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B Y 

JOHN TORREY, M. D., F. L. S., «fec., 











London : ^Viley & Putnam, 35 Paternoster Row. 

Paris : Bossange & Co. 11 Quai Voltaire. 



Entered according to an act of Congress, in the year 1940, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New-York. 

19 New street, N. Y. 

■ *■%»> 

T O 









O* The first part of this Volume (to page 184) was published in July, 1838 
the second (to page 360) in October, 1838 : the remainder in June, 1840. 


The first volume of this work having been at length comple- 
ted, the authors have to perform the pleasing duty of offering 
their acknowledgments to their numerous friends and corres- 
pondents who have rendered important assistance to their 
arduous undertaking. 

To Sir William Hooker, than whom perhaps no person has 

^ done more for the advancement of North American Botany, we 

~ are largely indebted, not only for the opportunity of consulting 

'^^ his rich herbarium and excellent library under the most 

■a"i favorable circumstances, on two different occasions, but for the 

generous communication of a great number of authentic speci- 

^ mens of the plants described in the Flora Boreali- Americana, the 

Botany of Capt. Beechey^s Voyage, and other works, selected 

^ from the collections made in the Northern land expeditions of 

''' Capt. Sir John Franklin, those of the Arctic voyages of discovery, 

Lij and especially from those made in Oregon, the Rocky Mountains, 

&c. by the late Mr. Drummond, the late indefatigable Douglas, 

^ Mr. Tolmie, and others. To Dr. Richardson we are directly 

J indebted for many plants collected by himself in Capt. Frankhn's 

(A first expedition to the shores of the Arctic Sea ; and to Dr. now 

Professor Scouler, for a collection of Oregonplants. 

To INIr. Brown our acknowledgments are due for the unre- 

^ strained opportunity of consulting the Banksian herbarium, as 

QQ well as the herbaria of Clayton, Catesby, Plukenet, and the other 

V/ collections in his charge at the British Museum ; and to Mr. 

O Bennett, the Assistant Curator, and Secretary of the Linnsean 


Society, who by his kind attention greatly facihtated our 

We are under deep obligations to Mr. Bentham, for much 
important information, for the privilege of consulting his rich 
herbarium, for many rare American plants, and especially for a 
very full set of the plants collected by the late Mr. Douglas in 
Oregon and California, w^hich w^ere confided to him, as Secretary 
of the London Horticultural Society, for distribution. 

To Dr. LiNDLEY we are indebted for the opportunity of con- 
sulting his very large herbarium, for many authentic specimens, 
and for valuable suggestions. 

To Dr. Arnott our thanks are due for much very important 
information, many valuable contributions to our herbaria, and 
for the privilege of consulting his own excellent herbarium. 

To Prof. Don, for very obliging assistance in the examination 
of the Linnsean herbarium. 

To Mr. Lambert, for the facilities afforded us in examining 
the plants of Pursh, Bradbury, Mr. Nuttall, &c. which form a 
part of his very large collection. 

To Dr. BooTT, for kind assistance in the determination of 
the species of several difficult genera. 

To Mr. Fraser, for the privilege of examining the herbarium 
of Walter in his possession. 

To Prof. Adrien de Jussieu, for the opportunity of consulting 
his own herbarium, and that of his distinguished father, which is 
authentic for many species of Lamarck, Poiret, &c. : to his kind 
offices also, as well as to Mr. Decaisne, Assistant Botanist in the 
Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, we are indebted for many 
facilities in consulting the vast collections of that establishment, 
comprising the herbarium of Michaux, and many others of much 
interest to the North American Botanist. 

To Baron Benjamin Delessert, for access to his immense 
herbarium and very complete botanical library. 

To Mr. P. Barker-Webb, for obliging assistance in the exami- 
nation of the North American plants of the herbarium of Des- 
fontaines, and the other collections which are incorporated in his 
vast herbarium. Also to Mr. Spach, of the Jardine des Plantes, 


for specimens of many North American plants cultivated in that 

To Prof. De Canuolle of Geneva, for the important privilege 
of freely consulting his large herbarium through all the families 
which are now published in his Prodromus, and for duplicates 
of many interesting plants of the Order Composita:. 

To Dr. E.vdlicheu, Curator, and Dr. Fenzl, Assistant Curator 
of the Imperial herbarium at Vienna, for assistance in consulting 
that rich collection. 

To Dr. VoN Martius of Munich, and to Prof. Zuccarini, for 
access to the Royal Collections and Garden under their charge. 
To Prof. Schlechtendal of Halle, for the privilege of consult- 
ing his own herbarium, as well as that of Schkuhr, of which he 
has charge, and for the communication of an interesting set of 
Mexican plants. 

To Dr. Klotszcii, the Curator of the Royal herbarium at 
Berlin, for the greatest attention in facilitating the examination 
of the herbarium of Willdenow and the other rich collections of 
that establishment ; and for his aid in procuring for us specimens 
of American plants from the Botanic Garden. 

To Prof. KuNTH of Berlin, for the opportunity of consulting 
his herbarium, with the view of comparing several IVorth Ameri- 
can plants with species from Mexico and New Spain collected 
by Baron Humboldt. 

To Dr. Trinius and M. Bongard, of the Imperial Acad- 
emy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, for the communication of 
many plants from Russian North America and the adjacent 

To Prof. Lehmann of Hamburgh, for the privilege of examin- 
ing the genera Potentilla, GEnothera, &c. in his herbarium, and 
for many very interesting specimens in these and other genera t 
also for a small collection of Greenland plants, made for the 
most part by the younger Vahl. 

To Mr. Nuttall we are indebted for a nearly complete 
suite of the plants collected during his recent journey across the 
Rocky Mountains to Oregon and Califol-nia, accompanied with 
manuscript descriptions of the new genera and species : also for 



a portion of the plants collected during his travels in Arkansas 
in the year 1819. 

Our acknowledgments are also due to the Botanical Com- 
mittee of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
who have obligingly afforded us every facility in consulting the 
large herbarium of that Society, which includes that of the late 
Mr. Von Schw^einitz, and the chief collections of Mr. Nuttall. 
To the urbanity of Mr. Vaughan, the Librarian of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, we are indebted for the opportunity 
of examining the botanical collections in the custody of that 
Society, comprising the herbarium of Muhlenberg, and that of 
the late Professor Benjamin Smith Barton, which appears to 
have been formed by Pursh, and contains many of his plants. 

To the daughter of the lamented Elliott, we desire to 
express our thanks for kindly entrusting to our charge a portion 
of her late father's herbarium ; and also to Prof. Bachman and 
Prof. GiBBEs of Charleston, South Carolina, who kindly select- 
ed and transmitted to us the specimens which we desired. 

To Mr. B. D. Greene of Boston, for the loan of a very 
complete set of the plants collected by the late Mr. Drummond 
in Texas. 

To our numerous correspondents in different parts of the 
country, who have from time to time furnished us with valuable 
collections and observations, our limits will only allow us to 
offer our acknowledgments in general terms. Their names 
frequently occur throughout the pages of this work, where we 
have endeavored faithfully to indicate the sources from which 
our specimens have been derived, as fully as the plan of the 
work would permit. But whenever a species has been received 
from several correspondents, and from different sections of the 
country, we are obliged, in most cases, to omit the citation of 
particular locaUties, and to give as nearly as possible its geo- 
graphical range. Additional specimens of many rare plants 
described in this volume have also been received since the 
Orders to which they belong were printed ; and we have only 
space to notice the more important of these accessions in the 
Supplement, this volume having already extended much beyond 


its intended limits. Wc would therefore, at present, briefly 
state, that wc arc indebted to the following persons,, to many of 
them very largely, for the plants of particular districts, accom- 
panied in many instances by valuable notes and observations, 
viz : 

To Prof. BiGELow, Mr. B. D. Greene, and Mr. Edward 
TucKERMAN, Jr. of Bostou, Mr. Oakes of Ipswich, Dr. Jacob 
Porter of Plainficld, and Mr. T. A. Green of New-Bedford, 
Massachusetts, Prof. Hitchcock of Amherst College, as well as 
to Prof. Emmons, late of Williams College, and Prof. Dewey, late 
of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, for plants from various portions of 
that state as well as of Maine and New-Hampshire. 

To Dr. Barratt of Middletown, Connecticut, for the plants 
of that neighborhood, and also from the White Mountains of 
New Hampshire, &c. : also to Prof. Tully, of Yale College, 
for some interesting plants. 

For plants of the State of New York, to Dr. Stevenson of 
Cambridge, Washington County, Dr. Bradley of Monroe Coun- 
ty, Dr. H. P. Sartwell of Penn Yan, Yates County, Mr. David 
Thomas of Cayuga County, Dr. Crawe of Jefferson County, Dr. 
AiKiN formerly of Troy, Prof. Lewis C. Beck formerly of Al- 
bany, Mr. A. J. Downing of Newburgh, Prof. Bailey of West 
Point Military Academy, and to Mr. Wm. Cooper, Mr. Abraham 
Halsey, Prof. Eaton, Mr. R. J. Brownne, and Mr. John Carey, 
of New York ; many of whom have also furnished us with 
plants from different portions of the United States. 

For those of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, &c. our chief 
contributors are Dr. Pickering and Mr. Durand of Philadelphia, 
and Dr. Darlington of West Chester, Pennsylvania. From 
Virginia, a small collection has been received from the Rev. Prof. 

For plants from North Carolina we are chiefly indebted to 
the Rev. Mr. M. O. Curtis, to the late Mr. Von Schweinitz^ 
from whom we also received many plants from other parts of 
the United States, and to the late Mr. Croom, who also made 
very interesting collections in Florida. 

From South Carolina and Georgia we have received interest- 


ing contributions from the late Mr. Elliott, Major Le Contb, 
the late Mr. Lewis Le Cpnte, Professor Gibbes of Charleston, 
Dr. BoYKiN,now of Columbia, Georgia, the late Dr. H. Loomis 
of Macon, and Dr. Bacon of St. Mary's, Georgia, 

From Middle Florida, Dr. A. W. Chapman of Mariana has 
very fully supplied us with the plants of that region, and many 
have also been comniunicated by Dr. Alexander ; while from 
Southern and Eastern Florida we have received interesting 
collections from Dr. Leavenworth, Dr. Burrows, Dr. Hulse, 
and Lieut, Alden of the United States Army ; and Dr. John 
F. Baltzell has sent many specimens from Apalachicola. A 
portion of the plants collected by the late Dr. Baldwin were 
communipated to us through the late Mr. Schweimtz ; but his 
original herbarium is incorporated in tliat of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. The Rev. Mr. Bennett of 
Geneseo, New York, presented us with many plants collected 
by himself during a residence at Key West, and we have re- 
ceived a nearly complete and excellent set of the plants of that 
island from Mr. J. L. Blodgett, which however reached us at 
too late a period to receive notice in this volume. 

From Alabama we have a large number of plants collected by 
Dr. Gates ; and others have been received through the kindness 
of Dr. Fletcher and Dr. Jewett of Mobile. 

From Louisiana the chief contributions have been received 
.from Dr. Ing alls of New Orleans, Dr. Riddell of New Orleans 
(from whom we have also received many plants of Ohio), Dr. 
Hale of Alexandria, and Prof. Carpenter of Jackson. From 
this State, and also from Arkansas and the borders of Texas, we 
have received interesting collections from Dr. Leavenworth : 
and Dr. Pitcher of Detroit, formerly of the United States Army, 
furnished us with a very rniportant suite of Arkansas plants. 

From Tennessee, Dr, Currey has sent us interesting plants : 
from Kentucky we have received excellent and extensive col- 
lections from Prof Short, Dr. Peter, and from the late Mr. H. 
H. Eaton : from this State also, and from other districts, we 
have received many specimens from Mr. RAFiNEsauE. 

From Illinois, Mr. Buckley has sent us large collections ; and 

PREFACE. xiii 

to him we are al^o indebted for many plants from the mountains 
of Virginia, and from Alabama. 

From Indiana, Dr. Clapp of New Albany has supplied us with 
many interesting plants. 

From Ohio, Mr. T. G. Lea, Mr. Wm. S. Sullivant, Mr. 
John Samples, and Dr. Paddock, are the chief contributors. 

From Michigan, Dr. Houghton and Dr. Wright have fur- 
nished us with numerous plants : to the former we are under ad- 
ditional obligations for a parcel of plants collected towards the 
sources of the Mississippi. From the same region we have an 
interesting collection made by Major D. B. Dou<3lass during the 
Expedition of Gov. Cass. 

To Dr. Pitcher we are also indebted for many plants collected 
in the northern part of Michigan, the shores of Lake Superior, &c. 
From Milwaukie, Wisconsin Territory, we have received a col- 
lection of plants from Dr. Lapham. To Dr. Holmes of Mon- 
treal, Mrs. Percival, Mr. and Mrs. Sheppard, and Mr. McCrae, 
we are indebted for numerous plants from Canada. 

The collection made by Dr. Edwin James in Major Long's 
Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, of which an account has 
been given in the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, 
has been very useful to us. 

The authors venture to hope that their obliging correspondents 
will still continue to render their assistance in the farther prose- 
cution of this work, by sending the rarer plants of their res- 
pective districts, with such notes and observations as they may 
deem important. 

Since the publication of the earlier portions of this volume, our 
opportunities for examining the herbaria of original authors have 
been very much extended ; and the necessary corrections and 
changes we have been obliged to make on this account, together 
with some additions from works recently published and from 
materials since received, are given in the appended Supplement. 
We trust these investigations will give this work an important 
value in respect to the authenticity of the specific names, and that 
future changes of the kind will not be to any considerable extent 


A complete index of the genera and species, and an enumera- 
tion of all the works which relate to North American Botany, or 
are cited in this work, will be given with the concluding volume, 
and likewise, if space permit, some general observations respect- 
ing the geographical distribution of North American plants. 
A connected notice of those plants which are important on ac- 
count of their active or medicinal properties or economical uses, 
will also be added. 

New-York, June 1st, 1840. 

*** The exclamation point is used after the manner in which it is employed 
by De Candolle and other modern botanists, to indicate that we have seen an 
authentic specimen of the author, or from the locahty cited. When the dash is 
omitted after the character of a species, the description is derived from the author 
whose name immediately follows : when the dash is inserted, wc are alone respon- 
sible for the description. The abbreviations of the names and works of authors 
are mostly those in common use, and will be generally understood : they will, 
however, be fully explained at the close of the work. 


Page 9, line 28, {ot ^ parviflor a, ^ read pauci flora. 

" 17, " 11 from bottom, for ' FallassiV read Pallasii, 

" 27, " G, add t. 17. 

" 33, lines 22 & 34, for ' petals,' read sepals. 

" 41, line 1, for 20, read 21. 

" 54, " 11, for ' Ovary,' read Stigma. 

" 62, " 9, for 1677, read 1948. 

" 76, " 15, <ZeZe 'the leaves.' 

" 80, " 8, after ' stem erect,' add ' leaves.' 

" 101, " 18, dele the exclamation point after ' Drummond.'' 

" " " 21, for ' stipulate' read stipitate. 

"116, " 5 from bottom, for ' Forula,' read Florula. 

" 135, " 11, dele ' more.' 

" 141, " 20, for 9, read 79. 

" 156, " 7, for 55, read 555. 

" 157, " 20, for ' the preceding species,' read Cnix-Andreae. 

" 194, " 16, for ' CuphcEa,' read Cuphea. 

"223, " 11 {rom bottom, for ^ Schweintz,' read Schweinitz. 

" 257, " 17, for ' Willd.' read Linn. 

" 263, " 31, for ' coU. 2.' read coll. 3. 

" " " 40, for ' E. Miehauxii,' read S. Michauxii. 

" 265, " 18 from bottom, ) ^ . . , 

" 268, " 8 from top, \ ^"' P^?^^' '""^ P^PP^"^' 

" 289, " 6, for 9, read 10. 

" " " 27, for 11, read 14. The succeeding genera are incorrectly num- 

" 309, " 19, for 'leaves' read leaflets. 

" 320, " 2 from bottom, add ' Nutt.' 

" 327, " 17 from bottom, for ' L. scriceus,' read H. Purshiana. 

" 328, " 8, for ' monadelphous,' read diadelphous, 

"'329, " 11, {or ^ pauciflora^ read paucijlorus. 

" " " 35, for 739, read 474. 

" 331, " 30, for 451, read 150. 

" 360, " 17 from bottom, /or ' glabrous' reaeZ scabrous. 

" 388, " 4 from bottom, for ' emargniate' read emarginate^ 

"411, " 4 from bottom, for ' iZici/oZJus' read j7fci/bZfa. 

" 507, " 25, for ' acaulis' read subacauhs. 



I. CORMOPHYTA. Endlicher. 

Dicotyledones, Monocotyledones, and Acotyledones in partj Juss. 

Plants consisting of a root and stem growing in op- 
posite directions, composed of regular cellular tissue 
traversed (except in the very lowest forms) by woody 
fibre and vessels. Stem increasing in size either at the 
apex and circumference simultaneously, or at the apex 
solely, producing huds^ and (with few^ exceptions) dis- 
tinct leaves at definite points and in regular order : the 
cuticle usually furnished with stomata. Propagation 
effected by means oi Jioiocrs and seeds in the higher 
forms, and of spoi'es in the lower. 


Flowering plants.— Stem with a distinct bark and pith, sepa- 
rated from each other by an interposed zone consisting of woody 
fibre, ducts, and spiral vessels : increase in diameter effected by 
the successive deposition, between the old wood and the bark, of 
new woody and cortical matter, which in perennial trunks is 
usually arranged in concentric zones, and traversed by medullary- 
rays. Leaves furnished with stomata, commonly articulated with 
the stem, their veins branching and reticulated. Floral enve- 



LOPES commonly arranged in a quinary (sometimes binary or 
quaternary, but very rarely in a ternary) manner, sometimes in- 
complete or wanting. Ovules enclosed in a pericarp, fertilized 
by the action of pollen through the medium of a stigma, and 
finally becoming seeds. Embryo with 2 (rarely more) opposite 
cotyledons ; the radicle in germination elongating directly into a 


Thalamiflorse and Calyciflorse, DC. 

Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla ; the latter 
composed of distinct petals.* 

Artificial Analysis of the Polypetalous Exogenous or* 
ders, lohich are represented in the Flora of JVorth 


§ 1. Ovaries more than one, distinct {when in several whorls sometimes 
aggregated or coalescent into a mass, but not syncarpous.) 

Leaves (emersed ones) centrally peltate. Water- 
Torus turbinate, enclosing the ovaries in sepa- 
rate hollows. 9. Nelumeiace^. 
Torus inconspicuous. Stamens 6-36. 7. Cabombace;e. 
Leaves not centrally peltate. 

Stamens numerous. 
Ovaries (achenia) enclosed in the subglobose 
calyx-tube, numerous. 
Leaves opposite, not stipulate. 50. Cai,ycanthace£. 

Leaves alternate, stipulate. 49. § Rose^;. 

Ovaries not enclosed by the calyx-tube. 
Petals and stamens perigynous. 49. RosacejE. 

Petals and stamens hypogynous. 
.Estivation of the calyx valvate. 

Leaves alternate. Stamens monadelphous. 38. Malvace^. 
Leaves opposite. Stamens distinct. 
.Estivation of the calyx imbricated. 

Herbs with acrid juice. Flowers perfect. I. RANUNcuLAnE^. 

Climbing shrubs. Flowers small, dicecious. 5. MENispERMACEiE. 
Trees or shrubs (bitter and aromatic). — 
Flowers large, perfect. Anthers adnate. 
Anthers (short) extrorse. Sepals per- 
sistent. Albumen ruminated. 3. Anonace^. 
Anthers (long) introrse. Albumen solid. 2. Magnoliace^. 

* The student should bear in mind that the division of Exogenous plants into 
Polypetalaj, Monopetalfe, and Apetalai, however convenient, is in a considerable 
degree arbitrary ; and that polypetalous orders often contain apetalous genera and 
species ; the petals, moreover, arc occasionally mo^e or less combined. 


Stamens ftw (not more than twice the number of 
the sepals). 
Stamens monadelphous. Moncecious. Leaves 

simple, dotted. 4. Schizandrace^e. 

Stamens distinct, submoncecious. Leaves com- 
pound, dotted. 33. Zanthoxylacea:. 
Stamens distinct. Leaves not dotted. 

Leaves stipulate. Stamens perigynous. 49. Rosacea. 

Leaves not stipulate. 

Carpels 1-seeded utriculi : styles united. 30. LiMNANTUACE^.t 
Carpels 1-seeded, woody : styles from the 

base. 64. Surianace«. 

Carpels 1-seedcd, drupaceous, incurved. 5. MeKispermace^. 
Carpels follicular. 
Follicles 1-3-seedcd. Polygamous. 1. RANUNCULACE«.t 

Follicles equal in number to the sepals, 

several-seeded. 65. Crassolaceje. 

Follicles 2 (rarely 3) ; seeds numerous. 66. SAXiFRAGACES.t 

§ 2. Ovary solitary, simple {of one carpel). 

Anthers (except in Podophyllum) opening by re- 
curved valves. Stamens opposite the petals. 6. Berberidace.e. 
Anthers not opening by recurved valves. 
Corolla papilionaceous or irregular. Leguminous. 48. Leguminos;e. 
Corolla (when present) regular. 
.Estivation of the sepals and petals valvate. — 

Fruit a legume. 48. § Mimose;e. 

jEstivation of the sepals valvat©, of the petals 

imbricated. Fruit an achcnium. 49. § Sanguisoree^. 

JEstivation of the sepals (& petals) imbricated. 
Stamens indefinite, perigynous. 

Style terminal. 49. Subord. Amygdale.e. 

Style lateral. 49. Sulord. Chrysoealane.e. 

Stamens indefinite, hypogynous. L RANUNCULACE^.t 

Stamens double the number of the sepals. 

Leaves multifid. Aquatic. Petals none. 8. Ceratophtllace«. 
Leaves compound, dotted. Drupe Qily. 35. Amyridace^. 
Stamens the same number as the sepals. — 
Drupe dry.* 34. Anacardiace.e. 

§ 3. Ovary compound or syncarpous. 
* Leaves alternate, or all radical, 
t Stamens indefinite, or more than 12. 

Placentae parietal. 
Sepals 2 (very rarely 3). Juice milky or colored. 12. Papaverace.e. 
Sepals 4. Juice watery. 15. Capparidace^e. 

Sepals 5 (rarely 3). Petals fugacious. 20. Cistace^. 

Sepals 5. Petals marcescent. Stamens all but 5 

sterile. 19- Siibord. Parnassie^. 

Placentae occupying the whole surface of tlie dis- 
sepiments. 10. NlMPH5;ACEiE. 
Placentae in the axis. 

Stigma peltate, petaleid. Leaves hollow. 11. Sarracemiace.e, 
Stigmas not petaloid. 
Capsule 1-celled, with a free central placenta. 25. Portulacaceje. 
Capsule more than 1-celled. 

* Ovary apparently simple, but really compound, as is indicated by the triple 


Leaves compound (1-foliolate), dotted. 30. AuniNTiACEX. 

• Leaves simple, not dotted. 

^Estivation of the calyx imbricated. 37. Ternstr(Emiaceji:. 
.Estivation of the calyx valvate. 

Stamens monadclphous : anthers 1-celled. 38. Mai-vace^. 
Stamens distinct: anthers 2-celled. 39. Tii.iace.e. 

1 1 Stamens more or less definite {not more than 12), but'not equal or dovlle 
the nwmler of the sepals. 

Anthers opening by terminal pores. 

Stamens mon;idelphous : anthers l-celled. 
Stamens distinct : anthers 2-celled. 
Anthers opening longitudinally. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4, irregular, somewhat united. 
Sepals 2. Petals 5, regular. 
Sepals more than 2. 
Placentae in the axis. Stamens 5. 
Placentcc parietal. 
Capsule of 3-6 carpels, opening at the top. 
Capsule 2-valved. Petals and sepals 4. 
Pod (silique) 2-celled. Stamens 6, two of 

them shortest. 
Pod 1-celled. Seeds reniform. 

17. Por.TCALACE^E. 

17. Subord. Kramerie.c. 

13. Fn.MARIACE.gE. 

25. porttjlacace^. 
29. Eal.saminace.e. 
IC. Resedace£. 

14. Crucifer^. 

15. Capparidace-e. 

1 1 1 stamens as many, or twice as many, as the sepals. 

Petals twice the number of the sepals. 12. Papaveracej;.+ 

Petals (when present) as many as sepals, irregular. 
Sepals and petals 4. Capsule 1-cclled, 2-valved. 
Sepals and petals 5. Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved. 
Petals as many as the sepals, regular. 
Seeds few, (1-2 in each cell). 
Ovary half inferior. Stam. opposite the petals. 
Stam. (partly sterile) twice 
the number of the petals. 
Ovary wholly superior, (rarely covered by a disk.) 
Stamens twice the number of the petals, dis- 
^Estivation of the calyx imbricated. 
jEstivation of the calyx valvate. Utriculi 
Stamens twice the number of the petals, mo- 
Carpels 5, 1- seeded : styles cohering to the 

elongated axis. 
Capsule woody. Seeds winged. 
Drupe 5-celled. Seeds wingless. 
Stamens as many as, and opposite^the petals — 
Disk fleshy. 
Calyx minute, hypogynous. Peduncles and 

tendrils opposite the leaves. 
Calyx perigynous with a valvate aestivation. 
Stamens as many as, and alternate with the 
Disk large and flat, perigynous. 40. Celastrace^. 

Disk small and nearly hypogynous, or 'none. 
Fruit samaroid, 2-celled. Leaves dotted. 33. 
Fruit a dry 1-celled drupe. Stigmas 3. 34. 
Fruit a 5-10-celled capsule. Stigmas 5. 27. 
Seeds numerous. 

Placentae parietal (sometimes inflexed nearly to 
the axis). 
Vernation circinnate. Hairs glandular. 19. Droseraceje. 

Vernation not circinnate. 







. Hamamelaceje; 


, Sapindace.e. 














Stamens monadelphous. Ovary stipiiaie. 59. pASsiFLORACEiE. 
Stamens distinct. 

Stigmas branching. Seeds arilled. 58. Tcrnerace£. 

Sci^as simple. 
Capsule 3-Talved,loculicidaL 20. Cistackje. 

Capsule of 2 carpels distinct above, ^ 
or bipanible, septicidaL i 

Placentae in the axis, [66. Saiifragacb^. 

Capsule 2-( rarely 3-) celled, septicidal. J 
Capsule 1-celled by the obliteration of the 

dissepiments. Stigma capitate. 53. Ltthrace.e. 

Capsule 4-5-ceUed. 
Stiunens monadelphous below. Leaves 3- 

foliolate. 31. OxALiDACE.t. 

Stamens distinct. Leaves simple. 

** Leaves opposite. 

Stamens indefinite or more than 12. 
Ovary half inferior. 
Petals linear, very numerous. 
Petals 2LS many as sepeds (4-10), broad. 
Ovary wholly superior (Petals hypogynous). 
Petals twice the number of the caducous sepals. 
Peteds (contorted in aestivation), as many as 
the persistent sepads. 
Leaves marked with pellucid or black dots. 
Leaves not dotted- Pet^d3 fugacious. 
Stamens not more than twice the number of the pe- 
tals or sepads. 
Corolla irregular. Filamenta monadelphous. 
Corolla irregular. Stamens 7-8, distinct. Leaves 

Corolla regular. 
Anthers opening by terminaJ pores. Angles of 

the ovary cohering with the calyx-tube. 
Anthers opening longitudinadly. 
Leaves simple, entire, with pellucid or black 

Leaves simple, entire, not dotted. 
Capsule of 3-5, spuriously 2-celled carpels. 
Capsule 1-celled, with parietal placentie. 
Sepals distinct. Petals fugacious. 
Sepals united. Petals unguiculaite. 
Capsule 1-celled, or nearly so : placenta 
in the axis. 
Styles nearly distinct or very short: 

stigmais capitate. 
Styles united into one : stigma capitate. 
Styles stigmatose along the inside. 
Stipules scarious. 
Stipules none. 
Sepals 3-3. Petals 5. 
Sepads and petals (when present) 
equal in number. 
Leaves serrate, lobed. or compoand. 
Fruit 2 cohering samaras. Trees. 
Fruit a 2-beaked, 2-vadved, many-seeded 

Fruit not a samaira; cells or carpels 1-few- 
Stamens ais many as, and opposite the 

Stamens as many as, and aitemaie with 
the petals. 








52. ]VIelasto>lace£. 





20. CiSTACEiE. 

22. Frakkbxuce^. 


















Stamens twice tlie number of the petals. 
Fruit capsular. Leaves abruptly pin- 
Carpels 5 ; styles cohering around a 
long axis. 28. Geraniace^. 

* Stamens indefinite. 

Fruit a pome ; carpels cartilaginous or bony, 1-3- 

seeded. 'l^- Subord. Pome«. 

Fruit capsular or succulent, many-seeded. 

Capsule '1-5-celled, partly superior. Leaves op- 


51. PniLAPELPHACEffi. 

Capsule (or berry) 1-celled, with parietal pla- 
Sepals and petals numerous, confounded. P2. Cactace;e; 

Sepals 5. Petals 5 or 10, Herbs hispid, with 

rigid or slinging hairs. 57. Loasace^e. 

** Stamens definite. 

Filaments 3-adelphous : anthers long and sinuous.'' 

Fruit a pepo. CO. CucurbitacejE. 

Filaments bent downwards in sestivation : anthers 

opening by 2 pores. 52. Melastomaoe^. 

Filaments distinct : anthers opening longitudinally. 
Ovary many-seeded. 
Placentaj 2, parietal. Fruit pulpy. Leaves 

alternate. 61; Grossulace^e. 

Placentaj in the axis. Capsule 2-celled. Petals 

5. Stam. 10. CG. SAxiFRACACEiE. 

Sepals and cells of the ovary 4. Petals 

and stamens 4 or 8. 56. Onagrace^s:. 

Ovary with 1-2 seeds in each cell. 
Leaves stipulate, opposite. Fruit indehiscent. 54. RHizopHORACEiF. 
Leaves stipulate, alternate. Capsule loculicidal. 67. Hamamelace*. 
Leaves exstipulate, alternate. Flowers in um- 
Styles 2 (rarely 3). Carpels separable. 68, Umbellifer^. 

Styles 3-15 (rarely 2). Carpels mostly 

baccate. 69. Araliace;e. 

Leaves exstipulate, opposite (except one spe- 
cies of Cornus), or none. 
Stamens alternate with the petals. Drupe 

baccate, 2-celled. 70. CoHNACEiE: 

Stamens opposite the petals. Fruit fleshy 

1-celled. 71. LoRANTHACEiE. 

Leaves exstipulate, alternate, opposite, or whorl- 
ed. Flowers not in umbels or cymes. 

Style slender. Seed suspended. Trees. Flow- 
ers spicate. 55. Combretaceje. 

Style slender. Seeds erect. Flowers race- 

jnoge. 56. Onacrace^. 

Stigmas 1-4, sessile. Seeds suspended. — 
Aquatics. Flowers sessile. 56. Subord. Halorages:. 

Order I. RANUNCULACE7E. Jass. 

Sepals 3-6 or more, but usually 5, distinct, hypogynous, mostly 
deciduous: aestivation (except in Clematis) imbricated. Petals 2~l'-\, 
hypogynous, sometimes deformed, occasionally absent. Stamens in- 
definite in number, hypogynous, distinct : anthers adnate or innate. 
Ovaries seated on the torus, numerous, sometimes few or solitary, dis- 
tinct : ovules solitary or several. Carpels either dry achenia, or 
baccate, or follicular. Seeds anatropous, solitary or several. Embryo 
minute, near the base of horny or fleshy (and often more or less oily) 
albumen. — Herbs (rarely shrubby), with acrid transparent juice. 
Leaves alternate (opposite in Clematis) variously divided : petioles 
generally dilated at the base and partly clasping the stem. 


Clematidese and Anemoneae, DC. 

Petals plane or none. Anthers mostly extrorse. Achenia numer- 
ous, caudate or subulate with the style. Seed suspended. 

■ I. CLEMATIS. Linn.; DC. syst. 1. p. 31. 

Involucre none, or resembling a calyx, and situated next to the flower. 
Sepals 4 (4-8), colored, in aestivation valvate or with the edges bent in- 
wards. Petals none, or shorter than the sepals. Anthers linear, extrorse. 
Achenia terminated by long (mostly plumose or hairy) tails. — Perennial 
herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants, mostly sannentose, with opposite 
leaves and fibrous roots. 

§ 1. Involucre none: petals none. — Clematis proper. 
* Stevi herbaceous, erect. 

1. C. ochroleuca (Ait.) : stem simple, silky-pubescent; leaves undi- 
vided, ovate, entire, silky beneath ; flower solitary, terminal, pedunculate, in- 
clined. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 1. p. 260; Sims, hot. mag. t. 1175; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 45; DC. prodr. 1. p. 8. C. sericea, Michx. ! fi. 1. p. 319; Pursh,Jl. 2. 
p. 385. 

0. leaves broadly ovate, very tomentose. 

8 RANUNCULACEiE. Clematis, 

Banks of rivers and on mountains, New-York! to Georgia! P. North 
Carolina, Schweinilz ! May-June. — Leaves reticulately veined, upper sur- 
face glabrous when old, subsessile ; the upper ones rather acute. Flower 
yellowish, (erect in fruit). Sepals silky externally.— /?. leaves larger, broadly 
ovate or roundish. 

2. C. oi^ato (Pursh): stem simple; leaves broadly ovate, on very short 
petioles, glabrous, glaucous and rcticiilately veined beneath, the lower ones 
subcordate ; peduncle terminal, solitary, 1-flowered ; flower inclined. — 
Pursh.fl. 2. p. 736 ; DC prodr. 1. p. 8. 

Mountains of North Carolina, Le Conte ! South Carolina, Pursh. Geor- 
gia or Florida, Baldwin! — Whole plant glabrous. Flower nearly as large 
as in C. ochroleuca, purple 1 Sepals ovate, acuminate, pubescent on the 
margin, a little exceeding the stamens. 

3. C.Baldwinii: erect, simple or a little branching, slender, slightly pu- 
bescent ; leaves varying from oblong to linear-lanceolate, entire or 3-cleft 
or lobed ; the lobes linear, often slightly laciniate ; peduncle terminal, elon- 
gated, 1-flowcred; flower cylindrical-campanulate ; carpels with very 
long plumose tails. 

Pine woods, Tampa Bay, &c. Florida, Dr. Baldwin! Dr. Hidse! — 
Plant 1-li foot high. Leaves often quite simple, 4-6 lines wide, narrowed 
at the base into a short petiole. Peduncle 8-10 inches long. Sepals soine- 
what membranaceous, woolly on the margin, purplish externally, yellowish 
within. Tails of the carpels 2-3 inches long. 

4. C. Douglasii (Hook.): stem simple, 1-flowered; flower nodding; 
leaves hairy, twice or thrice pinnatifid; segments linear, rather obtuse. 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 1. t. 1. 

Rocky Mountains, near the sources of the Oregon. Douglas. — Stem 1 
foot high, sparingly hairy, woolly at the joints. Sepals 4-5, deep purple 
within, paler externally, l-J inch long, coriaceo-membranceous, oblong, erect, 
spreading at the apex, much longer than the stamens. Hook. ^ 

5. C. Wyethri (Nutt.): woolly; stem erect, simple, 1-flowcred; flower 
nodding; leaves somewhat bipinnately divided; segments 3-cleft; lobes 
linear-lanceolate, attenuate, sparingly incised, rather acute. Nutt.! in 
jour. acad. Phi lad. 1. p. 6. 

Rocky Mountains ! June. — Stem 11 foot high. Lower leaves nearly un- 
divided. Sepals 4, thick, oblong-lanceolate, nearly straight, deep brown 
externally.— Very near C. Douglasii. Nutt. 

** Stem more or less shrid)by, climbing by the petioles. 

6. C. Virginiana (Linn.): flowers panicled, often dioecious or polyga- 
mous ; leaves ternate, glabrous ; leaflets ovate, subcordate, incisely toothed 
and lobed ; carpels with long plumose tails. — Willd. sp. 2. p. 1290 ; Michx. ! 
k. 2. p. 318; Pursh! Jl. 2. p. 384; DC. prodr. 1. p. 4. C. Catesbyana, 
Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 736? C. cordata, Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 384; DC prodr. I. c. excl. 
syn. bot. mag. 

Canada to Georgia, and west to the Mississippi ! July-August. — Climbing 
over shrubs and bushes, much branched, stem smoothish. Panicles trichoto- 
mously divided, with small leaves at the divisions. Sepals 4, white, obo- 
vate, exceeding the stamens. — A specimen named C. cordata by Pursh, in 
Barton's herbarium, seems to be only C. Virginiana. 

7. C%olosericea (Pursh): flowers in paniculate corymbs, dioecious; 
leaves ternate, pubescent on both sides; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, entire, 
DC prodr. 1. p. 5 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 384. 

Clematis. RANUNCULACEiE. 9 

Carolina, Walter ex Pursh. Flowers small, white. Sepals linear, lonn;er 
than the stamens. Tails of the caqiels very Ions:, feathered. Pursh. — De- 
scribed by Pursh from specimens in Walter's herbarium. It seems to be 
ti mere variety of C. Virginiana. 

8. C. li^usticifolia (Nutt. ! rass.) : " plant somewhat pubescent ; flowers 
in paniculate corymbs, dicccious ; leaves pinnate and ternate ; leaflets ol)- 
iong, acute, mostly somewhat lanceolate-cuneate, incisely toothed and tri- 
fid ; petals and stamens equal in length ; carpels with long plumose tails. 
— C. Virginiana, Hook. Ji. Bo7\-Ain. 1. p. 1. (in part). 

"/?. hrevifolia: leaves smoother, shorter and broader. 

"Plains of the Rocky Mountains, in open and in bushy places, near 
streams, ft. in the Blue Mountains and on the borders of the ()regon. — 
Very similar to C. Virginiana, but the leaves are mostly 6-foliolate, and al- 
most lucidly coriaceous ; they are also much smaller, and in the var. a. 
much narrower and longer. The tails of the carpels are also longer, and 
more densely plumose in C. Virginiana. Flowers white and fragrant." 

9. C. Drummondii : flowers in paniculate corymbs, dioecious ; leaves 
pinnate, silky-villous beneath, sparingly hirsute on the upper surface; leaf- 
lets rhombic-ovate, incisely 3-lobed, the lobes acute ; sepals 4, oblong ; car- 
pels villous, with very long capillary plumose tails. 

Texas, JJrummond ! — Stem slender, angular, somewhat hairy. Leaflets 
mostly 5, about an inch long; the lateral lobes sometimes a little toothed. 
Panicles about as long as the leaves, trichotomously divided. Sei)als wliite, 
villous externally. Tails of the carpels very slender, nrore than two inches 
in length, densely plumose. — Seems to be nearly allied to C. sericea of Central 
America. It is also closely related to C. Virginiana. 

10. C. pjxii0ora (Nutt. \mss.): "smooth; leaves pinnate and ternate ; 
leaflets obovate, obtuse, mostly 3-lobed, the lobes short ; flowers axillary, ap- 
proximated, on short peduncles ; carpels smooth, with slender plumose tails. 

'^'ear the sea-coast of St. Diego, Upper California. — Climbing, but in- 
clined to grow erect and bushy. Leaflets about an inch long and nearly as 
broad, commonly dilated and 3-lobed ; petioles slightly pubescent. Pedun- 
cles slender, and so near together as to appear aggregated. Flower not 
seen. Carpels compressed ; the tail rather sparingly pQose-plumose." Nutt. 

11. C. lasiantha (Nutt.! mss.) : "pubescent; leaves ternate, broadly 
ovate, obtusely cuneiform at the base ; leaflets incisely toothed, the terminal 
one 3-lobed or trifid; flowers dioecious, solitary, on 2-leaved aggregated 
branchlets ; sepals cuneate-oblong, spreading, villous on both surfaces ; car- 

" With the preceding. — Leaflets an inch and a half long and about an 
inch broad, almost villous beneath. Peduncles about three inches long, with 
a pair of entire or toothed leaflets near the base. Flowers more than an inch 
in diameter. Allied to C. orientale, but very distinct." Nutt. 

12. C. Viorna (Linn.): peduncles l-(rarely 2-3-) flowered ; sepals con- 
nivent, thick, acuminate, reflexed at the apex ; leaves glabrous, membrana- 
ceous, pinnate ; leaflets entire or 3-parted, ovate or oblong ; floral leaves en- 
tire; carpels with long plumose tails.— W7//d sp. 2. p. 1288; Michx.\ ft. 1. 
p. 318 ; Pursh! ft. 2. p. 385; Ell. sk. 2. p. 46; DC. prodr. 1. p. 7. C. 
cordata, Bot. mag. t. 1816. 

Pennsylvania ! to Georgia ! and west to Kentucky ! May-Aug.— Leaves 
pinnate: the two lowest segments often ternate ; "leaflets variable, mostly 
acute, but sometimes obtuse. Peduncles axillary or terminal. Flower nod- 
ding. Sepals coria»ebus, about an inch long, purple. Tails of the carpels 
an inch and a half loi^, very plumose. 


10 RANUNCULACEiE. Clematis. 

13. C. cylindrica (Sims): peduncles 1-flowered ; flower cylindrical-cam- 
panulate ; sepals membranaceo-coriaceous, acuminate, with the margin un- 
dulate ; leaves membranaceous, pinnate ; leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
petiolulate; carpels with plumose tails. — Sims, hot. mag. t. 1160; Pursh, 
Jl. 2. p. 385; Ell. sk. 2. p. 475 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 7. (excl. syn. Michx.'^) 

0. Walteri: leaflets linear and linear-lanceolate.— C. Walteri, Pwrs/j,^. 
2. p. 384; DC. prodr. l.p.l; Hook, in jour. hot. \.p. 86. 

North Carolina ! to Florida! and in Louisiana ! June-Aug.— Flower lar- 
ger than in C. Viorna, nodding. Sepals dilated above and acuminate, bluish 
purple. Leaflets mostly entire.— Pursh, who described his C. Walteri from 
specimens in Walter's herbarium, was probably mistaken in supposing the 
flower to be white. 

14. C. lineariloba (DC): peduncles 1-flowered; sepals very acute; 
leaves pinnate, smooth ; leaflets entire or 3-parted; the segments linear, DC. 
prodr. l.p.l; Deless. ic. 1. t. 3. 

South Carolina, Fraser.— Stem slender, glabrous. Leaflets 3-4 paurs; 
lobes aU linear, scarcely 2-3 lines wide. Peduncles shorter than the leaves. 
Petals an inch long, about twice the length of the stamens. DC— A doubtful 
species ; probably only C. cylindrica /?. 

15. C. reticulata (Walt.): peduncles 1-flowered; sepals rather coriace- 
ous ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets 4 pairs, oval, undivided or lobed, obtuse, rigidly 
coriaceous, conspicuously reticulated on both sides, glabrous ; carpels with 
plumose tafls.- HV/7^. Car. p. 156; Pursh, Ji. 2. p. 385; DC. prodr. l.p.l; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 47; Mich.v. ! fl. I. p. 318. 

S. Carolina, Gecwgia ! and Florida ! May-Aug.— Leaflets aU petiolulate, 
1-U inch long, undivided or variously lobed ; the lowest pair 3-parted, some- 
times rather acute and mucronate. Peduncles longer than the leaves. 
Flower as large as in C. crispa. Sepals dull purple, ovate-lanceolate, veltety 
externally. Tail of the carpels long. 

16. C. crispa (Linn.): peduncles 1-flowered, shorter than the leaves ; 
leaves pinnate, ternate, or 3-lobed ; leaflets very acute ; sepals thick and cori- 
aceous, with the apex reflexed, transversely undulated and crisped on the 
margin, twice as long as the stamens ; carpels Avith a short, thick, naked (or 
pubescent) tail.— Z>C. prodr. I. p. 9; Sims, hot. mag. t. 1892; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 49; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 384; Mich.v.! fl. 1. j). 318. 

Virginia to Florida ! and west to Louisiana ! May.— Leaves glabrous, or 
slightly hairy. Flowers a third smaUer than in C. Viorna, bright purple. 
Tail of the carpels thick and rigid, about half an inch long. 

17. C. Pitcheri : peduncles 1-flowered ; leaves pinnate, coriaceous, retic- 
ulated ; leaflets 2-4 pairs, ovate, mostly obtuse, undivided or 3-lobed ; branch 
leaves simple, ovate ; sepals coriaceous, a little longer than the stamens ; 
carpels with a short pubescent tad. 

On the Red River, Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher! NuttalU— heaves gla- 
brous or slightly hairy beneath; the lowest pair 3-lobed, often subcordate. 
Sepals purple, about three-fourths of an inch long, reflexed at the summit, 
even on the margin. Tails of the carpels half an inch long, the lower part 
- pubescent and almost plumose. 

§2. Tnvohocre none : sepals 4; petals several, minute.— ArRkCEUE, DC. 

18. C. verticillaris (DC): peduncles 1-flowered; leaves verticfllate in 
fours, ternate ; leaflets petiolulate, ovate, acuminate, subcordate, entire or 
sparingly toothed ; petals acute.— Z>C. prorfr. 1. p. 10; Hook. Jl. Boi\-Am. 
1. p. 2. Atragene Americana, -S/ms, bat. mag. t. 887; Pursh, Ji. 2. p. 384. 

Mountains and rocky places, British America, north to lat. 54°. and west 
to the Rocky Mountains and N. W. Coast ; Vermont ! to North Carolina ! 

Anemone. RANUNCULACEiE. 11 

April-May. — Climbing. Flowers very large, campanulate. Sepals oblong- 
lanceolate, bright purplish-blue. 

19. C. Columbiana : peduncles 1-llowered ; leaves ternate ; leaflets ovate, 
acute, obscurely crenulate ; sepals ovate, acuminate, nearly twice the length 
of the stamens. — Atragene Columbiana, Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. y. 7. 

Rocky Mountains, Mr. Wyelh. March.— Flowers smaller than in C. 
verticillaris, pale blue. Nuttall. 

X Doubtful species. 

20. C. Plukenetii (DC): peduncles l-flowercd; leaves ternate, gla- 
brous ; leaflets elliptic or obovate, entire, obtuse ; flowers dioecious, erect. — 
DC.prodr. I. p. 7; Pluk. aim. 109. 

Described by De CandoUe from specimens of Catesby in Banks's herba- 
rium, supposed to be from America. 

2. ANEMONE. Linn.; DC. syst. l.p. 188. 

Involucre 3-leaved, distant from the flower; the leaflets variously incised. 
Sepals 5-15, petaloid. Petals none. Achcnia mucronate (in § Pulsatilla 
caudate). — Perennial herbs with radical leaves. Scapes when branched 
bearing leaf-like involucres at each division. 

§ 1. Carpels with long bearded tails : leaves of the involucre sessile^ 
palmately divided, with linear lobes. — Pulsatilla, DC, 

1. A. patens TLinn.): silky-viEous ; leaves 3-parted or ternate; segments 
cuneiform, 3-clen, incised; lobes linear-lanceolate; involucre linearly many- 
cleft; sepals 5-6.— Z>C. prodr. 1. p. 16.-(/?. ochroleuca); Hook ! f.. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 4. A. Ludoviciana, Null. ! gen. 2. p. 26. A. Nuttalliana, DC. 
prodr. I. c. p. 17; Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 5. p. 158. t. 8. and l.p.l ; 
Richards. ! app. Frankl. journ. (ed. 2.) p. 21. Clematis hirsutissima, Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 385. 

British America as far north as lat., 67° ! Valleys of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, Drummond, Nuttall! On' the Missouri and Platte, Nuttall! Galena, 
lUinois ! — About a span high. Sepals an inch or more in length, duU blue or 
purple. Tail of the carpels nearly two inches long. — Appears to be identical 
with the European plant. 

§ 2. Carpels with long bearded tails : leaves of the involucre petioled, 3- 
cleft. — Preonanthus, DC. 

2. A. alpina (Linn.): somewhat silky-villous ; leaves on long petioles, 
biternately pinnatifid; leaflets laciniate, with the segments hnear, acute ; 
those of the involucre similar; flower erect; sepals 6, spreading. Hook, f.. 
Bor.-Am. l.p. 5; DC. prodr. 1. p. 17; Bot. mag. t. 2007. A. sulphurea, . 
Linn. A. apiifoha, Willd. sp. 2. p. 126. 

Eastern declivity of the Rocky Mountains, lat. 52°— 55°, Drummond ; 
Kotzebue's Sound, Capt. Beechey. —Flovfers white, with a purpUsh tinge at 
the base. Stems from 6 inches to a foot and a half high. Heads of carpels 
very large. Tails long, very silky, ^oo/c.— Inhabits also the mountains of 

13 RANUNCULACEJ3. Anemone. 

§ 3. Carpels oval, without tails : pedicels solitary or in pairs (rarely 
more), all leafless and l-flowered: leaves of the involucre sessile or 
petioled. — Anemonanthea, DC. 

3. A. Caroliniana (Walt.): root tuberous; leaves ternately divided; seg- 
meiits 3-cleft or incised ; lobes linear and somewhat cuneiform, toothed at 
the apex ; involucre very distant from the flower, 3-leaved ; leaflets sessUe, 
cuneiform, 3-cleft, with the lobes linear, divaricate, mostly entire ; sepals 15- 
20, oblong or oblong-linear.— W'aZ^. Car. p. 157; Ell. sk. 2. p. 53; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 19. A. tenella, Ptirsh > ft. 2. p. 386 ; Mitt. > gen. 2. p. 21. 

P. heterophylla: radical leaves 3-parted, or 3-lobed, or almost undivided ; 
segments undivided or 3-lobed, roundish-oval, crenately serrate. — A. he- 
terophylla, Nutt. ! mss. 

North Carolina, Schweinitz ! S. Carolina, Walter; Louisiana and 
Arkansas, Z>r. Pitcher! Dr. Leavenworth .' On the Pl^itte, Dr. James ! 
and Missouri, Nuttall! Texas, Drummond! P. on rocks, Arkansas, Nut- 
tall I March-April. — Plant from 4-12 inches high, slender, clothed with a 
loose hairy pubescence. Leaves variable in the breadth of their segments 
and lobes, sometimes tripartite and very narrow. Flower an inch, some- 
times an inch and a half in diameter : sepals white, often tinged or spotted 
with purple; the outer ones (6-8) thicker; the others petaloid, often al- 
most linear. Head of carpels cylindrical-oblong, woolly. The flowers in P. 
are smaller and greenish, and the head of carpels cylindrical. — We are un- 
able to discover any character that will distinguish this species from A. de- 
capetala, Linn, of S. America. Hooker and Arnott (in hot. of Beechey^s 
voy. p. 4. t. 1.) have indeed shown that the latter species sometimes bears 
several flowers on each scape, and hence they place it in the section Anem- 
onospermos. In our Chilian specimens, however, the scapes are only 1- 
flowered, as usually described ; and A. St. Hilaire (ft. Bras, merid. 1. p. 
5.) who appears to know the plant well, makes no mention of the scapes 
bearing more than one flower. 

4. A. parviftora (Michx.) : leaves 3-parted ; lobes cuneiform, 3-cleft, cre- 
nate, obtuse ; ' those of the involucre nearly similar, but longer and narrower, 
sessile ; sepals 6, oval. Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. l.p.5; Michx. ft. 1. p. 319; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 19. A. cuneifolia, Juss. ann. Mus. 3. p. 248, t. 21. f. 1; 
Pjirsh ! fl. 2. p. 386. A. borealis, Richards, app- Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 22. 

Labrador ! Canada to the Arctic Sea, lat. 70°; Kotzebue's Sound, Beechey; 
Anticosti, Pursh.'— Plant 2-12 inches high. Flowers white tinged with 
blue. Heads of carpels rounded, compact, woolly. 

5. A. Baldensis (Linn.) : leaves nearly glabrous and somewhat fleshy, 
ternately divided ; segments laciniately 3-parted, with the lobes linear, ob- 
tuse ; those of the involucre similar, on short villous petioles ; scape vfllous, 
1-floAvered ; sepals 6, obtuse, spreading, with the lower surface somewhat 
hairy. Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. I. p. 5; DC. prodr. 1. p. 19. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52° — 55°, Drummond. — Flowers tinged with blue. 
Root fusiform. — A native also of high mountams in Europe. 

6. A. nemorosa (Linn.): leaves ternate ; leaflets undivided, or with the 
middle one 3-cleft and the lateral ones 2-parted, incisely toothed, acute ; 
those of the involucre similar, petioled ; sepals 4-6, oval. — Hook. ft. Bor.- 
Am.. 1. p. 6 ; Michx. ! ft. 1. ^. 319 ; Pursh ! ft. 2. p. 387 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 53 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 20. A. lancifolia, Pursh! ft. I. c. ; DC. prodr. I. c. 

P. quinquefolia : lateral leaflets of the involucre 2-parted to the base.— 
A. quinquefolia, Linn. 

Woods, very common, Canada ! to Georgia, and west to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. April-May. — Plant 6-8 inches high. Sepals mostly 5, white or 
pale purple. 


i. A. deltoidea (Hook.): sparinjjly hirsute; leaves ternato ; Icailets 
(and those of the involucre) deltuid-ovate, undivided or 3-lol)ed, incisely 
serrate, acute, those of the involucre sessile ; sepals 5-6, ohovate, obtuse. 
Hook.! ft. lior.-Am. 1. ;;:-G. t. 3. /'. A. 

Oregon River, near the sea, Seoul er! Nidtall. '—Vlant 10-12 inches 
high. " Radical leaves on long petioles rising from a fdiform rhizoma. 
Flower solitary, on a long peduncle, as large as in A. Pennsylvanica, Avhite. 

8. A. Richardsoniana (Hook.): somewhat hairy; leaves renifonn, 
3-5-parted, lobes slightly 3-cleft, acutely toothed ; those of the involucre 
roundish-cuneiform, sessile 3-cleft and toothed ; sepals 6, spreading ; carpels 
compressed, glabrous ; style long, dellexed, uncinate. Hook! ft. Bor.-Am. 
1. p. 6. t. 4./. -4. ^ in Richards, app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 21. 

Shores of Hudson's Bay, and Rocky Mountains from lat. 55° to C8°; also 
Unalaschka and throughout Siberia.— Plant 8-10 inches high. Radical 
leaves mostly springing from filiform rhizomas. Head of carpels large com- 
pared with the flower, depressed. Carpels numerous, oblong-ovate, termi- 
nated by a long slender deflexed style, the extremity of which is curved up- 

9. A. cylindrica (Gray): silky-pubescent; leaves ternately divided; 
lateral segments 2-parted, the intermediate one 3-cleft ; lobes linear-lanceo- 
late, with the apex incisely toothed ; those of the involucre petioled ; pe- 
duncles 2-6, rarely one ; sepals 5, obovate, obtuse ; carpels woolly, in a long 
cylindrical head. Gray ! in ami. lye. Neiv-York, 3. p. 221. 

Western part of the State of New- York, Gray ! ; near Boston, Mr. 
Greene ! NiUtall ! Bellows Falls, New Hampshire Mr. Carey ! Michi- 
gan, Dr. FolwellJ Indiana., Darliiigton! May-June.— Plant 1-3 feet high. 
Peduncles flowering simultaneously, subumbellate, 1-flowered, in fruit 
8-12 inches in length. Leaves of the involucre 2-3 times the number of 
the peduncles. Sepals subcoriaceous, pale yellowish-green. Style very 
short. Head of carpels an inch in length. 

§ 4. Carpels without tails, subcompressed : pedicels several from each 
involucre, one of them leafless and Iflowered, the others bearing a 
2-leaved involucel. — Anemonospermos, DC. 

10. A. Virginiana (Linn.) : leaves ternately divided ; segments 3-cleft, 
acuminate, incisely serrate, those of the involucre and involucels similar, pe- 
tioled; sepals 5, somewhat coriaceous, elliptical ; head of carpels ovate-ob- 
long, wooUy.— Mc/i.r. .'/. 1. p. 320 ; Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 388 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 
21;^ Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 7. t. 4./. B. 

Banks of rivers and in woods, Canada! (from lat. 55°) to South Caro- 
lina.— Plant 2-3 feet high, hairy. Peduncles elongated, 3-4 from each in- 
volucre. Sepals acute, pale yellowish-green, silky-pubescent beneath. 
Head of carpels three-fourths of an inch long, and half an inch in diameter. 
—We have a variety of this plant, found near Philadelphia by Mr. Durand, 
in which the flower is considerably larger than usual, the sepals nearly white, 
and several of them quite obtuse. 

11. A. midtifida (DC): hauy; leaves ternately divided ; segments 
cuneiform, laciniately 3-cleft, lobes linear, acute, those of the involucre and 
involucels similar, on short petioles ; sepals 5-8, oval, obtuse.— Z>C;)ro(Zr. 1. 
p. 21 ; Deless. ic. l.t. 16?; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. I. p. 7. A. Hudsoniana, 
Richards, app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 22. 

0. Hudsoniana (DC. l. c): stem. 2-flowered ; flower red.— A. sangui- 
nea, Pursh ! in herb. Lamb. A. Hudsoniana P. sanguinea, Richards. I. c. 

y. globosa: stem mostly l-( sometimes 2-3-) flowered; head of carpels 
globose. — A globosa, Nutt, ! mss. 

14 RANUNCULACE^. Hepatica. 

Canada! and Arctic America; west to the Oregon. Shore of Lake 
Superior, Dr. PUchcr! Watertown, New-York, (var. Hudsoniana) Dr. 
Craxoe ! Vermont, Dr. Bobbins ! Mr. Carey ! June. v. Plains of the 
Platte and Valleys of the Rocky Mountains in lat. 42°, Nuttall .'—About a 
loot high. Flower white, yellow, or purple, but mostly deep red. Head of 
pericarps oval, very wooUy. — It is possible that the North American plant 
may prove to be a distinct species from A. multifida of the Straits of Ma- 
gellan. The single-flowered variety figured in Delessert, ic. 1. t. 17, is so 
unlike the ordinary form, t. 16, that it can hardly belong to the same species. 

12. A. Pennsylvanica (Linn.): somewhat hairy; leaves 3-5-parted; seg- 
ments oblong, incisely toothed at the apex; involucre and involucels similar, 
24eaved, sessile ; sepals 5, obovate ; carpels hairy, compressed, margined, 
with a nearly straight persistent style. — Pursh, ft. 2. p. 3S7; DC.prodr. 1. 
J). 21; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 8. t. 3. f. B. A. dichotoma, Linn, amcen. 
acad. 1. p. 155 ; DC. prodr. I. c. ; Pursh ! Jl. I. c. A. aconitifolia, Michx. ! 
fi. 1. p. 320. \ 

Banks of rivers, in rocky places, Canada ! to Pennsylvania ! and north to «!. 
Arctic America. Michigan! Ohio! June- July. — About 18 inches high. 
Radical leaves large, on long petioles. Flower an inch or more in diameter. 
Sepals white, membranaceous. Style longer than the ripe carpels, and when 
young, short and hooked. — We fully accord with Sir W. Hooker in uniting 
A. Pennsylvanica and A. dichotoma. Siberian specimens of the latter are 
taller and the flower smaller than in our plant, but in other respects there is 
no dijQference. 

§ 5. Carpels without tails, much compressed, roundish-oval, glabrous : 
pedicels several, umbelled, leajless, 1-Jlowered. — Omalocarpus, DC. 

13. A. narcissijlora (Linn.): villous; leaves palmately 3—5 parted; seg- 
ments cuneiform, incisely many-cleft ; lobes linear, acute ; involucre some- 
what similar, sessile, leaflets 3-5-cleft. — Willd. sp. 2. p. 1283 ; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 387 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 21 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am.. 1. p. 8. 

Canada (Pursh) and N. W. America '(Menzies) to Kotzebue's Sound. 
Unalaschka, Fisher. — Plant clothed with long silky hairs. Flowers white. 

I Doubtful species. 

14. A. Walteri (Pursh) : root tuberous ; stem 1-flowered, naked ; leaves 
palmate, on long petioles; sepals 5. Pursh, fl. 2. p. 387. Thalictrum Caro- 
linianum, Walt. Car. p. 157. 

North Carolina, Walter. — Pursh found no specimen of this plant in 
Walter's herbarium, and it is quite unknown to aU our botanists. 

15. A. pedata (Raf.) : stem short, 1-flowered ; leaves pedately 5-parted, 
lobes laciniate; sepals 6. Raf. in jour. bot. l.p. 230; DC.prodr. l.p 22. 

New Jersey, Rafinesque. — Probably A. nemorosa. 

16. A. minima (DC.) : involucral leaves 3-parted ; lobes ovate, acuminate, 
serrate towards the apex; sepals 5, oval-oblong, obtuse. DC. syst. l.p, 206. 

Alleghany Mountains in Virginia, P. de Beauvois. — Probably also a va- 
riety of A. nemorosa. 

3. HEPATICA. Dill; DC. syst. l.p. 215. 

Involucre resembling a 3-sepalous calyx, very near the flower. Sepals pe- 
taloid, 6-9, in 2 or 3 rows. Petals none. Achenia without tails. — Involucre 
1-flowered. Leaves radical, entire or 3-lobed. 

Ranunccuis. RANUNCULACE^. 15 

1, H. triloba (Chaix): leaves broadly cordate, 3--5-lobpd; lobes omire.— 
Chaix in Vill. Ddph. 1. p. 336; DC. prndr. 1. p. 22 ;, Jl. 2. p. 391 ; 
Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. S. Anemone Hepalica, Linn. ; Michx. ! jl. 1. 

V- 319- „ . 

a. obtusa : leaves 3-lobed ; lobes roundish, obtuse, Pursh, I. c— H. Ameri- 
cana, Ker, in bat. reg. t. 387 ; J) C. I. c. 

0. acuta: leaves 3-5-lobed; lobes spreading, acute. Pursh, Jl. I. c.—H. 
acutiloba, J)C. I. c. 

Canada! to South Carolina; very common. ^\tc\\n, JJ on g a rd. March- 
April. — Leaves coriaceous. Petals and scapes villous. Involucre villous; 
segments ovate, mostly obtuse. Sepals oblong, obtuse, blue, pale purple, 
or white. 

4. ADONIS. Linn. ; DC. syst. 1. p. 220. 

Sepals 5, appressed. Petals 5-15, with a naked claw. Achcnia spicate 
upon the elongated torus, tipped with the short style. — Herbs with pin- 
nately-parted cauline leaves, the segments linear and numerous. Flowers 
solitary on the extremity of the stem or branches, yellow or red. 

1. A. autumnalis (Linn.): calyx glabrous; petals 6-8, concave and con- 
nivent, a little longer than the calyx; carpels somewhat reticulated, collected 
into an ovate head, crowned with a very short style ; stem branched. DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 23; Bor.-Am. \.p. 9. 

Labrador, Hooker; near New Orleans, Mr. Teinturier ! Banks of the 
Mississippi, Nuttall ! " Genesee Flatts" [New-York,] v. s. in herb. 
Muhl. (l)-— Leaves three times compound, the segments scarcely a line wide. 
Flowers bright scarlet, as large as in Ranunculus acris. 


Petals with a small nectariferous scale or gland at (he base inside* 
Anthers cxtrorse. Seed erect, or sometimes suspended. 

5. RANUNCULUS. Linn.; DC. syst. 1. p. 231. 

Ranunculus &. Casalaa, A. SLHil. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5 (sometimes 10 or more), with a nectariferous scale or 
glandular spot on the inside of the claw. Stamens numerous, or sometimes 
few. Achenia ovate, pointed, compressed, disposed in cylindrical or round- 
ish heads. Seed erect (rarely suspended).— Annual or perennial herbs. 
Leaves mostly radical, the cauline ones at the base of the branches and pe- 

§ 1. Carpels transversely wrinkled : petals white : claw yellow, with 
a conspicuous nectariferous pore.— Batrachium, DC. 

\. R. aquatilis (Linn.) : stem floating ; submersed leaves filiformly dis- 
sected; eraersed ones 3-parted, with cimeiform dentate lobes; petals ob- 
ovate, exceeding the calyx.— Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 395 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 26 ; Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 10.; Darlingt. ! Jl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 327. 

16 RANUNCULACEiE. Anemone. 

a. heierophyllus : cmcrscd leaves 3-parted. DC. I. c. — R. aquatilis, 
Pursh, I. c. 

p. capiUaceus: leaves petioled, all immersed and filifofmly dissected. 
DC. I. c. ; Honk. I. f.— R. pantothrix, DC. syat. 1. p. 235 ; Ell. Wc. 2. ;;. 57. 
R. fluviatilis, Willd. sp. 2. p. 1333 ; Pursh, I. c. 

y. ca'spitosus : leaves petioled, all emersed, with a nearly orbicular cir- 
cumscription, filiformly dissected, the segments rigidly divergent; base of the 
petiole broad, sheathing and auricled. DC. I. c; Hook. I. c. 

f). stagnalis: leaves sessile, all immersed, filiformly dissected, circinnatc ; 
segments short; sheaths obscurely auricled; carpels rather acute, nearly 
smooth. DC. I. c. ; Hook. I. c. 

Ponds and rivers, Arctic America to South Carolina, and west to the 
Rocky Mountains! and Columbia River! California, {Hook tf Am. in 
hot. Beechey's voy.) June-Aug. — Stem long, slender, jointed. Leaves 
dichotomously or trichotomously divided. Flowers smaller than those of R. 
acris. Calyx glabrous. — We have never seen American specimens of Var. o. 
Var. y and ^, British America, Hooker. 

§ 2. Carpels smooth {not wrinkled), ovate or suhrotunO, in roundish 
heads : root jibrous. — Hecatonia, DC. 

* Leaves divided : flowers, ivhilc. 

2. R. glacialis (Linn.): radical leaves petioled, palmately 3-parted or 3- 
cleft ; lobes rather obtuse and thick ; stem about 1-flowered ; calyx very hir- 
sute; carpels compressed, margined. DC. prodr. 1. p. 30. 


** Leaves all undivided ; flowers yellow. 

3. Jl. Flammula (Linn.): leaves smooth, linear-lanceolate or ovate-lance- 
olate, often denticulate ; stem declined, more or less rooting at the lower 
joints; peduncles opposite the leaves; carpels smooth, with a distinct sub- 
ulate beak ; petals much longer than the calyx. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 32 ; Pursh, 
Jl. 2. p. 391 ; Darlingt. ! fl. Cest. p. 327. 

/?. laxicaulis : stem weak, much branched; leaves all entire; lowest 
ones eUiptical-oblong, upper ones linear; petals oblong, attenuate at the base, 
three times as long as the calyx. 

Inundated places, ditches, &c. Canada ! to North Carolina. P. Milledge- 
ville, Georgia, Dr. Boykin J July. — Whole plant glabrous. Stem 1-2 feet 
long, a little branched; leaves 3-6 inches long, 4-8 lines broad, those of the 
stem acute at each end ; lower ones petioled, more or less obtuse at the base. 
Peduncles 1-2 inches long. Flowers 4—5 lines in diameter. Head of car- 
pels globose. Beak two-thirds the length of the car])el. 

4. R. reptans (Linn.): leaves linear or lanceolate-linear, acute at each 
end, glabrous, entire; stem creeping (rooting at the joints); carpels glabrous, 
puncticulate, with a minute blunt point. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 32. 

jff. oralis, (Bigel.) : leaves oval and lanceolate ; petals 6-10. Bigel. I. c. 
y. intermedius (Hook. !) stem creeping, slender, leaves narrow, lanceolate, 
the upper ones linear ; flower middle sized. 

5. jiUformis (DC): stem filiform, creeping extensively, leaves linear; 
flowers small.— R. filiformis, Mich. v. ! fl. 1. p. 320; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 392; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 224. 

Banks of rivers and low grounds, Labrador and Canada to New- York ! west 
to Oregon ! June-August, 

Ranunculds. RANUNCULACE^. 17 

Sir W. Hooker refers R. reptans to R. Flammula, and should we have adopt- 
ed his views were it not for tiie dilference in tlie carpels uf the two species. 
The most connnon variety throws out numerous filiform stems, j)ruducin<T 
leaves and roots at the joints. Leaves mostly very narrow ; hut in /?. and > . 
inclining to lanceolate or even ovate. Flowers in P. ahout a third of an incii 
in diameter, in the other varieties smaller. Petals obovate. Carpels roundish- 
ovate, the beak very short and oblique. 

5. /?. pusillus (Poir.) : leaves all on long petioles ; lower ones ovate, sub- 
cordate, entire or sparingly toothed ; upper ones linear-lanceolate ; stem erect 
or decumbent ; petals mostly 3 (sometimes 1-5), as long as the calyx ; car- 
pels ovate, with a minute blunt point. — Puir. diet. 6. p. 99 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 
:U2; p. 58; BC. prodr. 1. p. 32; Deless. ic. 1. t.2S. R. 
Flammula, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 221; Wait. Car. p. 159. 

(i . denticrdatu.^ : leaves acutely and remotely repand-denticulate, lowest 
ones ovate-lanceolate ; those of the stem lanceolate-linear ; flowers minute ; 
carpels roundish-ovate. 

Y. mxUicus : resembling a. but the carpels very smooth and without any 
beak; tlowers very small. 

S. oblong if oliu.'i : leaves petiolate, denticulate, lower ones oblong-oval, up- 
per ones linear-lanceolate ; petals a little longer than the calyx ; carpels 
globose, not pointed, smooth. — R. oblongifolius. Ell. sk. 2. p. 58. 

Boggy places. Var. a. North Carolina ! to Georgia. /?. Texas, Drum- 
mond ! y. New York ! to Pennsylvania. <5. near Savannah, Georgia ! 
Elliott! — The varieties y- fin'l ^» may prove to be distinct species. — This 
species would be referred to Casalea, St. Hil. 

6.7?. Cijmhalaria (Pursh): stoloniferous ; leaves cordate-ovate or reniform, 
petioled, obtuse, coarsely crenate ; scape 1-3-fiowered ; petals spatulate, 
rather longer than the calyx. — Pursh ! Jl. 2. p. 392 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 11. R. Cymbalaria P. Americana, DC. prodr. l.p. 33. 

/?. alpinus : very small ; leaves 3-toothcd at the apex ; scape 1-flowered.^ 
R. halophyllus, Schlecht. animad. hot. ? (fide Hook?) 

Arctic Sea, lat. 68°, to the coast of New-Jersey ! Salina, New-York ! 
Salt plains of the Platte, Dr. James ! Banks of the Oregon and neighbour- 
ing streams, as well as on the contiguous coast of the Pacific, Nuttall ! 
0. Summits of the Rocky Mountains, Drummond., &c. August — Scapes 2- 
6 inches high, with one or two minute linear leaves. Stolons extensively 
creeping. Leaves glabrous, somewhat fleshy, roundish-ovate or oblong. Se- 
pals oval, concave. Petals 5-8. Carpels ovate, acute, compressed, with seve- 
ral elevated ribs, disposed in dense oblong heads. — Very near R. salsuginosus, 
Pall. The Siberian plant is commonly smaller than the North American 
variety, but in other respects there is no essential diflference. 

♦** Leaves more or less divided : Jloioers yellow. 

C^ 7. R. Pallas^ii (Schlecht.) : stem creeping, fistulous ; leaves oval or obovate, 
cuneiform, 3-parted ; sepals 3 ; petals 8 ; head of carpels spherical ; carpels 
thick, ovate, glabrous, beaked. Schlecht. animad. hot. l.p. 15. t. 2; Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am.\ p. 10. 

On the western shore of extreme Arctic America, beyond Behring's Straits. 
Chamisso. — AUied to Ficaria. 

8. R. auricom,us (Linn.) : leaves glabrous, radical ones petioled, cordate, 
mostly 3-parted or lobed ; cauline ones divided into linear entire or slightly 
toothed lobes; calyx pubescent, shorter than the petals. DC. prodr. l.p. 33. 

Greenland. — Pursh records this species as a native of Pennsylvania, but 
no other botanist has found it in any part of the United States. 


18 RANUNCULACEiE. Ranunculus. 

9. R. affinis (R. Brown) : radical leaves petioled, pedately multifid ; 
canline ones subsessile, digitate, with linear lobes ; stern erect, few-flowered 
and, with the calyx and ovaries, pubescent ; carpels with a recurved beak, 
disposed in oblong-cylindrical heads. R. Br. in Parrifs \sl voy. ajrp. p. 
265; Hook.Jl. Hor-Am. I. p. 12. 

a. petals twice as long as the calyx. Hook. I. c. t. 6. A. — R. affinis, R. Br. 
I. c; Richards, in Frankl. l.s^ jour. app. cd. 2. p. 23 ; Hook, in Parry's 
2nd voy. app. p. 384. R. arcticus, Richards. I. c. ed. 1. 

/?. petals a little shorter than the calyx, or none ; lower leaves more or less 
divided. Hook. I. c. i. 6. A. b. 

y. the exterior radical leaves suborbicular, undivided. Hook. I. c. 

Canada to the Arctic Sea, and from long. 95° to the western declivity of 
the Rocky Mountains. Kotzebue's Sound, Hook. P. & y. Melville Is- 
land and shore of the Arctic Sea, Hook. — Very near R. auricomus. Broun. 

10. R. ovalis (Hook.) : pubescent ; radical leaves oval, cordate or truncate 
at the base, undivided, rarely crenately 3-lobed ; cauline ones subsessile, 
digitate, Avith the lobes all linear ; stem erect, many-flowered ; calyx pubes- 
cent as lono- as the corolla ; heads of carpels globose. Bor.-Ain. 1. 
p. 13. t. Q.f. B ; Raf. in Desv.jour. hot. 2. p. 268 ? ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 43 1 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52°, and about Carlton House.— Root fasciculately ' 
fibrous. Radical leaves crenate, undivided, trifid, or pedately palmate. Se- 
pals spreading, at length reflexed. Petals oval. Carpels as in R. affinis. 

11. R. hrevicaulis (Hook.): pubescent; radical leaves all undiAaded, 
cordate-oval, crenate, cauline ones palmately many-cleft ; stem much shorter 
than the leaves, erect, many-flowered ; heads of carpels globose ; petals 6. Bor.-Am. I. p. 13. t. 7. A. 

Shores of Lake Huron, Drummond; Fort Gratiot, St. Clair River, Dr. 
Pitcher .'—Plant 2-6 inches high. Leaves on long petioles, large in proportion 
to the size of the plant. Flower about half an inch in diameter.— Probably 
only a variety of the preceding species. 

12. R. rhomboideus (Goldie) : hirsutely pubescent; radical leaves ovate- 
rhomboid, undivided, serrate (or crenate), cauline ones palmate, floral ones 
deeply laciniate ; sepals spreading, pilose; head of carpels globose, glabrous, 
with an extremely short heak.— Goldie, in Edinb. phil.jour. G. p. 329. t. 11. 
/. 1 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 12. 

Canada, 'Goldie, Denke! Near Montreal, Dr. Holmes .'Stem 3-6 
inches high, branching above. Radical leaves orbicular-ovate, rhomboidal or 
obovate-cuneiform. Petals 5, oblong-obovate, longer than the sepals. 

13. R. cardiophyllns (Hook.) : hirsutely pubescent ; radical leaves round- 
cordate, with the base rather deeply emarginate, undivided or many-cleft ; 
cauline ones palmately many-cleft ; the lobes linear, incisely crenate ; petals 
broadly oval, very obl:use, twice as long as the spreading sepals ; head of 
carpels oblong.— //oo/f. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 14. t. 5./. B; Nutt. in jour. acad. 
Phi lad. l.p'.S. 

Canada to lat. 55°; Rocky Mountains, Drummond; Flat-Head River, 
N. W. America, Mr. Wyeth.— Stem 1 foot high, robust. Stem-leaves nearly 
sessile. Carpels numerous, roundish, small, terminated Avith a minute ra- 
ther long hooked style. Flowers golden yelloAV, as large as in R. bulbosus. 
Hook.— This and the four preceding species are nearly allied, and aU of 
Ihera, Avith the exception of R. rhomboideus, may be, as Hooker suspects, 
only varieties of R. auricomus. They all have fibrose-fasciculate roots. 

14./?. micranthus (Nutt.! mss.) : "hairy, dAvarf, (small-flowered); 
leaves petiolate, somcAvhat rhombic-OA'ate, crenate, some of ihem 3-parted or 
3-cleft ; cauline ones subsessile, Avith 3 to 5 linear-oblong divisions; sepals 
AA'ith a bj-oid membranaceous border, as long as the corolla. 

Ranunculus. RANUNCULACEaE. 19 

"Margin of ponds throughout the upper and western part of Missouri; 
likewise in Arkansas, collected by Dr. Pitcher." Nullall ! — Dislin<,nii-hed 
iroin R. abortivus, which it much resembles, by the constant hairiness of the 
stem, calyx, and petioles, as will as by the very ditlerenl form of the primary 
leaves. " From R. ovalis it dillers in the flower being less than half as large, 
and also by the shorter radical leaves with much fewer serraturcs." Niui. 

/?. '? Cidifurnkiui : stem very short; leaves much crowded; primary 
ones reni form-cordate, cauiine trifoliolate ; the leaflets on long petioles, 2-|j 

California. DoHcrlas ! — Stem short and thick, scarcely 2 inches high. 
Leaves nearly glabrous, except a little hairiness on the margin, the petioles 
pubescent. Flower subsolitary, as large as in R. abortivus. — We have but a 
solitary and rather imperfect specimen of this plant, and are therefore unable to 
determine whether it is a distinct species, or a mere variety of R. micranthus. 

•15. R. glahervimus (Hook.) : leaves all (except the uppermost) petioled ; 
radical ones roundish, entire or coarsely 3-toothed ; cauiine ones somewhat 
cuneiform, 3-cleft ; petals twice as large as the oval spreading sepals ; heads 
of caqiels globose. Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 12. t. 5. A ; Nuit. ! in jour, 
acad. Philad. 1. p. 7. 

Rocky Mountams near perpetual snow, Douglas ; WallaAvallali River, &c. 
Nuttall ! — Roots fibrose-fasciclcd. Whole plant very glabrous, somewhat 
succulent. Stem a span high, 1-3-flowered. Cauiine leaves 3-cleft ; seg- 
ments lanceolate, obtuse, entire. Corolla half an inch in diameter. Petals 
5, oval, twice the length of the calyx. 

16. R. abortivus (Linn.) : glabrous and very smooth ; radical leaves peti- 
oled, reniform or broadly ovate and subcordate, crenate, sometimes 3-cIeft ; 
cauiine ones 3-5-parted, with linear-oblong nearly entire segments ; sepals 
reflexed, longer than the petals ; head of carpels globose or ovate. — Willd. 
sp. 2. p. 1334 ; Pnrsh ! fl. 2. p. 392 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 34 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. Tj. 14. (excl. /?.) R. nitidus, ^YaU. Car. p. 159?; Pursh ! I. c. 

Newfoundland, and Canada lat. 57°, to S. Carolina ! west to Arkansas ! 
and the Rocky Mountains ; in rocky woods. April-June. — Root fibrose- 
fascicled. Stem simple or branching. Flowers 2-3 lines in diameter. Se- 
pals oval, obtuse, colored. Petals pale yellow, with a conspicuous truncate 
scale. Carpels roundish, margined, with a very short straight style (or some- 
times with a long and stout recurved miicro. Hook.) — Near R. auricomus, 
but a smoother plant with much smaller flowers. Var. P. of Hooker is per- 
liaps a form of that species. 

17. R. sceleratus (Linn.) : glabrous ; leaves petioled, 3-parted ; radical 
ones with the divisions 3-lobed and obtusely incised ; the upper cauiine ones 
Aviih oblong-linear nearly entire lobes ; sepals reflexed, about equal to the 
petals ; camels minute, disposed in oblong-cylindrical heads. — WUJd. sp. 2. 
p. 1315 ; Pursh ! fl. 2. jj. 293 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 34 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 59 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 15. 

p. midtijidus (Nntt.lmss.): "leaves much divided ; flowers larger ; headof 
carpels ovate, thick." 

In ditches, &.c. Canada! (lat. 67°) to S.Carolina, p. Ponds of the Platte, 
Nuttall ! — Stem thick and succulent, fistulous, very leafy. Flowers small, 
pale yellow. Carpels very numerous, scarcely pointed. /?. About a span 
high, more slender ; the head of carpels much shorter and thicker. 

IS. R. Pnrshii (Richardson): submerged leaves filiformly 2-3-choto- 
mously dissected, with the segments flat ; emersed ones reniform, 3-5-parted, 
the lobes variously divided ; petals twice as large as the reflexed sepals ; car- 
pels in globose heads, smooth, with a short and straight ensiform style. — 
Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 15. 

a. leaves all filiformly dissected (flowers as large as in R. acris) ; stem fis- 

20 RANUNCULACEiE. Ranunculus, 

tulous. Hook. I. c. — R. multifidus, Purah ! Ji. 2. p. 736 ; DC. I. c. R. aqua- 
ticus, flore fiavo, tbliis infiinis tenuissime divisis &c., C'layt. / Virg. ed. 2. 
no. 885. R. (iuviatilis, Bisrel. Jl. Bost. ed. 1. p. 139. -R. delphinifolius, 
Torr. in. Eat. hot. ed. 3. (1822) p. 424. R. lacustris, Btck (^ Tracy in 
Eat. I. c. p. 423, d^ in trans. Albany inst. 1. p. 148. t. 5. 

p. submersed leaves filiformly dissected; floating ones reniform, palmately 
many-cleft. Hook. I. c. t. 7. B.f. i. 

y. creeping; lower leaves many-cleft, with linear segments; the upper 
ones reuiibrm, pahnately many-cleft. Hook. I. c. t. 7. B. f. 2. — R. Purshii 
a. Richards. ! in apj). Frank I. journ. ed. 2. p. 23. 

y. creeping ; leaves all round-reniform, palmately 3-5-clcft. Hook. I. c. t. 
7. B. f. 3. — R. Purshii /?. Hie hards, i. c. R. Gmeleni. DC.prodr. 1. p. 35. 
(excl. syn.) R. Langsdorfii, DC. I. c. 

In ponds and muddy places, from extreme Arctic America to N. Carolina ! 
Louisiana! Ohio! &c. West to the Rocky Mountains! and Kotzebue's 
Sound. May-July. — Flowers bright yeUow. 

19. R. liniosus. (Nutt.l mss.) : " subaquatic, procumbent, somewhat hairy ; 
leaves reniform, palmately 5-cleft, the segments 2-3-toothed or somewhat 
lobed ; the divisions blunt, short and shallow ; stem 1-2-flowered ; sepals 
shorter than the rounded petals; carpels scarcely keeled, with a short nearly 
straight beak. 

" Margins of ponds in the eastern ranges of the Rocky Mountains, Lewis's 
River, &.c. Near R. Purshii y. Hook. ?" Nidt. — It appears scarcely to differ, 
except in the pubescence, from some of the numerous varieties of R.Purshii. 

20. H. Lapponicus (Linn.) : leaves glabrous ;- radical ones on long pe- 
tioles, 3-parted, with the lobes dilated, obtuse, coarsely toothed ; scape 
1-flowered, (sometimes 1-leaved,) longer than the leaves ; sepals 3, reflexed. 
DC. — Linn.Ji. Lapp. t. 3.f. 4; DC.prodr. 1. p. 35; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 16. 

Arctic America, from lat. 50° to the Arctic Sea. Kotzebue's Sound, 
Hook. ^ Am. in Bat. Beechey.' — Petals 6 (8, Sclilecht.), spatulate. Car- 
pels 6-10, in roundish heads. AUied to Ficaria. Hooker. 

21. R. hyperboreus (Rottboell) : leaves glabrous, petioled, 3-cleft ; lobes 
oblong-oval, divaricate, the lateral ones somewhat 2-cleft, the middle one 
undivided ; sheaths with the base biauriculate ; stem filiform, creeping. 
DC.—Fl. Dan. t. 331 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 35 ; Hook.Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 16. R. 
Gmeleni, Schlecht. animad. bot. 2. p. 85. (fide Hook.) 

Arctic America. — Heads globose, compact ; carpels distinctly margined on 
the back. Hooker. — Allied to R. Cymbalaria, but distinguished by its trifid 
leaves. DC. 

22. K.pygmceits (Wahl.) : leaves glabrous, 3-5-cleft, radical ones petioled, 
cauline ones sessile ; stem 1-flowered ; calyx glabrous, longer than the 
somewhat reflexed petals ; carpels roundish, pointed with a short hooked 
style. DC— Wahl. fl. Lapp. p. 157. t. 8. /. 1 ; Pursh^ Jl. 2. p. 393 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 35; Hook..' Jl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 17. 

Coast of Arctic America ! and Rocky Mountains in lat. 55°. Spitzber- 
gen ! Unalaschka ! Kotzebue's Sound, Hook. ^ Am. in bot. Beechey. 
Labrador, Pitrsh, and herb. Schweinitz .' — Stem erect, never creeping, 
1-2 inches high. Heads oblong. Carpels subglobose, not margined at the 
back. Hooker. — Intermediate between R. hyperboreus and nivalis. DC. 

23. R. Sabinii (R. BroAvn) : radical leaves on long petioles, 3-parted ; 
lobes elliptical, the lateral ones 2-cleft ; cauline ones sessile, 3-parted, the 
divisions linear ; calyx hirsute, nearly equal to the retuse petals. R. Br. in 
Parry^s 1st voy. app.p. 264; Hook.Ji. Bor.-Am. I. p. 17. 

Melville Island and Shores of the Arctic Sea. — Verj' near R. nivalis. R. Br. 
.24. R. nivalis (R. Brown) : radical leaves on long petioles, dilated, lobed ; 

Ranunculits. RANUNCULACEiE. 21 

the lobes somewhat ovate ; cauline ones nearly sessile, palmate ; stem erect, 
about 1-Howered ; calyx very hirsute, shorter than the obovate entire petals ; 
style nearly straight, as long as the glabrous ovaries. It. lir. I. c. j Hook.! 
I. c. 

a. radical leaves reniform, deeply lobed ; the middle lobe cuneiform-obo- 
vate, narrowed at the base. R. lir.— R. nivaVis, Linn. ; DC. prod r. ].]>. 

0. radical leaves cuneiform at the base, lobed scarcely to the middle ; the 
middle lobe semi-ovate, broad at the base ; petals round-obovate, once and a 
half the length of the very hirsute calyx, li. Jir.—R. sulphureus, Holand. ; 
iScklcclit. (niinuid. hot. 2. p. 15. 

y. radical leaves somewhat cuneiform at the base, or deeply lobed trans- 
versely ; the middle lobe cunciform-obovate, narrower at the base. B. Br. 

Arctic America ! and from Labrador ! and Spitzbergen ! to Kotzebue's 
Sound (Beechey), and the Rocky Mountains, lat. 55°. 

25. R. Eschscholtzii (Schlecht.) : leaves ciliate; radical ones petioled, 
3-parted, the divisions lobed ; stem about 1-Howered ; calyx hirsute, shorter 
than the petals ; carpels obliquely ovate, terminated by a short style. DC. — 
Schlecht. animad. hot. 2. p. 16. ^ 1; DC. prodr. 1. j). 35; IIuolc. fi. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 18. 

0. petals abortive or very small. Hook. I. c. 

Unalaschka, &c. N. W. America. /?. Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-56°.— 
Near R. nivalis. 

26. R. pedatijidus (Smith) : leaves minutely pubescent ; the radical ones 
petioled, palmately or pedately divided, with the lobes linear and entire ; 
scape erect, nearly naked, 1-2-flowered ; calyx spreading, somewhat villous. 
Hook.— Smith, in Rees's cycl. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 36 ; Hook. I.e. t. 8. B. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-55^. — Leaves somewhat ciliate. Scape 
1-leaved, 3 inches high. Carpels disposed in a roundish head, ovale, at- 
tenuate into a recurved style which is scarcely as long as the fruit. Hook. 

27. R. acris (Linn.) : leaves pubescent or somewhat glabrous, 3-5-part- 
ed, with the segments deeply and laciniately trifid ; lobes lanceolate, acute, 
the uppermost linear ; stem many-flowered ; peduncles terete ; calyx spread- 
ino-, villous ; carpels roundish, compressed, terminated with a short recurved 
style.— PMr«/i, fl. 2. p. 394; DC. prodr. 1. j). 36; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 18. 

13. hairy ; petals oblong, 10-14.— R. Deppii, Nutt. ! mss. 

Meadows and pastures, Hudson's Bay to Pennsylvania ! H. California, 
Nuttall ! June.— Stem 1-2 feet high, hirsute, with the pubescence appressed 
or spreading ; sometimes nearly glabrous. Flowers large. — Butter-cups. 

28. R. repens (Linn.) : stems sending ofT from the base long prostrate or 
creeping branches ; leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets cuneiform 3-lobed incisely 
toothed, the middle one (and generally the lateral one also) petiolulate ; pe- 
duncles sulcate ; calyx spreading ; carpels Avith a broad rather straight point. 
—DC. prodr. 1. p. 38 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 394; DarKngt.fl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 329. 
R. prostratus, Poir. diet. 6. p. 113. R. intermedins, Eat! man. ed. 3. R. 
Clintonii, Beck,Jl. p. 7. R. fascicularis, Bart. fl. Philad. 2. p. 25. R. niti- 
dus, Mnhl. cat. ed. 2. p. 56; Ell. sk. 2. p. 60; 'Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 20. 
(excl. syn. DC.) 

13. linearilobus (DC.) : prostrate ; stems very long, floriferous ; lobes of the 
leaves very narrow. 

y. Marilandicus : stem and petioles densely hirsute with rather soft hairs; 
leaflets distinctly petiolulate. — R. Marilandicus, Poir. diet. 6. p. 126; DC. 
syst. 1. p. 291 ; Piirsh ! I. c. 

Wet shady places, particularly along rivers, Canada ! to Georgia ! and 

22 RANUNCULACEiE. Ranunculus, 

west to the Pacific ! y. Pennsylvania to Kentucky ! — May^uly. — Stems at 
length 1-4 feet long, commonly prostrate, and olten rooting; the earliest 
iiowering ones erect; usually hairy below, but often nearly smooth. Leaves 
with the petioles more or less pilose. Peduncles 1-3 inches long. Flowers 
middle sized (in sy)eciinens from Oregon smaller). Carpels in a globose head, 
margined, suborbicular, pointed with a short beak, which is nearly straight 
or somewhat incurved. A variable plant; the stem being procumbent or 
erect; the flowers sometimes much smaller, sometimes larger than in R. 
acris, and the leaves presenting much diversity of form and lobing. — Pursh's 
specimen of this plant in Lambert's herbarium is labelled in the hand-^vrit- 
ing of De Candolle. 

29. JR. hispidus (Michx.) : stem erect, branching and, Avith the petioles, 
very pilose with stiif spreading hairs ; leaves trifoliolate or 3-parted ; seg- 
ments oval, acute, laciniate ; pedicels with the pubescence appressed ; calyx 
appressed ; carpels smooth, pointed with a very short style. — DC. proch: 1. 
p. 38 ; Michx.! fl. 1. p. 321; Ell. sk. 2. p. 62. R. Belvisii, DC. I. c. R. 
Penusylvanicus, Pmsh ! fl. 2. p. 393. 

Shady rich soils, often in very wet places, New Jersey ! to S. Carolina ! 
and west to Oregon. May-July. — Stem 1^-2 feet high, widely branching, 
rather naked above. Leaves very hairy, often divided nearly to the base 
into many acute segments. Flowers as large as in R. acris. 

30. i?. occidentalis (Nutt.! mss.): "hirsute with shining spreading hairs; 
leaves trifid or 3-parted ; segments cuneate and trifid, or incisely toothed, the 
lateral ones often subdivided ; the uppermost leaves trifid, with linear acute 
segments ; stem divaricate, many-flowered ; sepals reflexed, half as long as 
the eUiptical-oblong petals ; carpels smooth, much compressed, with the re- 
volute style nearly their own length." — R. recurvatus, Bong. ! veg. Sitcha, 
in mem,, acad. St. Petersb. (6 ser.) 2. p. 123. (excl. syn.) ; Hook. ! fi. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 20. (in part.) 

Plains of the Oregon River, near woods, Nuttall ! Dr. Scouler ! ; Sitcha, 
Bongard! — Root composed of fasciculate fibres. Stem slender, about a 
foot high, somewhat branching, rather naked, densely clothed with shining 
brown hairs. Leaves scarcely more than an inch in length and breadth. 
Flowers Avhen expanded 8-10 lines in diameter. Carpels slightly hairy, mar- 
gined ; the beak, when mature, so much recurved as to be revolute. — Nearly 
related to R. lanuginosus of Europe, but differs in its slender naked stems, 
smaller leaves and flowers, narrow petals, &c. — We refer to this species R. 
recurvatus of Hooker, in part, because we have specimens under that name 
from Dr. Scouler, collected in Oregon. 

31. R. Pennsylvaniciis (Linn.): stem and petioles pilose-hispid with 
spreading hairs ; leaves ternate, villous, Avith the hairs appressed ; lower ones 
on long petioles, the leaflets petiolulate ; lobes lanceolate, incised ; calyx re- 
flexed, longer than the small petals ; heads oblong or somewhat cylindrical ; 
carpels pointed with a very short straight style. — DC pi-odr. 1. p. 40 ; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 63 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 19. R. Canadensis, Jacq. ic. rar. 
1. t. 165. R. hispidus, Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 395. 

Wet places, Maine ! Michigan ! New-York ! to Georgia. British America, 
west to the Pacific. June-Aug. — Whole plant hispidly pilose. Stem stout 
and erect, 1-2 feet high, branching. Flowers very small. 

32. R. recurvatus (Poir.): erect; stem and petioles clothed with spread- 
ing somewhat stiff" hairs; leaves 3-parted, villous with appressed hairs or 
nearly glabrous; segments broadly oval, incisely toothed, the lateral ones 
2-lobed ; calyx reflexed ; petals narroAvly oblong, shorter than the sepals 
(sometimes abortive) ; heads ovate-globose ; carpels Avith a short hooked style. 
—Poir. diet. 6. p. 123; Pursh, fl.2. p. 394; DC.prodr. 1. p. 39; Deless. 
ic. 1. t. 41 5 Ell. sk. 2. p. 63 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 20. (in part.) 

Ranunculus. RANUNCULACE.E. 23 

(i. Nelsonii (DC.) : lobes of the leaves appoximatc ; pedicels approximate ; 
pubescence of the pedicels apprcssed. Hook. I. c. 

y. stem and leaves nearly glabrou?;. Honk. I. r. 

6. stem and petioles retrorsely and hispidly pilose with reddish hairs ; pedi- 
cels very short ; petals often abortive. 

Shady rich soils, Labrador to Georgia! ,5. Oregon River, Dr. Scnulcr ! 

0. Unalaschka. )-. Oregon and Canada. May-June.— About a foot high. 
Leaves 2-3 inches in diameter, the outline pentangular, all of them petiolate; 
lobes dilated, coarsely toothed and incised. Flowers few, very small, on 
short peduncles. Sepals oblong. Petals always shorter than the sepals, and 
often scarcely half their length, pale yellow. Scale very conspicuous, cuneate, 
bidentate at the summit. Carpels much compressed ; the beak very slender, 
about half the length of the carpel. 

33. R. Carolinianus (DC.) : stem erect, with a few slender branches, 
hairy, the hairs on the lower part somewhat spreading, above appressed ; 
radical leaves cordate, 3-lobed or 3-parted ; lobes ovate, subincised or cre- 
nately toothed ; cauline ones 3-parted, Avith the lobes linear-lanceolate and 
nearly entire ; sepals shorter than the oblong-obovate petals ; carpels few, con- 
spicuously margined, with the beak broad and nearly straight.— />C'. syst. 

1. p. 292. R. palmatus, Ell. sk. 2. p. 61. R. lanuginosus, Pursh, ji. 2. p. 

Pine-barren swamps, South Carolina, Elliott. West Florida, Dr. Chap- 
man! April-May.— Stem 12-18 inches high, slender, the upper part pro- 
ducing several long 1-flowered branches. Leaves scarcely more than an 
inch in length and breath ; lobes rhombic-ovate, obtusely toothed. Flowers 
about half an inch in diameter. Carpels 5-8, large, the margin almost 
winged. — A very distinct species, allied to R. occidentalis, Nictt.j but easily 
distinguished by the short nearly straight beaks of the carpels. 

34. R. tomentosus (Poir.) : stem ascending, very villous with spreading 
hairs, 1-2-flowcred ; leaves tomentose. petiolate, 3-cleft ; the upper ones ses- 
sile, ovate, undivided ; calyx very villous, somewhat rcflcxed. DC. — Pair, 
diet. 6. p. 127 ; DC. syst. 1. p. 292 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 264; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 394. 

In South Carolina, Bosc. — Root fibrous-fasciculate. Stern short, as- 
cending at the summit, densely clothed with soft spreading hairs. Leaves 
3-cleft r segments 3-lobed, ovate, dentate, with the pubescence appressed. 
Petals obovate, a little longer than the calyx. DC.—De Candolle remarks 
of this obscure species that it resembles R. pubescens and R. Marilandicus. 
He refers to it R. tomentosus of Pursh, whose specimen in Lambert's her- 
barium is too imperfect for comparison. He also refers R. lanuginosus of 
Pursh both to R. tomentosus and R. Carolinianus, noting it, in the latter in- 
stance, with the mark (!); but we did not observe any Purshiau specimens 
of that species in Lambert's herbarium. Is R. tomentosus, Poir. a variety 
of R. repens ? 

35. R. ienellus (Nutt.! mss.): " leaves somewhat hairy on the upper side, 
the radical ones on long petioles, cordate, 3-5-cleft; the divisions 2-3-cleft, 
acute ; those of the stem 3-parted or entire ; stem slender and someAvhat 
spreading, smooth ; flowers minute ; carpels much compressed, smooth, with 
a minute curved style. 

" Shady woods of the Oregon and AVahlamet Rivers," Nuttall .'—Stem U 
-2 feet high, nearly naked, almost filiform. Leaves an inch long.— FloAvers 
as large as in R. sceleratus. Sepals hairy. Petals obovate, a little larger 
than the sepals. Peduncles much elongated in fruit. Carpels 6-8, suborbicu- 
lar ; the style slender and very short. 

36. R. fascicularis (Muhl.): plant clothed Avith an appressed silky pubes- 
cence; stem short, erect or spreading; leaves pinnately divided; segments 

24 RANUNCULACEiE. Ranunculus. 

oblong-obovate or cuneiform, pinnatifidly lobed ; calyx spreading, villous, half 
the length of the petals; heads subglobose; carpels orbicular, tumid; style sub- 
ulate, somewhat curved, nearly as long as the carpels.— Mu/i/. / cat. p. 56 ; 
VC.prodr. 1. p. 40; Bigel. fl. Host. ed. 2. p. 226; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 20. t. 8. / 1 ; JJarlingt. ! ji. Cest. p. 329. 

Rocky woods, &c. Canada! to Pennsylvania! and Wisconsin! April-May. 
— Root fascicled. Leaves variously divided, but the middle lobe always 
petioled. Petals obovate or oblong (5-6-7 Hook.). Flowers as large as in 
R. acris. Carpels glabrous, scarcely margined, minutely punctate, abruptly 
terminated by a slender curved or nearly straight style (in our specimens), 
or margined, the margin tapering upward into a recm'ved filiform style, 
which is fiat and membranaceous at the base (Ilook.). — We have not seen 
the carpels as they are described by Hooker; — nor is the style more than 
slightly curved as represented in his figure. 

37. R. Schlechtetidalii (Hook.): pilose with spreading hairs ; stem some- 
what branching, short; leaves on long petioles, reniform-cordate, 3-parted; 
lobes obovate, 3-cleft or laciniately divided; sepals- pUose, spreading, at 
length reflexed, shorter than the petals ; style as long as the ovary. Hook, 
fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 11. R. fascicularis, Schlecht. animad. hot. 2. p. 30. t. 2. 
(Me Hook.) 

Rocky Mountains, lai. 52°-55°. — A span high. Leaves somewhat hirsute, 
ciliate, all except the uppermost cordate or reniform. Petals obovate. 
Fruit not seen. Hook. 

38. R. orthorhynchus (Hook.): hairy, with the hairs closely appressed ; 
stem erect, slender, branching and nearly naked above ; radical leaves petiol- 
ed, 3-foliolate ; leaflets linearly many-cleft, with white callous points ; calyx 
reflexed ; carpels semi-ovate, compressed, strongly margined, shorter than the 
nearly straight style. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. ^. 21. ^. 9. 

Low lands near rivers, Oregon, Douglas^ Nuttall ! — Stem 1-2 feet high, 
sparsely hirsute. Leaves ternately pinnatifid, with the leaflets mostly pin- 
natifidly divided ; segments linear or oblong. Flowers as large as in R. acris. 
Sepals oval, half the length of the obovate petals. Carpels few and large, 

39. R. bulbosus (Linn.): hairy; radical leaves petioled 3-foliolate and 
somewhat pinnately divided ; leaflets 3-cleft, incisely toothed ; stem erect, 
bulbous at the base; calyx reflexed, shorter than the sepals; carpels sub- 
ovate, with a short acute recurved beak. — DC prodr. 1. ji. 41; Michx ! fl. 
1. p. 321; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 392; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 331. 

Fields and pastures; introduced from Europe. May. — Stem about a foot 
high ; hairs appressed. Leaves variously cut. Peduncles sulcate. Petals 
sometimes more than 5, deep yeUow, and shining. Carpels in a globose 
head. — Butter-mps. 

§ 3. Carpels tuherculate or aculeate-hispid. — Echinella, DC. 

40. R. miiricatns (Linn.): leaves petioled, glabrous, somewhat orbicular, 
mostly 3-lobed, the lobes coarsely toothed; stem sparingly pilose, erect or 
diffuse ; calyx spreading, shorter than the petals ; carpels tuberculate-acule- 
ate, margined, terminated by a strong, ensiform, straight or somewhat hook- 
ed beak.— M/r/(,.r..'.^. 1. p. 321; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 395; 2. p. 64; 
Lam,, ill. t. 4:98 ; DC. prodr. (P. Carolinus) 1. p. 42. 

Virginia to Louisiana ! May — July. Introduced '? — Leaves sometimes 
undivided, sometimes cleft to the base ; floral ones oblong or lanceolate^ 
entire. Flowers small. Petals obovate, bright yellow. 

Myosurcs. RANUNCULACEiE. 25 

41. R. parviflorus (Linn.): villous; leaves somewhat orbicular, 3-lobed or 
ternate ; stem subdocuinbent ; calyx equalling the petals, at hiii^th rellexed ; 
carpels roundish, (granulated and hispid ; style short, straicht, or slightly 
hooked. — DC. proflr. 1. ]>. 42. R. trachyspermus, Eli.! sk. 2. p. G5. 

p. leaves 3-lobed, with the lobes iucisely and acutely toothed. 

y. leaves cleft to the base or ternate ; leallets cuneiform, 3-lobed. 

Virginia, North Carolina! /?. Georgia!). California, Dovgla.'i! — (J) ! Stem 
6-15 inches high, slender. Leaves less than an inch in diameter. Flowers 
small. Petals 3-4-5. Carpels with a thin acute margin ; beak scarcely one 
third the length of the carpel. 

X Doubtful species. 

42. R. Ilornemanni (Schlecht.): leaves ternate, hirsute ; leaflets 3-lob"d ; 
calyx reflexed, pilose; peduncles sulcate. DC. prodr. 1. p. 44; Schlecht. 
animad. bot. 2. p. 36. — Allied to R, Philonotis. DC. 

43. R. CJiiJensis (DC): stem procumbent, and with the petioles hispid; 
leaves somewhat villous, roundish-cordate, 2-3-cleft; lobes coarsely dentate; 
calyx very villous. DC. syst. 1. p. 286 ; Ilook. ^ Am. in bot. Beechey,p. 
4. t. 3. 

Cahfornia? Hook. ^ Am. (1. c.) The plant may have been introduced by 
mistake among the Californiaa collections of Beechey's voyage. 

44. R. sepientrionalis (Poir.) : smoothish ; leaves membranaceous, gla- 
brous, 3-foliolate ; leaflets somewhat 3-lobed, incised, acute ; stem and base 
of the petioles hirsute ; peduncles about 2-flowered; calyx reflexed. Poir. 
diet. 6. p. 125 ; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 395. 

De Candolle refers Poiret's plant to his R. Carolinianus ; but it can hardly 
be that species. 

R. Robini, Raf. Jl. Liidov.=K. Flammula. 

R. meganthusj Raf. 1. c. 

R. polypetaluSj Raf. 1. c. 

R. leptopetalus, Raf. 1. c. 

R. obtusiusculus, Raf.; DC. prodr. 1. p. 43. 

6. MYOSURUS. DHL; Linn. ; DC. syst. 1. p. 231. 

Sepals 5, produced downward at the base beyond their insertion. Petals 
5 ; the claw filiform and tubular. Stamens 5-20. Achenia triquetrous, very 
closely spicate on a much elongated torus. Seed suspended. — A minute 
annual, with linear entire radical leaves. Scapes 1-flowered; flower mi- 

M. minimus (Linn.) — DC. prodr. 1. p. 25; Ell. sk. I. p. 582. M. 
Shortii, Raf. ! in Sill. jour. 1. p. 379 ; DC. I. c. 

Rocky borders of the Wahlamet, Oregon: and in alluvial situations in 
Arkansas, Nnttall ! Georgia and Louisiana, Z>r. /yeare??7/-or?/i .' Kentucky, 
Short ! April. — Leaves 1-2 inches long, less than a line in breadth. Scape 
1-4 inches high. Flowers pale yellow. Spike of carpels terete, tapering, 
resembling the tail of a mouse : — hence its vulgar name-'Motise-tail. 


26 RANUNCULACE^. Caltha. 

7. CYRTORHYNCHA. Nutt. mss. 


" Sepals 5, petaloid, narrow, spreading. Petals 5, narrow and unguiculate ; 
the claAV nearly the length of the lamina, with a projecting scaly callosity 
at its summit. Stamens rather numerous: anthers rounded. Stigmas ^hort 
and subulate, strongly incurved. Achenia oblong-cylindrical, somewhat con- 
spicuously grooved (not carinated), collected into a spheroidal head. Seed 
suspended. — A small perennial herbaceous plant. Leaves mostly arising 
from a short caudex, ternate and bipinnatcly divided. Panicle loose and cy- 
mose. Calyx petaloid and, like the corolla, bright yellow. In the fruit it 
resembles Thalictrum; in the flower, both Anemone and Ranunculus." 

C. ranuncrdina (Nutt.! mss.) 

" By the sides of gravelly brooks in the eastern range of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, around the place known by the name of Independence Rock on the 
banks of the Sweet Water of the Platte, but not further to the Avestward. 
Flowers in June. — Caudex clothed with numerous brown vestiges of sheath- 
ing petioles. The whole plant quite smooth. Leaves somewhat coriaceous 
and shining ; radical ones on long petioles, the subdivisions pinnatifid ; la- 
cinise entire or 2-3-toothed. Stem, or scape, about a span high, cymosely 
branched above ; bearing at the lowest division a single sessile 3-parted 
leaf, and at the upper divisions minute and undivided leaves. Sepals ob- 
long-ovate, spreading but not reflexed. Petals somewhat longer than the 
sepals, oblong, obtuse, very conspicuously narrowed beloAv into a long claw, 
(almost like the nectaries of Coptis) ; the upper part of the claw thickened 
bv a scale-like process. Stamens 20 or more : anthers adnate. Carpels 
10-15, quite glabrous, cylindrical-oblong, grooved (as in Thalictrum). Stig- 
ma subulate, shorter than the ovary, inflexed so as to be almost concealed 
in the mature fruit." 


Petals IrreQ-ular, often bilabiate or tubular, nectariferous, sometimes 
wanting. Calyx petaloid. Anthers mostly extrorse. Carpels few 
(rarely solitary), follicular, with several seeds. 

8. CALTHA. Linn.; DC. sysi. 1. p. 306. 

Sepals 6-9, petaloid. Petals none. Stamens numerous. Ovaries 5-10. 
Follicles 5-10, compressed, spreading, many-seeded. — Perennial very gla- 
brous herbs. Leaves cordate or reniform (rarely sagittate). — The North 
American species belong to § 2. Populago, DC. 

1. C. palustris (Linn.) : stem erect ; leaves suborbicular, cordate or reni- 
form, obtusely crenate or nearly entire ; the lobes rounded ; sepals 5-6, 
broadly oval. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 44; Micli.v. fl. 1. p. 324; Piirsh^ f. 2. p. 
390; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 336. 

/?. integerrima : leaves wholly entire ; floral ones sessile, obscurely cre- 
nate, petals obovate. — C. integerrima, Pursh! Ji. 2. p. 390; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 45. 

y. parnassifolia: stem 1-flowered, 1-leaved; leaves all petioled, broadly- 
reniform, sharply toothed ; sepals elliptical. — C. parnassifolia, Raf. in med. 

Trollius. RANUNCULACEiE, 27 

rep. 2. p. 361 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 22. DC. prodr. 1. p. 45. C. ficarinides, 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 309. C. palustris /?. J3C. /. c? Ranunculus Ficaria, Mult. 
Cav. p.' 1591 

(5. flabelUfoHa: stem procumbent; leaves all petioled, broadly renifbrm, 
the lobes widely spreading. — C. dcntata, Muhl cat. C. flabcllifolia, Pursh ! 
fl. 2. p. 390. /; 

Swamps, Canada ! to South Carolina, and west to the Pacific ! April- 
May. — Stem mostly erect, rather thick and succulent (in 6. more slen- 
der), 6-10 inches high, corymbosely or dichotomously branched above (ex- 
cept in y.). Radical leaves 2-4 inches broad, on petioles 3-8 inches or more 
in length, crenatelv or acutely dentate, or quite entire. Flowers few, 1-1 i 
inch in diameter (in S. smaller), pedunculate, bright yellow. Carpeh ob- 
long, somewhat recurved, mucronate with the style ; the point at first in- 
flexed, but at length nearly straight. 

2. C. osarijolia (DC): stem nearly erect, 1-flowered ; leaves reniform- 
cordate with the sinus obtuse, crenate ; sepals 6-7, oval. DC! .^tjst. 1. p. 
309. (v. s. in herb. Lamb.) 

Unalaschka and the Aleutian Isles. — Stem weak, longer than the leaves. 
Leaves 12-15 lines long, 2 inchf^s broad ; those of the stem nearly ses- 
sile. Sepals yellow, like those of C. palustris, but smaller. DC — Scarcely 
more than a variety of C. palustris, and apparently identical with the var. 
minor of De CandoUe. 

3. C natans (Pallas): stem procumbent, floating; leaves reniform-cor- 
date, crenate, Avith the lobes somewhat approximated, obscurely crenate to- 
wards the base, toothed towards the summit; sepals oval; carpels with a 
straight beak. DC. prodr. I. p. 45; Hook.jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 22. 

Creeping on the surface of deep sphagnous swamps, in tne woody central 
districts of British America, from Canada to lat. 60"; rare. Dr. Richard- 
son. — Flowers white, not half as large as in C. palustris. Hook. Capsules 
in a dense head ; anthers oval. R. Br. 

4. C arctica (R. Brown): stem creeping; leaves reniform, repandly 
crenate, obtuse; carpels (12-16) imbricated; stigma persistent, with the 
apex rounded ; stamens 20 or more, with the anthers linear. R. Br. in 
Parry\'i 1st voy. app. p. 265 ; Hook. f!. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 22. 

Melville Island, and coast of the Arctic Sea. — Flowers yellow. Near C. 
radicans, and by its creeping stem allied to C. natans. The latter hassmaller 
leaves, white floAvers and oval anthers. — R. Br. 

5. C leptosepala (DC): stem 1-leaved or naked, mostly l-flowered ; 
radical leaves on long petioles, ovate-cordate, obscurely crenate ; sepals 8-10, 
oblong; pistils 8-15. — DC! syst. 1. p. 310. (v. s. in herb. Lamb.); 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 22. t. 10. C. sagittata, Torr. ! in ann. lye. New- 
York, 2. p. 164. (excl. syn.) 

North West America, and Rocky Mountains, south to lat. 40^ ! — A span 
high. Scape? 1 -(rarely 2-) flowered, smaller than in C. palustris. Sepals Avhite. 
Carpels 8-10, oblong. Styles none, or very short ; stigma obtuse, recurved. 

6. C bijlora (DC): stem with a single leaf, 2-flowered ; radical leaves 
petioled, reniform, crenate, with a very broad sinus ; sepals oblong. DC. 
syst. 1. p. 310 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 22. 

North West America. — Sepals rather acute, broader and shorter than in 
the preceding species. Carpels 3-16, acuminate with the style. DC — Per- 
haps, as Hooker intimates, not distinct from C leptosepala. 

9. TROLLIUS. Linn.; DC. syst. 1. p. 311. 
Sepals 5-10-15, deciduous, petaloid. Petals 5-20, small, 1-lipped, tubu- 

28 RANUNCULACE^. Coptis 

lar at the base. Stamens and ovaries numerous. Follicles numerous, ses- 
sile, somewhat cylindrical, many-seeded. — Perennial glabrous herbs ; with 
fibrous-fasciculate roots, and palmately divided leaves ; the segments many- 

1. T. laxus (Salisb.): sepals 5-6, spreading ; petals 15-25, shorter than 
the stamens.— 5'a//.s-/>. in Linn, trans. S.p. 303 ; Pursh,f. 2. p. 391 ; Gray ! 
in Ann. ]yc. New-York, S.p. 222. T. Amcricanus, Miihl.! cat. p. 56'; DC. 
prndr. I. p. 46 ; Ilook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 23. 

Sphagnous swamps, Canada to Pennsylvania ! Delaware ! Eastern de- 
clivity of the Rocky Mountains, lat. 52° and 55^, Drummond. May.-— 
Plant 1-2 feet high, erect. Flowers twice as large as in Ranunculus acris. 
Sepals ochroleucous with a tinge of green beneath. Petals minute, much 
shorter than the stamens, deep orange-yellow. Carpels 8-15. 

10. COPTIS. Salisb. in Linn, trans. S.p. 305. 

Sepals 5-6, petaloid, deciduous. Petals 5-6. Stamens 15-25. Follicles 
5-10 ; on long stipes, somewhat stellately diverging, membranaceous, 
ovate-oblong, pointed with the style, 4:-S-seeded.— Herbs with radical, di- 
vided, subcoriaceous leaves, and very slender extensively creeping roots. 

§ 1. Petals very small, citcidlate-obconic. — Chryza, Raf. 

1. C. trifolia (Salisb.): leaves 3-foIiolate ; leaflets cuneiform-obovate, 
crenately and mucronately toothed, obscurely 3-lobed ; scape 1-floAvered. — 
Salisb. I. c. ; Pursh,jl. 2. p. 390 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 47 ; Hook. ! f. Bor.-Am. 
1. p. 23 ; Bigel. med. bot. 1. t. 5. Helleborus trifolius, Linn. ; Michx. fl. 
1. p. 325. Chrysa borealis, Raf. in Desv. jour. bot. 2. p. 170. 

Bogs, Greenland, and Labrador ! to Pennsylvania! North West America! 
Sitcha! Unalaschka! May- June.— Roots consisting of long bright-yelloAV 
fibres, intensely bitter. Leaves evergreen; leaflets about an inch long. 
Scape slender, 3-5 inches high. Sepals 5-7, oblong, obtuse, white. Petals 
much shorter than the sepals, yelloAv at the base. Carpels acuminated with 
the persistent style. Seeds oblong, black and shining ; raphe very indis- 
tinct, ■ 

§ 2. Petals and sepals linear^ co5«sm//ar.— Chrysocoptis, Kutt. 

2. C. occ?V/e»to//5; leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets petiolulate, broadly ovate, 
subcordatc, 3-lobed, incisely toothed ; scape short, 3-flowered.— Chrysocoptis 
occidentalis, Nutt.! in jour. acad. Phil ad. 7. p. 9. t. 1. 

Rocky Mountains, Mr. VVyeth /—Roots long and slender, bright 
yellow, arising from a short thick rhizoma. Leaves sempervirent, dark green, 
about an inch and a half long, and nearly of the same breadth. Flowers on 
very short pedicels. Petals about 6, with claws, similar to the sepals and of 
equal length, not hooded. Ovaries 8-10. Fruit not seen. A%«.— Habit and 
leaves of C. trifolia: flowers near C. asplcnifolia. The scape probably 
lengthens in maturity. 

§ 3. Petals and sepals somewhat similar : petals dilated and cucullate 
in the middle, longer than the sepaZs.— Pterophyllum, Nutt. 

3. C. asplenifoUa (Salisb.): leaves bitemate; leaflets somewhat pinna- 

Aqoilegia. RANUNCULACE^. 29 

tifid, acutely serrate ; scape 2-Ho\vere(l ; sepals 5, linear-lanceolate, rettexed. 
Sulisb. I. c. ; Purs/i, fl. 2. ]). :^91 ; Hook. ft. lior.-Am. 1. p. 23. ;. U. 

North West America! Sitcha ! — Rhizoma thick, horizontal, branchin<T, 
lhro\vin<^ ofl' lon^ blackish fibres. Scape at first shorter than the leaves, in 
fruit elongated ; pedicels very Ion?. Flowers white. Petals 5, very long 
and narrow, dilated and concave-cucullate in the middle, fililbrmly attenuated 
upwards. Carpels with a very short point at the summit. 

11. ENEMION. Raf. in jour. phys. (1S20) 2. p. 70. 

Sepals 5, petaloid, deciduous. Petals none. Stamens 20-30. Ovaries 
3-6 (mostly 4), 2-ovuled : style as long as the ovary : stigma glandular, re- 
curved. Follicles 2-6, sessile, ovate, compressed, acuminate with the style, 
2-5eeded. Seeds large, ovate, compressed, with a prominent cord-like raphe : 
albumen oily. — A slender smooth herbaceous perennial. Leaves biternately 
divided, with lobed membranaceous segments. Flowers white. Roots fi- 
brous and grumous. 

E. hiternatum (Raf.! 1. c.)—DC. prodr. 1. p. 48. Isopyrum thalic- 
troides. Short I cat. pL Kentucky, 1. p. S; Hook ! in jour. hot. p. 187. 

Moist shady places, Kentucky, Dr. SJwrt ! Dr. Peter ! Indiana, Dr. 
Clappf Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher ! Ohio, liidt I ell. May.— Root consisting 
of a tuft of thick fibres, often grumous. Stems several, 6-10 inches high, 
moderately branched. Radical leaves, and those on the lower part of the 
stem, on long petioles, biternate : leaflets roundish, 3-lobed ; the lobes very 
obtuse. Petioles auricled at the base. Flowers on filifomi peduncles which 
are at length much elongated, temiinal, and axillary near the upper part ot 
the stem, about three-fourths of an inch in diameter. Sepals obovate, obtuse, 
white. Petals always wanting. Stamens half as long as the sepals : fila- 
ments filiform: anthers ovate. Ovaries seldom less than 3, or more than 5, 
ovate. Style someAvhat clavate ; nearly the upper half stigmatic on the 
inner side. Carpels broadly ovate, marked with a few strong oblique veins, 
spreading in a radiated manner and at length reflexed, acuminated with the 
persistent style. Seeds nearly a line and a half in length, minutely pubes- 
cent. Embiyo very minute.— This plant so greatly resembles Isopyrum 
thalictroides, that without the fruit, it can only be distinguished by a close 

12. AGIUILEGIA. Lin7i.; DC. syst. 1. p. 333. 

Sepals 5, deciduous, colored. Petals 5, somewhat bilabiate ; the outer lip 
large, flat and spreading ; inner one veiy small, produced at the base into as 
many hollow spurs or horns, which descend between the sepals. Follicles 5, 
erect, many-seeded, pointed with the style. — Perennial herbs Avith hi- or tri- 
ternate leaves. Flowers teraiinal, scattered. Columbine. 

1. A. Canadensis (Linn.): spur straight, longer than the limb; sepals 
ovate or oblong, a little longer than the petals ; stamens and styles exserted. 
—Michx. .' ft. 1. p. 316 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 50 ; Bot. mag. t. 246 ; Hook.! 
ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 24 (in part) ; Bart. ft. Am. Sept. 1. t. 36. 

0. hybrid a (Hook.): spurs incurved at the apex; styles shorter; flowers 
purplish.- //oo/f. Z. c— "A. Canadensis /?. violacea; spurs nearly twice the 
length of the petals." Nutt. ! mss. 

30 RANUNCULACEiE. Delphinidm. 

On rocks, Hudson's Bay to Gf orgia ; west to Missouri ! fi. Big Blue Ri- 
ver of the Platte, Nuttall! Rocky Mountains, Drummnvd. May-July. — 
Root fusiform. Stem 12-18 inches high, and Avith the leaves, glabrous. 
Leaves commonly biternate ; leaflets cuneiform, crenately lobed. Flowers 
pendulous, scarlet externally, yellow inside. Spurs about an inch long, swol- 
len and callous at the extremity. Ovaries pubescent. 

2. A. /orwosa (Fischer): spur straight, much longer than the limb; se- 
pals lanceolate, acute, three times the length of the petals ; styles as long as 
the sepals. — Finch, in DC. prodr. 1. p. 50. A. Canadensis, Bov^.! veg. 
Sitcha. in viem. acad. St. Petersb. (6 se?:) 2. p. 124 ; Hook. ! jl. Bor.-Am. 
1. p. 50. (in part.) 

Oregon, Nuttall ! Dr. Scovler ! Sitcha and Unalaschka, Bongard ! — 
This species much resembles A. Canadensis; but differs in the comparative 
nakedness of the stem, the upper part of which is clothed with a few small 
leaves. The flowers are larger, pubescent and brighter colored, and the se- 
pals are nearly as long as the spurs. 

3. A. ccBrulea TTorr.) : spurs straight, very slender, about twice as long as 
the limb ; sepals rnomboid-ovate, acute, longer than the petals ; stamens and 
style shorter than the corolla. — Torr. ! in ann. lye. New-York, 2. p. 164. 
A. leptocera, Nutt. ! in joiirn. acad. Philad. 7. p. 9. 

Rocky Mountains, lat'. 40 \ Dr. James ! Mr. Wyeth! June.— Stem about 
a foot high, slender, glabrous. Leaves mostly radical, glaucous beneath ; 
leaflets deeply cleft. Flowers somewhat solitary, large, bright blue (ochro- 
leucous, Nutt.). Sepals narrow at the base. Petals very obtuse. 

4. A. brevistyla (Hook.): someAvhat pubescent; spurs incun-ed, shorter 
than the limb^ styles short, included; petals a little exceeding the stamens. — 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 21. A. vulgaris? Richards, app. Frankl. jour, 
ed. 2. p. 21. 

Western parts of Canada, as far north as Bear Lake, Dr. Richardson. — 
Stem and leaves as in A. vulgaris, but the flowers (Avhich are blue) only half 
the size. Sepals ovate-lanceolate. Carpels one inch long, pointed with a 
short style. — Near A. vulgaris and A. cserulea. Hook. 

13. DELPHINIUM. Linn.; DC. syst. 1. p. 340. 

Sepals 5, deciduous, petaloid, irregular; the upper one produced into a spur 
at the base. Petals 4, irregular ; the 2 superior ones furnished with a spur- 
shaped appendage at the base, inclosed in the spur of the calyx. Ovaries 1-5, 
mostly 3. Follicles many-seeded. — Annual or perennial herbs Avith erect 
branched stems. Leaves petiolate, palmately divided. FloAvers in terminal 
raceixies, commonly blue. — Larkspur. 

§ 1. Ovary solitary : petals united into one: inner spur of one piece: 
annual. — Consolida, DC. 

1. D. Consolida, (Linn.) : stem erect, someAA'hat glabrous, divaricately 
branched ; floAvers few, in a loose raceme ; pedicels longer than the bracts ; 
carpels smooth. DC. prodr. 1. p. 51 ; Pursh! fl. 2. p. 372. 

" Near Staunton, and on dry hills near the South Mountain [Virginia] na- 
tive." Pursh., in herb. Barton .'—In fields, and along road-sides ; introduced 
from Europe, and almost naturalized. July. 

Delphinium. RANUNCULACE^. 31 

§ 2. Ovaries 3-5; petals not coherinsr^ the inferior ones 2-cleft : sprir 
elongated: perennial. — Dt'lphinastrum, DC. 

2. D. e.raltattim (Ait.): petioles not dilated at the base ; leaves deeply 3- 
5-cleft ; lobes cuneiform, divaricate, 3-cleft, acuminate ; raceme strict ; spur 
straii^ht, as long as the calyx; lower petals deeply 2-cleft, sparingly beard( d ; 
with a minute spur-like process at the base of the claw. — Ait. Keic. (ed. 1.) 

2. p. 2H; DC. prodr. 1. /;. 51 ; Pur.';h, fl. 2. p. 371 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 18 ; 
Hook. ft. Bnr.-Ani. \. p. 25. D. tridaetykim, Michx.! Jl. 1. p. 314. D. ur- 
ccolaturn, Jacq. ic. rar. 1. t. 91. (fide Hook.) D. alpmum, Waldst. and 
Kit. 3. /. 246. (fide Hook.) 

Canada to South Carolina! Kentucky, Short! Ohio, Eiddell. June- 
Aug. — Stem 2—1 feet high, glabrous below, pubescent towards the summit. 
Lower leaves 4-5 inches in diameter, about 5-cleft ; upper ones somewhat 
3-parted, with the divisions incised and widely spreading; lateral ones 2- 
lobed. Racemes, and outer surface of the sepals, canescent. Flowers bright 
blue (sometimes white, Drummond). Sepals with a pubescent, yellowish, 
longitudinal line externally. Limb of the upper petals entire. Carpels 3, 

3. D. Californicum: petioles dilated at the base ; leaves palmately 3-5- 
cleft ; divisions incisely 3-lobed; raceme strict, and Avith the flowers, pubes- 
cent ; spur as long as the calyx, somewhat incurved ; limb of the superior 
petals notched; lower ones 2-cleft, densely bearded on the inside ; the claw 
furnished with a minute spur-like process at the base. 

California, Douglas ! — Stem smooth below. Lower leaves deeply 5-cleft ; 
the divisions cuneiform, 3-lobed ; segments of the upper leaves lanceolate, 
divaricately lobed. Flowers as large as in D. exaltatum, pale blue ? Ovaries 

3. Petals as long as the sepals. 

4. D. tricorne (Michx.): petioles slightly dilated at the base ; leaves .5- 
parted, with the divisions 3-5-cleft ; lobes linear, acutish ; petals shorter than 
the sepals, the lower ones 2-cleft and bearded w:ithin; spur straight, as long 
as the calyx, ascending. — Mich.r. ! Jl. 1. p. 314 ; Pvrsh ! Jl. 2. p. 371; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 54 ; Deless. ic. 1. t. 59 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 18. 

Hills and woods, Pennsylvania! Virginia ! Louisiana and western States! 
to Arkansas \ April-May. — Sparingly pubescent. Stem 6-18 inches high. 
Root tuberous. Leaves with an orbicular circumscription. Raceme some- 
what loose, 6-12-flowered. Flow^ers bright blue, sometimes white, pubescent. 
Lower petals densely bearded ; claw slightly gibbous at the base. Carpels 
3, ovate, spreading, reticulately veined. 

5. D. Menziesii (DC.) : petioles slightly dilated at the base ; leaves 3- 
parted; lobes 3-cleft, linear, entire; bracts 3-cleft; raceme strict; petals 
bearded; spur straight, longer than the limb; root grumous. DC. syst. 1. 
p. 355; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 25; Bat. reg. t. 1192. D. simplex, Hook. 

fi. ochroleuca (Nutt.! mss.): "flowers pale yellow, the tips of the sepals 
only blue." 

Western coast of America ! from California to Kotzebue's Sound, and on 
the plains of the Oregon ! down to the sea, (never in the shade of the forest, 
Nutt.) 0. Open prairies and along the banks of the Wahlamet, Nuttall ! — 
Root grumous and tuberous. Stem from a span to two or more {eet high, 
nearly simple but sometimes paniculately branched, and as well as the 
leaves, pubescent. Raceme elongated; rachis and pedicels velvety-pubes- 
cent. Flowers (except in /?.) deep blue, marked externally Avith a hairy Hne. 
— Near D. azureum. 

32 RANUNCULACE.E. Delphinium. 

6. D. azureum (Michx.): petioles slightly dilated at the base; leaves 3- 
5-parted, many-cleft, with linear lobes; racemes strict; petals shorter than 
the sepals ;the lower ones deeply 2-clcrt, densely bearded; claw hispid on one 
side, the other side with a spur-lil<:e process at its base ; spur ascending. 

a. leaves (and lower part of the stem) nearly glabrous; lower petals with 
a yellowish pubescent line externaOy ; spur somewhat incur\-ed, longer than 
the sepals; lobes of the lower petals somewhat obtuse; flowers azure. — 
D. azureum, MicJix. ! fi. 1. p. 314 ; Piirsh, fl. 2. p. 371 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 
54; Deless. ic. 1. t. 60; Ell. sk. 2. p. 18. D. Carolinianum, Walt. Car. p. 


/?. canescently pubescent ; divisions of the leaves many-cleft; segments 
all linear-subulate; flowers smaller, azure; spur incurved. — D. azureum, 
Nutt. gen. 2. p. 14. 

y. puberulent; segments of the upper leaves subulate; flowers ver}' pale 
blue ; spur straight, about as long as the sepals ; lobes of the lower petals 
narrow, acute, someAvhat divaricate. 

S. stem densely velutinous; leaves minutely pubescent, with narrowly 
linear or subulate segments; flowers pale blue; sepals with a brown pubes- 
cent spot ; spur slightly curved ; lobes of the lower petals oblong, acutish. 

e. minutely puberuleftt ; stem velutinous above ; leaves 3-parted. many- 
cleft ; segments divaricate, very acute ; flowers large, greenish-white ; se- 
pals with a brownish spot ; spur thick, somewhat curved. 

Var a. North Carolina to Georgia! Texas, Dnimmond .' /?. Arkansas, 
Nuttall ! y and S. Arkansas, JDr. Pitcher! 0. Lake Winnipeg, Dr. 
Houghton ! 

7. D. viminenm (Don): petioles scarcely dilated at the base; leaves flat, 
3-parted ; segments cuneifonn, obtuse, 3-lobed, mucronulate, uppermost ones 
linear, undivided or 3-parted ; racemes loose, velvety ; limb of the inferior 
petals bifid at the summit; spur straight, as long as the sepals; ovaries silky. 
Don in Sweefs Brit.Ji. gard. ^.374; Hook.! in hot. mag. t. 3593. 

Velasco, Texas, Drummond! July-Aug. — Stem 1-3 feet high, slightly 
branched, slender. Leaves all petiolate ; the seginents narrow. Flowers 
middle sized, bright azure. Sepals oblong, rather obtuse, with a callous pro- 
tuberance near the middle. "Upper petals resembling the carina of a papilio- 
naceous flower. Lower petals with the limb spreading, purple, trifid, beard- 
ed with a tuft of yellow hairs." Hook. — In our ;?pecimens of what we con- 
sider to be this species, the lower petals are not bearded. The plant seems 
to be nearly allied to D. azureum. 

8. D. virescens (Nutt.) : pubescent ; petioles scarcely dilated at the base ; 
leaves 3-5-parted, the middle division mostly undivided, lateral ones 2-3- 
cleft; lobes lanceolate; raceme loose, few-flowered; sepals oblong or lanceo- 
late; spur longer than the sepals, ascending; lower petals deeply 2-cleft; 
claw gibbous at the base. — Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 14; DC. prodr. 1. p. 53. 

Plains of Missouri and Arkansas, Nuttall ! North Carolina, Schiceim'tz ! 
Georgisi, Le Conte! .Tune.— Stem 8-12 inches high. Raceme simple. Pe- 
dicels longer than the flowers. Bracts subulate. Flowers large, yellowish 
or greenish white, minutely pubescent. Sepals marked with a brownish 
spot near the apex, much longer than the petals. Spur straight or somewhat 
incurved. Lower petals rather densely bearded. Ovaries 3. 

9. D. variegatum : pubescent ; petioles dilated at the base ; leaves 3- 
parted ; divisions cuneiform, many-cleft, with the lobes bnear and rather ob- 
tuse ; raceme few-flowered ; spur scarcely as long as the sepals ; lower petals 
orbicular-ovate, 3-lobed, Avith the middle lobe small, sparingly bearded. 

California, Douglas ! — Stem 1-2 feet high, sulcate. Raceme strict, nearly 
simple. Lower bract 3-cleft. Sepals deep violet-blue, somewhat pubescent 

Delphinium. RANUNCULACE.^3. ^3 

externally, obovate-oblong, obtuse, longer than tlic thick straight spur. Ujiprr 
petals yellow (often tipped with blue), eniarginate: lower ones sparinu'ly 
bearded on the inner surface and niar;t(ins, waved, unequally 3-k)bed, the 
central lobe small and blue; one of the lateral lobes blue, the otlier yellow; 
claw with a small spur-like process at the base. 

10. D. hicolor (Mutt.): pubescent; petioles somewhat dilated at the ba'^e; 
leaves digitately 5-parted ; lobes 3-5-cleft; divisions linear, short, rather 
acute; raceme lax, few-flowered, the pedicels elongated and spreading; spur 
rather slender, as long as the sepals ; lower petals broadly obovate, entire, 
sparingly bearded. — Niitt. ! in jour, acctd. P/iilad. 7. p. 10. 

Dry lulls near Flat-Head River, towards the southern sources of the Oregon, 
Mr. Wijetli ! and in open plains on the sources of the Platte, Nulla II ! April. 
— Stem about a span high. Leaves about 3, near the base of the stem, the 
circumscription reniform; divisions short and radiating, slightly pubescent. 
Lower bracteal leaves deeply 3-5-parted, with nearly undivided segments. tSe- 
pals large, deep violet-blue, oblong-ovate. Upper petals yellow veined with 
blue. Spur curved a little downward ; claw of the lower petals Avithout a 
spur at the base. Carpels 3. 

11. D. 2i(iucij!orum (Nutt.l mss.) : "somewhat hirsutely pilose ; petioles 
scarcely dilated ; leaves reniform, lobes bitid or trifid, linear and entire; 
bracts simple minute ; raceme 3-5-{lowered ; spur subulate, straight, about 

the length of the oblong acutish^«*si* ; stigmas and styles smooth; root *t-/»*tS 

" Rocky Mountains and Blue Mountains of the Oregon. — Scarcely a foot 
high, slender ; the lower part and the stem more or less minutely and roughly 
pubescent. Leaves nearly smooth on the upper surface ; two or three divided 
ones on the stem, the uppermost beneath the flowers simple. Flowers 2-3, 
large, blue. Lower petals with a central line of pubescence ; upper ones 
hirsute externally. Carpels pubescent." Nittt. 

12. D. (lepauperatum (Nutt. ! mss.) : "lower part of the stem (and leaves) 
glabrous ; upper part and the carpels densely villous ; petioles scarcely dilated ; 
leaves reniform, o-parted; the lobes 2-3-cleft, oblong and rather broad; bracts 
simple, minute ; rajcyiJI'- 1-5-flowered ; spur subulate, straight, longer than 
the oblong obtuse ^e4«fe>; stigmas and styles pubescent; root grumous. 

" In the shade of pine woods in the Blue Mountains of the Oregon. — Stem 
very slender, simple, about 2-leaved. Leaves scarcely an inch in diameter, the 
lower one glabrous, with broad simple segments ; upper ones smaller, with 
narrow linear segments. Upper part of the stem and carpels minutely villous. 
Petals shorter than the spur ; lower ones hairy. Flower often solitary, deep 
blue ; upper petals yellowish." Nutt. 

13. D. niidicaule: leaves all radical, on short petioles, 3-parted; lobes obo- 
vate-cuneiform, the lateral ones 2-lobed, terminal one somcAvhat 3-lobed ; 
scape racemose, loosely flowered ; pedicels elongated ; spur straight, longer 
than the broadly ovate sepals ; upper petals a little exceeding the calyx, lower 
ones 2-cleft, with a minute spur-like process at tjie base. 

California, Douglas '. — Scape 12-18 inches high, glabrous, 10-12-flowered. 
Pedicels elongated, spreading, 2-4 inches long, above the bracteoles pubescent. 
Bracts subulate, very small. Bracteoles minute, seated above the middle of 
the pedicels. Flowers (in dried specimens) purplish-red. Sepals obtuse or mu- 
cronate. Lower petals smooth on both sides ; margin sparsely fringed ; upper 
ones emarginate. Spur thick. Carpels 3, recurved-spreading, reticulately 
veined, pubescent. 

t D elegans{DC. syst. 1, p. 355.) was described from specimens transmitted by 
Delile from Elgin Botanic Garden, New-York, li is known to be an introd"''»d 
plant, and is therefore left out of our Florn. 


34 RANUNCULACEiE. Aconitum. 

14. ACONITUM. Linn. ; DC. syst. 1. p. 364. 

Sepals petaloid, irregular, deciduous ; the upper one (galea) large, vaulted. 
Petals 5; the 3 lower ones minute, often converted into stamens; the 2 upper 
on long claws, expanded into a sac or short spur at the summit, concealed 
under the galea. Follicles 3-5, many-seeded.— Perennial herbs. Leaves pal- 
raately divided. 

1. A. uncinalnm (Linn.) : panicle rather loosely (lowerrd, with diverging 
branches; galea obtusely conic, compressed, with an obtuse beak; spur 
thick, inchned ; leaves deeply 3-lobed.— Mc/to:. '. Ji. 1. ;>. 315; Bot. mag. t. 
1 119 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 60 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 20. 

Mountains, in wet places, New-Yom (Chenango county, Le Covte.')& 
Pennsylvania! to Georgia ! June-July. — Root tuberous. Stem flexuous, slen- 
der (climbing. Ell.). Leaves truncate at the base, coarsely toothed : lateral 
segments often 2-lobed. Flowers blue, as large as in A. NapeUus. Ovaries 
3-5, villous. 

2. A. Nap('llii,<} (L\nx\.) — 0. delphinifoUvm (Seringe): flowers racemose, 
with the peduncles elongated ; galea semicircular ; sac somewhat conic, with 
a short inchned spur; ovaries 4-6; lobe^ of the leaves pinnatifid; lobules 
undivided. Scringe, mus. Helv. 1. p. 159; DC. prodr. \.p. 63 ; Bong. ! 
veg. Sitcha,l. c. p. 124. A. delphimfoUum, var. Americanum, DC. syst. 1. 
p. 380 ; Beichenb. aconit. t. 9. 

North West America, Sitcha ! and north to Kotzebue's Sound ; Rocky 
Mountains. — Flowers deep blue. 

3. (Fisch. mss.) : petals erect, with the spijj arcuate ; ga- 
lea conical, prone; spur descending ; raceme someAvhat panicled ; divisions 
of the leaves rather broad. Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 26. A. Fischeri, 
jReichenb. aconit. t. 22. (fide Hook.) 

Near the source of the Wallawallah River, in the Blue Mountains of Ore- 
gon, Douglas.— A native also of Kamtscatka, Siberia, and the south of Eu- 

4. A. Columbionum. (Nutt. ! mss.): "petals erect, with the spur ar- 
cuate; galea narrow and oblong ; beak small and acutely projecting ; stem 
attenuated ; panicle small and racemose ; leaves palmate, 5-7-cleft ; seg- 
ments rhombic-ovate, acute, incisely and sharply toothed; petioles very 

" Springy places on the Oregon, below Wallawallah. — Plant glabrous ex- 
cept towards the summit^ about 3 feet high, attenuated and leafy. Flowers 
small, pale dull blue, hairy. Galea narrower than the other sepals, with a 
prominent acute beak. Lateral sepals very unequal." Nntt.—'Y\\is may be, 
as Mr. Nuttall suspects, not distinct from tlie preceding species. 

X Doubtful species. 
A. pallidum (Nutt.) — Loudon^s hort. Brit, suppl. p. 482. 


Subord. Cimicifugese, Am. 

Sepals petaloid, caducous. Petals (or rather dilated sterile filaments, 
or staniinodia) 3-6. Anthers introrse or innate. Carpels few, some- 


times solitary, raroly numerous, follicular or baccate, with several 
seeds, sometimes indehiscent and l-seeded. — Flowers occasionally by 
abortion unisexual. 

15. ACT^A. Linn.; Juss. gen. p. 22b; Fischer «f Meyer, 
ind. sem. St. Petersb. 1835. 

Sepals 4-5. Petals (or staminodia) 4-8, spatulate. Stamens numerous, 
anthers introrse. Stigma capitate, sessile. Carpels solitary, baccate, many- 
seeded. Seeds compressed, smooth, horizontal. — Perennial herbs. Leaves 
2-3-ternately divided j segments incisely serrate. Flowers in simple ra- 
cemes, white. 

1. A. rubra (Bigel.) : raceme ovate; pedicels longer than the flower, 
scarcely any thicker in fruit ; petals rhombic-ovate, acute, shorter than the 
stamens; fruit subovate (red). — Bigel.! fi. Botit. eel. 2. p. 211; Iliok. fl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 27 ; Fiavh. t^ Mey. I. c. p. 20. A. Americana a. rubra, Ptirsh, 
J1. 2. p. 366. A. brachvpetala /^. rubra, DC. prodr. 1. jy. 65. A. spicata <i' 
rubra, Mich. v.! Ji. 1. //. 308. 

Rocky woods, Hudson's Bay to Pennsylvania! west to the Rocky Moun- 
tams. May. — Stem about two feet high, " leafless and scaly at the base " 
Fisch. <^ Mey. Leaves ternately decompound ; leaflets ovate, acuminate 
1-2 inches long, unequally and incisely serrate ; the terminal one often 3-clelt. 
Raceme 20-4d-flowered, broadly ovate or hemispherical. Sepals 4, greenish, 
ovitte. Petals sometimes 8 or 10, minute. Berries bright cherry -red shin- 
ing, about 16-seeded, on pedicels half an inch in length, and not one-fourth 
as thick as the peduncle. 

2. A. alba (Bigel.) : raceme oblong; pedicels as long as the floAver, much 
thickened in fruit ; petals oblong, truncate at the apex, shorter than the 
stamens ; fruit roundish-ovate (white). — Bigel. I. c. ; Hook. I. c; Finch. &■ 
Mey. I. c. A. Americana /?. alba, Pursh, Ji. 2. p. 336. A spicata /?. alba, 
3fich.7\ I. c. A. brachvpetala a &, S. DC. prodr. 1. p. 65. A. pachvnoda' 
Ell. sk. 2.p.l5.' f n , 

Rocky woods, Canada! to Georgia, west to the Mississippi. May. — Re- 
sembles the preceding very much in its foliage and inflorescence. "Stem 
leafy at the base," Fisch. cf Meyer. Petals often 2-toothed at the apex. 
Pedicels of the flowers nearly as thick as the peduncle, at length i-1 inch 
long, spreading, red. Berry one-fourth of an inch in diameter, 8-12-seeded 
milk-white and often tipped with purple. — Very near A. spicata of Europe. 

3. .4. arguta (Nutt. ! mss.): "raceme oblong, sometimes divided to- 
wards the base, loose ; pedicels longer than the flowers, filiform, scarcely 
thickened in fruit ; petals oblong, oljtuse, shorter than the stamens ; fruit 
subglobose, (red); leaflets doubly and incisely serrate. 

"Woods of the Oregon and its tributary streams. — A much larger plant 
than A. rubra, with smaller dark red berries, and more deeply serrated 
leaflets. Low^er pedicels H inch in length." Nutt. 

16. CIMICIFUGA. L;';???. amain. 7. p. 435 ; Juss. gen. p. 234, 

Cimicifuga, Actinospora, & Botropliis, Fisch. (^ Meyer. 

Sepals 4-5. Petals (or rather staminodia) 3-5, concave or unguiculate 
sometimes by abortion fewer or none. Stamens numerous: anthers introrse. 
Style short : stigma simple. Carpels 1-8, follicular, many-seeded. — Peren- 

36 RANUNCULACEiE. Cimicifcq 

nial herbs. Leaves 2-3-ternately divided ; segments incisely serrate. 
Flowers in virgate racemes, white. 

§ 1. Monogynoxis : carpels suhglobose: seeds compressed^ smooth^ hori- 
zontal: staminodia several, very small, with long claws. — Macrotys, 
Raf. (Botrophis, Raf. ; Fisch. f Meyer.) 

1. C. racemosa (Ell.): racemes very long; leaflets ovate-oblong, incisely 
toothed; staminodia slender, 2-forked.— £//. sk. 2. p. 16. C. serpentaria, 
Pur.^h, ft. 2. p. 372. Actaa racemosa, Linn.; Michx. ! ft. 1. p. 308; DC. 
prodr. i. p. 64; HooTi. ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 27. A. monogy'na, Walt. Car. p. 
151. Macrotys actaoides, Raf. in Desv. jour. hot. 2. p. 170. Botrophis 
serpentaria, Raf. med. Ji. 1. p. 85. B. acta^oides, Fisch. ^ Meyer, I. c. 

Woods, Canada! to Georgia! and Western States. July. — Root thick 
and knotted, with long fibres. Stem 3-8 feet high, glabrous, furrowed, 
leafy near the middle. Leaves 3-ternate: leaflets 2-3 inches long. Ra- 
cemes branching, 6-12 inches long: pedicels 3-4 lines in length, bracteate. 
Flowers very fetid. Sepals caducous, greenish-white, concave. Stamino- 
dia 4-8 ! Carpels globose-ovate, glabrous. Seeds 7-8, compressed and 
angular as in Actsa. — De CandoUe states that the flowers are sometimes 
digynous ; but we have never observed more than a single ovary in a flower. 

§ 2. Di-octogynous {rarely monogynous): follicles pod-shaped: seeds 
flat, vertical, echinate with little scales : staminodia several, spatidate, 
or concave and nectariferous at the base ; rarely none. — Cimicifuga, 
Fisch. & Meyer. 

2. C. cordifolia (Pursh) : leaves biternate ; leaflets broadly cordate, 3-5- 
lobed ; ovaries 1-3, glabrous ; petals spatulate, bifid ; follicles oblong, sessile. 
— Pursh, JI. 2. p. 373 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 17. (excl. syn.) ; Fisch. ^ Mey. I. c. ; 
Bot. mag. t. 2069. C. Americana, MuM. ! cat. ed. 2. p. 54. Actaa cordi- 
folia, DC. prodr. 1. p. 64. 

Shady woods on his:h mountains of Carohna, Pursh, Muhlenberg! — 
About 3 feet high. Leaflets inequilateral, large. Racemes paniculate, elon- 
gated, glabrous. Sepals 5, nearly orbicular. Petals 2-3 (or none), cleft 
nearly one-third their length ; the segments obtuse and thickened. FolHcles 
about three-fourths of an inch long, acuminate with a short hooked beak. 
Seeds 8-10, oblong, thickly invested with brown chaff'y scales. 

3. C. elata (Nutt. ! mss.) : " leaves bhemate ; leaflets cordate, lobed, in- 
cisely toothed, pubescent beneath ; ovaries 2-3, glabrous ; petals none ; fol- 
licles oblong, sessile."— C. foetida, Pursh, fl. 2. p. 373? 

" Shady woods of the Oregon.— Much taller than C. cordifoha (6-8 feet 
high), with the leaves smaller, thinner, and more distinctly lobed. The 
flowers smaller and rather distant, instead of being crowded." iVM«.— Ra- 
cemes short and paniculate, as in C. foetida; while in C. cordata they are 
elongated, as in C. racemosa. The petals seem to be always wanting in C, 

4. C. Americana. (Michx.) : leaves triternate ; segments ovate ; the ter- 
minal 3-parted or 3-cleft, incisely lobed, cuneiform or subcordate at the 
base ; ovaries 2-5, stipitate, glabrous ; petals concave, sessile, nectariferous 
at the base, 2-lobed ; foflicles obovate, on slender stipes.— il//c/?.-i\ .' /. 1. p. 
316 ; Fisch. (f- Mey. I. c. C. podocarpa. Ell. sk. 2. p. 16. Actaa podocarpa, 
DC. prodr. l.p. 64 ; Deless. ic. 1. t. 66. A. pentacarpa, Michx..' herb. 

High mountains of North Carolina, Michaux ! Mr. Curtis! Pennsylva- 
nia and Virginia, Mr. J. McXab .'—About four feet high, glabrous. Leaflets 


2-4 inches long, thin, coarsely serrate and incised ; the serratures mucro- 
nate. Panicle (in fruit) nearly 2 feet long. Flowers smaller than in C ra- 
ceinosa, on short bracteate pedicels ; the upper ones often with but 2 or 3 
ovaries. Sepals 5. !'?etals resenii)ling those of C. foctida, l)ut smaller, and 
more distinctly 2-lob'>d. Follicles very obtuse, scarcely beaked ; the j)ersis- 
tent slender style siibterminal. Seeds 6-8, oblong, with long light-colored 

17. TRAUTVFiTTERIA. Fisch. f Meyer, ind. sem. St. Petersb. 

1835, p. 22. 

Sepals 4-5. Pf;tals or sterile filaments none. Stamens numerous : an- 
thers introrse. Carpels 15-20, membranaceous and indchiscent, 3-carinate, 
l-seeded, tipj)ed vnth the very short hooked style. Seed erect. — Perennial 
herbs. Leaves palmately lobed. Stems simple or branching above. In- 
florescence cyraose. 

1. T. pahnata (Fisch. &. Meyer) : leaves slightly coriaceous, with 
conspicuous reticulated veins ; cvme mostly compound. — Cimicifuga pal- 
mata, Mirh.v. ! fi. 1. p. 316; Pursh, Ji. 2. p. 373 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 17. Actsea 
pahnata, DC. fiyst. 1. p. 383 ; Bat. mag. t. 1630. Thalictrum ranunculinum, 
Muhl. in Willd. enuni.7 Hydrastis, Lam. ill. t. 500; Pair, suppl. 3. 

a. lobes of t.he leaves incisely lobed and serrate. 

/?. lobes of the upper leaves lanceolate, serrulate. 

Along stre ams and mountain rivulets. North Carolina! to Tennessee! P. 
Kentucky, — Short! July— Aug. — Stem 2-3 feet high. Leaves 2-3, large, 
5-9-lobed (t'le lowest on a long petiole), with smaller sessile ones subtending 
the branches of the cyme. Cyme fastigiate, nearly simple or much branched, 
diehotomously corymbose, loosely flowered: pedicels ebracteate. Sepals or- 
bicular, concave (the veins arranged after the same manner as in the leaves). 
Achenia utriculate, small, gibbous on the back, carinate, als.o with 2 lateral 
ribs. Seed very small. 

2. T. grandis (Nutt. ! mss.): "leaves membranaceous, the veins scarcely 
prominent; cyme nearly simple. — Cimicifuga palraata, Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 26. 

" Shady i 70ods of the Oregon. A taller and larger plant than the preced- 
ing, with th inner, more acuminate, sharply and deeply toothed leaves. The 
flowers are also larger." Nuit. — Perhaps scarcely distinct: the more mem- 
branaceous leaves may be owing to the shady situations. 

18. THALICTRUM. Linn.; DC. syst. 1. p. 168. 

Sepals 4, rarely 5. Petals none. Stamens numerous : anthcxs innate. 
Carpels (ichenia) 4-15, pointed with the style or stigma, sulcate or ribbed, 
sometime s inflated. Seed suspended. — Perennial herbs. Leaves 2-3-ter- 
nately di /ided. Flowers corymbose or paniculate, often dioGcious or polyga- 
mous, gr aenish, white, or yellow. 

* Carpels inflated or stipitate : sepals caducous. 


1. T. clavalum (DC): floAvers perfect (moncEcious, DC); filaments 

clavate • anthers elliptical, pointless ; carpels compressed, not striate, stipi- 

38 RANUNCULACE^. Thalictrum. 

tate, when old inflated, longer than the style ; lea-\-es triternate ; leaflets 
suborbicular, crenately lobed, glabrous, glaucous beneath.— floo/c. fi. Bor- 
Am. l.p.2; DC. 1. syst.! p. 171; Deless. ic. 1. t. 6. 

Sandhills of Portage La Loche, lat. SC, Dr. Eichardson ; Canada? 
Mkkaux. (v. s. in herb. mus. Paris.)— Plant. l-U loot high. Leaflets as large 
as in T. dioicum. Panicle few-flowered, loose ; pedicels long. Flowers 
erect. Stamens foAV, as long as the sepals. Filaments conspicuously dilated. 
Ovaries 8-10 (//«o/f.) (5-6, DC.) ovate gibbous; the persistent style ^ the 
leno-th of the ovary. Hook. This plant was described by De Candolle Irom 
specimens in the herbarium of Michaux. The locaUty is not recorded, nei- 
ther is the plant described in Michaux's Flora. Hooker asks whether it 
may not be a state of T. dioicum ; but that species has remarkably slender and 
scarcely dilated filaments, and linear mucronate anthers. 

2. T.JiUpes: polygamous (?) : carpels semi-obovate, compressed, striate, 
each on a slender stipe, nearly its own length, acute ; style none ; leaves 
biternate ; petiolate ; leaflets roundisli, obtusely 3-5-lobed, ^laucous beneath. 

Linville, North Carolina, Mr. Chirtis !—V\d.i\i 2 feet or more in height, 
very smooth. Leaves thin, on petioles an inch long, exstipellate. Panicle 
corymbose, loose and capillary. Flowers not seen. Carpels 4-6, widely 
spreading, membranaceous, marked Avith several prominent branching veins, 
acute, and tipped with a minute stigma, but not rostrate ; the base tapering 
into a long almost capillary stipe. Seed much smaller than the cavity.— This 
species, the flowers of which we have not seen, is nearly related to T. clava- 
tum ; but differs in the veined carpels, the entire absence of the style, and the 
long slender stipe. 

** Carpels ovate or oblong, ribbed, sessile or slighily stipilatc : sepals caihicous. 

• '" 3. T. dioicum (Linn.): very glabrous, dioecious or polygamous ; filaments 
"' filiform ; anthers linear, elongated, mucronate ; leaves on short petioles, ter- 
nately decompound ; leaflets rounded, crenately and obtusely lobed, glaucous 
beneath ; peduncles as long as the leaves ; carpels oblong, sessile, strongly 
ribbed twice the length of the slender curved style.— />C.^ro(?r. 1. p. 12 ; 
Pursll ! f. 2. p. 3SS; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 3. T. tevigatum, Mich.r.! 
fl. 1. p. '222. T. purpurascens ! (excl. syn.), rugosura, 6c Carohnianum, 
'DC. I.e. . . 

/? 7 stipitatnm. : carpels conspicuously stipitate. 

Rockv woods, Mackenzie's River, lat. 67=', to the mountains of S. CaroUna I 
and west to Oregon ! P. Table Mountain, N. Carohna, Mr. Curtis ! April- 
May .—Stem 1-2 feet high. Common petioles an inch or mor- in length. 
Leaflets about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, commonly somewhat 3- 
lobed ; the lobes crenate-toothed. Panicles loose, 15-20-flowered. Sepals 4- 
5 oval, obtuse, often purple. Filaments much longer than the sepals, alniost 
capillary and nearly of the same thickness throughout ; anthers yellowish. 
Fertile flowers with 6-8 stamens. Ovaries 6-10.— The variety k we have 
only seen in fruit. The stipes are more than half the length of the strongly- 
ribbed carpels ; and the persistent style is as long as the stipe. In other 
respects the resemblance to T. dioicum is very striking.— T. purpurascens, 
DC. is referred to this species; but we are not certain that his plant is the 
same as that of Linnaeus. 

/' 4. T. CornuH (Linn.) : dicEcious or polygamous ; filaments su-^clavate ; 
anthers oblong, obtuse; leaves sessile (the petiole divided to the bise), ter- 
nately decompound ; leaflets round ish-obovate or elliptical, 3-lobed, whh the 
lobes rather acute, glaucous or pubescent beneath ; peduncles longer than 
the leaves ; carpels subsessile, ribbed, twice as long as the style ; stigma 
linear.— Linn. sp. p. 768 ; Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 388 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 

Thalictrum. RANUNCULACE.E. 39 

3, t. 2. T. pubescens, Pursh ! I. c. T. revolutum ! &, T. corynellum, 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 12. T. polygainurn, JMiiht. ! cat. ed. 2. p. 56. T. ru^o- 
suin, Ail. Ki'W. {ed. 1.) 1. p. 2G2. T. purpurascons, Pitrsh ! in herb. Bart. 
T. rugo.suiu & Cumuli, JJurlingt. ! Ji. (.'est. p. '.V3L 

Banks of rivers and in wet meadows, Canada (lat. 5G ) to Georgia; 
Western States! June-July. — Stem 3-6 ft-et liigh, branching. Leaves very- 
large, always sessile ; divisions of the petiole elongated. Leaflets variable 
in size, form, and pubescence, ovate, elliptical, or roundish ; often cordate at 
the base, but sometimes cuneifonn ; the veins scarcely prominent, or eleva- 
ted and rugose ; margin commonly revolute. Panicle compound. Sepals 
white, oblong, small. Filaments more or less clavate ; anthers somethaes 
linear-oblong and slightly pointed. Carpels glabrous, about o lines long. 

• -^ 5. 7'. alpinum (Linn.): Mowers perfect, in a simple raceme, nodding; 
filaments tiliform ; anthers oblong-linear ; stem simple, nearly naked ; leaves 
biternate; leaflets glabrous ; stigma linear; carpels ovate, sessile. — Linn. sp. 
p. 767 ; DC. si/st. 1. p. 175. 

Canada, Kabn ; Island of Anticosti, Pursh! (v.s. in herb. Shepherd); 
Newfoundland, Banks ; Greenland, Hornemann.—^Piant scarcely a span 
high. Leaves mostly radical, petiolate ; leaflets about one-third of an inch 
Jong, roundish, subcoriaceous, crenately toothed. Stem scapiform. Raceme 
6-10-tiowered : pedicels slender. Sepals 4, oblong. Ovaries few : styles 
almost wanting : stigmas thick and pubescent. — The American plant exactly 
resembles our specimens of T. alpinum from the North of Europe. 

*** Sepals petaloid, not caducmis, longer than the stamens : root grumous. 

./ 6. T. anemonoides (Michx.) : root fasciculately tuberous ; flowers few, 
umbellate ; floral leaves involucriform ; radical ones biternate. — Michx. ! fi. 
I. p. 322; DC. prodr. I. p. 15; Hook.Jl. Bar. -Am. 1. ^. 4 ; Juss. ami.vms. 
3. p. 249. t.2\. f. 2 ; Darlingt. ! ji. Cest. p. 333. Anemone thalictroides, 
Linn.; Pursh, Ji. 2. p. 387; Bart. Ji. Am. Sept. 2. t. 44 ; Bot. mag. t. 

Canada! to N. Carolina !&. Western States ! April-May. — Root composed 
of 4-6 clavate tubers. Radical leaves on long petioles : cauline leaves 1-3, 
sessile, trifoliolate, verticillate ; leaflets petiolulate, roundish, obtusely 3-5-lob- 
ed. Stems 4-8 inches high, commonly several from one root. Peduncles 
3-6, one-flowered, 1-2 inches long. Flowers nearly an inch in diameter. Se- 
pals 6-10, elliptical, white, sometimes slightly tinged with purple. Fila- 
ments filiform, or somewhat clavate: anthers oblong. Ovaries 6-10: style 
none: stigma simple. Carpels oblong, acute, prominently ribbed, substipitate. 
— "Habit and frondescence of Isopyrum, with the inflorescence of Ane- 
mone, and the fruit of Thalictrum." DC. 

In the herbarium of the late Rev. L. D. von Schweinitz are specimens of a Tha- 
lictrum, which may be distinct from any of the preceding ; but for want of the fruit, 
it is here recorded only as a provisional species. 

7. T. 7wrZi^«(iZc (Schwein. mss.) : flowers perfect (or polygamous 1) ; filaments 
somewhat clavate ; anthers oblong, obtuse ; leaf solitary, radical, on a long petiole, 
biternate, leaflets membranaceous, roundish, obtusely lobed, subcordatc; stem slen- 
der, nearly naked (tall), the summit a little branched, and bearing several 3-foliolate 
leaves and a small few- (4-8) flowered panicle ; stigma simple, sessile. 

On rocks, Patrick county, Virginia, and on the Yadkin River, North Carolina, 
Schweinitz ! — Stem 2 feet high. Leaflets glabrous, about three-fourths of an inch 
long. Cauline leaves at the summit of the stem, very small. Panicle as long as the 
leaves. Flowers very small. Sepals 4-5, greenish, oblong. Ovaries 4-6, subses- 
sile, ovate, acute, pointed with the small simple stigma. 

40 RANUNCULACEi53. Hydrastis. 

19. ZANTHORHIZA. Marsh, arb.; Lam. ill. t. 854; DC. sijst. 1. p. 386. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, of 2 roundish lobes raised on a pedicel. Stamens 5- 
10. Ovaries 5-10, pointed with the styles, 2-3-ovuled. Follicles small, 
mostly 1-seeded. Seed suspended. — Suffrutescent : the root and bark yellow 
and bitter. Leaves pinnately divided. Racemes appearing with the leaves, 
axillary, compound. Flowers minute, dark purple, ofter, by abortion polyga- 

Z. apiifolia (L'Her.) stirp. nov. p. 79. t. 38 ; MicLr: ! Ji. 1. p. 186 ; Bart. 
veg. mat. med. 2. t. 46; DC. prodr. 1. p. 65. Xanthorhiza simplicissima, 
Mamh. I. c. 

Shady banks of rivers, Pennsylvania ! to Georgia '1 and Texas ! March- 
April. — Root large. Leaves pinnate or bipinnate ; lePi.flets incised. — Yellow- 


20. HYDRASTIS. Linn.; Jiiss. gen. p. 232; Micha;. f. 1. p. 317 j 
DC. syst. 1. p. 217. 

Sepals 3, ovate, petaloid, caducous. Petals none. Stamens numerous : 
anthers innate. Ovaries numerous, 2-ovuled : styles short: stigmas dilated, 
induplicate. Fruit composed of the baccate 1-2-seeded carpels, crowded in 
a globose head. — A perennial herb ; the rhizoma and roots yelloAV and bitter. 
Stem simple, 2-leaved, 1-flowered ; the fohage and fruit resembling a Rubus. 

H. Canadensis (Unn.)—Mich.T. ! fi. I. c. ; Pursh, ft. 2. p. 389; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 55; DC. prodr. 1. p. 53. Warneria Canadensis, Mill. diet. 

In shady woods, particularly on the sides of mountains, Canada ! to Caro- 
lina ; west to Ohio ! and Kentucky ! April-May.— Leaves pubescent Avhen 
young, cordate, palmately 3-5-lobed, the lobes doubly serrate; lower leaf pe- 
tioled, the upper subsessile. Peduncle an inch long. Calyx pale rose-color. 
Fruit red. Seeds obovate: testa crustaceous, nearly black, shining, lined 
with the thin and membranous tegmen. Embryo minute, at the base of the 
somewhat fleshy and oily albumen. 

Suborder P.EONIE.E. Arn. 

Sepals 5, unequal, fDliaceous, persistent. Petals 5 (6-10 by culture), 
destitute of claws. Stamens very numerous : anthers adnate, introrse. 
Ovaries 2-5, the base surrounded by a fleshy annular disk i stigmas 
sessile, thick, of two lamellae, persistent. Carpels follicular, opening 
above. Seeds several : albumen fleshy. — Herbaceous (rarely shrubby,) 
plants. Roots fasciculate, thick. Leaves 2.ternately divided. Flow- 
ers terminal, solitary, large, purple, rose-color, or white. 

Pjeonia. MAGNOLIACEiE. 41 

2|. PiEONIA. Linn.; Jass. gen. p. 231 ; DC. syst. 1. p. 3SG. 

Character same as of the Suborder. 

1. P. Brownii (Dougl.): carpels 5, oblong, very glabrous, erect; leaves 
smooth on both sides, somewhat glaucous, biternatc ; leaflets ternately divid- 
ed or pinuatifid, laciniate ; laciniac oblong, those of the lower leaves obtuse. 
Ilonk. f. Jior.-Am. 1. p. 27. 

"Near tlie confines of perpetual snow on the subalpine range of Mount 
Hood, N. W. America." Douglas in Hook. " East of the Blue Mountains 
of Oregon, not in subalpine situations," Nuttall ! June-July.— Stem striate. 
Sepals very unequal, oval. Carpels very smooth, oblong, scarcely recun-ed at 
the apex. Hook. " Petals reddish-purple, never fully expanding." Nutt. 

2. P. Californica (Nutt. ! mss.) : " carpels 3, glabrous ; leaves smooth on 
both sides (not glaucous), ternate; leaflets broadly cuneate, nearly twice 3- 
cleft ; laciniffi oblong-lanceolate, acute. . 

"Margins of bushy plains, and in the valleys of the mountains, in the vici- 
nhy St. "Barbara, Upper California. March- April.— Ditfers from the preced- 
ing in the smaller, less divided and broader leaves, Avhich are deep green on 
both sides; and the leaflets bifid or trifid, never pinnatifid. Sepals never expand- 
ing, one, and sometimes two, of the outer ones ending in a small trifid 
leaf jPetals small, scarcely exceeding the length of the calyx, deep blood-red. 
Seeds large, light brown, cylindrical-ovoid." Nutt. 

Order II. MAGNOLIACEiE, Juss. 

Magnoliacese & Winteracere, R. Br. ; Lindl. 

Parts of the flowers arranged in a ternary order. Sepals 3-6, do- 
ciduous. Petals 3-30, hypogynous, in several rows : aestivation ini- 
bricated. Stamens indefinite, distinct, hypogynous : filaments very 
short : anthers adnatc, introrsc. Ovaries several in a single row, or 
numerous and spicate in several rows, on a torus raised above the sta- 
mens : styles short or none : stigmas simple. Fruit consisting of 
numerous 1-2-seeded carpels, follicular or baccate, or woody, or fleshy, 
aggregated or connate in a strobiliform manner upon the clongat- 
ed torus ; sometimes samaroid. Seeds anatropous, suspended or as- 
cending. Embryo minute, at the base of fleshy homogeneous albu. 
men. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, (pubescent when 
young) mostly minutely punctate with transparent dots, coriaceous, 
with convolute caducous stipules. Flowers rarely diclinous, solitary, 
usually large, fragrant. 

The presence of pellucid dots in the leaves of WintcrfxceEe, and their absence in 
Magnoliacea;, is considered a chief mark of distinction by those autliors who view 
the two orders as distinct. These dots, liowever, exist in all our Mas^nolias, as well 
as in the exotic forms we have examined, and may he ob'served witli a lens of very 
moderate power (if the leaves be too coriaceous at least in tlie petals) quite as readi- 
ly as in lllicium. Several species are also slightly aromatic and stimulant as well 
as bitter. The leaves, or at least the petals, of all our species of Auonacea:, and of 



all the foreign species which we have examined, are dotted in the same manner. — 
De CandoUc states that the American species of Magnolia (§ .Mugnoliaslrun|, DC.) 
have extrorse anthers ; which is not the case. • 

Tribe I. ILLICIE^. DC. 
Winteracea;, R. Br. ; Lindl. 
Carpels in a single whorl. Anthers short. — Aromatic & stimulant. 

1. ILLICIUM. Linn. ; Gcertn. Jr. 1. j). 338. t. 69. 

Sepals 3-6, petaloid. Petals 9-30. Follicles stellate, 1-seeded. Seeds smooth 
and shining.— Evergreen glabrous shrubs ; the bruised leaves and carpels ex- 
hahng the odor of anise. 

1. /. Floridanum (EUis): leaves oval or oblong, acuminate ; petals 27-30, 
dark purple, the outermost oblong, the inner ligulate.— i;///s, in phil. trans. 
60. p. 524.- 1. 12 ; Lam. ill. t. 493 ; 1. p. 526 ; DC. prodr. 1 p. 77. 

Florida! Alabama! & Louisiana: in swamps. May. 

2. /. parviftorum (Michx.) : leaves oblong ; flowers yellowish ; petals 
ovate or roundish, ^12.— Micli.T. ! I. c. ; DC. I. c. ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 35 ; Nutt. 2 
gen. 2. p. 18. I. anisatum. Bartr. trav. 

Georgia ! &, Florida ! May-June.— Leaves rather obtuse. Flowers nod- 
ding, much smaller. 


Carpels splcate on the elongated torus. Anthers long. Scales of 
the leaf-bud formed of convolute stipules. 

2. MAGNOLIA. Linn. ; Gcertn. fr. 1. p. 343. i. 70. 

Sepals 3^ caducous, sometimes none or confounded with the petals. Pe- 
tals 6-12, caducous. Carpels 1-2-seeded, persistent, forming a strobile-like 
fruit, dehiscent by the dorsal suture. Seeds baccate, subcordate, suspended, 
hanging, when ripe and the carpel opens, by a long funiculus composed entke- 
ly of spiral vessels.— Fme trees (except M. glauca.) 

1. M. grandifiora (Linn.): leaves evergreen, oval-oblong, coriaceous, 
shining above, ferruginous-tomentose beneath ; petals 9-12, obovate, expanding. 
— Walt. Car. p. 158; Lam. ill. t. 490; Michx. ! fi. 1. p. 327 ; Michx. f. 
sylv. 1. p. 269. t.71; Ell. sk. 2. p. 36. 

N. Carolina ! to Florida ; west to the Mississippi ! May-Aug.— Trunk 
naked 60-70 feet high, crowned with a pyramidal head ; branches somewhat 
whorled. Leaves 6-8 inches long. Flowers white, 7-8 inches broad ; pe- 
tals abruptly unguiculate. 

2. M. glauca (Linn.) : leaves oblong or oval, obtuse, white beneath ; pe- 
tals '9-12, ovate, narrowed at the base, erect— Michx. ! fi. 1. p. 327 ; Michx. 

Magnolia. MAGNOLIACE^. 43 

/ sylv. 1. p. 274. t. 52 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 27 ; Bigel. ft. Bost. ed. 2. p. 229, ^ 
tned. Ipt. t. 26. 

Swamps, Massachusetts! to Louisiana! and Missouri. May -Juno. — A 
shrub ; leaves deciduous (often silky beneath when young): in the Suutliern 
Slates sometimes a tree with evergreen leaves. (Ell.) Flowers white, 2-o 
inches broad, very fragrant. 

3. M. Umbrella (Lara.) : leaves deciduous, oblong or obovate-lanceolate ; 
petals fl, narrow ; sepals 3, reflexcd. — Lam. diet. 3. p. 673 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 
80. M. tripetala, Linn. ; Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 327 ; Michx. f. sylv. 1. p. 285. t. 
54 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 38. 

Southern and Western States ! New- York, Michx. f. (sed ?) and Pennsyl- 
vania, Muhlenberg. May-.Tune. — Tree 30-40 feet high. Leaves crowded 
in an umbellate manner on the extremity of the irregular branches (whence 
the name Umbrella-tree), 1-2 feet long, acuminate. Flowers white, 7-8 
inches in diameter ; odor unpleasant. Fruit rose-color, 4-5 inches long. 

A.M. acuminata (hinn.): leaves deciduous, oval, acuminate (pubescent 
beneath); petals 6-9, oblong-obovate. — Michx.! fl.l.p.32S; Mich.v.f. sijlv. 
l.p. 278. t. 53; Pursh,Jl.2.p. 381. 

New- York ! to Georgia ! confined to the mountains in the Southern States. 
June- July. — Tree 60-80 feet high, 4-5 feet in diameter at the base. Flowers 
slightly fragrant, 3-4 inches in diameter: petals scarcely expanding, yellow- 
ish, glaucous externally. Fruit cyhndrical, 3 inches long, when green slightly 
resembling a young cucumber (whence the name. Cucumber-tree). 

5. M. cordata (Michx.) : leaves deciduous, broadly ovate, subcordate, acute, 
whitish and pubescent beneath; petals 6-9, oblong. — Michx. fl. 1. />. 328; 
Michx. f. aylv. 1. p. 282. t. 54; Ell. sk. 2. p. 38 ; Bot. mag. t. 325; Nutt. 
gen. 2. p. 18. 

N. Carolina ! to Georgia! on mountains. April-May. — Tree 20-40 or 50 
leet high ; bark deeply furrowed. Leaves 4-6 inches long. Flowers yel- 
low, faintly streaked with red. 

6. M. Fraseri (Walt.) : leaves deciduous (glabrous on both sides or glau- 
cescent beneath), spatulate-obovate, auriculate at the base ; sepals 3, spread- 
ing ; petals 9, oblong, attenuate at the base. — Walt. Car. p. 159. M. auriculata, 
Lam. diet. 3. p. 673; Bartr. trav. ; Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 328; Michx. f. sylv. 
1. p. 287. t. 56 ; Bot. mag. t. 1206 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 39. 

/?. pijraviidata (Nutt.): leaves broader and shorter. Niitt. gen. 2. p. 18, 
— M. pyramidata, Bartr. ; Pursh, jl. 2. p. 381. 

On the Alleghany Mountains, from the head waters of the Susquehannah 
(Pursh? ?) (Virginia Michx. f.) to Georgia ! /?. S. Carolina, Georgia and 
Florida ! near the coast. April-May. — Tree 30-40 feet high. Leaves 8-12 
inches long, mostly green on both sides, somewhat rhomboid ; auricles nar- 
row, rounded. Petals oval-lanceolate or subspatulate, white, 2-3 inches 
long. Fruit oval-oblong, rose-color. — The specific name of Walter having 
been first published must of necessity be restored. . 

7. M. macrnphylla (Michx.) : leaves deciduous, oblong-ovate, narroAved 
and subcordate at the base, glaucous and whitish beneath ; petals 6, ovate. 
—Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 327 ; Michx. J. sylv. l.p. 292. /. 57 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 18 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 40. 

Lincolnton, N. Carolina ! and in Tennessee, near Cumberland River. 
Georgia, on the Chattahouchie River, Dr. Chapman ! Dr. Boykin. May- 
July. — Trunk naked below, 30-40 feet high ; bark white. Leaves crowded 
on the end of the branches, 1-3 feet long, scarcely auricled at the base. 
Flowers when fully expanded 8-10 inches in diameter, white : petals with 
a purple spot on the inside at the base. Fruit ovate, rose-color. 

44 ANONACEiE. Uvaria. 


Sepals 3, caducous. Petas 6, campanulate. Carpels densely imbricated, 
1-2-seeded, indehiscent, deciduous; the apex produced into a lanceolate 
wing. — A large tree. Leaves 3-lobed, the terminal lobe emarginately trun- 
cate, the lateral ones with 2 sinuses. Flowers greenish-yellow, orange with- 
in. Stipules flat. 

L. Tulipifera (Linn.)— Michx.Jl. 1. p. 326 ; Michx.f. sylv. 1. p. 302. L 
61; 31. 

Canada ! to Louisiana and Florida. May-June.— Trunk sometimes 140 
feet high, and 8-9 in diameter.— Tulip-tree. Wliite-xcood. 

Order III. ANONACE^. Jiiss. 

Sepals 3-4, persistent, often united at the base. Petals 6, in two 
rows, hypogynous, coriaceous : aestivation valvular. Stamens inde- 
finite, packed closely together on a hypogynous torus : filaments short : 
anthers adnate, extrorse ; connectivum large, sometimes nectariferous 
at the apex. Ovaries usually numerous and closely packed, separate 
or sometimes cohering : styles short or none : stigmas simple : ovules 
solitary or several, erect or ascending. Fruit consisting of dry or 
succulent, 1- or many-seeded carpels, which are distinct or concrete 
into a fleshy mass. Seeds anatropous ; testa brittle. Embryo minute, 
at the base of hard ruminated albumen. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves 
(and branches pubescent when young) alternate, exstipulate, distinctly 
articulated with the stem, entire. Flowers axillary, mostly solitary. 
Petals, and commonly the leaves, minutely punctate with pellucid 

AnoTM glabra, Linn. (Anona foliis latis, &c. Catcsb. Car. t. 64.) a West Indian 
species, has not been met with in the United States. Catesby was doubtless mis- 
taken as to the locality.— Prof. Bailey, of West Point U. S. Military Academy, has 
seeds of a large-fruited species of Anona from Key West. 

1. UVARIA. Linn. ; Blume,f. Jav. ex. Alph. DC. mem. A7ion. p. 25. 

Uvaria, Asimina, and Porcelia, of Authors. Orchidocarpum, Mic/ix. 

Sepals 3, united at the base. Petals 6, in a double series. Ovaries few or 
numerous. Carpels oblong, baccate, often torulose, pulpy within, several- 
seeded. — Aromatic shiubs or trees. 

§ Carpels by abortion 2-3 or solitary: inner petals smallest: flowers 
solitary on short axillary peduncles, which are sometimes bractcolate. 
— Asimina, Adans. 


* Leaves membranaceous : flowers expanding at or before the time of leafing ^ arising 
from the axils of former leaves. 

1. U. triloba: leaves oblong-obovate, acuminate ; petals dark purple; the 
exterior orbicular, 3 or 4 times the length of the sepals. — Anona triloba, Linn.; 
Michx. ! f. spiv. 2. t. 60. Porcelia triloba, Pers. syn. 2. p. 95 ; Fnrsh,fl. 2. 
p. 383. Orchidocarpum arietinum, Michx. ! jl. 1. p. 329. Asimina triloba, 
Dunal., Anon. ;j. 81 ; FAl. sk. 2. p. 42. 

Banks of streams. Middle, Southern, and Western States ! March-April. 
— A small tree 15-20 feet high. Branches and leaves nearly glabrous. 
Ovaries often 8. Fruit of a single carpel (2-3 inches long), or sometimes of 
2-3 connate carpels, yellowish, esculent, very fragrant. — Papaw. 

2. U. parviflora : leaves oval-obovate, acuminate ; petals greenish-pur- 
ple ; the exterior oval, hardly twice the length of the sepals. — Orchidocarpum 
parviflorura, Midu:. ! I. c. Porcelia parviflora, Ptrs. L c. Asimina pui vi- 
flora, Dunal, Anon. p. 82. t. 9; Ell. sk. 2. p. 41. 

Woods, Virginia to Florida! — A low shrub. Leaves and branches nearly 
glabrous except when very young. Flowers not half the size of U. triloba : 
peduncles shorter than the flowers. Fruit as large as a plum, somewhat 

3. U. ohorata : leaves oblong-obovate, obtuse, ferruginous-tomentose be- 
neath; petals (very large) yellowish-white; the exterior obovate, many 
times larger than the sepals. — Anona grandiflora, Bartr. trav. t.2. A. obo- 
vata, Willd. .'ip.2. p. 1269. Orchidocarpum grandiflorum, M7V //.r. .' ^. \.p. 
330. Porcelia grandiflora, Pers. I. c. ; Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 19. Asimina gran- 
diflora, Dunal, Let. 11 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 42. 

Sandy woods, Georgia ! and Florida. ! — Shrub 1-2 feet high, tomentose 
when young. Outer petals 2 inches or more in length : inner ones much 
shorter, linear-oblong. — The oldest and most appropriate specific name is 
pro-occupied in Uvaria. 

.** Leaves coriaceous, persistent : flotcers arising from the axils of present leaves. 

4. U. pygrruea : leaves elongated, oblanceolate, obovate, oblong, or ellip- 
tical ; petals reddish-brown ; the exterior obovate-oblong, many times longer 
than the sepals. — Anona pygma?a, Bartr. trav. t. 1. Orchidocarpum 
pygmeeum, Michx. ! I. c. Porcelia pygma^a, Pers. I. c. ; Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 
19. Asimina pygmaca, Dunal, I. c. t. io ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 43. 

0. flowers all terminating short leafy branches. 

Sandy fields, Georgia! and Florida! — Sufiruticose, 6-20 inches high, 
glabrous. Leaves variable, when narrow often 6 inches long, sometimes 1§ 
inch broad, obtuse or acute. Outer petals an inch long : the inner much 
smaUer, linear-oblong. 


Flowers monoecious, or rarely dicecious ; the floral envelopes in a 
a ternary order. Sepals 3-6, imbricated in a double series, deciduous ; 
the inner ones similar to the petals. Petals 3-12, imbricated in 1-4 
rows, hypogynous. Stamens 5 or indefinite, with very short filaments, 
coadunate on a subglobose torus. Ovaries numerous, aggregated on a 

46 MENISPERMACE.E. Schizandra. 

conical, at length elongated torus : styles minute : stigmas simple : 
ovules 1-2. Carpels baccate in fruit, l-2.seeded, loosely spicate upon 
the slender and much elongated torus (glomerate on the conical torus 
in Kadsura). Albumen fleshy, homogeneous. — Trailing or twining' 
glabrous shrubs (somewhat aromatic). Leaves alternate, entire or 
denticulate, minutely and sparsely punctate (as also the petals) with 
pellucid dots. Flowers axillary, on slender peduncles ; the uppermost 

1. SCHIZANDRA. Michx. fl. 2. p. 218. t. 47. 

Moncecious. Sepals and petals 9-12, confounded with each other, roundish, 
concave. Stamens 5: anthers subsessUe, connate. Carpels inequilateral, 
1-seeded, loosely scattered m fruit on the fihform torus. " Embryo included 
in fleshy green albumen ; radicle oblong ; cotyledons ovate." Richard in 
Michx. — A trailing or somewhat twining shrub. Leaves entire or repandly 
denticulate. Flowers small, crimson. 

S. coccinea (Michx. 1. c.)—Ell. sk. 2. p. 582 ; DC. syst. l.p. 544 ; Bot. 
mag. t. 1413 ; Audubon, birds ofAmer. t. 74. 

In damp woods, S. Carolina ! Georgia ! and Louisiana ! May-Tune — 
Stem 10-15 feet long. Leaves ovate or oval, mostly acute or acuminate at 
each end, on slender petioles. Carpels small, ovoid, red when mature : torus 
also red. Seed suspended 7 

The order Schizandracccc, established by Bkime in his splendid Flora Javae, al- 
though indicated in an earlier work, is founded upon Schizandra and two Asiatic 
genera, viz : Sphserostema (which diflers from the former chiefly in its indefinite 
stamens,) and Kadsura, Juss., which was formerly referred to Anonacere. 


Flowers dioecious, rarely moncecious or polygamous. Sepals usually 
in a double row, 2-4 in each, imbricated in testivation, deciduous. 
Petals 1-8 (usually equal in number to the sepals), h5'pogynous, dis- 
tinct or sometimes united, rarely none. Stamens distinct or mona- 
delphous, equal in number to the petals and opposite them, or 2-4 times 
as many : anthers adnate (extrorse or introrse !), or innate and con- 
sisting of 4 globose lobes, or with the cells horizontal and placed end 
to end, opening longitudinally. Ovaries usually several, distinct or 
rarely united. Drupes baccate, 1-seeded, oblique or lunate, or incurv- 
ed so that the apex and base are brought into contact ; the nut (endo- 
carp) bony, and often tuberculate on the broad margin. Seed hetero- 
tropous, conformed to the cavity of the nut. Embryo curved, included 
in the rather thin fleshy albumen : radicle directed towards the style. — 
Flexible and climbing shrubs or sutfruticose plants. Leaves alternate, 

Menispermum. MENISPERMACEiE. 47 

without stipules, simple, palmately veined. Flowers minute, in ra- 
cemes or panicles. 

The true structure of the fruit in this order, is f^iven by A. St, Hilairc, in his 
Flora Brazihiu Mcridionalis. After fecundation tlie ovary begins to grow on one 
side, and curves until, in most cases, the summit is brought close to the base. Tlic 
fruit, Avhich is a true drupe, has an obovatc or subglobose form, and the nut is curv- 
ed like a horse-shoe, so that -when it is cut transversely it appears to be ^-celled, a 
false dissepiment being formed by the bending together of the two ends of the fruit. 
The shell or cndocarp is often mistaken for the testa of the seed, the proper integu- 
ments being membranaceous. According to De Candolle, the anthers are extrorse ; 
but they arc certainly introrse in Menispermum Lyoni, and in some species of 

1. COCCULUS. Baiihin; DC. syst. l.p. 515. 

Flowers diojcious. Sepals 6, in a double series. Petals 6, distinct. Sterile 
Fl. Stamens 6 (rarely 3), distinct. Fertile Fl. Sometimes G abortive 
stamens. Ovaries 3-6. Drupes 1-6.— Racemes axillary. 

Differs from Menispermum chiefly in the stamens being equal in number to the 
sepals (or rarely half as many), and not twice or more than twice as numerous. 

1. C. CaroUmis (DC): minutely pubescent ; leaves cordate or ovate, en- 
lire or obscurely lobed (rarely hastately 3-lobcd), mostly obtuse, mucronate, 
velvety-pubescent underneath ; petals biauriculate at the base and embracing 
the filaments, emarginate ; anthers innate, 4-lobed; ovaries 3-6. — DC. syst. 
1. p. 524. Menispermum Carolinianum, Walt. Car. p. 248 ; 2. p. 
242. Wendlandia populifolia, Willd. sp. 2. p. 275 ; Pursh, fi. 1. p. 252. 
(excl. syn). W. Caroliniana, Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 241. 

Woods and banks of rivers. North CaroUna, Mr. Curtis ! Georgia, Lc 
Conte! Mississippi, Mitt all ! Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher! Kentucky, Dj\ 
Shnrt ! — Stem slender, sarmentose. Leaves extremely variable in form, 2-4 
inches long, and of nearly the same breadth, often quite entire, but usually 
with several sinuate obtuse lobes, sometimes nearly orbicular-cordate, some- 
what coriaceous when mature : petioles 1-4 inches long. Flowers sometimes 
polygamous? Sterile Fl. in compound racemes which are often 3-parted to 
the base, greenish-white. Bracteoles mostly sohtary. Sepals 6, orbicular, or 
obovate, concave. Petals 6, fleshy, with 2 inflcxed auricles at the base of 
each. Stamens 6: filaments thickened at the summit, on which is borne the 
didymous anther-cells, appearing like 4 approximated spherules. Drupe red, 
as large as a small pea, compressed ; the nut curved into nearly a complete 
ring, notched on the margin. Seed terete, filling the circular cavity of the 
nuL Embryo in the axis of the fleshy albumen and about the same length : 
cotyledons hnear, approximated. 

2. MENISPERMUM. Linn. ; DC. syst. I. p. 539. 

Flowers dioecious. Sepals 4-8, in a double series. Petals 4-7, in a double 
series ; sometunes none. Sterile Fl. Stamens 12-20, distinct. Fertile 
Fl. Ovaries 2-4 (usually solitary). Drupes 1-4 (usually solitary), globose- 
reniform.— Racemes axillary or supra-axillary. Sterile and fertile flowers 
often dissimilar. 

InM. Dauricum, DC. {Dcless. ic. t. 100.) the sepals are 6 in number and the 
corolla is wanting. 

48 MENISPERMACEiE. Menispermdm, 

§ 1. Fertile flowers without abortive stamens: mit forming a nearly com- 
plete ring. 

1. M. Canadense (Linn.) : leaves peltate (with the petiole near the base), 
somewhat glabrous, obtusely angled ; angles obtuse or acute ; racemes com- 
pound ; sepals 4-7 ; petals 6-7 ; very small, somewhat fleshy ; stamens 15-19 ; 
anthers innate, 4-lobed.— .'kT/c/i.r. / /. 2. p. 241 ; Pzirsh, fl. 2. p. 370 ; DC. 
sysl. 2. p. 54:0 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 715. M. Virginicum, Linn.; Willd. sp. 4. 
p. 824. 

Banks of rivers and in thickets, Canada ! to S. Carolina, and Arkansas ! 
July. — Stem lierba;ceous or suflruticose at the base, 8-12 feet long, slender. 
Leaves 3-4 inches long, rather broader than wide, with 3-5 angular lobes. 
Flowers small, greenish-yellow ; the sterile ones in paniculate supra-axillary 
racemes : pedicels about a hne long, bracteolate. Sepals commonly 4-5, obo- 
vate-oblong. Petals much smaller than the sepals, orbicular, obtusely cuneate 
at the base. Filaments scarcely thickened at the summit : anthers of 4 
spherical lobes. Drupe stipitate, about one-third of an inch in diameter, nearly 
black when mature, pruinose, curved so that the style and base are nearly in 
contact ; pulp small in quantity. Nut much compressed, forming a nearly 
complete ring. Seed terete, annular. Embryo linear, in the axis of a 
fleshy albumen, and nearly of the same length. 

§ 2. Sepals 6 : petals none : sterile flowers with 12 stamens ; the anthers 
adnate, parallel with the fllament : fertile flowers with 6 abortive sta- 
mens : ovaries 3 : drupe solitary^ oval, the style nearly at the summit .- 
nut concavo-convex, deeply excavated in front. — Calycocarpum, Nutt. 

2. M. Lyoni (Pursh) : leaves 3-5-lobed, not peltate ; the lobes acuminate 
and sometimes crenulate ; petioles very long ; racemes somewhat compound. 
—Pursh, fl. 2. p. 371 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 103. 

Near New Orleans, Dr. Ingalls .' Arkansas, Nuttall ! Kentucky and 
Tennessee, Pursh. — Stem climbing, about twenty feet long (PitrsA,). Leaves 
3-7 inches in diameter, sparsely hirsute on the veins underneath ; the sinuses 
commonly rounded, and often extending beyond the centre of the lamina. 
Racemes shorter than the petioles, supra-axillary ; the pedicels 1-4-flow^ered. 
Sterile Fl. Bracteole at the base of the sepals minute. Sepals obovate- 
oblong, obtuse. Stamens shorter than the sepals : filaments compressed, ra- 
ther thick ; anther cells linear-oblong, introrse, the cells parallel with the axis 
of the filament. Fertile Fl. Sepals as in the sterile flowers. Abortive 
stamens half the length of the sepals ; the spurious anther cells oblong and 
somewhat diverging. Ovaries oblong, straight: stigmas sessile, fimbriate. 
Drupe exactly oval, nearly an inch long (black, Pursh), compressed contrary 
to the sutures. Nut deeply excavated in front, convex and smooth on the 
back. Albumen fleshy and oily, in the fonn of a shallow cup. Embryo very 
broad, lying in a shallow cavity in the midst of the albumen; cotyledons 
oval, very thin and membranaceous, at length diverging. — The back and front 
layers of albumen at length become soldered together, so that the shallow 
cavity is divided into two cells, in each of which a cotyledon is lodged ; as in 
Cocculus suberosus, DC. figured by Gsertner {Fr. 1. i. 70. /. 1.), and as de- 
scribed by Wight & Arnott {Prodr. ft. Penins. hid. 1. p. 11). We have 
seen the ripe fruit of this species only when deprived of its pulp. In the 
half-grown state it is ovate, nearly straight, and slightly pointed at the summit 
with a very short style. When fuUy grown the style appears to be still 
nearly terminal. The shell is smooth, exactly oval, with a large cavity in 

Berberis. BERBERIDACEiE. 49 

front, capable of holding a grain of coffee. In our only ppccimcn, kindly 
coinniunicated by Mr. Nuttall, the sutures are very distinct and have opened 
at tiie suniinit. 

Menispermum smilacinum, DC. sijst. 2. p- 5H (Cissampelos smilacina, Linn.*?) 
seems to be only M. Caiiadense with smoother leaves and more simple racemes than 
usual. The number of petals is very inconstant in the latter species, there being 
sometimes only four. The figure in Catesby (^Carol. 1. t. 51.) is probably Cocculus 
Carolinus, and is certainly not a Menispermum. 

Order VI. BERBERIDACE7E. Vent. ; R. Br. 

BerberideK & Podopliyllacese of Authors. 

Sepals deciduous, 3-4-6, imbricated in two rows, often calyculate 
with petaloid scales. Petals hypogynous, as many as the sepals and 
opposite them ! or twice as many, frequently appendaged or glandular 
at the base within. Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them ! 
(twice as many in Podophyllum) : filaments short : anthers adnate, 
extrorse, opening by recurved valves, (i. e. the face of each cell sepa- 
rating elastically from the connectivum from the bottom to the top, 
like a valve) except in Podophyllum. Ovary solitary, simple : style 
continuous, often somewhat lateral or oblique : stigma orbicular or 
peltate. Fruit baccate or capsular. Seeds 1 or few, rising from the 
bottom of the cell, or numerous and attached to the ventral suture in 
one or more rows, sometimes arillate. Embryo in the axis or near 
the base of fleshy or horny albumen. 


Embryo in the axis, and occupying nearly the whole length of i\\e 
albumen : radicle long : cotyledons flat, elliptical. — Shrubs. Leaves 
compound or reduced to a single leaflet, often stipulate. Flowers 
yellow. Filaments irritable. 

1. BERBERIS. Linn.; t. 42. 

Sepals 6, usually 3-bracteoIate. Petals 6, commonly with 2 distinct glands 
at the base. Stamens 6. Stigma orbicular, depressed, nearly sessile (rarely 
a distinct style). Fruit a 1-9-seeded berry. Seeds erect. 

§ 1. Primary leaves changed to spines, in the axils of which the secon- 
dary leaves (produced by the developement of the" leaf buds, and re- 
duced to a single leaflet) are fascicled. — Berberis, Nutt. DC. 

1. B. vulgaris (Linn.) : branches mmutely dotted, with triple spines ; 
leaves oval-obovate, closely serrate with bristly teeth ; racemes nodding, many- 
flowered; petals entire; berries ohlong.— Willd. sp. 2. p. 227; Lam. ill. t. 


50 ' BERBERIDACEJ3. Berberis. 

, 243 ; Bigel fi. Bost. ed. 2. p. 128 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. \. j). 28, excl. syn. 
B. vulgaris, var. Canadensis, Torr. ! ji. 1. p. 336, not of Willd. 

In waste places and about cultivated grounds, Canada! and Northern 
States I doubtless introduced from Europe, but naturalized in many places. 
Newfoundland, Morrison ex Hook. May-June. — Stem 3-8 feet high : pith 
yellowish ; the spines sometimes simple. Berries acid. — Barberry-bush. 

2. B. Canadensis (Pursh) : branches verrucose-dotted, with short triple 
spines ; leaves spatulate-oblong, remotely serrate with somewhat bristly teeth ; 
racemes subcorymbose, few-flowered ; petals cmarginate ; berries subglobose 
or oval— Pursh! Jl. 1. p. 219 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 412 ; Mitt. ! gen. 1. p. 211. 
B. vulgaris, Walt. Car. p. 120 ; Michx.fl. 1. p. 205. B. vulgaris, var. Can- 
adensis, Willd. sp. 2. p. 228. 

In the Alleghany Mountains, &c. Virginia ! N. Carolina ! Tennessee ! 
to Georgia. Also Canada, Pursh, but this is very doubtful. May- June. — 
Shrub 2-3 feet high (stem and roots yellow, Nutt.) Leaves much smaller 
and narrower than in the preceding species, attenuate at the base, but nearly 
sessile ; the margin serrulate with 6-8 distant, often inconspicuous, mucro- 
nate teeth. Raceme 5-8-floAvered, nodding : flowers smaller than in B. vul- 
garis; fruit smaller and much shorter. — This indigenous species, very dis- 
tinct from B. vulgaris, with which it has been in some degree confounded, is 
probably a native of the Southern States only ; the Barberry of the New Eng- 
land States and, doubtless, of Canada, being the European species, and cer- 
tainly not indigenous. Our species was first noticed, apparently, by Marshall, 
who states that he has a different species of Barberry growmg near New 
River, Virginia. Original specimens, collected and named by Pursh, exist 
in the herbarium of the late Prof. Barton, now deposited in the rooms of the 
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.— B. emarginata, Willd., a 
Siberian plant, appears to be very near this species. 

§ 2. Leaves (evergreen) pinnate : petioles articulated at the origin of the 
leaflets : filaments usually 2-toothed at the sumonit.—MAnomA, Nutt. 

3. B. Aquifolium (Pursh) : leaflets 3-6 pairs (the lower pair not approxima- 
ted to the base of the petiole), coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate or elliptical-oblong, 
inequilateral or slightly cordate at the base, 1-nerved, the margin repand 
with thorny or spinulose-cuspidate teeth ; racemes short, nearly erect, clus- 
tered; filaments 2-toothed.— Pwrs/i.,/. I. p. 219. t. 4. (excl./. 5. the fruit.) 

a. leaflets about 3 pairs, approximate, oblong-ovate, obtuse, pale green and 
slightly glaucous both sides, flat or with shghtly undulate margins, with 5-9 
short cuspidate teeth on each side.— B. AquifoUum, Pursh, I. c. (excl./ 1. 
the separate leaflet) ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 29, in part. B. pinnata, MuhU 
cat. ed. 2. p. 36. B. repens, Lindl. hot. res:, t. 1176. Mahonia Aquifolium, 
Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 212 ; DC. syst. 1. p. 20. excl. (3. 

0. leaflets 4-6 pairs, often rather distant, ovate-lanceolate, acutish, " pale 
but bright green above" (Hook.), glaucous beneath, fiat or a Uttle undulate 
along the margins, slightly repand with numerous cuspidate teeth. — B. pin- 
nata /?., Hook. I. c. 

y. leaflets 4-5 pairs, mostly approximate, ovate-lanceolate, acutish, dark 
green and shining above, when mature rigidly undulate and repandly 6-12- 
toothed on each margin ; teeth thorny and rather divaricate. — B. AquifoUum, 
Pursh, I. c. f. 1. (a separate leaflet) ex Lindl. ; Hook. I. c. in part ; Lindl. 
bat. reg. t. 1425. B. pinnata, Menzies, in herb. Banks. B. pinnata a. 
Hook. I. C.I excl. syn. Deless. ^c. Mahonia AquifoUum ^. Nutkana, DC. 

In woods and along rivers throughout Oregon, a. From the Great Rapids 
of the Oregon River (Lewis) to the Eastern declivity of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, lat, lo°, Dr. James ! and the sources of the Colorado of the West, 

Berberis. BERBERIDACE^. 51 

Nuttall! /?. In the woody region of the Oregon, Drummnnd, Aiiitall! y. 
Near the coast from lat. 40 "-49', jMenzie.'^, Doui^las, Ur. iScautcr ! April. 
— An under-shrub, 2-5 feet high, branching; tlie branches often prucunibeni. 
Leaflets li-3 inches long, obscurely reticulated on both sides, the veins ;dl 
rising from the midrib. Petals connivent, the innermost bifid at the ape.x. 
Berries dark purple. — This species, as we consider it, is liable to much varia- 
tion in its foliage ; and we should incline to follow the authority of Lindley 
and of Nuttall (who has recently enjoyed the opportunity of examining these 
plants extensively in their native situations), and to separate our var. «. as a 
distinct species, did not our specimens of /A communicated by Mr. Nuttall 
appear manifestly to connect it with )., the B. A([uifolium of tlie region near 
the Pacific coast. The former is moreover the plant originally brought to 
the United States by Lewis, and described and figured (chieHy) by Pursh, 
and cultivated in gardens, under the name of B. Aquifolium ; so that it ought, 
in accordance with the rule in such cases, to retain the original name. Pursh 
erroneously describes the berry as 3-celled, with a 3-lobed stigma; but his 
figure of the fruit is manifestly taken/from some very diffcreiit plant.* 

4. B. pinnata (hagasca): leaflets 4-5 pairs, the lowest pair approximate to 
the base of the petiole, ovate-lanceolate, repandly dentate with 4-5 teeth on each 
side; racemes erect [nodding in Jig. JJeless.], very much crowded. JJC. 
(under Mahonia.) — B. pinnata, " Lagasca etench. hort. Madry ex auci. 
Mahonia fascicularis, DC. .^ijst. 1. p. 19; Deless. ic. 2. t. 3. 

" Western coast oi North America near Monterey [California] and Nootka, 
Nei ex Lagasca; and in New Spain, Humb. ^ Bonpl.^^ JJC. I. c. — The 
plant from Nootka is doubtless B. Aquifolium, as Lindley suggests. All our 
specimens from Oregon have the lower pair of leaflets at some distance from 
the base of the petiole ; in which, as in the less crowded racemes, &c. they 
wholly disagree with the character of De Candolle and the figure of Deles- 
sert ; and as Hooker changes the specific phrase of his B. pinnata in these 
particulars, we have the more confidently referred the Oregon plant to B. 

5. B. nervosa (Pursh): suffruticose ; leaves elongated ; leaflets 5-S pairs 
(the lowest not approximated to the base of the petiole), ovate or oblong, 
acute, repandly dentate with thorny teeth, 3-5 nerved from the base, the 
nerves reticulated ; racemes simple, elongated ; pedicels very short ; filaments 
2-toothed. — Pursh, fl. 1. p. 219. t. 5. (excl. the flowers, which belong to B. 
Aquifolium) ; Hook. I. c. B. glumacea, Lindl. bot. reg. t. 1425. Mahonia 
nervosa, NiUt. gen. 1. p. 212 ; DC. I. c. M. glumacea, DC. I. c. 

Oregon, in shady pine woods along the coast, from lat. 40°-49°, Menzies, 
Dr. Scolder ! Nuttall ! — Low ; the stem often scarcely rising from the 
ground. Leaves 1-2 feet long, coriaceous. Racemes spicate, often 6-8 
inches long : flowers larger than in B. Aquifolium. Peduncles and petioles 
surrounded at the base with numerous dry convolute and pungent glumaceous 
bracts. Berries deep blue. — Pursh, Avho has made sad work in his figures 
of Berberis, added the flowers of B. Aquifolium to the leaves of the present 
species, and thus led De Candolle into mistake. 


Embryo minute at the base of the albumen, often excentric or ob- 
lique with respect to the hilum : radicle short and thick : cotyledons 
very small, roundish. — Perennial herbs. Leaves decompound or lobed. 

* The separate leaflets attached to Pursh's specimen in herb. Lambert, ono of 
which is figured in his plate, are said in gard. under Mahonia diversifolia, 
t. 94. to belojig to that species. There is little doubt, however, tliat tliey were taken 
from the specimen of Menzies in herb. Banks. 

52 BERBERIDACEiE. Diphylleu. 

2. VANCOUVERIA. Morren ^ Decaisne, in ann. sci. nat. 
(2. ser.) 2. p. 351. 

Sepals 6, oblong, thin and membranaceous, with 3-9 much smaller oval 
bracteoles at the base, caducous. Petals 6, obovate, reflexed, the apex some- 
what cucullate. Nectaries G, opposite the petals, linear-spatulate, concave, 
reflexed. Stamens 6, erect : filaments flat : anthers oblong, mucronate. 
Style slender : stigma capitate, somewhat perforated. Ovary (follicle-shaped, 
minutely glandular-pubescent,) with 8-10 ovules attached to the ventral suture 

in two rows. Fruit — Root slender, horizontal, perennial. Leaves radical, 

2-3-ternate. Scape slender, simple. Flowers in a lax slightly panicled ra- 
ceme, on filiform nodding pedicels. Petals white: nectaries with yellow 

V. hexandra (Morr. & Decaisne, 1. c.) — Epiraedium hexandrum. Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 31. t. 13. Caulophyllum gracile, Dougl. viss. ex Hook. 

In deep pine woods around Fort Vancouver, Douglas <^ Scouler, Nuttall ! 
also from Puget Sound to North California, ex Hook. — Scape a foot high ; 
flowers small ; the floral envelopes all very thin and membranaceous. Leaf- 
lets petiolulate, subcordate, obtusely 3-5-lobed, membranaceous, the margin 
undulate, with a few weak hairs. Immature carpels (foUicles) excentric and 
somewhat arcuate. — The bracteoles, or exterior sepals, are probably variable 
in number, and are besides very caducous. I find nine in specimens collected 
by Nuttall, all nearly alike and much smaller than the 6 inner or true sepals 
which subtend the petals. 

3. LEONTICE. Linn.; R.Br. 

Sepals 3-6. Petals 6, bearing a little scale or nectary at the base within. 
Carpel membranaceous, caducous or inflated, 2-4-seeded. Seeds erect, 
globose : albumen horny. 

§ Pericarp bursting at an early period '. exposing the finally drupe-like 
seed raised on its thickened, Michx. 

1. L. thalictroides (Linn.) : leaves 3-ternate ; the radical on long petioles ; 
cauline 1-2, destitute of a common petiole, the lower 3-ternate, the upper 
(when present) much smaller and 2-ternate ; leaflets incisely 2-3-lobed. — 
R. Br. in Liiin. trans. 12. p. 145. t. 7 ; Torr. ! jl. 1. p. 336 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. ed. 2. p. 213. Caulophyllum thalictroides, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 205. t. 21 ; 
Pursh! jl. l.p. 218. 

Woods, Canada ! to N. Carolina ! and Kentucky ! April. — Glaucous when 
young. Stem simple, 1-2 feet high. Leaflets rather ovate, obhque and 
subcuneiform at the base, the terminal broadest, petiolulate. Panicle small, 
racemose. Petals greenish-yeUow : scale reniform, viscid. Seeds large (2 
or by abortion 1), deep blue when ripe, on long and thick fimiculi, baccate : 
albumen of the forai of the seed, very firm. — The roasted seeds have been 
used as a substitute for cofiee. — Blue Cohosh. 

4. DIPHYLLEIA. Mich.x. fl. 1. p. 203. t. 19 ^ 20. 

Sepals 3. Petals 6, oval, without glands. Stamens 6. Ovary ovate, ex- 
centric : stigma subsessile, peltate, lacunose. Ovules about 4, borne on a 

Jeffersonia. BERBERIDACEyE. 53 

short lateral placenta near the base of the cell. Pericarp somewhat baccate, 
subglobose, 2-3-seeded. Seeds roundish. Embryo very minute at tiie base 
of nearly horny albumen, excentric. — Rhizoma thick, horizontal. Stem sim- 
ple, 2-leaved. Leaves large, alternate, peltate in the manner of Podophyllum, 
semiorbicular-subreniform, deeply 2-lobed ; each division 7-9-lobed; lobes 
triangular, serrate with triangular teeth. Flowers Avhite, in a simple umbel- 
late cyme. 

D. cymosa (Michx.! 1. c.)—Ell. sk. 1. ;;. 411 ; NiUt. gen. 1. p. 209; DC. 
syst. 2. p. 29. 

Along rivulets in high mountains, Virginia to Georgia ! North Carolina, 
Mr. Curtis ! (in fruit only)— Stem 1-2 feet high. Seeds reddish : testa 
membranaceous : hilum somewhat unilateral.— De Candolle, in describing the 
seed, says, " Embryone recto tenui," which is incorrect. Decaisne, {Ann. 
sci. nat. (2. ser.) 2. p. 359,) who also examined Michaux's specimen, states 
that the embryo occupies about a third of the length of the albunien. It is 
really, however, much smaller than this, although the little cavity in Avhich it 
is situated is sometimes prolonged to near the centre of the albumen, a cir- 
cumstance which may possibly have misled the observers. In this, as in 
some other genera, the peculiar disposition of the veins of the pericarp rnay 
be observed which Morren & Decaisne noticed in Epimedium, and which 
led these botanists to consider the ovary of Berberidaceee as compound. This 
peculiarity admits, however, of easy explanation on the supposition that the 
carpel is formed of a palmately veined leaf. 

5. ACHLYS. DC. syst. 2. p. 35. ; Bor.-Am. 1. p. 30. t. 12. 

Sepals and petals none ; the achlamydeous flowers sessile in a close 
spike. Stamens numerous : filaments slender, the outermost dilated at the 
summit : anthers didymous, subglobose, somewhat unilocular. Ovary 1- 
seeded : style none : stigma dilated, concave on one side. Seed erect. — 
A glabrous herb. Rhizoma clothed with glumaceous scales. Leaves radical, 
on long petioles, ternate : leaflets flabeUiform, sinuate-toothed. Scape very 
long and slender : flowers small, ebracteate. 

A. triphylla (DC. I. c.) — Leontice triphylla, Smith, in Rees^ cyclop. 
N. W. Coast, Menzies. Near Fort Vancouver, in deep woods, Dr. Scou- 
ler I Nuttall ! 

6. JEFFERSONIA. Bart, in trans. Am. phil. sac. 3. p. 334. 

Sepals 4, petaloid. Petals 8, oblong. Stamens 8: anthers linear. Ovary 
obovate : stigma peltate, subsessile. Capsule substipitate, dehiscent by a 
transverse chink near the summit. Seeds numerous, crowded in several rows 
on the broad lateral placenta : aril lacerate, unilateral. Embryo minute, at 
the base of fleshy albumen. — Rhizoma horizontal, throwing up a simple 1- 
flowered scape, and 2-foliolate or 2-parted leaves. Habit of Sanguinaria. 

J. diphylla (Pers. syn.)— Pz/rs/i .'/. 1. p. 268; Bot. mag. t. 1513; Torr. ! 
ft. 1. p. 399. J. binata, Bart. I. c. (with a plate). J. Bartonis, Michx. ! 
ft. 1. p. 237. Podophyllum diphyllum, Linn. 

54 CABOMBACE.E. Cabomba. 

a. leaflets obscurely sinuate, or nearly entire. 

iff. leaflets incisely 5-7-lobed.— J. lobata, Nutt.! in jour. acad. PJiilad. 
7. p. 99. 

In calcareous soils, New-York ! to the mountains of the Southern States! 
/?. Kentucky, ///•. S/iort ! April. — Leaves glaucous beneath. Flowers white, 
an inch in diameter. Sepals sometimes 3 or 5. Petals often 9. Stigma 
with the margin undulate. Pericarp coriaceous. Seeds obovate-oblong ; 
testa brownish, thick. 

7. PODOPHYLLUM. Linn. ; Lam. ill. t. 449. 

Sepals 3, caducous. Petals 6-9, obovate. Stamens 12-18: anthers linear, 
bursting by a double longitudinal Une. Ovary ovate, subsessile, thick, peltate. 
Capsule fleshy, indehiscent. Seeds numerous in several rows on a thick 
lateral placenta, which at length becomes very large and pulpy. — A somewhat 
poisonous herb: rhizoma horizontal (cathartic) : stem simple, 2-leaved and 1- 
flowered at the summit : fruit large, subacid and edible when ripe. 

P. peUatum (Linn.)— Mich.x. ! jl. 1. p. 309 ; Bigel. mat. med. t. 35 ; Nutt. 
gen. 2. p. 10. P. caUicarpum, Raf.ji. Ludov. p. 14. 

Woods and meadows, Canada ! to Louisiana. May— Leaves peUate, pal- 
mately 5-7-parted ; lobes toothed or cleft at the apex ; the barren stems pro- 
ducing but a single leaf, which is peUate in the centre. Flower Avhite, large, 
nodding. Embryo minute at the base of fleshy albumen. — Mandrake, May- 
apple — This genus certainly belongs to Berberidacese, as was first indicated 
by R. Brown (Congo, p. 443, note.), notwithstanding the more numerous 
stamens and the want of the peculiar dehiscence of the anthers. 

Order YII. CABOMBACEiE. Richard. 

Hydropeltidcoe, DC. ; Lindl. 

Sepals 3-4, colored inside. Petals 3-4, alternate with the sepals. 
Stamens definite (6) or somewhat indefinite (18-36), hypogynous : 
anthers innate. Torus inconspicuous. Ovaries 2-18 : stigmas sim- 
ple. Carpels indehiscent, tipped with the indurated style, 1-2-seeded. 
Seeds globular, orthotropous, pendulous. Embryo minute, at the 
base of fleshy albumen, enclosed in the persistent and thickened sac 
of the nucule : radicle pointing from the hilum. — Aquatic plants, 
with perennial roots. Floating leaves centrally peUate ; submersed 
foliage filiformly dissected. Flowers small, on l-flowered peduncles. 

1. CABOMBA. Aiiblet, fl. Guian. 1. p. 321. f. 124; Richard, in a7in. 
mus. 17. p. 230. t. 5 ; Gray, in ann. lye. New-York, 4. p. 46. 

Nectvis, Schreb, 

Sepals 3, petaloid. Petals 3. Stamens 6. Ovaries 2-4. Carpels 1-3- 
seeded. — Leaves opposite ; submerged ones filiformly dissected. Flowers 
yellow or white. 

Cbratopiiyllum. CERATOPHYLLACEiE. 53 

1. C. Caroliniana (Gray): floating leaves elliptical or linear-oblong; 
flowers white ; ovaries 3 or A.— Gray, I. c.—C. Aublutii, Midi.c.Jl. 1. p. 200. 
Nectris pcltata, Pursh, f. 1. p. 239. rexcl. syn.) N. aquatica, Null. gen. 
1. p. 230 ; Ell. ! sk. 1. p. 416, not of U7//c/. 

In stagnant waters, from Newbern, N. Carolina (Croo7?i.') to Georgia! 
and Louisiana ! May.— Stem branching. Submersed leaves with a renifomi 
circumscription, 3-parted to the base: segments 3 times di-(middle one tri-) 
chotomous ; lobes filiform, flat, obtuse. Floating leaves about an inch long 
(often cmarginate at one end). Flowers about half an inch in diametor, 
rarely 2-scpalous and 2-petalous. Petals oval, obtuse, with 2 yellow 
spots at the base. Carpels ovate. — See Ann. lye. I. c. 

2. BRASENIA. Schrcb. gen. p. 372 ; Nutt.gen. 2. p. 23. 

Hydropeltis, Michx. 

Sepals 3-4, colored within, persistent. Petals 3-4. Stamens 18-36. Ova- 
ries 6-18. Carpels oblong-ovate, 2- (or by abortion 1-) seeded.— Stem, pedun- 
cles, and lower surface of the centrally peltate leaves, thickly covered with a 
gelatinous and viscid transparent substance. Flowers brownish-purple. 

B. pel fata {V\irsh)—Nutt. I. c. ; Gray, I. c— Hydropeltis purpurea, 
Mich.v. ! fl. 1. p. 324, t. 29 ; Bot. mag. t. 1147 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 112. 

In still water, Canada! to Georgia! and west to Arkansas. July. — Stem 
1-10 feet long. Leaves elliptical, alternate. Flowers the size of Caltha pa- 
lustris.— See Nutt. I. c. for remarks on the structure of the stem and leaves. 


Flowers moncecious. Sepals 8-12, united at the base (sometimes 
cleft at the extremity), persistent. Petals none. Stamens 12-24 : an- 
thers sessile, ovate-oblong, 2-3-cuspidate, crowded in the centre of the 
calyx. Ovary free, ovate, simple : style filiform, oblique : stigma simple. 
Fruit a crustaceous l-seeded achenium, apiculate with the indurated 
persistent style. Seed suspended, orthotropous, destitute of albumen. 
Embryo with a short radicle, 4 cotyledons (the opposite (upper) ones 
smaller), and a highly developed gemmule. — Submersed aquatics, 
growing in still water. Stems branching. Leaves whorled, rather 
rif^id, 2-4-chotomously cleft into filiform or setaceous segments, which 
are sometimes slightly toothed. Flowers axillary, minute. Fruit 
armed with the persistent style and usually with two lateral spines. 

1. CERATOPHYLLUM. Linn.; Gcertn. fr. t. 44; Ad. Brongn. in 
ami. SCI. nat. 12. t. 44; Cham, in Linncea, 4. p. 503 ; Gray, in ami. lye. 
New- York, 4. p. 41. 

Character same as of the Order. 

1. C. apiculatum (Cham.) : achenium elliptical, compressed, with a sin- 
gle weak and short terminal spine ; margins wingless, not gibbous, furnished 

56 NELUMBIACE^. Nelcmbium. 

with a tubercle near the base; the sides slightly convex.— C7mm. I.e. p. 505. 
t. 5. Jig. 6. e. C. submersum, DC. prodr. 3. p. 74, fide Cham. 
California near St. Francisco, Chamisso. 

2. C. echinatum (Gray) : achenium elliptical, slightly compressed, with 3 
short spines ; sides strongly muricated ; margins sligiitly winged, not gibbous, 
armed with blunt teeth, which finally become weak spines or horns as long as 
the lateral spines. — Gray, I. c. p. 49. — C. demersum (wholly or in part) of 
American botanists. 

Princeton, New-Jersey ! in deep water. — Achenium rather large. Near C. 
muricatum, Cham. — Specimens of Ceratophyllum are seldom collected in 
fruit, and little is known concerning our species. On further investigation 
other species may be discovered, or, which is not very improbable, the various 
forms that have been described may prove to be states of the same species. 

Order IX. NELUMBIACE^E. Lindl 

Sepals 4 or 5. Petals numerous, in many rows, arising outside the 
disk. Stamens indefinite, in several rows, arising from within the pe- 
tals : filaments petaloid : anthers adnate, introrse. Torus a fleshy 
elevated disk, excessively enlarged, enclosing the numerous separate 
ovaries in hollows of its substance. Nuts numerous, loose and half 
buried in hollows of the disk, 1- (rarely 2-) seeded, crowned with 
the style. Seed suspended, orthotropous, destitute of albumen. Em- 
bryo large, with 2 fleshy cotyledons and a highly developed plumule, 
consisting of a pair of primordial leaves and a bud, enclosed in the 
persistent membrane of the nucule. — Herbs, growing in deep water, 
with large emersed centrally peltate fleshy leaves, and 1-flowered 
peduncles arising from a prostrate rhizoma. Flowers very large. 
Juice milky. 

1. NELUMBIUM. Juss. ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 125S. 

Nelumbo, Ada/is. 
Character same as of the Order. 

1. N. luteum, (Willd.) : anthers produced into a linear appendage. — DC. 

?irodr. 1. p. 113; Turpin, in ann.mus.l.p. 210. f. 11. Nymphaea Ne- 
umbo, Walt. Car. p. 155. Cyamus flavicomus, Salisb. ami. hot. 2. p. 45 ; 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 398. Cyamus luteus, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 5. Nelumbium co- 
dophylliim, Raf. Jl. Ludov.? 

In ponds and lakes throughout the Southern and Western States ! rare in 
the Middle and Eastern. Big Sodus Bay, Lake Ontario, Dr. Sartwell! 
Haddam, Connecticut, Prof. Hitchcock! Philadelphia! June. — Leaves 
orbicular, 1-2 feet in diameter. Peduncles slightly muricate, emersed. 
Flowers pale yellow. — A'', pentapetalum, Willd. (Nymphfea pentapetala, 
Walt. " Corolla 5-petala, alba.") rests wholly on the authority of Walter, 
and is probably not distinct. — The tubers, which, according to Nuttall, "re- 
semble those of the Sweet-Potato and are connected by running roots, are 
when boUed as farinaceous and agreeable as the potato, and are employed 
for food by the Osage and other western Indians." NxUt. coll. fi. Arkans.dn 
traits, am. phil. soc. 2. ser. 5. p. 160. 


Order X. NYMPHiEACEiE. S'allsb. (in part.) 

Sepals and petals numerous, imbricated, passing gradually into 
each other, the former persistent, the latter inserted upon tlie disk 
which surrounds the pistil. Stamens indefinite, in several rows, in- 
serted into the disk : filaments petaloid : anthers adnate, introrse. 
Torus a fleshy disk surrounding the ovary more or less. Ovary many- 
celled, many-seeded: stigmas radiate. Fruit many-celled, indehiscent. 
Seeds very numerous, covering the spongy dissepiments, or rather 
placentie, and enveloped in a gelatinous aril, anatropous. Albumen 
forinaceous. Embryo minute, next tlie hilum, inclosed in the mem- 
branous sac of the nucule : cotyledons foliaceous. — Herbs with pel- 
tate or cordate fleshy leaves, and 1-flowered peduncles, arising from a 
prostrate trunk : aquatic. Flowers large, white or yellow. 

1. NYMPH^A. Tourn. ; DC. syst. 2, p. 49. 

Sepals 4, at the base of the torus. Petals and stamens passing insensibly 
into each other, attached to the torus which surrounds the ovary. — Flowers 
white or rose-color.— 7 White Water-Lily. 

1. N. odorata (Ait.) : leaves orbicular or somewhat reniform, with the 
primary veins numerous and prominent beneath; stigma 16-20-rayed; rays 

a. sinus and lobes of the leaf more or less acute. — N. odorata, Ait. Kew. ; 
Willd. hort. Berol. 1. t. 39; Pitrsli,fl. 2. p. 368 ; BC. syst. 2. p. 57; Hook. ft. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 32. N. alba, Micha:. ! Ji. 1. p. 311. 

/?. sinus and lobes more or less rounded. — N. reniformis, Walt. Car. p. 
155; DC. syst. I. c; Deless. ic. 2. t.5. Nelumbium reniforme, Willd. 
sp. 2. p. 1260. 

y. smaller; leaves and peduncles purplish; flowers rose-color. — N. odorata 
0. rosea, Pursh, I. c. N. odorata /?. minor, Bat. mag. t. 1652. N. minor 
DC. I.e. 

In deep and in shallow water, throughout N. America east of the Rockv 
Mountains! June-Sept. — Rhizoma very large. Leaves floating; sinus reach- 
ing to the centre. Flower fragrant, closing in the afternoon. — N. alba is said 
by Nuttall to grow in the neighbourhood of Detroit. 

2. NUPHAR. Smith ; DC. syst. 2. p. 59. 

Sepals 5-6, petaloid, inserted at the base of the torus. Petals numerous 
inserted with the sepals, very much smaller, nectariferous on the back. 
Stamens inserted with the petals. — Flowers yellow.— Ye/Zoto Pond-Lily. 

}■ N. lutea (Smith) : sepals 5 ; stigma entire, 16-20-rayed, deeply um- 
bilicate ; leaves cordate-oval, with approximate lobes ; petioles triquetrous. 
DC— Ait. Kew. (ed. 2.) 3. p. 295 ; Pursh, A. 2. p. 369 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 


58 SARRACENIACEiE. Sarracenia. 

1. p. 32; Bongard. veg. Sitcha, I. c. p. 124. Nymphsea lutea, Linn.;. 
Michx.! fl. 1. p. 311. 

p. Kalmiana: stigma 8-14-raye(l, somewhat crenate. — N. Kalmiana, 
Pursh, I. c. ; Hook. I. c. Nympha;a lutea 0. Kalmiana, Michx.! jl. 1. 
7>. 311. N. Kalmiana, Hot. mag. t. 1243. 

Subarctic America, Dr. Richardsoii. Sitcha, Bongard. p. Northern 
States ! and Canada ! — Leaves floating, fl. is usually a much smaller plant, 
but is sometimes nearly as large as the succeeding species : the sinus of the 
leaf is commonly open. 

2. A^. (Ait.) : sepals mostly six, the outer ones smallest ; stigma 
slightly umbilicate and repand, 12-25-rayed ; leaves cordate with the lobes 
diverging ; petioles semi-terete. — Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 369 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 8 ; 
Hook. I. c. Nympha;a advena, Michx. ! fi. 1. j). 311; Willd. hort. Berol. 1. 
t. 37. N. lutea, Walt. Car. p. 154. 

fl. tomenlosa : leaves canescently tomentose beneath. — N. tomentosa, 
Nutt. herb. ! 

Canada to Georgia ! and Arkansas ; west to Oregon ! /?. near Philadelphia ! 
— Leaves floating in deep water, erect and emersed in shallow. Sepals 
roughish, the outer ones green. — Perhaps not specifically distinct from the 

3. A^. sagittcefolia (Pursh) : sepals 6 ; petals none ; anthers subsessile ; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, sagittate, obtuse. — Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 370 ; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 9 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 62; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 13. Nymphsea sagittsefolia, Walt. 
Car. p. 154. N. longifolia, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 312. 

N. Carolina! to Georgia ! — Rhizoma erect. (Z>C) Leaves membranace- 
ous, often a foot long. Outer sepals green ; the inner petaloid, narrowed at 
the base. Flowers the size of N. lutea. 

Order XL SARRACENIACE^. De la Pylaie. 

Sepals 5, persistent, with a small S-leaved involucre on the outside ; 
aestivation imbricated. Petals 5, hypogynous, unguiculafe, concave. 
Stamens indefinite, hypogynous : anthers oblong, adnate, introrse. 
Ovary 5-celled, with the placentas in the axis : style single : stigma 
persistent, petaloid, peltate, with 5 angles. Capsule 5-celIed, 5.valved ; 
dehiscence loculicidal : placentae projecting into the cells, many- 
seeded. Seeds anatropous, minute. Embryo minute, cylindrical, 
placed near the hilum : albumen copious. — Herbaceous perennial 
plants, living in bogs. Roots fibrous. Leaves (purplish or yellowish- 
green) radical, with the petiole tubular or pitcher-shaped ; the lamina 
small, rounded, and usually inflected over (he orifice of the petiole. 
Scape l-flowered : flower large, nodding, yellow or purple. 

Of the six species known, five are confined to the Southern States east of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, and the sixth is found as far north as Newfoundland. 

Sarhacenia. SARRACENIACE^. 

1. SARRACENIA. Linn. ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 10 ; Croom, in ami. hjc. 
New- York, 4.^. 98. 

Character same as of the Order. 

1. S. purpnrea {\umn.) : leaves short, ascending, arcuate; tube inflated, 
gibbous, with a very broad wing; lamina erect, cordate, hairy within ; 
ilower purple.— j5of. mag. t. 849; Michx.! Ji. 1. f>. 310; Ell. sk. 2. p. 9; 
Hook. ft. Bor.-Am.. 1. p. 33; De la Pylaie, in ami. Linn. soc. Par.Q.p. 
388. t. 13 ; Croom .' I. c. p. 98. S. heterophylla, Eaton, man. hot. 

Hudson's Bay to Florida ! common in the northern States. May- June. — 
Tube usually half-filled with water and dead insects. Stipules ovate, mu- 
cronale. Petals inflected over the stigma. 

2. <S. rubra. ( Wait.) : leaves elongated and slender, erect ; tube slightly 
dilated upwards, with a narrow linear wing ; lamina erect, mucronate, nar- 
rowed at the base ; flower reddish-purple. — Walt. Car. p. 152 ; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 10 ; Hook, e.vot.f. t. 13. f in hot. mag. t. 3515; Croom ! I. c. p. 99. 

N. Carolina! to Georgia! May. — Leaves 10-15 inches long; the throat 
open. Flowers smaller than in S. purpurea : petals obovate. 

3. S. Drummondii (Croom) : leaves very long, erect; tube dilated above, 
with a very narrow wing; the upper portion, as well as the orbicular erect 
lamina, whitish and strongly reticulated with purple veins ; flower purple. — 
Croom ! I. c. p. 100. t. 6. 

Florida near Apalachicola, Drummondl &. Dr. Chapman! and on the 
Apalachicola river near Ocheesee, Dr. Chapman ! April. — Leaves 20-30 
inches long, trumpet-shaped, broad at the mouth. Lamina clothed with 
strong hairs within. Flower large. 

4. S. p.nttacina. (Michx.) : leaves short, reclined, marked with white 
spots; tube inflated, with a very broad semi-obovate wing; lamina ventri- 
cose, recurved so as nearlv to close the tube ; flower purple. — Michx. ! ji. 1. 
;). 311; Pursh.fl. 2. p. 368 (excl. syn. Walt.) ; Croom! I. c. p. 101. 
ceolata, Nutt. ! in trans. Am. phil. soc. (2. ser.) 4. p. 49. t. 1. S. pulcheUa, 
Croom, in Sill. jour. 25. p. 75. 

Georgia ! Florida ! and Louisiana ! March-April. — Leaves 3-4 inches 
long : tube narrow ; orifice small. 

5. S. variolaris (Michx.) : leaves elongated, nearly erect ; tube sHghtly 
inflated above, spotted on the back, with a linear-lanceolate wing; lamina 
incurved and fornicate; flower yellow. — Mich.v.! JI. 1. p. 310; Bot. mag. t. 
1710 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 12 ; Croom ! I. c. p. 102. S. minor, Walt.l S. adunca. 
Smith, e.Tot. bot. t. 53. 

Pine-barren ponds, S.Carolina! Georgia! and Florida! March-April. 
— Leaves 12-18 inches long, with white diaphanous spots. Flowers the 
size of S. purpurea: petals inflected over the stigma. 

6. S. fava (Linn.) : leaves erect, very long; tube trumpet-shaped with 
an expanded throat ; wing almost none ; lamina erect, much contracted at 
the base, the sides reflexed ; floM^er yellow. — Walt. Car. p. 153 ; Michx. ! JI. 
1. p. 310 ; Bot. mas: t. 780; Ell. sk. 2. p. 10; Croom., I. c. p. 103 ; Audub. 
birds of Amer. t. 300. S.Catesbffii, Ell. I. c. (Catesb. Car. t. 69,) 

Virginia to Florida ! and Louisiana! in wet pine-woods. April. — Leaves 
1-3 feet long: lamina reniform, mucronate, minutely pubescent within, more 
or less marked with purple veins. Flowers verv large : petals obovate-spatu- 
late, undulate : stigma 2 inches broad. Odor of the ilower disagreeable. — 
S. Catesbsei of Elliott is this species with the purple veins more than usually 

60 PAPAVERACEvE. Papaver. 

marked ; as was proved by the lamented Mr. Groom, whose monograph 
affords a very complete account of this genus. 


Sepals 2, or sometimes 3, imbricated in aestivation, caducous. Pe- 
tals 4, placed in a cruciate manner, or sometimes 5-6, hypogynous. 
Stamens hypogynous, distinct, as many or twice as many as the pe- 
tals, or often numerous but some multiple of the petals, sometimes in 
as many parcels one of which adheres to the base of each : anthers 
innate. Ovary composed of 2 or more united carpels (distinct in 
Platystemon) : style short or none : stigmas when several usually stel- 
late upon the fiat apex of the ovary. Fruit l-celled, either pod-shaped 
with 2-3, or capsular with several parietal placentae, which are alter- 
nate with (in Papaver opposite) the stigmas ; the valves often separating 
from the placentae. Seeds numerous, anatropous, sometimes slightly- 
curved. Embryo minute, at the base of fleshy and oily albumen. — 
Herbs (very rarely shrubs), with commonly a milky or colored nar- 
cotic, and often acrid, juice. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, often 
more or less divided. Flowers solitary on long peduncles, white, yel- 
low, or red, never blue. 

1. True PapaveracecB. 

1. PAPAVER. Linn.; t. 60. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Style none : stigmas 4-20, 
sessile radiating on the summit of the ovary. Capsule obovate, thick, open- 
ing under the crown formed by the stigmas : placenta; many-seeded, oppo- 
site to the stigmas ! and extending into the cavity so as to form incomplete 
partitions.— Herbs with a white narcotic juice. Peduncles droopmg at the 
extremity before &.owenng.— Poppy. 

1 P. nuclicaule (Linn.) : hairy ; leaves pinnatifid, with acute incised 
lobe's; peduncles radical, very long; sepals clothed with bristly hairs; cap- 
sules hispid, obovate-oblong.— 5o^. mag: t. 1663 ; Ptirsh,Jl. 2. p. 365 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 117 ; Hook. ! fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 34. 

Labrador! and Arctic America! Unalaschka, Chamisso.—li Flowers 
mostly yellow. 

2. P. dubium (Linn.): caulescent: stem hispid AA^th spreading hairs; 
leaves pinnately parted ; segments incised ; peduncles clothed with appres- 
sed bristly bans ; sepals hairy ; capsules obovoid-oblong, smooth..— Eng. hot. 
t 644 ; DC. I. c; Durlin^t. fi. Cest. ed. 2. p. 317. 

In cultivated grounds ; becoming naturalized m Chester County, Pennsyl- 
vania, Darlington.— (l) Flowers pale red or scarlet. 

3. P. somnifernm (Linn.) : caulescent, glabrous and glaucous ; leaves 
clasping, incised and toothed, the teeth someAvhat obtuse ; sepals glabrous ; 
capsules' obovate or globose, glabrous.— Z>C. prodr. 1. p. 119. 

Meconopsis. PAPAVERACEiE. 611 

Growing; wild occasionally in waste grounds, but scarcely naturalized. — 
(X) Common Poppy. 

2. ARGEMONE. Linn.; t. 60; Lam. ill. t. 452. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4-8. Stamens numerous. Stigmas 4-7, almost sessile, 
radiating, concave, free, alternate with the placentae. Capsule obovate, 
opening at the apex by valves, which separate from the persistent filiform 
placentae. Seeds globose, pitted and reticulated. — Annual glaucous herbs, 
with a yellow juice. Leaves sessile, repand-sinuate or jjinnatifid, with 
prickly teeth. Peduncles erect before and after flowering. 

1. A. Me.vicana (Linn.) : loaves usually blotched with white ; flowers 
solitary; calyx glabrous, prickly; petals yellow ; capsules prickly. — Bot. 
mag. t. 243 ; Pursh.Ji. 2. p. 366'; Ell. sk. 2. p. 13; DC.prodr. 1. p. 120. 

/?. flowers ochroleucous. 

y. flowers larger, white. — A. Mexicana /?. albiflora, DC. I. c ; Bot. mag. t. 
2342. A. alba, /?«/. _^. Ludov. A. Georgiana, Croom .' in Sill. jour. 25. 
p. 75. 

<5. capsules not prickly. 

In waste and cultivated places throughout the Southern and Western 
States. West to the Platte and Canadian Rivers ! Native ? ^. Key West ! 
Sparingly naturalized in the Northern States. June-Oct. — Prickly Poppy. 

3. MECONOPSIS. Viguier, diss. p. 20; DC. syst. 2. p. 86. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Style short but distmct: stig- 
mas 4-6, radiating, convex, free. Capsule obovate, opening by valves at 
the apex : placental (opposite to the stigmas ?) slender, scarcely extending 
into the cell. — Perennial herbs with a yellow juice. The first section is 
very near Papaver; the second is somewhat allied to Argemone. 

§ 1. Capsides o-6-[^sometimes 4-] talced, smooth. — Meconopsis, DC. 

1. M. hetcr'ophylla (Benih.): leaves few and remote, pinnatcly divided; 
segments of the lower ones ovate, incised and petioluled ; of the upper li- 
near, entire, someAvhat confluent. Benth. in hart, trans, (ser. 2.) ].p. 40. 

California, Douelas, Nuttall ! — A foot high. Flowers smaJl, scarlet. 
Petals unequal. Nutt. 

2. M. crassifoUa (Benth.) : stem leafy at the base ; leaves rather thick, 
glaucous, pinnately divided ; the segments incisely lobed, with revolute mar- 
gins ; those of the lower leaves ovate-cuneifonu, of the upper linear-cunei- 
form. Benth. '. I. c. 

California, Douglas ! — Flowers orange-red. 

§ 2. Capsides A-valved, echinate-setose. — Stylophorum, Nutt. 

3. M. diphylla (DC.) : leaves pinnately divided or parted ; segments 5-7, 
obovate-oblong, sinuate, glaucous beneath ; cauline leaves mostly 2, opposite ; 
peduncles aggregated, terminal. — DC. syst. 2. p. 88, ^ prodr. 1. p. 121. 
M. petiolata, DC. I. c. Chelidonium diphyllum, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 309. 
St)^lophorum diphyllum, Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 7. S. petiolatum, Nutt. ! I. c. 
S. Ohioense, Sprcng. syst. 2. p. 570. 

62 PAPAVERACE^. Glaucidm. 

Shady woods, Western States ! May-July.— Sparsely pubescent when 
young, at length glabrous. Upper segments of the leaves confluent; the 
lower pair distinct. Flower bright yellow, an inch or more in diameter. 
Capsule ovoid.— The floral leaves arc, we believe, always petioled; the peti- 
oles sometimes longer than the leaves, sometimes shorter. The erroneous 
character " foliis sessilibus" of Michaux has caused the introduction of a 
nominal species. 

4. SANGUINARIA. Linn.j Lam. ill. 1 449; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 9. 

Sepals 2. Petals 8-12. Stamens 24. Stigmas 2, connate. Capsule 
oblong and almost pod-shaped, acute at each end, 2-valved ; valves separat- 
ing from the persistent filiform placentae. Seeds numerous, obovate, with a 
cristate raphe. — An acaulescent herb, with an acrid orange-colored juice, 
and a large creeping rhizoma. Leaves reniform, palmately 5-7-lobed ; the 
lobes mostly sinuate, crenate, or repand. Scapes 1-flowered, each accompa- 
nied by a single leaf. Flower rather large, white.*— Blood-Eoot. Bed-root. 

S. Canadensis (Linn.)— Michx. ! fl.l.p. 309; Bat. mag. t. 162; Nutt.! 
I. c; DC. prodr. 1. p. 131 ; Bigel. med. hot. 1. p. 75. t. 7 ; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 35. S. grandiflora, Base ; Brit. fi. gard. (2. ser.) t. 147. 

Open Avoods, in light soil, &c. Canada ! to Florida ; west to the Missis- 
sippi. March-April.— Scape 3-8 inches high. Petals oblong, attenuate at 
the base. 

5. CHELIDONIUM. Linn. ; Gcurtn. fr. t. 115. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens rather numerous. Capsule pod-shaped, 
linear, 2-valved ; valves dehiscing from the base to the apex. Seeds many, 
furnished with a glandular cristate raphe. — Perennial herbs, with a saSion- 
colored acrid juice. Flowers small, yellow. — Celandine. 

1. C. majus (Linn.) : peduncles many-flowered ; pedicels somewhat um- 
bellate; leaves pinnately divided, glaucous; segments ovate, crenately incis- 
ed or lobed, the termirial one cuneiform-obovate ; capsules torulose. — Eng. 
hot. t. 1531; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 365; DC. prodr. 1. p. 123. 

In waste places. Introduced. May-Oct.— Root fusiform. Leaves large, 
pale-green : leaflets 5-7. 

6. GLAUCIUM. Linn.; t.llo. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Capsule pod-shaped, 2-valved, 
2-celled by a cellular partition. Seeds many, ovate-reniform. — Biennial 
glaucous herbs, with an acrid saffron-colored juice. — Horn-Poppy. 

* By a singular typographical error, the habit of the geims, in De Candolle's 
Prodromus, is made to read " Herba Boreali- Americana succo sanguineo fcexa fnliis 
longius basi cimealis, panicula laxiore cernua. — In Nova-Hispania." The latter 
part of the phra?e belongs to Bocconia frutescens l3. on the same page. The mis- 
take is inadvertently copied in Hooker's Flora Borcali-Americana. 

Chryseis. • PAPAVERACEiE. 63 

1. G. Jiaviim (Crantz.): stem glabrous; cauline leaves clasping, pinna- 
tifid ; floral ones repand ; pod roughened with tubercles. — " Crantz, ft. Anslr. 
2. p. 141"; DC. prodr. 1. ;;. 122. G. luteuni, Smith, Eng. hot. t.8; 
Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 365. 

On the coast of Virginia & Carolin.'x, Pursh; & on the banks of the Poto- 
mac ! Introduced. June-July. — Radical leaves large, bipinnatifid, pubescent 
on both sides with short hairs. Calyx bristly. Petals large, bright yellow. 
Capsule 6-9 inches long. 

7. CHRYSEIS.* Lindl. hot. rcg. t. 1677. 

Eschscliolzia, Cham. ; DC. (not Elsholtzia, Willd.) 

Torus dilated, salver- form ; limb expanded. Sepals 2, cohering by their 
edges, forming a mitre-shaped calyx, which is separated from the torus when 
the petals expand. Petals 4, inserted into the throat of the torus. Stamens 
numerous, adhering to the claws of the petals. Stigmas linear-filiform, ses- 
sile, commonly 4, two of which are shorter and abortive (sometimes 5-7, of 
which 2-3 are abortive). Capsule pod-shaped, cyUndrical, 10-ribbed, 10- 
striate, with 2 parietal placentae opposite the smaller stigmas. Seeds glo- 
bose, reticulated. — Annual glaucous herbs, with a colorless juice having the 
odor of muriatic acid. Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid, with linear segments. Pe- 
duncles 1-flowered. Flowers yellow, showy. 

1. C. Californica (Lindl.) : stem branching, leafy ; torus obconic ; calyx 
ovoid, Avith a very short abrupt acumination ; petals bright yellow with an 
orange spot at the base. — Lindl. I. c. Eschscholzia Californica, Cham.; Nees, 
hort. Berol. <^ Bonn. p. 73. t. 15; Cham, d^ Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 
554; Lindl. hot. reg. t.ll68 ; Hook, in hot. mag. t. 2887, ^ Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 34. 

California ! Oregon ! & N. W. Coast. Flowers in cultivation 2 inches or 
more in diameter. — This species and C. crocea are now common in our gar- 

2. C. crocea (Lindl.) : stem branching, leafy ; torus funnel-form, with a 
much dilated limb ; calyx obconic, with a long acumination ; flowers orange- 
yellow. — Lindl. I. c. t. 1677. Eschscholtzia crocea, Benth.! in hort. trans. 
(2. ser.) 1. p. 407 ; Brit. ft. gard. (2. ser.) t. 299. 

California, Douglas I — Flowers as in the preceding species (the orange 
color apparently not entirely constant). Stigmas sometimes 5-7! Pod 2 
inches long. 

3. C. ccBspitosa (Lindl.) : stems short, leafy at the base ; segments of the 
subradical leaves linear, somewhat dilated and cuneiform; peduncles elongat- 
ed, erect ; torus tubular, with scarcely any limb ; calyx attenuate at the apex 
into a long acumination. — Eschscholtzia caespitosa, Benth. I. c. 

California, Douglas. — Flowers considerably smaller than in the preceding 
species. Benth. 

* We follow Lindley in discarding the name Eschscholzia {or Eschscholtzia as it 
has commonly been written,) for this genus ; there being an older and generally admit- 
ted genus dedicated to the father of the Dr. Eschscholz (or raiher Elsholtz) who 
accompanied Chamisso in RonianzofV's voyage, and whom this genus commemo- 

64 PAPAVERACE^. Meconella 

4. C. tenuifolia (Lindl.): stems short, leafy at the hase ; segments of the 
subradical leaves linear-subulate ; peduncles elongated, erect ; torus tubular, 
with a very short limb ; calyx rather obtuse, acuminate. — Eschscholtzia te- 
nuifolia, Benth. ! I. c. 

California, Douglas /—Stature and flov\^ers as in the preceding species. 

5. C. hypecoklps (Lindl.) : stems elongated, branched, leafy ; segirients 
of the leaves short, linear-cuneifomi ; torus tubular, with scarcely any limb : 
calyx Avith a short acumination. — Eschscholtzia liypecoides, Benth. ! I. c. 

California, Douglnn !—A small and slender plant. Flowers not one-third 
as large as in C. Californica. Resembles Hypecoum grandiflorum. Benth. 

.8 DENDROMECON. Benth. in hort. trans, (ser. 2.) 1. p. 407. 

Sepals 2, Petals 4. Stamens numerous: filaments filiform: anthers 
hnear. Stigmas 2, short and rather thick, sessile. Capsule pod-shaped, fur- 
rowed, attenuate at the summit; valves thick and coriaceous or almost 
woody, dehiscing from the base to the apex : placentae filiform. Seeds 
rather large and numerous, pyriform, smooth.— A branching glabrous shrub ! 
(the juice not milky ; taste astringent and slightly acid, Nutt.) Leaves 
rigid and coriaceous, articulated with the stem, lanceolate or oblong, cuspi- 
date-acuminate, strongly reticulated, denticulate on the margin. Peduncles 
axillary, 1-flowered. Flowers large, yellow. 

D. rigidum (Benth. ! 1. c.)—HooTc. ic. t. 37. 

Monterey, California, Douglas! On the summits of mountains near St. 
Barbara, Nuttall ! 

9. MECONELLA. Nutt. mss. 

" Sepals 3, somewiiat jjilose. Petals 5-6. Stamens 4-6 : filaments mem- 
branaceous, dilated upwards : anthers very short, the cells disjoined. Stig- 
mas 3 (rarely 4), linear, very short, sessile. Capsule pod-shaped, slender, 3- 
(rarely 4-) valved : valves flat, 1-nerved, dehiscing from the apex to the base, 
not separating from the placenta;. Seeds numerous, smooth and shining, 
subglobose.— A very small, annual, glabrous and somewhat glaucous herb. 
Stems slender, dichotomously branched. Radical leaves in a rosulate clus- 
ter, spatulate ; cauline ones linear or linear-spatulate, opposite ; the lower- 
most ternate, entire. Peduncles axillary, filiform, 1-flowered. Flower very 
small, ochroleucous." 

M. Oregana (Nutt. ! mss.) 

"• Open plains of the Oregon near its confluence with the Wahlamet. 
May.— Plant 3-5 inches high. Cauline leaves small. Peduncles 1-3 inches 
long. FloAvers 2-3 lines wide. Petals oblong-cuneifomi, yellow at the base. 
Capsules linear, 6-10 Unes long. Evidently related to Platystigma." Nutt. 
—This interesting but humble "pknt seems to stand between Platystemon 
and Hypecoum, two genera (which notwithstanding their anomalies ought 
not to be removed from the family,) having apparently little relationship: 
it agrees with the latter in its definite stamens, and with the former in the 
foliage and floral envelopes, dilated filaments, &c. The torus is somewhat 
like that of Chryseis on a very small scale. 

Platystemon. PAPAVERACE^. 6S 

10. PLATYSTIGMA. Benth. inhort. trans. I. c. p. 407; Ilvok.ic. t. 38. 

Sepals 2-3, pilose. Petals 4-6. Stamens numerous : filaments filiform 
{Benth. Hook.) [dilated and membranaceous, acute at the apex] : anthers 
linear. Stigmas 3, sessile, oval, somewhat spreading. Capsule ovoid-ob- 
long, attenuate at the base, 3-valved ; valves dehiscing from the apex to the 
base: placenta; filiform. Seeds smooth and shining (roundish kidney-shap- 
ed. Hook.). — A small ca;spitose annual herb, with the stem abbreviated or 
almost none, and mostly radical and crowded, linear, entire, glabrous or 
slightly hairy leaves. Peduncles radical or nearly so, numerous, slender. 1- 
flowered, clothed with spreading hairs. Flowers pale yellow, nodding before 

P. lineare (Benth. ! 1. c.) — Hook. ! ic. I. c. ; Fisch. ^ Meyer, ind.sem. St. 
Petersb. {Dec. 1835) p. 47; Lindl. bot. reg. i. 1954. 

Monterey, California, Douglas .'--Scapes a span high. Flowers nearly 
as large as in Ranunculus acris : petals obovate. — There is a genus Platy- 
stigma of R. Brown: but we have not the means of ascertaining Avhich has 
the priority. — The filaments in our specimen are manifestly dilated, and li- 
near-oblong or lanceolate instead of filiform. The same thing is remarked by 
Fischer &. Meyer, who examined the living plant raised from seeds sent 
from the Russian settlement in California. The 3 outer petals, according to 
these botanists, are golden yellow with a transverse white band ; the inner 
ones white with pale yellow claws. 

2. Papaverace(2 Ranunculincoi. 

11. PLATYSTEMON. Benth. in hort. trans. I. c. p. 405. 

Sepals 3, pilose. Petals 6. Stamens numerous: filaments dilated, mem- 
branaceous, oblong or obcordate : anthers linear. Ovaries 10-14, distinct ! 
oblong-linear, cro-wned with a linear sessile stigma. Fruit consisting of 10- 
14 distinct, linear, indehiscent, torulose carpels, which are articulated or 
transversely strangulated between each seed. — A small pale-green annual 
herb(destituteof colored juice, Mi^^.), sparsely clothed with shaggy spreading 
hairs. Leaves half-clasping, oblong-linear, obtuse, entire, alternate, often 
crowded so as to appear opposite or whorled at the origin of the branches 
and peduncles, 3-5-nerved. Peduncles axillary, elongated, 1-flowered. 
Flower ochroleucous. 

P. Californicum (Benth. ! I. c.)— Lindl. bot. reg. t. 1679 ; Don, in Brit. 
fl. gard. {ser. 2.) t. 394 ; Hook. bot. mag. t. 3579. 

a. Stem somewhat elongated, nearly glabrous; leaves linear-oblong, very 
obtuse; carpels pilose-hispid. 

p. lineare: stem abbreviated ; leaves narrowly linear, 1-3-nerved. 

y. leiocarpitm: carpels glabrous. — P. leiocarpum, Fisch. ^ Meyer, ind. 
sem. St. Petersb. (Dec. 1835) p. 47. 

California, Z>oi«g-/as .' Nuttall! — Plant 8-12 inches high. Leaves 1-2 
inches long, with scattering hairs on the nerves and margins. Flower 10-12 
lines in diameter when expanded : petals obovate. sometimes orange-velloAV 


66 FUMARIACE^. Dielvtra. 

at the base. Carpels apprcssed, (at first united, at length separating. Hook.) 
6-8 lines long: stigmas persistent, 2-3 lines long. Torus somewhat dilated. — 
P. leiocarpum, Fisch. &■ Meyer, is nothing more than an accidental variety ; 
the carpels in some of Mr. Nuttall's specimens being perfectly glabrous, iii 
others with a few hairs. — This anomalous genus is almost exactly interme- 
diate between Papaveracese and Kanunculacese. 


Sepals 2, small, deciduous. Petals 4, hypogynous, cruciate ; one or 
both of the two outer ones saccate or spurred at the base ; the inner 
pair cohering at the callous apex, and enclosing the anthers and stig- 
ma. Stamens 6, hypogynous : filaments in two parcels, placed oppo- 
site the outer petals, dilated, distinct or usually diadelphous: anthers 
adnate, extrorse ; the middle one of each parcel 2-celIed ; the lateral 
ones 1-celled. Ovary composed of 2 united carpels, l-celled, with 2 
parietal placentae : style filiform : stigmas united, often lobed or cuspi- 
date, alternate with .the inner petals. Fruit either an indehiscent 1— 
2-seeded nut, or a 2.valved many-seeded pod-shaped capsule ; the 
valves at length often separating from the persistent filiform placentae . 
Seeds anatropous or partly campulitropous, shining, arilled : albumen 
fleshy. Embryo in the genera with indehiscent fruit minute and ex- 
centric, in the others longer and more or less curved or circinate. — 
Annual or perennial glabrous and often glaucous herbs, with a watery 
juice. Leaves alternate, ternately or pinnately divided, exstipulate. 
Flowers racemose or cymose, purple, white, or yellow. 

The two lateral stamens of each pai'cel, having unilocular anthers, may be con- 
eidered as half-stamens, formed by the division of the two stamens which correspond 
to the inner petals : the true number in the order, according to this view, being four, 
one to each petal. — Lindley is inclined to regard the sepals as bracts, and the outer 
petals as sepals : but their analogy with Papaveracese (from which Lindley, follow- 
ing Bernhardi, distinguishes them only as a suborder) does not favor this view. 

1. DIELYTRA. Borkhamen; Hook. (Diclytra, DC.) 

Exterior petals equally saccate or spurred at the base. Capsule pod-shap- 
ed, many-seeded. — Perennial herbs. Flowers (mostly) on scapes: racemes 
simple, the pedicels furnished with a pair of opposite bracteoles ; or com- 
pound, with the divisions cymose. 

The centrifugal developement of the branches of the inflorescence in D. formosa, 
&c. is indicated by the bibracteolate pedicels of D. CucuUaria and Canadensis. 

1. D. Cucullaria (DC.) : spurs divaricate, straight and rather acute ; 
wing of the inner petals short; raceme simple, 4-10-flowered. — DC. syst. 2. 
p. 118; Hook.jl. Bor.-Am.. l.p. 35. D. Canadensis, Borkh. fide DC. Fu- 
raaria Cucullaria, Linw. ; Michx.! Ji. 2. p. 51; Bot. mag. t. 1127. Cory- 


dalis Cucullaria, Pers. syn. 2. p. 269 ; Pursh ! jl. 2. p. 462. Cucullaria 
bulbosa, Paf. in. Desv.jour. hot. 2. p. 159. 

Shady Avoods, Canada! to Kentucky! and N. W. America. April. — Rhi- 
zoma not creeping, bulbiferous; the scales (which are the persistent and 
thickened bases ot" petioles, filled with fecula,) small, triangular, reddish 
when exposed to the air, white Avhen subterranean. Leaves commonly 2 to 
each stem, on long petioles, glaucous beneath, triternately decompound ; the 
primary and secondary divisions petiolulate ; ultimate ones laciniately pin- 
natifid ; the lobes oblong-linear, obtuse or somewhat acute, mucronulaie. 
Scape 6-10 inches high. Flowers somewhat secund, nodding, white or 
cream-color, yellow at the summit. Bracts and bracteoles minute, white. 
Inner petals carinate ; the carina not projecting beyond the sununit. Fila- 
ments distinct; the middle one with a subulate process projecting into the 
cavity of the spur. Stigma compressed, reniform, obtusely 4-lobed. Cap- 
sule 15-20-seeded. 

2. D: Canadensis (DC.) : spurs short, rounded ; wing of the inner petals 
projecting beyond the summit ; raceme simple, 4-6 flowered. — DC.prodr. 
1. p. 126. Corydalis Canadensis, Gohlie, in Edivb. phil. joiir. 6. p. 330; 
Thomas^ in Sill. jour. 26. p. 114. Diclytra eximia, Beck! hot. p. 23. D. 
eximia /?. Ilook.Jl. Bor.-Ain. 1. p. 35. 

Rocky woods, in rich soil, Canada ! to New- York ! and west to Kentucky ! 
April. — Subterranean stems creeping, sparsely tuberiferous ; the tubers 
roundish, bright yeUow, and about as large as a grain of Indian corn ( — hence 
the popular name. Squirrel-corn), each marked with the cicatrix of the 
fallen petiole. Leaves resembling those of D. Cucullaria, but with narrower 
lobes; commonly but one to each scape. Petioles terete. Scape 4-6 inches 
high. Corolla cordate-ovate, greenish-white, tinged with purple. Spurs 
rounded and slightly incurved. Flowers fragrant. — Pursh has confounded 
this species with his Corydalis formosa. 

3. D. formosa (DC): spurs short, obtuse, somewhat incurved ; wings of 
the inner petals projecting beyond the summit ; raceme compound, the 
branches cymulose ; stigma 2-horned at the apex ; leaves numerous. — DC. 
.t7jst. 2. p. 109 (in part) ; Ell. sk. 2. p. Ill ; TJiomas, in Sill. jour. I. c. D. 
eximia, DC. I. c. Fumaria formosa, Andr. hot. rep. t. 393 ; Sims, hot. mag. 
t. 1155. F. eximia, Ker, hot. reg. t. 50. Corydalis formosa, Pursh! Jl. 2. p. 
462. (excl. Canad. var.) 

Clefts of rocks, on the mountains of Virginia and North Carolina, Pursh ! 
Nuttall ! Le Conte ! June-Sept. — Rhizoma scaly-bulbiferous. Leaves 3-8 
or more, rising from the crown of the rhizoma; petioles channelled, dilat- 
ed at the base ; divisions of the lamina variable in size and width, but 
mostly oblong and incisely pinnatifid. Scape 8-12 inches high ; cymules 
several-flowered, with conspicuous crowded purpHsh bracts. Flowers pen- 
dulous, reddish-purple, oblong. Exterior petals attenuate upwards; lamina 
somewhat spreading: wings of the inner petals projecting beyond the sum- 
mit in the form of 2 oblong lobes. Filaments free at the base, united above. 
Stigma 2 lobed, with 2 slender approximate horns between the lobes. — A 
beautiful species, often cultivated, and flowering throughout the season. 

4. D. saccata(l^utt. ! mss.) : " spurs short, very obtuse, saccate ; wings of 
the inner petals scarcely projecting; raceme somewhat compound, few- 
flowered; stigma triangular, entire; leaves numerous; rhizoma creeping." 
— D. formosa & D. eximia, Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 352. 

" Shady woods of the Oregon. — Leaves several trorn each rootstock, some- 
what glaucous ; segments cuneate-obovate, incised, very acute. Scape 
about a foot high. Raceme about 4-flowered : bracts linear-lanceolate and 
acuminate. Sepals ovate, acute, appressed. Flowers broadly ovate, approxi- 
mated at the summit of the scape, remarkably ventricose, pale red." \utt. — 


Nearly allied to D. formosa, with which it has been confounded ; but distin- 
guished by its less compound raceme, broader flowers, shorter wings of the 
mner petals, and entire stigma. D. formosa appears to be confined to the 
mountains of the Southern States. 

5. D. lachenalkv folia (DC.) : spur very short and obtuse ; scape 3-4- 
flowered ; pedicels longer than the calyx; leaves many-cleft, with linear very- 
acute lobes. DC. syst. 2. p. Ill; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am.. 1. p. 36. Fumaria 
tenuifolia, Ledeb. in mem. acad. St. Petersb. 5. (1815) p. 550; Cham. ^ 
Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 558. _ ., ^ , 

Islands near the coast of extreme N. W. America, Pallas. Also iound 
in Siberia and Kamtschatka.— Rhizoma fleshy, horizontal. Leaves several, 
on long petioles; lobes crowded, linear, attenuated at each end. Scapes 
several* 3-6 inches high. FloAvers purple, 2-3, in a short loose raceme, the 
lower ones pendulous, the upper one erect. Pedicels variable in length, 
often 3-4 lines long (sometimes 5 lines, Cham.<^ Schlecht.). Corolla 8 lines 
long. J9C.— Stigma 5-toothed. Pallas— We have seen no specimens of 
this plant. The preceding species should be compared with it. 

D. tenuifolia, DC. syst. 2. p. 110. {Conjdalis tenuifolia, Pursh) not having been 
found on the N. W. coast, as was supposed by Pursh, but in Kamtschatka, is omit- 
ted from our Flora ; as is likewise D. bracteosa, DC. I. c, another very doubtful na- 
tive of N. America. 

2. ADLUMIA. Raf. in Desv.jour. bot. 2. p. 169; DC. 

Petals united into a spongy persistent monopetalous corolla, bigibbous at 
the base, 4-lobed at the apex. Capsule pod-shaped, linear-oblong, many- 
seeded. — Herbaceous, climbing by the cirrhose petioles. Flowers in supra- 
axillary racemose cymes. 

A. cirrhosa (Raf. 1. c.)~DC. syst. 2. p. Ill ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 399. 
Corydalis fungosa. Vent, choix. t. 19; Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 463. Fumaria fun- 
gosa, Willd. sp. 3. p. 857. F. recta, Mich.T. fl. 2. p. 51. 

Shady rocky places, and along streams, Canada ! to N. Carohna ! July- 
Sept. (2) Stem 8-15 feet long, branching and climbing over shrubs and 

other plants. Leaves biternately divided; the primary divisions distant ; pe- 
tioles twining like tendrils; ultimate segments obovate-cuneiform, incisely 
2-3-lobed, petiolulate. Flowers numerous, pedicellate, pale violet, or nearly 
white. Filaments united below into a tube, distinct above. Capsule includ- 
ed in the marcescent corolla. Seeds 4-8, reniform-globose, somewhat com- 

3. CORYDALIS. DC. syst. 2. p. 113. 

Only one of the exterior petals spurred at the base. Capsule pod-shaped, 
few- or many-seeded : style persistent.— Cauline leaves few or numerous. 
Racemes simple, terminal or opposite the leaves: pedicels ebracteolate. 

§ 1. Annual or biennial., with fibrous roots : stems branching, leafy : pods 
linear, many-seeded.— Ca^nites, DC. (partly.) 

1. C. aurea (Willd.) : stem diffuse ; leaves somewhat glaucous, bipinnate ; 
ultimate segments oblong, acute ; bracts lanceolate or ovate, acuminate ; 
pods terete torulose.— IFiV/f/. enum. p. 740; DC. prodr. 1. p. 128; 


Pursh! fl. 2. J). 463; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 37. C. flavula, /inf. in 
Desv. jour. hot. 2. p. 224; J)C'. I. c. Fumariaaurea, Ker, hot. rfj^. t. (i(j. 

RocKy woods, Canada! to Georgia! west to Arkansas! Missouri! &, the 
Rocky Mountains. April-Aug. — (T) or (2) Stem 6-12 inches long. Leaves 
slender, finely divided. Racemes terminal, and opposite the leaves or supra- 
axillary, 5-15-Howered. Flowers varying in size, in shady situations and 
early in the season often scarcely 4 lines in length ; but in open places and 
in mature plants nearly three-fourths of an inch long, golden yellow. Bracts 
often longer than the pedicels, and sometimes even extending beyond the 
fiower. Petals distinct, spur incurved. Stigma small, with 2 spreading 
lobes. Pods 8-10 Unes long, and a line in diameter, smooth or rarely (in 
specimens from Arkansas) hispid. — We have seen the poUen-tubes^very 
distinctly in this plant, even in specimens collected many years ago. 

2. C glanca ("Pursh) : erect, very glaucous ; leaves bipinnate ; ultimate 
segments cuneiform, somewhat 3-lobed ; racemes often clustered ; bracts 
linear, shorter than the pedicels ; pods scarcely torulose. — Piinsh, Jl. 2. p. 
463; DC.prodr. 1. p. 128 ; Hook..' Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 37. Fumaria sem- 
pervirens, lAnn. ; Michx. Jl. 2. p. 51. F. glauca, Bot. mag. t. 179. 

Rocky places, Canada! to N. Carolina! May-July. — (l) or (^ Stem 1- 
2 feet high, much branching. Raceme short, 6-10-flowered. Sepals purple. 
Petals rose-color and yellow ; the inner ones with slender claws : spur short, 
rounded. Stigma with small somewhat spreading lobes. Pods li inch 
bug ; the valves at length separating from the persistent placentte. 

§ 2. Perennial: stem simple, rising from, a large and thickened almost 
ligneous root (rhizoma?) : cauline leaves 1-2: ^^ pods ovate or ellipti- 
cal, 2-4:-seeded, opening elastically, the valves rolling hack to the base. 
— Halticosia,"* Natt. mss. 

3. C. Scoule.ri(YioQk.) : raceme nearly simple, shorter than the almost soli- 
tary 3-4-pinnate leaf ; leaflets oval or oblong, oblique, decurrent, entire or 
iobed ; bracts oblong, longer than the pedicels. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 36. t. 
14. C. psonia^folia, Pers. syn. 2. p. 269 ? ; DC. I. c? ex Hook. 

Deep shady woods, N. W. America : plentiful near the confluence of the 
Oregon with the sea. Dr. Scolder — Root tortuous, scaly at the neck. 
Leaves very few (blackish when dry), one or more rather smaU radical ones ; 
the lower cauline one very large ; the upper small. Flowers rose-color, pendu- 
lous, 1-li inch in length, in a loose raceme : spur straight, attenuated, twice 
the length of the petals: pedicels strongly curved downwards after flowering. 
Stigma capitate, apiculate. Hook. — We are suspicious that both this and the 
succeeding species will prove to be identical w^th C. pseonisefolia of Siberia 
and Kamtschatka, which extends, according to Chamisso, nearly to America; 
but the question can only be decided by comparison with the original speci- 
mens in Willdenow's herbarium. The raceme, according to Hooker, is 
more compound in that species than in C. Scouleri; but Chamisso remarks 
{Linntea, I. p. 563.) that the racemes in his specimens are more commonly 

4. C. macrophylla (Nutt. ! mss.) : " raceme simple, shorter than the biter- 
nately pinnate leaves ; leaflets linear-oblong, straight ; bracts hnear, longer 
than the pedicels. 

* "To this section belongs C. impatiens, DC. and perhaps some other species." 

70 FUMARIACEiE. Fumahia. 

"Shady woods of the Wahlamet; particularly abundant near the falls, in 
the darkest places. — Plant 3-4 feet hi^h. Root not ligneous, wholly subter- 
ranean. Cauline leaves about 2 : ultimate segments longer than in the pre- 
ceding species. Flowers pale red, about an inch long. Capsule oblong, 
about 4-seeded, defiexed, of a thick and ahaost cartilaginous consistence, 
bursting elastically with considerable force, and scattering the seeds to a dis- 
tance. Stigma 2-lobcd at the base, 4-toothed at the summit." NiUt. 

§ 3. Perennial: stem simple, from a tuberous rhizoma: cauline leaves 
few: pods oval or oblong. — Capnoides, DC. 

5. C. paucifiora (Pers.) : cauline leaves 2-3, below the middle of the 
stem, ternately or biternately divided ; segments obovate ; bracts ovate, 
acute; raceme crowded, few-flowered. DC.prodr. 1. p. 127; Pers. syn.2. 
p. 269 ; Del ess. ic. 2. t. 3. / A ; Cham. ^- Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 560. 

Island of St. Lawrence, in Behring's Straits, Chamisso. A native also 
of Ahaic Siberia, from whence we have specimens. — Tuber ovate, some- 
times forked or paknate. Plant about 4 inches high. Leaves nearly radical, 
on long petioles, the base of which sheaths the stem. Stem, or rather scape, 
longer than the leaves, bearing a short crowded raceme of large purple flow- 
ers. Spur incurved. 

4. FUMARIA. Linn.; DC. syst. 2. p. 129. 

Only one of the exterior petals spurred or gibbous at the base. Fruit a 1- 
seeded subglobose nut : style deciduous. — Stems branching, leafy. Leaves 
finely dissected. Flowers small, in dense racemes. 

1. F. officinalis (Linn.): sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply toothed, 
about the length of the globose retuse nut ; bracts much shorter than the pe- 
dicels of the fruit. Arnott, in Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 37. 

0. diffuse or scandent ; segments oi the leaves broad, glaucous. Arnott, I. c. 
F. media, D C. prodr. 1. p. 130. F. oflScinalis, Pursh, f. 2. p. 463 ; Darlingt. 
f. Cest. jD. 401 ; Bigel f. Bost. ed. 2. p. 262. 

Fields and cultivated grounds. Introduced. May-Aug. — (2) Stem 8-12 
inches high, branching, at first erect, at length diffuse. Flowers pale violet 
mixed Avith green and purple. 

Order XIV. CRUCIFERiE. Ju.^s. 

Sepals 4, deciduous, imbricatecl or very rarely valvate in aestivation ; 
the two outer (anterior and posterior) corresponding to the stigmas, 
often narrower ; the two inner opposite the valves of the capsule, often 
concave or gibbous at the base, rarely spurred. Petals 4, hypogynous, 
cruciate, alternate with the sepals, regular, mostly unguiculate and 
nearly equal, deciduous. Stamens 6, hypogynous ; the two opposite 
the lateral sepals shorter and usually inserted somewhat lower than 
the others, occasionally toothed ; the other four in pairs opposite the 

Cheiranthus. CRUCIFER^. 71 

anterior and posterior sepals, distinct or rarely connate, sometimes 
toothed : anthers introrse. Torus with 2 or more green glands between 
petals or stamens and the ovary. Ovary composed ot' two united car- 
pels, with two parietal placcnttC united by a membranaceous (false) dis- 
sepiment : style short or none, continuous, often persistent : stigmas 2, 
opposite the placentae (anterior and posterior). Fruit (a silique or 
silicle) usually 2.celled, rarely 1-celled, one- or many-seeded, dehiscent 
by the separation of the valves from the persistent placentJE, some- 
times indehiscent and either lomentaceous or nucumentaceous. Seeds 
campulitropous, mostly pendulous (funiculus free or sometimes adnate 
to the septum), attached in a single row to each side of the placentae : 
albumen none. Embryo with the cotyledons variously folded on the 
radicle (very rarely straight !). — Herbaceous, or rarely somewhat 
shrubby plants, with a watery, more or less acrid or pungent, juice. 
Leaves alternate, often divided, exstipulate. Flowers in terminal ra- 
cemes or corymbs : pedicels mostly ebracteate. 

1. SiUquoscE. 
Tribe I. ARABIDEiE. DC. 

Silique dehiscent, usually elongated ; valves somewhat plane : sep. 
turn linear. Cotyledons plane, accumbent (o=), parallel with the sep- 
tum (i.e. with their edges directed to the placentae). 

1. CHEIRANTHUS. R. Br. in hort. Kew. (ed. 2.) 4. p. 118 ; DC.sysi. 

2. p. 178. 

Silique terete or compressed. Stigma 2-lobed or capitate. Inner sepals 
saccate at the base. Seeds in a single series, ovate, compressed. 

1. C. capitatus (Dougl.) : somewhat rough ; leaves linear-lanceolate, en- 
tire or more or less toothed, much attenuate at the base, and, Avith the stem, 
strigosely pubescent ; hairs closely appressed and 2-parted ; flowers yellow 
(rather large), densely corymbed; siliques 3 times the length of pedicels. — 
Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 38. C. asper, Cham. ^ Schecht. in LvincBa, 1. p. 
14. (excl. syn.) 

California, Chamisso ; Oregon, Douglas. — (T) Stem a foot or more high, 
acutely angled. Pedicels 5-6 lines long. SiHque 15 lines long and a hne in 
width : valves marked with a prominent nerve. Stigma capitate, indistinct- 
ly 2-lobed. Cham., Hook. 

2. C. 7 Pallasii (Pursh) : leaves Hnear-lanceolate, repandly toothed, 
nearly glabrous ; stem simple, terete, erect; flowers purple. DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 136; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 436; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 38. 

North West Coast. July. Pursh (ex herb. Lamb.) — (2) Stem covered 
with a closely appressed 2-parted pubescence, 7-9 inches high. Leaves 
minutely pubescent. Raceme oblong. Pedicels filiform. Silique some- 
what terete. Stigma minute, subcapitate. DC. — Perhaps a Hesperis. 

72 CRUCIFER^. Nasturtium. 

§ ? (an gen. ?) Silique nearly terete, somewhat torulose ; valves very 
abrupt or truncate at the summit : style thick : stigma capitate : seeds 
margined : sepals shorter than the claws of the (violet-purple) petals ; 
the inner ones slightly gibbous at the base. — Iodanthus. 

3. C. hesperidoides : glabrous ; lower leaves lyrate-pinnalifid ; upper ones 
ovate-lanceolate, attenuate at the base, unequally and sharply serrate-toothed; 
pedicels as long as the calyx ; limb of the petals roundish-obovate. — Hespe- 
ris pinnatifida, Mc/i^. / /. 2. p. 31; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 69; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 190. 

p. limb of the petals spatulate. 

Banks of rivers, western part of Pennsylvania to Kentucky (Dr. Short !) 
and Illinois, Mr. Buckley ! 0. Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher ! May -July — ^ Stem 
1-3 feet high, angular aud striate, simple or branched. Leaves 2-4 inches 
long, thin and membranaceous; lower ones usually pinnatifid toward the 
base, with Avinged petioles ; middle ones sagittate-auricled at the base. — 
Flowers racemose, the racemes often panicled : pedicels spreading. Sepals 
ovate-oblong, obtuse, tinged with purple. Siliques about an inch and a 
half long, narrowly linear, curved upward. Style terete, a line or more in 
length, in fruit thicker than the depressed-capitate stigma. Seeds roundish- 
oblong, with a narrow border. Cotyledons o= 

2. NASTURTIUM. R. Br. in hort. Kew. (cd. 2.) i.p. 109; DC. syst. 

2. p. 187. 

Silique nearly terete, sometimes shortened so as to resemble a silicle, usu- 
ally curved upward. Stigma somewhat 2-lobed. Sepals spreading, equal at 
the base. Seeds small, irregularly disposed in a double series, not margined^ 
— Aquatic or subaquatic herbs. Leaves often pinnately divided. Flowers 
yellow or white. 

§ 1. Petals white : siliques linear : 4 conspicuous glands at the base of 
the stamens. — Cardaminum, DC. 

1. N. officinale (R. Brown) : leaves pinnately divided ; segments ovate, 
subcordate, repand ; petals white, longer than the calyx. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 
137 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 39. Sisymbrium Nasturtium, Linn. ; Pursh, 

fi. 2. p. 440? ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 67. 

Along the Wahlamet River, and in ponds, Oregon, Nuttall; North West 
Coast, Seoul er ; Southern States, "introduced," Elliott. New England to 
Virginia, Pursh. — Certainly introduced and scarcely naturalized in the 
United States. 

§ 2. Petals yellow (rarely white) : siliques commonly short : glands 
at the base of the stamens small. — Brachylobos, DC. 

2. N. tanacetifolium (Hook. & Am.): leaves pinnately divided; seg- 
ments sinuate-pinnatifid or toothed; siliques oblong-linear, nearly erect, 
acute ; style short.' — Hook. ^- Am. ! in jour. bot. 1. p. 190. N. palustre S 
tanacetifolium, jDC.prorfr. 1. p. 137. Sisymbrium tanacetifolium, Walt. 
Car. p. 174. S. Walteri, Ell. sk. 2. p. 146. 

Damp soils. South Carolina, East Florida! Louisiana! and Arkansas! 
March-May. — @ Stem much branched and somewhat decumbent or diffuse, 
6-12 inches long. Leaves smooth, the ultimate segments obtuse. Flowers 

Nastdrtidm. CRUClFERiE. 73 

very small. Petals linear, scarcely as long as the calyx. Silique 6-8 lines 
long, straight or a little incurved,' pointed with a short but distinct style : 
stl^a capitate. Pedicels about one-third as long as the silique. Seeds very 

3. N. lijratum (Nutt. ! mss.) : "leaves pinnatifid or lynite ; the segments 
oblong-lanceolate, incisely serrate or angularly toothed ; silique linear, com- 
pressed, more than twice the length of the pedicel, somewhat spreading, 
abrupt at the apex ; style very short ; ronmion peduncle flexuous." 

" Banks of the Oregon," AV//a// .'—Scarcely a foot high, glabrous. Leaves 
somewhat variable m the toothing and sefratures. Racemes paniculate 
in fruit. Flowers minute. Siliques about three-fourths of an inch long, 
slightly curved ; the valves obtuse at the summit. Style scarcely half a Ime 
long, not clavate. Pedicels 1-2 lines in length. 

4. N. sess'iliflorum (JSun. \ mss.): '"leaves cuneate-obovate, obtuse, re- 
pandly toothed or nearly entire; siliques subsessile, linear-oblong, obtuse, 
tipped with the nearly sessile stigma," 

"Banks of the Mississippi," Nnttall ; Kentucky? Fafnrsqvc.'—Gla- 
brous. Leaves 1-2 inches long ; those of the stem merely toothed, or almost 
entire, attenuated at the baseT Racemes in fruit elongated. Blowers mi- 
nute. Siliques nearly half an inch long, on extremely short peduncles: 
valves obtuse. Style very short and thick. Cotyledons o= 

5. N. sinualum (Nutt. ! mss.): " decumbent ; leaves pinnatifid ; segments 
lanceolate, subserrate or toothed on the lower margin ; pedicels spreading or 
recurved, longer than the oblong acute silique ; style nearly one-third the 
length of the silique. 

"Banks of the Oregon and its tributaries; also in Arkansas.— Glabrous. 
Leaves all equally pinnatifid ; the terminal segments more or less confluent. 
Flowers rather large, bright yellow. Sepals ovate. Petals oblong-ovate. 
Silique about one-third of an inch long, slightly curved." Nutt. Cotyledons o^ 

6. N. cu7-visiliqiia (Nutt. mss.) : erect, branching ; leaves lanceolate, pin- 
natifid, acute, somewhat clasping at the base ; lobes linear-lanceolate and 
spreading, the uppermost nearly entire ; raceme in fruit elongated ; siliques 
linear, acuminate, falcate, twice as long as the pedicels. Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 

1. p. 61. (sub Sisymb.) 

North West Coast ; in sandy soil, near streams. Dousrlas ; on the Ore- 
gon, iV/f^a/L' — (I) Stem about a foot high, minutely pubescent. Flowers 
small, corymbed. Silique smooth, about an inch long, somewhat torulose. 
Seeds in a double series. TIook.~Om specimen of this plaut, from Mr. Nut- 
tall, differs in several respects from the description of Hooker. The lobes of 
the leaves are ovate-lanceolate. The siliques (not quite mature) are oblong, 
arcuate, and rather shorter than the pedicels, which are recurved at the base, 
and spreading. The flowers are larger than in any of the preceding species 
of this section. Cotyledons o= 

7. N.palustre (DC): leaves pinnately lobed, clasping and ciliate at the 
base ; lobes confluent, toothed, glabrous ; root fusiform; petals as long as the 
sepals; silique spreading, obtuse at each end, somewhat turgid. — DC. syst. 

2. p. 191 ; Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 39 ; Ckavr. ^ Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. 
p. 15. 

Wet places, Arctic America to New-Orleans ! and west to Oregon ! June- 
Aug. — U Stem 1-2 feet high, erect, glabrous, branching above. Leaves 2-3 
inches long; lobes oblong-lanceolate. FloAvers very small. Peduncles of 
the fruit 2-4 lines long, slender, spreading almost horizontally. Silique 3-4 
lines in length, more or less ovate or ovate-oblong, slightly curved, crowned 
Avith a very short style. 

8. N. amphibium (R. Brown) : leaves oblong-lanceolate, pinnatifid or ser- 


74 CRUCIFER^l^. Nasturtium. 

rate ; root fibrous ; petals lonj^er than the calyx ; silique ellipsoid, spreading', 
mucronate with the style. DC. prodr. 1. p. 138; Honk. fl. Bur. -Am. \.p. 
39. Sisymbrium amphibiurn, TAnn. ; Ptirsh, fi. 2. p. 440. 

Watery places; Canada, i/oo/cer; Pennsylvania to Virs^inia, Pursh. — 
Stems sulcate, sparingly branched. Ernersed leaves serrate, often pubescent; 
immersed ones more or less pinnately lobed, sometimes pectinately capillace- 
ous. Racemes dense, elongated. Peduncles spreading, at length rtflexed, 
twice as long as the silique. Silique oblong-ovate, attenuate at the base, 
pointed with the short style. DC. — We have seen no N. American speci- 
mens that accord with the description of this plant. The N. amphibiurn of 
some of our botanists is probably only a variety of N. palustre. 

9. A^. polymorphum (Nutt. ! mss.): "leaves deeply pinnatifid or almost 
entire; segments entire ; petals scarcely longer than the calyx; silique ob- 
long-linear, compressed ; stigma minute, nearly sessile. 

^- Banks of the Oregon.— (JT) or (a) Stem about a span high. Leaves ra- 
ther narrow ; the segments short, linear, and acute. Branches from the root, 
after the developement of the stem and fruit, or shoots from a cropped stem, 
produce leaves either entire 'or with a few pinnatifid incisions. At other 
times the whole plant bears similar leaves. FloAvers small." Nutt. 

10. A^. obtusum (Nutt. ! mss.) : "leaves pinnately divided, decurrent; seg- 
ments irregularly oval, angularly toothed, obtuse ; siliques linear, subterete, 
twice the length of the pedicels ; style short. 

"Banks of the Mississipsi.— (1) Stem branching above. Racemes lateral 
and terminal, elongated in fruit." Nutt. 

11. N. Umosum (Nutt.! mss.): "leaves lanceolate, laciniately pinnatifid 
towards the base, nearly entire above or merely angularly toothed ; laciniae 
decurrent, subserrate or entire ; pedicels much shorter than the abbreviated 
siliques ; stigma nearly sessile. 

" Banks of the Mississippi, near New-Orleans.— (2) Subaquatic. Habit of 
N. palustre. Very smooth. Leaves irregularly but not deeply divided, ex- 
cept where they approach the water." Nutt. 

12. N. hispidum (DC.) : stem (tall) tomentose-villous ; leaves somewhat 
villous, runcinate-pinnatifid ; lobes rather obtusely toothed ; siliques (minute) 
ovate, tumid, pointed with the distinct style, scarcely more than half as 
long as the somewhat spreading pedicels ; petals scarcely as long as the 
calyx.— DC. syst. 2. p. 201. Sisymbrium hispidum, Poir. enc. 5. p. 161. 

Near Middfetown, Connecticut, Dr. Barrcdt ! Pennsylvania, Poiret; 
Middle and Northern States, Nuttall.— 2l 1 Stem 2-3 feet high, much branch- 
ed above, almost hispidly villous, angular, erect. Leaves 3-6 inches long; 
lobes numerous, ovate. Racemes numerous, panicled. Flowers minute. 
Sepals oblong, obtuse. Petals obovate. Silique scarcely more than a line 
long, exactly ovate, somewhat compressed. Style nearly half the length of 
the fruit : stigma capitate. Pedicel 2-3 lines long.— A very distinct species, 
remarkable for its villous stem, and very small ovate siliques. 

13. N. syhestre (R. Brown) : leaves pinnately divided, segments lanceo- 
late, serrate or incised; petals longer than the calyx; siliques oblong, some- 
what torulose; style very short. DC. syst. 2. p. 190. Sisymbrium sylvestre, 
Lin7i. sp. 916. S. vulgare, Pers. syn. 2. p. 196 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 68. 

Banks of the Delaware near Philadelphia, NuttalL— Introduced. 

14. A^. cernuum (Nutt! mss.)^ "racemes panicled (flowers white); 
leaves pinnatifid or laciniate, the segments irregularly and distantly toothed ; 
silique short, obovate, nodding ; stigma sessile. 

" Ponds of Wappatoo Island at the junction of the Wahlamet Avith the 
Oregon. — Stem thick and stout. Petals exserted, rather narrow. Pedicels 
more than twice the length of the fruit. — Allied to N. amphibiurn, but desti- 

Streftanthds. CRUCIFER^. 75 

tute of a style, the fruit is not elliptical, and the leaves are more divided."— 

15. A': natans (DC.) : emersed leaves oblong-linear, entire ; immersed ones 
many-parted Avith capillary segments ; petals scarcely longer than the calyx; 
siliques obovate-globose. DC. syst. 2. p. 198 ; Ddess. ic. 2. t. 15. 

p. Americamim (Gray) : emersed leaves serrate ; petals (white) twice as 
long as the calyx; siliques obovate; style as long as the ovary, and half as 
long as the fruit.— 6>a?/ .'. in mm. lye. New- York, 3. p. 223. N. natans, Bar. 'Am. \.p. 39; Beck, hot. p. 32. 

y. brevistylum: emersed leaves oblong-lanceolate, denticulate-serrate ; style 
much shorter than the ovary. 

/?. In water; Canada, Dr. Holmes'. Oneida Lake, Gray! Ogdensburgh, 
New-York, Dr. Crawe! Pekin, Illinois, Mr. Buckley! y. near New- 
Orleans, />. Installs! Julv.— Stem 2-5 feet long, according to the depth of 
the water.' Submersed leaves deciduous. Flowers more than twice as large 
as in N. paluslre. Silicle more than 2 lines in length, sometimes obovate- 
oblong. Style slender; stigma capitate.— It is quite possible that the Ame- 
rican plant is distinct from the Siberian species, which we know only from 
the description of De Candolle and the figure of Delessert, and which is said 
to have yellow flowers, smaller than those of N. amphibium, and petals 
scarcely longer than the calyx; whereas the petals are pure white in our 
plant, about twice the length of the calyx, and the flowers twice as large as 
in Delessert's figure. 

3. BARBAREA. R. Br. in hort. Kew. (ed. 2.) 4. p. 109 ; DC. syst. 

2. p. 205. 
Silique ancipital or 4-sided ; valves concave-carinate. Seeds in a single se- 
ries. Sepals equal at the base.— Leaves lyrately pinnatifid. Flowers yellow. 

1. B. vulgaris (R. Brown) : lower leaves lyrate, the tenninal lobe round- 
ish ; upper ones obovate, toothed or pinnatifid at the base ; silique 4-sided, 
with the sides somewhat convex, acuminate wath the style. — DC. prodr. I. p. 
140; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. ;;. 39. B. arcuata. Bong, in mem. acad. St. 
Petersb. (6. 'ser.) 2. p. 124. Erysimum Barbarea, Linn. ; C/iam. ^ Schlecht. 
in Linncea, 1. p. 15. 

/?. gracilis (DC.) : stem slender, nearly simple. 

Along streams and road sides; common in the Northern States ! and appa- 
rently introduced. Oregon and N. W. America; Sitcha, Bongard. P. Ore- 
gon, Nnttall. May-June.— One to two feet high, glabrous, branching in a 
paniculate manner. Flowers in dense racemes.— Mr. Nuttall thinks that the 
var. 0. is a distinct species, which he calls B. gracilis. 

2. B. pr(eco.v {R. Brown): lower leaves lyrate, the terminal lobe obo- 
vate ; upper ones pinnatifid, with linear-oblong lobes; siliques linear, elongated, 
compressed-ancipital; style verv short and thick.— Z?C. prodr. 1. p. 141; 
Hook. ! fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 39. E. precox. Smith. 

Banks of rivers, Canada to lat. 68= !— Stigma nearly as broad as the valve. 
Siliques 2-3 inches long. — Resembles the preceding, but more slender. The 
flowers are also smaller, and the siliques longer. 

4. STREPTANTHUS. Nutt. in jour. acad. Philud. 5. p. 134. 

Silique very long, compressed or somewhat quadrangular: style short or 
none. Seeds in a single series, flat, margined. Sepals erect, colored. Claws 
of the petals canaliculate, usually twisted Filaments subulate (those of each 

76 CRUCIFER/E. Strepta^thus. 

pair of the longer stamens sometimes united) : anthers linear. — Annual or 
biennial (rarely perennial?) herbs, with purple, rarely yellowish or white 

§ 1. Limb of the petals broad : calyx slightly spreading. 

1. .S^. obtKsifoI ius (HooV.) : leaves elliptical, obtuse, deeply 2-lobed and clasp- 
ing at the base ; petals broadly obovate ; siliques broadly linear.— Hook. bot. 
mag. t. 3317. Brassica Wasliitana, Muhl. cat. p. 63 ? Stanleya Washitana, 
DC.syst. 2. p. 512? 

Hot springs of Arkansas, Mr. Sabine, (v. s. cult, ex hort. Short.) — (I) 
Whole plant smooth and glaucous. Stem tall. Leaves 4-5 inches long and 
H-3 inches broad, appearing ahnost perfoliate from the deep closed sinus at 
the base. Flowers large and very shoAvy. Limb of the petals nearly as broad 
as long, fine rose-color, with a very deep purple spot in the centre. Siliques 
4 inches long, pointed with the short style. 

2. S. maculatus (Nutt.) : leaves ovate-oblong, the leaves broad and clasp- 
ing, entire, or minutely and remotely repand-denticulate ; petals obovate (pur- 
ple) ; siliques somewhat 4-sided. — NiUt. ! in jour. acad. Philad.5. p. 134. t.T. 

On rocks, Arkansas, Nuttali ; near St. Augustine, Texas, Z>r. Learen- 
worth! April-May.—® Stem li-2 feet high, sometimes much taller, usual- 
ly simple, but often branched, glabrous and glaucous, terete. Leaves 3-6 
inches long, IJ inch broad, glaucous, rather acute. Flowers in simple or 
paniculate'racemes, very showy. Pedicels 3-4 inches long, spreading. Ca- 
lyx purplish. Petals deep purple in the middle with a velvety appearance, 
lighter towards the crenulate edge ; claw longer than the limb. Anthers about 
2 Unes long, curved in drying: filament straight, as long as the anther. '' Si- 
lique 4-5 inches long, erect, linear, compressed and somewhat quadrangular." 

3. S. sagittatus (Nutt.) : leaves oblong, acute, sagittate and clasping, en- 
tire ; petals oblong-ovate (not spotted). Nutt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. 
p. 12. 

Sourcesof the Oiegon, Mr. Wyeth! June. — (7) Smooth, branched above. 
Leaves smooth and apparently somewhat glaucous beneath. Raceme many- 
flowered. Pedicels half an inch long. Flowers lilac-red : claws of the petals 
very long, exserted. " Allied to S. obtusifolius, Hook., but with the lower 
leaves entire, not "lyrate-pinnatifid." Nutt. 

4. S. angustifolius (Nutt. ! mss.) : " radical leaves lanceolate-linear, 
sparingly hirsute ; cauline oblong-lanceolate, sagittate and clasping, smooth, 
erect ; petals oblong-oval (rose-color), the limb exserted. 

" Rocky Mountains, towards the sources of the Platte.— (2) Radical leaves 
tufted, more or less hirsute, the hairs centrally affixed. Stems several from 
one root, 12-18 inches high, virgate, a little branching near the summit. 
Lower stem-leaves much broader than the radical ones, closely amplexicaul, 
becoming much smaller above ; the longest scarcely an inch in length. — 
Flowers small, pale-red. Sepals short, smooth, almost coriaceous. Petals 
obtuse ; the claws somewhat contorted, extending (as well as the stamens) 
beyond the calyx." — Nutt. 

5. S. vdrgatus (Nutt. ! mss.) : radical leaves (and lower part of the 
stem) more or less villous with stellate hairs, lanceolate-linear ; cauline ones 
oblong-linear, sagittate, clasping ; petals exserted, linear-oblong ; calyx pu- 

" With the preceding, and greatly resembling it ; but differing in the nar- 
row petals and stellate pubescence." Nutt. 


6. S. arcuatus (Nutt. ! mss.) : " hirsutcly villous with branrhincr iiairs ; 
leaves lanceolate-linear, remotely serrulate ; cauline ones sagittate and clasp- 
ing, very acute ; siliques flat and curved downward ; petals (purple) obovate, 

" Shelving rocks, on high hills near St. Barbara, Upper California. — Stems 
growing in dense tufts, very rarely branched, 1-2 feet high. Calyx purplish. 
Petals deep reddish-puqjle. Anthers oblong. Siliques about 3 inches long, 
glabrous. Seeds in a single (or partly in a double) scries, with a distinct 
membranaceous margin." Nutt. — The siliques much resemble those of 
Arabis Canadensis. The seeds are arranged horizontally, the radicle being 
superior and lying across the axis of the silique. Funiculus free. Septum 
opaque, marked with a broad longitudinal nerve ; areolae indistinct. 

§ 2. Petals narrow : calyx closed. — Eukusia, Nutt. mss. 

7. .S. glandulnsus (Hook.) : hirsute below ; leaves linear-oblong, repandly 
toothed,°the teeth glandular ; radical ones petiolate, cauline deeply sagittate 
and clasping ; flowers erect-spreading (purple), secund ; siliques very nar- 
row, somewhat spreading, curved ; valves reticulated ; petals linear-lanceo- 
late, undulate. — Hook. ! ic. t. 40. 

Monterey, Upper California, Douglas .'—'^ Stem 1-2 feet high, slender, 
terete, the lower part scaly-hirsute. " The lowest leaves (which are often 
withered) ])innatifid." Hook. Cauline ones 1-2-inches long, acute, remotely 
toothed. Pedicels 2 lines long, thick. Flowers half an inch in length, dark 
purple. Sepals ovate. Petals more than twice as long as the calyx. 
Two of the longer stamens united. Sihque 3 inches in length and less than 
a line broad, tapering at the summit into a very short style. Seed too young 
in our specimens to show the embryo. 

8. S.fiavescens (Hook.) : hirsute with simple hairs; leaves linear-oblong, 
the lowest ones sinuate-pinnatifid, or obtusely dentate with glandular teeth, 
upper ones entire ; flowers erect (yellowish); petals linear, acute; siliques 
(immature) erect, hirsute. — Hook. ! ic. 1. t. 44. 

Monterey, California, Douglas .'— (T) About a foot high, erect, simple. 
Radical leaves nearly two inches long ; cauline scarcely an inch in length. 
Raceme not secund.' Sepals ovate, obtuse. Petals nearly twice the length 
©f the calyx. Anthers linear-oblong. Silique pointed with a short style. 

9. S. repandus (Nutt. mss.) : " hirsute, particularly the lower part ; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, elongated, clasping, angularly toothed or repand 
above (flowers white) ; petals about as long as the calyx. 

" St. Barbara, Upper California.— Stem simple, about 2 feet high. Pe- 
dicels shorter than the calyx. Sepals and petals linear." Nutt. 

10. S. hpterophyllns (Nutt. ! mss.) : " hirsute below with simple hairs ; 
leaves laciniate-pinnatifid, cauline ones sagittate at the base and clasping ; 
flowers pendulous (purple) ; sepals long, connivent ; petals linear ; siliques 
very long and narrow, pendulous. 

"Bushy hills, near St. Diego, Upper California.— (T) or (2) Stem 3- 
5 feet high, branching ; the upper part glabrous. Calyx deep purple. Petals 
purple and whitish, undulated, of the same breadth throughout. Siliques 3- 
5 inches long, on pedicels 4 lines in length." Nutt. 

11. S. cordatus (Nutt. ! mss.): " glabrous; lower leaves spatulate-oblong, 
repandly denticulate ; cauline ones cordate, clasping, all obtuse ; flowers on 
short pedicels (greenish-yellow) ; siliques deflexed. 

" Forests of the Rocky Mountains. — Apparently perennial. Leaves very 
obtuse, toothed near the summit ; cauline ones with a deep sinus embracing 

78 CRUCIFER^. Turhiti* • 

the stem. Calyx oblonw-campanulate. Petals a little exserted. Anthers 
linear, longer than the filaments." Nutt. 

12. S. hyacinthnides rHook.) : glabrous ; leaves oblong-linear, acuminate; 
petals spatulate-linear, tne limb reflexed ; filaments of the longer stamens 
united by pairs. — Hook, in hot. mag. t. 3516. 

Texas, near San Felipe de Austin, Drummond ; near Fort Towson, 
Arkansas, Dr. Leavenworth .' June.— (i) Stem simple or branching, 2-3 
feet high. Leaves sessile, narrow below, but clasping. Flowers deep bluish- 
purple. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate. 

5. TURRITIS. Dill.; DC. syst. 2. p. 211. 

Silique linear ; valves plane. Seeds in a double series in each cell. — 
Flowers white or rose-color. 

1. T. glabra (Linn.): radical leaves petioled, toothed, pubescent with 
spreading hairs; cauline ones ovate-lanceolate, clasping and sagittate, mostly 
entire, glabrous and glaucous; siliques linear, elongated, strictly erect; pe- 
tals scarcely longer than the calyx. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 142; Hook.ji. Bor.- 
Am.\. ^.40? 

/?. 1 leaves all linear-lanceolate and glabrous ; radical ones remotely repand- 
denticulate ; cauline entire ; lobes acute. 

Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains. Shore of Lake Superior, Dr. 
Pitcher! fi. Rocks, WatertoAvn, New-York ! May.— Stem 2 feet high, 
strict, terete, simple. Leaves about an inch long. Pedicels of the fruit 3-6 
lines long. SiUques 2-3 inches long and scarcely half a line Avide, crowned 
with the nearly sessile stigma. Seeds with a winged margin. Funiculi slen- 
der, about as long as the seed. (Flowers pale sulphur-color. Hook.) — Perhaps 
distinct from the European plant, of which our specimens are not sufficiently 
advanced for full comparison. We have not seen the fruit in /?., which has 
narrower and rather acute leaves, and may prove to be a distinct species. 

2. T. macrocarpa (Nutt.! mss.): "radical leaves runcinate-dentate, or 
simply toothed, hairy ; cauline ones lanceolate, sagittate, crowded, glabrous; 
siliques strictly erect, very long and narrow. 

" Rocky situations, in the woods of Oregon. — Stem 3-4 feet high, terete, 
glabrous, simple. Radical leaves sparingly hirsute with stellate hairs ; cau- 
line ones croAvded on the lower part of the stem. Sepals linear. Petals lin- 
ear and narrow, yellowish-white. Stigma capitate, somewhat 2-Iobed. 
Silique about 4 inches long, rigidly erect and appressed. Seeds somewhat 
quadrate, slightly margined." Nutt. — We should rather consider this a spe- 
cies of Arabis, as the seeds are placed mostly in a single row in the very 
narrow silique. 

3. T. spathulata (Nutt. mss.): "radical leaves broadly spatulate-oval, 
Tepandly toothed, hirsute ; cauline oblong-lanceolate, clasping ; siliques ve- 
ry long, erect. 

" Woods of the Oregon. — Stem 12-18 inches high, bp-anehed from near 
the base. Upper leaves much smaller than the lower ones. Petals narrow, 
a little longer than the calyx. Siliques about 3 inches long." Nutt. 

4. T. mollis (Hook.) : erect, hirsute with soft spreading hairs ; lower 
leaves spatulate, sinuate-toothed ; the upper ones lanceolate, sagittate at the 
base ; siliques elongated, linear, strictly erect. Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 40. 

Arctic America. — (£) A foot or more high. Flowers white, capitate-co- 
rymbed. Petals cuneiform, nearly twice as long as the calyx. — Habit of 
Arabis hirsuta. Hook. 

Arabis. CRUCIFER^. *f% 

5. T. siricta (Graham) : erect, glabrous ; leaves lanceolate ; radical ones 
pctioled, toothed ; cauline ones saijittatp, partly clasping, somewhat toothed ; 
silifpies linear, elongated, and (like the flowers) strictly erect. Jlaok. — 
Graham, in Edinb. 7iew phil.jour. ( 1829) /;. 7 ; Ilook. Ji. lior.-Am. l.p. 40. 

Oregon, Rocky Mountains. — (T) Habit of the preceding, but more slen- 
der. Flowers white: petals obovate, emarginate' twice the length of the 
calyx. Silique 2-3 inches long, rather broadly linear ; style short, much 
narrower than the valves: stigma minute. Hook. 

6. T. patula (Graham): erect ; leaves lanceolate; radical ones petioled, 
toothed or nearly entire, pubescent; cauline sagittate, partly clasping, gla- 
brous (or sparingly pubescent) ; (lowers spreading ; siliques Hnear, elonga- 
ted, much spreading. — Graham^ in Edinb. jour. I. c ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 
1. jp. 40. i 

Greenland and Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains ! and Oregon. — @ 
Stem 12-lS inches high, simple. Leaves an inch in length ; the radical and 
lower cauline ones stellately hirsute. Flowers rather large, purplish or rose- 
color. Siliques rather broadly linear, about 3 inches long, straight or a little 
curved ; valves obtuse : stigma sessile. Seeds very distinctly 2-rowed, mar- 

7. T. retrofracta (Hook.): erect, canescently pubescent (or nearly gla- 
brous) ; leaves lanceolate; radical ones petioled, toothed ; cauline sagittate, 
partly chsping; flowers nodding; siliques linear, elongated, and (with the 
pedicels) refracted. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 41. Arabis retrofracta, Gra- 
ham, in Edinb. jour. I. c. 

Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains ; north to lat. 68°. — Flowers near- 
ly white, or Avith a purplish tinge. — The (margined) seeds in a young state, 
are in two rows, but in the mature fruit they are in a single series. Hook. 

8. T. brachycarpa : glabrous and glaucous ; radical leaves spatulate, 
toothed ; cauline ones linear-lanceolate, acute, sagittate and somewhat clasp- 
ing ; siliques short, rather broadly linear; pedicels of the flowers pendulous, 
of the fruit spreading or ascending. 

Fort Gratiot, Michigan, and Shore of Lake Superior, Dr. Pitcher! — @ 
Stem 1-2 feet high, simple or sparingly branched above. Radical leaves pu- 
bescent. Flowers rather large, pale purple ; the pedicels mostly bent doAvn- 
ward. Silique about an inch long and nearly a line wide, straight or some- 
what curved, usually spreading at right angles to the stem. Seeds mostly 
abortive, in 2 distinct rows when young; the ripe and perfect ones nearly as 
broad as the cell, winged on the margin. — The whole plant is sometimes of 
a purple color. Nearly related to the preceding ; but distinguished by its 
short siliques. 

9. T.? diffusa (Hook.): very glabrous and glaucous; stem diffusely 
branched; radical leaves spatulate, nearly entire; cauline sagittate, slightly 
toothed ; siliques linear, spreading, twice as long as the pedicels. Hook. ji. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 41. 

Shores of the Arctic Sea. — Stems many from the same root, a span high. 
Cauline leaves about an inch long, obtuse. Flowers small. Petals half the 
length of the calyx, white. Silique scarcely an inch long. — Perhaps an Ara- 
bis. Hook. 

6. ARABIS. Linn. : DC. syst. 2. p. 214. 

Silique linear, plane ; valves 1-nerved in the middle. Seeds in a single 
series in each cell, oval or orbicular, compressed. — Flowers white, rarely rose- 

80 CRUCIFER^E. Ahabis. 

• Seeds immarginate or slightly margined. 

1. A. alpina (Linn.): stem branching, somewhat diffused, and. with the 
leaves, clothed with a viDous branched pubescence; leaves many-toothed ; 
radical ones somewhat petioled ; cauline cordate, clasping,- peduncles nearly 
glabrous, longer than the calyx. Uook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 41; Bot. mag. i. 
226 ; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 436 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 142. 

Labrador.— A native also of the north of Europe. 

2. A. hirsuta (Scop.): stem erect, ■ toothed or somewhat entire, and, with 
the stem, hirsute with a branched pubescence; radical ones oblong-ovate, 
petioled or sessile; cauline ones oblong or lanceolate, somewhat clasping, 
mostly auricled at the base or sagittate; siliques numerous, erect. — DC. 
prodr. I. p. 144 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p.A2 ; Cham. ^ Schlecht. in Linnoea, 
l.p. 15; DarUngt.Jl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 382. A. sagittata, DC prodr. I. p. 143. 
Turritis hirsuta, Linn. T. oblongata, Bof. 

p. glabrata: whole plant glabrous ; leaves mostly entire. 

y. ovata : radical leaves spatulate, petioled ; cauline ones ovate, parti'/ 
clasping, not auricled. — A. ovata, Poir. A. sagittata (i. ovata, DC. prodr. I. c. 
Turritis ovata, Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 438. 

Rocky places, Canada! (lat. 68^) to Virginia ; west to Oregon and Sitcha. 
/». Oregon, Dr. Scolder ! y. Hoboken, New Jersey [ — (T) Stem about a foot 
high, often glabrous above. Flowers greenish-white. Silique straight, 1-2 
inches long, scarcely half a line wide ; stigma nearly sessile. Seeds with a 
narrow margin. 

3. A. dentata : more or less rough with a stellate pubescence ,■ radical leaves 
obovate, tapering at the base into a petiole as long as the limb, irregularly 
dentate with sharp salient teeth ; cauline ones oblong, clasping ; flowers mi- 
nute ; petals spatulate, scarcely longer than the calyx ; siliques short, spread- 
ing, on very narrow pedicels, pointed with the nearly sessile stigma ; stem 
branched from the base. — Sisymbrium dentatum, Torr. J in Shorfs 3rd 
suppl. cat. pi. Kentucky. 

Sandy banks of the Ohio ! Missouri ! Mississippi ! and Arkansas. April. — 
@ Plant 1-2 feet high ; the pubes-cence (particularly of the under surface of 
the leaves) short and rather scabrous. Stem slender, sometimes decumbent 
at the base. Radical leaves 2i inches long, and three-fourths of an inch 
broad. Flowers scarcely 2 lines long. Sepals hirsute. Petals dusky white 
(with a tinge of purple, Nutt.). Anthers ovate-oblong. Silique an inchlong, 
not a line in breadth ; valves somewhat convex. Seeds slightly margined. 
Radicle long and slender, distant from the accumbent cotyledons. 

4. A. stricta (Huds.) : radical leaves oblong, attenuate at the base, lyrately 
pinnatifid, hispid with spreading hairs ; cauline ones kw, lanceolate, some- 
what attenuate at the base ; petals oblong, erect, obtuse, twice the length of 
the glabrous calyx ; siliques elongated, erect. Hook. — Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 437 ; 
Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 42. 

Labrador. — U, A native also of Europe. 

5. A. petrcea (ham.) : stem nearly erect, sometimes branched, glabrous; 
radical leaves petioled, incised or pinnatifid ; cadine ones oblong-linear, en- 
tire ; petals obovate, unguiculate ; siliques erect-spreading. — Lam. diet. 1. p. 
221; DC. prodr. 1. p. 145; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 42 (excl. syn.); Cham. 
^ Schlecht. in Linmea, 1. p. 15. 

On rocks; Canada to Arctic America, and N. W. Coast. Shore of Lake 
Superior, Dr. Pitcher I — ^ Stems 3-9 inches high. Cauline leaves few. 
Flowers white or lilac. Style very short or none. — Habit of Arabis lyrata, 
from which it differs in its perfectly accumbent cotyledons and perennial 

Arabis. . CRUCIFERiE. 81 

6. A. ambigua (DC): leaves nearly glabrous, the radieal ones sinuate- 
lyrate ; middle ones oblong-oval and toothed, attenuate at the base ; the up- 
permost linear-oblong and entire ; stem nearly simple ; sihques soinevviiat 
erect. — DC. sijsl. 2. p. 231 ; Cham, df- iSchlcclil. in LinncBa, 1. p. 10; Jluuk. 
fl. Jim:- Am. l./J. 42. 

Unalaschka, Sitcha ! and Kotzebue's Sound.—® Stems numerous from 
one root, a foot or more high, ascending. Radical leaves with a few simple 
hairs ; cauline ones very glabrous. Racemes few-flowered ; the flowers 
smaller than in the preceding species. Silique two inches long and nearly a 
line broad, pointed with the nearly sessile stigma. Seeds without a border ; 
the cotyledons distinctly accumbent. 

7. A lyrata (Linn.): stem branching from the base; radical leaves 
lyrate-pinnatifid and somewhat hirsute ; cauline ones linear, entire, and 
with the stem glabrous ; siliques erect, nearly straight ; radicle slightly dor- 
sal.— /-'?w.b7(,/. 2. /). 437 ; DC. prodr. \. p. 146. Sisymbrium arabidoides, 
Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 63. t. 1 ; DarUngl. fl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 387. 

On rocks, Canada ! to Virginia! April-May.— (T) Stem 4-12 inches high, 
at first erect, but at length difluse. Radical leaves rosulate in the yourig 
plant ; the segments usually obtuse, often toothed. Flowers as large as in 
A. petra^a, white. Mature siliques 1^-2 inches long, scarcely more than 
lialf a line broad, pointed with a short style. Seeds without a border. Coty- 
ledons flat, ovate ; the radicle lying along the edge of one of them, so as to 
be nearly accumbent. — Our excellent friend Sir William J. Hooker refers 
this plant to Sisymbrium ; but we retain it in Arabis, because, on a careful 
examination of numerous ripe seeds, we find the radicle so slightly dorsal 
that the cotyledons may be regarded as accumbent. We have never seen 
the seeds so evidently incumbent as they are represented in Hooker's figure. 

8. A. rupestris (Nutt. ! mss.) : " more or less hirsute ; radical leaves ob- 
long-spatukte ; cauline ones lanceolate, clasping, sparingly toothed ; petals 
twice as long as the calyx ; silique very long and narrow, erect-spreading. 

" On rocks near the'banks of the Oregon.— @ Plant li-2 feet high ; the 
pubescence simple or forked : upper part of the stem nearly smooth. Cauline 
leaves clasping, but not sagittate. Siliques about 3 inches long, less than a 
line in breadth. Seeds slightly margined." Nutt. — Near A. saxatilis. 

9. A. spathulata (Nutt.! mss.): "hirsute (dwarf and somewhat ca^spitose); 
leaves spatulate-oblong, entire ; cauline ones clasping ; petals roundish, 
spreading, about twice the length of the calyx; siliques rather short, diverg- 
ing, pointed with a distinct slender style. 

" Lofty dry hiUs of the Platte, from the Black Mountains to the central 
chain. May.— If About 4 inches high. Root thick, crowned with vestiges 
of former leaves and stems. Radical leaves on rather long petioles. Flow- 
ers white, somewhat conspicuous. Pedicel about half the length of the 
fruit. Silique scarcely half an inch long and nearly a line in breath ; cells 
7-10-seeded." Nutt. Seed oblong, with a narrow margin. Funiculus long 
and slender, free. — Near A. serpyllifolia of Europe. 

10. A. heterophylla (Nutt. mss.) : " nearly smooth; radical leaves spatu- 
late, toothed ; upper ones linear, sessile, entire ; silique long and spreading ; 
petals linear-oblong, exceeding the calyx. 

" Near Paris, Maine ? or in the vicinity of the White Mountains of New- 
HampsMre. — (|) Radical leaves s6mewhat pilose with simple hairs ; upper 
ones' linear, about 2 inches in length and a line or two in breadth. Siliques 
about 3 inches long." Nutt. — We have seen no specimens of this plant. 

11. A. sparsiflora (Nutt. mss.): "somewhat pilose towards the base, 
much branched ; cauline leaves oblong, clasping, entire; flowers minute; 
siliques very long, flat; spreading. 


82 CRUCIFERiE. Arabis. 

" Forests of the Rocky Mountains,' toAvards the sources of the Oregon. — 
Stem tall, sparingly clothed on the lower part with forked hairs. Radical 
leaves not seen ; cauline ones ahout 2-inches long, sessile or clasping. Flow- 
ers purple ; petals longer than the sepals, linear-oblong." l*^utt. 

12. A. puherula (Nutt. mss.) : " perennial, somewhat ctEspitose, more 
or less pubescent with dense stellate hairs ; leaves entire, linear-lanceolate, 
sessile ; siliques Hat, straight, pendulous, the pedicels about twice the length 
of the sepals ; seeds Avith a slight margin. 

" Forests of the Blue Mountains of Oregon. — Stem about a span high. 
Flowers not seen. Siliques slightly pubescent, the central nerve obvious." 

13. A. inicrophylla (Nutt. mss.) : "smoothish and somewhat coespitose ; 
leaves linear, rather acute ; cauline ones very few, sessile : stem filiform, 
very few-flowered ; silique long, flat, spreading. 

" Rocky Mountains : rather rare. — Leaves scarcely half an inch long. 
Siliques only 2-3, at the summit of the filiform stem, 2i inches long. Flowers 
small, pale purple. — A smaller and fewer-flowered species than the pre- 
ceding." Nittt. 

** Seeds with a broad winged margin. 

14. A. l(2vigata (DC.) : erect, whole plant glabrous and glaucous ; radical 
leaves oblong-obovate, attenuated into a petiole at the base, or somewhat 
sessile, acutely dentate-serrate ; cauline leaves sessile; the lower ones lanceo- 
late, sagittate, sparingly toothed ; uppermost linear, entire ; flowers spread- 
ing ; siliques linear, narrow and elongated, recurved-pendulous. — DC. ! syst. 
2. p. 237 ; Spreng. syst. 2. p. 892 ; Darlingt. ! fi. Cest. eel. 2. p. 382. A. 
pendula, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 70, not of Linn. Turritis laevigata, Muhl. ! fl. 
Lancast. ined. 1. p. 483, ^ in Willd. sp. 3. p. 543 ; Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 438. 

0. laciniata : cauline leaves lanceolate-linear, remotely and laciniately 

Rocky woods, and along rivers, Canada ! to Virginia ; west to Missouri 
and Arkansas ! May. — (2) Stem 1-3 feet high. Radical leaves mostly of a 
purplish color ; cauline ones 2-6 inches long, acutely toothed (the teeth in 
/?. long and narrow). Sepals greenish-yellow, nearly as long as the narrow 
Cuneiform erect (white) petals. SUiques 2-3 inches long and less than a 
line in breadth, pointed Avith the very short style. Funiculi adhering to 
the septum at the base. — Willdenow erj-oneously states that the siliques are 
erect, which mistake has led to much confusion respecting our plant. The 
description of De Candolle was drawn from a dwarf specimen, Avithout fruit, 
in Pursh's herbarium. — T. laevigata. Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 43, must be a 
very different plant from the one here descrioed. 

15. A. Canadensis (Linn.): erect; leaves oblong-lanceolate, sessile, at- 
tenuate at each end, remotely toothed ; pedicels villous, more than twice the 
length of the calyx ; siliques pendulous, falcate, pointed with the distinct 
style.— 79 C. prodr. 1. p. 147 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 148 ; Deless. ic. 2. t. 28. A, 
falcata, Mich.T. ! /?. 1. p. 31. A. moUis, Raf. ! in Amer. month, mag. 2. p. 
43. A. lyrsefoHa, Baf. I. c. 

Rocky places, Canada ! to Georgia ! west to Arkansas ! June-July. — 
Stem 2-3 feet high, simple, glabrous, pubescent below. Leaves 2-4 inches 
long, nearly glabrous, or pubescent Avith simple hairs, rarely villous ; the 
lower ones attenuated into a petiole, and sometimes lyrate or runcinate. Ra- 
cemes elongated. Pedicels spreading, recurved in fruit, sometimes hispid. 
Sepals yellowish, hispid. Petals white, oblong-linear, tAvice as long as the 
calyx, nearly erect. Siliques 2-3 inches Irfng, Ih line Avide, ancipital. Funi- 
culi adhering to the septum, as Avas first noticed by R. BroAvn. (PI. of Oud- 
ney, &c. p. 11.) 

Cardamine. CRUCIFER^. 83 

16. A. canescens (Nutt. ! mss.) : "crespitose, densdy and rancscontly pu- 
bescent with stellate hairs ; leaves entire, linear, dense, crowded about the 
root ; those of the stem mucii smaller, sessile ; siliiiue broadly linear, Hat, 
nearly straii^^ht, pendulous, acute ; stigma sessile. 

" Summits of high hills in the Rocky Mountain range.— Ij: Plant about 
a span high. Stems' numerous, springing from the tuft of leaves at the 
crown of the root. Leaves nearly an inch long, rather obtuse, the pubes- 
cence very short; radical ones attenuated at the base. Raceme short; 
flowers very small. Pedicels about as long as the calyx. Sepals oblong. 
Petals spatiilate-oblong, twice the length of the sepals, pale purple. Silique 
an inch and a half long, nearly ahne and a half broad, somewhat torulose." 
A^,,Y/._Seeds with a broad margin, lying horizontally in the cell; the 
radicle superior : funiculi free. 

X Doubtful species. 

17. A. reptans (Lam.) : leaves roundish, entire, hirsute ; runners creep- 
ing. DC— Lam. diet. l.p. 122 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 242. 

Sandy fields, Pennsylvania to Virginia, Pursh.— Is it Draba Carohni- 
ana ? 

7. CARDAMINE. lAnn. ; Lam. ill. t. 562 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 245. 

Silique linear ; valves plane, nerveless, usually • dehiscing elastically. — 
Seeds ovate, rarely bordered : funiculi slender. — Leaves petioled. Flowers 
white or pale purple. 

* Leaves undivided. 

1. C rotundifolia (Michx.) : glabrous or somewhat hirsute ; leaves en- 
tire or repandly toothed; radical ones on long petioles, ovate or nearly or- 
bicular ; upper ones mostly sessile, oval-oblong or lanceolate ; root usually 

a. stem erect or fiexuous, simple or rarely branching above ; radical and 
lower cauline leaves subcordate ; flowers white. — C. rhoiuboidea, DC. syst. 
2. p. 246 ; Hook. ! hot. misc. 3. p. 239, t. 108 ; Darlingt. ! Jl. Cest. ed. 2. 
p. 384. Arabis rhomboidea, Pers. syn. 2. p. 204 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 70 ; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 149. A. tuberosa, Pers. I. c. A. bulbosa, Muhl. ! cat. p. 63. 

/?. stem erect, simple, hairy ; leaves somewhat fleshy, the radical ones 
roundish cordate or reniform ; cauline ones strongly repand-toothed ; flowers 
large, deep rose-color, or purple. — C. rotundifolia, Hook.Ji. Bor.-Am. l.p. 44. 
Arabis Douglassii, Torr. ! in Sill. jour. 4. p. 63. 

y. stem at first simple, afterwards sending ofT decumbent leafy stolons, 
which often take root ; leaves obtusely repand-toothed, membranaceous ; root 
mostly fibrous ; flowers small, white.— C. rotundifolia, Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 30; 
DC syst. 2. p. 247 ; Hook. ! hot. raise. I. c. t. 109 ; Darlingt.! I. c. 

a. Wet meadows, Massachusetts ! to Georgia. H. Hudson's Bay, Rocky 
Mountains, Lake Superior! Western part of the State of New York ! to 
Kentucky ! y- Shady springs and rivulets. New Jersey ! Pennsylvania ; 
April-May.— if Plant 6-12 inches high. Leaves variable in size and form; 
the radical ones usually about an inch in length and breadth. Racemes 10- 
20-flowered; flowers in c and 0. half an inch in diameter; in y. about half 
as large. Siliques spreading (in a. and fi. three-fourths of an inch long ; in y. 
shorter), acuminated with the short style. Seeds few, orbicular.— Having 
had several opportunities of examining the C. rotundifolia of our friend Dr. 
Darlington in a living state, we are satisfied that it is not specifically distinct 

84 CRUCIFER^. Cardamine. 

from C. rhomboidea, 7?C, and that the diffcronce in the appearance of the 
two plants depends on the place of growth. The former grows in cold se- 
questered springy places, where it does not readily bear fruit early in the sea- 
son; and as summer advances, it becomes slender, procumbent, and loses its 
tubers at the base of the stem. Sir WilUam J. Hooker has accurately figur- 
ed and described both forms of the plant ; but having seen the two pass into 
each other, we are obliged to dissent from our friends Avho consider ih«m dis- 
tinct. The var. y. takes the place of the ordinary form in Canada, the wes- 
tern part of the State of New York, and the Western States. 

2. C. spathulata (Michx.) : radical leaves petioled, spatulate, entire, hir- 
sute with a trifurcate pubescence ; cauline ones sessile, ovate or linear-oblong ; 
siliques spreading ; stems decumhent— Michx.! ft. 2. p. 29 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 
247 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 143. 

High mountams of Carolina, Michaux .'—[£) Stems 6-8 mches long, 
slender, glabrous. Leaves about an inch in length ; the radical ones rosulate, 
rounded at the extremity ; cauline ones entire or somewhat toothed. Ra- 
cemes loose; the pedicels filiform and spreading. Siliques distant, one inch 
long; straight, rather acute. Stigma sessile. 

3. C. bellidifoUa (hmn.) : leaves glabrous, somewhat fleshy; the radical 
ones ovate, petioled, entire ; cauline ones few, entire or 3-lobed ; siliques 
erect; stigma nearly sessile.— Z>C. syst. 2. p. 249; Hook.! ft. Bor.-Am. I. p. 
44. C. rotundifolia, Bigel. ! fi. Bast. ed. 2. p. 252. 

White Mountains of New Hampshire, Bigelow, Oakes ! Arctic Ameri- 
ca and Rocky Mountains, Unalaschka, and California, Douglas ! June-July. 
—11 Plant 2-4 inches high. Raceme corymbed. Petals cuneiform, twice 
as long as the calyx, white. Siliques about an inch long, straight. 

* * Leaves ternately or pinnately divided. 

4. C. purpurea (Cham. & Schlect.): nearly glabrous; radical and cauline 
leaves 3-5-foliolate ; lateral leaflets roundish-oval, acute ; the terminal one round- 
ish and cordate, 3-toothed ; lower pedicel furnished with a leaf-like, cuneiform, 
3-toothed bract ; petals (deep purple) reticulately veined. Cham.. ^ Schlecht. 
in LiwKza, 1. p. 20 ; Bor.-Am. l.p. 44 ; Hook. ^ Am. hot. Beechey, 
p. 121. 

Island of St. Lawrence, Chamisso ; and Kotzebue's Sound, Beechey.— 
Radical leaves many, cauline leaf solitary ; all on long petioles. 

5. C. angulata (Hook.): leaves petioled, 3- (rarely 5-) foliolate, angled or 
incisely lobed, acute or cuneiform at the base, glabrous ; radical ones round- 
ish ; cauline ovate or lanceolate. Hook. ! in hot. misc. 1. p. 343. t. 69, <^fi. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 44. Dentaria angulata, Nutt. ! mss. 

/?. alha: leaves pubescent, always 3-foliolate ; flowers Avhite.— Dentaria an- 
gulata /?. alba, A'^/iZ. .' mss. 

Banks of the Oregon, Scolder ! and near the outlet of the Wahlamet, 
j^uttall .'—If Roots long, creeping, fibrous. Stem 12-18 inches high. Ra- 
dical leaves on petioles 3-6 inches long. FloAvers in corymbose racemes, as 
large as in C. pratensis : pedicels 4-6 lines long, spreading. Sepals scarcely 
one-fourth the length of the petals, broadly ovate, rather acute. Petals in a. pale 
rose color ; in /?. white, obovate, emarginate, spreading ; claws much exserted. 
" Silique lanceolate, nearly a line in breadth." Nutt. 

6. C. pratensis (Linn.) : stem erect or decumbent ; leaves pinnately 7-13- 
foliolate ; leaflets mostly entire, often petiolulate, those of the radical leaves 
roundish, of the cauline ones oblong or linear ; style short and thick. — Pursh, 
ft. 2. p. 440 ; DC. prodr. 1. ]9. 151 ; Hook. ! ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 45. 

Cardamine. CRUCTFER.^. . 85 

Swamps, Arctic! and N. W. Anierica, to the western part of New York ! 
April-May. — U Stern 12-lS inches hisli. Lower leaves on lone l>etioles, 
»])e leaflets i)etiolulate, sparingly toothed or entire; those of the upper leaves 
sometimes almost tiliform. Flowers lartje, white or rose-color. Silitjues 
erect, an inch lon^: ; the style short and thick, or rather slender : stigma capi- 
tate or somewhat 2-lobed. 

7. C. hirsuta (Linn.) : leaves pinnate or lyrately pinnatifid ; leaflets of 
the radical leaves roundish, of the cauline ones oblong or linear, toothed or 
entire; petals (small) oblong-cuneiform; style short or none; stigma minute; 
siliques vrect— DC. prodr. I. p. 152; Hook. If. Bor.-Am. 1. p. '45; Darlmgt. 
Jl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 385. C. Pennsylvanica, Muhl. ! cat. p. 63 ; Willd. sp. 3. 
p. 486 ; DC. prodr. I. c. ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 144. 

P. acuniinata (Nutt.l mss.): "stem somewhat hirsute; pedicels half as 
long as the conspicuously acuminate silique." 

J', parvi flora (Nutt. ! mss.): " someAvhat hirsute; stem nearly naked; 
siliques very long, fastigiately corymbcd." 

(5. Virginica: leaflets with a single tooth on one or both sides: petals 
scarcely twice as long as the calyx ; racemes strictly erect : stigma sessile. — 
C. Virginica, Linn.7; Mich.r. ! fl. 2. p. 29 ; DC. I. c. 

Wet places (<5. often on dry rocks), Arctic ! and N. W. America ! to 
Georgia! /?. British America, y^/c/irtrf/soj?.; Oregon, Nutt all .' May-June. 
y. Oregon, Nuttall! <5. Connecticut! to Kentucky! (2) Stem 4-18 inches 
liigh, glabrous or sparingly hirsute. Leaflets often petiolulate, repandly tooth- 
ed, incised, or entire. Flowers about one-third of an inch in diameter, in 
y. and L nmch smaUer. Sepals ovate, obtuse. Petals obovate-spatulate, 
white. Siliques about an inch long. — This plant varies extremely in dif- 
ferent seasons of the year and in different situations. We follow Sir W, 
Jackson Hooker, in considering all the forms described above as mere varie- 
ties of C. hirsuta, Linn. Mr. Nuttall, however, inclines to the opinion that 
C. Pennsylvanica is distinct from the European plant; and our 5. Virginica 
should perhaps rank as a separate species. 

8. C. oligosperma (Nutt.! mss.): "somewhat hirsute; leaves pinnate, 
petiolate ; leaflets reniform or obovate, conspicuously petiolulate, lobed or 
or toothed ; the central segment often 3-lobed (flowers minute) ; siliques in 
terminal fascicles, broadly linear, acute, erect, few-seeded; pedicels about 
one-sixth as long as the siliques. 

" Shady woods of the Oregon.— (J) or (5) About a foot high, Avith a few 
short axillary branches ; pubescence spreading, simple. Leaflets nearly or- 
bicular with 3-5 teeth or lobes. Flowers scarcely 2 lines long, Avhite, in 
very short racemes. Sepals oblong. Petals obovate-cuneiform at the base, 
but scarcely unguiculate. Siliques about an inch long and nearly a line in 
breadth; each cell containing from 6 to 8 rather distant seeds.— A Carda- 
mine, apparently identical Avith this, but Avith shorter siliques, groAvs in Cali- 
fornia, near St. Barbara. A nearly allied allied species Avas collected in 
Chili by Dr. Styles (C. macrocarpa, NiUt. mss.) It is somewhat hairy ; the 
leaflets broadly ovate and sinuately toothed ; the flowers larger (white); the 
siliques scattered, and longer, with 15 to 18 seeds in each cell ; and the 
pedicels elongated." Nutt. 

9. C. Ludoviciana (Hook.): stems branching from the base, erect or 
diffused; leaves pectinately pinnatifid ; segments oblong or linear, toothed; 
siliques rather erect, broadly linear ; style none ; seeds orbicular, margined ! 
—Hook.! in jour. hot. 1. p. 191. C. Virginica, Muhl. cat. p. 63. f ft. 
Lancast. ined. 1. p. 476. Sisymbrium Ludovicianum, Nutt.! mss. in herb, 
acad. Philad. 

Georgia! to Kentucky! Louisiana, and Arkansas. — (T) Stem 4-10 inches 
long. Radical leaves rosulate in the young plant; segments 7-10 pairs. 

86 CRUCIFER^. Df.ntaria. 

Flowers very small, white; pedicels as long as the calyx. Silique nearly an 
inch long, (lat; the valves obscurely reticulated. Seeds about 15 in each cell, 
with an almost winged margin. — Easily distinguished by its broad siliques 
and margined seeds. 

'10. C. digitata (Richards.): leaves digitately pinnate; leaflets sessile, li- 
near, entire; style short, about as thick as the silique; stigma capitate, 
Richards, app. Frankl. journ. p. 26; DC. prodr. 1. p. 53; Hook. Jl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 45. 

Arctic America. — Stem creeping at the base (not tubcriferous, Hook.). 
Flowers as large as in Cardamine pratensis, white or purplish. Siliques not 
seen. Richardson. 

X Doiihtfid species. 

11. C.7 midtijida (Pursh): pubescent, branched; leaves interruptedly 
pinnately divided; segments bipinnatifid; ultimate divisions rounded, incis- 
ed; siliques shorter than the pedicels. DC. — Pursh., fl. 2. p. 440; DC. si/.st. 
2. p. 267. 

Florida, near St. Augustine, Bartram in herb. Banks. — 1[ Siliques ob- 
long, scarcely 2 lines long, glabrous; style none. Pedicels filiform. DC. — 
Perhaps a Nasturtium. 

C reflcxa and C. angusiijolia, Raf. Jl. Lnidov., liaving been founded upon the 
vague popular descriptions by Robin of plants which Rafinesque never saw, and of 
which lie knew nothing whatever, of course cannot be admitted even to the rank of 
doubtful species. 

8. DENTARIA. Linn. ; DC. syst. 2. p. 271. 

Silique lanceolate ; valves plane, ncrvless, often dehiscing elastically : pla- 
centae not winged. Seeds ovate, not bordered, in a single series : funiculi 
dilated. — Perennials. Rhizoma horizontal, fleshy, often irregularly toothed. 
Leaves ternately, palmately, or pinnately divided ; radical ones (when pre- 
sent) on long petioles; cauline ones (often 3) near the middle of the stem or 
scape, verticillate or alternate. Flowers white or purple. 

Scarcely more than a section of Cardamine. 

1. D. laciniata (Muhl.) : rhizoma moniliforra; cauline leaves 3, usually 
veticillate, ternately parted; segments incised, the lateral ones lobed. — 
MithL! in Willd. sp. 3. p. 479. f cat. p. 63 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 1-55; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 144; Bart.Jl. Am. sept. 3. t. 72; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 46. D. 
concatenata, Michx. ! Jl. 2. p. 30. 

a. segments of the leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, incisely toothed. 

0. segments laciniately pinnatifid. 

y. segments narrowly linear, sparingly toothed, or nearly entire. 

<5. leaves aUernate; segments ovate, incisely toothed and lobed, a little 
rough on the margin. 

Rich alluvial soils, Canada to Georgia ! and west to the Mississippi. Wa- 
tertown, New-York, Dr. Craive! Macon, Georgia, Croom! April-May. — 
Plant 4-12 inches high. Tubers of the rhizoma connected by a neck, spa- 
ringly fibrillose, pungent to the taste like mustard. Cauline leaves verticil- 
late above the middle of the stem, or alternate (rarely 2), on short petioles ; 
segments variable in width and in the form and length of the teeth or laci- 
jiiffi ; radical leaves sometmies wanting. Petals 3 times the length of the 

Dentaria. CRUCIFERiE. 87 

sepals, pale purple, or nearly white, obovate-oblon<T. Style when younj^ not 
longer tlian the stamens. Silique somewhat torulose, with a long tapering 
point. — We have not seen tlie var. <!. in fruit. It is so remarkable in the furiix 
of its leaves that it may prove to be a new species. It is perhaps the 1). 
maxima of Nuttall, although it by no means agrees with the detailed descrip- 
tion of that botanist. 

2. D. maxima (Nutt.): stem tall; leaves (5-7) alternate, remote, the 
margin a little roughened; leaflets somewhat oval, incisely andacutely tooth- 
ed, lateral ones lobed (flowers pale purple). Nutt. gen. 2. p. 6G ; J)('. 
jn-o(lr. 1. p. 155. 

Western part of the State of New-York, and Pennsylvania. Nuttall. — 
Stem often nearly 2 feet high. Tubers concatenate. Nutt. 

3. J). muUifida (Muhl): stem 2-3-leaved ; leaves mostly verticillate, 2-3- 
ternately divided; segments and lobes all Unear and very narrow; siliques 
narrow.— Muhl. ! cat. p. 63 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 143. D. dissecta, Leaven- 
wurtli, in Sill. jour. 7, p. 62. 

Shady woods, near Salem, N. Carolina, Schweinitz I Cherokee country, 
Dr. Learenworthj near Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Nuttall. — A span high. 
llhizoma tuberous. (Nutt.) Leaves with remarkably narrow divisions, 
almost as fine as those of the Carrot. Flowers white (Nutt.), smaller than 
in D. laciniata. 

4. D. heternphylla (Nutt.) : rhizoma moniliform, the tubers oblong; cau- 
line leaves 2 (rarely 3), petioled, alternate, ternately divided; leaflets linear- 
lanceolate, entire or toothed ; margin minutely and ciliately roughened ; ra- 
dical leaves rather obtusely lobed. — Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 66; DC. prodr. 1. p. 

Shady woods, near banks of rivers, Pennsylvania ! to Kentucky ! April- 
May. — A foot high. Leaflets of the radical leaves incisely lobed and 
crenately toothed, the teeth minutely mucronate. Pedicels about as long 
as the purplish flowers. Siliques with a long tapering point. Stigma capi- 
tate or obscurely 2-lobed. 

5. D. cliphylla (Michx.) : rhizoma elongated, toothed ; cauline leaves 2, 
ternately divided ; segments ovate or oblong, unequaQy and incisely toothed. 
—Michx.! Ji. 2. p. 30; Hot. mag. t. 1465; DC. prodr. 1. p. 169; Hook, 
ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. i6. 

Shady Avoods, in rich soil, Canada ! to S. Carolina, west to the Mississippi ! 
April-May. — Rhizoma extensively creeping, often branched, marked with 
projecting teeth, very pungent to the taste (hence the vulgar name, Pepper- 
root). Leaves closely approximated above the middle of the stem : petiole 
about an inch long. Flowers white or very pale purple : pedicels rather 
thick, longer than the flower, spreading. 

6. D. tenella (Pursh) : root fibrous, bearing roundish tubers (Hook.); 
radical leaves simple, roundish, about 5-lobed ; cauline leaves 1-4, alternate, 
ternately or pinnately divided ; segments linear, acute, entire or sparingly 
toothed. — Pursh! ft. 2. p. 439; DC. prodr. 1. p. 155. D. tenuifolia, Ledeft. 
in mem. acad. St.'Petersb. (1815) p. 547 ?; Hook. jl. Bor.-Am.. 1. p. 46. 

Oregon, Menzics, Nuttall! — Plant 3-10 inches high. Radical leaves 
scarcely an inch long, crenately lobed. Stem often bearing but a single 
nearly sessile leaf. Flowers rather smaller than in Cardamine pratensis, 
pale purple. — Mr. Nuttall thinks this plant to be distinct from D. tenuifolia 
of Ledebour ; while Sir W. J. Hooker states that he could find no difference 
between them. In oiu: Siberian specimens of the latter, the cauline leaves 
are distinctly petioled, with tootlied divisions, and the flowers are considera- 
bly larger than in the Oregon plant. They have, however, at least in one of 
our specimens, a simple lobed radical leaf. 

88 CRUCIFERiE. Parrya. 

7. D. macrncarpa CNntt. mfifi.) : " root fibrous and tuberous; radical leaf 
3-foliolate, the leaflets reniforrn and lobed; cauline leaf solitary, 3-parted, 
the segments entire, obtuse ; silique very long. 

" Woods of the Oregon, with the preceding. — A small species, remarka- 
ble for the great length of its silique, its cuspidate and rather long style, and 
capitate stigma. On the receptacle, (as in the preceding^) there remain some 
time after inflorescence, 2 filiform denticulations, like abortive stamens. — 
Described from a single specimen." Nutt. 

8. D. integrifolia (Nutt. mufi.): "rhizoma tuberous; tall and rather ro- 
bust; radical leaves trifoliolate, leaflets roundish-oval; cauline 3, alternate, 
3-parted or trifoliolate ; divisions linear-oblong, acute, entire ; siliques rather 
short, on long pedicels ; petals very large. 

" Plains of Monterey, Upper California. — Stem 12-18 inches high. Pe- 
tiole of the solitaVy radical leaf very long ; the leaflets large. Flowers 
among the largest of the genus." Nutt. 

9. D. Californica (Nutt. mss.): "rather robust; leaves trifoliolate, cau- 
line ones alternate ; leaflets ovate or ovate-lanceolate, crenate or incisely 
denticulate, acute ; siliques lanceolate-linear, rather long. 

" Monterey, Upper California. — About the size of the preceding species, 
but with smaUer flowers. Cauline leaves 2-3, nearly as large as the radical 
ones, and similar in form." Nutt. 

9. PARRYA. R. Br. in Parnfs 1st voy. app. p. 269. t. B. 

Neuroloma, Andrz. ; DC. 

Silique broadly linear ; valves veiny. Seeds in a double series, margined ; 
the epiderms loose and more or less corrugated : funiculi partly adnate to 
the septum. Lobes of the stigma approximate. — Perennial herbs. Leaves 
mostly radical, fleshy, entire or toothed. Flowers rose-color or purple. 

1. P. macrocarpa (R. Brown): sDiques broadly linear; anthers linear ; 
leaves broadly lanceolate, incisely toothed. Hook. — E. Br. I. c. p. 270 ; Hook. 
Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 47. t. 15. Neuroloma arabidiflorum & nudicaule, DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 156. Arabis nudicaulis, DC. syst. 2. p. 240. Cardamine arti- 
culata, Pursh, ft. 2. p. 439. 

a. aspera (Hook.) : pilose with glandular hairs. — Neuroloma arabidiflorum 
13. DC. I. c. 

8. glabra (Hook.): whole plant glabrous. — N. arabidiflorum, DC. I. c. 
(excl. syn.) 

Arctic and N. W. America. — Rootstock fusiform. Scape 4-6 inches 
high. Petals rose-color or purple, broadly obovate, retuse. Silique 1-2 
inches long and 2 lines wide, erect, slightly incurved, somewhat constricted 
between the seeds. Seeds slightly corrugated, with a broad membranaceous 
border. Hook. 

2. P. arctica (R. Brow n): siliques Unear-oblong ; anthers oval; leaves 
mostly entire ; peduncles glabrous. R. Br. .' I. c. p. 269. t. B. ; Hook. ! ft. 
Bor.-Am,. 1. p. 47, ^ in Porry''s 2nd voy. app. p. 338. 

Arctic America ! confined to the eastward of Mackenzie's River, as the pre- 
ceding species is to the westward of it. Hook. — Plant 2-4 inches high. 
Leaves spatulate-lanceolate. Flowers as large as in Cardamine pratensis, 
corymbed : petals purple, rarely white ; limb obovate. Siliques about an 
inch long, racemose, spreading or pendulous, obtuse. Seeds 6-8 in each cell, 
strongly corrugated. 

Leavenworthia. CRUCIFERiE. 89 

10. PHCENICAULIS. mat. mss. 

" Calyx colored, nearly equal at the base, much shorter than the entire un- 
guioulate petals. Silique ensiform, acuminate, flat, not opening elastically ; the 
cells about 3-seeded ; valves with a prominent central nerve. Seeds large, 
in a single series, not margined; funiculi flat, short, dilated and slightly 
adnate towards the base. [Cotyledons flat; the radicle not apphed to their 
edge, but lying a little to one side.]— A low perennial herbaceous plant, with 
a thick ascending caudex. Scapes slender. Leaves entire, densely and 
stellately toracntose. Flowers in simple corymbose racemes, j)urple. Si- 
liqucs diverging horizontally." 

P. cheiranthoides (Nutt. ! mss.) 

" High hills to the east of Wallawallah River, and on rocks on the upper 
part of the Oregon. — Stem partly subterranean and descendinjr to a con- 
siderable depth. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, entire ; the base attenuated into a 
long petiole which is dilated and sheathing at its insertion. Scapes 4-6 
inches long, with a few small sessile and partly clasping leaves. Sepals ob- 
long, obtuse, bright purple on the margin. Petals purple, oblong-oval, the 
claws as long as the calyx. Stamens about as long as the calyx. Stigrna 
nearly sessile, somewhat capitate. Pedicels of the flowers erect, of the fruit 
divaricate. Siliques straight 1-li inch long, obtuse at the base, tapering to a 
long point: valves obscurely reticulated : [septum opaque, with a distinct sin- 
gle or double longitudinal nerve : areolae very tortuous, reticulated.] Seeds 
oval, smooth, distant, nearly as broad as the septum. — Allied to Parrya ma- 
crocarpa ; but differing in the cuspidate siliques, the few seeds in a single 
series, without the loose epidermis." Nutt. — The cotyledons are not truly 
accumbent ; but the radicle is applied to the back of one of them, not far 
from the edge. 

11. LEAVENWORTHIA. Torr. in aim. lye. New- York, 3. />. 87. t. 5. 

Calyx somewhat erect, equal at the base. Petals equal, cuneiform, trun- 
cate or emarginate. Filaments distinct, toothless. Silique sessile, oblong- 
linear, compressed, somewhat inflated and contracted between the seeds; 
valves indistinctly nerved. Style distinct, or ahnost none. Stigma minutely 
bidentate. Seeds in a single series, flattened, with a broad winged margin : 
funicuU free. Embryo nearly straight! or with the radicle slightly be^t 
towards the edge of the cotyledons : radicle very s'ho'rt,' conical, poinding 
obliquely upward : cotyledons orbicular. Septum l-nerycd, minutely reticu- 
lated ; the areolae transversely linear-oblong. — Annual herbaceous plants. 
Leaves lyrately pinnatifid. Flowers in loose scapoid racemes, or solitary on 
long subradical peduncles, yellow. 

1. L. aurea (Torr.) : style distinct ; embryo nearly straight. Toi-r. I. c. 
Cardamine uniflora, Leavenworth, in Sill. jour. 7. p. 63, (not of Michx.) 

Wet places, near Fort Tdwson, Arkansas; also in Texas, and in Jef- 
ferson County, Alabairia, Dr:. Leavenworth! — Root straight, descending. 
Plant 2-6 inches high. Stem at first short and simple, but at leiigth branch- 
ing from the base ; the branches ascending. Leaves mostly radical ; pinna- 
tifid, somewhat fleshy ; segments 2-4 pairs, roundish-oblong, obtusely tooth- 


90 CRUCIFER^. Hesperis. 

ed ; the terminal one much larger and somewhat orbicular. Racemes 4-10- 
flowered. Flowers in the young plant, or in dwarf specimens, on long 
erect naked peduncles or scapes ; in the advanced s.tate on racemes which 
terminate the short assurgent branches. Pedi-cels without bracts, an inch 
or more in length, filiform, spreading and curved upward. Sepals rather 
loose, oblong, obtuse, tinged with purple. Petals golden yellow, tapering into 
a long cuneate base. Filaments slender : anthers oblong. Style short, but 
conspicuous. SUique rather more than an inch long and nearly two lines 
in breadth, slightly torulose, rather convex : septum very thin and transpa- 
rent. Seeds 4-5 in each cell, suspended on short rigid funiculi, approximar 
ted so that their broad membranaceous margins somewhat overlap. Embryo 
nearly straight, from the earliest to the most advanced state. Radicle pomt- 
ing upward, at first inclined from the hilum, but afterwards gradually approxi- 
mating towards it. 

2. L. Michauxii (Torr.) : style almost none ; radicle oblique. Torr. ! 
I.e. Cardamine uniflora, Michx: ! fl. 2. p. 29; PursJi, f. 2. p. 439; DC. 
syst. 2. p. 251. 

On rocks about Knoxville, Tennessee, Michaux ! and on wet rocks, Ken- 
tucky, Short .'—Greatly resembling the preceding species, but easily dis- 
tinguished by its nearly sessile stigma. The difference in the direction of 
the^'radicle seems also to be constant. Michaux states that the peduncles are 
radical and one-flowered, but the specimens in his herbarium are caulescent; 
the racemes terminating short assurgent branches, and the pedicels being 
greatly elongated, so as to resemble scapes. 


Silique longitudinally dehiscent ; valves nearly plane, or somewhat 
terete and carinate : septum linear. Cotyledons plane, incumbent 
(o|| ), contrary to (i. e. with their edges towards) the septum. Seeds 
not bordered. 

12. HESPERIS. Linn. ; DC. syst. 2. p. UQ. 

Silique nearly terete, or 4-sided and somewhat compressed. Stigmas 2, 
erect connivent. Inner sepals saccate at the base. Seeds somewhat 3-sided. 
Stamena toothless. — Rocket. 

1. H. matronalis (Linn.): stem erect, nearly simple; leaves ovate-lan- 
ceolate, toothed ; pedicels as long as the calyx ; petals obovate, siliques gla- 
brous, torose, erect, margin not thickened (flowers white or rose-color). DC. 
prodr. l.p. 189; Hook.Jl. Bar.- Am. 1. p. 59. 

. Shores of Lake Huron, Dr. Todd, (fide JEToo/r.)— Doubdess introduced. 

2. H. minima : pubescent with appressed 2-parted hairs ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, attenuate at the base ; siliques numerous, erect, compressed, pu- 
bescent ; stem erect, simple. Hook.—U. pygmaea, Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 
60. t. 19. (not of Delile) Cheiranthus pygmseus, Adams; DC. prodr. 1. p. 
137, fide Hook. . 

Arctic America, Kotzebue's Sound. — (I) Root fusiform. Stem in fruit a 
span high, a little flexuous. Leaves mostly radical, entire or sinuate-toothed. 
Corymb many-flowered, racemose in fruit. Petals large, obovate, purple. 

Sisymbrium. CRUCIFERiE. 91 

Stigma 2-lobcd. Siliques linear-ensiform, slii^htly falcate, pale purple. 
Hook. — Sir William Hooker is inclined to refer to this species Cheirantlius 
Pallassii, J^i/rsh, which is described as havinj^ rather terete siliiiues and a 
subcapitate stigma, if his suspicion is confirmed, Pursh's specific name must 
be adopted. 

3. //. Menziesii (Hook.): leaves spatulate, fleshy, covered with an ap- 
pressed 2-parted pubescence; siliques (young) spreading; stem very short, 
erect, simple. Hook. fl. Bar.- Am. 1. p. 60. 

California.— Root perennial, ligneous. Flowers larger than in the preced- 
ing species, purple? Hook. 

13. SISYMBRIUM. Allioni ; DC. .9T/.9t.2. p. 458. 

Silique somewhat terete. Stigmas 2, somewhat distinct, or connate and 
capitate. Sepals equal at the base. Seeds ovate or oblong. Cotyledons 
sometimes oblique. 

§ 1. Siliques subulate, terminated with a short style : pedicels very 
short, thickened and appressed to the axis after Jlowering. — Velarum, 

1. S. officinale (Scop.) : leaves runcinate, and, with the stem, hairy, 
flowers very small (yellow). DC. prodr. 1. p. 191 ; Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 2. 
p. 61. Erysimum officinale, Linn. ; Piirsh, fl. 2. p. 436; Ell. sk. 2. p. 148. 

Road-sides and waste places, Canada ! to" Georgia; Oregon. May-Aug. 
Introduced.— (1) Stem 1-3 feet high. Racemes elongated, curved in fruit. 
Petals cuneate, longer than the calyx. Siliques 6-10 lines long, attenuate 
into a short style. 

§ 2. Siliques terete : style very short : calyx spreading or erect : seeds 
oblong. — Norta, DC. 

2. S. junceum (Bieb.) : leaves glabrous, glaucous; the lower ones petioled, 
runcinately pinnatifid ; upper ones linear-lanceolate, entire. DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 191 ; Bor.-Am.. \.p. 61. 

Dry stony places on the Oregon, Douglas, and Rocky Mountains towards 
the source of Salmon River, Mr. Wyeth. (fide Nutt.) Apparently identical 
with the European plant. Nutt. 

3. S. linifolium (Nutt.! mss.) : glabrous; stem slender, simple; leaves 
linear, undivided, the lower ones somewhat laciniately cleft (flowers large); 
petals nearly twice as long as the calyx ; siliques linear and narrow. — Nas- 
turtium linifolium, Nutt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 12. 

Plains of the Rocky Mountain range, towards the head-waters of the 
Platte, Mr. Wyeth! May— 2j: Stem 8-12 inches liigh. Leaves all nar- 
row, not glaucous : the axils often leafy. Silique about 2 inches long.— Very 
near the preceding, but the flowers and siUques are larger. 

4. )S. pygmceum (Nutt. ! mss.) : dwarf, nearly smooth ; stem somewhat sim- 
ple ; lower leaves somewhat lyrately pinnatifid, oblong ; upper ones entire, 
linear ; petals longer than the calyx '; silique long and narrow.— Nasturtium 
pumilum, Nutt. ! I. c. 

Head waters of the Missouri, in dry soils. Flowering early m the sprmg.— 
11 Stem 3 inches high, slightly pubescent. Leaves attenuated at the base 
into a petiole ; terminal segment rounded and obtuse. Flowers about 3 lines 
long, in short racemes. 

92 CRUCIFERyE. Sisymbrium. 

§ 3. Siliques terete : seeds ovate, someiohat triangular: flowers yellow. 
— Irio, DC. 

5. S. Sophia (Linn.) : leaves bipinnatifidly divided ; lobes oblong-linear, 
incised; pedicels 4 times the length of the calyx ; petals smaller than the 
sepals. DC.—Fursh, ft. 2. p. 440?; DC.prodr. \.p. 193. 

Near Quebec, and "other parts of Lower Canada, Mrs. Percival ! near 
Montreal, Dr. Holmes ; Virginia, Pursh. Apparently native in Canada. 
July. — (^ Plant 2 feet high. Segments of the leaves less than a line in 
breadth. Siliques an inch long, linear, very narrow. 

6. S. sophioides (Fischer) : leaves bipinnatifid; lobes ovate or lanceolate, 
incised ; pedicels (and petals) somewhat shorter than the calyx ; siliques 
linear-filiform, falcate, and, as well as the flowers, in umbeUiform corymbs. 
Hook.—Fisch. in Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 61. t. 20. S. Sophia, Cham, f 
Schlecht. in Linnoia, 1. p. 28. S. Sophia, var. ? Richards, app. Frankl. 
journ. p. 27. 

Hudson's Bay to Kotzebue's Sound.— @ Stem branching, flexuous, near- 
ly glabrous. Peduncles glandular-pubescent. Flowers deep yellow. SiU- 
ques densely umbelled (not elongated into a raceme in fruit), 2 inches long, 
3 times the length of the pedicels. 

7. S. canescens (Nutt.) : leaves bipinnatifid ; lobes oblong or lanceolate, 
somewhat toothed ; petals scarcely exceeding the calyx ; siliques in elongat- 
ed racemes, oblong or oblong-linear, shorter (or rarely longer) than the 

a. canescent ; lobes of the leaves obtuse (or obovate) ; siliques somewhat 
clavate, about half as long as the pedicels. — S. canescens, Nutt. .' gen. 2. p. 
68; DC.prodr. 1. p. 194; Ell. sk. 2. p. 147; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 62. 
Erysimum pinnaium, Walt. Car. p. 174. Cardamine? Menziesii, DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 153. (fide Hook.) 

Li. leaves minutely pubescent, but not hoary ; peduncles and pedicels spar- 
ingly furnished with stipitate glands intermixed with simple pubescence ; 
siliques as in var. a. 

y. leaves glabrous ; lobes obtuse, mostly entire ; stem and pedicels minutely 
glandular ; siliques as in var. a. & 0. 

S. lobes of the leaves somewhat acute, and, with the stem, furnished with 
minute stipitate glands ; petals rather longer than the calyx ; siliques scarcely 
attenuate at the base, somewhat longer than the pedicels. — S. brachycar- 
^Mm, Richards. ! app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 27; DC.prodr. \.p. 194; 
Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 62. 

€. (Californicum) : somewhat canescent ; lobes of the leaves acutely 
toothed ; petals obovate, one-half longer than the calyx. 

f. (brevipes, Nutt. mss.) : " siliques usually longer than the pedicels. " 

a. Arctic America to Florida ! Arkansas ! Rocky Mountains, plains of the 
Oregon, and Upper California, Nuttall. 0. Georgia ! Arkansas ! Texas ! 
y. Kentucky, Short ! <5. Arctic America and Canada, ex Hook. ; Lake Su- 
perior, Dr. Houghton ! Dr. Pitcher ! £. California, Douglas ! ?. Rocky 
Mountains, Nuttall— (Tj Plant 1-2 feet high. Flowers very small (in var. 
e. twice as large as in the other varieties). Pedicels spreading, with the 
siliques often erect. 

§ 4. Siliques linear, compressed, somewhat terete: stigma nearly sessile: 
flowers white {or rose-color) : peduncles usually short. — Arabidopsis, 

8. S. humile (Ledeb.) : canescently pubescent, perennial ; stems diffuse ; 
leaves entire or sinuate-toothed ; radical ones spatulate ; cauline ones lanceo- 


late, attenuate at the base; siliques pubescent, terete, tondose, linear ; 5 times 
the length of the pedicels. Hook. ! fi. lior.-Am. 1. p. 62. 

u. leaves mostly entire. Ledeb. — Hook. I. c. 

0. leaves sinuate-toothed and somewhat pinnatifid. Ledrb. — Hook. I. c. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52°-57°, to Arctic America ! — Stems 3-6 inches 
high. Radical leaves numerous, rosulate, nearly an inch long: pubescence 
stellate. Flowers 3-4 lines in diameter, " white or rose-color." Hooker. 

9. S. Thaliana (Gay) : annual; stems often many from one root, rather 
naked, branching above, erect ; leaves (and lower part of the stem) hairy, 
sparingly toothed ; radical ones ovate-oblong or spatulate-oblong, somewhat 
petioled; siliques erect-spreading, twice as long as the pedicels. — Gay., in 
ann. sci. nat. 7. p. 399; Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 63; Meyer, pi. Cauc. 
(1831) ;). 190. Arabis Thaliana, Linn.; Eng. hot. t. 901; Pursh! fl. 2. p. 
437; DC. prodr. 1. p. 144. 

On rocks and in sandy fields, Massachusetts ! to Georgia ! west to Ken- 
tucky. Introduced ? May. — Stem 3-10 inches high ; the upper part gla- 
brous. Cauline leaves oblong or linear. Flowers very small. Siliques 
straight, 6-8 lines long. Seeds in a single series. 

10. (S. glaucum (Nutt. ! mss.) : "annual, glaucous, much branched; 
leaves entire ; radical ones small, spatulate ; cauline ovate, sagittate and 
clasping, rather acute; siliques nearly straight, erect, compressed, with con- 
vex: valves, four times the length of the pedicels. 

" Prairies of the Oregon, towards the Rocky Mountains. — About a foot 
high, erect. Flowers very minute, pale purple. Petals cuneate-oblong, one- 
half longer than the sepals. Siliques three-fourths of an inch long, glabrous: 
style almost none. Seeds in a single, or partly in a double series. Cotyle- 
dons decidedly incumbent." Nutt. 

11. S. virgatum (Nutt. ! mss.) : " biennial, canescently hirsute with sim- 
ple and stellate hairs ; stem virgately branched from the base ; leaves lanceo- 
late-linear, clasping, lower ones denticulate or entire ; siliques somewhat te- 
rete, erect, 4-5 times the length of the pedicels ; seeds in a double series. 

" Hills of the Rocky Mountain range, near the sources of the Sweet Wa- 
ter of the Platte. — About a span high. Leaves 6-8 lines long, and 2 Unes 
wide. Flowers rather larger than in the preceding species, pale purple. 
Petals obovate-spatulate, obtuse. Radicle almost exactly dorsal." Nutt. — 
Septum very thin and translucent, marked with a distinct central nerve. 

12. S. paucijiorum (Nutt. ! mss.) : " biennial, hirsute with forked hairs 
(not canescent) ; leaves entire, radical ones narrowly oblong-spatulate ; cau- 
line lanceolate-linear, sessile; stem rather slender, branching from the base; 
siliques long, pendulous ; seeds in a double series. 

" With the preceding. — Stem about a foot high, slender, nearly smooth 
above. Flowers about twice as large as in the preceding species, white. 
Petals exserted. Siliques three times as long as the pedicels." Nutt. 

X Doubtful species. 

13. S7 teres: small, erect, branched ; leaves all somewhat lyrately pin- 
natifid; siliques rather short, linear, acuminate, on very short pedicels. — 
Cardamine teres, Michx. ! ji. Bor.-Am. 2. p. 29 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 259. 

Vermont, on Lake Champlain, Michaux. ! — (1) Stem about 8 mches high, 
a little roughened with short hairs. Leaves nearly glabrous, cauline ones with 
3-4 pairs of lobes ; the lobes entire or toothed, terminal one 3-cleft. Ra- 
cemes long : pedicels about a line long. Siliques erect, one-third of an inch 
in length, pointed with a slender style one line in length ; valves very con- 
vex. Seeds very numerous: cotyledons distinctly incumbent. — We have 

94 CRUCIFER^. Erysimum. 

removed this little-known plant to Sisymbrium, on account of the incum- 
bent cotyledons ; but we are by no means certain that it belongs to this ge- 
nus. DeCandoUe asks whether it may not be a Nasturtium. The speci- 
mens in Michaux's herbarium are only in fruit. 

S. Icptopdalum (Raf.) Jl. Laulov. p. 2G8.— See note on p. 8G. 

14. TROPIDOCARPUM. Hook. ic. 1. t. 43. 

Silique linear or lanceolate-linear, compressed contrary to the septum ; 
valves somewhat carinate. Septum very narrow, often incomplete. Seeds 
oblong, compressed, not margined. Cotyledons narrow, shorter than the 
radicle. Sepals equal at the base. — Herbaceous annuals. Leaves pinnatiiid. 
Flowers small, yellow, in leafy racemes. 

1. T. gracile (Hook.) : nearly glabrous ; leaves pinnatifid; silique linear, 
— Hook. I. c. 

Wet places on the plains around Monterey, Upper California, Douglas, 
■jSfuttall .'—Stem decumbent, 6-12 inches long, very sparingly hirsute. Radi- 
cal leaves bipinnatifid, the others pinnatifid ; segments narrowly linear and 
very acute. Flowers from the axis of the uppermost leaves, on slender pe- 
duncles, 3-8 lines long. Sepals oblong. Petals obovate, erect, nearly twice 
the length of the sepals. Silique about an inch long, attenuated into a short 
style ; the septum sometimes nearly obliterated. 

2. T. scabriusculum (Hook.) : somewhat roughly hirsute ; leaves bipinna- 
tifid ; silique lanceolate. — Hook. ! I. c. t. 52. 

With the preceding, Douglas! Nuttall.'— Differs from T. gracde chiefly m 
its hu-sute pubescence, rather shorter leaves and peduncles, and somewhat 
smaller flowers.— The ripe siliques of this species have the septum complete 
the whole length. It is very narrow, so that, at the upper part, the opposite 
placentEe are almost in contact. Hooker has not described the seeds of this 
genus, probably because his specimens were immature. The cotyledons are 
decidedly incumbent, but lie with their edges parallel to the septum ! 

15. ERYSIMUM. Linn.; DC. syst. 2. p. 491. 

Silique 4-sided. Calyx closed. Cotyledons oblong. 

§ Style short or scarcely any : calyx deciduous: leaves neither cordate 
nor clasping : fiowers distinctly pedicellate.— ETysimastmm, DC. 

1. E. cheiranthoides (Linn.) : somewhat scabrous with a minute appres- 
sed' pubescence ; leaves lanceolate, denticulate or entire ; siliques erect, 
spreading-, twice the length of the pedicels; stigma smaW.—Pursh, f. 2. p. 
436 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 198; Hook.! f. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 64. E. parviflorum, 
Pers.syn.2.p.l'd9;Nutt.!gen.2.'p.\^. . ,^ ,. 

Along streams, throughout the United States ! and Canada ! west to Mis- 
souri and N. W. Coast. July-Aug.— or (2) Stem 1-2 feet high, simple 
or branched. Pubescence 3-4-parted. Flowers small, yellow. Siliques 
about an inch long, pointed with a short style.— A native also of Europe. 

2. E. lanceolat%im{R.Brown): canescently scabrous with an appressed 
2-parted pubescence ; stem nearly simple ; leaves linear-lanceolate, the lower 
ones usually toothed; claws of the petals longer than the calyx; siliques 

Erysimum. CRUCIFER^E. 35 

long, erect; stigma eraarginate. Hook. — /?. Br. in liort. Kew. {ed. 2.) A. p. 
116; DC. -prodr. I. p. 199; Hook. Ji. liar. -Am. I. p. 04. Chciranthus 
erysimoides, Linn. 

Canada to Arctic America. — Distinguished ("rom the preceding by its 
more pubescent leaves, shorter siliques, and larger Howers. Hook. 

3. E. a.'^perum (DC.) : canescent with a scabrous appressed pubescence, 
the hairs (ixcd by the middle ; stem simple ; leaves linear-lanceolate, cauline 
ones entire, radical ones runcinate-toothed ; siliques elongated, at length 
spreading; style short, very thick; stigma 2-lobed. — DC! syst. 2. p. 506; 
Hook. .ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 64. t. 22. E. lanceolatum, Phrsh, f. 2. p. 436. 
(fide ' DC.) Cheiranthus asper, Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 69. 

Missouri ! to Oregon, and in British America, north to lat. 65°. (^ Stem 
12-18 inches high. Cauline leaves 2 inches long, 2-3 lines wide ; margin 
retrorsely scabrous. Flowers large, fragrant. Petals with the claws longer 
than the sepals. Siliques 2-3 inches long, scarcely a line wide, somewhat 
quadrangular. Seeds oblong. Cotyledons distinctly incumbent, although the 
radicle is a little oblique. 

4. E. Arkansanum (Nutt.! mss.): "slightly roughened with appressed 
hairs, which on the stem are fixed by the middle and on the leaves 3-parted ; 
stem simple ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, runcinately and sinuately toothed, 
attenuate at the base ; sihques elongated, nearly erect, tapering at the sum- 
mit; stigma 2-lobed. 

" Open plains of Arkansas. [Also in Texas, Dr. Leavenworth .'] — (5) 
Stem li-3 feet high, angular above. Leaves about 2 inches long, scarcely 
one-third of an inch wide ; the radical ones almost pinnatifidly toothed, with 
distant teeth. Raceme at first short and corymbose ; in fruit much elongat- 
ed. Flowers as large as in the common Wall-flower, yellow, shaded with 
orange. Claws of the petals much exserted ; Umb broadly obovate. Si- 
hques 2^ inches long, ahnost exactly 4-sided." Nutt. — Cotyledons obliquely- 
incumbent. Differs from the preceding in the less scabrous pubescence, 
narrower and toothed leaves, and in the tapering summit of the style, as 
well as in the larger flowers. 

5. E. elatum (Nutt.! mss.): "somewhat scabrous; the hairs on the stem 
fixed by the middle, on the leaves 3-4-parted ; stem tall and simple ; radical 
leaves usually runcinate ; cauline lanceolate, remotely denticulate, attenuated 
at each extremity. 

" Grassy situations by the banks of the Wahlamet. — (5) Stem 3-5 feet 
high, covered with minute appressed hairs, but not canescent. Radical 
leaves more or less divided or toothed, sometimes, as likewise those of the 
stem, almost entire. Flowers very large, colored with various shades of yel- 
low and orange. Claws of the petals exserted, half an inch or more in 
length; Umb obovate. Mature siliques not seen." Nutt. — Very near the 

6. E. parviflorum (Nutt. mss.) : " canescent and scabrous ; stem low and 
simple ; leaves all linear or somewhat lanceolate, almost wholly entire ; si- 
liques erect; petals scarcely longer than the calyx. 

"Plains of the Rocky Mountains. — (z) or If About a foot high. Leaves 
remarkably narrow, densely clustered at the base of the stem. Flowers 
small, sulphur-yellow." Nutt. 

. 7. E. piimi7M7H. (Nutt. mss.) :" somewhat scabrous ; leaves linear, (appa- 
rently) all entire ; siliques flatly 4-sided, very long, erect ; pedicels very short ; 
stigma small, nearly entire ; petals longer than the calyx. 

" Dry elevated plains of the Rocky Mountains. — (1) Stems 2-4 inches 
high. Flowers pale yellow, conspicuous. Siliques 3 inches or more in 
length." Nutt. 

96 CRUCIFER^. Pachypodium. 

8. E. grandiftoimm (Nutt. ! mss.): "dwarfish, slightly roughened with 
appressed forked or stellate hairs ; leaves oblong-spatulate, obtuse, entire or 
somewhat angularly lobed towards the base ; petioles long and slender ; flow- 
ers in capitate corymbs ; siliques very long, somewhat torulose ; stigma con- 
spicuously 2-lobed. . , • • • r- n/r TT r^ ve ■ 

" Sand hills of Pomt Pmus, m the vicinity of Monterey, Upper Cabtornia. 

jyiarch. Root very long and straight, perennial. Stems growing partly 

under the sand, crowned with the vestiges of several years' growth of leaves; 
the part above-ground 3 to 6 inches in height. Leaves very flat, often whol- 
ly entire sometimes repandly denticulate, softietimes angularly lobed below; 
lamina an inch or more in length and 5-6 lines broad, attenuated at the base 
into a slender petiole 1-2 inches long. Corymb scarcely extending beyond 
the leaves. Flowers fragrant, deep yellow, uncommonly large. Inner sepals 
saccate at "the base. Petals with the claws exserted. Filaments very broad, 
flat. Siliques 2-3 inches long, somewhat curved upwards and outwards, 
scarcely a line wide. Style scarcely any : stigma pubescent." Nutt. 

16. PACHYPODIUM. Niott. mss. 

" Silique somewhat terete, elongated, torulose, on a short thick stipe. 
Seeds in a single series, oblong, scarcely margined. Cotyledons obhquely 
incumbent. Calyx nearly erect, equal at the base. Glands 4 at the base of 
the stamens. Petals narrow, on very long claws.— Annual or biennial, gene- 
rally tall plants, with the siliques crowded and almost corymbose. Flowers 
pale violet or rose-color. Leaves entire or laciniate." 

1. P. laciniatum (Nutt. \ mss.): glabrous ; leaves all petioled, laciniate- 
piniiatifid ; flowers on spreading pedicels ; petals hnear, 3 times as long as the 
calyx • stipe very short ; siliques tapering at the summit.— Macropodiura la- 
ciniatum. Hook. ! hot. misc. 1. p. 341. t. 68, ^ fl. Bor.-Am. 1. jx 43. 

Rocky places beneath cliiFs on the Wallawallah and Oregon Rivers, 
Douo-las ! NuttalU— Stem erect, 1-3 feet high, branching. Leaves atten- 
uated into a netiole ; lacinise spreading, entire or toothed. Raceme strict, 
dense : pedicels about 2 lines long. Sepals oblong. Petals very narrow, 
pale red or almost white. Anthers hnear. Siliques an inch and a half 
long slender, much crowded at the summit of the peduncles, tapering into 
a slender style : stigma small, simple : stipe less than a line in length. Radi- 
cle lying near the edge of one of the cotyledons^ but truly incumbent.— Very 
distincrfrom Macropodium in the very short stipe of the silique, and in the 
incumbent cotyledons. 

2. P. integrifolium (Nutt. ! mss.) : " leaves entire ; radical ones petioled, 
oblong-elliptical; cauline lanceolate-oblong, sessile; uppermost nearly hnear ; 
stem fastigiately branched ; flowers ahnost corymbose, crowded ; petals spat- 
ulate-obovate ; pedicels twice as long as the calyx ; stipe short, but dis- 
tinct ; silique abruptly pointed. , , ^ r 

" Elevated plains of the Rocky Mountains, towards the Oregon, as tar as 
Wallawallah.— (2) Stem terete, smooth, 3-5-feet high, attenuated upward, 
and sending out numerous branches toward the suimnit. Flowers pale rose- 
color. Pedicels about ,half an inch long, almost horizontal. Sepals mem- 
branaceous, oblong. Stamens exserted. Claws of the petals extending be- 
yond the calyx. Siliques an inch in length, contracted between the seeds, 
nearly terete ; the stipe nearly a Une long." Nutt.— Seeds as broad as the 
cell ; the radicle dorsal, lying midway between the middle and the edge of 
one of the cotyledons. Septum with a broad longitudinal nerve. 

Stanleya. CRUCIFERiE. * 97 

3. P. s a ^-it latum (J^ntt.l mss.) : leaves entire ; the cauliue ones lanceo- 
late, sagittate, clasping ; stipe almost wanting; petals obovate, the limb as 
long as the claw ; silique abruptly pointed, nearly erect ; raceme elongated 
in fruit. 

" Plains on the west side of the Rocky Mountafns. — (5) About 2 feet 
high, sparingly branched. Leaves somewhat glaucous, radical ones small 
and spatulate. Flowers pale reddish-Avhite. Sepals broadly ovate. Petals 
nearly twice as long as the calyx, strongly veined. Pedicels of the fruit 
nearly half an inch long. Siliques an inch and a quarter in length, rather 
broadly linear, somewhat incur\'ed." Nutt. — Seeds as broad as the cell ; the 
radicle dorsal and almost medial. — This species is hardly a congener with 
the preceding. It may belong to Sisymbrium § Cardaminopsis. 

17. STANLEYA. Nutt. gen. 2. p. 71 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 511. 

Silique nearly terete, slender, supported on a long stipe. "Seeds oblong, 
somewhat terete. Cotyledons oblong-linear." DC. Calyx colored, spread- 
ing. Petals erect, linear or spatulate ; claws exceeding the lamina in length, 
and connivent into a tetrahedral tube. Stamens somewhat equal : anthers 
linear. — Glabrous and glaucous perennial herbs. Leaves lyrately pinnatifid 
or undivided. Flowers yellow, in long racemes. 

1. S. pinnatifida (Nutt.): leaves thickish. interruptedly lyrate-pinnatifid; 
lobes somewhat lanceolate, entire or with 1-2 large teeth. — Nutt. ! gen. 2. 
p. 71 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 512. Cleome pinnatifida, Fursh, fi. 2. p. 739. 

Rocks on the upper part of the Missouri, and near the head-waters of 
Lewis's River, Nuttall ! May. — Stems 2-3 feet high, often several frorn 
one root, decumbent at the base. Leaves large, sometimes with a very mi- 
nute pubescence on the under side, deeply pinnatifid. Flowers in a crowded 
raceme, very showy : pedicels about half an inch long, erect-spreading. 
Calyx linear, pale orange-yellow. Petals sulphur-yellow, the claw lon^ and 
very narrow, pubescent internally ; lamina linear-oblong, about hall the 
length of the claw. Filaments very long and slender, pubescent below, with 
a glandular enlargement at the base: anthers at length revolute. " Silique 
an inch or more in length ; the slender stipe nearly an inch long." Nutt. 
— We have not had an opportunity of examining the ripe siliques of this 
very interestins plant ; neither were they found by Mr. Nuttall, either in this 
or any of the following species, during his recent journey across the con- 

2. 5f. integrifolia (James) : leaves thick, ovate-oblong, entire, attenuate at 
each end ; stipe as long as the pedicel. — Tames ! in Long^s exped. 2. p. 17. 

Sandstone ridges at the base of the Rocky Mountains, Dr. James .'—Stem 
simple. Leaves 5-6 inches long and 2-3 w'ide, prominently veined, undulate. 
Sepals deep yellow, spatulate-oblong. Petals yellow, spatulate-obovate ; 
claws very thick. Filaments recurved-spreading. Ovary flattened contrary 
to the septum ; the edges of the septum prominent. Style none. 

3. ,S'. heterophylla (Nutt. ! mss.) : " stem erect, lower leaves lyrately pin- 
nate, somewhat pubescent beneath ; terminal segment much larger, ovate- 
lanceolate, somewhat serrate ; upper leaves lanceolate, entire ; lamina of the 
petals longer than the claws. 

" Rocky situations near Lewis's River, in the Rocky Mountains. — A more 
humble species than S. laciniata, which it resembles in the color of the flow- 
ers. Under surface of the leaves pubescent with very short and somewhat 
stellate hairs." — Nutt. 


98 CRUCIFERiE. Warea. 

4. S. viridijlora (Nutt. rass.) : " erect, glabrous ; leaves cuneate-obovate, 
acute, entire ; the radical ones with a few runcinate teeth towards the base ; 
petals linear, and, as well as the calyx, herbaceous. 

" Bare shelving hills on Ham's Fork of the Colorado of the West, and in 
other parts of the Rocky Mountains, towards the sources of Lewis's River; 
also on the head waters of the Platte. July- Aug.— Root very stout and cy- 
lindrical, penetrating deeply into the earth ; the taste bitter and nauseous. 
Stem simple, 3-4 feet high. Radical leaves clustered, about a span long, oc- 
casionally almost pinnatifid at the base ; cauline ones entire, rapidly dimin- 
ishing in size upward, so that the superior part of the stem is naked. Ra- 
ceme very long (sometimes 2 feet in length), crowded with flowers. Calyx 
and corolla greenish-yellow, and not showy. Sepals long and linear. Petals 
linear ; the lamina scarcely longer than the claw. Anthers very long and 
linear. Immature fruit smooth ; the pedicel about half an inch long : stipe 
about an inch in length, nearly as long as the silique." Nutt. 

18. WAREA. Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 83. 

Silique compressed, slender and elongated, supported on a long stipe. 
Sepals colored, ligulate or spatulate. Petals spreading or reflexed ; claws 
very slender, longer than the lamina. Stamens somewhat equal. Glands 6 
at the base of the stamens.— Annual glabrous plants. Leaves entire. Flow- 
ers and siliques in umbelliform racemes, purple or white : siliques pendulous, 

1. W. amplexifolia (Nutt.): leaves oblong-ovate, partly clasping; siliques 
ancipital. — Nutt. I I. c. t. 10. Stanleya amplexifolia, Nutt. in Sill. jour. 5. 
p. 297: DC.prodr. 1. p. 200. 

East Florida, Mr. Ware; Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman .'—Stem 1-3 
feet or more in height, fastigiately branched above. Lower leaves not seen ; 
cauline i an inch to an inch in length, rather acute. Racemes scarcely half 
an inch long ; the flowers much crowded and almost verticiUate, showy. 
Pedicels spreading, and at length recurved, very slender. Calyx nearly equal 
at the base: sepals purpUsh, narrow, a little dilated upward. Petals rather 
pale purple : limb nearly orbicular, undulate ; claw one-third longer than the 
limb, glandularly roughened towards the base. Stamens much exserted; 
the filaments capillary and glabrous : anthers linear-oblong. Ovary linear : 
stigma sessile. Stipe of the fruit nearly capillary, purplish, about three- 
fourths of an inch long; siliques U inch long and less than a line in width, 
somewhat acute. Seeds (immature) oblong, in a single series : funiculi slen- 
der, free. 

2. W. cuneifolia (Nutt.) : leaves nearly sessile, rather thick, oblong, ob- 
tuse, attenuate at the base ; siliques with the valves somewhat convex. — Nutt. ! 
in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 84. Cleome cuneifolia, Muhl. cat. p. 64 ; Ell. 
sk. 3 p. 150. Stanleya gracilis, DC. prodr. 1. p. 200. 

Sand hiUs, Georgia, Le Conte ! Baldxcin ! Middle Florida, Dr. Alex- 
ander ! — Stem 1-3 feet high, fastigiately branched above. Leaves i-1 inch 
long, the uppermost ones oblong-linear. Racemes as in the preceding species. 
Sepals white, spatulate. Petals white ; the claws nearly twice as long as 
the obovate lamina, roughened. Silique about an inch and three-quarters long; 
the stipe about half an inch in length. Seeds linear-oblong, not margined, 
in a single series : radicle dorsal and nearly medial. Cotyledons oblong. 
Septum opaque, Avithout a central nerve ; the tubuli straight and ascending, 
slightly reticulated. 

Selenia. CRUCIFERiE. 99 

Tribe 111. BRASSICE.^. DC. 

Silique dehiscent : septum linear. Style often enlarged and with a 
seminiferous cell at the base. Seeds for the most part globose. Co. 
tyledons incumbent, conduplicate or longitudinally plicate, with the 
radical lying in the sinus (0»)* 

19. SINAPIS. Linn.; DC. sysl.2.p.mi. 

Silique somewhat terete ; valves nerved. Style short, acute. Seeds sub- 
globose, in a single series. Calyx spreading. — Biennial or annual (rarely 
perennial) herbs. Leaves usually lyratc, incised orpinnatifid. Flowers yel- 
low, in elongated racemes. — Mustard. 

1. .S. nigra (Linn.): siliques appressed, glabrous, somewhat 4-sided; 
style short (not rostrate) ; lower leaves lyrate, uppes ones lanceolate, entire. 
—DC. prodr. \.p. 218 ; Eng. bot. t. 969 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 390. 

Fields and waste places. June-Aug. Introduced — (f) Lower leaves 
large, scabrous ; cauline ones glabrous. Sepals yellow. Petals obovate, un- 
guiculate. Silique about three-fourths of an inch in length, pointed with the 
short and slender 4-sided style. — Black Mustard. 

2. S. arvensis (Linn.): siliques glabrous, many angled, torose, about three 
times the length of the slender somewhat ancipital style ; stem and leaves 
more or less hairy. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 219; E7ig. bot. t. 1748. 

Western and Northern parts of the State of New York! Lower Canada, 
Mrs. Percival ! Introduced. June-Aug.— (T) Plant 2-3 feet high. Lower 
leaves large, somewhat lyrately pinnatifid : upper ones oblong-ovate : all ir- 
regularly repand-toothed. Flowers bright yellow. Siliques somewhat 
spreading, \\ inch long ; beak nearly as broad as the silique. Seeds large 
and black. 

2. SiliculoscB. 


Silicle dehiscent : septum broad and membranaceous. Seeds in- 
verted ! (i. e. with the radicle ascending, and next the placentae.) 
t Cotyledons plane, accumbent (or nearly so) parallel with the septum. 

20. SELENIA. Nutt, in jour. acad. Philad. 5. p. 132. t. 6. 

Silicle broadly oval, acute at the base, margined ; valves reticulated, some- 
what inflated : septum sometimes incomplete ; areolae transverse. Seeds 4-6 
in each cell, orbicular, with a broad and thin cartilaginous border : funiculi 
free. Radicle very short. Calyx nearly equal at the base, colored, spread- 
ing. Glands 10. Petals erect. Stamens toothless. Style elongated. — An 
annual herb. Leaves pinnately parted. Flowers yellow, in leafy racemes. 

S. aicrea (Nutt.! 1. c.) 
/?. septum nearly wanting. 

100 CRUCIFER^. Vbsicaria. 

Wet prairies, Arkansas, NnUall ! Dr. Pitcher. /?. Near St. Au^stine, 
Texas, Dr. Leavenworth ! March- April.— Stem 4-8 inches high, branch- 
ing from the base, 3-sidecl. Leaves pinnatifid, the radical ones somewhat 
rosulate, with the segments more or less toothed. Raceme at first corym- 
bose, but afterwards elongated into a leafy raceme ; the pedicels with a folia- 
ceou's bract at the base of each, or rather axillary, the leaves gradually di- 
minishing in size upward. Flowers about half an inch in diameter, golden 
yellow, fragrant. Sepals linear-oblong, yellow. Petals spatulate, entire, near- 
ly twice as long as the calyx. Glands 8 by pairs at the base of the sepals, 
and 2 (emarginate) at the base of the shorter stamens. Ovary linear-oblong, 
flat : style ensiform : stigma capitate. SiUcle 5-6 lines long and 3-4 broad, 
(in /?. one-third larger), abruptly acuminated with the persistent style : valves 
very thin, reticulated with slightly prominent veins : septum complete m the Ar- 
kansas plant, a mere narrow border in /?., the central part being entirely want- 
ing ; areolee linear. Seeds in a double series^ exactly orbicular, with a notch 
at the hilum, dotted ; the border thin, but rigid. Radicle scarcely half as 
long as the cotyledons, not truly accumbenl, but lying on the side of one of 
the cotyledons,' very near its edge.— This remarkable plant resembles the 
tribe Cremolobeaj of R. Brown (Oudney, p. 7.) in its inverted or resupinate 
seeds ; but differs in so many respects, as well from that, as from all the tribes 
of De CandoUe, that we have been obliged to give it a place by itself. 

Tribe V. ALYSSINE^. DC. 

Silicle dehiscent ; valves plane or convex : septum broadly oval and 
membranaceous. Seeds compressed, often margined. Cotyledons 
plane, accumbent (lying next the placentae), parallel with the septum. 

21. VESICARIA. Lam. ill. t. 559 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 295. 

Silicle globose or ovate, inflated ; valves hemispherical, membranaceous 
or somewhat rigid. Seeds several (4-6 in each cell, or by abortion' fewer), 
sometimes margined: funiculi partly adnate to the septum. Petals entire. — 
Flowers yeUow. 

§ 1. Silicle globose, membranaceous, inflated. — Vesicariana, DC. 

1. F. arc^icct (Richards.): canescent with a steUate pubescence ; radical 
leaves crowded, spatulate, mostly entire, obtuse ; cauhne ones few, linear ; 
style slender, about half the length of the globose silicle. — Richards, app. 
Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 26 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am,. 1. p. 48. 

a. flowers larger; silicles glabrous [or minutely pubescent]. Hook. — V. 
arctica, Richards.; DC. prodr. 1. p. 159. Alyssum arcticum, Fl. Dan. t. 

/S. flowers smaUer; silicles [densely] pubescent. Hook. — V. arctica. Hook, 
bot. t. 2882. V. arenosa, Richards. I. c. 

British America, from Canada ! to the Arctic Regions ! Island of Anti- 
costi, Mr. Shepherd! April-May. — 11 Stem 3-8 inches high; the neck 
marked with the vestiges of former leaves. Pedicels 4-6 lines long. Sflicle 
somewhat ovate-globose, as large as a small pea. Style filiform: stigma ca- 
pitate, distinct. Seeds 4-6 in each cell, roundish, without a margin. Funi- 
culi adnate to the septum towards the base. 

Vesicahia. CRUCIFERiE. 101 

2. V. Ludoviciana (DC): canescent with a stellate pubescence; radi- 
cal leaves spatulate, entire, obtuse ; cauline linear; style slender, longer ilian 
the ovary, and nearly as long as the obovate-globosc silicle. — DC. syst. 2. p. 
297. Alyssuni Ludovicianum, i\«<^. / gen.2.pQ3. Myagruin argenteum, 
Pursh, fi. 2. p. 434. 

Rocky hills of the Missouri and Platte, NiiUall, Dr. Jamrs ! N. W. 
Coast, Dous:la.<i. April- June. — 1| Stem 6-8 inches high, simple, or some- 
what branched above. Leaves about an inch long. Flowers golden-yellow. 
Petals obovate. Silicle smaller than in the preceding species, nearly smooth 
when old. 

3. V. grandijlora {Yiodk) ; canescent with a steUate pubescence; leaves 
sessile, cuneate-oblong, sinuately toothed ; siUcle globose, glabrous ; style 
about two-thirds the length of the silicle ; petals obcordate, twice as long as 
the calyx ; stamens thickened at the base. — Hook. bot. mag. t. 3464 ; D. 
Don in Brit.jl. gard. (.ser. 2.) t. 401. 

0. pallida : stem sparingly pubescent ; leaves narrowed at the base, rather 
coarsely toothed ; flowers almost white ; silicle globose. 

Texas. Drummoiid! P. Small prairies near St. Augustine, Texas, Dr. Lea- 
venworlh ! — (l) Stem slender, decumbent, much branched, about a foot 
long. Leaves an inch in length. Calyx copiously hairy : sepals elliptical- 
oblong. Ovary spherical, scarcely stipulate ; septum veinless : ovules 6 in 
each fell. D. Don. — We do not recognise this species among our Texan 
specimens collected by Drummond, kindly sent us by Sir William Hooker ; 
but our var. /?. agrees so nearly with the description and figure of Don, 
that we cannot regard it as specifically distinct. 

4. V. repanda (Nutt. ! mss.) : stem minutely and sparingly pubescent, 
decumbent ; leaves linear-oblong or nearly linear, ahnost glabrous, narrowed 
at the base, repand, obtuse ; silicle obovate-globose, on a short stipe ; style 
about two-thirds as long as the silicle; stigma capitate; petals obovate, 
twice the length of the calyx ; filaments subulate. 

Banks of the Red River, Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher ! — Stem a foot or more 
in length, branching from the base, rather stout and angular, the upper part 
sparingly pubescent. Leaves li-2i inches long ; the upper ones slightly 
repand-denticulate, with a few minute appressed stellate hairs on both sur- 
faces. Pedicels an inch long, spreading. Sepals linear- oblong. Petals 3-4 
lines long, Avith distinct claws. Ovary obovate-oblong: each cell with 6-8 
ovules. Silicle 2 lines long, on a distinct pedicel : style rather slender : stig- 
ma conspicuous. 

5. V. angustifolia (Nutt.! mss.) : canescently and stellatcly pubescent : 
radical leaves lyrately pinnatifid or repandly toothed, oblong, attenuated at 
the base ; cauline linear, entire, or repand ; silicle globose, glabrous, nearly 
sessile ; style filiform, rather shorter than the silicle ; petals obovate-oblong, 
twice the length of the ovate sepals ; filaments subulate, dilated at the base. 

Prairies of Arkansas and Red River, Nutt all! Dr. Leavenicorth ! April. 
— (T) Stems several from one root, about a foot high. Radical leaves taper- 
ing at the base into a long petiole ; cauline ones about a line Avide. Raceme 
not much elongated in fruit. Seeds mostly abortive, few in each cell : funi- 
culi adhering to the septum at the base. 

6. V. Nnttallii : somewhat pubescent, branched from the base and procum- 
bent; leaves lanceolate-oblong, obtusely repand-dentate or almost entire ; 
silicle pyriform-subglobose, somewhat stipitate, glabrous ; style two-thirds as 
long as the silicle ; petals obovate ; filaments dilated at the base. 

Prairies of Red River, Arkansas, Nnttall ! Dr. Leavenworth ! — (J) Stem 
12-18 inches long. Leaves an inch or more in length, narrowed at the base. 
Racemes much elongated in fruit : pedicels nearly an inch long, spreading 
or somewhat recurved. Flowers bright yelloAV. Silicle 2 lines long, a little 

102 CRUCIFER^. Vesicaria. 

constricted near the base, and with a circular depression at the insertion of 
the stipe. Seeds 4 in each cell (ovules 6-8), not margined : funiculi partly- 

7. V. brcvistijla : densely and stellately pubescent; radical leaves lyrately 
pinnatifid or toothed ; cauline ones oblong, sessile, dentate-serrate ; siUcle 
globose, sessile, glabrous : style rather thick, one-third the length of the sili- 
cle ; seeds margined, about 6 in each cell ; petals broadly obovate ; filaments 
dilated at the base. 

Texas, Drummond ! — (T) Stems numerous from one root, about a foot 
lone. Radical leaves 2-3 inches long ; cauline about three-fourths of an 
inch in length, closely sessile and but little dilated at the base. Petals 4-5 
lines long, with a short claw. Fdaments short, with a broad ovate dilatation 
at the base. Sihcle about 2i lines in diameter. 

8. V. gracilis. (Hook.?): somewhat scabrous with sparse stellate hairs; 
leaves oblong and Imear-oblong, entire or remotely denticulate ; silicle globose, 
stipitate, shorter than the style, glabrous ; seeds 2-3 in each cell, not niar- 
gined ; petals obovate ; filaments subulate. — Hook. hot.mag.t.MQ'i^l (in a 

Texas, Drummond ! — About a span high, erect ; several slender stems 
from one root. Radical leaves petioled ; cauline sessile, narrowed at the 
base. Silicle about a line and a half in length ; style filiform ; stigma 
minute.— Hooker (1. c.) has noticed tAvo Texan species, without describing 
them ; but from the appropriateness of the name, there can be little doubt 
that the plant here described is his V. gracilis. 

9. V. ^/lor/a.- decumbent, somewhat pubescent with stellate hairs; leaves 
elliptical, sessile, entire, or slightly repand ; silicle globose, with scarcely any 
stipe ; style more than twice as long as the silicle ; seeds 2 in each cell, not 
margined ; petals obovate ; filaments dilated at the base. 

Banks of Elkhorn Creek, near Frankfort, Kentucky, Short .'— (T) Stem 
about a span long, slender. Leaves i-1 inch long, narrowed at each end. 
Flowers bright yellow : pedicels half an inch in length. Silicles scarcely a 
line in diameter, stellately pubescent. Seeds suspended from near the sum- 
rait of the cell.— Easily distinguished by its small silicle and very long 

§ 2. Silicle ovate; valves convex, rather Wg-i(Z.— Alyssoides, DC. 

9. V. alpina (Nutt. ! mss.) : " dwarf and csespitose, canescent with a 
dense stellate pubescence ; leaves linear-spatulale, entire ; calyx equal at the 
base, deciduous; silicle inflated below, compressed at the summit, shorter 
than the slender style. 

" High hills of the Rocky Mountain range, toward the sources of the 
Platte.— If Main stem short and thick, throwing up nuinerous stalks 2-4 
inches high. Leaves nearly an inch long, and about a line in width." Nutt. 
— Flowers in short corymbose racemes, large for the size of the plant. Petals 
oblong-spatulate, one-half longer than the calyx. Filaments subulate, with a 
callous enlargement at the base of each: anthers ovate. Silicles acute, 
densely clothed with stellate hairs : septum usually with an oval hole in the 
centre : cells 4-seeded. Seeds not margined. 

§ 3. Silicle didymous, much inflated, membranaceous.— "PhysaTia, 
Nutt. mss. 

10. V. didymocarpa (Hook.) : canescent Avith a stellate pubescence ; ra- 
dical leaves broadly obovate-spatulatc ; cauline ones spatulate-lanceolate, 

Draba. CRUCIFERiE. 103 

mostly entire ; silicles large, inflated, didymous ; seeds not margined.— //oofr, 
//. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 49. t. IG. 

In deep sand on the Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-57, Drummond ! and on 
the Argillite hills of the Platte, from Scott's Bluffs to the mountains, Nut- 
tall! Oregon, Douglas, Nidtall.— U Root fusiform. Stems branching 
from the base, diffuse, 3-4 inches high. Flowers showy, corymbed. Petals 
obovate-spatulate, nearly twice as long as the calyx. Silicle conspicuously 
didymous ; each cell of the size of a large pea : septum lanceolate ! 

22. ALYSSUM. Linn, (in part); DC. syst. 2. p. 301. 

Silicle orbicular or elliptical ; valves plane or convex in the centre. Seeds 
2-4 in each cell, compressed, sometimes membranaceously margined. Calyx 
equal at the base. Petals entire. A part of the stamens usually toothed. 

1. A. hyperboreum (h'lnn.): stems herbaceous, caespitose ; leaves ellipti- 
cal, coarsely and acutely toothed, somewhat hirsute; silicles elliptical; the 
longer stamens toothed. DC.—Pursh, Ji. 2. p.i3i; DC. prodr. 1. p. 164. 
Draba hyperborea, Dcsv. 

N. W. Coast.— A doubtful native of America. 

23. DRABA. Linn.; R. Br. inhort. Kew. 4. p. 91. 
Draba & Erophila, DC. 

Silicle oval or oblong ; valves plane or convex. Seeds many, not margin- 
ed. Calyx equal. Petals entire or bifid. Stamens aU toothless. — Flowers 
white or yellow. 

§ 1. Petals entire. — Draba, DC. 
* Perennial: scapes mostly leafless. 

1. D. algida (Adams): flaccid; scapes short, naked, pilose with spreading 
hairs; leaves oblong, plane, and (with the calyx) pilose with simple hairs; 
silicles somewhat corymbed, elliptical, glabrous ; style very short ; flowers 
yellow. Hook.— DC. prodr 1. p. 167 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 50. 

y. hrachycarpa (DC.) : silicle shorter, ovate. — DC. I. c. 

S. breviscapa (Hook.) : scape immersed among the smoothish leaves. 
Hook. I. c. 

Sea-coast of Arctic America. — Pedicels always glabrous. Petals obovate, 
twice the length of the calyx. — Very near D. alpina. Hook. 

2. D. alpina (Linn.) : somewhat rigid ; scapes naked, mostly somewhat 
hirsute ; leaves spatulate-lanceolate, plane, more or less pilose with branching 
hairs; petals (yellow) more than twice the length of the calyx; silicles some- 
what corymbed, oblong-elliptical ; style very short. — Fl. Dan. t. 56 (leaves 
broader than in our plant) ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 67 ; R. Br. ! in Parry's 1st 
voy. app. p. 265 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 50. 

a. silicles glabrous. — D. alpina, herb. Linn, ex R. Br. I. c. 
P. silicles hairy. — R. Br. I. c. 
^. flowers white.— flbofc. I. c. 

104 CRUCIFER^. Dhaba. 

Melville Island ! Shore of the Arctic Sea ! Kotzebue's Sound.— Flowers 
lar2:e, fine yellow, rarely white. Our specimens from Melville Island have 
the scape and sepals nearly glabrous, and the leaves very sparingly hirsute. 

3. D.glaciaUs (Adams): scape naked, stellately pubescent or glabrous; 
leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, rigid, stellately pubescent; petals (yellow) 
twice the length of the calyx ; silicles racemose, oblong-ovate, the ceUs 5-6- 
seeded ; style short. — '"'' Adams, in merii. soc. iiat. Mosc." ex DC. j)rodr. 1. p. 
167 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 51. 

a. scapes, pedicles, and silicles [nearly] glabrous ; flowers pale yellow. 
Hook. ! I. c. 

/?. scapes and pedicels pubescent ; silicles glabrous. Hook. ! I. c. 

y. scapes, pedicels, and silicles strongly hirsute-pubescent. Hook. ! I. c. 

S. smaller ; scapes numerous and, with the pedicels, glabrous ; flowers very- 
pale yellow. Hook..' I.e. 

e. smaller ; scapes and pedicels glabrous ; flowers deep yellow. Hook. I. c. 

Rocks on the loftiest of the Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-57°, and on the 
shores of the Arctic Sea. — Leaves narrow and more rigid than in the pre- 
ceding species, furnished with a strong midrib. Style short, but distinct. 

4. D. oligosperma (Hook.) : scape naked, slightly pubescent ; leaves 
erect, linear, rigid, ciliate, stellately pubescent on both sides, especially 
towards the apex ; petals (white) twice as long as the slightly hairy calyx ; 
siUcles pubescent, racemose, elliptical, rather acute at each end, 4-8-seeded, 
four times the length of the style. Hook. ! Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 51. 

fi.1 Andina (Nutt. ! mss.) : " densely csespitose; leaves imbricated, linear- 
oblong ; silicle ovate, rather obtuse at the base ; cells about 2-seeded." 

Mackenzie's River, lat. 68^. P. Summits of lofty hills towards the sources 
of the Platte, within the Rocky Mountain range. Nuttall ! — Stems or scapes 
in a. 3 inches ; in /?. 2 inches high. Leaves about 3 lines long. Pedicels a 
little longer than the fruit.— The var. /?. diff"ers in its more densely imbricated 
leaves, as well as in the shorter and fewer-seeded silicles. The flowers have 
not been seen. It wiU perhaps prove to be a distinct species. 

5. D. densifolia (Nutt. ! mss.) : " densely csespitose in somewhat globose 
tufts ; leaves closely imbricated, oblong-linear, strongly ciliate, and hirsute 
with nearly simple hairs ; scapes naked, hirsute ; silicle ovate, pubescent, 
with a style about one-third its length; cells mostly 2-seeded. 

" On the central chain of the Rocky Mountains towards Lewis's River. — 
Resembles the preceding, but differs in the pubescence being nearly simple, 
and in the remarkable density of the fohage." Ntdt. 

6. D. pauciflora (R. Brown) : scapes and pedicels hairy ; leaves lanceo- 
late, entire, hairy (the hairs simple or branched) ; petals (yellow) spatulate, 
scarcely exceeding the hirsute calyx. B. Br. in Parrifs 1st voy. app. p. 
266 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 51. 

Melville Island. — A doubtful species : near D. alpina. /?. Brown. 

7. D. micropetala (Hook.) : scapes and pedicels hairy ; leaves broadly 
lanceolate, veiny, entire, covered with a simple or branched pubescence ; pe- 
tals (white) linear-spatulate, scarcely exceeding the slightly hairy calyx; si- 
licles eUiptical, glabrous ; stigma sessile, emarginate. Hook. ! in Par-ry''s 2d 
voy. app. p. 385, (fjl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 52. 

island of Igloolik, and (/?. minor) sea coast of Arctic America. — Habit of 
D. alpina. The flowers resemble those of D. pauciflora, but are white. 

8. D. mxiricella (Wahl): scape naked, velvety; leaves oblong, entire, 
canescent with u soft stellate pubescence ; silicles oblong-lanceolate, gla- 
brous (flowers white.) DC— Wahl. jl. Lapp. p. 178. t. 11. /. 2; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 168 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 52. D. nivalis, Liljeblab.; Pursh, 
Jl. 2. p. 433 % 

Draba. CRUCIFERiE. 105 

Labrador and Arctic America.— Not well distinguished from D. nivalis 
and D. hirta. Hook. 

9. D. oblongata CR. Brown) : scapes naked, somewhat floccosely hirsute ; 
leaves cajspitose, oblong-linear, entire, ciliate and velvety ; sihcles oblong- 
elliptical, velvety. DC.—R. Br. in Ross's toy. app. (without descr.) ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 168; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 52. D. hirta, var. 2. Hook, in 
Pamfs voy. 

Shores of Arctic America.— Flowers unknown : style very short. 

10. D. corymbosa (R. Brown): scape naked, minutely hispid; leaves 
densely caespitose, oblong, attenuate at the base, ciliate and somewhat hispid ; 
silicles elliptical, corymbose, minutely hispid. DC. — li. Br. I. c. ; DC. 
prodr. \.p. 169; Hook.ji. Bor.-Am. l.p.52. 

Shores of Arctic America.— Very near D. oblongata and D. rupcstris. 
/?. Brown. 

11. D. hirta (Linn.): scape puberulent, often bearing one or two toothed 
leaves ; radical leaves oblong, mostly entire, minutely pubescent; silicles ob- 
lonof, and. with the pedicels, glabrous ; style almost none (flowers white). 
DC.— Wahl.f. Lapp. p. lib. t. 11./. 3; DC. prodr. l.p. 169; Hook. Jl. 
Bor.-Am. l.p. 52. 

J. siliquosa: silicles 9 lines long. Hook. I. c. 

t. leaves almost glabrous ; scape entirely glabrous. Hook. ! I. c. 

Arctic and Subarctic America! Rocky Mountains; Kotzebue's Sound.— 
A variable plant, appearing to pass into D. rupestris on the one hand, and 
into D. incana on the other. Hook. 

12. D. rupestris (R. Brown) : scape naked, or with a single leaf, pubes- 
cent ; leaves oblong-spatulate, ciliate and somewhat hirsute ; silicles oblong, 
pubescent or glabrous ; stvle very short ; stigma emarginate (flowers white). 
Hook.! jl. Bor.-Am. l.p.' 53. 

a. silicles pubescent. Hook. ! I. c— D. rupestris, R. Br. in hort. Kexo. 3. 
p. 91 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 169. D. hirta, Eng. bot. t. 1338. D. hirta, var. 4. 
Hook, in Parry'' s 2nd voy. app. p. 386. 

/?. silicles 2:labrous. Hook. '. I. c. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-57°.- Not well distinguished from D. hirta. 
The var. p. Hooker supposes to be identical with D. nivalis, Willd. If so, 
as is not improbable, that name being the older by several years, must be 
adopted instead of the one here employed. 

13. D. Lapponica (Willd.): scapes naked, glabrous; leaves lanceolate, 
entire, ■•■-'• " ' ' i . -_j / .. 

Hook. ^ 

androsacea, Wahl. jl. Lapp. p. 174. t. 11./. 5. 
Melville Island 1 — Flowers white. 

14. D. stellata (Jacq.) : scape with a single leaf, pubescent ; leaves oblong- 
oval, tomentose with a short stellate pubescence ; pedicels puberdent ; si- 
liques oblong. DC— '' Jacq. hort. Vindob. p. 113, Obs. n. 5i.t. i.f. 3." ; 
DC. prodr. l.p. 169; Deless. ic. 2. t. 46./. B; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 53. 
D. hirta, Jacq. 

0. hebecarpa: silicles entirely clothed with a velvety pubescence. DC. 
I. c. ; Hook. l. c. 

Unalaschka and Kotzebue's Sound. 0. Arctic America !— Lower leaves 
lanceolate-obovate, ciliate. Flowers white. 

15. D. Icevipes (DC.) : scapes naked or with a single leaf, pubescent ; 
leaves ovate, tomentose with a short woolly pubescence ; silicles long and 


106 CRUCIFER^. Draba. 

linear, and, with the pedicels, glabrous. DC. syst. 2. p. 346 ; Deless. ic. 2. t. 
46./. A; Hook.fl. Bur.-Am. 1. p. 53. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-57°. — Flowers white. Silicles 6 lines long and 
scarcely one line wide. DC. 

16. D. crassifolia (Graham); scape naked or with a single leaf; calyx 
and pedicels glabrous ; leaves linear -spatulate, somewhat fleshy, ciliate with 
simple hairs ; petals a little exceeding the calyx, retuse ; silicles ovate-ellipti- 
cal, glabrous. — Graham, in Edinb. pjiil. jour. 1829.^3. 182; Hook. ! fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 54. 

o. petals white. Hook. I, c. 

0. petals pale yellow. Hook. I. c. 

Summits of the Rocky Mountains, lat 52^-57°, Drummond ! and about 
lat. 41°, Nuttall. — Scapes 1-2 inches high : flowers small. Silicles glabrous. 
Hook. Leaves lanceolate-linear, entire or somewhat serrate. Nutt. 

* * Perennial : stems leafy. 

17. D. ? Icevigata (Cham. & Schlecht.) : stem leafy, simple, glabrous, 
strict ; radical and inferior cauline leaves petioled, ovate, attenuate at the 
base, somewhat fleshy, the margin obscurely ciliate ; silicles oblong-lanceolate, 
glabrous, 4-6 times as long as the pedicels. Cham. ^ Schlecht. in Linncea, 
1. p. 25 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 54. 

Island of St. Lawrence, Chamisso. — Root thick, descending. Radical 
leaves few, (not in a rosulate cluster) with the petiole 1^-2 inches long. — 
Stems several, 3-4 inches high in flower, elongated in fruit. Flowers white. 
Silicles 7-8 lines long, and 3-4ths of a line broad : style very short. Seeds 
not seen. Cham. ^ Schlecht. — Hooker has placed this in his second section, 
including the annual and biennial species ; but the authors above quoted state 
it to be perennial. 

18. D. ramosissima (Desv.) : puberulent ; stems numerous ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, remotely and sharply laciniate-toothed ; racemes corymbosely 
panicidate ; silicles lanceolate, attenuate at each end, pubescent ; style one- 
fourth the length of the silicle. — Desv. jour. bot. 3. p. 168; DC. syst. 2. p. 
355 ; Gray ! in ann. lye. New- York., 3. p. 224. D. arabisans, Pursh ! fl. 2. p. 
434. (not of Michx.) D. dentata. Hook. ^ Am. ! in jour. bot. 1. p. 192 
(without descr.); Hook.! ic. \.t. 31. Alyssum dentatum, Nutt.! gen. 2. 
p. 63. 

On rocks, Harper's Ferry, Virginia ! and Cliffs of Kentucky River, Short! 
April-May. — Rhizoma creeping, branching and throwing up tufts of stems, 
which are about a span high. Pubescence simple and stellate (mostly with 
4 rays). Radical leaves rosulate, crowded, with a long cuneiform base; cau- 
line ones sessile, almost pectinateiy toothed; the teeth 2-3 on each side. 
Racemes forming a large spreading panicle : flowers white. Pedicels erect- 
spreading, about as long as the somewhat contorted silicle. Seeds 4-7 in each 
cell. — A very distinct species, with much the habit of D. arabisans. 

19. D. arabisans (Michx.) : slightly and stellately pubescent ; stem leafy, 
simple or branching from the base, leaves acutely toothed, radical ones cune- 
ate-lanceolate, the cauline oblong; silicles glabrous, lanceolate-oblong, acumi- 
nate with a very short but distinct style ; petals (Avhite) about twice as long 
as the sepals.— Mic/i.r. .' /. 2. p. 28 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 170 ; Hook. ft. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 55. D. incana /?. glabriuscula, Gray ! in ann. lye. New- York, 3. 
p. 223. 

/?. leaves nearly entire, radical ones rather obtuse ; style almost wanting. — 
D. Longii, herb. Schwein. ! ; Nutt. ! onss. 

Rocks, Lake Champlain, Michaux ! and on the borders of small lakes in 
the northern part of the State of New York ! /?. Fort Gratiot, and N. shore 

Draba. CRUCIFER^. 107 

of Lake Superior, Dr. Pitcher ! — Stems many from a single root, 6-8 inches 
high. Radical leaves numerous, forming a rosulate tuft, 1-U inch long, 
acute, much attenuated at the base, furnished with 2 (rarely more) very acute 
spreading teeth on each side, sometimes entire; cauUne leaves somewhat 
clasping! Flowers in a short close nearly simple raceme. Petals broadly 
ovate. Silicle half an inch long, contorted; cells about 10-seeded: lower 
pedicels nearly as long as the silicle ; upper ones shorter, often cohering by 
pairs nearly or quite to the summit.— Nearly related to D. incana, and also to 
D. hirta. We have seen in the herbarium of the Academy at Philadelphia, 
si)ecimens of the var. 0. ; but the locality is not recorded. 

♦♦* Annual or biennial : stems leafy. 

20. D. incana (Linn.) : stem leafy, simple or branching, clothed with a 
velvety stellate pubescence ; leaves ovate, toothed ; silicles oblong, glabrous 
or pubescent, contorted or straight. 

a. cauline leaves ovate, acutely toothed ; silicles mostly contorted, gla- 
brous ; style very short.— D. incana, Fl. Dan. t. 130 ; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 434 ; 
Hook.fl. Hor.-Am. 1. p. 54. D. contorta, Ehrh.; DC. prodr. I. p. 170. 

p. confusa : leaves sparingly toothed ; silicles pubescent. — D. mcana, var. 
Linn. D. confusa, Ehrh. ; DC. prodr. I. c. ; Hook. '. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 54. 

y. borealis : somewhat hirsute ; stem-leaves few, ovate ; radical ones ob- 
long, attenuate at the base, entire ; silicles . . . (ovaries ovate) — D. borealis, 
DC. syst. 2. p. 342. (fide Hook.) 

a. Labrador. 0. Arctic America and the Rocky Mountains, y. Islands of 
St. Lawrence and Unalaschka.— @ and Ij? Stems 6-10 inches high, usually 
sev.eral from one root. Raceme somewhat compound. Hook. 

21. D. glabella (Pursh) : slightly and somewhat stellately pubescent ; radi- 
cal leaves oblong-spatulate ; cauline ones 2-4, ovate, toothed or entire; petals 
(white) naore than twice as long as the very smooth calyx ; silicles. . . Hook. 
— Pursh, fl. 2. p. 434? ; Richards, app. Frankl. jour. ed. 2. p. 27 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 54. 

Margins of alpine rivulets in the Rocky Mountains, between lat. 52^-57='. 
Hudson's Bay, Pursh.— Uahit of D. crassifolia, but 3-4 times the size, and 
the flowers as large as any of the genus. Silicles not seen. Hook. 

22. D. Unalaschkiana (DC): stem leafy, simple, pubescent; leaves 
ovate-oblong, entire, pubescent ; silicles oblong, minutely hirsute. DC. syst. 
2. p. 3S0 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 55. 

Unalaschka.— Petals (white) twice as long as the calyx ; lamma obovate, 
emarginate. DC. 

23. D. aurea (Vahl) : pubescent ; stem erect, leafy ; leaves lanceolate or 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire or toothed ; corymbs terminal and axillary ; 
silicles oblong-lanceolate, pubescent, 3 times as long as the pedicels ; petals 
(yellow) emarginate; style rather short. Hook.—Fl. Dan. t. 1460; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 170; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 55, f in hot. mag. t. 2934. 

Rocky Mountains. — Flowers sometimes white. Hook. 

24. D. lutea (Gilib.) : pubescent; stem branching, leafy; leaves oval; 
cauline ones lanceolate, toothed ; silicles oblong-elliptical, glabrous, about 30- 
seeded, one-third the length of the pedicels. Hook.— DC. prodr. 1. p. Ill ; 
Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. I. p. bb. , . , .,. i tt i 

fi. lonsripes (DC.) : pedicels 3-4 times the length of the siUcles.— l/oo/i:. 
I. c— D.^gracilis, Graham^ in Edinb. phil. jour. 1828. p. 172. 

Arctic and Subarctic America ! Grassy moist places at the junction of the 
Wahlamet and the Oregon, Nuttall /—Stem 6-15 inches high, very slender, 

108 CRUCIFERtE. Draba. 

usually simple, but sometimes a little branching from the base : pubescence 
simple or forked. Flowers very small, yellow: petals about twice as long as 
the calyx. Silicle 4 lines long, rather obtuse : stigma sessile. — Hooker's 
reference to Nuttall's Genera is a mistake, as Nuttall has no D. lutea. Not 
very distinct from the next species. 

25. D. nemoralis (Ehrh.) : pubescent; stem branched; leaves oval; 
cauline ones lanceolate, toothed ; silicles oblong-elliptical, pubescent, nearly 
30-seeded, one-third the length of the pedicels. Hook. — DC.prodr. l.p. 171; 
Hook ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 55. 

a. flowers yellow ; petals nearly entire. Hook. I. c. 

fi. flowers nearly white ; petals emarginate. Hook. I. c. 

N. W. Coast and Subarctic America ! P. Plains of the Rocky Mountains, 
Nuttall ; Fort Gratiot, Michigan, Dr. Pitcher ! — Stem slender, 3-4 inches 
high, pubescent below, glabrous above. Leaves hirsute. Flowers minute. 
Pedicels very long. Petals emarginate, longer than the hairy calyx. — Our 
specimens from Dr. Pitcher have glabrous fruit. 

26. D. muralis (Linn.): pubescent; stem branching, leafy; leaves 
broadly ovate ; cauline ones cordate, somewhat clasping, strongly toothed ; 
silicles oblong-elliptical (glabrous, DC.)., about 16-seeded,a little shorter than 
the pedicels (flowers white). Hook. — Eng. hot. t. 192 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. Ill ; Bor.-Am. 1. p. 56. 

About Montreal. Petals entire or notched, upon the same plant. Hook. 
— The last three species are in much confusion, which we have not the 
means of clearing up, and we have therefore very closely followed Hooker, 
who, however, is far from being satisfied with his own account of them. 

27. D. cuneifolia (Nutt.): hirsute-pubescent; stem branching below; 
leaves sparingly toothed ; radical ones spatulate-oblong ; cauline ones few, 
oblong-ovate, somewhat attenuate at the base; racemes rather elongated in 
fruit ; silicles oblong-lanceolate, minutely hispid, twice as long as the pedi- 
cels ; petals (white) emarginate. — Niitt. ! mss. in herb. Hook. 

Grassy places around St. Louis, Missouri; also in Arkansas and West 
Florida, Nuttall ! Kentucky, Short ! March- April. — Very pubescent , the 
hairs branching. Plant 3-8 inches high ; the lower part only clothed with 
leaves, slender. Radical leaves an inch and a half long, and three-fourths of 
an inch broad. Flowers rather large : petals nearly three times as long as 
the calyx. Silicles 6-7 lines long, minutely hispid, especially on the margin, 
diverging horizontaUy ; cells about 15-seeded : style none. 

28. D. platycarpa: canescently hirsute with branching hairs; stem 
branching below, the branches leafy ; leaves remotely toothed ; radical ones 
obovate ; cauline oblong, closely sessile ; racemes elongated in fruit ; silicles 
obovate-oblong, minutely hispid, shorter than the pedicels ; petals (white) 

Texas, Drummond! — Stem 3-8 inches high, divergingly branched below. 
Leaves about an inch long, with 2-3 distinct teeth on each side. Petals 
broadly obovate ; the claw short : limb deeply emarginate. Silicles on spread- 
ing pedicels, 3-4 lines long and nearly 2 lines broad, very obtuse ; cells 25- 

29. D. hrachycarpa (Nutt. mss.) : minutely pubescent, simple or branch- 
ed ; radical leaves roundish-ovate, petioled, cauline oblong or linear, minutely 
(about 2-) toothed, or entire; racemes many -flowered, strict, elongated in 
fruit (flowers Avhile) ; silicles oval, glabrous, about the length of the pedi- 
cels; cells 5-6-seeded ; style very short; petals entire. — Alyssum bidentatum, 
Nutt. ! in herb. Hook. 

fi. fastigiata (Nutt. mss.) : more pubescent ; stem mostly simple ; radical 
leaves mostly 4-toothed ; silicles pubescent. 


Plains and open grassy places, near St. Louis, Missouri ; and in Arkansas, 
Nuttall ! Milledgeville, Georgia, Dr. Boykin ! Macon, Georgia, Mr. Loovii.i! 
0. Arkansas, Nutlall ! March-April. — Stem often much branched,' leafy. 
Flowers minute. Silicles about 2i lines long; valves marked with a me- 
dian nerve, obscurely veined. Petals obovatc, very slightly emarginate. 

30. D. Caroliniana (Walt.) : stem leafy and hispid at the base, naked 
and sniooth above ; leaves roundish-ovate, entire, hispid ; silicles linear, 
glabrous, corymbed, longer than the pedicles ((lowers white). — Walt. Car. 
p. 174; p. 138; DC. proch. 1. p. 171. D. hispidula, Mich.r. ! 
Jl.2. p. 28; Pursh.'Ji. 2. p. 433. Arabis rotundifolia, Raf. in Avier. month. 

mag. 2. p. 43. 

p. umbeUata : silicles elongated, almost umbellate. 

Sandy fields, Connecticut ! to Georgia ! west to Arkansas ! /?. Arkansas, 
Dr. Pitcher '. April-June. — Plant 1-3 inches high. Petals oblong, twice as 
long as the sepals. Silicles 4-6 lines long; cells 20-30-seeded : style almost 
none. — Petals in the terminal flowers of old racemes very minute, or nearly 

31. D.micrantha {^mXX. mss.) : "stem leafy and hispid below, naked 
and smooth above ; leaves cuneate-obovate, hispid, entire ; silicles linear, mi- 
nutely hispid, much longer than the pedicels (flowers white). 

" Open plains and rocky places about St. Louis, and in Arkansas." Nut- 
tall. — Differs from the preceding chiefly in the hispid silicles. 

§ 2. Petals 2^arted. — Erophila, DC. 

32. D. rerna (hinn.) : scapes naked; leaves lanceolate, somewhat tooth- 
ed; silicles elliptical. — Eng. hot.t. 586; PuTsh ! Ji. 2. p. 433. Erophila 
Americana & vulgaris, DC. prodr. 1. p. 173. E. vulgaris, flbo/c. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 56. 

Fields and hill sides, Canada ! to Virginia ! March-April. — (l) Scapes 1- 
4 inches high, filiform. Flowers minute, Avhite. Silicles on long pedicels : 
style very short. Seeds numerous. 

24. COCHLEARIA. Tourn. ; DC. syst. 2. p. 358. 

'Silicle ovate-globose or oblong ; valves ventricose. Seeds numerous, not 
bordered. Calyx equal, spreading. Petals 2-parted. Stamens tootliless. 
Style short or none. — Flowers white. Leaves mostly fleshy. 

1. C. ohlongifoUa (DC.) : silicles roundish, half as long as the pedicels ; 
cauline leaves oblong, entire (or sinuate-toothed), sessile, the uppermost 
slightly auricled. DC. .<!yst. 2. p. 263; Bo7\-Am. 1 p. 56. 

N. W. America ; Sitclia, Bongard. 

2. C. Anglica (Linn.) : silicles globose-elliptical, reticulately veined, half 
as long as the pedicels ; radical leaves petioled, ovate, entire ; cauline ones 
oblong. DC— Eng. hot. t. 552 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 173 ; Bor.-Am.. 
1. p. 57. 

Arctic America and Kotzbue's Sound to Oregon. — Septum often fenes- 
trate. Hook. 

3. C.f enestrata (R.^rovfn)'. silicles elliptical or oval; valves scarcely 
veined ; septum elliptical-lanceolate, with the axis often fenestrate ; radical 
leaves cordate, entire ; cauline ones oblong-spatulate, somewhat toothed. 
R. Br. ! in Ross''s voy. and in Parry^s \st voy. app. p. 266; DC. prod?: 
l.p. 174 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 57. 

110 CRUCIFER^. Cameuna. 

Shores of the Arctic Sea! — Root fibrous, thickened at the neck, and 
throwing up several short simple or branching stems. Leaves glabrous. Ra- 
cemes short and crowded. Silicle apiculate with a very short style. Seeds 
about 8 in each cell. 

4. C q^ciiialis (hinn.) : silicles globose-ovate, half as long as the pedi- 
cels ; radical leaves petioled, cordate ; cauline ones ovate, toothed or angled. 
DC.—Eng. bot. t. 551 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 173 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 57. 

Arctic America, ex Hook. — A native also of Europe. 

5. C. Danica (Linn.) : silicles elliptical [or subglobose] as long as the 
pedicels ; leaves aU petioled, deltoid. DC. — Eng. hot. t. 696 ; DC. prodr. 
1. p. 173; Hook.ji. Bor.-Am. l.p. 57. 

Arctic America, ex Hook. — A native also of the northern parts of Eu- 

6. C. tridactylites (DC.) : silicles globose-ovate ; cauline leaves with a 
single tooth on each side (as if 3-lobed). DC. syst. 2. p. 367. 

Labrador, Herb. Banks, (according to DC.) 

7. C. Grcp.nlandica (Linn.) : silicles ovate, as long as the pedicels ; radi- 
cal leaves petioled, reniform, entire ; cauline ones few or none. DC. pi^odr. 
1, p. 173. 

Greenland. — A native also of Norway and Iceland. 

8. C spaZ/mZaia (Schlecht.) ; stellately pubescent; silicles globose-ellip- 
tical ; leaves spatulate, coarsely toothed, acute, veined. Hook. — Schlecht. in 
herb. Willd. ex DC. syst. 2. p. 369; Hook.ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 57. C. 
septentrionalis, DC. prodr. 1. t. 174. Draba grandis, Langsdorff ; DC. 
syst. 2. p. 355 ; Deless. ic. 2. t. 47. 

Aleutian Islands, lat. 56^-57. — Septum fenestrate. DC. 

9. C. siliquosa (Schlecht.) : silicles oblong-lanceolate, apiculate with the 
style, half as long as the pedicels ; leaves oblong, entire, attenuate at the 
base, pubescent. Schlecht. 171 herb. Willd. ex DC. syst. 2. p. 369 ; Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 57. 

Rocky places in Unalaschka. — Flowers in dried specimens yellowish. DC. 
— Nearly related to the preceding. Chamisso. 


Silicle dehiscent, ovate or oblong, compressed parallel to the sep- 
tum, or turgid ; valves plane or convex: septum elliptical or ovate, 
sometimes incomplete or none. Cotyledons plane, incumbent, con- 
trary to (i. e. their margins looking towards) the septum. 

25. CAMELINA. Crantz ; DC. syst. 2. p. 514. 

Silicle obovate or somewhat globose ; valves ventricose, dehiscing with 
a part of the style; cells many-seeded. Style filiform. Seeds oblong, not 

1. C. sativa (Crantz) : silicles obovate-pyriform ; style rather long; stig- 
ma simple; leaves lanceolate, sagittate, nearly entire. — DC. prodr. l.p. 201; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 379. Myagrum sativum, Limi. Alyssum sativum, 
Smith, lEng. bot. t. 1254. ' 

Fields and cultivated grounds ! May- June. Introduced. — (J) Stem li-3 
feet high, paniculate at the summit. Leaves usually roughish-pubescent. 
Flowers small, yellow. 

Platypetalum. CRUCIFERiE. Ill 

2. C. barbareaifolia (DC.) : silicles globose; stigma capitate ; leaves ob- 
long, piniiatifid, obtusely auricled at the base ; stem villous below. DC. syst. 
2. p. 5 IT); Dcles-s. ic. 2. t.70; Cham. ^ Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. /). 29 ; 
Hook.Jl. Bnr.-Am. \. p. 65. 

Bay of Eschscholtz, N. W. America, Chamisso. — 11 Habit of Nastur- 
tium ampliibium. 

26. BRAYA. Sternb. <^ Hoppe ; DC. syst. ; Hook, 1. t. 121. 

Silicle (or rather silique) oblong, terete, torulose. Style short or none. 
Septum cleft in the middle. Seeds about 6 in each cell. Calyx equal at the 
base, erect. — Perennial herbs, with thick long descending roots. Leaves 
mostly radical, narrow. Scapes short. Flowers small, white or pale purple. 

We follow Hooker in placing Uiis and the following genera in Camelineae ; but 
are not satisfied that this is their proper station. 

1. B. aJpina (Sternb. & Hoppe) : leaves glabrous ; scapes sparsely leafy; 
racemes capitate in fruit. Hook. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 141 ; Deless. ic. 2. t. 2§; 
Ilook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 65. 

/?. Americana (Hook. 1. c.) : style rather long, slender. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52°-57°. (var. B.) — Leaves'linear-spatulate, entire. 

2. B. glabella (Richards.) : leaves glabrous ; scapes mostly leafy ; ra- 
cemes elongated in fruit, loose. Hook. — Richards, app. Frankl. journ. p. 
25; DC: prodr. 1. p. 141 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 65. 

Arctic America, i?icAarrfso?i. — V, Scape sometimes hairy. Flowers most- 
ly white. Hook. 

3. B.? pilosa (Hook.) : leaves pilose ; scapes leafless ; racemes elongated 
in fruit. Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 65. t. 17. 

Arctic Sea at the mouth of Mackenzie River, Richardson ! — 11 Leaves 
much crowded, linear-lanceolate. Scape 2-3 inches high. Silicle (imma- 
ture) oval hairy; cells 8-seeded. Mature fruit not seen. — Probably a dis- 
tinct genus. 

27. PLATYPETALUM. R. Br. in Pam/s 1st voy. app. p. 266. 

Silicle oval, compressed, many-seeded ; valves convex. Style very short. 
Calyx somewhat spreading. Limb of the petals dilated. — Habit of Braya, 
but differing in the fruit. 

1. P. purpurascens (R. BroAvn) : stigma with 2 spreading lobes ; style 
distinct; scapes naked or with a single leaf; silicles nearly glabrous. R. Br. 
I. c. ; Hook. ! fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 66. t. 23. I3raya arctica, Hook, in Parry^s 
2nd voy. app. p. 3S7. 

Arctic America! from Mackenzie River to Spitzbergen. — 11 Scapes 
several from one root, in flower scarcely an inch high. Leaves lanceolate, 
mostly entire. Petals white, tinged with purple (i?. Br.) : lamina broader 
than long, very obtuse. Silicles in long racemes, about one-third of an inch 
in length ; cells about 8-seeded. Septum complete, thin: areolae transverse. 
Seeds not margined. 

2. P. dubium (R. Brown) : stigma undivided, nearly sessile ; silicles and 
scapes pubescent. R. Br. I. c. 

Melville Island. — Flowers not seen. R. Br. 

112 CRUCIFERiE. Platyspermdm. 

28. EUTREMA. R. Br. in Parry's Ut voy. upp. p. 267 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 67. t. 24. 

'Silicle (or rather silique) ancipital ; valves carinate : septum (in E. Ed- 
wardsii) incomplete. Seeds not margined. — Perennial herbs, with the habis. 
of Braya and Platypetalum. 

1. E. Edwardsii (R. Brown) : silicles lanceolate ; septum obliterated ; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, on long petioles. Hook. I. c. — R. Br. I. c. t. A. 

Arctic America! — Stem 2-4 inches high (in fruit sometimes a foot high 
Hook.), simple, few-leaved. Leaves entire. Petals white. Silicle 3-4 lines 
long ; cells about 4-seeded : style almost none : stigma somewhat lobed. 
R. Br. 

2. E. arenicola (Richards.): silicles broadly linear; septum complete; 
leaves spatulate-oblong. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. .1. p. 67. i. 24. 

Arctic America, in deep sand, Richardson. — Caudex divided under the 
sand into many branches, each of which bears a dense tuft of leaves at the 
crown. Leaves on long petioles. Scape 2-3 inches high, someAvhat leafy. 
Petals white. Silicle 6-8 lines long : septum marked with an obscure 
longitudinal line in the middle. — Hook. 

29. APHRAGMUS. Andrzejowski, in DC.prodr. 1. p. 209. 

Oreas, Cham tf- Schlecht. in Linnma, 1. ]). 29. t- 1- 

Silicle lanceolate, compressed ; valves plane, marked with a median line : 
septum none. Style very short : stigma capitate. Seeds many, oval, sus- 
pended on elongated funiculi from the upper part of the placentse. — A small 
perennial herb, with the habit of Cardamine beUidifolia. — Character from 
Cham. (^ Schlecht. 

We have scarce a doubt that Apliragmus, Andrz. and Oreas, Cham. <^ Schlecht. 
are founded upon the same plant, and hence we venture to adopt the prior name. 
The following comprises all that is recorded concerning Andrzejowski's plant : 
" Silicula acuta, valvis plants nervosis, septo nulla, semina 2-seriata ycndula, cotyle- 
doncs incumbcntes crassiE. — In insulis Ahutianis." Andrz. in litt. (Z?C. I. c) De 
Candolle places it in Isatidcse, but asks (very properly) if it does not rather belong 
to Camelineaj. 

A. Eschscholtzianus (Andrz. 1. c.) — Oreas involucrata, Cham.^ Schlecht. 
I. c. ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 67. 

Among loose stones on the Alpine mountains of the Island of Unalaschka. 
Root [rhizoma?] filiform, branching, concealed among stones ; the branches 
bearing tufts of leaves at the extremity. Scapes i an inch to 2 inches high. 
Radical leaves on long petioles, spatulate, entire. Flowers (and fruit) corym- 
bose, white, with large lanceolate or spatulate bracts at the base of the pedi- 
cels. Silicle 4-6 lines long, li line broad, 4-10-seeded. Funiculi and seeds 
persistent long after the falling of the valves. Cotyledons [ex icon.] very thick. 
Cham. (§• Schlecht. 

30. PLAT YSPERMUM. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 68. 1. 18. / B. 

Silicle oval, compressed ; valves plane. Stigma sessile. Seeds few, with 
a broad margin. — A small annual herb. Leaves radical. Scapes 1-flowered. 

Thlaspi. CRUCIFERiE. 113 

P. scapigerum (Hook. 1. c.) 

On rocks at the Great Falls of the Oregon, Douglas. March-April. — 
Leaves runclnate-pinnatifid, attenuate at the base, glabrous. Scapes nume- 
rous, 3 inches high. Petals white. Seeds about 4 in each cell, roundish. 
Funiculi rather long and slender. Hook. 

31. SUBULARIA. Lin«. ; DC. ; Hook. fi. Land. (n. ser.) t. 135. 

Silicle oval ; valves turgid : cells many-seeded. Stigma sessile. " Cotyle- 
dons linear, curved." Hook. — A small stemless aquatic plant. Leaves 
linear-subulate. Scapes few-flowered : flowers white. 

S. aquatica (Linn.)— />C. prodr. 1. p. 235 ; Hook. I. c. f Brit. fl. 
p. 299. 

Borders of ponds Maine, NuttalU—H Scape 1-2 inches high. Flowers 
minute : pedicels slender. Silicle a line and a half long. — According to 
Hooker, the cotyledons are not biplicate as they are described by De Can- 
doUe, but are curved or folded in such a manner that their base occupies a 
portion of the radiclar side of the curvature. 


Silicle dehiscent, compressed contrary to the very narrow septum ; 
valves boat-shaped. Cotyledons plane, accumbent, contrary to the 

32. THLASPL Dill; DC.syst.2. p. 373. 

Silicle emarginate at the apex ; valves winged on the back ; cells 2- or 
many-seeded. Petals equal. Calyx equal at the base. — Flowers white. 

1. 71 arrense (Linn.): leaves oblong, toothed ; silicles orbicular-obovate, 
shorter than the pedicels; style scarcely any. — Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 435; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. lib ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 58. 

Canada; New-York to Pennsylvania, Pwrs/j ; Michigan, Nuttall. In- 
troduced. June-July. — Cauline leaves somewhat sagittate ; auricles minute. 
Valves of the silicle much compressed, furnished with a conspicuous wing. 

2. T. alliaceum (Linn.) : leaves oblong, obtuse, somewhat toothed ; the 
upper ones sagittate-clasping, with acute auricles ; silicles ovate-ventricose ; 
stigma nearly sessile. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 176 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 65. 

Cultivated fields, scarcely naturalized. — Flowers smaller than in T. ar- 

3. T. montanum (Linn.) : leaves rather fleshy, entire ; radical ones ob- 
ovate, petioled ; cauhne ones oblong, sagittate-clasping; petals longer than the 
calyx; silicles obcordate, 4-seeded ; style filiform. DC. prodr. \. p. 176; 
Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 58. 

Arctic America and Canada, ex Hook. May-July. — U . 

4. T. cochleariforme (DC.) : leaves rather fleshy ; radical ones petioled, 
ovate or obovate, somewhat toothed or entire ; cauline ones oblong, cordate- 
clasping ; petals longer than the calyx ; silicles obovate, emarginate, 8-seeded. 


114 CRUCIFER^. Senebiera. 

—DC.syst.2.p.38l; Deless. ic.2. t. 52; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 58; 
Nutt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 13. 

Head waters of the Oregon! April-May. — If Somewhat glaucous, 
about a span high. Stem simple, or a little branching at the base. Radical 
leaves abruptly narrowed into a petiole, mostly entire, or with one or two mi- 
nute teeth ; the limb half an inch long. Petals obovate-oblong. Pedicels 3 
times as long as the silicles, diverging horizontally. — Scarcely to be distin- 
guished from T. montanum. 

5. T. alpestre (Linn.) : leaves entire or obscurely toothed ; radical ones 
ovate, petioled ; cauline ones oblong, clasping ; petals about as long as the 
calyx ; silicles obcordate, 8-12-seeded ; style filiform. UC. prodr. 1. p. 176 ; 
Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 58. 

Canada. Introduced 1 

6. T. tuberosum f Nutt.) : leaves rhomboidal-ovate, obscurely toothed, ses- 
sile ; radical toes in long petioles ; stem simple, pubescent; root tuberiferous 
and fibrillose. Nutt. gen. 2. p. 65 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 177. 

Western Pennsylvania, Nuttall. April-May.— H: Plant 4-5 inches high. 
Flowers rather large, rose-color. Silicle somewhat orbicular. Nutt. 

34. HUT CHIN SI A. R. Br. in hort. Kew. 4. p. 82 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 385. 

Silicle elliptical ; valves wingless ; cells 2- (rarely many-) seeded. Calyx 
equal. Petals equal. 

1. H. calycina (Desv.) : canescently tomentose ; leaves mostly radical, 
on long petioles, deeply pinnatifid ; calyx persistent ; silicles oblong, attenuate 
at each end, pointed with the style. Hook.— Desv. jour. hot. 3. p. 168 ; DC. 
prodr. l.p. 178 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 58. t. 11. f. B. 

0. lower leaves allentu-e. Hook. I. c. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 52°-57^. 0. Kotzebue's Sound.— Root ligneous. 
Stem 3-4 inches high. Flowers white, in dense corymbs : Umb of the petals 
roundish. Ovary oblong, somewhat hirsute. 


Silicle usually dehiscent, compressed contrary to the narrow septum 
(sometimes l-celled) ; valves boat-shaped (or rarely ventricose). Co- 
tyledons plane, incumbent, parallel to the septum. 

35. SENEBIERA. Poir. diet. 7. p. 75 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 521. 

Silicle didymous ; valves ventricose or somewhat carinate, partly indehis- 
cent; cells 1-seeded. Seeds globose-triquetrous. Cotyledons linear.— Ra- 
cemes opposite the leaves. Flowers white. 

1. S. pinnatijida (DC): leaves pinnately divided; lobes oblong, toothed 
or somewhat incised ; silicles compressed, emarginate at the apex, reticulate- 
rugose. DC. prodr. l.p. 20Z. 

0. incisa (DC.) : lobes of the leaves 3-4-parted. DC. I. c— S. incisa, 
Willd. enum. 2. p. 268. Biscutella apetala, Walt. Car. p. 174. Cochlearia 
humifusa, Michx. ! fi. 2. p. 27. Coronopus didyma, Pursh, jl. 2. p. 434; 
Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 65 ; Ell sk. 2. p. 139. 

Fields and along rivers, North Carolina! to Louisiana ! west to Arkansas! 
Feb.-July.— ® or @ Stems prostrate. Petals minute or none. 

Lepidium. CRUCIFERiE. 115 

2. S. Coronopus (Poir.): leaves pinnately divided ; segments entire, tooth- 
ed or pinnatifid ; silicles not emarginate at the apex, compressed ; valves ru- 
gosely crested. — Poir. diet. 7. p. 76 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 203. Cochlcaria Co- 
ronopus, Linn. Coronopus Ruelliij Allioni ; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 435 ; Null, 
gen. 2. p. (H. 

Road sides, Virginia to Carolina. June-Aug. Introduced. — (p and (2). 

36. LEPIDIUM. li. Br. in hort. Keic. 4. p. 85 ; DC. sysl. 2. p. 527. 

Silicle ovate or subcordate ; valves carinate or rarely ventricosc, dehiscent ; 
cells 1-seeded. Seeds compressed, or somewhat 3-sided — Racemes terminal. 
Flowers white. (Cotyledons accumbent in several species.) 

1. L. campeatre (R. Brown) : silicles ovate, winged, emarginate, scaly- 
punctate ; cauline leaves sagittate, denticulate. DC. syst. 2. p. 53o. Thlas- 
pi campestre, Linn.; Eng. hot. t. 13S5. 

Waste places, New-York ! Delaware! Introduced. June-July. — ® or 
@ Stem and leaves minutely velvety. 

2. L. Virfrinicwn {lAnn.) : silicles nearly orbicular, wingless, emarginate ; 
flowers diandrous (petals 4); cauline leaves linear-lanceolate, incised ; cotyle- 
dons accuuabent.— .T/ic/i.r. .' ^. 2. p. 27; DC. prodr. 1. p. 205; Hook, fi. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 69. 

Fields and road-sides, throughout the United States. June-August. — (T) 
About a foot high, paniculately branched above. Flowers minute, rarely tn - 

3. L. ruderale (Linn.) : silicles broadly oval or nearly orbicular, wingless, 
emarginate; flowers diandrous, apetalous; leaves (radical ones scarcely) in- 
cised ; those of the branches linear, entire ; cotyledons incumbent. — Eng. 
bot.t. 1595; DC. prodr. 1. p. 205; Hook.! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 68, <^ in 
jour. bat. p. 192. 

British America! to the Pacific! Michigan, Dr. Pitcher! St. Louis, 
Missouri. (Hook.) — J) Leaves less deeply divided than in the European 
plant. Very near L. Virginicum ; but easdy distinguished by the apetalous 
flowers and incumbent cotyledons. 

4. L. Menziesii (DC): silicles orbicular, wingless, emarginate'; flowers 
diandrous, apetalous (petals 4, Natt.) ; radical leaves bipinnatifid ; cauline and 
branch leaves mostly pinnatifid ; the uppermost linear, entire. Hook. — DC. 
syst. 2. p. 539; Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. l.p. 68. 

California, Menzies, NiUtall ; N. W. Coast? Rocky Mountains, Drum- 
mond, Nuttall.—(^ ( U DC.) Radical leaves hispid or pubescent. Hook. 

5. L. Californicum (Nutt. ! mss.) : "stem somewhat hirsutely pubescent, 
much branched ; silicles nearly orbicular, emarginate, wingless ; flowers dian- 
drous (petals 4) ; leaves nearly glabrous, laciniately pinnatifid." 

Near Monterey, Upper California, ]Vuttall!—{J) Segments of the leaves 
linear. Silicles very small, slightly emarginate : style ahnost wanting. Pedi- 
cels twice the length of the silicles. Cotyledons incumbent. 

6. L. lasiocarpvm (J^uti. I mss.): "hispidly pubescent ; silicles elliptical- 
oval, conspicuously emarginate, wingles'i, somewhat pubescent, reticulated, 
rather longer than the pedicels ; leaves undivided, linear-lanceolate, incisely 
toothed ; flowers diandrous, apetalous." 

Near St. Barbara, Upper California, Niittall! — T) Silicles one-third larger 
than in L. Virginicum; the pedicels somewhat reflexed. Cotyledous iucum- 

116 CRUCIFERyE. Capsella. 

7. L. nitidum (Nutt. ! mss.) : " glabrous ; silicles elliptical-obovate, emar- 
ginate, slightly winged, shining ; pedicels flattened, about the length of the 
silicles ; leaves laciniate, the segments linear and very narrow ; flowers apet- 
alous or dipetalous, diandrous." , 

With the preceding, Nutt all ! — Silicle about one-third larger than in L. 
Virginicum: peduncles and pedicels a little pubescent. Cotyledons incum- 

8. L. oxycarpum : silicles broadly ovate, deeply emarginate, wingless, the 
valves pungently acuminate and reticulated; stems branched, diffuse; leaves 
linear-fiiifbrm, sparingly pinnatifid, toothed; flowers apetalous, diandrous. 

California, Douglas ! — Q) Stem 3-6 inches long, branching from the base, 
minutely hairy. Leaves mostly radical, pectinately 3-5-toothed. Sepals al- 
ternately subulate and broadly ovate. Ovary with the points uncinate-in- 
flexed. Silicle about IJ line long, as long as the compressed pedicels : valves 
carinate, glabrous, acutely and somewhat divaricately produced beyond the 
septum. Style none. Cotyledons incumbent. 

9. L. latipes (Hook.) : caespitose, strigosely pubescent; flowers in dense 
spiked racemes ; silicles elliptical-ovate, 2-winged at the summit, reticulated ; 
pedicels very broad, flat ; leaves pinnatifid, with fiiiformly linear segments. — 
Hook. ic. 1. t. 41. 

Monterey, California, Douglas'. — ^ Stems numerous, densely caespitose, 
2-3 inches long, spreading. Racemes ovate or oblong, thick ; the flowers 
much crowded. Leaves extending beyond the racemes ; segments 2-3-parted 
or entire. Petals more than twice as long as the sepals, oblong, ciliate. Sili- 
cles muricately hirsute, deeply bifid ; the lobes wing-lrke, straight and erect. 
Stigma sessile. Cotyledons incumbent. 

10. L. integrifoliiim (Nutt.! mss.): " glabrous and decumbent; silicles 
elliptical-ovate, wingless, scarcely emarginate ; septum prominent ; style short 
but distinct ; leaves lanceolate-oblong, acute, narrowed below ; petals about 
twice the length of the broad membranaceous sepals. 

" Prairies near the central chain of the Rocky Mountains, Lewis's River, 
&c. June-July. — If Root rather large and deep. Stems several, decum- 
bent, leafy, about a foot long, paniculately branched above. Flowers rather 
conspicuous." Nuttall. — Silicles about 2 lines long, somewhat acute ; pedi- 
cels 4-5 lines long, angular. Cotyledons incumbent. 

11. L. montanum (Nutt.! mss.): "nearly glabrous, decumbent; silicles 
elliptical, slightly emarginate, wingless ; style conspicuous ; leaves pinnati- 
fid and bipinnatifid ; segments oblong ; uppermost leaves trifid or entire. 

" Plains of the Rocky Mountains, on the western side, to the borders of the 
Oregon. August. — li Root long, somewhat ligneous. Branches many from 
one root, 8-12 inches long, spreading in a circular manner. Radical leaves 
usually more or less bipinnatifid; segments short, acute. Flowers rather 
conspicuous. Sepals oval-oblong. Petals nearly twice as long as the sepals." 
Nuttall. — Silicles 2 lines long, indistinctly reticulated. Pedicels 3-4 lines in 
length. Cotyledons incumbent. 

L. tuberosum, L.prcccox and L. diffiisum, DC. sijst. being founded on species describ- 
ed by Rafinesque in the Forula Ludoviciana, are excluded : see p. 86. 

37. CAPSELLA. Vent. ; Lam. ill. t 557 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 383. 

Silicle triangular-cuneiform ; valves boat-shaped, wingless, coriaceous ; 
cells small, many-seeded. — Herbaceous, annual. Radical leaves rosulate. 
Flowers small, white, in long racemes. 

Thysanocarpus. CRUCIFERiT:. 117 

Removed from Tlilaspidrfc on account of its incumbent cotyledons, which were 
first detected by Sclikuhr. (handb. 2. L, 180.) 

C. Bursa-pastoris (Moench.) — DC. syst. 2. p. 383 ; Darlingt. fl. Cent. j). 
380. Thlaspi Bursa-pastoris, Linn. ; Eng. hot. t. 1485. 

Fields and waste places. Introduced. May-Sept. — Radical leaves varia- 
ble, sometimes entire, but usually toothed, incised or pinnatifid, narrowed 
into a petiole at the base. Pedicels filiform, much longer than the silicles. 

38. HYMENOLOBUS. Nutt. mss. 

"Silicle ovate or elliptical, membranaceous; valves somewhat tumid, 
slightly carinate, wingless; cells many-seeded. Stigma sessile. — Small 
slender glabrous annuals, with divaricate stems, and more or less pinnatifidly 
cleft or laciniated leaves. Flowers minute, white." 

Scarcely distinct from Capsella; with which it is apparently connected through 
C. elliptica, C. A. Meyer, {pi. Cauc. p. 194. Hutchinsia procumbens, Desv. Hymen- 
olobus procumbens, Nutt. mss.) 

1. H. divaricatus (Nutt.l mss.): "procumbent, much branched; leaves 
short and pinnatifid, with several oblong lobes ; upper ones linear and often 
entire ; silicle elliptical-oblong, obtuse. 

" Shady grassy plains of the Oregon, near the junction of the Wahlamet. 
— Stems 3-4 inches long, diffusely branched. Lower leaves with about five 
segments. Flowers very minute." — Nuttall. 

2. H. erectus (Nutt. mss.) : " stem erect, much branched ; leaves oblong, 
somewhat pinnatifid or entire ; silicle linear-oblong. 

" With the preceding, to which it is very closely allied." Nuttall. 

3. Nucamentaceoe. 
Tribe IX. ISATIDE^. DC. 

Silicle micamcntaceous, indehiscent, (mostly) 1-celled, 1-seeded. 
Cotyledons incumbent, the direction various. 

39. THYSANOCARPUS. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 69. t. 18. 

Silicle obovate, or nearly orbicular, much compressed, usually surrounded 
with a broad winged margin, 1-cellcd. Seed broadly obovate, pendulous 
from a lateral funiculus. Cotyledons roundish, compressed, parallel with the 
valves, obliquely incumbent ; the radicle approaching near the edge. — An- 
nuals. Flowers small, white or pale violet, racemose. Silicles pendulous, 
on filiform pedicels. 

Allied to Tauscheria; but that genus has cymbiform silicles, with a narrow mar- 
gin, and the apex elongated into a beak. 

118 CRUCIFERyE. Thysanocabpus*. 

* Sllicles winged, plano'Convex. 

1. T. curvipes (Hook.) : radical leaves pinnatifid or toothed ; cauline ones 
lanceolate or linear ; silicles roundish-obovate, obscurely crenate, nearly gla- 
brous ; margin broadly winged, entire or perforated with small holes ; petals 
shorter than the calyx. — Hook. I. c. t. 18. J. A ; Fisch. ^ Meyer, ind. sem. 
St. Petersb. Dec. 1835. p. 50. 

Great Falls of the Oregon, Douglas. April-May. — Stems solitary, mostly 
branched, erect, 6-8 inches to a foot high, somewhat leafy. Leaves mostly 
radical, spreading. Petals linear-oblong. Silicle about 2^ lines long. Hook. 

2. T. elegans (Fisch. & Meyer) : petals nearly twice as long as the calyx ; 
silicles orbicular-obovate, membranaceously winged ; thawing (often) per- 
forated with holes, emarginate at the apex. 

a. silicles glabrous ; style conspicuously exserted. — T. elegans, Fisch. ^ 
Meyer, I. c. 

/?. silicles villous ; style slightly exserted. Hook..' ic.t. 39. T. Deppii, 
Nutt. mss. T. n. sp. Fisch. ^ Mey. I. c. (without a name.) 

V. silicles somewhat pubescent, wing not perforated ; style not exserted. 

California, Douglas! Deppe. (ex Fisch. ^ Meyer.') — Stem 12-18 inches 
high, branching, nearly glabrous. Leaves in /?. lanceolate, sagittate, repandly 
toothed ; in y. linear, the upper ones almost subulate and sagittate-clasping. 
Silicles 2i lines long; the winged margin p?rforated with a row of 12-14 
oblong holes, or marked with thin diaphanous spots, the opaque coriaceous 
substance of the centre extending between them, and thus giving the sihcle 
a radiated appearance. 

3. T. pmlchellus (Fisch. & Meyer) : petals longer than the calyx ; silieles 
glabrous, the wing not perforated, truncated at the apex ; style much exsert- 
ed. Fisch. (^ Meyer. 1. c. 

California — Petals white, or someAvhat violaceous. Near T. curvipes. 
Fisch. ^ Meyer. 

4. T. crenatus (Nutt. ! mss. ) : " petals about as long as the calyx ; silicles 
orbicular-obovate, crenate, glabrous, slightly emarginate, membranaceously 
winged ; the wing perforated ; style not exserted ; leaves linear -lanceolate, 
runcinately and remotely denticulate. 

" St. Barbara, California, March-April. — Stem 12-14 inches high, branch- 
ing above. Leaves an inch long ; the lower ones somewhat hirsute. Silicles 
about half as large as in T. curvipes ; the wing more or less perforated." Nutt. 

5. T. laciniatus (Nutt.! mss.): "petals as long as the calyx; silicles 
elliptical, glabrous, winged; the wing entire or crenate, not perforated, en- 
tire at theapex, and acuminate with the conspicuous style ; leaves linear, re- 
motely and incisely toothed. 

"With the preceding. — Decumbent, deep green and glabrous. Stem 
about a foot long. Leaves U inch long, and scarcely a line wide ; teeth 
long and subulate. Silicile about 2 lines long, acute at each end ; the wing 
diaphanous." Nutt. 

* * Silicles slightly doubly convex, wingless. 

6. T. ohlongifolius (Nutt. ! mss.) : "petals about twice as long as the calyx ; 
silicles nearly orbicular, wingless, hispid with uncinate hairs ; leaves oblong, 
toothed, and (Avith the lower part of the stem) densely and stellately hirsute. 

"Rocky banks of the Oregon, near the junction of the Wahlamet. — 
About a foot high, much branched, sometimes partly decumbent. Radical 
leaves attenuate into a short petiole at the base ; cauline sessile. Petals cu- 
neiform, rather conspicuous. Silicles about U line long, rather acute at the 
base, very obtuse at the summit, and without a notch: style very short, but 
distinct." Nutt. 

Raphanus. CRUCIFERyE. 119 

7. T.pnsilln.t (Hook.) : flowers apctalous ; silides noarly orbiculnr, wing- 
less, hispid with uncinate hairs ; leaves oblonof, toothed, and (with the lower 
part of the stem) stellately hirsute. — Hook..' ic. t. 413. 

Monterey, California, Douglas ! Banks of the Oregon, Avith the preced- 
ing, NattaU. April. — Stems (iUform, branching from the base, 3-5 inches 
long. Leaves about half an inch long, ovate and oblong, sparingly toothed. 
Flowers very minute. Silicles scarcely a line in length, rather acute at the 
base : style very short. — Nearly related to the preceding ; but much smaller 
and more slender, the silicles about half the size, and the flowers apetalous. 

4. LomentacecB. 
Tribe X. CAKILINE^. DC* 

Siliqiie or silicle separating transversely into several 1. ceiled 
1-seeded joints. Seeds usually compressed, not margined. Cotyledons 
plane, accumbent. 

40. CAKILE. Tourn.; DC. syst. 2. p. 427. 

Silicle 2-jointed ; the superior portion ovate or ensiform. Seed in the 
upper cell erect ; in the lower pendulous. — Annual glabrous and fleshy (mari- 
time) herbs, with pinnatifid or lobed leaves. The lower joint of the silicle 
often abortive. 

1. C. maritima (Scop. ) : superior joint of the silicle ensiform. D C prodr. 

1. p. 185 ; Lam. ill. t. 554. Bunias Cakile, Linn. 

0. superior joint of the silicle ovate-eusiform. — C.Americana, Nutt. gen. 

2. p. 62; DC prodr. I.e. C. edentula. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 59. C. 
maritima, Pursh, fl. 1. p. 434; Ell. sk. 2. p. 137. Bunias edentula, Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 251. 

Sea shore, Canada and shores of the great Lakes ! & Massachusetts ! to 
Georgia. July-Aug. — Much branched, procumbent. Leaves oblong-cunei- 
form, sinuately toothed. Flowers corymbed, pale purple. Lower joint of the 
silicle short, clavate-obovate ; the upper one with a prominent line on each 
side, minutely 2-3-toothed at the base. Seeds akuost always accumbent. 


Silique or silicle indehiscent, transversely separating into l.(or 
few.) seeded joints. Seeds globose. Cotyledons conduplicate, as in 

41. RAPHANUS. Linn .; DC. syst. 2. p. 662. 

Silique transversely many-celled. Seeds in a single scries. — Leaves 
lyrate. Flowers yellow, white, or purple. — Radish. 

* C. A. Meyer (pi. Cane. p. 185.) changes the name of this tribe to Chorisporeae, 
excluding Cakile, which he incorrectly says has the cotyledons (at least iu the upper 
cell) always incumbent. See Torr. in ami. lye. J^Teio-Yorkyi. p. 91. 

120 CAPPARIDACEiE. Cleomella. 

1. R. Raphanistrum (Linn.) : silique terete (joints 1-seeded), moniliform 
and 1-celled when mature, longer than the style ; leaves simply lyrate.— J9C. 
prodr. 1. p. 229 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 252. 

Road-sides and in fields, New-England. June-July. Introduced, but 
hardly naturalized.— (l) Corolla veiny, yellow, white in decaying. Silique 
3-8-seeded. — Wild Radish. 

Discovium Ohioense, Raf. in jour. phys. 89, (1819) p. 96, and DC. prodr. 1. p. 
236, is so imperfectly described that it cannot be identified. It is probably a 
Thlaspi or a Lepidium. 

Order XV. CAPPARIDACE.^. Juss. 

Sepals 4, deciduous or marcescent, distinct or somewhat united and 
imbricated in ajstivation, or cohering in a tube with a valvate estiva- 
tion. Petals 4, hypogynous, cruciate or irregular, usually unguic- 
ulate and more or less unequal, sometimes wanting. Stamens 6-12 
(rarely 4), or numerous, but usually some multiple of 4, inserted on 
the short or sometimes elongated torus : filaments equal or unequal : 
anthers innate or introrse, mostly revolute when dry. Ovary often 
stipitate, composed of 2 (very rarely of several) united carpels, with 
2 parietal placentae : styles united into one, often filiform, sometimes 
short or almost none : stigma often discoid or subcapitate. Fruit 1- 
celled, either a pod-shaped (siliqueform) 2-valved capsule, with the 
valves often separating from the persistent filiform placenta (rarely 
coriaceous and nearly or quite indehiscent), or baccate, very rarely 
1-2-, usually many-seeded. Seeds campulitropous, reniform, with no 
albumen, but the lining of the testa often thickened. Embryo curved : 
cotyledons foliaceous, somewhat incumbent. — Herbs, shrubs, or rarely 
small trees, with a watery acrid juice which sometimes has the pun- 
gent taste of the Crucifera?. Leaves alternate, petioled, simple or 
palmately compound : leaflets mostly, entire. Stipules none, or with 
spines in their place. 

Teiee L CLEOME^. DC. 

Capsule membranaceous, dehiscent, (rarely subcoriaceous and inde- 
hiscent). — Leaves mostly compound. 

1. CLEOMELLA. DC. prodr. 1. p. 237. 

Sepals very small, distinct, spreading. Petals 4, subspatulate, subsessile. 
Torus short, oblong. Stamens 6 : filaments incurved in aestivation. Pod 

Cleome. CAPPARIDACE^. 121 

obovate-rhomboidal. 4-6-seeded, raised on a filiform stipi'. Embryo condu- 
plicate. — A slender annual. Leaves 3-foliolate: leaflets linear. Raceme ter- 
minal, leafy. Flowers yellow. 

C. Mexicana (DC.)— "/r. /. Mex. rned." fide DC. I. c. ; Tarr. ! in 
ann. lye. New-Yo7-k, 2. p. 157 ; Don, in Edinb. new phit.jour. {Jan. 1831) ; 
Hook. ! ic. 1. /. 28. 

Mexico, DeCandoJle; Texas, Drtimmondl Aikansas, Dr. James! — 
Glabrous, a foot or more hii^h, branchinj; above. Leaflets narrowly linear- 
lanceolate, flat, longer than the petiole. Pod somewhat compressed, silicle- 
shaped. Stipe longer than the pod. Style very short. Placentae filiform, 
persistent after the valves fall off, each about 3-seeded. 

2. GYNANDROPSIS. DC. jyrodr. 1. p. 237. 

Sepals distinct, spreading. Petals 4. Torus Unear, elongated. Stamens 
fi: the lower part of the filaments adnate to the torus its whole length. Pod 
linear-oblong, raised on a long stipe Avhich rises from the top of the torus. — 
Annuals. Leaves digitately 3-7-foliolate. Flowers in a terminal raceme. 

§ ^Estivation open. — Gymnogonia, R. Br. 

1. G. pentaphylla (DC.) : minutely glandular-pubescent ; middle leaves 
5-foliolate ; lower and floral leaves 3-foliolate ; leaflets obovate, entire or ob- 
scurely serrulate. — DC. l. c. ; IV. ^ Am. prodr. Ind. \.p. 21. Cleome penta- 
phyUa,L/m?.; Pur.9h,fi.2.p.Ul; Nutt.! gen.2.p.73; Bot.mag.t. 1681. 
Cleome (Gymnogonia) pentaphylla, R. Br. app. Denh. <S- Clapp. voy. p. 17. 

In cuhivated grounds, Pennsylvania ( to Florida. Introduced. 
May-July. — Stem 2-3-feet high. Penducles slender. Calyx deciduous. 
Petals white : claws long and slender. Pod 2-3 inches long. — A native of 
Africa and India. 

3. CLEOME. Linn, (in part) ; Gcertn. fr. t. 76. 
Cleome & Peritoma, DC. 

Sepals distinct, or sometimes more or less united below. Petals 4. Torus 
minute or nearly hemispherical. Stamens 6, or rarely only 4, often unequal. 
Pod linear or oblong, subsessile or raised on a stipe. — Annual (rarely peren- 
nial) herbs, or shrubs. Leaves digitately 3-9-foliolate or simple. Flowers 
soUtary, or in a terminal raceme. 

§ 1. Sepals more or less united below: calyx marcescent, at length some- 
times separating at the base : torus minute : pod stipitate. — Peritoma, 
DC. (Atalanta, Nutt.) 

The discovery of 3 additional species allied to Cleome serrulata, Pursh, renders 
it obvious that this plant cannot be separated from Cleome. They might perhaps 
all be referred to the section Pedicellaria of De CandoUe. 

1. C. serrulata (Pursh) : leaves 3-foliolate ; leaflets lanceolate or spatulate, 
minutely serrulate ; sepals united more than half their length j petals (violet- 


122 CAPPARIDACEiE. Polanisia. 

purple) distinctly unguiculate ; pods lanceolate, longer than the stipe. — 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 441. Atalanta serrulata, Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 73. Peritoma 
serrulata, DC. proclr. 1. p. 237. 

Banks of the Missouri and Arkansas, Nuttall! Dr. James-! Aug. — (I) 
Nearly glabrous. Leaves glaucous above. Flowers in a terminal raceme. 
Calyx at length separating from the base : segments short, subulate. Sta- 
mens equal. 

2. C. integrifolia : somewhat glaucous ; leaves 3-foliolate ; leaflets (and 
bracts) lanceolate (the lowermost oblong), entire, submucronate ; sepals 
united to the middle; petals (reddish-purple) with very short claws; pods 
oblong-linear, compressed, much longer than the stipe. — Peritoma? integri- 
folia, Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 14. 

Plains of the Platte to Oregon, Nuttall ! June-Aug. — (T) Stem 2-3 feet 
high. Racemes sometimes nearly a foot long. Flowers large, showy- 
Calyx persistent; segments triangular-acuminate. Stamens equal. — This 
species was originally described from specimens collected by Capt. Wyeth 
exhibiting the floral leaves only, which are narrowly lanceolate and very 
acute at each end. Mr. Nuttall obtained complete specimens in his recent 

3. C. aurea : " glabrous ; leaves 3-5-foliolate ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, 
acute at each end, entire [sepals united at the base only] ; petals oblong- 
elliptical, nearly sessile (golden-yellow); stamens equal; pods linear, [short] 
longer than the stipe." Nutt. ! mss. — Peritoma aurea, Nutt. in jour. acad. 
Philad. 7. p. 15. 

" Plains of the Platte to Lewis's River, in irrigated places. June-Aug. — (T) 
Branching, 1-3 feet high. Muchlargerin all its parts than C. lutea." Nutt. 

4. C. lutea (Hook.) : nearly glabrous ; leaves 5-foliolate; leaflets narrowly 
lanceolate, entire ; sepals nearly distinct ; petals (yellow) oblong-obovate, 
nearly sessile ; stamens unequal ; pods oblong-lanceolate, about the length of 
the stipe. — Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 70. t. 25. 

Rocky Mountains and Oregon, Douglas, Nuttall ! — (T) Stem 6-12 inches 
high. Sepals lanceolate, persistent. " Stamens 6 of which 2 are longest, 
with small oblong curved anthers, and 4 shorter with linear mucronate an- 
thers." Hook. I. c. But the figure represents a flower with 4 long stamens 
and 2 short ones. 

4. POLANISIA. Raf. injour.phys. (1819) f». 98. 

Sepals distinct, spreading. Petals 4. Stamens 8-32: filaments filiform 
or dilated at the summit. Torus minute (often nectariferous). Pod linear, 
sessile or nearly so. — Annual herbs with the habit of Cleome, mostly glan- 
dular, with a heavy odor. 

§ 1. Torus hearing a short fleshy nectary or gland next theupper sepal: 
filaments filiform, ojten unequal and more or less declined, (6-8 of 
them arising from between the nectary and the ovary) : petals on slen- 
der claws, unequal, emarginate or entire : sepals tardily deciduous. — 
Polanisia proper. 

Polanisia proper, as is indicated by R. Brown (in app. to Denh. <§- Clapp.p. 15), 
consists of two American species solely, viz: P. graveolens and the closely allied 
P. uniglandulosa of Mexico. The close resemblance between these two species was 
iirst noticed by Nuttall. (See gen. JV. ^m. pi. 2. p. 74.) A third species exists in the 


herbarium of Maj. Le Conte, which approaches in the foliage and the very unequal 
petals to Cristatella; a curious genus, which should perhaps be considered a section 
of Polanisia, if indeed all these genera ought not to be restored to Cleome, accord- 
ing to the opinion of Brown. 

L P. graveolens (Raf.): viscidly pubescent and glandular; leaves 3-loli- 
olate; leaflets (and bracts) oblong, shorter than the petiole; sepals (purplish) 
soraewhat unequal; petals cuneate, emarginate; stamens mostly 10 or 11 ; 
style shorter than the ovary ; pods broadly lanceolate, turgid, attenuate at the 
base, reticulated, rough with a glandular pubescence. — Raf. I. c. ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 242; Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. l.p. 71. Cleome dodecandra, Michx. 
Ji. 2. p. 32 ; Pur-sh ! jl. 2. p. 441. C. dodecandra, var. Canadensis, Linn. ; 
Cornut. Can. t. 131. C. viscosa, Sprang, syst. 2. p. 125, ex Am. 

On the gravelly banks of rivers and lakes, from L. Champlain ! and On- 
tario ! to Arkansas ! June-Aug.— Branching, 6-18 inches high. Raceme 
many-flowered. Sepals glandular on the back. Petals yellowish-white : 
claws filiform. Filaments purplish. Nectary concave, truncate, very short. 
Style at length deciduous. — Odor of the plant strong and unpleasant. 

2. P. tenuifolia : viscid-glandular ; leaves 3-foliolate, nearly glabrous ; leaf- 
lets (and bracts) fihform-linear, longer than the petiole ; petals very unequal, 
suborbicular, entire, on short claws; stamens 9-11; style longer than the 
ovary ; pods linear, terete, niinutely reticulated, glabrous. — Cleome tenuiib- 
lia, herb. Le Conte. 

Georgia, Le Conte .'—Stem afoot high, branched, slender. Leaflets about 
an inch long. Raceme few-flowered ; pedicels filiform. Sepals glabrous, 
nearly equal. Filaments nearly equal. Nectary minute, cuneiform, emargi- 
nate. Style persistent. 

5. CRISTATELLA. Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 85. t. 11. 

Sepals somewhat united at the base, spreading. Petals 4, on filiform 
claws, fimbriate-toothed or laciniate ; the two lower much smaller. Torus 
minute, bearing a conspicuous tubular and truncate petaloid nectary between 
the ovary and the upper sepal. Stamens 6-14 : filaments nearly equal, de- 
clined. Ovary declined: style filiform. Pod linear, stipitate. — Annual 
minutely viscid-glandular 3-foliolate herbs, with the habit of Polanisia 
tenuifolia. Leaflets narrowly linear, longer than the petiole. Raceme 
few-flowered, leafy : pedicels filiform. Flowers small, white or pale yel- 

1. C. erosa (Nun.) : stamens 10-14; petals white; lamina of the lower 
ones lacin lately parted ; sepals acute. — Nnft. ! I. c. p. 86. t. 11. 

On sandy hills near Red River, Nuttall ! and near Fort Towson, Dr. 
Leavemoorth! June-July. — Rather slender, branching, 8-14 inches high. 
Sepals oblong-lanceolate, shorter than the claws of the petals. Superior pe- 
tals very broadly cuneiforai, sparingly lacerate-toothed : lower ones cuneiform, 
cleft nearly to the base of the lamina ; segments linear, slightly dilated and 
cleft or toothed at the apex. Nectary about the length of the smaller petals, 
yellow, tubular, toothed at the summit (cleft on the side next the ovary, ac- 
cording to Nuttall; but in the specimens from Dr. Leavenworth, the tube is 
undivided). Pod narrowly linear, slightly torulose, many-seeded, ascending, 
much longer than the stipe, crowned with the slender style. Seeds circinate, 
minutely roughened. 

124 CAPPARIDACE^. Isomesis. 

2. C. Jamesil : stamens 6-9 ; petals pale yellow ; lamina of the lower 
ones palmately firabriate-cleft ; sepals obtuse. — Cleome n. sp., Torr. ! in 
ann. lye. New- York, 2. p. 168. 

In sand, Arkansas, />?\ James ! Texas, Drummond! ("Srd Tex. coll. no. 
3.) — Strict, somewhat branched, a foot or more high. Leaflets rather shorter, 
and flowers considerably smaller than in C. erosa. Sepals slightly unequal, 
oblong, obtuse, as long as the claws of the petals. Petals obovate-orbicular, 
somewhat cuneiform at the base ; lamina of the lower ones laciniately cleft, 
but not parted to the base. Nectary at first undivided, at length cleft on the 
inside (?). Stipe and style shorter than in the preceding species. Mature 
fruit not seen. 

6. ISOMERIS. mat. mss. 

" Sepals united below, someAvhat spreading, marcescent. Petals 4, oblong, 
sessile, regular. Torus fleshy, subhemispherical, produced into a small dUated 
appendage on the upper side. Stamens 6: filaments equal, [inflexed in 
sestivation] much exserted. Capsule large, obovate-eUiptical, inflated, coria- 
ceous, indehiscent, stipitate, crowned with the very short subulate style. 
Seeds several, very large, smooth. — A low tree, with a long tap-root, and a 
very spreading top. Leaves crowded, 3-foliolate. Flowers large, yellow, in 
terminal racemes. Whole plant with the unpleasant odor of Polanisia." 

/. arborea (Nutt. ! mss.) 

" St. Diego, California. — Stem about the thickness of a man's arm, very 
knotty : the wood hard and yellow. Young branches, petioles, &c. minutely 
pubescent. Leaflets lanceolate, mucronulate, glabrous. Calyx campanu- 
late : segments triangular-ovate, acuminate. Petals slightly spreading. Cap- 
sule slightly compressed, an inch or more long, and | of an inch broad, 
longer than the stipe, crowned with the very short style : stigma minute. 
Seeds several upon each parietal placenta, as large as a small pea: cotyledons 
incumbently incurved." Nutt. 

This genus, with the character somewhat modified, may possibly be found to in- 
clude several tree-like S. American species of Cleome, (of the section Pedicellaria), 
and should perhaps be viewed as a section of Cleome. 


Sepals 4-6, somewhat united at the base, unequal, herbaceous, per- 
sistent : aestivation open. Torus short, bearing a flat and rounded 
glandular hypogynous disk, which is produced posteriorly (i. e. next the 
axis) between the petals and the .stamens. Petals 4-6 (or by abortion 
fewer), open in aestivation, deciduous, unequal, the posterior ones lar- 
ger, the anterior ones often abortive or sometimes wanting ; claws 
usually broad and thickened, nectariferous within ; the lamina often 
lacerate or palmately parted. Stamens 8-20, rarely 3, inserted on 
the disk : filaments erect : anthers oval, fixed by the middle, introrse. 

Elumia. RESEDACEyE. 125 

Ovary l-celled, 3-4 lobed, composed of 3-4 united carpels, wliich arc 
distinct and diverging at the apex : stigma sessile, miniito, glandular, 
alternate with the parietal placentae. Fruit a membranous l-celled 
many-seeded capsule, rarely succulent, opening between the stigmas 
long before maturity. Seeds campulitropous, reniform, smooth or 
pitted : albumen none or scarcely any. Embryo arcuate : radicle 
taper. — Herbaceous or rarely suffrutescent plants, with a watery juice. 
Leaves alternate or sparse, undivided or pinnatifid, without stipules, 
but often biglandular at the base. Flowers in terminal racemes or 
spikes, small, often very fragrant. 

With the exception of the plant brought from California by Mr. Nuttall, Reseda- 
ceae are exclusively natives of the region surrounding the Mediterranean. — Reseda 
luteola(the Dyer's Rocket, or Yellow-weed, used in dying woo:len stuffs yellow) is 
found along road-sides in portions of the western part of the State of iSew-York, but 
is hardly naturalized. 

1. ELLIMIA. Nutt. mss* 

" Sepals 4. Petals 2, small, membranaceous, linear-oblong, entire or emar- 
ginate, posterior or next the axis. [Disk scarcely any.] Stamens 3, alter- 
nate with the petals. Capsule depressed-globose, somewhat 8-lobed below, 
opening by a quadrangular cleft at the summit : stigmas 4. Seeds 20 or 
more, very smooth and shining. — A small glabrous annual, with crowded 
slightly succulent and narrowly Unear leaves. Flowers in short and slender 

E. ruder alts (Nutt. ! mss.) 

" St. Barbara, CaUfornia. — Root slender, simple. Stem branched from the 
base, 5-6 inches high. Leaves resembhng those of Linaria vulgaris, but 
smaller. B'lowers subtended by a bract simUar to the sepals, very small. 
Sepals all inclined anteriorly. Petals white, one of them usually emarginate. 
Ovary rather deeply 4-lobcd below; each lobe (or carpel) more or less 
2-lobed. Seeds at first bright green, at length black, narrowly reniform." 


Sepals .5, distinct, usually persistent, very irregular ; three of them 
exterior and smaller, of which one is superior (next the axis of inflo- 
rescence) and two inferior ; the two lateral or inner ones (tvings) 
larger and usually petaloid : aestivation imbricated. Petals hypogy- 
nous, irregular ; deciduous, usually 3 ; of which one (the keel) is ante- 
rior and larger than the rest, and the two others alternate with the 

• " From iWtiiifia (defective) ; in allusion to the reduction in the parts of the flow- 
-." MiUall. 

126 POLYGALACE^. Polyqala. 

upper and lateral or inner sepals, often connate with the keel (rarely 
5, and then the 2 minute additional ones are situated between the 
wings and the lower sepals) : the keel usually crested or S-lobed. 
Stamens 6-8, hypogynous : filaments combined into a tube which is 
split on the upper side and more or less connate with the claws of the 
petals, free at the summit : anthers innate, usually l-celled,* opening by 
a terminal pore. Ovary compressed, formed of 2 (anterior and poste- 
rior) united carpels, 2.celled with the placenta in the axis, sometimes 
l-celled by the suppression of the upper cell, very rarely l-celled with 
2 parietal placentae : ovules solitary (or very rarely 2-6) in each car. 
pel, pendulous : style curved and often cucullate. Fruit loculicidal or 
indehiscent. Seeds anatropous, with a crustaceous testa : albumen co- 
pious and fleshy, rarely almost none. Embryo as long as the albu- 
men, straight or very slightly curved. — Herbaceous (all the N. American 
species) or shrubby plants ; the roots very bitter and often milky. 
Leaves exstipulate, entire, generally alternate or sparse, the lower 
ones not unfrequently verticillate. Flowers usually racemose or 
spicate : pedicels l-3.bracteate. 

1. POLYGALA. Tourn.; Lam. ill. t. 598; A. St.Hil. ^ Moquin-Tan- 
don, in mem. mus. 17. p. 313. 

Sepals persistent ; the wings large and petaloid. Petals 3 ; their claws co- 
herent with the stamineal tube ; the lowest one keel-shaped. Ovary 2-celled : 
ovules solitary in each cell. Capsule 2-celled, compressed contrary to the 
very narrow dissepiment, elliptical, obovate or obcordate. Seeds caruncu- 
iate with copious albumen.— Racemes often spicate or capitate. 

§ 1. S-pikes thick, capitate or oblong, terminating the stem and branches : 
keel cristate {the crest often minute) : style mostly cucullate and di- 
lated in the middle : filaments united nearly to the summit : caruncle 
with a 2-lobed appendage. Annual or biennial. 

1. P. sanguinea (Linn.) : spilces globose-ovate, rather loose ; wings el- 
liptical-obovate, attenuate at the base, twice as long as the fruit, crest minute ; 
seed dobose-obovate, hairy, with a very minute caruncle ; leaves Imear ; 
stem somewhat fastigiately branched.— Mt^. .' geii. 2. p. 88; DC.prodr. 
1. p. 328. P. viridescens, Poir. diet. 5. p. 502 (fide DC.) j Pursh, fi. 2. 

fry 4:65. 

Dry soils New Jersey (iV?i«a//) to Georgia! Kentucky! and Louisiana ! 
Aw^ -Sept.—® About a span high. Leaves | of an inch long, acute. 
Spike an inch long, and about half an inch m diameter, obtuse. Wmgs thin 
and membranaceous, bright rose-color. Capsules broadly obovate, scarcely 
covered by the narrow wings. Style much dilated and cucullate in the mid- 
dle with a filiform bearded process at the summit. Seed black. 

* That the one-celled anthers in this family do not belong to half-stamens, but re- 
sult from the union of the two cells, is evident from their structure in Polygala pau- 
cifolia and others of the same section, in which the imperfect septum may be observed. 


2. P. purpurea (Nutt.) : spikes ovate or oblonjr, compart ; winps broadly 
ovate or obovate ; crest minute ; seed obovate, hairy ; caruncle nearly as long 
as the seed; leaves linear and oblong-linear ; stem fastigiately branched. — 
Nutt. gen. 2. p. 88 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 328 ; Darlinet.Ji. Vest. p'. 401 . P. san- 
guinea, Michx.! fl. 2. p. 52 ; Pursh ! fi. 2. p. 465; liigcl. Ji. Host. p. 264 ; 
Bai-t. fl. Amer. Sept. 2. t. 46. 

Wet meadows; also in sandy fields, Massachusetts! to New Orleans! 
west to Arkansas! July-September. — {T) Stem S-12 inches high, erect, 
sometimes simple, but usually more or less branched above, angular and 
slightly winged. Leaves an inch long and 2 lines wide. Racemes at first 
akuost globose, at length oblong ; lower tiowers deciduous : bracts minute, 
somewhat persistent. Wings usually dilated at the base, or somewhat cor- 
date, rose-color and green, of a firm texture, generally twice as long as the 
mature fruit. Style as in the preceding species. Seeds giayish-black. — 
Much more common than the preceding species, from which if is easily dis- 
tinguished by its broader and thicker wings, and minute caruncle, which is 
scarcely one-fifth the length of the seed. This is P. sanguniea of most 
North American botanists ; but whether it is the plant of Linnaeus can only 
be determined by consulting his herbarium. 

3. P. cruciata (Linn.) : spikes ovate, dense, sessile or on short peduncles ; 
wings deltoid-cordate, acute or cuspidate ; crest minute; caruncle nearly as 
long as the seed ; stem somewhat fasiigiate, winged at the angles ; leaves 
verticillate in fours, linear and linear-oblong, punctate. — iMich.r. ! ji. 2. p. 
52; Nutt.f gen.2.p.89; DC. prodr. 2. p. 328; Ell. sk. 2. p. 183 ; Bigelji. 
Bost. p. 266 ; Hook.fl. Bor. Am. l.p. 85. P. brevifolia, Nutt. I. c j DC. I. c. 
P. fastigiata, Nutt.! I. c. P. cuspidata, Hook. ^ Am. in bot.jour. l.p. 195. 

Swamps, particularly where Sphagnum abounds, Massachusetts to Flo- 
rida ! west to Louisiana! Aug.-Sept. — (I) Stem (in open situations) low 
and with spreading branches, or (in shady places) rather tall, with erect 
slender branches. Leaves linear, or somewhat oblong, obtuse, marked with 
obscure resinous dots. Spikes at first dense, often sessile, but sometimes pe- 
dunculate. Wings much dilated at the base, greenish with a purple margin, 
larger than the capsule. Lateral petals oblong. Style as in P. sanguinea. 
Seed obovate-oblong, sparsely hirsute. — This species varies much in size, 
branching of the stem and form of the leaves, according to its degree of ex- 
posure to light and moisture. 

4. P. lutea (Linn.) : spikes ovate, dense ; flowers distinctly pedicellate ; 
wings ovate, abruptly acuminate ; exterior sepals minute ; crest mmute; cau- 
line leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute ; radical ones obovate, attenuate at the 
base ; stems mostly branched. — Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 88 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 328 ; 
Ell sk. 2. p. 185. P. lutea, var. elatior, Michx. ! ji. 2. p. 54. 

Sandy swamps. New Jersey ! to Alabama ! June-October. — (?) Stem 
€-12 inches high, often simple, but generally throwing off a few long nearly 
naked and spreading branches. Radical leaves rosulale, obtuse. Flowers 
bright orange-yellow, and of nearly the same color when dry. Style elongated, 
slightly dilated in the middle, from which proceeds a pedicellate gland. 
Seed hairy. Lobes of the caruncle Linear, collateral, nearly as long as the seed. 

5. P. 7iana (DC.) : spikes cyUndrical-ovate, dense ; flowers nearly sessile ; 
wings ovate, cuspidately acuminate, twice the length of the nearly equal ex- 
terior sepals ; crest conspicuous, segments filiform, exceding the lateral petals ; 
leaves oblong-spatulate, somewhat petioled ; stem mostly simple, often short- 
er than the leaves. — DC. prodr. l.p. 328. P. viridescens, Nutt.! gen. 2. 
p. 88 ( not of Pair.) ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 186. P. lutea, var. nana, Michx. ! fl. 2. 

Damp pine barrens, Carolina ! to Louisiana ! west to Arkansas ! — Stems 
1-4 inches long. Radical leaves often ligulate, obtuse. Spikes large and 

128 POLYGALACEiE. Polygala. 

very thick, conspicuously squarrose with the projecting cusps of the wings. 
Flowers green with a tinge of yellow. Style rather slender, somewhat 
dilated and furnished with a projecting gland in the middle. Seed obovate, 
hairy. Lobes of the caruncle diverging, nearly as long as the seed. 

§ 2. Spikes ovate, in simple terminal or compound cymes : keel cris- 
tate (the crest sometimes minute) : styles slender, 2-lobed, not cucullate : 
filaments united nearly to the summit : appendage of the caruncle very 
minute or none. Biennial. 

5. P. corymbosa{M.\Q\vx.): cymes compound ; spikes ovate; wings ob- 
long, cuspidate ; radical leaves spatulate-obovate ; cauline ones linear; stem 
simple below, angular.— M?'c/( J-. .' /. 2. p. 54; Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 89; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 329. P. ramosa, Ell. sk. 2. p. 186. 

Swamps, Sussex county, Delaware, Nuttall, io'Ne-w-Orlea.nsl Texas, Dr. 
Leavenworth ! — Stem 8-12 inches high, simple, (except when the plant has 
been injured), bearing a large terminal corymb. Radical leaves an inch long. 
Spikes rather compact, half an inch in diameter. Flowers citron-yellow, 
becoming blackish-green in drying. Wings 4 times as long as the capsule. 
Seed oblong, with a minute roundish caruncle. — Elliott has described the 
stem as branched from the base, which is never the case, except it has been 
broken off, when it throws up lateral branches. 

6. P. acntifolia: cyme compound; spikes ovate, rather loose; wings 
oblong, rather obtuse, mucronate ; exterior sepals ovate-triangular, acute ; crest 
conspicuous ; seed subglobose, glabrous, without a caruncle ; stem simple, at- 
tenuated upward ; radical leaves lanceolate-linear, very acute ; cauline ones 

Borders of pine-barren ponds. Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman ! May-Oct. 
— Stem 2-3 feet high, simple, somewhat angled above. Radical leaves 2-3 
inches long, attenuated to a sharp point ; cauline leaves gradually diminish- 
ing upward to mere subulate bracts. Flowers blackish-green when dry, dis- 
tinctly pedicellate. Exterior sepals unequal ; the upper one more than half as 
large as the wings. Crest composed of 4-6 capitate or emarginate processes. 
Style at first straight, afterwards curved above the middle : gland (stigma ?) 
sessile. Capsule minute, dilated ; one of the cells usually abortive. Seed 
black, slightly dotted. — Resembles P. cymosa; but that species has the 
cyme simple, much smaller exterior sepals, and an inconspicuous crest. 

7. P. cymosa (Walt.): cyme simple; spikes ovate; wings elliptical-ob- 
long, rather obtuse, mucronulate ; superior sepal half as large as the wings, 
rather obtuse ; lateral petals distinct nearly to the base; crest minute ; seed 
subglobose, glabrous, without a caruncle; stem simple, terete, attenuated 
upward; radical leaves linear-spatulate ; cauline ones linear-subulate, minute. 
— Walt. Car. p. 179. P. graminifolia. Pair. diet. 5. p. 500 ; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 329. P. attenuata, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 90. P. corymbosa, Ell. sk. 2. p. 187. 
(not of Michx.) 

Ponds and swamps in pine barrens, North Carolina, Nuttall, to South Ca- 
rolina ! and Florida ! June-Aug.— Stem 2-5 feet high. Radical leaves 2-5 
inches long ; cauline ones gradually diminishing in size ; the uppermost mere 
scales. Cyme always simple ; the peduncles short, squarrose with the per- 
sistent bracts. Flowers yellow, drying blackish-green. Wings as long as 
the corolla, obtuse, with a minute mucronate tip. Crest formed of 2-3 very 
short subulate processes. Style curved toward the summit: the gland 
nearly sessile. 

8. P. Baklwinii (Nutt.) : Cyme compound ; spikes subglobose, compact ; 
flowers (nearly white) on very short pedicels ; sepals all cuspidate ; the wing 


oblong-lanceolate, much longer than the corolla ; lateral petals distinct nearly 
to the base ; crest rather conspicuous; seed ovate, very hairy; caruncle very 
minute, 2-lobed ; stem simple, angular; radical leaves spatulate, obtuse; cau- 
line ones lanceolate.— iV<;«. / gtn. 2.jj. 90; DC. prodr. l.p.329; 
2. p. 187. 

0. chlargena : flowers green when dry. 

Wet pine land, Georgia, Dr. Bald^cin! Lt Conte I— ^tem 2-3 feet high, 
leafy to the summit. Leaves scarcely an inch long ; cauline ones acute. 
Spikes squarrose Avith the cuspidate points of the wings. Bracts twice as 
long as the pedicels. Flowers whitish even when dry ; except in 0. which, in a 
dried state, are of a beautiful verdigris-green, very odorous (Le Conte.) 
Wings nearly twice as long as the corolla, with along cuspidate point. Crest 
consisting of' 4 narrow processes, the two exterior ones simple, the others bi- 
fid. Style nearly straight: gland scarcely pedicellate. Seeds clothed with 
spreading hairs.— The variety ji. has the flowers more distinctly pedicellate, 
the cyme Avith longer branches, and the processes of the crest twice bifid. 
It may prove to be a distinct species. 

§ 3. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, compact, the fowers nearly sessile: keel 
cristate : style 2-lobed, not cucullate in the middle : fdaments united 
nearly to the middle : caruncle cristate, spongy. 

9. P. incarnata (Linn.) : glaucous ; Avings lanceolate, much shorter than 
the corolla ; claAvs of the petals united into a long slender cleft tube ; lamina 
of the lateral petals oboA^ate ; stem slender, mostly simple ; leaves hnear-sub- 
ulate, scattered. Avithout glandular dots.— Michx: ! f. 2. p. 52; Pursh, fl. 
2. p. 464 ; Ell.'sk. 2. p. 185 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 327. 

p. stem paniculately branched; leaves very minute; tube of the corolla 
a little longer than the Avings. — P. paniculata, herb. Le Conte. 

Dry soils, District of Columbia! to Florida! west to Arkansas! 6. 
Georgia, Le Conte .'— Plant 1-2 feet high, erect. Leaves 4-6 lines long 
(in /?. almost AA'anting). Spike 1-li inch long. Bracts subulate. FloAvers 
pale purple or rose-color. Exterior sepals unequal, ovate-lanceolate. Wings 
cuspidate, usually about half as long as the tube of the corolla. Lamina of 
the petals distinct; the claAvs united Avith the filaments into a slender neaily 
straight lube or sheath, Avhich is cleft on the inside : crest very conspicuous. 
Style long and filiform the greater part of its length, curved tOAvards the sum- 
mit, bearded at the extremity : gland sessile. Seed OA^ate, hairy. Caruncle 
2-lobed, spongy or vesicular ;' the lobes projecting above the seed in the form 
of a crest, and attached by the middle to the short neck or stipe of the seed. 

10. P. setacea (Michx.): Avings oblong, abruptly acuminate, two-thirds the 
length of the petals; tube of the corolla very short; stem filifonn, simple or 
sparingly branched ; leaves very minute, scale-like. — Michx. ! Ji. 2. p. 52 ; 
EU. sk. 2. p. 183 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 328. 

North Carolina, Michaux ! Georgia ! to Florida \—H 1 ((l) DC.) Stem 
about a foot high, often Avith one or more long, slender, erect branches. 
Leaves scarcely more than a line long, setaceous. Spike ^ of an inch long. 
Flowers pale rose-color. Exterior sepals unequal ; the posterior ones ovate. 
Petals united about half their length ; lamina of the lateral ones ovate : 
crest conspicuous, composedof 6-8 filiform, sometimes emarginate, processes. 
Stamens 6, distinctly diadelphous. Seed as in the preceding spscies. 

§ 4. Spikes elongated or racemose : keel cristate : filaments united near- 
ly to the stimmit : style dilated and cucullate in the middle: appendage, 
of the caruncle 2-lobed. 


130 POLYGALACEiE. Polygala. 

11. P. verticillata (Linn.): spikes pedunculate, acute, dense; wings 
roundish-obovate ; crest conspicuous; stem erect, branched; leaves verticil- 
late, linear and lanceolate-linear, glandularly punctate. — Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 
54; Niitt.! gen. 2. p. 89; Ell. s'k. 2. p. 182; DC. prodr. l.p.329; Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 85. 

Sandy fields and dry hill-sides, Canada! to Florida! and west to Akan- 
sas ! June-Aug. — Stem 6-10 inches high. Leaves mostly in whorls of 4 
or 5, but sometimes scattered. Spike 15-20-flowered, an inch or more in 
length, 2 lines in diameter at the base, and tapering to a pretty acute summit. 
Flowers very minute, greenish-Avhite. Bracts very deciduous. Exterior 
sepals unequal ; the posterior ones ovate, twice as large as the other two. 
Wings a little longer than the corolla. Lateral petals nearly as large as the 
wings, and somewhat spreading. Style dilated and saccate almost imme- 
diately above the ovary: gland inconspicuous; the terminal appendage 
subulate, with a hairy tuft at the extremity. Seed oblong, hairy. Caruncle 
with 2 distant oblong lobes nearly half the length of the seed. — In this and 
the following species, the exterior sepals, the ovary, and the keel of the co- 
rolla are furnished with oblong or linear vesicles, which are filled with a yel- 
lowish farinaceous matter. 

12. P. amhigua (Nutt.) : spikes pedunculate, acute, dense ; rachis squar- 
rose with the persistent bracts ; Avings roundish ; stem erect, with virgate 
branches ; leaves linear, not glandular, the lower ones sometimes verticillate, 
the others scattered.— A'm^. .' gen. 2. p. 89; DC. prodr. I. p. 329; Darlingt. 
f. Cest. p. 402. 

Woods and sandy fields, often in wet places, New Jersey ! to Virginia, 
Nuttall. Ang.-Sept.— @ Plant 8-12 inches high. Flowers greenish- white, 
more or less tinged with purple. — Nearly related to the preceding species in 
the structure of the flowers and seeds, as well as in general appearance. 

13. P. bicolor (Kunth): spikes cylindrical, densely flowered ; exterior se- 
pals with 2 thick parallel nerves ; leaves pellucid-punctate ; the lower ones 
ternately or quinately verticillate ; upper ones linear-lanceolate. H. B. ^ K. 
nov. gen. 5. p. 394. t. 509. e.v. DC. prodr. l.p. 327 ; Hook. jour. bat. 1. p. 194. 

Near New-Orleans, Drummond. If ((T) DC.) Stem U foot or more in 
height. The verticillate leaves obovate-lanceolate ; the upper and ahernate 
ones linear. Spike very long: flowers much larger than in P. verticillata. 
Hook. — We have not seen this plant. May it not be a variety of of P. ver- 
ticillata or P. amhigua ? The " thick parallel nerves" of the sepals are pro- 
bably the vesicles noticed in the preceding species. 

14. P. leptocmdis : spike racemose, much elongated, very slender, loose ; 
wings elliptical-obovate, about as long as the corolla; exterior sepals some- 
what equal, acute ; crest conspicuous ; capsule oblong ; seed oblong ; lobes 
of the caruncle very minute ; stem fiiliform, nearly simple, or with a few 
long erect branches ; leaves linear, very narrow. 

Texas, Dnnnmond ! — (T) Stem 1-2 feet high, glabrous. Leaves about 
half an inch long, almost subulate, not dotted. Spike 1-2^ inches long. The 
flowers about a line long, rather remote, pale purple, longer than the slender 
pedicels. Exterior sepals somewhat equal. Wings narrowed into a short 
claw at the base. Crest consisting of several filiform processes, equalling the 
lateral petals. Style saccate, without the terminal appendage : gland obtuse, 
sessile. Seed very hairy : the lobes of the caruncle collateral. 

15. P. Beyrichii: spike dense, acute; flowers on very short pedicels; 
wings orbicular-obovate, concave, rather longer than the broadly obovate lateral 
petals ; capsule oblong ; seed very villous with appressed hairs ; lobes of the 
caruncle distant, about half as long as the seed ; stems numerous, somewhat 
branched ; leaves linear or linear-spatulate, somewhat glandular. 


Texas, Drummond ! Arkansas, Beyrich! — y About a foot high, angiilar. 
Leaves an inch or more in length, and a line wide, rather thick, mucronate. 
Spike 1-2 inches long: flowers as large as in P. Senega, closely approximat- 
ed, white. Wings concave. Processes of the crest 6, short. Keel nuuked 
with 3 yellow glands below the crest. Style short, broad and saccate; ap- 
pendage short : gland prominent, but sessile. Capsule spotted with small 
yellow glands. 

16. P. Senega (Linn.) : spike dense, rather acute ; flowers on very short 
pedicels; wings orbicular-obovate, concave, rather longer than the obovate 

Eetal.s ; capsule nearly orbicular ; seed somewhat hirsute with spreading 
airs; lobes of the caruncle collateral, as long as the seed ; stems numerous, 
simple ; leaves lanceolate, scabrous on the margin. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 894 ; 
Walt. Car. p. 17S ; Bigel. ! med. hot. 2. p. 97. t. 30, <^Jl. Bost. p. 265 ; Bot. 
mag. t. 1051; DC. prodr. 1. p. 330 ; Hook. ! Jl. Bar.-Am. 1. p. 85 ; Dar- 
lingl. Jl. Cest. p. 403. P. Senega, a. albida, Michx. ! Jl. 2. p. 53 ; Pursh, 
Jl. 2. p. 465. 
13. latijolia : leaves ovate-oblong, acuminate at each end ; stem branched above. 
Dry rocky woods, Saskatchawan River! to North Carolina! west to Ken- 
tucky ! /!(. Kentucky, 6Vt07-;.' May-June. — U Root thick and rather ligneous. 
Stems about half a foot high, somewhat inclined ; the base usually invested 
with small oval scale-like leaves. Leaves 1-2 inches long, and 3-4 lines 
wide (in 0. 3-4 inches lon^ and IJ inches wide), serrulatcly ciliolate. Spike 
1-2 inches long, a little inclined : flowers greenish-white. Sepals all obtuse. 
Crest short ; the processes iew and often partly confluent. Style short, ga- 
leate and somewhat rostrate ; appendage wanting, but in its place a short 
tuft of hairs. — Seneca Snake-root. 

17. P. alba (Nutt.) : spike on a long peduncle; flowers nearly sessile; 
wings rounded, about as long as the corolla ; stem simple ; leaves linear, re- 
volute on the margin. Nictt. gen. 2. p. 87; DC. prodr. 1. p. 330. 

Plains of the Missouri, common, the only species of the genus in that re- 
gion. — U About 6 inches high. Leaves glabrous. Flowers white : bracts 
lanceolate, deciduous. — Near P. Senega, but distinct. NuttaU. — We have 
not seen this plant, but we suspect that it is a variety of P. Senega. 

18. P. Boykinii (Nutt.): spike dense, acute; flowers distinctly pedicel- 
late ; wings orbicular-obovate, concave, rather longer than the obovate pe- 
tals ; capsule broadly obovate ; seed very hirsute with appressed hairs ; lobes 
of the caruncle collateral, two-thirds the length of the seed ; stems numerous 
branching above ; leaves verticillate in fours and fives, obovate-oblong and 
lanceolate. — Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philad. l.p. 86. 

Milledgeville, Georgia, Dr. Boykin! Near the Apalachicola River, Flo- 
rida, Croom! June-Sept. — Root like that of P. Senega. Stems 1-2 feet 
high. Leaves about an inch long ; the lower ones nearly obovate ; upper ones 
gradually narrower. Spikes 2 inches long, tapering to a narrow point. 
Flowers resembling those of P. Senega: crest minute. Style short; appen- 
dage subulate : gland somewhat pedicellate. — This species greatly resembles 
P. distans, St. Hil. ft. Bras. 2. p. 24. t. 84. 

19. P. Chapmanii : spike oblong, acute, loose; wings obovate, with a short 
claw ; exterior sepals unequal ; the posterior one broadly ovate, obtuse ; 
lateral petals obovate, distinct from the keel ; crest almost none ; seed obo- 
vate, clothed with spreading hairs ; lobes of the caruncle minute, diverging; 
stems filiform, somewhat branching ; leaves linear-subulate, numerous. 

West Florida, Dr. Chapman ! — Glabrous. Stems about a foot high, 
branching from the ba5e or only near the summit. Leaves 6-S lines Ions, 
scarcely half a line wide. Spike 1-li inch long. Bracts minute, persistent. 
Flowers bright rose-color, nearly as large as in P. sanguinea. Wings rather 
longer than the corolla. Lateral petals united with the keel only at the base : 

132 POLYGALACE^. Poltgala. 

crest consisting of several very minute processes. Style slender, a little di- 
lated in the middle; appendage conspicuously bearded: gland sessile. Seed 
black ; the lobes of the caruncle scarcely one-tifth the length of the seed. 

20. P. poly ga ma (Walt.) : terminal racemes spiciform, loose, the flowers- 
at length pendulous ; wings broadly obovate, spreading, longer than the co- 
rolla; crest conspicuous; radical racemes with wingless flowers; capsule 
oblong, emarginate ; lobes of the caruncle more than half as long as the very 
hairy seed; stems numerous, assurgent ; leaves oblong and oblong-hnear. — 

Walt. Car. p. 179; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 75; Ell. sk. 2. p. 181 ; DC.prodr. 1. 
p. 330 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 86. t. 29. P. rubella, IVilld. sp. 3. p. 875 ; 
Bigel. ft. Bost. p. 264, ^ med. bot. t. 54 ; DC. I. r. 

Dry sandy fields and woods, Canada! to Florida! and Louisiana! June- 
July — (g) Stems 5-10 inches high. Leaves an inch long, mucronate. Ter- 
minal racemes 6-15-flowered : pedicels slender : flowers larger than in P. 
purpurea, deep rose-color or purplish. Wings with short claws. Processes 
of the crest laciniate. Style short, cucuUate: gland exseited : appendage 
strongly bearded. Radical racemes leafless, prostrate, often subterranean. 

§ 5. Bac ernes loose: keel not cristate: upper half of the Jilaments un- 
connected: style slender^ without lobes: caruncle helmet-shaped, with^ 
out appendages. 

21. P. grandiflora (Walt.): pubescent; raceme elongated, the flowers 
distant; pedicels recurved after floAvering; wings roundish (large) covering 
the corolla and fruit; keel large, cucuUate, connected with the lateral petals 
and filaments only at the base ; stem ascending ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
ciliolate. — Walt. Car. p. 179. P. pubescens, Miihl. cat. p. 66 ; Nutt. gen. 
2. p. 87 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 180 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 330. P. Senega, var. rosea, 
Mich.v. ! fl. 2. p. 53 ;, ft. 2. p. 465. P. Senega, A. St. Hil. ^ Moq.- 
Tand. in mem. mus. 17. t. 21. f. 17, ^ t. 28. /. 10. 

Dry soils. South Carolina! to Florida and Louisiana! May-Aug. — 11 
Root thick, tortuous. Stem about a foot high, simple or virgately branched. 
Leaves 1-li inch long, 3-4 lines broad, tapering at each end. Raceme 12- 
18-flowered ; the lowest flowers usually remote : pedicels 2-4 lines long. 
The 2 inferior sepals united except at the summit. Wings one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter, at first deep rose-color, afterwards green. Lateral petals 
much shorter than the keel, dilated above, waved, bright rose-color : keel with 
a mere callosity at the apex instead of a crest. Filaments monad elphous; 
straight and unconnected above. Style a little dilated and tubular in the 
middle ; the upper part curved, bearded on the under side below the glandu- 
lar summit. Capsule oblong-obovate, emarginate, glabrous. Seed silky -vil- 
lous. Caruncle about one-fifth as long as the seed, laterally compressed. — 
This most remarkable of all the N. American Polygala?, and the only one 
destitute of a crest, resembles P. brizoides, St. Hil. Michaux strangely 
considered it a variety of P. Senega ; and St. Hilaire & Moquin-Tandon 
have fallen into the same mistake, having figured the flowers and seed of 
this species from Michaux's specimeii. 

§ 6. Flowers few, large, terminal; posterior sepal concave-cucuUate, 
with a gland at the base on the inside: keel cristate or callous at the 
apex. (Cham^buxus, Dill.) 

22. P. paucifolia (Willd.): rhizoma creeping and branching, throwing up 
simple erect branches, leafy at the summit ; leaves ovate, petioled; terminal 
flowers 2-3 ; crest fimbriate ; radical flowers wingless. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 880 ; 


Bart. fl. Amer.-Sept. 2. t. 5(5./ 1 ; DC. prodr. ]. p. 331 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 180; 
Hook. ! bot. mag. t. 2852. f Jl. IJor.-Am. 1. p. 86. P. purpurea, Ail. hew. 
4. p. 244. (not of Nutt.) P. unillora, Mich.i:.' fl. 2. p. 53. Tridisperina 
grandiHora, Jiaf. speech. 1. p. 7. 

/?. a//>a (Eights): flower solitary, smaller, white; stem somewhat leafy at 
the base. Jieck, bot. p. 46. 

Sphagnous swamps, often in mountainous situations, Saskatrhawan Ri- 
ver! to'Oeorgia. 0. Sand plains near Albany, JJr. J. Eiirfit.'i. May.— 1( 
Stalks 3-4 inches high, the lower part scaly.' Leaves 4-5, about an inch 
long and half an inch or more wide. Flowers nearly i' of an inch long-, 
deep rose-color ; the pedicels 5-6 lines in length. Wings obovate, attenuate 
at the base, as long as the corolla. Lateral petals obi. ng, concave, united to 
the keel the greater part of their length : crest conspicuous, compound. An- 
thers bilabiare, imperfectly 2-celled. Style long, a little curved, slightly en- 
larging upward ; the orifice irregularly 4-toothed, without hairs. — In the struc- 
ture of the flowers this species strongfy resembles P. Chamaebuxusof Europe. 

J Species of ichich the flowers and fruit are not sufficiently described. 

23. P. Nutkana (Moe. ic. ined.) : racemes loose, 4-5-flowered ; wings or- 
bicular; capsule emarginate ; stem somewhat shrubby at the base; leaves 
oval, petioled, acuminate at each end. DC. prodr. 1. p. 330. 

Nootka, North-west America. DC. — There is not improbably some mis- 
take about the habitat of this plant, as no species of the genus has been 
found by other observers on the Pacific coast of N. America. 

24. P. attenuata (Hook.): racemes loose, attenuated at the apex ; pedicels 
as long as the flowers ; wings ovate, acute, concave, scarcely longer than 
the bearded keel; stem slender, elongated, angular, branched ; leaves linear, 
opposite, rarely quaternate; upper ones alternate. Jlook. in jour. bot. 1. p. 
.195. (not of Xutt.) 

Jacksonville, Louisiana, Drvmmond. — (Tj Stems very slender, erect, about 
a foot and a half high. Flowers greenish. — Habit of P. ambigua and P. 
ganguinea, but very diH"erent in size, and in the flowers and racemes. Hook. 
— We are unacquainted with this plant. The two species which it is said 
.by Hooker to resemble are very unlike each other. 

Suborder KRAMERIE/E. Mart. 

Sepals 5, or rarely 4, more or less irregular, much spreading, colored, 
deciduous, in aestivation imbricated in a triple series; the two outer 
ones anterior and posterior ; the two intermediate ones lateral and 
alternate with the exterior pair ; and tiie innermost usually smaller, 
situated either to the right or left of the posterior exterior sepal, some- 
timcK wanting. Petals 5, or rarely 4, hypogynous, smaller than the 
sepals ; the three superior with long and slender claws (the lamina 
sometin>es abortive), severally alternating with the two (outer and 
inner) posterior and the lateral sepals ; the claws sometimes united 
into a slender column, which alternates with the two posterior sepals 
when both are present, or is placed opposite to the exterior sepal when 
the other is abortive ; the two lower petals (scales, abortive stamens ? 
Kunth) opposite the lateral sepals (in K. cistoidea, ex Hook. 4' Arn. and 
in K. lanceolata !), or alternating with these and the anterior sepal 
(ex A. St. Hil.), sessile, fleshy, much smaller than the others and remote 
from them. Stamens 4, hypogynous, naore or less unequal, declined ; 

134 KRAMERIEiE. Kkameria; 

two usually lonjrer, alternate with the lateral unguiculate and the 
lower or fleshy petals ; and two close together, alternate with the supe- 
rior and the lateral petals : filaments thick, distinct, or the interme- 
diate ones united, or (in K. lanceolata) all more or less united : an- 
thers innate, fleshy, somewhat conical, 2-celled, opening at the apex 
by a single or douhle pore. Ovary 1- (or incompletely 2-) celled, 
densely hairy, gibbous : style subulate, ascending : stigma minute : 
placenta posterior or next the upper petal : ovules 2, pendulous from 
near the summit of the cell. Fruit between woody and leathery, glo- 
bose, glochidate, indehiscent, 1-celled, 1-2-seeded. Seed roundish, 
ovate, anatropous, with a membranous testa : albumen none. Em- 
bryo straight : cotyledons roundish, plano-convex, fleshy. — Spreading 
or procumbent under-shrubs, much branched from the base, silky or 
hirsute with simple hairs : the root astringent and very bitter. Leaves 
alternate, exstipulate, simple or rarely 3-foliolate, entire. Peduncles 
terminal and axillary toward the summit of the branches, sometimes 
more properl}^ racemed, 1-flowered, 2-bracteolate in the middle. 

Hooker and Arnott {hot. Beeckey^s voij. p. 9. t. 5. 1831), in their elaborate account 
of the structure and affinities of Krameria, have corrected an important error in the 
character given by St. Hilaire {riiem. mus. 17. t. 31, and 19, p. 336 ; 4- in ji. Bras, 
merid.; copied also in Lindl. nat. syst. ed. 2. 1836.), wiio describes the three ungui- 
culate petals, and consequently the sepal accompanying the smaller internal one, as 
inferior or anterior; the structure according to this view being nearly the same as in 
Polygalaceas. Hooker and Arnott remark that they are borne out in tlieir view of 
the position of the parts of the tlower (which supposes an inversion of the com- 
mon arrangement in Polygalacea; to take place), by Ruiz and Pavon, Jussieu, and 
Kunth; and their view is fully sustained by the structure of K. lanceolata, although, 
on account of the twisting of the peduncles, the petals often appear, at first sight,"to 
be anterior. St. Hilaire is equally mistaken in considering the side of the ovary 
which is turned away from the ' lower' (that is, according to his view, the ungui- 
culale) petals as placentiferous: but the affinities suggested by Hooker and Arnott 
are not borne out by the correction, unless the ovary is proved to be monocarpellary, 
which is probably not the case. The innermost sepal may either be situated on the 
left of the exterior upper sepal (as in K. grandiflora figured by St. Hilaire ; the 
flower being brought into its true position), or more commonly on the right : in 
K. lanceolata we find this sepal sometimes dextral and sometimes sinistral. 

2. KRAMERIA. Lceji. ; Rxiiz f Pav. prodr. fl. Per. ^ Chil. t. 3 ; .4. St. 
Hil. I. c. 19. p. 336 ; Hook. ^ Am. hot. Beechey's voy. p. 8. 

Character same as of the Suborder. 

1. K. lanceolata (Torr.): branches mostly procumbent, many-flowered; 
lower cauline leaves oblong-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate ; the others nar- 
rowly linear ; peduncles hibracteate above the middle, longer than the leaves ; 
sepals 5, nearly equal ; unguiculate petals 3, the claws united their whole 
length; stamens 4; filaments monadelphous. — Torr.! in ann. lye. New- 
York, 2. p. 168. 
.In sandy soil on the upper part of the Arkansas or the Canadian, Dr. 
James! Prairies west of Fort ^Towson, Dr. Leavemcorth ! Texas, 
Drummo7ul ! Tampa Bay, E. Florida, in pine woods, Dr. Bin-rows ! 
and Dr. Leavenworth! May. — Canescently hirsute. Stems numerous; 
branches slender, often a foot or more long. • Lower cauhne leaves about f 
of an inch long, and 2 lines broad, sometimes obtuse ; those of the branches 
usually longer. Peduncles on the prostrate branches secund, often twice the 
length of the leaves, forming as it were loose leafy racemes. Sepals purple 

NoisETTiA. VIOLACE^. 135 

within, ovate-lanceolatP ; the inner superior one mostly seated on the left. 
Upper petals a little shorter than the sepals; the claws united into a linear- 
fihtbrm column; laininai small, roundish-obovate, distinct, equal, of a rather 
firm texture : lower petals scarcely longer than the ovary, glabrous. Sta- 
mens shorter than the upper petals : filaments sometimes monadelphous at 
the base, sometimes united almost to the summit: anthers attenuate above, 
the apex produced into a short somewhat dilated membranaceous tube. 
Ovary densely hirsute and spinulose, imperfectly 2-celled in the youngest 
state by the projection of the placental ridge. Style rigid, quadrangular, a 
little declined. Immature pericarp 2-seeded ; one of the seeds perhaps at 
length abortive. — Apparently more nearly allied to K. linearis, Poir. (K. 
pentapetala, Ruiz ^ Par.), which has (according to the figure in the Flora 
Peruviana) the three upper petals united throughout ; the compound lamina 
being merely 3-toothed. In a single flower of our species we observed the 
suppression of one of the upper petals, and in another case two of them 
were apparently wanting. 


Sepals 5, persistent, distinct or slightly united, and often auricled 
or produced at the base, imbricated in aestivation, the anterior and 
two posterior being exterior, and the two lateral ones interior. Pe- 
tals 5, alternate with the sepals, hypogynous, marcescent or deciduous, 
on short claws, commonly unequal, the superior one (which by the 
resupination of the flower becomes inferior) usually spurred or sac 
cate at the base : aestivation obliquely convolute. Stamens 5, alter- 
nate with the petals, inserted on the hypogynous disk or torus : an- 
thers adnate, introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudinally : filaments di- 
lated, elongated beyond the anthers ; two of them generally furnished 
with a spur-like appendage or gland at the base. Ovary composed of 
3 united carpels, 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae opposite the outer 
sepals : style usually declined, with an oblique cucullate stigma. 
Capsule l-celled, 3-valved, loculicidal, bearing the many- (rarely few-) 
seeded placentae on the middle of the valves. Seeds anatropous, 
usually with a distinctly marked chalaza, and a crustaceous testa. 
Embryo straight in the axis of fleshy albumen. — Herbs or shrubs. 
Leaves simple, petioled, alternate or rarely opposite, with an involute 
vernation : stipules persistent or marcescent. Flowers axillary. 

1. NOISETTIA. H. B. ^ K. nov. gen. 5. p. 382; DC. prodr. l.p. 290. 

Sepals unequal, decurrent on the pedicel at the base ; the 2 inferior ones 
often inequilateral. Petals very unequal, persistent; the superior (or appa- 
rently inferior) one large, somewhat unguiculate, with a long spur at the base. 
Stamens distinct: fiilaments short: anthers sagittate, the 2 anterior ones with 
a long subulate process at the base. Ovary Avith numerous ovules. Capsule 

136 VIOLACEiE. Viola. 

ovate : placentae linear. — Erect shrubs, Avith alternate leaves. Stipules in 
pairs. Flowers in axillary many-flowered racemes, or in crowded fascicles : 
pedicels with 2 bracteoles near the middle. 

1. N. acuminata (DC): leaves lanceolate, on short petioles, eiliate, tooth- 
ed, the apex produced into a long entire point ; pedicels solitary, rather short- 
er than the leaves. DC. prodr. 1. p. 290. 

North America, Michaux, ex DC. — This plant is inserted on the authority 
of De CandoUe, who states that he saw it in the herbarium of the Museum 
of Paris, imder the name of Violseoides, Miclur. mss. He asks whether it is 
not a variety of N. orchidiflora. It has doubtless been recorded as a native 
of N. America by mistake. 

2. VIOLA. Linn.; t. 112 ; Gingins, in DC. prodr. 1. p. 23T. 

Sepals unequal, more or less auricled at the base. Petals unequal ; the su- 
perior (by resupination inferior) one spurred at the base. Stamens approxi- 
mated, filaments distinct, dilated at the base ; the two lower ones with ap- 
pendages on the back which are concealed in the spur : anthers connate ; the 
lobes diverging at the base. Ovary sometimes surrounded at the base by the 
concave torus, and then apparently half inferior. Capsule bursting elastically.. 
Seeds horizontal, Avith an evident caruncle. — Low herbaceous plants, mostly 
perennial, with a short subterraneous stem or rhizoma (and then called acaur 
lescent or stemless), or caulescent. Leaves alternate. Peduncles angular, 
solitary, 1-flowered, Avith two little bracteoles, recurved at the summit, so 
that the flower is resupinate or nodding. 

§ 1. Stigma rostrate; the beak more or less recurved, with a foramen at 
the extremity, margined or convex on the back: style attenuated from 
the summit to the base : stamens oblong : torus fattish : capsule often 
2-sided: seeds mwieroiis (15-30). Gingins. 

* ^caulescent. 

1. V. pedaia (Linn.): nearly glabrous ; leaves pedately about 7-parted j 
segments linear-lanceolate, entire, or incisely 3-toothed at the summit ; stig- 
ma large and thick, margined, obliquely truncate ; beak very short ; petals all 
glabrous. — Michx: ! fl. 2. p. 151 ; Schwein. ! man. Viol, in Sill. jour. 5. 
p. 50; Torr.! fl. 1. p. 249; DC. prodr. 1. ^.291; Le Conte ! mon. Viol, 
in ann. lye. New-York, 2. p. 147. Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 74. V. digitata, 
Pursh, fl. 1. p. 171; V. flabellifolia, Lod'd. bot. cab. t. 111. 

Dry sandy Avoods and on rocky hills, British America, lat. 53^, to Florida ! 
and west to Illinoi*— Rhizoma thick. Leaves of a firm texture ; the seg- 
ments sometimes very narroAv and laciniate. Stipules ciliate. Flowers 
very large, usually bright blue, sometimes pale or even white. 

2. V. delphinifolia (l^uU. I mss.): "minutely pubescent ; leaves pedately 
7-9-parted ; segments linear, 2-3-cleft ; stigma thick, distinctly rostrate ; the 
2 superior petals pubescent ; the 3 inferior emarginate ; spur saccate, short. 

" Prairies of Missouri, near Independence, not uncommon. March. — 
Rhizoma thick. Leaves pubescent on the margin and nerves; often finely 
divided, Avith numerous lobes. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, much acuminated, 
neaily entire. Peduncles, at the time of floAA^ering, a little longer than the 

Viola. VIOLACEiE. 137 

leaves; the bracts minute and alternate. Sepals linear-lanceolate. Flowers 
a little smaller than in the preceding species, brilliant blue. Cusps of the 
anthers remarkably broad. Style short, clavate.— This species, on the Mis- 
souri, appears to take the place of V. pedata." Nutt. 

3. V. palinata (Linn.) : pubescent ; leaves cordate, palmately or hastately 
lobed (rarely entire) ; lobes crenate and toothed, the middle one much lar- 
ger ; stigma triangular, the beak short; inferior petals bearded.— ^/it/i.?-. .' 
Jl.2. p. 161; Ell. .sA-. 1. ;;. 300; Schwfin. f I.e.; Torr.! fi. 1. p. 249; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 292; Le Conte ! I c. ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 74. V. hct- 
erophylla, Lc Conte! I. c. V. ranunculifolia, Juss. in JRcfin. f Schull. syst. 
5. p. 352 1 

Low grounds, Canada ! to New Orleans T west to Arkansas! May. — 
Rhizoma thick. Leaves variable in form and degree of pubescence ; rarely 
alnw^t glabrous, sometimes woolly ; the early ones nearly or quite entire, 
and somewhat ovate and reniform; the base usually more or less hastate; 
under surface often purplish. Flowers middle-sized, bright blue, rarely 

4. V. cucullata (Ait.): glabrous or rarely somewhat pubescent; leaves 
reniform-cordate, somewhat acute, cucuUate at the base, crenately sern'tp ; 
stigma triangular, margined; lower petals bearded. — Ait. Kew. 3'. p. 288 ; 
PursK ft. 1. p- 172; Bis^el. ! ft. Bost. p. 60 ; Ell sk. 1. p. 298; Schwein. ! 
I. c. ; Torr.! f. 1. p. 251 ; Le Conte ! mon. I c. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 292; 
Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. lb. V. papilionacea, Pursh, fl. 1. p. 173; DC. 
prodr. I. c. V. obliqua, Ait. I. c. ; Schwein.! I. c.j Torr. ! I. c. V. affinis, 
Le Conte ! I. c. 

0. congener : villous ; leaves broadly and somewhat reniformly cordate, 
crenately toothed, somewhat lobed. — V. congener, Le Conte! I. c. 

y.l sororia : nearly glabrous ; leaves exactly cordate; flowers small. — V. 
sororia, Willd. horf. Berol. t. 72. 

i. alba: smoothish ; flowers white. 

e. reniforinis : glabrous ; leaves broadly reniform. 

Fields, woods, and wet meadows; Arctic America ! to Florida! /S.Geor- 
gia, Le Conte ! j . Dry hill-sides, Massachusetts to New Jersey ! S. Ken- 
tucky, Short ! f. Massachusetts, Pickering f April-May. — A very vari- 
able species. In wet or shady places it is perfectly glabrous, but in expos- 
ed situations more or less pubescent. 

5. F. septemloba (Le Conte) : glabrous and shining ; leaves somewhat 
succulent, ovate-cordate ; lowest ones entire, the others pedately 7-lobed 
with the middle lobe largest : lateral petals bearded. Jje Conte .' I. c. 

Pine Avoods of the low country of Carolina and Georgia, Le Conte ! — Pe- 
duncles longer than the leaves. Flowers generally blue, varying to white. 
Lower petal large, villous at the base, and, as well as the lateral ones, mark- 
ed with deeper blue lines. Le C. — We fear that this species is only a variety 
of V. palmata. 

6. V. Selkirkii (Go\die): leaves cordate, crenately serrate, minutelv hir- 
sute above, glabrous beneath, the sinus deep and nearly closed ; stigma tri- 
angular, margined, with a distinct beak ; spur nearly as long as the lamina, 
thick, very obtuse. — G oldie ! in Edinb. phil. jour. 6. p. 319; Hook. ! jl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 75. 

Hills about Montreal, Lower Canada, Goldie, Dr. Holmes ! Mountains 
of Massachusetts, Dewey ! Woody hill-sides in the Western part of the 
State of New-York! — Rhizoma somewhat creeping. Leaves numerous, 
forming a little tuft, on long petioles ; lamina an inch broad, somewhat 
acute, or obtuse. Peduncles shorter than the leaves. Flowers much small- 
er than in V. cucullata : petals pale blue, obovate ; spur very conspicuous, 
soBoewhat dilated at the extremity. — A very distinct species. 


138 VIOLACEiE. Viola. 

7. V. sagittata (Ait.) : glabrous or a little pubescent ; leaves oblong, 
acute, cordate-sagiitate and incised at the base ; stigma depressed, margined ; 
inferior petal glabrous, the rest bearded.— .4t7. Kew. 3. p. 287 ; Fursh, fi. 1. 
p. 172; Null. gen. 1. ]>. 147; Schwdn.'. I.e.; Torr. ! ji. 1. p. 250; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 299 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 294 ; Le Conte ! I. c. 

/?. ovata : villous ; leaves ovate, somewhat cordate, crenate, often lacer- 
ately toothed at the base ; petiole margined.— V. ovata, Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 
148 ; Schxcein.! I. c. ; Torr. I I. c; DC. prodr. 1. p. 293 ; Hook. f. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 76. V. primulifolia, Pursh, fi. 1. p. 172 (not oi Linn.). V. Al- 
leghaniensis, Roem. <S; Schult. syst. 5. p. 560; DC. I. c. 

y. emarginata (Nutt.): glabrous ; leaves almost triangular, lacerately 
toothed near the base ; petals emarginate. or bidentate. Nutt. h c. ; Schicein. ! 
I. c. V. emarginata. Le Conte! I. c. V. dentata, Pursh, fi. 1. p. 172? 

Hill-sides and fields, Canada ! to Florida ! west to Arkansas ! /?. New 
Jersey. April-May. — Rhizoma short and thick. Leaves usually a little 
pubescent on the upper surface, crenately toothed, often somewhat hastate 
at the base: petioles about as long as the lamina. Peduncles commonly long- 
er than the leaves. Flowers middle-sized, bright blue. Spur short and 
very obtuse. 

8. V. villosa (Walt.): pubescent; leaves plane (appressedto the ground), 
ovate or ovate-cordate, obtuse, crenately-toothed, sinus nearly closed ; petals 
mostly villous, the lateral ones bearded.— Wa/f. Car. p. 219; I. p. 
297; 'Schwein. I. c. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 295; Le Conte ! I. c. 

Sandy pine and oak woods, in the southern States ! March-April— 
Leaves very pubescent but not villous, rather thick, becoming nearly glabrous 
late in the season, variegated with purple veins, often entirely purple under- 
neath. Flowers small, pale blue. Le Conte.— This species appears to be 
confined to the Southern States. We have not had an opportunity of ex- 
amining the stigma. 

9. V. rotundi folia (Michx.) : leaves orbicular-ovate, cordate, somewhat 
crenate, nearly glabrous, the sinus closed ; petiole pubescent (flowers yellow) ; 
stigma recurved at the apex, margined ; lateral petals bearded ; sepals ob- 
tuse ; spur almost none.— Mic/i.r. 7 fi. 2. p. 150; Nutt.! gen. 1. p. 149; 
Schwein.! I. c ; Torr.! fl.l.p.252; BigeL! fl. Bost. p. 97 ; DC. ])rodr. 
l.p. 295 (excl. syn. Pursh); Le Conte! I. c. ; Hook.! fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 77. 

P.pallens (herb. Banks): smooth ; sepals acuminate. DC. I. c. 

Shady rocky woods and hill-sides. New England! Western part of the 
States of New-York ! and Pennsylvania! to the high mountains of Carohna, 
MichaiLv! 0. Labrador, Banks. May.— Rhizoma rather thick, throwing out 
long stolons from the neck late in the season. Leaves spreading and appressed 
to the ground, at the flowering time about an inch in length, but later in 
the season 3-4 inches long and nearly three inches in diameter; the veins of 
the under surface slightly pubescent. Flowers small, pale yellow: petals 
broadly ovate, sometimes emarginate, the lateral ones with 3 brown striae ; 
upper one small.— This may be the V. obUqua of Alton, which is described 
as having straw-colored flowers ("petala straminea"). 

10. V. blanda ( Willd.) : leaves broadly cordate, slightly pubescent above, 
the sinus rounded ; petiole glabrous ; stigma capitate, depressed, margined, 
with a recurved beak; petals beardless (white) ; rhizoma creeping.— JrtV/rf. 
hart. Berol. t. 24 ; Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 149; Schwein. ! I. c. ; Torr. ! fi. 1. p. 
254; DC. prodr. 1. p. 295; Le Conte! I. c. V. clandestina, Pursh! fi. 1. 
p. 173 (excl. syn. Michx.) V. obliqua, Pursh, I. c. V. amoena, Le Conte ! 

I. c. 

Wet meadows, Canada ! to Pennsylvania ! April-May— Leaves nearly 
flat membranaceous, often reniform-cordate, sometimes rather acute when 
young, but at length rounded at the summit. Flowers small, odorous : pe- 

Viola. VIOLACE^. 139 

tals obtuse ; the inferior and lateral ones strongly veined with puryile. — V. 
clandestina, Pursh, of which we have seen specimens in Lambert's licrba- 
rium,is only the apetalous state of this species, which like most other violets 
with subterraneous stems, puts forth, late in the season, stolons, which 
bear one or more apetalous flowers. 

11. V. primuhp folia (Linn.): leaves oblong, somewhat cordate, the lamina 
abruptly decurrent on the petiole, the under surface and the peduncles a lit- 
tle pubescent; stigma capitate, margined (flowers white); lateral petals 
bearded; rhizoma creeping. — Null.! gen. 1. p. 149 ; Schwein. I. c; Ell. sk. 
1. p. 297 (excl. syn. Pursh) ; Torr. ! fi. 1. j). 253 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 293 ; Le 
Conte ! I. c. 

0. acuta: leaves ovate, glabrous; petals acute, lateral ones nearly gla- 
brous.— V. acuta, Bigel. ! fl. Bost. p. 9.5 ; Torr. ! jl. I. c. 

Wet meadows, Massachusetts ! to Florida !~west to Kentucky, Short. 
/5. Moist grounds, near Boston, Bigelow ! April- June. — Plant usually 2-3 
inches high. Leaves 1-2 inches long, shorter than the peduncles, mostly 
somewhat cordate at the base, but sometimes merely truncate: petiole 
shorter than the lamina. Flowers odorous : spur short, very obtuse. 

12. V. lanceolata (Linn.) : glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, attenuate at the 
base into a long petiole, rather obtuse, obscurely crenately serrate ; stigma 
with a short recurved beak, somewhat quadrangular and margined ; petals 
(white) beardless.— McA.r. .' fi. 2. p. 150; Null. ! gen. \.p. 150 ; Schwein.! 
I. c. ; Torr.! fl.\. p. 253; DC. prodr. 1. p. 293; Le Conte ! I. c. ; Hook.! 
Jl. Bor.-Am. l.;j. 76. 

Wet meadows and swamps, Canada ! to Florida ! west to Texas ! 
Drummond! April-May.— Rhizoma creeping; often bearing very long 
creeping stolons with an apetalous flower on a short peduncle at each joint. 
It sometimes produces perfect flowers late in the season. 

1.3. V.palustris {Iauxv.): leaver reniform-cordate ; stipules broadly ovate, 
acuminate; stigma margined; sepals ovate, obtuse; capsule oblong, trian- 
gular ; seeds ovate, dark green. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 294. 

[i. Pennsyh-anica (DC): flowers purple; petals somewhat orbicular.— 
DC! I.e. 

Summits of the White Mountains of New Hampshire, Dr. Boott ! Mr. 
Oakes ! Wet places among the Rocky Mountains, and in Oregon, Nuitall! 
—Rhizoma articulated, creeping, somewhat scaly. Flowers resembling 
those of V. cucuUata, but considerably smaller and of a pale lilac color. 

* * Caulnscent : stigma coiixex, not margined. 

14. V. Langadorffii {Fischer) : leaves roundish-cordate, nearly glabrous; 
stipules ovate," setaceously acuminate, the lowest ones wnth bristly teeth; 
stem at length elongated, oblique at the base ; inferior petals somewhat 
rhomboidal; spur broadlv saccate, very obtuse. DC. prodr. 1. p. 296; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 77. 

Island of Uualaschka, Chamisso. 

15. V. striata (Alt.): glabrous; stem angular, oblique, branching ; leaves 
roundish-cordate or someAvhat ovate, upper ones a little acuminate ; stipules 
oblong-lanceolate, dentate-ciliate ; stigma tubular, recurved, pubescent at the 
summit; spur somewhat produced.— .4(7. Kew. {ed. 1.) 3. p. 291; Pursh! 
Jl. 1. p. 174; Natl.! gen. 1. p. 150; Ell. sk. I. p. 301 (excl. syn. Michx. <^- 

Walt.) ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 297 ; Le Conte ! I. c. V. ochroleuca, Schicein. ! 
I. c; Torr.! fl. 1. p. 255; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 77. V. repens, 
Schwein. I. c. 'V. Lewisiana,* DC. I c. V. debilis, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 150 1 

* Gingins and CandoUe mistook ihe Christian name of Mr. Schweinitz for the 

140 VIOLACEiE. Viola. 

Wet meadowi=, chiefly in mountainous districts, Canada! to Georgia! 
west to Kentucky ! and Illinois. April-May.— Plant 6-12 inches high. 
Leaves 1-li inch broad, crenately toothed: stipules conspicuous. Flowers 
large, sulphur-yellow: peduncles longer than the leaves: lateral petals beard- 
ed. — Perhaps V. debilis of Michaux should rather be referred to V. Muhlen- 
bergii; but his specimens of that species are imperfect, and we were unable 
to determine them with certainty. 

16. F. Muhlenbergii (Torr.): glabrous; stem assurgent or somewhat 
prostrate; leaves reniform-cordate, the upper ones a little acuminate, cre- 
natelv serrate ; stipules lanceolate, deeply serrate-ciliate ; stigma tubular, 
papillose, pubescent; spur produced.— Tarr. .' /. 1. p. 256. V. Muhlen- 
bergiana, Ging. in DC. prodr. \. p. 297; Le Conte ! I. c; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 78. V. uliginosa & asarifolia, Mv.Jd. ! cat. p. 25. V. debilis, 
Pursh! fl. \.p. 174 (excl. syn.). V. punctata (fc V. uliginosa, Schicein.! 
I.e. v. Labradorica, Schrank ; DC. I. c. 

a. albiflora (Hook.): stems very short; leaves cordate-ovate or ovate, 
densely pubescent ; flowers white. — Hook. I. c. 

y. multicanlis : stems numerous, prostrate; leaves cordate-reniform, ob- 
tuse, rather thick, minutely pubescent on both sides ; stigma very acute, re- 
curved ; lateral petals distinctly bearded. 

Swamps, and in dry shady places, Labrador ! and British America (lat. 
59-^) to New Orleans! west to the Rocky Mountains! P. British America, 
Eichardson. y. Rocks near Kentucky River, Short. April-May.— Stem 
6-10 inches long, branched from the base, when old decumbent and genicu- 
late. Veins of the under surface of the leaves sometimes pubescent. Flow- 
ers middle-sized, rather pale blue: lateral petals usually glabrous. Spur 
often more than half the length of the petal— Very near V. canina of Eu- 
rope; a species which is said by De CandoUe to occur on the N. W. Coast, 
but which has not been found by any of the recent travellers in that region. 
The var. y. may prove to be a distinct species. When it first begins to flower 
the stem is very short, but at length it throws off prostrate branches, which 
produce tufts of leaves and flowers at the extremity. 

17. F. longipes (Nutt. ! mss.) : "glabrous or slightly pubescent; stem short, 
somewhat decumbent ; leaves ovate-cordate, obtuse, more or less decurrent 
at the base, repandly crenate ; stipules linear-lanceolate, remotely spinulose- 
denticulate or lacerately cihate ; peduncles elongated ; stigma slightly ros- 
trate, slender, papillose ; spur produced, obtuse. V. debilis, Nutt. ! in jour, 
acad. Philad. 7. p. 15, not of Micl\a\ 

" Borders of woods and in bushy plains near the Oregon, and in the 
Rocky Mountains.— Root creeping. Stem 1-2 inches long. Leaves on 
petioles which are 2-3 times as long as the lamina, dotted with minute brown 
glands: stipules conspicuous, 6-8 lines long. Peduncles overtopping the 
leaves: bracts above the middle, linear-subulate. Flowers as large as in V. 
Muhlenbergii, deep blue. Appendages of the anthers filiform." Am«.— The 
V. canina, Richards, in upp. Frankl. journ. is supposed by Nuttail to be a 
variety of this species. 

18. F. rostrata (Pursh) : glabrous ; stems numerous, assurgent, terete ; 
leaves cordate, the upper ones acute, serrate ; stipules lanceolate, serrate- 
ciliate; stigma glabrous, tubular, erect, minute ; petals beardless; spur longer 
than the corolla.— Pz^rs^, fl. 1. p. 72 ; Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 150 ; Schicein. 1. c. ; 
Torr. ! fi.\. p- 256 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 298 ; Le Conte ! I. c. ; Hook.f. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 78. 

Moist rocky situations, Canada ! to Virginia ; Avest to Ohio and Kentucky. 
May. — Stems 4-6 inches high. Sinus of the leaves open. Flowers large, 
pale blue. Petals beardless, slightly veined with deep blue. Spur slender 

VjoLA. VIOLACE^. 141 

and rather acute, sometimes nearly twice the length of the petals. Appen- 
dages of the anthers filiform, extending nearly the entire length of the spur. 

19. V. adunca (Smith) : stem ascending, somewhat simple ; leaves ovate 
and cordate-ovate, coriaceous, crenate, covered with distinct brown dots ; sti- 
pules lanceolate, acuminate, dentate-ciliate; stigma somewhat rcHexed, gla- 
brous; sepals linear-lanceolate; petals scarcely longer than the spur, two of 
them bearded ; peduncles much longer than the leaves. Smith, in Rees, 
cycL; Hook.ji. Bar. -Am. !./>. 79. 

North-west coast, Menzies, Douglas. — Leaves of a dusky hue. Flow- 
ers deep purple-blue. Spur obtuse, straight or uncinate. Hook. 

§ 2. Stigma capitate, bearing a ttift of hairs on each side, icith a mi- 
nute somewhat lateral foramen: style compressed, clavate: stajnens 
oblong, approximate: torus rather Jlat: capsule often triangular. 

20. V. Nuttallii (Pursh): stem erect; leaves ovate-lanceolate, some- 
what pubescent or nearly glabrous, undivided, nearly entire, attenuated into 
a long petiole ; stipules lanceolate, entire ; sepals lanceolate, acuminate ; 
petals ovate-lanceolate ; spur very short ; peduncles shorter than the leaves. — 
Pursh, f. l.p. 174; Schwein. ! I.e.; DC.prodr. 1. p. 300; Le Conte! I. 
c. ; Hook.ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 9. t. 26; Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philad. l.p. 16. 

Sandy plains of the Missouri, Nutt all ! Saskatchawan, Drummond; 
sources of the Oregon, Mr. Wyeth ! — Rhizoma ascending. Stems nume- 
rous, short. Leaves sometimes obscurely sinuate-toothed. Flovv'ers small, 
pale yellow. " Pubescence of the depressed stigma very minute." Nutt. 

21. V. lingucefolia (Nutt. mss.) : "pubescent ; stem scarcely any ; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, somewhat serrate, on very long petioles ; bracts of the 
peduncles minute ; stigma thick and clavate, with scarcely any beak; sepals 
long and narrow, linear ; petals linear-oblong, somewhat emarginate. 

" Kamas Prairie, near the sources of the Oregon, Mr. Wyeth. — Flowers 
yellow, larger than in the preceding. Intermediate between V. Nuttallii and 
the succeeding species." Nuitatl. 

22. V. prcsmorsa (Doug].): hirsute or very pubescent; stems erect, short; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, repandly denticulate or nearly entire ; stipules lance- 
olate, entire; stigma clavate-capitate, conspicuously pubescent above, mi- 
nutely beaked ; petals obovate ; spur very short ; peduncles longer than the 
leaves.— Lindl. in bot. reg. t. 1254 ; Hook. ! ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 80. 

Dry plains of the Oregon, and on the Wahlamet, Nuttall ! Douglas. 
Fort Vancouver, Dr. Scolder ! Plant 6 inches high, usually densely hir- 
sute with short spreading hairs. Flowers rather large, yellow, on peduncles 
which are mostly shorter than the leaves. Lower petal emarginate, veined 
with brown. 

23. V. pedunculata : somewhat pubescent ; stem short ; leaves rhombic- 
ovate, crenately toothed, abruptly narrowed at the base into a petiole; stipules 
linear-lanceolate, entire ; stigma somewhat triangular, emarginate ; spur very 
short ; appendages of the inferior stamens wing-form, a little produced at the 

California, Douglas! — Lamina of the leaves scarcely an inch long, rather 
thick, with coarse obtuse teeth. Peduncles 2-3 times as long as the leaves. 
Flower large, deep yellow. Sepals oblong, obtuse. Petals broadly obovate ; 
the 2 upper ones with conspicuous claws ; lateral ones bearded at the base. 
Summit of the filaments rounded. Stigma with a minute lip on the lower 

21. V. hastata (Michx.): nearly glabrous; stem simple, erect; leaves 

142 VIOLACE^. Viola. 

deltoid-lanceolate, hastate and rhombic-ovate, repandly toothed ; stipules 
ovate, acute ; stigma somewhat incurved, emarginate ; sepals lanceolate, 
acute; spur very short. — Michx. ! Jl. 2. jj. 1^9 ; Ell sk. 1. p. 202 ; Schwein.! 
I. c; Torr.! fl. \. p. 257; DC.prodr. 1. p. 300; Le Conte! I. c. V. gib- 
bosa, /?o/.; DC. I.e. 

Shady w^oods, particularly in mountainous regions, Pennsylvania ! to 
Florida! — Rhizoma long and creeping. Stem 4-10 inches high. Radical 
leaves dilated and truncate at the base. Peduncles shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers smaller than in V. pubescens, yellow: lateral petals slightly bearded. 
Stigma hairy on each side, with a deep furrow on the top. 

25. V. tripartita (Ell.) : hirsute ; stem simple, leafy only at the summit ; 
leaves deeply 3-parted, the lobes lanceolate, toothed. Ell. sk. p. 2. 302 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 300. V. hastata, /?. Le Conte, I. c. 

Near Athens, Georgia. — Stem about a foot high ; the young plant villous. 
Leaves divided to the base, sometimes trifoliolate, very hairy ; segments 
sometimes acuminate. Stipules lanceolate, villous, entire or serrulate. Pe- 
duncles long, slender, bracteate Avith 2 minute alternate scales near the 
middle. Flowers yellow. Sepals acute. The lower petal beautifuUy streak- 
ed with purple. Elliott. 

26. V. pubescens (Ait.) : villous ; stem erect, naked below ; leaves broad- 
ly cordate, toothed ; stipules ovate, somewhat toothed ; sepals oblong-lance- 
olate; spur very short, a little saccate. — Ait. Keio. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 290; Nutt! 
gen. 1. p. 150 ; Schwein. ! I. c. ; Torr. ! fl. 1. p. 257 ; Le Conte ! I. c. V. 
Pennsylvanica, Mich.v. ! fl. 2. p. 149. 

/i. eriocarpa (Nutt.) : capsules densely villous. Nutt. ! I. c. ; Torr. ! I. c. 
V. eriocarpa, Schwein. ! I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

y. scabriuscula: branching from the root ; sterns decumbent, nearly gla- 
brous; leaves smaller, somewhat scabrous, but hardly pubescent; capsule 
glabrous, or villous. — V. scabriuscula, Schwein.! mss. 

Dry woods, Canada ! to Georgia ! west the Council Blutfs on the Mis- 
souri. J.Pennsylvania, Darlington! Kentucky, Dr. Short ! April-May. 
— Stem 6-12 inches high, with naked stipules at the base. Leaves 2-3 
on the upper part of the stem, somewhat acuminate, rarely almost glabrous. 
Peduncles shorter than the leaves. Flowers middle-sized, yellow : petals 
handsomely striate. Appendages of the stamens forming a broad dorsal 
wing or keel, not produced at the base. Stigma globose, not rostrate, strong- 
ly bearded on each side. 

27. V. glabella (Nutt.! mss.): "nearly glabrous; stem erect, naked be- 
low ; leaves reniform-cordate, with a short acunjination, crenately serrulate; 
stipules very small, membranaceous, nearly entire ; sepals hnear-lanceolate j 
spur very short, slightly saccate. 

" Shady woods of the Oregon. April.— Leaves with a very shallow smus, 
scarcely at all cuneate at the insertion of the petiole. Flowers rather larger 
than in V. pubescens, bright yellow, the upper ones almost fastigiate : petals 
somewhat veined at the base. Stigma globose, hairy on the sides." Nuttall. 
— Very near V. pubescens. 

28. V. ocellata: pubescent ; leaves on very long petioles, cordate-triangu- 
lar, crenately toothed; stipules lanceolate, somewhat ciliate ; peduncles short- 
er than the leaves ; sepals linear ; petals oblong-obovate (lateral ones spot- 
ted) ; spur very short; appendages dorsal, winged, not produced at the base. 

California, Douglas .'—Stem nearly a foot high, simple, terete. Leaves 
li inch wide, slightly cordate, or truncate at the base ; uppermost ones 
somewhat acuminate and deltoid: petioles 3-4 inches long. Stipules small, 
scarious. Flowers on the summit of the stem, middle-sized: peduncles 
about an inch long. Upper petals purple, the others pale yellow; lateral 

Viola. VIOLACEi^. 143 

ones with a purple spot below the middle, slightly bearded on the elaw. 
Style much attenuated downward : stigma strongly bearded on each side. 

29. V. Canadesnis (Linn.) : nearly glabrous ; leaves broadly cordate, 
acuminate, serrate, the nerves pubescent; stipules ovate-lanceolate, entire; 
peduncles shorter than the leaves ; sepals subulate ; petals elliptical-oblong ; 
spur verv short, saccate; capsule very obtuse. — Pursh ! Ji. 1. p. 174; 
Schwein'.! i.e.; Torr. ! Jl. l.p. 255; DC. prodr. 1. p. 301; Le Conte, I. 
c; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. /;. 80. 

0. corymbosa (Nutt. ! mss.): flowers 5-6, somewhat corymbosely fasti- 
giate, sometimes white. 

Shady woods, generally in mountainous districts, Hudson's Bay ! to Caro- 
lina! and west to the Pacific, ff. Woods, Alabama, Nut tall ! May-July. — 
Stem from (5 inches to 2 feet high, nearly simple. Flowers middle-sized. 
Petals only slightly twisted, pale within, violet externally; lateral ones beard- 
ed. Seeds roundish-ovate, brown. 

30. V. .<!armentosa (DougL) stems creeping, filiform ; stolons floriferous ; 
leaves cordate, with the sinus open, crenate, somewhat pubescent above, 
glabrous and punctate beneath ; style rather slender ; appendages of the an- 
thers somewhat produced ; peduncles about as long as the leaves ; spur very 
short.— Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. ].p. 80. 

Hilly wooded places, N. W. America, Douglas ; pine woods of the Ore- 
gon near the junction of the Wahlamet, NuttaU ! and near Wallawallah, 
Mr. Towns end ! — Leaves about ^ of an inch in diameter ; the petiole longer 
than the lamina. Flowers yellow : petals oblong-obovate, entire ; lateral petals 
slightly bearded. 

31. V. chrysantha (Hook.) : somewhat pubescent ; stems csespitose, 
short ; leaves bipinnatifid ; segments linear ; sepals ciliate; inferior petal with- 
out a spur. — Hook. ! ic. t. 49. 

Monterey, California, Douglas ! — Stems partly subterranean, several in a 
cluster from one root. Leaves on long petioles ; the segments very narrow 
and rather acute. Stipules linear lanceolate, entire. Peduncles rather longer 
than the leaves. Flowers very large : petals broadly obovate, glabrous ; the 
2 superior ones purpHsh; the others bright yellow with dark lines at the 
base ; inferior one slightly saccate at the base. Upper part of the filaments 
broad and rounded : appendages dorsal, wing-like, not produced at the base. 
Style clavate, curved: stigma obtuse, slightly hairy below the summit. 

§ 3. Stigma urceolate, hairy on each side ; aperture large, Jumished 
with a lip on one side : style attenuated downward : ovary partly im- 
mersed in the concave torus : seeds very numerous. — Gingins. 

32. V. tricolor (Linn.): root somewhat fusiform; stems branching, dif- 
fused; lower leaves ovate, cordate ; stipules runcinately pinnatifid, the mid- 
dle lobe crenate ; petals with short claws ; spur thick, obtuse, not produced ; 
appendages short; seeds oblong-ovate. DC. prodr. 1. p. 303. 

K. arven.'iis (DC): annual; stems assurgent ; upper leaves spatulate- 
ovate ; petals scarcely longer than the calyx, yelloAvish, blue, or spotted with 
purple. DC. I.e. ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 81. V. hkoXor, Pursh ! Jl. 1. 
p. 175 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 151 ; Schwein. ! I. c. V. arvensis. Ell. sk. 1. v. 302. 
V. tenella, Muhl. ! eat. p. 25 ; Torr. ! ft. 1. p. 257 ; Le Conte ! I. c! 

Dry rocky hills New-York ! to Georgia, Missouri, and Arkansas ! May. — 
Plant nearly glabrous. Stem somewhat triangular. Stipules very large. 
Petals pale blue, yellowish towards the base (sometimes none); lateral ones 
bearded. Capsule glabrous. 

144 VIOLACE^. lomDicM, 

X Doubtful species. 

33. V. radicans (DC): rhizoma horizontal, fibrillose; stigma with a 
short beak, margined ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, abruptly attenuate at the base, or 
somewhat cordate, serrate ; stipules linear, setaceously subulate, with bristly 
serratures ; sepals linear, acute ; lateral petals obovale, beardless ?, the lowest 
one smaller ; spur almost none. DC. prodr. 1. p. 207. 

South Carolina, Michaux Jil. (ex De Cand.).— Is this a variety of V. 
Muhlenbergii ? 

3. SOLEA. Gingins, in DC. prodr. 1. p. 306.. 

Sepals nearly equal, not auricled, (reflexed after flowering, Gingins). Pe- 
tals unequal; the lowest one 2-lobed and somewhat gibbous at the base ; the 
rest emarginate. Stamens cohering; the lowest 2 bearing a gland above 
the middle. Stigma uncinate, with a pore at the extremity of the point. 
Capsule somewhat 3-sided, surrounded at the base by the concave torus. 
Seeds 6-8, very large. — An herbaceous perennial herb, with alternate cauline 
leaves, and small flowers on solitary or geminate axillary peduncles. 

Scarcely a distinct genus from the succeeding. 

S. concolor (Ging.) — DC. prodr. l.p. 306. Viola concolor, Forst. in Linn, 
trans. 6. p. 308. t. 28 ; Niitt. ! gen. 1. p. 151 ; Schwein. ! I. c. ; Torr. ! fi. 
I. c. V. stricta, Spreng. pug. rar. 1. p. 22. lonidium Sprengelii, Roem. ^ 
Schidt. syst. 5. p. 401. 

Wet shady woods, western part of the State of New-York ! to Carolina ; 
west to Missouri ! April-May— Plant somewhat pubescent or hairy. Stem 
simple, leafy, a foot or more high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, somewhat 
erect, attenuated at each extremity. Peduncles very short, recurved. Flow- 
ers greenish. Sepals about the length of the corolla. Lowest petal twice as 
large as the others. Filaments produced a little above the anthers : nectari- 
ferous glands sessile, confluent. Stigma glabrous, not margined. Capsule 
nearly an inch long. Seeds whitish, globose-obovate. 

4. lONIDIUM. Vent, (in part) ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 307. 

Sepals small, unequal, not auricled, membranaceous on the margin. Pe- 
tals unequal ; the inferior one much larger than the others, somewhat ungui- 
culate, with a dilated lamina, a little concave or gibbous at the base. Sta- 
mens approximate ; filaments soraeAvhat unguiculate, bearing the anthers low 
down ; the 2 anterior ones usually with a nectariferous gland or appendage 
at the base. Capsule few-seeded. — Herbaceous or suflruticose humble plants. 
Leaves alternate or opposite. Peduncles solitary, 1-flowered, articulated, 
usually with 2 bracteoles above the middle. 

1. /. stiptdaceum (Nutt. ! mss.) : nearly glabrous, annual (?) ; leaves al- 
ternate ; lower ones oblong ; upper ones oblong-linear and linear, entire ; sti- 
pules large, linear-lanceolate ; sepals very acute ; limb of the inferior petals 
reniform, twice as long as the calyx ; appendages of the lower stamens sub- 

Plains of Red River, Arkansas, Nuttall! and on the Arkansas near 
Fort Towson, Dr. Leavenxtorth ! Texas, Drummond! May-June. — 
Plant 8-12 inches high. Leaves about li inch long, sometimes all except 

Drosera. DROSERACE.E. 145 

the uppermost oblons^ or oblong-lanceolate, sessile, scabrous on the margin ; 
upper ones usually much narrower, acute. Stipules nearly half us lung as 
the leaves. Flowers 2 lines long: peduncles slender, much shorter ihaii ihe 
leaves, without bracteoles, articulated above the middle. Sepals nearly equal, 
strongly carinate. Lower petal contracted into a claw in the middle, dilated 
again and somewhat gibbous at the base; limb emarginate, strongly veined; 
lateral petals incurved, oblong; superior ones nmch the smallest. Filaments 
contracted at the base into a short but distinct (-law ; upper portion ovate and 
somewhat acute; the lowest two with a small subulate appendage pointing 
upward. Ovary triangular : style slender: stigma small, not rostrate. Cap- 
sule 3-sided, glabrous, about 6-seedcd. Seeds ovate-globose, glabrous, light 

2. /. iineare (Torr.) : somewhat pubescent ; stem branched ; leaves line- 
ar, narrow, entire ; stipules linear, minute. Torr. ! in ann. lye. New- Yoi-k, 
2. p. 168. ' 

On the Red River, Arkansas, Dr. James f — Leaves an inch or more in 
length, scarcely more than a line long, pale green, scabrous on the margin. 
Stipules one-third the length of the leaves. Capsules glabrous. — Of this 
plant we have but a single imperfect specimen, which was collected by Dr. 
James in Long's 1st Expedition. It may prove to be a variety of L stipula- 
ceum, but it differs considerably from that species. 


Sepals 5, persistent, equal, sometimes united at the base, imbricated 
in aestivation. Petals 5, alternate with the sepals, nearly or quite hy- 
pogynous, marcescent. Stamens distinct, marcescent, usually as 
many as the petals and alternate with them, rarely 2-3 times as many : 
filaments capillary or flattened : anthers extrorse or innate ; cells 
distinct, or somewhat connivcnt above, opening longitudinally, or rare- 
ly by a terminal pore. Ovary composed of 2-5 united carpels, l-cel- 
led : placentae parietal, or filling the base of the cell : styles 2-5, usu- 
ally distinct or united at the base merely, each 2-parted or multifid 
and pencil-shaped ; sometimes all united into one. Capsule 2-5-valv. 
ed, loculicidal, with the valves placentiferous in the middle, or indehis- 
cent with the placenta at the base, many- (rarely few-) seeded. Seeds 
anatropous : testa sometimes arilliform. Embryo short, at the base 
of cartilaginous or fleshy albumen. — Herbs, or rarely suflrutescent 
plants (growing in swamps or wet places). Leaves alternate or 
crowded, entire, commonly furnished with glandular hairs, with a cir- 
cinate vernation (except Dionsea) : stipules none, or in the form of a 
tuft or fringe of scarious hairs at the base of the petioles. 

1. DROSERA. Li7m. ; Lam. til. t. 220 ; G(Brt7i. fr. t. 61. 

Stamens 5. Styles 3-5, 2-parted ; the divisions somewhat thickened 
toward the apex, or multifid. Capsule subglobose or ovoid, usually 3-valved 
at the top : valves placentiferous to the summit. Seeds verv numerous, in 


146 DROSERACE/E. Dhosera. 

2-5 rows on each placenta. — Small herbs, growing in sphagnous or sandy 

swamps (the American and European species acaulesccnt, with a rosulate 

tuft of leaves, and simple scapes which are circinate when young ; racemes 

mostly unilateral). Leaves furnished with numerous long reddish glanduli- 

ferous hairs. — Sun-de^c. 

The pollen-grains in D. filiformis are connected by minute threads ; as in OEno- 
thera. All the N. American species have usually three 2-parted or 2-cleft styles. 

1. D. hreinfolia (Pursh) : leaves forming a close tuft, broadly cuneiform, 
very obtuse, on petioles scarcely longer than the limb ; petals (rose-color) 
obovate, more than twice the length of the calyx ; styles deeply 2-parted, 
the divisions a little dilated and membranaceous above ; seeds oval (the testa 
not arilliform), minutely ribbed. — Pursh! Ji. 1. j). 211; Nutt.I gen. 1. p. 
141; DC. prodr. 1. p. 318. 

/?. major : leaves on longer petioles. Hook. jour. bot. 1. p. 194. 

Borders of sandy ponds (occasionally in exsiccated places, Nutt.), N. Ca- 
rolina ! to Florida ! and Louisiana ! /?. Louisiana, Drummond ; Apalachicola, 
Florida, Dr. Chapman ! — Tuft of leaves about an inch in diameter. Scape 
filiform, in flower 2-4, in fruit sometimes 6-8 inches high, 2 or 6-10-flowered : 
flowers nearly half an inch in diameter when expanded. Sepals and pedi- 
cels often minutely glandular when young. — Our specimen from Apalachi- 
cola, which we refer to p. major of Hooker, has the less broadly cuneifonn 
limb of the leaves scarcely one-third as long as the petiole, and the scape aknost 
capillary : it will perhaps prove to be a distinct species. 

2. D. rotundifolia (Linn.) : leaves orbicular, spreading, abruptly attenuate 
into the long hairy petiole ; petals (white) oblong; styles very short, 2-parted, 
with subclavate divisions ; seeds linear, with a loose, arilliform testa. — Eng. 
hot. t. 867 ; Michx. ! Ji. l.p. 186 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 375 ; Nutt. ! gen. I. c. ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 318; Hook.IJl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 81. D. capiUaris, Poir. (?); 
DC. I. c. 

Sphagnous swamps, from the Arctic Circle and Unalaschka to Florida! 
and Alabama! June-Aug. — (2) (© DC.) Scape 4-8 or 10 inches high, 
5-10-flowered: raceme sometimes bifid. Capsule oblong. 

3. D. longifolia (hinn.) : leaves cuneate-oblong, erect-spreading, attenuate 
into the long and slender naked petiole ; caudex ascending or decumbent, 
often elongated; scapes declined at the base (petals white, short); styles 
very short, the divisions slightly thickened ; seeds oblong, slightly punctate, 
the testa not arilliform.— i;«o-. bat. t. 868; Michx.! JI. l.p. 186; Nutt.! 
gen. I. c; Torr.! JI. l.p. 331 (e.vcl. syn. Goldie.). D. Arnericana, Muhl. ! 
cat. p. 33. D. intermedia y. Americana, DC. I. c. D. foliosa, Ell. sk. 1. p. 
375; DC. I.e. 

In sphagnous and very wet sandy swamps, Canada ! to Alabama! and 
Louisiana. June-Aug. — H Scapes 3-8 inches high, several-flowered, at 
length about twice the length of the leaves. Capillary stipules conspicuous. 
Capsule obovate-oblong. 

4. D. Anglica (Huds.) : leaves linear-spatulate, erect : petioles elongated 
(scarcely longer than the limb, DC.) ; seeds with an arilliform testa. Hook. 
—Huds. fl. Angl. p. 135; DC. I. c. ; Hook. JI. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 81. 

Near Cumberland House, lat. 54°, Richardson; and N. W. Coast, Men- 
zies, ex Hook. — Scape erect, twice the length of the leaves. 

5. D. linearis (Goldie) : leaves linear, very obtuse, erect, on slender naked 
petioles ; scapes 1-3-flowered, at first shorter, at length a little longer than 
the leaves ; seeds oval-oblong, smooth and shining, the testa not arilliform. — 
Goldie, in Edinb. phil. jour. 6. p. 325 ; Hook. ! JI. Bar.- Aon. 1. p. 82. t. 
27. A. 

Dion^;a. DROSERACRiT:. 147 

Lake Simcoe, Goldie ; near Jasper's Lake in the Uofky Mcuntains, 
Driimmnnd! Keweeim Point, Lake Superior, Dr. JJukl'-IiIuil.' July-Aug. 
— ((J) Huok.) Leaves 3-5 inches long; the petiole rather exceeding the 
limh; which is about 2 hnes wide throughout. Capsule oval, more than 
twice the length ol" the calyx. 

6. D. filiformis (Raf.) : leaves filiform and very long, nearly erect, glan- 
dular-hairy, naked at the lower extremity (petiole?), densely Avoolly at the 
base ; scape longer than the leaves, many -flowered ; petals (purple) obovate, 
erosely denticulate, much longer than the glandular calyx; styles 2-parted to 
the base, the segments filiform and slightly thickened upwards ; seeds acute 
at each end, minutely punctate, the testa not arilliform. — Raf. in vied. rep. 
2. p. 360, f ill JJesv. jour. hot. 1. p. 227; Pursh! Ji. 1. p. 211; Nutt. ! 
gen. 1. p. 142; DC. I. c; Ton\! fl. 1. p. 332; Hook. hot. mag. i. 3540. 
D. tenuifolia, Muhl. ! cat. p. 33 ; Willd. ennm. p. 340. 

Wet sandy places, from Plymouth, Massachusetts (Bigelow !) and Long 
Island ! to the Pine barrens of New-Jersey ! and Delaware {Rajinesque.) 
Also Apalachicola, F'lorida, Z>r. C7m/i???a«.' Aug-Sept. — 2+ Leaves 6-10 
inches long. Scape a foot or more high, 8-20-flowered. Flowers larger than 
in the other species. Cells of the anther linear-oblong, nearly distinct, at 
length separable from the rhombic-lanceolate connectivum. — Tlie flowers in 
all the specimens from Florida are nearly twice the size of liie northern 
plant ; bi-ing about an inch in diameter when fully expanded. 

2. DION^A. Ellis, in act. Ups. 1. p. 98. t. S. 

Stamens 10-15: anthers innate. Style 1, thick: stigmas 5, connivent, 
fimbriately many-cleft. Capsule membranaceous, indehiscent, but tearing 
open irregularly (5-valved, DC), 1-celled. Seeds numerous (20-30), partly 
immersed in the scrobiculate cellular placenta which fills the base of the cap- 
sule. — A glabrous perennial (yellowish-green) herb. Flowers umbellate at 
the extremity of a slender scape. Leaves (not circinate in vernation) radi- 
cal, rosulate and spreading ; petiole winged and foliaceous, terminating in an 
articulated circular spinulose-ciliate lamina, which is very sensitive, suddenly 
closing when the upper surface is touched. — Vemis^s Fly-trap. 

Arnott places Dionrea in his suborder ParnassicEe; but we prefer to retain it in 
Droseracese proper, with which it agrees more nearly in habii, and from wliicli it 
differs in no important character except in tlie vernation, and in the placenta which 
fills the bottom of the ovary; the style, moreover, is just such an one as would he 
produced liy the cohesion of the rnultifid styles of" some species of Drosera nearly 
to the summit. On tlie oilier hand, it differs from Parnassia in most of the peculiar 
characters of that o^enus, viz.: the peri^ynous stamens, a portion of which are abor- 
tive or transformed, tlie sessile stigmas opposite the placenlte, and the albuminous 

D. muscipula (FiUis) — Linn. maM. p. 238; Michx.! Jl. 1. p. 267; 
Vent. hort. Malmais. t. 29 ; Walt. Car. p. 144 ; Bot. mag. t. 785 ; Ell. sk. 
1. p. 479 ; Nutt. ! gen. h p. 278 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 320 ; Curtis ! in Host, 
jour. nat. hist. 1. p. 123. 

Sandy bogs, New-Bern, and N. Carolina, Croom ! and from the mouth of 
Cape Fear River to Fayetteville, Curtis ! Also along the lower branches of 
the Santee River in S. Carolina, Elliott. April-May. — Scape 6-12 inches 
high, about 10-flowered. Petals white, cuneate-obovate, marked with paral- 
lel simply forked veins, marcescent. Filaments capiUary : anthers roundish. 
Ovary depressed-globose, slightly 5-lobed : stigmas fimbriate within. Seeds 

148 DROSERACE^. ParnassU. 

obovate, smooth and shining, black, marked witli an inconspicuous raphe. 
Embryo oblong, at the base of the cartilaginous albumen. — '' The sensitive- 
ness of the lamina," according to Mr. Curtis, " resides only in the '3 or 4 
hair-Uke processes of its upper surface, so placed that an insect can hardly 
traverse it M^ithout interfering with one of them ; when the two sides sud- 
denly collapse and enclose the prey, the fringe or hairs of the opposite sides 
of the leaf interlacing like the fingers of the two hands clasped together." 
See the further remarks of Mr. Curtis in loc- cit. 

Suborder PARNASSIE^. Am. (excl. Dion^a.) 

Sepals 5, persistent, imbricated in aestivation ; more or less united 
at the base and coherent with the base of the ovary. Petals 5, some- 
what perigynous, persistent, alternate with the petals: venation sim- 
ple. Stamens, perigynous, persistent, consisting of an outer sterile se- 
ries, somewhat indefinite in number, united in 5 phalanges situated 
opposite the petals ; and an inner series of 5 fertile stamens alter- 
nating with the petals' : anthers fi.xed by the base, introrse. Ovary com- 
posed of 4 united camels, l-celled, with 4 sessile stigmas opposite the 
parietal placentae. Capsule 1-celIed, 4-valved, loculicidal. Seeds very 
numerous, anatropous, with an arilliform winged testa : albumen none. 
Embryo straight, with a slender radicle and minute cotyledons. — Gla- 
brous perennial herbs (growing in wet places.) Leaves mostly radical 
or nearly so, petioled, exstipulate, entire, with obscure converging 
veins. Scapes elongated, 1 -flowered : flower white. 

This suborder, as characterized above, includes the anomalous genus Parnassia 
alone ; which was placed by Jussieu, along with Diosera and Reseda, among " Ge- 
nera Capparidibus affinia;" and is referred to Droseracese by Richard, De Candolle, 
and (as & suborder) by Arnott- to Saxifragacese (with which they agree very well, 
except in the completely syncarpous ovary and the position of the stigmas,) by 
Brown and Liiidley ; to Hypericaceffi by Don ; and (with a mark of doubt) to Tama- 
riscineae by Bartling. The curious scale-like organs terminating in three or more 
threads or seta with glandular lips, are doubtless transformed stamens ; but their 
situation {opposite the petals and exterior to the fertile stamens) as well as their 
structure renders it evident that they are not composed each of a single stamen, as 
has been stated, but of 3 or more, as we have described them. That they are so 
considered by Don, is manifest from the view he takes of the affinity of the genus, 
although the work which contains his remarks is not at this moment before us. 

3. PARNASSIA. Tourn. inst. t. 127 ; Linn. ; Gcertn. fr. t. 60. 
Character same as of the Suborder. 

^'^1. P. patusiris CLinn.): scales [phalanges of sterile stamens] with nu- 
''merous (9-13) very slender setae ; leaves all cordate, the cauhne one [when 
present] sessile. Hook.-^Fl. Dan. t. 584; DC prodr. 1. p. 320 ; Richards. ! 
app. Frankl. joiirn. p. 10 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 82. 

Labrador! and Newfoundland to Rocky Mountains, lat. 52^-50-, and 
Kotzebue's Sound ; south to Canada ! and the south shore of Lake Superior, 
Dr. Pitcher! — Scapes slender, 3-8 inches high, naked or with a single 
somewhat clasping leaf. Leaves, sepals &c. marked, though not con- 
stantly, as in all the species, with brownish dots. Petals, in American spe- 
cimens, 3-5-nerved, h-i longer than the oblong-lanceolate sepals. Setse pel- 
lucid, with minute glandular tips. — Our American specimens are all much 

Parnassia. DROSERACEiE. 149 

smaller than the ordinary European forms, and have fewer veins in the se- 
pals and fewer sela; to the scales: they af^ree almost wholly with authentic 
specimens of P. palustris /?. tenuis, Wtilil, from Lapland. — We take llie cha- 
racters of this and the two foUowin^f nearly allied species from Hooker, not 
beins: perfectly satisfied of their distinctness. The sets in these species do 
not appear to furnish well-marked characters: we observe 7-12 in the Ameri- 
can P. palustris, 5-8 in P. parviflora, Hook., and 3-5 in P. Kotzebuei. 

-f^2. P. parviflora (DC.) : very slender ; scales with about 5 very; slender 
'setae ; radical leaves ovate, attenuate into a petiole ; the cauline one linear-ob- 
long, sessile. Jlook. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 320; Honk.! Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 82, 
excl. syn. P. palustris /?. Wahl. 

Sandy banks of rivers among the Rocky Mountains, Drummond! ex 
Hook. IV. America, DC, who described from a specimen in the Banksian 
herbarium. — Scapes from a span to a foot high, with a single bract-like leaf. 
Flowers considerably smaller than in P. palustris : petals slightly unguicu- 
Jate. Hook. 

-7—3. P. Kotzebuei (Cham. & Schlecht.) : scales with 3 slender seta^; radi- 
cal leaves (and cauline one when present) subcordate-ovate, petioled ; petals 
about 3-nerved, shorter than the calyx. Hook. — Cham. ^ iivhhxht. in Lin- 
ncea, 1. p. 549; Hook. ! I. c. t. 28; Hook. ^ Am. hot. Beechoij, p. 122. 

Unalaschka and Kotzebue's Sound, Cliamisso ; Rocky Mountains, be- 
tween lat. 52^ & 56° {Drummond) to Bear Lake and the shores of the Arc- 
tic Sea, Richardson ! — Scapes slender, naked or with a single leaf near the 
base, 3-6 inches high. Leaves membranaceous, very small. Sepals ellipti- 
cal-lanceolate. Petals elliptical. Anthers subrotund. Ovary oval-globose, 
nearly a third part inferior. — Hooker, and also Cham. & Schlecht., expressly 
state the stigmas to be four and the capsule 4-valved, as in the rest of the 
genus, and this we find to be the case in our specimens ; but the figure in 
the Flora. Boreali- Americana exhibits several views of a pentacarpellary 
■capsule, probably a monstrosity. 

— ^ 4. P. Caroliniana (Michx.): scales of 3 stout and thick sterile filaments, 
■distinct to near the base, about the length of the fertile stamens ; i)etals sub- 
sessile, more than twice the length of the calyx, with strong greenish veins; 
leaves (coriaceous) orbicular-ovate or somewhat elliptical-ovate^ subcordate, 
the cauline one usually low down and clasping. — Michx. Jl. 1. p. 184; Bot. 
mag. t. 1459 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 208 ; Torr. ! Jl. 1. p. 326 ; DC. I. c. ; Hook. 
I. c. P. palustris, P«7-67«, I.e. P.Americana & ovata, MuhL! cat. ]. 32. 
P. ovata /?. Belvisii, DC. I.e.? 

0. leaves larger, not rarely orbicular-reniform ; sterile filaments exceeding 
the fertile stamens; pollen orange-color. Hook. jour. bot. 1. j). 194. P. 
grandifolia, DC. I. c. 

Wet meadows and along shady streams, &c. Canada ! to Florida I Avest 
to the Mississippi. 0. New-Orleans, Drummond. July-Aug. — Leaves 
about 7-nerved, varying from orbicular-subreniform to ovate-cordate and 
broadly oval with no sinus at the base. Scape 8-18 inches high. Flower 
an inch in diameter. — We have seen no Southern specimens which agree 
with the /?. of Hooker in the sterile stamens, &c. ; but Elliott describes them 
as " nearly the length of the corolla," and " filaments very short." 

5. P. asarijolia (Vent.) : scales of 3 sterile filaments ; petals broadly 
ovate and very obtuse, naked and abruptly unguiculate at the base ; leaves 
reniform; the cauline one reniform-cordate or somewhat orbicular, sessile.— 
Vent. Malmais. t. 39 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 208 ; Muhl. ! cat. p. 32 ; DC. 1. c. 

High mountains of Virginia ! and N. Carolina ! (v. s. in herb. Muhl. & 
herb. Schweinitz.) July-Aug. — Leaves and flowers rather larger than in 
P. Caroliniana. — A well-marked species. 

150 CISTACEvE. Heuanthemum. 

6. P. jimhriata (Banks): scales broadly cuneate, fleshy, carinate at the 
middle within, crenately 5-toothc'd at the apex ; radical leaves on very long 
petioles, biauriculate-reniform; the cauline one very small, cordate, sessile 
above the middle of the slender scape ; petals fimbriate at the base, some- 
what unguiculate. Hook. — K(£n. anil. hot. 1. p. 391; DC. prodr. I. p. 320; 
Hook. ! hot. misc. 1. p. 43. t. 23, (f- fl. Bor.-Am,. 1. p. 84. 

N. W. Coast, Menzies. Elevated swamps in the Rocky Mountains, lat. 
52"?-56°, Drummond! and lat. 41°, Nuttall ! — Rhizoraa somewhat creeping. 
Scape 1-U foot high. Flowers smaller than in P. Caroliniana. 

Order XX. CISTACEiE. Juss, 

Sepals 5, persistent ; the two outer ones usually much smallest or 
sometimes wanting ; the three inner imbricated and often somewhat 
twisted in a3stivation. Petals 5 (rarely 3 or by abortion none), hypogy- 
nous, mostly very fugitive, usually crumpled in aestivation and twisted 
in a direction contrary to that of the sepals. Stamens indefinite, or 
rarely kw, hypogynous, distinct : anthers short, innate. Ovary com- 
posed of 3-5 united carpels : styles and stigmas mostly united into 
one. Capsule 3-5-valved, loculicidal, 1-celled with parietal nerviform 
placentae, or imperfectly 3-5-celled with dissepiments proceeding from 
the middle of the valves and bearing the placentae at or near the axis ; 
endocarp often separating from the exocarp. Seeds few or numerous, 
orthotropous (veiy rarely somewhat anatropous). Embryo nearly 
straight or spirally convolute, in the midst of mealy or somewhat cor- 
neous albumen. — Herbs or low shrubs : pubescence simple or stellate. 
Leaves simple and usually entire, opposite or alternate (the lowest 
always opposite), with or without stipules. Flowers perfect, yellow, 
white, or red, showy or sometimes inconspicuous. 

Mr. Spach, in his papnr entitled ' Description of some nciv Cistacece, published in 
the first volume of the Companion to the Botanical Magazine, annouaces the some- 
what curious fact, that a few Cistaceis have anatropous seeds, but without mention- 
ino; in what plants this structure is found. We find anatropous seeds in Helianthe- 
Tnum Fumana, H. procumbens, H. lajvipes, H. junipcrinum, and H. glutinosum 
(which are all the species of the section fimiana of which we have specimens in 
proper state for the examination) ; also in H. alpestre. In the two first-named spe- 
cies the funiculus is adherent only for about half the length of the seed, which is thus 
as it were heterotropous or amphitropous ; in the others it adheres almost to the 
(organic) apex of the seed, but in H. Isevipes and H. glutinosum it may readily be 
separated from the testa. I'he seeds of H. glutinosum, when thrown into water are 
seen to be covered with a very dense coat of mucus, enveloping a great number of spi- 
ral threads which uncoil when the mucus dissolves ; as in CoUomia linearis. 

1. HELIANTHEMUM. Toiirn. inst. t. 128 ; Gc^ t. 76 5 DC. 

The two exerior sepals usually much smaller and bract-like, or wanting. 
Petals 5 or rarely 3, sometimes abortive, fugitive. Stigmas 3, large, fimbrio- 
late, more or less united into one. Capsule triangular, 3-valved, few- or 

Helianthemum. CISTACE/E. 151 

many-seeded : placentae filiform, in the axis of the valves or on iniperfuct 
dissepiments more or less projecting into the cell. Embryo indexed. 

The North American species belong to the section Lecheoides, Dwnal ; havine 
the exterior sepals minute, a very short straight style, and strictly parietal placenta;: 
they are almost sufTruticose, with mostly stellular pubescence, and exstipulate slightly 
petioled aUernate leaves, except the lowest, which are usually opposite ; and the evo- 
lution of the (yellow) flowers is centrifugal. Excepting H. scoparium from Cali- 
fornia, and II. Carolinianum, which hardly belong to this section, they dirter 
from the European sjiccics in producing two kinds of (lowers: viz. 1st, Terminal or 
dichotomal flowers, usually preceding the others, on slender pendunclca, with con- 
spicuous petals and numerous stamens. 2nd, Smaller flowers, usually clustered in 
axillary cymes or glomerules, scarcely ever fully expanding, witli minute petals or 
often none, fewer stamens, and smaller and fewer-seeded capsules. The two kinds 
often occur on the same specimens ; but the latter are produced later in the season, 
and in sterile soil often to the exclusion of the others, giving to the plant the appear- 
ance of Lechea, so much so as to have deceived Linnaius, wliose L. major is wel! 
known to have been founded upon such a state of Helianthemum Canadense. Mr. 
Spach has noticed this peculiarity in our species, and separated them as a distinct 
genus under the name of Heteromeris. 

"r*"^!. //. Canadense (Michx.) : stem at first simple ; the primar}'^ or termi- 
nal large and petaliferous flowers few or solitary, on peduncles scarcely longer 
than the floAver, the erosely emarginate petals about twice the length of the 
calyx ; secondary flowers axillary, very small, nearly sessile, solitary or some- 
what clustered on short leafy branches, the petals very small or none, and 
the outer sepals usually wanting ; leaves oblong or somewhat lanceolate, with 
revolute margins (when dry), and, as well as the sepals and often the 
branches and peduncles, canescently tomentose. — Michx. ! fl. 1. p. 308 ; 
Pursh ! fl. 2. ]). 363 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 4 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p.72; Dar- 
lingt. fl. Cest. p. 313. H. ramuliflorum, Michx. I. c. ; Pursh ! I. c. ; Ell. 
I.e. li. coTymbosnm, Picrsh, fide herb. ! H. rosmarinifolium, P«rs/t .' I.e. 
Cistus canadensis, Willd. ; Bigel. fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 212. Lechea major 
(the apetalous state), Limi. amcen. accul. 3. p. 11 (excl. fig.), fide Smith, &, 
in herb. Gronov. f 

In dry sandy soils, Canada ! to Florida! June (April in the Southern 
States) to Sept. — Stem 6-18 inches high. Capsules of the apetalous flowers 
not larger than a pin's head, few-seeded : seeds angular, scabrous-punctate. 

,-J-^. H. polifolium, : primary or petaliferous flowers (small) terminating the 
slender stem and the numerous short branches, on filiform peduncles many 
times longer than the flower, the broadly cuneiform petals a little exceeding 
the calyx ; secondary flowers very small, apetalous, 3-6-androus, clustered 
in lateral cymnles on the floriferous branches, at first glomerate and nearly 
sessile, at length on pedicels as long as the (.5-sepalous) calyx ; leaves linear 
or linear-oblong, with revolute margins, beneath (as also the sepals and pedun- 
cles) tomentose-canescent. — H. capitatum, Nutt. ! in herb. acad. Philad. 
Heteromeris polifolia, Spach, in compan. to bot. mag. 1. p. 291. 

Prairies and dry sterile places, Arkansas, Nuttall ! Dr. Leavenivorth ! 
and Texas, Drummond ! June-Aug. — Stem 9-12 inches high, minutely 
canescent. Primary flowers polyandrous, usually solitary at the extremity of 
the branches, scarcely half the size of those of H. Canadense. Seeds smooth 
and shining, several in the petaliferous, but very few in the apetalous flowers. 

3. H. corymbosum (Michx.) : stem branching from the base, canescent ; 
flowers in terminal fastigiate cymes ; the primary ones (rather large) on 
filiform peduncles much longer than the flower, the petals nearly twice the 
length of the calyx ; the secondary flowers in glomerate cymules, mostly 
apetalous, 3-10-androus ; sepals tomentose-villous, the inner ones oblong- 

152 CISTACEuE. Lechea. 

ovate, acute, the outer linear and obtuse ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, with 
somewhat re volute margins (when dry), softly canescent beneath. — Michx. ! 
f. 1. p. 307 ; DC. prodr. 1. 'p- 269; Ell. sk. 2. p. 5. Heteromeris cymosa, 
Spachj I. c. 

Sterile places near the coast, from New Jersey to S. Carolina and Florida ! 
April-May, and again in Oct. Ell. — x\bout a foot high, very tomentose 
when young. Outer sepals about the length of the inner ones. Capsules of 
the primary flowers many -seeded ; of the secondary ones rather few-seeded. 
Flowers nearly the size of those of H. Canadense. — A well-marked species, 
readily distinguished by having, among other characters, the apetalous flowers 
not on leafy branches, but with the others forming a compound terminal 

4. H. Caroliniamim (Michx.) : stem simple or branching from the base, 
hirsute ; flowers (large, all polyandrous and petaliferous ?) on long solitary 
peduncles, axillary and terminal ; sepals villous-hirsute, the outer ones linear 
and shorter, the inner ovate-lanceolate acuminate and much longer than the 
capsule ; leaves at first softly villous^ oblong or oval, slightly denticulate; the 
lower ones crowded near the base of the stem, obovate. — Michx. ! fl. 1. p. 
307 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 364; Vent. hort. Cels. t. 74 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 5; DC. 
prodr. I. c. Cistus ( 'arolinianus, Walt. Car. p. 152. 

In dry rather fertile soils, S. Carolina to Georgia ! and Louisiana ! May- 
June. — Nearly herbaceous, 5-12 inches high. Leaves larger than in the 
other American species, on short but distinct petioles. Flowers few : petals 
larger than in H. Canadense. Seeds minutely papillose-scabrous. 

5. H. scoparium (Nutt. ! mss.) : " slightly pubescent, decumbent and much 
branched below ; flowers paniculate-racemose [all petaliferous and polyan- 
drous] ; sepals ovate, acuminate, the outer ones minute and subulate ; petals 5, 
cuneate-oblong, longer than the calyx ; capsule about 6-seeded ; leaves scat- 
tered, linear-subulate, exstipulate." — H. '? (near H. tripetalum) Hook. 

tf Aril. bot. Beechey, p. 135. 

" Dry hills around Monterey, California ; common. — About a foot high. 
Leaves an inch long, scarcely half a line wide. Flowers small, yellow, dis- 
posed in a kind of paniculate raceme [the evolution of the flowers in the 
branches of the inflorescence, as usual in the genus, centrifugal]. Seeds 
smooth." Nutt. — Evidently allied to H. tripetalum, iMog. ^ Sesse, from 
Mexico, as far as can be judged from the brief character in DC. prodr.; but 
there are 5 petals. 

2. LECHEA. Linn.; G(jerrt7i. fr. t. 129; DC. prodr. \.p.2S5. 

Lecliea & Lechidium, Spach. 

The two exterior sepals much narrower and bract-like. Petals 3, incon- 
spicuous, lanceolate, somewhat persistent. Stamens 3-12. Stigmas 3, near- 
ly sessile, somewhat united, fimbriate-laciniate, depressed. Capsule 3-valved, 
incompletely 3-celled, or 1-celled by the obliteration of the imperfect dissepi- 
ments : placentae (internal valves, Linn.) ovate or roundish, nearly as broad 
as the valves, membranaceous or somewhat crustaceous, fixed to the dissepi- 
ments by the middle of the posterior face, about 2-seeded. Seeds borne on 
the posterior face of the placentae near the base, one on each side of the dis- 
sepiment, about the length of the valves. Embryo nearly straight. — Peren- 
nial herbs, often sufFruticose at the base, much branched, with numerous 
very small racemed or somewhat paniculate flowers : petals brownish-pur- 

Lechea. CISTACEiE. 153 

pie. Leaves exstipulatc, entire, alternate, opposite, or vcrticillaie (often on 
the same specimen), sessile or slightly peliolcd, minutely puncticulate. 

An American genus; L. verticillata, If't/W. being a species of Elaline, according 
to Wight and Arnott. 

§ 1. PlacentcB membranaceo-crustaccous, fragile, separating from the 
very thin dissepiments ; the margins revolute ^ enveloping the seed. 
(Lechea, Spach.) 

1. L. major (Michx.) : stem erect, hairy ; youno; branches villous, the rad- 
ical ones prostrate and tufted ; cauline leaves elliptical, mucronulate ; those 
of the radical branches roundish and very small ; of the floral branches lan- 
ceolate; flowers very numerous, densely clustered in short unilateral ra- 
cemes ; pedicels very short ; capsule depressed-globose and somewhat 3-sid- 
ed.— Mc/w./ /?. I. p. 76; Muhl cat. p. 15; Pursh ! fi. 1. p. 90; Bigel.fl. 
Bost.pAl; Torr.i. fl. \. p. 160, not of Linn, (which is an apetalous lorm 
of Hclianthemum Canadense.) L. minor, Linn, amoen. acad. 3. p. 10, ex 
Smith, in liees, cycl. L. villosa. Ell. sk. 1. p. 184 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 285 ; 
Beck, bot. p. 30 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 96. L. Drummondii, Spach, in 
compan. to bot. mag. 1. p. 284'? 

In dry woods, &c., Canada ! to Florida, and west to the Mississippi. July- 
Sept. — Stem 1-2 feet high, stout, much branched above. Radical branches 
slender; the small leaves much crowded or lascicled, villous with white 
hairs, especially on the margins and midrib. Cauline leaves also often 
crowded, opposite or alternate, occasionally verticillate. Flowers and cap- 
sules much smaller than in L. minor. Seeds oval. — We think it preferable, 
as well as more in accordance with the rules of nomenclature, to retairi the 
name L. major for this species ; since it is not only the generally received, 
but the oldest name, the Linnjean plant, as also the figure of Lamarck, being 
excluded ; unless indeed we follow Smith, and call the largest species of the 
genus L. minor. 

2. L. thymifolia (Pursh): frutescent; stems decumbent at the base, 
densely and paniculately branched above, canescently villous (especially the 
branches) Avith white appressed hairs ; leaves very numerous and often ver- 
ticillate; cauline ones oblanceolate or linear; those of the short procumbent 
and very villous radical branches imbricated, elliptical, very small ; those of 
the floriferous branches narrowly linear, Avith revolute margins, erect and 
crowded; clusters terminal and axillary near the extremity of the simple 
floriferous branches, 2-6-flowered ; pedicels very short; calyx tomentose- 
canescent ; capsule globose. — Pursh, fl. 1. p. 91 ; Smith, in Pees, cycl. 7 ; 
Toj^\ ! fl. 1. p. 161, not oi Michx. 

In sand on the sea-coast, Massachusetts ! and Long Island ! to Virginia, 
&c. July-Sept. — Stem stout, a foot high, branched above in a pyramidal 
manner ; the branches often verticillate, short and simple, leafy to the sum- 
mit. — Intermediate in some respects between L. major &. L. minor, but more 
nearly allied to the former. 

3. L. minor (Lam.) : stem erect, minutely pubescent with appressed 
hairs; radical branches procumbent and hairy, or often none; leaves linear, 
the cauline ones often somewhat oblong; scattered or sometimes verticillate; 
racemes nearly simple; the flowers on distinct often appressed pedicels; 
capsules ovoid-globose. — Lam., ill. t. 52./ 1 ?; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 91 ; Bigel.fl. 
Bost.p. 48; Torr.! fl. l.p. 161; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 73; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 97, not of Linn. & Smith. L. racemulosa, thymifolia, and tenui- 

folia, Michx. ! I.e. 
a. stem tall and slender, simple or paniculately branched above j radical 


154 CISTACEiE. Hitdsonia. 

branches procumbent, hairy; leaves linear-lanceolate or somewhat oblong; 
racemes often panicled at the extremity of the ])ranches ; capsules rather 
large. — L. minor, Pvrsh, I. r. ^-r. 

p. stem low, slender, diffusely branched above; radical branches mostly 
none ; leaves narrowly Hnear ; racemes slender, nearly naked ; pedicels 
somewhat appressed. — L. racemulosa, Michx. ! fl. 1. p. 77 ; Pnrsh ! I. c. j Ell. 
sk. l.p. 184; DC. I. c. L. thesioides, Spach! in compan. to hot. mag. 1. 
p. 284. 

y. Stem low, very much branched ; leaves linear-subulate ; flowers very 
few, near the extremity of the branches ; capsules rather large. — L. tenui- 
folia, Michx. ! I. c. ; Pursh, I. c. 

In dry gravelly or sandy places, Canada! to Louisiana! and Arkansas! 
0. & y. Southern States to Texas ! June-Sept.— Stem 6-18 inches high, 
often decumbent at the base. FloAvers and capsules larger than in L. major. 
Leaves slightly ciliate. Seeds oblong. 

§ 2. Placenta firm and crustaceoiis, the margins not revolute : dissepi- 
ments persistent, separating from the valves but cohering icilh the pla- 
centce. — LEcnmiuM, Spach. 

4. L. Drummondii : decumbent and much branched at the base, shghtly 
pubescent; leaves linear-subulate, scattered; racemes filiform, temninating 
the numerous branches, loosely flowered; flowers unilateral, on capillary 
spreading and at length reflexed pedicels; capsule globose-3-sided. — Lechi- 
dium Drummondii, Spach ! I. c. p. 287. 

Dry places in small prairies, Texas, Druramond ! Dr. Leavenworth! 
June-July.— The decumbent base of the stem slightly Hgneous ; the slen- 
der branches 6-8 inches high. Pedicels twice the length of the flowers, 
often supra-axillary, much longer than the setaceous bracts. Petals purple. 
Stamens 3-4, Spach, "more than 10," Leavenworth, in lift. Seeds ovate. 

Lechea juncifolia, " foliis radlcalibus teretibus, calyce nullo," Walt. Car. f. 83. is 
wholly unknown ; Wt doubtless belongs to some other order. 

3. HUDSONIA. Linn. mant. ; Gcertn. Jr. t. 210; 'Nutt. gen. 2. p. 4. 

Sepals united at the base; the two outer ones subulate and often minute ; 
the 3 inner oblong or oval, colored within, spreading in flower, connivent into 
a tube in fruit. Petals 5, oblong-obovate, somewhat fugitive. Stamens 9-30, 
Style filiform, straight: stigma minute. Capsule oblong-obovate, slightly 
3-sided, 1-celled, 3-valved : placentfE parietal, nerviform, in the axis of the 
valves. Seeds 1-2 (or by abortion fewer) from the base of each placenta, 
on short filiform ascending funiculi, minutely granulated. Embryo (in H. 
ericoides!) slender, spirally convolute in the midst of the thin albumen. — 
Low difi'usely and excessively branched shrubby plants, each forming a 
dense tuft. Leaves small, subulate or acerose, densely imbricated, exstipu- 
late, tomentose, persistent. Flowers yellow, on slender peduncles or almost 
sessile, terminating the short branches. 

1. H. ericoides (Linn.) : canescently pubescent, erect with the branches 
decumbent; leaves subulate, slightly spreading; peduncles exserted, longer 
than the flowers ; sepals acutish ; capsules oblong, slightly pubescent, about 
3-&eedied.—Lin77. mant. p. 74 ; Willd. hort. Bcrol.t. 15; Pursh ! fi.2. p. 
364; ^utt. ! gen. I. c. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 285. 


Sandy woods, Nantucket ! Long Island! and New Jersov ! to Virf^inia. 
May. — About a span high: primary branches elongated; floral ones very 
short. Leaves 3-4 lines long, rather scattered on the old stems. Stamens 
about 15. 

2. H. montana (Nutt.) : minutely pubescent ; stems decumbent ; leaves 
filiform-subulate, partly imbricated ; peduncles longer than the flowers ; calyx 
campanulate, lanuginous ; sepals acuminate, the outer ones longer and subu- 
late ; capsules villous, mostly 3-seeded. Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 5; DC. I. c. 

On the highest summits of the mountains of N. Carolina; particularly on 
Table Rockj' of the Catawba Ridge, Nuttall .'—Stem 3-5 inches high. 
Leaves about a line longer than in H. ericoides. Peduncles about an inch 
long in fruit. Flowers more than twice the size of those of the preceding 
species ; the capsules 3 times the size, and furnished with distinct central 
septiforra sutures. Stamens 15-30. Null. 

3. //. tomentosa {^Mii.) : canescently tomentose; leaves minute, ovate- 
oblong, acute, very closely imbricated; flowers nearly sessile (the peduncles 
not longer than the leaves) ; sepals obtuse ; capsules ovate, glabrous (about 
3-ovuled), commonly 1-seeded.— AW^ .' sren.2.p. 5; Bigel. Ji. Host. ed. 2. 
p. 213; DC. I. c.; Sweet, Cist. t. 57; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 73. H. 
ericoides, Lam. ill t. 407 ? ; Richard.^, app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 18. 

Shore of the ocean from Massachusetts ! to Maryland ! and of all the 
Great Lakes, from Lake Champlain to Slave Lake, and on St. Peter's 
River ! May. — Stems ascending, intricately branched : branches short. 
Leaves about a line long. Flowers smaller than in the other species. Outer 
sepals very minute. Stamens 9-18. 

Order XXI. HYPERICACE.E. Jiiss. 

Sepals 4-5, distinct or united at the base, often unequal, persistent : 
aestivation imbricated. Petals as many as the sepals and alternate 
with them, hypogynous, marcescent or deciduous ; veins oblique : testi- 
ration twisted. Stamens hypogynous, usually very numerous and 
more or less cohering at the base into three or more parcels, rarely 
definite and monadelphous or quite distinct, often persistent : anthers 
fixed by the middle, introrse. Ovary composed of 2-') united carpels : 
styles slender, distinct or partly united, persistent : stigmas simple or 
somewhat capitate. Fruit baccate, or capsular with 2-5 valves and a 
septicidal dehiscence, either (completely or incompletely) 2-5.celled 
with the placenta; in the a.xis or 1 -celled with the placentae nearly or 
quite parietal. Seeds very numerous and minute, or rarely few, straight 
or a little curved, anatropous : testa coriaceous ; the tegmen mem- 
branaceous or rarely fleshy : albumen none. Embryo cylindrical, 
straight.— Herbs, shrubs, or trees, having a resinous juice, variously 
and copiously dotted with glands. Leaves opposite, entire, exstipulate, 
copiously dotted with immersed pellucid resinous glands, and often 
(as also the sepals and petals) sprinkled with black glandular dots or 
lines. Inflorescence various. Flowers commonly yellow. 

156 HYPERICACEiE. Ascyrdm. 

The so-called albumen of Sarothra is more properly only the thickened inner 
tegument of the seed, which readily separates from the testa in all the species we 
have examined, and is more or less fleshy in several. 

Tribe I. HYPERICE^. Chois. 

Fruit capsular. Seeds terete or roundish. — Herbs, or shrubby 
plants. Leaves mostly sessile. 

1. ASCYRUM. Linn.; Chois. prodr. Hyper., <^ in DC. prodr. 1. p. 55. 

Sepals 4; the 2 exterior usually broad and foliaceous; the inner much 
smaller. Petals 4. Filaments slightly united at the base into several par- 
cels. Styles 2-3 (rarely 4), sometimes united. Capsule 1-celled, 2-3 valved : 
placentEe parietal. — Shrubby or suffruticose plants. Leaves sprinkled with 
black dots. Flowers 1-3 at the summit of the branches, yellow : a pair of 
opposite subulate bracteoles a little below each flower. 

' 1. A. Crux- Andr ecu (Linn.) : stem much branched at the base, assurgent ; 
leaves obovate-oblong or linear-oblong, obtuse ; flowers cymulose or solitary, 
on short pedicels ; exterior sepals ovate ; the inner ones very minute ; petals 
linear-oblong; styles 2, at length distinct. — Pursh, ji. 2. p. 373; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 22 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 555. A. multicaule, Michx.Jl. 2. p. 77. 

0. angustifoUa (Nutt.): leaves oblong-linear, crowded; exterior sepals 
elliptical-ovate, acute. Nutt. gen. 2. p. 16. 

Sandy pine woods. New Jersey ! to Florida ! and Louisiana! P. Caroli-- 
na Nuttall! July. — Stem 8-12 inches high (in the southern plant taller, 
' 2-3 feet', Elliott), distinctly ancipital above. Leaves variable in width, 
usually obovate-oblong and about J of an inch in length, crowded ; the lower 
ones in robust specimens H inch long. Flowers usually in threes : pedicles 2-3 
lines long : bracteoles very close to the flower, alternating with the exterior 
sepals. Inner sepals scarce a line long, petaloid. Petals pale yellow, approx- 
imated by pairs opposite the exterior sepals, and a httle exceeding them in 
lensth. Stamens about 20, half as long as the corolla. Styles erect, very 
short. Capsule ovate-oblong, compressed, 2-valved. Seeds roundish-ob- 
lonp-, attached to slightly prominent parietal placentae. The placentae coa- 
lesc'e at the base into a spongy body, which fills up the lower part of the cap- 
sule, enclosing a number of perfect seeds. 

2. A. pumilum- (M.\c\iyi.) : very low ; leaves small, oval, obtuse ; pedicels 
long, reilexed ; styles 2, united or distinct. Mirhx. fi. 2. p. 11 ; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 2 i ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 555. A. pauciflorum, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 15; DC. I. c. 

Dry pine barrens, Cxeorgia, Michaux, Elliott, (^ Nuttall. March- April. — 
Stem somewhat woody, slightly winged, 6-10 inches long. Leaves linear- 
oblong. Flowers solitary. Peduncles i-1 inch long. Exterior sepals ovate, 
somewhat acute. Petals obovate, a little longer than the calyx. Filaments 
not distinctly polyadelphous. Styles united. Capsule ovate. Elliott. 
Style unusually long. Nuttall. — Among our numerous specimens of Ascy- 
rum from the Southern States, there is not one that agrees in all respects 
with either Michaux's or Elliott's description of this plant. In many respects 
it seems closely allied to the preceding species, especially with the dwarf 
form of the plant so common in New Jersey ; but in that the peduncles are 
never long and reflexed. 

IIypericcm. HYPERICACE^?^. If)? 

/ 3. A. stuns (Michx.) : stfin ancipital and somewhat winircd, strais^ht, 
erect, dichotomously branched at tlie summit ; leaves oblong, closely sessile, 
somewhat clasping, obtuse, a little glaucous; Howers on erect peduncles; 
exterior sepals cordate-orbicular; inner ones lanceolate, one-third shorter than 
the others; styles 3 (rarely 4) ; capsule ovate, rather acute. — Mirhx.f. 2. p. 
77; DC. prodr. \. p. 555. A. hypericoides, Linn. 7 ; Willd.sp. 3. p. 1473 7; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 22. 

13. obuvalum (Chapman ! mss.): dwarf; leaves obovate, somewhat nar- 
rowed at the base. 

Borders of sandy swamps in pine barrens, NeAV Jersey ! to Florida ! Ala- 
bama! and Louisiana ! ^ff. Middle Florida, /?r. C/ia/>?nan .' July-August. 
— Stem 1-2 feet high, usually simple except at the summit; in /?. 4-5 inches 
high. Leaves 12-15 lines long, 4-5 lines wide. Flowers usually three to- 
gether, more than twice as large as in the preceding species : pedicels 4-6 
lines long. Exterior sepals slightly acute : inner ones somewhat petaloid. 
Petals ovate, twice as long as the calyx. Stamens very numerous. Styles 
somewhat spreading. Capsule obtusely triangular: placenta? somewhat 
prominent. Seeds ovate, longitudinally and transversely striate. — We have 
adopted Michaux's name for this species, it being wholly uncertain whether 
A. hypericoides, Linn, should be referred to this or the preceding species. 

-p-4. A. amplexicaule (Michx.): stem nearly terete below, erect, dichoto- 
mously branched above, the branches somewhat ancipital; leaves broadly 
ovate-cordate, clasping ; flowers erect ; exterior sepals nearly orbicular ; inner 
ones linear-lanceolate, rather shorter; styles 3, distinct; capsule oblong. — 
Mich.v. Jl. 2. 11 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 374 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 23. A. stans, Willd. 
sp. 3. p. 1473. Hypericum tetrapetalum, Lam. diet. 4. p. 146. 

Near St. Mary's, Georgia, Elliott, Dr. Bacon! jMts. Miller ! Florida, 
Michaux! — Stem 1-2 feet high, more branching above than the preceding 
species. Leaves J of an inch long, more than half an inch broad at the base. 
Flowers when expanded more than an inch in diameter. Petals one-third 
longer than the calyx. Stamens very numerous. Styles a Uttle spreading. 
Capsule half the length of the calyx, attenuated at the summit : placentaj lin- 
ear, at length separating from the valves. Seeds cylindrical-oblong, longi- 
tudinaUy and transversely striate. — Easily distinguished from A. stans by its 
broad clasping leaves. 

j4- 5. A. microsepalum : stem nearly terete, much branched ; leaves (very 
small) oblong-linear, crowded; flowers erect, on long peduncles; sepals 
much shorter than the obovate unequal petals ; styles 3, long, distinct. 

Georgia, Croom ! Middle Florida, Dr. Alexander ! March and April. 
— Stem erect?, afoot or more high, paniculately branched. Leaves 4-5 
lines long and a line wide, a little narrowed below. Flowers large and ra- 
ther showy, clustered at the summit of the branches ; the peduncles about 
half an inch long. Sepals nearly equal in length; the exterior one about a 
third broader than the others. Petals more than twice as long as the sepals, 
one of them usually much shorter than the others. Styles filiform, longer 
than the ovary. — This species diSers from all the others of the genus in the 
somewhat equal and very small sepals, as *'ell as in the long style : it has 
the habit of Hypericum. 

2. HYPERICUM. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 643 ; Chois. I. c. (in part.) 

Hypericum & Sarothra of Authors. 

Sepals 5, more or less connected at the base, usually somewhat equal, foli- 
aceous. Petals 5, oblique and often inequilateral. Stamens very numerous, 
or sometimes few, united at the base into 3-5 parcels, or occasionally distinct. 

158 HYPERICACE.E. Hypericuivt. 

Glands between the parcels ot filaments none. Styles 3-5, distinct or 
more or less united, persistent. Capsule usually membranaceous, 1-ceIIed 
with 3-5 parietal placentse, or 3-5-celled by the placentae meeting in the axis. — 
Herbaceous or shrubby plants. Flowers yellow, solitary or cymose at the 
summit of the stem and branches. 

§ 1. Stamens very numerous, 'polyadelphous : capsule 5- {rarely 6-7-) 
celled ; the dilated placentce retrojiexed into the middle of the cells. 
Perennial herbs : leaves ample: flowers very large. 

.' 1. H. pyramida.tum (Ait.) : stem quadrangular and usually branching 
above ; leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, partly clasping, mem- 
branaceous, minutely pellucid-punctate ; sepals ovate or oblong, acute, scarce- 
ly one-third the length of the petals ; styles as long as the stamens, connate 
below, at length distinct.— ^(7. A'eii'. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 103; Wilkl. sp. 3. p. 
1444; Vent.^Malmais. t. US; J)C. prodr. 1. p. 545. H. amplexicaule, 
Lam. diet. 4. p. 141. H. macrocarpon, M?c/(.:r. fl. 2. p. 82. H. ascyroides, 
IVilld. I. c; Pursh, ft. 2. p. 374; Bigel. ft. Bost. p. 279 ; DC. I. c; Hook, 
ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 109. 

Banks of rivers, Canada ! to Pennsylvania ! Avest to Ohio. July. — Stem 
2-5 feet high, nearly terete below: branches erect, 4-angled ; tAvo of the 
angles often much strongest. Leaves 2-5 inches long, acutish or sometimes 
obfuse. Flowers li inch in diameter, few or solitary at the ends of the 
branches, usually several in a leafy cyme at the summit of the stem ; the 
central flowers on short pedicels; the lateral peduncles often elongated and 
1-flowered. Petals obliquely and rather narrowly obovate, sometimes 6. 
Styles occasionally 6 or 7, recurved at the extremity : stigmas capitate. Cap- 
sule ovoid-conical, an inch long. Seeds terete, slender, with a slightly wing- 
ed raphe.— We are confident that there is but a single North American spe- 
cies of this section, upon which the H. pyramidatum of Alton must have 
been founded : we therefore adopt the oldest name. We have not seen the 
figure of Ventenat: the character "'stylis brevibus crassis," Choisy, in DC. 
is not applicable to our plant, 

§2. Stamens very numerous, more or less j)olyadelphous: capside 3-5- 
celled by the meeting of the placentce in the axis: placentce either dis- 
tinct or more or less cohering with each other, seminiferous posteriorly 
{ne.vt the valves.) Perennial herbs or under-shrub$. 

* Shrubby : capsule pcnlacarpcllanj. 

v^ 2. H. Kalmianum ("Linn.) : very much corymbosely branched; branches 
quadrangular with 2 ol the angles slightly Avinged ; leaves croAvded, Hnear- 
sublanceolate ; obtuse, a little narroAved t'oAvard the base ; cymes fastigiate, 
3-7-iiowered ; sepals ovate-lanceolate, rather obtuse, about half the length of 
the petals ; styles connate at the base.— Willd. sp. 3. p. 1438 ; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 374 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 109. 

Banks of rivers, Canada and around the Great Lakes ; Falls of Niagara, 
Cooper! &c. Fort Gratiot, Dr. Pitcher ! (Virginia, Kalm ex Linn.; but 
Kalm's specimens we suspect Avere collected in Canada.) August. — A shrub 
li feet high. Leaves an inch long, 2-3 lines Avide, slightly glaucous, with 
revolute margins. Petals obovate, very oblique. Styles hardly longer than 
the ovary, very slender. Capsule ovate. — Apparently an exclusively north- 
ern species. 


*♦ Shrubby or suffruuticoie : capsule tricarpeUary. 

-'■ 3. //. proUficum (Linn.): stem sparini^ly branched, tho branches anci- 
pital ; leaves oblonjj-lanceolate, rather obtuse, narrowed at the base ; cymes 
compound, leafy ; sepals foliaceous, une(|ual, ovale, with a short abrupt point, 
one-third shorter than the obovate petals ; styles at first united, at length dis- 
tinct ; capsule ovate-oblonsr. — Wilhl. sp. 3. /). 1453 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 30 ; DC. 
prod?: 1. p. 517. H. densiflorum, Pnrsh, fl. 2. p. 376. 

0. cymes few-flowered, terminal and axillary ; axils of the leaves mostly 
naked ; capsule ovate-conical, large. 

y. ? stem much branched ; leaves much smaller and crowded, linear-ob- 
long, fascicled in the axils ; cymes compound ; flowers much smaller ; sepals 
ovate-lanceolate ; capsule oblong, attenuate at the summit. — H. galioides, 
Pursh! Ji. 2. p. 376. (excl. syn.) 

Banks of rivers and swamps, New- Jersey ! to Florida! /?. Ohio, Riddell! 
y. New-Jersey ! Texas, Dr. Veatch ! July- Aug. — Shrub 2-3 feet high. 
Leaves 2-2^ inches long, 4-6 lines wide (in ;.. 1-1 i inch long ; the upper ones 
often scarcely a line wide ; revolute on the margin). Flowers as large as in 
H. perforatum (except my.). Petals very oblique. Capsule in^. more than 
half an inch long, nearly 3 times as large as in }-• Torus conspicuous. 
Seeds cylindrical, slightly curved. 

-:*''" 4. H. adpressum (BsLTton) : stem 2-winged above ; leaves linear-lanceo- 
late or linear-oblong, closely sessile, pellucid-punctate (without black dots), 
veined, with smaller ones fascicled in the axils ; cyme few-flowered, naked ; 
sepals very unequal, oblong and obovate, rather obtuse, at length reflexcd ; 
petals twice as long as the sepals, oblong-obovate ; styles united to the sum- 
mit ; capsule ovate-oblong.— 5aW. .' f. Philad. 2. p. 15. H. Bonaparte^, 
Bart. ! fl. Ain. Sept. 3. t. 

Borders of swamps in the pine barrens of New-Jersey ! Banks of the 
Schuylkill near Philadelphia, Barton! Conrad! Arkansas, Nuttall ! Aug.- 
Sept. — Stem about 2 feet high, somewhat shrubby at the base. Leaves 2 
inches long, 3-4 lines wide, narrowed at the summit, and often also at the 
base, the upper ones sometimes rather acute ; veins numerous, and appearing 
translucent when the leaf is held to the light. Cymes compound. 15-20- 
flowered. Flowers half as large as in H. perforatum ; the dichotomal ones 
sessile. Stamens very numerous. Styles longer than the stamens, united 
until the fruit is nearly mature. Capsule rarely 4-celled. Torus hemi- 
spherical, very distinct. Seeds cylindrical. 

5. H. Tosmarini folium (Lam.) : stem sufTrutescent, terete below, some- 
what ancipital above, straight; branches few and erect; leaves linear, rather 
obtuse, narroAved at the base, revolute on the margin ; cymes few-flowered, 
dense, terminal ; sepals nearly equal, oblong, acute at each end ; petals obo- 
vate, rounded at the summit, with an obscure lateral tooth ; style slightly 
united ; capsule broadly ovate ; seeds cylindrical. — Lam. diet. 4. p. 159 ; 
Willd. sp. 3. p. 1450, not of DC. prodr., nor of Ell. 

Near Lexington, Kentucky, Short ! Tennessee, Cooper ! July-Aug. — 
Stem about 2 feet high. Leaves 1^-2 inches long, 2 lines wide, rather dis- 
tant, with a few smaller ones in the axils. Flowers about half an inch in 
diameter. Capsule scarcely 2 Hues long. — The plant here described may 
not be the original H. rosmarinifolium of Lamarck, whose descriptive cha- 
racter is wholly insufficient. 

-f" 6. H. galioides (Lara.): stem frutescent, terete; branches few and 
straight, erect ; leaves linear-lanceolate, fascicled in the axils as if verticil- 
late, rather obtuse, narrowed into a petiole at the base, dotted Avith large pel- 
lucid glands ; cymules numerous, axillary and terminal on the paniculate 
branches ; sepals nearly equal, linear-lauceolate, at length rcflexed ; petals 

160 HYPERICACE^, Hwericum, 

broadly obovate with an angular tooth near the summit ; filaments scarcely 
polyadelphous ; styles slightly cohering ; capsules 3-lobed, oblong-conical, 
with a long tapering point ; placenta scarcely extending to the axis. — Lam. 
diet. 4. J). 154; Wilkl. sp. 3. p. 1451 ; BC. prodr. 1. p. 550, H. fascicu- 
latum, Willd. I. c. (excl. syn.) H. rosmarinifolium, Ell. .s7c. 2. p. 20. 

Damp soils, S. Carolina and Georgia, Elliotl; Middle Florida, Dr. Cliap- 
man ! Red River, Louisiana, Dr. Hale ! June- Aug. — Stem 2-3 feet high,, 
slender; the bark smooth and brownish. Leaves about an inch long and 
li wide ; those in the axils nearly as long as the primary ones. Flowers 
half as large as in H. perforatum. Torus hemispherical, very distinct. 

-/ 7. H. fascicidatum (Lam.) : stem shrubby, much branched, the branches 
somcAvhat ancipital; leaves linear and very narrow, crowded, coriaceous, 
closely sessile, revolute, fascicled in the axils as if verticillate, with large 
pellucid glands; flowers in terminal leafy cymules, or solitary and axillary j 
sepals rather unequal, hnear ; petals broadly obovate, with an acute angular 
tooth near the summit; filaments slightly polyadelphous ; styles somewhat 
cohering ; capsule oblong-conical, with a long tapering point. — Lam. diet. 
4. p. 160; Michx. fl. 2. p. 80?; Ell. sk. 2. p. 28; DC. prodr. 1. p. 554. 
H. aspalathoides, iVilld. sp. 3. p. 1451; Pursh,Jl. 2. p. 376. H. tenuifo- 
lium, Pursh, I. c. H. Coris? Walt. Car. p. 190. H. Michauxii, Poir. 
diet. 7. p. 696 ? 

/?. stem somewhat diffuse ; leaves very short, in numerous approximated 
whorls ; flowers solitary and in threes towards the summit of the branches ; 
sepals oblong, obtuse, scarcely one-third the length of the petals. — H. axil- 
lare, Lam., diet. 4. p. 160 ? 

Wet pine barrens, Georgia ! to Florida ! Louisiana, Druvimond. /?. N. 
Carolina, Curtis! Kin! (in herb. Muhl.) July-Sept. — Shrubs 1-2 feet 
high. Leaves 6-8 lines long (2-3 in p.). Flowers as in the preceding spe- 
cies. Sepals resembling the leaves. Petals in /?. with scarcely any lateral 
tooth. Seeds oblong. 

* * * Herbaceous : capsule tricarpellary. (^Petals and anthers with black dots.) 

8. H. perforat7im (hinn.) : stem ancipital, corymbosely branched^ leaves 
ovate-elliptical, obtuse, with pellucid dots ; petals twice as long as the lance- 
olate acute sepals ; styles diverging. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 1453 ; Eng. b:>t. t. 
295 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p.'377 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 279 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 549; 
Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 110. 

Old fields, pastures, &c. throughout Canada and the United States: intro- 
duced. July-Aug. — Stem 1-2 feet high. Leaves closely sessile, 6-10 lines 
long, with very conspicuous dots. Flowers numerous. Stamens mostly in 
3 sets. — St. Johii's-wort. 

-f- 9. //. Scotderi (Hook.): stem terete below, quadrangular above; leaves 
'oblong-ovate, closely sessile and somewhat clasping; not dotted ; under sur- 
face with numerous prominent veins ; cyme somewhat compound ; sepals 
broadly ovate, rather obtuse, one-third the length of the petals, dotted with 
black; styles 3, distinct, erect. — Hook.! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 111. 

8. leaves pellucid-punctate ; sepals somewhat acute. 

Dry gravelly soils and limestone rocks, Oregon, Dr. Scolder ! Douglas. 
(8. Rocky Mountains, Nuttall ! — About 18 inches high, sparingly branched. 
Leaves | of an inch long, very obtuse. Flowers one-third smaller than in 
H. perforatum. Petals sprinkled with a few black dots near the margin. 

-^ 10. H. corymhosum (Muhl.) : every part of the plant marked with black 
dots ; stems terete, corymbosely branched above ; leaves oblong or ovate, 
somewhat clasping; cymes many-flowered, corymbed; sepals ovate, acute; 
petals oblong; styles distinct, about as long as the ovary. — MiM.! in Willd. 

Hypericdm. HYPERICACE^. 161 

sp. 3. p. 1457, f cat. p. 71; Pwr.fA, Ji. 2. p. 377; Host. p. 280. 
H. punctatuin, Beck, but. p. 61 ; JJinlingt. fi. L'ist. p. 322. H. iiiicran- 
thuiii, Bor.-Am. I. p. 109. H. Virginicum, Malt. Cur. p. IbO. 

U{)ou woods, meadows, etc. Canada! to Pi'iiusylvauia ! west to Arkansas! 
July- Aug. — Stem li-2 feet high. Leaves 1-2 inches long, closely sessile, 
usually more or less clasping, rarely narrowed at the base, pellucid-punctate. 
Flowers small: sepals marked with linear pellucid puncluros besides the 
black dots. Petals nearly 3 times as long as tlie sepals, usually thickly dot- 
ted with black. Siigmas capitate, orange-red. 

/"ll. //. niacnlatnm (Walt.): every part of the plant marked with black 
dots ; stem terete, glaucous, corymbosely branched above ; cymes many-How- 
ered, corymbed; leaves cordate-oblong, clasping; sepals lanceoiate, acute; 
glandularly denticulate on the margin ; styles OiStinei. nearly twice as long 
a.s the ovary.— ir<///. Car. p. 189; 2. p. 80; Ell. sk. 2. p. 27. 
H. punctatum, Laui. diet. 4. p. 164; DC.prodr. 1. p. 547. H. micranthum, 
Chats, prodr. Hyp. p. 44. t. 5, ^ in DC. I. c. 

Pine barrens, South Carolina, Walter, Elliott ; Georgia, Le Conte I 
Middle l^lorida, J)r. Chapman! July-Aug. — Stem 2-4 teet high, much 
branched above. Leaves 1-1 i inch long, sometimes rather acute. Flowers 
very numerous, as large as in the preceding species. Petals obovate-oblong. 
Styles dilated and divariate at the base : stigmas capitate. Capsule conical- 
ovate. Seeds roundish-ovate, minutely striate. — Nearly related to the pre- 
ceding species, but probably distinct. The black dots in these species, are 
minute vesicles tilled with an intensely purple coloring matter, which is so- 
luble in water. 

§ 3. Stamens very numeroxcs, more or less polyadelphous : capsule 1-cell- 
ed, with 3 (rarely 4) parietal placentce, which are often somewhat 
introfiexed but do not reach the axis, seminiferous anteriorly (next 
the axis). Perennial herbs, or lo^v shrubs. 

* Shrubby or suffrulicosc. 

12. H. aureum (Bartram) : widely branched above, the ultimate branches 
ancipital ; leaves oblong, obtuse, attenuate at the base, glaucous beneath, mi- 
nutely undulate-crisped on the margin, somewhat coriaceous ; flowers large, 
nearly solitary and sessile ; petals (orange-yellow) coriaceous, reflexed, longer 
than the ovate unequal sepals and the excessively numerous stamens ; cap- 
sule (red) ovoid-conical, almost bony, acuminate with the connate styles. — 
Bartr. trav. p. 383. H. amoenum, Pursh. fi. 2. p. 375 ; Nutt. ! sen. 2. p. 16 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 31 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 544. H'. frondosum, 2. p. 81 ? ; 
Muhl.! cat. p. 11. 

On the Patse-Liga creek, a branch of Flint River, Georgia, Bartram, Dr. 
Boykin ! Baldwin! In South Carolina and Georgia, Lyon, ex Pursh. 
June-Aug. — Shrub 2-4 feet high. Leaves li-2 inches long, half an inch or 
more wide, very minutely pellucid-punctate, obscurely veined. Flowers on 
very short pedicels, or ordinarily more properly sessile in the upper pair 
of bract-like leaves. Petals often nearly an inch in length, somewhat rhom- 
boidal-ovate, often with a lateral tooth, persistent. Capsule small, not lobed. 
— A splendid, but very local species, not extending eastward beyond the 
Oakmulgee River, according to Elliott & Dr. Boykin. H. frondosum, Michx. 
wliich we doubtfully refer to this species, was found in Tennessee. 

v^ 13. H. myrtifolium (Lam.) : stem terete, simple or corymbosely branched 
above ; leaves cordate-oblong, clasping, obtuse, coriaceous and almost vein- 
less,, somewhat glaucous ; cymes fastigiat^, compound, very leafy ; dichoto- 
mal flowers nearlv sessile; sepals ovate, at length reflexed, about the length 


162 HYPERICACE^. Hypericum. 

of the petals ; stamens very numerous, nearly as long as the petals; capsule 
conic, coriaceous, 3-lobed, subulate Avith the connate at length distinct styles. 
—Lam. did. 4. p. 180; UC. prodr. 1. p. 547. H. glaucum, Mich.r.Jl.2. 
p. 78; PuTsh, fl. 2. p. 376; Ell! sk. 2. p. 32; JJC. I. c. H. rosmarini- 
folium, Chois. in DC. I. c. ? not of Lam. 

Fiorida, Michau.v, Mr. F. Cozze.ns ! Dr. Chapman! Dr. Alexander ! 
Alabama, Dr. Gates! Georgia, Le Conte ! and South Carolina. Elliott! 
]V1 ay-June. — A straggling shrub, 1-2 feet high. Leaves very numerous, mi- 
nutely punctate w'ith brownish somewhat pellucid dots, about an inch long ; 
those of the branches of the cyme much smaller; the floral ones shorter than 
the sepals : the midrib conspicuous. Sepals nearly equal, resembling the 
leaves. Petals very inequilateral. Styles occasionally 4. Capsule strongly 
lobed ; the placentse, though much introflexed, not reaching the axis. Seeds 
ovoid, smooth, 

14. H. dolabriforme (Vent.): sufTruticose ; stem decumbent at the base, 
simple or branchmg above; leaves linear-lanceolate, veinlcss, spreading or 
at length reflexed ; the margins revolute when old ; cyme fastigiatc, at first 
few-flowered, at length divaricate and somewhat compound, scmeAvhat leafy ; 
sepals unequal, ovate-lanceolate, acute, about the length of the dolabriform 
petals ; capsule coriaceous, conoidal, tricarinate, acuminate ; styles united, or 
at length distinct above; seeds strongly rugose transversely. — Ve7it. hort. 
Cels. t. 45; Piirsh, fl. 2. p. 378; DC. prodr. 1. p. 547. H. procumbens, 
Michx.! fl. 2. p. SI '; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1450 ; Purs/i, I. c; DC. I. c. 

Dry hills, Kentucky, -/^/^■c7ia^^.r, Hafinesqne ! Short! July-Aug. — Stem 
straggUng, 6-20 inches long, a\ ith a brownish exfoliating bark, slightly anci- 
pital above. Leaves (slightly glaucous) 1-1^ inch long, closely sessile, ob- 
tuse or acutish, marked with large pellucid at length brownish dots, with 
smaller ones often fascicled in the axils or on short branches. Dichotomal 
flowers on very short peduncles. Sepals about the length of the mature 
capsule, strongly dotted ; the broader ones often with 3 pellucid nerves at 
the base ; the others lanceolate. Petals obovate-cuneifonxij but very inequi- 
lateral or falcate. Valves of the capsule not in the "least introflexed; but 
with a salient ridge opposite the thick and cord-like placentse, giving the cap- 
sule, and particularly the ovary, a somewhat triquetrous appearance. Seeds 
oval, in several rows. 

/' 15. H. ambigimm (Ell.) : branches numerous, compressed; leaves thin, 
linear-lanceolate, narrow at the base, acute, mucronate, with a callous 
whitish point ; flowers solitary and three together in the axils of the upper 
leaves ; sepals as long as the petals, unequal, linear-lanceolate, attenuated at 
the base; petals obliquely obovate, cuspidate on one side; styles shghtly 
nnited.— Ell. sk. 2. p. 30. 

Banks of rivers. Near Columbia, Georgia, Elliott ; on the Apalachicola, 
Dr. Chapman! May-June. Shrub 2-4 feet high. Leaves li inch long, 
2-3 lines wide. Capsule (immature) oblong, attenuated at the summit, 
shorter than the foliaceous sepals. 

16. H. nudifloriim (Michx.): stem branching and shrubby below; 
branches quadrangular and winged ; leaves ovate-lanceolate or nearly oblong, 
obtuse, pale on both sides, a little veiny, very minutely punctate with reddish 
dots ; cymes pedunculate, naked, loosely flowered ; bracts setaceous ; dicho- 
tomal flowers on short but distinct pedicels; sepals oblong-lanceolate or Hnear, 
about half the length of the obovate petals; capsule ovoid-conic, acuminate 
with the connate styles. — Michx. fl. 2. p. 78 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1456 ; Pursh, 
ft. 2. p. 375 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 548 (excl. syn. Ait.) ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 32. 

/?. leaves (smaller) oblong, somewhat attenuate at the base and often 
very slightly petioled, minutely punctate with pellucid dots ; flowers rather 
larger ; sepals more than half the length of the petals. 

Hypehicdm. HYPERICACE^. 163 

Borders of ponds and swamps, Pennsylvania (hrrb. Schweinitz .') and 
N.Carolina! to Georgia ! and Louisiana. 0. Ark^in^a.'i, Dr. Lfavfinicortk! 
Au<T.-S('pt. — Stems much branched below, 1-2-feet high. Leaves 1-2^ 
inches long, usually obtuse at the base and closely sessile, occasionally very 
slightly petioled, membranaceous, the margins miimtely undulutc. Cyme 
rather few-flowered. Flowers small. Sepals obtuse or acutisl*, spreading, 
small. Styles (sometimes 4, Ell.) distinct at the summit. — The dots in the 
leaves of this species are reddish purple when viewed by transmitted light; 
but in the Arkansas variety (which complete specimens may show to be 
distinct) the dots are perfectly colorless. 

''^~~'i7. //. sphcerocarpnn (Michx.) : stem obscurely 4-sided, somewhat an- 
cipital above; leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, with a minute callous tip, sparingly 

f»elluciJ-punctate, almost veinless; cyme nearly naked, compound, peduncu- 
ate; the dicliotoraal flowers sessile; sepals nearly equal, ovate, acuminate, 
with a spinulose callous tip; petals three times as long the calyx; styles 
closely united ; capsule globose. — Michx. Jl. 2. p. 78 ; DC. prodr. \. p. 548, 
not 01 Nutt. 

Rocky banks of Kentucky Riv% Short ! Michaux. July — Stem 1-2 
feet high, shrubby at the base ? (herbaceous, Michaux), branching from the 
middle upward. Leaves l-2i inches long, 2-5 lines wide, of nearly the 
same width throughout, closely sessile, without black dots. Cyme at length 
many times dichotomous, and rather crowded. Sepals somewhat colored 
in the middle and striate with parallel lines. Petals with a minute callous 
projection on one side below the summit. Ovary ovate, about one-third the 
length of the tapering united styles. Torus indistinct. Capsule exactly glo- 
bose, coriaceous ; the placenta? not inflexed. Seeds (immature) fewer than 
usual (about 20 ?), corrugated, with a distinct winged raphe. — A rare and 
very distinct species. 

18. H. opacum : stems 2-winged ; leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, closely 
sessile, somewhat coriaceous, opaque, punctate Avith minute brown dots, 
veinless"; cyme compound, naked ; the dichotomal flowers sessile ; sepals 
very unequal, obovate and oblong ; petals somewhat dolabriform, twice as 
long as the sepals; styles united to the summit; capsule globose-ovate, 
3-lobed by the inflexion of the dorsal sutures. 

G'orgia, Mrs. Miller! Dr. Loomis! Alabama, Dr. Gates f—Shnih 
about 2 feet high, with slender branches, quadrangular, with 2 of the angles 
distinctly winged. Leaves somewhat shining, scarcely an inch long, with a 
few smaller ones fascicled in the axils. Flowers one-third as large as in H. 
perforatum. Capsule nearly twice as long as the calyx, obtusely 3-lobed, 
and with the placentas also slightly introflexed. Seeds oblong, finely striate 
and wrinkled. 

* ♦ Herbaceous. 

19. H.pilosum (Walt.): scabrous-tomentose ; stem simple, virgate, terete ; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, usually appressed, closely sessile and somewhat 
clasping ; cymes I'ew-flowered ; sepals ovate-lanceolate, unequal, acute, much 
shorter than the petah. ; styles (often 4) distinct, as long as the ovary; cap- 
sule ovate. — Walt. Car. p. 190; Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 23; DC. prod'r. 1. p. 
549. H. simplex, Michx. Jl. 2. p. 80 ; 2. p. 370 ; Nu'.t. ! I. c; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 26; UC. I. c. H. Virainianum, &c. Pink. aim. t. 245. / 6, f 
amalth. i. 421./! 3. Ascyrum villosum, Linn. ; Wiild. sp. 3. p. 1474. 

Wet pine barrens. South Carolina ! to Florida! west to Louisiana I June- 
Sept. — (T) Hairs of the pubescence moniliform. Stem li-2i feet high, per- 
fectly simple except at the summit, which is somewhat co.^'mbosely branched. 
Leaves about half an inch long, sometimes a little alternate at the base, very 

164 HYPERICACEJ2. Hypehiccm. 

rarely spreading. Flowers 5-6 lines in diameter. Petals obovate, involute 
when old. Stamens distinctly polyadelphous. Capsule as long as the sepals: 
placentae a little introflexed. Seeds oval, finely striate longitudinally. 

/' 20. H. angulosum, (Michx.) : stem acutely quadrangular, simple below, 
corymbosely ^branched above ; leaves oblong-lanceolate or subovate, acute, 
closely sessile*and somewhat clasping, nearly opaque, very obscurely dotted ; 
cymes compound, naked, the ultimate branches bearing alternate distant 
flowers ; sepals unequal, ovate, acute ; petals 3 times as long as the sepals, 
obovate, with an angular tooth near the summit ; styles distinct, nearly 3 
times as long as the ovary ; capsule ovate. — Michx. ft. 2. p. 78 ; Pursh, f. 
2. p. 387 ; Ell. sk. 2: p. 25; BC. prodr. 1. p. 546. "H. denticulatum, Walt. 
Car. p. 190. 

Wet places in pine barrens. New Jersey ! to Florida ! June-Aug.— Stem 
1^-2 feet high, simple the greater part' of its length, often corymbosely 
branched above. Leaves 8-12 lines long, rather thick, usually erect, indis- 
tinctly veined, shorter than the internodes ; the upper ones sometimes 
Unear. Cymes often decompound, (occasionally reduced almost to a solitary 
flower) ; t!ie divisions appearing racemose from the abortion of one of the 
forks at each subdivision of the cyme. Petals about half an inch long, cop- 
per-colored. Capsule shorter than the calyx : placentae somewhat introflex- 
ed. Seeds oval, smooth.— We have not restored Walter's name to this 
species, where it most probably belongs, as there is a H. denticulatum of 
Kuntli which has been long established. 

/ 21. H. elliptmtm (Hook.) : stem quadrangular, simple below, somewhat 
branched at the summit ; leaves elliptical, very obtuse, closely sessile, pel- 
lucid-punctate ; cyme nearly naked; sepals oblong, very unequal, spread- 
ing ; styles 3. connate nearly to the summit ; capsule ovate-globose. — Hook, 
ft. Bor'.-Am. 1. p. 110. H. sphoerocarpon, Bart.! jl. Philad. 2. p. 14 ; Nutt.! 
gen. 2. p. 16, not of Mich.r. 

Moist grounds along rivers, Canada ! Northern and Western parts of 
New-York ! Banks of the Connecticut! NeAv Jersey, Mr. Collins! Penn- 
sylvania near Philadelphia, Barton ! July.— Stem 10-20 inches high. 
Leaves an inch long, marked with obscure brownish dots, somewhat clasp- 
ing or a little narrowed at the base. Cyme usually few-flowered. Flowers 
pale orange. Petals obovate, one-third longer than the sepals. Styles as 
long as the ovary, separating when old : stigmas minute, subcapitate. Cap- 
sule shorter than the calyx; the placentae somewhat introflexed. Seeds 
oval, minutely striate and rugulose. 

§ 4. Stam.ens 5-20, distinct ■: capsule 1-celled, with 3 strictly parietal 
placentce: styles 3, distinct, short. Annual. 

* Stem simple below, dichotomously cym.ose above, loith a dichotomal {terminal) flower 

in each division. 

-h 22. H. mutiluvi (Linn.) : stem quadrangular, usually much branched ; 
leaves ovate-oblong, obtuse, clasping, 5-nerved, pellucid-punctate; cymes 
leafy ; sepals lanceolate, rather longer than the oblong petals ; stamens 6-12 ; 
capsule ovate-conical.— Lni/z. syst. 2- p. 511. H. quinquenervium, Walt. 
Car. p. 199 ; Micluv. fl. 2. p. 79 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 550 ; Hook. f. Bor.-Am. 
1. «. 110; DarUngt.' fl. Cest. p. 323. H. prviflorum, Muhl. ! in Willd. 
sp. 3. p. 1457 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 376 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 24. H. stellarioides, H. 
B. ^ h. nov. gen. ^ sp. 5. p. 196 (ex Choisy). 

Low g>-ounds, Canada! to Florida! and west to Arkansas! Texas, 
Drummond! July-Sept.— Stem 6-12 inches high, slender, sometinies 
nearly or quite simple. Leaves about f of an inch long, thin ; lateral veins 

Hypericum. IIYPERICACE^. 165 

obscure. Flowers very small ; those in the forks of the cyme pedicel- 
late. Styles somewhat spreading: stiij;mas capitate. Capsule a little lonc;er 
than the calyx. Seeds cylindrical-oblona. — In specimens from Maryland 
and Arkansas, the stem is nearly simple, the leaves more remote, and the 
cyme few-flowered; but they appear to be mere variations from the ordinary 
form of the plant. 

-/- 23. II. Canadenso. (Linn.): stem quadrano^nlar, with erect branches; 
leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, narrowed at the base, pellucid-punctate and 
with black dots beneath ; sepals lanceolate, very acute, longer than the i)e- 
tals and shorter than the oblong-conical capsule ; stamens 5-10. — Willd. sjt. 
3. p. 1455; jMicha: ft. 2. p. 79; Pursh,Ji. 2. p. 378; Ell. sk. 2. p. 24 ; DC. 
prodr. \.p. 550; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. «. 110; Darlingt.Jl. Ct'st. p. 324. 

Wet places, particidarly in sandy soils, Canada! and INcwfoundland, to 
Georgia! June-Aug.— Stem 6-12 inches high, slender. Leaves usually 
about an inch long and 1-2 lines wide; sometimes nearly lanceolate, ob- 
scurely 3-nerved. Sepals unequal. Petals oblong, orange. Styles shorter 
than the ovary, (rarely 4 or 5) somewhat clavate : stigmas capitate. Cap- 
sule very acute, usually about twice as long as the sepals. Seeds cylindri- 
cal, yellow. 

* ♦ Stems rather rigid, dichotomously or irregularly much branched from near the 
■kase : /lowers distant and somewhat racemose on the branches : leaves subulate 
jor narrowly linear, appresscd. (Sarothra, Linn.) 

f^24r. H. Sarothra (Michx.): stem and branches filiform, quadrangular; 
leaves very minute, subulate, carinate ; flowers sessile; stamens 5-10; cap- 
sule conical, elongated, twice the length of the linear-lanceolate sepals. 
—Mich.v.Ji. 2. p. 79 ; Pvrah, fl. 2. p. 78 ; Darlingt. fi. Cesl. p.^ 324. H. 
Rudicaule, Walt. Car. p. 190. ' Sarothra gentianoides, l>inn.; Willd. sp. 1. 
p. 1515; Ell. sk. I. p. 371; Grev. ^ Book, in hot. misc. 3. p. 236. S. 
hypericoides. Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 204 ; Bart. ji. Am. Sept. 3. t. 92. / 1. 

Sandy fields and road sides, Canada ! to Florida! and west to the Missis- 
sippi ! June-Aug. — Stem 4-10 inches high, appearing naked from the very 
minute appressed leaves; branches slender and wiry, at first diverging, at 
length nearly erect. Leaves 1-2 lines long, resembling stipules. Flowers 
very minute. Petals oblong-hnear, longer than the calyx. Styles spreading: 
stigmas capitate. Capsule dark purple, very acute. Seeds extremely minute 
oblong, yellowish ; inner integument thick and slightly fleshy.— This plant is 
without doubt a genuine Hypericum, although it is excluded from the genus 
and from the order Hypericacese by most botanists. The inner integument 
is mostly thicker than usual, in this and the following species, so that it has 
been mistaken by Gsertner and others for albumen. 

"'■25. H. Drummondii: stem and branches rather stout, terete below, quad- 
rangular above ; leaves narrowly linear, longer than the internodes ; flowers 
pedicellate ; stamens 10-20 ; capsule ovate, shorter than the lanceolate sepals. 
— Sarothra Drummondii, Grev. ^ Hook. I. c. t. 107. 

Near St. Louis, Missouri, and near New Orleans, Drummond, Dr. In- 
galls ! Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher ! Dr. Leavenworth! Milledgeville, Geor- 
gia, Dr. Boykin ! July-Sept.— Stem 10-18 inches high : the branches 
almost al .vays ahernate. Leaves G-8 lines long, acute, marked with opaque 
dots. Flowers 3 times as large as in the preceding species : pedicels 2-4 lines 
long. Sepals unequal, shorter than the oblong petals. Capsule 2i lines 
long. Seed 30-40, oval, about lO-rilabed, and transversely lacunose, 5 or 6 
times as large as in H. Sarothra. 

166 HYPERICACEiE. HypEaicDJii 

J Species which have 7iot fallen under our observation. 

* Shrubby. 

26. H. elatum (Ait.) : trigynous; sepals lanceolate-ovate, acute ; stamens 
loncrer than the corolla ; stem shrubby ; leaves ovate-oblong. Ait. Kew. {ed. 
l.)\ p. 104. 

The H. elatum figured by Jussieu (in ann. mus. 3. i. 17.), is probably dif- 
ferent from Alton's plant, and is doubtless not a native of North America. 

27. H.Jastigiatum (EH.) : branches somewhat compressed; leaves nar- 
rowly lanceolate, very acute ; corymbs terminal, many-flowered, fastigiate; 
styles united. Ell. sk. 2. p. 31, not of H. B. <^ K. 

Pine barrens of Scriven county, Georgia. May-July. — Shrub 3 feet high. 
Leaves about 3 inches long, tapering yet connate at the base. Corymbs 
with solitary flowers nearly sessile in the lower divisions. Styles not sepa- 
rating as the pod matures. Elliott. — We have no specimens which agree 
with this description. 

♦ * Herbaceous. 

28. H. Icevioratum (Ait.) : trigynous; leaves ovate, somewhat clasping; se- 
pah ovate, acute; panicle trichotomous, the intermediate flower sessile. Ait. 
Kew. {ed. 1.) 3. p. 106. 

Referred by Willdenow and most succeeding authors to H. nudiflorum; 
but the dichotomal flowers in that species are not sessile. Perhaps H. angu- 
losum, or H. eliipticum. 

29. H. sessilijlorwn (Spreng.): trigynous; branches terete ; leaves half- 
clasping, cordate-oblong, veinless, punctate ; corymb terminal, with the flow- 
ers nearly sessile ; sepals oblong, acute, foliaceous, much longer than the co- 
rolla; styles united. Spreng. syst. 3. p. 346. 

Described from a specimen in Willdenow's herbarium. Probably H. myr- 

30. H. virgatum (Lam.) : stem straight, 4-angled ; leaves ovate-lanceo- 
late slightly clasping, punctate with black dots, re volute on the margins ; pa- 
nicle dichotomous, few-flowered ; sepals lanceolate; styles 2-3; stigmas capi- 
tate. DC— Lam. diet. 4. p. 158 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 547. 

■■/ 31. H. cistifolium (Lam.): stem angular; leaves ovate-oblong, rather 
acute somewhat clasping, punctate with black dots beneath, revolute on the 
maro-ins ; flowers in dichotomous corymbs ; sepals ovate ; styles united. DC. 
I. c.—Lam. diet. 4. p. 158. 

32. H. hedyotifolium (Foir.): stem straight, 4-angled ; leaves sessile, de- 
cussate, lanceolate, rather acute, appressed, not pellucid-punctate, but with 
black dots beneath ; sepals linear-lanceolate, with black dots ; styles 3-4 ; 
stigmas capitate. DC. I. c.—Poir. diet. 7. p. 700. 

Doubtless H. angulosum. 

33. H. triplinerve (Vent.): stem herbaceous, 3-angled, decumbent at the 
base ; leaves Unear, much spreading, obtuse, with revolute margins ; sepals 
ovate, acute ; petals unequal. DC— Vent. hort. Cels. t. 58 ; DC prodr. 1. 

p. 552. 

On the banks of the Ohio, Michaux, ex lent.— We have not seen the 
fio-ure and original description of this species ; but the character given by 
Pursh which is apparently taken from Ventenat, includes several important 
partic'j'a-'^ not mentioned by Choisy ; whose elaboration of the species of 
Hypericum in De Candolle's Prodromus is far froiB satisfactory. The stem 
is said by Pursh to be erect, the leaves triplinerved, the flowers as large as in 
H. perforatum, and the sepals and petals glandulose-serrate. 

Elodea. HYPERICACEiE. 167 

34. H. anagalloides (Cham. & Schlecht.) : stem herbaceous, procumbent 
and creeping; leaves ovate, obtuse, 5-7-nerved, very minutely iiellucid-punc- 
tate; cyme terminal, leafy, few-flowered, not glandulose; sepals obovate, 

shorter than the corolla ; capsule ; stamens 15-20, distinct ; styles 3, 

distinct. Cham. <^ Schlecht. in Limia'a, 3. p. 127. 

St. Francisco, California.— Leaves membranaceous, 5-7-nerved ; the larg- 
est about 6 lines long ; the lower ones much smaller. Dichotomal flowers pe- 
duncled. Ckam. <f .Sc/i/ec'i^.— Allied to H. humifusum, according to the 
authors cited ; and apparently also to H. mutiium. 

35. //. aciitifotmm. (Ell.) : stem herbaceous?, branching, glabrous ; leaves 
narrowly lanceolate, acute; panicle many-flowered; capsules scarcely longer 
than the calyx. Ell. sk. 2. p. 26. 

Milledgeville, Georgia, Dr. fiVii/Zrin.— Resembles most the H . Canadense, 
but larger in every rc-pecl: it differs also in its acute leaves, proportionally 
short capsule, and much more compact panicle. Elliott. 

H. rostrtUvm, Raf. fl. Ludov. 
H. fulgidum, Raf. fl. Ludov. 

3. ELODEA. Adans. ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 17 ; Spach, in ann. sci. nat. 
(ser. 2.) 5. p. 165, not of Michx. 

Triadenium, Baf. Species of Hypericum, Linn. <^c. 

Sepals 5, equal, somewhat united at the base. Petals 5. deciduous, equila- 
teral. Stamens 9 (rarely 12-15), triadelphous ; the parcels alternating with 
3 hypogynous glands. Styles 3, distinct. Capsule oblong, membranaceous, 
3-celled : the placentae somewhat cohering in the axis, at length separating 
from the valves. — Perennial glabrous or slightly glaucous herbs. Leaves 
membranaceous, pellucid-punctate, and often with a few black dots (the ax- 
ils never leafy). Cymules few-flowered, terminal and in the axils of the 
upper leaves, pedunculate or subsessile : flowers dull orange-purple, 

Spach has very well characterized this genus ; but we have been obliged to re- 
duce his seven species to two. 

-^ 1. E. Virginica (Nuit.) : leaves sessile, clasping ; stamens united below 
the middle.— ,¥««. .' gen. 2. p. 17 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 33 ; Spach, I.e. E. cam- 
panulata, Pitrsh, Jl. 2. p. 379. E. Drummondii & Fraseri, Spach, I. c. 
Hypericum Virginicum, Linn. ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 81 ; Andr. hot. rep. t. 552; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 546 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 281 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 322. 
H. campanulatum, Walt. Car. p. 191. 

Swamps, Canada to Florida! and Louisiana! July-Aug.— Plant 1-2 
feet high, often of a puri)lish hue. Stem nearly terete, branching. Leaves 
oblong, 1-2 inches or a little more in length, somewhat glaucous underneath. 
Axillary cymes mostly about 3-flowered ; the terminal one often compouiid. 
Petals obovate-oblong, nearly twice the length of the calyx, marked with 
reddish veins. Stamens rarely 12 or more, always triadelphous ; the fila- 
ments seldom united more than one-third of their length, shorter than the pe- 
tals. Glands ovate, orange, secreting a copious sweetish fluid. Capsule ob- 
scurely triangular, nearly twice the length of the calyx when mature, rather 
acute. Seeds oblong, very numerous. 

168 FRANKENIACEvE. Frankenia. 

. 2. E. petiolata (Pursh) : leaves attenuated into a petiole ; filaments unit- 
ed above the middle— Pursh! ft. 2. p. 379; NiM. 1. c; Ell. I. c. E. tubu- 
losa, axillaris, pauciflora, & floribunda ! Spach, I. c. Hypericum petiolatum, 
Walt. Car. p. 191. H. axillare, Michx. ft. 2. p. 81. H. paludosum, Chois. 
prodr. Hyper. ^ in DC. I. c. 

Swamps, New-Jersey! to Florida! west to Kentucky! and Arkansas! 
Aug.-Sept.— Plant about 2 feet high. Leaves oblong, narrowed at the base, 
lJ-3 inches long, with a short but usually distinct petiole. Cymules mostly 
axillary and 3-flowered, on short peduncles or nearly sessile. Flowers rather 
smaller than in E. Virginica, and of the same color. Sepals obtuse, scarcely 
one-third the length of the mature capsule. Seeds cylindrical-oblong. 

X Doubtful species. 

3. E. tubiilosa (Pursh) : leaves sessile ; corolla tubular [?] ; filaments 
united above the middle. Wall..— Pursh, ft. 2. p. 379. Hypericum tubulo- 
sum. Walt. Car. p. 191. 

South Carolina, Walter.— Thi^ species has never been identified by any 
of our botanists. There is doubtless some mistake about the tubular corolla. 

Order GUTTIFERtE.— The fi^^ore of Clr.sia rosea in Catcshy, C«r. f. 99, was 
most probab!}' taken from a West Indian specimen ; it has n©t been found in Caro- 
lina. We have received, however, the leaves of a species of Clusia (probably C. ro- 
sea), from the extreme southern part of Florida. 


Sepals 5, united in a furrowed tube, persistent, equal. Petals alter- 
nate with the sepals, hypogynous, unguiculate, with appendages at the 
base of the limb. Stamens hypogynous, either equal in number to the 
petals and alternate with them, or having a tendency to double the 
number : anthers roundish, versatile. [Ovary 1-celled with 2-3 pa- 
rietal placentsB : styles 2-3, filiform, united for a considerable part of 
their length.] Capsule l-celled, enclosed in the calyx, 2-3- or 4.valved, 
many-seeded. Seeds attached to the margins of the valves, very mi- 
nute [anatropous]. Embryo straight, erect in the midst of albumen. — 
Herbaceous plants or under-shrubs. Stems very much branched. 
Leaves opposite, exstipulate, with a membranous sheathing base, often 
revolute at the edge. Flowers sessile in the divisions of the branches, 
and terminal, embosomed in leaves, usually pink. Lindl. 

1. FRANKENIA. Linn. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 3i9. 

Styles 3, united below, stigmatose along the inner surface. Capsule locu- 
licidal, many-seeded. 

1. F. grandifolia (Cham. & Schlecht.) : leaves obovate-cuneifonn, mu- 
cronulate, with revolute margins, rather coriaceous, very minutely hairy and 


ciliate particular!}^ at the base ; stems prostrate ; branches ami calyx minutely 
hairy. Cham, f Schlecht. in Limum, 1. p. 35; If am. 4- Sclinll. .s//.s/. l.p. 
70; Hook. (^ Am. bot. Beechey, p. 135. F. latifolia, Presl, rel. Hank.; 
lia-m. f SchuK. I. c. 7. p. \(Sn. Velezia latifolia, Eschscltoltz, in mem. 
acod. St. Petersb. (5. ser.) 10. fide SchJerht. in Linntva, 3. p. 149. 

Soa-shore of Calilornia, Chamisso, K.^chschoUz, Nultall .'—^temswoody 
at the base, a span high. Leaves half an inch long, connected at the base 
by a hairy stipular membrane. Stamens 6-7. Capsule 3-valved. 


Paronychieje and a part of Caryophyllacea;, ^. St. Ilil. ; DC. 

Sepals 5, distinct or united at the base, persistent. Petals alternate 
with the sepals, sometimes manifest, often minute and resembling 
sterile filaments, frequently wanting. Stamens as many as the sepals 
and opposite them, or fewer, rarely twice as many, inserted with the 
petals into the edge of the perigynous (rarely hypogynous) disk that 
lines the base of the sepals : filaments subulate, usually short : anthers 
fixed by the middle, introrse. Ovary l-celled by the obliteration of 
the dissepiments, sometimes imperfectly 2-5-ceUed : styles 2-5, either 
distinct or partially (sometimes almost wholly) combined, stigmatose 
along the inner surface. Fruit an utricle, with a solitary seed borne 
on a slender funiculus rising from the base of the cell, or a 2-5.valved 
l-celled many. seeded capsule, with the placenta in the axis. Seeds 
campulitropous. Embryo more or less curved around the outside of 
mealy albumen. — Herbaceous or rarely suffrutescent branching plants, 
with opposite or fascicled (rarely alternate) entire mostly sessile 
leaves, and scarious stipules. Flowers often minute, axillary or termi- 
nal, cymose or glomerate, or sometimes nearly solitary in the axils of 
the leaves : bracts usually similar to the stipules. 


Sepals often cuspidate or awned, usually more or less cucullate or 
concave at the apex internally. Petals resembling sterile filaments, 
or none. Styles or stigmas 2, distinct or united. Utricle l-seeded. — 
Leaves opposite, often crowded and fascicled. 

1. PARONYCHIA. ( Tourn.) Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 388. 

Sepals (oblong- or linear) united at the base, cuspidate or awned at the 
apex ; the inner portion membranaceous and colored, cucullate or concave at 
the summit. Petals none, or represented by 5 minute filaments or hnear 
scales. Stamens 5, inserted into the edge of the disk that lines the base 
of the sepals within. Styles more or less united : stigmas 2. Utricle inclu- 
ded in the connivent sepals. 


170 ILLECEBRACEiE. Paronychia. 

§ 1. Annual: sepals similar, dilated and fornicate at the apex within, 
produced posteriorly into a divaricate horn or awn: Jlowers cymose. 
— (Chjetonychia, DC. ?) 

1. P. Drummondii: minutely pubescent; stem erect, branching above 
into numerous cymes ; leaves (of the branches) linear-oblong, short, the 
uppermost mucronate ; calyx turbinate at the base, with a ring of hooked 
hairs; sepals broadly scarious and dilated above, the back produced into a 
short somewhat recurved horn ; sterile setfE very minute. 

Texas, Drummond I (2nd Coll. no. 93)— Stem stout, 10 inches high. 
Leaves of the stem wanting in the specimen ; of the branches rigid, hispidly 
canescent, i an inch long, attenuate at the base ; the uppermost smaller and 
bract-like. Stipules ovate, with a slender acumination, shorter than the 
leaves. Ultimate bracts (bracts? and stipules of bracts) scarious, ciliate, 
shorter than the flower. Sepals reddish-brown, the scarious margins and 
horn white. Stamens much shorter than the sepals. Sterile seta? perhaps 
often Avanting. Style very short.— This species manifestly belongs to the 
section Chsetonychia, DC. 
_,, 2. P. setae ea : nearly glabrous : stem erect, branching into the many times 
' dichotomous diffuse cyme ; leaves subulate-setaceous, erect ; bracts similar, 
cuspidate ; sepals hairy at the base, minutely scarious on the margin, the 
apex arched within, the back produced into a slender diverging awn ; sterile 
setse as long as the filaments. 

Texas, Drummond ! (3rd Coll. no. 33.)— Slender, 3-5 inches high. Leaves 
about the length of the internodes. Stipules shorter, lanceolate, attenuate 
into a long point. Sepals (and also peduncles and leaves) brownish, oblong- 
linear : awn straight, whitish, someAvhat shorter than the sepals. Styles the 
length of the utricle, distinct more than half-way down. 

§ 2. Perennial : sepals similar, cuspidate or axvned, the apex some- 
what cucullate or concave within, but not dilated: flowers in dichoto- 
mous cymes or axillary glomerules, or sometimes nearly solitary.— 


The species with the flowers enveloped by scarious bracts may perhaps forrn a 
separate section (Argyronychia) : P. dichotoma (Ploltzia, Am.) cannot be distin- 
guished as a genus. 

,> 3. P. sessilifiora (Nutt.): very densely csespitose, much branched and 
^ crowded : leaves imbricated, linear-subulate ; the lowermost erect, obtuse ; the 
upper longer, recurved-spreading, acute or mucronate, rather longer than the 
2-cleft stipules ; flowers tenninaL, soUtary, sessile ; sepals arched at the apex 
within, with divergent setaceous awns rather shorter than the sepals ; sterile 
seta; as long as the filaments.— M(«. .' gen. 1. p. 160; DC.prodr. 3. p. 372; 
Hook. .'ft. Bar. -Am. 1 p. 226. t. 75. 

Hills of the Missouri near Fort Mandan (NuttaU) to the Saskatchawan 
(lat. 53°), Drummond! June-Sept.— Root (caudex) ligneous, perpendicu- 
lar. Branches very dense, 2 inches high. Sepals oblong-linear, obscurely 
3-nerved. Style as long as the sepals, 2-cleft at the apex. 
// 4. P. Jamesii: minutely scabrous-pubescent, csespitose, much branched 
from the base ; leaves linear-subulate, obtuse (the uppermost mucronate) ; 
cymes dichotomous, few-flowered, crowded, with a central subsessile flower 
in each division ; sepals minutely hairy at the base, linear-oblong, obscurely 
3-ribbed or even, with a very short cusp, arched at the summit Avithin ; sterile 
setae as long as the filaments.— P. dichotoma ? Torr. ! in ann. lye. New- 
York, 2. p. 290. 

Paronychia. ILLECEBRACE/E. 171 

0. depressa: dwarf, densely dichotornous; leaves and stipules imbricated 
on the short branches ; liowers nearly immersed in the leaves.— P. depressa, 
NiUt. ! mss. 

Rocky Mountains, lat. 41=", Dr. James! Nutlall ! /?. " On the barren 
plains of the Rocky Mountains (lat. 4P), and on the plains of the Oregon." 
Nuttall .'—Stems 4-6 inches high. Leaves on theflowerint? branches about 
half an inch long, slightly 2-sulcate, about the length of the internodes. Sti- 
pules shorter than the leaves, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, or setose ; the 
point much shorter than in P. dichotoma ; the flowers smaller, fewer, and 
more crowded ; the cusp stouter and confluent with the arched inner por- 
tion. Calyx obpyramidal at the base. Style 2-cleft \ of its length. The 
H. depressa has the branches crowded with leaves to the summit; the sti- 
pules are nearly the length of the leaves, and the flowers are scarcely cymose. 

5. P. dichotoma (Nutt.) : glabrous, densely csespitose and branching from 
the thick procumbent ligneous base; leaves subulate, mucronate ; cymes 
manv times dichotornous, without central flowers, diffuse, fastigiate; bracts 
similar to the leaves ; sepals linear, 3-ribbed, cuspidate, slightly cucullate at 
the apex within; sterile seta; very short. — Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 159; lJC.prodt\ 
3. ;). 372. Achvranthes dichotoma, Linn. mant. p. 51 ; Willd. sp. 1. p. 
1196. Plottzia dichotoma, Am. in Limll. nat. syst. ed. 2. p. 441. 

On rocks around Harper's Ferrv, Virginia ! N. Carolina, Schn-einitz ! 
Arkansas, NiUtaU ! Dr. Leavenworth! Texas, Dritmmoiul! July-Nov. 
— Flowering stems 6-12 inches high, nearly simple. Leaves an inch or 
more in length (those of the flowering stems larger than the internodes ; of 
the barren stems imbricated), erect, 2-sulcate beneath, about i a line wide. 
Stipules lanceolate, piliferous ; the adjacent ones more or less united. Se- 
gals yellowish, the base lined with a Avhitish disk. Style filiform, nearly as 
ougas the sepals, cleft usually about i its length.— Separated from Parony- 
chia by Arnott, who however did not observe the 2-cleft style and the mi- 
nute sterile sets, which indeed are not easily detected in dried specimens. 
P. Jamesii connects it with other species of the genus. Nuttall's syno- 
nym, " Illecebrum dichotomum, Tf7//c/." is perhaps a mistake, as there is no 
such species in WiUdenow's Species Plantarum. 

6. P. arg7jrocoma (Nutt.) : csespitose, decumbent, minutely pubescent; 
leaves linear, acute, veinless ; cymes terminal, glomerate ; flowers enveloped 
by the numerous scarious bracts ; sepals hairy, setaccously cuspidate, the 
inner portion bearded above ; style slender, 2-cleft at the summit, hair}^ at the 
base; sterile setse very short (l^utt.) or none. — Nutt.! gen. 1. p. 160; DC. 
prodr. 3. p. 372. Anychia argyrocoma, Michx.! fi. 1. p. 113 ; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 176 ; Ell sk. 1. p. 308, excl. syn. 

On rocks, mountains of Virginia (Pursh) N. Carolina! Georgia! and 
Tennessee 1 — Flowering stems ascending, 4-10 inches high. Leaves i-J of 
an inch long, much crowded on the younger stems. Stipules lanceolate, 
acuminate, nearly as long as the leaves. Bracts like the stipules. Sepals 
linear. 1-nerved, with a whitish straight acumination.— The synonym and lo- 
cality" Harper's Ferry, Virginia" in Elliott, I. c. belong to P. dichotoma. 

— 7. P. herniarioides (Nutt.): depressed, diffusely branched, scabrous- 
pubescent ; leaves oval or oblong, ciliate, nmcronate ; flowers sessile in the 
axils of the leaves ; sepals subulate, mucronate ; sterile setae very minute. — 
Nutt.! gen. 1. p. 160. Anychia herniarioides, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 113; Ell. 
sk. l.p.SOSl 

In dry sandy places, N. Carolina, Michaux ! S. Carolina {herb. 
Schiceinitz !), and Georgia, Baldwin!— k small depressed plant with some- 
what the aspect of Euphorbia polvgonifolia. Leaves sessile, often slightly 
falcate, 3-4 lines long, minutely hispid under a lens. Stipules shorter than 


172 * ILLECEBRACEiE. Anychia. 

the leaves. Flowers solitary or slightly clustered in the axils. Sepals not 
cucullate at the apex within ; the very short cusp somewhat spreading. 

§ 3. Sepals unequal, cucullate at the apex within; the three exterior 
armed with a spimj divergent awn ; the 2 interior smaller,unarmed or 
cuspidate. — Acanthonychia, DC. (Pentaciena, Bartl.) 

-i- 8. P. ramosissima (DC.) : diffusely branched, prostrate ; stems suffru- 
tescent at the base, woolly ; leaves subulate, pungent, crowded, at length re- 
curved ; stipules imbricated, shorter than the leaves ; flowers axillary, sessile ; 
sepals hairy, the two inner pungent ; stigmas subsessile. — P? ramosissima, 
DC. mem.' Paronyc. p. 12. t. 4, ^ prodr. 3. p. 372; A. St. Hil.Jl. Bras. 
2. p. 188. 

On the coast of California and Oregon, Nuttall! also a native of S. Ame- 
rica. — Low, densely branched and tufted ; the branches in fruit densely 
squarrose by the pungent spreading leaves and the spines of the outer sepals. 
Stipules numerous, imbricated. Sepals somewhat woolly; the outer ones 
with a minute adnata stipule on each side at the base. Stamens 3-5 ? — The 
figure of De CandoUe seems to have been taken from a poor specimen. 

2. ANYCHIA. Michx. ! fl. 1. p. 112 (in part) ; Juss. mem. mus. I. c. 

dueria, Gartn. ; Nutt. 

Sepals ovate-oblong, united at the base, slightly concave, subsaccate at 
the apex, submucronate on the back. Petals or sterile filaments none. 
Stamens 2-3 or 5, inserted on the base of the sepals. Styles very short, dis- 
tinct or united at the base, stigmatose within. Utricle included in the con- 
nivent sepals. — Annual, erect or somewhat procumbent, dichotomous herbs, 
with minute axillary or terminal solitary or more or less clustered subsessile 
flowers. Leaves oblong or lanceolate, mostly punctate, subpetiolate, very 
slightly ciliate. 

..J-' 1. A. dichotoma (Michx.) : stem erect or decumbent at the base ; at 
'length much branched; stamens commonly 3. — Michx. ! fi. \.p. 113. 

a. stem more or less pubescent above; leaves varying from linear-lanceo- 
late and oblanceolate to elliptical ; flowers more or less clustered. — A dicho- 
toma, DC. prodr. 3. p. 369. A. Canadensis, Ell. sk. 1. p. 307; Hook. Jl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 252. Q,ueria Canadensis, I/M?n.; Kutt. ! I.e. 

0. glabrous, slender; branches capillary; leaves oval or oblong, cuneiform 
at the base; flowers mostly exserted from the stipules at their base.— A. 
dichotoma/?. capillacea, Torr.! fl. 1. p. 213. A. capiUacea, Nutt! I. c; 
DC. I. c. 

On hill-sides, &c. Canada ! to Georgia and Kentucky ! west to Arkansas ! 
June-Aug.— Stems 4-10 inches high. Leaves obtuse or acute. Utricle 
minutely papillose.— Very variable in size and appearance. The var. H is 
perhaps the original Q,ueria Canadensis of LinnEcus ; as it is the only form 
which is found in Canada or the adjacent portions of the United States. 

2. A. Baldwinii: stems branched from the base, diffusely procumbent; 
leaves lanceolate, acute-at each end ; stamens 5. 

Florida, Baldwin! W. Florida, Mr. Ware! Middle Florida, Dr. 
Chapman ! — ® ? Stem minutely puberulent, loosely branched : branches a 
foot or more long, decumbent. Leaves 6-12 lines long, the uppermost small- 
er ciliate-scabrous, usually much shorter than the internodes. Flowers 


rather larger than in A. dichotoma. Styles distinct nearly to the base, con- 


Sepals linear, petaloid above, coherent into a tube below, slightly concave 
at the apex, unarmed. Petals represented by 5 subulate processes, ahcrnate 
with the stamens, and inserted with them into the edge of the disk which 
lines the lower portion of the sepals. Style filiform, of the length of the calyx, 
mhiutely bifid at the apex. Utricle as in Paronychia. — A branching dif- 
fusely procumbent extensively spreading herb. Leaves oblanceolate, much 
shorter than the internodes. Blowers in small glomerate cymes at the ends 
of the branches. 

■ - S. Americana. — Herniaria Americana, Nidt. ! in SiU. jour. 5. p. 291 
(excl. syn ?) ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 368. 

In dry sandy places? E. Florida, Ware ex Nuttall ! Dr. Leavenworth ! 
Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman ! Georgia, Dr. Boykin ! S. Carolina, ■ 
herb. Nutt. .'— ® 1 Stem minutely andretrorsely puberulent, much branched, 
extending 1-2 feet in length. Leaves slightly hairy below, ciliate, rather 
obtuse, aknost veinless ; the lowest an inch in length, those of the branches 
shorter. Stipules much shorter than the leaves. Bracts very small, similar 
to the leaves. Flowers very nmnerous, a I'nt or a little more in length. 
Sepals white above, minutely hispid with hooked bristles at the base, con- 
nivent, cohering usually to about the middle. Stamens 5, shorter than the 
lobes of the calyx : anthers brown. 

Tribe IL SPERGULE JE. ^ Bartl. 

Sepals nearly plane. Petals usually manifest, sometimes wanting. 
Styles or stigmas 3-5. Capsule 1-celled, 3-5.valved, mauy-seeded : 
placenta central. 

4. STIPULICIDA. Michx. fi. 1. p. 21. t. 6. 

Sepals distinct, oblong, attenuate at the base, with broadly scarious mar- 
gins. Petals 5, as long as the sepals, cuneiform-oblong, narrow, entire, hy- 
pogynous. Capsule subglobose, 3-valved, about 20-seeded. Style very short : 
stigmas 3.— A small herb. Stem erect, setaceous, dichotomous. Radical 
leaves spatulate, petioled; cauline ones very minute, setaceous. Stipules 
multifid. Flowers minute, in small terminal fascicles. 

~f- S. setacea (Michx. ! 1. c.)—EU. sk. 1. p. 51 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 375. Poly- 
carpon stipulifidum, Pers.; Pursh, fi. 1. p. 90. 

In dry sandy places, N. Carolina ! to Georgia! May.— (l) ? (If Michx.) 
Glabrous, 6-10 inches high. Petals white, 

5. POLYCARPON. Linn.; Gcerln. fr. t. 129. 

Sepals 5, nearly distinct, ovate, cariuate-concave, with scarious margins. 
Petals 5, shorter than the sepals, often linear, emarginate. Stamens 3-5, in- 
serted with the petals upon the minute nearly hypogynous disk. Styles 3, 

174 n^LECEBRACE^. Spergula. 

very short. Capsule 3-valved.— Low annuals. Leaves opposite or quater- 
nate. Flowers cymose. 

1. P. tetraphyllum (Linn.): leaves quaternate and opposite, spatulate- 
obovate ; sepals mucronate ; stamens 3.—Eng. hot. t. 1031 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 
182. Mollugo tetraphylla, Linn. sp. 1. p. 89. 

About Charleston, S. Carolina ! Introduced !— Much branched, 3-6 inches 
high. Petals white. 

2. P. depressum (Nutt.l mss.) : "very small, depressed, much branched; 
leaves opposite, spatulate, the petiole as long as the limb ; flowers in small 
clustered cymes ; sepals not mucronate ; petals almost filiform ; stamens 3-5. 

" On bare sand-hills, near St. Diego, California.— Root slender, perpendi- 
cular. Stems much branched from the base, forming a small tuft, not rising 
from the ground. Leaves 2-3 Unes long. Flowers very small." Nutt. 

6. LCEFLINGIA. Linn. act. Holm. ; Lam. ill. t. 19. 

Sepals lanceolate, subulate, cuspidate, united at the base ; the three exterior 
with a setiform appendage on each side near the base (adnate stipules). Pe- 
tals minute, connivent. Stamens 3-5. Styles 3, distinct or united below, 
sometimes almost none. Capsule 3-valved, many-seeded.— Depressed an- 
nuals. Leaves subulate, the minute setaceous stipules adnate to the mar- 
gins at the base. Flowers sessile in the axils of the branches and leaves. 

1. L. squarrosa (Nutt. ! mss.) : " glandular-pubescent, much branched ; 
leaves subulate-setaceous and (with the sepals) squarrose ; stamens 3-5 j 
stigmas sessile ; capsule triangular, at length exserted." 

" Sandy plains, St. Diego, California. — Flowers secund and somewhat 
fascicled. Seeds even : embryo almost straight." Nutt. 

1. SPERGULA. Bartl. ord. nat. p. 302. 

Spergula, Linn, (excluding the exstipulate species) with the stipulate species of 
Arenaria, Linn. — Spergularia, A. St. Hil. 

Sepals nearly distinct. Petals 5, entire, mostly somewhat perigynous. 
Stamens 5-10, inserted with the petals. Styles 3-5. Capsule 3-5-valved, 
many-seeded. Seeds compressed, orbicular or reniform, often surrounded 
with a membranaceous margin.— Leaves mostly fascicled in the axils. 
Flowers loosely cymose. 

§ 1. Styles 5. 

-/— 1. <S. arvensis (Linn.) : leaves verticillate and mostly fascicled, subulate- 
linear ;' stipules minute ; peduncles reflexed in fruit ; stamens 10 ; seeds 
thick, with a very narrow margm.— t. 130 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 320 ; 
Ell sk. 1. p. 523 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 92. Spergularia arvensis, A. St. 
Hil. fl. Bras. 2. p. 17S. ' • . . »i u u- u 

Canada! to Georgia, in waste places: mtroduced. Also on the high 
grounds of the Red and Assiniboin rivers, according to Hooker (who mentions, 
besides, a much larger and more branching variety, S. ramosissima, Dougl. 
mss., from Oregon). May-Aug.— Q About a foot high, ascending. Cyme 
few-flowered. Petals white, rather longer than the calyx.— Corn- Spurrey. 

Alsineje. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 175 

§ 2. Styles 3. — Spergularia, Pcrs. 

2. S. rubra : stems decumbent, much branched ; leaves narrowly linear, 
acute or mucronatc, somewhat fleshy ; stipules ovate, cleft ; sepals lanceo- 
late, with broadly scarious margins ; petals red or rose-color ; seeds com- 
pressed, with or without a membranaceous margin. — Sperjjularia rubra, .4. 
St. Hit. I. c. Arenariu rubra, Linn. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 401 ; Torr. I ft. 1. 
p. 456 ; Cham. ^ Scldecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 52 ; Hook. ! l. c. p. 98, A. "Can- 
adensis, Pers. syn. 1. p. 504. 

a. somewhat pubescent; leaves shorter or little longer than the internodes, 
slightly fleshy. — A. rubra, var. campestris, Linn.; DC. I. c. 

8. nearly glabrous ; leaves fleshy, usually much larger than the internodes. — 
A. rubra, var. marina, Linn.; DC. I. c. 

y. ? flowers rather larger ; seeds very commonly membranaceously mar- 
gined. — Arenaria rubra, var., Cham. ^- Schlecht. I. c. A. media, Linn. A. 
marginata, DC. ft. Fran. 4. /;. 793, ^ prodr. I. c. 

In sandy fields, not far distant from the sea coast (a.), and in salt marshes 
(/?) &c., Canada! to Florida!, and N. W. Coast! to California! April- 
Nov. — Q) Stems 3-10 inches long, difluse. Leaves variable in length, &c. 
Stamens 2-10, more commonly 3-5. Capsule a little longer than the ca- 
lyx. Seeds sub-semicordate, reniform or nearly orbicular. — Having ob- 
served, as was previously noticed by Chamisso, seeds with a very broad 
margin, and others wholly destitute of a border, taken from the same capsule 
(in an American specimen, locality not recorded), we cannot but consider 
A. media, Li7in. also as a variety of the present polymorphous and widely 
diffused species. 


Sepals 4-5, distinct or cohering in a tube, persistent. Petals 4-5 
(occasionally none), unguiculate and inserted upon the pedicel of the 
ovary, or without claws and inserted on the outside of a fleshy disk 
which is sometimes perigynous. Stamens twice as many as the pe- 
tals (rarely the same number and alternate with them, or fewer) and 
inserted with them : filaments subulate, sometimes cohering : anthers 
fixed by the middle, introrse. Ovary of 2-5 united carpels, often sti- 
pitate : styles 2-5, usually stigmatose the whole length on the inner 
surface. Capsule 2-5.valved, 1-celled by the obliteration of the dis- 
sepiments, or imperfectly (rarely completely) 2-5-celled, opening at the 
apex by twice as many teeth as stigmas, or by loculicidal dehiscence : 
placenta in the axis. Seeds campulitropous, numerous or rarely few. 
Emhryo curved around the outside of mealy albumen. — Herbs. Stems 
with tumid nodes. Leaves opposite, sometimes connate, exstipulate, 
entire. Inflorescence centrifugal, dichotomous. 

Tribe I. ALSINE^. DC. 

Sepals nearly or quite distinct. Petals not unguiculate, inserted on 
the outside of the hypogynous or more or less perigynous (sometimes 
lobed or glandular) disk. Stamens inserted upon the margin of the disk. 

176 CARYOPHYLLACE.E. Honckentj. 

1. MOLLUGO. Linn. ; DC. ; W. ^- Am. prodr. Ind. or. 1. p. 43. 

Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals usually none, rarely 5, minute. Sta- 
mens 5 or fewer, opposite the sepals, sometimes 10. Styles 3. Capsule 
3-valved, 3-ceUed, loculicidal, many-seeded. — Leaves actually opposite, and 
without stipules ; but by abortion apparently alternate, with 2 stipules (one 
leaf being abortive its petiole splits up, leaving a portion, like a stipule, at- 
tached on each side to the base of the petiole of the perfect leaf); containing 
in their axils several leaves surrounding the base of the young branch, and 
forming radical or lateral tufts opposite to the peduncles ; hence they are 
usually said to be verticillate. Am. I. c. 

•y 1. M. verticillata (Linn.): stem branched, depressed; leaves spatulate, 
the upper ones lanceolate ; pedicels 1-flowered, forming a simple sessile um- 
bel; seeds smooth. — Michx. ! fl. l.p.77; t.\30; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 391 ; Hook.fl. Bar.- Am. 1. p. 92. 

Barren places throughout N. America ! June-Sept. — (J) Sepals colored 
within. Petals none. Stamens mostly 3. Seeds smooth, with 3 dorsal 

2. MERKIA. Fisch. in DC; Cham. ^ Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 59. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, unguiculate, entire. Stamens 5. Styles 3. Capsule 
sessile, inflated, depressed-globose and umbilicated, grooved, imperfectly 
3-celled, 3-valved. Seeds numerous, minute, pyriform. — Weak, diffusely 
CBEspitose. Leaves ovate, a little ciliate. Peduncles solitary, 1-flowered. 

M. physodes (Fisch.) — Hook.jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 103. Arenaria physodes, 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 403. 

Bay of Eschscholtz. — Capsule about half an inch in diameter. Cham. ^ 

3. HONCKENYA. Ehrh. beitr. 2. p. 81. (not of Willd.) 

Adenarium, Baf. (1818.) 

Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals 5, perigynous, unguiculate, entire. 
Stamens 10, inserted, with the petals, into a glanduliferous disk. Styles 3-5. 
Capsule 3-5-valved, 1-ceIled, 8-10-seeded. Seeds large, smooth.— Fleshy 
maritime perennial herbs, with axillary subsolitary flowers. 

■^ 1. H. peploides (Ehrh.): sepals ovate, obtuse, with "scarious margins; 
petals spatulate-obovate ; leaves and stems very fleshy. — Arenaria peploides, 
Linn. J Willd. sp. 2. p. 717; Fl. Dan. t. 624; Pilrsh, Ji. l.p. 317; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 413; Hook.jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 102 (in part). Adenarium pep- 
loides, Eaf. in Desv.jour. phys. (1818) ; DC. I. c. 3. p. 366. 

Atlantic Coast! from lat. 40° to Labrador! and the Arctic Circle. — Stem 
extensively creeping, with numerous erect mostly simple branches, 8-12 
inches high. Leaves short, ovate, abruptly acute or mucronate, very fleshy. 
Styles 3 in the lower, mostly 5 in the upper flowers. Flowers by abortion 
sometimes dioecious or polygamous. 

2. H. ohlongifolia : sepals lanceolate-ovate, acute ; petals oblong-spatu- 
late ; leaves oblong, acutCj attenuate at the base, and, as well as the stems, 
not very fleshy. — Arenaria peploides, Cham. ^- Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 
57 ; Bongard,'veg. Sitcha. I. c. p. 128. A. peploides 0. major, Hook. .' l. c. 

Sagina. CARYOPHYLLACE^. 177 

Sitcha {Bongard) and both sides of Behring's Straits! {Clinmisso) to 
De Fuca (Scolder !) — This plant, at once distinguishable from the preced- 
ing- by its longer and narrower leaves, apparently less Heshy habit, and espe- 
cially by the forna of the sepals and petals, appears to take the place along 
the shores of the Northern Pacific, which H. peploides occupies along the 
Atlantic ocean. The plant of our own coast agrees well with the European, 
except that the stems are almost always simple. 

4. SAGINA. Bartl. ord. nat. p. 305. 

Sagina, Linn, and the exstipulate species of Spergula, Linn. tf-c. 

Sepals 4-5, united at the base. Petals 4-5, entire, or none. Stamens 
4-10. Styles 4-5. Capsule 4-5-valved, many-seeded. — FloAvers solitary, 
axillary or terminal. Leaves often fascicled in the axils. 

':^~ 1. S. procumhens (Linn.) : glabrous ; stems procumbent ; leaves linear, 
mucronaie ; peduncles acending in fruit ; petals about half the length of the 
sepals; stamens, petals, and sepals 4-5. — t. 129; E^ig. hot. t. 880; 
Ell. sk. 1. p. 221 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 92. 

Springy ground, Connecticut! to South Carolina. Oregon, Dr. Scouler! 
May-Aug.— (1) or (2) ( If DC. Hook.) Stems 2-6 inches long. Capsule 
twice the length of the calyx. Petals sometimes none. 

"~/^. S. decumbens : mostly glabrous; stems decumbent, ascending; leaves 
linear-subulate, very acute ; peduncles much longer than the leaves ; petals 
and sepals 5, of equal length; stamens 10. — S. procumbens, Withering. 
Spergula saginoides, Li)m. ; Mich.v. ! Jl. I. p. 276; DC. frodr. 1. p. 394; 
Hook. I. c. S. decumbens. Ell. sk. 1. p. 523. S. nodosa, Walt. Car. p. 241. 
Infields, &c. Canada! to Louisiana! Introduced? Also on the Pacific 
coast, Chamisso, Hooker. April-July. — (T) Stems branching, 1-3 inches 
long. Petals obtuse. Capsule a little longer than the calyx. 

3. S.fontinalis (ShoTt & Peter) : glabrous; stems procumbent, branched, 
dichotomous above ; leaves linear-spatulate, rather obtuse ; petals none ; 
stamens 4-6. — Short <^ Peter ! \st suppl. cat. Kentucky plants. 

Wet rocks, Kentucky ! April-May.— (2) Stems 8-15 inches long. Pe- 
duncles longer than the leaves. Sepals 4-5, ovate, rather obtuse. Capsulfe 
subglobose, much shorter than the sepals. 

4. (S. apetala (Linn.): pubescent; stem erect; leaves subulate; pedun- 
cles elongated and ascending in fruit ; sepals and stamens 4 ; petals 4, very- 
minute or none.— jEno-. bot. t. 881; DC. prodr. 1. p. 389; 7'orr. ! fl. 1. p. 

Dry sandy fields. New- Jersey ! Pennsylvania, & Maryland. Introduced ? 
May-June.— (I) Stems filiform, 2-3 inches high. Sepals lanceclate, acate, 
shorter than the capsule. 

5. S. erecta (Linn.): glabrous; stem about 1-flowered ; leaves linear, 
acute; peduncles strict; sepals, petals, and stamens 4. — Eng. bot. t. 609; 
DC. I. c. Moenchia glauca, Pers. syn. 1. p. 153. 

Baltimore ? Introduced. — (l) Stem 2 inches high. Sepals lanceolate- 
ovate, acute, as loag as the capsule. 

/•^ 6. S. nodosa : erect ; leaves subulate, glabrous, connate, the lower sheath- 
ing; upper ones proliferous in their axils; petals twice the length of the 
calyx; stamens 10. — Spergula nodosa, Linn, j Eng. bot. i. 964; Hook. Ji. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 93. 


178 CARYOPHYLLACEiE. Arenaria. 

Upper Canada to the Arctic Sea and N. W. Coast— 2| Stem 2-6 inches 
high. Petals and sepals 5. 
-r- 7. 8. suhulata : glabrous or slightly pubescent ; leaves subulate, some- 
' what secund, mucronate ; peduncles elongated ; petals 5, as long as the 
calyx ; stamens 5-10.— Spergula procumbens P. Linn. S. subulata, Swariz ; 
Eng. bot. t. 1082 ; Hook. I. c. 
Rocky Mountains, Drummond. 

5. ARENARIA. Linn.; Bartl. ord. nat. p. 305. 

Arenaria, excl. § Spergularia, DC. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10 (or by abortion fewer). Styles 
3 rarely 2 or 4. Capsule 3-valved; valves usually 2-parted. Seeds nume- 
rous, roundish, small.— Flowers terminal. 

§ 1. Flowers aggregated into heads or compact fascicles. 

-/'" 1. A. congesta (Nutt. ! mss.) : " ccespitose, glabrous ; leaves long, linear- 
subulate, pungent ; flowers in roundish heads, with crowded membranous 
bracts; sepals ovate, membranaceous, obscurely 3-nerved, about half the 
length of the oblong petals. 

" Shady hills in the Rocky Mountain range, about Bear River of the Lake 
of Timpanagos. — U Stem simple, a foot high. Lower leaves almost like 
those of a Pme, very narrow and more than 2 inches long [margin ciliate- 
scabrous]. Heads 1-3. Capsule coriaceous, about the length of the calyx. 
Seeds very small, angular. — A remarkable species, with somewhat the habit 
of Dianthus prolifer." Nutt. 

2. A. Franklinii (Douglas): branches erect, fastigiate, numerous, fragile ; 
leaves smooth (minutely ciliate-scabrous below), subulate-setaceous ; flowers 
fascicled ; sepals subulate, scarious, broadly 1-nerved, longer than the linear- 
oblong (obtuse) petals. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 101. t. 35. 

Oregon, from the great falls to the source of the Missouri, Douglas. — U 
Branching from the base, a span high. Leaves an inch long. Fascicles of 
flowers dense, crowded with bracts similar to the leaves. Hook. 

3. A. Hookeri (Nutt. ! mss.) : " caudex branched, csespitose ; stems (3 
inches high) simple, fastigiate, pubescent ; leaves subulate-setaceous ; flow- 
ers fascicled ; sepals lanceolate-subulate, 1-nerved, rather shorter than the ob- 
long obtuse sepals. 

" Rocky Mountain range, on the summits of high hills (lat. 40°). — Bracts 
and sepals membranaceous. — Nearly allied to A. Franklinii, but with shorter 
leaves, bracts, and sepals." Nutt. 

§ 2. Flowers in loose dichotomous cymes., or solitary. 
* Leaves gramineous. 

4. A. nardifoli a (hedeb.): csespitose; leaves fascicled, linear-setaceous, 
very narrow, mucronate, glabrous ; stems erect, glabrous, 1-3-flowered ; 
petals obovate, longer than the very obtuse ovate 5-nerved sepals. Hook. — 
" Ledeb. Jl. Altai"; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 98. t. 32. 

Shores of the Arctic Sea, Dr. Richardson. — 11 Leaves crowded below, 
with a curved mucronation. Capsule broadly ovate. Hook. — Our specimen 
of A. nardifolia from Altai, does not well agree with Hooker's figure and 
description, but has acutish sepals, and the cusps of the leaves straight. 

Arenaru. CARYOPHYLLACE^. 179 

♦ • Leaves linear or snlyulate. 

5. A. laricifolia (Linn.) : leaves subulate, dcnticulate-ciliate ; stems 
ascending, somewhat scabrous or pubescent above, 2-(3-tiowered ; sepals ob- 
long, obtuse, 3-nerved, half the length of the petals ; capsule longer than the 
calyx.— Pursh, fl. 1. p. 319 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 98; Cham. ^ ^chkcht. in 
lAnruea, 1. p. 54. 

N. W. Coast, Menzies, Chamisso. 

6. .4. juniper ino (Linn.) : leaves subulate and rigidly pungent, the lower 
ones somewhat fascicled, the uppermost distant; stems erect, firm; sepals 
ovate, acute, about 1-nerved ; petals obovate, nearly twice as long as the se- 
pals ; capsule roundish-ovate, 3-valved, scarcely exceeding the calyx. DC. — 
Pur.'ih, fl. 1. p. 318 ; Sinilk, ic. ined. t. 35; Hook. I. c. 

Labrador and Newfoundland, Pitrshl Between Lakes St. Clair and Hu- 
ron, Douglas.— K doubtful native of N. America. The plant of Pursh &. 
Douglas is perhaps a variety of A. stricta. 

7. A. pungens (Nutt. ! mss.) : " csespitose, minutely glandularly pubescent ; 
leaves subulate, canaliculate, pungent, the lower ones squarrosely imbricated 
and crowded ; flowers few, subpaniculate ; sepals lanceolate, obscurely 3- 
nerved, longer than the oblong-ovate petals. 

"Summits of hills in the Rocky Mountain range (lat. 41°).— If Stems 
about 4 inches high, forming considerable ca^spitose tufts. Leaves rigid, 3- 
nerved. Sepals unusually long and acute." A^iii/.— Nearly allied to A. verna. 

-f^ 8. A. squarrosa (Michx.) : densely ca;spitose ; stems minutely glandular- 
pubescent, few-flowered ; leaves short, subulate-canaliculate, the lower ones 
densely squarrose-imbricate, rather obtuse, upper ones few ; petals about 3 
times the length of the ovate, very obtuse, nerveless sepals. — Mick.r. ! fl. 1. 
p. 273; Torr. ! fl. 1. p. 454 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 403 ; EU. sk. 1. p. 520. A. 
Caroliniana, M'alt. Car. 1. p. 141.'? A. imbricata, Haf. iiiDesv.jour. hot. 
1. p. 229 '? A. Rafiuesquiana, DC. 

In dry sand, New-Jersey ! to Georgia ! April-Sept. — 14 Root perpendicu- 
lar, very long. Flowering branches 5-10 inches high, simple. Sepals herba- 
ceous. Capsule ovate, obtuse, 3-valved, longer than the calyx. Styles some- 
times 4. 

-/-^. A. stricta (Michx.) : dlff"u3ely caespitose, glabrous, branched from the 
base ; leaves subulate-setaceous, 1-nerved, much fascicled in the axils ; pe- 
tals oblong-obovate, twice the length of the rigid, ovate, very acute, 3-ribbed 
se-pah.—Mich:r. ! fl. 1. p. 274; Ell. sk. 1. p. 520; DC. prodr. 1. p. 503. 

a. Strict, few-flowered; leaves erect, crowded, longer than the internodes. 

0. diffusely spreading ; leaves spreading or recurved, often shorter than 
the internodes ; branches of the cyme spreading. — A. stricta, Bigel. ! fl. 
Bost. ed. 2. p. ISO. A. stricta /?., Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 99. t. 33. 

Rocks and barren ground, Canada ! to S. Carolina and Arkansas ! and 
north to the Arctic Sea (//"ook) May-July.— 2^ Stems 3-10 or 12 inches 
high. Capsule about as long as the calyx.— The van U. is by far the most 
common in the United States, and has very slender peduncles and pedicels; 
but the plant varies according to situation, &c. 

"f" 10. A. tenella (Nutt. ! mss.) : " erect, slender, somewhat branched from 
the base ; leaves fihform- subulate, acute ; peduncles minutely glandular-pubes- 
cent; petals oblong, nearly twice the length of the acute 3-nerved shortish 

" Rocky places, plains of the Oregon ! and Arkansas.— (l) Allied to A. 
tenuifolia,' but with the petals larger and the leaves longer." Nutt. — We have 
this pi mt also from Dr. Scouler under the name of A. stricta, to which spe- 
cies it is doubtfully referred by Hooker. The leaves are scarcely if at all fas- 

180 CARYOPHYLLACE^. Arenaria. 

cicled in the axils, the root is annual, and the sepals are less strongly nerved 
and less rigid than in A. stricia. 

il. A. Pitcher i (Nutt.! mss.): "erect and slender, glabrous, fastigiately 
branched, few-flowered ; leaves linear-filiform, obtuse, not fascicled ; pedun- 
cles slightly glandular-pubescent ; petals oblong, somewhat exceeding [near- 
ly twice the lengtli of] the lanceolate strongly 5- [sometimes 3-] nerved se- 
pals." Nuit. 

Plains of Arkansas, iViJi^aZZ / Dr. Pitcher! T, Drummond ! Dr. 
Leavenworth ! — (J) Stem 3-6 inches high, with filiform branches. Leaves 
■very narrow but flat. — Nearly allied to A. patula, and also to A. tenuifolia of 
Europe, as Mr. Nuttall very correctly remarks. 

- 12. A. patula (Michx.) : branched from the base, diffuse ; forks of the 
cyme divaricate ; leaves linear, very narrow, obtuse, spreading ; petals spa- 
tulate, emarginate, twice the length of the lanceolate very acute 3-5-nerv- 
ed sepals.— yV/tc/tx. .' ji. 1. p. 273 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 405. 

On rocks, Kentucky, Dr. Short! and mountains of Virginia, Prof. Ruff- 
ner ! — @ ((2)'?) Stems weak, almost filiform, 6-10 inches long, glabrous 
to the naked eye, but minutely glandular-pubescent under a lens. Cyme 4 or 
5 to 20-flowered, much spreading : pedicels almost setaceous. Leaves often 
slightly fascicled in the axils. 

-■'13. A. glabra (Michx.): csespitose, glabrous ; stems filiform, decumbent 
at the base, 8-12-flowered ; leaves linear-setaceous, spreading; branches of 
the cyme and very slender pedicels divaricate ; petals obovate-oblong, twice 
the length of the oval, obtuse, membranaceously-margined, nerveless sepals.— 
Michx. ! Ji. 1. p. 274 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 407, not of Ell. or of 

On rocks in N. Carolina, MtcZimf^c.' Schweinitzl Georgia, Le Conte ! 
"Table Rock, Alabama," herb. Schweinitz ! — 11 Plant growing in dense 
grass-like tufts : stems very slender, and commonly branched above, about 6 
inches high. Leaves nearly half an inch long, almost setaceous. Pedicels 
elongated, setaceous. Flowers smaller than in A. patula and A. GrcEnlan- 
dica. — This Uttle known species appears to be confined to the more or less 
mountainous portions of the Southern States ; the A. glabra of Elliott, grow- 
ing in the low country being evidently Stellaria uniflora, Walt. 

14. A. GrcRiilandica (Spreng.) : csespitose, glabrous ; stems low, decum- 
bent at the base, 1-5-flowered ; leaves very narrowly linear, obtuse;' pedicels 
filiform, nearly erect ; petals obovate-cuneiform, entire or with a slight notch, 
twice the length of the rather oblong, very obtuse, membranaceously mar- 
gined, nerveless sepals. — Spreng. syst. 2. p. 402. Stellaria Groenlandica, 
" Retz. fi. Scan.'' ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 39S ; Fl. Dan. t. . . Arenaria glabra, 
Torr. ! fl. 1. p. 4:55 (excl. syn.) ; Bigel. ! fi. Bost. ed. 2. p. 180. 

Greenland, Vahl, in herb. Schw. ! Labrador, herb. Schweinitz! Cre- 
vices of rocks, with alpine plants, on the summits of the M'hite Hills, New- 
Hampshire, Boott ! Oakes ! Pickering ! of the Adirondack ! and Sha- 
wangunk! Mountains, New-York. July-Aug. — It Stems very numerous, 
about 3 (rarely 5) inches high. Leaves almost subulate, but obtuse, 3-5 
lines long, erect or spreading. Flowers large for the size of the plant, larger 
than those of A. glabra. Lobes of the disk from which the stamens arise 
slightly thickened and glandular. — The identity of our plant with Stellaria 
Groenkndica, first suggested by Dr. Pickering, is confirmed by a specimen 
from Greenland in herb. Schweinitz, -so named by Vahl. 

15. A. brevifolia (Nutt. ! mss.) : glabrous, not csespitose ; stems filiform, 
erect, simple, 2-5-flowered; leaves minute, erect (many times shorter than 
the internodes), lanceolate-subulate, nerveless ; sepals oblong, obiuse, with 
scarious margins, about the length of the 3-valved capsule ; petals obovate- 

Arenaria. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 181 

oblon?, nearly twice the length of the calyx.— iV/t«. / viss. in herb. acad. 

On rooks, Georgia, NuttaU /— (T) Plant 2-4 inches high, very slender, 
with 3 or 4 pairs of caulino leaves from 1-2 lines long. Flowers small, white, 
on filiform peduncles. 

16. A. verna (Linn.): erect, ca;spitose, pubescent or glabrous ; leaves lin- 
ear-subulate, nerved, erect ; cyme erect, few or many-tlowered ; sepals ovate, 
acute, 3-ncrved, mostly a little longer than the petals. Hook.—Eng. hot. I. 
512; DC. prodr. 1. p. 405; Hook.Jl. lior.-Am. 1. p. 99. 

Oregon and Subarctic America, Hooker ; James' Peak, Rocky Moun- 
tains^ lat. 41 \ Dr. James ! 

17. J. proptn^Ha (Richardson): cfEspitose, hair> (hairs mostly glandu- 
lar) ; leaves linear-subulate, acute, 3-nervcd; sepals acute, 3-nerved, about 
the length of the petals but shorter than the capsule. Richards, in app. 
Frankl.journ. p. 17; Hook. I.e. 

Arctic America, and summits of the Rocky Mountains. — Habit of A. ver- 
na ; but the flowers are smaller : perhaps not distinct. Hook. 

IS. .4. hirta (Wormskiold) : leaves linear-subulate, obtuse, 2-sulcate, mi- 
nutely hirsute; stems 2-3-tlowered ; sepals 3-nerved, acute, shorter than the 
capsule ; petals oblong, a little shorter than the calyx. DC— Wor7nsk. in Jl. 
Dan. t. 1646; DC. prodr. 1. p. 405; Cham. ^ Schlecht. in Linncea, 1. p. 
56 ; Hook. I. c. 

Kotzebue's Sound, Beechey ! Greenland.— 1^ Glabrous or pubescent, 3 
inches high. 

19. A. rubella (Hook.): stems ca;spitose, numerous ; peduncles terminal, 
pubescent, 1-fiowered ; leaves linear-subulate, obtuse, 3-neived ; petals ob- 
long-lanceolate, a little shorter than the lanceolate 3-nerved (mostly) very 
acute sepals ; capsule 4-valved, shoiter than the sepals. Hook. ! in Parry''s 
2nd voy. app. p. 391, ^- in fl. Loud. t. 200, f f. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 100. A. 
quadrivalvis. A'. Br. in Parry's Isl voy. app. p. 271. Alsine rubella, U'ahl. 
jl. Lapp. t. 6, fide Hook. 

Greenland and Arctic America !— If Pbnt 1-2 inches high. Leaves ob- 
tuse or rather acute. Stigmas 3-5. 
-^-20. A. Rossii (R.Brown): glabrous; leaves subulate-triquetrous, rather 
obtuse, nerveless, scarcely equalling the flower ; peduncles 1-fiowered ; petals 
oblong, a little exceeding the obscurely 3-nerved sepals.—/?. Br. in Parry's 
\st voy. app. p. 272. 

0. taller ; leaves exceeding the calyx, mostly shorter than the internodes, 
with manifest lateral nerves ; petals as long as the sepals. R. Br. I. c; Hook, 
f. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 100. 

Arctic America ! and Rocky Mountains from lat. 54°-57^— Flowers some- 
times apetalous. Hook. 
--f 21. A. arctica (Steven) : caespitose ; leaves linear-subulate, obtuse, fleshy, 
margin minutely ciliate ; peduncles glandular-pubescent, 1- (rarely 2-3-) 
flowered ; petah about twice the length of the very obtuse 3-nerved sepals. 

a. leaves 3-3triate ; sepals oblong ; petals obovate. — A. arctica, Stev. in 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 404 ; Hook. I.e. (a. & p.) t. 34. 

/?. leaves nerveless; sepals ovate; petals oblong-spatulate. — A. pumilio, 
R. Br.; Hook, in Parry's 2nd voy. app. p. 391, ^ fl. Bor.-Am. I. c. 

y. leaves obscurely 3-nervcd, carinate, serrulate-ciliate ; sepals oblong, 
glandular-pubescent; petals oblong, half as long t'gain as the sepals. — A. ob- 
tusa, Ton: I in ann. lye. New- York. 2. p. 170. A. arctica y- stenopetala, 
Hook. I. c. ? 

Arctic America, y. Rocky Mountains, on James' Peak, lat. 41'=, Dr. James ! 
— "4 Habit of Silene acaulis. L.eaves mostly curved to one side. Capsule 

182 CARYOPHYLLACEiE. Arenaru. 

22. A. macrocarpa (Pursh): caespitose ; leaves crowded, linear-subulate, 
plane, the margin ciliate ; peduncle terminal, 1-flowered, leafy ; petals ovate, 
twice the length of the calyx ; capsule oblong, thrice the length of the calyx. 
Pursh, fl. 1. p. 318 ; Cham. ^ Schlecht. I. c. j Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 101. 

N. W. Coast, Pursh. — Hardly distinct from A. arctica. Hook. 

*** Leaves lanceolate, ovate, or roundish. 

-/- 23. '^. serpyllifolia (Linn.): diflfuse, retrorsely pubescent; leaves 
(small) ovate, acute, minutely ciliate ; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, hairy, 
3-5-nerved, nearly twice the length of the petals, equal to the ovate, 6-tooth- 
ed capsule.— Mtt7i:r. .' fl. 1. p. 274; Gartn. fr. t. 130 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 
411; p. 518. 

Sandy fields, Massachusetts ! to Georgia ! Introduced. Aprd-July.— (l) 
Much branched from the base, 3-10 mches high. Flowers axillary and ter- 

24. A. ciliata (Linn.): leaves ovate or obovate, bullate-mgose, more or 
less nerved and ciliate ; stems procumbent ; sepals lanceolate, acute, nerved, 
shorter than the petals, as long as the ovate 6-valved capsule. Eng. bot. t. 
174:5 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 411. 

Greenland, Sabine. 

Jf 25. A. Piirshiana (Seringe) : stem dichotomous, diffuse ; leaves oval, 
rather acute ; peduncles alternate, axillary, solitary, elongated ; sepals acute ; 
petals as long as the calyx. Pursh.— DC. prodr. 1. p. 414. A. thymifoUa, 
Pursh, fl. 1. p. 317. 

Sea-shore, Labrador, herb. Banks ex P?/r5^.— Perhaps Stellaria humifusa. 
A specimen from Labrador in herb. Schweinitz, marked A. thymifolia 
appears to be that plant. 

., 26. A. lateriflora (Linn.): minutely pubescent; stem erect, slender, sim- 
ple or branched; leaves oblong or oval, obtuse ; peduncles lateral and termi- 
nal 2-flowered, one of the pedicels bibracteolate near the middle; petals 
twi'ce the length of the sepals.— Pursh, fl. 1. p. 317 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 412; 
Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 102. t. 36. Stellaria biflora, Pursh! fl. 1. p. 317. 
In damp rather shady places, from lat. 40° to the Arctic Sea! June.— 7^ 
Stem 4-8 inches high. Leaves pale green, punctate, hairy on the margin 
and midrib. Peduncle mostly solitary. Petals and sepals oblong, obtuse. 
Filaments pubescent. 

27. A. macrophylla (Hook.): stem slender, erect, dichotomously branch- 
ed ; leaves spreading, lanceolate, acute at each end, glabrous ; peduncle ter- 
minal [or lateral], 2-3-tlowered ; sepals ovate, sharply acuminate, longer than 
the petals and capsule. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 102. t. 37. 

Shady woods, Oregon {Douglas, Nuttall!) and N. W. Coast.— Habit of 
the preceding. Very near A. umbrosa, Ledeb. 

1 Doubtful species. 

28. A. fasciculata (Pursh, not of Gouan) : nearly glabrous, cffispitose ; 
stems strictly erect ; leaves subulate, pungent, striate ; flowers densely fasci- 
cled ; sepals subulate, striate ; petals very short. Pursh, fl. 1. p. 319. 

Canada (in herb. Lambert), Pursh. 

29.- A. buxif oli a {Poir.) : pubescent; leaves ovate-oblong, sessile; stems 
creeping ; peduncles dichotomous, about 2-flowered ; sepals linear, short, ob- 
tuse, with membranaceous margins, a little shorter than the petals, as long 
as the ovate, obtuse (5-valved ?) capsule. DC.—Poir. diet. 6. p. 262 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 411. 
• Canada, Poiret. 

Stellahia. CARYOPHYLLACE.E. 183 

6. STELLARIA. Linii.; Torr.Jl. 1. p. 453. 

Sepals 5, somewhat united at the base. Petals 5 (rarely by abortion fewer 
or none), 2-cleft or lobed, often perigynous. Stamens 10 (or by abortion 
3-8). Styles 3, sometimes 4. Capsule 1-celled, 3- (sometimes 4-) valved ; 
valves usually 2-parted, membranaceous. Seeds numerous. — Herbs, mostly 
inhabiting moist or shady places. Flowers terminal in dichotomous cymes, 
or solitary. 

The apparently lateral peduncles of several species are at first terminal, but be- 
come pstudo-axillary by the evolution of a branch in the axils of the upper leaves, 
which continues the stem. So also in Arenaria lateriflora, &c. 

§ 1. Styles always 3; petals hypogynous^ mostly longer than the calyx. 

1. S. media (Smith): stems procumbent, with an alternate pubescent 
line; leaves ovate, glabrous ; petals oblong, deeply divided, shorter than the 
sepals; stamens 2-\0.—Eng. hot. t. 537 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 398 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.- Am. 1. p. 94:. Alsine media, Linn. Holosteum succulentum, Linn.; 

Waste places throughout the United States 1 California and N. W. Ame- 
rica. Introduced. March-Dec. — (T) Petioles short, ciliate. Calyx hairy. 
Pedicels deflexed in fruit. — Chickweed. 

■ / S. prostrata (Baldw.) : stem procumbent, fistulous, somewhat pubescent ; 
leaves ovate, acuminate ; the lower ones on slender petioles, subcordate ; pe- 
dicles elongated; petals twice the length of the sepals, deeply divided, Avith 
linear segments; stamens 7-8. — Baldxo. .' in Ell. sk. 1. p. 518. 

In wet places E. Florida, Baldwin .' Georgia, Le Conte ! March-May. 
— (l) Stem 1-4 feet long. Petioles ciliate, longer than the leaves. Sepals 
ovate, nearly glabrous. Flowers small. 

3. S. puhera (Michx.) : stems decumbent, spreading, with two opposite 
pubescent lines; leaves oval-oblong, sessile, minutely ciliate; pedicels short; 
petals deeply bifid, longer than the sepals. — Michx. ! fl. 1. p. 273 ; Ell. sk. 
1. j3. 517 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 274. 

On shady rocks, Pennsylvania ! [lat. 40°] to Georgia ! west to Kentucky ! 
April-June. — 1(. Stems 6-12 inches long, below often with a single alter- 
nate hairy line. Leaves 1-2^ inches long. Flowers i an inch in diameter. 
Stamens 10. Capsule ovoid-globose. 

4. S. Jamesii (Ton.): viscidly pubescent; leaves lanceolate, elongated, 
slightly falcate, closely sessile ; cyme divaricate ; petals 2-lobed, about twice 
the length of the oblong acute sepals. — Torr. in ami. lye. New- York, 2. p. 

Rocky Mountains, about lat. 40^, Dr. James ! — Stem weak. Leaves 
about 4 inches long and 4 lines broad, acute. Capsule as long as the calyx, 
deeply valved. Seeds few, rugose. 

.--'5. S. Nuttallii: unnutely glandular, branched from the base, erect or as- 
cending; leaves linear, obtuse, rather fleshy ; cyme few-flowered ; p etals ob- 
cordate, twice the length of the ovate obtuse nearly nerveless sepai.s 

Prairies of Arkansas, Nutiall ! Dr. Pitcher ! Western Louisiana, Z^. 
Leavenicorth! Texas, Drummond! Dr. Leavenworth ! March-April. — 
(X) Plant 4-6 inches high. Leaves nearly glabrous, inuch shorter than the 
internodes, i-i an inch in length, 1-2 lines wide, a little narrowed at the 
base. Flowers when expanded more than i an inch in diameter : petals 
with a broad, rather deep emargination : sepals withscarious margins. Cap- 
sule a little longer than the calyx, deeply 3-valved : valves entire. Seeds 

184 CARYOPHYLLACEyE. Stellari-a. 

minute, dark broTvn, tuberculate. — Habit of Cerastium nutans. The sinus of 
the petals is so shallow that the plant might be ranked with Arenaria almost 
as well as with Stellaria. 

6. S. macropetala: glabrous, branching from the base; stems erect, slen- 
der ; leaves linear and very narrow, somewhat fleshy, acute ; cyme few- 
flowered ; petals obovate-spatulate, 2-lobed, more than tw^ice the length of 
the ovate-lanceolate 3-ribbed sepals. 

Arkansas, Nuttall ! Dr. Pitcher ! Dr. Leavenworth ! April. — (5) Stem 
5-10 inches high. Leaves an inch or more long ; the lower ones rather ob- 
tuse, as long as the internodes. Flowers smaller than in S. Nuttallii, but 
with the petals longer in proportion, much more attenuate below, and with 
a deeper and no.rrower sinus. Sepals acute, rather rigid, not scarious. 

7. S. unijiord (Walt.) : glabrous, branching from the base ; stems erect, 
very slender ; leaves subulate-linear, acute ; peduncles axillary, filiform, 1- 
flowered ; petals obcordate with a shallow sinus, twice the length of the ob- 
long acutish nearly nerveless sepals. — Walt. Car. p. 141. Arenaria glabi a, 
Eli. sk. 1. p. 520, not of Michx. 

Swamps, N. Carolina ( Croom .') to Georgia. May. — Stem 10 inches or 
more high. Leaves an inch long, hardly a line wide, mucronate. Peduncles 
solitary, not bracteolate, 2-3 inches in length. Sepals rather membrana- 
ceous, with scarious margins. Capsule ovoid, as long as the calyx. — Resem- 
bles S. macropetala much more closely than Arenaria glabra, with which it 
has been generally confounded. Habit wholly that of a Stellaria. 

8. S. cerastoides (Linn.) : stems csGspitose and decumbent, somewhat 

dichotomous ; leaves oblong, pubescent ; peduncles in pairs, 1-nowered, de- 
flexed in fruit ; petals exceeding the obtuse sepals ; capsule oblong, almost 
twice the length of the calyx. DC. prodr. 1. p. 398; Hook, plants oj Scy 
bine's voy. in trails. Linn. sac. 14. p. 8. 
Greenland, Sabine. 

9. S. humifusa (Rottb.) : glabrous ; stems procumbent, branched ; leaves 
ovate, sessile, fleshy ; peduncles solitary, terminal, short, 1-flowered ; petals 
2-parted, rather longer than the acutish nerveless sepals. Hook. — " Rottb. 
in act. Hafn, 10. i. 4" ; Hook.! in Parrifs 2nd voy. app. p. 391, ^ Ji. 
Bor.-Am. 1. j). 97 ; Bong. veg. Sitcha, I. c. p. 127. S. crassifoUa, Cham. 
^ Schlecht. I. c. Me Hook. Arenaria thymifolia, Pursh ? 

Greenland, Arctic Sea! Sitcha. — Stems 2-3 inches high. Peduncles 
filiform. Sepals obscurely 3-nerved. Bongard. 

10. S. gracilis (Richardson) : glabrous ; stem weak ; sterile branches 
gemmiferous ; leaves lanceolate, someAvhat succulent ; peduncle solitary, 
axillary or terminal, elongated, 1-floAvered ; petals 2-parted, longer than the 
glabrous acute nerveless sepals. Hook. — Richards, app. Frankl. journ. 
p. 17; Hook. fl. I. c. 

Hudson's Bay, dec, Richardson. — Capsule 6-valved. 

§ 2. Styles 3 or 4 : petals more or less peri gy nous, often minute or wanting. 
(Spergulastrura, Michx. — Mieropetalon, Pers. — Larbroea, St. Hil.) 

11. S. longipes (Goldie): shining or glaucescent; stems decumbent at 
the base, or procumbent with erect or ascending branches ; leaves mostly 
rigid, linear or lanceolate (broadest at the base), acute ; peduncles (cymose 
or nearly simple) Avith rather large ovate scarious bracts ; petals a Uttle 
longer than the ovate, obtuse or acutish, obscurely 3-nerved, scariously-mar- 
gined sepals. 

a. slender; leaves more or less flaccid, rather spreading; branches 6-10- 
flowered; peduncles and pedicels filiform; the terminal (middle) ones elon- 

Stellaria. CARYOPIIYLLACE.E. 185 

gated ; sepah obtuse. — S. longipes, GohIip,in Edinh. phil. journ. 6. p. 185 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 400; Honk. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 95. 

fi. slender, rather rit^id ; leaves more erect, and pungent, sometimes 
al no3t subulaie; sepah acute.— S. sU'wMi, liichcnds. a}.p. Frar.kl. joinn. 
ed. 2. p. 15; Hook. I. c.— \. stems sparsely pubescent. Hook. 2. stems gla- 
brous. Hook. I— S. palustris, Richards. /. c. erf. 1. 3. leaves somewhat 
glaucous. Hook. 

y. 3-4 inches high ; stems 1-2-flowercd ; sepals acute ; otherwise like 

o. &/3. 

i. glaucous ; branches erect from creeping stems, 3-6 inches high, 1-3- 
floAvered ; leaves erect, lanceolate, rigid, carinate ; sepals rather obtuse. — 
S. la:la, Richards. ! app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 16 ; Hook. ! app. Parry's 
V01J., & in ff. Bor.-.\m. 1. p. C6. 

£. glabrous or somewhat pubescent; branches 1-2 inches high, 1-3-now- 
eredl leaves ovate-lanceolate (the lowest sometimes ovate, obtuse), seme- 
times sparselv ciliate at the ba-^e ; sepals acutish.— S. Edwardsii, R. Br.! in 
app. Parry's \sl roy. p. 271 ; Richaids. I c; Torr. in ami. hjc. New- 
york,2.p.'\'0: Hook..' fi. Bor.-Am. 1. jo. 96. /. 31 ; CAow. ^ 
Linnna, I. p. 48. S. nitida, //oo/i. in app. Scoresb. Greenl. ;p. 411. S. 
ovalifolia. Hook. fl. I. c? 

a. & /?. Wood? and shores, Canaela ! to Subarctic America! west to Ore- 
gon (A»«a// .') Shore of L. Ontario and Michiiran! r. Rocky Mountains, 
lat. 40 \ Dr. James ! <5. Arctic ! and !-ubarctic America, and Rocky Moun- 
tains, t. Shores of the Arctic Sea! Brhring's Straits, and Reeky Moun- 
tains, lat. 40^ {Dr. James!)— We have little hesitation in carrying cut the 
intimition? of Sir VVm. Hook-r, and con-.idering th-se plants as modifica- 
tions of on? species. Vars. a. & 0. may be distinguished from S. longifolia 
by the shorter and less spreading leaves, always broadest at the base, and by 
the somewhat larger flowers and obscurely nerved sepals. 

~fl2. S. nilens (.\utt.! mss.): " subcaespitose, smooth and shining ; stems 
erect, sparsely hairy below, filiform, naked above; leaves lanceolate-subulate, 
short, acute; petah 2-lob?d and (as well as the capsule) much shorter than 
the lanceolate very acute 3-nerved sepals. 

'• Plains of the Oregon, in moist or shady places.— Plant 3-5 inches 
high, spreading. Leaves rigid, i of an inch Icng. Sepals shining, with 
scarious margins. Cyme few-flowered. Flowers expanding only in the 
sunshine. Habit of an Arenaria." Ntitt. 

-/"Is. S. longifolia (Muhl.) : stem branching, weak, glabrous ; leaves linear, 
mostly atti^nuate at the base, acutish ; cyme divaricate, n&ked, with lanceo- 
late scarious bracts; petah cleft nearly to the base, at first shorter, at 
length longer than the acute 3-nerved sepals. — Torr.! fi. 1. p. 452 (excl. 
syn° of S. longipes); DC. prodr. 1. ;;. 4C0 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 94 ; 
Bon^r. ve^. Sitcha, l. c. p. 126. S. graminea. Biget. fl. Bost. ed. 1. p. 110; 
Cham. ^ Schle^fit. in Linncea, 1. p. 49, fide Bongard ^ Hook. Spergulas- 
truTi gramineuin. Mich.r.! fl. 1. p. 2T6. Micropetalon graminenm, Pers. 

Shady damp places, Virginia ! to Subarctic America ! Oregon ! to Sitcha ! 
June. — 'li Stem flaccid. 4-18 inches high ; the angles usually retrorsely sca- 
bx-ous. Leaves elongated, spreading to a right angle with the stem. Pedi- 
cel", filiform. Stamens 8-10. Capsule subglobose, about the length of the 

-f^li. S. borealis (Bigelow) : glabrous, flaccid; leaves brondly lanceolate, 
acute, veinless; petals (sometimes none) 2-parted, nearly the length of the 
lanc?olat? acute nerveless sepals ; capsules ovate-oblong, nearly twice the 
length of the calyx; styles 4.— S. borealis, Bigel.! f. Bost. ed. 2. p. 182; 
Hook.Ijl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 94. S. lanceolata, Torr. ! f. 1. p. 45, not of 


186 CARYOPHYLLACEyE. Stellaria. 

Poir. Spergulastrum lanceolatum, Michx. ! Jl. 1. p. 275. Micropetalon 
lanceolatum, Pers. 

a. leafy to the summit ; peduncles in the forks of the branches (i. e. termi- 
nal) solitary, 1-flowered. 

/?. upper leaves reduced to bracts (not scarious) ; cyme spreading. 

In wet shady swamps, New-York ! from about lat. 42^ to Arctic America J 
June-July. — ® {U '?) Stem 4-15 inches high, weak. Leaves an inch or 
more long, 1-nerved, but with no lateral veins. Flower at first terminal, on 
a filiform pedicel, becoming axillary by the evolution of a branch from the 
axil of each of the upper leaves ; branches dichotomous in like manner : 
flowers more commonly apetalous. Later in the season the lateral branches- 
are also often floriferous, producing the ordinary dichotomous cymes ; and 
then the flowers bear manifest petals. Stamens and petals distinctly perigy- 
nous. Seeds smooth. — Certainly very distinct from S. longifolia, and much, 
more closely allied to the succeeding species. 

15. S. aquatica (PoUich) : weak and decumbent, nearly glabrous ; leaves 
oblong, acute, veined; petals 2-cleft, rather shorter than the lanceolate very 
acute 3-nerved sepals ; capsule ovoid, about as long as the calyx ; styles 3. — 
" Poll. pal. 1. p. 429;" DC. prodr. 1. p. 398 ; Cham., f Schlecht. I. c. p. 50 1 
S. uliginosa, Eng. hot. t. 1074 ; Muhl. ! cat. p. 47. S. borealis, Darlingt. ! 

jl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 274. Larbraia aquatica, St. Hil. mem. mus.; DC. prodr. 
3. p. 366. L. uliginosa, Hook. I. c. p. 93. 

Sv/ampy springs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Dr. Darlington ! Near 
Philadelphia, Dr. Pickering! Rocky Mountains, Hooker. Unalaschka, 
Chamisso. May.— If Stem 6-12 inches long, very slender. Leaves 
about i an inch long; veins very manifest under a glass. Flowers smaller 
than in S. borealis. Seeds minutely tuberculate. — The inflorescence con- 
sists of the ordinary central 1-floAvered ebracteolate peduncle, and two lateral 
few-flowered peduncles evolved somewhat later ; and the stem is continued 
by a fourth or adventitious branch, which throwing the inflorescence on one 
side, appears like the main stem. — The character and description here given 
are drawn from specimens collected by Dr. Darlington, which, as that excel- 
lent botanist remarks, agree minutely with the European species to which 
they are here referred. The shorter leaves and capsules, the tuberculate 
seeds, and especiaOy the inflorescence, clearly distinguish the plant from S. 

16. ,S. crispa (Cham. & Schlecht.) : glabrous; stems diffuse, decumbent ; 
leaves veiny, ovate, abruptly acute or acuminate r.t each end, the margin un- 
dulate ; flowers axillary, solitary on short peduncles hardly longer than the 
leaves ; petals mostly wanting, oi 2-parted and very much shorter than the 
lanceolate 3-nerved sepals.— CAa???. ^ Schlecht. in Linncea, I. p. 51 ; Bong, 
veg. Sitcha, I. c. p. 127. 

tJnalaschka, Chamisso; Sitcha, Bongard ; Oregon, jiear Fort Van- 
couver, in deep pine-woods, Nnttall .'— U Stems nearly simple. Leaves 
much shorter than the internodes, i an inch or less in length, often obtuse or 
subcordate at the base, with a central and an intramarginal nerve, the inter- 
vening space beautifully reticulated. Capsule about the length of the calyx. 
Seeds smooth. 

17. S. calycanlha (Bongard): csespitose ; stems decumbent, flaccid: 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, connate, the margin minutely ciliate with white 
hairs, much shorter than the internodes ; cyme dichotomous; peduncles fili- 
form; petals none; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 3-nerved, a little shorter than the 
obtuse subglobose capsule. Bong. veg. Sitcha, I. c. p. 127. — Arenaria 
calycantha, Ledeb. 

Sitcha, Bongard. — Leaves about 5 lines in length. Styles mostly 4. 

18. S. brachypetala (Bongard) : stem simple, erect; leaves linear-lanceo- 

Cerasticm. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 187 

late, rather thick ; petals and capsule half the length of the sepals. Bong. 
ves: Sitcha. I. c. p. 126. 

Sitcha.— Glabrous, a foot or more high. Cyme dichotomous. Petals 
2-parted. Allied to S. crassifolia. Bongard. 

./— 19. -S. lanuginosa: minutely woolly-pubescent; stem decumbent, elon- 
• gated, much branched ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, mucronulate, attenuate at 
the base; peduncles solitary, axillary, 1-flowered; petals mostly wanting ; 
sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, as lonsj as the obtuse capsule. — Spergulastrum 
lanuginosum, Michx.fl. I. p. 275. Micropelalon lanuginosum, Pers. Stel- 
laria elongata, Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 2S9 ; DC. prodr. 1 . p. 99. Arenaria diffusa, 
Ell. sk. I. p. 519. 

Shady moist places, N. Carolina! to Florida (Apalachicola, Dr. Chap- 
man!) and Louisiana west of the Mississippi, Dr. Hale. '—(T) Leaves some- 
what fascicled in the axils, attenuate at the base, as if pctioled, punctate 
under a lens. Petals (rarely 3, entire. Mr. Curtis, in litl.) (oval, scarcely 
^ the length of the calyx, Elliott) none according to Michaux ^ Nutlall. 

7. CERASTIUM. Linn.; t. 130; DC. prodr. 1. p. 414. 

Sepals 5, somewhat united at the base. Petals 5, bifid. Stamens 10, or 
rarely fewer. Styles 5. Capsule 1-celled, cylindrical or roundish, membra- 
naceous, opening at the apex by 10 (rarely 5) teeth. Seeds numerous. — 
Chickweed. • 

§ 1. Capsules cylindrical, icith circinale teeth. — Strephooon, Seringe 

1. C. stellarioides (Mogino) : stem erect, branched, about 3-Powered ; 
leaves oblonsr, acuminate; pedicels 1-flowered, terminal; sepals lanceolate ; 
petals semibifid, twice the length of the calyx. DC. prodr. 1. p. 415. 

Nootka Sound, Mogino in DC. 

§ 2. Capsules cylindrical or ovate ; teeth straight %cith the margin revo- 
lute. — Orthodon, Seringe. 

* Petals not longer than the calyx. 

— — "2. C. vidgatum, (h'lnn.): hirsute, pale green; stems ascending or spread- 
ing; leaves ovate or obovate, very obtuse, attenuate at the base; flowers 
somewhat capitate, when young longer than the pedicels ; capsule attenuate, 
twice the length of the calyx. — Eng. bot. t. 789; DC. prodr. 1. p.ilo; 
Darlins-t. ! fl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 277. C. semidecandrum, Walt. Car. p. 241. 
(fide e'iI.) ; Pursh ! fi. 1. p. 320. C. hirsutum, Muhl. cat. p. 46 ; Ell. ! 
sk. \. p. 524. C, connatuui. Beck, fl. p. 55. 

In cultivated grounds and waste places, Canada to Georgia ! Louisiana ! 
and Arkansas!" Introduced? April-Sept.— (l) Stem 6-12 inches high, 
slightly viscid when young. — Often confounded with the succeeding species 
by'Anierican authors. C. hirsutum, Muhl. d^c. is, as Dr. Darlington remarks, 
hardly distinguishable from the European forms of C. vulgalum. It is ex- 
actly the var. glomeratum, DC. except that it is more hairy. 

"?*-" 3. C. viscosum (hinn.): hirsute and rather viscid; leaves lanceolate-ob- 
long, obtusish ; cyme rather loosely flowered, with the pedicles longer than 
the calyx ; capsule nearly twice as long as the calyx. — Eng. bot. t. 790 ; 
DC. I. c; Darlingt. I. c. p. 278. C. vulgatum, Muhl. cat. (tide Darlingt.) 
and others! C. fulvum, Raf. in Desv. jour, bot.? 

(i. stamens .5. — C. semidecandrum, Linn. 
. y. peduncles greatly elongated.— C. viscosum, var. elongatuni, Hook ■"'"• 

bot. -n. i:r. 

188 CARYOPHYLLACE^. Cerastium. 

In fields, &c., Canada! to Louisiana, j^. Louisiana, Drwrnmcml. Intro- 
duced? May-Sept. — U Stems spreading. Plant deeper green and less 
hirsute than the preceding. 

* * Petals longer lha?i Ike calyx. 

4. C. alpinum (Linn.): silky-hirsute; stems decumbent, few-flowered; 
leaves elliptical-ovate ; peduncles more or less elongated; petals bifid at ihe 
point, twice the length of the rather obtuse scariouslv -margined and haiiy 
sepah ; capsule nearly twice as long as the calyx. — Evtr. bol. f. 472 ; /?. Br. 
in Ross''s toy. ; Hook..' a pp. Parnfs 2nd voy. p. 3tO, if- /7. Ear. -Am.. 1. p. 

/?. glahratwn (Hook.): leaves and sepah nearly glabrous, Hrok.! I. c. 

y. Fischeriarmm : hirsute wiih a more lipid j ubcsccnce.— C. Fischcri- 
anura, Ser. in DC. I. c. ; Cham. (^ Schlpcht. in lAvvoia. \. p. fiO. 

Arctic America! from Greenland to Sitcha. y. Kotztbue's Sound, Fis- 
cher! Beechey ! & Unalaschka. — If Plant 2-5 inches high. FlcAvcrs large. 

5. C. Beeringianurn (Cham. & Schlecht.) : hirsute, viscous above; stems 
decumbent and leafy at the base; the flowering ones erect, eJcrcated. rrd 
few-leaved; leaves oblong, rather acutish ; flowers at length nodding; sepals 
elliptical, acute ; petals and cansule half as long again as the calyx. Cham. 
^ Schhcht. I. c. p. 62. 

Bay of Eschscholtz, Chamisso ; Kotzebue's Sound, Fischer! — If Plant 
8 inches high, 6-7-flowered. 

V 6. C. arvense {\j'\na..): stems declined at the base, retrorsely pubescent, 
few-flowered on an elongated j)eduncle ; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 
rather acute; petals obcordate, twice the length of the rather cbtu^e sepals; 
capsul? oblong, scarcely exceeding the calvx. — Eng. tot. t. £3; DC. picdr. 
1. p. 419 ; Hook. ! f. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 104. C. Pennsylvanicvm, Kcivcmcr.v ; 
DC. I. c. C. tenuifoUum, Pursh ! fl. 1. p. 321 ; Torr. ! fl. 1. p. 460; Dar- 
linsrt.! I. c. C. elongatum, Fursh! I. c. ; JVutt. ! in jour. acad. Phi/ad. 7. 
p. 16. 

Rocky places, Canada! to Georgia! and west to the Rocky Mountains! 
and Oregon! May-July. — If Somewhat caespito^e, 2-8 inches high. Leaves 
6-14 lines long, longer or shorter than the internodes, obluse or acute, 
som^imes fascicled in the axiU. Flowers rather large. Degree of pu- 
bescence very variable. Capsule (inallv oblong, equal to or a little short- 
er than the calyx. — If the cap.=ule in the European C.arvense (of which 
we have no specimen^ in fruit) be uniformly twice the length of the calyx, 
a3 described by DeCandolle, it may be distinct frcm the American plant: 
but Hooker (in Ji. SjoL) describes the capiule as scarcely longer than the 

^'" 7. C. oblongifolium (Ton.): stems erect or declined, villous; leaves ob- 
long-lanceolate, mo 4ly obtuse ; flowers numerous; peduncles viscid ; petals 
obovate, 2-cleft, tv.'ice the length of the cblorg obtuse sej-als: crp^ule clcut 
twice as long as the calyx. — Torr.! in Sill. jour. 4. p. 63, <^ fJ. 1. p. 4lO. 
C. villosum, " yl/?f/i/. cat. p. 46"; Darlingt! Ji. Cest. ed. 2.' p. 279. C. 
pube;cens, Goldie, in Edinh. phil. jonr. i. p. 3S7 ? C. Penn-vlvanicum, 
Hook. I. c. ? (excl. ^yn. C. tenuifol.) C. arvcn^e, Pursh, f. 1. p. '231 ? 

Rocky places, Canada ! to Pennsylvania ! April-June. — If Stems 6-12 
inches high, stout, very villous, toment05e below and at the rodes. Leaves 
an inch or more long, sometimes shorter, ovate-lanceolate and obtuse, villous 
or rather glabrous except the ma gins. Cyme twice or thrice dicholomcus : 
peduncles villose and viscid. Flowers larger than in C. arven«e. Petals 
cleft nearly J their hngth. — Much as this species differs from C. arvense, 
yet occasionally specimens of the laaejr nearly apprdach it in some respegts. 


8. C. rigidum (Ledtb.): hirsute; sttm errct. sin^ple below, dirhoto- 
mou; toward? the summit ; leaves oblon;^, acute ; peduncles elongated; se- 
pals lanceolate, acute ; petals bifid, longer than the sepals ; capsule oblong, 
smooth, more than twice the length of the calyx. DC. — '" I^cdfb. in viem. 
ocad. St. Petersb. 5. p. 538; DC. prodr. 1. p. 420; Cham. & Schlecht. 
I. c. p. 62. 

Unalaschka, Chamiiiso. — Hirsute with spreading hairs, near 2 feet high. 
DC. — Chamisso describes a variety smaller in all its parts. 

y- 9. C. nutans (Rat.): viscid and pubescent; stems erect, weak, branching 
from the base, sulcate-striate; intemodes finally mnch longer than ihe leaves; 
leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, the lowermost oblong--patulale, acute ; 
cym:- much elongated, divaricate, many-flowered, with long filiform pedicels ; 
petah oblong, bifid at (he apex, exceeding the oblong sepals; capsule cylin- 
drical, incurved, three times the length of the calyx. — Raf. prec. decmiv. p. 
36; To/T. .' fi.l. p. 459 (excl. syn. C. pubescens) ; DC. prodr. 1. ;;. 420 ; 
Hnok. I. C.J Darling.', fl. Cent. ed. 2. p. 280. C. longipedunculatum, AhiJd. 
cat. p. 47. C. glutino;um. NiUl. gen. 1. /;. 291. 

Low moiu grounds, Hudson's Bay to Louisiana! and west to Oregon. — 
(J) Stem 8-10, often 14, inches high, very viscid and arachoid-toraentose 
wh?n young. L?aves pale green, the earliest small, at length 1-2 inches 
long.— Variable in size; beginning to flower Avhen not more than 2 or 3 
inches high. 

X Doubtful species. 

10. C. bracteatum(Roif.): pubescent; stem Avcak, terete ; leave? oblong, 
slightly mucronate; flowers erect, dicholomous, bracteate ; bracts ovate, 
acute; petals about the length of t!ie calyx; capsules nerveless, erect. Baf. 
pre", dccouc. p. 36 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 420. 

Pennsylvania, Rajinesque. 

Tribe II. SILENEiE. DC. 

Sepals united into a cylindrical tube. Petals ungulculate, inserted 
with the stamens upon the stipe of the ovary. 

8. SILENE. Linii. ; Otth, in DC. prodr. I. p. 367. 

Calyx tubular, without scabs at the base, 5-toothcd. Petals 5, with slen- 
■der claws, which are crowned with scales at the summit ; limb 2-cleft. Sta- 
mens 10. Styles 3. Capsule 3-celled at the base, opening at the top by 6 

§ 1. Cespitose: stem^ scarcely any : calyx slightly inflated: peduncles 
1-Jlowerei. — Nanosilene, Olth. 

1. S. acaulii (Linn.): densely caespitose; haves linear, ciliate at the 
hx,? ; p 'duacles short ; calvx campanulate ; petals (purple) obcordate, crown- 
ed ; flowers dioesi jus by abortion.— 5oL mag. t. 1081 ; Pursh, f. 1. p. 316 ; 
Hook.! ft. Bor.-Am. l.'p. S7. 

Arctic America! to Rocky Mountain^, lat. 40\ Dr. .lames! White Hills, 
New Hampshire, Mr. Oakes !—li Plant 1-3 inches high. 

§ 2. Flowers solitary or in paniculate cymes: calyx (except in S. ovata) 
vesicular^ £n/Zafe(2.-*Bebenantka, Otth. 

190 CARYOPHYLLACE^. Siliwe. 

2. <S. stellata (Ait.) : stem erect, branching, minutely pubescent ; leaves 
whorled in fours, ovate-lanceolate, gradually acuminate ; cymes panicled ; 
petals lacerate-fimbiiate, not crowned ; stamens about the length ol' the pe- 
tals.— ^i^. Kew. 3. p. 84; DC. I. c. ; Hook. f. Bor.-Am. \. p. 88. Cucuba- 
lus stejlatus, Limi.; Mich.v. ! fl. 1. p. 271. 

Dry woods, Canada ! to S. Carolina and west to Arkansas ! June-Aug. 
— If Stem 2-3 feet high. Upper leaves opposite. Petals white. 

3. S. ovata (Pursh) : stem simple, erect, puberulent; leaves opposite, lan- 
ceolate-ovate, acuminate ; cyme panicled; calyx ovate, not inflated; petals 
multifid, not crowned ; stamens exserted. — Pursh, jl. 1. p. 316. Cucubalus 
polypetalus, Walt. Car. p. 141 1 

Western parts of Virginia and Carolina, Pursh (ex spec, in herb. Banks), 
Milledgeville, Georgia, Dr. Boykin! Rutherford County, N. Carolina, Cur- 
tis! — Stems many from the same root, 2-4 feet high, stout. Leaves broad 
at the base and almost connate, tripli-veined ; the lower ones oblong-lanceo- 
late, 4-5 inches long; the upper shorter and more nearly ovate. Calyx small, 
10-striate, with very short teeth. Petals white; claws exserted, with the 
rudiments of a crown; limb about 4-cleft nearly to the base; lobes linear, 
dichotomous ; segments linear, 2-cleft or toothed at the apex. The stamens 
opposite the petals cohere with the base of the claws, and are protruded la- 
ter than thp others: filaments very long and slender. Ovary oblong, the sum- 
mit very obtuse. Habit of S. stellata, except that the calyx is not inflated. 
(Description from specimens and notes communicated by Dr. Boykin.) 

-/- 4. »S'. nixiea (DC.) : minutely puberulent ; stem simple or dichotomous 
above; leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually acuminate, the floral ones lanceo- 
late-ovate and much smaller ; flowers subsolitary ; calyx tubular-campanu- 
late, the teeth very short and obtuse; limb of the petals cimeiform, 2-cleft, 
with a minute 2-parted croAvn ; stipe longer than the ovary. — DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 377. Silenealba (not, as Nuttall writes, S. nivca), Muhl. cat. p. 45, <f 
herh. ! cy- Jl. Lancast. ined. 1. p. 320. Cucubalus niveus, Nuti. ! gen. 1. p. 
287 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 449. 

0. land folia : glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, elongated. 
On an island in the Susquehannah river near Columbia, Pennsylvania, 
Muhlenberg ! (who adds in^. Lancast. I. c. : " Habeo etiam e Harmonia.") 
In shady moist places. Canton, Illinois, Mr. Buckley! June-July. — If 
Stem 1-3 feet high. Leaves 2 (in P. often 4) inches long, generally longer 
than the iuternodes. Flowers solitary or nearly so at the summit of the stems 
and branches : pedicels rather short, filiform. Calyx at length membranace- 
ous, somewhat inflated and reticulat?d, subclavate, a little shorter than the 
claws of the petals. Petals white ; limb not half the length of the claw. 
.Capsule subglobose, raised on the slender stipe. 

-^ b. S. inflata (Smith): glabrous and glaucous; stem branching; leaves 
oblong, acute; calyx vesicular, ovate; petals bifid, naked, Avith cuneiform 
claws ; styles very long. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 368 ; Hook. ! Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 
88. Cucubalus Behen, Micha^. ! fl. 1. p. 271 ; Torr. ! fl. 1. p. 449. 

Near Q,uebec, Mrs. Percival! Near Boston, Bigelow. Introduced. — 71 
Stem a foot or more high. Petals white. Stamens exserted. Styles longer 
than the stamens. 

6. <S. Douglasii (Hook.) : minutely pubescent ; stem erect, very slender; 
leaves remote, linear, elongated and narrow, attenuated at each end ; flowers 
few, on slender peduncles ; calyx obovate, at length inflated and membrana- 
ceous, abrupt at the base, pubescent ; limb of the petals bifid. — Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 88. 

Along the Oregon to the Rocky Mountains, Douglas^ Nuttall ! — If Plant 
2--3 feet Mgh, simple. Leaves 2-4 inches long, 1-2 lines wide. Calyx ob- 


scurely reticulated according? to Hooker^ not at all so accordincf to Nuttall. 
Petals (white, Hook.) pale red {Nxtt.). — On comparing the description of 
Hooker with a specimen and notes communicated by Nuttall, no material 
difference is observable, except in the points in which we have contrasted 
the one with the other. But it does not appear that Hooker has seen the 
living plant, and the color might be easily mistaken in dried specimens. 

§ 3. Plowers subracemose-spicate ; peduncles opposite. — Otites, Otih. 

7. S. Scouieri (Hook.) : somewhat viscid-pubescent ; stem simple, erect, 
remotely leafy, with swollen nodes ; leaves lariceolate or linear-lanceolate, 
plane; spike long ; flowejs erect; calyx oblong-clavate, 10-striate ; petals bi- 
fid. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 88. 

Oregon, 'Douglas., Scouler, cf Nuttall ! N. W. Coast, Menzies— (T) or (5) 
{H Dougl.) Stem solitary, 1-2 feet high. Petals white or rose-color. Sta- 
mens and styles exserted. Near S. viscosa. Hook. — Lobes of the petals 
emarginate. Nutt. mss. 

§ 4. Flowei's spicate or racemose, axillary., alternate : peduncles not op- 
posite. — Stachymorpha, Otth. 

8. iS. qulnquevidnera (Linn.): villous; stem branching ; leaves oblong- 
spatulate, obtuse, the uppermost linear; spike somewhat one-sided; calyx 
very villous, with short teeth ; petals small ; lamina roundish, entire ; crown 
hiM.~Eng. bot. t. 86 ; Michx. ! ft. 1. p. 272 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 515 ; DC. prodr. 
Lp. 372. 

Sea-shore, Southern States. California, Douglas ! Introduced 1 June- 
July.— (1) Stem 8-12 inches high, clothed with flat jointed hairs. Petals 
pink or crimson, with the border pale. 

9. S. nocturna (lAxxn,'): s^em branching, hairy below; leaves pubescent, 
ciliate at the base, the lower ones spatulate, the upper linear-lanceolate ; 
spike one-sided, dense; flowers appressed ; calyx cylindrical, almost gla- 
brous, reticulated between the ribs ; petals narrow, 2-parted. DC. I. c. — Pursh, 

Jl. \. p. 316 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 450. S. Nicseensisl Cham, f Schlecht. I. c.l 
Pennsylvania and Virginia (Pursh, Schweinitz). Introduced from Eu- 
rope. — (i) Petals white, greenish beneath. 

10. 5f. Dritmmo7idii (Hook.) : glandular-pubescent and viscid ; stems 
erect strict, simple ; leaves rcraote, linear-lanceolate ; raceme loose, few-flow- 
ered, with the pedicels elongated and usually alternate ; calyx oblong-cylin- 
drical, erect. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 89, f in bot. Beechey, p. 135. S. 
Nicaeensis? Cham. <f- Schlecht, I. c, fide Hook. 

Oregon and California. — U Stem 1-2 feet high. Flowers 3-.5, strict. 
Petals white, scarcely longer tkan the calyx. Capsule sessile. Hook. 

§ 5. Stems strict: peduncles filiform : calyx campanulate or cylindrical. — 

Rupifraga, Otth. 

-'■ 11. S. Antirrhina (Linn.): glabrous; stem erect, simple or branching 
above; leaves lanceolate, acute, upper ones linear, the margins minutely 
ciliate-scabrous ; cyme few-flowered ; calyx ovate, smooth and shining ; 
petals small, obcord'ate, slightly croAvned. — Dill. hort. Elth. p. 422, t. 213 ; 
Pursh, ft. 1. p. 316 ; Honk. ! I. c. p. 89. 

Dry places, Canada! to Georgia, west to Oregon ! April-June. — (I) Stem 
slender. 8-30 inches hiijh, puberulent or scabrous at the base, a portion of the 
upper internodes usually viscid. Peduncles erect. Teeth of the calyx very 


short, tinged with purple. Petals white or tinged with purple, inconspicu- 
ous. Seeds minutely papillose. 

§ 6. Flowers in sovieuhat panicled CT/mes, or solitary : pedicels cjpcsitey 
short: calyx tubular. — Siphonomorpha, Otth. 

~f-'12. S. nocti flora (hinn.): viscid-pubescent; stem erect, branching; lower 
leaves spatulate, the upper ones linear ; calyx cylindrical-ventricose, the al- 
t?rnate striae veined; teeth very long, subulate; petals 2-parted. — DC. 
prodr. 1. /;. 379; Eng. hot. t. 291 ; t. 130. 

In cuhivated places, Northern States ! Introduced from Europe. — Flow- 
ers rather large, expanding only in the evening or in cloudy weather: petals 
white or pale rose-color. 

13. S.mxiUicav.h; {^\xtt\ mss.) : " minutely'] ubescent ; sttms numerous, 
erect, rigid ; leaves linear-oblanceolate, rather acute ; flowers few, en s-horlith 
peduncles; calyx ovate-cylindrical, slightly ir.fiatcd, IC-striate. -VAiih cbtuse 
teeth ; petal? bifid. 

" Woods from the west side of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. — Ij! 
Stems about a foot high, not viscid. Root [rhizoma] stout. Upper leaves 
very small. Flowers in threes, pale red. Calyx subclavate in fruit. Seeds 
brown, margined with a scaly crest." Nutt. 

—j^ 14. 5". Pennsylvanica (Michx.) : viscidlv pubescent ; stems numerous 
from the same root; leaves lanceolate, acute, the radical ones fpatulate-ob- 
lanceolate ; cyme several -iiowered ; petals obovate, very obtuse, crostly 
crenulate-fraarginate — Mich.r. ! f. \. p. 272; Ell. sk. \.p. 516 ; JJC.prcdr. 
1. p. 380. S. Caroliniana. Walt. Car. p. U21 S. Virginica, Willd.sp.2. 
p. 702 ? S. platypetala, Otth, in DC. I. c. p. 383. 

Dry rocky places, Canada? to Georgia! and west to Kentucky! April- 
June. — H Rout fusiform. Stems 8-12 inches high, often declined at the 
base. Leaves generally more or less acute; the radical ones attenuate into 
petioles. Calyx clavate, at length ventricose above, very viscid. Petals 
light purple (sometimes rose-color or Avhite, Ell.)^ crowned. 

-/■• 15. S. Virginica {Umx)..) : viscidly pubescent; stem simple; radical leaves 
spatulate, with ciliate petioles; cauline ones oblong-lanceolate; cyme se- 
veral-flowered; petals bifid; stamens exserted. — Linn. syst. 2. p. 311?; 
Mich.v.! fl. 1. p. 272 (in part); Ell. sk. 1. p. 516; DC. I. c. S. Cateshaji, 
Walt. Car. p. 142 ; DC. I. c. 

a. Stem often declined at the base ; radical leaves obtuse or abruptly acute,, 
those of the barren shoots ample, on long petioles; cyme spreading, ofttn 
with lateral branches from the axils of the upper leaves. 

0. smaller ; stem erect ; leaves mostly obtuse, margins unc'ulate ; the hasc^ 
of the radical ones and the lower part of the stem more or less tomentose y 
peduncles nearly erect. — S. Caroliniana, Walt. I. c.7 

Upper Canada {Hooker) and Ohio ! to Georgia ! and west to the Missis- 
sippi. June-July. — H Root horizontal. Stem 1-2 feet high. Upper 
leaves very short. Flowers very large. Calyx campanulate-cyiindrical, aU 
hngth rather ventricose. Petals crimson, slightly, or mostly deeply, 2-cleft,, 
the lobes sometimes toothed. — Our two varieties pass into lach other insen- 
sibly ; but the first we receive exclusively from the Western States; the- 
second we have only received from Georgia. 

16. <S. rotundifnlia CNuU.): pubescent; stem Aveak, decumbent, branch- 
ing ; leaves membranaceous, roundish-oval, abruptly and slightly acuminate ; 
the lower ones obovate, attenuate at the base; flowers subsolitary ; petals 
bifid, with the lobes toothed or incised. — Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 288 ; DC. prodr. 
1. p, 233. S. Virginica, var. leaves broadly oval, Michx. I. c. 


On moist shady rocks, Western States. Kentucky, Short I June- 
Aug. — Pubescent with weak hairs, particnhirly Avhen yuun?. Leaves 1-3 
inches long and 1-2 inches broad, the uppermost suborbicular. Fk)wer3 
usually solitary on the ends of the branches, very large. Calyx campanu- 
late-cylindrica'i, at length clavate-ventricose- Petals crowned, deep scarlet ; 
lobes '2-toothed at the extremity, and with a remote subulate tooth. 

17. S.regia (Sims): pubcrulent-scabrous, somewhat viscid; stem erect 
and rigid ; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate ; cyme paniculate, rather strict, 
many-tlowered ; petals oblanceolate, usually entire; stamens and styles ex- 
serted.— Sims, in hot. mag. t. 1721; Niitl.! gen. 1. p. 288; DC. I. c. H. 
Virginica, var. " panicle coarctate, with the flowers somewhat fascicled," 
Mich.T. I. c. 

Ohio! to Louisiana! Kentucky, Short! (Montreal, Dr. Holmes! Indi- 
genous ?) June-July.— U Stems stout, 4-5 feet high, nodes close below 
and tumid, often branched above. Flowers very large. Calyx tubular, at 
length ovoid -cylindrical, long, conspicuously 10-striate. Petals bright scar- 
let, spatulate-lanccolate, eroded ; croAvn 2-cuspidate. 

18. S. Hookeri (Nutt. mss.): " subdecumbent, softly pubescent; leaves 
lanceolate, acute, attenuate below; stems dichotomal; branches about two, 
with 3 large flowers on long peduncles; calyx cylindric-subcampanulate, 
with acute teeth; petals divaricately 4-cleft. 

" Woods of the Wahlamet, Oregon. The only specimen I have seen 
was collected by Dr. Gardiner.— If Stem about a span long. Leaves rather 
approximate, obscurely 3-nerved. The first flowers dichotomal [termuiatmg 
the stem], the last opposite and terminal ; in all about 7. Calyx 10-striate. 
Petals white, more conspicuous than in S. Virginica, about twice the length 
of the calyx. Habit of S. Baldwinii, but with very different petals." Nutt. 

19. S. Baldwinii (Nutt.) : pilose ; stem weak ; lower leaves obovate or 
spatulate, obtuse, the upper oval ; cyme 3-5-floAvered ; petals with the limb 
broadly cuneiform, deeply and divaricately fimbriate. — Nutt.! gen. \. p. 
288 ; DC. I. c. S. fimbriata, Baldw. in Ell. sk. 1. p. 515, not of Sims. 

In rich soil on the banks of Flint River, Georgia, Baldwin! Apalachi- 
cola, Dr. Chapman! April.— li Stem erect, 6-12 inches high. Calyx 
tubular-infundibuliform ; teeth oblong, obtuse. Petals rery large, pale rose- 

§ 7. Stems leaf ij to the summit: peduncles axillary and terminal, l-fiow- 
ered. Hook, 

-7^ 20. S. Menziesii (Hook.) : minutely glandular-pubescent ; stem erect, 
dichotomously branched; leaves crowded, ovate-lanceolate, the lowermost 
oblong-ovate, acuminate at both ends ; flowers numerous ; peduncles about 
the length of the leaves ; limb of the 2-parted petals with the segments linear, 
much longer than the obovate deeply 5-toothed calyx; styles thickened 
above, conspicuously bearded within.— //ooA-./. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 99. t. 30. 

N. W. America, from Oregon (Aultall !) to Slave ha\ie {Rich ardso7i). 
Stem 6-12 inches high. Flowers the size of S. quadridentata. Petals not 
crowned. Somewhat of the habit of Saponarla ocymoides. Hook. 

21. iS. stellarioides (Nutt.! mss.): "minutely pubescent; stem erect, 
scarcely branched; flowers few; leaves lanceolate-oblong, acuminate; pe- 
duncles longer than the leaves; petals bifid, longer than the obovate deeply 
5-toothed calvx ; styles slender and smooth. 

"Woods, from Oregon to the western slope of the Rock}' Mountains, 
nearly to the Fort of Wallawallah.— Stem 3-6 inches high. Peduncles li 
to 2 inches long, mostly ullernate. Flowers few and white, very similar to 


194 CARYOPHYLLACE^. Lychnis. 

those of Stellaria. Petals not crowned. — Closely allied to S. Menziesii, but 
a much smaller plant, not diffusely branched, the flowers twice as large, 
and the stigmas smooth." Nuit. — The left figure of t. 30. Hook. fl. I. c re- 
presents this species pretty well. 

§ 8. Cymes corymbose : calyx clavate, elongated, lO-striate. — Atocion, 

22. »S. Armeria (Linn.) : glabrous and slightly glaucous ; stem branch- 
ing, glutinous below each node; leaves ovate-lanceolate; petals obcordate, 
crowned.— i;«o-. bot. t. 1398; BCprodr. 1. p. 383 ; Hook. I. c. 

Upper Canada, Hooker ; Michigan ! Massachusetts ! Introduced from 
Europe. June-July. — Calyx and pflals purplish. 

X Doubtful species. 

23. S. axillaris (Leavenworth) : viscous-pubescent ; stem branching; 
leaves oval, somewhat toothed, petioled ; flowers sessile, solitary, axillary. 
Leavenworth, in Sill. jour. 7. p. 62. 

Prairies of Greene County, Alabama. Aug. — Habit of Cuphsea. Stem 8 
inches high. Leaves ovate, acute at the base. Flowers purple. Leaven- 
worth. — Probably not a Caryophyllaceous plant. 

9. LYCHNIS. DC. fl. Fran., ^ prodr. 1. p. 385. 

Lychnis & A grosiema., Linn. 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales at the base. Petals 5, with slen- 
der claws, mostly crowned. Stamens 10. Styles 5. Capsule 1-ceUed or 
5-celled at the base. 

§ 1. Calyx ovoid, with short teeth : stipe of the ovary very short or none. 
— Agrostema, DC. 

1. L. apetala (Linn.): pubescent ; stem simple ; calyx rather cyhndrical, 
striate, finally inflated and including the petals ; seeds ariUed. Hook. ! 
fl. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 91. 

*. stem short, about 1-flowered. Hook. I. c. — L. apetala, DC. prodr. 1, 
p. 386. 

p. stem 3--6-flowered, elongated. Hook. I. c. — L. apetala, P. pauciflora, 
DC. I. c. L. pauciflora, Fischer. 

Arctic America ! — Plant 3-12 inches high. Leaves hnear, the lower 
ones spatulate. Petals red. — Several varieties are noticed by Chamisso & 
Schlechtendahl in Linncea, I. c. 

2. L. alpina (Linn.) : glabrous ; stems csespitose, strict; cymes capitate ; 
calyx campanulate ; petals bifid ; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute. — Pursh, fl. 
1. p. 321 ; Fl. Dan. t. 65; DC. I. c. ; Hook. I. c. 

Labrador ! (Pursh, i^c. — v. s. in herb. Schweinitz.) 

§2. Calyx cylindrical-campanulatc, coriaceous ; teeth very long: stipe 
none. — Githago, DC. 

.-^ 3, L. Githago (Lam.) : hirsute ; stem dichotomous ; flowers on long pe- 
duncles ; leaves linear. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 387. Agrostema Githago, Linn. 
In cultivated fields. June-July. Introduced from Europe. — @ Petals 
purple, not crowned ; limb obeordate. Corn-Cockle. 


10. SAPONARIA. Linn. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 365. 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales at the base. Petals 5 ; claws as 
long as the calyx. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Capsule 1-celIed. 

^ 1. S. officinalis (hian.) : fascicles panicled ; calyx cylindrical; crown of 
the petal's linear ; leaves oval or oval-lanceolate.— /'w/^Vt, Ji. 1. p. 311 ; DC. 
prodr. I. c. 

In waste places, New- York ! to Georgia. July-Aug. Introduced.— 
')i Flowers large : petals often doubled, rose-color. 

-/- 2. S. Vaccaria (Linn.) : flowers in paniculate cymes; calyx pyramidal, 

5-angled, glabrous ; bracts membranaceous, acute ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 

sessile.— trceW;i. fr. t. 130; DC. prodr. 1. p. 365. Gypsophila Vaccaria, 


In cultivated places ; hardly naturalized. July-Aug.— (1) Petals pale red. 

11. DIANTHUS. Linn. J DC. prodr. 1. p. 355. 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, with 2-4 opposite imbricate scales at the base. 
Petals 5, with long cliws. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Capsule 1-celled. Em- 
bryo slightly curved. 

1. D. repens (WiM.) : stem l-flowered; calycine scales 2, ovate-lanceo- 
late, acuminate, a little shorter than the calyx ; petals toothed ; leaves linear, 
glabrous. Hook.— Willd. sp. 2. p. 681; DC. prodr. 1. p. 358; Cham. ^ 
Scklecht. in LinncBa, 1. p. 37; Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 87. 

N. W. Coast; also a native of Siberia.— The specific name is not well 
chosen, as the root is perpendicular, not creeping. Cham. & Schlecht. 

-^ 2. D. Armeria (Linn.): flowers fascicled; calycine scales lanceolate-subu- 
late, about the length of the tube; leaves linear-subulate, hirsute. — Eng. bot. 
t. 317; Pursk, Jl. 1. p. 314; DC. I. c. D. armerioides, Raf. in Desv. 
jour. bot. 2. p. 569. 

In fi-4ds and pine woods, Massachusetts! to Maryland. July. Introdu- 
ced.— (T) Stem a foot high. Lower leaves spatjlate-lanceolate. Flowers 
inodorous : petals red, with white dots, crenate. 

3. D. Carol ini ana (WaXt): flowers aggregated, on long peduncles ; caly- 
cine scales half as long as the tube. Walt. Car. p. 140. 

South Carolina, Walter.— D. prolifer was some time since cultivated at 
Bariram's garden under this name. 


Sepals 2 (rarely 3), mostly united at the base, free or (in some For. 
tulacas) cohering with the base of the ovary. Petals 5, or very rarely 
3, 4, or 6, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens variable in number, 
opposite the petals when of the same number, inserted with the petals 
into the base of the calyx, or hypogynous : filaments all fertile, dis- 
tinct : anthers fixed by the middle, versatile or introrse. Ovary 
' l-celled by the obliteration of the dissepiments: styles 2-6, usually 
more or less combined, stigmatose along the inner surface. Capsule 
l-celled, dehiscing transversely (a pyxidium), or lociilicidal with as 

196 PORTULACACEiE. Talinum. 

many valves as stigmas : placenta in the axis. Seeds numerous or 
few, campulitropous. Embryo curved around the outside of mealy 
albumen. — Succulent insipid plants. Leaves alternate or opposite, 
entire, exstipulate. Flowers axillary or terminal, mostly ephemeral. 

Exclud'ms; from the order Triantliema (which should certainly be placed with Sesu- 
vium, as Arnott suggests), Cypselea (probably a co-ordinate with Sesuvium), and 
Giiiginsia (which is referred to Illecebrace£e by Bartling, &c.), no exceptions remain 
to the character of Portulacaceas as given above. Hydropyxis, Raf. maybeleftout 
of the question, as it was founded on a plant which the author never saw. Leptri- 
na, of the same author, is a wholly doubtful plant; perhaps Montia. 

1. PORTULACA. Tourn. ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 353. 

Sepals 2, united below, sometimes cohering with the base of the ovary ; 
the upper portion at length deciduous, separating from the lower near the 
base by a transverse line. Petals 4-6, inserted on the calyx, equal. Sta- 
mens 8-20. Style 3-6-cleft at the apex or parted. Capsule subglobose, de- 
hiscing transversely near the middle. Seeds numerous, on filiform funi- 
culi. — Humble fleshy herbs. Leaves scattered, often whorled near the 
flowers, frequently with a tuft of hairs in their axils. Flowers expanding 
only in sunshine. 

1. P. oleracea (Linn.) : diffuse ; leaves cuneiform, the axils and nodes 
naked; flowers sessile; petals 5, coherent at the base; stamens 10-12; 
styles distinct nearly to the base. — DC. pi. gras. t. 123, ^* prodr. I. c. ; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 534. 

Cultivated and waste places, nearly throughout N. America ; introduced : 
indigenous on the saline plains of the Missouri, according to Nuitall <^ Dr. 
James ! — Q) Flowers pale yellow. — Purslane. 

2. P. pilosa (Linn.) : low, diffuse ; leaves lanceolate or linear, obtuse, 
with tufts of long hairs in their axils ; flowers crowded and sessile at the 
summit of the branches in a dense tuft of hairs ; petals 5 (purple), coherent 
at the base; stamens about 20.— t. 128; Bot. reg. t. 792; DC. I. 
c. ; Torr. ! in ami. lye. New- York, 2. p. 202. 

In barren places, N. Carolina? (ex herb. Schweinitz !) On dry rocks, 
Arkansas &c., Nuttall ! Dr. James ! Dr. Leavenworth ! Texas, Dnim- 
mond ! — (1) A native also of Mexico and South America. 

2. TALINUM. Adans. (in part.) ; Sims, hot. mag. t. 1357. 

Sepals 2, ovate, concave, deciduous. Petals 5, sessile, hypogynous. Sta- 
mens 10-20, inserted with the petals, and often coherent with them at the 
base. Style trifid. Capsule subglobose, 3-valved, many-seeded. 

§ Stigmas or lobes of the style short, connivent. Perennial herbs, with 
a short thick andfirm stem, and terete subulate fleshy leaves : Jlowers 
in a terminal dichotomous cyme, expanding for a single day. — Pheme- 


7^ 1. T. teretifolium. (Pursh): stem simple or branched; leaves crowded at 
the summit of the short branches ; peduncle elongated ; petals purple ; sta- 

Calandrinia. PORTULACACEiE. 197 

mens about 20.— Pursh ! fl. 2. -p. 365 ; Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 6; Darlingt. ! Jl. 
Cesl. ed. 1. 1. 3, ed. 2. p. 36'5. Pheraeranthus tcrctifolius, Jtc/f. speech. 1. p. 86. 
Oq naked rocks, Westchester, Pennsylvania, Darlington! Virginia, 
Pursh ! N. Carolina, Schweinitz ! West to the fails of the St. Croix, Dr. 
Houghton! Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher! Nuttall! Dr. James! Texas, 
Drummund ! June-Aug. — Perennial stems 1-3 inches long, throwing out 
fibrous roots : annual stems about the same length. Peduncles 5-8 inches 
high. Bracts ovate-lanceolate, very small, produced at the base. The 
valves of the capsule on falling away leave a kind of replum in the form of 
3 minute bristles. Placenta roundish, raised on a stipe. 

•f" 2. T. parviflorum (Nutt. ! mss.) : " small ; leaves slender ; stamens 

On rocks, Arkansas; with the preceding species, Nuttall! — A distinct 
species, according to Nuttall, with much smaller flowers than T. teretifolium. 

3. CALANDRINIA. //. B. ^ K. nov. gen. 6. p. 77, f syn. 3. p. 376. 

Sepals 2, persistent, ovate, obtuse or acute, united at the base. Petals 3-5, 
hypogynous, equal, raiely connate at the base, sessile. Stamens 4-15, hypo- 
gynous, sometimes coherent with the base of the petals, with which, when 
of the same number, they are often alternate. Style short : stigmas 3, 
thickish, short. Capsule oblong or elliptical, 3-valved, many-seeded. Seeds 
turgid, smooth and shining. — More or less succulent glabrous herbs. Leaves 
alternate. Flowers axillary and solitary along the upper part of the stem, or 

This genus is intermediate between Talinum and Claytonia.. 

1. C. Menziesii (Hook.) : caulescent ; leaves linear-spatulate ; the lower 
ones on long peduncles, with the margins naked; the upper ones glandulose- 
ciliate ; sepals acutely carinate, glandulose-ciliate on the margins and keel ; 
flowers peduncled, axillary. Hook. — Talinum? (Calandrinia?) Menziesii, 
Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 223, t. 70. 

On the coast, south of the mouth of the Oregon, Menzies ex Hook., whose 
specimens were in fruit only : a small plant ; stems 2-4 inches high. — Mr. 
Nuttall has brought specimens, also in fruit, from St. Barbara, California, 
which agree perfectly with Hooker's figure, except that the upper leaves and 
sepals are very sparingly ciliate with minute processes of the cuticle rather 
than hairs, which are moreover not glandular. We have the same plant from 
Douglas's Californian collection in flower, with the margins of the leaves 
almost wholly naked. The petals are rose-color or purple, rather longer than 
the sepals ; the stamens 6-8, and the seeds numerous. 

2. C. speciosa (Lindl.) : glabrous, difi'use; leaves spatulate, acute, attenu- 
ate into a petiole ; flowers racemed ; peduncles shorter than the bracts ; 
petals longer than the calyx. Lindl. in hot. reg. t. 1598. 

N. California, Douglas, (v. s. cult.) — (J) Stems 4-5 inches high, ca;spi- 
tose. Leaves fleshy. Raceme leafy : pedicels clavate. Sepals ovate, acute, 
carinate. Petals (large) deep purple. Stamens 9-10. Lindl. 

3. C. maritima (Nutt. ! mss.) : " glaucous ; leaves all in a radical cluster, 
obovate-spatulate, thick and fleshy, somewhat petioled ; obtuse ; stems scapi- 
form, diffuse ; flowers in a subcorymbose raceme; pedicels longer than the 
bracts ; petals longer than the broadly ovate acute sepals." 

St. Diego, California, on the sea coast, Nuttall ! May. — Flowers rather 
large and showy, red. Nutt, 

198 PORTULACACE^. Claytoxia. 

4. CALYPTRIDIUM. Nutt. mss. 

" Sepals 2, ovate, persistent. Petals united into a minute diaphanous coni- 
cal corolla, slightly 3-toothed at the apex, soon detached from the base and 
carried up on the summit of the elongated capsule. Stamen 1. Styles 2, 
minute. Capsule oblong-linear, many times longer than the calyx, 2-valved !, 
6-10-seeded. Seeds (circinate, compressed,) on filiform funiculi of unequal 
length, rising from the base of the cell. — An annual succulent plant with the 
habit of Calandrinia, much branched, depressed, with alternate spatulate 
leaves. Spikes axillary, numerous, often several from the same point: 
flowers small, somewhat secund." 

C. monandrum (Nutt.! mss.) — Talinum monandrum, liuiz ^ Pav. 
prodr. p. 65 1 Calandrinia monandra, DC. prodr. 3. p. 359? 

" St. Diego, California. — Depressed, densely branched, glabrous. Radi- 
cal leaves lanceolate-spatulate, obtuse, thick and succulent, in a rosulate clus- 
ter. Sei)als slightly unequal, with scarious margins. Corolla minute, pale- 
reddish. Capsule about \ of an inch long, compressed, pod-shaped, some- 
what recurved ; valves membranaceous. Seeds placed at different heights 
in the capsule inconsequence of the inequality of the funiculi, black and 
shining. — Talinum monandrum, if not our plant, as is most probable, is doubt- 
less a congener. The calyptriform corolla and dicarpellary fruit, which charac- 
terize this genus, are curious anomalies in the order Porlulacacese." — Nutt. 

5. CLAYTONIA. Linn.; Gcertn. fr. t. 129. 

Sepals 2, persistent, distinct or united at the base, ovate, mostly obtuse. 
Petals 5, hypogynous, obcordate, obovate, or oblong, emarginate or bifid, 
sometimes entire, equal, unguiculate ; the claws more or less connate at the 
base. Stamens 5, inserted on the claws of the petals. Styles 3-cleft, the 
divisions slender, stigmatose Avithin. Capsule 3-valved, 2-5-seeded. Seeds 
turo-id. smooth or punctate, shining. — Glabrous rather succulent herbs. Stems 
simple, with a pair of opposite often connate leaves (or with several alternate 
ones) ; radical leaves long-petioled. Racemes often one-sided. Flowers 
rose-color or white. 

§ 1. Perennial: stems simple, arising from a subterranean cormus {or 
rhizoma) : caiUine leaves 2, opposite, distinct: raceme terminal, rarely 
geminate. — Claytonia proper. 

-j^ 1. C. Virginica (Linn.) : leaves all linear or linear-lanceolate, elongated 
and' attenuated into petioles below, radical ones very few ; raceme at length 
elono-ated ; pedicels slender, nodding ; petals mostly emargmate.—Bot.mag. 
t 94I ; Michx.! ft. 1. p. 160; Ell. sk. 1. p. 306; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am.. 1. p. 
224 (a.) ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 361 («. & /?•) ; Sweet, Brit. ft. gard, (ser.2.) t. 
163. C.grandiflora, ^'ipee^, /. c. /. 216, fide /Too/c. 

a. acutiftora: petals elliptical, acute [mostly with a slight emargmation] ; 
sepals rather acute ; leaves elongated, narrowly linear. DC. I. c. 

ff. media: petals obovate, obtuse [emarginate]; sepals obtuse ; leaves ob- 
lon'T-linear or lanceolate. DC. I. c. 

In low moist grounds, Canada ! (rare) to Florida ! Louisiana ! and Arkan- 
sas ! most abundant in the Middle and Southern Atlantic states. March- 
May.— Cormus fju-inaceous, deep in the ground. Leaves acutish. Flowers 

Claytonia. PORTULACACE^. 199 

5-15 ; the lowest and often nearly all tlif pedicels minutely bracteate. Pe- 
tiii, pale rose-color or red, with deeper-colored veins. — Variable in many re- 
sfjects, but apparently distinct from the succeeding species. 

■/^. C. Caroliniana (Mi..hx'.): leaves ovate-lanceolate or oval, suhspatu- 
late at the base, or abruptly decurrent into a petiole; radical ones very few, 
spatulate ; pedicels slender, nodding ; sepals and petals very obtuse. — Miclu-. 
Ji. 1. ]). 160; I. c. C spathuluifoha, iSalisb. naiad. ImikI. i. 71 ; 
Pursh,Jl. 1. p. 174 I Niilt. ! ^en. I. p. 152. C. Virginica /?. latilblia, Torr.! 
fl. 1. /;. 259. C. Virginica y spathuWfolia, DC. I. c. ; Hook. I. c. 

In woods from the mountainoiii parts of N. Carolina and the Western 
States ! to the northern parts of Canada ! and New-Brunswick ; west to the. 
Rocky Mountains (ffooker): ahandantin somewhat mountainous situations 
throughout the Northern States. April. — A smaller plant thnn C. Virginica. 
Leaves from 1 inch or less to 2 inches loni', variable in shape ; particularly 
the cauline leaves, which are sometimes exactly oval, v/ith a distinct petiole 
half an inch long, sometimes nearly spatulate. — The name given by Mich- 
aux is inappropriate, as the plant has a more northerly range than C. Vir- 
ginica, and is lare in the Southern States. 

3. C. lanceolata (Pursh): root tuberous ; radical leaves (very feAv) ob- 
long, on long petioles ; cauline ones elliptical, sessile, 3-nerved, with anasto- 
mosing veins; raceme solitary, nodding; pedicels elongated, the lowest 
bracteate ; petals deeply emarginate. Hook. — Pursh, Jl. l.p. lib. t. 3 ; Hook. ! 
ji. Bor.-Avi. I. c. 

In the Rocky Mountains, Lewis ex Pur.'sh ; Drummond ex Hook. — We 
quote the character of this species from Hooker ; whose specimens, smaller 
than the plant figured by Pursh and with broader slightly notched petals, are 
very similar, as Hooker himself remarks, to the preceding species, differing 
indeed chiefly in the sessile cauline leaves. We have the same plant or a 
form intermediate between it and C. Caroliniana, from Dr. Pitcher, collected 
probably in Arkansas. The following is the character given by Pursh : " C. 
foliis lanceolatis : cauUnis ovatis sessilibus, racemeo solitario elongato, calycis 
folioli? brevibus obtusissimis, petalis cuneatis bifidis, radice tuberosa. — Flow- 
ers white, nearly the size of C. Virginica.^ without veins." — We cannot help 
suspecting that Pursh's figure is made up of two species, and that the flow- 
ers at least belong to C. alsinoides. 

§ 2. Annual: roots fibrous : stems simple, with a single pair of opposite 
often connate or 'perfoliate leaves : raceme terminal, often geminate or 
compound. — Limnia. 

4. C. alsinoides (Sims): stems numerous from a slender root; leaves 
reticulately veined, rhombic-ovate ; radical ones numerou';, on long petioles 
abruptly acuminate; cauline sessile; racemes solitary or in pairs; pedicels 
filiform, mostly solitary, bracteate ; petals cuneiform (white), acutely bifid at 
the apex.— Sms, hot. 'mag. t. 1309 ; Pursh, JI. I. c. ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 361 ; 
Hook. I. c. ; Bong. ! veg. Sitcha, in mem. acad. St. Petersb. (6. ser.) 2. p. 
136. C. Unalaschkensis, Fisch. in Ra^.m. ^ Schult. sijst. 5. p. 434; DC. 
I. c. 7 Limnia alsinoides. Haw. succ. si/n. p. 12. 

/?. rosea: flowers rose-color; leaves almost veinless. DC. I. c. — C. Sibirica 
Bot. mag. t. 2243, ex Hook., not of Linnl 

y. heterophylla : radical leaves some of them ovate, others lanceolate; 
cauline oblong-lanceolate, attenuate at the base; racemes 1-3; flowers pale 
rose-color. — C. Unalaschkensis ft. heterophylla, Nutt. ! mss. 

Oregon, Menzies, Nnltall! to ^iicha, Bongard ! May-June. — Flowers 
rather small (in all our indigenous specimens larger than in cultivated speci- 

200 PORTULACACE.S. Clattonia. 

mens from the Liverpool garden). Stems slender, 12-18 inches high. Ra- 
ceme at length elongated. 

5. C. asarifolia (Bongard) : csespitose ; leaves veiny, the radical ones on 
long petioles, somewhat rcniform ; cauline sessile, broadly ovate, obtuse ; 
pedicels solitary or ternate, bracteate ; petals 2-cleft, red. Bong. veg. Sitcha, 
I. c. p. 136. 

Sitcha.— Radical leaves nearly 4 inches broad : cauline ones about an mch 
broad. Petals twice the length of the calyx ; lobes obtuse. ^ojig-arcZ.— Near- 
ly allied, apparently, to the foregoing. 
•4^6. C. perfoliata (Donn) : csespitose ; leaves obscurely reticulatcly veined ; 
radical ones numerous, on slender petioles, broadly rhomboidal ; cauline pair 
united into a single nearly orbicular perfoliate leaf; raceme fascicled, sessile; 
petals entire or slightly emarginate.— i)on?2, hort. Cantab, ed. 4. p. 50 ; Bot. 
mag. t. 1336 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 176 ; Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 225. C. Cu- 
bensis, Bonpl. in ami. mus. 7. ;). 82. t. 6, ^ pi. cBquinoct. t. 26. Limnia per- 
foliata, Haw. sxicc. syn. p. 12. 

N. W. America, {Menzies, NiMall !) to Mexico and Cuba. Valhes of 
the Rocky Mountains, Douglas, Nuttall .'—Stems 4-8 inches high, diffuse. 
Flowers very small for the size of the plant : petals white.— De Candolle 
gives as a locality, the Rocky Mountains of Virginia! 

7. C. parviflora (Douglas) : radical leaves numerous, linear-spatulate, 3- 
nerved, with anastomosing veins, on long petioles ; the cauline pair united 
into one oval perfoliate veiny leaf; raceme [mostly peduncled] simple or 
somewhat compound, with a single bract. Hook. I. c. p. 225, t. 73. 

0. glaiica (Nutt. ! mss.) : smaller ; raceme mostly subsessile. 

In woods along the Oregon river, Douglas, Nuttall .'—Commonly 6-12 
inches high, pale green. Petals nearly entire, oblong, pale rose-color or white, 
twice the length of the calyx. Var. 0. grows on exposed rocks, in close tufts, 
is often very glaucous, 1-3 inches high. ^Nutt.— The cauline leaf in both forms 
of Mr. NuttaTl's specimens is often very excentrically perfoliate. 

8. C. spathulata (Douglas): csespitose, minute ; radical leaves numerous, 
narrowly subspatulate-linear ; cauline ones ovate, acute, sessile ; raceme soli- 
tary (4-6-flowered), 1-bracteate ; petals entire, scarcely exceeeing the calyx. 
Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 226. t. 74. 

N. W. Coast, Menzies. Valleys of the Rocky Mountams, Douglas.— 
Leaves very narrow, scarcely an inch long; the cauline pair very small. 
The sinallest of the genus [1-2 inches high]. Hook. 

9. C e.rtg-«a .• csespitose ; radical leaves numerous, narrowly linear ; cau- 
line pair lanceolate or linear, somewhat dilated at the base, subconnate, 
usually as long as the solitary few and loosely-flowered raceme ; petals ob- 
cordate-oblong, more than twice the length of the calyx. 

California, Douglas .'—Stems 2 inches high. Cauline leaves variable in 
shape and length, (sometimes unequal) often longer, but not rarely shorter 
than the raceme. Raceme peduncled, 5-9-flowered, Flowers larger than 
in C. spathulata. Seeds minutely scrobiculate. 

10. C. sypsophiloides (Fisch. & Meyer) : glaucous ; radical leaves very 
long, filiform ; cauline pair mostly connate on one side; raceme simple, 
ebracteate ; petals nearly linear, emarginate, thrice the length of the calyx. 
Fisch. ^ Meyer, ind. sem. St. Petersb. {Dec. 1835) p. 33; Don, in Brit, 
fl. gard. {ser. 2.) t. 375. 

California, at the Russian settlement Ross, Fisch. <^- Meyer.— Stems nu- 
merous and cffispitose, filiform, 6-10 inches high. Radical leaves 3-6 inches 
or more in length, fleshy, erect: the cauline of two combined on one side, 
broad, cucullate, almost tubular at the base: the apices free, ovate, acute, un- 
equal' spreading. Racemes pedunculate, elongaltd. many-flowered : pedicels 

Claytonia. PORTULACACE.'E. 201 

scattered, nearly an inch lon<^. Flowers small, bnt raihor showy. I'ttals 
pinlv, puneate-ohlon^, deeply notched. Fisrh. dj- Mcijei; and Dnv, I. r. — 
The founders of this species compare the tiowers with those of Gypsophila 
acutifolia or G. perfoliata. 

11. C tenui folia : stems numerous, filiform ; leaves narrowly linear; tlie 
radical ones insensibly deeurrent into lonii jictioles ; eauline pair sessile, 
slisrhlly connate on one side at the base, much lon<rer than the sessile 1-brac- 
teate subuiiihellate raceme ; petals oblonij, lonijer than the calyx. 

California, Dono-lds ! — Stems 6 inches high. Leaves about a line wide 
(radical ones as long as the stems), acute. Raceme compound. Flowers 
smaller than those of C. perfoliata. 

§ 3. Annual: stems decumbfnt, stolonifcrous, ii-ilh mimerous opposite (or 
verticillate?) leaves, proliferous : (aiid hence) racemes apparently ax- 
illary. — Alsinastrum. 

-^12. C. aquatica (^ult. \ mss.): " csnspitose, decumbent, stoloniferous ; 
leaves opposite, spatulate or oblong-obovate, attenuate below, obtusish ; ra- 
cemes axillary, peduncled, simple, few-flowered; petals obovate, entire, more 
than twice the length of the calyx. 

'• In small springs, &c. Rocky Mountains, and on the plains of the Oregon 
near its confluence with the Wahlamet. — Stems spreading and rooting at the 
joints. Leaves 1-2 inches long, attenuated into a short petiole, slightly vein- 
ed. Racemes 5-8-flowered, with a single bract at the origin of the lowest 
pedicel. Flowers rather large, white." Nutt. — C. stolonifera, C. A. Meyer, 
from Unalaschka (the description of which we are now unable to tind or to 
refer to) is perhaps this species. It is evidently nearly allied to C. flagella- 
ris, Bongard. 

y:-13. C. flagellaris (Bongard): stems csespitose, flagelHform, here and 
there producing fascicles of leaves and rootlets ; leaves oval, attenuate into 
a short petiole, veiny ; petals more than thrice the length of the calyx, bitid, 
the lobes obtuse. Bong. veg. Sitcha, I. c. p. 136. 

Sitcha. — Stems decumbent. Leaves ctespitose, broadly oval (the limb 
about i an inch in length and width), the younger ones oblong. Flowers 
racemose, white. Bongard. 

§4. Annual: roots fibrous: stems branched: leaves several, alternate: 
racemes terminal and often axillary or opposite the leaves. — Naio- 


_j6. 14. C. parvifolia (Mogino) : stems branching from the base, filiform, as- 
cending ; leaves succulent ; the radical ones rosulate, obovate-spatulate, 
acute; the eauline linear-spatulate ; racemes terminal, few-flowered ; pedi- 
cels filiform, bracteate ; petals oblong, entire (or acutely bifid at the point?), 
thrice the length of the calyx. — " J/of. icon. pi. Noolk. ined.'''' ; DC. prodr. 
3. p. 361. C. filicaulis. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 224, t. 72. 

On shadv racist rocks along streams, Nootka, Menzies, Merino. Oregon, 
near the ocean, Douglas, Dr. Scolder, ex Hook. ; and at the confluence of 
the Wahlamet. Nuttall ! Aug. — Stems 5-6 inches long. Leaves pale green 
(as succulent as in many species of Sedum, JVuft.), nearly veinless ; the ra- 
dical ones attenuate into a very short petiole ; the eauline very small : the 
uppermost minute and bract-like. Racemes 3-7-flowered : jiedicels much 
longer than the bracts. Flowers rather large, rose-color. — Mogino's plant is 
said to have the petals acutely bifid at the apex ; but a<5 described bv Hooker, 


202 PORTULACACE^. Mo.ntu. 

and in Nuttall's specimens, the petals are entire ; but there seems to be no 
other difference. 

15. C. linearis (Douglas) : stems branching ; leaves very narroAvly linear, 
obtuse [sheathing at the base, Nutt.'\ ; racemes terminal, one-sided, the low- 
est pedicel bracteate; petals entire, longer than the calyx. Hook. Jl. Bor- 
Am. 1. p. 224, t.ll. 

In springy places and on moist rocks along the Oregon, Douglas, Nuttall! 
— Stems weak, 4-6 inches high. Leaves 2-3 inches long, the uppermost 
shorter, rather succulent, minutely 3-nerved under a lens. Racemes (and 
pedicels) somewhat nodding, 4-8-fiowered : pedicels thrice or more the 
length of the flower. Flowers rather large : petals obovate, entire. Seeds 
smooth and shining, flat, with a carinate margin. 

16. C. dichotoma (Nutt. ! mss.) : " low, almost csespitose, much branched ; 
leaves very narrowly linear, acute, sheathing at the base ; racemes terminal 
and axillary ; flowers (rather crowded) 1-sided, nodding; pedicels about the 
length of the flowers, the lowest one bracteate ; petals emarginate, scarcely 
longer than the calyx. 

" In wet places on rocks, near the junction of the Wahlamet with the 
Oregon. — Very nearly related to C. linearis, but much smaller in all its parts 
(about li inch high) and densely branched. The flowers and seeds are 
about i the size of those of C. linearis." Nuit. 

17. C. diffusa (Nutt.! mss.): "stems diffusely dichotomous and procum- 
bent ; leaves veiny, broadly ovate or deltoid, abruptly attenuate into a petiole, 
acute; racemes very numerous, terminal and lateral, subcorymbose, 5-9-floAv- 
ered ; pedicels slender, at length recurved, the lowest one bracteate ; petals 
emarginate, a little longer than the calyx. 

" In pine Avoods, a few miles above Fort Vancouver. — A very remarkable 
species, with much the habit and appearance of Stellaria media, except 
that the leaves are alternate. The stem is many times dichotomous and 
spreadmg widely over the ground. Radical leaves on long petioles ; those 
of the upper leaves somewhat margined and about the length of the limb. 
Pedicels several times longer than the flowers, sometimes geminate; the low- 
ermost longest. Flowers rather small: petals pale rose-color. Seeds flat, 
very minutely and regularly rugose-puncticulate, with obtuse margins." 

6. MONTIA. Linn.; Lam. ill. i. 50; 129. 

Sepals 2, rarely 3, persistent, suborbicular. Petals 5, hypogynous, ungui- 
culate, with the claws a little connate ; 3 of them somewhat smaller. Sta- 
mens 3, inserted on the claws of the smaller petals, ver^^ rarely 4 or 5. Styles 
very short, almost separate, spreading. Capsule 3-valved, 3-seeded. Seeds 
turgid, minutely tuberculate, large. — A very small glabrous procumbent rather 
fleshy herb, growing in water or wet places; common in Europe; rare in 
North and South America. Leaves opposite, spatulate. Raceme few-flow- 
ered, terminal. 

M. fontana (Linn.)— Willd. sp. 1. p. 4S7 ; DC. prodr. 3. ;;. 362 ; Kunth, 
syn. pi. cBquinoct. 3. p. 377. 

a. minor: stems assurgent; leaves somewhat connate. — DC. I. c. ; Bong, 
veg. Sitcha, I. c. p. 136. 

0. major : stems weak, creeping ; leaves sessile ; flowers much smaller. — 
DC. I. c. ; Bong. I. c. M. rivularis, Gmelin. 

Oregon, Nuttall .' Sitcha, Bongard .' Labrador, GmeZ^/^ 

Elatine. ELATINACEi^. 203 

Order XXVI. ELATINACEiE. Camhess(des. 

Sepals £-5. mostly distinct, persistent. Petals hypogynous, as many 
as the sepals and alternate with them. Stamens hypogynous, as many 
or twice as many as tiie petals : anthers fixed by the middle, in- 
trorse. Ovary 2-5-celIed : styles 2-5, distinct or united at the base, 
or none: stigmas capitate. Capsule 2-5-celled, 2-5-valved : (dehis- 
ccnce septicidal, Camb., Lindl. ; loculicidal, ex Am.), many-seeded, 
crowned with the persistent styles or stigmas : placenta? in the axis. 
Seeds anatropous, cylindrical, slightly curved or straight, with little or 
no albumen. Embryo cylindrical : cotyledons short. — Annual marsh 
plants, with fistulous rooting stems, opposite entire or serrate leaves, 
and very small axillary or solitary flowers. Stipules small and incon- 
spicuous, sometimes wanting. 

For information concerning this small family, vid. Camb. in Mim. du Musium, 
18. p. 225, (f- in A. St. Ilil. Jl. Bras. 2. p. 159 ; Arnott, in Edinb. jour. nat. (f- 
geogr. science, 1. p. 430 ; Fischer tf* Meyer, in jour. acad. imp. des naiuralistes, Mos- 
cou, df' in Linnaa, 10. p. 69. Bartliiig unites the family with Lythraceae, with 
which, indeed, it possesses many points of resemblance. 

1. ELATINE. Linn.; Gcertn. fr. t. 112; Arnott, I. c. 

Styles distinct, very short, or none. — The rest as in the character of the 
Order. -4r«. 

-f-l. £J. Americana ("Am. 1. c.) : diffuse, procumbent, rooting from the joints ; 
branches assurgcnt ; leaves cuneate-obovate, obtuse ; flowers sessile, minute ; 
sepals, petals, stamens, and sessile stigmas 2, sometimes 3. — Peplis Ameri- 
cana, Pnrsh, fl. 1. p. 238. Crypta minima, Niitt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 
1. p. 117. t. 6. /. 1 ; Torr.! Jl. 1. ;;. 32. Elatine minima, Fisch. ^ Mey- 
er, I. c. p. 25. 

Margins of ponds and streams, Connecticut ! and New-York ! to Mary- 
land ! west to Missouri ! Probably extending throughout the United States. 
July-Sept. — Branches i-2 inches long. Seeds slightly curved, minutely ru- 
gose transversely. — Very nearly aUied to E. triandra, of Europe. 


Sepals 5 (sometimes 3 or 4), distinct or united at the base, persis- 
tent : aestivation strongly imbricated. Petals as many as sepals and 
alternate with them, hypogynous, with short claws, fugitive : aestiva- 
tion twisted. Stamens as many as the petals (often with intermediate 
teeth or abortive stamens), united at the base in a hypogynous ring, 
persistent : anthers fixed by the middle, introrse, with no manifest con- 
nectivum. Ovary of 5 (rarely 3 or 4) united carpels ; central axis 
short or none : styles filiform, distinct (rarely united) : stigmas capi. 


tate. Capsule globose, often pointed with the persistent and harden- 
ed base of the styles, 5- (or sometimes 3-4-) celled ; each cell com- 
pletely or partially divided by a false dissepiment proceeding from the 
dorsal suture : dehiscence septicidal ; carpels 2-valved at the apex. 
Seeds 2 in each carpel (I in each spurious cell), collateral, suspended 
from near the summit, anatropous, ovate, compressed ; testa smooth, 
mucilaginous when moistened : albumen none or very thin. Embryo 
flat, fleshy and oily: cotyledons elliptical. — Herbaceous or suffrutes* 
cent. Leaves entire, without stipules, sessile, alternate, or often oppo- 
site and alternate in the same plant. Flowers terminal, often corymb- 
ed or paniculate. 

1. LINUM. Linn, (in part) ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 423. 

Sepals (entire), petals, and stamens 5. Styles 5, or rarely 3. — Flax. 

1. L. rigidum (Pursh) : stem angled, much branched above; leaves al- 
ternate, linear, pungently acute, rij^id, with scabrous margins; flowers pani- 
cled or corymbose; sepals ovate-lanceolate, cuspidate, glandularly spinnlose- 
scabrous on the margins, longer than the globose capsule ; petals sulphur- 
yellow.— P^rs^, /?. 1. p. 210; Nutt.! gen. 1. p. 206; Hook.! Ji. Bor.-Am. 
I. p. 105. L. striatum, Nutt. I. c. ex Hook. 

P. 7 Berendieri : low ; margins of the leaves smooth ; flowers larger. — L. 
Berendieri, Hook. hot. mag. t. 3480. 

From the Missouri, Nnttall! Dr. James ! to the Saskatchawan, X/r. 
7? tc/ia?'fZso??, and California, .Vm/^q//.' /?. T cxas, Drummond .' Also near 
New Haven, Connecticut, Oakes ! N.Carolina, Schweinitz ! Georgia, Dr. 
Boykin .'—(J) Calyx with 3 strong nerves. Bracts glandular like the sepals. 
Flowers smaller than in L. usitatissimum; but about their size in /?, 

2. L. Virginianum (Linn.): glabrous; stem branching above; leaves 
alternate, oblong-lanceolate or hnear, the lowermost oblong, the upper acute ; 
panicles corymbose, with the divisions racemed ; flowers unilateral; sepals 
ovate, mucronate, 1-nerved, a httle shorter than the mature depressed-globose 
capsule; petals yellow.— Tl'a/^. Car. p. 117; Mich.%.! ft. 2. p. 36; Ell. sk. 
1. p. 375 ; Hook. I c. 

On hills, &c. Upper Canada ! to Alabama ! and Florida! west to Arkansas ! 
May-Aug. — fl) Stem about 2 feet high, slender. Leaves rarely opposite, 
1-nerved. Flowers very small, on short pedicels. 

3. L. usitatissvmum (Linn.): glabrous; stem branching above; leaves 
alternate, Unear-lanceolate, very acute; panicle corymbose^ sepals ovate, 
acute, 1-nerved (3-nerved at the base), margin membranaceous ; petals some- 
what crenate^ blue.— P»rs/i, fl. 1. p. 210 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 330. 

In fields: introduced, but hardly naturalized. June-July. — (l) Leaves 3- 
nerved. Flowers large. Capsule acuminate. — Common Flax. 

4. L. perenne (Linn.): glabrous; branches virgate; leaves alternate, lin- 
ear, acute (often pellucid-punctaie) ; flowers terminal and nearly opposite 
the leaves; sepals oval, Avith membranaceous margins, 3-5-nerved at the base 
externally acute or mucronate, internally obtuse, a little shorter than the glo- 
bose capsule ; petals retuse, blue, 3 or 4 times the length of the calyx. — Eng. 
bot. t. 40; Null. gen. 1. p. 206; Schiede, in Linnaa, 1. p. 71 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 106. L. Sibiricum, Linn.; DC. I.e. L. Lewisii, Pursh, 
fl. 1. p. 210. 

LixcM. LINACEiE. 205 

Western portions of N. America, from the Arctic Sea (ex Hook.) to Mis- 
souri! and Arkansas ! west to the Rocky Mountains (/>o?^i'^/a.><, Xulldll .' 
Mr. Wyelh!) and the shores of the Pacific. (Conuuon also in Eurojie and 
Asia). — 11 or nearly so. Steins procuuihent at the base. Peduncles nod- 
ding, at least in fruit. Flowers large. 

5. L. sdaginoides (Lam.): glabrous; stems a span high, sulfruticose, 
corymbosely branched at the summit; leaves crowded, alternate, very smal', 
linear and very narrow, mucronate-piliferous ; flowers terminal, subsessile ; 
petals shorter than the calvx (whitish or rose-color) ; ovary completely 
10-celled. A. St. Hit.— Lam.' diet. 3. p. 525; DC. prod r. 1. p. 424; Sdiiede, 
I. c. p. 67; A. St. Ilil. fl. Bras. 1. p. 131. 

Te.xas, Dnimmond\'—Thv specimens of no. 47 I 37 ?) in Drummond's 
2nd collection agree minutely Avith the very detailed descriptions of L. selagi- 
noides by St. Hilaire & Schiede, except that in our plant the stems are near- 
ly erect, sparingly branched, and (as well as the midrib and margins of the 
leaves) minutely 'and sparsely scabrous-hispid ; the margin of the rigid stpals 
is broadly scarious, slightly c'iliate-serrulate above ; the filaments are not re- 
markably broad ; and the styles, which are twice the length of the ovary, are 
united for more than half their length, which is very remarkable in this family. 
Still, as the descriptions referred to arc not sufficiently explicit upon some of 
these points, it is not improbable that our plant belongs this species. 

X Doubtful species. 

6. L. striatum (Wh\l): flowers terminal ; leaves subovate, alternate, the 
nerve and margin decurrent into the stem ; stem branched, striate. Wall. 
Car. p. US ; Poir. suppl. 3. p. 443. 

South Carolina, Ha/^er.— Perhaps L. perenne? 


Sepals 5, persistent, ribbed (one sometimes saccate or spurred) : 
aestivation imbricated. Petals 5 (rarely 4), hypogynous or somewhat 
perijrynous, alternate with the sepals, distinct, unguiculate : aestivation 
twisted. Stamens as many or commonly twice as many as petals, and 
inserted with them, monadelphous at the base : anthers fixed by the mid- 
die, introrse, with no connectivuni. Ovary composed of 5 two-ovufed 
carpels, placed alternate with the sepals round the base of an elongat- 
ed axis : styles 5, cohering round the axis, stigmatose at the summit 
within. Carpels distinct in fruit, membranaceous, 1- (rarely 2-) seeded, 
at length separating from the axis by the twisting or curling back of 
the indurated style, mostly dehiscent by the inner suture. Seeds ana- 
tropous, with a lateral hilum and a short raphe, exalbuminous, Radi- 
cle straight : cotyledons reflexed, follaceous, convolute and plaited. — 
Herbs or shrubby plants : stems tumid and separable at the nodes. 
Leaves opposite (or alternate and opposite the peduncles), mostly stipu- 
late, petioled, palmately (rarely pinnately) veined and lobed, or some- 
times undivided. Peduncles terminal or opposite the leaves, some- 
times axillary. 

206 GERANIACEiE. Geraniom. 

1. GERANIUM. Linn, (in part) ; VHer.; Gcertn. fr. t. 79. 

Sepals equal. Petals 5, equal. Stamens 10, all fertile; alternate ones 
larger, with a nectariferous gland at their base. Persistent styles at length 
circinately revolute, glabrous within. — Herbaceous or rarely suffrutescent. 
Peduncles 1-2-ilowered (2- rarely 3-tiowered in the North American species). 

♦ Pere7inial. (Pubescence of the stem and petioles rttrorse in the North American 


'^' 1. G. maculatimi (Linn.) : stem erect, (often nearly glabrous below) di- 
chotomous, somewhat angled, pubescent ; leaves 3-5-parted ; the segments 
acute, cuneiform below, incisely serrate above ; the radical leaves on long 
petioles; uppermost opposite; petals entire; filaments scarcely ciliate at the 
base. Hook.—Michx. I ji. 2. p. 157 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 157 ; Bigel. med. bot. t. 8 ; 
DC.prodr. I. p. 642; Hook.Ji. Bor.-Am. I. p. 115; Darlingt.ji. Cest. ed. 
2. p. 392. 

In open woods, &c. Canada! to Florida; Avest to the Mississippi. April- 
June. — Stem 1-2 feet high. Leaves hirsutely pubescent ; the lobes incisely 
toothed or cleft. Pedicels unequal. Sepals oblong or oval-lanceolate, mucro- 
nate-awned, sparsely clothed with long white hairs: pubescence not glandu- 
lar. Petals large, purple (sometimes almost white), cuneiform-obovate, 
densely villous with short hairs at the base. Seeds minutely reticulated. — 
Crow-foot. Spoiled Cranes-bill. 

n 2. G. albifiorum (Hook.) : stem erect, dichotomous, somewhat angled, 
glabrous below; glandular-pilose above; leaves deeply .5-parted; segments 
ovate, acuminate, incisely subpinnatifid, rather hairy ; radical ones on long 
petioles ; the uppermost opposite, on short petioles, 3-parted, rather acuminate ; 
sepals glandular-pilose ; petals (entire, white) as well as filaments hirsute at 
the base. Hook. I. c. p. 116, t. 40, f in bot. mag. t. 3124. 

13.7 incisum : leaves almost 5-divided; segments narrower; flowers pur- 
ple. — G. incisum, Null.! mss. 

Vallies of the Rocky Mountains, Drummond ! — Nearly allied to G. macu- 
latum and G. pratense. Hook. — /?. VaUies of the Rocky Mountains and 
Oregon, Nutlall ! — A portion only of the hairs on the peduncles, sepals, &c. 
is glandular; and the pubescence is much denser and shorter than in G. 
maculatum. We have the same plant from Altaic Siberia, sent by Prof. 
Fischer. Thevar. 0.1 which we doubt not is wholly distinct from G. macula- 
tum, may perhaps prove to be distinct from G. albiflorum. The petals have 
a lateral tuft of hairs at the base. 

' 3. G. erianthum (DC.) : stem erect, angled, (terete, DC.) sparingly dicho- 
tomous, minutely pubescent or nearly glabrous below ; leaves deeply 5-7- 
lobed ; lobes 3-cleft ; segments laciniate-incised ; radical ones on long pe- 
tioles ; the uppermost subsessile ; peduncles short and crowded; sepals and 
base of the petals and stamens densely villous. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 641 ; 
Bong.! veg. Sitcha, I. c.p. 129; Hook. ^ Am. inbot. Beechey.p. 113. G. 
erioslemon, DC. I. c. 7 exHook. (^ Arn. G. maculatum P. Hook. 

N. W. Coast & Kamtschatka, De Cand. Hook. ^ Am. Sitcha, Bon- 
gard I — Flowers purple ("perhaps blue," Bongard\ the size of G. macula- 
tum. Sepals narrower than in the 2 preceding species, verv hirsute ex- 
ternally with long white hairs; the same kind of pubescence also on the base 
of the filaments. — These 3 species, it would seem from our specimens, may 
be further distinguished by the villosity of the petals ; which in G. macula- 
Jum forms a small and very dense white tuft on the claw inside ; in G. albi- 

Erodicm. GERANIACE^. 207 

florum the hairs are longer and more Scattered, occupying the lowrr half of 
the upper surface ; in G. erianthuni tlie dense viliosity is situated on the 
edges of the petals near the base. 

♦ * Annual. 

'^ 4. G. Caroliniamim (Linn.) : stem diffusely branched ; leaves deeply 
5-lobed or parted ; segments incisely lobed or toothed ; peduncles mostly 
short and rather crowded at the summit of the branches ; petals emarginate, 
about the length of the aristate-mucronate sepals ; carpels hairy ; seeds oval, 
minutely reticulated.— Walt. Car. p. 175 ; " Cav. diss. t. 84 ^ 124" ; 
Michx. jl. 2. p. 28 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 157 ; Hook. I. c. ; Darlingt. I c. G. 
lanuginoium, Jacq. hort. SchcpJib. 2. t. 140. 

In barren places from Canada! (lat. 52=, Hook.) to Florida! Louisiana! 
west to the Rocky Mountains in lat. 52\ and California, Hook.d^ Am. in bot. 
Beechey. Oregon, Nuttall ! March-June. — Root somewhat fusiform. Stem 
4-12 inches high, pubescent below, villous above ; hairs retrorse or some- 
times spreading. Sepals hairy. Petals rather obcordatc, rose-color. Car- 
pels sometimes 2-seeded, ex Ell. — Variable in the lobes of the leaves, which 
are usually short and obtuse. The seeds are not perfectly smooth, as is said 
by De CandoUe, but minutely reticulated, though by no means so conspicu- 
ously as in G. dissectum, to which it is closely allied. This last species is 
considered as a native of North America by Pursh, probably on insuffi- 
cient grounds : we have seen no native specimens. 

5. G. pusillum (Linn.) : stem procumbent, minutely pubescent ; leaves 
reniform, the lowest suborbicular, deeply 5-7-lobed ; lobes 3-cleft (of the 
upper leaves nearly entire) ; petals emarginate, about the length of the hairy 
somewhat acuminate sepals ; carpels minutely pubescent ; seeds smooth. — 
Torr.! compend. p. 25'i ; DC.prodr.l.p.G'id. G. malvsefolium, La7rt.^. 
Fran. 3. p. 18. 

Road-sides, Long Island ! and Western part of the State of New-York ! 
Introduced. May-July. — Stem extensively spreading. Flowers small, pale 
purple. Alternate stamens usually sterile. 

' ' &. G. Rohertianum (Linn.): diffuse, hairy; leaves 3-5-parted to the 
tase ; segments pinnatifid ; lobes mostly incised or toothed ; petals entire 
(purple), twice the length of the mucronate-awned sepals; carpels reticulate- 
rugose, glabrous ; seeds smooth.— Willd. sp. 3. p. 714 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 449 ; 
DC.prodr. 1. p. 644. 

Wet rocks, Canada! to Virginia! west to the Mississippi. June-Oct.— Calyx 
1-3-ribbed. Petals spatulale. — Pursh's very incorrect remark that the Amer- 
ican plant has not the same heavy and disagreeable odor as the European, 
has induced De CandoUe to consider our plant as a distinct variety. 

X Doubtful species. 

7, G. ccBspitosum (James) : suberect, sparingly branched above ; radical 
leaves reniform, deeply 5-7-cleft ; flower a little larger than that of G. Ro- 
hertianum, but similarly colored. James, in Long's e.rped. 2. p. 3. 

On sandstone ledges at the base of the Rocky Mountains, Dr. James. 

2. ERODIUM. L'Her. ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 625. 

Sepals equal, regular. Petals 5, mostly equal. Stamens 10 ; the 5 exterior 
(opposite the petals) shorter and sterile ; the perfect ones with a nectariferous 
gland at their base. Persistent styles bearded within, at length spirally 

208 BALSAMINACEiE. Impatiens. 

twisted. — Peduncles axillary or opposite the leaves, many- (rarely 2-) flower- 
ed : flowers umbellate. Cotyledons sometimes pinnately lobcd. 

1. E. c) a it an tim (holier.): stem prostrate or diffuse, hairy; leaves pin- 
nately divided; segments sessile, pinnatitid, incised or acute; peduncles ma- 
ny- [or few-] flowered; petals unequal. DC. prodr. 1. p. 646; Jlook.Jl. 
Bor.-Ani. 1. p. 116; Ilook. <^- Am. in hot. Beechey, p. 136. Geranium 
cicutarium, Linn. 

Oregon *fe California, common, Nuttall ! i^c. — "Certainly not introduced." 

Order XXIX. BALSAMINACE^. A. Richard. 

Sepals 5, deciduous ; the two inner (or upper) usually connate ; the 
lowest spurred or gibbous : asstivation imbricated. Petals hypowy- 
nous, usually 4 (5, but the fifth or posterior one abortive) and united 
by pairs ; rarely 5 and distinct. Stamens 5, hypogynous : filaments 
subulate : anthers 2-celled. Ovary 5. celled [placentfE in the axis], 
ovules usually numerous, rarely few in each cell, suspended : stigmas 
5, sessile, distinct or more or less united. Fruit capsular, 5-celled (the 
dissepiments usually disappearing), ,5.valved, elastically septifragal ; 
or [in Hydrocera, Blume] a 5.celled drupe. Seeds several in each 
cell [anatropous], destitute of albumen. Embryo straight : cotyledons 
plano-convex. — Succulent herbaceous plants. Leaves simple, opposite 
or alternate, exstipulate. Flowers axillary. Am. 

1. IMPATIENS. Linn.; W. ^ Am. prodr. Jnd. Or. 1. p. 135. 

Impatiens & Balsamina, i?zr.; DC. 

Sepals apparently only 4 from the union of the two upper ones. Petals 4, 
apparently only two from the union of each of the lower to each of the late- 
ral ones. Filaments 5, more or less united at the apex : anthers opening 
longitudinally or transversely. Cells of the ovary formed by membranous 
projections of the placentae, which occupy the axis of the ovarj' and are con- 
nected Avith its apex by 5 slender threads. Capsule often 1-cclled by the 
disappearance of the dissepiments. Seeds numerous or few. Am. 

§. Leaves alternate: peduncles more than l-flo^cered. {Glabrous: 
stems transparent^ tumid at the joints.) 

-J^ 1. /. pallida (Nutt.) : leaves oval or ovate, coarsely and obtusely serrate ; 
teeth mucronate; peduncles 2-4-flowered ; lower sepal obtusely conic, dila- 
ted, shorter than the petals, broader than long, with a very short recurved 
spur; flowers pale yellow, sparingly punctate. — \iitt. gen. 1. p. 146; DC. 
prodr. 1. ;). 6S7 ; Hook. ft. Bar.- Am. 1. ;;. 117. I. nolitangere, Michx.! Jl. 2. 
p. 149 (a.); Piirsh, f. 1. p. 171; Ell. sk. 1. p. 303. 

In moist shady places, Canada ! to Georgia & west to Kentucky ! (Oregon, 
Hooker.) July-Sept. — (l) Stem 2-5 feet high, much branched. Leaves 


mostly obtuse at the base, on short petioles. Flower large. — Balsam. Snap- 

-M,. I.fulva (Nutt.): somewhat glaucous; leaves rhombic-ovate, coarsely 
and obtusely serrate, teeth mucronate ; peduncles 2-4-flovvered ; lower sepal 
acutely conic, longer than the petals, with a rather long resupinate spur; 
floAver deep orange, witli numerous reddish-brown spots. — Null. I.e.; DC. 
I. a.; Hook. I. c. I. bitlora, \V<ilt. Car. p. 219 ; Pursh, I. c. ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 
304. I. nolitangcre, /?. Alichx. ! l. c. ; Bust. ed. 2. p. 93. I. macu- 
lata, Muhl. cat. p. 26. 

In wet shady places, from Canada ! (lat. 66=) and Newfoundland (Hooker) 
to Georgia ; more abundant than the preceding in the Northern States. 
Oregon, Dr. Scouler ! Nuttall ! June-Sepl.— ® A smaller plant than I. 
paUida, with smaller flowers. Leaves mostly cuneiform at the base, on 
slender petioles. Lower sepal longer tlian broad. — Balsam. Snap-weed. 


Sepals 3-5, united at the base, persistent, with a valvate aestivation. 
Petals 3-5, marcescent. Stamens twice the number of the petals, and 
inserted with them upon a thin somewhat perigynous disk : filaments 
distinct, those opposite the sepals having a small process or gland at 
the base on the outside, those opposite the petals sometimes shortest : 
anthers roundish, introrse. Ovary consisting of 2-5 distinct carpels, 
opposite the sepals ; the styles united into one nearly to the top : stig- 
mas simple. Achenia rather fleshy? the cavity filled by the solitary 
seed. Seed erect, anatropous, without albumen. Embryo with very 
large amygdaloid cotyledons ; radicle very short, included. — Annual 
glabrous herbs (exclusively North American), with more or less of the 
acrid taste of Tropaeolum, growing in swampy places. Leaves alter- 
nate, exstipulate, pinnately divided. Flowers axillary, solitary : pedun- 
cles somewhat dilated at the apex. 

The ovaries in this order have a gynobasic structure ; that is, are more or less 
distinct, with the styles united by means of a more or less manifest central axis, 
which is a prolongation of the flattened torus on wliich the ovaries rest. The order 
is evidently more nearly allied to Tropaeolum than to any other known plants. 

1. LIMNANTHES. i?. Br. in Land. ^ Edinh.phil. mag. July, 1833 ; 
Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1673. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, cuneiform, retuse, longer than the sepals: aestivation 
convolute. Stamens 10. Ovaries 5. — Leaves bipinnatifid ; the divisions 
often alternate. 

L. Douglasil (R. BroAvn,l. c.) — Benth. in. hori. trans, (ser. 2.) 1 p. 409 
Don, in Brit. Jl. gard. (ser. 2.) t. 37S. 

(California, Douglas. — Shghtly succulent. Flowers rather conspicuous- 
Petals of a delicate yellow at the base, bordered with white. 


210 OXALIDACE^. Oxalis. 

2. FLCERKEA. Willd. act. nat. cur. Berol. 3. (1801); Nutt. gen. 1. 
p. 228 ; Lindl. in Hook. jour. bat. 1. p. 1. t. 113. 

Sepals 3 (rarely 4). Petals 3, shorter than the calyx. Stamens 6. Ova- 
ries 2-3, tuberculate.— Leaves pinnately divided or parted; the divisions 
mostly entire. 

J F. proserpinacoides (Willd. 1. c.)—Livdl. I. c.—F. uliginosa, Miihl. cat. 
^p. 36; Torr..' Ji. 1. p. 339; Cest. ed. 2. p. 213. F. lacastris, 
Pers. syn. 1. p. 393. F. palustris, Nutt. I. c. Ncctris pinnata, 1. 
p. 239. Cochlearia foliis pinnatifidis, &c. Gron. ! Virg. (excl. syn.) 

On the banks of rivers and in marshes, Northern States! (lat 41°) to 
Pennsylvania! Avest to Missouri ! April-May.— Slightly succulent, pale 
green. Stem decumbent, 3-10 or 12 inches long, slender. Leaves on slen- 
der petioles: divisions about 5, lanceolate or oval, obscurely veined; the 
lowermost o'Aen 3-lobed or toothed. Flowers small. Petals oblong, white, 
about half the length of the calyx. Achenia large, commonly 2, rarely by 
abortion solitary. 


Sepals 5, equal, distinct or slightly cohering at the base, persist- 
ent : aestivation imbricated. Petals 5, hypogynous, equal, unguicu- 
late, deciduous: aestivation spirally twisted. Stamens 10, hypogy- 
nous, more or less monadelphous : filaments subulate, those opposite 
the petals longer than the others : anthers short, fixed by the middle, 
introrse, often reflexed and appearing extrorse. Ovary of 5 united 
carpels, situated opposite the petals : styles filiform, distinct : stigmas 
capitate or penicillate, sometimes 2-lobed. Capsule usually membra- 
naceous, ."j-lobed, 5.celled ; the carpels at length mostly separable to the 
axis, opening by the dorsal suture, l-12.sreded. Seeds anatropous, 
with a loose fleshy testa (aril of authors) which bursts elastically when 
the seeds are ripe : albumen between cartilaginous and fleshy. Em- 
bryo straight, as long as the albumen, with a rather long radicle : 
cotyledons broad and foliaceous.— Stems with an acid juice. Leaves 
mostly alternate, compound : petioles articulated at the base. 

1. OXALIS. Linn.; t.WZ. 

Sepals distinct, or united at the very base. Capsule oblong or subglobose, 
membranaceous. Seeds one or commonly several in each carpel : tegraen 
5-10 ribbed, transversely rugose.— Perennial (rarely annual) herbs; caules- 
cent or acaulescent. Leaves in North American species 3-foliolate (in others 
rarely pinnate or reduced to a single leaflet), circinate in vernation : leaflets 
distmctly articulated with the petiole, lobed or entire. Stipules coherent 
with the base of the petiole, after the manner of Trifolium, or none.— Wood' 


1. O. Acetosella (Linn.) : rhizoma creeping, scaly ; leaflets obcordate, 
puberulent; scapes at length longer than the leaves, l-Howercd, 2-bracleo- 
late above the luiddle ; petals obloncr-obovate (white Avith red veins, yellow- 
isli at tlie base), often slightly eniarginate ; styles and longer stanjens of 
equal lentrth, longer than the sepals. — Eng. bot. t. 7G2 ; Michx. ! Jl. 2. p. 38 j 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 700; Houk.Ji. Bor.-Am. I. p. 118 (partly). O. Americana, 
Bigel. ill DC. I. c. 

In AvooJs, from lat 4P ! to the northern part of Canada. June. — 11 Rhi- 
zoma clothed with the imbricated and fleshy persistent bases of the leaves. 
Peduncles 2-2 inches long; the portion above the bracts pubescent. Flower 
large. Stigmas 2-lobed. Cells of the capsule about 2-seeded. — Woud-Sorrel. 

7^ 2. O. Oregana (Nutt. ! mss.) : " rhizoma creeping, thick and scaly ; leaf- 
lets (large) very broadly obcordate, ciliate ; scapes l-flowered, sliorler than 
the leaves, 2-bracteolate above the middle; petals ob!ong-obovate, emargi- 
nate (white witii purple veins, yellow at the base) ; stamens and styles all 
shorter than, or scarcely exceeding, the sepals." — O. Acetosefla, Hook. I. c. 

Shady woods of the Oregon in moist places, Nutt all ! Dr. Scolder ! — If 
Flowers, and especially the leaves, larjier than in O. Acetosella: leaflets 
about an inch long and an inch and a half wide. Scapes always manifestly 
shorter than the leaves. 

3. O. trill iifotia (liook.) : acaulcscent ; peduncles umbelliferous, equalling 
the petioles; leaflets obcordate, glabrous; styles the length of the longer sta- 
mens. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 118. — O. macrophvUa, Do/igl. mss. v\ Hook. 

" N. W. Coast, near the Grand Rapids of the Oregon, and in valleys of the 
Rocky Mountains,-' Dous'las; also Nuttatl ! — 11 " Petioles 6-12 inches 
high. Leaves very large, and when the plant is out of flower might be mis- 
taken for those of Trillium grandiflorum." in Hook. I. c. — " Root 
creeping. Leaflets about 2 inches broad. Pedicels shorter than the pods. 
Flowers about the size of those of O. Acetosella, Avhite." NiUt. 

O. violacea (Linn.) : bulb scaly; leaflets obcordate with a very shallow 
sinus, broader than long, nearly glabrous ; scapes longer than the leaves, 
3-9-flowered ; pedicels umbellate; with minute bracts at the base; sepals 
Avith a thickened orange-colored tip ; petals obovate (violet) ; filaments hairy, 
at length equalling or longer than the styles. — Jacq. O.val. p. 35. t. SO. fis;. 2. 
fide yVil/d. sp. 2. p. 7Sti ; Michx. I. c. ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 525 ; DC. I. c. p. 605. 
In rocky wood% &c.. Canada ( Linn.) and New-England States I to Georgia, 
west to Arkansas, Dr. Pitcher! and Texas, Drumniond ! April-May, 
and sometimes again in Augu>t. — Bulb clothed with membranaceous scales. 
Scapes 6-9 inches high, generally slightly bifid at the summit. Leaves with 
transparent dots. Flowers large. Capsule oblong, few-seeded. Styles 
hairy, at first longer than the stamens : stigmas 2-lobed. 

5. O. cornicnlata {lAnn.): [root perennial ;] stems decumbent, branched, 
radicaline, leafy ; stipules united to the base of the petiole; leaflets obcor- 
date. pubescent ; peduncles 2-5- but mostly 2-flowered ; sepals pubescent ; 
petal; (yellow) emarginate; styles as long as the longer stamens; capsule 
many-seeded, densely pubescent. Am. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 692; Michx. fl. 
2. p. '39; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 117. O. pusilla, Salisb. in Linn, trans'. 2. 
p. 242, t. 23. O. furcata. Ell. .sk. l.p. 527 1 O. Lyoni, Pursh,fl. l.p. 322 ? 

In cultivat?d grounds, Canada to Carolina, Michaux ^ Pursh. Louisi- 
ana! we;t to California, Hook. <Sr Am. — The only specimens we have seen 
with manifest stipules are from New Orleans. Not being able to satisfy our- 
selves of the real distinctions, if there be anv, between this and the succeed- 
ing species, we copy the characters of authors, and refer all the perennial 
forms to 0. corniculata, and the annual ones to O. stricta. Two unpublished 


912 ZYGOPHYLLACEyE. Tribuleje. 

species of Nuttall, O. pumila from Oregon, and O. pilosa from California, we 
should also refer to O. corniculata.* 

6. O. stricta (Linn.): [root annual; ] stem erect, leafy; peduncles umbel- 
liferous, 2-6-flowered, about the length of the leaves; leaflets obcordate; 
petals [yellow] entire ; styles the length of the inner stamens. DC. I. c. ; 
Jacq. Oxal. t. 4; Fl. Dan. t. 873 ; Michx. I. c. ; Pursh, Ji. 1. p. 322; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 526; Jlook. I. c. O. Dillenii, Willd. sp. 2. p. 799. O. recurva, Ell. 

In cultivated grounds, Canada ! to Louisiana ! Common west of the Rocky 
Mountains, Douglas ex Hook. — Variable in size, mode of growth, and in the 
juumber and magnitude of the flowers. Flowers throughout the summer. 


Flowers perfect, regnlar. Sepals 4-5 : aestivation usually convo- 
lute. Petals as many as sepafs, and alternate with them, unguiculate, 
at first very short and scale-like (in aestivation mostly convolute), at 
length rather longer than the sepals. Stamens twice as many as the 
petals, hypogynous : filaments distinct, dilated at the base, sometimes 
placed on the back of a small scale : anthers fixed near their middle, 
introrse. Ovary composed of 4-5 united carpels placed opposite the 
petals, surrounded at the base with 5 scales or glands, or by a sinuate 
disk : ovules in each carpel 2 or more, attached to the inner angle, 
pendulous or rarely erect : styles and stigmas united. Fruit capsular 
or rarely fleshy, 4-5-coccous (or 10-coccous by the carpels being spuri- 
ously 'i-celied), indehiscent, the cocci at length separating, or loculi- 
cidal ; the sarcocarp not separable from the endocarp. Seeds usually 
fewer than the ovules, anatropous : albumen cartilaginous or horny, 
rarely none. Embryo green : cotyledons foliaceous. — Herbs, shrubs, 
or trees ; with the branches mostly articulated at the nodes. Leaves 
opposite, stipulate, not dotted, rarely simple. 

Tribe L TRIBULE^E. Ad. Jtiss. 

Stigma 5- or 10-ribbed, broader than the short style. Carpels inde- 
hiscent, externally tuberculate or prickly, internally divided by ob- 

• The characters given by Mr. Nutlall are subjoined; 

"0.pum.ila: perennial, more or less hairy; umbelliferous 2-flowered peduncles 
scarcely longer than the petioles; leaflets obcordate, deeply emarginated ; sepals ob- 
long-lanceolate; styles shorter than the inner stamens; capsules nearly smooth, 
about twice the length of the calyx. — Forests of the Rocky Mountains and Oregon. 
Root at length woody ; branches decumbent. Capsules unusually short." J^^utt. 

" O. pilosa : perennial, densely hirsute, decumbent ; peduncles about 1-flowered 

{1-3 in specimen], longer than the petioles; leaflets obcordate, almost bifid; sepals 
anceolate ; styles short; capsules very hairy, more than 3 times the length of the 
calyx. — Woods around St. Barbara, California. A small very hairy species, with 
ytliow flowers: nearly allied to the preceding." NuU. 

Kallstrcemia. ZYGOPHYLLACE.E. 212 

liquely transverse partitions into 2-4 superposed l-seeded cells ; or 
spuriously 2-celled by a longitudinal septum. Seeds destitute of al- 

1. KALLSTR(EMIA. Scop.; W. d^ Am. prodr. lad. Or. 1. p. 145. 

Sepals 5 (rarely 6), persistent. Petals 5, obovate. Stamens 10: filaments 
naked; the 5 opposite the sepals somewhat abortive, placed inside 5 hypogy- 
nou3 glands. Ovary of 5 cohering carpels; each with 2 collateral pendulous 
ovules, and spuriously 2-celled by a longitudinal septum (the ovary thus be- 
ing apparently 10-celled with a solitary ovule in each cell) : style conical, 
lU-furrowed : stigma capitate, 10-ribbed. Fruit at length separating into 10 
one-seeded cocci, without transverse partitions. — Annual branching diiTuse 
or trailing pubescent herbs. Leaves opposite, with interpetiolar stipules, ab- 
ruptly pinnate. Peduncles solitary, axillary, 1-flowered. 

We are unable to quote the work in which this ^enus was originally described; 
According to Arnott, Elirenhergia iribuloides, Mart. nov. gen. if* :^p. Bras. 2. p. 72. 
t. lt)3, is a second species of the genus, which sometimes has sepals, 12 sta- 
mens, &c. 

/ 1. K. ma.vima: leaflets in 3 or rarely 4 pairs, oblong or oval, mucronate, 
■lightly falcate,pubescent beneath, the terminal ones largest; flowers yellow; 
cocci gibbous below, tuberculate. — Tribidus maximus, Linn. ; Jacq. ic. rar. 
3. t. 62 ; Wind. sp. 2. p. 566; EIL sk. 1. p. 476 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 704; 
Torr.! in ami. Lijc. New- York, 2. p. 173. T. trijugatus, A7i«..' gen. 1. 
p. 2117 ; DC. I. c. T. terrestris, MnhL! cat. p. 43. 

In wast? places, Savannah, Georgia, NiiUall '. Elliott : introduced from 
the West Indies'? Arkansas, Dr. James! June-Sept. — Stems diffusely 
procumbent, 1-2 feet long. Peduncles an inch long. Petals marcescent. 


Flowers by abortion dioecious or polygamous, regular. Sepals 3-4- 
5, very rarely 6-9, cohering at the base. Petals as many as seoals, 
or rarely none : aestivation twisted-convolute. , Stamens as many as 
the petals and alternate with them, or seldom twice as many, rising 
from around the base of the torus which bears the abortive carpels; 
in the pistillate flowers either wanting or imperfect : filaments dis- 
tinct : anthers introrse. Ovaries usually the same number as the 
sepals or sometimes fewer, more or less stipitate, either distinct or 
united: ovules 2 or rarely 4 in each carpel : styles distinct or more 
or less connate when the ovaries are separate, mostly combined when 
the ovaries are united. Fruit sometimes baccate or mcmbrana- 
ceous, sometimes consisting of 1-5 drupes or 2-valved capsules ; the 
rather fleshy sarcocarp partly separable from the endocarp. Seeds 
solitary or in pairs, anatropous, pendulous : testa thick and crustace- 
ous, usually smooth and shining. Embryo lying within fleshy albu- 

214 ZANTHOXYLACE^. Ptelea. 

men : cotyledons oval, flat. — Trees or shrubs, aromatic and bitter. 
Leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate, simple or usually pinnate : 
leaflets mostly marked with pellucid dots. 

1. ZANTHOXYLUM. Linn. ; H. B. ^ K. not. gen. ^ sp. 6. p. 1. 

Dioecious. Sepals 3-9, small. Petals longer than the sepals, or none. 
Stamens as many as the sepals and opposite them (or fewer), mostly exsert- 
ed ; those of the pistillate flowers rudimentary. Ovaries 1-5, raised on a 
globose or cylindrical torus, distinct, with 2 collateral suspended ovules: 
styles distinct, or united at the apex, sometimes very short. Carpels crusta- 
ceous in fruit, sessile on the torus or stipitate, 2-valved, 1-2-seeded. Seeds 
black and shining, globose when solitary, hemispherical when in pairs. — 
Trees or shrubs, usually with prickles on the branches, petioles, and midrib 
of the leaflets. Leaves pinnately 3-13-foliolate. Flowers small, greenish or 
whitish : inflorescence various. 

§ 1. Sepals 5 or more, peia^oid, with a minute glandular beard at the 
apex: petals none: ovaries as many as sepals and opposite them: 
styles terminating in clavate stigmas, which are at first connate. — 
Zanthoxylum, Golden. 

./' 1. Z. Americanim (Mill, diet.) : branches and often petioles armed with 
short strong (stipular) prickles; leaves pinnate; leaflets ovate-oblong, nearly 
sessile, obscurely serrulate or entire, more or less pubescent; flowers in short 
axillary umbels ;' carpels stipitate.— U'illd. beschr. ( 1781) p. 1 16. Z. fraxin- 
ifolium, Marsh, arbusl. (1785.) Z. fraxineum, Willd. Berl. baum. (1796), 
&■ sp. 4. p. Ibl ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 210 ; DC. prndr. 1. p. 726 ; Hook. ]i. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. US: Bigel. mud. bot t. 59. Z. ramiflorum, Michj-. ! fi. 2. p. 235. 
Z. tricarpum, Hook. I. c. not of Michx. Z. Clava-HercuUs, var. Linn. 
Z. mite, Willd. mum. p. 1013; DC. I. c. 

Canada! to Virginia; west to the Mississippi. April-May.— A shrub or 
very small tree ; the bark pungent to the taste. Flowers greenish. Leaves 
often nearly glabrous when mature, sometimes tomentose beneath. Seeds 
large, black. — Prickly Ash. 

§ 2. Sepals, petals, and stamens 5 : ovaries usually 3 : styles short.— 
OcHROXYLUM, ScJireb. (Kampmannia, Raf. ex Ad. Juss.) 

2. Z. Carol iniamun (Lam.) : branches and usually petioles armed with long 
stipular prickles ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, inequilateral, some- 
what falcate, petiolulate, crenate-serrulate, glabrous, lucid above : flowers m 
terminal panicles; sepals minute; carpels sessile.— Lam. diet. (1786)2. p. 
40; Catesb. Car. 1. L 26. Z. tricarpum, Michx.! I. c ; Pursh, I.e.; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 690 ; DC. I. c. Z. fraxinifolium, Walt. Car. p. 243. Fagarafraxi- 
nifolia. Lam. ill. t. 334. 

In sandy soil near the sea-coast, N. Carolina! Georgia! and Florida; 
west to Arkansas! June.— A small tree (the Prickly Ash of the Southern 
States) ; the leaves and bark very aromatic and pungent. Pricldes very sharp. 

2. PTELEA. Linn. ; Lam. ill. t. 84; t. 49. 
Polygamous. Sepals 3-6, commonly 4, small. Petals much longer than 


the sepals, spreading. Stamens alternate with and longer than the petals : 
filaments thickened helow and hairy on the inside ; in the fertile flowers very 
short and with sterile anthers. Ovary of 2 united carpels, placed on a 
convex torus: ovules 2 in each carpel, situated one above the other: styles 
short, united, or none: stigmas 2. Fruit a 2-cclled samara, turgid in the 
centre, the margin expanded into a broad orbicular membranaceous -and reti- 
culated wing. Seeds oblong, solitary in each cell. — Shrubs. Leaves pin- 
nately 3-( rarely 5-) foliolate, Avith pellucid dots, the lateral leaflets inequila- 
teral. Flowers whitish, cymose : cymes corymbed or panicled. 

~h^- P. trifoUata (Linn.) : leaflets sessile, ovate, mostly acuminate, the 
terminal one cuneiform and attenuate at the base; flowers commonlv tetran- 
drous; style short.— IfV///. C<tr. p. H9,; Mich.r. ! fi. Lp. 99; Ell.'sk. 1. p. 
21 1 ; Ton: ! ft. 1. p. 189 ; DC. nrodr. 2. p. 82. 

In shady rocky places, from Lake Erie ! to Florida ! west to Kentucky ! and 
Texas! June. — Pubescent when young, 6-8 feet high. Leaflets obscurely 
crenulate. Ovary of the staminalc flowers abortive. Odor of the flowers 
disagreeable. — P. monophylla, Law. diet, appears not to belong to the genus, 
and is perhaps a Rumex, as is suggested by Ad. Jussieu. 

2. P. Baldwinii : leaves very small, glabrous; leaflets sessile, oval, ob- 
tuse, the terminal one cuneiform at the base; flowers tetrandrous; styles 

St. John's, East Florida, Baldwin! (in herb Acad. Philad.) — Shrub 
apparently not more than a foot high, with numerous short scraggy 
branches. Leaflets scarcely an inch in length. Flowers smaller than in 
P. trifolia. Fruit not seen. 

3. PITAVIA. Molin. Chil. 
Galvezia, Ruiz, if- Pav. ; Ad. Jiiss.; not of Domb. in Juss. gen. 

Flowers by abortion diclinous. Calyx 4-parted. Petals 4, longer than 
the calyx. Sterile Fl. Stamens 8; the 4 opposite the petals shorter: 
filaments subulate, glabrous, inserted around the base of the oblong gynophore 
which supports 3-4 distinct abortive ovaries ; the styles coherent with each 
other above. Fertile Fl. Ovaries 4, on a 4-angled fleshy gynophore, each 
with 2 collateral ovules : styles rising from the apex of the ovaries, distinct 
at the base, coalescent above: stigmas connate into a single 4-lobed one. 
Drupes 4, or by abortion fewer, 1-seeded. Seed ovoid, with a straight em- 
bryo. Ad. Juss. sub Galvezia. 

1. P. dumosa (Nutt. ! mss.) 

St. Diego, California, Nuttall ! — A low branching shrub. Leaves oppo- 
site or fascicled on short branches ; linear, attenuate at the base, obtuse, 
about an inch long, rather thick, 1-nerved, marked with glandular pellucid 
dots ; the margin with a row of glandular dots, but entire. Flowers, in the 
specimens, all perfect, nearly solitary at the extremity of the branches, small, 
on short peduncles. Petals somewhat unequal. Stamens 8, the alternate 
ones smallest; or in some flowers only 4. Ovary solitary, simple, subglo- 
bo5e, placed on a minute flat 8-toothed disk, 1-celled, with 2 collateral 
ovules: style lateral (arising from about the middle of the ovary) : stigma a 
little thickened, somewhat grooved. Fruit a single globose 1-seeded drupa- 
ceous nut (?), about the size of a pea. Seed globose, with a somewhat crus- 
taceous testa. — We have failed, by some accident, to receive Mr. Nuttall's 


notes on this plant ; and have drawn up the preceding description from in- 
complete specimens. It will be seen that the plant ditfers considerably from 
the genus Pitavia (or Galvezia) as defined by Ad. Jussieu, in his Mc7n. sur 
des Rutacdes, from which the generic character given above has been ex- 
tracted ; and it is very probably not a congener of Galvezia punctata, JRuiz ^ 
Pav. The sterile flowers, if they exist, we have not seen ; those in our 
specimen being apparently perfect. 


Flowers perfect, or frequently diclinous, regular. Sepals 5, or rarely 
3-4-7, distinct or more or less combined, usually persistent. Petals 
of the same number as the sepals (or sometimes none), inserted into 
the disk which lines the bottom of the caly.x : aestivation imbricated 
or rarely valvate. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with 
them, or twice as many or more, a portion sometimes sterile : fila. 
ments distinct, sometimes alternately shorter, inserted with the petals : 
anthers introrse. Ovary solitary (of 1-5 carpels, distinct or united, 
but all abortive except one), free, or rarely adhering to the calyx, 
1-celled, or with one or two abortive cells of the suppressed carpels : 
ovule solitary, on a funiculus which rises from the base of the cell 
but is sometimes adnate to one of its sides : styles 3 or rarely 4-5, 
distinct or combined : stigmas as many. Fruit indehiscent, usually 
drupaceous, 1-seeded. Seed erect or suspended, anatropous, without 
albumen. Embryo more or less curved : cotyledons very thick and 
fleshy, sometimes foliaceous, often bent upon the radicle. — Trees or 
shrubs, with a resinous, gummy, caustic or milky juice. Leaves sim- 
ple or compound, alternate, exstipulate, not dotted. Flowers axillary 
or terminal, mostly panicled. 

1. RHUS. Li7in.; Lam. ill. t 207. 

Sepals 5, united at the base, small, persistent. Petals 5, ovate, spreading, 
inserted under the margin of the orbicular disk. Stamens 5 (rarely 10), 
equal, inserted into the disk. Styles 3, distinct or united : stigmas 3, sub- 
capitate. Fruit almost a dry drupe ; nut bony, 1-celled. Seed sohtary, sus- 
pended on a funiculus that rises from the base to the apex of the cell. Co- 
tyledons foliaceous, incumbent upon the radicle.— Shrubs or small trees. 
Leaves simple, or unequally pinnate. Flowers often by abortion polyga- 
mous or dioecious. 

§ 1. Flowers perfect : drupe semi-ohcordate^reticulately veined ; nut tri- 
angular: leaves simple: fiowers in loose panicles. — Cotincs, Tourn. 

1. R.Cotinusl (Linn.): leaves obovate, entire ; agteatpart of thefloAvers 
abortive, the pedicels at length elongated and clothed with large shaggy 

Rhus. ANACARDIACE^. 217 

hairs. — IfV/A/. up. 1. p. 1484; DC. prodr. 2. p. 67. R. cotiuoides, Null./ 
in herb. (icud. Phi I ad. 

On the high rocky banks of Grand River, Arkansas, Null all! certainly 
indigenous. --Mr. Nuttall's specimens are in fruit oidy : an examination of 
the Hovvers will probably prove it to be distinct from R. Cotinus, a native of 
the South of Europe and Middle Asia, but not unfrequently cultivated in 

§ 2. Fhmn^s perfect, poly gavious or diascious : disk entire or lobcd: drupe 
roundish, sometimes hairy: nut smooth or sulcate. Leaves unequally 
pinnate or 3-foliolate ; the petiole often uinged: flowers paniclcd. — 


y^. li. lyphina (Linn.): branches and petioles densely villous; leaflets 
11-31, whitish and more or less pubescent beneath, oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, acutely serrate ; panicles terminal, thyrsoid ; drupes densely clothed 
with crimson \\Mxs.—Duham. arh. 2. t. 47 ; Mich.r. ! fl. 1. p. 1S2; Ell. sk. 
I. p. 360; DC. prodr. 2. p. 67. R. Canadense, Mill. did. R. viridiflora, 
Poir. diet. 7. p. 504 ; DC. I. c. 

Canada ! to S. Carolina & Louisiana ! June. — A shrub, or small tree (20 feet 
high) with spreading branches. Petioles at length 2-3 feet long. Flowers green- 
ish-yellow, often polygamous or dioecious by abortion. Drupe compressed ; 
the hairs very acid. Cellular tissue of the wood orange-color, with a 
strong aromatic odor: juice resinous, copious. — Stag-horn Sumach. 

-4'^. JR. glabra (hinn.): leaves and branches glabrous; leaflets 13-31, lan- 
ceolate-oblong, acuminate, acutely serrate, glaucous beneath ; panicles termi- 
nal, thyrsoid; drupes red, clothed with crimson hairs. — Mich.r.! f. 1. p. 
182 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 361 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. US-, Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 126. R. Carolinianum, Alill. diet. R. elegans. Ait. Kew. {ed. 1.) p. 162. 
R. Virginicum etc., Cate.^b. Car. app. t. 4. 

In rocky or barren places, Canada ! (on the Saskatchawan, Hooker) to Georgia 
&. Louisiana ! July-Aug. — A stout shrub, 5-18 feet high, with a resinous milky 
juice. Leaves usually smaller than in R. typhina. Flowers often dioecious. 
Down of the drupes very acid (the malic, according to Cozzens, in ann. lye. 
Neio-York 1. p. 42 ; bimalate of lime,) Prof W. B. Rogers in Amer.journ. 
pharm. (n. ser.) 1. p. 56. The leaves and branches of this and the preceding 
species are astringent and sometimes used in tanning. — Smooth Sumach. 

3. R. puniil a (Michx.): procumbent, villous-pubescent; leaflets about 11, 
oval or oblong, slightly acuminate, coarsely toothed, with a velvety pubes- 
cence ; panicles terminal, thyrsoid, nearly sessile; drupes clothed with a 
red silky pubescence.— Tl/iWi.?'.'.' f.l.p. 182 ; Pursh,fl. 1. p. 204 ; DC. I. c. 

In grassy pine barrens, Mecklenberg County, N. Carolina, Michatt.r, Nutt- 
all ! also on the Neuse River, Schweinitz ! — An extensively procumbent 
shrub ; the branches about a foot high. The 3 upper leaflets often confluent ; 
the terminal one when distinct attenuate at the base.— A very poisonous 

4. R. Copallina TLinn.): branches and petioles pubescent; leaflets 9-21, 
oval-lanceolate or oblong, mostly acute or acuminate, shining above, pubes- 
cent beneath, unequal at the base ; petiole winged ; panicles terminal, thyr- 
soid, sessile, sometimes leafy ; drupes red, hairy. 

a. leaflets entire, usually acuminate. — R. Copallina, Linn.; Walt. Car. p. 
225 ; Michx. ! fl.l.p.l82; Jacq. hort. Schmnb. 3. p. 50. /. 341 ; Ell. sk. 1. 
;;. 362. 

0. leaflets coarsely and unequally serrate. 

y. leaflets (about 21) small, oblong, acute at the base; obtuse and slightly 
mucronate at the apex ; petiole narrowly winded. 




In barren places, Canada ! to Florida! and west to Arkansas! /?. High- 
lands of the Hudson River, Dr. Barrati! Mountains of Pennsylvania, Dr. 
Darlington. Red River, Louisiana, Dr. Hale! y. Tampa Bay, Florida, 
Dr. Burrows ! July-Aug. — Stem 3-8 feet high, branched ; juice resinous. 
Veins of the upper surfaci; of the leaves pubescent. Wing of the pe- 
tiole usually broad, interrupted at the leaflets. Peduncles downy. Drupes 
small, compressed, acid. 

-w^^5. R. venenata (DC.) : glabrous; leaflets 7-13 (membranaceous), obovate- 
oblong, entire, abruptly acuminate ; panicles slender, in the axils of the up- 
permost leaves; drupes subglobose, smooth, greenish-white. — DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 68 ; Berk, bot. p. 76; Hook. I. c. ; Darlingt. f. Cest. ed. 2. p. 207. R. 
Vernix, Linn, (in part) ; Michx. ! Ji. 1. p. 183 ; Ell. I. c. ; Bi^el. med. bot. 
1. p. 96. t. 10. 

In swamps, Canada and Northern States ! to Georgia ! west to Alexandria, 
Louisiana, Dr. Hale ! June. — A shrub, 8-15 feet high, very poisonous to 
the touch with most persons. Leaves often slightly pubescent beneath. Flow- 
ers greenish, mostly dioecious, small. Drupe as large as a pea : nut broad- 
er than long, compressed, lidged. Cotyledons oval, rather thick and fleshy. — 
The juice of this shrub is a varnish, like that of the Japanese plant (R. 
vernicifera, DC. I. c), from which it has only recently been distinguished. 
(See Bigel. I. c.) — Poison Sumach, Poison Elder, &c. i, •. \ i-, / ^-^ 

^<^6. R. Toxicodendron (Linn.) : stem erect, decumbent, or climbing by ra- 
'dicles ; leaves 3-foholate, somewhat pubescent; leaflets (membranaceous) 
broadly oval or rhomboid, acuminate, entire or toothed, the lateral ones ine- 
quilateral ; panicles racemed, axillary, subsessile; drupes subglobose, smooth. 
—Michx.! ji. 1. p. 183; Torr.! ji. 1. p. 323. R. Toxicodendron & radi- 
cans, Lin7i. ; Nutt. ; DC.^c. 

a. not climbing ; leaves entire, or variously and irregularly sinuate-toothed 
or lobed. — R. Toxicodendron, Linn. ; Nutt. ^c. R. Toxicodendron ji. quer- 
cifolium, Michx. I. c. 

p. chmbing ; leaves more commonly entire or nearly so. — R. radicans, 
Linn. ; Bot. mag. t. 1806 ; Bigel. med. bot. 3. p. 19, t. 42 ; DC. I. c. R. 
Toxicodendron a. vulgare, Michx. I. c. R. Toxicodendron 0. radicans, 
Torr. ! ft. I. c. 

/.leaves oval-oblong; fruit smaller. — R. Toxicodendron >'. microcarpon, 
Michx. I. c. 

In rather shady usually damp places, Canada ! (on the Saskatchawan, 
Hooker) to Georgia ! west to Arkansas ! & the Rocky Mountains ! N. W. 
America, Z)o?fo-/flrs (ex Hooker). May-June. — A low shrub, or climbing ; 
poisonous like' the preceding. Leaflets large, petiolulate. Flowers mostly 
dioecious, greenish. Drupes nearly the size of the preceding, pale chestnut- 
color. — Poison-Ivy, Poison-Oak, ^c. 

J 7. R. diversiloba: nearly glabrous; stem scarcely climbing, with short 
leafy branches; leaves 3- (rarely 5-) foliolate; leaflets very obtuse, in the pis- 
tillate plant slightly, in the staminate rather deeply pinnately lobed; lobes 
very obtuse, the incisions acute ; panicles axillary, racemose ; drupes subglo- 
bose. — R. lobata, Hook. ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 127, t. 46, <^ in bot. Beechey, p. 
137 (the male), not of Poir. R. Toxicodendron, Hook. ^ Am. in bot. 
Beechey, I. c. (the pistillate plant) ? 

Borders of woods &c., Oregon. Douglas, Nnltall! & California, Beechey, 
Nuttall! — "The sterile and fertile flowers in this species (which is very 
near R. Toxicodendron) present some notable diflferences. The sterile, which 
is figured by Hooker, has rather deeply lobed leaflets, sometimes in fives, 
and larger flowers: in the fertile the leaflets are almost entire or slightly 
lobed and the flowers considerably smaller, so that it might readily be taken 
for a distinct species. The fruit is white, somewhat pubescent and gibbous." 
Nutt. — The panicles are often shorter than the petioles. 


§ 3. Flowers diapcious or 'polygamous : disk glandular, deeply 5-lobed 
(lobes opposite the petals) : drupe globose, villous : nut smooth, covipress- 
ed: Jloioers in short aments, preceding the leaves. Leaves 3-falialuie. 

8. R. aromatica (Ait.) : leaves pubescent when younfr (at length coria- 
ceous and often "rlabrous); leaflets sessile, rhomboid-ovate, unequally and in- 
cisely toothed, the terminal one narrowed at the base. — Ait. Kew. {ed. 1.) 1. 
p. 367 ; Turpin, in ann. mus. 5. p. 445. t. 30 ; Pnrsh, fl. 1. p. 205; Ell. sk. 
1. p. 361 ; Hook. I. c. II. suaveolens, Ait. I. c. R. Canadense, Mar.s'h. ar- 
hust.7 ; DC. I. c. p. 73. Lobadium aromaticum, Baf. in jour. phys. 89. 
p. 98. Turpinia, Baf. in JDesr. jour. bot. 2. p. 170. Schmalzia, JJesv. I. c. 

In dry rocky places, from the 8askatchawan River (Hooker) to Georgia! 
west to Arkansas ! April-May. — A small aromatic shrub. Flowers small, 
yellow, on short pedicel^;, from axillary aments formed during the previous 
summer. Drupes tlie size of a small i)ea, light red, more or less hispid, 
slightly compressed, agreeably acid. This plant varies greatly in the degree 
of pubescence of the leaves. R. suaveolens of Alton differs merely in the 
leaves being almost glabrous, so that we have no hesitation in referring it to 
the present species. 

-f^ ^- B.trilobata (Nutt. ! mss.) : "leaves glabrous, small; lateral leaflets 
obovate, obtuse, 3-lobed at the apex or nearly entire ; terminal leaflet cunei- 
form, 3-lobed at the summit, the middle lobe sometimes 3-toothed. 

" In the central chain of the Rocky Mountains. — A low leafy shrub ; the 
leaves much smaller than in R. aromatica : terminal leaflet broad, i-1 inch 
in length ; lateral ones smaller. Drupes scarlet, acid ; the nut flat, scarcely 
striate." Nutt. 


§ 4. " Flowers perfect \^or polygamous] : calyx subcampanulate : disk 
fleshy, entire: stamens 5-10: styles united, very short: drupe globose, 
with a thin and rather dry resinous aromatic pulp : nut orbicular, 
compressed, even. Leaves simple, coriaceous, entire: flowers in panicu- 
late racemes, terminal and in the axils of the upper leaves. — Malosma," 

10. B. laurina (Nutt.! mss.): " very glabrous ; leaves elliptical or elliptic- 
ovate, obtuse or emarginate, often mucronate, on rather long petioles ; pani- 
cles crowded ; stamens 5 ; filaments very short. 

"On bushy plains, near St. Barbara, California. — A low spreading tree or 
large shrub, much branched and very leafy, exhaling to a considerable dis- 
tance an aromatic odor, something like that of the Bitter Almond, (whence 
the name, from /laXa vakU & oufioq, odor.) Leaves very pale, pinnately 
but not prominently veined, about 2 inches Ion?, often slightly emarginate at 
both ends: petioles more than i an inch in length. Flowers very small and 
numerous. Calyx fleshy ; segments obtuse. Petals oblong, a little longer 
than the calyx. Stigmas 3, minute. — To this subgenus, or rather perhaps, 
genu5, belongs the LUthi of Fuillee, or Laurus caustica of Molina, the 
Rhus ? caustica, i/ooA:. if- Am. bot. Beechey^svoy. p. 15. t. 7, a species which 
differs from ours in its larger decandrous flowers, and much shorter petioles; 
we are not informed whether the fruit of that species yields an aromatic 
odor. Mauria, //. B. ^ K. also differs but little from the plants of this curious 
section ; and both possess the venomous properties of Toxicodendron." Nutt. 
— The R. ? caustica, Hook. ^ Arn. is described as dioecious; but the accom- 
panying plate represents, among others, one apparently perfect flower. 

220 ANACARDIACEiE. Styphonia. 

2. STYPHONIA. Nutt. mss. 

" Sepals 7-9, colored, concave, with scarious margins, imbricated in seve- 
ral series, persistent, somewhat similar to the rather imbricated bracteoles at 
the base. Petals 5, oblong, slightly unguiculate, of the same texture as the 
sepals, pubescent within near the base, inserted under the margin of the disk. 
Stamens 5-7. Style short: stigma minute, 3-lobed. Fruit a dry flattened 
drupe ; the pulp very acid and astringent : nut compressed, bony, 1-celled. 
Seed solitary, suspended from a funiculus rising from the base of the cell. — 
Low and much branched submaritime trees. Leaves simple, alternate, thick 
and coriaceous, persistent. Flowers polygamous, sessile, in terminal con- 
tracted panicles. Bark exuding small quantities of a very astringent gum- 
resin." Nutt. 

1. S. integrifolia (Nutt. ! mss.) : " leaves oval, very obtuse at both ends, 
entire, on short petioles. 

" On the margins of cliffs, &c. near the sea, around St. Diego & St. Bar- 
bara ; common. — An unsightly tree, about the thickness of a man's arm, 
branching widely and forming almost impervious thickets, glabrous ; the 
young leaves and branches minuteljr pubescent. Leaves an inch or more 
long, three times the length of the petioles, rather prominently veined beneath. 
Flowers in few-flowered sessile clusters upon the short branches of the pani- 
cle. Sepals and petals reddish. Drupes the size of a pea, hirsute. — Fruit 
similar in most respects to that of Rhus § Sumac ; inflorescence somewhat 
approaching that of Lobadium ; differing from both, particularly in the gra- 
dual transition from bracts to petals. To this genus apparently belongs Rhus 
atra, Forst., of New Caledonia, of which I hav&seen an original specimen, 
but with:)Ut the flowers: the leaves are 3-4 inches long, very thick and rigid, 
attenuated into short petioles, with very prominent anastomozing pinnate 
yeins. Rhus mollis, H. B. ^ /f., also evidently belongs to the genus." Nutt. 

2. S. serrata (Nutt. ! mss.) : " leaves oval or ovate, on very short petioles, 
sharply repand-serrate. 

" With the preceding, from which it differs merely in its leaves, which 
when young are sharply serrate with small mucronate teeth ; the older leaves 
are obscurely repand-serrate." Nutt. 


Flowers perfect, regular. Sepals 4, or rarely 5, small, united at the 
base, persistent. Petals as many as sepals, hypogynous (or none) : 
aestivation imbricated. Stamens twice the number of the petals, hy- 
pogynous, distinct : anthers introrse. Ovary solitary, simple, 1-cell- 
ed, seated on a thickened disk : stigma capitate, sessile : ovules 2-6, 
pendulous. Fruit drupaceous, leguminous, or samaroid, glandular, in- 
dehiscent, 1-2-seeded. Seeds anatropous, destitute of albumen. Em- 
bryo with a very short radicle, and thick fleshy cotyledons. — Resini- 
ferous trees or shrubs. Leaves pinnately 3-7-foliolate, opposite, with 
glandular pellucid dots, mostly destitute of stipules. Flowers panicled. 
Pericarp covered with granular glands, filled with an aromatic oil. 


1. AMYRIS. lAim.; DC. prodr. 2. p. SI. 

Sepals 4, united at the base. Petals 4, cuneiform or unguiculatc. Sta- 
mens 8, shorter than the petals. Drupe 1-seeded : nucleus chartaceous. — 
Flowers white. 

1. A. Floridana (Nutt.): leaves on very short petioles, 3-foliolate ; leaflets 
ovate, pctiolulatc, oDtuse or sub-acurniiiate, stroni^ly reticulate-veined, the 
margin mostly entire; flowers somewhat panicled; drupes subglobose, at- 
tenuate at the base.— iV«//. .' in Sill. Jour. 5. p. 294; DC. prodr. 2. p. SI. 

East Florida, Mr. Ware. — A shrub. Flowers not seen. Petiolules of 
the terminal leaflet a little longest. — A. toxilera, Catesb. Car. is wrongly 
credited to the United States. 


Sepals united into a short 3-5-toothed urceolate or campanulate 
marcescent calyx. Petals 3-5, broad at the base, slightly imbricated 
in sestivation, inserted on the outside of a conspicuous hypogynous 
disk. Stamens equal in number to, or some multiple of, the petals, in- 
serted upon the disk in a single series : filaments flattened below, 
sometimes distinct, sometimes monadelphous or polyadelphous : an- 
thers innate or attached near the base, versatile, the connectivum 
articulated with the filament. Ovary several-celled, composed of 
several united carpels : style 1, cylindrical : stigma somewhat lobed, 
thickish. Fruit (an orange) consisting of several (or by abortion of 
1) membranaceous carpels, commonly filled with pulp, and surrounded 
by a thickish indehiscent rind abounding in receptacles of volatile oil. 
Seeds solitary or several, and attached to the inner angle of each car- 
pel, usually pendulous, anatropous ; the raphe and chalaza usually very 
distinctly marked : albumen none. Embryo straight ; the cotyledons 
large and thick, fleshy, partly concealing the radicle : plumule usually- 
conspicuous. — Trees or siirubs (tropical), often with axillary spines, 
almost always glabrous, every part abounding in pellucid glands full of 
volatile oil. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, exstipulate, usually com- 
pound ; the petiole often dilated or winged : when apparently simple 
the lamina is articulated with the petiole, showing that they are pin- 
nate leaves reduced to the terminal leaflet. Flowers very odorous. 

1. LIMONIA. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 353 ; IF. ^ Arn. prodr. Lid. Or. 1. p. 91. 

Flowers and carpels symmetrical, in a quaternary or quinary proportion. 
Calyx 4-5-cleft. Petals 4-5. Stamens 8-10 : fdaments distinct, subulate : 
anthers cordate-oblong. Torus elevated, forming a short stalk to the ovary. 
Ovary obovate, 4-5-celled, glabrous, with 1-2 collateral pendulous ovules from 

222 TERNSTRCEMIACE^. Gordonie^. 

the lop of each cell : style elongated: stigmas obtuse. Fruit baccate, with 
4-5 cells, or by abortion fewer. Seeds solitary in each cell, surrounded with 
mucilage. — Shrubs or trees. Leaves simple, 3-foliolate, or pinnate. W. ^ Arn. 

1. Z/. acidissima? (Linn.): leaves pinnate; leaflets roundish-oval, cre- 
nate ; spines geminate. Nutt. in Sill. jour. 5. p. 295. L. ambigua, DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 536. 

East Florida, collected by ]\Tr. Ware. N'liii. — The specimens collected by 
Mr. Ware are very imperfect, and exhibit neither the flowers nor fruit. We 
possess similar specimens of the same plant collected in Southern Florida by 
Dr. Hassler and communicated to us by the Columbian Horticultural So- 
ciety. The plant is probably not indigenous to Florida. Wight & Arnott 
unite L. crenulata with L. acidissima. 

Citrus. — Wm. Bartram (in his Travels through North and Sotdh Carolina, 
Georgia, and Florida, 1791,) makes frequent mention of extensive groves of wild 
Orangje trees in East Florida, as far north as lat 28'^. In a notice of the town of 
New Smyrna he observes: " I was there about 10 years ago, wiien the surveyor run 
the lines of the colony, where there was neither habitation nor cleared field. It was 
then a famous Orange grove, the upper or south promontory of a ridge nearly half a 
mile wide, and stretching north about 40 miles, &c. &c. All this was one entire 
Orange grove, with Live-Oaks, Magnolias, Palms, Red Bays, and others." Bartr. 
I. c. note on p. 244. See also p. 253, &c. These groves seem to be well-known in 
Florida at the present day, and are generally supposed to be indigenous. According 
to the late Mr. Croom " they are rarely found north of lat. 29^ 30', although there 
is a small grove near the Alligator Pond, which is somewhat nnrth of lat. oO°," 
Croom, mss. The fruit is known by the name of Bitter-sweet Orange. 

Order XXXVII. TERNSTRCEMIACE^. Mirh. ; Kunth. 

Ternstroemiacece & Theacese, Mirb. 

Sepals 3-5, concave, coriaceous, persistent, the innermost often 
larjj;est : aestivation imbricated. Petals mostly 5, hypogynous, alter- 
nate with the sepals, often united at the base. Stamens indefinite, 
inserted with the petals : filaments filiform, usually monadelphous or 
polyadelphous at the base, often adherent to the base of the petals : 
anthers adnate or versatile. Ovary 2-7-celled, usually sessile on a 
discoid torus : ovules 2 or more in each cell : placentae in the axis : 
styles 2-7, distinct or combined. Fruit 2-7-celied, capsular, baccate, 
or coriaceous and indehiscent. Seeds usually few and large, anatropous 
or campulitropous, v/ith or without albumen. Embryo straight or 
curved : cotyledons often large and containing oil. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves alternate, mostly coriaceous, e.xstipulate, now and then with 
pellucid dots. Peduncles axillary and terminal. Flowers large and 

Tribe GORDONIE.^. DC. 

Capsule loculicidal. Seeds destitute of albumen, winged or mar- 
gined : cotyledons foliaceous, wrinkled and plaited lengthwise Small 

Stuartia. TERNSTRCEMIACE^. 223 

trees or shrubs, natives of the Southern Atlantic states. Leaves ser- 
rate or nearly entire. Flowers large, axillary (or terminal), solitary. 

1. GORDONIA. Ellis, inphil. trans. (GO. ^. 11) ; Car. diss. 6. t. 161. 

Sepals 5, roundish, coriaceous, strongly imbricated. Petals 5, somewhat 
united at the base. Styles united into one, columnar. Capsule woody, ovoid 
or globose, 5-valved. Seeds 2 in each cell, with a short terminal or lateral 
wing. — Trees. Flowers white. 

§ 1. Tube of the filaments short, d-lobed, adnate to the base of the pe- 
tals : stijle as long as the stamens : capside ovoid. Leaves coriaceous, 
perennial : fiowers on slender peduncles. — Lasianthus, DC. 

1. G. Lasianthus (Linn.) : leaves lanceolate-oblong, narrowed at the base, 
coriaceous, smooth and shining on both sides, finely and sharply serrate ; pe- 
duncles somewhat shorter than the leaves ; sepals densely silky, ciliate ; 
capsule conical, acuminate. — Linn. want. 1. p. 570; Cav. I. c. ; Bat. mag.t. 
668 ; Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 42 ; Pursh ! ft. 2. p. 451 ; Mich.r.f syti\ 1. p. 295, t. 
58; Ell. sk. 2. p. 171; DC. prodr. 1. p. 528; Audubon, birds of Amer. 
t. 168. Hypericum Lasianthus, Linn. hort. Cliff, p. 380. Alcea Flori- 
dana, &c., Catesb. Car. 1. t. 44. 

In shallow swamps, near the coast, Virginia to Florida! May-Aug. — 
Tree 50-80 feet high (wood light, mahogany-color). Leaves subsessile. 
Peduncles 3-4-bracteolate under the flower. Petals somewhat hairy outside. 
Capsule rarely 6-celled, Q-vaWed.— Loblolly Bay.— A second species, appa- 
rently of this section, is G. Wallichii, DC. (G. Chilaunea, Don), a native of 

§ 2. Filaments distinct, adnate to the base of the petcds : style shorter 
than the stamens : capsule globose. Leaves deciduous : fiowers subses- 
sile. — Franklinia, Bartram. 

2. G. pubescens (L' Her.): leaves oblong-cuneiform, finely and sharply 
serrate, shining above, canescent beneath, rather thin and membranaceous ; 
sepals and petals silky-pubescent beneath.— L'J^er. stirp. p. 156; Vent. 
Malm. t. 1 ; Cav. diss. 6. t. 162 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 841 ; Michx. ! fi. 2. p. 42; 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 451 ; Mich.r.f. sylv. 1. t. 59 ; Ell. .<;k. 2. p. 171 ; DC. prodr. 
1. p. 528 ; Audubon, birds of Amer. t. 185. G. Franklinii, L'Her. I. c. p. 
156 ; Willd. I. c. Franklinia Americana & Altaraaha, Marsh, arbust. p. 
48. Lacathea florida, Salisb. parad. Lond. t. 56. 

Near Fort Barrington, on the Altamaha, Georgia, Bartram.! Florida, 
{herb. Srhweiniz ! ). May-Aug.— Tree 30-50 feet high, with widely 
spreading branches. Leaves nearly sessile, veiny. Flowers about 3 inches 
in diameter. Filaments yellow. 

2. STUARTIA. Catesb. Car. t. 13 ; Linn; UHer. stirp. t. 73 ^ 74. 

Stewartia & Malachodendron, Cav.; DC. 

Sepals 5, more or less united at the base, 1-2-bracteolate. Petals 5, 
united at the base ; the margins crenulate. Tube of the stamens adnate 
to the base of the petals. Styles 5, filiform, distinct, or united into one. 
Capsule somewhat woody, 5-celled, 5-valved. Seeds 2 in each cell, slightly 
margined.— Shrubs with ovate membranaceous deciduous leaves, and large 
(white or cream-colored) subsessile flowers. 

224 MALVACEAE. Malope. 

1. S. Malachodendron (Linn.): leaves oval, mostly acuminate at each 
end, mucronately serrulate, clothed with a soft pubescence beneath; sepals 
obtuse, united below ; styles united ; capsule globose. — Linn. sp. p. 982, & 
in act Upsal. (1741) t. 2; UHer. stirp. t. 73; Gronov. Virg. p. 101; 
Walt. Car. p. 17G; Lam. ill t. 593. S. Virginica, Cav. diss. 5. t. 159; 
Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 43; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 451; Ell. sk. 2. p. 172; DC. prodr. 
l.p. 52S. S. Marilandica, Andrews, hot. rep. t. 73. 

Virginia! to Florida! (in swamps, Pursh: in dry rich soils, Elliott) {rom 
the coast to near the mountains ; Red River, Louisiana, Dr. Hale ! April- 
June. — Shrub 6-12 feet high ; branches geniculate, pubescent when young. 
Leaves on short petioles. Flowers occasionally in pairs. Sepals roundish, 
with 2 small bracteoles at the base, silky beneath. Petals a little hairy be- 
neath, white. Filaments short, purple: anthers blue. Stigmas 5-lobed. 
Capsule hairy. 

2. S. pentagyna (L'Her.) : leaves oval or ovate, acuminate, entire or mu- 
cronately serrulate, somewhat pubescent beneath ; sepals lanceolate ; styles 
distinct ; capsule 5-angled.— Zy'//e?'. stirp. t. 74 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 840 ; SWdth, 
exot. hot. t. 101 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 452; Ell. sk. 2. p. 173. Malachodendron 
ovatum, Cav. diss. 5. t.i58; Michx. I. c. ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 528 ; Bot. reg. 
t. 1104. 

N. Carolina ! to Georgia ! in the mountains. May — July. — Shrub closely 
resembling the preceding, but with rather larger, cream-colored, and more 
deeply crenulate petals. Sepals and capsule hairy; the latter with 5 salient 
angles, woody. Seeds 2 in each cell, oval or nearly orbicular, plano-convex ; 
testa crustaceous, dilated into a slight somewhat membranaceous margin. 

Order XXXVIII. MALVACEAE. Juss. (in part) ; DC. 

Sepals 5 (rarely 3 or 4), more or less united at the, often hav- 
ing an external calyx or involucel : sestivation valvate. Petals hypo- 
gynous, equal in number to the sepals, with a twisted aestivation. 
Stamens hypogynous, usually indefinite, or rarely as few as the pe- 
tals, monadelphous : anthers 1-celled, reniform, bursting transversely : 
pollen hispid. Ovary formed by the union of several carpels round a 
common axis, either distinct or cohering : styles as many as the car- 
pels, united or distinct : stigmas as many or twice as many as the car- 
pels. Fruit capsular, or rarely baccate: carpels 1- or many-seeded, 
sometimes closely united, sometimes separate or separable ; the dehis- 
cence loculicidal or septicidal. Seeds campulitropous or heterotropous, 
with little or no albumen. Embryo curved : cotyledons foliaceous, 
twisted and doubled up. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, stipu- 
late, mostly palmately veined : pubescence mostly stellate. 

1. MALOPE. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 583; DC. prodr. l.p. 429. 

Calyx surrounded by an mvolucel of 3 cordate leaves. Carpels numerous, 
distinct, 1-seeded, aggregated without order. — Herbs with purplish or white 

1. M. Malacoides (Linn.) : leaves ovate, crcnatc ; stipules oblong-linear ; 

Malva. MALVACEAE. ' 225 

pcdunclps axillary. t-floAVorod. DC— Null. ^oi. 2. p. 82; Ell. sk. 2. p. Ifi4. 
Malva Aint-ricaDa, Mnhl. cat. p. 65, fide Elllolt. 

PinmsyWrnua, Muhlenberg ; Virginia? Elliotl. — (J) Stem 12-18 indies 
high, sparingly branched, clothed with while hairs toward the summit. 
Leaves ovale, toothed, very obtuse at the base, nearly glabrous above, hairy 
on the veins beneath : petioles an inch long. Flowers axillary, solitary : pe- 
duncles 2-3 lines long. Bracteoles setaceous. Petals twice as long as the 
calyx, yellow. Carpels hispid, collected into a depressed globular head, 
EUioll. — .\ultall, who saw the plant here described in Elliott's herbarium, 
considered it the Malope Matacoides. According to EUiott it is the Malva 
Americana of Muhlenberg, but not of Willdcnow. We have not the means 
of determining the genus of this plant, but believe it to be a species of Malva. 

2. MALVA. Linn, j Lam. ill. t. 5S2; W. ^ Am. prodr. Ind. Or. 1. p. 4j. 

Malva & CalUrhoe, Null. (Nuttallia, Dick tf- Bart.) 

Calyx 5-clcft, with an inVolucel of usually 3, sometimes 1-2 or 5-6 oblong 
or setaceous bracteoles, or very rarely naked. Carpels several (rarely only 
5), dry, indchiscent, circularly arranged round the axis. Radicle inferior. 

* Flowers purple or v:kite. 

t Leaves undivided. 

^1. M. rntundifolia (Linn): stem prostrate; leaves cordate-orbicular, ob- 
tusely 5-lobed ; petioles pubescent ; pedicels axillary, 1-flowered, declined in 
fruit, elongated ; segments of the calyx acutely triangular ; involucre 3-leaved; 
carpels numerous, wrinkled. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 432; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 454; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 163. 

Road-sides and waste grounds. Introduced from Europe, Mav-Sept. — 
li Stem spreading, a foot long. Leaves crenate, on elongated petioles. 
Flowers half an inch in diameter. Bracteoks oblong-linear. Petals pale 

2. iM. obtn.fa : stem prostrate: leaves cordate-orbicular, obtusely 5-lobed ; 
petioles elongated, pubescent ; peduncles axillary, several together, much 
shorter than the petioles, declined in fruit?; segments of the calyx short; 
obtusely triangular; involucre 3-leaved, the bracteoles setaceous ; carpels nu- 
merous, strongly Avrinkled. 

California, Douglas ! — Much resembling the preceding species ; but the 
stem is stouter, the pedicels much shorter, and the segments of the calyx 
(when in fruit) also shorter and broader. 

3. M. Hnus-hlonii : stellately hairy; stem herbaceous, erect?; leaves 
crenate, deltoid-ovate, the radical ones cordate at the base ; flowers in a 
loose terminal panicle ; bracteoles 3, linear-spatulate ; carpels numerous, not 

Dry prairies, North-West Territory, Dr. Houghton ! Pekin, Illinois, Mr. 
Buckley ! July-Aug. — Stem 2-3 feet long. Leaves on long petioles, those 
of the stem truncate at the base, coarsely crenate, 2-3 inches long. Panicle 
many-flowered : pedicels several together. Flowers purple, an inch and a 
half in diameter. Styles 10-12 i stigmas simple. Involucre as long as the 

++ Leaves divided. 

4. M.fascicnlala (Nutt. mss) : stellately and someAvhat canescentlv pubes- 
cent; stem nearly simple; leaves roundish-cordate, somewhat 3-lobed, ou 


226 MALVACE^. Malva. 

short petioles; rather thick, crenate; flowers in somewhat distant leafless 
fascicles, on the upper part of the stem ; pedicels very short ; segments of 
the calyx short, acuminate ; hracteoles 3, subulate ; carpels about 10. 

St. Barbara, Upper California, A'M«a// .'—Stem about a foot long. Low- 
er leaves 1-li inch wide, obscurely 3-lobed ; upper ones distinctly 3-lobed_: 
petiole 2-3 Unes long. Flowers J of an inch in diameter, 6-10 in a fasci- 
cle. Bracteoles more than half as long as the calyx. Stamens very nume- 
rous. Carpels not seen. 

5. M. involucrata: hirsute; stem branching, procumbent; leaves deeply 
3-5-parted; segments hnear-lanceolate, laciniately 3-5-toothed ; flowers few, 
in a loose panicle ; peduncles erect, 1-flowered, longer than the leaves ; brac- 
teoles 3, linear-lanceolate, two-thirds the length of the deeply-parted calyx ; 
carpels numerous, hairy, not wrinkled.— Nuttallia involucrata, Nutt. ! exTorr. 
in ami. lye. New- York., 2. p. 172. 

p. lineariloba: segments of the leaves divided into 3-5 narrowly linear 

Valley of the Loup Fork of the Platte, Dr. James! p. Texas, Drum- 
w,05i(i: /—Stem clothed with spreading hairs. Leaves divided nearly to the 
base, stellately hirsute on both surfaces. Flowers axillary in the uppermost 
leaves; about 1^ inch in diameter, scarlet: peduncle 1^-2 inches (in 0. 3-4 
inches) long. Sepals very hirsute, lanceolate, united only a little above the 
base. Ovaries 15-20. Stigmas simple. Carpels (immature) lunate, point- 

6. M. Mimroana (Dougl.) : loAver leaves cordate-orbicular, toothed, upper 
ones somewhat trifid and incised, pubescent; flov/ers fascicled, somewhat 
spiked ; peduncles decUned in fruit ; bracteoles 2-3, slender, deciduous ; car- 
pels 8-10.— Lindl. in hot. reg. t. 1306 ; Hook. f. Bnr.-Am. 1. f. 106. Nut- 
tallia Munroana, Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philacl. 7. p. 16. 

Open vallies about the sources of the Oregon, Mr. Wyeth! Sandy deserts, 
from the Great Falls of the Oregon to the Rocky Mountains, Douglas. 
June — 1( Stems about a span long, divided into several slender flowering 
branches. Leaves on slender petioles, sparingly hirsute with stellate hairs. 
Peduncles slender. Flowers clustered, 3-5 together, on short pedicels. Calyx 
densely hairy ; the segments short and obtuse, CoroUa scarlet, about an inch 
in diameter. 

7. M. rivuloris (Dougl.) : stem herbaceous, stellately pubescent ; leaves 
somewhat scabrous, cordate, deeply 5-7-cleft ; lobes acute, coarsely serrate ; 
peduncles terminal and axillary, elongated, 6-8-flowered, racem'ed, leafy; 
calyx stellately tomentose ; bracteoles setaceous ; fruit very hairy. Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. l.p.\^l. 

River banks, N. W. America, from the Ocean to the Rocky Mountams : 
common. Douglas.— U Stem 2-4 feet high, branched, robust. Leaves 
large, smoothish above, scabrous with scattered hairs beneath. Peduncles 
stellately tomentose : pedicels short, erect. Flowers as large as in Malva 
rotundifolia, white or flesh-color. Hook. 

8. M. Papaver (Cav.) : somewhat scabrous-hirsute ; radical leaves on 
elongated petioles, cordate, more or less deeply 3-5-lobed ; cauline ones deep- 
ly 3-5 parted ; the segments oblong-lanceolate or linear, laciniately toothed 
or entire ; flowers few, on long axillary peduncles, or forming a loose panicle ; 
calyx with 3 bracteoles (rarely naked), hispid.— CVrr. diss. 2. t. 15./. 3; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 431. M. triangulata, Leavemcorth, in Sill. jour. 7. p. 62 ? M. 
nuttallioides, Croo^n ! in Sill. jour. 26. p. 313. Nuttallia cordifolia, Nutt. ! 
in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 98. N. Papaver, Graham, in hot. mag. t. 3287, 
^ in Edinb. new pUiL jour. no. 31 (Jan. 1S34) ; Don, in Brit. fi. gard. 
t. 279. 

Malva. MALVACEii:. 227 

Prairies and alon? rivers; Georgia, Dr. Boykin! Middle Florida, 
Croom! Dr. Chapman! Louisiana, />r. //fz/e .' Alabama &, Arkansas, 
Dr. Learenworth ! May-Sept. — y Root tuberous, tapprini^, descending. 
Stems numerous from one root, somewhat decumbent at tlie base, branching 
above. Radical leaves often very ol)tusely lobed : cauline ones parted nearly 
to the base ; the segments sometimes entire, usually with several coarse 
teeth, the middle one often pinnatifiilly lobed. Peduncles solitary, or more com- 
monly two or more together from the axils of the upper leaves, 3-8 inches long. 
Flowers as large as in Papaver Rha?as. Bracteoles spatulate-lanceolate. Ca- 
lyx divided below the middle; segments ovate-lanceolate. Petals bright pur- 
plish-red, truncate and eroselv crenate at the extremity. Carpels 15-20, dis- 
posed in a depressed circle, glabrous, reticulated andlacunoseon the back and 
sides. — The plant of Cavanilles was from Louisiana, for which subsequent au- 
thors in copying his description have written '"Lusitania." The mistake 
was first detected by Dr. Graham. 

9. M. digitata: glaucous and nearly glabrous ; leaves deeply 6-7-parted ; 
segments linear, entire or 2- (rarely 3-) cleft, the uppermost entire; flowers 
few, solitary or somewhat paniculate, on elongated peduncles; calyx naked, 
glabrous.— Nuttallia digitata, Hook.! exot.Ji. 3.^.171. Callirrhoe digitata, 
Nutt. ! in Jour. acad. PhUad. 2. p. 181. 

Prairies of Arkansas, Mf/^a// .' Dr. Pitcher ! Texas, Drummond.— U 
Root tuberous, somewhat fusiform. Stem 2-4 feet high, terete, slender, with 
a few branches toward the summit. Flowers li-2 inches in diameter, pur- 
ple. Segiuents of the calyx ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Petals crenulate 
at the summit. Carpels as in the preceding. 

10. M.pedata: somewhat scabrous wnth stellate hairs; leaves pedately 
5-7-parted ; segments laciniately toothed ; flowers on elongated peduncles in 
a loose panicle; calyx nak-d, slightly hirsute.— Nuttallia pedata, A^'m^. .' in 
Hook. e.rot. fl. 3. t. i73. N. digitata, Bart. ! fl. Am. Sept. 2. t. 62. 

/?. ? umbellata: stems simple, 1-2-leavcd, radical leaves pedate ; the mid- 
dle segment much the largest, lacinir.tely lobed ; flowers somewhat umbelled ; 
calyx hirsute. — Sida macrorhiza, James ! mss. 

With the preceding, Nattall! fi. Valley of the Platte, Dr. James!— U 
Stems 2-1 feet high; in 0. about a foot high, springing from a large soft 
edible root, in shape and size between a small turnip and a parsnip. Lower 
leaves with 5 primary divisions: the middle, and sometimes the two lateral, 
segments 3-lobed ; lobes entire or toothed, linear or linear-lanceolate. 
Flowers resembling those of the preceding species, (pale purple in/?. James.) 
— Perhaps the last two species are not distinct. The M. pedala figured by 
Hooker apoi-ars to bs exactly M. digitata of Barton. The peduncles in i3. 
are 1-2 inches long, and so nearly equal that the flowers appear umbellate. 

♦ * Flowers yellow. 

11. M. hederacea (Douql.): perennial, every part of the plant stellately 
tomentose and hairy ; stem short, herbaceous, procumbent ; leaves petioled, 
cordate, undivided and somewhat lobed, crenately serrate, somewhat plicate; 
peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, longer than the petiole ; petals stellately pubes- 
cent on the back and margin. Dongl. in Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 107. 

Sides of streams in the interior of Oregon. June-July. Douglas. — 
Plant small. Stim branching toward the base, flexuous. Leaves about an 
inch wide, somewhat plicate. Segments of the calyx acute, Avith 3 setaceous 
deciduous bracteoles. Petals obovate-cuneate or obcordate. Hook. 

12. M. plicata (Nutt. mss.) : perennial ; stellately and somewhat canes- 
cently tomentose, rather thick ; stem prostrate, flexuous ; leaves reniform- 
cordate, undivided, crenately serrate, somewhat plicate ; flowers nearly ses- 
sile, solitary ; petals stellately pubescent on the back. 

228 MALVACE.^. Modiola. 

On the Wallawallah, Oregon, Nuttall ! — Stem scarcely a span long, 
branching. Leaves rather shorter than the petioles, about an inch in diame- 
ter. Flowers 3-4 lines in diameter. Bracteoles usually 2, setaceous, deci- 
duous. Petals roundish-obovate, pubescent externally on one side of the 
midiierve, glabrous Avhere it is overlapped by the adjoining petal. Fruit not 
seen. — It appears to agree in almost every respect with the preceding (which 
we have not seen), except that the flowers are nearly sessile. We cannot de- 
termine the color of" the flower from our specimen. 

M. xaiiViLim ofRafiiiesque is a varietyof M. Alcea^aad is probably an introduc- 
ed plant. 

M triloha of Muhlenberg, {cat, p. G5 ; Nutt, gen. 2. p. 81.) — Of tliis species we 
can find no description. 

M. abutlloldes, Linn, is said by Pursh to occur on the sea-coast of Carolina ; but 
this is very doubtful. 

3. SPH^RALCEA. .4. St. Ilil. fl. Bras. 1. p. 207. 
Malva § Sphieroma, DC. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with 3 setaceous bracteoles at the base. Carpels numerous, 
aggregated in a subglobose head, 2-valved, 2- or several-seeded. Radicle in 
the upper seed superior, in the lower one inferior. — Herbaceous plants. 
Leaves entire or lobed. Peduncles short, many-flowered. 

1. S. stellata : densely clothed with a grayish stellate pubescence ; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, acute, petioled, erosely serrate, rugose ; peduncles axiEary, 
3-5-flowered ; flowers aggregated ; carpels 12-14, bimucronate, 2- (rarely 3-) 
seeded. — jSida stellata, Toit. ! in ami. lye. New -York, 2. p. 171. 

Margins of small brooks, near the sources of the Arkansas, Dr. James ! 
— Stem 1-2 feet high, brairched. Leaves 2-3 inches long, 4-5 lines wide : 
petioles about 4 lines long. Flowers very numerous ; the common peduncle 
2-3 lines long : pedicels extremely short. Bracteoles very slender. Calyx 
cleft below the middle; segments ovate-lanceolate, acute. Corolla purple 
(in dried specimens), about half an inch in diameter. Carpels -with 2 short 
slightly recurved points. Seed reniform, glabrous. 

2. .S. «cer//b/ia (Nutt.): minutely roughish-tomentose -with a stellate pu- 
bescence; leaves 5-lobed, somewhat cordate ; the lobes acute, toothed, un- 
equally serrate; peduncles aggregated, terminal; carpels 12-14, pointless. — 
Malva (Sphseroma) aeerifoha, Nutt.! mss. 

Rivulets east of Wallawallah, Nuttall .'—Stem, much branched. Leaves 
2-2 i inches long, and about the same in width : petioles about J the length 
of the lamina. Flowers 3-4 together at the summit of the branches. Brac- 
teoles linear-lanceolate. Calyx cleft to the middle ; segments broadly ovate, 
acute. Corolla an inch in diameter ; purple (in dried specimens). Carpels 
pilose, dehiscing on the back from the summit to the base. — The seeds had 
mostly fallen out in our specimen, but there appeared to have been 2 or 3 in 
each carpel, scabrous with short hairs. 

4. MODIOLA. Moinch, meth. 620; .4. St. Hil. fl. Bras. 1. p. 211. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with 3 bracteoles at the base. Carpels numerous, arranged 
circularly, 2-valved, spuriously 2-celled transversely by the inflexion of a 
valve-like process, 2-seeded. Radicle in the upper seed superior, in the low- 

Malvaviscus. MALVACE^. 229 

er seed inferior. — Prostrate and usually creeping herbs. Leaves divided. 
Peduncles axillary, 1-flowered. 

1. M. multijida (Moench): leaves palinately o-5-lohed ; sej^raents incised 

and toothed; pedicels longer than the petioles; stamens 15-lH ; carpels 15- 

20, hispid, with 2 subulate horns. — Momch, I. c. Malva Caroliniana, fjiini.; 

mild. sp. 3. p. 784; Walt. Car. p. 176 ; Mic/ui: J jl. 2. p. 44 ; Ell. .sk. 2. 

p. H53; DC. prodr. 1. p. 435. 

In rich soils, along rivers, and in waste places ; Virginia ! to Florida ! west 
to Red River, Louisiana! July-Sept.— (J)? Ell. Stem difluse, more or 
less hirsute, usually rooting at the lower joints. Leaves 1-2 inches in diame- 
ter, truncate or subcordate at the base, hirsute beneath, Avith a few scattered 
hairs above. Flowers 5-6 lines in diameter. Bracteoles linear-lanceolate. 
Segments of the calyx ovate-lanceolate. Petals obovate, purplish-red, a little 
longer than the calyx. Carpels lunate, much compressed, hispid on the 
back, wrinkled on the sides toward the base. A rigid process rising from 
the back on the inside of the carpel extends to the axis, separating the upper 
from the lower seed. — Very near M. repens, St. Ilil. Jl. Bra.s. 1. p. 212. t. 
43, & Malva (Modiola) prostrata, Cav.; both of which are perhaps but vari- 
eties of this species. 

5. ALTH^A. Cav. diss. 2. p. 91 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 437. 

Althffia & Alcea, Linn. 

Calyx surrounded by a 6-9-cleft involucel. Carpels numerous, indehis- 
cent, 1-seeded, arranged in a circle round the axis. 

1. A. officinalis (Linn.) : leaves softly tomentose on both sides, cordate 
or ovate, toothed, entire or 3-lobed ; peduncles many-flowered, much shorter 
than the leaves. — Euir. hot. t. 147 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 259; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 436. 

Borders of salt marshes. Long Island and elsewhere: introduced. Aug.- 
Sept. — U Root long, white. Stem about 2 feet high. Leaves usuaOy some- 
what 3-lobed. Peduncles 3-4-flowered. Flowers an inch or more in diame- 
ter, pale rose-color. — Common Marsh-mallow. 

6. MALVAVISCUS. Dill.; DC. prodr. 1. p. 445. 

Achania, Stvartz. 

Calyx surrounded by an involucel of numerous bracteoles. Petals erect, 
convolute. Styles 10, united below : stigmas capitellate, the alternate ones 
lonser. Carpels 5, baccate, 1-seeded, somewhat distinct, or united into a 5- 
celled fruit. — Frutescent (rarely herbaceous?) plants. Flowers red. 

1. .1/. Floridanus TNutt) : hirsute ; leaves cordate-ovate, crenately serrate, 
rather acute, on petioles one-fourth their length; peduncles axillary in the 
uppermost leaves, 1-flowered, nodding ; involucel 8-9-leaved, somewhat pa- 
tulous, rather shorter than the calyx. — Niitt. ! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 
S9. M. penduliflorus, DC. prodr. 1. p. 445? 

Key West, E. Florida, Mr. Ware; Mr. Bennett I — A small shrub. 
Leaves 1-li inch long, hispid with somewhat stellate hairs. Peduncles long- 
er than the petioles. Leaflets of the involucel narrowly linear. Calyx deep- 
ly 5-cleft ; segments ovate-lanceolate. Corolla about an inch long, scarlet, 
Stamineal column exserted. — Near M. arboreus. 

230 MALVACEAE. Abutilon. 

2. M. Drummondii : stem and lower surface of the leaves minutely to- 
mento?e; leaves broadly cordate, somewhat 3-lobed, coarsely and crenately 
toothed; petiole about half as ]on<^as the lamina; flowers solitary on axillary 
peduncles, or several together on short flowering branches ; involucel 8-leaved, 
the folioles spatulatc, nearly as longas the calyx^ erect; column twice as long 
as the corolla ; car))els connate. 

Texas, Drnmmond! — If 7 Stem tall, branching. Leaves 2-2i inches 
long and of nearly the same breadth, somewhat velvety beneath. Flowers 
as large as in M. arboreus, scarlet. Column very slender, a little declined: 
stigmas hairy. Fruit (immature) red, subglobose, obtuse ; composed of 5 
closely united carpels. 

7. GOSSYPIUM. Linn. ; Lam. ill. t. 586 ; DC. prodr. I. p. 456; W. f 
Am. prodr. lad. Or. 1. p. 54. 

Calyx cup-shaped, obtusely 5-toothed, surrounded by a 3-leaved involucel; 
the leaflets united and cordate at the base, deeply toothed and incised. Styles 
united ; stigmas 3, sometimes 5. Capsule 3-5-celled, loculicidal. Seeds nu- 
merous, imbedded in cotton. — Young branches and leaves more or less con- 
spicuously covered with black dots ; the nerves beneath usually with one or 
more glands. — Cotton-plant. 

1. G. herbaceum (Linn.): leaves 3-5-lobed, with a single gland below; 
lobes mucronate ; cotton Avhite. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 456. 

Southern Stites & Florida! naturalized in some places. — Thirteen spe- 
cies of Cotton are described by De CandoUe, and many more are enumerated 
by some writers. Dr. Hamilton (Linn, trans. 13. p. 492), who is followed 
by Wight & Arnott, reduces twelve of De Candolle's species to two, viz : 
G. albuiTi (//am.): seeds and cotton both white ; and G. nigrum {Ham.)'. 
seeds black, cotton white. G. Barbadense, which is said to be the " Sea Is- 
land Cotton," is referred to the latter. 

8. ABUTILON. Dill. ; Lam. ill. t. 578 ; Kunth, syn. 3. p. 245. 

Species of Sida, Linn. ; DC. d^-c. 

Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel. Ovary 5-many-celled, with 3 (or rare- 
ly more) ovules in each cell. Capsule composed of 5 or. more 2-valved 3- 
(rarely 4-6-) seeded carpels. Leaves cordate, rarely somewhat lobed. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary or rarely in pairs, 1-2- or many-flowered; some- 
times (by the abortion of the upper leaves) in terminal racemes. 

1. A. AvicenncB (Gsertn.) : leaves orbicular-cordate, velvety-tomentose, acu- 
minate, crenately toothed; peduncles shorter than the petiole; carpels about 
15, 3-seeded, inflated, truncate, obliquely birostrate, hairy. — Gcertn. fr. 2. p. 
251. t. 135. Sida Abutilon, Linn.j Pursh,Jl. 2. p. 253 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 162 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 470; Darlingt. f. Cest. p. 397. 

Waste places and road-sides: introduced. July-Sept. — (T) Stem 2-5 feet 
high, with spreading branches. Leaves deeply cordate, 4-6 inches in diame- 
ter, with a slender abrupt acumination. Flowers usually solitary on axillary 
peduncles, sometimes 3 or more on short flowering branches w/hich bear 1 
or 2 small leaves. Corolla orange-yellow. Capsules large, the long beaks of 
the carpels spreading in a radiated manner. 

SiDA. MALVACEiT:. 231 

2. A. Niiltallii : leaves cordate, acuminate, softly pubosrent, irrej^ularly 
serrate; peduncles axillary, l-flowered, shorter than the petiole; carpels 8, 
pubescent, obtuse and pointless, 3-seeded. 

On the Red River, Nuttall ! Rocky hills in the prairies near Fort Tow- 
son, Arkansas, Dr. Leavenirorlh !—U Stem 14-2 feel hiifh, somewhat 
branched. Leaves about 2 inches long ; and li inch wide ; petiole shorter 
than the lamina. Capsule subfjlobosc much longer than the calyx: carpels 
dehiscing from the summit to the base, partly separating when mature, ob- 
liquely truncate. 

3. A. Te.r^7isis: leaves cordate-ovate, acute, softly pubescent, serrate; pe- 
duncles somewhat racemose at the upper part of the branches, l-flowered ; 
carpels S, pubescent, acute, erect, 3-seeded. 

Texas, JJrtmimond! — U ? About 2 feet high, paniculately branched 
above, minutely tomentose. Leaves about an inch long; the petiole half as 
long as the lamina. Peduncles several on each branch, arising from the ax- 
ils of small abortive leaves, forming a loose raceme. Capsule ovate ; the 
carpels cohering, except at the summit. 

9. SIDA. Linn, j Lam. ill. t. 578 ^ 579 ; Cav. diss. p. 5. 

Sida & Napsea, Linn. Bastardia, Kunth. 

Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel, or rarely with 1 or 2 setaceous bracte- 
oles. Ovary 5- or many-celled, Avith a single ovule in each cell. Capsule 
consisting of 5 or more 1-seeded, usually 2-valved carpels. Radicle (by the 
resupination of the seed) superior. 

* Pedicels short ; leaves ovate, oblong, or linear. 

1. S. spinosa (hmn.): stem minutely pubescent ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
serrate-dentate, with a subspinose tubercle at the base of the petiole ; sti- 
pules setaceous; pedicels axillary, solitary or several together, mostly shorter 
than the petioles ; carpels 5, birostrate.— Mf^ j:. .' f. 2. p. 43 ; Pttrsh, f. 2. 
p. 452 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 161 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 460 ; Darlingt. ! fl. Cest. p. 397. 

Sandy fields and road-sides, New-Jersey ! to Florida ! and Avest to Arkan- 
sas! Jiily-Aug.— (p Stem 12-18 inches high, branching from near the 
base. Leaves 1-li inch long, obtuse or cordate at the base : petiole 6-8 lines 
long. Peduncles nearly solitary, but often appearing clustered from the short 
axillary flowering branches. Calyx hemispherical. 5-angled ; segments broad- 
ly ovate, acuminate. Petals obovate, yellow. Carpels easily separating 
when ripe, strongly reticulated on the sides. Seeds dark purplish-brown, 

2. S. fasciculata: stems somewhat hairy ; leaves linear, denticulate-ser- 
rate above, cordate at the base, those at the summit of the stem crowded ; 
flowers sessile, terminal ; carpels 5-7, scarcely rostrate, strongly reticulated 
and muricate. 

Texas, Drummond! — 2^ ? Stems about a span high, branching from the 
base. Leaves f of an inch long and a line wide, mostly with a few serratures 
towards the apex, nearly glabrous above, strllately hirsute beneath : petiole 
about \ the length of the lamina. Calyx hemispherical; segments ovate, 
acute. Corolla not seen. Carpels short and broad, strongly roughened with 
projecting points. — This species greatly resembles a Sida figured in St. Hi- 
laire's Fl. Bras. 

2. S. Elliottii: stem slender, nearly glabrous; leaves linear or linear-ob- 
long, denticulate-serrate, rather obtuse but not cordate at the base, nearly gla- 

232 MALVACE.^. Sida. 

brous; petiole one-fifth the length of the lamina; stipules setaceous; pedun- 
cles axillary, 1-flowered, usually longer than the petiole; sometimes several 
at the summit of the branches; carpels 9-10, smoothish, slightly bimucro- 
nate. — S. gracilis, Ell. sk. 2. p. 159, not of Fichard. 

Sandy soils ; South Carolina, Eiiioit ; Georgia, Dr. Boyhin ! Florida, 
Crooni ! Dr. Chapman ! May-Aug. — U Stem 2-4 feet high, with spread- 
ing branches. Leaves l-2i inches long, variable in breadth, often quite hn- 
ear and 1-2 lines wide, sometimes 3-4 lines in breadth, serrate the whole 
length, with a few scattering hairs on both surfaces. Flowers an inch or 
more in diameter. Segments of the calyx broad, acuminate. Petals emar- 
ginate, orange-yellow. Styles united above the middle ; stigmas capitellate. 
Carpels united in a depressed spherical head. — Much resembles S. angusli- 
folia, but that species has 5 bicusj)idate carpels. 

4. S. glabra (Nutt.) : glabrous ; leaves linear-oblong and lanceolate, in- 
cisely and unequally serrate, on short petioles ; flowers axillar\', aggregated ; 
carpels about 10, bidentate. Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. ".p. 90. 

li. '? stem sutfruticose, minutely pubescent ; leaves rhombic-oblong ; pedi- 
cels shorter than the petioles. 

y.1 Stem herbaceous, tall; leaves rhombic-oblong; pedicels longer than 
the petioles. 

East Florida, Mr. T. R. Peale. P. Key West, Rev. A. Bennett ! 
y. Tampa Bay, Florida, Dr. Burrows!— 'Stem scarcely more than a span 
high. Leaves about an inch long. Stipules setaceous. Flowers small and 
yellow, at length so aggregated as to crowd the branches. Calyx very wide, 
angularly plaited; segments acuminate. Nutt. — 0. Stem branching from 
the base, 8-12 inches long. Leaves about li inch long and | of an inch 
wide. — y. Stem 2 feet or more in height. Leaves 2-4 inches long, and 1-1 i 
inch wide : petiole about 3 lines long, with a tumid articulation near the 
lamina. Peduncles 2-3 times as long as the petiole. FloAvers yellow, nearly 
an inch in diameter : petals broadly cuneate, emarginate. Stigmas capitel- 
late. Carpels 10, bimucronate. 

5. S. hispida (Pursh) : hispid ; leaves lanceolate, serrate; peduncles soli- 
tary, axillary, as long as the petioles; exterior calyx ifiliform. Pnrsli.jl. 2. p. 
452 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 160. 

Sandy soils, Georgia, Lijon (ex Pursh) ; South Carolina, Elliott. July- 
Aug. — I1 1 Stem 12-lR inches high, branching, stellately tomentose rather 
than hispid. Leaves somewhat rhomboidal, a little hairy on both surfaces: 
petioles 1-2 lines long. Stipules subulate, hairy, longer than the peduncles 
or petioles. Flowers on small axillary branches, so crowded and so nearly 
sessile that they appear fascicled. Calyx angular, hairy. Petals yelloAv, a 
little longer than the calyx. Fruit not seen. — There is no exterior calyx, 
but the stipules are very often found adhering to the calyx, as if connected 
with it. Elliott. — We have not seen this species. 

* * Peduncles elongated : leaves ovate, oblong or linear. 

6. S.filicaidis: stems very slender, hispid ; leaves ovate-oblong, cordate 
at the base, serrate ; petiole as long as the lamina; flowers axillary, solitary ; 
carpels 5, 2-beaked. 

Texas, Drum.m.ond!—^1 Stem 2 feet long, clothed with spreading 
hairs. Leaves 5-7 lines long, 1^-2^ lines wide, rather obtuse. Stipules 
minute, setaceous. Peduncles nearly an inch long, very slender, articulated 
near the flower. Calyx hemispherical; segments broad, acuminate. Car- 
pels pubescent, with 2 short rather erect horns. 

7. S. rhomhifolia (Linn.): minutely pubescent; leaves rhombic-oblong, 
toothed-serrate, cuneate and entire at the basp; petioles short, with a slightly 
spinose tubercle at the base ; peduncles much longer than the petioles ; sti- 

SiDA. MALVACE^. 233 

pules setaceous; carpels 10-12, with 2 subuluic liorns. — Michx. ! jl.2. p. 
43 ; Pitrsfi, fl. 2. p. 452; Kll. sk. 2. p. 1(51 ; JJC. prodr. 1. p. 4(32. 

Sandy soils, South Carolina {Elliott) and GtorjTia ! to Florida! May- 
July — If Stem 1-2 feet high. Leaves 1-2 inches long, rather obtuse : 
petioles 2-3 lines long. Peduncles mostly axillary, much longer than the 
petioles, and sometimes longer than the leaves, articulated about half an inch 
below the flower. Calyx angular ; segments very broad, with a short acu- 
minatiou. Petals obovate, yellow, 4-5 lines long. 

♦ ♦ ♦ Leaves cordate, not lobed. 

8. (Sf. Hulseana : stem hi<5pidly pilose ; leaves orbicular-ovate, abruptly 
acuminate, tomentose beneath with a whitish velvety pubescence, roughish- 
tomentose above, crenate-dentate; peduncles axillary in the upper leaves, 
several-flowered ; styles about 12. 

Tampa Bay, Florida, Dr. Hulse ! — Leaves 3 inches or more in diameter ; 
the sinus deep and closed. Flowers an inch and a half in diameter, pur- 
pUsh: pedicels very short. Petals broadly obovate. — We have not seen the 
capsules of this species. It may belong to the genus Abutilon. 

9. iS. ? obliqua (Nutt. mss.) : leaves reniform-cordate, very obliqne at the 
base, rounded at the summit, scabrous-tomentose, strongly reticulately veined 
beneath, crenulatc-dentate; peduncles axillary, solitary, 1-flowered, recurved 
after flowering ; bracteoles 2, setaceous ; petals oblong, stellately hairy ex- 
ternally ; carpels 7, pointless. 

On the Wallawallah River, Nuttall! — li Stem low, clothed with a 
roughish stellate pubescence. Leaves 1-li inch wide, the width exceeding 
the length : petioles nearly as long as the lamina. Flowers as large as in 
Malva rotundifolia. Peduncles rather shorter than the leaves. Calyx cleft 
below the middle, with 2 short deciduous bracteoles at the base. Styles 
united below: stigmas capitellate. Carpels pubescent, rather acute, but not 
horned. — Mr. Nuttall considered this plant a Malva; but finding the seeds 
to have the radicle superior, we refer it to Sida, notwithstanding the bracteo- 
late calyx. 

10. S. Californica (Nutt. ! mss.) : velvety-tomentose ; leaves orbicular- 
cordate, laciniately toothed (scarcely lobed); the radical and lower cauhne 
ones on very long petioles ; flowers in a terminal raceme : stamineal column 
short, double ; the exterior 5-lobed, antheriferous at the summit ; styles about 
7 ; stigmas long, simple. 

St. Barbara, Upper California, Nuttall! — If About 15 inches high. 
Leaves li inch in diameter; the uppermost slightly 5-lobed. Stipules subu- 
late, small. Raceme naked : flowers on short pedicels, about 1^ inch in di- 
ameter. Calyx cleft below the middle ; segments ovate-lanceolate. Petals 
purple, cuneate-obovate, somewhat emarginate. Stamineal column ^ the 
length of the petals. Capsules not seen. 

* * * * Leaves palmalely lobed or many-cleft. 

11. <S. Napcea (Cav.): leaves palmately 5-lobed, nearly glabrous; the 
lobes oblong, acuminate, toothed; peduncles many-flowered; carpels llf, 
acuminate. DC— Cav. diss. 5. p. 277. t. 132./ 1; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 453; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 466. Napgea laevis, Limi. ; Lam. ill. t. 579./ 1. 

Shady rocky places, Pennsylvania (Midilenherg) to Virginia, Pursh. 
(v. V. in hort.) Julv. — l(. Stem 2-4 feet high glabrous. Leaves 4-5 
inches in diameter, minutely pubescent, but not scabrous ; lobes unequally 
and coarsely toothed, the middle one longest. Peduncles axillary in the 
uppermost leaves and at the summit of the branches, 2-4 flowered. Seg- 
ments of the calyx roundish-ovate. Petals obovate, white, twice as long as 


234 MALVACEAE. Sida. 

the calyx. Carpels nearly glabrous. — We have seen no native specimens of 
this plant ; but it is not uncommon in gardens. 

12. S.dioica (Cav.) : leaves palmately 7-lobed, scabrous; lobes lanceo- 
late, incisely toothed; peduncles many-Howered, bracteate, somewhat corym- 
bose; flowers dioecious ; carpels 10, pointless. DC. — Cav. diss. 5. p. 278. t. 
132. /. 2 ; Pursh.Jl. 2. p. 453 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 465. Napaa dioica & sea- 
bra, Linn. 

In Virginia, Linnceus: Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg. — H Leaves 7-9 
lobed. Flowers crowded into heads ; the fertile ones with abortive stamens. 
Carpels 8-10, in a depressed roundish head. IVilld. — We have never seen 
this species. 

13. S. alccBoides (Michx.) : erect, herbaceous ; lower leaves triangular- 
cordate, incised ; upper ones palmately many-cleft ; corymb terminal ; calyx 
hispid. Mich.r. ! Jl. 2. p. 44 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 474. 

Barren oak-lands, Tennessee and Kentucky, Michaux ! — Peduncles 3-6- 
flowered. Flowers about 1^ inch in diameter. — This species has, as Mi- 
chaux remarks, the habit of Malva Alcea or M. moschata. The fruit is 

14. S. malvcejiora (DC.) : radical leaves roundish, 9-lobed, truncate at 
the base; those of the stem 5-parted; segments linear, somewhat toothed; 
petioles of the lower leaves hispid; raceme terminal; segments of the calyx 
lanceolate, with a long acumination, carpels 7, pointless. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 
474 ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1036 ; Hook.Ji. Bar.- Am. 1. p. 108. 

Plains of the Wahlamet and Umptqua Rivers, and on the N. W. Coast ! — 
Stem 1-2 feet high. Leaves 3-4 inches in diameter, hirsute ; the lobes of 
the uppermost ones nearly or quite entire. Racemes many-flowered : pedi- 
cels at first shorter, at length longer, than the subulate bracts. Segments of 
the calyx twice as long as broad. Petals purplish. Stamineal column some- 
what double ; the filaments at the summit of the exterior one approximated 
in pairs. Styles free at the summit : stigmas simple. Carpels oblong, acute, 
but not mucronate. 

15. S. Oregana (Nutt. ! mss.) : stem nearly glabrous ; radical leaves 
7-lobed, the lobes incisely 3-toothed ; those of the stem palmately 7-parted ; 
the segments 3-lobed and incised, linear-lanceolate; segments of the calyx 
broadly ovate ; raceme terminal ; styles 8. 

West side of the Rocky Mountains, Nuttall! — About 18 inches high. 
Radical leaves on very long petioles ; cauhne ones parted nearly to the base ; 
the segments acute. Flowers numerous in a long raceme, nearly an inch in 
diameter, reddish-purple. Calyx about one-fourth the length of the corolla. 
Filaments of the stamineal column in a double series near the summit : outer 
series 5-lobed; each lobe composed of six united filaments. Styles uncon- 
nected the greater part of their length, hairy on the inner surface : stigmas 
simple. Fruit not seen. — Nearly allied to the preceding ; but differs in the 
more divided leaves, smaller flowers, shorter and broader lobes of the calyx, 

16. iS. diploscypha : hispid with spreading hairs; stem prostrate; leaves 
digitately 5-parted ; segments narrowly 2-3-lobed ; petiole twice as long as 
the lamina ; flowers aggregated at the summit of the branches ; bracts 3, 
long, filiform, at the base of the pedicels; calyx deeply 5-parted ; stamineal 
column cyathiform, double ; the exterior deeply 5-lobed, the lobes antherife- 
rous at the summit ; styles 7-9. 

California, Douglas .' — Upper part of the stem retrorsely hirsute. Leaves 
1-2 inches in diameter, stellately pubescent. Flowering branches longer 
than the leaves, bearing at the summit 6-10 flowers as large as those ot 
Malva sylvestris. Pedicels 2-4 lines long, with villous bracteoles at the 

Hibiscus. MALVACEiE. 235 

base about J of an inch in Icnijtli. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, atten- 
uated, with an oblong colored spot on the inside of each, near the base. 
Petals broadly cuneiform, slightly emarginate, cream-color tinged with 
purple. Stamineal column less than half the length of the petals : outer one 
hispid externally, lobed below the middle; the anthers in a single row, about 
5 at the summit of each of the lubes: inner one irregularly lobed, rather 
shorter than the outer, and connate with it a little above the base. Styles 
plumose, included : stigmas simple. Fruit not seen. — A remarkable species 
resembling some Bombaceai in its stamineal column. 

17. S. delphinifolia (ISiun.l mss.) : hispidly hirsute; leaves all pedately 
7-parted ; segments divided into linear rather obtuse lobes ; flowers in a 
long leafy raceme ; lobes of the calvx lanceolate ; styles 7. 

St. Barbara, Upper California, Nullall !— 11 Stem 8-12 inches high. 
Leaves about H inch in diameter, divided nearly to the base into narrow 
segments. Flowers about an inch in diameter. Petals obovate-cuneiform, 
purple, slightly emarginate. Styles hairy on the inside: stigmas simple. 
Fruit not seen. 

18. .S. coccinea (DC.) : stellately pubescent and hoary ; leaves on long 
petioles, deeply 3-partcd ; lateral segments 2-parted, the intermediate one 
3-cleft ; racemes terminal, leafy; styles 12. — J)C. prodr. 1. p. 465; Hook.! 
Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 108. Malva coccinea, Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 81; Bot. mag. 
t. 1673; Torr. ! in ann. lye. New -York, 2. p. 171. Cristaria coccinea, 
Pursh,Ji.2. p. 453. 

Plains of the Upper Missouri, above the confluence of the Platte, Nuttall, 
James! Plains of the Saskatchawan, Drummond! — 1i About a span 
high, branching. Leaves 1-li inch in diameter; the lobes often obtuse, 
broadly linear. Raceme many-flowered : pedicels about 2 lines long. Flow- 
ers an inch in diameter, scarlet. Petals truncate and emarginate. Stamineal 
column half the length of the corolla. Stigmas capitellate. " Carpels about 
6, compactly and circularly arranged." Hook. — The calyx is certainly not 
involucellate in this species ; but we have not had an opportunity of ascer- 
taining whether the seeds are like those of Sida. 

19. (S. dissecta (Nutt.! mss.): stellately pubescent and hoary; leaves 
5-parted to the base; lateral segments 3-cleu, the middle one multifid; ulti- 
mate divisions narrowly linear ; racemes terminal, leafy ; styles 11. 

Sources of the Platte near the Rocky Mountains, Nuttall ! — 11 Princi- 
pal stem about 6 inches high, with a dense tuft of branches at the base. 
Leaves about ^ of an inch in diameter ; the divisions scarcely a Une wide. 
Flowers numerous, scarlet : pedicels 1-2 lines long. Petals broadly obovate- 
cuneate, emarginate. Stigmas capitellate. Fruit not seen. — Very near the 
preceding; but smaller, the leaves much more divided, and with narrower 

S. crispa (Linn.) is recorded by some writers as a native of Carolina; but we 
strongly doubt whether it has been found native within the limits of our Flora. 

10. HIBISCUS. Li7in. ; Lam. ill. t. 584 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 446. 

Calyx 5-cleft, or 5-toothed, surrounded by a many- or sometimes few- 
leaved involucel ; the leaflets of which are usually distinct, but sometiihes 
more or less united. Petals not auricled on one side. Stigmas 5. Ovary 
5-celled ; the cells with 3 or many ovules. Carpels 5, united into a 5-celled 
loculicidal capsule ; margin of the valves not introflexed j the cells several- 
(rarely, by abortion one-) seeded. 

236 MALVACEAE. Hibiscus. 

§ 1. Cells of the capsule 1-seeded. — Pentaspermum, DC. 

1. //. Virs^iyiicus (Linn.): scabrous-lomentose ; leaves cordate-ovate, acu- 
minate, unequally serrate-toothed ; upper ones undivided, lower ones 3-lobed ; 
pedicels longer than the petioles ; Howers in paniculate racemes, nodding ; 
column declined.— " /acf/. ic. rar. 1. t. 142;" Michx.! fl. 2. p. 46; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 168; DC.prodr. \.p. Ul. H. clypeatus, Walt. Cur. p. 177. 

Borders of marshes, particularly near salt water, Long Island ! to Florida ! 
and west to New Orleans! — 11 Stem 2-4 feet high. Leaves 2-2i inches 
long, li inch wide, those about the middle of the stem more or less 3-lobed. 
Flowers more than 2 inches in diameter: peduncles 1-2 inches long. Invo- 
lucel of 8-9 subulate leaves. Petals rose-color, obovate-cuneate, hirsute ex- 
ternally on one side. Column very slender, shorter than the corolla, anthe- 
riferous above the middle. Capsule hispid, the angles very acute. Seeds 
glabrous : radicle inferior. 

§ 2. Cells of the capsule many-seeded : seeds glabrous : involucel 4-6- 
leaved : caly.v sj}athaceous, 5-toothed, split on one side. — Manihot, DC- 

2. H. Manihot (hinn.): stem and petioles not prickly: leaves palmately 
divided ; lobes 5-7, linear, acuminate, coarsely toothed ; peduncles hispid ; 
declined ; leaves of the involucel ovate or lanceolate, persistent, entire ; cap- 
sule very hirsute, acuminate. — Mich.v. ! fl. 2. p. 45 ; Piirsh, ff. 2. p. 457 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 448. 

Banks of the Mississippi, Michau.v ! Drummond ! Introduced? — If 
Leaves parted nearly to the base ; the lobes often a foot in length, toothed 
toward the summit. Flowers 6 inches or more in diameter, sulphur-yellow, 

f)urple in the centre. Petals roundish, abruptly narrowed at the base. Invo- 
ucel somewhat hispid. Calyx split on one side the whole length, with 5 
short teeth at the summit. Column about one-third the length of the corolla, 
antheriferous nearly the whole length. 

§ 3, Cells of the capsule many-seeded : seeds glabrous : leaves of the in- 
volucel distinct, divaricately forked, or with a large tooth or other ap- 
pendage : calyx not inflated. — Furcaria, DC. 

3. H. aculeatus (Walt.): very scabrous ; lower leaves palmately 3-5-lobed ; 
the lobes obovate, repand-toothed ; flowers axillary at the upper part of the 
branches ; peduncles short; calyx very hispid; leaves of the involucel linear, 
bidentate, with a leafy appendage on the back above the middle. — Walt. Car. 
p. 177. H. scaber, Mich.v. ! fl. 2. p. 45 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 457 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 
169 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 449. 

Damp soils, usually near salt water, South Carolina, Georgia! Florida! 
and Alabama! June-Sept. — li Stem 4-7 feet high, and, as well as the 
petioles and peduncles, rough with minute stellate recurved prickles. Low- 
est leaves (according to Walter) cordate and angular ; upper ones deep- 
ly 3-lobed, the lateral lobes 2-cleft, rough with stellate rigid hairs, inter- 
spersed with minute prickles : petioles mostly longer than the lamina. Pe- 
duncles 2-3 lines long. Flowers as large as in Althaea rosea, sulphur-yellow, 
with a deep purple centre, often drying greenish. Leaves of the involucel 
10-12, incurved ; minutely 2- (sometimes 3-) dentate at the summit ; appen- 
dage oblong, spreading. Sepals acutely triangular, the strong middle and 
marginal ribs armed with almost prickly hairs. Capsule ovate, hairy. — The 
name of Walter, although perhaps not so strikingly appropriate as that of 
Michaux, is necessarily restored. 

Hibiscus. MALVACE^^. 237 

§ 4. Cells of the capsule viany -s ceded : seeds glabrous, or uilh a villous 
dorsal line : leaves of the involucel 8-15, distinct, entire. — Abelmos- 
chus, DC. 

4. H. CoUinsiana (Nutt. mss.) : lowest leaves obtusely 5-lobed ; upper 
ones pedately 5-parted ; the lobes linear-oblanceolate, acuminate, coarsely 
toothed ; petiole as long as the lamina ; tlowers on short pedudcles; leaves 
of the involucel 10-12; calyx spathaceous, 5-toothed, cleft on one side. 

West Florida, Mr. Ware (fide Nutt.); Tampa Bay, Dr. Burroxcs ! — 
Leaves 6-8 inches in diameter, sparsely hirsute; lowest ones angularly 
5-lobed : upper ones parted nearly to the base ; the 3 middle lobes about 6 
inches in length and about an inch wide, often incisely toothed, acuminate ; 
lateral lobes much shorter: petioles hispid. Peduncles about J of an 
inch long, and as well as the involucel and calyx hispid. Corolla as large as 
in H. esculentus, yellow? (green in dried specimens.) Capsule not seen. — 
Nearly allied to H. esculentus; but differs in its deeply divided leaves. Mr. 
Nuttall informs us that he has seen the same species from Surinam. 

5. H. Moscheutos (Linn.) : leaves ovate, acuminate, serrate, often 3-lobed, 
■whitish-tomentose beneath, somewhat scabrous-pubescent above ; peduncles 
(1-flowered) and petioles often united. — Cav. diss. 3. t. 65. f 1^2; Mich.r. ! 

fl. 2. p. 47 ; Bot. mag. t. 882 ; Pur.'ih.,fl. 2. p. 455; Ell. sk. 2. p. 165; DC. 
prodr. \.p. 450; Hook.jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 107. H. palustris, Liiin. ^ most 
of the preceding authors. 

Borders of marshes, particularly near the salt water, Canada ! and 
throughout the United States! Aug.-Sept. — It Stem 3-5-feet high, mi- 
nutely tomentose. Leaves about 5 inches long and 3 wide, rather obtuse at 
the base, with a long acumination, often with 3 short abruptly acuminate 
lobes, velvety-tomcntose beneath. Peduncles axillary, 2 inches long, articu- 
lated a little below the flower, often coalescing with the petiole to a conside- 
rable distance above the base. Flowers as large as in the common Holly- 
hock, rose-color, or sometimes nearly white, crimson at the centre. Petals 
obovate, retuse. Stamineal column ^ the length of the petals. Styles ex- 
serted. Capsule as large as in H. Syriacus. — From numerous observations, 
we are convinced that H. Moscheutos and H. palustris are not distinct spe- 
cies. It is not uncommon to find the peduncles and petioles both distinct 
and united on the same specimen. 

6. H. incanus (Wendl.) : leaves ovate, acuminate, obtusely serrate, whi- 
tish, velvety on both surfaces ; peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, often confluent 
with the petiole at the base. — '• Wendl. hart. Herr. 4. t. 24 ;" Willd. sp. 3. 
p. 807 ; Puri^h.fl. 2. p. 455 ; DC. prodr. l.p. 451. 

CaroUna, Willdenow ; Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman! Croom! Red 
River, Louisiana, Dr. Hale ! — 2+ Stem tall, minutely tomentose. Leaves 
often more or less cordate, not lobed, 4-6 inches long. Peduncles about as 
long as the petioles, jointed near the middle. Flowers very large "sulphur- 
yellow" ( ITt/W. and so they are in our dried specimens), purpUsh at the 
centre. — Near the preceding species, but quite distinct. 

7. H. Carolinianus (^Muhl.) : leaves cordate, ovate, acuminate, glabrous 
on both surfaces, sometmies slightly 3-lobed ; peduncles axillary, 1-flowered ; 
seeds hispid. FAl.—Muhl. cat. p. 651; Ell. sk. 2. p. 168. 

Wilmington Island, Georgia, Elliott. — Stem 4-6 feet high, glabrous. 
Leaves large (sometimes 6 inches long), obscurely 3-lobed when old ; veins 
prominent on the under surface : petioles as long as the leaves. Peduncles 
2-3 inches long, slightly adhering to the petiole. Involucel 12-leaved. Ca- 
lyx somewhat scabrous. Petals purple, 4 inches long, glabrous outside, 
pubescent within. Capsule nearly globose, hairy on the inside. Seeds 

238 MALVACE^. Hibiscus. 

hispid with short rigid hair. Elliott. — A rare species, first described by- 
Mr. Elliott, who raised it from seeds collected on Wilmington Island. 

8. //. militaris (Cav.): glabrous; leaves hastately 3-lobed, acuminate, 

serrate ; corolla tubular-campanulate ; capsule ovate, acuminate, glabrous ; 
seeds silky.— rV/i'. diss. 6. p. 352. t. 198,/ 2 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 808 ;, 
ft. 2. p. 456; Ell. sk. 2. p. 168 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 451 ; Bot. mag. t. 2385. 
H. hastatus, Mich.v. ! ft. 2. p. 45. H. riparius, Pers. syn. 2. p. 254. H. 
Virginicus, Walt. Car. p. 187. " H. laevis. Scop. del. insuh. 3. t. 27." 

Banks of rivers, Pennsylvania, (Pwrs/i, Muhlenberg) to Georgia! Ohio 
and Mississippi, ilfic/ifl2i.r .' July-Aug. — li Stem 3-4 feet high. Leaves 
3-5 inches long, somewhat cordate, conspicuously lobed at the base in a 
hastate manner. Peduncles shorter than the petiole, jointed above the mid- 
dle. Leaves of the involucel 12-14, linear-subulate, incurved. Corolla pale 
rose-color, with a deeper centre, about 2i inches long, hairy on the outside 
toward the base. 

9. H. coccineus {MVdXt.): glabrous; leaves palmately 5-parted ; segments 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, distantly serrate; calyx deeply 5-parted; corolla 
expanding; capside glabrous, ovate, acute; seeds pubescent. — Walt. Car. 
p. 111. H. speciosus, Ait. Kexc. 2. p. 456 ; Mich.x. ! fl. 2. p. 47 ; Bot. mag. 
t. 360 ; Pii,rsh,ft. 2. p. 456 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 170 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 451. 

Damp soils, Georgia! Florida! July-Sept. — 11 Stem 4-7 feet high. 
Leaves divided to the base; segments 5-8 inches long, tapering to a long 
narrow point. Peduncles articulated near the summit. Leaves of the invo- 
lucel 12-15. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, with a long tapering point. 
Corolla bright scarlet : petals obovate, 4-5 inches long. Column as long as 
the petals. — We restore the prior name of Walter. 

10. H. grandifiorus (Michx.) : leaves coriaceous, cordate, 3-lobed, to- 
mentose on both surfaces, hoary beneath; corolla expanding ; capsule torn en- 
tose, somewhat truncated. Mich.v..' fl. 2. p. 46; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 455; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 167; DC. prodr. 1. p. 451. 

Around ponds, Georgia to Florida, and west to the Mississippi, Michau.r ! 
July-Sept. — 14. Stem 5-7 feet high. Leaves very large, velvety like those 
of Marsh Mallows. Peduncles axillary. Petals flesh-color, red at the 
base, 5-6 inches long. 

H. pallidus of Rafinesque, is merely H. Trionum, which is frequently found about 
habitations; but is hardly naturalized. 

Order XXXIX. TILIACE.E. Juss. 

Sepals 4-5, deciduous : sestivation valvate. Petals 4-5, hypogy- 
nous, rarely wanting. Stamens usually indefinite, distinct, hypogy- 
nous : anthers 2-celIed, fixed by the middle, opening longitudinally. 
Torus often with 4 or 5 glands at the base of the petals. Ovary of 
2-10 united carpels : styles united : stigmas as many as the carpels. 
Fruit a 2-5-celled capsule with several seeds in each cell, or coria- 
ceous or drupaceous, sometimes by abortion 1-celled and 1-2-seeded. 
Seeds anatropous. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen : cotyledons 
flat and foliaceous, sometimes bent upon the radicle, — Trees or shrubs, 

TiMA. TlLIACEiE. 230 

very seldom herbs. Leaves alternate, with deciduous stipules. Flow- 
ers axillary. 

1. CORCHORUS. Linn.; Lam. ill. l. 478. 

Sepals 4-5. Petals 4-5, rather shorter than the sepals, inserted under the 
ovary. Stamens indefinite, or rarely the number of the petals. Style very 
short, deciduous : stigmas 2-5. Capsule pod-like or roundish, 2-5-celled, lo- 
culicidal, with no central axis. Seeds usually numerous in each cell. — 
Shrubs or nearly herbaceous plants. Leaves undivided, serrate. Peduncles 
axillary or opposite the leaves, very short, 1-few-flowered. Flowers yellow. 

1. C. siliquosus (Linn.) : branching ; leaves ovate or lanceolate, acute, 
equally serrate ; capsules pod-shaped, linear, 2-valved, nearly glabrous. — 
Plum. ic. t. 103. / 1 ; JVilld. sp. 2. p. 1218 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 504. 

New Orleans, /?/•. /;?o-a//s .' Drummond! Alabama, 7>r. G^aie*/ Also 
a native of the West Indies, &c. — Nearly herbaceous, glabrous or somewhat 
pubescent. Sepals and petals commonly 4. Stamens 14. The vernal flow- 
ers, according to Linnaeus, have 4 sepals and 4 stamens j the autumnal 5 
sepals and numerous stamens. 

2. TILIA. Linn.; Vent. mon. Til.; DC. prodr. 1. p. 512. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, more or less pentadelphous ; the 
central one in each parcel (in the North American species) transformed into 
a petaloid scale (nectary, Linn, staminodium, Spach.) Ovary globose, vil- 
lous, 5-ceEed; the cells with 2 ovules. Fruit coriaceous or woody, subglobose, 
by abortion 1-celledj 1-2-seeded. — Trees, with cordate leaves and a tough 
fibrous bark. Flowers cymose, with the peduncle adnate to a large foliace- 
ous bract. — Linden or Lime-tree. Basswood. 

1. T. Americana (Linn.) : leaves obliquely cordate, or truncate at the 
base, somewhat coriaceous, glabrous, abruptly acuminate ; petals obtuse or 
truncate, crenate at the apex. — JVilld. sp. 2. p. 1261 ; Michx. f. sylv. 2. p. 
233. t. 131 ; Bigel. Ji. Host. p. 214. T. glabra, " Vent. I. c. t. 1. f. 1; » 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 62; Ell. sk. 2. p. 2; DC. prodr. 1. p. 513; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Ain. 1. p. 108 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 1. p. 312. T. Canadensis, MicKx. 
fl. 2. p. 306. 

Woods, Canada ! (lat. 52^) to Virginia, and along the Alleghany Moun- 
tains to Georgia. June. — A large and beautiful tree, often 60-70 feet high 
and 2-4 feet in diameter; the wood soft and white. Leaves 3-4 inches wide, 
coarsely and mucronately serrate : petioles 2 inches long. Peduncle 4-6 
inches long, adnate the lower half of its length to a linear-oblong yellowish- 
green strongly-veined bract. Cymes compound, 12-18-flowered, pendulous. 
Flowers about half an inch in diameter. Sepals triangular-lanceolate, pube- 
scent outside, woolly within. Petals longer than the sepals, yellowish-white. 
Staminodia obovate-lanceolate, exactly resembling the petals, but smaller. 
Style sometimes longer, sometimes shorter than the petals, hairy toward the 
base. Fruit the size of a large pea, nearly globose, covered with a short 
gray pubescence, usually perfecting but one seed. 

2. T. heterophijlla (Vent.) : leaves glabrous and deep green above, very 
white and velvety-tomentose beneath, the veins dark-colored and nearly gla- 
brous, with coarse mucronate serratures ; petals obtuse, crenulate ; stamino- 


240 TILIACE^. Tilia. 

dia spatulate, entire ; style hairy at the base. — " Vent. I.e. p. 16. t. 15?; 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 63 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 513. 

Banks of the Ohio and Mississippi, Pursh ; near Macon, Georgia, Dr. 
Loomis! — Leaves 4-8 inches in diameter, very oblique and naore or less cor- 
date, with a short abrupt acumination, someAvhat shining above ; the veins 
on the under surlace veryconspicuousin contrast with the white pubescence. 
Cyme few-flowered, loose. Style longer than the petals. 

3. T. alba (Michx.) : leaves glabrous above, whitish-pubescent beneath ; 
the veins pale ; serratures mucronately acuminate ; petals emarginate ; sta- 
minodia spatulate, entire ; style nearly glabrous at the base.— Mc/i^./ sylv. 
2.p. 237. t. 132. T. laxiflora, Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 363 ? (not of Michx. fi.) 

Woods, particularly along rivers, Pennsylvania to Maryland, and in the 
Western States, Michau.v., f. Santee River, South Carolina, Dr. Godine! 
—Leaves 3-4 inches in diameter with a short abrupt acumination, cordate, 
somewhat unequal at the base ; the under surface rather thinly pubescent, 
very pale, but scarcely white. Staminodia | the length of the petals. Fila- 
ments slightly pentadelphous. 

4. T. puhescens (Ait.): leaves of nearly the same color on both surfaces, 
nearly gkbrous above, pubescent beneath ; serratures slightly mucronate ; pe- 
tals crenulate at the summit ; style hairy at the base.—" Vent. I. c. p. 10. t. 
3" ; Michx. f. sylv. 2. p. 239. t. 133 ; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 363 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 3. 
T. laxiflora, Mich.T. fl. 2. p. 306 ? 

0. leptophylla (Vent.) : leaves very thin and papyraceous. Vent. I. c. ; 
Pursh, I. c. 

Fertile soils, along the sea-coast of Carolina, to Florida'. Mich an x, f. 
Elliott, Baldwin! Kentucky, 5fAoH .' Texas, Drummond .' June.— A large 
tree. Leaves 3-4 inches in diameter, the under surface when young rather 
paler than the upper, but at length of nearly the same color ; serratures broad 
and short. — There is great uncertainty respecting the synonymy of the last 
three species, owing to the imperfect manner in which they are described by 
most preceding authors. Indeed nearly aU the characters which have been 
employed for distinguishing them are either inconstant or are common to 
them all. A careful examination of the flowers in the living plants may af- 
ford more certain marks of discrimination. 

Order XL. MELIACE^. Juss. 

Sepals 3-5, distinct or more or less united, imbricated in aestivation. 
Petals hypogynous, as many as, and longer than the sepals, alter- 
nate with them, often connivent or cohering at the base with each 
other or with the stamen-tube: sestivation valvate or imbricated. 
Stamens usually twice the number of the petals : filaments united into 
a tube, inserted outside the hypogynous often discoid torus : anthers 
sessile within the orifice of the tube. Ovary with usually the same 
number of cells as petals, each cell containing 1-2 ovules : styles and 
stigmas commonly united into one. Fruit drupaceous, baccate, or 
capsular, with as many cells as stigmas, or by abortion l-celled ; 
when dehiscent, loculicidal. Seeds mostly anatropous, sometimes aril- 
led, never winged or flat : albumen thin and fleshy, or none. — Trees or 
shrubs. Leaves alternate, without stipules, simple or compound. 


1. MELIA. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 372. 

Calyx small: sepals 5, united below. Petals oblong, spreading. Rtamcn- 
tube 10-ck'ft at the apex, with 10 anthers in the throat ; the segments 2-3- 
parted. Ovary seated on a short disk, 5-celled, with 2 ovules iu each cell, 
one above the other. Style columnar, breaking off from the top of the ova- 
ry : stigma 5-lobed. Drupe ovate, with a 5-celled bony nut ; cells 1-seeded. 
Embryo enclosed within a thin fleshy albumen : cotyledons foliaceous. — 
Trees, with bipinnate leaves : leaflets toothed. Flowers in axillary panicles. 

1. M. Az edar ach {L.\nn.) : leaves deciduous ; leaflets about 5 together, 
glabrous, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; petals (lilac) nearly gla- 
brous.-— La???. /. c; Cav. diss. 7. p. 363, t. 207; Ell. sk. 1. p. 475; Ad. 
Juss. Meliac. in mem. vius. 19. t. 13 ; Audubon, birds of Amer. t. 62. 

Naturalized in the Southern States ! Introduced from Asia. April.-- 
Trunk 20-40 feet high, often 3 feet in diameter. Leaves deciduous late in 
autumn. — Bark of the root anthelmintic and somewhat narcotic. Ell. — Dr. 
James found this tree on the Canadian, where he thinks it to be a native. — 
Pride-of- India. 


Sepals 4-5, distinct or united. Petals as many as the sepals and 
alternate with them, distinct, sometimes unguiculate : sBstivation twist, 
ed or convolute. Stamens twice the number of the petals ; those op. 
posite the petals shorter and sometimes sterile or deficient : filaments 
either broad and flat and united into a tube, or subulate and distinct, 
inserted with the petals on the hypogynous disk : anthers introrse, at 
length versatile. Ovary with as many cells as petals (rarely with few- 
er), supported or surrounded by the discoid torus, with several ovules 
in each cell : styles and stigmas united into one ; the latter usually 
broad and discoid, 3-5.angled or lobed. Fruit a woody 8-5-celIed, 
3-5-valved capsule, with septicidal dehiscence ; the valves separating 
from the dissepiments, which remain attached to the thick axis. Seeds 
anatropous, many or ^gw in each cell, imbricated in 2 rows near the 
inner angle, flat and winged, not arilled : albumen thin and fleshy or 
none. Embryo with large foliaceous cotyledons, and a very small ra- 
dicle. — Trees, with very hard and durable, usually fragrant and resin- 
ous wood. Leaves alternate, pinnate, exstipulate. Flowers in termi- 
nal panicles, perfect, or diclinous by the abortion of the anthers or 

1. SWIETENIA. Linn.; Ad. Juss. in. mem. mus. 19. y. 249, t. 11. 

Calyx short, obtusely 5-cleft. Petals 5, reflexed. Filaments 10, united 
into a subcarapanulate 10-toothed tube : anthers included in the tube, alter- 
nate with the teeth, attached by the middle, apiculate. Style short: stigma 


242 VITACE^. ViTrs. 

discoid, 5-radiate. Ovary ovoid, surrounded at the base by an annular disk, 
5-celled, vi^itli about 12 ovules in each cell. Capsule ovoid, 5-celled, dehis- 
cing from the base upward, with 5 septifragal valves ; the very thick and 
woody sarcocarp at length separable from the endocarp; the axis large, per- 
sistent, 5-angled above, 5-winged below with the dissepiments. Seeds sus- 
pended from the summit of the axis, about 12 in each cell, imbricated in two 
rows, rather flat ; the thickened and spongy integument expanded above into 
an oblong wing, which is traversed by the filiform funiculus. Embryo trans- 
verse : radicle very short, looking towards the side of the cell : cotyledons 
conferruminate and confounded with the fleshy albumen. — A large tree, 
with reddish-brown wood. Leaves abruptly pinnate : leaflets small, some- 
what inequilateral. Panicles axillary or somewhat terminal, loosely-flower- 
ed. Ad. Juss. — Mahogany. 

S. Mahogoni (Linn.)— Car. diss. 7. p. 365, t. 209; Catesh. Car. t. 81 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 624; Ad. Juss. I. c. Cedrus Mahogonij Mill. 

The Mahogany is mentioned in Muhlenberg's catatogue as a doubtful na- 
tive of Florida. We have seen, in the herbarium of the late Mr. Croom, a 
capsule from a collection made in Southern Florida by the late Dr. Leitner, 
who considered the tree to which it belonged to be the true Mahogony. — 
The figure of Gsertner (fruct. 2. t. 96.) difl'ers in several points from S. Ma- 
hogoni, as is noticed by Ad. Jussieu, and probably represents some other plant. 

Order XLIL VITACE^. Juss. 

Ampelideae, Rich. ; Kunth, <^c. 

Calyx minute, nearly entire, or 5-toothed. Petals 4-5, inserted 
upon the outside of an annular disk, inflexed and valvate in sestivation, 
distinct, or cohering above and calyptriform, caducous. Stamens as 
many as the petals and opposite them, inserted on the surface of the 
disk : filaments distinct or slightly cohering at the base, or attached 
to the outside of a S-lobed urceolus : anthers ovate, versatile. Ovary 
2.celled, with 2 erect collateral ovules in each cell : style short or 
none : stigma simple. Fruit a globose mostly pulpy berry, often by 
abortion 1-celled, 1-few-seeded. Seeds anatropous, erect, with a 
hard testa. Embryo much shorter than the horny or fleshy albumen : 
radicle slender : cotyledons lanceolate or subulate. — Usually climbing 
shrubs. Leaves simple or compound ; the lower ones opposite ; the 
upper alternate, opposite the racemes or thyrsoid panicles, which are 
sometimes changed into tendrils. Flowers greenish and inconspicu- 
ous, occasionally polygamous. 

1. VITIS. Linn. ; t. 106 ; W. ^ Am. prodr. Ind. Or. 1. p. 124. 

Vitis & Cissus, Linn. cf-c. 

Calyx nearly entire. Petals 4-5, distinct and spreading, or united at the 
apex, but distinct at the base, and falling ofl'like a calyptra. Torus elevated 

ViTis. VITAOE^. 243 

in the centre, and surrounding the lower part of the ovary, with wluoh it is 
incorporated, girt at the base by a short ring (expansion of the torus) upon 
which the stamens are inserted. Ovary partly enclosed within the torus, 
2- (or occasionally 3-) celled, with 2 ovules in each cell. Berry 1-2- (or oc- 
casionally 3-) celled, 1-4-seeded. Peduncles usually changed, in whole or 
in part, into tendrils. Am. 

§ 1. Petals 4 (rarely 5), usually distinct at the apex : stamens 4 {rarely 5) : 
style usually as long as the ovary : stigma minute. Peduncles either 
wholly poriferous or changed into tendrils. — Cissus, Linn. 

1. V. bipinnafa: leaves bipinnate, glabrous ; leaflets incisely serrate ; flow- 
ers pentandrous ; berry 2-celled ; cells l-2-9eeded. — V. arborea, IVilld. sp. 
1. /). 1183. Ampelopsis bipinnata, Mich.T.! f. \. p. 160; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 633. Cissus stans, Pers. syn. 1. p. 143; Pursh, Ji. 1. p. 170. C. bipin- 
nata. Ell. sk.l. p. 304 ; Nntt. gen. 1. p. 144. 

Damp rich soils, near rivers, Virginia ! to Georgia ! west to Arkansas ! 
June-July. — Stem upright or somewhat twining, glabrous. Lower leaves 
sometimes decompound: leaflets an inch long, ovate or rhombic-ovate, some- 
times cordate; the veins beneath pubescent and slightly connected at their 
axils by a ciliate membrane. Panicle short, spreading, and apparently twice 
bifid, without tendrils. Petals greenish-white, expanding. Torus somewhat 
turbinate, adhering to the lower half of the ovary. Style conical. Berry 
globose, depressed, as large as a small pea, blackish Avhen ripe, slightly hairy, 
one of the cells usually 2-seeded, the other one-seeded. Seeds with 2 deep 
depressions on one side. 

2. V. incisa (Nutt. mss.) : leaves trifoliolate, thick and somewhat fleshy ; 
leaflets incisely toothed or lobed, cuneate at the base ; flowers tetrandrous 
and tetrapetalous ; berry globose-obovate, 1-celled, 1-seeded. 

Prairies and copses, Texas and Arkansas, Dr. Leavenworth! Arkansas, 
Nuttall ! July — A vine, climbing by numerous tendrils to the height of 4-5 
feet : stem woody, and as wcU as the branches, warty. Petioles about an 
inch long. Leaves pale green and very glabrous on both surfaces ; the low- 
est ones 3-lobed or cordate at the base ; upper ones trifoliolate : leaflets 1-2 
inches long, sometimes 2-3-lobed. Panicle somewhat corymbed, or com- 
poundly umbellate. Calyx 4-toolhed. Petals pale green, connected. Torus 
hemispherical; the border obscurely toothed. Style conspicuous, rather slen- 
der. Berry the size of a small pea, black, shining. Seed with 2 deep pits 
at the base, so that when it is cut transversely the albumen appears to be 2- 
ceJled. — The leaves, leaflets, and flowers are so deciduous that it is almost 
impossible to dry the plant so as to prevent its falling to pieces. 

3. V. indirisa (Willd.) : leaves simple, cordate or truncate at the base, 
somewhat 3-lobed, pubescent on the nerves beneath ; flowers pentandrous 
and pentapetalous ; berry 1-celled, 1-2-S'eeded. — Willd. baum. 538, e.rDC. 
prodr. 1. p. 633. Ampelopsis cordata, 7V7/V^.r. .' ^. I. p. 159; DC. I. c. 
Cissus Ampelopsis, Pers. syn. 1. p. 142; Pursh, Ji. 1. p. 170; Ell. sk. 1. 
p. 305. 

Swamps, Southern States! west to Louisiana! and Arkansas! June. — 
Stem long, climbing, glabrous. — Leaves 3-4 inches broad, coarsely serrate ; 
the points of the serratures glandular. Panicles apparently twice or thrice 
bifid, with spreading branches, without tendrils. Calyx very obscurely tooth- 
ed. Ovary surrounded with a cup-shaped torus, somewhat globose ; ovules 
2. Style tapering : stigma smaU. Berry a little larger than a pepper-corn, 
seldom perfectmg more than a single seed. 

S44 YITACKM. Vitis. 

§ 2. Petals 5, mostly united at the apex : stamens 5 : style short, conical: 
stigma dilated. Peduncles sometimes partly changed into tendrils : 
Jlowers in the North American species polygamous. — Vitis, Linn. 

4. V. Labrusca (Linn.) : leaves broadly cordate, somewhat lobed and 
angular, repandiy toothed, whitish-tomentose beneath, with somewhat ferru- 
ginous veins ; fertile racemes oblong, compact, rather few-flowered ; berries 
large.— Mtc/i.f. / fl. 2. p. 230; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 169; Torr.! f. 1. p. 264; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 689"; DC.prodr. 1. p. 634; Darlingt. fi. Cest. p. 150; Hook. 

fl. Hor.'Am. 1. /x 115. 

Woods and thickets, Canada ! to Georgia ; west to Arkansas ! and Texas ! 
June. — Stem very long, straggling over bushes, or climbing the highest trees ; 
the branches clothed with a ferruginous pubescence. Leaves 4-6 inches or 
more in diameter, often distinctly 3-lobed, short, mucronate, densely toraen- 
tose beneath ; the tomentum usually whitish or gray, but sometimes tawny, 
particularly on the veins ; teeth short, mucronate. Racemes somewhat com- 
pound ; the branches short and umbeUed. Petals yellowish-green. Berries 
6-7 lines in diameter, globose, usually very dark purple when ripe, but some- 
times amber-color, or greenish-white, of a strong musky flavor, and fdled 
with a tough pulp. — Fox-Grape of the Northern States. Several esteem- 
ed varieties are known in the gardens; such as the Isabella, Schuylkill or 
Ale.vander^s, the Catawba, and Bland'' s Grape, which have doubtless been 
produced from the seeds of this species. 

5. V. cestivalis (Michx.) : leaves broadly cordate, often 3-5-Iobed or sin- 
uately palmate, coarsely and unequally toothed, sparsely ferruginous-tomen- 
tose beneath ; fertile racemes long, compound ; berries small. Darlingt. — 
Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 230 ; Pu.rsh, fi. 1. p. 169 ; Torr.! fl. 1. p. 265 ; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 688; DC. prodr. 1. p. 634 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 151. V. vinifera 
Americana, Marsh, arbust. p. 165. V. intermedia, Mtihl. cat. p. 26. V. 
palmata, Vahl. ? 

Woods and banks of rivers, Connecticut! to Florida! west to Arkansas! 
June. — Stem very long. Leaves 4-7 inches wide, often deeply lobed, with 
the sinuses rounded, the lower surface, particularly in the young state, cloth- 
ed with a reddish cobweb-like pubescence, when old somewhat glabrous. 
Sterile racemes usually large and much compound, frequently bearing one or 
more tendrils from the base. Petals cohering at the summit. Berries 3-4 
lines in diameter, deep blue, of a pleasant flavor, ripe in October. — Summer 

3. V. cordiflilia (Michx.) : leaves cordate, acuminate, somewhat equally 
toothed, glabrous on both sides; racemes loose, many-flowered; berries 
«mall.— Mf/i.r. .' fl. 2. p. 231 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 169; DC. prodr. 1. p. 364. 
V. vulpina, Torr:! fl. 1. p. 264 (not of Willd.) ; Hook. I. c. 

Thickets along rivers, Canada! to Florida! Avest to Arkansas! June. — 
Stem 10-20 feet long. Leaves thin, 3-6 inches in diameter, often slightly 3- 
lobed, and rarely sinuate, pubescent on the veins when young, glabrous when 
old ; the teeth broad and mucronate. Berries nearly black when mature, 
about \ of an inch in diameter, ripening late in autumn, acerb, but tolerably 
well flavored after having been touched by frost. — Winter Grape. Frost 

4. V. riparia (Michx.) : leaves unequally and incisely toothed, somewhat 
3-lobed ; the petioles, veins, and margins pubescent ; racemes loose, fruit 
sm-dW.— Michx. ! fl. 2. p. 231; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 169 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 635. 
V. odoratissima, Donn. 

Thickets along rivers, Canada ! to Virginia! Western States ! Arkansas! 
— Stem loag. Leaves 4-6 inches in diameter, thin ; teeth very coarse, with 

Ampelopsis. VITACE.E. 245 

a lonsi acuniination. Borry 3-4 lines in diameter, dark purple or amber-color 
when mature. — Wintei- (j'rape. 

5. V. vulpina (Linn.) : branches minutely verrucose ; leaves cordate, lurid 
on both surfaces, somewhat 3-lobed, coarsely toothed, the teeth not acumi- 
nate ; racemes composed of numerous capitate umbels ; berries lar<,n'.— 
Willd. sp. 1. p. 1181 ; Walt. Car. p. 243. V. rotundifolia, Mich.v.! Jl. 2. 
p. 231 ; Pursh, fl. 1. /). 169 ; /;//. .s-A". 2. p. C->S1; DC. prodr. 1. p. 635. 

Banks of rivers, Virs^inia ! to Florida!— Stem often very lon<i, climbm^ 
the highest trees; the Imk smooth. Leaves 2-3 inches in diameter; the 
lower Surface more shining than the upper; sinus deep, but rather acute. 
" Fruit 7-S lines in diameter, covered with a coriaceous inteuumc nt, the fla- 
vor not unpleasant." EtUott.— Fox-Grape oi \.\m Southern States; also call- 
ed Bidlcl- or Bull-Grupe. It appears to be the original V. vul])ina of Lm- 

2. AMPELOPSIS. Michx. fl. 1. p. 159. 

Calyx entire. Petals 5, distinct, spreading. Torus without a ring. Ova- 
ry 2-cclled ; with 2 ovules in each cell : style very short, conical. Berry 2- 
celled ; the cells 1-2-seeded.— A shrubby vine. Leaves digitately 5-foliolate. 
Flowers perfect, in spreading corymbose panicles, 

A. qninquefoHa (Michx. 1. c.)—Hook. f. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 114. A. hede- 
racea, DC. prodr. 1. p. 633; Darlingt. fl. p. 153. Vitis quinquefo- 
lia. Lam. V. hederacea, Willd. sp. I. p. 1182. Hcdera quinqiiefolia, Linn. 
Cissus hederacea, Pers.syn. l.p. 143; Pursh,fl. I. p. 170; Torr.! fl. I. p. 
266 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 305. 

p.hirsuta: leaves pubescent on both sides; leaflets ovate. — A hirsuta, 
Donn.; DC. prodr. 1. p. 633. Cissus hederacea &. hirsuta, Pnr.s-h, I. c. 

Borders of woods, and along fences, Canada ! to Georgia, and Western 
States. i3. Alleghany Mountains, Pursh.— Stem climbing to a great height 
and spreading extensively, attaching itself to trees and walls by expansions 
of the extremities of the tendrils. Leaves on long petioles : leatlets petiolu- 
late, oblong, acuminate, coarsely serrate or toothed above the middle, gla- 
brous. Panicle many-tlowered, consisting of about 3 primary branches, 
Avhicharecompoundly divided; the ultimate divisions, somewhat umbellate. 
Flowers small, yellowish-green. Calyx very slightly crenate. Petals at 
first somewhat cohering, at length spreading. Berry about as large as a 
small pea, dark blue ; the peduncles and pedicels bright crimson. Foliage 
crimson in autumn. — Virginian Creeper. American Ivy. 

Order XLIIL ACERACE.^. Jhss. 

Sepals 5, or rarely 4-9. more or less united, colored : aestivation im- 
bricated. Petals as niany as sepals and alternate with them, inserted 
round an usually lobed hypogynous disk, sometimes none. Stamens in. 
serted on the disk, usually 8 (sometimes 3-12), distinct : anthers in- 
trorse or versatile. Ovary 2-lobed, composed of two united carpels, 
each containing 2 collateral ovules : styles more or less combined, 
stigmatose on the inside. Fruit composed of 2 indehiscent samaroid 
carpels, finally separable from the filiform axis : the wing thickened 

246 ACERACE^. • Acer. 

at the lower margin. Seeds 1-2, erect, with little or no albumen. 
P^mbryo curved, or nearly straight, with wrinkled foliaceous cotyle- 
dons variously folded upon each other. — Trees or shrubs, with oppo- 
site, palmately lobed or pinnately 3-5-foliolate, exstipulate leaves. 
Flowers lateral or terminal, often by abortion polygamous or dicecious. 

1. ACER. Manch; DC. prodr. 1. p. 593. 

Flowers mostly polygamous. Petals colored like the sepals, often wanting. 
Stamens 7-10, rarely 5. — Leaves simple. The sap of many species con- 
tains sugar. — Maple. 

* Flojvers in racemes lermiiiating the leafy branches, appearing ajter the erohdiort 

oj the leaves. 

1. A. Pennsylvanicum (Linn.): leaves subcordate, finely and acutely 
doubly serrate, 3-lobed at the extremity ; lobes with a slender serrate acumi- 
nation ; racemes nodding ; flowers large ; petals obovate ; fruit glabrous, with 
larc^e diverging Avings. — Linn. sy.^t. 1. p. 675 ; Michx. ! Ji. 2. p. 252 ; EII. 
sk°l. p. 45"! ; Torr.i Ji. 1. p. 397; Hook. ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 111. A. stria- 
tum. Lam. diet. 2. p. 381; Michx. f. sylv. 1. t. 45 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 593 ; 
Spach, in ann. sci. nat. (2. ser.) 2. p. 162. A. Canadense, Duham. arb. 
1. 1. 12 ; Marsh, arbust. p. i. 

Canada! (lat. 51- ) to the Alleghany Mountains in Georgia, and Kentucky ! 
abundant between lat. 43^-' and 45°. May. — A shrub or very small tree, with 
a smooth green bark marked with stripes : the wood of no value. Flowers 
yellowish-green. Leaves rarely somewhat 5-lobed, at length glabrous. — 
Striped Maple. Moose-u-ood. Dog-xoood. 

2. A. spicatum (Lam.) : leaves pubescent beneath, subcordate, coarsely 
serrate 3- or somewhat 5-lobed ; lobes with an entire acumination ; racemes 
erect slio^htly compound ; petals linear-spatulate ; fruit nearly glabrous, witli 
slio-htly ^diverging wings. — Lam., diet. 2. p. 381 (1786); DC. jnodr. I. c; 
Spach,l. c. A. montanum. Ait. Kew. 3. p. 435 (1789); Michx.! I. c. ; 
Mich.r. f. sylv. L 47 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 4:52; Hook. I.e. A. Pennsylvanicum, 
DuRoi, harbk. t. 2 ; Wang. Amer. t. 12. /. 30. 

Cool rocky places ! with the same range as A. Pennsylvanicum : uncom- 
mon south of lat. 41°. — May-June.— Shrub 6-10 feet high. Leaves shghtly 
lobed, at length somewhat rugose. Flowers small, greenish. Raceme many- 
flowered. Fruit often reddish. — Mountain Maple. 

3. A. macrophylhim (Pursh) : leaves large, very deeply 5-lobed; lobes 
oblong or sliglitly cuneiform, entire or sinuately 3-lobed, the margins some- 
what "repand"'; racemes nodding; flowers rather large ; petals obovate ; fruit 
hispid Avith elongated slighdv diverging glabrous wings. — Piirsh, f. 1. p. 
267; DC. prodr. 1. p. 594; Hook. ! ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 112, t. 38. 

Oregon ! common between lat. 40= and 50 ', along the alluvial banks of 
rivers.'' April-May. — Trunk 40-90 feet high, 6-16 feet in circumference, 
with widely spreading branches. Leaves [at length nearly glabrous] some- 
times nearly a foot broad. Stamens 9—10 : filaments hairy below. Carpels 
sometimes 3. Racemes elongated, the pedicels often aggregated (compound 
below Pursh). Flowers yellow, fragrant. Sap as abundant as in any spe- 
cies except A. saccharinum : the wood soft but beautifully veined. Douglas, 
in Hook. " The wood is whitish, and resembles our curled maple." Autt. 

^ jvci-^X-. /vCi 

^t.) i^^ c^sujv ^t^' ^r^^'^--uiv 

Acer. ACERACE^. 247 

♦• Flowers in pedunculate umbel-like curijmbs, terminating the leafy branches, ap- 
pearing ivilh the. leaves. 

4. A. circinatum (Pursh): leaves cordate, 7-9-lobed, the nerves all radia- 
ting directly from the apex of the petiole; lobes very acutely serrate, wiili a 
slender acumination ; corymb few-flowered ; petals ovate or linear, shorter 
than the calyx; fruit glabrous, with oblonij divaricate Avings. — Pvr.f/i, //. 
1. p. 26(3; Hook. fl. Bur.-Ani. 1. p. 112,/. 39; Null. in jour. acad. Philad. 
7. p. 1(5, excl. syn. 

On the Great Rapids of the Oregon, Lev-is ex Pursh, Nnttall! and N. 
W. Coast between lat. 43^ and 49^, Douglas, Scouhr ! " Confined, like 
the preceding, to the woody mountainous country that skirts the shores, where 
it forms almost impenetrable thickets; the pendulous and rrooked branches 
often taking root." Douglas, \n Hook. April-May.— Trunk 20-40 feet higli; 
bark smooth; wood tine, white, close-grained, susceptible of a good polish. 
Douglas. ['' like that of the Red Maple, and presents a beautiful curled tex- 
ture." Nuttall.\ Leaves as large as those of A. rubrum, with a woolly tuft 
at the apex of the petiole ; the veins hairy, but in old leaves nearly glabrous ; 
lobes oblong or ovate-lanceolate, very acute. Sepals purple. Petals nearly 
white. Fruit with thin straight wings, which are so divaricate as to form 
right angles with the peduncle; the lower margin scarcely thickened. 

5. A. glabrum (Torr.): leaves nearly orbicular, truncate or subcordate at 
the base, 3-5-lobed ; lobes short and broad, acutely incised and toothed ; flow- 
ers ... ; fruit glabrous, the Avings very short and broad (somewhat 
obovate), rather diverging. — To7~r. ! in ann. lye. Neiv-York, 2. p. 172. 

In the Rocky Mountains about lat. 40^, Dr. James .'—A small shrub. 
Leaves nearly similar to those of the common Currant in size and shape, gla- 
brous, commonly 3-lobed, with very acute and narroAV sinuses which hardly 
reach to the middle of the leaf; lobes broader than long, obtuse, often some- 
what 2-3-lobed. Flowers not seen. Peduncles in fruit very short, 2-3-flow- 
ered. Wings of the fruit about the size of those of A. campestre, or a httle 
shorter, but broader in proportion and more obtuse. 

6. A. tripartitum (Nutt. ! mss.) : "leaves with a subreniform -orbicular 
circumscription, 3-cleft or 3-parted ; segments incisely toothed ; the middle 
one cuneiform, often slightly lobed, the lateral ones somewhat rhomboid ; ra- 
cemes corymbose; fruit glabrous, with very short and broad cuueate-oval di- 
verging wings. 

'•'On Bear-Ridge, Rocky Mountains, lat. 40°, near the line of Upper Cali- 
fornia. — A shrub with whitish smooth branches. Leaves about the size of 
those of the common Currant, usually 3-parted to the base, sometimes only 
cleft half-way down ; the central segment broadly cuneiform, and, as Avell as 
the lateral ones, slightly 3-lobed. Calyx about 8-parted ; segments oblong. 
Fruit small, very similar to that of A. glabrum, to which it is nearly allied." 
2Vi(/^— Notwithstanding the difference in the division of the leaves, we ap- 
prehend that this and the preceding may prove to be forms of the same spe- 

*** Flowers in nearly sessile umbel-like coryvibs, with very long filiform pedicels, ap- 
pearing V-iith the leaves ; the fertile coryrnbs terminating the branches ; the infertile 
from lateral leafless buds. 

7. A. grandidentatum ("Nutt. ! mss.) : leaves slightly cordate or truncate 
at the base, rather deeply 3-lobed, the sinuses broad and rounded ; lobes slight- 
ly acute, with a few sinuous indentations ; corymb nearly sessile, few-flow- 
ered ; the pedicels long and nodding ; fruit glabrous, with small diverging 
wings." Nutt. — A. barbatura, Dougl. in Hook. I. c. ? 

248 ACERACEiE. Acer. 

" Rocky Mountains, on Bear River of Timpanagos. — A shrub or low tree, 
with pale smooth branches. Leaves smaller than in A. saccharinum, gla- 
brous and somewhat shining above, minutely pubescent especially on the 
veins beneath ; lobes short, not in the least acuminate ; the middle one with 
two blunt teeth oh each side; the lateral with a single large diverging den- 
ture. Pedicels pubescent above. Fruit turgid, glabrous ; the wings less than 
an inch long, semioval, slightly attenuated below, somewhat divergent." Nutt. 
— To this species we refer with little hesitation A. barbatum, Dougl. (not 
of Michx.), which was found in "Valleys near springs on the west side of 
the Rocky Mountains, near the sources of the Columbia." We have not 
seen the flowers, but there is little doubt that the inflorescence is the same as 
in A. saccharinum. 

8. A. saccharinum (Linn.) : leaves truncate and subcordate at the base 
(whitish and minutely pubescent or glabrous beneath), 3-5-lobed, with 
the sinuses obtuse ; lobes with a slender acumination, coarsely and spar- 
ingly sinuate-toothed ; sepals bearded at the apex within ; petals none ; fruit 
glabrous, on long nodding pedicels; the wings dilated above, suberect or 
slightly diverging. — Wang. Amer. p. 36, ^.11; 2. p. 252; Pursh, 
fi.l. p. 266 ; Mich.v. f. sylv. 1. t. 42; Ell. sk. 1. p. 450; Ihrr. ! fi. 1. p. 
397; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 113. A. saccharum. Marsh, arhust. p. 4. 

/?. nigrum: leaves pale green beneath, the veins of the lower surface and 
petioles minutely villous-pubescent ; wings of the fruit a little more diverg- 
ing. — A. nigrum, Mich.T.f. sylv. 1. t. 43. 

In rather dry woods, Canada! to the mountains of Georgia! west to Ar- 
kansas ! and the Rocky Mountains. April-May. — Tree 50-80 feet high ; 
the trunk sometimes 2-3 feet in diameter ; the wood compact and close-grain- 
ed : the sap contains sugar. Leaves 3-5 inches in length, generally wider 
than long, on slender petioles, green and slightly lucid above, whitish and at 
first very pubescent, at length minutely pubescent or nearly glabrous, except 
on the veins beneath ; lobes diverging, usually three principal ones with two 
smaU entire ones at the base. Flowers pale greenish-yellow, on pendulous 
villous pedicels. Wings of the fruit about an inch long, semi-obovate. — Su- 
gar-Maple. — Two accidental forms of arrangement of the woody fibre, &c. 
furnish the Curled-Maple and the Birds-eye- Maple of cabinet-makers. 
We are unable clearly to distinguish the Black Sugar-Maple from the pre- 
sent species. 

♦*♦* Pedicels in fascicles, evolved from lateral aggregated leafless buds: flowers 
f receding the leaves. 

9. A. dasycarpum (Ehrh.) : leaves subcordate or often truncate at the 
base (white beneath), deeply 5-lobed, with the sinuses rather obtuse ; lobes 
acute, unequally incised and toothed, entire towards the base ; pedicels short 
and thick; petals none ; fruit tomentose when young, nearly glabrous when 
old, with very large upwardly dilated somewhat diverging wings. — " Ehrh. 
heitr. 4. p. 24" ; ^Villd. sp. 4. p. 985; Nutt. ! gen. 1. p. 252 ; ^Ell. sk. 1. p. 
449; Torr.! fl. 1. p. 396; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 113. A. eriocarpum, 
Mich.T. ! fi. 2. p. 253 ; Desf. in ann. mus. 7. t. 25 ; Michx. f. sylv. 1. 1. 40 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 595; Darlingt. fl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 245. 

Banks of rivers, Maine and Vermont ! to the upper and middle parts of 
Georgia ! west to Lake Michigan and Arkansas ; rare north of lat. 43^ ; most 
abundant in the Western States. March-April. — Trunk low, 2 (in the 
Western States sometimes 8-9) feet in diameter: wood white and soft, not 
durable : sap less sweet than that of the Sugar-Maple. Leaves on long pe- 
tioles, at first tomentose, finally glabrous, as broad as long ; the lobes often 
somewhat 3-lobed. Pedicels in flower 2-3 lines, in fruit an inch, long. Flow- 
ers small, pale yellowish-purple. Stamens 3-6. Ovary with no glands at the 
base. W'ings of the fruit 2-3 inches long when mature, slightly falcate. 

Negundo. ACERACE.Ii:. 249 

Seeds larjre. Embryo nearly straight, radicle very short. — Uliite Maple. 
Silver-leaved Miiplc. Soft Maple. 

10. A. rubrum (Linn.) : leaves cordate (rarely truncate or rounded at the 
base), whitish and at length mostly glabrous beneath, 3-5-lobod, Avith the si- 
nuses acute; lobes acute or acuminate, doul^ly serrate or iiiciscly toothrd, 
the terminal one longest; pedicels at length elongated; petals oblong or li- 
near; fruit (and ovaries) glabrous, with small, at first arcuately converging, 
at length sliglilly diverij.-nt wings.— vU/f/i jr..' Jl. 2. p. 253; ll'illd. I.e.; 
Mir/i.r. f.sylv. \. ^ 41 ; Ell. sic 1. ;). 449; Catcsb. Car. 1. t. 62; Ilonk. I. 
<'. ; Darlingt. I. c. A. ghucum. Marsh, arbiist. 1 A. Carohnianum, W'ult. 
Car. p. 251 ? A. coccineum, Mich.v. f. sijlv. 1. p. 209. A. sanguineum, 
Spach, I. c. p. 176. 

IS. ? leaves smaller, 3-lobed, mostly truncate or rounded at the base, more 
or less tomentose beneath; flowers greenish- yellow. — A. rubrum, var. Marsh.; 
Darlins't. I. c. 

In swamps and on the marshy borders of streams, Canada ! to Florida, 
west to the sources of the Oregon (Douglas). /?. Ncav Jersey ! and Penn- 
sylvania! to New Orleans! March- April— Tree sometimes 60-80 fee 
high, occasionally 3-4 feet in diameter; the Avood close-grained; the fibres 
often curled ; sap affording a little sugar: young branches red, clouded with 
white. Leaves longer than broad, moderately 3-lobed, the lateral lobes usu- 
ally with 2 small ones at the base. Flowers small, bright purple or reddish, 
on very short pedicels, which at length become filiform and pendulous. Sta- 
mens 5-6: anthers red. Disk lol)ed, glandular. Wings of the fruit about 
an inch in length, at first reddish. — Red Maple. Sivamp Maple. — The var. 
0. of which we have only met with imperfect specimens, may possibly prove 
to be a distinct species. Judging from specimens in the herbarium of the 
late Prof. Barton, it is apparently tly? A. barbatum of Pursh. The leaves 
often scarcely exceed an inch and a half iu length. 

+ Doubtful species. 

11. A. barbatum (Michx.) : leaves with 3 short lobes, serrate ; peduncles 
of the staminate flowers branching, of the pistillate simple; calyx of the sta- 
minate flowers densely bearded within ; wings of the fruit erect. Michx. ft. 
2. p. 252. 

Carolina, Michaux. Flowers pale green, sometimes all staminate, some- 
times with perfect flowers intermixed. Mich.v. — This species, of which it is 
remarkable that the younger Michaux makes no mention whatever, either in 
his general observations or catalogue of North American Maples, has been 
identified by no succeeding botanist except Pursh, who adds " In deep pine 
and cedar swamps. New- Jersey to Carolina; April-May. A small tree: 
leaves small." But Pursh's plant seems to be our /?. of A. rubrum ; at least 
specimens of A. rubrum, without fruit or flowers, exist in herb. Barton label- 
led, apparently by Pursh, A. barbatum. The flowers and inflorescence of 
this plant, however, do not at aU agree with Michaux's character. We sus- 
pect, indeed, that the description of A. barbatum, Michx. was draAvn up, at 
least as to the flowers and fruit, from specimens of A. saccharinum ; the only 
species, so far as we are aware, which has the sepals bearded inside. 

2. NEGUNDO. Moench ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 253 ; DC. I. c. 

Negundium, Raf. 

Flowers dioecious. Petals none. Pedicels of the staminate flowers capil- 
lary, fascicled, from lateral aggregated buds : fertile flowers in racemes.— 



Leares compound, pinnatcly 3-5-foliolate : leaflets petiolulatc. — Otherwise 
same as Acer. 

1. N. aceroides (Mosnch): leaflets 3-5, ovate or oval, acuminate, sparing- 
ly and unequally tootlied above the middle, the upper ones sometimes con- 
fluent ; fertile racemes elongated, pendulous ; fruit oblong, with large up- 
wardly dilated arcuate wings. — Manch, meth. p. 334. N. fraxinifolium, 
Nutt. f gen. 1. p. 253 ; nC. prodr. 1. p. 596; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 114. 
Acer Negundo, Linn.; Michv. ! fl. 2. p. 253; ^ Mich.x. f. sylv. 1. t. 46. 

In low grounds,' Canada (lat. 54° ex Hook.) to N. Carolina ! & Arkansas!: 
April. — Trunk 15-30 feet high, with a smooth yellowish-green bark. The 
sap contains sugar in small quantity. Leaves slightly pubescent, varying^ 
from ovate to nearly lanceolate. FloAvers yellowish-green. Stamens most- 
ly 5. Wings of the fruit broad and incurved at the apes. — Ash-leaved Ma- 
ple. Box-Elder. 

2. N. Calif or nicum. : young leaves villous, 3-foliolate; leaflets 3-lobed f 
lobes incised or toothed. — N. Mexicanum, DC. I. c? 

California, Douglas ! — Our specimens have neither fruit nor fall-growQ 
leaves ; but they appear to belong to a very distinct species. The leaflets are 
all lobed and incised ; the terminal one largest and broadly cuneiform at the 
base. Flowers very much crowded : sepals unequal. — The N. Mexicanum is 
so briefly characterised that it is impossible to determine the question of its; 
identity with cur species. 


Sepals 5, usually united into a campanulate or tubular 5-toothed ca- 
lyx: aestivation imbricated. Petals 5, or 4 by the suppression of the 
inferior one, commonly unequal and irregular, unguiculate, hypogy- 
nous. Stamens 6-8, commonly 7, distinct, unequal, inserted upon the 
hypogynous disk : anthers oval, versatile. Ovary roundish, composed 
of 3 united carpels, 3-celled, with 2 collateral ovules in each cell % 
style filiform, acute. Fruit subglobose, coriaceous, 3- (or frequently 
by suppression 1-2-) celled, 2-3.valved, with loculicidal dehiscence. 
Seeds solitary or very few, large, with a smooth or shining testa, and 
a broad pale hilum, somewhat campulitropous, with no albumen. Co- 
tyledons very thick and fleshy, gibbous, cohering, remaining under 
ground in germination : radicle conical, curved : plumule large, 2-leav. 
ed. — Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite (in Ungnodia alternate), ex- 
stipulate, compound : leaflets serrate. Flowers showy : pedicels arti- 

1. ^SCULUS. Linn.; Juss. gen. p. 251. 

Hippocastanum, Touni. ,- Garin. — ^sculus & Pavia, ^oc;A. ; DC. — ^scalus, 
Pavia, Macrothyrsus, <f Calothyrsus, Spack. 

Sepals united into a 5-toothed campanulate or tubular calyx. Petals 4-5, 
more or less unequal. Otherwise as in the character of the Order. — Leaves 


palmatcly 5-7-fuliolatc : leaflets simply pinnatoly veined. Flowers in tenni- 
nal tbyrsoid racemes or panicles. — Horse-Chestnut. Biu:kcyc. 

§ 1. Fruit echinate. — iEscuLus, DC. 

1. JE. srhibra ( Willd.) : stamens nearly twice the length of the (yellow- 
ish-white) corolla ; petals 4, spreading, a little unegual ; the claws scarcely 
the length of the canipanulate calyx; thyrsus racemose, loosely-flowered; 
I^^af^ets 5, oval or oblong, acuminate, finely and unequally serrate, glabrous. — 

iVilld.. p}ium. p. 405; Pursh^ fl. I. p. 255; DC. prodr. \. p. 597. M. pal- 
lida, Willd. I. c. df-c. /E. cchinata, Muhl. cat. p. 38. M. Ohioensis, DC. I 
c. ; Ifiddi-ll, .•??/Hop.s/.9, ;j. 34. Pavia Ohioensis, Mich.r. f. sylv. 2. p. 101, t 
29. P. pallida & glabra, Spark, in ann. sci. nat. (ser. 2.) 2. p. 54. 

Banks of rivers, &c. Western parts of Pennsylvania! and Virgmia: 
Ohio ! Kentucky ! May-June. — A small tree with a rough bark, M'hich ex- 
liales an unpleasant odor. Leaflets somewhat acute at the base, at first ses- 
sile, at length more or less petiolulate, slightly pubescent along the veins 
when young, usually a little bearded in the axils of the veins beneath. 
Branches of the thyrsus short, 4-6-ilowered ; the flowers mostly unilateral, 
small (not half the size of those of the common Ilorse-Chestnut). Petals 
nearly equal in length, the hmb of the lateral ones roundish ; of the superior 
ones oblong-spatulate, about twice as long as the claw. Stamens 7: fila- 
ments curved. Fruit prickly, resembling that of the cultivated Horse-Chest- 
nut (iE. Hippocastanum), but scarcely half the size. — Ohio Buckeye. Fetid 

§ 2. Fruit unarmed. — Pavia, DC. 

2. JE. parvijlora (Walt.): stamens capillary, thrice the length of the 
(white) corolla ; petals 4, somewhat spreading, nearly similar, spalulate ; the 
claws longer than the obconical calyx; thyrsus racemose, very long, the 
branches about 3-flowercd ; leaflets 5-7, oval-obovate, acuminate, serrulate, 
velvety -canescent beneath. — IValt. Car. p. 128. M. macrostachya, Michx, 

f. 1. p. 220 ; Jacq. eclog. Am. l.t.9; Ell. sk. 1. p. 436 ; Bot. mag. t. 2118. 
M. macrostachvs. Pe?\s. .^yn. 1. p. 403. Pavia macrostachya, DC. prodr. 
1. p. 598. P. aiba, Pair. diet. 5. p. 95. P. edulis, Poit. arb. fr. t. 88. Ma- 
crothyrsus discolor, Spach. I. c. ]). 61. 

Near rivulets in the western part of S. Carolina! and Georgia! April- 
May. — A small shrub, 2-4 feet high, sometimes with radical stolons. Leaf- 
lets petiolulate. Flowers very numerous, in a long somewhat virgate thyr- 
sus. Petals small, with long claws, spatulate ; the upper ones longest and a 
little narrower. Stamens 6-7 : filaments capillary, glabrous, slightly curved- 
— The fruit is said to be edible. 

3. jE. Californica (Nutt. ! mss.) : " stamens longer than the (rose-color) 
corolla; petals 4 [4-5, .S'y-»r/c/i], somewhat similar, slightly spreading ; th» 
claws shorter than the campanulate-tubular somewhat unequally-toothed ca 
lyx; thyrsus short and dense ; leaflets 5, ovate-lanceolate or ellipticak.blong, 
acuminate, subcordate or rounded at the base, serrulate, glabrous, paler and 
somewhat glaucous beneath." — Calothyrsus Californica, SpacJi, in ann. sci. 
nat. (ser. 2.) p. 62. 

California, Botta (ex Spach) : near streams in the vicinity of Monterey, 
Nuttall! March. — A low spreading tree, glabrous except the petioles of the 
leaflets and calyx, which are minutely canescent. Calyx wiJ,h 5 small some- 
Avha'i unequ;d teeth, at length splitting down on the loAver side. Stamens 
5-6 : filaments arcuate, glabrous. Ovary globose-ovate, pubescent, not echi- 
nate. — The flowers are apparently a little smaller than those of the preceding 

252 HIPPOCASTANACEiE. ^sculcs. 

4. M. Pavia (Linn.): stamens somewhat shorter, or a part of them a 
little longer, than the (red) corolla; petals 4, connivent, very unequal; the 
claws of the lateral ones about the length of the tubular calyx ; thyrsus loose, 
the branches few-flowered ; leaflets 5, oblong-lanceolate, cuneate-oblong, or 
oval, slightly acuminate, unequally serrulate, minutely pubescent, or nearly 
glabrous except along the veins beneath. — Ait. Kew. 1. p. 494; Walt. Cur. 
p. 128; Mich.T.! ft. 1. p. 219; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 254; Ell. sk. 1. p. 434; 
Audubon, birds of Amer. t. 78. Pavia, Boerh. Lugd.-Bat. 2. t. 260; Du- 
Tiam. arb. 2. t. 19. P. rubra, Lam. ill. t. 273 ; DC. I. c. P. Michauxn, &c., 

SpaCh, I. C. ^ n 1 • 1 1 

0. discolor : branches of the thyrsus several- (4-10- ) flowered, with the 
flowers somewhat unilateral; leaflets minutely tomentose beneath.— iE. dis- 
color, Piirsh, I. c. ? ; Bot. reg. t. 310 ? M. hybrida, DC. hort. Monsp. 1813. 
p. 75? Pavia hybrida, DC. prodr. I. c? P. discolor, Spach,^ I. c. 1 

In fertile valleys ; mountains of Virginia ! to Georgia ! Louisiana ! and Ar- 
kansas ! April-May. — A shrub 3-10 feet high ; near the mountains some- 
times a small tree. Leaflets often somewhat doubly serrate, all except the 
lateral ones usually attenuate at the base, at length petiolulate, smooth and a 
little shining above. Branches of the thyrsus about 3-flowered : pedicels 
slender. Flowers large. Calyx purplish', nearly glabrous, tubular-funnel- 
shaped. Upper petals longest ;' the claw about thrice the length of the small 
spatulate limb: hmb of the lateral petals roundish, about the length of the 
claw, somewhat convolute. Stamens 6-8 : filaments filiform, nearly straight, 
hairy beloAv, as also the claws of the petals, sometimes all a little shorter than 
the lateral petals ; but a portion usually a little exceeding the upper petals.-— 
Our p. discolor, of which we have specimens both from Georgia and Louisi- 
ana is not improbably the M. discolor of Pursh. The inflorescence resem- 
bles that of JE,. flava; but the flowers (apparently pale dull red, or purple) 
are wholly those of M. Pavia.— According to Elliott, the bruised branches 
or powdered seeds of this species are sometimes employed to stupify fish : 
when the water of small ponds is impregnated, the fish rise to the surface al- 
most lifeless, and may be taken with the hand. The root, according to the 
same authority, is used as a substitute for soap in washing woollen clothes.— 
Small Buckeye. 

5. Ml. flava (Ait.): stamens shorter than the (light yelloAv) corolla; pe- 
tals' 4 connivent, very unequal ; the claws of the lateral ones exceeding the 
campanulate calyx ; branches of the thyrsus 4-7-flowered ; the flowers most- 
ly unilateral; leaflets 5-7. elliptical or cbovate-oblong, acuminate, serrulate, 
more or less canescently pubescent beneath.— ^i^. Kew. 1. p. 494 ; H Hid. 
Berl. baum. p. 13, f sp. 2. p. 286 ; Pursh, fl. 1. f. 255; Ell. sk. 1. p. 436. 
M lutea Wang, in act. nat. scrut. Berol. S.t.6; Mich.r. ! fl. 1. p. 219; 
Pers syn. 1. ii. 403. M. nedecta, Lindl. bot. reg. t. 1009? Pavia flava, 
DC. I. c. P. lutea, Poir.; Michx. f. sylv. 2. jj. 98, t. 91 ; Duham. arb. 3. 

t 38. 

' Near large rivers (in rich soil), Western States! and along the AUeghany 
Mountains^from Virginia and N. Carolina ! to Georgia. April-May.— Tree 
30-80 feet high (in the Southern States sometimes only 4-6 feet high, ac- 
cording to Elliott) ; the trunk often 3 or 4 feet in diameter. Petioles with a 
pubesc'ent Une along the upper side. Leaflets glabrous above, except the 
midrib and veins, Avhich are often clothed with a reddish-brown pubescence, 
at first nearly sessile, at length petiolulate ; the lateral ones sometimes rather 
obtuse, but the others attenuate, at the base. Peduncles, pedicels, and calyx 
pubescent. Pedicels very short. Flowers as large as in M. Pavia. Petals 
puberulent ; the claAvs villous within : upper ones a little exceeding the 
others- the spatulate limb minute: lateral ones large, roundish, subcordate at 
the base. Stamens usually 7 : filaments straight or somewhat arcuate, sub- 
ulate villous. Ovary pubescent. Fruit 2 inches or more in diameter, about 

Ungnodia. HIPPOCASTANACEiE. 253 

2-scc(lod. Seeds larfjortlian in the common Horse-Chestnut. — Sirret Bnrk- 
eye. Bii^ liuckfije. Mr. Riddell {!Sijiio})sin of li'istcrn jjIuiiIs, p. !M.) n(Jti<es 
" a species of ^f^sculus, i,TO\ving near Cincinnati, Ohio, which resembles 
JE. flava, but differs in the deep orange and yellow hue of its flowers, in its 
glabrous irregularly serrate leaves, and more acute divisions of the calyx." 

X Uncertain species, probably forms icJiich have originated in gardens. 

G. ^-K. carnra (Willd.) : capsules ccliinatc ; stamens 7, longer than the 4-petalo(is 
(deep pink) corolla ; antiiers glabrous ; leallels ovate-lauceoiate, acuminate, glabrous, 
woolly in the axils ofthe veins btneath. Don. — " Willd. ex Ciuimp. S,- Ilaync , frcii nd. 
kolz.t.22; Liiidl. /jot ng. t. 10')6. iE. rubicunda, Loisel. hcrb.amnl. l.'M>l ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 597." Pavia carnea, Spuch, I. c; Don, in Brit.Jl. gard. {scr. 2.) I. 301. 

North America 1 — A small tree. 

7. .K. (suh Pavia) Watsoniana (Sp-dch) : capsules echinate ; flowers octandrous 
(dark red) ; claws of the lateral petals a little shorter liian the calyx ; stamens some- 
what shorter than the lateral petals ; the anthers pubescent along the margin ; leaf- 
lets 5-8, sessile, lanceolate, acuminate, glabrovis. Spach, I. c. p. 53. 

This species, according to Spach, is the JE. carnea, Watson, dendr. Brit. i. 121. 
{JE. rubicunda, Lodd. bat. cab. t. r2-12.): the description seems to have been drawn 
merely from Watson's figure. 

8. ^'E. hu7niJ-is (Lodd.) : capsules unarmed ; stem decumbent; leaflets 5, lanceolate, 
petiolulate, unequally serrate, jiubescent bencatli ; calyx cylindrical-fiinncl-shaped 
and pubescent, as well as the corolla; stamens included, a little longer than the ca- 
lyx ; flowers blood-colored, in loose racemes. G. Don, sub Pavia. — " Lodd. ; Lindl. 
hot. rcg. t. 1018." 

North America. — A shrub 2-3 feet hi^h. 

sider the same species. 

2. UNGNODIA. Endl. atakta botanica, p. .. t. . 

We have not yet received the above-cited work of Endlicher, in the fifth fiisciculus 
of which (according to Sir Wm. Hooker) this very remarkable genus is figured 
and described. The plant was collected by the late Mr. Drummond in Texas, and 
specimens were distributed witii his first Texan collection. It forms a large tree; 
the leaves are alternate, and pinnately 5-foliolate : the flowers are small, in few-flow- 
ered racemes, which appear to be axillary or clustered along the branches : the se- 
pals are nearly distinct : petals 5 (rarely 6), similar, spreading, witli an obovate 
slightly crenulate lamina, raised on a short and very thick woolly claw, which bears 
at its summit a curious fimbriate crest: stamens 8-10, declined and much exserted, 
a portion of them apparently somewliat coherent with a small unilateral appendage 
orprojectiou of the torus, or with the base of the (effete 1) ovary. Fruit not seen. 

Order XLV. SAPINDACEiE. Jiiss. 

Flowers usually polygamous. Sepals 4-5, distinct or nearly so, im- 
bricated in aestivation. Petals as many as the sepals and alternate 
with them, or fewer by the abortion of one (sometimes entirely wanting), 
inserted outside the hypogynous disk (or row of glands) which occupies 
the bottom of the calyx ; the inside either naked or hairy, glandular 
or furnished with a petaloid scale. Stamens 8 or 10, rarely fewer or 
more numerous, inserted either on the disk, or between the glands and 

254 SAPINDACE.E. Sapfndus. 

the ovary : filaments distinct or very slightly united at the base : an- 
thers introrse (the pistil of tlic staminate flowers either rudimentary 
or entirely wanting). Ovary comppsed of 3 (rarely 2-5) united car- 
pels : styles partly or completely united : ovules solitary in each cell, 
erect or ascending ; sometimes 2, the upper one ascending, the lower 
suspended ; rarely 3 or more. Fruit 2-3-ceiled, capsular, vesicular, 
or samaroid, or frequently fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds 1-3 in each 
cell, usually arilled, without albumen. Embryo rarely straight ; the 
cotyledons usually incumbent on the radicle, or spirally convolute, some- 
times combined into a thick mass. — Trees, or tendril-bearing shrubs 
or herbs. Leaves alternate, usually compound and exstipulate, often 
marked with pellucid lines or dots. Flowers small. 

Tribe I. SAPINDE^. Camh. 
Ovary with one ovule in each cell. Embryo curved, rarely straight. 

1. CARDIOSPERMUM. Linn.; GcBrln. fr. t.l9. 

Sepals 4 ; the two outer ones smallest. Petals 4 ; the two lateral ones usu- 
ally adhering to the sepals, each with an emarginate scale above the base ; 
the two lower ones remote from the stamens, their scales furnished with a 
glandular crest at the extremity, and ending in an inflexed appendage beneath 
the apex. Glands of the disk 2, round or linear, opposite the lower petals. 
Stamens 8, the four nearest the glands shorter than the others. Style trifid, 
stigraatose on the inside. Fruit a membranous bladdery capsule, composed 
of 3 carpels united at the axis. Seeds globose, on a thick funiculus, which 
is usually expanded at the base into a 2-lobed aril; the hilum broad and cor- 
date. — Climbing herbs. Leaves 2-ternate. Peduncles axillary, racemose at 
the apex; the lowest pair of pedicels changed into tendrils. 

1. C. Halicac ahum (hinn.): annual, nearly glabrous ; leaflets ovate-lan- 
ceolate, incisely lobed and toothed ; fruit large, roundish-pyriforni. — Lam. ill. 
t. 317 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 251 ; Torr.! in ann. lye. Neii' -York., 2. p. 172. 

On the Missouri and its branches, Dr. James ! Texas, Drummond ! 
Native. Cultivated occasionally, but hardly naturalized, in the Atlantic 

2. SAPINDUS. Linn.; Lam. ill. i. 307. 

Sepals 4-5 ; two of them exterior. Petals as many as the sepals, or one of 
them abortive, glandular or bearded within, or with a scale above the claw. 
Disk fleshy, entire or crenulate-lobed. Stamens 8-10, inserted between the 
margin of the disk and the ovary. Styles connivcnt or combined : stigmas 
3. Fruit composed of 2-3 globose fleshy connate carpels, one or two of 
which are usually abortive. Seed large, spherical, sohtary in each carpel ; 
testa (endocarp, Kunth, Camh.) crustaceous: aril none.^ — Trees. Leaves 
exstipulate, abruptly pinnate, or unequally pinnate by the abortion of one of 


the ultimate pair of leaflets. Flowers racemose or paaiclcd. Berries sapo- 

1. S. mnrscinnlus (Willd.) : unarmed ; petioles windless, or slightly mar- 
gined towards the summit; leaflets 9-18, very inequilateral and somewhat 
falcate, ovate-lanceolate, with a slender acumination; flowers in dense vrry 
compound terminal and axillary panicles. — Willd. e?n«??. p. 432 ; MuliL! 
cat. p. 41 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 607. S. Saponaria, Lam. ill. t. 307 ; Mich.r. ! 
Jl. 1. p. 242; Pursh, /?. 1. ;;. 274; Nutt. > gen. 1. j>. 257 ; Ell. sic. 1. p. 
460. S. inoequalis, fJC.l.c.l 

Coast of Georgia and Florida (Tjoldwin! Nnttall!) to Arkansas, Nuil- 
all ! Dr. Pitcher ! Dr. Ledvemrorl/i ! — Tree 10-40 feet hii;h,Avith smooth 
branches. Leaves glabrous cr sli:;htly puliescent beneath : leaflets mostly 
altiTuate, somewhat pctiolulate, ratlier shining and strongly veined above. 
Panicles large. Flowers dioecious or polygamous. Fruit globose, as large 
as a small bullet, of one carpel, with the rudiments of two abortive ones at 
the base. — Huap-berry. 

Trire II. DODONEACE^. Camb. 

Ovary containing 2-3 (rarely more) ovules in each cell. Embryo 
spirally convolute. 

3. DODON.EA. Linn.; DC. prodr. 1. p. 616. 

Sepals 4, deciduous. Petals none. Stamens 8 : filaments very short : an- 
thers oblong or linear. Style filiform, distinct irom the wings of the capsule, 
slightly 3-cleft at the apex. Capsule 2-8-valved, 2-3--v\inged. Seeds 2 in 
each cell, subglobose. DC. — Shrubs, with simple oblong entire leaves. 

1. D. viscosa (JJinn.): leaves viscous, obovate-oblong, cuneiform at the 
base; flowers racemose; fruit 2-3-winged, longer than the pedicels. DC. — • 
Plwn. e.d. Burm. t. 247; Sloane, hist. 2. t. 162; DC. I. c. 

Near St. Augustine, Florida, Mr. Read (in herb. acad. Philad. !) Dr. 
Hassler ! — We have only seen imperfect specimens of this plant. 


Sepals 4-5, united at the base, imbricated in aBstivation, usually 
persistent. Petals as many as the sepals and alternate with them, 
plane, inserted by a broad base under the margin of the disk : estiva- 
tion imbricated. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with 
them, inserted on the margin or upper surface of the large flat and 
fleshy disk which covers the bottom of the calyx : anthers introrse. 
Ovary more or less immersed in and adhering to the disk, 2-5 (rarely 
by abortion 1-) celled, with 1, 2, or several erect or ascending ovules 
in each cell : styles and stigmas 2-5, distinct or combined into one. 
Fruit free from the calyx, 2-5- (or by abortion 1-) celled, either drupa- 
ceous, baccate, samaroid, membranaceous, or capsular with loculici- 

256 CELASTRACE^. Staphylea. 

dill dehiscence. Seeds anatropous, 1 or few in each cell, ascending or 
erect, or by resupination suspended, often arillcd : albumen fleshy, often 
very thin or wanting. Embryo straight, usually nearly as long as the 
albumen : radicle short : cotyledons thick or foliaceous. — Slirubs, or 
rarely trees, with alternate or opposite leaves. Flowers sometimes po- 
lygamous or dioecious. 

Cyrilla, Linn, and Cliftonla, Soland. in kerb. Banks and Gcprtn. (Mylocarium, 
Willi!.) are i-eferred to this family by Lindley, we know not on wliat ground ; since 
they liavc not a flat perigynous disk; their stamens are twice the nnmber of the pe- 
tals, the latter are inserted by a narrow base ; their ovaries have a single suspended 
ovule in each cell, and the embryo is cylindrical and slender. These two genera, 
with Elliottia, J\luhl., form apparently a suborder of Ericacea3, perhaps even a 
group of equal rank with Pyrolacese, &c., (which may receive the name Cyrille^, 
from the oldest genus), distinguished from Ericacea; proper by the ovary seated upon 
a short torus, with a single suspended ovule in each cell, by the texture of tiie peri- 
carp, the flat or dilated filaments, with the cells of the anthers not separated or ap- 
pendaged either at the apex or base, and opening longitudinally ; and by the polype- 
talous corolla (the petals of Elliottia, although cohering at the base, are at length 
separable), which is hardly met with in true Ericaceae, except in Cletbra, to which 
Elliottia is somewhat related. Pickeringla, JVwW. (Cyrilla paniculata, Nutt. in Sill, 
jour. 5. p. 290) is, as the acute botanist and zoologist to whom it was dedicated first 
suspected, a species of Ardisia ; probably A. coriacea, Sicarlz, a West Indian plant. 


Seeds not arilled, with a large truncate hilum ; the testa bony. Co- 
tyledons thick. Disk urceolate, 5-angIed. Leaves opposite, unequally 
pinnate, with (caducous) general, and sometimes partial stipules : leaf- 
lets serrate. Flowers in terminal racemes or panicles. 

1. STAPHYLEA. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 210. 

Flowers perfect. Sepals 5, oblong, erect, colored, persistent. Petals 5. 
Stamens 5. Ovary of 3 carpels united at the axis : styles separate or sepa- 
rable. Fruit a membranaceous and inflated 2-3-ceIled 2-3-lobed capsule. 
Seeds globose, ascending, few, or by abortion solitary, in each cell : albumen 
little or none. — Shrubs. Leaves 3-7-foUolate : leaflets involute in vernation. 
Flowers white : the racemes sometimes panicled. 

1. S.trif olia (h'mn.): leaves 3-foliolate, with caducous stipules; leaflets 
ovate, acuminate, finely serrate, more or less pubescent when young ; styles 
glabrous, connate above ; capsules inflated. — Mich.r.! Ji. 1. p. 184 ; Ell. sk. 

1. p. 369 ; DQ. prodr. 2. p. 2 ; Torr. ! ji. 1. p. 325 ; Bost. ed, 

2. p. 121; Bor.-Am. 1. p. 119. Staphylodendron, Toiirn. inst. 
t. 3S6. 

In moist places, Canada ! to S. Carolina, and west to Arkansas ! May. — 
Shrub 6-12 feet high, with slender smooth dotted branches. Petioles pubes- 
cent above. Partial stipules mostly none. Petals obovate-spatulate, ciliate 
at the base. Stamens rather exserted : filaments hairy below : anthers cor- 
date ; the lobes somewhat united at the tip. Capsule 2 inches long, the car- 
pels (sometimes 4) distinct at the summit, tipped with the persistent styles, 
and opening by the inner suture. Seeds smooth and polished, all but one 
often abortive. — Bladder-nut. 



Celastracetc {iroper, Brovi^n. ; iJndl. 

Seeds usually arilled. Cotyledons sometimes fotiaceous. — Leaves 
simple, entire or serrate, witli minute deciduous stipules. Flowers in 
terminal racemes or axillary cytiies. 

2. CELASTRUS. Linn, (partly); Kunth, sijn, 4. p. 185. 

Flowers by abortion somewhat dicecious or polygamous. Sepals 5, united 
below into a very short turbinate calyx-tube. Petals 5, ovate or oblong, ses- 
sile. Stamens rising from the margin of the orbicular fleshy disk. Ovary 
3-celled, sessile on the disk : styles short, united, with a papillose 3-lobcd stig- 
ma. Capsule subglobose, 2-3-celled, the dissepiments sometimes incomplete 
or evanescent, loculicidal. Seeds erect, 1-2 in each cell, enclosed in a pulpy 
aril. Embryo included in the thin albumen, nearly the length of the seed : 
cotyledons broad and foliaceous. — Climbing unarmed shrubs. Leaves alter- 
nate, of a rather thin texture. Stipules minute. Racemes terminal, some- 
what compound : pedicels articulated. Flowers small, pale yellowish-green, 

C. myrtifdlius, 7-///i?(. is doubtless a sppcies of Ilex : C.buMntis, H'/VW., founded 
on a figure of Plukcnet, is a wholly doubtful plant, probably not American. 

1. C. srniide.7is (Linn.) : leaves oval or someAvhat obovate, abruptly acu- 
minate, with glandular or mucronulate incurved serratures, glabrous ; racemes 
nearly simple; petals obovate-oblong. — Willd. sp. 1. p. 1125 (excl. syn.); 
Mkhx. ! Jl. 1. p. 154; Gfzrtn. Jr. t. 95; DC. prodr. 2. p. 6. 

Borders of woods & streams, Canada! to Virginia, and west to Mis- 
souri ! June. — Capsule orange-color when mature ; the styles separating by 
the dehiscence of the valves. Seeds reddish-brown, coated with a bright 
orange, at length scarlet, aril. Bitter-sweet. Waxwork. 

3. EUONYMUS. Tourn. insi. t. 38S; Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 131. 

Sepals 4-5 (rarely 6), united at the base, forming a short flat calyx. Pe- 
tals 4-5 (rarely 6). Stamens inserted on the upper surface of the broad and 
flat disk: filaments short, the base persistent: anthers with a thick connecti- 
vum at the back, opening transversely or longitudinally. Ovary immersed 
in the disk, with as many 2-3-ovuled cells as petals: styles united, short and 
thick : stigmas united into one, obtuse or lobed. Capsule 4-5-lobed, 4-5-cell- 
ed, loculicidal. Seeds usually enclosed in a fleshy red or purple aril. Em- 
bryo with broad foliaceous cotyledons : albumen fleshy and oily. — Shiubs 
sometimes trailing or climbing by rootlets. Leaves opposite, serrate. Sti- 
pules mostly none. Pedimcles axillary, 1-many-fiowered : inflorescence 

1. E. atropurpnreus (Jacq.) : branches smooth; leaves (rather large) 
oval or elliptical-oblong, acuminate, mostly acute at the base, finely serrate, 
on distinct petioles, puberulent beneath; peduncles compressed, several-flow- 
ered ; parts of the flower usually in fours; petals rouudish-obovatc; capsules 


258 CELASTRACE^. Obeophila. 

smooth, deeply lobed. — Jacq. hort. Vind. 2. t. 120 ; Wilkl. sp. 1. p. 1132 ; 
Michx. ! fl. 1. p. 155; DC. prodr. 2. p. 4; EU. sk. 1. p. 293; Torr. I Ji. 
1. p. 261. E. Caroliniensis & latifolius, Marsh. arhiLsi. p. 43. 

B.7 leaves glabrous, often obtuse at the base; peduncles 2-3-flowered, 
(" flowers pentandrous," Nutt.) — E. occidentalis, Niott. J 7nss. E. atropur- 
pureus ? Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 119. 

In shady woods. Upper Canada ! to Florida ! west to Kentucky ! and 
Missouri! p. Oregon, in dark woods, Douglas., Nutt all ! June- July. — 
Shrub 4-12 feet high ; the branches slightly 4-sided. Leaves 2-5 inches 
long. Petals dark purple. Capsule crimson when mature. Seeds nearly 
white, invested with a bright red succulent aril. — Burning-bush. Spindle- 

2. E. Americanus (Linn.): branches smooth, 4-sided; leaves varying 
from elliptical-lanceolate to oval-obovate, on very short petioles ; rather ob- 
scurely serrate, glabrous ; peduncles 1-3-flowered ; parts of the flower most- 
ly in threes or fives; petals roundish-obovate ; capsules depressed-globose, 
verrucose-echinate. — Willd. sp. I. c. ; Walt. Car. p. 102 ; Mich.r. ! I. c. ; 
Duha.m. arb. 3. t 9; Ell. sk. 1. p. 292 ; DC. I. c. ; Hook. I. c. ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. ed. 2. p. 150. E. sempervirens. Marsh, arbust. p. 43. 

a. erect; leaves oval or elliptical-lanceolate, the uppermost often slightly 
falcate, mostly acuminate, acute or obtuse (rarely subcordate) at the base. 

/?. leaves narrowly eUiptical or oblong, slightly falcate, the margin minutely 

y. trailing and often rooting ; leaves ovate-lanceolate. — E. Americanus /?. 
sarmentosus, Nutt. gen. 1. p. 154. 

S. trailing and rooting ; leaves obovate or oval-obovate, obtuse or slightly 
acuminate, acute at the base. — E. obovatus, Nutt. ! I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

In moist woodlands, Canada ! to Florida ! and west to Missouri. May- 
June. — Branches slender, green. Leaves 1-2 inches long, coriaceous, nearly 
evergreen in the Southern States. Parts of the flower mostly in threes or 
fives. Segments of the calyx very short and roundish. Petals greenish-yellow, 
tinged with purple. Capsule deep crimson when mature, slightly angled, 
densely muricate or warty ; the dissepiments and arU scarlet. Seeds smaller 
than in the preceding, 1-3 in each cell. — Both species are very ornamental 
in autumn when the fruit is ripe. — Straw-berry-tree. Burning-bush. 

3. E. angustifolius (Pursh) : branches 4-sided ; leaves linear-elliptical 
and elongated, subsessUe, rather falcate, almost entire ; peduncles mostly 1- 
flowered ; sepals always five ; fruit verrucose-muricate. Pursh., JI. 1. p. 168. 

In shady woods, Georgia, Lyo7i ex Pursh. — Specimens of this plant which 
we have seen in the herbaria of Muhlenberg and Collins certainly appear 
different from E. Americanus; but the characters of the leaves will probably 
not be found constant, and there seems to be no other difference. 

4. OREOPHILA. Nutt. mss. 

Sepals 4, united below into a short turbinate calyx-tube, persistent. Petals 
4, inserted under the edge of the disk, roundish, somewhat concave, spread- 
ing. Stamens 4, alternate with the petals, inserted into the margin of the 
broad and flat nearly entire disk, which covers the ovary and adheres to the 
throat of the calyx-tube : filaments rather short: anthers roundish. Ovary 
immersed in, but free from the calyx-tube, the summit coherent with the disk, 
2-ceUed, with 2 erect collateral ovules in each cell : style very short : stigma 
capitate, obscurely 2-lobed. " Fruit an oval, coriaceous, compressed, 2-ceLled, 
2-seeded (or by abortion 1-seeded) capsule. Seed erect, rather large, with. 

Creophila. CELASTRACEiE. 299 

a lacerated membranous aril at its base." Nntt. — A low excessively branch- 
ed evergreen shrub, with small crowded, mostly opposite, entire or remotely 
serrulate leaves, and minute axillary subsolitary flowers. 

O. myrtifulla (Nutt. ! mss.) — Ilex myrsinites, Pursh ! fi. 1. j). 119. My- 
ginda myrtilblia, Nutt.! gen. 1. p. 109; DC. prodr. 2. p. 14; JIuok. Jl. 
Jior.-Am. 1. p. 120, ^ 41. (opt.) 

Subalpinc hills, N. W. Coast, Menzies ; and throughout the Rocky Moun- 
tains, Lewis! Douglas, Nuttall I—^'Thi; wliole plant scarcely 2 feet high, 
densely branched, covering the steep sides of bushy hills, very leafy. Leaves 
varying from roundish-oval to linear-oblong, half an inch to above an inch in 
length, coriaceous, glabrous, shining above, sometimes Avith numerous, some- 
times with small and sparse or obsolete serratures ; the taste slightly bitter 
and astrinijent, very similar to that of black tea, or to that of Ilex vomiloria, 
for which it was mistaken by its discoverer, the indefatigable Menzies. Pe- 
duncle very short, l-3-tlo\vered : pedicels 2-bracteolate, slender. Flowers 
monoscious. The whole aspect of the plant is that of Phillyrea media; while 
its true affinity is with Celastrus, from which it differs much in habit: a lacerat- 
ed membrane takes the place ol the fleshy aril. A»i^." — Pursh described this 
plant very badly. Hooker has given an excellent description and figure, 
which leaves nothing to be desired except as to the fruit and seeds (which 
have now for the first time been obtained by Nuttall) ; he suspects it should 
be removed from Myginda. Arnott observes (in prodr. hid. Or. I. p. 155.) 
that " M. ilicifolia, myrsinoides, and myrtifolia, having a bilocular ovary with 
two erectovules in each cell, form a distinct genus, as has already been remark- 
ed by Kunth" ; but most probably our plant is not a congener of the West In- 
dian M. ilicifolia. The flowers are said by Nuttall to be monoecious ; but 
this is at least not uniformly the case in our specimens : and perfect flowers 
are also represented in the detailed figure of this plant given by Sir Wm. 

Order XLVIl. RHAMNACE^. Jiiss. 

Calyx 4-5-cleft, with a valvate aestivation. Petals distinct, cucul- 
late or convolute, narrowed at the base, inserted upon the throat of 
the caly.x, sometimes wanting. Stamens equal in number to the petals 
and opposite them : anthers introrse or versatile, rarely 1-celled. 
Ovary of 2-4 united carpels, 2-4-celled, free from, or usually cohering 
with, the tube of the calyx, or more or less immersed in the fleshy peri- 
gynous disk : ovules solitary in each cell, erect : styles more or less 
connate : stigmas simple, usually distinct. Fruit free or commonly 
more or less cohering with the calyx, fleshy and indehiscent, or with 
the carpels dry and at length separable. Seeds erect, anatropous, not 
arilled : albumen fleshy, or rarely none. Embryo about as large as 
the seed : radicle short : cotyledons large, flat; — Trees or shrubs, the 
branches often thorny. Leaves simple, alternate (or rarely opposite), 
usually with minute stipules. Flowers small, mostly whitish or green- 
ish, sometimes by abortion dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous : in- 
florescence various. 

2G0 RHAMNACEiE. Rhamncs. 

1. BERCHEMIA. Necker ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 22; Brongn. in ann. sci. 
oiat. 10. p. 356. 

Calyx 5-parted, with a hemispherical tube ; segments erect. Petals 5, 
convolute. Stamens enclosed within the petals : anthers ovate, 2-celled, 
Ovary half immersed in the annular flattish disk, but free from it, 2-celled : 
style short, conical, slightly bifid at the summit. Fruit oblong, drupaceous, 
with a bony 2-celled nut. — Erect or climbing unarmed shrubs. Leaves alter- 
nate, many-veined ; the veins oblique aod nearly simple. Flowers in small 
racemose panicles, or in fascicles, terminal and from the axils of the upper 

1. B. voluhilis (DC): climbing; branches glabrous ; leaves ovate, slight- 
ly undulated, mucronate, glabrous ; flowers dicEcious, in small panicles. — 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 22. Rhamnus volubilis, Linn.; Jacq. ic. rar. t. 336; 
IValL Car. p. 101 ; Michx.! fl. 1. p. 153. Zizyphus volubilis, Willd. sp. 1. 
p. 1102; Pursh, fl. 1. p.lSS; Ell. sk. 1. p. 290. ^noplia volubilis, 
Schult. syst. 5. p. 322. 

Damp rich soils, Virginia ! to Florida ! and west to the Mississippi ! May- 
June. — Stem climbing to the height of 12-15 feet, tough and flexible, with 
pendent branches. Leaves 1-2 inches long, obtuse or slightly cordate at the 
base. Flowers minute : racemes or panicles 6-10-flowered. Calyx deeply 
cleft; the segments reticulated. Petals oblong, folded round the stamens. 
Drupe about 3 lines long, dark purple ; pulp rather thin : nut very hard, 
smooth, Avith a slight groove on each side. 

2. RHAMNUS. Linn. ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 23 ; Brongn. I. c. p. 360. 

Calyx urceolate, 4-5-cleft. Petals 4-5, emarginate or 2-lobed, usually more 
or less convolute. Torus thin, lining the tube of the calyx. Ovary free from 
the calyx, not immersed in the torus, 2-4-celled : styles 2-4, distinct or more 
or less connected. Fruit drupaceous, containing 2-4 cartilaginous nuts. — 
Shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, on short petioles. 
Flowers minnte, u.5ually in short axillary clusters. 

* Leaves coriaceous, sempervirent. 

1. R. oleifoUus (Hook.): unarmed, erect ; leaves coriaceous, evergreen, 
elliptical-oblong, entire, revolute on the margin, glabrous ; flowers pentand- 
rous, in small axillary crowded panicles ; petals very minute, stigma obscure- 
ly 2-lobed; fruit 2-seeded.— //bo/c. /. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 123, t. 44; Hook, f 
Am. in hot. Eeechy, p. 1J6. 

North West Coast, and California, Menzies. Woody plains around St. 
Barbara, Nuttall ! — A shrub 6-12 feet high, the younger branches pubes- 
cent. Leaves about 2 inches long, the veins oblique and rather remote, in 
ihe young state pubescent beneath: petioles 3-4 lines long. Panicles on 
short peduncles. Sepals ovate, rather erect. Petals cucullate, partly enclos- 
ing the very short stamens. Anthers ovate-globose. Fruit about as large as 
,a paa, globose. 

2. R. laurifolius f Nutt. ! mss.) : "unarmed, erect; leaves coriaceous, 
fivergreen, elliptical-oblong, or oblong, somcAvhat serrate, the veins approxi- 
mated ; flowers axillary, 2-4 together, on pedicels shorter than the calyx, 
fetrandrous; petals very minute. 

Rhamnds. RHAMNACEi^:. 2G1 

"Near St. Barbara and Monterey, California. A shrub 10-12 feet hi?h. 
Considerably allied to the preceding, but very different in the infloreseenee 
and foliage ; the leaves are shorter and wider, with 11 or li! pairs of veins. 
In the young state and while Howering, the leaves are nearly glabrous, quite 
small and oblong, or oblong-ovate, and the stii)ules thin and membranace- 
ous as well as smooth. In older brownish branches (perhaps a distinct spe- 
cies) the stipules and young leaves are silky-pubescent. The (lowering 
brandies are white and nearly glabrous. If these two plants should prove 
to be distinct species, one of them may retain the present name; and the 
other may be called R. leucodermis." — Nutlall. 

3. R.croceus (Nutt. ! mss.): " low and branching, the branches spines- 
cent at the extremity ; leaves coriaceous, evergreen, roundish-obovate (small) 
nearly glabrous, glandularly denticulate; llowers in axillary clusters; dicccious, 
tetrandrous, apetalous; styles exserted, distinct above; fruit obovate, 1-2- 

" Bushy hills and thickets around Monterey, California. — A much branched 
thorny shrub, with yellow wood ; the whole plant imparting a yellow color to 
water. Leaves about half an inch long, lucid, when dry of a bright yel- 
lowish-brown beneath: petioles about a line long. Fascicles 2-6-flowered : 
pedicels as long as the petioles. Sepals ovate, with one middle and 2 mar- 
ginal nerves. Stamens nearly as long as the sepals. Ovary ovate. Styles 
often distinct below the middle. Fruit greenish or yellowish, usually (by 
abortion) 1-seeded. Seed with a longitudinal furrow oh one side'."— AV^/o//. 

** Leaves deciduous. 

t Flowers tetrandrous. 

4. R.catharticus {L.\x\n.): er«ct ; branches thorny at the summit; leaves 
•ovate, denticulate-serrate; (lowers fascicled, polygimous-dio-cious, mostly 
tetrandrous ; Iruit subglobose, 4-seeded.— £;n"-. bot. t. 1629 ; Torr > fl I v 
263 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 24:. •■ J ■ - f 

Mountains and in woods ; in the most retired parts of the Highlands of 
New-York, Dr. Barratt ! Near WiUiamstown, Massachusetts^ Dewey ! 
and about Boston and Salem, Mr. Oakes ! Probably introduced.— A larcre 
shrub, with spreading branches and grayish Ixirk. Leaves fascicled and 
somewhat opposite, about li inch long, nearly glabrous; the laro-er veins 
nearly longitudinal. Pedicels 3-4 lines long. Flowers sometimes trTandrous* 
sepals at length reflexed. Petals erect, entire. Stamens a little lonc^er than 
the calyx. Fruit black, nauseous and cy^ihaxiic— Buck-thorn. " 

5. R. lanceolatiis (Pursh): erect, unarmed; leaves oblong, or ovate-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, acute at the base, serrulate, more or less pubescent be- 
neath ; flowers sohtary or 2-3 together, axillary, tetrandrous ; petals minute 
2-lobed, enclosing the stamens; styles united; stigmas 2, divergino-; fruit 2- 
seeded, globose-obovate ; seed plano-convex, with a deep furrow on' the out- 
siAe.—Pursh.fl. 1 p. 166; DC. prodr. 2. p. 27. R. Shortii, Nutt.! in 

jour. acad. Fhilad. 7. p. 91. Cardiolepis nigra, rubra, & spinosa, Raf. 
neo^en. (1825) no. 2. r j j 

Cihrs of Kentucky River, Short! Missouri, Baldwin,' Tennessee Pursh 
May.— A shrub, with smooth grayish bark. Leaves 2-2i inches long' usuaUy 
pubescent beneath, but when old sometimes nearly glabrous • petioles 2-3 
lines long. Flowers perfect, on short pedicels at the base of the youncr 
shoots. Petals broad, folded round the short stamens, and partly enclosing 
them. Styles exserted, united the greater part of their length, distinct and 
somewhat recurv ed above. Fruit as large as a pepper-corn, red or black, usu- 
ally 2-sided.— Our plant does not exactly agree with Pursh's description, as 

2G2 RHAMNACEiE. Rhamnus. 

the leaves are seldom so narrow as to be called lanceolate; but there can be 
little doubt of its being the same species. 

6. R. parvifoUus : unarmed ; leaves ovate, serrulate, pubescent (in the 
young state), acute or emarginate; flowers solitary or 2-3 together, axillary, 
on ve'ry short pedicels, tetrandrous (rarely pentandrous) ; petals mmute, 2- 
lobed, partly surrounding the very short stamens ; styles 2, united below, 
very short and conical. . , , • i 

Harper's Ferry, Virginia, Pursh ! (v. s. in herb. Barton).— K shrub with 
smooth gray bark. Leaves (immature) half an inch long, pubescent, particu- 
larly onlhe lower surface, acute at the base. Tube of the calyx narrow, at- 
tenuated dowmvard. Petals about as long as the stamens. Ovary (abortive) 
oblong, shorter than the tube of the calyx.— We have only seen immature 
specimens of this plant, in the herbarium of the late Dr. Barton. They 
were labeDed in the hand-writing of Pursh " Rhamnus franguloides, mihi.— 
Michx. 7 Harper's Ferry." We cannot refer it to any other species describ- 
ed in this work. It may be the R. franguloides of Pursh's Flora, but it is 
certainly not the plant of Michaux. 

+t Flowers pentandrous. 

7. R. alnifolius (L'Her.) : erect, unarmed ; leaves oval, acuminate, ser- 
rate, pubescent on the veins beneath; flowers solitary or aggregated, pen- 
tandrous (rarely tetrandrous), apetalous; styles 3, very short, united nearly to 
the summit; disk somewhat fleshy ; fruit roundish-turbinate.— L'//er. serf. 
« 5 ; Torr. ! fl. 1. p. 263 ; DC. prodr. 2. ji. 25 ; Hook. ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 
122,' t. 42. R. franguloides, Mich.v. fl. 1. p. 153; P^irsh, fl. 1. p. 166? 

Sphaf^nous swamps, Hudson's Bay, New England ! and northern part of 
New- York! to Pennsylvania (Muhlenberg). May -June.— A shrub 2-4 feet 
high. Leaves 1-3 inches long, acute at the base ; the lateral veins oblique 
anli rather prominent. Flowers produced on the lower part of the young 
shoots ; pedicels 2-3 lines long. Tube of the calyx hemispherical ; sepals 
spreading. Fruit black, rather fleshy, about the size of a currant, 3-seeded. 
Seeds plano-convex, without a furrow. 

8. R. Carolinianus (Walt.) : erect, unarmed ; leaves oval-oblong, obscure- 
ly serrate, nearly glabrous (or rarely pubescent beneath); umbels axillary, on 
peduncles' much shorter than the petioles ; flowers perfect, pentandrous (some- 
times tetrandrous), petals minute, embracing the very short stamens; styles 
united to the summit ; stigmas 3 ; fruit globose, rather dry, 3-4-seeded.— 
Walt. Car. p. 101 ; Mich.v..' fl. 1. p. 153; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 166 ; Ell. sk. . 
1. p. 289; DC. prodr. 1. p. 27. , ■ „ , ,t 

Banks of rivers, North Carolina ! to Florida ! west to the Rocky Moun- 
tains '.—Usually a shrub, but sometimes (as in Palmetto Creek, Laurens 
County, Georgia, Croo77i) it becomes a tree 30-40 feet high. Leaves 3-6 
inches long, and 1-2 inches wide, sometimes acuminate, irregularly serrate, 
the serratuTes often very indistinct ; sometimes the margin is waved ; lateral 
veins (10-12) rather distant. Umbels 5-15-flowered. Petals 2-lobed. Style 
rather short : stigmas minute. Fruit as large as a smaU pea, mostly 3-seed- 
ed. Seeds plano-convex, without a groove on one side. 

9. R. Purshianus (DC): erect, unarmed; leaves broadly elliptical, den- 
ticulate-serrate, pubescent beneath ; umbels axillary, on peduncles longer than 
the petioles, pubescent ; flowers perfect, pentandrous ; petals minute, embrac- 
ino- the very short stamens ; styles united to the summit ; stigmas 3 ; fruit 
turbinate, 3-seeded.— I>C. prodr. 2. p. 25; Hook.! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 123, 
t. 43. R. alnifolius, Pursh, fl. 1. p. 166, not of L'Her. 

Woods, Oregon, Dr. Scolder ! Nuttall ! Nootka, Menzies.—A shrub or 
small tree', 10-20 feet, with a trunk 9 inches in diameter. Leaves 3-5 inches 

Sageretia. RHAMNACEiE. 2G3 

luiifj and li-2 inches in diameter, sometimes slightly cordate at the base, 
rarely acute or with a slight acuniination ; the lower surface strongly pulies- 
cent; the lateral veins (14-lG) prominent. Umbels 10-20-(iowcred. Petals 
2-lobed. Styles rather short. Fruit the size of a large pea, black. Seeds 
plano-convex, shining, without a groove.— Resembles R. Carohnianus but 
differs in its broader leaves, more numerous veins, longer peduncles, and 
larger pyriform fruit. 

10. R. ferrugineus (Nutt.) : leaves oblong-elliptical, acute, entire, the 
younger ones and calyx ferrugineous-tomentose ; umbels axillary, sessile ; 
Howers perfect, pentandrous; petals minute; style short; stigmas 3. ISutl. 
in jour. acad. PhUad. 7. p. 90. 

Near Key West, Florida, Mr. T. R. Penh, (ex NuU.).—A shrub or small 
tree. Leaves about 2 inches long, slightly pubescent beneath in the adult 
state. Umbels 10-20-flowered in the axils 'of the petioles towards the end ot 
the branches: pedicels 2-3 lines long. Calyx thickly clothed with rusty 
down. Petals at first involving the stamens. NuU.—Vv'q have not seen this 
plant. Some of our specimens of R. Carolinianus agree very well with the 

11. R. CaUfornicus (Eschs.) : branches angular, grayish-tomentose ; 
leaves oval, serriilate, mostly acute, reticulately veined, glabrous on both sides ; 
flowers fasciculate-umbelled ; pedicels tomcntose, as long as the petioles; 
calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5, scale-like ; style 5-cleft ; fruit 2-seeded. EschschoUz, 
in mem. acad. St. Petersb. 10. /;. 281. 

In bushy places, California, ^.^c/isc/io/^^;.— A shrub about 12 feet high: 
stem terete, fuscpus, nearly glabrous. Leaves li inch long : petioles tomen- 
tose. Fascicles about 3-flowered. Petals yellowish-green. Eschscholtz. 

12. R.? Texensis: much branched and straggling ; branches pubescent; 
leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, somewhat acute, villous-pubescent on both sides, 
denticulate-serrulate, the veins prominent and very oblique (flowers solita- 
ry ?) ; fruit broadlv turbinate, 2-3-seeded ; seeds tumid, without a furrow. 

Texas, Drummond! (coll. 2. no. 67.) —Branches whitish, flexuous. 
Leaves about ^ of an inch long, somewhat coriaceous, obtuse or a little acute 
at the base : petioles 1-2 lines "long. Fruit 3-4 lines in diameter, wuh a very 
thin black pulp, obscurely lobed. Seed very smooth and shming.— AVe have 
not seen the flowers, but'ihe plant appears to be a Rhammis,and is very dis- 
tinct from any species with which we are acquainted. 

3. SAGERETIA. Brongn. in ann. sci. nat. 10. p. 359, t. 13. / 2. 

Calyx urceolate, 5-cleft. Petals convolute or cucuUate. Stamens 5: an- 
thers ovate, 2-celled. Ovary partly immersed in the slightly concave and 
entire disk, 3-ceUed : style short and thick, 3-lobed at the summit. Fruit 
somewhat baccate, indehiscent, 3-celled.— Shrubs with slender often spines- 
cent branches. Leaves somewhat opposite, on short petioles. FloAvers in 
simple or branched interrupted rigid spikes. 

The charncter of the fruit (which was unknown to Brongniart) is drawn solely 
from E. Michauxii, and may not apply to all the species. 

1. S. Michauxii (Bwn^n.): branches thorny when old; leaves opposite, 
membranaceous, ovate or oblong-ovate, nearly sessile, remotely denticulate- 
serrate, shining; flowers very minute, in paniculate spikes; petals mmute, 
enclosing the stamens ; stigmas nearly sessile ; fruit 3-seeded.—Bro7igri. 1. c. 
Rhamnus minutiflorus, Mic/ix. ! f. 1. p. 154 ; Pnrsh,fi. 1. p. 166 ; Ellsk.. 
1. p. 289 J DC. prodr. 2. p. 28. . 

264 RHAMNACE^. Ceanothus. 

Along the coast from North CaroUna to East Florida, Michav.v! Bald- 
win! Oct.-Nov.— A shrub (6-8 feet high, EIL). Leaves about an inch 
Ions, pub2scent when young, at length nearly glabrous, acuminate ; the lateral 
veins few. Petals entire. 'Fruit as large as a pepper-corn : endocarp rather 
thin and coriaceous. Seeds plano-convex, obcordate, smooth and even on 
both sides. — Our specimens are rather imperfect. 

4. CEANOTHUS. Lhin. (in part) ; Gcertn. fr. t. 106 ; Brongn. I'c. p. 369. 

Calyx campanulale, 5-clcft ; the upper portion at length separating by a 
transverse line ; the tube adhering to the base of the ovary. Petals 5, long- 
er than the calyx, saccate and arched, on long claws. Stamens exserted : 
anthers ovate, 2-celled. Disk fleshy at the margin, surrounding the ovary. 
Styles 3 (sometimes 2), united to the middle, diverging above. Fruit dry 
and coriaceous, mostly 3-ceiled (rarely 2-4- or by abortion 1-celled), obtusely 
triangular, girt below by the persistent tube of the calyx, tricoccous ; the cells 
at length opening by the inner suture. Seeds obovate, without a lateral fur- 
row.— Shrubs, or somewhat shrubby plants, not thorny. Roots large, red- 
dish, astringent. Leaves alternate, commonly ovate or eUiptical, serrate or 
entire, persistent or deciduous. Flowers (perfect) white, blue, or yellowish 
(the calyx and pedicels often colored), in umbel-like fascicles, which are ag- 
gregated at the extremity of the branches into small dense thyrsoid panicles 
or corymbs. 

* Leaves 2-ribbcd from the base. 

1. C. Am^ricanns (Linn.) : leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, serrate, nearly 
glabrous above, canescently tomentose beneath, the petioles and veins be- 
neath villous-pubescent ; peduncles axillary, elongated ; thyrsus oblong, leaf- 
less — Walt. Car. p. 101 ; MiclKv. ! p. 1. p. 154 ; Bot. mag. t. 1479 ;, 
J. 1. p. 167; Ell. sk. 1. p. 290; DC. prodr. 2. p. 31 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 
1, p. 124; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 148. C. tardiflorus, Hornem.? 

p. Pitcheri: leaves ovate, commonly obtuse, minutely canescent above, 
velvety-tomentose beneath, the veins of both surfaces hairy ; peduncles of- 
ten somewhat leafy.— C. Pitcheri, Pickering ! viss. 

y. herbaceus: leaves oval, serrulate, nearly glabrous.— C. herbaceus, Raf. 
in Desv. jour. bot. 1. p. 227. C. perennis, Pitrsh, I. c. C. ovatus, Desf. 
arb. 2. p. 3S1 7; DC. I. c.1 ,,,,.• 

<5. intermedius : leaves small, ovate-oblong or oval, serrulate (otherwise as 
in a.) ; thyrus rather loose.— C. intermedius, i^ri^A, /. c. ?; DC. I. c? ; EIL 
sk. 1. p. 290, not of Hook. 

Woods and copses, Canada ! to Florida ! and Louisiana ! /?. Arkansas 
and Missouri, Dr. Pitcher! Nuttall ! Texas, Drummoml ! Alabama, 
Dr. Gates ! y. Southern States. S. Georgia ! to Florida ! and west to Ar- 
kansas ! June-July.— Root dark red. Stem shrubby or suffruticose, 1-3 
feet high; the younger branches pubescent. Leaves 2-3 inches long (in J. 
much smaller), rounded or rarely acutish, or sometimes a little cordate at the 
base, either acute, or slightly acuminate, or obtusish at the apex ; the pubes- 
cence of the veins and petioles somewhat rusty-colored. Calyx, corolla, and 
pedicels (3-6 lines long) white. Claws of the petals filiform. Disk with a 
10-toothed border. Seeds convex externally, deeply concave Avithin ; the 
cavity marked by an elevated longitudinal ridge. In (i. & 5. the seeds are 
convex on both sides, and without a rid^e : the difference is perhaps ow- 
ing to their greater maturity in our specimens of the IdiXax.—Xeu'-Jersey 

Ceanothus. RHAMNACEiE. 265 

2. C orflr/Af (Bigrl.): leaves narrowly ohlonn or elliptical^Ianccolate, ser- 
rulate, with the teeth glandular, nearly glabrous ; thyrsus umbel-like, the 
pedicels elongated and closely approximated ; peduncles and branches gla- 
brous or slightly pubescent.— ^/ge/./. Host. eii. 2. p. 92; dray ! in ann. 
lyc. New-York; 3. p. 224. C. intermedius, Hook. f. Bor.-Am. 1. /;. 1. 24, 
not of Pursh ? 

p.l leaves (especially on the veins), young branches, and peduncles pu- 

In barren rocky places, Canada ! and Northern part of New-York ! Michi- 
gan, Dr. Pitcher! Vermont along Lake Champlain, Boott ! Dr. Rob- 
bins ! i^c. M^ine, Mr. Oakes ! 0. Arkansas, A'lit I all! Dr. Leareiiworth ! 
Texas, Drummond! May.— Shrub 2-3 feet high. Leaves l-2i inches 
long, varying from oval to almost linear, acute at both ends, sometimes ob- 
tuse at the apex, membranaceous, smooth and shining, or slightly pu- 
bescent on the veins beneath, usually pubescent when very young ; the ser- 
ratures tipped with black glands. Peduncles 1-2 inches long, naked or often 
with one or two leaves just below the flowers. Thyrsus almost hemispheri- 
cal, an inch and a half in diameter. Flowers white, lars^or than in C. Ameri- 
canus : pedicels 8-10 lines long, white. "Fruit blackish", Uigelow ; in/?, 
scarcely half as large as in C. Americanus, globose-turbinate, nearly the 
lower lialf invested with the adherent calyx-tube. In /?.? the leaves are 
usually smaller, and the pubescence of the veins, &c. is somewhat ferrugineous. 

3. C. sangninens (Pursh) : leaves obovate, pubescent beneath ; panicles 
axillary, thyrsoid, on very short peduncles ; pedicels aggregated. Pursh, Jl. 
1. p. 167 ; Kutt. gen. 1. p. 153 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 32. 

IJanks of the Missouri, abundant below the confluence of the Platte, Nut- 
tall ; near the Rocky Mountains, Lewis. — Branches reddish. — A much 
larger plant than C. Americanus, which it considerably resembles. Nutt. 

4. C. Oreganus (Nutt. ! mss.): "leaves broadly ovate, subcordate, mostly 
obtuse, serrate, membranaceous, somewhat pubescent beneath ; thyrsoid 
corymbs in lateral panicles ; fruit small, globose, obtusely 3-lobed, without 
pulp. — C. sanguineus, Hook. ! Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 125, not of Pursh." 

Woods of the Oregon, from the Blue Mountains to the Sea, Douglas, 
Nuttall ! Fort Vancouver, Dr. Scolder ! — A shrub 4-12 feet high ; the 
stem and branches glabrous, reddish. Young leaves nearly obovate ; the 
adult ones narrow at the summit, but scarcely acute, li-2i inches long, I-IJJ 
inch wide, thin ; veins moderately prominent. Panicles large, many-flower- 
ed, about 3 inches long, the lower divisions compound. Flowers larger than 
in C. Americanus, white. Fruit smaUer than a peper-corn. — Very distinct 
from the preceding, according to NuttaU. 

5. C. V el utimis (Douglas): branches somewhat pendulous ; leaves orbicu- 
lar-elliptical or eUiptical-ovate, obtuse, subcordate, glandularly crenate-serru- 
late, coriaceous, glabrous and shining (as if varnished) above, velvety-canes- 
cent and strongly 3-ribbed beneath ; panicles axillary, elongated, on rather 
long peduncles. — Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 125, t. 45. 

Subalpine hills near the sources of the Oregon, and at the "Kettle Falls", 
Douglas ; hills of Bear River, near the ' Seltzer Springs', Nuttall! — A 
shrub 3-8 feet high, Douglas (scarcely more than knee-high, Nutt. ; some- 
times covering the whole declivity of a hill, forming a thicket ver^^ difficult 
to penetrate, Nidt.) ; branches nearly glabrous. Leaves 2-3 inches long, 
sometimes much larger, the lower surface almost velvety when young, but 
smoother when mature : petioles half an inch or more in length. Panicles 
thrice compound. Flowers white. " Fruit dry, 2-3-seeded ; cocculi charta- 
ceous", Hooker. — The leaves abound with an aromatic resin. 

6. C. incanus : branches short and very thick, minutely canescent ; leaves 
broadly ovate, obtuse, mostly subcordate, coriaceous, crenate-serrulate, mi- 


266 RHAMNACE^. Ceanothcs. 

nutely velvety above, whitish and canescent beneath ; clusters subsessile, 
axillary and terminal. 

California, Douglas ! — Branches numerous, whitish with an exceedingly 
minute hoariness. Leaves an inch or more in length, rather crowded. Flow- 
ers white, in dense subglobose clusters, from very short and thick spurs or 
axillary branches. 

7. C. oliganthris (Nutt. mss.): "stem and branches villous; leaves ellip- 
tical-ovate, nearly glabrous above, villous beneath, glandularly serrulate, rath- 
er obtuse ; panicles lateral and terminal, very short, few-flowered, naked, or 
leafy towards the base, persistent ; disk pentangular; ovary Avith 3 protuber- 
ances at the angles nearly as large as itself. 

" Bushy woods on the hills of St. Barbara, California. — A shrub. Leaves 
on moderately long petioles. Clusters of flowers scarcely longer than the 
leaves. Flowers white, rather large". NiUtall. 

8. C.hirsutns {^uXi.m?,^.): "somewhat spiny and almost hirsute, parti- 
cularly the young branches; leaves cordate-ovate, glandularly serrulate, r.early 
sessile, rather obtuse; panicle terminal, elongated, leafy ; disk obscurely pent- 
angular; protuberances of the ovary small. 

'in thickets, with the preceding, to which it is nearly allied. — A strag- 
gling shrub. Young branches, leaf-buds, and bracts very hairy ; the upper 
surface of the leaves also almost villous. Fruit rather smaU." Nuttall. 

9. C. thyrsi/lorvs (Eschs.) : stem straight and erect, with angular branch- 
es; leaves ovate-oblong, obtuse, rather thick, strongly veined beneath, glandu- 
larly serrate, glabrous or slightly hairy above, canescent beneath and mi- 
nutely pubescent on the veins ; flowers in ovate or oblong very dense clus- 
ters, on long more or less leafy axillary and terminal peduncles. — Eschs. in 
mem. acad. St. Petersb. (1826) ; Hook. Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 125; Hook. ^ 
Am. in hot. Beechey, p. 136. 

Monterey, Upper California, EschschoUz, Dov.gJas ! Nuttall ! North 
West Coast, Menzies. — A small tree, with a stem sometimes as thick as a 
man's arm : branches strongly angular. Leaves 12-15 lines long, 4-6 lines 
wide, narrowed at the base ; petioles about 2 lines long. Clusters 1-2 inches 
long ; the flower-buds at first surrounded by numerous ovate woolly bracts, 
most of which at length fall ofl'. Calyx and corolla bright blue even when 

10. C. microphyllus (Michx.) : stem much branched from the root ; leaves 
minute, obovate, rigid, fascicled, glabrous above, strigose below, entire or 
sparingly denticulate ; peduncles slender ; thyrsus short, nearly simple, rath- 
er loose.— M?:c;i.r. .' ^. l.p. 154; Pursh,fl. \.p. 167; Nutt.! gen. I. p. 154; 
Ell. sk. 1. p. 292 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 32. 

Sandy pine forests, Georgia ! to East Florida ! April.— Stems 1-2 feet 
high, rather rigid, glabrous, yellowish. Leaves 2-3 lines long. Peduncles 
1-2 inches long. Flowers white. 

11. C. serpyllifolius (Nutt.): decumbent, diffusely branched; branches 
fiUform ; leaves very small, ovate-elliptical, serrulate, obtuse, the lower sur- 
face, as well as the petioles, strigose ; peduncles axillary ; flowers few, in a 
simple corymbose head.— Nutt..' gen. l.p. 154; DC. prodr. 2. p. 32. 

Near St. Mary's, Georgia, Bakhcin ! — A very small slender species. 
Leaves 3-5 lines long ; the upper surface nearly glabrous ; the early ones 
somewhat crowded ; later ones rather distant. Peduncles 1-li inch long, 
12-15-flowered. Flowers white. 

12. C. divaricatus (Nutt. ! mss.) : " somewhat thorny, nearly glabrous ; 
leaves elliptical-oblong or oblong-ovate, lucid, somewhat obtuse, minutely 
and glandularly serrulate, pubescent (particularly on the nerves) beneath ; 

Ceanothcs. RHAMNACE^. 2C7 

flowering branches divaricate ; leafy thyrsus interrupted ; rather loose ; ovary 
sub2;lobo>e, withoat protuberances. 

"Mountains of St. Barbara, California, and also near the town. April. — 
A stragglinfT shrub. Tlic abortive branchlets at lenjTth become spinose. 
Leaves 8-12 lines long, somewhat coriaceous, 3-ncrved from the base, the 
lateral nerves obscure : petioles about 2 lines long. Tliyrsus oblong, with 
several remote fascicles in the axils of the leaves. Flowers blue. Fruit 
about the si'/e of a peper-corn." Nut tall. 

* * Leaves \-ribbed, pinnalehj reined, 

13. C. spinoifua (Nutt. ! mss.) : "glabrous ; branches thorny ; leaves cune- 
ate-oblong, or oblong, obtu-e or emarginate, lucid, entire, or obscurely glnn- 
dularly serrulate towards the apex; flowering branchlets divaricate, leafy ; 
thyrsus oblong; ovary subglobose, without protuberances. 

Mountains of St. Barbara. — A straggling shrub. Leaves somewhat cori- 
aceous, obscurely veined, pubescent beneath in the young state, 8-10 lines 
long. Flowers white or blue : pedicels 2-3 lines long." Nuttall. — Nearly 
allied to the preceding species. There is a pair of obscure nerves from the 
base of the leaf; but they are scarcely as large as the veins which proceed 
from each side of the midrib. 

14. C. cune.atus (J:^\iX\..\ mss.): "branchlets pubescent; leaves fascicled 
from numerous very short lateral branches, and apparently opposite, thick 
and coriaceous, narrowly oblong-cuneiform, entire, obtuse, glabrous above, 
"whitish and minutely tomontose-canesccnl beneath ; flowers in lateral 
pedunculate nearly simple umbels; fruit with 3 projecting appendages at the 
summit." — Rhamnus ? cuneatus, Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 124 ; Hook. ^ 
Am. in hot. Beechey, p. 136. 

Dry gravelly islands and bars of the Wahlamet above the Falls, Nuttall ! 
Douglas. California, Beechey. March.— A ^'..lCjo 6-in feet high, with 
somewhat thorny grayish terete branches, very closely interwoven, sometirnes 
forming thickets. Leaves half an inch or more in length, and about 2 lines 
wide, very rarely with one or two teeth near the extremity ; the numerous 
regular simple and oblique veins rather conspicuous on the lower surface. 
Flowers in small axillary umbels: the peduncles and pedicels increasing in 
length as the fruit ripens. Calyx and corolla white : petals cucuUate, un- 
guiculate. Styles united above the middle, and then spreading. Fruit as 
large as an ordinary pea, subglobose ; the exocarp somewhat pulpy, Avith 3 
rather soft horn-like projections from the summit of the angles: the coherent 
base of the calyx unusually large. Seeds even on both sides, black, polished. 
— The whole plant (like several succeeding species) exhales a balsamic odor, 
and the mature fruit is covered with a bitter varnish. Hooker describes the 
branches as ferrugineous, which is not the case in our specimens : they are 
so, however, in the C. macrocarpus, which, judging from our specimen, we 
were certainly inclined to unite with the present species ; but Mr. Nuttall 
assures us that it is perfectly distinct. 

15. C. macrocarpus (Nutt. ! mss.) : "branchlets canescent with a rusty-col- 
ored pubescence ; leaves alternate, rather crowded, sometimes a little fascicled 
in the axils, thick and coriaceous, obovate-cuneate, entire, often emarginate 
glabrous above, whitish and minutely tomentose-canescent beneath ; flowers 
in lateral pedunculate nearly simple umbels ; fruit very large, with three pro- 
jecting horn-like appendages at the summit." 

Mountains of St. Barbara, California, Nuttall.'— A shrub 3-6 feet high. 
Fruit twice or thrice as large as in the preceding. 

16. C. verrucosus (Nutt. ! mss.): "branches verrucose, and (as also the 
viens of the lower surface of the leaves) somewhat canescent with a rusty- 

268 RHAMNACEiE. Ceanothus. 

colored pubescence ; leaves alternate, approximate or crowded, very thick and 
coriaceous, roundish-obovate or cuneate-oval, often eniarginate, the younger 
ones sometimes obscurely serrulate, glabious above, minutely tomentose-canes- 
cent beneath ; mribels axillary, few-flowered, naked ; fruit with minute pro- 
tuberances at the angles. 

" Low hills near the coast, St. Diego, California. — Leaves about half an 
inch long, and 4-5 lines wide, similar to the preceding in texture, venation, 
&c. Flowers white. Fruit the size of a large pea.'* Null. — Very near C. 
cuneatus /?., and perhaps only another variety of that species ; from which 
it differs, however, in its broader leaves and tuberculate stems, as well as in 
the minute tubercles of the fruit. 

17. C rigidus (Nutt. ! mss.) : " young branches pubescent ; leaves oppo- 
site and crowded, cuneate-obovate, mostly retuse, thick and coriaceous, mu- 
cronately crenate-loothed, glabrous above, somewhat canescent beneath ; 
umbels axillary and terminal, few-flowered, sessile; pedicels at length elonga- 
ted ; ovary with 3 protuberances. 

" Bushy woods near Monterey, California. March. — A shrub about 6 feet 
high, rigid, intricately branched, almost spinose. Leaves about half an inch 
long, sometimes nearly obcordate ; teeth conspicuous ; the veins, &c. as in 
the preceding. Clusters of flowers composed of several small crowded um- 
bels ; the pedicels gradually elongating to the length of 3-4 lines. Calyx and 
corolla bright blue." Nuttall. — Resembles the last two species in many 

18. C. dentatus : branches (and veins of the leaves beneath) tomentose 
with rusty hairs; leaves much crowded and fascicled, coriaceous, oblong- 
cuneiform, retuse, toothed, with revolute margins, more or less hairy on 
both sides ; peduncles elongated, nearly terminal ; thyrsus oblong, of nu- 
merous umbel-like fascicles ; ovary with three protuberances at the summit. 

California, Douglas ! — Leaves scarcely half an inch long, strongly and 
remotely feather-veined, pitted beneath, irregularly and obtusely toothed. 
Peduncles an inch or more in length. Flowers crowded, white. 

19. C. papillosus : branches tomentose ; leaves narrowly oblong, much 
crowded, fascicled in the axils, densely and softly tomentose beneath, gland- 
ularly denticulate on the margin ; peduncles aggregated ; clusters somewhat 
capitate ; ovary triangular, the angles projecting at the summit. 

California, Douglas! — Branches terete. Leaves 1-1 i inch long (those 
fascicled in the axils smaller), fringed on the margin with numerous capitate 
glandular teeth ; the upper surface conspicuously papillose and somewhat 
hairy. Peduncles numerous at the summit of the branches ; the flower-buds 
at first invested with ovate woolly bracts: pedicels 2-3 lines long. Flowers 


Sepals united into a 5-cleft or 5-toothed calyx ; the segments often 
unequal or variously combined, the odd one inferior. Petals 5 (some- 
times by abortion fewer or wanting), perigynous or hypogynous, ir- 
regular and unequal (papilionaceous), or sometimes regular, distinct or 
variously cohering ; the odd petal superior. Stamens definite or in- 
definite, inserted with the petals, distinct, or monadelphous, or diadel- 
phous, or very rarely triadelphous : anthers versatile. Ovary simple, 


solitary (very rarely 2 or more), free from the calyx : ovules solitary 
or several : style proceeding from the upper or ventral suture : stig- 
ma simple. Fruit a legume, or sometimes a drupe. Seeds solitary or 
several, heterotropous or anatro[)ous, sometiiries with an aril or lari^e 
caruncle : albumen none. Embryo straight, or witli the radicle bent 
back along the edge of the cotyledons : cotyledons either thin and 
somewhat foliaceous, or thick and fleshy. — Herbs, shrubs, or trees. 
Leaves alternate, stipulate, usually compound, sometimes reduced to a 
solitary leaflet: the margin of the leaves or leaflets almost always en. 
tire. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary or commonly racemose, 
paniculate, spicate, or capitate : pedicels usually articulated. 

Suborder I. PAPILIONACEiE. Linn. 

Sepals imbricated (or sometimes slightly valvate) in aestivation. 
Corolla papilionaceous or more or less irregular, rarely wanting. Sta- 
mens 10, or occasionally fewer, inserted with the petals into the bot- 
tom of the calyx, or perigynous. Radicle bent back upon the edge of 
the cotyledons, or straight. — Leaves simple or simply compound (in 
Cassieae sometimes bipinnate). Flowers usually perfect. 

Tribe I. VICIE^. Bronn ; DC. 

Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1). Legume 
continuous (not articulated), dehiscent. Radicle inflexed. Cotyle- 
dons thick, farinaceous, remaining under ground unchanged in germi- 
nation. — Herbs, with abruptly pinna(e leaves ; the common petiole 
not articulated with the stem, produced at the apex into a bristle or 

1. VICIA. Tourn. inst. t. 221; DC. prodr. 2. p. 354. 

Calyx tubular, 5-cleft or 5-toothed ; the two upper teeth shortest. Style 
fiUforra, bent at a right angle with the ovary, villous at the apex, particularly 
on the outside (next the keel). Legume oblong, several-seeded. — Mostly 
climbing herbs. Leaflets several pairs. Petioles produced into branching 
tendrils. Peduncles axillary. — Vetch. 

* Peduncles elongated. 

j-'l. V. Americana (Muhl.) : glabrous; leaflets numerous (10-14), elliptical- 
lanceolate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or retuse, mucronate ; stipules semisagit- 
tate, deeply toothed; peduncles shorter than the leaves, 4-8-flowered, lower 
teeth of the calyx broadly lanceolate ; style very villous at the apex ; legumes 
linear-oblong, compressed, reticulated, glabrous. — Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 
1096 ; Pursh, fl. 2. o. 471 ; DC. I. c. p. 355 ; Hook. ! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. Vol. 
p. leaflets elTiplical-lanceolate, somewhat rigid, strongly reticulated ; pedun- 
cles 2-5-flowered. — Hook. ! I. c. V. sylvatica, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 97? 

270 LEGUMINOS^. Vicia. 

Canada! (as far north as Bear Lake) to the Western part of New- York ! 
and west to the Rocky Mountains! P. Sa'^katchawan, &c. Hooker! Mis- 
souri!— 2/ Stem 1-3 feet long. Leaflets 8-14 lines long : tendrils 3- many- 
parted. Flowers about three-fourths of an inch long, purplish-blue. Upper 
teeth of the calyx very short. — Very near V, sylvatica. 

J. 2. V. Oregana (Nutt.! mss.) : "pubescent; stem weak; leaflets 4-8 
pairs, elliptical-oblong, somewhat serrate at the summit, cuspidate, rarely 
emarginate; stipules lunate, semisagittate, incisely serrate ; peduncles 3-5- 
flowered, rather shorter than the leaves ; teeth of the calyx ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, the 2 upper nearly as long as the lateral ones ; style shghtly pubes- 
cent ; legume broadly sabre-shaped, glabrous, about 5-seeded. 

"Plains of the Oregon.— y Stem 1-2 feet long, angular. Leaflets about 
I of an inch long : tendrils many-parted. Flowers one-third smaller than in 
the preceding species." Nuttall. 

-' 3. V. truncata (Nutt.! mss.): " somewhat pubescent; leaflets 5-6 pairs, 
oblong-linear, usually truncate, serrate or tridentate at the apex; stipules lu- 
nate, incisely serrate ; peduncles 4-7-flowered, rather shorter than the leaves; 
lower teeth of the calyx lanceolate, acuminate, the upper ones very short ; 
style very villous at the apex. 

Plains of the Oregon. June.— 2| Stem 1-2 feet high, weak. Leaflets 
about an inch long, 1-2 lines wide ; theloAvest ones simply acute and apicu- 
late; the upper ones strongly serrate or toothed at the apex'." Nuttall. 

4. V. sparsifolia (Nutt.! mss.): slightly pubescent; leaflets 5-6 pairs, 
narrowly linear, nearly acute, mucronulate ; stipules bifid, entire, or sparingly 
toothed ; peduncles 4-7-flowered, about as long as the leaves ; lower teeth of 
the calyx acuminate; upper ones much shorter; style very villous at the sum- 

" Plains of the Oregon, with the preceding ; to which it is very nearly al- 
lied." Nuttall. y ^ : . 3 

5. V. gigantea (Hook.) : somewhat pubescent ; stem sulcate ; leaflets 
10-13 pairs, oblong, petiolulate, obtuse, mucronate; stipules large, semisagit- 
tate, deeply toothed at the base ; peduncles much shorter than the leaves, 
5-18-flowered, the flowers crowded ; lower teeth of the calyx long and nar- 
row ; style slightly bearded ; legume broadly oblong, glabrous, obscurely re- 
ticulated.— i/ooA'. .' fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 157. V. Sitchensis, Bong. ! veg. 
Sitcha, in mem. acad. St. Petersb. (6. ser.) 2. p. 129. 

Woods of the Oregon, ^cozi/er .' Nuttall! Sitcha, Bongard !—li Stem 
stout, long and trailing. Leaves 6-9 inches long: leaflets 1-2 inches in length. 
Flowers nearly as large as in V. Americana, pale dull purple. Legumes 
about 2i inches long. Seeds as large as small peas, tolerably good eating 
when young. — Plant blackish when dry. 

.^- 6. V. Cracca (Linn.): stem branching; leaflets numerous (20-24), ob- 
long, minutely pubescent, mucronate ; stipules lanceolate-linear, semisagit- 
tate ; peduncles many-flowered, about as long as the leaves, flowers crowded, 
retrorsely imbricated ; teeth of the calyx shorter than the tube, the upper 
ones very short ; style hairy at the summit ; legume oblong, coriaceous, reti- 
culated, glabrous ; seeds globose, black.— Mic/ivr. .' fl. 2. p. 69 ; Picrsh, fl. 
1. p. 472 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 357 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 269; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 157. 

Borders of woods, &c. Canada ! to Pennsylvania ! west to Kentucky I— 
AprQ-June.— 1( Stem 2-3 feet long. Leaflets 6-8 lines in length. 'Ra- 
cemes 12-30-flowered. Flowers nearly half an inch in length, usually bright 
blue, but sometimes rather pale. Legume about an inch long, 4-6-seeded. — 
Agrees in every respect with the European plant. 

ViciA. LEGUMINOS^. 271 

>— 7. V. Caroliniana (Walt.) : stem branrhin?; loaHcts 8-12, lincar-oblonjj, 
nearly glabrous, rather obtuse, scarcely rnucroiiate ; stipules lanceolate, mi- 
nute; peduncles many-flowered ; racemes rather loose; teeth of the ralyx 
shorter than the tube, the upper ones very short; style hairy at the summit; 
letjuiue oblong, coriaceous, not reticulated ; seeds subglobose, blackish. — 
Jfal/. Car. p. IS2; Pursh, f. 2. p. 472; Ell. ak. 2. p. 224; DC. prodr. 
2. p. 355. V. parviflora, Mich.r.! fl. 2. p. 69, not of Cav. 

0. ? Te.j-anii : very slender; leailets S-10, nearly linear; stipules unequal- 
ly bifid at the base; peduncles 6-10-ilowered, longer than the leaves ; flowers 

Borders of woods and banks of rivers, Canada! to Georgia ! west to Ken- 
tucky ! April-May. — U Stem 3-6 or 8 feet long, slender, climbing. Leaf- 
lets usually scattered, 6-10 lines long. Racemes 6-15-llowered ; the flowers 
Avhite, or pale blue, with the top of the keel deep blue, commonly smaller 
than in the preceding species, and more loosely arranged on the peduncle. — 
The most certain distinguishing character is found in the shorter and broader 
teeth of the calyx of this species. The Texan variety may prove to be dis- 
tinct ; but we have not seen the legumes. 

-/-8. V. Ludoviciana (Nutt, mss.): glabrous (except the young shoots); 
leaflets 10-12, elliptical or obovate, obtuse or emarginate; stipules subulate, 
simple or semisagittate ; peduncle 2-6-flowered, at hngth longer than the 
leaves ; flowers (minute) closely approximated ; teeth of the calyx broad, acu- 
minate, shorter than the tube ; legume broadly sabre-shaped, glabrous, 5-6- 
seeded ; seeds compressed, dark brown. 

Grassy places on the Red River, and in Texas, Dr. T^eax-enworth! "In 
Louisiana, Mr. Tainlnrier,'''' Nutt all. May. — U Stem 2-3 feet long, rather 
stout, strongly angled, climbing. Leaflets 6-S lines long, 2 lines wide, com- 
monly emarginate. Stipules very small. Flowers blue, smaller than in V. 
Cracca, rarely solitary, often 2-6 on a peduncle. Calyx hairy. Keel marked 
Avith a deep blue spot at the summit. Legume J of an inch long and 3 lines 
wide. — Mr. Nuttall in his manuscript describes the peduncles as i-2-flovvered, 
Avhich is the case in some of our specimens ; but the peduncles are more com- 
monly at least 4-flowered. 

9. V. Learenu-orthii: pubescent; leaflets 10-14, oblong-linear, obtuse or 
emarginate; stipules minute, semisagittate, entire; peduncles shorter than 
the leaves, 2-4-rtowered (flowers minute) ; teeth of the calyx subulate, some- 
Avhat equal, all longer than the tube; style slightly pubescent at the summit; 
legume oblong, 6-seeded. 

Arkansas, Dr. Leavenworth ! — If ? Stem 1-2 feet long, strongly angled. 
Leaflets approximated, half an inch long and li line wide. Flowers as 
large as in V. tetrasperma, pale blue ? — Resembles the last two species, but 
is easily distinguished by the long and narrow teeth of the calyx. 

10. V. micrantha (Nutt.! mss.): glabrous ; leaflets 4-7, linear, obtuse or 
acute ; stipules lanceolate, semisagittate ; peduncles shorter than the leaves, 
1-2-flowered (flowers minute); teeth of the calyx lanceolate, shorter than 
the tube ; legume sabre-shaped, 7-10-seeded. 

Prairies and woods of Arkansas, Nuttall! Louisiana and Texas, Dr. 
Learenworth! on the Red River, Dr. Hale ! April-May .^(5)1 Stem 
slender, 2-3 feet long. Leaflets about an inch long; in the lower leaves trun- 
cate and often toothed at the summit. Flowers as large as in the preceding 
species (pale blue?) ; the peduncles at first scarcely one-third the length of the 
leaves. Style very short. Legumes an inch in length, slightly pubescent. 
Seeds blackish, compressed ; the hilum extending 1 of its circumference, 

J— 11. V. acutifolia (Ell.): glabrous ; leaflets 3-6, linear, usually acute ; sti- 
pules linear-lanceolate, semisagittate, entire ; racemes longer than the leaves, 

273 LEGUMINOS^. Vicia. 

*-7 flowered ; lower teeth of the calyx ovate-lanceolate, shorter than the 
tube, the upper ones very short ; legume slightly falcate, 4-8-seeded. — Ell. sk. 
2. p. 225; DC. prodr. 2. p. 357. V. lutescens, Muhl. cat. fide Leconte. 
V. paucifolia, Nutt. ! ms,s. 

p. leaflets elliptical, obtuse ; peduncles shorter, about 2-flowered. 

Low grounds, Georgia, Le Conte ! Middle Florida, Z^r.C7io/j???o?7/ Nnttall! 
Near St. Marks, Dr. LeaTe7ivorth! &t. John's, Florida, Mr. Donbled ay ! 
— (X)'? Stem 2-3 feet long, climbing very slender. Leaflets 6-10 lines 
long, scarcely a line wide. Tendrils usually undivided. Flowers half as 
large as in V. Cracca, white, tinged with blue. 

JU-12. V. tetrasperma (Loisel.) : stem somewhat csespitose, glabrous ; leaf- 
lets 4-6, oblong ; stipules lanceolate, semisagittate ; peduncles usually 2- 
(somctimes 1- or 3-4-) flowered ; teeth of the calyx lanceolate, shorter than 
the tube, the sinuses acute ; legume oblong, glabrous, usually 4-seeded. — 
Loisel. fl. Gall. 1. p. 460. V. pusilla, Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1106; 
Pursli, jl. 2. p. 471 ; Big-el. fl. Bost. p. 270. Ervum tetraspermum, Linn.; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 367 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 158. 

Banks of rivers, Canada ! to New Jersey ! Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg. 
July. — (T) Stem 1-2 feet long, very slender. Leaflets 5-10 lines long, and 
one line Avide, mostly obtuse. Tendrils divided. Peduncles filiform. Flow- 
ers very small, white, often with a tinge of blue. Legumes half an inch long, 
somettmes 5-seeded. Seeds subglobose. 

13. V. exigua (Nutt. ! mss.) : "pubescent ; leaflets 6-8, linear-oblong, rath- 
er obtuse; stipules narrow, semisagittate, entire or incisely serrate; pedun- 
cles filiform, 1- (sometimes 2-) flowered, shorter than the leaves; teeth of the 
calyx lanceolate, broad at the base, shorter than the tube, the sinuses obtuse; 
legume oblong, glabrous, 4-5-seeded. 

" Plains of the Oregon and Upper California. Very much resembling the 
preceding species. — The plant from Oregon is more slender and the leaflets 
narrower." Nidtall. 

* Floioers nearly sessile. 

,* 14. F. saizva (Linn.) : somewhat pubescent; stem simple, decumbent or 
climbing; leaflets 10-12, varying from obovate-oblong to linear, retuse, mu- 
cronulate ; stipules semisagittate, somewhat toothed ; tendrils branched ; 
flowers solitary or in pairs ; calyx cylindrical ; the segments as long as the tube, 
lanceolate-subulate, nearly equal; style short, bearded at the apex; legumes 
compressed, torulose, erectish, reticulated ; seeds orbicular, somewhat com- 
pressed.— !:«§■. hot t. 334; Mich.v. ! fl. 2. p. 69 ; Pvrsh. fl. 2. p. 270; DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 360 ; Bigel. /?. Bost. p. 270 ; Hook. I. c. ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 425. V. Canadensis, ^uccagni ; DC. I. c. ? 

j^. ^. angustifolia (Seringe, in DC. 1. c. ): leaflets narrowly linear and 
' 'elongated, obtusish or shghtly retuse, mucronate; seeds nearly globose. V. 
sativa /?. Linn. V. angustifolia, Roth. 

Cultivated fields and waste places; common: introduced from Europe. 
i. Bordentown, New Jersey, Mr. Durand! June- July. — Q~) Corolla about 
half an inch long, pale violet-purple. Legume 1-2 inches long, usually mi- 
nutely hairy. — Common Vetch. Tare. 

X Doubtful species. 

15. V. trid entaf a (Schwein): stem sulcate, somewhat pubescent; leaf- 
lets numerous, narrowly oblong, entire, obtuse, mucronulate, sparingly hairy 
above, densely hairy beneath ; lower stipiiles cuneiform, broadly 3-cleft, 3- 

Lathyrus. LEGUMlNOSiE. 273 

nerved, pubescent; the upper ones lanceolate, acuminate, villous ; calyx and 
pedicels pubescent. Sclrwtiin. in Loughs 2iid cuped. upp. 
Upper Mississippi, Mr. Keating. 

2. ERVUM. Linn.; Juss. gen. p. 360. 

Calyx deeply 5-clcft ; the segments nearly equal, linear, acute, about the 
length of the corolla. Style filiform : stigma glabrous. Legume oblong, 2- 
4-seeded. Seeds orbicular or globose. — Annuals. Leaflets usually nume- 
rous. Petioles produced into tendrils. Peduncles axillary. 

1. E. hir.tutum (Linn.): stem branching, diffuse; leaflets 8-20, linear, 
tapering at the base, truncate or retuse at the apex, mucronulale; stipules 
subulate, semi^agittate, entire or cleft; peduncles 3-G-tlowered, about the 
length of the leaves ; calyx hairy, tiie subulate segments rather shorter than 
the corolla ; legumes obiong, obliquely truncate, torulose, hirsute, 2-seeded, 
drooping. — Torr. ! compend. p. 264; DC. prodr. 2. p. 366; Darlingt. ft. 
Cesl. p. 426 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 15S. Vicia Mitchelli, Ruf. ])rec. 
decouv. p. ?/]; Ell. sk. 2. p. 224 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 360. 

Thickets and banks of streams, New-York! Pennsylvania, S. Carolina: 
probably introduced. May-Tune. — Stem 1-3 feet long, very slender, climb- 
ing. Flowers very small, bluish-while. Seeds subglobose, somewhat com- 

3. LATHYRUS, Linn.; DC. prodr. 2. p. 369. 

Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft ; the two upper segments somewhat shortest. 
Style usually somewhat flattened, and dilated above, bent nearly at a right 
angle with the ovary, pubescent or villous along the inside (next the free sta- 
men). Legume oblong, several-seeded. — Mostly climbing herbs. Leaflets 
1-several pairs. Petioles produced into tendrils. Peduncles axillary, 

§ 1. Annual : peduncles l-3-Jlo%oered. 

-X.1. L. pnsiUus (E\\.) : glabrous; stem branching from the base, winged; 

■^leaflets a single pair, linear-lanceolate, acute at each end, slightly rnucronate ; 
stipules rather large, sagittate, slightly falcate ; peduncles elongated, 1-2- 
flowered ; tendrils branching; segments of the calyx subulate-setaceous, 

'' nearly equal; legume elongated, slightly falcate, 10-15-seeded.— £//. sk. 2. 
p. 223. 

S. Carolina, Elliott : common also in Arkansas, Nuttall ! Dr. Pitcher ! 
Dr. Leavenworth! Texas and Western Louisiana, Dr. Leavcmcorth ! 
April-May.— A small slender vine. Leaflets li-2 inches long. Stipules un- 
equally sagittate, nearly an inch in length. 

§ 2, Perennial: peduncles several-Jiowered. 

-/-2. L. marilimns (Bigel.) : mostly glabrous; stem stout^ angled, at length 
decumbent ; leaflets 4-6-pairs, oval or slightly obovate ; stipules cordate-has- 
tate, nearly the size of the leaflets ; peduncles many- (6-10-) flowered, rather 
shorter than the leaves ; segments of the calyx hairy on the margin, the two 
upper ones triangular and shorter, the others lanceolate ; corolla purple ; le- 
gumes oblong, at length rather turgid, slightly falcate. — Bigel. ! fl. Bost. ed. 
2. p. 268. L. venosus, Brit. ft. gard. {ser. 2.) t. 37; Bigel. I. c. ed. 1. L. 
Californicus, Doiisl. ; Lindt hot. reg. t. 1144, fide Hook. L. pisiformis, 


274 LEGUMINOS^. Lathyrcs. 

Hook. ! ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 158; Hook. ^ Am. ! hot. Beechey, p. 123. Pi- 
sura maritimum, Linn.; Eng. hot. t. 1047 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 368 (p. gla- 
brum, Ser.) ; Bong. veg. SUcha, I. c. p. 130. 

Sandy or stony shores, from Labrador to New- York! and from Kotzebue's 
Sound! to Oregon! and California: also around the shores of the Great 
Lakes ! and along the rivers, &c. to the shores of the Arctic Sea (Richard- 
son). May-July. — The whole plant has a somewhat glaucous aspect, and 
much the habit of a Pea. The leaflets (often scattered) are commonly from 
li to 2 inches in length, and |-1 inch wide, with reticulated veins ; in shady 
situations the stem is more slender, less leafy, and the leaflets rather smaller. 
Stipules usually toothed below, cordate-hastate, the lower angle or lobe acute, 
often more or less inequilateral. Peduncles 6-10-flowered. Flowers large 
and showy, purple; the wings and keel paler. Lower segment of the calyx 
linear, a little narrower, and slightly exceeding the lateral ones. The speci- 
mens from Arctic America are smaller and fewer-flowered. — Our specimen 
of L. pisiformis from Altaic Siberia, communicated by Prof. Fischer, dif- 
fers from our various forms of the plant above described in having a narrow- 
ly winged stem, much larger and semisagittate stipules, and somewhat ovate- 
oblong leaflets. We perceive no other diff"erence of any importance ; but, as 
these may be expected to prove nearly constant, we have thought it best to 
retain the specific name of Bigelow for the present, since our plant is doubt- 
less the same as the Pisum maritimum of the North of Europe. 

3. L. polyphijlhis (Natt.l mss.): "glabrous; stem nearly erect; angled, 
leaflets 5-8 pairs, oval-oblong, obtusish, the tendrils very short ; stipules as 
large as the leaflets, semicordate, angularly crenate at the base, sometimes 
acuminate; peduncles 7-10-flowered ; shorter than the leaves ; segments of 
the calyx hairy on the margin, the two upper ones triangular and much 
shorter than the lanceolate lateral ones, the inferior one subulate-setaceous, 
rather longest ; corolla purple ; legume smooth, acuminated, long and flat. 

" /?. angles of the stem acute ; stipules broadly semisagittate. 

" Forests of the Oregon to the sea ; in shady places.— Stem about 2 feet 
high. Leaflets 1^ inch long, and half an inch or more wide. Flowers ra- 
ther large. — Considerably allied to L. pulchellus of Altai, but with more flow- 
ers on the peduncle." Niitt. — This plant is probably included by Hooker 
among the "more lax and flaccid forms of L. pisiformis apparently inhabit- 
ing woody districts ;" and we should incline to take the same view of it ; 
but the setaceous inferior segment of the calyx, and the rather shorter supe- 
rior teeth wiU perhaps prove a constant distinction. 

■ 4. L. venosus (Muhl.) : glabrous or somewhat pubescent ; stem erect or 
'reclined, strongly 4-angled ; leaflets 5-7 pairs, ovate-oblong or broadly ovate- 
elliptical, obtuse ; stipules very small, lanceolate or oval, semisagittate (the 
deflexed lobe about as long as the superior portion) ; peduncles many-(8-16-) 
flowered, rather shorter than the leaves; calyx pubescent or nearly glabrous; 
the 2 upper segments very broad and short (not half the length of the lateral 
ones) ; corolla purple ; legumes linear-oblong, compressed. — Muhl. in Willd. 
sp. 3. p. 1092, I cat. p. 68 ; Pursh, Ji. 2. p. 471; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 96; DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 371. 

/?. robust ; leaflets larger (2-3 inches long), oblong-ovate ; stipules linear- 
lanceolate ; peduncles 10-20-flowered. 

y. minutely downy-pubescent ; leaflets rather broadly elliptical or ovate- 
elliptical; stipules linear-lanceolate; peduncles 10-20-floAvered ; calyx and 
pedicels densely pubescent. — L. decaphyllus. Hook. ! ji. Bor.-Avi. 1. p. 159, 
<^ in hot. mag. t. 3123; Hook. ^ Am. hot. Beechey, p. 138, not of Pursh. 
L. multiflorus, Nutt. ! mss. 

&.1 smaller, finely pubescent ; leaflets 3-5 pairs, ovate-elliptical, smaller; 
stipules linear-lanceolate ; peduncles 5-7-flowered. — L. pubescens, Nutt. .' 
mss. L. decaphyllus P. minor. Hook. <^ Am. I. c. ? 

Latiiyrus. LEGUMINOS/E. 275 

Shady phcps, and alona streams, Canada to the Western part of Geortria! 
Western Louisiana, Dr. Leavenworlh ! 0. Georgia, JJr. IJoyhiu! y. Sas- 
katchawan, {/hchardson, Dnunmmid) to the shore of Lake Superior, Dr. 
Houirhton! and Illinois, ex Nnttall : also N. W. Coast and California, ex 
Honker, f,. Bushy woods of the Oregon, NuUall! June-July.— Stem ahout 
3-4-angled and striate, 2-3 feet high. Petioles channelled above. Lealhts 
in o. & Y- about li-2 inches long; in fi. larger, somewliat conspicuously reti- 
culate-veined above when old. Flowers smaller than in the two preceding 
species, racemose, crowded. Lateral segments of the calyx triangular-lan- 
ceolate, a little shorter than the somewhat narrower lower segrnent; the 
upper ones broadly triangular and extremely short.— A widely diffused spe- 
cies, if we are correct in joining with it the L. decaphyllus of Hooker, &t , 
readily distinguished by its very small stipules, These are however a little 
variable in the ordinary form, even in the same specimen ; the upper ones 
being often larger and broader. 

■j^b. L. ochroleucus (Hook.) : glabrous, pale and a little glaucous ; stem slen- 
der; leaflets about 3 pairs, broadly oval or ovate; stipules semicordate; 
smaller than the leaflets, entire or obtusely toothed below ; peduncles 7-10- 
flovvered, shorter than the leaves; calyx somewhat truncate above ; the up- 
per segments broadly triangular, scarcely half the length of the oblong lateral 
ones; the lower lanceolate and a little longest ; corolla yellowish-white ; le- 
gumes linear-oblong, compressed, glabrous.— //oo/r..' fi. Bor.-Am. L p. 159 ; 
(h'ay ! in ann. lye. New-York, 1. p. 225. L. glaucifolius, Beck, bot. p. 90. 
L. piriformis, Richards. .' in app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 28. 

Shady hill-sides and banks of streams &c., from the Arctic circle. Dr. 
Richax'dson! (Bear Lake) to the Western and Northern part of New- 
York! and New Jersey! June-July. — A smaller and more delicate plant 
than tiie preceding, straggling or somewhat climbing. Leaflets 1-li inch 
in length, thin and membranaceous. Stipules either rounded at the base, or 
with a^n acute angle, somewhat variable in size ; the lower ones considerably 
smaller than the leaflets ; the uppermost often nearly their size, particularly 
in the subarctic forms. In the latter, also, the peduncles are nearly as long 
as the leaves. Segments of the calyx minutely hairy on the margin. Flow- 
ers about as large as in L. venosus. 

-7^ 6. L. myrtifolius (Muhl.) : dabrous ; stem slender, acutely quadrangular 
and often slightly winged ; leaflets 2-3 pairs, oval-elliptical or oblong, obtuse 
at each end ; stipules ovate-semisagittate, smaller than the leaflets, nearly 
entire ; peduncles 3-6-flowered, longer than the leaves ; upper segments of 
the calyx broad and shortest, the others triangular-lanceolate; corolla pale 
purple '(the wings and keel whitish); legumes (immature) oblong-Hnear, 
compressed, glabrous.— M'i/i/. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1091 ; Pursh, f. 2. p. 471 ; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 371 ; Hook. I. c. L. stipulaceus, Le Conte ! in cat. pi. 
New- York, p. 92; DC. I. c; Hook. I. c. 

Banks of rivers, &c., Canada ! Vermont ! to New- York ! and Pennsylva- 
nia. July -Aug.— More or less climbing. Stem 2-4 feet long. Flowers the 
size of the preceding.— We have drawn up the character from the ordinary 
and well-marked forms of this species; but we have varieties which so nearly 
approach to L. palustris that we arc unable to point out any certain and con- 
stant mark of distinction. The leaflets are ordinarily an mch and a half in 
length and about half an inch wide, veiny, and rather rigid. The stipules 
are'extremely variable in size, being sometimes half the size of the leaflets, 
but often (especially the lowermost) very smaU : their base is sometimes 
rounded and sometimes acute. We have not seen the ripe fruit. 

S-1.L. palustri-f (h'mn.): mostlv glabrous ; stems somcAvhat erect, winged; 
leaflets 3 pairs, oblong-lanceolate,' obtusish, mucronate. rather rigid ; stipules 
very small, lanceolate, semisagittate, acuminate, the deflexed lobe also acurai- 

276 LEGUMINOSJ]: Lathyrcs. 

nate ; peduncles 3-5-flowcred ; legumes broadly mear, compressed, acumi- 
nate, pubescent. Hook. — Linn. sp. p. 1034 ; Eng. hot. t. 169 ; Mich.r. ! fi. 
2. p. 66 ; Pursh, ji. 2. p. 471 ; Bigel.Ji. Bast. p. 209; DC. I. c. ; Hook. ! 
f. Bor.-Ani. 1. p. 161. 

a. glabrous ; lateral and inferior segments of the calyx lanceolate (the 
inferior one narrowest), about the length ol the tube; peduncles equalling or 
exceeding the leaves; leaflets 3-4 pairs, varying from lanceolate to narrowly 

0. glabrous, rather flaccid ; lateral and inferior segments of the calyx linear- 
subulate, longer than the tube.— L. occidentalis, Nuit.! mss. 

y. glabrous ; lateral segments of the calyx oblong, obtuse, shorter than the 

S. glabrous; lateral segments of the calyx triangular-subulate, much shorter 
than the tube; stipules minute, linear-subulate. 

£. minutely pubescent; lateral segments of the calyx triangular-oblong, ob- 
tuse, much shorter than the tube ; leaflets 4-5 pairs, rigid ; stem scarcely 

^. finely pubescent; lateral and inferior segments of the calyx narrowly 
triangular-lanceolate, very acute, shorter than the tube ; peduncles 3-10-flow- 
ered. — L. hydrophilus, Nutt. ! mss. 

r). pubescent ; lateral and inferior segments of the calyx linear- lanceolate or 
linear, very acute, as long as the tube ; leaflets elliptical ; stipules much larger, 

Swampy places and along streams, Canada ! (lat. 55°) to Pennsylvania ! 
west to Oregon, p. mouth of the Oregon, NvUaU ! &. Saskatchawan Riv- 
er, ex Hook.! £. California, Douglas! g. Marshes, Massachusetts, Mr. 
Oakes! Western part of New- York ! r,. Dry soil, Uuoddy Head, Mame, 
Mr. Oakes ! July-Aug.— Flowers rather large, bright purple. 

8. L. vestitiis (Nutt. ! mss.) : " erect and rigid or a little climbing, silky- 
canescent; leaflets 5-7-pairs, small, elliptical or oval, cuspidate; tendrils 
mostly pinnated; stipules broadly semisagittate, acuminata, slightly toothed 
below, about the size of the leaflets ; racemes about the length of the leaves. 
4-6-flowered ; flowers large, purple ; lower segments of the calyx narrowly lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, rather longer than the tube ; legume flat, pubescent, atten- 
uate at each end; style villous along the inside for about one-third its length. 

" Plains of the Oregon towards the sea. June.— A very distinct species. 
a foot or more high, clothed with an appressed silky pubescence, except the 
upper surface of the leaves, which is nearly glabrous. Stem erect in open 
places, decumbent in shady situations. Leaflets half an inch or a little more 
in length, and 2-3 lines wide. Calyx attenuate at the base." Nuttall. 

9. L. strictiis (Nutt. mss.) : "pubescent, rather rigid ; stem slender, angled; 
leaflets 2-5 pairs, linear, acute; tendrils bifid; stipules semicordate, acumi- 
nate, serrate ; peduncle about 4-flowered, longer than the leaf; flowers large ; 
lower segments of the calyx acuminate, as long as or longer than the tube. 

"Busby places around St. Diego, California. April.— A small species, near- 
ly allied to the preceding, of which it may perhaps be only a variety. Leaflets 
remote, about 1-2 lines wide." Nuttall.— This species we have not seen. 

10. L. /mearr.? (Nutt. ! mss.) : "nearly glabrous; stem decumbent, slen- 
der, angled ; leaves nearly sessile; leaflets 5-6 pairs, narroAvly linear, mostly 
obtuse, apiculate, rigid ; tendrils short, simple or bifid ; stipules small, lan- 
ceolate, semisagittate, laciniate-toothed or incised below; peduncles 3-4- 
flowered, shorter than the leaves ; flowers rather large, pale purple; segments 
of the calyx triangular-subulate, shorter than the tube ; legunie attenuated at 
each end; style nearly filiform, villous all round at the summit. 

"Plains of the Platte. April. — A low decumbent species. Leaflets an 
inch or more long, and about half a line wide. Stipules with 2-5 very sharp 

Lathyrus. LEGUMINOSiE. 277 

slendtT teeth. Flowers pale, the tip of the keel deep purple. [Corolla about 
X of an inch in length, hut very narrc .v, 4 times lontfcr than the ealyx.J — 
More of a Vicia than a Lathyrus ; but in habit, «tc. this and the succeeding 
species are inseparable frtni the following species." Nvllull. 

11. /y. cii.s:<titif()li7is (Nutt. mss.) : '• somewhat pubescent, climbing ; U aflcfs 
4-6 pairs, narrowly linear, rather obtuse, apiculate, scattered, the petiole thick 
and channelled, terminating in apinnatihd tendril ; stipules linear, semisat;it- 
tate, entire; peduncles 4-6-liowered, much shorter than the leaves; seg- 
ments of the calyx short, the uppermost obtuse. 

" With the preceding, to which it is nearly allied ; but with a long weak 
scandent stem and smaller entire stipules. Flowers smaller, pale purple. 
Stigma tiattish, villous all round." NultaJI. — We have seen no specimen of 
this plant ; but we fear it is not sufficiently distinct from the preceding. In 
our specimen of L. linearis, the leatlets are more or less scattered (as is very 
common in the genus), and the stipules occasionally have only one or two 

12. L. ornatus (Nutt. ! mss.) : " erect, glabrous, often glaucous ; stem 
quadrangular ; leaflets 3-4 pairs, lanceolate-linear, rather acute, mucronate, 
rigid and strongly veined, tendril scarcely any ; stipules linear-lanceolate and 
slender, semisagittate, entire; peduncles about 4- [or 6-8-] Howercd, 
much longer than the leaves : flowers very large, purple ; segments of the 
calyx subulate, slightly unequal, rather shorter than the tube ; legume sn colh 
and flat, acuminate at each end, about 10-seeded ; style minutely pubescent 
along the upper side." — L. polymorphus, Torr. ! in ami. lye. New- York, 2. 
p. ISO, excl. syn. 

Kamassa prairies, common, A»«o//.' On the Missouri and Platte, Dr. 
James! May-June. — Scarcely a foot high, sometimes branched. "Root 
long and black", Nutt. Petioles very short, terminated with a small brittle. 
Leaflets an inch or more in length, 1-2 lines wide. Stipules almost subu- 
late, resembling the leaflets, f of an inch in lenjrth. Flowers very showy, an 
inch long (as large as those of the cultivated Sweet Pea, A?//^), the vexil- 
lum and winars broad. Calyx very smaU. The immature pods, in the spe- 
cimen of Dr. James, are about 2 inches long, and nearly half an inch wide, 
reticulated, tapering below into a distinct stipe. The seeds, according to 
Dr. James, are as large as the Common Pea. — This species and L. polymor- 
phus are (as the genera are characterized) rather species of Orobus than of 
Lathyrus : they are clearly congeners of O. varius, O. albus, and others of the 
same section ; but on the other hand they can hardly be separated with pro- 
priety from L. linearis, Nittt.. which has tendrils and more the habit of the 
present genus. The pubescence of the style in the species of Orobus we 
have examined is the same as in Lathyrus. 

13. L. fohjmorplms (Nutt.) : mostly glabrous ; stem erect, a little woody 
at the base, much branched; branches quadrangular; leaflets 2-5 pairs 
(mostly scattered), elliptical-lanceolate or linear-oblong, somewhat glaucous, 
rigid and very strongly veined ; petioles terminated by a smaU bristle ; sti- 
pules lanceolate, subfalcate, minutely semisagittate at the base; peduncles 
3-5-flowered, a little longer than the leaves ; flowers very large, purple ; seg- 
ments of the calyx lanceolate-subulate, somewhat unequal, nearly as long as 
the tube ; legumes . . . — Nutt. gen. 2. p. 97 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 371. L. 
decaphyllus, Pursh, fl. 2. p. 471, not oi Jlook. Vicia stipulacea, Pursh ! 
I. c. snppl. 2. p. 739! 

Grassy alluvial plains of the Missouri, Nuttall, Bradbury ! Dr. James! 
June. — Stems short. Leaves crowded, especially on the lower part of the 
stem ; the lowermost 2-4-foliolate, the upper 6-1 0-foliolate. Leaflets l-2i inch- 
es long, variable in width, mostly obtuse at each end, mucronate, stronirly 
longitudinally veined. Stipules very variable in size, very acute, sometimes 

278 LEGUMINOS^. Phaseolcs. 

almost subulate. Flowers about as large as the preceding species. Style 
narrowly linear, pubescent nearly the whole length of the upper surface. 
Legume large, glabrous. — Allied to the preceding, but quite distinct. 

4. ASTROPHIA. Nuti. mss. 

Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft; the 2 upper segments a little shorter. Style 
flat, linear, pubescent along the inside. Legume broadly oblong, compressed, 
few-seeded. — A perennial herbaceous silky-villous plant. Stem erect, branch- 
ing. Leaves pinnately 4-6-foliolate ; the petiole terminated by an abortive 
leaflet. Peduncles axillary, few-flowered, 

A. Uttni-alis (Nutt. ! mss.) 

"Sand hills near the estuary of the Oregon. — Roots slender, horizontal. 
Plant thickly clothed with a soft silky gray pubescence, branching from the 
base, with numerous infertile axillary branchlets. Stipules more than twice 
the size of the leaflets, oblong, inequilateral and somewhat produced at the 
base on one side, but scarcely semihastate. Leaves small. Leaflets 2-3 
pairs, Unear-spatulate, about half an inch long and li line wide ; the termi- 
nal leaflet scarcely one-fourth the size of the others (appearing like a slight 
expansion of the apex of the petiole). On some of the branches the lowest 
leaves are 3-cleft, instead of pinnate. Racemes pedunculate, about 5-flower- 
ed. Perfect flowers not seen. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, acute, 
about as long as the tube. Ovary S-10-ovuled. Legume about li inch long 
and half an inch wide, villous, with 2-3 perfect seeds. Seeds globose, brown, 
with a linear semicircular hilum. — The plant has somewhat the habit of 
Orobus, but the pod is flat and broad." NuttalL 

Tribe II. PHASEOLE^. Bro7in ; Benth. 

Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens diadelphous (9 & 1), or rarely 
somewhat rnonadelphous. Disk usually a membranous sheath sur- 
rounding the base of the ovary. Legume continuous, never separat- 
ing into joints, but often torose and with cellular partitions between 
the seeds, dehiscent. Seeds usually reniform, convex or compressed. 
Radicle incurved. — Twining (sometimes erect or prostrate) herbace- 
ous or shrubby plants. Leaves usually pinnately trifoliolate (rarely 
reduced to a single leaflet), sometimes unequally pinnate, stipellate. 
Inflorescence axillary, seldom terminal, racemose or somewhat pani- 

Subtribe 1. Euphaseoleje, Benth, — Ovary with several ovules. Inflo- 
rescence racemose with the pedicels usually aggregated on alternate knobs. 
Vexillum usually biappendiculate at the base. Style often indurated above 
the middle. Cotyledons thick, nearly unchanged in germination, and either 
rising out of the ground or remaining beneath the surface. 

1. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate. 

5. PHASEOLUS. Linn. ; DC. proclr. 2. p. 390 ; Benth. Leg. geii. p. 73. 

Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed or 5-cleft ; the 2 upper teeth often more or 
less united. Keel with the stamens and style spirally twisted or circinate. 


Legume linear or falcate, more or less compressed, or somewhat terete, many- 
seeded. Hilum small, oval-oblong, naked, or rarely with a small membran- 
aceous caruncle. — Herbaceous or suCfrutescent, twining or trailing plants. 
Leaflets manifestly stipellate. Pedicels usually in pairs. — Kidnf.y-Bean. 

§ 1. Slipnles not produced at the base: teeth of the cahj.r broad, mvrh 
shorter than the tube: legume compressed, broad and Jalcate. — Dhk- 

y^l. P. perennis (Walt.): perennial; leaflets ovate, acuminate, palmately 
3-veined; racemes solitary or somewhat clustered, simple or a little branch- 
ed, longer than the leaves; legumes pendulous. — ]l'alt. Car. p. 182; Pirrsh, 
fi. 2. p. 469; Darliufft. ft. Cest. p. 429. P. perennis & macrostachyus, Ell.! 
in jour. acad. Philad. 1. p. 384 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 391. P. paniculatus, 
Mich.T.! Jl. 2. p. 60. Dolichos polystachyos, Linn. ; U'iUd. .fp. 3. p. 1049. 
Rocky woods and borders of swamps, Canada ! to Florida ! and west to 
Louisiana ! July-Aug. — Stem 4-10 feet long, pubescent, climbing over 
small shrubs or trailing on the ground. Leaflets 2-4 inches in h-ngth. and 
often as broad as long ; the terminal one usually subcordate ; the lateral ones 
inequilateral, pubescent beneath. Stipules small, lanceolate. Racemes 4- 
12 inches long, slender, loosely flowered : pedicels 2-4 lines long, with 3 mi- 
nute hairy bracts at the base. Calyx somewhat bilabiate ; teeth broad and very 
short, the upper ones rounded. Corolla purple. Legume li-2j inches long 
and 4-5 lines wide, somewhat tumid, strongly falcate. Seeds oblong-reni- 
form, dark purple. — Elliott considered the Northern plant as distinct from the 
Southern one ; but we find no constant difie-rence between them. 

2. P. sinuatus (Nuttl mss.): perennial, nearly glabrous, prostrate; leaf- 
lets reticulated, 2-3-lobed; the lobes obtuse; peduncles longer than the 
leaves, mostly solitary, simple; legumes pendulous. 

East Florida, Mr. Ware! (Nuttall) Tampa Bay, Dr. Burrows! — 
Stem 4-6 feet long. Leaflets 1-1 i inch long, somewhat coriaceous, some- 
times obtusely triangular, but usually almost equally 3-lobed. Stipules small, 
lanceolate. Racemes 6-8 inches long ; the flowers rather distant and chief- 
ly produced on the upper portion of the peduncle. Flowers and legume as 
in the preceding species, from which it is at once distinguished by its lobed 
and much smaller leaves; but it is possibly a mere variety of that plant. 

§ 2. Stipules adnate to the petiole, produced and free at the base : lower 
tooth of the calyx- as long or longer than the tube: legume linear ^ 
straight, somewhat terete. — Strophostyles, Elliott. 

'f' 3. P. diversifolius (Pers.) : annual; stem usually prostrate; diffiise, re- 
trorsely and roughly hirsute; leaflets broadly ovate, angular or 2-3-lobed, 
sometimes entire, about the length of the petioles; stipules lanceolate; pe- 
duncles longer than the leaves ; flowers few, capitate ; lower tooth of the 
calyx narrow, longer than the tube; legume slightly pubescent, broadly lin- 
ear, nearly terete, 6-7-seeded ; seeds oblong-cylindrical, woolly. — Pers. syn. 
2. p: 296 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 394. P. trilobus. Michx. ! ft. 2. p. 60, not of 
Roth ; Pursh. Jl. 2. p. 470 ; J5?Ve/. fl. Bo.-^t.' p. 268. P. angulosus. Ort. ; 
DC. I.e.? Glycine angulosa, A/HTi/. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1056. Stropho- 
styles angulosa. Ell. sk. 2. p. 229. Dolichos ? angulosus, DC. I. c. p. 399, 
excl. syn. Walt. 

Sandy shores, particularly near the sea, Canada ! to Florida ! west to 
Louisiana ! Aug.-Oct. — Roots often bearing numerous small tubers. Stem 

280 LEGUMINOS^. Phaseolus. 

2-6-8 feet long, rather stout, usually spreading on the ground, but sometimes 
climbing. Leaflets li-2i inches long, sparsely hirsute beneath, with the 
lobes commonly distinct and rounded. Peduncles when in liower 2-4 inches 
long, in fruit 6 inches or more, 6-10-flowered. Calyx with 2 lanceolate 
lateral bracteoles ; upper tooth minutely bihd ; the lower one lanceolate-subu- 
late, one-third longer than the tube. Corolla purplish: keel with a very long 
curved beak, without a horn at the base. Legume about 3i inches long and 
I of an inch wide, black when ripe. Seeds twice as long as wide, covered 
with a gray mealy pubescence: hilum linear. 

4. P. heh'Olus (h'mn.) : perennial ; stem slender, retrorsely hirsute ; leaflets 
ovate-oblong, oblong, or oblong linear, usually entire, about the length of the 
petiole ; stipules lanceolate ; peduncles slender, 3-6 times as long as the leaves ; 
flowers few, capitate ; lower lip of the calyx lanceolate, scarcely longer than 
the tube; legume straight, terete, narrowly linear, 10-11-seeded, slightly pu- 
bescent; seeds pubescent, reniform. — Linn. sp. 1017 ; Piirsh, jl. 2. p. 470 ; 
Michx.! fl. 2. p. 60 ; DC. ■prodr. 2. p. 395. P. vexillatus, Linn. I. c.7 ; 
Pnrsh, i. c. ; DC. I. c. ?; DarUngt. fi. Cest. p. 430. P. peduncularis, 
Bart. jl. Philad. 2. p. 81. Strophostyles peduncularis. Ell. sk. 2. p. 230. 
Glycine peduncularis, Muhl. cat. p. 67. G. umbellata, Muhl. in Willd. sp. 
3.p. 105S? 

a. leaflets mostlv ovate-oblong, obtuse at the base, thin, sparingly hirsute 
beneath, glabrous above, entire, sometimes a little dilated or angular at the 

/?. leaflets elliptical-ovate, acute at the base, entire, sparingly hirsute on 
bath sides. 

y. leaflets linear-oblong, obtuse at the base, entire, somewhat coriaceous, 
sparingly hirsute on both sides. 

5. leaflets oblong-lanceolate, acute, dilated at the base, entire, strongly hir- 
sute benealh, nearly glabrous above. 

c. leaflets 3-lobed. 

a. Sandy fields, New-York ! and New Jersey ! P. y. & S. Virginia ! to 
Florida! west to Kentucky! and Louisiana! e. Georgia! and Florida! 
Aug.-Sept. — Stem 3-5 feet long, much more slender than in the preceding 
species. Leaflets very variable in size and form, but always smaller than 
in P. diversifolius. Peduncles nearly as slender as the petioles, sometimes 
8- 10 inches long, 3-5- rarely 7-flowered. Flowers much resembling those 
ol the preceding species. Beak of the keel with a tooth at the base. Le- 
gume about 2^ inches long and scarcely 2 lines wide. Seeds clothed with a 
mealy pubescence : hilum linear-oblong. — We have not seen the fruit of aU 
the forms described above : some of them possibly may not belong to this 
species. We are unable to find any difference between P. helvolus and P. 
vexillatus of North American botanists ; but the West Indian plant may be a 
distinct species. 

5. P. leiospermus : (perennial?) stem slender, retrorsely hirsute; leaflets 
linear-oblong, rather obtuse, entire, somewhat coriaceous, as long as the peti- 
oles, reticulated and hirsute on both surfaces ; stipules subulate ; peduncles 
slender, much longer than the leaves ; heads few-flowered ; teeth of the 
calyx lanceolate, as long as the tube ; legume broadly linear, compressed, 
very hirsute, about 5-seeded ; seeds oval, glabrous. 

Red River, Louisiana, Dr. Hale ! Arkansas, Dr. Leavenworth! — Stem 
twining. Leaflets li inch long, and 3-5 lines wide, somewhat dilated at the 
base, hirsute, with short rigid hairs. Peduncles usually 2-3 times as long as 
the leaves. Flowers smaller than in the two preceding species, but resembling 
them in structure. Legume scarcely more than an inch long, and 2i lines 
wide, with a very short abrupt acuraination. Seeds li line long, purple, 

Erythrina. LEGUMINOS.^. 281 

6. VIGNA. Savi ; Benth. comm. Leg. gen. p. 49. 

Calyx somewhat bilabiate; upper lip entire, Vexillum with 2 callosities 
near the base of the limb. Keel not spirally twisted. Stigma lateral. Le- 
gume terete. — Twining herbs. 

^/-l. V. glabra 7 (Savi) : glabrous [pubescent, Ell.'\ ; upper lip of the calyx 
'obtuse. DC. prodr. 2. p. 401. Donchos luteolus, Jacq. hort. Vind. 1. p. 
39, t. 90 ?; Parsh, fl. 2. p. 470; Nutt.! gru. 2. p. 112; Ell. sk.2. p. 231. 

Borders of rice-fields, (ieorgia, Pitrsh, Elliull. — (f) Stem running over 
small shrubs. Leaflets ovate, tapering to a very acute point, very slightly 
acuminate: petioles 1-2 inches long. Peduncles 2-4 inches long, with 3-5 
flowers at the summit. Lower tooth of tlie calyx longer than the others. 
Corolla pale yellow. Keel rather longer than the vexillum. Legume some- 
what compressed, a little hairy. Ell. — We have only seen the flowers of this 
plant. They are nearly as large as those of the common Pea. Vexillum 
very broad. Mr. Nuttall thinks it is distinct from the West Indian species. 

7. DOLICHOS. Linn. ; Benth. comm. Leg. gen. p. 49. 

Calyx with 2 bracteoles at the base, campanulate, more or less bilabiate ; 
the upper lip 2-cleft or 2-toothed, rarely entire ; lower lip 3-cleft or 3-toothed. 
Vexillum furnished near the base of the limb with 2-4 callosities: keel more 
or less falcate. Style not compressed: stigma terminal. Legume compressed. 
Seeds oval, more or less compressed ; hilum small, oval. — Herbaceous or 
suffrutescent usually twining plants. Pedicels 1-2 together. 

1. D. multijlorus: perennial; stem twining, pubescent ; leaves orbicular, 
with a very short acumination, when young velvety-pubescent, in the adult 
state almost glabrous ; racemes axillary, densely spiked, many-flowered, about 
as long as the petioles; upper lip of the calyx entire; lateral teeth short and 
obtuse ; lowest one longest, lanceolate; vexillum obovate, with minute linear 
callosities ; keel scarcely falcate ; legume broad, straight, much compressed, 
obtuse, 4-5-seedcd. 

AUuvial banks of the Oconee River, Georgia, Dr. Boykin ! Arkansas, 
Dr. Leavenworth ! June-July. — Stem 5-10 feet long, retrorsely pubescent 
Leaflets longer than the petioles, 2-3 (and sometimes 5-6) inches in diameter, 
often wider than long. Stipules minute, lanceolate. Racemes pedunculate, 
elongated, 20-30-flowered, many of the flowers abortive : pedicels fasciculate 
about one lino in length. Vexillum and wings purple and striated internally 
Keel nearly white. Legume 2-2J inches long, and half an inch wide, nearly 
glabrous when mature, rounded at the summit, with a short incurved point. 
Seeds separated by cellular partitions, oval, purplish brown, compressed. 

8.? ERYTHRINA. Linn, s Lam. ill. t. 608; W. ^ Am. prodr. Jnd. Or. 

1. p. 260. 

Calyx tubular or tubular-campanulate, truncate, or bilabiate, or spathaceous. 
Corolla with a very long lanceolate or obovate vexillum, without callosities at 
the base, much larger than the very small wings and keel. Stamens straight, 
nearly as long as the vexillum, diadelphous or more or less monadelphous. 
Style straight, glabrous. Legume (indehiscent ?) stipitate, elongated, torulose, 
several-seeded, compressed between the seeds, which are rather distant, 


282 ^''PS' LEGUMINOS^. Apios. 

pointed with the indurated subulate style. — Trees or shrubs, rarely herbace- 
ous plants; the stem and petioles often prickly. Leaves pinnately trifolio- 
late. Stipules small, free from the petiole : partial stipules gland-like. Ra- 
cemes elongated : pedicels usually two or three together. 

Mr. Bentham, who suspects tlie legume of Erythriiia tobe indehiscent, inclines to 
separate it, with Mucuiia and Butea, as a subtribe. We have not examined the ma- 
ture fruit. 

"7 1. E. herbacea (Linn.) : branches herbaceous, somewhat prickly, rising 
from a very thick subterranean trunk or cormus ; leaflets broadly rhomboidal 
and somewhat hastately 3-lobed, mostly glabrous; racemes terminal; calyx 
truncate, obscurely toothed or nearly entire; vexillum lanceolate, 4 or 5 times 
longer than the calyx; keel-petals (distinct) and wings scarcely exserted ; sta- 
mens monadelphous with the sheath entire at the base, thence diadelphous. — 
Walt. Car: p. ISO ; IVllld. sp. 3. p. 912 ; Bot. mag. t. 887 ; Michx. ! fl. 2. 
p. 61 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 92 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 190 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 411. Co- 
rallodendron, &c., Trew. ehret. t. 58 ; Catesb. Car. t. 49. 

In rich light soil, S. Carolina and Georgia ! to Florida ! and Louisiana. 
March-May. — Cormus irregular, often branched, frequently rising a httle 
above the surface of the ground, " yellow and esculent," Dr. Boykin. Stems 
2-4: feet high, with a short hooked prickle at the base of the petioles, which 
are also a little prickly. Racemes very long and spicate : the flowers deep 
scarlet, 2 inches long. Seeds about the size of the common bean, bright 

E. Corallodendron stands in Muhlenberg's Catalogue as a doubtful native of 
Florida. No other writer has noticed it as a native of the United States. 

2. Leaves pinnately b-lb-foliolate, exstipellate. 

9. APIOS. Boerh.; MoencJi, meth. p. 165 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 113. 

Calyx campanulate, obscurely bilabiate ; the upper lip of 2 very short round- 
ed teeth ; the lower lip with the lateral teeth nearly obsolete, the inferior one 
lanceolate-subulate and longer. Vexiflum very broad, with a longitudinal 
fold in the centre, reflexed : keel long, falcate, and with the stamens and 
style at length spirally twisted. Stigma emarginate. Legume rather terete, 
slightly falcate, many-seeded. — A perennial twining nearly glabrous herb. 
Root bearing numerous edible tubers. Leaves 5-7-foliolate, minutely stipu- 
late. Racemes axillary, sometimes compound: pedicels short, 3 or 4 together 
on approximated knobs. Calyx with 2 minute caducous bracteoles at the 
base. Flowers brownish-purple. 

J\ 'A. tuberosa (Moench, 1. c.)—Pursh, fl. 2. p. 273 ; Nutt. I c. ; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 235 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 390. Glycine Apios, Liim. ; Bot. mag. t. 1198 ; 
Michx.! Jl. 2. ;p. 83; Hook. ! jl. Bor.-Avi. 1. p. 161; Cast. 
p. 428. 

a. nearly glabrous ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate. 

P. pubescent ; leaflets lanceolate, acuminate. — A. pubescens, Nutt. mss. 

Moist shady places, Canada ! to Florida ! west to Missouri ! P. Woods of 
the Rocky Mountains, Nuttall. July. — Stem slender, scabrous* Racemes 
dense, shorter than the leaves. Flowers odorous. 

Rhynchosia. LEGUMINOSiE. 283 

10. WISTARIA. Nutt. gen. 2. p. 115 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 3S9. 

Thyrsanthus, Elliotl. 

Calyx campanulato, somewhat bilabiate ; upper lip of 2 short teeth ; lower 
of 3 triangular-lanceolate teeth. Vexillum with 2 callosities decurrent along 
the claw : keel and wings falcate. Legume nearly terete, torulose, stipitate 
many-seeded. Seeds reniform. — Twining shrubby plants. Stipules minute. 
Racemes large, axillary and terminal, with large colored deciduous bracts. 
Flowers lilac-colored, beconaing resupinate by the twisting of the pedicels 
after flowering. 

1. W. frufescena (DC.) : younger shoots pubescent, at length glabrous ; 
wings with 2 auricles ; ovary glabrous ; leatlets ovate-lanceolate, acute. 
— DC. prodr. 2. p. 390. W. speciosa, Nutt. I. c. Glycine frutescens, Linn. ; 
Michr. ! ft. 2. p. 63 ; Sims. bat. mag. t. 2103. Apios frutescens, Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 474. Thyrsanthus frutescens, Ell. sk. 2. p. 237. 

0. macrostachxja: leaflets elliptical-lanceolate ; raceme very long and 
flowers large; calyx lanuginous, glandular. — W. macrostachya, Null. mss. 

Damp rich alluvial soils, Virginia ! to Florida ! Illinois, Michaiuv ! p. Lou- 
isiana, j\f. Teinturier fide Nuttall. April.-May. — Stem long, climbing 
over bushes and small trees. Leaves 6-8 inches long ; leatlets 4-6 pairs, 1-2 
inches long, slightly pubescent. Racemes oblong, 3-6 inches long (often 
9 inches in 13.) and about two inches in diameter, before the expansion of 
the flowers appearing like aments, from the conspicuous bracts. Pedicels 
3-4 lines long. Calyx pubescent, often purplish ; upper lip very obtuse and 
obscurely 2-toothcd : teeth of the lower lip much shorter than the tube. Vex- 
illum nearly orbicular ; callosities broad and free at the apex. Wrings as 
long as the keel ; the auricle on the upper side subulate, almost as long as the 
claw ; inferior one very short. Keel-petals cohering at the summit, each 
furnished with a long subulate tooth at the base of the limb. — A highly orna- 
m«ntal plant, now common in gardens. 

Subtribe 2. Rhyncmcsie^e, Benth. — Ovary 1-2-ovuled. Inflorescence ax- 
illary: flowers solitary or racemose, with the pedicels seldom aggregated. 
Vexillum usually biappendiculate at the base. Upper portion of the style 
usually indurated. 

IL RHYNCHOSIA.* {Lour.1) DC. (parfly); IF. ^ Am. prodr. Ind. 

Or. 1. p. 238. 

Arcyphyllum, £«.— Glycine, ^TuU. ; H. B. if- K. 

Calyx ebracteolate, somewhat bilabiate, with the lower lip 3-parted, and 
the upper bifid and about equal to the lower ; or deeply and almost equally 
4-parted (rarely 5-parted) nearly to the base, the upper segment 2-cleft. Co- 
rolla deciduous : vexillum without callosities : keel falcate. Style glabrous. 

♦ From a remark in Mr. Bentliam's late memoir, De Les^uminosnrnm generihus, 
p. 49, we perceive that E. Meyer considers the orif^inal Rhynchosia of Loureiro to 
be different from the Rhvnchosia of De CandoUe ; and he has therefore applied the 
name of Copisma to the latter. But if this view be correct, the name Arcyphyllum 
of Elliott has the priority. 

284 LEGUMINOS^. Rhynchosia. 

Legume obliquely ovate or oblong, often falcate, compressed, 1-2-seeded. 
Seeds commonly more or less carunculate. — Usually twining or trailing 
perennial herbs, or rarely shrubby plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, 
sometimes reduced to a single leaflet, commonly sprinkled (especially be- 
neath) with resinous atoms. Flowers yellow, racemose, sometimes solitary. 

§ 1. Calyx (marcescent) soviewhat bilabiate, deeply A-cleft ; segments 
subulate, the lowest one longest: hilum and caruncidus small: stem 
Ucining. — Eurhyncosia, Am. 

1. R. Caribcea (DC): slightly pubescent; stipules setaceous; leaflets 
roundish-rhombic, rather acute, membranaceous, nearly glabrous above, 
dotted with resinous glands beneath ; racemes filiform, rather longer than 
the leaves, 7-15-flowered ; flowers (minute) reflexed, remote ; legumes scimi- 
tar-shaped, narrowed at the base, reflexed. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 384. R. mi- 
nima, DC. I. c. (according to Nutt.) Glycine Caribaea, '"'■ Jarq. ic. rar. t. 
146"; Kunth, syn. 4. jj. 95. G. reflexa, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 115; Ell. sk. 2. 
V- 236. 

Damp alluvial soils, S. Carolina to Florida, and west to Louisiana ! and 
Texas ! — Stem long and slender, climbing over shrubs. Leaflets longer than 
the petiole ; the terminal one very broadly and obtusely rhomboidal, about 2 
inches wide ; the lateral ones dilated and roundish on the outside. Racemes 
3-5 inches long. Calyx about half the length of the expanded corolla: upper 
lip cleft half-way down, the sinus obtuse : middle segment of the lower lip 
longest. VexiUum obovate, without gibbous projections. Legume f of an 
inch long, 2i lines wide. — The Texan plant has smaller leaves and smaller 
and less falcate legumes than our specimens from Louisiana. 

§ 2. Calyx i-parted nearly to the base, persistent and foliaceous ; seg- 
ments linear or oblong-lanceolate, ac^iminate, nearly equal, about the 
length of the corolla: legume much longer than the calyx: hilum and 
caruncidus small : stem erect, or commonly twining or trailing. — 
Arcyphyllum, Ell, 

2. i?. menispermoidea (DC.) : stem twining or prostrate, retrorsely pubes- 
cent; stipules ovate; leaflet solitary, reniform, canescent beneath; pedun- 
cles very short, 1-3-flowered; segments of the calyx lanceolate. DC. in cmn. 
sci. nat. 4. p. 102, <^ mem. Leg. t. 55, ^ prodr. 2. p. 384. 

Texas, Drummond! — Stem 2-3 feet long, slender, branching from the 
base. Leaflets 1-li inch in diameter, pubescent on both surfaces. Racemes 
usually shorter than the petioles. Calyx with the upper lip cleft one-third 
of the way down. VexiUum obovate, with a very slight callosity near the 
base of the limb. "Legume oval-lanceolate, acute, 1-2-seeded scarcely pubes- 
cent." DC. — This well-marked species was described by De CandoUe from 
specimens sent from Acapulco, Mexico. 

3. R. tomentosa : stem angular ; stipules linear-lanceolate ; leaves trifo- 
liolate, or sometimes reduced to a single leaflet; leaflets roundish or ovate; 
racemes spicate ; legumes oblong, somewhat falcate. — Glycine tomentosa, 
Linn.; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1061; Michx. ! f. 2. p. 63. 

o. monophylla : pubescent; stem erect, dwarfish (3-6 inches high) ; leaflet 
mostly solitary, orbicular or reniform, rugosely veined; racemes axillary or 
aggregated at the summit of the stem. — R. reniformis, DC. prodr. 2. p. 
384. Trifolium sunpUcifolium, Walt. Car. p. 184. Glycine tomentosa a. 


monophylla, TV/tV/j.r. / I.e. G. reniforrnis, PursJi, f. 2. p. 86. G. mono- 
phylla, A'«/^ ^'^'«. 2. p. \\5, not ol' Li trn. G. siiiiplicifolia, A7/. sk. 2. p. 
234. Arcyphyllum siinplicifoliuin, Ell. in jour. acad. Pliilad. 1. j). 371. 

p. intermedia : pubescent; stem erect; leaves all liifuliolate; leaflets 
strongly ruifose, middle one roundiNh, lateral ones ovate. 

y. volubili.s\- pubescent; stem twining (2-4 feet long); upper leaves tri- 
foliolate ; lowest ones unifoliolale; leaflets roundish or broadly ovate, some- 
times rather acute, rugosely veined ; racemes iew-flowered, shorter than the 
leaves. — R. dillormis, DC. I. c. Glycine tomentosa p. volubilis, Michx.! I.e. 
G. tomentosa, Pumh, I. e. (excl. /?.) ; Null. I. c. ; Ell. sk. I.e. 

i.erecta: velvety-pubescent; stem erect (1-2 feet high) ; leaves trifolio- 
late ; leaflets oval or oblong, nearly acute, slightly rugose ; racemes usually- 
shorter but often longer than the petioles. — R. erecta, DC. I. c. Trifolium 
erectum, M'alt. Car. p. 114. Glycine erecta. Null. I.e.; I.e. G. 
tomentosa a. erecta, Mich.v. ! I. c. ; Pursh ! I. c. 

£. ? moUissima: velvety-pubescent; (stem erect?) leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets 
oval ; racemes elongated (5-7 inches long), many-flowered, terminal. Ell. 
— Glycine mollis ^iraa, Ell. I. r. 

Dry sandy soils, a. South Carolina! to Florida ! and Alabama ! p. Tampa 
Bay, Florida, Dr. Bnrroics ! y. North Carolina! to Georgia. <5. Maryland! 
to Florida! and Louisiana ! c. Si. Mary's, Florida, Baldwin. — Leaflets, 
particularlv on the lower surface, and the calyx, sprinkled with minute yel- 
lowish resinous dots, w^hich are very distinct in the more glabrous varieties, 
but are concealed by the pubescence in 6. and probably also in c. Calyx two- 
thirds the length of the corolla ; segments lanceolate, strongly veined ; upper 
segment deeply 2-cleft. Vexiilum orbicular or broadly obovate, generally 
(particularly in y. and i.) with 2 very minute gibbous projections near the 
base of the limb. Wings a little longer than the keel. Legume about J of 
an inch long and 3 lines Avide. Seeds mottled. — From a careful examina- 
tion of an extensive series of specimens, Ave are persuaded that all the varie- 
ties described above are merely forms of one species, as indeed they were 
regarded by Michaux. The var. monophylla sometimes bears trifoliolate 
leaves, and late in the season produces long axillary branches, which are 
sometimes twining. The racemes are extremely variable in length; but we 
have never seen them so long as they are said to occur in the var. moUissima. 

4. R. latifolia (Nutt. ! mss.) : softly hirsute ; stem angular, twining, sti- 
pules subulate-lanceolate; leaves trifoliolate; leaflets somewhat rhomboidal, 
dilated, u?uallv obtuse ; racemes longer than the leaves, many-flowered ; 
flowers rather distant, on very short pedicels; segments of the calvx at length 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate ; vexiilum obovate; legume oval-oblong. 

p.l more glabrous ; leaflets smaller, orbicular-obovate, with a short abrupt 
acumination. and conspicuously mucronate; racemes about as long as the 
leaves; vexiilum orbicular, with minute gibbous projections on the inside. 

Forests of Arkansas, Nultall ! Dr. Ijeaveinrorth ! Red River, Louisi- 
ana, Dr. Hale ! — Stem 3-4 feet long, clothed with a soft pubescence. Leaf- 
lets li inch (in P. scarcely 1 inch) in diameter, canescent, minutely dotted 
beneath; the terminal one nearly orbicular; the lateral ones more or less 
rhomboidal-ovatc. Raceme 4-8 mches long, 10-14-flowered ; the flowers 
scattered, nearly half an inch long. Corolla bright yellow. Legume three- 
fourths of an inch long, and one-third of an inch wide. — Scarcely distinct 
from an unnamed West Indian species in our herbarium. 

12. PITCHERIA. Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 93. 

Calyx (marcescent) shorter than the corolla, deeply and about equally 4- 
cleft, or very slightly bilabiate ; segments subulate, the inferior one a little 

286 LEGUMINOSJi:. Pitcheria. 

longest ; the upper one bifid at the apex. Corolla deciduous : vexillum (gla- 
brous) obovate or nearly orbicular, without callosities, the margins of the 
short spurs and of the claw folded in : wings smaller than the keel-petals, 
narrowly oblong, somewhat falcate, with a subulate tooth at the base nearly 
the length of claw : the keel conspicuous, rounded, a little falcate, rather shorter 
than the veKillum. Stamens diadelphous ; the free filament articulated at 
the base. Ovary semi-oval, compressed, hairy, 2-ovuled : style filiform, the 
lower portion hairy, the upper half indurated : stigma small, subcapitate, 
glabrous. Legume oblong, tapering at the base, sessile, several times longer 
than the calyx, compressed, 1-2-seeded. Seeds roundish, somewhat carun- 
culate. — Erect and rigid perennial herbs, with numerous slender and simple 
branches. Leaves small, pinnately trifoliolate, on very short petioles : leaflets 
elliptical or oval, the lower surface copiously dotted with resinous atoms. 
Stipules minute, setaceous, deciduous. Flowers solitary or nearly so in the 
axils of the upper leaves, rather large, "yellow, the vexillum marked with 
numerous red lines" {Chapman, in lilt.), on short pedicels. 

The genus Pitcheria is very nearly allied to Rhyncbosia, rather than to Galactia, 
as will be seen from the detailed cliaracter given above. Indeed, supposing that 
genus to comprise the subgenera indicated by Arnolt, we find it nearly impossible 
to distinguish Pitcheria by any absolute character. Our plant should also be com- 
pared with several species of De Candolle's section (or genus) Eviosema, from 
Mexico and Central America, with which it appears to agree in habit, &c. The 
genus is dedicated to Dr. Z. Pitcher, late of the United States Army, whose name 
so frequently appears as a contributor on the pages of this work. 

P. galactoides (Nutt. 1. c.) 

a. petioles shorter than the lateral leaflets ; peduncles 1-3-flowered. 

p. 7 parvifolia : leaves much smaller, subsessile ; peduncles ]-flowered. 

In dry soil, Alabama, Dr. Gates ! Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman ! 
]V[ay._^Stem about 3 feet high, virgately branched ; the branches angled, 
and (as well as the calyx and veins of the leaves) minutely pubescent. 
Leaves very numerous, sprinkled beneath with rather conspicuous yellow 
dots : petioles 4-5 lines long: leaflets h-'x of an inch in length (in p. smaller), 
usually rather obovate-oval, glabrous and someAvhat reticulately veined above ; 
the terininal one a little distant from the others ; the lateral ones smaller, 
almost sessile. Flowers solitary or in pairs, on pedicels rather shorter than 
lire calyx, rising from the axils of the leaves, or in a short 2-3-flowered ra- 
ceme. Flowers 5-6 lines long: vexillum partly folded round the other petals : 
keel-petals slightly connected, very broad. Mature legumes nearly an inch 
long, and \ of an inch wide, pointed with the base of the style, straight 
Seeds mottled.— -The specimens of our var. /?., which perhaps belong to a 
distinct species, were sent from Alabama by Dr. Gates, and are not very 
complete. The leaflets (of the rameal leaves) are only 3 or 4 lines long, and 
the petioles being short in proportion, the leaves appear to be nearly sessile. — 
The flowers are stated by Nuttall to be red, and they appear reddish in dried 

Subtribe 3. Glycineje, Benth.— Ovary with several ovules. Inflores- 
cence racemose, with the pedicels often more or less aggregated on small 
alternate knobs. Bracteoles very small, often deciduous. Vexillum usually 
biappendiculate. Style not indurated. Cotyledons flat, foliaceous in germi- 
nation. — Flowers small. 

Galactia. LEGUMINOSiE. 287 

13. GALACTIA. P. Browne; 2. p. 61 ; Iie7ilh. Leg. gen. p. 62. 

Calyx 4-cleft; segments acute, of nearly equal length, the upper one broad- 
est. Vexillum incumbent, without callosities, broad: keel petals slightly 
cohering at the apex. Legume compressed, linear, many-seeded. — Twining 
or prostrate herbaceous (as are all the N. American species) or somev.liat 
shrubby plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate (in G. ? EUiottii, pinnate), rarely 
reduced to a single leaflet. Racemes axillary, usually loosely-flowered. 

- 1. G. glabella (Michx.): stem prostrate, somewhat twining, nearly gla- 
brous; leaflet? elliptical-oblong or ovate-obloiij. obtuse, emarginate, glabrous 
above, slightly hirsute beneath ; racemes a little longer than the leaves ; flow- 
ers approximated, distinctly pedicellate ; calyx nearly glabrous ; lecjumes some- 
what hinutc.—Mich.v..' fi. 2. p. 62; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 117; 2. p. 
239; DC. prodr. 2. p. 238. 

(j. leaflets ovate, rather acute. 

Scerile sandy soils, New-Jersey! to Florida! P. Florida, Dr. Chapman! 
Aug.-Sept. — Stem 2-4 feet long, spreading on the ground, or sometimes 
twining around other plants. Leaflets variable in size and form, usually about 
an inch long and half an inch broad. Racemes at first rather shorter, but at 
length somewhat longer than the leaves. Pedicels 2 lines long. Segments 
of the calyx acuminate. Corolla reddish-purple. Anthers linear-oblong. 
Legume slightly falcate, 4-6-seeded. — The New-Jersey plant is regarded by 
Nuttall as a distinct species from Elliott's. 

-f-^% G. pilosa (Nutt.) : stem twining, minutely and retrorsely hirsute ; leaf- 
lets oblong-ovate, finely hirsute on both surfaces, paler beneath ; racemes 
much longer than the leaves ; flowers on short pedicels, scattered and remote ; 
legume villous.— Aw<<. gen. 2. p. 116 ?; Ell. sk. 2. p. 238 ; DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 237. 

/?. MacrcBi : plant very slender and more glabrous; peduncles 4-6 times 
longer than the leaves ; flowers distinctly pedicellate. — G. Macrsei, Curtis! 
in Host. jour. nat. hist. 1. p. 120, excl. syn. Nutt. 

y. ansc'i'if i folia : plant very slender ; stem pubescent; leaflets linear-ob- 
long; peduncles 3-4 times longer than the leaves; flowers distinctly pedicel- 

Dry sandy soils, North Carolina ! to Florida! west to Louisiana! and Ar- 
kansas! 3. N. Carolina, Curtis! S. Middle Florida, Croom ! East Florida, 
Lieut. Alden! — Leaflets larger and more acute than in G. glabella; the ra- 
cemes much more slender, and the flowers smaUer and scattered along the 
peduncle. Anthers linear-oblong. 

■^■r- 3. G. mollis (Michx.) : stem prostrate or twining, retrorsely and softly 
' pubescent ; leaflets oval, obtuse, canescently villous and paler beneath ; ra- 
cemes much longer than the leaves; fascicles of flowern approximated 
toward the summii of the peduncle; pedicels ver^' short ; calyx and legumes 
very villous.— Mc/ij:. .' ft. 2. p. 61; Nutt. gen. 2. p. Ill 1; Ell. sk. 2. p. 
238; DC. prodr. 2. p. 237. 

Dry soils, Maryland ! to Florida! August.— Leaflets conspicuously vein- 
ed, about an inch long. Peduncles about twice as long as the leaves. Calyx 
half as long as the reddish-purple corolla. Anthers oval. Legume straight. — 
Differs from the preceding species in being more pubescent, the fascicles of 
flowers more approximated, and in the shorter pedicels. The flowers are 
scarcely more than half as large as in G. glabella. — Mr. Nuttall refers G. pi- 
osa of Elliott to this species; and G. mollis of Michaux he is inclined to re- 
gard as a distinct plant from his own of that name, which he proposes to call 
G. pallida. G. mollis, Pursh, probably includes two species. 

288 LEGUMINOSvE. Galactu. 

. ■ 4. G. Flon'dana : prostrate ; whole plant tomentose with a whitish pu- 
bescence ; leaflets oval, very obtuse ; racemes a little longer than the leaves ; 
fascicles of tlowers approximated ; pedicels half the length of the calyx ; 
legume villous. 

Sandy places about Tampa Bay, Florida, Dr. Burrows ! — Stem shorter 
than in any of the preceding species. Leaflets li inch long, obtuse at each 
end, strongly veiny. Calyx less than half the length of the corolla. Petals 
pale reddish-purple. Anthers oblong-linear. — Remarkable for the copious 
soft whitish pubescence, and also for the size of the flowers, which are larg- 
er than those of G. glabella. 

.- 5. G. canescens (Benth.) : creeping, somewhat twining, canescent; leaf- 
lets broadly ovate, retuse, slightly hirsute above, silky -pubescent beneath ; 
peduncles fasciculate, elongated, interruptedly few-flowered; calyx silky-vil- 
lous. Benth. I comm. Leg. gen. p. 62. 

Texas, Drxmimond! — Leaflets 1^ inch long, and more than an inch wide. 
Peduncles slender, some of them abortive and changed into roots. Flowers 
small, 2-3 together, often abortive, as is very frequently the case in this ge- 

6. G. spiciformis : stem nearly glabrous ; leaflets ovate-oblong; coriace- 
ous, rather acute, indistinctly veined, glabrous above, minutely hirsute be- 
neath ; racemes (or spikes) much longer than the leaves ; flowers approxi- 
mated and nearly sessile; legume slightly falcate, pubescent. 

Key West, Florida, Rev. Alva Bennett ! — Leaflets about U inch long, 
and 7-8 lines wide, finely reticulated above ; the veins on the lower surface 
much less distinct than in any of the preceding species. Peduncles 3-4 
times as long as the leaves, in pairs or solitary. Bracteoles lanceolate. 
Calyx nearly glabrous ; segments lanceolate, the lowest one acuminate. 
Corolla purphsh-red. Vexillum broadly obovate : wings shorter than the 
keel. Anthers linear-oblong. Legume li inch long, 5-6-seeded. 

7. G. brachypoda : nearly glabrous ; stem not twining ; leaflets oblong or 
linear-oblong, somewhat coriaceous, reticulated, paler beneath, obtuse or 
eraarginate ; petioles longer than the leaflets ; racemes shorter than the peti- 
oles, few- (4-6-) flowered ; calyx villous. 

Dry pine barrens, Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman! — Stem about 2 feet 
long, flexuous. Leaflets about 15 lines long, and 3-6 lines wide ; the termiii- 
al one with a partial petiole about one-fourth of an inch long : common peti- 
ole li inch or more in length. Flowers purphsh, half as large as in G. gla- 
bella. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, half as long as the corolla. 

, ' S. G. sessili flora: glabrous; stem erect, flexuous; leaflets shorter than 
• the petiole, oblong-linear, or linear, somewhat coriaceous, glaucous beneath, 
the terminal one subsessile ; racemes very short, sessile. 

Middle Florida, Dr. Chapman J Alabama, Dr. Gates .'—Stems some- 
times several from one root, about a foot high. Petioles 1-2 inches long. 
Leaflets 1-1 ^ inch long, usually about 3-4 lines wide, but sometimes much 
narrower. Racemes, or fascicles, 3-5-flowered: pedicels very short. Calyx 
brownish, hairy ; segments lanceolate, acute. Petals purplish. Vexillum 
nearly orbicular, longer than the other petals. Anthers oblong. Legume 
falcate, villous, about an inch long, 4-5-seeded. — A very distinct species, but 
allied to G. brachystachys, Benth., of Mexico. 

9. G. marginalis (Benth.): suffiuticose ; branches prostrate, somewhat 
silky-pubescent, at length glabrous ; leaves 1-foliolate ; leaflet oblong-lanceo- 
late or linear, narrowed at the base, coriaceous, glabrous, wuh a marginal 
nerve beneath ; peduncles very short, axillary, 1-3 flowered ; calyx pubes- 
cent ; segments as long as the tube. Benth. comm. Leg. gen. p. 62. 

Clftoria. LEGUMINOS^. 289 

Texas, Drummond ! — Branches somewhat ligneous, slender. Leaflets 
2-3 inches long. Flowers red, about as large as in G. glabella. Keel fal- 
cate, larger than the wings. Legume villous, 1-li inch long. Benih. 

§ Upper lip of the calyx ovate, subulate-mncronate : style short and rath- 
er thick : Icguine oblong-linear ; leaves unequally pinnate. 

9. G.? ElUoltii (Nutt.) : leaflets 3-4 pairs, elliptical-oblong, nearly gla- 
brous and lucid above, pubescent beneath; racemes longer than the leaves, 
interrupted, few-flowered.— .V«^^ gen. 2. p. 117; Ell, sk. 2. p. 240; DC, 
prodr. 2. p. 239. G. pinnata, Muhl. cat. p. 67, not of Pers. 

South Carolina, Elliott. Georgia, Le Conle ! Miss E. C. Clay I Near 
St. John's, Florida, Mr. Doitbltday ! Pensacola, Mr. F. Cozzens ! May- 
July. — Stem long and twining, slightly pubescent. Leaves 4-6 inches long: 
leaflets 1-1^ inch long, mostly retuse, finely reticulated. Stipules minute, 
subulate. Racemes usually much longer than the leaves ; the flowers 3-4 
in a fascicle, rather larger than in G. glabella. Calyx hirsute; upper seg- 
ment lanceolate, acuminate, about one-third longer than the lateral ones. 
Corolla white tin:ied with red : vexillum orbicular, with scarcely any claw. 
Wings and keel-petals equal, oblong ; the former with a subulate tooth at 
the base of the limb. Legume about 2 inches long, and 4-5 lines wide, 
villous. " Seeds 3-5, reniform, glabrous and speckled." Ell. 

Subtribe 4. ClitoriEjE, Benth. — Ovary with several ovules. Inflores- 
cence axillary : peduncles 1-2-flowered at the summit, or many-flowered, 
with the racemes often somewhat cymose-fasciculate or branching. Bracts 
(except in Amphicarpaea) and bracteoles opposite, striate, either one or the 
other often large (rarely small or wanting), Vexillum large, not appendicu- 
late at the base. — Flowers commonly large. 

IL CLITORIA. Linn, (in part) ; GcBrtn. fr. t. 149 ; Benth, conim. Leg^ 

gen. p. 50, 

Calyx tubular, 5-cleft at the summit ; the upper and lateral segments tri- 
angular-ovate, acuminate (the upper pair usually united a little higher than the 
others), the inferior segment narrower. Vexillum large, somewhat orbicular, 
emarginate or bifid, not spurred on the back : keel small, shorter than the 
wings, incurved, acute, on very long claws. Stamens monadelphous below 
the middle, the tenth filament usually free upwards. Style longitudinally 
bearded or hairy, more or less dilated at the apex. Legume stipitate, linear 
or linear-oblong, flattish, torulose, pointed with the base of the style, thicken- 
ed along the sutures ; the valves nerveless and wingless. — Mostly twininf 
perennial herbs. Leaves pinnately 3- (rarely 5-7-) foholate. Stipules some- 
what persistent, sometimes striate : partial stipules setaceous. Peduncles 
1-2- (or many-) flowered. Bracts similar to the stipules : bracteoles larger. 
Flowers very large. 

The somewhat cyme-like inflorescence in Clitoria and the allied genera is very 
frequently reduced to "2 flowers risins; from the apex of the peduncle : if the exterior 
one be suppressed, as is sometimes the case, the solitary flower of course is resupi%. 
Tiate, or stands with the keel (instead of the vexillum) looking towards the stem. 


290 LEGUMINOS^. Centrosema. 

1. C.Mariana (Linn.): glabrous; stem somewhat twining or trailing; 
leaves 3-foliolate, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate ; peduncles short, 1-3- 
flovvered; bracteoles lanceolate-subulate, much shorter than the calyx, simi- 
lar to and scarcely larger than the bracts ; legumes linear-oblong, about 4-seed- 
ed, torulose, glabrous.— Tra/^. Car. p. 186 ; WiUd. sp. 3. p. 1070; Michx. ! 
f. 2. p. 62 ; Nutt.! gen. 2. p. 18 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 240 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 234. 

Dry soils, particularly along rivers, New-Jersey ! to Florida and Alabama ! 
July-Aug.— Stem 2 feet or more in length. Leaflets variable in breadth, 
sometimes subcordate at the base. Bracteoles scarcely one-fourth the length 
of the calyx. Corolla 2 inches or a little more in length, pale blue. Stipe of 
the mature fruit about the length of the peduncle. Legume IJ inch in length. 

12. CENTROSEMA. DC. (sub Clitoria) ; Benth. conim. Leg. gen. p. 53. 

Calyx short, broadly campanulate, 5-cleft, or 4-cleft by the union of the 
two upper segments; the lower segment longest. Vexillum large, broadly 
orbicular, with a short obtuse spur behind : keel semi-orbicular, scarcely short- 
er than the wings, incurved, obtuse, on very short claws. Stamens mona- 
ddphous or partly diadelphous. Style glabrous, dilated at the apex: stigma 
barhulate. Legume nearly sessile, linear, compressed, subulate with the 
style, somewhat thickened along the sutures ; the valves marked on each 
side with a longitudinal nerve next the margin. — Twining herbs or shrubby 
plants. Leaves pinnately 3- (rarely 5-) foliolate. Stipules often persistent, 
acuminate or subulate, stri