bract; capsules 4-6 mm long. .. . 

2. S. angustifolium. 

Spathes peduncled from the axil of the leaflike bract. 

Inner bract of spathe 1.5-3 cm long; stems broadly winged 3. S. graminoides. 

Inner bract of spathe 1-1.5 cm long; stems slender and narrowly margined; capsules 
beaked or beakless 4. S. atlanticum. 

1 . Sisyrinchium albidum Raf. Map 685. This species prefers a moist or 
dry, sandy soil. It is infrequent on sandy, white and black oak ridges and 
most frequent and abundant in moist, sandy soil of prairie habitats. It is 
also sometimes found in marshes. It is infrequent throughout the lake 
area, probably absent or rare in some of the counties of the Tipton Till 
Plain, and again appears sparingly in the southern counties. Most of our 
species seem to thrive best in full sunshine and are usually found in slightly 
acid soil. Most of our reports of Sisyrinchium angustifolium which were 
made before 1908 should, no doubt, be referred to this species. 

Ont. to Wis., southw. to N. C, Ala., and La. 

2. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. This species was reported from 
many parts of the state by early authors before our manuals recognized 
Sisyrinchium albidum. Probably most of these reports should be referred 



Sisyrinchium 



Orchidaceae 



335 




50 

Map 687 



Sisyrinchium at lanticum Bic knell 




o 50 

Map 688 



Cypripedium reginae Walt. 




Miles 

o 'sd 

Map 689 

Cypripedium candidum Muhl. 



to the last named species. Peattie reported this species from the Calumet 
Region where I, also, have found it. It is infrequent in moist soil on the 
low, open dunes along north Clark Street in Gary about an eighth of a 
mile south of Lake Michigan. Not yet known from any other county. 

« 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va., Pa., Mich., Minn., and in the Rocky Mts. 

3. Sisyrinchium graminoides Bickn. (Sisyrinchium gr&mineum Curtis.) 
Map 686. Infrequent to rare in the northern part of the state, becoming 
frequent in the southern part. This species always has yellow roots, pre- 
fers a slightly acid soil, and is generally found in dry places in open wood- 
land and clearings, along fence rows, and infrequently in open places with 
herbs and grasses of equal height. 

N. S. to Minn ; southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

4. Sisyrinchium atlanticum Bickn. Map 687. This is primarily an 
Atlantic coast species that has possibly migrated into Indiana from the 
Mississippi Valley. In addition to the records on the map, it has been 
reported from Porter and White Counties. The species seems to be entirely 
distinct and is local in Indiana. It is generally found in moist, sandy soil, 
but my Posey County specimen was found in a moist, white clay loam on 
the second bottom along the Ohio River south of Caborn in a hayfield 
where it formed a large colony. 

Maine to Fla., westw. to the Mississippi Valley and northw. to Ind. 
and Mich. 



50. ORCHIDACEAE Lindl. Orchid Family 

Plants with green leaves present at flowering time. 
Flower with a spur. 
Leaves all basal, 2. 

Blades usually large and rather fleshy, oblong-obovate; flowers with pinkish 

hoods and white or spotted lips, expanding mostly in May 

1396. Orchis, p. 339. 



.;:y, 



Orchidaceae Cypripedium 



Blades large and usually nearly orbicular, or elliptic, not fleshy; flowers greenish 

yellow or greenish white, usually expanding after May 

1422. Habenaria, p. 339. 

Leaves'all c'aul'ine: '. '. '.'.'. '.'.'.'. '.'.'.'• '.'.'.'. '•'•['•'■'■ ' • 1422. Habenaria, p. 339. 

Flower without a spur. 

Plants with only one leaf. (Bracts not to be confused with leaves.) 

Leaves ovate; flowers greenish white, about 3 mm long 1552. Malaxis, p. 349. 

Leaves linear or lance-oval; flowers rose or purplish. 

Flowers solitary, rarely 2, terminal, subtended by a large, green bract almost 

as long as the flower; leaves lance-oval 1464. Pogonia, p. 344. 

F lowers generally 3-12, rarely solitary in depauperate plants, not subtended by 

a large, green bract; leaves linear, usually 15-30 cm long 

1534. Calopogon, p. 348. 

Plants with more than one leaf. 
Flowers in racemes. 

Leaves all near the base and conspicuously marked with white veins 

1504. Goodvera, p. 347. 

Leaves not conspicuously veined. 

Stems with bulbous bases; leaves 2, basal; flowers madder purple or yellowish 

green 1556. Liparis, p. 350. 

Stems without bulbous bases. 

Flowers white; leaves of a linear type, mostly less than 1 cm wide, at 

least the lower ones petiolate; plants mostly 2-5 dm. high 

1490. Spiranthes, p. 345. 

Flowers greenish, suffused with madder purple; median leaves of an ovate 
type, the largest usually 2-4 cm wide, sessile; plants usually 3-7 dm. 

high 1482. Epipactis, p. 345. 

Flowers not in racemes. 
Plants with a whorl of 5 obovate or lanceolate leaves at the summit; flowers 

terminal, solitary, rarely 2, purplish 1467. Isotria, p. 344. 

Plants not as above, 
Leaves usually very large and long; flowers inflated, slipper-shaped, yellow, 

pinkish or white 1391. Cypripedium, p. 336. 

Leaves small, about 1 cm long, clasping, broadly ovate; flowers not inflated 

or slipper-shaped, usually pinkish or nearly white 

1466. Triphora, p. 344. 

Plants without green leaves at flowering time, rarely a withered basal one persisting. 

Flower solitary, terminal, rose purple 1474. ARETHUSA, p. 344. 

Flowers not as above. 

Stems bulbous at the base. 

Flowers with long spurs; basal leaf purplish beneath. . . .1560. Tipularia, p. 350. 

Flowers without spurs; basal leaf green beneath 1642. Aplectrum, p. 351. 

Stems not bulbous at the base. 

Plants with 1-several long, tuberous roots; flowers white 

1490. Spiranthes, p. 345. 

Plants with scaly or corallike rootstocks; flowers not white. 

Flowers cadmium orange 1629. Hexalectris, p. 351. 

Flowers more or less purplish 1548. Corallorriiiza, p. 348. 

1391. CYPRIPEDIUM L. Ladyslippeb 

Plants with leafy stems; flowers 1 or 2, rarely several. 

Sepals and petals shorter than the lip; tall plants of only cold, springy, and boggy 
places; flowers white except the variegated crimson lip 1. C. reginae. 

Sepals and petals equalling or longer than the lip, 

Leaves 3 or 4, strongly overlapping at the base, rather narrow-elliptic or 
lanceolate; outside of lip white, in dried specimens generally less than 



Cypripedium Orchidaceae 337 

20 mm long, rarely up to 25 mm long; dried plants mostly 25-35 cm long 

2. C. candidum. 

Leaves 4 or 5, rarely only 3, not overlapping at the base or only rarely so, usually 
broadly oval to narrowly elliptic; lip yellow outside, generally 2-4.5 cm long- 
in dried specimens, sometimes only 1.5 cm long in depauperate specimens; 
plants of dry woods or of boggy and springy places. 
Lip 2-3 cm long; sepals of a madder purple color; flowers very fragrant; leaves 

3 or 4 3. C. parviflomm. 

Lip 3-5 cm long; sepals of a greenish yellow color, streaked with fine lines of 
madder purple; less fragrant than the preceding; leaves larger, 4 or 5, rarely 

6 3a. C. parviflomm var. pubescens. 

Plants without stems, with 2 opposite basal leaves, rarely a third near the base of the 
scape; leaves very variable in width and length, oval to narrowly elliptic; flowers 
pinkish (white in albino forms); lip usually 4-7 cm long in dried specimens; gen- 
erally found only in tussocks of sphagnum in Indiana 4. C. acaide. 

1. Cypripedium reginae Walt. (Cypripedium hirsutum Mill.) Showy 
Ladyslipper. Map 688. This orchid was formerly rather frequent in its 
habitat in our northern counties, but now like the other species of the genus 
has become rare on account of drainage and grazing. It prefers a wet, cold 
soil and is usually found in muck in springy places or in peat in tamarack 
bogs, often in tussocks of sphagnum. In optimum conditions it reaches 
a height of 3 feet and I once measured a leaf that was nearly 7 inches wide 
and 1 foot long. I found it to be a common plant in a large springy area at 
the base of the high bank along Sugar Creek in Montgomery County. R. C. 
Friesner found a few plants in a marly springy area on the slope of the 
high bank of Flint Creek about 3 miles northwest of Westpoint, Tippe- 
canoe County and gave me a specimen. It has been reported also from 
Hamilton, Kosciusko, Marshall, Noble, and St. Joseph Counties. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Mo. 

2. Cypripedium candidum Muhl. White Ladyslipper. Map 689. This 
species is very local and I now know of only six places in the state where it 
occurs. There are no reports for it in Indiana outside of the range indi- 
cated on the map except that Schneck in 1876 reported it as occurring in 
the Lower Wabash Valley, saying: "Rapidly disappearing, once common 
here." I was informed by a reliable authority that it has been found in 
two places on springy banks in Tippecanoe County. It is generally found 
on "raised springy areas" and usually associated with Zizia aurea. It 
occurs in Porter County in a cattail mucky area. 

N. Y. to s. Minn., southw. to N. J., Ky., and Mo. 

3. Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. Small Yellow Ladyslipper. Map 
690. Since Indiana has been so completely drained the typical form of this 
species has become very rare. It is generally found in boggy places and in 
the dunes on the wet borders of sloughs. It is rarely found in woodland. 

Newf. to Que., Man., Sask., to B. C, southw. to Ga., Ohio, 111., Iowa, 
and Wash. 

3a. Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight. Large 
Yellow Ladyslipper. Map 691. The large-flowered variety seems to be 
quite distinct from the typical form for the most part but intergrading 



338 



Orchidaceae 



Cypripedium 



Jan 

Feb 
Mar 
Apr. 
May 

June 
July 
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Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 


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Cypripedium parviflorum Saii'sb. 




50 

n Map 691 
Sedium parviflorum 

var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight 




30 

Map 692 



Cypripedium acaule Ait. 



specimens have influenced some authors to regard it as a nutritional form. 
Some claim that when the large-flowered form is transplanted it will 
change in time to the small-flowered form. This transition is contradicted 
by the experience of others. Until it is proven that the one is merely a 
passing form of the other it is best to regard them as distinct with inter- 
grading forms. In Indiana the habitat seems to distinguish them. The 
variety grows in deep leaf mold in moist or dry woods while the typical 
form grows for the most part in very wet or boggy places. The habitat dis- 
tinction, however, does not hold even for the few specimens I have. All of 
my specimens of the typical form grew in boggy places except one which 
grew in woodland. All of my specimens of the variety grew in woodland 
except one that grew in a tamarack bog. 

Que. to B. C, southw. to N. C, Ala., Mo., and N. Mex. 

Since the preceding was written, Donovan S. Correll has published his 
study of the North American yellow ladyslippers in Bot. Mus. Leafl. of 
Harvard University 7: 1-18. 1938. He concludes that our plants are a 
variety of the yellow ladyslipper of Eurasia and assigns to them the name 
Cypripedium Calceolus war. pubescens (Willd.) Correll. He gives the range 
of the variety as Newf., Que. to Yukon and B. C, southw. to S. C, Ga., 
Miss., La., N. Mex. and Wash. 

4. Cypripedium acaule Ait. (Fissipes acaulis (Ait.) Small.) Pink 
Ladyslipper. Map 692. This species is found only in the sphagnum bogs 
of northern Indiana. In addition to the counties shown on the map it has 
been reported from Lake County. Its habitat occurs in all of these counties 
and also did occur in Marshall and Starke Counties, but the report from 
Monroe County by Andrews must be an error. It was formerly a common 
plant and showed great variation in the size and shape of its leaves. Since 
its habitat is restricted, and our sphagnum bogs are fast disappearing, it 
will soon become rare in our state. 

Newf. to Winnipeg and Minn., southw. to N. J., Ohio, and Ind., and in 
the mts. to N. C. and Tenn. 



Orchis 



Orchidaceae 



339 




50 

Map 693 



Orchis spectabilis L. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 





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Habenana viridi's (L.) R. Br. 
var. bracteata (Muhl.) Gray 




50 

Map 695 



Habenaria flava (LI Gra 



1396. ORCHIS [Tourn.] L. 

1. Orchis spectabilis L. (Galeorchis spectabilis (L.) Rydb.) Showy 
Orchis. Map 693. Infrequent to rare throughout the state except in the 
prairies where it is absent. It is found usually in deep leaf mold in beech 
and sugar maple woods and in black and white oak woods. 

N. B., Que., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Tenn., and Mo. 



1422. HABENARIA Willd. 

Lip not fringed. 

Leaves cauline; stem more or less bracted above the leaves and into the inflorescence. 
Leaves several, at least more than 2. 

Lip lobed at the base or toothed at the apex. 

Lip 3-toothed at the apex; spur shorter than the lip 

1. Habenaria viridis var. bracteata. 

Lip with a lobe on each side at the base and a median tubercle near the base; 
spur longer than the lip. 

Bracts mostly longer than the flowers; lip decidedly longer than wide 

2. H. flava. 

Bracts mostly shorter than the flowers; lip about as wide as long 

3. H. sciitellata. 

Lip entire, lanceolate to linear, subacute or rounded at the apex. 

Flowers white, fragrant; lip dilated at the base 4. H. dllatata. 

Flowers greenish, scarcely fragrant; lip not dilated at the base 

5. H. hyperborea. 

Leaves 1 or 2; lip entire at the base; bracts shorter than the flowers 

6. H. clavellata. 

Leaves basal. 

Scape bracted; flowers greenish white 7. H. orbiculata. 

Scape bractless ; flowers greenish yellow 8. H. Hookeri. 

Lip fringed or erose-denticulate. 

Lip evenly fringed all around, not divided. 

Flowers orange yellow; lip oblong, 1 cm long, the fringe 3-5 mm long 

9. H. ciliaris. 

Flowers white; lip narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 8-10 mm long, the fringe 0.5-1.5 
mm long. (See excluded species no. 155, p. 1037.) H. blephariglottis. 



8I<) 



Orchidaceae 



Habenaria 





Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 


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r 




1 

r 


-^k 


Dec.j- 




■ ' — 


L/ Miles 














Habenaria 


dil 


~}K JO 

J Map 697 
atata (Pursh) Gray 




50 

Map 698 



Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. 



Lip more or less 3-parted, the divisions fringed or erose-denticulate. 

Petals entire; flowers gi - eenish; lip deeply parted, the divisions narrow and deeply 

fringed 10. H. lacera. 

Petals not entire, more or less minutely denticulate. 
Lip deeply fringed and 3-parted; fringe 2-5 mm long. 

Flowers white, not crowded on the spike 11. H. leucophaea. 

Flowers purplish, crowded on the spike 12. H. psycodes. 

Lip shallowly erose-denticulate, the teeth usually about 0.5 mm long, the termi- 
nal lobe usually bifid by an incision 2-3 mm long, 3-parted, rarely cut 

into 5 divisions; flowers purplish; found only in southern Indiana 

13. if. peramoena. 

1. Habenaria viridis (L.) R. Br. var. bracteata (Muhl.) Gray. (Habe- 
naria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br. and Coeloglossum bracteatum (Willd.) 
Pari.) Satyr Orchid. Map 694. Usually not more than a single plant is 
found in any one locality. It occurs in moist, rich woods, in tamarack bogs 
or on low borders of lakes. In Noble County I found two large colonies 
on the low border of Crooked Lake in among Cornus obliqua and Acer 
rubrum. This is the only place I have seen two specimens or more in a 
place. It has been reported also from Lake and White Counties. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. C, Ohio, 111., Mont., and Wash.; also in 
Japan and China. 

2. Habenaria flava (L.) Gray. (Perularia flava (L.) Farw.) TUBERCLED 
Orchid. Map 695. Mostly in the lake region in tamarack bogs, marshes, 
and sandy, wet places. It has been reported from Marshall and Vigo 
Counties. It is very rare and usually a single specimen is found at a place. 

N. S., Que., Ont, to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

3. Habenaria scutellata (Nutt.) F. Morns. (Perularia scutellata (Nutt.) 
Small.) Map 696. On September 28, 1923, I found a large colony of 
this species in flower and in fruit in Posey County, growing in a bare 
place under a clump of buttonbush where it must have been submerged 
much of the year. I transferred some of it to our garden in Bluffton where 



Habenaria 



Orchidaceae 



341 




"To 

Map 699 



Habenaria clavellata (Mich*.) Spreng. 




55 

Map 700 

Habenaria orbtculata (Pursh) Torr. 




(5 50 

Map 701 

Habenaria Hookeri Torr, 



it did well for several years. This is the only record I know of from 
Indiana. 

Pa., Ind., and Ark., southw. to Fla. 

4. Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Gray. {Limnorchis dilatata (Pursh) 
Rydb. of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) White Bog-orchid. 
Map 697. A few plants of this species were found in a bog on the 
Wolverton Estate about 7 miles southwest of South Bend, St. Joseph 
County. The area was heavily grazed and it will soon disappear if grazing 
continues. This species was reported by Nieuwland for Umbach (Amer. 
Midland Nat. 3: 119. 1913) but through the courtesy of N. C. Fassett the 
Umbach herbarium at the University of Wisconsin was searched, and no 
specimen was found. There are, however, specimens collected by Nieuw- 
land in Lake and Porter Counties which are deposited in the herbarium of 
the University of Notre Dame. The location of this species in Indiana is 
the extreme southern limit of its range. 

Subarctic America; Lab. to B. C. and Alaska, southw. to N. J., Ind., 
Minn., Mont., Idaho, Colo., and Wash. 

5. Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. (Limnorchis hyperborea (L.) 
Rydb.) Northern Green Orchid. Map 698. Our specimens and reports 
are from our northern tier of counties. It must be very rare in Indiana. 
I have collected it only twice. Besides the counties shown on the map it 
has been reported from La Porte and St. Joseph Counties. 

Newf. to Que., Ont. to B. C, northw. to Alaska, Iceland, and Greenland, 
and southw. to N. Y., Pa., Ind., 111., Nebr., Colo., and Oreg. 

6. Habenaria clavellata (Michx.) Spreng. (Gymnadeniopsis clavellata 
(Michx.) Rydb.) Small Green Wood Orchid. Map 699. My specimens 
are from moist, sandy or gravelly borders of lakes and sloughs. The distri- 
bution is restricted to our northern counties with the exception of a 



342 



Orchidaceae 



Habenaria 




~~T5 

Map 702 



Habenaria ciliaris (L ) R.Br 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 



^tT] i / ,d d l d 




m _j- \ — 

BfffFH 




- 1 ] LfT 

1 — L- - ^ 1 


L J \// Miles 
tM P\ 7 5C 



Map 703 
Habenaria I acera (Michx.) Lodd. 




30 

Map 704 



Habenaria leucophaea (Nutt.) Gray 



specimen collected in a swamp in Monroe County by J. E. Potzger. There 
is a report from St. Joseph County which is not shown on the map. 
Newf., Que., Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. Y., Fla., and La. 

7. Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torr. (Lysias orbiculata (Pursh) 
Rydb.) Large Roundleaf Orchid. Map 700. This is one of our rarest 
orchids. I have found it twice. Van Gorder found it in Noble County and 
I have his specimen. It grows in very rich, sandy soil with sugar maple 
and beech. 

Newf., Que., Ont. to B. C. and northw. to Alaska, southw. to Pa., W. Va., 
Md., and in the mts. to S. C, Tenn., Ohio, 111., Mont., and Wash. 

8. Habenaria Hookeri Torr. (Lysias Hookeriana (A. Gray) Rydb.) 
Hooker Orchid. Map 701. This is also one of our rarest orchids. It has 
been reported from Lake, La Porte, Noble, and Porter Counties. There 
is a specimen in the Field Museum which was collected by Agnes Chase, 
June 21, 1897, east of Edgemoor (probably near what is now known as the 
Buffington Cement Plant or West Gary). The specimen in the Field 
Museum so labeled and collected by Bross in La Porte County is Orchis 
spectabilis. The report from Noble County is not supported by a specimen 
and I refer the report to Habenaria orbiculata. Dr. Lyon found a few 
plants in Porter County. It has been found also by R. M. Tryon, Jr., in 
Dunes State Park, Porter County and he has given me a specimen. 

N. S., Que., Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. Y., Pa., Ohio, Ind., Wis., and 
Iowa. 

9. Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br. (Blephari glottis ciliaris (L.) Rydb.) 
Yellow Fringe-orchid. Map 702. In marshes, moist, sandy borders of 
lakes and sloughs, prairie habitats, and low, open and sandy woods. This 
species was formerly not rare but is now becoming scarce. Its distribution 
is restricted to our northern counties and besides those indicated on the 
map it has been reported from Marshall County. 

Vt., Ont. to Mich., 111., and Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



Habenaria 



Orchidaceae 



343 




50 

Map 705 



Habenaria psycodes (L.) Spreng, 















9 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec <- 


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enaria 


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Map 706 

Gray 




50 

Map 707 



Poqonia ophioglossoides (L ) Ker. 



10. Habenaria lacera (Michx.) Lodd. (Blephariglottis lacera (Michx.) 
Farw.) Green Fringe-orchid. Map 703. This species is somewhat fre- 
quent in the lake area and has a wide range of habitats. It is usually found 
in tamarack bogs, marshes, and marshy and springy places anywhere. I 
once found it under a beech tree in a woods and once in a sandy, fallow 
field that had been fallow for at least 25 years. In addition to the counties 
indicated on the map it has been reported from Fulton, Lake, and Marshall 
Counties. 

Newf., Que., Ont. to Man., southw. to N. C, Ala., and Mo. 

11. Habenaria leucophaea (Nutt.) Gray. (Blephariglottis leucophaea 
(Nutt.) Farw.) Prairie White Fringe-orchid. Map 704. Probably local 
in the lake area years ago but now rare. I have found it in only five 
places. In addition to these counties it has been reported from the follow- 
ing counties: Hamilton, Kosciusko, Lake, and Marshall. My specimens 
are from sphagnum in tamarack bogs. 

N. S., Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. Y., Ohio, 111., Mo., and La. 

12. Habenaria psycodes (L.) Spreng. (Blephariglottis psycodes (L.) 
Rydb.) Small Purple Fringe-orchid. Map 705. Rather rare in the lake 
area in mucky soil about lakes and in low woods. In addition to the counties 
shown on the map it has been reported from Jay County. It has also been 
reported from Clark and Jefferson Counties but these reports doubtless 
should be referred to the next species. 

Newf., Que., Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. C, Ohio, 111., and Iowa. 

13. Habenaria peramoena Gray. (Blephariglottis peramoena (Gray) 
Rydb.) Fringeless Purple Orchid. Map 706. This species is not infre- 
quent in our southern counties in low, flat woods, usually associated with 
beech and sweet gum and pin oak. It has also been reported from Monroe 
County. Usually rather frequent where found. 

Pa., Ohio, 111., and Mo., southw. to N. C, Ala., and Tenn. 



344 



Orchidaceae 



Pogonia 




50 

Map 708 



Tnphora trianthophora (SwJ Rydb. 




50 

Map 709 

Isotria verticillata (Willd.) Raf. 




1464. POGONIA Juss. 

1. Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker. Rose Pogonia. Map 707. For- 
merly frequent in peat bogs in the lake area, now infrequent to rare 
on account of drainage. In addition to the counties shown on the map it 
has been reported from Fulton and Marshall Counties. 

Newf., Que., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

1466. TRfPHORA Nutt. 

1. Triphora trianthophora (Sw.) Rydb. {Pogonia trianthophora (Sw.) 
BSP.) Nodding Pogonia. Map 708. An infrequent plant throughout the 
state. It is generally found in deep humus, usually in beech and sugar 
maple and oak woods. The flowers are mostly nodding but the fruit is 
erect. I once found a large colony on a bare, sandy flat in a deep, wooded 
ravine. Besides the counties indicated on the map it has been reported 
from the following counties : Fayette, Hamilton, and Steuben. 

Maine to Wis., southw. to Fla., Ala., and Mo. 

1467. ISOTRIA Raf. 

1. Isotria verticillata (Willd.) Raf. (Pogonia verticillata (Willd.) 
Nutt.) Whorled Pogonia. Map 709. An inconspicuous plant and appar- 
ently very rare and erratic in its distribution. In the lake area it is found 
in sphagnum in tamarack bogs and south of this area it has been found in 
white oak woods. 

Maine, N. Y. to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

1474. ARETHtSA [Gronov.] L. 

1. Arethusa bulbosa L. Arethusa. Map 710. An extremely rare plant 
found in sphagnum in bogs. In addition to the counties shown on the map 



Arethusa 



Orchidaceae 



345 




Map 711 
Epipactis latifolia (Huds.) All. 




5o 

Map 712 



Spiranthes Beckii Lindl. 













1 

2 

B 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


5 

$ 






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iranthes 


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graci 


lis (Big 


) 50 
Map 713 

■IJ Beck 



it has been reported from Carroll and Starke Counties. It must now be 
very rare or almost extinct in the state. 

Newf., Ont. to Minn., southw. to N. J., Pa., Ohio, Ind., and in the mts. 
to S. C. 

1482. EPIPACTIS Swartz 

1. Epipactis latifolia (Huds.) All. (Serapias Helleborine L.) Broad- 
leaf Epipactis. Map 711. Reported from La Porte County by Nieuw- 
land & Just (Amer. Midland Nat. 12: 220. 1931). They write: "Inter- 
laken, Laporte Co., spreading very rapidly in abundance on a dry clay 
hillside facing the lake, VII. 18. 1930.) (Probably introduced.) " I have seen 
their specimens and I am admitting it upon their statement that it is 
spreading rapidly. Found in 1937 by Lyon in South Bend. 

Que., Ont., N. Y., and Pa. ; also in Eu. Probably all, or most all of our 
reports are based upon escaped plants because it was formerly cultivated 
for its supposed medicinal qualities. 

1490. SPIRANTHES Richard Ladies' Tresses 

Upper part of stem and lower part of the rachis of the spike glabrous; leaves basal and 
usually absent at flowering time; stems slender, usually less than 1 mm in 
diameter just below the inflorescence. 

Rachis of inflorescence not twisted; stems bearing a solitary subcylindrical root 

1. S. Beckii. 

Rachis of inflorescence twisted; stems bearing more than one subcylindrical root, 

usually 3 or more 2. S. gracilis. 

Upper part of stem and lower part of rachis of the spike more or less pubescent; leaves 
not all basal and some present at flowering time except in no. 3 where they may be 
absent; stems usually 1 mm or more in diameter just below the inflorescence. 
Flowering from May through July; base of lip truncate, without callosities or with 

small, spreading ones 3. S. lucida. 

Flowering in Sept. and Oct.; base of lip cuneate and with two, incurved, nipplelike 
callosities. 
Flowers about 4, not more than 5, mm long; spikes slender, less than 15 mm wide; 

petals lanceolate, dilated at the base 4. S. ovalis. 



316 



Orchidaceae 



Spiranthes 




Map 714 
Spiranthes lucida (H. H. Eaton) Ames 




0~ —J5 
Map 715 



Spiranthes ovalis Lindl. 




50 

Map 716 



Spiranthes cernua (L.) Richard 



Flowers about 6, at least more than 5, mm long; spikes stout, mostly about 20 
mm wide, rarely as narrow as 15 mm; petals linear, not dilated at the base. 

Corolla white; spikes usually blunt; lower bracts shorter than the corolla 

5. S. cernua. 

Corolla yellowish; spikes acute; bracts longer than the corolla. (See excluded 
species no. 157, p. 1037.) S. cernua var. ochroleuca. 

1. Spiranthes Beckii Lindl. {Ibidium Beckii (Lindl.) House.) BECK 
Ladies' Tresses. Map 712. I have found this species in only two counties. 
It grew in hard, clay soil in open white and black oak woods. 

Mass., Md., Ky., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Spiranthes gracilis (Bigel.) Beck. (Ibidium gracile (Bigel.) House.) 
Slender Ladies' Tresses. Map 713. This species is, no doubt, sparingly 
distributed throughout the state. In addition to the counties shown on the 
map it has been reported from Kosciusko, Noble, and Tippecanoe Counties. 
My specimens are from sandy or clayey soil in open, white and black oak 
woods and fallow fields and from sandy, black soil in a prairie habitat. 

P. E. I., Que., Ont. to Man., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

3. Spiranthes lucida (H. H. Eaton) Ames. {Ibidium plantagineum 
(Raf.) House.) Wideleaf Ladies' Tresses. Map 714. This species is local 
in the lake area where it is sparingly found on the springy, marl borders 
of lakes and in bogs elsewhere. In Jennings County in southern Indiana I 
found it at the base of a 75-foot cliff along the Muscatatuck River growing 
on narrow ledges of limestone in soil kept continually wet by seepage. In 
addition to the counties shown on the map it has been reported from 
Tippecanoe County. 

Maine, Que., Ont. to Mich., southw. to Va. and Ohio. 

4. Spiranthes ovalis Lindl. (Ibidium ovale (Lindl.) House.) Map 715. 
This species is very rare throughout its range and I have found it in only 
two counties. One specimen is from the wooded bluff of the Ohio River 



Goodyera Orchidaceae 347 

on the north side of Leavenworth, Crawford County. The other was found 
on a low, wooded promontory in the Louis B. Wilkerson woods in sec. 3 
about 7 miles southwest of Rockport, Spencer County. Here it was grow- 
ing under a beech tree and also under a tulip tree. Specimens from this 
place supplied the photograph of this species for "Our Wild Orchids" by 
Morris & Eames. 

Ga., Ala., Miss., Tex., Okla., Tenn., Ark., Mo., and Ind. 

5. Spiranthes cernua (L.) Richard. (Ibidium cernuum (L.) House.) 
Nodding Ladies' Tresses. Map 716. Well distributed in the lake area 
where it may be common over acres of recently drained mucky land. It 
prefers calcareous springy areas and marshes and is usually found in the 
open. In the southern part of the state it is generally found as an indi- 
dividual plant here and there growing in hard clay or sandy soil in open, 
black and white oak woods, on chestnut oak ridges, and less frequently 
in low woods with sweet gum and pin oak, and sometimes on sandy knolls 
in the southwestern part of the state. It is also frequent in wet prairies 
where such habitats occur. A variety of this species has been reported 
from Indiana but I am excluding it. See excluded species for a discussion 
of it. 

N. S., Ont. to Minn., and southw. to Ga., Tex., and N. Mex. 

1504. GOODYERA R. Br. 

1. Goodyera pubescens R. Br. (Epipactis pubescens (Willd.) A. A. 
Eaton and Peramium pubescens (Willd.) MacM.) Downy Rattlesnake- 
plantain. Map 717. Local in many parts of the state where its habitat 
exists. It generally prefers a deep humus soil that is slightly acid. I have 
seen it as a common plant on residual sandstone soil in Clay and Crawford 
Counties and only a few plants in a colony here and there in sandy soil 
in black oak woods. In addition to the distribution shown on the map it 
has been reported from Lake, Putnam, and Vigo Counties. 

N. E., Que. to Minn., southw. to N. C, Ala., and 111. 

1534. CALOPOGON R. Br. 

1. Calopogon pulchellus (Salisb.) R. Br. (Limodorum tuberosum L. in 
part.) Grass-pink Orchid. Map 718. More or less frequent in its habitat 
throughout the lake area. It grows in the open in both peaty and marly 
springy places, in tamarack bogs, and in a moist, prairie habitat. In addi- 
tion to the counties shown on the map it has been reported from Cass and 
White Counties. 

Newf., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



348 



Orchidaceae 



Calapogon 




50 

Map 717 



Goodyera pubescens R. Be 



Jan. 
Feb. 

Mir 

Apr. 

Mjy 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



8 C 


^{ D \ L KD 
ID / P " 


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D »D 


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DP 








"T 


V\ 








r 















Miles 



50 

Map 718 



Calopogon pulchellus (Salisb.) R.Br. 




5 55 

Map 719 

Corallorrhiza Wisteriana Conrad 



1548. CORALLORRHIZA [Haller] Chatelain 

Flowering in Indiana before July 1, mostly in May and early June. 

Plants northern in their distribution, reaching only northern Indiana; flowers greenish 
or yellowish; perianth generally 5 mm or less in length; lip truncate at the apex. 

1. C. trifida. 

Plants southern in their distribution, not yet found in northern Indiana; flowers and 
stem more or less purplish; perianth generally 6-8 mm long; lip notched at the 

apex 2. C. Wisteriana. 

Flowering in Indiana after July 1, mostly in August and September. 
Lip with a short lobe on each side at the base; mature capsule about 10 mm long. . . . 

3. C. macidata. 

Lip without lateral lobes; mature capsule about 6 mm long 4. C. odontorhiza. 

1. Corallorrhiza trifida Chatelain. Early Coralroot. This species is 
admitted to our flora upon the authority of Pepoon, who says : "Frequent 
in the dune swale woods northeast of Dune Park" (Porter County), and 
upon the basis of a specimen collected by Umbach in 1892 at Miller 
(Lake County), now in the herbarium of the University of Wisconsin. It 
was also reported from Floyd County but that record should, no doubt, be 
referred to some other species. 

Newf., Que., Sask., B. C. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Pa., Ohio, Colo., 
and Oreg. ; also in Eurasia. 

2. Corallorrhiza Wisteriana Conrad. Wister Coralroot. Map 719. 
Infrequent and rather local in the southern third of the state, rarely in 
small colonies, but, where found, the specimens are usually a rod or more 
apart. It grows in humus, generally on wooded, beech slopes, sometimes in 
black or black and white oak woods, and rarely in white oak woods. This 
is by far our most common coralroot. 

Pa. to Ind., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

3. Corallorrhiza maculata Raf. SPOTTED CORALROOT. Map 720. My 
specimens are all from the lake area except the one from Brown County. 
All grew in rather deep humus in black, black and white, or white oak 
woods. In addition to the counties shown on the map it has been reported 



Malaxis 



Orchidaceae 



349 




50 

Map 720 
Corallorrhiza macuiata Raf. 



Jan. 

Feb 

M 3 r 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 













D A- 








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" 50 

Map 721 
Corallorrhiza odontorhiza Nutt. 



1 
1 

1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


1 
f 


-f 








y- 


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-l 








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Malaxis 


un 


'folia M 


3 '50 

Map 722 

'chx. 



from Jefferson, Lake, and La Porte Counties. The report from Jefferson 
County may probably be wrong since the author did not report Coral- 
lorrhiza Wisteriana which occurs there. 

Newf., Que., Sask. to B. C, southw. to Va., N. C, Ind. and Calif. 

4. Corallorrhiza odontorhiza Nutt. Late Coralroot. Map 721 This 
species is found in slightly acid soil in bare places in fallow fields, or in 
rather sandy soil in deep humus in black and white oak woods. Very local 
in its distribution but probably found here and there throughout the state. 
It has been reported from other counties but wrong determinations are so 
frequent that to enumerate them might lead to confusion. 

Southern Maine to Ont. and Mich., southw. to Fla. and Mo. 



1552. MALAXIS Sw. 

Pedicels straight, mostly 3-6 mm long, longer than the ovary 1. M. unifolia. 

Pedicels twisted, 1-2 mm long, shorter than the ovary. (See excluded species no. 160, 
p. 1038. ) M. brachypoda. 

1. Malaxis unifolia Michx. (Microstylis unifolia (Michx.) BSP.) Green 
Adder's Mouth. Map 722. I have specimens from four counties : one from 
Vigo County from a wooded slope, one from Monroe County from "Huckle- 
berry Hill," one from Noble County near Pleasant Lake, and one from a 
clump of sphagnum in the Leesburg bog, Kosciusko County. Blatchley col- 
lected a specimen at "Huckleberry Hill" in Monroe County, June 15, 1887. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Fla., Ala., and Mo. 

1556. LlPARIS Richard Twayblade 

Flowers usually light madder purple; lip wedge-obovate, mostly 10 mm long; leaves 
elliptic or ovate; plants usually of dry ground 1. L. lilii folia. 

Flowers yellowish green or light green; lip obovate or oblong, about 5 mm long; leaves 
elliptic-lanceolate; plants of a boggy habitat 2. L. Loeselii. 

1. Liparis liliifolia (L.) Richard. Lily Twayblade. Map 723. Prob- 
ably found in all parts of the state, being local in the northern part and 



350 



Orchidaceae 



Liparis 




50 

Map 723 

Liparis liliifolia (L.) Richard 




o 50 

Map 724 



Liparis Loesellii (L.) Richard 













3 
3 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


f 












r 




J^ 


iV 






" 








X 














fjM 


J 


y~ 


r 




Dec. j- 






1 ' 

D L. 


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J / 

/ Miles 














Ti 


pu 


aria 


! P r- 

discol 


r 5 V 7 

jr (Purs 


J 50 

Map 725 
h) Nutt. 



more or less frequent in the southern part. The plant is very inconspicuous 
and doubtless it is more abundant than our records indicate. It evidently 
prefers a slightly acid soil and is generally found in deep humus in beech 
or white oak woods and more rarely in black and white oak woods. In 
Putnam County about 3 miles northwest of Greencastle, on June 3, 1910, I 
found it in a 19-year old Catalpa planting that had been first cultivated 
to strawberries and later abandoned. Here the plant was growing by the 
hundreds. In addition to the counties shown on the map it has been 
reported from these counties : Lake, Union, and Vigo. 
N. H. and Mass. to Minn., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Mo. 

2. Liparis Loeselii (L.) Richard. Loesel Twayblade. Map 724. The 
majority of my specimens were found in sphagnum in tamarack bogs and 
in open boggy places. It is very local and is restricted to the lake area. In 
addition to the counties shown on the map it has been reported from Fulton, 
Kosciusko, La Porte, and Marshall Counties. It has already become very 
rare. 

N. S. to Sask., southw. to N. C, Ala. and Mo. 



1560. TIPULARIA Nutt. 

1. Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. {Tipularia uni folia (Muhl.) BSP.) 
Cranefly Orchid. Map 725. This species is restricted to our southern 
counties but it may have a wider range than the map shows. I have a 
memorandum that I saw it in Brown County but I did not preserve speci- 
mens. In 1938 Benjamin W. Douglass wrote me he found it near Trevlac. 
The leaves disappear before flowering time and look much like those of 
Orchis spectabilis or those of Aplectrwm, hyemale. Tipularia may 
easily be distinguished because the lower surface is purplish instead of 
green. One does not usually collect leaf specimens but in this species a leaf 
specimen makes a record as authentic as a flowering one. I am of the 
opinion that it will be found all over the unglaciated area, but very locally. 
Where it is found it is usually somewhat frequent but it is so inconspicuous 






Hexalectris 



Orchidaceae 



351 



Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

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July 

Aug 

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Nov. 

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Hexalectris spicata (Wall.) Barnh. 




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Map 727 



Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Torr. 




50 

Map 728 



Saururus cernuus L. 



that it may be overlooked. It grows in deep humus on protected slopes with 
beech or white oak and in black and white oak woods. 

N. J., Ohio, and Ind., southw. to Fla. and Ala. 

1629. HEXALECTRIS Raf. 

1. Hexalectris spicata (Walt.) Barnh. (Torreya 4: 121. 1904.) (Hexa- 
lectris aphylla (Nutt.) Raf.) Crested Coralroot. Map 726. On August 
3, 1922 I found a few scattered flowering plants on a black and white 
oak slope in a woods bordering the Ohio River in sec. 14 about 151/2 
miles southeast of Corydon. R. C. Friesner found it near Edwards- 
ville in Floyd County August 20, 1923 and again on August 14, 1926. 
Blatchley reported it as growing on a high, wooded hill 2 miles south of 
Wyandotte Cave, Crawford County, July 25, 1896. These are our only 
reports. 

Va. to Ind., southw. to Fla., Tex., and Ariz. ; also in n. Mex. 



1642. APLECTRUM [Nutt.] Torr. 

1. Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Torr. Puttyroot. Map 727. This orchid 
is found sparingly throughout the state. In addition to the counties shown 
on the map it has been reported from the following counties : Hamilton, 
Lake, Marshall, Porter, Steuben, and Tippecanoe. It is found in deep 
humus in well protected and shaded spots in beech, black and white, and 
white oak woods. I recall that on the Clark County State Forest a large 
colony grew on a slope in a tangle of dense second growth of white oak 
and grape vines. During the winter the vines and excess of forest growth 
were removed and I never saw a plant there after that time. I have 
tried to grow the species at Bluffton in neutral soil in a shaded location but 
in a few years it disappears. 

Vt. to Sask., southw. to Ga., Mo., and Kans. 



352 



Saururaceae 



Saururus 



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Populus heterophylla L. 



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52. SAURURACEAE Lindl. Lizardtail Family 
1856. SAURURUS [Plum.] L. 

1. Saururus cernuus. L. Common Lizardtail. Map 728. Infrequent to 
frequent throughout the state in wet woodland, along muddy borders of 
streams, and about ponds and sloughs. Where it is found it usually forms 
almost a complete stand over the area. 

R. I. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

56. SALICACEAE Lindl. Willow Family 

Buds with several scales; leaves ovate or deltoid; bracts of flowers laciniate; disk 
below each flower cup-shaped 1872. Populus, p. 352. 

Buds with a single scale; leaves lanceolate or narrower, rarely wider; bracts of flowers 

entire or subentire; disk below each flower consisting of one or more glands 

1873. Salix, p. 354. 



1872. POPULUS [Tourn.] L. Poplar 

Branchlets, outer bud scales, and lower surface of leaves white-tomentose; leaves more 
or less lobed (rarely a branch with unlobed leaves and these usually with about 

7 coarse teeth ) 1. P. alba. 

Branchlets, outer bud scales, and lower surface of leaves not white-tomentose; leaves 
never lobed. 
Petioles rounded and more or less channeled above. 

Leaf blades 10-17 cm long, gradually narrowed toward the apex into an obtuse or 

merely acute point; pedicels of fruit usually 5-10 mm long. .2. P. heterophylla. 

Leaf blades 6-15 cm long; fruit nearly sessile or on pedicels up to 3 mm long. 

Blades typically ovate-lanceolate, whitish, waxy, glabrous or sparsely pubescent 

1 ciieath, usually acuminate at the apex; base acute, rounded or subcordate. 

3. P. Tacamahacca. 

Blades broader, mote rounded in outline, pubescent and usually with longer 

hairs; the apex usually acute; base more deeply cordate; teeth coarser 

3a. /'. Tacamahacca var. candicans. 

Petioles more or less flattened, especially near the blade. 

Tips of the branchlets curved upward (in winter phase); mature leaves broadly 
deltoid and mostly more than 7 cm wide (or rhombic-ovate and cuneate at the 
base) ; stamens 20 or more; capsules 4-8 mm in diameter 4. P. deltoides. 



Populus Salicaceae 353 

Tips of the branchlets not curved upward (in winter phase); mature leaves ovate, 

broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, mostly less than 8 cm wide (except those of 

root and coppice shoots); stamens 6-12; capsules 1.5-3 mm in diameter. 

Winter buds more or less pubescent, dull; young branchlets gray-tomentose at 

first; leaves generally with less than 12 teeth on each side (except those of 

root shoots) 5. P.. grandidentata. 

Winter buds glabrous, glossy; young branchlets glabrous or nearly so at first; 
leaves mostly with more than 12 teeth on each side 6. P. tremuloides. 

1. Populus alba L. White Poplar. This species has been freely 
planted throughout the state and has escaped in all parts. It rapidly 
spreads from root shoots, and, when not restricted, it soon spreads in all 
directions, in fields and woodland in all kinds of soils except very wet ones. 
It is no longer planted by anyone familiar with its habit of spreading or 
one who knows that the branches are killed by the oyster-shell scale. 

Nat. of Eurasia. 

2. Populus heterophylla L. Swamp Cottonwood. Map 729. In Indiana 
it is infrequent in the lake area, local in the central part, local to frequent 
in the southern part, and possibly absent in the southeastern part. It be- 
comes a tall, slender tree, 10-16 inches in diameter. It grows on the borders 
of ponds in woodlands which have for a subsoil a stiff blue clay, locally 
called "gumbo." The habitat simulates that of pin oak but I do not recall 
ever seeing these species growing together. It is usually associated with 
red maple, sweet gum, and cypress. Where there are more than a few trees 
it is usually found in a pure stand. It is most abundant in the sloughs of 
the Lower Wabash Bottoms. 

Atlantic coast from Conn, to Fla., westw. to La., and northw. in the 
Mississippi Valley to n. Ohio, s. Mich., and Mo. 

3. Populus Tacamahacca Mill. (Populus balsamifera of some recent 
authors.) Balsam Poplar. A few colonies of this poplar have been found 
along Lake Michigan in Lake, Porter, and La Porte Counties, and it has 
been found in St. Joseph County. The trees I have seen are small ones 
near the lake front. 

Newf. and Lab. to Alaska, southw. and reaching the U. S. only on 
the northern border. 

3a. Populus Tacamahacca var. candicans (Ait.) Stout. (Populus candi- 
cans Ait.) See Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 30: 25-37. 1929. This variety is 
found in the eastern part of the range of the species and is found as a 
small tree along Lake Michigan. The clon, Balm of Gilead, originating 
from a specimen of this variety, has been freely planted but I do not know 
of any place where it is spreading. 

4. Populus deltoides Michx. Cottonwood. Map 730. This is one of the 
largest trees of the state and is found throughout. It grows only in low 
ground about ponds, in woodland, and along streams and ditches. 

N. H., w. Que. to the Rocky Mts., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



354 



Salicaceae 



Salix 




o ~T6 
Map 732 



Populus tremuloides Michx. 




50 

Map 733 



Salix nigra Marsh. 




~~ 30 

Map 734 



Salix amygdaloides Anders. 



5. Populus grandidentata Michx. Largetooth Aspen. Map 731. This 
is a tree of small or medium size found more or less frequently in the 
lake area and less frequently in the unglaciated area. Outside these areas 
it is local or absent. In the northern part of the state it is found in low- 
ground while in the unglaciated area it is usually found on the crests of 
the highest ridges. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. in the mts. to S. C, Ohio, Ind., and Iowa. 

6. Populus tremuloides Michx. ASPEN. Map 732. This small tree is 
common in low ground in the lake area and I have never seen it growing 
on hills. It has been reported from all parts of the state but all of the speci- 
mens I have seen from the southern part of the state should be referred 
to the preceding species. It is doubtful whether it occurs far south of the 
stations shown on the map, and, if so, it will be found very locally. 

Newf. and Lab. to Alaska, southw. to Term., Mo., Nebr., and in the mts. 
to Mex. and Calif. 

1873. SALIX [Tourn.] L. Willow 

Note: Specimens of this genus are difficult to determine because the 
species are dioecious, are highly variable, and freely hybridize. Hence it is 
advisable to collect a flowering specimen and later to collect a mature leaf 
specimen from the same plant to make determination easy and certain. 



KEY BASED PRIMARILY ON PISTILLATE FLOWERS AND CAPSULES 

Ovary glabrous; bracts of flowers usually deciduous before maturity of the capsule. 
Ovary sessile or subsessile. 

Leaves cordate at the base, silky-pubescent above 17. S. adenophylla. 

Leaves cuneate at the base. 

Blades more or less pubescent at flowering time; capsules 3-5 mm long. 6. S. alba. 

Blades usually glabrous at flowering time; branches pendulous; capsules 1.5-2 

mm long. (See excluded species no. 162, p. 1038.) S. babylonica. 



Salix Salicaceae 355 

Ovary stalked, sometimes the stalk rather short. 

Stigmas sessile or subsessile (style, if any, less than 0.5 mm long); petioles without 
glands. 

Leaf margins entire; leaves glaucous beneath 15. S. pedicellaris. 

Leaf margins more or less serrate. 

Margins of leaves with widely spaced, slender, sharp teeth 8. S. interior. 

Margins of leaves finely and evenly serrate. 
Petioles of mature leaves 3-6 mm long. 

Blades green beneath 1. S. nigra. 

Blades whitish beneath 5. S. longipes var. Wardi. 

Petioles of mature leaves 6-15 mm long; blades paler beneath 

2. S. amygdaloides. 

Stigmas on distinct styles 0.5-1 mm long; petioles mostly glandular at the apex. 
Petioles not glandular; leaves glaucous beneath. 

Leaves more than 5 mm wide 19. S. glaucophylla. 

Leaves less than 5 mm wide 16a. S. Candida var. denudata. 

Petioles glandular at the apex; leaves not glaucous beneath. 

Capsules maturing after June 20, 7-9 mm long 3. S. serissima. 

Capsules maturing before June 20, 5-8 mm long. 

Catkins sessile 18. S. cordata. 

Catkins distinctly stalked. 

Leaves of branchlet below the catkin stalk entire 7. S. fragilis. 

Leaves of branchlet below the catkin stalk serrulate. 

Catkins loosely flowered; capsules conic-subulate; pedicel twice as long 
as the gland. (See excluded species no. 166, p. 1038.) <S. pentandra. 
Catkins densely flowered; capsules conic-ovoid; pedicel 2-3 times as 
long as the gland. 

Leaves glabrous on both surfaces 4. S. lucida. 

Leaves pubescent beneath 4a. S. lucida var. intonsa. 

Ovary pubescent; bracts of flowers persistent. 
Ovaries pedicellate. 

Stigmas sessile or subsessile. 

Catkins sessile or subsessile 14. S. Bebbiana. 

Catkins on short, leafy stalks S. S. interior. 

Stigmas on short styles, usually 0.25-1 mm long. 

Catkins on short, leafy stalks 10. S. petiolaris. 

Catkins sessile or subsessile, rarely with 1-3 bracts at the base, appearing on old 
wood mostly before the leaves. 

Bracts of flowers not darker at the apex 16. S. Candida. 

Bracts of flowers darker at the apex. 

Mature capsules 3-5 mm long, blunt 11. S. sericea. 

Mature capsules mostly 6-12 mm long. 

Branchlets of previous year glabrous or nearly so; catkins in flower 
mostly more than 2.5 cm long, 3-8 cm long in fruit. . . .9. S. discolor. 
Branchlets of previous year more or less densely puberulent. 

Catkins more than 2.5 cm long; leaves 5-10 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, 

the margins somewhat toothed 9a. S. discolor var. latifolia. 

Catkins less than 2.5 cm long, usually 1-1.5 cm long; leaves smaller, 
more or less undulate or entire, rarely with a few teeth. 
Shrubs mostly 6-12 dm high; mature leaves erect or spreading, 
glabrous or glabrate above and beneath, or the midrib remaining 

pubescent 12. S. humilis. 

Shrubs mostly 4-8 dm high; mature leaves erect, pubescent above and 
more or less tomentose beneath; petioles about 3 mm long, for 
the most part shorter than those of the preceding. . .13. S. tristis. 
Ovaries sessile or subsessile; catkins appearing before the leaves. 



356 Salicaceae Salix 

Capsules 2-3 mm long; stigmas sessile. (See excluded species no. 167, p. 1038.) 

5. purpurea. 

Capsules 6-8 mm long; stigmas stalked. (See excluded species no. 168, p. 1039.) 
S. viminalis. 

KEY BASED PRIMARILY ON STAMINATE FLOWERS 

Stamens 3 or more (rarely nos. 6 and 7 found here) ; catkins on leafy or at least on 
bracted stalks. 
Catkins slender, mostly 8-10 mm wide at the widest diameter and 5-7 cm long; 
petioles not glandular. 
Floral bracts generally woolly-pubescent all over the outer face, about 1.5-2 mm 

long; stamens usually more than twice as long as the bract 1. S. nigra. 

Floral bracts generally woolly-pubescent only on the lower half of the outer face, 

usually about 2 mm long; stamens about twice as long as the bract 

2. S. amygdaloides. 

Catkins stouter, mostly 11-13 mm wide at the widest diameter and 2-5 cm long; 
petioles glandular. 
Leaves green or slightly glaucous beneath; plants of northern Indiana. 
Plants flowering from the middle of May to the middle of June. 

Leaves glabrous beneath 4 «S. lucida. 

Leaves somewhat rusty-pubescent beneath 4a. S. lucida var. intonsa. 

Plants flowering after the middle of June 3. S. serissima. 

Leaves whitish beneath; gnarled shrubs of the rocky banks or beds of streams in 

southern Indiana 5. S. longipes var. Wardi. 

Stamens 2 (sometimes 3 or 4 in nos. 6 and 7.) 
Filaments more or less pubescent. 
Filaments separate, not fused. 

Filaments usually pubescent half their length (shrubs) 8. S. interior. 

Filaments usually pubescent only at the base (trees). 

Young branchlets and leaves more or less silky 6. S. alba. 

Young branchlets and leaves glabrous or only slightly silky 7. S. fragilis. 

Filaments fused nearly or quite to the anthers. (See excluded species no. 167, 

p. 1038. ) S. purpurea. 

Filaments glabrous, not fused at the base. 

Catkins appearing with or after the leaves on leafy-bracted branchlets, these 
sometimes very short. 
Branchlets and leaves densely pubescent, finely glandular-serrate. 

Upper surface of leaves densely silky-pubescent (plants found only along 

Lake Michigan) U.S. adenophylla. 

Upper surfaces of leaves glabrous or sparsely silky 18. S. cordata. 

Branchlets and leaves glabrous or glabrate. 

Leaves entire; low shrubs of a bog habitat. .15. S. pedicellaris var. hypoglauca. 
Leaves closely glandular-serrate; shrubs also of a wet or boggy habitat, mostly 

in the dune area 19. S. glaucophylln. 

Catkins appearing with or after the leaves, sessile or subsessile, without bracts 
or with 1-3 small ones at the base. 
Branchlets of previous year puberulent, at least at the summit. 
Anthers red. 

Leaves impressed-nerved above. 

Leaves woolly-pubescent above 16. S. Candida. 

Leaves glabrous or glabrate above 16a. S. Candida var. denudata. 

Leaves not impressed-nerved above 12. S. humilis. 

Anthers yellow. 

Bracts of flowers of a uniform, light color 14. S. Bebbiana. 

Bracts of flowers with darkened tips. 

Anthers (dry) about 0.9 mm long 9a. S. discolor var. latifolia. 

Anthers (dry) usually less than 0.8 mm long. 



Salix Salicaceae 357 

Catkins 10-15 (18) mm long; young foliage somewhat tawny 

10. iS. petiolaris. 

Catkins (15) 18-28 mm long; young foliage glabrous or white-pubes- 
cent. 
Anthers (dry) 0.4-0.5 mm long; young foliage white-silky; hairs of 
bracts silky, scarcely curled or matted; twigs brittle at the base. 

11. S. sericea. 

Anthers (dry) 0.6-0.8 mm long; young foliage glabrous, or, if white- 
pubescent, scarcely silky; hairs of the bracts curly or matted, 

scarcely silky; twigs tough at the base 18. S. cordata. 

Branchlets of previous year glabrous; anthers (dry) about 0.9 mm long 

9. S. discolor. 

KEY BASED PRIMARILY ON MATURE LEAVES AND BRANCHLETS 

A. Leaves green on both sides. 

Margins of leaves with unequally spaced, minute teeth. 

Blades linear, acute at both ends, often somewhat falcate, less than 1 cm wide, 

mostly 4-6 mm wide, rarely somewhat paler beneath 8. S. interior. 

Blades, at least some of them, linear-oblong, acute at both ends, some or many 

of them more than 1 cm wide, bluish green beneath 

8a. S. interior var. Wheeleri. 

Margins of leaves closely serrate with equally spaced teeth. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, mostly 6-12 cm long, usually 7-10 times as long as wide, 
rarely 2 cm wide, mostly 1-1.5 cm wide, acute or acuminate, sometimes falcate; 

teeth usually 6-10 per cm 1. S. nigra. 

Leaves not as above. 

Blades silky-pubescent on both sides, acute at the apex, subcordate at the base, 

ovate (plants along Lake Michigan) 17. S. adenophylla. 

Blades not as above. 

Petioles glandular at the summit; leaves shining above, more than 2 cm wide, 
long-acuminate or caudate at the apex, rounded at the base. 

Blades glabrous on both sides 4. S. lucida. 

Blades mostly permanently more or less pubescent beneath with reddish 

hairs 4a. S. lucida var. intonsa. 

Petioles not glandular at the summit; leaves not shining above 

18. S. cordata. 

A. Leaves glaucous or paler beneath. 

Leaves subopposite, cuneate-oblanceolate, bluish green, very smooth; stipules 

early deciduous. (See excluded species no. 167, p. 1038.) S. purpurea. 

Leaves strictly alternate. 

Margins of leaves finely and distinctly serrate. 

Petioles glandular at the summit (sometimes obscurely so in S. alba). 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, 8-16 cm long, long-acuminate, glabrous, primary 
veins regular, ending in the border to form a rather straight line; 
branchlets of previous year slender, pendulous, tough. (See excluded 

species no. 162, p. 1038.) S. babylonica. 

Leaves not as above. 

Blades ovate or ovate-oblong, 4-12 cm long, closely glandular-serrate, 
glabrous from the first, short-acuminate, rounded or subcordate at the 
base; petioles 6-10 mm long. (See "excluded species no. 166, p. 1038.) 

S. pentandra. 

Blades not as above, mostly lanceolate. 

Leaves glossy above, glabrous, some, or most of them, more than 2 cm 
wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, teeth (8) 10-20 per cm; pri- 
mary veins so prominent above as to make the upper surface of dried 
specimens rough to the touch; native shrubs, up to 4.5 m high, flower- 
ing in late June and in July 3. S. serissima. 



358 Salicaceae Salix 

Leaves not as above; introduced trees, flowering in May and early 
June (the following two species difficult to separate). 
Serrations of blades rather coarse, generally 3-8 per cm and 0.4-1 
mm deep; blades rather firm, glabrous or appressed-pubescent, 
especially beneath, acuminate or long-acuminate, the primary veins 
so prominent above as to make the upper surface of dried specimens 
rough to the touch; branchlets of previous year brittle at the 

base 7. S. fragilis. 

Serrations of blades generally 6-12 per cm and 0.1-0.4 mm deep; 
blades thinner than the preceding, smooth to the touch above, 
usually more or less appressed-pubescent or glabrous, acute or 
acuminate at apex. 

Leaves distinctly silky beneath; branchlets greenish 6. S. alba. 

Leaves subglabrous beneath; branchlets yellowish 

6a. S. alba var. vitellina. 

Petioles not glandular (not to be confused with glands at the base of the 

blade). 

Leaves glabrous on both sides. (No. 18 often so glabrous that it might be 

wrongly placed here.) 

Blades small, broadest about the middle, usually 5-10 mm wide, rarely 

up to 15 mm wide, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, teeth generally 5 or 6 

per cm; mostly acuminate 10. S. petiolaris. 

Blades larger, broadest above or below the middle, mostly (10) 15-30 mm 

wide, long-acuminate, obtuse or acute. 

Blades broadest below the middle, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate or 

ovate-lanceolate, long-attenuate at the apex, broadly cuneate to 

rounded at the base, teeth mostly 7-12 per cm of margin measured 

midway between base and apex; stipules rarely present; petioles 

mostly 6-15 mm long 2. S. amygdaloides. 

Blades generally broadest above the middle, or below the middle in some 
forms of leaves, usually oblanceolate to ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, 
or ovate on coppice shoots, acute at the apex, rarely acuminate, 
broadly cuneate or rounded at the base, cordate in the ovate type 
of leaves; teeth mostly 3-6 per cm; stipules usually present, especially 
on vegetative branchlets, subcordate to broadly reniform, 3-10 mm 

long, acute; petioles mostly 3-10 mm long 19. S. glaucophylla. 

Leaves more or less pubescent, at least some of them so. 

Leaves white silky-pubescent beneath, at least some of them more or less 
pubescent on one or both sides, especially along the midrib and toward 
the base on the lower surface, and pubescent at the apical end on the 
upper surface of terminal leaves. 
Blades rather thin, small, narrow, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, mostly 
5-8 cm long and 5-10 mm wide, rarely up to 14 mm wide; pubescence, 
when present, usually tawny, rarely all whitish; teeth of margins 
usually 5 or 6 per cm; petioles 4-10 mm long; stipules none; branch- 
lets more or less fascicled 10. S. petiolaris. 

Blades mostly longer, wider, and thicker than the preceding. 

Leaves silvery-pubescent beneath, the pubescence strongly or loosely up- 
wardly appressed or sometimes glabrate or glabrous beneath, nar- 
rowly to broadly lanceolate or somewhat oblanceolate, usually about 
5 times as long as" wide, rounded or narrowed at the base, the lateral 
veins both above and beneath usually conspicuous. 
Lower surface of leaves strongly upwardly appressed-pubescent, 
silvery (rarely somewhat glabrate in age) ; blades strongly taper- 
ing at the base; stipules soon deciduous 11. S. sericea. 

Lower surface of leaves loosely appressed-pubescent when young, 
usually becoming glabrous or glabrate at maturity or remaining 



Salix Salicaceae 359 

sparsely pubescent; blades rounded at the base, stipules per- 
sistent at least on vigorous branchlets 18. S. cordata. 

Leaves glabrous and glaucous beneath, oblong-lanceolate or narrow- 
lanceolate, mostly 6-9 times as long as wide, rounded at the base; 

shrubs of streams near the Ohio Eiver 5. S. longipes var. Wardi. 

Margins of leaves entire, remotely dentate or serrulate, mostly revolute. 

Leaves strictly glabrous, oblanceolate, rarely obovate or narrowly to broadly 
elliptic, 2-4 or up to 6 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, closely reticulate on both 
surfaces, thin, entire, often bluish beneath; apex obtuse, rounded or rarely 

acute (see also no. 12) ; small shrubs of a bog habitat 

15. S. pedicellaris var. hypoglauca. 

Leaves not as above. 

Serrations (not undulations) of margins, if any, generally more than 0.3 mm 
deep; leaves large, mostly elliptic-oblanceolate, elliptic or obovate, mostly 
5-10 cm long, 2-3 cm wide; petioles generally 5-20 mm long. 

Branchlets of previous year and leaves entirely glabrous 9. S. discolor. 

Branchlets of previous year and at least some of the leaves pubescent. 
Blades rarely impressed-nerved above, some or most of them nearly 
glabrous beneath, the pubescence straight or woolly, all or at least 
some of the leaves with a few tawny hairs; petioles mostly 8-25 mm 

l on g 9a. S. discolor var. latifolia. 

Blades generally impressed-nerved above and strongly rugose-veined be- 
neath, lower surface of all more or less densely woolly-pubescent; 

petioles mostly 4-12 mm long 14. S. Bebbiana. 

Serrations (not undulations), if any, mostly less than 0.3 mm deep; leaves 
linear-oblanceolate or oblanceolate, rarely wider, tomentose or glabrate 
beneath; petioles 2-6 mm long. 
Leaves generally 7-16 times as long as wide, usually densely tomentose 
beneath; midrib deeply impressed above; plants of a bog habitat. 

Leaves pubescent above 16. S. Candida. 

Leaves glabrous above 16a. S. Candida var. denudata. 

Leaves generally less than 7 times as long as wide; midrib not deeply im- 
pressed above; plants of a dry or prairie habitat. 

Blades mostly 5-10 cm long 12. S. humilis. 

Blades mostly 3-7 cm long, thicker and more tomentose beneath 

13. S. tristis. 

1. Salix nigra Marsh. BLACK Willow. Map 733. Infrequent to fre- 
quent throughout the state in low ground mostly along streams and about 
lakes. In southwestern Indiana along old river channels it often becomes 
a large tree. 

The leaves of this species vary much in outline but I do not think the 
variations have any taxonomic value. The form with narrow and falcate 
leaves is known as var. falcata (Pursh) Torr. 

N. B. to N. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Salix amygdaloides Anders. Peachleaf Willow. Map 734. The 
habitat of this willow is low ground along streams and about lakes. This 
species is restricted to the lake area with two outposts south of that area 
where it was found in swamps. It is usually infrequent and only locally 
frequent. 

Cent. N. Y. and Ont. to B. C. and the Rocky Mts., southw. to Tex. 
and N. Mex. 



360 



S U.kWCEAE 



Salix 





. : : 3 




5 .' i . [ : ■ 









Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern. AUTUMN Willow. Map 733. This 
- .-. low ground shrub and is found along streams, about lakes, and in 
rshes. It is kx. - icted to a few counties of the northeastern 

f the state. 
Newf. to Alberta, southw. to X. J.. X. Y.. and the Great Lakes. 

4. Salix lucida Muni. Shining Willow. Map 736. An infrequent 
willow in the lake area about lakes, along streams, and in swamps and 

Lab. to Alberta, southw. to X. J.. Ky.. and Xebr. 

Salix lucida var. intonsa Fern. Map 787. A shrub 4-12 feet high: 
:nd locally in t: out lakes, along streams, and in swamps 

and marshes. N - Tequei - the species. 
XV : I Que., southw. to w. X. Y. and Ind. 

Salix longipes Shuttl. var. Wardi (Bebb) Schneid. (SaUx Wardi 

Bebb.) Ward Willow. M. ~ 8. This low. sprawling shrub I have found 

growing in the crevices of large rocks along the bank of the Ohio River 

about 6 miles above Cannelton. in Perry County, and in crevices of rocks 

in the overflow bank of Buck Creek, about 6 miles north of Laconia in 

Ha s aty A. s .bout 2 inches in diameter and 6 feet high 

- ">und growing between - of limestone rock, about a foot above 

the water from a bank about 2 feet high on the north side of Laughery 

Creek about a fourth mile east : Friendship. Ripley County. Good speci- 

difficult I .in because in all V I es the plants are submerged 

during high water. The s s a sprawling in character because debris 

and ice continually keep them broken off, although they are very tough. 

a - - d willow and should be sought all along the Ohio River. 

Potoj s - 111. to se. K; - southw. to Cuba and Tex." 

\ R. Ball ret ts at this species 

He, Franklin Coir 



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6. Sales .axea L. European White Willow. Map 739. This is a Euro- 
pean species that, no doubt, has been planted more or less throughout the 

ite. I have found it as an escape only a few times although it has been 
reported from 12 counties - -e in which I have found it 

Nat. of Eu. 

6a. Salix alba var. vitellina (L.) Stokes. Golden Willow. This 
willow has been reported from 10 counties, mostly by our early auth 
who were not careful to distinguish between escaped and planted -..- 
I believe it is far more common than our white willow but I have seen 
it only a few times where I would consider it as an escape. I doubt that 
it ever escapes by seed but only by means of branchlets which have been 
broken off and carried down streams and deposited where they are 
covered with mud. 

Nat. of Eu. 

7. Salix feagilis L. Beittle Willow. Map 740. This European 
willow has been freely planted throughout the state and is found more 
commonly as an escape, I believe, because the branchlets are very easily 
broken off by wind and ice and scattered where they are covered with 
soil and easily propagate. 

I recall the ingenious use of this species by a farmer in Wayne County 
who, about 1857, had planted several rows of the trees and spaced them 
close and in zigzag rows across a creek bottom. When I asked why 
he so planted them he told me that it was to catch the rails and wheat 
that came down the stream during floods. 

Nat. of Eu. 

8. Salix interior Rowlee. (Salix longifolia Muhl.) Longleaf Willow. 
Sandbar Wdllo'-v. Map 741. Found throughout the state along strear 
especially on gravelly bars, about lakes, and along ditches. It usually 
forms dense colonies and often covers large areas. 

Eastern Que. to Man., southw. in the interior to Va.. Tenn., and Te 
generally absent from N. E. and the Coastal Plain. 



362 



Salicaceae 



Salix 



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Salix discolor Muhl. 




Miles 

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Map 746 



Salix sericea Marsh. 



8a. Salix interior var. Wheeleri Rowlee. (Salix longifolia var. Wheeleri 
(Rowlee) Schneid.) Wheeler Willow. Map 742. This form is common 
along the Ohio River where it is associated with the species but may easily 
be distinguished at a long distance by its bluish green color. 

N. B. to James Bay and e. N. Dak., southw. to Conn., Pa., and Iowa. 

9. Salix discolor Muhl. Pussy Willow. Map 743. Found throughout 
the state where swampy land occurs. Frequent in the lake area and local 
to infrequent south of it. Usually a large shrub, it sometimes reaches a 
diameter of several inches a few feet above the ground. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Del. (and in the mts. to N. C), 111., and Mo. 

9a. Salix discolor var. latifolia Anders. (Salix discolor var. eriocephala 
(Michx.) Anders.) (Schneider. Jour. Arnold Arb. 2: 5. 1920.) Map 744. 
This variety is found throughout the state in swamps and low land in 
general. It is rather frequent in the lake area, becoming local to infrequent 
south of it. It has the same habitat as the species and both are often 
associated. 

Probably the range of the species. 



Salix 



Salicaceae 



363 




50 

Map 747 




50 

Map 748 



Salix tristis Ait. 




50 

Map 749 



Salix Bebbiana Sar 



9- 



10. Salix petiolaris J. E. Smith. Map 745. This is an infrequent shrub 
4-7 feet high, and found mostly in marshy and mucky land in the lake area. 
The species is variable and I have two named varieties from the state but 
I do not regard them as of taxonomic value and do not report them. I feel 
that of the named variations too many are ecological forms. 

N. B. to N. Dak. and Man., southw. to N. J. and Tenn. 

11. Salix sericea Marsh.* Silky Willow. Map 746. Infrequent to 
frequent throughout the state except in the northwestern part from which 
there are no specimens. It is generally found in wet habitats although I 
have a few specimens collected from moist, sandy habitats. 

N. B. and N. S. to Mich., southw. to N. C. 

12. Salix humilis Marsh. Prairie Willow. Map 747. This is a low, 
bushy species that grows mostly in dry, sandy habitats, usually in prairies 
or in similar places. It is frequent in our western prairie area, becoming 
local in northern and southern Indiana. 

Newf. to Minn., southw. to N. C, Tenn., and Kans. 

13. Salix tristis Ait. Dwarf Pussy Willow. Map 748. This is a small 
shrubby willow with a habit and habitat similar to the preceding species. 
It also has nearly the same distribution but is much less frequent and, in 
fact, as I understand the plant, it would be restricted to our western prairie 
area. Since almost all of my specimens were named by C. R. Ball, I am 
using his determinations to show the distribution in Indiana. 

After studying my specimens carefully and noting the habitats from 
which they came, I have come to the conclusion that this species is merely 
an ecological form of the preceding species. Griggs and Schaffner both 
regard it as a variety of the preceding. This and the preceding species are 
most common in White County and I have seen them growing side by side 

* After the Flora was in page proof C. R. Ball wrote me that a restudy of my 
specimens of willows shows that Salix subsericea (Anders.) Schneid. (Rhodora 11: 12. 
1909) occurs in Indiana in Allen, Elkhart, Kosciusko, Lake, La Porte, and Starke 
Counties. 



364 



Salicaceae 



Salix 




~M) 

Map 750 
Salix pedicellaris 
var. hypoglauca Fern. 




50 

Map 751 



Salix Candida Fliigge 




o 50 

Map 752 



Salix adenophylla Hook 



in a strictly prairie habitat, which fact might be used to support their 
separation, but I am not able to find any constant structural difference. 
Mass. to N. Dak., southw. to Fla., Tenn., e. Nebr. and e. S. Dak. 

14. Salix Bebbiana Sarg. (Salix rostrata Richardson.) Bebb Willow. 
Map 749. Rather frequent in the lake area and rare south of it. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to N. J., Nebr., and Utah. 

15. Salix pedicellaris Pursh var. hypoglauca Fern. (Salix pedicellaris 
Pursh in part.) BOG Willow. Map 750. Infrequent in the lake area with 
an outlying post in the Elliott's Mill Bog in Wayne County. It is a small 
bog willow and usually found in sphagnum in tamarack bogs. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to N. J. ( ?) , Pa., 111., and Iowa. 

16. Salix Candida Fliigge. Sage Willow. Map 751. This is an infre- 
quent low willow in the bogs of the northern part of the lake area. It is 
generally found with sedges, cranberry, and bog-rosemary. 

Newf. and Que., southw. to N. Y. and Wis. 

16a. Salix Candida var. denudata Anders. This variety differs from the 
species in having narrower leaves, which are glabrate or glabrescent on 
both sides, especially above, and sometimes glaucescent beneath. I have 
only one specimen from a bog on the south side of Pigeon River about 2 
miles east of Mongo, Lagrange County. 

17. Salix adenophylla Hook. (Salix syrticola Fern. Rhodore 9: 225- 
226. 1907.) (Schneider. Jour. Arnold Arb. 1: 158-160. 1920.) Glandleaf 
Willow. Map 752. Formerly more or less frequent along Lake Michigan at 
the base of the first dune on the side facing the beach. It is now nearly 
extinct on account of the encroachments of civilization and the attacks of 
the oyster-shell scale. 

Lab. to James Bay, southw. to the Great Lakes, including Ohio, Ind., 
and Wis. 



Comptonia 



Myricaceae 



365 




o 50 

Map 753 



Salix cordata Muhl . 



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Comptonia peregrina L.I Coulter 



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755 



18. Salix cordata Muhl. Heartleaf Willow. Map 753. This willow is 
infrequent throughout the lake area, becoming progressively less frequent 
southward and probably entirely absent from the southwestern part. It pre- 
fers a moist soil but does not demand a very wet soil such as is found in 
bogs and marshes. Salix cordata var. angustata Anders, is a narrowleaf 
form which I have from Wabash County. The species freely hybridizes and 
I have several specimens of each of two of its hybrids, S. cordata ) : nigra 
and S. cordata X sericea. 

Newf. to B. C, southw. to Va., Mo., Colo., and Calif. 

19. Salix glaucophylla Bebb. Blueleaf Willow. Map 754. Very local 
except along the sides of the dune facing Lake Michigan where it is more 
or less frequent. Away from the lake it is found in bogs and swamps. The 
variety brevifolia Bebb, which has been reported by Peattie and by Pepoon, 
is a shortleaf form which I do not regard as having any taxonomic 
standing. 

Eastern Que. to Alberta, southw. to N. B., Maine, and the Great Lakes. 

57. MYRICACEAE Dumort. Bayberry Family 
1874. COMPTONIA Banks 

1. Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter. (Myrica asplenifolia L.) For a 
discussion of the nomenclature see Rhodora 40: 408-412. 1938. Sweet- 
FERN. Map 755. Infrequent to frequent or local in acid soils, sometimes 
forming large colonies. It is a shrub mostly one and a half to two and a 
half feet high and usually found in black, sandy soil in open places in pin 
oak and black oak woods. 

N. B. to Sask., southw. to N. C, Tenn., and Ind. 

60. JUGLANDACEAE Lindl. Walnut Family 

Pith of twigs chambered; staminate catkins thick, sessile or short-stalked; stamens 
8-40, glabrous; nuts with a network of rough projections (in ours); husk not 
splitting 1881. JuGLANS, p. 366. 

Pith of twigs not chambered; staminate catkins slender, long-stalked; stamens 3-10, 
pubescent; nuts more or less angled but smooth; husk splitting. . 1882. Carya, p. 367. 



366 



JUGLANDACEAE 



Juglans 




Juglans cinerea L. 



1881. JUGLANS L. Walnut 

Bark gray, ridges smooth; upper part of leaf-scar of last year's leaves with a mat of 
hairs; pith dark brown; fruit oblong, husk viscid 1. /. cinerea. 

Bark dark brown, ridges rough; upper part of leaf -scar of last year's leaves without 
a mat of hairs; pith light brown; fruit orbicular to slightly elongate, husk not 
viscid 2 - J ' ni 9 ra - 

1. Juglans cinerea L. BUTTERNUT. Map 756. An infrequent tree 
throughout the state and probably absent from Benton and Newton Coun- 
ties. It is local in its distribution and generally only a few trees are found 
in a locality. I have seen it only a few times as a frequent tree and then 
only over small areas. Its preferred habitats are terraces and banks of 
streams, but it is also found in ravines and rarely in tamarack bogs. It 
rarely reaches a large size before the ends of the branches in the crown 
die. This condition may be due to civilization, since I was told by a pioneer 
that large trees were formerly to be found. Like the maple, the concen- 
trated sap of this species produces sugar. 

Valley of the St. Lawrence River to Nebr., southw. to the Gulf States. 

2. Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. Map 757. This species is prob- 
ably a native of every county of the state. It is infrequent but well dis- 
tributed in all parts of the state where it will grow. It will grow almost 
anywhere and is a native in all kinds of soils except on the hills and in 
the flats of the southern part and on the sand hills of the northern 
part. It grew to a great size. A pioneer whose veracity was unquestioned, 
told me that a tree 8 feet in diameter was cut near Bluffton, and 60 feet 
of it was used as a "dugout" in which flour and other merchandise were 
transported on the Wabash River from Murray to Huntington. He said 
he knew of another walnut tree near Montpelier that was 9 feet in diameter. 
It must be remembered that I have no data as to the height above the 
ground at which these measurements were taken. 

W. Mass., Out. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



Carya Juglandaceae 367 

1882. CARYA Nutt. Hickory 

The specimens representing a single species of Carya often vary greatly 
in respect to the bark of both trunks and branches, size and pubescence of 
branchlets, number and size of the leaflets, and size and shape of the nuts. 
No attempt has been made to describe all of the extreme forms. Measure- 
ments refer to dried specimens. 

Bud scales 4 or 6, valvate; leaflets generally curved backward (falcate). 
Nuts generally elongate, nearly terete; husk thin, splitting to the base; kernel 

sweet; leaflets 9, 11, 13, 15 or 17, generally about 13 1. Carya Pecan. 

Nuts generally as broad as long, compressed, irregularly angled and reticulate; 
kernel bitter. 
Winter buds dark reddish brown; leaflets 7, 9, 11 or 13; husk tardily splitting 

to about the middle. (See excluded species no. 169, p. 1039.) C. aquatica. 

Winter buds bright yellow, glandular; leaflets 5, 7 or 9 (11) ; husk usually splitting 

to about the middle 2. C. cordiformis. 

Bud scales 6 or more, imbricated (not in pairs); leaflets not curved backward. 

A. Branchlets usually stout; terminal buds large, 10-27 mm long; the year's growth 
usually more or less pubescent; dry husks of fruit (4) 5-10 mm thick; nuts 
usually strongly angled. 
Prevailing number of leaflets 5 (none of the leaves with more than 5, coppice 

shoots might have more) 3. C. ovata. 

Prevailing number of leaflets more than 5. 

Trees of low ground; bark of young trees tight and light, that of older trees 
scaly, separating into long, thin plates (see exception in text); leaf stalks 
of leaves of the previous season usually persisting until spring (this char- 
acter peculiar to this species); branchlets at first pubescent, generally 
becoming glabrous or nearly so at maturity, light brown; nuts usually 
large, compressed, generally angled, 3-6 cm long, wedge-shaped at the 

base; kernel sweet and not at all astringent 4. C. laciniosa. 

Trees usually of high ground; bark of young trees tight and dark, that of older 
trees tight and usually deeply furrowed, the thick ridges generally broken 
into short lengths which on very old trees sometimes loosen at the base; 
leaf stalks of the leaves of the previous season not persisting; pubescence 
of leaf stalks usually longer and denser than that of the preceding species, 
and persisting longer, often of a rusty color; branchlets more or less pubes- 
cent until maturity, reddish brown; nuts usually about half as large as the 
preceding and usually with a rounded base; kernel very mildly astringent.. . 

5. C. tomentosa. 

A. Branchlets usually slender; terminal buds small, 5-12 mm long; the year's 
growth usually glabrous, rarely pubescent; dry husk 1-4.5 mm thick. 
B. Branchlets and leaves not covered with a rusty brown pubescence when they 
first appear; dry husk 1-3 mm thick at thinnest point, rarely thicker. 
Involucre of fruit 1-3 mm thick; winter buds glabrous or puberulous. 

Prevailing number of leaflets 5, rarely 7; bark of trunk and branches tight; 
fruit generally smooth and usually tapering at the base to a short stem 
(figlike); husk not opening or splitting only above the middle; nut smooth, 
the shell thick, about 1.5 mm thick at the thinnest point; kernel sweet, 

mildly astringent 6. C. glabra. 

Prevailing number of leaflets 7, rarely 5; bark of trunk and branches usually 
somewhat scaly a few feet above the ground, sometimes scarcely at all 
scaly; fruit granular, the sutures winged, rarely tapering at the base to a 
short stem (figlike); husk usually splitting to the base; nut angled or 



368 



JUGLANDACEAE 



Carya 



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smooth, the shell thin, rarely thick, thinner than that of the preceding 
species; kernel sweet without astringency. 
C. Nuts ellipsoidal. 

Inner surface of fresh husk without a resinous odor; nut rounded at base, 

acute at apex, broadest about the middle 7. C. ovalis. 

Inner surface of fresh husk with a resinous odor; nuts smaller and 

usually more compressed than those of the preceding 

7a. C. ovalis var. odorata. 

C. Nuts obovoid or oblong. 

D. Nuts taper-pointed or rounded at the apex, broadest above the middle. 

Nut without an elongate or stipitate base 7b. C. ovalis var. obovalis. 

Nut with an elongate or stipitate base 

7c. C. ovalis var. obovalis f . acuta. ' 

D. Nuts oblong, cordate or subcordate at the apex. 

Branchlets glabrous at fruiting time 7d. C. ovalis var. obcordata. 

Branchlets more or less pubescent at fruiting time 

7e. C. ovalis var. obcordata f. vestita. 

Involucres 3-4.5 mm thick; winter buds reddish brown, at least the margins of 

the scales pubescent 8. C. pallida. 

B. Branchlets and leaves densely covered with a rusty brown pubescence when 
they first appear; dry husk 3-3.5 mm thick 9. C. Buckleyi var. arkansana. 

1. Carya Pecan (Marsh.) Engler & Graebner. (Carya illinoensis 
(Wang.) K. Koch and Hicoria Pecan (Marsh.) Britt.) Pecan. Map 
758. Infrequent or local in the Ohio River Bottoms as far east as Beth- 
lehem, Clark County, up the Wabash River as far north as 4 miles south 
of Covington, Fountain County, up White River into Greene County, and 
known up the Muscatatuck River into Washington County. It was formerly 
a common tree in Point Township of Posey County and in the southwest 
part of Gibson County. Its habitat is river bottoms that are usually inun- 
dated annually. 

Mississippi Valley from Ind. to Iowa, southw. to La. and Tex. 

2. Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch. (Hicoria cordiformis (Wang.) 
Britt.) Bitternut Hickory. Generally known in Indiana as pignut 
hickory. Map 749. An infrequent to frequent tree throughout the state. 



Carya Juglandaceae 369 

This species prefers a moist soil but will be found also on wooded slopes. 

The species is variable in the number and size of its leaflets. The usual 
number of leaflets is 5 or 7, but trees with 7 or 9 leaflets are frequent. The 
leaflets of the greater number of trees rarely exceed 3.5 cm in width but 
the lateral leaflets of some trees are more than twice as wide. Sargent calls 
the wide-leaflet form var. latifolia Sarg. He says the under surface of 
the leaflet is usually more pubescent. This is usually true but can not be 
used as a character to separate the two forms. In Indiana, the forms with 
wide leaflets are found in the southern half of the state, especially on the 
wooded slopes of the hill country. 

Valley of the St. Lawrence River to Nebr., southw. to the Gulf States. 

3. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch. (Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britt.) Shag- 
bark Hickory. Map 760. Infrequent to common in every county of the 
state. Its habitat is moist, rich woodland but it is sometimes found on 
slopes of hills. It is usually associated with red oak, bigleaf shagbark 
hickory, swamp white oak, basswood, white ash, slippery elm, sugar maple, 
beech, and sweet gum. 

N. E., Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

3a. Carya ovata var. fraxinifolia Sarg. (Sargent. Trees and Shrubs 2: 
207. 1913.) This variety is described as "having leaflets lanceolate to 
slightly oblanceolate, acuminate, thick and firm in texture, lustrous above, 
pubescent along the midribs below, the terminal 1.4-1.5 dm long, from 
4.4-5 cm wide, and raised on a slender puberulous petiolule, the lateral 
leaflets asymmetric at the base, sessile, those of the lowest pair 7-9 cm long, 
and 2.5-3 cm wide." Sargent referred specimens which I had collected from 
Daviess, Martin, and Wells Counties to this variety. 

3b. Carya ovata var. Nuttalli Sarg. (Sargent. Trees and Shrubs 2 : 207. 
1913.) This variety is described as having "nut rounded, obcordate or 
rarely pointed at apex, rounded or abruptly pointed at the base, much 
compressed, prominently angled, about 1.5 cm long, and 1-1.2 cm thick; 
involucre 4-10 mm thick and splitting freely to the base. Except in size 
of the fruit there appears to be no character by which the variety can be 
distinguished from the common Shagbark." This variety is more or less 
frequent in the northeastern part of the state. 

4. Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud. (Hicoria laciniosa (Michx. f.) 
Sarg.) Bigleaf Shagbark Hickory. Map 761. Rare, infrequent or fre- 
quent to common throughout the state, although there are no specimens 
or records from the northwestern counties. I was told that it occurred in 
the northern part of Porter County. It may be absent from a few of these 
counties. This species grows in wet woodland and is usually associated 
with the shagbark hickory. Locally it is common and throughout the Lower 
Wabash Valley it is common. It is associated with many species that 
inhabit wet woods and in one locality in the Spencer County Bottoms 
southwest of Rockport I found this species and beech the dominant trees. 

Exception : In the Lower Wabash Bottoms, there is a form of this hickory 



370 



JUGLANDACEAE 



Carya 



3 

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.arya 


torn 


entosa (La 


i' 50 
Map 762 

id Nutt. 




o ~^5o 
Map 763 



Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 




50 

Map 764 



Carya ovalis (Wang) Sarg. 



that has a tight bark, like that of the mockernut hickory, otherwise it is 
like the species. This form has the most palatable nut of the genus. The 
nut is compressed, short, of more than medium size, and has the best 
cracking quality of all the forms. I have known the nut of this form for 
many years but I have not had the opportunity of working out the taxon- 
omy of it. For many years we bought nuts from this area for table use, 
and I was always able to recognize this nut without mistake. 
N. Y., se. Ont., to e. Iowa, and se. Nebr., southw. to W. Va., Ala., and La. 

5. Carya tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt. (Carya alba (L.) K. Koch and Hicoria 
alba (L.) Britt.) Mockernut. Map 762. Very rare in the northern 
part of the state, becoming infrequent to frequent in the extreme southern 
part. It is doubtful whether all reports from the northern part of the state 
by other authors are authentic. It is essentially a tree of dry and usually 
poor soil but it is found in the lowlands of the Lower Wabash Valley where 
it is often associated with the preceding species. In the unglaciated area, it 
is generally found associated with the pignut hickory, black and white 
oaks, and often with the tulip tree. 

E. Mass., sw. Ont., s. Mich, to se. Iowa, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5a. Carya tomentosa var. subcoriacea (Sarg.) Palmer & Steyermark. 
This variety is known from a single tree on the east bank of the cypress 
swamp in the southwestern part of Posey County. For several years I 
bought hickory nuts for table use from this area and nuts of this variety 
were not infrequent in the lot. It is distinguished from the species by the 
larger size and shape of the fruit and nut. The dried fruit is 5 cm long, 
oblong. The nut is oblong, 4.4 cm long, pointed at both ends, or some nuts 
are somewhat ovoid and more rounded at the base, little compressed, and 
strongly angled ; shell very thick, 5 mm at the thinnest place ; kernel very 
small and sweet. 

6. Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet. (Hicoria glabra (Mill.) Britt.) PIGNUT 
Hickory. (Generally known in Indiana as black hickory.) Map 763. 
This species is found principally in the southern half of the state. I think 



Carya Juglandaceae 371 

that most of the reports of it from the northern part of the state should 
be referred to Carya ovalis or some of its many forms. One or more trees 
grow on the high sand bank of the north side of Lake Ann, about 5 miles 
northeast of Fremont, Steuben County. E. J. Palmer has verified the 
determination. My record from Delaware County I am now referring to 
Carya ovalis variety. This species and the next are entirely distinct, but 
it is impossible to name correctly herbarium specimens which are incom- 
plete, immature, or without field data. In collecting specimens of these two 
species, it is desirable that a note be made whether the bark of the trunk 
and principal branches is tight or somewhat scaly and whether the surface 
of the fruit is smooth or granular. The prevailing number of leaflets also 
should be recorded. Fruiting specimens should not be collected until 
mature, usually after the first of October. Flowering specimens should 
always be accompanied by a fruiting specimen from the same tree. 

6a. Carya glabra var. megacarpa Sarg. (Sargent. Bot. Gaz. 66: 244. 
1918.) This variety is distinguished from the type by its larger obovoid 
fruit, 2.5-4.5 cm long and by the husk, 2.5-3 mm thick. I have a specimen 
from Franklin County given this varietal name by Sargent. 

Infrequent to common on hills with black and white oak. It is especially 
common in the knobstone area of the state. 

Vt., se. Ont., s. Ind. to sw. 111., southw. to Va., and in the mts. to Ga., n. 
Ala., and e. Miss. 

7. Carya ovalis (Wang.) Sarg. (Carya microcarpa Nutt. in part, and 
Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) Britt.) Sm all-fruited Hickory. Map 764. 
All of the varieties are shown on the map with the species. Found through- 
out the state but infrequent to rare south of the lake area except on some of 
the sandy ridges of the southwestern part. In the lake area it is usually 
frequent to common on clay and sandy ridges with black and white oak. 

This species is extremely variable in the character of the bark and in the 
shape of its fruit and nuts. The bark is generally scaly on the principal 
branches and on the trunk except near the base of the tree. It is usually 
not thick but I know of one specimen in Lagrange County that has very 
thick and tight bark. The nuts of this tree are almost cubical, but otherwise 
the tree is typical Carya ovalis. The nuts vary from ellipsoidal to obovoid, 
with the base acute or rounded, the apex acute, rounded or obcordate, little 
or strongly compressed, the surface from nearly smooth to strongly ridged 
or somewhat roughened. 

Mass. to Wis., southw. to Ga., Ala., and Miss. 

7a. Carya ovalis var. odorata (Marsh.) Sarg. This variety is separated 
by the resinous odor of the inner surface of the fresh husk, but I have not 
been able to test this character. I am referring to this variety my speci- 
mens which Sargent so named. My specimens are all from the extreme 
northeastern part of the state, from Allen, Grant, Lagrange, Steuben, and 
Wells Counties. 

Conn., Pa. to Mo. 



372 



JUGLANDACEAE 



Carya 




50 

Map 765 



Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. 




o ^30 
Map 766 



Carya Buckley? var. arkansana Sarg. 



« 

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Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

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Aug. 

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Oct. 

Nov. 


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var. 


k <j-^V Map 767 
arpinus caroliniana Walt. 

virginiana (MarshJ Fern. 



7b. Carya ovalis var. obovalis Sarg. This form is probably found 
throughout the state. It is associated with the species but less frequent. 
Mass. to Va. and westw. to Mo. 

7c. Carya ovalis var. obovalis f. acuta Sarg. I have this extreme form 
from Steuben and Wells Counties. The Steuben County specimen is from 
a native tree in Pokagon State Park and is placed with this form only 
provisionally. 

7d. Carya ovalis var. obcordata (Muhl.) Sarg. This variety is also 
probably found throughout the range of the species and with it, but more 
rarely. 

Rehder gives the distribution as Ont. to Mich. 

7e. Carya ovalis var. obcordata f. vestita Sarg. I collected the type 
from a tree in Knox County. I also have a specimen from La Porte County 
which I am calling this form. 

8. Carya pallida (Ashe) Engler & Graebner. Map 765. One or more 
trees in the Princeton fine sand on the terrace of the Wabash River about 4 
miles south of Vincennes and half a mile north of the Duncan Siding of the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. This tree is one of a few hickories 
and oaks on a narrow strip of land about 100 feet wide on the west of the 
railroad and east of the adjacent lowland. There are four hickory trees 
here at this station and I have made complete collections from all but I 
withhold their names until I can check my specimens by another collection 
of them. 

N. J. to Ga., westw. to La. and northw. in the Mississippi Valley to Ind. 

9. Carya Buckleyi Durand var. arkansana Sarg. (Bot. Gaz. 66: 24. 
1918.) Map 766. This hickory so far has been found only in Knox County. 
I found one tree about 2 miles north of Decker and two trees about 4 miles 
south of Vincennes in a strip of woods along the railroad just north of 
the Duncan Siding. 

Knox County. Ind., southw. in the Mississippi Valley to La. and Tex. 



Carpinus 



Betulaceae 



373 




50 

Map 768 



Ostrya virginiana (MillJ K.Koch 




" 50 

Map 769 
Ostrya virginiana 

f. glandulosa (Spach) Macbr. 




61. BETULACEAE Agardh. Birch Family 

Staminate flowers solitary in the axil of each bract, without a calyx; pistillate flowers 

with a calyx; nut wingless. 

Small trees; leaves ovate-oblong, lower surface generally with more than 6 pairs of 

prominent veins; nuts 5-7 mm long. 

Bark of tree smooth; trunk more or less grooved; lower large veins of leaves not 

forked; staminate aments in winter enclosed in bud scales; nut exposed, its 

subtending bract more or less irregularly 3-cleft 1884. Carpinus, p. 373. 

Bark of older trees shreddy; trunk not grooved; lower large veins of leaves gen- 
erally forked; staminate aments in winter naked; nut enclosed in a bladder- 
like bract 1885. Ostrya, p. 373. 

Shrubs; leaves ovate to nearly orbicular, the lower surface usually with 5 or 6 

pairs of prominent veins; nuts 10-15 mm long 1886. Corylus, p. 374. 

Staminate flowers 3-6 in the axil of each bract, with a calyx; pistillate flowers without 
a calyx; nut winged. 
Winter buds sessile; stamens 2; fruiting bract deciduous at the end of the season 

when the nut escapes 1887. Bbtula, p. 374. 

Winter buds stalked; stamens 4; fruiting bracts woody and persisting after the nuts 
escape 1888. Alnus, p. 377. 

1884. CARPINUS [Tourn.] L. 

1. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. var. virginiana (Marsh.) Fern. (Rhodora 
37:425. 1935.) (Carpinus caroliniana of Indiana authors.) Blue Beech. 
Map 767. Often called water beech. Frequent to common throughout 
the state in moist woodland. It prefers a moist, rich soil but has a 
range of habitats in the state from the tamarack bog to the dry, black and 
white oak slope. It is tolerant of shade. Having no commercial value, 
it is regarded by foresters as a weed tree. 

N. S. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to uplands of N. C. and Ark. 



1885. OSTRYA [Micheli] Scop. 

1. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch. HOP-HORNBEAM. Map 768. In 
Indiana this tree is generally called ironwood. The species or its form 
is frequent to common in most parts of the state, although it is extremely 



374 



Betulaceae 



Corylus 




Map 771 
Betula lutea var. macrolepis Fern. 




50 

Map 772 



Betula populifolia Marsh. 




D~ ~ 13 
Map 773 



Betula papyrifera Marsh. 



rare in the Lower Wabash Valley. It prefers a dry soil, is of slow growth, 
and since it has no commercial value in Indiana, it is regarded by foresters 
as a weed tree. 

N. S. to Man., southw. to Va., Ga., Tenn., Mo., and Okla. 

la. Ostrya virginiana f. glandulosa (Spach) Macbr. (Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Publ. Bot. Ser. 4: 192. 1929.) Map 769. This form has the branch- 
lets, petioles, peduncles, and often the midrib and veins of the lower sur- 
face of the leaves covered more or less with short, erect, reddish, glandular 
hairs. The form is found with the species but is not as frequent and is 
more northern in its distribution. 

1886. CORYLUS [Town.] L. 

1. Corylus americana Walt. American Hazelnut. Map 770. Infre- 
quent to frequent throughout the state. It adapts itself to both moist and 
dry soils but reaches its greatest size in the moist, black loam soils of the 
northern part of the state. 

Maine to Sask., southw. to Fla. and Okla. 



1887. BETULA [Tourn.] L. Birch 

Bark of small branches usually with some wintergreen flavor; leaves with 7-15, 
usually Il-ll pairs of prominent veins, rounded, subcordate or narrowed at the 
base; mature fertile catkins generally more than 10 mm in diameter, sessile. 
Outer side of scales of fruiting catkins more or less pubescent. 

Scales of fruiting catkins 5-8 mm long, basal part 1-2.5 mm long 1. B. lutea. 

Scales of fruiting catkins 8-13 mm long, basal part 2.5-6 mm long 

la. B. lutea var. macrolepis. 

Outer side of scales of fruiting catkins glabrous. (See excluded species no. 173, 

p. 1039.) B. lenta. 

Bark of small branches usually bitter, without wintergreen flavor; leaves with 4-11, 
usually 4-9, pairs of prominent veins, narrowed or truncate at the base; mature 
fertile catkins less than 10 mm in diameter (sometimes more than 10 mm in 
B. nigra), pedunculate. 



Betula Betulaceae 375 

Bark of trunk white, peeling in very thin strips; mature fruiting catkins drooping 
or spreading; wings of fruit wider than the nut. 
Trunk of tree with a darkened triangular area at the base of lateral branches; 

leaves long-acuminate, lustrous above; staminate catkins usually solitary 

2. B. populifolia. 

Trunk of tree without a darkened area at the base of lateral branches; leaves 

ovate, not lustrous above; staminate catkins usually 2 or 3. . .3. B. papyrifera. 

Bark of trunk (tree or shrub) dark or reddish brown, not peeling off in thin strips 

(flaking off in thick plates in B. nigra); fruiting catkins erect or nearly so; 

wings of fruit narrower than the nut. 

Bark of large specimens peeling or flaking; leaves triangular-ovate, widest below 

the middle, mostly with 7-9 pairs of prominent veins; bracts of mature fruiting 

catkins 6-10 mm long, densely pubescent; trees 4. B. nigra. 

Bark tight; leaves oblong-ovate, elliptic, obovate, rarely ovate, mostly with 3-6 

(7) pairs of prominent veins; bracts of mature fruiting catkins 4-7 mm long, 

glabrous except the ciliate margins; shrubs or shrublike trees. 

Blades generally with 3 or 4 pairs of distinct veins, 2-4 cm long on fruiting 

branchlets, obovate, rounded at the apex, rarely short-acute, cuneate at 

the base. 

Leaves not glandular 5. B. pumila. 

Leaves more or less glandular, glands usually plentiful on both sides 

5a. B. pumila var. glandulifera. 

Blades generally with 6 or 7 pairs of distinct veins, mostly 5-6 cm long on fruiting 
branchlets, oblong-ovate, elliptic or rarely ovate, acute at the apex, mostly 
rounded or subcordate at the base 6. X B. Ptirpusii. 

1. Betula lutea Michx. f. (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) Yellow Birch. 
After a careful study of my specimens, I believe they all belong to the 
variety rather than to the species. Fernald (Rhodora 24: 170. 1922) 
refers to two specimens of the species from Indiana. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Del., 111., and Minn, and in the mts. of N. C. 
and W. Va. 

la. Betula lutea var. macrolepis Fern. (Rhodora 24: 170. 1922.) 
Yellow Birch. Map 771. This tree is found locally in the northern part 
of the state and on the sides of two deep, rocky ravines about a mile 
east of Taswell in Crawford County. In northern Indiana it apparently 
is one of the chief species in the succession after tamarack and is asso- 
ciated with white elm, red maple, black ash, and silver maple. All 
of my northern specimens have a dark bark and I believe they all belong 
to the dark bark form recently described by Fassett (Rhodora 34: 95. 
1932) as Betula lutea Michx. f. forma fallax Fassett. 

N. B. to Wis., southw. to Tenn. and 111. 

2. Betula populifolia Marsh. Gray Birch. Map 772. The few trees 
of this species found in Indiana are the remnants of a relic colony because 
the nearest location of this species is three to four hundred miles to the 
northeast. In 1911 I found a few trees in a dying condition on the border 
of Fish-trap Lake near La Porte in La Porte County. I have a specimen 
collected by Blatchley in Lake County (Ind. Geol. Rept. 22: 100. 1898). 
He says: "Sand ridges west of Miller's; scarce." This species has been 



376 



Betulaceae 



Betula 




50 

Map 774 



Jetula nigra L. 



1 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mor 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov 


s 

oh 

f 


<f ! 


: . 


L 

IB ' 


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B 


etui 


i 


)umila L 


1 50 

Map 775 




50 

Map 776 



Alnus incana var. amencana Reqel 



reported from St. Joseph and Tippecanoe Counties also, but these records 
may be based upon planted trees. 

N. S. to s. Ont, southw. to Del. and Pa. and a relic colony in Ind. 

3. Betula papyrifera Marsh. (Betula alba L. var. papyrifera (Marsh.) 
Spach.) Paper Birch. Map 773. This is a far northern species and is 
found in Indiana only in the counties shown on the map. There are a few 
small colonies of it and it grows in rather moist, sandy soil. 

Newf. to Alaska, southw. to n. Pa., cent. Mich., n. Ind., n. Wis., e. Nebr., 
and Wyo. 

4. Betula nigra L. River Birch. Map 774. More or less frequent in 
all the counties bordering the Kankakee River, on the south side of Cedar 
Lake, Lake County, on the east shore of Lake of the Woods in Marshall 
County, along the Tippecanoe River in White County, and more or less 
frequent along some of the streams of the southwestern part of the state. 
It is a common tree in a few places in the "flats" of Jackson and Scott 
Counties. 

Mass. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5. Betula pumila L. Dwarf Birch. Map 775. Restricted to the lake 
area where it is found in bogs and marshes. Infrequent to rare. It is to 
be noted that the under surface of the leaves of all of my specimens is 
glaucous. 

Newf. to Wis., southw. to N. J., Ohio, and Ind. 

5a. Betula pumila var. glandulifera Regel. The variety differs from 
the species in that the young branchlets, leaves, and bracts are covered 
more or less with glandular dots or resinous glands. In our area, the dis- 
tinction is not always clear since in the same clump of shrubs one can 
often find some densely resinous specimens and others with only a minute 
amount of resin. 

Ont. to Sask., southw. to Ind., and to se. Minn. 

6. X Betula Purpusii Schneider. (Betula lutea X pumila var. ylanduli- 



Alnus 



Betulaceae 



377 




Map 777 
Alnus rugosa (Ehrh.) Spreng. 




50 

Map 778 



Fagus grandifolia Ehrh, 




50 

Map 779 

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. 



fera.) This is a natural hybrid. I found it in a tamarack bog about a 
fourth of a mile north of Mineral Springs Stop on the South Shore Elec- 
tric Line, in Porter County and in a marsh about two and a half miles 
northwest of Porter in the same county. 

The general range is unknown. Known to occur in Mich., Ind., and 
Minn. 

1888. ALNUS [Tourn.] Hill. Alder 

Leaves broadly elliptic to ovate, mostly rounded at the base, acute at the apex, margins 
doubly serrate (that is, the 9-13 primary veins ending in the apices of large teeth 
which in turn are finely serrate), glaucous, glaucescent, or green beneath, deeply 
impressed-nerved above, not noticeably glutinous beneath ; shrubs or small trees . . . 
1. A. incana var. americana. 

Leaves obovate, acute at the base, generally more or less rounded at the apex, some- 
times acute, margins finely and nearly evenly serrate, green and sometimes notice- 
ably glutinous beneath, usually not impressed-nerved above but sometimes so; 
shrubs 2. A. ragosa. 

1. Alnus incana (L.) Moench var. americana Regel. (Alnus incana of 
Gray, Man., ed. 7 and of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Speckled 
Alder. Map 776. Frequent in low ground about sloughs in the dunes near 
Lake Michigan and rare to very rare elsewhere in low woods or in low 
ground along streams. All of my specimens have the leaves more or 
less glaucous beneath and more or less pubescent, at least on the principal 
veins. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Pa., Iowa, and Nebr. 

2. Alnus rugosa (Ehrh.) Spreng. (Almis rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng. of 
Gray, Man., ed. 7, Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, and Deam, 
Shrubs of Indiana, ed. 2.) Hazel Alder. Map 777. Locally in colonies 
but rare to infrequent in the parts of the state where it is found. It 
inhabits springy places in woodland or in the open. Its habitat and asso- 
ciates indicate that it requires a slightly acid soil. 

Maine to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



378 Fagaceae Fagus 

62. FAGACEAE Drude. The Beech Family 

Winter buds long and slender, at least 4 times as long as wide; staminate flowers in 

globose heads on drooping peduncles; nuts sharply 3-angled. .1890. Fagus, p. 378. 

Winter buds not long and slender and less than 4 times as long as wide; staminate 

flowers in slender catkins; nuts not as above. 

Staminate catkins erect or spreading; nut flattened on one or two sides and enclosed 

in a prickly husk 1891. Castanea, p. 378. 

Staminate catkins drooping; nuts not flattened, seated in a scaly, woody cup 

1893. Quercus, p. 379. 

1890. FAGUS [Tourn.J L. Beech 

1. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American Beech. Map 778. Found in 
every county of the state except probably Benton, Jasper, and Newton 
Counties. It is a frequent to common tree throughout the lake and Tipton 
Till Plain areas on the ridges and hills unless these are sandy or a hard 
clay when they will be covered more or less with black and white oaks 
and hickories. In the unglaciated area it is also frequent to common but 
is usually found in the coves or on low hills. The higher hills with their 
poorer soil are usually covered with oaks and hickories. In the "flats" 
of the Illinoian drift it is found in low, flat woods where it is the 
principal species, associated with sweet gum, black gum, red maple, and 
oaks. Its most constant associate in the northern and central part of the 
state is the sugar maple. 

N. S., s. Ont. to Wis., southw. to the Gulf States and Tex. 

la. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. f. pubescens Fern. & Rehd. This is a 
form with the entire under surface of the leaves more or less pubescent. 
It is to be noted that the leaves of none of our specimens are entirely 
glabrous beneath but generally have the principal veins covered with long 
hairs. This form is found throughout Indiana with the species. 

The bark of the beech is usually smooth but sometimes a tree is found 
that has the bark of the lower part of the trunk broken into ridges and 
furrows. Usually the ridges are not continuous but in sections of a few 
inches in length. 

1891. CASTANEA [Tourn.] Hill. Chestnut 

1. Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. American Chestnut. Map 
779. The chestnut is restricted to the part of the state indicated on the 
map. It is found usually on sandstone outcrops and is usually local. In 
1936 it was reported from Ripley County by Dorothy Parker. On account 
of its excellent qualities for shingles, posts, and poles, the large trees have 
all been cut. It is especially valuable for its timber and nuts, but its use 
as a forest tree will be curtailed because the chestnut blight has already 
appeared in a few places in Indiana. 

Maine, s. Ont., and Mich., southw. to Del., and in the mts. to Ala. 
and Ark. 



Quercus Fagaceae 379 

1893. QUERCUS [Tourn.] L. Oak 

[Dyal, Sarah C. A key to the species of oaks of Eastern North America 
based on foliage and twig characters. Rhodora 38 : 53-63. 1936.] 

Note: In collecting leaf specimens of oaks for identification, it should 
be kept in mind that the foliage is variable. The leaves of seedlings, 
coppice shoots, and vigorous shoots of old trees sometimes vary con- 
siderably in size, form, and margin. Leaves in the shade on old trees 
usually have the margins more nearly entire than the typical leaves. For 
example, on the lower and inner branches of a pin oak, leaves may be 
found whose lobes are not as long or longer than the undivided portion 
of the leaf, and this character refers them to the red oak group. In the 
case of Q. bicolor and Q. lyrata, while the pubescence of the under surface 
of the leaves is normally a white or gray tomentum, the shade leaves 
may be without the tomentum and may be green and merely pubescent. 

Mature leaves never with bristle tips; fruit maturing the first year; inner surface of 
shell of nut glabrous; bark gray (except in no. 5), more or less scaly. (The White 
Oaks.) 
Leaves glaucous and glabrous beneath at maturity (rarely a specimen retaining its 

pubescence until maturity) 1. Q. alba. 

Leaves generally covered beneath with a dense, gray tomentum, often accompanied 
by some long, simple or fascicled hairs, rarely the tomentum lacking on the 
leaves of lower branches and then the surface more or less densely pubescent, 
rarely a specimen with leaves pubescent only on the principal veins. 
Primary lateral veins of the lower surface of the leaves regularly spaced or some 
of the leaves with an irregular spacing; margins rather regularly sinuate- 
dentate or with irregular shallow lobes in no. 3. 
Shrubs; leaf blades mostly 5-10 cm long; teeth of blades usually fewer than 8 to 

a side; fruit sessile 2. Q. prinoides. 

Trees; leaf blades mostly more than 10 cm long; teeth of blades mostly more than 

8 to a side (except blades from the top of some trees of Q. Muhlenbergii) . 

Lower surface of leaves mostly with 4-10 pairs of lateral veins; veins of most 

of the leaves not all ending in teeth of the margin; blades usually not 

bilaterally symmetrical; fruit on peduncles longer than the petioles; one 

year old branches never corky 3. Q. bicolor. 

Lower surface of leaves mostly with 7-12 pairs of veins; veins all ending in 
teeth of the margin; leaves essentially bilaterally symmetrical. 
Apex of leaves of fruiting branches sharp-pointed, the sides of the apex 

usually forming an acute angle; fruit sessile or nearly so 

4. Q. Muhlenbergii. 

Apex of leaves of fruiting branches rounded or, if sharp-pointed, the angle 
formed by the sides rarely an acute angle; fruit peduncled. 
Leaves dark green above and generally velvety-pubescent to the touch 
beneath; scales of cup free to the base; bark like that of white oak; 

trees of low ground 5. Q. Prinus. 

Leaves yellowish green and generally densely pubescent beneath but the 
pubescence not velvety to the touch; scales of cup free only at the 
tip; bark like that of the red oak; trees of high ground, usually on the 

crests and slopes of sandstone and knobstone ridges in Indiana 

6. Q. montana. 

Primary lateral veins of the lower surface of the leaves not regularly spaced; 
leaves deeply lobed or pinnatifid. 
Branchlets densely pubescent; leaves strongly obovate in outline; blades mostly 
less than 15 cm long, cut into 5 principal lobes, the two upper lateral lobes 



380 Fagaceae Quercus 

the largest and widest; the under surface usually yellow green and more or 
less densely pubescent with fascicled hairs, rarely with some tomentum, the 
upper surface often with straggling hairs; nuts mostly less than 12 mm in 

diameter at maturity 7. Q. stellata. 

Branchlets glabrous at the end of the season or only sparsely pubescent; leaves 

mostly obovate in outline, rarely oblong, cut into 5-9 lobes; blades white- to 

gray-tomentose beneath, or those of lower branches often green and 

pubescent beneath; nuts more than 12 mm in diameter. 

Upper scales of cup awned, forming a fringe about the cup; blades mostly 

1-2.5 dm long, generally deeply lobed or pinnatifid; nuts very large, rarely 

nearly covered by the cup; vigorous one year old branches sometimes 

corky 8. Q. macrocarpa. 

Upper scales of the cup not awned but sometimes the upper scales forming 
a ragged rim about the top, which should not be mistaken for awned 
scales; nut usually covered or almost so by the cup; leaves generally 

much smaller than those of the preceding species 9. Q. lyrata. 

Mature leaves with bristle tips; fruit maturing the second year; inner surface of shell 
of nut tomentose; bark dark, tight, and furrowed. (The Black Oaks.) 

Leaves entire (rarely a seedling or coppice shoot with some toothed leaves) 

10. Q. imbricaria. 

Leaves more or less deeply lobed, the lobes and teeth conspicuously bristle-pointed. 

Mature leaves smooth beneath, except for tufts of hairs in the principal axils (rarely 

some of the leaves of no. 16 glabrous). 

Lateral lobes of all leaves (measured along the upper side from the tip to the 

base of the sinus) about as long as, or slightly longer than, the undivided 

portion of the blade. 

Cup flat on the bottom, shallow (saucer-shaped); blades not lustrous above. . . . 

11. Q. borealis var. maxima. 

Cup rounded on the bottom. 

Scales at the top of the cup closely appressed. (Should be sought in Indiana.) 

Q. borealis. 

Scales at the top of the cup loosely imbricated, their free tips forming 
a fringelike border; terminal buds large, grayish-pubescent, generally 

somewhat 4-sided; blades lustrous above 12. Q. velutina. 

Lateral lobes of leaves (measured along the upper side from the tip to the base 
of the sinus) usually much longer than the undivided portion of the blade 
(lower leaves of no. 14 often not cut so deeply); blades lustrous above. 
Cup flat or only slightly convex on the bottom, shallow (saucer-shaped), 
usually covering about a fourth of the nut. 

Cup thin, usually less than 1.6 cm broad 13. Q. palustris. 

Cup thick, more than 1.6 cm broad (fruit resembling that of no. 11) 

14. Q. Shumardii. 

Cup strongly convex on the bottom, usually covering more than a fourth to 

about half of the nut. 

Scales at the top of the cup loosely imbricated, their free tips forming 

a fringelike border, generally gray-pubescent all over, never tuberculate 

on the back; inner bark yellow; buds large, 4-sided, gray-pubescent.... 

12. Q. velutina. 

Scales at the top of the cup all closely appressed (in dried specimens some- 
times becoming more or less loose) ; buds generally glabrous or nearly 
so, generally not so large and rarely 4-sided; lower scales usually 
glabrous but the upper generally pubescent. 

Cup covering a fourth to a third of the nut 

14a. Q. Shumardii var. Schneckii. 

Cup covering about half of the nut. 

Inner bark yellowish or orange; nut generally ellipsoidal; kernel of nut 
yellowish or orange and very bitter 15. Q. ellipsoidalis. 



Quercus 



Fagaceae 



381 




50 

Map 780 



Quercus alba L. 











— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

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July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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uercus f 


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v* Map 781 
rinoides Willd. 




50 

Map 782 



Quercus bicolor Willd. 



Inner bark reddish or gray; nut generally ovoid; scales glossy and 

glabrous or nearly so; kernel white and not very bitter 

16. Q. coccinea. 

Mature leaves more or less pubescent on the whole under surface. 

Leaves drooping, grayish or yellowish pubescent beneath; blades variously lobed, 
specimens usually having some falcate lobes; rarely specimens with 3-lobed 
leaves, this form more common on small trees or coppice shoots; scales of 
cup with a reddish brown border; nut enclosed for about a third of its length. 

17. Q. falcata. 

Leaves brownish or rusty-pubescent beneath, sometimes appearing grayish; 

scales of cup without a dark border; nut enclosed for about half its length. 

Blades expanded at the apex, and generally with only three lobes; mature 

twigs generally scurfy-pubescent 18. Q. marilandica. 

Blades with more than three lobes; mature twigs generally glabrous 

12. Q. velutina. 

1. Quercus alba L. White Oak. Map 780. This species is found in 
every county of Indiana. Knowing this fact, I have not tried to preserve 
specimens from every county, but have tried to secure a series of the 
widely varying forms. The leaves vary greatly in their lobing, especially 
in the depth to which the blade is cut. We have some specimens in 
which the width of the blade between the lobes is only 5 mm. In others, 
the lobes are shallow and the uncut part of the blade is 30-40 mm wide. 
The lower surface of the blades is glaucous and entirely glabrous at ma- 
turity. My Starke County specimen, which is pubescent over nearly the 
entire lower surface, is an exception. The nuts vary from 10-30 mm long. 

It is found throughout the state except in low, wet grounds. 

Maine, s. Ont. and Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

la. Quercus alba f. latiloba (Sarg.) Palmer & Steyermark. I am in- 
cluding with the species this form with the blades cut less than half way 
to the midrib. This form is more abundant in the northern part of the 
range of the species. 

X Quercus Beadlei Trelease. So named by William Trelease. Probably 
a hybrid between Quercus alba and Quercus Prinus. I found a large tree 



382 Fagaceae Quercus 

standing in a field about 3 miles east of Medora, Jackson County. It has 
been found in Lawrence County by Kriebel and in Knox County by 
Friesner. 

X Quercus Deamii Trelease. This is believed to be a hybrid between 
Quereus alba and Quercus Muhlenbergii. A tree was discovered in a woods 
about 4 miles northwest of Bluffton, by L. A. Williamson and his son, E. B. 
Williamson. About a third of an acre of ground on which this tree stands 
was bought and donated to the state. The tree has borne viable nuts and 
seedlings have been planted in the space about the tree to perpetuate it. 
Graft wood has been distributed so that the identity of the tree will be 
preserved. 

X Quercus Fernowii Trelease. This is evidently a hybrid between Quer- 
cus alba and Quercus stellata. A tree was found by Carl M. Carpenter on 
a wooded ridge along Fire Lane 9 in the Brown County State Forest about 
10 miles southeast of Nashville, Brown County. 

X Quercus Jackiana Schneider. This is evidently a hybrid between Quer- 
cus alba and Quercus bicolor. I found a specimen of this form in the woods 
of J. M. Hopper about 2 miles northeast of Onward, Cass County. There 
is another in the Deam Arboretum at Bluffton, Indiana, where it grew 
from Indiana seed planted there. 

2. Quercus prinoides Willd. Dwarf Chinquapin Oak. Map 781. I 
found this shrub in Elkhart County while inspecting the Cooley Lake 
Club land in company with T. E. Shaw and Glenn B. Banks. The woods 
is about 6 miles northeast of Elkhart and about a quarter of a mile south 
of the Michigan state line. The shrub was plentiful in the north part of 
a cut-over woods in the southeast quarter of section 10 where it was 
growing in very sandy soil with black oak and white oak. I was not able 
to ascertain how widely it is distributed. This species has been reported 
from Cass County in Michigan which joins Elkhart County on the north. 

Maine to Minn., southw. to N. C. and Tex. 

3. Quercus bicolor Willd. Swamp White Oak. Map 782. This species 
is more or less frequent throughout the state although there are no reports 
from Benton, Jasper, and Newton Counties. In the northern part of the 
state, it is usually found on a "gumbo" hardpan soil associated most com- 
monly with pin oak. In the southern part of the state in the "flats," it is 
found in hard, white clay soil with pin oak and swamp chestnut oak. 

Maine, s. Ont. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Ark. 

X Quercus Schuettei Trelease. This is believed to be a hybrid between 
Quercus bicolor and Quercus macrocarpa. This hybrid is known from a 
specimen collected by R. M. Kriebel from a single tree in Lawrence County. 

4. Quercus Muhlenbergii Engelm. Chinquapin Oak. Map 783. In 
northern Indiana this species is called sweet oak. Infrequent to rare in 
all parts of the state although Hill's report from Lake County is the 



Quercus 



Fagaceae 



383 




o 50 

Map 783 



Quercus Muhlenbergii Engelm. 




50 

Map 784 

Quercus Prinus L. 











1 


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Mar. 

Apr. 

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June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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Map 785 
Wild. 



only one from the northwestern part. It is generally found on the dry 
banks of streams, river terraces, rocky, wooded bluffs, and only rarely in 
level, moist woods. 

Vt., s. Ont. to Wis., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

5. Quercus Prinus L. (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Swamp Chestnut 
Oak. Map 784. This species is restricted to low, flat woods of the southern 
part of the state. It is local in the southwestern part although it forms 
about 20 per cent of the stand in a few of the woods along Prairie Creek 
in Daviess County. It is more frequent in the "flats" of the southeastern 
part of the state where it is associated with sweet gum, red maple, and 
pin oak. 

Del., s. Ind. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

6. Quercus montana Willd. (Quercus Prinus of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Chestnut Oak. Map 785. In 
Indiana this species is restricted to the area indicated on the map where 
it is found on the ridges and slopes of sandstone and of knobstone. Where 
it is found it is usually the dominant tree. 

Maine, n. shore of Lake Erie to w. cent. Ind., southw. to Ga. and Ala. 

7. Quercus stellata Wang. Post Oak. Map 786. This species is, for 
the most part, restricted to the southwestern part of the state. In the 
unglaciated area it is found mostly on the crests of ridges with black 
oak. West of this area it is found in bottom land along the Little Pigeon 
Creek and in the southwestern part of Posey County on the higher 
bottoms. It is generally associated with white and black oak, winged 
elm, and mockernut hickory. In this area, it is also found sparingly on 
some sandy ridges. 

In 1932, I found a single tree about 9 inches in diameter on the slope 
of the high, gravelly bank of Big Wea Creek about 4 miles southwest 
of Lafayette. It has been reported from Lake and Porter Counties but 



384 



Fagaceae 



Quercus 



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Quercus macrocarpa Michx 




50 

Map 788 



Quercus I y rat a Walt. 



Buhl (Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 5: 10. 1934), in his Supplement to Pepoon, 
Flora of the Chicago Region, deletes these reports. 

Mass. to Ind. and s. Iowa, southw. to Fla., Okla., and Tex. 

8. Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Bur Oak. Mossycup Oak. Map 787. 
Doubtless occurring in every county of the state, although it may be very 
rare in some of the hilly counties of the unglaciated area. This species is 
generally found in wet places in woods and along streams. It is a pioneer 
tree in the prairie counties where it grows both in low ground and on high 
ground and even on sandy ridges. In the prairie area it sometimes forms 
pure stands. I have noted it as a common tree in areas that undoubtedly 
were formerly prairies in Kosciusko, Lagrange, Noble, and Steuben 
Counties. 

N. S. to Man., southw. to Ga., Tex., and Wyo. 

8a. Quercus macrocarpa var. olivaeformis (Michx. f.) Gray. This 
variety is distinguished from the typical form by its shallow cup and 
the long, oval nut which is often 3 cm long. The cup is semi-hemispheric 
and encloses the nut for about half its length. It is rare. I have speci- 
mens from Wells County, and it has been reported from Gibson and 
Hamilton Counties. 

X Quercus Hillii Trelease. This is believed to be a hybrid between Qn< r- 
cus macrocarpa and Quercus Muhlenbergii. A single tree was found by Hill 
near Roby, Indiana. I report this on the authority of Sargent. I have a 
duplicate specimen but I believe it is only a specimen of the bur oak. I 
question the determination of this specimen because the last named parent 
of the hybrid does not occur there or, if it does, it is extremely rare. 

9. Quercus lyrata Walt. Overcup Oak. Map 788. This species is very 
local in the southwestern counties where it grows about river sloughs and 
in swamps and low, wet woods. Its habitat is usually inundated each -year. 
I have not seen it common except in a low woods along Prairie Creek about 
5 miles northwest of Montgomery in Daviess County. Here it is associated 



Quercus 



Fagaceae 



385 



1 






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mill 





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Quercus imbricaria Michx. 




o 35 

Map 790 

Quercus boreal is var. 

maxima (Marsh.) Ashe, 




5d 

Map 791 



Quercus velutina Lam, 



with the swamp chestnut oak. In 1931, on the bank of Slim Pond (an 
old river channel) in Posey County, I measured a specimen that was 56 
inches in diameter at breast height, and had a clear bole of about 12 feet. 
Clapp writes he saw it in the vicinity of New Albany. 
Md. to Iowa, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

10. Quercus imbricaria Michx. Shingle Oak. Map 789. Found spar- 
ingly throughout the state. In some places it is very local and in a few 
areas it is frequent and locally abundant. Usually it is a tree of low ground 
and in some places in prairie habitats, it seems to be the pioneer tree species. 
In the Patoka bottoms it is usually a frequent to common tree in ground 
just a little higher than where the pin oak grows. On high ground it is 
usually closely associated with the black oak. 

Pa., Mich, to Nebr., southw. to Ga. and Ark. 

X Quercus exacta Trelease. This is believed to be a hybrid between 
Quercus imbficaria and Quercus palustris. I found a single tree in Posey 
County. 

X Quercus Leana Nutt. This seems to be a hybrid between Quercus 
imbricaria and Quercus velutina. I collected it in Lawrence County and 
Lake County. I also have a specimen collected by Ralph M. Kriebel from 
a tree in Lawrence County. Recently Kriebel has collected it in Knox 
County. 

11. Quercus borealis Michx. var. maxima (Marsh.) Ashe. (Quercus 
rubra of Gray, Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) 
Red Oak. Map 790. This oak is infrequent to frequent throughout the 
state and even common in some parts. It may be entirely absent from 
Benton, Newton, and possibly Lake Counties and is rare or absent in the 
Lower Wabash Valley. While our map shows no specimens from the 
southwestern part of the state, there are reports from that part and I 
have seen it growing there. The paucity of specimens of this and other 
species of oak is due to the fact that oaks do not produce fruit every 



386 



Fagaceae 



Quercus 




50 

Map 792 



Quercus palustris Muench. 




50 

Map 793 



Quercus Shumardii Buckley 



. 























Feb. 






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Apr. 




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June 

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£c^A5 vX < v r^-v , Map 794 


Quercus ellipsoidalis E.J.Hill 



year. To make a good specimen it is necessary to secure a branchlet that 
has grown in the sun with its leaves and mature fruit. This oak, in most 
of its area, grows on low ground but sometimes it is found on high ground 
with white and black oak and on the bluffs of streams. 
N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

12. Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. Map 791. This species is 
without doubt found in every county of the state. In abundance, it ranks 
next to white oak, with which it is generally associated, except in very 
poor soil where it will be the only species or associated with post and 
chestnut oaks. It prefers a dry soil and is generally found on sandy and 
clayey ridges. 

Maine, s. Ont., s. Iowa, s. Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

13. Quercus palustris Muench. Pin Oak. Map 792. Infrequent to 
common in all parts of the state. It may be absent from Benton County. 
It is found only in wet habitats and prefers a hard, compact, clay soil 
with little drainage. It is locally frequent to common in the northern part 
of the state and in the southern part it is abundant in the lowlands along 
streams and grows to great size in the low woods along the Patoka River. 
It is also locally common in the "flats" in the southeastern part of the 
state. 

In Indiana there are trees with two very distinct kinds of nuts. The 
common form has a large nut which is depressed at the top. The other has 
a much smaller, ovoid nut with a conical apex. I have this form from 
Pike and Wells Counties. 

Mass., sw. Ont., Mich., to Iowa, southw. to Va. and Okla. 

14. Quercus Shumardii Buckley. SHUMARD Red Oak. Map 793. 
Probably frequent throughout the state where its habitat occurs. Ralph 

M. Kriebel in 1937 studied its distribution in relation to its habitats in 
different soil types and found it in sixty-four counties and I am indebted 
to him for this information. He, however, was unsuccessful in Benton 



Quercus Fagaceae 387 

and in several other counties in the northwestern part of the state. Since 
several authentic collections have been made in southern Michigan, it is 
believed to grow in most of our counties. 

In southern Indiana it is found in well-drained bottom land along streams 
and on the slopes of flood plain terraces. In the general area of the 
Wisconsin glaciations it is not found along water courses but mostly in 
swampy areas on the general levels, especially in soil of the Crosby and 
Brookston series. 

This oak, together with its variety, the Schneck oak, and the red oak, 
are often found growing together. They look similar and thus are often 
confused but can easily be separated by studying the leaves, buds, and 
fruit. 

The leaves of red oak are dull dark green above, cut less than halfway 
to the midrib, 7-11-lobed, sinuses wide at the top, and the axils of the 
under surface have no tufts of hairs. The cup is saucer-shaped and flat 
on the bottom. 

The leaves of the Schneck and Shumard oaks are lustrous above, cut 
more than halfway to the midrib, 5-7-lobed, the lobes slightly converging 
at the top, with tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins beneath. These 
two oaks differ, however, in the shape of the cups of the fruit. The 
cup of the Shumard oak is gray and flat on the bottom while that of the 
Schneck oak is rounded and deeper and the scales tinged reddish brown. 

The terminal buds of the Shumard and Schneck oaks are generally gray- 
ish, somewhat compressed and acute at the apex while those of the red 
oak are generally blunt at the apex, smaller, shiny, and reddish brown. 

The bark of the red oak has the furrows continuous, the plates wide 
and gray while the bark of the Schneck and Shumard oaks is dark and the 
furrows broken. 

Atlantic States from s. Pa. to Fla., following the Gulf States to Tex. 
and up the Mississippi Valley to Iowa, s. Mich., and Ind. 

14a. Quercus Shumardii var. Schneckii (Britt.) Sarg. (Quercus texana 
Buckl. in part and Quercus Schneckii Britt.) Schneck Red Oak. 

This variety differs from the type in its deep cup which is strongly 
convex on the bottom. The nuts are usually smaller than those of the 
type or those of the red oak. The variety in its characteristic form is 
easily separated from the type but there are intermediate forms in Indiana 
that can be called either the species or the variety. If this fact is kept 
in mind, controversies over determinations of this group may be avoided. 

Southern Ala., La. to Tex., northw. in the Mississippi Valley to Wells 
County, Ind. 

15. Quercus ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill. Jack Oak. Map 794. The distribu- 
tion of this species in Indiana is not known. It is very difficult to identify 
in the field unless one is familiar with it because it is easily confused with 
the scarlet and black oaks. I have specimens from the type tree, from a 
tree in Lagrange County, and from one in White County. In 1938 R. M. 
Kriebel made a study of its distribution in Indiana and found it through- 



388 



Fagaceae 



Quercus 


















T 1 1 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

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Od. 

Nov. 


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Feb. 
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Apr 

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June 

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Aug. 

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Oct. 

Nov 


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marilandica 


50 

Map 797 

Muench. 



out northwestern Indiana and in the northern tier of counties. Hill re- 
ported it as locally frequent in Lake County, especially near Liverpool. Ac- 
cording- to Hill, the tree is found on sandy and clayey uplands. Andrews' 
report from Monroe County may safely be ignored. 

Higgins Lake, Mich, to se. Minn., southw. to nw. Ind. and nw. Mo. 

16. Quercus coccinea Muench. Scarlet Oak. Map 795. This species 
is local and, no doubt, has a wider range than the map indicates. It is 
so often confused with the black oak that all records for it must be care- 
fully checked. It is always intimately associated with black oak and is 
found in poor soil mostly on the crests of ridges. I believe it has its mass 
distribution in the unglaciated area, and outside of that it is a rare and 
local tree. 

Maine, s. Ont. to s. Nebr., southw. to N. C, Ala., and Ark. 

16a. Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata Sarg. This variety differs from 
the typical form in that the back of the scales is prominently thickened 
below the middle of the turbinate cup. The upper row of scales is thin 
and forms a distinct marginal ring. This form has been found in Lawrence 
and Vanderburgh Counties. 

Mass. to Ind., southw. to Tenn. and Ala. 

17. Quercus falcata Michx. (Quercus rubra of some recent authors 
and of Sudworth's Check List of the trees of the United States. 1927.) 
Map 796. All of our forms are shown on one map. The leaves of this 
species are extremely variable and this fact has led authors to divide 
it into two species and several forms. Trelease (The American oaks. Mem. 
Nat. Acad. Sci. 20: 201. 1924) recognized 14 forms of this species. For 
the benefit of those who wish to try to separate the species into groups 
1 am giving a brief key for a few of the forms that occur in Indiana. 

Leaves all obovate, usually expanded above the middle into 2 lateral lobes and 1 

terminal, rather rounded lobe 17a. Q. falcata f. triloba. 

Leaves not all obovate, most of them with more than 3 lobes, the lobes mostly acute. 



Quercus Fagaceae 389 

Blades mostly 3-7-lobed, the lobes irregular and more or less strongly falcate. 

Pubescence of lower surface of blades whitish; blades of leaves from the lower 

branches not conspicuously different from those of the upper branches 

17. Q. falcata. 

Pubescence of the lower surface of blades brownish; leaves of the lower branches 
conspicuously different from those of the upper ones, those of the upper 
branches broader at the apex than those of the next variety; leaves of the 

lower branches slightly obovate, and usually 7-lobed 

17b. Q. falcata var. leucophylla. 

Blades mostly 5-11-lobed, the lobes more regular and mostly acute, the blades mostly 
12-25 cm long and 8-15 cm wide, usually very much less falcate than those of 

the species; pubescence of lower surface of leaves whitish to grayish 

17c. Q. falcata var. pagodaefolia. 

17. Quercus falcata Michx. Southern Red Oak. In 1910, for four 
days I followed timber cutters who were making ties in Posey County. 
They favored me by cutting trees of this species which I had marked. 
This gave me the opportunity to study the leaves of the trees from the 
bottom to the top. This study convinced me that the species is polymorphic 
as to leaf form. I have found no difference in the fruit of the many forms. 
It is true that the three-lobed form (f. triloba) is the prevailing form on 
high ground and on sandy ridges. 

This oak is restricted to the southern part of the state. In Clark and 
Jefferson Counties it is locally frequent in the "flats" where it is usually 
associated with beech, sweet gum, and black gum. In Harrison and Wash- 
ington Counties I found it on high ground associated with black and post 
oaks. In the western part of Gibson and Posey Counties it becomes fre 
quent and it is associated with the low ground oaks and hickories. 

Along the Atlantic coast from Pa. to Fla., along the Gulf States to 
Tex. and up the Mississippi Valley and Ohio River Valley to s. Ind., Ohio, 
and W. Va. 

17a. Quercus falcata f. triloba (Michx.) Palmer & Steyermark. This 
form is rare and is restricted to sandy ridges and dry soil. It is to be noted 
that all of the coppice shoots of Quercus falcata I have ever seen have 
obovate, 3-lobed leaves. 

17b. Quercus falcata var. leucophylla (Ashe) Palmer & Steyermark. 
Palmer designates my no. 10339 from Posey County as belonging to this 

variety. 

Va. to Fla., through the Gulf States to e. Tex., and northw. to Ark. 

and Ind. , . , 

17c. Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia Ell. This variety grows on low 
banks and in low land in close proximity to sloughs, bayous, and ponds in 
Gibson and Posey Counties. 

Md. to n. Fla., westw. to Ark., and northw. in the Mississippi Valley 

to Ind. 

18. Quercus marilandica Muench. Blackjack Oak. Map 797. Local 
and infrequent, mostly in the southwestern part of the state where it is 
found in poor soil on the crests of ridges or in very poor soil on sand 



390 Ulmaceae Ulmus 

ridges. I found it in Point Township of Posey County on a very low ridge 
in a pin oak woods. It was local here; there were only a few trees and 
it was associated with post oak. It is usually associated with black and 
post oaks. 

N. Y. to Nebr., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

X Queicus Biishii Sarg. This is a hybrid between Quercus marilandica 
and Qua reus velutina. I found a single tree on a sandy ridge on the farm 
of Frank Plass about 2 miles north of Decker or just northwest of the 
Vollmer Siding of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad in Knox County. 
Seed of this tree were generously distributed in 1933 to the larger 
arboretums of the United States. 

63. ULMACEAE Mirbel Elm Family 

Branchlets with solid pith; leaves with parallel primary veins; flowers borne on the 
branchlets of the preceding year 1896. Ulmus, p. 390 

Branchlets with chambered pith; leaves 3-veined at the base; flowers borne on the 
branchlets of the year 1898. Celtis, p. 392. 

1896. ULMUS [Tourn.] L. Elm 

Inner bark mucilaginous; upper surface of the leaves very scabrous to the touch, 

usually densely covered with stiff, more or less erect hairs arising from large, 

whitish, hollow, papillose bases; branchlets densely gray -pubescent, generally 

becoming brownish at maturity; bud scales more or less pubescent and ciliate with 

rufous hairs; flowers nearly sessile; calyx densely ciliate with rufous hairs; 

samaras mostly suborbicular, 13-19 mm long, both sides of the body densely 

woolly-pubescent, the wings nearly glabrous, the margins glabrous. . . .1. U. fulva. 

Inner bark not mucilaginous; leaves glabrous or somewhat scabrous above; flowers on 

slender, jointed pedicels; samaras ciliate or pubescent all over. 

One and two year old branches (at least some of them) with one or both sides covered 

more or less with a corky excrescence; samaras pubescent all over. 

Buds ovate, not twice as long as wide, obtuse or short-pointed, dark brown; bud 

scales pubescent and ciliate; leaves large, 8-15 cm long, not twice as long as 

wide, glabrous above except along the midrib; calyx lobes 7-9, not ciliate; 

samaras oval, 1.5-2 cm long 2. U. racemosa. 

Buds small, narrow, twice as long as w T ide, light brown, very sharply pointed; 
bud scales glabrous or merely puberulent; leaves narrow, the blades 4-8 cm 
long, twice as long as wide, glabrous or more or less scabrous above; calyx 

lobes 5, not ciliate; samaras oval, the oval part 6-10 mm long 3. U. alata. 

One and two year old branches without corky wings; branchlets ashy gray, pubes- 
cent or glabrate, at maturity becoming light brown and glabrous or remaining 
pubescent; leaves more or less appressed-pubescent above (at least near the 
margins and the base), rarely entirely glabrous when observed under a lens, 
often smooth to the touch but the surface usually covered with short, appressed 
hairs, sometimes more or less scabrous but the hairs usually without the large, 
white, papillose bases, rarely a few hairs with such but not distributed over the 
entire surface as in no. 1; calyx not ciliate; samaras oval, about 10 mm long, 
both sides glabrous, the margins ciliate 4. U. americana. 

1. Ulmus fulva Michx. Slippery Elm. Map 798. This species is found 
in every county of the state. It is rare to infrequent in a few of our 
prairie counties but frequent to common in all parts of the state out- 
side of the oak-hickory forests and in wet woodland. Where woodland has 



Ulmus 



Ulmaceae 



391 




50 

Map 798 
Ulmus fulva Michx. 




50 

Map 799 



Ulmus racemosa Thomas 




' 50 

Map 800 



Ulmus alata Michx 



been heavily cut over and left for a second crop this species is usually 
well represented, sometimes forming the major stand. The inner bark 
was formerly chewed as a remedy for stomach trouble and used in medicine 
in powdered form for poultices. 

Western Que. and w. N. E. to N. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Ulmus racemosa Thomas. (Ulmus Thomasi Sarg.) Map 799. Rock 
Elm. Infrequent to frequent or rare within the area shown on the map, 
to which should be added Floyd, Monroe, and St. Joseph Counties. This 
species is found in a habitat a little drier than that of the American elm 
and usually in a more moist habitat than that of the slippery elm. It 
is almost always associated with the American elm and is difficult to dis- 
tinguish from it when only the trunk and base are available as char- 
acters for separation. The American elm usually has a more buttressed 
base than the rock elm. 

Western Que. and w. Vt. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to n. N. J., Ky., 
and Mo. 

3. Ulmus alata Michx. Winged Elm. Map 800. Probably restricted 
to the area shown on the map. This species has two rather distinct habitats. 
In the hilly counties it is found on the sides of cliffs, on steep rocky slopes, 
and on the crests of high ridges. It is usually found on or near sand- 
stone and generally associated with American chestnut and black, chest- 
nut, and scarlet oaks. In this habitat it is usually a scrubby or small tree 
with the corky excrescence on the branches well developed. The other 
habitat is in hard, white clay flats of the southwestern counties where 
it is associated mostly with sweet and black gum and pin oak. In the 
"flats" it sometimes reaches a large size. Rarely specimens are seen which 
have few or no corky excrescences. 

Va. to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

4. Ulmus americana L. AMERICAN Elm. Map 801. Found in every 
county of the state. It prefers a moist or wet soil and is frequent to com- 



392 



Ulmaceae 



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mon in such habitats throughout the state except in the dunes. This species 
is commonly known as white elm. 

Newf. to Man., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



1898. CELTIS [Tourn.] L. Hackberry 

Margins of leaves of fruiting branchlets and shoots sharply serrate all around to 

the base; leaf blades of an ovate to broadly ovate type, oblique at base, sometimes 

strongly so, those of fruiting branchlets 5-15 cm long; pedicels of fruit much 

longer than the petioles; nutlets 6-8 mm long; small or large trees. 

Leaf blades broadly ovate, acute or short-acuminate, smooth above. (See excluded 

species no. 182, p. 1040.) C. occidentalis. 

Leaf blades generally narrower than the type, apical half narrower, more curved, and 
long-attenuate at the apex, usually smooth above but sometimes slightly rough . . 

l.C. occidentalis var. canina. 

Leaf blades as large as or larger than those of the preceding, more of an oblong- 
ovate type, very rough above la. C. occidentalis var. crassifolia. 

Margins of leaves of fruiting branchlets usually entire, or some with a few teeth on 

one side or with a few teeth on both sides but never serrate on either side to the 

base; margins of leaves of vegetative branchlets and shoots similar to those of 

fruiting branchlets, or with the margins serrate nearly all around but never 

serrate to the base; pedicels of fruit shorter or only slightly longer than the 

petioles; nutlets 5-6 mm long. 

Leaves generally of an oblong-lanceolate type, generally thin, ours smooth above 

and medium green on both sides, not lighter or yellow green beneath ; blades 

of fruiting branchlets mostly 4-12 cm long and 2-4.5 cm wide; mature fruit a 

light cherry red; medium sized trees of a wet habitat 2. C. laevigata. 

Leaves mostly of an ovate-lanceolate type, sometimes ovate to broadly ovate or rarely 
oblong-lanceolate, generally thick and yellow green beneath, generally smooth 
but sometimes rough above; blades extremely variable in size and shape, mostly 
3-10 cm long and 2-6 cm wide, usually about half the maximum size; branchlets 
usually more or less pubescent; pedicels shorter or longer than the petioles; 
mature fruit (collected in October) a dark cherry red; trees usually 1-2.5 m 
high, but sometimes 4-6 m high and up to 1 dm in diameter near the base; of 
a dry sandy, gravelly or rocky habitat ?>. C. pumila. 

1. Celtis occidentalis L. var. canina (Raf.) Sarg. (Celtis occidentalis 
in part, of Cray. Man., ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) 



Celtis 



Ulmaceae 



393 



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Mar 

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pumila (Muhl) Pursh 




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Map 806 



Morus rubra L. 



HACKBERRY. Map 802. This tree is no doubt found in every county of 
the state. It prefers the moist, alluvial soil along streams but is some- 
times found in sandy upland and on wooded slopes. It is rare in northern 
and southern Indiana but frequent along our major streams. It is infre- 
quent to rare in low woods at a distance from a stream. This is the com- 
mon hackberry in the state. 

Que. to N. Dak., southw. to Mass., N. Y., Ga., and Okla. 

la. Celtis occidentalis var. crassifolia (Lam.) Gray. (Celtis crassifolia 
Lam.) Bigleaf Hackberry. Map 803. This form is found probably 
throughout the state with the preceding but is rare or infrequent. I am 
not convinced that this variety has any standing. I have found both 
smooth and rough leaf forms on the same tree. Undoubtedly mere 
roughness of leaves has little significance. 

Va. and Ind. to Minn, and Wyo., southw. to N. C. and Tex. 



2. Celtis laevigata Willd. (Celtis mississippiensis Bosc of Gray, Man., 
ed. 7 and Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Sugarberry. Map 804. 
Infrequent to rare or locally common in low woods in the southwestern 
part of the state. It is usually found in low woodlands, especially those 
that are more or less inundated. It is abundant in the bottoms along the 
Wabash River and frequent in the bottoms near the mouth of Little 
Pigeon Creek. It no doubt formerly followed the larger streams farther 
northward than our map indicates. It prefers a hard soil and is rarely 
found in a porous, alluvial soil. The leaves of this species are usually 
almost uniform but variations are found. A mile and a half northwest of 
Griffin, Posey County, I found a large tree that had small leaves, in size and 
shape like those of the next species but here and there among the leaves 
were typical ones. The location of the typical leaves indicated to me that 
the dwarfing was a matter of nutrition but in this I may be in error. 
The typical leaves are thin and not at all coriaceous but sometimes the 
leaves are more or less coriaceous. The thickening of the leaves may be due 



394 



MORACEAE 



Celtis 



1 






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Madura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. 




50 

Map 809 

Humulus japonicus Sieb.& Zucc. 



to location of the tree, because, as I now recall, trees of this sort were 
found in the open. In fact, most of our specimens are taken from low, 
round-topped trees of the open because specimens could not easily be ob- 
tained from tall, forest-grown trees. The effects of the environment of the 
trees must therefore have consideration. This species is usually associated 
with pecan, sweet gum, pumpkin ash, cane, and soft maple. 
Va. to Mo. and e. Kans., southw. to the Gulf States and Tex. 

3. Celtis pumila (Muhl.) Pursh. (Celtis pumila var. Deamii Sarg. and 
Celtis occidentdlis var. pumila Muhl.) Dwarf Hackberry. Map 805. 
Very local and rare to infrequent where it is found. In Lake County it 
was rather frequent on the sand dunes about Miller. I found it in Steuben 
County on the high, gravelly slope east of Hogback Lake. In Lawrence 
County a few very small trees are found on a limestone slope in Spring 
Mill State Park, associated with dwarf specimens of Zanthoxylum and 
Rhamnus lanceolata. In Washington County a few trees were found 
on a wooded slope near Big Spring. In Jefferson County Miss Edna 
Banta found a few trees in Cliffy Falls State Park near the southern 
end of Trail no. 1. It is found in Crawford County along Blue River near 
Milltown. In Harrison County it occurs on a rocky, wooded slope 3 miles 
east of Elizabeth. In Perry County I found it on several ridges about 7 
miles east of Cannelton. 

The leaves of this species are extremely variable, but no more so than 
its habitat. 

Pa., Ind. to Mo., southw. to Fla., Ga., and Tenn. 



64. MORACEAE Lindl. Mulberry Family 

Plants woody, small trees. 

Branches without spines; leaves serrate; pistillate flowers in spikes 

1913. Morus, p. 395. 

Branches with spines; leaves entire; pistillate flowers in heads 

1918. Maclura, p. 395. 



Morus MORACEAE 395 

Plants herbaceous, tall, erect or long and twining. 

Leaves mostly 3-lobed, rarely the blade lobed deeper than to the middle or the upper 

ones not lobed; long, twining, perennial plants 1972. Humuiajs, p. 396. 

Leaves 5-7-divided to near the base, the divisions narrow; tall, erect annual plants; 

introduced 1973. Cannabis, p. 397. 

1913. MORUS [Tourn.] L. Mulberry 

Leaves soft-pubescent with spreading hairs over the entire lower surface, rarely lobed 
except on vigorous branches or coppice growth, abruptly long-acuminate at the 
apex, cordate or subcordate at the base; fruit dark purple or black, mostly 2.5-3.5 

cm long 1. M. rubra. 

Leaves glabrous beneath except the midrib or midrib and principal nerves, these ciliate- 
pubescent with appressed hairs. 
Leaves of an ovate type, rarely lobed; fruit whitish. (See excluded species no. 183, 

p. 1040.) M. alba. 

Leaves of an ovate type, mostly 3-5-lobed; fruit mostly 1-2 cm long, reddish or 
purplish 2. M. alba var. tatarica. 

1. Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry. Map 806. Found as scattered trees 
probably in every county of the state. Its distribution in the primitive 
forest can only be conjectured, but since it is a low, round-topped tree and 
very intolerant of shade, its distribution was, no doubt, very limited. It 
is abundantly distributed by birds and I have seen it as a frequent to 
common tree in second growth forests where it is soon shaded out by 
taller species by the time it reaches a diameter of 4-8 inches. Along fences 
and in fields it often reaches a diameter of 1-2 feet and usually has a 
clear bole of 8-10 feet. It is rarely seen in the high forest except in an 
opening. 

Vt. to Mich, and S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Morus alba L. var. tatarica (L.) Loud. Russian Mulberry. Map 
807. This species was formerly recommended for forest planting for 
growing fence post timber. It is a small, crooked tree and is a failure for 
the purpose recommended. It is very hardy and annually produces an 
abundant crop of fruit which is greedily eaten by birds. Through the 
agency of birds this species has become widely distributed in woodland 
and along fences. A neighbor 3 blocks away has a large tree in his yard 
and each year I have the task of digging about 50-100 seedlings from our 
garden. 

Probably introd. from Russia, hence its common name. 

1918. MACLURA Nutt. 

1. Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. (Toxylon pomiferum Raf. of 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) OSAGE-ORANGE. Map 808. This 
tree was formerly much planted for farm fences and windbreaks, especial- 
ly in our prairie area. Since land has become valuable its use has been 
discontinued. It has sparingly escaped in all parts of the state and it is a 
wonder that it has not become an obnoxious weed tree. I recall that 
I studied two lines of large trees that were planted on each side of a 
deserted lane in the Ohio River bottoms in Perry County. The line of trees 



396 Moraceae Humulus 

was about a quarter of a mile long and the trees were mostly 10-15 inches 
in diameter near the base. I estimated that on the ground there were not 
less than 25 bushels of fruit and 1 assumed that the trees fruited almost 
annually. Yet 1 did not find a single seedling and I do not believe any 
were dug up. I made no special inquiry to ascertain the cause of the fail- 
ure of reproduction. 

Mo. and Kans., southw. to Tex. 

1972. HUMULUS L. Hop 

[Bailey. Humulus. Manual of Cultivated Plants, 239-240. 1924.] 

Petioles of principal leaves much longer than the blades; leaves 5-7-lobed; bracts 
of pistillate flowers greenish, usually eglandular, narrow, generally long-acuminate, 
their margins densely long-ciliate; parts of the staminate involucre usually very 

glandular, narrow, acute to acuminate; anthers eglandular 1. H. japonicus. 

Petioles of principal leaves shorter than or only equaling the blades, rarely one or more 

longer; leaves usually 3-lobed; sometimes all of the leaves on the upper part of 

the stem unlobed; bracts of pistillate flowers glandular at least at the base, not 

ciliate, stramineous, not green, broad, the lower acuminate, the middle ones 

broadly ovate, acute or obtuse; parts of the staminate involucre glandular but the 

glands easily detached and often becoming eglandular, broad, obtuse; anthers more 

or less glandular. 

Lobes of leaves short-acute at the apex or obtuse, coarsely serrate or dentate, the 

terminal lobe nearly as wide as long; lower surface of leaves sparsely glandular; 

anthers mostly with fewer than 10 glands. (See excluded species no. 187, p. 1041.) 

H. Lupulus. 

Lobes of leaves attenuate to the apex, the teeth of the margins finer than those of the 
preceding species, the terminal lobe narrower at the base than at the middle, 
generally at least twice as long as wide; lower surface of leaves usually copiously 
glandular; anthers generally with more than 10 glands 2. H. americanus. 

1. Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc. Japanese Hop. Map 809. Re- 
ported from Tippecanoe County by Wilson but probably more frequent 
than our knowledge of its distribution indicates. I found it along road- 
sides near Warsaw and Hobart. Found, also, by Chas. M. Ek in Howard 
County along a railroad. 

Nat. of Japan ; sparingly naturalized. 

2. Humulus americanus Nutt. American Hop. Map 810. Probably 
found in all or nearly all of the counties of the state. It prefers a moist 
and sandy soil and is found infrequently in low ground along streams, 
about lakes, and along roadsides. Our manuals have not separated this 
from the Eurasian species and all but one of our reports for the wild hop 
have been made under the name, Humulus Lupulus. I doubt that the exotic 
species is found in Indiana and if so, it is very rare. I have not seen a speci- 
men of it from Indiana. Bailey says : "Lobes of leaves often 5-11," but none 
of the leaves of my specimens have more than 3 lobes. Since the two species 
have been confused by most authors I am not able to give the distribution 
of our native hop, but probably it is nearly the same as that given by 
authors for the exotic species which is as follows : 



Cannabis 



Urticaceae 



397 




50 

Map 810 



Humulus amen'canus Nutt. 




50 

Map 811 



Cannabis sativa L. 




~N 

Map 812 



Urtica procera Muhl. 



N. S. to Wyo., southw. to Fla. and Ariz. The western hop is sometimes 
considered to be specifically distinct but is usually treated as a variety of 
Humulus americanus. 

1973. CANNABIS [Tourn.] L. 

1. Cannabis sativa L. Common Hemp. Map 811. This species yields 
a strong fibre which is extensively used for cordage. It was formerly sown 
in northern Indiana for its fibre. The seed of this plant are much used 
in commercial bird foods, and this accounts for its escape in all parts of 
the state. The plant grows 6-10 feet high and produces an abundance of 
seed; it might well be grown for winter food for birds, and people who 
provide feed for birds during the winter months should be interested in 
sowing enough hemp to produce a few sheaves of it to be used for this 
purpose. Hemp is also the source of the narcotic hashish or marihuana, 
and growing it in Indiana is now prohibited. 

This species prefers a moist, rich soil but I have found it in almost 
all kinds of soils and locations. It is usually found in waste places, along 
roadsides, streams and railroads, and infrequently in fallow fields and 
open woods. In the Kankakee region it is frequent in low ground along 
fences and on ditch banks. 

Nat. of Asia; naturalized from N. B. to Minn., southw. to Ga. and Kans. 

65. URTICACEAE Reichenb. Nettle Family 

Leaves opposite. 

Flowers in axillary panicles. 

Plants with stinging hairs, the whole plant more or less pubescent, generally 8-15 
dm high; leaves generally with more than 15 pairs of teeth; achenes inclosed 

by the calyx 1974. Urtica, p. 398. 

Plants without stinging hairs, the whole plant glabrous, generally 3-7 dm high; 
leaves generally with fewer than 15 pairs of teeth; achenes longer than the 

calyx 1984. Pilea, p. 399. 

Flowers in single, axillary spikes, these with or without axillary glomerules; plants 
without stinging hairs, more or less pubescent throughout; achenes more or less 
uncinate-pubescent 1990. Boehmeria, p. 400. 



398 Urticaceae Urtica 

Leaves alternate. 

Plants with stinging hairs; leaves large, with many pairs of sharp teeth; achenes 

about twice as long as the calyx, oblique, the style lateral 

1980. Laportea, p. 398. 

Plants without stinging hairs; leaves small, entire and undulate; achenes not as long 
as the calyx, ovate, the style terminal 2007. Parietaria, p. 401. 

1974. URTlCA [Tourn.] L. Nettle 

Blades of leaves at the lower inflorescences generally more than half as wide as long, 
ovate to broadly ovate, rather deeply cordate at the base, the lower surface gen- 
erally covered with numerous, setose hairs, coarsely toothed 1. U. dioica. 

Blades of leaves at the lower inflorescences generally much less than half as wide as 
long, ovate-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, rounded, truncate or sub- 
cordate at the base, the lower surface lacking the setose hairs or with only a few 
on the principal nerves and midrib, the margins with smaller and more regular 
teeth than the preceding species 2. U. procera. 

1. Urtica dioica L. There is a specimen of this species in the 
herbarium of the University of Notre Dame. It was collected by Nieuw- 
land on the border of St. Joseph Lake, in St. Joseph County. He said it 
is established there. 

Nat. of Eu. ; sparingly naturalized in the e. U. S. 

2. Urtica procera Muhl. in Willd. (Rhodora 28: 195. 1926.) (Urtica 
gracilis of authors.) Tall Nettle. Map 812. Infrequent to frequent in the 
lake area, becoming infrequent to very rare south of this area and re- 
stricted mostly to low places in the alluvial bottoms of our principal 
streams. It grows in rich, porous soil only in low ground and is found 
about lakes and ponds in low woods, in low places along unimproved roads 
in the lake area, in springy places throughout, and in wet places along 
streams. 

This species is often confused with Urtica dioica L. which is a native 
of Europe and has been reported as sparingly escaped in the eastern part 
of the United States. It has been reported from Indiana but I am refer- 
ring all of our reports except the one from St. Joseph County to this 
species. The two species are difficult to separate. The leaves are variable 
in texture, in shape of the blade and its base, in the number of setose hairs 
on either surface, in the number of setose hairs on the stem, petioles, 
and in the inflorescence, and in the size of the panicles. I have 28 speci- 
mens from Indiana and 20 of these are monoecious and 8 are pistillate. 
My specimens represent only the part of the plant with leaves when col- 
lected and it is probable that the lower leaves and staminate inflorescences 
of the pistillate specimens had fallen before the plants were collected. The 
density of the stand of the plants has a marked influence upon them. 

N. S., Que. to N. Dak., southw. to N. C. and La. 

1980. LAPORTEA Gaud. 

1. Laportea canadensis (L.) Gaud. (Urticastrum divaricatum (L.) 
Ktze.) Canada Nettle. Map 813. This is strictly a woodland nettle and 
is found more or less frequently in low, wet woods throughout the 



Laportea 



Urticaceae 



399 



5 
17 
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Apr. 

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Map 814 



Pilea pumila (L.) Gray 




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Map 815 



Pilea fontana (Lune II ) Rydb. 



state except in the hilly counties where it becomes infrequent or rare. 
N. B. and N. S. to Ont. and Minn., southw. to Fla. and Kans. 



1984. PILEA Lindl. Clearweed 

Pericarp relatively thin, the inside whitish or very light brown; fruit ovate, green 
(sometimes violet), the surface more or less irregularly marked with purplish 
brown (on immature fruit it may be dark green to brown), the total area of the 
markings covering about half the surface, the markings, under a 25 diameter 
magnification, appearing as ridges or excrescences; margins of fruit not con- 
spicuously differing in color from the body; leaves generally cuneate at the base, 
rarely somewhat rounded or truncate, the number of teeth to a side of average 

blades 8-15; plants of moist soil and usually growing in cool, shady places 

1. P. pumila. 

Pericarp relatively firm, the inside purplish; fruit ovate, blackish, dull, the surface 
smooth but unequally bossed all over; margins of fruit conspicuously colorless 
(whitish) ; leaves rounded, truncate or more rarely cuneate at the base, the 
greatest number of teeth to a blade 4-9 (10) on a side; longest petioles 0.5-6.5 cm 
long, varying according to the size of the plant; plants of very wet or springy 
habitats 2. P. fontana. 

1. Pilea pumila (L.) Gray. (Including Pilea pumila var. Deamii (Lu- 
nell) Fern. For a discussion of this variety see Fernald, Rhodora 38: 
169. 1936.) Clearweed. Map 814. This plant prefers a cool, shady place 
in which to grow and is found in moist, rich soil throughout the state. I 
once found it growing on an old cypress log in a cypress swamp in Posey 
County. It is usually found in colonies and when a colony in rich soil is 
studied it will be found that the plants that are crowded are simple or 
with few branches at the top while those on the outside of the colony may 
have long branches even to the ground. Single plants in a similar habitat 
may be so large that they become decumbent half their length and have 
side branches that are nearly as long as the remainder of the main stem. 
The plants are variable in all their parts; the branches at the base may 
be short or long; the leaves are usually cuneate at the base although I 
have a specimen with leaves that are truncate at the base ; the teeth of the 
margins vary from 3-17 on a side and vary from rounded to rather sharply 



400 



Urticaceae Boehmeria 



serrate or the margins of the lower leaves are sometimes entire ; the fruits 
vary in size and in the amount of brown markings and are of a greenish 
color. My no. 48006 from Crawford County, Oct. 2, 1929, and two just 
like it from Clark County have purplish fruits, but the inside of the peri- 
carp is white and they lack the white margins of Piled fontana. 

In a dry season I collected in the bottom of a pond a sheet of depauper- 
ate plants only a few inches high. These were named for me by a special- 
ist as typical Pilea pumila (L.) Gray. Two years later I revisited the 
same pond when it was full of water and I found only large plants about 
the pond. Like all annuals delayed germination or lack of moisture pro- 
duces small or dwarf plants. 

My collection of 132 sheets from Indiana shows the above variations and 
others not mentioned. 

Que., e. Canada to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb. (Adicea fontana Lunell.) Map 815. 
Found in favorable habitats probably throughout the state although its 
habitat is rarely found south of the lake area. This species grows only 
in very wet, springy, and boggy places, usually on the borders of lakes 
and streams. It commonly forms dense stands and usually is 6-12 inches 
high although I have a specimen more than 3 feet high. One of its favorite 
habitats is among dead or live cattails. This species can easily be sepa- 
rated from the preceding species by the white margin of the fruit and the 
purple color of the inside of the pericarp. It has not been recognized 
for a time long enough to ascertain its range. 

P. E. I. to N. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Nebr. 

1990. BOEHMERIA Jacq. 

Leaves mostly broadly ovate, ascending, not folded, generally long-acuminate, smooth, 
smoothish or somewhat scabrous above; petioles of median leaves (20) 25-80 mm 
long; achenes generally yellowish green, without purplish splotches, the body 
usually glabrous 1. B. cylindrica. 

Leaves narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, some or all drooping and generally more 
or less folded, somewhat scabrous above; petioles of median leaves (3) 5-20 (25) 
mm long; achenes more or less splotched with purple, the wings and usually the 
body with uncinate hairs la. B. cylindrica var. Drummondiana. 

1. Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False Nettle. Map 816. Infrequent 
to frequent throughout the state in low places in woodlands and less fre- 
quent in marshes and wet prairies. 

Maine, Ont. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

la. Boehmeria cylindrica var. Drummondiana Weddell. {Boehmeria 
cylindrica var. scabra Porter of Gray, Man., ed. 7.) Droopingleaf False 
Nettle. Map 817. Infrequent to locally frequent in the lake area in open 
marshes, infrequent to local in wet places in woods and wet prairies, and 
rare in low places in woods or in springy places in the southern part of the 
state. It is to be noted that this variety intergrades into the species and in- 



Phoradendron 



LORANTHACEAE 



401 




o 50 

Map 816 



Boehmeria cylindrica IL.) Sv 




Map 817 
Boehmena cylfndrica var. 
Drummondiana Weddell 




~^6 

Map 818 



Parietarfa pennsylvanica Muhl, 



termediates are found that are difficult to place. The scabrous upper surface 
of the leaves is not a constant character and is of little value. The long- 
acuminate apex of the leaves generally holds for the species. The length 
of the petioles, drooping leaves, and purplish achenes are the most reliable 
characters for their separation. The wings of the achenes are variable in 
both the species and the variety. Sometimes they are developed more on 
one side than on the other; they may extend to the base on both sides or 
on one side only ; the mass of them may be below the median line or it may 
be above it. On the whole, the achenes with their wings are about 1-1.25 
mm wide in the species and 1.25-1.5 mm wide in the variety. 

It is possible that the alkalinity of the soil has a decided influence on the 
plant since most of my specimens are from a more alkaline soil than are 
those of the species. The stem of the variety is usually much more 
uncinate-pubescent than the stem of the species. 

Mass., N. Y., and Mich, to Kans., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2007. PARIETARIA L. 

1. Parietaria pennsylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvania Pellitory. Map 
818. Infrequent to frequent throughout the state. It is usually found in 
colonies in dry soil in all kinds of woodland but prefers a sandy soil and 
is often found in large colonies in mucky or peaty areas that have been 
drained. 

Maine, Minn, to B. C, southw. to Fla. and Mex. 



67. LORANTHACEAE D. Don Mistletoe Family 
2089. PHORADENDRON Nutt. 

1. Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) Nutt. American Mistletoe. Map 
819. Formerly frequent to common in the southern counties, now almost 
extinct. It no doubt covered the southern third of the state. There are 
reports from as far north as Bartholomew and Franklin Counties and Ridg- 



402 



Santalaceae 



Comandra 




b 50 

Map 819 

Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) Nutt 




50 

Map 820 

Comandra Richardsiana Fern. 




way says: "Fully 90 per cent of the white elm trees in the White and 
Wabash Rivers bottoms are affected by this parasite. I saw it on no other 
species except honey locust and elm." The more common hosts, however, 
include Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Gleditsia triacanthos, Jugkuis 
nigra, Nyssu sylvatica, Quercus palustris, and Ulmus americana. I have 
noted walnut trees almost killed by it in both Perry and Posey Counties. 

In 1934 I saw a large specimen growing on a very large native elm tree 
in the yard of J. F. Schmid in sec. 18 of Spencer Twp. in Jennings County. 
It was growing so high that I was unable to secure a specimen. 

N. J., s. Ind. to Mo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

69. SANTALACEAE R. Br. Sandalwood Family 

Leaves sessile; flowers in corymbiform cymes at the ends of the branches; style slender. 

2112. Comandra, p. 402. 

Leaves on short petioles; flowers in 1-3-flowered lateral cymes; style short 

2112A. Geocaulon, p. 403. 



2112. COMANDRA Nutt. 

Rootstock just beneath the surface; leaves lanceolate to ovate, thick, not paler be- 
neath, when dried the lower surface obscurely veiny; inflorescence corymbose, 1-3 
cm wide, of 1-few-flowered cymules on ascending branches. . . .1. C. Richardsiana. 

Rootstock underground; leaves oblong, thin, pale beneath, when dried the midrib pale 
beneath; inflorescence, when fully developed, an ellipsoid-oblong panicle with the 
cymules of smaller more numerous flowers on divergent branches. (See excluded 
species no. 188, p. 1041.) C. umbellata. 

1. Comandra Richardsiana Fern. {Comandra umbellata in part, of 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Richards Bastard Toadflax. Map 
820. Infrequent in dry, sandy soil under black and white oak in northern In- 
diana and rare in a similar habitat in the southern counties. I have speci- 
mens from three counties which were found in black, sandy soil in prairies 
and a specimen from Lagrange County found in a drained tamarack bog 
where it was associated with tamarack and poison sumac. Most of them 
were seen by M. L. Fernald and he says that all of my specimens and all 



Asarum 



Aristoloch iaceae 



403 




50 

Map 822 



Asarum canadense L. 




50 

Map 823 



Arl stolochi a Serpentaria L. 




50 

Map 824 



Aristolochia tomentosa Si 



of those in the Gray Herbarium from west of the Allegheny Mountains be- 
long to this species. It is doubtfully separated from Comandra umbellata 
and in Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2, it was regarded as a 
synonym. Fernald gives the range of Comandra umbellata as restricted 
to the area east of the Allegheny Mountains. Whether this species is main- 
tained as distinct or is regarded merely as a geographical form, our speci- 
mens belong to the segregate of plants with the lower surface of the 
leaves not paler beneath and with a superficial rootstock. 

Eastern Que. to Assina., southw. to N. Y., Ind., Mo., and Kans. 

2112A. GEOCAULON Fern. 
See excluded species no. 189, p. 1041. 

74. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Blume Birthwort Family 

Acaulescent herbs; stamens 12, with more or less distinct filaments; capsule fleshy 

2170. Asarum, p. 403. 

Caulescent herbs or woody vines; stamens 6, the sessile anthers adnate to the stigma; 
capsule dry 2174. Aristolochia, p. 404. 

2170. ASARUM [Tourn.] L. 

Calyx lobes usually reflexed in anthesis, triangular, acute or short-acuminate, generally 
about as long or less than twice as long as the tube; internodes of the rhizomes, 
except the last one, generally glabrous 1. A. reflexum. 

Calyx lobes erect or spreading in anthesis, lanceolate, long-acuminate to caudate, much 
longer than the tube; internodes of the rhizomes mostly more or less pubescent. . . 
2. A. canadense. 

1. Asarum reflexum Bickn. (Asarum canadense var. reflexum (Bickn.) 
Rob.) Curly Wildginger. Map 821. Infrequent to frequent in moist, rich 
soils in woods throughout the state. It spreads mostly by underground 
stems, hence it is always found in dense colonies, usually in the lee of an 
old log or treetop where there is an abundance of leaf mold or in some 
sheltered situation on a wooded slope or in a ravine. 

Conn., s. N. Y. to Mich, and Iowa, southw. to Mo. and Kans. 



404 Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia 

2. Asarum canadense L. Canada Wildginger. Map 822. Infrequent 
to rare throughout the state or absent from some areas. It is found in 
habitats similar to those of the preceding species but in more protected 
situations; hence it is restricted more to deep ravines and steep wooded 
slopes. The length and position of the acuminate portion of the calyx 
lobes are variable. In Indiana the length of the acuminate part varies 
from 5-20 mm and the calyx lobe and its appendage may vary from erect to 
spreading or spreading with the tips incurved. The whole plant in this 
and the preceding species varies greatly in size and the flowers vary in 
proportion. As a rule, the more vigorous the plant the longer the calyx 
lobes. All of our reports for Asarum canadense var. acuminatum Ashe I 
am referring to this species. 

N. B. to Man., southw. to N. C, Mo., and Kans. 

2174. ARISTOLOCHIA [Tourn] L. 

Erect herbs up to 6 dm high 1. A. Serpentaria. 

Long, twining, woody vines 2. A. tomentosa. 

1. Aristolochia Serpentaria L. Virginia Snakeroot. Map 823. Infre- 
quent to frequent in moist, rich woods throughout the state except the 
northwestern corner. This herb has been much used in medicine as a 
bitter tonic since pioneer times. The fact that the tonic was prepared by 
adding the roots to whiskey may have added to its popularity. 

Conn, to Mich., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2. Aristolochia tomentosa Sims Woolly Pipe-vine. Map 824. Local 
in the Lower Wabash Valley from the southwestern corner of Knox County 
southward. It is rather frequent along the lower course of White River 
in both Gibson and Knox Counties. South of Coffee Bayou in Gibson 
County it is rare until Point Township in Posey County is reached where 
it again is local. It climbs to great heights on bushes and small trees. I 
have seen the dead trunks of large trees shingled with it to a great height. 
Ridgway (Proc. Nat. Mus. 17: 421. 1894) records the measurements of a 
vine found in the Lower Wabash Valley as "83 feet long and 10 inches in 
circumference." I measured a leaf in Posey County, the blade of which 
was 10 inches wide and 9 inches long. We have had 'it planted for years 
as a porch trellis and it serves this purpose well but it spreads vigorously 
by root suckers. 

N. C, Ind., 111., and Mo., southw. to Fla. and Okla. 

77. POLYGONACEAE Lindl. Buckwheat Family 
Sepals 6, the 3 inner ones much longer and enlarged in fruit (except in Rumex 
Acetosella) ; flowers greenish yellow, frequently tinged with red; stigmas fringed. 

2195. Rumex, p. 405. 

Sepals 5, sometimes 4, nearly equal in length; flowers purple, pink, white, greenish 
white, greenish pink or greenish yellow in a few species (these with linear leaves) ; 
stigmas not fringed. 
Flowers in fascicles in the bracts (generally called sheaths or ocreae in this family) 
or solitary; if solitary, the flowers not pink and the leaves linear. 

Achenes enclosed by the calyx lobes; if exserted, the leaves linear 

2201. Polygonum, p. 407. 



Rumex POLYGONACEAE 405 

Achenes much exserted; plants erect, with triangular-hastate leaves 

2202. Fagopyrum, p. 418. 

Flowers solitary in the bracts, rose color; stamens 8; leaves linear 

2203. POLYGONELLA, p. 418. 

2195. RUMEX L. Docks and Sorrels 

[Rechinger, K. H., Jr. The North American species of Rumex. Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Publ. Bot. Ser. 17 : 1-151. 1937.] 

Leaves hastate; flowers dioecious; plants generally less than 5 dm high. 

Achene much exserted from the scarcely changed calyx 1. R. Acetosella. 

Achene enclosed by the inner calyx lobes (valves). (See excluded species no. 192, 

p. 1042.) R- hastatulus. 

Leaves not hastate; flowers not dioecious; plants generally more than 5 dm high. 
Inner sepals (valves) entire, crenate or denticulate. 

Number of valves of fruits bearing a tubercle generally 1, these mixed more or less 
with fruits with 2 valves bearing a tubercle. 
Leaves flat, green, tapering at the base ; valves usually bearing only one tubercle. 

2. R. altissimus. 

Leaves wavy, generally with red veins, cordate or subcordate at the base. (See 

excluded species no. 195, p. 1042.) R. sanguineus. 

Number of valves of fruits bearing a tubercle generally 3, these mixed more or 
less with fruits with only 2 valves bearing a tubercle. 
Leaves flat, light green. 

Pedicels enlarged upward, more than twice as long as the fruit, not con- 
spicuously enlarged at the joint; fruit maturing the last of June and first 

of July 3. R. vertidllatus. 

Pedicels not enlarged upward, not twice as long as the fruit 

4. R. triangulivalvis. 

Leaves wavy-margined or crisped, dark green. 

Mature valves less than 2 mm wide. (See excluded species no. 190, p. 1041.) . . 

R. conglomeratus. 

Mature valves more than 2 mm wide. 

Plants very tall, mostly 1.2-2.5 m high; median leaves generally more than 
4 cm wide, narrowed at the base; pedicel longer than the fruit, the joint 
not conspicuously enlarged; fruit maturing in September and October. . 

5. R. Britannioa. 

Plants mostly less than 1 m high; leaves rounded or cordate at the base, 
the median ones less than 5 cm wide; pedicel about as long as the 
fruit, conspicuously swollen at the joint; fruit maturing mostly in 

June and July 6. R. crispus. 

Inner sepals or valves spinulose-dentate or pinnatifid 7. R. obtusifolius. 

1. Rumex Acetosella L. Field Sorrel. Map 825. An abundant weed 
in some cultivated fields. Its presence is usually indicative of impoverished 
and minimacid soils. In the sandy areas of the northwestern part of the 
state it is an obnoxious weed, covering sometimes whole fields. It is some- 
what frequent in the entire northern part of the state, rare in the central, 
and frequent in the southern part. 

Nat. of Eu. Throughout temperate N. A. 

2. Rumex altissimus Wood. Pale Dock. Map 826. Infrequent to fre- 
quent throughout the state in low ground along streams and in low ground 
elsewhere. 



106 



POLYGONACEAE 



Rumex 




o 50 

Map 825 



Rumex Acetosella L. 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

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Apr. 

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Aug. 

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Rumex verticillatus L. 



Peattie observed (Amer. Midland Nat. 10: 130. 1926) that one valve of 
each fruit had a complete tubercle and a second valve might have an 
aborted tubercle. He gave this form a name, but if he had read carefully 
the original description of the species, he would have seen that this phe- 
nomenon was included in the description of the species. The tendency to 
double the number of tubercles is frequent among the fruits of this species. 

Conn, to N. Dak., southw. to Md. and Tex. 

3. Rumex verticillatus L. Swamp Dock. Map 827. Found in the 
muddy borders of ponds, swamps, and sloughs in all parts of the state. 
Where it is found, it sometimes forms dense colonies. 

Que. to Iowa, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

4. Rumex triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech. f. Map 828. (Rumex mexi- 
canus of Indiana authors, not Meisn.) This species and species no. 2 
are very similar and can be distinguished only by the number of valves 
which bear tubercles. 

In addition to my records, this species has been reported only from 
St. Joseph County. I believe it is much more frequent, however, than 
our reports indicate simply because it is so easily confused with R. 
altissimus and both have the same habitat. 

Newf. and Lab. to B. C, southw. to Maine, Ind., Mo., and along the 
Rocky Mts. to Mex. 

5. Rumex Britannica L. Great Water Dock. Map 829. Usually in 
boggy or marshy places but sometimes in a habitat that is rather muddy, 
such as about ponds and in swamps. Infrequent. No doubt all the re- 
ports of it from southern Indiana should be transferred to some other 
species. In 1932, E. B. Williamson found a plant along Pigeon River in 
Lagrange County that had a leaf with a blade 35 inches long. 

Newf., Ont., and Minn., southw. to N. J. and Kans. 



6. Rumex crIspus L. Curly Dock. Map 830. A common weed in low 



Rumex 



POLYGONACEAE 



407 




50 

Map 828 

Rumex triangulivalvis 
(Danser ) Rech. f. 




50 

Map 829 



Rumex Britannica L. 




50 

Map 830 



Rumex crispus L. 



ground in cultivated fields, along streams, and in woodland on the border 
of swamps, ponds, and sloughs. It is one of our most obnoxious weeds. 
The root was formerly official in medicine and was sold usually under 
the name of yellow dock. Formerly the early spring leaves were mixed 
with those of the dandelion and cooked for food. The mixture was called 
"greens." The discovery, however, that the leaves contain calcium oxalate, 
which is injurious, has decreased the popularity of this practice. 

The farmers in Indiana usually call this plant sour dock. 

The tubercles of the valves of the same plant may vary at the apex 
from obtuse to acute. Rumex elongatus Guss. is a form of this species 
with acute tubercles but since both acute and obtuse forms can be found 
on the same plant, all reports for this species should be referred to Rumex 
crispiis. 

Nat. of Eu. Now found throughout temperate N. A. 

7. Rumex obtusifolius L. Bluntleaf Dock. Map 831. Infrequent to 
frequent throughout the state. It is found almost everywhere in moist 
or rather moist soil in open woodland, fallow fields, and wasteland and 
along roadsides. The veins of the leaves of this species are sometimes 
red and I think our reports for Rumex sanguineus should be referred 
to this species. 

Nat. of Eu. ; Newf. to B. C. and Oreg., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 



2201. POLYGONUM [Tourn.] L. Knotweed, Smartweed 

[Some recent authors divide this genus into several small genera. Since 
I am following Dalla Torre and Harms I am not dividing the genus.] 

A. Plants not twining. 

B. Stems not armed with prickles. 

C. Flowers axillary (solitary or in clusters). 
Stems and branches terete and striate. 

Plants erect, mostly 0.4-1.5 m high, rather sparsely branched, the branches 



408 



POLYGONACEAE 



Polygonum 



17 
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S^j-^if Map 832 


Polygonum exsertum Small 




^3o 
Map 833 



Polygonum erectum L. 



stiffly ascending; leaves usually narrowly lanceolate or linear, mostly 1.5-5 
cm long, usually acute or acuminate at both ends. 
Sepal lobes with white or pinkish margins; normal achenes about 2.5 mm 
long and included in the perianth (plants of autumn often have some 

or all of the achenes long-exserted) 1. P. exsertum. 

Sepal lobes with yellowish green margins; achenes 3-3.5 mm long (plants of 
autumn rarely have exserted achenes). (See excluded species no. 202, 

p. 1043. ) P- ramosissimum. 

Plants not as above. 

Stems erect or ascending. 

Sepal lobes with yellowish green margins; stems generally solid and erect; 

leaves oval, elliptic, or obovate, generally acute 2. P. erectum. 

Sepal lobes with white or pinkish margins; stems generally hollow and 
ascending; leaves like the preceding but smaller and usually nar- 
rower 3. P. monspeliense. 

Stems prostrate, or diffusely spreading. 

Leaves thick, prominently veined, oblong, oval or spatulate, obtuse or 
rounded at the apex, usually pale; ocreae very conspicuous; faces of 

the achenes granular 4. P. buxiforme. 

Leaves thin, not prominently veined, lanceolate or linear, acutish, acute, 
or sometimes acuminate at the apex, light or dull bluish green; ocreae 
not conspicuous; faces of the achenes finely striate. 
Perianth 2.5-3.5 mm long; achenes 2.5-3 mm long, acute; leaves 2-4 

cm long, oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtusely pointed 

5. P. aviculare. 

Perianth 2-2.5 mm long; achenes 2-2.5 mm long, acuminate; leaves 
mostly less than 2 cm long, linear-lanceolate or linear, acute (some- 
times acuminate) at the apex 6. P. neglectum. 

Stems and branches strongly angled, erect; leaves linear, sharp-pointed, minutely 
ciliolate 7. P. tenue. 

C. Flowers in terminal spikes. 

Styles short, soft, scarcely exserted, withering in fruit; leaves neither large- 
ovate nor acuminate. 
Sheaths not ciliate, except rarely the uppermost. 

Spikes 1 or 2, rarely 3; perennial, aquatic or marsh plants (sometimes 
persisting for years or even spreading in a terrestrial form after drain- 
age) with long rootstocks, rooting in the mud. 
Peduncles glabrous; aquatic plants with floating leaves; leaves elliptic 
or narrow-ovate, obtuse or subacute 8. P. natans. 



Polygonum Polygonaceae 409 

Peduncles more or less pubescent and glandular; plants semiaquatic or 
terrestrial; leaves ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, very acute or 
short-acuminate. 

Sheaths with herbaceous tips 8a. P. natans f . Hartwrightii. 

Sheaths without herbaceous tips 9. P. coccineum. 

Spikes several; annuals, preferring a rich, moist habitat. 

Peduncles copiously glandular-pubescent; spikes erect; stamens 8; achenes 
2.2-3.5 mm wide. 
Leaves copiously strigose-pubescent beneath and often above; achenes 

mostly 2.2-2.8 mm wide 10. P. pennsylvanicum var. genuinum. 

Leaves glabrous or glabrescent ; achenes mostly 2.5-3.5 mm wide. 

Glands of hairs red 10a. P. pennsylvanicum var. laevigatum. 

Glands of hairs without pigment 

10b. P. pennsylvanicum var. laevigatum f. pallescens. 

Peduncles without stalked glands, smooth or with sessile glands, rarely 

with a few stipitate glands; spikes drooping or erect; stamens 8; 

achenes 1.5-2.5 mm wide. 

Lower surface of leaves glabrous or scabrous on the principal veins; 

peduncles glabrous or rarely covered more or less with sessile 

glands; spikes 3-8 cm long, drooping; achenes generally less than 

2 mm wide 11. P. lapathifolium. 

Lower surface of leaves (at least the lower ones) scurfy or covered 

with a more or less deciduous, flocculent tomentum; peduncles with 

sessile glands; spikes 1-3 cm long, erect; achenes more than 2 

mm wide. (See excluded species no. 204, p. 1043.) . .P. tomentosum. 

Sheaths ciliate with a row of bristles. 

Stem and peduncles glandular-hispid 12. P. Careyi. 

Stem and peduncles not glandular-hispid. 
Sepals glandular-dotted. 

Achenes dull, generally triangular; spikes usually strongly arched, the 
flowers not far apart except toward the base of the spike, often 
1 or more flowers in the axil of the next to the top leaf; flowers 
greenish, generally with pinkish borders; stems often reddish, the 
internodes short, generally 2-4 cm long; stamens 6. 
Pedicels strongly exserted from the ocreolae; achenes 2-3 mm long. . . 

13. P. Hydropiper var. projectum. 

Pedicels not strongly exserted from the ocreolae; achenes mostly 

3-3.5 mm long. (See excluded species no. 200, p. 1042.) 

P. Hydropiper. 

Achenes shining, generally triangular; spikes elongated, flexuous, very 
loosely flowered down to the first leaf but none below it; flowers 
greenish, rarely purplish, with white borders; stamens 3-8; stems 
with longer internodes than in the preceding, usually 3-8 cm 

L° n E 14. P. punctatum. 

Sepals not glandular-dotted or with only a few glands about the middle 
of the perianth in forms of no. 16. 

Leaves lanceolate, 1-2.5 cm wide; spikes generally much less than 1 
cm wide, erect or slightly flexuous; flowers 2-3 mm long. 
Upper part of internodes of the stem mostly entirely glabrous; 
spikes erect, mostly more than 7 mm wide, the longest usually 
2-4 cm long; flowers generally close together; calyx lobes rose 
color, usually slightly longer than the achenes; pedicels gen- 
erally exserted less than 1 mm; stamens 6 

15. P. Persicaria. 

Upper part of internodes of the stem generally more or less strigose 
below the node, usually for a third of its length; spikes gen- 
erally more or less curved, mostly less than 7 mm wide, the 



410 Polygon aceae Polygonum 

longest generally 5-7 cm long; flowers not crowded; calyx 
lobes much longer than the achene, usually pink; pedicels 
generally exserted 1-2 mm; stamens 8 or fewer. 

Achenes all triangular 16. P. hydropiperoides. 

Achenes both lenticular and triangular. (See excluded species 

no. 201, p. 1043.).... P. Ivydropiperoides var. persicarioides. 

Leaves broadly ovate, acuminate, more than 3 cm wide; spikes stout, 

usually more than 1 cm wide, nodding, deep rose; flowers 3-5 mm 

] on g 17. P. orientale. 

Styles long, stiff, exserted, persistent, deflexed, and hooked at the tip in fruit; 
spikes very long and slender, rigid, greenish; leaves large-ovate and acumi- 
nate 18. P. virginianum. 

B. Stems armed with hooked prickles, reclining. 

Leaves hastate; pedicels hispid and often glandular; achenes lenticular 

19. P. arifolium var. lentiforme. 

Leaves sagittate ; pedicels generally glabrous ; achenes triangular 

20. P. sagittatum. 

A. Plants twining; leaves broadly ovate, cordate at the base. 

Calyx not keeled or winged in fruit; achenes dull, minutely longitudinally striate, 

about 3 mm long 21. P. Convolvulus. 

Calyx strongly winged in mature fruit; achenes shining, surface not striate. 

Mature calyx 5-8 mm long; achenes 2.5-3 mm long 22. P. dumetorum. 

Mature calyx 7-12 mm long; achenes mostly 3.5-5 mm long 23. P. scandens. 

1. Polygonum exsertum Small. Map 832. Very local. All of our speci- 
mens were found in hard, dry soil on the washed slopes of the banks of 
streams and sloughs. Some were very near the water and only one grew 
on the top of the bank. Bicknell (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 36: 450. 1909.) 
says : "I am unable to see that P. exsertum is anything more than a semi- 
viviparous state of Polygonum ramosissimum Michx." My observation is 
that this character applies to late flowering plants of all of the species of 
the Section Avicularia which occur in Indiana. On November 14, 1932, 
I studied in the field several large mats of Polygonum avicukire, and I was 
able to find only exserted achenes. A study of my herbarium material 
showed exserted achenes on all of the plants collected late in the fall, some 
with a few and some with a great number of exserted achenes. Early 
flowering specimens of Polygonum exsertum show a large number of 
achenes of the normal form, while plants collected in September usually 
have few or no normal fruits. 

N. B. to Minn., southw. to N. J. and Mo. 

2. Polygonum erectum L. Map 833. This species has been reported 
from all parts of the state, and no doubt is generally distributed. Since 
this section of the genus has been divided, however, some of the reports 
doubtless belong to other species. Most authors give the habitat as rich 
soil about dwellings and in waste places. With one exception, all of my 
specimens were found in moist, open woodland, usually in hard, clay soil. 

Ont. to Alberta, southw. to Ga., Colo., and Tex. 

3. Polygonum monspeliense Thiebaud. ( ^Polygonum aviculare var. 
rcgrtnni of (I ray, .Man., ed. 7.) .Map 834. My specimens are from barn- 
yards, waste places, and roadsides. It is local, but no doubt when the 



Polygonum 



POLYGONACEAE 



411 




50 

Map 834 



Polygonum monspeliense Thiebaud 



1 

2 

1 


Jan. 

Fe b- 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 


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Polygonum 


buxfforme 


50 

Map 835 

Small 




50 

Map 836 



Polygonum aviculare L. 



knotweeds are more thoroughly studied it will be found throughout the 
state. 

Nat. of Eu. ; becoming naturalized. 

4. Polygonum buxiforme Small. Map 835. This species is very local 
but I believe when the knotweeds are studied more intensively it will be 
found throughout the state. 

Ont. to B. C, southw. to Va. and Tex. 

5. Polygonum aviculare L. Knotweed. Map 836. An annoying weed 
in gardens, truck gardens, lawns, pastures, and cultivated fields. It is found, 
also, along logging roads in woodland, in fallow fields, and along roadsides. 

Found throughout N. A. and also in Eurasia. 

6. Polygonum neglectum Besser. {Polygonum aviculare var. angust- 
issimum Meisn.) Map 837. Local. No doubt a more intensive study of 
the knotweeds will greatly extend its range. In sandy to very sandy soil 
in pastures, clearings, on black oak ridges, and along roadsides. Rydberg 
gives its habitat as waste places and says it is more common than 
Polygonum aviculare. 

Nat. of Eu. 

7. Polygonum tenue Michx. Map 838. This species prefers a slightly 
acid soil and is generally found in exposed places without ground cover 
and where there are very few or no other plants. In the lake area it is 
generally found on the crests, slopes, and bases of black and white oak 
ridges. South of the lake area it is generally found on sandstone bluffs, 
on exposed crests of chestnut oak ridges, and in sandy places similar to 
those in the northern part of the state. 

Maine to Man., southw. to S. C, Ga., and Tex. 

8. Polygonum natans A. Eaton f. genuinum Stanford. (Stanford. The 
amphibious group of Polygonum, subgenus Persicaria. Rhodora 27 : 156- 
166. 1925.) Map 839. All of our reports for Persicaria amphibia (L.) 



412 



POLYGONACEAE 



Polygonum 




55 

Map 837 



Polygonum neglectum Besser 





50 

Map 839 
Polygonum natans A.Eaton 
f. genuinum Stanford 



S. F. Gray, Persicaria fluitans (Eaton) Greene, Polygonum amphibium L., 
and Polygonum amphibium var. aquaticum Willd. I am referring to this 
species. The nomenclature of this and the next species has long been so 
involved that their distribution in the state can not be determined from 
the published records. It is, no doubt, restricted to the lake area of the 
state. 

Newf., P. E. I., N. S., Que., southw. to Pa. and westw. across the con- 
tinent to the Pacific Coast States. 

8a. Polygonum natans f. Hartwrightii (Gray) Stanford. Map 840. I 
am referring to this form all of our reports for Polygonum amphibium var. 
Hartwrightii (Gray) Bissell, Persicaria ammophila Greene, Persicaria 
carictorum Nieuwl., and Persicaria Hartwrightii (Gray) Greene. 

Mostly in sedge marshes and on the borders of lakes. 

Newf. and Ont., southw. to N. Y., and westw. to the Pacific Coast States. 

9. Polygonum coccineum Muhl. Map 841. This species is an aggregate 
to which, since I am not able to separate it satisfactorily into forms and 
varieties, I am referring all reports from Indiana of the following: 
Persicaria coccinea (Muhl.) Greene, Persicaria coccinea var. asprella 
Greene, Persicaria coccinea var. tanaophylla Nieuwl., Persicaria emersa 
(Michx.) Small, Persicaria grandifolia Greene, Persicaria lonchophylla 
Greene, Persicaria mesochora var. arenicola Nieuwl., Persicaria Muhlen- 
bergii (Wats.) Small, Persicaria pratincola Greene, Persicaria tanaophylla 
Nieuwl., Polygonum coccineum var. pratincola (Greene) Stanford, Poly- 
gonum emersum (Michx.) Britt., Persicaria mesochora Greene, and Poly- 
gonum Muhlenbergii (Meisn.) Wats. 

The named variations of this species and the segregates from it are 
based mostly upon leaf characters, such as the general shape and base 
of the blades. Using these characters, I have one specimen which belongs 
to three species. I have a series of specimens of this species all from the 
same rootstock which might be referred to different species. The species is 
perennial. One year it may be in deep water, the next year it may be in 



Polygonum 



POLYGONACEAE 



413 




50 

Map 840 
Polygonum natans 

f. Hartwrightii (Gray) Stanford 





~50 

Map 842 
Dlyg^num pennsylvani'cum 

var. genuinum Fern. 



shallow water or for part of the year it may be on dry ground. The species 
has great ability to persist even when its habitat is drained, and it often 
advances from ditches along railroads up the banks of the fills to high 
ground where it seems to thrive better than in a wet habitat. The habitat 
and the vigor of the plants greatly change the character of the leaves. 
Therefore, I believe it is useless to try to name all of the many forms. 
Que. and Maine, to B. C, southw. to Va., La., Calif., and Mex. 

10. Polygonum pennsylvanicum L. var. genuinum Fern. (Persicaria 
Pennsylvania (L.) Small, in part.) (Fernald. Variations of Polygonum 
pennsylvanicum. Rhodora 19 : 70-73. 1917, and Stanford. Polygonum penn- 
sylvanicum and related species. Rhodora 27: 173-184. 1925.) Map 842. In- 
frequent to frequent or common in low ground along streams and road- 
sides, in cultivated grounds, and in low grounds in general. No doubt it 
is found throughout the state. It has been my method to collect a single 
specimen of each species from each county. This species has been divided 
only recently and most of my collecting was done before the division was 
made. Since my specimens are now distributed among the three present 
groups, the absence of records from the northern part of the state is, 
I think, accidental. 

This species, as well as others of the genus, varies greatly in size, de- 
pending upon habitat and date of germination of the seed. Apparently 
the seed do not germinate under water and when they find lodgment in 
areas which are submerged until summer, the delayed germination, no 
doubt, accounts for the smaller plants. The largest one of which I have 
record is my specimen no. 39887 from low ground in Gibson County which 
I measured in the field. The height was 86 inches above the ground and 
the longest branch was 82 inches long. 

Coastal Plain from Mass. to Miss., northw. through the Mississippi 
Valley to Ont. and cent. N. Y. 



Ill 



POLYGONACEAE 



Polygonum 




50 

Map 843 
-"olygonum pennsylvanicum 

var. laevigatum Fern. 




50 

Map 844 
Polygonum pennsylvanicum 

ar. laevigatum f. pallescens Stanford 




50 

Map 845 



Polygonum lapathifolium L. 



10a. Polygonum pennsylvanicum var. laevigatum Fern. (See species 
references.) Map 843. Frequent throughout the state in habitats similar 
to those of the species. 

N. B. to S. Dak. and Colo., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

10b. Polygonum pennsylvanicum var. laevigatum f. pallescens Stan- 
ford. (See species references.) Map 844. Frequent throughout the state 
in habitats similar to those of the species. It is probable that some of the 
specimens referred to this form belong to the preceding variety since it 
is difficult to distinguish this form in dried specimens. 

Distribution given by Stanford is Vt. to Pa. No doubt it is frequent 
throughout Ind. if I understand the form. 

11. Polygonum lapathifolium L. (Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Small.) 
Map 845. Frequent in low and wet grounds throughout the state, pre- 
ferring the low borders of streams. It is also found in cultivated and 
fallow fields. 

Throughout temperate N. A. and also in Eurasia. 

12. Polygonum Careyi Olney. (Persicaria Careyi (Olney) Greene.) 
Carey Smartweed. Map 846. Very local but usually common where it is 
found. It prefers a black, sandy soil in pin oak and low black and white 
oak woods. I found it abundant in black, mucky soil in a fallow field north 
of Ora in Starke County. The plants are usually about a yard high with 
few or many branches. 

This species was reported from Jefferson County by Young, but since 
neither Coulter nor Barnes mention it in their lists of Jefferson County 
plants, this report may be safely ignored. It has also been reported from 
Kosciusko and Noble Counties. These reports, no doubt, are correct. 

Maine, Ont., and Mich., southw. to N. J., Pa., and Ohio. 

13. Polygonum Hydropiper L. var. projectum Stanford. (Polygonum 
Hydropiper L. in part, and Persicaria Hydropiper (L.) Opiz.) (Stanford. 
Polygonum Hydropiper in Europe and North America. Rhodora 29: 77-87. 



Polygonum 



POLYGONACEAE 



415 




50 

Map 846 



Polygonum Careyi Olney 




o ~3o 

Map 847 
Polygonum Hydropiper L. 

var. projectum Stanford 




50 

Map 848 



Polygonum punctatum Ell. 



1927.) Water Pepper. Map 847. Infrequent to frequent in moist soil 
along streams, roadsides, and ditches, about lakes, ponds, and sloughs, 
and in low ground in fields and woodland. 

N. S. and Que. to Wis., southw. to Ga. and Okla., and westw. to Calif. 

14. Polygonum punctatum Ell. (Polygonum acre HBK. and var. lepto- 
stachyum Meisn. and PersicaHa punctata (Ell.) Small.) (Stanford. Poly- 
gonum Hydropiper in Europe and North America. Rhodora 29 : 77-87. 
1927.) Water Smartweed. Map 848. Frequent to common in all parts 
of the state in habitats similar to those of the preceding species. 

Probably throughout N. A. except the extreme north. 

15. Polygonum Persic aria L. {PersicaHa Persicaria (L.) Small.) 
Lady's Thumb. Map 849. Frequent throughout the state in wet ground 
along roadsides and streams and in woodland and fallow fields. This 
species begins to flower much earlier than P. hydropiperoides. It and 
others of the genus are the source of smartweed honey. 

Nat. of Eu. ; throughout N. A. except the extreme north. 

16. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. (Persicaria hydropiperoides 
(Michx.) Small.) (Stanford. Polygonum hydropiperoides and P. opelou- 
sanum. Rhodora 28 : 22-29. 1926.) Mild Water Pepper. Map 850. Fre- 
quent throughout the state in dried-up ponds and sloughs, in wet ground 
along streams and about lakes, and in marshes and ditches. 

N. S., Que., and Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

16a. Polygonum hydropiperoides var. strigosum (Small) Stanford. This 
variety was reported from Indiana by Small. It is separated from the 
species by having a strigose-pubescent stem. The stems of the specimens 
at hand vary from glabrous below the nodes to densely strigose for a 
third of the length of the internode. One branch of a specimen may have 
all of the internodes glabrous and another have some of the internodes 
strigose below the nodes. Since a close lineal series from glabrous to 



■116 



POLYGONACEAE 



Polygonum 




o 5o 

Map 849 



Polygonum Persicaria L. 




Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. 



2 
33 

e 






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L 

OP 

UK \ 





1 SD « 





Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

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virginiar 


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Map 852 

urn L. 




50 

Map 853 
Polygonum aritolium L. 
I var. lentiforme Fernald & Griscom 




~W 

Map 854 



Polygonum sagittatum L. 



densely strigose can be found, I prefer to say that the species varies from 
glabrous to densely strigose. 

Polygonum setaceum Bald. var. inter jectum Fern., a closely related spe- 
cies, has been reported by Fernald (Rhodora 40: 414. 1938), after the 
manuscript of the Flora was written, as having been found by Peattie under 
buttonbush at the edge of a Chamaedaphne bog near Rolling Prairie, 
La Porte County. 

17. Polygonum orientale L. Princes-plume. Map 851. This species 
is cultivated as an ornamental and has been reported as an escape through- 
out the state. 

Nat. of India, China, Japan; naturalized and escaped throughout east- 
ern N. A. 

18. Polygonum virginianum L. (Tovara virginiana (L.) Raf.) Vir- 
ginia Knotweed. Map 852. This is strictly a woodland species and is 



Polygonum 



POLYGONACEAE 



417 




o 5o 

Map 855 



Polygonum Convolvulus L. 





5 ~50 

Map 857 



Polygonum scandens L. 



frequent throughout the state in low places in almost all types of woods. 
N. S. to Minn., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

19. Polygonum arifolium L. var. lentiforme Fern. & Grisc. (Rho- 
dora 37: 167. 1935.) (Polygonum arifolium L. in part and Tracaulon ari- 
folium (L.) Raf.) Halberdleaf Tearthumb. Map 853. Infrequent to 
rare in springy and swampy places throughout the state. This species is 
much visited by honey bees. 

P. E. I. to s. Ont., southw. to N. J., Pa., Ohio, Ind., and Mich. 

20. Polygonum sagittatum L. (Tracaulon sagittatum (L.) Small.) 
Arrowleaf Tearthumb. Map 854. Frequent to infrequent throughout 
the state in ditches, in low ground in wooded ravines and along streams 
and about ponds and swamps. 

Newf. to Sask., southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

21. Polygonum Conv6lvulus L. (Tiniaria Convolvulus (L.) Webb & 
Moquin.) Black Bindweed. Map 855. Probably infrequent in all parts 
of the state, although there are no reports from the southwestern part. A 
weed mostly of roadsides and fields, and rarely in woodland. 

Nat. of Eu. Throughout temperate N. A. 

22. Polygonum dumetorum L. (Tiniaria dumetorum (L.) Opiz of 
Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Map 856. This and the next 
species are not easily separated unless mature fruits are at hand. Some 
authors believe this species is a native, while others regard it as a native 
of Eurasia. There have been 15 reports for this species from Indiana. 
Some authors do not discuss it and some say that it is common. Those who 
say it is common have, no doubt, confused it with P. scandens, and I be- 
lieve most of our reports should be referred to that species. One of our 
specimens is from a roadside and the other is from the low border of 
the east side of the Lake of the Woods, which is near a roadside in Mar- 



418 



Chenopodiaceae 



Polygonella 



Jan. 

Feb 

Mar. 

Apr 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 





) ,0 


D 


D 






D "• 









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5 55 

Map 858 

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench 




~T5 
Map 859 

Polygonella articulata (LI Meisn. 



— 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov 


X 










X jT^" 






L 




V 


f^ 






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X J 

/ Miles 






X 


CL x 


I j [ 




x I j-< 

Chenopo 
ssp. eu- 


dium 
ambi 


A\* J 

ambrosioi 
osioides A 


3 50 

Map 860 
des L. 
ellen 



shall County. I doubt if this species is distinct from the next but I am 
following authors in keeping them distinct. 

Temperate Eurasia and N. A. 

23. Polygonum scandens L. (Tiniaria scandens (L.) Small.) Climb- 
ing False Buckwheat. Map 857. Frequent in most parts of the state in 
moist soil along roadsides and streams, in wooded ravines, and about 
lakes and ponds. 

N. S. to Ont. and B. C, southw. to Fla. and Tex. 

2202. FAGOPtRUM [Tourn.] Gaertn. 

1. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. {Fagopyrum Fagopyrum (L.) 
Karst. of Britton and Brown, Illus. Flora, ed. 2.) Buckwheat. Map 858. 
Buckwheat has been reported from 15 counties. It persists in fields where 
it has been cultivated or escapes to fields, roadsides, and railroads. I do not 
know how long it will maintain itself. 

Nat. of Eu. 

2203. POLYGONELLA Michx. 

1. Polygonella articulata (L.) Meisn. Map 859. Local on the dunes 
about Lake Michigan. It is usually found in open, exposed places. 
In sands of the coast from Maine to Fla. and about the Great Lakes. 



78. CHENOPODIACEAE Dumort. Goosefoot Family* 

[Iljin, M. Chenopodiaceae, pp. 2-354, in Komarov, V. L. Flora URSS 6 
(Centrospermae) : xxxvi -J- 956p. 1936. Standley, P. C. Chenopodiales, 

* Text contributed by Theodor Just, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indi- 
ana. The author is greatly indebted to Mr. Paul Aellen, Basel, Switzerland; to Dr. Paul 
C. Standley, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. ; and to Mr. C A. Weatherby, Gray Herbarium, 
Cambridge, Mass., for reading his manuscript and for offering valuable criticisms. 



Chenopodium Chenopodiaceae 419 

Chenopodiaceae.