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Full text of "The Flora of Perthshire"

FIS\88 

WHITE, F.B.W. 
The Flora of Perthsh 
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OUfiHORN MEMORIAL LIBRARY. 




The Flora of Perthshire 



As for man, his days are as grass : as a flower of the field, 
so he flourisheth. 

For the wind passeth overi'f, and it is gone ; and the place 
thereof shall know it no more. 

But the mercy of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting 
upon them that fear Him. — Psalm ciii. 15-17- 



FIS\88 

WHITE, F.B.W. 
The Flora of Perthsh 
CPAQ1 aa 



CLEOHQfttf fct£Wpim LIBRARY. 

THE 



FLORA OF PERTHSHIRE 




JA^ 



FRANCIS BUCHANAN W. WHITE 

M.D.j F.L.S., F.E.S. 

EDITED 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, 

A LIST OF HIS SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS, 

AND AN APPENDIX, BY 

JAMES W. H. TRAIL, A.M., M.D., F.R.S. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY, ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY 



WITH PORTRAIT AND MAP 



Printed tot tfje 

PERTHSHIRE SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCE 

BY WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS 

EDINBURGH : MDCCCXCVIII 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION BY EDITOR . . , . vii 
ON THE ORIGIN OF THE FLORA OF PERTHSHIRE, 

BY DR F. BUCHANAN WHITE ... XV 

MEMOIR OF DR F. BUCHANAN WHITE . . xxviii 
LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES BY DR F. BUCHANAN 

WHITE ...... xliii 

THE FLORA OF PERTHSHIRE — 

DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTY ... I 

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY . 1 8 

METHOD EMPLOYED TO SHOW DISTRIBUTION 35 
EARLIER RECORDS . . . .41 

LIST OF PLANTS .... 45 

APPENDIX ...... 3§3 

INDEX ....... 391 



INTRODUCTION. 



After the lamented death of Dr White it was 
felt that it would be a serious loss to all interested 
in the natural history of Perthshire, and especially 
to the work so well carried on by the Perthshire 
Society of Natural Science, if the ' Flora of Perth- 
shire ' (for which it was known that Dr White 
had been engaged in collecting materials for a 
number of years, and of which much of the manu- 
script had been prepared for a considerable time) 
were not published. I was asked to edit the book; 
and alike from esteem for the author, and desire 
that the result of much' labour should be made 
available to botanists, I undertook to do so. It 
was believed that the manuscript was virtually 
complete, and required little more than revision 
of the proofs ; but it was found that considerable 
gaps existed in it, the author having deferred the 
consideration of several genera until he had accumu- 
lated more full materials, and had subjected them 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

to revision, which his illness and death had not 
allowed him to make. These genera are chiefly 
Hieracium L., Thymus L., Chenopodium L., Atriplex 
L., Salix L. (compiled by Mr Barclay from Dr 
White's notes and published papers, and from 
specimens in the Perthshire Herbarium named by 
him), Poa L., Glyceria R. Br., Festuca L., Char a 
L., Nitella Ag. In some other genera individual 
species also required to be treated in a manner 
corresponding as far as possible with that em- 
ployed by the author elsewhere. Notes had been 
added from time to time on most of the sheets, 
frequently without their position being clearly 
indicated in the manuscript. Where possible 
these have been incorporated in their true places ; 
but in a considerable number of cases it appeared 
better to leave the rough notes as they stood rather 
than to possibly misrepresent the author's views. 
In the following respects changes have been 
made, in the belief that Dr White would have 
made them himself had he edited his book in 
person : — 

I. The Highlands were referred to the Silurian 
age when he first planned the division of the 
county, and gave the names he employed in the 
' Flora.' He therefore distinguished the two parts 
of several of the river-basins as " Silurian " and 
" Old Red Sandstone." The views of geologists 
have in recent years undergone a revolution in 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

respect to the age of the Highlands. Therefore, 
to avoid a misleading designation, the terms 
" Highland " and " Lowland " have been substi- 
tuted throughout for " Silurian " and " Old Red 
Sandstone" in the details of distribution. 

2. " Atholl," as the form nozv in use, has been 
substituted for "Athole." 

3. In its south-eastern portion Perthshire was 
much broken ; and Dr White included in his " Old 
Red Sandstone Forth " the whole of Clackmannan 
and part of Stirling. The readjustment of county 
boundaries in recent years has considerably changed 
the form of this portion of Perthshire. Hence the 
records in the case of a good many plants from 
" Lowland Forth " are for localities outside of 
Perthshire. So far as my information enabled 
me to do so, I have, in by far the greater part of 
the book, inclosed such records in square brackets; 
but in some cases, especially in the earlier pages, I 
may have omitted to do so. The map that accom- 
panies this volume shows the divisions adopted by 
Dr White, and it also shows the boundaries of the 
county now in use. It required readjustment more 
than once, and unfortunately there is one slight 
error in the line of division between " Lowland 
Forth " and " Lowland Earn," by which a part of 
the basin of the Devon is represented as in " Low- 
land Earn." 

Had Dr White lived to complete this work, he 



X INTRODUCTION. 

would doubtless have prefaced it with a general 
review, such as he was so well qualified to write, 
on the leading aims in its preparation, and on the 
origin of the flora of Perthshire, and its relation to 
those of the rest of Britain and of other lands ; and 
he would also have incorporated into it all the 
information within his reach. His death has pre- 
cluded what would have added so greatly to the 
interest and value of the book ; but from his Presi- 
dential Address in 1884 at the first meeting of the 
East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' Societies 
we can to some extent gather the aims, and realise 
the spirit, that animated him in the preparation of 
the ' Flora.' In that address he urges that ex- 
haustive catalogues of the animals and plants of 
each district should be prepared, and that for each 
species (of plant) the chief points of information 
(derived from local observation for 2, 3, 4, 6) that 
should be given are — 

1. The correct scientific name of the species, with 

the author's name. 

2. The horizontal range (expressed in natural 

divisions by river-basins). 

3. The vertical range. 

4. The habitat, and an indication of the com- 

monness or rarity of the species, and in 
the case of its being rare, a list of local- 
ities, with name of authority for the 
occurrence. 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

5. A statement of the distribution north, south, 

east, or west, outside of the district. If the 
range of the species in any direction is 
terminated in the district, this should be 
mentioned. 

6. Variations of the species in the district. 
Some other items may be given if desired. 

These would include — 

7. Date of first record. 

8. Local names. 

9. Local legends and local uses. 

These several headings are discussed with some 
fulness ; but it is not necessary to refer to more 
than two of them further. 

Under " vertical range " he advocates that the 
upward range of lowland species should be indi- 
cated in feet above 1000 feet, but that it is scarcely 
necessary to give it for those that do not reach an 
altitude of 1000 feet. On the other hand, the 
lowest as well as the highest limit should be re- 
corded for alpine species. 

Under " habitat and abundance " are noted the 
various classes of habitats, and the need of control- 
ling the statements as to abundance by those as to 
habitat. " Not all the animals and plants that now 
appear to be ' natives ' of this country are really 
indigenous inhabitants, but some of them have 
been introduced — accidentally or purposely — by 
the agency of man. In some cases it is easy to 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

decide whether a species is native or naturalised, 
but in others it is a matter of considerable diffi- 
culty. Moreover, there are degrees of naturalisa- 
tion — some species having been long and 
thoroughly established ; others only endeavouring 
to make good their footing, and still struggling for 
a place. It is important, therefore, that an opinion 
should be expressed as to the nativity or otherwise 
of the species, and its degree of naturalisation, if 
a naturalised one." 

(The origin of the plants of Perthshire, and their 
claims to be regarded as native or introduced, 
formed the subject of Dr White's Presidential 
Address on 12th March 1891, and is printed in the 
' Proceedings ' of the Perthshire Society, vol. i. pt. v., 
1890-91, pp. c-cvii, with an Appendix, discussing 
the claims of each species as to which doubt could 
exist. This valuable summary is reprinted entire, 
on pp. xv-xxvii of this volume.) 

Under "variations of species in the district" 
are discussed the relative importance of divisions 
below specific rank. These are taken as — 1, Sub- 
Species ; 2, Local Race, or Variety; 3, Aberration; 
4, Abnormality. He concludes this section with the 
words: " In our local catalogues we should not be 
content with simply recording the occurrence of a 
species, but should endeavour to show what relation 
in structure and colour the local individuals of that 
species bear to the species in general. Having 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

indicated this relationship, it will then remain to 
try and discover, in the case of variation's, the 
cause of such variations." 

The latter part of the address is occupied with a 
discussion, as to its distribution, of the flora of the 
East of Scotland. He takes it as falling into four 
primary groups, each with sub-groups. The four 
are — i, Maritime; 2, Lowland; 3, Indifferent; 
4, Alpine. These are considered in so far as they 
are confined to their limits by physical conditions 
or by inability to compete successfully with other 
plants in situations where these can grow with 
vigour. 

In a brief Appendix have been added some notes 
of plants referred to in ' Topographical Botany ' or 
elsewhere, but not noticed in the MS., and short 
references to information regarding the flora of 
Perthshire that has been put on record since the 
death of Dr White. This seemed preferable to 
endeavouring to incorporate it in his work. It 
has been my constant aim to adhere faithfully to 
his manuscript, altering it only where it seemed 
absolutely necessary, and only into the form that I 
believe he would himself have made use of had he 
finally revised it for the press. In some cases the 
desire not even unconsciously to misrepresent his 
views has led to the retention of notes in a form 
that he would certainly have altered. I venture to 
hope that a lenient judgment will be passed on 

b 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

shortcomings in a work issued under such melan- 
choly circumstances. 

There remains only the pleasant duty of acknow- 
ledging the kind aid given to me in my work as 
editor by Messrs W. Barclay and H. Coates in 
Perth (without whose aid the work could not have 
been done), as also to Messrs F. J. Hanbury and 
H. Groves for valuable assistance referred to under 
Hieracium and Characece. To Mr Arthur Bennett 
my thanks are also very specially due for informa- 
tion and aid most kindly given now, as on many 
other occasions. 

J. W. H. T. 






ON THE 

ORIGIN 

OF THE 

FLORA OF PERTHSHIRE. 

[Being part of a Presidential Address delivered to 
the Perthshire Society of Natural Science by Dr 
Buchanan White at the Twenty - fourth Annual 
Meeting, 12th March 1891.] 



In some of the botanical papers which have been 
communicated to the Society during the past two or 
three years, opinions have been expressed regarding 
the claims of certain of our plants to be considered 
what is called — for want of better terms — native or 
indigenous. I say for lack of better terms, since, as 
Mr Barclay has pointed out in his last interesting 
communication, if indigenous means, as it really does, 
"aboriginal" or "autochthonous," we have no indig- 
enous plants. 

The paper in question is one of the series of valu- 
able exhaustive reports on the botany of limited parts 
of our district with which the author has been enriching 
our ' Transactions,' and, as it dealt with a portion of 



xvi ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 

the county whose flora admittedly contains several 
foreign plants, the question required to be discussed. 

Consequently the whole subject of the origin of the 
British Flora had to be considered, and the theories 
regarding that origin briefly reviewed. Mr Barclay's 
paper is not before me, but I think I am not mistaken 
in assuming that what he said may be thus recapitulated, 
ist, That the last great glacial period had destroyed, or 
nearly destroyed, the flora which had pre-existed in 
Britain. 2nd, That after the close of that glacial period 
an immigration of plants took place from Central and 
North Europe. 3rd, That it is convenient to consider 
all plants indigenous or native which have not been 
introduced by the agency of man. 

Agreeing in the main with these statements, I think 
it will not be unprofitable to continue the discussion 
rather further than was possible, or at least expedient, 
in a paper which was necessarily restricted to a small 
part of Perthshire, and to pass under review all the 
species regarding whose origin there may be divergence 
of opinion. In short, I purpose devoting this address 
to a consideration of the origin of the Perthshire Flora. 
At the climax of the great Ice age the whole of the 
British Islands, except a very narrow strip of the ex- 
treme south of England, was covered by thick ice. 
This ice-sheet extended across Europe a little to the 
north of the 50th parallel of latitude as far east as the 
24th degree of longitude east of Greenwich, beyond 
which it gradually withdrew to the north. At the same 
time the alpine regions south of the great ice-sheet had 
more or less extensive local ice-coverings. 

Now, though the whole of Britain was not actually 
covered — so far as we know — by the ice-sheet, yet the 
climatic conditions of the narrow strip which remained 
uncovered must probably have been such as to exclude 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. XV11 

the idea that any plants — unless it were those of the 
most arctic nature, and even that is doubtful — were able 
to survive. Consequently the whole British flora was 
practically destroyed, and when the ice-sheet disappeared 
the country was, as it were, a bare field ready to receive 
and welcome all comers. 

It must be remembered that in South Central and 
South Europe during the climax of the Ice age the more 
tender temperate, as well as the strictly southern, plants 
could not have survived, but were driven southwards, 
and their places taken by an alpine, northern, and arctic 
flora. 

These cold and icy conditions were not to last for 
ever. The climate became warmer, and the ice retreated 
northwards or up the hills, and as it retreated the plants 
pursued, following in the order in which their ability to 
resist cold permitted. 

The fluctuations in the retreat of the ice, in the climatic 
conditions, and in the relative proportions of land and 
water, must all have exercised a powerful influence on 
the flora, but need not be considered, even if it were 
possible, in detail just now. The period with which we 
are concerned is that one in early post-glacial times 
which Professor Geikie calls the " First age of Forests." 
In this period the climate was mild and genial, and 
Britain had a land connection with continental Europe. 
All the North Sea was then dry land, which, beginning 
in the Arctic Ocean, extended far to the west of the 
present coast of Norway, had its coast-line to the north 
of the Shetlands, and stretched away southwards outside 
the west of Ireland and the south-west coast of France, 
and just reached the north of Spain. From the west of 
the Shetlands an irregular strip of land probably extended 
north-westwards, and included the Faroes and Iceland, 
and possibly even reached Greenland. In this great 



xviii ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 

land-extension were several great lakes of fresh water, 
such as the Baltic, a deep trough between Denmark and 
Norway, and a long hollow in the Irish Sea. 

It was during this land-connection that the great bulk 
of our flora reached this country, crossing over the dry 
bed of the English Channel and North Sea. There is 
no difficulty in knowing which were the plants to arrive 
first. These were the northern and alpine species, and 
the reason for their being in the vanguard is to be looked 
for in the fact of their fitness to contend with the cold 
of the regions nearest the retreating ice. But there is 
another reason for supposing that they were amongst the 
first plants to reach this country. To attain the mountain- 
ranges, where alone they now survive, they had to cross 
the lowland plains and valleys, and had these been 
clothed with their present vegetation the alpine species 
could never have reached the hills. This arises not so 
much from any inability to resist the greater heat of the 
valleys, for experiment will show that in many cases, at 
least, that is not detrimental to them, but because in the 
valleys they are choked by the greater vigour of the low- 
land plants. That the commoner constituents of our 
mountain flora overran at one time the whole country is 
shown by their present distribution and occurrence in 
localities separated from each other by lowland areas. 
But although we have thus tolerably conclusive proof 
that the alpine flora, as a whole, was at first a lowland 
flora, which was in course of time to be driven up the 
hills, when we come to consider the present distribution 
of some of the component species we are met by prob- 
lems which are not easy of solution. Putting aside the 
species which are now, at least, if they were not always, 
local or rare in this country, there are some common 
species whose distribution is difficult to explain. Why, 
for example, should several very common alpines (e.g., 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. xix 

Alchemilla alpina and Saxifraga aizoides) occur in north 
England, in a great part of Scotland, and in Ireland, and 
yet be absent from the Welsh mountains ? On the other 
hand, why should another common alpine, Epilobium 
anagallidifolium, be found in north England and Scot- 
land, and not in Wales nor Ireland ; or E. alsinefolium 
in Wales, north of England, and Scotland, and not in 
Ireland ? Possibly the explanation is that those which 
are absent from Wales, but are present in Ireland, reached 
the present British coast north-east of the latitude of 
Wales, and found a road open for them northwards but 
not southwards, and got to Ireland by way of Scotland. 
The origin and distribution of the western and south- 
western plants afford other problems. Mr Barclay has 
cited various theories regarding the species of heath 
which are confined (in these islands) to Ireland and 
the extreme south-west of England. As, however, 
there was direct land communication with the north 
of Spain, the origins of these do not present such 
difficulties as there are, for example, in the case of 
Eriocaido7i septangulare. 

Before proceeding to the proper subject of this address, 
there is one other matter which may be briefly noticed. 
From the many constituents which our alpine flora has 
in common with the Norwegian one — there being very 
few instances of a Scottish alpine plant not being also 
Scandinavian — it is not uncommonly supposed that our 
mountain plants immigrated from the north. In a sense, 
no doubt this is correct, but not if a direct immigration 
is meant. All the northern plants were driven south by 
the increasing ice-sheet, and hence the flora of the plains 
of the southern part of Mid Europe was, at the period 
of the climax of the Ice age, a mingled northern and 
alpine one. When these plants began to follow the 
retreating ice, some of the alpine species reached Britain, 



XX ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 

but did not get north to Scandinavia ; and some of the 
northern plants came to Britain, but did not go to the 
alpine regions of Mid and South Europe. In this way 
we have in Britain alpine plants which are not arctic, 
and arctic plants which are not alpine ; but all our hill 
plants, whether their original habitats were in the north 
or in the Alps, came, like the lowland flora, from the 
plains of Mid and South-Mid Europe. 

The species, both lowland and alpine, which came 
into Britain at this period of land extension constitute 
the bulk of what may be termed, for the sake of con- 
venience, the " native " flora. Whether this native flora 
continued to receive accretions after the land connec- 
tion with the Continent had been broken it is impossible 
to say, but it is not altogether improbable. Whether, 
however, that was the case or not, there is now in the 
flora a not inconsiderable number of plants the method 
of whose entrance into this country is not quite certain. 
These plants have been classified as " denizens " and 
" colonists," terms first applied to them by H. C. Watson. 
A denizen is a species which is suspected to have been 
introduced by man, but which maintains its habitat. A 
colonist is a species which occurs only in ground adapted 
by man for its growth and continuous maintenance. In 
addition to these we have "aliens," or plants which have 
presumably been introduced by human agency; " natives" 
being the species which have not been so introduced. 
But however nice these names look upon paper, their 
correct application is, as Sir J. D. Hooker remarks, ex- 
ceedingly difficult in many cases. 

Plants have various contrivances by which the area 
they inhabit is extended. The seeds of some merely 
fall to the ground, and in these the progression by that 
means must necessarily be slow. Others have tall 
stems, which, when shaken by the wind, help to scatter 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. XXI 

the seed to a greater distance. Still others have their 
seeds or seed-vessels so constructed that they may be 
carried to a considerable distance by the wind. In 
addition to these methods, there are other contrivances 
by which animals are utilised for the dispersion of seeds. 
Migrating birds may carry seeds in their stomachs or 
in hardened mud adhering to their feet. Many seed- 
vessels have hooks by which they can cling to the fur 
of mammals or to the feathers of birds. To birds a 
narrow sea presents no obstacles, and hence in that 
way the immigration of plants may still be going on, 
and species so introduced (if there are such) at the 
present day can scarcely be considered to be less native 
than if they had been brought thousands of years ago. 
The deduction to be drawn from this is, I think, that 
a plant which suddenly makes its appearance in a 
district in which it was not known to occur previously 
must not necessarily be looked upon as an alien intro- 
duced by human agency. I have been speaking of the 
British flora and Britain, but with the object ot attempt- 
ing to show that what concerned these in remote ages 
may have a more modern application to the Perthshire 
flora and to Perthshire. The various contrivances for 
the dispersion of plants, to which we have alluded above, 
clearly indicate that the extension of the area of plants 
is for the benefit of the species. Perthshire is not cut 
off by the sea from the rest of Britain, therefore the 
methods by which the British flora reached Britain, 
when there was a land connection, may have always 
been, and still be, operative as regards Perthshire in 
relation to the rest of Britain, provided that climatic 
conditions are favourable, and that there is room, Con- 
sequently, if we find in Perthshire a species, for example, 
which is of common distribution farther south in Britain, 
but whose area of occurrence is separated from Perth- 



XX11 ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 

shire by a more or less wide interval, we must not, there- 
fore, necessarily look upon it as introduced by human 
agency, directly or indirectly. Every plant must, how- 
ever, be judged on its own merits. 

Let us now examine in detail all the constituents of 
the Perthshire phanerogamous flora which are not 
unanimously admitted to be natives, excluding from 
our examination, of course, all those which are indubi- 
tably aliens. In selecting the species whose claims to 
a position as natives have to be considered, I have 
followed Watson in his various works on British plants, 
and Sir J. D. Hooker in the 'Student's Flora,' both of 
whom have given opinions on the subject. In addition, 
I have, however, included a number of species of whose 
right to be considered natives of Perthshire, Perthshire 
botanists are probably the best judges. In this way the 
list that I have compiled embraces no less than 143 
species, which may be divided into the following classes 
or groups: (1) casual aliens; (2) naturalised aliens; 
(3) probably introduced ; (4) roadside and hedge-bank 
plants; (5) colonists ; (6) probably natives ; (7) certainly 
natives. 

1. Casual Aliens (7 Species). 

By "alien," in this and the following group, is meant 
a species which is an alien (i.e., certainly or presumably 
introduced by the agency of man) in Perthshire, but not 
necessarily in Britain, since some of them are admittedly 
native in England. If all the aliens of our flora had 
been enumerated, a very long list might have been 
drawn up; as it is, those only are included regarding 
whose position there has been some uncertainty. A 
casual alien is a plant which only occurs sporadically, or 
is at the best a garden outcast which barely maintains 
its position. A ? after the name signifies that it is with 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 



some doubt that the species has been placed in this 
group. [More details regarding the species in this and 
the following groups are given in the body of this work.] 



Eerberis vulgaris. 
Brassica alba ? 
Malva sylvestris. 
Melilotus altissima. 



Anthemis Cotula. 
Cichorium Inlybus. 
Arnoseris pusilla. 



2. Naturalised Aliens (14 Species). 



Naturalised aliens are species which not only main- 
tain their position, but spread, some of them to a 
Some of the plants in the list 
Britain, but have been included 
been expressed as regards their 



considerable extent, 
are not natives of 
because doubt has 
naturalisation even. 



Chelidonium majus. 
Cheiranthus Cheiri. 
Hesperis matronalis. 
Geranium pyrenaicum. 
Carum Carui. 
Sambucus Ebulus. 
Chrysanthemum Parthenium. 



Senecio viscosus. 

Carduus nutans. 

Lactuca muralis. 

Chenopodium Bonus- Henricus. 

Salix alba ? 

Arum maculatum. 

Lemna trisulca. 



3. Probably Introduced (19 Species). 

Regarding the intentional or accidental introduction 
into Perthshire, if not into Britain, at a remote period, 
of several of the species in this group there can be no 
doubt. As regards others there is more uncertainty, 
and possibly they ought to be placed in a higher group. 
Still, from the circumstances under which they occur, 
their proper position seems to be here. 



Barbarea vulgaris. 
Arabis perfoliata. 
Sedum Telephium. 
Conium maculatum. 



/Egopodium Podagraria. 
Myrrhis Odorata. 
Anthriscus vulgaris. 
Artemisia vulgaris. 



XXIV ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 



Symphytum tuberosum. 
Mentha sylvestris. 
Urtica urens. 

ii dioica. 
Allium Scorodoprasum. 

ii carinatum. 



Bromus sterilis. 

n racemosus. 
Trisetum flavescens. 
Poa compressa. 
Lolium perenne. 



4. Roadside and Hedge-bank Plants (6 Species). 

There are a few species which are so restricted in 
their distribution to roadsides and hedge-banks that it 
is impossible to avoid the conclusion that they are now, 
at least, dependent on the operations of man for their 
existence as constituents of the flora. They can scarcely 
be classed as colonists, since they are not, in a strict 
sense, plants of cultivated ground. More likely they 
are old introductions, but neither is this certain. It 
is possible, though perhaps not probable, that they may 
be really natives which have been driven to the place 
where they now exist, and have adapted themselves to 
live there. Several of the colonists and some of the 
probably introduced plants are also roadside and hedge- 
bank species, but the following six are specially such : — 



Sisymbrium Alliaria. 
n officinale. 

Lychnis alba. 



Chrerophyllum temulum. 
Caucalis Anthriscus. 
Lamium album. 



5. Colonists (49 Species). 

Watson defines a "colonist" as a species "found only 
in ground adapted by man for its growth and continuous 
maintenance." Now, whilst there are a considerable 
number of plants which occur only in cultivated ground, 
there are others which, although most common in such 
ground, are not altogether restricted to it. Those which 
are confined to cultivated ground have their nature well 
expressed by the term " weeds of cultivation." While 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 



some of them have been certainly introduced with the 
seeds of cultivated plants, it is not impossible that 
others have existed from the time when the surface of 
the country was less clothed with vegetation, and have 
been driven to the cultivated land because they find 
there the conditions necessary for their growth. Some 
other species have been included in the list of colonists 
because, though they are not restricted to cultivated 
ground, they are much more abundant there than else- 
where. They might with equal propriety, perhaps, have 
been included in the list of natives (just as some of the 
natives might have been classed as colonists), but for the 
doubt as to whether they had spread to the wild spots 
from the cultivated ground, or vice versa. 



Ranunculus Sardous. 
ii arvensis. 

Papaver dubium. 

n Rhceas. 

ii Argemone. 
Fumaria pallidiflora. 

n Borcei. 

ii confusa. 

ii officinalis. 

ii densiflora. 
Brassica campestris. 

n Sinapis.' 
Capsella Bursa-Pastoris. 
Raphanus Raphanistrum. 
Viola arvensis. 
Spergula arvensis. 
Scandix Pecten-Veneris. 
^Ethusa Cynapium. 
Sherardia arvensis. 
Valerianella dentata. 
Anthemis arvensis. 
Matricaria inodora. 
Chrysanthemum segetum. 
Senecio vulgaris. 
Centaurea Cyanus. 



Crepis virens. : 
Sonchus arvensis. 

ii asper. 

it oleraceus. 
Anagallis arvensis. 
Lithospermum arvense. 
Veronica persica. 

it agrestis. 

ii polita. 

ii hedercefolia. 
Anchusa arvensis. 
Stachys arvensis. 
Galeopsis Ladanum. 

ii Tetrahit. 

n speciosa. 
Lamium purpureum. 

ii intermedium. 

ii amplexicaule. 
Chenopodium album. 
Atriplex patula. 
Polygonum Convolvulus. 
Euphorbia Helioscopia. 

it Peplus. 

ii exigua. 



XXVI 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 



6. Probably Native (20 Species). 

There are certain plants about which it is very difficult 
to form an opinion, since so much can be said both for 
and against their being natives. A not inconsiderable 
number of them are undoubtedly introductions in some 
of the places in which they occur — a fact which makes it 
all the more difficult to decide whether they are really, 
as they seem to be, indigenous in their other stations. 
Under these circumstances, it has been thought exped- 
ient to place them in a group by themselves. 



Lepidium campestre. 
Malva moschata. 
Rhamnus Frangula. 
Pranus Avium. 
Rosa rubiginosa. 
Pyrus Aria. 
Ribes rubrum. 
Daucus Carota. 
Sambucus nigra. 
Dipsacus sylvestris. 



Tanacetum vulgare. 
Lapsana communis. 
Symphytum officinale. 
Lithospermum officinale. 
Verbascum Thapsus. 
Linaria vulgaris. 
Calamintha Acinos. 
Salix triandra. 
Typha latifolia. 
Butomus umbellatus. 



7. Natives (28 Species). 

To a Perthshire botanist it may seem unnecessary to 
have included in this group the names of certain species, 
since to him there has never been any doubt as to their 
being really indigenous. But since doubt has been 
cast upon them, they had to be mentioned. Some other 
plants have been added because they cannot be classed 
as natives in all their stations. A few others might 
have been placed in the previous group but for the fact 
that the evidence in favour of their being native seems 
to preponderate. 



ORIGIN OF PERTHSHIRE FLORA. 



Reseda lutea. 

n Luteola. 
Viola tricolor. 
Lathyrus niger. 
Spircea Filipendula. 
Potentilla anserina. 
Alchemilla arvensis. 
Pyrus acerba. 
Cratcegus Oxyacantha. 
Lythrum Salicaria. 
Epilobium angustifolium. 
Valerianella olitoria. 
Bidens tripartita. 
Lactuca virosa. 



Tragopogon pratensis. 
Campanula glomerata. 
Fraxinus excelsior. 
Echium vulgare. 
Cynoglossum montanuin. 
Polygonum Bistorta. 

n lapathifolium. 

ii Persicaria. 

ii aviculare. 

Rumex Hydrolapathum. 
Salix fragilis. 

Polygonatum verticillatum. 
Convallaria maialis. 
Allium oleraceum. 



In conclusion, I may say that I do not expect, nor 
indeed wish, that our local botanists should at once 
agree with all that I have suggested. It is not without 
hesitation that some of the species have been allocated 
to the groups in which I have placed them, since a good 
deal of evidence can be brought forward in favour of 
their being relegated to other groups. As, however, 
it is desirable that some arrangement of the species 
should be attempted, the scheme I have now laid before 
you may serve as a basis for a more thorough discussion 
of the position of our doubtfully native plants. 



MEMOIR 

OF THE LATE 

FRANCIS BUCHANAN W. WHITE, 
M.D., F.L.S., F.E.S. 



Francis Buchanan White White was the eldest son 
of Dr Francis I. White, a well-known physician in Perth 
during many years. He was born on 20th March 
1842 in the " Fair City" of Perth, for which throughout 
his life he manifested a true and deep love, and in which 
his memory will be held in honour for his untiring and 
earnest efforts to extend among his compatriots an inter- 
est in the natural history of their beautiful county. 

He was educated in Perth, for a time at the school in 
connection with St Ninian's Cathedral, and afterwards 
by a private tutor. His love of natural history soon 
began to show itself. While at school he collected the 
butterflies and moths of the neighbourhood of Perth ; 
and ' The Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer ' contains 
a good many short contributions by him between the 
dates 5th May 1857 and 6th July 1859. The earliest of 
these bears the title of " A new Bait for Moths." From 
the first these records rest on his own work in the field ; 



MEMOIR. xxix 

and in this they foreshadow the nature of the work to 
which he devoted so much of his life. 

In i860 he entered on the study of medicine in the 
University of Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 
1S64, receiving the degree with commendation for his 
thesis " On the Relations, Analogies, and Similitudes of 
Insects and Plants." This appears to have been his 
first paper that dealt with plants ; but they had shared 
his interest with the Lepidoptera in his rambles in Perth- 
shire before he went to Edinburgh. He also became 
a licentiate of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and 
Surgeons of Edinburgh. Returning to Perth, he spent 
the next two years there. 

In 1866 he married Margaret Juliet, youngest daughter 
of Thomas Corrie of Steilston, in Dumfriesshire. Nearly 
a year was spent by Dr and Mrs White on the continent 
of Europe, most of it in Switzerland and Italy, with 
briefer visits to France, Savoy, and Germany. During 
his stay abroad he found much to interest him in the 
natural history of the districts visited, the result of his 
studies being in part given in papers entitled " Lepi- 
doptera observed during an Excursion in Italy and 
Switzerland " (Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, iv., 
1867-68, pp. 57-60), and "The Botany of the ' Jardin ' of 
Mont Blanc" (Transactions of Edinburgh Botanical 
Society, ix., 1868, pp. 140-142). 

Returning to Scotland in 1867, he made Perth his 
home ; but for some years he spent several months each 
summer in some locality commended to him by its 
probable interest as a centre for scientific investigations 
into the fauna and flora of Scotland. In this way he 
visited in 1867 Rannoch, in 1868 Achilty in Ross-shire, 
in 1869 Strathglass in Inverness-shire, in 1870 Colvend 
on the Solway Firth, in 187 1 Braemar, from the spring 
of 1872 to the spring of 1873 Birnam near Dunkeld, in 

c 



XXX MEMOIR. 

1873 Braemar again, and in 1875 he again spent a 
summer in Rannoch. Neither requiring nor caring to 
practise his profession as a medical man, he devoted 
himself very heartily to the practical study of the natural 
history of Scotland, and to the advancement of whatever 
could spread more widely an intelligent appreciation of 
its value in education and extend a love for it in the 
country. With these aims he sought to acquire a 
personal familiarity with the fauna and flora of the 
districts visited by him, in so far as such knowledge 
could be gained in the time spent in each; and few, 
if any, naturalists have been more thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the natural history of Scotland. Pos- 
sessed of great strength and powers of endurance, he 
was accustomed to spend much of each summer in 
excursions, during which he observed with unwearied 
interest animals and plants in their natural environ- 
ments. These he could the more fully appreciate from 
possessing a wide sympathy with the study of physio- 
graphy in its varied aspects. To the knowledge thus 
acquired he added the training in minute and accurate 
observation that is gained by the systematic study of 
special groups of both animals and plants. He was thus 
in sympathy with, and combined in himself, what are 
too often regarded as almost antagonistic types of 
naturalist — the biologist and the systematise 

He was always most willing to place his stores of in- 
formation at the service of any one of kindred tastes, 
and those who enjoyed the pleasure of a ramble in his 
company could not but feel how keen and accurate he 
was as an observer, and how true and reverent was his 
love of nature. Most of all did he delight to take part 
in the investigation of his native county; and it may be 
said with almost literal truth that no part of Perthshire, 
highland or lowland, had been left unvisited by him, 



MEMOIR. xxxi 

while most parts had been explored by him again and 
again. 

In this work he both gave and received much aid from 
kindred spirits, along with whom he founded and carried 
on the Society now so widely and honourably known 
as the " Perthshire Society of Natural Science." The 
Society originated in a suggestion, half in jest, of the 
late Mr Dawson; and it took form in a meeting on 28th 
February 1867 in a room of King James the Sixth's Golf 
Club, at which fourteen were present, Dr White being 
one. At this meeting the name of the future society 
was chosen, rules were framed, and office-bearers were 
elected, Dr White becoming the first president. Of the 
fourteen original members few (only three) still survive. 

On March 7, 1867, Dr White, as first president, de- 
livered an inaugural address, which was printed and 
published by the Society. In it he sketched out what 
should be the aims of the new society, urging that the 
systematic study of the Natural History of Perthshire 
ought always to be recognised as a leading object, and 
ought to be furthered in every way. The value of such 
work as a contribution towards the solution of the pro- 
blems that surround the biologist engaged in tracing the 
interrelations of the fauna and flora, both present and 
past, was emphasised. He pointed out that the con- 
figuration of its surface rendered Perthshire peculiarly 
suitable for such investigations, and suggested a sub- 
division of its area to facilitate the records of distribu- 
tion. He concluded with these words : " The Society, 
while not neglecting to form a good general typical 
collection, should more especially devote itself to the 
acquisition of as perfect a museum as possible of all the 
natural products of the county." 

During a prosperous and successful existence the 
Society has steadily adhered to, and has fully carried 



XXXU MEMOIR. 

out, the programme thus placed before it from the be- 
ginning. To this unity of aim is due the high position 
gained by it among local societies, while the Museum 
has become a model of what such a museum should be. 

Until his death Dr White took a very keen interest in 
the wellbeing of the Society ; and held the office of 
President (1867-72, 1884-92), Secretary (1872-74), and 
Editor of its ' Proceedings ' and ' Transactions ' (1874-84, 
1892-94). During these years his communications to 
the Society reached the number of one hundred. As 
will be seen in the subjoined enumeration, by far the 
most of them relate to the progress of the Society and 
of the Museum, and to the Natural History of Perthshire, 
thus carrying into effect the scheme of work advocated 
in his Inaugural Address. The extent over which the 
subjects of the communications range is very character- 
istic of the width of his sympathies and of his knowledge 
of natural science. Most of them were published in the 
' Proceedings ' and ' Transactions ' of the Society ; but of 
a good many no record seems to have been kept save 
the title in the minutes. 

In 1870 the Council of the Society authorised the 
issue of ' The Scottish Naturalist ' under his editorship, 
as the official journal of the Society. The journal from 
its commencement, however, included the whole of Scot- 
land in its scope ; and the Perthshire Society found it 
desirable, in order to carry out its more local aims, to 
resume publishing ' Proceedings ' and ' Transactions ' in 
1880. In this latter publication Dr White took a lead- 
ing part, while he edited ' The Scottish Naturalist ' to 
the close of 1882, when he resigned the editorship, and 
was succeeded in it by the writer until the end of 1890, 
when Mr W. Eagle Clarke assumed the editorship, ex- 
cept for botanical contributions. In 1892 'The Scottish 
Naturalist ' was merged in ' The Annals of Scottish Nat- 



MEMOIR. xxxiii 

ural History,' under the editorship of Mr Harvie-Brown, 
Mr Eagle Clarke, and the writer. It may thus be said 
that the journal founded by Dr White in 1871 still 
survives, and has fulfilled in considerable measure his 
object in founding it — to further an interest in and 
acquaintance with the natural history of Scotland. 

In 1S71 was published the commencement of what 
was intended to be a series of monographs of the 
animals of Perthshire. This was a small quarto by Dr 
White, entitled 'Fauna Perthensis — Lepidoptera,' which 
at once took rank as a valuable contribution to our 
knowledge of the local distribution of the Lepidoptera 
of Scotland. This particular form of publication was 
not gone on with ; but the 'Proceedings' and 'Trans- 
actions ' show well that the elucidation of the flora and 
fauna of the county went on actively, and that Dr White 
laboured in the work unceasingly. His own love of the 
open air, and his familiarity with all parts of Perthshire, 
and with its natural history, made him one of the most 
regular members of the excursions undertaken every 
summer by the Society. Of these he was often the 
leader ; and he never appeared to more advantage than 
when out for a long day's ramble by some river-side, 
or climbing some mountain-slope, or exploring some 
distant corrie. Untiring and keen-eyed, very little of 
the slightest interest escaped his attention. Nor could 
the members of the party on such occasions have had 
a more courteous guide, or one more able and willing 
to interest them in that which they came to seek. 
Probably he himself felt the keenest enjoyment in moun- 
tain excursions ; and at least one such excursion was 
made each year by the Perthshire Mountain Club (an 
offshoot of the Society of Natural Science) to the sum- 
mit of one of the higher mountains of the county. A 
peculiar love for alpine plants added to his love for 



XXXIV MEMOIR. 

the mountains, and he selected as the emblem of the 
Mountain Club the smallest of our British willows — 
the characteristically alpine Salix herbacea. From his 
mountain-excursions he brought home many a treasure 
to enrich the rockery in his garden on the slope of 
Kinnoull Hill, overlooking Perth. He usually contrib- 
uted each year to the ' Proceedings ' a report on the 
excursions undertaken by the Society during the season, 
as well as by himself with a few other kindred spirits. 
These reports were always valuable ; and were received 
with much interest, alike as vividly recalling the incidents 
of the excursions, and as always adding to previous 
knowledge of the natural history of the county. 

Dr White was one of the originators of the Crypto- 
gamic Society of Scotland. He was its first Secretary, 
and was present at the first annual meeting in Aberdeen 
in 1874; and he also took a leading part in the meeting 
and show held at Perth in October 1875. After a time 
other studies left him but little leisure to devote to crypto- 
gamic plants. 

The desire to secure co-operation among the various 
Natural History Societies of the East of Scotland led 
him to strive to accomplish this aim. In 1884 it was 
determined to form the East of Scotland Union of 
Naturalists' Societies. The first meeting was held at 
Dundee on 6th June 1884, under his presidency. He 
delivered an inaugural address on what ought to be the 
work and aims of the societies composing the Union, 
with especial reference to the value of united action in 
helping to accomplish these; and he also contributed 
preliminary Reports on several groups of animals and 
plants in the East of Scotland. The address gave an 
admirable statement of the work that can be done by 
local societies in extending the knowledge of the natural 
history of a country. One can trace in it the ex- 



MEMOIR. xxxv 

perience gained during the seventeen previous years of 
his close connection with the Perthshire Society, and 
can recognise the aims which, consistently adhered to, 
have rendered that Society so successful alike in its 
publications and in its Museum. The leading aims 
that guided so much of his own work are no less evident 
in it, as well as the wide interests that made him far 
more a naturalist of the old type, like Gilbert White 
of Selborne, than of the modern school, — too apt to 
specialise in some narrow line, with no knowledge of, 
and little sympathy for, the work of others engaged in 
closely allied pursuits, or even in the same field of study, 
but approached from a different side. From such nar- 
rowness he was absolutely free, recognising that science 
requires advance along many lines each helpful to the 
others, and the co-operation of many labourers, no one 
of whom can affect to despise the work of others. From 
the vagueness of thought and inaccuracy of statement 
of some popular writers on natural history he was kept 
free alike by his knowledge, resting on personal research 
in the field, and by his systematic study of certain 
groups of both animals and plants. Thus enabled by 
personal experience to appreciate the importance of 
minute observation, and to weigh systematic characters 
in various types in respect of their relative importance, 
while able to recognise the wider relations that unite 
each object to its environment, he was fitted for, and 
did, work of a kind that few can do, and whose influence 
will long be felt, even where it cannot be directly traced. 
His published work as a zoologist began, as already 
stated, with notes on Lepidoptera before he went to the 
University of Edinburgh ; and for some years he con- 
tinued to devote much attention to this group. Though 
other subjects afterwards limited greatly the time he 
could afford to it, almost the last note he wrote for 



XXXVI MEMOIR. 

publication ('Ann. S.N.H.,' 1892, p. 271) was on the 
occurrence of a moth (Larentia flavicinctata), usually 
confined to high altitudes, in his rock-garden at Annat 
Lodge. His longer papers on Lepidoptera include such 
varied subjects as Distribution, Variation and its prob- 
able causes, and Structure in its application to systematic 
characters. In these, and also in his numerous notes 
on the Lepidoptera of the various districts of Scotland 
visited by him, much accurate and valuable information 
is contained. Other articles of not less value deal with 
the distribution and habits of Scottish insects of other 
groups, and a few relate to the land and fresh-water mol- 
luscs, and to the vertebrates of Scotland. 

A note on Jassus cruentatus (' E.M.M.,' vi., 1869-70, 
p. 138) is the earliest indication of an interest in the 
Hemiptera that grew stronger as years passed, until the 
Hemiptera became his favourite order of insects, and he 
sought to obtain them from all parts of the world. As 
maybe seen in the list, his papers on them relate to those 
of New Zealand, St Helena (with speculations on the 
origin of the local species), the Hawaian Islands, the 
Amazon valley, and Nicaragua, with an exhaustive 
account, in the ' Challenger Reports,' of the Pelagic 
Hemiptera collected by H.M.S. Challenger. 

His work as a botanist is marked by the same width, 
care, and accuracy as characterise his zoological work. 
His papers on botanical subjects became more numerous 
and longer as the years passed after he had taken in 
hand the preparation of a flora of Perthshire. His 
naturally keen powers of observation and of discrimina- 
tion were aided by a careful study of the leading floras 
of the European Continent, with a view to determine 
more accurately than had yet been done the relations 
of the flora of Scotland to the Continental floras. He 
was thus able to detect species and varieties not previ- 



MEMOIR. xxxvn 

ously recognised in Scotland. During his excursions it 
was his constant aim to extend his knowledge of the 
local distribution, altitudes, and life - histories of the 
plants of Perthshire, and to compare their relations to 
environments within the county with those that existed 
elsewhere. His desire to secure thoroughness and 
accuracy caused him to defer publication from year to 
year while he investigated some critical genus, or sought 
to render the record of distribution more full by visits 
to the less explored parts of the county. The greater 
part of the proposed book was in manuscript for a 
number of years, but almost all of it bears many addi- 
tions and alterations, as fuller information was gained. 
As regards some of the critical genera, there is either a 
blank in the manuscript or the notes are only jottings. 
These had been reserved for treatment after he had 
obtained fuller information, and had investigated them 
thoroughly — a work which his death prevented his com- 
pleting. One of his favourite studies among flowering- 
plants was the difficult genus Salix. This he investi- 
gated with unwearied patience in the living plants and 
in the works of systematists; and he published the 
results of his labours in a paper, entitled " A Revision 
of the British Willows," laid before the Linnean Society 
in June 1889, and published in 1890 in the Journal of 
that Society (vol. xxvii. pp. 333-457). They are also 
embodied in the ninth edition of the ' London Cata- 
logue of British Plants,' issued in 1895. He accepted 
the view that many of the intermediate forms are hybrids, 
and that the species hybridise most readily — even those 
that one might at first sight anticipate would scarcely 
do so. He described and gave names to a number of 
hybrids not previously recorded. His conclusions as 
to the parentage of some of the wild plants have been 
questioned by other workers in this field, especially by 



XXXV111 MEMOIR. 

the Rev. E. F. Linton, who supplied another scheme of 
the forms of British Salices to the ' London Catalogue ' 
as an " Addendum." On such differences of opinion 
only those are entitled to express their views who have 
given the same minute study to the group as both 
these botanists. Of the care and judgment manifested 
in the execution of the work there is no question, 
even though further investigation may modify his con- 
clusions in a few cases. 

Though most of his work as a botanist was done with 
a view to the publication of the ' Flora of Perthshire,' 
and though some of his published papers (such as the 
"Preliminary Lists" of the Flowering-Plants and Ferns 
and of the Fungi of Perthshire, together occupying 
about eighty pages of the ' Scottish Naturalist' in 1879- 
82) are directly in that line of research, yet others re- 
late to subjects that would not find a place in a 
local flora, or at least that are not included by him in 
his manuscript. Such are papers entitled : " On the 
Characters of the Flowers of Silene maritima and S. 
inflata ; " " Winter Fertilisation by Agency of Insects ; " 
" The Influence of Insect Agency on the Distribution 
of Plants;" "The Flora of River-Shingles;" "The 
Wild Fruits of Scotland." The subjects of two others — 
" On the Origin of the Perthshire Flora, with a discus- 
sion of all Species having doubtful claim to be Native " 
(' Proc. P.S.N.S.,' 1890-91, pp. c-cxix), and "Local 
Names and Uses of Perthshire Plants {I.e., 1889-90, pp. 
lxviii-lxxxi) — would probably have been more fully 
treated by Dr White in an introduction to the Flora, 
had he lived to complete and issue the book. 

He joined the Entomological Society of London in 
1868, and the Linnean Society in 1873; and he was a 
member of several other scientific societies both in the 
British Islands and abroad. 



MEMOIR. xxxix 

It is seldom easy to estimate fully and correctly the 
character and work of a deceased friend ; but those 
who had the pleasure of knowing Dr White personally 
or by correspondence on scientific subjects could not 
but recognise in him excellent ability, keen scientific 
discrimination, love of all branches of natural history in 
the wide sense, and a constant pleasure in communi- 
cating to others the pleasure that he himself experienced 
in the study of nature, clear views as to the best methods 
to be followed in extending a fuller appreciation of 
natural science in the general community, and in secur- 
ing public support for providing the means of instruction 
in it for all who desire to obtain such instruction, per- 
severance in the employment of the means within his 
reach, and thorough integrity and unselfish devotion to 
the advancement of the public interest through scientific 
progress. To the recognition of these qualities by his 
fellow - citizens, and more especially by those in the 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science, was largely due 
an influence that has been most stimulating to the pro- 
gress of natural history in Perthshire, — the influence 
of a mind that never forgot the grandeur and beauty of 
the world in which we live, or lost sight of these among 
petty details, and that recognised as worthy of the most 
reverent and profound study all parts of the universe, 
and every law by which it is governed. To him no part 
of natural science could be too mean or obscure for 
study, since each depends on the action of universal 
forces that unite all together in one continued creation, 
or evolution, by laws that express the wisdom, goodness, 
and power of the Creator in continued action. 

The esteem in which his work was held has been 
well shown by the Society in which he so long held an 
honoured place. At a meeting of the Perthshire Society 
of Natural Science held a few days after his death, on 



xl MEMOIR. 

13th December 1894, Mr H. Coates, the president, read 
an obituary notice, from which the following is an extract : 
" We are met to-night, as a Society, under the shadow of 
a great sorrow. Since we last met in this room, one who 
has been our leader, our counsellor, and our friend, for 
over a quarter of a century, has been taken from us. 
... I will not presume to enlarge on the work which 
he did in connection with the Perthshire Natural History 
Museum. That Museum itself is a monument which 
will tell to future generations the story of years of 
anxious thought, of patient labour, of loving care for all 
the things by which God has made this world beautiful. 
Of the wisdom and forethought with which he guided 
the affairs of the Society, all who have served on the 
council know full well. Sometimes we were inclined to 
think that he held out too rigidly for carrying it on 
strictly on the lines followed by the Metropolitan so- 
cieties, but experience has shown that in this he acted 
wisely, and the benefit has been reaped in the reputa- 
tion which our Society, especially in regard to its publi- 
cations and its Museum, has attained. At the same 
time, it must be remembered that while he held strong 
opinions of his own, and was ready to express them 
strongly too, if needful, yet he was ever ready to listen 
to the views of others, and to extend a broad-minded 
liberality towards those who differed from him. 

" The last trait of his character to which I shall refer 
was his unobtrusive but devout belief in Him who is 
the Author of Nature. While he was a thorough-going 
evolutionist, he yet knew that, after all, evolution is but 
creation under a new name. 

"In conclusion, let me say just a word regarding the 
future of our Society. Our leader has fallen, and fallen 
when we needed his aid and advice sorely. I would 
therefore ask you all very earnestly, for the sake of him 



MEMOIR. xli 

who is gone, and for the sake of the love which he bore 
to this Society, not to falter in carrying on the good 
work which he began. He did much to kindle in our 
midst a love of Nature and her works. May the more 
sordid affairs of our everyday life never quench that in- 
fluence which tends towards a higher culture and a 
fuller life." 

The President then proposed the following resolution, 
which was seconded by Mr John Stewart, and unani- 
mously agreed to : — 

" That the Society records with profound regret its 
sense of the irreparable loss which it has sustained by 
the death of Dr F. Buchanan White, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
who was one of its founders, and who during all the 
years of its existence has guided its affairs with untiring 
devotion. In the service of the Society he spared 
neither time nor labour, and his large store of scientific 
knowledge was ever at the disposal of its members. To 
his energy and skill are mainly due both the reputation 
which the Society and its Museum have acquired, and 
the popularity which the study of Natural Science has 
gained in our city and county." 

A beautiful bronze mural tablet has been placed, by 
subscription among members of the Society, in the Perth- 
shire Natural History Museum. It bears the following 
inscription : — 

En fHnnorg of 

FRANCIS BUCHANAN WHITE WHITE, 

M.D., F.L.S., F.E.S., 

FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE 

PERTHSHIRE SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCE 

(FOUNDED 7TH MARCH 1867). 

BORN 20TH MARCH 1842. DIED 3RD DECEMBER 1S94. 

The inscription has a border composed of the Daisy 
(the emblem of the Society) and of the Least Mountain 



xlii MEMOIR. 

Willow, Salix herbacea (the emblem of the Mountain 
Club), both emblems having been chosen by himself. 

He is also commemorated in his native city by a 
stained glass window in Saint Ninian's Cathedral, of 
which he was an attached adherent throughout his life. 

He did not take any prominent part in municipal 
life, though interested in all that concerned the well- 
being of the city, and especially so in the promotion of 
higher education, such as in arranging for University 
Extension lectures in Perth. 

His love of active exercise was fully gratified by his 
numerous excursions with scientific aims during those 
months suitable for such work, and in winter by curling, 
in which he took a keen interest. He was usually pres- 
ent at the meetings of the Perth and Scone Curling Club, 
of which he was skip for some time. 

Some years before his death he suffered severely from 
rheumatism ; and, though able to a considerable degree 
to throw off its effects, he was never again wholly free 
from it. He found that he could no longer undertake 
such exhausting excursions, or expose himself so freely 
to the inclemency of the weather, as he had been ac- 
customed to do. In 1894 he began to feel exertion of 
every kind burdensome, and symptoms manifested that 
the heart was affected. Despite all care, the state of his 
health continued to become worse ; and he died at his 
home, Annat Lodge in Perth, on 3rd December 1894. 
He was buried in Wellshill Cemetery, Perth. His 
funeral was attended by the Council of the Perthshire 
Society of Natural Science, and by many other friends. 

He is survived by Mrs White, by two sons, and by 
several daughters. 

J. W. H. T. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES 



DR FRANCIS BUCHANAN WHITE. 



In the following list the papers have been arranged as 
far as practicable under the several subjects, though 
it has not been possible to adhere absolutely to this 
arrangement in regard to all of them. Those of a 
more general nature have been placed first ; then those 
more closely connected with the work of the Perthshire 
Society. The Botanical papers follow ; and after them 
come the Zoological, divided under the different groups 
of animals, from the Vertebrata downwards. Under 
each division or head those papers that relate to Perth- 
shire are placed first, then those that relate to other 
localities in Scotland, beginning with the southern 
localities ; and papers on foreign examples bring up 
the rear. A few papers are added of a popular kind, 
as well as three obituaries of Scottish naturalists known 
to be by him. A reference has been given to the place 
of publication of each article, and the number of pages 
is stated as an indication of its extent. In a few cases 
a brief statement will be found regarding the nature of 
the papers. The brackets in many entries indicate words 
not in the headings of the respective articles. 



xliv LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

The following contractions have been employed in 
the names of the journals referred to: Arm.S.N.H.— 
'Annals of Scottish Natural History'; E.B.S.Tr.= 
' Edinburgh Botanical Society's Transactions ' ; E.M.M. 
= ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ' ; E7it. = ' Entom- 
ologist'; E. W.I. = 'Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer'; 
J.B. = ' Journal of Botany ' ; Pres. Addr. = ' Presidential 
Addresses to the Perthshire Society of Natural Science,' 
published in the P.P.S. = ' Proceedings of the Perthshire 
Society of Natural Science'; Tr. P. S. = 'Transactions' 
of the same Society. The designations of any other 
journals referred to are intelligible without explanation 
in the forms in which they stand in the list. The refer- 
ences are in many cases given only to the year of issue, 
as the most convenient (and sufficient) mode, but where 
it appeared desirable the volume also has been quoted. 

I have to offer my thanks to Mr H. Coates and to 
Mr Frank H. White for assistance in the compilation 
of this list. 

LIST. 

Scientific Nomenclature, S.N., 1873, PP- 104-109. 
Suggestions for the Federation of Scottish Scientific 

Societies, S.N., 1883, pp. 49-51. 
On the Work of Local Naturalists' Societies, S. TV., 1885, 

pp. 98-106. 
Proposed Combination of Natural History Societies, P.P.S., 

1884-85, pp. 200-205. 

In the "Reports" presented at the meeting of the 
E.S. Union of Naturalists' Societies held in 1884 (and 
printed for the Union in 1885) are the following com- 
munications from Dr White : — 

Presidential Inaugural Address, pp. 3-21. (On the work 
of the Union, the preparation of lists of the fauna and 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. xlv 

flora of the counties within the Union, and the dis- 
tribution, with consideration of its probable causes, of 
the flowering-plants within these counties.) 
Preliminary Reports (each about a page in length) on the 
following groups within the district : Mammaliaj In- 
secta, Arachnida, and Myriapoda; Flowering-Plants and 
Vascular Cryptogams ; Mosses and Hepaticcej Lichens. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science. 

Inaugural Address [on 7th March 1867, separately printed 
in 1867]. 

Presidential Addresses in 1869, March and November 
1885-91, and March 1892, in P.P.S. in the respective 
years, dealing with subjects specified under subject 
heads below, and also with History of the Society [up 
to 1888, and] Retrospects of Work of the Society [to 
1892 ; also with] Subjects suitable for study by the 
Society. 

Annals of P.S.N. S. from Foundation to November 1881, 
P.P.S., 1SS1, pp. 43-47- 

Excursions of P.S.N. S. [Reports of Excursions in summers 
of 1883-93, in 1883-86 and 1892 as editor of P.P.S. , 
and in 18S7-91 in Presidential Addresses. They con- 
tain many notes on Botany and some on Zoology of 
Perthshire. Contained in ' Proceedings ' of Society for 
these years.] 

Report of Excursion of Perthshire Alpine Club to the 
Breadalbane Mountains in 1886 (Pres. Addr.), P.P.S., 
1887, pp. i-viii. 

The Perthshire Natural History Museum, S.N., 1S83, pp. 
51-53; 1884, pp. 101-104, 154-157, 194, 195- 

The Present Condition of the Museum, P.P.S., 1882-83, 
pp. 83-85. 

Guide to the Arrangement of the Perthshire Natural 
History Museum [printed for the Society in 1884]. 
Do., new edition, 1889. 

On the Condition and Aims of the Museum [Pres. Addr., 
March 1885, and] Extension of the Museum, and 
d 



xlvi LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

Proposed Botanic Garden {Pres. Addr., March li 
P.P.S., 1884-85, pp. 200-205, and 1888-89, PP- xliv-xlvii. 

The Museum Collections : their value to the Naturalist as 
a means of elucidating problems in Distribution ; Dis- 
cussion of some of these problems {Pres. Addr., March 
1886), P.P.S., 1885-86, pp. 259-264. 

Some Suggestions anent Specimens for the Museum of 
P.S.N.S., P.P.S., 1 88 1, pp. 26-29. 

History of Movement to establish a Museum of Natural 
History [in Perth], P.P.S., 1881, pp. 36-39. 

The best manner of dividing Perthshire into Districts, 
P.P.S., 1870, pp. 89-92. 

[Reports of Delegates of P.S.N.S. to the Conference on 
the Federation of Naturalists' Societies in the East 
of Scotland. P.P.S., 1883-84, p. 152.] 

Reports of Delegates of P.S.N.S. to East of Scotland 
Union Meetings in 1884 {P.P.S., 1884-85, p. 182), in 
1885 {I.e., 1885-86, p. 226-228), in 1886 {I.e., 1886-87, 
p. viii). 

[The Perth Water Supply,— in Pres. Addr., Nov. 1886, 
P.P.S., 1886-87, 3rd Ser. i.] 

Botanical. 

Local Names and Uses of Perthshire Plants, P.P.S., 1889-90, 

Ixviii-lxxxi. 
On the Origin of the Perthshire Flora, with a discussion of 

all Species having doubtful claim to be Native, P.P.S., 

1890-91, pp. c-cxix. 
[Notes on the] Flora of Rannoch, E.B.S.Tr., 1868, ix. pp. 

252-257. 
[Notes of a] Botanical Excursion to the Breadalbane Moun- 
tains, Perthshire (by Col. Drummond-Hay and F. B. W.), 

S.N, 1875, pp. 18-20. 
[Notes of a] Botanical Excursion to Loch Clunie, Perthshire, 

S.N., 1876, pp. 349-353- 
Preliminary List of the Flowering - Plants and Ferns of 

Perthshire, S.N., 1881, pp. 133-141, 178-191 ; 1882, pp. 

230-240, 278-287, 326-336. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. xlvii 

[Notes on some] Perthshire Plants, S.N., 1882, p. 378. 
[Note on the] Geology and Botany of Glen Tilt, S.N., 1877, 

pp. 160-163, pi. 2. 
Glen Tilt ; its Fauna and Flora, S.N. (Flora), pp. 300-304, 

1S79, PP- 85-93- 
The Natural History of the Banks of the Tay — Flowering- 
Plants, Tr.P.S., 1892-93, ii. pp. 50-59. 
Perthshire Plants and Topographical Botany, y.B., xxii., 

1884, pp. 270-275. 
The Beatitudes of Breadalbane, Proc. East of Scotland 

U.N.S., 1893, pp. 57-61. 
A Puzzle in Topographical Botany (as to divisions of Perth- 
shire), J.B., 1889, pp. 329, 330. 
Notes from the Herbarium of P.S.N. S. Museum, S.N., 1886, 

pp. 320-326. 
A Catalogue of the Perthshire Willows in the Museum 

Herbarium, Tr.P.S., 1889-90, pp. 155-206. 
The Salices of the Woody Island [near Perth], Tr.P.S., 

1886-87, PP- 34-36. 
The Flora of River-Shingles [of the Tay], S.N., 1890, pp. 

290-299. 
(List of Plants showing White-flowered Varieties in Perth- 
shire, in Pres. Addr., note, P.P.S., 1890-91, xc.) 
(Ballast Plants near Perth, in Pres. Addr., P.P.S., 1890-91, 

xcv.) 
Rosa alpina, Deseg., found naturalised near Perth, E.B.S. Tr. 

viii.j 1886, p. 248. 
(Note on a self-sown Apple), P.P.S., 1885-86, p. 219. 
List of the Hieracia of Perthshire, Ami.S.N.H., 1892, pp. 

260-264. 
Juncus alpinus as a British Plant, S.N., 1887, pp. 182-184; 

E.B.S. Tr., xvii., 1889, pp. 313, 314. 
(Note on Sedum album spreading on Kinnoull Hill), P.P.S., 

1888-89, P- xlix. 
Schcenus ferrugineus as a Flowering-Plant new to Britain, 

S.N., 1885, p. 130 ; J.B., xxiii. pp. 219, 220 : E.B.S. Tr., 

xvi. p. 282. 
Poa palustris in Perthshire, S.N., 1889, p. 191 ; J.B., xxvii. 

p. 273 ; E.B.S. Tr., xviii., 1891, pp. 265, 266. 



xlviii LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

Remarks on Carex ustulata and on Triticum alpinum, Don, 

P.P.S., 1883-84, pp. 144, 145. 
Agropyrum Donianum, a Correction, S.N., 1890, p. 232. 
The History of Agropyrum or Triticum Donianum, E.B.S. Tr., 

xviii., 1891, pp. 260-264. 
Notes on the Season (chiefly dates of flowering at Perth), 

P.P.S., 1882, pp. 55, 56. 
Notes on Various Plants, P.P.S., 1882, pp. 71, 72. 
Seasonal Phenomena [flowering in January at Perth], P.P.S., 

1883-84, p. 140. 
The Natural History of Kinnoull Hill [Ferns, Mosses, and 

Fungi], P.P.S., 1885-86, pp. 244, 245, 250-254. 
Preliminary List of the Fungi of Perthshire, S.N., 

1879, pp. 173-182, 270-278, 320-325, 361-367 ; 1881, 

pp. 39-42. 
(Note on the Power of Plants to resist Drought), P.P.S., 

1888-89, P- xlix. 
Botanical Notes [from Fifeshire bank of Tay], S.N., 1876, 

p. 318. 
[Note on the] Botany of Loch Lindores, Fifeshire, S.N. 

1879, pp. 131, 132. 
Botanical Notes [from Braemar and Ben-y-Gloe], S.A r ., 

1873, pp. 175, 176. 
Report of Excursion [of E.S.U.N.S.] in 1886 to Braemar 

[Glen Shee, Lochnagar, and Glen Callater], S.N., 1886, 

PP- 339-341- 
The Altitudes attained by Certain Plants, S.N., 187 1, pp. 

119-123. 
Note on Altitudes, S.N., 1873, p. 3^- 
Altitude to which Luzula spicata descends, Naturalist, iv. 

p. 91. 
Review [with Critical Remarks on Scottish Plants] of 

Hooker's 'Student's Flora,' S.N., 1871, pp. 21-23; an d 

of Ed. 3, S.N., 1884, pp. 280-284. 
[Notes on the] Forms of Caltha palustris, S.N., 1887, pp. 

52-56. 
Variety of Cardamine amara, L. {lilacina, var. nova), S.N., 

1890, p. 299. 
Cerastium triviale, Link., var. alpinum, Koch, S.N., p. 128. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. xlix 

Note on a supposed new British Sagina (S. Boydii, n. sp., 

from Braemar), E.B.S.Tr., xvii., 1SS9, pp. 32-35. 
Lepigonum rupestre [in Kirkcudbrightshire], S.N., 1871, 

P- 57- 
Trifolium agrarium as a probable British Plant, S.N., 1884, 

pp. 178, 179. 
Rhamnus Frangula in Ross-shire, E.B.S.Tr., x., 1870, pp. 

I5I-I53- 
Myosotis alpestris in Forfarshire, J.B., xxiii., 1885, p. 26. 
Variety {pallidiflord) of Melampyrum sylvaticum, L., S.N., 

1875, p. 20. 
On some British Plantagines allied to P. maritima, L., 

E.B.S.Tr., x., 1870, pp. 171-173. 
Notes on a supposed new British Willow (S. spuria, Schl.), 

P.P.S., 1884-S5, pp. 210-212. 
Salix fragilis, S. Russelliana, and S. viridis, J-B., xxvi., 

1888, pp. 196-201. 
The Collecting and Study of Willows, y.B., xxvii., 1889, 

pp. 77-79 ; S.N., 1889, pp. 122-125. 
List of British Willows, J.B., xxvii., 1889, pp. 265-267. 
On the Willows in the Royal Botanic Garden Herbarium 

[Edinburgh], E.B.S.Tr., xvii., 1889, pp. 441-443. 
Additional Notes on Willows in the University Herbarium 

[Edinburgh], E.B.S.Tr., xviii., 1891, pp. 257-259. 
The Willows of the District of the North-East of Scotland 

Union of Naturalists' Societies, S.N., 1890, pp. 359- 

366. 
A Revision of the British Willows, Linn. Soc. Joicrn. Bot, 

xxvii. (Nov. 1890, but read June 1889), pp. 333-457, pi. 

ix. -xi. 
Notes on Scottish Willows, Ann.S.N.H., 1892, pp. 64-67. 
Luzula arcuata and Buxbaumia indusiata in Inverness-shire, 

E.B.S.Tr., x., 1870, pp. 382, 383. 
Kobresia caricina, Willd., in Argyleshire, S.N., 1875, P- 2I - 
The Cryptogamic Flora of Mull, S.N., 1881, pp. 155-162. 
Is Polypodium flexile distinct from P. alpestre ? P.P.S., 1880, 

pp. 1, 2. 
[Remarks on] Polypodium (Pseudathyrium) flexile and its 

relation to P. (Ps.) alpestre, S.N., 1881, pp. 43-46. 



1 LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

Grimmia subsquarrosa, Wilson, MS., E.B.S.Tr., ix., 1868, 

p. 142. 
Two Mosses new to Science : Hypnum rupestre and H. 

breadalbanense, E.B.S.Tr., ix., 1868, pp. 198, 199. 
[Note on] Discelium nudum [near Perth], S.N., 1874, p. 362. 
[Description of a] Scottish Fungus new to Science \Vibrissea 

Margarita, from Braemar], 5.7V., 1874, P- 218. 
New British Fungi, all in S.N., as follows : Dothidea 

Aiigelictz near Forres, 1875, p. 21 ; Hydnum Icevigatwn 

and Labrella Ptanniccz at Rannoch, 1875, p. 178; Pez. 

amentacea, found by Sir T. Moncrieffe, near Perth, 

1877, p. 79; Puccinia Oxyrtce, Fckl., in Mull, 1882, p. 

254. 
Fungi forwarded to Messrs Berkeley and Broome, S.N., 

1875, PP- 77, 78; 1876, pp. 267-273; 1878, p. 255. 
New and Rare British Fungi, S.N., 1880, p. 234. 
On Uredo filicum, Desm., and Uredo (?) Pteridum, n. sp., 

S.N., 1877, pp. 26, 27. 
(Note on Cladophora cpgagropiJa, P.P.S., 1885-86, p. 219.) 
The Wild Fruits of Scotland, S.JV., 1875, pp. 22-28, 73-76. 
On the Characters of the Flowers of Silene maritima and S. 

inflata as regards their Stamens and Pistils, E.B.S.Tr., 

x., 1869, pp. 443-445 5 J'B., viii., 1870, p. 323. 
Monstrosity of Scabiosa succisa [petalody of stamens], S.JV., 

1871, p. 128. 
Monstrous Form of Teucrium Scorodonia, S.N., 1873, p. 33. 
[Remarks on] Hermaphrodite Catkins of Salix, P.P. S., 1883- 

84, p. 163. 
Winter Fertilisation by Agency of Insects, J.B., New Ser., 

i. p. 48. 
The Influence of Insect Agency on the Distribution of 

Plants, J.B., New Ser., 1873, PP- n-13; Avier. Nat., 

vii., 1873, pp. 268-271. 
On the Relations, Analogies, and Similitudes of Insects and 

Plants [being a Thesis for M.D. in Edinburgh, Com- 
mended, in 1864]. 
Botany of the ' Jardin' of Mont Blanc, E.B.S.Tr., ix., 1868, 

pp. 140-142. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 



Zoological. 

Fauna of Glen Tilt, S. A 7 ., 1887, pp. 160-163 ; 1878, pp. 181- 
190, 244-248; Ent., 1888, pp. 247-250. 

Natural History of Kinnoull Hill — The Vertebrates, P.P.S., 
1885-86, pp. 248-251. 

Natural History of the Banks of the Tay — The Mammalia, 
Tr.P.S., 1892-93, ii. pp. 78-82. 

Museum Notes— I. Perthshire Mammalia, P.P.S., 1884-85, 
pp. 178-181. 

On the occurrence in Perthshire of the Red Deer in a Sub- 
fossil Condition, P.P.S., 1883-84, p. 117. 

On a "Hedgehog's Nest," P.P.S., 1883-84, pp. 139, 140. 

(Note on a Rat's Skull with malformed Dentition), P.P.S., 
1884-85, p. 206. 

The Mammalia of Scotland, S.N., 1881, pp. 49-56. (This is 
a Review of E. R. Alston's "Mammalia" in the 'Fauna 
of Scotland,' published by Nat. Hist. Soc. of Glasgow, 
with a criticism of Alston's views as to the origin of the 
Mammalia of Scotland.) 

(Note on occurrence and probable nesting of Parrot Cross- 
bill in Perthshire), P.P.S., 1884-85, p. 182. 

(Notes on Birds, Golden Eye, Swallow, and Swift, at Perth), 
P.P.S., 1888-89, PP- xlviii, xlix. 

On the better utilisation of the Sprats of the Tay and Forth, 
S.N., 1886, pp. 216-218. 

A List of the Scottish Land and Fresh-water Mollusca [with 
hints on Collecting], S.N., 1873, PP- 163-169 ; 1874, pp. 
205-209. 

Notes on the Census of Scottish Mollusca, S.N., 1891, pp. 
125, 126. 

(Note on Discovery of Helix lamellata on Birnam Hill), 
P.P.S., 1869-70, p. 99. 

On Involuntary Migration in Insects, E.M.M., viii., 1871-72, 
pp. 97-99. 

Insects of Strathglass, Inverness-shire, E.M.M., vii., 1870- 

71, PP- 45-53- 
Excursion to Mamsoul [Strathglass], P.P.S., 1870, pp. 23-29. 



Hi LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

[Notes on] Scottish Lepidoptera [&c, from Rannoch and 

Ross-shire], E.M.M., v., 1868-69, P- io 4- 
[Contributions towards a knowledge of the] Life-histories of- 
certain Coleoptera — I. Dendrophagus crenatus, Payk., 
E.M.M., vii. pp. 196-198. 
Notes on the Habits of Dytiscus lapponicus, Gyll., S.N., 

1881, pp. I45-I47- 
The Cotton-gall of the Oak, S.N., 1871, p. 117. 
Nest of Formica rufa and its Inhabitants, S.N., 1872, pp. 

216-222, 258-263. 
Tettix Schranckii, Fb., an Orthopteron new to the British 

Lists, E.M.M., viii., 1871-72, pp. 15, 16. 
Occurrence of a Supposed Undescribed Lepisma [in a 

bakery in Edinburgh], S.A 1 ., 1877, p. 46. 
Note on the Genus Orthezia (S.N., 1877, pp. 160-163) ; Enf., 

1880, pp. 304-306. 
Sialis at Braemar, E.M.M., viii., p. 65. 
Hallesus auricollis and other Neuroptera [from Rannoch and 

Deeside], 5.7V., 1874, p. 203. 
On Melanochroism and Leucochroism, E.M.M., xiii.. 1876- 

77, PP- 145-149; xiv., 1877-78, pp. 15, 16; Ent, 1877, 

pp. 126-129. 
Variation in British Lepidoptera, S.N., 1891, pp. 168-171. 

(This is a Review of "The British Noctus and their 

Varieties," vol. i., by Tutt.) 
The Lepidoptera of the Scotch Fir, S.N., 1871, pp. 86, 87. 
The Mountain Lepidoptera of Britain [their distribution and 

its causes], S.N., 1879, PP- 67-105, 147-160. 
Some Thoughts on the Distribution of the British Butter- 
flies, Ent., 1 88 1, pp. 265-277. 
Insecta Scotica — Lepidoptera, S.N., 1872, pp. 161-168, 198- 

202, 238-241, 273-276; 1873, pp. 34-43, 81-88, 129-136, 

177-184; 1874, pp. 224-232, 281-284, 321-328, 369-376; 

1875, PP- 2 9-3 2 > 81-84, 129-132, 180-182; 1876, pp. 227- 

230, 274-276, 319, 320, 360-367 ; 1877, pp. 31-34, 120-128, 

173-175; 1878, pp. 216-223, 269-273, 319-321 ; 1879, PP- 

39-44- 
Notes on Scotch Lepidoptera, E.M.M., v., 1868-69, P- 

204. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. II i i 

Notes upon the Lepidoptera of the South-West of Scotland, 
E.M.M., vii., 1871-72, pp. 66-68. 

A List of the Macro-lepidoptera which occur in Perthshire, 
Naturalist, i. pp. 53, 68, 120, 132. 

Fauna Perthensis — Part I., Lepidoptera. 

Notes on the Lepidoptera of Perthshire, E.M.M., v. p. 224, 
vii. pp. no, 140, 210. 

Captures near Perth, E.W.I., July 1857, p. 123 ; A visit to 
Dunkeld, I.e., June 1858, p. 159; Colias Edusa near 
Perth, I.e., September 1858, p. 4; Captures at Kirrie- 
muir, I.e., July 1859, p. 182; Larva on Juniper, I.e., p. 
183. 

Lepidoptera at Rannoch in 1867, E.M.M., 1867-68, pp. 154, 
248-251. 

Notes on Collecting in Glen Tilt, Ent., 1888, pp. 247-250. 

Note on Morayshire Lepidoptera, E.M.M., vi., 1869-70, p. 
190. 

Notes on the Lepidoptera inhabiting Ross-shire, E.M.M., 
v., 1868-69, PP- I 3 I > 281-285. 

The Lepidoptera of Orkney, Shetland, and the Outer 
Hebrides, S.N., 1882, pp. 289-291, 337-344. (Compiled 
from papers by Jenner Weir, published in Entomologist, 
xiii. pp. 249-289; xiv. pp. 218, 278; xv. p. 1.) 

The Butterflies of Perthshire, P.P.S., 1870, pp. 55-62. 

Has Melitaea didyma occurred in Scotland ? S.N., 1877, p. 48. 

Vanessa Antiopa in Perthshire, S.N., 1872, p. 266; 1877, p. 
116. 

Vanessa Antiopa [in Scotland in 1872], S.N., 1873, pp. 16-20. 

Note on our recent invasion by Vanessa Antiopa, E.M.M., 
ix., 1872-73, pp. 130, 131. 

The Hawk-moths of Perthshire, P.P.S., 1870, pp. 2-10. 

Zygasna new to the British Lists, E.M.M., viii., 1871-72, 
p. 68. 

The Scottish form of Zygaena exulans, S.N., 1872, pp. 174, 

175- 
Sesia philanthiformis in Scotland [at Colvend], E.M.M., vii., 

1870-71, p. 41. 
Is the range of Boarmia gemmaria, Brahm. (B. rhomboidaria, 

Hb.), extending in Scotland? S.A 7 ., 1891, p. 193. 



liv LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

Some Notes on the British Species of Oporabia, S.N., 1877, 

pp. 1 1 1 - 1 1 6, pi. i. 
Further Notes on the Species of Oporabia, S.N., 1877, pp. 

158-160. 
Hybernia rupicapraria, E.W.I., January 1858, p. 148. 
Note on certain Species of Eupithecia, S.N., 1876, p. 266. 
Anticlea sinuata taken in Scotland, S.N., 1871, p. 42. 
Is Larentia caesiata double-brooded? E.M.M., xi., 1875-76, 

p. 86. 
Larentia flavicinctata (Hb.) as a Garden Insect, Ann.S.N.H., 

1892, p. 271. 
Acronycta Myricas not a distinct Species, S.N., 1878, p. 199. 
Xylophasia Zollikoferi, Frr., S. N., 1872, pp. 267, 268. 
Pachnobia hyperborea, var. alpina (in Perthshire), S.N., 1877, 

p. 12; 1878, p. 341. 
Noctua ditrapezium in Scotland (near Perth), S.N., 1872, 

p. 267. 
Is the range of Noctua sobrina increasing? S.N., 1891, pp. 

40, 41. 
Note on Epunda lutulenta, var. luneburgensis, E.M.M., xiii., 

1876-77, P- 164. 
Botys verticalis (at Dunkeld), Ent., 1876, p. 278. 
Food of the Larvae of Scoparia and Crambus, E.M.M., vi., 

1869-70, pp. 143, 144. 
The British Species of Crambus, S.N., 1872, pp. 135-141, 

169-174. 
Crambus myellus, E.M.M., viii., 1871-72, p. 70; Ent., 1883, 

p. 213. 
Scoparia basistrigalis and Cochylis Smeathmanniana in 

Scotland [near Perth], S.N., 1876, p. 265. 
A British Scoparia new to Science [S. scoticd\, E.M.M., 

viii., 1871-72, p. 169. 
Hypermecia angustana, Hb., in Perthshire, S.N., 1873, p. 203. 
A new British Moth [Ablabia argentana, CI., at Blair- 

Athole], S.N., 1875, P- !6o; E.M.M., xi., 1875-76, pp. 

85, 86. 
Occurrence of Zelleria Saxifragas in Braemar, S.N., 1872, 

p. 176; E.M.M., viii., 1871-72, p. 271; (in Perthshire) 

ix., p. 139. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. lv 

The Food-plant in Britain of Zelleria Saxifraga?, E.M.M., 

xi., 1875-76, pp. 86, 87. 
Food - plant of Gelechia acuminatella (Cn. heterofihyllus), 

S.N., 1879, p. 118. 
What aid does the form of the Lepidopterous Egg afford 

towards determining the position of certain Species ? 

E.M.M., vii., 1870-71, pp. 230, 231. 
On the Male Genital Armour in the European Rhopalocera, 

Linn. Soc. Trans. Z00L, i., pp. 357-369, pi. lv.-lvii. 

(Abstract of this paper in Linn. Soc. Journ. Zool., 

xiii., 1877, p. 195.) 
Observations sur l'armure genitale de plusieurs especes 

franchises de Zygaenidas, Annal. Soc. Entom. France, 

5 e Ser., viii.j 1878, pp. 467-476, pi. xi. and xii. 
Structure of the Terminal Abdominal Segments in the Male 

of the genus Eupithecia, En?., 1891, pp. 129, 130, pi. 

i. and ii. 
Stridulation in the genus Vanessa, E.Jlf.M., xiii., 1876-77, 

p. 208. 
Note on the Sound made by Hylophila prasinana, S.A r ., 

1872, pp. 213-215. 

Lepidoptera observed during an Excursion in Italy and 

Switzerland, E.M.M., iv., 1867-68, pp. 57-60. 
A new Bait for Moths, E. W.L., May 1857, p. 51. 
The Sallows out in Scotland, E. W.I., March 1858, p. 3. 
Captures at Sugar, E.W.I., October 1858, p. 36. 
Sugaring — How, Where, and When to do it, S.N., 1871, pp 

29-35- 
Note on Limticza glabra, a shell new to Perthshire, S.N., 

1871, p. 26. 
Note on Bibio clavipes, Mg., and B. lepidus, Loew., S.N., 

1873, P- 23. 

Metamorphoses of Xylophagus cinctus, F., and X. ater, F., 

E.M.M., xiii., 1876-77, pp. 160-162, and note on p. 

216. 
Note on /Etorhinus (Orthotylus) bilineatus, Fl., E.M.M., vi., 

1869-70, pp. 9, 10. 
Notes on Scottish Hemiptera, S.N., 1872, pp. 223-226, 263- 

265. 



lvi LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

Two new British Hemiptera [from Braemar], S.N., 1873, 

p. 63. 
Note on the Habits of Jassus cruentatus, E.M.M., vi., 

1869-70, p. 138. 
Notes on Corixa, with Analytical Key to British Genera and 

Species, E.M.M., x., 1873-74, pp. 60-63, 75"8o. 
New and Rare Hemiptera observed during the years 1874, 

1875, 1876, Ent., x., 1877, p. 9. 
Descriptions of three new Species of Hemiptera-Heteroptera 

from New Zealand, E.M.M., xiii., 1876-77, pp. 105-107. 
Abnormal Antennae in Hemiptera, E.M.M., xiv., 1877-78, 

PP- 93, 94- 
Note on " Hebrus ruficeps, Thorns.," E.M.M., xiv., p. 117. 
List of the Hemiptera of New Zealand, E.Af.Af., xiv. pp. 

274-277; xv., pp. 31-34, 73-76, 130-133, 159-161, 213- 

220. 
Contributions to a knowledge of the Hemipterous Fauna of 

St Helena, and Speculations on its Origin, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Loud., 1878, pp. 444-477, pi. xxxi. (seven genera 

and twenty-four species new). 
Descriptions of New Species of Heteroptera collected in the 

Havvaian Islands by the Rev. T. Blackburn, No. I., 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 1877, pp. no- 114; No. II., I.e., 

1878, pp. 365-374. 
List of the Hemiptera collected in the Amazons by Professor 

J. \V. H. Trail in the years 1873-75, with descriptions 

of the new species, Ent. Soc. Lond. Tr., 1879, pp. 267- 

276. 
Descriptions of new Hemiptera (I.) [two new genera and 

sixteen species from North Brazil, and one n. sp. from 

Nicaragua], Li/ui. Soc. Jonm. Zool.,x\v., 1879, pp. 482- 

489. _ 
Descriptions of new Anthocoridas, E.Af.Af., xvii., 1879-S0, 

pp. 142-148. 
The number of known Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Nature, xx., 

1880, p. 606. 
Description of a new genus and species of the family Ger- 

ridae (Platygerris depressd), E.Af.Af., xx. 1883-84, pp. 

36-39- 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. lvii 

Report on the Pelagic Hemiptera collected by H.M.S. 

Challenger, Challenger Reports, vii., paper ii., 82 pp., 

3 plates. (MS. received 24th February 1883.) 
Notes on the Habits of a species of Black Ant in Italy, 

Ent. Soc. Lond. Proc, 1872, pp. v, vi. ; Zoolog., vii., 1872, 

pp. 3032, 3033. 
A Spider with a Parasite, E. W.I., October 1858, p. 30. 
Notes on various Parasitic Fungi which attack Insects, Ent., 

1888, pp. 1 21-123 (nothing new). 
Trespassing, Ent., 18S6, pp. 259, 260. 
Some results of the Challenger Expedition, P.P.S., 1883- 

84, p. 119. 

In ' Science for AIL' 

A Cockroach, iii. p. 325 ; The Earwig, iv. p. 130 ; Locusts 
and Grasshoppers, iv. p. 285 ; The Anatomy of Ants, v. 
p. 109 ; Ants and their ways of Life, v. p. 153 ; A Bee- 
hive, v. p. 270. 

Obituaries of 

Abram Sturrock, P.P.S., 1885-86, pp. 264-266. 

Sir Thomas Moncrieffe, Bart., S.N., 1879, PP- 145-148. 

Robert Walker, F.G.S.E., S.N., 1881, pp. 147, 148. 

J. W. H. T. 



lviii LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. 

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF ADDRESSES, 
PAPERS, AND NOTES Communicated to the 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science on 
the dates noted, by dr white, but not pub- 
LISHED UNDER THESE HEADINGS. (Most of the in- 
formation conveyed in them is embodied in published 
Papers.) 

1867. 
July 4. List of the rarer Flowering -Plants, Ferns, and 
Mosses gathered at Rannoch. 
Geology and Botany of Tentsmuir. 
Aug. 1. Additional Captures at Rannoch. 
Sept. 5. First Capture of Stilbia anomala in the County ; 

also Larva of Endromis versicolora. 
Nov. 7. The Insect Fauna and Flora'of Rannoch. 

1868. 

March 5. Annual Presidential Address. 

May 7. The Transformations of Insects. 

Aug. 6. Notes of an Entomological and Botanical Excur- 
sion to Ben Weyvis, Ross-shire. 

Oct. 1. The Inhabitants legitimate and incident to the 
Burrows of the Goat-moth (Cossus ligniperda). 

Nov. 5. On certain Shells collected in Ross-shire. 

Dec. 3. \ 

> Elementary Botany. 

Jan. 7- / 

March 4. Annual Presidential Address. 

April I. Report of an Excursion to Errol to examine Clay- 
beds containing Glacial Shells. 

May 6. Mosses of the Genus Grimmia found in Perth- 
shire. 
1870. 

Sept. 1. Autumn Work. 

Dec. 2. Winter Work. 



LIST OF PUBLISHED ARTICLES. lix 

1S71. 

Jan. 5. The Eggs of Insects. 

March 2. Annual Presidential Address. 

April 13. The Species of Hemiptera found in Perthshire. 

May 11. Lecture on the Structure of Plants. 

Oct. 12. Certain Naturalised Plants found in the neighbour- 
hood of Perth. 
1872. 

Jan. 4. Digest of Mr Buchan's Report on Meteorology as 
applicable to Scotland. 

Feb. 8. Notes on some Early Flowering-Plants. 

Nov. 7. Note on the Cultivation of Indian Corn in Scot- 
land. 

1873- 
Dec. 4. On the Esculent Wild Fruits of Perthshire — 
Part I. 
1874- 
April 2. On the Esculent Wild Fruits of Perthshire — 

Part II. 
May 17. Notes on the Excursions fixed for the coming 

Season. 
Dec. 4. Review of the Society's Excursions during the 
past year. 
1875. 
May 6. Fungi. 

Nov. 4. Note on Agariats Whitei, a Fungus new to 
Science, from Rannoch. 
1S76. 
Jan. 7. Lecture on " The Fertilisation of Plants by the 
Agency of Insects." [Delivered in the Ex- 
change Hall, George Street, in aid of the 
funds for furnishing the Museum.] 
1886. 
April 1. Perthshire Botany in the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries. 



6 DIN BURG I , 



• ■-. . 



,<y 



EDINi 



S&VCEA^ 



THE FLORA OF PERTHSHIRE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The county of Perth is situated between N. lat. 5 6° 5' 
and 56 56', and W. long. 3 3' and 4 51', and contains 
25S8 sq. m., or 1,656,082 acres, of which about 347.000 
are under some kind of cultivation, and nearly 95,000 
are covered with woods or plantations. Of the remain- 
ing 1,214,000 all but the comparatively small portion 
occupied by water, roads, or buildings may be classed 
as mountain pasture and moorland. 

Note. — This introduction was written before the recent readjust- 
ment of boundaries of counties. Perthshire has been somewhat 
altered by the readjustment on its south-east border, hence the 
dimensions given above are not now absolutely correct in this respect, 
but they are sufficiently accurate to permit that they be allowed to 
stand. The alteration of the boundaries, however, affects the right 
of a number of plants to be noticed in a Flora of Perthshire, as they 
stand on record only from " Lower Forth," as defined by Dr White. 
He included detached portions of Perth, Clackmannan, and part of 
Stirling, all which strictly can no longer be reckoned as in Perth in 
any sense. But as the MS. included these districts, it has been 
thought better to retain them, only enclosing in heavy square 
brackets the term " L. Forth," and any localities in them specially 
mentioned. The area now outside Perthshire, though included by 
Dr White, is dotted in on the map that accompanies this work. 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

The county is naturally divided into two great districts 
— the Lowland and the Highland — and, as may be sup- 
posed, it is in the latter that most of the uncultivated 
ground occurs. These two areas correspond with the 
two great geological formations of the county. The 
Lowland district consists for the most part of undulating 
plains of Old Red Sandstone, pierced and traversed by 
numerous basalt dykes, and bounded on the east and 
south by ranges of trap-hills. The Highland area, on 
the other hand, is a region of mountains, composed of 
various kinds of Silurian rocks, and penetrated by num- 
erous narrow valleys, in which are the only patches of 
cultivated land that occur in this district. 1 

Perthshire has no seaboard; but as the water of 
several miles of the lower, or tidal, part of the river Tay, 
before it leaves the county, is salt enough to allow of 
Fucus and other sea-weeds growing, it is not altogether 
destitute of the conditions necessary for the support of 
a maritime flora. 

The mean annual temperature of the part of eastern 
Scotland which includes Perthshire is, at the level of the 
sea, between 47 and 48 F. In January the mean is 
38° ; in April from 45° to 46 ; in July 59 to 6o° for the 
greater part of the county, but about one degree less at 
the western boundary; and in September 54 to 55 in 

1 The formations of the Eastern, Central, and South - Western 
Highlands, regarded as Silurian when this Introduction was written 
by Dr White, have, since the fuller investigation in late years of 
the geology of the north of Scotland, come to be regarded by 
geologists as much older or pre-Cambrian. The name " Dalradian " 
has been suggested for them by Sir Archibald Geikie, but it has not 
come into general use. This change of view scarcely required any 
alteration except in nomenclature in the account given by him of 
the geological structure of his districts ; but it has been thought desir- 
able to change his nomenclature for these districts, in so far as to 
substitute Loivland for his Old Red Sandstone, Highland for his 
Silurian, and pre-Cambrian for Silurian in referring to the forma- 
tions. These substitutions have been made from p. 4 onwards. — Ed. 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 3 

the south and south-east, and about one degree less in 
the north and north-west. 

The average rainfall is about 30 in. for the eastern 
part of the county. As the rivers are ascended the 
average increases, till at the heads of the valleys on the 
western boundary it amounts to 90 in. or even reaches 

TOO. 

In connection with the meteorology it may be men- 
tioned that, of the acreage under cultivation, 99,283 
acres were occupied in 1886 by corn crops, of which 
6435 wer e wheat and 71,516 oats. 

So far we have been dealing with Perthshire as a 
whole and in its political entirety. For the purposes 
of this Flora we have been obliged to slightly alter 
the boundaries, and also to divide the county into 
districts. 

The method in which the county should be divided 
into districts was a matter that required much considera- 
tion. There were, in the first place, strong reasons for 
adhering, if possible, to the divisions adopted by the late 
Mr H. C. Watson (termed by him " vice-counties ") in 
his various works on the distribution of British plants. 
Mr Watson's vice-counties, or divisions, of Perthshire 
are as follows : — 

" West Perth " — the Perthshire portion of the basin of 
the river Forth, along with the county of Clack- 
mannan and a small detached portion of Stirling- 
shire. [See note on p. 1. — Ed.] 
" East Perth " — Perthshire east of the rivers Tay and 

Garry. 

" Mid-Perth " — the part lying between " West Perth " 

and " East Perth." 

These divisions are, however, scarcely calculated to show 

certain important features in the distribution of the 

plants, and as Mr Watson himself admits that better 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

divisions may be found, we have adopted another scheme 
of division, which, although at first sight appearing to be 
very different from that of Watson, consists in a great 
measure of subdivisions of his vice-counties. 

We have, in the first place, divided the county into 
two primary areas, separated from each other by the 
boundary-line between the Old Red Sandstone and the 
Silurian formations. This line (well indicated by the 
" great fault ") passes through the county from the north- 
east to the south-west, and separates, as has been men- 
tioned above, the Lowland or more cultivated area from 
the Highland or less cultivated one. 

In the second place, these two great areas have been 
subdivided into smaller districts, corresponding as far as 
possible with the basins of the chief rivers. 

So far as the Perthshire portion of the basin of the 
Forth is concerned no difficulty was experienced, as it 
forms a natural and manageable district without further 
subdivision ; but as the basin of the Tay includes by far 
the largest part of the county, it has been necessary to 
subdivide it, and to take part of the river Tay itself as a 
boundary-line between certain districts. 

The following are the districts finally adopted. Their 
boundaries and physical features will be presently de- 
scribed : — ■ 

i. Lowland Forth. 

2. Highland Forth. 

These are equivalent to the Watsonian " West Perth," 
with the exception of Clackmannan, the detached part of 
Stirling, and the isolated portions of Perth. 

3. Lowland Earn. 

4. Highland Earn. 

5. Lowland Perth. 

6. Highland Perth. 

7. Lomond. 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 5 

8. Breadalbane. 

9. Rannoch. 

These form very nearly the Watsonian " Mid-Perth." 
10. Gowrie, 
n. Lowland Isla, 

12. Highland Isla, 

13. Atholl, 

which are about equivalent to the Watsonian " East 
Perth." 

Though, in order to show the relation of our districts 
to Mr Watson's vice-counties, we have arranged them in 
the series given above, it may be as well to mention here 
that in indicating the distribution of the plants, the dis- 
tricts are arranged thus : — 

Lowland. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
Highland. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadal- 
bane, Rannoch, Atholl. 

By this arrangement it can be seen at a glance what 
species are common to the Old Red Sandstone and 
the earlier formations, or are restricted to one or the 
other. 

We can now proceed to describe the special features 
of each district. 

Lowland Forth. 1 

Lowland Forth is the district of the Old Red Sand- 
stone formation drained by the river Forth and its 
tributaries. 

The area of the district is about 296 sq. m. The al- 
titude above sea-level varies considerably. Along the 
southern boundary it ranges between about 30 and 60 
ft., here and there, however, attaining a much greater 

1 See note on p. 1 and the map as to limits of L. Forth. Of the 
Ochils only the outliers belong to Perthshire. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

height. Along the middle longitudinal axis of the dis- 
trict the average is about 200 ft., while towards the 
northern boundary it is 500 to 600. 

The highest parts of the district are at the eastern and 
north-western boundaries. The first is due to the pres- 
ence of the Ochil Hills, of which about 50 sq. m. in the 
district surpass 1000 ft. in altitude, and the highest point 
is 2363. The high ground at the north-western bound- 
ary is formed by an outlying spur of the Grampians, and 
covers about 19 sq. m. of an altitude above 1000 ft, the 
greatest height being 2179 ft. Near the Lake of Mon- 
teith are one or two smaller portions of ground which 
surpass 1000 ft, and attain nearly 1400. 

The chief rivers, in addition to the Forth, are the 
Teith, Allan, and other smaller tributaries. The largest 
lakes are the Lake of Monteith — with a surface of about 
\y 2 sq. m. — and Loch Vennachar, half only of which, 
however, is in the district. 

Highland Forth. 

Highland Forth is the district of the pre-Cambrian 
formation drained by the river Forth and its tributaries. 
It is bounded on the east by Lowland Forth ; on the 
north by the watershed between the tributaries of the 
Earn, Dochart, and Falloch, and those of the Forth ; and 
on the west and south by the county march. 

Of the 167 sq. m. included in the district no less than 
93 attain an elevation of 1000 ft. and upwards, and of 
these 16 surpass 2000, while there is about 1 sq. m. above 
3000 ft. The highest points attained — all on the north- 
ern boundary — are 3827, 3250, 3189, 3148, and 3053 ft. 
The larger part of the area below 1000 ft. is in the southern 
half of the district, and rarely falls as low as nearly 100 ft. 

Highland Forth abounds in streams of various sizes, 
and possesses the following lakes : Lochs Katrine (ex- 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 7 

cept a small portion), Doine Voil, Lubnaig, Vennachar 
(in part), Ard, Chon, Achray, Drunkie, &c, many of 
these being 3, 4, or 5 m. in length. 

Very little of the ground is cultivated, and the cultiva- 
tion is confined to patches here and there on the banks 
of the rivers. On the other hand, much of the district 
below 1000 ft. altitude is adorned with natural wood- 
land, which in some places extends above the 1000-ft. 
line. The rest of the surface is covered with moorland, 
natural pasture, rocks, and marshes. 

Lowland Earn. 

Lowland Earn is the district of the Old Red Sand- 
stone formation drained by the river Earn and its tribu- 
taries. The northern boundary begins on the ridge 
above the railway tunnel near Perth, and goes along 
the watershed between the Earn and the Almond till 
the "fault" between the Old Red Sandstone and the 
older formations is reached. This "fault" forms the 
western boundary as far south as the watershed between 
the Earn and the Forth, which then constitutes the 
southern boundary till the county march is reached 
near Abernethy. This is followed till it meets the 
North British Railway line, which makes the eastern 
boundary. 

The area of the district is about 220 sq. m., and most 
of it has no great elevation above sea-level. Along the 
river Earn, which traverses the district from west to 
east, the altitude varies from about 30 ft. at the eastern 
end to about 200 at the western. North and south of 
this the ground gradually rises till 400 or 500 ft. are 
attained ; but in some parts this altitude is considerably 
exceeded, as on the Ochil Hills at the south and east, on 
a spur of the Grampians in the south-west corner, and on 
another bit of the Grampians in the north-west. Of the 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

Ochils there are about 18 sq. m. with an elevation of 
iooo ft. or upwards, some of the summits attaining 
nearly 1600 ft; of the Grampians in the south-west 
corner there are about 14 sq. m. at 1000 ft. or upwards, 
the highest point being above 2000; and of the same 
range in the north-west corner there are perhaps 2 sq. 
m. with an elevation of 1000 ft., the greatest height 
being nearly 1500. 

The district is drained by the Earn and its tributaries, 
and there are only one or two small lakes in it. 

The area is mostly under cultivation, except on the 
higher parts of the Ochils, and on the Grampians and 
their vicinity. It is also well wooded, but most of the 
trees have been planted. 

Highland Earn. 

Highland Earn is the district of the pre-Cambrian 
formation drained by the river Earn and its tributaries. 
It is bounded on the east by Lowland Earn, and on 
the other sides by the watersheds which separate the 
Earn from the rivers Almond and Forth, and from Loch 
Tay and its influents. 

The area is about 135 sq. m., of which about 100 are 
above 1000 ft. altitude, and 15 or 16 reach 2000 ft. 
The low ground (that under 1000 ft.) extends through 
the district as a narrow valley running from east to west, 
but expanding towards the eastern end. The lowest 
elevation is at the east, and is about 150 ft., but most of 
the valley is above 300 ft. The highest points of high 
ground are all on or near the boundaries, and are as 
follows: on the north, 3048; on the south, 3224 and 
3189; and on the west, 2793 ft. 

There is not much cultivated ground in the district — 
4 or 5 sq. m. at the eastern end, and a few patches 
elsewhere. Below the 1000-ft. line the country is well 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 9 

wooded, and much of the wood is probably natural, with 
oak as the predominant tree. 

The district is drained by the Earn and its tribu- 
taries, and lias two large lakes — Loch Earn {6V2 m. 
long) and Loch Turret (about 1 m.) — and several smaller 
ones. 

Lowland Perth. 

Lowland Perth is the district of the Old Red Sand- 
stone formation draining into the west side of the river 
Tay between Perth and Dunkeld. It is bounded on 
the east and north by the Tay, starting from the "fault" 
or line of division between the pre-Cambrian and Old 
Red Sandstone formations, and following the course 
of the river as far south as the mouth of the river Al- 
mond ; thence up the Almond to the railway bridge 
near its mouth, and thence by the railway line (passing 
through Perth) as far south as the tunnel. On the 
south the boundary is the watershed separating the 
Almond from the Earn; and on the west the "fault" 
between the earlier and the Old Red Sandstone for- 
mations. 

The area is about 93 sq. m., and varies in altitude 
from between 50 and 150 ft. near the Tay to 400 or 500 
ft. at the western boundary. In the south-west corner 
1000 ft. altitude is reached in two or three places. 

Most of the district is under cultivation, but through- 
out it— though more especially in the south-west — are 
unreclaimed patches, remaining as natural pasture, peat- 
mosses, or heather-clad moors. It is well wooded, and 
though most of the wood is planted, there are some 
large tracts of natural woodland. 

The chief rivers are the Almond, Schochie, and Ordie, 
in addition to the Tay; and there are several small 
lakes. 



IO INTRODUCTION. 



Highland Perth. 



Highland Perth is the district of the pre-Cambrian 
formation bounded on the south-east by Lowland Perth ; 
on the east by the river Tay from the boundary of Low- 
land Perth as far north as Kinnaird House (half-way 
between Dunkeld and Pitlochry) ; on the north and west 
by the watershed separating the river Braan from the Tay 
above its junction with the Tummel ; and on the south by 
the watershed which divides the Almond from the Earn. 

The area is 142 sq. m., of which about 107 are above 
1000 ft. altitude, and about 15 above 2000 ft. The 
least elevated ground is beside the Tay, where the 
altitude varies from 150 to nearly 300 ft.; while the rest 
of the surface below 1000 ft. lies in the valleys of the 
various streams. The highest land is in the south and 
south-west, the most elevated points being 3048, 2840, 
and 2838 ft. The longest tract (in a straight line) above 
2000 ft. is 6 m. long, and above 3000 is .375 of a mile. 
The northern half of the district, though above 1000 ft., 
does not, as a rule, much surpass that altitude. 

The area under cultivation is not extensive, and lies 
chiefly along the Tay and in Strathbraan. The Tay 
valley is rather well wooded (the woodland attaining in 
one place an altitude of 1500 ft. above sea-level), but 
there is not much wood elsewhere. Most of the wood 
has been planted. 

The chief rivers are the Tay, Almond, Schochie, 
Ordie, and Braan. The principal lake is Loch Freuchie 
— 2 m. long — and there are several smaller lochs. 

Gowrie. 

The district of Gowrie (so-called because the greater 
portion of it is occupied by the Carse of Gowrie) is the 
Old Red Sandstone area draining into the tidal part of 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. I I 

the rivers Tay and Earn. It is bounded on the east by 
the county march ; on the north by the watershed of the 
Sidlaw Hills from the county march to the point where 
it meets the old Dundee Road about i^ m. from Perth ; 
it then follows this road to Perth bridge, goes up the 
eastern bank of the Tay to the mouth of the Almond, 
and then up the Almond to the railway bridge; on the 
west and south by the railway line from the above- 
mentioned bridge to the point where it meets the 
county march near Abernethy, and thence along the 
march eastwards. 

The area is about 89 sq. m., 12 or more of which are 
occupied by the estuary of the Tay. Of the remainder, 
38 or 39 form the Carse proper, which may be described 
as a more or less flat plain, not reaching an altitude of 
more than 100 ft. above sea-level, and usually under 50, 
but studded here and there with slight eminences 
(inches or islands). To the north-west of this plain lie 
the Sidlaw Hills, which occupy about 37 sq. m. of the 
district, and along whose watershed the northern 
boundary runs. Though the name is not retained, the 
range is continued on the south side of the Tay. The 
highest of these hills in the district attains a height of 
1235 ft., and three others surpass 1000 ft., but the 
average elevation of their summits is not more than 
about 800 ft. The general slope is to the south east. 

While most of the low ground and lower slopes of the 
hills are under cultivation, the higher parts are covered 
by natural pasture or heather-clad moorland. Many of 
the hills are also adorned with woods — mostly planted. 

Except the Tay and the Earn (so far as they belong 
to the district), there are no large streams in Gowrie, 
neither are there any large lakes now in existence. 
Many small streams descend from the hills, in which 
they have excavated rocky ravines ; but when they reach 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

the low ground they become slow-running ditches, which 
would doubtless be prolific in water-plants were they not 
cleaned out periodically. The shore of the Tay is 
fringed in many places with marshes, and the water of 
the lower part of its course is salt. 

The mean annual temperature at Perth (observed at 
66 ft. above sea-level), at the western end of the district, 
is 46°.8 F. (January ^7°-3 \ April 45 . 1 ; July 58°.7 ; and 
September 53°.3), and this is probably about the average 
of the district. 

Lowland Isla. 

Lowland Isla (so called from its chief river) is the 
district of the Old Red Sandstone formation, bounded 
on the south by the watershed of the Sidlaw Hills and 
other parts of the northern boundary of Gowrie; on 
the east by the county march; on the north by the 
" fault " between the Old Red Sandstone and the older 
formations ; and on the west by the river Tay from 
opposite the mouth of the Almond up to 2 m. below 
Dunkeld. 

The area is about 144 sq. m., and most of the district 
is undulating plain, whose elevation above sea-level does 
not often exceed 500 ft. (rarely nearly 1000), and aver- 
ages 200 to 300. On the eastern boundary the Sidlaw 
Hills cover about 6 sq. m. of the district. Their highest 
point is 1235 ft, and though two other peaks reach 1000 
ft., the general average of the summits is 800. 

Most of the district is under cultivation, and a fair 
amount is covered with woodland. A considerable tract 
on the eastern and northern boundaries is occupied by 
natural pasture or moorland. 

Lowland Isla is well watered, for in addition to the 
Tay, which bounds almost all the western side of it, it 
is traversed by the Isla and by the Erich t, as well as 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 1 3 

by some other rivers of good size. It has, besides, eight 
lakes, varying in length from about % to 1 m. 

Highland Isla. 

Highland Isla is the district of the pre-Cambrian 
formation, which is bounded on the south by Lowland 
Isla ; on the east and north by the county march ; and 
on the west by the Tay, from between a point 2 m. be- 
low Dunkeld and the junction of the Tay and Tummel, 
and by the Tummel as far as the mouth of the Garry ; 
and thence on the north-east by the watershed, separat- 
ing the tributaries of the Garry from those of the Tum- 
mel and Isla. 

The area is about 222 sq. m., of which about 174 are 
above 1000 ft. altitude, 30 above 2000, and nearly y^ of 
a sq. m. above 3000. The low ground (i.e., under 1000 
ft.) lies chiefly along the banks of the larger rivers. Most 
of the southern half of the district, though attaining 1000 
ft. of elevation, does not often reach 1500, and all the 
highest ground is near the northern boundary, where 
the most lofty peaks are respectively 3445, 3238, 3194, 
and 301 1 ft. in height. The longest straight tracts of 
ground above 2000 ft. are 10 and 9 m. in length ; and the 
longest above 3000 ft. is 2 m., and extends for 5 m. more 
beyond the county march. The lowest ground in the dis- 
trict is near Dunkeld, and is less than 200 ft. in altitude. 

The chief rivers are the Tay, Ardle, and Blackwater ; 
and the principal lakes are the Lochs of the Lows, Craig- 
lush, Butterstone, Benachally, Broom, and Ordie, the 
largest of which is about 1 in. in length. Some of these 
lakes are situated nearly 1000 ft. above the level of the sea. 

The district possesses but little cultivated land, and 
that only along the sides of the chief rivers, where also 
most of the woodland is. Except near Dunkeld, how- 
ever, there is not much tree-covered ground. In that 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

neighbourhood, though there is a fair amount of hard- 
wooded indigenous trees, the plantations consist mostly 
of larch, with which a large tract is occupied. From 
Dunkeld northwards, the woods, mostly planted, extend 
continuously in a straight line for about 9 m., and reach 
an altitude of 1500 ft. above sea-level. 

Breadalbane. 

Breadalbane (so called from the ancient name of a 
large part of the district) is the area of the Silurian for- 
mation, drained by the Tay (and its tributaries) from its 
junction with the Tummel to its source. The eastern 
boundary begins on the Tay at Kinnaird House (about 
6 m. above Dunkeld), is continued up the Tay to the 
mouth of the Tummel, and proceeds up the Tummel 
to a point opposite Pitlochry. The northern boundary 
commences at this point, and is formed by the watershed 
between the Tummel (with Loch Rannoch) and the Tay 
and Lyon. The western boundary is the county march, 
which follows the watershed between the east and west 
coasts of Scotland. The southern boundary begins on 
the county march at Ben Laoigh, and follows the water- 
shed between the Tay and its tributaries and the Forth, 
Earn, Almond, and Braan, till it meets the eastern bound- 
ary at Kinnaird House. 

The area is 445 sq. m., of which 340 are above 1000 
ft. in altitude above sea-level, 90 above 2000 ft., and per- 
haps 9 above 3000. The lowest ground is at the eastern 
boundary, where the elevation is about 200 ft., and in the 
long valley which stretches from this point to the county 
march at Tyndrum — a distance of 50 m. — the altitude 
rises gradually up to Soo ft. The highest point in the 
district is 3984 ft., and there are 34 peaks which surpass 
3000 ft. The longest straight tract above 2000 ft. is n 
m. in length, and there are others which measure 9, 
7, and 6^8. The longest straight tract above 3000 ft. is 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 1 5 

3^6 m. long, but, following the ridge, 6 m. may be 
traversed without descending below 3000 ft. 

The cultivated ground is, as usual, only in the valleys, 
and bears but a very small proportion to the total area. 
The district is fairly well wooded below the 1000-ft. line, 
and much of the wood is natural. In one or two places 
the hills are wooded up to 1800 ft. 

The chief rivers are the Tay, Lyon, Lochay, and 
Dochart; and in addition to Loch Tay (14 m. long) 
there are Lochs Lyon (2 m.), Dochart, Iubhair, and 
several smaller lakes. 

Atholl. 

Atholl (so called from the ancient name of the dis- 
trict) is the area of the pre-Cambrian formation drained 
by the Garry and its tributaries. It is bounded on the 
east by Highland Isla; on the north by the county- 
march ; and on the south and west by the Garry from 
its mouth to Blair Athole, and thence by the watershed 
separating the Garry and its tributaries from the Tummel 
and its tributaries. 

The area is 293 sq. m., of which 272 are above 1000 
ft., about 100 above 2000, and nearly 4 above 3000. 
The ground under 1000 ft. altitude lies in narrow tracts 
along the banks of the rivers Garry, Errichdie, and Tilt, 
the lowest elevation being 200 ft., and situated in the 
south-west corner of the district. The highest point is 
3671 ft., and there are altogether 16 peaks which attain 
3000 ft. The largest tracts of ground above 2000 ft. 
measure 16^ miles long by 6 broad (or beyond the 
county march 10 j4), 1%, 6% (^ ut out °f tne county 
more than 30), and 5^. The longest tract above 3000 
ft. is 2^3 m. long. 

The chief rivers are the Garry, Errichdie, Tilt, and Tarff. 
The chief lake is Loch Garry (3 m. long), and there are 
several smaller lochs, some at a considerable elevation. 



\6 INTRODUCTION. 

The district possesses little cultivated ground and not 

much woodland, what there is being chiefly in the 

neighbourhood of Blair Athole. Birch is the principal 
indigenous tree. 

Rannoch. 

Rannoch (so called from the ancient name of the larg- 
est part of the district) is the area of the Silurian forma- 
tion drained by the river Tummel above its junction 
with the Garry. On the east it is bounded by the Tum- 
mel and Garry from Pitlochry to Blair Athole ; and the 
rest of the boundaries are formed by the watershed of 
the Tummel and its tributaries. 

The area is more than 310 sq. m., of which about 
235 are above 1000 ft. altitude, more than 40 above 
2000, and 2 above 3000. The low ground forms a nar- 
row valley — of varying width — running through the dis- 
trict from east to west, and gradually rising in elevation 
from 300 ft. in the east to above 900 in the west. The 
highest ground lies along the southern, western, and 
north-western boundaries, the highest point being 3757 
ft, and 16 peaks surpass 3000 ft. The longest straight 
tracts above 2000 ft. are 11^2, g}4, 9> and 7 m. ; and 
above 3000 ft. 2 and i-J^ m. 

The chief river is the Tummel ; and there are a num- 
ber of lakes, the largest being Loch Ericht (15 m. long), 
Loch Rannoch (10 m.), Loch Laidon (5 m.), Loch 
Tummel (3 m.), and Loch Ba (i}4 m.) 

The little cultivated ground there is occurs in patches, 
chiefly in the eastern half of the central valley, which is 
also here and there adorned with extensive woods. The 
principal indigenous tree is the birch, but on the south- 
ern shore of Loch Rannoch there are several sq. m. of 
native Scots firs. 



DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS. 



17 



Lomond. 

The small pre-Cambrian district of Lomond is the only- 
part of Perthshire that drains to the west coast. It is 
contained in the basin of the Falloch (an influent of 
Loch Lomond) so far as that river is in Perthshire. 

The area is 33 sq. m., of which 25 m. are above 1000 ft. 
altitude, and 6 above 2000. The lowest ground is under 
50 ft. and the highest 3708, seven peaks attaining 3000 
ft. Most of the high ground lies in the north-west and 
south-east. The longest straight tract above 2000 ft. is 
4 m. long, and above 3000 ft. .45 of a mile. 

There is very little cultivated land or woodland. 

A tabulation of some of the facts brought out in the 
foregoing descriptions of the districts may be instructive. 



District. 


Area in 
sq. m. 


Area in 
sq. m. 
above 

1000 ft. 


Area in 
sq. m. 
above 

2000 ft. 


Area in 
sq. m. 
above 

3000 ft. 


High- 
est 
point 
in feet. 


Peaks 
above 
3000 ft. 


L. Forth . 
L. Earn 
L. Perth . 
Gowrie 
L. Isla 

Total for 
Lowland area 


296 
220 
93 
89 
144 


7° 
20 

I? 

A? 

1 


1 

ft? 













2363 
2179 
1098 

J 235 

1235 









S42 


91 


ift? 










H. Forth . 

H. Earn 

H. Perth . 

Lomond 

H. Isla 

Breadalbane 

Atholl .... 

Rannoch 

Total for 

Highland area 
Lowland area 


167 
i3S 
142 
33 
222 
445 
293 

3io 


93 
100 
107 

174 

34° 
272 
2 35 


16 

IS 

15 

6 

3° 
90 
100 

42 


1 

? 
1 

9 

4 


3827 

3224 
3048 
3708 

3445 
3984 
3671 

3757 


7 
3 

1 

7 
5 
34 
16 
16 


1747 
S42 


1345 
9 1 


314 

r A 


17 (say) 







Total . 


2589 


1437 


315ft 


17 







18 INTRODUCTION. 

The estimates of the areas of the districts, though 
approximately, are not absolutely, correct, as they have 
been roughly calculated by dividing the Ordnance 
Survey map into parallelograms each containing i 
sq. m. It should also be mentioned that from the 
descriptions of the districts the number of peaks which 
surpass 3000 ft. appears to be greater than it is in 
reality, since, when such a peak is on a boundary-line, 
it has necessarily been twice mentioned. There are, 
however, no less than sixty-five separate peaks which 
attain the height in question. 



THE GEOLOGY OF PERTHSHIRE, MORE ESPECIALLY 
IN ITS RELATION TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
THE FLORA. 

Before describing in detail the leading geological 
characteristics of each of the districts into which we 
have divided Perthshire, a few words explanatory of the 
principal physical features of the county may not be out 
of place. 

Perthshire, as has been said already, is divided 
naturally into two portions, the Highlands and the 
Lowlands. The Highland region embraces all the wide 
extent of mountainous country that lies north-west of 
Strathmore ; while the Lowland tract includes that 
broad valley as well as the country to the south and 
east of it, and is traversed from north-east to south-west 
by a bank or range of hills of moderate elevation — the 
Sidlaws and the Ochils. 

The rocks entering into the composition of the High- 
land area consist for the most part of a vast series of 
various, more or less altered, rocks (schists, slates, &c), 
pierced here and there by intrusions of granite, felsite, 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 19 

quartz-porphyry, and other igneous rocks. The schists, 
slates, &c, are folded and thrown into a series of great 
anticlinal arches and synclinal troughs, the tops of the 
arches having been denuded away at a very ancient 
geological date. At one time the whole Highland area 
seems to have presented the appearance of an elevated 
plateau. This in the course of ages has been furrowed 
and worn by water in various forms, and thus the 
present river-valleys have been dug out of the old table- 
land, the ridges separating one valley from another now 
forming the mountains. 

The Lowlands, on the other hand, are composed for 
the most part of rocks belonging to the Old Red Sand- 
stone formation. These consist of aqueous or water- 
formed strata (conglomerate, sandstone, &c.) and ancient 
lavas, or sheets of igneous rock, with some beds of 
volcanic tuff — i.e., material ejected from below in the 
form of loose stones, dust, grit, Sec. 

The sandstones of Strathmore were laid down in a 
great fresh-water lake or inland sea, the north-western 
shore of which was formed by the rocks of the Highland 
area. 

The Sidlaw and Ochil Hills are largely made up of 
igneous rocks, and indicate the site of a range of 
volcanic orifices which ejected lava and loose materials 
on the bed of the ancient lake, and gradually rose above 
the level of the water as a long series of volcanic islands. 
It is probable that some of the bosses of granite within 
the Highland area are the roots of volcanoes which were 
in activity at the same period. The lavas and ashes 
thrown out by these supposed volcanoes have all disap- 
peared, and are now represented only by the water-worn 
fragments in the ancient shore-deposits which occur along 
the north-western margin of the Old Red Sandstone area, 
whither they were probably carried down by streams. 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

To a much more recent date belong the many dykes 
of basalt rock which traverse the country, more especially 
in a west and east direction. These are probably of 
Tertiary age. Where they cut across sandstones they 
generally form prominent features, as at Drummond 
Castle and other places. 

It will be observed that in general the hills and isolated 
ridges, &c, of the Lowlands are composed of harder rocks 
than the rocks by which they are surrounded, showing 
that the physical features are the result of erosion or 
denudation — the more yielding rocks having been worn 
to a greater extent than the harder and more durable 
masses. 

After both the Highlands and the Lowlands alike had 
come to present very much the appearance they have 
now, the glacial period supervened. Under the enor- 
mous erosive action of a massive sheet of ice, flowing 
outwards from the dominant high grounds, the features 
of the whole country were more or less modified. The 
mountains were, so to speak, rounded off; sharp ridges 
were bevelled and smoothed, and much morainic matter 
was carried forward and spread over the low -lying 
tracts. The disappearance of the ice was marked by the 
accumulation of enormous gravelly moraines in Strath- 
more opposite the mouths of the Highland glens, and 
by the deposition all over the low grounds of wide 
sheets of alluvial gravel, sand, and clay. 

Having seen what was the origin of the present 
physical features of Perthshire as a whole, we can now 
proceed to enter into details of the chief geological 
characteristics of the districts. In the descriptions of 
the districts the physiography of each has been more or 
less indicated, and it may be thought that the geology 
should also have had a place. As, however, this would 
have entailed needless repetitions, since the geological 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 21 

features of several of the districts are on the whole 
similar, it has been considered desirable to treat of the 
geology apart from the descriptions ; and as Gowrie is 
in many respects one of the most interesting districts, 
we will begin with it. 

Gowrie. 

The Sidlaw Hills. — The chief rocks are Porphyrite, 
Diabase, Conglomerate, Grit, Sandstone, Flagstone, &c. 
Beds of red sandstone, grey sandstone, and occasional 
flags come in here and there in the south-west part of 
the chain of hills (i.e., between Perth and Rossie Priory). 
To the east and north-east such aqueous strata gradually 
thicken out until the igneous rocks appear as mere sub- 
ordinate bands or belts in the aqueous series. This 
occurs, however, chiefly in Forfarshire. In the Perth- 
shire area of the Sidlaws the hills are composed almost 
exclusively of igneous and aqueo-igneous rocks (trappean 
conglomerates, &c.) — porphyrites and diabase forming 
the hill-tops and steeper hill-faces, conglomerates and 
sandstone with occasional tuffs generally occurring in 
the hollows or forming the basement portions of cliffs 
and escarpments. 

Of the Porphyrites the composition is chiefly plagio- 
clase felspar with one or more of the following minerals : 
augite, hornblende, magnetite, and mica, while in some 
cases olivine also occurs. The felspar of these rocks is 
a silicate of alumina, lime, and soda, the lime being 
about 12 per cent. The rocks readily decompose, 
crumbling down to a grit, and this afterwards passing 
into an earthy clay. The lime of the felspar is removed 
(in the form of carbonate of lime) in solution, and often 
redeposited in cracks, cavities, and pores in the rock as 
calcite or arragonite, and again removed. Most of the 
lime has been removed from the debris of the porphyrites 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

which lies upon the steeper hill-slopes. There is con- 
siderable variety in the mode in which the porphyrites 
are affected by the weather. Some are more prone to 
decay than others, owing not so much to differences in 
chemical composition as to differences in texture and 
structure. 

Diabase covers considerable areas near Abernyte 
and along the county march to the north of that place. 
It decomposes more readily than the porphyrites 
under the influence of the weather, and yields a 
larger proportion of lime than them. It contains a 
good deal of iron (derived from augite and olivine), 
and also — partly diffused through the base and partly 
aggregated in pores, cavities, and joints — much ser- 
pentinous matter. 

The Trappean Conglomerates, &c, being formed for 
the most part of more or less water-worn fragments of 
porphyrites, &c, set in a matrix of the same materials, 
yield much the same kind of soil as the rocks already 
described. 

Upon the whole, the quality of the soil formed by the 
decomposition of the rocks of the Perthshire Sidlaws is 
tolerably uniform, though here and there the percentage 
of lime is greater, and consequently the soil ought to be 
somewhat more fertile. 

The strata (both igneous and aqueous) are much 
fissured and jointed, and their general inclination to the 
north-west allows of good drainage in that direction. 
Were it not, however, for the sheet of boulder-clay 
which extends upwards from Strathmore and spreads 
irregularly over the hills as a kind of ragged covering, 
the Sidlaws would be rather dry. But in the hollows, 
which are often coated with this boulder-clay, there is 
here and there wet or marshy ground. Many such 
places have, however, now been drained. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 23 

Theoretically the rocks of the Sidlaws should yield a 
better soil than the Old Red Sandstones and the Silurian 
rocks, but its proper character is often modified and 
sometimes quite obscured by the presence of boulder- 
clay. Speaking generally, this modification occurs on 
most of the north-western slopes, but on the steeper 
faces, where the porphyrites, &c, come to the surface, 
the resulting soil is often a fertile gritty earth and loose 
clay. Owing, however, to the steepness of the slope, the 
fertilising ingredients (lime and, to some small extent, 
magnesia), are largely removed in solution, and washed 
away by the rains. Consequently the lower slopes 
(which are more or less covered with boulder- clay) 
ought to be more fertile, since they receive enriching 
materials from the upper slopes. 

In the " Braes of the Carse " — as the lower slopes 
facing the Carse of Gowrie are called — the various rocks 
described above crop to the surface, and the hollows or 
sloping terraces at the base of the successive escarp- 
ments are usually covered with a loose gritty earth and 
clay, overlying patches of boulder-clay. The soil of the 
"Braes" is on the whole more fertile than that of the 
north-western slopes which face Strathmore. 

The soils of the " Carse of Gowrie " are very variable. 
Over wide areas a heavy, stiff, impermeable clay — not 
particularly productive, save at the cost of much labour 
— predominates. In some places this clay is overlaid 
with loose sands, as, for example, in the neighbourhood 
of Glencarse. Wide tracts, again, show a loam, which is 
lighter and more easily worked than the clay soils. 
Many of the " inches " or hillocks and banks, which 
break the general level surface of the Carse, are clothed 
with boulder-clay, and partially with gravel. Such banks 
are, of course, more readily drained than the flats, and are, 
as a rule, as fertile as the clays and loams of the latter. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

Origin of the fiats of the Carse of Gowrie. — The flats of 
the Carse consist of a series of estuarine or marine and 
fluviatile deposits. They are arranged in terraces, the 
uppermost of which fringes the Tay valley at an average 
height of ioo ft. above sea-level. This terrace is com- 
posed partly of tough tenacious clays, partly of sand and 
gravel, and here and there many large " erratics " occur 
scattered through these deposits. The terrace is not 
continuous, but is interrupted again and again, and its 
contour or configuration has been greatly modified by 
denudation. It indicates a former sea-level at a time 
when much floating ice came down the valleys of the 
Tay and Earn. Opposite the mouths of valleys in the 
Ochils (facing the river Earn) large cones de dejection 
occur at the ioo-ft. level, demonstrating the former 
existence of rapid torrents. The fine tenacious clays of 
this terrace represent the " flour of rocks" produced by 
the grinding action of the glaciers, which at the time 
(late glacial) occupied the Highland glens. Here and 
there in the carse-lands these clays are exposed, as at 
Pitfour, where they are worked for bricks and tiles. 

The beds next in succession consist of river-gravel and 
sand, but these are seldom exposed. They point to a 
time when the sea had retreated from the Tay valley, 
and when the ancient Tay and Earn were employed in 
cutting through and removing the deposits of ioo-ft. 
level. 

Overlying these river - deposits comes the "Buried 
Forest " bed. This accumulation, which extends more 
or less from Perth to Dundee, bespeaks a temperate 
climate, and tells of a time when the valleys of the Tay 
and Earn were well clothed with vegetation. 

Above the "Buried Forest" bed succeed the carse-clays, 
&c, of the 45-50 ft. terrace. These deposits occupy a 
very wide area of the Carse, and are of estuarine origin. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 25 

They have yielded marine shells as far up as Perth. 
The lower portion of the deposits often contains much 
drifted vegetable debris, such as trunks and branches of 
various trees, chiefly Scots fir and oak. From these and 
other appearances it may be inferred that this terrace 
was laid down under conditions somewhat similar to 
those which obtained during the accumulation of the 
100-ft. terrace. The clays indicate very muddy rivers 
flowing from glacier -filled valleys, and the occasional 
occurrence of scattered stones and " erratics " point to 
transportation by floating ice. 

The lower terraces are partly estuarine and partly 
fluviatile, and were laid down during the gradual rise of 
the land or retreat of the sea in post-glacial times. 

All the soils of the Carse of Gowrie are thus derived 
from the denudation of the Highland hills and valleys, to 
which, of course, must be added a certain proportion of 
material washed down by lateral streams from the Sid- 
laws and Ochils, and from the low-lying ground through 
which the Tay and Earn make their way before they 
enter the region of the Carse. 

A few lines must now be devoted to a consideration of 
the till or boulder-clay, not only as it is found in Gowrie 
but in some of the adjoining districts. As the till is 
more or less of a local accumulation, derived from the 
crushing and grinding up of rocks by glacial action, it 
varies somewhat in character with the varying geological 
structure of the country. In the Highland region it is 
composed entirely of the comminuted or pulverised debris 
of Highland rocks — slates, various schists, gneiss, granite, 
&c. In the Old Red Sandstone districts it is largely 
composed of the red sandstones and sandy shales and 
clays belonging to the formation in question. But com- 
mingled with this material there always occurs a varying 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

proportion of debris derived from the Highland districts, 
the proportion of Highland rocks being always greater 
in the boulder-clay that lies nearest to the Highland hills. 
In the Sidlaws the red colour of the till, which is so pro- 
nounced in Strathraore, becomes somewhat less strongly 
marked, which is due to the fact that the comminuted 
debris of porphyrites, diabase, &c, has largely replaced 
the red sandstone debris. 

There is probably not much difference in the quality 
of the soils derived from the till in Strathmore and the 
.Sidlaws, but on the whole they are more fertile than 
those met with upon the till in the Highland region. 
There are, however, considerable local differences in the 
till of Strathmore and the Sidlaws. Sometimes it is 
extremely tough and tenacious, more especially where it 
is composed for the most part of the deep red clays and 
shales of the Old Red Sandstone strata; in other places 
a considerable admixture of silicious matter renders the 
clay less tenacious and more readily acted upon by the 
weather, the result being a more open and warmer soil. 
Speaking generally, the patches of till on the Braes of 
the Carse afford a better soil than is met with on the 
opposite or north-western slopes, which does not differ 
materially from that upon the till of Strathmore. 

Much of the variety of soil met with upon the " super- 
ficial formations " throughout Strathmore and Perthshire 
generally, is not due to mere changes in the nature of 
the till, but to the fact that the till is either absent or 
deeply buried under various kinds of other deposits. In 
the Carse of Gowrie, for example, the till is seldom or 
never exposed, and the same is the case, speaking gener- 
ally, in all the flats through which the streams and rivers 
run. Not only so, but there are wide tracts, especially in 
Strathmore, where the subsoil is composed of sand and 
gravel, and sometimes clay and loam, all of which are of 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 27 

fluvio-glacial origin. Immense accumulations of gravel, 
sand, &c, spread out into Strathmore from the mouths 
of all the Highland glens, forming those rolling banks 
and hillocks which are so conspicuous, at the base of the 
Highland region, from Coupar-Angus westwards to near 
Birnam. Similar hillocks appear opposite the mouths of 
the small glens that open upon the lowlands south-west 
of Birnam ; and they are conspicuously displayed in the 
valley of the Almond at the foot of the Small Glen, as 
well as between it and Ochtertyre, especially where the 
glens drain a large extent of high ground. These gravel 
and sand hills are, for the most part, of morainic origin, 
consisting of the more or less water - worn detritus 
which was washed down from the ancient glaciers 
and accumulated along their bases at the time of their 
retreat. 

A large area of the low-lying parts of Strathmore ap- 
pears to have been flooded at the same time by freshets 
from the mountains, and those flooded portions became 
covered with wide flats of sand, clay, and loam. In this 
way were formed the broad plains which lie along the 
western base of the Sidlaws, and which are well seen 
at Coupar-Angus, whence they stretch eastward into 
Forfarshire. 

Almost all the present streams flow through haughs 
or flat lands, which have been laid down by the streams 
themselves. These haughs are usually at no great height 
above the present level of the rivers, and are liable in 
many cases to be covered during floods. But at still 
higher levels similar accumulations of gravel and sand 
are of common occurrence. This is the case with the 
streams that traverse Strathmore and join the Tay and 
Earn. These deposits often cover considerable areas, 
being sometimes arranged in terraces, sometimes in 
irregular accumulations, forming hillocks, banks, &c. 



28 INTRODUCTION. 

They are all evidently of fluviatile origin, and appear 
to have been laid down at a time when the rivers 
flowed in much greater volume than at present. Fol- 
lowed down the valleys of the Tay and Earn, they 
range into the deposits of the ioo-ft. and 45-50-ft. 
terraces. 

Thus, we find that the slopes of many of the river- 
valleys of Strathmore, &c, yield light gravelly and sandy 
soil, offering strong contrasts to the soils met with upon 
the till which covers the higher grounds between such 
valleys. In general, then, it may be said that light soils 
are the rule in the valley-bottoms and along the valley- 
slopes, while stiff retentive soils predominate over the 
tracts which lie between the valleys. In many places, 
however, till comes right down the valley-slopes, afford- 
ing its usual retentive soil ; while in some places, espe- 
cially in the valley of the Tay itself (as between Perth 
and Stanley), we meet with tenacious soils which overlie 
clays of more recent geological date than the till. 

Marshy batiks of the lower Tay. — These banks are 
composed of the fine sludge and silt which is the levi- 
gated residue derived from the denudation of all the 
various rocks and drift-accumulations over which the 
Tay and its tributaries flow. 

Lowland Isla. 

Much of what has been said, in the account of the 
geology of Gowrie, regarding the till and its overlying 
deposits in Strathmore, applies to Lowland Isla, all of 
which is in Strathmore. The underlying rocks belong 
to the Old Red Sandstone formation ; but throughout 
the greater part of the district so little do the sand- 
stones crop to the surface that we need scarcely take 
them into account, the soil being derived from the 
glacial deposits with which the surface is covered. But 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 2Q 

on the northern and southern boundaries of the district 
we find the rocks rising to the surface. 

Along the base of the Silurian hills on the northern 
boundary there is a more or less wide belt of the Old 
Red Sandstone formation, composed partly of Porphy- 
rite, Diabase, and Conglomerate, and sprinkled with Till, 
affording a somewhat cold retentive soil upon the till, 
but a lighter, more porous, and warmer one upon the 
exposed strata. 

The Porphyrites of this belt are of the same character 
as those which have been described in the account of 
Gowrie. They yield a good soil, but are for the most 
part buried under till, the resulting soil from which is 
rather cold and retentive, because it is composed very 
largely of the debris of the Silurian slates and schists. 

The Conglomerates of the belt are made up chiefly of 
fragments of various porphyrites and some Silurian rocks, 
and the soil which they yield does not differ very much 
from that which results from the porphyrites. Like the 
latter, they are also largely buried under till. The strata 
of the conglomerates have a high dip towards the south- 
east, and the low hills which they often form are gener- 
ally dry, and have an irregular contour. Some of the 
hollows amongst these hills are lined with till, and are 
consequently marshy. The soil lying upon the rock- 
surfaces is loose and fertile, and contains lime derived 
from the decomposing felspar and other minerals. 

Throughout Lowland Isla there are dykes of basalt, 
but they are not numerous, and appear to have no ap- 
preciable effect upon the nature of the soil. Limestone 
or coarse cornstone occurs here and there, as near Loch 
Cluny and the Linn of Stenton, where they have been 
worked ; but the quantity is too inconsiderable to pro- 
duce any alteration in the character of the till in their 
neighbourhood. 



30 INTRODUCTION. 

The origin of the line of lakes which lie between 
Coupar-Angus and Dunkeld must be noticed. Unlike 
many of the Highland lakes, they are situated not in 
rock basins but in depressions in a wide sheet of gravel 
and sand. This sheet marks the line of a great water- 
flow descending from the Den of Reichip and the glens 
immediately to the west, at a time when these glens 
were filled with glaciers, and the adjacent mountain- 
slopes were thickly covered with snow, the melting of 
which in summer-time gave rise to floods. These 
gravels are of the same age as the gravels, &c, which 
have already been described (in the account of Gowrie) 
as covering all the valley -slopes throughout Strath- 
more. 

The haughs or flats and terraces which fringe the Tay 
also deserve notice. They form a fine expanse of 
alluvial land, and are especially wide (2 m.) in the neigh- 
bourhood of Delvine. The soils over these haughs are 
seldom or never so retentive as in many parts of the 
Carse of Gowrie. Gravel and sand predominate in the 
subsoil, but loamy earthy sand and earthy clay are also 
well developed, more especially at the lowest levels. 
The haughs are arranged in terraces, the highest of 
which fringe the valley-slopes, and in some places (as at 
Delvine and Glenddvine) form, as it were, islands sur- 
rounded by plains of lower terraces. These highest 
terraces are about 50 ft. above the level of the river, or 
from about 160 to 200 ft. above sea-level, and are the 
inland equivalents of the 100-ft. terrace of the Carse of 
Gowrie. Their constituents are chiefly gravel and 
shingle with some sand, while the lowest terraces have, 
upon the whole, a larger admixture of clay. The terraces 
which occur about 30 or 40 ft. below the level of the 
highest, correspond probably with the 45-50 ft. terrace 
of the Carse of Gowrie. 



niVRTCAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 3 1 

Lowland Perth. 

The greater part of this district is more or less covered 
with glacial drift or with river-deposits, so that the under- 
lying rocks have very little direct influence upon the soil. 
The belt of Porphyrites, Conglomerates, &c, along the 
line of the "great fault" at the foot of the more ancient 
hills, is much less extensive than it is in Lowland Isla. 
The valley -slopes of the Almond, like all the other 
streams of Strathmore (as has been already mentioned), 
are coated with gravel, which sweeps up from the edge 
of the valley-flats often to a height of 40 or even 60 ft. 
above the level of the present streams. This gravel 
generally overlies till, and the subsoil between the 
adjacent valleys is usually also till, over which the soil 
is retentive and somewhat cold. The morainic gravels, 
which are conspicuous at the mouths of the Highland 
glens, have been noticed in the account of Gowrie. 

The district is traversed by a good many basalt dykes, 
which, however, have little or no appreciable influence 
upon the soil. The best land lies along the courses of 
the streams, outside of which the soil is cold and the 
country much exposed. 

Speaking generally, the conditions (soil, drainage, &c.) 
are not so good in Lowland Perth as in Lowland Isla. 

Lowland Earn. 

Much of what has been said in the descriptions of the 
other Old Red Sandstone districts applies to Lowland 
Earn. The Ochil Hills, which occupy a considerable 
area at the eastern end of the district, are made up of 
Porphyrites, Melaphyre, Diabase, Tuffs, and Conglomer- 
ates ; and present a succession of old lava -flows and 
'- ashes," with masses of water-worn trappean fragments. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

As in Perthshire generally, the glens and ravines which 
intersect the Ochils have been cut out by stream- 
action. 

The Earn flows through vast terraces of gravel and 
sand, and of clay and fresh -water alluvium. These 
terraces may be traced up the Earn from the already 
described terraces of the Carse of Gowrie, till they 
merge eventually into terraces of fluviatile origin. 

Till covers most of the ground above the terraces, and 
yields the usual cold clay. The rocks have little direct 
influence upon the soil except in the neighbourhood of 
Crieff, where conglomerates and some porphyrites come 
to the surface, and form the continuation of the con- 
glomerate belt described in the account of Lowland 
Perth and Lowland Isla. 

The best lands lie, as usual, along the stream and 
river courses. The wide flat between Crieff and Comrie 
is an alluvial plain, and marks the site of an old lake, 
— the continuation, in fact, of the ancient Loch Earn. 

Lowland Forth. 

This district presents much the same character as that 
just described. A great part of the ground is covered 
with till, glacial gravel, and sand, &c. In the south of 
the district a noticeable feature is the existence of large 
peat-mosses. These are probably later in age than the 
45-50 ft. beach or terrace, but older than the 25-30 ft. 
terrace. An examination of their constituents is very 
desirable. 

We must now take a brief glance at some of the 
geological characteristics of the districts of the earlier 
formation. The main features of these, which constitute 
the Highland area, have already been noticed. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTY. 33 

Breadalbane. 

On the north side of Loch Tay, from Fearnan to 
Killin, the lower portion of the hills is composed of 
Calcareous Schists and Hornblendic Schists, but the 
upper portion is of Mica-schists, which latter rocks form 
also the bulk of the hills on the south side of the loch. 
Quartz-porphyry, however, composes part of the last- 
mentioned hills, as, for example, for some 3 m. east of 
Ardtalanaig, and the watershed between Ardeonaig and 
Glen Lednoch. The Braes of Taymouth are on the 
Hornblendic Schists, and are the best grazing-grounds 
in the district, as they yield a good soil, though less 
readily acted upon by the weather than the Calcareous 
Schists. 

The soil of the slopes is chiefly till, and throughout 
the district, in many places, there are large quantities of 
morainic debris. 

Trap dykes, running east and west, are numerous. 

Rannoch. 

Quartzose flagstones, Quartz, Greywacke, and various 
schistose rocks, such as Mica-schist and Hornblende- 
schist, are the prevailing rocks. Granite also occurs, 
especially at the head of Loch Rannoch, between Lochs 
Rannoch and Ericht, and at Ben Alder. Limestone 
also is met with, as well as occasional trap dykes. 

Over all the lower hill-slopes till and morainic debris 
are scattered in ragged sheets. Since the predominating 
rocks are quartzose, the soil which results from their 
decomposition should be poor. 

Atholl. 

The rocks of this district present considerable variety. 
Ben-a-Ghlo is made up of Quartz-rocks, Granatiferous 
c 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

Mica-schist, with associated beds of coarse grey Lime- 
stone, &c. Towards the head of Glen Tilt Granite 
predominates to the west, where it forms the mass of 
several of the mountains, and Quartz-rock on the east, 
where it alternates with beds of dark-blue Limestone. 
Lower down the glen the Limestone is associated with 
Gneiss, Mica-schist, Hornblende, &c, and still lower 
down has been altered into variously coloured marble. 
Up the Garry, Micaceous Schists, Gneiss, and Quartz- 
rocks prevail, and Granite forms the hill-tops over- 
looking Lochs Garry and Ericht. On the whole, the 
hills of Atholl are very dry, at least in comparison with 
those of Breadalbane. 

Highland Isla. 

The rocks of this district are chiefly Micaceous Schists, 
with here and there some Limestone. On the south- 
eastern boundary those beds of Clay-slates, which occur 
nearly all along the more ancient side of the "great 
fault," make their appearance. 

As usual, till and morainic debris occur on the valley- 
slopes, and the best land is found in the valley-bottoms. 

Highland Perth. 

The rocks of the upper portion of the Almond valley 
consist of Grits and Mica-schist ; and of the lower 
portion, of Grits and Clay-slate bands. The latter occur 
here and there all along the eastern boundary of the 
district. In the Braan valley the north side is Mica- 
schist, and the south side Grits. In Glen Quaigh Grits 
extend up to Loch Freuchie, where they are replaced by 
Mica-schists. 

On the lower slopes of the hills till occurs, but the 
upper parts are clear of drift, and the valley-bottoms are 
generally formed of river alluvium. Some east-and-west 



METHOD EMPLOYED TO SHOW THE FLORA. 35 

basalt dykes are to be found. The drainage of the 
district is good. 

Highland Earn. 

Along the eastern boundary from the foot of Glen 
Turret, by Comrie, to the head of Glen Artney are the 
usual Clay-slate bands. West of these, and extending as 
far as the middle of Loch Earn, come Grits, which are 
succeeded by Mica-schists. In Glen Lednoch we find 
on the north side Diorite, with a Granite boss on the 
south of Ben Chonzie ; in the upper part Quartz- por- 
phyry; and in the remainder Grits. 

The hillsides are generally free from drift, but till 
occurs in some places, and in the valley-bottom some 
alluvium. There are also a few trap dykes. 

Highland Forth. 

The rocks consist chiefly of Mica-slate and Clay-slate, 
while Grits also abound. These give generally a poor 
soil. 

Lomond. 

Quartzose rocks are somewhat prevalent in this 
district. 



ON THE METHOD EMPLOYED TO SHOW THE 
DISTRIBUTION OF THE FLORA. 

In recording the distribution in Perthshire of the 
plants which constitute the indigenous flora, the object 
we have had in view is how to impart the desired infor- 
mation concisely yet amply. With this aim we have 
adopted the following plan, as being well calculated to 
present to the reader, in a clear and intelligible way, the 
main facts connected with the distribution of each species. 



36 INTRODUCTION. 

These facts are arranged in a tabular form, and occupy 
about five lines for each plant. 

The first line is devoted to the Name of the species. 

The second and third lines show the Horizontal or 
District Distribution. 

The fourth line gives information about the Habitat 
and Degree of Abundance of the species. 

The fifth line shows the Perpendicular Distribution. 

In the first place it must be stated that the distribu- 
tion of those species only which have some claim to be 
considered " natives " or " colonists " in Perthshire is 
shown in this tabular method. The " naturalised " and 
"casual" plants are mentioned in their ordinal places in 
the list ; but it has been thought unnecessary, and indeed 
undesirable, to give more than a general indication of 
their distribution, the object of this work being to treat 
only of the indigenous species. With this premiss we 
may proceed to consider — 

i. The Name. — As a general rule, the oldest certain 
name has been used, and in very few cases has it been 
considered necessary to give synonyms, since these may 
be found in the latest lists and manuals of British plants. 
While it must be admitted that the rank or grade of " sub- 
species " is of much utility in indicating the affinities of 
species, yet as the primary object of this list is to show 
the distribution, it has been deemed advisable to consider 
all species as of equal rank, though in a very few cases 
this rule has been departed from. The number after 
he name is the number of the species in the Perthshire 
Herbarium of the Perthshire Natural History Museum. 

2. The Horizontal or District Distribution. — This is 
shown by mentioning the name of every district in 
which the species has been observed, the designation 
of the area or region — Lowland or Highland — being 
placed at the beginning of the line, and expressed by 



METHOD EMPLOYED TO SHOW THE FLORA. 37 

the contractions " L." or " H." Thus, if a plant has 
been observed in all the districts, its distribution is in- 
dicated in this manner : — 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

When it is absent from, or has not been observed in, a 
district, then the name of the district is replaced by an o, 
and the formula might appear thus : — 

l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. o Earn, Perth, o o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 

Indicating that the species has not been observed in 
L. Earn, H. Forth, H. Isla, and Lomond. 

In this manner the distribution, both in area and dis- 
trict, can be seen at a glance. 

It must be borne in mind that the sign (o) of the 
absence of a species from a district only means that suf- 
ficiently trustworthy evidence of its occurrence has not 
been forthcoming. In many cases it is probable that the 
plant does occur, and in some its occurrence has even 
been recorded ; but the rule by which we have been 
guided has been rather to err in the way of being over- 
cautious than to run the risk of making a doubtful 
record. It must also be remembered that the mention 
of the name of a district merely signifies that the species 
has been found within the limits of that district, and 
implies nothing further. 

The districts have not all been examined to the same 
extent, but we shall leave consideration of this fact to be 
treated of in another part of this work. 

3. The Habitat. — Under this heading (contracted 



38 INTRODUCTION. 

" hab.") the nature of the ground or situation in which 
the plant grows is indicated. Such indications are of 
course given in all the manuals of British plants ; but we 
have not simply transcribed these, but have pointed out 
the characteristics of the Perthshire habitat, which is 
not always the same in every respect as those mentioned 
in the handbooks. The meanings of the terms used are 
in most cases self-evident, but definitions of some of 
them may be given. 

" Fields " means ground which is under agriculture, 
and which is more or less frequently ploughed up ; " pas- 
tures," on the other hand, signifies grass-covered land 
which is never brought under the plough though used for 
grazing purposes, and includes any such kind of places, 
from the low-lying ground beside the lowland rivers up 
to the often more or less moory slopes and summits of 
the hills ; " meadows " are much the same as pastures, 
but are always low-lying and have a more luxuriant vege- 
tation ; " moors " are clothed more or less with heather, 
and their soil is often peaty ; the term " banks," when 
unqualified, is a little indefinite, but means those sloping 
bits of grass-covered ground which if they were more 
extensive would be called pastures ; under the term 
" woods " comes any place which is sheltered by trees, 
few or many; while " waste places" or "waste ground" 
comprehend those odd corners and strips near culti- 
vated land which are not in use for any particular pur- 
pose, and indeed not always capable of being used. 

In the same line as the habitat, and under the same 
heading, the Degree of Frequency or Abundance with 
which the species is met with in Perthshire is indi- 
cated. But the meaning of the terms used is only rela- 
tive, and must be interpreted in accordance with, first, 
the District Distribution ; secondly, the Nature of the 
Habitat; and thirdly, the Altitude above sea-level at- 



METHOD EMPLOYED TO SHOW THE FLORA. 39 

tained by the species. Thus if the formula for a species 
is stated thus : — 

l. 000 Isla, o 

h. 00000000 

hab. Lakes. Common. 

alt. Low levels. 

it does not signify that the species is common throughout 
Perthshire, but in the district or districts mentioned, and 
in them only in the appropriate habitats and at the 
specified altitude. 

The terms used in expressing the Degree of Frequency 
are few in number, and their meaning requires little ex- 
planation except in the case of " local." While, as a 
rule, this term signifies a degree of frequency rather less 
than that expressed by " not uncommon," it sometimes 
requires to be supplemented by additional information in 
the way of a list of the " stations " in which the plant 
occurs. When such lists are necessary they are given, 
as will be mentioned presently, after the tabular arrange- 
ment or formula. The terms " very local " and " very 
rare " or " rare " are always so supplemented. " Very 
local " implies a very restricted distribution for a species, 
but not necessarily a scarcity of individuals, which 
condition is signified by the words " rare " and " very 
rare." 

Room has also been found under the heading " hab." 
to indicate the qualification of a few species, which are 
not undoubtedly native, for admittance to a place in the 
tabular arrangement. This qualification is expressed by 
the terms " colonist " or " weed of cultivation." These 
terms mean that the species in question are " found only 
in ground adapted by man for their growth and contin- 
uous maintenance." 

4. The Perpendicular Distribution. — In a region where 



40 INTRODUCTION. 

so much of the ground rises to a considerable altitude 
above sea-level, the Perpendicular or Altitudinal Distri- 
bution forms an important and interesting feature. At 
the same time it is one that necessitates much labour to 
efficiently work out, and towards the elucidation of which 
a great deal has yet to be done in Perthshire. 

In the formula, under the heading of Altitude (con- 
tracted "alt."), the result of the observations made 
upon the perpendicular distribution of the Perthshire 
plants is given. An explanation of the system adopted 
for recording these observations is necessary. In the 
first place, all species which fail to attain an altitude of 
iooo ft. above sea-level are treated as "low-level" 
plants, and the altitudes they attain are not mentioned. 
Some exceptions are, however, made, as, for example, in 
the case of some very local species. 

Secondly, in the case of those species which, starting 
from a low level, . ascend above iooo ft., the greatest 
observed heights are recorded with the initial phrase 
" ascends to," followed by the altitude in feet, and the 
name of the district where the observation was made. 
When altitudinal observations have been made in more 
than one district, they are recorded. 

Thirdly, for the alpine species, which in many cases 
do not descend below a more or less considerable altitude, 
a slightly different mode of record is necessary. In their 
case both the lowest and the highest observed altitudes 
are mentioned. 

Many of the altitudes recorded differ — often consider- 
ably — from those already published. They have been 
observed by means of the aneroid barometer and the 
Ordnance Survey maps, and care has been taken to 
avoid errors. Most of the observations have been made 
by myself; but for some I am indebted to the Rev. E. 
F. Linton. 



EARLIER RECORDS OF PERTHSHIRE PLANTS. 4 1 

This completes the information given in the formula ; 
and for many species it cannot be supplemented in the 
meantime. But in the case of a considerable number it 
is not only possible but desirable to give further infor- 
mation. This includes the following details : — 

1. The earliest record of the species as a Perthshire 
plant. When such a record exists it is given immediately 
after the formula ; but, except in the cases of a few rare 
plants, it has been considered unnecessary to mention 
any records that are of later date than the beginning of 
the present century. The sources whence these records 
have been derived will be enumerated in a subsequent 
section. It must be stated, however, that this subject 
has not been exhaustively worked out. 

2. The named varieties which occur. 

3. Various remarks on the characters of the species as 
found in Perthshire. 

4. Remarks on the distribution. 

5. A list of the localities (or " stations ") in which the 
local or rare species have been observed. The districts 
in which the stations are situated are specified. As has 
been already mentioned, stations are given for those 
species only which are of decidedly restricted distribu- 
tion. Botanists who desire information about the 
localities for other less local plants will find such in 
the Herbarium of the Perthshire Natural History 
Museum. 

SOME OF THE EARLIER RECORDS OF 
PERTHSHIRE PLANTS. 

Although no work treating exclusively of the Perth- 
shire flora has hitherto been published, there yet exists a 
rather considerable number of scattered references to the 
plants of the county. While I have not been able, for 



42 INTRODUCTION. 

various reasons, to compile a complete list of the books, 
&c, in which such references occur, the following one 
includes most of the more important and interesting : — 

i. ' Scotia Illustrated.' By Sir Robert Sibbald. Edin- 
burgh, 1684. — In this work five Perthshire plants are 
mentioned. What two of them were can only now be 
guessed at : one is not a native of Scotland ; the remain- 
ing two still exist in or near the localities given by 
Sibbald. 

2. ' Flora Scotica.' By the Rev. John Lightfoot. 
London, 1778 ("first" edition) and 1792 ("second" 
edition). — Lightfoot's 'Flora Scotica' — by far the most 
important of the earlier works relating to Perthshire 
botany — owes its existence to Thomas Pennant. Pen- 
nant invited Lightfoot to join him in " his second tour 
and voyage to the Hebrides" in the summer of 1772, 
and suggested that he should compile a Flora of Scot- 
land. This Lightfoot undertook to do, and the work 
was published at Pennant's expense. The so-called 
first edition appeared in 1778, but met with such a 
hostile reception that it was withdrawn from circulation 
for a few years, to reappear as the " second " edition in 
1792. 

In this ' Flora Scotica ' Perthshire localities for up- 
wards of one hundred flowering - plants and ferns are 
mentioned. For many of these Lightfoot acknowledges 
his indebtedness to a Perthshire botanist, the Rev. Mr 
Stuart, minister of Killin, who accompanied him through 
the Highlands and afterwards corresponded with him. It 
is therefore probably to Stuart that we owe the discovery 
of many of our alpine plants. 

In the part of this work relating to the distribution, 
the whole of Lightfoot's references to Perthshire plants 
are noted with the citation " Lightfoot, 1778." 

3. In the four fasciculi, ' Plantarum Cryptogamicarum 



EARLIER RECORDS OF PERTHSHIRE PLANTS. 43 

Britanniae,' published by James Dickson between 1785 
and 1801, a few flowering-plants and ferns are recorded. 

4. In the ' Statistical Account of Scotland,' edited by 
Sir John Sinclair, and published in 1796, part of the in- 
formation that is given relates to the botany of each 
parish. As may be supposed, this information is not of 
equal value for all the parishes, as not all the compilers 
(usually the parish ministers) had the requisite botanical 
knowledge. But in some cases a good deal can be 
learned from the accounts. Amongst the more valuable 
are those of Aberfoyle (Rev. Dr Graham) and of Cluny 
(Rev. Mr M'Ritchie). 

References to this ' Statistical Account ' are given with 
the citation " O.S.A." ('Old Statistical Account'), with 
the date, &c. 

5. In 1844 another edition, or rather version, of the 
work just mentioned was published, under the title of the 
' New Statistical Account.' The accounts of many of 
the parishes were written seven or eight years prior to 
1844. Like the older work, the 'New Statistical Ac- 
count ' aims at giving botanical information, and, just as 
in the former case, the information is of unequal value. 
Amongst the best is that relating to the parishes of Red- 
gorton (Rev. W. Liston) and Bendochy (Rev. Dr Barty). 

The ' New Statistical Account ' has only been cited 
(as " N.S.A.") for some of the rarer plants, since it is of 
a more recent date than the period of " early records." 

6. On various dates at the beginning of this century 
George Don published nine fasciculi under the title 
' Herbarium Britannicum, consisting of Fasciculi of dried 
British Plants, with their appropriate Names and par- 
ticular Habitats annexed. By George Don.' 

All Perthshire references in this work have been cited 
as " Don Fasc," with dates and numbers. 



Class I.— DICOTYLBDONE^B. 

Sub-Class \.—THALAMIFLORM. 

Order L— RANUNCULACE.E. 

TRIBE I. — ANEMONES. 

1. THALICTRUM L. 

T. alpinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine rock-ledges and grassy slopes, wet or dry. 

Not uncommon, though rather local. 
alt. Ascends from 950 ft. in Atholl and 1800 in 

Rannoch to 3980 in Breadalbane and 2850 in 

Rannoch. 

" Upon Maol-Ghlas, in Breadalbane, and the mountains about 
Loch Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 2S6. 1778. 

Clematis Vitalba L. (Tribe Clematidece) has occurred 
as an established (but not spreading) escape from cultiva- 
tion, as on banks of Tay below Dunkeld, and self-sown 
at Seggieden. 

T. minus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 



46 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Banks of rivers and lakes. Local ; very rare on 

mountain-ledges. 
alt. Ascends to above 2400 ft. in Breadalbane. 

"Mr Stuart found it in the pastures about Loch Rannoch, in 
Perthshire, and in many other places." — Lightfoot, p. 285. 1778. 

Here and there on the banks of the Tay at and above Perth, and 
some of its larger tributaries, but not elsewhere. In L. Forth, 
at Leny (J. Dawson), but probably planted. Rocks above Larigan 
Lochan (R. H. Meldrum). Between Culross and Kincardine (J. 
M'Gregor and Rev. J. Couper). 

Var. montanum Wallr. The commoner form. 
Var. majus Sm. More widely distributed, but less 
frequent. 

Extreme forms of these varieties are well marked, but it is not 
always easy to say to which of them some specimens should be 
referred. 

T. flavum L. was found by Mr T. Buchanan as an 
outcast at Kincardine (J. Couper). 

2. ANEMONE L. 

A. nemorosa L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, pastures, and mountains. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2750 ft. in Breadalbane, and 2000 in 

H. Earn. Above 1500 in L. Forth. 

Adonis autumnalis L. is reported to have been found, 
but, if not sown, was only a casual. 



RANUNCULUS. 47 

TRIBE II. — RANUNCULE7E. 

3. RANUNCULUS L. 

§ i. Batrachium} 

R. trichophyllus Chaix. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
H. o o Perth, 00000 

hab. Lakes and ditches. Local. 
alt. Ascends to close upon 1000 ft. in H. Perth. 

L. Isla — Stormont, White, and Fingask Lochs (Sturrock) (!). 

Gowrie — ditches near Invergowrie (!). 
H. Perth — Corrymuckloch (!) ("apparently R. trichophylhts" — 
Babington ; " R. Drouetii" — Hiern). 

R. Drouetii F. Schulz. (89.) 
L. o o o Isla, o 

H. OOOOOOOO 

hab. Lakes. 

ALT. 

1 Botanists who have studied the more or less variable species 
which are included in this section hold such discordant views — 
scarcely two of them agreeing — that there is some difficulty in 
ascertaining how the distribution of the Perthshire forms may best 
be shown. I am much indebted to Professor Babington, Dr J. T. 
Boswell, and Mr W. H. Hiern for having kindly examined the 
large series of Perthshire specimens in the Perthshire Natural 
History Museum. Owing probably to the fact that a limited 
number of dried specimens of each form are not always sufficient 
for the exact determination of such variable plants, the opinions ex- 
pressed by these eminent botanists are frequently conflicting. So 
while carefully preserving in the Herbarium their dicta, I have 
thought it desirable, for the sake of uniformity, to follow in the 
Flora the views of Professor Babington only, as otherwise it would 
have been necessary to have mentioned in detail each of our 
examples. 

I should add that, as the greater number of our specimens come 
from a comparatively limited area, the distribution of the section 
(except in the case of R. hederaceus) is not, perhaps, very clearly 
shown. It is, however, common in the Lowland area, but in the 
Highland is much less frequent, and, perhaps, in two or three of the 
districts is altogether absent or very rare. 



48 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

White, Fingask, and Stormont Lochs (Sturrock) (!). More or 
less typical. 

Lunan Burn at New Mill (Sturrock). " R. radians Rev." — Hiern. 
"Not my idea of radians, but a very dark form of Drouetii : the 
flowers also are larger than usual." — Babington. 

R. heterophyllus Fr. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, o 
h. 00000000 
hab. Rivers, lakes, and ditches. 

ALT. 

L. Perth— Madderty(l). 

Isla — Fingask Loch (!) : Lunan Burn (Sturrock). 

Var. submersiis or near it. River Isla (Sturrock). 

R. confusus Godr. (89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Brackish pools. 
alt. Low levels. 

Kingoodie Quarry ( !). (The pools in which it occurred have now 
— 1891— ceased to exist, but it may grow in others.) 

Regarding a plant from Loch Cluny (!), Professor Babington 
says: "Very like R. triphyllos'Ws.Wi:" ; and Mr Hiern, "Cf. R. 
triphylhis," 

R. floribundus Bab. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Lakes, pools, and streams. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

R. penicillatus Hiern ; Bab. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Larger streams. 

ALT. 

Rivers Tay and Earn in several places (!). 



RANUNCULUS. 49 

R. peltatus Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, o 

hab. In water. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 1450 ft. in H. Perth and above 1000 

in H. Isla. 

Several forms occur, such as those which have been called elon- 
gatus, truncatus, and fissifolius. 

R. circinatus Sibth. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Lakes and streams. Rare. 

ALT. 

L. Forth — Kilmadock (Craig-Christie). 

Isla — River Isla at Bendochy (Sturrock). Fingask Loch 
(Sturrock) (!). Specimens from the latter locality are not 
typical, and show (as Mr Hiern remarks) that R. circinatus 
is sometimes less distinctly separated from the other forms 
than is commonly supposed. 

Gowrie — Moncreiffe Pond (!) — perhaps introduced. 

R. hederaceus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 
hab. Wet mud or shallow water. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to near 1000 ft in H. Perth and to 1800 
ft. in L. Forth. 
Var. omiophylhts Ten. North Leys, Seggieden (Drum- 
mond-Hay), and probably elsewhere. 





§"• 


Euranunadus. 




R. 


Lingua L. (87, 88 


,89.) 






L. 


[Forth,] Earn, 





Isla, 





H. 


Earn, 











HAB. 


Marshes. Rare. 








ALT. 











50 DICOTYLEDONEyE. 

" It has been observed in Strathearn, by Mr R. Miller, Dupplin 
House." — Don, Fasc. viii., 1806, No. 115. 
L. [Forth— Dollar (J. Dawson).] 

Earn — Banks of Earn at Innerpeffray (J. Drummond) ; Bal- 

gowan (W. Liston). No recent records. 
Isla— Near Meikleour (!) ; Loch Cluny (!) — planted (?) ; near 
Alyth (Herdman). The Meikleour plant has denticulate 
leaves somewhat hairy below, and flowers i}< in. in 
diameter. 
H. Earn — " Loch Earn" ('Top. Bot.') 

R. Flammula L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
has. Marshy places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3100 ft. in Breadalbane and 2200 in 
Atholl. 

Var. pseudo-reptans Syme. Common on the muddy 
margins of pools and lakes ; passing into the type, and 
scarcely worthy of a special name. 

In the Linntean Society's Herbarium are two specimens with the 
following label : Ranunculus reptans. — " Ex Hb. Withering. On 
the margin of Loch Tay. It is undoubtedly nothing more than a 
variety of R. Flammula, as Haller has well observed. I have a set 
of specimens that put this matter beyond a doubt. August 1793. 
R. Br." These specimens are not quite typical R. reptans. I have 
seen similar plants on the shores of Loch Laidon. 

Some other forms have the aspect of R. Liiigua, being much more 
robust than the ordinary plant. The leaves are usually entire and 
glabrous, but sometimes they are coarsely toothed, and sometimes 
slightly pubescent. 

R. sceleratus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Wet muddy places. Not common. 



ALT. 



Forth — Blairdrummond (J. Drummond) ; [Kincardine, Lorn 

annet, and Kennetpans (D. Couper) (!).] 
Earn — Madderty(I); Forgandenny (T. Drummond). 
Perth— Cherrybank (R. II. Meldrum) (!). 



RANUNCULUS. 5 1 

Isla — Ardblair (Herdman). 

Cowrie. Not infrequent on the lower course of the Tay (!); 
Rait and Kilspindie (Drummond-Hay). 

R. auricomus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
1.. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
11. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods • more rarely in pastures. Rather local. 

ALT. 

Petals rarely all perfect. Plant rarely quite glabrous. Segments 
of radical leaves sometimes nearly acute. 

R. acris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Meadows, pastures, and banks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in 

Lomond, 2000 in H. Perth, and above 1800 in 

L. Forth. 
Var. Steveni Andrz. Corrie Ardran at 2500 ft. ; Coire 
Dubh Ghalair at 2300 ft. (Marshall and Hanbury) ; 
Glen Shee at 1600 or more (E. S. Marshall). 

R. repens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in L. Forth, 1750 in Atholl, 

and 1400 in H. Isla. 

R. bulbosus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



52 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

hab. Meadows and pastures. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Atholl and to at least 
1200 ft. in L. Forth. 

§ iii. Echinella. 
R. Sardous Cr. (R. hirsutus Curt.) (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Fields and waste places. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

" Corn-fields west of Perth."— J. Mackay in ' F. S.,' 1821. 
Chiefly casual and sporadic, but in some localities more abundant 
and sub-permanent. A colonist. 

R. arvensis L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Corn-fields, chiefly on a clay soil. Very local. 

A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Isla — Near Murrayshall (J. Roy). 

Gowrie — Myres of Megginch, Fingask, and Mugdrum Island 
(Drummond-Hay) ; Enrol (!); Wester Rhynd (!). 

§ iv. Ficaria. 
R. Ficaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp meadows and shady places. Common. 

ALT. 

Var. incumbens F. Schultz. Not common or over- 
looked. North Inch (!), Woody Island (!), Seggieden (!) ; 
Rattray (Sturrock) ; Almondmouth (R. Dow) (!). As, 
however, leaves with divergent and incumbent lobes 
occur on the same plant, this variety is of little value. 



CALT1IA — TROLLIUS. 53 

TRIBE III. — HELLEBORE/E. 
4. CALTHA L, 

C. palustris L. (87, SS, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 2800 in H. 
Forth, 2700 in Atholl, and 2600 in H. Perth. 

Var. minor near Glenshee at 2500 ft. (E. S. Marshall). 

5. TROLLIUS L. 

T. europaeus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of rivers and lakes, damp pastures, and 
mountain-ledges. Local : most common in the 
highlands. 
alt. Ascends to above 2700 ft. in Breadalbane and 
Atholl, 2500 in H. Earn, and 1200 in H. 
Forth. 
Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

Hellehorus fcetidus L. occurs as a sporadic escape 
here and there, and in some abundance, on Moncreiffe 
Hill, where it was sown. 

Eranthis hyemalis Salisb. has also been found, but, if 
not planted, was only an outcast. 



54 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

6. AQUILEGIA L. 

A. vulgaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. o Earn, o Isla, o 

h. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 

hab. Woods. Very rare. 

ALT. 

It is with much hesitation that I admit this species as a native, 
since it occurs in many places (though not abundantly) as an evi- 
dent escape from cultivation. In the following localities, however, 
it appears to have some claim to be considered indigenous : — 

L. Earn — Woodend, Madderty (Anderson-Henry) (!). 
Isla — Hatton Hill, Rattray (Herdman). 

H. Perth— North side of Birnam Hill (!). 

Isla — Wooded bank of the Tay below Dunkeld (!). 

As an escape it has been found in several districts besides those 
mentioned. Common on the banks of the Tay. 

Aconitum Napellus L. occurs as an escape in a few 
places on the banks of the Tay and Earn. 

Order Berberide^e. Berberis vulgaris L. is a com- 
monly planted shrub in hedges, &c, but self-sown 
bushes sometimes occur. 

Order II.— NYMPH^EACEyE. 
1. CASTALIA, Salisb. 

C. speciosa Salisb. {NympJma alba L.) (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Lakes and pools. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in H. Isla and to nearly 

1000 in Breadalbane and Rannoch. 

Loch Cluny (M'Ritchie, 1793). 

Flowers variable in size and stigma rays in number, without a 
relative correspondence. Hence there seems to be no valid reason 
for separating the small-flowered form as a variety. Plants in- 
habiting the highland lochs have usually the smallest, flowers ; 
large-flowered plants in lowland ponds have generally been intro- 
duced. 



NYMP1LEA — PAP AVER. 55 

2. NYMPHiEA L., Salisb. 

N. lutea L. {Nuphar lutea Sm.) (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Lakes, pools, and slow streams. Not uncommon. 
alt. Low levels. 

Loch Cluny (M'Ritcbie, 1793). 

N. pumila Hoffm. {Nuphar minima Sm.) (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, o o 

h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Lakes. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Breadalbane. 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Arnot, 1821). 
Earn — Ochertyre Loch (!). 

Perth — Methven Loch (Drummond-Hay) (!) ; Barber's Loch 
near Lynedoch (!). 
H. Forth — Lochs Katrine and Lubnaig (!) (J. Dawson). 
Isla — Butterstone Loch (Sturrock) (!). 

Breadalbane — Lochan larige Eala (!) and near Lochan nan 
Damh (Brebner). Small loch to the east of Ben More (Rev. 
J. Couper). 
Introduced into a pool on the Moor of Durdie in Gowrie. 

Order III.— PAPAVERACE/E. 

1. PAP AVER L. 

P. Argemone L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 000 Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Not very common. A 

colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

All the poppies are only weeds of cultivation — i.e., "colonists" — 
occurring in tilled fields, and on bare railway-banks and similar waste 
ground. They are most common in the warmer lowland districts — 
in which they have a greater opportunity of ripening their seed — and 
are absent or rare in the colder upland districts. 



56 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

P. dubium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. 00 Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. A colonist. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl. 

Sub-species, P. Lecoqii Lamotte. Once near Glen- 
carse (!) ; and once at Pepperknowes not far distant (!). 

P. Rhoeas L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o 00 Isla, 0000 
hab. Fields and waste places. Not very common. A 

colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

Rare except in Gowrie. The var. strigosum Boenn. is probably 
as common as the type. In some of our specimens of this var. the 
leaves are much less divided than in the typical form, with broader 
and less acute segments ; but intermediates occur. 

P. somniferum L. occurs on ballast-heaps [at Kennet- 
pans (J. Couper), and elsewhere] as an outcast. 

Chelidonium majus L. occurs as a naturalised plant 
— often with semi-double flowers — in hedgerows, &c, in 
several places. 

[Meconopsis cambrica Vig. is reported to have been 
introduced into Castle Campbell Glen, Dollar.] 

Order IV.— FUMARIACE/E. 
1. FUMARIA L. 

F. pallidiflora Jord. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Cultivated ground. Local. A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 



CORYDALIS. 57 

Var. (p)Jorda/ii Bab. Rare. Fingask(!); Seggieden 
(Drummond-Hay); Kinnaird Castle (!); Perth Harbour (!). 
Var. (b) Borcei Jord. Our common form. 

F. confusa Jord. (87, 89.) 

l. Forth, 000 Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Cultivated ground. Rare. A colonist. 

alt. Low levels. 

Near Evelick Castle (Drummond-Hay) ; Perth West, Drum- 
mond ('Top. Bot.') 

F. officinalis L. (87, SS, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Cowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated ground. Common. A colonist. 

ALT. 

In some of our specimens the bracts of the fruit are as long as, or 
longer than, the pedicels. 

F. densiflora DC. (S8, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Cultivated ground. Probably not uncommon. A 

colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

F. parviflora Lam. Clackmannanshire ; Perth West 
('Top. Bot.') 

2. CORYDALIS DC. 

C. claviculata DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 



58 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Woods, banks, and thatched roofs. Rare in the 

L. area, local in the H. area. 
alt. Ascends to about iooo ft. in L. Earn. 

C. lutea DC. is naturalised on old garden walls about 
Perth, &c. 

Order V.— C RUCIFER/E. 

TRIBE I. — ARABIDE7E. 

1. NASTUKTIUM Br. 

N. officinale Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Slow shallow streams and ditches. Common. 
alt. Ascends above 1100 ft. in H. Isla. 

Var. siifolium Reich. Gowkton, near Balthayock 
(Drnmmond-Hay). 

Var. microphyllum Reich. Stanley (!); Moncreiffe (!), 
&c. — a starved form from drier ground. 

N. sylvestre Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. Forth, o o Isla 0000 

hab. River-banks and damp places. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — [Clackmannan Pow (Rev. J. Couper (!) — an introduc- 
tion.] Moraymill (W. Barclay). Callander Station (!) — an 
introduction. 

Earn — Banks of the Earn from above Aberuthven down- 
wards. 

Perth— Craigie Mill-dam (!); Gellybum (R. Dow). 

Gowrie — Banks of the Tay at and below Perth (!), and of 
the Earn above Bridge of Earn. Dr J. T. Boswell remarks 
in 'Exchange Club Report' for 1869, p. 9: "Tay below 
Perth, Sept. 1869. Some specimens with very short sili- 



BARBAREA. 59 

ciilcs ; seeds often abortive. Once supposed to be JV. anceps, 
but not that species." 
ir. Isla — Dunkeld Station (C. M'Intosh). 

N. palustre DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. OOOOOOOO 

hab. Margins of water. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

N. amphibium Br. has been reported from Perth West. 
See 'Top. Bot.' 

Cheiranthus Cheiri L. 

So abundant on the precipices of several of our trap hills that, 
if the general opinion of botanists were not unfavourable to Cheiran- 
thus being considered a native of Britain, it might well be thought 
to be indigenous there. It occurs more rarely on old walls. 



2. BARBAREA Br. 

B. vulgaris Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, o Isla, 000 Atholl. 

hab. Banks of streams and bare waste places. Com- 
mon, but not abundant. A colonist (?). 

alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Atholl, but only as a 
casual. To 1150 in H. Isla. 

Var. arcuata Reich. Darry Island (Drummond-Hay) ; 
Luncarty (!) ; Tarff Bothy, Atholl Forest, — an evidently 
accidental introduction (!). 

I am far from convinced that B. vulgaris is anything more than 
an introduced plant with us, or at the best a weed of cultivation. 
B. arcuata, though placed here as a variety, seems to deserve at 
least sub -specific rank, but I have seen a very few specimens 
only. 

B. prsecox Br. occurs as a casual on the bank of the 
Tay near Orchard Neuk (!). 



6o DICOTYLEDONEvE. 



3. ARABIS L. 

A. petrsea Lam. (88.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rocks. Locally common. 
alt. Not accurately noted, but between 2000 and 
3000 ft. 

"Upon Creg-Chailleach, in Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 347. 
1778. 

The species has not, so far as I am aware, been seen on Craig-na- 
Caillich since Lightfoot's time, and its existence in Perthshire was 
doubtful till Colonel Drummond-Hay and I found it on Ben Laoigh, 
when we discovered — in a botanical sense — that hill. 

Ben Laoigh specimens are not altogether in harmony with the 
descriptions of the species in British floras, but agree well with that 
in Koch's ' Synopsis.' On Ben Laoigh two forms of the plant 
occur : — 

1. Radical leaves moderately hairy, stalked, obovate or lanceo- 
late, with two (or three) remote and irregular teeth or none, sub- 
acute or almost obtuse. Stem sparingly hairy towards the base, 
glabrous above, stem leaves glabrous, linear - lanceolate, sessile. 
Calyx glabrous, petals white. 

2. Dwarfer and more slender. Stems more numerous. Radical 
leaves more numerous, thicker in texture, smaller in proportion, 
tapering less into the petiole, more distinctly toothed or even lobed, 
but sometimes entire, very hairy. Stem very hairy at the base, less 
hairy upwards, and glabrous at the summit. Stem leaves few, linear- 
lanceolate, sparingly hairy. Sepals often hairy at the tip ; petals 
rosy purple. 

Both forms are very different from the Braemar plant, which has 
usually the lower leaves longer in proportion and sublyrate-pinnat- 
ifid. Specimens I found in Skye are very small, and have glabrous, 
much-divided leaves. The Ben Laoigh plant seems not to descend 
along the streams in the way the Braemar plant does. 

Mr Druce notices ('J. of B.,' Feb. 1890, p. 40) that slugs are very 
fond of the Cairngorm plant in his garden, but neglect the Ben 
Laoigh one. 

A. petraa. G. C. Druce, in Report for 1892 (pub. 1893) of Bot. 
Exch. Club of Brit. Isles, argues that the Ben Laoigh (Argyll 
[? Perth also] ) A. petrcea is a distinct species, and should be called 
A. grandifolia Druce (or A. scotica Druce). "It may be known 
from A. petrcea by its broadly ovate nearly entire dark-green leaves, 
thickly covered with bifid and trifid hairs, and by its flowers, which 
are twice the size of ordinary A. petraa" He adds that it keeps 



CARDAMINE. 6 1 

distinct from the Cairngorm plant in cultivation at Oxford, and 
strikes, which this does not. He doubts if the British A. petma is 
Lamarck's plant. 

A. hirsuta Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry warm rocks. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in 

Lomond, 2200 in H. Earn, 2100 in Atholl, 1800 

in H. Isla, and 1500 in Rannoch. 

A specimen of var. glabrata Syme, in the Edinburgh University 
Herbarium, bears on the label the locality " Ochtertyre, Perthshire " ; 
but possibly the specimen did not come from that place. 

A. perfoliata Lam. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, o o 

h. 0000000 Atholl. 

hab. Rocky banks and old walls. 

alt. Low levels. 

l. Forth— " Perth West. Dewar sp." ('Top. Bot.') 

Earn — ■ Invermay (J. Pagan) ; Innerpeffray Castle ( J. 

Drammond) (!). 
Perth— Banks of the Almond (W. Liston in N.S.A., 1837)5 
about Pitcairnfield (Wilkie) — probably Liston's station. 
H. Atholl— Killiecrankie (A. H. Evans) (!). 
Possibly not indigenous in Perthshire. 



4. CARDAMINE L. 

C. flexuosa With. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places. Common, 



62 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

alt. Ascends to about 3900 ft. in Breadalbane, 2200 
in H. Earn, 2000 in Lomond, and 1750 in 
Atholl. 

Var. umbrosa Gr. and Gr. Leaflets, even the upper, 
broadly oval, angular, or incised. This seems to be our 
commoner form. 

0. hirsuta L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Bare ground, damp or dry. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3800 ft. in Breadalbane, 2100 in 

Atholl, 1800 in H. Isla, 1500 in Rannoch and 

L. Forth. 

C. pratensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in EL Forth, 2400 in Atholl, 

and above 1400 in L. Forth. 

C. amara L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Sides of rivers and lakes. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in L. Forth. 

"At Finlarig, near the end of Loch Tay." — Stuart in Liglitfoot, 
p. 1 127. 1778. 

Var. lilacina B.W. River May above Muckersie (!). 

Dentaria bulbifera L. is said in ' Fl. Scot.' to grow 
near Dupplin, on the authority of Mr Shillinglaw. There 
is no recent record. 



SISYMBRIUM. 63 

TRIBE II. — SISYMBRIEjE. 
5. SISYMBRIUM L. 

S. Thalianum Gay. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry bare places. Common at low altitudes. 
alt. Ascends to 2250 ft. in Breadalbane, 2200 in H. 

Earn, 2100 in Atholl, and 1700 in PI. Isla. 

S. Sophia L. is a rare casual. 

S. officinale Scop. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Roadsides. Not uncommon. A colonist (?). 

alt. Low levels. 

Var. leiocarpum DC. Pods quite or nearly glab- 
rous. Aberfeldy (!), Innerpeffray Castle (!), [Clackman- 
nan Pow (!), Kennetpans (!).] 

S. Alliaria Scop. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

it. 000 Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Hedge-banks, &c. Local. A colonist (?). 

alt. Low levels (!). 

Hesperis matronalis L. In all the L. districts, and 
also in H. Perth. 

Common and quite established on the trap rubbles of Kinnoull 
and Moncreiffe Hills, where it looks almost as if it was indigenous. 



64 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 



TRIBE III. — BRASSICE^E, 
6. BRASSICA L. 

B. Sinapis Vis. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Corn-fields. Common. A colonist. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl and 1250 in H. 
Isla. 

B. alba Boiss occurs in several places as a weed, and 
B. polymorpha Syme, in its forms B. campestris L. and 
B. Rapa L., as an escape — rarely established — from 
cultivation. 

[B. nigra Koch and B. adpressa Boiss have been 
found by Rev. J. Couper at Glenochil and Kennetpans 
in L. Forth.] B. monensis Huds. is not uncommon in 
a timber-yard at Perth Harbour (!). 

[Diplotaxis tenuifolia DC. Clackmannan Pow (!), 
Kennetpans (!), and Glenochil (J. Couper).] 

[D. muralis DC. (probably var. Babingtonii Syme). 
Clackmannan Pow (!) and Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 



TRIBE IV. — ALYSSINEiE. 
7. DRABA L. 

D. rupestris Br. (88.) 

L. OOOOO 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o 
hab. Alpine rocks, often in crevices. Rare. 
alt. Between 3000 and 3980 ft. 



EROPHILA. 65 

Ben Lawers (Dickson, 1790). 

Ben Lawers (!) ; Catjaghiamman (Prof. Graham) ; Hen Laoigh and 
Am Binnein (Balfour). 

D. incana L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine rocks. Not common except in Breadal- 
bane. 

alt. From 1000 ft. in Atholl and 1700 in Breadal- 
bane, to 3550 in Breadalbane, 2425 in Lomond, 
and 2000 in H. Earn and Atholl. 

" My specimens were collected from Ben Lawers." — Don. Fasc, 
viii., 1S06, No. 1S7. 

D. muralis L. is a rare casual. 



8. EROPHILA DC. 

E. vulgaris DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Bare ground. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 in H. 

Earn, 1750 in Atholl, 1570 in H. Isla, and 

1500 in Rannoch. 

Var. inflata Hook., or approaching it. Ben Lawers (!), 

Craig -na-Lochan(l), Craig - na - Caillich (!), Craig Var, 

Rannoch (!) ; Glen Shee (Fergusson) ; at 1600 ft. in 

Glen Shee (E. S. Marshall). Also beside road near Fin- 

larig. Specimens from Ben Lawers show on same plant 

ordinary long flat pods and short inflated ones. 

Alyssum incanum L. has occurred in fields at Rattray 
(Herdman) and at Perth Harbour (W. Barclay) (!). 

E 



66 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

9. COCHLEARIA L. 

C. officinalis L. 
Var. alpina Wats. 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine springs, rills, and wet rocks. Not un- 
common at a high altitude ; rarely descending 
along the streams. 

alt. Ascends to 3850 ft. in Breadalbane and 2850 in 
Rannoch. 

" About Loch Rannoch." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 344. 1778. 

Probably rarely occurring below 2000 or 2500 ft.— though obser- 
vations are required on this point — but sometimes washed down by 
streams, as I have found it at 1150 ft. in H. Isla, and Mr Sturrock 
saw it on the banks of the Ericht near Blairgowrie in L. Isla (alt. 
below 200 ft. ) 

[The following notes on forms of Cochlearia have been 
added by Dr White in his MS., without full incor- 
poration : — 

[C. danica L. Culross (J. M'Gregor).] 

[C. officinalis. Kincardine - on - Forth (Syme Cat.) ; 
Kincardine and Kennetpans (J. Couper) (!)] 

C. officinalis L. var. alpina (Wats.) Bab. Am Binnein 
up to about 3500 ft. (Marshall and Hanbury). 

C. grcenlandica L. Am Binnein from 3300 to 3500 ft. 

" Clearly identical with the Ben Lawers plant passed as this 
species by Prof. Babington." — Marshall and Hanbury. 

Cochlearia on the Cairnwell (E. S. Marshall), at 2700 
ft., is like the Am Binnein plant.] 

C. Armoracia L. An escape at Perth Harbour (!) 
[Glenochil near Menstrie (J. Couper), and Kennet- 
pans (!)]. 



SUBULARIA— CAPSELLA. 67 



TRIBE V. — CAM F.LI NE/E. 
10. SUBULARIA L. 

S. aquatica L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Lakes and pools, and their margins ; sometimes in 
rivers near lakes. Not uncommon. 

alt. Ascends to 1620 ft. in Atholl, and to between 
1400 and 1500 in H. Earn, H. Perth, Bread- 
albane, and Rannoch. 

"In Loch Tay." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 337. 1778. "Loch 
Cluny, Aug. 1793." — Robert Brown in Linnrean Society's Her- 
barium. 

Though Subularia is described as having no stem, there is some- 
times a distinct though short leafy stem. The plant is usually sub- 
merged — often in comparatively deep water — but is sometimes left 
dry by the receding of the water, and then the flowers expand, as 
Koch remarks. 

Camelina sativa Crantz has occurred as a rare casual 
near Perth (R. H. Meldrum) [and at Glenochil and 
Kennetpans (J. Couper)]. 

TRIBE VI. LEPIDINEiE. 

11. CAPSELLA Moench. 

C. Bursa-pastoris Moench. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. In or near cultivated ground. Common. A 
colonist. 

alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. 
Isla. 



68 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

[Senebiera Coronopus Poir. (!) and S. didyma Pers. 
occur on ballast-heaps at Kennetpans near Kincardine- 
on-Forth, and the former also at Clackmannan Pow (J. 
Couper).] 

12. LBPIDIUM L. 

L. campestre Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, Isla, Govvrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Roadsides and dry fields. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth— Culross (J. M'Gregor); Dollar.] 

Earn — Forgandenny (J. Pagan) ; railway-banks near Bridge 

of Earn and Forgandenny (!). 
Perth — Stanley and Redgorton Hill (W. Liston, 1837). 
Isla— Bendochy (Barty). 

Gowrie — • Kinnoull Hill (!); Bridge of Earn (!); Inver- 
gowrie (!); Balthayock and Kilspindie (Drummond- 
Hay)(!). 
Perhaps L. campestre should be regarded rather as often a colonist 
than as a native in Perthshire. The anthers are sometimes reddish- 
purple. 

L. heterophyllum Bluth. 

Var. canescens Gren. and Godr. (L. Smithii Hook.) (87, 
88, 89). 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Roadsides and dry fields. Local. 
alt. Spital of Glen Shee. Ascends to 1100 ft. in H. 
Isla. 

L. ruderale L. occurs at Perth Harbour (!) [and at 
Glenochil near Menstrie, Kennetpans, and Clackmannan 
Pow (J. Couper)]. 

L. Draba L. has been found on rubbish-heaps at 
Invergowrie (!) ; L. sativum L. has occurred as a casual 
in several places. [L. perfoliatum L. has been found 
by Rev. J. Couper at Glenochil.] 



THLASPI— TEESDALIA. 69 



TRIBE VII. — THLASPIDEjE. 
13. THLASPI L. 

T. alpestre L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

H. o o o Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. Mountain rocks. Very rare. 
alt. At about 1600 ft. in H. Isla and above 2000 in 
Rannoch. 

H. Isla — Glen Shee (Fergusson) (!). 
Rannoch — Ben a Chuallaich (!). 

The Glen Shee plant seems to be the var. sylvestre Jord. The 
Rannoch plant is not quite the same as the Glen Shee one. It is 
much dwarfer, branched above the middle, and has comparatively 
shorter stamens. It seems rather to approach the var. occitanum 
Jord., but I have seen very few specimens. It grows on limestone ; 
while the rock on which the Glen Shee plant is found is apparently 
not limestone. 

T. arvense L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Fields. Very local. A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Near Alva (J. Dawson) ; [Menstrie and Kennetpans 

(Rev. J. Couper).] 
Perth — Redgorton (YV. Liston, 1837). No recent record ; 

Stanley (R. H. Meldrum). 
Gowrie — Rait and Fingask (Drummond-Hay) (!). 

Iberis amara L. occurs, occasionally, as a casual only. 



14. TEESDALIA Br. 

T. nudicaulis Br. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, o Isla, o 
h. o Earn, 000 



70 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

hab. Rocky knolls, and gravelly and sandy places. 

Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Auchterarder (Murray in F. S., 1821). No recent 
record ; near Abernelhy (Drummond-Hay) (!). 
Isla — Shingles of the Tay above Meikleour (!) ; Bendochy 
(Barty). 

H. Earn — Shingles of the Earn on the line of the "Great 
Fault." 

[Cakile maritima Scop. 

L. Forth — In various places on the Forth from Kincardine up 
to Cam bus (Rev. J. Couper).] 

TRIBE VIII. RAPHANE/E. 

15. RAPHANUS L. 

R. Raphanistrum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields. Common. A colonist. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1100 in H. 
Isla. 

Flowers in Perthshire usually yellow. I have found the white- 
flowered form near Forgandenny. 

Order VI.- RESEDACE^E. 
1. RESEDA L. 

R. Luteola L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 0000000 Atholl. 
hab. Dry and bare banks and rocks. Local in the 

Lowland area ; probably only a casual in the 

Highland area. 

ALT. 



IIELIANTIIKMUM — VIOLA. 7 I 

R. lutea L. (89.) 

l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Sunny banks. Very local. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Isla — Myreside, Blairgowrie (W. Herdman) (!), 

Gowrie — " Near Raith [Rait] in the Carse of Gowrie ' — (D. 
Don in 'F. S.,' 1821) ; near Kilspindie (Drammond- Hay) (!) 
— probably the same station as D. Don's. 
I see no reason to doubt that the species is indigenous in these 
localities. I have found it as a casual at Invergowrie. 
[Sporadic at Kennetpans in L. Forth (Rev. J. Couper).] 



Order VII.— CISTINE^E. 
1. HELIANTHEMTJM Gaert. 

H. vulgare G. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry sunny banks and rocks. Not uncommon ; 

more local in the Highland area. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl, above 2000 in H. 

Isla, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

Order VIII.-VIOLARIE/E. 
1. VIOLA L. 

§ i. Nomimiuvi. 

V. palustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



72 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

hab. Marshy places. Not uncommon, but most abun- 
dant in the Highland area. 
alt. Ascends to 3S50 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in Ran- 

noch, 2800 in H. Forth, 2700 in Lomond, 2600 

in H. Perth, and 2000 in H. Isla. 

V. odorata L. is naturalised here and there. 

V. hirta L. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, o o Govvrie. 

h. 0000000 Atholl. 

hab. Dry banks. Very local. 

ALT. 

L. Earn — Callerfountain Hill and neighbourhood (!) ; Glen 

Farg(!). 
Gowrie — Here and there on the slopes of the trap hills 

throughout the district (!). 
H. Atholl- Glen Tilt (!). 

V. sylvatica Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods, banks, moors, and pastures. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in H. Forth, 2750 in Bread- 
albane, and 2100 in Atholl. 

V. Reichenbachiana Bor. (88.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o Earn, 000000 

hab. Rocky banks (?). Rare or overlooked. 

alt. Ascends to about 2000 ft. 

Craig ma Grianich, near Lochearnhead (!). 



viola. 73 

V. canina L. (87, 38, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Shingly margins of rivers and lakes, rocky banks, 

and peaty places. Local. 
alt. Ascends to above 1400 ft. in H. Isla. 

§ ii. Melanium. 

V. tricolor L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste ground. Common. 

ALT. 

Very variable. Sometimes perennial. The var. arvensis Murr. 
(a species or sub-species in the opinion of some authors) is common 
in cultivated ground. 

V. lutea Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Grassy hill-pastures and alpine rock-ledges. Not 

uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 3450 ft. in Breadalbane, 2800 in H. 

Forth, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

"With a purple flower on Mall-gyrdy in Breadalbane." — Light- 
foot, p. 508. 1778. 

Very variable. On the O.R.s. hills it is usually (but not always) 
yellow-flowered ; on the pre-Cambrian mountains the flowers are fre- 
quently purple (var. amccna Sym. ) The petals vary much in shape. 
In the most alpine plants the lower petal is apiculate ; in those from 
a somewhat lower altitude the lower petal is repand-crenate, thus 
resembling the description of the var. sudetica Koch {V. sudetica 
Willd.) 

V. cornuta. Kennetpans (!). As an escape. 



74 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

Order IX.— POLYGALACE^E. 
1. POLYGALA L. 

P. vulgaris L. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Grassy places ; more rarely on rocks or in 

marshes. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 (perhaps 2000) ft. in Atholl 

and about 1100 in H. Isla. 

Chiefly on the banks of the Tay and some of its tributaries. 

Flowers usually blue. Sometimes the pedicels are very slightly 
pubescent, and the calyx-wings slightly ciliated. The latter are 
sometimes narrower than the capsule. The plant usually grows in 
well-drained places. Three forms deserve notice : — 

1. An erect few-stemmed form, growing in swamps in the Black 
Wood of Rannoch. Height 8 to 9 in. ; leaves fewer and smaller ; 
flowers not very numerous. 

2. An alpine form, growing at 2000 ft. in Glen Tilt. It may, 
however, belong to the next species. Plant 3 to 5 in. in length, 
with leaves becoming larger towards the top of the stem ; flowers 5 
or 6 in number, very dark blue, large in comparison with the size of 
the plant — ^ in. long by more than % wide; calyx-wings, with 
many anastomosing veins up to near the apex. 

3. A form not uncommon on dry ledges of trap-rock on Dunsin- 
ane Hill, and the only form there. Stems numerous, almost woody 
at the base, very leafy ; leaves rather narrower in proportion to their 
length than usual ; flowers rather small, of a peculiar shade of 
purple ; pedicels pubescent, and the plant itself often pubescent 
above. 

P. serpyllacea Weihe. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, moors, and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl, and to 
about 2700 in Breadalbane. 



DIANTIIUS. 75 

P. oxyptera Reich. Glen Lyon (E. F. Linton) and 
Killin (W. R. Linton), Glen Shee and Glen Beg, frequent ; 
ascends to 1700 on Craig Leacach (E. S. Marshall). 

Order X.— CARYOPHVLLACE/E. 

TRIBE I. SILENE/E. 

1. DIANTHUS L. 

D. deltoides L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 0000000 Atholl. 
hab. Dry banks and rocky knolls. Local. 

ALT. 

L. Forth — "Perth West" (Top. Bot. ) — requires confirmation. 
Earn — Glen Farg (!) ; Pitkeathly (J. Dawson) ; Auchterarder 

(P. Gloag). 
Perth— Near Friarton (W. Herd). 
Isla — Bendochy (Barty). 

Gowrie — Common on the Braes of the Carse from Balthayock 
eastwards (Drummond-Ffay) (!). 
H. Atholl— Blair Athole (J. M'Gregor) (!). 

Sibbald records (' Scotia Illustrata,' 1684) D. arenarius from near 
Perth, but Lightfoot suggests that D. deltoides is the species found ; 
and Robert Brown, in a paper read to the "Natural History Society 
of Edinburgh " on January 26, 1792 (not, however, published till 1871 
— in 'Journ. of Bot.,' ix. 321), gives an account of a search for it. 
He says that he found in Forfarshire a variety of D. deltoides with 
a simple one-flowered stem, which form he thinks Sibbald may have 
mistaken for the true D. arenarms. Impressed with this idea, Brown 
searched a hill near Perth — the name is unfortunately not mentioned 
— and found D. deltoides, and also a variety with a white flower. 
The latter is probably the rare var. glaucus L. , and its rediscovery 
in Perthshire is very desirable. 

D. Armeria L. was possibly native at Leetown, Carse 
of Gowrie (J. Macnab in Hooker's 'Brit. Fl.,' 1830), but 
was exterminated a few years ago by agriculture. 

D. prolifer L. recorded in the 'Students' Flora' as 
occurring from Perth southwards, is unknown to me as 
a Perthshire plant. 



j6 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Saponaria officinalis L. occurs in a few places as a 
relic of former cultivation. 

"Also not far from Dunblaine, in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. viii., 
1806, No. 183 (near this place Mr R. Kids ton still finds it). 



2. SILBNE L. 

S. Cucubalus Wibel. (S7, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Banks and fields. Rather local. 
alt. Ascends to 1150 ft. in H. Isla. 

Often more or less downy, but with the calyx glabrous (var. pub- 
erula Syme). 

S. maritima With. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Gravelly and sandy banks of rivers. Common. 

Rare on Alpine wet rocks. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Earn and 1000 in 

Atholl. Higher in Breadalbane (?). 

[To 1820 ft. in L. Forth (on Bengengie — Rev. J. Couper).] 

S. gallica L., var. S. anglica L., is recorded for Mid 
Perth in ' Topographical Botany.' 

In Withering's Herbarium there is a label (written by R. Brown?) 
which records S. anglica as " In corn-fields in several places in Fife- 
shire, in Angusshire, and also in Perthshire. Aug. I79 1_ 9 2 "93"94-" 
Near Perth— Mackay in Smith's ' Fl. Brit.,' 1800. 

S. noctiflora L. " Perth West " (' Top. Bot.') 



lychnis. 77 

S. acaulis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. On damp rocks and on the ground on the moun- 
tains. Common on the richer hills. 

alt. From 1200 ft. in Breadalbane to 3980 in Breadal- 
bane, 3757 in Rannoch, and 2700 in H. Earn, 
Lomond, and H. Isla. 

"Upon Crag-chailleach in Breadalbane, and upon the mountains 
about Loch Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 227. 1778. 

Peduncles commonly short, but sometimes long. Flowers rarely 
white or pale pink. 

3. LYCHNIS L. 1 

L. Viscaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. [Forth,] Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o Isla, o o Rannoch, o 

hab. Sunny banks and rocks. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Rannoch. 



1 From a paper by F. N. Williams in 'J. of B.,' xxxi. p. 167, our 
species of Lychnis are more correctly placed thus : — 

MELANDEYUM RbMing. 

M. pratense Rohl. (1796) for Lychnis alba Mill. 
M. silvestre Rohl (1796) for Lychnis diurna Sibth. 

CORONARIA L. 
C. Flos-cuculi A. Br. (1S43) for Lychnis Flos-euculi L. 

VISCARIA Rohling. 
V. vulgaris Rohl. (1796) for Lychnis Viscaria L. 

Also — 

AGROSTEMMA L. 

A. Githago L. (1753) for Lychnis Githago Lam. 



7§ DICOTYLEDONEyE. 

I-. [Forth — Menstrie Glen (R, Kidston) ; Dumyat and Myreton 
Hills (Rev. J. Couper).] 

Earn — Glen Farg (Maughan, 1821) (!) ; KirlUon of Mailer 
(J. Sim). 

Isla— Craighall (J. H. Balfour, 1829) (!). 

Gowrie — Den of Balthayock (Maughan, 1821) (!), and sev- 
eral other places on the Braes of the Carse (Drammond- 
Hay)(!). 
H. Isla — Rocks above Moulin (J. Brebner). 

Rannoch — Craig Var, near Kinloch Rannoch (!); hill above 
Falls of Tummel (A. H. Evans), and thence through the 
Pass of Killiecrankie(l). Not restricted to trap-rocks. 

L. Flos-cuculi L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o . Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Moist places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Atholl and n 00 in H. 
Isla. 

L. diurna Sibth. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods and alpine rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in H. Earn, 2500 or 

higher in Breadalbane, 2100 in Atholl, 2000 

in Lomond, 1450 in Rannoch, and 1500 in L. 

Forth. 

With white and pink flowers on Ben Lawers. 

L. alba Mill (Z. vespertina Sibth.) (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Banks and hedges. Common, but often sporadic. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. 
Isla. 



GITHAGO— CERASTIUM. 79 

Gardiner, in ' Edin. Bot. Soc. Trans.,' 1S41, and in the 'Flora of 
Forfarshire,' p. 28, mentions a variety (which he calls intermedia) 
with pink flowers, that he got at Invergowrie Bay. I have found 
this form in hedges at Invergowrie Station. It may possibly be 
merely a colour variety ; but as it has longer hairs than the usual 
white-flowered form, it is perhaps one of the hybrids, with L. diurna, 
mentioned by Nyman. 



4. GITHAGO Desf. 

G. segetum Desf. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Corn-fields. Not very common. A colonist. 

ALT. 

TRIBE II. — ALSINEyE. 

5. CERASTIUM L. 

C. tetrandrum Curt. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. [Forth,] Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Dry bare ground near the sea, and on trap-hills 

remote from the sea. Local. 
alt. 

L. [Forth — Near Menstrie (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Earn — Callerfountain and Glen Farg hills (!). 
Gowrie — Kinnoull and Moncreiffe Hills and Kennetpans (!); 
Side of Tay at Orchard Neuk (W. Barclay) (!). 

C. semidecandrum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry bare places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1450 ft. in Rannoch and 1600 in H. 

Isla. 



SO DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

C. glomeratum Thuill. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Roadsides, cultivated ground, and rocky banks. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1600 ft. in H. Isla, 1500 in Atholl, 

and 1450 in Rannoch. 

Var. apetalum Dum. Birnam and Almondbank (!) ; 
railway at Barnhill and Kinfauns (!). 

What seems to be this variety also grows on the shore at Kin- 
goodie, but the specimens are much more glandular, and otherwise 
different. 

C. triviale Link. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, pastures, and waste places — dry or moist. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Breadalbane and 2100 in 

Atholl. 

Var. holosteoides Fr. Stem above with hairs all round, 
but mostly in one line, which changes sides at each node ; 
below scarcely or not at all hairy. Leaves glabrous, dark 
green, sometimes slightly ciliated at base. Sepals with 
a few long hairs. Pedicels longer, flowers larger, and 
petals longer than in the ordinary form. Bracts ciliate ; 
pedicels hairy. Usually a much larger and stronger but 
laxer-growing plant. Common on the banks of the Tay 
and Earn in places inundated every day (or frequently) 
by fresh tidal water. 

A variety, from Ben a Chait in Athole(!), and Garbh Meall in 
Rannoch (!), has much the aspect of the lowland var. holosteoides ; 



CERASTIUM. 8 1 

but the sepals are rather more hairy, the leaves have more hairs, 
especially on the midrib and margins, and the stems are more hairy, 
but with a tendency to a concentration of the hairs in one line. 

Many alpine specimens do not differ much from lowland ones, 
though usually more slender and lax, and fewer-leaved. 

C. alpinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Grassy alpine slopes and rocks. Locally common. 
alt. From 1700 to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane to 3100 in 

H. Forth. 

Ben Lawers, O.S.A., 1796. 

Common on the richer hills of Breadalbane ; not common 
elsewhere. 

Var. piloso-pubescens Benth. (pubescens Syme). 

Allt Muir Choarach (Marshall and Hanbury) ; Coire Buidbeag, 
Glen Lyon (G. F. Linton). 



C. arcticum Lange. 

"Am Binnein, associated as on Ben Lawers with both forms of 
C. alpinum." — Marshall and Hanbury. 



C. arvense L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Dry banks and edges of fields. Not uncommon, 
but local. 

ALT. 

Chiefly confined to the warmer parts of the Lowland area, and 
most common in Gowrie. Tomgarrow in H. Perth (C. M'Intosh), 
and Balinluig Station in H. Isla (!) (R. H. Meidrum). 

Variable. Leaves mostly hairy and cyme many-flowered, but in 
specimens from Invergowrie (Drummond-Hay) the leaves are nar- 
rower, glabrous, but ciliated at the base, the stem much less hairy, 
and the cyme 2-3-flowered. 



82 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

C. trigynum Vill. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, Rannoch, o 
hae. Alpine rills. Very rare. 
alt. At about 3000 ft. in Rannoch. 

Breadalbane — Ben Lawers (Dickson, in ' Lin. Soc. Herb.') ; moun- 
tains above Killin (Borrer in ' F. S.,' 1821); Craig-na-Caillich (Bal- 
four, 1 871). 

Rannoch — Ben Aulder (!). 

6. STELLARIA L. 

S. nemorum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp woods and ravines. Local, and not very 

common. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in L. Forth. 

S. media Vill. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated on waste ground. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. Isla. 

S. umbrosa Opitz. (88.) 
l. 00000 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, Rannoch, o 
hab. Shady places. Rare. 
alt. Ascends to 1450 ft. in Rannoch. 

Breadalbane — Coshieville (!). 
Rannoch — Kinloch Rannoch (!). 

S. palustris Ehrh. 
L. Forth, Earn, 000 

H. 00000000 

Forth — Bank of the Teith above junction with Forth (R. Kidston); 
[near Harvieston Lodge, Dollar.] 

Earn — Forgandenny Ferry (!). 



ARENARIA. 83 

S. Holostea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, ravines, and mountain rocks. Common, 

but rather local. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl. 

S. graminea L. (87, S8, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, pastures, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1600 ft. in Atholl and 1200 in H. 
Isla. 

The " S. scapigera Willd.," said to have been found by G. Don 
on hills to the north of Dunkeld, is reputed to be a monstrosity of 
S. graminea. 

S. uliginosa Murr. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in H. Isla, 2850 in Rannoch, 

and 2700 in Breadalbane. 



7. ARENARIA L. 

A. trinervia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods and shady places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Low levels. 



84 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

A. serpyllifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Govvrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry bare places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1570 ft. in H. Isla and 1400 in Rannoch. 

Variable. The form with ventricose capsules (A. sphcerocarpa 
Ten.) is commoner than the one with narrow capsules (A. leptoclados 
Guss.), but one form seems to pass into the other. 

8. CHERLERIA L. 

C. sedoides L. (88.) 



L. 


OOO 












H. 


OOO 








Breadalbane, 





HAB. 


Bare ground 


and 


rocks 


on mountain 


ridges. 



Common on the richer hills. 
alt. Between 1700 and 3980 ft. in Breadalbane. Bed 
of the river Fillan below Tyndrum, below 700 ft. 
(Mrs E. S. Marshall). 

" Upon Ben-teskerney and Ben-Challum, two mountains to the west 
of Loch Tay, in Breadalbane, plentifully." — Lightfoot, p. 232. 1778. 

Honkeneja peploides. 

L. Forth, 0000 

H. 00000000 

Forth — Culross (M'Gregor); Kincardine on Forth (Syme, Cat.) ; 
near Alloa ; Kennetpans (Rev. J. Conper). 

9. ALSINE Waril. 

A. verna Jacq. (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rocks. Very local. 
alt. At about 2200 ft. 

Meall Dhuin Croisg (or rather a small hill between that and 
Craig-na-Caillich) (!). I do not know who was the first to find it 
here. It is rather remarkable that our only station for this species, 
which is not specially a mountain plant, should be an alpine one. 



SAGINA. 85 

A. sulcata Schleich (A. rubella Wahl.) (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbanc, o o 
had. Bare alpine banks and rocks. Very local and 

rare. 
alt. From 2900 to 3800 ft. in Breadalbane, about 

2700 in H. Isla. 

Ben Lawers (Don, 1793, in Brit. Mus. Herb.) 
H. Isla — Cairnwell (Mennell) (on limestone, E. S. Marshall). 
Breadalbane — Ben Lawers (Don) (!) ; Craig-na-Caillich 
(Greville, 1824) (!) ; Meall Ghaordie (Earll). 

10. SAGINA L. 

S. nodosa E. Mey. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, o o Isla, o o Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp, sandy, and gravelly places. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in H. 9 Isla and 1270 in 

Atholl. 

Usually, but not invariably, slightly glandular (var. glandulosa 
Bess.) 

S. subulata Presl. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 
hab. Dry stony places. Local. 

ALT. 

In the Stormont (M'Ritchie, 1792, in Brit. Mus. Herb.) 
Common on the trap-hills on the south-east side of the L. area, 
and not rare on the conglomerate and slate rocks along the Highland 
boundary. Localities not included in this definition are — 
l. Isla — Shingles of the Tay above Meikleour(I). 
H. Isla — Ben Bhrackie at about 2000 ft. (!), on trap (!), on the 
north side of Craigie Barns (!). 
Breadalbane — With S. nivalis on Ben Lawers (Balfour). Un- 
less there is some mistake, this will make an altitude of at 
least 3000 ft. for this species. 
Rannoch — On a wall near Falls of Tummel (!). 



86 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

S. Linnjei Presl. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Grassy alpine slopes. Common, in Breadalbane, 

on the richer hills ; rare elsewhere. 
alt. Lowest altitude not noted. Ascends to 3980 ft. 

in Breadalbane. 

Ben Lawers, Aug. 1794 (R. Brown in Brit. Mus. Herb. ) Smith in 
' Fl. Brit.' says that J. Mackay discovered it on Ben Lawers in 1794, 
but Hooker in ' F. S.' thinks it was first found in Britain by G. Don 
on Meall Ghaordie. 

S. nivalis Fr. (88.) 

L. OOOOO 

H. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Bare places on alpine ridges. Very local and 

rare. 
alt. Between 3100 and 3350 ft. on Ben Lawers and 
3500 ft. on Am Binnein (Marshall and Han- 
bury). 

Ben Lawers (Balfour, Aug. 25, 1847) (!) ; Am Binnein and 
Craig-na-Caillich (Balfour) ; Cam Chreag (P. Ewing). Probably, 
however, first gathered in Britain by Greville before 1840 (see ' Edin. 
Bot. Soc. Trans.,' xiii. p. 95). 

S. procumbens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Bare waste ground. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3300 ft. in Breadalbane, 2800 in H. 
Forth, and 2750 in Atholl. 

S. apetala Arduino. (87, 89.) 
l. Forth, o o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 



SPERGULA. 87 

hab. Gravelled paths, and bare garden and waste 

ground. Very local. 

alt. Low levels. 

About Perth and at Invergowrie (!) — probably oveilooked else- 
where. Clackmannanshire. 

S. ciliata Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, 000000 
hab. Dry bare places. Very local, but probably 

overlooked. 
alt. Low levels. 

Not very uncommon about Perth (!). 

L. [Forth— Dumyat (G. Croall).] 

H. Earn — Banks of the Earn at the line of the " Great Fault." 

S. maritima Don. (87, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry bare ground near the sea. Very local, and 

not common. 
alt. Sea-level. 

L. [Forth — Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; Longannet (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Gowrie — Shore of the Tay between Invergowrie and Long- 
forgan (!). 



11. SPERGULA L. 

S. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1250 ft. in H. Isla and 1000 in 

Atholl. 

Callander, 1796, O.S.A. 



88 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Var. sativa Boenn. is the common form, but var. 
vulgaris Bcenn. has been noticed in several places, and 
is probably widely diffused. 

12. BUDA Adans. (Lepigomim Fr.) 

B. rubra Dam. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Bare, gravelly, and sandy places. Rather local, 

and not abundant. Often sporadic. 
alt. Ascends to near 1000 feet in H. Perth. 

B. marina Dum. (87, 89.) 
l. Forth, 000 Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Shores of the estuaries of the Tay and Forth. 

Not very common. 
alt. Sea-level. 



Order XL— PORTULACACE/E. 

1. MONTIA L. 

M. fontana L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet or dry places, according to the sub-species. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2850 ft. in Rannoch and 2000 in 
H. Earn. 
Aberfoyle (Graham in O. S.A., 1796). 



ELATINE — HYPERICUM. 89 

Sub-species M. rivularis Gm. Common in springs, 
ditches, and marshes. 

Sub-species M. minor Gm. On dry bare ground, 
especially on the summits of the trap-hills, where it 
grows in short dense compact tufts on bare dry slopes. 
I have seen a less densely tufted form on gravelled 
paths. 

Claytonia perfoliata Don, C. alsinoides Sims, and 
C. sibirica L. have been found as escapes, more or less 
established. 

Order XII.— ELATTNE/E. 
1. ELATINE L. 

E. hcxandra DC. (87, 89.) 
l. Forth, o o Isla, o 
h. Forth, 0000000 
hab. Lakes — on mud. Very local. 

ALT. 

L. Forth — Loch Rusky (Hooker and Arnott's 'Brit. Fl.,' 1S60 ; 
Lake of Monteith (R. Kidston). 
Isla — Loch Cluny (!) ; Loch Marlee (Sturrock) (!). 
H. Forth — Loch Voil (W. Cameron). 

Order XIIL— HYPERICINE/E. 
1. HYPERICUM L. 

H. Androsasmum L. (87.) 
l. Forth, 0000 
h. Forth, 0000000 
hab. Woods near lakes. Very local. 

ALT. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 
L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Miss M. J. Turner). 
H. Forth — Lochs Ard, Vennachar, and Katrine (Graham) ; Loch 
Vennachar (F. I. White). 



90 DIC0TYLED0NE/E. 

H. calycinum L. occurs in several places as an 
apparently naturalised plant, but only where it has been 
purposely introduced. 

H. barbatum Jacq. seems to have been found in 
Strathearn, by Don, but as an escape. 

H. perforatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Banks and woods. Common in the Lowlands ; 

rather rare in the Highlands, where it is absent 

from large tracts. 
alt. Low levels. 

H. quadrangulum L., Fr. (H. dubium Leers.) (87, 88, 
89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Banks of rivers and lakes. Not common, but 

perhaps overlooked. 
alt. Low levels. 

I. Forth — Kippenross (Murray in ' Fl. Scot.,' 1S21) ; Callander 

(R. Kidston). 
Earn — Abernethy Glen (!). 
Perth — Luncarty and Linn of Campsie (!) ; Broxy (W. 

Barclay). 
Gowrie — Side of Tay below Perth (Drummond-Hay). 

II. Forth — Near Loch Lubnaig (!) ; Loch Voil (!) ; river Bal- 

vaig (!). 
Perth— Strathbraan (!). 
Breadalbane — Shores of Loch Tay, and of river Tay above 

Aberfeldy, and at Grantully (!). 

H. tetrapterum Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 



MALVA. 91 

had. Sides of ditches and moist places. Not very 

common. 
alt. Ascends to over 1000 ft. in L. Forth. 

H. humifusum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
had. Dry pastures. Common, but rather local. 
alt. Ascends to near 1000 ft. in H. Perth. 

H. pulchrum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry woods, moors, and mountain pastures. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Atholl and about 2700 in 

Breadalbane. 

H. hirsutum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and banks. Common, but rather local. 
alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl. 



Order XIV.— MALVACEAE. 
1. MALVA L. 

M. moschata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 



92 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

hab. Meadows and banks. Widely distributed, but 

not very common. 
alt. Low levels. 

" We observed it about Dupplin, near Perth." — Lightfoot, p. 376. 

It is not quite certain that this species is really native in Perth- 
shire, but I have given it the benefit of the doubt. 

M. sylvestris L. is widely distributed (though not 
common), at least in the Lowland area; but to me it 
seems an escape from cultivation. 

M. rotundifolia L. [Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; Montague, 
Menstrie, and Clackmannan Pow (J. Couper) ; Kennet- 
pans(!);] Perth Harbour (!). 

M. borealis Wallm. is a rare casual. 



Order XV.— LINACE/E. 
1. RADIOLA Both. 

R. linoides Roth. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, o Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. Rather damp bare places. Local ; probably often 
overlooked. 



L. Forth— Kilmadock (Craig-Christie); [Culross (J. M'Gregor); 

Tullieallan Woods (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Perth — King's Myre (!) ; Great Avenue in Murthly (Trail) ; 

near Muir of Thorn (!) ; near Methven Moss(!) ; old road 

to the north of Methven (!). 
Isla — Near New Scone (Miss J. Roy(!) ; Delvine(!); Glen- 

delvine(l); Whins of Fordie, in Caputh (Trail); Cluny 

(M'Ritchie in 'F. S.,' 1821) ; Monk Myre (Barty) ; Rattray 

(Sturrock); Alyth(!). 
Gowrie — Arnbathie (!). 
H. Earn— About Comrie (W. F. Miller) ; St Fillans (Miss 

Worsley). 
Isla— 
Rannoch — Tummel Bridge (R. Kidston). 



LINUM— GERANIUM. 93 



2. LINUM L. 

L. catharticum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry moors and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2750 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in H. 
Earn, and 2400 in Atholl. 

L. usitatissimum L. is a rare casual on waste ground. 



Order XVI.— GERANIACE/E. 
1. GERANIUM L. 

G. sanguineum L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. Dry rocks and river-banks. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

Var. micranthum Buchanan White (' Sc. Nat.,' July 
1S86, p. 321). Kinloch-Rannoch. 

G. sylvaticum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp woods and pastures. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2860 ft. in Rannoch, 3000 in Bread- 
albane, 2800 in H. Forth, 2600 in Atholl, 2500 
in Ff. Earn, and 1600 in L. Forth. 

Flowers sometimes very small, with petals about as long as the 
calyx (? var. parvijlontm A. Blytt). 



94 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

G. pratense L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Rather damp banks and woods. Local, but not 

uncommon. 
alt. Low levels. 

"At Taymouth hermitage, and about the cascades at Moness, 
and in the pastures about Loch Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 368; 
1778. I do not think that it now occurs in the last-mentioned 
station. 

G. phaeum L. is occasionally met with as an outcast. 

"In a wood near Dupplin, Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. iv., 1S05, 
No. 92. 

G. pyrenaicum Burm. f. Roadsides about Perth and 
elsewhere, not common. 

"Hill of Kinnoul." — Winch in ' Fl. Scot.,' 1821. 

G. molle L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Roadsides, cultivated and waste places. Common. 
A weed of cultivation. 

alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl. 

G. pusillum L. was found, in 1886, by the roadside in 
Glen Lyon by Mr W. F. Miller. Though it occurs on 
both sides of the mouth of the Tay, it can be considered 
to be only a casual in Perthshire. [Kennetpans (J. 
Couper) (!);] near Logierait (R. H. Meldrum). 



GERANIUM. 95 

G. columbinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry rocky places and pastures. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"Also at the hills of Kinnoul and Moncrieff near Perth ; from the 
last of which places my specimens were kindly communicated by 
Mr John Mitchell at Moncrieff House." — Don, Fasc. iv., 1805, 
No. 93. 

l. [Forth — Pastures west of Tillicoultry ; Bridge of Allan (Rev. 
J. Couper).] 
Earn — Invermay (A. Gorrie). 
Perth — Craigie Knowes (!). 
Isla — Claves near Blairgowrie (Sturrock) (!). 
Gowrie — Orchard Neuk(!); near Elcho Castle (Drummond- 
Hay) (!). 

G. dissectum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Roadsides, cultivated and waste places. Com- 
mon. A weed of cultivation. 

alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl. 

G. Robertianum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. ' 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks and stony places — shady or sunny. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2250 ft. in Breadalbane, 2100 in 

Atholl, 2000 in H. Earn, 1800 in H. Isla, 1450 

in Rannoch, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

G. lucidum L (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, 
Atholl. 



96 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

hab. Rocky ravines, and shady rocks and walls. 

Local, but not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Earn, 1600 in Atholl 

and H. Isla, and 1400 in Rannoch. 

Though described as glabrous, the leaves are rarely without some 
hairs. 

2. EKODIUM L'Her. 

E. cicutarium L'Her. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Dry bare places, waste and cultivated. Widely 

distributed, but not usually abundant. 

alt. Low levels. 

Variable, but I can scarcely refer many of our specimens to one 
of the named varieties more than to another. The plant of culti- 
vated fields seems to be mostly the var. chcsrophylluvi DC. 

E. moschatum L'Her. has occurred as a casual at 
Perth Harbour (!). 

Order XVII.— OXALIDACE^E. 
1. OXALIS L. 

0. Acetosella L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods, and amongst rocks and stones on 

the mountains. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3800 ft. in Breadalbane, 3189 in H. 

Forth and H. Earn, 3000 in Rannoch, and 

2500 in Lomond. 

Impatiens Noli-me-tangere L. is reported to have been 
found on rubbish-heaps at Dollar. 



ILEX — EMPETRUM. 97 

Order XYIII.— AQUIFOLIACE/E. 
1. ILEX L. 

I. Aquifolium L. (87, 88, S9.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Open woods, &c. Not common. 

alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in Atholl and H. Forth, and 

1 100 in H. Perth. 

Cluny (M'Ritcbie in O.S.A., 1793). Often planted or acciden- 
tally introduced, but I have reasons for believing that, in greater or 
less numbers, indigenous hollies occur in all the districts. 

Order XIX.— EMPETRACE.E. 
1. EMPETRUM L. 

E. nigrum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, o o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Upland moors. Common in the Highland area ; 

nearly absent from the Lowland area. 
alt. Ascends to 3547 ft. in Rannoch, 2900 in H. Earn, 

and 2650 in Breadalbane. 

Benachally (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Sub-Class II.— CALYCIFLORAZ. 

Order XIX\— SAPINDACE/E. 

Acer Pseudo-platanus L. is common as a self-sown 
plant, and occurs sometimes in situations where, had it 
not been known to be an introduced species in Britain, 
it would be called wild. 



98 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

A. campestre L. is mentioned by Sibbald (1684) as 
growing at Kinfauns, near Perth. There is no other 
reason for mentioning it in this list, since it is not com- 
mon, even as a planted tree, in Perthshire. 



Order XX.— PAPILIONACE.E. 

TRIBE I. — GENISTE/E. 

1. GENISTA L. 

G. anglica L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Atholl, 1850 in Rannoch, 

and about 1400 in H. Isla. 

"In heathy and moorish grounds, as a mile above Dunkekl." — 
Lightfoot, p. 384. 1778. 

2. ULEX L. 

U. europaeus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hae. Pastures and banks. Common in the Lowland 
area; rare or absent in many parts of the High- 
land area. 

alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in H. Isla, 1350 in Atholl, 
and 1000 in Breadalbane. 

"At Comrie in Strath-Em, but in no part of Breadalbane." — 
Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 112S. 1778. 



CYTISUS — ONONIS — MEDICAGO. 99 

3. CYTISUS L. 

C. scoparius Link. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and banks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl and 2000 in Ran- 
noch. 
Cluny (M 'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Lupinus perennis L. is thoroughly established and 
common in islands and on the shores of the Tay from 
the mouth of the Lyon to below Perth ; and on the 
Lyon above Fortingall. 

TRIBE II. — TR1F0LIE;E. 
4. ONONIS L. 

0. repens L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. River-banks and dry pastures. Not uncommon. 
alt. Low levels. 

5. MEDICAGO L. 

M. lupulina L. (87, SS, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks and fields. Common. 

ALT. 



IOO DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

M. sativa L. occurs — not commonly — as a naturalised 
plant. 

M. arabica All. (M. metadata Sibth.) has been found 
near Doune (Craig-Christie), [Kennetpans (J. Couper),] 
and Perth Harbour (!). 

Melilotus officinalis Lam. {M. altissima Thuill) is a 
rare casual, for I think it has no higher rank in Perth- 
shire. M. alba Desr. is still rarer. 

M. indica All. (M. fiarviflora Desf.) has occurred with 
the other two species at Perth Harbour (!). 

6. TRIFOLIUM L. 

§ i. Eutriphylla. 

T. medium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks and pastures. Rather local, but not 

uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1270 ft. in Atholl, 1200 in H. Isla, 

and above 1000 in L. Forth. 

T. pratense L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hae. Banks and pastures. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl, 1550 in Breadal- 
bane, 1400 in Rannoch, and 1100 in H. Isla. 

Var. (a) sativum Syme. The cultivated form, occur- 
ring as an escape. 



TRIFOLIUM. IOI 

Var. (b) sylvcstrc Syme. Common in uncultivated 
ground. 

Var. (c) nivale Koch (T. nivale Sieb.) Dwarfer, heads 
denser-flowered, flowers white or cream-coloured, rarely 
approaching red. What seems to be this variety, or at 
least is subalpine T. pratense with white flowers, occurs 
rarely in Breadalbane. 

Besides these I have found two other forms in Glen Tilt : — 

1. A dwarf plant at about 2000 ft. altitude. Heads large for the 
size of the plant, more or less distinctly stalked ; stems arched ; 
calyx teeth rather more scabrid than usual, the four upper ones a 
little longer than the calyx tube. Leaves small, leaflets of the lower 
retuse, sub-obcordate, of the upper oblong. 

2. A luxuriant form from near the junction of the Tilt and Lochallt 
(alt. about 1400 ft.) Tall ; leaflets of the lower leaves oval, of the 
upper oblong-oval, all denticulate and apiculate, and not very large. 
Flower heads distinctly stalked, oblong, large and dense-flowered ; 
corolla large ; upper calyx teeth longer than the calyx tube. 

T. incarnatum L. may sometimes be found in fields as 
a relict of former cultivation. 

T. arvense L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 000 Atholl. 
hab. Dry pastures and rocky knolls. Local. 

ALT. 

Widely distributed, though local, in the warmer parts of the low- 
lands ; in Atholl it occurs only near Blair Athole. 

§ ii. Ste?wsemia. 

T. striatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Dry rocky banks. Local. 

L. [Forth — Menstrie, Kincardine (Rev. J. Couper).] 

Earn — Ardargie (!) ; near Callerfountain (R. H. Meldrum); 
Glenfarg (!). 



102 DIC0TYLED0NE.E. 

Perth — Craigie Mill-dam (now extinct?) (!) ; Craigie Knowes 
(W. Barclay). 

Gowrie — Common along the Braes of the Carse (Drummond- 
Hay) ; quarry beside the railway at Barnhill (R. II. Mel- 
drum^ (!) ; and Perth Harbour (!). 

T. glomeratum L. occurs on ballast at Perth Har- 
bour (!); near Strathord Station (Trail). 

§ iii. Trifoliastra. 
T. repens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2900 ft. in Breadalbane, 2200 in 
Atholl, and 2000 in Rannoch and L. Forth. 

T. hybridum L. is a common escape from cultivation. 

§ iv. Chronosema. 

T. fragiferum L. (89) occurs in Invergowrie, beside 
the Tay, close to the eastern boundary of Perthshire, 
but is extremely local with us. 

T. procumbens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks and pastures. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

Var. (a) minus Koch. Peduncle twice the length of 
its subtending leaf. The commonest form. 

Var. (b) viajus Koch. Peduncle about as long as its 
subtending leaf. Heads usually larger and colour 
darker. Less common. 



ANTHYLLIS— LOTUS. 103 

T. agrarium L. occurs here and there, and sometimes 
in places where it is not an obvious introduction ; but in 
all it is probably an escape from cultivation. 

T. dubium Sibth. (T. minus Sm.) (87, SS, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to near 1000 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Yax.ftygmcEiijn Soy.- Will. Dwarfer ; petiole of middle 
leaflet not longer than the lateral ones. Not uncommon. 



TRIBE III. — LOTE/E. 
7. ANTHYLLIS L. 

A. vulneraria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry rocky banks and pastures. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 in H. 
Earn, and 2000 in H. Isla. 

Koch and Grenier and Godron mention several varieties. Our 
specimens seem to lie between var. vulgaris and var. marilima, but 
I have not seen authentically named examples of either. 

Very pale form at Delvine Inch (!). 

Apparently var. Dillenii (Schultz) on railway-bank near Crian- 
larich (Marshall and Hanbury). 

8. LOTUS L. 

L. corniculatus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



104 DICOTYLEDONE^F. 

hab. Pastures and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Atholl and 2500 in H. 
Earn. 

So far as the specimens we have show, I think that the varieties 
founded on the greater or less hispidity of the plant are not of much 
value, since many intermediate conditions occur. Our examples are 
rarely quite glabrous, and range from that state up to one in which 
the calyx is rather shaggy, and the stem and under side of the leaves 
have rather numerous long hairs. The latter state is or approaches 
the var. villosus G. and G. The var. crassifolius Pers. , a form with 
fleshy leaves, occurs at Invergowrie (!). 

L. uliginosus Schk. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

o Atholl. 
hab. Ditch-sides, damp meadows and banks. Common. 

ALT. 

The hairy form (var. hirsutus Syme) is less common than the 
more nearly glabrous one. 

L. tenuis. " Perth West " ('Top. Bot.') No authority 
is given for this record. 

TRIBE IV. — GALEGE^E. 
9. ASTRAGALUS L. 

A. glycyphyllos L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Banks of rivers and streams. Local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

"In Strathern, Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. ii., 1805, No. 36. 

L. Forth — Craig - omus, Menstrie, and between Alva and 
Menstrie (Rev. J. Couper). 
Perth — Banks of Tay and Almond in Redgorton parish (W. 
Liston, 1837) ; banks of Almond above and below Almond 
Bank (!) ; bank of Tay near Thistle Brig (R. Dow). 



OXYTROPIS. I05 

Isla — Inverquiech, Alylh (N.S.A., 1S43); banks of Tay below 

Delvine(!) and below Caputh (!). 
Gowrie — Pitroddie — now extinct by quarrying operations 

(1891). Tarry Island (W. Barclay, 1892). 
II. Breadalbane— West bank of Tummcl below Pitlochry (Drum- 

mond-Hay) (!). 
Atholl— AUt Clune (Drummond-IIay) (!). 

A. hypoglottis L. (87, 83, 89.) 

l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry rocky, gravelly, or sandy pastures. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth — Hill pastures above Dollar ; Longannet (W. Finlay- 
son, sec. Rev. J. Couper).] 

" Upon the hill of Moncrief near Perth, and in dry ground near 
York-Cascade at the seat of the Duke of Atholl's, at Blair." — Light- 
foot, p. 400. 1778. 

Not uncommon on the trap-hills near Perth. Invermay (!) and 
about Blair Athole (!) ; west of Loch Rannoch (W. Ellison) ; right 
bank of Tummel near Pitlochry ; Balinluig Island. 

A. alpinus L. (89.) 

l. o o o o o 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Alpine pastures. Very local and rare. 
alt. About 2000 ft. 

Ben Bhrackie (P. Neill Fraser) (!). 

10. OXYTROPIS DC. 

0. uralensis DC. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rocks and pastures. Very local and rare. 
alt. At about 2000 ft. in H. Earn and H. Isla. 

Ben Lawers (O.S.A. 1796). Discovered by G. Don. 
H. Earn — Ben Chonzie (!). 



106 DICOTYLEDONE^. 



Isla — Ben Bhrackie (Brebner) (!). 

Breadalbane — Ben Lawers (Don). I know of no recent 

record. 
In a list for Dollar. 

0. campestris. Near Loch Loch (J. Fergusson) (!). 



TRIBE V. — HEDYSARE/E. 
11. ORNITHOPUS L. 

0. perpusillus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, 000000 

hab. Rocky, sandy, or gravelly pastures and fields. 

Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"About Comrie." — Stuart in Lighlfoot, p. 399 ; 1778. I have 
no record besides this for the Highland area. In the L. area it is 
local, but widely distributed. 

TRIBE VI. — VICIEM. 
12. VICIA L. 

§ i. Ervum. 

V. hirsuta Koch. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, hedges, &c. Common. 

ALT. 

V. tetrasperma Moench occurs near Moncreiffe (Mel- 
drum), and has been found "at Ruthven near Perth," 
but is perhaps scarcely indigenous. [Powside, Clack- 
mannan (J. Couper)(!).] 



VICIA. 107 

§ ii. Cracca. 

V. Cracca L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
had. Hedges, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1250 ft. in Ff. Isla and Atholl. 

V. Orobus DC. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o o Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
had. Shingly shores and rocky woods. Very local. 
alt. At about 700 ft. 

Rannoch — Kinloch Rannoch (!). 
Atholl— Glen Tilt (!). 
In the N.S.A., 1843, the "upper part of the parish of Alyth " is 
mentioned as a locality, and as the plant occurs in Forfarshire not 
far from the Perthshire border, it is quite possibly correct. 

V. sylvatica L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks and rocks — usually near streams ; 
more rarely on alpine rocks. Widely distributed, 
but local. 
alt. Ascends to 2225 ft. in Breadalbane. 
In Gowrie it occurs in the Woody Island only. 

§ iii. Vicia. 

V. sepium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



108 DICOTYLEDONE^F. 

hab. Hedges, fields, woods, and mountain rocks. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2425 ft. in Lomond, 2300 in Breadal- 

bane, 2200 in Atholl, 2000 in H. Earn, and 

1800 in H. Isla. 

V. lutea L. " Perth = mid ? "—'Top. Bot.' I do not 

know on what this doubtful record is founded ; the 
species is not likely to occur. 

V. sativa L., casual and not very common. 

V. angustifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, o o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Dry banks. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

As usual very variable. The varieties V. segetalis Thuill and V. 
Bobartii Forst. both occur, but frequently the differences between 
them are not well marked. 

V. lathyroides L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry rocky pastures and banks. Local, but prob- 
ably overlooked. 

ALT. 

" Near Forteviot in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. ii., 1805, No. 39. 

Not uncommon on many of the trap-hills near Perth, such as the 
Hill of Kinnoull, where Hooker and Borrer gathered it ('F. S.,' 
1821). Gask (J. Dawson). 

13. LATHYRUS L. 

§ i. Aphaca. 

L. Aphaca L. lias occurred once or twice as a casual 
near Perth and at Methven. 



LATHYRUS. 109 

>$ ii. Lathyrus. 

L. pratensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks and hedges. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl. 

L. sylvestris L. used to grow (very sparingly) in the 
Woody Island near Perth, but is extinct. It was prob- 
ably an escape only. 

"Perth West" ('Top. Bot.') 

§ iii. Orobus. 

L, montanus Bernh. (Z. macrorrhizus Wimm. (87, 88, 
89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, moors, and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in H. Earn, 2400 in Atholl, 
2000 in Rannoch, and about 1500 in L. Forth. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

The leaflets vary much in breadth, but I have seen no very 
extreme forms of the var. temiifoliiis Roth. 

L. niger Wimm. (89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o 000 Atholl. 

hab. Rocky wooded banks. Very rare and local. 

alt. At about 450 ft. 

Killiecrankie, Aug. 27, 1839 (W. Gome). The plant is now 
nearly extinct ; but I saw it there in 1892. 



I IO DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

Order XXL— ROSACEA. 

TRIBE I. — PRUNED. 

1. PRUNUS L. 

§ i. Primus. 

P. communis Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, dry banks, &c. Common. 

ALT. 

Laighwood (M'Rilchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

The varieties or sub-species P. insilitia L. and P. domestic a L. 
have been found in a few places. The latter is a relict of former 
cultivation, and the former, although occurring sometimes in wilder 
localities, is also probably an introduction. Both the plants and 
their descriptions vary much. 

§ ii. Cera sits. 
P. Avium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 
hab. Woods, especially on rocky hills. Not un- 
common. 
alt. To near rooo ft. in Rannoch. 

Whether this species is or is not indigenous is a question that is 
difficult to decide. While rather inclined to think that it is, in 
most cases, not native, I am not so sufficiently convinced as to 
exclude it from the list of indigenous species. 

Note. — The fruit of the probably or possibly wild plant is always 
small. 

P. Cerasus L. occurs apparently self-sown near the 
Hermitage, Dunkeld (C. MTntosh (!), [and is reported 
by Rev. J. Couper from Tullieallan Woods and Low 
Valleyfield in L. Forth.] 



STIR.EA. Ill 

§ iii. Laurocerasus. 

P. Padus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hac. Woods, especially near streams. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1450 ft. in Rannoch and 1250 in 
Atholl, about 1400 in L. Forth, and about 11 10 
in H. Isla. 
Cluny (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

TRIBE II. SPIRjE.«. 

2. SPIR^A L. 

S. Ulmaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
HAB. Damp meadows and woods, and beside water. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2900 ft. in Breadalbane, and 2000 in 
H. Earn, Rannoch, and Atholl. 
Var. denudata Presl. With the type, but not common. 

S. salicifolia L. occurs in several places, but only 

where planted, and might be as well omitted from our 

floras. 

" In hedges in several places in the district of Stormont, Perth- 
shire." — Don, Fasc. ii., 1805, No. 32. 

S. Filipendula. Locally abundant on the banks of 
the Tay at Bloody Inches, Kinclaven (!) [This locality 
is about y^ mile above the church of Kinclaven, and the 
plant seems restricted to the embankment of the river. 
— Trail.] 



112 DICOTYLEDONE^:. 

TRIBE III. RUBE^E. 

3. RUBUS L. 

A. FRUTESCENTES. 

i. Idjei. 

R. Idams L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and mountain rubbles. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2450 ft. in Atholl and 2000 in H. 
Earn. 
Laighwood (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Var. Lecsii Bab. 

Gowrie — Railway-bank at Seggieclen (Drummond-Hay) (!). 

ii. Fruticosi. 

For the determination of the specimens on which the account of 
the distribution of this difficult group is founded I am deeply 
indebted to Professor Babington, who, with his usual kindness, 
has devoted much time to the numerous examples submitted to him. 
His remarks upon some of the specimens are given within inverted 
commas. The specimens themselves will be found in the Herbarium 
of the Perthshire Natural History Museum. The nomenclature 
followed is that of Professor Babington in the ' London Catalogue ' 
(eighth edition), and in his " Notes " in the 'Journal of Botany.' 

The Rubi of the greater part of Perthshire have not yet been investi- 
gated. Our specimens have been collected chiefly in the neighbour- 
hood of Blairgowrie by the late Mr Sturrock, and near Perth by myself. 
As we are thus not yet in a position to be able to give any decided 
opinion regarding the abundance within our limits of any of the 
species, and as the " habitat " is in most cases of a similar character 
(woods and banks), and as, moreover, an altitude of 1000 ft. above 
sea-level is scarcely if ever attained, it has been considered unneces- 
sary to give the usual "formula" in full. 



RUBUS. 1 1 3 

(1) Suberecti. 

R. suberectus Anders. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 

L. Isla — Muirton Wood, Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 

H. Perth— Inver (C. M'Intosh). 

Breadalbane— Loch Tay (in Lin. Soc. Herb, fide Babington). 
Killin (Babington) : "A fine state called R. niicroacanthus 
by Kaltenbach and Boulay and Wirtgen." [Glen Lochay 
(Marshall and Hanbury).] 

"Perth West" ('Top. Bot.') 

R. fissus Lindl. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. o o o Isla, o 

H. Forth, 0000 Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 

L. Isla — Several places near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 
H. Forth — Loch Lubnaig. 

Breadalbane — Side of Loch Tay (!). [Crianlarich (Marshall 
and Hanbury) ; Glen Lyon ; Glen Lochay (E. F. Linton).] 

Rannoch — Near Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay). 

R plicatus W. and N. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

" Perth West, Greville " ('Top. Bot.') 
L. Earn — Aberuthven (W. Martin). 

Perth — Linn of Campsie (!) ; Pitcairngreen (!). 
Isla — Muirton Wood and Rattray Common (Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; Seggieden (Drummond-Hay). 
H. Perth — Inver and Dalpowie (C. M'Intosh) ; near Kin- 
naird (!). 
Isla — Beside Lochs of Lows and of Craiglush (Drummond- 

Hay). 
Breadalbane — Killin (Babington). [Crianlarich (Marshall and 
Hanbury).] 

R. sulcatus Vest. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. 00000000 

L. Isla — Muirton Wood (Sturrock). 
H 



114 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

R. nitidus W. and N. (88.) 
L. o o Perth, o o 

h. oooooooo 

Var. hdmulosus Muell. 

L. Perth— Near Methven Bog (!). 

R. affinis W. and N. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. o o Perth, o Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 

"Perth West" ('Top. Bot.') 
L. Perth — Linn of Campsie (!). 

Isla — Countlaw, Rattray (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 
H. Perth— Inver (C. M'Intosh). 

Lomond — Glen Falloch (Babington). 

Breadalbane — Loch Tay side (!). 

Rannoch— Kinloch (!). 

R. hemistemon Muell. (88, 89.) 

l. o o Perth, Isla, o 

h. oooooooo 

L. Perth— Methven Wood (!) : "Very much like R. hemi- 
stemon." 
Isla — Littleton, Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Muirton Wood 
(Sturrock): "I think this may be R. hemistemon.'" 

(2) Rhamnifolii. 

R. Lindleianus Lees. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, o Isla, o 
h. o 0000 Breadalbane, o o 

L. [Forth — " Clackmannan " (' Top. Bot.')] 

Earn— Heugh of Coul (!) ; Aberuthven (W. Martin) : "Felt 
not so developed as we find it in England. I have a felt- 
less specimen from North Wales. " South end of Moncreiffe 
Tunnel (!) (petals pink, stamens spreading): "I think this 
must go to Lindleianus as an extreme form. It can hardly 
be the vulgaris of Focke, which has white petals and longer 
connivent stamens," 



RUBUS. 115 

Isla — Several places near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Quarry- 
mill Den (!) : " Near apparently to Liiidleianus, but I have 
not seen anything quite like them amongst British plants. 
Or may they not be rather a form only separated from 
rliamnifolius by the remarkably smooth and glabrous under- 
side of the leaves?" Muirton Wood (Sturrock): "Not 
exactly Lindleiamts, though very like it. They seem much 
like the porphyracanthus (Focke) which I have placed with 
Lindleiamts. " 
H. Breadalbane — Killin (Babington). 

R. rhamnifolius W. and N. (88, 89.) 






Earn, Perth, Isla, 





I. 


0000 






L. Earn — Aberuthven (W. Martin). 
Perth— Methven Wood (!). 
Isla — Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 

R. incurvatus Bab. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, o 

h. 00000000 

L. Perth — Linn of Campsie (!). 
Isla — Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 

R. imbricatus Hort. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 

L. Isla — Coralbank Road, Rattray (Sturrock). Countlaw, Rat- 
tray (Sturrock) : "May be a form of imbricatus, but I have 
no specimen just like it." Muirton Wood (Sturrock) : 
"Seems near imbricatus, but not exactly it." 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 

R. ramosus Blox. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

l. Isla — Ardblair and Carsie Wood, near Blairgowrie (Stur- 
rock). 
Gowrie— Kinnoull Hill (!). Woody Island (!) : "Closely 
allied to ramosus, and may be a form of it with imbricate 
leaflets. I have nothing quite like it." 



Il6 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

R. latifolius Bab. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 
h. o 000 o Breadalbane, o o 

L. Earn — Near Pitcaithly Mains (!). 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 

H. Breadalbane — "In the wood just below the road at about 

halfway between Kenmore and Acharn " (Babington, 1846). 

The above are certain localities. Less certain are the following : — 

L. Isla — Linn of Campsie (!): "R. latifolius Bab. (?), but the 
teeth are more nearly simple than in my specimen from 
Acharn or that from Cramond. I do not think it can be 
macrophylhts. A most interesting plant." (This grew in 
the island below the Linn of Campsie. I failed to find it 
again.) Muirton Wood (Sturrock) : "Can this be a form 
of latifolius? I doubt." 
Gowrie — Near Kingoodie(!) : "J?, latifolius probably. I do 
not think it A\ corylifolius , but do think that this, as well 
as" the Linn of Campsie specimen, "is my latifolius." 
Near Barnhill Tollbar (!) : "Very near my latifolius, with 
which I suppose we must place it. The stem is much less 
markedly furrowed." 

Side of Tay near Kinnoull churchyard (!) : "This ap- 
proaches latifolius, and may be a state of it." 

H. Athole — Alt Girnaig (Brebner) : "May be latifolius (??)." 

(3) Villicaules. 

(a) Discolores. 

R. rusticanus Merc. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 

h. 00000000 

L. Isla— Island below the Linn of Campsie (!). 

(b) Sylvatiri. 

R. pyramidalis Kalt. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 



L. Perth— Methven Wood (!). 

Isla — Frequent near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Ballathie (! 

" Very near, but not exactly." 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 



RUBUS. 117 

R. Grabowskii Genev. (88.) 

L. o Earn, 000 

h. 00000000 

l. Earn — North side of the Earn, a mile or two below Crieff (!). 

R. Colemani Blox. (89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. 00000000 

L. Isla — Wellbank, Rattray (Sturrock) : " Closely allied to Cole- 
mani, if not identical with it. It is very interesting." 

R. Salteri Bab. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. o o o Isla, 0000 

L. Isla — Muirton Wood (Sturrock). 

H. Isla — Beside Loch of Lows (Sturrock) : " Very like a form of 
Salteri" 

Var. calvatus Blox. 

L. Isla — Quarrymill Den (!) : near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 
Muirton Wood (Sturrock): " chlorothyrsus Focke." 

R. carpinifolius W. and N. (88, 89.) 

L. o o Perth, Isla, Cowrie. 

h. o o Perth, 00000 

L. Perth — Near Bridge of Almond (!) ; Linn of Campsie (!). 

Isla — Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!) : "Closely allied \a carpinifolius, 
but the dentition of the leaves different." 
H. Perth — Railway-side, Birnam (C. M'Intosh). 

R. villicaulis W. and N. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 



1 1 8 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 



L. Isla — Frequent near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Coralbank Road, 
Rattray (Sturrock) : " Near specimens named Bakeri (ras.) 
by Bloxam = villicaulis var." 
Gowrie • — Woody Island (!) : "I think we must call this 
villicaiilis, although there are difficulties about glands and 
colour." 

H. Breadalbane — Killin (Babington) : " Differs slightly from 
that of Genevier." [Glen Lochay (Marshall and Han- 
bury) : "About our Bournemouth villicaiilis." — Moyle 
Rogers.] 
Rannoch — Near Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay). 

Var. adscitus Genev. 

L. Isla — Coralbank Road, Rattray (Sturrock): "Var. near 
adscitus" Countlaw, Rattray (Sturrock) : " Very close to 
adscitus. Seems identical with a specimen of tremuhis (L. 
and M.) in Herb. Genev. It has the regular and fine 
dentition of the leaves which separates it from adscitus'' 

II. Rannoch — Near Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay): "Very prob- 
ably." 

Var. grains Fcke. 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 



R. Maassii Fcke. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 

l. Perth— Methven Wood (!). 

Isla — Muirton Wood (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!). Professor Babington says of this 
specimen ('Journal of Botany,' 1886, p. 225) that it " may 
probably be the R. Munteri, which differs from R. Maassii 
by its stellately pilose stem, and sub-orbicular or broadly 
elliptical and densely serrate terminal leaflets. But I must 
leave it for future consideration." 

R. macrophyllus W. and N. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane o o 

L. Earn — Aberuthven — (W. Martin). 

Isla — Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Muirton Wood (Sturrock) : 
" This seems the same as a plant mentioned by Mr Bagnall 
in 'Journal of Botany,' xx. 143, as an undescribed form of 
macrophyllus. It is very near to but not exactly glabra tus." 



RUBUS. 119 

Countlaw, Rattray (Sturrock) '• "This seems a form of 
macrophyllus, probably the plant called R. sylvarum by 
Genevier, but does not agree exactly with his specimen 
now before me." 
11. rerth— Inver Saw-Mill (C. MTntosh) : " I have taken much 
pains with this, but cannot give it a satisfactory name. It 
seems a form of macrophyllus, but will not accord with 
any of mine, none of which have the remarkably prickly 
panicle." 
Breadalbane — Killin (Babington). 

Var. amplificatus Lees. 

L. Perth — Near Almond mouth (!). 

Gowrie — Kingoodie (!) ; Invergowrie (!). 

(c) Specialties. 

R. mucronatus Blox. (89.) 

L. o o o Isla, o 

h. 00000000 

L. Isla — Wellbank, Rattray (Sturrock). Loon Brae, Rattray 
(Sturrock) : " Another slight variation of mucronatus, I 
believe. Muirton Wood (Sturrock): "mucronatus; but 
the leaves very thin, from living in a wood (?)." Countlaw, 
Rattray (Sturrock) : "Seems a form of mucronatus ; the 
macrothyrsus Lange ms., Focke, 316." 

R. Sprengelii Weihe. (89.) 



L. 











Isla, 







H. 








O 












L. Isla — Muirton Wood (Sturrock) : " This may be a large form 
of Sprengelii." 

(d) Radulce. 

R. rosaceus W. and N. (88, 89.) 

L. o Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

L. Earn — Aberuthven (W. Martin). 
Isla— Muirton Wood (Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; Paddockmuir Wood (!). 



120 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

Var. hystrix Weihe. 

L. Isla — Coralbank Road, Rattray (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; Tay side near Perth Nurseries (!) ; 
Kinnoull Hill(!); Ballhayock. 

R. Babingtonii Salt. (89.) 
L. o o o Isla, o 
h. o o o o 00 o o 

L. Isla — Countlaw, Rattray (Sturrock). 

R. echinatus Lindl. {rudis Bab. Manual) (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth" Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

l. Earn— Kirkton of Mailer (!) ; Glen Farg (!). 
Perth — Almond side (!). 
Isla — Hillocks of Rattray (Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Near Barnhill Tollbar(!). 

R. Radula Weihe (88, 89.) 
L. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o 00 o o 

L. Perth, Isla, and Gowrie — Various places near Perth, and 

Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 
Isla — Quarrymill Den(!): "Seems a state of Radula with 

shorter and finer setae than we usually find ; " and regarding 

another plant from the same locality, " I cannot distinguish 

this except by its apparent want of setae. Have they fallen 

off sooner than usual ? " 
Gowrie — I place this under Radula. It is very close to my 

single authentic specimen of sepincolus (Boul.), but hardly 

separable from Radula." 

(4) (Handulosi. 

(a) Koehleriani. 

R Koehleri Weihe. (87, 88, 89.) 
l o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, o o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 



RUBUS. 121 

L. Isla — llalton, Rattray (Sturrock). 
li. Perth— Hermitage, Dunkeld (C. M'Intosh). 
Breadalban'e — Glen Lochay (BabingLon). 

Var. infestus Weihe. 

L. Earn — Duncrub (!) ; Earn side below Crieff (!); Ochter- 
tyre(!). 

Perth— Near Methven Bog (!). 

Isla — Rattray Common (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Seggieden (Drummond-rlay) (!). 
H. Breadalbane — Killin (Babington). 

Var. pallidus Weihe, Bab. 

L. Isla — Hillocks of Rattray (Sturrock). 

H. Rannoch — Near Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay). 

"Perth West" ('Top. Bot.') 

Var. cavatifolius Muell. 

L. Isla — Countlaw, Rattray (Sturrock). Welton, Blairgowrie 
(Sturrock) : "With finer teeth than usual." 

R. diversifolius Lindl. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. 00000000 

l. Isla — Hillocks of Rattray and Hatton (Sturrock). 

R. Lejeunei Weihe. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, o 
h. o o 000 Breadalbane, o o 

L. Perth — Near Bridge of Almond (!). 

Isla — Frequent near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 
H. Breadalbane — Killin (Babington). 

Var. festivus M. and W. 

L. Isla — Muirton Wood (Sturrock). Parkhill, Rattray (Stur- 
rock) : ' ' obscurifrons. " 











(b) BcUa7'diani. 




R. 


saxicolus M 


uell. (87, 


89.) 


L. 













Gowrie. 


H. 













Lomond, 



122 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

I.. Gowrie — Tay side at Nurseries (!) : "This may be saxicolus, 

but does not exactly accord with my specimens." 
H. Lomond — Inverarnan (Babington, 1845). 

R. foliosus Weihe. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 

H. OOOOOOOO 

L. Isla — Hill of Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Coralbank Road, Rat- 
tray (Sturrock) : "I have just this plant from Plymouth 
named so by Bloxam, but I think there is more than one 
plant included by us under that name." 

R. Bellardi Weihe. (89.) 
Var. dentatus Blox. 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 

H. OOOOOOOO 

Gowrie — Balthayock(!) : "I think that this is the dentatus 
of Bloxam. More of the barren stem is wanting to deter- 
mine it certainly. " 

(5) Csesii. 

R. Balfourianus Blox. (89.) 
L. o o Isla, Gowrie. 

H. OOOOOOOO 

L. Isla — Loon Brae and Littleton, Rattray (Sturrock). Muirton 
Wood (Sturrock) : "I am very doubtful about this plant. 
It comes rather close to Balfourianus in some of the forms 
which I have been accustomed to place under that name. 
It is probably distinct by narrow very flexuose panicle, and 
exceedingly few if any setse on the barren stem." 
Gowrie — Kinnaird (!) : " May be." 

R. corylifolius Sm. (88, 89.) 

L. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 

Var. sublustris Lees. 

L. Perth — Pitcairngreen (!) : " Felt very thin." 
Isla — Gannochy Road (!). 
Gowrie— Woody Island (!); North Muirton (!); Barnhill (!). 



RUBUS. 123 

Tay side near Kinfauns (!) : " No felt. Genevier notices 
similar plants which seem to differ from his dumetorum 
by the colour of the petals, but that is not even in his 
opinion a constant character. I join his plant to subluslris 
as a feltless form." 
ii. Breadalbane — Loch Tay side (!). 

Var. conjungens Bab. 

L. Isla — Ardblair, Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Tay side at Nurseries (!); Barnbill (!) ; near 
ElchoO). 

Var. fasciadatus Muell. 

1.. Isla — Muirton Wood (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Tay side at Nurseries (!) ; Glencarse (!). 
11. Perth— Dalguise (C. M'Intosh). 

Var. 

L. Perth — Linn of Campsie(!): "There is a plant in Perth- 
shire closely approaching the R. sepicola L. and M., which 
may be the same as my variety conjungens. At first sight 
it much resembles R. latifolius. Its terminal leaflet is 
more cordate than that of R. sepicola, its stem more fur- 
rowed, and there are a few sunken setoe on the panicle." 
— ('Journ. of Bot.,' 1886, p. 235). 

R. deltoideus Mull. (88.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 

R. scabrosus Mull. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, 00000 

L. Earn — Aberuthven (W. Martin). 

Isla — Near Blairgowrie (Sturrock). Ericht side, Welton, Blair- 
gowrie (Sturrock): "I must place this under scabrosus 
temporarily. It may be distinct." 

H. Perth— Inver (C. M'Intosh). 

Var. trigonodontus Boul. 

L. Perth — Linn of Campsie(!). (I have also seen it near Lun- 
carty. ) 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!). 



124 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

R. csesius L. (88, 89.) 
Var. ligerinus Genev. 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 

Gowrie— Woody Island (!). Tay side at Nurseries (!) : "I 
must place to cashes, and very near to ligerinus ; but 
Genevier says 'fol. ternees,' and does not seem to have 
known of quinate leaves. lie also says that the calyx is 
setose. It is very like deltcefolius Muell., but that has 
''petals roses.' Can it be a white-flowered form of that 
plant?" 

B. HERB ACE I. 

i. Saxatiles. 

R. saxatilis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp woods, stony margins of streams and lakes, 

and mountain-ledges. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 3200 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 in H. 

Earn, and 1400 in L. Forth. 

"At Dunkeld and Blair, and about Loch Rannoch." — Lightfoot, 
p. 265. 1778. 

ii Arctici. 

R. Chamgemorus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth,] 0000 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Peaty places on the mountains. Not uncommon 

in the Highland area. 
alt. From 1450 ft. in Atholl and 1500 in H. Earn 

and Breadalbane to 2500 (or more?) in H. 

Isla and Breadalbane, and 3500 in Rannoch. 



DRYAS — GEUM. 12$ 

"Upon the mountains about Loch Rannocb." — Lightfoot, p. 266. 
1778. 
[l. Forth — On and near Ben Clench (Graham, 1S40 ; Alva Moss 
at about 1500 ft. (Rev. J. Couper).] 

R. arcticus L. is an old record for Ben-a-Ghlo, but 
was probably an error. 

The late Professor J. H. Balfour writes (in ' Edin. Bot. Soc. Trans.,' 
ix. p. 299, 1S68) that he searched in vain "under the guidance of Mi- 
Henry Gordon, who knew the locality in which the plant was said to 
have been gathered many years ago." 



TRIBE IV. — POTENTILLEjE. 
4. DRYAS L. 

D. octopetala L. ("87," S8, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

H. 000 Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 

hab. Alpine (chiefly calcareous) rocks and banks. 
Local. 

alt. From about 1000 ft. in Atholl to 2700 in Bread- 
albane and H. Isla. 

" On the Eastern sides of Maol-ghlas, Mal-grea, and Creg-chail- 
lech in Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 274. 1778. 
11. Isla— Cairnwell (E. S. Marshall). 

Breadalbane — On several hills between Ben Lawers, Craig 

Mhor, and Ben Laoigh. 
Atholl— Glen Tilt (!). 

5. GEUM L. 

Gr. urbanum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Hedges, roadsides, and woods. Common, 

ALT. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 



126 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

G. rivale L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp woods, sides of streams, &c. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Rannoch, 2900 in Breadal- 
bane, 2500 in H. Earn, and 2000 in Atholl 
and Lomond. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O. S.A., 1796). 

G. intermedium Ehrh. is a hybrid between G. urban- 
um and G. rivale, and is not unfrequent in company 
with the latter in localities below 1000 ft. alt. It is vari- 
able, and sometimes closely approaches typical G. rivale, 
in which case perhaps it is the result of G. intermedium 
having been crossed with G. rivale. 

It more rarely occurs with G. urbanum, and then 
more closely resembles that species, possibly because it 
has originated by the flowers of G. urbanum having been 
fertilised by the pollen of G. rivale. 

Plants from Glen Farg (!), with much paler foliage and 
greenish white flowers, are perhaps the var. pallidum A. 
Blytt (G. pallidum C. A. Mey.) They seem to be only 
an albino condition. 

G. hybridum Wulf. is a not uncommon monstrosity 
with proliferous flowers and foliaceous sepals. 

6. FRAGARIA L. 

F. vesca L. (87, 88, 89.) 

I. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

II. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and banks. Common. 



rOTENTILLA. \2J 

alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl, 2000 in H. Earn, 
and 1S00 in H. Isla. 
Cluny (M'RiLchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

F. elatior Ehrh. is a not uncommon escape. 

7. POTBNTILLA L. 

§ i. Comarum. 

P. palustris Scop. (Comarum Nestl.) (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshes. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to above 1600 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

§ ii. Sibbaldia. 
P. Sibbaldi Hall. f. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Rather bare places on the higher mountains. 
Rather local. 

alt. From about 1700 ft. in Atholl to 3680 in Bread- 
albane, 3757 in Rannoch, 2800 in H. Isla, and 
2700 in Lomond. 
t( Ben-Mor in Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 175. 1778. 

§ iii. Potentilla. 

P. silvestris Neck. Tormentilla Neck., Scop.) (87, 
88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie, 



128 DICOTYLEDONEJE. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Pastures, woods, and moors. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2950 ft. in Breadalbane, 2900 in Ran- 
noch and Atholl, and 2500 in Lomond. 

Subject to considerable variability in the shape of the leaves, &c. 
The serrature of the leaflets is sometimes so deep that the leaflets 
are almost pinnatifid ; and occasionally the stem leaves are shortly 
stalked. 

P. procumbens Sibth. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Pastures. Not common, or overlooked. 

ALT. 

No doubt frequently passed over as a form of P. Tormentilla, of 
which species it is scarcely more than a sub-species or a variety. 
L. Perth— Stanley (!). 

Isla — 

Gowrie — Perth Nurseries (!). 
H. Forth — Kingshouse (!). 

Earn — Dalrannoch, Glenartney (!). 

Perth— Inver (C. MTntosh) ; Dalguise (!). 

Isla— Balinluig(!); Moulin (!). 

Breadalbane — Balinluig Island ( !). 

P. reptans L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, o o Gowrie. 
H. o o Perth, 0000 Atholl. 
hab. Roadsides and pastures. Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Miss Turner) ; [Culross (J. 

M'Gregor) ; Ochils, Kennetpans (!), and Clackmannan 

Pow(!) (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Earn— Near Forteviot (!) ; Pitkeathly (J. Dawson); Forgan- 

deny. 
Gowrie — Kilspindie (!) and Invergowrie (Drummond-Hay (!) ; 

Perth Harbour (W. Barclay) (!) ; Barnhill (R. Dow); 

Kingoodie (!) (W. Barclay (!). 
H. Perth— Railway-bank at Dalguise (C. MTntosh (!). 
Atholl — Near Killiccrankie (Drummond-Hay) (!). 



POTENTILLA. 129 

P. rubens Vill. (metadata Pourr.) (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Sub-alpine and alpine pastures and rock-ledges. 

Not uncommon on the richer Breadalbane 

hills ; rare elsewhere. 
alt. From 400 ft. in Atholl to 3350 in Breadalbane, 

and 2000 in H. Earn and Atholl; 2700 in H. 

Isla. 

"Near the top of Creg-chaillech, a mountain near Finlarig, in 
Breadalbane " (under the name "P. vema"). — Lightfoot, p. 270. 
I77S. . 

Varies somewhat in the shape of the leaves. Most of our speci- 
mens seem to belong to the 

Var. (a) fir ma Koch {sabaitda DC.) Stems stout, more erect; 
leaflets subrotund-obovate, with the edges overlapping a little, and 
the teeth broader. 

But a specimen from Rannoch agrees pretty well with the descrip- 
tion of 

Var. (g) debilis Koch (P. debilis Schleich.) Stems weaker and 
shorter, not rising much above the radical leaves ; leaflets oblong- 
ovate, more deeply incised. 

P. opaca (Braes of Balquidder, G. Don) and P. aurea 
(Ben Lawers, &c), described in the first edition of ' Eng- 
lish Botany,' are not the European species known by 
these names, but (in the case of the latter at least) P. 
rubens. Don's P. opaca is rather more doubtful. 

P. Anserina L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Roadsides, fields, &c. Common. 

ALT. 

P. Fragariastrum Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

1 



130 DIC0TYLED0NE/E. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, woods, and rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to above 2000 ft. in Rannoch and Atholl. 

P. argentea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, o o Gowrie. 
H. 00000000 
hab. Dry rocky places. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

" In the Den of Bethaick near Perth." — Lightfoot, p. 270. 1778. 
L. [Forth — Culross (J. M'Gregor); Kilbagie (T. Buchanan).] 
Earn — Forteviot Haugh (J. Pagan). 

Gowrie — Kinnoull (O. S.A., 1796). Moncreiffe and other 
places on the trap-hills (!). 
Sibbald's " Dry as pentapetala " from the Den of Balthayock (16S4) 
is unknown, unless, as Lightfoot suggests, P. argentea was the plant 
meant. 

TRIBE V. — POTERIEyE. 
8. ALCHEMILLA L. 

§ i. Aphanes. 

A. arvensis Scop. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Fields and waste ground. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 1650 ft. in H. Isla and 1450 in 
Rannoch. 

§ ii. Alchemilla. 
A. vulgaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



AGRIMONIA. 131 

hab. Meadows, pastures, and sides of streams. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane, 2750 in 

Atholl, 2500 in Lomond, and 2000 in L. 

Forth. 

Most commonly almost quite glabrous, but not infrequently hairy 
all over, even to the calyx. Extreme states of the latter condition 
form the var. hybrida Willd. (iiiontana Willd.) — most frequent in 
upland localities — which seems hardly worth retaining. 

But for varr. see Druce, ' Ann. Sc. Nat. Hist.,' Jan. 1893, and 
'Exch. CI. Report' for 1892. 

A. alpina L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Sub -alpine and alpine pastures, thence brought 
down by the rivers nearly to sea-level. Com- 
mon in the Highland area : rarer, and confined 
to the sides of some of the streams in the Low- 
land area. 

alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane. Occurs at 

600 ft. in H. Isla in a place whither it has not 

been carried by water. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

[At Low Valleyfield, on the shores of the Firth of Forth, it is 
"spreading from gardens" (Rev. J. Couper).] 

9. AGRIMONIA L. 

A. Eupatoria L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 

hab. Banks, and edges of fields and woods. Local, 
and not very common. 

ALT. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O. S.A., 1796). 



132 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

A. odorata Mill. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, o o 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, 000 Atholl. 
hae. Roadsides and banks. Rare, or overlooked. 
alt. Low levels. 

l. Earn— Millearn(!); Falls of Ness near Muthill (!). 

Perth — Pittendynie near Moneydie (!). Roadside near 
Strathord Station (Trail). 
H. Earn — Comrie (!) ; St Fillans (Miss Worsley) ; near Loch- 
earnhead (!). 

Perth— Inver (C. M'Intosh). 

Isla — Near Guaig (!). 

Atholl — Alltgirnaig (leaves only seen, hence somewhat 
uncertain) (!). Although in 'Top. Bot.' there is a state- 
ment that this plant was seen in cultivation at St Fillans, 
where it was also found "quasi- wild," it is apparently not 
now (if it ever was) a garden plant in other parts of Perth- 
shire, and must, I think, be regarded as a native. Whilst 
it is more strongly scented than A. Eupatoria, the latter is 
by no means inodorous. 

Aremonia agrimonioides DC. has been naturalised for 
many years on several wooded banks near Perth. 

10. POTBRIUM L. 

P. Sanguisorba L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Pastures. Very rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

Balthayock Hill, apparently native (!); Moncreiffe, perhaps an 
escape (!). I have also seen it on the side of the railway near 
Abercairney station in L. Earn, where it was probably a casual. 
Right bank of Tummel below Pitlochry (!). 

P. polygamum W. and K. (mitricatum Spach), var. 
filatylophum Jord., used to grow at Witchhill, Perth — 
whence it was recorded as P. Sanguisorba — but the 
locality has been destroyed. 

Sanguisorba officinalis L. and S. canadensis L. have 
both occurred as escapes. 



ROSA. 133 



TRICE VI. — ROSE/E. 

11. ROSA L. 

The following account of the distribution of the Perthshire roses 
is chiefly founded on specimens preserved in the herbarium of the 
Perthshire Natural History Museum, and named by Mr J. G. Baker 
and Mr G. Nicholson, for whose kind services I am greatly indebted. 
Though the list of Perthshire species and varieties is probably nearly 
complete, much has yet to be learned about the local distribution, 
since our specimens have been collected in comparatively few places, 
and a large part of the county has not been examined at all. The 
places to which attention has been chiefly directed are as follows : 
near Seggieden (Gowrie) and near Pitlochry (Rannoch) by Colonel 
Drummond - Hay ; about Inver (H. Perth) by Mr C. M'Intosh; 
Blairgowrie (L. Isla) by the late Mr Sturrock ; Aberuthven (L. 
Earn) by Mr W. Martin ; and near Dunkeld (H. Isla), Kinloch- 
Rannoch (Rannoch), and various places near Perth, &c, by my- 
self. 

R. spinosissima L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 

hab. Dry banks, and sandy and rocky places. Local, 
and, though widely distributed, not common. 

alt. Ascends to about 1150 ft. in H. Isla. 

Variable. Sometimes the peduncles are naked, sometimes acicu- 
late. The petioles are sometimes glandular. 

R. involuta Sm. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks. Local, and not common. 

ALT. 

Var. Sabini Woods. 

L. Earn — Auchterarder (W. Barclay) ; Glen Farg (W. Barclay). 
Perth— Road to Callerfountain (!) (W. Barclay). 
Isla — Near Loch Cluny (Sturrock) ; Waulkmill Ferry (!) (W. 

Barclay). 
Gowrie — Near Kirkstyle of Kinfauns (!) (W. Barclay). 



134 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

H. Earn — St Fillans (Miss Worsley). 
Perth— Inver (C. M'Intosh). 
Isla— Dunkeld(!). 
Breadalbane— Glen Lyon (Dr Stuart in ' F. S.,' 1821). [Glen 

Lochay (Marshall and Hanbnry).] 
Atholl— Glen Tilt (G. C. Druce). 
Rarely more than one or two bushes in each station, but at Waulk- 
mill there are half-a-dozen or more. 

Another variety occurs at Kinloch-Rannoch (!). 

R. hibernica Sm. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Banks. Very local and rare. 

ALT. 

H. Perth — Near Inver (C. M'Intosh) — the var. glabra Baker. 
Isla — Tay side above Dunkeld ( !) — the var. glabra. 

R. rubiginosa L. occurs in almost all the districts, 
often in abundance. While it usually grows on road- 
sides and similar ground near cultivation, it is not un- 
frequently met with in waste rocky places, where it looks 
as wild as any other rose. Probably, however, the Sweet- 
briar is only an escape, as it readily sows itself. The 
oldest record is for Cluny (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

R. mollis Sm. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, &c. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl and 1800 in H. 
Isla. 

Var. cazrulea Woods. H. Earn, Perth, Breadalbane, 
and Rannoch. 

Ascends to above 1000 ft. in H. Forth and 2000 in 
Breadalbane. 



ROSA. i 35 

R. tomentosa Sm. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, &c. Common. 

ALT. 

Var. subglobosa Sm. Not uncommon. L. Earn, 
Gowrie, Breadalbane, and Rannoch. 

Var. farinosa Rau. Kinloch-Rannoch (!); Blair Athole 
(Hailstone). 

Var. sylvestris Woods. Common at Kinloch- 
Rannoch (!). 

Var. scabriuscula Sm. ? Muirton Wood, Blairgowrie 
(Sturrock). 

Var. with simply serrate leaves. Near Fingask 
Castle (!). 

Var. with white flowers (rare in this species). Glen- 
carse Hill (Drummond-Hay). 

[An tnwluta-like form was found by Messrs Marshall 
and Hanbury near Crianlarich. See 'J. of B.,' xxix. 
p. in.] 

R. canina L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1650 ft. in H. Isla, 1200 in H. 

Forth, and 1800 in Breadalbane. 

The following varieties occur or have been reported 
as occurring : — 

1. lutetiana Leman. 
l. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 



136 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

2. surculosa Woods. 

h. Perth — Inchewan Burn near Birnam (C. M'Intosh). 
Breadalbane — 

3. splicer ica Gren. 

l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o o o o Rannoch, o 

4. dwnalis Bechst. 

l. o Earn, o Isla, o 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

Ascends to nearly 1100 ft. in H. Earn. 

5. urbica Leman. 
Appears to be rare or local. 

L. Gowrie — Barnhill and near Elcho (!). 
H. Earn— Near Comrie (W. F. Miller). 
Isla— Glen Shee (E. S. Marshall). 
Rannoch — Kinloch-Rannoch (!). 
A form which is nearer lutetiana — having leaves glabrous on both 
surfaces and a few scattered hairs on the rachis — occurs in a hedge 
at Cromwell Park (L. Perth) (W. F. Miller) (!). 

6. frondosa Steven. 

L. Isla — Muirton Wood, Blairgowrie (Sturrock). 
h. Rannoch — Opposite Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay). 

7. arvatica Baker. 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00 Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 
Ascends to about 1000 ft. in Atholl and upwards in 
H. Isla. 

8. dumetorum Thuill. 

H. Earn— Near Comrie (W. F. Miller). 

Rannoch — Kinloch-Rannoch (!) ; Glen Lochay (Marshall and 
Hanbury). 

9. obtnsifolia Desv. 

l. Gowrie — Near Almond mouth (!) — probably this variety; 



ROSA. 137 

10. pruinosa Baker. 

H. Isla — Glen Shee, at 1 100 ft. (E. F. Linton). 

Breadalbane — Loch Tay side (G. C. Druce) ; Glen Lyon (E. 
F. Linton). 

11. incana Woods. 

H. Breadalbane — Killin (F. M. Webb). 

12. tomentella Leman. 

h. Breadalbane (G. C. Druce) ; Glen Lyon (E. F. Linton). 

13. andegavensis Bast. 

L. Isla — Quarrymill Den (!). Not good. 

H. Forth — Pass of Lanrick (Borrer) — a form with sepals glan- 
dular on the back (Baker). 

14. verticillacantha Merat. 

H. Breadalbane— Killin (F. M. Webb). Craig-na-Caillich at 
1S00 ft. (G. C. Druce). 

15. Koscinciana Bess. 1 Loch Tay side (G. C. Druce). 

16. ccesia Sm. 

Strath Tay between Dunkeld and Aberfeldy (Borrer) and side 
of Loch Tay (Anderson), in ' F. S.' 1S21. Loch Tay side (G. C. 
Druce). 

17. glauca Vill. (Reuteri Godet). 

l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, 000 Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 

Variable. Amongst the forms one near R. complicata Gren. 
occurs near Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay), where also forms between 
glauca and subcristata have been found ; another form — cabullicensis 
Puget — grows at Kinloch-Rannoch (!), and at Loch Lubnaig (Craig- 
Christie) ; while yet another, with "peduncles setose," is recorded 
from Killin as R. intricata Kern, by Rev. E. F. Linton in ' Bot. 
Rec. Club Report ' for 1 88 1-82. 



1 M. Crepin has called attention to this plant being wrongly 
inserted in British lists, as it is a hybrid between R. canina and 
R. gallica, which latter is not a British species. — Trail. 



138 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

18. subcristata Baker. 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 

One of our commonest forms, and somewhat variable. A plant 
found beside the Dochart at Killin by the Rev. E. F. Linton, and 
recorded in ' Bot. Rec. Club Report' for 18S1-82 as marginata 
Wallr., is referred by Mr Baker to subcristata var. 

19. imfilexa Gren. 

l. Gowrie — Near Elcho (!). 

H. Rannoch — Opposite Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay). 
Forms near implexa occur in the last-named locality and also on 
the side of Loch Tay (!). 

20. cor ii folia Fr. 

l. Isla— Stobhall (!), Quarrymill Den (!). 

Gowrie — Barnhill ( !). 
H. Breadalbane — 

Rannoch — Kinloch-Rannoch (!) ; opposite Pitlochry (Drum- 
mond-Hay). 

21. Watsoni Baker. 

L. Perth — Taymount(l). 

Gowrie — Barnhill and Elcho (!). 
h. Breadalbane— Killin (F. M. Webb) ; Glen Lochay (Marshall 
and Hanbury). 
Rannoch — Kinloch-Rannoch (!) ; opposite Pitlochry (Drum- 
mond-Hay). 

Of the varieties enumerated above I have not seen 
specimens of Nos. 10, n, 12, 14, and 16. 

R. arvensis, Huds., R. alpina, L., and probably R. 
cinnamomea L. occur as more or less rare escapes or 
relicts of cultivation. 



PYRUS. 139 

TRIBE VII. — POME/E. 
12. PYRUS L. 

P. malus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Local, and not common. 
alt. Ascends to 930 ft. in Atholl and 730 in Rannoch, 

Laighwood (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

The districts recorded above show the distribution of the var. 
acerba DC. or wild form. The var. mitts occurs, as an escape, in 
several of the districts and also in Gowrie. 

P. communis L., var. Py raster L., occurs, but seems 
to be scarcely indigenous. 

P. Aucuparia Gaertn. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and mountain rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2850 ft. in Rannoch, 2750 in Atholl, 
2000 in H. Earn, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

P. Aria Sm. 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o o Rannoch, o 

hab. Rocks. Very rare. 

alt. At nearly 1000 ft. 

Rocks on the west side of the Pass of Killiecrankie (!). 

From the inaccessibility of the bushes specimens could not be ob- 
tained for close examination, so the form which occurs here is uncer- 
tain, but it is probably rupicola Syme. P. Aria, though not uncom- 
mon as a garden and park plant in some parts of Perthshire, never 
(or rarely), so far as I have seen, occurs as a self-sown escape, which 
strengthens my belief that it is indigenous in this locality. [In north- 
east Scotland I have occasionally seen young plants in situations 
where the seed had probably been scattered by birds, certainly not 
by man. — Trail.] 



140 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 



13. CRATAEGUS L. 

C. Oxyacantha L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and thickets. Common. 
alt. Ascends to above 1000 ft. in Rannoch and 

Atholl. 

Laigliwood (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

All the specimens which I have seen belong to the sub-species or 
var. monogyna Jacq. Though doubtless in many cases originating 
from the seeds of planted trees, the hawthorn is, I think, native in 
Perthshire. 

In the ravine of Kincraigie Burn — several bushes (!). 



Order XXII.— SAXIFRAGACE^E. 

1. SAXIFRAGA L. 

§ i. Tridactylites. 

S. tridactylites L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, 000 Gowrie. 
h. 0000000 Atholl. 
hab. Dry rocks and walls. Rare and local. 

ALT. 

"On the banks of the Forth near Auchtertyre, to the west of 
Stirling." — Don, Fasc. iii., 1805, No. 58. 

L. Forth— Don's station given above — no recent record. [Long- 
annet Point (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Gowrie — Walls of Perth Nursery Gardens (!). Not noticed 
before 1886, and probably an introduction. 
H. Atholl — Banks of the Garry below Blair Athole (!). 

§ ii. Nephrophyllum. 

S. granulata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 



SAXIFRAGA. 141 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Pastures, banks, and rock-ledges. Common in 

the L. area. 
alt. Ascends to near 1000 ft. in Rannoch. 

S. rivularis L. (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp alpine rocks. Very rare and local. 
alt. At about 3500 ft. 

Ben Lawers (Mr Townson, 1790). It is still there, but in very 
small quantity. "Loch Rannoch, Mr Sommerville." — ' F. S.,' pt. 
i. p. 130. This record has never been confirmed. 

S. cernua L. (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rocks. Very local and rare. 
alt. At about 3800 ft. 

" Discovered by Mr Townson on rocks on the summit of Ben 
Lawers, 1790. I am not aware that it has been detected anywhere 
else, but upon Craigalleach by Mr Borrer and Hook." — ' F. S.,' 
1S21. Smith in ' Fl. Brit.,' 1800, records it from Ben Lawers 
on the authority of Dickson. 

It is to be hoped that botanists, when taking specimens, will bear 
in mind that the limited station on Ben Lawers is the only place 
in Britain for this plant. The Craig-na-Caillich station seems to be 
lost. 

§ iii. Miscopetalwn. 

S. rotundifolia L. was found in a wood between Blair 
Athole and Killiecrankie (!). It is doubtless a garden 
escape. 

§ iv. Boraphila. 

S. stellaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] 0000 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch. Atholl. 



142 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

hab. Alpine and sub-alpine marshy places. Common 

in the Silurian area. 
alt. From 716 ft. in Rannoch and 1000 in H. Perth 

to 3980 in Breadalbane, 3757 in Rannoch, and 

3189 in H. Forth and H. Earn. From 1000 to 

2200 ft. in L. Forth. 

Brought down by water in Breadalbane to about 300 ft. 
[l. Forth — Ochils above Dollar (Dewar) (!) ; Ben Cleuch (Rev. 
J. Couper).] 

S. nivalis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Clefts of alpine rocks. Local, and (except in 

Breadalbane) rare. 
alt. Lowest altitude not noted, but probably not under 

2000 ft. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane, 

3100 in H. Earn, 2500 in H. Forth, and 2500 

in Lomond. 

"Upon the east side of Craig-chailleach, above Finlarig, in Bread- 
albane." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 221. 1778. 

§ v. Dactyloides. 

S. hypnoides L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine and sub -alpine stony places and rock- 
ledges. Common on the Highland mountains, 
rare on the Lowland hills. 

alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane, 3180 in H. 
Earn, 2800 in H. Forth, and 2500 in Lomond. 

The opinions of botanists regarding the forms of this species seem 
to vary as much as the plant does itself. The majority of our 
specimens appear to belong to S. hypnoides proper (var. gemmifera 






SAXIFRAGA. 1 43 

Syme), but a few (from Breadalbane, Atholl, and Lomond) apper- 
tain to the var. S. sponhemica Gmel. Subjoined are forms that have 
been recorded from Perthshire under the names here given : — 

S. CLuincmefida Haworth. Ben Lawers — teste Engler 
(G. C. Druce). 

S. grcenlandica L. (S. decipiens Ehrh. var. grcenlandica 

(L.)). 

S. quinq.uefida Haworth (S. sponhemica Gmel.) " Ben- 
a-Choin (87) " (Marshall and Hanbury). 

S. sponhemica, 1600 ft. in Glen Shee (E. S. Marshall). 

§ vi. Trachyphyllum. 

S. aizoides L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Marshy places, chiefly alpine and sub - alpine. 
Also by the sides of streams, where it has been 
brought down from the hills. Common in the 
Highland area; rarer in the Lowland area, but 
occurring in places where it has not been 
carried by water. 

alt. Ascends to 3850 ft. in Breadalbane. 

"Pass of Killiecrankie near Blair." — Lightfoot, p. 222. 177S. 

In a marshy hollow near Brownmuir in Murthly, at between 150 
and 200 feet above seadevel (Trail). 

The larger number of our dried specimens belong to 6". 
autitmnalis L. 

[S. Hirculus. " Madie Moss ; top of the Ochils above 
Tillicoultry ; Clackmannanshire."] 

§ vii. Robertsonia. 
S. umbrosa L. has been naturalised for a loner time in 



144 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

several places. The specimens I have examined belong 
to the var. punctata Haw. 

[S. Geura is reported as an outcast near Dollar.] 

§ viii. Porphyrion. 
S. oppositifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o o o o o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine rocks and banks. Not uncommon, 

especially in Breadalbane. 
alt. From 1000 ft. in Atholl and H. Forth, and 1200 
in Breadalbane, to 3980 in Breadalbane and 
3180 in H. Forth and Ff. Earn. 
" Ben Lawers." — Don, Fasc. iii., 1805, No. 57. 

2. CHRYSOSPLENIUM L. 

C. alternifolium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places near streams. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2900 ft. in Breadalbane. 

"About Killin frequent."— Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 1123. 177S. 
In Gowrie it occurs in one place only (Woody Island). 

C. oppositifolium L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp or shady rocks and banks. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3400 ft. in Breadalbane, 2860 in Ran- 
noch, 2600 in H. Perth and Atholl, and 2700 
in Lomond. 



PARNASSIA — RIBES. 1 45 

3. PARNASSIA L. 

P. palustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breaclalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2250 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 in 
Lomond, and 1950 in Atholl. 
Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

Order XXIII.— RIBESIACE2E. 

1. RIBES L. 

R. rubrum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and thickets. Not common. 

ALT. 

Var. sativum Reich. The cultivated form, occurring 
as an escape, but not much more frequently than 

Var. petrceum Sm., which may perhaps be indigenous, 
though I am rather doubtful. 

R. alpinurn L. occurs — not commonly, and probably 
only where planted ; and R. nigrum L. and R. Grossularia 

L. as escapes from cultivation. The latter ascends to 
1000 ft. 



146 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Order XXIV.— CRASSULACE/E. 

1. SEDUM L. 

§ i. Telephiiim. 

S. roseum Scop. (Rhodiola DC.) (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o o o o o 
h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp alpine rocks. Common, but especially in 

Breadalbane. 
alt. From 1300 ft. in Breadalbane and 1500 in H. 
Earn to 3850 in Breadalbane, 3100 in H. 
Forth and H. Earn, and 2500 in Lomond. 

S. Telephium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Hedge -banks, &c. Common near Perth, rarer 

elsewhere. 

ALT. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

All the specimens I have examined seem to belong to the var. 
Fabaria Koch. This species may possibly be an old introduction, 
but is not certainly so. 

§ ii. Ceptza. 
S. villosum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Marshy places. Not common, but widely dis- 
tributed. 
alt. Ascends to 3600 ft. in Breadalbane and to 2000 
in L. Forth. 

"In Glen-Eglas, in Strath-Erne, to the south of Crief." — Stuart 
in Lightfoot, p. 237. 1778. 



SEDUM. 147 



§ iii. Sedum. 

S. anglicum Huds. (87, 88.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, o o 
h. Forth, Earn, 000 Breadalbane, o o 
had. Rocky places. 
alt. Ascends to 700 ft. in Breadalbane. 

The distribution of this species is rather curious. Beginning at 
Perth, it extends westwards through L. Earn and H. Earn (in 
which districts it is most frequent), and thence goes northwards 
along Loch Tay to Fortingal. In the Forth basin it abounds at 
Tillicoultry (!), Blairlogie, and Menstrie, and occurs to the west at 
Lake of Monteith and Ben Ledi. 

S. album L. and S. dasyphyllum L. occur as introduc- 
tions in a few places. 
[S. album. 

The rapidity with which this plant will increase under favourable 
conditions is remarkable. A small piece was planted on the preci- 
pice of Kinnoull Hill, and in a few years multiplied to such an 
extent as to cover for a considerable distance all the ledges of a rock 
more than IOO ft. in height.] 

S. acre L. 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Rocky and stony places, walls and thatched roofs. 
Not uncommon ; most frequent on the trap- 
hills. 

ALT. 

On a garden wall on right bank (Breadalbane) of Tummel oppo- 
site Pitlochry — probably planted. 

S. reflexum L. is quite established and abundant in 
several places ; and what appears to be a form of S. 
rupestre L. grows on the shingles of the Tay above 
Meikleour, and on walls beside the Tay at Dunkeld (!). 



I48 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

[Cotyledon Umbilicus. " Forest Mill to the east of 
Alloa, Clackmannan."] 

Sempervivum tectorum occurs on roofs of houses, but 
only when planted. 



Order XXV.— DROSERACE/E. 
1. DROSERA L. 

D. rotundifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy and peaty places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Perth. 

D. anglica Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, 0000 

h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, o 

hab. Moist peaty places. Not common. 

alt. Ascends to about 1000 ft. in Rannoch. 

L. Forth — Several mosses in Monteith (!). 
H. Earn — Glen Ogle. 

Isla — Loch Broom (Brebner). 

Breadalbane — Here and there, especially in the west (!). 

Rannoch — In several places between Pitlochry, Loch Laidon, 
and Loch Ericht (!). 

D. obovata M. & K. Ben Heasgarnich (R. H. Mel- 
drum) ; Coninish near Tyndrum (G. C. Druce). 

D. intermedia Hayne is recorded as having been 
found at Thai in Glen Lochay (Balfour, 187 1), and also 
" between Dalwhinnie and Loch Ericht, Perthshire " (W. 
M'Kay). Careful search at Thai failed to rediscover 
the species. 



nirruRis — myriophyllum. 149 

Order XXVI. — II A L O R A G A C E JE. 
1. HIPPURIS L. 

H. vulgaris L. (88, 89.) 

I. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 

II. 000 Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 

hab'. Watery places. Not common. 

alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Atholl (!), 1500 in Bread- 
albane and H. Isla, and 1200 in Rannoch. 

L. Isla— Loch Cluny (Arnott, ' F. S.,' 1S21) (!) ; between Meikle- 
our and Delvine. 
Gowrie — Moncreiffe Hill (!). 
H. Isla— Marsh of Benachally (Arnott, ' F. S.,' 1821) ; source of 
Butterstone Burn (Sturrock) ; Ben Bhrackie (!). 
Breadalbane — Farragon (!) ; banks of the Tummel (R. II. 

Meldrum) ; Lead of Balnamuir Burn (!). 
Rannoch — Near Pitlochry (Drummond-IIay); Loch Kin- 

nardochy (!). 
Atholl — Ben Bhrackie (Drummond-IIay (!). 
Also recorded from Redgorton in L. Perth (Liston in N.S.A. , 
iS37). 

2. MYRIOPHYLLUM L. 

M. alterniflorum DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Streams, lakes, and pools. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2350 ft. in Breadalbane, 1483 in H. 

Earn, nearly 1500 in Atholl, and about 1400 

in H. Perth. 

M. spicatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

HOOOOOOOO 

hab. Lakes and pools. Local. 

ALT. 



150 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

3. CALLITRICHB L. 

C. vernalis Koch. (88, 89.) 



L. 


Earn, 








Gowrie. 


H. 


000 











HAB. 


In water. 








ALT. 











The distribution of this and the three following species has not 
been thoroughly worked out in Perthshire, because they have been 
often considered to be merely varieties of the super-species C. verna 
L. , and also because it has not always been possible to obtain ripe 
fruit. C. verna occurs in all the districts. 

C. platycarpa Kuetz. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hac. In water or on mud. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 1000 ft. in Rannoch and 1200 

in H. Isla. 

C. stagnalis Scop, is included as a subaerial form. 

C. stagnalis Scop. var. scrpyllifoUa Lonnroth. Prob- 
ably at Loch Dochart (Marshall and Hanbury) ; Glen 
Shee (E. S. Marshall). 

C. hamulata Kuetz. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, o Isla, o 

h. Forth, o o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. In water. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in H. Forth, to above 2000 
in Lomond and Atholl, 2700 in Breadalbane, 
and 2800 in H. Isla. 



LYTHRUM. 151 

C. pedunculata DC. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. o o Perth, o Lomond, Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. In water. Probably not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to above 3000 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Often considered to be, and probably is, only a variety of C. 
hamulata. It is the most alpine of our forms. 

C. autumnalis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Lakes. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to about 1400 ft. in H. Isla. 

Loch Cluny, M 'Ritchie, 1792 (in Brit. Mus. Herb.) 

Order XXVII. — LYTHRARIE/E. 
1. LYTHRUM L. 

L. Salicaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, o o Lomond, Breadal- 

bane, o o 
hab. Marshy banks of rivers and lakes. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"I have observed this plant between Dunkeld and Blair in 
Athol." — Don, Fasc. vii., 1806, No. 164. 

L. Forth— Lake of Monteith (Miss Turner) (!); Vicar's Bridge 
near Blairingone, [and mouth of Menstrie Burn (Rev. J. 
Couper).] 
Earn — Benniebeg Pond (!) ; Pond of Drummond (!). 
Perth— Bank of Tay at Hatton Ferry (W. Barclay) (!)— an 

escape. 
Isla — Rae Loch (Herdman) (!) ; Knowehead, Bendochy 

(Barty) ; Marlee Loch (!). 
Gowrie — Woody Island, banks of the Tay below Perth, and 
of the Earn near its mouth. Not common, and perhaps a 
garden escape (!). 



152 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

H. Forth — Loch Lubnaig (Prof. Graham, 1841). 

Earn— Banks of Earn near Aberuchill (W. F. Miller). 
Lomond— Glen Falloch (Balfour) (!). 

Breadalbane — Back water of the Tay above Aberfeldy ( !)— 
probably an escape. 

L. Hyssopifolia L. has been found on ballast at Ken- 
netpans (J. Couper). 

2. PEPLIS L. 

P. Portula L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Muddy places. Local ; probably overlooked. 
alt. Ascends to about 1000 ft. in Rannoch and H. 

Perth. 



Order XXVIII.— ONAGRARIE^E. 
1. EPILOBIUM L. 

The Rev. E. S. Marshall (who has made a special study of the 
genus) has kindly examined many of our specimens, and to him I 
am indebted for the determination of the hybrids and forms men- 
tioned below. 

§ i. Chamtznerion. 
E. angustifolium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Rocky places and river banks. Not uncommon, 

especially in the Highlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Atholl, 2600 in H. Isla, 
1800 in H. Perth, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

"Near Loch-Lutnaig, by the road from Tiendrum." — Stuart in 
Lightfoot, p. 197; 1778. (Loch Lubnaig is of course meant. The 
plant is still in the place indicated.) 



EPILOBIUM. 153 

Forma brachycarfium (Leight), a rare outcast.- — Blair 
Athole (!) near Loch Ben-a-chally (Sturrock) ; Pitroddie 
(Drummond-Hay). 

E. rosmarinifolium (Hnke.) was recorded from Pool 
Tarff in Glen Tilt by the late Mr J. Robertson, Kin- 
fauns. Repeated explorations of the station indicated 
have resulted in finding nothing beyond small plants of 
E. angnstifolium. Mr Robertson's specimens " from the 
banks of the Tay" doubtless came from Kinfauns Gar- 
dens ; and I suspect that he must have thought that he 
saw the same plant in Glen Tilt, but had been mistaken. 

§ ii. Lysimacliioii. 
E. hirsutum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. 00000000 
hae. Damp sides of ditches and streams. Local, but 
not uncommon in the warmer parts of the dis- 
tricts indicated. 
alt. Low levels. 

E. parviflorum Schreb. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, 0000 Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Not very common. Rare in the 

Silurian area. 
alt. Low levels. 

Our specimens of E. parviflorum show a considerable variety in 
the size of the flowers and in the shape and hairiness of the leaves. 

Forma aprica — Cherrybank (R. H. Meldrum) ; f. tri- 
foliate/, — Cherrybank (R. H. Meldrum) ; f. minor aprica 
— Dunblane (R. Kidston) ; f. aprica angustifolia — Rae 
Loch (!). 



154 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

E. palustre x parviflorum (ad. E. parviflorum vergens) 
— Cherrybank (R. H. Meldrum). 

E. montanum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
had. Shady and damp places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl, 2000 in H. Earn, 

and 1570 in H. Isla and L. Forth. 

E. montanum x obscurum — Tay, just below Perth (E. 
F. Linton). Forma vcrticillata — Elcho (Drummond- 
Hay) ; Strathord (!) ; Lake of Monteith (!) ; f. albiflora 
Hausskn. — not uncommon; f. vcrticillata — Lynedoch(!); 
Aberfeldy (G. C. Druce) ; f. minor— Murthly (!), &c. ; 
f. umbrosa Hausskn. — Aberfeldy (G. C. Druce). 

E. obscurum Schreb. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Common ; rarer in the Highland 

area. 
alt. Ascends to 1260 ft. in Atholl, and above 1000 in 

H. Isla. 

Forma crassicaulis Hausskn. — Cherrybank (R. H. 
Meldrum); Linn of Campsie (!) ; Annat Lodge (!) ; f. 
elatior — ditch near Linn of Campsie (!) ; Huntly Burn (!); 
Strathord (!) ; f. ramosissima — Glen Farg(!); f. strictifolia 
Hausskn. — Bridge of Lochay (R. H. Meldrum). 

Forma aprica — in various places ; f. flaccida — Broxy (!) ; 
f. flaccida ramosa — Glen Farg (!). 

E. obscurum x palustre — Rae Loch, Blairgowrie (!) ; 



EPILOBIUM. 155 

Glen Artney(l); Ochtertyre (!) ; Keltie, Dunning (!) ; 
near Ben Lawers (G. C. Druce) ; Glen Shee (E. S. 

Marshall). 

E. obscuruin x parviflorum — Abernethy (Drummond- 
Hay). 

E. tetragonum L. seems to have been found long ago 
in Glen Falloch, in Lomond, by Professor Babington. 
It appears not to occur, or has been passed over, else- 
where in Perthshire. 

E. palustre L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. or more in Atholl and Lomond, 

1700 in Breadalbane, and 1650 in H. Isla. 

Brand and Campbell (' Edin. Bot. Soc. Trans.,' i. p. 25, 1841 ) found 
a form at Dunkeld, which they referred to E. roseum Schreb. 

Forma minor simplex confertifolia — Forteviot (!) ; f. 
minor simplex angustifolia ( = £■ linear e, Krause) — Ben 
Lawers (!) ; f. angustifolia — Dunkeld (J. M'Bryde). 

E. alsinefolium Vill. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth], Earn, Perth o o 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. In or near alpine and subalpine rills and streams, 
or among damp rocks. Not very common. 

alt. From below 400 ft. in L. Perth, 1000 in H. Perth 
[and L. Forth], 1500 in Atholl, and 1700 in 
H. Isla, to 3400 in Breadalbane, 2850 in Ran- 
noch, and 2400 in Atholl. 



156 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

Ben Lawers, R. Brown, Aug. 1794. 

This species seems not to descend along the rivers, like some 
other mountain plants, to any great extent. Therefore the Low- 
land Perth station is exceptional. In this district the plant grows 
on a not very damp rock-ledge on the banks of the Almond near 
Logie House, and below 400 feet altitude. Glen Eagles (W. 
Barclay). 

Forma umbrosa latifolia, near Logie House (!). 

[l. Forth — On and near Ben Cleuch (Dewar and Balfour), Burn 
of Sorrow, from 1000 ft. upwards, Ben Cleuch, Craigleith, 
and Colsnaur Hill, at about 1200 ft. (Rev. J. Couper).] 

E. anagallidifolium Lam. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, 0000 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine springs, rills, and damp places. Common. 
alt. From 1260 feet in Atholl to 3900 in Breadalbane. 

Ben More, M 'Ritchie, July 2, 1771 (Brit. Mus. Herb.) 
[l. Forth — Ben Cleuch from 1590 ft. to near summit, and near 
top of Colsnaur Hill (D. Couper).] 



2. CIRCJEA Tourn. 

C. lutetiana L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp woods. Local. 
alt. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

C. alpina L. (87, 88, 89). 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods. Local. 

ALT. 



IIYDROCOTYLE — SANICULA. 1 57 

Plants exhibiting characters intermediate between the two species, 
and supposed to be hybrids, occur not uncommonly. 

[CEnothera biennis L.— An outcast near Menstrie (J. 
Couper).] 



Order XXIX.— UMEELLIFER^E. 

A. ORTHOSPERM/E. 

TRIBE I. — HYDROCOTYLE/E. 

1. HYDROCOTYLE L. 

H. vulgaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshes. Common. 

ALT. 

TRIBE II. — SANICULEjE. 
2. SANICULA L. 

S. europsea L. ("87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

[Eryngium maritimum — " shores east of Alloa.] 

Astrantia major L. occurs as a rare escape on the 
banks of the Tay between Dunkeld and Darry Island. 
All the specimens I have examined belong to the var. 
involucrata Koch, though both vars. occur. 



158 DICOTYLEDONEyE. 

TRIBE III. — AMMINEiE. 

3. CICUTA L. 

C. virosa L. (88.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, o o 

h. 00000000 

hab. In or near water. Very local and rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

l. Earn — Ochtertyre (R. Kidston). 

Perth — Methven Loch, and one or two other places near 
Methven Castle. 

4. APIUM L. 

A. inundatum Reich. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. In water or where it has been. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in H. Isla. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

[A. graveolens L. as an outcast near Culross (J. 
M'Gregor) ; near Crockmuirhall, Culross (J. Cooper).] 

5. iEGOPODIUM L. 

i£. Podagraria L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Never far from houses and gardens. Common. 
Almost certainly an old introduction. 

alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl. 

Carum Carui L. is more or less naturalised in several 
places, and ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl. 



PIMPINELLA — SIUM. 1 59 

C. Petroselinum Benth. is occasionally met with as an 
outcast. 

6. PIMPINELLA L. 

P. Saxifraga L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry pastures and rocky places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 in L. Forth, 2400 in H. Isla. 

Very variable in the shape of the leaves and in the amount of 
pubescence. In consequence several varieties are mentioned in 
European floras. Of these we have two — 

(a) major Wallr. Leaflets ovate ; those of the stem 
leaves often deeply cut. 

(b) dissectifolia Wallr. Leaflets of all the leaves 
deeply pinnatifid, almost bipinnate. 

These varieties, however, are connected by many intermediate 
forms. 

P. major Huds. {P. magna L.) grows at Leny, near 
Callander, but is not, I think, indigenous there. 

7. SIUM L. 

S. angustifolium L. (87, 89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Wet places. Very local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

Rossie Priory (!), and Glendoick (!) (Drummond-ITay). Long- 
forgan (R. Dow). 

"Perth West" ('Top. Bot.') 

[Sium Falcaria was established on ballast-heaps at 
Kennetpans, near Kincardine-on-Forth (J. Couper).] 



l6o DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

TRIBE IV. — SESELINEiE. 
8. CENANTHE L. 

CE. fistulosa L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Marshes of the Tay here and there (on both sides), 
from Sleepless Island downwards, and marshes 
of the Earn, near its junction with the Tay. 
alt. Low levels. 

CE. pimpinelloides L. has been found at Leny, near 
Callander, but is probably an introduction. 

CE. crocata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Sides of streams and wet places. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"This plant is common in Strathearn, and also by the side of 
the river Tay in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. vii. , 1806, No. 159. 
L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Miss Turner) ; [Culross (J. 
M'Gregor).] 
Perth — Sparingly on the banks of the Tay between Ilatton 

Ferry and Almondmouth (!). 
Gowrie — Common beside the Tay from jnst above Perth 
downwards (!), and beside the Earn from near Forgandenny 
downwards (!). 

9. JETHUSA L. 

i£. Cynapium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, o o Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Fields, gardens, and roadsides. Local. A 

colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

Not uncommon in the Carse of Gowrie ; scarcely more than a 
casual elsewhere. 



MEUM — ANGELICA — HERACLEUM. l6l 

10. MEUM Jacq. 

M. Athamanticum Jacq. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures, chiefly subalpine. Local. 
alt. Ascends to above 1100 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl. 

"Mountains above Dunkeld, and in the pastures about Loch 
Rannoch, in Perthshire." — Lightfoot, p. 157. 1778. 

Though widely distributed, Meum is by no means general. It 
occurs here and there in the highland valleys, and on the Ochil 
hills ; while occasional plants may be found on the banks of the 
Tay, brought down probably by the river. 

TRIBE V. — ANGELICE^E. 
11. ANGELICA L. 

A. sylvestris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods, banks of streams, and mountain 

ledges. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in H. 

Earn, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. has been found as an 
escape near Crook of Devon (Balfour). 

TRIBE VI. — PEUCEDANEiE. 
12. HERACLEUM L. 

H. Sphondyliurn L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

l 



l62 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

hab. Banks, woods, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3300 ft. in Breadalbane, 2600 in 
Atholl, 2500 in H. Earn, and 1400 in L. Forth. 

The narrow-leaved form {H. angustifolium Sm.) occurs here and 
there. 

Peucedanum Ostruthium Koch has been found at 
Tarsappie and Buchanty (!), and Path of Condie and 
Inch Thalia, Lake of Monteith (J. Couper). It is, of 
course, only a relict of cultivation. 

[Pastinaca sativa Benth. Clackmannan Pow (J. 
Couper) (!), abundant.] 



TRIBE VII. — DAUCINE^E. 
13. DAUCUS L. 

D. Carota L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
11. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Fields, banks, and waste places. Not very com- 
mon. A colonist (?). 
alt. Low levels. 



B. CAMPYLOSPERMiE. 

TRIBE VIII. — CAUCALINE^E. 

14. CAUCALIS L. 

C. Anthriscus Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 
Atholl. 



SCANDIX — ANTHRISCUS. 1 63 

had. Hedge-banks and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl. 

I am by no means satisfied that this species is really indigenous. 



TRIBE IX. — SCAND1CINE/E. 
15. SCANDIX L. 

S. Pecten-Veneris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, 00000 

hab. Fields. Not common except in Gowrie. A 

colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

10. CHiEROPHYLLUM L. 

C. temulum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Hedge-banks. Common in the Lowlands. 

ALT. 

Like some other Umbelliferm, perhaps doubtfully indigenous ; 
but the same thing may be said of several other plants which are 
almost restricted to hedge-banks. 

17. ANTHRISCUS HorTm. 

A. vulgaris Pers. (87, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry banks. Very local. 

ALT. 

L. [Forth — Culross and Kennetpans (Rev. J. Couper).] 

Gowrie — A few patches on Kinnoull Hill amongst the rocks (!). 
Possibly, but not evidently, an introduction. 



1 64 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

A. sylvestris Hoffm. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Hedges and banks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl, 1500 in L. Forth, 

and 1 100 in H. Isla. 

Most, if not all, of our specimens have the leaves hairy on the 
veins below, and are consequently the var. pilosula DC, which 
seems of little value. At the higher altitudes of its occurrence this 
species is certainly an introduction. 

18. MYEEHIS Scop. 

M. Odorata Scop. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of streams. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

Probably an old introduction. 

19. CONOPODIUM Koch. 

C. denudatum Koch. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Breadalbane, 1850 in Atholl, 
and 1200 in H. Isla. 



CONIUM — HEDERA — CORNUS. 1 65 

TRIBE X. — SMYRNIEvE. 
20. CONIUM L. 

C. maculatuin L. (87, 88, 89.) 

I. Forth, Earn, o o Gowrie. 

II. Forth, 0000 Breadalbane, o o 
had. Banks and waste places. Local and not common. 

ALT. 

Often merely a casual. The only place where I have seen it in any 
quantity, and where it has some pretensions to be considered wild, 
is on the trap rubbles of Kinnoull Hill. 

[Smyrnium Olusatrum L. has been found near Dollar 
(Balfour).] 

Order XXX.— ARALIACEzE. 

1. HEDERA L. 

H. Helix L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Rocks and woods. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 1800 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl 

and 1500 in Rannoch. 

Though flower-buds are produced, it is only in warm autumns 
that, in many parts of Perthshire, flowers are developed. 

Order XXXI.-CORNACE/E. 

1. CORNUS L. 

C. suecica L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



l66 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

hab. Damp banks, covered with Vaccinhim, on the 
higher mountains. Local ; more common in 
the east and north of the Highland area than in 
the west. 

alt. From about 2000 ft. to 3000 in Atholl. 

" In Atholl, about Loch-Rannoch, on Ben-Mor and Chealleach in 
Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 119. 1778. 

Oornus sanguinea L. occurs as an escape (not planted) 
on the right bank of the Tummel below Pitlochry. 

Sub-Class III.— COROLLIFLOR.-E. 

Order XXXII. — CAPRIFOLI AC EyE. 

TRIBE I. SAMBUCE/E. 

1. VIBURNUM L. 

V. Opulus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Rather damp woods and thickets. Not very 

common. 
alt. Low levels. 

"At Finlarig near the head of Loch Tay. " — Stuart in Lightfoot, 
p. 171. 1778. 

2. SAMBUCUS L. 

S. Ebulus L. (88, 89.) 
L. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Banks and thickets. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"At Duplin." — Lightfoot, p. 171. 1778. " About Finlarig and 
Comrie." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 1 1 19. 



ADOXA— LONICERA. 1 67 

L. Earn — Hedges at Cask (Murray in ' F. S.,' 1821) — no recent 
record ; Abernethy Glen(!); Glenartney(I) (perhaps Stuart's 
Comrie station) ; Ochlertyre (W. F. Miller) ; Wicks of Baiglie 
Road (R. Dow)(!) ; near Cragindivots (!). 
Perth— Millhaugh (!). 
Cowrie — Balthayock ( !). 
Not certainly indigenous, and the same may be said of the next 
species. 

S. nigra L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Common. 

ALT. 

3. ADOXA L. 

A. Moschatellina L. (S7, S8, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Shady banks and woods, and amongst alpine rocks. 

Local. 
alt. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Breadalbane. 

" Near the top of Creg-Chaillech." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 209. 
1778. 

The expression " ascends to " is perhaps apt to convey a wrong 
idea of the perpendicular distribution of this species, since it does 
not usually range higher than the base of the hills, though it reap- 
pears near the summits of several of them. The alpine form is much 
smaller, and has less divided leaves, than the lowland. 

TRIBE II. LONICEREiE. 

4. LONICERA L. 

L. Periclymenum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



l68 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Woods and hedges. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 1650 ft. in Atholl and 1100 in H. Isla. 

5. LINJSTJEA Gron. 

L. borealis Gron. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, o Isla, o 

h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Woods (usually of fir) and alpine heathery banks. 

Very local and rare. 

alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Earn. 

L. Earn — Duncrub (J. Henderson) — not recently found. 

Isla — Muirward of Scone (J. Sim)— not recently found ; Muir- 
ton Wood, Blairgowrie (Sturrock) (!). 
H. Earn— Ben Chonzie (W. Martin) (!). 
Isla — Kindrogan (Miss Keir). 

Breadalbane— Near Killin, 1827-29 (Brit. Mus. Herb.) Finlarig 
Park (Hooker's 'Brit. Fl.,' 1830) — not recently found (?). 
In 'Fl. Scot.' there is also this record : "Hill of Kinnoul, near 
Perth, Messrs Brown." 

Order XXXIII. — RUBIACEiE. 

TRIBE STELLATE. 
1. SHERARDIA Dill. 

S. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Fields. Common. 
alt. Low levels. 

2. ASPERULA L. 

A. odorata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



GALIUM. 169 

hab. Woods (generally in ravines) and shaded banks. 

Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl. 

A. taurina L. is a rare escape or outcast. 



3. GALIUM L. 

§ i. Eugalium. 

G. boreale L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. River banks and (more rarely) alpine rocks. 
Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3450 ft. in Breadalbane, 2850 in Ran- 
noch, 2500 in H. Earn, 2000 in Atholl and 
Lomond, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

Melvill sent from Ben Laoigh a form oreinum Melvill. Druce 
thinks it is nothing but a stunted condition. 

G. Mollugo L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth,] Earn, o o Gowrie. 

H. Forth, o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Banks. Rare. 

ALT. 

"In the Carse of Gowrie." — Don, Fasc. v., 1806, No. 106. 
This species and the next seem to be frequently confounded, and 
moreover, appear to pass one into the other, so that the older 
records cannot be trusted. I have seen examples from the follow- 
ing localities : — 

L. Gowrie — Churchyard at Rait (Drummond-Hay). Amongst 

Ulex on Dunsinnane Hill (var. insubricum Gaud.) (!). 
H. Perth — Inver (C. M'Intosh)— good. 

Atholl — Old Faskally (Drummond-Hay) (!) — good. 



lyo DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

I have not seen specimens from the following recorded stations : — 
L. [Forth — New Cemetery, Kincardine on Forth (Rev. J. 
Couper).] 
Earn — Forteviot (Pagan) and Invermay (Sadler). 
H. Forth — Pass of Leny, near Callander (Balfour) — perhaps 
Don's G. diffusum, according to the late F. M. Webb. 
Breadalbane — Weem (G. C. Druce). 

G. erectum Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 
hab. Banks. Rare. 

ALT. 

I have seen specimens from the following places : — 

L. Perth — Kinclaven(!) — pretty good; Fowlis Wester (J. Roy). 

Isla — near Bonhard (!) — leaves a little widened at tip. 

Gowrie — Railway bank at Invergowrie (!) — approaching G. 
Molhigo var. scabrum With., but seems better referred to 
G. erectum. 
H. Earn — 

Isla — Pitlochry (Drummoiid-IIay) (!) — good (station now 
destroyed). 

Breadalbane — 

Atholl— Blair Athole (!) — pretty good. 
From the following I have not seen examples : — 
L. [Forth — Bogside, Culross (Rev. J. Couper).] 

Earn — Crieff Junction Station (Rev. J. Couper). 

Isla — Bendochy (Baity). 

G. saxatile L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry woods, moors, and mountains. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane and 2500 in 

Lomond. 

G. sylvestre Poll. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth,] 0000 

h. 000 Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 
hab. Subalpine and alpine banks. Very local or over- 
looked. 



GALIUM. 171 

alt. From above 1000 ft. in L. Forth, H. Isla, and 
Atholl to 2200 in Breadalbane. 

1,. Forth — [Glencairn near Dollar (Campbell); Burn of Sor- 
row (!).] 
11. Isla — Near Spital of Glen Shee ( !). 

Breadalbane — Cam Creag (E. F. Linton) (!) ; Larig an 

Lochan (!) ; Ben Laoigh (G. C. Druce) (!). 
Atholl— Craig Mor (!) ; Loch Loch (Ferguson) (!). 
G. sylvestre probably occurs in other places and has been passed 
over as G. saxatile, some forms of which resemble it. 

G. uliginosum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
had. Marshy places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in H. Isla. 

G. palustre L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places and ditches. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1650 ft. in Atholl and 1100 in H. Isla. 

The var. Witheringii Sm. — which is not uncommon — seems to 
be nothing more than an extreme condition. In none of the speci- 
mens (from 21 localities) now before me is the stem destitute of 
recurved bristles, though it varies a good deal in this respect. 
Some of our examples approach the var. elongatum Presl. ; but the 
flowers are not large enough for that form. 

G. verum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Dry banks, pastures, and rocks. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2150 ft. in Atholl, 1700 in Rannoch, 
and 1600 in Ff. Isla. 

This species does not invariably turn black when dry. 



1^2 DICOTYLEDONEvE. 

§ ii. Aparine. 

G. Aparine L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Hedges and cultivated ground. Common. 

ALT. 

G. saccharatum All. seems to have been found, by G. 
Don, in the Carse of Gowrie, as a rare weed in corn- 
fields. 

§ iii. Cruciata. 

G. Cruciata Scop. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Banks. Not uncommon in the Lowland area ; 

rarer in the Highland. 
alt. Ascends to 700 ft. in Atholl. 

Crucianella stylosa DC. has been found as a rare 
outcast. 

Order XXXIV.— VALERIANACE/E. 
1. VALERIANA L. 

V. excelsa Poir. (V. sambucifolia Mik.) (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places in woods and banks of streams. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2350 ft. in Atholl, 2250 in Breadal- 
bane, and 1500 in Rannoch. 

See Beeby, 'J. of B.'' (Nov. 1888), xxvi. 311, p. 340. 



VALERIANELLA— DIPSACUS. 173 

V. pyrenaica L. is naturalised in several places. 

Centranthus ruber DC. has been found near Aber- 
ncthy [and Culross]. 

2. VALERIANELLA Tourn. 

V. olitoria Poll. ("87," 88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Rather bare warm places, chiefly on trap rocks. 
Local. 



L. Earn — Glen Farg(!); Ardargie (!) ; Tayside opposite Stor- 
montfield (W. Barclay). 
Perth — Craigie Knowes(!); Stanley (R. II. Meldrum). 
Gowrie — Kinnoull and Moncreiffe Hills (!); Darry Island 
(Drummond-Hay) ; Kingoodie (!) ; Woody Island (W. Bar- 
clay) (!) ; Orchard Neuk (W. Barclay) (!). 
In some, if not in all of these localities, it appears to be native. 
In most of our specimens the fruit is slightly pubescent (var. lasio- 
carpa Reichb.) 

V. dentata Poll. (87, 89.) 

l. o o o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Corn-fields. Rare. A colonist. 

alt. Low levels. 

A rare weed of cultivation in the Carse of Gowrie, as at North 
Leys, Seggieden (Drummond-Hay), and Dumgreen, Pitfour(!). 
" Perth'West, Syme MS." ('Top. Bot.') 



Order XXXV— DIPSACACE^E. 

1. DIPSACUS L. 

D. sylvestris Huds. (87, 89.) 
L. [Forth,] o Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 



174 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

hab. Trap rubbles. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth — Culross (J. M'Gregor); Blairlogie (J. Dawson). 
Planted on Kennetpans Mound (J. Couper) (!).] 
Perth — Casual at Perth harbour. 

Gowrie — Kinnoull Hill (!). The species may not be indig- 
enous here, but it is difficult to imagine how it could have 
been introduced. 



2. SCABIOSA L. 

S. Succisa L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hae. Grassy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2750 ft. in Breadalbane, 2600 in Atholl, 

2500 in H. Earn, and 2000 in H. Isla. 

Leaves sometimes distinctly toothed, more usually nearly glabrous 
than hairy. 

S. Columbaria. "Perth West" ('Top. Bot.'); Black- 
ford ; requires confirmation. 

S. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Dry banks and edges of fields. Common in the 
Lowlands, rare in the Highlands. 

ALT. 



EUPATORIUM — PETASITES. I 75 

Order XXXVI. — COMPOSITE. 
A. CORYMBIFER/E. 

TRIBE I. EUPATORIEjE. 

1. EUPATORIUM L. 

E. cannabinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Rocky places near, and banks of, streams. Very 

local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Near Crook of Devon (Balfour) ; Devonshaw Wood 
(Rev. J. Couper). 
Perth — Thistlebrid-ge, Redgorton (Liston, 1837); rocks beside 
the Tay below Stanley, and thence by Thistlebridge along 
the mill-lead to near Luncarty ( !). 
Isla— Hell's Hole (!) ; Craighall (Herdman) (!). 
Gowrie — Woody Island (W. Barclay) (!) ; Pitroddie(!) — now 
destroyed by quarrying ; bank of Tay near Errol (!). 
There is also a record from Muthill in N.S.A., 1S37, which re- 
quires verification. 

TRIBE II. TUSSILAGINEiE. 

2. PETASITES Tourn. 

P. officinalis Mcench. (vulgaris Desf.) (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Banks of streams. Not uncommon. 
alt. Low levels. 

All the plants examined seemed to be male. 

P. albus Gaertn. and Nardosmia fragrans Reich, are 
naturalised in several places. 



176 DICOTYLEDONE^i. 

3. TUSSILAGO Tourn. 

T. Farfara L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Waste and bare ground. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Breadalbane and 2350 in 
Atholl. 

Callander, O.S.A., 1796. 

TRIBE III. ASTEROIDE.E. 

4, ASTER L. 

A. Tripolium L. (87, 89.) 
l. Forth, 000 Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Salt-marshes of the Tay and Forth. Common. 
alt. Sea-level. 

5. ERIGBRON L. 

E. alpinum L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o 
hab. Alpine rock-ledges. Rare. 
alt. Between 2500 and 3500 ft. 

Ben Lawers(!), where it was discovered by Stuart before 1790. 
In a wild state the scape is usually, but not invariably, unbranched ; 
when cultivated it is often branched. 

What the plant — recorded as this species — found by G. Don "on 
rocks by the river Almond near Lynedoch" can have been is a 
puzzle. Mr Bissett, who from ancestral information knew the exact 
locality, pointed it out to me ; but we could find no plant at all 
resembling an Erigeron. Nor does, so far as we know, Erigeron 
grow on the mountains whence the Almond flows, so that it cannot 
have been brought down by the stream. 

E. canadensis L. is a rare casual at Perth Harbour (!). 



BELLIS— SOL I DAGO — FILAGO. 1 77 

0. BELLIS L. 

B. perennis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Govvrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Meadows and pastures. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane. 

A form with the ray florets tubular (a reversion to an ancestral 
condition (?)) is not very rare. 

7. SOLIDAGO L. 

S. Virgaurea L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Banks, rocks, and sides of streams. Not uncom- 
mon. 

alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Atholl, 2800 in H. Forth, 
and 2300 in Breadalbane. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

Variable, but the varieties pass one into the other so that it is 
difficult to assign places to the various forms. An extreme con- 
dition is the var. cambrica Huds., which occurs not only on the 
mountains, but also on the banks of rivers. 

S. lanceolata L. has been found as an escape near 
Dupplin (!), at Almondmouth, and Barnhill(!); and S. 
canadensis near Dupplin (!). 

TRIBE IV. — GNAPHALIE^E. 
8. FILAGO L. 

F. germanica L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

M 



178 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Dry, rather bare, places. Local, but not uncom- 
mon. 
alt. Low levels. 

Our form is F. canescens Jord. 

F. minima Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Dry, rather bare, places. Local but not uncom- 
mon. Rare in Gowrie, where F. germanicum is 
common. 

alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in Rannoch. 

"We observed it in Strath Tay." — Lightfoot, p. 502. 1778. 



9. GNAPHALIUM L. 

G. sylvaticum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, pastures, and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. (possibly to 2200) in H. Isla. 

G-. norvegicum Gunn. (89.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. 0000000 Atholl. 
hab. Alpine pastures and rock ledges. Very rare. 

ALT. 

"On mountains to the north of Blair in Atholl, and above Loch 
Erruch."— J. Mackay in Smith's 'Fl. Brit.,' 1800. The Blair Athole 
locality is probably the later-recorded Ben a Chait, where I have 
searched in vain. I have seen (in Brit. Mus. Herb.) a specimen 
collected on Ben Lawers by M'Ritchie, which somewhat resembles 
G. norvegicum, but is not typical. 



ANTENNARIA. 1 79 

G. uliginosum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Damp bare places, especially where water stands 

in winter. Common. 

ALT. 

G. supinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [ Forth,] 0000 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine, damp, rather bare, places. Common on 

the higher hills of the Highland area. 
alt. From 1600 ft. in Breadalbane and 1800 in Atholl 

to 3980 in Breadalbane, 3757 in Rannoch, and 

2700 in H. Earn and Lomond. 

"On Creg-chaillech near Finlarig in Breadalbane, upon Mal- 
ghyrdy, and upon the mountains of Glen Lyon. " — Stuart in Light- 
foot, p. 470. 177S. 

The varieties fuscum Scop, (anthodes stalked in a 
loose raceme) and fiusittum Pers. (stems one-headed) 
both occur, but pass into each other and into the type. 

[l. Forth — Ben Cleuch (Graham, 1840). It has not again been 
detected in this locality, where it was sought for by Rev. J. 
Couper.] 

10. ANTENNARIA Br. 

A. dioica Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors and upland pastures. Common. 



ISO DICOTYLEDONE^. 

alt. Ascends to 2850 ft. in Rannoch, 2800 in Bread- 
albane, 2500 in H. Earn, and 2400 in Lomond 
and Atholl. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

Var. pedicellata B. White (''&. Nat.,' July 1886, p. 
323). Anthodes in a loose corymb, with stalks from 
half to more than one inch in length. Probably only 
an extreme state, as intermediate forms occur, but 
striking. Glen Tilt (!) and near Strowan Station (!). 

A. margaritacea Gsertn. has been found as an escape, 
or relict of cultivation, in several places. Established 
on bank of the Earn below Comrie(!). 

[Pulicaria dysenterica Gsertn. Clackmannan Pow (J. 
Couper).] 

TRIBE V. — ANTHEMIDE^E. 
11. ACHILLEA L. 

A. Ptarmica L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, roadsides, and river shingles. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Atholl and 1200 in H. 

Isla. 

A. Millefolium L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Grassy places. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane and 2500 in 

Atholl. 



ANTIIEMIS— MATRICARIA. l8l 



12. ANTHEMIS L. 

A. arvensis L. (S7, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Govvrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Dry fields and waste places. Local but not 

uncommon. A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

A. Cotula L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, 00000 
hab. Cultivated ground. Rare or overlooked. A 

colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

It is with some hesitation that I have given this species a place ; 
but as it is in the same category as A. arvensis, though very much 
rarer, I have done so. A few specimens have been found at 
Dalguise (C. MTntosh), and at Birnam(!) and near Perth (!). It 
very probably occurs elsewhere, but has been passed over. 

A. tinctoria L. has been found in fields at Madderty 
(J. Anderson-Henry) and at Perth Harbour (!). 

13. MATRICARIA L. 

M. inodora L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. A colonist (?). 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1250 in H. 

Isla. 

[M. Chamomilla L. has been found at Kennetpans 
(J. Couper).] 



1 82 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

14. CHRYSANTHEMUM L. 

0. segetum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields. Common. A colonist. 

ALT. 

Kinclaven (O.S. A., 1796). 

C. Leucanthemum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in Atholl and 11 50 in H. Isla. 

C. Parthenium Pers. is not uncommon, but seems to 
be only a naturalised plant. 



15. ARTEMISIA L. 

A. vulgaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Hedge-banks and edges of fields. Not very com- 
mon. Possibly an old introduction. 

ALT. 

[A. Absinthium L. has been found at Culross (J. 
M'Gregor), and is common above Blairlogie (J. Daw- 
son).] 



TANACETUM — SENECIO. 1 83 



1G. TANACETUM L. 

T. vulgare L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. River banks and shingles, and waste places. Lo- 
cally common. 

ALT. 

" Dr Parsons likewise found it in the Den of Bethaick, and Mr 
Stuart in Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 465. 1778. 

Common on the banks of the Tay in many places, but rarer else- 
where. It is possibly an old introduction. 



TRIBE VI. — SENECIONEjE. 
17. SENECIO L. 

S. vulgaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Gardens and waste ground near houses. Common. 

A colonist. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and n 00 in H. 

Isla. 

S. sylvaticus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry, bare banks. Local. 

ALT. 

The var. lividus Sm. occurs, as well as the type, but 
is scarcely worthy of a distinct name. 



1 84 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

S. viscosus L. 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

H. oooooooo 
hab. Waste ground and railway banks. Seems a more 
or less recent introduction. 

ALT. 

L. Forth— Callander (W. Barclay). [Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; 
Menstrie, Myreton Hill, Longannet (!) and Shepherdlands, 
Culross (J. Couper)]. 
Earn — Near Auchterarder (!). 

Perth — Perth Harbour ( !), near Perth Poorhouse, &c. 
Gowrie — Kinfauns Station (!). Abundant on the shore be- 
tween Invergowrie and Kingoodie (!). 
Though the fruit is described as glabrous, I find that this is not 
the case in our specimens, which have, between some of the ribs, 
rows of hair similar to those with which the fruit of S. sylvaticus is 
abundantly covered. 

S. Jacobaea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and woods. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2200 ft. in Atholl and 1500 in Ran- 

noch. 

Var. discoideus Koch, (flosculus Jord.) Rannoch (!), 
near Perth (!), &c. 

S. aquaticus Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
o Atholl. 

hab. Damp places on the banks of streams. Not un- 
common. 

alt. Ascends to about 1300 ft. in Lomond. 

Var. pinnatifidus Gr. and Gr. (S. barbarecefolius 
Reich., not Krock.) occurs, with intermediate forms, 
on the banks of the Tay. 



BIDENS. 185 

S. Doria L. has occurred as an outcast or relict of 
cultivation on the bank of the Tay at Barnhill, but has 
now vanished. 

Doronicum Pardalianch.es L. and D. plantagineum L. 

are naturalised in a number of places, but the former is 
the more common. Of it G. Don writes : " Common 
in the Den of Dupplin. I have nowhere seen it in such 
abundance as near Stobhall, about seven miles from 
Perth, where it covers upwards of an acre of ground, to 
the exclusion of every other vegetable." — Fasc. vi., 1806, 
No. 138. It still abounds at Stobhall. 

TRIBE VII. HELIANTHOIDE/E. 

18. BIDENS L. 

B. cernua L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, o Isla, o 

h. 00000000 
hab. Watery places. Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth — South of Clackmannan.] 

Earn — White Moss, Dunning (P. Gloag) — no recent record. 
Isla— Monk Myre (Barty), and Loch Bog (Herdman) (!) ; 
Hare Myre ( !). 

B. tripartita L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
H. Forth, 0000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp places. Rare, and often sporadic. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Blairdrummond Moss (Craig-Christie). 

Earn — Near Aberuthven (!); near Dupplin (Meldrum). 

Perth — Luncarty Mill (Liston, 1837) — no recent record; 
Methven Loch (!). 
H. Isla — Loch Cluny. 

Forth — Once at Balquidder (W. Cameron). 

Breadalbane — Falls of Lochay (Tyacke, 1S35). 



1 86 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Rudbeckia laciniata L., an American plant now 
naturalised in several parts of Europe, occurs here and 
there in wet places on the banks of the Tay below 
Perth. 

B. CYNAROCEPHALE^E. 

TRIBE VIII. — CARLINE.E. 

19. SAUSSURBA DC. 

S. alpina DC. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine rocks and banks. Local, and not very 

common. 
alt. From under 1400 ft. in Atholl and 1500 in H. 

Isla to 3850 in Breadalbane, 2700 in H. Earn 

and H. Isla, and 2500 in Lomond. 

"Among the rocks on the eastern side of Mal-ghyrdy, and near 
the top of Ben-cruipen, in Breadalbane ; on the north side of 
Stuican-lochain, in Glen-lyon." — Lightfoot, p. 448. 1778. 

20. ARCTIUM L. 

A. minus Bernh. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 000 Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 
hab. Roadsides and waste places, often near houses ; 
more abundant in the Lowlands. 

ALT. 

A. intermedium Lange (88.) 
l. o Earn, 000 

h. 00000000 
hab. Bank of river. 

ALT. 

Bank of the Earn near Dupplin. 



SERRATULA — CENTAUREA. 1 87 

TRIBE IX. SERRATULEyE. 

21. SERRATULA L. 

S. tinctoria L. (87, 88.) 
l. [Forth,] 0000 

H. o Earn, 000000 
hab. Thickets. Rare. 

ALT. 

Both the type and the var. monticola Bor. were found near Comrie 
by Mr J. Cosmo Melvill, who thinks the plant is indigenous there. 
[Glenochil and Kennetpans (Rev. J. Couper) — introduced.] 

TRIBE X. — CENTAUREA. 

22. CENTAUREA L. 

§ i. Jacea. 

C. nigra L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Banks, meadows, and pastures. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla and 1100 in Atholl. 

A var.. with the outer florets more conspicuously radiant, has been 
found in Glenartney (!), at Crieff Junction railway station (!), and 
at Lochearnhead railway station ( !). 

[C. Jacea L. has occurred once near Pitkeathly (J. 
Dawson).] 

[C. Calcitrapa L. once at Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

§ ii. Cyanus. 
C. Scabiosa L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 



188 DICOTYLEDONE^i. 

hae. Banks and borders of fields. Local, 
alt. Low levels. 

"We observed it amongst the corn in the Cars of Gowrie." — 
Lightfoot, p. 500. 1778. 

Not uncommon in Gowrie (!) ; near Dunning in L. Earn (P. 
Gloag)(!). 

[Kennetpans and Clackmannan Pow (Rev. J. Couper) — intro- 
duced.] 

C. Cyanus L (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Corn and potato fields. Not uncommon. A 

colonist. 

ALT. 

TRIBE XI. CARDUINEiE. 

23. CAEDUUS L. 

§ i. Carduus. 

C. nutans L. (87, 89.) 
L. [Forth,] o o Isla, o 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry hilly fields. Rare. 

ALT. 

Claves near Blairgowrie (Sturrock) (!) ; apparently indigenous; 
or, at least, not certainly an introduction. 

[Clackmannan Pow(!) and Kennetpans (!) (Rev. J. Couper).] 

C. crispus L (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. 00000000 
hab. Banks, and borders of woods. Local. 

ALT. 

(a) genuimis Gr. and Gr. Cargill (!) ; Linn of Campsie (!) ; Kin- 
noull Hill (!) ; Rossie Priory(!); Glen Farg(!); Balthayock (ap- 
proaching var. polyanthemos (!) ; near Forgandenny (!), &c. 

(b) polyanthemos Gren. Balthayock (Drummond-Hay) (!). 

(c) litigioszis Gr. and Gr. Near Moncreiffe Pond (!). 



CARDUUS. 189 

[C. tenuiflorus. Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

§ ii. Cnicus. 

0. Ianceolatus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, pastures, and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2250 ft. in Breadalbane, 1900 in Atholl, 

1650 in H. Isla, and 1500 in H. Perth and 

Rannoch. 

C. eriophorus Roth, has been recorded from "Perth 
West" ('Top. Bot.') 

C. arvensis Curt. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, pastures, and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 in H. 
Earn, 1650 in Atholl, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

(a) mitis Koch. The common field form, with leaves less pin- 
natifid and less spiny. 

(b) honidus Koch. A less common form, inhabiting drier 
places, and with leaves more undulate-pinnatifid and very spiny. 

(c) argenteus Vest. Leaves covered below with snowy-white 
pubescence. A plant from Meal] Ghaordie may belong to this 
variety, but there were radical leaves only. 

[(d) setosus (Bess. ) has occurred at Culross (Balfour).] 

C. palustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2150 ft. in Atholl, above 1500 in L. 
Forth, and 2500 in H. Isla. 



190 DIC0TYLED0NE/E. 

C. heterophyllus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of streams and upland pastures. Not un- 
common. Local in the Lowlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Breadalbane. 

"By the sides of rivulets in high ground in Breadalbane, Athol, 
and all parts of the inland highlands not unfrequent. " — Lightfoot, 
p. 457. 1778. 

Leaves usually undivided, but sometimes the stem leaves, and 
sometimes the radical and lower stem ones also, are deeply divided. 

Mariana lactea Hill {Silybum Marianum Gsertn.) 
occurs occasionally as a casual. [Onopordon Acanthium 
L. has been found near Culross (J. M'Gregor) and at 
Menstrie (J. Couper).] 

C. LIGULIFLOR^E, 

TRIBE XII. — LACTUCEjE. 

24. LACTUCA L. 

L. virosa L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] o Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Banks and rocks. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth — Slopes of Ochils at Blairlogie (J. Dawson); Menstrie 
Wood (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Perth — Bank of Almond below Almondbank (!) ; bank of 

Schochie above Moneydie (W. Barclay). 
Gowrie — Kinnoull Hill (!) ; Grange of Elcho (!) ; near Windy 
Edge, Kinfauns (A. Gray)(!). 
In 'Fl. Scot.' it is recorded from Dunkeld, on the authority of 
Mr Murray, but there is no recent verification. 

L. muralis Fresen. grows on a wall at Clathic, near 
Crieff(!). 



SONCHUS. 191 



25. SONCHUS L. 

S. oleraceus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 

ALT. 

In some European floras three varieties are mentioned : — 

(a) integrifolius Wallr. Leaves not runcinate. 

(b) triangularis Wallr. Leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, terminal 
lobe larger, triangular. 

(c) lacerus Wallr. Leaves pinnatifid,- lobes dentate or sinuate, 
including the terminal one, hence all subequal. 

Of these varieties (b) and (c) occur ; and (a) may possibly be found 
also, though I have not seen it. 

S. asper Hoffm. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1100 ft. in H. Isla. 

The upper part of the stem is often furnished with long gland- 
tipped hairs. 

S. arvensis L. (S7, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Cultivated fields and wet banks. Common. 

alt. 

Var. Icevipes, Koch (? glabra Lond. Cat.) Peduncles 
and involucres without glandular hairs. Strath Braan (C. 
M'Intosh), and probably elsewhere. 



192 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 



TRIBE XIII. — CHONDRILLE/E. 
26. TARAXACUM Juss. 

T. officinale Web. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Cultivated ground, meadows, and pastures. Com- 
mon. 

alt. Ascends to 3900 ft. in Breadalbane, 2800 in H. 
Forth, 2600 in H. Perth, 2500 in Lomond, and 
2000 in Atholl and L. Forth. 

(a) Dens-leonis Desf. The commonest form, especially in cul- 
tivated ground. 

(b) erythrospermnm Andrz. Kinnoull Hill(!), Barnhill(!), Mon- 
creiffe Hill (!), banks of the Tay near Luncarty (!), and probably 
other places. 

(c) pahtstre DC. Not uncommon in damp places, especially 
on the hills. 

These three varieties have all been regarded as good species ; 
but botanists who have had an opportunity of studying extensive 
series of specimens from different countries say that they are con- 
nected by intermediate forms. Had this not been the case, and 
looking at our Perthshire specimens only, I should have been in- 
clined to consider that we had at least two sub-species — T. Dens- 
leonis, with T. palustre as a variety, and T. erythrospermtim. The 
latter, in addition to the characters usually assigned to it, has com- 
monly (always ?) the florets less ligulate than in the other varieties ; 
they are in fact tubular (or what florists term " quilled ") for a con- 
siderable part of their length. T. lavigatum DC. seems to be a 
variety of T. erythrosperminn ; but I have not seen any Perthshire 
examples of it. 

TRIBE XIV. — CREPIDjE. 

27. CREPIS L. 

§ i. Crepis. 

C. virens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



HIERACIUM. 193 

hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl, and 1150 in H. 

Isla. 

§ ii. Aracium. 
C. paludosa Mcench. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Margins of streams, damp woods and ravines, &c. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane, 2200 in Atholl, 

1800 in H. Earn [and above 1500 in L. Forth]. 

C. succissefolia Tausch. " Perth West, Dewar sp." 
('Top. Bot.') 

28. HIERACIUM L. 

[To Dr White, as to most botanists, this genus was too formid- 
able to be lightly undertaken, while the labours of specialists in 
Great Britain and on the continent of Europe in recent years have 
made it impossible to rely on earlier records, unless these can be 
substantiated by references to the actual specimens. The genus, 
like a few others, had been left by him for revision after the greater 
part of this work was completed ; and his notes on it were of a very 
imperfect kind. Under these circumstances I asked the aid of Mr 
F. J. Hanbury, F.L.S., who has most kindly sent the following 
list, such as he alone could have supplied. The sign (!) following a 
locality indicates that Mr Hanbury either possesses in his herbarium 
or has seen authentic specimens from the locality. Following the 
name of any person the mark (!) indicates that he has seen the 
specimens found by or belonging to that person. For certain 
records, in brackets, and followed by reference to the journal in 
which each is published, he does not vouch, as he has not seen the 
specimens. This list gives all the reliable information accumulated 
up to the present time in respect of the Hieracia of Perthshire. All 
interested in the flora of Scotland owe a debt of gratitude to Mr 
Hanbury for its preparation, and to his friend Miss Thompson, who 
did the laborious secretarial work necessary for it. Owing to the 
fact that many of the localities are on the border lines between dis- 
tricts, so that it is not possible to determine which district is referred 
to in many cases, I have not attempted to indicate the Watsonian 
divisions and the districts for the several species. — J. W. H. T.] 

N 



194 DICOTYLEDONE^. 



i. Pilosella. 



H. Pilosella L. 2 miles above Dunkeld, Mid Perth 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). (Dalrannoch Woods, J. C. 
Melvill in 'Journ. of Botany,' vol. xxx. p. 243.) 

H. aurantiacum L. Side of the railway near Aber- 
cairney ; in abundance on a railway bank about a mile 
S. of Dunning station (Dr F. B. White) (!); woods in 
Perthshire (Lady Keith Murray) (!) ; [Dollar, Clack- 
mannan (Syme, 1838) (!).] 

§ ii. Alpina genuina. 

H. holosericeum Backh. Sgiath Chron ; Stuc-a-Chroin 
(Dr F. "B. White) (!) ; Ben Heasgarnich ; Meall-nan- 
Subh (H. and J. Groves) (!); Ben More (Rev. E. F. 
Linton) (!); near Killin (Rev. W. R. Linton) (!); Corrie 
Ardran; Stob Garbh (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Ben 
Lawers (Herb. Backh.) (!) ; hills N. side of Loch Tay 
(Herb. Watson) (!) ; Ben Voirlich (C. C. Babington) (!); 
Ben Laoigh ; Ben Chuirn ; Carn-nan-Sac, Glen Shee 
(P. Ewing) (!). 

H. eximium Backh. Carn-nan-Sac (Rev. E. S. Mar- 
shall) (!); corrie by the Cairnwell (Rev. E. F. Lin- 
ton) (!) ; Beinn Dubh Chraige (H. Groves) (!); Ben 
Lawers (W. F. Miller) (!) ; Glen Shee (P. Ewing) (!). 

Var. tenellum Backh. Ben Chonzie at and above 
2700 ft. (J. C Melvill) (!). 

H. calenduliflorum Backh. Micaceous ravine above 
the Spital of Glen Shee (Herb. Backh.) (!); Ben Heas- 
garnich (H. and J. Groves) (!). 

H. gracilentum Backh. Ben. Lawers (T. A. Cotton) (!) ; 
Ben Heasgarnich (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; Carn-nan-Sac, 



HIERACIUM. 195 

Glen Shee (P. Ewing) (!) ; heathy ground below Loch- 
nan-Ean (J. C. Melvill) (!). 

H. globosum Backh. The Byres, Glen Tilt (Dr F. B. 
White) (!). 

§ iii. Alpina nigrescentia. 

H. nigrescens Willd. Corrie N.W. of Cam Chreag, 
Killin (!). 

Forma. Glen Falloch (!); Ben Laoigh (!); Meall 
Ghaordie (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

Var. gracilifolium F. J. Hanb. Rocks above Loch-na- 
Chait, Ben Lawers (!) ; Allt Roro, Fortingal (Rev. W. R. 
Linton) (!). 

H. curvatum Elfstrand. Schiehallion (Dr F. B. White) 
(!); Ben Lawers (G. C. Druce) (!). 

H. Backhousei F. J. Hanb. Ben Heasgamich (H. and 
J. Groves) (!); corrie on Ben Dorean above Glen Lyon 
(Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!); Stob Creagach (Rev. W. R. 
Linton) (!). 

H. lingulatum Backh. Ben Lawers ; Stuc-a-Chroin 
Craig Mairg; Ben Aulder; Killin (Dr F. B. White) (!) 
Allt Ghlinn Thailneiche, near the Spital of Glen Shee (!) 
Ben Laoigh (!) ; corrie N.W. of Cam Chreag, Killin (!) 
rocks on W. side of Craig Magrianich, Killin (!) ; Glen 
Shee (!) ; Meall Ghaordie ; Corrie Ardran ; Ben-a-Chroin; 
Stob Garbh (Rev. E. S. Marshall (!) ; Ben-na-Creachan ; 
Meall Garbh; Ben Heasgamich; banks of the Lyon, 
Culdaremore, near Fortingal (W. F. Miller) (!); Craig- 
an-Lochan (T. A. Cotton) (!) ; Ben Dorean above Glen 
Lyon (Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!) ; Beinn Oss-Stuchd-an- 
Lochain (H. and J. Groves) (!). 

H. senescens Backh. Striath Chron and rocks near 



196 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

Killin (Dr F. B. White) (!); Ben Laoigh (!); Craig 
Choarach, Glen Lochay (!) ; W. side of Craig Magrianich, 
near Killin (!) ; Corrie Ardran (!) ; Glen Fallocb (!) ; Am 
Binnein (!); Ben Chonzie (J. C. Melvill) (!) ; Beinn Oss- 
Stuchd-an-Lochain (H. and J. Groves) (!); Ben Lawers ; 
Meall Garbh ; Meall Chuirn, Glen Lochay ; Meall 
Ghaordie (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Stuc-a-Chroin ; 
Craig Chailleach (R. H. Meldrum) (!) ; Ben Heasgar- 
nich (W. F. Miller) (!). 

H. Marshalli Linton. Meall-na-Saone (Rev. E. S. 
Marshall) (!) ; Ben Heasgarnich (W. F. Miller) (!). 

H. chrysanthum Backh. Ben More ; Ben Chonzie ; 
The Byres, Glen Tilt (Dr F. B. White) (!); rocks above 
Loch-na-Chait, Ben Lawers (!); Allt Ghlinn Thailneiche, 
and round the shores of Loch-nan-Ean, near the 
Spital of Glen Shee (!) ; Stuchd-an-Lochain (H. and J. 
Groves) (!) ; Carn-nan-Sac, Glen Shee (P. Ewing)(!); 
Craig-an-Lochain (T. A. Cotton) (!) ; Gaick Forest (Rev. 
A. Ley) (!). Lochan-na-Lairige rocks (Rev. E. F. Linton). 

H. sinuans F. J. Hanb. Ben Laoigh (!); Glen Fal- 
loch (!); Corrie Ardran (!); Cam Creag, Killin; Stob 
Garbh (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Ben Dorean (Dr W. A. 
Shoolbred) (!). 

H. centripetale F. J. Hanb. Meall Ghaordie (H. and 
J. Groves) (!) ; Stuc-a-Chroin (R. H. Meldrum) (!). 

H. submurorum Lindeb. Breadalbane, Perth, 1851 
(J. T. Syme) (!). (Allt Dhubh Ghalair, Revs. E. F. and 
W. R. Linton, in 'Journ. of Botany,' vol. xxxi. p. 365.) 

§ v. Amfilexicaiilia. 

H. amplexicaule L. On wall, Barnhill, Perth (A. Brown, 
Herb. Meldrum) (!). 



HIERACIUM. 197 

§ vi. Ccrinthoidea. 

H. callistophyllum F. J. Hanb. Rock ledges near 
Meall Ghaordie (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; cliffs of Stob 
Garbh, Inverlochlarig Glen (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

Var. cremnanthes F. J. Hanb. Meall Ghaordie (Rev. 
E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Allt Coire Choarach, Killin (Rev. 
W. R. Linton) (!). 

H. anglicum Fr. Beinn Oss ; Tayside below Gran- 
tully ; Craig Chailleach ; Cam Chreag ; below Pitlochry; 
Loch Voil ; above Killiecrankie ; Ben Heasgarnich ; 
Glen Tilt ; Craig Bhoran ; Leadmines, Tyndrum (Dr F. 
B. White) (!) ; Ben Laoigh (!) ; Ben More (!) ; by Lawers 
Burn (!); Am Binnein (!) ; Glen Falloch (!); Glen 
Lochay (!); Craig Maigrianach, Killin (!) ; Corrie 
Ardran (!) ; Glen Shee (!); Ben Lawers (C. C. Babing- 
ton) (!); Breadalbane Mts. (J. Backhouse); Glen Turrit; 
banks of the Ruchill, Glen Artney, Aberuchill Waterfall ; 
Ben Halton; Ben Chonzie (J. C. Melvill) (!); Craig- 
an-Lochain ; Stob Garbh (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!); Craig 
Lungan (A. Somerville) (!); Meall Ghaordie (Dr W. A. 
Shoolbred) (!) ; Ben Vrackie (R. H. Meldrum) (!). 

Var. acutifolium Backh. Cliffs, Ben Laoigh ; Allt 
Dubh Ghalair, Glen Lochay (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

Var. longibradeatum F. J. Hanb. River Tummel 
below Clunie Bridge ; above Killiecrankie, Rannoch ; 
Craig Mohr, Glen Tilt; Tayside below Kinnaird House, 
near Pitlochry (Dr F. B. White) (!); Ben Laoigh (R. 
Kidston) (!) ; Ben Dorean (Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!); 
Glen Lochay (P. Ewing) (!). 

H. cerinthiforme Backh. in litt. Craig Bhoran, Tyn- 
drum (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Glen Shee (Backhouse) (!) ; 
Ben Laoigh (!) ; rocks above Loch - na - Chait, Ben 



198 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

Lawers (!); Ben Chonzie; banks of the Ruchill, Glen 
Artney (J. C. Melvill) (!). 

H. iricum Fr. Craig Bhoran, Tyndrum ; Ben Laoigh ; 
Glen Lochay ; Meall Ghaordie ; Craig Mohr, Glen 
Tilt ; junction of the Tay and Lyon ; Ben Chulich ; 
Glen Tatanach (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Glen Shee (!); by 
the river Almond opposite Logie House (!); Ben Lawers 
(P. Ewing) (!). (Ben Chonzie, Valley of the Ruchill, 
J. C Melvill in ' Journ. of Botany,' vol. xxx. p. 243.) 

H. flocculosum Backh. Kilcraigie Bum (Dr F. B. 
White) (!); Ben Laoigh (!) ; stream from Cairnwell 
Corrie, Glen Shee (Revs. E. S. Marshall and W. R. 
Linton) (!). 

H. breadalbanense F. J. Hanb. Cam Chreag, near 
Killin (!)j rocks above Loch-na-Chait, Ben Lawers (!) ; 
Corrie Ardran (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

H. langwellense F. J. Hanb. Lochaide Burn, Glen 
Shee (Rev. E. F. Linton) (!). 

H. clovense Linton. Corrie of the Cairnwell and Carn- 
nan-Sac, Glen Shee (Rev. W. R. Linton) (!). 

§ viii. Oreadea. 

H. Leyi F. J. Hanb. Craig Bhoran, Tyndrum ; Blair 
Athole; Pass of Killiecrankie (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; 
Corrie Ardran (!); Craig Maigrianich, near Killin (!). 
(Craig Mohr and Cam Mairg, near Fortingal, Revs. E. 
F. and W. R. Linton, in 'Journ. of Botany,' vol. xxxi. 
P- 177.) 

H. Schmidtii Tausch. (form.) Shingles of the Shee 
Water below the Spital (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 



HIERACIUM. 199 

H. lasiophyllum Koch. " From the rocks on the top 
of Denchra in ye Stormont, 1792" (Herb. T. R. A. 
Briggs) (!). 

Var. euryodon F. J. Hanb. Moncreiffe Hill [!], near 
the Falls of the Tummel, Rannoch ; Pass of Killiecrankie, 
Rannoch (Dr F. B. White) (!). 

H. Farrense F. J. Hanb. Glen Farg (Dr F. B. 
White) (!); below Dalrannoch (J. C. Melvill) (!) ; Glen 
Shee (Revs. W. R. Linton and E. S. Marshall) (!). 

H. pseudonosmoides Dahlst. Glen Lyon (Revs. E. F. 
and W. R. Linton) (!) ; near the Spital, Glen Shee, 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

H. argenteum Fr. Gask Hill; Loch Loch, Atholl; 
Ben Vrackie ; Linn of Campsie ; Stuc-a-Chroin (Herb. 
Meldrum); Glen Tilt (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Craig 
Maigrianich (!) ; Glen Shee (!) ; railway bank 2 miles 
E. of Crianlarich (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; [the very top 
of the Glen of Sorrow, Clackmannan (Tom Drum- 
mond) (!)]. About five miles above Fortingal, Glen Lyon 
(E. F. Linton). 

H. Sommerfeltii Lindeb. Moncreiffe Hill (!); Meall 
Ghaordie (H. and J. Groves) (!); rocks (2000 ft.) S. side 
of Glen Thailneiche ; Glen Shee ; Stob Garbh, Inver- 
lochlarig Glen (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

§ ix. Vulgata. 

H. aggregatum Backh. Ben Chonzie (J. C. Mel- 
vill) (!); north side of Ben More (A. Somerville) (!). 

Var. prolongatum F. J. Hanb. Ravine of the Allt 
Dubh Ghalair, S. side of Glen Lochay (!). 

H. Pictorum Linton. Ben Laoigh (!); by the Lawers 
Burn (!) ; Am Binnein (!) ; by the amphitheatre of clay 



200 DICOTYLEDONE.-E. 

cliffs by the Almond (!) ; Corrie Ardran ; Glen Falloch 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Beinn Oss (H. and J. 
Groves) (!); Rocks north of Meall Garbh, Rannoch 
(Rev. E. F. Linton). 

Var. dasythrix Linton. Corrie Ardran (Revs. E. F. 
and W. R. Linton) (!). 

H. rivale F. J. Hanb. By the Almond (!); near the 
Spital of Glen Shee ; Meall Ghaordie (Rev. E. S. 
Marshall) (!) ; Ben Laoigh (R. Kidston) (!) ; along the 
bank of the Allt Choire Choarach (Revs. E. F. and 
W. R. Linton) (!); Cam Chreag, near Killin (Dr W. A. 
Shoolbred) (!). 

Var. subhirtum F. J. Hanb. Glen Lochay; Loch 
Voil; near Blair Athole (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Ben 
Laoigh (!); Corrie Ardran (!) ; Allt Dubh Ghalair (!) ; 
Glen Falloch (!); near Crianlarich; streamlet below the 
hotel Tyndrum (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

Nov. var. or form. By the Lochay, near the Bridge of 
Lochay Inn (!) ; Ben Laoigh; Allt Dubh Ghalair; burn 
from Craig Cailleach, Killin ; Stob Garbh ; Meall Garbh 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Ben Lawers (T. A. Cotton) (!). 

H. murorum L. pt. 

Var. micracladium Dahlst. By the Allt Dubh Ghalair, 
Glen Lochay (!) ; by the Almond (R. H. Meldrum) (!). 

Var. variicolor Dahlst. Burn descending from the 
Cairnwell (1800-2000 ft.) (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!); 
near Killin (Rev. E. F. Linton) (!). 

Var. ciliatum Almg. By the Almond opposite Logie 
House (Dr F. B. White) (!); Craig Maigrianich, near 
Killin (!). 

Var. caliginosum Dahlst. Rocks by the Almond (!). 

Var. sagittatum Lindeb. Above Killiecrankie ; Inver 



HIERACIUM. 201 

(Tayside) ; King's Seat Hill (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Corrie 
Ardran (!). 

Var. sarcophyllum Stenstr./. Murthly Castle (Dr F. B. 
White) (!). 

H. euprepes F. J. Hanb. Breadalbane Hills (!) j Meall 
Ghaordie (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; rocky stream, Killin 
(Rev. E. F. Linton) (!); Ben Chaisteil; Glen Lochay 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Cam Chreag; Craig Cailleach 
(Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!) ; Ptarmigan, Loch Tay (J. S. 
Stirling) (!). 

Var. glabratum Linton. By the Almond ; Loch Voil 
(Dr F. B. White) (!) ; banks of the Shee Water, near the 
Spiral; by the Lochsie ; near Corrie Choarach (Rev. E. 
S. Marshall) (!); Roro Stream, Glen Lyon (Rev. E. F. 
Linton (!). 

H. duplicatum Almq. Kincraigie Burn (Dr F. B. 
White) (!). 

H. insulare F. J. Hanb. Am Binnein(!); Ben 
Lawers (!) ; Corrie Ardran (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

Var. petrocharis Linton. Lairige rocks, Killin ; Meall 
Dhuin Croisg, Killin (Rev. W. R. Linton) (!). 

H. csesio-murorum Lindeb. Linn of Campsie ; Tayside 
above Stobhall (Dr F. B. White) (!) • Glen Lochay, near 
Killin ; banks of the Shee Water : Fillan river above 
Crianlarich (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!); Killin (Rev. 
W. R. Linton). (Meall Dhuin Croisg and Craig Cail- 
leach ; Glen Lyon; up the Allt Roro, Revs. E. F. and 
W. R. Linton, in ' Journ. of Botany,' vol. xxxi. p. 
180.) 

H. Orarium Lindeb./ Grassy bank near Killiecrankie 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 



202 DICOTYLEDONE^:. 

H. duriceps F. J. Hanb. Amphitheatre of clay cliffs 
by the Almond (!). 

H. gravestellum Dahlst. 

Var. rhomboides Stenstr. /. Rocky burn descending 
from Craig Cailleach, Killin (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

H. vulgatum Fr. River Tummel below Clunie Bridge; 
Killiecrankie Station; Glen Farg ; near Shinnan Bank, 
Isla ; Perth Harbour ; Allt Girnaig ; River Lyon, near 
Comrie Castle ; Gask Hill ; Balthayock Hill ; Beinn 
Oss ; Parkfield ; Methven Wood ; Dunkeld and Kin- 
noull Hill ; Ben Lawers ; Ben Laoigh ; Invergowrie 
Station ; Loch Bennibeg ; Lochearnhead ; Strath Braan 
(Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Almond banks (!) ; by Lawers 
Burn (!) ; Moncreiffe Hill (!) ; Allt Dhubh Ghalair, Glen 
Lochay (!) ; river-bed at Glen Shee(!); Glen Falloch; 
railway bank 2 miles E. of Crianlarich (Rev. E. S. 
Marshall) ; Buckies, Cherrybank ; Lamberton Quarry 
(R. H. Meldrum)(!); Birnam (rock at 12th milestone) 
(C. M'Intosh) (!); below Cam Chreag (Dr W. A. Shool- 
bred)(!); Comrie; valley of the Ruchill ; Dalrannoch ; 
Finlarig, Killin (J. C. Melvill) (!); Den of Pitroddie 
(Col. H. M. Drummond-Hay) (!). 

H. stenophyes W. R. Linton. (Cultivated specimen of 
one of Mr Marshall's plants, supposed to have come 
originally from near Crianlarich.) (!) 

H. suhanfractum Marshall. Ben Laoigh (Dr F. B. 
White) (!); Corrie Ardran (!) (and Rev. E. S. Marshall) ; 
near Killin (Rev. W. R. Linton) (!) ; roadside between 
Tyndrum and the head of Glen Lyon ; Bridge of Orchy 
(Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!). 

H. diaphanum Fr. 

Var. stenolepis Lindeb. Lochaid Burn, Glen Shee 
(Rev. W. R. Linton) (!). 



HIERACIUM. 203 

§ x. Rigida. 

H. gothicum (Fr. pt.) Backh. Between Lavvers Burn 
and Lochay (!). 

(Var. latifolium Backh. Near Fortingal, Revs. E. F. 
and W. R. Linton, in 'Joum. of Botany,' vol. xxxi. 
p. 199.) 

Var. basifolium Lindeb. Linn of Campsie (Dr F. B. 
White) (!). (Glen Lyon, Revs. E. F. and W. R. Linton, 
in 'Journ. of Botany,' vol. xxxi. p. 199.) 

H. sparsifolium Lindeb. Banks of the Lyon near 
Fortingal (W. F. Miller (!); Ben Laoigh ; Ben More 
Burn, close to the railway, 2 miles E. of Crianlarich 
(Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!); Buchaille Etive Mohr (Rev. 
E. S. Marshall and Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!) j Glen Lyon 
(Revs. E. F. and W. R. Linton) (!). 

§ xi. Alpestria. 

H. truncatum Lindeb. /. Loch Lubnaig (Dr F. B. 

White) (!). 

H. dovrense Fr. 

Var. spectabile Marshall. Shee Water, about 2 miles 
below the Spital (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!). 

H. Dewari Boswell. Lochearnhead ; [King's Seat Hill 
(Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Glen Quay, Glen Devon (J. T. 
Boswell) (!)] ; east bank of the Lochay, near the Inn, 
Killin (!); Lawers Burn (!) ; Am Binnein (!) ; Ben 
Laoigh (!) ; Fillan river above Crianlarich (!); Glen 
Falloch (!) ; Inverarnan, Loch Lomond (C. C. Babing- 
ton (!); Menstrie Glen (J. Groves) (!); Glen Shee (P. 
Ewing) (!); between Loch Lubnaig and Strathyre (R. 
Kidston) (!) ; Glen Lyon (W. F. Miller) (!) j banks of 
the Ruchill (J. C. Melvill) (!) ; [Linnill; Glen of Sorrow, 
Clackmannan (Tom Drummond) (!).] 



204 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

§ xii. Prenanthoidea. 

H. prenanthoides Vill. River Tay above Aberfeldy; 
Allt Girnaig, Athole ; near Blair Atholl ; near Moulin ; 
Glen Tilt ; Allt Druidhe, Rannoch ; above North Inch ; 
Ben Lawers (2600 ft.); Loch Lubnaig ; Lochearnhead 
(Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Lawers Burn (!); Glen Almond (!) ; 
by the Dochart at Crianlarich (!) ; Craig-an-Lochan (!) ; 
rocks about Loch - na - Chait (!); Braan mouth (C. 
M'Intosh) (!) ; cliffs in Glen Beg, Glen Shee (Rev. E. S. 
Marshall) (!) ; Glen Lyon (W. F. Miller) (!); rocks near 
Kinknock, Glen Lochay (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; frequent 
by the Ruchill (J. C. Melvill) (!). 

§ xiii. Foliosa. 

H. strictum Fr. 

Var. reticulatum (Lindeb.) Linn of Campsie ; Strath 
Braan (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; burnside of Lubreoch, Glen 
Lyon (H. and J. Groves) (!); by the river Dochart, in 
Glen Lochay; Killin (Revs. E. F. and W. R. Linton) (!) ; 
between Crianlarich and Tyndrum (Rev. E. S. Mar- 
shall) (!). 

H. strictum Fr. 

Var. angustum Lindeb. Stobhall ; Strath Braan ; 
Braan side at Inver ; Linn of Campsie ; Lochearnhead : 
banks of the Garry below Struan (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; 
Lawers Burn (!) ; near the Spital of Glen Shee (!) ; banks 
of the Ruchill, Glen Artney; banks of the Ruchill, 
Comrie ; banks of the Ruchill below Dalrannoch (J. C. 
Melvill) (!). 

Var. opsianthum Dahlst. Strath Braan ; Linn of Camp- 
sie ; Stobhall ; Tayside (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Lawers 
Burn(!); Glen Lochay (Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!); Braan 
mouth; Inver (Braan side) (C. M'Intosh) (!) ; [on the 



HIERACIUM. 205 

road between Forrest Mill and Dollar; Linnill, Clack- 
mannan (Tom Drummond) (!).] 

Var. amplidentatum F. J. Hanb. River Lyon, near its 
mouth (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Glen Lochay (Rev. E. S. 
Marshall) (!); Glen Shee (Rev. E. F. Linton) (!) ; banks 
of the Ruchill, Glen Artney (J. C. Melvill) (!). 

H. corymbosum Fr. River Balvaig (Dr F. B. 
White) (!); Lawers Burn (!) ; Glen Devon (Herb. Bos- 
well) (!); Railway-bank, Crianlarich (Rev. E. S. Marshall). 

Var. prcelongum Lindeb. Rock of Linn of Campsie 
(Dr F. B. White) (!). 

Var. salicifolium Lindeb. Left bank of the Tay, about 
one mile below Perth bridge (J. Boswell Syme) (!); at 
Strathyre and Callander (R. Ff. Meldrum) (!). 

H. auratum Fr. Stobhall ; River Balvaig ; Lochearn- 
head ; Linn of Campsie ; Inver (Braan side) ; W. side 
of Loch Lubnaig; junction of the Tay and Lyon; Glen 
Artney; island below Caputh Bridge; banks of the Garry 
below Struan; Kinclaven ; Glen Dochart ; Killin (Dr F. 
B. White) (!); Lawers Burn (!); Glen Lochay (!) ; field 
by the Lochay Inn (!) ; by the Dochart at Crianlarich (!) ; 
Loch Tay ; banks of the Lyon, Culdaremore, near Fortin- 
gal ; Balgie Bridge, Glen Lyon (W. F. Miller) (!) ; field 
in Tyndrum ; Strathyre (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; Glen 
Devon (Herb. Boswell) (!) ; Loch Ard (J. S. Stirling) (!) ; 
river Ruchill below Dalrannoch House (J. C. Melvill) (!); 
near Callander (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers). 

H. crocatum Fr. River Balvaig (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; 
foot of Ben Lawers (Rev. E. F. Linton) (!) ; between 
Loch Lubnaig and Strathyre (R. Kidston) (!). 

Var. trichophyton Almq. Lochearnhead (Dr F. B. 
White) (!). 

Var. pycnophyllum Lindeb. By the Dochart, Killin (!). 



206 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

§ xiv. Sabauda. 

H. boreale Fr. Loch Lubnaig ; Paddockmuir Wood 
(Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Strathyre (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; 
shores of Loch Earn (Col. H. M. Drummond-Hay) (!); 
between Loch Lubnaig and Strathyre ; Gartmore Wood ; 
River Leny (R. Kidston) (!); Woody Island near Perth; 
between Strathyre and Callander (R. H. Meldrum) (!) ; 
neighbourhood of Aberuchill and Dalrannoch (J. C. 
Melvill) (!). 

§ xv. Umbellata. 

H. umbellatum L. Muirtown Wood; Tayside, oppo- 
site Stormontfield (Dr F. B. White) (!) ; Meall-nan-Subh, 
Glen Lyon (H. and J. Groves) (!) ; in open meadows at 
Inveroran (!) (and Rev. E. S. Marshall) (!) ; island in 
Lochay river, below the Fall (Dr W. A. Shoolbred) (!) ; 
River Tay side, between Dunkeld and Aberfeldy (Don, 
com. by J. Knox) (!); five miles above Fortingal (Rev. 
E. F. Linton). 

TRIBE XV. — SCORZONERE^E. 
29. TRAGOPOGON L. 

T. pratensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. o o Isla, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Banks. Rare except in Gowrie, where it is local. 
alt. Low levels. 

H. Islay— Railway at Guay (C. M'Intosh). 
Breadalbane — Railway at Logierait (!). 

[Picris echioides L. has been found on ballast-heaps 
at Alloa (T. Drummond).] 



LEONTODON — HYPOCHCERIS. 20J 

TRIBE XVI. LEONTODONTE^E. 

30. LEONTODON L. 

L. autumnalis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures, fields, and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2900 ft. in Breadalbane and 2700 in 

Lomond. 

Variable, but the varieties pass into each other. L. 
pratensis Koch, is the upland form. 

L. hirtus L. "in a field below the garden at the Earl 
of Kinnoull's seat near Perth " (Mr Miller in Smith's ' Fl. 
Brit.,' 1800) has not been verified. " ' Stuick-an-Lochan,' 
Ben Lawers " (W. Gardiner, 1842) is probably an error. 

[L. hispidus L. has been found near Alva and about 
MenstrieQ. Couper)] ; "Perth Mid, Miller Cat." ('Top. 
Bot.') 

TRIBE XVII. — HYPOCHCERID^:. 
31. HYPOCHCERIS L. 

H. radicata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, meadows, and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1700 ft. in Atholl and above 1600 in 
H. Isla and Breadalbane. 

H. glabra L. " Perth West. Tate MS." (' Top. Bot.') 



208 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

TRIBE XVIII. HYOSERID.E. 

Cichorium Intybus L. occurs occasionally as a casual. 

Arnoseris pusilla Gsertn. was found long ago in " corn- 
fields near Invermay " (Winch, in Lin. Soc. Herb.) 

TRIBE XIX. LAPSANE^S. 

32. LAPSANA L. 

L. communis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Hedge-banks, and waste and cultivated ground. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to near 1000 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. 

Isla. 

This is one of those species that, from their never being found 
away from the neighbourhood of cultivated ground, seem to be 
doubtfully indigenous, though not recent introductions. Yet in 
Sutherlandshire Messrs Marshall and H anbury ('J. of B.,' vol. xxix. 
p. 112) found it in a place where "it can hardly be otherwise than 
indigenous." 

Order XXXVIL— CAMPANULACE/E. 

TRIBE I. — LOBELIE^E. 

1. LOBELIA L. 

L. Dortmanna L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, o o Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



CAMPANULA. 209 

hab. Lakes. Common in the Highland area ; rarer in 
the Lowland area, except in Isla. 

alt. Ascends to above 1600 ft. in Breadalbane and 
Athollj 1483 in H. Earn, 1400 in H. Isla, and 
to nearly 1000 in H. Perth and Rannoch. 

Loch Cluny (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Usually in rather shallow water where the ground is stony. I 
have seen it at the Lake of Monteith, Loch Lubnaig, and Loch 
Voil, growing on wet ground which could only occasionally be 
covered by water. 



TRIBE II. — CAMPANULEjE. 
2. CAMPANULA L. 

C. glomerata L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry banks. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"On the banks of the Tay, near the Linn of Campsie, Perth- 
shire." — Don, Fasc. v., 1806, No. 109. 

L. Perth — Banks of the Tay, Redgorton parish (Liston, in 
N.S.A., 1837) ; near Almond mouth (!) ; banks of the Tay 
at Stanley (!). 
Isla — Banks of the Tay from a little below the Linn of 

Campsie to Thistlebridge (W. Barclay) (!). 
Gowrie — Woody island — one plant only (W. Barclay) ; 
formerly in Darry Island (Drummond-Hay). 

0. latifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Local. Most common in the Lowland 

area. 



" At Taymouth Hermitage, and by the side of the beautiful 
cascades at Moness, near Taymouth." — Lightfoot, p. 41. 1778. 



210 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

0. rotundifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Pastures, moors, and banks. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3820 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in Ran- 
noch, 2800 in Atholl, 2500 in Lomond, 2000 in 
H. Earn, and above 1500 in L. Forth. 

"Upon the hill of Moncrief, near Perth, I observed a variety 
about two inches high, bearing a single flower, and having numerous 
linear leaves on the stalk." — Lightfoot, p. 141. 1778. 

Var. lancifolia Mert. and Koch. Not uncommon, 
especially on the hills. 

Var. hirta Koch. Lower part of the plant, including 
the lower leaves, with somewhat rigid hairs. Glen Tilt 
(with white flowers) (!). 

Var. velntina DC. Clothed with short whitish hairs. 
What appears to be this variety, though it was not in 
flower, I found on Murrayshall Hill near Perth. 

C. rapunculoides L. is naturalised in several places 
near Perth, &c. "Found plentifully near Blair in 
Athol, where my specimens were collected." — Don, 
Fasc. iii., 1805, No. 55. 

C. persicifolia L. has been found as an escape at 
Blair Athole, near Perth, and near Dollar. 

C. Trachelium L. has been reported from Methven, 
and from Darry Island ; but was doubtless an outcast. 

Phyteuma spicatum L. has occurred in shrubberies. 

Jasione montana L A single plant was found by 
Mr Brebner at the edge of a field near Logierait. 



VACCINIUM. 211 

Order XXXVIII.— VACCINIACEyE. 
1. VACCINIUM L. 

V. Myrtillus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods, moors, and mountains. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3900 ft. in Breadalbane, 3540 in Ran- 
noch, 3224 in H. Earn, 3000 in H. Forth, 2500 
in Lomond [and 2363 in L. Forth]. 

' ' A singular variety with white berries was discovered by his 
Grace the Duke of Athol growing in the woods about midway be- 
tween his two seats of Dunkeld and Blair." — Lightfoot, p. 201. 
1778. 

V. uliginosum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine banks. Rather local. 

alt. From about 2000 ft. in Breadalbane to 2700 in 
H. Earn, 2500 in H. Isla, Lomond, and Bread- 
albane, and 2400 in Atholl. 

" Upon Creg-Chailleach in Breadalbane, upon the higher moun- 
tains about Loch-Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 201. 1778. 

V. Vitis-Idsea L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods and moors. Common in the Highland 
area; rare in most parts of the Lowland area. 

alt. Ascends to 3540 ft. in Rannoch, 3200 in Bread- 
albane, 3000 in H. Forth and H. Earn [and 
1820 in L. Forth]. 
Benachally (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 



212 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 



2. SCHOLLERA Koth. 

S. Occycoccus Roth. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Amongst Sphagnum in bogs and wet places. 
Local. 

alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl and 2000 in Bread- 
albane. 

"Found by Mr Stuart at Tullybancher, half a mile from Comrie 
and five miles from Crief in Strath-Erne ; but nowhere in Breadal- 
bane." — Lightfoot, p. 1 122. 1778. 

Widely distributed but usually in very small quantity, and hence 
easily overlooked. In a few lowland bogs it occurs in large masses. 



Order XXXIX.— ERICACEAE. 

TRIBE I. — ARBUTE.E. 

1. AKCTOSTAPHYLOS Adans. 

A. Uva-ursi Spreng. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, 000 
H. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry rocky places on the mountains. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2350 ft. in Rannoch and 2000 in H. 
Earn and Atholl. 

Loch Rannoch (Professor Hope, 1762). 

Almost confined to the Highland area ; but near Crieff it occurs 
on conglomerate rocks of the Old Red Sandstone. 

A. alpina Spreng., which is sometimes reputed to be 
a native of Perthshire, appears not to occur within our 
limits, though it has been found not many miles from the 
north-west corner of the county. 



ANDROMEDA — ERICA. 21 3 

TRIBE II. ANDROMEDE7E. 

2. ANDROMEDA L. 

A. Polifolia L. (87.) 

L. Forth, 0000 

h. 00000000 

hab. Peat-bogs. Local and rare. 

ALT. 

l. Forth — Blairdrummond and other mosses in Monteith. 

TRIBE III. — ERICINEjE. 
3. ERICA L. 

E. Tetralix L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2200 ft. in Rannoch. 

E. cinerea L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2200 ft. in Rannoch and 2000 in 
Atholl. 

As regards the colour of the flowers, there are two distinct var- 
ieties : — (1) the common one, with comparatively dull crimson- 
purple blossoms ; (2) a rarer one, with bright rose-purple flowers, 
which abounds on Birnam Hill, and occurs also in Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, and Atholl. 



214 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

4. CALLUNA Salis. 

C. Erica DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3100 ft. in Rannoch and above 2700 

in Breadalbane. 



TRIBE IV. RHODOREjE. 

5. PHYLLODOCE Salis. 

P. cserulea Bab. (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. 0000000 Atholl. 
hab. Alpine rocky slopes. Very local and rare. 
alt. Between 2350 and 2460 ft. 

The " rediscovery " of this rare plant has been more than once 
announced, but I am not aware that those who know where to look 
for it have ever failed to find it. Its station on Cam Dobrain (or 
the "Sow of Atholl") is unfortunately too well known to others 
than botanists, and hence there is a danger of the species being ex- 
terminated. I counted about fifty plants in 1875, and believe that 
there is not less than that number now. The structure of the leaf 
is frequently not rightly described. The margins are not really re- 
volute. On the underside of the leaf the midrib lies in a channel 
whose sides are undercut, thus giving the appearance of a reflexed 
margin to the leaf. The apparent edge of the leaf is the real edge, 
and is glandular-denticulate. The plant seems not to flower very 
freely on the Sow of Atholl. The corolla is often more or less 
glandular. 

6. LOISELEURIA Desv. 

L. procumbens Desv. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



PYROLA. 215 

hab. Dry stony ridges of the higher mountains ; local 

and rather rare. More rare and more luxuriant 

in sheltered places. 
alt. Lowest altitude hot noted. Ascends to about 

3000 ft. in Rannoch and H. Isla, and 2460 in 

Atholl. 

" On Ben-Mor in Breadalbane. " — Lightfoot, p. 139. 1778. 



TRIBE V. PYROLE7E. 

7. PYROLA Tourn. 

P. minor L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, moors, and alpine rock ledges. Not un- 
common ; rarer in the Highlands. 
alt. Ascends to 3700 ft. in Breadalbane. 

" In the woods about Loch-Rannoch. " — Lightfoot, p. 218. 1778. 

P. media Sw. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth,] o o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods and moors. Local, and not common in 
the Lowlands ; not uncommon in the Highlands. 

alt. Ascends to 1260 ft. in Atholl 

Lowland localities are : — 

[Forth— Culross (J. M'Gregor).] 

Isla — Scone Den (J. Roy) ; Muirward of Scone (!), Dunsinnane 

Hill(!). 
Gowrie— Pitmiddle Hill (Drummond-Hay)(!), Kinnoull Hill('). 



2l6 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

P. rotundifolia L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rock ledges (and woods). Local and rare. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Breadalbane. 

This species has been so confounded with P. media that its distri- 
bution in Perthshire is not altogether certain. The following 
stations are beyond doubt : — 

Ben Laoigh (!) in Breadalbane (P. Ewing). 
" Dunkeld." Specimens were sent to London Botanical Society 
in 1840 by J. G. Lyon, and are now in H. C. Watson's her- 
barium at Kew. 
The following records require verification : — 

" In the woods at Blair, in Atholl, &c, and upon the heaths 
above Dunkeld, amongst the Arbutus uva-ursi, &c." — Light- 
foot, p. 218. 1778. 
Callander — Arnott in ' F. S.,' 1821. 
Top of Persie Hill, Bendochy (Barty). 

P. secunda L. (88, 89.) 
L. o o Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry places on rocky banks of mountain streams, 

and in (usually) mountain woods. Local and 

not common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Atholl. 

' ' In the birch woods of Trosschraig, Craig-loisgt, and Coille-mhor, 
about Loch Rannoch, in Perthshire, where all three species are 
found." — Lightfoot, p. 219. 1778. 

L. Perth — Rashieley, near Bankfoot (R. Dow). 
Isla — Muirton of Blairgowrie (Sturrock) (!). 
H. Forth — Island in Lochard (Graham, 1812). 

Earn— Comrie (Don); Aberuchill Hills (W. F. Miller). 
Perth— Craig Vinean, Dunkeld (C. MTntosh). 
Isla— Near Spittal of Glen Shee (P. Ewing). 
Breadalbane — Craig-na-Caillich (Lightfoot, 1778); Ben Laoigh 
(A. H. Evans) (!) ; Meall Ghaordie (E. F. Linton) ; Coire 
Dubh Galair (E. F. Linton). 
Rannoch — Several places near Loch Rannoch (!). 
Atholl— Several places in Atholl Forest (!). 



MONESES— FRAXINUS. 2iy 

8. MONESES Salis. 

M. grandiflora Gray. (89.) 
L. o o o Isla, o 
h. 000 o 0000 

hab. Damp fir and birch woods. Very local and rare. 

ALT. 

Muirward of Scone (!) (Mr Bishop, Hooker's 'Brit. Fl.,' 1830). 
Owing to the reckless manner in which specimens have been taken 
by botanists and others, the plant is now nearly extinct at Scone, 
and appears to flower but rarely. In the N.S.A. of Redgorton 
parish another station is given for Moneses ; but in the account of 
the parish of Scone this is said to be erroneous. 



Order XL.— OLEACE/E. 

1. FRAXINUS L. 

F. excelsior L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Rubbles and rocky places, sides of rivers and lakes, 

&c. Common, and, though often self-sown from 

planted trees, undoubtedly wild in many places. 
alt. Ascends to about 1000 ft. in Rannoch and L. 

Forth. 

Cluny (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Ligustrum vulgare L. occurs only where planted, and 
is not even naturalised. 

Vinca minor L., though mostly planted, also occurs 
as an escape. 



2l8 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

Order XLL— GENTIANACE/E. 

TRIBE I. ERYTHRjEEjE. 

1. ERYTHEMA Pers. 

E. Centaurium Pers. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. OOOOOOOO 

hab. Dry sunny banks. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Banks of Teith near Bridge of Allan (!) ; Kippenross 
Glen (Wilkie); [Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; Balgonie and 
Longannet (Rev. J. Couper).] 

Earn — Woodhead Farm near Aberdalgie (Meldrum) (!). 

Perth — Below Linn of Campsie (R. Dow) (!). 

Isla — Quarrymill Den (J. Sim)(!). 

Gowrie — Dry pastures near rocks at Craigend (Rev. Dr W. 
Thomson in N.S. A., 1836) — no recent record; Moncreiffe 
_(W. Bissett)(!) ; Kinnoull Hill (R. H. Meldrum) (!) ; Min- 
ister's Haugh, Kilspindie(!). 

TRIBE II. — SWERTIE.E. 
2. GENTIANA L. 

G. campestris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors especially amongst the hills. 

Common, but rather local, in the Lowlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Atholl, 2250 in Breadalbane, 

and 1700 in Rannoch. 



Atholl. 



G. Amarella L. (88.) 




L. O O O O 


O 


H. O O O O 


O 



MENYANTHES. 219 

hab. Pastures. Rare, or overlooked. 

ALT. 

Hill of Tulloch near Blair Athole (J. Coates). It is recorded as 
having been found at Blair Athole by Brand and Campbell in ' Edin. 
Bot. Soc. Trans.,' 1841. It has also been reported from near the 
Moor of Durdie in L. Isla or Gowrie. 

G. nivalis L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Breadalbane, o 

hab. Grassy alpine rock ledges. Very local. 

alt. Between 2400 and 3450 ft. 

Ben Lawers, James Dickson, before 1793 ('Linn. Soc. Trans.,' 
vol. ii. p. 290). In a very few places on Ben Lawers and the Cam 
Chreag range (!). 

TRIBE III. MENYANTHES. 

3. MENYANTHES Tourn. 

M. trifoliata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshes and margins of lakes. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 304 2 ft. in Breadalbane, 2 100 in Atholl, 

and 1650 in H. Isla. 

Cluny (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Limnanthemum peltatum Gmel. occurs in a pool at 
Sauchie, near Aberdalgie, and in Moncreiffe Pond, in 
which latter station it has probably been planted. 
[Airthrie Castle (Morison, 1839).] 

Order Polemoniace/e. 
Polemonium cseruleum L. is a rare outcast or escape. 



220 DICOTYLEDONE^i. 

Order XLIL— CONVOLVULACE.E. 
1. CONVOLVULUS L. 

C. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Roadsides and fields. Local and not common. 

alt. Low levels. 

The majority of the stations known to me are within a few miles 
of Perth. It is probably, however, widely distributed in the warmer 
parts of the Lowland area. 

Volvulus sepium Junger occurs as (probably) an 
escape in hedges in many places. In the Woody Island 
and on the banks of the lower Almond, near Perth, it is 
common in willow thickets, but perhaps can scarcely be 
considered wild. 

[V. Soldanella Junger has been found at Culross (J. 
M'Gregor).] 

Cuscuta epilinum Weihe has been found in a flax 
field near Almond bank. 

C. Trifolii Bab. has occurred near Perth (!), and at 
Seggieden (Drummond-Hay). 

C. europsea L. also occurred once at Seggieden 
(Drummond-Hay). 

Order XLIII.— BORAGINACE^E. 

TRIBE I. ECHIEjE. 

1. ECHIUM Tourn. 
E. vulgare L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 



SYMPHYTUM — ANCHUSA. 221 

hab. Dry, rocky, or gravelly places, and fields. Local. 

alt. Low levels. 

Local but not uncommon on the trap-hills, and apparently native 
there. Occasionally in corn-fields, &c, where, sometimes at least, 
it is not more than a casual. 

TRIBE II. — ANCHUSEjE. 
2. SYMPHYTUM Tourn. 

S. tuberosum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, 000 Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 

hab. River banks and sides of hedges. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 1100 ft. in H. Earn. 

While this species may be indigenous in some of its localities, I 
am inclined to think that it is an introduction in many of them. 

S. officinale L. and its var. patens Sibth. occur — rarely 
more than one or two plants — in a good many places • 
but to me this species seems to be an escape merely. 
Both forms are abundant near the head of the Pass of 
Killiecrankie, and the type is common near Pond of 
Drummond (!). Some other species of the genus also 
have been found. 

Borago officinalis L. is found as a rare casual. 

3. ANCHUSA L. 

A. arvensis Bieb. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common ; rarer in the 

Highlands. A colonist. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl. 

A. sempervirens L. is a rare escape. 



222 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

TRIBE III. LITHOSPERME.E. 

4. LITHOSPEEMUM Tourn. 

L. officinale L. (87, 88.) 
l. [Forth,] o Perth, o o 
H. o Earn, 000000 
hab. Copses. Very local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth — formerly near Culross (J. M'Gregor).] 

Perth — Kinclaven Castle (! )— probably a relict of cultivation. 
H. Earn — shore of Loch Earn near St Fillans (Drummond-Hay) ; 
possibly wild. 

L. arvense L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Fields and waste places. Rare except in Gowrie. 

A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

Pulmonaria officinalis L. has been found in one or 
two places, where it has probably been planted. 

5. MYOSOTIS L. 

M. palustris Relh. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to about 1050 ft. in H. Isla. 

Var. strigidosa M. and K. Not uncommon. This 
variety seems to be merely an extreme form, as inter- 
mediate states connect it with the type. 

The records from the Highland area may not all be correct. 
That for Glen Shee is so. 



MYOSOTIS. 223 

M. repens D. Don (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Wet places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla. 

M. caespitosa Schultz (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl [and above 1600 in 

L. Forth]. 

M. alpestris Schmidt (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp alpine rock ledges. Very local. 
alt. Between 2400 and 3850 ft. 

"This beautiful plant adorns the rocks on the summit of Ben 
Lawers, producing its flowers during the greater part of the sum- 
mer."— Don, Fasc. ix., 1804, No. 205. 

Ben Lawers, Ben Ghlas, and the Cam Chreag range. In ' Fl. Scot.' 
Borrer and Hooker report it from Schiehallion and Meall Ghaordie, 
but it has not been found recently on these hills. 

M. sylvatica Hoffm. has been found in several places, 
but is only a casual. 

M. arvensis Willd. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, waste places, and woods. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl, and 
1450 in Rannoch. 

Var. umbrosa Bab. Not uncommon. 



224 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

M. collina Hoffm. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry bare places, usually near rocks. Local (per- 
haps overlooked). 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Rannoch. 

M. versicolor Reich. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry, rather bare, places. Sometimes in damp 

spots. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Atholl, 1650 in H. Isla, 

and 1400 in Rannoch. 



TRIBE IV. — CYNOGLOSSEjE. 
8. CYNOCKLOSSTJM Tourn. 

0. officinale L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 000000 00 
hab. Bare warm slopes of trap-hills. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

"At the foot of the hill of Kinnoul, near Perth." — Lightfoot, p. 
133. 1778. 

Kinnoull, Moncreiffe, and other trap-hills (!). 

C. germanicum Jacq. (montanum Lam.) (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. 0000000 o 

hab. Copses. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 



SOLANUM — LATHR/EA. 225 

Carse of Gowrie— G. Don in <F. S.,' 1821. 

L. Perth— Woodlands (R. H. Meldrum) (!). 

Gowrie — Barnhill (J. Sim)(!) ; Fingask (Drummond-Hay) (!) 
— both the latter stations are in the Carse of Gowrie, and 
either of them may be Don's locality, though it is probable 
that Fingask is the place he found it at. 



Order XLIV.— SOLANACE^E. 
1. SOLANUM Tourn. 

S. Dulcamara L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Hedges and thickets ; often, but not invariably, 
near water. Local, but not uncommon in the 
Lowlands ; rarer in the Highland area. 

ALT. 

S. nigrum L., Hyoscyamus niger L., and Atropa 
Belladonna L., have all been found as rare casuals, 
scarcely naturalised. 

Order XLV.— OROBANCHACEiE. 
1. LATHR^JA L. 

L. squamaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. 0000000 Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks of streams. Local, and not com- 
mon. 
alt. 

1. [Forth — on hazel roots at Castle Campbell, near Dollar, and 
on poplar roots on the banks of the Devon ; near Rumbling 
Bridge and mouth of Dollar Burn (J. Buchanan)] ; Dunblane 
Glen (R. Kidston). 
Earn — Invermay (on elm, sycamore, and yew)(!). 



226 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

Perth— Methven Wood (!) ; Lynedoch (W. Bissett) ; Trinity- 
College (Rev. Dr Thornton) ; below Almondbank. 
Isla— Craighall (W. Herdman) (!). 
H. Atholl— Glen Tilt (!). 

Elm seems to be the chief host-plant of Lathrcea in Perthshire. It 
is probable that it occurs in other localities than those mentioned, 
but that, as it is local, flowers early, and soon dies down, it has been 
overlooked. 

The " Orobanche major" recorded in ' F. S.' as having been 
found growing on roots of trees at Logiealmond by Mr Murray was 
probably Lathrcea. 



Order XLVI.— SCROPHULARIACEjE. 

TRIBE I. VERBASCEjE. 

1. VERBASCUM L. 

V. Thapsus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Dry and bare banks. Local. 

alt. Ascends to above 1000 ft. in H. Isla. 

It is open to doubt whether this species is really indigenous in 
Perthshire. In some places it seems to be very probably an intro- 
duction ; but in others, though represented usually by a few individ- 
uals only, it appears to have more claim to be considered wild. It 
seems to be most at home on the trap rubbles. 

V. Lychnitis L. and V. nigrum L. are rare escapes. 



TRIBE II. — ANTIRRHINEjE. 
2. LINARIA Tourn. 
§ i. Cymbalaria. 
L. Cymbalaria Mill, is naturalised on some old walls. 



SCROPHULARIA. 227 

§ ii. Linariastrum. 
L. vulgaris Mill. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Edges of fields, banks, and waste ground. Local. 

ALT. 

" In Strath-Tay, and between Dunkeld and Blair." — Lightfoot, 
p. 328. 1778. 

This species usually grows on recently turned up ground, and after 
a few years gives way to other vegetation. In the specimens I have 
examined the rachis and pedicels are quite or nearly glabrous. 

[With cleistogamous flowers at Kennetpans (!).] 

L. repens Ait. is naturalised on a wall near Kinnoull 
churchyard, and on the shore of Moncreiffe Island (!). 

§ hi. Chcenorrhinum. 

Linaria viscida Moench. {minor L.) A few years 
previous to 1891 one or two specimens occurred at In- 
vergowrie railway station; but in 1891 it was found 
more or less commonly on railway lines at Stanley (!) and 
Strathord (R. Dow), Methven and Barnhill(!) (W. Bar- 
clay), Invergowrie (!) and Luncarty (!). 

Antirrhinum majus L. is an introduction on rocks at 
Kinnoull, Fingask, &c. 

TRIBE III. — CHELONEyE. 
3. SCROPHULARIA Tourn. 

S. nodosa L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods and banks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl. 



228 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

S. vernalis L. is more or less naturalised in several 
places near Perth. 

S. aquatica L., var. cinerea Dum., casual at Perth Har- 
bour (W. Barclay) (!). 

TRIBE GRATIOLEjE. 

Mimulus luteus L. is established in many localities, 
and abounds in the marshes of the Tay. 

M. moschatus occurs occasionally on river shingles. 

TRIBE IV. DIGITALEtE. 

4. DIGITALIS Tourn. 

D. purpurea L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Bare places in woods and on banks, &c. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl, 1900 in Breadal- 
bane, and 1500 in L. Forth. 

"On the hills about Loch- Rannoch in Perthshire." — Lightfoot, 
p. 331. 1778. 

D. ambigua Murr. (D. gi-andiflora Lam.) is a rare in- 
troduction on Moncreiffe Hill (W. Bissett)(!). 



VERONICA. 229 

TRIBE V. VERONICE7E. 

5. VERONICA Tourn. 

§ i. Omphalospora. 

V. agrestis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. A weed of 

cultivation. 
alt. Ascends to above 1500 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl. 

V. polita Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Fields and waste places. Apparently rare, but 
probably overlooked. 

ALT. 

L. [Forth — Menstrie Mains, Garnel, Glenochil, and Carse of 
Clackmannan (Rev. J. Couper) ; Kennetpans(!).] 

Earn — Kilgraston (T. Drummond). 

Perth— Methven Wood (!). 

Gowrie — Annat Lodge (!) ; Seggieden (Drummond - Hay) ; 
Perth Harbour (!). 

V. Tournefortii C. Gmel. (V. Buxbaumii Ten.) is be- 
coming not uncommon in fields in the warmer districts, 
but is only a weed of cultivation. 

V. hedersefolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Bare cultivated ground. Common. Sometimes 

on rocks away from cultivation, but yet a weed 

of cultivation. 

ALT. 



230 DICOTYLEDONE^i. 

§ ii. Veronicastrum. 

V. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry and rather bare fields, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2700 ft. in Breadalbane, 1800 in 

H. Isla, and 1450 in Rannoch. 

A very dwarf early-spring form, growing in rocky places on Kin- 
noull Hill, &c, has dark blue flowers tinged with purple round the 
white throat. 

V. serpyllifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, damp waste places, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in 

H. Earn, and 2200 in Atholl and Lomond. 

Var. humifusa Dicks. Alpine springs and moist 
places. 

V. peregrina L. is a weed in the Perth Nurseries 
(J. Sim)(!). 

V. alpina L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp or wet alpine places. Very local. 

alt. From 1200 ft. in H. Isla and Atholl to above 
3000 in Rannoch, 2800 in H. Isla, and 3800 in 
Breadalbane. 

h. Isla — Various places near Spittal of Glen Shee (Dr C. Stuart, 
&c.)(!). 



VERONICA. 231 

Breadalbane — Ben Lawers (G. C. Druce). 
Rannoch — Ben Aulder(!). 

Atholl — Rocks in bed of the Tilt (!) ; Corrie Creagach near 
Dalnaspidal(l). 

V. fruticans Jacq. (saxatilis L.) (88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o Earn, o o Lomond, Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 

hab. Alpine rock ledges. Very local. 
alt. From 1200 ft. in Atholl to 3600 in Breadalbane, 

2425 in Lomond, 2000 in H. Earn, and 1900 

in Atholl. 

"In rupibus : Ben Lawers." — J. Dickson, Fasc. ii., 1790, p. 29. 
H. Earn — Ben Chonzie(!). 

Lomond — Rocks above Loch Oss(!). 
Breadalbane — Several of the richer hills (!). 
Atholl— Glen Tilt ( !) ; Loch Loch (Fergusson) (!). 
Naturalised on a wall at Dunkeld (J. M'Bryde). 
Variable in size, shape, and toothing of the leaves. A pink- 
flowered form is reported from Craig Mhor, Glen Lochay, by Mr 
W. B. Boyd. Possibly a similar variety was R. Brown's V. fmti- 
culosa from Ben Lawers. 



§ iii. Chamcedrys. 

V. officinalis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, moors, and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Earn and H. Isla. 

Var. hirsuta Hopk. " A specimen from Perthshire 
is in my herbarium, given to me labelled as hirsuta by 
Maughan, but this is not quite like the garden plant 
from Ayrshire." — H. C. Watson, ' Compendium.' 



232 DICOTYLEDONE^i. 

V. Chamsedrys L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks, woods, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Breadalbane, 2100 in 

Atholl, 2000 in H. Earn, [1800 in L. Forth,] 

and 1500 in Rannoch. 

V. montana L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp shady places. Local. 

ALT. 

Rather widely distributed in the Lowland area, but chiefly con- 
fined to the neighbourhood of the chief rivers and to some of the 
Ochil glens. 

H. Forth — Balquidder (W. Cameron). 
Earn— Aberuchill (J. Cosmo Melvill). 
Perth — Dalguise (!). 
Breadalbane — Castle Menzies (!). 

V. scutellata L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Watery places. Not uncommon. 

alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl, 1500 in Breadal- 
bane, and 1300 in H. Isla. 

§ iv. Beccabunga. 

V. Beccabunga L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



BARTSIA. 233 

hab. Watery places. Common in the Lowlands ; rather 

rare in the Highlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Breadalbane, 1250 in 

Atholl, and above 1000 in L. Forth and H. 

Isla. 

V. Anagallis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Ditches and shallow streams. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

Most common in Gowrie ; here and there in the warmer parts of 
the other districts. All the specimens examined have the inflores- 
cence furnished with gland-tipped hairs ( V. anagalliformis Bor. ) 



TRIBE VI. — EUPHRASIES. 

6. BARTSIA L. 

§ i. Bartsia. 
B. alpina L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o 00 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rock ledges. Very local. 
alt. From 1600 to 2700 ft. 

" I discovered this Bartsia on rocks on the east side of Mal- 
ghyrdy in the month of July 1789, the first time I believe it had 
been observed in Scotland." — Don, Fasc. iii. , 1805, No. 63. 

Most frequent on the hills bounding Glen Lochay (!) and Glen 
Lyon(!). Common on Ben Laoigh (!). Very rare (if not extinct) 
on Ben Lawers. 

§ ii. Odontites. 
B. Odontites Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 
Atholl. 



234 DICOTYLEDONEvE. 

hab. Fields and roadsides. Not very common. 
alt. Ascends to 1150 ft. in H. Isla. 

Var. verna Reich, and var. serotina Reich, seem both 
to occur; but most of the specimens examined appear 
to occupy an intermediate position. The calyx is occa- 
sionally 5-fid. In Glen Lochay a very marked form of 
var. verna was found by Messrs Marshall and Hanbury. 

7. EUPHRASIA Tourn. 

E. officinalis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane and 3000 in 
Rannoch. 
Very variable. 

Var. Rostkoviana Hayne, f. borealis Towns. Ben 
Lawers and Am Binnein, between 3500 and 3700 ft. 
(Marshall). 

Var. gracilis Fr. common on peaty moors, but con- 
nected with the type by many intermediate forms. Ben 
Laoigh at 2000 ft. (Marshall and Hanbury), Glen Shee 
(Marshall). 

8. RHINANTHUS L. 

R. Crista-galli L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3350 ft. in Breadalbane, 2425 in 
Lomond, and 2000 in H. Earn and H. Isla. 



PEDICULARIS — MELAMPYRUM. 235 

Var. Drtimmond-Hayi B. White (which seems to differ 
from the type only in being smaller, and in having the 
calyx minutely puberulent all over) is an alpine form, 
first found on Ben Lawers, and subsequently on many 
other hills. The altitudinal range of the Lowland form 
usually stops far below the height at which the alpine 
variety begins to appear. 

9. PEDICULARIS Tourn. 

P. palustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to n 00 ft. in H. Isla. 

P. sylvatica L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp moors and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1450 ft. in H. Perth, and 1200 in H. 

Isla. 

10. MELAMPYRUM Tourn. 

M. pratense L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and moors. Rather rare and local in the 

Lowland area, from many parts of which it is 

absent; common in the Highland area. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in H. Forth, H. Earn, and 

Atholl, and 2400 in H. Perth. 



236 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Var. montanum Johnst. This seems to be our com- 
monest form. It is usually much more hispid than the 
type. 

The corolla (of the type) is sometimes white, with a yellow 
mouth. 

M. sylvaticum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o o Isla, o 
h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Very local. 

ALT. 

" In the way from Taymouth to Lord Breadalbane's cascade, 
observed by Mr Yalden, who communicated specimens. We were 
informed also by Mr Stuart that it grows about Finlarig, at the head 
ofLochTay." — Lightfoot, p. 1126. 1778. 

L. Forth — Banks of the Teith in several places (Craig-Christie). 

Isla — Craighall (Herdman) (!). 
H. Earn — South side of Loch Earn (Arnott in ' F. S.,' 1 821) ; 
banks of the Earn, near Dalchonzie, Comrie(!). 
Isla — Den of Reichip (Hooker and Borrer in ' F. S.,' 1821) ; 

Bridge of Strone (Barty) ; Glen Lochay (G. F. Linton). 
Breadalbane — Acharn and Moness (Maughan in ' F. S.,' 
1821) ; Lawers Burn (W. F. Miller) ; side of Loch Tay, 
near Ben Lawers (Smith). 
Rannoch — Side of the Garry above Killiecrankie (W. Bar- 
clay) (!). 
Atholl — Killiecrankie (Drummond-Hay) (!) ; mouth of Glen 
Tilt (!)• 

Var. pallidiflora B. White. In large beds at the 
mouth of Glen Tilt (!). 

Order Verbenace.<e. 
Verbena officinalis L. Perth Harbour (W. Barclay) (!). 



MENTHA. 237 

Order XLVIL— LABIAT/E. 

TRIBE I. — SATUREINE7E. 
1. MENTHA L. 

M. alopecuroides Hull. (88.) 

Not native ; but occurs at Lynedoch, on the banks of the Almond 
in L. Perth, and beside ruined cottages at Elcho in Gowrie. 

M. longifolia Huds. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. In marshy places, rare. 
alt. Only at low altitudes. 

Var. mollissima (Borkh.) 

Beside the Tay at Kinnoull ; Den of Kinnaird ; near Pitcaithly 
Mains ; beside dead-water of the Earn. 

Var. nemorosa (Willd.) A specimen from Den of 
Kinnaird appears to belong to this variety. 

M. viridis L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Occurs in several places, as an outcast or escape, 

near streams. 
alt. Low levels. 

M. piperita L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Beside streams, ditches, and sheets of water. 

ALT. 

Glen Farg ; near Sauchie ; and at Loch Cluny. 

Var. qffic'malis (Hull). Bank of Tay near Kinfauns 
station ; Glen Farg. 



238 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

M. hirsuta Huds. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Marshes and river banks. Not rare. 
alt. Not ascending far. 

So frequent in most of the lower districts as not to require to have 
special localities named. 

M. sativa L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Marshes and river banks. Not rare. 

ALT. 

Var. paludosa Sole. Beside Earn, below Inner- 
peffray, and near Dupplin ; below Linn of Campsie ; 
beside Tay below Barnhill ; near mouth of Earn, in 
Gowrie. 

Var. sub-glabra Baker. Benniebeg Pond, in L. Earn. 
Beside Tay above Elcho, and below Barnhill, both in 
Gowrie. 

Of a specimen from Paradise Wood, near Dron, in L. Earn, Mr 
Ar. Bennett writes : "A robust form, simulating M. rtibra in that 
the corollas are hairy ; I do not remember to have seen so gross a 
state of sativa as this." 

M. rubra (Sm. ?) 
l. o o Perth, o Gowrie 

h. 00000000 
hab. In marshy places. Rare. 

ALT. 

Strathord Den ; Woody Island ; beside Tay near Kinnoull 
churchyard. 

M. arvensis L. 
l. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



LYCOPUS — ORIGANUM — THYMUS. 239 

hab. Banks and cultivated fields. Common. 

alt. Ascends somewhat higher than the other species. 

Var. Nummularia (Schreb.) In L. Perth, beside the 
Tay opposite Meikleour ; a form from Woody Island also 
appears to fall here. A plant from Rannoch approaches 
var. parietaricefolia (Beck.) 

2. LYCOPUS Tourn. 
L. europaeus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Cowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Wet places. Very local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Ochtertyre (Lady Keith Murray) (!). 

Gowrie — Shore of the Tay near Errol(!); casual at Perth 
Harbour (!). 
" Perth West " ('Top. Bot.') 

3. ORIGANUM Tourn. 

0. vulgare L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. Warm places below rocks and in woods. Local. 

ALT. 

"About Dunkeld, Duplin, and in the den of Bethaick near 
Perth."— Lightfoot, p. 317, 1778. 

Rannoch— One patch on the bank of the Garry, near Blair 

Athole(!). 

4. THYMUS L. 

T. Serpyllum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



24O DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Dry pastures, moors, and rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3700 ft. in Breadalbane, 2850 in 
Rannoch, and 2700 in H. Earn. 

[The specimens of Thymus in the herbarium of the Perthshire 
museum show the usual wide variation in habit, form, and size of 
leaves, &c, but unfortunately they are insufficient to permit of cer- 
tainty as to the occurrence of T. Chammdrys Fr. within the county. 
Mr Ar. Bennett, who has kindly examined them, is of opinion that 
a specimen gathered in Corrie Ardran, at about 2000 ft. alt., on 
4th Aug. 1891, by Rev. E. S. Marshall, and communicated by 
him, with indication of doubt as to its being T. Chamcedrys Fr., 
belongs to this form. — Ed.] 

5. CALAMINTHA Moench. 

§ i. Clinopodium. 

C. Clinopodium Benth. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Thickets, and rocky and stony places. Local but 
not uncommon. 

alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl and about 1200 in 
H. Isla, [1300 in L. Forth.] 

"I observed it in the woods about Dunkeld, and at Duplin." — 
Lightfoot, p. 317, 1778. 

§ ii. Acinos. 

0. Acinos Clairv. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Dry banks and fields. Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn— Glen Farg hills (Sadler). 

Perth — Redgorton (Liston in N.S.A., 1837), no recent record. 
Isla — Kirklands of Rattray (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Balmyre Den and above Kilspindie (Drummond- 
Hay). 



NEPETA — PRUNELLA. 241 

TRIBE II. — NEPETEjE. 
6. NEPETA L. 

§ Glechoma. 

N. Glechoma Benth. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Woods and hedges. Not uncommon ; but rarer 
in the Highlands. 



Usually more or less haiiy, but sometimes glabrous. Corolla 
variable in size, and its tube in length ; stamens sometimes long, 
sometimes short, and occasionally nearly or quite abortive. The 
characters of the named varieties of some authors seem to be in- 
constant. 

Nepeta Cataria L. [is recorded in Hooker's ' Flora 
Scotica' as having been found between Culross and 
Kincardine by Maughan]. Mr R. Dow has found a 
single plant on Kinnoull Hill, near Perth. How it 
came to this locality is difficult to imagine. 



TRIBE III. — STACHYDE.E. 
7. PRUNELLA L. 

P. vulgaris L. (87, 88, S9.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Grassy and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Breadalbane, 1400 in H. 

Perth, and 1900 in Atholl. 

[Marrubium vulgare L. A casual at Kennetpans (J. 
Couper).] 

Q 



242 DICOTYLEDONE^;. 



8. SCUTELLARIA L. 

S. galericulata L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Banks of lakes and rivers, and marshy woods. 

Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

Most frequent on the margins of the moderately elevated lakes. 
In Gowrie the only station is Paddockmuir Wood ( !). 



9. STACHYS L. 

§ i. Stachys. 
S. sylvatica L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1250 ft. in Atholl. 

S. palustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp fields, &c. Common. 

ALT. 

S. ambigua Sm. is a hybrid between this species and 
S. sylvatica, and has several forms (S. palustri-sylvatica 
Schiede, and £. sylvatici-pahistris Wirtg.), varying in the 
degree in which they resemble one or other of the 
parents. The form which more closely approaches S. syl- 
vatica, and which has most claim to the name S. ambigua, 



GALEOPSIS. 243 

is rare. It has occurred at Tyndrum (!), and in Glen 
Falloch (Balfour) ; [Balquharn, Menstrie (J. Couper).] 
Forms a little nearer .S. palustris are common at Kinloch 
Rannoch (!). 

S. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Cultivated fields. Local. A colonist (?). 

alt. Low levels. 

Here and there in the lower and warmer parts of the districts. 
Most frequent in Gowrie. Near Fernan, Loch Tay (W. F. Miller). 

§ ii. Betonica. 

S. Betonica Benth. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, 00000 

hab. Woods and banks. Very local. 

alt. 

L. Earn — Here and there on and near the Ochils from Abernethy 
to Invermay (!), Dupplin (Shillinglaw in ' F. S.,' 1821). 

Perth — Linn of Campsie (!) ; Woodend, Madderty (!). 

Gowrie — Kinfauns Station (W. Barclay). 
H. Perth — -Rumbling Bridge, Strathbraan (!). 



10. GALEOPSIS L. 

G-. angustifolia Ehrh. (89.) 



L. 


O 








Gowrie 


H. 


O O 











HAB. 


Dry banks. 









alt. Low levels. 

L. Gowrie — Near Seggieden (now extinct, W. Barclay) ; near 
Kilspindie. 
A very doubtful native, W. Barclay. 



244 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

G. Tetrahit L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie, 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. A colonist (?). 
alt. Ascends to 1250 ft. in H. Isla. 

Var. bifida Boenn. Common. 

G. speciosa Mill. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. A colonist (?). 
alt. Ascends to 1100 ft. in H. Isla. 



11. LAMIUM L. 

§ i. Lamiopsis. 

L. purpureum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1180 in H. Isla. 

L. hybridum Vill. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, o Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. Cultivated ground. Not very common, but prob- 
ably overlooked. 

ALT. 



LAMIUM. 245 

L. intermedium Fr. (87, 89.) 

l. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Cultivated ground. Apparently rare. 

ALT. 

L. [Forth — Kennetpans (!).] 
Gowrie — Near Errol (!). 



L. amplexicaule L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated and waste ground. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in Atholl. 



§ ii. Lamiotypus. 

L. album L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Hedge-banks, &c. Not uncommon. Possibly an 

old introduction. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. maculatum L. occurs in a few places as a naturalised 
plant, and ascends to about 1000 ft. in Atholl. Several 
forms have been found. 

[Ballota nigra L. Casual at Kennetpans, and var. 
fcetida Koch, at Kilbogie (J. Couper).] 



246 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

TRIBE IV. — AJUGOIDEjE. 

12. TEUCRIUM L. 

§ i. Scorodonia. 
T. Scorodonia L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hae. Dry woods and pastures, and rocky places. Com- 
mon. 

alt. Ascends to above 1500 ft. in Rannoch and Atholl. 

§ ii. Chamcedrys. 

T. Chamaedrys L. seems to have been naturalised at 
one time near Luncarty (Rev. W. Liston) and Coupar- 
Angus (Rev. P. Stevenson), but has now vanished, and 
would not have had a place here unless these old records 
had existed. 

13. AJUGA L. 

A. reptans L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Earn and Atholl. 



PINGUICULA— UTRICULARIA. 247 

Order XLVIIL— LENTIBULARIACE/E. 
1. PINGUICULA Tourn. 

P. vulgaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Boggy places, wet moors, and moist rocks. Com- 
mon. 

alt. Ascends to about 2900 ft. in Breadalbane and 
Rannoch, and 2500 in Lomond. 

A form approaching var. bicolor (' Norsk Fl.') grows 
on Ben Laoigh (Marshall and Hanbury). 

P. lusitanica L. (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o Lomond, 000 
hab. Boggy places. 
alt. 

Glen Falloch (Babington). 

2. UTRICULARIA L. 

U. vulgaris L. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o 

h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, 

Atholl. 
hab. Lakes and pools. Very local. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl. 

L. Earn — White Moss, Dunning (!) ; Dupplin Loch (!). 
Perth — (Locality not recorded, Ed.) 
Isla — Loch Cluny(!). 
H. Perth — Kinclaven (!). 

Breadalbane — Hills west of Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay). 
Atholl— Lochs Mairc and Tilt (!). 
Flowers have not, so far as I am aware, been found in Perthshire, 
so a slight degree of uncertainty is attached to some of the speci- 
mens. 



248 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

U. intermedia Hayne (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

H. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Shallow water on the muddy margins of lakes and 

pools. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl, 1850 in Rannoch, 

and 1800 in Breadalbane. 

L. Isla — Muirton, Blairgowrie (Sturrock) (!). 
H. Forth — Balquidder (W. Cameron) ; Loch Lubnaig (!). 
Perth — Near the west end of Loch Freuchie. 
Isla — Loch of Lows ( !). 
Breadalbane — Lochan Lairig Eala(!) ; Meall Cuachlar (Breb- 

ner) ; Crianlarich (Marshall) ; near Ben Laoigh (G. C. 

Druce) ; Balnamuir Burn(!). 
Rannoch — Near Tummel Bridge and Dunalistair (R. Kidston) ; 

near Lochs Ericht and Laidon(!). 
Atholl - Dalnaspidal (!). 

U. minor L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 

hab. Pools and ditches. Local, but probably often 
overlooked. 

alt. Ascends to 1620 ft. in Atholl and 1500 in Ran- 
noch. 



Order XLIX.— PRIMULACE<E. 

TRIBE I. — PRIMULEjE. 

1. PRIMULA L. 

P. vulgaris Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



LYSIMACHIA. 249 

hab. Woods and banks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 2000 ft. in Atholl, 1500 in Ran- 
noch, and 1200 in L. Forth. 

Several varieties (probably hybrids with P. veris) 
occur, but are local. 

P. veris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures, river-banks, and woods. Rather local, 

but not uncommon, at least in the basin of the 

Tay. 

ALT. 

2. LYSIMACHIA L. 
§ i. Lysimastrum. 
L. vulgaris L. (87, 88.) 

l. Forth, 0000 
h. Forth, 000 Lomond, o Ran- 
noch, o 

hab. Margins of lakes and rivers. Local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Graham, 1812) (!). 
H. Forth — Loch Lubnaig (Prof. Graham) (!) ; Balquidder (W. 
Cameron) ; River Balvaig (!). 

Lomond — Glen Falloch (Balfour) (!). 

Rannoch — Loch Tummel (Brebner) (!). 

L. nemorum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods and banks of mountain streams. 

Common. 



250 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

alt. Ascends to 2700 ft. in Breadalbane, 2200 in 
Atholl, 1600 in H. Isla, and 1300 in H. Perth. 

L. Nummularia L. is naturalised (or native?) in sev- 
eral places, as at Megginch and Kinfauns (Drummond- 
Hay) ; Quarrymill Den (!) ; and in the marshes of the 
Tay above Meikleour, near Dunkeld, and below Perth (!). 
Also planted in Glen Tilt (!). 

[Outcast near Kincardine-on-Forth, Dollar, &c] 

§ ii. Naumburgia. 

L. thyrsiflora L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, o o Isla, Gowrie. 

H. 00000000 

hab. Marshes on the margins of deep pools. Very 

local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (R. Kidston). 

Isla — Old channel of river Isla, near Coupar-Angus (Rev. P. 
Stevenson, 1843, and Drummond-Hay) ; Stormont Loch 
(Barty), very abundant in 1893 (!) ; and at Hare Myre (!). 

Gowrie — Elcho Marsh (planted by Drummond-Hay) (!). 



3. TRIENTALIS L. 

T. europsea L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and moors. Common in the Highlands ; 

more local in the Lowlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Atholl and H. Isla. 

"In the Duke of Athol's woods at Blair abundantly." — Light- 
foot, p. 194. 1778. 



GLAUX— CENTUNCULUS — ANAGALLIS. 25 I 
4. GLAUX Tourn. 

G. maritima L. (87, 89.) 
l. [Forth,] 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Muddy shores of the lower parts of the [Forth and] 

Tay. Common. 
alt. Sea-level. 

TRIBE II. — ANAGALLIDE.E. 
5. CENTUNCULUS L. 

C. minimus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o 
h. o Earn, 000000 
hab. Wet margins of pools and damp roads. Very 

local or overlooked. Frequently in company 

with Radio la. 

ALT. 

" Near Comrie in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. viii., 1806, No. 179. 
L. Forth — Kilmadock (A. Craig - Christie) ; Loch Watson 
(Buchan). 
Perth — King's Myre(!); Great Avenue in Murthly, plentiful 

in spots (Trail). 
Isla — The Inch, Delvine(!); Whins of Fordie in Caputh 
(Trail). 
H. Earn— Glasdale, Glenlednoch (W. F. Miller) ; St Fillans 
(Miss Worsley). 

6. ANAG-ALLIS Tourn. 

A. arvensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, 0000 

hab. Cultivated ground. Not very common. A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

Var. A. ctzruka Schreb. occurs occasionally as a casual 
weed in gardens. 



252 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

A. tenellaL. (87, [89].) 
L. o Earn, 000 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o 
hab. Wet places. Very local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Pitkeathly Wells (Arnot in ' F. S.,' 1821) ; no recent 

record. 
H. Isla — Dunkeld (N.S.A. 1843). Requires verification, but the 

record seems fairly credible. 
Breadalbane — Side of Loch Tay near Ben Lawers (W. B. 

Boyd). 

Order L. — PLUMBAGINACE/E. 
1. AEMERIA Willd. 

A. vulgaris Willd. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Salt-marshes, river-banks, and mountains. Not 

uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 3200 ft. in Breadalbane, 2900 in H. 
Isla, and 2700 in Lomond. 
Var. planifolia Syme. Ben Lawers. 

Order LI.— PLANTAGINACE.E. 
1. PLANTAGO L. 

P. major L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, pastures, and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 1800 ft. in Breadalbane and 

Atholl. 



PLANTAGO. 253 

P. media L. occurs on old lawns in several places, but 
is evidently an introduction. 

P. lanceolata L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hae. Pastures and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Atholl and 2500 in H. 

Earn. 

A form which seems to approach the var. Timbali 
Reichb. f. has occurred near Perth (!). 

P. maritima L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Salt-marshes, river-banks, and mountain pastures 

and rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Breadalbane, 2550 in 

Lomond, and 1500 in Rannoch. 

Very variable. Leaves broad (var. latifolia Syme), or narrow 
(var. linearis Syme) ; entire (var. genuina Koch), or slightly 
toothed (var. deiitata Koch), or spiny-ciliate (var. cilia/a Koch) ; or 
with several of these characters in the same plant. 

P. Coronopus L. (87, 89.) 

l. [Forth,] 000 Gowrie. 
hoo 000000 

hab. Stony places near the sea. Local and rare. 
alt. Sea-level. 

L. [Forth — Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; Kennetpans, Kincardine, and 
Longannet (Rev. J. Couper) (!)]. 
Gowrie — Kingoodie (!). 



254 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

2. LITTORELLA L. 

L. juncea Berg, (lacustris L.) (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Muddy places in or near rivers and lakes ; also 
frequent in comparatively deep water. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in H. Forth, 2100 in Atholl, 
1483 in H. Earn, and about 1400 in H. Isla. 
Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A. 1796). 

Sub-Class IV.—MONOCHLAMYDEJE. 

Order LIL— I LLECEB RACEME. 

Herniaria glabra L., var. subciliata Bab. Perth 
Harbour (!). 

1. SCLERANTHUS L. 

S. animus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and rocky banks. Common. 

ALT. 

The var. biennis Reut. is not uncommon on some of the trap-hills, 
&c, but scarcely differs from the type. 

Order LIIL— CHENOPODIACE.E. 

TRIBE I. BETEiE. 

CHENOPODIUM L. 

C. album L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



ATRIPLEX. 255 

hab. Cultivated ground, or near it. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl. 

[Var. candicans Lam. 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o 

H. 00 Perth, 000 Rannoch, o 

Var. pagamim Reichb. 
l. o o Perth, Isla, o 
h. o o o Isla, o o Rannoch, o 

Var. viride Syme. In Gowrie. — (W. Barclay.)] 

[C. rubrum L. occurs at Glenochil and Kennetpans 
(J. Couper).] 

C. Bonus-Henricus L. This is widely distributed in 
the county, but seems to be only an escape. It ascends 
to 1000 ft. in Atholl. (One plant was found on Craig 
Mor, in Glen Tilt, growing close to Veronica saxatilis 
and Dryas (W. Barclay).) 

[Beta maritima L. Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

TRIBE II. — ATRIPLICE^E. 
ATRIPLEX L. 

[A. littoralis L. Kincardine-on-Forth (Syme, ms.).] 

A. patula L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, 000 Atholl. 
hab. On, or near, cultivated ground. Common. 

ALT. 

[Var. angustifolia (Sm.), Menstrie (J. Couper).] 

[A. hastata L. Menstrie (J. Couper); Kennetpans(l).] 



256 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

A. Babingtonii Woods (87, 89.) 
L. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Shores of the estuaries of the Forth and Tay. 
alt. Sea-level. 

[A. laciniata L. Kennetpans and Longannet (J. 
Couper).] 

[A. portulacoides L. The record " 89 " in ' Top. 
Bot.' is probably erroneous.] 

TRIBE III. — SALICORNIE^E. 
SALICORNIA L. 

[S. herbacea L. Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; Longannet 
(J. Couper).] 

TRIBE IV. SILEDE.E. 

STJJEDA Forsk. 

[S. maritima Dum. Kincardine-on-Forth (Syme, ms).] 

TRIBE V. — SALSOLE.E. 
SALSOLA L. 

[S. Kali L. Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

Order LIV. — POLYGON ACE JE. 
1. POLYGONUM L. 
§ i. Bistorta. 
P. Bistorta L. (87.) 
l. Forth, 0000 

h. 00000000 
hab. Marshy meadows. Very local. 

ALT. 



TOLYGONUM. 257 

North side of the Lake of Monteith (Miss Turner) (!). Natural- 
ised in a few places in some of the other districts, but not common. 
Ascends to 1000 ft. in Atholl. 

P. viviparum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Meadows and pastures. Common on the moun- 
tains ; more local in the Lowlands. 

alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane, 2850 in Ran- 
noch, 2500 in Lomond, above 2000 in H. Earn 
[and L. Forth]. 

" About the Pass of Killicranky, near Blair, on the sides of the 
mountains about Loch Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 206. 1778. 

§ ii. Persicaria. 

P. amphibium L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp places, pools, and lakes ; more rarely in 
rivers. Common. 

ALT. 

The two so-called varieties are not permanent, but, with altered 
conditions, pass rapidly the one into the other. 

P. lapathifolium L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 

hab. Cultivated ground or near it. Common. 

ALT. 

Var. virescens Gr. and Gr. (var. genuinum Syme in 
E.B.) is our common form. 

Var. tomentositm Schrk. Underside of the leaves 

R 



258 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

clothed with woolly down. In several places, but 
rather an extreme state than a true variety. 
Flowers rarely red (var. rubrum Gray). 

P. Persicaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated ground or near it. Common. 

ALT. 

Var. datum Gr. and Gr. Delvine (!). Carse of Gowrie 

(Drummond-Hay). 

Our plant has usually trigonous fruit. A plant from Comrie 
has the peduncles clothed with strong, adpressed hairs. 

P. Hydropiper L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadal- 
bane, o o 
hab. Watery places. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

P. minus Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. 00000000 
hab. Margins of pools. Very local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. [Forth—" Clackmannan " ('Top. Bot.')] 
Earn — Benniebeg Pond near Crieff ( !). 
Perth— Patter Loch, Murthly (!). 
Isla — near Delvine (!). 

§ iii. Avicularia. 
P. aviculare L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



RUMEX. 259 

hab. Roadsides, fields, and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. Isla. 

Very variable. Amongst our forms are the varieties agrestiiium 
Jord. , vulgatum Syme, and rurivagum Jord. 

[P. Raii Bab. Longannet near Kincardine (J. 
Couper) (!)] 

§ iv. Tiniaria. 

P. Convolvulus L. (S7, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated ground or near it. Not uncommon. 
alt. 

2. RUMEX L. 

§ i. Lapatlmm. 

R. obtusifolius L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl. 

R. acutus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. [Forth], Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Fields and waste ground. Not common, or, more 
probably, overlooked. 



L. [Forth— Menstrie, &c. (Rev. J. Couper).] 

Earn — Glen Farg (Hooker and Arnott, 'Brit. Fl.,' i860). 

Perth — Craigie Mill-dam (!). 

Gowrie — Elcho (!) and Sleepless Island (Drummond-Hay). 
H. Breadalbane — near Farragon(!) ; Killin (Webb). 



260 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

R. conspersus Hartm. (87, 88). 

l. Forth, 0000 

H. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Damp places. Not common or overlooked. 

ALT. 

L. Forth — Crook of Devon (Boswell) ; near Ardoch (Trail). 

R. crispus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. Isla. 

R. sanguineus L. 

b. viridis (Sibth.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o Isla, 0000 

hab. River-banks and shady places. 

alt. Glen Shee (Marshall), at 11 50 ft. 

The true R. sanguineus L., or Bloody-veined Dock, has been 
found at Moncrieffe, near the gardens, but is not native in 
Perthshire. 

[R. maritimus. Clackmannan Pow (J. Couper)(!)] 

R. conglomerates Murray. 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. River-banks and marshes. 

R. Hydrolapathum Huds. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Marshes. Very local. 

alt. Low levels. 



RUMEX. 26l 

L. Earn — Pond of Drummond (!). 

Isla — Marsh near Meikleour (!). See ' F. S.' 
Gowrie — Side of the Tay near Perth (Brodie in ' F. S.,' 1821) ; 
Balhepburn and Sleepless Island (Drummond-Hay) (!) — 
probably Brodie's station ; below the mouth of the Earn(!). 

R. domesticus Hartm. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. Isla. 

R. alpinus L. occurs, near houses, in a number of 
places where it has probably, and in others where it has 
certainly, been planted. The leaves are used for wrap- 
ping up rolls of butter, for which the leaves of R. obtusi- 
folius are also used. 

§ ii. Acetosa. 

R. Acetosa L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Meadows, pastures, and water-sides. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane, 3757 in Ran- 
noch, and 3100 in H. Forth and H. Earn. 

R. Acetosella L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3300 ft. in Breadalbane and 2200 in 

Atholl. 



262 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

3. OXYRIA Hill. 

0. digyna Hill (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine rocks and stony margins of streams. Com- 
mon on the mountains ; rare in the Lowlands, 
and found only where it has been carried by 
water. 

alt. Ascends to 3900 ft. in Breadalbane and 2800 in 
H. Forth. 

Order Thymel/eacejE. 

Daphne Laureola L. occurs amongst rocks on Glen- 
carse Hill (Drummond-Hay) (!), where it does not seem 
likely to have been planted, and as an introduction 
[at Culross (J. M'Gregor), Tullieallan (J. Couper)], and 
Lake of Monteith (R. Kidston). 

Viscum album L. has been recorded from Perthshire, 
but seems to be unknown in the county now. 

Order LV.— EUPHORBIACE^E. 

TRIBE I. EUPHORBIEiE. 

1. EUPHORBIA L. 

E. Helioscopia L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated ground. Common. A colonist. 

ALT. 



MERCURIALIS. 263 

E. Peplus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Cultivated ground (garden). Local. A colonist. 

ALT. 

E. exigua L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, 000 Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Corn-fields. Local and rare. A colonist. 
alt. Low levels. 

" In corn-fields in Strathearn, but rare ; and in the Carse of 
Gowrie." — Don, Fasc. i., 1804, No. 13. 

In a few places in the Carse of Gowrie, as at Fingask (!), and near 
North Leys, Seggieden (Drummond-Hay) ; and near Pitfour (!).' 

Two forms occur — 1. A smaller form, branched at or near the 
base, and with mostly subacute leaves. 2. A taller form, not 
branched, and with truncate apiculate leaves. This seems to be the 
var. tmncata Koch {E. retusa DC.) 

,; Perth West. Syme MS." ('Top. Bot.') 

E. Lathyris L. is a rare and sporadic casual. (Another 
Euphorbia was found by Mr Dow on the island at Perth 
Bridge, but I have not seen specimens in flower.) 

TRIBE II. — CROTONE^E. 
2. MERCURIALIS Tourn. 

M. perennis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks, and stony places on the mountains. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3300 ft. in Breadalbane, 2100 in Atholl, 

and 2000 in H. Earn and H. Isla. 

[M. annua L. Kennetpans (!) and Clackmannan Pow 
(J. Couper).] 



264 DICOTYLEDONE.E. 

Order LVL— CERATOPHYLLACE^E. 
1. CERATOPHYLLUM L. 

C. demersum L. (88.) 



l. Earn, 





O 


H. 


O 


O 


hab. Lakes. Local. 






alt. Low levels. 






In several lakes near Crieff (!). 







Order LVIL— URTICACE.E. 

TRIBE I. — ULMEiE. 

1. ULMUS L. 

U. montana Sm. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Rocky mountain woods, &c. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and 1450 in 

Rannoch. 

As a planted and naturalised tree the elm occurs in all the districts. 
Whether it is native in all it is impossible to say. It is certainly 
indigenous in some of them. 

TRIBE. — CANNABINE^E. 

Humulus Lupulus L. sometimes occurs in hedges, 
where it has probably been planted. 

TRIBE II. — URTICE.E. 

1. [Parietaria officinalis L. Culross (J. M'Gregor), 
Castle Campbell, Dollar (J. Couper).] 



URTICA — MYRICA. 265 

2. URTICA Tourn. 
U. urens L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated and waste ground near houses. Not 

very common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in Atholl. 

U. dioica L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Hedge - banks, woods, and mountain rocks. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2750 ft. in Breadalbane, 2100 in Atholl, 

and 2000 in H. Earn [and L. Forth.] 

Order LVIII.— MYRICACE^E. 
1. MYRICA L. 

M. Gale L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy moors. Common in the Highlands ; rare 

in the Lowland area. 

ALT. 

Cluny (M 'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 



266 DICOTYLEDONEyE. 



Order LIX.— CUPULIFER^E. 

TRIBE I. — BETULE/E. 
1. BETULA Tourn. 

B. verrucosa Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Common, especially in the Highlands. 

ALT. 

B. pubescens Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Breadalbane, Atholl, and 

Lomond. 

Var. parvifolia Wimm. Glen Falloch, about 1500 ft. 
(Marshall), along with a form near var. carpatica. 

Var. denudata Gr. and Gr. Glen Lyon (E. F. Linton). 
B. nana L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Mossy alpine marshes. Local. 
alt. From 1600 ft. in Atholl and 1800 in Rannoch, to 

about 2500 in Rannoch and 2100 in Atholl. 

Rannoch (Prof. Hope, before 1762). Most frequent in Rannoch 
and Atholl. 



ALNUS — QUERCUS— CORYLUS. 267 

2. ALNUS Tourn. 

A. glutinosa Gcertn. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of streams and marshy ground. Common. 
alt. Ascends to above 1100 ft. in H. Isla. 

Cluny (M 'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

TRIBE II. — QUERCINE7E. 

3. QUERCUS Tourn. 

Q. Robur L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, &c Common, but often planted. 

ALT. 

Of the three varieties (once considered to be species) Q. peduncu- 
lated Ehrh. is much the commonest, though Q. sessiliflora Salisb. 
and Q. intermedia D. Uon are widely distributed. 

Fagus sylvatica L. occurs only where planted. 

TRIBE III. CORYLE/E. 

4. CORYLUS Tourn. 

C. Avellana L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl and 1500 in 
Rannoch. 
Laighwood (M 'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Carpinus Betulus L. has been planted in a few places. 



268 DICOTYLEDONE^. 

Order LX.— SALICINE^. 
1. POPULUS Tourn. 

P. tremula L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and rocks. Common, more especially in 

the Highlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Atholl, 1500 in Breadalbane, 

1400 in Rannoch, 1200 in H. Forth, and above 

1 1 00 in H. Isla. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

Both the forms — vlllosa Lange and glabra Syme — occur, but in 
the absence of young leaves the distribution cannot be indicated. 

P. alba L. and P. nigra L. occur only as planted trees. 

2. SALIX L. 

[This account of the genus Salix has been prepared by Mr W. 
Barclay from Dr White's published papers on the genus, supple- 
mented by his MS. notes and by the collections in the Herbarium 
of the Perthshire Museum.] 

A. PLEIANDR^E. 
§ i. Triandrce. 
S. triandra L. (88, 89.) 

L. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Banks of rivers and streams. Local, and not 

abundant. 
alt. Low levels. 

Banks of the Tay from Meikleour to Darry Island ; and of the 
Earn a little below Dupplin. 



SALIX. 269 

x S. decipiens Hofftn. (S. triandra x S. fragilis). 

l. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Banks of rivers and streams. Local, and not 

abundant. 
alt. Low levels. 

Banks of the Tay at intervals from Balnaguard to Darry Island, 
and of the Earn from Ruthven Burn to the Dead Waters. 

x S. subdola B. W. (S. triandra x S. alba ?). 
Tayside at Balhepburn (!). 

x S. undulata Ehrh. (S. triandra x S. viminalis.) 

l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Banks of rivers and streams. Local and rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Abernethy Glen (!). 

Gowrie — Inchyra Pow(!); Tayside above Errol(!); Huntly 
Burn near Monorgan (!) ; Pepperknowes Mill-dam ( !). 

§ 2. Pentandrce. 

S. pentandra L. (87, 88.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Near water and in marshy places. Very local 
and rare. 

ALT. 

L. Forth — Ardoch ( !), probably planted ; Glendey Burn near 
Glen Devon (W. Martin) (!). 
Perth — Near Minkie Dam(!). 

Gowrie — Side of Tay at Barnhill (!), probably planted. 
H. Perth — Beside Loch Freuchie. 

Breadalbane — Auchmore near Killin('), doubtfully native 
(D. A. Haggart) ; Glen Dochart(!) (Borrer). No recent 
record. 



270 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

§ 3- Fragiles. 
S. fragilis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of rivers and streams. Common in the 

Lowlands. 
alt. Low levels. 

The var. britannica B. W. is almost the only form which occurs. 
Of the others or Continental form one tree ( g ) only has been found, 
at Clattering Brigs near Longforgan Station (!). 

S. alba L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Banks of rivers and streams. Often planted, more 
rarely self-sown. 

Var. vitellina L. Island in the river Earn near Bridge 
of Earn (!), probably planted (!). 

x S. viridis Fr. (S. fragilis x S. alba.) 
l. o o Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. River-banks. Rare or overlooked. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Perth — Tayside opposite Meikleour (!) and Lily Loch, 
Kinclaven (!). 
Gowrie — Tayside above Elcho(!); Balhepburn Island (!). 

B. DIANDRiE. 
§ 4. Caprece. 
S. cinerea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



SALIX. 271 

hae. River-banks, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Atholl. 

S. aurita L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hae. Damp pastures and moorlands. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Atholl [and 1500 in Low- 
land Forth.] 

x S. lutescens A. Kern. (S. cinerea x S. aurita.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o o o 00 Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Damp places. Local. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Coulshill near Auchterarder (!). 

Perth — Woodhead Road(!); Wood near St Magdalene's (!); 

Tayside at Denmark Green (!) ; Methven Wood (!). 
Gowrie — Woody Island (!); Stanners at Perth Bridge (R. 
Dow) ( !) ; Orchardneuk ( !). 
H. Breadalbane — Logierait (C. M'Intosh) (!). 

S. Caprea L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, river-banks, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Atholl. 

x S. Reichardti A. Kern. (S. cinerea x S. Caprea.) 

L. o Perth, o Gowrie. 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Damp places. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 



272 DICOTYLEDONEiE. 

L. Perth — Woodhead Road and near it. 

Gowrie — Tayside near Kinfauns and Elcho(!); and on 
Sleepless Island (!). 
H. (Fortingal, fide E. F. Linton. ) 
None of our specimens are very well marked. 

x S. capreola J. Kern. (S. aurita x S. Caprea.) 

l. o o Perth, o o 

h. oooooooo 

hab. Damp places. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Perth — Woodhead Road and Almond side above bridge (!). 
Perhaps also about Killin (D. M. Haggart). 

§ 5. Repent es. 

S. repens L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Natural pastures and moorlands. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in H. Isla; 2800 in Atholl. 

x S. ambigua Ehrh. (S. repens x S. aurita.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, o o 

h. o o o Isla o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Natural pastures and moorlands. Local, but 

probably not uncommon (Glen Lyon,yfote W. R. 

Linton). 

ALT. 

L. Perth— Woodhead Road ( !) ; Blackpark (!) ; Murthly ( !). 
H. Isla — Ben Vrackie(!). 

Breadalbane — Between Balnaguard and Aberfeldy (Borrer)(!) 
(Rev. F. Miller). 

Atholl— Blair Atholl and Glen Tilt (!). 



SALIX. 273 

x S. nigricans-repens Heidenr. 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o Perth, 0000 Atholl. 

hab. River-banks. Rare. 

ALT. 

H. Perth — Tayside at Dalmarnock and Glen Albert (C. 
M'Intosh)(!). 
Atholl — Garryside above Blair Atholl (!) (probably this 
hybrid). 

§ 6. Phylicifolicz. 
S. phylicifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of rivers and streams ; damp places and 

mountain rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends above 2000 ft. in Breadalbane, [1500 in 
L. Forth.] 

1. S. phylicifolia L. Auct. Less common than — 

2. S. nigricans Sm. 

3. S. phylicifolia-nigricans Wimm. Common. 

[I think that this "species" was not finished, but that Dr White 
intended to add to it. There is a large space left after it, and on 
the opposite page are the following notes : — 

phylicifolia. Killin (1810). 
Widfeniana. Breadalbane (Borrer). 
temtior Borr. Banks of Lochay, Killin (Borrer). 
tetrapla. Breadalbane (Borrer). 
Borreria?ia. Breadalbane (Borrer). 
phillyrecefolia. Perthshire (Borrer). 
teiiuifolia. Killin (1810). 
nigricans. Dunkeld (Borrer, 1808). 
Fosteriana. Beside Tay at Dunkeld (Borrer, 1808), 
and between Balnaguard and Aberfeldy ? (Borrer). 



274 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Andersoniana. Loch Earnhead (Borrer, 1810). 
petrcea. Loch Earnhead (Borrer, 18 re). 
hirta. Aberfeldy (Borrer).] 

xS. Wardiana (Leefe MS.) B. W. (S. phylicifolia x 
S. cinerea.) 

L. o o o o Gowrie. 

H. 00000000 

hab. River-banks. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

Gowrie — Woody Island. Perhaps also at Loch Rannoch(!) and 
Loch Tummel (!). 

x S. ludificans B. W. (S. phylicifolia x S. aurita.) 

L. O O O O O 

H. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. River-banks. Very rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

Tayside at Balmacneil (C. M'Intosh) (Glen Lyon, fide E. F. 
Linton). 

x S. tephrocarpa Wiram. (S. phylicifolia x S. cinerea 
x S. Caprea ?). 

l. o o (Perth or Isla), o 

H. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. River- banks. Very rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

Tayside at Balmacneil (C. M'Intosh) (Linn of Campsie,_/fot E. F. 
Linton, but on which bank ?). 

x S. latifolia Forbes (S. nigricans x S. Caprea). 

l. o o Perth, o o 

H. o o Perth, 00000 

hab. River-banks. Very rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Perth — Almond-side above Bridge of Almond ( !). 
H. Perth— Tayside at Glen Albert (C. M'Intosh). 



SALIX. 275 

x S. strepida Schleich. (S. nigricans x S. cinerea). 

L. o o o o Gowrie. 

H. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. River-banks. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; Almond Mouth (!) ; Tayside at 

Kinfauns (!). 
II. Breadalbane — -Tayside at Balmacneil, Kinnaird House, and 

Logierait (C. M'Intosh). 

x S. coriacea (Schleich.) Forbes (S. nigricans x S. 
aurita). 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o Perth, 00000 

hab. River-banks. Very rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

Tayside at Dalguise (!) and at Glen Albert (C. M'Intosh). 
A possible hybrid between S. coriacea and S. Capj-ea has been 
found at Balmacneil by C. M'Intosh (Fortingal, fide E. F. Linton). 

S. Arbuscula L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, 000 Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Mountain ledges. Local ; on the richer hills. 
alt. Chiefly above 2000 ft., but it is reported to descend 

to 400 or less. 

H. Earn — Ben Chonzie (!). 

Breadalbane — On many of the richer hills. 
Atholl— Sow of Atholl (Babington). 

Var. venulosa in the bed of the river Dochart (Borrer, 
1810). 

Var. vaccinifolia on Sow of Atholl (Babington). 



276 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

x S. Dicksoniana Sm. (S. Arbuscula x S. phylicifolia.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Mountain rocks. 

ALT. 

Said to have been found by Winch in Breadalbane. 



§ 7. Viminales. 

S. viminalis I, (87, 88, 89.) 
L. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, o Perth, o o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. River-banks. Not uncommon in the Lowlands. 
alt. Low levels. 

x S. Smithiana Willd. (S. viminalis x various Capreae. ) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. River-banks. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

a. S. stipularis Sm. 

L. Earn — Dead waters of the Earn (R. H. Meldrum) (!). 

Gowrie — Tayside at Barnhill, Darry Island, and Balhepburn(!) ; 
Pepperknowes Mill-dam (!) ; Huntly Burn near Monorgan(!). 

/?. S. sericans Tausch. 

L. Earn — Dupplin Loch (!) ; Pond of Drummond (!) ; Couls- 
hill (!). 
Perth— Fowlis Wester (!) ; Meikleour (!). 
Isla — Quarrymill Den (!). 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; Tayside at Kinfauns(!) ; Pepper- 
knowes Mill-dam (!); Huntly Burn near Monorgan (!). 
H. Perth— Glen Albert (C. M'Intosh). 

Breadalbane — Kinnaird House (C. M'Intosh), Dochart Bridge, 
Killin (D. A. Haggart). 



SALIX. 277 

8. S. ferruginea G. And. 
Gowrie — Woody Island. 

S. daphnoides Vill. occurs in a few places as a planted 
tree, as on the North Inch (!), and at Methven Loch (!). 

§ 8. Nivetz. 
S. lanata L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, 
hab. Mountain ledges. Very rare. 
alt. Above 2400 ft. 

In a few places on the hills north and south of Glen Lochy. 

x S. superata B. W. (S. lanata x S. reticulata.) 

Allt Innis Choarach (!). 

x S. Stephania B. W. (S. lanata x S. herbacea.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Excessively rare. 
alt. At about 2400 ft. 

Head of Allt Innis Choarach (D. A. Haggart) (!). 

S. Lapponum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, 0000 
h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Mountain rocks and streams. Locally common. 
alt. From 700 ft. in L. Forth to nearly 3000 ft. (?) in 

Breadalbane. 

L. Forth— Glendey Burn near Glen Devon (W. Martin) (!). 
On the richer hills in the other districts mentioned, but most 
common in Breadalbane. 



278 DICOTYLEDONE/E. 

Var., or sub-species, helvetica Vill. (S. glanca Sm. 
non L.) Ben Lawers (Winch). No recent record. 

x S. spuria Willd. (S. Lapponum x S. Arbuscula.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Rare. 
alt. Between 2000 and 2400 ft. (?). 

Meall Ghaordie (!) ; Ben Lawers (!) ; near Craig na Caillich (!) ; 
Larig an Lochan (!) ; Meall Dhuin Croisg (R. H. Meldrum) ; 
Allt Innis Choarach (E. S. Marshall) ; Meall Garbh of Ben Lawers 
(W. R. Linton). 

§ 9. Nitidulce. 
S. Myrsinites L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Local and rare. 

ALT. 

H. Breadalbane — On most of the richer hills, but not general (!). 
Rannoch — Schiehallion ( !) ; Craig Chailleach ; Blair- Athole 
(M'Nab, 'Fl. Sc.') 

Var. procumbens, Breadalbane (Winch, 1801); Craig 
Chailleach (Borrer). 

x S. Wahlenbergii And. (S. Myrsinites x S. nigri- 
cans.) 

l. 00000 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Very rare. 

ALT. 

Ben Heasgarnich and Craig Mhor (!); Meall Ghaordie (J. 
Brebner) ; Ben Laoigh (J. & J. Groves). 



SALIX. 279 

x S. saxetana B. W. (S. Myrsinites x S. aurita.) 
Ben Laoigh (!). 

x S. serta B. W. (S. Myrsinites and S. Arbuscula.) 
l. 00000 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Very rare. 

ALT. 

Breadalbane mountains (Lyon, in Boswell Syme's Herbarium). 

S. herbacea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. " [Forth], 0000 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Mountain ledges and ridges. Common on many 

of the higher hills. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane and 2400 in 

Rannoch. 

x S. (Grahami Bbr.) Moorei 'Wats. L.C 

L. O O O O O 

h. 0000000 Atholl. 

HAB. 
ALT. 

Said to have been gathered on the Sow of Atholl. 

x S. simulatrix B.W. (S. herbacea x S. Arbuscula.) 
l. 00000 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain rocks. Very rare. 

ALT. 

Meall Dhuin Croisg (W. Barclay and R. H. Meldrum) (!), Come 
Dhubb Ghalair (J. Brebner), Cruach Ardran (J. F. Hanbury and 
E. S. Marshall), Craig na Caillich (Dr Hooker, in Edinburgh Uni- 
versity Herbarium"). 



280 DICOTYLEDONE^L. 

x S. sobrina B. W. (S. herbacea x S. Lapponum.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. ooooooo Atholl. 

HAB. 
ALT. 

Ben na Chat, Atholl Forest (!). 



x S. Margarita B. W. (S. herbacea x S. aurita.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Very rare. 

ALT. 

Craig Loigste near Ben Challum (J. & J. Groves), Ben Challum 
(Dickson & Sadler). 



S. reticulata L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Lomond, Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Mountain ledges. Local on the richer hills. 
alt. To 3500 ft. in Breadalbane. 

x S. semi-reticulata B. W. (S. reticulata x S. nigri- 
cans.) 

l. 00000 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Mountain ledges. Very rare. 

alt. 2300 feet. 

Meall Ghaordie (J. Brebner). 

x S. sejuncta B. W. is a hybrid of S. reticulata found 
on Ben Lawers by R. Brown in 1793, but not gathered 
again. 



SALIX. 28l 

C— SYNANDR/E. 

§ x. Purpitrece. 

S. purpurea L. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. River-banks. Locally common. 
alt. Low levels. 

Most common on the banks of the Tay and Almond near Perth, 
and along the Earn up to Comrie, and some miles up Glen Artney. 

x S. rubra Huds. (S. purpurea x S. viminalis.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. River-banks. Local and not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Side of Earn below Dupplin (!). 

Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; near Cairnie Mill (!) — form nearer 
Purpurea than viminalis. 

x S. sordida Kern. (S. purpurea x S. cinerea.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h o o Perth, 00000 
hab. River-banks. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Gowrie — Woody Island (!) ; Almond - mouth (!); Sleepless 

Island. 
H. Perth — Tayside at Dalmarnock (C. M'Intosh) ; f. rubella — 

Woody Island (!). 

x S. Doniana Sm. (S. purpurea x S. repens). 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. River-banks. Very rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

Bank of the Tummel below Pitlochry (!). 



282 DICOTYLEDONE^E. 

Sub-Class V. —GYMNOSPERM/E. 

Order LXL— CONIFERS. 

TRIBE I. — ABIETINE.E. 

1. PINUS L. 

P. sylvestris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o Perth, Isla, o 

h. Forth, 000 Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Local in a native state. 
alt. Ascends to 1900 ft. in Atholl. 

" Loch-Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 587. 1778. 

Though occurring in all the districts as a commonly planted tree, 
the Scots Fir is certainly indigenous in a few spots only. It is 
abundant on the south side of Loch Rannoch, forming the well- 
known "Black Wood" : in Breadalbane it appears to be native in 
Glen Lyon, and near Killin and Tyndrum : and in Atholl there is 
one seemingly indigenous tree on the banks of the Tarff. In L. 
Perth it may be wild in Methven Wood, and in L. Isla in the 
Muirward of Scone, but this is more or less doubtful. It is also 
possible that a few native specimens may still survive in the other 
districts ; but from the multitude of planted trees it is now impos- 
sible to say. From the abundance of the remains of specimens in 
the " buried forest " of the Carse of Gowrie it is evident that at one 
time the whole country was clothed with firs. It looks wild at 
Strathyre (!). 

TRIBE II. — CUPRESSINEiE. 
2. JUNIPERUS L. 

J. communis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



TAXUS. 283 

hab. Woods, pastures, moors, and alpine rocks. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Breadalbane, and above 

2000 in H. Isla, Lomond, Rannoch, and Atholl. 

Cluny (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Rare in the Lowlands, where it is absent from wide tracts, and in 
others is represented only by single bushes. In the Highlands it is 
often very local. The part of the county where perhaps it is most 
abundant is about Dunkeld and between that place and Balinluig. 
The late Sir R. Christison found a juniper at Loch Boltachan (alt. 
1260 ft.), near St Fillans, with 54 annual rings. 

From our specimens, y. nana Willd. seems to be nothing more 
than a variety of y. communis, or perhaps only an extreme state, as 
it is connected with the type by intermediates. The character 
afforded by the incurved leaves is best marked in specimens from 
high altitudes, where the plant trails over rock ledges. In a speci- 
men from Lomond the leaves are much incurved, but, on the whole, 
longer, narrower, and more gradually acuminated than in our other 
Perthshire examples of either form. 



TRIBE III. — TAXINE^E. 
3. TAXUS Tourn. 

T. baccata L. (88.) 



L. 





O 





O 





H. 


O 














HAB. 












ALT. 













Breadalbane, o o 



[There can be no question as to the right of the Yew to a place 
in this Flora. The yew of Fortingal has long been noted for its 
enormous diameter and undoubtedly great age. — J. W. H. T.] 



Class II.— MONOCOTYLEDONRffi. 

Order LXIL— HYDROCHARIDE^E. 

Stratiotes Aloides L. has been, it is supposed, in- 
troduced into a few localities, but is rare. 

Elodea canadensis Michx. (Anacharis Alsinastrum 
Bab.), an introduction from America, now abounds in 
many places, often to the detriment of the indigenous 
flora of our fresh waters. 

Order LXIII.— ORCHIDE^E. 

TRIBE I. — MALAXIDE^E. 

1. MALAXIS Sw. 

M. paludosa Sw. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, 000 Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 

hab. On sphagnum in bogs. Very local, possibly over- 
looked. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. or upwards in Breadalbane. 

H. Forth — Ben Ledi (Balfour). 

Earn — "A little to the E. of Ben Voirlich and a little above 

the house of Ard voirlich." — (Arnott in 'F. S.,' 1821.) 
Breadalbane — In several places near the western boundary of 

the district. 
Rannoch — Slopes of Schihallion (T. Rogers). 



CORALLORHIZA — NEOTTIA. 285 

2. CORALLORHIZA Haller. 

C. innata Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. o o o o o o Rannoch, o 

hab. Marshy woods. Rare and local. 
alt. Ascends to about 800 ft. in Rannoch. 

L. [Forth— Plentiful near Culross (J. M'Gregor) ; Lorn's Hill 
near Menstrie (J. Dawson) ; Kincardine Station (Rev. Mr 
Drummond.)] 
Earn — Ardargie (J. Sim). 
Perth — Methven Wood (T. Bishop, 1804, and more recently 

by J. Sword). 
Isla — 
H. Rannoch — Black Wood of Rannoch (!). 

TRIBE II. — NEOTTIDE.E. 



Breadalbane, Ran- 
Local, and not 



" In the woods at Finlarig at the head of Loch Tay, in Bread- 
albane." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 522. 1778. 

L. Forth — Kippenrait Glen (Young in ' F. S.,' 182 1, and Balfour, 

1857); near Crook of Devon (T. H. Balfour); Vicar's 

Bridge near Dollar (Rev. J. Couper) ; near Harvieston (!). 

Earn — Ardargie (J. Pagan); Kincardine Glen (!) ; Invermay(l). 

Perth— Methven Wood (Murray in ' F. S.,' 1821) (!); Lyne- 

doch(!). 
Isla— Hell's Hole near Stanley (!) ; Craighall (J. H. Balfour, 
1829) (!) ; Stenton (Mrs Murray). 
H. Forth — Balquidder (W. Cameron). 
Earn— Glen Lednoch (W. F. Miller). 
Perth — Rumbling Bridge, Strathbraan (C. M'Intosh). 
Isla — Craigie Barns (Maughan in ' F. S.,' 1821, and J. 

M'Bryde, 1885) ; Den of Reichip (!). 
Breadalbane — Moness (Borrer and Hooker in ' F. S.,' 1821). 
Rannoch — neaf Kinloch-Rannoch (!). 
Atholl — Pass of Killiecrankie (Miss Drummond-Hay) (!). 





3. NEOTTIA L. 


N. 


Nidus-avis Rich. (87, 88, 89.) 


L. 


Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, 


H. 


Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, 




noch, Atholl. 


HAB. 


Woods of exogenous trees, 




common. 


ALT. 





286 MONOCOTYLEDONE/E. 

4. LISTEBA Br. 

L. ovata Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and pastures. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in Atholl. 

L. cordata Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Heathery moors and woods (usually fir). Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in H. Perth, 2250 in Atholl, 
2000 in Rannoch, 1600 in Breadalbane, and 
1500 in Ff. Isla. 
"In Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 524. 1778. 

5. GOODYEEA Br. 

G. repens Br. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o Isla, o 
h. 00000000 
hab. Fir woods. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Dupplin Woods (Shillinglaw in ' F. S.,' 1821 ; Coun- 
tess of Kinnoull). Not in Dupplin Den, as stated in 
'E. B.' 
Isla — Muirward of Scone (Murray in ' Fl. Scot.,' 1821) (!). 

6. EPIPACTIS Eich.. 

E. latifolia Sw. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, 000000 
hab. Woods and their margins. Not common. 
alt. 



CEPHALANTHERA. 287 

In the wood of Comrie (Ribbald). 

L. Forth — Near Port of Monteith Station (!) [Lowvalleyfield and 
Oakley (Rev. I. Couper) ; Culross (J. M'Gregor).] 
Earn — Dead Waters of the Earn (!) ; Dupplin (!) near 

Forgandenny (!). 
Ferth— Methven Wood (!). 

Gowrie — Balhepburn, &c. (Drummond- Hay) (!) ; Mon- 
creiffe (!); Seggieden (!) ; Kinfauns Station (!). 
H. Earn — Glenartney (J.Dawson). 

E. atrorubens Schultz. (89.) 
l. o o o o o 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Limestone rocks. Very rare. 
alt. About 1800 ft 

Glen Shee (J. Fergusson) (!). 

E. palustris Crantz. (87, 89.) 
l. Forth, 0000 

h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Marshy places. Rare. 

ALT. 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Miss Turner). 
H. Isla — Pitlochry (J. Coates). 

7. CEPHALANTHERA Rich. 

C. ensifolia Rich. (88, 89.) 

l. o o Perth, o Gowrie, 

h. 00000000 

hab. Bare banks in woods. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

Methven Woods (T. Bishop in ' F. S.,' 1821). 

L. Perth— Near Cromwell Park (VVilkie) (!). This is perhaps the 

Methven station. 
Gowrie — Binn Hill, Kinfauns — "perhaps planted" (Drum- 

mond-Hay). 

C. grandifolia is recorded for Methven Woods (D. 
Don in ' F. S.'), but is probably a mistake for C. ensifolia. 



288 MONOCOTYLEDONE/E. 

TRIBE III. OPHRYDEiE. 

8. ORCHIS L. 

0. mascula L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Open woods and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in H. Earn and 1900 in 

Atholl. 

0. latifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet meadows and marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 1150 ft. in Atholl and H. Isla. 

0. incarnata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet meadows and marshy places. Local or 

overlooked. 
alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Atholl and 1700 in H. 

Isla. 

0. maculata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp pastures and moors, and marshy places. 

Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2650 ft. in Atholl and 2500 in H. Earn 

and H. Perth. 



HABENARIA. 289 

9. HABENARIA Br. 

H. conopsea Benth. (Gymnadenia conofisea Br.) (87, 
88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors and pastures. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1900 ft. in Atholl and 1200 in H. 

Isla. 

"About Comrie, near Crieff." — Lightfoot, p. 518. 1778. 
Rarely with white flowers, as in the Pass of Killiecrankie (!). 

H. albida Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Hill pastures. Not very common. 

alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in Atholl and 1400 in H. 
Isla. 

H. viridis Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Pastures. Not very common. 

alt. Ascends to 2000 ft. or upwards in Breadalbane and 

Atholl. 

" I have observed this plant ... in ascending; Ben Lawers, near 
Dupplin, in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. v., 1806, No. 119. 

H. bifolia Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Rannoch. 



29O MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

H. chloroleuca Ridley (If. chlorantha Bab.) (87, 88, 
89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to about 1100 ft. in H. Isla. 

Order LXIV.— IRIDEtE. 

1. IRIS L. 

I. Pseudacorus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Watery places. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

[Z fcetidissima L. has been found near Tullieallan 

(J. Couper).] 

Order LXV.— AMARYLLIDE2E. 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus L. and Galanthus nivalis 

L. are naturalised in a few localities. 

Order LXVL— LILIACE^E. 

TRIBE I. — POLYGONATE^E. 
1. POLYGOWATUM Tourn. 

P. verticillatum All. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. o o Perth, Isla, 000 Atholl. 

hab. Wooded banks of rivers. Very local. 

alt. Ascends to about 600 ft. 



CONVALLARIA. 29 1 

Den of Reichip (A. Bruce, 1792, in Smith's ' Fl. Brit.,' 1800). 
L. Isla — In several stations near the river Ericht, from Craighall 

(J. H. Balfour, 1829) to above Strone of Cally (!). 
H. Perth — Near Inchmagranachan (C. M'Intosh) (!). 

Isla — Den of Reichip (A. Bruce) ; Pitlochry (Drummond- 

Hay) (!). 
Atholl — Near Blair-Athole (J. Macnab) (!) ; near Killiecrankie 
(J. Brebner (!). 



P. multiflorum All. may be indigenous, but more 
evidence is required. Miss Turner reports it as not 
common near the Lake of Monteith, but to all appear- 
ance wild; and in the N.S.A., 1837, the Rev. W. Liston 
says that a very diminutive variety grows at Redgorton, 
and retains its characters under cultivation. 

P. officinale All. is reported from near Dunkeld (C. 
M'Intosh). 

TRIBE II. — CONVALLARIEyE. 

2. CONVALLARIA L. 

C. majalis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks. Very local. 

ALT. 

Methven Wood, (Sibbald, 1684). 

L. [Forth — Airthrey (Rev. J. Couper), not wild (?).] 

Earn — In a small glen called the Clough, N. of Gask (D. 
Don in ' F. S.,' 1821), no recent record. 
Perth— Methven Wood (Sibbald) (!). 
Isla— Craighall (!). 
H. Perth — Dalpowie (C. M'Intosh), native (?). 
Isla — Reichip (M 'Ritchie). 
Rannoch— near Pitlochry (Drummond-Hay) (!). 
Atholl— Killicrankie (Drummond-Hay) (!) ; Glen Tilt, but 
doubtfully wild (!). 
In our wild plant the number of flowers is usually about six. 



292 MONOCOTYLEDONE.^E. 



TRIBE III.— ALLIED. 

3. ALLIUM L. 

A. oleraceum L. 

Black Hill (!) ; Kinnoull (!) ; Tay at Bronxey (!). 
Doubtfully indigenous in Perthshire. 

A. Scorodoprasum L. 

Both sides of the Tay below Perth, but rare. An introduced plant. 

A. carinatum L. 

Very abundant on both banks of the Tay below Perth. 
A few plants beside the Almond below Alrnondbank. 
Not native in Perthshire. 

A. vineale L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 

H. OOOOOOOO 

hab. Dry ledges and knolls of trap rock. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

Kinnoull Hill (O.S.A., 1796) (!) ; Moncreiffe Hill (!); Den of 
Pitroddie (!) ; near Elcho (Drummond-Hay) ( !) ; near Longforgan ( !). 

A. ursinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and wooded ravines. Local. 

ALT. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

TRIBE V. — SCILLEjE. 

4. SCILLA L. 

S. festalis Salisb. {nutans Sm.) (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



GAGEA — NARTHECIUM — TOFIELDIA. 293 
hab. Woods, banks, and pastures. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

TRIBE VI. — TULIPEjE. 
5. GAGEA Salisb. 

G. lutea Ker. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, o Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Wooded banks. Rare. 

ALT. 

l. Perth — Methven Wood (W. Bissett) : it seems to be extinct 
in this locality, as a careful search on more than one occa- 
sion (once with Mr Bissett) has failed to reveal it. Near 
Trinity College, Glenalmond. 
Gowrie — North Muirton, near Perth (J. M'Farlane) (!). 
H. Perth— Near Inver (C. M'Intosh). 

Isla — Near Pitlochry (J. Coates). 
Near Dupplin (Mr Shillinglaw in ' F. S. ,' 1821). Perhaps this is 
the Methven station. 



TRIBE VII. — NARTHECIE/E. 
6. NABTHECITJM Moehr. 

N. Ossifragum Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Boggy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2900 ft. in Atholl. 

7. TOFIELDIA Huds. 

T. palustris Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



294 MONOCOTYLEDONEvE. 

hab. Marshy places on the mountains. Not very- 
common. 

alt. 2850 ft. in Rannoch, 2700 in Breadalbane, and 
2000 in H. Perth and Lomond. 
"About Loch Rannoch." — Lightfoot, p. 181. 1778. 

TRIBE VIII. — MEDEOLE/E. 
8. PARIS L. 

P. quadrifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks of streams and ravines. Local. 

ALT. 

"In the den of Bethaick, four miles from Perth."— Lightfoot, 
p. 209, 1778. The Den of Balthayock is the place meant, and the 
plant still grows there. 

Order LXVIL— JUNCACE^E. 

1. JUNCUS L. 

i. Later iflori. 

J. conglomeratus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2750 ft. in Breadalbane and 2150 in 
Atholl. 

Some authors consider J. conglomeratus merely a variety of y. 
effusus L. , but it seems to merit the rank at least of a subspecies. 
In living specimens the dull green, distinctly striate stems readily 
distinguish it from jt. effusus, which has shining, brighter green, 



JUNCUS. 295 

scarcely striate stems ; but in dried examples the difference is not so 
marked. The characters derived from.the colour of the perianth and 
structure of the capsule do not seem to be invariably constant — in 
fact, they are such in some plants as to suggest the existence of 
hybrids between the two. 



J. effusus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2200 ft. in Rannoch and 1500 in 
Breadalbane. 

J. diffusus Hoppe. "Perth West, Bab. Man." (q. v.) 

J. glaucus Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o Breadalbane o o 
hab. Damp places. Rather local in the L. area, nearly- 
absent from the H. area. 
alt. Low levels. 

[J. filiformis L. [88 error] ('Top. Bot.')] 

ii. Articulati. 

J. acutiflorus Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Boggy places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to at least 1200 ft. in Breadalbane and 
1 1 00 in H. Isla. 



296 MONOCOTYLEDONEiE. 

J. lampocarpus Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp rather bare places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1450 ft. in H. Perth and Lomond, and 

2600 in Breadalbane. 

Very variable in every respect. The form which is accepted by 
many botanists as J. nigritellus D. Don (but which is not with cer- 
tainty Don's plant) is not uncommon, especially in the Highland 
area. 

The form paucicapitata Buchanan (in lilt.) has been gathered 
on Ben Laoigh (Breadalbane) by Rev. E. S. Marshall. 

J. alpinus Vill. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. In damp places like those frequented by the last 

species. 
alt. From 500 ft. near Pitlochry to 2500 ft. in Glen 

Shee. 

Discovered, as new to Scotland, in Aug. 1887 near Pitlochry, 
Killin, and Blair-Athole, ('Scot. Nat.' N.S., iii., 182-184). Meall 
na Saone, above 2500 ft. (Marshall) ; Glen Shee, about 2000 ft. 
(Marshall). (It has been found by Rev. E. S. Marshall in the 
Argyll corrie of Ben Laoigh). 

J. supinus Moench. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places or water. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Breadalbane and Rannoch, 

2800 in H. Forth, 2500 in H. Earn, 2100 in 

Atholl, and 1400 in H. Isla. 



JUNCUS. 297 

"85. Juncus supinus Fl. Dan., tab. 1099. I observed this plant 
in October 1804, by the side of a rivulet, near the summit of Ben 
Lawers, in a situation where the snow remains during the greater 
part of the year, and not far from the spot where I first discovered 
the Juncus castaneas in May 1794." — Don, Fasc. iv., 1805. 

Very variable. As the result of an examination of a large number 
of specimens, I arrange our forms thus : — 

(a) {subverticillatus Wulf. ?) Stems usually elongate, more or 
less decumbent or floating. Flowers rather pale, and stamens 
commonly three. 

(/') uliginosits Roth. Stems shorter, erect, or more rarely de- 
cumbent. Flowers usually darker. Stamens commonly six (when 
it is J. Kochii), rai-ely three. 

(c) fliiitans Lamarck. Leaves very much finer, and often greatly 
lengthened (sometimes more than 10 in. long). Growing in deep 
water — 12 ft. or more — and never flowering ; or in shallow water 
and flowering. Often densely tufted. 

These varieties are connected by intermediates. The length 
of the filament as compared with the anther varies with the age of 
the flower, but it is possible that the shape of the anther may differ 
in the varieties. 

iii. Squarrosi. 
J. scmarrosus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp moors and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in Ran- 
noch, 2800 in H. Forth, and 2700 in Lomond. 

J. Gerardi Lois. [87], (89.) 
l. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000 000 
hab. In or near salt marshes. Common. 
alt. Sea-level. 

Shore of the Tay as high up as Mugdrum. Three forms (not 
varieties) occur. In grassy, less wet places near the dry land, it is 
dwarf, only 3 or 4 in. high ; in wetter places it attains a height of 
1 ft. or more ; while in still wetter spots on the fore-shore it is also 
tall and grows in large beds, but the panicle is reduced to 3 or 4, 
seemingly abortive, flowers. 

[Forth near Kennetpans. (!).] 



298 MONOCOTYLEDONE^. 

J. bufonius L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp bare ground. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft in H. Earn, 1400 in H. Perth, 
1000 in Atholl, and 1100 in H. Isla. 
Var. fasciadatus Bert. Common. Passes into the 
normal form. 

iv. Stygii. 

J. castaneus Sm. (88.) 

l. 00000 

h. 0000 Lomond, Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Alpine marshes. Rare. 

alt. Between 1500 and 3150 ft. in Breadalbane, and 

about 2500 in Lomond. 

Ben Lawers (G. Don, 1794). 

11. Lomond — Ben a Chroin (E. S. Marshall). 

Breadalbane — In several (8 or 9) places between Ben Lawers, 

Craig Mhor, Cruach Ardran, and Ben Laoigh ( !), North side 

of Glen Lyon (E. F. Linton). 

J. triglumis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth], 0000 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Bare wet places on the mountains. Not un- 
common. 

alt. Ascends from 950 ft. in Breadalbane, 1170 in 
Atholl, 1 100 in L. Forth, and 1400 in Atholl, 
to 3300 in Breadalbane, 2800 in H. Earn, and 
2500 in Lomond. 

"On the east side of Craig-Chealleach, above Finlarig, in Bread- 
albane, &c." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 186. 1778. 

[l. Forth — Ben Cleuch, Ochils (Syme and Dewar) ; Burn of 

Sorrow (!),] 



LUZULA. 299 

J. biglumis L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, 0000 Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Bare miry places at a high altitude. Rare. 

alt. From about 2500 to 3100 ft. in Breadalbane; at 

2800 ft. in H. Forth. 

"Upon the top of Mal-ghyrdy, a mountain lying betwixt Glen- 
lochy and Glenlyon, and upon Ben-Teskerny, both in Breadalbane." 
— Stuart in Lightfoot, p. noo. 1778. 
H. Forth — Stuc a Chroin (!). 

Breadalbane — Distribution much the same as that of y. 
casianeus, but not quite so local. 
Mr J. Roy told me that he had seen specimens that were said to 
have been found on, or near, Ben Dearg in Atholl, but he and I 
searched there in vain. 

J. trifidus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, o o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine stony ridges and rock ledges. Not common. 
alt. From 1600 to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane, 2880 in H. 

Isla, and 2500 in Lomond. 

2. LUZULA DC. 

L. vernalis DC (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and banks. Not uncommon, but rather 

local. 
alt. Ascends to 1600 ft. in H. Isla and 1500 in Atholl 

L. maxima DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



300 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Woods, banks, and rocks. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Atholl, 2300 in H. Earn, 

2800 in Breadalbane, 1570 in H. Isla, and 1500 

in L. Forth. 

"At Achlyne, near the head of Loch Tay." — Lightfoot, p. 1 120. 
1778. 

L. albida DC. and its var. rubella Hpe. occur in sev- 
eral places where it is difficult to imagine how it has been 
introduced. Amongst these localities are — Near Lun- 
carty(!); Blair Castle, Blair- Athole (!) ; Remoney, Ken- 
more (!); Abercairny (!); Dunkeld (C. M'Intosh) ; 
Auchterarder (W. Martin) ; side of Tay near Port Allen 
(Miss M. Thomas). 

(L. arcuata Sw. is reported, with a ?, for East Perth, in 
' Topographical Botany.' I do not know the origin of 
the supposed record.) 

L. spicata DC. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadal- 

bane, Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine ridges and rock-ledges. Common on the 
richer hills. 

alt. From below 1500 ft. in Atholl to 3900 in Breadal- 
bane, 2800 in H. Forth and H. Earn, 2700 in 
Lomond, and 2400 in Atholl. 

"On a mountain a little to the north of Meggerny and on Mal- 
ghyrdy in Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 1121. 1778. 

L. campestris DC. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Cowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



SPARGANIUM. 301 

hab. Meadows, pastures, woods, and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to near 3000 ft. in H. Forth and H. 
Earn. 

L. erecta Desv. (Z. multiflora Lej.) (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors, woods, pastures, and marshes. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3350 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in H. 

Forth and H. Earn, and 2940 in Atholl. 

Very variable in the breadth and hairiness of the leaves, form of the 
panicle, &c. Taking the form with stalked panicle-clusters as the 
typical plant, the var. L. congesta Lej. is rather less common than it. 
The var. L. pallescens Hpe.— with spikes much paler in colour — 
occurs still less frequently. In its extreme form this has the spikes 
almost white, but gradations to the typical colour may be found, 
and I suspect that it is only a shade form, since some tall plants of 
the type growing amongst other vegetation have the younger and 
less exposed spikes much paler in colour. The var. (or species) 
L. nigricans Desv. (Z. sudetica DC.) has been reported as occurring ; 
but though some of our mountain specimens approach it very closely, 
I have seen none that quite agree with authentic examples of L. 
nigricans. 

Order LXVIIL— TYPHACE^. 
1. SPARGANIUM L. 1 

S. ramosum Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Ponds and ditches. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

The var. microcarpum Neum. occurs at Kilgraston, 

1 I am indebted to Mr W. H. Beeby, who has made a speci- 
ality of the genus, for kindly examining many of our specimens. 



302 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

Errol, &c, and in a swamp at Crianlarich (E. S. 
Marshall.) 

S. simplex Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Ponds and ditches. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — Dead waters (Meldium) (!). 

Perth — Pool near mouth of the river Almond (!); Mill Dam, 
near Rohallion (W. Barclay) ; Kercock, Kinclaven (!). 

Isla — Black Loch, near Blairgowrie (!); river Isla (!), near 
Del vine (!) approaching var. longtssif/nim Fr. {fide Beeby). 

Gowrie — Near Glencarse Station (!); near Longforgan Sta- 
tion and Lochindores (Drummond-Hay) ; Inchyra Pow (!); 
Woody Island (W. Barclay) (!). 
H. Forth — Loch Lubnaig (!) approaching the state called rigidum 
Hartm. (fide Beeby). 

Isla — Dowally Loch (!). 

Breadalbane — Side of Tay near Aberfeldy (Druce). 

S. affine Schn. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, o Perth, o Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Mountain lakes and pools. Local. 
alt. Ascends to probably 3000 ft. in Breadalbane and 

2064 in Lomond. 

H. Forth — Loch Lubnaig ( !) (probably affine, but too young for 
absolute certainty). 
Perth — Corrymuckloch (!). 
Lomond — Loch Oss (!). 

Breadalbane — Ben Laoigh (!) ; Loch Larige Eala (Brebnei) ; 

Meall Ghaordie (Balfour) ; Loch Dochart (E. S. Marshall). 

Rannoch — Loch Rannoch (!) (the large-headed form called 

var. zostercefoliiim Neum. fide Beeby). 
Atholl— Loch Bhaic (W. West). 
Probably frequent in the Highland area, but not recorded, because 
the plants are inaccessible or not in flower, and hence determination 
uncertain. 

A hybrid between S. simplex and S. affine occurs {fide Beeby) at 
the Black Loch near Blairgowrie (A. Sturrock) ; possibly also at 
Kercock near Kinclaven (!) and Loch Lairige Eala near Killin (!). 



TYPHA. 303 

S. minimum Fr. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Lakes, slow streams, ditches, and marshes. Not 

uncommon. 
alt. Lower levels than S. affine. 

"In the lochs of Breadalbane." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 540. 
1778. Perhaps, however, this record refers to the preceding species. 

2, TYPHA L. 

T. latifolia L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, 000 Breadalbane, Rannoch, o 
hab. Sides of rivers, lakes, and pools. Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

As this species is so often planted, its claim to be considered an 
indigenous member of the Perthshire flora is perhaps not beyond 
doubt. From the situation and its associates I am inclined to think 
that it is native in the following localities : — 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Graham). [Near Clackmannan 
Pow (planted, Rev. J. Couper).] 
Earn — "Dead water" at Sauchie, near Dupplin (!) (perhaps 
an introduction) ; Bennie Beg Pond (!) ; Pond of Drum- 
mond (!) (perhaps planted). 
Perth — Methven Loch (!) and Methven Bog (!). 
Isla — Marsh near Meikleour (!); old quarry near Blair- 
gowrie (!) (also open to doubt). 
Gowrie — Balhepburn (Drummond-Hay) (!). 
In the following stations it has been almost certainly planted : — 
H. Forth — -Loch Voil (W. Cameron) (!). 
s Earn — Ochtertyre (!). 

Breadalbane— Castle Menzies (!). 
Rannoch — Near Rannoch Lodge (!). 

Order LXIX— AROIDEjE. 

Arum maculatum L. occurs in a few places, but has 
no claim to be considered native. It is abundant at 
Finlarig Castle, Killin. 



304 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

Order LXX.— LEMNACE.E. 
1. LEMNA L. 

L. minor L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pools and water-holes. Not very common. 
alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in Rannoch. 

L. trisulca L. was once abundant in Moncreiffe Pond, 
into which it was probably introduced, but seems to have 
disappeared. It is not scarce in the Dead Waters of 
the Earn (Meldrum) (!), whither it perchance has been 
brought from Moncreiffe by water-fowl. 

Order LXXI.— ALISMACE.E. 
1. ALTSMA L. 

A. Plantago L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Shallow water or very wet mud. Not very 

common. 
alt. Low levels. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

A. ranunculoides L. (87, 88, [89].) 

l. Forth, o Perth, o o 

h. 000 o 0000 

hab. Bogs and muddy edges of lakes. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 



BUTOMUS — TRIGLOCHIN. 305 

Loch west of Dunning (Arnott in ' Fl. Scot.,' 1821). No recent 
record. 

L. Forth — Near Doune (Craig-Chiistie). 

Perth — Marsh between Methven and Logiealmond (!) ; King's 
Myre (T. Marshall) (!) ; Patter Loch, Murthly (!) ; near 
Cherrybank (R. H. Meldrum). 

Var. repens Dav. Near Doune (Craig-Christie). 
2. BUTOMUS L. 

B. umbellatus L. ([87], 88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Muddy marshes. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

Though usually reputed to be a naturalised plant only in Scotland, 
there is little doubt, I think, about Butomus being indigenous in 
Perthshire. At Loch Cluny, where it is very scarce, it is said— I 
know not on what grounds — to have been planted by M 'Ritchie, 
who is the authority for its occurrence there (in ' F. S.,' 1821). At 
Loch Cluny it may not be wild ; but in the muddy marshes of the 
Tay between Sleepless Island and Mugdrum (Drummond-Hay) (!), 
and, on the north side, below Cairnie Pier (!), there can be little 
doubt about its being indigenous. In those marshes the plant is 
abundant in many places where the condition of the mud suits it. 
It appears to be perfectly at home, and if it is an introduction it 
must be one of very old date. In Highland Isla it is abundant, and 
has all the aspect of a native, in back-waters near Guay (!). 

[In Fossoway ('N. Stat. Ace' list).] 

Order LXXIL— NAIADACE.E. 

TRIBE I. JUNCAGINEyE. 

1. TRIGLOCHIN L. 

T. palustre L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane, 1800 in 
Atholl, 1 100 in H. Isla, and 1000 in L. Forth. 
Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 
U 



,89-) 




Gowrie. 


O 


o o 



306 MONOCOTYLEDONE/E. 

T. maritimum L. (87, 
l. [Forth], o 
h. o o o 
hab. Salt marshes. Common on the shores of the 

[lower Forth and] Tay. 
alt. Sea-level. 

2. SCHEUCHZERIA L. 

S. palustris L. (88.) 
l. o o Perth, o o 

h. 00000000 
hab. Bogs. Probably extinct. 

ALT. 

Methven, 1833, Mr Duff (Hooker's 'Brit. Fl.') 

White Myre of Methven, or "Methven Bog" (!). I very much 
fear that, owing to the altered conditions of the locality, the plant 
has become extinct in the White Myre, and hence can be no longer 
included in the Perthshire list. 

TRIBE II. — POTAME^E. 

3. POTAMOGETON L. 

From the nature of their habitat, a knowledge of the distribution 
of the species of this genus cannot be obtained with the same facility 
as that of other phanerogamic plants. For, as they grow in water, 
not only is a special apparatus required for collecting specimens, 
but it is also necessary to have a boat, and to get this is in many 
cases impossible, more especially for the high-lying lakes. Hence 
one part only of the county — portions of L. Isla and H. Isla lying 
between Coupar-Angus and Dunkeld — can be said to have been at 
all thoroughly investigated. Fortunately this region abounds in 
lakes ; and still more fortunately they had a skilled and enthusiastic 
explorer in the late Mr Abram Sturrock, to whom Perthshire botany 
is indebted for so much. In the following account of the distribu- 
tion the details are founded upon specimens in the herbarium of the 
Perthshire Natural History Museum, all of which have been exam- 
ined by Mr Arthur Bennett, of Croydon, whose knowledge of the 
genus is unsurpassed, and to whom I am very greatly indebted for 
many valuable services. In addition to naming many of the speci- 
mens and certifying the correct determination of all of them, Mr 
Bennett has made remarks on several ; these are given within in- 
verted commas. 



TOTAMOGETON. 307 

§ i. Heterophylli. 

P. natans L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Lakes and pools ; more rarely in slowly running 

streams. Common. 
alt. Ascends to above 2000 ft. in Atholl, about 1800 
in Breadalbane, 1650 in H. Isla, and 1450 in 
H. Perth. 

Also seen in or reported from L. Forth and H. Earn. 

Var. prolixus Koch. In a stream between Errol and 
the Tay (!). 

Form " approaching P. serotinus Schrad. {P. natans 
wax. prolixus Koch.)" Kinclaven (!). 

Form with " texture of leaves and stipules re- 
sembling natans gathered on mountains in hot coun- 
tries." Ben Bhrackie at 1650 ft. 

A plant from the White Moss near Dunning (!), with 
limbless submerged leaves only, is doubtfully referred to 
P. natans. 

P. polygonifolius Pourr. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Wet muddy places and pools, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl, above 1600 in H. 

Isla, 2300 in Breadalbane, and 1400 in H. Earn. 

Also seen in or reported from H. Forth, L. Earn, and H. Earn, 
L. Perth and Rannoch. 

Var. angustifolius Fr. Glen Sheockie (!); and a form 
near this variety from Dunblane (R. Kidston). 

Var. ericetorum Syme. Glenballoch Moor (Sturrock). 



308 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

Form near var. linearis Syme (?). Dalnaspidal (!). 

Form cordifolius Cham. Tulliebeltane Loch (!). 

Form with large rather narrow leaves. Moor of 
Durdie (!). 

A plant from the river Isla (!), with linear limbless 
leaves, seems to belong to this species. 

P. rufescens Schrad. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
H. o o o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Lakes, pools, and rivers. Not very common. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Breadalbane, 2084 in 
Lomond, and 1400 in H. Isla. 

L. Forth — Loch Watston (R. Kidston) ; [Menstrie (Rev. J. 
Couper).] 
Earn — Dupplin (!) ; Benniebeg Loch (!). 
Perth — Kinclaven (!). 

Isla — River Isla near Blairgowrie, and Lunan Burn (Sturrock) 
Loch Cluny (!). 
Seen in H. Perth (!). 

H. Isla — Loch of Lows (!) ; Loch Benachally (Sturrock). 
Lomond — Loch Oss (!). 

Breadalbane — Cam Chreag (!). " Structure of leaves not quite 
satisfactory for rufescens. " 

P. heterophyllus Schreb. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Lakes and slow streams. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Breadalbane, about 2000 

in Atholl, and 1200 in Rannoch. 

Occurs also in H. Forth (Loch Lubnaig, Brand, 1834, in H. C. 
Watson's Herbarium), and reported from H. Earn. 

Variable. The following are amongst the forms we 
have : — 

" Between type and P. intermedins Tis." Loch Kin- 
nardochy, Rannoch (!). 



POTAMOGETON. 309 

" P. longipedunculatus Merat." Lunan Burn as it 
enters Marlee Loch (Sturrock). 

Form probably the same as var. pscudotiitens Bennett. 
White, Rae, and Ochtertyre Lochs (Sturrock) (!). 

"Approaching the var. myriophyllus Robins, of N. 
America." Loch Cluny (!). 

"A strong form towards P. ZiziiP Marlee Loch 
(Sturrock). 

" Certainly nearer nitens than heterophyllus, but can be 
labelled neither." Lunan Burn at the outlet of Loch 
Cluny (Sturrock) (!). 

" One of the numerous forms coming under P. borealis 
Tis." Loch Broom (Brebner). 

P. nitens Web. (88, 89.) 
l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 

hab. Lakes and streams. Very local. 
alt. Ascends above 1000 ft. in H. Isla. 

L. Perth— King's Myre (!). 

Isla — Marlee Loch (Sturrock). 

Gowrie — Tay at Perth Bridge (J. Sim) ( !), and at Seggieden 
(Drummond-Hay). 
H. Isla — Loch Broom (Brebner). 

Var. latifolius Tis., not Fieber. Lunan Burn near 
Marlee Mill (Sturrock) (!). 

Var. curvifolius Hartm. Fingask Loch (Sturrock) (!). 

A rare form with floating leaves well developed. 
Laird's Loch (Sturrock). 

§ ii. Homophylli. 
P. lucens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 

h. o 0000000 

hab. Lakes and streams. Rare. 

ALT. 



3IO MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

l. Forth— Lake of Monteith (R. Kidston). 

Earn — Ochtertyre Loch (Lady Keith-Murray, 1840) (!). 

Isla — Lower part of river Isla (!) ; Marlee Loch (Sturrock). 
Reported also from H. Forth and Breadalbane. 

P. angustifolius Presl. {P. Zizii Roth.) (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 

h. o 00 Isla, 0000 

hab. Lakes. Rare. 

ALT. 

L. Forth— Lake of Monteith (R. Kidston). 

Earn — Balloch Loch (Sturrock). 

Isla — Loch Cluny (!) ; Rae (or Ardblair) Loch (Sturrock). 
H. Loch of Lows (!) ; Craiglush and Butterstone Lochs (Sturrock). 
Some of the Loch Cluny specimens "approach a form of P. bore- 
alis Tis." ; others "much resemble the N. American form." 

P. decipiens Nolte. (88.) 
L. o Earn, 000 

h. 00000000 
hab. Slow streams. Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

River Earn above Forteviot (!). "Not the typical plant, but 
the form which occurs in Silesia, &c. " 

River Earn at Dupplin boat-house (!) {i.e., a little farther down 
the river than Forteviot). "A doubtful plant, coming, however, 
under P. lucens (as an aggregate species), and probably an elegant 
form of P. decipiens" 



P. praelongus Wulfen. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Lakes and slow streams. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Breadalbane, 1250 in H. 

Isla, and 1900 in Rannoch. 

L. Isla — Lunan Burn (Sturrock) (!). 
H. Perth — Loch Shiach. 

Isla — Loch-na-Chat (Sturrock). 



POTAMOGETON. 31 1 

Breadalbane — Loch-na-Chat (!) ; Lochan-na-Lairige (W. 

Martin) ; Lochan-na-Tairbh-uisge (Brebner). 
Rannoch — Loch Kinnardochy (!) ; Creag an Loch (Brebner). 
Atholl — Loch Loch. 

P. perfoliate L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, o (?) Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Streams and lakes. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in H. Isla. 

Reported also from H. Perth and seen in H. Forth. 

The leaves vary in shape from shortly oval to narrowly ovate- 
acute. An extreme form of the first is var. ovahts Reich., from 
Loch of Lows (Drummond-Hay) ; while similar extreme forms of 
the second simulate nilens ("French specimens like" one from 
Ochtertyre Loch "were formerly called nitens"), 

P. crispus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. (?) Forth, o Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Streams and — more rarely — lakes. Not un- 
common. 
alt. Ascends to 1300 ft. in H. Perth. 

Reported from H. Forth. 

The var. P. serratus Huds. occurs in several places. 

§ iii. Chloephylli. 

P. zosterifolius Schum. is recorded in ' Topographical 
Botany' as occurring in East Perthshire (Arnott MS.), 
but I have failed to learn anything further about the 
species as a Perthshire plant. 

P. obtusifolius M. and K. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
H. o o o Isla, 0000 

hab. Pools and lakes, very rarely in running water. 

Not uncommon. 
alt. Low levels. 



312 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

Our common form is the var.fluvialis Lge. and M. "A peculiar 
form simulating P. Friesii Rupr." Occurs in Loch Watston (R. 
Kidston). 

P. pusillus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Pools and lakes, very rarely in streams. Not un- 
common. 

ALT. 

Variable, but " at present P. pusillus forms cannot be 
named with any certainty." Amongst our forms the 
following may be indicated : — 

Var. tenuissimus Koch from Balloch Loch (Sturrock) ; 
var. P. intricatus Nolte, with some doubt, as there is no 
fruit, from near Forteviot Station (!) ; a form approach- 
ing P. Sturrockii, from Loch Cluny (Sturrock) ; and 
probably the var. Berchtoldi Fieber, from Stormont Loch 
(Sturrock). 

P. Sturrockii A. Benn. (89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. o o o Isla, 0000 

hab. Lakes. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in H. Isla. 

L. Isla — Discovered in Marlee Loch by the late Mr Abram 

Sturrock, July 1882. 
H. Isla — Loch Shechernich, Glen Shee (E. S. Marshall). 

§ iv. Coleophylli. 

P. filiformis Nolte. (88.) 
L. o Earn, 000 
H. 00000000 
hab. Lakes. Very rare. 
alt. Low levels. 



ZANNICHELLTA — NAIAS — SCHOENUS. 3 1 3 

White Moss near Dunning (W. Martin) (!). Fruit has not yet 
been found, so that there is a slight shade of uncertainty about the 
species. [Killin.] 

IP. pedinatus. Quarry at Clackmannan (J. Couper).] 
4. ZANNICHELLIA L. 

Z. palustris L. (87, 88.) 
L. [Forth], Earn, 000 
H. o 0000000 

hab. Lakes. Very rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

White Moss near Dunning (!) ; [Longannet (Rev. J. Couper).] 
(" Z. pediccllata E.B. Perth West " (' Top. Bot.)) 

5. NAIAS L. 

N. flexilis Rostk. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o Isla, o 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Lakes. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

First found in Loch Cluny (Drummond-Hay, 1872 ; Sturrock 
and Robb, 1S75), and afterwards in almost all of the chain of lakes 
between Dunkeld and Blairgowrie (!); Ochtertyre Loch in L.Earn (!). 

Order LXXIIL— CYPERACE.E. 

TRIBE I. — CYPERE^E. 

1. SCHCENUS L. 

S. ferrugineus L. (88.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o o Rannoch, o 

hab. Damp peaty ground. Very local. 

alt. About 500 ft. 

Found for the first time in Britain, by Mr J. Brebner, near Loch 
Tummel in iSS4(!). 



3 14 MONOCOTYLEDONE.F. 

[S. nigricans L. has been reported from near the 
Spital of Glen Shee, but I think that there must be 
some mistake. As, however, it is said to occur in 
Glen Callater in Aberdeenshire, not many miles distant, 
it may grow in Glen Shee.] 

TRIBE II. SCIRPE^E. 

2. RHYETCHOSPOKA Vahl. 

R. alba Vahl. (87, 88.) 
l. Forth, o Perth, o o 
h. Forth, 0000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Peaty moors. Very local. 
alt. Ascends to about 900 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O. S.A., 1796). "In a marsh called the 
' Moss of Balgown ' in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. iii., 1805, No. 53. 
L. Forth— Blairdrummond Moss (T. Drummond) ; Lake of 
Monteith (R. Kidston). 
Perth — Methven Moss(!) (probably Don's station). 
H. Forth — Pass of Leny and Ben Ledi (Balfour). 

Breadalbane — Tyndrum(!); near Binnean (Brebner) ; Meal 
Ghaordie (Balfour) ; near Bridge of Lochay (!). 

3. ELEOCHARIS Br. 

E. palustris Br. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Margins of pools, lakes, and streams. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1300 ft. in H. Perth and to 1150 in 

H. Isla. 

E. uniglumis Schult. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 



ELEOCHARIS. 3 1 5 

hab. Marshes. Very local. 

ALT. 

Shore of the Tay west from Kingoodie ( !), and marshes between 
Seggieden and Inchyra(!). 

Mr Arthur Bennett, in "Additional Records of Scottish Plants for 
18S7 " ('Scot. Nat.,' 188S, p. 258), gives this plant under "88," or 
Mid Perth. 



E. multicaulis Sm. (87 (?), 88, 89.) 
L. Forth (?), 000 Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Marshes and margins of lakes. Very local. 

ALT. 

l. Gowrie— Ballo Hill (!). 

H. Isla — Near Loch of Craiglush (!). 

Breadalbane — Ben Laoigh (Webb). 

Rannoch — Loch Tummel (Brebner) (!). 
" Perth West " (' Top. Bot.') 

E. acicularis Sm. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth (?), Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o 000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Muddy edges of lakes and rivers. Local. 

ALT. 

"In the Hay Pool by the side of the river Earn near Dupplin 
House, Perthshire. Found also by Mr R. Miller (Dupplin House) 
in a drain called the Pow, near Methven, Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. 
i., 1804, No. 2. 

"Perth West, Syme, v. sp." ('Top. Bot.') 

L. Earn — Loch, west of Dunning (Arnott in ' Flora Scotica,' 

1 821) (this is probably the White Moss); Don's station, 

given above — in neither of these places has it been recently 

found ; Benniebeg Pond, near Crieff (!) ; Dupplin Loch (!). 

Perth — Miller's station, given above — not recently found ; dam 

at Green Hill Farm, Tibbermore(l). 
Isla — Loch Cluny (M'Ritchie, i82i)(!); Stormont Loch 

(M 'Ritchie, 1S21) (!) ; Marlee Loch(!). 
Gowrie — Side of the Tay above Perth Bridge, and above 
Woody Island ( !) ; Laird's Loch. 
H. Breadalbane — Loch Tay at Finlarig (D. H. Haggart). 



3l6 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 



4. SCIRPUS L. 

S. maritimus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Salt and brackish marshes. Locally abundant. 

ALT. 

Margins of the Tay as high up as Elcho (!). (At Elcho the 
water is brackish only when the river is low.) 

The form with the lower fascicles stalked (var. umbellatus Reich.) 
is less common than that in which the spikes are all sessile (var. 
compaclus Krock). 

[Marshes of the Forth near Culross (M'Gregor).] 

S. sylvaticus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadal- 

bane, o o 
hab. Damp margins of rivers and lakes. Local. 

ALT. 

"AtKillin." — Lightfoot, p. 1115. 1778. 

L. [Forth — Backwater of the Devon, near Harvieston (!).] 

H. Forth — Loch Vennachar (Hart). 
Lomond — Inverarnan (!). 

Not unfrequent on the banks of the Tay and Loch Tay from 
below Perth up to Glen Lochay (!). Less frequent on the banks of 
some of the larger tributaries of the Tay, such as the Earn, Isla, 
and Ericht. 

Var. dissitiflorus Sonder. Spike! ets mostly solitary, 
and, except those in the axils of the branches, on pedi- 
cels at least as long as the spikelets. Mixed with the 
typical form (into which it passes) on the side of the 
Tay below Balnaguard(I). 

S. lacustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, o o Isla, 0000 



SCIRPUS. 317 

hab. Lakes and slow-running rivers. Local. 

ALT. 

In many of the' smaller low-lying lakes. River Isla above the 
Bridge of Isla, with rather long leaves (!). 

S. Tabernsemontani Gm. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 
h. o o 000000 
hab. Tidal marshes. 
alt. Low levels. Common. 

L. [Forth — Near Culross (J. Couper).] 

Gowrie — In the Tay as far up as Sleepless Island, where the 
water is scarce^, if at all, brackish (!). Also in the Earn 
below Abernethy (!). 

S. caespitosus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in H. Forth. 

The lowest glume is sometimes shorter than the spike. 

S. pauciflorus Lightf. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Wet moors. Somewhat local, but not uncommon. 

alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Atholl. 

" Upon the Highland mountains, as upon Mal-ghyrdy in Bread- 
albane (Mr Stuart)." — Lightfoot, p. 1079. 1778. The first record 
of the species. 

S. fluitans L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth (?), Earn, Perth, o Gowrie. 



318 MONOCOTYLEDONE/E. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o o Rannoch, o 
hab. Pools. Very local and not common (or over- 
looked). 

ALT. 

L. Earn— White Muir near Blackford (W. Martin). 

Perth — Stair Dam and Mill Dam, both near Rohallion (!). 

Gowrie — Moor of Durdie and Arnbathie (Drummond-Hay). 
H, Earn— St Fillans (Miss Worsley) ; foot of Dun Fillan (W. F. 
Miller). 

Perth — Tulliebeltane Loch (!) ; Robin's Dam, Rohallion (!). 

Isla— Cally Loch (!). 

Rannoch — Near Loch Rannoch (!). 

S. setaceus L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp bare places. Rather local. 

alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in H. Perth and to 1000 in 
Atholl. 

"AtDupplin, Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. vi., 1806, No. 130. 
Spikelets often only one in our specimens. 

[S. rufus Schrad. Longannet (J. Couper).] 

5. ERIOPHORUM L. 

[E. alpinum L. 

In "Records of Scottish Plants for 1891 " ('Annals Scot. Nat. 
Hist.,' vol. i. pp. 122, 123, 1892), Mr Arthur Bennett writes : "Mr 
Holt has sent a fragment of this from ' Craig Caillich, Perthshire, 
Mr Henry Stansfield.' Mr Holt writes : ' I do not know the date 
of this, but it was collected by Mr S. some twenty years ago. I 
sent it to Dr F. B. White, so that it might be looked for again." ] 

E. vaginatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



ERIOPIIORUM. 319 

hab. Marshes and wet moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in H. Perth and Breadalbane, 
and 2700 in Lomond. 
Benachally (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

E. angustifolium Roth. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forthj Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshes. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in Atholl 
and H. Isla, 2300 in H. Perth, and 2700 in 
Lomond. 
Benachally (M'Ritchie in O.S.A., 1793). 

Variable, but the varieties seem to pass into each other. 
The var. congestum M. & K. is commoner than the var. 
genuinum Gr. & Gr. The var. minus Koch occurs on the 
mountains, and even on the lower hills. The var. elatius 
Koch has been found on Dalrulzeon Moss, Glenshee 
(Sturrock), and at Lochan Tairbh Uisge (about 2600 ft. 
alt.) near Killin (Brebner), and probably occurs else- 
where. 

E. latifolium Hoppe. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth], o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Marshes. Local, and not common. 

alt. Ascends to about 1000 ft. in Atholl and about 

2200 in Breadalbane. 

L. [Forth— Ochils near Dollar (J. H. Balfour).] 

Perth — King's Myre ( !), near Newbigging Farm, Innernytie ( !), 

and near Methven Moss (!). 
Isla — Ardblair and a marsh to the east of Alyth (Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Arnbathie (!) and Hoole (!), Culdamore, Glen Lyon 
(E. F. Linton). 



320 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

H. Earn — -Near Ardvoirlich (Cosmo Melvill). 

Isla — -Near Pitlochry (Brebner) ; Glenfernate (Sturrock). 
Breadalbane — Killin and Craig Callich (E. F. Linton). 
Rannoch — Strathtummel (Brebner) ; Killiecrankie (!). 
Atholl— Glen Tilt (!), side of Garry above Blair- Athole (W. 
Barclay). 

TRIBE III. ELYNE2E. 

6. KOBRESIA Willd. 

K. caricina Willd. (88, 89.) 

l. o o 00 o 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Alpine pastures. Very local. 
alt. Between 1800 and 2600 ft. in Breadalbane, 2200 

in Atholl, and 1750 in H. Isla. 

Shroine-an-Lochan (W. Wilson in Hooker's 'Br. Fl.,' 1831). 
H. Isla — Near Ben Vuroch (!). 

Breadalbane — Cam Creag and north side of Craig na Caillich 
(Linton); west side of Craig na Caillich (!) ; Craig Mhor 
(Evans) ; Ben Lawers (Cosmo Melvill) ; Ben Laoigh (!) 
and Ben Oss (!) ; AUt Innis Choarach (E. S. Marshall). 
f Atholl— Ben Vuroch (Brebner) (!). 

TRIBE IV. — CARICE,E. 

7. CAREX L. 

A. MONOSTACHY.E. 

i. Dioicce. 

C. dioica L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Boggy places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane and H. Forth, 
and to 2300 in H. Perth and Atholl. 

Stem rarely somewhat scabrid (var. scabrella And.) Leaves often 
(always?) scabrid on the margins towards the tip, though described 
as smooth. 



CAREX. 321 



ii. Pulicares. 

C. pulicaris L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Boggy places and alpine rock ledges. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2900 ft. in Breadalbane, 2600 in Atholl, 

1300 in H. Perth, [and 1500 in L. Forth]. 

iii. Rupestres. 
C. rupestris All. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rock ledges. Very rare. 
alt. At about 2600 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Ben Lawers (Hooker & Arnott's 'Br. Fl.,' i860). I have not 
been able to ascertain anything about the Ben Lawers station, be- 
yond this record. 

Ben Heasgarnich, 1886 (!). 

iv. Leitcoglochin. 

C. pauciflora Lightf. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. Forth, Earn, o o Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Upland bogs. Local, but not uncommon in the 

Highland area. 
alt. From about 450 ft. in H. Earn to 1650 in Atholl. 

" On mountains between Loch Earn and Loch Tay ; also on the 
mountains of Breadalbane ; and on mountains to the north of Blair 
in Atholl." — Don, Fasc. iii., 1805, No. 68. 

Stems in our specimens always more or less scaberulous. 

X 



322 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

B. HOMOSTACHY^E. 

i. ChordorrhizecR. 

C. disticha Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Marshes and wet meadows. Local. 

alt. Low levels. 

"At Laggan near Comrie not far from Crief." — Stuart in Light- 
foot, p. 546. 1778. 

C. disticha varies much in the size, length, and compactness of the 
spikes ; and the situation of the male flowers is also very variable. 
The Marlee examples (which are from a wetter situation than the 
others) have long interrupted spikes with small spikelets. 
L. Forth — Loch Watston (!) ; Dunblane (R. Kidston). 

Earn — Abercairny (!) ; several places on the hills between 
Damhead and the river May ( !) ; Earn side near Forteviot ( !). 
Perth— Broxden(J). 

Isla — Near Moor of Durdie(!) and Marlee (!) ; Rae Loch 
(Sturrock) ; near Meikleour (!); west of Dunsinnane Hill (!). 
Gowrie — Moncrieffe (!) ; Tay near Orchard Neuk (W. Barclay) ; 
and Perth Harbour. 
H. Breadalbane — Killin (Webb) ; Lawers Inn (W. Gardiner). 

ii. Paniculatce. 

C. teretiuscula Good. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o 00 Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Marshes. Local. 
alt. 

L. Forth— Loch Watston (!) ; Lake of Monteith (!). 

Earn — White Moss, near Dunning (!) ; Mundie Loch, near 
Dron(!); west of Cairn Geddes, near Damhead (!) ; Dnpplin 
Loch(!). 

Perth — Foulford, near Crieff (!); Cairnleith Moss, near Bank- 
foot (!). 

Isla — Meikleour (!) ; in many marshes in the Stormont (!). 

Gowrie — Arnbathie (Drummond-Hay) (!) ; Hoole(!); Laird's 
Loch(!). 
H. Isla — Pitlochry (Brebner). 

Breadalbane — Grantully and Ballechin (Brebner). 



CAREX. 323 

Spikes variable, sometimes dense, sometimes much interrupted. 
The fruits of our specimens of C. teretiuscula and C. paniatlata do 
not altogether agree with the descriptions usually given. The fruit 
of C. teretiuscula is sinning, very convex on the back, and nearly as 
convex on the face. The beak is split on the back, the fissure 
extending frequently, if not always, to the middle of the fruit, 
exclusive of the beak. On the back there are two strong central 
ribs, either separate or united at the base ; and between these and 
the margin there is often another strong rib on each side. On the 
face there are several (3-5) short thick ribs at the base, or at least 
some trace of them. 

The fruit of C. paniculate/, is rather dull, and less convex. The 
fissure on the back is much less long, and the overlapping wings 
less broad. The ribs on the back are finer and fainter ; and the ribs 
on the face much more numerous but much finer. 

C. paniculata L. (87, 89.) 
L. Forth, o o Isla, o 

h. 00000000 
hab. Marshes. Very local and rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Cardross Moss (!). 

Isla— Ardblair(l). 
The form simplicior (And.), with narrower spikes and less com- 
pound spikelets, occurs as well as the type. 

iii. Muricatcs. 
C. vulpina L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Marshes. Not common. 
alt. Low levels. 

Here and there on the shore of the Tay from Kingoodie to near 
Cairnie Pier (!). Beside the Earn near its mouth (!). The most 
inland station is Paddockmuir Wood, where a form with paler 
glumes and more foliaceous bracts occurs. This may be the var. 
nemorosa Rebent. 

[Shores of the Forth (Syme, Cat.), Tulliallan (Rev. J. Couper).] 

C. muricata L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, 000 Breadalbane, o Atholl. 



324 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Dry grassy banks. Very local. 
alt. Ascends to 600 ft. in Atholl. 

L. [Forth— Muir Dam, Tullieallan (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Earn — Heugh of Coul (!). 

Perth — Stanley (R. Dow) ; near Thistle Brig (!). 
Isla — Roadside near Gannochy Farm (!) ; Linn of Campsie ( !) ; 

Craig Tronach (!) ; Stenton (!). 
Gowrie — Den of Pitroddie(I); Moncreiffe(!); Kinnoull Church- 
yard (J. Sim)(!). 
H. Earn — Banks of the Earn, below Comrie (!). 
Breadalbane — Near Mains, Kenmore (!). 
Atholl— Glen Tilt (!) ; Alltgirnaig (!). 
Spikes variable, continuous or interrupted below on the same 
plant. Lowest bract sometimes longer than the spike. 



iv. Brnnnece. 

C. leporina L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp meadows. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1300 ft. in H. Perth, 1150 in H. Isla, 

and 1050 in Breadalbane. 

Rather variable. Not rarely the lowest bract is longer than the 
spike (var. bracteata Syme), but as some heads have long bracts and 
others of the same plant have not, this character seems of little im- 
portance. The spikelets are sometimes slightly compound. To the 
var. argyroglochin Hornem. a few specimens with very pale (whitish) 
glumes seem referable, but this appears to be only an albino form. 
Some of our specimens belong probably to var. capitata Sond. ; but 
I have seen no authentic examples of this variety, which is, however, 
only a slight one, differing from the type only in the more compact 
heads. 

v. Catiescentes. 

C. canescens L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



CAREX. 325 

hab. Marshes. Rather local. 

alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in H. 
Isla, 2625 in Atholl, and 2500 in Lomond. 

The lowest bract is sometimes twice as long as its spikelet. 

An examination of a great number of examples from many localities 
and altitudes has failed to show any characters for varietal differen- 
tiation. In alpine specimens the glumes are often browner, but 
they are so in some lowland examples also. The length of the 
fissure of the beak is also variable. C. Persoonii Sieb. (which is C. 
ccmescens var. alpicola Whin., reported as a British form) and C. vitilis 
Fr. appear to be quite distinct from any forms we have. 

C. echinata Murr. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshes and wet moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in 
Lomond, and 2400 in Atholl. 

The character (glumes with two broad red-brown bands) of the 
var. grypos of the ' Student's Flora ' fits many of our specimens, but 
I have not seen any that agree altogether with the description of 
the true grypos Schk., though some approach thereto. 

C. remota L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 
hab. Damp woods ; more rarely in marshes. Local. 

ALT. 

" In marshes near a fish-pool at Invermay in Perthshire." — Don, 
Fasc. i., 1804, No. 19. 

L. [Forth — Rumbling Bridge, Devon (J. H. Balfour).] 

Earn — Side of Earn below Innerpeffray (!) ; Woodhead Farm, 

Aberdalgie (Meldrum) (!) ; Glenartney (!). 
Perth — Methven Wood (!) ; side of Ordie above Ordie Mill(!) ; 

banks of the Tay in several places (!). 
Isla — Side of Tay opposite Luncarty (!) ; Delvine(!); Glen- 

ericht (Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Barnhill(!); mouth of Annate Burn(!); Kinfauns 



326 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

Station (!) ; Derry Island (Drummond - Hay) ; Elcho 

Marsh (!) ; Port Allen (!) ; above Elcho (!). 
H. Forth— 

Earn — Edinample Castle, near Lochearnhead (!). 

Perth — Rumbling Bridge near Dunkeld (Sturrock) (!). 

Isla — Loch of Craiglush (W. Barclay) (!). 

Breadalbane — Moness (Balfour) ; Glen Lyon (W. F. Miller) ; 

Finlarig Burn (J. Roy) ; Falls of Lochay (!) ; Glen Lyon (E. 

F. Linton). 
Rannoch — Side of Tummel at Faskally (Brebner), and below 

Clunie Bridge ( !). 

0. Boenninghauseniana Weihe. (88.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Marshes. 

ALT. 

Killin (Hooker and Arnott's 'Br. Fl.,' i860). I know nothing 
of this species as a Perthshire plant. 

C. alpina S\v. (C. Vahlii Schk.) (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
Hill above Glen Lyon (H. & J. Groves). 



C. HETEROSTACHY.E. 

§ Distigmaticce. 

i. Rigidce. 

C. rigida Good. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth], 0000 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Mountain ridges and rock ledges. Common on 

the higher hills. 
alt. Lowest altitude not noted. Ascends to the sum- 
mits of all the hills on which it occurs, not 



CAREX. 327 

unfrequently forming a turf on the ridges. 
Ranges from 1900 to 3980 ft. (Breadalbane). 

L. [Forth — Ochils near Dollar (Balfour, Edin. Bot. Soc.) Com- 
mon on King's Seat(!) ; Maddy Moss (!).] 

ii. Aquatiles. 

C. Goodenowii Gay (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places and marshes. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. or more in Breadalbane, 2800 

in H. Forth, 2300 in H. Perth, and 2100 in 

Atholl. 

Very variable. Our specimens vary in many ways, such as — 

1. Stature, ranging from about 2 in. to nearly 2 ft. 

2. Habit, some scarcely or slightly tufted, others forming large 

dense tussocks. 

3. Length and thickness of the spikelets. 

4. Shape and comparative length of the glumes of the female 

spikelets. 

5. Shape of the fruit, either roundish or elliptic ; or narrow and 

oblong ; or narrow and more acute. 
All of these variations may be variously combined. 

One of the more remarkable varieties is 

Var. jiaicella Fr. Ben Laoigh (G. C. Druce) ; Glen 
Lyon (E. F. Linton) ; Methven Bog. 

C. aquatilis Whin. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Sides of rivers, and in marshes. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Breadalbane. 

L. Perth — Linn of Campsie (!). 

Isla — Marsh near west end of Loch Marlee (!) ; Fardle Burn, 

Meikleour (Sturrock) (!). 
Gowrie — March at Kinfauns Station (Drummond Hay) ; side 



328 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

of Earn below Moncreiffe (!); Tayside above Elcho (W. 
Barclay) (!) ; and at Barnhill (W. Barclay). 
H. Forth— Loch Voil (!). 
Perth — Loch Freuchie (!). 

Breadalbane — Side of Tay below Grantully (!) ; Am Binnein 
(E. S. Marshall) (!) ; Loch Dochart (Marshall and Hanbury). 
Very variable. I find no essential difference between our low- 
land plants and specimens from a high altitude on the Clova table- 
land — i.e., the differences are not constant. The size of the plant, 
the number of male spikes, the shape and colour of the glumes of 
the female spikes, and the shape of the auricles of the lowest bract 
are all variable. Our commonest form would be called, I suppose, 
the var. Watsoni Syme. 

Forms which present greater differences, but which 
seem to pass into the usual form, are : — 

Var. elalior Bab. Loch Dochart (Marshall and Han- 
bury) ; 7 miles above Fortingal (E. F. Linton). 

Var. virescens And., distinguished chiefly by the much 
paler, very obtuse glumes of the female spikes, and the 
fruit much longer than the glumes. 

L. Isla — South bank of the Isla a little above its mouth (!). 
Gowrie — Side of Tay near Elcho (!). 

A much more distinct form is the 

Var. epigeios Lsest., which has been considered by some 
botanists a distinct species, and is given by Nyman as 
a subspecies of C. aquatilis, occurring in alpine regions 
of N. Norway, N. Sweden, and Lapland. 

I include this var. in our flora on the ground that specimens, from 
the White Myre of Methven, are pronounced by Dr Almquist to be 
apparently a form of it. This is a remarkable locality for a northern 
alpine plant, as the altitude above sea-level is only about ioo ft. 
Our specimens differ a little from Andersson's description ( ' Cypero- 
graphia,' p. 46), and may be thus described: Slender; stem 12-20 
in. high, somewhat scabrid towards the top ; leaves erect, very 
narrow, edges involute when dry ; lowest bract scarcely passing the 
uppermost male spike ; male spikes usually 2 ; female spikes 2-3, 
oblong, slender ; fruit greenish-yellow, mottled, where exposed, with 
reddish-brown, about as long as the black-brown glumes ; glumes 
rounded at the apex, midrib rather slender, often pale, margins 
narrowly scarious white. Andersson says that the Lapland plant 
(which is the one that he describes) has most often a single male 



CAREX. 329 

spike, and in his figure the glumes seem to be acute. From our 
other forms of C. aquatilis this var. can be readily distinguished by- 
its more slender build, narrower and darker green leaves, shorter 
bracts, more slender and less densely flowered spikes, and almost 
black glumes. In our station for it, it grows in company with C. 
irrigua, &c, and is confined to a space about 2 yards square. 

iii. ProlixcB. 

C. acuta L. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o Govvrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Sides of rivers and wet places. Very local. 
alt. Low levels. 

Balhepburn Marsh near Elcho, 1886 (!). 
Side of Tay below Port Allen ( !). 

§ TristigmaticcE. 
i. Atratm. 
C. atrata L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rock-ledges. Not uncommon on the richer 

hills. 
alt. Between 1600 and 3000 ft. in Breadalbane, at 

about 2000 in H. Earn. 

"Upon Benteskerny, Mal-ghyrdy, Mal-nan-tarmonach, &c, 
mountains in Breadalbane." — Lightfoot, p. 555. 1778. 

H. Earn — Ben Chonzie (!). 

Isla — Glen Shee (J. Ferguson). 

Breadalbane — On many hills from Farragon in the east to 
Craig Mhor and Ben Laoigh in the west (!). 

Fruit sometimes pale, sometimes much clouded with dark brown ; 
stem rough or smooth. Specimens (from Breadalbane) in cultivation 
produce very tall (2 ft.) stems, and flower twice in the summer. 
The heads of the first flowering are normal, but those of the second 
depart considerably from the type. The spikelets are situated more 
or less remotely from each other so that the head is 3 or 4 in. long ; 
the peduncles of the lower spikelets are long ; and these spikelets 
are narrowed below from the abortion of the lower flowers. In 
some wild specimens the lowest spikelet is placed an inch or more 
below the others. 



330 M0N0C0TYLED0NE,E. 

ii. Limostz. 
C. ustulata Whnb. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Wet alpine rock-ledges and slopes. Very rare. 
alt. About 2600 ft. 

" Ben Lawers," Aug. 10, 1810, G. Don. Ben Heasgarnich 
(Brebner, 1885) (!). The species had not been found on Ben 
Lawers since Don discovered it until July 1892, when it was re- 
discovered by Rev. David Paul on a slope above Lochan-a'-Chait. 
It is not clear that Don did not mean by ' ' Ben Lawers " the group 
of hills of which that is the highest peak, rather than the individual 
mountain. One of Don's original specimens in the herbarium of the 
Perthshire Natural History Museum (presented by Mr John Knox) 
has all the aspect of a Breadalbane example. North side of Glen 
Lyon (Messrs Linton). 

Varies in height from 3 to 8 in. Female spikelets 2-3, sometimes 
5 ; male spikelets sometimes with a few female flowers at base. 

C. magellanica Lamarck (C. irrigua Sm.) (87, 88.) 



L. 


Forth, Perth, 





H. 


Forth, Perth, 
Rannoch, 


Breadalbane, 


HAB. 


Sphagnaceous bogs. 


Very local. 


ALT. 


Ascends to 3000 ft. 


in Breadalbane and to near 



1000 in Rannoch and H. Perth. 

L. Forth — Roman camp at Ardoch (!). 

Perth— White Myre, Methven (!). 
H. Forth — Pass of Leny (!). 

Perth — Corriemuckloch (!). 

Breadalbane — Allt Meran near Loch Lyon (Brebner) ; Corrie 
Ardran, Crianlarich (E. S. Marshall). 

Rannoch — Loch Laidon (!). 

C. limosa L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth (?), Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Bogs, especially sphagnaceous. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Breadalbane, 1400 in 
Atholl, and 1300 in H. Perth. 



CAREX. 331 

"At Tullybanchar, half a mile west of Comrie." — Stuart in 
Lightfoot, p. 556. 177S. 

L. Forth — Cardross Moss (!) ; near Orchill, Blackford (!). 

Earn — Stuart's station — just mentioned — requires modern veri- 
fication. I sought for it there in 1893 but could not find the 
plant. 
Perth — White Myre of Methven (!) ; Foulford near Crieff (!). 
Isla — Near Loch Marlee (!) ; Muirton Wood, Blairgowrie (!) 

(Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Arnbathie (!) (Drummond - Hay) ; Hoole (!). 
H. Perth — Loch-na-Craige (Brebner) ; Loch Freuchie (!). 

Breadalbane — Lochan-Lairig-Eala, near Killin (!); between 
Craig Caillich and Meall Dhuin Croisg (!) ; ridge south of 
Loch Lyon (Brebner). 
Atholl— Dalnaspidal (!). 



C. rariflora Sm. (89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o Isla, o o 

hab. Alpine marshes. Very rare. 

alt. At about 3000 ft. 

Meall Odhar (P. Ewing) (!). 



iii. Pallescentes. 

C. vaginata Tausch. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o Lomond, Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Alpine rock ledges and marshy places. Local. 
alt. Between about 2200 and 2800 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Craig Caillich, Borrer in ' Fl. Scot..' p. 265. 1821. 
H. Lomond — Glen Falloch (Marshall and Hanbury). 
Breadalbane — Most of the richer hills (!). 
Rannoch — Ben Aulder (!); south side of Loch Ericht (Bal- 
four). 
Atholl— Ben a Ghlo{J. M'Farlane). 
Variable in size and number of spikelets, and in the shape of 
glumes, which are not always obtuse. The var. borealis And. 
occurs, but seems to be scarcely worth distinction. 



332 MONOCOTYLEDONEjE. 

C. panicea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 2600 ft. in Breadalbane and 

H. Isla, 2500 in Lomond, and 2400 in Atholl. 

Many examples from the higher altitudes are dwarfer, and have 
few-flowered spikelets, and almost unicolorous dark-coloured glumes. 

C. capillaris L. ([87,] 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Alpine grassy banks and rock-ledges. Local, but 
not unfrequent. 

alt. Between 950 ft. (in Atholl) and 2850 (in Rannoch). 

" On Benteskerny, Craigneulict, and Malghyrdy, in Breadalbane." 
— Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 557. 1778. 

" Perth West, Croall rec." ('Top, Bot.') 

C. pallescens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp, usually shady places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Atholl and above 1000 in 

H. Isla. and H. Forth. 

The so-called var. undulata Kze. is not unfrequent, but is scarcely 
deserving of notice. A curious specimen from Glen Bruar has the 
lowest female spikelet situated 2 in. below the next one, the bracts 
scarcely sheathing, and the terminal spikelet androgynous. 

C. glauca Scop. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



carex. 333 

hab. Pastures, moors, and rock-ledges. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Breadalbane and 1800 in 
H. Isla. 

Very variable. The stem varies from quite smooth to decidedly 
scabrid ; the shape of the spikelets varies ; the glumes vary from 
blunt to long-pointed ; and the fruit varies from nearly smooth to 
very rough ; and all these characters are so interblended that the 
varieties which depend upon one or more of them seem to be 
of little importance. 

iv. Montana. 

C. pilulifera L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2850 ft. in Rannoch, 2600 in H. Isla, 
Atholl, and Breadalbane, and 2500 in Lomond. 

The examination of a large number of specimens reveals a con- 
siderable amount of variation in this species. Most of the lowland 
and many of the highland examples may be considered to be typical, 
having the female spikelets close together, the lowest bract not very 
long, the female glumes with more or less of a short mucro, and the 
male glumes without a mucro. But many highland specimens 
(especially from high up on the Breadalbane hills) show a de- 
parture from the type. In them the lowest female spikelet is more 
or less remote (sometimes half an inch) from the others ; the glumes 
and fruit are darker coloured ; the female glumes have a much 
longer and rougher mucro ; the male glumes are distinctly mucro- 
nate ; and the lowest bract overtops the male spikelet. But though 
these characters often all occur in one plant, in other plants only 
some of them are present. 

C. praecox Jacq. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1550 ft. in Rannoch. 



334 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

v. Fulvellce. 

C. Oederi Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o 

h. o Earn, Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp places. Local, but doubtless overlooked. 
alt. Ascends to 1300 ft. in H. Perth. 

A curious form, from near Delvine, has 3 or 4 female spikelets 
close to the male spikelet, and another female spikelet situated 
below the middle of the stem and sometimes branched. 

"Perth West, Drummond " ('Top. Bot. ') 

C. flava L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane and H. Forth, 

2500 in Lomond, and 1750 in Atholl. 

Authors vary as much in the characters which they assign to the 
var. elatior Schlecht. [lepidocarpa Tsch.) as in their estimation 
of the value to be placed on that form, but the plant which passes 
by that name is as common as, or commoner than, the type. 

Many examples of C. flava from high altitudes have the glumes 
coloured bright reddish-brown and the beak of the fruit tinged 
with the same colour, giving them a peculiar aspect. Other forms 
— not confined to high altitudes — have a greater or less resemblance 
to C. fulva. An alpine form with much inflated fruit has been 
gathered at 2700 ft. in Corrie Dubh Ghalair (E. S. Marshall.) 

C. flava. See 'Bot. Exc. CI. Report ' for 1892 for a plant gath- 
ered at Ardblair Loch by E. S. Marshall in 1892. 

C. flava x pulla. Ben More and Ben Laoigh — see 
'J. of B.,' June 1890, p. 182. 

0. fulva Good. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places, especially upon the hills. Rather 

local. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl. 



carex. 335 

I follow the ' Student's Flora ' in considering the names C. fulva 
Good, and C. Hornschuchiana Hoppe to be synonymous. 

The var. sterilis — supposed to be a hybrid between 
C. fulva and C. flam — occurs at Arnbathie (!), and 
Loch Watston, near Tyndrum (G. C. Druce), at Allt 
Dubh Ghalair, on Meall Ghaordie, and Spittal of Glen 
Shee (E. S. Marshall), in Glen Lyon (W. R. Linton), 
and in Glen Lochan (E. F. Linton). It is possibly the 
C. fulva of many European botanists, and the C. xan- 
ihocarpa Degl. 

C. binervis Sm. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Moors, hill-pastures, and rock-ledges. Common 
in the highland area ; rather local in the low- 
land area. 

alt. Ascends to 2600 ft. in Atholl, 2500 in Lomond, 
2000 in Breadalbane, H. Perth, and H. Earn, 
1800 in H. Isla, and above 1000 in H. Forth. 

C. laevigata Sm. (88.) 
L. o Earn, 000 

h. o Earn, 000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Marshy woods. Rare. 

ALT. 

L. Earn — Side of Earn below Innerpeffray Castle (!) and 2 miles 

or so above Crieff (!) ; Kincardine Glen ( !). 
H. Earn — St Fillans (Drummond-Hay). 
Breadalbane — Glen Lochay (A. Ley) (!). 

vi. StrigoscB. 

C. sylvatica Huds. (S7, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 



$■$6 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

hab. Woods and wooded banks. Local. 

ALT. 

C. pendula Huds. (87, 88.) 
l. Forth, o Perth, o o 

h. 00000000 
hab. Wooded banks of rivers. Rare and local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Cauldron Linn (Rev. J. Couper). 
Perth—Stanley (R. Dow) (!). 

vii. Lasiocarpce. 

C. hirta L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Damp grassy places. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

C. filiformis L. (88, 89.) 

L. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Deep marshes. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1400 ft. in Atholl and 1250 in H. Isla. 

"Near Loch Ericht in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. ii., 1805, No. 43. 
L. Earn— Abernethy Glen (R. Dow); Loch Whir (!). 
Perth — Lily Loch, Kinclaven (!). 
Isla — Not uncommon in the Stormont ( !) ; marsh east of 

Alyth (Sturrock). 
Gowrie — Arnbathie (!) and Hoole (!) (Drummond-Hay) ; 
Ballo (!). 
H. Perth— Foulford, near Crieff (!). 

Isla — Loch of Lowes (!) ; near Kirkmichael, and Benachally 

(Sturrock). 
Breadalbane — Grantully (Brebner). 
Rannoch — Loch Laidon (!). 
Atholl— Dalnaspidal (!). 



carex. 337 

viii. Vesicaria. 

C. obtusangula Ehrh. (C. ampiillacea Good.) (87, 88, 
89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshes and sides of lakes and rivers. Common. 
alt. Ascends to above 3000 ft. in Breadalbane and H. 

Earn, 2300 in Atholl, and 1300 in H. Perth. 

Stem sometimes scaberulous below lowest spikelet. Lowest 
bract sometimes with a long sheath. 

C. vesicaria L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Marshes. Local, but possibly overlooked. 

ALT. 

l. Forth — Kilmadock (A. Craig-Christie) ; Callander (Brebner) ; 
Aberfoyle. 

Earn— Loch of Balloch, Crieff (!), and between Crieff and 
Comrie (!). 

Perth — Cairnleith Moss near Bankfoot(l); near Murthly 
Castle (!) ; Lily Loch, Kinclaven (!). 

Isla— Side of Tay above Stobhall (W. Barclay) ; Meikle- 
our (!) and Delvine (!). 

Gowrie — Side of Tay near Elcho (!). 
H. Forth — Loch Lubnaig (Prof. Graham, 1S41) (!); Loch 
Voil(!). 

Earn — " I have seen it by the side of the river near Mount 
Alexander at the foot of Ben Schiehallion, and near Finlarig 
at the head of Loch Tay. My specimens are from a marsh 
near Tullybanchar, about 3 miles west from Comrie, in 
Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. viii., 1806, No. 193. (The name 
is correct, but the station is little more than a mile from 
Comrie, and is in H. Earn. ) 

Perth — Near Kinnaird House (!) ; near Dalguise (!); near 
Murthly (Trail). 

Isla — Loch of Craiglush ( !). 

Lomond — Inverarnan (!). 



338 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

Breadalbane — Balnaguard (!); near Acharn (!) ; Finlanrig 
(Brebner) ; Corrie Ardran (E. S. Marshall) ; river Lyon 
near its mouth (!). 
Lowest bract sometimes with a sheath longer than half the 
peduncle. 

Var. dichroa And., Breadalbane Mountains (G. C. 
Druce). 

C. pulla Good. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Lomond, Breadalbane, Rannoch, o 
hab. Marshy places on the mountains. Local. 
alt. From 2 200 ft. or less to 3500 in Breadalbane, and 
from about 2000 to 2700 in Lomond. 

" I first observed this plant on Ben Lomond in 1789 and on Ben 
Lawers in 1793." — Don, Fasc. viii., No. 190. 1806. 
■ H. Lomond — Ben a Chroin (E. S. Marshall). 

Breadalbane — Common on the richer hills (!). 
Rannoch — Ben Aulder (!). 
Variable. Stem rough or smooth ; glumes obtuse or acute ; male 
spikelets sometimes 2, and female sometimes 4. I have also found 
it with the spikelets (3 in number) all male ; with the spikelets all 
female ; and with the terminal spikelet female at the top. 

C. Grahami Boott. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, 
hab. Marshy places on the mountains. Very rare. 

ALT. 

Ben Cruichben near Killin (Greville, Aug. 1837). 
This and C. pulla are alpine subspecies of C. vesicaria. 

C. paludosa Good. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Marshes. Very local. 

L. Earn — Side of Earn below Dupplin Gardens ( !) ; Glen Farg 
(T. Drummond) (!) ; Pond of Drummond (!). 
Isla — Marsh near Meikleour (!). 
Gowrie — Kinfauns Station (Barclay). 



PHALARIS — ANTHOXANTHUM. 339 

H. Isla — Kinnaird Burn, Pitlochry (J. Coates) (!). 

Breadalbane — Den of Lawers (W.Gardiner, 1842). No recent 
record. 
All the specimens that I have seen belong to the var. Kochiana 
Gaud., except the H. Isla ones, which seem to be nearer the typical 
form. 

[C. riparia Curtis. Near Kincardine on Forth (!).] 



Order LXXIV.— GRAMINEiE. 

TRIBE I. PHALARIDE.E. 

1. PHALARIS L. 

P. arundinacea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Banks of rivers and lakes. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1150 ft. in H. Isla. 

The var. picta L. (leaves variegated with white) occurs 
sometimes, but is an escape from cultivation. 

P. canariensis L. occurs, occasionally, as a casual on 
waste ground. 

2. ANTHOXANTHUM L. 

A. odoratum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Grassy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 2800 in Atholl, 

and 2500 in Lomond. 

Glumes usually more or less pubescent (var. villosum Dum.), but 
glabrous glumes are not uncommon. 



340 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

Hierochloe borealis R. & S. Dr Benjamin Carrington 
kindly sent me a piece of a plant which he believes 
he found in Glen Shee. Glen Cally (Don's station for 
this species) is not many miles distant from Glen Shee. 

3. ALOPECURUS L. 

A. alpinus Sm. (88 (?), 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. 0000000 Atholl. 

hab. Near alpine streams. Very rare. 
alt. Above 2000 ft. 

Conlach Mhor, Glen Tilt (!). 

The Glen Tilt specimens vary. In some the awns protrude be- 
yond the glumes ; these are probably the var. Watsoni Syme. 

Hooker in his ' Flora Scotica,' 1821, p. 22, says : " Mr Brown gave 
me a specimen gathered very many years ago on Ben Lawers." 
Hooker and Arnott ('Br. Fl. ,' i860) mention, however, that this is 
an error. Though 'Topographical Botany' gives Mid-Perth for 
the species I have no evidence for its occurrence in the vice-county. 

A. pratensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Meadows. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl. 

A. agrestis L. has occurred as a casual near Long- 
forgan (!), [and at Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

A. geniculatus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wet places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in L. Forth, 1750 in Atholl, 
and 1 150 in H. Isla. 



MILIUM — PHLEUM. 34 1 

The var. promts Mitt, occurs at Arnbathie, &c. In a 
specimen from Meikleour the lower flowers have two 
flower-glumes and four stamens. 



TRIBE II. AGROSTIDE.E. 
4. MILIUM L. 

M. effusum L. ([87], 88, 89.) 

l. [Forth,] Earn, Perth, Isla, o 

H. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 

hab. Wooded banks of streams. Rare. 

ALT. 

[l. Forth — Near Crook of Devon (J. H. Balfour) ; Menstrie 
Wood, Tulliallan Woods, and Forestmill (Rev. J. Couper) ; 
Castle Campbell (!).] 
Earn — Aberdalgie (R. H. Meldrum). 
Perth— Lynedoch (!) ; Murthly (!). 

Isla — " About half-way between Blairgowrie and Dunkeld " 
(E. S. Marshall). 
H. Isla— Dunkeld (C. M'Intosh). 

Breadalbane — Falls of M on ess (Balfour). 
Atholl— Glen Tilt (G. C. Druce). 
Possibly not native in all of these localities. 

5. PHLEUM L. 

P. pratense L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Meadows and fields. Common. 
alt. Ascends to n 00 ft. in H. Isla. 

The vars. nodosum L. and stoloniferum Bab. occur. 



342 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

P. alpinum L. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Near alpine streams. Very rare. 
alt. About 3700 ft. 

"Said to be found on Craigneulict above Killin, the hill which 
produces the garnets." — Lightfoot, p. 1133. 1778. 

Ben Lawers (O.S.A., 1796). 

"On Ben Lawers, Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. i., 1804, No. 5. It 
has been repeatedly found on Ben Lawers, near Ben Cruibpen (R. 
F. Hanbury) (!). 



6. AGROSTIS L. 

A. canina L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to about 2000 ft. in Atholl. 

Many of our specimens have no awn to the palea. 

A. vulgaris With. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Meadows and marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Var. aristata Anders, (lower palea awned) — Seggie- 
den (Drummond-Hay). 

Var. pumila L. is not uncommon, especially on the 
hills, but is a diseased condition, or at least the ovaries 
are always attacked by a fungus {Tilletia decipiens 
(Pers.)). ' 



CALAMAGROSTIS — DEYEUXIA. 343 

A. palustris Huds. (A. alba L.) (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields, marshes, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1250 ft. in Atholl. 

Var. coarctata (Hoffm.), teste Hackel. Loch Dochart 
(Marshall & Hanbury), Crianlarich (E. S. Marshall). 

7. CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. 

C. Epigeios Roth. (88, 89.) 

L. o o Perth, o o 

h. o o Perth, Isla, 0000 

hab. Woods. Very rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Perth — Linn of Campsie (!) ; Dalmarnock (C. M'Intosh). 
H. Perth — Side of the Tay near Inver (C. M'Intosh) (now 

washed away). 
Isla — At Blair, about three and a half miles above Dunkeld 

(C. M'Intosh). 

8. DEYEUXIA Clar. 

D. neglecta Kunth., var. c. borealis Ar. Benn. 
l. 00000 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 

HAB. 
ALT. 

Discovered near Loch Tay in 1888 ; new to the flora of Scotland. 

[Ammophila arundinacea Host. Clackmannan Pow 
(J. Couper).] 



344 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 



TRIBE III. — AVENEiE. 
9. AIRA L. 

A. caryophyllea L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry fields, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to n 50 ft. in H. Isla. 

So far as our specimens go, the smoothness or roughness of the 
leaf-sheaths does not afford a character that can be trusted in this 
species or in A. prcecox. 

Var. divaricata Pourr., Killin (Brebner) ; Murray's 
Hall Hill (!) ; Kinnoull Hill (!), &c. 

Var. aggregata Tim., Ballihluig (!); Millearn(!); Bridge 
of Isla (!); Inver (C. M'Intosh). Nyman considers this 
to be a variety of the subspecies A. multiculmis Nym. 
Both the varieties seem to pass into the type. 

A. prsecox L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Breadalbane, 1500 in H. 

Perth, and to near 1000 in Rannoch. 

10. DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. 

D. csespitosa Beauv. (87, 88. 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



DESCHAMPSIA. 345 

hab. Damp places. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3700 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Var. alpina Gaud. Cruach Ardran at 2700 ft. (Marshall 
and Hanbury.) 

D. alpina R. and S. (88, 89.) 

L. OOOOO 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, Rannoch, 

Atholl. 
hab. Wet rocks at a high altitude. Rare. 
alt. Lowest altitude not noted. Above 3000 ft. in 

Breadalbane. At 3700 in Rannoch. 

H. Breadalbane — Ben Lawers (!) ; Ben Laoigh (G. C. Druce). 
Rannoch — Ben Aulder (H. C. Watson). 
Atholl— Ben-y-Ghlo. 
Probably often passed over as a small viviparous state of D. 
cczspitosa. The panicle-branches are not always quiie smooth, so 
that the only certain mark of distinction between it and D. azspitosa 
is the position of the awn of the flower-glume ; but it is often 
difficult to find that in viviparous examples, and the plant is usually 
viviparous. 

D. flexuosa Trim (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry moors, pastures, and woods. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3700 ft. in Rannoch, 3200 in H. 

Earn, above 2450 in Breadalbane, and 2500 in 

Lomond. 

Var. montana Huds. On the hills. Intermediate 
forms connect this with the type. 

Var. voirlichensis Melvill. Common on Ben Voirhch, 
in H. Earn (J. Cosmo Melvill, Aug. 9, 1878). 



346 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

11. HOLCUS L. 

H. lanatus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Meadows, woods, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1600 ft. in Breadalbane and 1500 in 
Atholl. 

H. mollis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry woods, &c. Frequent. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl. 

12. TRISETTJM Pers. 

T. flavescens Beauv. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, 00000 
hab. Dry pastures. Local. 

ALT. 

I am rather inclined to suspect that this species is often a casual 
only, as it chiefly occurs in or near cultivated ground, and is pos- 
sibly not persistent. I have not seen it in any place which is above 
suspicion. 

13. AVENA L. 

A. puhescens L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o o o Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Dry pastures. Not common. 
alt. Ascends to 1700 ft. in H. Isla. 



ARRHENATHERUM. 347 

L. Isla — Bonhard Den (!). 

Gowrie — Muir of Durdie (Drummond-Hay). 
H. Perth — Inver (C. M'Intosh) ; near Trochrie (!). 

Isla — Pitlochry (Miss Drummond-Hay) ; Glen Shee (E. S. 
Marshall). 

Breadalbane — Grantully (Brebner). 

Rannoch — Near Blair Athole (Brebner). 
" Perth West. Syme, Cat." (' Top. Bot.') 

A. pratensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry pastures, moors, and alpine rocks. Local ; 

most common in the Highland area. 
alt. Ascends to 2750 ft. in Breadalbane, 2425 in 

Lomond, 2000 in Atholl, and 2000 in H. Isla. 

The var. alpina Sm. appears scarcely worthy of being 
retained, as it passes into the type. It and the type 
occur in both the Lowlands and the Highlands. 

Var. longifolia Parn. [teste Hackel). Ben Laoigh, above 
2000 ft. (Marshall and Hanbury), and Glen Shee at 1700 
(Marshall). 

A. fatua L. and A. strigosa Schreb. occur occasion- 
ally. Neither of them is indigenous. 

14. AERHEBTATHEET/M Beauv. 

A. avenaceum Beauv. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Fields and woods. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla and 1250 in Atholl. 

Var. bidbosum Lindl. Common in cultivated srround. 



348 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

A depauperated woodland form has pale awns. A curious form, 
of which I have seen one specimen only, from Kinnaird Burn, Pit- 
lochry (Brebner), has the flower- glumes, except in two or three 
spikelets, without awns, and the empty glumes less unequal. 



TRIBE IV. — FESTUCE^E. 

15. SIEGLING-IA Bernh. 

S. decumbens Bernh. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures and moors. Rather local. 
alt. Ascends to 1600 ft. in Breadalbane and 1400 in 

H. Isla. 

16. PHEAGMITES Trin. 

P. communis Trin. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 

hab. Rivers and lakes. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 1000 ft. in Breadalbane and 800 in 
Rannoch. 

Loch Cluny (M 'Ritchie, O.S.A., 1793). 

In the ' New Statistical Account ' of the parish of Enrol it is stated 
that reeds used to be regularly planted in the Tay. In some parts 
of the Carse of Gowrie reeds grow amongst the wheat, &c, though 
the fields have been under cultivation for generations. The roots 
have been seen by Mr J. Dawson at a depth of 20 ft. in clay beds. 

17. SESLERIA Scop. 

S. cserulea Ard. (88.) 

L. OOOOO 

h. 00000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Alpine rock-ledges. Very local. 
alt. From about 1700 ft. to nearly 3000. 



CYNOSURUS — KCELERIA — MOLINIA. 349 

" Creg-chaillech, near Killin." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 1 1 15. 
1778. Not unfrequent on the richer Breadalbane hills (!). 



18. CYNOSURUS L. 

C. cristatus L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1750 ft. in Atholl and above 1600 in 

Breadalbane and H. Isla. 

19. KCELERIA Pers. 

K. cristata Pers. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry rocky banks and pastures. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1050 ft. in Atholl and about 1200 in 
H. Isla. 
"Perth West (!)"(' Top. Bot.') 

20. MOLINIA Sehrank. 

M. cserulea Mcench. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp meadows, woods, and moors. Rather local 

in the Lowlands ; frequent in the Highlands. 
alt. Ascends to about 2600 ft. in Breadalbane and 

2100 in Atholl. 

The var. depauperata Lindl. is not uncommon. 



350 MONOCOTYLEDONE.E. 

21. CATABROSA Beauv. 

C. aquatica Beauv. (87, 89.) 

l. o o o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Watery places. Very rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

Shore of the Tay between Kingoodie and Longforgan (Drummond- 
Hay)(!); formerly in Elcho Marsh (Drummond-Hay) ; Powgavie 
(W. Barclay) (!). 

"Perth West" ('Top Bot.') 

22. MELICA L. 

M. nutans L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks and rocks. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla, 1500 in Breadal- 
bane, and 1450 in Atholl. 

Very rare in Gowrie, occurring only in the Woody Island, near 
Perth (W. Barclay) (!). 

M. uniflora Retz. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks and rocks. Local. 
alt. Ascends to 1200 ft. in Atholl. 

23. DACTYLIS L. 

D. glomerata L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



BRIZA — POA. 351 

hab. Banks, meadows, and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2250 ft. in Breadalbane, 1800 in H. 
I si a, 1750 in Atholl, and 1450 in Rannoch. 
Callander (O.S.A., 1796). 

24. BRIZA L. 

B. media L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2150 ft. in Atholl. 

A pale greenish-yellow form is the var. lutescens Fonc. 

25. FOA L. 

[Dr White had left this genus to be wrought up, and his notes on 
it were very fragmentary. I am indebted to Mr Barclay for infor- 
mation drawn from his own knowledge of the Perthshire flora and 
from an examination of the Herbarium in the Perthshire Museum. — 
J. W. H. T.] 

P. annua L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Cultivated and waste places, roads, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3980 ft. in Breadalbane and 2600 in 

Atholl. 

Var. supina (Schrad.) teste Hack el. Rills on Ben 
Laoigh (Marshall and Hanbury). 

P. alpina L. (88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, o Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 



352 MONOCOTYLEDONE^:. 

hab. Alpine rock-ledges, &c. Not uncommon. 
alt. Between iooo ft. in Atholl and 3900 in Breadal- 
bane, 2800 in H. Isla, and 2425 in Lomond. 

P. glauca Sm. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o Earn, o o Lomond, Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Rocky ledges and slopes on mountains. 
alt. High levels ; but descending to 400 ft. near 
Lawers Inn (G. C. Druce). 

Craig-ma-Grianich (? Boswell Syme), Glen Falloch (Marshall), 
Am Binnein, Corrie Ardran, and Ben a Chroin (Marshall and 
Hanbury). 

P. Balfourii Parnell (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Lomond, Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Rocky ledges and slopes on mountains. 
alt. High levels. 

The var. b. montana Bab. is common on Ben Laoigh 
(Marshall) at 2000 ft. 

A pale-flowered variety, which also differs from the type in the 
stem-nodes not being quite covered by the sheaths, is common in 
Corrie Ardran, and occurs in Glen Falloch (Marshall and Hanbury). 

P. nemoralis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks, &c. Not rare. 
alt. From near sea-level to considerable elevations. 

Var. glaucantha Reichb., Ben Laoigh (Marshall). 
Var. divaricata Syme, Craig Cailleach (G. C. Druce). 
Var. coarctata (Gaud.) occurs in Gowrie. 



poa. 353 

P. compressa L. (88, 89.) 

l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. Waste ground. Rare or overlooked in Perthshire. 

alt. Not much above sea-level. 

Var. b. subcompressa (Parn.), at Rattray in L. Isla. 

P. Chaixii Vill. (P. sudetica Hamcke) has been found 
at Dunkeld and Birnam. It is, of course, not a native. 

P. pratensis L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. 00 Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 

hab. Pastures. (No doubt in all the districts, though 
Dr White left no notes of its distribution, and 
the specimens in the Perthshire Herbarium 
leave some unrepresented). 

alt. General, from sea-level upwards. 

Var. b. siibcceralea Sm., at Acharn in Breadalbane, and 
on Ben Dearg in Atholl. 

Var. d. strigosa Gaud., in L. Perth and in Gowrie. 

P. palustris L. (88.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, o o 

h. 00000000 

hab. Banks of rivers and ponds. Local. 

alt. Low levels. 

Discovered in 1889 by Mr William Barclay among the rank 
vegetation of the mudbanks bordering the Tay below Perth (!), and 
Benniebeg Pond near Crieff (!). (Mr Barclay thinks there is not 
sufficient evidence for certainty as to this species being native in 
Perthshire. It had not been previously found in Britain. ) 



354 MONOCOTYLEDONE^. 

P. trivialis L. (88, 89.) 

l. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. In pastures, &c. (No doubt in all the districts, 

though records are defective.) 
alt. All levels to over 2500 ft. in Breadalbane. 

Var. Koeleri (DC.) has been found in H. Perth and 
Breadalbane. 

26. GLYCERIA R. Br. 

[The MS. containing only a few scattered notes on Glyceria, the 
subjoined list has been prepared from information supplied by the 
Herbarium in the Perthshire Museum, supplemented from other 
sources.] 

G. fluitans R. Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Rannoch, o 
hab. In pools and sluggish streams. No doubt in every 
district. Common. 

ALT. 

Gr. plicata Fr. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 

hab. In sluggish and stagnant water. Local. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Gowrie — Invergowrie, and Earnside near Moncreiffe. At 
mouth of small burn a little east of Huntly Burn. 

Var. pedicellata Towns. 

L. Earn — Aberuthven (W. Martin). 
Perth — Quarry at Woodlands. 

Isla — Meikleour, and between Stenton and Caputh. 
Gowrie — Near mouth of Huntly Burn ; below Perth. 



FESTUCA. 355 

G. aquatica Sm. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. In pools and streams. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Earn — White Moss, Loch Dunning ; near Aberuthven ; Mackay 
Burn. 
Gowrie — Monorgan Burn (viviparous, in Sept. 1884). 

G. maritima Mert. and Koch [87], (89.) 
l. [Forth], 000 Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Sea-shores, within or close to limits of high st 

tides. Local. 
alt. Sea-level. 

L. Invergowrie and Powgavie. 

G. distans Wahlenb. (89.) 
l. o o o o Gowrie. 
h. 00000000 
hab. Near sea-coast. Local. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Invergowrie. 

27. FESTUCA L. 

[Ur White's notes on this genus related only to the four first 
species, and have been supplemented from the Herbarium in the 
Perthshire Museum.] 

F. arundinacea Schreb. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Near water and damp places. Common. 

ALT. 



356 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

F. pratensis Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

o Atholl. 
hab. Near water and damp places. Frequent. 

ALT. 

F. gigantea Vill. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods. Local. 

ALT. 

Var. triflora Sm. Side of Earn below Crieff (!). At 
the same place a form occurs with the awns not longer 
than the flower-glumes and often shorter. 

F. sylvatica Vill. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 

hab. Wooded rocky ravines. Local and rare. 

ALT. 

" In a moist wooded valley at the foot of Ben Lawers, 1793, Mr 
Mackay." — Smith's ' Fl. Br.' 

L. Isla — Craighall (Herdman) (!). 

H. Earn — Falls of the Ruchill, near Comrie (W. F. Millar) ; 
Edinample Castle, near Lochearnhead (!). 
Perth — Rumbling Bridge, Strathbraan (!), and near Inver (C. 

M'Intosh) ; Kincraigie Burn (!). 
Isla — Den of Reichip (!). 
Breadalbane — Acharn (!). 
Atholl — Allt Girnaig (Brebner). 

Var. decidua Sm. Perthshire (G. Don) ; Den of 
Reichip (!). 



FESTUCA. 357 

F. rubra L. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o o Gowrie. 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Probably overlooked. 

alt. All levels. 

Var. grandiflora f. alpina Hackel (ipso teste) has been 
found on Ben More by Rev. E. S. Marshall. 

F. fallax Thuill. (88, 89.) ( = F. duriuscula Fr.) 

l. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 

hab. Pastures, banks, &c. No doubt in all the dis- 
tricts. 

alt. All levels. 

F. ovina L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. o o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Pastures and waste ground. No doubt in all the 

districts. 
alt. At all levels. Very often viviparous at the higher 

levels. 

F. sciuroides Roth. (88, 89.) 

l. 0000 Gowrie. 

h. o o Perth, o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Banks and dry places. Local, and not abundant. 

alt. Low levels usually. 

L. Gowrie — Kilspindie, Perth Harbour, Craigie. 
H. Perth — Near Elcho, Tomnagarrow. 

Breadalbane — Tayside, above Aberfeldy. 



358 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 



28. BROMUS L. 

B. asper Murr. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, o 

Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods. Local. 

ALT. 

B. sterilis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, 0000 
hab. Dry places beside roads and near buildings. Local. 

ALT. 

B. commutatus Schrad. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Waste places and fields. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 1150 ft. in H. Isla (sown ?). 

[B. secalinus L. Garvel and Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

B. mollis L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Waste places and fields. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1150 ft. in H. Isla. 

Var. glabrescens Coss. Dunkeld (!); Pitlochry (Breb- 
ner) ; Kinnoull Hill (T. Drummond) ; and probably 
elsewhere. Glen Shee (E. S. Marshall). 



BRACHYPODIUM — LOLIUM. 359 



29. BRACHYPODIUM Beauv. 

B. sylvaticum R. & S. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods. Not uncommon. 

ALT. 

TRIBE V. — HORDED. 
30, LOLIUM L. 

L. perenne L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. • 
hab. Fields and waste places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1500 ft. in Atholl and 1150 in H. Isla. 

Var. tenue L. — seen at Dunkeld(!), Kinclaven Castle(!), 
and, mixed with the ordinary form, at Ardoch (!) — 
seems to be a state and not a true variety. 

Var. cristatum L. Invergowrie (!). 

Var. italicum Braun. A not unfrequent escape, and 
very variable. 

L. temulentum L. is reported as having occurred at 
Pitcaithly in 1867 (Sadler), and before that in Bendochy 
parish (Dr Barty). 



360 MONOCOTYLEDONE^E. 

31. AGEOPYEUM J. Gsertn. 

A. caninum Beauv. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded places. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to about 1150 ft. in H. Isla. 

" In the Den of Bethaick, near Perth." — Lightfoot, p. 108. 1778 

Var. Donianum F. B. White. Ben Lawers. 

A. repens Beauv. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Waste places, &c. Common. 

ALT. 

Callander (O.S.A.. 1796). 

Var. Leersianum Gray. Foot of Ben Lawers (G. C. 
Druce). 

[A. junceum Beauv. Kennetpans (J. Couper).] 

32. NARDUS L. 

N. stricta L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Barren moors and pastures. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2850 ft. in Breadalbane, 2500 in 

Lomond, and 1500 in H. Earn and L. Forth. 



NARDUS. 36l 

Hordeum murinum L. used to grow in small quantity 
near Kinfauns parish church, but seems to have dis- 
appeared of late years. 

[H. marinum Huds. Kincardine-on-Forth (J. Daw- 
son) ; Kennetpans, Clackmannan Pow, Alloa Shore, 
and Cambus (J. Couper).] 

[H. pratense L. Kennetpans and Glenochil] 



Class III.— ACOTYLEDONE^J. 
Order LXXV.— FILICES. 

TRIBE I. HYMENOPHYLLE^. 

1. HYMENOPHYLLUM Sm. 

H. unilaterale Bory. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o. 
hab. Rocks in ravines and on mountains. Rare. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Breadalbane, above 2000 

in Rannoch, to 1400 in L. Forth and 1300 in 

Lomond. 

"At the foot of the mountains in Breadalbane, in numberless 
places."— Lightfoot, p. 681. 1778. H. tunbridgense is the name 
mentioned, but H. unilaterale is the species referred to. 

L. Forth — -Kilmadock (Craig- Christie) ; [Menstrie Glen (J. 
Dawson) ; Demyat and Dollar (Rev. J. Couper) ; King's 
Seat near Dollar (!).] 
Earn — West of Glen Eagles (J.Roy). 
Perth — Logiealmond (M'Kinnon). 
Isla — Craighall (Herdman) (!). 
H. Forth — Ben Ledi (!) ; Loch Katrine (Miss Turner) ; Uam Var 
(Craig-Christie) ; Balquidder (W. Cameron). 
Earn — St Fillans (Miss Worsley). 
Perth— Glen Almond (!). 
Isla — Kindrogan. 

Lomond— Glen Falloch (E. S. Marshall). 
Breadalbane— Falls of Lochay (!) ; Craig Mhor (!) ; Falls of 



PTERIS — CRYPTOGRAMME — LOMARIA. 363 

Lawers (W. Gardiner) ; cliffs of Ben Laoigh (E. S. 
Marshall). 
Rannoch— Ben-a-Chuallaich (!) ; Allt Druidhe (!). 



TRIBE II. POLYPODIES. 

2. PTERIS L. 

P. aquilina L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, pastures, and moors. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in Rannoch and above 1550 
in Breadalbane. 

3. CRYPTOGEAMME Br. 

C. crispa Br. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Mountain rubbles. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 3680 ft, in Breadalbane, 3100 in Ran- 
noch, 2500 in Lomond, [and 1820 in L. Forth.] 

4. LOMARIA Willi 

L. Spicant Desv. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods, moors, and mountains. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 3250 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in 
Atholl, H. Forth, and H. Earn, 2500 in Lo- 
mond, [and 1500 in L. Forth.] 



364 ACOTYLEDONE.E. 

5. ASPLENIUM L. 

A. Ruta-muraria L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Walls and rocks. Local. 

alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla, 2000 in Atholl, 
[1500 in L. Forth,] 1450 in Rannoch, 1300 in 
H. Perth, and above 1000 in H. Forth. 

A. germanicum Weiss. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. 00000000 
hab. Rocks. Extremely rare. 
alt. About 300 ft. 

Stenton(!). 

A. septentrionale Hull. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. 00000000 
hab. Rocks. Rare. 
alt. About 300 ft. 

Stenton and neighbourhood (!). Had not the stations for this 
and the preceding species been repeatedly recorded, I should not 
have indicated them, but as the localities are to a certain extent 
protected, it is to be hoped that these rare plants will escape total 
extermination. 

A. Trichomanes L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. o Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Rocks and walls. Common. 

alt. Ascends to above 2500 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 
in H. Earn, 1570 in H. Isla, 1600 in Atholl, 
1400 in Rannoch, and above 1000 in H. Forth. 



ATHYRIUM— CETERACH. 365 

A. viride Huds. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp rocks amongst the hills. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2700 ft. in Breadalbane and 2500 in 

Lomond. 

Almost confined to the Highland area and its vicinity, but also 
occurs sparingly on the Ochils. 

A. Adiantum-nigrum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, o 

hab. On dry warm rocks, less frequently on walls. 
Not uncommon, especially in the Lowlands. 

alt. Ascends to 1800 ft. in H. Isla, 1450 in Rannoch, 
and above 1000 in H. Forth. 



6. ATHYRIUM Roth. 

A. Filix-foemina Roth. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp woods, rocks, and banks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Breadalbane. 

7. CETERACH Willd. 

C. officinarum Willd. (88, 89.) 
l. o Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. 00000000 
hab. Rocks and walls. Not common. 
alt. 



366 ACOTYLEDONE^E. 

"As upon the hill of Kinnoul, near Perth." — Lightfoot, p. 661. 
1778. 

L. Earn — Near Innerpeffray Castle (W. Martin). 

Gowrie — Several places on the braes of the Carse of Govvrie ( !) ; 
Moncreiffe Hill (Sir T. Moncreiffe). 



8. SCOLOPEWDRIUM Sm. 

S. vulgare Sym. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Shaded rocks and banks, and old walls. Rare. 
alt. Low levels. 

"By the side of a well at Dunblane, Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. 
vi., 1806, No. 143. 

L. Forth — Lake of Monteith (Miss M. J. Turner) ; Kippenrait 
Glen (J. Drummond) ; [Culross (J. M'Gregor); Glens of 
South side of Ochils (J. Dawson and Rev. J. Couper) (!)]. 
Earn — Near Dron (J. Ellis) ; Invermay (J. Sadler). 
Perth— Logiealmond (Wilkie) (!). 
Isla— Murrayshall (J. Sim) ; Den of Airlie (!). 
Gowrie — Occasionally on old walls (Drummond-Hay). 
H. Breadalbane — Acharn (J. M'Lean) ; Killin (Brebner). 
In some of the above-mentioned localities this species occurs 
sporadically ; in a few of them it seems to be really indigenous. 







9, 


, WOODSIA Br. 




W. 


hyperborea Br. 


(88.) 




L. 




000 








H. 




Earn, 









Lomond, Breadal- 
bane, o o 
hab. Alpine rock-ledges, not wet. Rare. 
alt. Between 1900 and 3000 ft. 

"In rupibus siccis : Ben Lawers." — J. Dickson, Fasc. ii., 1790, 
p. 29. 

H. Earn— Ben Chonzie (Balfour) (!). 

Lomond — Glen Falloch (Hanbury and Marshall). 
Breadalbane — On a number of hills, ten or twelve, from Ben 
Lawers to Craig Mhor and Ben Laoigh (!). 

Woodsia ilvensis Br. is reported from Ben Lawers and 



CYSTOPTERIS — ASPIDIUM. 367 

Ben Chonzie, but to me it seems that proof is still 
needed that a form of TV. hyperborea has not been 
mistaken for it in these localities. 

10. CYSTOPTERIS Bernh. 

C. fragilis Bernh. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp rocks and banks. Common, especially on 

the mountains. 
alt. Ascends to 3850 ft. in Breadalbane, 2800 in H. 

Forth, and 2700 in Lomond. 

C. montana Link. (88.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Damp mossy alpine rock-ledges. Very local. 

alt. Between 2000 and 2800 ft. 

Ben Lawers (W. Wilson, 1836). 

In many places from Meall Garbh (W. R. Linton) and Ben 
Lawers in the east to Craig Mhor and Ben Laoigh in the west (!). 

11. ASPIDIUM S-w. 

A. Lonchitis Sw. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Amongst large stones and in clefts of rocks on the 

mountains. Local. 
alt. From about 500 ft. in H. Perth and 1250 in 

Atholl to 3500 in Breadalbane and 2700 in H. 

Earn. 

"Mr Stuart observed it among the mountains of Breadalbane." — 
Lightfoot, p. 669. 177S. 



368 ACOTYLEDONE^E. 

A. aculeatum Sw. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Shaded ravines, banks, and rocks. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2500 ft. in Breadalbane, 2000 in 

Atholl and H. Earn, and 1500 in H. Isla. 

" My specimens are from the Den of Duplin, Perthshire." — Don, 
Fasc. iii., 1805, No. 69. 

The var. lobatum Sw. (considered to be a species or 
subspecies by some botanists) is the more frequent 
form. The var. lonchitioides seems to be merely a young 
form, and occurs occasionally. 

A. angulare Willd. has been reported from Invermay 
and Glen Farg, but apparently does not occur in either 
of these places. 

12. LASTR^A Presl. 

L. Filix-mas Presl. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie, 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, moors, and mountains. Common. 

ALT. 

Var. paleacea Moore, [above 1500 ft. in L. Forth;] 
and about 2600 in H. Isla (Marshall). 

L. spinulosa Presl. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods and damp places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2400 ft. in Atholl and Lomond. 



TOLYPODIUM. 369 

L. dilatata Presl. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Woods, banks, and rocks. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3450 ft. in Rannoch, 3400 in Breadal- 
bane, and 2800 in H. Forth. 

L. Oreopteris Presl. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods, moors, and mountain pastures. Common 
in the Highland area, rather local in the Low- 
lands. 

alt. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Breadalbane and 2900 in 
Atholl. 

L. Thelypteris Presl. has been, I am informed, planted 
in a marsh near Dunning. 

L. semula Brackenridge (89). Reported in A. Bennett's 
' Records of Scottish Plants for 1892 ' from E. Perth, on 
authority of Rev. E. Marshall. 

13. POLYPODIUM L. 

P. vulgare L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Rocks, banks, walls, and trees. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2S00 ft. in Breadalbane, 2600 in 
Lomond, 2200 in Atholl, 2000 in H. Earn, 1800 
in Rannoch, [and 1500 in L. Forth.] 
2 A 



370 ACOTYLEDONE/E. 

14. PHEGOPTERIS Fee. 

P. polypodioides Fee (Polypodium Phegopteris L.) 

(87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Woods, and amongst stones on the mountains. 
Common in the Highland area, more local in 
the Lowland area. 

alt. Ascends to 3680 ft. in Breadalbane, 3000 in Ran- 
noch, 2800 in H. Forth, and 2750 in Atholl. 

"In Achmore Wood, at the head of Loch Tay." — Lightfoot, p. 
1 130. 1778. 

P. Dryopteris Fee {Poly podium Dry op ten's L.) (87, 
88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Wooded banks and mountain rubbles. Common, 

especially in the Highland area. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Rannoch, 2800 in H. Forth, 

2750 in Atholl, 2600 in H. Earn, 2500 in 

Breadalbane, [and 1600 in L. Forth.] 
"About Dunkeld, in Stormount, &c." — Lightfoot, p. 678. 1778. 

P. Eobertiana A. Br. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

H. o o o Breadalbane, 
hab. Limestone rubbles. Very local and rare. 
alt. Near 1000 ft. 

Once locally abundant near Aberfeldy (Ramsay, 1866) ; now 
very rare. I am inclined to think that the species may be in- 
digenous in Perthshire, though the opposite opinion may be reason- 
ably entertained. 



PSEUDATHYRIUM — OSMUNDA. 371 

15. PSEUDATHYRIUM Newm. 

P. alpestre Newra. (88, 89.) 
l. o o o o o 

h. o o o o Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Damp shaded places at a high altitude. Local. 
alt. From about 1500 to 3400 ft. in Breadalbane to 

2900 in Lomond. 

Ben Aulder (H. C. Watson, 1841 ). This plant does not seem to 
bear spores so freely in Perthshire as it does in Aberdeenshire. 
"Perth West. F. M. Webb" ('Top. Bot.') 

P. flexile Newm. (88.) 

L. O O O O O 

h. o o o o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. Damp shaded places at a high altitude. Rare. 
alt. 

H. Breadalbane — Glen Lyon (J. Brebner) ; near Ben Cruban, 
Killin (D. H. Haggart). 
Rannoch — Ben Aulder (!). 



TRIBE III. — OSMUNDE^. 
16. OSMUNDA L. 

0. regalis L. (87, 88.) 
l. [Forth], 0000 

h. Forth, Earn, 000 Breadalbane, o o 
hab. Damp places near lakes. Rare. 

ALT. 

Loch Ard (Graham, O.S.A., 1796). "All along the northern 
shores of Lochard. It grows in such profusion upon the sides of 
the river that unites Loch Con with Lochard, a little beyond a 
place called Blairuskan, as to cover whole acres of ground." — 
Graham's 'Sketches,' 1812. 



372 ACOTYLEDONE.E. 

L. [Forth — Culross (J. M'Gregor). Now very rare, or probably 

extirpated (Rev. J. Couper).] 
H. Forth— Loch Ard and Loch Drunkie (J. Drummond) ; Loch 
Katrine (J. Young) ; Balquidder (W. Cameron) (now 
extinct). 
Earn— St Fillans (Miss Worsley). 

Breadalbane — Near east end of Loch Tay (J. Roy). Now 
extinct (?). 



TRIBE IV. — OPHIOGLOSSEjE. 
17. OPHIOGLOSSUM L. 

0. vulgatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. [Forth], Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Pastures and woods, usually on a clay soil. Very 
local. 

ALT. 

"As about Dunsinnane Hill, in Gowrie, &c." — Lightfoot, p. 651. 
1778. 

L. [Forth — Culross (J. M'Gregor); Menstrie, Kincardine, and 
Tulliallan (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Earn — Near Dupplin ; Invermay (J. Sadler). 
Perth— Near Stanley (T. Marshall). 
Isla — Scone Palace (M'Kinnon). 

Gowrie — Kinfauns (!) ; Seggieden (Drummond- Hay) (!). 
H. Isla — Den of Reichip (Arnott, 182 1). No recent record. 

18. BOTKYCHIUM Sw. 

B. Lunaria Sw. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pastures, grassy banks, moors, and mountain 

ledges. Not uncommon, but more abundant 

some years than others. 
alt. Ascends to 3350 ft. in Breadalbane and 2700 in 

H. Isla. 



EQUISETUM. 373 

Order LXXVL— EQUTSETACEJfi. 

1. EQUISETUM L. 

E. arvense L. (87, 88, 89.) 
u Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Roadsides, fields, damp woods, &c. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 2350 ft. in Breadalbane and 1900 in 

Atholl. 

Var. alpestre Wahl. Corrie dubh Ghalair, at 2700 ft., 
and Glen Lochay (E. S. Marshall). 

E. pratense Ehrh. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 
noch, Atholl. 

hab. Well-drained places, usually on the banks of rivers 
and streams. Local. 

alt. Ascends to nearly 3000 ft. in Breadalbane and 
2150 in Atholl. 

E. sylvaticum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Marshy places in woods, &c. Common. 

alt. Ascends to 2800 ft. in Breadalbane, 2300 in 

Atholl, and 1700 in Rannoch. 

" At Mal-nan-tarmonach in Breadalbane." — -Stuart in Lightfoot, 
p. 646. 177S. 

Var. capillare Hoffm. Ben Lawers (G. C. Druce) ; 
Fortingall (E. F. Linton). 



374 ACOTYLEDONEvE. 

E. palustre L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Marshy places. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Breadalbane, 2700 in 

Lomond, and 1300 in L. Earn (Ochils). 

E. limosum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Pools, lakes, rivers, and marshes. Common. 
alt. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Breadalbane, 2100 in 

Atholl, and 2064 in Lomond. 

Loch Cluny (M'Ritcbie in O.S.A., 1793). 

E. hyemale L. ([87], 88, 89.) 

l. o o Perth, Isla, o 

h. o o o o o Breadalbane, o o 

hab. Damp places in woods. Rare. 

alt. Low levels. 

" Perth West" ('Top. Bot.') Glenalmond and Crieff. 
L. Perth — Banks of Tay near Kinclaven ( !). 

Isla — Banks of Tay above Stobhall (!). 
H. Breadalbane — Kenmore. 

E. variegatum Schleich. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, o Atholl. 
hab. Alpine marshy places. Rare. 
alt. Between 1000 ft. in Atholl and 2700 in Bread- 
albane; 1250 in H. Isla. 



LYCOPODIUM. 375 

h. Isla — Glen Lochsie (E. S. Marshall). 

Breadalbane — Ben Laoigh (!); Craig Mhor (!); AUt Innis 
Choarach (!) ; Craig na Caillich and Cam Chreag (E. F. 
Linton). 
Atholl— Near Forest Lodge, Glen Tilt (!). 
More usually lowland and maritime than alpine in Britain. It 
occurs on both sides of the mouth of the Tay. 



Order LXXVII.— LYCOPODIACE^E. 
1. LYCOPODIUM L. 

L. clavatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry moors, more rarely in woods. Common in 

the Highland area, local in the Lowlands. 
alt. Ascends to 2760 ft. in Atholl. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 

L. annotinum L. (88, 89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, Atholl. 
hab. Dry alpine moors, very rarely in lowland woods. 

Not common. 
alt. From 200 ft. in L. Isla and 800 in Rannoch to 

2600 in Ff. Isla and 2400 in Atholl. 

Most common in Rannoch, Atholl, and H. Isla. The only L. 
Isla station is Muirton Wood near Blairgowrie (Sturrock) (!), 
an unusually low-lying locality for a species that rarely occurs, else- 
where in Perthshire, below 2000 ft. 



376 ACOTYLEDONE^E. 

L. alpinum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, o o Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Dry moors, chiefly on the mountains. Common 
in the Highlands, rare in the Lowland area. 

alt. Ascends to 3680 ft. in Breadalbane, 3547 in Ran- 
noch, 2900 in H. Forth, 2.700 in H. Earn, 2600 
in H. Isla, and 2500 in Lomond. In Gowrie 
it descends to about 400 ft. 

Var. decipiens Syme. Ben Lawers (G. C. Druce). 

L. complanatum. Allt Dubh Gholair at 1250 (E. S. 
Marshall), now referred to L. alpinum var. decipiens by 
Marshall. 

L. inundatum L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. o o o o o 

H. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o o Rannoch o 

hab. Bare peaty places liable to inundation. Rare. 

ALT. 

"On the heathy moors above Blair, in Atholl." — Dr Parsons in 
Lightfoot, p. 687. 

H. Forth — Ben Ledi (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers). 
Earn — St Fillans (Miss Worsley). 
Isla — Loch of Lows, Dunkeld ( !). 
Rannoch — Below Schiehallion (T. Rogers). 

L. Selago L. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, 000 Gowrie. 

H. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Moors, but chiefly on the mountains. Common 

in the Highland area, rare in the Lowland area. 



SELAGINELLA— ISOETES — PILULARIA. 377 

alt. Ascends from under 100 ft. in L. Forth to 3680 
in Breadalbane, 3547 in Rannoch, 3000 in 
Atholl, and 2600 in H. Isla. 

Aberfoyle (Graham in O.S.A., 1796). 



Order LXXVIIL— SELAGINELLACE/E. 
1. SELAGUIELLA Beauv. 

S. selaginoides Gray. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 

h. Forth, Earn, Perth, Isla, Lomond, Breadalbane, 
Rannoch, Atholl. 

hab. Damp and marshy places, especially on the moun- 
tains. Not uncommon in the Highlands, rarer 
in the Lowlands. 

alt. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Breadalbane and 2850 in 
Rannoch. 

2. ISOETES L. 

I. lacustris L. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, Atholl. 
hab. Lakes. Not uncommon. 
alt. Ascends to 2300 ft. in Atholl. 

"At the west end of Loch Tay." — Stuart in Lightfoot, p. 6S4. 
177S. 

Order LXXIX.— MARSILEACE^E. 
1. PILULARIA L. 

P. globulifera L. (87, 88, 89.) 
L. Forth, o Perth, Isla, Gowrie. 
h. Forth, o Perth, Isla, 0000 



378 ACOTYLEDONE.E. 

hab. Muddy edges of lakes, ponds, and ditches. 

Local. 
alt. Ascends to close upon iooo ft. in H. Isla. 

"Moss of Cairny near Duplin, and in the Moss of Balgoune, 
both in Perthshire." — Don, Fasc. viii., 1806, No. 197. 

L. Forth — Doune (Craig-Christie) ; [Tulliallan (Rev. J. Couper).] 
Perth — To the north and west of Methven (!) ; Meadow Bog, 

Murthly Castle (!). 
Isla — Fingask Loch (!); Loch Cluny (M'Ritchie in ' F. S.,' 

1 821). No recent record. 
Gowrie — Moncreiffe (!) ; Rossie Priory (!). 
H. Forth — Loch Lnbnaig (!). 

Perth — Loch Tulliebeltane (!). 
Isla— Loch Ordie (!) ; Cally Loch (!). 



Class ALG^E. 

Order CHARACE/E. 

[Messrs Henry and James Groves have kindly, from their un- 
equalled knowledge of the distribution of the Characese in Britain, 
supplied information from which the subjoined record of species and 
varieties of these curious plants found in Perthshire has been drawn 
up.— J. W. H. T.] 

1. CHARA L. 

C. fragilis Desv. (87, 88, 89.) 

l. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 

h. o o o Isla, o Breadalbane, Ran- 

noch, o 
hab. In pools and lochs. 
alt. Up to 1800 ft. 

Var. capillacea Coss. and G. (88, 89.) 

L. Earn — Ochtertyre (A. Sturrock). 

Isla — Stormont Loch, near Blairgowrie (A. Sturrock). 
11. Rannoch — North of Schiehallion (R. Braithwaite). 

Var. Hedwigii Kuetz. (89.) 

L. Isla — Monkmyre (A. Sturrock). 

Var. delicatula Braun. (87, 88.) 

H. Forth — Stream at Kingshouse railway-station (R. Kidston). 
Rannoch — North of Schiehallion (R. Braithwaite). 



380 ALG^E. 

Var. Shirrockii H. and J. Groves (89.) 

L. Isla — Monk my re (A. Sturrock). "The original and only 
locality for this curious form, which we think may prove to 
be a hybrid between C. fragilis and some other species." — 
H. and J. G. 



0. aspera Willd. (87, 88, 89.) 

L. Forth, Earn, o Isla, o 

h. 0000000 
hab. In lochs. 
alt. Low levels. 

1. Forth— Lake of Menteith (R. Kidston). 
Earn — Ochtertyre Loch (A. Sturrock). 

Isla — Rae Loch and Ardblair Loch (A. Sturrock). 

Var. subinermis Kuetz. (89.) 
L. Isla — Monkmyre and Fingask Loch (A. Sturrock). 

0. hispida L. (89.) 

l. o o o Isla, o 

h. 0000 000 

hab. Lochs. 

alt. Low levels. 

L. Isla — White Loch (A. Sturrock). 

Var. rudis Braun. (89.) 

L. Isla— Rae Loch and White Loch (A. Sturrock). 

0. vulgaris L. ([87], 89.) 
l. [Forth], o o Isla, o 
h. 00 000 00 

hab. Ponds and lochs. 
alt. 



NITELLA. 381 

L. [Forth— Dollar (Hb. Boswell).] 

Isla — Near Blairgowrie (A. Sturrock). 

Var. loiigibracteata Kuetz. (89.) 
L. Isla — Near Blairgowrie (A. Sturrock). 

Var. atrovirens (Lowe) (89.) 
h. Isla — Glen Shee (Dr John Roy). 

2. NITELLA Agardh. 

N. translucens Ag. (89.) 
l. o o o Isla, o 
h. o o o Isla, 0000 
hab. Lochs. 

ALT. 

L. Isla — Loch of Clunie (A. Sturrock). 
H. Isla — Butterston Loch (A. Sturrock). 

N. flexilis Ag. (87.) 
l. Forth, 0000 

h. 00000000 
hab. Lochs and pools. 
alt. Low levels. 

L. Forth — Lake of Menteith (R. Kidston). 

Var. crassa Braun. (88.) 

L. Earn — Balloch Loch, Drummond Pond, and Benniebeg Pond 
(A. Sturrock). 

Var. nidifica Wallm. (89.) 

L. Isla — Marlee Loch (A. Sturrock). 



N. opaca Ag. (87, 88, 89.) 
l. Forth, o o Isle 



382 ALG^E. 

h. Forth, o o Isla, o Breadalbane, 

Rannoch, o 
hab. Streams, ponds, and lochs. In many localities. 

ALT. 

[Note. — Specimens so intermediate between N. flexilis and N. 
opaca as to make their determination uncertain have been found as 
below : — 

L. Isla — Black Loch and Monkmyre (A. Sturrock). 
H. Forth— Strathyre (A. Craig-Christie). 
Earn — Loch Turret (R. Kidston). 
Breadalbane — Loch Tay (A. Craig-Christie).] 



APPENDIX. 



A careful comparison of the records contained in this 
' Flora ' with those given in ' Topographical Botany,' 
2nd ed., shows a good many additional records in the 
latter work for Perthshire, chiefly for districts S7 and 
89. Some of these rest on the authority of Dr White 
himself, and their omission from this ' Flora ' may be 
due to later investigation having shown that the evi- 
dence for their inclusion is insufficient, or to the MS. 
not having received the author's final revision. It seems 
right that they should be referred to at least in this 
Appendix. Since Dr White's own work on the Flora 
was brought to an untimely end in 1893, several papers 
relating, directly or incidentally, to the flora of Perthshire 
have been published. Of these the chief are — 

Barclay, William. Notes on Scottish Roses (Annals of 
Scottish Natural History, 1896, pp. 116-121, 169-176). 

Bennett, Arthur — 

Ledum palustre in Scotland (Journ. Bot., 1894, pp. 274, 

275)- 
Notes on British Plants, II. Carex (Journ. Bot., 1897, 
pp. 244-252, 259-264). 
Craig, William. Excursion of the Scottish Alpine Botanical 
Club to Tyndrum in 1894 (Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb., xx. 
pp. 374-378). This gives no new records, though num- 
erous alpine plants are noted as found during the 
excursion. 



384 APPENDIX. 

Linton, Edward F. — 

Forms of Alchemilla vulgaris L. (Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist. 

1895, pp. 47-49)- 
Alchemilla vulgaris L. and its segregates (Journ. Bot, 
1895, pp. 110-112). 
Marshall, Edward S. — 

On an apparently undescribed species of Cochlearia 

from Scotland (Journ. Bot., 1894, pp. 289-292; plates, 

345, 346). Describes and figures C. micacea (as a 

new species), from Ben Lawers. 

Salix aurita x herbacea in East Perth, Glen Shee (Journ. 

Bot, 1894, p. 185). 
New variety of Hieracium dovrense, Fries (Journ. Bot., 
1894, pp. 215, 216), from Glen Shee, named spcctabile, 
and fully described. 
Marshall, Edward S., and W. A. Shoolbred — 

On some Highland Plants observed in 1893 (Journ. 
Bot., 1894, pp. 164-168). In this are records relating 
to the borders of Mid Perth and Argyll, several being 
new for the vice-counties. 
Highland Plants collected in 1896 (Journ. Bot., 1897, 
pp. 65-71). Records results from Corrie Ardran and 
Glen Falloch. 
Rogers, W. Moyle — 

West Perth Plants (Journ. Bot., 1896, pp. 479, 480). 

Gives several new records for vice-county. 
On the Rubi List in the ' London Catalogue,' 9th ed. 
(Journ. Bot., 1895, PP- 45 _ 49j 77-% 2 i 100-106). The 
records of these papers, as far as relates to Perth- 
shire, are summarised below. 
On some Scottish Rubi (Journ. Bot., 1897, pp. 42-50). 
This enumerates all forms observed by the author 
and his son in 1896 in Perthshire, chiefly near Cal- 
lander and Crieff. 
Trail, James W. H. Botanical Notes from Murthly (Trans. 
Perthshire Soc. Nat. Sci., ii. part iii. pp. 127-131). The 
new locality records have mostly been included (in 
brackets) in this 'Flora.' 
White, F. Buchanan. The Flowering Plants in the Natural 



APPENDIX. 385 

History of the Banks of the Tay (Trans. Perthshire 
Soc. Nat. Sci., 1895, ii. part. ii. pp. 50-59). The sub- 
stance of this paper is embodied in the ' Flora.' 



The information derived from various sources, along 
with notes from Mr Bennett and other friends, is brought 
together below under the several genera and species; 
and minor omissions and errors are also corrected. The 
nomenclature employed by Dr White has been adhered 
to in the references to avoid confusion. 

All additional information with regard to the flora of 
Perthshire will be gratefully received by the editor, or 
by Mr William Barclay, Friar Street, Perth, for publi- 
cation in the 'Transactions of the Perthshire Society 
of Natural Science.' 

P. 45. Clematis Vitalba L. should precede Thalictrum. 

P. 47. Ranunculus Drouetii Godr. is recorded from 88 

(Mid Perth) in 'Journal of Botany,' 1884, p. 270. 
P. 53. Caltha palustris L. Add "b. Gteerangerii (Boreau), 

89 (East Perth, F. B. White) ; c. minor Syme, 87 

(West Perth)." 
P. 55. Nymphcea lutea L., b. intermedia (Ledeb.), in 

'Topog. Botany' is "89 (East Perth), Dyer." 
P. 60. Arabis petrcea Lam., var. grandijolia G. C. Druce = 

ambigua Fries. 
P. 61. A. Turrita L. has been found in 88, but is of course 

an introduction. 
P. 63. Sisymbrium pannonicum Jacq. occurred in 1897, as 

a casual, at Perth Harbour, in 88. 
P. 64. Draba rupestris R. Br. Add "89 (E. Perth), 

Mennell." 
P. 66. Cochlearia officinalis L. " alpina Wats." should 

be followed by " 87, 88, 89." Add " C. micacea 

Marshall, 88 (Mid Perth), on Ben Lawers (' Journ. 

Bot.,' 1894, pp. 289-292)." 
2 E 



386 APPENDIX. 

P. 68. Senebiera Coronopus Poir. was found, in 1897, as a 

casual, at Perth Harbour. 
P. 74. Polygala viclgaris L. Add " 87 (W. Perth)." 
P. 75. P. oxyptera Reichb. After the name place "87, 88, 
89"; and to the records on p. 75 add "W. Perth, 
W. Moyle Rogers, 1896." 
P. 82. Stellaria umbrosa. For " Opitz" read " Opiz." 

S. palnstris Ehrh. Add " 87, 88." 
P. 84. Alsine verna L. Add " 89 (East Perth) Mennell." 
P. 89. 1. 8, delete " C. alsinoides Sims." 
P. 97. Rhaimnis Frangula L., though omitted in Dr 
White's MS., was recorded by him as found, on 
30th July 1887, near Dunkeld, in (89) E. Penh 
(Proc. P.S.N.S., i. p. xxiii). 
P. 112. RUBUS. The Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, in his papers 
referred to above, having added largely to pre- 
vious records of this genus for Perthshire, I sub- 
join a list of those recorded by him, which may be 
compared with that given by Dr White on pages 
1 12-125 °f this 'Flora.' In it the arrangement 
given in the 'London Catalogue,' 9th ed., is fol- 
lowed, and the vice-counties from which each 
form has been recorded are enumerated. 

R. Idceus L. 87, 88, 89 ; b. obtusifolins Willd. 
{Leesii Bab.), 89 ; c. aspefrimns Lees, 87 (W. 
M. Rogers); R.fissus Lindl., 87, 88, 89; R. sub- 
erectus Anders., 87, 88 ; R. ftlicatus W. and 
N., 87, 88 ; R. Rogersii Linton, 87, 88, 89 ; R. 
latifolius Bab., 88 ; R. incurvatus Bab., 87 ; 
R. Lvidleianus Lees, 87, 88 ; R. rhamnifolius 
W. and N., 87, 88 ; R. nemoralis P. J. Muell., 

87 ; A", piilcherrimm Neum., 87 ; R. Schcittzii 
Lindeb., 87, 88 (not previously observed in 
Scotland) ; R. Lindebergii P. J. Muell., 87, 88 ; 
R. villicaiilis (sp. coll.), 88, 89 ; b. Selmo-i 
(Lindeb.), 87, 88, 89 ; c. insularis Aresch., 87, 

88 ; R. rhombifoliiis Weihe, 87 ; R. macrophyl- 
lus (sp. coll.), 87, 88 ; R. micans Gren. and 
Godr., 88 ; R. hiriifolins Muell. and Wirt., var. 
danicus Focke (new to Scotland), 87, 88 ; R. 



APPENDIX. 387 

pyramidalis Kalt., 87 ; R. mucronatus Blox., 

87, 88, 89 ; R. melanoxylon Muell. and Wirt, 
(new to Scotland), 87 ; R. infestus Weihe, 87, 

88, 89 ; R. Drejcri G. Jansen (new to Scot- 
land), 87 ; R. radula (sp. coll.), 88, 89 ; a. 
radula Weihe, 88 ; b. anglicanus Rogers, 87 ; 
c. ec/iinaloides Rogers, 87, 88 ; \R. Lejeunei 
W. and N.], 88 ; R. rosaceus (sp. coll.), 88, 89 ; 
b. hystrix (W. and N.), 89; R. Koehleri (sp. 
coll.), 87, 88, 89 ; b. pallidus Bab., 87, 88 ; R. 
brita?miais Rogers, 87, 88 ; R. dumetor-um W. 
and N., 88, 89 ; e. tnbercidalus, Bab., 88, 89 ; 
g.fascia/lahes P. J. Muell., 89 ; R. co?yIifolius 
Sm., 87, 88, 89 ; a. sitblustris (Lees), 88, 89 ; 

b. cyclophylhis Lindeb., 89 ; R. Balfoitriamis 
Blox., 89 ; 7?. ccesius L., 87, 88 ; R. saxatilis L., 
87, 88, 89 ; R. Chamcemorus L., 87, 88, 89. 

P. 130. Alchemilla vulgaris L. Rev. E. F. Linton, in his 
papers above referred to, gives the following 
varieties from Perthshire : a. pratensis (Schmidt), 
88, 89 ; b. alpeslris (Schmidt), 88 ; c. filicaidis 
(Buser), 88, 89. 
P. 132. Sangidsorba officinalis L. should bear the name 

Poici'inm officinale Hook. fil. 
P. 133. ROSA L. Mr William Barclay, in his 'Notes on 
Scottish Roses ' (see above), gives the conclusions 
of M. Fr. Crepin based on collections forwarded 
by him from Scotland, largely from Perthshire. 
He has also favoured me with information based 
on his researches since this paper was published. 
He enumerates the following for the vice-county : — 
Rosa pimpinellifolia L., 87, 88, 89 ; f. spinosissima 
L., 88 ; R. involuta Sm., 88, 89 ; R. pimpinel- 
lifolia x ritbiginosa, first record for Scotland, 
89 ; R. pimpinellifolia x lomeniosa, 88, 89 ; R. 
pimpinellifolia y. mollis, 89; R. mollis Sm., 
87, 88, 89 ; R. lomeniosa Sm., 87, 88, 89 ; R. 
7-itbiginosa L., 88, 89 ; R. canina L., 88, 89 ; 

c. lutetiana (Leman), 88, 89 ; e. dumalis 
(Bechst), 88, 89; j. dnmetorum (Thuill.), 87, 



388 APPENDIX. 

88, 89 ; R. subcanina (Christ.), 87, 88, 89 ; R. 
subcollina (Christ.), 88, 89 ; R. glauca Vill., 87, 
88, 89 ; R. coriifolia Fries, 87, 88, 89 ; 7?. ar- 
vensis Huds., 88, 89, in three localities in Perth- 
shire, introduced ; R. alpi7ia L., 89, introduced ; 
R. hibernica Sm., var. glabra Baker, 89. 

P. 139. Pyrics Aria Sm. After name add "88." 

P. 140. Crataegus Oxyacantha L. Though Dr White's MS. 
states that he had seen only var. monogyna (Jacq.), 
he recorded var. oxyacanthoides (Thuill.) as found, 
in 1887, by Mr W. Martin at Aberuthven (Proc. 
P.S.N.S., i. p. xxiii). 

P. 147. Sedum acre L. After name add "87, 88, 89." 

P. 148. Drosera anglica X rotimdifolia {pbovata Mert. and 
Koch). Mr Bennett, in his 'Records' for 1887, 
gives this as from 89, on the authority of Dr White. 

P. 158. Carum verticillatum Koch is recorded as found, in 
1887, in Glen Falloch (Proc. P.S.N.S., i. p. xxiii). 

P. 186. Arctium minus Bernh. Add "87, W. Moyle 
Rogers." 

P. 190. Lactuca muralis Fresen., 87, near Callander, W. M. 
Rogers. 

P. 193. Crepis succisazfolia Tausch. Add "88 (Perth M.), 
Groves." 

P. 212. Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi Spreng. Add " H. Forth." 

P. 215. Ledum palustre L. The claims of this plant (found 
some years since in Blairdrummond Moss, West 
Perth, and known for about fifty years from near 
Bridge of Allan) to be considered native in Scot- 
land are discussed, and regarded as probably valid, 
by Mr Bennett, in the ' Journ. Bot.,' 1894, pp. 274, 
275. 

P. 234. Euphrasia officinalis L. Mr F. Townsend, in a 
revision of the forms of Euphrasia found in the 
British Islands ('Journ. Bot.,' 1897, Oct.-Dec), 
enumerates the following from Perthshire : brevi- 
pila Brn. and Gremli, 87, 88 ; curta Fr., Perth ; 
gracilis Fr., 88. The genus requires further in- 
vestigation in Perthshire, as well as elsewhere in 
Scotland. 



APPENDIX. 389 

P. 238. Mentha rubra (Sm. ?). After name add "88, 89." 
M. arvensis L. After name add " 87, 88, 89." 

P. 252, line 1, Anagallis tenella L. For 87 read 88. 

P. 258. Add Polygonum maculatum Trimen and Dyer, 87, 
near Lake of Monteith, W. Moyle Rogers. Dr 
White has omitted this from his. MS., but records it 
as found, in 1887, " in several places near Perth." 

P. 259. RUMEX. A curious dock (? R. obtusifolius) grows, 
under water, in a mill-dam not far from Murthly 
Station. Its leaves are long, narrow, and very 
thin. The specimens were not in a state to per- 
mit of certain determination of the species (Trail, 
Tr. P.S.N. S., ii. part iii. p. 129). 

P. 260. Rumex sanguineus L., b. viridis (Sibth.) After name 
add "87, 88, 89." 
R. conglomcratus Murray. After name add "88, 
89." 

P. 284. Malaxis paludosa Sw. Delete "89." 

P. 287. Epipactis palustris Crantz. Add " Atholl," as this 
plant was found in 1897, by Mr Caiman, Dundee, 
on the bank of the Garry, below Blair Athole. 

P. 313. Za>inic]iellia pedicnculata Reichb. (Z. pedicellata 
E.B.) Add " 89 (G. C. Druce, 1S93)." 

P. 314. Schcenus nigricans L. The occurrence of this plant 
in Glen Shee is confirmed by a specimen gathered 
by Mr Druce, which is in the herbarium of the 
Botanical Record Club in the British Museum. 

P. 321. Carex rupestris All. Mr Ewing has gathered this 
in Glen Loch Lochay and on Meall Ghaordie. 

P. 328. C. aquatilis Whin., var. cpigeios Lasst. Mr Ben- 
nett has discussed (' Journ. Bot.,' 1897, p. 248) the 
plant referred to under this name, and gives 
reasons that have led him to regard it as aqua- 
tilis X Goodenowii juncella. Rev. E. S. Marshall 
expresses the opinion ('Journ. Bot.,' March 1898, 
p. 77) that this " is clearly a form of Goodenowii, 
and not of aquatilis. 

P. 330. C. limosa L. Delete "(?)" after "Forth." 

P. 331. C. vaginata Tausch. Add "87 (Marshall and Han- 
bury, 1890) ; var. borealis (And.), 87 (P. Ewing)." 



390 APPENDIX. 

P. 332. C. capillaris L. "87 (P. Ewing, as var. alpestris 
And., Trans. Glasg. N. H. Soc, 1887, p. no)." 

P. 237- Rev. E. S. Marshall records (' Journ. Bot.,' March 
1898, pp. 81, 82) the following from Perthshire as 
found by himself: C. rostratax vesicaria, found in 
a bog on Meall Ghaordie, at 2800 feet, in 1891, 
totally sterile. 
C. vesicaria L., var. alpigena Fries, gathered in 
1888 and 1889 in a large bog on the east side of 
Ben More, below Am Binnein, and in 1891 on 
Glen Lyon side of Meall-nan-Tarmachan. 

P. 338. C. pulla Good. Add "87 (S. Grieve, 1888). 89 
('Top. Botany')-" 
\C. saxatilis is given in 'Top. Botany' for 88, 89.] 
C. Graha7iii Boott. Rev. E. S. Marshall (Lc.) re- 
cords this from the same bog and from Meall 
Ghaordie, and states that Herr Kukenthal con- 
firms his view that it is a variety of C. vesicaria. 

P. 350. Catabrosa aquatica Beauv. Add "88." 

P. 351. Poa alpina L. Is mentioned in ' Top. Botany ' from 
"87 (F. B. White)," and specimens from 87, found 
and recorded by Mr Ewing, agree with examples 
of var. Lapponum Lasst. supplied by Andersson 
(A. Bennett, in 'Scot. Nat.,' 1889, p. 103). 

P. 352. P. glanca Sm. Add " 89 (P. Ewing, 1887)." 

P. 355. Glyceria aquatica Sm. is referred in 'Top. Botany' 
to "87, Syme, MS." 

P. 356. Festuca sylvaticaVWl. is referred in 'Top. Botany' 
to "87, Bot. Soc. Ed." 

P. 357. F. scitiroides Roth, is also referred in 'Top. 
Botany' to "87." 

P. 366. Woodsia hyperborca R. Br. Add "87 (S. Grieve, 
1888)." 

P. 377. Isoetcs echinospora Dur. Though not mentioned in 
Dr White's MS., he recorded it as found, on 6th 
August 1887, during an excursion to Loch Lubnaig 
and the Pass of Leny, in 87, W. Perth. 

James W. H. Trail. 



INDEX. 



Acer L. 

campestre L., 98. 

Pseudoplatanus L., 97. 
Achillea L., 180. 

Millefolium L., 180. 

Ptarmica L., 1S0. 
Aconitum L., 54. 

Napellus L., 54. 
Adonis L. 

autumnalis L., 46. 
Adoxa L., 167. 

Moschatellina L., 167. 
JEgopodium L., 158. 

Podagraria L., 158. 
.^thusa L., 160. 

Cynapium L., 160. 
AgrimoniaL., 131. 

Eupatoria L., 131. 

odorata Mill, 132. 
Agropyrani J. Gaertn., 360. 

caninum Beauv. , 360. 
var. Donianum F.B. White, 360. 

junceum Beauv., 360. 

repens Beauv., 360. 

var. Leersianum Gray, 360. 
Agrostis L., 342. 

alba L., 343. 

canina L., 342. 

palustris Huds., 343. 

var. coarctata (Hoffm.), 343. 

vulgaris With., 342. 

■var. aristata Anders., 342. 
i'ar. pumila L., 342. 
Aira L., 344. 

caryophyllea L., 344. 
var. aggregata Tim., 344. 
var. divaricata Pourr., 344. 

prascox L., 344. 
Ajuga L., 246. 

reptans, L. , 246. 



Alchemilla L., 130. 

alpina L., 131. 

arvensis Scop., 130. 

vulgaris L. , 130. 

var. alpestris (Schmidt), 387. 
var. filicaulis (Buser), 387. 
var. hybrida Willd., 131. 
var. moutanaWMd., 131. 
var. pratensis (Schmidt), 387. 
Alisma L., 304. 

Plantago L., 304. 

ranunculoides L., 304. 
var. repens Dav., 305. 
Allium L., 292. 

carinatum L., 292. 

oleraceum L., 292. 

Scorodoprasum L., 292. 

ursinum L., 292. 

vineale L., 292. 
Alniis L., 267. 

glutinosa L., 267. 
Alopecurus L., 340. 

agrestis L., 340. 

alpinus Sm., 340. 

geniculatus L., 340. 
var. pronus Mitt., 341. 

pratensis L., 340. 
Alsrrte, 84. 

rubella Wahl., 8s- 

sulcata Schleich., Ss. 

verna Jacq., 84, 386. 
Alyssum L. 

incanum L., 65. 
Amniophila L. 

arundinacea Host., 343. 
Anacharis Alsinastrum Bab., 28 
Anagallis 251. 

arvensis L., 251. 

var. csrulea Schreb., 251. 

tenella L., 252, 389. 



392 



INDEX. 



Anchusa L., 221. 

arvensis Breb., 221. 

sempervirens L., 221. 
Andromeda L., 213. 

Polifolia L. , 213. 
Anemone L., 46. 

nemorosa L., 46. 
Angelica L., 161. 

sylvestris L., 161. 
Antennaria Br., 179. 

dioica Br., 179. 

var. pedicellata B. White, 180 

margaritacea, 180. 
Anthemis, 181. 

arvensis L., 181. 

Cotula L., 181. 

tinctoria L., 181. 
Anthoxanthum L., 339. 

odoratum L., 339. 
var. villosum Dura., 339. 
Anthriscus Hoffm., 163. 

sylvestris Hoffm., 164. 
var. pilosula DC, 164. 

vulgaris Pers., 163. 
Anthyllis L., 103. 

Vulneraria L., 103. 

var. Dillenii (Schultz), 103. 
Antirrhinum L. 

majus L., 227. 
Apium L., 158. 

graveolens L., 158. 

inundatum Reichb., 158. 
Aquilegia L., 54. 

vulgaris L., 54. 
Arabis L., 60. 

hirsuta Br., 61. 

perfoliata Lam., 61. 

petraea Lam., 60. 

var. grandifolia Druce, 60, 385. 

Turrita L., 385. 
Archangelica. 

officinalis Hoffm., 161. 
Arctium L., 186. 

intermedium Lange, 186. 

minus Bernh., 186, 388. 
Arctostaphylos Adans., 212. 

(alpina Spreng.), 212. 

Uva-ursi Spreng., 212, 388. 
Aremonia DC. 

agrimonioides DC, 132. 
Arenaria, 83. 

serpyllifolia L., 84. 

trinervia L., 83. 
Armeria Willd., 252. 

vulgaris Willd., 252. 

var. planifolia Syme, 252. 
Arnoseris Gaertn. 

pusilla Gaertn., 208. 
Arrhenatherum Beauv., 347. 

avenaceum Beauv., 347. 
Artemisia L., 182. 

Absinthium L., 182. 

vulgaris L., 182. 
Arum L. 



Arum — contd. 

maculatum L., 303. 
Asperula L., 168. 

odorata I.., 168. 

taurina L., 169. 
Aspidium Sw., 367. 

aculeatum Sw. , 368. 
var. lobatum Sw., 368. 

(angulare Willd.), 368. 

Lonchitis Sw., 367. 
Asplenium L., 364. 

Adiantum-nigrum L., 365. 

germanicum Weiss, 364. 

Ruta-muraria L., 364. 

septentrionale Hull, 364. 

Trichomanes L., 364. 

viride Huds., 365. 
Aster L., 176. 

Tripolium L., 176. 
Astragalus L., 104. 

alpinus L. , 105. 

glycyphyllos L., 104. 

hypoglottis L., 105. 
Astrantia L., 157. 

major L., 157. 
Athyrium Roth., 365. 

Filix-fcemina Roth., 365. 
Atriplex L., 255. 

Babingtonii Woods, 256. 

hastata L. , 255. 

laciniata L., 256. 

littoralis L., 255. 

patula L., 255. 
var. angustifolia (Sm.), 255. 

portulacoides L., 
Atropa L. 

Belladonna L., 225. 
A vena L., 346. 

fatua L., 347. 

pratensis L., 347. 

var. alpina Sm., 347. 
var. longifolia Parn., 347. 

pubescens L., 346. 

strigosa Schreb., 347. 



Ballota L. 
nigra L., 249. 

var. fcetida Koch, 249. 
Barbarea Br., 59. 
precox Br., 59. 
vulgaris Br., 59. 
var. arcuata Reichb., 59. 
Bartsia L., 233. 
alpina L. , 233. 
Odontites Huds., 233. 
var. serotina, 234. 
var. verna, 234. 
Bellis L., 177. 

perennis L., 177. 
Berberis L. 

vulgaris L., 54. 
Beta L. 

maritima L., 255. 



INDEX. 



393 



Betula L., 266. 

nana L., 266. 

pubescens Ehrh., 266. 

var. denudata Gr. and Gr., 266. 
var. parvifolia Wimm., 266. 
Bidens L., 185. 

cernua L., 185. 

tripartita L., 185. 
Borago L. 

officinalis L., 221. 
Botrychium Sw., 372. 

Lnnaria Sw., 372. 
Brachypodium Beauv., 359. 

sylvaticum R. & S., 359. 
Brassica L., 64. 

adpressa Boiss, 64. 

alba Boiss, 64. 

campestris L., 64. 

monensis Huds., 64. 

nigra Koch, 64. 

polymorpha Syme, 64. 

Rapa L., 64. 

Sinapis Vis., 64. 
Briza L., 351. 

media L., 351. 
Bromus L., 358. 

asper Murr., 358. 

commutatus Schrad., 358. 

mollis L., 358. 

var. glabrescens Coss., 359. 

secalinus L., 358. 

sterilis L., 358. 
Buda Adans., 88. 

marina Dum., 88. 

rubra Dum., 88. 
Butomus L., 305. 

umbellatus L., 305. 

Cakile L. 

maritima Scop., 70. 
Calamagrostis Adans., 343. 

Epigeios Roth., 343. 
Calamintha Moench, 240. 

Acinos Clairv., 240. 

Clinopodium Benth., 240. 
Callitriche L., 150. 

autumnalis L., 151. 

hamulata Kuetz., 150. 

pedunculata DC., 151. 

platycarpa Kuetz., 150. 

stagnalis Scop., 150. 

var. serpyllifolia Lonn., 150. 

vernalis Koch, 150. 
Calluna Salis., 214. 

Erica DC., 214. 
Caltha L., 53. 

palustris L. , 53. 

var. Guerangerii, 385. 
var. minor, 53, 385. 
Camelina Crantz. 

sativa Crantz, 67. 
Campanula L., 209. 

glomerata L., 209. 

latifolia L., 209. 



Campanula — contd. 
persicifolia L., 210. 
rapunculoides L., 210. 
rotundifolia L., 210. 

var. hirta Koch, 210. 

var. lancifolia M. and K., 210. 

var. velutina DC, 210. 
Capsella Moench, 67. 

Bursa-pastoris Moench, 67. 
Cardamine L., 61. 
amara L., 62. 

var. lilacina B. White, 62. 
flexuosa With., 61. 

var. umbrosa Gr. and Gr., 62. 
hirsuta L., 62. 
pratensis L., 62. 
Carduus L., 188. 
arvensis Curt., 189. 

var. argenteus Vest., 189. 

var. horridus Koch, 189. 

var. mitis Koch, 189. 

var. setosus (Bess.), 189. 
crispus L., 188. 

var. genuinus Gr. and Gr., 188. 

var. litigiosus Gr. and Gr., 188. 

var. polyanthemos Gren., 188. 
eriophorus Roth., 189. 
heterophyllus L., 190. 
Ianceolatus L., 189. 
nutans L., 188. 
palustris L., 189. 
tenuiflorus, 189. 
Carex L., 320. 
acuta L., 329. 
alpina Sw., 326. 
amptcllacca Good., 337. 
aquatilis Whin., 327. 

var. elatior Bab., 328. 

var. epigeios Lsst., 328, 389. 

var. virescens And., 328. 

var. Watsoni Syme, 328. 
atrata L., 329. 
binervis Sm., 335. 
Boenninghauseniana Weihe, 326. 
canescens L., 324. 
capillaris L., 332, 390. 
dioica L., 320. 

var. scabrella And., 320. 
disticha Huds., 322. 
echinata Murr., 325. 
filiformis L., 336. 
flava L., 334. 
flavaXpulla, 334. 
fulva Good., 334. 

var. sterilis, 335. 
glauca Scop., 332. 
Goodenowii Gay, 327. 

var. juncella Fr., 327. 
Grahami Boott., 338, 390. 
hirta L., 336. 
irrigua Sm., 330. 
laevigata Sm., 335. 
leporina L., 324. 

var. argyroglochin Hornem., 324. 



394 



INDEX. 



Carex : Ieporina — contd. 

var. bracteata Syme, 324. 
var. capitata Sond., 324. 

limosa L., 330, 389. 

magellanica Lam., 330. 

muricata L., 323. 

obtusangula Ehrh., 337. 

Oederi Ehrh., 334. 

pallescens L., 332. 
var. undulata Kze., 332. 

paludosa Good., 338. 
■var. Kochiana Gaud., 339. 

panicea L., 332. 

paniculata L., 323. 

pauciflora Lightf., 321. 

pendula Huds., 336. 

pilulifera L., 333. 

prascox Jacq., 333. 

pulicaris L., 321. 

pulla Good., 338. 

rariflora Sni., 331. 

remota L. , 325. 

rigida Good., 326. 

riparia Curlis, 339. 

rupestris All., 321, 3S9. 

saxatilis L., 389. 

sylvatica Huds., 335. 

teretiuscula Good., 322. 

ustulata Whlnb., 330. 

vaginata Tausch., 331, 389. 
var. borealis And., 331, 389. 

vesicaria L., 337, 390. 
var. alpigena Fr., 390. 
var. dichroa And., 338. 

vulpina L., 323. 

var. nemorosa Reb., 323. 
Carpinus L. 

Betulus L. , 267. 
Carum L. 

Carui L., 158. 

Petroselinum Benth., 159. 

verticillatum Koch, 388. 
Castalia Salisb., 54. 

speciosa Salisb., 54. 
Catabrosa Beauv., 350. 

aquatica Beauv., 350, 390. 
Caucalis L., 162. 

Anthriscus Huds., 162. 
Centaurea L., 187. 

Calcitrapa L., 187. 

Cyanus L., 188. 

Jacea L., 187. 

nigra L., 187. 

Scabiosa L., 187. 
Centranthus DC. 

ruber DC., 173. 
Centunculus L., 251. 

minimus L., 251. 
Cephalanthera Rich., 2S7. 

ensifolia Rich., 287. 

grandifolia S. F. Gray, 287. 
Cerastium L., 79. 

alpinum L., 81. 

var. pilosopubescens Benth. 



Cerastium — contd. 

arcticum Lange, 81. 

arvense L., 81. 

glomeratum Thuill., So. 
var. apetalum Dum., So. 

semidecandrum L., 79. 

tetrandrum Curt., 79. 

triviale Link., 80. 
var. holosteoides Fr., 80. 

trigynum Vill., 82. 
Ceratophyllum L., 264. 

demersum L., 264. 
Ceterach. Willd., 365. 

officinarum Willd., 365. 
Cha3rophy]lum L., 163. 

temulum L., 163. 
Chara L., 379. 

aspera Willd., 380. 

var. subinermis Kuetz., 380. 

fragilis Desv., 379. 
var. capillacea Coss. and G., 379. 
var. delicatula Braun., 379. 
var. Hedwigii Kuetz., 379. 

hispida L., 380. 
var. rudis Braun., 380. 

vulgaris L., 380. 

var. atrovirens (Lowe), 381. 
var. longibracteata Kuetz., 381. 
Cheiranthus L. 

Cheiri L., 59. 
Chelidonium L. 

majus L., 56. 
Chenopodium L., 254. 

album L., 254. 

var. candicans Lam., 255. 
var. paganum Reichb., 255. 
var. viride Syme, 255. 

Bonus-Henricus L. , 255. 

rubrum L., 255. 
Chrysantliemum L., 182. 

Leucanthemum L. , 182. 

Parthenium Pers., 182. 

segetum L. , 182. 
Chrysosplenium L. , 1 44. 

alternifolium L., 144. 

oppositifolium L., 144. 
Cichorium L. 

Intybus L., 208. 
Cicuta L., 158. 

virosa L., 158. 
Circsa L., 156. 

alpina L., 156. 

lutetiana L., 156. 
Claytonia L. 

perfoliata Don, 89. 

sibirica L., 89. 
Clematis L. 

Vitalba L., 45. 
Cnieus (see Carduus), 189. 
Cochlearia L., 66. 

Armoracia L., 66. 

danica L. , 66. 

grcenlandica L., 66. 

micacea Marshall, 385. 



INDEX. 



395 



Cochlearia— contd. 

officinalis L., 66, 3S5. 

var. alpina Wats., 66, 3S5. 
Conium L., 165. 

maculatum L., 165. 
Conopodium Koch, 164. 

denudatum Koch, 164. 
Convallaria L., 291. 

majalis L., 291. 
Convolvulus L., 220. 

arvensis L., 220. 
Corallorhiza Haller., 285. 

innata Br., 285. 
Cornus L., 165. 

sanguinea L., 166. 

suecica L., 165. 
Corydalis DC, 57. 

claviculata DC, 57. 

lutea DC, 58. 
Corylus L., 267. 

Avellana L. , 267. 
Cotyledon L. 

Umbilicus L., 14S. 
Crataegus L., 140. 

Oxyacantha L. , 140, 388. 
var. monogyna (Jacq.), 140. 
var. oxyacanthoides (Thuill.), 3?8. 
Crepis L., 192. 

paludosa Moench, 193. 

succisaefolia Tausch., 193, 388. 

virens L., 192. 
Crucianella L. 

stylosa DC, 172. 
Cryptogramme Br., 363. 

crispa Br., 363. 
Cuscuta L., 220. 

epilinum Weihe, 220. 

europsea L., 220. 

Trifolii Bab., 220. 
Cynoglossum Tourn., 224. 

germanicum Jacq., 224. 

montanum Lam., 224. 

officinale L., 224. 
Cynosurus L., 349. 

cristatus L. , 349. 
Cystopteris Bernh., 367. 

fragilis Bernh., 367. 

montana Bernh., 367. 
Cytisus L., 99. 

scoparius Link., 99. 

Dactylis L., 350. 

glomerata L., 350. 
Daphne L. 

Laureola L., 262. 
Daucus L., 162. 
Carota L., 162. 
Deschampsia Beauv., 344. 
alpina R. and S., 345. 
csespitosa Beauv., 344. 

var. alpina Gaud., 345. 
flexuosa Trin., 345. 

var. montana Huds., 345. 
var. voirlichensis Melvill, 345. 



Dianthus L., 75. 

Armeria L. , 75. 

deltoides L., 75. 

prolifer L., 75. 
Digitalis L., 228. 

ambigua Murr., 228. 

grandiflora Lam., 228. 

purpurea L., 228. 
Diplotaxis, 64. 

muralis DC, 64. 

(?) var. Babingtonii Syme, 64. 

tenuifolia DC, 64. 
Dipsacus L., 173. 

sylvestris Huds., 173. 
Doronicum L. 

Pardalianches L., 185. 

plantagineum L., 1S5. 
Draba L., 64. 

incana L., 65. 

muralis L., 65. 

rupestris Br., 64, 3S5. 
Drosera L., 148. 

anglica Huds., 148. 

intermedia Hayne, 148. 

obovata M. and K., 148, 38S. 

rotundifolia L., 148. 
Dryas L., 125. 

octopetala L., 125. 

Echium L., 220. 

vulgare L., 220. 
Elatine L., 89. 

hexandra DC, 89. 
Eleocharis Br., 314. 
acicularis Sm., 315. 
multicaulis Sm., 315. 
palustris Br., 314. 
uniglumis Schult., 314. 
Elodea Michx. 

canadensis Michx., 284. 
Empetrum L., 97. 

nigrum L., 97. 
Epilobium L., 152. 
alsinefolium Vill., 155. 
anagallidifolium Lam., 156. 
angustifolium L., 152. 

f. brachycarpum, 153. 
hirsutum L., 153. 
montanum L., 154. 
montanum Xobscurum, 154. 

/. albiflora, 154. 

f. minor, 154. 

f. umbrosa, 154. 

f. verticillata, 154. 
obscurum Schreb., 154. 

f. aprica, 154. 

f. crassifolia, 154. 

f. elatior, 154. 

f. flaccida, 154. 

f. ramosissima, 154. 

f. strictifolia, 154. 
obscurum Xpalustre, 154. 
obscurum Xparviflorum, 155. 
palustre L., 155. 



396 



INDEX. 



Epilobmm: palustre — contd. 
/. angustifolia, 155. 
palustre Xparviflorum, 154. 
parviflorum Schreb., 133. 
f. apnea, 153. 
f. minor, 153. 
/. trifoliata, 153. 
rosmarinifolium (Hnke.), 153. 
tetragonum L., 155. 
Epipactis Rich., 286. 
atrorubens Schultz., 287. 
latifolia Sw., 286. 
palustris Crantz., 287, 389. 
Equisetum L., 373. 
arvense L., 373. 
hyemale L., 374. 
limosum L., 374. 
palustre L., 374. 
pratense Ehrh., 373. 
sylvaticum L., 373. 

var. capillare Hoffm., 373. 
variegatum Schleich., 374. 
Eranthis Salisb., 53. 

hyemalis Salisb., 53. 
Erica L., 213. 
cinerea L., 213. 
Tetralix L., 213. 
Erigeron L., 176. 
alpinum L., 176. 
canadense L., 176. 
Eriophorum L., 318. 
alpinum L., 318. 
angustifolium Roth., 319. 
var. congestum M. and K., 319. 
var. elatius Koch, 319. 
var. genuinum Gr. and Gr. , 319. 
var. minus Koch, 319. 
latifolium Hoppe, 319. 
vaginatum L., 318. 
Erodium L'He'r., 96. 
cicutarium L'He'r., 96. 
moschatum L'Her., 96. 
Erophila DC, 65. 
vulgaris DC, 65. 
var. inflata Hook., 65. 
Eryngium L., 157. 

maritimum L., 157. 
Erythraea Pers., 218. 

Centaurium Pers., 218. 
Eupatorium L., 175. 

cannabinum, L., 175. 
Euphorbia L., 262. 
exigua L., 263. 
Helioscopia L., 262. 
Lathyris L., 263. 
Peplus L., 263. 
Euphrasia Tourn., 234. 
brevipila B. and G., 388. 
curta Fr., 388. 
officinalis L., 234, 388. 
var. gracilis Fr. 234, 388. 
var. Rostkoviana Hayne f. bore- 
alis Towns., 234. 



Fagus L. 

sylvatica L., 267. 
Festuca L., 355. 

arundinacea Schreb., 355. 
fallax Thuill., 357. 
duriuscula Fr., 357. 
gigantea Vill., 356. 

var. triflora Sm., 356. 
ovina L., 357. 
pratensis Huds., 356. 
rubra L., 357. 

var. grandiflora f. alpina Hack. 

. 357- 
sciuroides Roth., 357, 390. 
sylvatica Vill., 356, 390. 

var. decidua Sm., 356. 
Filago L., 177. 
germauica L., 177. 

var. canescens Jord., 178. 
minima L., 178. 
Fragaria L., 126. 
elatior Ehrh., 127. 
vesca L., 126. 
Fraxinus L., 217. 
excelsior L., 217. 
Fumaria L., 56. 
confusa Jord., 57. 
densiflora DC, 57. 
officinalis L., 57. 
pallidiflora Jord., 56. 

var. Borffii Jord., 57. 

var. Jordani Bab., 57. 
parviflora Lam., 57. 

Gagea Salisb., 293. 

lutea Ker., 293. 
Galanthus L., 

nivalis L., 290. 
Galeopsis L. , 243. 

angustifolia Ehrh., 243. 

speciosa Mill., 244. 

Tetrahit L., 244. 
Galium L., 169. 

Aparine L., 172. 

boreale L., 169. 

var. oreinum Melvill, 169. 

Cruciata Scop., 172. 

erectum Huds., 170. 

Mollugo L., 169. 
var. insubricum Gaud., 169. 

palustre L., 171. 

var. Witheringii Sm., 171. 

saccharatum All., 172. 

saxatile L., 170. 

sylvestre Poll., 170. 

verum L., 171. 
Genista L., 98. 

anglica L., 98. 
Gentiana L., 218. 

Amarella L., 218. 

campestris L., 218. 

nivalis L., 219. 
Geranium L., 93. 

columbinum L., 95. 



INDEX. 



397 



Geranium— con td. 

dissectum L., 95. 

lucidum L., 95. 

molle L., 94. 

phaeum L. , 94. 

pratense L. , 94. 

pusillum L., 94. 

pyrenaicum Burm.yC, 94. 

Robertianum L. , 95. 

sanguineum L., 93. 

var. micranthum B. White, 93. 

sylvaticum L., 93. 
(?) var. parviflorum A. BIytt, 93. 
Geum L., 125. 

intermedium Ehrh., 126. 

rivale L., 126. 

urbanum L., 125. 
Githago Desf., 79. 

segetum Desf., 79. 
Glaux Tourn., 251. 

maritima L., 251. 
Glyceria R. Br., 354. 

aquatica Sm., 355, 390. 

distans Wahlenb., 355. 

fluitans R. Br., 354. 

maritima M. and K., 355. 

plicata Fr., 354. 
var. pedicellata Towns., 354. 
Gnaphalium, 178. 

norvegicum Gunn., 178. 

supinum L., 179. 

var. fuscum Scop., 179. 
var. pusillum Pers., 179. 

sylvaticum, 17S. 

uliginosum, 179. 
Goodyera R. Br., 2S6. 

repens R. Br., 286. 
Gymnadenia conopsea Br., 2S9. 

Habenaria R. Br., 289. 

albida R. Br., 289. 

bifolia R. Br., 289. 

chlorantha Bab., 290. 

chloroleuca Ridley, 290. 

conopsea Benth., 289. 

viridis R. Br., 289. 
Hedera L., 165. 

Helix L., 165. 
Helianthermim Gaertn., 71. 

vulgare Gaertn. , 71. 
Helleborus L. 

foetidus L., 53. 
Heracleum L., 161. 

Sphondylium L., 161. 

var. angustifolium Sm., 162. 
Herniaria L. 

glabra L., 
var. subciliata Bab., 254. 
Hesperis L. 

matronalis L., 63. 
Hieracium L., 193. 

aggregatum Backh., 199. 
var. prolongatum F. J. H., 199. 

amplexicaule L., 196. 



Hieracium — contd. 
anglicum Fr. , 197. 

var. acutifolium Backh., 197. 
var. longibracteatum F. J. H. 
197. 
argenteum Fr., 199. 
aurantiacum L., 194. 
auratum Fr., 205. 
Backhousei F. J. H., 195. 
boreale Fr., 206. 
breadalbanense F. J. H., 19S. 
caesio-murorum Lindeb., ?oi. 
calenduliflorum Backh., 194. 
callistophyllum F. J. H., 197. 

var. cremnanthes F. J. H., 197. 
centripetale F. J. H., 196. 
cerinthiforme Backh., 197. 
chrysanthum Backh., 196. 
clovense Linton, 198. 
corymbosum Fr. , 205. 

var. praelongum Lindeb., 205. 
var. salicifolium Lindeb., 205. 
crocatum Fr. , 205. 
curvatum Elfstr., 195. 
Dewari Boswell, 203. 
diaphanum Fr., 202. 

var. stenolepis Lindeb., 202. 
dovrense Fr. 

7'ar. spectabile Marsh , 203. 
duplicatum Almg., 201. 
duriceps F. J. H., 202. 
euprepes F. J. H., 201. 

var. glabratum Linton, 201. 
eximium Backh., 194. 

var. tenellum Backh., 194. 
farrense F. J. H., 199. 
fiocculosum Backh., 198. 
globosum Backh., 195. 
gothicum Backh., 203. 

var. basifolium Lindeb., 203. 

var. latifolium Backh., 203. 
gracilentum Backh., 194. 
gravestellum Dahlst. , 202. 
holosericeum Backh., 194. 
insulare F. J. H., 201. 

var. petrocharis Linton, 201. 
iricum Fr., 198. 
langwellense, F. J. H., 198. 
lasiophyllum Koch, 199. 
Leyi F. J. H., 198. 
lingulatum Backh., 195. 
Marshalli Linton, 196. 
murorum L. pt. , 200. 

var. calliginosum Dahlst., 200. 

var. ciliatum Almg., 200. 

var. sagittatum Lindeb., 200. 

var. sarcophyllum Stenstr., 201. 

7'ar. variicolor Dahlst., 200. 
nigrescens Willd., 195. 

var. gracilifolium F. J. H., 195. 
Orarium Lindeb., 201. 
Pictorum Linton, 199. 
Pilosella L., 194. 
prenanthoides Vill., 204. 



39§ 



INDEX. 



Hieracium— contd. 

pseudonosmoides Dahlst., 199. 

rivale F. J. H., 200. 

var. subhirtum F. J. H., 200. 

Schmidtii Tausch., 198. 

senescens Backh., 195. 

sinuans F. J. H., 196. 

Sommerfeltii Lindeb., 199. 

sparsifolium Lindeb., 203. 

stenophyes W. R. L., 202. 

strictum Fr., 204. 

var. amplidentatum F. J. H., 204. 
var. angustum Lindeb., 204. 
var. opsianthum Dahlst., 204. 
var. reticulatum (Lindeb.), 204. 

subanfractum Marsh., 202. 

submurorum Lindeb., 196. 

umbellatum L., 206. 

vulgatum Fr., 202. 
Hierochloe S. G. Gmel. 

borealis R. & S., 340. 
Hippuris L., 149. 

vulgaris L., 149. 
Holcus L., 346. 

lanatus L., 346. 

mollis L., 346. 
Hordeum L. 

marinum Huds. , 361. 

murinum L., 361. 

pratense L., 361. 
Humulus L. 

Lupulus L., 264. 
Hydrocotyle L., 157. 

vulgaris L., 157. 
Hymenophyllum Sm., 362. 

unilaterale Bory., 362. 
Hyoscyamus L. 

niger L., 225. 
Hypericum L., 89. 

Androsaemum L., 89. 

barbatum Jacq., 90. 

calycinum L., 90. 

dubium L., 90. 

hirsutum L., 91. 

humifusum L. , 91. 

perforatum L., 90. 

pulchrum L., 91. 

quadrangulum L., 90. 

tetrapterum Fr., 90. 
Hypochseris L., 207. 

glabra L., 207. 

radicata L., 207. 



Iberis L. 

amara L., 69. 
Ilex L.j 97. 

Aquifohum L., 97. 
Impatiens L. 

Noli-me-tangere L 
Iris L., 290. 

foetidissima L. , 290. 

Pseudacorus L., 290. 
Isoetes L., 377. 

echinospora Dur., 390 



96. 



Isoetes— contd. 
lacustris L., 377. 

Jasione L. 

montana L., 210. 
J uncus L., 294. 

acutiflorus Ehrh., 295. 

alpinus Vill., 296. 

biglumis L., 299. 

bufonius L., 298. 
var. fasciculatus Bert., 298. 

castaneus Sm., 298. 

conglomeratus L., 294. 

diffusus Hoppe, 295. 

effusus L., 295. 

Jiliformis L., 295. 

Gerardi Lois, 297. 

glaucus Ehrh., 295. 

lampocarpus Ehrh., 296. 
f. paucicapitata Buchan., 296. 

squarrosus L., 297. 

supinus Moench, 296. 
var. fluitans Lam., 297. 
var. subverticillatus Wulf., 297. 
var. uliginosus Roth., 297. 

trifidus L., 299. 

triglumis L., 298. 
Juniperus L., 282. 

communis L., 282. 

nana Willd., 283. 

Kobresia Willd. 320. 

caricina Willd., 320. 
Kceleria Pers., 349. 

cristata Pers., 349. 

Lactuca L., 190. 

muralis L., 190, 388. 

virosa L., 190. 
Lamium L., 244. 

amplexicaule L., 245. 

hybridum L., 244. 

intermedium Fr., 245. 

maculatum L., 245. 

purpureum L., 244. 
Lapsana L., 208. 

communis L., 208. 
Lastraea Presl. , 368. 

dilatata Presl., 369. 

Filix-mas Presl., 368. 

Oreopteris Presl., 369. 

spinulosa Presl., 368. 

Thelypteris Presl., 369. 
Lathra?a L., 225. 

squamaria L., 225. 
Lathyrus L. 

Aphaca L., 108. 

macrorrhizus Wimm., 109. 

montanus Bernh., 109. 

niger Wimm., 109. 

pratensis L., 109. 

sylvestris L. , 109. 
Ledum L., 388. 

palustre L., 388. 



INDEX. 



399 



Leruiia L., 304. 

minor L., 304. 

trisulca L., 304. 
Leontodon L., 207. 

autumnalis L., 207. 
/ pratensis Koch, 207. 

hirtus L., 207. 

hispid us L., 207. 
Lepidium L., 68. 

campestre Br., 68. 

Draba L., 68. 

heterophyllum Bluth., 68. 
liar, canescens Gr. and Gr. 

perfoliatum L., 68. 

ruderale L. , 68. 

Smitliii Hook., 68. 
Ligustrum L. 

vulgare L., 217. 
Limnanthemum 

pellatum Gmel., 219. 
Linaria Tourn., 226. 

Cymbalaria Mill., 226. 

repens Ait., 227. 

viscida Moench, 227. 

vulgaris Mill., 227. 
Linnrea Gron., 168. 

borealis Gron., 168. 
Limvm L., 93. 

catharticum L., 93. 

usitatissimum L., 93. 
Listera R. Br., 286. 

cordata R. Br., 286. 

ovata R. Br., 286. 
Lithospermum Tourn., 222. 

arvense L. , 222. 

officinale L., 222. 
Littorella L., 254. 

juncea Berg., 254. 

lacustris L., 254. 
Lobelia L., 208. 

Dortmanna L., 20S. 
Loiseleuria Desv., 214. 

procumbens Desv., 214. 
Loliurn L.. 359. 

perenne L., 359. 

var. cristatum L. , 359. 
var. italicum L., 359. 
var. tenue L. , 359. 

temulentum L., 359. 
Loraaria Willd., 363. 

spicant Desv., 363. 
Lonicera L., 167 

Periclymenum L., 167. 
Lotus L., 103. 

corniculatus L., 103. 

tenuis Waldst and Kit., 104. 

uliginosus Schrk., 104. 
Lupinus L. 

perennis L., 99. 
Luzula DC, 299. 

albida DC., 300. 

var. rubella Hoppe, 300. 

arcuata Sw., 300. 

campestris DC., 300. 



Luzula— contd. 

erecta Desv., 301. 
var. congesta Lej., 301. 
var. nigricans Desv., 301. 
var. pallescens Hoppe, 301. 

maxima DC., 299. 

multiflora Lej., 301. 

spicata DC, 300. 

sudetica DC, 301. 

vernalis DC, 299. 
Lychnis L., 77. 

alba Mill., 78. 

diurna Sibth., 78. 

Flos-cuculi L., 78. 

Vcspcrtina Sibth., 78. 

Viscaria L. , 77. 
Lycopodium L., 375. 

alpinum L., 376. 
var. decipiens Synie, 376. 

annotinum L., 375. 

clavatum L., 375. 

(complanatum L.), 377. 

inundatum L., 376. 

Selago L, 376. 
Lycopus Tourn., 239. 

europaeus L., 239. 
Lysimacbia L., 249. 

nemorum L., 249. 

Nummularia L., 250. 

thyrsiflora L., 250. 

vulgaris L., 249. 
Lythrum L., 151. 

Hyssopifolia L., 152. 

Salicaria L. , 151. 

Malaxis Sw., 284. 

paludosa Sw., 284, 389. 
Malva L., 91. 

borealis Wallm., 92. 

moschata L., 91. 

rotundifolia L., 92. 

sylvestris L., 92. 
Mariana Hill. 

lactea Hill, igo. 
Marrubium L. 

vulgare L. , 241. 
Matricaria L., 181. 

Chamomilla L., 181. 

inodora L., 181. 
Meconopsis Vig. 

cambrica Vig., 56. 
Medicago L., 99. 

arabica All., 100. 

lupulina L., 99. 

macitlata Sibth., 100. 

sativa L., 100. 
Melainpyrurn Tourn., 235. 

pratense L., 235. 

z'ar. montanum Johnst., 236. 

sylvaticum L., 236. 

var. pallidiflora B. White, 236. 
Melica L., 350. 

nutans L, 350. 

uniflora L., 350. 



400 



INDEX. 



Melilotus Tourn. 

alba Desr., 100. 

altissima Thuill., ioo. 

indica AH., ioo. 

officinalis Desr., ioo. 

parviflora Lam., ioo. 
Mentha L., 237. 

alopecuroides Hull., 237. 

arvensis L., 238, 389. 
var. Nummularia Schreb. , 239. 

hirsuta Huds., 238. 

longifolia Huds., 237. 

var. mollissima (Borkh.), 237. 
var. nemorosa Willd., 237. 

piperita L., 237. 

var. officinalis (Hull), 237. 

rubra (Sm. ?), 238, 389. 

sativa L., 238. 

var. paludosa Sole, 238. 
var. sub-glabra Baker, 238. 

viridis L., 237. 
Menyanthes Tourn., 219. 

trifoliata L., 219. 
Mercurialis Tourn., 263. 

annua L., 263. 

perennis L., 263. 
Meum L., 161. 

Atbamanticum Jacq., 161. 
Milium L., 341. 

effusum L.j 341. 
Mimulus L. 

luteus L., 228. 

moschatus, 228. 
Molinia Schranck, 349. 

coerulea Moench, 349. 
Moneses Salisb., 217. 

grandiflora Gray, 217. 
Montia L., 88. 

fontana L., 88. 

minor Gm., 89. 

rivularis Gm. , 89. 
Myosotis L., 222. 

alpestris Schmidt., 223. 

arvensis Willd., 223. 

var. umbrosa Bab., 223. 

caespitosa Schulz., 223. 

collina Hoffm., 224. 

palustris Relh., 222. 

var. strigulosa M. and K., 222. 

repens D. Don, 223. 

versicolor Reich., 224. 
Myrica L., 265. 

Gale L., 265. 
Myriophyllum L., 149. 

alternifolium DC, 149. 

spicatum L., 149. 
Myrrhis Scop., 164. 

Odorata Scop., 164. 

Naias L., 313. 

flexilis Rosth., 313. 
Narcissus L., 290. 

Pseudo-Narcissus L., 290. 

ardosmia Css. , 175. 



Nardosmia— contd. 

fragrans Reichb., 175. 
Nardus L., 360. 

stricta L., 360. 
Narthecium Moehr., 293. 

Ossifragum Huds., 293. 
Nasturtium R. Br., 58. 

amphibium R. Br., 59. 

officinale R. Br., 58. 

palustre DC., 59. 

sylvestre R. Br., 58. 
Neottia L., 283. 

Nidus-Avis L, 285. 
Nepeta L., 241. 

Cataria L., 241. 

Glechoma L., 241. 
Nitella Ag., 381. 

flexilis Ag., 381. 

var. crassa Braun. , 381. 
var. nidifica Wallm., 381. 

opaca Ag., 381. 

translucens Ag., 381. 
Nymphsea L. 

alba L. , 54. 

Iutea L., 55. 

var. intermedia (Ledeb.), 385. 

pumila Hoffm., 55. 
Nuphar lutea Sm., 55. 

minima Sm., 55. 

CEnanthe L., 160. 

Crocata L., 160. 

fistulosa L., 160. 

pimpinelloides L., 160. 
(Enothera L., 157. 

biennis L., 157. 
Ononis L., 99. 

repens L., 99. 
Onopordon L., 190. 

Acanthium L., 190 
Ophioglossum L., 372 

vulgatum L., 372. 
Orchis L., 288. 

incarnata L., 288. 

latifolia L, 288. 

maculata L., 288. 

mascula L., 288. 
Origanum Tourn., 239 

vulgare L., 239. 
Ornithopus L., 106. 

perpusillus L., 106. 
(Orobanche major), 22 
Osmunda L., 371. 

regalis L., 371. 
Oxalis L., 96. 

Acetosella L., 96. 
Oxyria Hill, 262. 

digyna Hill, 262. 
Oxytropis DC., 105. 

campestris DC, 10 

uralensis DC, 105. 

Papaver L., 55. 
Argemone L., 55. 



INDEX. 



401 



Papaver— contd. 

dubium L., 56. 

Rhoeas L., 56. 

somniferum L., 56. 
Parietaria L., 264. 

officinalis L., 264. 
Paris L., 204. 

quadrifolia L., 294. 
Pamassia L., 14s. 

palustris L., 145. 
Pastinaca L. 

sativa Benth., 162. 
Pedicularis L., 235. 

palustris L., 235. 

sylvatica L., 235. 
Peplis L., 152. 

Portula L., 152. 
Petasites, 175. 

albus Ga^rtn., 175. 

officinalis Moench, 175. 

vulgaris Desf., 175. 
Peucedanum L. 

Ostruthium Koch, 162. 
Phalaris L., 339. 

arundinacea L., 339. 
var. picta L., 339. 

canariensis L., 339. 
Phegopteris, 370. 

calcarea Fee, 370. 

Dryopteris Fee, 370. 

polypodioides Fee, 370. 
Phleum L., 341. 

alpinum L., 342. 

pratense L., 341. 
var. nodosum L., 341. 
var. stoloniferum Bab., 341. 
Pkragmites L., 348. 

communis L., 348. 
Pbyteuma L., 210. 

spicatum L., 210. 
Picris L., 206. 

echioides L., 206. 
Pilularia L., 377. 

globulifera L., 377. 
Pimpinella, 159. 

magna L., 159. 

major Huds., 159. 

Saxifraga L., 159. 
var. dissectifolia Wallr., 159. 
var. major Wallr. , 159. 
Pinguicula Tourn., 247. 

lusitanica L., 247. 

vulgaris L., 247. 
Pinus L., 282. 

sylvestris L., 282. 
Plantago L., 252. 

Coronopus L., 253. 

lanceolata L., 253. 

major L., 252. 

maritima L., 253. 

media L., 253. 
Poa L., 351. 

alpina L., 351, 390. 

var. Lapponum Laest., 390. 



Poa — contd. 
annua L. , 351. 
Balfourii Parnell, 352. 
Chaixii Vill., 353. 
compressa L., 353. 

var. subcompressa (Parn.), 353. 
glauca Sm., 352, 390. 
nemoralis L., 352. 

var. coarctata (Gaud.), 352. 
var. divaricata Syme, 352. 
var. glaucantha Reichb., 352. 
palustris L., 353. 
pratensis L., 353. 
var. strigosa Gaud., 353, 
var. subccerulea Sm., 353. 
sudetica Hsenke, 353. 
trivialis L., 354. 
var. Koeleri (DC.), 354. 
Polemonium L. 

ca^ruleum L., 219. 
Polygala L., 74. 

oxyptera Reichb., 75, 386. 
serpyllacea Weihe, 74. 
vulgaris L., 74, 386. 
Polygonatum Tourn., 290. 
multiflorum All., 291. 
officinale All., 291. 
verticillatum All., 290. 
Polygonum L., 256. 
amphibium L., 257. 
aviculare L., 258. 
Bistorta L., 256. 
Convolvulus L., 259. 
Hydropiper L., 258. 
lapathifolium L., 257. 
var. rubrum Gray, 257. 
var. tomentosum Schrk., 257. 
var. virescens Gr. and Gr., 257. 
maculatum Dyer and Tr., 389. 
minus Huds., 258. 
Persicaria L., 258. 
Raii Bab., 259. 
viviparum L., 257. 
Polypodium L., 369. 
Dryopteris L., 370. 
Phegopteris L., 370. 
Robert ianum Hoffm., 370. 
vulgare L., 369. 
Populus Tourn., 26S. 
alba L., 268. 
nigra L., 268. 
tremula L., 268. 
Potamogeton L., 306. 
angustifolius Presl., 310. 
crispus L., 311. 

var. serratus Huds., 311. 
decipiens Nolte., 310. 
filiformis Nolte., 312. 
heterophyllus Schreb., 308. 
f. borealis Tis., 309. 
f. longipedunculatus Blerat, 309. 
f. myriophyllus Robins., 309. 
f. pseudonitens Bennett, 309. 
lucens L., 309. 



2 C 



402 



INDEX. 



Potamogeton — contd. 

natans L., 307. 

var. prolixus Koch, 307. 

nitens Web., 309. 

var. curvifolius Hartm., 309. 
•var. latifolius Tis., 309. 

obtusifolius M. and K., 311. 

pectinatus L., 313. 

perfoliatus L., 311. 

polygonifolius Pourr., 307. 
var. angustifolius Fr., 307. 
var. ericetorum Syme, 307. 

prrfongus Wulfen., 310. 

pusillus L., 312. 

rufescens Schrad., 30S. 

Sturrockii Bennett, 312. 

Zizii Roth., 310. 
Potentilla L., 127. 

Anserina L., 129. 

argentea L., 130. 

(aurea), 129. 

Comarum Nestl. , 127. 

Fragariastrum Ehrh., 129. 

maculata Pourr., 129. 

(opaca), 129. 

palustris Scop., 127. 

procumbens Sibth., 12S. 

reptans L., 12S. 

rubens VIII., 129. 
var. debilis Koch, 129. 
var. firma Koch, 129. 

Sibbaldi Hall, fit, 127. 

silvestris Neck., 127. 

Tormentilla Scop., 127. 
Poterium L., 132. 

muricatum Spach. , 132. 

polygamum W. and K., 132. 

Sanguisorba L., 132. 
Primula L., 248. 

veris L., 249. 

vulgaris L., 248. 
Prunella L., 241. 

vulgaris L., 241. 
Prunus L., no. 

Avium L., no. 

Cerasus L., no. 

communis Huds., no. 
var. domestica L., no. 
var. insititia L., no. 

Padus L., in. 
Pteris L. 

aquilina L., 363. 
Pulicaria Gsrtn. 

dysenterica Gsrtn., 180. 
Pulmonaria L. 

officinalis L., 222. 
Pyrola Tourn., 215. 

media Sw., 215. 

minor L., 215. 

rotundifolia L., 216. 

secunda L., 216. 
Pyrus L., 139. 

Aria Sm., 139, 388. 

Aucuparia Gaertn. , 139. 



Pyrus— contd. 
communis L., 139. 

var. Pyraster L., 139. 
Mains L., 139. 

var. acerba DC, 139 

var. mitis, 139. 

Quercus Tourn., 267. 
Robur L., 267. 

var. intermedia D. Don, 267. 
var. pedunculata Ehrh., 267. 
var. sessilifiora Salisb., 267. 

Radiola Roth., 92. 

linoides Roth., 92. 
Ranunculus L., 47. 

acris L., 51. 

var. Steveni Andrz., 51. 

arvensis L., 52. 

auricomus L., 51. 

bulbosus L., 51. 

circinatus Sibth., 49. 

confusus Godr., 48. 

Drouettii F. Schulz., 47, 385. 

Ficaria L., 52. 

Flammula L., 50. 
var. pseudoreptans Syme, 50^ 

floribundus Bab., 48. 

hederaceus L., 49. 

heterophyllus Fr., 48. 
var. submersus, 48. 

hirsntus Curt., 52. 

Lingua L., 49. 

peltatus Fr., 49. 

penicillatus Hiern., 48. 

repens L., 51. 

Sardous Cr. , 52. 

sceleratus L., 50. 

trichophyllus Chaix., 47. 
Raphanus L., 70. 

Raphanistrum L., 70. 
Reseda L., 55. 

lutea L., 56. 

Luteola L., 55. 
Rhanmus L., 386. 

Frangula L., 386. 
Rhinanthus L., 234. 

Crista-galli L., 234. 

var. Drummond-Hayi B. White, 
, 235- 
Ribes L., 145. 

alpinum L., 145. 

Grossularia L., 145. 

nigrum L., 145. 

rubrum L., 145. 

var. petrasum Sm., 145. 
var. sativum Reich., 145. 
Rosa L., 133, 387. 

alpina L., 138, 388. 

arvensis L., 138, 388. 

canina L., 135, 387. 

var. andegavensis Bast., 137. 
var. arvatica Baker, 136. 
var. caballicensis Puget, 137. 



INDEX. 



403 



Rosa: canina — contd. 

var. csesia Sm., 137. 

var. coriifolia Fr., 138, 3S8. 

var. dumalis Bechst., 136, 387. 

var. dumetorum Thuill., 136, 387. 

var. frondosa Steven., 136. 

var. glauca Vill., 137, 388. 

var. implexa Gren., 138. 

var. incana Woods, 137. 

var. intricata Kern., 137. 

{var. Koscinciana Bess., 137.) 

var. lutetiana Leman, 135, 387. 

var. obtusifolia Desv., 136. 

var. pruinosa Baker, 137. 

var. Rcutcri Godet, 137. 

var. sphaerica Gren., 136. 

var. subcanina Christ., 388. 

var. subcollina Christ., 388. 

var. subcristata Baker, 138. 

var. surculosa Woods, 136. 

var. tomentella Leman, 137. 

var. urbica Leman, 136. 

var. verticillacantha Merat, 137. 

var. Watsoni Baker, 138. 
cinnamomea L., 138. 
glauca Vill., 388, 
hibernica Sm. , 134. 

var. glabra Baker, 388. 
involuta Sm., 133, 387. 

var. Sabini AVoods, 133. 
mollis Sm., 134, 3S7. 

var. caerulea YVoods, 134. 
pimpinellifolia L., 387. 
rubiginosa L., 134, 387. 
spinosissima L., 133, 387. 
tomentosa Sm., 135, 387. 

var. farinosa Rau., 135. 

var. scabriuscula Sm., 135. 

var. subglobosa Sm., 135. 

var. sylvestris Woods, 135. 
Rubus L., 112, 386. 
affinis W. and N., 114. 
(arcticus L.), 125. 
Babingtonii Salt., 120. 
Balfourianus Blox., 122, 387. 
Bellardi Weihe. 

var. dentatus Blox., 122. 
britannicus Rogers, 387. 
caesius L., 387. 

var. ligerinus Genev., 124. 
carpinifolius W. and N., 117. 
Chamaamorus L., 124, 387. 
Colemani Blox., 117. 
corylifolius Sm., 122, 387. 

var. conjungens Bab., 123. 

var. cyclophyllus Lind., 387. 

var. fasciculatus Mull., 123. 

var. sublustris Lees, 122, 387. 
deltoideus Mull., 123. 
diversiiblius Lindl., 121. 
Drejeri G. Jans., 387. 
dumetorum W. and N., 387. 

var. fasciculatus P. J. M., 387. 

var. tuberculatus Bab., 387. 



Rubus— contd. 

echinatus Lindl., 120. 
fissus Lindl., 113, 386. 
foliosus Weihe, 122. 
Grabowskii Genev., 117. 
(?) hemistemon Mull., 114. 
hirtifolius M. and W. 

var. danicus Focke, 3S6. 
Idseus L., 112, 386. 

var. asperrimus Lees, 386. 

var. Leesii Bab., 112, 386. 
imbricatus Hort., 115. 
incurvatus Bab., 113, 386. 
infestus Weihe, 3S7. 
Koehleri Weihe, 120. 

var. cavatifolius Mull., 121. 

var. infestus Weihe, 121. 

var. pallidus Weihe, 121, 387. 
latifolius Bab., 116, 386. 
Lejeunei Weihe, 121, 387. 

var. festivus M. and W., 121. 
Lindebergii P. J. M., 386. 
Lindleianus Lees, 114, 386. 
Maassii Fcke., 118. 
macrophyllus W. and N., 118, 386. 

var. amplificatus Lees, 119. 
melanoxylon M. and W., 387. 
micans Gr. and Gr., 386. 
mucronatus Blox., 119, 387. 
nemoralis P. J. M., 386. 
nitidus W. and N. , 114. 
plicatus W. and N., 113, 386. 
pulcherrimus Neum. , 386. 
pyramidalis Kalt., 116. 
radula Weihe, 120, 387. 

var. anglicanus Rogers, 387. 

var. echinatoides Rogers, 387. 
ramosus Blox., 115. 
rhamnifolius W. and N., 115, 386. 
rhombifolius Weihe, 386. 
Rogersii Linton, 386. 
rosaceus W. and N., no, 3S7. 

var. hystrix W. and N., 387. 
rudis Bab., 120. 
msticanus Merc, 116. 
Salteri Bab., 117. 

var. calvatus Blox., 117. 
saxatilis L., 124, 387. 
saxicolus Mull., 121. 
scabrosus Mull., 123. 
Scheutzii Lindeb., 386. 
Sprengelii Weihe, 119. 
suberectus Anders., 113, 386. 
sulcatus Vest., 113. 
villicaulis W. and N., 117, 386. 

var. adscitus Genev., 118. 

var. gratus Fcke., 118. 

var. insularis Aresch., 387. 

var. Selmeri (Lindeb.), 386. 
Rudbeckia L. 

laciniata L., 1S5. 
Rumex L., 259. 
Acetosa L., 261. 
Acetosella L., 261. 



404 



INDEX. 



Rumex — con td. 

acutus L. , 259. 

alpinus L. , 261. 

conglomeratus Murr., 260, 389. 

conspersus Hartm., 260. 

crispus L., 260. 

domesticus Hartm., 261. 

Hydrolapathum Huds., 260. 

maritimus L., 260. 

obtusifolius L., 259, 389. 

sanguineus L., 260. 

var. viridis (Sibth.), 260, 389. 
Rhjnichospora Vahl., 314. 

alba Vahl., 314. 

Sagina L., 85. 
apetala Ard., 86. 
ciliata Fr., 87. 
Linnsei Presl., 86. 
maritima Don, 87. 
nivalis Fr., 86. 
nodosa L. , 85. 
procumbens L., 86. 
subulata Presl., 85. 
Salicornia L. , 256. 
herbacea L., 256. 
Salix L. 
alba L., 270. 

alba X fragilis, 270. 
Xambigua Ehrh., 272. 
Arbuscula L., 275. 

var. vacciniifolia, 275. 
var. venulosa, 275. 

Arbuscula x herbacea, 279. 

Arbuscula xLapponum, 278. 

Arbuscula xMyrsinites, 279. 

Arbuscula X phylicifolia, 276. 
aurita L;, 271. 

auritaxCaprea, 272. 

aurita Xcinerea, 271. 

aurita x herbacea, 280. 

aurita xMyrsinites, 279. 

aurita X nigricans, 275. 

aurita X phylicifolia, 274. 

aurita X repens, 272. 
Caprea L., 271. 

Caprea X aurita, 272. 

Caprea X cinerea, 271. 

Caprea X nigricans, 274. 

Caprese var. Xviminalis, 276. 
Xcapreola J. Kern., 272. 
cinerea L., 270. 

cinerea x aurita, 271. 

cinerea x Caprea, 271. 

cinerea X nigricans, 275. 

cinerea X phylicifolia, 274. 

cinerea X purpurea, 281. 
Xcoriacea (Schleich.), 275. 
daphnoides Vill., 277. 
Xdecipiens Hoffm., 269. 
xDicksoniana, 276. 
xDoniana Sm., 281. 
ferruginea G. And., 277. 
fragilis L., 270. 



Salix — contd. 

fragilis X alba, 270. 

fragilis X triandra, 269. 
Grahami Bbr., 279. 
herbacea L., 279. 

herbacea x Arbuscula, 279. 

herbacea X aurita, 280. 

herbacea Xlanata, 277. 

herbacea X Lapponum, 280. 
lanata L., 277. 

lanataX herbacea, 277. 

lanata X reticulata, 277. 
Lapponum L., 277. 

Lapponum x Arbuscula, 278. 

Lapponum X herbacea, 280. 
Xlatifolia Forbes, 274. 
X ludificans B. White, 274. 
xlutescens A. Kern., 271. 
X Margarita B. White, 280. 
x Moorei Wats. L.C., 279. 
Myrsinites L., 278. 

var. procumbens, 278. 

Myrsinites X Arbuscula, 279. 

Myrsinites X aurita, 279. 

Myrsinites X nigricans, 278. 
nigricans Sm., 273. 

nigricans x aurita, 275. 

nigricans X Caprea, 274. 

nigricans Xcinerea, 275. 

nigricans X Myrsinites, 278. 

nigricans X repens, 273. 

nigricans x reticulata, 280. 
pentandra L., 269. 
phylicifolia L., 273. 

phylicifolia X Arbuscula, 276. 

phylicifolia X aurita, 274. 

phylicifolia X Cinerea, 274. 

phylicifolia X nigricans, 273. 
purpurea L., 281. 

purpurea X cinerea, 281. 

purpurea X repens, 281. 

purpurea Xviminalis, 281. 
xReichardti A. Kern., 271. 
repens L., 272. 

repens x aurita, 272. 

repens X nigricans, 273. 

repens x purpurea, 281. 
reticulata L., 280. 

reticulata x lanata, 277. 

reticulata X nigricans, 280. 
X rubra Huds., 281. 
Xsaxetana B. White, 279. 
X sejuncta B. White, 280. 
Xsemireticulata B. White, 280. 
Xserta B. White, 279. 
Xsimulatrix B. White, 279. 
X Smithiana Willd., 276. 
f. ferruginea G. And., 277. 
f. sericans Tausch., 276. 
f. stipularis Sm., 276. 
Xsobrina B. White, 280. 
Xsordida Kern., 281. 
X spuria Willd., 278. 
X Stephania B. White, 277. 



INDEX. 



405 



Sails.— con id. 

xstrepida Schleich., 275. 

Xsubdola B. White, 269. 

x superata B. White, 277. 

X tephrocarpa Wimm., 274. 

triandra L., 268. 
triandraxalba, 269. 
triandra Xfragilis, 269. 
triandra Xviminalis, 269. 

Xundulata, 269. 

viminalis L., 276. 

viminalis xCapreae var., 276. 
viminalis X purpurea, 281. 
viminalis x triandra, 269. 

Xviridis Fr., 270. 

X Wahlenbergii And., 278. 

xWardiana Leefe, 274. 
Salsola L., 256. 

Kali L., 256. 
Sambucus L., 166. 

Ebulus L., 166. 

nigra L., 167. 
Samcula L., 157. 

europaea L., 157. 
Saponaria L. 

officinalis L., 76. 
Saussurea DC, 186. 

alpina DC, 1S6. 
Saxifraga L., 140. 

aizoides L., 143. 

cernua L. , 141. 

Geum L., 144. 

granulata L., 140. 

Hirculus L., 143. 

hypnoides L., 142. 

nivalis L., 142. 

oppositifolia L., 144. 

rivularis L., 141. 

rotundifolia L., 141. 

stellaris L., 141. 

tridactylites L., 140. 

umbrosa L., 143. 
Scabiosa L., 174. 

arvensis L., 174. 

Columbaria L., 174. 

Succisa L., 174. 
Scandix L., 163. 

Pecten-Veneris L., 163. 
Scheuchzeria L., 306. 

palustris L., 306. 
Schoenus, 313. 

ferrugineus L., 313. 

nigricans L., 314, 389. 
Schollera Roth., 212. 

Occycoccus Roth., 212. 
Scilla, 292. 

festalis Salisb. , 292. 

nutans Sm. , 292. 
Scirpus L., 316. 

caespitosus L., 317. 

fluitans L., 317. 

lacustris L., 316. 

maritimus L., 316. 

pauciflorus Lightf., 317. 



Scirpus — contd. 

rufus Schrad., 318. 

setaceus L., 318. 

sylvaticus L., 316. 
var. dissitiflorus Sonder., 316. 

Tabernaemontani Gm., 317. 
Scleranthus L., 254. 

annuus L., 254. 
var. biennis Reut., 254. 
Scolopendrium L., 366. 

vulgare Sym., 366. 
Scrophularia, 227. 

aquatica L. 
var. cinerea Dum., 228. 

nodosa L., 227. 

vernalis L., 228. 
Scutellaria L., 242. 

galericulata L., 242. 
Sedum L., 146. 

acre L., 147, 388. 

album L., 147. 

anglicum Huds., 147. 

reflexum L., 147. 

Rhodiola DC, 146. 

roseum Scop., 146. 

rupestre L., 147. 

Telephium L., 146. 

villosum L. , 146. 
Selaginella Beauv., 377. 

selaginoides Gray, 377. 
Sempervivum L., 148. 

tectorum L., 148. 
Senebiera DC., 68. 

Coronopus Poir. , 68, 386. 

didyma Pers., 68. 
Senecio L., 183. 

aquaticus Huds., 184. 

var. barbarccefoluis Reichb., 184. 
var. pinnatifidus Gr. and Gr., 184 

Doria L., 185. 

Jacobasa L., 184. 

var. discoideus Koch, 184. 
var. flosculns Jord., 184. 

sylvaticus L., 183. 
var. lividus Sm., 1S3. 

viscosus L., 1 84. 

vulgaris L., 183. 
Sesleria Scop., 348. 

casrulea Ard., 348. 
Sherardia Dill., 168. 

arvensis L., 168. 
Sieglrngia Bernh., 348. 

decumbens Bernh., 348. 
Silene L. , 76. 

acaulis L., 77. 

Cucubalus Wibel., 76. 

gallica L. 

var. anglica L., 76. 

maritima With., 76. 

noctiflora L., 76. 
Sisymbrium L., 63. 

Alliaria Scop., 63. 

officinale Scop., 63. 

var. leiocarpum DC, 63. 



406 



INDEX. 



Sisymbrium — con td. 

pannonicum Jacq., 385. 

Sophia L., 63. 

Thalianum Gay, 63. 
Sium L., 159. 

angustifolium L., 159. 

Falcaria L., 159. 
Smyrnium L., 165. 

Olusatrum L., 165. 
Solanum Tourn., 225. 

Dulcamara L., 225. 

nigrum L., 225. 
Solidago L., 177. 

canadensis L., 177. 

lanceolata L., 177. 

Virgaurea L., 177. 

var. cambrica Huds., 177. 
Sonchus L., 191, 

arvensis L., 191. 
var. laevipes Koch, 191. 

asper Hoffm., 191. 

oleraceus L., 191. 

var. integrifolius Wallr., 191. 
var. lacerus Wallr., 191. 
var. triangularis Wallr., 191. 
Sparganium L., 301. 

affine Schn., 302. 

minimum Fr., 303. 

ramosum Huds., 301. 
var. microcarpum Neum., 301. 

simplex Huds., 302. 
Spergula L., 87. 

arvensis L., 87. 

var. sativa Boenn., S8. 
var. vulgaris Bcenn., 88. 
Spiraea L., in. 

Filipendula L., in. 

salicifolia L., in. 

Ulmaria L., in. 
var. denudata Presl., 111. 
Stachys L., 242. 

ambigua Sm., 242. 

arvensis L., 243. 

palustris L., 242. 

sylvatica L., 242. 
Stellaria L., 82. 

framinea L., 83. 
[olostea L., 83. 

media Vill., 82. 

nemorum L., 82. 

palustris Ehrh., 82, 386. 

(scapigera Willd.), 83. 

uliginosa Murr., 83. 

umbrosa Opiz, 82. 
Stratiotes L., 284. 

aloides L., 284. 
Suaeda Forsk., 256. 

maritima Dum., 256. 
Subularia L., 67. 

aquatica L., 67. 
Symphytum Tourn., 221. 

officinale L., 221. 
var. patens Sibth., 221. 

tuberosum L., 221. 



Tanacetum L., 183. 

vulgare L., 183. 
Taraxacum Juss., 192. 

officinale Web., 192. 

var. Dens-leonis Desf., 192. 
var. erythrospermum Andrz. , 

192. 
var. palustre DC, 192. 
Taxus Tourn., 283. 

baccata L., 283. 
Teesdalia R. Br., 69. 

nudicaulis R. Br., 69. 
Teucrium L., 246. 

Chamaedrys L., 246. 

Scorodonia L., 246. 
Thalictrum L., 45. 

alpinum L., 45. 

flavum L., 46. 

minus L., 45. 
var. majus Sm., 46. 
var. montanum Wallr., 46. 
Thlaspi L., 69. 

alpestre L., 69. 

arvense L., 69. 
Thymus L., 239. 

Chamaedrys Fr., 240. 

Serpyllum L., 239. 
Tofieldia Huds., 293. 

palustris Huds., 293. 
Tragopogon L., 206. 

pratensis L., 206. 
Trientalis L., 250. 

europaea L., 250. 
Trifolium L., 100. 

agrarium L., 102. 

arvense L., 101. 

dubium Sibth., 103. 
var. pygmaeum Soy. -Will., 103. 

fragiferum L. , 102. 

glomeratum L., 102. 

hybridum L., 102. 

incarnatum L., 101. 

medium L., 100. 

minus Sm., 103. 

pratense L., 100. 
var. nivale Koch, 101. 
var. sativum Syme, 100. 
var. sylvestre Sjmie, 101. 

procumbens L., 102. 
var. majus Koch, 102. 
var. minus Koch, 102. 

repens L., 192. 

striatum L., 101. 
Triglochin L., 305. 

maritimum L., 306. 

palustre L., 305. 
Trisetura Pers., 346. 

flavescens Beau v., 346. 
Trollius L., 53. 

europasus L., 53. 
Tussilago Tourn., 176. 

Farfara L., 176. 
Typha L., 303. 

latifolia L., 303. 



INDEX. 



407 



Ulex L., 97. 

europasus, 97. 
Ulmus L., 264. 

montana Sm., 264. 
TJrtica L., 265. 

dioica L., 265. 

urens L., 265. 
TJtricularia L., 247. 

intermedia Hayne, 24S. 

minor L., 24S. 

vulgaris L., 247. 

Vaccinium L., 211. 

Myrtillus L., an. 

uliginosum L., an. 

Vitis-Idasa L., 211. 
Valeriana L., 172. 

excelsa Poir., 172. 

pyrenaica L., 173. 

samlnicifolia Mik., 172. 
Valerianella Tourn., 173. 

dentata Poll., 173. 

olitoria Poll., 173. 
Verbascum, 226. 

Lychnitis L., 226. 

nigrum L., 226. 

Thapsus L., 226. 
Verbena L. 

officinalis L., 236. 
Veronica Tourn., 229. 

agrestis L., 229. 

alpina L., 230. 

Anagallis L., 233. 
var. anagalliformis Bor.. 

arvensis L. , 230. 

Beccabunga L., 232. 

Buxbaumii Ten., 229. 

Chamsdrys L., 232. 

fruticans Jacq., 231. 

hederaefolia L., 229. 

montana L., 232. 

officinalis L., 231. 

var. hirsuta Hopk., 231. 

peregrina L., 230. 

polita Fr., 229. 

scutellata L., 232. 

serpyllifolia L., 230. 



Veronica — contd. 

var. humifusa Dicks., 230. 

Tournefortii C. Gmel., 229. 
Viburnum L., 166. 

Opulus L., 166. 
Vicia L., 106. 

angustifolia L., 108. 
var. Bobartii Forst., 108. 
var. segetalis Thuill., 108. 

Cracca L., 107. 

hirsuta Koch, 106. 

lathyroides L., 108. 

(lutea L.), 108. 

Orobus DC, 107. 

sativa L., 108. 

sepium L., 107. 

sylvatica L., 107. 

tetrasperma Moench, 106. 
Vinca L. 

minor L., 217. 
Viola L., 71. 

canina L., 73. 

cornuta, 73. 

hirta L., 72. 

lutea Huds., 73. 

var. amcena Syme, 73. 

odorata L., 72. 

palustris L., 71. 

Reichenbachiana Bor., 72. 

sylvatica Fr., 72. 

tricolor L., 73. 
var. arvensis Murr., 73. 
Viscum L. 

album L., 262. 
Volvulus Junger. 

sepium Junger, 220. 

soldanella Junger, 220. 

Woodsia R. Br., 366. 

hyperborea R. Br., 366, 390. 
ilvensis R. Br., 366. 

Zannicbellia L., 313. 
palustris L., 313. 
pedicellata E.B., 313. 
pedunculata Reichb., 389. 



THE END. 



PRINTED BY WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS.