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The Gift of Beatrix Farrand 

to the General Library 
University of California, Berkeley 








APRIL 24, 1911 

Copyright, 1904 AND 1911 





As a student of the flora of southern California, the 
author has long felt the need of some one book contain- 
ing descriptions of those plants known to occur in our 
region. While it is essential that one doing critical 
work should laboriously search through scattered liter- 
ature, the average student, and especially the novice, 
will find such a course impossible. In an endeavor to 
supply this need, the author has written this book. Not 
that he feels that the flora is so well known that such a 
work will prove adequate for years to come, but rather 
to bring together what knowledge now exists concerning 
the systematic side of our most interesting plant life. 
That many mistakes must unavoidably occur, and that 
many plants are yet to be added, is clearly apprehended. 

The exact area included in this volume is the coast 
slope of Los Angeles and Orange Counties. This terri- 
tory comprises a large portion of the great southern 
California valley, as well as the following mountain 
ranges, in each of which we name the culminating point : 
Sierra Santa Monica (Castro Peak 3946 ft.), Sierra San 
Fernando (San Fernando Peak 3793 ft.), Sierra San 
Gabriel (Mt. Gleason 6493 ft., San Gabriel Peak 6172 ft., 
Mt. San Antonio 10080 ft.), Sierra Santa Ana (Santiago 
Peak 5675 ft.). Not a few of the more conspicuous and 
common plants of southern California not known to 
occur within our boundaries are included, however, so 
that the student will find that a great majority of the 


iv Preface 

plants to be met with on the coast slope south of Point 
Conception are described. 

In the preparation of the text the author has made 
frequent use of published descriptions, especially original 
ones, only such changes being made as seemed necessary 
either on account of uniformity or to bring out unob- 
served characters. Published lists of our local flora 
have also been constantly consulted, but it is only jus- 
tice to the author to say that he has personally collected 
nearly all the plants included in this work and has 
added many species not heretofore reported from our 
region. Duplicates of these specimens, as well as many 
others from southern California, are to be found in the 
Leland Stanford Jr. University Herbarium. 

The author wishes to express his thanks to the follow- 
ing persons for assistance in various ways : Mr. S. B. 
Parish, Dr. A. Davidson and Dr. H. E. Hasse for valuable 
notes; Miss Alice Eastwood for the privilege of examin- 
ing the material in the California Academy of Sciences 
Herbarium ; Dr. N. L. Britton, Dr. B. L. Robinson, Dr. 
E. L. Greene, Dr. P. A. Pvydberg and Dr. J. K. Small for 
notes on doubtful forms ; finally to Prof. William R. 
Dudley, who has not only given many critical notes and 
valuable suggestions which have aided greatly toward 
the completion of the work, but has also shown many 
personal favors which have rendered the task a pleasant 
one to the author. 



Ovules and seeds borne on the face of a scale. Class 1. GYMNOSPERMAE. 
Ovules and seeds contained in a closed cavity (ovary). 



Represented with us by 1 family. PINACEAE, 1. 


Cotyledons 1; stem endogenous. Subclass 1. MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

Cotyledons 2; stem exogenous. Subclass 2. DICOTYLEDONS. 


Leaves usually parallel-veined; flowers mostly 3-merous or 

Perianth of minute scales or bristles, or wanting. 

Flowers aggregated on a spadix or scattered, the clusters surrounded at 
base by a spathe, or foliaceous or membranaceous bract; perianth of 
minute scales or bristles, or wanting. 
Reed-like or flag-like marsh plants ; flowers unisexual. 


Immersed aquatic plants. NAIADACEAE, 9. 

Marsh or subaquatic plants; flowers perfect. JDNCAGINACEAE, 14. 

Minute floating plants. LEMNACEAE, 77. 

Flowers in the axils of scales (glumes) ; perianth wanting. 

Glumes 2 to each flower. GRAMINEAE, 18. 

Glumes 1 to each flower. CYPERACEAE, 64. 

Perianth of 6 distinct chaff-like scales. JUNCACEAE, 79. 

Perianth petaloid. 

Carpels distinct, numerous. ALISMACEAE, 16. 

Carpels united, usually 3, forming a 3-celled or 3-valved ovary. 

Ovary superior. LILIACEAE, 82. 

Ovary inferior. 

Stamens 3; perianth regular. IRIDACEAE, 92. 

Stamens 1 or 2; perianth irregular. ORCHIDACEAE, 93. 

vi Key to the Families 


Leaves mostly netted-veined ; flowers seldom 3-merous or 
6-merous, usually 4-merous or 5-merous. 

Petals separate and distinct from each other or sometimes wanting, rarely 
somewhat united. Series 1. CHORIPETALAE. 

Petals partly or wholly united, rarely separate or wanting. 

Series 2. SYMPETALAE. 


Petals distinct, at least at base, except in some species of 
Silene and Crassulaceae. . 

Petals wanting. 

(A) Flowers unisexual, one or both kinds in aments; trees or shrubs. 

Staminate flowers in aments, pistillate becoming a nut. 

Leaves pinnate. JUGLANDACEAE, 96. 

Leaves entire or variously lobed or toothed. FAGACEAE, 104. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers both in aments. 

Leaves opposite; flowers dioecious. GARRYA, 293. 

Leaves alternate. 

Pistillate flowers becoming wax-coated berries. MYRICACEAE, 97. 
Pistillate flowers becoming capsules. SALICACEAE, 98. 

Pistillate flowers with their scales becoming a woody cone in fruit. 


(B) Flowers not in aments. 

* Ovary superior. 

1. HERBS. 
Calyx and corolla both wanting. 

Flowers perfect, in spikes, these surrounded at base by a conspicuous white 

involucre. ANEMOPSIS, 96. 

Flowers monoecious. 
Aquatic plants. 

Leaves dissected. CERATOPHYLLACEAE, 150. 

Leaves entire. CALLITRICHACEAE, 237. 

Terrestial plants; flower-clusters surrounded by a petaloid involucre; 
ovary 3-celled, raised above the Staminate flowers; the whole appear- 
ing as a single flower. EDPHORBIACEAE, 231. 

Key to the Families vii 

'Calyx present; corolla wanting. 

Pistil 1, 1-celled, 1-ovuled. 
Stipules present. 
Leaves alternate. 

Stipules not sheathing. 

Flowers monoecious ; herbage with stinging hairs. 

Flowers perfect, fascicled; diminutive annual. 

Stipules sheathing; calyx usually 6-parted, often petaloid. 


Leaves opposite, pungent; petals represented by minute scales. 

Stipules none. 

Calyx petaloid. 

Calyx 6- (rarely 5-) parted; seed a 3-sided or lenticular achene. 

Calyx tubular, its base hardening and enclosing the achene. 

Calyx not petaloid. 

Sepals herbaceous; herbage more or less succulent and scurvy. 

Sepals membranous or scarious; flowers with bractlets. 


Pistils several, distinct, each 1-celled, 1-ovuled. THALICTRUM, 156. 
Pistil 1, 3-5-celled; sepals sometimes petaloid; flowers perfect. 


Pistil 3-celled; flowers dioecious or monoecious. EUPHORBIACEAE, 231. 
Pistil 1, 10-celled; fruit a berry. PHYTOLACCACEAE, 135. 


Leaves opposite. 

Flowers dioecious; low maritime shrub; leaves fleshy. 

Flowers perfect or dioecious; sepals petaloid; fruit a tailed achene. 


Flowers perfect ; fruit a samara. FRAXINUS, 302. 

Xeaves alternate. 

Flowers perfect; sepals petaloid. 
Sepals 6; stamens 9. 

Stamens opening by uplifted valves; aromatic tree. 

Stamens splitting longitudinally; shrubs. 


Calyx 5-cleft; stamens 5, monadelphous. FREMONTODENDRON, 250. 
Flowers monoecious in head-like clusters. PLATANACEAE, 194. 

Flowers perfect or unisexual ; sepals and stamens 4 or 5; fruit berry-like. 

RHAMNUS, 241. 

viii Key to the Families 

** Ovary inferior. 

Herbs ; leaves alternate, divided. DATISCACEAE, 257. 

Woody plants, parasitic on trees or shrubs. LORANTHACEAE, 1C 

Petals present. 

* Ovary superior. 


Pistils several to many. 

Pistils simple and distinct. 

Pistils becoming achenes or follicles. RANUNCULACEAE, 151. 

Pistils at first united, becoming distinct and forming tortulose pods. 


Pistils cohering around a central axis. MALVACEAE, 245. 

Pistil 1. 

Pistil 1-celled. 

Sepals persistent. 

Sepals 2. CALANDRINIA, 140. 

Sepals 5, the 2 outer smaller, bract-like. CISTACEAE, 252. 

Sepals caducous ; petals 4 or 6, twice as many as sepals. 

Pistil more than 1-celled. MALVACEAE, 245. 


Pistils more than 1, distinct. 

Pistils exceeding the sepals and petals in number. RANUNCULACEAE, 151. 
Pistils, petals and sepals of the same number. CRASSDLACEAE, 183. 
Pistils several, more or less united around a central axis, elastically separ 

ating as 1-seeded carpels. GERANIACEAE, 227. 

Pistil 1. 

Corolla regular. 
Ovary 1-celled, 

Anthers opening by longitudinal slits. 

Fruit a capsule dehiscent at the apex by valves or teeth. 
Placentae central or basal. 

Calyx tubular or of 4-5 distinct sepals. 


Calyx of 2 distinct sepals. PORTDLACACEAE, 140. 

Placentae parietal; calyx tubular. FRANKENIACEAE, 251. 
Fruit indehiscent; sepals and petals 4. CRDCIFERAE, 164. 
Anthers opening by uplifted valves; shrubby plants. 


Key to the Families ix 

Ovary more than 1-celled. 

Leaves opposite. 

Calyx of 2 distinct sepals. ELATINACEAE, 251. 

Calyx tubular. SILENE, 143. 

Leaves alternate or basal. 

Sepals and petals 4; stamens 6, sometimes 2 or 4. 

Ovary 1-celled, stipitate. CAPPARIDACEAE, 180. 

Ovary 2-celled, not stipitate. CRUCIFERAE, 164. 

Sepals and petals 5; capsule 5-celled. 

Stamens 10; leaves 3-foliate. OXALIDACEAE, 228. 

Stamens 10; leaves pinnate. LIMNANTHACEAE, 237. 

Stamens 5; leaves simple. LINACEAE, 229. 

Shrubs or trees. 

Petals and sepals 4; stamens 6; ovary stipitate. 


Petals and stamens 2; fruit a simple samara. 

Corolla irregular. 

Stamens 10; diadelphous or monadel^hous; corolla papilionaceous. 

Stamens 5; petals 5, 1 spurred; sepals auricled. 

VlOLACEAE, 253. 

Stamens 6; sepals 2; petals 4, in 2 dissimilar pairs. 

BlCUCULLA, 163. 

Stamens 6-8, monadelphous ; petals 3, papilonaceous-like. 



Stamens on an hypogynous disk or on a disk lining the base of the calyx. 
Herbs ; disk 1-sided. RESEDACEAE, 182. 

Trees or shrubs. 

Stamens equaling the petals in number and opposite them. 
Shrubs; petals commonly hooded; ovary usually 3-celled. 

Woody vines climbing by tendrils; petals early deciduous. 

VlTACEAE, 244. 

Stamens exceeding the petals in number. 
Leaves alternate. 

Fruit drupe-like; styles or stigmas 3. ANACARDACEAE, 238. 
Fruit a double samara; leaves simple. 


Stamens on the calyx. 

Corolla irregular; fruit a legume. LEGUMINOSAE, 204. 

Corolla regular. 

Stamens more than 10; pistils 1-many. ROSACEAE, 195. 
Stamens 10; fruit a legume. PROSOPIS, 205. 

Stamens 5-10. 

Calyx campanulate. SAXIFRAGACEAE, 188. 

Calyx tubular. LYTHRACEAE, 260. 

Key to the Families 
** Ovary inferior. 

Trees and shrubs. 

Stamens exceeding the petals in number; fruit a pome. 

Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. 


Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them. 
Leaves alternate; fruit a smooth or prickly berry. 

RISES, 192. 
Leaves opposite; fruit drupe-like. CORNACEAE, 292. 


Petals and stamens many; fleshy maritime herbs. 

Petals 5 or fewer. 
Style 1. 

Sepals and petals 4; capsule 4-celled. ONAGRACEAE, 261, 452. 

Sepals and petals 5; capsule 1-celled. LOASACEAE, 255. 

Sepals 2; petals 5; style 3-8-parted; capsule 1-celled. 


Style none; stigmas 4; aquatic plants with whorled leaves. 


Styles 4-5; fruit berry-like. ARALIACEAE, 274. 

Styles 2; flowers umbellate or capitate; fruit forming 2 1-celled carpels. 

ith jointed stems. CACTACEAE, 257. 


Petals united, at least below, except in Pyrolaceo,e, Plumbagi- 
naceae and Oleaceae. 

* Ovary superior. 

Corolla regular. 

Stamens free from the corolla; anthers opening by pores. 

Petals distinct or nearly so. PYROLACEAE, 294. 

Petals united; shrubs or trees. ERICACEAE, 295. 

Stamens adnate to the corolla. 

Stamens opposite the corolla-lobes. 

Style 1 ; fruit capsular, many-seeded. PRIMULACEAE, 298. 
Styles 5; fruit utricular, 1-seeded. PLUMBAGINACEAE, 301. 

Stamens alternate with the corolla-lobes. 
Ovaries 2, separate, becoming follicles. 

Filaments distinct. APOCYNACEAE, 304. 

Filaments monadelphous. ASCLEPIADACEAE, 305. 

Key to the Families xi 

Ovary 1, not lobed. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Leaves opposite, entire. GENTIANACEAE, 303. 

Leaves mostly alternate and seldom entire. 

Ovary 2-celled; corolla not scarious. 
Leafy plants. 

Calyx 5-toothed. SOLANACEAE, 349. 

Sepals 5, distinct. CONVOLVULACEAE, 307, 452. 

Leafless parasitic plants; herbage yellowish. 


Ovary 3-celled; styles 3-cleft; capsule 3-valved. 


Ovary 2-4-celled; corolla scarious. PLANTAGINACEAE, 375. 
Ovary 1, deeply 4-lobed, forming 4 nutlets. 

Leaves alternate. BOBAGINACEAE, 328. 

Leaves opposite. MENTHA, 348. 

Corolla irregular. 
Stamens 4 or 2. 

Ovary 1-celled; parasitic plants. OBOBANCHACEAE, 373. 

Ovary 2-celled. SCBOPHULABIACEAE, 355. 

Ovary 4-celled, not lobed, splitting into 4 nutlets. 


Ovary 4-lobed, splitting into 4 nutlets. LABIATAE, 338. 

Stamens 5; ovary 2-celled. VEBBASCUM, 356. 

** Ovary inferior. 

Stamens distinct. 

Leaves alternate. CAMPANULACEAE, 385. 

Leaves opposite or whorled. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Stamens 1-3; slender spring annuals. VALEBIANACEAE, 382. 
Stamens 2-4; stout late summer herbs. 

DlPSACEAE, 383. 

Ovary 2-5-celled. 

Ovary 2-celled; flowers regular, minute; stems usually 4-angled. 


Ovary 2-5-celled; flowers regular or irregular. 


Stamens united into a tube around the ovary. 
Flowers not in heads. 

Stamens 3; flowers regular. CUCUBBITACEAE, 384. 

Stamens 5; flowers irregular. CAMPANDLACEAE, 385. 

Flowers in heads on a common receptacle, ligulate or tubular. 




Resinous trees -or shrubs, mostly with evergreen nar- 
row entire or scale-like leaves. The wood uniform in tex- 
ture, without tracheae, these marked by large depressed 
disks. The pollen sacs and ovules borne in separate spikes 
(cones). Perianth none. Stamens several together, 
subtended by a scale, filaments more or less united ; 
anthers 2-several-celled, variously dehiscent ; pollen 
grains often provided with 2 lateral inflated sacs. 
Ovules with 2 integuments, borne solitary or several to- 
gether on the surface of a scale, which is often subtended 
by a bract. Fruit a cone with few-numerous woody, 
papery or fleshy scales, sometimes berry-like. Seeds 
wingless or winged. Endosperm copious. Embryo 
straight slender. Cotyledons 2 or several. 

Leaves not scale-like. 

Leaves usually fascicled; cones maturing the second year. 

1. PrNUS. 

Leaves scattered, appearing 2-ranked; cones maturing the first year. 
Cones pendulous ; bracts conspicuous. 2. PSEUDOTSUGA. 

Cones erect. 3. ABIES. 

Leaves scale-like. 

Monoecious; cones not berry-like. 4. LIBOCEDBUS. 

Dioecious; cones with fleshy scales, berry-like. 5. JUNIPEBUS. 

2 Pinaceae 


Evergreen trees with 2 kinds of leaves, the primary 
ones linear or scale-like, deciduous ; the secondary ones 
forming the ordinary foliage, narrowly linear, arising 
from the axils of the former in fascicles of 2-5, or soli- 
tary in a single species ; subtended by the bud scales, 
some of which are united to form a sheath. Staminate 
cones borne at the bases of the shoots of the season, the 
clusters of stamens spirally arranged each in the axil of 
a minute scale ; filaments very short ; anthers 2-celled, 
longitudinally dehiscent. Ovule-bearing cones solitary 
or clustered, borne on the twigs of the preceding year, 
composed of numerous imbricated minute bracts, each 
with an ovule-bearing scale in its axil, ripening into a 
large cone, which matures the following autumn, its 
scales elongating and becoming woody. Seeds 2 on 
the base of each scale, winged above, the testa crusta- 

* Scales thin, with a terminal unarmed umbo; leaves in 5's. 

1. P. Lambertiana Dougl. (SUGAR PINE.) Becoming a large 
tree, with light brown smoothish bark, splitting in small sec- 
tions; leaves 8-10 cm. long, with 5-6 lines of stomata on each of 
the 3 sides; staminate cones oval, 1 cm. long, with 10-15 involu- 
cral scales ; anthers denticulate-crested ; fruiting cones cylindric, 
bright brown, 2-4 dm. long, 8-10 cm. broad, on peduncles 8 
cm. long; seeds smooth, black, 12 mm. long; wing scarcely 
twice as long, widest below the middle, obtuse; cotyledons 

Frequent in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, 6000-8000 
feet altitude. 

2. P. flexilis James. A middle-sized tree with furrowed gray 
bark; leaves 5, 3-6 cm. long, thick and rigid; staminate cones 
oval, 12-14 mm. long, involucral bracts 8-9; anthers tipped by 
a spur; fruiting cones oval to subcylindric, 8-16 cm. long, light 
brown, scales rounded or pointed at the apex; seeds oval, com- 

Pine Family 3 

pressed, 8-12 mm. long; wing minute, scarcely exceeding 1 mm. 
in width, usually remaining attached to the scale. 

Summits of San Gorgonio, San Jacinto and Santa Rosa Mountains. 

** Scales with a thickened, usually awned umbo. 
*- Staminate cones 3-6 mm. long; leaves 1-5 in a cluster, 5 cm. long 
or less. 

3. P. monophylla Torr. & Frem. (NuT PINE.) A small tree, 
5-8 m. high, with irregularly spreading branches and pale flaky 
bark; leaves short, spiny-tipped, solitary, terete, 3-5 cm. long; 
staminate cones oval with 6 involucral bracts; fruiting cones 
3-6 cm. long and nearly as broad, bright green, apex of scale 
thickened, 4-angled, narrowed into a prominent knob with a usu- 
ally truncate umbo ending in a minute incurved tip; seeds 
oblong, 12-20 mm. long; wing light brown, 8-12 mm. wide, 
remaining attached to the scale. 

Frequent on the desert slopes of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 

4. P. quadrifolia Parl. (PARRY'S PINE.) A small tree, 6-10 m. 
high, with around top; bark dark brown tinged with red, divi- 
ded by shallow fissures; leaves 3-5 (mostly 4) in a sheath, stout, 
glaucous, 30-45 mm. long ; staminate cones oval, about 5 mm. 
long, surrounded by 4 conspicuous bracts; fruiting cones sub- 
globose, 3-5 cm. broad; scales thickened at apex, rounded, 
conspicuously keeled, narrowed with a central knob terminating 
in a truncate or concave umbo, armed with a minute recurved 
mucro, bright chestnut brown, the rest of the scale dull red; 
seeds oval, 10-16 mm. long; wings brown, about 2 mm. wide, 
remaining attached to the scale. (P. Parryana Engelm.) 

Santa Rosa Mountains, Hall. First collected at Larkin's Station near the 
Mexican boundary by Parry. 

*- *- Staminate cones 10-50 mm. long; leaves 2-5 in a cluster, usually 
over 10 cm. long. 

5. P. Torreyana Parry. (DEL MAR or TORREY PINE.) A small 
tree, 6-10 m. high, with spreading branches and dark brownish 
bark; leaves 5 in a cluster, crowded at the ends of the thick 
branchlets, stout, 20-28 cm. long; staminate cones cyclindric, 
about 5 cm. long and 8 mm. thick, involucral bracts 14; fruiting 
cones broadly ovate, 10-15 cm. long, chocolate brown ; scales 

4 Pinaceae 

much thickened at apex into broad straight or reflexed urnbos 
terminating in minute spines; seeds oval, 16-20 mm. long, nearly 
enclosed by the thickened rim of the dark brown wings, these 
8-10 mm. wide. 

Delmar, San Diego County; Santa Rosa Island. 

6. P. ponder osa Dougl. (YELLOW PINE.) A large tree with very 
thick red-brown bark ; deeply furrowed and split in large plates ; 
leaves 3 in each cluster on stout branchlets, dark green, 15-25 
cm. long; staminate cones cylindric, 35-50 mm. long, involucral 
bracts 10-12; fruiting cones oval, 7-12 cm. long, rich brown; 
scales thickened into a central knob terminating in compressed 
straight or recurved umbos, awned with slender spines; seeds 
ovate, acute, about 8 mm. long, coat nearly black, rugose; wing 
thin, pale brown, 25-30 mm. long and about 20 mm. wide below 
the middle. 

Common on all our mountains, making up a greater part of the coniferous 
forests. The cones usually fall during the autumn and winter after maturity. 

7. P. Jeffrey! Oreg. Com. (JEFFREY PINE.) Closely resembling 
the preceding in foliage and habit; bark deeply furrowed, not 
split in large plates, dark; staminate cones 3 cm. long; fruiting 
cones oval, rather rich brown, 15-30 cm. long; seeds 8-10 mm. 
long; wings about 25 mm. long. 

With the last, but much less common. Rather frequent in the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, especially about Bear Valley. 

8. P. Murray ana Oreg. Com. (MURRAY PINE or TAMARACK 
PINE.) Becoming a rather large tree, 15-40 m. high ; bark rather 
finely furrowed, grayish-brown; leaves 2, 25-75 mm. long, very 
stout and rigid; sheaths 8-12 mm. long when young; staminate 
cones with 6-8 involucral bracts, cylindric, 10-15 mm. long; 
fruiting cones clustered or in pairs, oval or subcylindric, oblique, 
2-5 cm. long; scales armed with slender recurved prickles; seeds 
scarcely 2 mm. long, dark brown mottled with black; wings 
light brown, widest above the base, tapering to apex, 12-15 mm. 

Frequent in the upper portions of the coniferous forests. Mt. San An- 
tonio; Bear Valley; Mt. San Gorgonio; Mt. San Jacinto. 

9. P. Sabiniana Dougl. (DIGGER PINE or SILVER PINE.) A 
rather small open-topped irregularly branched tree ; leaves 3 in a 
cluster, drooping, light green or glaucous, 2-3 cm. long; stami- 
nate cones oblong, about 2 cm. long, with 10-15 involucral bracts; 

Pine Family 5 

fruiting cones lateral, short oval, acutish, 15-25 cm. long, 10-15 
cm. in diameter, deep chestnut-brown; scales produced into 
prominent knobs awned with stout straight or slightly incurved 
spines; seeds subcylindric, dark, 18-24 mm. long; wing about 
half as long. 

Antelope Valley, ranging northward to the upper Sacramento. Confined 
to the foothills. 

10. P. Coulter! Lamb. (COULTER'S PINE.) A middle-sized tree, 
with thick rough bark ; leaves crowded at the ends of the thick 
branches in clusters of 3, stiff and erect, 15-25 cm. long, dark 
blue-green; staminate cones cylindric, 35-40 mm. long, with 
8-10 involucral bracts; fruiting cones long-oval, pointed, 25-35 
cm. long, 10-12 cm. thick, yellowish-brown, persistent; scales 
with a stout elongated umbo armed with thick incurved spines ; 
seeds oval, black, 12-16 mm. long; wing 20-30 mm. long. 

Rather frequent in the coniferous forests of the San Bernardino, San 
Jacinto and Cuyamaca Mountains, 4500-7000 feet altitude. Not yet reported 
from the San Gabriel Mountains. 

11. P. attenuata Lemmon. (KNOB-CONE PINE.) A small tree 
usually less than 10 m. high, somewhat irregularly branched; 
bark light brown, roughish ; leaves in clusters of 3, 10-15 cm. 
long, dark green; staminate cones, cylindric, 14-15 cm. long, with 
6 involucral bracts ; fruiting cones clustered in verticils, persistent 
for many years, light chestnut-brown becoming grayish, elon- 
gated-conic, oblique at the base, 8-14 cm. long; scales armed 
with stout prickles; seeds black, grooved, 6 mm. long; wing 
14-16 mm. long, widest near the middle. (P. tuberculata 

Extending in a narrow belt along the southern slope of the San Bernar- 
dino Mountains, 2500-4000 feet altitude. 


Evergreen trees with flat petioled leaves, appearing 
2-ranked by a twist of the petiole, leaving an oval scar 
on the smooth branches. Staminate cones oblong or cylin- 
dric, partly enclosed by conspicuous orbicular bud-scales, 
scales ending in a short spur ; anthers 2, obliquely split- 
ting. Pistillate cones with the scales much shorter than 
the broadly linear acutely 2-lobed and long-pointed 

6 Pinaceae 

aristulate bracts, maturing the first year. Seeds without 
resinous-resides, the wing at last breaking off ; coty- 
ledons 6-12. 

1. P. macrocarpa (Torr.) Mayr. (BIG-CONE SPRUCE.) Tree 
12-18 m. high, rarely 1 m. in diameter, branches spreading; 
leaves rather narrow, acutish; staminate cones about 2 cm. 
long; fruiting cones 12-18 cm. long, 5-6 cm. thick; scales large, 
rather thick; bracts somewhat exceeding the scales; seeds in- 
cluding wing about 10 mm. long; cotyledons 9-12. 

Rather common in all our mountains except the Santa Monica. Ranging 
mostly from 2000-5000 feet altitude, being confined for the most part to 
canyons and north slopes in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and 
extending into the pine belt. 

3. ABIES Link. FIR. 

Evergreen trees with sessile leaves appearing 2-ranked 
by a twist of the petiole leaving a circular scar on the 
smooth branches, more or less flattened and emarginate, 
bearing stomata only or mainly on the lower surface, 
with 2 longitudinal resin-ducts mostly close to the epi- 
dermis on the lower side. Staminate cones oval or cylin- 
dric, scales terminating in a knob, bearing 2 anthers, 
these transversely dehiscent. Pistillate cones erect, the 
bract much larger than the scale. Fruiting cones erect, 
maturing the first year, scales and enclosed or exserted 
membranous bracts falling at maturity from the persist- 
ent axis. Seeds partly and permanently enclosed by 
the base of the wing. Cotyledons 4-10. 

1. A. concolor (Gord.) Parry. (WHITE FIR.) Often becoming 
a large tree with rough grayish bark; leaves obtuse, pale green, 
with stomata on both sides, 2-3 cm. long or on young trees often 
5 cm. long, convex above, somewhat falcate ; mature cones oblong- 
cylindric, 8-12 cm. long, 3-4 cm. thick, pale green; scales 24-30 
mm. broad, but little over half as long; bracts short enclosed, 
truncate or emarginate, with or without a short mucro; wing of 
the seeds oblique, as broad as long; cotyledons 5-7. 

Frequent in the coniferous forests of the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, 
San Jacinto and Cuyamaca Mountains. 

Pine Family 7 


Evergreen aromatic trees with thin fibrous bark and 
scattered flattened branches. Leaves scale-like adnate 
and imbricate in 4 rows, oblong, with free acute tips, 
somewhat dimorphous. Staminate cones of 12-16 sub- 
peltate broadly ovate pointed scales, bearing usually 
4 pollen-sacs. Pistillate cones composed of 4-6 small 
coriaceous valvate scales, only the middle pair fertile ; 
ovules 2. Mature cones oblong, scales oblong ; seeds 
unequally 2-winged, maturing the first year. 

1. L. decurrens Torr. Mostly a rather small tree with bright 
cinnamon-red bark and spreading branches; leaves pale green, 
4-8 mm. long, the lateral ones without glands, nearly covering the 
flattened, obscurely pitted inner ones; staminate cones oblong- 
ovate, 5-6 mm. long; fruiting cones 2 cm. long and about 8 mm. 
thick; scales with short somewhat recurved mucro; seeds ob- 
long-lanceolate, 8-12 mm. long, the narrow outer wing scarcely 
longer, the inner broader and nearly equaling the scale. 

Frequent in the coniferous forests of the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, 
San Jacinto and Cuyamaca Mountains. 


Low dioecious or monoecious shrubs or trees, with 
mostly thin shredded bark and evergreen binate or ter- 
nate, free and subulate or adnate and scale-like leaves, 
not 2-ranked. Cones small solitary axillary or terminal 
upon short lateral branchlets ; scales few, decussately 
binate or ternate. Staminate cones oblong-ovate ; an- 
ther-cells 48 under each shield-shaped scale. Pistillate 
cone of 2 or 3 series of fleshy scales, with 2 erect ovules to 
each scale, becoming united into a blue-black or reddish 
drupe in fruit and ripening the second year. Seeds 1-12, 
bony ; cotyledons usually 2, rarely 4-6. 

1. J. Californica Carr. Shrub usually much branched, 
with stout, spreading branches and branchlets; leaves ternate, 

8 Typhaceae 

short and thick, mostly acute, grayish green ; fruit oblong-ovate, 
reddish, dry and sweetish, 10-14 mm. long, of 6 or rarely 4 scales, 
usually 1-seeded; seed 8-12 mm. long, smooth, often angled or 
grooved, brown with a whitish 2-3-lobed hilum ; cotyledons 4-6. 

San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Wash near the mouth of the can- 
yon. Common on the desert slope. 

2. J. occidentalis Hook. Usually a small tree, 6-12 m. high ; 
fruit blue- black, resinous-fleshy ; seeds deeply pitted ; cotyledons 2. 

Summit of Mt. San Antonio and in Bear Valley, San Bernardino 


Marsh or aquatic herbs with creeping rootstocks and 
solid cylindric stems, bearing long linear alternate 
leaves. Flowers monoecious, in dense spikes or heads. 
Perianth composed of bristles or irregular scales. Sta- 
mens 2-7, filaments distinct or connate. Ovary stipitate 
or sessile, 1-2-ovuled. Fruit nut-like ; endosperm 

Flowers in spikes. 1. TYPHA. 

Flowers in heads. 2. SPARGANIUM. 


Stems tall simple terminating in a long spike, "the 
staminate portion above contiguous with the pistillate 
below or separate. Perianth of numerous fine bristles. 
Filaments connate. Nuts small, enveloped in a copious 

1. T. latifolia L. Stems stout, 1.5-3 m. high; leaves long, 
6-20 mm. wide, sheathing at base; spike 15-25 cm. long, 20 mm. 
or more in diameter, the staminate and pistillate portions usually 
contiguous; stigmas rhomboid or spatulate; pollen grains in 4's; 
fruit furrowed, bursting in water; seeds with separate outer 

Frequent throughout our range along the margins of marshes or slow- 
running streams. May-July. 

2. T. angustifolia L. Stems slender, 1.5-3.5 m. high; leaves 
4-9 mm. wide; spikes 15-30 cm. long, 4-15 mm. in diameter, the 

Naiadaceae 9 

staminate and pistillate portions usually distant ; stigmas linear 
or linear-oblong; pollen grains simple; fruit not furrowed, not, 
bursting in water, outer coat not separable. 

In similar places, but not common. Near Los Angeles, Davidson; San; 
Bernardino, Parish. 


Marsh or aquatic plants with simple or somewhat 
branched stems. Flowers in globose heads along the 
upper portions of the stem and branches, the upper 
heads staminate ; the lower pistillate, in the axils of leaf- 
like bracts. Perianth of minute irregular scales. Sta- 
mens with long slender distinct filaments. Ovaries ses- 
sile, mostly 1-celled. Fruit nut-like. 

1. S. eurycarpum Engelm. Stems rather stout, 1-2.5 m. high, 
branching; leaves, linear flat, slightly keeled beneath, the lowest 
1-1.5 m. long, the upper shorter; staminate heads numerous; 
pistillate heads 2-4, sessile or more commonly peduncled, com- 
pact, 20-40 mm. in diameter when mature; style 1; stigmas 1-2; 
nutlets sessile, 6-10 mm. long; perianth segments as many as 
the angles of the fruit or with 2-3 outer ones, spatulate or eroded, 
equaling the fruit. 

Occasional along streams, usually growing with Typha. Ballona Creek; 
New River near Alamitos. May-June. 


Aquatic plants entirely submerged or with floating 
leaves. Stems jointed, usually branched. Leaves linear 
or lanceolate or with broad floating blades, sheathing 
at the base. Flowers small, naked or with herbaceous 
or hyaline perianth, commonly borne on a spike or spa- 
dix. Stamens 1-6, with extrorse anthers. Ovaries 
mostly distinct, 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Carpels rarely dehis- 
cent ; endosperm none ; embryo often curved. 

10 Naiadaceae 

Flowers perfect. 

Perianth of 4 distinct segments. 1. POTAMOGETON. 

Perianth none. 2. RDPPIA. 

.Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

Fresh-water plants ; flowers monoecious. 

Leaves entire. 3. ZANNICHELLIA. 

Leaves spiny-toothed on the margins. 4. NAIAS. 

Marine plants. 

Flowers monoecious ; carpels ovoid. 5. ZOSTERA. 

Flowers dioecious; carpels heart-shaped. 6. PHYLLOSPADIX . 


Perennial herbs. Leaves alternate or the uppermost 
often opposite, often of 2 kinds, submerged and float- 
ing, the floating elliptic or ovate, the submerged linear. 
Spikes sheathed by the stipules in the bud. Peduncles 
axillary, bearing small perfect flowers. Perianth segments 
4, herbaceous concave, valvate in the bud, short-clawed. 
Stamens 4, inserted on the claws of the perianth segments ; 
anthers sessile. Ovaries 4, sessile distinct 1-celled, 
1-ovuled, attenuate into a short erect or recurved style. 

* With floating and submerged leaves. 

1. P. natans L. Stems 1-1.5 m. long, simple or sparingly 
branched; floating leaves thick ovate-elliptic to lanceolate, 
rounded or subcordate at base, 4-8 cm. long, mostly shorter than 
the petiole; submerged leaves reduced to phyllodes or bladeless 
petioles; peduncle as thick as the stem, 4-8 cm. long; spike 
dense, 4 cm. long; fruit turgid, 4 mm. long, narrowly obovoid; 
nutlet pitted on the sides, 2-grooved on the back. 

Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains. Not known within our limits. 

2. P. lonchites Tuckerm. Stems 1-2 m. long, much branched ; 
floating leaves rather thin, elliptic, pointed at both ends, 5-10 
cm. long; submerged leaves linear-lanceolate, 10-15 cm. long, 
4-20 mm. wide, rounded at base or tapering into a petiole; stip- 
ules 2-8 cm. long, free from the leaves; peduncles thickening 
upward, 4-6 cm. long; spikes dense, 2-4 cm. long; fruit 4 mm. 
long, obliquely obovoid, sides smooth, 3-keeled on the back. (P. 
fluitans Roth. ?) 

Occasional in ponds in the valley region. 

Pondweed Family 11 > 


** With submerged leaves only. 

3. P. foliosus Californicus Morong. Stems 0.3-1 m. long, much 
branched, flattened or winged; leaves 3-5 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, 
3-nerved or sometimes 5-nerved toward the base ; stipules free 
from the leaves, small, white, becoming setose; peduncles 8-12 
mm. long, erect, clavate, flattened; spikes subcapitate, 6-12-flow- 
ered; fruit lenticular or nearly orbicular, about 2 mm. long, 3- 
keeled on the back, middle keel winged, sinuate-dentate, face 
strongly angled or arched; style apical. (P. pauciftorus Cali- 
fornicus Morong.) 

Occasional in streams and irrigating ditches in our interior valleys. 

4. P. pectinatus L. Stems 0.3-1 m. long, slender, much 
branched, branches repeatedly forking ; leaves setaceous, attenu- 
ate to the apex, 1-nerved, often capillary and nerveless, 2-10 cm. 
long; stipules half free, 1-2 cm. long, their sheaths scarious 
on the margins; peduncles filiform, 4-10 cm. long; spike 1-4 cm. 
long; flowers in whorls; fruit obliquely obovoid, about 4 mm. 
long, with two obscure lateral ridges on the back ; style straight 
or curved, facial. 

Common in streams and ponds. May-August. 


Stems capillary, widely branched. Leaves all sub- 
merged very slender attenuate 1-nerved, with mem- 
branous sheaths at the base. Flowers on a capillary 
spadix-like peduncle naked perfect, consisting of ^ses- 
sile anthers, 2-celled, attached by the back to the 
peduncle, having between them several pistillate flowers 
with sessile peltate stigmas in 2 sets on opposite sides 
of the rachis, the whole at first enclosed in the sheathing 
base of the leaf ; in development the peduncle elongates, 
bearing the pistillate flowers at the end ; fertilization 
takes place at the surface, after which the peduncle coils 
up. Fruit a small obliquely pointed drupe, pedicelled. 

1. B. maritima L. Stems 0.5-1 m. long; leaves 4-6 cm. long ; 
sheaths membranous, 6-8 mm. long; peduncles 4-20 cm. long or 

12 Naiadaceae 

more in fruit; pedicels 1-3 cm. long at maturity; drupes with a 
hard shell, 2 mm. long, ovoid oblique or gibbous at base, pointed 
with the long style. 
JBrackish streams along the coast. June-August. 


Stems capillary, sparsely branched from a creeping rhi- 
.zome. Leaves all submerged, filiform but flat, 1-nerved. 
iStaminate and pistillate flowers in the same axil, en- 
closed in the bud by a hyaline spathe-like envelope; 
staminate solitary, with 2-celled anther on a short pedi- 
cel-like filament ; pistillate 2-5. Ovary flask-shaped, 
stipulate at base, tapering into a short style with a broad 
cup-shaped stigma, its margins angled or dentate. Fruit 
a flattish falcate nutlet, ribbed or sometimes toothed on 
the back. 

1. Z. palustris L. Stems 3-6 dm. high; leaves 2-6 cm. long; 
spathe separating from the leaves and fruit at maturity ; fruits 
2-6 in a cluster, 2-4 mm. long, sessile or short pedicelled, some- 
times the whole cluster peduncled ; style persistent, straight or 
curved, 1-2 mm. long. 

Occasional in marshes and ponds. 


Stems slender, branching, from fibrous roots. Leaves 
all submerged, opposite or whorled, spiny-toothed, 
sheathing at the base. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, 
axillary, solitary, sessile or pedicelled. Staminate with a 
double perianth ; the outer entire or 4-toothed at the apex, 
the inner one hyaline, adhering to the anthers. Stamens 
sessile or stalked ; anthers 1-4-celled, apiculate or 2-lobed 
at the summit. Pistillate flowers of a single ovary, 
which tapers into a short style ; stigmas 2-4, subulate. 
Fruit a solitary carpel, sessile, ellipsoidal, with a crusta- 
ceous pericarp. 

Pondweed Family 13 

1. N. flexilis (Willd.) E. & S. Stem slender, forking; leaves 
linear pellucid, acuminate or acute, 1-2 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, 
numerous and crowded on the upper branches with 25-30 minute 
teeth on each margin ; fruit 2-4 mm. long, 0.5-1 mm. in diameter ; 
style long, persistent; stigmas short. 

Near Soldiers' Home, Hasse, Davidson. 


Marine plants, wholly submerged, with slender root- 
stocks and branching compressed stems. Leaves 
2-ranked, sheathing at the base, the sheaths with in- 
flexed margins. Spadix linear, contained in a spathe. 
Flowers monoecious, arranged alternately in 2 rows on 
the spadix. Staminate flower merely an anther attached 
to the spadix near its apex, 1-celled ; pollen thread-like. 
Pistillate flower fixed on its back near the middle. 
Ovary 1 ; style elongated ; stigmas capillary. Mature 
carpels flask-shaped, beaked by the persistent style. 
Seeds ribbed ; embryo ellipsoidal. 

1. Z. marina L. Leaves ribbon-like, obtuse at the apex, 0.5-2 
m. long, 5-10 mm. wide; spadix 2-5 cm. long; flowers about 6 
mm. long, crowded. 

Shoal waters in bays on muddy bottoms. San Pedro. 


Submerged marine plants with thickened rootstocks 
and slender stems, which bear the inflorescence at the 
summit or in clusters along the upper part. Leaves 
linear, sheathing. Flowers dioecious in spathes like 
those of Zostera. Spathes with membranous edges, the 
back thickened and terminating in long leaf-like ap- 
pendages. Spadix with a series of short dilated foli- 
aceous flaps, which close over the flower, spreading open 
at maturity. Staminate flowers of numerous sessile 
stamens in 2 rows ; anthers 1-celled. Pistillate of sim- 
ple sessile ovaries, attenuate into a short style ; stigmas 

14 Juncaginaceae 

2, capillary. Fruit beaked by the short persistent style, 

1. P. Torreyi Wats. Stems slender, flat, 0.5 m. long or more, 
bearing the spathes in clusters along the upper part ; leaves 4-8 
cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, thick and smooth ; sheaths long, their 
margins membranous; spathes 3-5 in a cluster, 2-4 cm. long, 
slightly curved; appendages of the pistillate spadix elliptic, of 
the staminate oblong-ovate; fruit heart-shaped, 5 mm. long. 

Growing on rocks which are uncovered at low tide. San Pedro; La Jolla. 


Marsh plants with rush-like or cylindric leaves. 
Flowers spicate, racemose or solitary, perfect or monoe- 
cious. Perianth none, 1-bracted or 4-6-parted. Stamens 
1 or 3-6. Ovaries 1 or 3-6, when more than 1 they are 
more or less united while immature. Seeds anatropous ; 
embryo straight. 

Flowers perfect; perianth segments 3-6. 1. TRIGLOCHIN. 

Flowers polygamous ; perianth wanting. 2. LILAEA. 


Marsh plants with radical semiterete fleshy leaves, 
which have membranous sheaths at the base. Flowers 
small perfect in spikes or racemes, on long smooth naked 
scapes. Perianth segments 3-6, concave, the 3 inner in- 
serted higher up than the others when present. Sta- 
mens 3-6 ; anthers 2-celled extrorse sessile or nearly 
so, inserted at the base of the segments and deciduous 
with them. Ovaries 6, united or rarely free, 1-celled ; 
style short ; stigmas as many as ovaries, plumose. 
Fruit of 3-6 oblong or ovoid carpels, when ripe separat- 
ing from the base upward from a persistent central axis, 
dehiscing by a ventral suture. 

Arrow-grass Family 15 

1. T. xnaritima L. Perennial plants with a long rootstock and 
a thick caudex, which is usually covered with the sheaths of old 
leaves; spathes stout, 2-4 dm. high, commonly solitary; leaves 
much shorter than the scapes, tapering to a long acute or obtuse 
point, 4-6 mm. wide; racemes 4-10 cm. long; pedicels decurrent, 
2-5 mm. long; perianth segments 6, the 3 inner smaller, ovate, 
greenish-white; stamens 6; ovaries 6, united, each 1-celled, 
1-ovuled ; carpels 3-angled, with the dorsal angles making a 
broad groove on the back, 5-6 mm. long; stigmas persistent and 

Salt marshes along the coast. 

2. LILAEA H. B. K. 

Subaquatic stemless annuals, with simple slender 
scapes and radical leaves, which are slightly dilated at 
base. Flowers polygamous, the one sort solitary, pistil- 
late and disposed among the leaves at the base, with 
long thread-like styles ; the other monoecious, in dense 
spikes at the apex of slender scapes. Staminate flowers 
imbricated in narrow oblong spikes ; anthers nearly ses- 
sile in the axis of a white linear petaloid bract. Pistil- 
late flowers imbricated in conical crowded spikes, bract- 
less, consisting of a 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary ; stigma 
capitate. Fruit ovoid, costate, indehiscent. 

1. L. subulata H. B. K. Leaves cylindric, numerous, 12-20 
cm. long, 3-5 mm. in diameter, tapering to a point at the apex; 
scapes 8-16 cm. high, shorter than the leaves, terete; styles of 
the solitary flowers often 12 cm. long and tipped with a capi- 
tate stigma; fruit 6 mm. long. 

Occasional about San Bernardino, Parish. Frequent about San Diego and 
in the Cuyamaca Mountains. 

16 Alismaceae 


Aquatic or marsh plants, with scapose stems and radi- 
cal long petioled sheathing leaves. Inflorescence race- 
mose or paniculate. Flowers regular perfect, monoecious 
or dioecious, pedicelled ; the pedicels in whorls and sub- 
tended by bracts. Perianth segments 6, the outer 3 
small herbaceous persistent ; the inner 3 larger and peta- 
loid, deciduous. Stamens 6 or more ; anthers 2-celled, 
extrorse or dehiscing by lateral slits. Ovaries numerous 
distinct on a flat or convex receptacle, 1-celled, 1-ovuled. 
Carpels becoming achenes in fruit. 

Flowers perfect. 1. ECHINODORUS. 

Flowers polygamous. 2. LOPHOTOCARPDS. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 3. SAGITTABIA. 


Perennial or annual herbs with long-petioled, elliptic 
ovate or lanceolate, often cordate or sagittate leaves, 
3-9-ribbed and mostly punctate with dots or lines. 
Scapes often longer than the leaves. Inflorescence race- 
mose or paniculate. Flowers perfect, in whorls, each 
whorl with 3 outer bracts and numerous inner bracteoles. 
Petals white. Receptacle large convex or globose. Sta- 
mens 12-30. Ovaries numerous ; style obliquely apical, 
persistent ; stigmas simple. Achenes more or less com- 
pressed, ribbed and beaked, forming spinose heads. 

1. E. cordifolius (L.) Griseb. Leaves variable, usually broadly 
ovate, obtuse, cordate at the base, 12-16 cm. long and wide, some- 
times lanceolate and smaller; petioles angular, striate, 5-15 cm. 
long; scapes 1 or more, erect 10-30 cm. high; flowers 3-6 in each 
whorl, on pedicels 6-12 mm. long; bracts linear-lanceolate, acu- 
minate dilated at the base ; inner perianth segments shorter than 
the outer, 4-6 mm. long; stamens usually 12; styles exceeding 
the ovaries in length; fruiting heads bur-like, 4-6 mm. in diam- 

Water-Plantain Family 17 

eter; achenes obovate or falcate, 6-8-ribbed; beak apical oblique, 
1.5 mm. long. (E. rostratus Engelm.) 

Occasional along streams and banks of ponds. May-July. 


Annual aquatic or bog plants with basal long petioled 
sagittate or cordate leaves, simple erect scapes bearing 
flowers in several verticils of 2-3 at the summit, the 
lower perfect, the upper staminate. Petals white. 
Sepals distinct, enclosing or enveloping the fruit. Re- 
ceptacle strongly convex. Stamens 9-15, hypogynous 
inserted at the base of the receptacle. Pistillate numer- 
ous with solitary ovules and an elongated persistent 
style. Achenes winged or crested ; embryo horseshoe- 

1. L. calycinus (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. Scapes weak, at length 
decumbent; leaves floating or ascending, entire, hastate or sagit- 
tate, the basal lobes spreading ovate, acute or acuminate, 2-16 
cm. long; verticils of flowers 1-5 ; bracts membranous, orbicular 
or ovate, or those of the staminate flowers lanceolate ; pedicels 
recurved in fruit ; petals 6-8 mm. long ; filaments flattened, papil- 
lose; achenes obovate, 2 mm. long, narrowly winged on the mar- 
gins, tipped with a short horizontal triangular beak. (Sagittaria 
calycina Engelm.) 

Ballona Creek. 


Perennial aquatic or marsh herbs with tuber-bearing 
or nodose rootstocks. Leaves with nerves connected by 
numerous veinlets. Scapes erect decumbent or floating. 
Flowers monoecious or dioecious, borne near the summit 
of the scapes in whorls of 3's, pedicelled, the staminate 
usually uppermost, whorls 3-bracted. Perianth seg- 
ments 6, the outer 3 herbaceous persistent and reflexed 
or spreading in the pistillate flowers. Stamens numer- 
ous inserted on the convex receptacle ; anthers 2-celled, 

18 Gramineae 

dehiscent by lateral slits. Pistillate flowers with num- 
erous distinct 1-ovuled ovaries and sma-11 persistent 
stigmas. Achenes densely aggregated in globose heads, 
compressed ; seeds curved ; embryo horseshoe-shaped. 

1. 8. latifolia Willd. Rootstock slender; scapes 0.2-1 m. high, 
angled; leaves very variable, ovate-sagittate to linear, acute, 
lobes more or less divergent, acuminate; flowers monoecious 
with the lower verticils pistillate or dioecious, 2-4 mm. wide; 
petals white; stamens numerous 25-35; filaments glabrous; 
pistillate pedicels shorter than the staminate; achenes broadly 
winged on both margins, 3 mm. long, with a lateral horizontal or 
curving beak, 3^-/3 its length. (S. variabilis Engelm.) 

Occasional on margins of ponds about Los Angeles. 


Annual or perennial herbs of various habit, rarely 
shrubs or trees. Stems (culms) generally hollow or 
sometimes solid, the nodes closed. Leaves sheathing, 
the sheaths usually split to the base on the side opposite 
the blade, a scarious or cartilaginous ring (ligule) 
borne at the base of the leaf-blade. Inflorescence spicate, 
racemose or paniculate, consisting of spikelets composed 
of 2-many 2-ranked imbricated bracts (glumes), 
the 2 lowest in the complete spikelet always empty, 
1 or both sometimes wanting. One or more of the 
upper glumes usually contains in the axil a flower, which 
is usually inclosed by a bract-like awnless organ called 
the palea, placed opposite the glume with its back to the 
axis (rachilla) of the spikelet, generally 2-keeled. 
Flowers perfect or staminate, sometimes monoecious or 
dioecious, subtended by 1-3, usually 2 minute hyaline 
scales (lodicules) placed at the base of the ovary oppo- 
site the palea. Stamens 1-6, usually 3 ; anthers 2-celled 
versatile longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 1-celled, 1- 
ovuled ; styles 1-3, usually 2 and lateral ; stigmas 

Grass Family 19 

hairy or plumose. Fruit a seed-like grain (caryopsis). 
Endosperm starchy. 


I. PANICACEAE. Spikelets 1-flowered or with a rudimentary or staminate 

flower below, rarely above, the perfect one; rachilla articulated below 
the empty glumes. 

Axis of inflorescence articulated; empty glumes firmer in texture than 
the flowering ones. Tribe 1. ANDROPOGYNEAE. 

Axis of inflorescence not articulated; flowering glumes firmer in texture 
than the empty ones. Tribe 2. PANICEAE. 

II. POACEAE. Spikelets 1-many-flowered; rachilla usually articulated above 

the empty glumes. 
Spikelets 1-flowered. 

Spikelets arranged'on one side of a continuous rachis forming a unilat- 
eral spike. Tribe 6. CHLORIDEAE. 
Spikelets not arranged in unilateral spikes. 

Inflorescence spicate; Spikelets sessile on alternate notches of the 

rachis. Tribe 8. HORDEAE. 

Inflorescence racemose or paniculate, rarely spicate or apparently 

capitate ; spikelets pedicellate. 
Glumes 5, the first 4 usually empty, the fifth with a hermaphrodite 

flower; palea 1-nerved. Tribe 3. PHALARIDEAE. 

Glumes 3 or sometimes 4, the first two empty : palea 2-nerved. 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

Spikelets pedicellate in panicles or racemes, never unilateral. 

Empty glumes usually longer than the flowering glumes, lor more 
of the latter usually awned on the back or from beneath the 
teeth of the bifid apex; awn twisted. 

Tribe 5. AVENEAE. 

Empty glumes generally shorter than the flowering glumes, these 
awnless or with 1-many terminal, rarely dorsal straight or 
simply divergent awns. Tribe 7. FESTUCEAE. 

Spikelets sessile in true spikes or on very short pedicels in unilateral 

Spikelets in unilateral spikes or racemes. 


Spikelets inserted on the alternate notches of the rachis forming 
equilateral, flattened or cylindric spikes. 

Tribe 8. HORDEAE. 

20 Andropogoneae 


Spikelets in spike-like racemes, 2 at each joint of the 
rachis, 1 pedicellate and hermaphrodite, staminate or 
rudimentary. Glumes usually 4, the first and second 
empty, large and much firmer in texture than the others, 
the third . usually empty or with a staminate flower in 
its axil, rarely awned, the fourth or flowering glume 
hyaline, usually awned, the awn generally twisted or 

Inflorescence composed of spike-like silky racemes. 1. ANDROPOGON. 

Inflorescence paniculate ; spikelets somewhat silky-pubescent. 



Slender or rather coarse perennials with solid culms. 
Spikelets heterogamous, in pairs at each joint of the 
articulate and usually hairy rachis, one of each pair ses- 
sile, hermaphrodite and 1-flowered, the other pedicellate 
and staminate or rudimentary. Glumes of the fertile 
spikelet 4, the first coriaceous, flattened on the back with 
a strong nerve near each margin and usually with 
fainter ones between, second glume hyaline awned. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct ; stigmas plumose. Grain 
unfurrowed, free within the hardened outer glumes. 

1. A. glomeratus (Walt.) B. S. P. Culms erect, 4-6 dm. high, 
smooth, simple below, much branched above, upper nodes of 
branches barbed; sheaths compressed, glabrous or pubescent; 
leaves 2-4 mm. wide, scabrous, long acuminate, nearly equaling 
the culms, those of the culms 15-45 mm. long; branches elon- 
gated, forming a compact terminal inflorescence; spikes in pairs, 
about 25 mm. long, loose, protruding from the sides of the 
scabrous sheaths ; rachis flexuous, the joints and pedicels pubes- 
cent with long spreading silky hairs; outer glume about 3 mm. 
long; awn 12-18 mm. long, scabrous; pedicelled spikelet reduced 
to a single scale or wanting. (A. macrourus Michx.) 

Rubio and Eaton's Canyons, San Gabriel Mountains, McClatchie. 

Sorghum Tribe 21 

2. A. saccharoides Swartz. Culms erect, 4-10 dm. high, 
simple or branched, glabrous, the nodes pubescent with silky 
hairs ; sheaths smooth ; leaves 8-16 cm. long, 4-6 mm. broad, 
long-acuminate, scabrous, glaucous ; ligule hairy ; spikes 25-35 
mm. long, in an exserted panicle, 5-10 cm. long ; first glume of 
sessile spikelet ovate-lanceolate, 4 mm. long, about equaling the 
terminal hairs of the rachis joints, pubescent at base with long 
silky hairs, scabrous above ; awn 10-15 mm. long, spiral, bent, 
scabrous ; pedicelled spikelet reduced to a single narrow scale. 

Occasional on stony south slopes in the chaparral belt. Sepulveda Can- 
yon and Cahuenga Pass, Santa Monica Mountains; Tia Juana, San Diego 
County; Gaviota, Santa Barbara County. 

2. SORGHUM Pers. 

Annual or perennial grasses with long broad flat leaves 
and terminal ample panicles. Spikelets in pairs at the 
nodes, or in 3's at the ends of the branches, 1 sessile and 
perfect, the lateral pedicelled, staminate or empty. Sessile 
spikelet consisting of 4 glumes, the outer indurated and 
shining, obscurely nerved, the inner hyaline, the fourth 
awned and subtending a small palea and perfect flower, 
or palea wanting. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Grain 

1. S. Halepense (L.) Pers. (JOHNSON-GRASS.) Culms erect, 
9-15 dm. high, simple or sometimes much branched, smooth; 
sheaths smooth; leaves 2 dm. long or more, 7-25 mm. wide, 
long-acuminate ; panicle open, 15-45 cm. long ; branches gener- 
ally whorled, spreading, naked towards the base; outer glumes 
of sessile spikelet 4-6 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, usually purplish, 
pubescent with long, appressed hairs ; awn 8-16 mm. long, more or 
less bent, sometimes wanting; pedicelled spikelets of 4 glumes, 
the outer 2 about 6 mm. long, membranous, the inner 2 shorter 
and narrower, sometimes with staminate flowers. 

Becoming a troublesome grass in moist places along roadsides and in 
fields. Especially common about Santa Ana. 

22 Paniceae 


Spikelets hermaphrodite, terete or flattened on the 
back. Glumes 3-4, rarely 2, when 4 the third usually 
includes a staminate flower in its axil ; flowering glume 
firmer in texture than the outer ones. Axis of the in- 
florescence not articulated, the rachilla being articulated 
below the empty glumes and the spikelets falling off 
singly from the pedicels. 

Spikelets not surrounded by a bristly or spiny involucre. 

Glumes 3; spikelets sessile or on short pedicels in unilateral spikes or 

racemes. 3. PASPALUM. 

Glumes 4, the first usually short, rarely wanting. 

Spikes digitate. 4. SYNTHERISMA. 

Spikes not digitate. 5. PANICUM. 

Spikelets surrounded by a bristly or spiny involucre. 
Bristles slender, not falling with the spikelets. 

Bristles thickened below, spine-like, falling with the spikelets. 



Perennial grasses of various habit, with generally flat 
leaves and 1-flowered spikelets borne in 2-4 rows on 1- 
sided spikes, which are single, in pairs or panicled. 
Spikelets oblong to orbicular, flat on the inner surface, 
convex on the outer. Glumes 3, rarely 2 by the absence 
of the outermost, the outer ones membranous, the inner 
one indurated and subtending a palea and perfect flower. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct ; stigmas plumose. Ovary 
oblong or ovoid, smooth. 

1. P. distichum L. Culms erect, 15-35 cm. high, creeping at 
the base; sheaths smooth, sometimes ciliate on the margins or 
sparsely pubescent; leaves flat, 4-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
smooth ; spikes 25-50 mm. long, in pairs, or occasionally with a 
third, exserted; rachis flat, 1-2 mm. wide, smooth; spikelets 
2.5-3 mm. long, elliptic, somewhat pubescent or glabrous, acute, 

Millet Tribe 23 

nearly sessile in 2 rows ; outer glumes 3-5-nerved, slightly ex- 
ceeding the acute third one, which is sparingly bearded at the 

Frequent along streams and irrigating ditches. Los Angeles ; Santa Ana. 


Annual grasses with flat leaves. Spikelets borne in 
pairs or in 3's in secund spikes which are digitate or 
approximate at the summit of the culm. Glumes 4 or 3, 
the innermost one chartaceous, subtending a palea of 
similar texture and a perfect flower. Stamens 3. Stig- 
mas plumose. 

1. S. sanguinalis (L.) Dulac. Culms erect or decumbent, 
often rooting at the lower nodes, 3-9 dm. long, smooth; sheaths 
glabrous or pubescent; leaves 5-15 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, 
acuminate, glabrous or pubescent; spikes 3-10, narrowly linear, 
4-15 cm. long, digitate at the summit of the culms; rachis flat, 
winged; spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long, in pairs, 1 sessile or nearly 
so, lanceolate; first glume minute, second a half to a third as long 
as the spikelet. (Panicum sanguinale L.) 

Common along irrigating ditches and in neglected orchards and gardens. 


Annual or perennial grasses, varying greatly in habit 
and inflorescence. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, when 2-flow- 
ered the lower one staminate only. Glumes 4, the 3 
lower membranous, empty or the third with a staminate 
flower ; the fourth chartaceous shining, enclosing a 
palea of similar texture and a perfect flower. Awns 
commonly wanting. Stamens 3. Styles distinct ; stig- 
mas plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the hardened 
fruiting glume and palea. 

* Awns present. 

1. P. Crus-galli L. Culms 3-8 dm. high, usually branching 
at base; sheaths smooth; leaves 1-5 dm. long, 3-12 mm. wide, 
smooth or scabrous; panicle composed of 5-15 sessile mostly 

24 Paniceae 

erect or ascending branches ; spikelets ovate, green or purple, 
densely crowded in 2-4 rows on one side of the rachis ; second 
and third glumes about 3 mm. long, scabrous or hispid, the third 
glume more or less awned, empty, the fourth ovate abruptly 

Frequent in neglected orchards and gardens and in waste places. 

** Awns none. 

2. P. colonum L. Culms tufted, smooth, 2-6 dm. high, often 
decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes; sheaths compressed, 
usually crowded; ligule wanting; leaves flat, 3-15 cm. long, 2-8 
mm. wide; panicles composed of 3-18, 1-sided more or less 
spreading dense branches, these 1-3 cm. long, spikelets single, or 
in 2's or 3's in 2 rows on one side of the hispidulous triangular 
rachis, obovate, pointed; first glume about half as long as the 
spikelet, 3-nerved, the second and third glumes a little more 
than 2 mm. long, awnless, 5-nerved, hispid on the nerves, the 
fourth cuspidate. 

Occasional along irrigating ditches and in waste places about Los Angeles 
and Santa Ana. 

3. P. capillare L. Culms erect or decumbent, 3-6 dm. high, 
simple or sparingly branched; sheaths papillose-hirsute; leaves 
15-30 cm. long, 6-15 mm. wide, more or less pubescent; terminal 
panicle usually 2-4 dm. long, lower branches exserted and widely 
spreading, 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long, acuminate; 
first glume %-% as long as the spikelet ; second and third glumes 
nearly equal, acute, the fourth 1.5 mm. long. 

Occasional along irrigating ditches and in neglected orchards and gardens. 

4. P. scoparium Lam. Culms simple and erect, becoming 
profuse with age ; sheaths hirsute to villous, often papillose ; 
leaves usually rounded or truncate at the base, pubescent or 
glabrate, those of the culms 4-6 cm. long, those of the branches 
much shorter ; terminal panicles less than 8 cm. long, ovoid, their 
branches ascending; lateral panicles much shorter, not exceed- 
ing the leaves; spikelets scarcely 2 mm. long, pubescent. (P. 
pubescens Lam.) 

Not known to occur within our limits, but it has been found in the San 
Jacinto Mountains by Mr. Hall, and at Glenn Ranch in Lytle Creek Canyon 
by the author. 

Millet Tribe 25 


Annual or perennial grasses with erect culms, flat 
leaves, and dense cylindric or somewhat open bristly 
spike-like panicles. Spikelets hermaphrodite, usually 1- 
flowered. Glumes 4, the outer 3 membranous, the third 
often subtending a hyaline palea and rarely a staminate 
flower, the fourth or flowering glume chartaceous, 
smooth or transversely rugose, inclosing a palea similar 
in texture. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Grain free, 
enclosed within the glume and palea. 

1. C. glauca (L.) Scribn. An erect or ascending csespitose 
glaucous annual, 3-12 dm. high; culms branching at the base, 
compressed, glabrous; nodes smooth; sheaths glabrous; ligule 
short ciliate; leaves 5-15 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, long acumi- 
nate, nearly glabrous or scabrous on the upper surface and mar- 
gins, generally pilose with scattered long hairs at the base; 
spikes about 1cm. in diameter; rachis pubescent; setae 5-12 at 
each spikelet, unequal, yellowish, 3-8 mm. long; spikelets 
broadly ovate, 3 mm. long; palea convex at the base, concave 
above, transversely striate. 

Occasional along streets in Los Angeles, Davidson. 

2. C. imberbis (Poir.) Scribn. Perennial; culms erect or 
ascending, more or less csespitose, from creeping rootstocks, 
slender, compressed, scabrous below the panicle, otherwise 
smooth ; sheaths glabrous, the lower much longer than the inter- 
nodes, smooth on the hyaline margins; leaves 1-3 dm. long, 3-7 
mm. wide, long tapering to the apex, slightly scabrous on the 
upper surface and margins; spikes 2-5 cm. long, nearly 1 cm. 
broad ; rachis angular, pubescent, branches short, 1- or rarely 2- 
flowered; setae 8-12, spreading, 5-10 mm. long, unequal, slender, 
finely antrorsely scabrous; spikelets ovate, acute, 2-2.5 mm. 
long; first glume about K~% as long as the spikelet, ovate, acute, 
5-7-nerved ; third glume equaling the flowering glume, 5-nerved, 
subtending a broad palea of its own length; flowering glume 
lliptic-ovate, finely transversely rugose ; palea plane or concave 

Frequent along irrigating ditches. Los Angeles; Santa Ana; San Ber- 

26 Phalarideae 


Annual or perennial grasses with usually flat leaves 
and spike-like inflorescence. Spikelets. subtended by a 
spiny involucre, which is deciduous at maturity with them. 
Glumes 4 fc the first hyaline, the second and third mem- 
branous, the latter sometimes subtending a palea and 
staminate flower, the fourth chartaceous, subtending a 
palea of similar texture which incloses a perfect flower. 
Stamens 3. Grain free, enclosed in the glume. 

1. C. tribuloides L. Culms erect or decumbent from an an- 
nual root, usually robust, 15-45 cm. high, freely branching; 
sheaths generally very loose, compressed smooth ; leaves 6-10 
cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide; spikes 25-50 mm. long; involucres 
crowded on the scabrous rachis, globose, pubescent except at the 
base, spines stout; spikelets 2-flowered, about 6 mm. long. 

Occasional in orchards and gardens. San Bernardino, Parish; Rialto. 
Native of Europe. 


Spikelets more or less laterally compressed, 1-flowered 
or rarely 3-flowered ; glumes 5, the first 2 empty and 
below the articulation of the rachilla, the third and 
fourth above the articulation, usually empty or rarely 
subtending staminate flowers, very unlike the other ones, 
sometimes reduced to bristles, the fifth glume with a 
1-nerved or nerveless palea and a hermaphrodite flower. 

Represented with us by the single genus. 8. PHALARIS. 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaves and 
spike-like, capitate or narrowly paniculate inflorescence. 
Spikelets crowded, 1-flowered. Glumes 5, the first and 
second about equal in length, strongly compressed later- 
ally, usually wing-keeled, the third and fourth much 

Agrostideae 27 

smaller or rudimentary, fifth subtending a palea similar 
to itself and a perfect flower. Stamens 3. Styles dis- 
tinct. Grain oblong free smooth, enclosed in the 

1. P. minor Retz. Culms simple or somewhat branched, 4-10 
dm. high, erect or decumhent at the base, smooth; sheaths usu- 
ally shorter than the internodes more or less inflated ; ligule 
rounded, 2-6 mm. long; blades 5-15 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, 
smooth or faintly scabrous; spike 2-8 cm. long, dense; spikelets 
5 mm. long; empty glumes more or less scabrous, 3-nerved, 
wing-keeled; third and fourth glumes subulate, hairy; fifth 
twice as long as the third and fourth, acuminate, pubescent with 
long appressed hairs. 

Very common in all our valleys in rather moist or heavy soil. March- 

2. P. Lemmoni Vasey. Culms rather slender, 3-10 dm. high, 
smooth; sheaths smooth; blades 3-5 mm. long, acuminate; 
ligule 6 mm. long; spike dense, nearly cylindric, sometimes 
slightly interrupted or lobed ; empty glumes 4-5 mm. long, acute 
or acuminate; second pair about 1 mm. long; flowering glume 
lanceolate, acuminate, about equaling the empty glumes, pubes- 
cent; palea nearly as firm in texture as its glume and a little 

Rather local. First collected near Santa Cruz by Lemmon. Collected by 
the author at Inglewood, so far the only locality known for it in southern 


Spikelets all hermaphrodite, 1-flowered, with 3 glumes, 
the first 2 empty or rarely wanting/usually exceeding or 
equaling the third or flowering glume in length ; 
rachilla sometimes prolonged behind the palea into a 
naked or plumose bristle. Palea usually 2-nerved. 

28 Agrostideae 

Flowering glumes awned or mucronate pointed. 

Awn of flowering glume terminal or from between the teeth of the- 

bifld apex, sometimes wanting in Epicampes. 
Awns 3-branched. 9. ABISTIDA. 

Awns simple. 

Awns articulate with the glumes. 

Awns usually long, geniculate and twisted below, persistent. 

10. STIPA. 

Awns short, caducous, or wanting. 15. EPICAMPES. 

Awns not articulate with the glume. 11. MUHLENBERGIA.. 

Awn dorsal. 

Spikelets articulated with the pedicel below the empty glumes. 


Spikelets not articulated below the empty glumes. 

Empty glumes saccate at the base, several times larger than the 

flowering glumes; inflorescence spike-like. 18. GASTRIDIUM. 
Empty glumes not saccate, never exceeding the flowering glumes- 
more than a third. 
Empty glumes smooth or minutely scabrous along the keel. 

Empty glumes more or less hairy; inflorescence spike-like. 


Flowering glumes awnless. 

Pericarp free from the grain. 14. SPOROBOLUS. 

Pericarp closely adherent to the grain. 

Empty glumes abruptly awn-pointed. 12. PLEUM. 

Empty glumes not abruptly awn-pointed. 17. AGROSTIS. 


Plants various in habit and inflorescence, with very 
narrow, often involute setaceous leaves. Spikelets nar- 
row, 1-flowered. Glumes 3, narrow, the 2 empty ones 
carinate ; the third rigid and convolute, bearing 3 
awns, sometimes rudimentary or rarely wanting. Palea 
2-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Grain free, 
tightly enclosed in the glumes. 

1. A. Americana bromoides (H. B. K.) Scribn. & Merrill. 
Culms slender, branching below and tufted, 8-35 cm. high; 
sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule reduced to a short 
fringe ; sterile shoots few, the leaves 2-8 cm. long, involute, 
setaceous, scabrid above; panicle exserted, spike-like, secund^ 
purplish, 2-5 cm. long; spikelets on short pedicels; empty 
glumes narrow, linear, abruptly pointed, scabrous on the back,, 
the first 3-5 mm. long, second 5-9 mm. long; flowering glume 

Bent-grass Tribe 29 

scabrous on the keel, about as long as the second glume; central 
awn shorter to a little longer than its glume, the lateral ones a 
little shorter, all scabrous ; palea less than 1 mm. long. 

Occasional in dry open places in the chaparral belt about Pasadena and 
San Diego; Catalina Island. 

2. A. purpurea aequiramea (Schule) Merrill. Rather stout, 
tufted, glabrous, 3-6 dm. high; culms simple; sheaths longer 
than the internodes, pilose at the throat; leaves involute, the 
lower numerous, 3-10 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, those of the culm 
about 3, usually 3-4 cm. long; panicle purplish, the branches 
capillary, generally erect or ascending, usually many-flowered, 
3-5 at each node; spikelets pale or purplish; second empty 
glume twice as long as the first, equaling the flowering glume, 
both cleft at the apex, the midnerve excurrent as a scabrous awn, 
1-2 mm. long; flowering glume about 10 mm. long, strongly 
tuberculate-scabrous ; awns equal, 5-7 cm. long. (A. purpurea 
Calif ornica Vasey.) 

Occasional in the lower altitudes of the chaparral belt. 


Generally rather tall grasses with convolute, rarely 
flat leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1- 
flowered, narrow. Glumes 3, the outer 2 narrow acute 
or rarely bearing an awn, the third rigid convolute with 
a hairy callus at the base and bearing a more or less 
bent awn, which is spiral at the base and articulated to 
the glume. Stamens 3, rarely fewer. Styles short, dis- 
tinct. Grain narrow free, tightly enclosed in the glume. 

*Awn scabrous or nearly smooth. 

1. S. Hassei Vasey. Culms slender and wiry, tufted, more or 
less branching below, erect, 3-4 dm. high; leaves very narrowly 
linear, setaceous, 1-2 dm. long, erect; ligule minute; sheaths 
narrow, striated; panicle 5-7.5 cm. long, narrow, loose, erect; 
branches erect, mostly 2-3 together, the larger ones 25 mm. long 
or more, naked below, others flowering to the base; spikelets 
small; empty glumes narrowly linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 
about 5 mm. long, nearly equal ; flowering glume nearly as long as 

30 Agrostideae 

the empty ones, membranaceous, smooth ; rachilla short with a 
few short hairs; palea half as long as its glume; awn 16-18 mm. 
long, bent above the middle, twisted below, nearly smooth ; grain 
oblong, about 2 mm. long. 

Santa Monica Mountains, Hasse. 

2. S. eminens Cav. Culms tufted, slender, 3-9 dm. high, pu- 
bescent at the nodes ; leaves convolute-setaceous, basal ones 
about half as long as the culm, lower culm leaves 15-20 cm. long, 
the uppermost 5 cm. long; ligule very minute; sheaths striate, 
smooth; panicle 10-15 cm. long, exserted, somewhat secund, the 
very slender short rays in pairs, few-flowered ; lower glumes 
about 10 mm. long, the upper 8 mm. long, acuminate, purplish ; 
flowering glume 5-6 mm. long, pubescent; awn about 25 mm. 
long, slender, bent near the middle, minutely and evenly sca- 

Occasional on dry ridges in the chaparral belt about Pasadena and San 

3. S. eminens Andersonii Vasey. Culms and leaves more 
slender; panicle thinner ; empty glumes 6-8 mm. long; flowering 
glume 4mm. long, nearly cylindric ; awn 20-24 mm. long. Other- 
wise like the type. 

Santa Monica Mountains, Hasse. 

4. S. coronata Thurb. Culms 10-20 dm. high, stout, 6-8 mm. 
thick at the base, lower culm leaves often 10 dm. long, 8-12 mm. 
wide at base, gradually tapering to a long involute point, the 
uppermost about 15 cm. long, nearly filiform and rigid, all slightly 
scabrous on both surfaces and margins; ligule short; sheaths 
rather loose, the uppermost dilated, smooth except the margins, 
these ciliate especially at the throat; panicle 3-5 dm. long, at 
length exserted and loose, narrow with erect branches; spikelets 
short-pedicelled ; empty glumes acuminate and bristle-pointed, 
slightly scabrous on the nerves, the lower 16mm. long, the upper 
12 mm. long; flowering glume 10 mm. long, silky-pubescent; 
awn about 25 mm. long, slender, bent below the middle and 
minutely scabrous; palea about half the length of its glume; 
anthers naked. 

Frequent on dry open ridges in the chaparral belt. Santa Monica, Santa 
Ana and San Gabriel Mountains ; also in the foothills of San Diego County. 

5. S. Parishii Vasey. Culms tufted, leafy below, 3-4.5 dm. 
high, rather stout; sheaths smooth longer than the internodes, 

Bent-grass Tribe 31 

the margins of the throat pubescent; blades involute, rigid, 
smooth below, scabrous above, the lower ones 12-18 cm. long, the 
upper 8-10 cm. long; panicle included at base by the somewhat 
inflated upper sheath, 12-15 cm. long, open; the lower branches 
in 3's, the upper in 2's or single, rather few-flowered ; empty 
glumes linear-lanceolate, smooth, first 12-16 mm. long, second 
about 2 mm. shorter; flowering glume about 7 mm. long, silky 
with white hairs often 5 mm. long, 2- toothed; awn 16-20 mm. 
long, smooth below, scabrous above. 

Occasional in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains, 5000-7000 
feet altitude, Parish, Hall. 

6. S. setigera Presl. Culms 3-9 dm. high, tufted, rather stout, 
pubescent at the nodes ; sheaths hairy at the throat, the lower 
shorter than the internodes ; basal leaves % as long as the culms ; 
culm-leaves flat, 4-6 mm. wide, the uppermost nearly equaling 
the panicle; ligule about 2 mm. long, truncate; panicle 10-25 
cm. long, mostly included below, loose, flexuous, more or less 
secund when young, the slender branches in pairs; pedicels 
shorter than the spikelets; empty glumes 12-18 mm. long, long- 
acuminate; flowering glume 10 mm. long, silky-hairy on the 
nerves ; awn geniculate above the middle, bent again, twisted and 
pubescent below, 6-10 cm. long ; anthers bearded at the apex. 

Common on the mesas, grassy hills, and in open places in the chaparral 

* Awn villous or pubescent, at least below. 

7. S. speciosa Trin. & Rupr. Perennial; culms tufted, erect, 
2-5 dm. high ; sheaths shorter than the internodes, the upper- 
most inflated ; basal leaves half as long as the culms, scabrous, 
culm leaves, usually 3, 5-15 cm. long, closely involute; panicle 
often somewhat included, spike-like, 6-20 cm. long, the branches 
usually in pairs, bearing 1-3 spikelets; empty glumes nearly 
equal, hyaline, acuminate, about 16 mm. long; flowering glumes 
silky-pubescent, 8-12 mm. long, 2-toothed at the apex; awn 3-4 
cm. long, geniculate below the middle, the twisted portion pilose 
with white hairs 3-6 mm. long. 

Occasional on dry hillsides in the lower portions of the chaparral belt. 
San Fernando Valley; Elsinore; San Bernardino; San Diego. 

8. S. viridula Trin. Culms stout, strict, simple, 4-7 dm. high ; 
sheaths much shorter than the internodes; blades smooth or 

32 Agrostideae 

scabrid, involute setaceous at the apex ; basal leaves about y$ as 
long as the culm, culm leaves 3-4, 2-6 mm. wide, the upper 3-6 
cm. long; ligule short with some hairs at the throat; panicle 
exserted, narrow, 12-40 cm. long, the short erect branches in 2's or 
3's; empty glumes nearly equal, ovate-lanceolate, bristle-pointed, 
6-12 mm. long ; flowering glumes pubescent, 5-6 mm. long; awn 
slender, flexuose, usually twice bent, 2-4 cm. long, pubescent or 
plumose below ; palea about half as long as its glume ; anthers 

Elysian Park, Davidson. Mt. Wilson in open pine woods. 


Perennial or annual grasses with convolute or flat 
leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Rootstocks often 
scaly. Spikelets 1-2-flowered. Glumes 3 or rarely 4 ; 
the outer ones empty, membranous or hyaline, acute 
and sometimes awned ; the third 3-5-nerved, subtending 
a palea and perfect flower, obtuse, acute or produced 
into a capillary awn ; stamens usually 3. Styles dis- 
tinct. Callus minute. Grain narrow free, tightly en- 
closed in the glume. 

1. M. Californica (Vasey). Culms spreading, diffusely 
branched, 4-8 dm. high ; panicles terminating the long, leafy, ter- 
minal and lateral branches, 10-15 cm. long, its branches mostly 
alternate, the lower distant and subspicate ; spikelets sessile and 
crowded on the branches ; empty glumes membranous except the 
hispid green keel, equal, lanceolate, acuminate, scarcely 4 mm. 
long, somewhat exceeding the flowering glume ; flowering glume 
about 3 mm. long, firm, scabrous, acute and terminating in a 
straight awn of about its own length, sparingly villous at the 
base; palea about equaling the glume, acute. (M. sylvatica Cali- 
fornica Vasey, Bot. Gaz. 7:93. 1882. M. Parishii Vasey, Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club. 13:53. 1886.) 

San Bernardino Mountains, Parish; near Pasadena, Davidson; San Diego. 

2. M. debilis Trin. Culms tufted, decumbent at base and 
much branched, purplish throughout, 1-4 dm. high ; leaves 25- 
50 mm. long, puberulent; ligule 1 mm. long, lacerate; panicle 5- 
12 cm. long, usually spreading, branches 25-35 mm. long, mostly 

Bent-grass Tribe 33 

single, sessile ; spikelets 2-3 mm. long, short-pedicellate ; empty 
glumes nearly equal, % to Y 5 as long as the flowering glume, 
mostly obtuse or eroded, hyaline; flowering glume slender, taper- 
ing, scabrous throughout, terminated by a slender awn 25-35 
mm. long; palea about equal to the flowering glume. 

Common on dry ridges and exposed places in the chaparral belt. Santa 
Monica, San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains, south to San Diego. 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaves and spike- 
like inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered. Glumes 3, the 
2 outer empty, membranous, compressed keeled, the 
apex obliquely truncate, midnerve produced into an 
awn, the third much shorter and broader, hyaline, trun- 
cate denticulate at the apex. Palea narrow, hyaline. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Grain ovoid, free, enclosed 
in the glume and palea. 

1. P. pratense L. Culms more or less tufted, erect, leafy, 3-9 
dm. high, simple; sheaths smooth; blades minutely scabrous; 
spike about 6 mm. wide, 3-10 cm. long; empty glumes about 2 
mm. long, hyaline except the 3 scabrous nerves; flowering glume 
nearly 2 mm. long. 

Occasional in lawns, and In mountain meadows. Cuyamaca. 


Annual or perennial grasses with erect or decumbent 
culms, usually flat leaves and spike-like inflorescence. 
Spikelets 1-flowered, flattened. Glumes 3 ; the 2 outer 
empty acute, sometimes short-awned, more or less united 
below, compressed, keeled ; keel ciliate or somewhat 
winged ; third glume truncate or obtuse, hyaline, acute, 
sometimes wanting. Stamens 3. Styles distinct or 
rarely united at the base. Stigmas elongated. 

1. A. geniculatus L. Perennial; culms decumbent and often 
rooting from the lower nodes, 2-4 dm. high, smooth; sheaths 
smooth, upper inflated; blades 1-3 mm. wide, the lowest often 
nearly equaling the culm, the uppermost equaling or exceeding 

34 Agrostideae 

the spike; spike 2-4 cm. long, about 4 mm. wide; spikelets 2-3 
mm. long ; empty glumes silky, obtuse ; flowering glumes gla- 
brous, their margins united to near the middle ; awn about 4 mm. 
long, slender. 

In low ground on the mesas near Inglewood. In a similar location near 
San Diego. 


Perennial or annual grasses with flat or convolute 
leaves and open or contracted panicles. Spikelets usu- 
ally small, 1-flowered, sometimes 2-3-flowered. Glumes 
in the 1-flowered spikelets 3, membranous ; the 2 outer 
empty, the first somewhat the shorter ; the third equal- 
ing or longer than the empty ones enclosing a perfect 
flower and a 2-nerved palea. Stamens 2-3. Styles very 
short, distinct. Grain free. 

1. S. airoides Torr. Perennial; culms erect, rather stout and 
tufted, 4-9 dm. high; sheaths somewhat shorter than the inter- 
nodes, the throat ciliate; ligule very short; leaves convolute, 
tapering to a filiform apex, those of the culm 4-5, the upper 
filiform, 2-3 cm. long ; panicle terminal, ovoid, often partly 
included at the base, 2-3 dm. long, its branches again branching 
and bearing scattered spikelets above the middle; spikelets light 
lead-color or brown ; empty glumes obovate, nerveless, first 
0.5-1 mm. long, second 1.5-2 mm. long; flowering glume con- 
cave, broadly oval, 1-nerved, 2 mm. long ; palea broader than its 
glume and a little shorter, truncate. 

Occasional in low ground. Wilmington; Westminster; San Bernardino; 
San Diego. 

2. S. asperifolius (Nees.) Thurb. Culms branching, 2-4 dm. 
high, ascending from stout creeping rootstalks, sheaths smooth, 
loose, longer than the numerous short internodes, leaves flat, 
scabrous, 3-8 cm. long, 2 mm. wide; panicle included at the base, 
open, 9-18 cm. long, its branches scabrous, bearing single spike- 
lets at the ends of very slender stiff branchlets ; spikelets tinged 
with purple ; empty glumes lanceolate, 3-nerved, first 0.3-0.5 
mm. long, second slightly longer; flowering glume oval, obtuse, 
1-1.5 mm. long; palea equaling the glume. 

San Bernardino, Parish; Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains. 

Bent-grass Tribe 35 

15. EPICAMPES Presl. 

Tall perennial tufted grasses with usually very long 
spike-like panicles. Spikelets small, 1-flowered. Empty 
glumes 2, membranous, slightly unequal, convex on the 
back, carinate, often finely 3-nerved ; flowering glumes 
3-nerved, obtuse or emarginate, a little shorter or about 
equaling the empty glumes, usually tipped with a slen- 
der rather short awn. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, 
short ; stigmas plumose. Grain free, included within 
the glumes. 

1. E. rigens Benth. Perennial, tufted ; culms rigid, erect, 
smooth, 5-10 dm. high; sheaths longer than the internodes, 
loose, smooth; ligule 4-6 mm. long ; leaves scabrous, rigid, in- 
volute apex attenuate, 1-3 dm. long ; panicle exserted or some- 
what included, erect dense spike-like, 2-5 dm. long, 5-8 mm. 
broad; spikelets minutely scabrous, elliptic; empty glumes 
white, about 3 mm. long, nearly equal ; flowering glume awnless, 
minutely pubescent, about 2 mm. long. 

Frequent in the San Gabriel Mountains, in canyons, confined mostly to 
the upper portions of the chaparral belt. 


Annual or rarely perennial grasses with decumbent or 
erect culms, flat leaves and spike-like panicles. Spike- 
lets 1-flowered. Glumes 3 ; the outer 2 empty, each ex- 
tended into an awn, the third smaller, usually hyaline, 
short-awned from below the apex, subtending a palea 
and perfect flower. Palea shorter than the glume. 
Stamens 1-3. Styles short, distinct. Grain free, en- 
closed in the glume and palea. 

1. P. Monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Annual; culms erect orgenicu- 
1 ate, 2-5 dm. high; sheaths about equaling the nodes, the upper 
slightly inflated; leaves flat, scabrous; panicle spike-like, oval 
or cylindric, 3-8 cm. long, 1-2 cm. broad, pale often yellowish- 
green ; spikelets numerous, nearly concealed by the slender 

36 Agrostideae 

awns; empty glumes pubescent or ciliate, obtuse, elliptic ; awns 
4 mm. long; flowering glume 1 mm. long, hyaline, truncate- 
jagged ; awn equaling or shorter than the glume or wanting ; 
palea 2-toothed. 

Common in low moist places along the coast and along streams through- 
out our range, ascending the mountains to the pine belt. 

2. P. littoralis Sin. Perennial, 3-6 dm. high, ascending 
from rootstocks; sheaths nearly equaling the internodes, the 
upper slightly inflated; leaves flat, scabrous; panicle dense, 
somewhat lobed, 4-8 cm. long; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long; awns 
equaling the empty elliptic glumes; flowering glume 1 mm. 
long, truncate, hyaline, its awn nearly twice as long; palea 

Occasional along streams in the valleys and foothills. 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat or bristle-like 
leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flow- 
ered. Glumes 3 ; the 2 outer empty, membranous, 
keeled, acute ; the third shorter, obtuse, hyaline, some- 
times bearing a dorsal awn, subtending a perfect flower. 
Palea shorter than the glume, sometimes minute or 
wanting. Stamens generally 3. Styles short, distinct. 
Grain free, enclosed in the glume. 

1. A. verticillata Vill. Perennial from slender rootstocks; 
culms decumbent, 3-6 dm. high, often rooting from the lower 
nodes; sheaths inflated, smooth; leaves 5-10 cm. long, 2-6 mm. 
wide, scabrid above; panicle loosely contracted, 4-10 cm. long, 
8-12 mm. wide; empty glumes nearly equal, obtuse, 1-nerved, 
scabrous ; callus naked ; flowering glume 1 mm. long, 5-toothed, 
glabrous ; palea nearly equaling the glume. 

Common along streams in the mountains and valleys throughout our 
range. Native of southern Europe. 

2. A. asperifolia Trin. Annual; culms erect, tufted, leafy, 
3-6 dm. high ; sheaths minutely scabrid ; leaves 7-15 cm. long, 
3-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle interrupted, lobed and dense 
above, 10-15 cm. long; branches crowded, erect; spikelets 2.5-3 
mm. long; empty glumes nearly equal, scabrous on the nerves; 

Bent-grass Tribe 37 

callus with a tuft of minute hairs at the base of each margin of 
the flowering glume; flowering glume 1.5 mm. long, glabrous, 
minutely 2-toothed at the apex, awnless ; palea obsolete. 
Occasional in low moist places in the coast valleys. 

3. A. Diegoensis Vasey. Perennial from slender stoloniferous 
rootstocks ; culms erect, 4-8 dm. high ; sheaths minutely scabrid ; 
blades 6-15 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, scabrid; panicle lax, narrow, 
6-14 cm. long, its branches"*erect ; spikelets 3-4 mm. long; empty 
glumes nearly equal, scabrid ; callus hairy at the base of each 
margin of the flowering glume ; flowering glume 2.5-3 mm. long, 
scabrid especially on the margins, 4-toothed ; palea obsolete. 

Not known within our limits, but occasional in San Diego County and ex- 
tending north to Washington. 


Csespitose annuals with flat leaves and shining 
spike-like panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered, hermaphrodite ; 
rachilla prolonged behind the palea. Empty glumes 2, 
equal, enlarged or saccate at the base, keeled above ; 
flowering glume much shorter than the empty ones, 
hyaline, truncate or obtusely 2-lobed, awnless or bearing 
a slender awn just below the apex. Palea narrow, about 
the length of the glume. Stamens 3. Styles short, dis- 
tinct ; stigmas plumose. Grain subglobose, free, included 
within the ventricose base of the glume. 

1. G. lendigerum (L.) Gaud. Culms more or less tufted, 
erect, 15-60 cm. high; sheaths shorter than the internodes, 
smooth; leaves, 3-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, acuminate, 
scabrous; panicle spike-like, 5-10 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, pale 
green and shining; spikelets lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long; empty 
glumes scabrous above ; flowering glume hairy, bearing a slender 
awn below the middle. 

Common on dry ground in the chaparral belt throughout our range. Na- 
tive of southern Europe. 

38 Aveneae 


Spikelets 2-several-flowered ; outer empty glumes 
usually longer than the first flowering glume ; 1 or more 
of the flowering glumes awned on the back or from be- 
tween the teeth of the bifid apex ; awn usually twisted 
or geniculate. 

Spikelets articulated with the pedicels below the empty glumes. 

19. HOLCUS. 

Spikelets not articulate below the empty glumes. 
Awns dorsal. 

Spikelets small, less than 1 cm. long. 20. DESCHAMPSIA. 

Spikelets 1 cm. long or more. 21. AVENA. 

Awns terminal, rising from between the lobes or teeth. 



Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaves and spike- 
like or open panicles. Spikelets deciduous, 2-flowered ; 
lower flowers perfect, upper staminate. Glumes 4 ; the 
2 lower empty, membranous, keeled, the first 1-nerved, 
the second 3-nerved and often short awned ; flowering 
glumes chartaceous, the upper ones bearing a bent awn. 
Palea narrow, 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. 
Grain oblong, enclosed in the glume. 

1. H. lanatus L. Densely and softly pubescent throughout; 
culms 4-6 dm. high, erect, often decumbent at the base, simple; 
sheaths shorter than the internodes ; ligule 1-2 mm. long ; leaves 
3-8 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide; spikelets 4 mm. long; empty 
glumes white-vilious, the upper awn-pointed ; flowering glumes 
2 mm. long, smooth and shining, the lower sparsely ciliate on the 
keel, somewhat obtuse, the upper 2-toothed and bearing a hooked 
awn below the apex. 

Santa Anita and Oak Knoll, McClatchie, Davidson. 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute 
leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2- 

Oat Tribe 39 

flowered ; both flowers perfect, the hairy rachilla ex- 
tended beyond or rarely terminated by a staminate one. 
Glumes 4, the 2 outer empty, keeled, acute, membranous, 
shining, persistent ; the flowering glumes similar in tex- 
ture, deciduous, bearing a dorsal awn, toothed at the 
apex. Palea narrow. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. 
Grain oblong, free and enclosed in the glume. 

1. D. calycina Presl. Annual; culms slender, 1-6 dm. high; 
sheaths smooth; leaves few, 3-6 cm. long, 1 mm. wide or less; 
panicle spreading, about % the length of the culms, bearing 1-5 
spikelets above the middle, the lowest of which are on spreading 
pedicels; spikelets 2-flowered; empty glumes about 2 mm. long, 
hairy below, shining above, 5-nerved, emarginate with 4 minute 
ciliate teeth ; awn inserted below the middle, about 6 mm. long, 
bent near the middle and twisted below. 

Occasional on dry mesas or in open places in the foothills and mountains. 

21. AVENA L. OAT. 

Annual or perennial grasses with generally flat leaves 
and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 2-several-flower- 
ed or rarely 1 -flowered ; the lower flowers perfect, the 
upper usually staminate. Glumes 4-many, the 2 outer 
empty, somewhat unequal, membranous, persistent ; 
flowering glumes deciduous, rounded on the back, acute, 
generally bearing a dorsal awn, apex often 2-toothed. 
Palea narrow, -2-toothed. Stamens 3. Styles short, 
distinct. Grain oblong, deeply furrowed, enclosed in 
the glume and palea, free or sometimes adherent to the 

1. A. fatua L. (WILD OAT.) Culms usually tufted, 5-15 dm. 
high; leaves scabrid, rather long and broad; panicle 1-4 dm. 
long, its branches unequal, long filiform ; spikelets drooping, 2-3- 
flowered ; empty glumes subequal, ovate-lanceolate, 20-25 mm. 
long, 9-11-nerved; flowering glumes 18 mm. long, acute, bifid, 
yellowish hairy especially below, 9-nerved; awn from near the 

40 Aveneae 

middle of the glume, 1-2 cm. long, genieulate; palea 15 mm. 
long, hairy on the nerves. 

Very common in all the valleys and on grassy hills. Native of southern 

2. A. fatua glabrescens Coss. (BASTARD OATS.) Like the 
type except that the flowering glumes are glabrous. In this re- 
spect resembling A. saliva L., the cultivated oat, but it is easily 
distinguished from that by its longer and genieulate awn and 
wide, 9-nerved flowering glume. A . saliva is awnless or has a 
short straight awn and a 7-nerved glabrous flowering glume. 

Occasional in our valleys. San Bernardino, Parish; Inglewood. 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute 
leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 3-many- 
flowered, the flowers all perfect or the upper stami- 
nate rachilla pubescent extending beyond the flowers. 
Glumes 5-many, the 2 outer empty, keeled, acute, sub- 
equal, persistent, generally extending beyond the upper- 
most flowering glume ; flowering glumes rounded on the 
back, 2-toothed, deciduous ; the awn arising from be- 
tween the acute or awned teeth 3 flat and twisted at base, 
bent. Palea hyaline, 2-keeled near the margins, obtuse 
or 2-toothed. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Grain free, 
enclosed in the glume. 

1. D. Californica Boland. Perennial, tufted; culms 4-8 dm. 
high, erect or somewhat decumbent at base; sheaths smooth, 
villous or bearded at the summit; blades flat or convolute, 10-15 
cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, scabrous; spikelets 1-5, terminal, 15-25 
mm. long, usually purplish ; pedicels slender, spreading, minute- 
ly hirsute ; empty glumes equaling the spikelet ; flowers usually 
7; flowering glume about 8 mm. long, hairy on the callus and 
margins below the middle, teeth about 2 mm. long; awn about 
equaling the glume, scabrous. 

In dry usually stony ground. Newhall, Davidson. 

Chlorideae 41 


Spikelets 1-several-flowered in 1-sided spikes or 
racemes ; the racemes digitate or fasciculate, rarely soli- 
tary ; flowering glumes usually keeled, entire and un- 
armed or toothed and with 1-3 straight awns. 

Spikelets imbricated in 2 rows, forming unilateral spikes, which are scat- 
tered along a common rachis. 24. SPABTINA. 

Spikes 2-6, digitate. 23. CYNODON. 

Spikes slender, alternating and more or less remote along a common 
axis. 25. LEPTOCHLOA. 


Perennial mostly from running rootstocks, with short 
flat leaves and spicate inflorescence. Spikes digitate, 
slender. Spikelets 1-flowered, secund. Glumes 3 ; the 2 
outer empty, keeled ; the third broader membranous, 
compressed. Palea a little shorter than the flowering 
glume, hyaline 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. 
Grain free. 

1. C. Dactylon (L.) Pers. Culms 1-3 dm. high, erect, from 
long creeping and branching stolons, smooth; sheaths glabrous 
or somewhat hairy, crowded at the bases of the culms and along 
the stolons; ligule pilose; leaves 25-50 mm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, 
flat, rigid, smooth beneath, scabrous above; spikes 4-5, 12-25 
mm. long, digitate; rachis flat; spikelets 2 mm. long; empty 
glumes hispid on the keel, narrow, the first shorter than the second, 
about ^3 as long as the broad and strongly compressed third one. 

Common along irrigation ditches and roadsides. Native of Europe. 
Commonly called Bermuda Grass and extensively used for lawns. 


Perennial glabrous grasses with long horizontal root- 
stocks, flat or involute leaves, and an inflorescence of 
1-sided spreading or erect alternate spikes. Spikelets 
1-flowered narrow deciduous, borne in 2 rows on the rachis, 

42 Chlorideae 

articulated on very short pedicels below the glumes. 
Glumes 3 ; the outer 2 empty keeled very unequal, 
the third subtending a perfect flower, keeled, equaling or 
shorter than the second. Palea often larger than its glume, 
2-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles filiform, elongated ; stig- 
mas filiform, papillose or shortly plumose. Grain free. 

1. S. glabra Muhl. Culms simple, stout, 6-15 dm. high; 
sheaths glabrous, the lower ones crowded; leaves 5-7 dm. long, 
1-1.5 cm. wide, usually flat, tapering to a long involute tip, 
smooth; panicles 2-4 dm. long, strict; spikes 5-15 cm. long; 
spikelets crowded, 10-14 mm. long; empty glumes glabrous or 
sparingly scabrous on the keel, the first 6-8 mm., the second 
10-14 mm. long; flowering glume 8-10 mm. long; palea slightly 
exceeding the glume. 

Occasional in the salt marshes along the coast. Wilmington. 

2. S. foliosa Trin. Culms erect, 6-8 dm. high, stout; sheaths 
smooth, crowded at least above ; leaves 2-3 dm. long, about 1 cm. 
wide, smooth, tapering to a long involute tip; panicle 10-15 cm. 
long, nearly cylindric; spikes 2-5 cm. long, appressed ; spikelets 
crowded, 12-14 mm. long, glabrous or the empty glumes usually 
stoutly ciliate on the keels ; the first empty glume narrow, 7-8 
mm., the second 12-14 mm. long; flowering glume 10-12 mm. 
long, slightly shorter than the palea. 

This has been found at San Diego and may occur within our limits. It is 
easily recognized by its dense spike-like inflorescence and leafy culms. 

25. LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. 

Mostly rather tall annual grasses with flat leaves and 
numerous spikes forming a simple panicle. Spikelets 
2-many-flowered, flattened, alternating in 2 rows on one 
side of the rachis. Glumes 4-many, the 2 lower empty, 
keeled, 8-nerved. Palea 2-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles 
distinct. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palea. 

1. L. mucronata (Michx.)- Kunth. Culms 3-9 dm. high, 
erect, branched, smooth; sheaths shorter than the internodes, 
smooth; ligule short, lacerate-toothed ; leaves 5-18 cm. long, 
2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; spikes numerous, slender, rigid, ascend- 

Festuceae 43 

ing or sometimes spreading, the lower 5-15 cm. long; spikelets 
usually 3-flowered, about 2 mm. long; empty glumes shorter 
than the spikelets, acute, 1-nerved, slightly scabrous on the keel ; 
flowering glumes 2-toothed at the apex, ciliate on the nerves. 

Common in the San Joaquin Valley and at Imperial along irrigating 
canals. Known within our limits only from near Santa Monica, Davidson. 


Spikelets 2-many-flowered, usually hermaphrodite, 
pedicellate in racemes or panicles, the latter sometimes 
dense and spike-like. Flowering glumes usually larger 
than the empty glumes, awnless or with 1-several 
straight, rarely bent, awns, which are either terminal or 
borne just below the apex. 

Spikelets of 2 kinds in the same inflorescence, hermaphrodite and sterile. 
Fertile spikelets 2-3-flowered, awnless. 32. CYNOSURUS. 

Fertile spikelets t-flowered, long awned. 33. LAMARCKIA. 

Spikelets all alike in the same inflorescence. 
Plants dioecious, saline or maritime. 

Spikelets solitary, concealed in the axils of the crowded short and 
rigid leaves. 26. MONANTHOCHLOE. 

Spikelets in exserted spike-like panicles. 30. DISTICHLIS. 

Plants not dioecious. 

Flowering glumes 1-3-nerved or nerveless. 

Annual; inflorescence a lax panicle. 27. ERAGROSTIS. 

Perennial; inflorescence a spike-like panicle. 28. KOELERIA. 
Flowering glumes 5-many-nerved. 

Flowering glumes rounded on the back. 

Nerves of the flowering glumes prominent. 

29. MELICA. 
Nerves of the flowering glumes obscure or manifest only near the 


Flowering glumes obtuse and awnless. 34. POA. 
Flowering glumes acute, often awned. 

Flowering glumes entire, acute or awned from the apex. 

Flowering glumes usually awned just below the entire or 

2-toothed apex. 36. BROMDS. 

Flowering glumes compressed or keeled. 

Spikelets nearly sessile in dense 1-sirted clusters at the ends of 

the few panicled branches. 31. DACTYLIS. 

Spikelets 1-2 cm. long; glumes short-awned. 

36. BROMUS. 
Spikelets smaller; glumes awnless. 34. POA 

44 Festuceae 


A creeping or stoloniferous grass with stout rigid 
crowded leaves. Spikelets 2-3-flowered unisexual some- 
what unlike usually sessile in 4's and concealed within 
the leaf fascicles, the upper floral leaves becoming smaller 
at length reduced to sheaths and resembling the outer 
glumes. Flowering glumes membranous rigid obtuse or 
denticulate. Palea 2-nerved included within the flower- 
ing glume. Stamens in the staminate plants 3. Styles 
in the pistillate plants distinct, elongated ; stigmas bar- 
bellate. Grain free, included within the glume and 

1. M. littoralis Engelm. Culms firm, creeping or ascending ; 
leaves crowded, subulate, usually about 1 cm. long, conduplicate ; 
flowering glumes 9-12-nerved. 

Occasional on salt marshes along the coast. San Pedro ; San Diego. 

ARUNDO DONAX L. (GIANT-REED.) A tall reed-like grass with 
hollow culms, broad flat leaves and ample terminal panicles. In- 
troduced from southern Europe and cultivated for ornament, 
sometimes found as an escape. 

grass with solid culms, long narrow leaves and large showy plu- 
mose panicles. Introduced from South America and cultivated for 

27. EBAGBOSTIS Beauv. 

Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaves and con- 
tracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2-many-flowered, 
more or less flattened. Glumes 4-many ; the 2 outer 
empty, unequal, shorter than the flowering ones, keeled, 
1-nerved or the second 3-nerved ; flowering glumes mem- 
branous, keeled, 3-nerved. Palea shorter than the 
glumes, prominently 2-nerved or 2-keeled, usually per- 
sisting on the rachilla after the glume has fallen. Sta- 

Fescue Tribe 45 

mens 2-3. Styles distinct, short. Grain free, loosely en- 
closed in the glume and palea. 

1. E. major Host. Culms 2-6 dm. high, erect or decumbent 
at base, usually branched, smooth; sheaths shorter than the in- 
ternodes, sparingly pilose at the throat, otherwise smooth ; blades 
5-15 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat, smooth beneath, scabrous 
above; panicle 5-15 cm. long, the branches spreading or ascend- 
ing, 2-4 cm. long; spikelets 8-35-flowered, 5-15 mm. long, about 
3 mm. wide, flat; empty glumes obtuse, 2-2.5 mm. long, lateral 
nerves prominent. 

Along ditches and streams about Los Angeles and Santa Ana. 

2. E. pilosa (L.) Beauv. Annual, 4-5 dm. high, somewhat tuft- 
ed, smooth; sheaths smooth, shorter than the internodes; leaves 
flat, 8-15 cm. long, smooth ; panicle spreading, 15-30 cm. long ; rays 
decompound, smooth or slightly bearded in the axils; spikelets 
on pedicels 4-8 mm. long, narrowly linear, 5-8 mm. long, 7-20- 
flowered, dark lead color or purplish; empty glumes lanceolate, 
first 1.5 mm. long, second 2 mm. long, flowering glume ovate, 
1.5-1.8 mm. long; palea about equaling its glume, scaberulous on 
the keel; grain 1 mm. long. (E. Orcuttiana Vasey.) 

Occasional along irrigating ditches about San Bernardino and Santa Ana. 

28. KOELEBIA Pers. 

Tufted annual or perennial grasses with flat or setace- 
ous leaves and mostly spike-like panicles. Spikelets 2- 
5-flowered. The 2 outer glumes empty, narrow, unequal, 
acute, keeled, scarious on the margins ; flowering glumes 
3-5-nerved. Palea hyaline, acute, 2-keeled. Stamens 3. 
Styles very short. Grain free, enclosed in the glume 
and palea. 

1. K. cristata (L.) Pers. Perennial; culms erect, tufted, 3-7 
dm. high; sheaths smooth, equaling or shorter than the inter- 
nodes; basal leaves %-% as long as the culms, culm leaves 2-4, 
6-12 cm. long, all glabrous; panicle spike-like, somewhat lobed 
and interrupted, 5-12 cm. long ; axis and branches soft-pubescent ; 
spikelets 2-4-flowered, 4-5 mm. long ; first glume 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 
second 3-4 mm. long; flowering glume equaling the second empty 

Common on grassy hills. 

46 Festuceae 

2. K. cristata pinetorum. Closely resembling the type in 
habit and floral characters, but the sheaths and leaves soft-pubes- 
cent. (K. cristata pubescens Vasey, not of Beauv.) 

Occasional in open pine forests. Wilson's Peak; San Bernardino Moun- 
tains; San Jacinto Mountains. 


Perennial often tufted grasses with usually flat leaves 
and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 1-several- 
flowered, often secund. The rachilla extended beyond 
the flowers and generally bearing 2-3 empty club-shaped 
or hooded glumes, convolute around each other. Two 
outer glumes empty, membranous, 3-5-nerved ; flowering 
glumes larger, rounded on the back, 7-13-iierved, some- 
times bearing an awn, the margins more or less scari- 
ous. Palea broad, shorter than the glume, 2-keeled. 
Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Grain free, enclosed in the 
palea and glume. 

1. M. imperfecta Trin. Culms slender, somewhat tufted, 3-10 
dm. high; sheaths exceeding the internodes; blades 6-7, flat or 
becoming involute, usually glabrous or more or less scabrous, 
15-20 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide; panicle 2-3 dm. long, its 
branches in remote clusters, unequal, the longer 5-7 cm. long; 
spikelets scabrid 1-flowered, with an imperfect flower or rarely 
2-flowered; empty glumes ovate or nearly so, the first about 3 
mm. long, 3-nerved, second slightly longer, 5-nerved; flowering 
glume about 4 mm. long, ovate, obtuse, 7-nerved, often purplish; 
palea nearly as long as its glume. 

Common on grassy slopes on the mesas and grassy hills. March-May. 

2. M. imperfecta flexuosa Boland. Much resembling the 
type in habit and foliage, but the branches of the panicle few- 
flowered, generally in pairs, often reflexed ; spikelets larger, 
acuter, paler and more coriaceous. 

Santa Monica Mountains, Davidson. 

3. M. imperfecta minor Scribn. Usually densely tufted ; 
culms compressed or angular; leaves mostly basal ; branches of 

Fescue Tribe 47 

the panicles short, divergent or reflexed; spikelets smaller than 
in the species ; the outer glumes shorter and more obtuse. 
San Fernando Mountains, near Chatsworth Park. 

4. M. imperfecta refracta Thurb. Densely velvety-pubescent 
throughout; panicle slender, flexuous, its branches few, distant, 
strongly refracted ; spikelets very acute. 
Santa Monica, Davidson. 


Dioecious grasses of saline or maritime habit with 
rigid culms, creeping or decumbent at the base, flat or 
convolute leaves and spike-like paniculate inflorescence. 
Spikelets flattened more on the staminate plants than on 
the pistillate. Two outer glumes empty, narrow, keeled, 
acute ; flowering glumes longer than the empty ones, 
many-nerved, acute, rigid ; palea 2-keeled. Stamens 3. 
Styles thickened at the base, rather long, distinct. 
Grain free, enclosed in the glume and palea. 

1. D. spicata (L.) Greene. (SALT-GRASS.) Culms rather stout, 
from creeping scaly rootstocks, rigid, erect, 1-5 dm. high; sheaths 
numerous, glabrous, bearded at the throat; blades pale green, 
3-10 cm. long, 3 mm. wide at base, spreading, rigid, margins 
minutely ciliate; panicle spike-like, 3-8 cm. long, its branches ap- 
pressed; spikelets 8-12 mm. long, keeled; empty glumes obtuse, 
first 2-3 mm. long, second 4 mm. long ; flowering glume of sterile 
spikelets 3-5 mm. long, of fertile spikelets 5-6 mm. long. 

Very common in low subsaline places along the coast and in our interior 


A tall perennial grass with flat leaves and paniculate 
inflorescence. Spikelets 3-5-flowered, short pedicelled, 
in dense capitate clusters. Flowers perfect or the upper 
staminate. The 2 outer empty glumes thin membran- 
ous, unequal, keeled, mucronate ; flowering glumes larger 
than the empty ones, rigid, 5-nerved, keeled, the mid- 
nerve extended into a point or short awn. Palea shorter 

48 Festuceae 

than the glume, 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. 
Grain free, enclosed in the glume and palea. 

1. D. glomerata L. Culms 6-12 dm. high, tufted, erect, 
simple, smooth ; sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth or 
rough; ligule 2-4 mm. long; blades 7-20 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, 
flat, scabrous; panicle 7-18 cm. long, its branches spreading or as- 
cending in flower, erect in fruit, the lower 25-60 mm. long; spike- 
lets in dense capitate clusters, 3-5-flowered ; empty glumes 1-3- 
nerved, the first shorter than the second; flowering glumes 4-6 
mm. long, rough, pointed or short awned, ciliate on the keel. 
Occasional in yards about Los Angeles. 


Annual or perennial tufted grasses with flat leaves 
and dense spike-like inflorescence. Spikelets consisting 
of narrow empty glumes with a continuous rachilla, the 
terminal spikelets of 2-4 broader glumes with articulate 
rachilla, and subtending perfect flowers. The 2 outer 
glumes broad, 1-3-nerved, pointed or short awned ; 
upper glumes narrower, usually empty. Glumes of the 
sterile spikelets pectinate, spreading, linear-subulate; 
1-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short. Grain 
finally adherent to the palea. 

1. C. cristatus L. Perennial; culms tufted, erect, slender, 
3-6 dm. high; sheaths smooth, shorter than the internodes; 
blades of the culm flat, 2-10 cm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide ; spike near- 
ly cylindric, oblong or linear, 3-10 cm. long; the clusters of spike- 
lets all turned to one side, the empty ones forming involucres to 
each cluster. 

On lawns, rarely seen. Los Angeles, Davidson. Native of Europe. 

33. LAMABCKIA Moench. 

A low annual grass with flat leaves and showy 1-sided 
panicles of crowded fasciculate spikelets, the fertile 
spikelets nearly enclosed by the numerous sterile ones. 
The terminal spikelet of each fascicle fertile, the others 

Fescue Tribe 49 

(1-3) linear and consisting of many distichously imbri- 
cated obtuse empty glumes. Fertile spikelets 1-flowered, 
with rachilla prolonged into a slender stipe and bearing 
a small empty awned glume or reduced to an awn. 
Empty glumes 2, 1-nerved, acuminate or short-awned, 
slightly unequal; flowering glume broader, 1-nerved, 
bearing a slender awn just below the apex. Palea n'ar- 
row, 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct ; stig- 
mas barbellate. 

1. L. aurea (L.) Moench. (GOLDEN-TOP.) Annual; culms 
tufted, 2-5 dm. high; sheaths smooth; blades 5-8 mm. wide; 
panicle linear or oval, 5-8 cm. long; empty glumes of the fertile 
spikelets narrow, keeled, 4-4.5 mm. long; flowering glume 3 mm. 
long, oval, bearing a dorsal awn a little below the apex, 6-9 mm. 

Common on grassy plains and hills. Native of southern Europe. 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute 
leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2-6- 
flowered, compressed, the rachilla usually glabrous. 
Flowers perfect or rarely dioecious. Glumes membran- 
ous, keeled ; the 2 lower empty, 1-3-nerved ; the flower- 
ing glumes longer than the empty ones, generally with 
a tuft of cobwebby hairs at the base, 5-nerved, the mar- 
ginal nerves usually pubescent, often also the dorsal one. 
Palea a little shorter than the glumes, 2-nerved or 
2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct. Grain 
free or sometimes adherent to the palea. 

* Annuals. 

1. P. annua L. Annual; culms weak, compressed, 5-30 cm. 
long, decumbent ; ligule 2-3 mm. long ; blades of the sterile shoots 
}4~% as long as the culms ; culm leaves 3, flat; panicle subsecund, 
ovoid, 2-5 cm. long, its branches usually in pairs, the longest 
2.5 cm. long, bearing spikelets above the middle; spikelets nearly 

50 Festuceae 

sessile, 3-7-flowered, 4-6 mm. long; empty glumes compressed, 
about 2.5 mm. long; flowering glume ovate, smooth, erose at 
apex, 2.8-3.1 mm. long, with soft hairs on the keel and lower 
part of the lateral nerves; palea 2.5-2.8 mm. long, ciliate or 
pubescent on the keels. 

Common in moist places in all our valleys. Native of Europe. 

2. P. infirxna H. B. K. Annual ; culms slender, spreading, 1-2 
dm. long; sheaths compressed, loose; ligule 2 mm. long; leaves 
smooth; panicle ovoid, 2-4 cm. long, its branches mostly in pairs 
bearing 2-5 spikelets above; spikelets subsessile, oblong, 2-4- 
flowered, 3-4 mm. long; empty glumes scarious on the tips and 
margins, the second larger than the first, 2-2.2 mm. long; flower- 
ing glume broadly oval, about 3 mm. long, scarious toward the 
apex and on the margins, ciliate on the keels and margins below ; 
palea nearly equaling the glume, ciliate on the keels. 

In moist rather shady places. Glenn Ranch, Lytle Creek. 

** Perennials. 

3. P. pratensis L. (KENTUCKY BLUE-GRASS.) Perennial; 
culms terete, glabrous, from running rootstocks, 3-6 dm. high ; 
sheaths smooth ; ligule truncate, 1.5 mm. long; leaves of the ster- 
ile shoots flat, abruptly concave-pointed, those of the culms 3, 
smooth or scabrous; panicle usually rather open pyramidal, its 
branches in half whorls of 3-6, densely flowered on the upper 
half; spikelets 3-6-flowered, 4-7 mm. long; empty glumes acute, 
scabrous on the keels, first 2.5-3 mm. long, second 3-3.5 mm. 
long; flowering gluine webbed at the base, scabrous toward the 
apex, pubescent on the marginal nerves and on the keel below ; 
palea linear, 2.5-3 mm. long, scabrous on the keels. 

Frequent in lawns and occasional in mountain meadows. Bear Valley; 

4. P. Fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey. Perennial; culms tufted, 
3-7 dm. high, usually dioecious; leaves of sterile shoots usually 
flat, 6-10 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, culm leaves 2-3, conduplicate, 
1-10 cm. long; ligule 3-5 mm. long; panicle spike-like, 8-12 cm. 
long, its branches in 2's or 3's, flower-bearing on the upper half; 
spikelets ovate-lanceolate, flattish, often tinged with purple, 3-7- 
flowered; empty glumes nearly equal, compressed, 4-5 mm. 

Fescue Tribe 51 

long; flowering glume oblong, 4-5 mm. long, often denticulate at 
the apex, scabrous; palea lanceolate, scabrous, shorter than or 
equaling its glume. 

Frequent on dry open hillsides in the chaparral belt. 

5. P. scabrella (Thurb.) Vasey. Perennial; culms slender, 
4-7 dm. high, scabrid; leaves of the sterile shoots flat or con- 
duplicate, 12-20 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, those of the culm 2-3, 5-7 
cm. long; ligule 5-12 mm. long; panicle rather open, 12-15 cm. 
long, its branches in pairs, the longest 5-7 cm. long; spikelet 
flower-bearing at least above the middle; spikelets 5-6 mm. long, 
3-5-flowered; first empty glume 2.5 mm., the second 3 mm. long; 
flowering glume 3 mm. long, rough, hairy on the lower part of 
the nerves, apex denticulate; palea slightly shorter. 

Occasional in the canyons of our coast mountains. Pasadena, Davidson; 
Santa Monica Mountains. 


Mostly tufted perennial grasses with flat or convolute 
leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 2-several- 
flowered. The 2 lower glumes empty, more or less un- 
equal, acute, keeled ; flowering glumes membranous, 
narrow, rounded on the back, 5-nerved, usually acute 
and often awned at the apex. Palea scarcely shorter 
than the glume. Stamens 1-3. Styles very short, dis- 
tinct. Grain glabrous-, elongated, often adherent to the 
glume or palea. 

1. F. microstachys (Munro) Nutt. Annual; culms slender, 
erect, tufted, 1-4 dm. high; sheaths shorter than the internodes, 
smooth or pubescent; ligule 0.5 mm. long or less; culm-leaves 
2-4, erect, 3-8 cm. long, very narrow; panicle 3-10 cm. long, its 
branches secund, divergent, remote, the longer 3-5 cm. long; 
spikelets remote, 5-10 mm. long, 1-5-flowered; empty glumes 
awnless, scabrous or glabrous, the first 3 mm., the second 5 mm. 
long; flowering glume 3-4 mm. long, scabrous; awn slender, 6-8 
mm. long. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt and in our dry interior valleys. 

52 Festuceae 

2. F. microstachys Grayi. Spikelets or at least the flower- 
ing glumes more or less densely pubescent. Otherwise as in the 
type. (F. microstachys ciliata Gray.) 

Cuyamaca Mountains. Not known within our limits, but intermediate 
forms have been collected near San Bernardino. 

3. F. Myuros L. Annual; culms slender, smooth, mostly 
erect, 2-5 dm. high; sheaths smooth, longer than the internodes; 
culm-leaves 3-5, erect, slender, 5-10 cm. long; panicle narrow, 
7-25 cm. long; branches scabrous, erect, appressed ; spikelets 5-8- 
flowered, 8-10 mm. long; empty glumes scabrous, the first 2 mm. 
long or less, second involute, 4-6 mm. long; awn 5-8 mm. long; 
palea lanceolate, scabrous on the keels, nearly equaling its glume, 
with 2 short awns. 

Occasional in grassy places that have been pastured. Capistrano. Na- 
tive of Europe. 

4. F. Myuros ciliata Coss. Empty glumes slightly more un- 
equal; flowering glumes, at least the uppermost, conspicuously 
ciliate above the middle. 

Common on mesas and grassy hillsides, and along streets and waste 
places. Native of southern Europe. 

5. F. octoflora Walt. Annual ; culms usually tufted, 15-30 
cm. high; sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth; culm- 
leaves 2-5, erect, slender, 3-6 cm. long ; panicle simple erect, 5-10 
cm. long, rather narrow; spikelets oval, 6-10 mm. long, 7-13- 
flowered; empty glumes involute, first 3 mm. long, second 4 mm. 
long; flowering glume involute, acuminate, scabrous 3-4 mm. 
long; awn 1-7 mm. long; palea lanceolate, scarcely as long as 
the glume ; stamens 2. 

Frequent throughout the chaparral belt of all the hills and mountains. 


Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and ter- 
minal panicles thickened at the summit. Spikelets few- 
many-flowered. The 2 lower glumes empty, unequal, 
acute ; flowering glumes rounded on the back or some- 
times compressed and keeled below the summit. Palea 
shorter than the glume, 2-keeled. Stamens generally 3. 
Stigmas sessile, inserted below a hairy cushion at the 
top of the ovary. Grain adherent to the palea. 

Fescue Tribe 53 

* Awns very slender, usually twisted or bent. 

1. B. hordeaceus L. Annual; culms erect, 2-8 dm. high, 
usually pubescent at the nodes; sheaths retrorsely soft pilose- 
pubescent; ligule 1.5-2 mm. long laciniate; leaves linear, pilose- 
pubescent or nearly smooth, 5-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; pan- 
icle contracted, 5-14 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide; spikelets 5-13- 
flowered, 12-15 mm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, ovate-lanceolate, be- 
coming obtuse; empty glumes coarsely pilose or scabrous-pubes- 
cent, the lower 3-5-nerved, 4-6 mm. long, the upper 5-7-nerved, 
7-8 mm. long; flowering glume 8-9 mm. long, coarsely pilose or 
scabrous-pubescent; awn rather stout, rough, straight or some- 
times becoming twisted, 6-9 mm. long. (B. mollis L.) 

Frequent in our coast valleys along roadsides. Native of southern 

2. B. secalinus L. Annual; culms 3-7 dm. high, smooth 
throughout or somewhat pubescent on the nodes ; sheaths smooth 
or sometimes sparsely pilose-pubescent; leaves 1-2 dm. long, 
coarsely and sparsely pubescent above, smooth beneath ; panicle 
8-18 cm. long, erect, the upper part drooping in fruit; spikelets 
ovoid-lanceolate, 10-18 mm. long, 6-8 mm. wide in fruit; empty 
glumes smooth, obtuse, the first 4-6 mm. long, 3-5-nerved, the 
second broader, 6-7 mm. long, 7-nerved ; flowering glume 7- 
nerved, 6-8 mm. long, elliptic, obtuse, smooth or scabrous; awn 
undulate, 3-5 mm. long; palea equaling the glume. 

Los Angeles River, Davidson. 

3. B. Trinii Desv. Annual ; culms 3-6 dm. high, often branched 
above, smooth or pubescent at the nodes ; sheaths pilose-pubescent 
or nearly smooth; leaves 6-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, usually 
pilose-pubescent throughout or nearly smooth; panicle rather 
crowded and narrow, suberect, 8-20 cm. long; branches slender 
ascending; spikelets lanceolate, 5-7-flowered, 1.5-2 cm. long; 
empty glumes lanceolate, acuminate, smooth, the first 1-nerved, 
8-11 mm. long, the second broader, 3-nerved, 13-16 mm. long; 
flowering glume coarsely and rather sparsely pubescent, 5-nerv- 
ed, 12-15 mm. long, acuminate, with 2 narrow teeth 2-3 mm. 
long; awn 15-20 mm. long, twisted below, bent below the mid- 
dle. (Trisetum barbatum Steud.) 

Occasional in the foothills and in the dry interior valleys. Pasadena; 
Santa Ana Mountains; San Bernardino; San Diego. 

54 Festuceae 

4. B. Trinii pallidiflorus Desv. A more robust and larger 
plant, 6-12 dm. high; sheaths pilose-pubescent; leaves broadly 
linear-lanceolate, smooth or somewhat sparsely pilose-pubescent; 
panicle more elongated, mostly 2-4 dm. long; branches mostly 
6-12 at the lower whorls, weak and spreading. 

Same range as the last and apparently more common. 

** Awns stout, straight. 
*- Awns over 1 cm. long. 

5. B. Madritensis L. Annual; culms 3-7 dm. high, smooth; 
sheaths smooth or the lower sparsely pubescent; ligule about 2 
mm. long; leaves linear, puberulent or nearly smooth, 5-15 cm. 
long, 2-4 mm. wide; panicle erect, 5-12 cm. long, lower branches 
2-4, 1-3 cm. long, unequal, spreading in flower, slender; spikelets 
3-4 cm. long, nearly smooth or scabrous-puberulent, 7-11-flower- 
ed; empty glumes lanceolate, acuminate, the first 1-nerved, 9-12 
mm. long, the second 3-nerved, 13-16 mm. long; flowering glume 
linear-lanceolate, 15-18 mm. long, glabrous or scabrous; awn 
stout, tapering, rough, somewhat curved, 16-22 mm. long; palea 
pectinate-ciliate on the keels, equaling the insertion of the awn. 

Santa Ana Mountains, on the Santiago Peak trail, altitude 3000 feet. 

6. B. maximus Gussoni Parl. Annual; culms erect or as- 
cending, 4-7 dm. high, smooth; sheaths pilose-pubescent; ligule 
3-4 mm. long; leaves linear, 2-3 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, pilose 
on both sides; panicle somewhat drooping, secund, lax, 1-2 dm. 
long; lower branches 2-4, 3-5 cm. long; spikelets 5-7-flowered, 
3.5-5 cm. long; empty glumes lanceolate, acuminate, smooth, the 
first 15-20 mm. long, 1-nerved, the second broader, 25-30 mm. 
long, 3-nerved; flowering glume 5-nerved, 25-30 mm. long, 
strongly scabrous, 2-toothed, teeth hyaline, 3-4 mm. long; awn 
stout, 3.5-4.5 cm. long, rough; palea somewhat shorter than its 

Common along streets and in waste places. 

7. B. rubens L. Annual; culms about 2-5 dm. high, erect, 
puberulent above; sheaths pubescent; ligule 1-2 mm. long, leaves 
3-15 cm. long, pubescent on both sides; panicle erect, compact, 
usually purplish, 4-7 cm. long; spikelets mostly 7-11-flowered, 
2-2.5 cm. long; empty glumes acuminate, pubescent or scabrous, 
the first narrow, 1-nerved, 7-9 mm. long, the second 3-nerved, 
10-12 mm. long; flowering glume 13-16 mm. long, lanceolate, 

Fescue Tribe 55 

acute, 5-nerved, scabrous or appressed scabrous-pubescent, teeth 
4-5 mm. long; awn 18-21 mm. long; palea long ciliate-pectinate 
on the keels. 

Common in sandy soils along the coast and in our interior valleys. Port 
Ballona; Fullerton; Capistrano; San Bernardino. 

*- -*-Awns less than 1 cm. long. 

8. B. Richardson! Link. Perennial; culms 6-13 dm. high, 
smooth ; sheaths smooth below or sparsely pilose, pilose at the 
throat; ligule 1-2 mm. long; leaves linear-lanceolate, 15-25 cm. 
long, 5-12 mm. wide, usually scabrous above and glabrous be- 
neath ; panicle drooping, 15-25 cm. long; spikelets drooping, 
terete, acu-minate, becoming oblong-lanceolate and compressed, 
2-3 cm. long, 6-11-flowered; empty glumes smooth, the first acut- 
ish, 8-10 mm. long, the second 9-12 mm. long; flowering glume 
obtuse, 7-nerved, 12-15 mm. long, appressed ciliate-pubescent 
nearly to the apex; awn straight, 3-5 mm. long; palea slightly 
shorter than its glume. 

Frequent on wooded slopes and in canyons in all our mountains and foot- 

9. B. Orcuttianus Vasey. Perennial; culms erect, 8-12 dm. 
high, puberulent near the nodes, leafy below; sheaths glabrous 
or sparingly pilose-pubescent; ligule 1-2 mm. long; leaves smooth, 
broadly linear-lanceolate, 1-2 dm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; panicle 
erect or nearly so, 10-15 cm. long, its branches few, widely divar- 
icate in fruit and rather rigid; spikelets 2-2.5 cm. long, 2-3 mm. 
broad, on short, stout pedicels, terete, acuminate, 5-9-flowered; 
empty glumes smooth or scabrous, the first acute, 6-8 mm. long; 
the second broader, obtuse, 3-nerved, 8-10 mm. long; flowering 
glume 10-12 mm. long, obtuse, scabrous to scabrous-pubescent, 
5-7-nerved, apex emarginate; awn about 5-7 mm. long; palea 
about equaling its glume. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, in the* 
upper altitudes of the chaparral belt. 

10. B. unioloides (Willd.) 'H. B. K. Annual ; culms 5-10 
dm. high, smooth; sheaths usually pilose-pubescent, sometimes 
smooth; ligule 3-4 mm. long; leaves linear, scabrous on both 
sides or sparingly pilose-pubescent; panicle erect or nearly so, 
1.5-3.5 dm. long, its lower branches 2-4, short or on larger plants 
spreading or somewhat drooping; spikelets 2-3.5 cm. long, 5-9 
mm. broad, 7-11-flowered ; empty glumes broad, subacute, smooth 

56 Festuceae 

or faintly scabrous, the first usually 5-nerved, 7-10 mm. long, the 
second 7-nerved, 10-13 mm. long; flowering glumes broadly 
lanceolate, acute, subcoriaceous, more or less scabrous, slightly 
2-toothed at the apex, 13-16 mm. long; awn rarely exceeding 2 
mm. in length; palea )-% the length of its glume. 

Occasional along streets and irrigating ditches about Los Angeles. 

11. B. unioloides Haenkeanus (Presl) Shear. Smaller than 
the type, 1.5-5 dm. high ; sheaths retrorsely pilose ; leaves linear, 
narrow, retrorsely pilose-pubescent on both sides ; panicle erect, 
5-10 cm. long. 

Reported from Mentone, Leiberg. 

12. B. xnarginatus Nees. Perennial; culms 6-12 dm. high, 
mostly puberulent to pubescent; sheaths pilose-pubescent; ligule 
3-3.5 mm. long; leaves rather sparsely pilose-pubescent through- 
out and scabrous, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 6-12 mm. wide; panicle 
erect, 1-2 dm. long, its lower branches 2-4, erect or spreading in 
flower, unequal, the lowest about 7 cm. long and bearing 2 spike- 
lets; spikelets 2.5-4 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, laterally compressed, 
7-9-flowered, erect or ascending; empty glumes scabrous to 
scabrous-pubescent, the first subacute, 3-5-nerved, 7-9 mm. long, 
second 5-7-nerved, 9-11 mm. long; flowering glume coarsely 
pubescent, acute, 11-14 mm. long, mostly 7-nerved, teeth very 
short, subacute ; awn 4-7 mm. long ; palea ciliate-pectinate on the 
keels, equaling its glume or nearly so. 

Frequent in all our mountains in the pine belt and in the upper portions 
of the chaparral belt on wooded slopes. 

13. B. carinatus H. & A. Annual or biennial; culm 5-8 dm. 
high, slightly pubescent at the nodes; sheaths retrorsely soft 
pilose ; ligule 3-4 mm. long; leaves flat, mostly narrow, 1-2.5 dm. 
long, 3-6 mm. wide, sparsely pilose on both sides; panicle rather 
lax, 1-2.5 dm. long, lower branches 3, spreading or drooping; 
spikelets compressed, 2.5-3 cm. long, 5 mm. broad, 5-9-flowered; 
empty glumes lanceolate, acute, glabrous to slightly scabrous- 
pubescent, the first 3-5-nerved, 7-9 mm. long, second 5-7-nerved, 
9-10 mm. long; flowering glume puberulent or short pubescent, 
7-nerved, 13-16 mm. long, shortly 2-toothed at apex and tapering 
into an awn 7-10 mm. long; palea nearly equaling its glume, 
ciliate-pectinate on the keels. 

Rather common in grassy places in the lower hills and valleys. Verdugo 
Hills ; Inglewood ; San Bernardino. 

Hordeae 57 

14. B. carinatus Californicus (Nutt.) Shear. Sheaths and 
blades nearly smooth; flowering glumes merely scabrous, other- 
wise as in the type. 

Occasional in the coast valleys. Ballona Creek near Mesmer. 


Spikelets 1-flowered, usually hermaphrodite, sessile 
along the common rachis, forming a simple or compound 
spike. Glumes awned or awnless. 

Spikelets solitary at each joint of the rachis. 

Spikes very slender; spikelets 1-2-flowered. 38. LEPTURUS. 

Spikes stout; spikelets usually 2- (or more) flowered. 

Spikelets placed with one edge against the rachis. 37. LOLJUM. 

Spikelets placed with one side against the rachis. 39. AGROPYRON. 
Spikelets 2-3 at each joint of the rachis. 

Spikelets 3 at each joint of the rachis. 40. HORDEUM. 

Spikelets 2 at each joint of the rachis. 

Axis of the spike continuous; empty glumes entire. 41. ELYMUS. 

Axis of the spike articulate ; empty glumes usually 2-many-clef t. 

42. SlTANION. 


Annual or perennial grasses, with simple erect culms, 
flat leaves and terminal spikes. Spikelets several- 
flowered, solitary, sessile and alternate in the notches of 
the usually continuous rachis, compressed, the edge of 
the spikelet turned toward the rachis. Glumes rigid, 
the first in the lateral and the 2 lower in the terminal 
spikelets empty ; flowering glumes rounded on the back, 
5-7-flowered. Palea 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles dis- 
tinct, very short ; stigmas 2. Grain adherent to the 

1. L. perenne L. (ENGLISH RAY-GRASS.) Perennial; culms 
3-6 dm. high, erect or commonly geniculate at the base, smooth; 
sheaths smooth; leaves scabrid on the edges and upper side; 
spike 1-3 dm. long, bearing 6-10 spikelets; rachis smooth, chan- 
neled; spikelets 6-8 mm. long, smooth, shining, 7-11-flowered ; 
empty glumes strongly ribbed, much shorter than the spikelet; 

58 Hordeae 

flowering glume linear-oblong, terete, obtuse to shortly awned, 

Occasional in moist places along irrigating ditches and in low ground. 
Flowering the year round. 

2. L. perenne multiflorum (Lam.) Auct. Annual or biennial ; 
spikes often purplish, somewhat curved ; spikelets 15-30-flowered ; 
flowering glumes usually with a short, slender awn. 

In similar locations and apparently more common than the type. 

3. L. temulentum L. (DARNEL.) Annual; culms rather stout, 
3-8 dm. high, smooth ; sheaths smooth, usually somewhat exceed- 
ing the nodes ; spikes stout, with 9-15 spikelets ; spikelets 5-7- 
flowered ; empty glumes not ribbed, equaling or usually exceeding 
the spikelets; flowering glume turgid, awnless or commonly 
with a straight awn 2 cm. long or less. 

Occasional along roadsides and in grain fields. 


Mostly low annual grasses, with narrow leaves and 
strict or curved elongated slender spikes ; spikelets 1-2- 
flowered, sessile and single in alternate notches of the 
jointed rachis. Empty glumes 1-2, narrow, rigid, acute, 
5-nerved ; flowering glumes much shorter, hyaline, keeled, 
1-sided to the rachis. Palea hyaline, 2-nerved. Sta- 
mens 3 or less. Styles short, distinct. Grain narrow 
glabrous free, enclosed in the glume. 

1. L. cylindricus Trin. Culms slender, erect, straight, 2-4 
dm. high, somewhat tufted, simple or commonly branched, 
smooth; sheaths smooth, much shorter than the internodes; 
leaves ascending, 1-2 mm. wide, 3-8 cm. long, smooth; spike 
green, 5-15 cm. long, straight; empty glume very acute, about 
4 mm. long. 

Occasional on borders of salt marshes toward the coast. Mesmer; Wil- 
mington; Oceans ide. 

2. L. incurvatus (L.) Trin. Culms much branched, internodes 
more or less curved, more or less purplish throughout; spikes 
numerous, incurved; empty glumes 2, about 6 mm. long, narrow, 

- Not known within our limits, but it occurs on the salt marshes at San 
Diego and about San Francisco. 

Barley Tribe 59 


Annual or perennial grasses with flat or involute 
leaves and terminal spikes. Spikelets 3-many-flowered, 
sessile, single and alternate at each notch of the rachis, 
the sides of the spikelet turned toward the rachis. The 
lower glumes empty, narrower and usually shorter than 
the flowering glumes, acute or awned ; flowering glumes 
rigid, rounded on the back, 5-7-nerved, usually acute or 
awned at the apex. Palea 2-keeled, the keels often 
ciliate. Stamens &. Styles very short, distinct. Grain 
pubescent at the apex, usually adherent to the palea. 

1. A. Parishii Scribn. & Smith. Culms 5-10 dm. high, smooth, 
retrorsely pubescent on the nodes; sheaths pubescent below, 
sparingly ciliate on the margins, the lower shorter, the upper 
longer than the internodes; leaves smooth below, scabrous above 
and on the margins, the lower 1-2 dm. long, the uppermost 2.5-5 
cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide at the somewhat constricted base, linear 
attenuate ; spike composed of 8-12 compressed oblanceolate spike- 
lets; spikelets 5-7-flowered, 16-20 mm. long, shorter than the 
internodes of the rachis, these scabrous on the margins; empty 
glumes % as long as the spikelet, nearly equal, linear, acute 
or acuminate, 5-nerved, scarious on the margins; flowering 
glume lanceolate, acute, 9-11 mm. long, 5-nerved and scabrous 
above, minutely 3-toothed, awnless or awned ; awn straight, 
slender, 6-8 mm. long; palea equaling its glume, acute or obtuse. 

Occasional in the San Bernardino Mountains. First collected in Water- 
man's Canyon by S. B. Parish. 

2. A. Parishii laeve Scribn. & Smith. Habit of the type, but 
nodes and sheaths glabrous; awns equaling or exceeding the 
glumes in length. 

Ballona Creek, near Mesmer; Santa Ana Mountains ; San Bernardino 
Mountains. First collected in the Cuyamaca Mountains by Palmer. 


Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaves and ter- 
minal cylindric spikes. Spikelets 1-flowered, usually in 
3's at each joint of the rachis, the lateral generally short 

60 Hordeae 

stalked and imperfect ; rachilla produced beyond the 
flower. Empty glumes 2, all alike and subulate ; 
flowering glumes narrow lanceolate, rounded on the 
back, rigid, persistent, obscurely 5-nerved above, usually 
awned. Palea nearly equaling the glume, 2-keeled. 
Stamens 3. Styles very short, distinct. Grain usually 
adherent to the glume, hairy at summit. 

1. H. nodosum L. Perennial; culms erect, slender, 2-6 dm. 
high, sheaths glabrous; leaves often deflexed, flat, scabrous, 5-8 
mm. wide; spike slender, compressed, usually nodding, 6-10 cm. 
long, 8-10 mm. wide; rachis very brittle; lateral spikelets awn- 
less, staminate or neutral; flower of central spikelet sessile; 
empty glumes not flattened or dilated above the base, all alike 
and subulate; flowering glume including its awn 14-18 mm. long; 
awn usually brownish or purplish. 

Frequent in moist places in all our valleys. 

2. H. nodosum depressum Scribn. & Smith. Lower and more 
tufted than the type; culms geniculate at the base or erect, 1-3 
dm. high ; upper sheaths inflated ; leaves shorter than in the type, 
usually pubescent; empty glumes 18 mm. long; fertile flowering 
glume with an awn equaling its own length. 

Occasional in marshes along the coast. Resembling the next in habit. 

3. H. maritimum L. Annual, rather glaucous; culms more 
or less decumbent at base, tufted, 1-2 dm. high; spikes 2 4 cm. 
long, rather pale ; lateral spikelets neutral or sometimes stami- 
nate, their inner empty glumes obliquely lanceolate,! mm. wide; 
fertile flower sessile. 

Occasional along the coast. San Diego. 

4. H. Gussoneanum Parl. Much resembling the last in habit, 
but the inner empty glumes only narrowly flattened instead 
of wing-margined along the inner side, 0.5 mm. wide. 

Occasional along the coast marshes. 

5. H. murinum L. Annual ; culms tufted, decumbent at base, 
2-5 dm. high; upper sheaths smooth, scarious on the margins, 
often dilated, the lower pilose; leaves softly pubescent and sca- 
brous; spikes stout, compressed, 5-10 cm. long; central spikelet 
pedicelled ; empty glumes lanceolate, flat, ciliate ; awns 18-24 mm . 

Barley Tribe 61 

long; outer empty glumes of lateral spikelets similar, the inner 
awn-like and not ciliate; flowering glume about 12 mm. long, 
scabrous above ; awn 2-5 cm. long; flowering glumes of the lat- 
eral spikelets smaller; awn 15-40 mm. long; palea ciliate on the 

A very common and troublesome grass in all our valleys, especially in 
pastured land. Commonly called Fox-tail. 


Mostly erect rather tall grasses with flat leaves and 
closely flowered terminal spikes. Spikelets 2-6-flowered, 
the uppermost imperfect, sessile, in 2's rarely in 3's or 
4's at the alternate notches of the continuous or articu- 
late rachis ; rachilla articulate above the empty glumes 
and between the flowers. Empty glumes 2, nearly 
equal, rigid, narrow, 1-3-nerved, acute or awn-pointed, 
persistent, and subtending the flowers like an involucre ; 
flowering glumes shorter, rounded on the back, obscure- 
ly 5-nerved, obtuse, acute or awned from the apex. 
Palea a little shorter than the glume, 2-keeled. Sta- 
mens 3. Styles short, distinct. Grains adherent to the 
glumes and palea, hairy at the summit. 

1. E. condensatus Presl. Culms stout, from stout creeping 
rootstocks, 10-25 dm. high ; sheaths smooth : ligule 2-4 mm. long ; 
leaves 3-5 dm. long, 25 mm. wide or less at the base, long 
acuminate, smooth or nearly so toward the base, becoming sca- 
brous toward the apex, flat, the edges somewhat involute above; 
spike rather dense and ample or somewhat lobed, 2-5 dm. long, 
erect; spikelets imbricated in 2's or 3's or more, 4-5-flowered ; 
empty glumes subulate, scabrid, about 12 mm. long; flowering 
glumes scabrous below, 11 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, 7-nerved; palea 
equaling the glume, scabrous and ciliate on the keels above. 

Frequent in canyons and in somewhat moist places on all the hills and in 
the chaparral belt of the mountains. 

2. E. triticoides (Nutt.) Buckley. Culms rather slender, 
smooth and usually glaucous, from slender rootstocks, 6-10 dm. 
high; sheaths smooth; ligule a ciliate ring; leaves 15-30 cm. 
long, 5-8 mm. wide, scabrous on the margins and nerves above; 

62 Hordeae 

spike 9-18 cm. long, about 1 cm. wide or less; rachis puberulent 
and with a narrow ciliate wing; spikelets in 2's' or 3's, rather dis- 
tant below, crowded in the middle, often single above, 4-6-flower- 
ed ; empty glumes 8-10 mm. long, subulate, scabrous on the 
nerves above; flowering glumes 6-10 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, 9- 
nerved, glabrous; palea about equaling its glume, scabrous on 
the keels. 

Common in low ground, especially in the coast valleys. 

3. E. Orcuttianus Vasey. Culms usually several from short 
rootstocks, 5-10 dm. high, slender, leafy; sheaths smooth; ligule 
a short ciliate ring; leaves erect, 15-25 cm. long, 3-8 mm. 
wide, scabrous on the margins; spike 10-15 cm. long, erect r 
loosely flowered ; spikelets 2 or frequently only 1 at each 
joint, 5-7-flowered; empty glumes linear-lanceolate, rigid, long- 
pointed, 8-12 mm. long; lower flowering glumes 8-10 mm. long, 
lanceolate, acuminate, rounded and smooth on the back, scabrous 
at the' apex, 5-nerved on the inside, the upper ones shorter and 
more scabrous ; palea %-% shorter than its glume, ciliate on the- 

Elysian Park, Davidson; near San Diego, Orcutt. Closely related to the 
preceding and possibly only a form of it. 

4. E. glaucus Buckl. Culms erect and tufted, from stolonifer- 
ous rootstocks, 6-10 dm. high, smooth; sheaths smooth or mi- 
nutely scabrid ; ligule about 0.5 mm. long, entire ; leaves flat, sca- 
brid on both sides, 6-10 mm. wide, the lowest about 2 dm. long; 
spike linear, erect, 6-15 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide; spikelets usual- 
ly in 2's, sometimes in 3's, 3-4-flowered ; empty glumes 8-12 mm. 
long; awn-pointed, scabrid on the 2-4 prominent nerves; flower- 
ing glumes scabrid above, 9-12 mm. long, tapering into a straight 
awn 7-14 mm. long; palea scabrid, 9-10 mm. long, emarginate; 
rachis scabrid on the margins. 

Frequent in open shady places in the upper portions of the chaparral belt 
and in the pine belt. San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains. June-July. 

42. SITANION Rafin. 

Csespitose perennials, with usually flat leaves and 
bearded spikes. Spikelets usually 2 (1-3) at each joint 
of the articulate rachis of the spike, 2-several-flowered. 

Barley Tribe 63 

Empty glumes 2 or sometimes 3, many-parted from near 
the base or bifid or subulate and entire, awned ; flower- 
ing glumes terminating in a single awn or trifid or 
3-awned. Palea as long as its glume, entire, bidentate 
or 2-awned. Stamens 3. Styles short. Grain adherent 
to its glume and palea, hairy at the summit. 

* Empty glumes deeply cleft into 3-11 or more sectaceous awns. 

1. S. jubatum Smith. Culms erect, 6-9 dm. high, smooth; 
lower sheaths hirsute, the upper minutely pubescent or sparsely 
hirsute, becoming smooth ; ligule 1 mm. long; leaves 10-18 cm. 
long, 3-5 mm. wide, strigose-pubescent throughout and sparsely 
hirsute above, midnerve prominent beneath ; spike 1-2 dm. long, 
densely flowered ; empty glumes 4, 3-many-parted from about the 
middle, the lobes setaceous, mostly 8-10 cm. long; spikelets 2-4- 
flowered, the second hermaphrodite, the other sterile or the upper 
staminate; flowering glume linear-lanceolate, 8-10 mm. long, 
smooth below, sparsely scabrous above, 5-nerved, trifid at the 
apex, lateral lobes setaceous, the middle prolonged into a slender 
scabrous awn, 8-12 cm. long; internodes of the rachis 5-7 mm. 
long, glabrous. 

Ojai Valley, Hubby; Coldwater Canyon, San Antonio Mountains, growing 
under pines at about 7000 feet altitude. 

2. S. multisetum Smith. Culms tufted, 3-5 dm. high, gla- 
brous or minutely strigose-pubescent ; sheaths scarious on the 
margins, strigose-pubescent and hirsute; ligule very short; leaves 
5-10 cm. long, erect or ascending, linear, pungently pointed, 
sparsely hirsute on the back, scabrous on the margins, hirsute and 
scabrous above ; spike erect, 5-8 cm. long, usually reddish ; usually 
only 1 spikelet at each joint fertile ; empty glumes 3-many-parted 
nearly to the base; awns slender, scabrous, mostly 2-6 cm. long; 
lowest flowering glume of the sterile spikelet subulate, resembling 
the segments of the empty glumes; flowering glume of fertile 
spikelet 8-9 mm. long, smooth below, keeled and scabrous above, 
3-awned, the middle awn 5-6 mm. long ; palea equaling its glume ; 
internodes of the rachis 4-5 mm. long, smooth, scabrous on the 
margins, compressed. 

Rather common on mesas and grassy hills. March-May. 

64 Cyperaceae 

** Some of the empty glumes bifid above the middle or all entire and 

3. S. Californicmn Smith. Culms tufted, ascending, 1.5-2.5 
dm. high, rather densely pubescent above; lower sheaths densely 
hirsute, the upper minutely puberulent ; ligule obsolete ; leaves 
2-8 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, scabrous above and on the margins, 
densely puberulent on the back; spike rather loosely flowered, 
5-8 cm. long ; lowest flower of one or both spikelets sterile ; empty 
glumes 4, entire, 3-5 cm. long; flowering glume linear, 10-12 mm. 
long, finely scabrous, awn stout, about 4 cm. long; palea 2 mm. 
shorter than its glume, scabrous on the nerves below ; internodes 
of the rachis 4-5 mm. long, scabrous throughout. 

Rather common in open pine woods in the San Gabriel and San Bernar- 
dino Mountains. June- August. Another closely related species, S. glabrum 
Smith, is frequent in the San Jacinto and Cuyamaca Mountains. It is read- 
ily distinguished by the glabrous culms and sheaths. 

4. S. anomalum Smith. Culms erect, scarcely or not at all 
tufted, 5-6 dm. high, smooth; sheaths smooth or the lower 
sparsely hirsute, ciliate on the margins, shorter than the inter- 
nodes ; ligule 1 mm. long; leaves 4-12 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, 
scabrous throughout; spike rather loosely flowered, 1-1.5 dm. 
long, reddish; spikelets 4-flowered; empty glumes lanceolate, 
entire, those of the lowest spikelets bifid above the middle with 
short awn 1-4 cm. long; flowering glumes 10 mm. long, linear- 
lanceolate, smooth below, scabrous above, 3-awned ; lateral awn 
1-2 mm. long, the middle one erect 3-4.5 cm. long; palea shorter 
than its glume, scabrous on the margins. 

? First collected near Pasadena by O. D. Allen. Ballona Creek, near 
Mesmer, and on the South Fork of the Santiago Creek, Santa Ana Mountains. 


Grass-like or rush-like annual or perennial herbs 
from fibrous roots or running rootstocks. Stems slender 
solid, triangular, quadrangular, terete or flattened. 
Leaves narrow, with closed sheaths. Flowers perfect or 
imperfect, 1 or rarely 2 in the axil of each scale, 
and arranged in spikes. Spikes solitary or clustered, 
1-many-flowered. Scales 2-ranked or spirally imbricat- 

Sedge Family 65 

ed, persistent or deciduous. Perianth hypogynous, com- 
posed of bristles or interior scales, rarely calyx-like, or 
wanting. Stamens 1-3, rarely more ; filaments slen- 
der or filiform ; anthers 2-celled, longitudinally dehis- 
cent. Ovary 1-celled, sessile or stipitate ; ovule 1, ana- 
tropous, erect ; style 2-3-cleft or rarely simple or 
2-toothed. Fruit a lenticular plano-convex or trigonous 
achene. Endosperm mealy. Embryo minute. 

Flowers perfect. 
Scales 2-ranked. 

Spikelets flattened ; perianth none. 1. CYPERUS. 

Spikelets scarcely flattened; perianth of 3-6 bristles. \ " 

Scales spirally imbricated. 

Styles not dilated at base. 2. SCIRPUS. 

Styles dilated at base. 

Spikelets solitary, terminal, bractless. 3. EL.EOCHARIS. 

Spikelets in umbels, involucrate. 4. FIMBRISTYLIS. 

Spikelets polygamous; scales spirally imbricated, only the terminal perfect. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious ; pistillate enclosed in a sac-like perigynium. 

7. CAREX. 


Annual or perennial herbs. Stems mostly simple, 
triangular, leafy near the base and with 1 or more in- 
volucrate leaves at the base of the simple or compound, 
umbellate or capitate inflorescence. Rays of the umbel 
sheathed at the base, usually very unequal. Spikelets 
flat or nearly terete, composed of few-many persist- 
ent or deciduous scales, these concave, conduplicate or 
keeled, 2-ranked, all flower-bearing or the lower empty. 
Flowers perfect. Perianth none. Stamens 1-3. Styles 
2-3-cleft, deciduous from the summit of the lenticular 
or 3-angled achene. 

1. C. diandrus capitatus Britton. Stems tufted, slender, 1-4 
dm. 'high; leaves about 2 mm. wide, those of the involucre 1-2, 
elongated ; spikelets sessile in a capitate cluster, appearing some- 

66 Cyperaceae 

what lateral, 8-20 mm. long, linear or linear-oblong; scales with 
brown margins appressed, coriaceous, obtuse, shining; stamens 
generally 3; style 2-cleft, scarcely exserted; achene lenticular, 
oblong or oblong-ovate, somewhat pointed, dull. (C. diandrus 
castaneus of the Bot. Cal.) 

Occasional in moist sandy places on river bottoms. Los Angeles; San 

2. C. laevigatus L. Perennial, with slender creeping rhizomes ; 
stems tufted, slender, 8-15 cm. high, terete, with 2-3 short brown 
sheaths at the base, the upper bearing a short, erect, subtriangu- 
lar leaf, otherwise naked ; involucre of usually 2 leaf-like bracts, 
1 a continuation of the stem, erect, the other spreading, 3 cm. 
long or less; umbel sessile, capitate, apparently lateral ; spikelets 
sessile, many-flowered, 4-6 mm. long, pale green; scales broad, 
obtuse, about 2 mm. long; rachis deeply pitted transversely; 
stamens 3; style 2-cleft; achene broadly obovate, 12 mm. long. 

Occasional in moist places about Los Angeles and San Bernardino. 

3. C. inflexus Muhl. Stems very slender, tufted, 3-15 cm. 
high ; leaves 2 mm. wide or less, nearly equaling the stems, those 
of the involucre 2-3, exceeding the umbel ; umbel sessile, usually 
capitate; spikelets linear-oblong, 4-6 mm. long, 6-10-flowered ; 
scales pale brown, lanceolate, firm, tapering into a long recurved 
awn ; stamen 1 ; style 3-cleft ; rachis narrowly winged, the wings 
persistent; achene 3-angled, narrowly obovoid or oblong, obtuse, 
mucronulate. (C. aristatus Boeckl.) 

In moist sandy soil. Laguna, San Joaquin Hills, Orange County; Bear 
Valley, San Bernardino Mountains. 

4. C. esculentus L. Perennial by scaly horizontal tuber-bear- 
ing rootstocks; stems rather stout, 3-6 dm. high; leaves light 
green, 4-8 mm. wide, usually longer than the stem, with promi- 
nent midvein, those of the involucre 3-6, the longer much exceed- 
ing the umbel ; umbel 4-10-rayed, usually compound ; spikelets 
numerous in loose spikes, straw-colored or yellowish brown, 
spreading, 12-24 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, many-flowered ; scales 
ovate-oblong, subacute, 3-5-nerved; rachis narrowly winged; 
stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid, obtuse, 3-angled. 

Frequent in river bottoms about Los Angeles, Santa Ana and San Ber- 

5. C. erythrorhizos Muhl. Annual; stems tufted, usually 
rather stout, 2-6 dm. high ; leaves 3-8 mm. wide, equaling or ex- 

Sedge Family 67 

ceeding the stem, rough-margined, those of the involucre 3-7, 
the longer much exceeding the umbel ; umbel mostly compound ; 
spikelets linear, subacute, 6-20 mm. long, less than 2 mm. wide, 
many-flowered, clustered in oblong nearly or quite sessile spikes ; 
scales chestnut brown, oblong-lanceolate, mucronulate; rachis 
with membranous wings separating as a pair of hyaline interior 
scales; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene sharply 3-angled, oblong, 
pointed at both ends, pale, half as long as the scale. 

Reported from Oak Knoll, near Pasadena, and Baldwin's Ranch by 


Annual or perennial often rush-like sedges with leafy 
stems or the leaves reduced to basal sheaths. Spikelets 
terete or somewhat flattened, solitary, capitate, spicate or 
umbellate, usually subtended by a 1-several-leaved in- 
volucre. Scales spirally imbricated, usually all fertile 
or the lowest sometimes empty. Flowers perfect. Peri- 
anth of 1-6 bristles or sometimes wanting. Stamens 2-3. 
Styles 2-3-cleft, not swollen at the base, wholly decid- 
uous from the achene or its base persistent as a subulate 
tip. Achene triangular, lenticular or plano-convex. 

* Roots fibrous. 

1. S. cernuus Vahl. Stems tufted from fibrous roots, slender, 
5-20 cm. high, sheathed at base; upper sheath bearing a short 
slender leaf; involucral bract slender, 2-20 mm. long; spikelet 
solitary, ovate to oblong-ovate, 3-5 mm. long; scales brownish 
with a pale midvein, concave; bristles none; style 3-cleft; achene 
3-angled-obovoid, the sides convex, smooth or somewhat granular, 
dark brown, scarcely 1 mm. long. (S. riparius Spreng.) 

Occasional on river bottoms about Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. Re- 
sembling Ut aris in habit. 

** Perennials from rootstocks. 

*- Inflorescence apparently lateral. 

2. S. Americanus Pers. Perennial by long rootstocks; stems 
sharply 3-angled, with concave sides, erect, 3-12 dm. high ; leaves 

68 Cyperaceae 

1-3, narrowly linear, shorter than the stem, keeled; involucral 
bract solitary, leaf-like, 4-10 cm. long; spikelets appearing as if 
lateral, sessile in capitate clusters of 1-7, acute, 8-16 mm. long; 
scales broadly ovate, brown, often emarginate or sharply 2-cleft, 
the midvein extended into a subulate awn, the margins scarious, 
ciliate or glabrous; bristles 2-6, retrorsely barbed, shorter than 
or equaling the achene ; style usually 2-cleft ; achene obovate, 
plano-convex, smooth, dark brown, mucronate. (S. pungens Vahl.) 

Occasional on river bottoms about Los Angeles; Santa Ana; San Diego. 

3. S. Olneyi Gray. Perennial by long stout rootstocks ; stems 
stout, 6-25 dm. high; sharply 3-angled with concave sides; leaves 
1-3, 3-12 cm. long, or sheaths sometimes leafless; involucral 
bract stout, erect, 1-3 cm. long; spikelets appearing as if lateral, 
capitate in dense clusters of 5-12, oblong or obovoid-oblong, 
obtuse, 5-8 mm. long; scales oval or orbicular, dark brown with a 
green midvein, emarginate or mucronulate, glabrous; bristles 
usually 6, slightly shorter than or equaling the achene, retrorsely 
barbed ; stamens 3; styles 2-cleft; achene obovate, plano-convex, 
brown, mucronate. 

Common in marshes and along running steams throughout our range. 

4. S. lacustris occidentalis Wats. Stems stout from creeping 
rootstocks, terete or rarely obscurely 3-sided, 1-3 m. high, leafless 
or the basal sheaths bearing a short nearly terete leaf; involucral 
bract stout, shorter than the inflorescence; spikelets numer- 
ous, scattered or more or less clustered in an irregularly com- 
pound umbel, oblong-rovoid, 6-10 mm. long; scales broadly ovate, 
obtuse, usually pubescent; bristles 6, equaling or longer than 
the achene, slender, retrorsely barbed; style 2-cleft; achene 
obovate, plano-convex, abruptly mucronate, grayish. 

Common along streams and marshes. This and the next are commonly 
called " Tule." June-September. 

5. S. Californicus (C. A. Myer) Britton. Much resembling 
the last in habit and size ; stems obtusely 3-angled ; involucral 
bract very short, stoutly subulate; umbel compound; spikelets 
6-10 mm. long, oblong; scales brown, ovate, awn-pointed by the 
excurrent midvein; bristles shorter than the achene, rather 
stout, strongly ciliate at least below; style 2-cleft; achene obo- 

Sedge Family 69 

vate, plano-convex, nearly \vhite or brown, narrowed above into 
a short point, contracted at base, 1-1.25 mm. broad. (S. Tatora 

With the last and apparently more common. Typical forms are readily 
distinguished by the stouter and shorter strongly ciliate bristles, stouter 
filaments, and smaller achene tapering at the apex. Intermediate forms, 
apparently hybrids, are occasionally found. 

*-*- Inflorescence terminal; stem leafy. 

6. S. robustus Pursh. Perennial by large rootstocks ; steins 
stout, sharply 3-angled with flat sides, smooth, 6-15 dm. high; 
leaves equaling or exceeding the stem, smooth, 5-10 mm. wide, 
midvein prominent; involucral leaves 2-4, elongated, erect, sim- 
ilar to those of the stem, often 3 cm. long; spikelets in a dense, 
often compound terminal cluster of 6-20, ovoid-oblong, obtuse or 
subacute, 16-24 mm. long, 8-10 mm. broad; scales ovate, brown, 
puberulent, lacerate or 2-toothed, midvein excurrent into an at 
length reflexed awn ; bristles 1-6, shorter than the achenes, or 
none; style 3-cleft; achene compressed, flat on the face, convex 
or with a low ridge on the back, obovate-orbicular, dark brown, 
shining, 3 mm. long. (S. maritimus of the Bot. Cal., not of L.) 

Common in marshes, especially in somewhat saline places. June-October. 

7. S. atrovirens Muhl. Perennial by slender rootstocks; 
stems 3-angled, rather slender, leafy, 6-12 dm. high; leaves 
elongated, nodulose, rough on the margins, 6-12 mm. wide, 1-2 
usually exceeding the inflorescence; involucral leaves usually 
several, unequal, the longer equaling or exceeding the rays; um- 
bel 1-2-compound or rarely simple ; spikelets ovoid-oblong, acute, 
densely capitate in 6's-20's at the ends of the rays or raylets ; 
scales greenish-brown, oblong, acute, midvein excurrent ; bristles 
usually 6, retrorsely barbed above, naked below, about equaling 
the achene; style 3-cleft; achene oblong-obovoid, 3-angled, pale 
brown, dull. 

Marshes in Los Angeles and Glendale, Davidson. 

8. S. microcarpus Presl. Perennial; stems 6-12 dm. high, 
rather stout; leaves rough-margined, exceeding the stem; the 
longer involucral leaves usually exceeding the inflorescence ; um- 
bel 1-2-compound ; spikelets 3-25 together in capitate clusters at 
the ends of usually spreading raylets, ovoid-oblong, 3-4 mm. long, 

70 Cyperaceae 

acute; scales brown, with a green midvein, blunt or subacute; 
bristles 4, barbed nearly or quite to the base, somewhat longer 
than the achene ; stamens 2 ; styles 2-cleft ; achene oblong- 
obovate, nearly white, plano-convex or with a low ridge on the 
back, pointed. 

Rather common in meadows and along streams in the pine belt of all 
the mountains. Oak Knoll, near Pasadena, McClatchie. 


Annual or perennial herbs, with simple, usually terete 
stems, and leaves reduced to mere sheaths or the lower 
rarely bearing a blade. Spikelets solitary, terminal, erect, 
several-many-flowered, not subtended by an involucre. 
Scales concave, spirally imbricated. Perianth of 1-12 
usually retrorsely barbed bristles, or sometimes wanting. 
Stamens 2-3. Styles 2-cleft and achene lenticular or 
biconvex, or 3-cleft and achene more or less distinctly 
3-angled. Base of the style persistent on the summit of 
the achene, forming a terminal tubercle. 

1. E. palustris (L.) R. & S. Perennial by horizontal root- 
stocks; stems stout, terete or nearly so, striate, 3-8 dm. high; 
basal sheaths brown, rarely bearing a short blade, the upper one 
obliquely truncate; spikelet ovoid-cylindric, 6-24 mm. long, 3-4 
mm. broad, thicker than the stem ; scales ovate-oblong or ovate- 
lanceolate, purplish-brown, with scarious margins and a green 
midvein; bristles usually 4, slender, retrorsely barbed, longer 
than the achene, sometimes wanting; stamens 2-3; style 2-3- 
cleft; achene brownish or yellowish-brown, smooth, obovate; 
tubercle conic-triangular, constricted at the base, flattened, K~K 
as long as the achene. 

Common in wet places along streams throughout our range. May-August. 

2. E. acicularis (L.) R. & S. Perennial by filiform rootstocks 
or stolons; stems filiform, tufted, obscurely 4-angled and groov- 
ed, erect or spreading, 4-10 cm. long; sheaths truncate; spikelet 
compressed, narrowly ovate, acute, 3-10-flowered, 3-6 mm. long, 
1 mm. broad ; scales oblong, obtuse, thin, pale green, with a nar- 
row band of brown on each side of the midvein, deciduous, many 
usually sterile ; bristles 3-4, fugacious, shorter than the achene ; 

Sedge Family 71 

stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene obovoid-oblong, obscurely 3- 
angled, with a rib on each angle and 6-9 intermediate ones, con- 
nected by fine ridges; tubercle conic, acute, ^ as long as the 

Frequent in moist places along streams and on borders of ponds. April- 

3. E. montana (H. B. K.) R. & S. Perennial; stems slender, 
sulcate, 15-45 cm. high, erect ; basal sheaths brown ; spike oblong 
or sometimes ovate, 4-10 mm. long, rounded at the apex ; scales 
numerous, closely imbricated, ovate, very obtuse, brown with 
green midvein, scarious margined; bristles 4-6, about equaling 
the achene; style 3-cleft; achene obtusely 3-angled, oblong- 
obovate, about 1 mm. long, greenish brown, smooth; tubercle 
broad at the base and slightly constricted, deltoid, acute. (E. 
arenicola Torr.) 

Frequent on river bottoms and borders of marshes throughout our range. 

4. E. rostellata Torr. Perennial ; stems rather slender, com- 
pressed, strongly sulcate, 3-8 dm. high ; often reclining and root- 
ing at the apex ; basal sheaths light colored, truncate ; spike ob- 
long, 6-10 mm. long; scales straw-colored or pale brown, ovate, 
obtuse, carinate and rather firm, about 4 mm. long; bristles 6, 
exceeding the achene ; style 3-cleft ; achene obovate, obtusely 3- 
angled, about 2 mm. long; tubercle not constricted at the base, 
pyramidal, about 1 mm. long. (E. rostellata occidentalis Wats.) 

Frequent in marshes and on river bottoms about Los Angeles and San 


Annual or perennial herbs with stems leafy below. 
Spikelets umbellate, several-many-flowered, subtended 
by 1-many-leaved involucre, their scales spirally imbri- 
cated, mostly deciduous, all fertile. Perianth none. 
Stamens 1-3. Style 2-3-cleft, pubescent or glabrous, its 
base much enlarged, falling away from the achene when 
mature. Achene lenticular, biconvex or 3-angled. 

1. F. thermalis Wats. Perennial by short matted rootstocks ; 
stems 3-6 dm. high, flattened and somewhat roughened, striate; 
leaves 2-4 mm. wide, flat, becoming more or less revolute, some- 

72 Cyperaceae 

what pubescent or nearly glabrous, rough on the margins; in- 
volucral bracts linear-subulate, acuminate, scabrous, 15-25 mm. 
long, shorter than the rays; spikelets umbellate, solitary on the 
ends of the rays, ovate to linear-oblong, 8-18 mm. long; scales 
ovate, obtuse, mucronate, dull brown, pubescent; style 2-cleft, 
flattened and ciliate ; achene obovate, lenticular, obscurely striate, 
1.5 mm. long; tubercle soon deciduous. 

Hot Springs, near San Bernardino, Wright; Waterman's Hot Springs, 


Ours perennial herbs from rootstocks, with slender 
erect tufted stems and slender subterete basal leaves. 
Involucral bract erect appearing as a continuation of the 
stem. Spikelets sessile in capitate lateral clusters, few- 
flowered. Scales imbricated in 2 rows, the lower ones 
empty, the upper bearing perfect flowers. Perianth of 6 
scabrous or pubescent bristles. Stamens 3. Style 
3-cleft, not dilated at the base. Achene more or less 
3-angled, with a very short beak. 

1. S. nigricans L. Stems tufted, slightly compressed, slender, 
5-7 dm. high ; leaves rigid, subterete, channeled, rough on the mar- 
gins, shorter than the stems; sheaths black; involucral bract 
3-5 cm. long; spikelets capitate clustered, ovate lanceolate, com- 
pressed, 6-8-flowered; rachis zigzag; scales ovate, acute, com- 
pressed, keeled, very dark brown; bristles 6, unequal, dilated at 
the base, barbed above, longer than the achene; achenes globose- 
oblong, 3-angled, white and shining. 

Arrowhead Hot Springs, near San Bernardino, Parish. Otherwise known 
in North America only from Florida . 

6. CLADIUM R. Br. 

Perennial herbs with stout rootstocks, stout tall leafy 
stems and elongated channeled leaves. Spikelets small, 
usually clustered in terminal corymbs, panicles or 
cymes. Scales mostly about 5, closely imbricated, brown, 
the lower empty, the terminal one fertile and the 1-2 

Sedge Family 73 

below it staminate. Perianth none. Stamens 2-3. 
Style 2-3-cleft, somewhat dilated at the base, continuous 
with the ovary. Achene ovate or oblong-ovate, smooth, 
acute with the obscure persistent base of the style. 

1. C. mariscus Californicum Wats. Stems in rather dense 
tussocks, stout, 18-24 dm. high; leaves equaling the stem; pan- 
icle diffuse, drooping; spikelets in clusters of 2-3, narrowly ob- 
long, 4-6 mm. long; lower scales ovate, acutish or acute, the 
upper lanceolate, acute or acuminate, light brown ; achene brown, 
ovate, attenuate above. 

" The variety has been collected in a swamp near San Gabriel (Brewer) 
and in southern Nevada, Wheeler." Watson, Bot. Cal. 2 : 224. This has not 
been seen by recent collectors, and it is doubtful if Brewer's plant came from 
San Gabriel. 


Grass-like sedges, perennial by rootstocks, with mostly 
3-angled stems. Leaves 3-ranked, the upper elongated 
or short and subtending the spikes of flowers or wanting. 
Flowers monoecious or dioecious, solitary in the axils of 
scales. Spikes either wholly pistillate or staminate, or 
bearing staminate and pistillate flowers (androgynous). 
Perianth none. Staminate flowers of 3 stamens. Pis- 
tillate of a single pistil with a style and 2-3 stigmas 
borne on a very short axis in the axil of a scale-like 
bractlet (perigynium) which completely encloses the 
achene. Achene 3-angled, lenticular or plano-convex. 

* Spikelets unisexual, all distinct and sometimes remote, staminate 

1. C. Pseudo-Cyperus Americana Hochst. Stems stout, 4-6 
dm. high, angles sharp and scabrous ; leaves rigid, nodose, 5-10 
mm. wide, long, tapering; spikelets 4-6, densely flowered, the 
uppermost staminate, linear, 25-80 mm. long; pistillate spikelets 
4-7 cm. long, 8-15 mm. wide, cylindric, approximate or the lowest 
remote ; scales pale, attenuate to a long hispid point, lanceolate 
or oblong, those of the staminate linear-lanceolate; perigynium 

74 Cyperaceae 

coriaceous, pale olive, ovate to lanceolate, attenuate to a long beak ; 
beak bidentate, the teeth about 2 mm. long; nutlet obovoid, 
chestnut colored. (C. Pseudo-Cyperus comosa Boott.) 
Canyon near Burbank, Davidson. 

2. C. spissa Bailey. Stems stout, 1-2 m. high, smooth or near- 
ly so; leaves numerous, rigid, glaucous, serrate, about equaling 
the stem, 10-15 mm. wide; lower bract long, leaf-like, the upper- 
most short or nearly obsolete; spikelets 6-12 or more, the lowest 
10-15 cm. long, long-pedicelled, the upper becoming sessile, all 
erect, cylindric; staminate 4-6 or more, 3-10 cm. long; scales 
with a stout toothed awn; perigynium about 3 mm. high, elliptic 
or obovate, coriaceous, few-flowered, yellowish-green. 

Occasional in the canyons of all the mountains and foothills. 

3. C. filiformis latifolia Boeckl. Stems 3-8 dm. high, stolon- 
iferous; leaves often exceeding the stems, 2-4 mm. wide, spike- 
lets 3-4, purple, staminate 1-4, linear, 3-5 cm. long, more or less 
pedicelled, the lower sessile; pistillate 2-4, oblong or cylindric, 
2-5 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, densely flowered, remote, sessile or 
the lowest pedicelled; pedicels scabrous; scales purple, pale in 
the middle, acute, ciliate at the apex ; perigynium coriaceous, 
hispid, ovoid, obtusely angled, olive-colored; beak short, with 
short divergent scabrous teeth, broader and usually shorter than 
the scales. 

Occasional in fresh-water marshes in the coast valleys, Davidson. 

4. C. laciniata Boott. Stems stout, sharply angled, 6-11 dm. 
high; leaves rather numerous, nearly equaling the stems, 4-8 
mm. wide; bracts very long; spikelets 4-6, cylindric; Btaminate 
1-2, commonly pedicelled, 2.5-7 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; pistill- 
ate 5-8 cm. long, 4-9 mm. wide, remote, the upper sessile, the 
lower long-pedicelled, nodding ; scales purple or ferruginous, 
pale in the middle, ciliate, acute or with rough awn ; perigynium 
abruptly or gradually beaked, nearly entire to bidentate with 
serrate teeth, compressed-lenticular, punctate, sparingly toothed 
on the upper margins. 

First collected at Santa Barbara by Nuttall. Occasional in marshes in 
our coast valleys. 

5. C. Barbaras Dewey. Stems 5-10 dm. high, leafy, glaucous, 
sharply angled and rough at least above; bracts leaf-like, the 
lower long; pistillate spikes 2-4, 25-75 mm. long, narrow, the 

Sedge Family 75 

lower with slender pedicels, 7.5-10 cm. long, attenuate at the 
base, usually truncate at the apex, scales white backed and 
brown edged, obtuse; perigynium nerveless, abruptly contracted 
into a short distinct beak. 

Occasional in marshes about Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. 

6. C. triquetra Boott. Stem 3-5 dm. high, slightly scabrous, 
leaves pale, 2-5 mm. broad, equaling or shorter than the stem; 
spikelets 3-5, oblong; staminate about 18 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, 
subsessile; pistillate 12-18 mm. long, 3-4 mm. broad, erect, the 
upper approximate, the lower pedicelled, all with abortive flowers 
above; scales pale chestnut, ovate, numerous, margins hyaline; 
perigynium pale, covered with long white hairs, ellipsoidal, 
sharply 3-angled, acute at each end, with a short bidentate beak, 
1-4-nerved, longer and broader than the scale; nutlet filling the 

Frequent on dry ground in the Santa Monica, San Gabriel and San 
Bernardino Mountains. 

7. C. multicaulis Bailey. Culms very numerous, 3-6 dm. 
high, stiff and wiry, terete, smooth or minutely scabrous beneath 
the flowers ; sheaths leafless or produced into stiff and appressed 
tips, 2 cm. long or more, or on sterile stems 8-15 cm. long and 
spreading ; the lower scales leaf-like and prolonged into a slender 
tip, dilated and hyaline at the base ; pistillate flowers 2-6, the 
lower often remote; perigynium 6-8 mm. long, strongly 3-angled, 
many-nerved; beak very short, entire; nutlet punctate, com- 
pletely filling the perigynium. 

Frequent on dry ridges in the pine belt of all our mountains. 

** Spikelets androgynous, rarely dioecious, usually clustered in rather 
compact spikes. 

8. C. siccata Dewey. Rootstock creeping, clothed with short 
lanceolate scales; stems slender, sharply angled, 15-60 cm. high, 
scabrous above; leaves rather rigid, 1-4 mm. wide, shorter than 
the stems, scabrous on the margins above; bracts scale-like, the 
lowest cuspidate, usually shorter than its spikelet ; spikes oblong, 
2-5 cm. long, 4-8 mm. broad, ferruginous; spikelets 4-12, alter- 
nate, simple, ovoid, 4-16 mm. long, 2-8 mm. broad, crowded or 
distinct below, the terminal pistillate at least at base, the in- 
termediate staminate or all variously mingled ; scales ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, ferruginous, with broad hyaline margins ; peri- 

76 Cyperaceae 

gynium oval or ovate, tapering to a long, sharply bidentate beak, 
fissured on the outer side, unequally serrate on the margins, 
plano-convex, nerved, about equaling the scale ; nutlet oblong, 
dark chestnut. 

Common on borders of marshes throughout our ranges. Cienega ; Ballona ; 
Santa Ana; San Bernardino. 

9. C. marcida Boott. Stem 3-6 dm. high, scabrous above; 
leaves 2 mm. wide, shorter than the stem; spike 2-4 cm. long, 
6-10 mm. wide, dull brown ; spikelets many, crowded or contigu- 
ous, closely imbricated, 4-6 mni. long, 2 mm. broad, the lower 
compound; bracts clasping, scale-like, setaceously pointed, the 
lowest exceeding its spikelet; scales ovate, acute or cuspidate, 
margin hyaline, brownish; perigynium nearly black in fruit, 
orbicular with a short, or ovate and with a longer bidentate beak, 
stipitate, plano-convex, margins incurved, serrate above, nerved, 
equaling the scales; nutlet ferruginous, lenticular, produced at 
the base. 

Frequent in marshes in the coast valleys. 

10. C. teretiuscula Gooden. Stems slender, pale green, erect, 
scabrous at least above, 3-7 dm. high; leaves usually 2 mm. 
wide, shorter than the stems ; bracts minute or none ; spike nar- 
rowly oblong, compact or interrupted, 25-50 mm. long; spikelets 
several-many, staminate above; scales thin, ovate, brownish, 
acute or short-awned ; perigynium ovate-oval, smooth, few- 
nerved, tapering to a beak of about its own length, serrate on the 
margins above. 

In canyons near Altadena, McClatchie. 

11. C. occidentalis Bailey. Glaucous; stems 3-6 dm. high; 
leaves nearly equaling the stems; spike slender, 25-50 mm. long; 
spikelets somewhat crowded, or the lowest usually distinct; 
bracts scale-like, minute; scales rnuticous; perigynium turgid, 
ovate, abruptly short beaked, nearly marginless. 

" East Santa Monica Range," Davidson. 

12. C. Hookeriana Dewey. Stems slender from creeping 
rootstocks, 2-6 dm. high, sharply angled, scabrous ; leaves shorter 
than the stem, 2 mm. wide, tapering to a slender setaceous tip; 
bracts ovate, awned, commonly exceeding the spikelet, the lowest 
setaceous and often 25-50 mm. long; spike 2-4 cm. long, oblong 
or cylindric ; spikelets 4-10, approximate ; staminate flowers few ; 
scales ovate or lanceolate, acute, chestnut-colored with green 

Lemnaceae 77 

midnerve, margin hyaline; perigynium oval, abruptly tapering 
to a sharply bidentate beak, serrate above on the sharp incurved 
margins, shorter than the scale. 

Frequent on borders of the coast marshes . 


Minute perennial floating plants without leaves or 
with only very rudimentary ones. The plant body con- 
sisting of a disk-like thallus, with usually 1 or more 
rootlets from the middle below. Florets imbedded in 
the frond, without perianth, naked or bracteat.e with 12 
stamens and a sessile 1-celled, 1 several-ovuled ovary. 
Style simple with funnelform stigma. Fruit a utricle ; 
embryo straight. 

Roots more than 1, fascicled. 1. SPIBODBLA. 

Root solitary. 2. LEMNA. 

Roots none. 3. WOLFFIELLA. 

1. SPIBODELA Schleiden. 

Stipe attached (peltately) to the frond back of and 
under the basal margin. Reproductive pouches 2, tri- 
angular, opening as clefts in either margin of the basal 
portion of the frond. Roots more than 1, fascicled. 
Spadix of 1 pistillate and 2 staminate flowers from the 
reproductive pouches ; spathe sac-libe ; filaments curv- 
ing upward from the margin of the frond ; anthers 
2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Fruit rounded lenticu- 
lar, with wing margins. 

1. S. polyrhiza (L.) Schl. Fronds solitary or united in colonies 
of 2-5, roundish obovate, flat on both sides, sessile or nearly so; 
5-15-nerved, 3-6 mm. long, 2.5-4.5 mm. wide; roots 4-16; rootcap 
large, sharp pointed; spathe a complete sac, opening at the upper 
end; pistil flask-shaped; fruit somewhat winged; seed slightly 
compressed, smooth. 

Near San Bernardino, Parish. This, as well as all the other members of 
the family occurring with us, is rarely fertile. 

78 Lemnaceae 


Stipe attached to the basal margin of the frond. Re^ 
productive pouches 2, triangular, opening as clefts in 
either margin of the basal portion of the frond. Root 
solitary. Spadix of 1 pistillate and 2 staminate flowers ; 
spathe various ; filaments curving upward from the mar- 
gin of the frond. Anthers 2-celled, transversely dehis- 

1. It. gibba L. Fronds from solitary to 4 in a colony, com- 
monly 2, orbicular to obovate, 2-5 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, more 
or less unsymmetrical, thick, convex and slightly keeled above, 
usually more or less gibbous beneath, usually 3-5-nerved; fruit 
winged with rounded lobes on either side of the stigma ; seeds 1-7. 

Common in slow-running streams and ponds. 

2. L. minor L. Fronds solitary or with 2 or more in a colony, 
round to elliptic-obovate, 2-4 mm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, sym- 
metrical, thickish, convex on both sides, upper surface sometimes 
keeled and with a row of papulae along the midnerve, obscurely 
3-nerved; fruit not winged ; seeds solitary. 

Apparently less common than the last. 

3. L. cyclostasa (Ell.) Chev. Fronds commonly in colonies 
of 2-8, oblong to obovate-oblong, usually somewhat falcate, 2.3-4.5 
mm. long, 0.7-1.5 mm. wide, usually strongly unsymmetrical; 
fruit elongated-ovate, slightly unsymmetrical ; seed oblong-ovoid. 
(L. Valdiviana Phil.) 

Common throughout our range. 

4. L. minima Phil. Fronds commonly in colonies of 2, ob- 
long to elliptic, 1.5-3.9 mm. long, 0.9-2.7 mm. wide, slightly to 
prominently convex above, with a row of papulae along the mid- 
nerve, convex below, commonly nerveless; pistil short, clavate; 
seed oblong, pointed. 

Near San Bernardino, Parish; Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains; 
Lakeside, San Diego County. 

5. L. trisulca L. Fronds floating and submerged, oblong to 
oblong-lanceolate, with a long stipe attached to the basal margin ; 
often somewhat falcate, 5-10 mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide; terminal 
margins serrulate and fluted, acute at apex. 

Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains. 

Juncaceae 79 

3. WOLFFIELLA Hegelmaier. 

Stipe attached on the margin of the single reproduc- 
tive pouch. Pouch triangular, opening as a cleft in the 
basal margin of the frond. Fronds rootless, thin, un- 
symmetrical, curved in the form of the segment of a 
band, abundantly punctate on both surfaces with brown 
epidermal pigment cells. Flowers and fruit unknown. 

1. W. oblonga (Phil.) Hglin. Fronds solitary or in pairs, 
oblong or commonly tapering from the obliquely rounded base to 
the slightly narrower bluntly rounded apex; slightly falcate; 
basal portion alone exposed to the air, 0.53-1 mm. broad, 1.7-4.6 
mm. long; stipe insertion at the lower angle of the two walls of 
the pouch. 

Near San Bernardino, Parish. 

2. W. lingulata Hglm. Fronds solitary or rarely in pairs, 
ovate to oblong, tongue-shaped, slightly unsymmetrical ; 1.7-3 
mm. broad, 2.7-6.6 mm. long, only a small part of the frond about 
the base exposed to the air ; stipe insertion on the margin of the 
lower wall of the pouch. 

San Bernardino, Parish. 


Perennial or sometimes annual rushes or sedge-like 
herbs, growing in tufts or from creeping rootstocks. In- 
florescence usually compound, paniculate or corymbose, 
rarely reduced to a single flower, bearing its flowers 
singly or loosely clustered or aggregated into heads or 
spikes. Flowers small, regular, perfect. Perianth 
6-parted, the segments glumaceous. Stamens 3 or 6 ; 
anthers introrse, 2-celled, dehiscing by a longitudinal 
slit. Ovary superior, 3-celled or sometimes 1-celled with 
3 parietal placentae. Ovules 3-many, anatropous ; 
styles 3, filiform. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds 
small, cylindric to subglobose, often caudate or append- 
aged ; endosperm fleshy ; embryo minute, thick.. 

Represented with us by a single genus. 1. JUNCUS. 

80 Juncaceae 


Perennial or sometimes annual, glabrous plants, grow- 
ing usually in marshes or wet places, with simple terete 
or flattened, usually pithy stems. Leaves terete, chan- 
nelled or flat. Flowers solitary or clustered in cymes, 
panicles or heads, greenish or brownish. Stamens 6 or 
3. Capsule 3-celled, or 1-celled with 3 parietal placentae, 

* Panicle sessile, apparently lateral; stems terete, leafless or the basal 

sheaths bearing a few terete leaves. 
*- Flowers clustered. 

1. J. acutus sphaerocarpus Engelm. Stems and leaves 0.5- 
1.5 m. high, stout, rigid and pungent, growing in large tussocks; 
panicle 6-12 cm. long, about equaling the spathe, secondary 
spathes long-acuminate ; clusters 2-4-flowered ; perianth segments 
scariously margined, outer broadly lanceolate, acute, inner 
obovate, deeply emarginate, 2 mm. long; capsule subglobose, 
apiculate, about 4 mm. long. (/. robustns Wats.) 

Salt marshes near the coast. Port Ballona ; Wilmington. 

-*- *- Flowers solitary. 

+ Flowers 4 mm. long or more; capsule oblong-ovate. 

2. J. Lescurii elatus Wats. Stems rigid, stout, 1.5-2.5 m. 
high, leafless, from a stout creeping rhizome; panicle lax and 
widely spreading, 6-12 cm. long; perianth segments 5-6 mm. 
long, lanceolate, acuminate, with brown margins ; anthers much 
longer than the filaments ; capsule oblong-ovate, acute, beakless, 
about equaling the perianth. 

Occasional along streams in our foothill canyons. What seems to be the 
same has been collected by the author along New River near Long Beach. 

3. J. Balticus Willd. Stems rigid, rather slender, leafless, 
3-4 dm. high; panicle 2-4 cm. long; perianth segments lanceo- 
late, acute, 4-5 mm. long, brownish; capsule rather acutely 
angled, beaked; seeds distinctly reticulate. 

Frequent along streams and in low ground generally throughout our range. 

4. J. Mexicanus Willd. Closely resembling the last, but 
more slender, 12-24 cm. high ; stems somewhat flattened, sheaths 

Rush Family 81 

frequently leaf-bearing ; panicles about 2 cm. long, loosely few- 
flowered; perianth segments 4-5 mm. long, lanceolate, greenish 
or slightly tinged with brown. (J". compressus H. B. K.) 
Habitat similar to the last, and apparently more common. 

**** Flowers 3 mm. long or less; capsule obovate or subglobose. 

5. J. patens Meyer. Stems rather soft, 0.5-1 m. high ; inner 
sheaths tipped with a short awn; panicle rather open, about 4 
cm. long; perianth segments 3 mm. long, often brownish, spread- 
ing in fruit; stamens 6; capsule subglobose, slightly angled, 
obtuse, apiculate, equaling or a little shorter than the perianth. 

Canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains, Hasse. 

** Panicle terminal; stems more or less leafy. 
*- Annuals. 

6. J. bufonius L. Stems usually branching from the base, 
5-25 cm. high, with fibrous roots; leaves 0.5 mm. wide or less; 
flowers mostly solitary and remote upon the spreading branches ; 
perianth segments lanceolate, greenish, with scarious margins, 
4-6 mm. long; stamens 6, sometimes 3, 2-3 mm. long; anthers 
shorter than the filaments; capsule oblong, obtuse, shorter than 
the perianth. 

Common in the valleys and mountains in moist ground. 

*- *- Perennials. 

** Leaves not knotted. 

7. J. longistylis Torr. Stems several, simple, leafy, 3-5 dm. 
high ; leaves much shorter than the stems, flat and grass-like, the 
sheaths with distinct ligules ; heads usually 5-9 in a sparingly 
branched panicle, exceeding the very short spathe ; few-flowered ; 
perianth segments greenish, narrowly ovate acuminate; stamens 
6 ; seeds oblanceolate, minute, faintly ribbed. 

Frequent on dry ridges in the pine belt of the San Gabriel and San 
Bernardino Mountains. 

** ** Leaves knotted by internal transverse partitions. 

8. J. Torreyi Coville. Stems 2-10 dm. high ; rootstocks slen- 
der, with tuberiform thickenings a few centimeters apart, each 
supporting a single stem; stem stout, 1-4-leaved ; blade stout, 

82 Liliaceae 

terete, 10-25 mm. thick, spreading; heads 1-20, exceeded by the 
lowest bract, each 10-16 mm. in diameter; perianth 5-7 mm. 
long, the segments subulate; stamens 6; capsule subulate, 3- 
sided, exceeding the perianth. (/. nodosus megacephalus Torr.) 
Occasional along streams. Los Angeles River, Davidson. 

9. J. phaeocephalus Engelm. Stems from a creeping root- 
stock, ancipital, 3-7 dm. high; leafy; leaves flat 2-6 mm. wide, 
often exceeding the stems; flowers in a single or few many- 
flowered heads; perianth segments brownish, 3-4 mm. long, 
lanceolate acuminate ; stamens 6 ; anthers usually exceeding the 
filaments ; style long exserted ; capsule acute ; seeds ovate, close- 
ly reticulated. 

Frequent along streams and in low brackish places. May-July. 

10. J. phaeocephalus paniculatus Engelm. A more robust 
form of the last; heads several in a compound panicle, rather few- 

With the last or in similar places. 


Scapose or leafy-stemmed herbs from bulbs or corymbs 
or rarely with rootstocks or a woody caudex. Leaves 
various. Flowers solitary or clustered, regular, mostly 
perfect. Perianth segments 6, distinct. Stamens 6, 
hypogynous or borne on the perianth or at the base of 
its segments ; anthers 2-celled, mostly introrse. Ovary 
superior, 3-celled. Ovules few or numerous, in each 
cavity ; styles united ; stigma 3-lobed. Fruit a loculi- 
cidal capsule ; endosperm copious. 

* Fruit a capsule. 
Herbs with bulbs or conns. 
Flowers not umbellate. 

Stems from a tunicated bulb. 

Styles 3, distinct. 1. ZYGADENUS. 

Styles united, more or less 3-clef t. 2. CHLOROGALUM. 

Stems from a scaly bulb. 

Perianth very showy, its segments reflexed. 9. LILIUM. 
Perianth segments not reflexed. 10. FRITILLARIA. 

Stems from a corm ; flowers showy. 11. CALOCHORTUS. 

Lily Family 83 

Flowers umbellate. 

Perianth segments distinct or nearly so. 

Odor and taste alliaceous ; ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. 


Odor and taste not alliaceous ; ovules several in each cell. 
Flowers greenish-white. 4. MUILLA. 

Flowers yellow. 5. BLOOMERIA. 

Perianth segments united below into a tube. 
Stamens 6. 

Perianth-tube more or less inflated; inner stamens appendaged. 

Perianth-tubefunnelform; stamens unappendaged. 


Stamens 3; staminodia 3. 7. HOOKERA. 

Plants with short stout woody caudex and large panicle of showy flowers. 

** Fruit a berry. 

Leaves scale-like; branchlets numerous, filiform. 13. ASPARAGUS. 


Stems simple, scale-like, from a tunicated bulb, gla- 
brous and somewhat glaucous, with linear mostly basal 
leaves and greenish-white flowers, in a raceme or panicle. 
Perianth nearly rotate, segments ovate to oblong-lanceo- 
late, with a green glandular spot at the narrowed base. 
Stamens free from the segments and about equaling 
them ; filaments subulate. Styles distinct persistent. 
Capsule deeply 3-lobed. Seeds brownish, angled. 

1. Z. Fremontii Torr. Bulb oblong, 2-5 cm. long, with dark 
coats ; stems 4-8 dm. high ; basal leaves 2-4 dm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. 
broad at the base, somewhat falcate-curving ; stem leaves few, 
shorter, sheathing at the base; flowers few to many in a raceme 
or panicle; lower pedicels 2.5-4 cm. long; segments 8-14 mm. 
long, the outer not clawed, the inner with a broad claw; gland 
greenish-yellow, toothed on its upper margin ; stamens about as 
long as the segments; capsule oblong, about 2 cm. long. 

Occasional on the northern slope of the Santa Monica Mountains and 
Verdugo Hills. April. 


Stems from a fibrous-coated bulb, tall almost "leafless 
paniculately branched above, the branches loosely race- 

84 Liliaceae 

mose. Basal leaves tufted long-linear, the stem leaves 
much reduced. Bracts small and scarious. Pedicels 
jointed at the summit. Perianth white or purplish, per- 
sistent and at length twisted over the ovary, its segments 
distinct ligulate spreading, with 3 closely approximate 
nerves down the middle. Stamens 6, inserted on the 
base of the segment ; anthers versatile. Style long-fili- 
form slightly 3-cleft. Capsule broadly turbinate, 3- 
valved, loculicidal. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, obovate, 
somewhat rugose. 

1. C. pomeridianum (Ker) K unth. Bulbs large, about 1 dm. 
long, densely and coarsely fibrous-coated; stem and spreading 
panicle 6-15 dm. high; leaves 2-5 dm. long, 12-30 mm. broad, 
carinate and undulate; pedicels slender, about 6 mm. long; 
perianth rotate, its segments 16-20 mm. long, white with purple 
veins ; capsule about 6 mm. long. 

Common on dry hillsides and plains. May-July. 


Scapes from a tunicated bulb or rarely from a coated 
corm, with mostly narrowly linear basal leaves. Herb- 
age with the characteristic odor and taste of onions. 
Flowers in a terminal simple umbel, subtended by 2 or 3 
membranous, separate or united bracts. Pedicels slen- 
der, not jointed. Perianth persistent, its segments dis- 
tinct or united at the base. Stamens inserted on the bases 
of the perianth segments ; filaments filiform or dilated, 
sometimes toothed. Style filiform, jointed. Capsule 
obovate-globose, obtusely 3-lobed, often crested, loculici- 
dally dehiscent. Seeds obovoid, wrinkled, black. 

1. A. haematochiton Wats. Scape slender, 1-3 dm. high, 
somewhat compressed and 2-edged ; tunicated bulb oblong, crown- 
ing a horizontal rhizome, its coats deep reddish-purple, shining; 
leaves several, linear, flat and rather thick, 2-4 mm. broad, about 
equaling the scape; bracts 2, short connate; umbel erect or 

Lily Family 85 

somewhat nodding, deep purple or rose-color; segments ovate- 
lanceolate acute, 6-8 mm. long; stamens and style very slender, 
scarcely equaling the segments ; ovary truncate with very short, 
rounded crests; capsule obcordate, 4 mm. long. 

On dry rocky hillsides. Santa Monica Mountains and Verdugo Hills. 

2. A. serratuxn Wats. Scape terete, slender, about 1 dm. 
high ; bulb nearly globose, without rhizome, its coats with a dis- 
tinct close horizontally serrate denticulation ; leaves 2 or more, 
somewhat shorter than the scapes; bracts narrowly acuminate ; 
perianth segments broadly ovate-lanceolate, 8-12 mm. long, acute 
or somewhat acuminate, nearly straight and rather rigid, the 
inner shorter and sometimes serrulate; filaments all with a nar- 
rowly deltoid base; crests very narrow central. 

Glendale, Davidson. 

4. MUILLA Wats. 

Scape from a fibrous corm and bearing an umbel sub- 
tended by several small scarious bracts. Leaves mostly 
few, very narrow, nearly terete. Pedicels not jointed. 
Perianth subrotate persistent, of 6 nearly equal slightly 
united oblong-lanceolate segments, greenish- or yellowish- 
white with a dark 2-nerved midrib. Stamens inserted 
near the base ; filaments filiform, slightly thickened to- 
ward the base or petaloid ; anthers versatile. Ovules 
8-10 in each cell ; style clavate, persistent and at length 
splitting. Capsule globose scarcely lobed, loculicidal. 
Seeds compressed and angled. 

1. M. serotina Greene. Scapes 3-5 dm. high, glabrous ; leaves 
3-4 dm. long, subterete, the upper surfaces nearly plane, the 
lower convex and sharply 7-striate, the striae retrorsely scabrous ; 
umbel 40-70-flowered ; pedicels nearly 10 cm. long; perianth 
rotate about 12 mm. broad, greenish-white; outer segments 
oblong-linear, the inner oblong; filaments stout, subulate, little 
compressed; anthers 1 mm. long, lurid purple. 

Frequent in dry stony places in the plains and foothills. April-May. 

86 Liliaceae 


Scape from a fibrous coated corm, with linear carinate 
basal leaves and many yellow flowers in a terminal 
umbel, subtended by membranous bracts. Pedicels 
jointed at the summit. Perianth persistent, of 6 nearly 
equal distinct linear-oblong somewhat spreading seg- 
ments. Stamens 6, inserted on the base of the segments 
and a little shorter ; filaments filiform with a somewhat 
cup-shaped winged and often bicuspidate appendage 
surrounding the base ; anthers oblong, attached near the 
base but versatile. Ovules several in each cell ; style- 
filiform-clavate, persistent and splitting with the capsule. 
Capsule subglobose, membranous, obtusely 3-lobed, 
loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds subovoid, angular and 
wrinkled, black. 

1. B. aurea Kell. Bulb about 15 cm. in diameter, becoming 
densely covered with brownish fibres; scape scabrous, 2-5 dm. 
high; leaf solitary, equaling or exceeding the scape, 6-12 mm. 
broad; bracts narrowly lanceolate; pedicels numerous 3-6 cm. 
long; perianth nearly rotate in bloom ; segments 8-12 mm. long^ 
appendages about 2 mm. long, bicuspidate, minutely papillose. 

Frequent in the foothills and on the plains. April-June. 


Scape tortuous or twining from a depressed fibrous 
coated corm. Leaves usually 2, fleshy linear. Umbel 
subtended by 3 or more thin spathaceous bracts. Peri- 
anth tube thin, more or less inflated and angular or sac- 
cate, about equaled by the segments. Stamens 6, the 
inner with a free lanceolate appendage on each side, 
sterile in some species, the outer ones naked ; anthers 
basifixed. Ovules 3-8 in each cell; style persistent, 
with short divergent stigmas. Capsule ovate to oblong,, 
more or less attenuate above. Seeds angled, black. 

Lily Family 87 

1. B. capitata Benth. Scape 1.5-5 dm. high, very tortuous, 
not rarely twining; leaves about equaling the scape carinate; 
bracts purple, darker than the flowers ; flowers several, capitate 
clustered on short pedicels 12 mm. long or less ; perianth tube 
funnelform, shorter than the segments; appendages connivent, 
forming a corona. 

Common on the plains and foothills. March-May. 

7. HOOKERA Salisb. 

Scapes erect straight from a fibrous coated corm, with 
few linear leaves and a solitary umbel subtended by 
several membranous bracts. Perianth tube thick turbi- 
nate, segments equaling the tube spreading at the tip. 
Stamens 3 opposite the inner segments, the outer stamens 
being reduced to staminodia. 

1. H. minor (Benth.) Britton. Scape slender, 5-15 cm. high; 
pedicels 2-5, mostly 2-5 cm. long; perianth about 3 cm. long, 
violet-purple or paler, its limb rotate, the segments with a strong 
mid vein, the outer narrower mucronulate ; anthers 4-6 mm. long, 
shorter than the retuse or emarginate staminodia. (Brodiaea^ 
minor Wats. 

Occasional in heavy soil. March-April. 

8. TRITELEIA Dougl. 

Scapes slender from a fibrous coated corm, with few 
thin linear leaves and bearing an umbel of yellow, white, 
blue or purple flowers. Perianth tube rather short or 
funnelform, not inflated angular or saccate ; the seg- 
ments erect or spreading. Stamens 6 unappendaged, all 
antheriferous ; anthers versatile or basifixed. Ovary on 
a slender stipe. 

1. T. laxa Benth. Scape 3-6 dm. high ; umbel 10-30-flowered ; 
pedicels 3-6 cm. long; perianth 3-4 cm. long, funnelform, violet, 
cleft nearly to the middle; anthers versatile, ovate-lanceolate, 
2-lobed at base, bluish or white. (Brodiaea laxa Wats.) 

On low hills, Los Fells, Davidson. 

88 Liliaceae 


Tall bulbous herbs, with simple leafy stems and large 
erect or drooping flowers. Perianth deciduous funnel- 
form or campanulate, of 6 distinct spreading or recurved 
segments, each with a nectar-bearing groove at its base 
within. Stamens 6, mostly shorter than the perianth, 
slightly attached to the segments ; filaments filiform or 
subulate; anthers linear versatile. Ovules numerous; style 
long somewhat clavate above; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule ob- 
long or obovoid loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds numer- 
ous flat, packed in 2 rows in each cell. 

1. L. Humboltii Koezl. & Leicht. Bulbs large, 5-15 cm. in 
diameter, white or purplish; stems stout, purplish, puberulent or 
glabrous, 15-30 dm. high; leaves usually in 4-6 whorls of 10-20 
each, oblanceolate, undulate, 10-15 cm. long, 20-25 mm. wide, 
acute, somewhat scabrous or pubescent on the margins and 
beneath; flowers usually many on short and widely spreading 
pedicels, 7-15 cm. long or more, scattered; segments 6-10 cm. 
long, 12-24 mm. broad, reflexed, strongly revolute above the short 
'abruptly narrowed claw, reddish-orange with maroon spots , 
papillose-rigid toward the base; stamens 4-5 cm. long, about 
equaling the style; anthers oblong, 8-16 mm. long, red; capsule 
large, obovoid, acutely 6-angled. 

Frequent in canyons of the San Gabriel and Santa Monica Mountains. 
June- July. 


Stems erect from scaly bulbs with thick fleshy scales. 
Leaves scattered or verticillate, mostly narrow and 
sessile. Flowers solitary or racemose leafy-bracted, 
mostly dull-colored, nodding. Perianth campanulate or 
funnelform deciduous, of 6 distinct equal oblong-oblance- 
olate concave segments, more or less blotched or tinged 
with purple or yellow or white and with a smooth nectar- 
iferous pit near the base. Stamens inserted on the base 
of the segments ; filaments slender ; anthers oblong ver- 

Lily Family 89 

satile extrorse dehiscing laterally. Ovules many ; style 
slender, united to the middle or throughout, deciduous. 
Capsule membranous ovate or oblong, 6-angled or winged, 
loculicidally 3-valved. Seeds flat in 2 rows in each cell, 

1. F. biflora Lindl. Bulb of a few very thick and fleshy ovate 
scales, 6-10 cm. long; stem usually stout, 15-45 cm. high, 1-3- 
flowered ; leaves 2-6, mostly near the base, somewhat verticil! ate 
or scattered, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long; 
perianth dark brownish-purple tinged with green ; segments 
spreading, oblong-lanceolate, about 25 mm. long ; stamens 8-10 
mm. long; anthers 4 mm. long, mucronate; styles distinct above ; 
stigmas linear; capsule broadly obovoid, somewhat 6-angled, 
]2-18 cm. long. 

Occasional in open places in the foothills. April. 


Stems usually flexuous and branching from membranous 
or rarely fibrous coated corms, with few linear-lanceolate 
leaves, those of the stems alternate clasping. Flowers 
few showy terminal on the branches or umbellately fas- 
cicled. Perianth deciduous, of 6 distinct more or less 
concave segments, the inner mostly broadly cuneate-obo- 
vate, usually with a conspicuous glandular pit near the 
base. Stamens 6, inserted on the base of the segments ; 
anthers linear to oblong, basifixed. Ovules many; stigmas 
sessile recurved persistent. Capsule elliptic to oblong. 

* Petals arched; capsule broadly elliptical, deeply triquetrous. 

1. C. albus Dougl. Glaucous; stems 15-45 cm. high, mostly 
branching; bracts foliaceous; flowers subglobose, nodding; sepals 
shorter than the petals, greenish; petals white, ovate-orbicular, 
15-25 mm. long, bearded above the gland with long white hairs ; 
anthers oblong, obtuse, mucronate; capsule 2-5 cm. long, 1-2 cm. 
wide; seeds pitted. 

Common on shady banks in the San Gabriel Mountains. 

90 Liliaceae 

** Petals not arched; pedicels stout, erect. 
*- Capsule oblong, obtuse at both ends. 

2. C. Catalinae Wats. Stems branching, 3-6 dm. high, bulb- 
iferous at base, leaves and bracts linear; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 
purple-spotted near the base, nearly equaling the petals; petals 
cuneate-obovate, 3-5 cm. high, lilac, with a large ovate purplish 
blotch at base; gland oblong, yellow or brown, covered with 
brown or yellowish hairs; anthers obtuse pinkish, 5 mm. long, 
on filaments 3 times as long; capsule 2.5-5 cm. long, about 1 cm. 

Common on the plains and in the foothills. Onofree Mountains; Santa 
Ana Mountains; San Pedro Hills. Extending as far north as the Santa Inez 

-*--*- Capsule narrowly oblong, attenuate into a beak. 

3. C. Weedii Wats. Stems often much branched above, 3-5 
dm. high; bracts linear; sepals oblong with an acuminate tip 
nearly as long as the petals or exceeding them, yellow orange- 
spotted at the base ; petals cuneate-obovate, sometimes truncate, 
2.5-3.5 cm. long, deep yellow, usually dotted with brown, the 
upper margin ciliate, densely clothed with hairs at least on the 
lower two-thirds ; anthers about equaling the filaments. 

Dry hills in the coast mountains and foothills of San Diego County. 

4. C. Weedii purpurascens Wats. Like the type as to struc- 
tural characters, but petals more or less purplish and conspicu- 
ously blotched with brown. (C. Weedii vestus Purdy.) 

In the chaparral belt of the coast mountains from the Santa Ana to the 
Santa Inez Mountains. 

5. C. clavatus Wats. Stems rather stout, 3-5 dm. high, 
bulbiferous near the base; bracts linear; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, about equaling the petals; petals cuneate-obovate, 
yellow, tinged with brown below, the lower half clothed with 
long clavate hairs ; gland circular, deep, bordered with imbricated 
scales ; anthers purple, obtuse, 8-10 mm. long, about equaling 
the filaments; capsule narrow, about 5 cm. long. 

Santa Monica Mountains ; Newhall. 

6. C. splendens Dougl. Stems single 3-6 dm. high, usually 
branched above, bulbiferous at base ; sepals lanceolate-acumi- 
nate, recurved, yellowish, with an oval purple spot near the base 
within; petals obovate-cuneate, 3-4 cm. long and of greater 

Lily Family 91 

width, lilac with a small purplish blotch at base surrounding the 
densely hairy gland, the lower third sparsely hairy to, but not 
below, the gland ; anthers obtuse, usually shorter than the fila- 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Moun- 

7. C. invenustus Greene. Stems 1-4 dm. high, bulbiferous at 
the base; flowers in a 2-several-flowered umbel; sepals ovate- 
oblong, shortly acuminate, striate and scarious margined, the 
tips not recurved, shorter than the petals; petals about 3 cm. 
long, obovate-cuneate, the rounded summit centrally apiculate, 
dull white, tinged greenish and purplish, the short claw purplish; 
gland oblong, covered with light hairs, and with a few scattered 
hairs near; anthers 5-7 mm. long, obtuse at apex, yellow, on 
narrowly margined filaments a little shorter, capsule 4 cm. long. 

Frequent in the coniferous belt of the San Bernardino Mountains; Mt. 
Santiago, Santa Ana Mountains. 

8. C. venustus Dougl. Stem 2-5 dm. high; leaves and bracts 
narrow; sepals oblong-lanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, acute, about 
equaling the petals; petals broadly obovate-cuneate, broader 
than long, white, shaded above with lilac, a conspicuous reddish- 
purple spot near the summit, a brownish-yellow arch in the cen- 
ter, and a brown base, or these markings sometimes obscure; 
gland oblong or lunate, densely hairy and surrounded by a few 
scattered hairs; anthers oblong, obtuse on dilated filaments of 
nearly equal length ; capsule narrow, 5-7 cm. long. 

Open hills about Newhall, Davidson. 

9. C. venustus sulphurous Purdy. Petals light yellow, with 
eye in center and a rose-colored blotch at summit. 

Newhall, Davidson. 


Subacaulescent with a short stout woody caudex and 
straight needle-pointed rough-margined flat leaves and 
ample panicle. Perianth broadly campanulate, of sub- 
equal distinct thin broadly lanceolate concave segments. 
Filaments evidently adnate to the perianth below, clavate, 
suberect ; anthers didymously cordate. Ovary oblong- 
ovoid or obovoid, mostly longer than the short slender 

92 Iridaceae 

style ; stigma capitate, long-papillate, minutely per- 
forate. Fruit capsular incompletely 6-celled, 3-valved 
through the laciniate false septa. Seeds thin flat. 

1. H. Whipplei (Torr.) Baker. Simple or sometimes csespi- 
tose; leaves ascending, rigid, 3-10 dm. long, about 15 mm. wide, 
plano-convex subtriquetrous or keeled on both faces, sometimes 
falcate striate glaucous, keenly but finely denticulate, with very 
fine slender pungent end spine; panicle 2-5 m. high, long 
peduncled, glabrous; flowers creamy-white, pendent, fragrant, 
capsule about 5 cm. long. (Yucca Whipplei Torr.; Y. Whipplei 
graminifolia Wood.) 

Common in the chaparral belt in all our mountains. June-July. 

large yucca of the Mohave Desert. 


Stem at first simple fleshy scaly, at length much 
branched, the branchlets filiform and mostly clustered 
in the axils of the scales and usually flattened. Flowers 
small solitary or clustered. Perianth segments all alike. 
Stamens inserted at the base of the segments ; anthers in- 
trorse. Ovules 2 in each cell ; style slender ; stigmas 3 
short recurved. Berry globose. 

1. A. officinalis L. An escape from cultivation and becoming 
well established. May. 


Perennial herbs with narrow equitant 2-ranked leaves 
and perfect regular or irregular mostly clustered flowers 
subtended by bracts. Perianth of 6 segments or 6 lobes, 
its tube adnate to the ovary, the segments or lobes in 2 
series, convolute in the bud withering-persistent. Sta- 
mens 3, inserted on the perianth opposite the outer 
series of segments or lobes ; filaments filiform distinct 
or united ; anthers 2-celled extrorse. Ovary inferior 

Orchidaceae 93 

mostly 3-celled ; ovules mostly numerous in each cell ; 
style 3-cleft, its branches sometimes divided. Capsule 
3-celled loculicidally dehiscent, many-seeded. 


Perennial tufted slender herbs with short rootstocks 
simple or branched 2-edged or 2-winged stems, linear 
grass-like leaves and rather small mostly blue terminal 
flowers, umbellate from a pair of erect green bracts. 
Perianth-tube short or none, the segments oblong or obo- 
vate, equal mostly aristulate. Stamens more or less 
monodelphous. Style branches filiform undivided, alter- 
nate with the anthers. Capsule globose or obovoid. 
Seeds mostly rounded smooth or pitted. 

1. S. bellum Wats. Stems 2-4 dm. high, glabrous or with sca- 
brous margins, with 1-3 floriferous nodes at the summit ; peduncles 
usually 2 at each node ; spathes of 2, nearly equal bracts, sca- 
brous on the keel, 4-7-flowered; perianth deep blue-purple with 
yellowish base, 2 cm. broad or more; stamens united to near the 
summit; anthers very small; capsule round-obovoid, 6 mm. high ; 
seeds 1.5 mm. thick, obscurely pitted. 

Frequent on grassy slopes, both in the valleys and mountains from near 
sea-level to 6000 feet. April-August. 


Perennial herbs, with corms, bulbs or tuberous roots,, 
sheathing entire leaves sometimes reduced to scales. 
Flowers perfect irregular bracted solitary, spiked or 
racemed. Perianth of 6 segments: the outer (sepals) 
similar or nearly so ; 2 of the inner ones (petals) lateral, 
alike ; the third (lip) dissimilar, usually larger, often 
spurred, sometimes inferior by torsion of the ovary or 
pedicel. Stamens variously united with the style into 
an unsymmetrical column; anther (in ours) 2-celled; pol- 
len in 2-8 pear-shaped usually stalked masses (pollinia). 

94 Orchidaceae 

united by elastic threads, waxy or powdery attached at 
the base to a viscid disk (gland). Style often terminating 
in a beak at the base of the anther or between its sacs ; 
stigma a viscid surface. Ovary inferior, usually long 
and twisted, 3-angled, 1-celled ; ovules numerous on 3 
parietal placentae. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds numerous 
minute mostly spindle-shaped ; endosperm none ; embryo 

Perianth with a spur. 1. PIPEHIA. 

Perianth spurless. 2. GYROSTACHYS. 


Somewhat leafy below, the leaves usually withering be- 
fore anthesis, those of the stem bract-like. Flowers green- 
ish or white ; sepals and petals 1-nerved ; the upper sepal 
ovate or lanceolate, erect ; the lateral ones spreading, 
linear to lanceolate, their bases united with the claw of 
the lip ; upper petals free, lanceolate to linear-lanceo- 
late, oblique ; the blade of the lip linear-lanceolate to 
ovate, obtuse, truncate or hastate at the base. Anther- 
cells parallel, opening nearly laterally. Stigma a small 
beak in the angle between the anther-cells ; ovary sessile, 
ellipsoid in fruit. 

1. P. lancifolia Rydb. Stem stout, 3-5 dm. high ; basal leaves 
and lower stem leaves lanceolate, alternate, 10-15 cm. long, 1-2 
cm. wide, withering after anthesis; spike many-flowered, lax, 
2-3 dm. long ; bracts ovate, acute, striate, about % as long as the 
flowers; flowers greenish, 11-13 mm. long; upper sepal ovate, 
obtuse, about 4 mm. long; blade round-ovate, scarcely at all 
hastate, thick with prominent medium ridge; spur filiform, 
slightly clavate, about twice as long as the lip and about equaling 
the ovary. (Habenaria Unalaschensis of recent authors, in part, 
not of Spreng.) 

Occasional in the canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains, Hasse; San 
Gabriel Mountains. April. 

Saumraceae 95 

2. P. longispica (Durand.) Rydb. Stem stout, 3-7 dm. high; 
basal leaves and lower stem leaves 2-4, lanceolate, acute, 10-15 
cm. long, 2-3.5 cm. wide, withering about the time of anthesis; 
spike many-flowered, rather lax, 1-3 dm. long; bracts ovate- 
lanceolate, 5-10 mm. long, acuminate; flowers greenish, about 5 
mm. long; lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse; petals broad- 
ly lanceolate ; blade of the lip ovate-hastate, distinctly auricled 
and truncate at base; spur filiform, 2.5 times as long as the lip. 

Santa Monica Mountains, Hasse. 


Stems erect, leafy, from a cluster of tuberous roots. 
Flowers in a twisted spike, white, spurless. Sepals and 
petals narrow, erect or more or less connivent ; lip ob- 
long sessile or nearly so, the base embracing the column, 
with a callous protuberance on each side, the dilated 
summit spreading and usually entire. Column very 
short oblique, terminating in a short terete spike. 
Stigma ovate, with an acuminate bifid beak. Anther 
sessile or nearly so at the base of the stipe behind, 
acuminate. Pollen-masses 2, thin and powdery. 

1. G. Bomanzoffiana (Cham.) MacM. Stems rather stout, 
glabrous, 1-5 dm. high, bracteate above ; leaves oblong-lanceolate 
to linear; spike dense 3-ranked, conspicuously bracteate; sepals 
and petals connivent; lip recurved, ovate-oblong, summit wavy- 
crenulate; callosities smooth, sometimes obscure; the oblong- 
linear gland and slender bifid beak 1.5 mm. long; capsule oblong, 
6-12 mm. long. (Spiranthes Romanzoffiana Cham.) 

Occasional in canyons in our foothills. 


Perennial herbs with broad entire alternate petioled 
leaves and small perfect bracteolate flowers in peduncled 
spikes. Perianth none. Stamens 6-8 or sometimes 
fewer, hypogynous ; anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudi- 
nally dehiscent. Ovary 3-4-carpelled ; the carpels dis- 

96 Juglandaceae 

tinct or united, 1-2-ovuled ; ovules orthotropus. Fruit 
capsular or berry-like, composed of 3-4, mostly indehis- 
cent carpels. Seeds globose or ovoid ; endosperm copi- 
ous, mealy ; embryo minute, cordate. 


Stems nodose scape-like, stoloniferous from aromatic 
creeping rootstocks. Leaves mostly radical, minutely 
punctate. Flowers in a compact spike surrounded at 
the base by a persistent colored involucre of 5-8 bracts ; 
each flower except the lowest also surrounded by a small 
colored bract. Stamens 6-8. Ovary sunk in the rachis 
of the spike, 1-celled ; stigmas 3-4. Capsule dehiscent 
at the apex. 

1. A. Californica H. & A. Stem 15-50 cm. long, with a broad- 
ly ovate clasping leaf above the middle and a fascicle of 1-3 small 
petioled leaves in the axil; basal leaves elliptic-oblong, rounded 
above, more or less narrowed toward the cordate base, 5-15 cm. 
long, on petioles 10-20 cm. long; spikes 1.5-4 cm. long; involu- 
cral bracts white, often reddish beneath, oblong, 1-3 cm. long ; 
floral bracts white, obovate, unguiculate, 5-6 mm. long ; ovules 
6-10 on each placentia. ! , ' 

Frequent in wet saline places throughout our range. March-August. 


Trees or shrubs, with alternate pinnately compound 
leaves and monoecious bracteolate flowers, the staminate 
in long drooping aments, the pistillate solitary or sev- 
eral together. Staminate flower consisting of 3 numer- 
ous stamens, with or without an irregularly lobed peri- 
anth adnate to the bractlet. Anthers erect, 2-celled, 
dehiscent by a longitudinal slit ; filaments short. Pis- 
tillate flowers bracted and usually 2-bracteolate, with a 
3-5-lobed (usually 4-lobed) calyx, or without both calyx 
and petals. Ovary inferior, 1-celled or incompletely 

Myricaceae 97 

2-4-celled ; ovules solitary, erect, orthotropus ; styles 2. 
Fruit in ours a drupe, with indehiscent, fibrous woody 
exocarp, enclosing the bony endocarp or nut, which is 
incompletely 2-4-celled. Seed large, 2-4-lobed ; endo- 
sperm none ; cotyledons corrugated, oily. 


Trees or large shrubs, with a somewhat resinous-aro- 
matic bark and foliage, superposed buds and odd-pin- 
nate leaves, with nearly or quite sessile leaflets. Stami- 
nate flowers borne on the twigs of the previous year ; 
perianth 3-6-lobed ; stamens 8-40, in 2 or more series. 
Pistillate flowers solitary or several together on a termi- 
nal peduncle at the end of shoots of the season ; calyx 
4-lobed, with 4 small petals adnate to the ovary at the 
sinuses ; styles fimbriate, very short. Drupe large glo- 
bose or ovoid, the exocarp somew r hat fleshy, the endo- 
carp rugose or sculptured, 2-4-celled at the base. 

1. J. Californica Wats. Arborescent shrub growing in 
clumps, 5 m. high, or rarely a tree and attaining a height of 12 
m., more or less tomentose, sometimes nearly glabrous; leaves 
15-25 cm. long; leaflets 11-17, oblong-lanceolate, serrate, 4-6 cm. 
long ; aments often in pairs, 7-12 cm. long ; perianth of staminate 
flowers 3 mm. long; stamens 30-40; drupe globose, slightly com- 
pressed, 1.5-2.5 cm. in diameter; nut shallowly sulcate. 

Confined mostly to the foothills below 3000 feet. Frequent in the Santa 
Monica Mountains and Puente Hills, less so on the southern borders of the 
San Gabriel, San Bernardino and Santa Ana Mountains. 


Shrubs or trees with alternate, mostly coriaceous and 
aromatic simple leaves and small monoecious or dioecious 
flowers, in linear, oblong or globular, bracted aments. 
Flowers solitary in the axils of the bracts. Perianth 
none. Staminate flower with 2-16 (usually 4-8) stamens, 

98 Salicaceae 

inserted on the receptacle ; filaments short, distinct or 
somewhat united ; anthers ovate, 2-celled, dehiscing by a 
longitudinal slit. Pistillate flowers with a solitary, 1-celled 
ovary, subtended by 2-8 bractlets ; ovule solitary, ortho- 
tropus ; style very short ; stigmas 2, linear. Fruit a 
small oblong drupe or nut, the exocarp often waxy. 
Seed erect ; endosperm none. 


Shrubs or small trees, with entire, dentate or lobed 
mostly resinous-dotted leaves, monoecious or dioecious. 
Staminate aments oblong or narrowly cylindric ; stamens 
4-8. Pistillate aments ovoid or subglobose ; ovary sub- 
tended by 24 short bractlets. Fruit globose, waxy. 

1. M. Californica C. & S. Thickly branched evergreen shrub, 
2-3 m. high; leaves thick, glabrous, oblong or oblanceolate, 
tapering to an acute apex, narrowed below to a short petiole, 
6-12 cm. long, remotely serrate or nearly entire ; flowers monoe- 
cious; staminate aments below the pistillate, 2 cm. long or less; 
stamens 7-16, united by their filaments; bractlets 2, narrowly 
oblong, hairy at apex; pistillate aments in the axils of the upper 
leaves, 6-10 mm. long; ovary ovate, with 2 exserted styles, red; 
bractlets minute; fruit brownish-purple, covered with a whitish 
wax, 4 mm. in diameter. 

Rustic Canyon near Santa Monica, Hasse. 


Trees or shrubs, with simple alternate stipulate leaves 
and dioecious flowers in terminal aments. Each flower 
subtended by a scale-like bract. Perianth none. Sta- 
mens 2-several, central or scattered on a glandular disk. 
Ovary 1-celled ; stigmas 2-4. Fruit a 2-4-valved cap- 
sule, with numerous comose seeds. 

Bracts fimbriate or incised; stamens numerous; stigmas elongated. 


Bracts entire; stigmas short. 2. SALJX. 

Willow Family 99 


Trees with scaly resinous buds, terete or angled twigs, 
and broad or narrow, usually petioled leaves, the stipules 
minute fugacious. Bracts of the aments fimbriate or 
incised. Disk cup-shaped, oblique, lobed or entire. 
Staminate aments dense, pendulous, their flowers with 
4-60 stamens, with distinct filaments. Pistillate 
aments pendulous, erect or spreading. Ovary sessile ; 
style short ; stigmas 2-4, entire or 4-lobed. Capsule 
2-4-valved. Coma of the seeds often very long and 

1. P. trichocarpa T. & G. Tree with a broad head of ascend- 
ing branches, 8-15 m. high; leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, round- 
ed at base, acute at apex, serrulate, dark green and shining 
above, pale beneath, 5-8 cm. long, on terete petioles, 3-5 cm. 
long ; staminate aments 3-5 cm. long ; disk oblique, bearing 40-60 
stamens, with purple anthers ; pistillate aments 5-7 cm. long, 
loosely flowered ; ovary hoary tomentose ; capsule 3-valved. 

Frequent in the canyons of all our mountains and sometimes extending 
down into the valleys. March. 

2. P. Fremont! Wats. Tree with a broad head of wide- 
spreading branches, 6-15 m. high; leaves deltoid-orbicular, 4-10 
cm. long, somewhat broader; crenate or sinuate-crenate, abrupt- 
ly acute at apex, truncate or subcordate at base, green or yellow- 
ish-green on both surfaces; staminate aments 25-35 mm. long; 
stamens 60 or more, with dark red anthers ; pistillate aments 5 
cm. long, loosely flowered; ovary glabrous; capsule on pedicels 
4 mm. long, minutely rough- tuberculate. 

Rare within our limits. Fernando. Common in the San Bernardino Valley, 
and in San Diego County south of the San Luis Key River. 


Trees or shrubs with mostly long narrow usually 
acute leaves, and persistent. or early deciduous broad or 
minute stipules. Bracts entire or denticulate,, .Disk 
gland-like, small or minute. Staminate aments dense, 
erect, spreading or drooping, their flowers with ,1-11; 

100 Salicaceae 

stamens with filaments distinct or sometimes united be- 
low. Pistillate usually erect or spreading ; ovary sessile 
or short-stipitate ; style short or filiform, with 2 entire 
or 2 cleft stigmas. Capsule mostly 2-valved. 

* Stamens 3 or more; aments terminating leafy branchlets. 

1. S. nigra vallicola Dudley n. var. Tree 8-12 m. high, with 
dark, rough bark ; leaves green on both surfaces, glabrate, nar- 
rowly lanceolate, 5-12 cm. long, 8-12 mm. wide, closely serrulate, 
acute or acuminate, narrowed at base to petioles 4-6 mm. long, 
which are quite puberulent or nearly glabrous at maturity ; stip- 
ules lanceolate when well developed, the larger 8-10 mm. long, 
all glandular toothed, often with similar glands on the lower sur- 
face and on the serratures of the young leaves ; aments expand- 
ing with the leaves, terminating the short lateral branches, the 
starninate 3-6 cm., the pistillate 2.5-5 cm. long; stamens 5-11, 
their filaments tomentose below; bracts pale, obovate or round- 
ish, usually very tomentose; style short; stigmas 2, lobed ; 
capsule ovoid, glabrous or more or less pubescent, mostly 4-5 mm. 
long, from slightly longer to twice the length of the smooth 

The largest willow in southern California. Frequent along the Santa Ana 
River from Santa Ana to San Bernardino; also along the San Dieguito and 
San Diego Rivers in San Diego County. The type of this heretofore unde- 
scribed willow is the author's no. 3256, collected along the Santa Ana 
River near Orange. 

2. S. lasiandra Benth. A middle-sized tree with rough bark; 
leaves rather broadly lanceolate, 7-15 cm. long, abruptly taper- 
ing at the base, acuminate at apex, sharply and closely serrulate, 
pale beneath ; petioles glandular at the base of the blade ; stipules 
small, glandular-serrate; aments on long peduncles, the pistillate 
5-7 cm. long; bracts of the staminate yellowish, toothed; sta- 
mens usually 5; ovary glabrous; stigma nearly sessile, bifid; 
capsule lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long, on pedicels 2 mm. long. 

Occasional along streams in the valleys. Los Angeles River, near Cahu- 
enga Pass. A form with smaller leaves and aments is apparently frequent 
along all the streams in the valleys; it is near the type, but the petioles 
and stipules are inconspicuously glandular. 

3. S. laevigata Bebb. Tree 10-15 m. high ; branches reddish- 
brown; leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, serrulate, green 

Willow Family 101 

and shining above, more or less glaucous beneath, 8-12 cm. 
long, glabrous ; petioles about 1 cm. long; puberulent above and 
somewhat grooved ; staminate aments usually flexuose, 5-7.5 cm. 
long; bracts more or less elliptic, woolly at base, glabrous and 
pallid towards the apex; stamens 5-6; filaments pubescent 
below ; capsule conic from a thick base, acute, glabrous, on ped- 
icels 3-4 times as long as the gland; stigma nearly or quite 
sessile, emarginate. 

Frequent along all our streams, especially in the canyons. 

** Stamens 2, rarely 1. 

-*- Aments subsessile on leafless peduncles. 

4. S. lasiolepis Benth. Tree or large shrub, 4-8 m. high; 
leaves oblong or somewhat broadest above the middle, obscurely 
and irregularly serrulate, dull green above, more or less gray- 
pubescent beneath, 12-20 mm. broad, 5-7 cm. long, on petioles 
5-10 mm. long; aments appearing before the leaves, suberect; 
the staminate 2-4 cm. long; stamens 2; pistillate 2.5 cm. long or 
less ; capsule acute, smooth, short pedicelled ; styles rather short ; 
stigmas erect. 

The most common willow, covering a considerable area along the Santa 
Ana and San Gabriel Rivers toward the coast. 

-*--*- A ments terminating leafy branchlets. 

5. S. Parishiana Rowlee. Slender shrub, 1-3 m. high; young 
twigs cinereous strigose; leaves linear-lanceolate, minutely and 
remotely denticulate, 5-7 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, silky canescent 
when young, glabrous and somewhat coriaceous when mature, 
veins few but very prominent; stipules none; aments on long 
leafy peduncles, 2-3 cm. long, the upper leaves of the branch 
much surpassing the ament; flowers dense; scales white, densely 
villous all over, oblong, acute ; filaments scanty hairy at the base ; 
capsules densely villous, oblong, closely sessile; style distinct; 
stigmas linear. 

Not uncommon around San Bernardino according to Parish. This and the 
following species are very doubtful and might, with apparently good reasons, 
be put into a single species, but the author has preferred to retain them 
until our California forms of this difficult group are better known. 

6. S. macrostachya Nutt. Shrub or small tree, 1-6 m. high, 
often in dense thickets ; bark light brown, cinereous, young 
branches villous; leaves 5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, sessile or nearly 

102 Salicaceae 

so, oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, acute at both ends, more or 
less villous-pubescent ; stipules none ; aments on short leafy lat- 
eral branches, 2-3 cm. long, densely flowered, oblong; scales 
densely villous all over, oblong ; filaments crisp villous upon the 
lower half; capsules clothed with long lax hairs, closely sessile; 
style evident ; stigmas divided, linear. 

Common along streams and washes throughout our valley region. 

7. S. macrostachya leucodendroides Rowlee. Shrub 1-3 m. 
high; leaves 10-12 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, densely white tomentose 
on both sides, largest remotely denticulate ; aments cylindric, 4-5 
cm. long, otherwise as in the type. 

San Bernardino Valley. 

8. S. exigua Nutt. Small shrub or becoming a small tree ; 
branches light brown; leaves 4 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, yellowish, 
closely sessile, entire or nearly so, canescent when young, usual- 
ly becoming quite glabrous at maturity, very narrowly elliptic, 
veins very indistinct; stipules none; aments 2-5 cm. long, on 
peduncles about the same length, appearing with the leaves, 
rather densely and evenly flowered, sometimes the lower flowers 
remote; scales in the staminate ament oblong to obovate, in the 
pistillate narrower and longer, smooth or more or less crisp 
villous on the margins; capsule closely sessile, lanceolate, gla- 
brous, light green ; stigmas short and thick, sessile, sometimes 
even appearing slightly sunken in the apex of the capsule. 

In the interior valleys, mostly beyond our limits. 

9. S. exigua virens Kowlee. Leaves 10-12 cm. long, 1 cm. 
wide, nearly glabrous, veins conspicuous on both sides, distinctly 
denticulate; stipules large, oblong denticulate; aments large, 
the pistillate 4 cm. long, 1 cm. thick, sometimes borne in 3's at 
the ends of the long leafy shoots. 

San Bernardino, Wright. 

10. S. argophylla Nutt. Tree or large shrub forming clumps, 
young twigs puberulent, branches nearly glabrous and very 
tough ; bark turning from brown to yellow or orange before 
blooming; leaves narrowly lanceolate, 5 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, 
closely sessile, entire or rarely minutely and remotely denticulate, 
clothed equally on both sides with an appressed silky pubescence ; 
stipules none or very minute on vigorous shoots; aments 
surpassed by their leafy peduncles, 3-5 cm. long, 1-2 cm, 

Betulaceae 103 

often in pairs or in 3's at the ends of the branches; scales oblong, 
obtuse in the staminate aments, narrower and more acute in the 
pistillate, glabrous on the back, crisp hairy on the margin and 
toward the base, erose above ; lower half of the filament densely 
crisp hairy ; capsule lanceolate, covered with straight appressed 
silky hairs, closely sessile ; stigmas sessile, oblong, about twice 
as long as thick ; mature capsule often becoming nearly glabrous. 
Mostly east of our limits in dry washes. 


Monoecious trees or shrubs, with alternate petioled 
simple leaves and small flowers in aments. Staminate 
aments pendulous, with 1-3 flowers in the axils of each 
bract, consisting of a membranous 2-4-parted calyx or 
none, and 1-10 stamens. Pistillate aments erect or 
drooping, spike-like or capitate, their flowers with or 
without a calyx adnate to the solitary 1-2-celled ovary ; 
style 2-cleft ; ovules 1-2 in each cell, pendulous. Fruit 
a small compound or ovoid-globose nut or samara. En- 
dosperm none ; cotyledons fleshy. 

1. ALNUS Gaertn. ALDER. 

Shrubs or trees with dentate or serrulate leaves, and 
both pistillate and staminate flowers in aments ; the 
staminate pendulous ; the pistillate erect, clustered. 
Staminate flowers 3-6 in each axil, consisting of a most- 
ly 4-parted perianth, 1-4 stamens and subtended by 2-4 
minute bractlets ; ovary 2-celled ; bracts woody, per- 
sistent, 5-toothed or erose. Nut small, compressed, 
winged or wingless. 

1. A. rhombifolia Nutt. Tree 7-14 m. high, with a light gray 
trunk; leaves narrowly or broadly ovate to elliptic, 2.5-10 cm. 
long, irregularly serrulate, somewhat pubescent beneath; stam- 
inate aments 7-15 cm. long; bracts obtuse; stamens usually 2 

104 Fagaceae 

(1-3); pistillate aments 4-6 mm. long; cones broadly oblong, 
12-20 mm. long; seeds acutely margined. 

Common along mountain streams and occasionally extending down into 
the valleys. January. 


Trees or shrubs with evergreen or deciduous alternate 
petioled leaves and small monoecious flowers, the stam- 
inate in pendulous erect or spreading aments, the pistil- 
late solitary or several together, subtended by an invo- 
lucre of more or less united bracts, which becomes a bur 
or cup. Petals none. Staminate flowers with a 4-7- 
lobed perianth and 4-20 stamens ; filaments slender, dis- 
tinct ; anther sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Pistillate 
flowers with a 4-8-lobed urn-shaped or oblong perianth, 
adnate to the 3-7-celled ovary ; ovules 1-2 in each cell, 
only 1 in each ovary maturing, pendulous, anatropous ; 
styles as many as cells to the ovary, linear. Fruit a 
1-seeded nut, with coriaceous or bony exocarp. Endo- 
sperm none ; cotyledons large, fleshy. 

Represented with us by a single genus. I. QUERCUS. 


Trees or shrubs with persistent or deciduous leaves 
and small green or yellowish monoecious flowers, 
the staminate numerous in slender mostly drooping 
aments, the pistillate solitary in many-bracted involu- 
cres. Staminate flowers subtended by caducous bracts, 
consisting of mostly a 6-lobed campanulate perianth and 
5-12 stamens with filiform filaments. Pistillate with an 
urn-shaped or oblong 3-celled ovary ; ovules 2 in each 
cell ; styles usually 3, short. Fruit (acorn) consisting 
of the imbricated and more or less united bracts of the 
involucre (cup), subtending or nearly enclosing the 
1-seeded coriaceous nut. 

Beech Family 105 

* Stigmas sessile or nearly so; nuts not densely tomentose on inner 
surface; scales of the rather shallow cup thick and often 
tuberculate. White Oak. 

-*- Acorns maturing the first year. 

1. Q. lobata Nee. (Valley Oak, Roble.) Stately tree with 
slender, often long and pendulous branches ; leaves oblong or 
obovate, 6-12 cm. long, deeply lobed or pinnatifid, pale green, 
acorns subsessile; nut long-conic, 3-6 cm. long; cup deep- 
hemispheric, strongly tuberculate. 

Chatsworth Park and San Fernando. A single tree has also been ob- 
served near Santa Monica (Hasse) and another near Lamanda Park by the 
author, which is the southern limit of this oak as far as known. 

2. Q. Douglasii H.& A. (Blue Oak.) Middle-sized tree with 
rounded head, branches numerous, erect-spreading ; leaves decid- 
uous, 5-6 cm. long, oblong, sinuate or with shallow lobes, bluish- 
green above, pubescent beneath ; acorn sessile or short pedun- 
cled; nut elongated-oblong, 2-3 cm. long, mostly acutish ; cup 
hemispheric, with ovate-lanceolate, thick or somewhat tubercled 

Encino, San Fernando Valley, Davidson. 

3. Q,. Engelmanni Greene. A middle-sized tree, 8-15 m. 
high, with light colored and rather smooth bark, trunk often 
6-10 dm. thick, branches spreading to form a well rounded scarce- 
ly depressed head; leaves short-petioled, oblong, 5-8 cm. long, 
entire or sometimes with a few coarse teeth, obtuse or retuse at 
the apex, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, those of young 
shoots sometimes acutish at both ends and coarsely serrate- 
toothed throughout, somewhat coriaceous, almost without retic- 
ulation, downy-pubescent when young, becoming glabrous in age ; 
acorns sessile or peduncled ; cup hemispheric, tuberculate ; nut 
oblong, about 2 cm. long. 

Frequent from Altedena to Monrovia; also occurring at Azusa and Glen- 
dora, as well as in the foothills of San Diego County. 

4. Q,. dumosa Nutt. Shrub 1.5-5 in. high, the slender branches 
tomentose when young; leaves coriaceous, sometimes persistent, 
2 cm. long or more, oblong, obtuse, sinuate or sinuate- toothed, 
dark green above, pubescent beneath; acorns sessile; nut oval, 
2-3 cm. long; cup deep-hemispheric, 1-2 cm. broad, usually 
strongly tuberculate, occasionally with somewhat flattened 

Common in the chaparral belt of all our mountains. What seem to be 
hybrids between this and Q. Engelmanni are not infrequent wherever the 
range of these two approach each other. 

106 Urticaceae 

- +- Acorns developing the second year. 

5. Q. chrysolepis Liebm. (Canyon Oak.) Usually a large 
tree ; leaves evergreen, oblong, acute or cuspidate, obtuse or sub- 
cordate at base, usually entire or spinose-denticulate, pale and 
glaucous green above, more or less fulvous-tomentose beneath, 
becoming glabrate in age; acorns variable in size; nut oval, 
obtuse, 15-30 mm. long; cup hemispheric, very thick, its scales 
usually almost hidden by fulvous tomentum, 1-3 cm. broad 

Common in the canyons of all our mountains above 2500 feet. 

** Stigmas on long styles; nuts densely tomentose on the inner sur- 
face; scales of the deep cup thin. Black Oak. 

6. Q. agrifolia Nee. (Live Oak, Encina.) Large, widely 
spreading tree; leaves persistent, oval to oblong, 4-7 cm. long, 
sinuately spinose-dentate, somewhat stellate pubescent when 
young, in age mostly convex above, pale and nearly glabrous 
beneath; acorns annual, sessile or nearly so; nut narrow and 
tapering, 2-3 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide; cup turbinate, rather 
deep with lanceolate slightly pubescent brown scales. 

The common oak of our valleys and foothills. 

7. Q. Wislizeni A. DC. A spreading shrub or a small tree 
with us; leaves persistent, coriaceous, lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, acute, entire or somewhat spinose-dentate, usually 
plain, green on both faces, glabrous; acorns biennial; nuts nar- 
row as in the last; cup turbinate, very deep. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of all our mountains except the Santa 
Monica Range. 

Q. CALIFORNIA (Torr.) Cooper. A middle-sized tree with large 
deeply toothed deciduous leaves ; fruit developing the second year ; 
cups deep, with thin scales. 

Common in the pine belt of the San Bernardino, San Jacinto and Cuya- 
maca Mountains. 


Ours annual or perennial herbs, with mostly stipulate, 
simple leaves and often with stinging hairs. Flowers in 
racemed or panicled cymes (ament-like), with small 
persistent bracts, monoecious or polygamous, small, 

Nettle Family 107 

greenish. Petals none. Calyx mostly 4-parted or 
sepals distinct, with as many stamens opposite the 
lobes ; filaments inflexed and anthers reversed in the 
bud, straightening elastically at anthesis. Ovary super- 
ior 1-celled, 1-ovuled ; style and stigma 1. Fruit an 
achene. Endosperm oily, not copious ; embryo straight. 

Herbs with stinging hairs ; leaves opposite. 

Sepals 4, distinct. 1. UBTICA. 

Staminate calyx 4-parted; pistillate unequally 2-4-toothed. 

Herbs without stinging hairs; leaves alternate. 3. PARIETABIA. 


Annual or perennial, simple or branching herbs, with 
stinging hairs, and opposite 3 7-nerved petioled serrate or 
dentate stipulate leaves. Flowers clustered in axillary 
geminate racemes or heads. Staminate flowers 4-mer- 
ous. Pistillate calyx with unequal sepals, the inner 
larger and at length enclosing the flattened achene. 
Stigma sessile, tufted. 

* Annual. 

1. U. urens L. Erect, branching from the base or sometimes 
simple, 25-50 cm. high ; leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, deeply and 
sometimes doubly serrate, 1-4 cm. long, on slender petioles of 
about the same length; stipules 4 mm. long; flower clusters 
rather dense, mostly shorter than the petioles ; flowers androg- 
ynous, mainly pistillate. 

Common in gardens and waste places. Native of Europe. 

** Perennials. 

2. U. holosericea Nutt. Stems simple, stout, 1-3 m. high or 
more, more or less bristly and finely pubescent ; leaves finely and 
densely pubescent beneath, less so above or with only a few scat- 
tering bristles, ovate to lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, the upper much 
shorter, on petioles % as long, coarsely serrate; stipules narrow- 
ly oblong, acute or obtuse, 6-10 mm. long ; Staminate flower 
clusters rather loose, nearly equaling the leaves ; pistillate denser 

108 Urticaceae 

and shorter; inner sepals ovate, densely hispid, 1 mm. long, 
about equaling the broadly ovate achene. 

Very common along streams and in low ground in the valleys and the 
lower altitudes of the mountains. May-September. 

3. U. Breweri Wats. Much resembling the last, grayish with 
a short hispid pubescence or nearly glabrous and with scattered 
bristles; petioles slender, 2.5-5 cm. long, about % the length of 
the leaves; flower clusters rather open, scarcely exceeding the 
petioles; sepals obovate or somewhat rounded, obtuse, minutely 
hispid, nearly 2 mm. long and about twice the length of the 
broadly ovate achene. 

"Frequent about Los Angeles (Bretver) and ranging eastward to southern 
Colorado and western Texas." Bot. Cal. 2 : 64. 1880. Not seen by us, nor has 
it been by recent collectors. 


Annual herbs distinguished from Urtica by the pistil- 
late perianth, which is a membranous flattened oblong- 
ovate sac, with a minutely 2-4-toothed orifice. 

1. H. tenella Torr. Slender and weak, 25-50 cm. high, simple 
or branched, somewhat hispid with branching hairs and bristly ; 
leaves 1-3 cm. long, thin, ovate, obtusely serrate; petioles slen- 
der, 1*2 as long ; flower clusters rather dense, nearly glomerate, 
shorter than the petioles; calyx thin, hispid, with hooked hairs, 
in fruit 1-1.5 mm. long; achene membranous, striately tubercu- 
late with minutely rough points. 

Sepulveda Canyon, Santa Monica Mountains; San Pedo Hills; also near 
San Diego and on Catalina Island. 


Ours slender annuals without stinging hairs. Leaves 
alternate, entire, 3-nerved petioled, without stipules. 
Flowers in axillary glomerate clusters, polygamous, sub- 
tended by leafy bracts. Calyx of the perfect flowers. 
4-parted, in the pistillate tubular-ventricose, 4-cleft with 
connivent lobes. Style slender or none ; stigma spatu- 
late, recurved, densely tufted. Achene ovoid, smooth 

Loranthaceae 109 

and shining, enclosed in the dry brownish nerved 

1. P. debilis Forst. Very slender, usually diffusely branch- 
ing from the base, 10-25 cm. high, somewhat hispid; leaves 5-10 
mm. long or more, broadly ovate, obtuse, rounded at the base or 
abruptly cuneate; petioles slender, about equaling the leaves;, 
achene 1 mm. long. 

Growing in moist shady places, especially in the chaparral belt. Santa* 
Monica Mountains ; Verdugo Hills ; Santa Ana Mountains. 


Evergreen shrubs or herbs, ours parasitic on shrubs or 
trees and absorbing food from their sap through special- 
ized roots (haustoria). Stems dichotomously branched, 
swoolen at the joints and bearing opposite thick coriace- 
ous entire exstipulate leaves, foliaceous or reduced to 
connate scales. Flowers dioecious, regular, clustered or 
solitary, small and greenish. Petals none. Calyx-tube 
adnate to the ovary, 2-5-lobed. Stamens equaling the 
calyx-lobes and inserted upon them ; anthers 2-celled 
or confluently 1-celled. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled ; style simple or none ; stigma 1. Fruit a 
berry ; seed solitary with glutinous testa and copious 
endosperm ; embryo straight, terete or angled. 

Leaves scale-like; anthers 1-celled; pollen spinulose. 1. RAZOUMOFSKYA. 
Leaves foliaceous; anthers 2-celled; pollen smooth. 2. PHORADENDRON. 


Plants yellow or greenish-brown with fragile jointed 
angled stems. Leaves reduced to opposite connate 
scales. Flowers solitary or several from the same axil. 
Staminate flowers mostly 3-parted, compressed. An- 
thers sessile on the lobes, circular, 1-celled, dehiscent at 
the base by a circular slit ; pollen grains spinulose. 
Pistillate flowers ovate, compressed, 2-toothed, subsessile, 

110 Polygonaceae 

at length exserted on reflexed pedicels. Berry fleshy 
compressed, dehiscing elastically at the circumscissile 
base. Cotyledons very short. 

1. R. occidentalis (Engelm.) Kuntze. Stems much branched, 
5-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. thick ; staminate plants brownish-yellow, 
bearing numerous dense spikes, many-flowered ; calyx-lobes 3-4 
mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate ; pistillate plants olive-brown; 
spikes short, 5-6-flowered or with the upper reduced to 1 ; berry 
brown, oblong, tapering to each end, 4-5 mm. long. (Arceutho- 
bium occidentalis Engelm.) 

Frequent on pines. 


Woody plants with terete usually jointed and brittle 
stems. Leaves foliaceous, entire, faintly nerved, or re- 
duced to connate scales. Flowers sunk in the jointed 
rachis, usually several in the axil of each bract. Stami- 
nate flowers with a mostly 3-lobed globose calyx, bearing 
a sessile transversely 2-celled anther at the base of each 
lobe. Pistillate flowers with a similar calyx adnate to 
the inferior ovary. Berry sessile ovoid or globose, 

1. P. villosum Nutt. Foliage deep green; leaves elliptic, 
obtuse, 3-nerved, pubescent, 2-2.5 cm. long, on short petioles; 
berries pinkish, 3 mm. in diameter. 

On oaks about Pasadena. 

2. P. macrophyllum (Engelm.) Cockerell. Foliage deep 
green; leaves orbicular-obovate, 5-7 cm. long, usually 5-nerved; 
spikes large ; flowers pubescent. 

Common on the sycamores. 


>.i: i*'vjuili ;Mi 

Hierbsjor rarely shrubs, with alternate or verticillate 
leaves^ tohieh are often only radical, with sheathing 
stipules or none. Flowers mostly perfect, on jointed 

Buckwheat Family 111 

pedicels. Calyx of 4-9 sepals, usually petaloid, persist- 
ent. Stamens as many as the sepals, perigynous. Styles 
2-4, distinct or somewhat united, opposite the angles of 
the lenticular or triquetrous achene. Seed erect; em- 
bryo straight within the mealy endosperm or curved 
around it. 

Leaves without stipules. 
Involucre bract-like. 

Flowers solitary, surrounded by a 2-lobed bract, becoming elongated 1 

in fruit. 1. PTEROSTEGIA. 

Flowers capitate, each surrounded by a bract. 2. NEMACAULIS. 
Involucre wanting; calyx involucre-like. 3. LASTARBIAB. 

Involucre tubular with 3-6 cuspidate or awned often hooked teeth. 


Involucre turbinate with 18-20 acicular awns. 5. ACANTHOSCYPHUS. 
Involucre campanulate or turbinate, deeply 3-5-cleft, the lobes ending in 

straight awns or awnless. 6. OXYTHECA. 

Involucre oblong, campanulate or turbinate, 4-8-toothed or lobed, awnless,, 

usually many-flowered. 7. ERIOGONUM. 

Leaves with sheathing stipules. 

Sepals 6, the outer 3 smaller; stigmas 3, tufted. 8. RUMEX. 
Sepals 4-6, equal; stigmas 2-3, capitate. 9. POLYGONUM. 


Very slender annuals, diffusely dichotomous from the 
base, with opposite leaves and foliaceous bracts. Invo- 
lucres axillary, sessile, solitary, consisting of a single 
2-lobed bract, shorter than the solitary sessile flower, 
enlarged in fruit, scarious and reticulated, loosely en- 
closing the achene, gibbously 2-saccate on the back. 
Calyx 6-parted or rarely 5-parted. Stamens 3-6, insert- 
ed at the base of the calyx-lobes. Achene triangular, 
glabrous ; cotyledons accumbent. 

1. P. drymarioides F. & M. Stems several from the base, 
10-30 cm. long or more; lower leaves petioled, 4-12 mm. long, 
fan-shaped, 2-lobed, the lobes crenately toothed or slightly lobed ; 
upper leaves obovate-spatulate, entire or more or less toothed; 
bracts similar, 2 mm. long; involucres 2-3 mm. long in fruit, the 
margins of the lobes toothed or laciniate; flowers about 1.5 mm. 
long, sessile; calyx-lobes lanceolate. 

Common and general below 4000 feet. The whole plant often reddis 
when growing in exposed places. 

112 Polygonaceae 


Slender diffuse annuals with spatulate mostly radical 
leaves and no stipules. Flowers capitate, each with a 
free herbaceous bract, perfect. Calyx 6-cleft, colored, 
enclosing the achene. Stamens 3. Styles 3 ; stigmas 
capitate. Achene short-ovoid, obscurely 3-angled. 

1. N. denudata Nutt. Stems prostrate or ascending 15-^0 
cm. long, glabrate, reddish; leaves narrowly spatulate, 2-5 cm. 
long, including the short petiole, densely tomentose-hairy on 
both sides; bractlets of the flower clusters obovate-spatulate, 
2 mm. long, the outer flowerless, the inner smaller, woolly within 
and glabrous without; flowers yellowish, scarcely 1 mm. long, 
short pedicellate, glabrous; inner segments broadest; achene 
0.7 mm. long. (N. Nuttallii Benth.) 

Occasional on sand-dunes along the seashore and in sandy soils in our 
interior valleys. 


A small diffuse rigid fragile annual, with the aspect of 
Chorizanthe. Involucre wanting. Perianth involucre- 
like, coriaceous, tubular, 5-6-cleft to the middle ; the 
narrow teeth rigid, awned, recurved and uncinate. 
Stamens 3, inserted on the throat ; filaments very short, 
with small membranous appendages intervening at their 
insertions. Achene triangular ; embryo curved. 

1. Ij. Chilensis Remy. Branches procumbent or ascending, 
6-15 cm. long, hirsute ; lowest leaves linear, obtuse, hispid-ciliate, 
1-2 cm. long, cauline in whorls of 4-5, unequal ; bracts 3-6 mm. 
long concealing the flowers; perianth 2-3 mm. long, its tube 
triquetrous ; teeth 5, 3 long and 2 short ; anthers small, orbicular ; 
style very short. 

Occasional on dry hillsides, especially in sandy soils. April. 


Low dichotomously branched annual herbs, with 
rosulate basal leaves and opposite or ternate stem-leaves, 
often reduced and bracteate. Involucre 1-flowered, or 

Buckwheat Family 113 

rarely 2-3-flowered, tubular or funnelform, sessile, 3-6- 
angled or costate, 3-6-toothed or 3-6-cleft, its teeth 
divaricate, cuspidate or awned. Flowers pedicellate or 
nearly sessile, included within the involucre, or the seg- 
ments protruding. Calyx 6-parted or 6-cleft, colored. 
Stamens usually 9, rarely 3 or 6, adnate to the base of 
the calyx-tube. Ovary glabrous. 

* Glabrous or glandular-pubescent. 

1. C. Thurberi (Gray) Wats. Somewhat gland ular-puberu- 
lent, usually about 1 dm. high, branching from the base; leaves 
2.5 cm. long, glabrous, slightly ciliate; bracts oblong, more or 
less united, 2-6 mm. long; involucres glabrous, chartaceous, tri- 
angular-prismatic, obscurely reticulated, 4-6 mm. long, 1-2 mm. 
broad, with 3 broad straight awned spurs at base and 3-5 broad 
short erect teeth ; flowers 1 or 2 on slender pedicels, pubescent at 
base, nearly 2 mm. long; segments oblong-spatulate, obtuse or 
emarginate. the alternate ones slightly shorter. 

Occasional on dry sandy plains, mostly farther inland than our range. 

2. C. leptoceras (Gray) Wats. Very slender and nearly gla- 
brous ; leaves and bracts as in the last; involucre 4-6 mm. long, 
somewhat hirsute, deeply 4-6-cleft, the coriaceous turbinate base 
surrounded by as many rigid usually uncinate awn-like spurs ; 
lobes rigid, narrow, unequal, attenuate into straight rigid some- 
what divergent awns ; flowers 2 or 3, occasionally exserted, villous- 
pubescent, 1 mm. long; segments narrowly oblong to ovate, 
nearly equal. 

On dry sandy plains from San Gabriel eastward. 

3. C. Californica Gray. Hirsute and glandular, 3 dm. high 
or less, often reddish ; bracts 1-2 cm. broad, lateral or rarely per- 
foliate, lobed ; involucres on contracted branchlets and often 
clustered in the axils, 4-6 mm. long, obtusely angled, 2-3-toothed 
.and 2-3-sided; segments of the perianth obovate, entire, villous- 
pubescent on the midvein. 

Common on sandy soil along the coast and in the interior valleys. 

** Villo us-pubescent or hirsute) not glandular. 
*- Bracts notfoliaceous. 

4. C. staticoides Benth. Erect or decumbent, rather stout, 
1-4 dm. high, with spreading branches, villous-pubescent, often 

114 Polygonaceae 

purplish, leaves all basal, tomentose beneath, oblong, obtuse, 
2.5-6 cm. long ; bracts not acerose ; involucres in rather close 
cymes, 3-6 mm. long, the alternate teeth larger, nearly equal; 
flowers nearly sessile, 4-5 mm. long, glabrous or sparsely villous 
on the midvein, cleft to near the middle ; segments oblong, en- 
tire, the alternate ones about half as long and narrower; stamens 
inserted at base. 

Very common and general. May-July. 

5. C. procumbens Nutt. Slender, procumbent, branching 
from the base and diffuse, villous-pubescent, often yellowish ; 
leaves spatulate, 2.5 cm. long or less, not tomentose, bracts 
mostly small; involucres 2-3 mm. long, the alternate teeth 
strongly divergent, about equaling the tube, uncinate; flowers 
sessile, 2.5 mm. long, glabrous or somewhat villous, segments 
equal, narrowly oblong, obtuse, entire; stamens inserted at the 

Frequent in the San Gabriel Mountains, Davidson. 

H- - Bracts more or less foliaceous. 

6. C. Parryi Wats. Branching from the base, 5-8 cm. high, 
villous-pubescent; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 2.5 cm. long, 
not tomentose ; lower bracts as large, similar, pungent ; tube of 
the involucre 2 mm. long, the alternate teeth strongly divergent, 
as long or longer; flowers nearly sessile, white or pinkish, 3 mm. 
long, villous on the nerves, cleft nearly to the middle ; segments 
recurved, somewhat undulate, oblong-ovate, acutish, crenate, the 
inner ones about the same length, but narrower; stamens insert- 
ed at the base. 

Scarcely reaching our eastern borders, but rather frequent on dry plains 
and foothills in San Bernardino and Riverside Counties. 

7. C. Fernandina Wats. Procumbent, rather stout, strongly 
silky-pubescent, 6-10 cm. long; leaves narrowly oblanceolate,. 
not tomentose; lower bracts foliaceous, the upper narrowly 
linear; tube of involucre 2 mm. long, the teeth stout, with 
straight awns; flowers white, 2 mm. long; lobes nearly equal,, 
broadly oblong, the alternate ones slightly narrower. 

First collected in San Fernando Canyon. Otherwise only known from 
Chatsworth Park. 

8. C. Xanti Wats. Branching diffusely from near the base, 
6-15 cm. high, villous-pubescent and tomentose ; leaves ovate- 

Buckwheat Family 115 

oblong, 4-12 mm. long, tomentose beneath ; lower bracts similar or 
linear-oblanceolate ; involucres tomentose, in diffuse cymes, the 
tube 4 mm. long with strongly divergent teeth half as long or 
more, the alternate ones much smaller; flowers rose-colored, 5 
mm. long, sessile, villous ; segments linear-oblong, entire, acutish, 
the alternate ones only half as long; stamens inserted at the 

Common in the chaparral belt of all our mountains. 


Slender nearly glabrous acaulescent annual herbs, 
with erect wiry forking scapes. Leaves basal firm dentic- 
ulate with spinulose teeth, dilated at the base. Bracts 
scale-like, ternate, united at the bases, inclined to one 
side of the axes. Involucres turbinate, truncate, on 
wire-like peduncles, with 18-20 hard ribs, which are 
prolonged into as many rigid acicular awns, these sur- 
passing the tube in length. Flowers 5-14, of 2 kinds : 
staminate, included ; pistillate, exserted. Pedicels sub- 
tended by linear or linear-spatulate bractlets. Perianth 
glabrous, segments 6. Stamens 9, inserted at the base 
of the perianth. 

1. A. Parishii (Parry) Small. Slender, 2-5 dm. high; stems 
with short-stalked glands at the base and for a short distance 
above the forks, otherwise glabrous and more or less glaucous ; 
leaves 3-4 cm. long, finely spinulose-denticulate, tube of invo- 
lucre 2 mm. long, much surpassed by its slender whitish 
bristles. (Oxytheca Parishii Parry.) 

Common in the pine belt of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. 

6. OXYTHECA Nutt. 

Slender dichotomously branched annuals, stipitate- 
glandular at the nodes. Leaves in a rosette at base. 
Bracts foliaceous and more or less united, usually ter- 
nate. Involucres few-flowered, more or less distinctly 
pedicellate, campanulate or turbinate, 3-5-cleft, the 

116 Polygonaceae 

teeth bearing an awn or awnless. Flowers equal, gland- 
ular-pubescent on the outside. Stamens 9. 

1. O. trilobata Gray. Much branched from the base, 1 dm. 
high or less; leaves somewhat villous, oblanceolate, 2-3 cm. 
long; bracts ternate, oblong-lanceolate, awned, not reflexed ; in- 
volucres broadly turbinate, 5-parted nearly to the base, strongly 
nerved, 3-4 mm. long, with awns slightly shorter than the lobes ; 
pedicels spreading, 4-10 mm. long; flowers 3-5 in each involucre, 
light rose color, 2 mm. long; segments ligulate-oblong, 3-cleft, 
the lobes lanceolate, acuminate, slightly erose on the sides; 
ovary triangular. 

Not common within our limits, but found on dry plains in San Bernardino, 
Riverside and San Diego Counties. 

7. EBIOGONUM Michx. 

Annual or perennial herbs or rarely shrubs, with 
basal, alternate or verticillate leaves, without stipules, 
and perfect involucrate flowers. Involucre campanulate, 
turbinate or oblong, 4-8-toothed or 4 8-lobed, awnless, 
usually many-flowered ; the more or less exserted pedi- 
cels intermixed with scarious narrow setaceous bracts or 
bractlets. Perianth 6-parted or deeply 6-cleft, petaloid. 
Stamens 9, inserted on the base of the perianth. Styles 
3 ; stigmas capitate. Achene triangular, rarely lenticu- 

* Involucres nerveless, pedicellate; perianth-lobes unequal. 

1. E. Thurberi Torr. Annual, very slender, about 15 cm. 
high, much branched below the middle, with ovate acute bracts 
at the forks, tomentose below the panicle, leaves subbasal, 
rounded-ovate, about 1 cm. long, undulate rugose, pubescent 
above, white tomentose beneath ; pedicels slender, about 2 cm. 
long, erect or spreading, involucres campanulate, less than 2 mm. 
high, cleft nearly to the middle; flowers rose-colored or white, 
outer segments rounded, much broader than the inner lanceolate 

Common on dry plains and foothills from Pasadena eastward; also in the 
Santa Ana Mountains. 

Buckwheat Family 117 

** Involucres 5-6-nerved, mostly sessile; perianth-lobes similar. 

*- Involucres capitate or fascicled. 

* Perennials with stout short woody caudex. 

2. E. latifoliuxn Smith. Caudex indurate, its branches few, 
short, very leafy; scapes not fistulose, 2-5 dm. high; leaves ob- 
long to ovate, 2.5-5 cm. long, often undulate and becoming gla- 
brate above; bracts triangular; heads large and dense, 12-20 mm. 
broad, solitary and terminal or few in a simple umbel; involucre 
tomentose, 4 mm. long; flowers glabrous, light rose color, 3 mm. 

Bluffs near Santa Monica. 

3. E. nudum Dougl. Caudex sparingly leafy ; scapes rather 
slender, fistulose, 3-6 dm. high, sparingly branched above; 
leaves broadly ovate or oblong, obtuse, 1-5 cm. long, on slender 
petioles, undulate, densely tomentose beneath, becoming gla- 
brate above ; involucres usually 3-6 in each cluster, glabrous or 
nearly so, 4-6 mm. high ; flowers glabrous or somewhat villous, 
2-3 mm. long, white or rose color. 

Occasional on Catalina Island and on the mainland east of our territory. 

++++ Perennials, shrubby, leafy; leaves often fascicled; bracts foli- 

4. E. cinereum Benth. Shrubby, 8-15 dm. high, in dense 
clumps, hoary-tomentose throughout ; leaves orbicular to oblong, 
12-18 mm. long, on very short petioles, obtuse, undulate, strongly 
nerved ; peduncles elongated, sparingly dichotomously branched, 
bearing few rather loose heads ; bracts short ; involucres 4 mm. 
long; perianth very villous, rose-colored, 2-3 mm. long. 

Bluffs along the seashore at Santa Monica and San Pedro. 

5. E. parvifolium Smith. Shrubby, about 3 m. high, more 
or less white-tomentose throughout; leaves broadly ovate to 
oblong, 8-18 mm. long, acute, abruptly narrowed at base to the 
very short petiole, revolute and undulate on the margins, becom- 
ing glabrate above; lower bracts conspicuous, the upper smaller; 
involucres tomentose, about 3 mm. long; perianth rose-colored, 
glabrous, about 3 mm. long. 

Common on the sand-dunes along the seashore. 

6. E. fasciculatum Benth. (WILD BUCKWHEAT.) Shrubby, 
5 dm. high or more, more or less tomentose ; leaves narrowly 

118 Polygonaceae 

oblanceolate, revolute, tomentose beneath, glabrate above, 6-18 
mm. long, much fascicled ; peduncles short or elongated, bearing 
a short cymosely divided umbel; bracts rather conspicuous; 
involucres about 4 mm. high, glabrate; flowers rose-colored or 
whitish, glabrous or somewhat villous. 
Very common on the plains and in the foothills. 

*-- Involucres solitary, often secund along the virgate branches. 
++ Perennials, white-tomentose; panicle sparingly branched and 

7. E. saxatile Wats. Caudex densely leafy, sparingly branch- 
ed ; leaves rounded or obovate, obtuse, 12-16 mm. broad, cuneate 
at base, densely tomentose on both sides; petioles short and 
thick ; branches of the cymose panicle 1-2 dm. long, spreading ; 
bracts subfoliaceous, triangular; involucres 3-4 mm. long, teeth 
acute ; perianth rose color, 2-3 mm. long, the lobes appressed to 
the nearly glabrous achene, this abruptly narrowed at base. 

Frequent in the higher altitudes of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 

8. E. Wrightii Torr. Much branched, leafy at base, 2-5 dm. 
high, rather slender; leaves oblong-ovate, 15-25 mm. long, acute, 
narrowed at base to a 4-8 mm. long petiole; bracts all small, 
triangular; involucres loosely spicate along the ascending 
branches, 3 mm. high, the teeth rigid, acute ; perianth rose color, 
3 mm. long ; achene scabrous on the angles above, these acute at 

Frequent in the San Gabriel Mountains in the pine belt. 

9. E. Bloomeri Parish. Caudex as in the last; leaves dense- 
ly white-tomentose or somewhat brownish, oval, ovate or obo- 
vate; scapiform peduncles numerous, 2-4 dm. high, erect, repeat- 
edly branched; lower bracts foliaceous; involucres distant, 4 
mm. high; the teeth subacute, few-flowered; perianth 8 mm. 
high, attenuate at base, glabrous, yellowish; filaments hairy at 
base; achene glabrous, attenuate above. 

Frequent in the pine belt of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Moun- 

10. E. elongatum Benth. Stems erect, rather slender, from 
a sparingly branched base; leaves usually somewhat scattered, 
oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 cm. long, acute, narrowed to a short peti- 
ole, becoming glabrate above ; bracts ovate- triangular to lanceo- 

Buckwheat Family 119 

late, acute; involucres distant on the few elongated branches, 
5-6 mm. high, obtusely toothed ; flowers white or pale rose color, 
2-3 mm. long; achene glabrous. 

Common in the chaparral belt of all our mountains, as well as in the in- 
terior valleys. 

**** Annuals. 

11. E. virgatum Benth. Slender, 3-6 dm. high, tomentose 
throughout, branches few, ascending, elongated, strictly virgate or 
flexuous; bracts lanceolate, shorter than the involucres, some- 
times including 1 or more leaves ; involucres tomentose, narrow, 
4 mm. long; perianth 2 mm. long, white or yellowish, glabrous. 

Frequent in the foothills. 

12. E. vimineum Dougl. Glabrous or tomentose toward the 
base, erect, 2-4 dm. high, much branched from near the base, the 
branches elongated and virgate, the lower commonly in whorls 
of 4-5 ; lower forks often leafy ; leaves orbicular to broadly ovate, 
6-18 mm. long, white-tomentose beneath, becoming glabrate 
above, the margins undulate, on petioles of about the same 
length; involucres very narrow, 2 mm. high; flowers few, pale 
rose color or yellowish, 2 mm. long, outer segments obovate; 
inner oblong. 

Frequent in the coast ranges. 

13. E. gracile Benth. Floccose-tomentose throughout, rather 
diffusely branched, 2-6 dm. high; leaves oblanceolate or broadly 
oblong, tomentose on both sides or less so above ; bracts more or 
less elongated, the lower foliaceous ; involucres rigid, acute, often 
dark brown ; perianth white or pale rose color, 1.5 mm. long. 

Common in sandy soil, especially toward the coast. 

14. E. gracile leucocladon (Benth.) Torr. Less branched, 
the branches strict, becoming glabrate ; flowers pale rose color. 

Dry sand-washes of the interior. 


Perennial or annual leafy-stemmed herbs. Stem 
grooved, usually branched. Leaves entire or undulate, 
flat or crisped, with scarious obliquely truncate cylindric 
sheathing stipules. Flowers green, usually perfect, in 
a simple or compound often panicled raceme. Calyx 

120 Polygonaceae 

6-parted, the 3 outer sepals unchanged in fruit, the 3 inner 
ones (wings) usually bearing a grain-like callosity on 
the back, larger and enclosing the achene. Stamens 
6 ; filaments short, glabrous ; anthers oblong. Style 
3-parted ; stigmas peltate, tufted. Achenes 3-angled. 

* Flowers dioecious; leaves hastate. 

1. R. Acetosella L. Perennial by slender running rootstocks, 
slender erect or nearly so, simple or branched, 2-4 dm. high, gla- 
brous; leaves narrowly hastate, petioled, the uppermost leaves 
somewhat entire; panicle narrow, naked, becoming reddish; 
calyx green,! mm. long; stamens exserted; achene granular, 
exceeding the persistent calyx. 

In moist grassy places about Los Angeles. Native of Europe. 

** Flowers perfect; leaves not hastate. 

*- Inner calyx-lobes with slender awned teeth. 

2. R. pulcherL. Stems erect, 5-8 dm. high, with rigid di- 
varicately spreading branches ; leaves scabrous beneath, the basal 
oblong or lanceolate, acute, cordate or obtuse at base ; flowers on 
short stout rigid pedicels; wings ovate, 2-3 mm. long, with 4-6 
rigidly awned teeth on each side. 

Sparingly introduced, Inglewood. Native of Europe. 

3. R. persicarioides L. Annual, pubescent, pale green ; stem 
erect, simple or branched, 2-6 dm. high, sometimes spreading, 
very leafy; leaves lanceolate or oblong, 2 dm. long or usually 
less, narrowed at the base or cordate, acute at the apex, the 
margins undulate and somewhat crisped; panicle simple or 
branched; racemes erect, leafy bracted; whorls dense, usually 
rather distant; pedicels equaling or somewhat exceeding the 
inner calyx-lobes, jointed at the base; inner calyx-lobes oblong, 
2 mm. long, with 1-3 bristles on each margin, each bearing an 
ovoid or oblong grain; achene about 1.5 mm. long, pointed, 

Frequent in moist places, especially along the margins of ponds. Native 
of Europe. 

*- Inner calyx-lobes with entire or dentate or erase margins, herbage 

4. R. salicifolius Weinm. Glabrous and somewhat glaucous ; 
stems ascending or spreading, simple or branched, grooved, flexu- 

Buckwheat Family 121 

ous, 4-8 dm. long; leaves mostly lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
petioled, not undulate or crisped; racemes dense, interrupted 
below in fruit; flowers in dense clusters; wings 2 mm. long, 
undulate or subdentate, each bearing a large ovoid grain ; achene 
2 mm. long, dark red. 

Frequent in moist places along the coast and in the mountains. 

5. B. conglomeratus Murr. Stems slender, erect, commonly 
branched, 3-9 dm. high ; leaves oblong to lanceolate, 15 cm. long 
or less, somewhat undulate and crisped, the lower long petioled, 
cordate at base, acute or obtuse at apex, the upper short petioled ; 
panicle very loose, much branched ; racemes slender, inter- 
rupted; flowers loosely whorled, the whorls distant; pedicels 
slender, shorter than or equaling the wings ; wings ovate, fiddle- 
shaped, 3 mm. long, toothed near the base, each bearing a large 
oblong grain ; achene about 1.5 mm. long, pointed, red. 

Common in damp land, especially toward the coast. 

6. B. crispus L. Stems simple or branched above, erect, 
rather slender, 3-10 dm. high; leaves crisped and undulate, the 
lower oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 15-30 cm. long, long petioled, 
the upper narrowly oblong or lanceolate, short petioled, all cordate 
or obtuse at base ; panicle rather open ; racemes simple or com- 
pound ; flowers rather loosely whorled ; calyx green ; fruiting 
pedicels about twice the length of the wings, jointed near the 
base; wings cordate, 3-4 mm. long, truncate or notched at base, 
erose-dentate or nearly entire, each bearing a grain ; achene 2 
mm. long, dark brown. 

Common in moist places. 

7. B. hymenosepalus Torr. Stems erect, 4-6 dm. high, 
stout, leafy, simple or branched above; leaves attenuate to a 
short thick fleshy petiole, oblong to broadly lanceolate, often 3 
dm. long, acute, strongly undulate; racemes panicled about 3 
dm. long; pedicels 6-12 mm. long; wings 8-12 mm. broad, rose 
color, deeply cordate, strongly reticulate-veined, grains entirely 
wanting; achene 4 mm. long. 

Frequent in dry sandy soil. Canaigre of commerce. 


Annual or perennial, terrestrial or aquatic herbs, with 
alternate entire leaves and naked, ciliate or foliaceous 
margined sheaths. Flowers usually perfect, often colored, 

122 Polygonaceae 

variously clustered. Pedicels jointed. Calyx 4-5-part- 
ed, usually petaloid, the outer segments slightly larger 
than the inner ones. Stamens 5-9 ; filaments glabrous ; 
anthers oblong. Style 2-3-parted or 2-3-cleft ; stigmas 
capitate. Achene lenticular or 3-angled, invested by 
the persistent calyx. 

1. P. incarnatum Ell. Annual, glabrous or nearly so; stem 
erect, simple or branched above, more or less swollen at the 
nodes, 8-12 dm. high; leaves lanceolate, 6-18 cm. long, acumi- 
nate at both ends, short petioled, sparingly punctate and ciliate; 
sheaths loose, long, sometimes ciliate when young, becoming 
naked; racemes panicled, drooping, 4-10 cm. long, linear; calyx 
white or pink, small ; stamens 6 ; style 2-parted to near the base ; 
achene ovoid-oblong, lenticular, smooth and shining. 

Marshes about Los Angeles. Probably introduced from the Atlantic 

2. P. lapathifolium L. Stem simple or much branched, 
erect or ascending, swollen at the nodes, 3-12 dm. high, the 
peduncles and petioles glandular; leaves lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, 5-20 cm. long, attenuate to the apex, tapering to the 
short petiole, ciliate, inconspicuously punctate ; sheath cylindric, 
ribbed or striate ; racemes panicled, 2.5-10 cm. long, drooping, 
narrow, rather dense, calyx pink, white or greenish, 5-parted ; 
stamens 6 ; style 2-parted to below the middle ; achene lenticular, 
2 mm. long. (P. nodosum Pers.) 

Occasional along streams. 

3. P. hydropiperoides Michx. Stems rather stout, 3-10 dm. 
high, erect or decumbent, clothed with short appressed hairs; 
leaves lanceolate, obtuse; sheath cylindric, loose, ciliate; 
racemes panicled, terminal, erect, narrow, more or less in- 
terrupted, 3-7 cm. long; calyx white or whitish, often conspicu- 
ous ; stamens 8 ; style 3-parted to below the middle ; achene 
3-angled, ovoid or oblong, 2-2.5 mm. long, smooth. 

Frequent along streams, especially toward the coast. 

4. P. aviculare L. Annual or perennial, slender, glabrous, 
bluish-green; stem prostrate or ascending, simple or much 
branched, 1-6 dm. long; leaves linear to oblanceolate, commonly 
oblong, 6-18 mm. long, nearly sessile ; sheath oblique, 2-parted 

Chenopodiaceae 123 

or becoming lacerate; flower clusters axillary, 1-5-flowered; 
flowers small, short pedicelled ; calyx green, its 5 lobes with 
white or pinkish margins ; stamens 5-8 ; style short 3-parted to 
near the base; achene 3-angled, ovoid, 2 mm. long, reticulated. 
A common weed in waste places. 

5. P. Convolvulus L. Annual, glabrous, scurvy ; stem twin- 
ing or trailing, branched, 1-10 dm. long; leaves ovate-sagittate, 
long-petioled, acuminate, slightly ciliate, 1-7 cm. long; sheath 
oblique, rough on the margin ; axillary clusters loosely flowered ; 
flowers greenish, pendulous on slender pedicels; calyx 5-parted, 
closely investing the achene; stamens 8; style short, nearly 
entire; stigmas 8; achene 3-angled, granular. 

Cultivated fields about Pasadena, McClatchie. 


Herbs or shrubs often succulent mealy or scurvy, some- 
times fleshy. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, some- 
times wanting, without stipules. Flowers perfect or uni- 
sexual, with an herbaceous calyx of 2-5 often keeled 
rigid sepals, or sometimes wanting in pistillate flowers. 
Stamens distinct, as many as the sepals and opposite 
them or fewer ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary superior, 
1-celled, 1-ovuled, becoming an achene or utricle in fruit. 
Embryo annular and surrounding the endosperm or spiral 
and with the endosperm lateral or wanting. 

Leaves various, not semiterete and fleshy nor spiny. 
Flowers perfect or polygamous. 
Calyx 3-5-cleft or 3-5-parted. 

Calyx 3-cleft; stamen 1; leaves entire. 1. APHANISMA. 
Calyx mostly 5-cleft, herbaceous in fruit; stamens mostly 5; flowers 

in panicled spikes. 2. CHENOPODIUM. 

Calyx 3-5- toothed, dry in fruit; flowers few or solitary in the axils; 

leaves pinnatifid. 3. ROUBIEVA. 

Calyx of 1 sepal; stamen 1. 4. MONOLEPIS. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 5. ATRIPLEX. 

Leaves wanting; stems fleshy. 6. SALICORNIA. 

Leaves semiterete, fleshy. 7. DONDIA. 

Leaves spiny. 8. SALSOLA. 

124 Chenopodiaceae 


Slender glabrous annuals, with alternate sessile entire 
leaves, and axillary mostly solitary perfect bractless 
flowers. Calyx 3-cleft, with concave segments un- 
changed in fruit. Stamen 1 ; filament short. Ovary 
depressed ; style shortly 2-3-cleft ; pericarp somewhat 
5-angled, rather thick and indurate. Seed horizontal, 
with very thin crustaceous testa. Embryo annular sur- 
rounding the copious endosperm. 

1. A. blitoides Nutt. Stems ascending, branched, 3-7.5 dm. 
high; leaves thin, oblanceolate to ovate-oblong, the upper ones 
ovate, acute, 6-15 mm. long; calyx minute, its lobes ovate, 
obtuse, closely appressed to the base of the fruit; fruit 1 mm. 
broad; seed shining, punctulate-rugose. 

San Pedro, Davidson; Catalina Island. 


Annual or rarely perennial herbs, mostly introduced 
weeds. Leaves often white-mealy, sometimes glandular, 
alternate, petioled. Flowers perfect, bractless, clustered 
in axillary or terminal often panicled spikes. Calyx 
herbaceous, 3-4-parted or mostly 5-parted ; the lobes 
usually connate or crested, more or less closely covering 
the fruit. Pericarp membranous, closely investing the 
lenticular or subglobose, horizontal or vertical seed. 
Embryo annular or curved around the copious endo- 

* Annuals; ours introduced. 

*- Leaves white-mealy or glabrous. 

1. C. album L. Stems erect, 0.5-2 m. high, branches ascend- 
ing ; leaves rhombic-ovate or the upper lanceolate, narrowed at 
the base, acute or sometimes obtuse at the apex, white-mealy 
beneath, dentate or sinuate or the upper entire, 2-6 cm. long; 

Goosefoot Family 125 

spikes densely flowered, often panicled; calyx about 1 mm. broad 
in fruit, its lobes strongly carinate. 

A common weed in waste fields. May-September. Native of the Old World. 

2. C. album viride (L.) Moq. Closely resembling the type, 
but leaves bright green or very slightly mealy beneath. 

Vernon, Davidson. 

3. C. murale L. Stout erect, 3-6 dm. high, the lower 
branches usually spreading or decumbent; leaves 3-8 cm. long, 
rhombic-ovate, broadly cuneate or subtruncate at the base, 
acute at the apex, glabrous or slightly mealy when young ; spikes 
panicled, loosely flowered; calyx enclosing the fruit ; seed acutely 

Frequent in waste places. Often flowering the year round. Native of the 
Old World. 

4. C. rubrum L. Annual, somewhat fleshy and glabrous or 
commonly somewhat mealy; stem erect, leafy, 3-7 dm. high, 
with strict or ascending branches; leaves thick, 3-5 cm. long, 
rhombic-ovate or rhombic-lanceolate, coarsely sinuate-dentate, 
or the upper entire, acute or obtuse at apex, narrowed at base to 
a rather short petiole; flowers in compound, leafy-bracted axil- 
lary and terminal spikes, often exceeding the leaves; calyx 3-5- 
parted, its segments slightly fleshy, reddish, not keeled, obtuse, 
about as long as the utricle ; stamens 1-2 ; stigmas short ; utricle 
horizontal, shining, rather sharp-edged. 

Occasional in saline flats and marshes along the coast. August-November. 

--*- Leaves more or less glandular-pubescent. 

5. C. ambrosioides L. Stem ascending or erect, 0.5-1 m. high, 
much branched and leafy, more or less glandular-pubescent, 
strong-scented ; leaves oblong to lanceolate, obtuse, subacute or 
acute at the apex, narrowed to a short petiole, repand-dentate, 
undulate or the upper entire, 3-9 cm. long ; flower clusters dense, 
axillary upon the branches, forming a leafy spike ; calyx-lobes 
oppressed ; pericarp deciduous. 

Frequent in waste places. Native of Europe. 

~** Perennials. 

6. C. Californicum Wats. Stout, erect or decumbent at base, 
-8 dm. high, from a thick fusiform root; leaves broadly triangu- 
lar-hastate, truncate or cordate at base, 3-9 cm. long, sharply 

126 Chenopodiaceae 

and unequally sinuate-dentate, dark green, glabrous or slightly 
mealy when young; flowers in dense clusters in terminal spikes j 
calyx deeply 5-toothed, loosely enveloping the fruit; pericarp 
persistent; seed subglobose, about 2 mm. broad. 
Frequent in the valleys and foothills. March-May. 

3. ROUBLE VA Moq. 

A perennial herb, glandular-pubescent, strong scented r 
prostrate and diffusely branched, with narrow small 
short-petioled deeply pinnatifid leaves. Flowers small, 
green, perfect or pistillate, solitary or in small axillary 
clusters. Calyx urn-shaped, 3-5-toothed, in fruit be- 
coming ovoid, strongly reticulated. Stamens 5. Styles 
3, exserted. Wall of the pericarp thin, glandular. Em- 
bryo a complete ring. 

1. B. multifida (L.) Moq. Prostrate or ascending, very leafy, 
1-4 dm. long ; leaves lanceolate to linear or linear-oblong, deeply 
pinnatifid into linear-oblong, acute, entire or toothed lobes; 
flowers 1-6 in an axil, sessile, scarcely 1 mm. broad, some perfect, 
some pistillate ; fruiting calyx 3-nerved and strongly reticulate- 
veined; utricle compressed. 

Occasionally found in waste places. Pasadena; Compton. 

4. MONOLEPIS Schrad. 

Low branching annual herbs, with small narrow alter- 
nate entire, toothed or lobed leaves and polygamous or 
perfect flowers in small axillary clusters. Calyx of a 
single persistent herbaceous sepal. Stamen 1. Styles 
2, slender. Utricle flat, the pericarp adherent to the 
vertical seed. Embryo nearly a complete ring. 

1. M. Nuttalliana (R. & S.) Greene. Slightly mealy when 
young, becoming glabrous or nearly so; stem 8-24 cm. high, 
with many ascending branches; leaves lanceolate, short-petioled 
or the upper sessile, 1-6 cm. long, narrowed at base, 3-lobed, the 
middle lobe linear or linear-oblong, acute or acuminate, 2-4 times 
as long as the ascending lateral ones; sepal oblanceolate or 
spatulate; utricle minutely pitted, 1 mm. broad. 

Cienega, Davidson. 

Goosefoot Family 127 


Annual or perennial herbs or shrubby, often scurvy- 
canescent or silvery, with alternate petioled or sessile 
leaves, or some of them opposite. Flowers dioecious or 
monoecious, small, green, in panicled spikes or in axil- 
lary clusters. Staminate flowers bractless, consisting of 
a 3-5-parted calyx and an equal number of stamens. 
Pistillate flowers subtended by 2 or more united bract- 
lets which enlarge in fruit, their margins entire or 
toothed, often crested or winged. Calyx none. Stigmas 
2. Utricle completely or partially enclosed by the fruit- 
ing bractlets. Embryo annular. 

* Annuals; monoecious. 

1. A. patula L. Stems stout and succulent, erect, 2-6 dm. 
high, with few ascending branches, herbage green, only the grow- 
ing parts somewhat mealy ; leaves lanceolate or linear, entire or 
coarsely toothed, sometimes hastate at base ; inflorescence more 
or less leafy below, the clusters dense in spikes or panicles ; 
bracts rhombic-ovate, thick and subcoriaceous, 8-12 mm. long, 
entire or toothed, sometimes muricate. 

Frequent in saline places, especially toward the coast. 

2. A. expansa Wats. Annual, erect, much branched, 5-10 
dm. high, closely and finely mealy-scurvy; leaves 2.5-7 cm. long, 
broadly ovate or deltoid-ovate, irregularly and sharply sinuate- 
toothed, the lower on stout petioles about 1 cm. long, and strong- 
ly 3-nerved from the base, the upper reduced to sessile more or 
less cordate floral bracts, as broad or broader than long ; flower 
clusters more or less unisexual, those of the lower clusters mostly 
staminate ; fruiting bracts sessile, clustered in the axils of the 
leaves, orbicular, mostly 3-nerved, 4 mm. long, 5-6 mm. broad, 
usually emarginate at the apex, the wing sharply toothed and 
commonly bearing on one face a few irregular projections or 

Occasional in the Ballona Marshes. 

3. A. microcarpa Dietrich. Minutely and somewhat hoary 
puberulent, the numerous reddish branches nearly glabrous ; stems 

128 Chenopodiaceae 

15-30 cm. long, spreading and decumbent; leaves oblong or 
oblong-ovate, 6-10 mm. long, acute at each end, sessile; flowers 
in small axillary clusters, the terminal ones usually more stami- 
nate; fruiting bracts round-obovate, usually less than 2 mm. 
broad, the roundish summit narrowly bordered with 3-7 small 
herbaceous teeth, sides frequently somewhat muricate or 1-nerved ; 
seed 0.5 mm. broad. 

Rather common in saline places toward the coast. 

4. A. Watsoni A. Nelson in lit. Branching from the base,, 
somewhat woody below, slender, decumbent or sometimes pros- 
trate, densely hoary-scurvy; leaves mostly opposite, cuneate- 
rounded at base, acute or acutish, oblong-ovate, 12-25 mm. long; 
staminate flowers in dense clusters in short interrupted terminal 
spikes; calyx 5-cleft; fruiting bracts sessile, slightly cordate at 
base, acute, 4 mm. long and broad, compressed, united to above 
the middle, entire or slightly denticulate; seed nearly 2 mm., 
long. (A. decumbens Wats.) 

Not known to occur within our limits, but found at San Diego. 

** Perennials; monoecious, or the last 2 dioecious. 

5. A. Serenana A. Nelson in lit. Stems rather stout and more- 
or less diffuse, 3 dm. or more long; branches smooth and shining, 
straw-colored ; foliage finely grayish-scurvy ; leaves oblong-ovate, 
acute, 8-18 mm. long, thin, sharply toothed or the smaller entire ; 
flower-clusters unisexual, the staminate in terminal simple or 
compound spikes, the pistillate axillary ; fruiting bracts 2 mm. 
long, the margins laciniately toothed or dentate, the central tooth, 
lanceolate and conspicuous. (A. bracteosa Wats.) 

Very common throughout our range in saline places. 

6. A. semibaccata R. Br. Perennial ; sterns much branched 
from the base, prostrate, woody below, branches 3-10 dm. long,, 
branchlets slender, whitish, leafy throughout; leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, tapering at base to a short petiole rounded at apex,. 
2-4 cm. long, 15-30 mm. wide, entire or commonly irregularly and 
remotely dentate, pale green above, silvery beneath ; staminate 
flowers in short capitate spikes terminating the branchlets ; fruit- 
ing bracts about 3 mm. long, the margins entire or minutely 
toothed on the lateral angles, becoming fleshy and reddish when 

Becoming well established along roadsides and in waste places. Wise- 
burn; Wilmington; Santa Ana. More common about San Diego and Escon- 

Goosefoot Family 129 

dido. Native of Australia and cultivated to some extent under the name 
of Australian salt-bush. 

7. A. Californica Moq. Finely white-mealy; stems slender, 
leafy, mostly herbaceous, prostrate or scrambling among low 
shrubs, usually much branched and forming a mat; leaves ovate- 
lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 4-12 mm. long, sessile or narrow- 
ed to a short petiole ; staminate flowers in terminal spikes, the- 
pistillate in axillary clusters ; fruiting bracts membranous, ovate,, 
acute, entire, loosely closed over the utricle but not united, 3 mm. 
long or less. 

Occasional in saline places along the coast and on sandy bluffs overhang'- 
ing the sea. 

8. A. leucophylla Dietrich. Densely whitish-scurvy, steins 
stout, 3 dm. long or more, mostly prostrate; leaves thickish, 
orbicular or elliptic, 8-16 mm. long, sessile, 3-nerved ; staminate 
clusters in a dense terminal spike, 1-2 cm. long; pistillate flowers 
in axillary 2-3-flowered clusters; fruiting bracts completely 
united and with a short terminal wing, globose or nearly so, 3-4 
mm. long. 

Rather common on the seabeach sands, often more or less buried. 

9. A. orbicularis Wats. Subcanescent with very fine pubes- 
cence, woody at base, much branched and forming a compact 
growth, 9-14 dm. high; leaves oblong-obovate, 2 cm. long or 
more, retuse or obtuse and apiculate, narrowed to a very short, 
slender petiole; inflorescence paniculate, naked or leafy below, 
the small dense staminate clusters with the pistillate flowers in 
sessile clusters; fruiting bracts orbicular, somewhat coherent 
toward the base, entire, not appendaged on the back, 4-6 mm. 
broad; seed 1 mm. broad. 

Common along the seashore from Santa Monica to Port Los Angeles. 
What seems to be the same is also common on bluffs near Capistrano. 

10. A. Breweri Wats. Dioecious, stout, 1.5-2 m. high, woody 
below, grayish-puberulent ; the branches terete, somewhat flexu- 
ous ; leaves ovate-oblong, somewhat rhombic-cuneate at the base, 
obtuse or abruptly acute, 2.5-5 cm. long; calyx deeply 4-cleft; 
fruiting bracts spongy, ovate to rounded, convex, united at the 
margin to the middle, entire, 2-3 mrn. broad. 

Bluffs along the seashore. Port Los Angeles ; Santa Monica ; Port Ballona . 

130 Chenopodiaceae 

11. A. canescens (Pursh) James. Erect and shrubby, rather 
strict, about 8 dm. high ; leaves oblanceolate to narrowly oblong or 
linear, 15-45 mm. long, obtuse or acutish, narrowed to the base, 
entire; usually dioecious ; the flowers in panicled spikes; calyx 
5-cleft; fruiting bracts connate and indurated, not scurvy or 
muricate, the wings distinct and broad, veined and entire or 
toothed, 4-6 mm. long. 

Occasional in the vicinity of San Bernardino and San Diego. A common 
species on the desert. 


Fleshy glabrous annual or perennial herbs, with op- 
posite terete branches, the leaves reduced to mere oppo- 
site scales at the nodes. The flowers sunken, 3-7 together 
in the axils of the upper leaves, forming narrow terminal 
spikes, perfect or the lateral staminate. Calyx fleshy, 
3-4-toothed or truncate, becoming spongy in fruit, 
deciduous. Stamens 2 or sometimes solitary, exserted. 
Styles and stigmas 2. Utricles enclosed by the spongy 
fruiting calyx ; embryo conduplicate. 

1..S. ambigua Michx. Perennial by a woody rootstock ; 
stem decumbent or trailing, 1-6 dm. long, the branches ascending 
or erect, nearly or quite simple, rather long-jointed, 7-15 cm. 
long, pale green ; scales broadly ovate, acute or obtuse; fruiting 
spikes 1.5-4 cm. long, broad as the branches; flowers about all 
equally high and about equaling the joints. 

Very common in salt marshes along the coast. May-August. 

2. S. subterxninalis Parish. Perennial from a tufted ligneous 
spreading-prostrate caudex; the herbaceous stems widely spread- 
ing or suberect, crowded or fascicled, 1-3 dm. high, internodes 
short ; the numerous branchlets slender, both members of each 
pair often ascending on the same side of the main stem, giving it 
a unilateral appearance; spikes 1-3 cm. long, of few-several 
enlarged fertile bracts (joints broader than long) and usually 
about as many slender longer sterile ones; scales acute, becom- 
ing divaricate-alate ; middle flower united nearly or quite to the 
stigmas ; fruit glabrous. 

Not common within our limits. Capistrano; Mesmer. Easily distin- 
guished from S. ambigua by its much greener slender and numerous branch- 
lets. Common about San Diego. 

Goosefoot Family 131 

7. DONDIA Adans. 

Fleshy annual or perennial herbs, sometimes suffretes- 
cent, with alternate narrowly linear thick or nearly 
terete entire leaves and perfect or polygamous bracteo- 
late flowers solitary or clustered in the upper axils. 
Calyx 5-parted or 5-cleft, the segments sometimes keeled 
or slightly winged in fruit, enclosing the utricle. Sta- 
mens 5. Styles usually 2, short. Seed vertical or hori- 
zontal ; embryo coiled into a flat spiral. 

1. D. Moquini (Torr.) Nelson. Erect branched, rather bushy, 
usually about 6 dm. high, somewhat woody at base, branches 
leafy, smooth or somewhat tomentose ; leaves linear subterete, 
narrow at base, 12-18 mm. long, acute, the floral similar ; clusters 
mostly 7-flowered ; perianth deeply cleft, incurved or slightly 
cucullate; seed vertical, 1.5 mm. broad, dark brown, finely tuber- 
culate. (Suaeda Torreyana Wats.) 

Common in saline places. July-September. 

2. D. nmltiflora (Torr.) Heller. Somewhat shrubby, 6-10 
dm. high, with slender diffuse or divaricate leafy branches, more 
or less tomentose ; leaves numerous, small, 1 cm. long or less, ob- 
long, narrow at base, obtuse or acute; flowers solitary or clus- 
tered, shortly lobed, small; seed mostly vertical, less than 1 mm. 
broad, obscurely tuberculate. (Suaeda suffrutescens Wats.) 

In saline places in the interior and occasional along the coast. 

3. D. Californica (Wats.) Heller. Glabrous or pubescent; 
stems woody at base, about 2 dm. high; branches decumbent, 
6-12 dm. long, woody below, bearing ascending or erect, very 
leafy branchlets 15-30 cm. long ; leaves broadly linear, acute, 10-14 
mm. long ; flowers 4 mm. broad, 1-3 in the axils ; perianth deeply 
cleft; seed vertical, nearly 2 mm. broad, faintly reticulated. 
(S. Californica Wats.) 

Frequent In saline places along the coast. 

4. D. depressa (Pursh) Britton. Annual, branched from the 
base and usually above, 2-5 dm. high; branches decumbent or 
ascending, usually very leafy; leaves narrowly linear, 2-3 cm. 
long, broadest at or near the base, the upper often narrowly 

132 Amaranthaceae 

lanceolate; sepals acute, 1 or more of them strongly keeled in 
fruit; seed about 1 mm. broad, dull, minutely reticulated. 

Frequent in low alkaline places toward the coast. Hyde Park; Mesmer. 


Annual or perennial much-branched herbs, with 
prickly-pointed leaves and sessile perfect 2-bracteolate 
flowers, solitary in the axils or sometimes several 
together. Calyx 5-parted, its segments appendaged by 
a broad membranous horizontal wing in fruit and enclos- 
ing the utricle. Stamens 5. Ovary depressed ; styles 2. 
Utricle flattened, its seed horizontal ; embryo coiled into 
a conic spiral. 

1. S. Tragus L. Annual, more or less scabrous-pubescent, 
bushy-branched, the branches slender, 2-6 dm. high; leaves and 
outer bracts usually red at maturity, the former not noticeably 
swollen at base, linear, somewhat fleshy; calyx membranous, 
conspicuously veiny, its wings longer than the ascending lobe. 

Occasional along roadsides. Commonly called the Russian thistle. 


Ours herbs with alternate or opposite, simple mostly 
entire leaves. Flowers small usually green, perfect or 
unisexual, bracteolate, variously clustered, usually in 
terminal spikes or axillary heads. Calyx herbaceous 
or membranous, 2-5-parted, the segments distinct or 
more or less united. Corolla none. Stamens 1-5, mostly 
opposite the calyx-lobes, hypogynous; anthers 1-2-celled. 
Ovary superior, 1-celled, with 2-3 stigmas. Fruit a 
utricle, circumscissile or bursting irregularly. Embryo 
annular ; endosperm mealy, usually copious. 

Leaves alternate; flowers unisexual. 1. ARAMANTHUS. 

Leaves opposite; flowers perfect. 2. ALTERNANTHERA. 

Amaranth Family 133 


Ours annual weeds, with alternate petioled undulate 
or crisped leaves, and polygamous or monoecious small 
green or purplish flowers, in dense spikes or axillary 
clusters. Calyx of 2-5 distinct sepals. Anthers 2-celled, 
longitudinally dehiscent. Fruit indehiscent or circum- 
scissile, beaked by the persistent style. 

1. A. retroflexus L. Stems stout erect, with a few erect or 
ascending branches from the base, 3-10 dm. high; herbage rather 
deep green often somewhat reddish, roughish-puberulent ; leaves 
rhombic-ovate, ovate or the upper lanceolate, on slender petioles, 
2-6 cm. long or sometimes longer; flowers green, densely clus- 
tered in terminal and axillary spikes, which are sessile, stout, 
ovoid-cylindric, erect or ascending, 2-4 cm. long, 8-14 mm. 
broad; bracts lanceolate-subulate, scarious except the carinate 
midrib, 3-6 mm. long; sepals 5, scarious, oblong-lanceolate, cus- 
pidate, 2 mm. long or less; stamens 5; utricle black and shining, 
cireumscissile, about 1 mm. broad. 

Frequent in uncultivated orchards and gardens. Native of Europe. 

2. A. graecizans L. Stems erect, bushy-branched, glabrous, 
whitish, 2-6 dm. high; leaves oblong, spatulate or obovate, 2-4 
cm. long, slender petioled; flowers polygamous, in small axillary 
clusters; bracts subulate, pungent-pointed, much longer than 
the 3 membranous sepals ; stamens 3 ; utricle slightly rugose, 
longer than the sepals; seeds about 0.7 mm. broad. (A. albus 

Rather common summer weed in cultivated fields. Native of Europe. 

3. A. blitoides Wats. Stems somewhat succulent, prostrate, 
3-6 dm. long, whitish; leaves glabrous, deep green, shining; 
flowers in small axillary few-flowered spikelets ; bracts ovate- 
oblong, shortly acuminate, 2-3 mm. long; sepals 4-5, 1.5-2 mm. 
long, oblong, obtuse and mucronulate or acute; stamens 3; 
utricle smooth, circumscissile; seed 1.5 mm. broad. 

Moist soil at Santa Monica, Davidson. Common about Rialto. 

4. A. deflexus L. Glabrous, purplish-green, somewhat suc- 
culent; stem usually much branched, erect, stout or slender, 

134 Batidaceae 

3-9 dm. high ; leaves ovate to oval, obtuse to emarginate at apex, 
mostly narrowed at the base, 3-7 cm. long, 1-4 cm. wide ; petioles 
slender, often as long as the blades or the lower longer ; flowers 
polygamous, in dense mostly short and thick terminal spikes and 
capitate in the axils ; bracts shorter than the 2-3 oblong or spat- 
ulate sepals; utricle fleshy, 3-5-nerved, smooth, indehiscent, 
rather shorter than the sepals. 

Redondo, Greata. A ballast plant introduced from tropical America. 


Annual or perennial branching herbs, with opposite 
(at least the lower) entire leaves and perfect or dioecious 
flowers, in panicles or heads, 3-bracted. Sepals 5. Sta- 
mens 5, united into a short cup at base ; sterile fila- 
ments minute, tooth-like ; anthers 1-celled. Style short ; 
stigma capitate or 2-lobed. Seed vertical, lenticular. 

1. A. Achyrantha R. Br. Stem prostrate, pubescent; 1-3 
dm. long; leaves smoothigh oval or obovate, narrowed into a 
petiole; heads mostly axillary, solitary or clustered, dense, oval, 
white ; sepals lanceolate, spine-pointed, woolly with barbed hairs 
on the back, the 2 inner ones much smaller; sterile filaments 
subulate, equaling the fertile ones. 

Streets of Los Angeles, Davidson. Native of tropical America. 


A low maritime shrub, with opposite entire exstip- 
ulate leaves and dioecious bracteate flowers, in axil- 
lary sessile ament-like, spikes. Staminate flowers dis- 
tinct. Calyx campanulate, 2-lipped. Petals 4, rhombic- 
ovate, clawed. Pistillate flowers 8-12, united into a 
fleshy spike, without perianth. Ovaries coherent, 4-celled, 
becoming a fleshy, ovoid-conical fruit ; stigma sessile, 
capitate. Seeds 1 in each cell, erect, oblong ; testa mem- 
branous ; embryo slightly curved, caulicle inferior ; endo- 
sperm none. Represented by a single monotypic genus. 

Phytolaccaceae 135 

1. BATIS L. 

Characters of the family. 

1. B. maritima L. Glabrous, stems branched, prostrate, 9-14 
dm. long, the short flowering branches erect; leaves linear to 
ovate-oblong, 2.5 cm. long, narrowed to the base; spikes soli- 
tary in the axils along the branches; the staminate 4-8 mm. 
long; the pistillate 2 mm. long, becoming 10-15 mm. long in 
fruit; bracts entire, obtuse or acute, in vertical rows, persistent, 
those of the pistillate deciduous; petals white; stamens 2 mm. 
long, exserted. 

San Pedro and Redondo to San Diego. 


Ours perennial herbs with alternate entire leaves and 
perfect racemose flowers. Sepals 4-5, imbricated in the 
bud. Petals wanting. Stamens usually 10, hypogynous, 
with subulate or filiform filaments ; anthers 2-celled, 
longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 10-celled ; 
ovules solitary, amphitropous ; styles 10 ; stigmas linear 
or filiform. Fruit a berry. Seeds compressed ; embryo 
annular ; endosperm mealy. 

With the characters of the family. 

1. P. decandra L. Stems branching from a perennial root, 
1.5-3 dm. high, glabrous, strong smelling and succulent; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate at both 
ends, 1-3 dm. long; petioles 2-8 cm. long; racemes formed at the 
base of the branches, becoming opposite the leaf, peduncled, 5-20 
cm. long; pedicels divergent, with a subulate-lanceolate bract at 
base and usually with 2 similar ones above; calyx white, 4-6 
mm. long ; sepals orbicular ; ovary subglobose ; style recurved ; 
berry dark purple, 10-12 mm. in diameter. 

Santa Monica, Davidson. 

136 Nyctaginaceae 


Ours herbs with fragile stems and tumid joints, and 
entire petiolate exstipulate mostly opposite leaves. 
Flowers perfect, with a calyx-like involucre. Petals 
wanting. Calyx corolla-like, campanulate or salver- 
shaped, 4-5-lobed or 4-5-toothed. Stamens hypogynous ; 
filaments filiform ; anthers 2-celled, dehiscent by lateral 
slits. Ovary superior, enclosed by the tube of the per- 
sistent calyx, 1-celled, 1-ovuled ; style short or elongated ; 
stigma capitate. Fruit consisting of the hardened base 
of the calyx, often costate or winged, enclosing the free 

Calyx funnelform or campanulate; fruit slightly ribbed. 1. MIRABILIS. 

Calyx salver-shaped; fruit winged. 2. ABBONIA. 


Perennial herbs, somewhat woody toward the base, with 
opposite leaves and axillary solitary or paniculate ped- 
uncles. Involucre calyx-like, 5-cleft or 5-parted, herba- 
ceous unchanged in fruit, bearing 1-12 flowers. Calyx 
tubular or narrowly campanulate, with somewhat spread- 
ing lobes. Stamens 5, equaling the calyx ; filaments 
united at the base. Fruit globose to ovate-oblong, 
smooth or slightly ribbed or angled. 

1. M. multiflora pubescens Wats. Stems stout spreading, 
0.5-1 m. long; herbage roughish pubescent throughout; leaves 
rather thin, 3-7 cm. long, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute 
or acuminate, sometimes slightly cordate, decurrent on the slender 
2-4 cm. long petioles; involucre about 20-25 mm. long, 5-cleft to 
about the middle, the lobes acute; flowers usually 6, broadly 
funnelform, 3-5 cm. long, rose color to purple, the tube greenish, 
acutely 5-lobed ; stamens 5, equaling the calyx, shorter than the 
filiform style; fruit ovate-oblong, 6-8 mm. long, with 10 shallow 
furrows near the base and with as many intermediate dark lines. 

Four-o'clock Family 137 

2. M. Californica Gray. Stems ascending or spreading from 
a somewhat woody base, 3-6 dm. long; herbage viscid-pubescent ; 
leaves rather thick. 1-3 cm. long, broadly ovate to cordate, ob- 
tuse or acute; petioles slender, 1-2 cm. long; involucre about 6 
mm. long, acutely 5-cleft to near the middle; calyx narrowly 
campanulate, 10 mm. long, the lobes spreading, emarginate; 
stamens equaling the calyx and nearly equaling the style; fruit 
ovate smooth, 3 mm. long. 

Common in the foothills throughout our range. March-June. 


Ours perennial herbs, often prostrate and more or less 
viscid-pubescent, with thick opposite unequal leaves. 
Involucres of 5-15 somewhat scarious leaflets, enclosing 
numerous sessile showy and fragrant flowers. Calyx 
salver-shaped, the lobes usually 5, obcordate or emarginate. 
Stamens usually 5, unequal, adnate to the calyx-tube and 
included. Style included ; stigma linear-clavate. Fruit 
indurated, 3-5-winged ; achene smooth, cylindric. Em- 
bryo with only 1 cotyledon. 

1. A. umbellata Lam. Stems slender, prostrate and widely 
branching, 3-10 dm. long, viscid-puberulent; leaves nearly gla- 
brousj broadly obovate to oblong, the margin rarely sinuate, 2-4 
cm. long, narrowed to a slender petiole of equal length or longer ; 
peduncles 5-10 cm. long; involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate, 
4-6 mm. long, enclosing 10-15 flowers, forming an umbel-like 
head; calyx rose-purple, rarely whitish, 12-16 mm. long, lobes 5, 
emarginate; fruit oblong, attenuate at each end, 8-10 mm. long, 
glabrous; wings thin, broadest above and often truncate. 

Common on the sand-dunes along the seashore. 

2. A. maritima Nutt. Stems stout, the lower portion usually 
buried in the drifting sand, prostrate, succulent and viscid ; leaves 
thick, broadly ovate to oblong, cuneate or rounded at base, 3-5 cm. 
long, vertical on stout petioles of about the same length ; ped- 
uncles slightly exceeding the leaves; involucral bracts short, ovate- 
oblong, enclosing 10-15 flowers, forming a narrow head ; calyx 1 
cm. long, deep red ; fruit viscid-pubescent ; wings rather thick. 

Common on the beach sands along the seashore. 

138 Aizoaceae 


Ours herbs very succulent, except Mollugo, with op- 
posite or verticillate leaves. Calyx 5-lobed, herbaceous 
or petaloid, the tube adnate or free from the ovary. 
Petals numerous or wanting. Stamens 3-many, with 
slender filaments inserted on the calyx-tube. Styles 
3-20. Fruit a capsule, 3-20-celled, ctehiscence various. 
Seeds numerous, minute ; embryo annular ; endosperm 
scanty or copious. 

Ovary free from the calyx; petals none. 

Sepals 5; capsule 3-valved; leaves not succulent. 

Calyx-lobes 5, petaloid; capsule circumscissile; succulent. 

Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary; petals and stamens numerous. 



Annuals, ours prostrate, glabrous, much-branched, with 
verticillate stipulate leaves. Stipules scarious, mem- 
branous, deciduous. Flowers axillary on long slender 
pedicels. Calyx 5-parted, persistent ; sepals scarious- 
margined. Petals none. Stamens 3-5. Ovary ovoid 
or globose, 3-celled. Capsule 3-celled, 3-valved, loculici- 
dally dehiscent. 

1. M. verticillata L. Stem much branched, prostrate, 10-20 
cm. long, glabrous, not succulent; leaves in whorls of 5's or 6's, 
spatulate to linear-lanceolate, entire, obtuse, 10-25 mm. long, 
narrowed to a short petiole; flowers 1.5-2 mm. broad; sepals 
oblong, slightly shorter than the ovoid capsule; capsule rough- 
ened by the projecting seeds; seeds minute, smooth and shining 
or slightly granular. 

Growing in damp places near borders of pools. Garvanza, Davidson; 
Laguna, Orange County. 


Stems prostrate or decumbent, fleshy with opposite ex- 
stipulate leaves. Flowers solitary in the axils, sessile or 

Carpet-weed Family 139 

on short stout pedicels. Calyx-tube turbinate, free from 
the ovary, the lobes 5, often purplish within, oblong, 
obtuse. Petals none. Stamens 5-many ; filaments 
united at the base into sets. Ovary 3-5-celled, with as 
many styles. Capsule membranous, ovate-oblong, cir- 
cumscissile at the middle. Seeds many, minute, smooth. 

1. S. sessile Pers. Stems prostrate, much branched, 1-3 dm. 
long or more; leaves broadly spatulate or linear, 1-4 cm. long; 
flowers sessile or nearly so, 6-10 mm. long; sepals ovate-lance- 
olate, scarious-margined, 6 mm. long; filaments united below 
the middle, red. 

Occasional in low saline places. June-September. 


Ours very fleshy maritime herbs, with opposite exstip- 
ulate leaves. Flowers large and showy, terminal and 
in the forks of the branches. Calyx-tube adnate to the 
ovary, the lobes 5, unequal, herbaceous. Petals numer- 
ous, linear. Stamens very numerous, with slender fila- 
ments, inserted with the petals on the tube of the calyx. 
Capsule 4-20-celled, with as many styles, dehiscing at 
the depressed summit by stellate valves. Seeds minute, 

1. M. aequilaterale Haw. Stems prostrate, often forming 
extensive mats; leaves 3-angled, 4-6 cm. long, smooth; flowers 
solitary, sessile or nearly so, about 3 cm. broad; calyx-tube tur- 
binate, 2-4 cm. long; the larger foliaceous lobes nearly as long; 
petals red ; styles 6-10. 

Common along the seashore. 

2. M. crystallinum L. Annual or biennial, prostrate and 
widely branching, the herbage covered with white glistening pa- 
pillse; leaves flat, fleshy, clasping, broadly ovate or spatulate, 
undulate; flowers axillary sessile or nearly so, white or pink; 
calyx-tube campanulate, 6-10 mm. long, lobes ovate, retuse or 
acute ; stigmas 5. 

Common in low saline places near the coast. May-June. 

140 Portulacaceae 

3. M. nodifloruxn Haw. A prostrate branching annual with 
rather slender terete leaves; flowers white or whitish, small, 
about 1 cm. broad. 

Not known within our limits, but occurring on Catalina Island and along 
the shore of the mainland from near Capistrano south. Abundant about 
San Diego. 


Herbs generally fleshy or succulent, with alternate or 
opposite leaves and regular but unsymmetrical per- 
fect flowers. Sepals commonly 2. Petals 4 or 5, rarely 
more, hypogynous, equal in number to the petals and 
opposite them or fewer ; anthers 2-celled, longitudinally 
dehiscent. Ovary 1-celled ; styles 2-3-cleft or divided ; 
ovules 2-many, amphitropous. Capsule membranous or 
crustaceous, circumscissile or 3-valved. Seeds 2-many, 
reniform-globose or compressed ; embryo curved ; endo- 
sperm farinaceous. 

Sepals 2, distinct, free from the ovary, persistent. 
Ovary 3-valved. 

Styles 2-cleft; sepals unequal, hyaline. 2. CALYPTRIDIDM. 

Styles 3-cleft; sepals equal, herbaceous. 

Stamens more than 5; seeds many, smooth. 1. CALANDRINIA. 
Stamens usually 3; seeds few, tuberculate. 3. MONTIA. 
Sepals 2, united at the base, adnate to the ovary; ovary circumscissile. 



Low succulent herbs with alternate or radical leaves, 
and purplish flowers in bracteolate racemes. Sepals 2, 
green and persistent. Petals mostly 5. Stamens 5-15 
or sometimes only 3. Ovary free, many-ovuled, style 
3-cleft, short. Capsule ovoid, membranous, 3-valved. 
Seeds smooth or minutely tuberculate. 

1. C. caulescens Menziesii (Hook.) Gray. Stems decumbent 
or ascending, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, 10-30 cm. long, leafy ; 

Purslane Family 141 

leaves linear to oblanceolate, the lower petioled, 3-6 cm. long; 
flowers scattered along the branches; sepals ovate, acute or acu- 
minate, carinate, the keel and margins entire or sparsely ciliolate ; 
petals broadly obovate, 5-15 mm. long, rose-red or rarely white; 
seeds black and shining. (C. Menziesii (Hook.) T. & G. ; C. ele- 
gans Spach.) 

Common on the mesas, especially in the coast region. February-May. 

2. C. maritima Nutt. Stems glaucous, depressed, 6-10 cm. 
long; leaves mostly rosulate at the base, obovate to obovate- 
spatulate, the upper bract-like; flowers in a loose naked cyme; 
calyx ovate, acute, about 3 mm. long; petals 5-6 mm. long, rose- 
purple; capsule ovoid, 4 mm. long, acutish ; seeds dull grayish. 

Along the seashore at Santa Monica; Davidson. 


Glabrous and rather succulent herbs, branching from 
the base, the branches prostrate or ascending. Flowers 
small, ephemeral, solitary or clustered in scorpioid spikes 
Sepals 2, broadly ovate or cordate-orbicular, scarious, 
persistent. Petals 2-4. Stamens 1-3. Style bifid. Cap- 
sule membranaceous, 2-valved, 6-12-seeded. 

1. C. monandrum Nutt. Stems prostrate, much branched, 
2-8 cm. long; leaves spatulate, about equaling the branches, 
mostly radical, the cauline similar but usually smaller; sepals 2, 
narrowly scarious margined, 1.5mm. long; petals2-3, aboutequal- 
ingthesepals; stamens 1, shorter than the petals ; filaments suhu- 
late; style short, shortly 2-lobed or entire; capsule linear, be- 
coming much exserted, bearing the withered petals at the apex ; 
seeds 5-10. 

Frequent on sand-dunes along the seashore and occasional in the foot- 
hill region. March-May. 


Low glabrous and succulent herbs with delicate pale 
rose-colored or white flowers in loose axillary or ter- 
minal, simple or compound racemes. Sepals 2, rarely 3, 
persistent. Petals usually 5, rarely 3 or wanting, more 

142 Portulacaceae 

or lesss united at base, usually slightly unequal. Sta- 
mens 3-5, inserted on the corolla opposite the lobes. 
Ovary 3-ovuled. Capsule 3-valved, 3-seeded. 

1. M. perfoliata (Donn) Howell. Scapose stems 10-30 cm. 
high; leaves long petioled, oblanceolate to ovate or deltoid; 
involucral bracts completely joined, forming a perfoliate disk; 
flowers in short or rather long peduncled racemes ; sepals ovate, 
2-3 mm. long; petals 3-5 mm. long, white or rose color; seeds 
lenticular, black and shining, minutely granular. (Claytonia 
perfoliata Donn.) 

Common in moist shady places below 4000 feet altitude. February-May. 

2. M. spathulata (Dougl.) Howell. Low and rather dense, 
3-10 cm. high ; radical leaves linear or spatulate-linear, little ex- 
ceeded by the flowering stems; cauline leaves from spatulate- 
ovate to lanceolate, almost distinct or connate upon one side into 
an obcordate or 2-lobed involucre; inflorescence 1-2 cm. long; 
flowers small; petals 2-4 mm. long; seeds black, shining, granu- 
lated. (Claytonia spathulata Dougl.) 

Kings Canyon, Davidson. May. 


Low succulent prostrate or ascending herbs with alter- 
nate or opposite leaves and scarious or setaceous stipules. 
Flowers axillary or terminal, ephemeral, (ours) yellow. 
Sepals 2, coherent at the base into a tube and adnate to 
the base of the ovary, the free upper portion at length 
deciduous. Petals 4-6. Stamens 4-20, perigynous with 
the petals. Style 1, deeply 3-8-cleft. Capsule circum- 
scissile near the middle, many-seeded. 

1. P. oleracea L: Stems prostrate, 1-5 dm. long; leaves 
fleshy, glabrous, obovate to spatulate, rounded at the apex ; flowers 
sessile, axillary; stipules minute; sepals acute, carinate ; petals 
yellow, 2-4 mm. long; stigmas 5; capsule 6-10 mm. long; seeds 
dull black, finely tuberculate. 

Cultivated grounds and waste places. May-August. 

Caryophyllaceae 143 


Annual or perennial herbs, rarely lignescent at base, 
with nodose stems and opposite entire leaves. Flowers 
regular perfect or rarely unisexual by abortion. Sepals 
4-5, united into a tube or distinct. Petals as many (or 
none), often emarginate-toothed or deeply bifid. Sta- 
mens usually as many as petals and alternating with 
them ; filaments sometimes slightly cohering at the base, 
anthers introrse. Styles 2-5, free or united below ; 
ovary free, 1-celled or imperfectly 2-5-celled at the base ; 
placenta axial ; ovules usually numerous. Fruit a 
many-seeded capsule, opening by 2-5 entire or bifid 
valves, or 1-seeded and indehiscent. Embryo straight 
or curved ; endosperm present. 

Ovary several-many-seeded, becoming a capsule. 

Sepals united. 1. SILENE. 

Sepals distinct. 
Stipules none. 

Styles 3-4; petals divided nearly to the base. 2. ALSINE. 
Styles 5. 

Petals retuse or bifid. 3. CERASTIUM. 

Petals entire or slightly emarginate. 4. SAGINA. 

Styles 3; petals entire. 5. ARENABIA. 

Stipules present. 

Leaves not cuspidate. 

Petals rather large or rarely none; .styles distinct. 

Leaves whorled. 6. SPERGULA. 

Leaves opposite. 7. TISSA. 

Petals minute; styles united below. 8. POLYCARPON. 

Leaves cuspidate. 9. LOEFL.INGIA. 

Ovary 1-ovuled, becoming a utricle. 10. PENTACAENA. 


Annual or perennial herbs with clustered or solitary 
stems and bright red or usually white flowers. Calyx 
more or less inflated, tubular, ovoid or campanulate, 
5-toothed or 5-cleft, 10-many-nerved. Petals 5, narrow, 
clawed. Stamens 10. Styles 3, rarely 4-5 ; ovary 

144 Caryophyllaceae 

1-celled or incompletely 2-4-celled. Capsule dehiscent 
by 6 or rarely 3 apical teeth. Seeds usually spiny or 

* Calyx 18-30-ribbed. 

1. S. multinervia Wats. Annual, erect, 25-35 cm. high, pubes- 
cent throughout and somewhat viscid-glandular above ; leaves 
narrowly oblong or linear, acute ; inflorescence cymose with un- 
equal branches; calyx ovate in fruit, contracted above, 10 mm. 
long, 18-23-ribbed ; petals small not exceeding the subulate calyx- 
teeth, purplish, unappendaged ; capsule narrowly ovate. 

Occasional about Santa Monica, Hasse. 

** Calyx 10-nerved. 
*- Annuals. 

2. S. Anglica L. Stems erect, simple or sparingly branched, 
25-40 cm. high, hirsute with spreading hairs, leaves spatulate- 
obo\ r ate, hirsute on both sides, 2-4 cm. long; racemes terminal, 
1-sided; flowers on pedicels 2-4 cm. long; calyx villous-hirsute, 
slender, becoming ovoid in fruit; petals little exceeding the calyx, 
their blades obovate, somewhat bifid, toothed or entire. (S. Gal- 
lica L.) 

A common introduced plant of fields and roadsides. Native of Europe. 

3. S. antirrhma L. Stems erect, slender, sparingly branched, 
the middle of the upper internodes with a viscid belt, otherwise 
glabrous; leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear, 2-3 cm. long, usually 
acute; inflorescence paniculate; pedicels filiform, 1-3.5 cm. long; 
calyx glabrous, bright green, ovoid in fruit, 8 mm. long; petals 
small, pink, or white, emarginate or bifid; ovary nearly sessile. 

Frequent in the foothills. April. .,., 

*- *- Perennials. 

4. S. laciniata Cav. Finely pubescent, glandular above ; stems 
usually much branched and widely spreading, erect or decum- 
bent, 3-10 dm. long; leaves lanceolate-linear, scabrous, ciliolate, 
narrowed to a sessile base; calyx subcylindric or clavate, 15-20 
mm. long; petals bright scarlet, 4-cleft, much exceeding the 
calyx : capsule oblong, usually exserted at maturity. 

Common in the chaparral belt. May-August. 

Pink Family 145 

5. S. verecunda Wats. Finely hoary pubescent, glandular- 
viscid above; stems several, usually erect, 20-40 cm. high, leafy 
below ; leaves narrowly lanceolate, oblanceolate or spatulate to 
linear, acute, 3-5 cm. long ; flowers terminal on the short branches 
or borne in 3-flowered lateral cymes; calyx in fruit clavate or 
obovate ; petals rose color, blades shorter than the pubescent 
claws, 2-cleft, appendages oblong or lanceolate, obtuse and often 
toothed at the apex ; capsule ovoid, stipitate. 

Common in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains in the 
coniferous belt; also summit of Santiago Peak, Santa Ana Mountains. 


Tufted annuals, diffuse with cymose white flowers. 
Sepals usually 5. Petals 5, 2-cleft or 2-parted, rarely 
none. Stamens 10 or less, hypogynous. Ovary 1-celled, 
several-many-ovuled. Styles commonly 3, rarely 4-5, 
usually opposite the sepals. Capsule globose to oblong, 
dehiscent by twice as many valves as styles. Seeds 
smooth or roughened. 

1. A. media L. Weak and decumbent or ascending, 10-40 cm. 
long, glabrous except a line of hairs along the stem and branches ; 
leaves ovate or oval, 1-3 cm. long, the upper sessile, the lower 
petioled; flowers 4-8 mm. broad, in terminal leafy cymes or axil- 
lary ; pedicels slender ; sepals oblong, mostly acute, longer than 
the 2-parted petals ; capsule ovoid, longer than the calyx ; seeds 
rough. (Stellaria media Cyrill.) 

Common in shady places. February-April. 

2. A. nitens (Nutt.) Greene. Very slender, erect annual; 
stems filiform, several times forked, pubescent below; leaves 
mostly basal, the lowestovate, acute, about 4 mm. long, on slender 
petioles of about the same length, the upper sessile, lance-linear, 
acute, 6-10 mm. long; sepals very acute, scarious-margined, 
1-3-nerved ; petals half as long as the sepals or wanting ; capsule 
oblong, about equaling the sepals. (Stellaria nitens Nutt.) 

Common in the foothills in somewhat shady places. March-May. 


Annual or perennial, pubescent or hirsute herbs, with 
terminal dichotomous cymes of white flowers. Sepals 5, 

146 Caryophyllaceae 

rarely 4. Petals of the same number, emarginate or 
bifid, rarely wanting. Stamens 10, rarely fewer. Styles 
equal in number to the sepals and opposite them, or 
fewer. Capsule cylindric, 1-celled, many-ovuled, often 
curved, dehiscent by 10, rarely 8 apical teeth. Seeds 

1. C. viscosum L. Annual, tufted; stems ascending or 
spreading, densely viscid-pubescent, 10-30 cm. long; leaves ovate 
or obovate, or the lower spatulate, 8-25 mm. long, obtuse ; bracts 
small, herbaceous; flowers 4-6 mm. broad, in glomerate cymes, 
becoming paniculate in fruit; pedicels shorter than or equaling 
the acute sepals ; petals shorter than the sepals, bifid. 

Frequent in waste places. 

2. C. vulgatum L. Biennial or perennial, viscid-pubescent, 
tufted, erect or ascending, 15-45 cm. long; lower leaves spatulate- 
oblong, obtuse ; upper leaves oblong, 12-25 mm. long, acute or 
obtuse; bracts scarious-margined ; inflorescence cymose, loose, 
the pedicels at length much longer than the calyx ; sepals obtuse 
or acute; petals exceeding the sepals, 4-6 mm. long, 2-cleft; cap- 
sule usually curved upward. (C. trivale Link.) 

Frequent in lawns. 


Low tufted annual or perennial herbs, with subulate 
leaves and small pedicelled whitish flowers. Sepals 
4-5. Petals of the same number, entire, emarginate or 
none. Stamens of the same number or twice as many 
or sometimes fewer. Styles as many as the sepals and 
alternate with them. Capsule 4-5-valved, at length de- 
hiscent to the base, the valves opposite the sepals. 

1. S. occidentalis Wats. Very slender glabrous annual, 
with several decumbent or ascending stems, these 5-15 cm. long; 
leaves nearly filiform but flattened above; pedicels exceeding the 
leaves, 14-25 mm. long; flowers 5-merous, 4-5 mm. broad; 
capsule 3.5 mm. long. 

Occasional in the Santa Monica Mountains and the Verdugo Hills. 

Pink Family 147 


Annual or perennial herbs, with sessile leaves and 
terminal cymose or capitate, rarely axillary and solitary 
white flowers. Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire or scarcely 
emarginate, rarely none. Stamens 10. Styles usually 
3, rarely 2-5. Ovary 1-celled, many-ovuled. Capsule 
globose or oblong, dehiscent at the apex by as many 
valves or teeth as there are styles, or twice as many. 
Seeds reniform-globose or compressed. 

* Valves of the capsule %-cleJt or 2-toothed. 

1. A. Fendleri Gray. Stems numerous from a thick perennial 
root, glaucous, glandular-pubescent above, erect, leafy, 10-35 cm. 
high; basal leaves gramineous, setaceous, ciliolate or smooth, 
5-10 cm. long, somewhat pungent; cauline becoming reduced, 
connate and sheathing at the base; inflorescence dichotomous, 
few-many-flowered ; sepals lanceolate, alternate, glandular, 4-6 
mm. long; petals white or pale yellow, obovate, slightly exceed- 
ing the sepals; capsule 3-4 mm. long. 

Los Angeles, Nevin. 

** Valves of the capsule entire. 

2. A. Douglasii Fenzl. Annual, glabrous or sparsely glandu- 
lar-pubescent and somewhat viscid ; stems much branched, 5-30 
cm. high; leaves filiform ; peduncles filiform ; flowers numerous, 
8-10 mm. broad ; sepals ovate, thin-margined, obscurely or rather 
distinctly ribbed; petals obovate, slightly exceeding the calyx; 
capsule subglobose, somewhat exceeding the sepals ; seeds about 
1.5 mm. broad, reniform, broadly margined, smooth or with fine 
radiating striae. 

Frequent in the foothill region, in open stony places. March-May. 

3. A. paludicola Robinson. Perennial, glabrous and flaccid, 
stems several, subsimple, procumbent, rooting at the lower joints, 
leafy throughout ; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, 2-3 cm. long, 
somewhat connate, margins slightly scarious; peduncles solitary 
in the axils, 2-5 cm. long, spreading or recurved; sepals nerve- 

148 Caryophyllaceae 

less, acutish, 3-4 mm. long; petals obovate, 6-8 mm. long. (A. 
palustris Wats.) 

Growing in marshy ground, near Los Angeles, Davidson. 


Annual branched herbs, with subulate stipulate leaves, 
much fascicled in the axils. Flowers white, in terminal 
cymes. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens 5 or 10. Styles 
3, alternate with the sepals. Capsule 5-valved, the 
valves opposite the sepals. Seeds compressed, acutely 
margined or winged. 

1. S. arvensis L. Slender, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, 
branching from the base, erect or ascending, 15-45 cm. high; 
leaves narrowly linear or subulate, 2.5-5 cm. long, clustered at 
the nodes, appearing verticillate ; stipules minute, connate; flow- 
ers 4-6 mm. broad, numerous, in loose terminal cymes; pedicels 
slender divaricate; sepals ovate, 3-4 mm. long, slightly longer 
than the petals; stamens 10 or 5; capsule ovoid, longer than the 

Occasional about Los Angeles and Pasadena. Native of Europe. 

7. TISSA Adans. 

Low annual or perennial herbs, with fleshy linear or 
setaceous leaves, and small pink or whitish flowers in 
terminal racemose, bracted or leafy cymes. Stipules 
scarious, usually conspicuous. Sepals 5. Petals 5, fewer 
or none, entire. Stamens 2-10. Ovary 1-celled many- 
ovuled ; styles 3. Capsule 3-valved to the base. Seeds 
reniform-globose or compressed, smooth, winged or tuber- 
culate. (Buda Adans.; Spergularia Pursh.) 

* Annual, roots fibrous. 

1. T. marina (L.) Britton. Stout, erect or ascending, more or 
less glandular-pubescent, 3 dm. high or less ; leaves fleshy, 2-4 
cm. long, linear, clustered in the axils; petals rose color; stamens 

Pink Family 149 

10; mature capsule 5-8 mm. long; seeds smooth or somewhat 
roughened, sometimes margined. 

Common in salt marshes toward the coast. 

2. T. tenuis Greene. Slender, diffusely branching, forming 
depressed mats about 3 dm. broad, glabrous or nearly so; leaves 
narrowly linear, 2.5 cm. long; stipules inconspicuous; flowers 
minute, numerous, cymosely crowded on all but the lower parts 
of the branches, subsessile; sepals obtuse, less than 2 mm. long; 
petals wanting ; stamens 2; styles 3; capsule 3-sided, 6-8 mm. 
long; seeds numerous, minute, reddish-brown, smooth, wingless. 

Santa Monica, Nevin. 

3. T. gracilis (Wats.) Britton. Much resembling the last, 
but the flowers on pedicels 2-4 mm. long; capsule 2 mm. long; 
seeds triangular-pyriform, strongly rough-tuberculate. 

Occasional on the mesas in low adobe soil ; Wilmington ; Inglewood. 

** Perennial, roots fleshy. 

4. T. macrotheca (Hornem.) Britton. Perennial, from a 
fleshy root ; glandular-pubescent or nearly smooth ; stems stout, 
ascending, 4dm. high or less, branching from the base; leaves 
broadly linear, 4 cm. long or less; flowers on pedicels usually 
about 15 mm. long ; calyx-lobes 6-8 mm. long ; petals rose color ; 
stamens 10; capsule equaling the calyx-lobes; seeds winged, 

Common in salt marshes and alkaline flats. May-July. 


Low diffuse, dichotomously branched annuals with 
flat stipulate leaves and minute cymose flowers. Sepals 
5, carinate-concave. Petals 5, minute, hyaline. Sta- 
mens 3-5. Ovary 1-celled ; style short, 3-cleft. Capsule 
3-valved, several-seeded. 

1. P. depressum Nutt. Very slender, prostrate, the many 
branches 2.5-5 cm. long; leaves opposite, spatulate, glabrous; 
stipules small, narrow; flowers minute; the pedicels with small 
bracts; petals very narrow, shorter than the sepals, entire; cap- 
sule globose, 6-12-seeded. 

On seashore sand-dunes, and in sandy soil in the foothills. Not common. 

150 Ceratophyllaceae 


Low much branched rather rigid and pungent-leaved 
annuals. Leaves with adnate and connate setaceous 
stipules. Flowers small, sessile in the axils of the leaves 
and branches. Sepals 5, rigid, carinate. Petals minute 
or none. Capsule 2-valved, several-seeded. 

1. L. squarrosa Nutt. Much branched, prostrate or ascend- 
ing, 5-15 cm. high; herbage glandular-pubescent; leaves and 
sepals subulate setaceous, rigid and recurved, the leaves 4-6 mm. 
long, the sepals somewhat shorter; capsule elongated, triquetrous, 
exserted, many-seeded. 

Streets of Los Angeles and Pasadena, Davidson, McClatchie. 

10. PENTACAENA Bartl. 

Tufted perennials with subulate pungent leaves and 
silvery-hyaline stipules. Flowers sessile clustered in 
the axils. Sepals 5, unequal, hooded, the 3 outer larger 
and with a stout divergent terminal spine. Petals minute, 
scale-like. Stamens 3-5, inserted at the base of the 
sepals. Style very short, 2-cleft. Utricle enclosed in 
the rigid persistent calyx. 

1. P. ramosissima H. & A. Stems prostrate, forming dense 
mats 15-30 cm. broad, woolly-pubescent; leaves crowded on the 
stems, 6 mm. long; sepals woolly, except the divergent apex; 
utricle apiculate. 

Common in sandy soil along the coast. 


Submerged aquatics with slender widely branching 
stems and verticillate leaves, the monoecious or dioecious 
flowers solitary and sessile in the axils. Perianth many- 
parted, the segments entire or toothed. Stamens numer- 
ous, crowded on a flat or convex receptacle ; anthers ses- 
sile or nearly so, linear oblong, extrorse, appendaged. 
Ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovule 1, pendulous ; style fili- 

Ranunculaceae 151 

form. Fruit an indehiscent nut or achene. Endosperm 
none ; cotyledons 4, verticillate. 


Leaves crowded in verticils, linear or filiform, spinu- 
lose-serrulate, forked. Staminate and pistillate flowers, 
generally at different nodes. Stamens 10-20 ; anthers 
about equaling the perianth. Ovary and fruit slightly 
exceeding the sepals, the fruit beaked with the long per- 
sistent style. 

1. C. demersum L. Stems 2-9 dm. long, leaves 2-3-times 
forked, the end of the segments capillary and rigid, 8-25 mm. 
long, fruit oval, 4-6 mm. long, smooth or tuberculate, sometimes 
winged or with 2 basal spurs on each side. 

In ponds and slow streams, frequent throughout our range. May-July. 


Annual or perennial herbs or rarely climbing shrubs, 
with alternate or opposite, simple or compound, exstip- 
ulate leaves. Flowers regular or irregular. Sepals 
3-15, generally caducous, often petal-like. Petals usu- 
ally of the same number, sometimes wanting. Stamens 
many, hypogynous, longitudinally dehiscent. Carpels 
many or rarely solitary, 1-celled, 1-many-ovuled. 
Ovules anatropous. Fruit achenes, follicles or berries. 
Endosperm present. 

Flowers perfect. 
Fruit a follicle. 

Sepals herbaceous, persistent. 1. PAEONIA. 

Sepals petal-like, deciduous. 

Petals all spurred. 2. AQUILEGIA. 

Upper sepal spurred. 3. DELPHINIUM. 

Fruit an achene. 

Woody climbers ; petals wanting. 4. CLEMATIS. 


Achene longitudinally nerved. 5. OXYGBAPHIS. 

Achene not longitudinally nerved. 6. RANUNCULUS. 

Flowers dioecious, greenish; petals none. 7. THALICTRUM. 

152 Ranunculaceae 


Perennial herbs with ternately or pinnately compound 
leaves and large showy flowers. Sepals 5 or 6, herbace- 
ous and persistent. Petals of the same number, borne 
with the numerous stamens on a fleshy disk. Style 
short or none. Follicles 2-5, thick and leathery, several- 

1. P. Brownii Dougl. Glaucous and somewhat fleshy, 20-40 
cm. high; leaves mostly radical, ternately or biternately 
divided, the lobes obovate to linear-spatulate ; peduncles 2.5-5 
cm. long; petals about equaling the sepals, brownish-red; fol- 
licles usually 5, broadly oblong, smooth, 2-4 cm. long. 

Occasional in the foothills throughout our range. March-April. 


Erect branching perennial herbs with ternately de- 
compound leaves and large showy flowers. Sepals 5, 
regular, petaloid, deciduous. Petals concave, spurred at 
base. Stamens numerous, the inner ones reduced to 
staminodia. Carpels 5, sessile, many-ovuled, forming 
heads of follicles in fruit. 

1. A. truncata F. & M. Glabrous or somewhat viscid-pubes- 
cent, 6-12 dm. high ; leaves large, biternate, the leaflets roundish; 
cuneate at base, incised, the segments lobed or crenately toothed, 
long-petioled ; flowers scarlet, tinged with yellow, reflexed ; sepals 
truncate, widely spreading, shorter than the spurs ; follicles 2-3 
cm. long, veined, beaked by the long persistent style. 

Occasional in moist shady places, mostly above 2500 feet altitude. May- 


Annual, or ours perennial, erect branching herbs with 
palmately divided leaves, and racemose or paniculate 
showy flowers. Sepals 5, the posterior one prolonged 
into a spur. Petals usually 4, the 2 posterior spurred. 
Carpels few, becoming many-seeded follicles. 

Crowfoot Family 153 

* Flowers usually blue or purple, at least not red. 

1. D. Parryi Gray. Glabrous or minutely and sparsely puber- 
ulent; stems erect, 4-8 dm. high, from rather simple or few- 
fascicled elongated roots, neither fusiform nor tuberiform ; leaves 
3-5-parted, the divisions and few lobes linear, obtuse; raceme 
virgate, at length rather loose ; sepals mostly broadly, oblong, 
about 10-15 mm. long, equaling the spur, deep blue, sparsely 
and minutely puberulent or glabrate ; upper petals white-mar- 
gined, 7-8 mm. long; follicles about 15 mm. long, apparently 
glabrous and shining, but minutely puberulent under a lens. 

Frequent in the foothills throughout our region. April-June. 

2. D. variegatum T. & G. Usually hirsute-pubescent below ; 
stems erect and rather rigid, 3-6 dm. high, from rather short and 
closely fascicled, somewhat fusiform roots; leaves 3-5-parted, the 
divisions and lobes broadly linear, obtuse ; raceme mostly few- 
flowered and rather close, sepals roundish-obovate or oval, 15-20 
mm. long, equaling or exceeding the spur, violet-blue or purple, 
at least the spur grayish puberulent; upper petals entirely white 
or nearly so, about 10 mm. long ; follicles about 15 mm. long, 
grayish puberulent. 

Port Ballona. March-May. 

3. D. decorum F. & M. Glabrous throughout or pedicels 
slightly puberulent; stem lax, 2-5 dm. high; lowest leaves reni- 
form or orbicular in outline, 3-5-lobed or 3-5-parted, the divisions 
round-ovate to cuneate, entire or slightly 2-5-lobed ; upper leaves 
with narrow divisions ; raceme often paniculate, sparsely flowered ; 
pedicels slender, spreading; sepals oval, 10-15 mm. long, equal- 
ing the spur, blue; follicles 10-12 mm. long, erect or slightly 

Frequent in the San Gabriel Mountains, apparently less so in the Santa 
Monica Mountains and foothills about Los Angeles. 

4. D. decorum patens (Benth.) Gray. More slender than the 
type, sometimes obscurely and sparsely pubescent; stems erect; 
raceme closer; pedicels ascending in fruit; sepals 8-10 mm. long. 

Frequent in the foothills of all our mountains. 

** Flowers red. 

5. D. cardinale Hook. Stems about 1 m. high, branching 
above; leaves deeply parted into narrow divisions, with long 

154 Ranunculaceae 

linear or lanceolate lobes ; inflorescence racemose or paniculate, 
many-flowered ; sepals obovate, 10-15 mm. long, half as long as 
the narrow spur, deep red ; petals usually somewhat yellowish. 
Frequent in the foothills, mostly below 3500 feet altitude. June-July. 


Ours woody climbers with opposite mostly pinnately 
divided leaves. Sepals usually 4, petaloid. Petals 
none. Stamens numerous. Pistils many, becoming 
achenes with long plumose styles. 

1. C. lasiantha Nutt. Tomentose-pubescent ; leaves 3 foliate; 
leaflets 2.5-5 cm. long, mostly broadly ovate, somewhat 3-lobed 
and coarsely toothed, the teeth rounded; flowers polygamous, 
solitary or 3-5 on bibractiolate peduncles, 3-6 cm. broad ; sepals 
broadly oblong, cream-colored ; achenes pubescent. 

Common in the chaparral belt, clambering over shrubs. April-May. 

2. C. ligusticifolia Nutt. Somewhat pubescent or nearly 
glabrous ; leaves pinnately 5-7-foliate, or the lowest pair of leaf- 
lets again 3-foliate, ovate, cordate or obtuse at base, acute or acu- 
minate, mostly incised or rather sharply toothed ; inflorescence 
paniculate, many-flowered ; flowers 2-4 cm. broad, -cream-colored ; 
achenes densely silky-pubescent. 

Common in canyons in all our mountains and occasionally extending into 
the valleys along streams. May-July. 


Perennial herbs with crenate, dentate or lobed, long 
petioled leaves and small yellow flowers, solitary or 27 
together on scapes or scape-like peduncles. Sepals usu- 
ally 5, spreading, at length deciduous. Petals 5-15 with 
a nectar-pit near the base of each. Stamens and pistils 
numerous. Head of fruit oblong or oval or rarely sub- 
globose. Achenes compressed, longitudinally striate, 
without a hard coat. 

1. O. Cymbalaria (Pursh) Prantl. Low, glabrous, spreading 
by runners; leaves mostly basal, slender petioled, cordate-oval or 
reniform crenate, 4-18 mm. long; scapes 3-12 cm. long, some- 

Crowfoot Family 155 

times bearing one or more leaves at the base ; flowers 1-7, 6-8 
mm. broad; head of fruit oblong, 6-16 mm. long; achenes com- 
pressed, somewhat swollen, distinctly striate, minutely sharp- 
pointed. (Ranunculus Cymbalaria Pursh.) 

Frequent throughout our range in low moist places. March-July. 


Annual or perennial herbs, with alternate or mostly 
basal simple entire, lobed, divided or dissected leaves, 
and yellow, white or sometimes red flowers. Sepals 
mostly 5, deciduous. Petals equal in number or more, 
conspicuous or minute, bearing a nectariferous pit and 
sometimes a scale at base of blade. Achenes capitate or 
rarely spicate, generally flattened, smooth, papillose or 
pectinate, sometimes transversely wrinkled, beaked with 
a minute or elongated style. 

* Terrestrial herbs; /towers mostly yellow. 

1. B. Californicus Benth. Mostly pubescent and hirsute; 
stems branching, 2-6 dm. high ; radical leaves usually pinnately 
ternate, the leaflets lanciniately cut into 3-7, usually linear lobes ; 
flowers 1-2 cm. broad; petals 7-15; achenes 3.5 mm. long, flat- 
tened, slightly margined, beaked with the short straight or 
slightly curved style. 

Frequent on the mesas and in open places in the foothills. February- 

2. B. hebecarpus H. & A. Slender, 15-30 cm. high, branched, 
pilose-pubescent ; leaves of rounded outline, deeply lobed or 
cleft, the segments 3-lobed ; flowers minute, on filiform pedicels ; 
achenes few in a globose head, rounded and flattened, papillose 
and pubescent; beak short, recurved. 

Growing in moist shady places, not common. Oak Knoll; Santa Monica 
Mountains. March-May. 

** Aquatics with finely dissected leaves and white flowers. 

3. R. trichophyllus Chaix. Submerged; stems branching, 
usually 3 dm. long or more; leaves petioled, 2.5-5 cm. long, 
flaccid and collapsing when withdrawn from the water, repeat- 
edly forked with capillary divisions ; flowers white, 12-18 mm.. 

156 Berberidaceae 

broad, on stout peduncles 2.5-5 cm. long; achenes transversely 

Occasional in ponds and slow-running streams. May-August. 


Erect perennial herbs with terhately decompound 
leaves and (ours) with small greenish dioecious panicled 
flowers. Sepals 4-5. Petals none. Stamens many. 
Achenes few-ribbed or nerved, stipitate or nearly sessile. 

1. T. polycarpum Wats. Usually robust, 6-12 dm. high, 
glabrous throughout; leaves of rather thin texture; achenes 
numerous, forming a globular head in fruit, 6 mm. high, vesic- 
ular, obovate or somewhat orbicular, usually only the midveins 

Common in the foothill region, mostly below 4000 feet altitude. April- 


Shrubs or herbs with alternate or basal, simple, or 
compound leaves, with or without stipules, and solitary 
or racemed, mostly terminal, perfect flowers. Sepals and 
petals generally imbricated in several series. Stamens 
as many as the petals and opposite them, hypogynous ; 
anthers extrorse, opening by valves. Pistil 1 ; style 
short; ovules 2-many, anatropous. Fruit a berry or 
capsule. <. .' 


Shrubs with yellow wood and inner bark, bitter. 
Leaves mostly pinnately compound and spinulose-den- 
tate. Flowers racemose, yellow. Sepals 6-9, petaloid, 
bracted, each with 2 glands at base. Petals 6, imbricated 
in 2 series. Stamens 6, irritable, closing around the 
stigma when touched on the inner face near the base. 
Pistil 1 ; stigma peltate. Berry 1-few-seeded. 

Lauraceae 157 

1. B. dictyota Jepsort. Shrub, 4-12 dm. high, rather sparsely 
leafy ; leaflets 5-7, glaucescent on the upper surface, somewhat 
paler beneath and prominently reticulate-veiny, strongly undu- 
late, the margins spinose-dentate, the teeth few and rather 
remote; racemes terminal, clustered, 2-5 cm. long; berries blue- 
black, with bloom. 

Occasional on dry ridges. Near Glendale, Davidson; Switzer's trail, San 
Gabriel Mountains. 

2. B. Nevinii Gray. Shrub 2-3 m. high ; leaflets pale, lanceo- 
late or oblong-lanceolate, often acuminate, teeth not remote, 
spinulose-serrate, 1-2.5 cm. long; racemes loosely 5-7 flowered, 
equaling or surpassing the leaves ; pedicels slender. 

Fernando, where it was first collected by Nevin. 


Aromatic trees or shrubs with alternate entire minute- 
ly punctate exstipulate leaves and perfect or unisexual 
yellow or greenish flowers, in panicles or racemes. 
Calyx 4-6-parted, segments imbricated in 2 series. Co- 
rolla none. Stamens in 3-4 series, some of them often 
imperfect; anthers 2-4-celled, opening by valves. 
Ovary superior, free from the calyx, 1-celled ; ovule sol- 
itary, anatropous, pendulose ; style 1 ; stigma 1. Fruit 
a 1-seeded drupe. 


Trees with thick evergreen petioled leaves and perfect 
flowers, borne in terminal or axillary pedunculate umbels, 
which are included before expansion in an involucre 
consisting of 4 broad deciduous bracts. Calyx 6-parted, 
deciduous. Stamens 9, inserted on the throat in 3 rows, 
the 3 inner with a fleshy 2-lobed stipitate gland at the 
base, alternating with 3 ligulate staminodia ; anthers 4, 
4-valved, the outer introrse, the inner extrorse. The 
stigma dilated, somewhat lobed. Drupe subglobose or 
ovoid, subtended by the thickened base of the calyx. 

158 Papaveraceae 

1. U. Californica (H. & A.) Nutt. Tree 4-15 m. high, grow- 
ing parts and inflorescence somewhat puberulent; leaves shining, 
<dark green, lanceolate-oblong, 5-10 cm. long; peduncles in 4 ter- 
minal panicles or solitary in the upper axils, 6-10-flowered ; 
sepals 3-5 mm. long, oblong-ovate; stamens included; drupes 
solitary or 2-3 in a cluster, 2 cm. long, becoming dark purple 
with thin pulp and stone. 

Throughout our range in canyons, or on mountain slopes where it is 
often reduced to an arborescent shrub. January-April. Fruit in November. 


Herbs or rarely shrubs with white, yellow or color- 
less sap and alternate exstipulate leaves or the upper 
rarely opposite. Flowers solitary or in clusters, perfect, 
regular or irregular. Sepals distinct or united into a 
calyptra, caducous, 2, rarely 3 or 4. Petals 4-6 or rarely 
none, imbricated, deciduous. Stamens numerous or few, 
hypogynous, distinct, filaments filiform ; anthers open- 
ing by a longitudinal slit. Ovary 1, many-ovuled, 
mostly 1-celled, the carpels rarely becoming distinct in 
fruit ; style short, stigma simple or divided ; ovules an- 
atropous. Fruit a capsule, generally dehiscent by pores 
or valves. 

.Flowers regular. 

Uppermost leaves opposite. 

Filaments very broad; carpels distinct in fruit. 1. PLATYSTEMON. 
Filaments filiform or nearly so; capsule 1-celled. 

Reaves all alternate. 
Flowers large, white. 

Perennial; capsule many-celled. 3. ROMNEYA. 

Annual; capsule 1-celled. 7. ARGEMONE. 

Flowers yellow or orange. 

Shrub; flowers yellow. 4. DENDROMECON. 

Herbs; flowers usually orange. 5. ESCHSCHOLTZIA. 

Flowers reddish. 

Stigmas tufted at the end of the short style. 


Stigmas sessile, radiate. 8. PAPAVER. 

Flowers irregular. 9. BICUCULLA. 

Poppy Family 159 


Low villous annuals with entire mainly opposite 
leaves and cream-colored flowers. Sepals 3. Petals 6. 
Stamens many with flattened filaments and linear an- 
thers. Carpels 6-25, at first united ; stigmas linear free. 
Fruit of as many distinct linear indehiscent torulose 
pods, 3-8-seeded, at length breaking transversly between 
the seeds. 

1. P. Californicum Benth. Slender, branching from the base, 
more or less decumbent, 15-30 cm. high, pilose; leaves 5-8 cm. 
long, sessile or clasping, broadly linear; peduncles erect, 8-20 
cm. long; sepals villous; petals 6-12 mm. long, cream-yellow, 
sometimes shading to yellow toward the base; carpels 6-25, 
forming an oblong head, 10-20 mm. long, beaked by the persist- 
ent stigmas. 

Common in sandy soil throughout our range ; below 3000 feet altitude. 


Low slender annuals with leaves, sepals and petals as 
in Platystemon. Stamens 6-12 ; filaments filiform or 
nearly so. Ovary 1-celled with 3 parietal placentae, 
somewhat 3-lobed or nearly terete ; stigmas ovate to 
subulate. Capsule 3-valved, dehiscent through the 

1. P. denticulata Greene. Glabrous, branching, 8-25 cm. 
high; lower leaves spatulate or the small blade rhombic-ovate 
and narrowed into a broad petiole, 1-3 cm. long; upper spatulate 
or linear-oblong, entire or denticulate; petals narrow, oblong, 
2-4 mm. long; stamens 6-9; anthers linear, equaling or exceed- 
ing the filaments. 

Occasional in shady places in the foothills. March-May. 


Smooth stout erect perennial herbs, with colorless 
juice, pinnately divided alternate leaves and very large 

160 Papaveraceae 

showy flowers. Sepals 3, with a broad membranaceous 
dorsal wing. Petals 6. Stamens numerous, with fili- 
form filaments somewhat thickened below, and oblong 
anthers. Ovary oblong, densely setose, more or less 
completely several-celled by the intrusion of the many- 
ovuled placentae ; valves 7-12, opening from the summit 
downward. Seeds finely tuberculate. 

1. R. Coulter! Harv. Herbaceous stem 1-2.5 m. high, from a 
soft woody base, branching above, glabrous glaucescent ; leaves 
of firm texture, pinnately parted or divided, petioled, 6-12 cm. 
long ; divisions 3-9, cuneate-oblong or lanceolate, dentate, the ter- 
minal 3-cleft, margins and rachis often sparsely ciliolate-spinulose ; 
flowers terminating the branches; sepals smooth, petals delicate, 
4-6 cm. long. 

Occasional in canyons. Santa Ana Mountains; Puente Hills. It also 
occurs in Ventura County. 

2. R. trichocalyx Eastwood. Closely resembling the last in 
habit, leaves thinner, divisions narrower ; sepals setose. 

Occasional in the canyons of San Diego County, also in Santa Barbara 
and Ventura Counties. To be expected within our range. 


Smooth branching shrubs with alternate vertical thick 
rigid entire or ciliolate-denticulate leaves, and showy 
yellow flowers. Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numer- 
ous, with short filiform filaments and linear anthers. 
Ovary linear, 1-celled and with 2 nerve-like placentae, 
elastically 2-valved from the base upward ; valves striate- 
costate. Seeds oval or globose, finely pitted, carunculate 
at the hilium. 

1. D. rigidum Benth. Shrub 1-3 m. high, with many slender 
branches and light-colored bark; leaves pale or glaucescent, 
lanceolate and cuspidate-acuminate, varying to oblong and obtuse 
with rigid mucro, entire or rarely ciliolate-denticulate, reticulate- 
veiny with strong midrib, short-petioled, 2-6 cm. long; flowers 
bright yellow, 2-4 cm. broad; capsule arcuate, 4-6 cm. long. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt. Flowering nearly throughout the year. 

Poppy Family 161 


Smooth glaucous annual or perennial herbs, with 
colorless bitter juice, finely dissected leaves and bright 
orange or yellow flowers. Sepals coherent into a narrow 
pointed hood, deciduous at anthesis from a dilated torus. 
Petals 4, borne on the torus. Stamens numerous, with 
short filaments and linear anthers. Ovary linear, with 
2 nerve-like -placentae ; styles short ; stigmas divided 
into 4-6 linear unequally divergent lobes. Capsule 
elongated, 10-nerved, 1-celled, dehiscent by 2 valves 
separating from placental ribs. Seeds globose, reticulate 
.or rough tuberculate. 

1. E. Californica Cham. Root perennial, thick and branch- 
ing ; stems branching decumbent or ascending, leafy ; herbage 
glabrous ; calyx about 2 cm. long, conical ; petals flabelliform , 
4 cm. long or less, usually orange, sometimes paler; rim of torus 
expanded, 2-4 mm. wide; seeds reticulated. 

Not common within our limits. Sierra Madre; San Fernando Mountains 
near Chats worth Park. March-May. 

2. E. peninsularis Greene. Annual, smooth and rather glau- 
cous; scapose or at length freely branching, 10-25 cm. high; 
petals golden yellow or orange, flabelliform or broadly cuneate, 
4 cm. long or less; rim of torus expanded, 2-4 mm. broad ; seeds 

Common in sandy soil throughout our range in the valleys. March-May. 

3. E. hypecoides Benth. Scabrous or hirsute, pubescent 
below, glabrous above, glaucescent ; branches many and rather 
slender from an annual root, decumbent at base, about 30 cm. 
high or less, leafy ; leaf segments few, linear-cuneiform ; calyx 
oblong-conic, 1 cm. long; petals 2 cm. long or less, orange; 
torus short, tubular or turbinate, without expanded rim to the 
outer margin, the inner erect, hyaline; seeds faintly reticulated. 

Santa Monica Mountains, not common. 

6. MECONOPSIS Vigner. 

Ours slender erect leafy annuals, with orange-colored 
juice and scarlet or orange-red flowers. Sepals 2. 

162 Papaveraceae 

Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Ovary and capsule 
tipped with a style and with a globose mass of stigmas, 
1-celled and with 4-8 more or less intruded placentae, 
dehiscent by only as many short teeth or valves at the 

1. M. heterophylla Benth. Glabrous or sparsely pilose- 
pubescent below, 3-6 dm. high, simple or branching; leaves 
some what succulent, pinnately parted or divided, mostly petioled ; 
peduncles slender; petals 1-2 cm. long, brick-red; capsule tur- 
binate to obovate, dehiscent by 8 operculate lids. 

Frequent in shady places in the foothills and mountains below 4000 feet 
altitude. March-April. 


Setose and spinulose-dentate chiefly annual herbs 
with orange-yellow and acrid juice and sinuate or pinnat- 
ifid leaves. Sepals with cornute tip or appendage below 
the apex. Petals 4 or 6. Stamens numerous. Ovary 
densely setose 1-celled, with 4-5 nerviform placentas, 
stigmas oval, somewhat radiate and united on the sum- 
mit of the very short obsolete style. 

1. A. platyceras hispida (Gray) Prain. Stem erect, simple 
or rarely branching, 3-6 dm. high, hispid throughout and more 
or less armed with rigid bristles or prickles ; leaves 6-10 cm. long, 
the lower narrowed to a winged petiole, the upper sessile ; flowers 
white, 5-8 cm. broad; capsule oblong, 3 cm. long, very prickly; 
seeds 2 mm. in diameter. 

Occasional in dry exposed slopes or dry canyon floors in all our mountains. 


Annual or perennial herbs with narcotic juice milky 
or. rarely turning yellow, mostly pinnately lobed or dis- 
sected leaves and showy flowers solitary on long pedun- 
cles. Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Ovary 
capped by the closely sessile circular flat or somewhat 

Poppy Family 163 

conical disk of the combined radiate stigmas, dehiscent 
only under the edge of it by as many dentiform short 
lids ; placentae 4-20, mostly projecting far into the cell. 

1. P. Californicum Gray. Annual, erect, simple or branch- 
ing, 3-6 dm. high, sparsely pilose-pubescent, leafy below ; petals 
brick-red with greenish spot at base, 2 cm. long or less; capsule 
1 cm. long or more, clavate-turbinate, 6-11-nerved. 

Frequent on shady slopes in the Santa Monica and San Gabriel Moun- 
tains. March-May. 

9. BICUCULLA Adans. 

Perennial glabrous herbs, with compound and much- 
dissected leaves and more or less irregular flowers. Se- 
pals 2, small and scale-like. Petals 4 in 2 pairs ; the 
outer pair with more or less spreading tips, spurred or 
saccate at base ; inner pair narrower, callous tipped, 
cohering over the enclosed stigma. Stamens 6, in 2 sets 
of 3 each ; anthers of middle stamens 2-celled, the others 
1-celled ; filaments slightly united or distinct. Ovary 
1-celled with 2 parietal several-ovuled placentae ; stigma 
2-lobed contrary to the placentae. Fruit a silique-form 

1. B. chrysantha (H.& A.) Coville. Pale and glaucous; stem 
erect, 6-15 dm. high; leaves twice pinnate, and the more or less 
confluent divisions pinnately 3-5-cleft or incised; inflorescence 
compound thyrsoid-paniculate, many-flowered; flowers yellow, 
erect, subterete, 1-15 dm. long, deciduous; outer petals soon 
spreading or recurving to below the middle, slightly gibbous at 
base, but little larger than the inner ; these dorsally crested with 
a long and wide undulate or crisped wing. (Dicentra chrysantha 
H. & A.) 

Frequent in the chaparral belt throughout our range. May-July. 

2. B. ochroleuca (Engelm.) Heller. Much like the last in 
habit, but the flowers 2-2.5 cm. long, ochroleucous ; only the 
tips of the outer petals spreading ; the inner with purple tips and 
with large wing crest. (Dicentra ochroleuca Engelm.) 

Occasional on the northern slope of the Santa Monica Mountains. 

164 Cruciferae 


Herbs or rarely suffrutescent with acrid juice, alter- 
nate leaves and racemose or corymbose flowers. Sepals 
4, deciduous or persistent, the 2 outer narrow, the inner 
similar, concave or saccate at base. Petals 4, rarely 2 
or none, hypogynous, cruciate, nearly equal, generally 
clawed. Stamens 6, rarely fewer, hypogynous, tetrady- 
namous. Pistil 1, compound, consisting of 2 united car- 
pels, the parietal placentse united by a dissepiment ; style 
generally persistent, sometimes none ; stigma discoid or 
more or less 2-lobed. Fruit a silique or silicle, usually 
2-celled, 2-valved or rarely indehiscent. Endosperm 
none ; cotyledons incumbent, accumbent or conduplicate. 

**Pods dehiscent into 2 valves to the base. 
Pods elongated-linear, at least twice as long as wide. 
. Flowers white or purplish, or yellow in some species of Roripa. 
Subaquatic or marsh plants. 

Seeds in 1 row in each cell. 12. CARDAMINE. 

Seeds in 2 rows in each cell. 11. RORIPA. 

Not aquatic or marsh plants. 

Rootstocks tuberous. 13. DBNTARIA. 

Roots fibrous. 
Petals flat. 

Pods usually compressed, seeds flat, winged. 

22. ARABIS. 
Pods terete; seeds oblong or globose, wingless. 

Petals undulate-crisped or twisted. 

Pods terete or nearly so; cotyledons incumbent. 

Pods compressed ; cotyledons accumbent. 

Flowers yellow. 

Pods borne on a long stipe. 1. STANLEYA. 
Pods terete or 4-angled, sessile or short stipitate. 
Pubescence simple or none. 
Pods spreading. 

Seeds globose or oblong. 

Seeds in 2 rows. 7; DIPLOTAXIS. 

Seeds in 1 row. 8. BRASSICA. 

Seeds flat. 10. BARBAREA. 

Pods erect, appressed to the stem. 6. ERYSIUM. 
Pubescence branched or stellate. 

Leaves entire or faintly toothed. 23. CHEIRANTHUS. 

Leaves deeply 2-pinnatifid. 21. SOPHIA. 

Pods flat. 14. TROPIDOCARPUM 

Mustard Family 165 

Pods short, never twice as long as broad except in Draba. 

Pods compressed parallel with the partition. -,.,,: 

Pods many-seeded. 18. DRABA. . , 

Pods 2-seeded. 24. KONIG. 
Pods compressed contrary to the partition. 

Pods many-seeded. - , .r';:;i 

Pods heart-shaped. 17. BURSA. 

Pods elliptic. 16. HDTCHINSIA. ! 

Pods 2-seeded. 5. LEPIDIUM. 

'...' V '. ; ; :(.i : 

** Pods indehiscent. .-. 

Pods of 2 indehiscent cells. 15. DITHYREA. 
Pods l-celled, 1-seeded, orbicular. 

Pods winged. 20. THYSANOCARPUS. 

Pods wingless. 19. ATHYSANUS. 

Pods elongated jointed. 9. RAPHANUS. 

1. STANLEYA Nutt. 

Mostly tall erect branching glabrous and glaucous 
perennial herbs, with entire toothed or pinnately divided 
leaves and large yellow bractless flowers in elongated 
terminal racemes. Sepals linear, narrow. Petals nar- 
row, long-clawed. Stamens 6, nearly equal ; anthers 
twisted. Ovary short, stipitate ; style short or none. 
Siliques linear, long-stipitate, spreading or recurving, 
somewhat compressed, dehiscent ; the valves strongly 
1-nerved. Seeds in 1 row in each cell. Cotyledons 

1. S. pinnata (Pursh) Britton. Stems stout, 15-25 dm. high; 
lower leaves pinnatifid or pinnately divided or rarely entire, 
12-20 cm. long, 2-8 cm. wide, long-petioled ; upper leaves similar 
or less divided or oblong-lanceolate and entire, short-petioled ; 
flowers numerous, yellow; petals 16-24 mm. long; filaments fili- 
form exserted ; siliques 5-8 cm. long, on stipes about }/ a s long. 

Occasional on the dry plains and foothills of all our interior valleys. 


Erect annual or biennial herbs, glabrous or somewhat 
pubescent with simple hairs. Leaves entire, toothed or 
pinnatifid. Flowers racemose or subspicate, purplish or 
whitish. Siliques nearly terete, linear, short-stipitate or 
sessile ; valves 1-nerved, dehiscent ; style short ; stigma 
nearly entire. Seeds in 1 row in each cell, oblong, mar- 
ginless. Cotyledons incumbent. 

166 Cruciferae 

1. T. lasiophyllum Greene. Erect annual, simple or spar- 
ingly branched above the middle, hispid below, often smoothish 
above; leaves oblanceolate in outline, irregularly sinnuate- 
toothed or pinnatifid with spreading acute entire or toothed seg- 
ments, 4-12 cm. long, distinctly petioled or the upper sessile by a 
narrow base; inflorescence racemose; sepals oblong, % as 
long as the petals; these narrow, spatulate, 3-5 mm. long, pale 
rose color or yellowish-white; siliques usually deflexed or widely 
spreading, slender attenuate, 3-5 cm. long, on pedicels 2-3 mm. 
long. (Sisymbrium reflexum Nutt.) 

Common in dry ground both in the valleys and foothills. 

2. T. lasiophyllum inalienum Robinson. Size and habit of 
the type; petals yellow or yellowish; siliques erect or slightly 
spreading. (Sisymbrium acutangulum Brew. & Wats.) 

Hills about Los Angeles. 

3. CAULANTHUS Watson. 

Stout erect biennials, with pinnatifid, toothed or nearly 
entire leaves and purple or greenish-white flowers. Se- 
pals about equal, saccate at base. Petals slightly longer, 
undulate-crisped, claw broad, blade rhomboidal scarcely 
broader than claw. Anthers linear, sagittate at base, 
curved. Stigma somewhat 2-lobed, the lobes parallel 
with the valves. Pods terete, elongated, sessile upon 
the receptacle ; valves 1-nerved. Seeds in 1 row, oblong, 
somewhat flattened, scarcely or not at all margined. 
Cotyledons incumbent. 

1. C. amplexicaulis Wats. Glaucous annual, rather slender 
and flexuous, simple or more frequently with several spreading 
branches; leaves elliptic-oblong or the upper broadly cordate- 
clasping, subentire often ascending; pedicels 8-24 mm. long, 
widely spreading. 

Near San Fernando, Davidson. 


Erect branching often glaucous annual or biennial 
herbs, with entire or toothed rarely pinnatifid leaves 

Mustard Family 167 

and purple or white flowers. Sepals ovate or oblong, 
equal at base or 1 or rarely both pair saccate at base, 
usually colored, their tips erect or spreading. Petals 
narrow or with a well developed blade and channeled 
claw, twisted or undulate. The longer filaments some- 
times connate ; anthers elongated, sagittate at base. 
Pod linear, compressed ; valves 1-nerved. Seeds in 1 
row, flattened and more or less winged. Cotyledons 

1. S. heterophyllus Nutt. More or less pubescent through- 
out with spreading simple hairs; stem usually simple, 1 m. 
high or less; leaves linear, at least the lowest pinnatifid with 
divaricate lobes or toothed, the upper usually entire; flowers 
purplish or white, 8-12 mm. long; calyx narrow; sepals slightly 
saccate; pods abruptly reflexed on slender pedicels 5-7 cm. long, 
about 1.5 mm. wide, beaked by a slender style; seeds small and 
crowded, narrowly winged. 

Occasional throughout our range; confined mostly to the chaparral belt. 


Erect or diffuse, glabrous or pubescent, annual or 
rarely biennial or perennial herbs, with pinnatifid, lobed 
or entire leaves and racemose white or whitish flowers. 
Petals small or rarely wanting. Stamens often fewer 
than 6. Stigmas, in ours, sessile or nearly so. Silicles 
oblong or obovate, flattened contrary to the partition, 
more or less emarginately winged at the apex ; valves 
keeled, dehiscent. Seeds 1 in each cell, flattened. Coty- 
ledons incumbent or rarely accumbent. 

* Capsule merely emarginatc. 
-*- Pedicels terete. 

1. L. medium Greene. Glabrous or nearly so; stems simple 
below, branching above, erect, 2-9 cm. high; leaves lanceolate, 
dentate, rarely pinnatifid; stem leaves entire; pedicels slender, 

168 Cruciferae 

terete, spreading or divaricate, longer than the capsule ; stamens 
2-4; capsule orbicular retuse, glabrous. 

Common in the valleys and mountains throughout our range. 

*- *- Pedicels flattened. 

2. L. lasiocarpum Nutt. Low, branching from or near the 
base, decumbent or ascending, hirsute with spreading hairs or 
somewhat tomentulose; lower leaves pinnately parted, segments 
usually rather broad, obtuse or rounded, sparingly toothed or 
entire; racemes several ; pedicels distinctly flattened, horizontally 
spreading, 3 mm. long; capsule suborbicular, thin-margined near 
the apex, hispid pubescent upon both faces or at least upon the 

Sand-dunes along the seashore. 

3. It. nitidum Nutt. Erect or usually branched from the base 
and spreading, 1-3 dm. high, glabrate or somewhat pubescent; 
lower leaves deeply pinna tifid with narrow rachis and alternate 
segments; the upper leaves often entire; racemes 1-several, 
loosely flowered ; petals considerably exceeding the sepals ; pedi- 
cels strongly flattened, spreading; capsule smooth, shining, often 
purplish, 4-5 mm. long. 

Very common on grassy plains and hills. February-March. 

** Apex of capsule produced into 2 distinct teeth or lobes. 

4. L. acutidens (Gray) Howell. Branching from the base, 
decumbent or ascending, 10-20 cm. long, pubescent throughout 
with short spreading hairs ; leaves linear tapering at both ends, 
entire or faintly and remotely denticulate, 2-5 cm. long, about 
2mm. wide; branches flowering about % their length ; racemes 
rather loose; pedicels strongly flattened, appressed to the stem to 
near the middle, then curving outward; pod strongly reticulated, 
sparsely pubescent, 4 mm. long including the acute teeth, about 
3 mm. broad; sinus about 1 mm. deep and 2 mm. broad at tip. 
(L. dictyotum acutidens Gray.) 

In saline places toward the coast. Cienega; Santa Monica. 


Erect annual, somewhat hirsute at least below with 
simple hairs. Leaves pinnatifid. Inflorescence spici- 

Mustard Family 169 

form with several divaricately spreading branches. 
Flowers small, yellow. Siliques terete, tapering almost 
from the base to the apex ; stigma slightly 2-lobed. 
Seeds in 1 row in each cell. A monotypic genus as here 

1. E. officinale L. Stems 3-6 dm. high; basal leaves lyrately 
and somewhat runcinately pinnatifid, 7-15 cm. long, the upper 
shorter, lanceolate, subentire or hastate; pods 1 cm. long, nearly 
sessile, erect and closely appressed to the rachis. (Sisymbrium 
officinale Scop. 

Common along streets and in waste places. Native of Europe. 


Erect annual or perennial herbs with pinnatifid or 
lobed leaves and rather large yellow flowers in terminal 
racemes. Silique elongated linear flat or flattish, short 
beaked or beakless ; valves mostly 1-nerved. Style slen- 
der. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell, marginless. Cotyle- 
dons conduplicate. 

1. D. tenuifolia (L.) DC. Annual, branched from the base, 
sparingly hispid or glabrous, the slender branches 3-6 dm. high, 
leafy only below; leaves oblanceolate, sinnuate-lobed or some- 
times pinnatifid, 5-10 cm. long, narrowed at the base, mostly 
slender-petioled ; fruiting racemes long, loose ; flowers 12-16 mm. 
broad ; pod about 3 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, erect, flattish ; fruiting 
pedicel 18-30 mm. long. 

Occasional along ditches about Los Angeles, Pasadena and Santa Ana. 
Native of Europe. 


Erect branching annual or biennial herbs, with pin- 
natifid basal leaves, those of the stem dentate or often 
nearly entire, and showy yellow flowers in elongated 
racemes. Siliques elongated, sessile on the receptacle,' 
terete or 4-angled, tipped with a persistent usually 
1-seeded beak; valves 1-3-nerved ; stigma truncate or 

170 Cruciferae 

2-lobed. Seeds in 1 row in each cell, globose. Cotyle- 
dons conduplicate. 

* None of the leaves clasping the stem. 

1. B. nigra (L.) Koch. Erect 1-3 m. high, freely and widely 
branching, pubescent or glabrate; lower leaves slender-petioled, 
deeply pinnatifid, with 1 terminal large lobe and 2-4 smaller lat- 
eral ones; segments all dentate; upper leaves short-petioled or 
sessile, pinnatifid or dentate or the uppermost entire; flowers 
6-10 mm. broad; pedicels slender, 4 mm. long in fruit; pods nar- 
rowly linear, 4-angled, smooth 10-15 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, ap- 
pressed against the stem ; beak slender 2-4 mm. long; seeds dark 

Common in poorly cultivated fields, especially in adobe soils. April-May. 

2. B. alba (L.) Boiss. Erect, branching above, 3-10 dm. high, 
more or less pubescent with simple hairs ; leaves all pinnatifid or 
the upper only dentate ; pods spreading, pubescent, tipped with 
a flattened beak of about equal length ; seeds pale yellow. 

Near the Soldiers' Home, Basse. 

** Upper leaves clasping. 

3. B. campestris L. Stems 3-10 dm. high, glabrous and glau- 
cous or rarely slightly pubescent below ; lower leaves petioled , 
pubescent, more or less lobed or pinnatifid, the upper glabrous, 
lanceolate or oblong, acute or obtuseish, sessile and clasping at the 
base, entire or dentate; pedicels spreading or ascending, often 2 
cm. long in fruit; pods 3-5 cm. long; beak 8-10 mm. long. 

Frequent in waysides and neglected gardens. January-April. In favored 
places often flowering nearly throughout the year. 


Erect or widely branching from the base, annual or 
biennial herbs, with lyrate leaves and showy flowers. 
Silique elongated linear, fleshy or corky, constricted or 
continuous amd spongy between the seeds, indehiscent. 
Seeds globose. Cotyledons conduplicate. 

1. B. sativus L. Biennial or annual from a more or less 
elongated fleshy root; erect and freely branching, 3-5 dm. high, 

Mustard Family 171 

sparsely pubescent with stiff hairs or nearly glabrous above; lower 
leaves deeply lyrate-pinnatifid ; segments crenate or dentate; 
flowers 12-18 mm. broad, yellowish or commonly whitish with 
purple veins; pods 2-4 cm. long, constricted between the seeds 
when mature; seeds 2-several; beak conical, 1-2 cm. long. 

Frequent in poorly cultivated fields and waste places, especially in sandy 
soils. April-June or often throughout the year. 

10. BARBAREA R. Br. 

Erect glabrous biennial or perennial branching herbs 
with angled stems, pinnatifid leaves and racemose yellow 
flowers. Silique elongated, linear, 4-angled ; valves keeled 
or ribbed ; style short ; stigma 2-lobed or capitate. Seeds 
in 1 row in each cell, flat, oblong, marginless. Cotyle- 
dons accumbent. 

1. B. Barbarea (L.) MacM. Tufted stems erect, 3-6 dm. 
high; lower leaves petioled, 5-12 cm. long, lyrately-pinnatifid, 
segments oval or obovate, repand-toothed or sometimes entire; 
upper leaves sessile, rarely clasping; flowers yellow, 6-8 mm. 
broad ; pods spreading or ascending, about 2 cm. long, obscurely 
4-angled; pedicels about 4 mm. long. (B. vulgaris R. Br.) 

Moist places in the mountains, confined mostly to the pine belt. June- 

11. BOBIPA Scop. 

Branching herbs with simple or pinnate-lobed, dissected 
or rarely entire leaves and yellow or white flowers. Sepals 
spreading. Stamens often less than 6. Pods short or 
elongated, terete or nearly so, sessile on the receptacle ; 
valves faintly 1-nerved or nerveless. Styles short or 
slender. Seeds turgid, minute, in 2 rows in each cell. 
Cotyledons accumbent. 

* Flowers white. 

1. B. Nasturtium (L.)Rusby. (WATERCRESS.) Aquatic, gla- 
brous; stems branching, floating or creeping, rooting from the 
nodes; leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets 3-11, roundish or oblong, 

172 Cruciferae 

nearly entire; racemes elongated in fruit; flowers white, 4-5 
mm. broad; petals twice the length of the sepals; pods 1-3 cm. 
long, 2 mm. wide, spreading and slightly curved upward, on 
pedicels of about their own length. (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) 
Common in streams. May-October. 

** Flowers yellow, 

2. R. curvisiliqua (Hook.) Bessey. Annual or biennial, spar- 
ingly pubescent or glabrous, with erect or ascending, usually 
much branched stems, 15-45 cm. high; leaves mostly oblanceolate 
in outline, pinnatifid, pinnately lobed or toothed, the lower 25-75 
mm. long; racemes short; flowers pale yellow, 4 mm. broad; 
petals slightly exceeding the sepals; style short; pods linear, 
8-15 mm. long, about 1.5 mm. wide, strongly curved upward; 
pedicels spreading or ascending. 

Frequent in low ground, about ponds and on river bottoms. Variable in 
foliage characters. 


Erect or ascending herbs mostly growing in marshes 
or along watercourses, with running rootstocks or fibrous 
roots, entire, lobed or divided leaves and racemose or 
corymbose, white or purple flowers. Stamens usually 
6. Siliques elongated, flat, generally erect ; valves 
nerveless, elastically dehiscent at maturity, sessile on 
the receptacle. Seeds in 1 row in each cell, compressed, 
marginless. Cotyledons accumbent, equal or unequal. 

1. C. Gambellii Wats. Bather stout, 6-9 dm. high, branched, 
decumbent at base and rooting at the lower joints, glabrous or 
sparingly soft villous; leaves mostly basal, persisting in a rosu- 
late cluster, pinnately divided; leaflets 4-6 pairs, ovate to 
oblong-linear, usually cuneate at base and acute, mostly few- 
toothed, 6-24 mm. long; raceme nearly sessile, becoming elon- 
gated ; flowers white, 6-8 mm. broad ; pedicels slender, divaricate ; 
pods about the same length, narrow, erect or ascending, often 
curved ; style slender, 2 mm. long. 

Frequent in marshes and wet places in the valleys. 

Mustard Family 173 


Perennial herbs growing in damp woods, with fleshy 
tuberous rootstocks, erect mostly unbranched stems and 
more or less divided leaves. Flowers large, white or 
often tinged with purple. Petals much longer than the 
sepals with slender claw and ovate spreading blades. 
Siliques linear, flattened, their valves nerveless. Seeds 
in 1 row in each cell, wingless. Cotyledons thick often 
unequal, accumbent. 

1. D. Californica Nutt. Rootstock slender, tubers small; 
stem 2-3 dm. high, rather stout, simple or branched above, gla- 
brous or nearly so ; basal leaves entire or 3-foliate, the leaflets 
petiolulate, suborbicular, sinuate or coarsely toothed; cauline 
2-4, mostly shortly petioled and above the middle of the stem, 
deeply lobed or pinnately 3-5-foliate, rarely simple, the leaflets 
mostly petiolate, ovate to lanceolate-linear, entire or toothed, 2-7 
cm. long; flowers white or rose-colored ; pods 2-6 cm. long; style 
4-6 mm. long; seeds oblong. 

Frequent in damp shady places in the mountains and foothills. March- 


Slender erect branching annuals, more or less hirsute- 
pubescent with simple hairs or with a few forked ones 
intermingling. Leaves pinnatifid. Flowers yellow, 
borne in loose leafy-bracted racemes. Sepals concave, 
spreading, equal at base. Petals spatulate-obovate. 
Stamens tetradynamous ; anthers short, rounded. Stig- 
ma circular or slightly emarginate, on a slender style. 
Silique partially or completely 2-celled, ours obcom- 
pressed, sometimes twisted. 

1. T. gracile Hook. Stems slender, erect or spreading, usu- 
ally 15-25 cm. long, more or less pubescent; leaves shallowly or 
deeply pinnatifid, the segments acutish, cleft or entire ; cauline 
leaves reduced; pedicels axillary, spreading, 6-20 mm. long; 

174 Cruciferae 

pods lance-linear to linear, 1-2 cm. long, strongly obcompressed 
throughout; seeds in 2 rows in each cell. 
Frequent in our interior valleys. March-May. 

2. T, dubium Davidson. Much resembling the last in habit, 
foliage and pubescence ; capsule linear, 2-celled and strongly 
obcompressed above the middle, by a twist becoming compressed 
below and only 1-celled. 

Frequent about Los Angeles. This species is very closely related to the 
last and may prove to be only a tortological form. March-May. 

15. DITHYBEA Harv. 

Low branching annuals, with stout stems and thickish 
ovate or orbicular subentire leaves, the whole herbage 
more or less cinerous-tomentose with stellate hairs. In- 
florescence racemose, dense, often branched. Flowers 
whitish or purple. Sepals ovate to oblong, erect or 
spreading, pubescent. Petals conspicuous with spreading 
blade and slender claw. Stamens 6 with linear sagittate 
anthers. Pods strongly obcompressed, 2-celled ; the 
cells nearly orbicular, indehiscent with a thickend mar- 
gin, separating at maturity from the persistent linear 
axis, 1-seeded. Seeds flat, marginless. Cotyledons 

1. D. Californica maritima Davidson. Branching from the 
base, 15-30 cm. high; leaves thick, fleshy, densely pubescent, the 
basal narrowed to slender petioles, the upper sessile, coarsely 
toothed or subentire; racemes short, very dense, elongated in 
fruit; flowers about 12-15 mm. broad; limb purplish; pedicels 
dark purple; pods 8-10 mm. wide, half as long, emarginate above 
and below, pubescent on the margins. 

Occasional along the seashore between Redondo and Port Ballona. 


Low slender mostly diffuse herbs, more or less pubes- 
cent with forked hairs, ours annual with entire or pin- 
nately lobed leaves and minute white flowers in terminal 

Mustard Family 175 

racemes. Stamens 6. Style none or very short. Sili- 
cles oval, obcompressed, the valves strongly 1-nerved. 
Seeds numerous in each cell. Cotyledons incumbent or 

1. H. procumbens (L.) Desv. Branching from the base, 
slender, ascending or procumbent, 5-20 cm. long; lower leaves 
short-petioled, pinnatifid, lobed, dentate or sometimes entire, 
1-2.5 cm. long ; uppear leaves sessile or nearly so, entire or lobed ; 
pedicels slender, ascending or spreading, 6-12 mm. long in fruit; 
pods elliptic or oval, obtuse, rarely emarginate, 3-4 mm. long. 
(Capsella divaricata Walp.; C. elliptica Meyer.) 

In moist saline places throughout our range. March-April. 


Erect annual herbs, pubescent with forked hairs. 
Basal leaves tufted. Flowers racemose, small, white. 
Silicles cuneate-obcordate, obcompressed, the valves 
keeled. Style short. Seeds numerous in each cell, 
marginless. Cotyledons accunibent. 

1. B. Bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton. Erect, branching, 15-40 cm. 
high, pubescent below, mostly glabrous above; basal leaves 
lobed or pinnatifid, forming a rosette, 5-12 cm. long; cauline 
leaves few, lanceolate, auricled, dentate or entire; flowers 2 mm. 
broad ; pedicels slender, spreading or ascending, 10-14 mm. long 
in fruit; pods triangular, more or less deeply emarginate at the 
apex, rarely truncate, 4-6 mm. long. (Capsella Bursa-pastoris 

Common weed in gardens and waste places. Flowering at all times of the 

18. DBABA L. 

Low tufted mostly stellate-pubescent herbs, with sea- 
pose or leafy stems, simple leaves and racemose flowers. 
Silicles elliptic, oblong or rarely linear, compressed. 
Stigma entire or nearly so. Valves dehiscent nerveless. 
Cotyledons accumbent. 

176 Cruciferae 

1. D. cuneifolia Nutt. Annual, loosely stellate-pubescent 
throughout, branching from the base, the branches slender, 8-15 
cm. long, leafy below ; leaves obovate to oblanceolate, acute or 
acutish, entire or few-toothed, 1-5 cm. long; raceme peduncu- 
late, at length elongated, loosely flowered ; flowers small, white ; 
pods linear-oblong, 6-10 mm. long, many-seeded, hispid with 
appressed simple hairs; fruiting pedicels divaricate, 2-6 mm. 
long ; stigma sessile or nearly so. 

Occasional in dry sandy soil in the foothills and the interior valleys. The 
two varieties are more common. 

2. D. cuneifolia integrifolia Wats. Smaller than the type, 
2-5 cm. high; leaves smaller, mostly entire; capsule glabrous; 
pedicels 2 mm. long or less. 

Same range as the type and apparently more common. 

3. D. cuneifolia Sonorae (Greene) Parish. Much resembling 
the type in size and habit ; racemes often nearly sessile ; capsules 
hispid with stellate hairs. 

Same range as the type and the most common form with us. 

19. ATHYSANUS Greene. 

Slender diffuse annual, leafy only near the base. 
Leaves simple, toothed. Sepals equal. Petals without 
claws. Stamens 6, equal. Silicles orbicular not winged 
or margined, 1-celled and 1-ovuled. 

1. A. pusillus (Hook.) Greene. Hirsute-pubescent; stems 
filiform, branching from the base, the branches mostly ascend- 
ing, unilaterally racemose throughout ; leaves few, ovate, sparingly 
toothed, 1 cm. long ; flowers minute, often apetalous ; pods lentic- 
ular, more or less uncinate hispid, 2 mm. long or less. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt throughout our range. March-May. 


Erect and slender, sparingly branched annuals with 
minute white or rose-colored flowers in slender elongated 
racemes. Stamens 6, tetradynamous or rarely only 4. 
Capsule compressed, orbicular, 1-celled, 1-ovuled, inde- 
hiscent, winged ; the wings entire crenate or perforated. 

Mustard Family 177 

1. T. curvipes Hook. More or less hirsute, 2 dm. high or 
more, branching above ; basal leaves rosulate, oblong, pinnatifid 
with short blunt lobes or dentate ; upper leaves lanceolate, sag- 
ittate-auriculate, clasping at base, 1-2 cm. long; pedicels very 
slender, 3-6 mm. long, strongly recurved; capsule usually pubes- 
cent; wings entire or crenate. 

Frequent on grassy slopes. March-April. 

2. T. laciniatus Nutt. Smooth or nearly so, and somewhat 
glaucous, 2-4 dm. high ; leaves rather thin, the basal ones not form- 
ing a rosette, linear, entire to deeply pinnatifid into narrow linear 
segments, upper leaves entire, 20-25 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
narrowed at base, racemes 10-20 cm. long; pods elliptic to orbic- 
ular, 3-3.5 mm. in diameter, including the entire or slightly 
crenate wing, reticulate, glabrous or sometimes somewhat pubes- 
cent; pedicels slender, spreading and becoming more or less 

Occasional on shaded slopes in the canyons of the Santa Monica, San 
Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains, mostly below 3000 feet altitude. 

21. SOPHIA Adans. 

Annual or perennial herbs, canescent or pubescent 
with short forked hairs, with slender branching stems, 
2-pinnatifid or finely dissected leaves and small yellow 
flowers in terminal racemes, these becoming elongated 
in fruit. Calyx early deciduous. Style very short. 
Siliques linear or linear-oblong, slender-pedicelled, the 
valves 1-nerved. Seeds minute, oblong, wingless, in 1 or 
2 rows in each cell. Cotyledons incumbent. 

1. S. pinnata (Walt.) Howell. Densely canescent through- 
out, pale; stem erect, branched, 2-7 dm. high, slender, 'the 
branches ascending; leaves 5-10 cm. long, oblong, 2-pinnatifid 
into very numerous small, toothed or entire, obtuse segments ; 
pedicels very slender, widely spreading, 10-15 mm. long; pods 
horizontal or ascending, oblong or linear-oblong, somewhat com- 
pressed, 6-8 mm. long, 2 rnm. wide, canescent or glabrous; seeds 
in 2 rows in each cell. (Sisymbrium canescens Nutt.) 

Common in sandy soil in the foothills and valleys. April-June. 

2. S. incisa (Engelm.) Greene. Glabrous or somewhat glandu- 
lar-hairy, 3-6 dm. high, freely branching; leaves pinnately 

178 Cruciferae 

divided, the segments lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, incisely 
serrate ; petals lanceolate-spatulate, surpassing the petals ; pedi- 
cels 4-6 mm. long, spreading, exceeded by the spreading or 
curved-ascending, nearly or quite glabrous capsule; seeds in 1 
row in each cell. 

Frequent in the pine belt of the San Bernardino Mountains and to be ex- 
pected within our range. 

22. ABABIS L. 

Annual or perennial, glabrous or pubescent herbs with 
entire, lobed or pinnatifid leaves and white or purple 
flowers. Siliques linear, elongated, compressed, with 
smooth or keeled mostly 1-nerved valves, not elastic, 
dehiscent at maturity. Stigma nearly entire or 2-lobed. 
Seeds in 1 or 2 rows in each cell, flattened, winged or 
wingless. Cotyledons accumbent. 

* Seeds in 1 row in each cell. 

1. A. Virginica (L.) Trelease. Annual or rarely biennial, 
glabrate; stems ascending or decumbent, 1.5-3 dm. high ; leaves 
oblong, narrow, deeply pinnatifid, 2.5-7 cm. long, the lower 
petioled, the upper nearly sessile ; pedicels spreading or ascend- 
ing, 4 mm. long in fruit; flowers very small, white; pods linear, 
ascending, 16-24 mm. long, about 2 mm. broad; seeds in 1 row 
in each cell, nearly as broad as the pod, orbicular, wing-margined. 
(A. Ludoviciana C. A. Meyer.) 

Inglewood in low ground. Our plants have the leaves often merely 
dentate. March. 

2. A. repanda Wats. Biennial; stem stout, branching, 3 dm. 
high or more, pubescent throughout with mostly stellate hairs, 
usually longer and simple at base ; leaves narrowly obovate to 
oblanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, sparingly toothed or nearly entire, 
those of the stem narrowed to a winged petiole, acute or obtuse ; 
flowers white, small ; petals narrow, 4 mm. long, slightly exceed- 
ing the calyx ; pods recurved-spreading, faintly 1-nerved at the 
base, seeds elliptic, broadly winged. 

Occasional in the upper portions of the pine belt in the San Gabriel and 
San Bernardino Mountains. 

Mustard Family 179 

** Seeds in 2 rows in each cell. 

3. A. glabra (L.) Bernh. Biennial; erect, pubescent below, 
glabrous and glaucous above, simple or somewhat branched, 5-10 
dm. high; basal leaves petioled, 5-15 cm. long, oblanceolate or 
oblong, dentate or sometimes lyrate, pubescent with simple hairs, 
those of the stem with sagittate base, glabrous, entire or the 
lower dentate, 5-10 cm. long, lanceolate or oblong, acutish ; 
flowers yellowish white, 4 mm. broad; pedicels 4-10 mm. long, 
erect; pods narrowly linear, 5-7 cm. long, 1 mm. wide, erect and 
appressed ; seeds in 2 rows in each cell, marginless ; style none. 
(A. perfoliata Lam.) 

Frequent in the foothills throughout our range. 


Ours biennial or perennial more or less pubescent 
herbs, with simple entire or toothed leaves. Flowers 
mostly yellow. Siliques elongated, linear, 4-angled; 
valves strongly keeled. Stigma lobed. Seeds oblong, in 
1 row in each cell, marginless or narrowly margined at 
apex. Cotyledons incumbent. (Erysimum.) 

1. C. angustatus Greene. Perennial; rather stout, erect, 5 
dm. high or more; leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate, entire or 
few-toothed, few and scattered above, densely clothing the basal 
part of the herbaceous stem and short sterile branches of the 
short subligneous caudex, the whole plant subcinerous with 
appressed 2-forked hairs; calyx-lobes 10-12 mm. long; petals 
yellow, the lower pair parallel to each other, the upper divergent 
from each other ; pods in a long lax raceme, 4-sided, ascending. 

Occasional in the foothills of the Santa Monica and Santa Ana Moun- 

2. C. suffrutescens Abrams. Perennial; often much branch- 
ed, the branches woody, 1 m. long or less, usually straggling 
among low shrubs, rough from the persistent bases of the old 
leaves, usually about 5 mm. thick ; floral branches clustered at 
the ends of the main branches, slender, 3-4 dm. long; leaves 
scattered along the floral branches, densely clothing their bases, 
very narrowly linear-oblanceolate, 2-3 mm. broad, entire or 
remotely and obscurely denticulate, these as well as the branches 

180 Capparidaceae 

cinerous with appressed 2-forked hairs; calyx-lobes 6-7 mm. 
long; petals yellow, cruciform; pods in rather short but lax 
racemes, on pedicels about 8 mm. long, widely spreading, straight 
or slightly curved upwards, 4-sided, 1.5-1.75 mm. broad, 5-6 cm. 
long; beak slender, scarcely 1 mm. broad and but little longer; 
seeds brownish, about 1.5 mm. long. 

Common on the sand-dunes along the seashore. Flowering nearly the 
year round. 


Perennial herbs, pubescent or canescent with forked 
hairs, with entire leaves and small white flowers in ter- 
minal racemes. Petals obovate, entire. Filaments slen- 
der, with 2 small glands at the base. Capsule compressed, 
oval or orbicular. Seeds 1 in each cell. Cotyledons 

1. K. maritima (L.) R. Br. Ascending or sometimes pro- 
cumbent, freely branching, 1-3 dm. high, minutely pubescent with 
appressed hairs ; basal leaves oblanceolate, narrowed into a petiole ; 
flowers white, fragrant, about 4 mm. broad; fruiting pedicels 
ascending, 6-8 mm. long; capsules glabrous, pointed, oval or 
nearly orbicular, 2-3 mm. long. (Alyssum maritimum L.) 

An escape from gardens, along streets and in waste places. Flowering 
nearly throughout the year. 


Herbs or rarely shrubs or trees with pungent or acrid 
watery juice, simple or palmately compound alternate 
leaves and axillary or terminal, solitary or racemose, 
mostly regular and perfect flowers. Sepals 4. Petals 4, 
sessile or clawed. Stamens usually 6, equal, inserted on 
the receptacle ; anthers oblong, longitudinally dehiscent. 
Ovary sessile or stipitate, 1-celled ; ovules many, borne 
on parietal placentae. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds 
mostly reniform ; endosperm none ; cotyledons some- 
what coiled. 

Herbs. 1. CLEOME. 

Shrubs. 2. ISOMERIS. 

Caper Family 181 


Ours branching herbs with digitately 3-5-foliate leaves 
and yellow flow r ers in bracteolate racemes. Sepals 4, 
often persistent. Petals 4, cruciate, entire, equal. Sta- 
mens 6. Ovary stipitate with gland at the base. Cap- 
sule elongated, long-stipitate, many-seeded. 

1. C. lutea Hook. Erect, glabrous, branching, 4-12 dm. high ; 
leaves 5-foliate, slender-petioled or the upper 3-foliate and sub- 
sessile ; leaflets oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, entire, short-stalked 
or sessile, narrowed at the base, obtuse or acute and mucronulate 
at the apex, 1-5 cm. long; bracts linear-oblong, mucronulate; 
flowers densely racemose; pedicels slender, 10-12 mm. long; pod 
linear, acute, 3-6 cm. long, borne on a stipe nearly as long. 

Field near Downey, Davidson. 

2. ISOMEBIS Nutt. 

Ill-scented shrubs with puberulent branches, 3-foliate 
petioled leaves and large yellow flowers axillary or in 
bracteate racemes. Sepals 4, persistent. Petals 4, oblong, 
equal. Receptacle dilated with a hemispherical torus. 
Stamens 6, inserted on the receptacle, enlarged and glan- 
dular on the upper surface. Ovary long-stipitate, many- 
ovuled on the placentae ; style short ; stigma minute. 
Capsule oval or nearly globose, inflated, tardily 2-valved. 
Seeds smooth. 

1. I. arborea Nutt. Widely branching shrub, 1-3 m. high, 
with hard yellow wood and puberulent branches ; leaves 3-foliate ; 
leaflets oblong to lanceolate, equaling the petioles, entire, mucro- 
nate; flowers in terminal bracteate racemes; bracts simple; 
petals yellow, 10-16 cm. long, twice longer than the sepals; cap- 
sule oblong, 2.5-3.5 cm. long, attenuate into the stipe and 
abruptly tapering at the apex. 

Frequent on bluffs and hills along the coast, Ballona Harbor; San Pedro; 
San Joaquin Hills. February-July. 

I. ARBOREA GLOBOSA Coville. This subspecies, which differs 
from the type in having globose capsules, has been reported from 
Oceanside and may occur within our limits. 

182 - Resedaceae 


Annual or perennial herbs with alternate leaves, gland- 
like stipules and racemose or spicate bracted unsymmetri- 
cal flowers. Calyx 4-7-parted, more or less irregular. 
Petals 2-6, usually laciniate or dentate. Stamens hypog- 
ynous, 3-40, borne on the base of the calyx or on a dilat- 
ed nectariferous and oblique disk, declined or unilateral. 
Ovary 1, composed of 3-6 carpels, at least the tips dis- 
tinct ; ovules many. Fruit capsular. Seeds reniform ; 
endosperm none ; cotyledons incumbent. 

Petals 4; disk present. 1. RESEDA. 

Petals 2; disk wanting. 2. OI.IGOMEBIS. 


Erect or decumbent herbs with entire, lobed or pinnat- 
ifid leaves and small spicate or narrowly racemose 
flowers. Petals 4-7, toothed or cleft. Disk cup-shaped, 
glandular. Stamens 8-30, inserted on the inner surface 
of the disk and on one side of the flower. Capsule 3-6- 
lobed, horned at the top before maturity. 

1. B. lutea L. Ascending or decumbent, somewhat pubes- 
cent with short stiff hairs or nearly glabrous; leaves 5-10 cm. 
long, broadly ovate or oblong, deeply lobed or divided, some- 
times pinnatifid; segments linear-oblong with undulate margins; 
flowers in narrow racemes, 4-6 mm. broad, greenish yellow; 
pedicels ascending, about 4 mm. long in fruit; petals 6 or 5, all 
but the lowest irregularly cleft ; sepals of the same number ; cap- 
sule oblong, about 8 mm. long, with 3 or rarely 4 short teeth. 

An occasional escape from gardens. 


Low glaucous chiefly annuals with linear and entire 
leaves, and small greenish flowers in terminal spikes. 
Stamens usually 4. Petals 2, posterior, free or united at 
the base, entire or 2-3-lobed, persistent. Disk none. 

Crassulaceae 183 

Stamens 3-10. Ovary 4-angled, 4-beaked. Capsule 
4-sulcate, many-seeded, opening at the summit. 

1. O. glaucescens Camb. Annual or biennial; 15-30 cm. 
high, branching at base, the branches ascending; leaves often 
fascicled and somewhat fleshy, 1-2 cm. long; spikes elongated 
terminal, the stem-like branches bracteate, densely flowered; 
petals oblong, obscurely lobed, posterior; stamens 3, posterior; 
capsule depressed globose, 3 mm. in diameter, 4-lobed, 4-cuspi- 
date; seeds smooth. 

In low saline places. Portugese Bend ; Elsinore; also at San Diego and 
Tia Juana. April-May. 


Mostly succulent or fleshy herbs with cymose or rarely 
solitary, regular or symmetrical flowers. Stipules none. 
Calyx persistent, free from the ovary or ovaries, 4-5-cleft 
or 4-5-parted. Petals equal in number to the calyx- 
lobes, distinct or somewhat united below, persistent. 
Stamens of the same number or twice as many with fili- 
form or subulate filaments and longitudinally dehiscent 
anthers. Receptacle with a scale at the base of each 
carpel. Carpels equal to the calyx-lobes in number, 
distinct or united below, with subulate or filiform styles 
and numerous ovules. Follicles membranous or coria- 
ceous, 1-celled, dehiscent along the ventral suture. Seeds 
minute ; embryo terete, imbedded in fleshy endosperm. 
The descriptions of most of the species and genera are 
adopted from Britton and Rose's recent article, " New or 
Noteworthy North American Crassulaceae," Bui. N. Y. 
Bot. Gard. 3:1-45. 1903. 

Plants not minute. 

Petals spreading, distinct at base; leaves not linear. 1. SEDUM. 
Petals spreading, yellow, slightly united at base; leaves linear; peren- 
nials by conns. 2. HASSEANTHUS. 
Petals spreading, united at base; leaves narrow; perennials by root- 
stocks. 3. STYLOPHYLLUM. 
Petals erect, united at base; carpels erect. 4. DUDLEYA. 
Plants minute, succulent. 5. TILLAEA. 

184 Crassulaceae 

1. SEDUM L. 

Fleshy mostly glabrous erect or decumbent herbs 
with mostly alternate entire or dentate leaves and per- 
fect flowers in terminal often 1-sided cymes. Calyx 
4-5-lobed. Petals 4-5, distinct. Stamens 8-10, perigy- 
nous, the alternate ones usually attached to the petals, 
their filaments filiform or subulate. Scales of the recep- 
tacle entire or emarginate. Carpels distinct or united 
at the base ; styles short. 

1. S. obtusatum Gray. Glaucous and often mealy, from a 
branched rooting caudex, 10-15 cm. high, simple; leaves very 
thick, obovate or spatulate, flat, 15-20 mm. long ; cymes of rather 
numerous scattered branches; pedicels 2-4 mm. long; petals 
oblong-lanceolate or obovate, acute, pale yellow, 6-8 mm. long, 
little exceeding the stamens and style ; calyx broadly campanu- 
late, sepals 3-4 mm. long, broad, obtuseish. 

Mount Disappointment, Davidson. 

2. S. spathulifoliuxn Hook. Similar in habit to the last, but 
the cyme approximate; pedicels shorter or the flowers sessile; 
sepals 3 mm. long, ovate, acute; petals yellow, lanceolate, acute, 
6-8 mm. k>ng, scarcely exceeding the stamens and style. 

Lytle Creek Canyon near the falls. 


Stems several, arising from small globose or oblong 
corms. Basal leaves linear, terete, narrowed below into 
flattened petioles ; stem-leaves narrowly ovate, turgid 
but somewhat flattened. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla-seg- 
ments united at base into a short tube, yellow or 
white changing to purple. Carpels 5, united at base, 
widely spreading. 

1. H. elongatus Rose. Steins slender, 10-15 dm. high ; leaves 
linear, elongated, not at all variegated ; cyme branches simple, 
widely spreading, 2-4 cm. long; calyx-lobes oblong; corolla 
bright yellow. 

Described from specimens collected in the San Joaquin Hills by the 
author. What seems to be the same has also been collected in the Santa 
Ana Mountains by Helen D. Geis. 

Stone-crop Family 185 

2. H. xnulticaulis Rose. Perennial by an oblong cprm, 2-3 
cm. long; stems 2-5, rather stout, 1-1.5 cm. high, variegated, 
glabrous, not at all glaucous; basal leaves 3-4 cm. long, terete, 
acute; stem leaves 1-2.5 cm. long, ovate-oblong, acute or acumi- 
nate, turgid or somewhat flattened; inflorescence of several 
secund, many-flowered racemes; flowers subsessile; calyx-lobes 
ovate, obtuse; flower-buds pinkish, obtuse; corolla-lobes widely 
spreading above the middle, pale yellow, tinged with red, 7-8 
mm. long, slightly united at base. 

Described from specimens collected by Dr. Hasse on sterile clay bluffs 
near Santa Monica. 

3. STYLOPHYLLUM Britton & Rose. 

Perennials with more or less branched rootstocks ; 
basal leaves linear elongated or flattened but always nar- 
row, sometimes abruptly widened below into a broad clasp- 
ing base ; flowering stems with long sessile leaves not 
clasping at base. Calyx 5-lobed, the lobes ovate, equal and 
small. Corolla campanulate, not angled, white, red or 
yellowish, its lobes broad, thin and spreading, united below 
into a tube. Stamens 10, borne on the corolla-tube. Car- 
pels 5, united below, generally spreading. 

1. S. insulare Rose. Stems very thick and woody, 6-8 cm. 
in diameter, crowned by a rosette of spreading leaves, the old 
leaves somewhat persistent; leaves 10-15 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. 
broad above the base, 2 cm. broad at base, fleshy, much flattened 
except toward the apex, acute, more or less glaucous, especially 
when young; flowering branch stout, purplish, 3-4 dm. long; 
inflorescence paniculately branched; primary branches short, 
nearly equal, 2-3-dichotomous, the ultimate branches short and 
few-flowered; calyx 3 mm. long, its lobes twice as long as the 
tube, ovate, acute; corolla 7 mm. long, reddish, somewhat cam- 
panulate, its tube about the length of the carpels ; carpels united 
at base, widely spreading. 

Described from specimens collected on Catalina Island by Blanche Trask. 

2. S. Hassei Rose. Caudex elongated, sometimes about 3 dm. 
long, 2-3 cm. in diameter, somewhat branching, covered with 
the old persistent leaves, crowned with a dense erect rosette; 

186 Crassulaceae 

leaves very glaucous, linear, not tapering, except toward the 
apex, 10 cm. long or less, 1 cm. wide or less, somewhat flattened 
below, terete above, flowering stems weak, their primary branches 
1-2-dichotomous, the ultimate branches slender and many- 
flowered ; calyx widely spreading in age. 

Described from specimens collected on Catalina Island by Dr. Hasse. 

3. S. densiflorum Rose. Glaucous throughout from more or 
less branching rootstocks ; leaves numerous, erect, nearly terete, 
acute, 6-12 cm. long; flowering branches slender and weak; 
inflorescence a rather dense compact cyme, its ultimate branches 
rather short, 4-8-flowered ; pedicels short, 1-3 mm. long; calyx 
2 mm. long, its lobes twice as long as its tube, broadly ovate to 
orbicular, obtuse; corolla white or pinkish, 6 mm. long, its seg- 
ments spreading, distinct nearly to the base. (Cotyledon nudi- 
caule Abrams.) 

Frequent on rocky cliffs in the San Gabriel Canyon. 

4. DUDLEYA Britton & Rose. 

Caulescent or acaulescent perennials with flat linear 
to ovate basal leaves and yellow, orange, red or rarely 
white flowers, mostly in panicles. Leaves of the flower- 
ing branches usually much shorter and relatively broader 
than the basal ones, sessile or clasping. Calyx conspicu- 
ous, 5-lobed, the lobes erect, linear-lanceolate to ovate, 
obtuse to acuminate. Corolla nearly cylindric, or some- 
what angled, the segments united below the middle, 
erect, or their tips somewhat spreading, obtuse to acumi- 
nate. Stamens twice as many as the calyx-lobes, dis- 
tinct. Carpels erect, many-seeded. (Cotyledon in part.) 

* Leaves spatulate to ovate, rather thin. 

1. D. pulverulenta (Nutt.) B. & R. Densely white-mealy 
throughout; caudex short and very stout; rosulate leaves rather 
thin and flaccid, in a flattened large rosette, broadly spatulate, 
abruptly acute, 5-10 cm. long; scapes 4 dm. high or more, stout 
with broadly cordate rather numerous acute leaves, the lower 
sometimes ovate, acuminate ; inflorescence of 2-6elongated simple 
racemes; pedicels mostly horizontal, slender, 6-15 mm. long; 

Stone-crop Family 187 

flowers erect or ascending; sepals ovate, acute, 4-6 mm. long; 
corolla somewhat contracted above, reddish, about 14 mm. long, 
petals carinate with a prominent mealy-glaucous midvein. (Coty- 
ledon pulverulenta Benth. & Hook.) 

Frequent in the chaparral belt on rocky slopes in all our mountains. 

2. D. minor Rose. Acaulescent, or very old plants with a 
carrot-shaped rootstock 5 cm. long, crowned by a small rosette 
of spreading leaves ; leaves rhomboid-ovate, the large ones 5-7 
cm. long, narrowed at base, abruptly acuminate, glaucous; in- 
florescence slender, with a few elongated 1-sided racemes; pedi- 
cels slender, 10-15 mm. long; calyx 5-7 mm. long, its lobes ovate 
to ovate-lanceolate, acute; corolla yellow or pale orange, 12 mm. 
long, its tube 2 mm. long. 

Originally described from plants collected by Dr. Hasse in the San 
Gabriel Canyon, altitude about 2000 feet. Wilson's trail, altitude 2500 feet, 
on rocky banks. 

3. D. ovatifolia Britton. Glabrous, low, green, 1.5 dm. high 
or less ; flowering stems rigid ; basal leaves ovate, shining above, 
acute, about 2 cm. long; leaves of the flowering stems ovate, or 
the lower ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or the lower acute, 5-8 mm. 
long; cymes few-flowered; pedicels very slender, 1 cm. long or 
less; flowers about 1 cm. long; calyx segments triangular-ovate- 
lanceolate, about 2.5 mm. long, nearly as long as the corolla- tube ; 
corolla bright yellow, its segments lanceolate, acute. 

Described from specimens collected in the Santa Monica Mountains by 
H. M. Hall. 

** Leaves rather thick, lanceolate to nearly linear or strap-shaped. 

4. D. Brauntoni Rose. Csespitose, the rootstocks crowned 
by 6-8 rosettes of leaves; leaves elongated, strap-shaped, becom- 
ing 20 cm. long and 2 cm. broad, but often at flowering time only 
10 cm. long and 1 cm. broad, pale green and very glaucous on the 
face, acute; flowering stems usually stout, 3-6 dm. long, pale 
green, their lower leaves often quite large, the upper ones ovate, 
acute, thickish, slightly cordate at base; inflorescence at first 
somewhat compact, of 3-4 branches, these finally much elongated, 
1-2 dm. long; pedicels very short, 1-3 mm. long, not elongated 
in fruit; calyx-lobes broadly ovate, 4-5 mm. long, acute; seg- 
ments of corolla pale greenish yellow, 10-12 mm. long, erect. 

Described from plants collected by Ernest Braunton on Elysian Hills, 
Los Angeles. 

188 Saxifragaceae 

5. D. elongata Rose. Stems elongated, at length 2-4 dm. 
long, simple or branched ; leaves nearly linear, broadest near the 
base, very glaucous, 4-8 cm. long, 9 mm. wide or less, acute to 
acuminate; flowering stems leafless below, leafy above; the 
leaves ovate, acute, cordate, 1 cm. long or less ; inflorescence 
cymose-paniculate ; pedicels very short, 1-2 mm. long; calyx- 
lobes ovate, acute, 4 mm. long, twice as long as the tube; corolla 
12 mm. long, at first reddish yellow, in age deep red. 

Along the coast. Described from specimens from near San Pedro, col- 
lected by Dr. Hasse. 

6. D. lurida Rose. Acaulescent; basal leaves ascending or 
nearly erect, very numerous, not at all glaucous at flowering 
time, at last deeply bronzed, lanceolate, acuminate, 10-15 crn. 
long, 10-22 mm. broad at the middle, fleshy but not very thick; 
flowering stems stout, purplish, 4-5 dm. tall, their leaves broadly 
ovate, 8-12 mm. long, rather slender; calyx-lobes ovate, acute, 
5-6 mm. long, reddish; corolla reddish, 12-15 mm. long, the seg- 
ments erect, acute. 

Frequent in the Santa Monica Mountains and Verdugo Hills. 


Minute somewhat succulent and glabrous herbs with 
opposite entire leaves and minute axillary mostly white 
flowers. Sepals and petals 3-5, distinct or united at the 
base. Stamens as many. Carpels as many, distinct ; 
styles short-subulate ; ovules 1-many. Seeds striate 

1. T. minima Miess. Diffusely branched, 2-6 cm. high, erect 
or ascending; leaves about 2 mm. long, ovate, acute, connate at 
base ; flowers in short leafy axillary panicles ; sepals 4, scarcely 
1 mm. long, oblong-ovate, acute, slightly exceeding the linear- 
lanceolate acuminate petals ; carpels of about the same length, 
acute ; seeds usually solitary. 

Common on sandy ground throughout the valley region. 


Herbs or shrubs with alternate opposite or basal, 
chiefly exstipulate leaves and mostly perfect solitary, 

Saxifrage Family 189 

racemose, cymose or paniculate flowers. Calyx 4-5-lobed 
or 4-5-parted, free or adnate to the ovary, usually per- 
sistent. Petals 45, perigynous. Stamens equaling the 
petals in number or twice as many, perigynous. Car- 
pels 1-several, more or less united into a compound super- 
ior or inferior ovary ; styles distinct or united. Fruit a 
capsule, follicle or berry. Seeds usually numerous ; en- 
dosperm generally copious, fleshy ; embryo small, terete. 


Ovary with 2, rarely more, cells. 

Stamens 5. 1. THEROFON. 

Stamens 10. 2. SAXIFRAGA. 

Ovary 1-celled. 

Stamens 5. 3. HEUCHERA. 

Stamens 10. 4. LITHOPHRAGMA. 

Shrubs. 5. RISES. 


Perennial herbs with creeping rootstocks and leafy 
stems. Leaves alternate, round-reniform, palmately 
lobed and incised or toothed with callous glandular tips ; 
petiole mostly with a stipular dilation at base. Flowers 
white, paniculate or in corymbose-cymes. Calyx 5-lobed, 
the tube adherent to the ovary, at length globular or 
ovate. Petals 5, entire. Stamens short, alternating 
with the petals ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary 2-celled. 
Fruit a capsule, dehiscent down the styliferous beaks. 
Seeds ovoid, minutely papillose. 

1. T. elatum (Nutt.) Greene. Slender, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous 
or somewhat glandular-pubescent, the dilated bases of the peti- 
oles with brown bristly hairs, otherwise smooth or nearly so ; 
leaves thin membranous, 5-7 cm. broad, deeply 5-7-lobed; calyx- 
lobes lanceolate-triangular, often slightly toothed above; tube 
oval, urceolate in fruit; petals cuneate-elliptic, obtuse, 3.5 mrn. 
long, much exceeding the calyx-lobes; claw very short. (Boy- 
kinia occidentalis T. & G.) 

Topango Canyon, Davidson. 

2. T. rotundifolium (Parry) Wheelock. Stem villous-pubes- 
cent and glandular, 4-8 dm. high, leafy; leaves 5-10 cm. broad, 

190 Saxifragaceae 

erenately incised and toothed, thin, nearly glabrous above, peti- 
oles densely villous, the slightly dilated base with brown bristly 
hairs; peduncles axillary and terminal ; flowers short-pedicel led, 
secund on the few elongated branches ; calyx campanulate, be- 
coming broadly urceolate in fruit, its lobes entire, acute; petals 
2-2.5 mm. long, scarcely exceeding the calyx-lobes, spatulate ; 
the claw twice as long as the rounded blade. (Boykinia rotundi- 
folia Parry.) 

Frequent in canyons in the San Gabriel Mountains, 2500-4500 feet altitude. 


Stemless or short-stemmed herbs with alternate or 
mostly basal leaves and corymbose, paniculate or rarely 
solitary small flowers. Calyx 5-lobed or 5-parted, its 
tube free or adnate to the base of the ovary. Petals 5, 
equal, entire. Stamens 10, inserted with the petals ; fila- 
ments filiform ; anthers 2-celled. Carpels 2 or rarely 3, 
distinct or more or less united into a 2-celled ovary ; 
styles distinct, persistent, at length divergent. Fruit of 2 
follicles or a 2-lobed or 2-beaked capsule, dehiscent down 
the beaks or the ventral suture. Seeds smooth. 

1. S. Californica Greene. Scape 15-45 cm. high ; leaves few, 
rather thick, reddish veined, sparsely glandular-villous, oval, 
oblong or elliptic, 25-50 mm. long, coarsely crenate to repand- 
denticulate; petioles rather broad, 12-25 mm. long; inflores- 
cence cymose-paniculate ; calyx nearly free from the ovary, its 
segments reflexed ; petals oblong, 3 times as long as the calyx, 
white or rose-tinted ; filaments subulate, inserted under the edge 
of an elevated perigynous disk. 

Arroyo Seco, McClatchie; near Glendale, Davidson. 


Perennial herbs with stout rootstocks, mostly basal 
long-petioled rounded usually cordate leaves, and slen- 
der scapes. Inflorescence in ours paniculate, bracteate, 
bearing small mostly purple flowers. Calyx campanu- 

Saxifrage Family 191 

late or in fruit somewhat urceolate, 5-lobed, the lobes 
obtuse and sometimes unequal, the tube coherent with 
lower half of the ovary. Petals unguiculate, small, en- 
tire, inserted on the throat of the calyx. Stamens 5, ex- 
serted or included ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary and cap- 
sule 1-celled, with 2 parietal placentae, more or less 
2-beaked, the beaks tapering into the slender styles, 
dehiscent between the beaks. Seeds numerous, minute, 

1. H. elegans Abrams. Scape 25-35 cm. high, villous-hirsute ; 
leaves thickish, round-cordate, 1-2 cm. broad, crenately lobed 
and toothed, the margins ciliate, otherwise glabrous; petioles 
2-2.5 cm. long, villous; stipules scarious, the free portion nar- 
rowly lanceolate, 2-3 mm. long, ciliate with long slender hairs ; 
panicles 14-18 cm. long, villous-pubescent throughout and some- 
what glandular, its branches cymose, 3 cm. long, usually 9-flow- 
ered, the uppermost becoming reduced; bracts subtending the 
branches about 4 mm. long, lacerate, those subtending the 
pedicels similar but somewhat reduced ; calyx pink, villous, 8-10 
mm. long, narrowly campanulate, its lobes narrowly oblong, 
about 3 mm. long; petals white, lanceolate-spatulate, 5-6 mm. 
long, narrowed below to a slender claw ; stamens included. 

Frequent in rocky places in the higher altitudes of the chapparal belt. 
Mount Gleason; Mount Lowe; Mount Wilson. 


Slender perennial herbs from mostly grumous roots, 
with chiefly basal round-cordate toothed or lobed leaves, 
their petioles stipuliform at base, cauline few on the 
simple stems. Flowers few in a simple terminal raceme. 
Calyx campanulate or turbinate, 5-lobed, free from the 
ovary or more or less adnate to it. Petals 5, exserted, 
3-7-lobed or sometimes entire. Stamens 10, included ; 
anthers cordate. Ovary 1-celled, with 3 parietal placen- 
tae ; styles 3, short. Fruit a 3-valved, many-seeded cap- 

192 Saxifragaceae 

1. It. affinis Gray. Stems 1 or several, 15-40 cm. high, sca- 
brous-hirsute; basal leaves few, round-reniform, slightly lobed, 
2-3 cm. broad; cauline 3-lobed to the middle, the lobes coarsely 
toothed ; calyx 5 mm. long, turbinate, the tube more or less ad- 
herent to the ovary; pedicels about equaling or slightly exceed- 
ing the calyx ; lower petals 8-10 mm. long, 3-toothed, the upper 
slightly smaller, entire; seeds faintly striate-pitted or almost 

Occasional on shady banks in the foothills, below 4000 feet altitude. 

5. RIBES L. 

Erect branching shrubs with alternate palmately 
lobed, often resinous-glandular or viscid leaves. Stipules 
when present adnate to the petiole. Flowers racemose, 
rarely solitary on 1-2-leaved axillary shoots ; pedicels 
subtended by a bract and usually bearing 2 bractlets at 
about the middle. Calyx-tube adnate to the globose 
ovary and more or less produced above it. Petals 5 or 
rarely 4, erect, mostly smaller than the calyx-lobes. 
Stamens equaling the petals in number and alternate 
with them. Ovary 1-celled with 2 parietal placenta? ; 
styles 2, more or less united ; stigmas terminal. Fruit a 
berry, crowned with the withered remains of the flower. 

* T hornless. CUBRANT. 

*- Flowers yellow; leaves convolute in bud. 

1. B. tenuiflorum Lindl. Shrub, 1-3 m. high, nearly gla- 
brous, glandless ; leaves light green, 3-5-lobed at apex, not cor- 
date ; racemes many-flowered ; bracts green, conspicuous ; flowers 
bright yellow; calyx salver-shaped, tube 1 cm. long or more; lobes 
oval, % as long as the tube; berry glabrous, amber color. 

Eaton's Wash, near Sierra Madre. February-March. 

*- *- Flowers not yellow; leaves plaited in tlie bud. 

2. B. malvaceum viridifoliuni Abrains. Shrub 1-2 in. high, 
the young branches short-pubescent and more or less densely 
glandular with stalked glands; leaves rather thick, 3-7 cm. 

Saxifrage Family 193 

broad, slightly or not at all rugose, minutely scabrous and some- 
what glandular with sessile glands above, pale and glandular- 
pubescent beneath ; petioles beset with stalked glands and more 
or less puberulent; inflorescence glandular-pubescent, racemes 
rather long-peduncled, drooping, many-flowered ; bracts ovate, 1 
cm. long, ciliate-toothed above ; pedicels 3-4 mm. long ; calyx rose- 
colored below, becoming nearly white above, its tube cylindric, 
pubescent within, 12 mm. long; its lobes broadly ovate, rounded 
at apex, 4-5 mm. long; petals rounded, 2 mm. broad; anthers 
nearly sessile, 2 mm. long; style pubescent; berries becoming 
reflexed at maturity, on short pedicels, pubescent and rather 
sparsely beset with coarse gland-tipped hairs, purplish, 1 cm. 

Occasional in the Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mountains, below 4000 
feet altitude. March-April. 

3. R. Nevadense Kell. Rather slender, loosely branching 
shrub, 1-2 m. high, older bark flaky deciduous; leaves 5-10 cm. 
broad, thin, not rugose, bright green and glabrous above, paler 
beneath and sparsely pubescent ; stipular base of petiole ciliate- 
margined with long coarse plumose hairs ; racemes rather short 
and dense, on rather long pendulous peduncles; flowers rose- 
colored ; calyx-tube urceolate, 3 mm. long, lobes spreading, about 
equaling the tube ; berry small, globose, glabrous, black. 

Strain's Camp, Mount Wilson. Frequent along streams in the San An- 
tonio and San Bernardino Mountains, in the pine belt. May. 

** Thorny. GOOSEBERRY. 
*- Flowers 5-merous. 

4. B. divaricatum Dougl. Shrub, 1-2.5 m. high, spreading, 
glabrous or nearly so, thorns single or sometimes triple; leaves 
roundish, 3-5-lobed, the lobes incisely toothed ; peduncles slender, 
elongated, drooping, 3-9-flowered ; pedicels with broad bract at 
base; calyx green without, purplish within, 5-7 mm. long; tube 
short, campanulate, much exceeded by the oblong lobes; petals 
white, fan-shaped, margins convolute; filiform filaments and 
style much exserted; berry small, glabrous, black. 

Oak Krioll, near Pasadena, McClatchie. March. 

5. B. amarum McClatchie. Shrub, 1-3 m. high, the rigid 
stems and branches beset with yellow-brown commonly triple 
spines, often hispid; leaves inflorescence and young branches 

194 Platanaceae 

glandular-hirsute; leaves thin, 1-4 cm. broad, 3-5-lobed and 
incised; peduncles 1-2-flowered ; bracts round-ovate, usually 
3-lobed, 6 mm. long; calyx-tube oblong-campanulate, 6 mm. 
long; lobes reflexed, 6 mm. long, purplish red; petals pinkish 
white, rounded, erose-toothed at summit; stamens equaling or 
slightly exceeding the petals; anthers sagittate, mucronate, 
purplish; berry 12-20 mm. broad, densely covered with glandu- 
lar bristles. 

Frequent on shaded slopes in the San Gabriel Mountains below 4000 feet 
altitude. February-March. 

6. B. hesperium McClatchie. Shrub, 1.5-3 m. high, with 
spreading branches; stems smooth, beset with dark-colored com- 
monly single spines ; inflorescence and young branches puberu- 
lent; leaves thin, 12-20 mm. broad, 3-5-lobed, the lobes incised; 
peduncles 1-2-flowered; bracts broad, fan-shaped with ciliated 
membranous pink margins; calyx-tube campanulate, slightly 
inflated, about 2 mm. long, lobes greenish-red, 6-8 mm. long, 
petals cuneate-oblong, 3-4 mm. long, 2-3-toothed at summit or 
entire; filaments 4-6 mm. long; anthers mucronate, greenish ; 
berry 12-20 mm. in diameter, densely beset with rather long 

Common in the Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mountains below 3000 feet 
altitude. January-February. 

-- -- Flowers 4-merous. 

7. B. speciosum Pursh. Evergreen shrub, 1.5-3 m. high, 
with leafy red bristly branches ; subaxillary spines 3, united at 
base ; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green, smooth and shining above, 
rounded, 3-lobed, lobes short, crenately toothed; peduncles pen- 
dulous, 2-5-flowered; flowers bright red, drooping; calyx 12-18 
mm. long, its tube short, somewhat inflated, lobes oblong, not 
spreading ; petals about % the length of the calyx-lobes ; filaments 
filiform, much exceeding the calyx; anthers small, oval; berry 
small, densely prickly. 

Frequent in the foothills. March-April. 


Large trees with thin exfoliating bark, alternate 
petioled palmately lobed leaves and small green monoe- 

Rosaceae 195 

cious flowers in dense globular heads. Receptacle some- 
what fleshy. Calyx of 3-8 externally minute sepals. 
Corollas of as many thin glabrous petals. Staminate 
flowers with stamens as many as sepals and opposite 
them ; filaments short ; anthers longitudinally dehis- 
cent. Pistillate flowers with 2-8 distinct pistils ; ovary 
linear, 1-celled ; style elongated ; stigma lateral. Fruit 
a dense head, composed of numerous narrowly obpyra- 
midal nutlets which are densely pubescent below with 
long hairs ; seed pendulous ; endosperm thin ; cotyle- 
dons linear. 


Characters of the family. 

1. P. racemosa Nutt. A large widely branching tree, 10-25 
m. high ; leaves stellate-pubescent when young, becoming gla- 
brate, 10-15 cm. broad and scarcely as long, mostly 5-lobed, trun- 
cate or somewhat cordate at base ; lobes acute, the lower smaller, 
bluntly cuspidate at the ends of the veins ; petioles shorter than 
the leaves; stipules larger on young twigs; staminate heads 
several ; pistillate heads 3-5. 

Common along all the streams, mostly below 3000 feet altitude. March. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate mostly stipulate 
leaves and regular flowers. Calyx free from or adnate 
to the ovary, usually 5-lobed, sometimes bracteolate. Pet- 
als distinct, equal in number to the calyx-lobes or none. 
Stamens usually numerous, inserted on the calyx ; an- 
thers 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent or rarely by 
pores. Carpels 1-many, distinct or united. Ovary 
1-several-celled. Seeds 1 or few in each cell, anatropous ; 
endosperm present or wanting. 

196 Rosaceae 


Petals present. 

Styles terminal; ovules pendulous. 

Petals yellow. 4. POTENTILLA. 

Petals white. 7. HORKELIA. 

Styles lateral; ovules ascending. 5. ARGENTINA. 

Styles nearly basal. 6. DRYMOCALLIS 

Petals none; pistil 1. 10. ALCHEMILLA. 


Stems unarmed. 

Fruit a pdme. 2. HETEROMELES. 

Fruit an achene or follicle. 

Flowers solitary or somewhat fascicled. 8. CERCOCARPUS. 

Flowers in terminal racemes. 

Leaves alternate, toothed or lobed. 1. HOLODISCUS. 

Leaves fascicled, entire, minute. 9. ADENOSTOMA. 

Fruit a cluster of drupelets, berry-like. 3. RUBUS. 

Fruit a drupe. 12. PRUNUS. 

Stems prickly. 

Calyx not fleshy; fruit a cluster of drupelets. 3. RUBUS. 
Calyx fleshy; enclosing the achenes. 11. ROSA. 


Unarmed shrubs with simple toothed or lobed exstipu- 
late deciduous leaves and terminal panicles of numerous 
white flowers. Calyx deeply 5-cleft, nearly rotate. Petals 
5, rounded. Stamens 20, inserted on an annular perigynous 
disk. Pistils 5, distinct, becoming 1-seeded hairy carpels, 
tardily dehiscent by the dorsal suture or indehiscent. 

1. H. discolor (Pursh) Maxim. Shrub, 1-2 m. high; the 
branches short, rigid ; bark grayish brown, more or less shreddy ; 
leaves ovate, cuneately narrowed to a short winged petiole, pin- 
nately lobed or toothed above the middle, green and nearly gla- 
brous above, whitish tomentose beneath ; panicles erect, branch- 
ing; carpels hirsute. (Spirea discolor Pursh.) 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains in the chaparral belt. 

2. H. discolor dumosus (Nutt.) Wats. Lower and more 
compact; panicle smaller, unbranched. 

Mount San Antonio near the summit. 


A small evergreen tree or sometimes shrubby, with 
simple coriaceous toothed leaves and terminal corymbose 

Rose Family 197 

panicles of small white flowers. Calyx turbinate, 5-parted, 
the lobes at length inflexed over the carpels and becom- 
ing fleshy. Petals rounded, concave. Stamens 10 ; fila- 
ments dilated at base and somewhat connate. Ovary 
2-3-celled, 4-6-ovuled ; styles 2-3. Fruit a red ovoid 
berry-like pome ; carpels free from the fleshy calyx-tube 
above the middle. 

1. H. arbutifolia (Poir.) Roem. Usually 3-6 m. high, nascent 
parts tomentulose ; leaves narrowly oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 
5-10 cm. long, remotely serrate or dentate, dark green and shin- 
ing; fruit about 6 mm. long. 

Common in the chaparral belt. May-June. 

3. BUBUS L. 

Low shrubs or trailing vines, usually prickly, with 
alternate leaves, the stipules adnate to the petioles. 
Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary, racemose or pani- 
cled, white or purplish, mostly perfect. Calyx persist- 
ent, bractless, deeply 5-parted. Petals 5. Stamens 
many, inserted on the calyx, distinct. Carpels many, 
inserted on a convex or elongated receptacle, ripening 
into drupelets and forming an aggregate fruit. Ovules 2, 
1 abortive ; style terminal, slender. Seed pendulous. 

* Leaves simple, palmately lobed; stems unarmed. 

1. B. parviflorus Nutt. (SALMON BERRY.) Stems erect, 1-2.5 
m. high, without prickles; bark smooth or somewhat glandular- 
pubescent, becoming brown and shreddy; leaves palmately 
5-lobed, cordate at base, unequally serrate, 10-15 cm. broad, gla- 
brous, or somewhat tomentose on the veins beneath ; petioles and 
peduncles hirsute-glandular; flowers few, corymbose, white, 2-4 
cm. broad; calyx-lobes tipped with a long slender appendage j 
fruit separating from the receptacle when ripe, hemispheric, 
red. (R. Nuikanus Mocino.) 

In moist shady places in the San Antonio and San Bernardino Mountains- 
in the pine belt. April-June. 

198 Rosaceae 

** Leaves 3-5-foliate; stems prickly. 

2. B. leucodermis Dougl. (KASPBERRY.) Sterna erect, 4-8 
dm. high, glaucous, armed with stout, straight or recurved 
prickles; leaves 3-foliate or rarely 5-foliate; leaflets ovate to 
lanceolate-acuminate, doubly serrate, white tomentose beneath ; 
the veins, petioles and peduncles prickly; stipules setaceous; 
flowers few, corymbose, 1 cm. broad ; sepals lanceolate, long acu- 
minate, exceeding the petals ; ovaries tomentose ; fruit separat- 
ing from the receptacle when ripe, yellowish red with a white 
bloom and agreeable flavor. 

Occasional in all our mountains in the pine belt. May-June. 

3. B. vitifolius C. & S. (BRAMBLE or BLACKBERRY.) Stems 
woody, weak and trailing or suberect, somewhat glaucous, 
armed with straight, slender prickles, 1-6 m. long; leaves pin- 
nately 3-5-foliate or those of the flowering branches only deeply 
lobed ; leaflets ovate to oblong, coarsely toothed, glabrous or 
more or less pubescent ; flowers imperfect, staminate large with 
elongated petals; pistillate small with broad petals; fruit per- 
sistent on the receptacle, oblong, black and sweet. 

Frequent in the foothills and valleys, mostly along streams. January- 


Ours perennial or rarely annual herbs with digitately 
or pinnately compound leaves and cymose yellow perfect 
flowers. Calyx persistent, its tube concave or hemi- 
spheric, 5-bracteolate, 5-lobed. Petals 5, mostly obovate 
and emarginate. Stamens commonly 20, inserted on 
an annular disk very near the base of the receptacle ; 
filaments filiform or spatulate but not flattened. Pis- 
tils many, becoming dry achenes in fruit, inserted on 
a hemispheric or conic receptacle ; style terminal or 
nearly so, deciduous ; ovules pendulous, anatropous. 

1. P. multijuga Lehm. Perennial; stems erect, 3-7 dm. 
high, slightly silky-strigose, more or less leafy; stipules large, 1-2 
cm. long, ovate, entire; basal leaves numerous, often 2-3 dm. 
long, slightly hairy or glabrate, pinnate with 6-13 pairs of leaflets ; 
leaflets obovate, cuneate, 1-4 cm. long, coarsely toothed above 

Rose Family 199 

the middle ; cauline leaves smaller and with fewer leaflets ; flowers 
about 15 mm. broad, in rather narrow cymes; pedicels slender; 
bractlets oblong, about % as long as the ovate calyx-lobes ; petals 
broadly obcordate, about % longer than the calyx-lobes; style 

Ballona, Basse. Apparently a rare plant not otherwise known. 


Perennial herbs growing in damp ground and spread- 
ing by slender runners, with thick and fascicled roots 
and pinnate leaves. Flowers borne on simple pedicels 
from the axils of the leaves formed on the runners, 
5-merous and with 5 bractlets. Calyx nearly wheel- 
shaped. Petals yellow, broadly elliptic to nearly orbicu- 
lar, obtuse. Stamens 20-25, inserted closely around the 
base of the receptacle ; filaments filiform, rather short. 
Receptacle hemispheric, bearing numerous pistils, these 
becoming dry achenes in fruit. Style filiform, lateral, 
attached at the middle of the ovary, somewhat persist- 
ent. Seeds ascending and amphitropous. 

1. A. Anserina (L.) Rydb. Main stem inconspicuous, pro- 
ducing many long runners ; leaves 1-2 dm. long, abruptly pinnate 
with 9-31 larger leaflets and with smaller ones interposed, usually 
prostrate, slightly silky and green above, white-silky and tomen- 
tose beneath; larger leaflets oblanceolate, 1-3 cm. long, deeply 
and sharply serrate; flowers 1-2 cm. broad, on pedicels 3-20 cm. 
long ; petals much exceeding the calyx. 

Rather common in damp ground in the valleys. Flowering through the 
summer. (Potentilla Anserina L.) 


Erect more or less glandular or viscid herbs from 
perennial rootstocks, with pinnate leaves and cymose 
yellow 5-merous bracteolate flowers. Calyx saucer- 
shaped or hemispheric. Petals obovate, elliptic or nearly 
orbicular, obtuse. Stamens 20-30 on a persistent disk 

200 Rosaceae, 

at base of receptacle. Receptacle hemispheric with 
numerous pistils which become dry achenes. Style 
basal, slightly thickened and glandular below, tapering 
at both ends or nearly filiform, rather persistent. Seed 
attached near the base, ascending, orthotropous. 

1. D. glandulosa (Lindl.) Rydb. Stem erect, 3-6 dm. high, 
rather slender, slightly striate, viscid and glandular hairy at 
least above, nearly simple below, branched above ; lower stipules 
lanceolate, the upper ovate and usually deeply toothed; basal 
leaves petioled, pinnate ; leaflets 3-4 pairs, sparingly hairy, nearly 
glabrous above, obovate, mostly obtuse, simply or doubly serrate 
with broad teeth, 1-3 cm. long, the upper generally somewhat 
larger; cauline leaves short petioled, with 1-3 pairs of leaflets; 
flowers in an open many-flowered cyme, 10-15 mm. broad ; bract- 
lets linear-lanceolate, much shorter than the oblong or obovate- 
lanceolate acute sepals ; petals obovate, about equaling the sepals, 
stamens 25. (Potentilla glandulosa Lindl.) 

Frequent in the chaparral belt in all our mountains. Ours not typical, 
having usually smaller flowers and less acute sepals. March-July. 

2. D. glandulosa monticola Rydb. A more slender and 
smaller mountain form with smaller leaflets, more open but 
smaller cymes, shorter sepals,. pale yellow petals, and often only 
20 stamens. (Potentilla glandulosa Nevadensis Wats.) 

Frequent in the pine belt of all our mountains. May-August. 

7. HOBKELIA Cham. & Sch. 

Perennial herbs with a thick woody caudex or root- 
stock covered with brown scales, pinnate leaves and 
cymose flowers. Calyx deeply campanulate to saucer- 
shaped, deeply 5-lobed, with 5 bractlets alternating with 
the lobes. Petals variable, unguiculate, white or rarely 
pale yellow. Stamens 5-20, inserted in the throat of the 
calyx-tube and remote from the base of receptacle ; fila- 
ments dilated, petaloid. Receptacle hemispheric or 
conic with numerous pistils. Styles long and slender, 
generally thickened and somewhat glandular at base, 
deciduous. Ovules and seeds pendulous, anatropous. 

Rose Family 201 

1. H. sericea (Gray) Rydb. Stem rather stout, 3-6 dm. high, 
silky-pubescent, scarcely glandular; stipules ovate or lanceolate, 
1-2 cm. long, often toothed ; basal leaves numerous, rather short- 
petioled ; leaflets 4-7 pairs, rather thick, densely and finely 
silky-canescent, obovate, 1-2.5 cm. long, rather coarsely some- 
what crenately toothed, the upper confluent : cauline leaves simi- 
lar but smaller with 2-5 pairs of leaflets; cyme rather dense; 
calyx cupulate ; bractlets entire, ovate or ovate-lanceolate ; lobes 
similar, slightly exceeding the bractlets; petals white, spatulate, 
5-6 mm. long. (H. Californica sericea Gray.) 

Near Port Ballona, not otherwise known south of Santa Barbara. March- 

2. H. platy calyx Rydb. Stem rather stout, 3-10 dm. high, 
glandular-pubescent, often tinged with red; stipules ovate, 1-2 
cm. long, often toothed ; basal leaves several, more or less glandu- 
lar-puberulent; leaflets 5-7 pairs, obovate, crenate, 1-2 cm. long; 
cauline leaves similar but with fewer leaflets; cyme open and 
branched ; pedicels often 2.5 cm. long; flowers 15-20 mm. broad; 
calyx-tube saucer-shaped ; bractlets ovate, slightly exceeded by 
the ovate-triangular calyx-lobes ; petals oblong or spatulate, 
exceeding the calyx-lobes by about }. 

Occasional in the dry interior valleys ; Claremont. 

3. H. puberula (Greene) Rydb. Stems mostly several, 3-6 
dm. high, branched, finely glandular-puberulent, leafy; stipules 
obovate, often toothed; basal leaves numerous, puberulent or 
glabrate; leaflets 5-8 pairs, obovate or cuneate-oblong, 1-2.5 cm. 
long; flowers about 1 cm. broad; calyx-tube cupulate; bractlets 
broadly lanceolate, exceeded by the ovate-lanceolate calyx-lobes ; 
petals oblong-spatulate, scarcely exceeding the calyx-lobes. 

Frequent in the foothills, mostly below 3000 feet altitude. March-May. 


Unarmed evergreen shrubs or trees with simple stipu- 
late leaves and small axillary or terminal solitary or 
somewhat fascicled apetalous flowers. Calyx salver- 
shaped, the 5-lobed limb deciduous. Stamens many, in 2 
or 3 rows on the limb of the calyx. Pistil 1 ; style ter- 
minal ; ovule solitary, ascending. Fruit a coriaceous 
terete villous achene, included in the elongated calyx- 

202 Rosaceae 

tube, caudate with the elongated plumose twisted style. 
Seed linear ; endosperm none. 

1. C. betulaefolius Nutt. A shrub or small tree, 2-5 m. high, 
with rather thin flaky gray bark and spreading or somewhat 
recurved branches; leaves thick, obovate, cuneate, entire below 
the middle, serrate toothed above, sometimes faintly so, distinctly 
veined on both surfaces, smooth above, pubescent beneath ; calyx 
open campanulate, 6 mm. broad, the tube becoming 12-14 mm. 
long in fruit, somewhat contracted above ; achene coriaceous, the 
plumose style about 7 cm. long. 

Rather common in the chaparral be:t of all our mountains. Flowering in 
March and fruiting in July. 


Unarmed evergreen shrubs with small coriaceous en- 
tire fascicled stipulate leaves and small white flowers in 
terminal panicled racemes. Calyx obconic, 5-toothed, 
10-striate. Petals 5, orbicular. Stamens 10-15, inserted 
in bundles alternate with the petals. Pistil 1, simple ; 
style lateral ; ovary 1 -celled, 1 2-ovuled. Achene en- 
closed by the hardened persistent calyx-tube. 

1. A. fasciculatum H. & A. Shrub 1-4 m. high with reddish 
virgate branches and grayish bark, becoming shreddy ; stipules 
small, acute, leaves fascicled, linear-subulate, 4-8 mm. long, pun- 
gently acute, glabrous, often resinous ; flowers crowded, sessile ; 
calyx bracted at base, green, 2 mm. long, its lobes shorter than 
the small petals ; ovary obliquely truncate. 

Very common in the chaparral belt. April-June. 


Ours small annual herbs with leafy stems and minute 
green flowers in the axils of the palmately lobed leaves. 
Calyx-tube urceolate, its limb 4-parted with alternat- 
ing minute bractlets. Petals none. Stamens 1 or 2, 
minute. Pistils 1 or 2, slender ; style rising from near 

Rose Family 203 

the base of the ovary ; ovule 1, ascending. Achene 
ovate, compressed, enclosed in the persistent calyx. 

1. A. arvense (L.) Scop. Slender simple or much branched 
from the base, 4-10 cm. high ; floriferous and hirsute through- 
out; leaves 3-parted, the segments 2-3-cleft; calyx-tube much 
contracted under the 4-parted limb. 

Occasional in shady places or along streams in the foothills. 

11. ROSA L. ROSE. 

Prickly shrubs with odd-pinnate leaves, adnate stipules 
and large solitary or corymbose flowers. Calyx-tube 
globose or urceolate ; its limb 5-parted ; bractlets none. 
Petals 5, rounded, spreading. Stamens many on the 
silky disk, which lines the calyx-tube. Pistils many, 
included in the calyx-tube, but free and distinct ; styles 
subterminal ; ovules solitary pendulous. Achene bony, 
enclosed in the fleshy enlarged red berry-like calyx-tube. 

1. B. Californica C. & S. Erect, branching, 1-3 m.high; 
prickles few, stout, usually recurved; foliage of firm texture, 
more or less glandular and tomentose; stipules entire; leaflets 
5-7, ovate or oblong ; serratures mostly simple, spreading ; corymb 
mostly few-flowered; pedicels pubescent and glandular; calyx- 
lobes foliaceous-tipped ; fruit globose, 8-12 mm. in diameter; 
persistent lobes erect. 

Frequent throughout our range both in the valleys and mountains. 
Flowering often nearly the year round 


Trees or shrubs with alternate deciduous or evergreen 
usually serrate leaves and white or rose-colored flowers 
in terminal or axillary racemes or corymbs. Calyx 
campanulate or turbinate, 5-cleft, deciduous. Petals 5, 
spreading. Stamens 15-25, inserted with the petals. 
Ovary solitary, free ; style terminal ; ovules 2, pendu- 
lous. Fruit a more or less fleshy drupe with a bony 
stone ; seeds 1 or rarely 2. 

204 Leguminosae 

1. P. demissa (Nutt.) Walp. Shrub, 1-4 m. high; leaves 
ovate or oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded or cordate at 
base, sharply serrate, more or less pubescent beneath, 5-10 cm. 
long, with 1 or 2 glands at the base of the blade; racemes 5, 
terminal, 7-10 cm. long, many-flowered; drupe globose, red or 
purple, astringent; stone globose. 

Occasional in the San Bernardino and San Antonio Mountains in the 
upper portions of the chaparral belt and in the pine belt. 

2. P. ilicifolia (Nutt.) Walp. Shrubby or arborescent, 3-6 m. 
high, bark grayish brown ; leaves coriaceous, glossy above, gla- 
brous throughout, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, coarsely spinose- 
toothed, 2.5-5 cm. long, on short petioles; racemes axillary, 2.5-5 
cm. long, leafless ; flowers small ; drupe 1 cm. long or more, thick, 
slightly obcompressed, sweetish, scarcely astringent. 

Common in the chaparral belt. May-June. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate stipulate com- 
pound or rarely entire leaves and irregular or regular 
flowers. Leaflets mostly entire, the upper somtimes 
converted into tendrils. Calyx 4-5-lobed or 4-5-cleft, 
its tube exceeding the perigynous disk, which bears the 
petals and stamens. Petals 4-5, regular, with numerous 
stamens or more commonly 5 and irregular ; the stand- 
ard superior larger and external, covering in the bud 
the 2 lateral ones (wings), these covering the 2 infer- 
ior pair which are more or less united above, forming 
the keel. Stamens and pistils enclosed in the keel. Fila- 
ments 10, 9 commonly united below into a sheath about 
the pistil and 1 distinct (diadelphous) , or all united 
(monadelphous) , or distinct ; anthers 2-celled, dehiscent 
longitudinally. Pistil simple, free, becoming a legume 
in fruit ; ovules few or many on the single parietal 
placenta ; style usually incurved. Legume 1-celled, 
2-valved, sometimes falsely 2-celled by the intrusion of 
the placenta. Endosperm usually wanting. 

Pulse Family 


Flowers regular, stamens distinct. 1. PBOSOPIS. 

Flowers irregular. 

Stamens distinct; shrub; flowers solitary, purple. 2. XYLOTHERMIA. 
Stamens diadelphous or monodelphous. 

Leaves palmately 5-11-foliate. 3. LUPINUS. 

Leaves 3-foliate. 

Herbage not glandular-dotted. 

Flowers in axillary racemes or spikes. 

Pods spirally coiled. 5. MEDICAGO. 

Pods small, wrinkled. 6. MELJLOTUS. 

Flowers capitate. 7. TRIFOLIUM. 

Shrub. 4. CYTISUS. 

Herbage glandular-dotted. 9. PSORALEA. 

Leaves unequally pinnate; tendrils wanting. 
Herbage glandular-dotted. 

Shrub; pods not prickly. 10. AMORPHA. 

Perennial herb; pods prickly. 12. GLYCYRRHIZA. 

Herbage not glandular-dotted. 

Flowers in spikes or racemes. 11. ASTRAGALUS. 

Flowers solitary or umbellate. 8. LOTUS. 

Leaves pinnate; tendrils present. 

Style villous all around at apex. 13. VICIA. 

Style villous on 1 side. 14. LATHYRUS. 


Trees or shrubs often armed with axillary spines or 
spinescent stipules. Leaves bipinnate with 1 or 2 pairs 
of pinnae and usually numerous small entire leaflets. 
Flowers greenish, regular, in cylindric or globose axillary 
pedunculate spikes. Calyx campanulate, the teeth very 
short and valvate. Petals 5, valvate. united below the 
middle or at length free, woolly on the inner side. 
Stamens 10, free and exserted ; anthers tipped with a 
deciduous gland. Ovary villous ; style filiform. Pod 
linear compressed or nearly terete, straight, falcate or 
twisted, coriaceous and indehiscent, usually pulpy with- 
in. Seeds numerous, ovate, compressed. 

1. P. juliflora (Swartz) DC. (ALGAROBAor MESQUIT.) A shrub 
or small tree, much branched, the branches widely spreading ; 
spines axillary ; petioles glabrous or sparsely puberulent ; leaflets 
8-12 pairs, the pairs about 1 cm. distant, linear, 12-15 mm. long, 

206 Leguminosae 

2.5-4.5 mm. wide, sparsely puberulent at least on the margins r f 
spikes nearly sessile, 5-8 cm. long, usually dense; flowers very 
short-pedicelled, 2 mm. long; pods straight or slightly falcate, 
only 1-3 developing, 10-15 cm. long, 10-12 mm. wide, longitudi- 
nally veiny, on stipes about 5 mm. long, straw-colored and sweet- 
ish when mature. 

River bottoms about San Bernardino. Common on the Colorado Desert. 

2. P. pubescens Benth. (TORNILLA or SCREW-BEAN.) A shrub 
or small tree resembling the last in habit, more or less puberulent ; 
stipules spinescent; leaflets 5-8 pairs, the pairs 3-5 mm. distant,, 
oblong, 5-8 mm. long, obtuse at apex; spikes on peduncles about 

1 cm. long, 4-6 cm. long, often lax; flowers sessile, 3 mm. long y 
pods usually several-many developing, twisted into a straight 
cylinder, 25-35 mm. long, about 5 mm. broad, on stipes less than 

2 mm. long. 

River bottoms about San Bernardino, with the last. 

2. XYL.OTHERMIA Greene. 

A rigid much branched spinescent shrub with small 
nearly sessile 1-3-foliate exstipulate leaves and large 
solitary subsessile purple flowers. Calyx campanulate, 
repandly 4-toothed. Petals equal ; standard orbicular, 
the sides reflexed ; keel petals distinct, oblong, obtuse. 
Stamens distinct. Pod linear, compressed, straight, sev- 

1. X. montana (Nutt.) Greene. Shrub 1-2 m. high, the 
branches widely spreading; leaves crowded; leaflets 6-18 mm. 
long, oblanceolate, acute, entire, somewhat silky-pubescent when 
young; flowers near the ends of the stiff spinescent branchlets, 
on short 2-bracteolate peduncles, rose-colored or purple, 15-20 
mm. long. (Pickeringia montana Nutt.) 

Occasional in the chaparral belt throughout our range. 


Annual or perennial herbs or woody plants, with pal- 
mately 5-15-foliate leaves and adnate mostly inconspicu- 
ous stipules. Leaflets entire. Flowers in terminal 

Pulse Family 207 

racemes, verticillate or scattered. Calyx deeply bilabiate ; 
upper lip notched ; lower entire or sometimes 3-toothed 
or 3-cleft. Standard broad, the sides reflexed ; wings 
united above, enclosing the incurved beaked keel: Sta- 
mens monadelphous, dimorphous ; 5 anthers oblong, 
basifixed, the other 5 rounded, versatile. Stigma bearded. 
Pod 2-valved, compressed, straight. 

* Ovules several in each pod. 

*- Annuals. 

** Flowers not verticillate. 

1. L. truncatus Nutt. Usually rather stout, sparingly 
branched, 3-6 dm. high, finely and sparsely pubescent, becoming 
nearly glabrous; leaflets 5-7, linear-cuneiform, apex truncate, 
entire or 3-toothed, 2-4 cm. long, scarcely equaling the petiole; 
upper calyx-lip 2-cleft; petals deep purple, 8-10 mm. long; the 
standard shorter; keel 2-3 mm. long. 

Common in the open foothills and valleys. March-May. 

2. Ii. sparsiflorus Benth. Slender, sparingly branched, 3-6 
dm. high, villous with spreading hairs; leaflets 5-9, linear, obtuse 
at apex, 1-2.5 cm. long; petioles 2-4 times longer; upper calyx- 
lip 2-parted; petals violet, 10 mm. long; standard shorter; keel 
ciliate on the claws and on the lower % of the blade ; pod 1-2.5 
cm. long. 

Frequent in the foothills. March-May. 

3. L. hirsutissimus Benth. Eather stout, 2-3 dm. high, very 
hispid with viscid stinging hairs; leaflets 5-7, broadly cuneate- 
obovate, retuse, obtuse, or rarely acute, mucronulate, 1.5-3 cm. 
long; petioles twice as long; racemes loose; upper calyx-lip 
deeply cleft; petals reddish purple, nearly equal, 12 mm. long; 
keel ciliate on the claw only ; pod hirsute, 2.5 crn. long. 

Frequent in the foothills and interior valleys, mostly in sandy soil. 

4. L. concinnus Agardh. Low 10-15 cm. high, spreading, 
densely villous or hirsute; leaflets 5-8, oblanceolate, 10-20 mm. 
long, obtuse ; petioles slender, 2-4 times longer ; racemes short, 
dense, subsessile; bracts linear-setaceous persistent; upper 
calyx-lip 2-parted, lower deeply trifid ; petals 8 mm. long, violet; 

208 Leguminosae 

standard shorter with a yellow spot in the center ; keel scarcely 
falcate, naked, slightly exceeding the wings ; pod 4-seeded. 
Occasional in dry washes in the interior valleys. 

5. L. gracilis Agardh. Low, slender, 6-15 cm. high, spread- 
ing, rather densely pilose; leaflets 5-7, cuneate-obovate, 6-12 
mm. long; racemes short lax; bracts short; upper calyx-lip 
bifid, lower 3-toothed; petals 6 mm. long, blue and white; stand- 
ard shorter; keel slightly exceeding the wings, nearly straight, 
naked; pod 1 cm. long. 

San Fernando Mountains, near Chatsworth Park. April. 

***+ Flowers verticillate. 

6. L. micranthus Dougl. Rather slender and weak, branched 
from the base, 12-20 cm. high, pilose-pubescent, not at all suc- 
culent ; leaflets 5-7, narrowly linear to linear-spatulate, 1-3 cm. 
long; petioles twice as long; racemes pedunculate; verticils 3-5, 
often indistinct ; pedicels 3 mm. long or in fruit 6 mm. long ; upper 
calyx-lip 2-clef t, the lobes divergent, lower longer entire ; petals 
4 mm. long, blue except the white and dotted middle of the erect 
mucronulate standard ; keel woolly-ciliate above the middle ; 
pods 5- seeded. 

Common in all our valleys. March-May. 

7. L. affinis Agardh. Stout and succulent, branching above, 
3-6 dm. high, nearly glabrous or somewhat short pubescent; 
leaflets 7, cuneate-obovate, obtuse or emarginate, 2.5-4 cm. long; 
petioles 2 or 3 times as long; racemes with 3-7 whorls; bracts 
equaling the calyx; upper calyx-lip bifid, lower entire or 
3-toothed; petals 10-12 mm. long, bluish-purple; keel broad, 

Frequent in the valleys and foothills, mostly in heavy soils. 

*-*- Perennials. 
" Herbaceous. 

8. L. latifolius Agardh. Rather stout, erect, branching, 6-12 
dm. high, minutely appressed-pubescent ; stem not striate, shin- 
ing, leafy ; basal leaves long-stalked ; stipules linear-lanceolate ; 
leaflets 5-7, broadly oblanceolate, 2. 5-6 cm. long ; racemes slender- 
peduncled, loose; verticils often distinct ; pedicels slender; calyx- 
teeth elongated, the upper slightly notched at the narrow apex; 

Pulse Family 209 

petals blue, 12-14 mm. long; keel ciliate below the middle. (L. 
rivularis latifolius Wats.) 
Santa Monica Mountains, Hasse. 

9. L. cytisoides Agardh. Taller than the last, 1-2 m. high; 
stems striate ; pubescence minute, appressed ; stipules lanceolate- 
subulate; leaflets 7-9, oblanceolate, 5 cm. long or more; raceme 
much elongated, dense; flowers not verticillate ; calyx as in the 
last; petals usually rose-purple, 12-14 mm. long; keel strongly 
falcate, densely ciliate below the middle. 

Frequent in the canyons of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. April-August. 

*- *- Suffrutescent or shrubby. 

10. L. longifolius (Wats.). Shrubby, 8-15 dm. high, often from 
a trunk-like base and much branched above ; petioles 5-10 cm. 
long; leaflets 7-9, oblanceolate, 5 cm. long or less, somewhat 
canescent with appressed pubescence on both sides ; racemes rather 
loosely flowered, 15-25 dm. long; flowers verticillate, 12-15 mm. 
long, deep blue or nearly white; upper calyx-lip deeply cleft, the 
lower entire; standard with a whitish spot near the middle, 
changing to rose-purple; keel ciliate above the middle to near 
the tip, the claw naked; seeds oval, 4 mm. long, brownish. (L. 
Chamissonis longifolius Wats.) 

Frequent in the foothills and on bluffs along the seashore, but not on the 
dunes. It is impossible from the meagre description of this in Bot. Cal. 
to be sure what plant Dr. Watson had in mind. But the plant above de- 
scribed seems to be the only one in southern California that could belong 
here, so we feel justified in using his name. 

11. L. Grayi Wats. Stems decumbent or ascending from a 
woody branching caudex, 3-6 dm. high, densely silky pubescent 
throughout; leaflets 5-9, cuneate-oblong, 1.5-3.5 cm. long; flow- 
ers verticillate, 12-15 mm. long, deep blue; standard with a per- 
manent yellow spot in center; keel ciliate from near the apex 
to the base and on the claw. 

Frequent in open pine forests in the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and 
Cuyamaca Mountains. 

12. L. Chamissonis Esch. Shrubby, 4-8 dm. high, forming 
rather dense tufts, leafy throughout ; leaflets usually 9, cuneate- 
obovate, obtuse and mucronulate or acute, 1-3 cm. long, very 
silky on both sides ; racemes rather dense, mostly on short ped- 
uncles; flowers subverticillate, 10-12 mm. long; upper calyx- 

210 Leguminosae 

lip cleft, lower entire; petals blue or lavender; standard with 
permanent yellow spot ; keel naked. 

Common on the sand-dunes along the seashore. Flowering nearly the 
year round. 


Shrubs with green, leafy or sometimes nearly leafless, 
more or less angular branches. Leaves palmately or 
pinnately 3-foliate ; leaflets entire. Flowers solitary or 
racemose, usually yellow. Calyx bilabiate. Petals 
broad ; keel obtuse. Stamens monadelphous. Pod 
compressed, several-seeded. 

1. C. Canariensis (L.) Link. Much branched, 1-2 m. high, 
soft pubescent, leafy; leaflets 6-12 mm. long; flowers yellow, 
15-20 mm. long, fragrant, in terminal racemes; upper calyx-lip 
deeply 3-toothed, the lower slightly so. 

An occasional escape from cultivation. A native of the Old World. 


Annual or perennial herbs with pinnately 3-foliate 
leaves and 2-3 or many flowers in axillary peduncles. 
Stipules adnate, often laciniate. Petals free from the 
diadelphous stamens, deciduous. Pod 1-several-seeded, 
coiled into a spiral. 

1. M. sativa L. (ALFALFA.) Stems erect from a deep perennial 
tap-root, glabrous, 5-10 dm. high ; leaflets cuneate-oblong to ob- 
lanceolate, toothed above ; flowers many in a short raceme, violet ; 
pod spirally coiled, unarmed. 

An occasional escape. Native of Europe. 

2. M. denticulata Willd. (BUR-CLOVER.) Slender, much 
branched, decumbent, glabrous annual; leaflets obovate to obcor- 
date, toothed above ; flowers small, yellow, 2-3 or rarely more on 
axillary peduncles ; pods coiled, their margins armed with hooked 

Everywhere common. Native of Europe. 

3. M. apiculata Willd. Stems branched from the base, 
spreading, 3-6 dm. long; leaflets deltoid, 10-12 mm. long, den- 

Pulse Family 211 

ticulate except near the base; pod spirally coiled; 3-5 mm. 
broad, unarmed, strongly reticulated, the reticulations extending 
to the edge and appearing as a row of tubercles on either side of 
the margin. 

Occasional in lawns, Los Angeles; Pasadena. Native of Europe. 

4. M. orbicularis All. Much branched and spreading ; leaves 
obcordate, denticulate above; stipules laciniate; peduncles 1-2- 
flowered ; pods coiled, unarmed, veiny, about 1 cm. broad. 

This species, a native of southern Europe, was collected in a field near 
Santa Ana by Helen D. Gets in 1902. We are not aware that it has here- 
tofore been reported from North America. 

5. M. lupulina L. More or less pilose-pubescent; stems 
procumbent or ascending, 2-4 dm. long; leaflets broadly obovate, 
denticulate above ; flowers in short spikes on slender peduncles, 
yellow, scarcely 2 mm. long; legume 1-seeded, smooth, reniform, 
the acuminate tip coiled. 

Glenn Ranch, Lytle Creek. Native of Europe. 


Erect annual or biennial herbs with pinnately 3-foli- 
ate leaves, the leaflets serrulate. Stipules adnate. 
Flowers small in slender pedunculate racemes. Petals 
free from the diadelphous stamens, deciduous. Pod 
ovoid, small, scarcely dehiscent, 1-2-seeded. 

1. M. Indica (L.) All. Annual; glabrous, erect, 3-20 dm. 
high, branching; leaflets mostly cuneate-oblong, obtuse, dentic- 
ulate, 2.5 cm. long or less; racemes many, bearing small, nearly 
sessile, yellow flowers. 

Common in damp ground. Native of Europe. 

2. M. alba Lam. Annual; glabrous, erect, 6-20 dm. high, 
branching; leaflets truncate; racemes many, elongated ; flowers 
white, the standard exceeding the other petals. 

Habitat of the last and as generally distributed but much less common. 
Native of Europe. 


Annual or perennial herbs with palmately 3-foliate 
leaves. Leaflets usually denticulate. Stipules adnate. 

212 Leguminosae 

Flowers in capitate racemes, spikes or umbels, rarely 
few or solitary, on more or less elongated axillary or 
terminal peduncles. Calyx 5-cleft with nearly equal 
teeth, persistent. Petals persistent, all more or less 
adnate to the staminal tube by their claws, or the stand- 
ard sometimes free : wings narrow ; keel mostly obtuse. 
Stamens diadelphous. Pods membranous, shorter or 
slightly exceeding the calyx, 1-6-seeded, dehiscent or 

* Heads not involucrate. 

*- Calyx-teeth not plumose; flowers pedicellate, reflexed in age. 

1. T. gracilentum T. & G. Erect, slender, 2-5 dm. high, gla- 
brous or peduncles and calyx sparsely villous; stipules lanceo- 
late; leaflets cuneate-obcordate, serrulate, 1 cm. long; heads 
15-25-flowered ; calyx-teeth lanceolate-subulate, setaceously acu- 
minate, 3 times the length of the tube; petals slightly exceed- 
ing the calyx-teeth, purple or rose color; pods exserted, 2-seeded. 

Common throughout our range on the plains and grassy hills. March- 

2. T. bifidum Gray. Erect, very slender, pale green or glau- 
cous; peduncles and calyx more or less villous; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, entire; leaflets linear-cuneate, the sides remotely 
toothed, apex bifid and mucronulate; heads 6-15-flowered ; calyx- 
teeth subulate-setaceous, about equaling the minute pale rose- 
colored corolla ; pod included, 1-seeded. 

Morgans Station, Davidson. 

3. T. ciliolatum Benth. Erect, 2-6 dm. high, glabrous ; stip- 
ules narrow, acuminate ; leaflets cuneate-oblong or obovate, 1-2 
cm. long, obtuse or retuse, serrulate; calyx-teeth lanceolate, 
very acute, rigidly ciliolate ; corolla slightly exceeding the calyx, 
purple. (T. ciliatum Nutt.) 

Common on grassy hillsides and in the valleys. 

4. T. repens L. Perennial, diffuse, creeping, with erect 
long-stalked leaves and heads; leaflets obcordate, denticulate; 
calyx-teeth unequal, lanceolate-subulate, shorter than the tube ; 
corolla white; pods usually 4-seeded. 

The white clover of our lawns, occasionally appearing as an escape. 

Pulse Family 213 

-*- Calyx-teeth plumose; flowers subsessile, not reflexed in age. 

5. T. pratense L. Rather stout, erect perennial, 2-3 dm. 
high, pubescent ; leaflets oval or obovate, often retuse, 2-3 cm. 
long; corolla elongated-tubular, rose-purple. 

Sparingly cultivated and occasionally appearing as an escape. 

6. T. Macraei albopurpureum (T. & G.) Greene. Much 
branched, ascending or erect, 1-4 dm. high; stipules ovate to 
lanceolate ; leaflets cuneate-oblong, obtuse, denticulate above the 
middle, 12-20 mm. long; heads long-peduncled, ovate; calyx- 
teeth longer than the tube, slender, plumose, equaling the small 
white-tipped purple corolla. (T. albopurpureum T. & G.) 

Frequent on the plains and grassy hills. March-April. 

** Heads involucrate. 
*- Flowers not inflated. 
** Involucre flat. 

7. T. Wormskjoldii Lehm. Perennial, spreading under- 
ground by slender rootstocks; stems decumbent, often 3 dm. 
long or more ; herbage flaccid, glabrous ; stipules lanceolate-acum- 
inate, laciniately toothed ; leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse, pecti- 
nate-denticulate, 2 cm. long or more; involucre 1-2 cm. broad, 
laciniate-aristate ; calyx-tube scarious, 10-striate; teeth linear- 
subulate, much longer than the tube, all entire or 1 or more se- 
taceously 2-3-parted; standard deeply emarginate, pale purple, 
the other petals darker. (T. involucratum of Bot. Cal. in part.) 

Frequent in low ground in the valleys. March-July. 

8. T. spinulosum Dougl. Perennial with rather slender de- 
cumbent or ascending stems, 2 dm. long or more; leaflets nar- 
rowly oblong, acute at both ends, spinulose denticulate, ending 
in a stiff spinulose cusp; stipules ovate-acuminate, spinulose- 
serrate; involucre deeply cleft or divided, smaller than in the 
last; calyx-teeth narrowly subulate, stiff and pungent, about 
equaling the corolla. 

Frequent in the meadows of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. Closely related to the last, and intermediate forms may be found. 

9. T. variegatum Nutt. Annual ; glabrous, decumbent or pros- 
trate with many slender branches; stipules lanciniately cleft; 
peduncles slender, longer than the leaves ; leaflets of the lower 
leaves obcordate, those of the upper obovate-oblong, minutely 

214 Leguminosae 

spinulose-serrate ; involucre laciniate, shorter than the 3-15-flow- 
ered heads; calyx-tube 15-nerved; teeth broadly subulate, taper- 
ing to a setaceous point, longer than the tube; corolla exceed- 
ing the calyx, purple and whitish-tipped. 

Frequent in grassy openings in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 
Mountains, confined mostly to the pine belt. 

10. T. tridentatum Lindl. Annual; erect, 2-4 dm. high, gla- 
brous ; stipules setaceously laciniate ; leaflets linear or lanceolate, 
sharply serrate, 2-6 cm. long; head 2-3 cm. broad; involucre 
laciniate, much shorter than the flowers ; flowers about 1 cm. long, 
bright purple with darker center ; tip of standard sometimes 
whitish; calyx-tube 10-nerved; the teeth rigid, broad at base, 
abruptly narrowed to a subulates pinulose-tipped apex which 
is usually subtended by a short stout tooth on each side. 

Frequent on the plains and grassy hillsides. Very variable as to foliage. 

11. T. obtusiflorum Hook. Annual; stems stout, erect, flex- 
uose. purple, with ascending branches; leaves dull green, soft 
pubescent throughout and very clammy, acidulous; stipules 
spreading or reflexed; leaflets 2-3 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, 
pectinately setulose; heads 2-3 cm. broad on long peduncles; 
calyx-tube with 10 prominent and as many lesser nerves ; corolla 
whitish with a dark purple center. (T. roscidum Greene.) 

Occasional on moist shady slopes and along streams in all our mountains, 
confined mostly to the chaparral belt. 

**** Involucre cup-shaped. 

12. T. microcephalmn Pursh. Annual ; slender, much branch- 
ed, decumbent, soft pubescent ; stipules ovate-acuminate, nearly 
entire ; leaflets obovate-cuneiform or obcordate, denticulate ; heads 
small, subglobose, many-flowered, on slender peduncles; involu- 
cre many-cleft, the segments entire ; calyx-teeth subulate, broad, 
scarious and sometimes toothed at base ; corolla minute, pinkish ; 
pod globose, 1-seeded. 

Common in the foothills and mountains in open places. April-August. 

- -*- Flowers becoming inflated. 

13. T. furcatum Lindl. Usually stout and fistulose, branch- 
ing from near the base, decumbent, 3-6 dm. long ; herbage light 
green, glabrous and somewhat succulent; stipules large, mem- 

Pulse Family 215 

branous, nearly or quite entire; leaflets 1-3 cm. long, broadly 
obovate, obtuse or retuse, dentate or spinulose-denticulate ; ped- 
uncles stout, much exceeding the leaves ; involucral bracts con- 
nate at base, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, scarious-margined , 
heads hemispheric, 2-4 cm. broad; calyx-teeth short, entire and 
unequal ; corolla 1-2 cm. long, ochroleucous or somewhat reddish 
tinged; pod stipitate, 3-8-seeded; seed rounded, minutely granu- 

Occasional on grassy hillsides in rather heavy soil. Elysian Park, David- 
son,' Chatsworth Park. 

14. T. stenophyllum Nutt. Diffuse annual with slender stems 
and branches, often purplish, decumbent or ascending, 1-3 dm. 
long; leaflets linear, remotely serrate-toothed ; peduncles filiform, 
much longer than the leaves ; segments of the involucre oblong, 
cuneate at the base; head small, hemispheric ; corolla purple or 
white, inflated from a narrow base to a broad, almost truncate 
apex; pod 2-seeded; seeds obliquely heart-shaped, strongly 

Frequent on grassy slopes. March. 

' 15. T. depauperatum Desv. Low, diffuse, glabrous, annual, 
branching from the base, decumbent, flaccid, 6-15 cm. long, few- 
leafed ; leaflets 1 cm. long, cuneate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate, 
denticulate; head long-peduncled, few-flowered ; involucre much 
reduced, with truncate short lobes; corolla less inflated, not at 
all truncate at apex; pod 1-2-seeded; seeds somewhat angular, 

Same range as the last and much resembling depauperate forms of it, but 
easily distinguished by floral characters. 

8. LOTUS L. 

Annual or perennial herbs or rarely suffrutescent 
plants, with pinnately 3-many foliate leaves, and minute 
gland-like or rarely foliaceous or scarious stipules. 
Flowers solitary or umbellate, naked or subtended by 
1-5-foliate bracts, sessile or on axillary peduncles. 
Calyx about equally 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Petals free 
from the stamens, nearly equal ; standard ovate or 
rounded, the claw often remote from the others'; wings 

216 Leguminosae 

obovate or oblong ; keel slightly incurved, obtuse or 
acutely beaked ; stamens diadelphous. Style incurved. 
Pod linear, compressed or nearly terete, straight or 
arcuate, dehiscent or indehiscent, 1-many-seeded. (Ho- 

* Stipules not gland-like; perennials. 

1. "L. oblongifolius (Benth.) Greene. Erect, slender, 3-4 dm. 
high, somewhat appressed-pubescent ; leaflets 7-11, narrowly 
oblong or oblanceolate, 2.5-3 cm. long, acute; stipules small, 
acute ; peduncles exceeding the leaves, 5-7-flowered ; bract sub- 
sessile, 1-3-foliate; flowers 15 mm. long; calyx-teeth subulate, 
nearly equaling the tube; corolla yellow, turning purplish or 
brownish ; pod slender, 5 cm. long. 

Occasional along mountain streams. 

2. It. lathyroides (D. & H.) Greene. Slender, branching and 
somewhat flexuose, 2.5-4 dm. high, minutely pubescent; leaflets 
5-7, linear-lanceolate, acute at both ends; stipules triangular, 
2 mm. long, scarious, ovate-acuminate; umbels 1-3-flowered, 
with or without a linear-lanceolate bract; flowers 10 mm. long; 
calyx-teeth linear, acute; pod as in the last. 

Along streams near Los Angeles and in San Gabriel Canyon. 

** Stipules gland-like. 

*- Pod straight or nearly so, dehiscent. 

* Leaflets 1-3, on a linear rachis. 

3. L. Americanus (Nutt.) Bisch. Annual; erect or decum- 
bent, 2-6 dm. high, more or less villous ; leaflets 1-3 or rarely 5, 
ovate to oblong, acutish, 12-15 mm. long; peduncles slender, 
exceeding the leaves; bracts 6-12 mm. long; flowers solitary, 
salmon-colored or often whitish ; calyx-tube short ; the teeth 
linear, equaling the corolla; pod 2-3 cm. long; seeds oblong, 
smooth, dark- colored. (H. Purshiana Benth.) 

Frequent in the foothills and mountains. June-September. 

** ** Leaflets more than 3, on a dilated rachis. 

= Flowers solitary; bracts wanting; standard approximate. 

4'. !. Wrangelianus F. & M. Annual; much branched, de- 
cumbent or ascending, 1-3 dm. long; sparsely or canescently 

Pulse Family 217 

villous, leafy ; leaflets usually 4, cuneate-obovate to oblong, 6-12 
mm. long; calyx-teeth broadly subulate, equaling the tube; 
corolla 6 mm. long, yellow; standard broadly ovate, erect; pod 
pubescent, straight, 14-20 mm. long, 5-7-seeded. (H. subpinnata 
T. & G.) 

Frequent on dry hillsides and plains. March-May. 

5. It. humistratus Greene. Much resembling depauperate 
forms of the last but more diffuse; herbage soft villous; flowers 
nearly sessile, yellow ; calyx-teeth linear, much longer than the 
tube ; pod oblong, 1 cm. long, pilose, 2-3-seeded. (H. brachycarpa 

Habitat of the last and as generally distributed, but less common. 

== Peduncles few-many-flowered; bracts usually present; standard 

rather remote from the other petals, more or less reflexed. 
(a) Annuals. 

6. L. micranthus Benth. Erect, slender, 5-20 cm. high, gla- 
brous; leaflets 3-5, obovate and small to narrowly oblong and 
12-16 mm. long; peduncles filiform; bracts 1-3-foliate; flowers 
4 mm. long or less, yellow, turning reddish ; keel sharply incurved 
at apex, about equaling the wings; blade of standard cordate; 
pod 2.5 cm. long, compressed, constricted between the seeds; 
seeds oval or roundish, slightly compressed, smooth. (H. parvi- 
flora Benth.) 

Santa Monica and Santa Ana Mountains in open grassy places. Not 
common. April-June. 

7. L. salsuginosus Greene. Ascending or decumbent, minute- 
ly strigose or nearly glabrous, somewhat succulent, the branches 
2-4 dm. long; leaflets 4-6, obovate, obtuse, 8-12 mm. long; ped- 
uncles about equaling the leaves, 1-4-flowered ; bracts 1-3-foliate 
or sometimes wanting; flowers yellow, 6-8 mm. long; calyx- 
teeth linear-subulate, about equaling the tube; standard and 
wings equaling the straight keel ; pod scarcely compressed, 2-3 
cm. long, 10-20-seeded ; seeds obliquely oval, smooth. (H. mari~ 
tima Nutt.) 

In moist places on the plains and in the canyons of the foothills. March- 

8. L. rubellus (Nutt.) Greene. Slender, prostrate, strigose- 
pubescent, or nearly glabrous, not at all succulent; leaflets 6-10, 
linear-oblong, mostly acutish ; early peduncles shorter than the 

218 Leguminosae 

leaves, bractless, 1-flowered, the later bracted, 2-flowered ; corolla 
usually reddish, 4-5 mm. long; pod straight or slightly curved at 
tip, less than 2 mm. broad, 2.5 cm. long, 1-10-seeded; seeds 
quadrate, minutely granulate, 1 mm. long or usually less, light 

Common in sandy soil along the coast. March-April. 

9. L, strigosus (Nutt.) Greene. Strigose-pubescent, decum- 
bent or prostrate; peduncles usually somewhat exceeding the 
leaves, 2-flowered and 3-foliate-bracted ; flowers 9-12 mm. long, 
yellow; pod pubescent, slightly curved upward, 2-3 cm. long, 2.5 
mm. broad; seeds quadrate, more or less notched at both ends 
as well as at the hilium, rugose and faintly tuberculate, mostly 

Very common in open grassy places both on the plains and foothills below 
2000 feet. March-May. 

10. L. nudiflorus (Nutt.) Greene. Strigose-pubescent, decum- 
bent or ascending ; leaves shorter and broader than in the last ; 
peduncles exceeding the leaves, usually 2-flowered and 3-foliate- 
bracted; flowers yellow, 8-10 mm. long, 3 mm. broad; seeds 
quadrate, seldom notched except at hilium, 2 mm. broad, strongly 
mottled with black. 

Occasional in open stony places in the San Gabriel Mountains. 

(b) Perennials. 

11. L. grandiflorus (Benth.) Greene. Perennial ; erect, 3-10 
dm. high or more, slender, with few leaves and long internodes, 
nearly glabrous, or somewhat silky-pubescent ; leaflets 5-7 on an 
elongated rachis, obovate tooblanceolate, 12-18 mm. long, acutish ; 
peduncles slender, elongated, small-bracted, 5-8-flowered ; flowers 
2 cm. long, deep yellow, turning orange; calyx half as long; the 
subulate teeth nearly equaling the tube ; pod slender, elongated, 

Rustic Canyon, near Santa Monica, Rasse. 

*-*- Pod more or less arcuate, long-pointed, indehiscent. 
" Perennials. 

12. L. glaber (Torr.) Greene. Suffrutescent, tufted and reedy, 
5-10 dm. high, erect or decumbent, nearly glabrous; leaflets 
mostly 3, oblong to linear-oblong, 6-12 mm. long, obtuse or 

Pulse Family 219 

acute; umbels numerous, sessile; flowers 6-8 mm. long, yellow, 
turning reddish; calyx 3-5 mm. long; the teeth subulate, erect, 
slightly less than half as long as the tube. (JET. glabra Torr.) 

Common throughout our range in dry places below 3000 feet. Flowering 
nearly the year round. 

13. L. junceus (Benth.) Greene. Much resembling the last, 
erect, shrubby ; leaflets obovate to oblong, 4-8 mm. long ; umbels 
short-pedunculate to sessile; flowers 6 mm. long; calyx 4 mm. 
long or less ; teeth short and blunt. 

Said to occur along the seacoast of Los Angeles County, but we have been 
unable to detect it. 

14. L. leucophyllus Greene. Slender, 3-6 dm. high, much 
branched and ascending, having the habit of L. glaber, but sil- 
very canescent with a close short silky pubescence ; leaflets 3, 
cuneate-oblong to linear, 12-15 mm. long; umbels few-flowered, 
sessile or short-peduncled ; flowers 6 mm. long; calyx half as 
long, with short slender teeth'. (H. sericea Benth.) 

San Gabriel Mountains, Davidson. 

15. L. argophyllus (Gray) Greene. Densely silvery-silky 
throughout; stems herbaceous, decumbent or ascending, 3-6 dm. 
long ; leaflets 3-7, obovate and rounded, or oblong and acute, 5-12 
mm. long ; umbels dense, capitate, on short simple bracted ped- 
uncles; flowers 8-10 mm. long; calyx half as long; the teeth 
filiform, nearly as long as the tube, silky. 

In the pine belt of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. 

16. L. Davidson! Greene. Suffrutescent at the.very base, the 
slender branches 3-6 dm. long, prostrate or decumbent, only 
sparsely leafy, floriferous chiefly near the ends; herbage canes- 
ceint with an appressed silky pubescence ; leaflets 3-5, cuneate- 
obovate, obtuse or acutish, 4-8 mm. long; umbel unifoliate- 
bracted, many-flowered, on a slender peduncle, 2.5 cm. long or 
less, usually exceeding the leaves; calyx-tube 2 mm. long; the 
teeth slender, 1 mm. long; corolla about 6 mm. long, sulphur- 
yellow, becoming deep red in age; pod strongly arcuate. 

Wilson's Peak, where it was first collected by Davidson. This species 
is very close to L. argophyllus and will no doubt prove to be only a form of it. 

17. 1. Nevadensis (Wats.) Greene. Branches mostly prostrate, 
wiry at base and more or less woody, 3-6 dm. long; sparingly 

220 Leguminosae 

villous or somewhat tomentose; leaflets 3-5, cuneate-obovate, 
acute, 6-10 mm. long; umbel many-flowered, short-peduncled; 
bract 1-foliate; calyx- tube 2 mm. long; the teeth slender, half 
as long; pod strongly arcuate. 

Frequent in the San Bernardino and San Antonio Mountains in open pine 
woods. v <- 

n- ** Annuals. 

18. Ij. Heermanni (D. & H.) Greene. Branches numerous, 
flexuose, weak and prostrate, 3-10 dm. long ; pubescence spread- 
ing and slightly tomentose ; leaflets 5-7, obovate or cuneate- 
oblong, 4-8 mm. long; umbels on short peduncles or sessile; 
flowers 4-5 mm. long ; calyx half as long, somewhat villous ; the 
teeth filiform, about equaling the tube. 

Canyons of the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains, below 4000 feet. 


Punctate with dots and heavy-scented perennial herbs 
or rarely shrubby. Stipules free from the petiole. 
Leaves pinnately 3-foliate or rarely palmately 3-5-foli- 
ate. Calyx-lobes nearly equal, the upper often connate. 
Keel united with the wings, broad and obtuse above. 
Stamens diadelphous or monadelphous ; anthers all 
alike. Pod ovate, indehiscent, 1-seeded. 

* Leaves pinnately 3-foliate. 
*- Stems erect. 

1. P. xnacrostachya DC. Simple or more or lees branched, 
1-4 m. high, nearly glabrous, puberulent or often somewhat 
tomentose; stipules small, lanceolate; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, 
3-5 cm. long; peduncles much exceeding the leaves; spikes 
cylindric, silky-villous ; bracts broad, acuminate, equaling the 
flowers; lower calyx-tooth longest, about equaling the corolla; 
tenth stamen nearly free; pod villous, ovate-oblong, acute, com- 
pressed, 6-8 mm. long. 

Along streams in the foothills and in the valleys. June-August. 

2. P. physodes Dougl. Slender, erect, 3-6 dm. high, nearly 
glabrous; stipules linear-lanceolate; leaflets ovate, acute, 2-3 
cm. long; peduncles about equaling the leaves; racemes short, 

Pulse Family 221 

dense; bracts small; calyx with sessile glands and somewhat 
villous with black hairs, becoming enlarged and inflated in fruit; 
teeth short, nearly equal ; corolla 1 cm. long, twice as long as the 
calyx, ochroleucous, often with a deep purple tinge; stamens 
monadelphous ; pod rounded, compressed, 6 mm. long. 
Frequent in the upper chaparral belt throughout our range. 

-*- *- Stems prostrate. 

3. P. orbicularis Lindl. Stem prostrate, creeping, the leaves 
and racemes erect, long stalked ; leaflets 2.5-4 cm. long, the termi- 
nal one nearly orbicular, the lateral pair obovate ; raceme often 
2 dm. long ; bracts large, deciduous ; calyx villous and pedicellate- 
glandular, cleft nearly to the base, the lower tooth equaling the 
purplish corolla ; stamens diadelphous ; pod ovate, acute, 6 mm. 

Occasional in the valleys throughout our range; rare in the coast region. 

** Leaves palmately 5-foliate. 

4. P. Californica Wats. Low, tufted ; pubescence short, silky, 
appressed; stipules scarious, lanceolate, deciduous; leaflets 
broadly lanceolate, acutish, 2-4 cm. long; peduncles short; ra- 
cemes rather loose, shorter than the leaves; pedicels slender; 
calyx silky-villous, 1 cm. long; the lobes linear, acuminate, 
slightly surpassing the corolla; pod thin, villous, oblong, with a 
lanceolate beak. 

San Bernardino Mountains in the chaparral belt. 


Glandular-punctate and heavy-scented shrubs with 
unequally pinnate leaves, caducous stipules, and small 
purple flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx obconic-cam- 
panulate, 5-toothed, persistent. Standard erect, concave, 
unguiculate ; wings and keel wanting. Stamens mona- 
delphous at the base. Pod short, exceeding the , calyx, 
sessile, indehiscent, 1-2-seeded. 

1. A. Californica Nutt. 1-3 m. high, puberulent, the nascent 
parts villous-pubescent ; leaflets 11-15, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 2 

222 Leguminosae 

cm. long; spikes slender, 5-15 cm. long; calyx-teeth acute, 
broadly triangular. 

Occasional in the upper chaparral belt in all our mountains. 


Annual or perennial herbs or sometimes woody at 
base, with unequally pinnate leaves, persistent stipules, 
and rather small flowers arranged in axillary spikes or 
racemes. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals with narrow blade 
and slender claw ; keel obtuse. Stamens diadelphous. 
Stigma terminal, minute. Pod various, coriaceous and 
turgid, or thin and bladdery-inflated, 1-celled or becom- 
ing 2-celled by intrusion of one or both sutures. Seeds 
few to many, small, on slender funiculi. 

* Annuals. 

1. A. didymocarpus H. & A. Slender, 3dm. high, pubescent 
with fine, somewhat scattered hairs ; leaflets 9-15, cuneate-oblong 
to linear, emarginate, 6-10 mm. long; spikes long-peduncled, 
dense, ovate or oblong, 2-3 cm. long; flowers 3-5 mm. long, dull 
purplish; pods erect, 4 mm. long, and about as broad, scarcely 
exserted from the calyx, strongly wrinkled, 2-celled, 2-seeded. 

Frequent on the plains and on grassy slopes of the foothills, mostly in 
the interior region. 

2. A. nigrescens Nutt. Stems very slender, 1-2 dm. high, 
slightly pubescent; leaflets as in the last; spikes less dense, 
cylindric, 2 cm. long ; pods deffexed, well exserted from the calyx, 
slightly wrinkled, strongly obcpmpressed ; closely related to the 
last, but easily distinguished by fruit. 

Not known within our limits, but it has been reported from Newhall and 
Catalina Island. March-May. 

3. A. strigosus (Kell.) Sheldon. Slender, sparsely and mi- 
nutely pubescent, 15-20 cm. high ; leaflets 9-15, linear- or cuneate, 
acute or retuse ; flowers many, capitate, on a slender peduncle, 
purple and white; pod 15 mm. long, slender, incurved, 2-celled, 
5-10 seeded. 

In low ground near the coast. March-May. 

Pulse Family 223 

** Perennials. 

*-Pods bladdery-inflated. 

++Pods stipitate. 

4. A. leucopsis Torr. (RATTLE-WEED.) Stems erect, 3-5 dm. 
high, tomentulose-canescent ; leaflets 10-15 pairs, oval or oblong, 
obtuse, 1 cm. longer more ; spike-like racemes, 3-6 cm. longer some- 
times more; flowers 12 mm. long; calyx- tube campanulate, the 
teeth subulate, more than half as long as the tube; pod thin, 
bladdery, oval, unequally sided, 2-3 cm. long, tapering to a stipe 
12 mm. long or less. 

Frequent on the plains. March-May. 

"+ Pods sessile. 

5. A. Parish!! . Gray. Nascent parts sparsely pubescent, 
becoming glabrous or nearly so ; stems somewhat fistulose, much 
branched from the base and decumbent ; leaves about 1 dm. long, 
bearing about 32 leaflets; leaflets 10-25 mm. long; racemes 2-4 
cm. long; flowers greenish- white, 1 cm. long; pods sessile, 2-3 
cm. long and nearly as thick. 

Chatsworth Park. 

** Pods not bladdery-inflated. 

6. A. Antiselli Gray. Stems slender, erect, 3-5 dm. high, 
cinereous-pubescent, leaflets 21-29, linear-oblong, crowded, 4-8 
mm. long, glabrous above, pubescent beneath ; raceme loosely 
few-flowered; flowers small, greenish- whi te ; calyx- teeth half the 
length of the campanulate tube; pod thin, linear-oblong, com- 
pressed, glabrous, 1-celled, 15 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, tapering to 
a stipe of about half its length. "''"' 

On grassy hillsides in our interior valleys. April. 

7. A. pycnostachys Gray. Stout, erect, 6 dm. high, more 
or less villous-hoary ; leaflets about 21, oblong, 12 mm. long; 
flowers yellowish, in dense cylindric short-peduncled spikes; 
pods crowded, retrorsely imbricated, ovate, acute, laterally flat- 
tened, thin-coriaceous, glabrous, coarsely reticulate, 1-celled. 

In moist subsaline soil near the sea. July-September. 

8. A. Brauntonii Parish. Stems lignescent at base, 1-1.5 m. 
long, erect or reclining; herbage canescent throughout with a 
short soft pubescence ; leaflets 15-20 pairs, oblong, 2-5 cm. long ; 

224 Leguminosae 

flowers and fruit reflexed in compact many-flowered spikes; 
calyx-teeth slender, equaling the tube ; corolla light purple ; pod 
sessile, coriaceous, oblong, 1 cm. long, 2-celled by the nearly com- 
plete infolding of the dorsal suture to near the apex; seeds 2-3. 
Occasional in dry places in the Santa Monica Mountains, Basse, Braun- 


Glandular-viscid erect perennial herbs with unequal- 
ly pinnate leaves more or less persistent, and flowers in 
dense axillary peduncled spikes. Calyx 5-cleft. Petals 
narrow. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous ; the 
alternate anthers smaller ; anther-cells confluent at the 
apex. Pod short, compressed, often curved, prickly, in- 
dehiscent, few-seeded. 

1. G. glutinosa Nutt. Erect or decumbent, 6-9 dm. high, 
nearly glabrous and viscid with minute sessile resinous dots, or 
glutinous by a villous or hirsute glandular pubescence ; leaflets 
13-19, oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm. long; stipules ovate-acuminate 
to lanceolate, persistent; spikes oblong, 2.5-4 cm. long, on ped- 
uncles a little shorter ; pod bur-like. 

Occasional in canyons below 4000 feet, in our interior region. 


Herbs with angular stems, more or less climbing by 
the tendrils at the ends of the pinnate leaves. Calyx 
5-cleft or 5-toothed, the upper teeth often shorter. Wings 
of the corolla adhering to the middle of the keel. Sta- 
mens diadelphous or nearly so ; anthers uniform. Style 
filiform, inflexed, the apex surrounded by hairs. Pod 
flat, 2-valved. Seeds globular, usually many. 

* Perennials. 

1. V. Americana Muhl. Glabrous or nearly so, weak, 6-15 
dm. high, climbing by branched tendrils; leaflets 8-12, thin- 
membranous, vivid green above, pale beneath, mpstly broadly 
oblong and obtuse, mucronulate, 1-2 cm. long; peduncles shorter 

Pulse Family 225 

than the leaves, 4-8-flowered ; flowers purplish or bluish, about 
18 mm. long; calyx-tube 4 mm. long; the lower teeth about 2 
mm. long, the upper shorter, approximate, incurved. 
Our forms all seem to belong to the two varieties. 

V. AMERICANA TRUNCATA (Nutt.) Brew. Leaflets oblong-elliptic 
or the lower broadly linear, 15-30 cm. long, truncate or broadly 
retuse at summit, otherwise like the type. 

Occasional on shaded slopes in the chaparral belt. 

V. AMERICANA LINEARIS (Nutt.) Wats. Leaflets narrowly linear, 
acute, strongly veined beneath, 12-25 cm. long. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt, usually in more open places than the last. 

2. V. Californica Greene. Erect or decumbent, rather strict 
and seldom climbing, 1.5-4 dm. high, villous-pubescent ; tendrils 
short, stiffish, seldom branched ; leaflets 8-12, subcoriaceous, deli- 
cately feather- veined, cuneate-obovate, truncate or retuse, 10-15 
mm. long, more or less dentate toward the mucronulate apex; 
racemes exceeding the leaves, 3-5-fl owered ; calyx-teeth all broad 
and short; corolla 12-18 mm. long, deep purple. 

Summit of Mount Santiago, Orange County, and in the pine belt of the 
Cuyamaca Mountains. 

** Annuals. 

3. V. sativa L. Stoutish, erect or nearly so, 6-9 dm. high, 
somewhat pubescent ; leaflets 8-12, obovate-oblong, truncate or 
retuse, mucronate; flowers 1 or 2, subsessile, 15 mm. long, red- 

Rarely seen as an escape. Native of Europe. 

4. V. exigua Nutt. Slender, 3-6 dm. high, slightly pubescent ; 
leaflets 4-6, oblong-linear, obtuse; peduncles filiform, shorter 
than the leaves, 1-2-flowered ; calyx-teeth lanceolate from a broad 
base; corolla white or purplish, 4-6 mm. long; pod glabrous, 

Occasional on grassy hills, mostly in sandy soil. 

5. V. Hassei Wats. Taller and less delicate than the last; 
leaves longer and more numerous, deeply notched at apex ; flowers 
6 mm. long; pod shortly stipitate, 5-8-seeded. 

Same range as the last and probably only a robust form of it. 

226 Leguminosae 


Much resembling Vicia, but usually larger with 
broader leaves and flowers. Style-branches dilated and 
flattish above, hairy along the inner side. 

1. L. violaceus Greene. Sparsely and minutely pubescent 
throughout; stems slender, shrubby below, 1-2.5 m. high, acutely 
angled ; stipules entire, narrow, less than half as long as adjacent 
leaflet ; leaflets about 12, elliptic, obtuse, with a deflexed mucro ; 
peduncles surpassing the leaves, many-flowered and rather dense ; 
flowers 16 mm. long ; lateral calyx-teeth much longer than the 
tube ; the lowest equaling these and half as broad ; the upper pair 
short, slightly connivent ; petals purple ; standard strongly obcor- 
date; wings slightly shorter than keel, 

Common in the foothills, especially in the chaparral belt. 

2. L. laetiflorus Greene. Sparsely and minutely appressed 
pubescent ; stems slender, herbaceous or somewhat shrubby 
below, 1-2.5 m. high; leaves of rather firm texture, elliptic- 
lanceolate; peduncles surpassing the leaves, loosely many- 
flowered ; flowers about 22 mm. long ; lateral pair of calyx-teeth 
broadly subulate, about equaling the tube, the lowest subulate, 
longer than the tube, the upper pair very short, connivent at tip ; 
petals nearly white, faintly flesh color; standard obcordate, the 
sides abruptly reflexed, purple-veined ; wings meeting and con- 
cealing the keel from above. 

Less common than the last, but having about the same range. 

3. L. Alfeldi White. Glabrous or sparingly pubescent through- 
out; stem rather stout, flexuose, wingless; stipules semicordate, 
acuminate, thick, strongly reticulated, Y^-}4 as long as the leaf- 
lets and often nearly as broad, the lower coarsely lobed, acu- 
minately toothed ; leaflets 6-10, oblong to obovate, thick and stiff, 
prominently reticulated, glabrous ; peduncles 6-10-flowered, much 
exceeding the leaf ; flowers 2-3 cm. long, purple ; pedicels longer 
than the calyx-tube ; calyx pubescent, upper teeth short, broadly 
triangular, acute, lateral pair oblong-lanceolate, equaling the 
tube, the lowest of equal length, subulate. 

Frequent in the foothills of our interior region. 

L. SPLENDENS Torr. Flowers very showy, deep rose-purple. 

A very handsome species of Riverside and San Diego County, said to have 
been first collected at Cucamonga. 

Geraniaceae 227 


Herbs with alternate or opposite, palmately lobed or 
pinnate leaves, and axillary solitary or clustered perfect 
regular flowers. Stipules commonly present. Sepals 5, 
rarely fewer, usually persistent. Petals of the same 
number, hypogynous. Stamens as many or 2-3 times as 
many ; anthers 2-celled, versatile. Carpels 5, united 
about a central axis, each 1-2-ovuled, indehiscent, at 
length elastically splitting away from below, and beaked 
by the long style. 

Anthers 10; carpel tails not hairy on the inside. 1. GERANIUM. 

Anthers 5; carpel tails hairy on the inside. 2. ERODIUM. 


Herbs with stipulate, palmately lobed, cleft or divided 
leaves and axillary 1-2-flowered peduncles. Flowers 
regular, 5-merous. Sepals imbricated. Petals hypog- 
ynous, imbricated. Stamens 10, generally 5 longer and 
5 shorter. Style persistent, naked on the inner surface, 
becoming 'recurved. Carpel opening along the inner 

1 . G-. Carolinianum L. More or less spreading, 15-30 cm . high , 
loosely gray pubescent and glandular; leaves incisely 3-5-parted, 
3-5 cm. broad; segments cuneate, more or less deeply toothed or 
dissected; peduncles 2-flowered, about 2 cm. long; petals rose 
color, 4-5 mm. broad; beak of fruit villous or glandular; carpels 
villous-hispid, usually black; seed reticulate. 

Frequent on grassy hillsides of the valleys and foothills. March-April. 

G. RICHARDSONI F. & M. Stems 3-6 dm. high; leaves thin, 
5-12 cm. broad, incisely 3-5-parted; flower 18-20 mm. broad, 
white or lavender with rose-colored veins. 

Frequent in open pine woods and meadotfg in the~San Bernardino and San 
Jacinto Mountains. June-August. 


Herbs with mostly. jointed nodes, opposite or alternate 
stipulate leaves, and axillary umbellate nearly regular 

228 Oxalidaceae 

flowers. Sepals 5, imbricated.. Petals 5, hypogynous, 
imbricated, the 2 upper slightly smaller. Glands 5. 
Anther-bearing stamens 5, with slightly dilated filaments 
alternating with as many sterile filaments. Styles be- 
coming spirally coiled after splitting away, pubescent on 
the inner face. Carpels closed. 

* Leaves rounded, crenately toothed or lobed. 

1. E. xnacrophyllum H. & A. Mostly nearly or quite acau- 
lescent, tomentose with copious interspersed long glandular hairs 
at least on the pedicels; leaves triangular-ovate or reniform, 
crenate-serrate, sometimes crenately-lobed ; peduncles exceeding 
the leaves, accrescent, at length 1 cm. long; petals equaling the 
sepals, dull white; carpel clavate, densely velvety-pubescent; 
seeds smooth. 

Occasional in dry grassy places in the valleys or low foothills. 

** Leaves pinnate or bipinnate. 

2. E. moschatum Willd. Acaulescent and prostrate or with 
ascending branches, mostly rather stout and glandular; leaves 
rather ample; stipules large, obtuse; leaflets unequally and 
doubly serrate ; peduncle several-flowered ; flowers rose color or 
purple, on rather short, stout pedicels ; sepals not terminated by 
long bristles ; antheriferous filaments 2- toothed. 

The more prevailing species in the coast valleys. Native of southern 

3. E. cicutariuxn (L.) L'Her. Much resembling the last, but 
more slender and less glandular, often coarsely canescent ; leaf- 
lets laciniately pinnatifid with narrow, acute lobes ; pedicels slen- 
der ; petals rose color or purple ; sepals with 1-2 terminal bristle- 
like hairs; filaments not toothed. 

The prevailing species of the interior valleys and foothills. 


Annual or perennial, leafy stemmed or acaulescent 
herbs, often with rootstocks or scaly bulbs, with sour 
sap (oxalic-acid), and mostly palmately 3-foliate leaves. 

Linaceae 229 

Stipules commonly present as scarious margins to the 
bases of the petioles ; leaflets mostly obcordate. Flowers 
perfect, in umbel-like or forking cymes or rarely solitary, 
on mostly rather long peduncles. Sepals 5, often un- 
equal. Petals 5, white, purple or yellow. Stamens 
10-15. Ovary 5-lobed, 5-celled ; styles united or dis- 
tinct ; ovules 2-many in each cell. Fruit a loculicidal, 
globose or columnar capsule. Embryo straight ; endo- 
sperm fleshy. 


Sepals imbricated, regular. Petals hypogynous. Sta- 
mens 10, monadelphous at base, 5 longer and 5 shorter, 
all anther-bearing. Ovules several in each cell ; styles 
5, distinct, persistent ; stigmas terminal. Seeds with a 
loose aril-like dehiscent outer coat. 

1. O. Wrightii Gray. Csespitose perennial, the prostrate 
and rooting or ascending stems suffrutescent and more or less 
branched below, 15-20 cm. long or more, from a short, erect, 
woody caudex; leaves 3-foliate; leaflets 4-10 mm. long, often 
broader ; petiole somewhat stipular-dilated at base ; flowers 6-10 
mm. broad, yellow, 1-3 on elongated, axillary peduncles which 
are short-bracteate at summit ; petals obovate, twice as long as 
the calyx, usually emarginate ; capsules oblong, 1-1.5 cm. long. 

Common in the chaparral belt throughout our range. 

2. O. corniculata L. Annual, caespitose, prostrate and root- 
ing at the nodes, somewhat rough-villous ; leaflets 6-10 mm. long, 
mostly broader ; stipules evident, rounded or truncate at summit, 
adnate; flowers 6 mm. long, solitary or umbelled, otherwise as 
in the last. 

Occasional about lawns and greenhouses. 


Herbs or shrubs with alternate or opposite leaves and 
perfect regular flowers. Stipules mostly small or none. 
Sepals 5, rarely 4, imbricated, persistent. Petals of the 

230 Polygalaceae 

same number and alternate with them ; filaments mona- 
delphous at the base ; anthers versatile, 2-celled. Ovary 
1, 2-5-celled or falsely 4-10-celled. Styles 2-5. Fruit 
capsular. Seeds 1-2 in each cell, oily ; endosperm little 
or none ; embryo straight. 


Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the 
base, with alternate or opposite, rarely whorled, sessile 
leaves, and perfect flowers. Inflorescence axillary or 
paniculate. Stipules a pair of glands or wanting. 
Sepals 5. Petals 5, fugaceous. Stamens 5, sometimes 
with interspersed staminodia. Ovary 4-5-celled or 
falsely 8-lOjcelled ; ovules 2 to each cell. Capsule 

1. It. usitatissmum L. Annual; often tufted, erect, branching 
above, 3-5 dm. high, glabrous and somewhat glaucous ; leaves 
alternate, 3-nerved, lanceolate, 1-4 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide; 
stipules none; inflorescence a terminal cymose leafy panicle; 
flowers blue, 12-16 mm. broad, on slender pedicels ; sepals ovate, 
acuminate, the inner ones ciliate and 3-ribbed ; petals obcuneate, 
crenulate, twice the length of the sepals ; capsule ovoid-conic, 
6-8 mm. long, indehiscent ; seeds compressed. 

Occasional along streets about Los Angeles. 


Herbs or shrubs with alternate, opposite or whorled, 
exstipulate leaves and racemose, spicate or solitary and 
axillary flowers. Pedicels generally, 2-bracted at base. 
Flowers perfect, irregular. Sepals 5. Petals 3 or 5 ? 
hypogynous, more or less unite'd into a tube, the lower 
ones often crested. Stamens generally 8, united in 1 or 
2 sets. Ovary 2-celled ; styles simple ; stigma curved, 
dilated or lobed ; ovules 1 in each cell, anatropous. 

Euphorbiaceae 231 

Fruit mainly capsular. Seeds generally caruncled, often 
hairy ; embryo straight. 

1. POL Y& ALA L. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate, opposite or whorled 
leaves and racemose, spicate or rarely solitary flowers. 
Petals 3, united into a tube, which is split on the back 
and more or less adnate to the stamens. Stamens 8 or 6, 
monadelphous below or diadelphous. Capsule membran- 
ous, compressed, dehiscent along the margin ; seeds 
usually hairy. 

1. P. Californica Nutt. Stems many, slender, 5-20 cm. high, 
from a woody base, mostly simple ; leaves oblong-lanceolate or 
ovate-elliptic, 1-2.5 cm. long ; flowers rose-purple, on bracteate 
pedicels, 2-6 mm. long; wings 5 mm. long, rounded, saccate at 
base, inner sepals broadly spatulate, 1 cm. long or less ; lateral 
petals linear-lanceolate, somewhat ciliate, equaling the broad 
obtuse somewhat curved beak of the rounded hood ; fruit mostly 
from cleistogamous flowers ; capsule glabrous, broadly ovate, 3mm. 
long, retuse, narrowly margined ; seed pubescent ; caruncle calyp- 
triform, wrinkled and bladdery. 

A more northern plant growing in shady places; rare within our limits, 
being known only from the Mount Wilson trail at about 3000 feet altitude, 


Monoecious or dioecious herbs, shrubs or trees with 
acrid, often milky juice. Leaves opposite, alternate or 
whorled, entire or toothed, sessile or petioled, sometimes 
with glands at the base ; stipules present or wanting. 
Inflorescence various. Flowers sometimes apetalous, 
often reduced and subtended by an involucre, which 
resembles a calyx. Stamens few or numerous, in 1 or 
many series ; filaments distinct or united. Ovary usu- 
ally 3-celled ; ovules 1-2 in each cell, pendulous ; styles 
equaling the cells in number, simple, divided or many- 

232 Euphorbiaceae 

cleft. Fruit mostly a 3-lobed capsule separating often 
elastically into 3 2-valved carpels from a persistent axis. 
Seeds anatropous ; embryo straight or slightly curved ; 
endosperm fleshy or oily ; cotyledons broad. 

Flowers with true calyx, not involucrate. 

Perennial; capsule 3-celled; dioecious. 1. CROTON. 

Annual; capsule 1-celled; monoecious. 2. EBEMOCARPUS. 
Glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves small, entire. 3. STILLJNGIA. 

Leaves large, palmately lobed. 4. RICINUS. 
Flowers subtended by an involucre; calyx represented by a minute scale at 

the base of the filament-like pedicel. 5. EUPHORBIA. 


Stellate-pubescent, more or less glandular and strong- 
scented herbs or shrubs, with mostly alternate, entire, 
toothed or lobed leaves, and monoecious or dioecious 
flowers in terminal or axillary clusters. Staminate 
flowers uppermost ; calyx usually 5-parted ; petals usu- 
ally present, small or rudimentary, alternating with the 
glands ; stamens 5 or more, inflexed. Pistillate flowers 
clustered below the staminate ; calyx 5 10-parted ; 
petals usually wanting ; ovary 3-celled ; ovules 1 in each 
cell ; styles once, twice or many times 2-cleft. Capsule 
splitting into usually 2-valved carpels ; seeds smooth or 
minutely pitted. 

1. C. Californicus Muell. Arg. Suffrutescent, procumbent or 
ascending, 4-12 dm. high, dichotomously branched ; the branches 
slender, cinereous throughout with a dense appressed scurf ; peti- 
oles slender, 2-3.5 cm. long; stipules obsolete; leaves generally 
oblong, 2.5-5 cm. long, 8-18 mm. wide, entire, 3-5-nerved; dioe- 
cious; staminate plants more slender and short-branched; ra- 
cemes simple; flowers about 3 mm. broad, on pedicels 4-6 mm. 
long ; sepals 5, ovate ; stamens 12-15 ; filaments ciliate ; pistillate 
raceme mostly 2-3-flowered ; styles 3, palmately 3-5-cleft or twice 
2-cleft. Capsule usually 5-6 mm. high; seeds oval or globose, 
4.5-5 mm. long, black. 

Common in dry ground throughout our range. 

Spurge Family 

2. C. Californicus tennis (Wats.) Ferguson. Stems erect, 
3-7 dm. high, with very slender branches, densely scaly-stellate; 
leaves narrowly oblong to lanceolate, 2-4.5 cm. long, 0.5-1 cm. 
wide, entire; petioles 5-10 mm. long, less than half the length of 
the leaves ; staminate flowers about 2 mm. broad ; stamens 10-12 ; 
seeds' 3-4 mm. long. 

Same range as the type, and perhaps best considered only a form of it. 


Stellate-pubescent glandular and heavy-scented an- 
nual herbs, with alternate entire 3-nerved petiolate 
exstipulate leaves, and monoecious apetalous flowers in 
axillary cymes. Calyx 5-6-parted, slightly imbricate in 
the staminate flowers, wanting in the pistillate. Sta- 
mens 67, central on the hairy receptacle ; filaments 
exserted. Ovary with 4-5 small glands at the base, 
1-celled, 1-ovuled ; style simple, filiform, stigmatic at the 
apex. Capsule obovate-oblong, 2-valved. Seed smooth 
and shining ; endosperm fleshy. 

1. E. setigerus Benth. Low spreading heavy-scented annual , 
hoary pubescent with a dense stellate and spreading hispid 
pubescence; leaves ovoid or rhomboid, 2-5 cm. long, on slender 
petioles, the upper crowded and appearing opposite or verticil- 
late; staminate flowers few, long-pedicelled ; calyx with oblong, 
obtuse segments, 2 mm. long; pistillate 1-3 in the axils; ovary 
and style densely pubescent; capsule and seed 4 mm. long. 
A common autumnal weed in all our valleys. Known as turkey weed. 


A tall monoecious herb, often persisting for several 
years and becoming a small tree. Leaves alternate, 
large, peltate, palmately lobed and toothed. Flowers 
numerous, small, apetalous, greenish, in terminal racemes, 
the pistillate above the staminate. Staminate flowers 
with a 3-5-parted calyx and numerous crowded stamens ; 
filaments branched. Pistillate flowers with a caducous 

234 Euphorbiaceae 

calyx. Ovary 3-celled, 3-ovuled ; styles 3, united at the 
base, 2-cleft. Capsule subglobose or oval, smooth or 
Spiny, separating into 3 2-valved carpels. Seeds ovoid 
or oblong, mottled. 

1. R. communis L. An introduced plant which is becoming 
well established. In protected places it often becomes woody 
and tree-like. 


Glabrous herbs or shrubs with alternate or rarely 
opposite, entire or toothed leaves, often with 2 glands at 
the base, and monoecious braeteolate apetalous flowers 
in terminal spikes.; bractlets 2-glandular. Staminate 
flowers several together in the axils of the bractlets ; 
calyx slightly 2-3-lobed ; stamens, 2-3, exserted. Pistil- 
late flowers solitary in the axils of the lower bractlets ; 
calyx 3-lobed ; ovary 2-3-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell ; 
styles short, somewhat united at the base. Capsule 
2-3-lobed, separating into 2-3 2-valved carpels. Seeds 
ovoid or subglobose. 

1. S. linearifolia Wats= Herbaceous, branching from the 
somewhat woody base ; the stems and branches slender, terete, 
ascending, 3 dm. high or more ; leaves linear, entire or rarely ob- 
scurely glandular-toothed, acute, 1.5-2.5 cm. long; spikes slender, 
open, 2.5-4 mm. long, with 2-7 scattered pistillate flowers below; 
bracts very small, ovate, acute, minutely glandular on both sides, 
1-flowered ; staminate flowers minute ; calyx turbinate ; stamens 
2; pistillate calyx none ; capsule 3mm. broad; seed round-ovate, 
acute, 2 mm. long, smooth, somewhat viscid. 

Occasional about San Bernardino and eastward in dry barren places, and 
in similar places about San Diego. 


Monoecious herbs or shrubs with alternate, opposite or 
verticillate leaves, and cymose flowers borne in sessile or 
peduncled, turbinate or campanulate involucres, sub- 

Spurge Family 235 

tended by bracts which are often brightly colored. Sinuses 
of the involucre usually bearing glands, naked or append- 
aged. Staminate flowers scattered over the inner surface 
of the involucre, consisting of a stamen, jointed on a fila- 
ment-like pedicel which is subtended by a minute bractlet, 
supposed to represent a calyx. Pistillate flowers solitary, 
consisting of a 3-celled ovary usually exserted on a stalk ; 
styles 3, 2-cleft. Capsules often nodding, 3-lobed, separat- 
ing into 3 2-valved carpels. Seeds sometimes caruncled, 
variously pitted, ridged or wrinkled. 

* Glands of the involucre mostly with white or colored membranous 

*- Leaves entire ; margins of glands conspicuous. 

1. E. albomarginata T. & G. Glabrous; stems numerous 
from a woody perennial base> prostrate or decumbent, 5-30 cm. 
long; leaves nearly orbicular, 4-8 mm. broad, often retuse above 
and somewhat cordate at base, with a thin whitish edge ; stipules 
united into a conspicuous membranous white triangular scale, 
entire or somewhat lacerate; involucres mostly solitary, cam- 
panulate or turbinate, about 1.5 mm. long; glands maroon color 
with a conspicuous entire white or rose-colored dilated append- 
age; capsule about 2 mm. long, the lobes angled on the back; 
seeds oblong, 4-angled. 

Common and general. Flowering all Bummer. 

2. E. polycarpa Benth. Glabrous or somewhat finely pubes- 
cent; stems numerous from a perennial woody base, prostrate or 
decumbent, 5-30 cm. long; leaves round-ovate, obtuse, usually 
slightly cordate, 2-6 mm. long; stipules minute, short-triangular 
to lanceolate, ciliate, distinct; involucres mostly solitary, about 1 
mm. long; glands mostly dark purple, the white of rose-colored 
somewhat crenate margins often very narrow; capsule small 
with angled lobes; seeds oblong, 4-angled, about 1 mm. long. 

Occasional in the foothills, especially in the Santa Ana Mountains. 

3. E. melandenia Torr. Cinereous with a dense soft pubes- 
cence, much branched from the base, the branches ascending 
forming tufts; root simple, somewhat lignescent, but apparently 
annual; leaves mostly ovate, short-petioled, usually oblique at 

236 Euphorbiaceae 

base, one side being somewhat cordate ; stipules minute, ciliate, 
distinct ; involucres solitary ; gland purple, its appendages with 
a white or rose-colored margin; capsule densely hirsute. (E. 
polycarpa vestitus Wats.) 

Common in the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Moun- 

--*- Leaves serrulate ; margins of glands smaller, greenish-white. 

4. E. serpyllifolia Pers. Glabrous, annual; stems prostrate 
or ascending, 1-3 dm. long; leaves mostly oblong, of ten narrowed 
toward the oblique base, serrulate at the rounded or retuse sum- 
mit, 4-12 mm. long; stipules distinct, setaceous or lacerate; in- 
volucres solitary or in loose leafy clusters, campanulate, about 
1-mm. long; glands small, greenish, the margin narrow, crenate 
or entire; capsule angled, 2 mm. long; seeds sharply 4-angled, 
the sides somewhat rugose. 

Rather frequent throughout our range in moist places, especially on 
borders of ponds. 

** Gland destitute of colored margin; stipules none. 

5. E. dictyosperma F. & M. Glabrous, annual; stem simple 
or sometimes branching below, dichotomously branched above, 
15-45 cm. high ; stem leaves scattered, oblong-spatulate to obo- 
vate-spatulate, obtuse, obtusely serrate, often retuse, 1-3 cm. 
long; on the branches opposite, broadly ovate to oblong, the 
floral ones roundish-ovate, subcordate, mucronate, 4-12 mm. 
long; rays usually 3 times forked; involucres and glands small ; 
styles bifid or parted; capsule with rounded and warty lobes, 
2-3 mm. long; seeds subglobose, delicately netted-veined, dark 
colored . 

Occasional in rather moist places in all our foothills and mountains, con- 
fined mostly to the chaparral belt. 

6. E. nutans Lag. Annual, glabrous or sparingly pubescent ; 
stems branched, ascending or erect, 2-6 dm. long, branches 
often recurved at the ends; leaves opposite ; leaves oblong-ovate 
to linear-oblong, oblique, 3-nerved, unequally serrate, short- 
petioled; stipules triangular, slightly lacerate; involucres nar- 
rowly obovoid, 1 mm. long; glands subtended by small rounded 
reddish appendages; capsule glabrous; seeds oblong-ovoid, 1.5 
mm. long, 4-angled, transversely rugose. 

This species, heretofore not known west of the Rocky Mountains, has been 
recently collected near Santa Ana by Helen D. Geis. 

Callitrichaceae 237 


Herbaceous aquatic or rarely terrestrial plants, with 
slender or capillary stems, opposite exstipulate entire 
leaves, and minute perfect monoecious axillary flowers. 
Perianth none. Bracts 2, sac-like or none. Stamens 1 ; 
filaments elongated, filiform ; anthers cordate, 2-celled, 
opening by lateral slits. Pistil 1 ; ovary 4-celled ; 
ovules 1 in each cell ; styles 2, filiform. Fruit com- 
pressed, lobed, the lobes more or less winged or keeled 
on the margins, separating at maturity into 4 flattish 
1-seeded carpels. Seed anatropous, pendulous ; endo- 
sperm fleshy ; embryo straight or slightly curved. 


Characters of the family, this being the only genus. 

1. C. marginata Torr. Usually rooting in the mud, small, 
with linear-oblanceolate leaves, 4-6 mm. long or less, sometimes 
floating with slender stems and the upper leaves spatulate ; styles 
elongated, reflexed, deciduous ; fruit on slender spreading pedi- 
cels, 2-8 mm. long, deeply emarginate above and below, the 
margins of the thick carpels widely divergent, narrowly winged. 

Soldiers Home, Hasse. Near San Diego in shallow pools on the mesa. 


Annual herbs with alternate petioled exstipulate pin- 
nately divided leaves and perfect regular axillary long- 
peduncled flowers. Sepals 2-5, valvate, persistent. Petals 
the same number as the sepals, alternating with as many 
small glands ; the nearly perigynous stamens twice as 
many, distinct. Carpels as many as sepals and opposite 
them, 1-ovuled, nearly distinct ; the single style slender, 

238 Anacardaceae 

arising from the center as in the Geraniaceae, cleft above 
into as many stigmas as there are carpels. Fruit very 
deeply 2-5-lobed, the carpels indehiscent, rough or tuber- 


Low diffuse annuals, growing near water, with showy 
white or rose-colored flowers solitary on axillary ped- 
uncles. Carpels subglobose, at first fleshy, becoming 
hard and rugose. 

1. Ii. Douglasii R. Br. Glabrous throughout, diffusely branch- 
ed from the base, the weak and succulent stems 15-45 cm. long; 
leaflets incisely lobed or parted with linear acute lobes; ped- 
uncles 5-10 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long; petals 
oblong or obovate, emarginate or truncate, 12-16 mm. long, yel- 
low ; style very slender, 6-8 mm. long. 

Growing in wet places. Reported from Los Angeles and San Bernardino. 


Shrubs or trees with a resinous and usually acrid juice, 
alternate simple or compound exstipulate leaves. Flowers 
small, regular, mostly 5-merous, often polygamous or dioe- 
cious, variously clustered. Stamens as many or twice 
as many as the petals. Ovary free, 1-celled and 1-ovuled ; 
styles sometimes 3. Fruit drupaceous. 

1. RHUS L. 

Shrubs or small trees with simple or pinnate decidu- 
ous or evergreen leaves, and small flowers in axillary 
and terminal panicles or sometimes in racemes or spikes. 
Sepals and petals usually 5. Stamens as many or twice 
as many, with subulate filaments inserted under the 
edge of a disk lining the base of the calyx. Fruit a 
small dry drupe. Seed pendulous upon a slender funic- 
ulus rising from the base of the cell. 

Sumac Family 239 

* Inflorescence paniculate; fruit glabrous..: .' ,<:..; ixri 

1. B. diversiloba T. & G. (POISON OAK.) Erect, 1-3 m. high, 
or ascending trees by aerial roots to a considerable height ; leaves 
3-foliate, deciduous ; leaflets ovate, obovate or elliptic, very obtuse 
or roundish at apex, variously lobed or toothed, or rarely entire; 
flowers greenish, in small axillary open spreading or drooping 
panicles; drupes 4-6 mm. in diameter, with a thin glabrous 
deciduous epicarp and granular waxy persistent mesocarp ; stone 
rugose or undulate. ? A ! io s. . 

Frequent in the chaparral belt throughout our range. April-May. 

2. B. laurina Nutt. Erect evergreen shrub, 2-4 m. high, 
exhaling the odor of bitter almonds; leaves thin, coriaceous, 
oblong-lanceolate, entire, acute or obtuse, mucronate, 7-10 cm. 
long, rounded at base on rather long petioles ; flowers polygamous, 
very small, white, numerous in ample terminal panicles ; drupes 
whitish, 2-3 mm. in diameter, smooth; mesocarp waxy ; stone 
minute, smooth. 

Very common in the foothills and extending well up into the chaparral ; 
less common in the interior. June-July. 

** Inflorescence glomerate or spike-like; fruit viscid, reddish. 

3. B. integrifolia (Nutt.) B. & H. Low evergreen shrub, 1-2 
m. high, often more or less depressed, with short stiff branches; 
leaves oval, rigid-coriaceous, very obtuse at both ends, or acutish 
at base, entire or sometimes serrate, 2.5-4 cm. long, dark green 
and shining above, veiny and paler beneath ; petioles 5-8 mm. 
long ; inflorescence and young parts cinereous or canescently 
puberulent ; flowers white or rose-colored, glomerate, sessile, sub- 
tended by rather thick orbicular bracts within which are 2 simi- 
lar but thinner bractlets ; sepals oval-orbicular, scarious-margined, 
ciliolate; drupes very viscid and acid, about 10 mm. in diameter. 

Bluffs along the seashore; rarely extending inland on our range, Cahuenga 
Pass ; rather frequent in the foothills back of San Diego. February-March. 

4. B. ovata Wats. Erect or spreading evergreen shrub, 1.5-3 
m. high ; leaves rigid-coriaceous, very smooth and shining, ovate 
or subcordate, acute at apex, entire or sharply serrate; inflores- 
cence glabrous or glabrate; bracts as in the last ; calyx scarcely 
or not at all ciliolate; fruit 8 mm. in diameter, otherwise as in 
the last. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt throughout our range. March- April. 

240 Aceraceae 

5. K. trilobata Nutt. Low branching deciduous aromatic 
shrub, more or lees pubescent when young ; leaves 3-foliate ; the 
terminal leaflet 2.5-5 cm. long, 3-lobed and coarsely toothed 
above the middle; the lateral pair 1-1.5 cm. long, round-ovate, 
scarcely lobed, crenate ; flowers yellowish, appearing before the 
leaves in short spike-like clusters ; drupes viscid-hirsute. 

Frequent in the foothills and mountains throughout our range. March. 


Trees or shrubs with watery often saccharine sap, 
opposite simple and palmately lobed or pinnate leaves, 
and axillary or terminal cymose or racemose regular polyg- 
amous or dioecious flowers. Calyx generally 5-parted, 
the segments imbricated. Petals of the same number or 
none. Disk thick, annular, lobed, sometimes obsolete. 
Stamens 4-12, often 8 ; filaments filiform. Ovary 2-lobed, 
2-celled; styles 2, inserted between the lobes. Fruit of 2 
long-winged samaras, joined at the base and 1-seeded or 
rarely 2-seeded. Seeds compressed, ascending ; cotyle- 
dons thin, folded. 


Characters of the family. 

1. A. macrophyllum Pursh. Becoming a tall tree with thick 
rough and furrowed bark ; leaves large, deeply 3-5-parted, the lobes 
irregular, coarsely toothed, soft pubescent when young, becoming 
glabrate above and minutely puberulent below; flowers polyg- 
amous, in many-flowered drooping racemes; sepals and petals 
rather broad, nearly equal; filaments pubescent at the base, in- 
serted above the disk ; anthers sagittate ; carpels covered with stiff 
tawny hairs ; wings 2.5-4 cm. long, diverging at an acute angle. 

Occasional in all our mountains in canyons between 3000 and 6000 feet. 


Erect or climbing shrubs or small trees, often thorny. 
Leaves simple, stipulate, generally alternate. Stipules 

Buckthorn Family 241 

small, deciduous. Inflorescence commonly of axillary or 
terminal cymes or panicles. Flowers small, regular, per- 
fect or polygamous. Calyx-tube obconic or cylindric, 
the limb 4-5-toothed. Petals 4-5, inserted on the calyx, 
sometimes wanting. Stamens 4-5, inserted with the 
petals and opposite them ; anthers short, versatile. Disk 
fleshy. Ovary sessile, free from or immersed in the disk, 
2-5-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell, anatropous, ascending. 
Fruit a drupe or capsule, often 3-celled. Endosperm 
fleshy, rarely none ; embryo large ; cotyledons flat. 

Petals clawless or wanting. 1. RH.AMNUS. 

Petals long-clawed. 2. CEANOTHUS. 


Shrubs or small trees with alternate pinnately veined 
(in ours) evergreen leaves, and small axillary cymose 
perfect or polygamous flowers. Calyx-tube urceolate, 
its limb 4-5-toothed. Petals 4-5, nearly sessile, some- 
what emarginate and hooded, or none. Disk free from 
the 3-4-celled ovary ; style 3-4-cleft. Drupe berry-like, 
oblong or globose, containing 2-4 nut-like stones. 

1. B. crocea Nutt. Low, much branched, the branches with 
short spine-like branchlets, 6-12 dm. high ; leaves rigidly coriace- 
ous, about 1 cm. long, bright green above, often yellowish beneath, 

'roundish-ovate, glandular-denticulate; flowers about 3 mm. in 
diameter, reddish. 

Occasional on the dry plains and in the chaparral belt of our interior 

2. B. crocea ilicifolia (Kell.) Greene. Shrub, sometimes 
arborescent, branches scarcely spinescent ; leaves green on both 
sides, often 2.5 cm. long; flowers often 5-merous; fruit some- 
what larger than in the type. 

Common in the chaparral belt throughout our range. In foliage closely 
resembling Primus Ilicifolia. 

3. B. California Esch. Shrub, sometimes arborescent, 1-4 
m. high, young parts pubescent, becoming glabrous; leaves thin- 

242 Rhamnaceae 

coriaceous, elliptic-oblong, acute or obtuse, entire or denticulate, 
3-5 cm. long; flowers in small umbel-like clusters, 5-merous ; 
petals small, ovate, emarginate; stamens exserted; fruit globose, 
8-10 mm. in diameter. 

Common in the chaparral belt of all our mountains. Commonly called 
wild coffee. 

4. B. Californica tomentella (Benth.) Brew. & Wats. Leaves 
tomentose beneath, the margins revolute, entire, otherwise as in 
the type. 

The more common form in the mountains, especially in the interior region. 


Unarmed or spinescent, often arborescent shrubs, with 
alternate or opposite leaves, and small but showy white, 
blue or purple usually fragrant flowers, in often long- 
peduncled dense axillary or terminal clusters. Calyx 
5-lobed. Petals 5, hooded, long-clawed. Ovary im- 
mersed in the disk and adnate to it at the base, 3-lobed. 
Disk adnate to the calyx. Style short, 3-cleft. Fruit 
somewhat 3-lobed, separating at maturity into 3 nutlets. 

* Fruit hornless, sometimes keeled or crested; stipular base not 

enlarged; leaves alternate. 
*- Leaves not glandular-toothed. 

1. C. integerrinms H. & A. Tall, loosely branching and 
sometimes arborescent with green or at length somewhat brownish 
branches, slightly angled when young, not at all spinescent; 
leaves ovate, 2-6 cm. long, prominently or sometimes indistinctly 
3-veined, entire, somewhat loosely hairy above when young, 
paler beneath and glabrescent or with a few soft hairs ; petioles 
slender, somewhat villous, 6-8 mm. long; inflorescence 6-16 cm. 
long and 3-10 cm. broad; flowers blue, varying to white; fruit 
5-6 mm. in diameter, somewhat lobed at apex, nearly smooth 
and with low but broad, deeply dorsal evanescent crests. 

Frequent in the pine belt of all our mountains and in the uppermost por- 
tions of the chaparral belt. 

2. C. spinosus Nutt. Tall shrub or somewhat arborescent, 
with at length cinnamon-brown, more or less divaricate, sparingly 

Buckthorn Family 243 

slender-spiny glabrous twigs; leaves elliptic, very obtuse or 
emarginate, rounded or acutish at base, coriaceous, glabrous, 2-3 
cm. long, entire, petioles glabrous or appressed-pubescent, 4-8 
mm. long; thyrsus 10-15 cm. long and half as broad; flowers 
pale blue; carpels depressed, 6 mm. in diameter, scarcely lobed, 
smooth, crestless. 

Santa Monica and Santa Ana Mountains, in canyons ; extending northward 
to Santa Barbara, where it was first found by Nuttall. 

3. C. divaricatus Nutt. Shrub, 1-2 m. high, with pale green 
glabrous or puberulent mostly very glaucous twigs, divergent, 
some ending in spines ; leaves ovate, sometimes slightly cordate, 
obtuse or acutish, glabrous and glaucous, coriaceous, 3-nerved, 
10-15 mm. long; inflorescence 5-7 cm. long, mostly narrowly 
oblong, dense, glabrate; flowers pale blue; capsule smooth, not 
lobed, and scarcely crested, clammy, becoming dry. 

Very common in the chaparral belt. 

*- - Leaves glandular-toothed. 

4. C. tomentosus Parry. Shrub 2-4 m. high, with slender 
gray or reddish, at first tomentose and usually densely verrucose 
branches ; leaves round-ovate or elliptic, conspicuously glandular- 
toothed, minutely velvety above, densely white or brownish 
tomentose beneath, 1-3 crn. long, short-petioled ; inflorescence 
loosely tomentose, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers deep blue or rarely 
white; capsule 4 mm. in diameter, somewhat depressed, smooth, 
slightly crested, distinctly lobed. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and 
Cuyamaca Mountains, 3000-5000 feet altitude. 

5. C. sorediatus H. & A. Shrubby or somewhat arborescent, 
2-4 mm. high, with olive or at length purplish twigs; leaves 
oblong-ovate, rounded or subcordate at base, glandular-dentate, 
1-2 cm. long, glabrous and glossy or sparingly pubescent when 
young above, glabrous or minutely pubescent beneath, silky- 
pubescent on the principal veins and petioles; inflorescence at 
first villous, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers deep blue; capsule globose, 
4 mm. in diameter, smooth or slightly wrinkled, slightly lobed, 

A species of the coast mountains of central California, said to occur in 
the San Gabriel Mountains, but not seen by the author. 

244 Vitaceae 

6. C. hirsutus Nutt. Shrubby or arborescent, 3-5 m. high, 
with grayish or reddish, densely villous, rather flexible twigs; 
leaves ovate to broadly elliptic, rounded or subcordate at base, 
obtuse or acute, 2-4 cm. long, hirsute with rather long appressed 
hairs above, loosely hirsute beneath especially along the veins ; 
inflorescence loosely puberulent, villous, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers 
deep blue to purplish ; capsule depressed, smooth, slightly lobed, 
strongly crested. (0. oliganthus Nutt.) 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of the. San Gabriel Mountains. 2500-4500 

** Fruit crested and with liorns; stipular base large and corky. 
*- Leaves alternate. 

7. C. macrocarpus Nutt. Shrubby; 2-3 m. high, with gray 
or reddish, at first appressed-pubescent twigs ; leaves rather thick, 
spatulate or obovate, cuneate, obtuse to emarginate, glabrous and 
dull above, minutely canescent beneath, 1-2 cm. long, margin 
slightly revolute, entire or rarely denticulate; capsule 8-12 mm. 
in diameter, laterally horned, apical crests low, scarcely lobed. 

Frequent in the Santa Monica and Santa Ana Ranges. 

-*--*- Leaves opposite. 

8. C. cuneatus Nutt. Much resembling the last, but the 
branches more rigid ; leaves similar but opposite, capsule slightly 
oblong, 5 mm. in diameter, with 3 conspicuous horns near the 

Occasional along the southern rim of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 

9. C. crassifolius Torr. Shrub, 2-3 m. high, with grayish white 
or rusty tomentose twigs; leaves thick, elliptic-obovate, cuneate 
or rounded at base, obtuse, somewhat revolute, pungently den- 
tate or rarely entire, 1.5-3 cm. long, minutely roughened, at 
length glabrous and pale green above, densely tomentose beneath ; 
stipules very large; capsules 8 mm. in diameter, with 3 stout, 
erect horns near the tip. 

Common In the chaparral belt of all our mountains. 


Climbing or erect shrubs, with nodose joints, alternate 
petioled leaves, and small flowers in panicles, racemes or 

Malvaceae 245 

cymes. Calyx entire or 4-5-toothed. Petals 4-5, separ- 
ate or coherent, valvate. Stamens 4-5, opposite the 
petals ; filaments subulate, inserted at the base of the 
disk or between its lobes. Disk sometimes obsolete or 
wanting ; anthers 2-celled. Ovary 1, generally immersed 
in the disk, 2-6-celled ; ovules 1-2 in each cell, ascend- 
ing, anatropous. Fruit a 1-6-celled, commonly 2-celled, 
berry. Testa bony ; endosperm cartilaginous ; embryo 


Climbing or trailing woody vines, mostly with tendrils. 
Leaves simple, usually palmately lobed or detate. Stip- 
ules generally small, caducous. Flowers mostly dioe- 
cious, or polygamo-dioecious, rarely perfect. Petals 
hypogynous or perigynous, coherent in a cap and decidu- 
ous without expanding. Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-4-celled ; 
style very short, conic ; ovules 2 in each cell. Berry 
globose or ovoid, pulpy. 

1. V. Girdiana Munson. Strong climbing vine with thick 
diaphragms; leaves 15 cm. broad or less, broadly cordate-ovate, 
with a rather deep and narrow sinus, obscurely 3-lobed, and with 
many small and acute teeth, closely ashy tomentose beneath; 
flower clusters large, very compound; berries small, black, 
slightly glaucous; seeds pyriform. 

Occasional along streams in the foothills. June. 


Herbs or shrubs with alternate mostly palmately 
veined leaves. Stipules small, deciduous. Flowers regu- 
lar, perfect, or rarely dioecious or polygamous. Calyx 
often bracted at the base. Sepals 5, rarely 3 or 4, more 
or less united, usually valvate. Petals 5, hypogynous, 
convolute. Stamens many, hypogynous, monadelphous, 
forming a central column around the pistil, united with 

246 Malvaceae 

the bases of the petals ; anthers 1-celled. Ovary several- 
celled, entire or lobed ; styles united below, distinct 
above, mostly as many as the cells of the ovary ; ovules 
1 or several in each cell. Fruit capsular, rarely a berry, 
several-celled ; the carpels falling away entire or else 
loculicidally dehiscent. Embryo curved ; cotyledons 
large, plicate or conduplicate ; endosperm scanty or 

Carpels 2-several-seeded. 1. MODIOLA. 

Carpels 1-seeded. 

Stigmas linear, on the inner side of the style branches. 

Stamens monadelphous. 2. MALVA. 

Stamens united in phalanges in 2 series. 3. SIDALCEA. 

Stigmas capitate or truncate. 

Flowers rose-purple or rarely white. 4. MALVASTRUM. 

Flowers cream-colored. 6. SJDA. 

1. MODIOLA Moench. 

Prostrate or ascending herbs often rooting from the 
nodes, with palmately cleft or divided leaves, and small 
axillary peduncled flowers. Bracts of the involucre 3, 
distinct. Calyx 5-cleft. Cells of the ovary many, with 
2-3 ovules in each. Style branches stigmatic at the 
summit. Carpels 15-20, septate between the seeds, 
dehiscent into 2 valves, with awn-pointed tips, and aris- 
tate on the back. 

1. M. Caroliniana (L.) Don. Decumbent, annual or biennial, 
more or less pubescent, freely branching; stems 15-45 cm. long; 
leaves nearly orbicular in outline, 1-6 cm. wide, petioled, pedately 
3-5-clef t, rarely simply dentate or incised ; flowers axillary, 6-10 
mm. broad, red; peduncles at length elongated, slender; fruit 
depressed-orbicular, the carpels hispid-ari state along the back. 

In rather low moist places. El Monte; Santa Anita. 


Pubescent or glabrate herbs with dentate lobed or dis- 
sected leaves, and axillary or terminal solitary or clus- 

Mallow Family 247 

tered flowers. Calyx 5-cleft. Bractlets of the involucre 
3, rarely none. Petals 5. Ovary many-celled ; cells 
1-ovuled i style branches of the same number, linear, 
stigmatic along the inner side. Carpels arranged in a 
circle, beakless, indehiscent, 1 -seeded. 

1. M. parviflora L. Glabrous or sparingly hairy annual, 
with erect or ascending stems, 2-10 dm. high ; leaves rounded, 
slightly 5-7-lobed, crenate, 3-10 cm. broad ; pedicels short ; bract- 
lets linear ; calyx accrescent, the broadly lobed limb rotately 
spreading away from the mature fruit ; petals white or pale blue, 
about equaling the calyx-lobes ; achenes glabrous or pubescent, 
transversely and sharply rugose on the back, the acute winged 
margins distinctly toothed. 

A common vernal weed. 

2. M. pusilla Smith. Much resembling the last in foliage 
and habit; pedicels somewhat longer ; calyx-lobes mostly closed 
over the fruit ; petals bluish, 10-15 mm. long, surpassing the calyx- 
lobes ; achenes reticulate-rugose, the margins acute, entire. 

Known within our region only from low ground along Ballona Creek, 
near Mesmer. 

3. SID ALOE A Gray. 

Erect annual or (ours) perennial herbs with mostly 
palmately or pedately parted or deeply cleft leaves, 
small stipules, and purple or pink or sometimes white 
rather showy flowers, in terminal racemes or spikes, not 
rarely polygamous by the abortion of the anthers. In- 
volucre rarely present. Calyx 5-cleft. Petals 5, com- 
monly emarginate or truncate. Staminal column usu- 
ally distinctly double, the exterior series of 5 distinct 
4-10-antheriferous phalanges, the inner or terminal one 
of about 10 mostly 2-antheriferous phalanges. Carpels 
5-9, reniform, indehiscent, 1-seeded. 

1. S. malvaeflora (Moc. & Sesse) Gray. Hirsute or stems 
and petioles hispid with few-forked and some simple hairs; stems 
ascending or erect from decumbent base, 2-6 dm. high, from a 
thick stock or root, simple ; basal leaves rounded crenate-incised, 

248 Malvaceae 

the upper more dissected ; flowers in simple few-many-flowered 
spiciform racemes; petals rose-purple, 2-2.5 cm. long; mature 
carpels rugose-reticulate. (S. humilis Gray; S. delphinifolia 

Frequent on the grassy hills and mesas. March-May. 

2. S. parviflora Greene. Stems glabrous at least below, sub- 
simple, terminating in long slender loose racemes ; lowest leaves 
orbicular, crenate-toothed, the others deeply divided, the divisions 
lobed; pedicels 4-6 mm. long, subtended by simple linear bracts 
of scarcely the same length; petals 8-12 mm. long, rbunded at 
apex; carpels reticulated. 

In low subsaline places throughout our range. Much resembling the last, 
but easily recognized by the glabrous stems and leaves, and by the usually 
smaller flowers. 


Low annual herbs or shrubs, often densely stellate- 
pubescent. Bractlets 1-3 or rarely wanting. Calyx- 
lobes 5. Petals 5, often showy. Staminal tube simple, 
antheriferous at the summit. Styles filiform ; stigmas 
capitate. Carpels 5 or more, 1-ovuled, rarely 2-valved. 
Seed ascending. 

* Annuals. 

1. M. exile Gray. Steins decumbent, branching from the 
base, 2-4 dm. long, pubescent; leaves 12-18 mm. broad, broadly 
ovate, cordate or truncate at base, deeply 5-lobed, sparingly 
toothed, on slender petioles of about the same length ; flowers 
mostly solitary and axillary on slender pedicels, 2-3 cm. long; 
bractlets 3, linear, persistent; calyx-lobes lanceolate, acuminate; 
petals obovate, purple, 4-6 mm. long; carpels 12-15, orbicular, 
glabrous, transversely rugose-reticulated. 

Chatsworth Park. 

** Perennials. 

*- Upper surface of the leaves densely stellate-tomentose and hoary. 

2. M. Fremontii Torr. Shrubby below, 1-2.5 m. high, densely 
soft-tomentose with long-rayed stellular pubescence; leaves 
roundish, shallowly or scarcely at all cordate, crenate-toothed, 

Mallow Family 249 

2.5-5 cm. broad; flowers in axillary sessile or short pedunculate 
clusters, interrupted spicate ; bractlets about equaling the calyx- 
lobes ; calyx densely lanate tomentose, its lobes triangular, acute, 
4-5 mm. long, mucronate with a more naked tip; petals rose 
color, about 1 cm. long. 

In the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. 

3. M. Davidsonii Robinson. Tall shrub or arborescent, 2-4 
m. high, densely stellate-tomentose throughout; bractlets stout; 
leaves deeply cordate, with narrow sinus, 5-angled or shallowly 
5-lobed, varying to 3-lobed, irregularly crenate-dentate, 5-7.5 cm. 
broad ; inflorescence a dense racemose panicle ; bractlets much 
shorter than the calyx-lobes; calyx canescent-tomentose without 
more naked mucronate tips, faintly 1-nerved or enervose; petals 
rose-purple, 1.5-2 cm. long; carpels stellate-tomentose above. 

San Fernando Valley and La Canada in washes. 

*-*- Upper surface of the leaves green, sparsely stellate-pubescent. 

4. M. fasciculatum (Nutt.) Gray. Tall shrub or somewhat 
arborescent, 2-4 m. high, with wand-like branches, covered with 
a dense short stellate-tomentum ; leaves angular, 5-lobed and 
rather coarsely toothed, densely stellate-pubescent beneath, 
sparsely so above, 3-5 cm. broad; inflorescence racemose, or 
amply racemose-paniculate; bractlets much shorter than the 
calyx-lobes, these triangular, as broad as long, acute; petals rose- 
purple, 2-2.5 cm. long. (M. Thurberi Gray; M. splendidum Kell.) 

Common in the lower altitudes of the chaparral belt. 

5. SIDA L. 

Herbs with serrate, crenate or lobed leaves and soli- 
tary or clustered axillary or terminal perfect flowers. 
Bractlets of the involucre none. Calyx 5-toothed or 
5-cleft. Staminal tube anther-bearing at the summit. 
Carpels 5-many, 1-ovuled ; style-branches of the same 
number, stigmatic at the summit only. Carpels indehis- 
cent or at length 2-valved at the apex. Seed pendulous. 

1. S. hederacea (Dougl.) T. & G. Perennial, stoutish, erect- 
spreading or prostrate, leafy, 2-4 dm. long, hoary- tomentose or 

250 Sterculiaceae 

yellowish-tomentose throughout; leaves short-petioled, about 
2.5 cm. long, reniform, oblique at the base, serrate or crenate; 
flowers axillary, solitary or clustered, on slender at length reflexed 
pedicels; bractlets 1 or 2, linear; calyx-lobes acuminate; petals 
2 cm. long, cream color ; fruit short-conical, smooth ; carpels 6-10. 
Common in subsaline places. May-September. 


Trees, shrubs or herbs (mostly tropical or subtropical) 
much resembling the Malvaceae. Calyx 5-parted, imbri- 
cated, in ours petal-like. Petals wanting in ours. Sta- 
mens in ours 5, monadelphous ; anthers adnate, extrorse, 
2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 5-celled or 
rarely 4-celled, with numerous horizontal anatropous 
ovules in the axils. Style simple, terminated by a 
minute undivided stigma. Capsule 5-valved. Seeds. 
oval or ovoid ; embryo straight. 


Shrub with hard wood and dark colored bark. Leaves 
tawny-canescent or ferruginous beneath. Bractlets 3, 
sometimes 5, minute, caducous. Sepals roundish, rotately 
spreading in anthesis, nectariferous-pitted at base. Sta- 
mens regular ; filaments adnate to the calyx at the base, 
monadelphous to or above the middle ; anthers elongated- 
oblong, emarginate at both ends, adnate to an incon- 
spicuous connective. Capsule ovoid, firm-coriaceous. 
Seeds smooth. 

1. F. Calif ornicum(Torr.) Coville. Branching shrub or arbor- 
escent, 2-7 m. high ; leaves subcoriaceous, round-cordate to round- 
ovate, 3-5-lobed or 3-5-cleft, 2-5 cm. broad; flowers .ahort-ped- 
uncledon short lateral branches ; calyx nearly glabrous, accrescent, 
thin, 5-7 cm. in diameter, light yellow in anthesis, becoming 
marcescent in age, within hairy at base and with a small nectarifer- 

Elatinaceae 251 

ous pit; capsule 2.5 cm. long, hispid with short pungent hairs, 
the cells villous within. (Fremontia Californica Torr.) 

Frequent in the upper altitudes of the chaparral belt of our interior 
region. June- July. 


Low herbs with opposite or verticillate stipulate entire 
or serrate leaves, and small axillary or fascicled regular 
perfect flowers. Sepals 2-5, imbricated. Petals of the 
same number, hypogynous. Stamens of the same num- 
ber or twice as many. Ovary 2-5-celled ; styles 2-5 ; 
ovules many, anatropous. Capsule with septicidal dehis- 
cence ; placentae central. Seed-coat crustaceous, rugose 
or ribbed. 


Small glabrous or glabrate aquatic or creeping herbs 
with opposite or verticillate leaves, and minute axillary 
mainly solitary flowers. Sepals 2-4, persistent, mem- 
branous. Capsule membranous, globose, 2-4-valved. 
Seeds straight or slightly curved, striate longitudinally 
and transversely. 

1. E. brachysperma Gray. Terrestial or sometimes aquatic, 
spreading, tufted, 2-5 cm. long ; leaves oblong, oval or lanceolate, 
narrowed at the base, 4-6 mm. long, about 2 mm. wide; sepals, 
petals and stamens mainly 2; capsule globose, about 1 mm. in 
diameter; seeds short-oblong, nearly straight, about 0.5 mm. 
long, marked by 6-7 longitudinal striae and 10-12 transverse 

Occasional along borders of ponds toward the coast. 


Low perennial herbs or undershrubs with opposite 
entire exstipulate leaves, sessile and often united at the 

252 Cistaceae 

membranous and somewhat sheathing base. Flowers 
small, perfect, solitary and sessile in the axils of the 
branches and branchlets. Calyx tubular or prismatic, 
furrowed, its lobes 4-5, valvate. Petals as many as 
calyx-lobes, hypogynous, narrowed to a claw which bears 
an appendage on its inner face. Stamens 4-7 or rarely 
more, hypogynous ; anther 2-celled, longitudinally de- 
hiscent. Ovary 1-celled, with 2-4 parietal placentae ; 
styles 2-4-cleft into filiform divisions. Capsule invested 
by the persistent calyx. Seeds few, on slender funiculi 
which are attached to the margin of the valves. 


Characters of the family. 

1. F. grandiflora Ch. & Sch. Stem much branched from a 
somewhat woody base, more or less erect, slender, 1-3 dm. high, 
glabrous or soft-pubescent, very leafy ; leaves obovate to narrowly 
oblanceolate, revolute, 6-12 mm. long, dull green; calyx linear, 
6 mm. long, strongly furrowed, the lobes short, acute; petals 
small, red, the blade 2 mm. long or more, erose at the summit, 
the appendages of the claw bifid ; stamens 4-7 ; style 3-cleft ; cap- 
sule shorter than the calyx, linear, angular; seeds numerous. 

Common in saline marshes. Flowering all summer. 


Shrubs or low woody plants with alternate or opposite 
simple leaves, and solitary, racemose, clustered or panic- 
ulate, regular, generally perfect flowers. Sepals 3-5> 
persistent, when 5 the 2 exterior smaller and bract-like, 
the inner 3 convolute. Petals 5 or 3 or sometimes want- 
ing, fugacious. Stamens many, hypogynous. Ovary 1, 
sessile, 1-several-celled ; ovules orthotropous, stalked ; 
style simple ; stigma entire or 3-lobed. Capsule dehis- 
cent by valves. Seeds several or numerous ; embryo 
slender ; endosperm present. 

Violaceae 253 


Woody herbs or low shrubs, more of less branching, 
mostly with showy yellow flowers. Petals 5, yellow, 
fugacious. Stamens numerous. Placentae or false septa 
3, ovules few-many ; style short or filiform or spatulate, 
jointed with the ovary ; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. 
Embryo curved. 

1. H. scoparium Nutt. Stems tufted, slender, somewhat 
woody below, sparsely stellate-pubescent, 2.5-3.5 dm. high ; 
leaves few, narrowly linear, 8-20 cm. long; flowers on slender 
pedicels, solitary or cymose at the ends of the branches; sepals 
6 mm. long, acuminate, the 2 outer linear and much shorter; 
petals 6-8 mm. long; stamens about 20; capsule equaling the 

Frequent on dry ridges in the chaparral belt of all our mountains and 
foothills. Our plants are slightly more pubescent than the form about 
Monterey (which is typical), being often cinereous, and may prove to be a 
good subspecies. 

H. ALDERSONII Greene. A larger, nearly glabrous plant, with 
petals 10-15 mm. long. 

Common in the foothills of San Diego County. 


Ours herbs with alternate or basal simple entire or 
lobed leaves, and axillary or scapose usually solitary 
perfect irregular flowers. Sepals 5, unequal. Petals 
5, hypogynous, imbricated in the bud, the lower one 
spurred. Perfect stamens 5, hypogynous ; anthers erect, 
connivent in a ring, sessile or on short filaments. Ovary 
1, 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae ; style simple. Cap- 
sule dehiscent by valves. Seeds anatropous with a crus- 
taceous testa ; embryo straight ; endosperm copious. 


Characters of the family. The later flowers often 
produced on runners or on short peduncles, and are 

254 Violaceae 

apetalous, or cleistogamous and abundantly fertile, while 
the early showy ones are often sterile. 

* Flowers blue or white. 

1. V. palmata cucullata (Ait.) Gray. Acaulescent, the leaves 
and scapes directly from rather short and thick rootstocks, glabrous 
or some what villous-pubescent; leaves rounded-cordate, reniform 
or hastate-reniform, the basal sides often cucullate-in volute ; 
corolla only saccate-spurred, blue or violet-purple, rarely white; 
lateral petals bearded toward the base; style gibbous-clavate, 
beardless at summit. 

In swamp-lands about Los Angeles, Davidson. 

2. V. blanda Willd. Acaulescent, leaves and scapes from 
slender filiform rootstocks, glabrous or nearly so; leaves thin, 
ovate-cordate to round -reniform, crenulate ; petals oblong to 
ovate-lanceolate ; petals white with purple veins on the lower and 
sometimes the lateral ones, usually beardless; spur short and 

Occasional about cold springs in the upper portions of the pine belt of the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. 

** Flowers yellow, at least within. 

3. V. pedunculata T. & G. Stems 5-15 cm. long, prostrate 
or ascending, puberulent or nearly glabrous; leaves rhombic- 
cordate, usually almost truncate at the broad base, obtuse, coarsely 
crenate ; stipules foliaceous, narrowly lanceolate, entire or incised ; 
peduncles erect, much exceeding the leaves, 10-20 cm. long; con- 
spicuously bibractiolate ; flowers 2 cm. broad or more, yellow, 
the upper petal dark brown without, the others purple-veined 
within, the lateral ones bearded. 

Frequent in open grassy places in the lower foothills and on the mesas. 

4. V. lobata Benth. Rootstocks erect ; stems stoutish, erect, 
15-30 cm. high, leafy to the summit, puberulent or nearly gla- 
brous ; leaves reniform or cordate in outline, 5-10 cm. broad, 
palmately cleft into 5-9 narrowly oblong lobes, the central largest 
or longest, some of the basal leaves often less fobed or merely 
coarsely toothed ; petals 12 mm. long, yellow, the upper brownish 
without, the lateral slightly bearded. 

Occasional on the borders of mountain meadows in the San Bernardino 
Mountains. Bear Valley. 

Loasaceae 255 

5. V. Douglasii Steud. Stems clustered from a deep fascicled 
root, mostly subterranean, only the leaves and flowers appearing 
above the ground, more or less pubescent; leaves large, bipin- 
nately dissected into long linear or oblong segments; stipules 
lanceolate, entire or toothed ; peduncles equaling or exceeding 
the leaves; petals 10-14 cm. long, yellow, the upper brownish 
purple without. ( V. chrysantha Hook.) 
Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mountains. 


Erect or climbing branching herbs, often armed with 
hooked stinging or viscid hairs, with alternate or oppo- 
site exstipulate leaves, and solitary, racemose or cymose, 
regular and perfect flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to 
the ovary, its limb 4-5-lobed, persistent. Petals 4-5, 
inserted on the throat of the calyx. Stamens many, 
inserted with the petals ; filaments filiform, commonly 
arranged in clusters, opposite the petals ; anthers in- 
trorse, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 1-celled, rarely 
2-3-celled with 2-3 parietal placentae; styles filiform, 
entire or 2-3-lobed ; ovules anatropous ; endosperm 


Erect herbs with alternate entire lobed or pinnatifid 
leaves, and terminal solitary or cymose, usually showy 
flowers. Petals 5 or 10, spreading, convolute in the bud, 
usually yellow. Styles 3, more or less united. Capsule 
dehiscent at the tip, few-many-seeded. Seeds flat, some- 
times winged, roughened or smooth. 

* Petals .5, less than 15 mm. long. 

1. M. integrifolia (Wats.) Kydb. Slender, about 3 dm. high ; 
leaves narrowly lanceolate, sinuate-toothed or entire, the upper- 
most often ovate; flowers clustered near the ends of the many 
branchlets; calyx -lobes 2 mm. long, shorter than the petals; 
filaments all filiform ; capsule narrowly linear-clavate, 12-18 mm. 

256 Loasaceae 

long; seeds usually in 1 row, short-prismatic, the 3 angles 
grooved, the sides faintly tuberculate. (M. albicaulis integrifolia 
Wats. ; M. dispersa Wats.) . ;; : 

Said to occur in our mountains, but not seen by us. 

2. M. affinis Greene. Stems stouter, 3-6 dm. high, simple 
and leafy below, widely branching above; leaves lanceolate, 
deeply sinuate-pinnate; flowers scattered, 12 mm. broad; calyx- 
lobes attenuate, subulate, 4-6 mm. long; filaments all filiform; 
capsule 2.5 cm. long, almost linear, hispid with short stiff hairs ; 
seeds prismatic, with grooved angles. 

Frequent in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and among the pines. 

3. M. micrantha T. & G. Rather slender, 3-6 dm. high, 
simple below, corymbosely and rather compactly dichotomous 
above ; leaves ovate, acute or acuminate, serrate or sinuate- 
toothed or entire, 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers small, shorter than 
the floral leaves; calyx-lobes 2 mm. long; petals oval, 3 mm. 
long; 5 outer stamens with dilated filaments; capsule cylindric 
or nearly so, 6-12 mm. long, few-seeded; seeds prismatic, with a 
very shallow groove, the sides faintly tuberculate. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt throughout our range. 

4. M. gracilenta T. & G. Stems rather stout, 3-4 dm. high, 
branching from the base; leaves narrowly lanceolate, pinnatifid, 
with many narrow lobes, or only sinuate-toothed ; flowers usually 
clustered ; calyx-lobes 4-10 mm. long ; petals obovate to oblanceo- 
late, 8-16 mm. long; filaments subulate-filiform ; capsule slightly 
clavate-dilated, 12-24 mm. long; seeds in 3 rows; irregularly 
angular, minutely tuberculate, 1.5 mm. long. 

Frequent on the plains and foothills and also on the sand-dunes along the 

** Petals usually 10, 25 mm. long or more. 

5. M. laevicaulis (Dougl.) T. & G. (BLAZING STAR.) Bien- 
nial; stem stout, erect, branched above, 6-10 dm. high, often 
white; leaves lanceolate, sinuate-toothed, 5-15 cm. long; flowers 
sessile on short branches, 6-8 cm. broad, light yellow, diurnal; 
calyx-tube naked; calyx-lobes 2.5 cm. long or more; petals 10, 
rarely 5, oblanceolate, acute; stamens numerous, about equaling 
the petals in length, the outer with dilated filaments; capsule 
3 cm. long; seeds many in double rows on the 3 placenta;, 

Datiscaceae 257 

horizontally flattened and winged, minutely tuberculate, 3 mm. 

Frequent in dry washes in our interior valleys and canyons. May-Sep- 


Ours smooth stout perennial herbs with unequally 
laciniate pinnatifid leaves, and small dioecious or some- 
times perfect flowers arranged in leafy racemes. Calyx 
of sterile flowers very short with 4-9 unequal lobes ; 
stamens 10-25, with short filaments. Pistillate flowers 
with calyx-tube ovoid, somewhat 3-angled, 3-toothed ; 
stamens when present 3, alternate with the teeth. Styles 
3, bifid, the linear lobes stigmatic on the inner side. 
Capsule 1-celled, opening at the apex between the styles. 
Seeds many, small, in several rows on the 3 parietal 
placentae ; embryo cylindric ; endosperm present. 


Characters of the family. 

1. D. glomerata (Presl) B. & W. Stems erect, 1-2 m. high, 
simple or sparingly branched; leaves ovate or lanceolate in out- 
line, acuminate, about 15 cm. long, the floral shorter; flowers 
4-7 in each axil of the long leafy raceme ; petals minute or want- 
ing; the fertile flowers perfect; anthers subsessile, 4 mm. long, 
yellow; styles exceeding the ovary; capsule oblong-ovate, 6-8 
mm. long, slightly narrowed toward the truncate, triangular, 
3-toothed summit. 

Frequent along the streams in all our mountains, mostly in the upper 
portions of the chaparral belt. 


Fleshy plants with flattened, terete, rigid or tuber- 
culed, continuous or jointed stems, leafless or with small 
leaves, generally spiny, the spines developed from cush- 
ions of minute bristles (areolse) . Flowers mostly solitary, 

258 Cactaceae 

sessile, terminal or lateral, perfect, regular and showy. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb many-lobed or 
with distinct sepals. Petals numerous in several rows, 
mostly distinct. Stamens numerous, inserted on the 
throat of the calyx, with filiform filaments and small 
anthers. Ovary 1-celled, with numerous anatropous 
ovules borne on several parietal placentae. Style ter- 
minal, elongated ; stigmas numerous. Fruit a berry, 
mostly fleshy. Seeds smooth or tubercled, the testa usu- 
ally crustaceous or bony ; endosperm scanty or copious. 

Spines never barbed; flower-bearing areolae distinct from those bearing the 

spines. 1. CEBEUS. 

Spines minutely barbed ; flowers from the same areolae as the spines. 


1. CEBEUS Haworth. 

Stems oval or cylindric, with the spine-bearing areolae 
on vertical ribs. Flowers from the older or fully de- 
veloped parts of the plant bursting through the epider- 
mis just above the bunches of spines, usually about as 
long as broad, sometimes elongated. Scales of the ovary 
distinct, with naked or woolly axils, or almost obsolete 
and the axils spiny. Berry succulent, covered with 
spines or scales, or nearly naked. Seeds black ; endo- 
sperm none ; embryo straight or curved. 

1. C. Emoryi Engelm. Stems spreading, branching from the 
base, cylindric, with 16-20 ribs, closely set with prominent hemi- 
spheric areolse, bearing numerous thin straight yellow interlocked 
spines; radials 40-50, very slender; central solitary, stouter and 
much longer; flowers greenish yellow, 3-6 cm. broad, crowded on 
one side near the end of the branches ; fruit globose, very spiny,, 
3.5 cm. in diameter; seeds obovate, acutely keeled, shining and 
minutely tuberculate, 2.4-2.8 mm. long. 

Said to occur from San Diego to the Salinas Valley, but we have not seen 
it north of San Diego. 

2. OPUNTIA Mill. 

Plants with flat or cylindric more or less tuberculate 
joints and conspicuous but caducous leaves. These each 

Cactus Family 259 

with an axillary pulvinus, which is usually clothed 
with soft wool intervened with barbed bristles at the 
upper edge and usually bearing spines at the lower edge. 
Flowers developed from the bristle-bearing part of the 
pulvinus, with rotate corollas. Ovary covered with 
caducous leaves bearing axillary wool and often bristles 
and spines. Fruit dry or succulent. Seeds large, flat- 
tened and discoid, often margined, whitish ; cotyledons 
foliaceous, curved about the endosperm. 

* Joints flattened. PRICKLY PEAR. 

1. O. Lindheimeri occidentalis (Engelm.) Coult. Erect and 
spreading, 1-3 m. high, usually forming thickets; joints often 3 
dm. long and 2 dm. wide; pulvini remote, about 4 cm. apart, 
with very fine closely set bristles, 1-3 white (dusky at base) de- 
flexed spines; fruit sour, very juicy; seeds 5-6 mm. broad, their 
margins crenulate. 

Frequent in our valleys and foothills from Los Angeles eastward. 

2. O. Lindheimeri littoralis (Engelm.) Coult. Erect or spread- 
ing, about 10 dm. high ; joints often 30-45 cm. long and 20-25 cm. 
wide; pulvini usually about 2.5 cm. apart; spines straw color 
(dusky at base), deflexed, slender; seeds 3-4 mm. broad, their 
margins undulate. 

Frequent on bluffs along the seashore. 

** Joints cylindric. 

3. O. Bernardina Engelm. Stems erect or nearly so, loosely 
branched, slender, 6-15 dm. high, with reticulate wood; joints 
cylindric, 7.5-30 cm. long, with slender oblong tubercles, 2.5-3 
cm. long ; pulvini with a dense row of very short, dark, more or 
less persistent bristles at upper edge ; spines yellow, the sheathed 
ones 4-5, 1-3 cm. long, the lowest longest and usually reflexed; 
and 4 appressed short radial ones mostly on lower edge of pul- 
vinus; flowers greenish yellow, tinged with red without, 2.5-4 
cm. broad; fruit ovate, less than 2.5 cm. long, at length dry; 
seed flat, 6 mm. broad, with a channeled commissure and con- 
spicuous persistent funiculus. 

Frequent on the interior plains east of Monrovia; also in the Santa Clara 
Valley, Ventura County. 

260 Lythraceae 

4. O. prolifera Engelm. Stems 1-3 m. high, much branched 
and often forming thickets, with reticulated wood ; joints cylin- 
dric, dark green, 7.5-15 cm. long, 3.5-5 cm. thick ; pulvini tomen- 
tose and the older with fine straw-colored bristles ; spines 8-10, 
variable, with large loose yellowish or rusty sheaths, 2.5-3.5 cm. 
long, 1 subcentral, the others stellate-spreading; flowers dark 
red, 3.5 cm. broad; fruit clavate to subglobose, strongly tubercu- 
late like the joints, often proliferous; seeds large, 6 mm. broad 
with broad commissure. 

Common about San Diego. Known in our region only at San Pedro, where 
it is growing on bluffs near the bay. 


Herbs or shrubs, often trees in tropical regions, mostly 
with opposite leaves and solitary or clustered perfect 
flowers. Stipules usually none. Calyx persistent, free 
from the ovary, but generally enclosing it, the limb 
toothed and often with accessory teeth in the sinuses. 
Petals as many as primary calyx-teeth or none. Sta- 
mens various, inserted on the calyx ; anthers versatile, 
longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 2-6-celled, or some- 
times 1-celled ; style 1 ; stigma capitate, 2-lobed ; ovules 
many, rarely few, anatropous. Capsule 1-several-celled, 
variously dehiscent or sometimes indehiscent. Endo- 
sperm none ; cotyledons flat, often auricled at base. 

Calyx-tube campanulate or hemispheric. 1. AMMANNIA. 

Calyx-tube cylindric. 2. LYTHRUM. 


Annual glabrous or glabrate herbs, mostly with 
4-angled stems, opposite sessile narrow leaves, and small 
axillary solitary or clustered flowers. Calyx campanu- 
late, globose or ovoid, 4-angled, 4-toothed, often with 
small accessory teeth in the sinuses. Petals 4, decidu- 
ous. Stamens 4-8, inserted on the calyx-tube ; fila- 
ments slender or short. Ovary enclosed in the calyx- 
tube, nearly globose, 2-4-celled, bursting irregularly. 

Onagraceae 261 

1. A. coccinea Rottb. Erect, glabrous, branching below, 
15-45 cm. high; leaves linear lanceolate, all obtusely cordate, 
auriculate, dilated at the somewhat clasping base, acuminate or 
acute at the apex, entire, 2. 5-7. 5 cm. long, 2-6 mm. broad ; flowers 
1-5 in each axil, sessile or nearly so ; petals purple, fugacious ; 
style very slender, more than half the length of the capsule. 

Soldiers Home, Basse. 


Herbs or shrubs with 4-angled stems, opposite, alter- 
nate or rarely verticillate entire leaves, and solitary 
cymose-paniculate and terminal flowers. Calyx-tube 
cylindric, 8-12-ribbed, with 4-6 primary teeth and as 
many accessory ones inthe si nuses. Petals 46, rarely 
wanting. Stamens 8-12, inserted on the calyx-tube. 
Capsule enclosed by the calyx, membranous, 2-celled, 
2-valved or bursting irregularly. Seeds flat or angular. 

1. L. Californicum T. & G. Stems erect from a perennial 
stoloniferous root, simple below, paniculately branched above; 
lower leaves lanceolate, the upper and floral linear, acute at 
apex, tapering below to a sessile base; calyx with 12 striae and 
very short teeth ; stamens not at all exserted and the style elon- 
gated, or the stamens much exserted and exceeding the short 

Common in damp ground along streams, both in the valleys and moun- 
tains. July- October. 


Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, with alter- 
nate or opposite leaves, no stipules or mere glands in 
their places, and axillary spicate or racemose, generally 
perfect regular or sometimes irregular flowers. Calyx- 
tube adnate to the ovary, often prolonged beyond, the 
limb 2-6-lobed, usually 4-lobed. Petals 2-9, mostly 4, 
convolute in the bud, rarely none. Stamens commonly 
as many or twice as many as the petals and inserted 
with them on the summit of the calyx-tube, or on the 

262 Onagraceae 

epigynous or perigynous disk. Ovary 1-6-celled, usually 
4-celled ; styles united ; stigma capitate, discoid or 
4-lobed ; ovules many in each cell. Fruit usually a 
capsule. Seeds mostly small, sometimes with a coma ; 
endosperm scanty or none ; embryo straight. 

Calyx- tube not produced above the ovary, its lobes persistent 

Calyx-tube usually produced above the ovary, the free portion and lobes 

Seeds comose. 

Flowers showy, scarlet. 2. ZAUSCHNERIA. 

Flowers small, white or purplish. 3. EPILOBIUM. 

Seeds naked. 

Anthers attached at or near the base and remaining erect. 

Flowers minute ; calyx-lobes erect. 4. BOISDUVALIA. 

Flowers showy ; calyx-lobes erect or united at the tip and turned to 

one side in anthesis. 

Petals distinctly clawed. 5. CLARKIA. 

Petals sessile. 6. GODETIA. 

Anthers attached in the middle and versatile. 
Capsule 4-celled. 

Stigma 4-lobed; calyx-tube much exceeding the capsule. 

Stigma capitate. 

Calyx-tube with a lobed disk at the throat. 

Calyx-tube naked at the throat. 9. SPHAEROSTIGMA. 

Capsule 2-celled; flowers minute. 10. GAYOPHYTUM. 


Perennial herbs with alternate, usually entire leaves, 
and white or yellow axillary solitary flowers. Peduncles 
mostly 2-bracted at the summit. Calyx-tube elongated, 
cylindric or prismatic, adnate to the ovary but not pro- 
longed beyond it, the limb 4-6-lobed, the lobes acute, per- 
sistent. Petals 4-6, rarely more, inserted under the 
margin of the disk. Stamens 8-12 in 2 rows, inserted 
with the petals ; filaments short. Ovary 4-6-celled ; 
stigma 4-6-lobed ; ovules many. Capsule linear, oblong 
or club-shaped, angular or ribbed, septicidally dehiscent. 
Seeds numerous. 

1. J. Californica (Wats.) Jepson. Perennial; stems stout, 
3-12 dm. long, floating or nearly prostrate on mud; leaves obo- 

Evening-primrose Family 263 

vate to obovate-oblong, or on the floating stems sometimes lance- 
olate, obtuse or acute, 2.5-6 cm. long, on petioles 1-2.5 mm. long; 
stipules gland-like or somewhat scale-like; flowers 12-16 mm. 
broad, deep yellow ; the petals obtuse; fruit 2.5 cm. long, spongy, 
indehiscent ; pedicel 1 cm. long or more. (/. repens Californica 
Wats. ; Ludwigia diffusa Californica Greene.) 

In stagnant water or muddy bottoms, in marshes toward the coast. 
Cienega ;Mesmer; Alamitos. 


Perennial herbs or somewhat suffrutescent plants , 
spreading by subterranean shoots. Leaves opposite, 
except those of the floral branches. Flowers racemose 
along the leafy branches, large, scarlet. Calyx-tube 
globose, inflated just above the ovary, then becoming 
funnelform, 4-lobed, bearing 8 small scales within at the 
upper end of the short proper tube, 4 erect and 4 reflexed. 
Petals 4, little exceeding the calyx-lobes, obcordate or 
deeply cleft. Stamens 8, the 4 alternate with the petals 
inserted lower down and appearing shorter ; anthers 
linear-oblong, attached by the middle. Style long, 
exserted ; stigma peltate or capitate, 4-lobed. Capsule 
slender fusiform, obtusely 4-angled, 4-valved, many- 
seeded. Seeds small, comose. 

1. Z. Californica microphylla Gray. Stems tufted, 5-10 dm. 
high, somewhat woody at base; herbage canescent with dense 
firm tomentum; leaves many, fascicled, narrowly linear, some- 
what mucronate ; flowers usually somewhat fascicled, 1-2 ter- 
minating the branchlets; calyx narrowly funnelform, 3 cm. 
long, its lobes lanceolate, about 1 cm. long; petals slightly ex- 
ceeding the calyx-lobes, rather deeply 2-lobed, narrowed toward 
the base, the lobes rounded at apex ; stamens about equaling the 

Frequent on dry hillsides in the foothills, mostly below 3000 feet. 

2. Z. Californica latifolia Hook. Stems herbaceous, 3-6 dm. 
high; herbage somewhat canescent; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
nearly smooth. 

This subspecies is common in the coniferous belt of the San Bernardino 

264 Qnagraceae 


Herbs or sometimes shrubby plants with alternate 
or opposite leaves, and axillary or terminal solitary or 
racemose flowers. Calyx-tube linear, produced beyond 
the ovary, the limb 4-parted, deciduous. Petals 4, 
mostly obovate or obcordate. Stamens 8, anthers oblong 
or linear, short. Ovary 4-celled ; united styles slender 
or filiform ; stigma club-shaped or 4-lobed. Capsule 
elongated, 4-sided, 4-celled, loculicidally dehiscent by 4 
valves. Seeds small, numerous, with a tuft of hairs 
(coma) at the summit. 

1. E. paniculatum Nutt. Stems erect at base, slender, terete, 
loosely dichotomously branched, glabrate at base, somewhat 
glandular-pubescent above or nearly smooth, 3-8 dm. high ; 
leaves chiefly fascicled and alternate, lanceolate or linear-lance- 
olate, acute, sparingly denticulate, tapering to a slender winged 
petiole, 3-5 cm. long, becoming smaller and bract-like above; 
flowers scattered toward the ends of the branches ; petals about 
& mm. long, violet; capsules fusiform, falcate, about 2 cm. long; 
seeds about 1 mm. broad, 2 mm. long, papillate. 

Frequent in dry ground in the foothills and mountains. June-August. 

2. E. holosericeum Trelease. Stems slightly woody, loosely 
branching, 5-8 dm. high, at least the upper leaves and branches 
<;anescent with subappressed hairs; leaves 5 cm. long, oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse or sometimes acute, undulately low-serrulate, 
narrowed, or abruptly contracted and then cuneately narrowed 
into short petioles; flowers in long succession along the elon- 
gated branches, pale, barely 5 mm. long; fruiting pedicels about 
1 cm. long; seeds short-beaked, very finely papillate, 0.4 mm. 
broad, 1 mm. long. 

Frequent 'in low ground in all our valleys. 

3. E. Californicum Haussk. Rather slender, 5-10 dm. high, 
somewhat branched above, glabrous below, the inflorescence and 
buds whitish with rather long coarse ascending hairs; leaves 
often 7-10 cm. long, lanceolate, subcordate, acute, remotely ser- 
rulate, rounded or acutely tapering to short petioles, soon gla- 
brous; petals 3-5 mm. long, rose-colored; fruiting peduncles 

Evening-primrose Family 265 

slender, sometimes nearly equaling the leaves; capsules some- 
what pubescent, at length nearly glabrous, about 5 cm. long; 
seeds faintly papillate, 0.4 mm. broad, 0.9 mm. long. 

In marshes near the coast. Cienega, Davidson; Alamitos. May-July. 

4. E. Parishii Trelease. Rather stout and intricately branched 
even from the base, 5-8 dm. high, glabrous below, the inflores- 
cence and capsules very sparingly, the young buds densely white- 
tomentose; leaves 25-75 mm. long, lanceolate, very obtuse or the 
reduced uppermost acutish, somewhat unequally or abruptly nar- 
rowed to slender more or less elongated petioles, rather thin and 
glabrous; flowers at length numerous, rose-colored; fruiting 
peduncles about 15 mm. long ; seeds short-beaked, 0.4 mm. broad, 
1-1. 25 mm. long. 

Common in damp land in the valleys and along streams below 4000 feet. 


Annual erect or decumbent rather rigid herbs, with 
numerous alternate sessile leaves, and small purple 
flowers in leafy-bracted spikes. Calyx-tube funnelform 
above the ovary, deciduous ; the lobes erect in flower. 
Petals 4, obovate-cuneiform, sessile, 2-lobed. Stamens 8, 
all perfect, unequal ; filaments slender, naked at base 
anthers oblong, fixed near the base. Ovary 4-celled, 
several-ovuled ; stigma-lobes short, somewhat cuneate. 
Capsule membranous, ovate-oblong to linear, nearly 
terete, acute, dehiscent at the base. Seeds in 1 row in 
each cell, naked and smooth. 

1. B. glabella (Nutt.) Walp. Usually much-branched, the 
branches decumbent or ascending, bluish green, densely soft- 
villous to glabrous; leaves about 12 mm. long or more, ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, serrulate, the upper similar; flowers in a ter- 
minal cluster and a few shorter lateral spikes, also occasionally 
in the lower axils, shorter than the subtending leaves; petals 
about 2 mm. long, violet; capsules rather slender, nearly straight, 
usually acute, about 7 mm. long, subterete, with 4 broad nerves 
or laterally somewhat 2-keeled, loculicidal ; seeds about 6 in each 
cell, subfusiform. about 0.35 mm. broad, 1 mm. long. 

Low ground. Santa Monica; Mesmer; San Diego. July-October. 

266 Onagraceae 

5. CLABKIA Pursh. 

Erect sparingly branched annuals with alternate 
petiolate leaves, and racemose or spicate flowers nodding 
in the bud. Calyx-tube more or less prolonged above the 
ovary, deciduous. Petals 4, clawed, often lobed or cleft. 
Stamens normally 8, those opposite the petals often 
sterile, rudimentary or wanting ; anthers oblong or 
linear, fixed by the base. Ovary 4-celled ; style elon- 
gated ; stigma 4-lobed, the lobes spreading. Capsule 
linear, alternate above, coriaceous, straight or somewhat 
curved, 4-angled, 4-valved to the middle. Seeds angled 
or margined. 

1. C. elegans Dougl. Glabrous or somewhat puberulent, 
glaucous, 3-15 dm. high, simple or somewhat branched, rather 
stout and rigid ; leaves broadly ovate to linear, repand-dentate ; 
petals entire, the rhomboidal limb about equaling the linear 
claw; filaments all perfect, with a densely hairy scale on each 
side at base ; capsule 1-2 cm. long, stout, sessile, 4-angled, some- 
what curved, often hairy. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt, especially toward the coast, extending 
south to San Luis Rey River. 

2. C. rhomboidia Dougl. Puberulent or glabrous, 3-10 dm. 
high, rather slender, branching above ; leaves thin, entire, ob- 
long-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 2.5-5 cm. long; blade of petal 
rhomboidal, the claw short, broad, often toothed; stamens all 
perfect, the filaments with hairy white scales at base ; capsules 
pedicellate, 16-24 mm. long, 4-angled, glabrous, curved near the 

Frequent in the pine belt of all our mountains. 

6. GODETIA Spach. 

Erect simple or branching annuals, with alternate 
entire or denticulate leaves, and mostly purple flowers, , 
showy in leafy spikes or racemes. Calyx-tube obconic 
or short-funnelform, deciduous. Petals 4, broad, sessile, 
entire, emarginate or cleft. Stamens 8, unequal, the fila- 

Evening-primrose Family 267 

ments opposite the petals shortest ; anthers perfect, 
elongated, basifixed, erect or arcuate-recurved. Ovary 
4-celled, many-ovuled ; style short ; stigma-lobes short, 
linear or roundish. Capsule ovate to linear, 4-sided, 
coriaceous, loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds in 1 or 2 rows, 
obliquely angled, the upper part tuberculate-margined. 

* Flowers erect in the bud. 

1. G. quadrivulnera Spach. Stems slender, 3-6 dm. high, 
puberulent ; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, entire or sparsely 
denticulate; calyx-tube obconic, 4-6 mm. long; petals purplish, 
often with a dark spot at summit, 6-12 mm. long ; stigma-lobes 
purple, short; capsule 12-18 mm. long, attenuate at apex, 
bicostate at the alternate angles, puberulent or somewhat vil- 

Common on dry hillsides and open places in the chaparral belt. 

2. G. viminea Spach. Stems erect, 3-6 dm. high, nearly or 
quite glabrous; leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, 2.5-5 cm. long; 
calyx-tube 4-6 mm. long; petals purple, 2-3 cm. long; stamens 
short, nearly equal ; stigma-lobes purple, linear-oblong ; capsule 
2-3 cm. long, somewhat bicostate on the sides, pubescent. 

Occasional in open grassy places in the foothills. 

** Flowers drooping in the bud. 

3. G. Bottae Spach. Stems erect, 3-6 dm. high, nascent parts 
puberulent, otherwise glabrous ; leaves linear-lanceolate, glabrous 
or sparsely puberulent, denticulate ; flowers abruptly reflexed in 
the bud; well developed bud about 2 cm. long, acutish ; petals 
pink, often paler below and specked with purple, mostly 2.5-3 
cm. long, cuneate, tapering from the truncate apex to the sessile 
base; stigma-lobes broadly obovate, usually purple; capsule 
linear, about 4 mm. long, not at all costate, its beak short and 
nearly as broad, cinereous with a short appressed pubescence. 

Common in the Santa Monica Mountains and in the foothills about Los 
Angeles. G. pulcherrima Greene is apparently the same, Dr. Greene having 
evidently confused this species with the next. 

4. G. Dudley-ana. Stems erect, simple below,' more or less 
branched above, 3-6 dm. high; herbage puberulent throughout 
with rather short curved hairs; leaves linear-lanceolate, entire 

268 Onagraceae 

or rarely faintly and remotely repand-denticulate ; flower-buds 
drooping, elliptic-ovate, tapering above to a rather long acuminate 
tip, 10-15 mm. long; calyx-tube 1.5-2 mm. long; petals obovate, 
truncate at the apex, abruptly tapering near the base to a short 
(2 mm. long) and narrow claw, 15-20 mm. long, pink, often with 
purple specks below the middle; stamens slightly unequal, the 
longest 12 mm. long, anthers yellow; style filiform, glabrous, 
12-14 mm. long; stigma-lobes oblong, 1.5 mm. long, yellow; cap- 
sule linear, abruptly tapering at base to a short pedicel, and at 
the apex to a slender beak, about 2.5 cm. long, each cell laterally 

Frequent in the upper portions of the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel 
Mountains. The type is the author's number 2625, collected in the Little 
Santa Anita Canyon at 2500 feet altitude. This species has been confused 
with G. Bottae, but it is much nearer G. hispidula Wats. 

5. G. epilobioides (Nutt.) Wats. Stems slender, somewhat 
branched above, 3-5 dm. high, glabrous or nearly so; leaves 
linear or linear-lanceolate; calyx-tube 4-6 mm. long; petals 
cream-colored or rarely faintly tinged with rose, 8-10 mm. long, 
rounded at apex or somewhat acutish ; stigma-lobes short ; cap- 
sule 15-25 mm. long, acuminate at apex, attenuate at base to a 
short base or nearly sessile, not costate. 

Common in the chaparral belt, especially toward the coast. First col- 
lected by Nuttall at San Diego. 

7. ONAGB-A Adans. 

Annual or biennial caulescent herbs with mostly 
erect stems. Leaves alternate, undulate or toothed, ses- 
sile or somewhat petioled. Flowers yellow, nocturnal, 
in terminal spikes. Calyx-tube elongated, terete, gradu- 
ally enlarged at the throat ; the segments narrow, the 
tips free in the bud. Petals 4, spreading. Stamens 
many, equal in length ; filaments filiform ; anthers 
linear. Ovary 4-celled ; styles united, filiform ; stigma 
4-cleft ; ovules numerous, in 2 or more rows, horizontal. 
Capsule 4-celled, 4-angled, more or less tapering, locu- 
licidally dehiscent. Seeds more or less prismatic-angled. 

Evening-primrose Family 269 

1. O. Hookeri (T. & G.) Small. Biennial; stem reddish, 
stout, angular, 1-2 m. high, herbage canescently pubescent and 
somewhat villous; leaves lanceolate, sessile, acute, obscurely 
denticulate, calyx-tube 3 cm. long; the segments nearly as long; 
petals about 4 cm. long, obcordate, pale yellow, turning to rose 
color; stigma-lobes yellow, spreading; capsule 2 cm. long, ses- 
sile, canescent with a fine close pubescence; seeds brown, 1 mm. 
long, faintly striate, not wing-angled. ((Enothera biennis hirsu- 
tissima Gray.) 

Frequent in moist ground, usually along streams, both in the valleys and 
mountains. May-August. 

8. EULOBUS Nutt. 

A smooth erect annual with alternate leaves and 
middle-sized flowers ; sessile along the virgate branches. 
Calyx-tube scarcely at all produced beyond the ovary, 
the limb 4-partecl, reflexed. Petals 4, rhombic-ovate, 
sessile^ pale yellow turning reddish. Stamens 8 ; anthers 
oblong, attached near the middle. Ovary 4-celled ; 
stigma capitate. Capsule linear, elongated, 4-angled, 
4-valved, imperfectly 4-celled, reflexed. Seeds numerous, 
ovate-oblong, naked. 

1. E. Californicus Nutt. Stem 3-10 dm.. high, rather stout, 
simple or w r ith a few spreading virgate branches ; leaves linear. 
2.5-5 cm. long, sinuately pinnatifid, with numerous unequal 
divaricate acute teeth ; calyx-tube prolonged less than 1 mm. 
above the ovary; petals 8-10 mm. long, pale yellow or nearly 
white; capsule 6-10 mm. long; seeds 3-angled. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt throughout our range. 


Annual or perennial herbs with erect branching or 
spreading stems, the bark often exfoliating and shiny. 
Leaves alternate, entire or dentate, petioled or sessile. 
Flowers solitary in the axils or in terminal spikes, usu- 
ally yellow, rarely white or rose color, often with a 
brownish spot at the base, turning green or reddish in 

270 Onagraceae 

age. Stamens 8 ; anthers versatile, oblong. Style fili- 
form ; stigma capitate. Ovary 4-celled, usually linear, 
4-angled, often contorted, membranous, sessile, dehiscent 
loculicidally. Seeds in 1 row in each cell. 

* Flowers yellow, axillary. 

*- Capsule more or less contorted. 

"Flowers more than 1 cm. broad. 

1. S. viridescens (Lehm.) Walp. Silvery-canescent, with a 
short and dense appressed pubescence; branches prostrate or 
ascending, 3-8 dm. long, somewhat woody ; leaves rather thick, 
spatulate-oblong or linear-oblong to ovate-cordate, sessile, usually 
entire, 2 cm. long or more; petals 12-16 mm. long, turning green- 
ish in age; anthers linear-oblong, fixed below the middle; cap- 
sule short-pubescent. (CEnothera viridescens Lehm.; CE. chei- 
ranthifolia suffruticosa Wats.) 

Common on the sand-dunes along the seashore. Flowering nearly through- 
out the year. 

2. S. spirale (Lehm.) Walp. Steins herbaceous, prostrate or 
ascending, 3-6 dm. long; leaves rather thick, spatulate to ovate- 
cordate, the lowest short-petioled, entire or dentate, more or less 
hirsute; calyx-pubescent; petals 8-12 mm. long, turning red or 
tawny in age ; anthers linear-oblong, fixed in the middle ; cap- 
sule acutely 4-angled, hirsute. (CE. cheiranthifolia of Bot. Cal.) 

With the last but less common. 

3. S. bistorta (Nutt.) Walp. Stems prostrate or ascending, 
2-5 dm. long; leaves thinner, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, the 
upper mostly sessile and rounded or cordate at base, all denticu- 
late or dentate; calyx hirsute; petals 8-14 mm. long; capsule 
8-18 mm. long, 2 mm. wide or more; beak very short. (CE. 
bistorta Nutt.) 

Very common in sand-washes about San Diego, where it was first col- 
lected by Nuttall; extending north to Santa Barbara. 

4. S. Veitchianum (Hook.) Small. Stems decumbent or 
ascending, 2-4 dm. long ; leaves linear-oblong, lanceolate or ovate, 
more or less hirsute; calyx hirsute; petals 10-15 mm. long; cap- 
sule 2.5-4 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, attenuate into a long beak. 
(CE. bistorta Veitchiana Hook.) 

Very common in all our valleys in sandy soil. 

Evening-primrose Family 271 

++-H- Flowers less than 1 cm. broad. 

5. S. hirtellum (Greene) Small. Stems stoutish, erect, sim- 
ple or with a few ascending branches from the base, 15-30 cm. 
high, the herbage purplish, short-hirsute ; radical leaves oblanceo- 
late, denticulate ; stem leaves ovate, sessile, coarsely toothed and 
more or less undulate-crisped ; petals 4 mm. long or more ; capsule 
hirsute, narrow, attenuate upwards, once or twice coiled. (CE. 
hirtella Greene.) 

Frequent in the foothills and mountains. 

6. S. micranthum (Hornem.) Walp. Stems prostrate or 
ascending, 1-4 dm. long; leaves all narrowly oblanceolate to 
linear-oblong, hirsute, 3-5 cm. long, dentate, acutish, some- 
what undulate; petals 2-4 mm. long, often emarginate ; capsule 
4-angled, contorted, sparsely hirsute. (CE. micrantha Hornem.) 

Frequent on the sand-dunes along the seashore, but not strictly maritime 
as reported by some, for it is also frequent in sandy soil in all our valleys. 

--<- Capsule not contorted. 

7. S. contortum (Dougl.) Walp. Slender, erect-spreading, 
15-45 cm. high, somewhat pubescent with short appressed or 
incurved white hairs ; leaves about 12 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, 
acutish, denticulate; subsessile ; petals 3 mm. long, turning deep 
red; anthers roundish, basifixed ; capsule about 2 cm. long, 
sessile, straight or arcuate, scarcely attenuate at apex. (CE. 
strigulosa T. & G.) 

Common in sandy soil in the valleys and foothills toward the coast. 

8. S. contortum Greenei Small. Stems erect, usually simple 
below, more or less hirsute pubescent and somewhat viscid, other- 
wise as the type. (CE. strigulosa epilobioides Greene.) 

The common form in the interior valleys and foothills. 

9. S. campestre (Greene) Small. Branched from the base, 
15-30 cm. high and as broad, more or less hirsute-pubescent 
throughout; leaves linear-lanceolate, 2.5 cm. long, dentate; 
petals 8-10 mm. long, turning brick-red; anthers linear-oblong, 
1.5 mm. long, fixed toward the middle and versatile; pods more 
than 2.5 cm. long, narrowly linear, slightly incurved with a slen- 
der beak. (CE. dentata Wats, not Cav.) 

Hills and mountains of San Bernardino County; common in the San 
Joaquin Valley. 

272 Onagraceae 

10. S. campestre Parishii. Much resembling the type in 
habit; cinereous throughout with a short appressed pubescence, 
not at all hirsute; petals about 8 mm. long; pods very slender, 
often much contorted. 

Plains about San Bernardino, Parish. The type of this apparently good 
subspecies was collected by Parish near San Bernardino in May, 1900, and 
is in the author's herbarium. 

** Flowers white or rose color, in loose spikes. 

11. S. alyssoides (H. & A.) Small. Erect or with few 
ascending branches from the base, 1-3 dm. high, canescently 
puberulent; leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, narrowed 
into a slender petiole, repand-denticulate or entire, 2.5-5 cm. 
long; spike elongated, many-flowered; petals rose-purple, 4-8 
mm. long, capsule 2-5 cm. long, slender, attenuate above, con- 
torted ; seeds ash color, minutely pitted. (CE. alyssoides H. & A.) 


Erect very slender diffusely branching annuals, with 
alternate linear entire leaves and axillary white or 
purplish flowers. Calyx-tube not prolonged above the 
ovary, the 4-parted deciduous limb reflexed. Petals 4. 
Stamens 8, the alternate ones usually minute and sterile ; 
filaments filiform ; anthers subglobose, fixed near the 
middle. Ovary oblong or linear, compressed, 2-celled ; 
stigma capitate or clavate. Capsule membranous, cla- 
vate, 4-valved. Seeds few-many, in 1 row in each cell, 
smooth, naked, mostly oblong. 

1. G. ramosissimum T. & G. Stem intricately dichotomous 
with filiform branches 15-60 dm. high, glabrous below, appressed 
canescent above or rarely with spreading hairs throughout ; leaves 
mostly narrow, usually appressed against the branches; petals 
nearly white, turning rose color, 1-2 mm. long; stigma about 0.4 
mm. in diameter; capsule about 1 mm. thick, oblong to subcla- 
vate, often torulose, erect or refracted on filiform pedicels; seeds 
nearly erect in a single series, papillate, 0.5 mm. broad, 1.3 mm. 

Common in the pine belt in all our mountains. 

Haloragidaceae 273 

G. PUMILUM Wats. A lower, less branched species with nearly 
sessile capsules; seeds very oblique in the cells, smooth. 

Not known within our limits, but occurs in Bear Valley and similar 
places in the San Bernardino Mountains. 


Perennial or rarely annual herbs, mainly aquatic, 
with alternate or verticillate leaves, the submerged ones 
often pectinate-pinnatifid. Flowers perfect or monoe- 
cious or dioecious, axillary in interrupted spikes, solitary 
or clustered. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb 
entire or 2-4-lobed. Petals small, 2-4 or none. Sta- 
mens 1-8. Ovary ovoid-oblong or short cylindric, 
2-8-ribbed or winged, 1-4-celled ; styles 1-4 ; stigmas 
papillose or plumose. Fruit a nutlet or drupe, com- 
pressed, angular, ribbed or winged, indehiscent, of 2-4 
1-seeded carpels. Endosperm fleshy ; cotyledons minute. 

Ovary 1-celled. 1. HrppURis. 

Ovary 4-celled. 2. MYRIOPHYLLUM. 


Aquatic herbs with simple erect stems and verticillate 
entire leaves. Flowers small, axillary, perfect or some- 
times neutral or pistillate. Limb of the calyx minute, 
entire. Petals none. Stamens 1, inserted on the margin 
of the calyx. Style filiform, stigmatic its whole length, 
lying in a groove of the anther. Fruit a small 1-celled, 
1-seeded drupe. 

1. H. vulgaris L. Stem slender, glabrous, 2-5 dm. high ; leaves 
linear or lanceolate, acute, sessile, 1-20 mm. long, in crowded 
verticils of 6-12; stamens with a short thick filament and com- 
paratively large 2-celled anthers, dehiscent by lateral slits ; seeds 
ovoid; stigma persistent. 

Not known within our limits, but occurring in the San Bernardino Moun 

274 Araliaceae 


Aquatic herbs with verticillate or alternate leaves, the 
emersed ones entire, dentate or pectinate, the submerged 
ones pinnatifid into capillary segments. Flowers axil- 
lary, often interrupted-spicate, commonly monoecious, 
2-bracted. The upper flowers generally staminate with 
very short calyx-tube, the limb of this 2-4-lobed or 
wanting; petals 2-4; stamens 4-8. Intermediate flowers 
often perfect. The lower pistillate, the calyx more or 
less deeply 4-grooved, with or without minute lobes ; 
ovary 2-4-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous ; styles 
4, short, often plumose. Fruit splitting at maturity into 
4 bony, 1-seeded, indehiscent carpels. 

1. M. spicatum L. Submerged leaves in whorls of 4's and 
5's, dissected into capillary divisions ; floral leaves ovate, entire 
or serrate, usually shorter than the flowers or sometimes none ; 
spike 2.5-7.5 cm. long; petals 4, deciduous; stamens 8; fruit 
about 2 mm. long and 3 mm. thick ; carpels rounded on the back, 
with a deep groove between them, smooth or rarely slightly 

Occasional in deep pools or lakes in all our mountains. 


Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate or verticillate 
rarely opposite leaves, and perfect or polygamous, vari- 
ously clustered flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, 
its limb truncate or toothed. Petals usually 5, valvate or 
slightly imbricate, sometimes cohering together, inserted 
on the margin of the calyx. Stamens as many as the 
petals and alternate with them, rarely none, inserted on 
the epigynous disk ; filaments filiform or short ; anthers 
introrse. Ovary inferior, 1-several-celled ; styles as 
many ; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous, anatropous. 
Fruit a berry or drupe. Seeds flattened or somewhat 
3-angled ; the testa thin ; endosperm copious ; embryo 

Umbelliferae 275 

1. AR-ALIA L. 

Perennial herbs or shrubs, with alternate digitate or 
compound leaves, and small flowers in a mostly simple 
umbel, these either solitary, racemed or panicled. Pedi- 
cels jointed. Bracts small. Calyx 5-toothed or entire. 
Petals 5, ovate, slightly imbricate. Stamens 5. Disk 
depressed or rarely conical. Ovary 2-5-celled ; styles 
free or united at base, becoming divaricate ; stigmas ter- 
minal. Fruit laterally compressed, becoming 3-5-angled, 
fleshy externally ; endocarp chartaceous. 

1. A. Californica Wats. (CALIFORNIA SPIKENARD.) Herba- 
ceous, unarmed and nearly glabrous, stout, 2-4 m. high, from a 
large thick root ; leaves bipinnate or the upper pinnate, with 1-2 
pairs of leaflets, these cordate-ovate, 10-20 cm. long or more, 
shortly acuminate, simply or doubly serrate with short acute 
teeth ; uppermost leaves ovate-lanceolate ; umbels in loose, ter- 
minal and axillary, compound or simple racemose panicles which 
are 3-6 dm. long, more or less glandular-tomentose ; rays numer- 
ous, 8-12 mm. long ; involucres of several linear bractlets ; flowers 
3-4 mm. long; disk and stylopodium obsolete; styles united to 
the middle; fruit about 4 mm. long, reddish, becoming nearly 

Frequent in canyons above 2000 feet. May-July. 


Herbs with alternate decompound, compound or some- 
times simple leaves, the petioles often dilated at the 
base, the stems usually hollow. Stipules none or rarely 
present and minute. Flowers small in compound or 
simple umbels or rarely in heads, often polygamous. 
Umbels and umbellets commonly involucrate or involu- 
cellate. Calyx-tube wholly adnate to the ovary, its mar- 
gin truncate or 5-toothed. Petals 5, inserted on the mar- 
gin of the calyx, usually with an inflexed tip. Stamens 
5, inserted on the epigynous disk ; filaments filiform ; 

276 Umbelliferae 

anthers versatile. Ovary inferior, 2-celled ; styles 2, 
filiform, distinct, often borne on a conic or depressed 
stylopodium ; ovules 1 in each cell, pendulous, anatrop- 
ous. Fruit dry, composed of 2 carpels, separating at 
maturity along the plane of their contiguous faces (com- 
missure); either flattened laterally (at right angles to 
the commissure), or dorsally (parallel with the commis- 
sure), or nearly terete. Carpels after parting supported 
on a slender axis (carpophore), more or less ribbed or 
winged. Pericarp membranous or corky-thickened, usu- 
ally containing oil-tubes between the ribs and on the 
commissural side. Seeds usually adnate to the pericarp, 
their inner faces flat or concave ; endosperm cartilagi- 
nous ; embryo small. 

Flowers in dense, usually rather spiny heads. 4. ERYNGIUM. 

Flowers umbellate. 

Fruit covered with hooked bristles. 3. SANICULA. 

Fruit with bristles only on the ribs. 

Bristles barbed at tip. 22. DAUCUS. 

Bristles short, neither hooked nor barbed. 5. WASHINGTONIA. 

Bristles hooked. 6. CAUCALIS. 

Fruit not bristly. 

Oil-tubes obsolete or obscure. 

Leaves decompound. 8. CONIUM. 

Leaves simple. 

Fruit strongly flattened laterally. 1. HYDKOCOTYLE. 

Fruit not strongly flattened laterally. 2. BOWLESIA. 

Oil-tubes distinct. 

Fruit strongly flattened dorsally. 
Flowers white. 

Caulescent. 18. SPHENOSCIADIUM. 

Accaulescent or nearly so. 19. LOMATIUM. 

Flowers yellow. 

Plants leafy-stemmed. 21. PASTINACA. 

Plants with mostly basal leaves. 

Leaflets large, sharply toothed. 20. EUBYPTERA. 

Leaflets narrow or small, not sharply toothed. 


Fruit not strongly flattened dorsally, usually flattened laterally. 
Oil- tubes solitary in the intervals. 
Stylopodium conical. 

Flowers yellow. 17. FOENICULUM 

Flowers white. 

Leaflets, at least the upper, linear or filiform. 

13. CABUM. 
Leaflets broader. 12. CICUTA. 

Carrot Family 277 

Stylopodium flat or wanting. 
Ribs thick and corky. 

Dorsal ribs filiform. 16. OENANTHE. 

All the ribs prominent and corky. 11. APIUM. 
Ribs obscure or obsolete. 7. APIASTBUM. 

Oil-tubes more than 1 in the intervals. 

Stylopodium conic. 15. BERULA. 

Stylopodium flat or wanting. 

Seed-face involute, inclosing a central cavity. 


Seed face deeply sulcate. 9. DEWEYA. 

Seed-face plane. 14. SIUM. 


Low herbaceous perennials growing in or near water, 
with slender creeping stems, orbicular peltate or reni- 
form leaves, and small white flowers in simple or prolif- 
erous umbels, without involucres. Calyx-teeth minute 
or obsolete. Fruit more or less orbicular, strongly flat- 
tened laterally. Carpel with 5 primary ribs, broad or 
filiform. Oil-tubes wanting or obscure. 

1. H. umbellata L. Descending branches of the rootstocks 
with round tubers ; leaves orbicular-peltate, crenate ; peduncles 
as long as the petioles; umbels many-flowered, simple, rarely 
slightly proliferous; pedicels 4-12 mm. long; fruit with a thin 
pericarp except at the broad thick corky dorsal and lateral ribs, 
strongly notched, 2 mm. long, about 3 mm. broad, with dorsal 
ribs prominent but obtuse. 

Frequent on borders of marshes and streams. Apparently more common 
in the interior valleys. 

2. H. ranunculoides L. Floating or creeping in mud; leaves 
round-reniform, 3-7-cleft, with crenate lobes; peduncles much 
shorter than the petioles, reflexed in fruit ; umbel capitate, 5-10- 
flowered; fruit corky, thickened throughout, ribs all filiform, 
rather obscure. 

Common in pools or slow-running streams, especially toward the coast; 
extending south at least as far as San Diego. 

2. BOWLESIA R. & P. 

Slender branching annuals with stellate pubescence, 
opposite simple lobed leaves, scarious lacerate stipules, 

278 Umbelliferae 

and simple few-flowered umbels of white flowers on axil- 
lary peduncles. Calyx-teeth rather prominent. Fruit 
broadly ovate with narrow commissure and stellate 
pubescence. Carpels turgid, becoming depressed on the 
back, with neither ribs nor oil-tubes ; the whole dorsal 
region inflated, the seed-cavity being on the commissural 
side of the carpel. Seed flattened dorsally, the face and 
back plane or convex. 

1. B. septentrionalis C. & R. Stems weak, 0.5-6 dm. long, 
dichotomously branching; leaves thin, cordate to reniform, 1.5-3 
cm. broad, 3-5-lobed, the lobes entire or toothed, on long slender 
petioles; umbels 1-4-flowered, on short peduncles; fruit about 2 
mm. long, sessile or nearly so. (B. lobata of recent authors, not 
of R. & P.) 

Common throughout our range in the valleys and foothills, usually grow- 
ing on shaded slopes. 


Smooth perennial herbs with almost naked or few- 
leaved stems, palmate or sometimes pinnate leaves with 
more or less pinnatifid or incised lobes, involucre and 
involucels, and greenish yellow or purple flowers in irreg- 
ularly compound few-rayed umbels. Calyx-teeth some- 
what foliaceous, persistent. Fruit subglobose, densely 
covered with hooked bristles or tuberculate. Carpels 
without ribs. Stylopodium wanting. Oil-tubes mostly 
large, 5 (3 dorsal and 2 commissural) or in ours 3-many 
and irregularly distributed. Seed-face plane to deeply 
concave or sulcate. 

* Leaves palmately divided. 

1. S. Menziesii H. & A. Stem solitary, erect, 3-10 dm. high, 
branching; leaves round-cordate, 5-10 cm. broad, very deeply 
3-5-lobed, the broad segments sharply toothed or somewhat cleft, 
the teeth bristle-tipped ; upper leaves more narrowly lobed and 
laciniately toothed; rachis scarcely winged; umbel with 3-4 

Carrot Family 279 

slender rays ; involucre of 2-3 small leaf-like bracts ; involucels 
of 6-8 small entire bractlets; flowers yellow, the sterile ones 
short-pedicelled ; fruit sessile but distinctly stipitate, obovate, 2-4 
mm. long, covered with strong bristles; seed-face sulcate. 
Frequent in the foothills in moist woods. 

2. S. arguta Greene. Stems more or less branching, 1.5-4.5 
dm. high, from a thickened rootstock ; leaves palmately 5-parted, 
the middle division elongated and distinct, all the divisions more 
or less palmately lobed and toothed, decurrent upon the rachis, 
forming a broad toothed wing, teeth spinosely pointed ; umbel 
3-5-rayed; involucre of leaf-like bracts; involucels of linear to 
linear-lanceolate spinosely pointed bractlets ; flowers yellow, the 
sterile ones on pedicels 3-4 mm. long; fruit obovate, tapering 
into a stipitate base, somewhat naked below, more bristly above, 
6 mm. long. 

Frequent on grassy hillsides and mesas, extending from Santa Barbara 
to San Diego. 

3. S. laciniata H. & A. Usually slender, branching from the 
base, 1-6 dm. high; leaves broadly ovate-orbicular in outline, 
from slightly 3-lobed to deeply 3-parted, the divisions from toothed 
to laciniately cut, with bristle-tipped teeth; umbel 3-5-rayed; 
involucre of leaf-like bracts ; involucels of small apiculate bract- 
lets; flowers yellow; fruit orbicular, not at all stipitate, 3 mm. 

Rather common on hillsides and in open places in the chaparral belt. 

4. S. Nevadensis Wats. Low, with very short stems, the 
numerous stoutish peduncles arising from near the base, 2 dm. 
high or less; leaves ternate, the divisions oblong-ovate, 3-5-lobed, 
the segments lobed or toothed; umbels with 3-10 rays; involucre 
of pinnatifid leaf-like bracts ; involucels of small, oblong, acute, 
more or less united bractlets; fruiting rays 1.5-3.5 cm. long; 
flowers yellow, the sterile ones on pedicels 2-3 mm. long; fruit 
bristly all over, 3 mm. long; seed-face concave. 

Occasional in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and pine belt. 
Santiago Peak, Santa Ana Mountains ; San Bernardino Mountains. 

* Leaves pinnately divided. 

5. S. bipinnatifida Dougl. Stems 3 dm. or more high, from a 
thickened rootstock, with usually a cluster of leaves at the base, 
and 1-3 leaves above ; leaves pinnately 3-7-parted, the divisions 

280 Umbelliferae 

incisely toothed or lobed, decurrent on the rachis, and forming a 
toothed wing ; teeth acute or slightly pointed ; umbel with 3-4 
elongated rays ; involucre of leaf-like bracts ; involucels of small 
narrow acute bractlets ; flowers purple, in dense heads, the sterile 
ones pedicelled; fruit bristly all over, 3 mm. long; seed-face 
broadly concave with a prominent central longitudinal ridge. 
Occasional on grassy hillsides. 

6. S. bipinnata H. & A. Slender, 2-4 dm. high, from a slender 
fusiform root; leaves twice or thrice pinnate, with divisions not 
at all decurrent on the rachis, cuneate-oblong to ovate, incisely 
and mucronately toothed; umbel 3-4-rayed; involucre of leaf- 
like bracts; involucels of a few small bractlets more or less 
united; flowers yellow; fruit 3 mm. long, with strong tubercles 
tipped with short hooked bristles ; seed-face deeply sulcate, some- 
times inclosing a central cavity, with a central longitudinal 

Los Angeles River, San Fernando Valley; Oak Knoll, Pasadena 

7. S. tuberosa Torr. Stems 1-6 dm. high from a small globose 
tuber; leaves twice or thrice pinnate, usually very finely divided, 
ultimate segments very small ; umbel 1-4-rayed ; bracts leaf-like; 
bractlets unequal, united ; flowers yellow, the sterile ones on long 
pedicels; fruit broader than long, rather strongly flattened later- 
ally for the genus, 2 mm. long, tuberculate and not at all bristly ; 
seeds somewhat laterally flattened, with plane face. 

Occasional in open places in the foothills. 


Glabrous perennials, with often rigid coriaceous spi- 
nosely toothed or divided leaves, and white or blue flowers 
sessile in dense bracteate heads. The outer bracts form 
the involucre, the inner bractlets intermixed with the 
flowers represent the involucels. Sepals prominent, 
rigid, persistent. Fruit ovoid, flattened laterally, covered 
with hyaline scales or tubercles. Carpels with ribs 
obsolete. Stylopodium wanting ; styles short or long, 
often rigid. Oil-tubes mostly 5, 3 dorsal and 2 commis- 
sural. Seed-face plane. 

1. E. Parishii C. & R. Stems slender, much branched, erect 
or spreading, 1-4 dm. long; basal leaves simple or pinnate, the 

Carrot Family 281 

blades or segments laciniate-toothed or cleft, tapering into a long 
more or less spinosely toothed petiole; inflorescence beginning 
near the base, diffusely branching ; the heads on very short ped- 
uncles, nearly globose, about 6 mm. long; bracts very narrow, 
rigid, 12-18 mm. long, with a few spinose bristles at the base, not 
at all scarious-margined ; bractlets about the size of the bracts, 
short, scarious-margined below, broadening upward to a short 
lobe on each side, the margined base inclosing the fruit and fall- 
ing with it; sepals ovate, scarious-margined, 1.5 mm. long, 
tapering to a cuspidate bristly tip ; styles longer than the sepals. 
In low heavy ground toward the coast. First collected by Parish near 


Glabrous or hirsute perennials from thick aromatic 
roots, with ternately decompound leaves and white or 
purple flowers in few-fruited umbels. Calyx-teeth obso- 
lete. Fruit linear to linear-oblong, more or less attenu- 
ate at base, acute or beaked at apex, glabrous or bristly 
on the ribs. Carpels slightly or not at all flattened 
dorsally. Stylopodium conic, sometimes depressed. Oil- 
tubes obsolete in mature fruit, often numerous in young 
fruit. Seed-face from slightly concave to deeply sulcate. 

1. W. brachypoda (Torr.) Heller. Stems rather stout, 3-9 
dm. high, pubescent or sometimes glabrous; leaves ternately 
compound; leaflets 2-3 cm. long, acute, laciniately lobed or 
toothed; umbel 1-6-rayed; involucre and involucels of linear 
bracts, the latter equaling or exceeding the flowers; rays, 3.5-10 
cm. long; pedicels 1-2 mm. long; fruit 12-16 mm. long, 4 mm. 
wide, short-attenuate at base, rough-bristly on the very prom- 
inent ribs; stylopodium and style 3 mm. long; the former broad 
and somewhat depressed ; seed-face very concave, nearly inclosing 
a central cavity. (Osmorhiza brachypoda Torr.) 

Occasional in all our mountains on shady slopes. 


Mostly hispid annuals with pinnately dissected leaves 
and white flowers. Calyx-teeth prominent, Fruit ovate 
or oblong, flattened laterally. Carpel with 5 filiform 

282 Umbelliferae 

bristly primary ribs and 4 prominent winged secondary 
ones, with barbed or hooked bristles. Stylopodium thick, 
conic. Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals under the 
secondary ribs, 2 on the commissural side. Seed-face 
deeply sulcate. 

1. C. microcarpa H. & A. Erect slender, 1-3 dm. high, more 
or less hispid ; leaves much dissected, the segments small ; um- 
bels at the ends of the stem and branches, very unequally 3-6- 
rayed ; involucre of foliaceous divided bracts ; involucels of entire 
or somewhat divided bractlets ; rays slender, 7.5 cm. long or less ; 
pedicels very unequal ; fruit oblong, 4-6 mm. long, armed with 
rows of hooked prickles ; the primary lateral ribs near margin of 
commissural face. 

Frequent in sandy or stony places in the valleys and mountains below the 
pine belt. 

2. C. nodosa Hudson. Stems erect with few branches, re- 
trorsely scabrous ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets bipinnately dissected ; 
umbels scattered along the stems opposite the leaves on very 
short peduncles, simple or with supplementary short proliferous 
umbel; fruit 1-4 mm. long, the outside of the umbel with the 
exterior carpel densely covered with hooked bristles, the inner 
carpel as well as the inner fruits smooth or with tubercles. 

Oak Knoll, near Pasadena, McClatchie. 


Very slender smooth branching annuals, with finely 
dissected leaves having filiform or linear segments, and 
small white flowers in naked unequally few-rayed 
umbels. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit ovate or cordate, 
with obscure or obsolete ribs, more or less tuberculate. 
Carpel with thin pericarp. Stylopodium minute, de- 
pressed ; styles short. Oil-tubes solitary in the inter- 
vals and beneath the ribs, 2 on the commissural side. 
Seed-face narrowly concave or sulcate. 

1. A. ang-ustifolium Nutt. Slender, 0.5-3 dm. high, usually 
much branched ; leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, biternately or triternately 
divided, with linear or nearly filiform segments; umbels sessile; 

Carrot Family 283 

rays from 2.5 cm. long to wanting; pedicels 12 mm. long or want- 
ing; fruit with narrow commissure, cordate in outline, 1 mm. 

Common in sandy soil in the foothills and valleys. 


Tall biennial glabrous herbs with spotted stems, pin- 
nately decompound leaves, and small white flowers in 
compound many-rayed umbels. Involucre and involu- 
cels of ovate acuminate bracts. Calyx-teeth obsolete. 
Fruit broadly ovate, glabrous, somewhat flattened later- 
ally. Carpels strongly many-ribbed. Large oil-tubes 
none, but with a layer of oil-secreting tissue next the 
deeply concave seed. 

1. C. maculatum L. Erect, much branched, 6-15 dm. high ; 
lower and basal leaves petioled, the upper sessile or nearly so, all 
pinnately dissected, the leaflets ovate in outline, thin, the ulti- 
mate segments dentate or incised ; petioles dilated and sheathing 
at the base; umbels 2.5-7.5 cm. broad; rays slender, 2.5-4 cm. 
long; pedicels filiform, 4-6 mm. long in fruit; fruit 3 mm. long, 
its ribs very prominent when dry. 

Occasional in waste places, especially in damp ground. 

9. DEWEYA T. & G. 

Caulescent plants with simply pinnate leaves, mostly 
no involucre, involucels of few linear bractlets, and 
yellow flowers. Calyx-teeth prominent. Fruit oblong, 
flattened laterally, glabrous. Carpel with 5 prominent 
very acute ribs. Stylopodium none. Carpophore divided. 
Oil-tubes several in the intervals and on the commissural 
side. Seeds nearly terete, the face deeply sulcate. 

1. D. arguta T. & G. Glabrous, 3-7.5 dm. high, rarely acau- 
lescent; leaves simply pinnate; petioles of the lowest pair of 
leaflets sometimes prominent, giving a divaricate appearance ; 
leaflets 5-7, ovate, 2.5-7.5 cm. long, the lowest often subcordate, 
finely and sharply mucronate-serrate, the terminal and the lowest 

284 Umbelliferae 

often 3-lobed; umbel 12-16-rayed ; rays 5-9 cm. long; pedicels 
short, 3-10 mm. long; fruit oblong, smooth, 8 mm. long; oil- 
tubes 3-5 in the intervals, 4-6 on the commissural side. ( Velaea 
arguta C. & R.) 

Frequent in dry open ground in the chaparral belt. 


Caulescent or acaulescent plants with usually ter- 
nately compound leaves and yellow flowers. Calyx-teeth 
evident or wanting. Fruit orbicular, flattened laterally, 
glabrous or pubescent. Carpel with 5 slender filiform 
ribs. Stylopodium none. Carpophore variable, oil- 
tubes several in the intervals and on the commissual 
side. Seeds nearly terete, the inner face with a narrow 
and deep sulcus, which enlarges into a central cavity. 

1. D. Parishii C. & R. Glabrous throughout, nearly acaules- 
cent, 3-4 dm. high; leaves thickish, ternate-pinnatifid, the seg- 
ments ovate, irregularly cuspidate-toothed and lobed; umbel 
20-rayed, with no involucre; bractlets few, setaceous; rays 5-7.5 
cm. long; pedicels about 4-7 mm. long; calyx-teeth prominent; 
fruit oblong, glabrous, 6-7 mm. long; carpophore 2-parted; oil- 
tubes 3-4 in the intervals, 4-5 on the commissural side. ( Valaea 
Parishii C. & R.) 

Occasional in the Santa Monica and San Gabriel Mountains. 

11. APIUM L. 

Annual or perennial glabrous herbs with pinnate or 
pinnately compound leaves and white or greenish yellow 
flowers in compound umbels. Calylx-teeth obsolete. 
Stylopodium depressed or short-conic. Fruit ovate or 
broader than long, smooth or tuberculate. Carpels 
mostly with prominent ribs, somewhat 5-angled. Oil- 
tubes mostly solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commis- 
sural side. Seed terete or nearly so. 

1. A. graveolens L. Glabrous; stems erect, 3-9 dm. high, 
several-leafed; leaves pinnate, the basal and lower ones long- 

Carrot Family 285 

petioled, the upper short-petioled or nearly sessile, thin, broadly 
ovate to oval, coarsely toothed and often incised, 1-3 cm. long; 
umbels opposite the leaves and terminal, 3-7-rayed; involucre 
and involucels small or none ; flowers minute, white, very short- 
pedicelled; fruit oval, scarcely 1 mm. long, the ribs somewhat 

Common in low marshy places. 


Smooth poisonous marsh perennials with pinnately 
compound leaves and serrate leaflets and white flowers. 
Calyx-teeth rather prominent. Fruit flattened laterally, 
oblong to orbicular, glabrous. Carpel with strong flat- 
tish corky ribs, the lateral ribs largest without strength- 
ening cells. Stylopodium low, sometimes low-conic. 
Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commissural 
side. Seed nearly terete or somewhat dorsally flattened, 
with face plane to slightly concave. 

1. C. occidentalis Greene. Stout, 9-18 dm. high; rootstock 
short, giving rise to slender roots above and a fascicle of thick 
and elongated ones below; leaves twice pinnate; leaflets from 
linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5-8 cm. long, sharply serrate and 
conspicuously reticulate beneath ; fruit oblong, 3 mm. long, con- 
stricted at the commissure, the ribs apparently equal, but laterals 
largest in section, the intervals broad; oil-tubes large. 

Frequent in marshes toward the coast. 

13. CABUM L. 

Smooth erect slender herbs with tuberous or fusiform 
fascicled roots, pinnate leaves with few linear leaflets, 
and white flowers. Calyx-teeth prominent for the size 
of the fruit. Fruit flattened laterally, orbicular to 
oblong, glabrous. Carpel with filiform or inconspicuous 
ribs. Stylopodium conic. Oil-tubes large and solitary 
in the intervals, 2-6 on the commissural side. Seed 
dorsally flattened, more or less sulcate beneath the 
tubes, the face plane or slightly concave. 

286 Umbelliferae 

1. C. Gairdneri (H. & A.) Gray. Stem 3-12 dm. high from 
fascicled tuberous or fusiform roots ; leaves few, usually simply 
pinnate, with 3-7 linear-filiform leaflets, 5-15 cm. long; umbels 
6-15-rayed ; bracts several or none ; bractlets linear, acuminate ; 
rays 2.5-4 cm. long; fruit broadly ovate or nearly orbicular, 1-2 
mm. long, with small ovate calyx-teeth, low conic stylopodium 
and long slender styles ; seed terete. 

Occasional along borders of marshes. 

2. C. Ijemmoni C. & R. Resembling the last, but fruit oblong, 
tapering somewhat at base and apex, 3 mm. long and 2 mm. 
broad, with conspicuous ribs, each of which contains a small 
group of strengthening cells; calyx-teeth prominent, concealing 
the stylopodium ; styles long and slender. 

Occasional in marshes toward the coast. 

14. SIUM L. 

Smooth perennials growing in water or wet places, 
with pinnate leaves, serrate or pinnatifid leaflets, involu- 
cres and involucels of numerous narrow bracts, and 
white flowers. Calyx-teeth minute. Fruit flattened 
laterally, ovate to oblong, glabrous. Carpel with promi- 
nent corky nearly equal ribs. Stylopodium depressed ; 
styles short. Oil-tubes 1-3 in the intervals. Seed sub- 
angular, with plane face. 

1. S. cicutaefolium Gmel. Stout, 6-8 dm. high; leaflets 
3-8 pairs, linear-lanceolate, sharply serrate and mostly acumi- 
nate, 5-13 cm. long, lower leaves sometimes submersed and finely 
dissected; umbel many-rayed; rays 2.5-4 cm. long; pedicels 2-6 
mm. long; fruit 3 mm. long, with prominent ribs; oil-tubes 2-6 
on the commissural side. 

Oak Knoll, McClatchie. 

2. S. heterophyllum Greene. Stems stout, angular and flexu- 
ose, I'm. high; lowest leaves with a single lamina which is 
rather broadly rhombic-lanceolate, serrate or laciniate-cleft, 5-20 
cm. long; petiole stout, fistulose; the other leaves 3-lobed or 
divided and passing to the truly pinnate, with 2 pairs of broadly 
lanceolate, acute, serrate leaflets ; bracts broadly lanceolate, taper- 
ing at both ends ; fruit 3 mm. long, strongly ribbed. 

Near Pasadena, Davidson. 

Carrot Family 287 

15. BERTJLA Hoffm. 

Smooth aquatic perennial herbs with simple pinnate 
leaves, variously cut leaflets, and small white flowers. 
Calyx-teeth minute. Fruit flattened laterally, nearly 
round, emarginate at base, glabrous. Carpel nearly glo- 
bose, with very slender inconspicuous ribs, thick corky 
pericarp and no strengthening cells. Stylopodium 
conic. Oil-tubes numerous and contiguous, closely sur- 
rounding the seed-cavity. Seed terete. 

1. B. erecta (Huds.) Coville. Erect, 1.5-9 dm. high;' leaflets 
5-9 pairs, linear to oblong or ovate; serrate to cut-toothed, often 
laciniate-lobed, sometimes crenate, 1-7.5 cm. long ; umbels many- 
rayed; rays 5 cm. long or less ; bracts usually conspicuous; bract- 
lets narrow; pedicels 4-6 mm. long; fruit scarcely 2 mm. long. 

Occasional along watercourses. 


Mostly aquatic glabrous herbs with succulent stems, 
pinnate or decompound leaves, and usually involucrate 
umbels of white flowers. Calyx-teeth rather prominent. 
Fruit globose, slightly flattened laterally if at all, gla- 
brous. Carpel semiterete in section, with broad obtuse 
corky ribs ; laterals the largest ; a band of strengthen- 
ing cells investing the seeds and oil-tubes. Stylopodium 
very short-conic, with elongated styles. Oil-tubes soli- 
tary in the intervals, 2 on the commissural side. Seed 
sulcate beneath each oil-tube. 

1. O. sarmentosa Californica (Wats.) C. & R. Succulent stems, 
6-15 dm. high ; leaves ternate and biternate ; leaflets approximate, 
acute or acutish, toothed, often lobed at base, 1-2.5 cm. long; 
umbels many; bracts few, linear or none; bractlets similar, 
more numerous; rays 2.5 cm. long or less; pedicels numerous, 
short; fruit about 4 mm. long, with commissural face as well as 
ribs very corky. 

Frequent along slow-running streams. 

288 Umbelliferae 


Erect biennial or perennial glabrous herbs, with pin- 
nate compound leaves, linear or capillary leaflets, and 
compound umbels of yellow flowers. Involucre and in- 
volucels none. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals obtuse or 
slightly retuse at the apex. Stylopodium long, conic. 
Fruit linear-oblong, glabrous, terete or nearly so. Car- 
pels half terete, dorsally flattened, prominently ribbed. 
Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals. Seed-face flat or 
slightly concave. 

1. F. Foeniculum (L.) Karst. Perennial, branched, 7-20 
dm. high; leaves very finely dissected into capillary segments; 
petioles broad, clasping ; umbels large, 9-25-rayed ; rays glaucous, 
2.5-7.5 cm. long in fruit; pedicels 2-8 mm. long, slender; fruit 
about 6 mm. long. (F. vulgare Gaertn.) 

In waste places and along streets. Native of Europe. 


Nearly simple thick-rooted perennials, with stout 
stems glabrous up to the tomentose umbel, once or twice 
pinnate leaves with bladdery dilated petioles, and scari- 
ous white or purplish flowers sessile on an enlarged 
receptacle and forming a compact head. Calyx-teeth 
obsolete. Fruit flattened dorsally, cuneate-obovate, hir- 
sute. Carpel strongly flattened at base, winged above, 
the dorsal and intermediate wings narrow, the lateral 
broader. Stylopodium small and conic or flat in flower. 
Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2 on the commis- 
sural side. Seed-face plane. 

1. S. capitellatum Gray. Very stout, 3-14 dm. high; leaves 
large and glabrous .; the leaflets oblong to linear-lanceolate, 2.5-5 
cm. long, with rather few laciniate teeth or lobes, more, or less 
entire below ; umbel equally 4-15-rayed, with globose umbellets 
of sessile pubescent flowers ; bractlets few, deciduous ; rays 2.5-5 
cm. long; fruit cuneate-obovate, about 5 mm. long. 

Cienega, Davidson. 

Carrot Family 289 

19. LOMATIUM Raf. 

Acaulescent or short caulescent dry-ground perennials, 
with fusiform or tuberous roots, ternate sometimes pin- 
nate to dissected leaves, no involucre, and yellow, white 
or purple flowers. Calyx-teeth usually obsolete. Fruit 
strongly flattened dorsally, oblong to orbicular. Carpel 
with filiform and approximate dorsal and intermediate 
ribs, and winged laterals coherent until maturity with 
those of the other carpel ; pericarp thin with strengthen- 
ing cells beneath each rib. Stylopodium wanting. Oil- 
tubes 1-several in the intervals, rarely obsolete, 2-10 on 
the commissural side. Seed dorsally flattened with 
plane or rarely slightly concave face. (Peucedanum.) 

1. L. utriculatum (Nutt.) G. &'R. Caulescent or nearly acau- 
lescent, csespitose to 3 dm. high or more, from a more or less 
thickened root, puberulent or glabrous ; petioles very broadly 
dilated; leaves ternately or pinnately decompound, with ulti- 
mate segments narrowly linear 12 mm. or less long; umbel 
unequally 5-20-rayed; bracts much dilated, mostly obovate, often 
toothed ; rays 5 cm. long or less ; pedicels 4-10 mm. long ; flowers 
yellow; fruit broadly elliptic, glabrous, 4-10 mm. long, 2-7 mm. 
broad, with wings nearly as broad as the body, and prominent 
dorsal and intermediate ribs; oil-tubes large, solitary in the 
intervals, 4-6 or sometimes 2-3 on the commissural side, very short 
accessory ones in the intervals ; seed-face somewhat concave. 

Frequent on the mesas and grassy foothills. 

2. !L. Vaseyi C. & R. Short, caulescent, 15-20 cm. high; 
slightly pubescent ; petioles wholly inflated ; leaves small; 2.5-5 
cm. long, bipinnate, with the small ovate segments irregularly 
3-5-lobed; umbel equally 2-5-rayed ; bractlets obovate, petiolu- 
late, toothed; rays 2.5 cm. long; pedicels 2-4 mm. long; flowers 
yellow; fruit broadly oblong, emarginate, glabrous, 12-14 mm. 
long, 8 mm. broad, with wings twice as broad as the body, and 
mostly prominent dorsal and intermediate ribs ; oil-tubes solitary 
in the intervals, 4 on the commissural side. 

Frequent in heavy soil on the mesas throughout our range. 

290 Umbelliferae 

3. L. dasycarpum (T. & G.) C. & R. Very short, caulescent 
or acaulescent, with several stout peduncles, 1.5-3 cm. long, from 
a common root, tomentose-pubescent ; leaves rather small, pin- 
nately decompound, with numerous short linear segments ; umbel 
somewhat equally 6-15-rayed ; bractlets linear to ovate, more or 
less tomentose; rays 2.5-7.5 cm. long; pedicels 6-10 mm. long; 
flowers white ; fruit nearly orbicular, coarsely pubescent, becom- 
ing almost glabrous, 8-14 mm. long, 7-12 mm. broad, with thin 
membranous wings, broader than the body, and filiform dorsal and 
intermediate ribs ; oil-tubes large and solitary in the intervals (an 
occasional secondary one in the lateral intervals), 4 on the commis- 
sural side ; seed deeply sulcate beneath the oil-tubes, with plane 

Occasional on dry hillsides, especially in the interior region. 

20. EUBYPTEBA Nutt. 

Acaulescent or caulescent glabrous perennials, with 
elongated roots, branching only from the base, leaves 
once or twice compound, with usually broad sharply 
toothed leaflets. Flowers yellow. Calyx-teeth minute 
or obsolete. Fruit strongly flattened dorsally, orbicular 
to shortly oblong. Carpel with filiform ribs, and with 
broadly winged laterals, these often distinct at base 
and becoming cordate or emarginate, cohering until 
maturity with those of the other carpel ; pericarp thin. 
Stylopodium wanting ; disk impressed. Oil-tubes 1-sev- 
eral in the intervals. Seed strongly dorsally flattened, 
with plane face. 

1. E. lucida Nutt. Short, caulescent, glabrous, rather stout, 
1.5-5 dm. high; leaves ternate; leaflets broadly cordate, some- 
what lobed, coarsely mucronate-toothed, 1-2.5 cm. long; umbel 
equally 8-15-rayed ; bractlets lanceolate ; rays 1-5 cm. long ; peoli- 
cels 12 mm. long; fruit nearly orbicular, emarginate at each end, 
glabrous, 10-14 mm. in diameter, with wings more than twice as 
broad as the body, and prominent dorsal and intermediate ribs; 
oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, 2-4 on the commissural side. 
Occasional on dry ground in the chaparral belt in all our mountains. 

Carrot Family 291 

2. E. Hassei C. & R. Caulescent, stout, 6 dm. high or more, 
glabrous and somewhat glaucous, from a long slender woody 
root; leaves biternate on very long petioles (sometimes 2.5dm., 
including petiole) ; leaflets broadly ovate with cuneate base, irreg- 
ularly lobed, coarsely mucronate-toothed, 2. 5-10 cm. long, becom- 
ing 6 cm. broad; umbel long-peduncled, equally 8-18-rayed; 
bractlets varying from rather short linear-setaceous to oblanceo- 
late, foliaceous, entire or toothed and much exceeding the pedi- 
cels; rays 5-10 cm. long; pedicels 12-16 mm. long; fruit as in 
the last. 

" Sierra Madre Canyon," Hasse. We have seen no specimens that answer 
the description of this plant, but forms of the last found in the Santa 
Monica Mountains seem to approach it. No doubt it will be found to be only 
a robust form of the last species. 


Tall erect mostly bieniiial branching herbs, with thick 
roots, pinnate leaves, and compound umbels of yellow 
flowers. Involucre and involucels commonly none. 
Calyx-teeth obsolete. Stylopodium depressed. Fruit 
oval, glabrous, much flattened dorsally ; dorsal and in- 
termediate ribs filiform, the lateral winged, coherent 
with those of the other carpel and forming a broad mar- 
gin to the fruit. Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, and 
2-4 on the commissural side. Seed very flat. 

1. P. sativa L. Usually biennial, glabrous or somewhat 
downy-pubescent, 6-15 dm. high ; the root long conic, fleshy ; 
lower and basal leaves petioled, pinnate, often 4.5 dm. long; leaf- 
lets rather thin, ovate or oval, obtuse, sessile, lobed or incised 
and sharply dentate, 2-6 mm. long; upper leaves generally much 
reduced ; umbels several or numerous, 5-15 cm. broad, 7-15-rayed ; 
the rays slender, 1-5 cm. long; pedicels very slender, 6-12 mm. 
long in fruit; fruit broad, the dorsal and intermediate ribs not 
prominent, but the oil-tubes conspicuous. 

Rather frequent in marshes, especially toward the coast. 

22. DAUCUS L. 

Bristly annuals or biennials, with pinnately "decom r 
pound leaves, foliaceous and cleft involucral bracts, 

292 Cornaceae 

entire or toothed bractlets, and usually white flowers in 
concave umbels which become connivent in fruit. 
Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit oblong, flattened dorsally. 
Carpel with 5 slender bristles, primary ribs and 4-winged 
secondary ones, each bearing a single row of prominent 
barbed prickles. Stylopodium depressed or wanting. 
Oil-tubes solitary in the intervals, under the secondary 
ribs, 2 on the commissural side. Seed flattened dorsally,, 
the face somewhat concave or almost plane. 

1. D. pusillus Michx. Stems mostly simple, papillate, hispid > 
2.5-60 cm. high; leaves finely dissected into narrowly linear seg- 
ments ; umbels unequally few-many-rayed, forming a rather 
compact head; rays 1-3.5 cm. long; pedicels very unequal ; fruit 
3-5 mm. long. 

Frequent in open dry ground in the chaparral belt and on the planes 
throughout our range. 

2. D. Carota L. (WILD CARROT.) Hispid, usually biennial, 
erect, 3-9 dm. high, the root fleshy, deep conic; lower and basal 
leaves 2-3-pinnate ; leaflets linear or lanceolate, dentate, lobed or 
pinnatifid; upper leaves smaller, less divided; bracts parted into 
linear or filiform lobes; umbels 5-10 cm. broad; rays numerous, 
crowded, 1-5 cm. long; the outer ones longer than the inner ^ 
pedicels very slender, 2-4 mm. long in fruit; flowers usually 
white, the central one of each umbel often purple; fruit 3-4 mm. 
long, bristly on the winged ribs. 

Occasional in waste places. 


Trees or shrubs or rarely herbs, with simple and entire 
opposite or rarely whorled leaves, and flowers in cymes 
or spikes, perfect or dioecious. Calyx-tube adnate to 
the ovary, its limb 4-5-dentate or 4-5-lobed or none. 
Petals generally 4 or 5, sometimes wanting, usually valv- 
ate spreading, inserted at the base of the epigynous 
disk. Stamens as many as the petals or more numerous, 
inserted with them ; filaments subulate or flat. Ovary 

Dogwood Family 293 

inferior, 1-2-celled ; styles 1 or 2 ; ovules pendulous. 
Fruit a drupe or berry, 1-2-seeded. 

Flowers perfect; petals present. 1. CORNUS. 

Flowers dioecious ; petals wanting. 2. GARRYA. 


Shrubs or trees or rarely herbs, with simple mostly 
entire and usually opposite, rarely verticillate leaves, 
and small flowers in cymes or heads, the latter involu- 
crate with large white bracts. Calyx-limb minutely 
4-toothed. Petals 4, valvate. Stamens 4. Ovules 1 in 
each cell. Drupe ovoid or globose, the stone 2-celled 
and 2-seeded. 

1. C. occidentalis (T. & G.) Coville. Shrub, 2-5 m. high, 
with smooth purplish branches ; leaves ovate to oblong-elliptic, 
acute or somewhat acuminate, shortly cuneate at base, 5-10 cm. 
long, paler beneath and more or less pubescent with loose silky 
hairs, especially on the veins ; cyme spreading, round-topped, 3-5 
cm. broad; fruit white, subglobose; stone 5 mm. broad, some- 
what compressed, furrowed on the edges. (C. pubescens Nutt.) 

Occasional in moist ground, especially in the mountains, but reported from 
Cienega by Davidson. 


Evergreen shrubs with 4-angled branchlets, opposite 
entire coriaceous leaves, the short petioles connate at 
the base, and dioecious apetalous flowers in axillary 
aments, solitary or in 3's between the decussately con- 
nate bracts. Calyx of staminate flowers 4-parted, with 
linear valvate segments. Stamens 4, with distinct fila- 
ments. Disk and ovary none. Pistillate flowers with 
the calyx-limb shortly 2-lobed or obsolete. Disk and 
stamens none. Ovary 1-celled ; ovules 2 ; styles 2, stig- 
matic on the inner side, persistent. Berry ovoid, 

294 Pyrolaceae 

1. G. Palmeri (Wats.) Eastwood. An erect, branch- 
ing shrub, 18-25 dm. high ; branchlets sparsely pubescent with 
close appressed silky hairs when young, becoming smooth with 
age; petioles short, 2-6 mm. long; leaves coriaceous, oval or 
oblong-ovate, slightly undulate or entire, acute at apex and aris- 
tate, rounded or cuneate at base, glabrous or nearly so above, 
densely tomentose beneath with matted hairs, 2.5-5 cm. long; 
bracts prominent, acute or acuminate, the lower foliaceous ; fruit 
cuneate at base, the lower short-pedicelled, densely silky, becom- 
ing glabrate ; calyx-teeth prominent and close to the base of the 
styles. (G. flavescens Palmeri Wats.) 

Rather frequent in the upper portions of the chaparral belt of the San 
Antonio and Cuyamaca Mountains. January. 

2. G. Veatchli undulata Eastwood. Leaves elliptic or ellip- 
tic-ovate, obtuse or aristate at apex, cuneate at base, the margins 
undulate; fruit densely clustered, concealing the upper bracts; 
calyx-teeth hidden in dense wool and some distance below the 
base of the styles. 

Occasional on Mount Wilson and Mount Lowe. 

3. G. pallida Eastwood. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
acute and with a recurved mucro, entire, sparsely silky-pubes- 
cent beneath, with straight upwardly appressed pubescence; 
racemes short; bracts about 3 mm. long; calyx-teeth close to the 
base of the styles and concealed in the young fruit by dense hairs. 

Santa Ana Mountains, where it was collected by the author on the trail to 
Santiago Peak. 


Low mostly very green perennials, with branched 
rootstocks, simple petioled leaves, and nearly regular 
white or purple perfect flowers, racemose solitary or 
corymbose. Calyx 4-5-lobed. Corolla very deeply 
4-5-parted, or of 5 distinct petals. Stamens twice as 
many as the divisions of the corolla, the anthers introrse 
in the bud, inverted at anthesis, opening by pores or 
short slits ; pollen grains in 4's. Ovary superior, 
4-5-celled ; style short or slender, often declined ; stigma 
5-lobed or 5-crenate ; ovules very numerous, anatropous. 

Ericaceae 295 

Capsule loculicidally dehiscent. Seeds very numerous, 
minute, the loose cellular coat much larger than the 
almost undifferentiated embryo. 


Perennial herbs with decumbent stems, ascending 
leafy branches, opposite or verticillate evergreen short- 
petioled serrate leaves, and spreading or nodding white 
or purplish flowers in terminal corymbs or rarely soli- 
tary. Pedicels mostly bracteolate. Calyx 5-cleft or 
5-parted, persistent. Petals 5, concave, nearly orbicular, 
sessile, spreading or recurved. Stamens 10, the filaments 
usually dilated above and somewhat pubescent. Ovary 
globose, 5-lobed, 5-celled ; styles very short, obconic ; 
stigma large, orbicular, 5-crenate. 

1. C. Menziesii Spreng. More or less branched from the 
base, 1-2 dm. high; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 12-36 mm. 
long, sharply serrulate, the upper surface often mottled with 
white ; peduncle 1-3-flowered ; bracts ovate or roundish ; fila- 
ments slender, with a round dilated portion above the middle, 
villous; flowers about 1 cm. in diameter. 

Mount Wilson under pines. Frequent in the San Antonio, San Bernardino 
and Cuyamaca Mountains. 

SARCODES SANGUINEA Torr. (SNOW-PLANT.) Stems stout, red- 
dish, 15-35 cm. high, more or less glandular-pubescent, clothed 
with firm fleshy scales, the upper narrower, passing into the 
linear bracts, these ciliate-margined, exceeding the flowers; 
corolla cylindraceous-campanulate, 5-lobed, persistent; stamens 
10, unappendaged ; ovary 5-lobed, 5-celled. 

Frequent in the coniferous forests of the San Antonio and San Bernardino 
Mountains above 7000 feet. This interesting parasitic plant belongs to the 
closely related family Monotropaceae. 


Shrubs, perennial herbs or trees, with simple exstipu- 
late leaves, and mostly perfect sympetalous or rarely 

296 Ericaceae 

choripetalous flowers. Calyx free from the ovary, 
4-5-parted or 4^5-cleft, mostly persistent. Corolla regu- 
lar or rarely somewhat 2-lipped and Irregular, usually 
4-5-toothed, lobed or divided. Stamens hypogynous, 
usually as many or twice as many as the corolla-lobes ; 
filaments mostly separate ; anthers 2-celled, attached to 
the filament by the back or base, the sacks often pro- 
longed above into tubes, dehiscent by terminal pores or 
chinks, often awned. Disk crenate-lobed or often none. 
Ovary usually 2-5-celled ; style elongated or short ; 
stigma peltate or capitate : ovules usually numerous, 
anatropous. Fruit a capsule, berry or drupe. Seeds 
numerous or sometimes only 1 in each cavity ; endo- 
sperm fleshy. . 

Fruit granular, baccate. 1. ARBUTUS. 

Fruit not granular, smooth or pubescent, drupaceous. 



Trees or shrubs, with evergreen and coriaceous alter- 
nate petiolate leaves, and white or flesh-colored small 
flowers in a terminal cluster of racemes or panicles. 
Bracts and bractlets scaly. Calyx small, 5-parted. 
Corolla urceolate with 4-5 small recurved teeth. Ovary 
on an hypogynous disk, 4-5-celled ; ovules crowded on a 
fleshy placenta projecting from the inner angles of each 
cell. Style rather long ; stigma obtuse. Fruit a many- 
seeded berry. 

1. A. Menziesii Pursh. (MADRONO.) Commonly 5-10 in. 
high; bark exfoliating, deep red; leaves glabrous, elliptic or 
ovate, green above, glaucous beneath, 5-10 cm. long, entire or 
those of young shoots denticulate; petioles about 1 cm. long; 
flowers in an ample terminal panicle or dense racemes ; berry 
fleshy, red, subglobose, 8-10 mm. in diameter, surface granular. 

Mount Wilson and Sturtevant trails at about 3000 feet altitude, and in 
Los Tunas Canyon, Santa Monica Mountains. 

Heath Family 297 


Shrubs or small trees with evergreen coriaceous alter- 
nate leaves, an.d small white or rose-colored flowers, in 
racemes, spikes or panicles. Bracts and bractlets present, 
scale-like. Ovules solitary in the cells, which become 
bony nutlets or combine into a few-several-celled stone. 
Fruit a drupe with a hard surface and a mealy or almost 
bony pulp between it and the nutlets. 

* Leaves plane, alike or nearly alike on both sides. 
*- Ovary and pedicels smooth or glabrate. 

1. A. Manzanita Parry. Shrubby or arborescent, 2-8 m. 
high ; bark mahogany-red, exfoliating, twigs and petioles minute- 
ly tomentose-pubescent ; leaves dull green, commonly vertical by 
a twist in the short petiole, rigid, ovate-oblong, glabrous on both 
surfaces, 2.5-5 cm. long; petioles 6-10 cm. long; bracts less than 
4 mm. long; pedicels smooth, corolla pinkish; ovary smooth; 
fruit irregularly depressed-globose, 8-12 mm. broad, reddish 
brown ; nutlets irregularly separable, rough-carinate. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains. More common in the San Ber- 
nardino Range. In both confined mostly to the upper portions of the chapar- 
ral belt. 

2. A. patula Greene. Diffusely branched shrub, 1-1.5 m. 
high ; young twigs rusty puberulent or nearly smooth ; leaves 
smooth, bright green, ovate to broadly cordate, 2-5 cm. long, 
entire, obtuse ; bracts lanceolate ; pedicels smooth ; fruit smooth, 
depressed-globose, about 6 mm. in diameter ; nutlets united into a 
deeply lobed stone. 

Occasional on dry ridges in the open pine woods of the San Antonio and 
San Bernardino Mountains, 5000-8000 feet altitude. 

-*--*- Ovary and pedicels tomentose or glandular-pubescent. 

3. A. tomentosa Dougl. Shrubby, erect, 1.5-3 m. high, twigs, 
foliage and pedicels minutely tomentose when young, the twigs 
often also hispid with scattered hairs ; leaves glaucescent, paler 
and tomentose beneath, ovate to elliptic, entire or some times 
denticulate; bracts conspicuous, folraceous, usually exceeding 
the short pubescent or somewhat hispid pedicels; ovary densely 

298 Primulaceae 

hirsute, 7-10-celled ; fruit hirsute, minutely roughened ; nutlets all 
separate or some united in pairs. 

Common in all our mountains in the upper chaparral belt. The common 
form in the San Gabriel Mountains is usually more or less glandular and 
must be referred to A. glandulosa Eastwood; but all gradations occur, so that 
it does not seem possible to separate them. 

4. A. glauca Lindl. Shrubby, erect, 3-6 m. high, smooth 
throughout; leaves glaucous, ovate, entire or denticulate; bracts 
foliaceous, conspicuous ; pedicels stout, glandular-pubescent ; ovary 
viscid-glandular, 6-8-celled; fruit dark red, very viscid; stone 
with longitudinal ridges, sharply apiculate. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains. More common in the San 
Antonio and San Bernardino Ranges. 

5. A. Pringlei Parry. An erect, branching shrub, 1.5-2 m. 
high ; twigs and petioles hispid and glandular-pubescent ; leaves 
ovate to obovate, mucronate, rough, with ciliate margins, on 
petioles 4-8 mm. long ; infloresence in dense divaricate panicles ; 
bracts linear-lanceolate ; pedicels slender, 10-15 mm. long, glan- 
dular pubescent ; calyx-lobes lanceolate, densely glandular, ovary 
glandular-hispid; nutlets consolidated into a rough carinate 
stone, or separable. 

Occasional in the pine belt of the San Bernardino, San Jacinto and Cuya- 
maca Mountains. 

** Leaves revolute, smooth above, tomentose beneath. 

6. A. bicolor (Nutt.) Gray. Shrub, 1-2 m. high ; leaves ovate 
or oblong, 4-6 cm. long, margins entire, strongly revolute, gla- 
brous above, white tomentose beneath, short-petiolate ; inflores- 
cence in few-flowered compact racemes; bracts stout, pedicels 
lanceolate; calyx-lobes and ovary tomentose; fruit globose, 6-8 
mm. in diameter, dark brown, puberulent or smooth; nutlets 
united into a round solid, nearly smooth stone. 

Frequent in the foothills of western San Diego County. Reported from 
Catalina Island. 


Herbs with alternate opposite or basal leaves and per- 
fect regular flowers in terminal or axillary racemes 
spikes umbels or corymbs, or solitary in the axils. 

Primrose Family 299 

Calyx free from the ovary, usually 5-parted ; persistent 
or rarely deciduous. Corolla sympetalous, usually 5-cleft, 
the lobes (in ours) spreading or reflexed. Stamens as 
many as the corolla-lobes and opposite them, inserted 
on the tube or at the base of the ovary ; anthers introrse, 
attached by their backs to the filaments, 2-celled, longi- 
tudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 1-celled ; placenta 
central, free ; style 1 ; stigma simple, capitate. Capsule 
2-6-valved ; valves erect, entire or 2-clef t. Seeds few or 
many endosperm present. 

Sterile filaments alternate with the corolla-lobes. I. SAMOLUS. 
Sterile filaments wanting. 

Flowers axillary on leafy stems. 2 ANAGALLIS. 

Flowers in umbels at the ends of scapes. 3. DODKCATHEON. 


Low glabrous herbs with alternate entire leaves and 
small white flowers in loose racemes. Calyx 5-cleft, its 
base coherent with the lower part of the ovary. Corolla 
campanulate, 5-cleft, with a slender tooth borne at each 
sinus. Stamens 5, short and' included, inserted on the 
tube of the corolla. Capsule globular, 5-valved at the 
summit, many-seeded. 

1. S. floribundus H. B. K. Erect or ascending, branched at 
least at the base, 15-45 cm. high ; leaves membranous, 25-75 mm. 
long, obovate, obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base into pet- 
ioles, the basal often rosulate; flowers small, less than 2 mm. 
broad, usually numerous, in loose elongated panicled racemes; 
pedicels filiform, spreading, bracteolate near the middle; calyx- 
lobes acute, shorter than the corolla; capsule 2-3 mm. in diame- 
ter, the 5 apical valves spreading at maturity. (S. Valerandi 
Americanus Gray.) 

Occasional along watercourses. Lytle Creek; San Bernardino Valley. 


Annual or perennial diffuse or erect branching mostly 
glabrous herbs, with opposite or verticillate sessile or 

300 Primulaceae 

short-petioled leaves entire or nearly so, and small 
axillary peduncled flowers. Calyx 5-parted, persistent. 
Corolla deeply 5-parted, rotate. Stamens 5, inserted at 
the base of the corolla ; filaments puberulent, distinct or 
united into a narrow ring at the base ; anthers oblong, 
obtuse. Ovary globose ; ovules numerous ; stigma obtuse. 
Capsule globose, circumscissile. Seeds minute, flat on 
the back. 

1. A. arvensis L. Annual, diffuse, usually much branched ; 
stems 1-3 dm. long, 4-sided; leaves ovate or oval, numerous, 
opposite, sessile or somewhat clasping, obtuse or acutish, 6-20 
mm. long, black-dotted beneath; peduncles filiform, 1-4 cm. long, 
recurved in fruit; calyx-lobes keeled, rather rigid, slightly shorter 
than the crenate glandular ciliate corolla-segments; flowers 
scarlet or salmon color, usually with a dark center, 4-6 mm. 
broad ; capsule glabrous. 

Common in waste places and gardens. Flowering nearly all the year. 


Glabrous scapose perennial herbs, with entire or repand 
basal leaves, and rather large flowers in involucrate 
umbels terminating scapes. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, the 
lobes reflexed, slightly unequal, the tube very short, 
thickened at the throat. Stamens 5, inserted on the 
throat of the corolla ; filaments short, flat, monadelphous, 
connivent into a cone, exserted ; anthers linear or lance- 
olate, connivent, attached by their bases to the filaments. 
Ovary ovoid or subglobose, superior ; style filiform, ex- 
serted ; stigma 5-6-valved at the apex or splitting to the 
base. Seeds numerous, minute, the testa punctate. 

1. D. Cleveland! Greene. Pale green and glandular, 3-6 dm. 
high ; roots formed at the beginning of the dry season and remain- 
ing dormant, no tubers formed; leaves scarcely fleshy, ascend- 
ing or erect, spatulate-obovate, the margins erose ; corolla bright 
purple with a yellow base; filaments purple, becoming yellow 

Plumbaginaceae 301 

at the base of the anthers; anthers purple except the midvein, 
about twice the length of the staminal tube, the apex blunt, 
Tetuse ; capsule oblong, circumscissile at the top. 
Frequent on dry mesas and grassy hillsides. March-April. 


Perennial, mostly acaulescent erect herbs, with basal 
tufted leaves and small perfect regular clustered flowers. 
Calyx tubular or funnelform, 5-toothed, plaited at the 
-sinuses, the tube 5-15-ribbed. Corolla of 5 hypogynous 
clawed segments, connate at the base or united into a 
tube. Stamens 5, opposite the corolla-segments, hypog- 
ynous ; filaments separate or united at the base ; anthers 
2-celled, attached by the backs to the filaments, longi- 
tudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 1-celled ; ovules 
'Solitary, anatropous, pendulous ; styles 5, separate or 
united. Fruit a utricle or achene, enclosed by the calyx, 
rarely a dehiscent capsule. Seed solitary ; endosperm 
mealy or none. 


Herbs, mostly with flat basal leaves, and numerous 
very small flowers cymose-paniculate on the branches of 
bracted scapes, in 1-3-flowered bracteolate clusters, form- 
ing 1-sided spikes. Calyx campanulate or tubular, the 
limb scarious, 5-toothed, the tube usually 10-ribbed. 
Petals 5, clawed. Styles 5, separate, stigmatic along the 
inner side. Fruit a utricle. 

1. L. Californicum (Boiss.) Small. Leaves 15-25 cm. long, 
obovate-oblong, entire, fleshy-coriaceous; scape 3-6 dm. high; 
spikes corymbose-panicled : calyx-tube more or less hairy on the 

Occasional in salt marshes along the coast. 'X ' ! 

302 Qleaceae 


Trees or shrubs with opposite or rarely alternate 
simple or pinnate exstipulate entire or dentate leaves, 
and regular perfect, polygamous or dioecious, 2-4-parted 
flowers in terminal or axillary panicles, cymes or fasci- 
cles. Calyx free from the ovary, usually small, some- 
times none. Stamens 2-4, inserted on the corolla ; fila- 
ments usually short, separate ; anthers mostly large, 
2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 
2-celled ; ovules few in each cell ; style usually short or 
none. Fruit a capsule, samara, berry or drupe. Seeds 
erect or pendulous ; endosperm present or wanting ; 
embryo straight. 


Trees or tall shrubs with opposite and usually odd- 
pinnate leaves, and small dioecious or polygamous, 
rarely perfect, greenish fasciculate flowers, appearing 
before or with the leaves. Calyx small, 4-cleft, irregu- 
larly toothed, entire or none. Petals none or 2-4, separ- 
ate, or united in pairs at the base, induplicate valvate. 
Stamens 2, rarely 3-4, inserted on the base of the petals 
or hypogynous ; filaments short-elongated ; anthers 
ovate, oblong or linear. Ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous ; 
stigma 2-cleft. Fruit a flat samara, winged at the apex 
only or all around, usually 1-seeded. Seed oblong. 

1. F. Oregana Nutt. A small or middle-sized tree; leaves' 
tomentose or glabrate in age; leaflets 5-9, oval to oblong-lanceo- 
late, entire, sessile, 5-10 cm long; flowers all with minute calyx 
and no petals ; fruit marginless at base, margined upwards into 
oblanceolate or spatulate retuse wing, the whole 2.5-4 cm. long. 

San Gabriel and Lytle Creek Canyons. 

2. F. dipetala H. & A. Shrub 2.5-4 m. high ; leaves 5-15 cm. 
long; leaflets 3-9, green above, yellowish green beneath when 

Gentianaceae 303 

young, oblong, coarsely serrate above the middle, mostly petioled, 
2-4 cm. long; flowers mostly perfect; calyx less than 2 mm. 
long; petals 2, oval, narrowed at base to a short claw, 6 mm. long ; 
white ; style slightly lobed at apex ; fruit linear-oblong to spatu- 
late-oblong, the terminal wing frequently emarginate at apex. 
Occasional in canyons. 


Bitter, mostly quite glabrous herbs, with opposite 
rarely verticillate exstipulate entire leaves, and regular 
perfect flowers in terminal or axillary clusters or solitary 
at the ends of the stems or branches. Calyx persistent, 
4-12-lobed, -toothed or -divided, the lobes imbricated or 
not meeting in the bud. Corolla funnelform, campanu- 
late or rotate, often marcescent, 4-12-lobed or -parted. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alter- 
nate with them, inserted on the tube or throat ; anthers 
2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent ; filaments filiform or 
dilated at the base. Ovary superior, 1-celled or partly 
2-celled ; ovules numerous ; style simple or none ; stigma 
entire or 2-lobed or 2-cleft. Capsule mostly dehiscent 
by 2 valves. Seeds globose, angular or compressed ; 
endosperm copious ; embryo small, straight. 


Herbs, mostly annual or biennial, with sessile or 
amplexicaul leaves, and pink or yellow flowers in cymes 
or spikes. Calyx tubular, 4-5-lobed or 4-5-divided, the 
lobes narrow, keeled. Corolla salver-shaped, 4-5-lobed, 
the lobes spreading, contorted, convolute in the bud. 
Stamens 4-5, inserted on the base of the corolla-tube ; 
filaments short, filiform ; anthers linear or oblong, 
becoming spirally twisted. Ovary 1-celled, the placentae 
sometimes intruded ; style filiform ; stigma 2-lobed. 

304 Apocynaceae 

Capsule oblong-ovoid or fusiform, 2-valved. Seed-coat 

1. E. venusta Gray. Simple and cymosely several-flowered 
at the summit or corymbosely branched, 8-20 cm. high ; leaves 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, obtusish; calyx-lobes 
very narrow to the base; corolla bright pink with a yellow cen- 
ter, the limb 2 cm. broad, lobes oval or obovate; anthers oblong- 
linear; seed spherical. 

Frequent in our interior valleys. May-June. 


Perennial herbs or rarely shrubs, mostly with acrid 
milky juice, simple opposite or alternate exstipulate 
leaves, and perfect regular cymose, solitary or paniculate 
flowers. Calyx 5-parted, persistent, the lobes imbri- 
cated in the bud. Corolla 5-parted, the lobes convo- 
lute in the bud. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla and alternate with them, inserted in the tube or 
throat ; anthers linear-oblong, sagittate, 2-celled. Ovary 
superior or its base adherent to the calyx, of 2 distinct 
.carpels, or 1-celled with 2 parietal placentae, or 2-celled ;. 
ovules few or numerous ; style simple or 2-divided ; 
stigma simple. Fruit of 2 follicles or drupes. Seeds 
often appendaged by a coma ; endosperm present ;, 
embryo straight. 


Perennial herbs with opposite leaves and small white 
or pink flowers in terminal and sometimes axillary 
corymbed cymes. Calyx-lobes acute. Corolla campanu- 
late, the tube beading within 5 small triangular append- 
ages alternate with the stamens. Stamens inserted on 
the base of the corolla ; anthers sagittate connivent 
around the stigma and slightly adherent to it. Disk 
5-lobed. Ovary of 2 distinct carpels ; ovules numerous 

Asclepiadaceae 305 

in each carpel ; stigma ovoid, obtuse, obscurely 2-lobed. 
Follicles slender, elongated, terete. Seeds small, tipped 
with a large coma. 

1. A. cannabinum L. (INDIAN HEMP.) Root deep, vertical; 
stem much branched, the branches erect or ascending, glabrous 
or nearly so, more or less glaucous ; leaves oblong or lanceolate- 
oblong to ovate-oblong, acute or obtuse and mucronate at apex, 
narrowed or rounded at base, glabrous above, sometimes pubes- 
cent beneath, 5-15 cm. long ; petioles 2-12 mm. long or sometimes 
none; cymes dense; pedicels short, bracteolate at the base; 
flowers 5-7 mm. broad; calyx-lobes about equaling the tube of 
the greenish white corolla; corolla-lobes nearly erect; follicles 
about 10 cm. long, narrowed at the apex. 

Occasional in moist places along streams. 


Perennial herbs, vines or shrubs, mostly with milky 
juice, opposite verticillate or alternate exstipulate leaves, 
and mostly umbellate perfect regular flowers. Calyx- 
tube very short, its segments imbricated or separate in 
the bud. Corolla 5-lobed or 5-cleft, the segments com- 
monly reflexed. A 5-lobed or 5-parted crown (corona) 
between the corolla and- the stamens and adherent to 
one or the other. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla ; 
filaments short, stout, mostly monadelphous or distinct ; 
anthers attached by their bases to the filaments, in- 
trorsely 2-celled ; anther-sacs tipped with an inflexed or 
erect scarious membrane or unappendaged ; pollen 
coherent into waxy or granular masses. Ovary of 2 
carpels ; styles 2, short, connected at the summit by the 
peltate discoid stigma ; ovules numerous, pendulous. 
Fruit of 2 several-many-seeded follicles. Seeds com- 
pressed, usually appendaged by a long coma. 

Plants twining. 1. PHILIBERTELLA. 

Plants erect or decumbent, not twining. 2. ASCLEPIAS. 

306 Asclepiadaceae 


Twining herbs or somewhat shrubby, with opposite 
leaves and umbellate flowers. Calyx small, 5-parted, the 
lobes acute. Corolla campanulate or rotate, deeply 
5-parted, the lobes acute or obtuse, with a shallow entire 
or undulate ring forming an outer crown in its throat. 
The inner staminal crown consisting of 5 turgid fleshy 
or hard scales or flattish appendages, attached in a circle 
at the base of the sessile or slighly stalked column, 
forming a hollow entire or undulate spreading surface 
near the level of the conic stigmas. Follicles naked, 
slender, attenuate at both ends or obtuse at base. 

1. P. Hartwegii heterophylla (Engelm.) Vail. Stems slen- 
der, twining, glabrous, puberulent or somewhat pubescent above; 
leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, variable, some tapering into 
the petiole, others with rounded and more with dilated or auricu- 
late-cordate or truncate base; corolla scarcely puberulent, 1 cm. 
broad, its lobes acute; column sessile. 

Occasional on dry hillsides in our interior valleys, growing over low 
shrubs or herbs. 


Perennial erect or decumbent herbs, with opposite ver- 
ticillate or rarely alternate leaves, and flowers in ter- 
minal or axillary umbels. Calyx 5-parted or 5-divided, 
usually small, the lobes acute, often glandular within. 
Corolla deeply 5-parted, the lobes mostly valvate, reflexed 
in anthesis. Corona-column generally present. Corona 
of 5 concave, erect or spreading hoods, each bearing 
within a slender or subulate incurved horn. Filaments 
connate into a tube ; anthers tipped with an inflexed 
membrane; winged, the wings broadened below the 
middle ; pollen-masses solitary in each sac, pendulous 
on their caudicles. Stigma nearly flat, 5-angled or 

Convolvulaceae 307 

5-lobed. Follicles usually thick, acuminate. Seeds usu- 
ally comose. 

1. A. eriocarpa Benth. Erect, 5-8 dm. high; densely floccose- 
woolly, the loose wool hardly deciduous except from the angled 
stem below ; leaves not rarely ternate and the uppermost alter- 
nate, elongated-oblong or the upper lanceolate, obtuse or subcor- 
date at base, short-petioled, 10-20 cm. long; umbels few or 
several, on stout peduncles; flowers dull white; corolla at first 
woolly outside ; the lobes longer than the pedicels ; column short 
but distinct; hoods shorter than the anthers, rather spreading, 
ventricose, semiorbicular in outline and open round to near the 
middle of the back, the summits produced inwardly into, an acute 
angle or tooth barely enclosing the filiform acute horn ; ovaries 
glabrous, the summit of the styles villous; follicles more or less 

Frequent on dry mesas and in the foothills, also occasionally in the pine 
belt of the San Gabriel Mountains. 

2. A. Mexicana Cav. Stems 6-12 dm. high, glabrous or 
sparsely puberulent; leaves in whorls of 3-6 or the lower and 
uppermost opposite, linear to linear-lanceolate, 6-15 cm. long, 
4-12 mm. broad, short-petioled ; umbels many, corymbose, densely 
many-flowered, on peduncles longer than the pedicels; flowers 
greenish-white; corolla-lobes 4 mm. long; hoods broadly ovate, 
entire, shorter than the anthers, exceeded by the stout subulate 
incurved horn. 

Frequent on the mesas and in the foothills. 



Herbs (some tropical species shrubs or trees), the 
stems twining or ascending, trailing or erect, with alter- 
nate exstipulate leaves and regular perfect axillary, 
cymose or solitary flowers. Calyx 5-parted or 5-divided, 
usually persistent, the segments imbricated. Corolla 
often funnelform or campanulate, the limb 5-angled, 
5-lobed or entire. Stamens 5, inserted low down on the 

808 Convolvulaceae 

tube of the corolla and alternate with its lobes ; anthers 
2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, ses- 
sile, 2-3-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell, entire or 
2-4-divided ; styles 1-3. Fruit a 2-4-valved capsule or 
of 2-4 distinct carpels. Seeds erect, villous, pubescent or 
glabrous ; embryo plaited or crumpled. 

Stigmas capitate. 1. IPOMOEA. 

Stigmas filiform or oblong. 2. CONVOLVULUS. 


Twining, trailing, ascending or rarely erect herbs with 
large showy axillary solitary or cymose flowers. Sepals 
equal or unequal. Corolla funnelform or campanulate, 
the limb entire, 5-angled or 5-lobed. Stamens equal or 
unequal, included ; filaments filiform or dilated at the 
base ; anthers globose or ovoid ; ovary 2-4-celled, 4-6- 
ovuled ; style filiform, included ; stigmas 1-2, capitate or 
globose. Capsule septifragally 2-4-valved, 2-4-seeded. 

1. I. purpurea (L.) Roth. Annual, pubescent; stem retrorse- 
ly hairy, twining or trailing; leaves broadly ovate, deeply cor- 
date, acute or acuminate, 5-10 cm. broad; peduncles slender, 
1-5-flowered ; sepals lanceolate or oblong, acute, pubescent or 
hirsute toward the base; corolla 5-7 cm. long, blue or purple vary- 
ing to white ; ovary 3-celled, rarely 2-celled ; capsule depressed- 
globose, shorter than the sepals. 

An escape from gardens. Introduced from tropical America. 


Herbs, mostly perennials with slender rootstocks and 
trailing, twining or erect stems. Flowers axillary, soli- 
tary or clustered, large and showy. Sepals nearly equal 
or the outer larger, the calyx bractless or with a pair of 
bracts at or near its base. Corolla and stamens as in 
Ipomoea. Ovary 1-2-celled ; style filiform ; stigmas 2, 

Morning-glory Family 309 

filiform, oblong or ovoid. Capsule globose or nearly so, 
1-4-celled, 2-4-valved. 

* Bracts remote from the calyx, small, subulate. 

1. C. arvensis L. Perennial, prostrate; the stems 3-10 dm. 
long; leaves oblong, sagittate or hastate, 2.5-5 cm. long, the 
basal lobes short; pedicels 1-3-fl owered , with a pair of subulate 
bracts near the base ; corolla white with a tinge of purple on the 
outside, neither lobed nor angled.; stigma filiform. 

Occasional in cultivated fields and waste places. May-November. 

* Bracts usually embracing the calyx, foliaceous. 

2. C. Soldanella L. Low, glabrous, slightly succulent; stems 
15-30 cm. long, prostrate; leaves reniform, deep green and shin- 
ing, 2.5-5 cm. long; corolla 4 cm. broad, pinkish; capsule 
1-celled; stigma ovate-oblong, thickish. 

On the sandy beaches along the seashore. May-June. 

3. C. repens L. Stems from a horizontal slender running 
rootstock, 6-10 dm. long, twining or more commonly prostrate; 
herbage from minutely to tomentose-pubescent ; leaves sagittate, 
obtuse or acutish, the basal lobes obtuse or rounded, entire; 
bracts ovate-cordate acute, completely enfolding the calyx; 
corolla pinkish, 5 cm. long or more; stigma oblong. 

In moist meadows in the coast region. 

4. C. occidentalis Gray. Glabrous or minutely pubescent; 
stems freely twining over shrubs ; leaves slender-petioled, from 
angular-cordate with a deep and narrow sinus to sagittate or the 
upper hastate; the basal lobes often 1-2-toothed; peduncles 
elongated, surpassing the leaf, 1-3-flowered; bracts at base of the 
calyx ovate or obscurely cordate, rnembranaceous, equaling it or 
somewhat longer, mostly obtuse ; corolla campanulate-funnelform, 
white or pinkish, 3-5 cm. long; stigma linear. 

Common in the chaparral belt in all our foothills and mountains. 

5. C. occidentalis tenuissimus Gray. Much resembling the 
typical form ; leaves narrowly hastate or sagittate ; the middle 
and basal lobes mostly narrowly lanceolate ; bracts ovate-oblong 
or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate. 

Frequent in the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains, south to San 

310 Cuscutaceae 


White or yellow slender twining parasites, the leaves 
reduced to minute alternate scales. Calyx 5-lobed, 
rarely 4-lobed or 4-5-parted, the lobes imbricated in the 
bud. Corolla usually campanulate, 5-lobed, rarely 
4-lobed, the tube bearing as many fimbriate or crenulate 
scales as there are lobes and alternate with them, or these 
sometimes obsolete. Stamens as many as corolla-lobes 
and alternate with them, inserted in the throat or sinuses 
above the scales ; anthers short, 2-celled, longitudinally 
dehiscent. Ovary 2-celled ; ovules 2 in each cavity ; 
styles 2, separate or rarely united below ; stigmas capi- 
tate or linear. Capsule globose or ovoid, circumscissile, 
irregularly bursting or indehiscent, 1-4-seeded. Seeds 
globose or angular ; embryo linear, curved or spiral ; 
cotyledons none. 


Characters of the family. Stems filiform, parasitic on 
herbs and shrubs by minute suckers. 

* Ovary and capsule depressed- globose. 

1. C. arvensis Beyrich. Stems filiform, pale yellow; flowers 
nearly sessile in small clusters; calyx-lobes broad, obtuse; 
corolla campanulate, its lobes as long as the tube, acute or acu- 
minate, reflexed ; scales large, ovate, equaling or exceeding the 
tube, densely fringed all around ; capsule depressed-globose. 

On various herbs about Los Angeles, Davidson. 

2. C. Californica Choisy. Stems capillary, low ; flowers 2-4 
mm. long, pedicelled in loose cymes; calyx-lobes acute; corolla- 
lobes lanceolate-subulate, as long as or longer than the campan- 
ulate tube ; filaments nearly equaling the linear oblong anthers ; 
appendages none or rudimentary ; style slender. 

Occasional along the coast and in the interior, growing on various low 

Polemoniaceae 311 

** Ovary and capsule pointed. 

3. C. salina Engelm. Stems slender; flowers 3-5 mm. long, 
pedicelled in loose cymes ; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute, as 
long as the denticulate corolla-lobes; corolla-tube shallow-cam- 
panulate; filaments about as long as the oval anthers; fringed 
scales shorter than the corolla-tube; capsule conic, usually 

In salt marshes along the coast, growing over Salicornia, etc. 

4. C. subinclusa D. & H. Stems rather coarse, ascending 
small shrubs to the height of a meter or more; flowers 5-7 mm. 
long, sessile or short-pedicelled, at length in clusters 1-2.5 cm. 
thick ; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acutish, much shorter than 
the cylindric or urn-shaped corolla-tube; corolla-lobes much 
shorter than the tube, minutely crenulate or papillose; anthers 
oval, subsessile; scales narrow, fringed, reaching to the middle of 
the tube ; capsule conic, capped by the marcescent corolla. 

Common in the foothills, usually on shrubs or coarse herbs. 


Herbs or rarely low shrubs, with alternate or opposite, 
entire, lobed or dissected leaves, and perfect regular or 
nearly so flowers, corymbose-capitate, cymose or panicu- 
late. Calyx tubular or campanulate, 5-cleft, the seg- 
ments slightly imbricated. Corolla 5-parted, the lobes 
contorted. Stamens 5, inserted on the tip of the corolla 
arid alternate with its lobes ; filaments slender ; anthers 
versatile, 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 
superior, mostly 3-celled ; ovules few-many in each cell ; 
style simple, filiform ; stigmas 3, linear. Capsule mostly 
loculicidally 3-valved. Seeds various. 

Leaves alternate; annual herbs, or 1 species perennial and lignescent at 

Calyx scarious between the angles, ruptured by the distended capsule. 

3. GlLIA. 

Calyx scarious or coriaceous at base. 2. NAVARRETIA. 

Leaves alternate, palmately lobed; shrubby. 4. LKPTODACTYLON. 
Leaves opposite and 

Entire, the floral alternate. 1. MICROSTERIS. 

Palmately lobed, upper verticillate. 5. LINANTHUS. 

312 Polemoniaceae 


Small much branched annuals with entire leaves, all 
except floral ones opposite, and minute flowers scattered 
singly or in pairs in the axils of the alternate leaves. 
Calyx tubular, 5-clef t, the lobes acute, scarious-margined. 
Corolla salver-shaped, the tube narrow. Stamens straight, 
short, unequally inserted on the corolla-tube. Capsule 
3-celled, at length distending and rupturing the calyx- 
tube. Seeds few, large, the coat when moistened develop- 
ing a thick glutinous mass. 

1. M. Californica Greene. Slender, 1-2 dm. high, loosely and 
somewhat dichotomously branched from the middle ; leaves from 
obovate-subulate in the lowest to oblong and oblong-lanceolate, 
1-2 cm. long, all more or leas pubescent with scattered hairs, a 
few fine gland-tipped hairs on the flowering branches and calyx ; 
calyx-teeth slightly shorter than the tube ; corolla red, the lobes 
emarginate, little surpassing the calyx ; capsule ovoid. (Collomia 
gracilis of recent authors, not of Douglas.) 
Occasional in shady places in the foothills. 

COLLOMIA GRANDIFLORA Dougl. A strict erect annual, with 
entire oblong-lanceolate leaves, and large salmon-colored flowers 
in terminal and axillary heads. 

Common in open pine woods in the San Bernardino, San Jacinto and Cuya- 
maca Mountains. 


Glabrous and scentless or viscid-pubescent and heavy- 
scented annual herbs, with leaves all alternate setace- 
ously or spinosely pinnatifid, or the lowest subentire. 
Flowers in crowded bracted clusters at the ends of the 
branches. Calyx-tube scarious between the green angu- 
lar or costate segments, unequal, erect or spreading, 
pungent-tipped or pungent-cleft, the 2 outer sometimes 
spinulose-toothed or -cleft. Corolla-tube funnelform or 
salver-shaped. Stamens and style exserted or included, 
straight or declined. Capsule 1-3-celled, 1-many-seeded, 

Phlox Family 313 

partially dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds commonly 
mucilaginous and sending out threads containing each a 
spiral coil. 

1. N. prostrata (Gray) Greene. Glabrous or nearly so; flower 
clusters sessile near the ground, the few branches radiating from 
beneath and prostrate ; leaves pinnatifid, the rachis broad and 
strap-shaped, the segments short and spreading; calyx-tube 
minutely white-hirsute, thin-hyaline between the stout costse, 
constricted over the capsule, the segments spreading, 2 subulate 
and entire, 3 spinulose trifid ; pericarp a transparent indehiscent 
utricle close-fitted to the amalgamated mass of glutinous seeds, 
breaking transversely or irregularly when soaked ; seeds 4 in each 
cell. (Gilia prostrata Gray.) 

In low adobe places on the mesas of the coast valley. Inglewood. 

2. N. viscidula Benth. Viscid-pubescent, at length much 
branched, erect, 5-8 cm. high, rather stout; leaves narrowly 
linear but firm, laciniate-pinnatifid or parted into setaceous-sub- 
ulate ascending lobes ; the bracts ovate-dilated ; flowers densely 
glomerate; corolla violet or purple, 8-10 mm. long; capsule of 
firm texture, dehiscent, normally 3-6-seeded. (Gilia viscidula 

Dry places of the interior plains and foothills. May-June. 

3. N. atractyloides (Benth.) H. & A. Pubescent and very 
viscid, rigid-branched, spreading or procumbent, 5-15 cm. long; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, rigidly coriaceous and in age reticulate, 
the margins beset with divaricate spinose-subulate teeth ; flowers 
less glomerate; corolla narrowly funnelform, 12-18 mm. long, 
deep purple; capsule dehiscent, 6-10-seeded. (Gilia atractyloides 

Frequent in dry washes. May-June. 

3. GILIA R. & P. 

Annual herbs, rarely perennial or shrubby, with alter- 
nate entire or pinnately toothed, lobed or divided leaves, 
and small or showy flowers more or less clustered at the 
ends of the branches. Calyx campanulate or tubular, 
5-toothed or 5-lobed, scarious between the ribs or angles. 
Corolla funnelform. Stamens inserted equally on the 

314 Polemoniaceae 

throat. Capsule at length distending and rupturing the 
calyx. Seeds several in each cell, becoming mucilaginous 
when wetted. 

* Leaves mostly 1-3-pinnately dissected, not pungent; flowers usually 
in capitate bractless clusters. 

1. G-. multicaulis Benth. Branching from the base, 4-6 dm. 
high, nearly or quite glabrous ; leaves pinnately parted into 5-9 
linear and entire or toothed lobes ; flowers few in the clusters, 
subsessile or on more elongated pedicels; calyx-teeth erect or 
recurved in fruit, the hyaline margin very narrow; corolla deep 
or rather pale purple, its proper tube shorter than the obovate 
lobes; stamens included ; capsule ovoid. 

Frequent on the plains and foothills in our coast region. 

2. G-. achilleaefolia Benth. Stems 3-5 dm. high, glandular- 
puberulent throughout ; leaves mostly bipinnately dissected into 
linear, somewhat recurved segments; branches few, naked, bear- 
ing a dense cluster of usually deep blue flowers ; calyx glandular- 
pilose, mainly hyaline, its lobes incurved in fruit; corolla-tube 
cylindric; throat very short and broad; lobes oblong, scarcely 
spreading; stamens exserted. 

Common on dry plains and foothills throughout our range. 

3. GK abrotanifolia Nutt. Herbage glabrous throughout or 
very sparsely pilose on the petioles and calyx; stems 3-6 dm. 
high, with a few ascending branches or simple naked above, bear- 
ing a terminal dense cluster of large pale blue flowers; leaves 
large, thin, 3-pinnately dissected, the segments very narrowly 
linear ; calyx glabrous or sparsely pilose, mainly hyaline, recurved 
or spreading in fruit ; corolla with f unnelform throat and obovate 
lobes ; stamens included or scarcely exserted. 

Frequent in open places in the chaparral belt of all our mountains. This 
and the next have been called O. capitata Dougl., but that is a small-flowered 
species of Oregon. 

4. G. staminea Greene. Closely resembling the last in habit ; 
stems and leaves sparsely pilose ; calyx densely arachnoid-villous,. 
mainly hyaline, its lobes recurved ; stamens well exserted, nearly 

This species is common in the San Joaquin Valley and may occur within 
our limits. 

Phlox Family 315 

5. G. inconspicua Dougl. Stems simple or branching from 
the base, often somewhat woolly when young, and viscid-glandular 
above, 18-36 cm. high ; lower leaves bipinnatifid, the upper pin- 
nately-parted or pinnatifid, becoming small and entire; flowers 
somewhat crowded and subsessile or at length loosely panicled ; 
corolla violet or purplish, 6-15 mm. long, narrowly funnelform, 
the tube scarcely equaling the calyx. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of all the hills and mountains. 

** Leaves, at least the cauline, entire or pinnatifid; flowers scattered, 
rarely clustered in the first. 

6. G. gilioides (Benth.) Greene. Loosely branching, erect or 
diffuse, 2-5 dm. high, commonly villous and glandular throughout ; 
basal leaves and the lower cauline leaves pinnately-parted into 
narrowly oblong or lanceolate divisions, or rarely all so divided, 
or the upper palmately divided into 3-5 obovate or lanceolate 
divisions; corolla 8-12 mm. long, salver-shaped, blue-purple ; sta- 
mens unequally inserted ; capsule globose ; seeds 1-2 in each cell. 
(Collomia gilioides Benth.) 

Frequent in shady places in the chaparral belt throughout our range. 

7. G. latiflora exilis Gray. Diffusely paniculate-branched 
.above, 3-4 dm. high, glabrous below or the young parts some- 
what arachnoid-tomentose, more or less glandular above; basal 
and lower leaves simply pinnatifid, linear-lanceolate, 3-5 cm. 
long, with short ovate or triangular and cuspidate-tipped lobes, 
these often enlarged and toothed or lobed; the cauline few, 
becoming entire and subulate above; paniculate cymes very 
loose; flowers mostly on elongated almost capillary pedicels, 
about 1 cm. long, dilated-funnelform, abruptly contracted below 
into a narrow tube, which equals or slightly exceeds the calyx, 
its lobes rounded-obovate, purple, the throat yellowish below; 
capsule obovoid. 

Wilson's Peak under pines, and similar places throughout the San Gabriel 

8. G. tenuiflora altissima Parish. Loosely paniculate, branch- 
ed above, 5-8 dm. high, hispid pubescent below, glandular above; 
basal leaves 4-6 cm. long, bipinnately parted or divided ; the 
upper becoming simple, small and entire ; branches loosely few- 
flowered ; pedicels shorter than the flowers; corolla 2.5-3 cm. 

316 Polemoniaceae 

long, lilac color with purple tube, narrowly funnelform, tapering 
to the long slender tube ; capsule ovoid-oblong. 

Frequent in open pine forests in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 

*** Leaves slender, entire or with a few slender lobes, pungent; 
flowers crowded in leafy-bracted clusters; bracts and calyces 

9. G. virgata Steud. Annual, white-floccose, becoming gla- 
brate ; stems slender, either simple and virgate or with virgate 
branches from the base and paniculately branched above, 1-3 dm. 
high; leaves slender-filiform, the lower mainly entire and the 
upper rarely more than 3-parted; corolla blue or lavender, its 
tube 8-12 mm. long, surpassing the acerose calyx-lobes; anthers 
linear-sagittate, 2 mm. long. 

Frequent in the foothills and plains in the interior region, mostly east of 
our limits. 

10. G, virgata floribunda Gray. Branches few, terminated by 
large, compact flower clusters ; most of the leaves pinnately 3-7- 
parted ; corolla somewhat larger than in the type. 

On dry plains from Azusa eastward. 

11. G. densifolia Benth. Perennial, canescent-lanate when 
young, becoming glabrate in age; stems rigid, branched from the 
woody base, usually somewhat spreading, 1.5-3 dm. high; leaves 
rigid, mostly pinnatifid or incisely laciniate into short subulate, 
spinulose lobes; flowers densely clustered, capitate-glomerate; 
corolla violet-blue, its tube about 12 mm. long, 2-3 times the 
length of the calyx ; anthers sagittate. 

Occasional in open places, mostly on dry ridges, iH the pine belt of all our 


More or less woody or shrubby, commonly tufted, very 
leafy plants. Leaves commonly alternate, and much 
fascicled in the axils, palmately 3-7-parted, acerose- 
subulate, rigid and pungent. Flowers showy, solitary and 
sessile or few in clusters at the summit of the branches 
or branchlets. Corolla salver-shaped, the throat some- 
what funnelform. Filaments short, attached equally in 

Phlox Family 317 

or below the throat; anthers short, included. Capsule 
many-seeded. Seeds not mucilaginous. 

1. L. Californicum H. & A. Shrubby, 6-12 dm. high, the 
branches and very crowded leaves tomentose-pubescent and more 
or less glandular, leaf-segments narrowly linear, about 1.5 cm. 
long; corolla rose color or lilac, its limb 2-4 cm. in diameter, 
with broadly wedge-obovate lobes, their margins often minutely 
erose; ovules 20 or more in each cell. (Gilia Californica Benth.) 

Frequent in the chaparral belt. March-June. 

5. LINANTHUS Benth. 

Mostly low or slender annuals, with leaves opposite, 
or the upper rarely alternate, palmately divided to the 
base into narrowly linear or filiform divisions (appear- 
ing as if in whorls in some species), rarely entire. 
Flowers scattered or in terminal capitate clusters. Calyx- 
tube scarious between the ribs or angles, its teeth equal. 
Corolla varying from salver-shaped to subrotate. Stamens 
equally inserted on the corolla. Capsule with few-many 
seeds in each cell. 

* Corolla funnelform. 

1. L. dianthiflorus (Benth.) Greene. Branching from the 
base, the branches decumbent or simple and erect, 4-12 cm. high, 
more or less pubescent ; leaves all simple, narrowly linear ; corolla 
short-funnelform, 2 cm. long or more, lilac with a darker or 
yellowish throat, the ample lobes from denticulate to strongly 
fringed-toothed ; filaments inserted near the base of the tube; 
ovules 12-20 in each cell. (Gilia dianthoides Endl.) 

Common in sandy soil in the coast and interior valleys. February-April. 

2. L. liniflorus (Benth.) Greene. Stems slender, dichotomous- 
ly branched, about 3 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-segments about 
3, filiform ; flowers on long slender pedicels in a loose cymose 
panicle; corolla with nearly obsolete tube; the limb rotate, 
12-24 mm. broad ; the obovate entire lobes white, marked with 7 
deep blue veinlets ; stamens nearly as long as the corolla-lobes ; 

318 Polemoniaceae 

filaments with a dense pilose ring near the base ; ovules 6-8 in 
each cell. (Oilia liniflorus Benth.) 

Frequent on plains and foothills nearly throughout the state, but known 
within our limits only on low hills near Trabuco Canyon, Santa Ana Moun- 
tains. ' *"> 

3. L. pusillus (Benth.) Greene. Stems very slender, diffusely 
dichotomously branched, pubescent ; pedicels capillary; calyx 3 
mm. long, the teeth subulate, barely half as long as the tube, 
hispid-ciliolate ; corolla short-funnelform, little or not at all 
exceeding the calyx; seeds 3-4 in each cell. (Gilia pusillus 

Occasional on dry hillsides in our interior region. 

4. !L. aureus (Nutt.) Greene. Nearly simple or more commonly 
diffusely branched, 5-15 cm. high ; leaf-segments narrowly linear, 
6 mm. long, hispidulous ; pedicels seldom longer than the flowers ; 
corolla open-funnelform, golden yellow; the lobes rounded obo- 
vate, widely spreading, equaling the tube; filaments inserted 
just below the sinuses, glabrous at base ; seeds about 10 in each 
cell. (Gilia aurea Nutt.) 

Frequent in the interior in dry washes. 

5. tt. Lemmoni (Gray) Greene. Stems widely branching, 
about 10-15 cm. high, hirsutely pubescent; leaf-segments linear, 
5-6 mm. long; flowers solitary or few in the axils and subsessile, 
but more densely clustered at the ends of the branches ; calyx 
turbinate-prismatic, strongly 5-costate; lobes acerose-subulate, 
equaling the throat of the yellowish short-funnelform corolla; 
capsule many-seeded. (Gilia Lemmoni Gray.) 

Open places in the chaparral belt. 

** Corolla salver-shaped, the tube long-exserted. 

6. L. parviflorus (Benth.) Greene. Stems slender, branched 
from the base, 8-15 cm. high; leaf-segments linear or narrowly 
oblanceolate ; corolla-tube very slender, 18-25 mm. long; throat 
yellow; lobes oval, 4-6 mm. long, mostly pale yellow or nearly 
white, tinged with red or brown on the outside ; style and fila- 
ments half or more than half as long as the corolla-limb. (Lepto- 
siphon parviflorus Benth. ; Gilia micrantha Steud.) 

Common on the plains and foothills throughout our range in sandy soil. 

Hydrophyllaceae 319 

7. L. bicolor (Nutt.) Greene. Very near the last, but small, 
5-7 cm. high; flowers rose-purple, the elongated corolla-tube 
12-18 mm. long, the limb 4-6 mm. broad. (Leptosiphon bicolor 
Nutt. ; Gilia tenella Benth.) 

Wilson's Peak, Davidson. 

8. It. ciliatus (Benth.) Greene. Stems rigid, strict, 1-2 dm. 
high, scabrous-pubescent; internodes long ; leaves with 5-9 linear, 
rigidly and densely ciliate segments ; corolla rose color, scarcely 
exceeding the floral leaves, its limb 4 mm. broad or less. (Gilia 
ciliata Benth.) 

Wilson's Peak, growing in open grassy places among the pines. We have 
not seen Davidson's specimens, but we strongly suspect that they belong to 
this species rather than to L. bicolor, as listed by him. May-July. 



Herbs or rarely shrubs, mostly hirsute pubescent or 
scabrous, with alternate or basal, rarely opposite leaves, 
and perfect regular 5-parted flowers in scorpioid cymes, 
spikes or rarely solitary. Calyx deeply cleft or divided, 
the sinuses sometimes appendaged. Corolla funnel- 
form or more or less spreading. Stamens 5, inserted on 
the tube or base of the corolla and alternate with its 
lobes ; filaments filiform ; anthers versatile, 2-celled r 
longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 2-celled or 
1-celled with 2 placentae ; styles 2, separate or united 
below ; stigmas small, terminal ; ovules few-many. 
Seeds various, usually pitted or somewhat roughened. 

Style 1, 2-cleft or2-parted. 

Ovary 1-celled; the placentae expanded and forming a sac-like lining to- 

the pericarp. 

Calyx with a reflexed lobe at each sinus. 1. NEMOPHILA. 

Calyx naked at the sinuses. 2. EDCRYPTA. 

Ovary 1-celled or becoming 2-celled by the meeting in the axis of the 

narrow or slightly dilated placentae. 

Corolla never yellow, or rarely yellowish, deciduous. 3. PHACELIA. 
Corolla yellow, persistent. 4. EMMENANTHE. 

Styles 2, distinct. 

Herbs. 5. CONANTHUS. 

Suffrutescent or shrubby. 6. ERIODICTYON. 

320 Hydrophyllaceae 


Low diffuse slender or fragile more or less hirsute 
annual herbs, with alternate or opposite mostly pinnati- 
fid or lobed leaves, and mostly showy flowers, solitary 
and peduncled, lateral or terminal. Calyx deeply 
5-cleft or 5-parted, with a reflexed or spreading append- 
age in each sinus. Corolla campanulate or rotate-cam- 
panulate, usually with 10 small appendages within at 
the base. Stamens included, inserted near the base of 
the corolla-tube ; anthers ovate or oblong. Ovary 
1-celled ; style more or less 2-cleft ; ovules 4-20. Cap- 
sule 2-valved. Seeds carunculate. 

1. N. aurita Lindl. Herbage scabrous with stout recurved 
prickly hairs, the smaller often uncinate; stems weak, clinging 
to other plants for support by means of the prickles; leaves 
deeply pinnatifid, the lobes somewhat reflexed ; petioles winged, 
clasping at base ; flowers in few-flowered racemes at the ends of 
the branches; corolla 12-25 mm. broad, purplish violet; scales 
triangular, covering the base of the filaments ; capsule globose ; 
seeds 4, globular, favose-reticulated. 

Common on shady slopes throughout our range below 3000 feet. March- 

2. N. racemosa Nutt. Resembling the last in habit, but less 
prickly; leaves often bipinnatifld ; petioles not strongly winged, 
not clasping ; flowers distinctly racemose, less than 10 mm. broad, 
usually pale ; scales narrow, the upper half commonly free. 

Frequent among shrubs on shady slopes in the vicinity of San Diego, 
where it was first collected by Nuttall. It has also been collected on 
Catalina and San Clemente Islands. March-May. 

3. N. insignis Dougl. Stems much branched, spreading, 1-3 
dm. long, nearly glabrous or somewhat pubescent with more or less 
retrorse hairs ; leaves mostly bipinnatifid, pubescent with spread- 
ing hairs, 2-5 cm. long, lobes elliptic-ovate; peduncles mostly 
25-45 mm. long; calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, acute; corolla 
15-25 mm. broad, rotate-campanulate, the tube scarcely half the 
length of the lobes, usually deep blue, slightly hairy toward the 

Water-leaf Family 321 

base; scales rather broad, ciliate; seeds usually 12, corrugate- 

Frequent on sandy or dry plains and foothills throughout our range. The 
rather persistent cDtyledons are usually spatulate. March-April. 

4. N. integrifolia (Parish). Stems usually much branched, 
rather weak and spreading, somewhat densely pubescent through- 
out with spreading hairs, the petioles nearly ciliate; leaves 2-3- 
toothed or pinnatifid, seldom entire; peduncles slender and 
usually exceeding the leaves; calyx-lobes lanceolate, acute and 
mucronulate; corolla usually less than 1 cm. broad, rotate-cam- 
panulate to nearly rotate, pale blue or nearly white, with darker 
veinlets, hairy toward the base; scales linear, the upper half 
usually free, hairy ; seeds usually 8-12, corrugate-roughened, 
sometimes minutely so, globose. (N. Menziesii integrifolia Parish.) 

Rather common in the chaparral belt in all the hills and valleys, especi- 
ally away from the coast. April-May. 

2. EUCRYPTA Nutt. 

Erect paniculately branched viscid annuals, with 
small racemose flowers. Calyx 5-parted, the sinuses 
naked. Corolla small, tubular-campanulate, without 
appendages. Capsule globose, 1-celled, with 2 dilated 
placentae lining the pericarp, 2-valved, 8-seeded, 2 seeds 
remaining in each valve between the pericarp and the 
placentae after dehiscence. Seeds corrugated or smooth. 

1. E. chrysanthemifolia (Benth.) Greene. Stems rather 
slender, widely branching, 3-9 dm. high; leaves ample, 2-3-pin- 
natifid ; racemes short and close, scarcely surpassing the leaves ; 
calyx-lobes ovate, acutish; corolla white or bluish, scarcely sur- 
passing the calyx-lobes; free seeds oblong-oval, corrugated, the 
concealed ones flattened, smooth. (Ellisia chrysanthemifolia 

Common in the chaparral belt and in the open foothills. March-May. 

3. PHACELIA Juss. 

Annual rarely perennial mostly hirsute or hispid 
herbs, or rarely suffrutescent, with entire or variously 
lobed or dissected leaves, and often showy flowers in 

322 Hydrophyllaceae 

scorpioid spikes or racemes. Calyx deeply 5-parted, 
commonly more or less accrescent, unappendaged. Co- 
rolla from nearly rotate to campanulate, tubular or 
funnelform, deciduous, the tube commonly with internal 
lamellate projections or appendages. Stamens inserted 
on the base of the corolla-tube. Style 2-cleft. Capsule 
1-celled, 2-valved, the thin septa-like placentae adherent. 

* Ovules 4 ; corolla-tube with 10 laminate appendages in pairs at 
the base of the stamens. 

1. P. Magellanica (Lam.) Coville. Hispid and the foliage 
strigose, more or less canescent, 2-5 dm. high, from a perennial 
or biennial root ; leaves lanceolate to ovate, acute, pinnately and 
obliquely straight-veined ; the lower tapering into a petiole, and 
commonly some of them with 1-2 pairs of smaller lateral leaf- 
lets ; inflorescence hispid, the dense spikes thyrsoid-congested ; 
corolla whitish or bluish, moderately 5-lobed, longer than the 
oblong-lanceolate or linear calyx-lobes ; filaments much exserted 
sparingly bearded. 

Frequent on dry hillsides in the valleys and mountains. 

2. P. ramosissima suffrutescens Parry. Perennial; stems 
much branched from the base, decumbent or ascending, lignes- 
cent at base, often 2 cm. or more in diameter; herbage hispid 
pubescent and more or less glandular above ; leaves 5-9-divided 
or -parted, with oblong or narrower pinnatifid-incised divisions ; 
spikes glomerate, short and dense ; flowers subsessile, ascending 
in fruit ; sepals ovate to obovate-oblanceolate ; corolla bluish or 
dirty white; its lobes spreading or somewhat reflexed, short, 
scarcely as long as the diameter of the throat ; stamens and style 
moderately exserted ; capsule globose-ovoid ; seeds deeply pitted, 

Common in the chaparral belt and on sand-dunes along the seashore. 
Specimens from Port Ballona show 5 annular rings near base. 

3. P. hispida Gray. Annual (as are all the following species), 
5 dm. high or less, diffusely branched, setose-hispid with longslen- 
der white bristles; leaves with rather few, coarse divisions, the 
uppermost sometimes merely laciniate-incised ; spikes soon loose 
and loosely paniculate ; flowers on short slender horizontal pedi- 
cels ; corolla very pale blue, rotate or campanulate ; lobes rounded 

Water-leaf Family 323 

at apex ; calyx-lobes narrowly linear with attenuate base nearly 
equaling the corolla, in fruit 8-12 mm. long and almost 4 times 
the length of the globose capsule; seeds short-oval, roughish- 

Very common in the chaparral belt in open grassy places. April-June. 

4. P. distans Benth. Stems much branched, ascending, 3-5 
dm. high; herbage with scattered hispid hairs and close fine 
pubescence; leaves pinnately 9-17-divided into linear-oblong 1-2- 
pinnatifid or cleft divisions; spikes scattered, solitary or gemi- 
nate; sepals unequal, narrowly obovate to spatulate; corolla 6-8 
mm. long, rotate-campanulate, usually blue, rarely paler, the 
lobes rounded ; internal appendages semiovate with free pointed 
tips ; stamens little or not at all exserted. 

Very common in the plains and foothills. March-May. 

5. P. tanacetifolia Benth. Much resembling the last, but 
usually stouter, erect, sparsely branching or simple ; leaves simi- 
lar, larger and less finely dissected; spikes terminating the 
branches, approximate, 6-9 cm. long; sepals linear, beset with 
rigid bristles, in fruit little exceeding the oval capsule ; corolla 
open-campanulate, 6-8 mm. long, lavender, the lobes blunt, not 
rounded ; internal appendage entirely adnate, the tip rounded. 

Slender specimens of this species were collected on the northern slope of 
the Santa Monica Mountains, between Cahuenga Pass and Encino, by the 
author in April, 1901 ; otherwise it is not known within our limits. 

6. P. ciliata Benth. Branched from the base with rather 
simple ascending branches, 2-4 dm. high, herbage scabrous, 
otherwise glabrous; leaves pinnately divided, the divisions ob- 
long, toothed or incised ; spikes rather short, becoming loose in 
fruit; pedicels short or almost wanting ; calyx-lobes lanceolate to 
broadly ovate, chartaceous, 7-10 mm. long in fruit, with thick- 
ened midrib and reticulations, sparsely bristly-ciliate ; corolla 
blue; stamens shorter or about equaling the corolla; capsule 
ovate, mucronate, about half the length of the calyx-lobes, which 
are arched over it; seeds oval, favose. 

Open grassy hills, not common. Hollywood; Capistrano. 

** Ovules mostly numerous. 
H- Appendages none. 

7. P. viscida (Benth.) Torr. Stem erect, mostly simple, 3-6 
dm. high, very glandular above ; leaves ovate or obscurely cordate, 

324 Hydrophyllaceae 

doubly or incisely and irregularly dentate, 2.5-6 cm. long; calyx- 
lobes linear or obscurely spatulate, obtuse, 7-8 mm. long; corolla 
deep blue with purplish or whitish center, rotate-campanulate, 
10-20 mm. broad; capsule ovate, abruptly cuspidate-pointed, 
equaling the calyx. 

Frequent in all the mountains bordering our coast valleys, especially 
common on fire-swept places in the chaparral belt. March-May. 

P. VISCIDA ALBIFLORA (Nutt.) Gray. Flowers white, otherwise 
as in the typical form. 

Same range as the last but less common. 

8. P. grandiflora (Benth.) Gray. Closely resembling the 
last, but usually more robust and more viscid; leaves larger; 
calyx-lobes linear .8- mm. long; corolla rotate-campanulate, 
2.5-4 cm. broad, purplish or pale bluish; capsule equaling the 
calyx, the cuspidate persistent and indurated, base of the style 
2 mm. long. 

Same range as the last and growing in similar places. April-May. 

*--- Appendages 5, small truncate or emarginate scales, 1 adnate 
to the inner base of each filament. 

9. P. Whitlavia Gray. About 3 dm. high, loosely branching, 
hirsute and glandular; leaves ovate or deltoid, incisely toothed ; 
calyx-lobes linear; corolla with cylindraceous ventricose tube, 
usually about 2 cm. long and twice the length of the lobes, 
purple ; appendages to the exserted filaments hairy. 

Occasional on low hills and in the chaparral belt. Verdugo Hills; San 
Gabriel and Sants Ana Mountains. 

10. P. Parryi Torr. Stems more or less branching, the 
branches somewhat spreading; herbage hirsute or somewhat his- 
pid and glandular ; leaves ovate, irregularly and incisely doubly 
toothed or lanciniate or the lowest sometimes pinnately lobed, 
the upper longer than the petioles, the lower on rather long slen- 
der petioles; racemes very loose; pedicels filiform, widely spread- 
ing; calyx-lobes narrow ; corolla cleft beyond the middle, rotate- 
campanulate, deep violet, 2 cm. broad; filaments bearded, ex- 
serted; ovules on each placenta 20-30, and seeds 15-20. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt in our interior region. Rather common 
in the Santa Ana Mountains and throughout the western part of San Diego 

11. P. longipes Torr. Much resembling the last but more 
slender, loosely branching ; cauline leaves roundish-oval or sub- 

Water-leaf Family 325 

cordate, coarsely and obtusely 5-8-toothed, about 12 mm. long, 
all shorter than the petioles; corolla about 1 cm. long, nearly 
white, 5-cleft barely to the middle ; ovules on each placenta 8-10 ; 
seeds fewer. 

" Rare and local in the San Gabriel Mountains," Davidson. 

*** Ovules several (6-12} or more numerous on each plancenla; ap- 
pendages of 10 vertical salient lamellx. 

*- Seeds areolate t reticulate or favose-pitted but not transversely 
rugose; styles cleft to the middle. 

12. P. brachyloba (Benth.) Gray. Stems branched, erect, 
3-6 dm. high, roughish-pubescent, viscid-glandular above; leaves 
pinnatifid, elongated, oblong or spatulate, short-petioled, lobes 
7-15, entire or obtusely few-toothed; spikes crowded, solitary or 
geminate, at length much elongated and slender; pedicels very 
short; corolla white, campanulate, the lobes about half the length 
of the tube ; the long narrow appendages nearly free from the 
stamens; ovules about 6, rarely more, on each plancenta; cap- 
sule oblong-oval, very obtuse, membranous, shorter than the 
narrow spatulate calyx-lobes; seeds oval, reticulated. 

Frequent in the upper portions of the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel 
Mountains. April-June. 

13. P. Douglasii (Benth.) Gray. Stems branched from the 
base; the branches prostrate or decumbent, 1-2 dm. long; herb- 
age pubescent and hirsute with mostly spreading hairs; leaves 
elongated-oblong or linear in outline, pinnatifid or pinnately 
parted into several-many pairs of lobes, the terminal lobe not 
larger nor parallel-veined ; racemes becoming elongated ; pedicels 
filiform, 1-2 cm. long; calyx-lobes spatulate; corolla rotate-cam- 
panulate, pale blue, about 1 cm. broad ; appendages semi-oblance- 
olate ; ovules to each dilated placenta 12-14 ; capsule ovate, mucro- 
nate; seeds roundish, oval, scrobiculate. 

Frequent near the coast along the borders of the sand-dunes. Much re- 
sembling some of the large-flowered Nemophilas. 

14. P. Davidsonii macrantha Parish. Stems branched from 
the base, decumbent, ascending or erect, 2-4 dm. long, rather 
soft pubescent and villous ; leaves deeply pinnatifid into 2-4 tri- 
angular entire lobes and a much larger terminal one. the evident 
veins of which are nearly parallel, the upper leaves commonly 
entire and slender petioled; pedicels shorter than the fruiting 
calyx-lobes ; calyx-lobes narrowly spatulate, fully twice the length 

326 Hydrophyllaceae 

of the ovate capsule; corolla 1 cm. high or more, the lobes dark 
purple, the throat and tube yellowish. 

Frequent in the pine belt of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. May-August. 

- *- Seeds strongly corrugated transversely; style cleft only at apex. 

15. P. Fremontii Torr. Much branched from the base, 1.5-3 
dm. high ; leaves pinnatifid into 7-15 oblong or obovate entire 
or obtusely 2-3-lobed divisions; flowers crowded in the at 
length elongated spiciform racemes; corolla broadly funnelform, 
twice the length of the spatulate calyx-lobes ; the long and nar- 
row appendages united below with the filaments or almost free 
from them; capsule oblong; seeds 20-30, oblong, strongly and 
somewhat evenly corrugated. 

Los Angeles River; Wilson's Peak, Davidson. Summit of Santiago Peak. 


Annuals with the habit of Phacelia and differing from 
that genus only by its yellow or cream-colored persist- 
ent corollas, destitute of appendages. 

1. E. penduliflora Benth. (WHISPERING BELLS.) Erect, 
usually much branched from the base, 2-4 dm. high, villous- 
pubescent and somewhat viscid ; lobes of the pinnatifid leaves 
numerous, short-toothed or incised ; racemes loose, straight, 
ascending; pedicels filiform, as long as the flowers, these soon 
pendulous; calyx-lobes ovate, 6-8 mm. long; corolla cream- 
colored, campanulate, about 1 cm. long; filaments adnate to the 
base of the corolla; seeds about 16, pitted. 

Common throughout the chaparral belt of all the mountains. April-June. 


Low herbs or suffrutescent plants with entire leaves 
and purple, bluish or white flowers. Calyx deeply 
5-parted. Corolla funnelform or somewhat salver-shaped, 
the tube destitute of internal appendages. Stamens 
often unequal and unequally inserted, included. Styles 
2, distinct to the base or rarely united ; stigmas some- 

Water-leaf Family 327 

what capitate. Capsule thin, completely or incompletely 
2-celled by the meeting of the 2 thin and dilated placen- 
tae, 2-valved, the valves entire. Seeds usually numerous. 

1. C. demissus (Gray) Heller. Annual; stems much branched 
from the base and erect-spreading, 5-15 cm. high, pubescent, hir- 
sute or somewhat hispid ; leaves linear-spatulate, at least the lower 
tapering into a petiole; flowers subsessile in the forks; sepals 
very narrowly linear, not at all broadened above, 4-5 mm. long; 
corolla bright purple, about 1 cm. long; capsule oblong, about 
3 mm. long, 10-16-seeded. 

Occasional in dry places in the San Gabriel Mountains. Frequent on the 

2. C. stenocarpus (Gray) Heller. Erect, diffusely branched, at 
length procumbent, the branches 1.5-3 dm. long, leafy, villous- 
pubescent and somewhat viscid ; leaves oblong, the upper with a 
broad sessile somewhat clasping base, the lower spatulate; flow- 
ers sessile or on short pedicels becoming rigid in fruit; corolla 
f unnelform, somewhat exceeding the linear sepals ; capsule cylin- 
dric, 6 mm. long, nearly equaling the sepals ; seeds very numerous. 

Growing about the borders of ponds. Santa Monica, Davidson; Soldiers 


Low shrubs or rarely herbaceous, with alternate more 
or less dentate leaves, and funnelform or campanulate 
flowers in terminal panicles or scorpioid cymes. Sepals 
narrow, not dilated above. Filaments more or less adnate 
to the tube of the corolla, little or not at all exserted, 
sparsely hirsute. Ovary nearly or quite sessile, 2-celled 
by the meeting of the dilated placentae in the axis. 
Capsule first loculicidal then septicidal, thus 4-valved ; 
each valve with a short beak or acumination and closed 
on one side by the adherent dissepiment or half-parti- 

1. E. Californicum (H. & A.) Greene. Shrub, commonly 10-20 
dm. high ; leaves oblong to oblanceolate, tapering below and fre- 
quently above, dentate at least above the middle, very glutinous, 

328 Boraginaceae 

the areas between the veins on the under side with a close dense 
felt; calyx 2 mm. long, with linear lobes; corolla white or pale 
blue tubular-funnelform, 8-12 mm. long; stamens and styles 
included. (E. glutinosum Benth.) 

Occasional in the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel Mountains. More 
common on the dry plains east of our range, as well as in the San Antonio 
and San Bernardino Mountains, where it extends up to the pine belt. May- 

2. E. tomentosum Benth. Shrub, 25-30 dm. high, whitish 
tomentose with a more or less dense coat of short villous hairs, 
sometimes rusty-colored, branches leafy to the top ; leaves oblong 
or oval, rigid, obtuse, 5-10 cm. long ; cymes at length broad ; calyx 
densely villous, the corolla slightly so ; corolla somewhat salver- 
shaped and about twice the length of the calyx. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Moun- 
tains. April-June. 

3. E. Parryi (Gray) Greene. Stems about 8-18 dm. high, 
woody below ; branches rather simple and erect, hirsute or vil- 
lous, viscid-glandular and strong-scented; leaves 5 cm. long, 
1-1.5 cm. broad in the middle, tapering above to an acute apex 
and below to a very short petiole ; the leaves at the base of the 
branches often much reduced, bullate and the margin strongly 
revolute; calyx-lobes narrowly linear, about 4 mm. long; corolla 
tubular-funnelform, about 15 mm. long, blue; stamens included, 
unequal; ovary oval, about 3 mm. long; seeds 4 or sometimes 
more. (Nama Parryi Gray.) 

Occasional in the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and Santa Ana Mountains. 
Occurring in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and in the lower por- 
tions of the pine belt. June-August. 


Herbs or rarely shrubs with mostly alternate exstipu- 
late entire and pubescent leaves, and perfect regular or 
nearly so flowers in scorpioid spikes, racemes or cymes 
or rarely scattered. Calyx 5-lobed or 5-parted, usually 
persistent. Corolla 5-lobed, sometimes crested or append- 
aged in the throat. Stamens inserted in the tube or 
throat, alternate with the lobes ; anthers 2-celled, lon- 
gitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, of 2 2-valved 

Borage Family 329 

carpels, these commonly 2-lobed appearing as 4 1-ovuled 
carpels ; style simple, entire or 2-cleft. Fruit mostly of 
4 1-seeded nutlets. 

Ovary not lobed; glabrous perennial. 1. HELIOTROPIDM. 

Ovary 4-lobed ; hispid or pubescent annuals. 
Flowers white. 

Nutlets divergent, wing-margined and bristly, at least at apex. 

Nutlets erect. 

Nutlets inserted at the base; scar rounded. 3. ALLOCARYA. 
Nutlets laterally inserted. 

Scar rounded. 6. PLAGIOBOTHRYS. 

Scar linear, often bifurcate at base. 

Calyx circumscissile near the middle. 5. PIPTOCALYX. 
Calyx not circumscissile. 

Roots imparting a purple stain; spikes leafy bracted. 

Roots not imparting a stain; spikes naked. 

Flowers yellow. 8. AMSINCKIA. 


Herbs or shrubs with alternate mostly entire petioled 
leaves, and small blue or white flowers in scorpioid 
spikes or scattered. Calyx-lobes lanceolate or linear. 
Corolla salver-shaped or funnelform, naked in the throat. 
Stamens included ; filaments short or none. Style ter- 
minal, short or slender ; stigma conic or angular. Fruit 
2-4-lobed, separating into 4 1-seeded nutlets or into 2 
2-seeded carpels. 

1. H. Curvassavicum L. Annual, fleshy, glabrous through- 
out, more or less glaucous, branched, diffuse, the branches 15-45 
cm. long; leaves oblanceolate or sometimes linear, 2.5-5 cm. 
long, obtuse at the apex, narrowed into petioles or the upper ses- 
sile ; scorpioid spikes densely flowered, bractless, mostly in pairs ; 
flowers about 4 mm. broad; calyx-segments lanceolate, acute; 
corolla white or rarely lavender ; stigma annular. 

Common in low saline places. 


Low slender annuals with strigose-hirsute pubescence, 
small narrow leaves, and small white flowers scattered 

330 Boraginaceae 

along the stems and branches. Calyx deeply 5-cleft, 
spreading or reflexed in fruit, persistent. Corolla with 
a circle of processes or crests which almost close the 
throat. Stamens included. Nutlets flat, thin, radiately 
divergent, bordered at apex or all around with a row of 
hooked bristles. 

1. P. linearis (R. & P.) DC. Stems slender, diffusely branched 
from the base, decumbent or ascending, canescent throughout 
with appressed hairs, the leaves with spreading hairs; nutlets 
oblong, 4 mm. long, becoming recurved, the winged margins 
toothed, the teeth ending in an uncinate bristle, the apex thickly 
beset with slender uncinate bristles. 

Frequent on the mesas in the coast valleys and in moist places in the 
interior region. 

2. P. penicillata (H. & A.) DC. Closely resembling the last 
in habit, usually smaller and densely canescent with appressed 
hairs throughout ; nutlets oblong, 2 mm. long, the apex covered 
with slender uncinate bristles, the winged margin entire, in- 
curved, somewhat broader at the base and sometimes bearing 1 
or 2 uncinate bristles. 

Common in all our valleys and foothills, mostly in dry ground. 

3. P. setosa Gray. Stems erect, 4-6 cm. high, yellowish 
green, canescent with appressed hairs ; calyx with a few strong 
hispid hairs; nutlets broad, about 1 mm. long, beset on the mar- 
gins and inner surface with uncinate bristles. 

First collected on the Mojave Desert. Common on the desert slopes of the 
San Gabriel, San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Mountains. 

3. ALLOCARYA Greene. 

Mostly low spreading annuals, with linear entire 
leaves, the lowest opposite, and small flowers in terminal 
spikes or racemes. Pedicels thickened at the summit 
and persistent. Calyx 5-divided, persistent, the seg- 
ments narrow. Corolla salver-shaped, white, yellow in 
the throat. Stamens included. Ovary 4-divided ; style 
short. Nutlets crustaceous, smooth or rough, attached* 

Borage Family 331 

at their bases or below the middle to the receptacle, the 
scar of the attachment concave or raised. 

1. A. trachycarpa (Gray) Greene. Stem branching from the 
base, decumbent, 3 dm. long or less, rough with a rather coarse and 
somewhat spreading pubescence ; racemes leafy almost through- 
out ; segments of the calyx linear, widely spreading ; corolla very 
small ; nutlets ovate, straight, carinate on both sides, the dorsal 
keels and nearly straight transverse rugse dentate-interrupted ; 
scar suborbicular, nearly basal. 

In low ground near Inglewood. 

4. EREHOCARYA Greene. 

Hirsute-canescent low annuals with numerous leafy- 
bracted racemose branches. Roots imparting a purple 
stain. Leaves in a basal rosulate tuft. Racemes dense, 
biserial, leafy-bracted ; pedicels filiform, short and per- 
sistent with the calyx. Calyx 5-parted to the base, 
campanulate in fruit, its lobes nerveless, not bristly. 
Corollas small, white. Nutlets neither margined nor car- 
inate, erect, attached for their whole length, the groove 
open, slightly dilated and not furcate at base. Style 
enlarged in fruit and persistent. 

1. E. micrantha (Torr.) Greene. Hirsute-canescent through- 
out ; stems slender, erect, diffusely branched from the base, 6-12 
cm. high ; leaves linear, 4-10 mm. long ; flowers crowded ; corolla 
scarcely 2mm. long, its lobes about 1 mm. long, obscurely append- 
aged at the throat; nutlets oblong-ovate, acuminate, smooth 
or nearly so, about 1 mm. long. 

Frequent in dry washes in the interior valleys. 

2. E. lepida (Gray) Greene. Stems stouter than in the last, 
8-15 cm. high ; corolla larger, its limb 4-6 mm. broad, append- 
ages conspicuous ; nutlets nearly 2 mm. long, pectinate-scabrous. 

Frequent in the dry interior foothills of San Diego and San Bernardino 


Hispid-canescent low diffusely branching annuals, 
leafy-racemose throughout. Calyx villous-hispid, 5-cleft 

332 Boraginaceae 

to the middle, circumscissile near the middle, the lower 
scarious part together with the short pedicel persistent ; 
the lobes herbaceous, filiform, hispid-bristly, nerveless. 
Nutlets 4, not carinate, margined, scabrous-roughened 
or smooth and shining, the ventral groove divaricate- 
forked at base. 

1. P. circumscissus (H. & A.) Torr. Strongly hirsute-canes- 
cent throughout ; stems much branched from the base, forming 
rounded tufts, 4-6 cm. high ; leaves linear, those of the racemes 
4-5 mm. long; flowers crowded; corolla minute, naked; nutlets 
oblong-ovate, acute, smooth or minutely puncticulate-scabrous. 

Frequent in dry stony or sandy places in the interior foothills and moun- 
tains. Mount Wilson; Ly tie Creek Canyon; Bear Valley. 


Rather large but slender annuals with most of their 
leaves in a close basal tuft, the elongated branches erect 
or decumbent. Racemes spike-like, elongated, loose, 
naked or leafy-bracted ; pedicels very short, filiform, per- 
sistent. Calyx 5-cleft or 5-parted, closed or campanu- 
late, often irregularly circumscissile near the base. Nut- 
lets carinate on both sides toward the apex, usually with 
well-defined lateral margins, the back very irregularly 
rugose ; insertion almost medial on a depressed gymno- 
base ; areola or scar rounded, rarely stipitate. 

* Nutlets not stipitate. 

1. P. canescens Benth. Stems much branched from the base, 
decumbent or ascending, 2-4 dm. long; pubescence pale, soft- 
villous; calyx cleft nearly to the base, the segments broadly 
lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long in fruit; nutlets 2 mm. long, incurved- 
connivent, rugose-reticulate, the areola longer transversely, the 
lateral angles very distinct. 

Frequent in grassy places in our interior valleys and foothills. 

2. P. nothofulvus Gray. Stems 1-several from the depressed 
rosulate tuft of leaves, erect or suberect, 3-6 dm. high, branching 
mostly above, silky-villous, the hairs reddish when young, espe- 

Borage Family 333 

cially on the calyx ; leaves oblong-obovate or oblanceolate ; spikes 
leafless ; calyx cleft only to the middle, 3 mm. long in fruit, cir- 
cumscissile below the middle ; nutlets with dot-like granulations 
between the rather prominent rugae. 

Frequent on rather moist grassy hillsides about Los Angeles and on mesas 
in the coast region. 

** Nutlets stipitate. 

3. P. Cooperi Gray. Diffusely branched from the base with 
slender sparsely-leaved ascending flowering stems, 1.5-3 dm. long, 
hispidulous; leaves spatulate-linear to oblong-lanceolate ; spikes 
at length sparsely-flowered, sparingly bracteate or above bract- 
less; corolla-limb 4-6 mm. broad; nutlets trigonous and reticu- 
late-rugose, dentate-muriculate on the reticulations. 

Occasional on moist grassy slopes in the coast valleys. 


Mostly low erect branching setose or hispid annual 
herbs, with narrow alternate entire leaves, and small 
mostly white flowers, in scorpioid bractless or bracteolate 
spikes. Calyx 5-parted or 5-cleft, at length deciduous, 
erect or spreading in fruit. Corolla small, funnelform, 
usually with 5 scales closing the throat. Stamens in- 
cluded ; filaments short. Ovary 4-divided ; style short ; 
stigma capitate. Nutlets erect, rounded on the back, the 
margins obtuse acute or winged, attached laterally to 
the conic or elongated receptacle, scar elongated. 

* Nutlets muriculate. 

1. C. muriculata (A. DC.) Greene. Rather stout, branch- 
ing, rough-hirsute or hispid, 2-4 dm. high, with well-developed 
rather dense spikes, mostly in 2's and 3's at the ends of the 
branches; calyx about 3 mm. long, lanceolate; corolla 4-6 mm. 
long; nutlets 2 mm. long, muricate-papillose and somewhat 
rugose on the back; ventral groove and its basal bifurcation 
mostly closed, lateral angles acutish, distinct. 

Frequent in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and in the pine belt 
of all our mountains. 

334 Boraginaceae 

2. C. bar bigera (Gray) Greene. Bather stout, much branched, 
2-4 dm. high, hispid and hirsute; leaves narrowly linear; spikes 
elongated, the flowers becoming rather distant; calyx-lobes lin- 
ear, attenuate, 6-8 mm. long in fruit, covered with long shaggy 
bristles, usually intermingled with long white villous hairs ; 
corolla often 6 mm. broad; nutlets rarely acuminate, about 2 
mm. long, grayish, muricate-papillose ; scar open, dilated at base. 

Common in open dry places on the plains and foothills. March-May. 

3. C. intermedia (Gray) Greene. Resembling the last in 
habit; calyx-lobes 3-5 mm. long, armed with rather rigid and 
pungent, whitish or rusty-yellowish bristles ; corolla usually less 
than 4 mm. broad; nutlets grayish, about 2 mm. long, oblong- 
ovate, thickly rough-muricate ; scar wholly or partly open, with 
an open areola. 

Frequent on dry open ridges and on the plains in the interior region. 

4. C. ambigua (Gray) Greene. Stems rather slender, loosely 
branching, 20-25 cm. high, sparsely hispid and hirsute; leaves 
rather broadly linear ; flowers becoming scattered ; calyx-lobes 5-7 
mm. long, beset with rather short, rigid bristles; corollas about 
3 mm. broad ; nutlets deltoid-ovate, 2 mm. long, brownish, sparsely 
and faintly muricate. 

Occasional in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and among the 
pines. May-July. 

** Nutlets smooth and shining. 

5. C. flaccida (Lehm.) Greene. Slender, strict, 3-6 dm. 
high, strigulose with minute close pubescence; leaves linear, 
minutely more or less strigulose-hispid ; calyx erect in fruit, 
appressed to the rachis, 4-5 mm. long; sepals filiform-linear, 
thickish below, their bases very hispid with deflexed and strong, 
somewhat hooked bristles; nutlets solitary, scarcely flattened 
ventrally, the groove of attachment enlarged at base but not fur- 
cate. (Krynitzkia oxycarya Gray.) 

Known in our region only from Chatsworth Park. 

6. C. microstachys Greene. Rarely over 3 dm. high, much 
branched from the base, hispidulous or hispid; calyx in fruit 
ascending or erect, but not appressed to the rachis, 2-3.5 mm. 
long ; sepals linear, hispid with widely spreading, but not deflexed, 
straight and somewhat pungent hairs ; nutlet solitary, somewhat 

Borage Family 335 

flattened laterally, the groove of attachment divaricately forked 
and somewhat open at the base. 

Frequent in sandy soil in the foothills throughout our range. Our plants 
usually somewhat canescent, but otherwise not differing from the northern 

7. C. leiocarpa (F. & M.) Greene. Commonly branched from 
the base, 1-3 dm. high; spikes leafy bracted, the terminal larger 
and interrupted, the lateral short and glomerate; sepals short- 
linear, hispid bristly; nutlets 4, narrowly ovate, acute, 1.5 mm. 
long, the ventral groove not forked or scarcely so. 

Frequent on the sand-dunes along the seashore. 


Hispid annual herbs with erect or spreading branched 
stems, alternate linear leaves, and yellow flowers in elon- 
gated scorpioid spikes. Calyx herbaceous ; sepals 5 or 4, 
by the union of 2 into 1 broader one. Corolla salver- 
shaped, the throat somewhat funnelform with more or 
less distinct folds but destitute of crests or processes. 
Filaments short. Style filiform ; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. 
Nutlets crustaceous, erect or incurved, smooth or rough, 
triquetrous or ovate-triangular. 

1. A. spectabilis F. & M. Stems erect, 3-6 dm. high, often 
branched at base, the branches spreading or decumbent ; herbage 
sparsely hispid, the hairs with very pustulate bases ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, bright green ; calyx-lobes lanceolate-linear, hispid 
with usually fulvous hairs ; corolla orange-colored, usually 8-10 
mm. long, the throat glabrous ; anthers unequally inserted in the 
throat; nutlets reticulate-rugose and granulate, dark-colored. 

Common in sandy soil near the coast, and apparently passing into the 
next. These plants have long been considered as belonging to A. lycopsoides 
Lehm., but that is a small-flowered species which has a bearded throat It 
belongs to the seaboard and ranges from San Francisco to Vancouver Is- 
land. In applying the name A. spectabilis to the narrow-leafed plant of the 
interior valleys of middle California, recent authors have clearly erred; 
for Fischer and Myer's specimens came from the seacoast at Bodega Bay, 
where the form we have in mind is common. February-June. 

2. A. intermedia F. & M. Stems erect, in robust plants 
much branched and more or less spreading ; herbage hirsute and 

336 Verbenaceae 

hispid throughout; leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, often canes- 
cent; calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, much exceeding the nutlets, 
hispid with white or somewhat fulvous hairs ; corolla orange or 
yellow, usually less than 8 mm. long, the throat glabrous ; nut- 
lets reticulate- rugose and granulate, usually pale. 

A very common weed in all the valleys and foothills. February- June. 


Herbs or shrubs with usually opposite or verticillate 
leaves, and perfect more or less irregular flowers in ter- 
minal or axillary spikes, racemes or panicles. Calyx 
usually 4-5-lobed or 4-5-cleft, persistent. Corolla regu- 
lar or 2-lipped, the tube usually cylindric, the limb 
4-5-cleft. Stamens usually 4, didynamous, rarely only 
2, inserted on the corolla and alternate with its lobes ; 
anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. 
Ovary superior, 2-4-celled, composed of 2 carpels with 2 
ovules ; style simple ; stigmas 1 or 2. Fruit dry, separ- 
ating at maturity into 2 or 4 nutlets, or a drupe con- 
taining the 2-4 nutlets. 

Corolla 5-lobed, regular or nearly so; nutlets 4. 1. VERBENA. 

Corolla 4-lobed, 2-lipped; nutlets 2. 2. LIPPIA. 


Herbs, mostly with opposite leaves and variously 
colored bracted flowers in terminal solitary, corymbose 
or panicled spikes. Calyx usually tubular, 5-angled r 
more or less unequally 5-toothed. Corolla salver-shaped 
or funnelform, its limb spreading, 5-lobed and slightly 
2-lipped or regular. Stamens 4, didynamous or rarely 
only 2, included ; connective of anthers unappendaged or 
sometimes provided with a gland. Ovary 4-celled ; ovules 
1 in each cell ; style usually stout, 2-lobed, only 1 of the 
lobes stigmatic. Fruit dry, mostly enclosed by the calyx, 

Vervain Family 337 

at length separating into 4 1-seeded, linear or linear- 
oblong, smooth or rough nutlets. 

* Bracts shorter than the flowers. 

*- Flowers, or at least the fruit, scattered. 

1. V. urticifolia L. Stems minutely hirsute-pubescent to 
almost glabrous, erect, 10-16 dm. high; leaves thin, petioled, 
ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute, evenly or doubly 
serrate; spikes slender-filiform, panicled; bracts ovate, acumi- 
nate, shorter than the calyx; corolla 2-4 mm. long, white or 

Occasional in marshes. 

2. V. polystachya H. B. K. Scarcely as tall as the last, 
scabrous, sometimes hirsute or hispid, paniculately branched; 
leaves oblong to broadly lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm. long, sessile by a 
narrowed base or short-petioled, obtuse or acute, incisely serrate, 
occasionally somewhat lobed ; spikes thicker and denser than in 
the last. 

Occasional in marshes, less common than the last. 

-- *- Fruit mostly crowded. 

3. V. prostrata R. Br. Soft-villous to hirsute, diffusely 
spreading, at length much branched, 5-9 dm. long; leaves obo- 
vate or oblong, with cuneate base tapering into a margined petiole, 
veiny, acutely incised and serrate, often 3-5-cleft; spikes solitary 
or somewhat clustered, elongated, hirsute or villous; bracts sub- 
ulate, shorter than the calyx; corolla violet or blue, 4 mm. long; 
nutlets oblong. 

Common on the plains and in the foothills throughout our range. 

** Bracts exceeding the flowers. 

4. V. bracteosa Michx. Hirsute, much branched from the 
base, the branches diffuse or decumbent, 2-4 dm. long; leaves 
cuneate-obovate, narrowed into a short-winged petiole, pinnately 
incised or 3-cleft and coarsely dentate; spikes thick, terminating 
the branches ; lowest bracts often pinnatifid or incised, the others 
lanceolate, acuminate, entire, rigid, all exceeding the flowers; 
corolla purplish or blue. 

Occasional in low ground, especially in the bottoms of dried up ponds. 

338 Labiatae 


Perennial herbs with opposite sometimes verticillate 
or rarely alternate leaves, and small bracted flowers in 
axillary or terminal heads or spikes. Calyx small, mem- 
branous, ovoid, campanulate or compressed and 2-winged, 
2-4-toothed or 2-4-cleft. Corolla cylindric, the limb 
oblique spreading, somewhat 2-lipped, 4-cleft, the lobes 
broad, often retuse or eroded. Stamens 4, didynamous : 
anthers not appendaged, the sacs nearly parallel. Ovary 
2-celled ; ovules 1 in each cell ; style short ; stigma 
oblique or recurved. Fruit dry with a membranous 
exocarp, at length separating into 2 nutlets. 

1. L. lanceolata Michx. Green, glabrous or very sparingly 
pubescent with forked hairs ; stems slender, weak, procumbent or 
ascending, often rooting at the nodes, simple or little branched, 
3-6 dm. long; leaves thin, oblong, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
short-petioled, acute, sharply serrate to below the middle, nar- 
rowed at base, 2.5-7 cm. long ; peduncles axillary, slender, usually 
longer than the leaves ; heads at first globose, becoming cylindric, 
about 15 mm. long in fruit ; bracts acute ; calyx flattened, 2-cleft ; 
corolla pale blue, scarcely longer than the calyx. 

Occasional along slow-running streams in marshy places. June-August. 


Aromatic punctate herbs or shrubs, with mostly 
4-sided stems, simple opposite exstipulate leaves, and 
irregular perfect flowers variously clustered. Calyx 
regular or 2-lipped, 5-toothed or 5-lobed, or rarely 
4-toothed or 4-lobed, persistent. Corolla mostly 2-lipped ; 
upper lip usually 3-lobed. Stamens inserted on the 
corolla-tube, generally 4 and didynamous, sometimes 2 
with or without staminodia ; anthers 2-celled, introrse or 
confidently 1-celled. Ovary superior, 4-lobed or 4-parted ; 
style 2-lobed. Fruit of 4 1-seeded nutlets. 

Mint Family 339 

Flowers solitary in the axils. 

Calyx gibbous on the upper side. 2. SCUTELLARIA. 

Calyx not gibbous on the upper side. 

Trailing herbs ; flowers small. 8. MICROMERIA. 

Shrubby; flowers large. 7. SPHACELB. 

Flowers not solitary. 

Calyx regular or its teeth nearly equal. 

Corolla slender curved; stamens fully twice the length of the corolla. 

Corolla nearly regular. 
Flower-whorls axillary. 

Stamens 4. 12. MENTHA. 

Stamens 2. 11. LYCOPUS. 

Flowers in terminal bracteate heads. 9. MONARDELLA. 

Corolla evidently bilabiate. ,~. 

Stamens included in the corolla-tube. 3. MARRUBIUM. 

Stamens exceeding the corolla-tube. 

Lower pair of stamens the longer. 4. STACHYS. 

Stamens nearly equal. 10. KOELI.IA. 

Calyx bilabiate or its teeth unequal. 

Upper corolla-lip erect; filaments short; the connective transverse, the 

lower portion evident. 5 SALVIA. 

Upper corolla-tip spreading; connective nearly continuous with the 
filament, the lower portion not evident or indicated by a tooth. 



Annual or perennial strong-scented herbs or rarely 
shrubby, with lanceolate, oblong or linear, entire or 
slightly repand leaves, and small or middle-sized, usu- 
ally blue or purple flowers, paniculate or in axillary 
loose or dense clusters. Calyx campanulate, very un- 
equally 5-lobed. Corolla-tube slender, exserted or in- 
cluded, the limb somewhat oblique and deeply 5-cleft 
into oblong more or less declined segments. Stamens 4, 
didynamous, ascending, curved, the anterior pair longer ; 
filaments filiform, spirally coiled in the bud, long 
exserted ; anther-sacs divaricate, more or less confluent 
at the base. Ovary deeply 4-lobed ; style 2-cleft at the 

1. T. lanceolatum Benth. Strong-scented annual, simple or 
branching from near the base, 1.5-3 dm. high, very leafy, herbage 
cinereous or villous-pubescent and minutely glandular; leaves 

340 Labiatae 

lanceolate, acuminate, sessile or the lowest subsessile, with 3-5 
strong, nearly parallel nerves, 2 cm. long ; cymes short-peduncled 
or nearly sessile; calyx villous; corolla almost filiform, some- 
what pubescent, blue. 

Frequent in dry fields, especially on the mesas in our interior valleys. 

2. T. lanatum Benth. (ROMERO or WOOLLY BLUE-CURLS.) 
Shrubby, about 1 m. high, very leafy; leaves thickish, narrowly 
linear and with revolute margins, 1-nerved, glabrate and shining 
above, canescent-tomentose beneath, sessile, many fascicled in 
the axils, uppermost reduced to bracts; cymes in a naked 
terminal, interrupted thyrsus, whole inflorescence clothed with 
a dense violet or purple wool; corolla 1 cm. long; the filaments 
fully twice as long. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt on dry ridges in all the mountain ranges 
and extending northward as far as Monterey County. 


Annual or perennial herbs, with flowers solitary or 
2-3 together in the axils or in bracted racemes or spikes. 
Calyx campanulate, gibbous, bilabiate, the lips entire, 
the upper with a crest or protuberance upon its back, 
often deciduous in fruit, the lower persistent. Corolla 
much exserted, dilated above into the throat, glabrous 
within, upper lip arched, entire or emarginate, the lower 
spreading or deflexed, its lateral lobes small and some- 
what connected with the upper, its middle lobe broad, 
sometimes emarginate, the margins mostly recurved. 
Stamens 4, didynamous, ascending under the upper lip, 
the upper pair somewhat shorter ; anthers ciliate, the 
upper pair 2-celled, the lower 1-celled. Style unequally 
2-cleft at the apex ; ovary deeply 4-parted. Nutlets 
subglobose or depressed, papillose or tuberculate. 

1. S. tuberosa Benth. Perennial by tuberiferous rootstocks, 
soft-pubescent or villous; stems slender, often diffuse, 3-12 cm. 
high, rather sparsely leafy; leaves mostly ovate, truncate or 
cuneate at the base, thin, coarsely and obtusely few-toothed or 

Mint Family 341 

nearly entire, 1-4 cm. long, nearly all petioled; floral about 
equaling or longer than the flowers; corolla narrow, about 15 
mm. long, blue. 

Occasional in shady places in all the hills and in the chaparral belt of the 
mountains. April-June. 

2. S. Bolanderi Gray. Perennial by filiform rootstocks, pubes- 
cent; stems slender, simple or branched from the base, about 3 
dm. high, very leafy to the summit; leaves ovate-elliptic, very 
obtuse, closely sessile by somewhat cordate base, 2.5 cm. long or 
less; flowers short-pedicelled, seldom equaling the leaf; corolla 
yellowish, throat inflated, villous within. 

Moist woods, El Monte, Davidson. 


Perennial, mostly woolly herbs, with dentate rugose 
leaves, and small flowers in dense axillary clusters. 
Calyx tubular, 5-10-nerved, regularly 5 10-toothed, the 
teeth acute or aristate, spreading or recurved in fruit. 
Corolla-limb 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, entire or emar- 
ginate, the lower spreading, 3-cleft, its broader middle 
lobe commonly emarginate. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
included, the posterior pair the shorter ; anthers 2-celled, 
the sacs divergent. Style 2-cleft at the summit, the lobes 
short. Ovary deeply 4-lobed. Nutlets ovoid, smooth. 

1. M. vulgare L. Stems stout, tufted, erect, white-woolly, 
3-10 dm. high; leaves roundish crenate, except at the cuneate, 
truncate or subcordate base, petioled, white-woolly beneath, 
green above, 2-4 cm. long; flowers whitish; calyx-teeth usually 
10, subulate. 

Common in waste places. Flowering nearly all the year. 


Annual or perennial, commonly pubescent or hispid 
herbs, with mostly purplish flowers loosely clustered in 
terminal dense or interrupted spikes. Calyx mostly 
campanulate, 5-toothed, the teeth nearly equal, erect or 
spreading, pointed. Corolla-tube not dilated at the 

342 Labiatae 

throat, narrow ; the limb strongly 2-lipped, the upper 
lip erect or slightly turned back, overarched or concave, 
entire or emarginate, lower lip spreading, 3-lobed, the 
middle lobe broader than the often deflexed lateral ones, 
sometimes 2-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, ascending 
under the upper lip, the anterior pair the longer, some- 
times deflexed or twisted after anthesis ; anthers con- 
tiguous in pairs. Ovary deeply 4-lobed ; style 2-cleft, 
the lobes subulate. Nutlets ovoid or oblong. 

1. S. ajugoides Benth. Villous with very soft white hairs, 1.5-3 
dm. high ; leaves oblong, very obtuse, crenately serrate, 2. 5-7 cm. 
long, roundish or acutish at base, the lower petioled, the upper 
sessile, the floral as long as the subtended flowers ; flower-clus- 
ters mainly distant ; calyx short-campanulate or becoming tur- 
binate in fruit, very slightly villous, the teeth triangular-ovate, 
aristate-acuminate, nearly equaling the corolla-tube ; corolla 
whitish, its lips 4-6 mm. long, the upper woolly on the back. 

Frequent along streams in the valleys and in the lower altitudes of the 
mountains below the pine belt. April-August. 

2. S. albens Gray. Sof t-tomentose or lanate with white wool, 
3-15 dm. high, leafy ; leaves oblong to ovate, usually with a more 
or less cordate base, acutish at apex, 5-8 cm. long, the lower 
short-petioled, the upper nearly sessile, the floral mostly shorter 
than the dense interrupted capitate clusters of thevirgate spikes; 
calyx turbinate-campanulate, the teeth triangular, aristulate, 
nearly equaling the corolla-tube; corolla as in the last. 

Frequent along marshes and streams in the valleys and extending into 
the pine belt of all our mountains. May-August. 

3. S. Californica Benth. Stems rather slender, simple from 
the base or branched, 4-8 dm. high, sparsely retrorsely hispid, 
especially on the angles, and more or less glandular with sessile 
glands; leaves ovate-oblong, subcordate at the base, the lowest 
rather long-petioled, sparsely villous-hispid, crenate ; flowers 
about 6 in the whorls, these rather remote; calyx campanulate- 
turbinate, the teeth triangular, cuspidate, spreading in age; co- 
rolla purple, its tube about twice the length of the calyx, with a 
horizontal hairy ring at its base within. 

Frequent on shaded slopes and in canyons in all the mountains and foot- 
hills. April-July. 

Mint Family 343 

5. SAL VI A L. 

Herbs or suffrutescent plants, aromatic and bitter, 
with clustered usually showy flowers. Calyx bilabiate, 
its upper lip usually 3-toothed or entire, the lower 
3-cleft. Corolla deeply 2-lipped, erect, entire, emargi- 
nate or 2-lobed, usually concave, the lower spreading, 
its middle lobe often emarginate. Anther-bearing sta- 
mens 2, the posterior pair wanting or rudimentary ; fila- 
ments usually short ; connective of the anthers trans- 
verse, linear or filiform, bearing a perfect anther-sac on 
its upper end, its lower end dilated, capitate or some- 
times bearing a small or rudimentary anther-sac. Ovary 
deeply 4-parted ; style 2-cleft. Nutlets smooth, usually 
developing mucilage and spiral tubes when wetted. 

1. S. carduacea Benth. (THISTLE-SAGE.) Rather stout erect 
annual, 2-5 dm. high ; stem with a cluster of ample sinuate- 
pinnatifid spinulose-toothed leaves at base, these and the whole 
plant white- woolly and thistle-like; flowers in 1-4 dense head- 
like verticillate clusters, these 2-3 cm. broad, equalled or sur- 
passed by the ovate-lanceolate pectinate-toothed bracts; calyx 
long-woolly, many-nerved ; corolla light blue, 2.5 cm. long ; upper 
lip erose-denticulate and cleft; lower with a large flabelliform 
fimbriately many-cleft middle lobe; filaments very short; lower 
arm of the long filiform connective bearing a polleniferous anther- 

Occasional in sandy soil in all the valleys and in the foothills. March- 

2. S. Columbariae Benth. (CniAor SAGE.) Slender annual, 
branching and leafy below, 2-5 dm. high, naked and peduncle- 
like above, more or less grayish pubescent with rather short re- 
flexed hairs ; leaves rugulose, 1-2-pinnatifid into toothed or incised 
divisions ; flowers in 1-several dense verticillate clusters, these 
about 1 5-2 cm. broad, scarcely equalled by the rounded bracts; 
bracts tipped with a slender awn, sparsely ci.liate on the margins; 
calyx-lobes purplish tipped, the upper lip large, arched, tipped 
with a pair of partly connate short-awned teeth ; corolla deep 
blue, hardly exceeding the calyx, the upper lip small, notched, 

344 Labiatae 

the lower with small lateral lobes and a large unguiculate trans- 
versely oval 2-lobed middle one. 

Frequent throughout our range in the foothills and on the plains. March- 

6. BAMONA Greene. 

Perennial aromatic herbs or shrubby plants, with 
rugose veiny mostly crenulate leaves, and rather showy 
flowers, capitate-glomerate or sometimes more open and 
paniculate. Calyx bilabiate, mostly deeply cleft on the 
lower side as if spathaceous. Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 
the upper lip spreading, 2-lobed or emarginate. Anther- 
bearing stamens 2 ; filaments slender, exserted, appar- 
ently simple and bearing a linear 1-celled anther, or with 
an articulation showing that the portion above it answers 
to a filiform connective, the lower end of which some- 
times projects into a subulate point. Otherwise as in 
Salvia. (Audibertia Benth.) 

1. K. grandiflor a (Benth.) Briquet. Herbaceous, very villous 
and glandular, aromatic ; stems stout, 3-6 dm. high ; lowest leaves 
hastate-lanceolate, obtuse, 8-20 cm. long, on margined petioles, 
the upper oblong, sessile, all very rugose, sinuate-crenate, white- 
tomentose beneath; flowers densely capitate-glomerate in large 
interrupted spicate heads; bracts broadly ovate, entire; calyx 
spathaceous, the orifice oblique, 2 lower teeth very short; corolla 
crimson, 3 cm. long. 

Frequent on shaded banks in all the mountains. March-May. 

2. B. nivea (Benth.) Briquet. Shrubby below, 9-12 dm. 
high, hoary white throughout with a close tomentum; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate or the lowest ovate, obtuse; the upper with 
truncate base, very short-petioled ; flowers in dense verticillate 
glomerules and interrupted spicate, much bracteate ; bracts her- 
baceous oval, or oblong, obtuse and muticous; calyx splitting 
down anteriorly, at length emarginate posteriorly, its teeth obtuse 
and muticous; corolla light purple, about 1 cm. long, its tube 
scarcely exceeding the calyx ; stamens and style much exserted ; 
connective almost continuous with the filament. 

Occasional in the foothills of the Santa Monica and San Fernando Moun- 
tains. April-July. 

Mint Family 345 

3. R. stachyoides( Benth.) Briquet. (BLACK SAGE.) Ciriereous- 
tomentose or glabrate, shrubby, I m. high or more, branching 
and leafy; leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at base or short- 
petioled, crenate, green and rugose above, cinereous-tomentose 
beneath; flowers in interrupted spicate heads or whorls; the 
floral leaves much reduced, these and the ovate or oblong bracts 
as well as the calyx-teeth of the bilabiate calyx cuspidate-acumi- 
nate or spinulose-aristulate ; corolla white or lilac-tinged, about 
1 cm. long, the tube longer than the limb; style, and especially 
the stamens, little exserted ; subulate appendages of the connect- 
ive often manifest. 

Common on the low hills throughout our range. April-June. 

4. R. polystachya (Benth.) Greene. (WHITE SAGE.) Shrubby 
below, 1 m. high or more, minutely tomentose-canescent, the 
branches virgate; leaves mostly very white on both surfaces, 
oblong-lanceolate, minutely rugose and crenulate, 5-8 cm. long; 
inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate, 3-6 dm. long; the floral leaves, 
bracts and bractlets small and loose, at length reflexed, lanceolate 
or subulate, cuspidate-tipped ; flowers sessile, loose ; upper lip of 
calyx truncate or 3-toothed, at length concave or galeate, longer 
than the triangular-subulate lower lip; corolla white or nearly 
so, the lower lip much enlarged, the middle lobe rounded, emar- 
ginate at apex, unguiculate, the upper lip short ; tube very short ; 
style and divergent stamens long-exserted ; filiform connective 
continuous with the filament, its lower end usually indicated by 
a minute tooth. 

Very common on the dry plains toward the foothills and ascending these 
to about 3000 feet. April-July. 

7. SPHACELE Benth. 

Shrubby or suffrutescent aromatic plants with the 
floral leaves gradually reduced with rather large flowers 
solitary in their axils, forming a leafy raceme. Calyx 
campanulate, deeply and nearly equally 5-toothed, 
membranous in fruit, naked within. Corolla with a 
broad tube, with a hairy ring at its base within, and 5 
broad or roundish and plant, rather erect lobes. Stamens 
4, distant, somewhat ascending ; filaments naked ; anther- 
sacs divergent. 

346 Labiatae 

1. S. calycina Wallace! Gray. Shrubby at base, 6-9 dm. 
high, copiously villous, the branches leafy ; leaves ovate or oblong, 
obtuse at apex, truncate or hastate-subcordate at base, petioled, 
crenate, obtusely serrate or entire, rugose-veiny, 2.5-5 cm. long; 
the uppermost and bracts sessile; calyx-lobes attenuate-lanceolate 
from a rather narrow base, over 1 cm. long; corolla purplish, 
about 2.5 cm. long. 

Occasional in all our mountains, mostly in the upper portions of the 
chaparral belt, on shaded slopes. May- June. 


Erect branching or trailing perennial aromatic herbs, 
with small pedicelled flowers solitary in the axils of the 
leaves. Calyx oblong or tubular, about equally 5-toothed 
and 12-15-nerved. Corolla distinctly bilabiate, naked 
within, upper lip erect, entire or emarginate ; the lower 
spreading, 3-parted. Stamens 4 ; filaments arcuate- 
ascending ; the upper pair longer ; anthers 2-celled. 

1. M. Chamissonis (Benth.) Greene. (YERBABUENA.) Stems 
slender, trailing or creeping, 3 dm. long or more, herbage slightly 
pubescent; leaves round-ovate, crenate, glandular-punctate, 2.5 
cm. long or less; petioles 4-6 mm. long; flowers about 8 mm. 
long; calyx minutely hispidulous; corolla pubescent without. 
(M. Douglasii Benth.) 

Santa Monica Mountains in shady places, not common. May-June. 

9. MONABDEI/LA Benth. 

Annual or perennial aromatic herbs, with flowers in 
terminal heads which are subtended by broad often 
more or less colored involucral bracts. Calyx tubular, 
narrow, 5-toothed, 15-nerved. Corolla glabrous within, 
the upper lip erect, 2-cleft, the lower 3-parted, all the 
lobes linear or narrowly oblong. Stamens 4, distinct, 
strongly or moderately unequal, exserted, straight ; an- 
thers often divergent or divaricate. 

!. M. lanceolata Gray. Annual, green and glabrous or the 
stems puberulent, brachiately branched, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 

Mint Family 347 

rather few, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm. long, taper- 
ing below into a slender petiole, the upper acute, all with entire 
and even margins ; bracts foliaceous or nearly so, ovate or oblong, 
mostly acute with many cross veinlets between the ascending or 
parallel veins ; calyx-teeth densely hirsute within, sparsely if at 
all so without, inconspicuously nerved ; corolla bright rose color 
or purple, sometimes with darker spots. 

Frequent in dry ground in the interior region both in the valleys and 
mountains. June-August. 

10. KOELLIA Moench. 

Perennial erect herbs with small flowers in terminal 
or sometimes also axillary capitate or cymose clusters. 
Calyx ovoid, oblong or tubular, equally or more or less 
unequally 5-toothed. Corolla 2-lipped, the upper lip 
emarginate or entire, the lower 3-cleft. Stamens 4, 
didynamous, nearly equal or the lower pair a little the 
longer ; anther-sacs parallel. Ovary deeply 4-parted ; 
style slender. Nutlets smooth, pubescent or roughened. 

1. K. Californica (Torr.) Kuntze. Aromatic, herbage whitish 
with a very fine and close soft pubescence; stem erect, simple or 
with a few terminal branches, 5-9 dm. high; leaves ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, sessile by an obtuse or subcordate base, entire 
or denticulate, 3-9 cm. long; heads terminal and compact; calyx 
pubescent, the tips of the teeth very woolly exteriorly ; corolla 
white, resin-dotted. (Pycnanthemum Californicum Torr.) 

Occasional in the canyons of all our mountains. April-July. 


Herbs, perennial by slender stolons or suckers, with 
erect or diffuse stems, and small white or purple flowers, 
bracted and verticillate in dense axillary clusters. Calyx 
campanulate, regular or nearly so, 4 5-toothed, naked in 
the throat. Corolla funnelform-campanulate to cylindric, 
equaling or exceeding the calyx, the limb nearly equally 
4-cleft, or 1 of the lobes broader and emarginate. Per- 
fect stamens 2, anterior, the posterior pair rudimentary 

348 Labiatae 

or wanting ; anther-sacs parallel. Ovary deeply 4-parted ; 
style slender, 2-cleft. Nutlets truncate at the summit, 
narrowed below, trigonous, smooth. 

1. Ij. lucidus Turcx. Pubescent or glabrate, perennial by 
stolons ; stem usually stout, erect, strict, leafy, simple or some- 
times branched, 3-9 dm. high; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute at 
the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, sessile or nearly so, 
5-15 cm. long, sharply serrate; bracts ovate or lanceolate, acu- 
minate-subulate, the outer ones often as long as the flowers; 
calyx-teeth 5, subulate-lanceolate, nearly as long as the tube ; 
corolla slightly exceeding the calyx ; rudimentary stamens slen- 
der, thickened at the apex ; nutlets much shorter than the calyx. 

Occasional along stream banks in the San Bernardino Valley, Parish. 

12. MENTHA L. 

Erect or diffuse aromatic herbs with simple mostly 
punctate leaves, and small whorled flowers, the whorls 
axillary or in terminal dense or interrupted spikes. 
Calyx campanulate to tubular, 10-nerved, regular or 
slightly bilabiate, 5- toothed. Corolla-tube shorter than 
the calyx, the limb 4-cleft, somewhat regular, the pos- 
terior lobe usually somewhat broader than the others, 
entire or emarginate. Stamens 4, equal, erect, included 
or exserted ; filaments glabrous ; anthers 2-celled, the 
sacs parallel. Ovary 4-parted ; style 2-cleft. Nutlets 
ovoid, smooth. 

1. M. piperita L. (PEPPERMINT.) Perennial by subterranean 
suckers; stems glabrous or sparsely puberulent, mostly erect, 
branched, 3-9 dm. high ; leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
narrowed or rounded at the base, petioled, acute at the apex, 
sharply serrate, glabrous except the veins beneath; whorls of 
flowers in terminal, dense or interrupted spikes, 2.5-7 cm. long in 
fruit ; calyx tubular-campanulate, its teeth subulate, ciliate, half 
as long as the tube or more ; corolla glabrous. . f 

Occasional along streams about Los Angeles and Santa Ana. August- 

Solanaceae 349 

2. M. spicata L. (SPEARMINT.) Perennial by leafy stolons; 
herbage glabrous; stems branched, 3-5 dm. high ; leaves lanceo- 
late, short-petioled or sessile ; whorls of flowers in terminal nar- 
row, acute, usually interrupted spikes, these becoming 5-10 cm. 
long in fruit ; calyx campanulate, its teeth hirsute or glabrate, 
subulate, nearly as long as the tube; corolla glabrous. (M. 
viridis L.) 

Frequent in low ground along streams. August-December., 


Herbs, shrubs, vines or rarely trees, with alternate or 
rarely opposite exstipulate leaves, and perfect regular or 
nearly regular cymose flowers. Calyx mostly 5-lobed. 
Corolla varying from rotate to salver-shaped, mostly 
5-lobed, the lobes induplicate-valvate or plicate in the bud. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and inserted 
on the tube alternate with them, equal (4 and didynamous 
in Petunia, the fifth being smaller or obsolete) ; anthers 
2-celled apically or longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 
entire, 3-5-celled, usually 2-celled ; ovules numerous on 
the axillary placentae ; style slender, simple ; stigma ter- 
minal. Fruit a berry or capsule. 

Fruit a pulpy berry. 

Anthers not connivent ; fruiting-calyx inflated. 1. PHYSALIS. 

Anthers connivent ; calyx not becoming inflated. 2. SOLANUM. 

Fruit a nearly dry berry ; shrubby. 3. LYCIUM. 
Fruit a capsule. 

Capsule prickly; flowers large, showy. 4. DATURA. 
Capsule not prickly. 

Flowers paniculate or racemose. 5. NICOTIANA. 

Flowers solitary. 6. PETUNIA. 


Annual or perennial herbs with entire or sinuately 
toothed leaves. Peduncles in ours solitary from the axils 
of the leaves. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, in fruit 
enlarged and bladdery-inflated, membranous, 5-angled 

350 Solanaceae 

or prominently 10-ribbed and reticulate, wholly inclos- 
ing the pulpy berry, its teeth mostly connivent. Co- 
rolla open-campanulate, or rarely nearly rotate, plicate 
in the bud. Stamens inserted near the base of the co- 
rolla ; anthers oblong, opening by a longitudinal slit. 
Style slender ; stigma minutely 2-cleft. Seeds numer- 
ous, reniform, finely pitted. 

1. P. ixocarpa Brot. Annual, at first erect, later widely 
spreading, much branched ; stem angled, glabrous or the young 
parts sparingly hairy ; leaves cordate to ovate, with a cuneate, 
somewhat oblique base, sinuately dentate or entire, 2.5-6 cm. 
long; peduncles 2-5 mm. long; calyx sparingly hairy, its lobes 
short, triangular ; corolla bright yellow, with purple throat, 10-15 
mm. broad; fruiting calyx round-ovoid, obscurely 10-angled ; 
berry purple. (P. aequata Jacq. f.) 

Frequent in cultivated fields. June-September. 

2. P. Greenei Rose. Annual, erect-spreading, the flexuose 
branches angular, 2-3 dm. long ; herbage viscid-pubescent through- 
out; leaves ovate or rhombic, acutish, entire or with few shallow 
teeth, 2-3 cm. long, on slender petioles of about the same length ; 
corolla greenish yellow, 12-15 mm. broad; fruiting calyx 10-15 
mm. long, pendulous on the slender peduncle, which exceeds it 
in length. (P. pedunculata Greene.) 

San Joaquin Hills, Orange County; Santa Margarita Ranch, San Diego 
County. First collected on Cedros Island. April-July. 


Herbs or shrubs, often stellate-pubescent. Flowers 
cymose, paniculate or racemose, white, blue, purple or 
yellow. Calyx campanulate or rotate, mostly 5-toothed 
or 5-cleft. Corolla rotate, the limb plaited in the bud, 
5-angled or 5-lobed. Stamens inserted on the throat of 
the corolla ; filaments short ; anthers linear or oblong, 
acute or acuminate, connate or connivent into a cone ; 
the anther-sacs dehiscent by a terminal pore or by a 
short introrse terminal slit, or longitudinally. Ovary 

Potato Family 351 

usually 2-celled ; stigma small. Fruit a several-seeded 

1. S. villosum Lam. Kather low and mostly spreading annual, 
villous and more or less viscid; leaves conspicuously angulate- 
dentate ; filaments somewhat pubescent ; berries yellow. 

2. S. Douglasii Dunal. Usually somewhat woody, 1-2 in. 
high ; stems angular, the angles somewhat denticulate-scabrous, 
otherwise more or less puberulent; leaves variously angular- 
dentate, or some nearly entire ; umbels nearly opposite the leaves, 
several-flowered ; flowers white or pale purplish, 8-14 mm. broad, 
pubescent without, deeply 5-parted, the lobes lanceolate; anthers 
yellow, 4-5 mm. long; filaments about 1 mm. long, stout, hairy, 
nearly equaling the slender style ; fruit black. 

A common plant both in the valleys and mountains at lower altitudes. 
Often appearing as an introduced plant along roadsides and in waste places. 

3. S. Xanti Gray. Stems woody, 3-10 dm. high, the younger 
angled, moderately villous with many-celled unbranched, mostly 
gland-tipped hairs ; leaves ovate, ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceo- 
late, the largest 4-6 cm. long, acute or obtuse at the base, the 
margins entire; corolla 1-2 cm. broad, usually deep violet, angu- 
lately 5-lobed ; berry greenish. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains. 

4. S. Xanti intermedium Parish. Stems woody, lax, 2 m, 
high or less, viscid; leaves cordate to oblong, at least obtuse at 
base, often with lateral lobes near the base, 3-15 cm. long ; corolla 
2-4 cm. broad. 

Common in all our low hills and in the mountains. 

5. S. Xanti glabrescens Parish. Stems woody, slender r 
10-15 dm. high, glabrate or above hirsutulous with short, mostly 
1-celled hairs ; leaves oblong, elliptic or lanceolate, mostly atten- 
uate or acute at the base, 2-6 cm. long; corolla 2 cm. broad. 

Occasional in the valleys and foothills, mostly in dry and rather exposed 

6. S. Wallacei (Gray) Parish. Stems woody, about 1 nK 
high, densely tawny with long many-celled glandular, mostly 
simple hairs; leaves thickish, usually smoother than the stems, 
crenate, the lower ample, cordate, the upper ovate, rounded or 
subcordate at base; calyx narrowly funnelform, deeply cleft or 

352 Solanaceae 

less so and broader; corolla 2-4 cm. broad, deep violet; style 
glabrate or villous below ; fruit dark purple. 
Santa Catalina Island. 

7. S. rostratum Dunal. Annual, erect, branching, 1-3 dm. 
high, pubescent with long yellowish stellate hairs and armed 
with long straight prickles; leaves pinnatifid; calyx densely 
prickly, its lobes narrow, nearly half the length of the corolla and 
enclosing the fruit; corolla about 2 cm. broad, yellow; anthers 
linear-lanceolate, the lowest much longer and larger, with an 
incurved beak. 

Occasional in waste places and along roadsides. Inglewood; Soldiers 
Home; Santa Monica. Native of Texas. 


Shrubby, often spiny plants, with small alternate 
entire leaves, and white, greenish or purple axillary or 
terminal solitary or clustered flowers. Calyx campanu- 
late, 3-5-lobed or 3-5-too.thed, not enlarged in fruit, per- 
sistent at the base of the berry. Corolla funnelform, 
salver-shaped or campanulate, the limb 5-lobed, the 
lobes obtuse. Stamens 5 ; filaments filiform, sometimes 
dilated at the base ; anther-sacs longitudinally dehiscent. 
Ovary 2-celled ; style filiform ; stigma capitate or 
2-lobed. Berry globose to oblong. 

1. L. Californicum Nutt. Glabrous ; stems slender, much 
branched, about 6-12 dm. high; leaves thickish, 2-6 mm. long, 
obovate or spatulate to nearly linear ; pedicels often nearly obso- 
lete; corolla white, its tube about 3 mm. long, included in the 
campanulate 4-toothed calyx, its limb rotate, 4-parted, scarcely 
4 mm. broad. 

On bluffs near the sea. Redondo; Long Beach; Laguna. First collected 
by Nuttall at San Diego. 

2. L. Richii Gray. Stem slender ; leaves narrowly spatulate, 
2-4 cm. long; flowers short-pedicelled, 8-10 mm. long; calyx- 
teeth lanceolate, nearly or quite equaling the corolla-tube ; corolla- 
lobes oval, slightly exceeding the tube. 

A Mexican species reported from Santa Catalina Island. 

Potato Family 353 

3. It. Parishii Gray. Puberulent, branches slender; leaves 
spatulate and lanceolate, about 6 mm. long; pedicels 4-6 mm. 
long; calyx about 3 mm. long, its limb shortly 5-lobed ; corolla 
narrowly funnelform, about 10 mm. long, its lobes 2 mm. long, 
ovate, obtuse, at length equaled by the stamens. 

Dry mesas in the San Bernardino Valley, Parish. 


Annual or perennial erect branching narcotic herbs, 
with alternate petioled entire or sinuate-dentate leaves, 
and large showy solitary short-peduncled flowers. Calyx 
elongated-tubular or prismatic, 5-cleft or spathe-like, 
circumscissile near the base. Corolla funnelform, the 
limb plaited, 5-lobed, the lobes broad, acuminate. Sta- 
mens inserted at or below the middle of the corolla ; fila- 
ments filiform, elongated. Ovary 2-celled or falsely 
4-celled ; style filiform ; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Cap- 
sule 4-valved from the top or bursting irregularly, ovoid 
or globose, prickly. 

1. D. Stramonium L. (STRAMONIUM or JAMESTOWN-WEED.) 
Annual, green, glabrous, 3-10 dm. high; leaves sinuately and 
laciniately angled and toothed; calyx prismatic; corolla white, 
about 8 cm. long; capsule erect, thickly armed with short stout 

Introduced at Ballona, Davidson. 

2. D. meteiloides DC. Prunose-glaucescent, erect, branching, 
6-10 dm. high from a perennial root ; leaves unequally ovate, more 
or less coarsely repandodentate or nearly entire ; calyx cylindric, 
about 8 cm. long; corolla white or tinged with violet, 15-20 cm. 
long, the limb about 10 cm. broad, with 5 slender subulate teeth ; 
capsule drooping in fruit, 5 cm. in diameter, densely prickly. 

Frequent in sandy soil throughout our range. July-September. 


Annual or perennial viscid-pubescent or rarely gla- 
brous narcotic herbs, shrubs or small trees, with alternate 
entire or slightly undulate leaves, and medium-sized 

354 Solanaceae 

often yellowish or greenish flowers, in terminal often 
bracted racemes or panicles. Calyx tubular-campanu- 
late or ovoid, 5-cleft. Corolla funnelform, salver-shaped 
or nearly tubular, the tube usually elongated, the limb 
5-lobed, spreading. Stamens 5, inserted on the tube of 
the corolla ; filaments filiform ; anthers 4-celled, style 
slender ; stigma capitate. Capsule 2-valved or some- 
times 4-valved at the summit, smooth. Seeds numerous, 


1. N. Cleveland! Gray. Viscid-pubescent or the stem villous, 
2-6 dm. high; leaves ovate or the upper ovate-lanceolate, 5-8 
cm. long, the lower obtuse and with margined petiole not dilated 
at base, the upper subsessile and gradually narrowing from a 
broad and rounded or truncate base into an acuminate apex; 
bracts lanceolate ; flowers paniculate-racemose ; calyx-lobes linear, 
unequal ; the longer fully twice the length of the tube, more than 
half the length of the corolla; corolla greenish-white, tinged with 
violet, almost glabrous, 2.5 cm. long, salver-shaped, the somewhat 
5-lobed limb 1 cm. broad ; filaments slender, equally inserted low 
down on the tube of the corolla. 

Sand-dunes along the seashore near Port Ballona. 

2. N. Bigelovii Wats. Viscid-pubescent ; stems 3-6 dm. high ; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, sessile or nearly so, the lower 12-18 cm. 
long, with tapering base, the upper 4-8 cm. long, more acuminate, 
with acute or some with broader and clasping base ; inflorescence 
loosely racemiform; the upper flowers bractless; calyx-teeth 
unequal, linear-subulate, about equaling the tube ; corolla white, 
its tube 3-5 cm. long, narrow, with a gradually expanded throat, 
the limb 5-angulate-lobed, 15-25 mm. broad ; filaments somewhat 
unequally inserted high up on the corolla-tube. 

Occasional in dry washes about Los Angeles 

** Trees. 

3. N. glauca Graham. Arborescent, 3-6 m. high, glaucous 
and glabrous; leaves long-petioled, ovate, subcordate; flowers 
loosely paniculate; corolla greenish-yellow, 3-5 cm. long, tubular, 
contracted at the throat, its limb erect, 5-crenate. 

A well-established introduced plant; rather common along streams. 
Flowering all the year. 

Scrophulariaceae 355 


Viscid-pubescent annual or perennial branching herbs, 
with entire leaves and axillary or terminal solitary 
flowers. Calyx deeply 5-cleft or 5-parted, the segments 
narrow. Corolla funnel form or salver-shaped, its limb 
plicate spreading, slightly irregular. Stamens 5, inserted 
on the throat of the corolla, 4 of them didynamous, per- 
fect, the fifth smaller, obsolete ; filaments slender. Ovary 
2-celled ; style filiform ; stigma 2-lamellate. Capsule 
2-celled, 2-valved. 

1. P. parviflora (Lehm.) Juss. Small, prostrate or diffusely 
spreading, more or less pubescent, annual ; leaves oblong-linear 
or spatulate, rather fleshy, nearly sessile, 12 cm. long or less; 
peduncles very short ; calyx-lobes resembling the smaller leaves ; 
corolla purple, the tube pale or yellowish, 8 mm. long, funnel- 
form, its lobes short, retuse, slightly unequal; capsule small, 

Occasional on margins of ponds and along streams, especially in subsaline 
places. June-August. 


Herbs or shrubs with opposite or alternate exstipu- 
late leaves and perfect irregular flowers. Calyx per- 
sistent, 4-5-toothed or 4 5-divided. Corolla 2-lipped or 
nearly regular. Stamens 2, 4 or 5, didynamous or 
nearly equal, inserted on the corolla and alternate 
with its lobes ; anthers 2-celled or confidently 1-celled, 
longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 2-celled or 
rarely 1-celled ; ovules mostly numerous, borne on the 
axillary placentae ; style simple ; stigma entire or 
2-lobed. Fruit mostly capsular and septicidally or locu- 
licidally dehiscent. Seeds often reticulated or striate. 

356 Scrophulariaceae 

Leaves alternate. 

Anther-bearing stamens 5. 1. VERBASCUM. 

Anther-bearing stamens 4. 

Calyx-tubular, 2-cleft, the segments entire or toothed. 


Calyx tubular or campanulate, 4-cleft. 12. ORTHO CARPUS. 

Calyx spathe-like, of 2 distinct bract-like divisions, or the anterior 

division wanting. 13. ADENOSTEGIA. 

Calyx narrowly campanulate, 2-5-toothed; leaves pinnately divided. 

Leaves opposite or the upper sometimes alternate. 

Corolla-tube with a sac at the base. 3. ANTIRRHINUM. 

Corolla-tube with a spur at the base. 2. LINARIA. 

Coralla-tube without a sac or spur at the base. 

Stamens with anthers 4, the fifth represented by a scale adnate to the 
upper side of the corolla. 4. SCROPHULARIA. 

Stamens with anthers 4, the fifth represented by a sterile filament. 

Stamens with anthers 4, the fifth represented by a gland at the base of 

the corolla. 6. COLLINSIA. 

Stamens with anthers 4, the fifth stamen wholly wanting. 

Shrubs ; calyx prismatic. 7. DIPLACUS. 

Herbs; calyx prismatic. 8. MIMULUS. 

Stamens 4, 2 sterile. 9. MIMETANTHE. 

Stamens 2; corolla nearly regular. 10. VERONICA. 


Biennial or rarely perennial, mostly tall and erect 
herbs, with alternate leaves and rather large showy 
flowers in terminal spikes, racemes or panicles. Calyx 
5-parted. Corolla rotate, 5-lobed, the lobes slightly un- 
equal. Stamens 5, inserted on the base of the corolla,, 
unequal ; filaments of the 3 upper or of all pilose ; 
anther-sacs confluent into 1. Ovules numerous ; styles 
dilated and flattened at the summit. Capsule globose 
to oblong, septicidally 2-valved ; the valves usually 
2-cleft at the apex. Seeds numerous, rugose. 

1, V. virgatum With. Stemsabout 1 m. high, Btout, pubescent 
and glandular throughout ; lowest leaves 1-2 dm. long, oblong-ovate 
or oblong-lanceolate, crenate, the upper similar but smaller and 
decurrent on the stems; raceme narrow, spike-like, 5 dm. long or 
more ; flowers somewhat clustered or solitary in the axils of the 
much reduced bract-like leaves, nearly sessile or short- pedicelled ; 

Figwort Family 357 

calyx ovate, 5-6 mm. long; corolla yellow, about 15 mm. broad; 
filaments all bearded with violet woolly hairs ; capsule subglo- 
bose, about 6 mm. in diameter. 

Frequent along roadsides and in waste places, especially in the interior 
valleys. San Gabriel; El Monte; Lordsburg; Pomona. May-August. 

2. LINARIA Juss. 

Herbs with alternate leaves or the lower opposite or 
verticillate, and regular flowers in terminal bracted 
racemes or spikes. Calyx 5-parted, the segments imbri- 
cated. Corolla spurred at the base or the spur rarely 
obsolete, 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, 2-lobed, the lower 
spreading, 3-lobed, its base produced into a palate often 
nearly closing the throat. Stamens 4, didynamous, 
ascending, included ; filaments and style filiform. Cap- 
sule ovoid or globose, opening by usually 3-toothed pores 
or slits below the summit. Seeds numerous, rugose, 
angled or sometimes winged. 

1. Ii. Canadensis (L.) Dumont. (WILD TOAD-FLAX.) Bien- 
nial or annual, glabrous; flowering stem erect or ascending, very 
slender, simple or branched, 2-7 dm. high, the sterile shoots 
spreading or procumbent leafy; leaves linear or linear-oblong, 
1-5 cm. long, entire, sessile; flowers 6-8 mm. long in slender 
long racemes ; pedicels 4-6 mm. long, erect and appressed in 
fruit, minutely bracted at the base ; calyx-lobes lanceolate, about 
equaling the capsule; spur of the corolla filiform, curved, as long 
as the tube or longer; palate white, corolla otherwise blue. 

Occasional in cultivated fields, especially in sandy soil. 


Annual or perennial herbs, with alternate leaves or, 
the lower opposite, and mostly rather large flowers in 
terminal racemes or solitary in the upper axils. Calyx 
5-parted. Corolla irregular gibbous or saccate at the 
base, 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, 2-lobed, the lower 
spreading, 3-lobed, its base produced into a palate nearly 

358 Scrophulariaceae 

or quite closing the throat. Stamens 4, didynamous, in- 
cluded ; filaments filiform or dilated above. Style fili- 
form. Capsule obovoid or globose, opening by chinks or 
pores below the summit. Seeds numerous. 

1. A. glandulosum Lindl. Stems stout, erect, 1-1.5 m. high, 
glandular-pubescent and viscid throughout, destitute of prehen- 
sile branches, leafy ; leaves lanceolate, mostly sessile above, 
gradually passing into bracts of the leafy dense spike or raceme ; 
sepals oblong-lanceolate, unequal, the longer equaling the cap- 
sule; corolla rose-colored; filaments somewhat dilated above. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains in the chaparral belt. 

2. A. Nuttallianum Benth. Stems branched from the base, 
the branches mostly procumbent, 5-10 dm. long, glandular- 
pubescent throughout ; leaves ovate or subcordate, the largest 
about 2.5 cm. long, nearly all distinctly petioled ; peduncles, at 
least the lowest ones, longer than the flowers, sometimes disposed 
to be tortile ; sepals shorter than the tube of the violet corolla ; 
corolla about 8 mm. long, the lobes nearly equal; palate very 
prominent; seeds almost alately costate. 

Occasional in sandy soil, especially toward the coast. 

3. A. subsessile Gray. Similar to the preceding but less dif- 
fuse and erect, strongly glandular-pilose; leaves ovate, all sessile 
or nearly so ; pedicels shorter than the somewhat larger flowers ; 
lower lip of the corolla larger in proportion. 

Reported from Santa Catalina Island. Rather frequent on the mainland 
about San Diego. 

4. A. Coulterianum Benth. Stem 5-10 dm. high, erect, or 
gaining support by its filiform tortile branches acting as tendrils, 
glabrous, except the inflorescence which is villous-pubescent 
with viscid and often glandular hairs ; leaves distant, linear to 
oval; spike virgate, 5-20 cm. long; pedicels shorter than the 
calyx ; sepals linear or lanceolate, obtuse, all shorter than the 
oval or ovate-oblong glandular-pubescent capsule ; corolla violet- 
purple or usually white with yellowish palate, the lower lip large, 
the tube about 6 mm. long. 

.Frequent in the lower portions of the chaparral belt of all our mountains 
and occurring on the fans at the base of the mountains. 

5. A. strictum (H. & A.) Gray. Erect, nearly simple, 3-6 dm. 
high, the tortile branches none; lowest leaves ovate-lanceolate, 

Figwort Family 39 

the upper ones linear or the floral filiform, much shorter than 
the tortile racemose peduncles; corolla violet-purple, about 1 cm. 
long, with hairy palate and gibbous base; capsule crustaceous, 
globose, strongly exceeding the calyx, tipped with the straight 
style of equal length. 

Occasional at lower altitudes in all our mountains and foothills. 


Perennial strong-smelling herbs, with mostly opposite 
large leaves, and small flowers in terminal panicled cymes 
or thyrses. Calyx 5-parted, the lobes mostly obtuse. 
Corolla irregular, the tube globose or oblong, not gibbous 
or spurred at the base, the limb 5-lobed, the 2 upper 
lobes longer erect, the lateral ones ascending, the lower 
spreading or reflexed. Stamens 5, 4 of them anther- 
bearing, didynamous, declined, the fifth sterile and re- 
duced to a scale on the roof of the corolla-tube ; anther- 
sacs confluent into 1. Style filiform ; stigma capitate 
or truncate. Capsule ovoid, septicidally dehiscent. Seeds 

1. S. Californica Cham. Stems erect, 1-2 m. high, glabrous 
below, above finely glandular-pubescent; leaves ovate, cordate 
at base, serrate or incised-serrate, 6-18 cm. long; flowers about 8 
mm. long; corolla dull red. 

Frequent in the foothills and mountains below the pine belt. March- 

5. PENTSTEMON Soland. 

Perennial herbs or suffrutescent plants, with opposite 
or rarely verticillate leaves, and large showy flowers in 
terminal racemes, panicles or cymes. Calyx 5-parted. 
Corolla irregular, tubular and often inflated, the limb 
2-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, the lower lip 3-lobed. 
Stamens 5, included, 4 antheriferous and didynamous, 
the fifth sterile, as long or shorter than the others; anther- 
sacs divergent or connivent. Style filiform ; stigma 

360 Scrophulariaceae 

capitate. Capsule septicidally dehiscent. Seeds numer- 
ous, mostly angled. 

* Anther-cells dehiscent for their whole length or nearly so. 
-*- Corolla-tube not dilated. 

1. P. cordifolius Benth. Somewhat scandent over shrubs by 
long sarrnentose branches, very leafy, scabrous-puberulent and 
the inflorescence somewhat glandular ; leaves subcordate or ovate 
with truncate base, acutely serrate or dentate, 2.5 cm. long or 
less; thyrsus short and leafy ; peduncles several-flowered ; sepals 
ovate-lanceolate ; corolla scarlet, the tube about 2.5 cm. long, the 
lips about 15 mm. long, the upper lip erect, the lower more or 
less spreading; sterile filament bearded down one side; anthers 
dehiscent through the apex. 

Common in the chaparral belt of all our mountains. April-July. 

2. P. ternatus Torr. Glabrous and the long virgate flowering 
branches glaucous, 1-2 m. high; leaves linear-lanceolate, rigid, 
15-35 mm. long, acutely serrate or denticulate with salient teeth, 
the upper ternately verticillate ; flowers in a long racemiform 
thyrsus; sepals ovate-acuminate; corolla pale scarlet, 2.5 cm. 
long, the lobes about 6 mm. long; stamens as in the last. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and Santa Ana Mountains. 

3. P. labrosus Hook. f. Glabrous ; stems herbaceous, slen- 
der, erect, simple, 4-5 dm. high; leaves all entire, the lowest 
oblanceolate, 5-6 cm. long, about 1 cm. broad, the upper linear- 
lanceolate, reduced; bracts minute; flowers in a simple raceme; 
pedicels 1-2 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, acuminate, 4 mm. long ; 
corolla scarlet, 2.5^-3 mm. Iong 7 destitute of beard ; tube narrow ; 
upper lip erect, the 3 lobes of the lower one equaling the upper 
one in length, reflexed, about two-thirds the length of the tube; 
sterile filament glabrous ; anthers closed toward the apex. 

Frequent in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains in open 
places among the pines. June-August. 

4. P. centranthifolius Benth. Glaucous, strict and virgate, 
4-8 dm. high; leaves all entire, the lower lanceolate, the upper 
clasping, ovate-lanceolate; panicle narrow, usually 3 dm. long or 
more ; pedicels slender ; corolla deep scarlet, narrow, tubular and 
obscurely bilabiate; the short oblong lobes alike, except that the 

Figwort Family 361 

posterior are united higher; anthers opening widely, splitting 
through the apex. 

Common in the foothills and mountains mostly below the pine belt 
throughout our range. April-July. 

*- Corolla-tube dilated. 

5. P. spectabilis Thurber. Pale or glaucescent and glabrous 
throughout, 6-12 dm. high; leaves thinnish-coriaceous, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate or the lower oblong, acute, the upper pairs acu- 
minate and their broad bases connate-perfoliate, spinulosely den- 
tate or denticulate; thyrsus many-flowered, elongated pyramidal 
or sometimes virgate, 3-6 dm. long; peduncles and pedicels slen- 
der ; corolla rose-purple or lilac with the ample limb blue, 2.5 cm. 
long ; the narrow proper tube twice the length of the short ovate 
calyx-lobes, then abruptly dilated into the campanulate-ventricose 
or broadly funnelform throat, somewhat bilabiate, the oval or 
roundish lobes 6-8 mm. long; sterile filament glabrous; anthers 
dehiscent from the base toward but not to the apex. 

Frequent on dry hillsides. May-July. 

6. P. Parishii Gray. Size and habit of the last ; leaves entire 
or minutely denticulate ; upper clasping by Bubcordate base but 
not connate; corolla red, more dilated. 

Not known within our limits. Cucamonga ; San Bernardino. 

7. P. Palmeri Gray. Stems 6-9 dm. high ; glabrous except 
inflorescence, that glandular or primose-puberulent ; leaves cori- 
aceous, glaucous, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, from sharply dentate 
to nearly entire, upper from closely Bessile to completely con- 
nate-perfoliate ; thyrsus elongated pyramidal, racemiform ; corolla 
cream-white, suffused with pink; the short narrow proper tube 
hardly surpassing the ovate appressed sepals, very abruptly 
dilated into the ventricose-campanulate throat, about 2 cm. long 
and as broad at orifice; the lips broad, the upper erect, 2-lobed, 
lower 3-lobed, widely spreading, sparingly bearded at base ; sterile 
filament densely bearded above with long yellowish hairs. 

Occasional above 5000 feet in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Moun- 

** Anther-cells remaining closed below and saccate. 

8. P. heterophyllus Lindl. Green, seldom glaucescent, gla- 
brous throughout or rarely primose-puberulent ; stems or branches 

362 Scrophulariaceae 

slender, 6-15 dm. high, from a woody base; leaves lanceolate or 
linear or the lower oblong-lanceolate, mostly narrowed at base ; 
thyrsus virgate, loose, usually elongated; sepals ovate; corolla 
2.5 cm. long or more, the narrow tube rose-colored or pink, some- 
times changing to violet, ventricose funnelform ; the bud often 
yellowish ; sterile filament glabrous. 

Occasional in the chaparral belt. Santa Monica Mountains; Verdugo 
Hills; Santa Anita Canyon. 


Annuals with simple verticillate or opposite leaves, 
and irregular flowers in whorls forming racemes, or soli- 
tary in the axils. Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft. Corolla 
declined, the proper tube very short, the abruptly ex- 
panded and gibbous throat forming an angle with it, 
deeply bilabiate, the upper lip erect, 2-cleft ; the lower 
lip larger, 3-lobed, the lateral lobes spreading or droop- 
ing, flat, the middle one conduplicate, keel-like, enclosing 
the 4 declined stamens and the filiform style, Stamens 
didynamous ; filaments filiform ; anther-sacs confluent 
at the apex. The fifth stamen represented by a gland 
on the upper side of the corolla-tube near the base. 
Stigma small, capitate or 2-lobed. Capsule ovoid or glo- 
bose, septicidally 2-valved, the valves 2-cleft. Seeds few, 
large, peltate, concave on the inner side. 

* Flowers verticillate, showy; upper pair of filaments bearded at 


1. C. bicolor Benth. Simple or branched above, 1.5-4 dm. 
high, glabrous or finely pubescent and often viscid above; leaves 
broadly oblong or the upper narrowed from the broad base to the 
apex, serrulate, 5 cm. long or less ; flowers crowded in whorl-like 
clusters, the lowest subtended by leaves, the others by bracts ; 
pedicels shorter than the oblong or lanceolate calyx-lobes ; corolla 
about 2 cm. long; the lower lip usually rose-purple; the upper 
lilac or white, its lobes nearly as long as those of the lower; 
throat saccate, bristly within; gland conic. 

Common in open places in the hills and mountains, mostly below 2000 feet 
altitude. April-May. 

Figwort Family 363 

2. C. tinctoria Hartweg. Kesembling slender forms of the 
preceding in habit; herbage nearly or quite glabrous below, 
strongly viscid above and giving off a brownish stain ; calyx-lobes 
linear or oblong-linear, obtuse; corolla pale purplish or nearly 
white and streaked with purple, 12-15 mm. long, the lobes of the 
upper lip very short, reflexed. 

Frequent on shady slopes in the upper portions of the chaparral belt of 
the San G abriel Mountains. April-June. 

** Flowers usually scattered, small; filaments glabrous. 

3. C. Paryi Gray. Stems puberulent throughout, simple or 
more or less branched, 1.5-2.5 dm. high; leaves thinnish, the 
lower oblong, crenate, petioled, the upper lanceolate-linear, ob- 
tuse, mostly entire and closely sessile, 2-4 cm. long; pedicels 
solitary or the upper in 2's or 3's, as long as or the lowest exceed- 
ing the flowers; calyx-lobes oblong, obtuse; corolla deep blue, 
6-8 mm. long, twice the length of the calyx, the lips about equal 
in length, not longer than the throat; capsule about equaling the 

Occasional in dry ground in the chaparral belt. Verdugo Hills. 

4. C. callosa Parish. Stems dichotomously branched, 10-30 
cm. high, glabrous except the slightly glandular pedicels and 
calyces; leaves opposite or ternate, oblong to acutely ovate, 2 cm. 
long or less, the upper much reduced, sessile, entire, rather thick, 
the margins somewhat revolute; calyx-lobes broadly lanceolate, 
acute; corolla light blue, 5-8 mm. long; the lips about equaling 
the moderately gibbous throat, their lobes entir.e, equal in length ; 
capsule globose, shorter than the calyx-lobes. 

First collected in Swartout Canyon, San Antonio Mountains, Hall; Mt. 
Gleason, Elmer. ' 

j. 7. DIPLACUS Nutt. 

Low evergreen glutinous shrubs, with opposite leaves 
which are revolute in the bud, and large red, orange or 
salmon-colored flowers, solitary in the axils. Calyx tub- 
ular, 5-angled and 5-toothed. Corolla with funnelform 
tube and rather broad bilabiate limb. Stamens 4. 
Stigma of 2 flat lobes closing together when irritated. 

364 Scrophulariaceae 

Capsule firm, coriaceous, opening down the upper suture 
only, the valves spreading out nearly flat. 

1. D. longiflorus Nutt. Low, suffrutescent, 5-10 dm. high, 
more or less branched throughout, viscid- pubescent or the in- 
florescence and growing parts villous and somewhat glandular; 
leaves narrowly or broadly lanceolate, more or less acute, 3-7 cm. 
long, rather thin, the margins often revolute, denticulate or den- 
tate ; calyx about 2.5 cm. long and about 8 mm. broad : the lobes 
5-7 mm. long, the upper a little longer, villoua with viscid hairs; 
corolla about 5 cm. long; the lobes of the upper lip shallowly 
2-lobed, their margins wavy or erose ; those of the lower lip usu- 
ally truncate, more or less deeply crenately toothed. 

Common on all the foothills and in the chaparral belt of the mountains. 
We have seen no specimens with the strongly arachnoid pubescence which 
is found on the plants about Santa Barbara, the type-locality of this species. 
Two quite different forma occur with us: the one from which the above 
description is drawn occurs in the Santa Monica Mountains, and is nearest 
the type; but about L.os Angeles and Pasadena the plants are usually less 
villous and have a slender (about 5 mm. broad) calyx, and narrower corolla- 
throat which tapers gradually to the slender tube. 

2. D. puniceus Nutt. Resembling the last in habit; leaves 
usually narrowly lanceolate, the margins strongly revolute ; calyx 
15-20 mm. long, 5 mm. broad, viscid, not at all woolly, its lobes 
4-5 mm. long; corolla 2-2.5 cm. long, scarlet, the lobes of the 
lower lips rather narrow, emarginate or retuse. 

Common on dry hillsides about San Diego and ranging northward to the 
Santa Margarita River, where it seems to intergrade with D. longiflorus. 


Herbs with opposite leaves and mostly showy yellow 
or red flowers solitary and axillary or in a terminal 
raceme. Calyx prismatic,- 5-angled and 5-toothed. Co- 
rolla from tubular to funnelform with strongly bilabiate 
limb or the lobes nearly equal, a pair of bearded ridges 
extending down the lower side of the throat. Stamens 
4, the fifth entirely wanting. Stigma mostly of 2 flat 
lobes closing together when irritated. Capsule dehiscent 
by both sutures or on one side only, or cartilaginous and 
indehiscent. Seeds many. 

Figwort Family 365 

"* Flowers sessile or nearly so; style pubescent or glandular. 

1. M. Bigelovii Gray. Low annual branching from the base, 
glandular pubescent ; leaves oblong, the upper ovate, acute or 
acuminate ; calyx-teeth nearly equal, very acutely subulate from 
a broad campanulate tube; corolla about 1.5 cm. long, the limb 
rotate, crimson with yellow center ; the throat cylindraceous ; 
capsule oblong-lanceolate, slightly exceeding the calyx, valves 

Occasional in the pine belt of the San Gabriel Mountains. June-August. 

2. M. Fremont! (Benth.) Gray. Leaves narrowly oblong or 
the lowest spatulate, obtuse ; calyx-teeth ovate, obtuse or acutish, 
less than a quarter the length of the tube; corolla crimson; 
otherwise as in the last. 

Frequent in sandy places in the interior valleys. April-May. 

3. M. brevipes Benth. Stem simple or branched, 3-6 dm. 
high, very viscid-pubescent; leaves lanceolate to linear, 3-10 cm. 
long, entire or commonly denticulate; calyx-teeth very unequal, 
acuminate, the posterior fully half the length of the broadly cam- 
panulate tube; corolla yellow, 2.5-4 cm. long, the expanded 
limb nearly as broad, campanulate, with ample rounded lobes ; 
capsule ovate-acuminate, firm-coriaceous. 

Common on the dry plains and in the foothills. March-June. 

** Flowers on slender pedicels ; styles glabrous. 
*- Herbage viscid-pubescent. 

4. M. cardinalis Dougl. Perennial, 8 dm. high ; branched 
from the base, with ascending branches, viscid-pubescent; leaves 
elliptic-ovate, 5 cm. long or more, dentate, sessile; pedicels 
longer than the flowers ; calyx with equal triangular teeth ; co- 
rolla scarlet, 3-5 cm. long, the throat yellowish with crimson 
lines, the tube little exserted, upper lip erect, deeply 2-lobed, the 
sides turned back until they meet, lower lip deeply 3-lobed, the 
lateral lobes reflexed, the middle lobe spreading. 

Frequent along streams in the foothills and mountains below the pine 
belt. May-August. 

5. M. moschatus Dougl. Soft-villous and very viscid, musk- 
scented ; stems weak and reclining, rooting at the nodes, 2-6 dm. 
long, from perennial creeping rootstocks; leaves oblong-ovate, 
About 2.5 cm. long, remotely dentate, petiolate; calyx-teeth 

366 Scrophulariaceae 

somewhat unequal, about half the length of the tube; corolla 
yellow, 1.5 cm. long; capsule ovate, acute. 

Occasional along streams about Los Angeles. May-July. 

M. MOSCHATUS SESSILIFOLIUS Gray. Stems ascending, corolla 
2.5 cm. long; otherwise as in the type. 

Frequent in all the mountains in the pine belt and often extending along 
the streams down into the chaparral belt. 

6. M. floribundus Dougl. Annual, slender, diffuse, 1-3 dm. 
high, villous and very slimy, musk-scented; leaves ovate, 1-2.5 
cm. long, dentate, short-petioled ; pedicels mostly longer than 
the leaves; calyx narrowly campanulate, 4-6 mm. long; the^ 
teeth nearly equal, 1 mm. long; corolla light yellow, mostly 
twice as long as the calyx ; capsule globose-ovate, obtuse. 

Frequent along streams, especially in the foothills and mountains. April- 

7. M. Parishii Greene. Annual, erect, rather stout, 3-6 dm. 
high, very villous and slimy; leaves lanceolate-oblong, sessile,. 
2.5-5 cm. long, dentate or denticulate; pedicels mostly rather 
short; calyx cylindraceous, 10-12 mm. long in fruit; its teeth 
short-triangular; corolla slightly exceeding the calyx-teeth, light 
rose color. 

Occasional along streams. April-July. 

* -*- Herbage not viscid-pubescent. 

8. H. Langsdorfii grandis Greene. Perennial from stolon- 
iferous or creeping basal branches, glabrous or sparsely pubes- 
cent; stems stout, fistulous, often 6-8 dm. high; leaves mostly 
elliptic, often 6-8 cm. long, irregularly dentate, the lower petioled, 
the upper sessile; flowers in a terminal raceme; calyx in anthe- 
sis 8-12 mm. long, in fruit somewhat longer and nearly twice a& 
broad ; upper calyx-teeth somewhat longer ; corolla yellow with 
purple or brown dots in the throat, 2.5-5 cm. long. (M. luteus in 
part of recent authors, not of L.) 

Frequent along streams and variable. March-June. 

9. M. nasutus Greene. Annual, glabrous or minutely pubes- 
cent, decumbent at base, 2-4 dm. high; leaves mostly subbasal r 
ovatC'Cordate to reniform-cordate, acute, coarsely toothed or 
lobed, the lowest on broad petioles, the floral reduced to bracts; 
peduncles hardly exceeding the mature calyx or the lower much 

Figwort Family 367 

elongated; calyx broadly campanulate, its teeth acute, very 
unequal, the upper one twice the length of the others ; corolla 
about 1.5 cm. long, little surpassing the calyx, deep yellow, with 
or without a large purple blotch on the lower lip. 

Common along streams in the mountains and foothills below the pine 
belt. April-August. 

10. M. microphyllus Benth. Annual, glabrous below, some- 
what pubescent above ; stems terete, slender, with ascending 
branches or commonly simple, 1-3 dm. high; flowers in short 
racemes or in depauperate forms, solitary ; leaves ovate to orbicu- 
lar, often cordate at the base, denticulate or coarsely toothed ; 
peduncles slender; calyx often dotted, oblique at the orifice; the 
teeth obscure or prominent, the upper one largest; corolla 1-2 
cm. long, throat rather narrow, the limb broad, usually without 
purple dots. 

Occasional along streams in the pine belt of all our mountains. June- 

9. MIMETANTHE Greene. 

Erect branching annual, with long villous white hairs, 
opposite leaves, and small yellow flowers. Calyx short- 
campanulate, deeply 5-cleft, its tube slightly 5-sulcate, 
not prismatic angled. Corolla obscurely bilabiate, its 
lobes plane. Stamens 4, 2-fertile. Capsule pointed, 
loculicidal, dehiscent the whole length of the upper 
side and on the lower side along the apical attenuation. 

1. M. pilosa (Benth.) Greene. At length much branched, 
leafy, flowering from near the base, 1-3 dm. high, herbage glan- 
dular-viscid ; leaves lanceolate or narrowly oblong-ovate, entire, 
sessile; flowers on slender pedicels; the upper tooth of calyx 
much longer than the others, equaling the tube ; corolla yellow, 
the lower lobes usually with brown spots, slightly exceeding the 
calyx, 6-8 mm. long ; capsule oblong-ovate, attenuate. (Mimulus 
exilis Durand.) 

Frequent along streams in the valleys and in the mountains. May- 


Annual or perennial herbs, with opposite and alter- 
nate, rarely verticillate leaves, and mostly small terminal 

368 Scrophulariaceae 

or axillary racemose spicate or solitary flowers. Calyx 
mostly 4-parted, sometimes 5-parted. Corolla rotate, 
its lobes very short, deeply and more or less unequally 
4-lobed or rarely 5-lobed. Stamens 2, divergent, insert- 
ed on either side at the base of the upper corolla-lobe. 
Anther-sacs confluent at the apex. Ovary 2-celled ; 
style slender ; stigma capitate. Capsule more or less 
compressed, emarginate, obcordate or 2-lobed, loculicid- 
ally dehiscent. 

1. V. peregrina L. Annual, glabrous or somewhat glandular- 
puberulent; stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, 1-3 
dm. high; leaves oblong, oval, linear or slightly spatulate, 6-20 
mm. long, the lowest opposite, short-petioled or sessile, broader 
than the upper and mostly entire, each with a short-pedicelled 
flower in its axil ; flowers nearly white, about 2 mm. broad : cap- 
sule nearly orbicular, obcordate, 2-3 mm. high. 

Occasional along the margins of streams and in the dry beds of winter 
pools. April-July. 

2. V. Byzantina (S. & S.) B. S. B. Annual, pubescent; stems 
diffusely branched, spreading or ascending, 1.5-4 dm. long ; leaves 
ovate or oval, short-petioled, crenate-dentate or somewhat incised, 
8-24 mm. long, the lowest opposite, the upper alternate, each 
with a slender-peduncled flower in its axil; pedicels filiform, 
equaling or exceeding the leaves; corolla 6-8 mm. broad, blue; 
capsule 6 mm. broad, half as high, shallowly and broadly emar- 
ginate. ( V. Buxbaumii Tenore.) 

Occasional about Los Angeles, Davidson. 

11. CASTILLEJA Mutis. 

Herbs or suffrutescent plants with alternate sessile 
leaves and red or yellow flowers in terminal leafy- 
bracted spikes, the bracts and calyx often brightly 
colored. Calyx tubular, cleft in front or behind or 
commonly both, the lobes entire or 2-toothed. Corolla 
very irregular, its tube about equaling the calyx, the 
limb 2-lipped ; the upper lip (galea) arched, elongated,. 

Figwort Family 369 

concave or keeled, laterally compressed, entire, enclosing 
the 4 didynamous stamens ; lower lip short, 3-lobed. 
Anther-sacs oblong or linear, unequal, the outer one 
attached to the filament by its middle, the inner one 
pendulous from its apex. Style filiform ; stigma entire 
or 2-lobed. Capsule ovoid or oblong, loculicidally dehis- 
cent, many-seeded. Seeds reticulated. 

* Annuals. 

1. C. stenanthe Gray. Stems mostly simple, erect, 3-6 dm. 
high, pubescent and somewhat viscid throughout; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, entire, the upper with red linear tips which become 
spirally coiled ; flowers scattered in a loose raceme, short-pedi- 
celled ; calyx wholly green, about equally cleft before and behind 
to near the middle ; the segments lanceolate and acute or acutely 
2-cleft at the apex; corolla about 3 cm. long; galea usually red- 
dish, slightly falcate, a half longer than the tube ; capsule oblong. 

Frequent in all our mountains along streams in moist places. May- 

** Perennials. 

2. C. Martini Abrams. Stem rather slender, branching from 
near the somewhat woody base, decumbent at base, the branches 
ascending, villous and viscid throughout ; lower leaves linear or 
broadly-linear, 2.5-3 cm. long, the upper mostly somewhat broader, 
divided to near the middle into 3 lobes, the 2 lateral lobes 
spreading, narrower than the middle one; bracts similarly lobed, 
somewhat dilated, scarlet-tipped; racemes narrow and rather 
loose, 1-2 dm. long; calyx 14-16 mm. long, cleft nearly to the 
middle behind, scarcely as deep in front, the segments broadly 
lanceolate, 2- toothed, the teeth less than 2 mm. long, the ante- 
rior one much the shorter; galea reddish in front, 1 cm. long, 
equaling or slightly exceeding the tube ; capsule acute, 1 cm. long. 

Common on dry ridges and slopes in all our mountains, confined mostly to 
the chaparral belt. April-August. 

3. C. Californica Abrams. Stems slender, fragile, branched 
from a scarcely woody base, erect, more or less branched above, 
4-5 dm. high, sparsely and minutely puberulent; upper cauline 

370 Scrophulariaceae 

leaves linear, remotely .and obscurely denticulate or entire, 2-4 
cm. long, 2-3 mm. broad, obtuse, with short slender leafy branch- 
lets in their axils ; inflorescence at first viscid-pubescent, becom- 
ing nearly glabrous, 1-2 dm. long ; bracts red or red-tipped, about 

2 cm. long, 3-4 mm. broad, entire or rarely with 1 or 2 very short 
lateral teeth toward the apex ; calyx about 2.5 cm. long, cleft about 
equally before and behind, the lobes 1 cm. long, cleft at the apex, 
the teeth lanceolate, 3-4 mm. long, acute ; corolla 2.5-3 cm. long, 
galea about three-fourths the length of the tube, green on the 
back, the face bright red, the tube greenish-yellow. 

Occasional in dry washes and fans in the interior valleys. 

4. C. foliolosa H. & A. Suffrutescent with many stems from 
the base, 3-4 dm. high, white woolly throughout ; leaves linear 
and entire, rather crowded below and fascicled in the lower axils, 

3 cm. long or less; the uppermost and bracts 3-parted into linear 
lobes; bracts with lobes spatulate-dilated at apex, the middle 
lobe largest, shallowly 3-lobed ; spikes rather dense ; flowers 
about 18 mm. long, galea only slightly exceeding the calyx, 
shorter than or as long as the tube ; calyx-lobes truncate or retuse ; 
capsule about 1.5 cm. long. 

Frequent on dry hillsides in the foothills. 


Annual or rarely perennial herbs, mostly with alter- 
nate leaves, and yellow white or purple flowers in bracted 
usually dense spikes, the bracts sometimes brightly 
colored. Calyx tubular, 4-cleft or sometimes split down 
both sides. Corolla very irregular, the tube slender, the 
limb 2-lipped ; upper lip but little exceeding the inflated 
3-plaited or 3-saccate lower one. Otherwise as in Castil- 

* Filaments pubescent; galea bearded on the back. 

1. O. purpurascens Benth. (OWL-CLOVER.) Annual, erect, 
rather stout, at length much branched from the base, 1.5-5 dm. 
high, villous-pubescent ; leaves with lanceolate base or body, and 
laciniately 1-2-pinnately parted into narrow linear or filiform 

Figwort Family 371 

lobes, or the upper palmately cleft ; spike thick and dense ; bracts 
equaling the flowers, somewhat dilated, their lobes crimson- 
colored, as are also the calyx and corolla; corolla 2.5-3 cm. long, 
the lip moderately saccate, white-tipped, with yellow and purple 
markings; galea densely purple-bearded on the back, incurved 
at tip; filaments hairy. 

Common in sandy soils in the valleys and hills. 

** Filaments glabrous; galea not bearded. 

2. O. densiflorus Benth. Annual, erect, simple or branched 
from the base, 1-3 dm. high, soft-pubescent above; leaves linear 
or linear-lanceolate, entire or with a few slender lobes ; spike 
dense, the lowest flowers sometimes distant ; bracts about equal- 
ing the flowers, 3-cleft into linear purple lobes ; corolla 18-20 mm. 
long, purple ; lip moderately ventricose and somewhat 3-saccate 
for its whole length, the teeth or lobes conspicuous, erect, oblong- 
linear; galea narrow, puberulent or nearly smooth. 

Hills near Los Angeles, Greata. 

3. O. Parishii Gray. Annual, nearly glabrous, about 2 dm. 
high ; leaves 3-5-cleft into linear-filiform divisions, or the lower 
entire; floral ones similar, the lobes purple-tipped; spikes dense 
and short ; calyx-lobes lanceolate, obtuse, half the length of the 
tube ; corolla rose-purple, little pubescent in the throat ; lip con- 
spicuously 3-saccate ; the sacs as broad as long, the teeth very 
short; galea lanceolate, obtuse, puberulent. 

Near Garvanza, Davidson. 


Annuals with alternate narrow entire or 3-5-parted 
leaves, and irregular flowers scattered along the usually 
many branches or in terminal clusters or heads. Bracts 
and calyx never colored. Calyx spathe-like, consisting 
of an anterior and a posterior leaf-like division or the 
anterior division wanting. Corolla tubular, somewhat 
enlarged above ; its lips about equal in length, the 
lower obtusely 3-toothed. Stamens 4 or 2, anther-cells 

372 Scrophulariaceae 

unequal, ciliate or minutely bearded. Capsule flattened ; 
seeds with a loose coat, pointed at one end. 

1. A. filifolia (Nutt.). Stems erect, branched, 3-6 dm. high; 
leaves all filiform, 3-parted to near the base; herbage pubescent 
with short reflexed hairs intermingled with scattered spreading 
hispid hairs; heads several-flowered, terminating the branches; 
bracts 3-lobed to near the base, the entire portion about 1 mm. 
broad, strongly 3-nerved ; the lobes all filiform and usually nearly 
equal, the outer surface very hispid with stout spreading hairs 
rising from postulate bases, the inner surface concave, pubescent, 
slightly elongated at the apex and tipped with a blackish, more 
or less retuse gland; corolla purplish, 12-15 mm. long. (Cordy- 
lanthus filifolius Nutt.) 

Common on dry ridges in the chaparral belt of all the mountains. Aden- 
osfegia rigida Benth., to which our southern plants have been referred, has 
broader leaves and bracts which are less hispid. 

2. A. maritima (Nutt.) Greene. Corymbosely branched, 1-3 
dm. high ; herbage glaucous and more or less hoary-pubescent, 
often tinged with purple ; leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, about 
2 cm. long, entire; flowers in short spikes; bracts oblong-lanceo- 
late, entire or commonly 3-toothed, the 2 lateral teeth much the 
smaller ; flowers purple, equaling or slightly exceeding the bracts. 

Occasional in salt marshes near the sea. June-September. 


Perennial herbs with alternate opposite or rarely 
verticillate pinnately lobed cleft or pinnatifid leaves, 
and irregular flowers in terminal spikes or spike-like 
racemes. Calyx 2-5-cleft, corolla tubular, strongly 
bilabiate ; galea arched and compressed ; lower lip of 3 
small rounded lobes or teeth. Stamens 4 ; anthers 
approximate in pairs, their sacs transverse, equal. Cap- 
sule flattened, oblique at apex, loculicidally 2-valved. 

1. P. densiflora Benth. Stems simple, erect, 2-3 dm. high, 
commonly several from the scaly caudex ; herbage nearly gla- 
brous or somewhat soft-pubescent; leaves pinnately divided or 

Orobanchaceae 373 

parted, the segments oblong, doubly serrate-toothed or incised ; 
spike terminal, dense or at length loose; bracts linear, ciliate or 
serrulate toward the apex, mostly shorter than the flowers ; calyx 
5-angled, equally or unequally 5-toothed, 6-8 mm. long; corolla 
crimson, 2.5 cm. long or more; galea large, somewhat broader 
above, strongly arched, lower lip small, of 3 rounded teeth; fila- 
ments glabrous. 

Laurel Canyon, Santa Monica Mountains, Davidson. February. 

2. P. semibarbata Gray. Nearly acaulescent, depressed, more 
or less pubescent ; leaves in a basal tuft, 15-20 cm. long, on petioles 
mostly exceeding the irregular sessile spikes, 2-pinnately parted 
or nearly so, the oblong lobes laciniately few-toothed; corolla 
yellowish, tinged with purple, pubescent without, about 2 cm. 
long; galea nearly straight; filaments villous above. 

Frequent on dry ridges in the open pine forests of all our mountains. 


Erect simple or branched, brown, yellow, purplish or 
nearly white root-parasites. Leaves reduced to alternate 
appressed scales. Flowers perfect, irregular, sessile in 
terminal bracted spikes, or solitary and peduncled in the 
axils of the scales. Calyx 4-5-toothed or 4-5-cleft, or 
split on one or both sides nearly or quite to the base. 
Corolla more or less oblique, the limb 2-lipped, 5-lobed. 
Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the tube of the 
corolla alternate with the lobes, a fifth rudimentary one 
sometimes present. Ovary superior, 1-celled, with 4 
parietal placentae ; ovules numerous ; style slender ; 
stigma discoid, 2-lobed or 4-lobed. Capsule 1-celled, 

Flowers bractless, nearly regular. 1. THALESIA. 

Flowers bracteate, strongly 2-lipped. 2. OBOBANCHE. 

374 Orobanchaceae 


Glandular or viscid-pubescent simple-stemmed herbs, 
parasitic on the roots of various plants, with scattered 
scales, and long-peduncled yellowish, white or violet per- 
fect bractless flowers. Calyx campanulate or hemi- 
spheric, nearly equally 5-cleft, the lobes acute or acumi- 
nate. Corolla oblique ; the tube elongated, curved ; the 
limb slightly 2-lipped ; the upper lip erect-spreading, 
2-lobed ; the lower spreading, 3-lobed, the lobes all 
nearly equal. Stamens included ; anther-sacs mucro- 
nate at the base. Ovary ovoid ; style slender, decidu- 
ous ; stigma peltate or slightly 2-lobed. 

1. T. fasciculata (Nutt.) Britton. Stem erect, 5-10 cm. high, 
densely glandular-pubescent, bearing several scales and 3-15 naked 
1-flowered peduncles, 2.5-10 cm. long; calyx broadly campanu- 
late, 6-10 mm. long, its lobes triangular-lanceolate or triangular- 
ovate, acute, equaling or shorter than the tube ; corolla about 2 
cm. long, purplish-yellow, puberulent within; the curved tube 3 
times as long as the limb; the lobes oblong, obtuse. (Aphyllon 
fasciculatum Gray.) 

Occasional in rather dry ground in the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Moun- 
tains; growing on the roots of various shrubs. May-July. 


Glandular-pubescent, erect, simple or branched herbs, 
parasitic on the roots of various plants, with scattered 
scales, and spicate or racemose perfect bracted and some- 
times bracteolate flowers. Calyx split both above and 
below, nearly or quite to the base, the divisions 2-cleft 
or rarely entire, or more or less unequally 2-5-toothed. 
Corolla oblique, strongly 2-lipped ; upper lip erect, emar- 
ginate or 2-lobed ; lower lip spreading, 3-lobed. Stamens 
included ; anther-sacs mostly mucronate at the base. 

Plantaginaceae 375 

Ovary ovoid ; style slender, commonly persistent ; stigma 
peltate to funnelform, entire or slightly 2-lobed. 

1. O. Californicum C. & S. Viscid-pubescent; stems stout, 
usually simple, 5-15 cm. high ; flowers crowded in a dense 
raceme; pedicels 2-4 or the lower sometimes 10 cm. long; bract- 
lets close to the calyx; calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, about 
equaling the yellowish or purplish corolla, this 2-2.5 cm. long; 
anthers glabrous or slightly hairy. 

Elysian Park, Davidson. 

2. O. tuberosa (Gray) Heller. Pruinose-puberulent ; stems 
stout, with a thickened tuber-like base, 15 cm. high or less ; 
spikes dense, corymbose-glomerate at the summit of the thickened 
stem ; flowers subsessile or on short pedicels ; calyx-lobes lanceo- 
late, equaling the corolla-tube; corolla yellowish, about 10-15 
mm. long; anthers glabrous. 

Echo Mountain among shrubs, McClatchie. 



Annual or perennial mostly acaulescent rarely stolon- 
iferous herbs, with basal, in the caulescent species oppo- 
site or alternate, leaves, and small perfect, polygamous 
or monoecious flowers, bracteolate in dense terminal 
long-scaped spikes or heads, or rarely solitary. Calyx 
persistent, 4-parted. Corolla hypogynous, scarious or 
membranous, mostly marcescent, 4-lobed. Stamens 4 or 
2, inserted on the corolla-tube or throat ; filaments fili- 
form ; anthers versatile, 2-celled, longitudinally dehis- 
cent. Ovary superior, 1-2-celled or falsely 3-4-celled. 
Style filiform, simple, mostly longitudinally stigmatic. 
Ovules 1-several in each cell. Fruit a membranous or 
coriaceous capsule, circumscissile at or below the middle. 
Seeds peltate. 

376 Plantaginaceae 

Characters of the family. 

* Corolla closed over the mature capsule, forming a beak. 

1. P. hirtella H. B. K. Perennial from a thick root, hirsute, 
especially the scape and leaves ; leaves oblong-oblanceolate to 
narrowly oblong, 5 dm. long or less, tapering below to a short 
petiole, sparsely dentate ; scape usually longer than the leaves, 
stout, erect; spike 15-30 cm. long, dense, except at base; corolla 
persistent, its lobes closed over the capsule; seeds 3. 

Occasional in low ground in the coast valleys. 

** Corolla remaining expanded over the mature capsule. 
*- Perennials. 

2. P. lanceolata L. More or less villous with tufts of brown- 
ish hairs at the base of the leaves; leaves erect or spreading, 
oblong-lanceolate, tapering at base into a slender petiole, strongly 
3-5-ribbed, 3 dm. long or less, entire; scapes exceeding the leaves, 
channeled, slender; spike very dense, becoming cylindric, 10 cm. 
long or less ; sepals ovate, with green midrib and scarious margins ; 
pyxis oblong; ovary obtuse, 2-seeded, circumscissile at about the 

Common in low ground throughout our range. 

3. P. major L. Glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent; 
leaves spreading, long-petioled, mostly ovate, narrowed or round- 
ed at base, entire or coarsely dentate, 2 dm. long or less; scapes 
exceeding the leaves, erect, 3 dm. long or less; spikes 2 dm. long 
or less; pyxis ovoid, circumscissile at about the middle, 5-16- 

Frequent in low ground. 

*- *- Annuals. 

4. P. erecta Morris. Annual, silky pubescent, 6-15 cm. high; 
leaves erect, narrowly linear to narrowly oblanceolate, about two- 
thirds the length of the scapes or nearly equaling the shorter ones ; 
scapes 1 or few ; spikes few-many-flowered, capitate or oblong, 15 
cm. long or usually less; calyx-lobes obtuse, scarious-margined 

Rubiaceae 377 

with brownish midrib; pyxis ovate, truncate, purplish above, 
circumscissile at the lower third ; seeds 2. 

Very common on dry plains and in the foothills throughout our range. 

5. P. erecta obversa (Morris). A more robust form ; leaves with 
few to several callous denticulations ; scapes usually numerous ; 
spikes 15-40 cm. long; capsule circumscissile near the middle. 
(P. obversa Morris.) 

Occasional in sandy soil toward the coast, also on Catalina Island. In 
our opinion not a good species and scarcely worthy of varietal distinction. 

6. P. Bigelovii Gray. Very slender, annual, 1 dm. high or 
ess; leaves very narrowly linear or filiform, glabrous; scapes 

very slender, slightly pubescent above ; spikes slender, about 15 
mm. long and 4 mm. broad, often much shorter and reduced to 
4-5 flowers ; calyx broadly scarious-margined ; pyxis oblong-ovate, 
much exceeding the calyx, circumscissile at the lower third. 

Known within our limits only from Inglewood, where it occurs in low ex- 
siccated places. 


Herbs or woody plants with simple, opposite or verti- 
cillate, mostly stipulate leaves, and perfect, often dimor- 
phous or trimorphous regular flowers. Calyx-tube adnate 
to the ovary, its limb various. Corolla 4-5-lobed, often 
pubescent within. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla and alternate with them, inserted on its tube or 
throat ; anthers versatile, 2-celled, longitudinally dehis- 
cent. Ovary inferior, 2 5-celled ; style simple or lobed ; 
ovules 1-many in each cell. Fruit a capsule or berry. 
Seeds various. 


Annual or perennial herbs or rarely suffrutescent, 
with 4-angled slender stems and branches, apparently 
verticillate leaves, and small white green yellow or 
purple flowers, mostly in axillary or terminal cymes or 
panicles. Flowers perfect or rarely dioecious. Calyx- 

378 Rubiaceae 

tube ovoid or globose, the limb minutely toothed or 
wanting. Corolla rotate, 4-lobed. Stamens 4, alternate 
with the corolla-lobes ; filaments short. Ovary 2-celled ; 
ovules 1 in each cavity. Styles 2, short ; stigmas capi- 
tate. Fruit biglobular, dry or fleshy, smooth, tubercu- 
late or hispid, separating into 2 indehiscent carpels. 

* Annuals. 

1. G. Aparine L. Diffuse, weak, climbing over herbaceous 
plants, setulose or hispidulous-roughened ; leaves in whorls of 
7-8, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or the upper acute, mucronate, 
tapering to a rather narrow base, 15-45 mm. long; flowers white 
or whitish ; fruit thickly beset with whitish hooked hairs. 

Frequent on grassy hillsides in shady places. March-April. 

** Perennials. 

*- Fruit dry, smooth; flowers perfect. 

2. G. trifidum subbifloruin Wiegands Perennial with slender 
rootstock and slender weak wholly herbaceous ascending stems, 
4 dm. high or less, much 1 branched and intermangled, sharply 
4-angled, somewhat sca.brous ; leaves in 4's, linear-spatulate, very 
unequal, 8-10 mm. long, obtuse, .cuneate at the base, flaccid and 
nearly smooth; pedicels capillary, equaling the leaves, nearly 
glabrous, rarely 2-3-flowered ; corolla minute, white, its lobes 
trifid, very obtuse; fruit glabrous. 

Occasional in shady places, mostly in the interior valleys. 

dry, hispid. , - -; ; <%-; r<: > * 

3. G. angustifolium iNutt. Suffrutescent at base, 3-8 dm. 
high, with rigid virgate branches, glabrous or minutely scabrous; 
leaves narrowly linear, 1-nerved^ l^-2(^, .mm. long; dioecious; 
cymes small, in narrow panicles, the fertile ones more or less 
condensed ; corolla dull white-, about 3 mm. broad ; bristles of the 
fruit about the length of the body. 

Frequent on sand-dunes along the seasiiore, and in the foothills, often 
ascending to 4000 feet altitude. 

4. G. siccatum Wight. Somewhat suffrutescent below, 
branched and bushy, sometimes reclining, the whole plant ciner- 
eous-puberulent ; leaves linear, 8-16 mm. long, not rigid, barely 

Madder Family 379 

mucronulate ; inflorescence cymose-paniculate ; flowers polyga- 
mous, greenish-yellow; fruit 2 mm. broad, densely hispid with 
straight hairs. 

Wilson's Peak, McClatchie; Santa Monica Mountains. 

-----<- Fruit fleshy or berry-like, hispid, pubescent or smooth. 

5. G. grande McClatchie. Suffrutescent, evergreen, the woody 
stems 6-10 mm. in diameter, 10-24 dm. long, erect or reclining on 
bushes ; herbaceous branches and leaves cinereous-hirsute or his- 
pidulous ; leaves in 4's, elliptic-oblong, acute or acuminate, 6-12 
mm. long ; flowers numerous, polygamous, greenish-yellow, termi- 
nal or sometimes axillary, 1-5 on a peduncle, 2-5 mm. broad ; 
ovary densely hirsute ; mature fruit baccate, clothed with stiff 
hairs, at first white, becoming black, about 4 mm. broad. 

Frequent in the upper portions of the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel 

6. G. Californicum H. & A. Wholly herbaceous, from slen- 
der creeping rootstocks, often in low tufts, 8-30 mm. high, hirsute 
throughout; stems slender; leaves in 4's, thin, ovate to elliptic, 
acute or acuminate, 6-12 mm. long; flowers polygamous, few, 
terminal, yellowish-white; fruit baccate, clothed with scattered 
hairs, pearly white, changing to black in drying, 2-3 mm. in 

Frequent in all the mountains, mostly above 3000 feet altitude. 

7. G. Nuttallii Gray. Suffrutescent below, often climbing, 
6-15 dm. high, the angles of the stems and margins of the leaves 
roughened or hispidulous, otherwise glabrous; leaves in 4's, 
thickish, oval to linear-oblong, mucronulate or obtuse, 3-6 mm. 
long; fruit glabrous, purple, 4 mm. broad. 

Common in the foothills throughout our range. 

8. G. Andrews!! Gray. Densely matted, the prostrate stems 
rooting at the joints, 5-10 cm. long, grayish, sparsely scabrous or 
smooth ; leaves crowded, acerose-subulate, 4-8 mm. long; flowers 
dioecious, male slender-pedicelled in few-flowered terminal cymes, 
female solitary, subtended by a whorl of leaves which are longer 
than the at length reflexed pedicel; berry whitish, becoming 

On dry ridges in the upper portions of the chaparral belt and extending 
into the pine belt of the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Moun- 

380 Caprifoliaceae 


Shrubs, trees, vines or perennial herbs, with opposite 
simple or pinnate leaves, and perfect, regular or irregu- 
lar, mostly cymose flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to the 
ovary, its limb 3-5-toothed or 3-5-lobed. Corolla 5-lobed, 
sometimes 2-lipped. Stamens 5, rarely 4, inserted on the 
corolla- tube and alternate with its lobes ; anthers versa- 
tile, 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary inferior, 
1-6-celled ; style slender ; stigma capitate or 2-5-lobed ; 
ovules 1-several in each cavity. Fruit a berry, drupe 
or capsule. 

Leaves pinnately compound ; flowers rotate. 1. SAMBUCUS. 

Leaves simple. 

Berry white; corolla short campanulate. 2. SYMPHOBICARPUS. 

Berry red or black; corolla tubular, somewhat irregular. 



Shrubs or trees, with opposite pinnate leaves, serrate 
or laciniate leaflets, and small white or pinkish flowers 
in compound depressed or thyrsoid cymes. Calyx-tube 
ovoid or turbinate, 3-5-toothed or 3-5-lobed. Corolla 
rotate or slightly campanulate, regular, 3-5-lobed. Sta- 
mens 5, inserted at the base of the corolla ; filaments 
slender. Ovary 3-5-celled ; style 3-parted ; ovules 1 in 
each cell, pendulous. Drupe berry-like, containing 3-5 
1-seeded nutlets. 

1. S. glauca Nutt. Bushy or arborescent, 2-5 m. high, the 
largest specimens tree-like ; leaves coriaceous, glabrous ; leaflets 
5-7, lanceolate, ovate or obovate, mostly abruptly acuminate, ser- 
rate except at the acuminate apex, 2.5-8 cm. long; inflorescence 
5-rayed, each ray again 1-3 times 5-rayed, forming a flat-topped 
cyme, 8-15 cm. broad; flowers white, 7 mm. broad; fruit blue 
beneath the white bloom. 

Frequent on low hills and in washes in all the valleys. May-June. 

Honeysuckle Family 381 


Shrubs with opposite deciduous short-petioled simple 
leaves, and small white or pink perfect flowers in axil- 
lary or terminal clusters. Calyx-tube nearly globular, 
the limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla campanulate or salver- 
shaped, regular or sometimes gibbous at the base, 4-5- 
lobed. Stamens 4-5, inserted on the corolla. Ovary 
4-celled, 2 of the cells containing several abortive ovules, 
the others each with a single suspended ovule ; style 
filiform ; stigma capitate or 2-lobed. Fruit an ovoid or 
globose 4-celled 2-seeded berry. 

1. S. mollis Nutt. Low, much branched shrub, about 3 dm. 
high, the branches mostly erect; leaves oval or elliptic, mostly 1 
cm. long, pubescent on both surfaces or more so on the lower sur- 
face; corolla rose-red, barely pubescent within; berry globose, 
8-12 mm. in diameter, pulp snowy. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of all the mountains and foothills. 


Erect or climbing shrubs with opposite entire leaves, 
and usually somewhat irregular spicate, capitate or gem- 
inate flowers. Calyx- tube ovoid or nearly globular, the 
limb slightly 5-toothed. Corolla tubular, funnelform or 
campanulate, often gibbous at base, the limb 5-toothed, 
more or less oblique or 2-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted on 
the tube of the corolla. Ovary 2-3-celled ; ovules numer- 
ous in each cell, pendulous ; style slender ; stigma cap- 
itate. Berry fleshy, usually 2-3-celled, few-seeded. 

1. L. subspicata H. & A. Bushy, more or less pubescent or 
glandular above, 1-1.5 m. high; leaves rounded to elliptic, 2 cm. 
long or less, all distinct and petioled, coriaceous, pale beneath ; 
inflorescence in rather short interrupted spikes, terminating leafy 
branches; flowers yellow, glandular-pubescent without; corolla- 
tube 4-5 mm. long ; limb equaling the tube, 2-lipped, the upper lip 
with 4 short rounded lobes, the lower narrow, entire, somewhat 
gibbous at base; anthers 4 mm. long; filaments pubescent below. 

Frequent in the chaparral belt of all the hills and mountains. 

382 Valerianaceae 


Herbs with opposite exstipulate leaves, and usually 
small perfect or polygamous flowers, in corymbed, 
panicled or capitate cymes. Calyx-tube adnate to 
the ovary, its limb inconspicuous or none in flower, 
becoming prominent in fruit. Corolla epigynous, some- 
what irregular, its tube narrow, sometimes gibbous or 
spurred at base ; limb spreading, mostly 5-lobed. Sta- 
mens 1-4, inserted on the corolla and alternate Avith 
its lobes. Ovary inferior, 1-3-celled, 1 of the cells 
containing a single suspended ovule, the others empty. 
Fruit indehiscent, dry, containing a single suspended 


Annual herbs with simple or rarely with very slen- 
der branches and usually entire leaves, the cauline 
commonly sessile. Flowers small, borne in glomerules 
at the end of the stem or branches, or the glomerules 
in interrupted or dense spikes. Calyx-limb obsolete. 
Corolla usually pink, more or less bilabiate, spurred 
or gibbous at base. Wings of the fruit commonly in- 
curved and forming a circular hollow or cavity on the 

1. P. minor (Hook.). Slender, 1-2 dm. high; leaves linear 
or narrowly oblong ; corolla about 2 mm. long ; the spur 
longer than the tube ; fruit more or less hispid, dorsally carinate ; 
the carina 2-grooved; lateral wings broad, each with a more or 
less obvious lobe at apex, spreading or incurved. ( Valerianella 
macrocera Gray; P. congesta minor Hook.) 

Occasional on shady hillsides. March. 

Dipsaceae 383 


Herbs with opposite or verticillate exstipulate leaves. 
Flowers perfect, borne on an elongated or globose recep- 
tacle, bracted and involucrate. Calyx-tube adnate to 
the ovary, its limb cup-shaped or disk-shaped, or divided 
into spreading bristles. Corolla epigynous, the limb 
2-5-lobed. Stamens 2-4, inserted on the tube of the 
corolla and alternate with its lobes ; filaments distinct. 
Ovary inferior, 1-celled ; style filiform ; stigma undi- 
vided, terminal or lateral ; ovule 1, pendulous. Fruit 
an achene, its apex crowned with the persistent calyx- 
lobes. .-.**, *,..;.. 


Rough-hairy or prickly, tall 'ere'ct biennial or peren- 
nial herbs, with opposite dentate or pinnatifid, usu- 
ally large leaves, and -blue or lilac . flowers in dense 
terminal peduncled oblong heads. Bracts of the invo- 
lucre and scales of the receptacle rigid or spiny-toothed. 
Calyx-limb cup-shaped, 4-toothed or 4-lobed. Corolla 
oblique or 2-lipped, 4-lobed. Stamens 4. Stigmas 
oblique or lateral. , Achene free or adnate to the in- 
volucel. .-,j r 

1. D. fullonum L. (FULLER'S-TEASEL.) Biennial, stout, with 
numerous short prickles on the stem, branches, midribs of the 
leaves and involucre, otherwise glabrous or nearly so, 1-2 m. 
high ; leaves sessile or the upper ones cpnnate-perfoliaj;e, lanceo- 
late or oblong, entire, the lower obtuse, crenate; leaves of the 
involucre spreading or reflexed, shorter than the head; heads 
ovoid, becoming cylindric, 6-10 cm. long; scales of the receptacle 
with hooked tips, about equaling the flowers; flowers lilac, 8-12 
mm. long. 

Occasional in moist places about Los Angeles. Native of Europe. 

384 Cucurbitaceae 


Herbaceous vines, climbing or trailing by means of 
tendrils, with alternate petioled leaves, and solitary or 
racemose monoecious or dioecious flowers. Calyx-tube 
adnate to the ovary, its limb usually 5-lobed. Petals 
usually 5, inserted on the limb of the calyx, separate or 
united. Stamens mostly 3, 2 of them with 2-celled 
anthers, the other with a 1-celled anther ; filaments 
short, often somewhat united. Ovary 1-3-celled ; style 
simple or lobed ; ovules few or numerous. Fruit a pepo, 
indehiscent or rarely dehiscent at the summit, or burst- 
ing irregularly. Seeds usually flat. 

Flowers yellow, large; fruit indehiscent, smooth. 1. CDCURBITA. 

Flowers white or greenish, small; fruit dehiscent at summit, prickly. 



Rough prostrate vines, rooting at the nodes, with 
branched tendrils, usually lobed leaves which are often 
cordate at the base, and large yellow axillary monoecious 
flowers. Calyx-tube campanulate, usually 5-lobed. Co- 
rolla campanulate, 5-lobed to about the middle, the 
lobes recurving. Staminate flowers with 3 stamens, the 
anthers linear, more or less united. Pistillate flowers 
with 1 pistil ; ovary oblong, with 3-5 many-ovuled pla- 
centae ; style short, thick ; stigmas 3-5, each 2-lobed, 
papillose ; staminodia 3. Fruit large fleshy, with a 
thick rind, many-seeded, indehiscent. 

1. C. foetidissima H. B. K. (CALABAZILLA or MOCK-ORANGE.) 
Stems stout, rough, hirsute, trailing to a length of 2-5 m. ; root 
very large, carrot-shaped; leaves ovate-triangular, cordate or 
truncate at the base, acute at the apex, 1-3 dm. long, denticulate, 
usually slightly 3-5-lobed, rough above, canescent beneath, on 
stout petioles, 8-15 cm. long; peduncles 2.5-5 cm. long; flowers 
mostly solitary ; corolla 7-10 cm. long; pepo globose, 5-10 cm. in 
diameter, smooth. 

Frequent on dry sandy soil throughout our range. 

Campanulaceae 385 


Mostly climbing herbs, with branched tendrils, lobed 
divided or angled leaves, and small white or greenish- 
white monoecious flowers. Calyx-tube campanulate, 
5-6-toothed. Corolla very deeply 5-6-parted. Stamens 
3 in the staminate flowers ; the anthers more or less 
coherent. Pistillate flowers with a 2-4-celled ovary ; 
style very short ; stigma hemispheric or lobed. Fruit 
fleshy or dry at maturity, densely spiny, 1-2-celled, 
dehiscent at the summit. 

1. M. macrocarpa Greene. Nearly glabrous; stems much 
branched, climbing over shrubs, from a very large fusiform root; 
leaves about 1-1.5 dm. broad, with a closed sinus, 5-cleft to the 
middle or below it, the divisions slightly 3-5-lobed, inucronate; 
fruit ovoid-oblong, 8-12 cm. long, usually densely echinate with 
stout but rather soft spines, the longest often 5 cm. long, usually 
12-14-seeded ; seed ovoid, 18 mm. long, light brown, encircled by 
a dark marginal line. 

Frequent in the hills and in the chaparral belt of all the mountains. 
February-May. Commonly called chilicothe or wild cucumber. 


Herbs with alternate exstipulate entire dentate or 
rarely lobed leaves, acrid and usually milky juice, and 
racemose, spicate, paniculate or solitary perfect flowers. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb mostly 5-lobed 
or 5-parted. Corolla regular or irregular, its limb 5-lobed, 
regular or more or less 2-lipped, or corolla rarely divided 
into separate petals. Stamens 5, alternate with the 
corolla-lobes, inserted with the corolla on the calyx 
where it becomes free from the ovary ; filaments separate 
or connate ; anthers 2-celled, introrse, separate or united. 
Ovary 2-5-celled or rarely 6-10-celled, the placentae pro- 
jecting from the axis or with 2 parietal placentae ; style 

386 Campanulaceae 

simple; stigma mostly 2-5-lobed, Fruit a capsule or 
berry. Seeds numerous and small ; embryo minute, 
straight ; endosperm fleshy. (Including the family 
Lobeliaceae of some authors.) 

Corolla regular; stamens separate. 

Capsule opening on the side by 2-3 valves, which leave small round per- 
forations, l. LEGOUZIA. 
Capsule opening by a hole left by the falling away of the base of the style. 

Corolla irregular; stamens more or less united. 

Anthers free, filaments more or less united; flowers minute. 

Anthers connate. 

Corolla-tube open to the base on 1 side. 4. LOBELIA. 

Corolla-tube closed. 5, PALMERELLA. 

1. LEGOUZIA Durand. 

Annual herbs with long slender stems and branches, 
alternate toothed or entire leaves, and axillary 2-bracted 
flowers sessile or nearly so. The earlier flowers small, 
cleistogamous, the latter with a blue or purple, nearly 
rotate corolla. Calyx-tube narrow, the lobes in the 
earlier flowers 3-4, in the latter 45. Corolla 5-lobed or 
5-parted, the lobes imbricated in the bud. Filaments 
flat; anthers separate^ lin'e,ar; Ovary ^-.celled or rarely 
2-celled or 4-celled ; stigma usually 3-lobed. Capsule 
opening by lateral valves. 

1. L. biflora, (R. & P.) Britton. Glabrous or nearly so ; stem 
simple or branched, roughish on the jangles, 15-30 cm. high; 
leaves ovate, oblong or the upper lanceolate, sessile, acute or 
obtuse at the apex, crenate with few teeth or entire, 8 20 mm. 
long'; the calyx-lobes of the earlier flowers ovate to lanceolate, of 
the later lanceolate-subulate; capsule oblong-cylindric, 6-10 mm. 
long, opening by valves close under the calyx-teeth. (Speeularia 
biflora Gray.) ^ f<t <.'.'- - 

Occasional on grassy slopes. 

>}fr ,, : .. ,.2. GITHOPSIS Nutt. 

Slender annuals with rather small linear-oblong coarse- 
ly toothed sessile leaves. 'Flowers simply terminating 

Bellflower Family 387 

the branches or becoming lateral, erect, all alike. Calyx- 
tube club-shaped, strongly 10-ribbed, adnate to the sum- 
mit of the ovary, its limb of 5 long and linear foliaceous 
lobes. Corolla tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed. Fila- 
ments short, dilated at the base ; anthers long, linear. 
Ovary 3-celled ; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule club-shaped, 
coriaceous, crowned with the rigid calyx-lobes of its own 
length, strongly striate-ribbed, many-seeded, opening when 
the somewhat persistent base of the style falls away 
by a round hole in its place. Seeds fusiform-oblong. 

1. G. specularioides Nutt. Stems simple or with 1-2 prolifer- 
ous branches, 5-20 cm. high, hirsute or glabrate; leaves linear- 
oblong, 6-10 mm. long, the lower obovate, 2-4 mm. long, all 
sharply few-toothed; calyx-lobes 6-18 mm. long, shorter than or 
much exceeding the corolla; corolla purplish, its lobes shorter 
than the tube ; capsule turgid, tapering into a very short peduncle. 

Hills about Soldiers Home, Hasse. 


Low and diffusely branched annuals, with numerous 
capillary branches, cauline leaves minute, sessile, sub- 
tending the dichotomous branches. Flowers minute on 
rather long capillary pedicels. Calyx partly or wholly 
free. Corolla bilabiate, the upper lip 2-lobed or 2-parted, 
the lower 3-lobed or 3-parted. Filaments monadelphous 
to near the base ; anthers oval, glabrous. Style incurved 
at the tip ; stigmas capitate, 2-lobed. Capsule 2-celled, 
2-valved from the tip, 7-40-seeded. 

1. N. ramosissimus xnontanus (Greene) Gray. Glabrous 
throughout or sparsely puberulent below and occasionally with 
some villous hairs at the base of the pedicels ; stems diffusely and 
dichotomously branched, very slender, 1-2 dm. high ; basal leaves 
obovate, denticulate, 1 cm. long; pedicels 1-1.5 cm. long, curved 
upward; calyx about 2 mm. long, the lobes equaling the tube; 
corolla white, slightly exceeding the calyx; capsule 7-12-seeded; 
seeds favose-reticulated, ovate-oblong. 

Frequent in open pine forests in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 

388 Campanulaceae 

2. N. ramosissimus pinnatifidus (Greene) Gray. Much re- 
sembling the last; basal leaves linear-lanceolate, 1-2-pinnatifid, 
the cauline toothed ; capsule 15-25-seeded ; seeds short-oblong. 

San Gabriel Mountains, Allen. 


Herbs with alternate or basal leaves, and racemose, 
spicate or paniculate, often leafy-bracted flowers. Calyx- 
tube adnate to the ovary. Corolla-tube straight, oblique 
or incurved, divided to the base on 1 side, 2-lobed ; the 
lobe on each side of the cleft erect or recurved, turned 
away from the other 3, which are somewhat united. 
Stamens free from the corolla-tube, monadelphous at 
least above ; 2 or all the 5 anthers with a tuft of hairs 
at the tip, all united. Ovary 2-celled ; the 2 parietal 
placentae many-ovuled ; stigma 2-lobed or 2-cleft. Cap- 
sule loculicidally 2-valved. 

1. L. splendens Willd. Glabrous or nearly so; stems erect, 
commonly simple, 4-8 dm. high; leaves lanceolate or almost 
linear, glandular-denticulate, all but the lower sessile, 10 cm. 
long or less ; flowers in a rather close often elongated raceme ; 
calyx-tube hemispheric, 4 mm. long, the lobes linear-lanceolate, 
8 mm. long; corolla bright red, 2 cm. long, the tube narrow, the 
lobes about 8 mm. long; seeds oblong, somewhat rugose-tubercu- 

Along streams in wet places in the upper portions of the chaparral belt 
of the San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Mountains. 


Slender erect or spreading herbs, glabrous or nearly 
so, with mostly lanceolate entire or serrate leaves, and 
blue flowers in short terminal racemes. Calyx-tube tur- 
binate, the lobes slender. Corolla-tube elongated, linear 
and straight, not at all dilated at the throat ; the short 
limb abruptly spreading ; 2 lobes small, spatulate-linear 
and recurving, the 3 larger obovate or oblong, slightly 
united at the base. Filaments more or less adnate to 

Compositae 389 

the corolla up to near the throat, then monadelphous 
and free, or adnate on 1 side only ; anthers oblong, the 
3 larger naked, the 2 shorter tipped with a tuft of very 
short bristles. Ovary and capsule as in Lobelia. 

1. L. (iebilis serrata Gray. Stems simple or rarely branched 
above, 2-6 dm. high, very leafy, glabrous except the inflorescence, 
this puberulent; cauline leaves lanceolate-linear or lanceolate, 
the lower broader, spatulate to obovate, all sharply serrate, 
the uppermost passing into slender bracts ; racemes few-many- 
flowered ; pedicels slender ; calyx-lobes narrowly-subulate, twice 
the length of the tube, and nearly equaling the corolla; corolla- 
tube slender, 2 cm. long, in age splitting up from the base as in 
Lobelia, pale blue ; the larger lobes deep violet, 6-8 mm. long. 

Frequent in moist places in the canyons of the San Gabriel and Santa 
Ana Mountains. 


Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs with alternate or 
opposite leaves. Flowers in heads, borne on the enlarged 
summit of the peduncle (receptacle) and surrounded by 
the bracts of the involucre. Receptacle naked or with 
bracts subtending the flowers or with bristles among the 
flowers. Calyx-tube united with the ovary, the limb 
when present called pappus, and consisting of awns, 
hairs, bristles, scales or paleae. Corolla tubular and 
5-toothed or 5-lobed, or the limb strap-shaped (ligulate) 
and toothed or entire at the apex, those of a head all 
tubular, all ligulate or of both kinds. When both kinds 
are present the marginal ones are ligulate and are called 
ray-flowers, the inner are tubular and are called disk- 
flowers. Stamens 5 ; filaments free ; anthers united and 
forming a tube, or nearly or quite free in Ambrosiae and 
the filaments more or less cohering. Styles 2-lobed, the 
lobes stigmatic on the inner surface. Ovary 1-celled, 
becoming an achene in fruit. Pappus commonly per- 

390 Eupatorieae 


Heads all alike, composed of both ray- and disk-flowers or of disk-flowers only. 
Anthers not caudate at base. 
Receptacle naked. 

Bracts of the involucre well- imbricated. 

Style-branches stigmatic only below the middle; flowers never 
yellow; rays none. 1. EDPATORIEAE. 

Style-branches of the perfect flowers stigmatic to or above the 
middle, the upper sterile portion forming a flattened ap- 
pendage. 2. ASTKBEAE. 
Style -branches stigmatic up to the truncate apex. 

Bracts herbaceous ; herbage not aromatic. 7. HEL.ENIEAE. 
Bracts with scarious margins; herbage aromatic or strong- 
scented. 8. ANTHEMIDEAE. 
Bracts usually in 1 series; pappus generally capillary. 


Receptacle fimbrillate. 7. HELENJEAE. 

Receptacle chaffy. 

Bracts of the involucre not scarious. 

Bracts of the involucre in a single series, more or less enclosing 

the ray-achenes. 6. MADIEAE. 

Bracts of the involucre in 2 or more series not enfolding the ray- 
achenes. 5. HELIANTHEAE. 
Bracts of the involucre scarious, at least on the margins. 

Anthers caudate at base. 

Anthers not appendaged at apex; involucre usually scarious. 


Anthers appendaged at apex; bracts usually spinescent. 

Corollas regular, all tubular. 10. CYNAREAE. 

Corollas 2-lipped; rays wanting. 11. MUTISIEAE. 

Heads of 2 kinds : staminate heads clustered above the pistillate, anthers 
more or less free ; pistillate heads few-flowered, flowers completely 
enclosed in the prickly involucre. 4. AMBROSIEAE. 

Heads all alike, composed of ligulate flowers only. 12. CICHORIEAE. 


Ours herbs or suffrutescent plants with white or flesh- 
colored perfect disk-flowers and no rays. Receptacle 
naked. Anthers not caudate at base. Style-branches 
stigmatic only below the middle. 

Achenes 5-angled. 1. EUPATORIUM. 

Achenes 10-ribbed. 2. COLEOSANTHUS. 


Erect mostly branching perennial herbs, with opposite 
verticillate or alternate often punctate leaves, and 
cymose-paniculate discoid heads of white blue or purple 

Eupatory Tribe 391 

flowers. Involucre oblong to hemispheric, its bracts im- 
bricated in 2-several series. Receptacle flat, convex or 
conic, naked. Corolla regular, its lobes slender, 5-lobed 
or 5-toothed. Style-branches flattened above, stigmatic 
at the base. Achenes 5-angled T truncate. Pappus of 
numerous capillary usually scabrous bristles, arranged 
in a single row. 

1. E. Pasadense Parish. Stems slender and apparently her- 
baceous, glandular-puberulent ; upper leaves opposite, short- 
petioled, ovate-deltoid, acute at apex, cordate at base, serrate, 
thin, minutely atomiferous beneath; cymes rather compact, on 
dichotomous peduncles longer than the leaves; pedicels 1 cm. 
long, with 2-3 linear bracts; heads 20-30-flowered ; involucral 
bracts lanceolate, firm, 4 mm. long, prominently 2-ribbed, the 
acute tips softer; corolla 4-5 mm. long, glabrous, white, the fili- 
form tube twice the length of the abrubtly expanded throat; 
pappus scabrous, equaling the corolla, early deciduous ; achenes 
smooth, 5-angled, slightly arcuate, 1.5 mm. long; receptacle 
somewhat rounded. 

Wet bank of a pool in a canyon south of Pasadena, McClatchie. 


Herbaceous perennial or partly shrubby plants, with 
opposite or alternate leaves and discoid heads of whitish 
or pink flowers in panicles or cymes. Involucral bracts 
well-imbricated in several series, striate. Receptacle 
flat or convex- Achenes 10-striate or -ribbed. - Pappus a 
single row of numerous rough or serrate bristles. 

1. C. Californicus (T. & G.) Kuntze. Shrubby at base, 6-9 
dm. high, paniculately branched ; herbage somewhat glandular- 
puberulent; leaves alternate, ovate, somewhat triangular or 
slightly cordate, obtuse, irregularly crenate-tbothed, 3-ribbed 
from the base, .veiny, roughjsh, 2-4 cm. long, shortrpetioled ; 
heads spicate or racemose along leafy branches, about 1 cm. high, 
10-15-flowered ; involucral bracts with thinnish, mostly obtuse 
straight tips. (BrickelUa Calif ornica Gray.) 

Occasional in the canyons of the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains. 

392 Astereae 

2. C. Nevinii (Gray) Kuntze. Herbage white-woolly ; leaves 
repandodentate ; heads 30-40-flowered ; otherwise as in the last. 
Newhall, Nevin. 


Annual or perennial herbs or rarely shrubs, with usu- 
ally scentless herbage and alternate leaves. Receptacle 
naked. Bracts of the involucre commonly well-imbri- 
cated. Disk-flowers commonly yellow. Rays present or 
wanting. Anthers not caudate. Pappus of bristles or 
awns. Pollen grains echinate. 

Pappus of several caducous awns; heads large. 3. GBTNDELIA. 

Pappus of several short scales; heads small. 4. GUTIEBREZIA. 

Pappus of a few persistent slender bristles. 5. PENTACHAETA. 

Pappus of many persistent slender bristles. 
Rays present, yellow. 

Rays without pappus. 6. HETEBOTHECA. 

Rays with pappus like that of disk-flowers. 

Pappus of 2 kinds, the outer short and scale-like. 

Pappus of 1 kind only. 

Perennial glabrous or pubescent herbs. 

Heads small, in scorpioid racemes. 8. SOLIDAGO. 

Heads small in corymbose panicles. 9. EDTHAMIA. 

Evergreen woody plants with punctate, flat or terete leaves. 

Rays present, not yellow. 

Pappus rusty -brown; anthers with slender appendages at apex. 


Pappus dull white. 

Bracts in more than 2 series. 15. ASTEB. 

Bracts in 1-2 series. 

Rays exceeding the disk. 16. EBIGEBON. 

Rays inconspicuous, shorter than the disk. 17. LEPTILON. 
Rays none. 

Outer flowers enlarged and more deeply cleft on the inner side. 

Outer flowers not enlarged. 
Flowers yellow. 

Herbage glandular and glutinous. 12. HAZABDIA. 

Herbage pubescent. 11. ISOCOMA. 

Flowers not yellow. 

Outer flowers pistillate, truncate; inner hermaphrodite. 

18. CONYZA. 
Dioecious shrubs or perennial herbs. 19. BACCHABIS. 

Aster Tribe 393 

3. GRINDELIA Willd. 

Coarse perennial herbs or suffrutescent plants with 
sessile rigid mostly serrate leaves and rather large hemi- 
spheric heads terminating corymbose branches. Invo- 
lucral bracts with usually narrow herbaceous squarrose- 
recurved tips. Flowers of both ray and disk many, 
permanently yellow. Style-appendages lanceolate or 
linear. Achenes short, thick, compressed or turgid, 
truncate, glabrous. Pappus of 2-8 deciduous stout awns 
or bristles. 

1. G. camporum Greene. Herbaceous; stems white and shin- 
ing, tufted from a perennial root, about 6 dm. high, glabrous, 
very leafy up to the loosely corymbose heads, even the branches 
of the corymb conspicuously leafy-bracted ; basal leaves almost 
wanting; stem leaves oblanceolate-spatulate, sessile and clasping, 
5 cm. long, saliently serrate-toothed; bracts of flowering branches 
nearly entire, spreading; involucre 12-20 mm. wide, its bracts 
with long linear recurved tips ; ray-achenes obscurely 3-sided 
with 3 or more pappus awns ; disk-achenes compressed, obliquely 
biauriculate or unidentate at the summit. 

Adobe mesas near Wiseburn. June-August. 

2. G. robusta Nutt. Stems herbaceous, stout, ascending from 
a perennial root, about 5 dm. high ; leaves broadly cordate-oblong, 
obtuse, coarsely serrate, about 3.5 cm. long, often 2.5 cm. broad, 
subcoriaceous, pubescent on the margins, otherwise glabrous; 
heads very few, large, corymbosely disposed; outer bracts of 
involucre rather leafy, the others narrow and squarrose ; pappus 
awns 2. 

Open grounds about Los Angeles and toward the coast. First collected 
at San Pedro by Nuttall. May-July. 

3. G. cuneifolia Nutt. Bushy and suffrutescent, 6-12 dm. 
high, glabrous; leaves thickish and rather fleshy, 7-10 cm. long, 
cuneate-spatulate to linear-oblong, entire or sparsely dentate, 
clasping at the broad base; involucre about 12 mm. high, glutin- 
ous, its bracts all with squarrose green tips ; pappus awns usually 
several, compressed barbellulate. 

Borders of salt marshes along the coast. September-November. 

394 Astereae 


Herbaceous or suffrutescent, freely branching, some- 
what resiniferous, nearly glabrous plants, with alternate 
linear entire leaves, and numerous small heads corym- 
bosely arranged at the ends of the branches. Involucral 
bracts coriaceous, the outer successively shorter. Ray- 
and disk-flowers yellow. Achenes angled or striate, 
mostly silky. Pappus paleaceous. 

1. G. divergens Greene. Suffrutescent, 4-7 dm. high, gla- 
brous or merely granular-scaberulous, the panicled branches 
nearly destitute of foliage at flowering time; involucres 6 mm. 
high, obovate-turbinate, their obovate obtuse bracts well-imbri- 
cated and with blunt green tips; disk-flowers 5-7; rays about 5; 
paleae of the pappus 9-12, very unequal, narrow and acute. 

Common on the interior plains and foothills, especially common on the 
fans at the base of the mountains. July-August. 


Small slender nearly glabrous annuals, with alternate 
linear entire leaves, and mostly small heads solitary or 
somewhat clustered at the ends of more or less naked 
branches. Involucre hemispheric or campanulate, its 
bracts in 2 series, scarious-margined, appressed, mucro- 
nate. Ray-flowers white, yellow or wanting. Disk-flowers 
yellow, very slender. Style-appendages filiform-subulate, 
hispid. Achenes pubescent. Pappus of 3-5 slender 

1. P. aurea Nutt. Diffusely branching, 1-3 dm. high, some- 
what villous-pubescent ; heads about 10-15 mm. broad, many- 
flowered ; flowers all yellow ; rays obtuse, 20 or more ; involucral 
bracts broadly lanceolate, setaceously acuminate, with green 
middle portion and scarious margins ; achenes somewhat villous- 
pubescent ; pappus bristles 5-8. 

Arroyo Seco, Davidson. Frequent in the Santa Ana Mountains and com- 
mon throughout the coast slope of San Diego County. 

Aster Tribe 395 

2. P. Lyoni Gray. Hirsute, at least the margins of the plane 
linear or spatulate-linear leaves, 1-1.5 dm. high, with the sparing 
ascending branches leafy up to the head or short peduncle ; in- 
volucre hirsute ; its bracts linear-lanceolate and of nearly equal 
length, green, with narrow scarious margins ; pappus-bristles 9-11 
or commonly 12. 

San Pedro; Santa Catalina Island, Lyon. Not seen by us. The above is a 
copy of the original description. 


Annual or biennial hirsute herbs, with alternate leaves 
and a terminal corymbose panicle of middle-sized heads. 
Involucre ovate, its bracts closely imbricated in many 
series, without spreading tips. Flowers yellow, those of 
the ray pistillate, of the disk perfect. Style-appendages 
of the disk-flowers ovate or lanceolate. Achenes com- 
pressed, pubescent, those of the ray thin-triquetrous, 
with caducous pappus or none. Pappus of disk-achenes 
of an outer series of sparse short bristles and an inner 
series of copious longer ones. 

1. H. grandifolia Nutt. Annual or biennial, 1-2 m. high, 
hirsute, the inflorescence viscid and strong-scented ; stem leaves 
oval or oblong, coarsely toothed, partly vertical by a twist in the 
petiole, this bearing at base 2 stipuliform lobes; involucre about 
1 cm. high ; ray-achenes without pappus; those of the disk with 
but faint traces of the outer and shorter bristles. 

Frequent in waste places in sandy soil. June-November, or in favored 
places flowering throughout the year. , 


Low perennial herbs or somewhat suffrutescent, with 
sessile usually entire leaves, and middle-sized heads ter- 
minating corymbose or fastigiate branches. Involucre 
ovate or broader, its bracts narrow, regularly imbricated 
in several series. Flowers yellow. Style-appendages 
linear-filiform to slender-subulate. Achenes compressed, 
obovate to linear-fusiform. Pappus brownish, of many 

396 Astereae 

capillary scabrous bristles, with or without an outer 
series of short bristles of paleae. 

1. C. sessilifolia Nutt. Slender, sparsely pilose-hispid, viscid- 
glandular ; leaves oblanceolate, sharply pointed, the longest often 
3-4 cm. long; corymbose branches ending in about 3 subsessile 
heads; these about 12 mm. high, leafy-bracted at base; involu- 
cral bracts viscid-glandular; achenes slender-fusiform, silky- 
pubescent; outer pappus slenderly squamellate. 

Along the coast, Davidson. 

2. C. fastigiata Greene. Stems several, ascending, 3-6 dm. 
high, rigid and brittle, densely clothed with small ascending, erect 
leaves ; these strongly crisped, 12 mm. long or less, sessile, acute, 
densely silky-tomentose on both sides; heads narrow, numerous, 
in a fastigiate corymb at the ends of the branches ; bracts of the 
narrow turbinate involucre rather softly strigose-pubescent ; rays 
few, short and inconspicuous; achenes silky-villous ; outer series 
of pappus wanting. 

Frequent on dry plains and in the lower portions of the chaparral belt. 


Strict simple-stemmed perennial herbs, with alternate 
more or less serrate leaves, and many small heads in ter- 
minal clusters which are usually in scorpioid racemes 
and forming a panicle. Involucre narrow, its bracts in 
2 or more series, neither herbaceous-tipped nor glutinous. 
Flowers all permanently yellow, the outer and ligulate 
shorter, the inner narrow-funnelform. Style-appendages 
lanceolate. Achenes terete or prismatic, 5-10-nerved, 
glabrous or pubescent. Pappus a series of unequal sca- 
brous permanently white bristles. 

1. S. confinis Gray. Glabrous, or the inflorescence some- 
times minutely pubescent, 4-9 dm. high ; leaves lanceolate, the 
stem leaves shorter, about 5-8 cm. long, the basal often oblanceo- 
late or obovate, heads about 4 mm. long, crowded in a dense 
oblong panicle, not secund ; rays not surpassing the disk-flowers; 
achenes canescently pubescent. 

Occasional in low marshy places. Cienega; San Bernardino. July-Octo- 

Aster Tribe 397 

2. S. Californica Nutt. Roughish with an almost cinereous 
short pubescence, 6-9 dm. high ; leaves larger and more numer- 
ous below, passing from obovate to oblong-lanceolate, and from 
obtuse to acute, the lower and broader more or less serrate; 
panicle virgate, rather loose, the racemiform clusters secund ; 
heads 6 mm. high ; bracts lanceolate-oblong or oblong-linear, 
obtusish ; rays 7-12 ; achenes pubescent. 

Frequent in open places in the lower portions of the chaparral belt in the 
San Gabriel and Santa Ana Ranges. June-October. 

9. EUTHAMIA Cass. 

Erect glabrous perennial very leafy more or less dis- 
tinctly corymbose branched herbs, with narrow entire 
pellucid-punctate leaves, and small heads clustered at 
the ends of the branches. Involucral bracts firm, im- 
bricated, glutinous. Ray-flowers about twice as many 
as disk-flowers, all permanently yellow. Achenes short, 
turbinate, villous-pubescent. 

1. E. occidentalis Nutt. Somewhat paniculately branching, 
1-2 m. high ; leaves lanceolate-linear, obscurely 3-nerved ; involu- 
cral bracts linear-lanceolate, acute ; rays 16-30 ; disk-flowers 8-14, 
their style-tips obtuse. 

Frequent in low ground and along streams in our valleys and foothills. 

10. CHBYSOMA Nutt. 

Low evergreen shrubs with mostly narrow subterete 
punctate leaves and terminal cymose or corymbose 
clusters of small heads. Involucre turbinate, its bracts 
mostly lanceolate, very regularly imbricated, margins 
subscarious. Flowers permanently yellow. Disk-flowers 
slender with subcampanulate throat and deeply cleft 
limb. Style-appendages filiform, acuminate, hirsutulous. 
Achenes more or less distinctly prismatic. Pappus of 
scabrous slender bristles, dull-white or yellowish, becom- 
ing reddish. 

398 Astereae 

* Leaves flat. 

1. C. Parishii Greene. Arborescent, 2-4 m. high ; leaves lanceo- 
late, 3-5 cm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, acute, subcoriaceous, strongly 
punctate, glutinous ; heads numerous in crowded corymbs, termi- 
nating the erect branches, small, 10-12-flowered ; involucre tur- 
binate ; the bracts few, irregularly imbricated, lanceolate, acute, 
with a green midrib ; achenes turbinate, minutely silky. (Bige- 
lovia Parishii Greene.) 

Occasional in the lower portions of the chaparral belt of the San Gabriel, 
San Bernardino and Santa Ana Ranges. August-October. 

2. C. cuneata (Gray) Greene. Freely branching and spread- 
ing, about 3 dm. high; leaves coriaceous, cuneate-obovate or 
spatulate-obovate, often retuse, 10-14 mm. long, resinous-punctate, 
glutinous; heads about 12 mm. high, in a terminal fasciculate 
corymb ; bracts lanceolate or linear, obtusish ; rays 1-5 or none ; 
achenes pubescent. (Aplopappus cuneatus Gray.) 

On rocky ledges in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains . 

** Leaves very narrow and subterete. 

3. C. ericoides (Less.) Greene. Diffusely branching, 8 dm. 
high or less, the branches fastigiate-corymbose, very leafy through- 
out ; leaves linear, terete, those of the branches about 1 cm. long, 
deflexed, bearing in their axils very short branchlets hidden by 
2-ranked closely imbricated shorter ones; involucres turbinate, 
about 6 mm. high; bracts tomentose-ciliate, all erect, the outer 
successively shorter, becoming greenish and passing into the 
very short leaves; rays about 3-5, short; achenes glabrous. 
(Ericameria microphylla Nutt.) 

Frequent on bluffs and sand-dunes along the seashore. 

4. C. Palmeri (Gray) Greene. Paniculately much branched, 
about 1 m. high or less; leaves all filiform terete, those of the 
branches about 2 cm. long; lower bracts of the involucre green- 
ish-tipped ; rays 3-4; achenes pubescent. (Aplopappus Palmeri 

Occasional in the foothills about Los Angeles and San Diego. 

5. C. pinifolia (Gray) Greene. Rather stout, with rigid, 
erect branches, 15 dm. high or less; stem-leaves filiform, 2.5 cm. 
long or more, mucronate ; heads rather few in a contracted panicle, 
or scattered, campanulate ; proper bracts of the involucre broadly 

Aster Tribe 399 

lanceolate and with a greenish midrib, the loose outer ones subu- 
late, shorter than the inner and passing into the small leaves of 
the flowering branchlets; rays usually 6-10; achenes glabrous or 
nearly so. (Aplopappus pinifolius Gray.) 

Frequent in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the lower alti 
tudes of the chaparral belt. August-November. 

11. ISOCOMA Nutt. 

Rather rigid tufted erect suffrutescent plants, with 
thick leaves and a corymbose terminal cluster of rather 
small rayless heads. Involucral bracts coriaceous, closely 
imbricated, the tips herbaceous, appressed. Corollas 
permanently yellow ; tube slender ; limb ventricose, its 
segments more or less connivent about the style. Style- 
appendages ovate or somewhat narrower, pubescent. 
Achenes short, compressed or subterete, silky-pubescent, 
Pappus-bristles numerous, unequal, the inner longest 
and often flattened and awn-like, faintly scabrous. 

1. I. vernonioides Nutt. Glabrous or commonly loosely 
pubescent, 6-12 dm. high, erect; leaves oblanceolate, more or 
less serrate, 2-4 cm. long, often with many fascicled ones in their 
axils; heads 8 mm. high, campanulate; bracts of the involucre 
obtusish ; pappus-bristles stout, none very perceptibly flattened. 
(Bigelovia veneta Gray.) 

Common on dry hillsides and plains. Santa Monica; Los Angeles; Santa 
Ana Mountains ; San Joaquin Hills. July-November. 

12. HAZARDIA Greene. 

Low shrubs or suffrutescent plants, with subcoriaceous 
more or less persistent toothed or serrate leaves, and 
spicate or somewhat thyrsoidly congested heads. Invo- 
lucre oblong or obconic, its numerous bracts in many 
series, often with squarrose-spreading tips. Heads 20-40- 
flowered. Rays yellow or none. Disk-corollas narrow, 
merely 5-toothed, yellow, changing to red or brown. 
Style-tips linear-subulate. Achenes fusiform, slightly 
compressed, few-nerved. Pappus reddish. 

400 Astereae 

1. H. squarrosa (H. & A.) Greene. Suffrutescent, erect r 
6-10 dm. high, glandular and glutinous; leaves oblong, about 2 
cm. long, spinulose-dentate ; heads many, spicately thyrsoid 
toward the summit of the branches, 1 cm. long; bracts of the 
involucre rigid, appressed, in many series, their tips abruptly 
spreading ; rays none ; achenes sparsely pubescent. (Aplopappus 
squarrosus H. & A.) 

Occasional on dry hillsides throughout our range. November. 

13. LESSINGIA Cham. 

More or less floccose-woolly and sometimes glandular 
annuals, with alternate more or less serrate leaves, and 
small cymosely panicled heads. Flowers yellow or often 
whitish or purplish, all perfect. Corollas with slender 
tube and long narrow lobes, the outer ones more deeply 
cleft on one side and imitating a palmatifid ligule. In- 
volucre campanulate or turbinate, its bracts much imbri- 
cated, appressed, herbaceous tipped. Anthers with 
slender subulate appendages. Style-appendages obtuse 
or truncate, densely hispid, often with a setiform cusp 
among the hairs. Achenes turbinate or cuneiform, 
silky-villous. Pappus-bristles rigid, scabrous, red or 

1. L. glandulifera Gray. Stems diffusely branched from a 
short erect stem, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, glabrous or glabrate above; 
basal leaves oblanceolate, pinnatifid, the lower stem leaves 
spinulose-dentate, those of the branches 5 mm. long or less, thick 
and rigid, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, the margins commonly 
beset with yellowish tack-shaped glands ; involucre campanulate 
or turbinate, its bracts appressed, some or all glanduliferous ; 
flowers yellow. 

Common on the dry interior plains of our region. June-September. 


Perennial herbs covered with a white woolly tomentum 
at least when young. Inflorescence glandular. Leaves 
alternate entire or serrate, heads middle-sized, solitary, 

Aster Tribe 401 

corymbose or panicled. Involucre hemispheric to turbi- 
nate, its bracts much imbricated, scarious except the 
herbaceous tips. Receptacle pitted. Ray-flowers sterile. 
Anthers appendaged at the apex. Style-appendages 
comose or with a bearded tuft. 

1. C. virgata Benth. Stems erect, often 1 m. high; herbage 
floccose-woolly ; leaves narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, serrate- 
toothed above ; inflorescence a large virgate panicle, viscid with 
short-stalked glands, usually bearing many heads; involucre 
turbinate-campanulate, 10-12 mm. broad; bracts rather broadly 
linear, their tips usually somewhat reflexed. 

Common in sandy soil near the coast. June-August. 

2. C. virgata Bernardina. Stems erect or ascending, 6-8 
dm. high; herbage densely floccose-woolly; leaves oblanceolate 
or oblong, serrate-toothed above ; inflorescence somewhat virgate- 
branched ; heads not numerous, only the involucres and the 
uppermost portion of the peduncles glandular; involucres turbi- 
nate-campanulate, 6-8 mm. broad; bracts narrowly linear, their 
tips somewhat recurved. 

Common on the dry plains of the interior valleys, especially in the San 
Bernardino Valley. The type of this variety is the author's no. 2931, collected 
at Mentone. 

15. ASTER L. 

Leafy stemmed autumnal perennial or rarely annual 
herbs with alternate leaves and panicled or somewhat 
corymbose heads. Involucre hemispheric to campanu- 
.late, its bracts imbricated in several series, tips herbace- 
ous. Ray-flowers many, commonly bluish or pinkish, 
pistillate. Disk-flowers perfect, yellow changing to red- 
purple ; corolla-tube slender ; limb funnelform. Style- 
branches flattened, their appendages subulate, lanceo- 
late or ovate, acute. Pappus-bristles slender, numerous, 
scabrous, usually in 1 series, dull white. 

* Perennials. 

1. A. Menziesii Lindl. Strictly erect, about 4-6 dm. high, 
usually simple and very leafy up to the mostly simply racemose or 

402 Astereae 

racemose-paniculate inflorescence, the whole plant cinereously 
and roughly pubescent; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, 5-7.5 
cm. long, remotely and faintly serrate; heads numerous in an 
ample cymose panicle ; involucres nearly hemispheric, about 6 
mm. high ; bracts in rather few series, spatulate-linear, very 
obtuse, wholly green-herbaceous; rays dull pale purplish. 
Occasional on dry wooded hills about Los Angeles and eastward. 

2. A. hesperius Gray. Stems paniculately branched, 6-10 
dm. high, varying from nearly glabrous to scabrous-pubescent ; 
leaves lanceolate^ entire or the larger with a few denticulations, 
5-10 cm. long, 6-15 mm. wide; heads crowded, 8-10 mm. high; 
involucre of narrowly linear or more attenuate acute or gradually 
acuminate erect bracts, either unequal and imbricated or with 
some loose and slender herbaceous exterior ones which equal the 
inner; rays either white or violet, 6-8 mm. long. 

Cienega, near Los Angeles, and in low ground about Sari Bernardino. 

3. A. Greatae Parish. Stems erect or assurgent, 4-17 dm. 
high, glabrous or above sparsely hirtellous ; leaves thin, ovate, 
oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, 6-15 cm. long, the scabrid mar- 
gins few-toothed or entire, the base clasping; the uppermost 
usually reduced to linear or linear-lanceolate bracts ; heads 5 
mm. high, in an ample panicle; involucral bracts loosely imbri- 
cated in a few series, lanceolate, green, minutely ciliate; rays 
30-40, light purple, narrow, acute, 5-10 mm. long; achenes hir- 

Occasional in the canyons of the San Gabriel Mountains, mostly in the 
upper portions of the chaparral belt. 

** Annuals. 

4. A. exilis Ell. Stem erect, 6-12 dm. high, rather stout be- 
low, paniculately branched above into numerous slender branches ; 
lower leaves lanceolate, the upper linear, mostly entire ; heads 
small, numerous, about 6 mm. high, narrow; bracts of the invo- 
lucre linear-subulate; rays 15-40, bluish-purple or pinkish. 

Frequent in low subsaline places, especially along the coast. August- 


Branching or scapose herbs, with alternate or basal 
leaves and corymbose, paniculate or solitary heads of 
both tubular and radiate flowers. Involucre hemispheric 

Aster Tribe 403 

or campanulate, its bracts narrow, nearly equal, usu- 
ally imbricated in but 1 or 2 series. Receptacle nearly 
flat, usually naked. Ray-flowers purplish or whitish, 
pistillate. Disk-flowers yellow, tubular, perfect, 5-lobed. 
Style-appendages short, mostly rounded or obtuse. 
Achenes flattened, mostly 2-nerved. Pappus-bristles 
scabrous, in 1 series or with an outer shorter series. 

1. E. Philadelphicus L. Perennial by stolons, soft-pubescent 
or sometimes nearly glabrous ; stems slender, mostly branched 
above, 3-6 dm. high; lower leaves spatulate or obovate, obtuse, 
dentate, 2.5-7 cm. long, narrowed into a short petiole; upper 
leaves clasping, often cordate at base, entire or dentate ; heads 
several or many,. corymbose-paniculate, 1-2 cm. broad ; peduncles 
slender, thickened at the summit; involucre depressed hemi- 
spheric ; its bracts linear, usually scarious-margined ; rays 100-150, 
4-8 mm. long, light rose-purple ; pappus simple ; achenes puberu- 

Occasional in low moist ground. 

2. E. foliosus Nutt. Scabrous and somewhat strigose-pubes- 
cent, 4-8 dm . high , leafy throughout ; leaves narrowly oblanceolate , 
entire, about 4 mm. broad, 3-6 cm. long, those of the branches 
reduced; heads hemispheric, 12-14 mm. broad; rays about 30, 
narrow, purple; achenes with a few coarse bristly short hairs. 

Frequent in sandy soil toward the coast. 

4. E. fragilis Greene. Stems erect, rigid, 5-7 dm. high, 
minutely scabrous, leafy; leaves linear-filiform, 3-5 cm. long, 
rigid, rough with minute incurved hairs; heads usually 10-15, 
arranged in a loose corymbose panicle on spreading branches ; 
involucre campanulate, its bracts in about 3 series ; rays 30-40, 
very narrow, deep violet ; achenes nearly glabrous. 

Frequent on the dry plains and foothills away from the coast. 

17. LEPTILON Raf. 

Annual or biennial herbs with small racemose or 
panicled heads of white flowers. Involucre mostly cam- 
panulate, its narrow bracts in 2 or 3 series. Rays small, 
usually shorter than the diameter of the disk, pistillate, 
or none. Disk-flowers perfect, usually 4-toothed or 

404 Astereae 

4-lobed. Style-branches short. Achenes flattened. Pap- 
pus-bristles in 1 series. 

1. Ii. Canadense (L.) Britton. Stem hispid-pubescent or gla- 
brate, 2 m. high or less, paniculate, much branched ; leaves usually 
pubescent or ciliate, the lower spatulate, dentate or entire, 5-10 
cm. long, the upper linear and mainly entire ; heads very numer- 
ous, about 4 mm. broad ; involucre 2-3 mm. high ; its bracts linear, 
acute, glabrate, the outer shorter ; rays numerous, white, shorter 
than the pappus and mostly shorter than their tubes. (Erigeron 
Canadense L.) 

A common weed in waste places and cultivated fields. 

18. CONYZA L. 

Ours a viscid pubescent branching annual, with alter- 
nate leaves, and small many-flowered heads in a crowded 
thyrsoid leafy panicle. Involucre campanulate, its 
bracts narrow, appendiculate, in 2-3 series. Pistillate 
flowers much more numerous than the hermaphrodite, 
their filiform or slender corollas shorter than the disk 
and style, truncate or 2-4-toothed. Achenes small, com- 
pressed. Pappus a single series of soft capillary bristles, 
sometimes with an outer series of shorter ones. 

1. C. Coulter! Gray. Stems simple below, branching above, 
about 1 m. high or less, viscid-pubescent or hirsute, with many- 
jointed hairs; stem-leaves linear-oblong, the lower spatulate- 
oblong and with partly clasping base, dentate to laciniate-pinnat- 
ifid, 2.5-5 cm. long; involucre 2-4 mm. high, hirsute with soft 
spreading hairs ; flowers whitish ; corolla-tube of pistillate flowers 
truncate, half the length of the style; hermaphrodite flowers 
only 5-7; achenes nearly glabrous ; pappus bristles several, sca- 

Occasional in subsaline places. July-September. 


Dioecious perennial herbs or shrubs, with alternate 
leaves and small paniculate or corymbose heads of tubu- 
lar flowers. Involucre of scale-like imbricated bracts. 
Receptacle flat, naked. Corolla of the pistillate flowers 

Aster Tribe 405 

slender, truncate or minutely toothed, that of the stami- 
nate tubular, 5-lobed. Style-branches of the fertile flowers 
smooth exserted, those of the sterile flowers rudimentary, 
tipped with an ovate pubescent appendage. Achenes 
more or less compressed, ribbed. Pappus of the pistillate 
flowers copious, capillary, very fine and soft, becoming 
elongated in fruit, that of the staminate flowers shorter. 

* Achenes 10-nerved. 

1. B. pilularis DC. Compactly branched evergreen shrub, 
2-4 m. high or lower and depressed when growing along the sea- 
shore ; branchlets angular from the leaf-bases; leaves subcori- 
aceous. glutinous, 2 cm. long or less, cuneate-obovate, coarsely 
toothed or some entire; involucre nearly hemispheric, 4 mm. long, 
its bracts oval or oblong, all but the innermost very obtuse; 
flowers white; fertile pappus not over 8 mm. long. 

Near Santa Monica, Davidson. 

2. B. Emoryi Gray. Erect with slender branches, 1-5 m. 
high ; leaves mostly oblong, or the lower broader, with attenuate 
or cuneate base and the larger somewhat petioled, more or less 
3-nerved, often 2-4-toothed, pale ; those of the branches oblanceo- 
late-linear, mostly entire, 1-nerved ; involucre campanulate or 
oblong, 6-8 mm. long; bracts firm-coriaceous, the outermost oval 
obtusish, the innermost thin, bearded toward the tip; pappus of 
the pistillate 12 mm. long in fruit. 

In low ground toward the coast. Redondo; San Pedro; Santa Ana; San 

** Achenes 5-nerved (rarely 4-nerved). 

3. B. Pluxmnerae Gray. Loosely pubescent throughout, not 
at all glutinous; stems herbaceous from a woody base, 6-12 dm. 
high, somewhat branched; leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, irregu- 
larly and acutely serrate, 5 cm. long or less, obscurely 3-nerved ; 
heads 8 mm. long; involucral bracts linear; achenes somewhat 
compressed, puberulent, obscurely 5-nerved; pappus in fruit 8 
mm. long. 

Topago Canyon, Davidson. 

4. B. Douglasii DC. Glabrous and somewhat glutinous; 
stems herbaceous nearly or quite to the ground, erect, 12 dm. 
high or less, simple up to the terminal corymb; leaves glutinous, 

406 Inuleae 

ovate-lanceolate, either entire or serrulate, 3-nerved from near 
the base, 7-14 cm. long; heads about 6 mm. high; involucral 
bracts erose-ciliate, thin and pale with a greenish center; pappus 
of pistillate flowers scarious, 4 mm. long, soft, of staminate clav- 
ellate and barbellate at the summit. 

Occasional along streams in our coast region. Ballona Creek; Los 
Angeles River. August-October. 

5. B. glutinosa Pers. Stems herbaceous above, woody below, 
1-3 m. high; branches striate-angled ; leaves very glutinous, 
lanceolate, acute, denticulate or repandodentate, 5-7 cm. long; 
heads in ample cymose panicles at the ends of simple slender 
branches, mostly 6 mm. high; involucre stramineous, destitute 
of green center or distinct costa. 

Occasional on borders of marshes. August-November. 

6. B. viminea DC. Shrubby and willow-like, producing short 
lateral flowering branches, these terete and minutely striate; 
leaves narrowly lanceolate, entire or sparingly denticulate, ob- 
scurely 3-nerved, 5-7 cm. long; heads about 4 mm. high, hemi- 
spheric, in small cymose clusters; involucre tawny, destitute of 
green center or costa. 

Very common along all our streams throughout our range. April-July. 


Annual or perennial mostly white-woolly plants, with 
alternate or opposite leaves and small dioecious heads. 
Involucral bracts often white or scarious, imbricated. 
Pistillate flowers mostly white, with filiform corollas. 
Anthers caudate at base, unappendaged at apex. Pappus 
capillary or none. 

Involucral bracts many ; receptacle naked. 

Bracts dry, but not scarious. 20. PLUCHEA. 

Bracts scarious. 25. GNAPHALIUM. 

Involucral bracts few or none; receptacle chaffy. 

Bracts completely enclosing their achenes; pappus none. 

Achenes gibbous. 21. MICROPUS. 

Achenes straight or somewhat curved. 

Receptacle columnar. 22. STYLOCLINE. 

Receptacle globose or ovoid. 23. PSILOCARPHUS. 

Bracts of 2 kinds, the lower completely enclosing their achenes ; the others 
chaff-like, surrounding a central cluster of flowers. 

24. FIT, AGO. 

Everlasting Tribe 407 

20. PLUCHEA Cass. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves and small heads 
of tubular flowers in terminal cymose clusters. Involu- 
cral bracts imbricated in several series, appressed, her- 
baceous. Receptacle flat. Outer flowers of the head pis- 
tillate, their corollas filiform, 3-cleft or dentate. Central 
flowers perfect, but mostly sterile, their corollas 5-cleft. 
Achenes small, 4-5-angled or sulcate. Pappus a series 
of capillary scabrous bristles. 

1. P. sericea (Nutt.) Coville. (ARROWWOOD.) Shrub, 4 in. 
high or less, with suberect slender willowy branches, very leafy 
up to the cymose clusters of rather small heads; leaves silky- 
pubescent, 2.5-5 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, acute at both ends, 
entire ; involucre campanulate ; outer bracts ovate, obtuse, tomen- 
tose; inner ones narrowly linear, deciduous; flowers whitish, 
tinged with purple or red ; pappus copious, the bristles of the 
sterile flowers clavellate-dilated, of the fertile slender. (P. borealis 

Rather common along the streams, especially in the interior valleys, 

2. P. camphorata DC. Annual, stoutish, minutely and some- 
what viscid-pubescent, leafy, 6 dm. high; leaves oblong-ovate to 
oblong-lanceolate, acute at both ends, toothed or denticulate, the 
larger 7-12 cm. long, petioled ; heads short-pedicelled, dull purple, 
crowded in a corymbose cluster; bracts ovate to lanceolate, often 

Occasional along streams and marshes about Los Angeles; Ballona 


Low floccose annuals with alternate entire leaves and 
several-flowered scattered heads. Pistillate flowers in 1 
or 2 series on a small receptacle, each enclosed in a con- 
duplicate bract which has a scarious, appendiculate lip. 
Hermaphrodite sterile flowers central, few, mostly naked. 
Involucre outside of the fruiting bracts scanty and 
scarious. Achenes gibbous, obovate, each enclosed in its 
bract and falling away with it. Pappus none. 

408 Inuleae 

1. M. Californicus F. & M. Slender, erect, 1-3 dm. high; 
leaves mostly linear; fructiferous bracts 5-6, becoming firm-cori- 
aceous, somewhat semicorclate or semiobovate in outline, straight 
anteriorly, the soon erect bract-like tip mostly scarious. 

Frequent on open hillsides in the Santa Monica Mountains and in the 
foothills about Los Angeles. 


Low and diffuse white-woolly annuals, with alternate 
leaves and terminal subglobose heads. Bracts of the 
involucre and of the receptacle deciduous with the 
mature fruit, those of the fertile flowers involute or sac- 
cate-conduplicate, embracing the obovate or oblong 
obcompressed achene ; those of the sterile flowers plane 
or concave. Pappus wanting in the fertile flowers, com- 
posed of a few caducous bristles in the sterile ones. 

1. S. gnaphalioides Nutt. Stems 5-10 cm. long; leaves linear 
or the upper oblong, obtuse ; fruiting bract hyaline, broadly ovate, 
woolly on the back. 

Occasional in open ground, on wooded slopes, and in the chaparral belt. 


Small, usually depressed and much branched floccose 
annuals, with opposite leaves and globose heads which 
are sessile in the axils or at the forks. Fruiting bracts 
numerous, crowded on the globular or oval receptacle, 
cucullate-saccate, semiobovate or semiobcordate, rounded 
at the tip, somewhat membranaceous, apex introrse, the 
ovate or oblong hyaline appendage inflexed or erect. 
Achene loose within the bract, oblong or narrow, straight, 
slightly compressed. 

1. P. globiferus Nutt. Branched from the base and spread- 
ing or prostrate; leaves linear or narrowly spatulate, the upper- 
most little surpassing the very woolly heads; achenes obovate- 
oblong, about 1 mm. long. 

Frequent on the plains and hills, especially in exsiccated places. April- 

Everlasting Tribe 409 

24. FILAGO L. 

Erect slender floccose-woolly annuals with alternate 
entire leaves and small discoid heads in capitate lateral 
and terminal clusters. Bracts of the involucre few and 
scarious. Receptacle convex or subconic, chaffy, each 
chaff-scale subtending an achene. Outer flowers of the 
heads in several series, pistillate, their corollas filiform, 
minutely 2-4-dentate. Central flowers few, perfect, but 
mainly sterile, their corollas tubular, 4-5-toothed. 
Achenes terete or slightly compressed. 

1. F. Californica Nutt. Slender, erect, annual, 2 dm. high 
or usually less ; leaves linear or the lowest spatulate ; heads ovate, 
slightly angular; pistillate flowers 8-10-bracteate, their bracts 
broadly ovate and deeply boat-shaped, somewhat arcuate-incurved, 
very woolly, with broadish and obtuse hyaline tips ; inner bracts 
oblong, concave, nearly glabrous; achenes narrowly oblong, 
minutely papillose-granular; pappus of the embraced none; of 
the others copious. 

Frequent .on dry hillsides and plains, especially in sandy soil. April- 


Woolly erect or diffusely branched annual, biennial 
or perennial herbs with alternate leaves and discoid 
heads of pistillate and perfect flowers. Involucral 
bracts scarious, white or yellowish, imbricated. Recep- 
tacle flat, naked. Pistillate flowers in several series, 
their corollas filiform, minutely dentate or 3-4-lobed. 
Central flowers perfect, their corollas tubular, 5-toothed 
or 5-lobed. Achenes not ribbed. Pappus a single series 
of scabrous capillary bristles, sometimes thickened above. 

* Pappus-bristles not united at base. 

*- More or less glandular-pubescent and heavy-scented. 

1. G. ramosissimum Nutt. Biennial, erect, 6-15 dm. high, 
paniculately much branched above the middle ; the panicle often 

410 Inuleae 

rather narrow and virgate; herbage glandular and very sweet- 
scented, only the stem slightly arachnoid ; leaves green on both 
sides, distinctly decurrent ; heads narrow, 4 mm. high, rose color ; 
bracts oblong-lanceolate, acutish. 

Occasional on wooded slopes about Pasadena and Los Angeles. 

2. G. Califormcunx DC. Biennial, 6-10 dm. high, stoutish, 
corymbosely branched at the summit, bearing rather loose 
cymosely disposed clusters of broad heads; leaves lanceolate, gla- 
brate above, glandular and balsamic-scented, strongly adnate- 
decurrent ; heads 5-7 mm. high, nearly as broad, white or yellow- 
ish; outer bracts ovate or oblong, the inner acute. 

Rather common on the dry plains and foothills. April-July. 

3. G. leucocephaluxn Gray. Perennial from a lignescentroot; 
stems several, 4-6 dm. high, strict, mostly simple, very leafy; 
herbage white with close wool except the under sides of the 
leaves ; stem-leaves narrowly linear, attenuate, acute, erect, short- 
decurrent at the narrow base, viscid-glandular above ; heads in a 
small close cyme ; involucre broadly campanulate, much imbri- 
cated, pearly white; bracts ovate and oblong, obtuse. 

Occasional in dry washes. Santa Anita Wash, near Monrovia. 

+-- Not at all glandular or heavy-scented. 

4. G. Chilense Spreng. Stems rather stout, from an annual 
or biennial root, 3-6 dm. high, loosely floccose or the upper faces 
of the leaves often nearly glabrous ; leaves lanceolate or the lower 
often spatulate or oblanceolate ; heads in close clusters at the 
ends of the corymbose branches ; involucre hemispheric, with a 
yellowish-green tinge ; bracts oval or oblong, obtuse. 

Common along the seashore on the sand-dunes and frequent in our foot- 
hills and mountains, extending into the pine belt. 

5. G. microcephalum Nutt. Biennial; stems slender with 
several erect branches, 5-8 dm. high, loosely corymbose-paniculate 
above, the whole herbage white with a persistent wool, not at all 
glandular or heavy-scented ; leaves linear or the lower spatulate, 
slenderly decurrent ; heads rather few or loose in the paniculately 
or cymosely disposed clusters; involucres ovate; bracts white, 
ovate or oblong, obtuse, except the inner. 

Frequent in dry washes and in the chaparral belt. June-September. 

4. G. palustre Nutt. Low, branching annual, 5-15 cm. high, 
floccose with long wool ; leaves spatulate to oblong and lanceo- 

Ambrosiae 411 

late; heads glomerate, leafy-bracted ; involucres about 2 mm. 
high, embedded in loose wool; bracts linear, obtuse, brownish- 
green, the tips white. 

Occasional along river bottoms and on the margins of ponds. May- 

** Pappus united at the base, deciduous in a ring. 

5. G. purpureum L. Biennial, simple or branching, erect 
or decumbent at the base, 2-3 dm. high, canescent with a dense 
close wool ; leaves spatulate, obtuse, usually becoming glabrate 
and green above; heads crowded in an elongated more or less 
interrupted spiciform inflorescence ; involucre brownish ; achenes 
sparsely scabrous. 

Lincoln Park, Davidson. 


Herbs with mostly alternate leaves and greenish or 
white unisexual flowers. Staminate heads racemose or 
clustered above the few axillary pistillate ones. Pistil- 
late heads usually 2-flowered, destitute of pappus and 
corolla, completely enclosed by the more or less spiny 
involucre and becoming a bur in fruit. Staminate 
flowers many. Receptacle chaffy. Corolla present. 
Anthers distinct or scarcely coherent. 

Involucral bracts of Staminate heads united. 

Involucres of pistillate heads armed near the apex with a single row of 

prickles. 26. AMBROSIA. 

Involucre of pistillate heads armed with several rows of prickles. 

Involucral bracts of Staminate heads distinct. 28. XANTHIUM. 


Monoecious branching herbs or shrubs, with alternate 
or opposite, mostly lobed or divided leaves, and small 
heads of green flowers, the Staminate spicate or racemose, 
the pistillate solitary or clustered in the upper axils. 
Involucre of the pistillate heads globose-ovoid, closed, 
1-flowered, usually armed with 4-8 tubercles or spines ; 

412 Ambrosiae 

corolla none ; pappus none. Involucre of the staminate 
heads hemispheric, 5-12-lobed, open, many-flowered ; 
corolla funnelform, 5-toothed ; anthers scarcely coherent, 

1. A. psilostachya DC. Stems erect from horizontal root- 
stocks, 5-8 dm. high, with strigose pubescence and somewhat 
scabrous ; leaves once or twice pinnatifid ; fruit mostly solitary 
in the axils, turgid-ovoid, about 3 mm. long, obtusely short- 
pointed, rugose-reticulate, either unarmed or with 4 short or sharp 

A common weed in low ground, especially in our coast valleys. June- 


Hispid or tomentose branching herbs, sometimes woody 
at the base, with mostly alternate lobed or divided 
leaves, and small monoecious greenish heads of discoid 
flowers, the staminate in terminal spikes or racemes, the 
pistillate solitary or clustered in the upper axils. Invo- 
lucre of the pistillate heads ovoid or globose, closed, 1-4- 
celled, 1-4-beaked, armed with several rows of spines 
and forming a bur in fruit ; corolla none ; style-branches 
exserted ; achenes obovoid, thick, solitary in the cells ; 
pappus none. Staminate heads sessile or short-ped- 
uncled, their involucres broadly hemispheric, open 5-12- 
lobed ; receptacle chaffy ; corolla regular, with short 
tube and 5-lobed limb ; anthers scarcely coherent, 

1. G. tenuifolia (Gray) Kuntze. Perennial, erect, 4-15 dm. 
high, leafy throughout, hispid or varying to glabrate; leaves 
mostly 2-3-pinnately parted or dissected into narrow oblong or 
linear lobes, the narrow rachis often with a few interposed small 
lobes, the terminal elongated; staminate racemes elongated and 
paniculate; pistillate heads in numerous glomerules below, in 
fruit minutely glandular, about 2 mm. long, armed with 6-18 
short and stout incurving spines, their tips usually hooked and 

Ragweed Tribe 413 

with an excavated cartilaginously bordered areola about each. 
(Franseria tenui folia Gray.) 

Rather common about Cahuenga Pass. 

2. Gr. acanthicarpa (Hook.) Britton. Annual, diffuse, hir- 
sute or hispid; the stems and branches 3-10 dm. long; leaves 
ovate or roundish in outline, 2.5-7 cm. broad, bipinnatifid ; sterile 
racemes numerous, short; fruiting involucre 6-8 mm. high, with 
flat lanceolate-subulate spines. (Franseria acanthicarpa Hook.) 

Not uncommon on the dry plains of the interior valleys. July-September. 

3. G-. bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Kuntze. Perennial, procumbent ; 
stems 6-10 dm. long, hirsute; leaves ovate in outline, 2.5-5 cm. 
long, 2-3-pinnately parted, with oblong lobes, canescent with soft 
tomentum or finely hirsute ; staminate spikes or racemes dense ; 
fruiting involucre ovate-fusiform, 6-8 'mm. long, armed with 
rather short and thick flattish spines, their acute tips somewhat 
incurved. (Franseria bipinnatifida Nutt.) 

Common along the seashore on beach sands and on the sand-dunes. 
Flowering nearly throughout the year. 


Monoecious annual branching coarse rough or spiny 
herbs, with alternate lobed or dentate leaves, and rather 
small heads of greenish flowers, the staminate ones capi- 
tate-clustered at the ends of the branches, the pistillate 
axillary. Involucre of the staminate heads with short 
distinct bracts in 1-3 series ; receptacle chaffy ; corolla 
tubular, 5-toothed ; anthers not coherent, mucronate at 
apex ; filaments united. Involucre of pistillate heads 
ovoid or oblong, closed, covered with hooked spines, 1-2- 
beaked, 2-celled, each cell containing 1 ovoid or oblong 
achene ; corolla none ; pappus none. 

1. X. spinosum L. Widely branching from the base, about 
6 dm. high; leaves ovate-lanceolate, more or less lobed or pinna- 
tifid, glabrate and green above, white-tomentose beneath ; axils 
each with a short-stalked sponged yellow spine about 2 cm. long; 
burs about 10 mm. long, armed with short weak prickles. 

Frequent along roadsides and in waste places. August-October. 

414 Heliantheae 

2. X. Canadense Mill. Stems stout, branched above ; leaves 
broad-ovoid, slightly lobed, rough -scabrous; burs about 2 cm. 
long, densely beset with stoutish hooked prickles and strongly 
2-horned at the apex. 

Rather common in low ground, especially in sandy soil. July-October. 


Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants with opposite or 
basal leaves, and commonly balsamic-resinous juice. 
Rays present, usually showy. Involucral bracts her- 
baceous or foliaceous. Receptacle chaffy ; chaff sub- 
tending each flower. Pappus paleaceous, of rigid awns 
or cup-like, or rarely of rather stout plumose bristles. 
Rays usually present. 

Rays usually present; pappus paleaceous. 

Involucral bracts imbricated in several series. 
Rays sterile. 

Achenes quadrangular-compressed, glabrous. 29. HELIANTHUS. 
Achenes flattened, villous, cilate on the margins. 30. ENCELIA. 
Rays fertile. 31. VERBESINA. 

Involucral bracts of 2 dissimilar series. 

Rays present, fertile. 32. LEPTOSYNE. 

Rays sterile or none. 33. BIDENS. 

Rays wanting; pappus of plumose bristles. 34. BEBBIA. 


Erect annual or perennial herbs, with opposite or 
alternate simple leaves, and large peduncled corymbose 
or solitary heads of both tubular and ray-flowers, the 
rays yellow, the disk yellow brown or purple. Involu- 
cre hemispheric or depressed, its bracts imbricated in 
several series. Receptacle flat, convex or conic, chaffy, 
the chaff subentire. Ray-flowers sterile. Disk-flowers 
perfect, with short tube and 5-lobed limb. Style-branches 
tipped with hirsute appendages. Achenes thick, oblong 
or obovate, compressed or somewhat 4-angled. Pappus 
of 2 scales or awns, or sometimes with 2-4 additional 
shorter ones, deciduous. 

Sunflower Tribe 415 

1. H. animus L. Eobust, hispid or scabrous; stems often 
2.5 cm. high, thick, mottled or spotted with purple; leaves all 
but the lowest alternate, acute or acuminate, more or less regu- 
larly dentate or denticulate, 10-25 cm. long, petiolate; involu- 
cral bracts broadly ovate to oblong, aristiform-acuminate ; disk 
2 cm. broad or more, dark purple or brown; rays often 5 cm. 

A common weed in all the valleys. 

2. H. Oliver! Gray. Rather stout, 2-4 m. high, leafy through- 
out, soft-villous and somewhat tomentose, not at all roughened ; 
leaves all alternate, lanceolate, 10-17 cm. long, tapering to an 
acute point, and at base into a short-margined petiole, nearly 
entire, obscurely 3-nerved near the base; involucre villous, its 
bracts linear-subulate, not surpassing the disk ; rays 2.5 cm. long; 
palea of pappus subulate from broad base. 

Cienega; East Los Angeles. 

3. H. Parishii Gray. Stems slender, 2-5 m. high, simple or 
branched above ; leaves elongated-lanceolate, softly cinereous- 
puberulent or canescent beneath, scabrous above; heads 10-15 
mm. high ; rays 20-35 mm. long ; involucral bracts linear-subulate, 
longer than the disk, villous toward the base ; disk-corollas with 
a silky-villous ring or 2 tufts above the short proper tube ; paleae 
of the pappus slender-subulate. 

Oak Knoll, Grant. Rather frequent in the San Bernardino Valley. 

30. ENCELIA Adans. 

Herbs or low shrubs with alternate or opposite leaves, 
and usually with large peduncled heads of both ray- and 
disk-flowers, the rays neutral yellow, the disk yellow or 
brownish, perfect. Receptacle flat, convex or conic, 
chaffy ; chaff usually soft and mainly scarious. Achenes 
flattened, thin-edged, often villous. Pappus none or an 
awn or its rudiment to each margin of the wingless 

1. E. Californica Nutt. Woody at base, branched above, 6-12 
dm. high, strong-scented, minutely pubescent; leaves ovate to 
oblong-lanceolate, rarely denticulate or toothed, about 5 cm. long, 
green and glabrate ; heads commonly solitary, the disk about 2 
cm. broad, brownish or purplish; involucre white-villous ; rays 

416 Heliantheae 

16-20, 2.5 cm. long or more, golden-yellow; achenes obovate with 
very shallow notch and no pappus, the margins very long villous. 
Very common in the lower portions of the chaparral belt of all the moun- 
tains; also on the low hills about Los Angeles and along the coast. Rang- 
ing from Monterey to San Diego. In the San Bernardino and Riverside Valleys 
and eastward it is replaced by E.farinosa Gray, which has the leaves cov- 
ered with a silvery tomentum. 


Perennial or annual, pubescent or scabrous herbs with 
alternate or opposite leaves, often decurrent, and corym- 
bose or solitary heads of both ray- and disk-flowers, or 
the rays sometimes wanting. Involucral bracts imbri- 
cated in few series. Receptacle convex or conic, chaffy, 
the chaff embracing the disk-flowers. Ray-flowers pistil- 
late or sterile. Disk-flowers perfect, mostly fertile. 
Achenes flattened or those of the rays 3-sided, their 
margins winged or wingless. Pappus of 1-3, usually 2, 
subulate awns, sometimes with 2-3 intermediate scales. 

1. V. encelioides (Cav.) Gray. Annual ; stems densely puberu- 
lent, much branched or rarely simple, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 
deltoid-ovate or deltoid-lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, coarsely den- 
tate, green and minutely pubescent above, pale and densely canes- 
cent beneath, all alternate or the lowest opposite, narrowed at 
the base to a margined petiole, these often with dilated append- 
ages at the base, heads several or many, 2.5-5 cm. broad; involu- 
cral bracts lanceolate, canescent; rays 12-15, golden-yellow, 
3-toothed ; achenes of the disk-flowers obovate, winged; pappus 
of 2 subulate awns, those of the rays rugose, thickened, often 

Occasional in moist alluvial soils along our valley streams. Los Angeles; 
San Fernando Valley. April-June. 


Glabrous annual or perennial herbs or rarely shrubby, 
with dissected leaves, and usually long scapiform erect 
peduncles, bearing rather large heads of yellow flowers. 
Involucral bracts in 2 series, the outer of narrow foliace- 

Sunflower Tribe 417 

ous spreading bracts, the inner of broad membranous 
erect ones. Rays broad, pistillate and often fertile, 
sometimes neutral. Chaff of receptacle linear, thin, 
scarious, deciduous with the fruit. Achenes flat or 
somewhat concavo-convex, margined. Pappus a minute 
callous cup or a pair of palese. 

1. It. DouglasiiDC. Annual, 3 dm. high; leaves mostly basal, 
2-3-parted into filiform divisions; rays 10-15 cm. long; the ring 
of the disk-corollas distinctly bearded; achenes sparsely beset 
with capitate rigid bristles, the margin becoming corky; cup- 
like ring in place of pappus entire. 

Common on dry plains and in open places in the lower portions of the 
chaparral belt. March-May. 

2. Ii. gigantea Kell. Perennial; stems stout, fleshy, 6-20 
dm. high, bearing at the summit an ample tuft of leaves and stout 
peduncles of corymbosely arranged heads; leaves 3-pinnately 
divided into filiform segments ; achenes oblong or ovoid, obscurely 
3-5-nerved, narrowly callous-winged ; pappus a slight coroniform 

Bluffs along the sea near Santa Monica. Common on the islands. 

33. BIDENS L. 

Annual or perennial herbs with opposite serrate or 
usually, lobed or dissected leaves, or the upper mostly 
alternate, and usually rather large heads of both tubular 
and radiate flowers or the rays none. Involucral bracts 
in 2 series, distinct or somewhat united at base, the 
outer often foliaceous and much longer than the inner. 
Receptacle flat or nearly so, chaffy, the chaff subtending 
the disk-flowers. Rays when present neutral, usually 
yellow. Disk-flowers perfect. Achenes flat, quadrangu- 
lar or nearly terete. Pappus of 2-6 teeth or subulate 
awns, barbed or hispid. 

1. B. speciosa Parish. Aquatic, perennial by stolons, gla- 
brous throughout; stems erect or ascending, stout, 10-25 dm. 
high, branched at the nodes; leaves lanceolate, 1-2 dm. long, 

418 Madieae 

toothed, narrowed to the connate base; heads on peduncles 4-8 
cm. long, erect, nodding in fruit; outer involucral bracts 4-8, 
foliaceous, reflexed; the inner bracts 8, membranous, acutely 
oval; rays golden-yellow, ovate-oblong, 2 cm. long; chaff linear, 
equaling the disk-flowers; achenes black, flat, 5 mm. long; awns 
2, 3 mm. long, or with a third half as long, awns and edges of the 
achene retrorsely barbed. 

Frequent in shallow streams about San Bernardino, apparently less com- 
mon toward the coast. August-November. 

2. B. pilosa L. Annual ; stems erect, usually branched from 
the base, 4-6 dm. high, glabrous or sparsely pilose-pubescent ; 
leaves pinnate, pilose-pubescent; leaflets 3-5, irregularly serrate 
or incised, 15-25 mm. long; heads scattered, few, 10-12 mm. 
broad; rays none; achenes narrow, linear, about 1 cm. long. 
Frequent along streets and irrigating ditches. Native of tropical America. 

34. BEBBIA Greene. 

Much branched suffrutescent plants with few mostly 
opposite narrow leaves, and scattered discoid heads. 
Involucre campanulate, its bracts imbricated in 3-4 
series, the inner somewhat scarious and striate. Recep- 
tacle chaffy ; the chaffy bracts persistent, lanceolate, 
partly embracing the achenes, nearly equaling those of 
the involucre. Corollas tubular, yellow. Achenes tur- 
binate, slightly obcompressed. Pappus consisting of 1 
series of long rather stout plumose bristles. 

1. B. juncea (Benth.) Greene. Much branched from a woody 
base, 10-15 dm. high ; flowering branches rush-like, nearly leaf- 
less, pale green and glabrous or minutely and sparsely scabrous ; 
leaves mainly opposite, linear; heads scattered, terminating the 
branchlets, 1 cm. high; pappus-bristles equaling the slender 
corollas ; achenes appressed-pubescent. 

Occasional in dry washes. Santiago Canyon, Santa Ana Mountains, Geis; 


Annual or perennial herbs, with usually glandular 
viscid or heavy-scented herbage. Leaves alternate or 

Tarweed Tribe 419 

opposite. Involucral bracts in 1 series, each partly or 
wholly enclosing an achene. Bracts of the receptacle 
commonly in a single series between ray- and disk- 
flowers. Rays always present and fertile, destitute of 
pappus. Disk-flowers sterile or fertile, their pappus 
paleaceous, awn-like or none. 

Ray-achenes laterally compressed, completely enfolded by the involucral 

Rays inconspicuous. 

Disk-flowers several. 35. MADIA. 

Disk-flowers 1-4. 40. HABPAECARPUS. 

Rays showy. 36. MADABIA. 

Ray-achenes somewhat obcompressed, half enclosed by the bracts. 

Leaves spiny ; flowers yellow. 37. CENTBOMADIA. 

Leaves not spiny. 

Herbage somewhat glandular; flowers yellow. 38. DEINANDRA. 
Herbage not glandular; flowers white or rose color. 


Ray-achenes obcompressed or clavate, completely enfolded by their bracts. 
Bracts 5; herbage canescent. 41. LAGOPHYLLA. 

Bracts more than 5. 

Rays showy, yellow or white. 42. BLEPHARIPAPPDS. 

Rays inconspicuous; pappus becoming showy. 43. ACHYRACHAENA. 


Glandular and viscid heavy-scented herbs with at 
least the upper leaves alternate entire or toothed. Heads 
axillary and terminal. Involucre angled by the salient 
carinate backs of the uniserial involucral bracts, these 
usually completely enclosing the ray-achenes, their tips 
herbaceous. Receptacle flat or convex, bearing a single 
series of chaff united and forming a cup between the 
ray- and disk-flowers, the inner portion naked or fimbril- 
late. Ray-flowers yellow, rather short, 3-lobed, fertile. 
Disk-flowers sterile. Pappus none. Achenes laterally 
compressed, smooth, beakless. 

1. M. sativa Mol. Stem simple with a few short ascending 
"branches above, erect, stout, 3-9 dm. high, pubescent with slen- 
der hairs and beset with stalked very viscid glands ; leaves lance- 
olate, nearly entire, glandular-pubescent; heads 12 mm. high, 

420 Madieae 

short-peduncled or sessile in the upper axils and at the ends 
of the short branches; cup of receptacle broadly campanulate, 
enclosing many disk-flowers; disk-achenes cuneate-oblong, 
4-angled; ray-achenes falcate-obovate. 

Frequent on the plains and grassy hills. July-September. 

2. M. dissitiflora (Nutt.) T. & G. Slender, loosely branching, 
5-7 dm. high, viscid; heads scattered, broad-ovate, about 6 mm. 
high; cup of receptacle ovoid, not closed; achenes thin, not an- 

On wooded slopes in the Santa Monica Mountains. May-July. 


Erect glandular pilose or somewhat hispid annuals, 
with lanceolate usually entire leaves, and corymbosely 
panicled heads of showy yelloAV flowers. Involucral 
bracts wholly enclosing the ray-achenes. Receptacle 
convex densely fimbrillate-hirsute and with a circle of 
bracts between ray- and disk-flowers. Disk-flowers sterile. 
Ray-flowers fertile, showy, their achenes laterally com- 
pressed, smooth, not incurved. Pappus none. 

1. M. elegans (Don.) DC. Steins rather stout, 8-15 dm. 
high; leaves scattered, lanceolate, entire or serrate, sessile by 
a broad base; whole herbage viscid with stalked glands, the 
peduncles and involucres hirsute with long white hairs ; heads 
numerous in an ample corymbose panicle ; rays 12-15, about 2 
cm. long, yellow, often with dark red base; achenes rather thin 
and flat, dark brown or blackish. 

Near Fairmont, Davidson; Trabuco Canyon, Santa Ana Mountains. June- 

37. CENTBOMADIA Greene. 

Rigid corymbosely or diffusely branching annuals, 
with alternate pinnatifid or entire spinescent leaves. 
Herbage more or less resiniferous or glandular through- 
out. Involucral bracts subulate, pungent, half enclosing 
the ray-achenes, persistent. Ray-flowers 15-40, yellow, 
small, fertile. Disk-flowers sterile. Receptacle convex. 

Tarweed Tribe 421 

chaffy throughout, the chaff distinct and persistent. 
Achenes triangular, the inner angles terminated by a 
short apiculation, nearly smooth or faintly rugose-tuber- 
culate. Pappus none. 

1. C. pungens (H. & A.) Greene. Stout with rather rigid 
ascending or spreading branches, 4-8 din. high, hirsute or hispid, 
scarcely viscid, nearly or quite scentless; lower leaves 2-pinnati- 
fid, the upper 1-pinnatifid, the lobes pungent-tipped; chaff of 
receptacle rigid-pungent ; disk-achenes destitute of pappus ; ray- 
achenes nearly black, about 2 mm. long, the ventral angle cari- 
nate, the plane sides ancl rounded back faintly tuberculate- 

Common in the plains in heavy, rather moist soil. July-November. 

2. C. Parryi Greene. Widely branching, 3-6 dm. high, sparsely 
hirsute, minutely resinous-glandular, aromatic; lowest leaves 
pinnatifid,the cauline linear, entire, sharply pungent, spreading, 
the uppermost pilose-ciliate toward the base ; heads scattered ; ray- 
achenes dull black, 1.5 mm. long, somewhat compressed, smooth 
on the sides, with a few coarse tuberculations on the back ; disk- 
achenes with 3 or more paleae exceeding the corollas; chaff of 
the receptacle not pungent. 

Brackish flats toward the coast. June-August. 

38. DEINANDBA Greene. 

Erect, rigid and brittle, balsamic-viscid annuals, with 
mostly small few-flowered panicled heads, and entire or 
serrate leaves. Involucral bracts few, half enclosing 
their achenes, their tips short, rigid and erect. Rays 
usually 5, broad, 3-toothed, diurnal. Receptacle chaffy 
only next the rays. Ray-achenes gibbous, tuberculate- 
rugose, the terminal areola raised upon a distinct 
curved beak from the angle of the ventral face of the 
achene ; disk-achenes mostly sterile, with or without a 
paleaceous crown. 

1. D. fasciculata (DC.) Greene. Hirsute or hispid below, 
glabrous and viscid-glandular above, 2-5 dm. high ; heads small, 

422 Madieae 

subsessile, usually fasciculate-clustered; involucral bracts gla- 
brous or glandular-hispidulous ; bracts of the receptacle slightly 
united; pappus of the disk-achenes of 6-10 linear palese. (Hem- 
izonia fasciculata T. & G.) 

Very common and general on the plains and lower hills. June-September. 

2. D. Wrightii (Gray) Greene. Slender, diffusely and widely 
branching; the filiform branchlets terminating in a single head; 
lower leaves laciniate-pinnatifid ; pappus of disk-achenes com- 
posed of 8-9 firm distinct palese, laciniate at apex. 

Frequent in the interior valleys beyond our range. San Bernardino; 
Riverside; Elsinore. It has also been reported from Catalina Island. 

3. B. Kelloggii Greene. Closely resembling the last in habit; 
heads solitary, terminating the slender paniculate branches; 
pappus of the tubular flowers united to near the lacerate sum- 

Apparently rare in southern California; known only from near Pasadena, 
where it was recently collected in an old field by Joseph Grinnell. 


Erect virgate or diffusely branching, more or less hir- 
sute, or hispid annuals, with narrowly linear entire 
leaves, all but the lowest alternate. Floral leaves usu- 
ally subulate and often ending in a saucer-shaped gland. 
Receptacle flat, the chaff herbaceous and only enclosing 
the disk-flowers. Ray-flowers 1-5, white or yellow, ves- 
pertine, palmately 3-lobed or parted. Ray-achenes 
obovoid-triangular, the terminal areola low, nearly cen- 
tral. Disk-achenes turbinate-quadrangular, the outer 
fertile. Pappus chaffy. 

1. C. tenella (Nutt.) T. & G. Slender, paniculately diffusely 
branched above, 1-5 dm. high, sparsely hirsute-pubescent; the 
filiform branchlets minutely viscid-glandular ; leaves almost fili- 
form, the margins involute, destitute of glands ; heads scattered ; 
involucre cylindraceous-campanulate ; ray-flowers 3-5, 3-parted 
to the slender tube, white or often tinged with rose ; ray-achenes 
rugose, short-stipitate and abruptly rostellate-apiculate ; disk- 
flowers 5, white, cleft into oblong-linear lobes ; their pappus of 
4-5 lanceolate palese tapering into stout rough awns and as many 

Tarweed Tribe 423 

intermediate short lanceolate truncate ones. (Hemizonia tenella 

Common on dry barren places in our interior valleys and in open places in 
the chaparral belt. June-August. 


Small slender viscid-glandular sweet-scented annuals 
with entire narrow mostly alternate leaves, and numer- 
ous pedicellate small few-flowered heads. Ray-flowers 
fertile, 4-8, minute. Disk-flowers 1-4. Bracts of the 
receptacle united and forming a cup which encloses the 
disk-flowers, receptacle otherwise naked. Achenes slender 
compressed or obcompressed. Pappus none. 

1. H. exiguus Gray. Slender, 8-15 cm. high, hirsute, glan- 
dular above, paniculately branched ; the small heads on long 
filiform naked peduncles; leaves linear, alternate; involucral 
bracts 5-8, lunate, almost destitute of free tips, hispid-glandular; 
cup of receptacle prismatic and very narrow, enclosing a single 
straight obliquely obovate laterally compressed achene ; ray- 
achenes obovate-lunate, pointed by a small disk. 

Frequent on wooded hillsides in open places. May-August. 

2. H. minimus (Gray) Greene. Stems branching, only about 
2.5 cm. high; leaves mostly opposite, the lowest oval or oblong, 
the others linear, about 6 mm. long; achenes of the ray broadly 
obcompressed, rounded at the summit, beakless. (Hemizonia 
minima Gray.) 

Wilson's Peak, Davidson. 


Slender, villous or hirsute, rigid and brittle, panicu- 
lately branched annuals, with mostly alternate com- 
monly entire leaves, and many small heads of pale 
salmon-colored or yellow vespertine fknvers, subtended 
by foliaceous bracts. Bracts of the involucre 5, thin, 
herbaceous, flat on the back, completely enclosing its 
obcompressed achene and deciduous with it. Rays 
cuneate, palmately 3-cleft, their achenes obovate-oblong, 

424 Madieae 

smooth, nearly straight, pointless. Receptacle flat ; 
chaff a single row of distinct bracts surrounding about 
5 perfect but sterile disk-flowers. Pappus none. 

1. L. ramosissima Nutt. Canescent with a loose silky pubes- 
cence, 2-8 dm. high, diffusely paniculate ; lowest leaves spatulate- 
obovate, stem-leaves lanceolate to linear, all entire ; heads 6 mm. 
high, 12 mm. broad, including the expanded rays; achenes 3 
mm. long. 

Frequent in open places in the foothills and in the chaparral belt of the 
mountains. May-September. 


Vernal annuals with alternate leaves or the lowest 
opposite, and usually showy heads of white or yellow 
flowers terminating the branches. Bracts of the invo- 
lucre flattened on the back, more or less completely 
enfolding their obcompressed achenes. Kays 8-20 
3-lobed ; their achenes obovate or narrower, destitute of 
pappus. Disk-flowers with cylindraceous funnelform 
5-lobed corollas ; their achenes linear-cuneiform, usually 
with a pappus of bristles or awns. Receptacle flat, bear- 
ing a series of chaffy bracts between the ray- and disk- 
flowers. (Layia.) 

** Pappus-bristles villous below the middle. 

1. B. hispidus Greene. Diffusely branched from the base or 
simple, 3 dm. high or less, hispid throughout with spreading 
hairs and with a few small dark-stalked glands on the uppermost 
leaves and involucres ; leaves all narrow and entire ; rays white, 
about 1 cm. long; pappus bright white, the bristles densely vil- 
lous below the middle. 

Frequent in dry washes in the interior valleys. Big Tejunga ; La Canada ; 
Arroyo Seco. 

2. B. elegans (Nutt.) Greene. Habit of the last but taller, 
sparsely hirsute and more or less stipitate-glandular throughout; 
lower leaves pinnately toothed, the upper entire; rays yellow, 

Helenieae 425 

about 1 crn. long; pappus white, bristles densely villous below 
the middle. 

Frequent on our dry interior plains. San Fernando Valley; Pasadena; 
Santa Ana Mountains. 

** Po.ppus-bristles naked. 

3. B. platyglossus (F. & M.) Greene. Stems usually about 
3 dm. high and sparingly branched, hirsute and stipitate-glan- 
dular ; lower leaves pinnatifid into linear lobes ; rays 10-15 mm. 
long, yellow with cream-colored tips ; disk-achenes silky-hirsute; 
pappus of 15-20 scabrous tawny bristles. 

Frequent in sandy soil, especially along the coast. 

43. ACHYBACHAENA Schauer. 

Soft-pubescent sparingly branched annual, with nar- 
row leaves, all but the lowest alternate, and rather large 
oblong-campanulate heads terminating pedunculiform 
branches. Involucral bracts lanceolate, herbaceous, each 
enfolding a ray-achene. Bracts of the low convex recep- 
tacle membranous in a single row between ray- and 
disk-flowers. Ray-flowers 6-8, very short, 3-cleft ; their 
achenes slightly obcompressed, destitute of pappus. 
Disk-flowers mostly fertile, clavate, 10 striate, bearing a 
showy pappus of 10 elongated-oblong obtuse silvery- 
scarious palese. 

1. A. xnollis Schauer. Erect, 2-4 dm. high; leaves linear, 
entire or serrulate ; heads 2.5 cm. long or less in flower ; rays very 
short and involute, yellow, changing to reddish-brown ; heads ex- 
panded in fruit, forming a globose cluster ; pappus becoming very 

Occasional in the coast valleys, on grassy plains or in grain fields. Ex- 
tending south to San Diego. 


Herbs or suffrutescent plants with alternate or oppo- 
site leaves. Receptacle naked or with a few fimbrillse. 
Involucral bracts in 1-2 series or rarely in o series. 
Pappus of paleae, awns or bristles, or wanting. 

426 Helenieae 

Leaves opposite. 

Tnvolucral bracts in more than 1 series. 44. JAUMEA. 

Involucral bracts in 1 series. 

Bracts distinct. 47. BAEBIA. 

Bracts united into a toothed cup. 48. LASTHENIA. 

Leaves alternate. 
Rays present. 

Rays with toothed appendages opposite the ligules. 

Rays unappendaged. 
Bracts of the involucre erect. 

Herbage pubescent and viscid-glandular. 

Bracts equal, in 1-2 series. 46. PERITYLE. 

Bracts imbricated, in 2-3 series. 54. HULSEA. 

Herbage more or less floccose-woolly. 

Perennial or suffrutescent plants. 50. ERIOPHYLLUM. 

Low annuals. 51. ACTINOLEPIS. 

Outer bracts foliaceous, spreading. 45. VENEGASIA. 

Bracts reflexed. 55. HELENIUM. 

Rays wanting. 

Bracts 5-6; herbage viscid; heads small. 52. AMBLYOPAPPUS. 

Bracts more numerous ; heads middle-sized. 53. CHAENACTIS. 

44. JAUMEA Pers. 

Succulent and glabrous perennial herbs, with opposite 
entire subterete fleshy leaves, and solitary terminal 
short-peduncled middle-sized heads of yellow flowers. 
Involucre cylindraceous-campanulate, its bracts broad 
and imbricated, the outermost short and fleshy. Rays 
pistillate, fertile. Receptacle naked, conical. Disk- 
flowers yellow. Style-branches papillose or hairy. 
Achenes 10-nerved. Pappus none. 

1. J. carnosa (Less.) Gray. Stems rather slender, prostrate, 
many from fleshy crown of the tap-root, mostly simple, 1-2 dm. 
long, rooting at the nodes; leaves 1.5-2.5 cm. long; heads about 
1 cm. high ; rays about 6, linear, not surpassing the disk ; achenes 

Common in salt marshes along the coast. April-October. 


Stout perennial leafy branching herbs with scattered 
large and showy heads of yellow flowers. Involucre 

Sneezeweed Tribe 427 

hemispheric, broad, the round-ovate bracts imbricated 
in several series, the outer somewhat foliaceous, the 
innermost narrow and scarious. Receptacle flat, naked. 
Ray-flowers many, long, narrow, entire or 3-toothed. 
Disk-flowers glandular-bearded especially at the base of 
the tube, 5-angled and many-nerved. Pappus none. 

1. V. carpesioides DC. Stems widely branching, 1.5 m. high 
or less, glabrous ; leaves thin, ovate-deltoid or ovate-cordate, acute, 
crenate, 7-10 cm. long, petioled, resinous-dotted beneath; heads 
terminal and from the upper axils, short-peduncled, about 2 cm. 
broad ; rays about 15, and about 2.5 cm. long. 

Frequent in the Santa Monica, San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains. 

46. PERITYLE Benth. 

Mostly annuals with dentate or palmately lobed 
leaves, all but the lower alternate, and small or middle- 
sized heads terminating the branches. Involucre hemi- 
spheric, its bracts distinct, more or less overlapping, cari- 
nate-concave and partly embracing the outer achenes. 
Receptacle flat or concave. Ray-flowers yellow or white, 
pistillate or none. Disk-flowers yellow, narrow, 4-toothed. 
Achenes flat, cartilaginous-margined, usually strongly 
ciliate. Pappus a squamellate or cupulate crown and 
commonly a slender awn from one or both of the angles. 

1. P. Californica nuda (Torr.) Gray. Somewhat pubescent 
and viscid-glandular ; leaves roundish-cordate, about 1 cm. broad, 
incisely lobed, the lobes coarsely dentate ; heads narrowly oblong ; 
achenes oblong, densely hispid-villous on the margins; pappus 

Bluffs along the sea at Santa Monica, Hasse. 

47. BAERIA F. & M. 

Low mostly slender annuals, commonly pubescent, 
with opposite linear entire or laciniate-pinnatifid leaves, 
and middle-sized heads of yellow flowers on slender 

428 Helenieae 

peduncles. Involucre campanulate, its bracts usually 
in 1 .series, distinct, usually carinate below. Ray-flowers 
few or many, often short. Achenes clavate, linear or 
linear-cuneiform. Pappus of- few awns or palese or both 
or rarely none. 

* Leaves entire. 

1. B. chrysostoma F. & M. Stems slender, freely branching, 
2 dm. high or less, hirsute-pubescent; leaves narrowly linear, 
entire; heads 6-8 mm. high; bracts of the involucre 7-12; rays 
7-12, 6-8 mm. long; achenes clavate-linear, slightly contracted at 
the summit, glabrous; pappus none. 

Rather common in open places in our coast valleys and foothills. Port 
Ballona; Santa Monica Mountains. April-May. 

2. B. gracilis (DC.) Gray. Closely resembling the last; stems 
slender, usually about 1 dm. high ; leaves narrowly linear ; bracts 
and rays 10-12 or sometimes less; rays 4-6 mm. long; achenes 
linear-cuneate, broad at the summit, commonly canescent ; pap- 
pus of white, lanceolate or ovate, slender, awned palese or the 
palese sometimes almost obsolete. 

Common on dry hillsides throughout our range. April-May. 

** Leaves dissected. 

3. B. affinis (Nutt.) Gray. Erect, sparingly branched, 10-15 
cm. high, minutely pubescent, obscurely or not at all glandular; 
leaves with filiform divisions; rays 6-8, oblong, short ; involucral 
bracts ovate-oval; pappus of 8-10 oblong or lanceolate palese 
with laciniate-setulose margins, fully equaling the corolla-tube, 
some or most of them produced into an awn almost equaling the 
disk-flowers, or in the rays blunt and awnless. 

Occasional in dry sandy places in our interior valleys. Chatsworth Park; 
"Verdugo Hills; Arroyo Seco. 

4. B. tenella (Nutt.) Gray. Closely resembling the last and 
associated with it, but pappus of 6-10 short and firm quadrate or 
broadly cuneate palese with the truncate muticous summit den- 
ticulate or nearly entire, not surpassing the tube of the corolla. 

Sycamore Grove, Greata. 

5. B. mutica (Nutt.) Gray. Stems slender, erect, branching, 
1-2 dm. high, glandular-pubescent; rays 10-15, elongated-oblong; 

Sneezeweed Tribe 429 

pappus of 6-8 quadrate-oblong paleee with obtuse or truncate 
erose summits. 

In sandy soil along the coast near Port Ballona; common about San 
Diego. April-May. 

48. LASTHENIA Cass. 

Low slender glabrous and usually succulent annuals, 
with opposite linear or narrowly lanceolate mostly 
entire leaves, their sessile bases connate around the 
stem. Heads middle-sized on peduncles terminating the 
stem and branches, composed of yellow flowers. Invo- 
lucral bracts a single series connate by their edges into 
a 5-15-toothed glabrous green cup. Rays usually pres- 
ent. Disk-flowers all fertile, 4-5-lobed. Achenes linear 
or narrowly oblong, compressed, sometimes slightly 2-3- 
nerved. Pappus of 5-10 firm subulate-tipped palese or 

1. I*, glabrata Coulter! Gray. Somewhat fleshy, rarely 
slightly pubescent; stems erect, branching, 2 dm. high or less; 
peduncles somewhat enlarged under the erect heads ; involucre 
hemispheric; rays 5-10 mm. long; achenes narrowly obovate- 
oblong, with obtuse edges and with minute scattered rough points 
or glands. 

Common in saline marshes, especially along the coast. 


White-woolly annuals with alternate entire or den- 
ticulate leaves and large peduncled heads of yellow 
flowers. Involucre hemispheric, its bracts united into a 
cup with broad triangular teeth or distinct to the base. 
Receptacle conical, naked. Ray-flowers 3 4-toothed, 
bearing at the base of the ligule an oblong or roundish 
denticulate appendage. Disk-corollas somewhat hairy 
on the lobes. Achenes angular, black. Pappus none. 

1. M. major DC. Stoutish, nearly simple or with several 
pedunculiform naked monocephalous branches, about 5 dm. high ; 

430 Helenieae 

heads about 3 cm. broad; bracts of the involucre joined into a 
broad campanulate-toothed cup; achenes 4 mm. long. 

Occasional on grassy hills mostly toward the coast, especially on heavy 
soils. Santa Monica Mountains, north slope; San Pedro Hills. 


Annual or perennial floccose herbs or suffrutescent 
plants, with entire or divided alternate leaves, and 
mostly middle-sized heads of yellow flowers. Involucre 
oblong to hemispheric, its bracts of firm texture and per- 
manently erect. Rays usually few, short and broad. 
Disk-flowers with slender tube, commonly glandular and 
hairy. Style-branches truncate or obtuse. Achenes 
clavate-linear to cuneate-oblong, mostly 4-angled. 
Pappus of firm pointless palese. 

1. E. confertiflorum (DC.) Gray. Stems suffrutescent, 4-6 
dm. high, usually branched from the woody base, with a close 
dense, at length deciduous tomentum ; flowering branches leafy ; 
leaves 1-4 cm. long, ternately or pinnately 3-7-parted into nar- 
rowly linear divisions ; heads many in compact terminal clusters, 
3-4 mm. high ; involucre obovoid-oblong, its bracts about 5, ovate ; 
rays 4-5, 3-4 mm. long; palese 8-10, nearly equal, about half as 
long as the achene. 

Common throughout the lower altitudes of the chaparral belt in all our 
mountains and hills. March-August. 


Small floccose-woolly simple or freely branching 
annuals, with small heads of yellow flowers. Involucre 
obovate or oblong, its bracts few, thinnish, sometimes 
concave and partly embracing the achenes. Receptacle 
convex or nearly flat. Ray-flowers few, broad and usu- 
ally short. Achenes oblong subclavate and 4-angled. 
Pappus composed of several scarious or somewhat opaque 
paleaceous scales. 

1. A. Wallace! Gray. Diffusely branched or, when dwarfed, 
simple, 4-8 cm. high, densely white-tomentose ; leaves alternate, 

Sneezeweed Tribe 431 

obovate or spatulate, entire; heads short-peduncled ; bracts of 
the involucre about 8, becoming somewhat carinate-concave, with 
scarious margins embracing the ray-achenes ; ray-flowers short 
and broad, yellow; achenes glabrous; palese 10, very short, obtuse. 

Dry washes in the interior valleys. La Canada; San Fernando Valley. 


Rigidly erect panicled small maritime annual with 
gummy sweet-scented very bitter herbage, narrow entire 
alternate leaves, and small discoid heads of yellow 
flowers. Involucral bracts 5-6, broadly obovate, their 
middle part becoming somewhat carinate-concave. Re- 
ceptacle small conical. Corollas all short, tubular, those 
of the pistillate flowers minutely 2-3-toothed, of the 
perfect 5-toothed ; the teeth soon connivent. Achenes 
obpyramidal, pubescent. Pappus of 8-12 oblong obtuse 
palesB about equaling the corollas. 

1. A. pusillus H. & A. Somewhat corymbosely much branch- 
ed, 10-25 cm. high, the lowest leaves pinnately 3-5-parted and 
opposite, their segments narrowly linear; involucre 4 mm. high. 

Occasional on bluffs overhanging the se. Port Los Angeles ; Playa del 
Rey. June-August. 


Annual herbs, often more or less woolly, with com- 
pound leaves and discoid heads mostly solitary and 
peduncled. Involucre campanulate, the linear bracts 
equal, uniserial, herbaceous. Receptacle flat, naked. 
Corollas with short tube, long narrow throat and short 
teeth, those of the outer row sometimes more ample 
and resembling rays. Achenes slender, smooth. Pappus 
of hyaline nerveless palese. 

* Corollas yellow, the outer somewhat enlarged and unequally lobed. 

1. C. lanosa DC. Stems short, branching, bearing few- 
many long naked peduncles, 1-2 dm. high, the earlier scapiform ; 

432 Helenieae 

herbage floccose-woolly when young; leaves thickish, simply pin- 
nately-parted into few narrowly linear lobes, or the uppermost 
entire; heads about 12 mm. high; the outer flowers only moder- 
ately enlarged, not surpassing the disk; involucral bracts nearly 
linear ; pappus of 4 equal long palese. 

Common on plains and foothills, especially in sandy soil. 

2. C. glabriuscula DC. Taller and more caulescent, branch- 
ing above, 2-3 dm. high, herbage thinly floccose, becoming gla- 
brate; peduncles long, stout; heads 15-20 mm. high; involucral 
bracts glabrate, broader, thickish, obtuse; marginal flowers 
ample, much exceeding the others; pappus of 4 equal narrowly 
oblong acutish palese. 

Common on sandy soil or rocky ground in the lower hills and along the 

** Corollas whitish or at least not yellow. 

3. C. santolinoides Greene. Subacaulescent perennial ; leaves 
all crowded on short tufted shoots from a slightly ligneous crown , 
white-tomentose, linear in outline with broad rachis, thickly beset 
with small oblong obtusely few-lobed crispate divisions ; peduncles 
scapiform, 10-15 cm. long, simple or once or twice forked, glan- 
dular and viscid; heads 12 mm. high, rather narrow; outer 
flowers scarcely or not at 'all enlarged; pappus of 8-10 linear- 
ligulate paleae a little shorter than the flowers. 

In the higher altitudes of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, 
in open pine woods. June-August. 

4. C. artemisiaefolia Gray. Stems paniculately branched or 
nearly simple, 3-8 dm. high, furfuraceous-pubescent, somewhat 
viscid, above glandular-hirsute; leaves 2-3-pinnately divided or 
parted into short linear or oblong lobes ; heads loosely cymose- 
paniculate, about 12-15 mm. high; involucral bracts lanceolate, 
acute; flowers all alike; achenes clavate, flattened; pappus a 
small minutely annular disk. 

Common in the chaparral belt of all our mountains. April-June. 

54. HULSEA T. & G. 

Viscid or floccose-woolly leafy herbs with alternate 
entire toothed or pinnatifid leaves, sessile or nearly so. 

Sneezeweed Tribe 433 

and large solitary or scattered heads. Involucral bracts 
thin, herbaceous, linear to oblong, in 2-3 series. Recep- 
tacle flat. Ray-flowers yellow or purplish. Disk-flowers 
with long narrow throat and 5 short lobes. Achenes 
linear-clavate or cuneate-oblong, villous. Pappus of 
4-5 hyaline palese, either erose or lacerate at the sum- 
mit or dissected into capillary bristles. 

1. H. heterochroma Gray. Annual, stout, 6 dm. high or 
more; leaves oblong, saliently dentate; involucre about 2 cm. 
high, its bracts linear-lanceolate, attenuate-acute; ray-flowers 
many, 6-8 mm. long, rose-purple, occasionally reduced or obso- 
lete ; palese oblong, the 2 over the angles of the achenes longer 
than the others, the shorter truncate-lacerate. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains in the upper portions of the 
chaparral belt. Mount Lowe, Dudley; Wilson's Peak. 


Erect perennial resinous-dotted herbs, with alternate 
leaves sessile except the lowest and often decurrent on 
the stem. Heads solitary or corymbose, borne on long 
naked peduncles. Flowers yellow, those of the ray 
several, usually small and drooping, those of the disk 
numerous, minute, often brownish. Bracts of the invo- 
lucre linear, reflexed. Receptacle globose or hemi- 
spheric, naked. Achenes turbinate, ribbed, usually more 
or less pubescent. Pappus of 5-12 thin or hyaline 

1. H. puberulum DC. Puberulent, paniculately branched, 
6-12 dm. high, the branches ending in slender peduncles; leaves 
lanceolate or narrowly linear or the longest oblong, sessile and 
strongly decurrent on the stem ; heads globose, 10-15 mm. broad ; 
ray-flowers and bracts of the involucre reflexed, short and incon- 
spicuous; disk-flowers brownish; pappus-scales ovate, with a 
short slender awn ; achenes about 1 mm. long. 

Frequent along mountain streams, especially in the chaparral belt. 

434 Anthemideae 


Strong-scented or aromatic herbs, with alternate, 
mostly dissected, pinnately parted or pinnatifid leaves. 
Involucral bracts imbricated, commonly dry and scari- 
ous or with scarious margins. Receptacle naked or with 
chaff-like bracts. Rays present or none. Pappus none 
or a short scarious crown. 

Receptacle chaffy ; rays present. 

Heads solitary; rays 14-20. 56. ANTHEMIS. 

Heads in a terminal corymb; rays 4-5. 57. ACHILLEA. 

Receptacle naked; rays none. 

Marginal flowers destitute of corollas. 59. COTULA. 

Marginal flowers not apetalous. 

Heads solitary, terminating leafy branches. 58. MATRICARIA. 

Heads small, in panicled racemes or spikes. 60. ARTEMISIA. 


Annual or perennial ill-scented branching herbs, with 
finely dissected alternate leaves, and radiate heads soli- 
tary on terminal peduncles. Involucre hemispheric, its 
bracts imbricated in several series, scarious-margined, 
appressed, the outer shorter. Receptacle convex or 
conical, chaffy at least toward the summit ; the chaff 
subtending the disk-flowers. Ray-flowers pistillate, fer- 
tile or neutral, white or yellow. Disk-flowers perfect, 
yellow, the limb 5-cleft. Achenes oblong, ribbed or 
striate. Pappus none. 

1. A. Cotula L. (MAYWEED.) Annual, glabrous or some- 
times pubescent above, glandular, much branched, 2-6 dm. high ; 
leaves mostly sessile, finely 1-3-pinnately dissected into narrow 
acute lobes; heads about 2 cm. broad, including the rays; these 
10-18, white, neutral, mostly 3-toothed; receptacle conic, its 
chaff bristly, subtending the central flowers; achenes 10-ribbed, 
rugose or glandular-tuberculate. 

Common in moist places in all our valleys. Native of Europe. April- 

Mayweed Tribe 435 


Perennial herbs, with finely dissected leaves, and small 
heads of both tubular and ligulate flowers corymbose at 
the ends of the stem and branches. Involucre ovoid or 
campanulate, its bracts compressed, imbricated in few 
series. Receptacle flat or convex, chaffy ; chaff mem- 
branous, subtending the disk-flowers. Ray-flowers white 
or pink, pistillate. Disk-flowers perfect, fertile, yellow. 
Achenes oblong or obovate, slightly compressed. Pappus 

1. A. lanulosa Nutt. Pubescent or nearly glabrous, simple or 
corymbosely branched above, 3-6 dm. high; basal leaves and 
those of the sterile shoots petioled, those of the stem sessile, all 
narrowly oblong or lanceolate in outline, finely dissected into 
narrow pinnatifid segments; heads numerous, 4-6 mm. broad, in 
terminal compound dense corymbs; rays 4-6, white. 

Rather common in the pine belt of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 


Annual or perennial herbs with alternate leaves dis- 
sected into filiform or narrowly linear segments, and 
discoid or radiate peduncled heads. Involucre hemi- 
spheric, its bracts imbricated in few series. Receptacle 
conic or elongated, naked. Rays in ours wanting. 
Disk-flowers yellow, perfect, fertile, 4-5-toothed. Achenes 
3-5-ribbed. Pappus a coroniform border or none. 

1. M. matricariodes (Less.) Porter. Annual, glabrous; stems 
leafy, becoming much branched, often more or less decumbent, 
1-3 dm. high; leaves 2-3-pinnately dissected into linear acute 
lobes; heads numerous, 6-8 mm. broad; involucral bracts oval 
or oblong, green with broad white scarious margins, much shorter 
than the ovoid disk ; achenes oblong, faintly nerved ; pappus an 
obscure crown. (M. discoidea DC.) 

Frequent along roadsides and in waste places. May-July. 

436 Anthemideae 

59. COTULA L. 

Low annual or perennial herbs with alternate lobed or 
dissected leaves, and slender peduncled discoid short- 
hemispheric heads. Involucral bracts in about 2 series, 
greenish. Receptacle naked, flat or nearly so. Marginal 
flowers pistillate and apetalous. Disk-flowers 4-toothed, 
fertile or sterile. Achenes pedicellate, compressed, 
spongy-margined or narrowly winged. Pappus none. 

1. C. cororiopifolia L. Perennial, usually subaquatic, some- 
what succulent and glabrous; stems clustered, stoutish, decum- 
bent, 25-30 cm. long; leaves linear-lanceolate, lacinjate-pinnatifid 
or the upper entire, clasping or sheathing at the base ; heads 
much depressed, 8-12 mm. broad; apetalous flowers in 1 row, 
their achenes with a thick spongy wing; disk-flowers yellow, 
their achenes with wing reduced. 

Common in wet places along streams and marshes, especially toward the 
coast. Flowering nearly throughout the year. 

2. C. australis Hook. Annual, slender and diffusely branched, 
pubescent with soft spreading hairs, not at all succulent, 5-12 cm. 
long ; leaves 1-2-pinnately divided into linear lobes ; heads 2-3 
mm. broad ; involucral bracts brownish-tipped, scarious-margined ; 
apetalous flowers in 2-3 rows, pedicellate, their achenes minutely 
hispid on both faces, the margins smooth. 

In waste places along streets, not common. January-March. 


Mostly aromatic and bitter herbs or shrubs with 
alternate leaves and panicled spikes or racemes of small 
discoid heads. Involucral bracts imbricated in few 
series, the outer gradually shorter. Receptacle flat, 
convex or hemispheric, naked or pubescent, not chaffy. 
Marginal flowers pistillate and fertile, their corollas 2-3- 
toothed. Central flowers perfect, sterile or fertile, or 
flowers all perfect and fertile. Anthers often tipped at 
apex with subulate appendages. Achenes obovoid or 
oblong, 2-ribbed or striate, rounded or truncate at the 

Senecioneae 437 

summit, with a small terminal areola. Pappus none or 
minute and coroniform. 

1. A. heterophylla Nutt. Perennial; stems erect, somewhat 
woody at base, 1-2 m. high ; leaves lanceolate to oblong, ovate or 
elliptic, 5-10 cm. long, sparingly pinnatifid, cleft or often entire, 
green above, white-tomentose beneath; heads mostly erect in 
dense terminal panicles, the axis leafy; involucre oblong; margi- 
nal flowers pistillate; disk-flowers perfect, all fertile. (A. vulga- 
ris Calif ornica Bess.) ... ... ._.., 

Common in low ground and along streams in the foothills. July-October. 

2. A. biennis Willd. Annual ; stems erect, virgate, 3-10 dm. 
high, leafy to the summit; herbage deep green, glabrous and 
nearly tasteless, aromatic ; leaves 1-2-pinnately parted into lanceo- 
late or broadly linear laciniate or toothed lobes, or the upper- 
most only pinnatifid; heads small, in close glomerules on the 
spiciform short branches and stems ; involucre hemispheric ; 
achenes with small epigynous disk. 

Occasional in low moist ground about Los Angeles. Native of Europe. 

3. A. dracunculoides Pursh. Perennial; stems clustered, 
herbaceous, 6-12 dm. high, virgately branched, glabrous, pungent- 
scented when bruised, tasteless; lowest leaves 3-cleft at summit, 
the others linear, entire; heads numerous, nodding on very slen- 
der short peduncles in a close or open panicle, the clusters some- 
times secund ; involucre hemispheric, about 2 mm. broad ; margi- 
nal flowers fertile ; disk-flowers perfect, sterile. 

Frequent in the valleys and foothills throughout our range. August- 

4. A. Californica Less. (CALIFORNIA SAGE.) Shrubby, with 
numerous ascending branches, 6-12 dm. high, aromatic; leaves 
cinereous with a minute appressed pubescence, the lowest parted 
into a few linear filiform segments, the upper entire ; heads 
many, nodding in long racemose leafy panicles; involucre hemi- 
spheric, about 4 mm. broad ; achenes truncate at summit, with a 
squamellate or coroniform-dentate pappus. 

Common on dry hillsides in the lower altitudes of the chaparral belt. 


Herbs or suffrutescent plants with alternate or basal 
leaves. Involucral bracts little or not at all imbricated, 

438 Senecioneae 

mostly in 1-2 series. Receptacle naked. Pappus-bristles 
soft, commonly copious and usually white. 

Shrubby or suffrutescent plants. 
Rays wanting. 

Bracts imbricated ; leaves mostly scale-like. 61. LEPIDOSPARTUM 

Bracts in 1 series ; herbage woolly. 62. TBTRADYMIA. 

Rays present 63. SENECIO. 

Herbs; rays present or wanting. 63. SENECIO. 


A low rigid green scaly-bracted almost leafless shrub, 
somewhat fastigiately branching, and bearing some- 
what corymbose or racemosely arranged heads of pale 
yellow flowers. Involucral bracts of 2 sets, the inner 
long, linear, 8-12 in 2 or more series, the outer much 
shorter and imbricated. Receptacle naked. Rays none. 
Disk-flowers with long tube and lanceolate-linear spread- 
ing lobes. Achenes oblong, terete, 8-10-nerved, with 
large epigynous disk. Pappus copious, of soft white 
capillary bristles. 

1. L. squamatum Gray. Branching shrub, broom-like, 6-12 
dm . high ; young seedlings and shoots floccose-tomentose, and with 
spatulate entire leaves, becoming glabrous and nearly leafless in 
age; heads 6-10 mm. high, terminal on -the branches. 

Frequent in dry washes in all our interior valleys. July-October. 


Low rigid canescently tomentose shrubs with alter- 
nate narrow entire leaves and cymose-clustered discoid 
heads of yellow flowers. Involucre long and narrow, 
of 4-6 bracts. Corollas with long tube, the narrow 
spreading lobes longer than the campanulate involucre. 
Achenes terete, short, 5-nerved, from long-villous to gla- 
brous. Pappus of fine and soft long capillary white or 
whitish bristles. 

1. T. comosa Gray. Branches erect, elongated, 4-8 dm. high ; 
primary leaves linear, softly floccose-tomentose, the earlier 5-7 cm . 

Groundsel Tribe 439 

long, and 4 mm. wide, plane ; those of the branches often filiform, 
deciduous, some of the upper changed to long soft spines; heads 
corymbose or glomerate at the summit of the branches ; involucre 
5-9-flowered, its bracts 5-6; pappus fine, concealed by the long 
wool of the achene. 

Dry washes of the interior valleys, perhaps not within our region but 
found as far westward as Cucamonga. July- August. 


Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, with alternate 
or basal leaves, and solitary corymbose or paniculate 
many-flowered heads of both tubular and ray-flowers or 
only tubular, in ours yellow. Involucre cylindric or 
campanulate, its principal bracts in 1 series, distinct or 
united at the base, usually with some shorter outer ones. 
Receptacle flat or somewhat convex, mostly naked. 
Rays when present pistillate. Disk-flowers perfect, 
5-toothed. Achenes terete or those of the marginal 
flowers so ewhat compressed, 5-10-ribbed, papillose or 
canescent and usually emitting a pair of spiral threads 
after wetting. Pappus copious, of white scabrous or 
smooth capillary bristles. 

1. S. vulgaris L. Annual, puberulent or glabrate; stems 
slightly fleshy, 1-3 dm. high, more or less branched; leaves clasp- 
ing at the base, pinnatifid, the lobes and sinuses sharply toothed ; 
heads 7-9 mm. high; bracts black-tipped; rays none; achenes 
slightly canescent. 

Common in neglected gardens and yards. Flowering throughout the year. 
Native of Europe. 

2. S. Californicus DC. Annual, glabrous or becoming so, 
slender 1.5-4 dm. high ; leaves lanceolate in outline, varying from 
denticulate to pinnatifid, the lobes short and obtuse, all but the 
lowest sessile and auriculate-clasping, 2.5-5 cm. long; involucre 
6-8 mm. high, its bracts narrow; rays oblong, 6-8 mm. long, 
light yellow ; achenes canescent. 

Common in sandy soil in dry places in our interior valleys and foothills, 
and on the sand-dunes along the seashore. February-May. 

3. S. ilicetorum Davidson. Stems erect, from a biennial or 
perennial root, 5-10 dm. high, very floccose-woolly, at length 

440 Cynareae 

glabrate above; basal leaves thin, 2-3 dm. high, elliptic-oblong, 
acute at both ends, coarsely dentate, the teeth spreading, triangu- 
lar, callous-tipped, the sinuses rounded and the larger denticulate, 
lower leaves resembling the basal, the uppermost narrow lanceo- 
late, entire or irregularly dentate; heads 1-2 cm. broad, less than 
1 cm. high, 6-10 in a close cluster at the ends of the peduncles ; 
rays none ; flowers all fertile. 

Wilson's trail at 2500 feet altitude, Davidson. 

4. S. Douglasii DC. Suffrutescent, usually about 1 m. high, 
branching from the base, whitish-tomentose or becoming gla- 
brate; lower leaves pinnately divided into about 5 narrowly 
linear lobes, the uppermost entire, all with revolute margins; 
heads rather few, corymbose, 10-15 mm. high; rays light yel- 
low, 10 mm. long; achenes hoary with a short pubescence. 

Common on dry plains and foothills, mostly below 3000 feet altitude. 


Herbs with alternate prickly leaves and mostly large 
heads. Involucral bracts imbricated, usually spine'scent. 
Receptacle bristly or hairy. Rays none. Corollas tubu- 
lar, deeply and narrowly lobed. Anthers caudate at the 
base and appendaged at the apex. Pappus bristly or 
plumose, rarely paleaceous. 

Pappus bristles plumose, deciduous in a ring. 

Pappus in 1 series. 64. CARDUUS. 

Pappus in several series. 65. CYNARA; 

Pappus bristles setose. 66. CENTAUREA. 


Erect, branching or simple, prickly herbs, with alter- 
nate or basal sinuate dentate lobed or pinnatifid usu- 
ally spiny leaves, and large many-flowered solitary or 
clustered discoid heads of crimson purple or white 
flowers. Involucre ovoid or globose, its bracts prickly- 
tipped or unarmed, imbricated in many series. Recep- 
tacle flat or convex, bristly. Flowers all tubular, per- 

Thistle Tribe 441 

feet and fertile or rarely dioecious, their corollas slender, 
with deeply 5-cleft limb. Filaments pilose or rarely 
glabrous. Achenes obovate or oblong, compressed or 
obtusely 4-angled, smooth or ribbed. Pappus of several 
series of slender plumose minutely serrulate or simple 
bristles, connate at base. 

1. C. edulis (Nutt.) Greene. Stout, 1-2 m. high, pubescent, 
leafy up to the short panicle ; leaves oblong or narrower, sinuate- 
pinnatifid, weakly prickly; heads 3-4 cm. high, depressed-glo- 
bose, few in a terminal cluster, leafy-bracted at base ; involucre 
arachnoid when young; flowers deep purple, their segments 
shorter than the throat. 

Pasadena, McClatchie. 

2. C. Californicus (Gray) Greene. Rather slender, 6-12 dm. 
high, canescently woolly; leaves sinuate-pinnatifid, moderately 
prickly j heads solitary on long peduncles, about 4 cm. high; 
involucres somewhat woolly; the lower bracts coriaceous-acerose, 
spreading and incurved, the others straight, all subulate-spines- 
cent at the tip ; flowers lilac-purplish or rose color ; lobes shorter 
than the throat. 

Occasional in open places in the Santa Monica, San Gabriel and Santa 
Ana Mountains. May-July. 

3. C. occidentalis Nutt. Stout, 6-9 dm. high; leaves deeply 
pinnatifid, glabrate above, canescently tomentose beneath; 
heads solitary on stout peduncles; involucre subglobose; bracts 
straight, subulate-lanceolate, with short spines, densely covered 
with cobwebby hairs ; flowers deep red-purple ; lobes longer than 
the throat. 

Common on sandy soil, especially toward the coast. May-July. 


Stout perennial prickly herbs, with pinnatifid sessile 
leaves, their lobes spinescently tipped, and large heads of 
purple tubular flowers. Involucral bracts well-imbri- 
cated, coriaceous, spinescent. Receptacle fleshy, fimbril- 
late. Achenes obovate, compressed and somewhat 
4-angled. Pappus of many series of plumose bristles. 

442 Mutisieae 

1. C. Scolymus L. Stout and low, with very ample hoary- 
tomentose bipinnatifid leaves ; involucral bracts ovate obtuse or 

An occasional escape from gardens. June-July. 


Annual or perennial herbs, with alternate entire den- 
tate or pinnatifid leaves, and large or middle-sized heads 
of variously colored flowers. Involucre ovoid or globose, 
its bracts imbricated in many series, tipped with a stout 
spine. Receptacle flat, bristly. Corolla-tube slender, 
the limb 5-toothed or 5-cleft. Achenes oblong or 
obovoid, compressed or somewhat 4-angled, obliquely or 
laterally attached to the receptacle. Pappus of many 
slender scabrous bristles or scales or rarely none. 

1. C. Melitensis L. (STAR-THISTLE.) Erect, branching, 5-8 
dm. high, cinereous-pubescent or when young somewhat woolly ; 
basal leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, those of the stem lanceolate, 
mostly entire, narrowly decurrent; principal bracts with slender 
spines of about their own length, spines pectinate-spinulose at 
base, innermost with spinescent tips; flowers yellow; pappus of 
very unequal rather rigid bristles or squamellate. 

A common weed in waysides and fields. July-November. Native of 
southern Europe. 


Ours perennial herbs with subcoriaceous setulose- 
ciliate alternate leaves. Involucral bracts imbricated. 
Corollas 2-lipped, the outer lip 3-lobed, the inner 2-lobed. 
Anthers caudate and with a long appendage at the apex. 

Represented with us by the single genus. 67. PEREZIA. 

67. PEREZIA Lag. 

Perennial herbs with mostly reticulated often setulose- 
ciliate or spinulose leaves, and solitary cymose or panic- 
ulate middle-sized discoid heads of rose-purple white 
or blue flowers. Involucral bracts imbricated in few 

Cichorieae 443 

several series, dry, chartaceous or coriaceous. Recep- 
tacle flat, naked, rarely pilose or fimbrillate. Corollas 
5-lobed and somewhat bilabiate. Achenes narrowed at 
apex. Pappus of copious capillary scabrous rigid or soft 

1. P. microcephala Gray. Tall, branching above, 1.5-2 m. 
high, leafy; leaves oblong, the upper ovate, cordate-clasping, 
8-12 cm. long, thin-coriaceous, minutely glandular-scabrous, 
veiny, closely spinulose-denticulate ; heads corymbose at the 
summits of the paniculate branches, 12-15 mm. high; involucral 
bracts very acute, coriaceous ; flowers 10-15 in a head, their 
corollas 8-10 mm. long, rose-purple. 

Frequent on the dry interior plains and foothills. July- August. 


Herbs with milky juice and alternate or basal leaves 
and perfect flowers with ligulate corollas. Receptacle 
naked or chaffy. 

Pappus paleaceous. 

Paleae not awned; flowers blue. 68. CTCHORIUM. 

Paleee with a slender awn or bristle. 

Pale cleft at the apex, the bristle or awn proceeding from the cleft. 


Paleae not cleft at the apex. 69. MICROSERIS. 

Pappus of rather rigid plumose bristles. 

Receptacle chaffy. 71. HYPOCHAERIS. 

Receptacle naked. 

Achenes not beaked. 72. PTILORIA. 

Achenes, at least the inner, with a slender beak. 

Flowers white. 73. NEMOSERIS. 

Flowers purple; pappus brownish. 74. TRAGOPOGON. 

Pappus of soft capillary scabrous bristles. 
Achenes beakless. 

Achenes not flattened. 

Pappus deciduous, or 1-2 outer bristles persistent. 

Pappus persistent. 

Pappus white. 80. CREPIS. 

Pappus tawny. 81. HIERACIUM. 

Achenes flattened. 77. SONCHUS. 

Achenes beaked. 

Achenes flattened. 78. LACTUCA. 

Achenes not flattened. 79. AGOSERIS. 

444 Cichorieae 


Erect branching herbs, with alternate and basal 
leaves, and large heads of usually blue flowers ped- 
uncled or in sessile clusters along the branches. Invo- 
lucral bracts in 2 series, herbaceous, the outer somewhat 
spreading, the inner erect and subtending or partly 
enclosing the outer achenes. Receptacle flat, naked or 
slightly fimbrillate. Rays truncate and 5-toothed at the 
apex. Anthers sagittate at the base. Style-branches 
slender, obtusish. Achenes 5-angled or 5-ribbed, trun- 
cate, beakless. Pappus of 2-3 series of short blunt 

1. C. Intybus L. (CHICORY.) Perennial from a long deep tap- 
root; stems slightly hispid, stiff, branched, 3-9 dm. high; basal 
leaves spreading on the ground, runcinate-pinnatifid, spatulate 
in outline, 8-16 cm. long, narrowed into long petioles; upper 
leaves much smaller, lanceolate or oblong, lobed or entire, clasp- 
ing or auricled at the base; heads numerous, 25-40 mm. broad, 
1-4 together in sessile clusters on the nearly naked or bracted 
branches; flowers bright blue, rarely white. 

Occasional in waste places. Hyde Park; Shermans. 


Acaulescent glabrous or slightly puberulent annuals, 
with basal tufted leaves pinnatifid with mostly linear 
and often falcate lobes or entire. Heads solitary in 
long leafless scape-like peduncles, these nodding in bud, 
becoming erect in fruit. Involucre narrowly oblong to 
ovoid or subglobose. Ligules short, yellow. Achenes 
slender-fusiform or cylindric, ribbed, mostly truncate. 
Pappus palea3 5, mostly short, abruptly or gradually 
passing into the scabrous awn. 

1. M. aphantocarpha tenella Gray. Scapes usually decum- 
bent at base, 15-35 cm. high; leaves entire or pinnatifid ; invo- 
lucre calyculate; achenes slender, 3-4 mm. long, oblong-clavate ; 

Chicory Tribe 445 

palese ovate, scarcely 1 mm. long; bristles 6-8 mm. long, slender, 
fragile or deciduous. 

Near Santa Monica, Davidson. 

2. M. cyclocarpha Gray. Scapes 2-4 dm. high ; leaves nar- 
row, 1-2 dm. long; heads about 10 mm. broad; achenes oblong- 
turbinate, 5mm. long, the outer ones white- villous ; palea of the 
pappus ovate, 2-3 mm. long, about half the length of the slender 
persistent bristles. 

Occasional in open grassy places on the north slope of the Santa Monica 

70. UROPAPPUS Nutt. 

Nearly acaulescent annuals with pinnatificl or entire 
leaves and solitary heads on scape-like peduncles. 
Heads erect, oblong. Involucral bracts about equal, 
with shorter ones at the base, all membranous. Ligules 
short, yellow. Achenes 10-12-ribbed. Pappus-palese 5, 
elongated, tipped with a very short awn or bristle which 
proceeds from the cleft summit. 

1. U. linearifolius (DC.) Nutt. Stems or peduncles usually 
several from the base, erect, 2-4 dm. high, in robust plants thick- 
ened and fistulose under the oblong head ; leaves linear, 7-15 cm. 
long; 2-4 mm. wide, with 2-several pairs of more or less serrate 
salient attenuate lobes; achenes attenuate above into a beak, 10 
mm. long; pappus silvery-white, 12-14 mm. long; the awn deli- 
cate, about half the length of the deeply notched palea. 

Common on grassy hillsides in the foothills. March-May. 

2. XT. Lindleyi (DC.) Nutt. Stout, 2-4 dm. high; peduncles 
scarcely thickened under the head ; leaves as in the last or some- 
what broader; achenes brownish, 10 mm. long, slightly narrowed 
above ; pappus dull brown or sordid, 12-14 mm. long; awn nearly 
equaling the paleae, from a very shallow notch. 

Same range as the last, but not common. 


Mostly perennial herbs, with scapose, often branched 
stems, mostly basal tufted leaves pinnatificl or entire, 

446 Cichorieae 

and mostly large long-peduncled heads. Involucre 
oblong-cylindric to campanulate, its bracts herbaceous 
in several series. Receptacle flat, chaffy. Flowers 
yellow. Achenes oblong to linear, 10-ribbed, contracted 
above or the outer truncate. Pappus of 1 row of plu- 
mose bristles, sometimes with some shorter simple ones. 

1. H. radicata L. Perennial ; stems several, slender, 3-6 
dm. high, branched or rarely simple; leaves spreading on the 
ground, oblanceolate to obovate, pinnatifid-lobed to dentate, 5-15 
cm. long, hir&ute ; heads 2.5 cm. broad or more; achenes rough, 
all with slender, long beaks. 

Pasadena, McClatchie. 

72. PTILORIA Raf. 

Annual or perennial, mostly glabrous, often glaucous 
herbs, with erect simple or branched usually rigid stems, 
alternate or basal entire or runcinate-pinnatifid leaves, 
those of the branches often small and scale-like, and 
small erect heads of usually pink flowers paniculate or 
solitary at the ends of the branches. Involucre cylin- 
dric or oblong, its principal bracts few, equal, scarious- 
margined, slightly united at the base, with numerous 
short exterior ones. Flowers pinkish, opening in the 
morning. Receptacle flat, naked. Anthers sagittate at 
base. Style-branches slender. Achenes oblong or linear, 
terete, 5-ribbed, truncate or beaked at summit. Pappus 
of 1 series of rather rigid plumose bristles. 

1. P. virgata (Benth.) Greene. Stems rigid, 3-10 dm. high, 
virgate, glabrous throughout and the herbage deep green ; leaves 
runcinate ; heads 6-8 mm. high, subsessile along the naked upper 
part of the stem and branches, 4-8-flowered ; achenes subclavate or 
oblong, ribbed and with as many mostly closed grooves, rugose ; 
pappus white, plumose almost throughout, rather persistent. 

Common on dry ground, especially toward the coast. July-September. 

2. P. pleuroearpa Greene. Taller and stouter than the last, 
virgate-paniculate, glabrous and glaucous ; heads rather small, 

Chicory Tribe 447 

few-flowered; achenes fusiform, rugose-tuberculate between the 
salient rib-like angles, intervening grooves wanting; pappus- 
bristles numerous, distinctly plumose to the base, bright white, 
soft, early deciduous. 

Common in fields and along waysides about Pasadena and eastward to 
San Bernardino. July-August. 

3. P. cichoriacea (Gray) Greene. Perennial, 3-8 dm. high, 
rather stout, tomentulose at least when young ; leaves lanceolate, 
sparsely denticulate to runcinate-laciniate ; heads sessile along 
naked branches; involucre 12 mm. high; mature achenes short- 
linear, smooth, slightly and acutely 5-angled; pappus sordid, 

Frequent in rocky canyons of the San Gabriel Mountains. July-Septem- 


Glabrous and slightly succulent branching annuals 
with pinnatifid leaves and rather large heads of white or 
rose-tinged flowers. Involucre conic or cylindric, of 
7-15 linear acuminate equal bracts, somewhat fleshy at 
base, and a few loose calyculate outer ones. Achenes 
terete, somewhat fusiform, obscurely few-ribbed, attenu- 
ate into a slender beak. Pappus white, of 10-15 slender 
bristles, softly long-plumose from the base to near the 

1. N. Californica (Nutt.) Greene. Rather stout, glabrous; 
stems white, 6-9 dm. high; leaves oblong, pinnatifid, sessile and 
clasping, the upper reduced ; heads many in a paniculate-corym- 
bose inflorescence, 1.5-2 cm. high; ligules rather short; outer 
achenes pubescent; beak slender, equaling the body; pappus 
dull white. (Rafinesquia Californica Nutt.) 

Common on rather shady slopes in the foothills and in the chaparral belt 
of all the mountains. May-August. 


Biennial or perennial erect usually branched some- 
what succulent herbs, with slender fleshy tap-roots, 
alternate entire linear-lanceolate long-acuminate leaves 

448 Cichorieae 

clasping at the base, and long-peduncled large heads of 
purple or yellow flowers. Involucre cylindric, its bracts 
in 1 series, acuminate, united at the base. Ligules trun- 
cate, 5-toothed. Achenes linear, terete or 5-angled, 5-10- 
ribbed, with slender beaks or the outer beakless. Pappus 
bristles in 1 series, plumose, connate at the base. 

1. T. porrifolius L. (SALSIFY.) Erect, somewhat branched, 
5-8 dm. high, glabrous and somewhat succulent; peduncles 
thickened and hollow for some distance below the head ; bracts 
exceeding the purple flowers; achenes often 4 mm. long, the 
outer ones with scale-like tubercles, especially on the ribs ; beak 
long, slender ; pappus tawny. 

A frequent escape from cultivation, especially in the coast valleys. 


Annual or perennial herbs with alternate or basal 
mostly pinnatifid leaves and long-peduncled panicled or 
solitary heads of yellow rarely white flowers. Involucre 
campanulate, its principal bracts in 1-2 series, equal or 
nearly so, with several series of short exterior ones. 
Receptacle flat, naked or bristly. Rays truncate and 
5-toothed at apex. Achenes oblong or linear, glabrous, 
10-15-ribbed, truncate or margined and 4-5-toothed at 
the summit. Pappus bristles in 2 series, the inner 
naked or minutely serrulate, slender, coherent at the 
base and deciduous in a ring, the outer few, more persist- 

1. M. California DC. Annual, scapose, 3 dm. high or less; 
leaves basal, tufted, laciniately 1-2-pinnatifid into narrow linear 
lobes, when young woolly with long, loose, soft hairs ; heads soli- 
tary on naked scapes, large and showy, 5 cm. broad or less; in- 
volucre broadly campanulate, about 2 cm. high; outer bracts 
slender-subulate; flowers pale yellow; achenes narrow, faintly 
striate-costate ; outer pappus of 2 persistent bristles, the inner 
capillary, deciduous. 

Common on sandy soil along the coast and in the interior valleys. March- 

Chicory Tribe 449 

2. M. Cleveland! Gray. Annual, paniculately branched, 5 
dm. high or less; stems and branches rather naked ; only some 
of the basal leaves pinnatifid ; heads numerous; involucre about 
6 mm. high, narrow, few-flowered ; bracts usually purplish- 
tipped ; flowers yellow ; achenes oblong-linear, minutely striate- 
costate, 4-5 of the ribs more prominent; outer pappus of 1 
persistent bristle and a conspicuous circle of narrow white setu- 
lose teeth. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel Mountains. More common in the mountains 
and foothills of Riverside and San Diego Counties. May-July. 

3. M. saxatilis tenuifolia (Nutt.) Gray. Somewhat suffru- 
tescent and leafy, paniculately branching, perennial, minutely 
tomentose, soon becoming glabrate or glabrous, 6-12 dm. high ; 
the long slender loosely-paniculate branches bearing slender 
pedunculate heads; involucre broadly campanulate, about 1 cm. 
high ; the loose calyculate bracts numerous, subulate, passing into 
similar bractlets on the peduncle; flowers white, changing to rose 
color; achenes narrowly oblong, 10-15 costate, becoming some- 
what 4-5-angled, apex slightly contracted, bearing a very short 
multidenticulate white border. 

Common in stony places in the foothills, especially toward the coast. 


Annual succulent herbs with alternate mostly auricu- 
late-clasping entire Or pinnatifid prickly-margined leaves 
and yellow flowers in corymbose or paniculate heads. 
Involucre usually becoming thickened and more or. less 
conic at base, its bracts imbricated in several series, the 
outer successively smaller. Receptacle flat, naked. 
Achenes flattened, 10-20-ribbed, truncate. Pappus of 
copious soft white simple capillary bristles usually fall- 
ing away connected. 

1. S. oleraceus L. Stoutish, 5-10 dm. high, sparingly leafy, 
glabrous or with a few glandular hairs on the pedicels and 
involucre, glaucescent; leaves obovoid or narrower, runcinate- 
pinnatifid, toothed but not prickly-margined, amplexicaul, the 
auricles straight, acute; achenes striate-nerved, transversely 

Common everywhere, flowering at all seasons. Native of Europe. 

450 Cichorieae 

2. S. asper (L.) All. Stouter than the last, the stems distinctly 
angled, very leafy ; leaves entire or pinnatifid, prickly-margined, 
the auricles helicoid and appressed to the stem ; achenes 3-nerved 
on each side, otherwise smooth. 

A less common weed than the last. Native of Europe. 


Tall leafy herbs with small panicled heads. Involu- 
cre cylindric, its bracts imbricated in several series, the 
outer shorter. Receptacle flat, naked. Achenes flat- 
tened, 6-10-ribbed, beaked. Pappus of copious white or 
brownish capillary bristles. 

1. L. Scariola L. Biennial, glaucous; stems leafy, panicu- 
lately branched, hirsute at the base or glabrous throughout, 6-18 
dm. high ; leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, spinulose-mar- 
gined, denticulate or pinnatifid, sessile or auriculate-clasping, 
midrib spinulose or hispid; heads 4-8 mm. broad, 6-12-flowered, 
very numerous, in an open panicle; involucre cylindric ; ligules 
yellow; achenes obovate-oblong, about equaling the filiform 
beak ; pappus white. 

Rather common in streets about Los Angeles. Native of Europe. 

79. AGOSERIS Raf. 

Perennial or annual herbs, mostly acaulescent, with 
tufted basal leaves, and solitary heads of yellow or rarely 
purple flowers at the ends of naked or bracted scapes. 
Involucre campanulate to oblong, its bracts imbricated 
in several series. Receptacle flat, naked or faveolate. 
Achenes not flattened, 10-ribbed, beaked at the summit. 
Pappus of copious slender simple white bristles. 

1. A. plebeia Greene. Robust, 4-6 dm. high; leaves nar- 
rowly oblanceolate, pinnatifid into slender ascending lobes, apex 
usually entire and slenderly acuminate; ligules short, deep yel- 
low, scarcely or not at all surpassing the involucral bracts, these 
woolly at the base; achenes 4-5 mm. long; the beak 10-12 mm. 
long ; pappus soft, white. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel and Santa Ana Mountains. May-July. 

Chicory Tribe 451 

2. A. retrorsa (Benth.) Greene. Peduncles usually about 3 
dm. high ; herbage woolly-pubescent, the wool more or less de- 
ciduous in age ; leaves pinnately parted into narrowly linear or 
lanceolate retrorse segments ; outer involucral bracts broad, inner 
linear, narrowly acuminate, equaling the pappus ; ligules short ; 
achenes 5-6 mm. long, beak slender, 18-20 mm. long. 

Summit of Santiago Peak. May-July. 

80. CBEPIS L. 

Perennial or annual herbs, with alternate or basal 
mostly toothed or pinnatifid leaves, and small or middle- 
sized heads, usually paniculate-corymbose, of yellow 
flowers. Involucre cylindric or campanulate, its princi- 
pal bracts in 1 series, equal, with a number of exterior 
smaller ones, 10-20-ribbed or -nerved, not transversely 
rugose, beakless. Pappus copious, of very slender white 

1. C. biennis L. Annual or biennial, pubescent or hirsute, 
leafy at least below, branched above, 6-9 dm. high; leaves run- 
cinate-pinnatifid, oblong or spatulate, at least the upper clasp- 
ing; heads several, subcorymbose, 2.5-4 cm. high; involucre 
canescentor pubescent, 8-12 mm. high, its principal bracts linear- 
lanceolate, downy within ; achenes glabrous, 13-striate. 

Occasional along streets in Los Angeles and Pasadena. 


Perennial hispid or villous herbs, with alternate or 
basal leaves, and solitary corymbose or paniculate, small 
or middle-sized heads of usually yellow flowers. Invo- 
lucre with its principal bracts in 1-3 series, the outer 
gradually smaller or abruptly much smaller. Recep- 
tacle flat, naked or short fimbrillate. Achenes terete or 
4-5-angled, 10-15-ribbed, beakless. Pappus copious, of 
1-2 rows of simple rather stiff persistent brownish 

1. H. Parishii Gray. Puberulent above with no glandular 
hairs, leafy up into the narrowly oblong panicle, 3-6 dm. high ; 

452 Appendix 

lower leaves shaggy-hirsute, lanceolate, 12-18 cm. long, tapering 
to the base or margined petiole, with 5-8 salient teeth to each 
margin ; upper leaves linear-lanceolate, entire ; peduncles seldom 
much longer and often shorter than the heads ; involucre pale, 
granulose-puberulent, oblong-campanulate, of rather numerous 
narrow acute or acutish bracts ; flowers 15-30, yellow ; achenes 
columnar, about 3 mm. long; pappus sordid or dull white. 

Occasional in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. June- 



[This species should follow Onagra, page 269.] 

Anogra Californica (Wats.) Small. Stems decumbent from 
a running rootstock, 1-2 dm. long, branching; herbage hoary- 
pubescent and more or less villous; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 
sinuately toothed or pinnatifid, 6-8 cm. long; ovary and calyx 
villous; calyx-tube about 2 cm. long; petals white turning pink, 
lobed at apex, with a rounded sinus; capsule 4-6 cm. long. 
(CEnothera Californica Wats.) 

Occasional in sandy soil. Near Santa Ana, Geis; Cucamonga. 


[This species should precede Ipomoea, page 308.] 

Cressa Truxillensis H. B. K. Perennial herb, much branched 
from the base, erect or ascending, 1-2 dm. high, silky-villous, 
leafy; leaves ovate-lanceolate, nearly sessile, 4-7 mm. long; 
flowers sessile or nearly so in the upper axils; corolla deeply 
5-cleft, campanulate, 4-5 mm. long, white, silky-pubescent with- 

Frequent in saline places throughout our range. June-October. 


acaulescent, apparently stemless; the 
proper stem being very short or 

accrescent, growing larger after flow- 

accumbent, lying against a thing. 
The cotyledons are accumbent 
when they lie with their edges 
against the caulicle. 

acerose, needle-shaped. 

achene, a dry indehiscent 1-seeded 

acicular, needle-shaped, more slender 
than acerose. 

aculeate, armed with prickles. 

acuminate, taper- pointed. 

acute, ending in a point less than a 
right angle. 

adherent, sticking to, or growing fast 
to another body. 

adnate, born adherent. 

festival, produced in summer. 

(.estivation, the arrangement of parts 
in a flower-bud. 

alate, winged. 

alliaceous, with the odor of onions. 

alternate, one after another. 

alveolate, honeycomb-like. 

ament, the scaly spike of trees, like 
the alder and willow. 

amphitropous, attached by the middle 
and having the micropyle at one 
end and the chalaza at the other. 

amplexicaul, clasping the stem by the 

anatropous, inverted, when the micro- 
pyle is at the same end as the 

ancipital, 2-edged. 

androgynous, having both staminate 
and pistillate flowers in the same 

annual, producing flowers and fruit 
the first year and then dying. 

anterior, in a flower, is the part next 
the bract. See posterior. 

anther, the part of the stamen which 
bears the pollen. 

antheriferous , anther-bearing. 

anthesis, the period of flowering. 

antrorse, directed upward. 

apetalous, destitute of petals. 

apical, belonging to the apex. 

apiculate, tipped with a small point. 

apophysis, any irregular swelling. 

aquatic, growing in water. 

arachnoid, cobwebby. 

arborescent, tree-like. 

arcuate, bent or curved. 

areolate, marked out into little 

aristate, awned. 

aristulate, short-awned. 

articulated, jointed. 

ascending, rising obliquely upward. 

assurgent see ascending. 

aunculate, with auricles or ear-like 

aiol-shaped, sharp-pointed from a 
broader base. 

awn, a bristle or beard-like append- 

axillary, occurring in an axil. 

baccate, berry -like. 
barbate, bearded. 

berry, a fruit, pulpy or juicy through- 
out, as a grape. 



biennial, flowering and dying the 
second year. 

bifid, 2-cleft to about the middle. 

bifurcate, 2-forked. 

bilabiate, 2-lipped. 

bladdery, thin and inflated. 

blade, the expanded portion of a leaf 
or petal. 

bloom, a whitish powder. 

brachiate, in pairs, each pair arrang- 
ed at right angles to the next. 

bract, the leaf of an inflorescence. 

bractlet, bracts that occur on flower- 

bulb, a leaf-bud with fleshy scales, 
usually subterranean. 

bullate, appearing as if blistered or 

caducous, dropping off very early. 

ccespitose, growing in tufts. 

callous, hardened, 

calyptra, a hood. 

calyx, the outer set of the perianth. 

campanulate, bell-shaped. 

canescent, grayish- white, caused usu- 
ally by a covering of fine whitish 

capitate, having a head. 

capsule, a dry dehiscent fruit formed 
from a compound pistil. 

carinate, keeled. 

carpel, a pistil-leaf or sporophyll. 

caruncle, an excrescence at the bilum 
of some seeds. 

catkin, see ament. 

caudate, tailed. 

caudex, an upright stock. 

caudicle, the stalk of a pollen-mass. 

caulescent, having an obvious stem. 

caulicle, rudimentary stem of a seed- 

cauline, belonging to the stem. 

cell, the cavity of an anther or ovary. 

chaff, small membranous scales on 
the receptacle of Compos itae. 

chaparral, a thick growth of shrubs, 
such as manzanita or scrub-oak 

chartaceous, of the texture of paper. 

dilate, beset on the margin with a 
fringe of hairs or bristles. 

clavate, club-shaped. 

claw, the stalk-like base of some 

cleistogamous, fertilized in closed 

cleft, cut into lobes. 

comose, bearing a tuft of hairs. 

commissure see page 276. 

connate, united or grown together. 

connivent, converging. 

convolute, rolled up lengthwise. 

cordate, heart-shaped. 

coriaceous, leathery in texture. 

corm, a solid bulb. 

cornute, horned. 

corolla, the inner set of perianth 

corona, a crown. 

corymb, a flat or convex flower-clus- 

corymbose, in corymbs. 

costa, a rib. 

cotyledons, the seed-leaves. 

creeping, growing flat on the ground 
and rooting. 

crenate, with rounded teeth. 

cruciate, cross-shaped. 

cucullate, hood-shaped or hooded. 

culm, the stem of grasses or sedges. 

cuneate, wedge-shaped. 

cuspidate, tipped with a sharp stiff 

cyme, a cluster of centrifugal inflor- 

cymose, with cymes. 

deciduous, falling off. 

decompound, several times com- 

decumbent, reclined on the ground, 
the summit tending to rise. 

decurrent, prolonged on the stem be- 
neath the insertion. 

decussate, arranged in pairs, which 
successively cross each other. 

dehiscence, the regular splitting open 
of a capsule or anther. 

dentate, toothed, the teeth pointing 

diadelphous see page 204. 

dichotomous, 2-forked. 



diffuse, spreading widely and irregu- 

digitate leaflets are digitate when 
they are all borne on the end of a 

dissected, out deeply into many lobes 
or divisions. 

dissepiments, the partitions in a com- 
pound ovary. 

diurnal, expanded during the day, 
closed at night. 

distichous, 2-ranked. 

distinct, free. 

divaricate, widely divergent. 

divided, cut into divisions down to the 

drupe, a fleshy fruit containing a 
stone, as the plum. 

echinate, armed with prickles. 

elliptical, oval or oblong, with the 
ends regularly rounded. 

ernarginate, notched at the summit. 

emersed, raised out of water. 

endocarp, the inner layer of a peri- 

endosperm, the nutritive matter in 
a seed, surrounding the embryo. 

ephemeral, lasting for a day or less. 

epigynous, upon the ovary. 

equitant, folded longitudinally, and 
each embracing the next within. 

erose, eroded as if gnawed. 

exocarp, outer layer of a pericarp. 

extrorse, turned outward. 

falcate, scythe-shaped. 
farinaceous, mealy in texture. 
fascicle, a close cluster. 
fastigiate, close, parallel and upright 
faveolate, favose see alveolate, 
ferruginous, resembling iron-rust. 
.filament, the stock of a stamen. 
filiform, thread-like. 
fimbriate, fringed. 
fistulose, hollow and cylindric. 
Jlabelliform, fan-shaped. 
flavescent, yellowish. 
fltxuous or Jlexuose, bending in op- 
posite directions, zig zag. 
floccose, woolly. 

foliate, provided with leaves. 
follicle, a pod comp'osed of a single 

carpel, opening down the inner 

fruit, the mature ovary and all that 

is connected with it. 
frutescent, somewhat shrubby. 
fugacious, soon perishing or falling 


fulvous, tawny. 
funiculus, the stock of an ovule or 

furfuraceous, bran-like. 
fusiform, spindle-shaped. 

galea, a helmet-shaped body. 

geniculate, bent abruptly. 

gibbous, somewhat swollen or enlarg- 

glabrate, becoming glabrous or al- 
most so. 

glabrous, smooth, not hairy. 

glands, small cellular organs which 
secrete certain substances, such 
as oil. 

glandular, with glands. 

glaucescent, slightly glaucous. 

glaucous, covered with a bloom. 

glomerate, closely aggregated in a 
dense head. 

glume, floral bracts in grasses. 

gramineous, grass-like. 

habit, the general aspect of a plant. 
habitat, the place where a plant 


hairy, beset with rather long hairs. 
hastate, halberd-shaped. 
herb, a plant that is not woody. 
hilum, the scar of a seed, the place of 


hirsute, with stifflsh hairs. 
hirsutulous, minutely hirsute. 
hispid, beset with stiff hairs. 
hoary see canescent. 
horn, a spur. 
hyaline, transparent or partly so. 

imbricate, overlapping one another, 
like shingles. 

immersed, growing wholly under wa- 



incised, cut rather deeply and irregu- 

incumbent the cotyledons are in- 
cumbent when the back of one of 
them lies against the caulicle. 

inferior, growing below some other 

inflorescence, the arrangement of the 
flowers on a stem. 

insertion, the place or mode of attach- 

introrse, turned or facing inward. 

involucel, a small involucre. 

involucre, a whorl or set of bracts 
around a flower, umbel or head. 

keel, a projecting ridge. 

lacerate, appearing as if torn. 

laciniate, slashed. 

lanate, woolly. 

lanceolate, lance-shaped. 

legume, a simple pod which dehisces 
in 2 pieces. 

lenticular, lens- shaped. 

ligneous, woody. 

ligulate, strap- shaped. 

limb, the border of a corolla. 

linear, narrow and flat, the margins 

loculicidal, dehiscent through the 
back of each cell. 

lodicule see page 18. 

lunate, crescent-shaped. 

lyrate, lyre-shaped. 

marcescent, withering without falling 


maritime, belonging to the seacoast. 
membranous, thin and soft, like a 

merous, the number of parts in a 


mesocarp, the middle part of a peri- 
monoecious, having stamens or pistils 

mucronate, tipped with an abrupt 

short point. 

mucronulate, diminutive of the last, 
muricale, beset with short prickly 

muticous, blunt, pointless. 

nectar, a sweet secretion in flowers. 
nectariferous, having nectary. 
nerve, veins, usually confined to those 

that are parallel. 
nervose, conspicuously nerved. 
nodose, knotty. 

oblong, 2-4 times as long as broad. 

obovate, inversely ovate. 

obtuse, blunt or rounded at the end. 

ochroleucous, yellowish-white. 

oculate, with eye-shaped markings. 

opposite, on opposite sides of the 
stem, in pairs. 

orbicular, circular in outline. 

orthotropous, straight, when the mi- 
cropyle is on the opposite end 
from the hilum. 

oval, broadly elliptic. 

ovary, that part of the pistil contain- 
ing the ovules. 

ovate, shaped like an egg, with the 
broad end downward. 

ovoid, ovate or oval. 

ovuliferous, ovule-bearing. 

palea, chaff. 

palmate see digitate. 

panicle, an open and branched cluster, 
a compound raceme. 

papilionaceous, butterfly-shaped. 

papilla, little nipple-shaped protu- 

papillate, papillose, covered with pa- 

pappus, the bristles, scales, etc., at 
the apex of the achenes in the 

parasitic, living on another plant or 

parietal, attached to the walls of the 

pectinate, pinnatifid into narrow di- 
visions, like the teeth of a comb. 

pedate, like a bird's foot. . 

pedicel, the stalk of each flower in a 

pedicellate, pedicelled. 

peduncle, a flower-stalk, whether of a 
single flower or of a cluster. 

peltate, shield-shaped. 

pepo, a fruit like the melon. 



perennial, lasting from year to year. 
perfect, having both stamens and pis- 

perianth, the floral leaves the calyx 
and corolla. 

perigynium, bodies around a pistil; 
see page 73. 

perigynous, the petals and stamens 
borne on the calyx. 

personate, masked; a bilabiate flower 
with a palate in the throat. 

petal, a leaf of the corolla. . j. 

petaloid, petal-like. 

petiole, a stalk of a leaf. 

petiolulate, a stalked leaflet. 

pilose, clothed with long slender 

pinnate, with leaflets arranged along 
the side of a common petiole. 

pinnatifid, same as pinnately cleft or 

pistil, the seed-bearing organ of a 

pistillate, having a pistil. 

placenta, the part of the ovary to 
which the ovules are attached. 

plaited, folded lengthwise. 

plumose, feathery. 

pollen, the fertilizing powder con- 
tained in the anthers ; the micro- 

polygamous, having some perfect and 
some unisexual flowers. 

pome, a fleshy fruit, such as the apple 
and pear. 

posterior portion of a flower is that 
toward the axis. 

primordial, earliest formed. 

procumbent, trailing on the ground. 

proliferous, where a new branch rises 
out of an older one, or one cluster 
of flowers out of another. 

prostrate, lying flat on the ground. 

pruinose, frosted. 

puberulent, with fine short pubes- 

pubescent, with flue soft hairs. 

punctate, dotted with minute holes. 

puncticulate, minutely punctate, 

jmngent, prickly- pointed. 

pyriform, pear-shaped, 

raceme, with 1-flowered pedicels ar- 
ranged along a common peduncle. 

racemose, bearing racemes. 

rachis, the axis, especially of a spike. 

receptacle, the axis or support of a 

regular, all the parts of a circle simi- 
lar in shape. 

reniform, kidney-shaped, 

repand, wavy-margined. 

reticulated, netted. 

retuse, with a blunt somewhat in- 
dented apex. 

revolute, rolled back. 

rootstock, root- like, usually under- 
ground stems. 

rosulate, in a rosette. \ 

rotate, wheel-shaped. 

rugose, wrinkled. 

runcinate, coarsely saw-toothed. 

runner, a slender prostrate branch 
rooting at the ends or joints. 

saccate, sac-shaped. 

sagittate, arrow-shaped. 

salsuginous, growing in brackish 

salver-shaped, with a border spreading 

at right angles to a slender tube, 
samara, a winged fruit or key. 
scabrous, rough or harsh to the touch. 
scape, a peduncle rising from the 

ground or near it. 
scapiform, so ape- like. . 
scarious, thin, dry and membranous. 
scorpioid, curved or circinate at the 


scrobiculate, pitted. 
scuttelate, saucer-shaped. 
secund, 1-sided. 
segment, a subdivision or lobe. 
sepal, a leaf or division of the calyx. 
septate, divided by partitions. 
sejjticidal, where the dehiscence is 

through the partitions. 
serrate, the margin cut into teeth 

pointing upward; saw- toothed. 
serrulate, minutely serrate. 
sessile, not stalked. 
seta, a bristle, or bristle-like, 
setaceous^ bristle-like, 



silicle, a short silique. 

silique, capsule of the mustard family. 

sinuate, with margins alternately 
bowed inward and outward. 

sinus, the angle between two lobes. 

smooth, not rough, or same as gla- 

sordid, dirty in hue. 

spadix, a fleshy spike of flowers. 

spathaceous, resembling, or furnished 
with, a spathe. 

spathe, a bract which enwraps an in- 

s})atulate, club-shaped. 

s])ike, flowers sessile on an elongated 

spinescent, tipped with a spine. 

spinose, spiny. 

spur, any hollow appendage which 
looks like a spur. 

squamate, furnished with scales. 

squarrose, where scales, leaves or 
any appendages spread widely 
from the axis on which they are 
thickly set. 

stalk, stem, petiole, peduncle, etc. 

stamen, the organ which bears the 
pollen, composed of an anther 
and usually a filament. 

staminate, furnished with stamens. 

staminodium, an abortive stamen. 

standard, the upper petal of a papili- 
onaceous flower. 

stellate, star-like. 

stigma, the receptive part of the pis- 

stipe, the stalk of the pistil. 

stipitate, furnished with a stipe. 

stipules, appendages situated on 
either side of the base of some 

stolon, a trailing or reclined and 
rooting shoot. 

stomata, breathing pores of leaves. 

stramineous, straw-like. 

striate, marked with slender longi- 
tudinal stripes. 

strict, close and narrow; straight and 

strigose, beset with stout appressed 
Jtiairs or bristles. 

'style, the stalk between the ovary and 

stylopodium, an enlargement at the 
base of the style. 

subulate, awl-shaped, tapering from 
a broad base to a sharp point. 

suckers, shoots from subterranean 

suffrutescent, somewhat woody or 
shrubby at the base. 

sulcate, grooved longitudinally. 

superior, above. 

suture, the line of junction of con- 
tiguous parts grown together. 

sympetalous, petals united. 

i, dull yellowish, with a tinge of 

tendril, a thread-like organ used in 

terete, cylindrical. 
ternate, inS's. 
testa, the outer seed coat. 
throat, the expanded portion between 

the lobes and the proper tube in 

a sympetalous corolla. 
Ihyrsus, a compact and pyramidal 

panicle of cymes. 
torus, the receptacle of the flower. 
trifld, 3-cleft. 

trifoliolate, with 3 leaflets. 
triquetrous, sharply 3-angled. 
truncate, as if cut off at the top. 
tuberculate, bearing little pimple-like 


tunicate, coated, as an onion. 
turbinate, top-shaped. 

umbel, an inflorescence in which a 
number of pedicels of nearly 
equal length spring from the 
same point, as in the parsley 

umbellate, in umbels. 

unarmed, destitute of thorns or 
spines, etc. 

uncinate, hook-shaped. 

undulate, wavy-margined, or wavy. 

unguiculate, clawed. 

unisexual, having stamens or pistils 



urceolate, urn-shaped. 
utricle, a small thin-walled, 1-seeded 

valve, one of the pieces into which a 
dehiscent fruit splits. 

valvate, opening by valves ; in aesti- 
vation when the parts just meet 
and do not overlap. 

venation, the veining of leaves. 

ventral, the opposite of dorsal. 

ventricose, inflated on one side. 

verrucose, warty. 

versatile, attached by a point so that 

it may swing to and fro. 
verticil, a whorl. 
vespertine, appearing or expanding 

in the evening. 
virgate, wand-like. 
viscid, having a glutinous surface. 

wedge-shaped, broad above, tapering 

to the base by straight lines. 
whorled, arranged in whorls or circles. 


Abies, 6 

Allium, 84 

Anagallis, 299 

concolor, 6 

haematochiton, 84 

arvensis, 300 

Abronia, 137 

serratum, 85 

Andropogon, 20 

maritima, 13? 

Allocarya, 330 

glomeratus, 20 

umbellata, 137 

trachycarpa, 331 

macrourus, 20 

Acanthocyphus, 115 

Alnus, 103 

saccharoides, 21 

Parishii, 115 

rhombifolia, 103 


Acer, 240 

Alopecurus, 33 

Anemopsis, 96 

macrophyllum, 240 

geniculatus, 33 

Californica, 96 


Alsine, 145 

Anogra, 452 

Achillea, 435 

media, 145 

Californica, 452 

lanulosa. 435 

nitens, 145 


Achyrachaena, 425 

Alternanthera, 134 

Anthemis, 434 

mollis, 425 

Achyrantha, 134 

Cotula, 434 

Actinolepis, 430 

Alyssum, 180 

Antirrhinum, 357 

Wallace!, 431 

maritimum, 180 

Coulterianum, 358 

Adenostegia, 371 

Amaranth, 133 

glandulosum, 358 

fllifolia, 372 

Amaranth Family, 132 

Nuttallianum, 358 

maritima, 372 


strictum, 358 

Adenostoma, 202 

Amaranthus, 133 

subsessile, 358 

fasciculatum, 202 

albus, 133 

Aphanisma, 124 

Agoseris, 450 

blitoides, 133 

blitoides, 124 

plebeia, 450 

deflexus, 133 

Aphyllon, 374 

retrorsa, 451 

graecizans, 133 

fasciculatum^ 374 

Agrostis, 36 

retroflexus, 133 

Apiastrum, 282 

asperifolia, 36 

Amblyopappus, 431 

angustifolium, 282 

Diegoensis, 37 

pusillus, 431 

Apium, 284 

verticillata, 36 

Ambrosia, 411 

graveolens, 284 

Agropyron, 59 

psilostachya, 412 

Aplopappus cuneatus, 

Parishii, 59 


Palmeri, 398 

laeve, 59 

Ammannia, 260 

pinifolius, 399 

Al/OACEAE, 138 

coccinea, 261 

ftquarrosus, 400 

Alchemilla, 202 

Amorpha, 221 


arvensis, 203 

Californica, 221 

Apocynum, 304 

Alder, 103 

Amsinckia, 335 

cannabinum, 305 

Alfalfa, 210 

intermedia, 335 

AQuilegia, 152 

Alfilerilla, 227 

lycopsoides, 335 

truncata, 152 

Algaroba, 205 

spectabilis, 335 

Arabis, 178 



glabra, 179 



Arabls Ludoviciana, 178 

Aster, 401 

Baeria mutica, 429 

perfoliata, 179 

exilis, 402 

tenella, 428 

repanda, 178 

Greatae, 402 

Barbarea, 171 

Virginica, 178 

hesperius, 402 

Barbarea, 171 

Aralia, 275 

Menziesii, 401 

vulgaris, 171 

Californica, 275 

Aster Tribe, 392 

Barberry, 156 



Barberry Family, 156 

Arbutus, 296 

Astragalus, 222 

Barley Tribe, 57 

Menziesii, 296 

Antiselli, 223 

Bastard Oats, 40 

Arceuthobium, \ 10 

Brauntonii. 223 


occidental^, 110 

didymocarpus, 222 

Batis, 135 

Arctostaphylos, 297 

leucopsis, 223 

maritima, ia5 

bicolor, 298 

nigrescens, 222 

Batis Family, 134 

glamlulosa, 298 

Parishii, 223 

Bay Tree, 157 

glauca, 298 

pycnostachys, 223 

Bayberry Family, 97 

Manzanita, 297 

strigosus, 222 

Bebbia, 418 

patula, 297 

Athysanus, 176 

juncea, 418 

Pringlei, 298 

pusillus, 176 

Bedstraw, 377 

tomentosa, 297 

Atriplex, 127 

Beech Family, 104 

Arenaria, 147 

bracteosa, 128 

Bellflower Family, 385 

Douglasii, 147 

Breweri, 129 

Bent-grass Tribe, 27 

Fendleri, 147 

Californica, 129 


paludicola, 147 

canescens, 130 

Berberis, 156 

palustris, 148 

decumbens, 128 

dictyota, 157 

Argemone, 162 

expansa, 127 

Nevinii, 157 

platyceras hispida, 162 

leucophylla, 129 

Berula, 287 

Aristida, 28 

microcarpa, 127 

erecta, 287 

Americana bromoides, 

orbicularls, 129 



patula, 127 

Bicuculla, 163 

purpurea aequiramea, 

semibaccata, 128 

chrysantha, 163 


Serenana, 128 

ochroleuca, 163 

purpurea Californica, 29 

Watsoni, 128 

Bidens, 417 

Arrow-grass, 14 

Audibertia, 344 

pilosa, 418 

Arrow-grass Family, 14 

Australian salt-bush, 129 

speciosa, 417 

Arrow-head, 17 


Mgelovia Parishii, 398 

Artemisia, 436 

Avena, 39 

veneta, 399 

biennis, 437 

fatua, 39 

Birch Family, 103 

Califoruica, 437 

glabrescens, 40 

Blackberry, 198' 

dracunculoides, 437 

sativa, 40 

Blazing Star, 256 

heterophylla, 437 

Blepharipappus, 424 

vulgar is Californica, 437 

Baccharis, 404 

elegans, 424 

Artichoke, 441 

Douglasii, 405 

hispidus, 424 

Arundo, 44 

Emoryi, 405 

platyglossus, 425 

Donax, 44 

glutinosa, 406 

Black Sage, 345 


Plummerae, 405 

Bloomeria, 86 

Asclepias, 306 

pilularis, .405 

aurea, 86 

eriocarpa, 307 

viminea, 406 

Blue-curls, 339 

Mexicana, 307 

Baeria, 427 

Boisduvalia, 265 

Ash, 302 . 

afflnis, 428 

glabella, 265 

Asparagus, 92 

chrysostoma, 428 

Borage Family, 328 

offlcinalis, 92 

gracilis, 428 




Bowlesia, 277 

lobata, 278 

septentrionalis, 278 
Boxthorn, 352 
Boykinia, 189 

occidentalis, 189 

rotundifolia, 190 
Bramble, 198 
Brassica, 169 

alba, 170 

canapestris, 170 

nigra, 170 
Brickellia, 392 

Californica, 392 
Bristly Foxtail, 25 
Brodiaea, 86 

capitata, 87 

laxa, 87 

minor, 87 
Bromus, 52 

carinatus, 56 
Californicum, 57 

hordeaceus, 53 

Madritensis, 54 

marginatus, 56 

maximus Gussoni, 54 

mollis, 53 

Orcuttianus, 55 

Richardsoni, 55 

rubens, 54 

secalinus, 53 

Trinii, 53 
pallidiflorus, 54 

unioloides, 55 

Haenkeanus, 56 
Brook weed, 299 
Broom, 210 
Broom-rape, 373 
Buckthorn, 241 
Buckthorn Family, 240 
Buckwheat Family, 


Buda, 148 
Bulrush, 67 
Bur-clover, 210 
Bur-head, 16 
Bur-reed, 9 
Burs a, 175 

Bursa-pastoris, 175 
Bush Poppy, 160 
Buttercup, 155 

Cactus Family, 257 
Calabazilla, 354 
Calandrinia, 140 

caulescens Menziesii,140 

elegans, 141 

Menziesii, 141 
California Laurel, 157 
California Lilac, 242 
California Poppy, 161 
California Sage, 437 
California Slippery-elm, 


California Spikenard, 275 
Callitriche, 237 

marginata, 237 
Calochortus, 89 

albus, 89 

Catalinae, 90 

clavatus, 90 

invenustus, 90 

splendens, 90 

venustus, 91 
sulphurous, 91 

Weedii, 90 

purpurascens, 90 

vestus, 90 
Calyptridium, 141 

monandrum, 141 
Canary-grass Tribe, 26 
Cauchalagua, 303 
Caper Family, 180 
Capsella, 175 

Bursa-pastoris, 175 

divaricata, 175 

elliptica, 175 
Cardamine, 172 

Gambellii, 172 
Carduus, 440 

Californicus, 441 

edulis, 441 

occidentalis, 441 
Carex, 74 

Barbarae, 74 

filifonnis latifolia, 75 

Hookeriana, 76 

laciniata, 74 

Carex marcida, 76 

multicaulis, 75 

occidentalis, 76 

Pseudo-Cyperus Ameri- 
cana, 73 

siccata, 75 

spissa, 74 

teretiuscula, 76 

triquetra, 75 
Carpet-weed, 138 
Carpet-weed Family, 138 
Carrot Family, 275 
Carum, 285 

Gairdneri, 286 

Lemmoni, 286 
Castilleja, 368 

Californica, 369 

foliolosa, 370 

Martini, 369 

stenanthe, 369 
Castor-bean, 233 
Catch-fly, 143 
Cat-tail, 8 
Cat-tail Family, 8 
Caucalis, 281 

microcarpa, 282 

nodosa, 282 
Caulanthus, 166 

amplexicaulis, 166 
Ceanothus, 242 

crassifolius, 244 

cuneatus, 244 

divaricatus, 243 

hirsutus, 244 

integerrimus, 242 

macro car pus, 244 

oliganthus, 244 

sorediatus, 243 

spinosus, 242 

tomentosus, 243 
Cenchrus, 26 

tribuloides, 26 
Centaurea, 442 

Melitensis, 442 
Centromadia, 420 

Parryi, 421 

pungens, 421 
Cerastium, 145 

trivale, 146 

viscosum, 146 



Cerastium vulgatum. 146 

Chrysoma Palmeri, 398 

Convolvulus repens, 


Parishii, 398 


Ceratophyllum, 151 

pinifolia, 398 

Soldanella, 309 

demersum, 151 

Chrysopsis, 395 

Conyza, 404 

Cercocarpus, 201 

fastigiata, 396 

Coulteri, 404 

betulaefolius, 202 

sessilifolia, 396 

Cordylanthus, 372 

Cereus, 258 

ClCHOBlEAE, 443 

ftlifolivs, 372 

Emory i, 258 

Cichorium, 444 

Corethrogyne, 400 

Chaenactis, 431 

Intybus, 444 

virgata, 401 

artemisiaefolia, 432 

Cicuta, 285 

Bernardina, 401 

glabriuscula, 432 

occidentalis, 285 

Corn Spurry, 148 

lanosa, 432 

Cistaceae, 252 


santolinoides, 432 

Cladium, 72 

Cornus, 293 

Chaetochloa, 25 

mariscus Californicum, 

occidentalis, 293 

glauca, 25 


pubescens, 293 

imberbis, 25 

Clarkia, 266 

Cottonwood, 99 

Chamiso, 202 

elegans, 266 

Cotula, 436 

Cheiranthus, 179 


australis, 436 

angustatus, 179 

Claytonia, 142 

coronopifolia, 436 

suffrutescens, 179 

perfoliata, 142 

Cotyledon, 186 


spathulata, 142 

nudicaule, 186 

Chenopodium, 124 

Clematis, 154 

pulverulenta, 187 

album, 124 

lasiantha, 154 


viride, 125 

ligusticifolia, 154 

Creamcup, 159 

ambrosioides, 125 

Cleome, 181 

Crepis, 451 

Californicum, 125 

lutea, 181 

biennis, 451 

murale, 125 

Clover, 211 

Cressa, 452 

rubrum, 125 

Cockle-bur, 413 

Truxillensis, 452 

Cherry, 203 

Coleosanthus, 391 

Croton, 232 

Chia, 343 

Californicus, 391 

Californicus, 232 

Chickweed, 145 

Nevini, 392 

tenuis, 233 

Chicory, 444 

Collinsia, 362 

Crowfoot Family, 151 

Chilicothe, 385 

bicolor, 362 


Chimaphila, 295 

callosa, 363 

Crypt an the, 333 

Menziesii, 295 

tinctoria, 363 

ambigua, 334 


Collomia, 312 

barbigua, 334 

Chlorogalum, 83 

gilioides, 315 

flaccida, 334 

pomeridianum, 84 

grandiflora, 312 

intermedia, 334 

Chorizanthe, 112 

gracilis, 312 

leiocarpa, 335 

Californica, 113 

Columbine, 152 

microstachys, 334 

Fernandina, 114 


muriculata, 333 

leptoceras, 113 

Conanthus, 326 

Cucurbita, 384 

Parryi, 114 

demissus, 327 

foetidissima, 384 

procumbens, 114 

stenocarpus, 327 


staticoides, 113 

Conium, 283 

Cuscuta, 310 

Thurberi, 113 

maculatum, 283 

arvensis, 310 

Xanti, 114 


Californica, 310 

Christmas Berry, 196 

Convolvulus, 308 

salina, 311 

Chrysoma, 397 

arvensis, 309 

subinclusa, 311 

cuneata, 398 

occidentalis, 309 


ericoides, 398 

tenuissimus, 309 

Cynara, 441 



Cynara Scolymus, 442 

Diplacus, 363 



longiflorus, 364 


Cynodon, 41 

puniceus, 364 

brachysperma, 251 

Dactylon, 41 

Diplotaxis, 169 

Elder, 380 

Cynosurus, 48 

tenuifolia, 169 

Eleocharis, 70 

oristatus, 48 


acicularis, 70 


Dipsacus, 383 

arenicola, 71 

Cyperus, 65 

fullonum, 383 

montana, 72 

diandrus capitatus, 65 

Distichlis, 47 

palustris, 70 

castaneus, 66 

spicata, 47 

rostellata, 71 

erythrorhizos, 66 

Dithyrea, 174 

occidentalis, 71 

esculentus, 66 

Californica maritima, 

Ellisia, 321 

laevigatus, 66 


chrysanthemifolia, 321 

Cytisus, 210 

Dock, 119 

Elymus, 61 

Canariensis, 210 

Dodecatheon, 300 

condensatus, 61 

Clevelandi, 300 

glaucus, 62 

Dactylis, 47 

Dodder, 310 

Orcuttianus, 62 

glomerata, 48 

Dodder Family, 310 

triticoides, 61 

Danthonia, 40 

Dogbane, 304 

Emmenanthe, 326 

Californica, 40 

Dogbane Family, 304 

penduliflora, 326 

Darnel, 58 

Dogwood, 293 

Encelia, 415 

Datisca, 257 

Dogwood Family, 292 

Californica, 415 

glomerata, 257 

Dondia, 131 

farinosa, 416 

Datisca Family, 257 

Californica, 131 

Epicampes, 35 


depressa, 131 

rigens, 35 

Datura, 353 

Moquini, 131 

Epilobium, 264 

meteloides, 353 

multiflora, 131 

Californicum, 264 

Daucus, 291 

Draba, 175 

holosericeum, 264 

Carota, 292 

cuneifolia, 176 

paniculatum, 264 

pusillus, 292 

integrifolia, 176 

Parishii, 265 

Deinandra, 421 

Sonorae, 176 

Eragrostis, 44 

fasciculata, 421 

Drudeophytum, 284 

major, 45 

Kelloggii, 422 

Parishii, 284 

Orcuttianus, 45 

Whrightii, 422 

Drymocallis, 199 

pilosa, 45 

Delphinium, 152 

glandulosa, 200 

Eremocarpus, 233 

cardinale, 153 

monticola, 200 

setigerus, 233 

decorum, 153 

Duckweed, 78 

Eremocarya, 331 

patens, 153 

Duckweed Family, 77 

lepida, 331 

Parryi, 153 

Dudleya, 186 

micrantha, 331 

variegatum, 153 

Brauntoni, 187 


Dendromecon, 160 

elongata, 188 

Ericameria, 398 

rigidum, 160 

lurida, 188 

microphylla, 398 

Dentaria, 173 

minor, 187 

Erigeron, 402 

Californica, 173 

ovatifolia, 187 

Canadense, 404 

Deschampsia, 39 

pulverulenta, 186 

foliosus, 403 

calycina, 39 

Durango Root, 257 

fragilis, 403 

Deweya, 283 

Philadelphicus, 403 

arguta, 283 

Echinodorus, 16 

Eriodictyon, 327 

Diceniba, 163 

cordifolius, 16 

Californicum, 327 

chrysantha, 163 

roslratus, 17 

glutinosuni, 328 

ochroleuca, 163 

Eel-grass, 13 

Parryi, 328 



Eriodictyon tomentosum , 

Euryptera lucida, 290 

Fritillaria biflora, 88 


Euthamia, 397 

Fuller's-teasel, 383 

Eriophyllum, 430 

occidentalis, 397 

confertiflorum, 430 

Evening - primrose Fam- 

Gaertneria, 412 

Eriogonum, 116 

ily, 261 

acanthicarpa, 413 

Bloomeri, 118 

Everlasting, 409 

bipinnatiflda, 413 

cinereum, 117 

Everlasting Tribe, 406 

tenuifolia, 412 

elongatum, 118 

Galingale, 65 

fasciculatum, 117 


Galium, 377 

gracile, 119 

False Mermaid Family, 

Andrewsii, 379 

leucocladon, 119 


angustifolium, 378 

latifolium, 117 

Fennel, 288 

Aparine, 378 

nudum, 117 

Fescue Tribe, 43 

Californicum, 379 

parvifolium, 117 

Festuca, 51 

grande, 379 

saxatile, 118 

microstachys, 51 

Kuttallii, 379 

Thurberi, 116 

ciliata, 52 

siccatum, 378 

vimineum, 119 

Grayi, 52 

trifldum subbiflorum, 378 

virgatum, 119 

Myuros, 52 

Garry a, 293 

Wrightii, 118 

ciliata, 52 

Jiavescens Palmeri, 294 

Erodium, 227 

octoflora, 52 

pallida, 294 

cicutarium, 228 


Veatchii Palmeri, 294 

macro phy Hum, 228 

Fig wort, 359 

undulata, 294 

moschatum, 228 

Figvvort Family, 355 

Gastridium, 37 

Eryngium, 280 

Filago, 409 

lendigerum, 37 

Parishii, 280 

Californica, 409 

Gayophytum, 272 

Erysimum, 168 

Fimbristylis, 71 

pumilum, 273 

offlcinale, 169 

thermalis, 71 

ramosissimum, 272 

Erysimum, 179 

Finger-grass Tribe, 41 

Gentian Family, 303 

Erythraea, 303 

Flax, 230 


venusta, 304 

Flax Family, 229 


Eschscholtzia, 161 

Foeniculum, 288 

Geranium, 227 

Californica, 161 

Foeniculum, 288 

Carolinianum, 227 

hypocoides, 161 

milgare, 288 

Richardsoni, 227 

peninsularis, 161 

Four-o'clock, 136 

Geranium Family, 227 

Eucrypta, 321 

Four-o'clock Family, 136 

Giant-reed, 44 

chrysanthemifolia, 321 

Frankenia, 252 

Gingseng Family, 274 

Eulobus, 269 

grandiflora, 252 

Gilia, 313 

Californicus, 269 

Frankenia Family, 251 

abrotanifolia, 313 



achilleaefolia, 314 

Euphorbia, 234 

Franseria, 413 

atractyloides, 313 

albomarginata, 235 

acanthicarpa, 413 

aurea, 314 

dictyosperma, 236 

bipinnatijtda, 413 

Californica, 317 

melandenia, 235 

tenuifolia, 413 

ciliata, 319 

nutans, 236 

Fraxinus, 302 

densifolia, 316 

polycarpa, 235 

dipetala, 302 

dianthoides, 317 

serpyllifolia, 236 

Oregana, 302 

gilioides, 315 


Fremontia, 251 

inconspicua, 315 

Eupatorium, 391 

Californica, 251 

latiflora exilis, 315 

Pasadense, 391 

Fremontodendron, 250 

Lemmoni, 318 

Euryptera, 290 

Californicum, 250 

liniflorus, 318 

Hassei, 291 

Fritillaria, 88 

micrantha, 318 



Gilia multicaulis, 314 

Grass, Foxtail, 33 

Helianthus Parishii, 415 

prostrata, 313 

Hair, 38 

Heliotrope, 329 

staminea, 314 

Hard, 58 

Heliotropium, 329 

tenella, 319 

Johnson, 21 

curvassavicum, 329 

tenuiflora altissima, 

Kentucky Blue, 50 

Hemizonia, 422 


Meadow, 49 

fasciculata, 422 

virgata, 316 

Melic, 46 

minima, 423 

floribunda, 316 

Nit, 37 

tenella, 423 

viscidula, 313 

Orchard, 47 

Hesperocnide, 108 

Githopsis, 387 

Pampas, 44 

tenella, 108 

specularioides, 387 

Panic, 23 

Hesperoyucca, 91 

Glycyrrhiza, 224 

Ray, 57 

Whipplei, 92 

glutinosa, 224 

Salt, 47 

Heteromeles, 196 

Gnaphalium, 409 

Triple-nerved, 28 

arbutifolia, 197 

Californicum, 410 

Velvet, 38 

Heterotheca, 395 

Chilense, 410 

Wheat, 59 

grandifolia, 395 

leucocephalum, 410 

Wild Oat, 40 

Heuchera, 190 

microcephalum, 410 

Grass Family, 18 

elegans, 191 

palustre, 410 

Grindelia, 393 

Hieracium, 451 

purpureum, 411 

camporum, 393 

Parishii, 451 

ramosissimum, 410 

cuneifolia, 393 

Hippuris, 273 

Godetia, 266 

robusta, 393 

vulgaris, 273 

Bottae, 267 

Ground-cherry, 349 

Hoarhound, 341 

Dudleyana, 267 

Groundsel Tribe, 437 

Holcus, 38 

epilobioides, 268 

Gutierrezia, 394 

lanatus, 38 

pulcherrima, 267 

divergens, 394 

Holodiscus, 196 

quadrivulnera, 267 

Gynerium, 44 

discolor, 196 

viminea, 267 

argentium, 44 

dumosus, 196 

Goldenrod, 396 

Gyrostachys, 95 

Honeysuckle, 381 

Golden Stars, 86 

Romanzomana, 95 

Honeysuckle Family, 380 

Golden-top, 49 


Goosefoot, 124 

Habenaria, 94 

Hordeum, 59 

Goosefoot Family, 123 

Unalaschensis, 94 

Gussonianum, 60 

Gourd Family, 384 


maritimum, 60 


Hasseanthus, 184 

murinum, 60 

Grape Family, 244 

elongatus, 184 

nodosum, 60 

Grass, Barley, 59 

multicaulis, 185 

depressum, 60 

Beard, 35 

Hazardia, 399 

Horkelia, 200 

Bent, 36 

squarrosa, 400 

Calif or nica sericea, 201 

Bermuda, 34 

Heath Family, 295 

platycalyx, 201 

Blue-eyed, 93 

Hedge-nettle, 341 

puberula, 201 

Brome, 52 


sericea, 201 

Bur, 26 

Helenium, 433 

Hornwort, 151 

Canary, 26 

puberulum, 433 

Hornwort Family, 150 

Cord, 41 


Hosackia, 216 

Crab, 23 

Helianthemum, 253 

brachycarpa, 217 

Ditch, 22 

Aldersonii, 253 

glabra, 219 

Drop-seed, 32, 34 

scoparium, 253 

maritima, 217 

English Ray, 57 

Helianthus, 414 

parviflora, 217 

Feather, 29 

amiuus, 415 

Purshiana, 216 

Fescue, 51 

Oliveri, 415 

sericea, 219 



Hulsea, 432 

Knotweed, 121 

Lepidospartum, 438 

heterochroma, 433 

Koeleria, 45 

squamatum, 438 

Hutchinsia, 174 

cristata, 45 

Leptilon, 403 

procumbens. 175 

pinetorum, 46 

Canadense, 404 

Hydrocotyle, 277 

pubescens, 46 

Leptochloa, 42 

ranunculoides, 277 

Koellia, 347 

mucronata, 42 

umbellata, 277 

Californica, 347 

Leptodactylon, 316 


Konig, 180 

Californicum, 317 

Hypochaeris, 445 

maritima, 180 

Leptosiphon, 318 

radicata, 446 

Krynitzkia, 334 

bicolor, 319 

oxycarya, 334 

parvtflorus, 318 

Ice-plant, 139 

Leptosyne, 416 

Incense Cedar, 7 


Douglasii, 417 

Indian Hemp, 305 

Lace Pod, 176 

gigantea, 417 


L,actuca, 450 

Lepturus, 58 

Ipomoea, 308 

Scariola, 450 

cylindricus, 58 

purpurea, 308 

Lady's Mantle, 202 

incurvatus, 58 

Iris Family, 92 

Lagophylla, 423 

Lessingia, 400 

Isocoma, 399 

ramosissima, 424 

glandulifera, 400 

vernonioides, 399 

Lamarckia, 48 

Libocedrus, 7 

Isomeris, 181 

aurea, 49 

decurrens, 7 

arborea, 181 

Larkspur, 152 

Licorice, 224 

globosa, 181 

Lastarriaea, 112 

Lilaea, 15 

Chilensis, 112 

subulata, 15 

Jamestown-weed, 353 

Lathy rus, 226 


Jaumea, 426 

Alfeldi, 226 

Lilium, 88 

carnosa, 426 

laetiflorus, 226 

Humboltii, 88 


splendens, 226 

Lily, 88 

Juglans, 97 

violaceus, 226 

Lily Family, 82 

Californica, 97 

Lasthenia, 429 



glabrata Coulteri, 429 

Limnanthus, 238 


Laurel Family, 157 

Douglasii, 238 

Juncus. 80 

Lauraceae, 157 

Limonium, 301 

acutus sphaerocarpus,80 

Layia, 424 

Californicum, 301 

Balticus, 80 

Legouzia, 386 

LlNACEAE, 229 

bufonius, 81 

biflora, 386 

Linanthus, 317 

Lescurii elatus, 80 


aureus, 318 

longistylis, 81 

Lemna, 78 

bicolor, 319 

Mexicanus, 80 

cyclostasa, 78 

ciliatus, 319 

nodosus megacephalus, 82 

gibba, 78 

dianthiflorus, 318 

patens, 81 

minima, 78 

Lemmoni, 318 

phaeoeephalus, 82 

minor, 78 

liniflorus, 317 

paniculatus, 82 

trisulca, 78 

parviflorus, 318 

robustus, 80 

Valdiviana, 78 

pusillus, 318 

Torreyi, 81 


Linaria, 357 

Juniperus, 7 

Lepidium, 167 

Canadensis, 357 

Californica, 7 

acutidens, 168 

Linseed, 230 

occidentalis, 8 

dictyotum acutidens, 168 

Linum, 230 

Jussiaea, 262 

lasiocarpum, 168 

usitatissimum, 230 

Californica, 262 

medium, 167 

Lippia, 338 

repens Californica, 262 

nitidum, 168 

lanceolata, 338 



Lithophragma, 191 

Lupinus gracilis, 208 

Matilija Poppy, 159 

afflnis, 192 

Grayi, 209 

Matricaria, 435 

Lizard-tail Family, 95 

hirsutissimus, 207 

discoidea, 435 

Loasa Family, 255 

latifolius, 208 

matricarioides, 435 


longifolius, 209 

Mayweed, 434 

Lobelia, 388 

micranthus, 208 

Mayweed Tribe, 434 

splendens, 388 

rivularis Latifolius, 209 

Meadow-rue, 156 

Loco-weed, 222 

sparsiflorus, 207 

Meconopsis, 162 

Loeflingia, 150 

truncatus, 207 

heterophylla, 162 

squarrosa, 150 

Lycium, 352 

Medicago, 210 

Lolium, 57 

Californicum, 352 

apiculata, 210 

perenne, 57 

Parishii, 353 

denticulata, 210 

multiflorum, 58 

Richii, 352 

lupulina, 211 

temulentum, 58 

Lycopus, 347 

orbicularis, 211 

Lomatium, 289 

lucidus, 348 

sativa, 210 

dasycarpum, 290 


Melica, 46 

utriculatum, 289 

Lythrum, 261 

imperfecta, 46 

Vaseyi, 289 

Californicum, 261 

flexuosa, 46 

Lonicera, 381 

minor, 46 

subspioata, 381 

Madaria, 419 

refracta, 47 

Loosestrife Family, 260 

elegans, 420 

Melilotus, 211 

Lophotocarpus, 17 

Madder Family, 377 

alba, 211 

calycinus, 17 

Madia, 419 

Indica, 211 


dissitiflora, 420 

Mentha, 348 

Lotus, 215 

sativa, 419 

piperita, 348 

Americanus, 216 


spicata, 349 

argophyllus, 219 

Madrono, 296 

viridis, 349 

Davidsoni, 219 

Malacothrix, 448 

Mentzelia, 255 

glaber, 218 

Californica, 448 

afflnis, 256 

grandiflorus, 218 

Cleveland!, 449 

albicaulis integrifolia^Q 

Heermanni, 220 

saxatilis tenuiflora, 449 

dispersa, 256 

humistratus, 217 

Mallow, 246 

gracilenta, 256 

junceus, 219 

Mallow Family, 245 

integrifolia, 256 

lathyroides, 216 

Malva, 246 

laevicaulis, 256 

leucophyllus, 219 

parviflora, 247 

micrantha, 256 

micranthus, 217 

pusilla, 247 

Mesembrianthemum, 139 

Nevadensis, 219 


aequilaterale, 139 

nudiflorus, 218 

Malvastrum, 248 

crystallinum, 139 

oblongiflorus, 216 

Davidsonii, 249 

nodiflorum, 140 

rubellus, 217 

exile, 248 

Mesquit, 205 

salsuginosus, 217 

fasciculatum, 249 

Micrampelis, 385 

strigosus, 218 

Fremontii, 249 

macrocarpa, 385 

Wrangelianus, 216 

splendidum, 249 

Micromeria, 346 

Ludwigia, 263 

Thurberi, 249 

Chamissonis, 346 

diffusa Calif ornica, 263 

Manzanita, 297 

Douglasii, 346 

Lupinus, 206 

Maple, 240 

Micropus, 407 

afflnis, 208 

Maple Family, 240 

Californicus, 408 

Chamissonis, 209 

Mariposa Lily, 89 

Microseris, 444 

longifolius, 209 

Marrubium, 341 

aphantocarpha tenella, 

concinnus, 207 

vulgare, 341 


cytisoides, 209 

Marsh Rosemary, 301 

cyclocarpha, 445 



Microsteris, 312 

Muilla, 85 

(Enanthe sarmentosa 

Californica, 312 

serotina, 85 

Californica, 287 

Mignotte Family, 182 

Mullen, 346 

(Enothera, 269 

Milkweed, 306 

Mustard, 169 

alyssoides, 272 

Milkweed Family, 305 

Mustard Family, 164 

biennis hirsutissima, 

Milkwort Family, 230 



Millet Tribe, 22 

Myrica, 98 

bistorta, 270 

Mimulus, 364 

Californica, 98 

Veitchiana, 270 

Bigelovii, 365 


Californica, 452 

brevipes, 365 

Myriophyllum, 274 

cheiranthifolia, 270 

cardinalis, 365 

spicatum, 274 

suffruticosa, 279 

exilis, 367 

dentata, 271 

floribundus, 366 

Naiad, 12 

hirtella, 271 

Fremonti, 365 


micrantha, 271 

Langsdorfii grandis, 366 

Naias, 12 
flexilis 13 

strigulosa, 271 

luteus, 366 
microphyllus, 367 
moschatus, 365 
sessilifolium, 366 
Miner's Lettuce, 141 
Mint Family, 338 

Nama Parryii, 328 
Nasturtium officinale, 172 
Navarretia, 312 
atractyloides, 313 
prostrata, 313 
viscidula, 313 

viridescens, 270 
Oligomeris, 182 
glaucescens, 183 
Olive Family, 302 

Mirabilis, 136 
Californica, 137 
multiflora pubescens,136 

Nemacladus, 387 
ramosissimus, 387 

Onagra, 268 
Hookeri, 269 
Opuntia, 258 

Mission Bells, 88 
Mistletoe, 110 
Mistletoe Family, 109 

pinnatifidus, 388 
Nemacaulis, 112 
denudata 112 

Bernardina, 259 
Lindheimeri littor- 
alis, 259 

Mock-orange, 384 

Nuttallii 112 

occidentalis, 259 

Modiola, 246 
Caroliniana, 246 

Nemophila, 320 

prolifera, 260 
Orchid Family, 93 

Mollugo, 138 
verticillata, 138 
Monanthochloe, 44 
littoralis, 44 

insignis, 320 
integrifolia, 321 
Menziesii integrifolia, 


Orobanche, 374 
Californica, 375 

Monardella, 346 
lanceolata, 346 


racemosa, 320 
Ncnios6ris 447 

tuberosa, 375 
Orthocarpus, 370 

Monkey-flower, 364 
Monolepsis, 126 

Californica, 447 
Nettle, 107 

densiflorus, 371 
Parishii, 371 

Nuttaliana, 126 
Monolopia, 429 

Nettle Family, 106 
NicoticHiti 353 

purpurascens, 370 
Osmorhiza, 281 

major, 430 
Montia, 141 

Bigelovii, 354 
Cleveland! 354 

brachypoda, 281 


perfoliata, 142 
spathulata, 142 
Morning-glory, 308 
Morning-glory Family, 307 

glauca, 354 
Nightshade, 350 

Oxalis, 229 
corniculata, 229 
Wrightii, 229 
Oxygraphis, 154 

Mountain Mahogany, 201 

Oak, 104 

Cymbalaria, 154 

Muhlenbergia, 32 

Oat, 39 

Oxytheca, 115 

Californica, 32 

Wild, 39 

Parishii, 115 

Parishii, 32 

Oat Tribe, 38 

trilobata, 116 

sylvatica Californica, 32 

CEnanthe, 287 

Owl-clover, 370 



Paeonia, 152 

Petunia parvifiora, 355 


Brownii, 152 

Peucedanum, 289 

Jeffrey!, 4 

Palmerella, 388 

Phacelia, 321 

Lambertiana, 2 

debilis serrata, 389 

brachyloba, 325 

monophylla, 3 


ciliata, 323 

Murrayana, 4 

Panicum, 23 

Davidsonii macrantha, 

Parry ana, 3 

capillare, 24 


ponderosa, 4 

colonum, 24 

distans, 323 

Sabiniana, 4 

Crus-galli, 23 

Douglasii, 325 

Torreyana, 3 

pubescens, 24 

Fremontii, 326 

tuberculata, 5 

isanguinale, 23 

grandiflora, 324 

Piperia, 94 

scoparium, 24 

hispida, 322 

lancifolia, 94 

Papaver, 162 

longipes, 324 

longispica, 95 

Calif ornicum, 163 

Magellanica, 322 

Piptocalyx, 331 


Parry i, 324 

circumscissus, 332 

Parietaria, 108 

ramosissima suffrutes- 

Plagiobothrys, 332 

debilis. 109 

cens, 322 

canescens, 332 

Paspalum, 22 

tanacetifolia, 323 

Cooper i, 333 

distichum, 22 

viscida, 323 

nothofulvus, a32 

Pastinaca, 291 

albiflora, 324 

Plane-tree, 195 

sativa, 291 


Plane-tree Family, 194 

Pectocarya, 329 

Phalaris, 27 


linearis, 330 

Lemmoni, 27 

Plantago, 376 

penicillata, 330 

minor, 27 

Bigelovii, 377 

setosa, 330 

Philibertella, 306 

erecta, 376 

Pedicularis, 372 

Hartwegii heterophylla, 

obversa, 377 

densiflora, 372 


hirtella, 376 

semibarbata, 373 

Phleum, 33 

lanceolata, 376 

Penney wort, 277 

pratense, 33 

major, 376 

Pentacaena, 150 

Phoradendron, 110 

obversa, 376 

ramosissima, 150 

villosum, 110 

Plantain, 376 

Pentachaeta, 394 

macrophyllum, 110 

Plantain Family, 375 

aurea, 394 

Phyllospadix, 13 


Lyoni, 395 

Torreyi, 14 

Platanus, 195 

Pentstemon, 359 

Physalis, 349 

racemosa, 195 

centranthifolius, 360 

Greenei, 350 

Platystemon, 159 

cordifolius, 360 

ixocarpa, 350 

Californicum, 159 

heterophyllus, 361 

jiedunculata, 350 

Platystigma, 159 

labrosus, 360 

Phytolacca, 135 

denticulata, 159 

Palmeri, 361 

decandra, 135 

Plectritis, 382 

Parishii, 361 


congesta minor, 382 


Pickeringia, 206 

minor, 382 

ternatus, 360 

montana, 206 

Pleuchea, 407 

Peony, 152 

Pimpernel, 299 

borealis, 407 

Peppergrass, 167 


camphorata, 407 

Perezia, 442 

Pine, 2 

sericea, 407 

microcephala, 443 

Pine Family, 1 


Perezia Tribe, 442 

Pink Family, 143 

Plumbago Family, 301 

Perityle, 427 

Pinus, 2 

Poa, 49 

Californica nuda, 427 

attenuata, 5 

annua, 49 

Petunia, 355 

Coulteri, 5 

Fendleriana, 50 



Poa infirma, 50 

Prosopis juliflora, 205 

Ranunculus hebe- 

pratensis, 50 

pubescens, 206 

carpus, 155 

scabrella, 51 

Prunus, 203 

trichophyllus, 155 

Poison Hemlock, 283 

demissa, 204 

Raphanus, 170 

Poison Oak, 239 

ilicifolia, 204 

sativus, 170 

Pokeweed Family, 135 

Pseudotsuga, 5 

Raspberry, 198 


macrocarpa, 6 

Rattle- weed, 222, 223 

Polycarpon, 149 

Psilocarphus, 408 

Razoumofskya, 109 

depressum, 149 

globiferus, 408 

occidentalis, 109 

Polygala, 231 

Psoralea, 220 

Rein-orchis, 94 

Californica, 231 

Californica, 221 

Reseda, 182 


macrostachya, 220 

lutea, 182 


orbicularis, 221 


Polygonum, 121 

physodes, 220 


avioulare, 122 

Pterostegia, 111 

Rhamnus, 241 

Convolvulus, 123 

drymarioides, 111 

California, 241 

hydropiperoides, 122 

Ptiloria, 446 

tomentella, 242 

incarnatum, 122 

cichoriacea, 447 

crocea, 241 

lapathifolium, 122 

pleurocarpa, 446 

ilicifolia, 241 

nodosum, 122 

virgata, 446 

Rhus, 238 

Polypogon, 35 

Pulse Family, 204 

diversiloba, 239 

littoralis, 36 

Purslane, 142 

integrifolia, 239 

Monspeliensis, 35 

Purslane Family, 140 

laurina, 239 

Pond weed, 10 

Pycnanthemum, 347 

ovata, 239 

Pondweed Family, 9 

Calif ornicum, 347 

trilobata, 240 

Pop-corn Flower, 33% 


Ribes, 192 

Poplar, 99 

amarum, 193 

Poppy Family, 158 

Quercus, 104 

divaricatum, 193 

Populus, 99 

agrifolia, 106 

hesperium, 194 

Fremont i, 99 

Californica, 106 

malvaceum viridifoli- 

trichocarpa, 99 

chrysolepis, 106 

um, 192 

Portulaca, 142 

Douglaaii, 105 

Nevadense, 193 

oleracea, 142 

dumosa, 105 

speciosum, 194 


Engelmanni, 105 

tenuiflorum, 192 

Potentilla, 198 

lobata, 105 

Ricinus, 233 

Anserina, 199 Wislizeni, 106 

communis, 234 

glandulosa, 200 

Rock-rose, 253 

Nevadensis, 200 

Radish, 170 

Rock- rose Family, 252 

multijuga, 198 

Bafinesquia Californica, 

Romero, 340 

Potamogeton, 10 


Romneya, 159 

foliosus Californicus, 11 

Ragweed, 411 

Coulteri, 160 

Jtmtans, 10 j Ragweed Tribe, 411 

trichocalyx, 160 

lonchites, 10 

Ramona, 344 

Roripa, 171 

natans, 10 

grandiflora, 344 

curvisliqua, 172 

paucijlorus Californicus, 

nivea, 344 

Nasturtium, 171 

11 polystachya, 345 

Rosa, 203 

pectinatus, 11 

stachyoides, 345 

Californica, 203 

Potato Family, 349 



Primrose Family, 298 

Ranunculus, 155 

Rose, 203 


Californicus, 155 

Rose Family, 195 

Prosopis, 205 

Cymbalaria, 155 

RUB I ACE A E, 377 



Rubus, 197 

Sambucus glauca, 380 

Sedum spathulifolium, 184 

leucodermis, 198 

Samolus, 299 

Senecio, 439 

Nutkanus, 197 

floribundus, 299 

Californicus, 439 

parviflorus, 197 

Valerandi Americanus, 

Douglasii, 440 

vitifolius, 198 


ilecetorum, 439 

Rumex, 119 

Sand Rocket, 169 

vulgaris, 439 

Acetosella, 120 

Sand-verbena, 137 


conglomerates, 121 


Sesuvium, 138 

crispus, 121 

arguta, 279 

sessile, 139 

hymenosepalus, 121 

bipinnata, 280 

Shooting-star, 300 

persicarioides, 120 

bipinnatifida, 279 

Sida, 249 

pulcher, 120 

laciniata, 279 

hederacea, 249 

salicifolius, 120 

Menziesii, 278 

Sidalcea, 247 

Ruppia, 11 

Nevadensis, 279 

delphinifolia, 248 

maritima, 11 

tuberosa, 280 

humilis, 248 

Rush, 80 

Sarcodes, 295 

malvaeflora, 247 

Rush Family, 79 

sanguinea, 295 

parviflora, 248 

Russian Thistle, 132 


Silene, 143 

Roubieve, 126 

Saxifraga, 190 

Anglica, 144 

multifida, 126 

California, 190 

antirrhina, 144 


Gallica, 144 

Sage, 343 

Saxifrage, 190 

laciniata, 144 

Sagina, 146 

Saxifrage Family, 188 

multinervia, 144 

occidentalis, 146 

Schoenus, 72 

verecunda, 145 

Sagittaria, 17 

nigricans, 72 

Silk-tassel Tree, 293 

calycina, 17 

Scirpus, 67 

Sisynibrium acutangulum, 

latifolia, 18 

Americanus, 67 


variabilis, 18 

atrovirens, 69 

canescens, 177 


Californicus, 68 

officinale, 169 

Salicornia, 130 

cernuus, 67 

reflexum, 166 

ambigua, 130 

lacustris occidentalis, 

Sisyrinchium, 93 

subterminalis, 130 


bellum, 93 

Salix, 99 

maritimus, 69 

Sitanion, 62 

argophylla, 102 

microcarpus, 69 

anomalum, 64 

exigua, 102 

Olneyi, 68 

Californicum, 64 

virens, 102 

pungens, 68 

jubatum, 63 

laevigata, 100 

ripariu-s, 67 

multisetum, 63 

lasiandra, 100 

robustus, 69 

Sium, 256 

lasiolepis, 101 

Tatora, 69 

cicutaefolium, 286 

macrostachyia, 101 

Screw-bean, 206 

heterophyllum, 286 

leucodendroides, 102 

Scrophularia, 359 

Skullcap, 340 

nigra vallicola, 100 

Californica, 359 

Snap-dragon, 357 

Parishiana, 101 


Sneezeweed, 433 

Salmon Berry, 197 

Scutellaria, 340 

Sneezeweed Tribe, 425 

Salsify, 448 

Bolanderi, 341 

Snowberry, 381 

Salsola, 132 

tuberosa, 340 

Snow-plant, 295 

Tragus, 132 

Sea Purslane, 138 

Soap-plant, 83 

Salvia, 343 

Sedge, 73 


carduacea, 343 

Sedge Family, 64 

Solanum, 350 

Columbariae, 343 

Sedum, 184 

Douglasii, 351 

Sambucus, 380 

obtusatum, 184 

rostrata, 352 



Solatium villosum, 351 

Sporobolus, 34 

Teasel Family, 38 

Wallace!, 351 

airoides, 34 

Tetradymia, 438 

Xanti, 351 

asperifolius, 34 

comosa, 438 

glabrescens, 351 

Spruce, 6 

Thalesia, 374 

intermedium, 351 

Big-cone, 6 

fasciculata, 374 

Sol id ago, 396 

False, 5 

Thalictrum, 156 

Californica, 396 

Spurge Family, 231 

polycarpum, 156 

confinis, 397 

Stanleya, 165 

Thelypodium, 165 

Sonchus, 449 

pinnata, 165 

lasiophyllum, 166. 

asper, 450 

Star-thistle, 442 

inalienum, 166 

oleraceus, 449 

Stellaria media, 145 

Therofon, 189 

Sophia, 177 

nitens, 145 

elatum, 189 

incisa, 177 

Stercula Family, 250 

rotundifolium, 189- 

pinnata, 178 


Thistle, 440 

Sorghum, 21 

Stillingia, 234 

Thistle-sage, 343 

Halepense, 21 

linearifolia, 234 

Thistle Tribe, 440 

Sorghum Tribe, 20 

Stipa, 29 

Thorn-apple, 353 

Sow-thistle, 449 

coronata, 30 

Thysanocarpus, 176 

Spanish Bayonet, 91 

eminens, 30 

curvipes, 177 

Sparganium, 9 

Andersonii, 30 

laciniatus, 177 

eurycarpum, 9 

HasseL 29 

Tillaea, 188 

Spartina, 42 

Parishii, 30 

minima, 188 

folios a, 42 

setigera, 31 

Timothy, 33 

glabra, 42 

speciosa, 31 

Tissa, 149 

Specularia, 386 

viridula, 31 

gracilis, 149 

biflora, 386 

Stone-crop Family, 183 

macrotheca, 149- 

Speedwell, 367 

Stramonium, 353 

marina, 148 

Spergula, 148 

Streptanthus, 166 

tenuis, 149 

arvensis, 148 

heterophyllus, 167 

Tobacco, 353 

Spergularia, 148 

Stylochine, 408 

Tornilla, 206 

Spike-rush, 70 

gnaphalioides, 408 

Tragopogon, 447 

Spiranthes, 95 

Stylophyllum, 185 

porrifolius, 448 

Romanzoffiana, 95 

densiflorum, 186 

Trichostema, 339 

Spirodela, 77 

Hassei, 185 

lanatum, 340 

polyrhiza, 77 

insulare, 185 

lanceolatum, 339- 

Sphacele, 345 

Suada, 131 

Trifolium, 221 

calycina Wallacei, 346 

Californica, 131 

albopurpureum, 215 

Sphaerostigma, 269 

suffrutescens, 131 

bifldum, 212 

alyssoides, 272 

Torreyana, 131 

ciliatum, 212 

bistorta, 270 

Sumac Family, 238 

ciliolatum, 212 

campestre, 271 

Sunflower, 414 

depauperatum, 215 

Parishii, 272 

Sunflower Family, 389 

furcatum, 214 

contortum, 271 

Sunflower Tribe, 414 

gracilentum, 212 

Greenei, 271 

Sweet Alyssum, 180 

involucratum, 213 

hirtellum, 271 

Sweet Clover, 211 

Macraei, 213 

micranthum, 271 

Sycamore, 195 

albopurpureum, 213: 

spirale, 270 

Syntherisma, 23 

microcephalum, 214 

Veitchianum, 270 

sanguinalis, 23 

obtusiflorum, 214 

viridescens, 270 

pratense, 213 

Sphenosciadium, 288 

Tarweed, 419 

repens, 212 

capitellatum, 288 

Tarweed Tribe, 418 

roscidum, 214 



Trifolium spinulosum, 213 

Verbesina, 416 

Waterwort Family, 251 

stenophyllum, 215 

encelioides, 416 

Wax Myrtle, 98 

tridentatum, 214 

Veronica, 367 

Western Nettle, 108 

variegatum, 213 

Buxbaumii, 368 

Whispering Bells, 326 

Wormskjoldii, 213 

Byzantina, 368 

White Fir, 6 

Triglochin, 14 

peregrina, 368 

White Sage, 345 

maritima, 15 

Vervain Family, 336 

Wild Buckwheat, 117 

Trisetum barbatum, 53 

Vetch, 224 

Wild Cucumber, 385 

Tropidocarpum, 173 

Vicia, 224 

Wild Grape, 245 

dubium, 174 

Americana, 224 

Wild Hyacinth, 86 

gracile, 173 

linearis, 225 

Wild Pea, 226 

Typha, 8 

truncatus, 225 

Wild Rye, 61 

angustifolia, 8 

Californica, 225 

Wild Toad-flax, 357 

latifolia, 8 

exigua, 225 

Willow, 99 


Hassei, 225 

Wintergreen Family, 294 

sativa, 225 

Wolfflella, 79 


Viola, 253 

lingulata, 79 

Umbellularia, 157 

blanda, 254 

oblonga, 79 

Californica, 158 

crysantha, 225 

Wood-sorrel, 229 

Uropappus, 445 

Douglasii, 255 

Wood-sorrel Family, 228 


lobata, 254 

Woolly Blue-curls, 340 

linearifolius, 445 

palmata cucullata, 254 

Urtica, 107 

pedunculata, 254 

Xanthium, 413 

Breweri, 108 


Canadense, 414 

holosericea, 107 

Violet, 253 

spinosum, 413 

urens, 107 

Violet Family, 253 

Xylothermia, 206 


Virgin's Bower, 154 

montana, 206 

VlTACEAE, 244 

Valerian Family, 382 

Vitis, 245 

Yerba Buena, 346 


Girdiana, 245 

Yerba Manse, 96 

Valerianella, 382 

Yucca, 92 

macrocera, 382 

Wallflower, 179 

arborescens, 92 

Velaea, 284 

Walnut, 97 

Whipplei, 92 

arguta, 284 

Walnut Family, 96 

graminifolia, 92 

Parishii, 284 

Washingtonia, 281 

Venegasia, 426 

brachypoda, 281 

Zannichellia, 12 

carpesioides, 427 

Watercress, 171 

palustris, 12 

Verbascum, 356 

Water-hemlock 285 

Zauschneria, 263 

virgatum, 356 

Water-hoarhound, 347 

Californica latifolia, 263 

Verbena, 336 

Water-leaf Family, 319 

microphylla, 263 

bracteosa, 337 

Water-milfoil Family, 273 

Zostera, 13 

polystachya, 337 

Water-plantain Family, 

marina, 13 

prostrata, 337 


Zygadene, 83 

urticifolia, 337 

Water-starwort Family, 

Zygadenus, 83 



Fremontii, 83 




Grcenei Morong. Page 9, substitute for 
8. eitrycarpH-ni. Nutlets broadly cuneate, not sharply angled, 
rounded at 'apex into a short beak. 


AKDBOPOGONEAE. Page 19, line 8, misspelled in the text. 

Paiiicuiu pacificiim Hitchcock & Chase. Page 24, sub- 
stitute for P. scopari-Hiii. Our Pacific Coast plant has recently 
been segregated as a distinct species, its distinguishing 
characters being pilose pubescence and narrow (5-8 mm.) 

PTILEUM. Page 28, line 26, misspelled in the text. 


Cyperus melanostacliyus HBK. Page 65, substitute for 
C. diandrus capitatitx. 

Cyperus l>ronioides (Clarke) Britton. Insert after the 
preceding. Stems slender, 4-8 dm. high, exceeding the 
leaves; spikelets 4-12, lanceolate, flattened, 10-20-flowered; 
involucral leaves 2-4 ; scales acute, 4 mm. long, yellowish 
brown, green on the 3-nerved keel, scarious-margined; sta- 
mens 3; styles 2-cleft; achenes ovoid, black, 1-1.5 mm. long. 
Cienega, near Los Angeles, according to Parish. 

Cyperus speciosus Vahl. Page 67, insert at the end of 
the genus. Annual, with stems 1-5 dm. high; leaves shorter 

476 Supplement 

than the stems, 4-6 mm. wide, scabrous-margined; involucral 
leaves longer than the rays; spikelets in usually crowded 
umbels, narrowly linear, 5 cm. long; scales ovate, acutish, 
2 mm. long, greenish or pale with brown margins, readily 
separating from the axis; wings broad, scarious, wholly 
adnate to the rachis and enclosing the achenes; stamens 3; 
achenes pale, oblong-ovoid, 1 mm. long. 

Los Angeles River, Braunton, Davidson. 


Cyperus lougispicatus Norton. Insert after the preceding. 
Resembling the last; leaves channeled; umbel compound, 
loose and spreading or rarely congested; spikelets linear, 
1-1.5 cm. long; fertile scales oblong, 3 mm. long, obtuse; 
achenes oblong, 1-1.25 mm. long, obtusely 3-angled, mucron- 
ulate at the apex. 

Elsinore Lake, Parish. 

Scirpus pacificus Britton. Page 69, substitute for Sf. 
robustH8, Stems scabrous above; leaves rough-margined; 
styles 2-cleft. 

Carex comosa Boott. Page 73, substitute for C. pseudo- 
cy perns amcrlcana. 

Carex lanugmosa Michx. Page 74, substitute for C. fili- 
formis latifolia. 

Carex senta Boott. Page 75, insert above C. triquetra. 
Stems slender, 3 dm. high, scabrous on the sharp angles; 
leaves shorter than the stems, 2-4 mm. wide; staminate spikes 
1-2; pistillate spikes 2-3, on short peduncles, 3-5 cm. long, 
4-5 mm. thick; scales narrowly lanceolate; perigynia ovoid or 
obovoid; achenes light brown, orbicular, smooth, mucronulate. 

Near San Fernando, Breiver ; Cienega, Davidson, according to 

Carex Hassei Bailey. Insert after the preceding. Stolon- 
iferous by slender rootstocks; stems slender or filiform, 
25-50 cm. high; leaves thin, 2-4 mm. wide, much shorter than 
the stems, long-pointed; staminate spike oblong, acute, 1 cm. 
long, pedunculate; pistillate spikes 1-5, cylindrical, the lowest 
remote and usually on a long peduncle; scales green, brown 

Supplement 477 

on the margins, ovate, cuspidate; perigynium 2-5 mm. long, 
exceeding the scale, obovoid, green, strongly nerved; achenes 
prominently beaked. 

In a bog near the head of West Fork of San Gabriel River, alti- 
tude 4500 feet, Hasse ; also in the San Bernardino Mountains, Hasse, 
Parish, according to Parish. 

Carex alma Bailey. Page 76, substitute for C. tcretius- 
cula. Stems stout, 4-12 dm. high; leaves carinate, 3-5 mm. 
wide, exceeding the stem; scales equaling the perigynium; 
achenes brown, lenticular, 1.75-2 mm. long. 

Growing in clumps along canyon streams of the San Gabriel, 
the San Bernardino, and the Santa Ana Mountains. 


Juncus textilis Buchn. Page 80, substitute for J. Lcsvurii 

.1 minis macrophyllus Coville. Page 81, substitute for /". 

Juncus rugulosus Engelm. Page 81, insert above J- 
Torrcyi. Stems 3-5 dm. high, these and the leaves rugose with 
fine transverse wrinkles; leaves 3-4, terete; inflorescence 
paniculate; perianth-segments 2.5 mm. long, pale tinged with 
brown; styles slender, well exserted. 

A species well marked by the wrinkled epidermis of the stems 
and leaves. Frequent along streams in the foothills of the San 
Gabriel Mountains, southward to the Cuiamaca Mountains. 

Juncus xiphioides E. Mey. Page 82, insert after /. 
pJiaencephalus panic-Hiatus. Resembles J. pliaeocepfialus from 
which it is distinguished by its narrowly winged stems 
and short styles, that species having wingless stems and 
long-exserted styles. 

Los Angeles, Davidson,- Peat Lands, Orange County, Gels. 


(Page 95, insert above Gyrostachi/s.) 

Leafy caulescent herbs from creeping rootstocks. 
Flowers few, in a terminal, leafy-bracted raceme. Peri- 

478 Supplement 

anth spreading 1 ; sepals and petals similar; lip free, con- 
cave at base, constricted at middle, dilated and petaloid 
above. Anther 1, sessile, back of the broad truncate 
Stigma, 2-celled; pollen-masses becoming attached to the 
gland on the small rounded beak of the stigma. 

Epipactis gigaiiteum Dougl. Erect, 3-10 dm. high, sparsely 
pubescent; lower leaves ovate, upper lanceolate, 8-16 cm. 
long, acute; flowers on short pedicels, greenish, veined with 
purple; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 12-16 mm. long. 

Springy places in the foothills and mountains. Inadvertently 
omitted in the text. 


Eriogouum fasciculatum Benth. Page 117. The typical 
species is the coastal plant with a glabrous perianth, and 
leaves nearly glabrous on the upper surface. 

Eriogonum fasciculatum foliolosum (Nutt.) Stokes. Leaves 
nearly glabrous on the upper surface; perianth villous 

The common form on the mesas and foothills of the coastal slope. 

Eriogonum fasciculatum polifolium (Benth.) Torr. & Gray. 
Leaves hoary-tomentose above; perianth densely villous. 

The common form on the desert slopes, sometimes occurring in 
the drier parts of the coastal slope. 


Cardamine oligosperma Nutt. Page 172, insert after C. 
Gambellii. Erect simple or branching slender annual, 1-4 dm. 
high; leaves pinnate, 3 cm. long or less; leaflets 5-11, notched 
toward the apex, 2-8 mm. long; sepals 1 mm. long; petals 
white, 2 mm. long; pod 1 mm. wide, 2 cm. long, on pedicels 
about 5 mm. long. 

Topango Canyon, Santa Ana Mountains, Hasse- 


Reseda. Page 182, line 19, insert the word "opening" after 

Supplement 479 


Kibes gracilliimim Coville & Britton. Page 182, substitute 
for R. tenuiflont'Hi. Calyx-tube 6-8 mm. long; the lobes 3-4 
mm. long. 

Kibes indecorum Eastw. Page 192, insert above 1?. maluaccmn 
ri-ridi folium. Shrub with stiff, erect branches; young shoots 
pubescent and glandular-hairy; petioles, lower surface of 
leaves and inflorescence tomentose and glandular-pubescent; 
leaves 2-5 cm. broad, 3-5-lobed, rugose; racemes equaling the 
leaves, closely flowered; pedicels 1-2 mm. long; bracts acute; 
calyx white or greenish, rarely tinged with, 3-4 mm. 

In the chaparral of the mountains and foothills, below 4000 feet 
altitude; Ventura County, southward to northern Lower California. 

Ribcs Parishii Heller. Page 193, substitute for R. tlivar- 
icdhini. Calyx purplish-red, strigose-pubescent without, the 
tube campanulate, 4 mm. long, equaling the reflexed lobes; 
style densely villous below the middle. 


Cercocarpus ledifolins Nutt. Page 202, insert after ('. 
bctulaefolhtft, from which it is readily distinguished by the 
narrowly lanceolate entire revolute leaves. 

Frequent in the higher altitudes of the San Gabriel and the San 
Bernardino Mountains; recently discovered on Mount Wilson by 
Miss Geis. 

Adenostoma sparsifolium Torr. Page 202, insert after A. 
fascicitlatwH. Arborescent, resinously glandular shrub, 2-6 
m. high; leaves not fascicled, narrowly linear, glandular; 
flowers in open showy panicles; calyx-lobes, rounded, whitish, 
2 mm. long, half the length of the white petals. 

This species, which is common in the San Jacinto Mountains 
and southward to Lower California, has been discovered recently 
by Dr. Hasse in the Santa Monica Mountains. 


Lupiniis forniosus Greene. Page 208, insert above L. 
latifoliwt. Perennial herb, branching from the base, decum- 

480 Supplement 

bent or ascending, 4-8 dm. long; herbage silky-pubescent, 
throughout; leaflets equaling the petiole, 25-35 mm. long, 
oblanceolate, abruptly acuminate; raceme shortly peduncu- 
late; flowers in more or less distinct whorls, 12-15 mm. long, 
deep violet; keel glabrous. 

A common species on the plains and foothills; inadvertently- 
omitted in the text. 


I. inum iisitatissintuni L. Page 230, misspelled in the text. 


Polygala coriiuta Kellogg. Page 231, substitute for /'. 
califoniicd. Slender, shrub, with few slender green branches, 
about 1 m. high; petioles 3 mm. long; leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late to nearly linear, 2-3.5 cm. long, nearly or quite glabrous; 
flowers greenish-white, tinged with purple, 6-8 mm. long. 

Sierra Nevada southward to northern Lower California. First 
collected by Nuttall at Santa Barbara. Sisar Canyon, near Santa 
Paula; Mount Wilson trail, at 3000 feet altitude. 


Cennotlms metacarpus Nutt. Page 244, substitute for C. 

Ceaiiotlms Jepsoni Greene. Page 244, insert after C. cun- 
catufi. Shrub with stiff branches; twigs nearly or quite 
glabrous; leaves holly-like, pungently toothed, glabrous; 
flowers blue. 

Hills west of Pomona, Baker. 


Our species belong to two groups now considered dis- 
tinct genera. Species one to four belong to Acrolasia, 
the fifth to Touterea. In addition to those described in 
the text the following have been discovered within our 
range : 

Acrolasia Davidsoniana Abrams. Erect, 2-3 dm. high; 
leaves somewhat pinnatifid or nearly entire; calyx-lobes 

Supplement 481 

lanceolate, 3 mm. long; petals 8 mm. long; bracts conspicuous 
mostly scarious, concealing the capsules; seeds irregularly 
angled, only occasionally grooved. 

Open pine forests of the San Gabriel Mountains; Mt. Wilson, Mt. 

Acrolasia piiietornm Heller. Distinguished from other 
southern California species by the very small flowers; calyx- 
lobes 1 mm. long; petals 2 mm. long; capsule long attenuate. 

Mt. Wilson, according to Davidson; Rock Creek, Abrams & 


Boisdnialia. Page 265, insert Spach as the author of this 


Comarostaphylis diversifolia (Parry) Greene. Page 296, 
insert after Arbutus Menziesii. Shrub with brown shredded 
bark, tomentose twigs and inflorescence; leaves evergreen, 
elliptic-ovate, 3-6 cm. long, finely serrate, glabrous above, 
tomentose beneath; racemes 7-10 cm. long; pedicels 1-2 cm. 
long, tomentose; fruit fleshy, deep red, rugose-granular, stone 

The genus Comarostaphyli* is intermediate between Arbutus 
and Arctofttairiijlo*. having the ovules united into a several- 
celled stone, and the ovary granular-rugose, becoming red 
and fleshy in fruit. 

On the islands off the coast of southern California, and from the 
vicinity of San Diego southward into northern Lower California; 
also within our range in Topango Canyon, Santa Monica Mountains, 


Eriodictyon trichocalyx Heller. Page 327, substitute for K. 
caUfornicttm. Our plant resembles E. californicum in its glut- 
inous leaves which are nearly or quite glabrous above, but the 
inflorescence and calyx are densely pubescent; corolla usually 
white, 6 mm. long. 

482 Supplement 


Solatium villosuin Lam. Page 351. Occasional in waste 
places about Los Angeles. 


Pentstemon antirrhinoides Benth. Page 360, insert after /'. 
ternatus. Shrub often 2 m. high; leaves about 1 cm. long, 
spatulate or oval, entire; panicle leafy; flowers on short 
pedicels; sepals broadly ovate; corolla yellow, ventricose, 
15-20 mm. long; sterile filament densely bearded on one side. 

A common shrub along the eastern base of the Santa Ana 
Mountains, and extending eastward to the western slope of the San 
Jacinto Mountains; entering within our limits in Santiago Canyon, 
Santa Ana Mountains, Geis, Perkins, 

Collinsia Parryi A. Gray. Page 363, misspelled in the text. 

Orthocarpus erianthus Benth. Page 371, insert after 0. 
ParisJiii. Stems erect, 1-2 dm. high, often reddish; leaves 
pinnately divided into filiform divisions; spikes slender; cor- 
olla 2 cm. long, twice the length of the calyx, sulphur-yellow, 
except the purple subulate smooth galea; sacs of the lips 
4 mm. deep, with 2 greenish-yellow spots; folds of the throat 
densely bearded. 

San Fernando Mountains, Wilde, according to Parish. A common 
species in central California. 


Orobanclie californica Cham. & Sch. Page 375, substitute 
for 0. c&lifomicum. 


Aster bernardinus Hall. Page 402, insert above A. he*- 
perius. Stems several from a perennial base, erect, leafy 
throughout; herbage cinereous with a dense short soft 
pubescence; leaves loosely spreading, linear to linear-lanceo- 
late, 3-5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide ; heads racemose or paniculate ; 
peduncles with linear overlapping bracts; involucres 7 mm. 

Supplement 483 

high, canescent; bracts closely imbricated, green and obtuse 
at apex; ray-flowers 30-35, 6-10 mm. broad, deep blue; achenes 

Moist meadows about San Bernardino, Parish ; Cienaga, Braunton, 
Davidson; Pomona, Davy, according to Hall. 

Erigeron linifolius Willd. Page 403, insert after E. 
frayUift. Annual or biennial; stems erect, 2-7 dm. high; 
herbage hispid and scabrous; leaves narrowly spatulate to 
linear, entire or the lower somewhat toothed; heads in a 
loose panicle, 4-5 mm. high; involucral bracts linear-subulate, 
pubescent; ray-flowers minute, white. 

Introduced from the tropics, first collected within .the State at 
San Diego by Miss Stokes in 1895, and since at Redlands and 
Pasadena, according to Hall. 

Psilocarplius tenellus Nutt. Page 408, insert after P. 
f/lolnfcrus. Simple or much branched and forming mats; her- 
bage with appressed wool; heads numerous, 2-4 mm. in 
diameter; floral leaves often 2 cm. long, linear-spatulate, 

Glendale, Braunton; Santa Catalina Island, Blanche Trask ; first 
collected at Santa Barbara by Nuttall. This species is distinguished 
from P. globi ferns by the short closely appressed wool instead of 
very loose almost arachnoid wool, and by the more numerous and 
smaller heads. 

Gnaphalium hicolor Bioletti. Page 410, substitute for (1. 
leucocephalum. Herbage densely woolly except the upper sur- 
face of the leaves, these deep green and slightly glandular. 

Common in the chaparral of the coastal foothills from San Diego 
to Monterey; Monrovia, Pasadena, Playa del Rey. 

Bidens expansa Greene. Page 417, substitute for #. spccl- 

Artemisia Parishii A. Gray. Page 437, insert after A. 
calif ornica. Shrub, 1-2 m. high; herbage cinereous-puberulent; 
leaves linear to linear-cuneate, entire or the upper 3-toothed 
at apex; panicle loose, 2-3 dm. long; involucre 3.5 mm. high, 
oblong-campanulate, canescent, 6-7-flowered; achenes sparsely 

484 Supplement 

Common in Antelope Valley and extending through San Antonio 
Pass to the vicinity of Newhall, where it was first discovered by 
Parish. This species is closely related to A. tridentata. 

Carduus. Page 441, line 4, substitute "a single" for "sev- 

Silybum Mariaiium (L.) Gaertn. Page 442, insert above 
Centaurea. Biennial herb, with very large prickly sinuate- 
pinnatifid clasping leaves, conspicuously blotched with white; 
heads solitary at the ends of the branches, 2.5-5 cm. broad; 
involucral bracts broad, appressed, ending in a spreading 
spine; corolla-tube slender, conspicuously dilated below the 
narrowly linear lobes. 

Introduced from the Mediterranean region. Commonly called 
Milk Thistle. 

Taraxacum officinale Weber. Page 449, insert above SoncJunt. 
Perennial acaulescent herb, with pinnatifid or sinuate leaves, 
and large heads of yellow flowers terminating naked hollow 
scapes; involucral bracts of two sorts, the outer reflexed, 
the inner erect in a single series; achenes greenish- 
brown oblong-ovate, 4-5-ribbed, spinulose above, attenuated 
into a long slender beak; pappus of numerous unequal simple 
capillary bristles. 

The common Dandelion is becoming frequent in lawns. 

Taraxacum erythrosperniuni Andrz. Resembles the com- 
mon Dandelion, being best distinguished by the red instead of 
greenish-brown achenes. 

This species is frequent in the San Francisco Bay region, and is 
to be expected in the lawns of southern California as well. 


This publication is due on the LAST DATE 
stamped below. 

RB 17-60m-12,'57 

General Library 

University of California