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Full text of "Flora of Peru"

BOTANICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XIII 



FLORA OF PERU 

PART I, No. 3 



BY 

J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OP THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGREN 

CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 363 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
AUGUST 26, 1936 



BOTANICAL SERIES 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

VOLUME XIII 



FLORA OF PERU 

PART I, No. 3 



BY 

J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE 

ASSISTANT CURATOR OF THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGREN 

CURATOR. DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
EDITOR 



PUBLICATION 363 




CHICAGO, U.S.A. 
AUGUST 26, 1936 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 



F73 



FLORA OF PERU 



J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE 



17. CYCLANTHACEAE. Cyclanthus Family 
By Paul C. Standley 

Plants herbaceous or somewhat woody and with long jointed 
rhizomes; petioles sheathing at base; leaf blades flabellate-nerved 
or pinnate-nerved, the blades usually biparted or flabellately parted, 
rarely entire; flowers borne on spadices, these pedunculate, globose 
or oblong, arising within the leaf sheaths; flowers of the two sexes 
arranged in whorls or spirals, provided with a rudimentary perianth 
or naked; ovaries deeply immersed in the spadix and coherent, 
forming a syncarp; placentae 2 or 4, multiovulate; seeds numerous, 
small. 

In appearance the plants of this family are palm-like, and they 
are likely to be mistaken for palms by the uninitiated. The epiphytic 
and scandent species are unlike any palms of similar habit in having 
usually bifid leaves. The terrestrial plants of the family are wholly 
herbaceous, in that respect differing from most palms. The fruiting 
spadices, of course, are quite different from the fruits of any of the 
palms. 

Staminate flowers grouped in clusters of 4, with a pistillate flower 
between them; staminate flowers with a perianth; fruiting spadix 
oblong or globose, not screw-like. Plants terrestrial or epiphytic, 
the leaves various 1. Carludovica. 

Staminate flowers numerous, confluent, forming whorls or spirals, 
these alternating with whorls or spirals of pistillate flowers; 
staminate flowers without a perianth; fruiting spadix elongate, 
resembling in general appearance a screw. Plants terrestrial; 
leaf blades bifid almost or quite to the base 2. Cyclanthus. 

1. CARLUDOVICA R. & P. 

Plants terrestrial and herbaceous, or often epiphytic and with 
elongate, somewhat woody, jointed, creeping or scandent stems; leaf 
blades membranaceous-coriaceous, variable in form; spadix simple, 
subtended by 1-several concave spathes, these densely imbricate 
before anthesis; rachis cylindric or ellipsoid, fleshy, densely covered 

421 



422 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

with the flowers; staminate perianth stipitate, the margin oblique, 
dentate; stamens numerous from a fleshy disk, the filaments thick, 
the anthers erect, 2-celled; pistillate perianth 4-angulate, somewhat 
4-lobate; staminodia 4, opposite the sepals and adnate to them, 
greatly elongate and filiform; stigmas 4 on the apex of the ovary, 
broadly sessile, confluent by pairs, forming a cross. 

Leaf blades flabelliform-parted, the 4 segments broadened at the 
apex and cleft or dentate. Plants terrestrial, tall . . . C. palmata. 

Leaf blades bifid or rarely entire. 

Leaf segments broadened upward and oblique at the apex, some- 
times truncate, erose or cleft. 

Plants epiphytic, scandent; spadix about 13 cm. long. 

C. latifrons. 

Plants terrestrial, acaulescent; spadix about 5 cm. long. 

C. humilis. 

Leaf segments acuminate, entire. 

Leaf blades 60-120 cm. long C. angustifolia. 

Leaf blades mostly 20-50 cm. long. 

Blades cleft less than halfway to the base. Plants epiphytic, 

with elongate stems C. trigona. 

Blades cleft more than halfway to the base. 
Spadix stipitate. Leaf segments narrowly linear, 1.5 cm. 

wide C. Williamsii. 

Spadix sessile; leaf segments lance-linear, 2-5 cm. wide or 

broader. 

Leaf blades triplinerved, both the central and lateral 

nerves emitting secondary nerves . . . C. tetragonopus. 

Leaf blades 1-nerved, the nerves all arising from the costa. 

C. chelidonura. 

Carludovica acuminata R. & P. Syst. Veg. 293. 1798; Drude in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 239. pi. 57, /. 2. 1881. Ludovia acuminata 
Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 576. 1807. Salmia acuminata Willd. Ges. Naturf. 
Freund. Berlin Mag. 5: 401. 1811. 

The species was described by Ruiz and Pavon from Posuso and 
Muna (Huanuco). The brief description reads: Caudex repent, 
flexuous; fronds furcate to below the middle, the segments linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate. Evidently it, like the other descriptions of 
the same authors in the same work, is altogether too incomplete for 



FLORA OF PERU 423 

determination of the plant concerned, without reference to speci- 
mens on which the name was based . Poeppig and Endlicher described 
at length under the name acuminata a plant growing "in forests from 
the foot of the Andes to the mouths of the Amazon." Drude (loc. 
cit.) states that Poeppig's plant is not C. acuminata R. & P., and 
describes it as new, under the name C. divergens. The plant described 
and figured by Drude seems to me to be the same as that listed below 
under the name C. trigona. I believe it rather probable that Drude's 
C. divergens really is C. acuminata. Drude's C. acuminata has leaves 
bifid less than halfway to the middle, while Ruiz and Pavon make 
scarcely a single definite statement regarding their plant other than 
that its leaves are bifid to below the middle. As matters stand, the 
name C. acuminata must remain doubtful until a Ruiz and Pavon 
specimen can be examined and described. 

Carludovica angustifolia R. & P. Syst. Veg. 292. 1798; 
P. & E. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 37. 1838. Ludovia angustifolia Pers. 
Syn. PI. 2: 576. 1807. Salmia angustifolia Willd. Ges. Naturf. Freund. 
Berlin Mag. 5:401. 1811. 

Terrestrial; leaves very numerous, 2-2.5 meters high; petioles 
subterete, obtusely tetragonous above; blades deeply bifid, the seg- 
ments linear-lanceolate, short-acuminate, 50-120 cm. long, bright 
green, rigid; inflorescences erect, 15 cm. long, the spadix cylindric; 
spathes distant, pink; fruit purple. 

Huanuco: Described from Muna and Chinchao. Poeppig reports 
the plant from Cerro de San Cristobal near Cochero. 

The description is taken from that of Poeppig; the one given 
by Ruiz and Pavon is too brief to be of service. Whether Poeppig 
had any good reason for assuming his plant to be the same as that 
originally named, I do not know. He states that the plant, with its 
stiff leaves and woody but elastic petioles, forms dense and impene- 
trable thickets, like those of some dwarf palms, in rocky places of the 
drier mountains. The leaves are said to be one of the most satis- 
factory materials for thatching huts. The vernacular names are 
reported as "yacha pifia" and "pina brava." 

Carludovica chelidonura Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 

2:238. pi. 57, f.l. 1882. 

Plants either epiphytic or terrestrial, acaulescent or with stout 
elongate stems; leaves short-petiolate, the blades furcate almost 
to the base, the broad segments acuminate, entire, many-nerved; 
spadix stalked, subtended by 2 or more broad spathes, 2-6 cm. long. 



424 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Junin: Cahuapanas, epiphytic in dense forest, 340 meters, Killip 
& Smith 26808. Loreto: Iquitos, moist land, Williams 7989; Killip & 
Smith 27043. Puerto Arturo, in forest, Williams 5267. Balsa- 
puerto, on rocks in stream bed, Killip & Smith 20468. Pebas, Wil- 
liams 1667. San Martin: Tarapoto, in water, Williams 6317. San 
Roque, edge of water, Williams 7715. Also in Brazil. "Yacu sisa." 

Carludovica divergens Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 241. 
1881. C. acuminata P. & E. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 37. 1838, non R. 
& P. (?) 

Stems short and rooting along tree trunks or climbing high on 
trees, slender; leaves small, mostly 20-30 cm. long, the slender 
petioles 3-7 cm. long; blades bifid almost to the base, rather thin, 
plicate, the segments broadly linear, usually 1-1.5 cm. wide, evenly 
long-attenuate; peduncles short, bearing several short spathes; 
spadix 1.5-2.5 cm. long, many-flowered, subglobose or ellipsoid; 
blades of leaves on sterile branches sometimes entire, 10-20 cm. 
long and 2-2.5 cm. wide. 

Junin: Rio Masamerich, 2,000 meters, Weberbauer 6661. Loreto: 
Reported by Drude from Prov. Mainas, presumably collected by 
Poeppig. According to Drude, ranging to the mouth of the Amazon. 

According to Poeppig, the stems were used for tying together 
the framework of huts, a purpose for which they are well suited 
because of their strength and pliability. He records the vernacular 
name as tamschi. 

Huber (Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 538. 1906) refers doubtfully to this 
species a plant known by the name tamshi, growing abundantly 
along the Rio Ucayali, and climbing on high trees. Its stems are 
used as cordage. Concerning the plant Huber makes the following 
statement: Regarding the tamshi there exists in all cisandine Peru 
a curious belief. They say that the tamshi is generated from the 
issula ant (Dinoponera grandis). The basis for this belief is probably 
the fact that this ant often is attacked by certain fungi of the Hypo- 
creaceae (Cordiceps). Before dying the issula attaches itself to the 
bark of some tree, and the fruiting body that arises from it has some- 
what the appearance of a plant in germination. The natives, finding 
these ants with fruiting bodies of Cordiceps projecting from their 
heads, assured me that this was the tamshi springing from the issula. 

Carludovica elegans Dammer ex Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 
538. 1906. This name is practically a nomen nudum, although 
the description is scarcely inferior to those given by Ruiz and 



FLORA OF PERU 425 

Pa von: "A scandent plant with large broad leaves bifid one-third 
the distance to the base." The name was based upon Huber 1524 
from Pampa del Sacramento. 

Carludovica humilis P. & E. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 37. 1838. 
Salmia humilis Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 501. 1841. 

Plant terrestrial, acaulescent; leaves numerous, 1.2 meters long; 
leaf blades deltoid, many-nerved, cuneate at the base, plicate 
between the nerves, thin, bright green, paler beneath, bifid, the 
segments truncate, erose and often irregularly cleft; petioles semi- 
terete, as long as the blades; spadix cylindric, 5 cm. long, borne on a 
stalk about 15 cm. long. 

Loreto: Type collected at Yurimaguas by Poeppig. 

Carludovica latifolia R. & P. Syst. Veg. 292. 1798. Ludovia 
latifolia Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 576. 1807. Salmia latifolia Willd. Ges. 
Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 5: 401. 1811. 

Described by Ruiz and Pavon from Chinchao, Muria, Posuso, 
and Cochero (Huanuco), in tropical forests. The description is too 
brief for recognition of the plant, affording only the following data: 
Caudex an ell long, rooting; leaf blades bifid to beyond the middle, 
the segments lanceolate; petioles canaliculate. 

Carludovica latifrons Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 237. 
pi. 58 J.I. 1881. 

Plant epiphytic, with a thick caudex; leaves about 120 cm. long; 
blades equaling the petiole, bifid almost to the middle, the segments 
broadened upward, very oblique, obtuse, the costa 3-parted at the 
base, the lateral nerves remote from the margin; spadix 13 cm. long, 
1.5 cm. thick, the peduncle compressed, 10 cm. long; spathes 3. 

Junin: Puerto Yessup, 400 meters, Killip & Smith 26240. 
Cahuapanas, 340 meters, Killip & Smith 26810. Near La Merced, 
800-1,300 meters, Killip & Smith 23984 Loreto: Santa Rosa, 135 
meters, Killip & Smith 28788. Reported by Huber (Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi 4: 537. 1906) from Cerros de Contamana, Canchahuayo, etc. 
Amazon Valley of Brazil. 

Carludovica palmata R. & P. Syst. Veg. 291. 1798; Drude in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 234. pis. 54, 55. 1881. Ludovia palmata 
Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 576. 1807. Salmia palmata Willd. Ges. Naturf. 
Freund. Berlin Mag. 5: 401. 1811. 

Plants terrestrial, acaulescent, densely cespitose and stolon- 
iferous, the slender petioles subterete, 3-5 times as long as the 



426 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

blades; leaf blades parted into 4 segments, those broadly cuneate, 
many-nerved, deeply laciniate at the broad apex; spadix oblong, 
acutish, about 12 cm. long, many-flowered, borne on a short thick 
peduncle; spathes 3, concave, 12 cm: long, acute. 

Amazonas: Rioja, Moyobamba, Williams 7599. Huanuco: 
Described from forests of Posuso and Cochero, Ruiz & Pavon. 
Cochero, Poeppig. Loreto: Puerto Arturo, Yurimaguas, Williams 
5091. Cerro de Canchahuayo (Huber}. Extending north through 
Central America. 

"Bombonaje," "appi-ttara." Ruiz and Pavon state that walking 
sticks were made from the petioles; that the leaves were used for 
thatching; and that oil could be obtained from the seeds of this and 
other species. The most important use of the -plant, of course, is 
the utilization of the fine fiber of the young leaves for plaiting 
the so-called "Panama" or "Jipijapa" hats, most of which are 
manufactured in Ecuador. In some regions of Peru fine hats are 
made from this plant, but in Central America, for instance, where 
it is abundant, little or no use is made of the fiber. 

Carludovica tetragonopus Mart, ex Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
3, pt. 2: 238. pi. 4. 1882. 

Plants epiphytic and with long stout stems, or terrestrial and 
acaulescent or with short stems; leaves on rather long and slender 
petioles, the large blades cleft nearly to the base, the segments entire, 
acuminate, many-nerved, rather stiff; spadix stout, about 4-5 cm. 
long, many-flowered, subtended by 4 or more large spathes. 

Junin: Puerto Yessup, terrestrial, with an erect caudex 30 cm. 
high or less, 400 meters, Killip & Smith 26242. Enefias, 1,700 
meters, dense forest, Killip & Smith 25657. Santa Rosa, 625-900 
meters, epiphytic, Killip & Smith 26156. Loreto: Paraiso, in forest, 
Williams 3248. Santa Rosa, Williams 4814- Between Yurimaguas 
and Balsapuerto, 150 meters, epiphytic, Killip & Smith 28139. 
Balsapuerto, 150-350 meters, terrestrial, Killip & Smith 28384- 
Santa Rosa, Killip & Smith 28905 (epiphytic). Brazil. 

Carludovica trigona R. & P. Syst. Veg. 293. 1798; P. & E. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 2: 36. pi. 151. 1838. Ludovia trigona Pers. Syn. PL 2: 
576. 1807. Salmia trigona Willd. Ges. Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 
5: 401. 1811. 

Plants usually epiphytic and with much elongate, more or less 
woody stems, sometimes, however, terrestrial (according to notes), 



FLORA OF PERU 427 

but apparently then also with long creeping stems; leaves mostly 
at the tips of the branches, chiefly 45-60 cm. long, rather thin, 
somewhat paler beneath, the blades long-cuneate at the base, bifid 
less than halfway to the middle, the segments evenly or abruptly 
long-attenuate or acuminate; petiole usually much shorter than the 
blade; peduncles shorter than the petioles; spathes 4, elliptic, 
acuminate, concave, about 7 cm. long, whitish outside, pinkish within; 
spadix cylindric, densely many-flowered, 5 cm. long or sometimes 
shorter. 

Huanuco : Type from Mufia, Ruiz & Pawn. Forests of Cochero, 
Poeppig. Loreto: Puerto Arturo, Yurimaguas, Williams 5083, 5281 ; 
Killip & Smith 27784- Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, Killip 
& Smith 29915. Balsapuerto, Killip & Smith 28503, 28677, 28579, 
28440,28380. Iquitos, Killip & Smith 27331 . Santa Rosa, Killip 
& Smith 28958. San Antonio, Killip & Smith 29430. 

The plants listed above are the same as that described by Poeppig 
and Endlicher under the name trigona, but there is less certainty that 
they are the one so named by Ruiz and Pa von. 

Carludovica Williamsii Standl. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 146. 
1936. 

Plants terrestrial, acaulescent, 45 cm. high or somewhat taller; 
leaf blades long-tapering to the base, bifid almost to the base, the 
segments linear, long-attenuate, about 1.5 cm. wide, strongly 
plicate between the nerves; peduncles 20 cm. long or more, very 
slender; spathes about 3, narrow, 7-8 cm. long, very long-tapering; 
spadix ellipsoid, 3 cm. long or more, many-flowered, conspicuously 
stipitate. "Yacu-sisa." 

San Martin: San Roque, on stream bank, 1,400 meters, Williams 
7477, type. 

2. CYCLANTHUS Poit. 

Large acaulescent perennial herbs; leaves few, sheathing, dicho- 
tomously binerved, at maturity deeply bifid; spadix terminal, long- 
pedunculate, the rachis ellipsoid, subtended by several spathes, the 
flowers of either sex densely verticillate and confluent; staminate 
flowers without a perianth; stamens 6, the filaments united at the 
base, the anthers 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent; staminate flowers 
connate, the perianth connate and multidentate; ovaries immersed 
in the rachis in a common cavity; fruiting spadix composed of 
distinct swollen disks, the disks sulcate and bearing the seeds within. 



428 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. Me"m. Mus. Hist. Nat. 9: 36. pi. 
2. 1822; Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 38. pi. 152, 15^. 1838. 
Discanthus odoratus Spruce, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 3: 196. 1859. 

Plants large and coarse, 1-2 meters high; petioles slender, 50-100 
cm. long, subterete or somewhat angled; blades of about the same 
length, rather thin, bifid almost or quite to the base, the segments 
acute at each end, lance-linear, usually 5-10 cm. wide, with a con- 
spicuous stout median nerve; scapes 45 cm. long or more; spathes 
4-5, convolute before anthesis, later spreading; spadix about 
10 cm. long. 

Huanuco: Reported from Cochero by Poeppig. Loreto: Caballo- 
cocha on the Amazon, in forest, Williams 2355. La Victoria on 
the Amazon, in forest, Williams 2984- Agua Blanca, Alto Rio 
Nanay, Williams 1187. Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, in 
forest, King 1018. Reported by Poeppig from Yurimaguas. San 
Martin: Reported by Huber from Cerro de Canchahuayo, growing 
chiefly along streams. Ranging from the Amazon Valley to the 
Guianas and Central America. 

"Sangapillo." The flowers have a pleasing fragrance, described 
by Poeppig as being between those of cinnamon and vanilla. The 
large bifid leaves are distinctive, also the curious fruiting spadix, 
which resembles a large screw. 

18. ARAGEAE. Arum Family 

Aroids as a group, comprising herbs, lianas and shrubs, epiphytes, 
and even aquatics, are among the most beautiful and curious of 
plants. Some are strange or, both strange and beautiful, approach 
the fantastic. Others, if lacking in magnificence, are often glorious 
in the vigor and luxuriousness of their development. Consequently 
they have long been popular in conservatories, especially species of 
Caladium and Dieffenbachia for their often colored foliage, and most 
other genera, to some extent, for their interest or beauty. The 
foliage of some species is entirely different when the plants are young; 
many of the small vines on forest trees with leaves tightly pressed 
against the tree trunks are juvenile forms of aroids. Some tribes of 
the family are distinguishable from others by the presence of calcium 
oxalate crystals in the watery sap. These are readily detected upon 
chewing by a burning sensation, since their needle-like form enables 
them to penetrate the tongue. The economic importance of aroids, 
except in horticulture, although various, is not particularly great, 



FLORA OF PERU 429 

but often of local significance. Some of the plants found useful in 
Peru and other parts of South America are: 

Monstera pertusa, whose leaves, like those of similar species, 
serve as compresses for wounds; M. deliciosa and related forms have 
some reputation for their fruit; Spathiphyllum cannifolium is used 
to flavor tobacco; the roots of Urospatha caudata (ape* or caa ape"), 
when roasted in ashes, are sweet but cause an itching sensation 
(Peckolt) ; the tubers of Dracontium polyphyllum (jararaca or jiraca) 
serve as food, boiled or roasted; the leaves of various Philodendrons 
are used as ointments; the rhizomes of Caladium sororium and other 
species, and the tubers of Xanthosoma, etc., are eaten after cooking; 
the leaves of species of Dieffenbachia, chewed, result in speechlessness 
for a time, but unfortunately also in a swelling of the mouth; and 
many other remedial uses have been or are in vogue where the plants 
grow (cf. Engler, from whose compilation of uses I have drawn). 

A. Plants not characteristically aquatic. 

Flowers typically hermaphrodite, the spadix, as a result, uniform 

in thickness. 
Leaves distichous; calcium oxalate crystals present, except in 

Heteropsis. 
Leaves relatively remote and evidently alternate, the petioles 

only to 6 mm. long 1. Heteropsis. 

Leaves usually densely crowded and the petioles elongate. 
Spathe more or less promptly deciduous; lianas. 
Leaf nervation (principally) entirely parallel. 

2. Rhodospatha. 
Leaf nervation reticulate, except the primary lateral 

nerves 3. Monstera. 

Spathe persistent; herbs 4. Spathiphyllum. 

Leaves spirally arranged; calcium oxalate crystals often lacking; 
spathe persistent. 

Leaf nervation principally parallel 7. Anthurium. 

Leaf nervation principally reticulate. 
Leaves much divided (ours), or never as in the next. 

5. Dracontium. 
Leaves sagittate, the two lower lobes about as long as or 

longer than the upper 6. Urospatha. 

Flowers typically monoecious, the female and male portions of the 
spadix more or less distinctly marked by the varying thickness. 



430 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Male and female portions of the spadix obviously intercepted 
by a remotely flowered sterile or barren portion. 

Completely intercepted; principal leaf nerves reticulate. 

16. Ulearum. 

Incompletely intercepted by remote sterile flowers; principal 
leaf nerves parallel 8. Dieffenbachia. 

Male and female portions of the spadix contiguous but often 
with sterile intermediate flowers. 

Spathe not much longer than the spadix or shorter, its limb 
convolute or cymbiform; leaves never subequally 3- 
parted, the lateral lobes eared. 

Spathe not constricted at the throat or, if so, the limb 
strongly convolute. 

Spadix subequaling or shorter than the spathe. 

Scandent plants; spadix partly sterile. 

9. Philodendron. 

Herbs; spadix usually entirely fertile. 

Leaves entire 10. Homalomena. 

Leaves pinnate 14. Asterostigma. 

Spadix soon far exceeding the spathe 15. Taccarum. 

Spathe tube well defined, constricted at the throat, the 
limb cymbiform. 

Style a fleshy disk; leaves sagittate, hastate, or dis- 
sected ;....!!. Xanthosoma. 

Style none; leaves often peltate .12. Caladium. 

Spathe distinctly and often much longer than the spadix, its 
open limb spreading; leaves 3-parted, the lateral divi- 
sions usually ear-appendaged 13. Syngonium. 

A. Plants aquatic 17. Pistia. 

1. HETEROPSIS Kunth 

High-climbing lianas with slender branches and heavy, oblong- 
lanceolate, very shortly petioled leaves with many parallel nerves. 
Spathe ovate-oblong, convolute, exceeding the spadix, deciduous. 
Ovary 2-celled above, the ovules 2, attached near the base. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, or the stamens of a few aborted. The leaves are 
suggestive of those of the Guttiferae. Besides the following, H. 



FLORA OF PERU 431 

Spruceana Schott, with spathe scarcely 2 cm. long, and H. longi- 
spathacea Engler, with spathe 7 cm. long, are to be expected, since 
both are Amazonian. "Timbo-titica." 

Heteropsis peruviana Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 9: 
270. 1925. 

Slender, the slightly flexuous branchlets 2-4 mm. thick; inter- 
nodes 2-5 cm. long; petioles 4-6 mm. long, 2 mm. thick, grooved 
above throughout; leaves subcoriaceous, oblong-lanceolate, narrowly 
acuminate, acute at base, 1-1.5 dm. long, 2.5-3.5 cm. broad; lateral 
nerves equally distinct on both sides; peduncle terete, 1 cm. long; 
spathe drying black, oblong-elliptic, 3.5-4.5 cm. long, with a narrow 
acute acumen 1 cm. long; spadix stipitate, oblong, acutish, 2.5-3 
cm. long, 5-7 mm. thick (in flower); fruit subobovoid, obtuse, 5-6 
mm. long. Neg. 11833. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1819. 

Heteropsis Jenmanii Oliv. in Hook. Icon. 20: pi. 1949. 1890. 

Differs from H. peruviana in the stouter stems, distinctly reticu- 
late-veined, heavier leaves, not infrequently broader, and in the 
longer (to 8 cm.) spathe and larger spadix. According to Jenman, 
the original collector, the plant "sends down long aerial roots which, 
split into thin strips, form the most useful tying material the Indians 
employ." Tessmann, apparently, did not observe this use, but 
recorded in a note accompanying his specimens the following super- 
stition, "believed by nearly all Loretians, even the most intelligent"; 
namely, that the plant never blooms but is in fact a fungus that 
grows from the head of the black ant called "ishula." The fungus 
is a long string-like plant known as "tamishi" (as also the Heteropsis 
itself). 

Loreto: Mishuyacu near Iquitos, King 713 (det. Krause). Mouth 
of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4448 (det. Krause). British Guiana; 
Colombia. "Tamishi," "tamishi delgado." 

2. RHODOSPATHA Poepp. 
Reference: Engler & Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B. 1908. 

Suffrutescent and often scandent, with long-vaginate petioles 
and oblong-elliptic or lanceolate leaves. Spicular crystals numerous. 
Ovary 2-celled, the ovules affixed basally or laterally. Several 
Ecuadorean species are to be expected. Stenospermatium Schott. 



432 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves mostly about 1 dm. long. 

Spadix about 3 cm. long; leaves acutely cusped R. flavescens. 

Spadix finally about 6 cm. long; leaves long-acuminate. 

R. Mathewsii. 

Leaves 1.5-4.5 dm. long. 

Leaves 3-7 cm. broad. 

Stipe 3-5 mm. long. 

Spadix 3 cm. long, 5 mm. thick R. Weberbaueri. 

Spadix 4-6 cm. long, 7 mm. thick R. Spruceana. 

Stipe about 1 cm. long. 

Spadix about 8 cm. long . . R. amomifolia. 

Spadix about 6 cm. long R. Mathewsii. 

Leaves 1-2 dm. broad. 

Peduncles 6 dm. long, about equaling the leaves. 

R. crassifolia. 

Peduncles 1.5-2.5 dm. long, much shorter than the leaves. 

Leaves broadly elliptic, 1.5-2 dm. broad R. latifolia. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic, 1-1.5 dm. broad R. oblongata. 

Rhodospatha amomifolia (Poepp.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 7. 1931. Stenospermatium amomifolium Schott, Prodr. 348. 1860; 
90. Monstera amomifolium Poepp. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 88. 1845. 

Petioles 7-10 cm. long, three-fourths vaginate; leaves little 
oblique, lanceolate-oblong, very acute at each end, 1.5-2.5 dm. long; 
peduncles about 1.5 dm. long; spathe oblong, acuminate; spadix 
2.5-3.5 cm. long, to 1 cm. thick, the stipe up to 1 cm. long. Neg. 
12162. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, Poeppig. Junin: Colonia Perene", Killip 
& Smith (det. Krause). 

Rhodospatha crassifolia (Engler) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
7. 1931. Stenospermatium crassifolium Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 114. 
1905; 89. 

Slender, with petioles to 3 dm. long, vaginate to 2 cm. below the 
coriaceous oblong-elliptic acute blades, these obtuse at base, 
3-4.5 dm. long; peduncles 6 dm. long; spathe 2-2.5 dm. long, 6 cm. 
wide, pale green or yellowish; spadix to 2.5 dm. long and 2 cm. thick, 
the stipe 1 cm. long. Illustrated, loc. cit. Neg. 12164. 



FLORA OF PERU 433 

Huanuco: South of Monzon, 1,700 meters, Weberbauer 3512. 
Junin: La Merced, Schunke 283 (det. Krause). Chanchamayo 
Valley, 1,200 meters, Schunke 429 (det. Krause). 

Rhodospatha flavescens (Engler) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
7. 1931. Stenospermatium flavescens Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 111. 
1905; 82. 

Petioles slightly shorter than the leaves and vaginate nearly 
their entire length; leaves 8-10 cm. long, 2.5-3 cm. broad; peduncles 
to 1.5 cm. long; spathe 5 cm. long, greenish, with a point 6 mm. 
long; spadix stipe 5 mm. long. Illustrated, op. cit. 83. Doubtfully 
distinct from R. Mathewsii. 

Huanuco: South of Monzon, 1,700 meters, Weberbauer 3506. 

Rhodospatha latifolia Poepp. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 91. pi. 300. 
1845; 92. 

Petioles 3.5 dm. long, broadly (3 cm.) vaginate to within 1 dm. 
of the thin, nearly opaque, elliptic blade, this 3-4.5 dm. long and 1.5- 
2.5 dm. broad, rounded or truncate at base, shortly cuspidate; ped- 
uncles 1.5-2 dm. long, mostly included in the leaf sheath; spathes 
fleshy, pale rose, ovate, acute, 15-18 cm. long, 5-7 cm. broad; 
spadix 1 to nearly 2 dm. long, short-stiped; flowers all hermaphrodite, 
violet. R. picta Nicholson, said to be much cultivated and possibly 
Peruvian, has leaves subacute at base and a spadix 2 dm. long. 
Illustrated, op. cit. 94. 

San Martin: Tocache (Poeppig). Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poep- 
pig). Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2490, 2491). Loreto: Cerro de 
Cumbaso, Ule 6694. Brazil. 

Rhodospatha Mathewsii (Schott) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 7. 1931. Stenospermatium Mathewsii Schott, Gen. Aroid. 70. 
1858; 83. 

Similar to R. flavescens, but the leaves somewhat longer, the 
peduncles longer, and the spadix 2-3 mm. long (or, in an Ecuadorean 
form, 1 cm. long). Flowers rose (Klug). Neg. 12169. 

Huanuco: Casapi (Mathews). Loreto: Near Iquitos, Klug 1200 
(det. Krause). Junin: Pichis Trail, Killip & Smith. Ecuador. 

Rhodospatha oblongata Poepp. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 91. 1845; 
93. 

Similar to R. latifolia; petiole sheath to 4 cm. broad at base but 
narrowed above to scarcely 2 cm. broad; leaves 1-1.5 dm. broad; 



434 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

peduncles 2-2.5 dm. long; spathe abruptly long-cuspidate, greenish 
without; spadix sterile below, its stipe 1-2 cm. long. Illustrated, 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 17. 

San Martin: Tocache (Poeppig). Brazil. 

Rhodospatha Spruceana (Schott) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
7. 1931. Stenospermatium Spruceanum Schott, Gen. Aroid. 70. 
1858; 85. 

Vaginate petioles of the lower leaves to 2.5 dm. long; leaves 
coriaceous, oblong-elliptic-lanceolate, oblique, 2-2.5 dm. long; 
peduncles very slender; spathe to 11 cm. long; spadix 4-6 cm. long, 
7 mm. thick, on a stipe 5 mm. long. R. popayanensis (Schott) 
Macbr. has a spadix stipe 1-1.5 cm. long. Illustrated, Mart. Fl. 
Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 18. 

Loreto: Pongo de Cainarache, Vie 6324- Junin: La Merced, 
5527. Iquitos, King 516. La Victoria, Williams 2624. (all det. 
Krause). Brazil to Guiana and Colombia. 

Rhodospatha Weberbaueri (Engler) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 7. 1931. Stenospermatium Weberbaueri Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 
110. 1905; 87. 

Stems about 5 dm. long; petioles vaginate two-thirds their length; 
leaves acuminate, acute at base; peduncles 1.5-2.5 dm. long; spathe 
cusp 6-7 mm. long; spadix 3 cm. long, 5 mm. thick, the stipe 3 mm. 
long. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 86. Neg. 12175. 

Huanuco: Near the Monzon, 600 meters, Weberbauer 3653. 
Junin: La Merced, 1,200 meters, Schunke 283 (det. Krause). 

3. MONSTERA Adans. 

Reference: Engler & Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B. 1908. 

Vigorous lianas with long-vaginate petioles and broad or narrow 
leaves, often perforated, less frequently entire or pinnatifid. Spi- 
cular crystals numerous. Ovary usually 2-celled, the ovules com- 
monly 2 in each cell. Besides the following, the Amazonian and 
somewhat aberrant species, M. occidentalis (Poeppig) Schott, with a 
solitary ovule, may be found. It has pinnately dissected leaves, 
with the petioles (3-6 dm. long) a meter long or longer, and an 
obtuse spathe, white without and rose within. The leaves of M. 
pertusa and related forms serve as compresses for wounds. The 
species, or probably often mere races, are distinguishable with 
difficulty. 



FLORA OF PERU 435 

Leaves of mature plants entire, small to medium-sized. 

Leaves deeply cordate to rounded or truncate at base, 10-13 cm. 
wide M. acuminata. 

Leaves acute at base, 5-6 cm. wide M. falcifolia. 

Leaves of mature plants with 1 to many perforations or with more or 
less interrupted margins, often large. 

Leaves never regularly pinnatifid. 
Spadix rarely as long as 5 cm. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, slightly to moderately perforated. 

M. obliqua. 

Leaves ovate, abundantly perforated M . Killipii. 

Spadix usually 1 dm. long or longer. 
Leaves acute at the rounded base. 
Leaves acute or shortly and broadly acuminate . M. pertusa. 

Leaves narrowly long-acuminate M. dilacerata. 

Leaves cordate or at least truncate at base. 

Divisions of the leaf extending halfway to midrib. 

M. maxima. 

Divisions extending nearly to midrib M. acreana. 

Leaves regularly pinnatifid, at least comparatively so. 
Divisions of the leaf 4-6 cm. wide, broadly oblong. 
Divisions at least twice longer than broad. 

Few (2-4); peduncle much longer than the spadix. 

M. peruviana. 

Several (4-6); peduncle about equal to or much shorter 
than the spadix M. Spruceana. 

Divisions scarcely twice longer than broad .... M . latiloba. 
Divisions of the leaf 1-3 cm. wide. 

Spadix usually 1 dm. long or longer M. subpinnata. 

Spadix 8 cm. long or shorter M. Uleana. 

Monstera acreana Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 114. 
1914. 

Similar to M. maxima, but the leaves much more divided and the 
slender peduncles only 8-9 cm. long. Neg. 12176. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9212. 



436 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Monstera acuminata C. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. App. 
4. 1855; 99. 

The only known Peruvian species with entire leaves, cordate to 
truncate at base. In the juvenile state the leaves are closely 
appressed to tree trunks. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo (Huber 1342). Iquitos, Killip & 
Smith (det. Krause). Huanuco: Posuso, 600 meters, 4583. Ranging 
northward to Guatemala. 

Monstera dilacerata C. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. App. 
5. 1855; 110. 

Most easily recognized by the narrowly acuminate tips of both 
the young and old leaves or of their segments; largest leaves 2.5-4 
dm. long, 2-2.5 dm. broad, often smaller; peduncle about 1.5 dm. 
long, the yellow spathe little shorter; spadix 5-6 cm. long, sessile. 
17. Neg. 12179. 

Loreto: Leticia, Williams 3044. Iquitos, Killip & Smith 27372 
(det. Krause). Colombia to Central America. 

Monstera falcifolia Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 117. 1905; 101. 

Petioles slender, 1-1.5 cm. long, obscurely vaginate nearly to the 
blade; blades oblique, acuminate, narrowly oblong, about 2 dm. 
long and 5 cm. wide or, in var. lalifolia Krause, to 10 cm. wide ; 
peduncle 5-6 cm. long; spathe oblong, shortly acuminate, 4 cm. long; 
spadix 2.5-3 cm. long. Illustrated, loc. cit. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,200 meters, 5743. Loreto: Rio Nanay, Wil- 
liams 730. Yurimaguas, Williams 4662. Iquitos, Killip & Smith 
(all det. Krause). Brazil; Bolivia. 

Monstera Killipii Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 614. 
1932. 

Similar to M. obliqua but the leaves becoming nearly 2 dm. broad 
and 3 dm. long; petioles to 2.2 dm. long; perforations numerous even 
to the leaf margins; peduncle 1 dm. long; spathe and spadix pale 
yellow, the latter 4 cm. long, few-flowered. 8a. 

Loreto: Iquitos (Killip & Smith 27372). 

Monstera latiloba Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 615. 
1932. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, cuspidate-acuminate, 3-4.5 dm. long, 
about 2 dm. wide, pinnatifid with 3-4 broadly oblong lobes each side 



FLORA OF PERU 437 

of the midnerve; fruiting spadix orange. Distinctive among species 
with pinnately divided foliage in the few and broad leaf divisions. 
-17a. 

Loreto: Balsapuerto (Killip & Smith 28421; 28620}. 

Monstera maxima Engl. & Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 107. 
1908. 

The only Peruvian species with distinctly cordate or rounded- 
truncate leaves that are irregularly laciniate; leaves 4-7 dm. long and 
3-4 dm. broad, the short divisions broadly oblong, truncate and 
often slightly dilated at the apex; peduncles usually 1 dm. long or 
more; spathe oblong, to 3.5 dm. long. 

Puno: Chunchosmayo, 900 meters, Weberbauer 1182. Huanuco: 
Huamalies, 700 meters, Weberbauer 3602. San Martin: Tarapoto, 
Williams 5673 (det. Krause). Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9214. Ecuador. 

Monstera obliqua Miq. Linnaea 18: 79. 1844; 103. 

Slender, climbing, with oblong-lanceolate, beautifully perforated 
leaves (or rarely the holes only 1 or 2); perforations often large; 
leaves about 2 dm. long. The related M. coriacea Engler has a 
spadix 6 cm. long, spathe 8 cm. long, and longer leaves and petioles 
(to 3 dm.). Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 19. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,200 meters, 5812 (det. Krause). Loreto: 
Rio Itaya, Williams 236 (det. Krause). Rio Acre, Ule 9204- Brazil 
to the Guianas. 

Monstera pertusa (L.) de Vriese, Hort. Spaarn. Bergens. 40. 
1839; 103. Dracontium pertusum L. Sp. PI. 968. 1753. 

Very variable, but the leaves more or less cleft or perforated. 
The Peruvian form is sometimes var. Jacquinii (Schott) Engler, with 
indistinctly auricled sheaths. Fruit orange (Klug). Illustrated, 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 20. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poeppig). Tingo Maria, Raimondi 
(det. Krause). Junin: La Merced, 5403. Loreto: Near Iquitos, 
Klug 515. Rio Acre, Ule 9242. Brazil; Colombia. 

Monstera peru viana Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 117. 1905; 112. 

Petioles narrowly vaginate; leaves fleshy-coriaceous, oblong, 
4-5 dm. long and 2.5 dm. broad, their divisions 2-4; spadix 8-10 cm. 
long, greenish, much shorter than the peduncle. Neg. 12187. 

Huanuco: On the Monzon, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 3575. 



438 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Monstera Spruceana (Schott) Engler in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, 
pt. 2: 115. 1878; 113. Tornelia Spruceana Schott, Oesterr. Bot. 
Zeitschr. 9: 40. 1859. 

Petioles broadly vaginate, 3 to several dm. long; leaves to 3.5 
dm. wide; peduncle stout, about 1 dm. long; spadix finally almost 
3 dm. long or often a third shorter. Spathe white; spadix orange 
(Tessmann). 

Loreto: Santa Rosa, below Yurimaguas, Killip & Smith. Mouth 
of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4522. Rio Acre, Ule 9222 (all det. 
Krause). 

Monstera subpinnata (Schott) Engler in DC. Monogr. 2: 267. 
1879; 113. Tornelia subpinnata Schott, Prodr. 357. 1860. 

Leaves 2.5-3.5 dm. long, with 3-6 divisions about 12 cm. long and 
2-3 cm. wide; peduncle stout, 7-8 cm. long; spathe broadly ovate, 1 
dm. broad when expanded, acuminate; spadix 10-12 cm. long, 16- 
20 mm. thick. 22. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poeppig). Junin: La Merced, 1,000 
meters, Weberbauer 1873; 282. San Martin: Rio Huallaga, Williams 
6582 (det. Krause). Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 4694 (vel aff., 
det. Krause; has the narrow leaf segments of M. Uleana, but sterile). 
Rio Acre, Ule 9239, 9230. Ayacucho: Rio Apurimac Valley, 
Killip & Smith 2249 (det. Krause). 

Monstera Uleana Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 118. 1905; 113. 

Similar, but divisions 6-7, falcate, 1-2 cm. wide; peduncle 1 dm. 
long; spathe ovate-oblong, white, 5 cm. broad; spadix about 8 cm. 
long, 1.5 cm. thick. Doubtfully distinct from M. subpinnata. 

Loreto: Pampas de Ponasa, Ule. 

4. SPATHIPHYLLUM Schott 
Reference: Engler & Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B. 1908. 

Stemless or short-stemmed herbs with long-petioled ovate-oblong 
leaves, and peduncles about as long or longer, bearing a leaf-like 
persistent spathe. Spicular crystals few. Ovary 2-4-celled. 

Petioles about 6 dm. long, nearly twice as long as the blades. 

S. Huberi. 

Petioles about 2 dm. long, or about equaling the blades. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate. 

Spadix 2-5 cm. long, the stipe 4-8 mm. long. 



FLORA OF PERU 439 

Leaves 4-5 cm. broad; spadix about 4 cm. long. S. tenerum. 
Leaves mostly under 3 cm. broad; spadix 2-2.5 cm. long. 

S. Lechlerianum. 
Spadix 7-12 cm. long, the stipe often 12-15 mm. long. 

S. cannaefolium. 
Leaves broadly ovate-elliptic S. juninense. 

Spathiphyllum cannaefolium (Dryand.) Schott, Gen. Aroid. 1: 
1. 1858; 132. Pothos cannaefolia Dryand. Bot. Mag. pi. 603. 1803. 

Larger than the other species, the leaves sometimes several dm. 
long and 1 dm. wide or wider; sepals truncate. 25. 

Loreto: Pebas, Williams 1706 (det. Krause). Colombia; Vene- 
zuela; British Guiana. 

Spathiphyllum Huberi Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 120. 1905; 128. 

Petioles narrowly vaginate to the middle; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute at base, long-acuminate, 1.5 dm. broad, with very many 
lateral nerves; spathe green, acuminate, nearly 2 dm. long, 6 cm. 
broad; spadix stipe 3-3.5 cm. long; spadix 12 cm. long, 8 mm. thick; 
sepals free, subtruncate; ovary 2-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell 
near the base. Illustrated, op. cit. 129. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo ( Huber 1403). 

Spathiphyllum juninense Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11: 615. 1932. 

Petioles about 4 dm. long, vaginate nearly to the node but very 
narrowly; leaves obtusely rounded at base, acuminate, 3 dm. long 
and about half as broad; primary lateral nerves 14-16; peduncle 6 
dm. long; spathe white or green, oblong, 15 cm. long, the acumen 
about 1 cm. long; spadix 11 cm. long, the stipe nearly 2 cm. long. 6 a. 

Junin: Santa Rosa, Pichis Trail, 800 meters, Killip & Smith 26157. 

Spathiphyllum Lechlerianum Schott, Prodr. 425. 1860; 131. 

Petioles very slender, 1.5 dm. long or longer, narrowly vaginate to 
about the middle; leaves narrowly lanceolate, narrowed at each end, 
long-acuminate, 2.5-4 cm. broad; primary lateral nerves 6-7; ped- 
uncle 3-4 dm. long; stipe 2 cm. long; spathe white, cuneately long- 
decurrent; sepals connate, 6-lobed; ovules 6-8 in each cell. 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler). San Martin: Tarapoto (Spruce 
4496). Loreto: Camboso, Ule. Puerto Mele"ndez, Tessmann 4837. 



440 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Spathiphyllum tenerum Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 120. 1905; 
131. 

Petioles long-vaginate; leaves thin, light green above, paler 
beneath, obtuse at base, acuminate, 1.5-2 dm. long, 3-4 cm. broad; 
primary lateral nerves about 9, strongly arcuate; peduncle about 

4 dm. long; spathe 5-7 cm. long, the acumen 1-1.5 cm. long; stipe 
4-5 mm. long; sepals free. Neg. 12197. 

Loreto: Cerro de Ponasa, 1,200 meters, Vie 6851. 

5. DRACONTIUM L. 

The species known within Peru are distinguishable from the 
related genus Urospatha by their large dissected leaves. Members of 
the scarcely distinct genus Cyrtosperma Griff, will, no doubt, be found 
sooner or later in Peru. It is usually distinguishable from Dracontium 
by its hastate-sagittate leaves, although those of C. Spruceanum are 
3-parted. The elongate spathe of Cyrtosperma is usually straight, 
the seeds albuminous, and the caudex short or tuberous. 

Leaves irregularly pinnate; spathe green D. loretense. 

Leaves 3-parted, the divisions pinnate; spathe white D. Ulei. 

Dracontium loretense Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 
617. 1932. 

Petioles unknown; leaves multiparted, the lateral divisions 
oblong or obovate-oblong, 1-1.5 dm. long, 4-6 dm. broad, the 
terminal deeply bilobed; spathe narrowly lanceolate, nearly 2.5 
dm. long; spadix stipe about 1 cm. long, the spadix 4 cm. long, 12 
mm. thick. Similar to D. costaricense Engler but with different 
measurements, especially in the length of the spadix stipe. Other 
aroids known from Peru, for instance species of Anthurium and 
Philodendron, are similar to or identical with specimens collected in 
Costa Rica. 4a. 

Loreto: In forest, Yurimaguas, Rio Huallaga, Williams 5144- 

Dracontium Ulei Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 115. 
1914. 

Petioles minutely roughened, 4 dm. long or longer; leaves about 

5 dm. long, deeply 3-parted, the primary divisions equally biparted, 
the others irregularly pinnate, the ultimate oblong-lanceolate seg- 
ments 4-8 cm. long; peduncles 3-5 cm. long, 6-8 mm. thick; spathe 
incurved at the cucullate apex, 6 cm. long, spadix stipe very short, 



FLORA OF PERU 441 

the spadix 3-4 cm. long, 14 mm. thick; ovary incompletely 3-4- 
celled; fruit 4-5 mm. long. In its white spathe unique. Neg. 12192. 
Peru: Probably, but the type from Sao Francisco on the Alto 
Acre and Alto Xapury, Brazil, Ule 9215. 

6. UROSPATHA Schott 
Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23C. 1911. 

The Peruvian species readily known by the greatly prolonged 
spathe, the caudate portion above the spadix 2-3 dm. long, or by the 
greatly prolonged lower leaf lobes, these equaling or longer than 
the upper ones. 

Spathe elongate to 4.5 dm. 

Lower leaf lobes ovate U. caudata. 

Lower leaf lobes oblong-lanceolate U. angusta. 

Spathe not elongate. 

Midnerve of lower lobes exposed for 2-3 cm. . . . U. Langsdorffiana. 

Midnerve of lower lobes exposed for about 1 cm. . . . U. decipiens. 

Urospatha angusta Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11 : 616. 
1932. 

Petioles 3.5 dm. long; leaves subcoriaceous, narrowly hastate, 
about 4.5 dm. long and to 2.5 cm. wide at the base, the upper, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate lobe 2.8 dm. long; peduncle 3 dm. long; spathe 
deep green without, 2 dm. long; spadix reddish green, shortly stiped, 
5 cm. long. lOa. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, 135 meters (Killip & Smith 27965). 

Urospatha caudata (Poepp. & Endl.) Schott, Gen. Aroid. 1: 
3. pi. 8. 1853; 34. Spathiphyllum caudatum Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 3: 85. pi. 296. 1845. 

A tall herb, the long-petioled leaves triangular-hastate, their 
lower lobes to 3 dm. long and 14 cm. wide, the upper lobe somewhat 
longer and nearly 2 dm. wide; spadix to about 1 dm. long. 

Loreto: Mouth of Rio Capanahua, Tessmann 3031 (det. Krause). 
Brazil. 

Urospatha decipiens Schott, Bonplandia 5: 128. 1857; 34. 

Petioles 5-14 cm. long, verruculose-roughened below; leaves 
sagittate, to 4 dm. long but usually much smaller, the lobes about 



442 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

equal in length, the upper broader, to 6 cm. broad; peduncle 1.5-9 
cm. long; spathe 2.5-3 dm. long, the spadix as long or much shorter, 
its stipe 7-8 mm. long. 

Loreto: Caballo-cocha, Williams 2226 (det. Krause). Brazil. 

Urospatha Langsdorffiana Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 
7: 253. 1857; 35. 

Petioles and leaves often several dm. long, the petioles and 
peduncles slightly muriculate; lower leaf lobes to 3 dm. long, strongly 
oblique; spadix very shortly stipitate. Spathe dark green, paler 
within, the spadix greenish pink (Killip & Smith}. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Killip & Smith 27965 (det. Krause). Brazil. 

7. ANTHURIUM Schott 

Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B. 1905. 
Perennials, various in habit, but most often with short assurgent 
stems, less frequently scandent. Venation parallel. Spicular crys- 
tals lacking. Ovules solitary or two. Seeds albuminous. There 
are upward of 100 Ecuadorian species, many of which may well 
be expected to occur in northern Peru, but mention of them even 
incidentally has seemed impractical. The recent discovery of 
A. cuspidijolium Schott, hitherto known only from Costa Rica, is a 
further indication of the probable incompleteness of the following list. 
A. Leaves entire or essentially so. 

B. Petioles usually shorter than the leaf blades or the leaves neither 

cordately nor hastately lobed at base. 

C. Lower lateral nerves, at least, free to the margins or appar- 
ently so. 
Lateral nerves all or nearly all free. 

Peduncle and leaves subequal A. tarapotense. 

Peduncle much shorter than the leaves. 

Peduncle 2.5-3.5 dm. long A. Tessmannii. 

Peduncle about 1 dm. long A. Ernesti. 

Only the lower lateral nerves free. 
Leaves very rigid-coriaceous. 
Leaves ovate, not much longer than the petiole. 

A. Weberbaueri. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, much longer than the petiole. 
Leaves about 1 dm. wide or narrower . . A. Dombeyanum. 
Leaves about 1.5 dm. wide or wider. . . A. rigidissimum. 



FLORA OF PERU 443 

Leaves thin or, if coriaceous, not rigid. 
Leaves 2-7 cm. wide. 

Spathe and spadix subequal; leaves 5-6 cm. wide. 

A. tenuispadix. 

Spathe much shorter than the spadix; leaves narrower. 

A. linearifolium. 
Leaves about 1-3.5 dm. wide. 

Leaves small or medium-sized, the petioles 1.5-2 dm. 
long. 

Leaves long-acuminate; petiole callus 1 cm. long. 

A. cuspidifolium. 
Leaves acute; petiole callus 0.5 cm. long. 

A. Uleanum. 
Leaves very large, the petioles to 4 dm. long. 

A. latissimum. 

C. All the lateral nerves joined before the margin into a longi- 
tudinal nerve. 
D. Leaves membranous or subcoriaceous, the intramarginal 

nerve remote. 

Spadix distinctly stipitate, or the petioles and leaves 
subequal. 

Stipe 3-3.5 cm. long A. gracilipedunculatum. 

Stipe 0.5-2 cm. long. 

Stipe 8 mm. long, or rarely obscure; petioles and blades 

usually subequal. 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 7-8 cm. wide. 

A. amoenum. 

Leaves suboblong, 5-7 cm. wide A. idmense. 

Stipe about 2 cm. long; petioles often much shorter 

than the blades A. decurrens. 

Spadix sessile or subsessile, the petioles rarely equaling the 

blades. 

Leaves linear-oblong, rarely 2.5 cm. wide, finally very 

many times longer than broad. . .A. vittariifolium. 

Leaves usually broader, always only a few times longer 

than broad A. scandens. 

E. Leaves not black-dotted; petioles usually several cm. 
long. 



444 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate, or broader (6-7 
cm.) but distinctly calloused at the shortly 
cuneate base. 

Spadix exceeding the spathe. 

Leaves less than 2 cm. wide, rarely 1.5 dm. long. 

A. gracile. 
Leaves usually 2.5 cm. wide and often longer 

(cf. also A. linearifolium) . 
Lateral nerves irregular, 5-10 mm. apart. 

A. scolopendrinum. 
Lateral nerves parallel, 2-3 mm. apart. 

A. gracillimum. 
Spadix and spathe subequal A. huanucense. 

Leaves elliptic-obovate, often 1 dm. wide or, if 
oblong-lanceolate, long-decurrent on the ob- 
scurely calloused petiole. 

Leaves 3.5-6 dm. long, 6 cm. wide above. 

A. tenuispadix. 

Leaves generally much shorter and wider. 
Petioles much shorter than the leaves. 
Peduncles about twice longer than the 
petioles A. oxycarpum. 

Peduncles many times longer than the petioles. 

A. strictum. 
Petioles and blades subequal. . . .A. flavescens. 

E. Leaves black-dotted; petioles about 1 cm. long, 
deeply grooved A. Pohlianum. 

D. Leaves heavy-coriaceous, the intramarginal nerve near 
the margin A. Weberbaueri. 

B. Petioles usually about equaling, or exceeding, the distinctly 
cordate or hastate leaves. 

F. Primary basal nerves (i.e. lobate nerves) few (3-5). 
G. Leaves more or less deeply cordate at base. 
H. Spathe about 2.5 cm. wide or narrower. 
Spathe about 1 dm. long or longer. 

Spathe about 1 (-1.5) dm. long; spadix stipitate (at 
least shortly). 



FLORA OF PERU 445 

Stipe 1.5-2 cm. long; leaves acuminate. 

Basal sinus closed or partly closed. A. corallinum. 
Basal sinus rounded, open, the lobes divergent. 

A. carneospadix. 
Stipe about 5 mm. long; leaves shortly acute or 

obtuse. 
Leaves acute, small, to 13 cm. wide. 

A. indecorum. 
Leaves rounded at tip, to 2 dm. wide. 

A. Lechlerianum. 
Spathe about 1.5-2 dm. long; spadix sessile. 

Basal lobes roundish, 6-7 times shorter than upper, 
divergent, the sinus shallow. .A. cainarachense. 
Basal lobes semiovate, about 4 times shorter than 
the upper, little divergent, the sinus deep. 

A. huamaliesense. 

Spathe about 5 cm. long or shorter. 
Leaves large, the basal sinus several cm. deep. 
Lobal nerves 4; peduncle 2-2.5 dm. long. 

A. terrestre. 
Lobal nerves 5; peduncle 1.5-2 dm. long. 

A. sororium. 
Leaves small, the sinus 1.5-2 cm. deep. 

A. oblongo-cordatum. 
H. Spathe about 6 cm. wide. 
Spadix stipe less than 1 cm. long. 
Leaves broadly cordate, 4 dm. wide at base. 

A. consimile. 
Leaves sagittate-cordate, 2.5 dm. wide at base. 

A. Schunkei. 

Spadix stipe 1.5 cm. long A. Macbridei. 

G. Leaves triangular-hastate, the lobes strongly divergent. 
Apex of leaf rounded or obtuse or apiculate. 
Leaves nearly 2 dm. wide at lobes; spadix stipitate. 

A. peruvianum. 
Leaves nearly 1 dm. wide at lobes; spadix sessile. 

A. nervosum. 
Apex of leaf shortly acuminate A. siccisilvarum. 



446 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

F. Primary lateral basal nerves 6-9. 
Basal lobes divergent, the lobes often pandurate-hastate. 
Basal lobes oblong or rounded but always widely spreading. 
Leaf tip rounded or shortly acuminate. 
Spathe linear-oblong, less than 1 cm. wide. 

A. siccisilvarum. 

Spathe oblong, 2 cm. wide A. breviscapum. 

Leaf tip 2 cm. long A. huallagense. 

Basal lobes obliquely ovate and merely divergent. 
Leaves 2.5-4 dm. broad. 

Spadix stipitate A. alienatum. 

Spadix sessile. 

Spathe about 2.5 cm. wide A. huamaliesense. 

Spathe about 1 cm. wide A. cainarachense. 

Leaves about 1.5 dm. broad A. indecorum. 

Basal lobes convergent, the leaves often cordiform. 

Upper lobe obviously contracted at middle. .A. Macleanii. 
Upper lobe little contracted, the leaf ovate-cordate. 

Acumen conspicuous, 1.5 cm. long A. lutescens. 

Acumen lacking or reduced to a cusp ... .A. monzonense. 
A. Leaves, at least some of them, more or less deeply dissected. 
The principal divisions more or less lobed. 
Peduncle about 6 dm. long, the spadix half as long. 

A. Burchellianum. 
Peduncle about 3 dm. long, the spadix twice as long. 

A. clavigerum. 

The principal divisions entire or merely repand. 
Leaf segments 3. 

Some of the leaves entire, the leaf or leaflets abruptly caudate. 

A. yurimaguense. 

All the leaves divided, the leaflets acuminate . .A. triphyllum. 
Leaf segments more than 3 in at least some leaves. 
Leaf segments mostly 5-9 (3-13). 

Spathe and usually the spadix less than 1 dm. long. 

Peduncles and petiole subequal, 4 dm. long. . .A. Martini. 
Peduncles a third to two-thirds as long as the petiole 
(1-2 dm.) or shorter. 



FLORA OF PERU 447 

Petioles 4-sided; segments (1.5-) 3-4 dm. long. 

A. Kunthii. 
Petioles subterete; segments 1-2 dm. long. 

Segments not very unequal at base. A. pentaphyllum. 

Segments, in part, very unequal ...... A. undatum. 

Spathe and especially the spadix much more than 1 dm. 
long ................................ A. Wittianum. 

Leaf segments 15-20 ......................... A. eminens. 

Anthurium alienatum Schott, Prodr. 507. 1860; 125. 

Leaves cordiform, 5-6 dm. long, 3.5-4 cm. wide at the middle, 
the subovate basal lobes about a fourth as long, their lateral nerves 
7, those of the upper lobe 13-15 and definitely joined near the margin; 
peduncle shorter than the leaves, about 5.5 dm. long; spathe reflexed, 
5 cm. long; spadix stipe 1 cm. long, the spathe 6 cm. long. 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2425). Cuzco: Valle de San Miguel, 
2,000 meters., Hen era 2038 (aff., det. Krause). Huanuco: Panao, 
3,000 meters, 2225 (det. Krause). Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, 
Tessmann 



Anthurium amoenum Kunth ex Schott, Prodr. 442. 1870; 107. 

Petioles terete or sulcate, 1.5-3 dm. long; leaves pale green, 
punctate, oblong-lanceolate-elliptic, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, long-cuspidate- 
acuminate; lateral nerves 15-18, joined 5 mm. within the margin; 
peduncle 2-3 dm. long; spathe linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 4-5 
cm. long, the sessile or subsessile spadix as long or shorter; sepals 
rose-purple. The Peruvian plant is var. humile (Schott) Engler, 
with longer, long-acuminate, oblong leaves. Illustrated, Engler, Icon. 
Autog. 66. 

Loreto: Near Iquitos, King 316, 207 (det. Krause). Huanuco: 
Pampayacu (Poeppig). Puno: (Lechler). Venezuela; Colombia. 

Anthurium breviscapum Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 
84. 1845; 229. 

Petioles about 3 dm. long; leaves 3-4 dm. long, 2-4 dm. broad 
below, arcuately narrowed to the middle, shortly acuminate, the 
divaricate basal lobes oblong; peduncles 2.5-3 dm. long; spathe 6-8 
cm. long, 2 cm. broad, erect, oblong, acuminate, green; spadix 5-7 
cm. long, 6-7 mm. thick, the stipe to 5 mm. long. 

Huanuco : Pampayacu (Poeppig 1511). Near Cochero (Poeppig) . 
Puno: Sangaban (Lechler). 



448 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Anthurium Burchellianum (Engler) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 7. 1931. A. panduratum Mart. var. Burchellianum Engler, 
Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 279. 1905. A. panduratum Mart, ex Schott, 
Prodr. 545. 1860, not Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 182. 1858. 

Similar to A. clavigerum, but the leaf divisions often fewer and 
the petioles shorter; segments sinuately few-lobed or (in the Martius 
plant) deeply 2-lobed. Leaves to 1 meter wide (Huber). Illus- 
trated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 14. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo (Huber). La Victoria, Williams 
2939. Yurimaguas, Williams 4630 (det. Krause). Brazil. 

Anthurium cainarachense Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 192. 
1905. 

Scandent, with thin leaves 6 dm. long and 3.5 dm. wide, the sinus 
rounded; peduncle slender; spathe long-acuminate, to 2 dm. long and 
1.5 cm. wide; lateral basal nerves 4; spadix sessile, 2-2.5 dm. long, 
7 mm. thick below, attenuate, reddish. Neg. 11876. 

Loreto: Pongo de Cainarache, Ule 6326. 

Anthurium carneospadix Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 194. 
1905. 

Petiole equaling or a little exceeding the blade, 4-4.5 dm. long; 
blades oblong-cordate, the subreniform basal lobes about 3.5 times 
shorter than the upper; basal lateral nerves 6; peduncles 1.5 dm. long; 
spathe 1.5-3 cm. broad, purplish; spadix stipe 1.5-2 cm. long, the 
spadix finally 1 dm. long and 8 mm. thick; sepals red. Perhaps not 
separable from A. corallinum Poepp. Neg. 11881. 

Junin: East of Huacapistana, 2,300 meters, Weberbauer 2115, 
2271; 250. Cajamarca: Chugar, 2,700 meters, Weberbauer 4080. 

Anthurium clavigerum Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 
84. 1845; 280. 

Scandent, with 9-parted leaves on petioles to 1 meter long; leaf 
divisions long-cuneate at base, the intermediate ones 5-6 dm. long 
and pinnatifid, free; peduncle only 3 dm. long; spadix twice longer 
than the spathe, 6-7 dm. long, the fruit purple. Var. subpedati- 
partitum Engler has the leaf segments coherent below. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig). Near the Monzon, 600 meters, 
Weberbauer 3664; 286. Loreto: Yurimaguas, Killip & Smith 
(det. Krause). Rio Acre, Ule 9221. 



FLORA OF PERU 449 

Anthurium consimile Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 
294. 1857; 211. 

Leaves broadly cordate, about 4 dm. wide below and only 5-5.5 
dm. long; basal lobes oblique, a quarter as long; basal nerves 5; 
spathe long-cuspidate, 1.5 dm. long, the short-stipitate spadix 
12 cm. long and 1 cm. thick. 

Peru: (Poeppig}. 

Anthurium corallinum Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 
84. 1845; 190. 

Similar to A. carneospadix; petioles shorter; leaves with a point 
2 cm. long; basal nerves 4; spadix stipe 1 cm. long; spathe linear- 
lanceolate. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig}. 

Anthurium cuspidifolium Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 180. 
1858; 158. 

Among Peruvian species most nearly allied to A. flavescens, but 
the petioles much shorter than the blades (about 1.5 dm. long), the 
blades oblong and to 1 dm. wide, the lower lateral nerves obscure, 
and the peduncle only 5-6 cm. long. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,200 meters, 5622 (det. Krause). Chancha- 
mayo Valley, 1,500 meters, Schunke 572. Costa Rica. 

Anthurium decurrens Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. 
&Sp. 3:83. pi. 293. 1845; 93. 

Stems short; leaves glaucous green, oblong-obovate, shortly and 
acutely acuminate, long-cuneate to base, to 2 dm. long and 5-6 cm. 
broad; lateral nerves 14-19; spathe abruptly apiculate, decurrent 
on the peduncle nearly to the middle, to 1 dm. long and more than 
1 cm. broad; spadix 6 cm. long, 3-4 mm. thick, its thickened fruiting 
rachis violet, the fruits scarlet; stipe 2 cm. long. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig}; Killip & Smith. Puerto Arturo, 
Killip & Smith 27928. Junin: Rio Paucartambo Valley, Killip & 
Smith (all det. Krause). 

Anthurium Dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott, Prodr. 477. 
1860; 81. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, attenuate to the apex, green above, 
paler beneath, about 3.5 dm. long; peduncles shorter; spathe decur- 
rent at base, 8-9 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. broad; spadix about as long, 



450 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

less than 1 cm. thick, shortly stipitate. Illustrated, Saund. Ref. 
Bot. 4: pi. 269. 

Junin: Stony shrubby places above Huacapistana, 1,800 meters, 
Weberbauer 1975. Huanuco: Rock outcrops, Mufia, 3668 (det. 
Krause). Without locality (Dombey). 

Anthurium eminens Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 5: 273. 
1855; 291. 

Arborescent, about 2 meters high; leaf segments 4-6 dm. long, 
1 dm. wide, lance-oblong, long-cuneate to the base, narrowed above 
to a lanceolate cuspidate point; intramarginal nerve 3-4 mm. remote; 
peduncle 2 dm. long; spathe red, the longer spadix 5 dm. long. 
Imperfectly known. 

Peru : Junction of the Huallaga and the Rio de Chiechas (Poeppig). 

Anthurium Ernesti Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 80. 1895. 

Stems short; petioles slender, to 2 dm. long, 5-carinate on the 
back, grooved above; lateral nerves of the leaves 7-8, ascending at 
an angle of 40 degrees; spathe white, to 2.5 cm. broad; spadix to 1.5 
cm. thick; sepals linear; otherwise similar to A. Tessmannii. Neg. 
11918. 

Loreto: Falls of the Cainarache, Ule 6325. San Isidro, Tess- 
mann 4997 (det. Krause). San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 5721 
(det. Krause). Brazil. 

Anthurium flavescens Poepp. in Poepp. & Engl. Nov. Gen. 
&Sp. 3:83. 1845; 155. 

Leaves obovate-elliptic, arcuately narrowed to the cuspidate tip 
and to the base, about 1.5 dm. long and 5 cm. broad, with 15-20 
lateral nerves; peduncles 2-3 dm. long; spathe lanceolate, little 
decurrent, reflexed, 5 cm. long and 12 mm. wide; spadix sessile, 
white, 3.5 cm. long and 6-7 mm. thick. 

Huanuco: Near Cochero (Poeppig}. Pampayacu 1,050 meters, 
5078 (det. Krause). San Martin: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4726. 

Anthurium gracile (Rudge) Lindl. Bot. Reg. 19: pi. 1635. 
1833; 89. Pothos gracilis Rudge, PL Guian. 1: 23. pi. 32. 1805. 

Very much like A. scolopendrinum and with the same concolorous 
foliage, but the petioles always much shorter than the blades (to one- 
quarter their length), and the blades linear-lanceolate, narrowed 
to both ends, and long-acuminate. 



FLORA OF PERU 451 

Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig); Killip & Smith (det. Krause). San 
Isidro, Tessmann 5030 (det. Krause). Ranging to the Guianas and 
Central America. 

Anthurium gracillimum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 91. 1905. 

A more or less scandent plant, in aspect like A. scolopendrinum, 
but the caudex elongate, the petioles definitely sheathed, and the 
lateral nerves very numerous and nearly parallel. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, King 1272 (det. Krause). 
Colombia. 

Anthurium gracilipedunculatum Krause, Field Mus. Bot. 
8: 78. 1930. 

Scandent, the internodes 3-6 cm. long; petioles slender, vaginate 
at base, grooved above, 5-7 cm. long; blades thick, oblong-lanceo- 
late, cuspidulate, 8-11 cm. long, 4 cm. broad; lateral nerves prominent 
beneath, joined 3-4 mm. from the margin; peduncles scarcely 5 
mm. thick, often curved, 12-16 cm. long; spathe and spadix reddish, 
the former narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, 4-5 cm. long, 5 
mm. wide, the spadix 4-7 cm. long, 3-4 mm. thick, on a stipe 3-3.5 
cm. long. Nearly A. pukhellum Engler, of Colombia, but differing 
in color and proportionate size of petioles, leaves, and spathes. 

Huanuco: Yanano, 1,800 meters, sprawling on forest floor, 3734, 
type. 

Anthurium huallagense Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 132. 1905. 

A scandent epiphyte with short internodes and thin hastate 
leaves; petioles broadly grooved above; basal lobes divergent, oblong, 
obtuse, half shorter than the ovate-lanceolate long-acuminate upper 
lobe, the latter 2.5 dm. long and 1-2 dm. broad; peduncle about 2 
dm. long; spathe linear, long-acuminate, 8-9 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide; 
spathe 1.5-2 dm. long, 5 mm. thick, the stipe 3-6 mm. long; sepals 
purplish. Neg. 11943. 

Huanuco: Near the Monzon, 600 meters, Weberbauer 3660, 3661. 

Anthurium huamaliesense Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 193. 
1905. 

Like A. cainarachense ; petioles to 3.5 dm. long; leaves narrower, 
about 2.5 dm. wide; spathe finally 1.5 dm. long and 2.5 cm. broad; 
spadix 1 cm. thick, light brown. Neg. 11944. 

Huanuco: Between the Monzon and the Huallaga, 600 meters, 
Weberbauer 3666; 286. Junin: Paucartambo Valley and Pichis 



452 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Trail, Killip & Smith (det. Krause). La Merced, 1,200 meters, 
5650. 

Anthurium huanucense Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 165. 1905. 

Petioles 4-7 cm. long; leaves pale green, cuneately narrowed to 
the base, acutish, 2.5 dm. long and 4-5 cm. broad; lateral nerves 
about 15; peduncle equaling the leaves; spathe linear, shortly acu- 
minate, 5 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide; spadix as long, 3 mm. thick; 
sepals reddish, white-punctate. Neg. 11945. 

Huanuco: By the Monzon, 900 meters, Weberbauer 3449. 
Junin: La Merced, 5650 (det. Krause). 

Anthurium indecorum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 350. 
1858; 246. 

Allied to A. Macleanii but the leaves merely elongate-cordate, 
3-3.5 dm. long, the retrorse basal lobes oblong, 7-8 cm. long; petioles 
2.5-3 dm. long; peduncle 7-11 cm. long; spathe green, about 1 dm. 
long and 2 cm. wide; spadix 12 cm. long and 1 cm. thick, violet- 
purple. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig). Casapi (Mathews). Cuzco: Mar- 
capata, 2,900 meters, Weberbauer 7799 (det. Krause). Piura: East 
of Huancabamba, Weberbauer 6317. Colombia. 

Anthurium idmense Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 608. 
1932. 

Among Peruvian species well marked by the thin, crowded, 
suboblong leaves about 5-7 cm. wide and 2 dm. long or somewhat 
longer, broadly narrowed to the shortly acuminate tip, shortly and 
broadly cuneate at base; petioles 1 dm. long or longer, the peduncles 
about as long; spadix slender, twice as long as the lanceolate spathe, 
this 4-5 cm. long; stipe 5-6 mm. long. The entire plant dries reddish. 
Neg. 11948. 

Cuzco: Hacienda Idma, Prov. Convencion, 1,700 meters, Weber- 
bauer 5036. 

Anthurium Kunthii Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 84. 
1845; 286. 

Slender stems climbing; petioles (1-) 3-5 dm. long; leaf segments 
5-13, elongate-lanceolate, cuneate at base and subabruptly acuminate 
at apex; lateral nerves joined to an intramarginal one; spathe pur- 
plish, narrow, 1.5 dm. long; spadix 3 cm. long in flower; berries 
globose, blue. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 287. 



FLORA OF PERU 453 

Loreto: Caballo-cocha, Williams 2408 (det. Krause). Pongo de 
Cainarache, Ule 6330. La Victoria, Williams 2784 (det. Krause). 
Mainas (Poeppig). Cerro de Canchahuayo (Huber} Puno: San- 
gaban (Lechler}. San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 6543, 6210 (det. 
Krause). Cuzco: Prov. Calca (Herrera}. Brazil. 

Anthurium latissimum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 292. 1905. 

Caudex short; petioles grooved above, carinate; leaves broadly 
oblanceolate, 5 dm. long and 3.5 dm. broad; lateral nerves about 12; 
peduncles somewhat 4-sided, 5.5 dm. long; spathe decurrent, lanceo- 
late, 1 dm. long, 2.5 cm. wide; spadix subsessile, in fruit to 17 cm. 
long and 2 cm. thick. Neg. 11960. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1939; 282. 

Anthurium Lechlerianum Schott, Prodr. 534. 1860; 261. 

In general similar to A. breviscapum; petioles shorter; leaves 
abruptly rounded-obtuse at apex, retuse and minutely apiculate; 
spathe shorter, narrowly lanceolate; spadix to 1 dm. long and 1.5 
cm. thick in fruit. Neg. 11961. 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2203). Cachicachi, Weberbauer 1312a. 
Huanuco: South of Monzon, 1,600 meters, Weberbauer 3513 
Junin: San Ramon, 57.47 (det. Krause). Bolivia. 

Anthurium linearifolium Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 88. 1905. 

Resembling greatly A. scolopendrinum, but a few of the lateral 
nerves near the leaf base to the margin or apparently so. Neg. 11966. 

Loreto: Caballo-cocha, Williams 2422 (det. Krause). Ranging 
northward to Colombia and Panama. 

Anthurium lutescens Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 293. 1905. 

Petioles broadly and acutely grooved above, about 5 dm. long; 
leaves deeply cordate, 5 dm. long and 3.5 dm. wide below, the lobes 
2.5 times shorter than the upper part of the leaf; peduncle angled, 
about 6 dm. long; spathe green, lanceolate, nearly 2 dm. long, 3.5 
cm. wide; spadix sessile, 12 cm. long, 13 mm. thick at base. Peduncle 
and sepals yellow-spotted, from a yellow crystal soluble in KOH 
and HN0 3 . A similar plant collected by Killip and Smith near La 
Merced has a longer and slender, purple spadix and purplish spathe. 
Neg. 11976. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, 1,050 meters, 5084- Junin: La Merced, 
Weberbauer 1838. 



454 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Anthurium Macbridei Krause, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 79. 1930. 

A magnificent plant allied to A. corallinum; petioles to 1.5 meters 
long; leaves elongate-cordiform, to 9 dm. long and 7 dm. broad, the 
upper lobe twice as long as the rounded lower ones; peduncle 6-8 dm. 
long, 1.5 cm. thick at base; spathe narrowly oblong, subacuminate, 
1.5-2 dm. long, 4-6 cm. wide, the brownish purple spadix 2-3 dm. 
long or in fruit longer, on a stipe 1.5 cm. long. 

Huanuco: Huacachi, near Muiia, in woods, 2,150 meters, 4110, 
type. 

Anthurium Macleanii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 350. 
1858; 250. 

Well marked by the unusual shape of the leaves, the lower two- 
thirds rounded-ovate or almost round, the upper third oblong, the 
width between the two dissimilar parts nearly 3 dm.; basal lobes 
oblong-ovate, incurved; basal nerves 8; peduncle 2 dm. long; spathe 
and spadix 1.5 dm. long; spadix stipe 3-4 cm. long. Neg. 11977. 

Huanuco: Yanano, 3764 (det. Krause). (Maclean). Amazonas: 
Chachapoyas, Weberbauer 4439. 

Anthurium Martini Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 325. 
1857; 279. 

Leaf divisions 7, 2 dm. long and 6 cm. wide, cuneate at base, 
the 2 outer connate, rounded or abruptly linear-cuspidate at apex, 
subrepand; spathe 2 dm. long, 1 cm. wide; spadix slender, 2.5 dm. 
long. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuaya (Huber 1405). Balsapuerto, 
Killip & Smith. French Guiana. 

Anthurium monzonense Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 264. 1905. 

Caudex about 5 dm. long; petioles nearly 9 dm. long, vaginate for 
5-6 cm; leaves ovate-cordate, about 6.5 dm. long and 4 dm. broad, 
the subovate basal lobes 4 times shorter than the upper; peduncle 5 
dm. long; spathe coriaceous, oblong, green, nearly 1.5 dm. long, 
equaled by the brown sessile spadix. Engler places this in his group 
Cavispathacea, characterized by purple spathes. Neg. 11996. 

Huanuco: Monzon, 1,600 meters, Weberbauer 3562, type. 

Anthurium nervosum Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 
608. 1932. 

In aspect suggesting A. peruvianum, but much smaller, the leaves 
only 1.5-1.8 dm. long, on slender petioles 2-3 dm. long; peduncles 



FLORA OF PERU 455 

a little longer; spathe brownish green, oblong-lanceolate, 3.5 cm. 
long and scarcely 1 cm. wide, the spadix 4.5 cm. long, sessile or 
nearly so. The one known plant was terrestrial. Neg. 12002. 
Amazonas: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4648. 

Anthurium oblongo-cordatum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 
110. 1905. 

Scandent, the internodes long or short; petioles a few cm. to 
1.5 dm. long; leaves sharply acuminate, at base lightly cordate, 1.5 dm. 
long and 6-7 cm. wide; peduncles exceeding the petioles; spathe 5 cm. 
long, 5-8 mm. wide, the slender spadix somwhat longer. 

Amazonas: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4755. Colombia. 

Anthurium oxycarpum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. 
&Sp. 3:83. 1845; 94. 

Similar to A. decurrens, but the leaves scarcely cuspidate, the 
spathe shorter than the spadix, and the fruit violet. A. guayaquil- 
ense Engler, with compressed petioles grooved above and 1 dm. 
long, will probably be found. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig). Tierra Blanca, Tessmann 4975. 
Brazil. 

Anthurium pentaphyllum (Aubl.) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. 
Brit. ed. 3. 633. 1839; 290. Dracontium pentaphyllum Aubl. PL 
Guian. 2: 837. pi. 326. 1775. 

Resembling A. Kunthii, but leaf segments fewer, 5-9; spathe 
green, reflexed; fruits green. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,000 meters, 5564, 5679 (det. Krause); 
Weberbauer 1866, 1874; 282; Schunke 330 (det. Krause). Loreto: 
Cuillacaca, Rio Huallaga (Huber 1544)- Yurimaguas, Williams 4191 
(det. Krause). Iquitos, Klug 514 (det. Krause). Brazil to British 
Guiana and Trinidad. 

Anthurium peruvianum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 262. 1905. 

A close ally of A. Lechlerianum, differing chiefly in the fewer 
nerves and more widely spreading, narrower basal lobes. Neg. 
12034. 

Puno: Above Cachitachi, 1,800 meters, Weberbauer 1312, type. 

Anthurium Pohlianum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 152. 1905. 

Among Peruvian species with all the lateral nerves joined, this 

plant resembles most A. scandens, from which its short caudex 



456 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

readily distinguishes it; petioles scarcely 1 cm. long, grooved above; 
blades about 1.5 dm. long and 3 cm. wide, apiculate at the scarcely 
acute or rounded apex and little narrowed to the base; peduncles 
about 3 cm. long, bearing a spadix 3-4 cm. long in a spathe half as 
long and about 1 cm. wide. 

Tumbes: Hacienda Chicama, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 7632, 
7632a (det. Krause). Brazil. 

Anthurium rigidissimum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 292. 
1905. 

Much more robust than A. Dombeyanum, the larger glaucescent 
leaves more strongly narrowed to the base; spathe green, to 
1.5 dm. long; spadix nearly as long or, in var. mutatum Engler, 
the spathe foliaceous and to 3.5 dm. long and the spadix to 2.5 dm. 
long. Neg. 12058. 

Junin: Above Huacapistana, 2,000 meters, Weberbauer 2007, 
2158. Cuzco: Valle de San Miguel, Herrera 2034 (det. Krause). 

Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engler in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, 
pt. 2: 78. 1878; 57. Dracontium scandens Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 836. 
1775. 

Well marked among Peruvian species with a definite intra- 
marginal nerve by its scandent habit, short petioles a fifth to half 
as long as the ovate-lanceolate blades, and shortly peduncled and 
short spadix. Var. latifolium Krause has roundish leaves 6-7 cm. 
wide. Var. angustifolium (Engler) Macbr. (f. angustifolium Engler) 
is a striking variant with leaves 8-9 cm. long and only 1-2 cm. wide. 
A. trinerve Miq. is very similar to A. scandens, but the peduncles 
usually well exceed the petioles. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 57, 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2464}. Junin: La Merced, 4249, 5746. 
Chanchamayo Valley, 1,500 meters, Schunke 374, 373. Cuzco: 
Quispicanchi, Weberbauer 7845. Loreto: Puerto Mele*ndez, Tess- 
mann 4765. Amazonas: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4644- Brazil to 
Central America and the West Indies. 

Anthurium Schunkei Krause, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 77. 1930. 

Caudex and petioles stout, the latter about 2.5 dm. long; leaf 
blades glabrous, sagittate, subcoriaceous, to 4 dm. long and 2.5 cm. 
broad, triangular and shortly acuminate above, the basal lobes 
rounded, the sinus broad; lateral nerves 4-5 from the base, above 
about 8-10; peduncles 3.5 dm. long, 12 mm. thick at base, narrowed 
to below the spathe, there enlarged; spathe narrowly oblong, acu- 



FLORA OF PERU 457 

minate, 1.5 dm. long, to 3.8 cm. broad, drying brownish; spadix 
narrowly cylindric, 1.4 dm. long, 6-9 mm. thick, on a stipe 7-8 mm. 
long; sepals obtuse. Allied to A. cabrerense Engler, a species with 
an elliptic-lanceolate spathe. 

Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, Schunke 293, type. 

Anthurium scolopendrinum (Ham.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 68. 
1841; 89. Pothos scolopendrinus Ham. Prodr. 16. 1825. 

Very near A. vittariifolium, but the leaves as green on one side 
as on the other, and the nerves about equally prominent on both 
sides except that the reticulate veins are more noticeable beneath. 
The var. contractum Engler has leaves contracted above the base, 
12-15 cm. long, 4-5 cm. broad, on petioles 6-8 cm. long. The var. 
Poiteauanum (Kunth) Engler is the broad-leaved form. Illustrated, 
Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 90. 

Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, 1,200-1,500 meters, Schunke 890, 
1464- La Merced, Schunke 382 (det. Krause). Huanuco: Monzon, 
Weberbauer 3628; 286. Loreto: La Victoria, Williams 2924. Near 
Iquitos, Williams 8147 (det. Krause). San Martin: Tarapoto, 
Williams 6657. Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4483. Brazil to Trinidad 
and Costa Rica. "Uvo." 

Anthurium siccisilvarum Krause, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 78. 1930. 

Assurgent, the internodes 3-5 cm. long; petioles grooved above, 
3.5-4.5 dm. long, 5-7 mm. thick at base, the node 1.5 cm. long; 
leaves thick, hastate, 3 dm. long or longer, the spreading oblong 
rounded basal lobes 5-6 cm. wide, the upper lobe obovate-lanceolate, 
narrower toward base; lateral nerves many, joined near the margin; 
peduncles 2-3 dm. long; spathe linear-oblong, little decurrent, acute, 
6-7 cm. long, 7-8 mm. broad, the narrow spadix 3-4 mm. longer, 
on a stipe 1.5 cm. long. Between rocks in dry woods. Similar to 
A. denudatum Engler of Colombia, with the upper leaf lobe lanceolate, 
not narrowed at base. 

Huanuco: Muna, 2,300 meters, 4048, type. 

Anthurium sororium Schott, Prodr. 522. 1860; 198. 

Caudex ascending; petioles 2-3 dm. long, the suboblong blades 
about 2.5 dm. long and 12 cm. broad, the oblong basal lobes incurved 
and 7 cm. long; spathe broadly lanceolate, long-acuminate, 4 cm. 
long, 1.5 cm. wide; spadix slender, short-stiped, 6 cm. long. Neg. 
12079. 



458 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Huanuco: Near the Monzon, 600 meters, Weberbauer 3612; 
285. Junin: La Merced, 571 9 (det. Krause). Loreto: Mainas 
(Poeppig). 

Anthurium strictum N. E. Br. in DC. Monogr. 2: 638. 1879; 75. 

A pale green plant with thin blades 2-3 dm. long and about 6-10 
cm. wide at the middle, shortly acuminate, rather long-cuneate 
below to a petiole 2-6 cm. long; peduncles slender, somewhat shorter 
than the leaves; spathe and sessile spadix subequal, both green or 
white, about 5 cm. long (longer in Peruvian material). Neg. 12085. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Killip & Smith 28014 (det. Krause). Rio 
Acre, Ule 9228. Brazil. 

Anthurium tarapotense Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 74. 1905. 

Petioles 3 times shorter than the leaves, rounded on the back and 
flat above; leaves broadly oblong-lanceolate, very acute, about 4.5 
dm. long and 1.5 dm. broad; spathe linear-lanceolate, nearly 6 cm. 
long and 1 cm. wide, lurid red; spadix a little longer, attenuate. 
A. Uleanum Engler, loc. cit. (Jurua Miry, Ule 5731), is related, but 
the leaves are long and cuneately narrowed, the base itself sub- 
obtuse, and the spathe and spadix are 1-3 dm. long, the latter the 
longer. Neg. 12095. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Ule. 

Anthurium tenuispadix Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 73. 1905. 

Related to A. tarapotense but foliage very similar to A. oxycarpum; 
petioles grooved above, 5-10 cm. long; leaves elongate-oblanceolate, 
to 4 dm. long and 6 cm. broad. In all probability within Peru. 
Neg. 12099. 

Brazil: Jurua Miry, Ule 5597. 

Anthurium terrestre Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 196. 1905. 

Like A. sororium, but the broader leaves 1.5-2 dm. wide, with a 
broad sinus; spathe to 5 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; spadix subsessile, 
1 dm. long, 5 mm. thick. A. amazonicum Engler, op. cit. 194 
( Ule 5599, Jurua Miry), would be sought here. It is near A. carneo- 
spadix, but has oblong-sagittate leaves and a spadix stipe 4-5 mm. 
long. Neg. 12100. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Ule 6808. 

Anthurium Tessmannii Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 9: 
260. 1925. 



FLORA OF PERU 459 

An epiphyte; petioles 2-2.2 dm. long, 1-1.2 cm. thick, vaginate 
for one-fifth their length; blades thin-coriaceous, lanceolate, shortly 
and broadly acuminate, subcuneately narrowed for a third of the 
length toward a subobtuse base, 5-6 dm. long, 2 dm. wide, or 
larger, the lateral nerves about 10, prominent; peduncle asperate 
below, 1 cm. thick; spathe green, linear-lanceolate, about 1 dm. long, 
to 1.5 cm. broad; spadix pale red, scarlet-lilac in fruit, 1 to nearly 
2 dm. long, 6-10 mm. thick; sepals oblong, obtuse; ovary oblong- 
ovoid. Near A. Uleanum. Neg. 12101. 

Loreto: Cumaria on the upper Ucayali, Tessmann 3351. Ca- 
ballo-cocha, Williams 2465 (det. Krause). 

Anthurium triphyllum Brongn. ex Schott, Prodr. 548. 1860; 
285. 

The only known species with all the leaves trifid. Illustrated, 
Pflanzenr. IV.23B:286. 

Puno: Isilluma, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1212. Bolivia. 

Anthurium Uleanum Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 74. 1905. 

Caudex short; petioles 1-1.5 dm. long; leaves lanceolate, acute, 
long and narrowly cuneate to base, several dm. long and 1-1.5 dm. 
wide; peduncles twice as long as the petioles or longer; spathe oblong- 
lanceolate, usually 1-1.5 dm. long, much exceeded by the sessile or 
subsessile spadix. Neg. 12109. 

Loreto: Cumaria, Tessmann 3350 (?). Brazil. 

Anthurium undatum Schott, Melet. 1: 22. 1832; 288. 
Similar to A. pentaphyllum, but the shorter and narrower seg- 
ments very unequal. Illustrated, Engler, Icon. Autog. 301. 
Huanuco: Near the Monzon, Weberbauer 3691. Brazil. 

Anthurium vittariifolium Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 88. 1905. 

Petioles rounded dorsally, plane above; leaves 6-15 cm. long, 
acute at base, narrowed to apex, to 3 cm. wide; intramarginal nerve 
2-2.5 mm. remote from the margin; peduncle 2-3 cm. long; spathe 
linear-lanceolate, 5 cm. long, 5 mm. wide; spadix 1.5 dm. long. 
Neg. 12116. 

Junin: La Merced, Weberbauer 1892. Brazil. 

Anthurium Weberbaueri Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23B: 81. 1905. 

Related to A. Dombeyanum, but the much shorter leaves about 

2 dm. long, obtuse at base, greenish yellow beneath, exceeded by the 



460 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

peduncle, this 4-4.5 dm. long; spathe 5-6 cm. long, 1.5 cm. broad, 
equaled by the thick spadix, this 18 mm. broad in fruit. Neg. 12219. 

Puno: Sandia, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 543. 

Anthurium Wittianum Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 40: 143. 1907, 
nomen. 

From other species with several leaflets distinguishable at once 
by the greatly elongate spadix and spathe, the former 2-4 dm. long, 
the latter 1.5-3 dm. The spathe has been recorded as purple or 
green; the spadix as pink or purple. Neg. 12121. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Killip & Smith 28294- Mouth of Rio 
Santiago, Tessmann 3985. 

Anthurium yurimaguense Engler, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11:613. 1932. 

Distinctive in its almost round, deeply cordate leaves, to 17 cm. 
wide, abruptly caudate-acuminate; petioles about 2 dm. long; spathe 
2 cm. long, the spadix nearly 3 cm. long; peduncle about 1 cm. long. 
Neg. 12125. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Ule 6307. 

88. DIEFFENBAGHIA Schott 

Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Dc. 1915. 

Low, thick-stemmed, shrub-like or prostrate plants with more or 
less vaginate petioles and oblong leaves with many lateral nerves. 
Peduncles shorter than the leaves. Spathe persistent, a little longer 
than the spadix, which furnishes the most easily recognizable charac- 
ter for the genus in the remoteness of the flowers, particularly the 
sterile ones. Besides the following, the widely distributed and highly 
variable D. Seguina (L.) Schott and D. picta (Lodd.) Schott probably 
occur. The former in general resembles D. olbia, but the leaves are 
lustrous glaucescent beneath. It is questionable if many of the 
plants recognized as species are more than races. The leaves of 
some, chewed, result in speechlessness for a time, due to swelling 
of the mouth. 

Petioles, at least the upper, vaginate nearly to the blade base. 
Petioles less than 1 dm. long. 
Leaves elongate-lanceolate; peduncles 5-6 cm. long.Z). cannifolia. 

Leaves obovate-oblong; peduncles finally about 1 dm. long. 

D. obliqua. 



FLORA OF PERU 461 

Petioles 2 to 2.5 dm. long D. macrophylla. 

Petioles vaginate for a quarter to two-thirds their length. 
Petioles half as long as the blades or less than half as long. 
Petioles usually 1-1.5 dm. long and blades always 2-6 dm. long. 
Leaves 1.5-3 dm. wide. 

Leaves lustrous green above, yellow-green beneath. 

D. imperialis. 

Leaves spotted with yellow and white D. olbia. 

Leaves 5-10 cm. wide. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, rounded-obtuse or rounded- 
acutish at base D. Weirii. 

Leaves lanceolate-oblong, basally more or less cuneate-acute. 

D. humilis. 

Petioles 5-8 cm. long and blades only 1.5 dm. long . . D. gracilis. 
Petioles equaling or longer than the leaves. 
Leaves about 1 dm. wide. 

Spathe about 1 cm. wide, long-acuminate D. Weberbaueri. 

Spathe 3-4 cm. wide, acuminate D. humilis. 

Leaves about 2-3 dm. wide. 

Leaves distinctly cordate D. cordata. 

Leaves cuneate at base D. costata. 

Dieffenbachia cannifolia Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Dc: 40. 1915. 

Caudex to 2 meters long; blades 3.5-4.5 dm. long, four times 
longer than the petioles, to 1.5 dm. wide, cuneately narrowed to base 
and subabruptly and shortly acuminate; primary lateral nerves about 
12, prominent beneath ; spathe pale green, 1.5 dm. long, the open part 
2.5 cm. broad, cuspidate-acuminate; spadix white, the stipe 1 cm. 
long, the pistillate portion 5 cm. long, the sterile 1.5 cm., the staminate 
4.5 cm. long. Illustrated, op. cit. 41. 

Loreto: Leticia, Ule 6183. 

Dieffenbachia cordata Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 135. 1905; 58. 

Petioles vaginate to above the middle, about 4 dm. long and 
equaling the opaque blades; blades oblong-ovate, cordate at base, 
acuminate; primary lateral nerves 20-25; peduncles 2 dm. long; 
spathe elongate-lanceolate, not constricted, over 2 dm. long; spadix 



462 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

short-stiped, the pistillate portion 1 dm. long, the shorter staminate 
portion separated. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1807. 

Dieffenbachia costata Klotzsch ex Schott, Syn. Aroid. 128. 
1856; 44. 

Stout, the caudex to over 1 meter high and 5 cm. thick; petioles 
narrowly vaginate to the middle or higher; leaves rigid, pale green, 
not at all lustrous, ovate or broadly elliptic, oblique, 3.5-4 dm. long, 
merely acute; lateral nerves 9-15; spathe 2-3 dm. long, the expanded 
part 2.5-3 cm. broad with an acumen 1.5 cm. long; spadix sessile, 
under 2 dm. long, the pistillate part 6-8 cm., the staminate 5-6 cm., 
the sterile 3-4 cm. long. A native remedy for rheumatism; a 
warmed leaf is applied. The sap is used as a skin astringent 
(Weberbauer). Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23 DC: 37. 

Huanuco: Posuso (Ruiz). Amazonas: Moyobamba, 800 meters, 
Weberbauer 4583. Colombia. "Patquina". 

Dieffenbachia gracilis Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 540. 1906; 59. 

Slender, densely clothed with the leaf sheaths; sheaths 2-3 cm. 
long, with round, scarious-margined auricles; petioles slender, 3-5 
cm. long; blades oblong-obovate, falcate-acuminate, decurrent at 
base to the petiole, about 1.5 dm. long and 3.5-4 cm. broad; peduncle 
in fruit deflexed, the spadix 3 cm. long, the spathe thin, pale green. 

Loreto: Leche, Pampa del Sacramento, Huber 1536. 

Dieffenbachia humilis Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 3:90. 1845; 59. 

Similar to D. cor data, but petioles vaginate scarcely to the 
middle, the blades green and white-variegated, acute at base, and 
spathe and spadix shorter. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Dc: 58. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig 2401). Brazil. 

Dieffenbachia imperialis Lind. & Andre", 111. Hort. pi. 85. 
1871; 54. 

Stout, with petioles to 6 dm. long, broadly vaginate to the middle, 
the edges white and rugose; blades thick, except for the pale midrib, 
intense green splotched with yellow, obtuse or subcordate at base, 
shortly acuminate, the lateral nerves 14-15. 

Peru: (Barraquin). 



FLORA OF PERU 463 

Dieffenbachia macrophylla Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 3: 90. 1845; 42. 

Differs from D. costata most obviously in its oblong-ovate, con- 
siderably larger leaves with 12-15 prominent lateral nerves. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig 1559}. Posuso, 600 meters, 4662 
(det. Krause). 

Dieffenbachia obliqua Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 3:90. 1845; 42. 

Resembles D. cannifolia, but the leaves 3-3.5 dm. long and 
scarcely 1.5 dm. wide, the lateral nerves about 15, and the pistillate 
portion of the spadix about 7 cm. long. 

Loreto: Mainas, Poeppig. Puerto Mele"ndez, Tessmann 4793 
(det. Krause). 

Dieffenbachia olbia Lind. & Rod. 111. Hort. 39: 31. pi. 148. 
1892; 52. 

Inflorescence unknown, but apparently related to D. imperialis, 
from which species its ovate-lanceolate green leaves with numerous 
yellowish spots and dots appear to distinguish it. 

Peru: (Introduced into cultivation in 1890). 

Dieffenbachia Weberbaueri Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 135. 
1905; 57. 

A slender plant with oblong, opaque blades, deep green above; 
petioles vaginate about a quarter of their length; blades obtuse at 
base, acute, 2.5-3 dm. long; lateral nerves about 15; spathe elongate- 
lanceolate, 1.5 dm. long, the tip 1 cm. long; spadix stipitate, the 
pistillate and staminate parts 6 cm. long. 

Huanuco: Prov. Huamalies, Weberbauer 3634. 

Dieffenbachia Weirii Berkl. Journ. Hort. Soc. n. ser. 1: 201. 
1866; 54. 

Petioles half as long as the greenish and white or yellowish- 
spotted blades, and vaginate half their length; blades elliptic or 
oblong-lanceolate, 6-8 cm. broad; lateral nerves about 10; spathe 
pale green, 7 cm. long, the tip 6-8 mm. long; spadix stipe 4 mm. long. 
Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Dc: 55 (flower). 

Peru(?): Buenaventura (Wallis). 



464 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

9. PHILODENDRON Schott 

Reference: Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db. 1913. 
Usually scandent, with great variation in foliage. Staminate 
flowers below in part sterile. Spathe usually colored, at least below, 
persistent. Ovary 2-many-celled, the ovules many and laterally 
attached or few and near the base. The monotype Phylonotion 
Spruceanum Schott may occur. It has a 1-celled ovary and a soli- 
tary ovule and is recognizable by the spadix, which has a much 
thinner, i.e., strongly contracted, sterile portion 2 cm. long. Also 
Thaumatophyllum Spruceanum Schott, with pedately dissected 
leaves, peculiar because the upper staminate portion of the spadix is 
produced as a naked conical appendage. Both these curious plants 
have been found but once, but in adjacent Amazonian Brazil. Huber 
has recorded the native name "moronga" for some unidentified 
species of Philodendron, and Williams the name "patquina." The 
following key, as in Anthurium, attempts to account for most 
species, but only for the single specimens by which mostly they are 
known and not for probable variations, especially in matters of size. 
There are undoubtedly many more species, as yet uncollected or 
undescribed. 
A. Leaves entire, never definitely cordate or hastate (compare also 

P. variifolium). 

Petioles conspicuously vaginate and usually for more than half 
their length. 

Petioles 2-10 cm. long, rarely 10 cm. long. 
Petioles 2-3.5 cm. long and acutely vaginate about half their 

length; pistil with a curved beak P. longistilum. 

Petioles 3-10 cm. long, often vaginate to the leaf base; pistil 

short or straight. 

Leaves distinctly herbaceous, 5-9 cm. long. . .P. pteropus. 
Leaves firm or coriaceous, 1-2.5. dm. long. 
Scarcely at all oblique, the lateral nerves ascending. 
Leaves ovate, the lateral nerves not prominent. 

P. gutti/erum. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, the lateral nerves prominent. 

P. Tessmannii. 

Strongly inequilateral, the lateral nerves subhorizontal. 

Leaves oblong, 3-6 cm. wide P. chanchamayense. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, 9-10 cm. long. . P. heteropleurum. 



FLORA OF PERU 465 

Petioles 1-3 dm. long. 

Leaves 10-28 cm. wide, rounded, truncate, or subcordate at 

base. 

Leaves 15-28 cm. wide, the nerves spreading ... P. alatum. 

Leaves 10-12 cm. wide, the nerves ascending . P. divaricatum. 

Leaves 5-8 cm. wide, subacute at base or, if wider, cuneate 

to base. 
Leaves 2-4 dm. long, the primary nerves 8-14. 

Spathe about 5 cm. long P. leucanthum. 

Spathe about 1 dm. long P. acreanum. 

Leaves 5.5 dm. long, the primary nerves about 20. 

P. acutifolium. 
Petioles not conspicuously vaginate or only at base, sometimes 

winged. 
Petioles 1 dm. long or usually shorter and leaves 1 dm. broad or 

usually narrower. 
Leaves ovate-elliptic, about 1 dm. wide and 2 dm. long. 

P. membranaceum. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate or pandurate, proportionately 

narrower. 
Leaves pandurate, to 3 dm. long and 7 cm. wide, on winged 

petioles 8 cm. long P. angustialatum. 

Leaves oblong-obovate-lanceolate, not constricted, or the 

petioles not wing-margined. 
Principal lateral nerves few, 7-14. 

Leaves cuneate at base, acuminate P. juninense. 

Leaves subpandurate, abruptly acuminate. 

Petioles 1-1.5 dm. long P. heterophyllum. 

Petioles 3-7 cm. long P. elaphoglossoides. 

Principal lateral nerves many, nearly equally distinct. 
Petioles vaginate for at least a third their length. 
Leaves dull; primary nerves not marked. 

P. longistilum. 

Leaves lustrous; primary nerves obvious. 

P. chanchamayense. 

Petioles vaginate at base for scarcely 1 cm. 

P. basivaginatum. 



466 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Petioles 12 cm. long or usually longer and leaves usually 

broader, 8-18 cm. or wider. 

Lateral nerves very numerous, equally distinct but obscure. 
Petioles fleshy, not winged. 

Leaves 8-12 cm. wide, 4-6 dm. long. . . .P. stenophyllum. 
Leaves 14-18 cm. wide or wider, 6-7 dm. long or longer. 

P. Ruizii. 

Petioles narrowly winged, vaginate below .... P. cruentum. 
Lateral nerves 7-12 (the principal ones). 
Peduncle 2-6 cm. long. 
Leaves truncate at the subpandurate base. 

Nerves 10-12; leaves rarely 10 cm. wide or 3 dm. long. 

P. heterophyllum. 

Nerves 7-9; leaves to 13 cm. wide and 3.5 dm. long. 

P. Uleanum. 
Leaves never subpandurate. 

Leaves cuneate to base P. juninense. 

Leaves broadly rounded at base P. divaricatum. 

Peduncle 2-3 dm. long P. fibrillosum. 

A. Leaves definitely cordate or sagittate at base or some of them 

at least deeply lobed or dissected. 
B. None of the leaves divided, sometimes sagittately lobed at 

base. 
C. Leaves often shorter than 3 dm. and few if any longer than 

3.5 dm. 

Leaves not cordate but oblong-sagittate or deltoid. 
Leaves deltoid, the upper and lower lobes subequal. 

P. deltoideum. 
Upper lobe much longer than the lower. 

Lower lobes about 5 cm. long P. variifolium. 

Lower lobes much longer P. deflexum. 

Leaves cordate, at least at base, sometimes shallowly. 

Leaves only 4 cm. wide and 4 times longer ... P. Mathewsii. 
Leaves 6-20 cm. wide. 

Petioles not wing-margined. 
Petioles shortly vaginate. 
Leaves shallowly cordate. 



FLORA OF PERU 467 

Peduncles 2-3 cm. long; spathe pale . P. variifolium. 
Peduncles 4-5 cm. long; spathe green or red below. 
Petioles to 7 dm. long; leaves caudate. 

P. Poeppigii. 
Petioles to 2.5 dm. long; leaves cuspidate. 

P. Killipii. 

Leaves deeply cordate P. densivenium. 

Petioles vaginate about one-third their length. 

P. Bertae. 
Petioles wing-margined to the blade base. 

P. Lechlerianum. 

C. Leaves often longer than 5 dm. and never or rarely shorter 
than 3.5 dm. 

Pistillate portion of the spadix about one-third as long as 

the staminate. 
Primary lateral nerves rib-like. 

Secondary nerves very indistinct P. maximum. 

Secondary nerves conspicuous P. megalophyllum. 

Primary lateral nerves not rib-like, scarcely prominent. 
Basal lobes not widely divaricate. 

Petioles lightly verruculose P. Muschlerianum. 

Petioles smooth P. tarmense. 

Basal lobes widely divaricate. 

Leaves not caudate-acuminate P. deflexum. 

Leaves caudate-acuminate P. Poeppigii. 

Pistillate portion of the spadix about one-half as long as the 

staminate, or subequaling it or even longer. 
Lateral primary nerves above the basal lobes 8-13. 
Lateral nerves more or less prominent but not rib-like. 
Basal lobes not widely spreading. 

Basal lobes longer than broad, to 4 dm. long. 

P. maculatum. 

Basal lobes scarcely longer than broad, 6 dm. long. 

P. Devansayeanum. 

Basal lobes widely spreading P. deflexum. 

Lateral nerves prominent and rib-like . P. megalophyllum. 



468 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Lateral nerves above the base lobes 4-7. 

Petioles densely setose P. discolor. 

Petioles smooth. 
Basal lobal nerves joined, 5-7. 

Spathe nearly 2 dm. long P. huanucense. 

Spathe a few cm. long P. Weberbaueri. 

Basal lobal nerves partly distinct, about 3 . P. cordatum. 
B. At least some of the leaves divided. 

Earlier leaves all elongate-lanceolate, entire, the later trifid; 
spathe and spadix subequal P. micranthum. 

Most or all leaves lobed or divided, if trifid, the spathe much 
longer than the spadix. 

Leaf divisions 3. 

Leaf divisions subpinnate, the larger about 1.5 dm. wide. 

P. latilobum. 
Leaf divisions trifid, the divisions 4-7 cm. wide. 

P. tripartitum. 
Leaf divisions 5-10. 

Lobes 5 P. quinquelobum. 

Lobes about twice as many P. distantilobum. 

Philodendron acreanum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 22. 
1913. 

Similar to P. cruentum, but the -petioles long-vaginate or mar- 
gined, the spathe white or yellowish, its tube 3-4 cm. long, and the 
ovary cells many-ovuled. Neg. 12198. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Vie 9213, 9238. 

Philodendron acutifolium Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11: 617. 1932. 

Petioles thick, vaginate, 1.5 dm. long; leaves lustrous, scarcely 
inequilateral, elongate-oblanceolate, to 12 cm. wide, gradually nar- 
rowed to base, acuminate with acumen nearly 3 cm. long; peduncle 
stout, about 1 dm. long, 5-6 mm. thick; spathe 9 cm. long; pistillate 
inflorescence in fruit ellipsoid, 5-5.5 cm. long, the subclavate stam- 
inate 3-4 cm. long. 37a. 

Junin: Puerto Bermudez. 375 meters (Killip & Smith 26578). 



FLORA OF PERU 469 

Philodendron alatum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 3: 87. 1845; 15. 

A vigorous high-climbing plant, the caudex often 5-6 cm. thick; 
petioles 2.5-3 dm. long, vaginate, 2-3 cm. wide; leaves rounded to 
the shortly cuspidate tip, 2.5-3.5 dm. long; primary nerves 10-14, 
widely spreading; peduncle very short; spathe tumid, greenish 
yellow; fruit red. P. macropodum Krause is distinguishable by its 
narrowly (to 1.5 cm. wide) vaginate petioles only 1-1.5 dm. long. 

Huanuco: Pampaycu (Poeppig 1298). San Martin: Moyobamba, 
Weberbauer 4630(1). 

Philodendron angustialatum Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 131. 
1905; 92. 

Upper internodes to 1 dm. long; leaves truncate or very slightly 
cordate at base, abruptly short-acuminate; primary nerves about 9; 
peduncles 3-4 cm. long; spathe white, oblong, 5 cm. long; spadix 
rose-color, the stipe 6 mm. long, the pistillate part 5 cm., the staminate 
nearly 6 cm. long; ovules solitary. P. pukhellum Engler (Jurua 
Miry, Ule 5728) is similar but the leaves are less pandurate and the 
petioles are terete above. Both species illustrated, Pflanzer. IV. 
23Db: 92, 93. 

Huanuco: Near the Monzon, 600 meters, Weberbauer 3589. 

Philodendron basivaginatum Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 11: 619. 1932. 

Internodes 12-15 cm. long; petioles 4-5 cm. long; leaves oblong, 
15-17 cm. long, 7-7.5 cm. wide, the slightly oblique acumen about 
1 cm. long; peduncle 2-3 cm. long; spathe 5-6 cm. long; pistillate 
inflorescence slightly attenuate, about 3 cm. long, nearly 1 cm. thick, 
the staminate narrowly clavate, 2.5 cm. long or longer. Only the 
juvenile spadix known. 28a. 

Loreto: Iquitos (Killip & Smith 27424)- 

Philodendron Bertae Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 48. 1913. 

Leaves deeply cordate-sagittate, the upper lobe about 3 dm. 
long and nearly as wide, with a tip 2.5 cm. long, the roundish basal 
lobes about 1 dm. long and broad; upper lateral nerves 7-8; peduncles 
1 dm. long, 6-8 mm. thick; spathe light brown, the ovoid tube 5-6 
cm. long, to 2 or 2.5 cm. broad, the blade 12 cm. long, with a cusp 
nearly 4 cm. long, to 3 dm. broad ; spadix sessile, the pistillate part 
4.5 cm. long, the staminate over twice as long; ovules many. 
P. Ernesti Engler, allied to P. Lechlerianum, may be found in Peru. 



470 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

It has shorter petioles vaginate to above the middle, shorter leaves, 
shortly cuspidate, and a stipitate spadix ( Vie 5770, Jurua Miry). 
Neg. 12206. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9218. 

Philodendron chanchamayense Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 125. 
1905; 13. 

Very well marked by its oblong one-sided leaves, one side being 
half to two-thirds wider than the other, the total width 3.5-5.5 cm.; 
peduncles 2.5-3 cm. long; spathe green, 8-9 cm. long; spadix yellow, 
shortly stiped; pistillate inflorescence nearly twice shorter than the 
staminate. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 14. Through an error, 
the specific name appeared originally as chinchamayense. 

Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, Weberbauer 1864- 

Philodendron cordatum (Veil.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 52. 1841; 
82. Arum cordatum Veil. Fl. Flum. 9: pi 111. 1827. 

Petioles slender, sulcate above; leaves elongate oblong-cordate, 
3-4 dm. long and half as wide; lobes semi-oblong, 8-10 cm. long, to 
7 cm. wide, introrse; peduncle 2-3 cm. long; spathe tube 4-7 cm. 
long; pistillate spadix 4-5 cm. long, half as long as the staminate. 

Loreto: Pampas de Ponasa, Ule. Brazil. 

Philodendron cruentum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. &Sp. 3:86. 1845; 30. 

Petioles 1.5-2 dm. long, subterete, flat above; leaves rigid, ellip- 
tic-oblong, shortly cuspidate, narrowed to base, somewhat oblique, 
3-4 dm. long and 8-10 cm. broad; peduncles in 2's, 3-4 cm. long; 
spathe about 1.5 dm. long, white without, beautifully red within, 
the tube 5-6 cm. long, the blade to nearly 1 dm. long, with a slender 
cusp 7-8 mm. long; spadix subsessile; ovules 2. Neg. 12213. 

Huanuco: Cochero, Poeppig 1561. Junin: La Merced, 5528 
(det. Krause). 

Philodendron deflexum Poepp. ex Schott, Syn. 101. 1856; 87. 

Perhaps the earlier name for P. Muschlerianum, but very im- 
perfectly known; basal lobes of the leaves oblique, oblong, 1.5 dm. 
long and 1 dm. wide, about 4 times shorter than the gradually nar- 
rowed upper lobe; lateral basal nerves 4-5 cm. long; lateral upper 
nerves 10-12, arcuate at the margins; secondary nerves oblique. 
Neg. 12216. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poeppig 1281). 



FLORA OF PERU 471 

Philodendron deltoideum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. &Sp. 3:87. 1845; 35. 

Petioles subterete, shortly vaginate, 1.5-2 dm. long; leaves 
1-1.5 dm. long and nearly as broad, the oblong basal lobes spreading, 
nearly horizontal, 5-7 cm. long and 3.5-4 cm. wide; peduncles 3-4, 
2-3 cm. long; spathe 3-3.5 cm. long, whitish, the narrow tube and 
blade subequal; spadix sessile, 3 cm. long, the pistillate inflorescence 
2-3 times shorter than the staminate. 

San Martin: Tocache (Poeppig 2029}. 

Philodendron densivenium Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 132. 
1905; 94. 

Leaves lustrous, the basal lobes 4-6 cm. long and nearly as wide, 
5-6 times shorter than the strongly arcuate, acuminate terminal one; 
basal nerves 3, lateral 4-5, secondary many, little oblique; spathe 
yellowish, turning reddish brown, 6 cm. long, little longer than the 
peduncle and shortly stiped spadix; pistillate inflorescence 2.5-3 cm. 
long, the staminate 4 cm. long; pistil 6-7-celled ; ovule 1. Illustrated, 
Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 95. P. Traunii Engler, related to P. Bertae, 
might be sought here. Its leaves are very shallowly cordate and the 
ovules many. Also P. scabrum Krause, with rough petioles, primary 
nerves scarcely distinguishable, and peduncles 2-3 cm. long; and 
P. arcuatum Krause with widely divaricate basal lobes, 8 cm. broad. 

Puno: Above Cachicachi, 1,800 meters, Weberbauer 1308. 
Huanuco: Near Monzon, 2,400 meters, Weberbauer 3425. 

Philodendron Devansayeanum Linden, 111. Hort. 42: 376. 
pi. 48. 1895; 65. 

Similar to P. maculatum, but the petioles longer, to 6.5 dm., the 
leaves subrotund; peduncles twice as long and stouter, and the 
spathe bright red with white edges. Neg. 12218. 

Peru: (Introduced into cultivation in 1894). 

Philodendron discolor Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 9: 
273. 1925. 

High-climbing, with numerous adventitious roots; petioles strong, 
round, 3-5 dm. long, densely red-brown-setose; leaves herbaceous, 
lustrous above, the nerves a paler green, beneath purple, ovate- 
cordate, 3-4.5 dm. long, to 3.5 dm. broad, the rounded lobes incurved 
over the narrow subrotund sinus and more than twice as long as the 
acuminate blade; peduncles 1 dm. long or longer, setose, nearly 1 



472 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

cm. thick; spathe fleshy, red-brown, sparsely fibrous, 1.5 dm. long; 
pistillate inflorescence 7 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, the staminate sub- 
clavate, about 5 cm. long, 1-1.3 cm. thick; pistil 5-6 mm. long, the 
stigma little impressed. Near P. verrucosum, but petioles and leaves 
different. Neg. 12219. 

Junin: Rio Pantachuelo, 1,500 meters, Weberbauer 6663. 

Philodendron distantilobum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 
115. 1913. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, pinnately parted, with 5-6 spreading 
linear-lanceolate acuminate segments, 3-5 cm. distant, the inter- 
mediate about 1.5 dm. long and 4 cm. wide; peduncles 1 dm. long 
or longer, a little longer than the greenish white spathe; ovules 
many, attached a little above the base. Related are P. angusti- 
sectum Engler and P. elegans Krause, with shorter peduncles, the 
former with a spathe under 1 dm. long and the latter with one over 
1.5 dm. long. Also P. laciniatum (Veil.) Engler, distinguished by 
its fewer, more or less incised, and broader divisions and few ovules. 
Neg. 12220. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Vie 9236, 9228. 

Philodendron divaricatum Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11: 618. 1932. 

Upper internodes 5-10 cm. long; petioles often widely divaricate 
from the caudex, 12-16 cm. long; leaves 18-26 cm. long, ovate-oblong 
or ovate, broadly and obtusely rounded at base, distinctly inequi- 
lateral, shortly acuminate; primary nerves 8-10, prominent beneath; 
peduncle 4-5 cm. long; spathe 8-10 cm. long; pistillate inflorescence 
3-3.5 cm. long, the staminate little longer. 22a. 

Junin: La Merced (Kittip & Smith 24007). Pichis Trail, 1,100 
meters (Killip & Smith 25986). Loreto: Puerto Arturo, Williams 
5136. 

Philodendron elaphoglossoides Schott, Syn. 80. 1856; 91. 
P. heterophyllum Poepp. var. elaphoglossoides Engler in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. 3, pt. 2: 132. 1878. 

Perhaps better treated as a variety of P. heterophyllum; nerves 
12-14; spathe white, 6-8 cm. long; pistillate inflorescence 3-3.5 cm. 
long, the staminate little longer; pistil 5-6-celled. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Ule 6306; Williams 3961. Leticia, Ule 
6186. Santa Rosa, Wittiams 3827 (det. Krause). Rio Acre, Ule 
9219. Brazil. 



FLORA OF PERU 473 

Philodendron fibrillosum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. &Sp. 3:86. 1845; 42. 

Differs from P. juninense Engler in its elliptic leaves only about 
twice longer than broad, longer peduncles, greenish spathe, purple 
at base, 6-8 cm. long, and 5-celled pistil. P. Wittianum Engler has 
petioles 2 dm. long, oblong-lanceolate leaves 6 dm. long, and a 
spathe 1.5 dm. long. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu to Cochero (Poeppig). 

Philodendron guttiferum Kunth, Enum. 3: 51. 1841; 11. 

Internodes short, the lower to 5 cm. long; petioles obtusely 
vaginate nearly to the blade base; blades ovate, acute, 5-8 cm. broad, 
the 8-10 primary nerves little pronounced; peduncles 1-2 cm. long; 
spathe to 1 dm. long, cusped; pistillate inflorescence about a third 
as long as the staminate; ovules mostly in 4 series. Very similar 
is P. ochrostemon Schott, with pistillate inflorescence only a third 
shorter than the staminate. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 12. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig 2292). Iquitos, Vie 6907. Brazil 
to Costa Rica. 

Philodendron heterophyllum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 3: 86. pi. 297. 1845; 89. 

Petioles terete, 1-1.5 dm. long; leaves very variable, oblong to 
obovate, more or less narrowed at base, truncate or narrowed to 
apex but long-cusped (1.5-2 cm.), 1.5-2.5 dm. long, to 8 cm. broad; 
nerves 10-12; peduncles often geminate, 2-5 cm. long; spathe 
greenish white, sometimes purplish at base, 5-6 cm. long; pistillate 
inflorescence scarcely 2 cm. long, the staminate twice as long; pistil 
4-celled. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig 1560). San Martin: Tocache 
(Poeppig 1968). Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 3864- Santa Rosa, 
Williams 4902. 

Philodendron heteropleurum Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 11: 618. 1932. 

Internodes extremely short; petioles 7-10 cm. long, the blades 
twice as long or longer; primary nerves 7-9, spreading, prominent 
beneath; peduncle about 1.5 cm. long, nearly 1 cm. thick; spathe 
1.5 dm. long, cuspidulate, cylindrical; pistillate inflorescence 6-7 
cm. long, equaled by the slenderer, conical staminate. 20a. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Killip & Smith 28034)- 



474 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Philodendron hu an license Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 127. 1905; 
66. 

Petioles vaginate for about a third their length; blades cordate- 
triangular, about 5.5 dm. long and 3.5 dm. broad, with a rounded 
open sinus; peduncles 1 dm. long; spathe green, 2 dm. long; spadix 
stipe 1 cm. long; pistillate inflorescence 6 cm. long, the staminate 
8-9 cm. long; ovary 5-celled. Neg. 12229. 

Huanuco: Near the Monzon, 600 meters, Weberbauer 3647. 

Philodendron juninense Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 126. 1905; 42. 

Stipules fibrous; petioles 7-10 cm. long, narrowly vaginate; 
blades thin, lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed to base, 3-3.5 dm. 
long; peduncles 3-4, 4-6 cm. long; spathe white, 4-5 cm. long; 
pistillate inflorescence a little shorter than the staminate; pistil 
3-celled. Neg. 12232. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu to Cochero (Poeppig). Junin: Weber- 
bauer 1823. 

Philodendron Killipii Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 
620. 1932. 

Upper internodes 6-8 cm. long; leaves ovate-cordate, about 3 
dm. long, to nearly 2.5 dm. broad, the sinus broad, the lower lobes 
semi-ovate, 9-12 cm. long, the upper ovate, about 2.5 dm. long, 
shortly and obliquely cuspidate-acuminate; primary nerves of the 
upper lobe remote, 5-6; peduncle 4 cm. long; spathe oblong, 8-9 
cm. long; pistillate inflorescence 3 cm. long, the staminate nearly 
5 cm. long. Separated by the author from P. tarmense Engler 
by the more widely cordate-based leaves with much more remote 
lateral nerves. 112a. 

Junin: Hacienda Schunke, 1,500 meters (Killip & Smith 24602). 

Philodendron latilobum Schott, Syn. 104. 1856; 105. 

Leaves coriaceous, ovate-triangular, rounded-subtruncate at 
base, 3 dm. long and nearly as wide, the middle lobe broadly ovate, 
acute, 2 dm. long, the lateral obtuse; lateral nerves thick, spreading, 
about 6, alternating with the secondary nerves in the lateral lobes; 
inflorescence unknown. The primary leaves are entire or subentire. 

Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig); Williams 5332. San Martin: Tara- 
poto, Williams 5755 (primary leaves; det. Krause). 



FLORA OF PERU 475 

Philodendron Lechlerianum Schott, Prodr. 250. 1860; 45. 

Leaves elongate-sagittate, gradually narrowed to the acute tip, 
deeply cordate at base, about 2 dm. long and 12 cm. wide, the semi- 
orbicular basal lobes 2.5-3 cm. long and 5-6 cm. broad; upper nerves 
3-4, 2 of the 3 basal ones shortly united; peduncle 6-8 cm. long; 
spathe tube 4 cm. long, the apiculate blade a little longer; spadix 
sessile, the pistillate inflorescence about 2 cm. long, the staminate 
more than twice as long; pistil elongate, 4-5-celled, the ovules 
biseriate. P. pulchellum Engler might be sought here; see P. an- 
gustialatum Engler. Neg. 12234. 

Puno: (Lechler). Bolivia. 

Philodendron leucanthum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 
18. 1913. 

Similar to P. alatum but much more slender; petioles 1-13 cm. 
long, 12-16 mm. wide, vaginate; blades about 2 dm. long, obliquely 
acuminate; primary nerves 8-10; peduncle nearly 3 cm. long; 
spathe white. Neg. 12288. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9231. 

Philodendron longistilum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 
127. 1913. 

Slender; petioles acutely vaginate a third to a half their length, 
shallowly grooved, 2-3.5 cm. long; blades oblong-lanceolate, rounded 
to a cuspidate apex, acute at base, 1-2 dm. long, 3.5-6 cm. broad; 
nerves numerous; peduncle 12-18 cm. long; spathe 4-5 cm. long; 
spadix shortly stiped, about 5 cm. long; pistil obovoid, truncate, 
with a long, deeply excavate stigmatic beak. Unique in its pistillate 
development. P. decurrens Krause would be sought here on vegeta- 
tive characters. It is well marked by its elongate leaves that are 
practically sessile by the long decurrence of the blade. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9210. 

Philodendron maculatum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 64. 
1913. 

Petioles terete or flattened toward the apex, 2.5 dm. long; leaves 
ovate, broadly cordate at base, acuminate, to nearly 3 dm. broad; 
rounded basal lobes about 1 dm. long; upper nerves about 10; 
peduncle 3-4 cm. long; spathe white with purple spots, 1 dm. long; 
spadix stipe nearly 1 cm. long, the pistillate inflorescence 4 cm., the 
staminate 5 cm. long. Neg. 12240. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9004. 



476 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Philodendron Mathewsii Schott, Bonplandia 7: 29. 1859; 94. 

Similar to P. angustialatum, but the petioles terete, the shorter 
and narrower leaves distinctly cordate at base and not pandurate, 
the spathe and the subsessile spadix each about 3 cm. long. Illus- 
trated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 93. 

Huanuco: Casapi (Mathews). 

Philodendron maximum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 49. 
1913. 

Resembles P. Bertae, but the petioles much longer, the leaves 
much larger, to 9 dm. long, and undulate-margined about the deeply 
cordate base, and the spathe and spadix shorter. P. myrmecophyllum 
Engler, allied to P. Weberbaueri, would be sought here. Its mature 
leaves are 4 dm. long and 3 dm. broad, with an open broad sinus, 
and the ovules are solitary. Illustrated, loc. cit. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9229. 

Philodendron megalophyllum Schott, Prodr. 279. 1860; 87. 

Like P. deflexum except as indicated, and perhaps a robust form, 
to 1.5 meters high; petioles stout; basal lobes oblong, subextrorse, 
rounded, to nearly 3 dm. long and 1.5 dm. broad, about half as long 
as the upper lobe; lateral upper nerves 12-13; inflorescence white, 
14 cm. long, the staminate portion about 8 cm. long. 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2495). Huanuco: Monzon, Weberbauer 
3643. Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 1519, 245 (det. 
Krause). 

Philodendron membranaceum Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. 
Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 87. 1845; 19. 

Petioles narrowly margined; blades rounded at base, subacute; 
peduncle a little shorter than the petiole; spathe convolute to the 
middle, acute, 1 dm. long, yellowish; staminate and pistillate 
inflorescences very unequal in length and thickness; pistil 5-celled. 
Not known to Engler and Krause, and relationship not determined. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig). 

Philodendron micranthum Poepp. ex Schott, Oesterr. Bot. 
Wochenbl. 5: 17. 1855; 36. 

Petioles slender, terete, broadly vaginate at base, to 3 dm. long; 
primary leaves elongate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, those of the 
peduncles trifid, acute, the middle division to 3 dm. long and 1 dm. 



FLORA OF PERU 477 

wide, the lateral narrower and shorter; peduncles 4-7 cm. long; spathe 
white, about as long; pistillate inflorescence twice shorter than the 
staminate. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 37. 

Loreto: Mainas, Poeppig 2300. Rio Acre, Ule 9216. Brazil. 

Philodendron Muschlerianum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 
50. 1913. 

Apparently similar to P. deflexum; petioles slender, to 5 dm. long, 
verruculose-asperous, especially above; peduncles 2-3 cm. long; 
spathe white, 12 cm. long; spadix stipe 8 mm. long; pistillate in- 
florescence 3 cm. long, the staminate 3 times longer; ovules many. 
Neg. 12246. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9226. 

Philodendron Poeppigii Schott, Syn. 84. 1856; 50. 

Petioles to 7 dm. long, often shorter; blades shallowly and un- 
equally cordate, caudate-acuminate, about 2 dm. long, 8 cm. wide, 
or finally twice or even thrice as large; basal nerves 3-4, the primary 
lateral ones 6-7; peduncles 4-5 cm. long; spathe reddish below, about 
1 dm. long. Flowers white, rose-dotted (Klug). Neg. 12257. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 1508 (det. Krause). 
Brazil. 

Philodendron pteropus Mart, ex Schott, Syn. 77. 1856; 6. 

Differs from P. guttiferum in its shorter petioles, to 4.5 cm. long, 
narrower blades, to only 4 cm. broad, and numerous lateral nerves; 
inflorescence unknown. Neg. 12258. 

San Martin: Tocache, Poeppig 1948. Brazil. 

Philodendron quinquelobum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 
111. 1913. 

Petioles terete, to about 3 cm. long; terminal lobe of the ovate- 
oblong blade subrhombic, acuminate, to 1 dm. long and 6.5 cm. 
broad, the lateral narrower, the basal broader; peduncles 7-12 cm. 
long; spathe whitish, about 1 dm. long; pistillate inflorescence more 
than half as long as the staminate. The similar P. squamiferum 
Poepp. (Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 112) has densely red-scaly 
petioles. 

Loreto : Rio Acre, Ule 921 7. 

Philodendron Ruizii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 418. 
1854; 29. 



478 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Petioles about 2 dm. long and 1 cm. thick; blades oblong-lance- 
olate, contracted below, with the midnerve at base very thick; spathe 
to 1 dm. long; pistillate inflorescence 4-5 cm. long, subequaling the 
staminate; pistil elongate, 6-celled, the ovules 2, basifixed. P. 
Buchtienii Krause is similar but the leaves are about 2.5 dm. wide 
and the pistil is 4-5-celled. Neg. 12265. 

Huanuco: Posuso, Ruiz. Pampayacu (Poeppig 1297). 

Philodendron stenophyllum Krause, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 
29. 1913. 

Very much like P. Ruizii except for its narrower leaves and 8-9- 
celled pistil, with 2-4 ovules in each cell. Illustrated, op. cit. 25. 
P. Paxianum Krause is yet another variant of this group of closely 
related "species," with leaves to 4 dm. long and 9 cm. wide and a 
4-6-celled ovary with solitary ovules. 

Huanuco: Monzon, 900 meters, Weberbauer 3448. 

Philodendron tarmense Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 128. 1905; 66. 

Closely related to P. huanucense and similar, but the sinus of 
the leaves narrow and partially closed; peduncle 4-5 cm. long, the 
spathe twice as long; pistillate inflorescence 2 cm. long, the staminate 
6-7 cm. long. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 67. P. Brandtianum 
Krause, allied to P. Bertae, has petioles 5 dm. long, peduncles 2.5 cm. 
long, and pistillate inflorescence 2.5 cm. long. P. Poeppigii Schott, 
closely related to P. maximum, has long petioles, an open leaf sinus, 
and spathe red below. Neg. 12273. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1907. 

Philodendron Tessmannii Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11: 617. 1932. 

Internodes 5-7 cm. long; petioles 6-8 cm. long, very narrowly 
vaginate to the node; blades little oblique, to 2 dm. long, 7-8 cm. 
broad, the 9-10 primary nerves marked; peduncles 3-4 cm. long; 
spathe light green, 1 dm. long, acuminate; pistillate inflorescence 3 
cm. long, the staminate 5 cm. long. Compared by the author to 
P. chanchamayense Engler. 19a. 

Loreto: Mouth of the Santiago (Tessmann 8940). 

Philodendron tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott, Wien Zeitschr. 3: 
780. 1829; 107. Arum tripartitum Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. 2: 33. 1797. 

Petioles terete, thick, 2-3 dm. long; leaf divisions subequal, 
1.5-2.5 dm. long, cuspidate; peduncles solitary, 3-5 cm. long; spathe 



FLORA OF PERU 479 

twice as long; spadix stipe 2-4 cm. long; pistillate and staminate 
inflorescences subequal; ovary 7-11-celled, the ovules 1 or 2. 
Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 108. Almost surely within Peru. 

Brazil: Jurua Miry, Ule 5792. Brazil to Central America and 
Jamaica. 

Philodendron Uleanum Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 131. 1905; 
89. 

Similar to P. heterophyllum, but the leaves longer and broader, 
to 13 cm. wide, the peduncles 6 cm. long, the spathe longer, and the 
ovary 6-7-celled. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23Db: 90. Neg. 12275. 

Loreto: Rio Acre: Ule 9211. Brazil. 

Philodendron variifolium Schott, Syn. 100. 1856; 36. 

Imperfectly known, but apparently a close relative of P. deltoi- 
deum, from which it differs chiefly in its elongate leaves but these 
very variable, cordate-, hastate-, or sagittate-oblong, 2-2.5 dm. long, 
6-7 cm. broad, with a cusp 1-1.5 cm. long; basal lobes very short and 
obtuse, or elongate-oblong, the sinus open. P. quitense Engler, of 
Guayaquil, has longer petioles, broader leaves, and spreading basal 
lobes. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poeppig 1281). 

Philodendron Weberbaueri Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 133. 1905; 
96. 

Similar to P. densivenium; leaves about 4.5 dm. long; peduncle 
and spathe 4 cm. long; pistillate and staminate inflorescences sub- 
equal, 2 cm. long; pistil 4-celled. Neg. 12279. 

Puno: Sandia to Chunchosmayo, 1,500 meters, Weberbauer 1352. 

10. HOMALOMENA Schott 

Reference: Pflanzenr. IV. 23Da. 1912. 

Stout herbs with long petioles vaginate only below and large, 
often mottled leaves. Spathe usually green, persistent. Inflores- 
cence usually entirely fertile. Alocasia indica (Roxb.) Schott, var. 
metallica Schott, cultivated at Yurimaguas and Iquitos (Williams'), 
has deeply cordate leaves not at all peltate, strongly ribbed beneath, 
and a convolute spathe, little constricted. 

Homalomena peltata (Poepp.) Mast. Gard. Chron. 7: 273. 
/. 46. 1877; 79. Anthurium peltatum Poepp. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 83. 
(excl. pi.). 1845. 



480 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

A large herb with peltate cordate-ovate acuminate leaves, 5-6 
dm. long and 3.5-4 dm. wide, glabrous above and reddish-pubescent 
beneath; petioles muricate below and pubescent, vaginate for a third 
their length; peduncles about 1.5 dm. long, densely puberulent; 
spathe yellow-spotted, the tubular-convolute lower part 5-7 cm. long, 
the upper part or blade 13 cm. long, with a cusp 2 cm. long; spadix 
sessile, the pistillate inflorescence 4 cm. long, 1.5 cm. thick, the 
slenderer staminate portion to 1.5 dm. long. Other Andean species 
to be expected include H. Roezlii (Mast.) Regel and H. Wallisii 
Regel with glabrous leaves, those of the former ovate-oblong, 2-4 
dm. wide, and of the latter ovate-obovate, 6-7 cm. broad; also 
H. crinipes Engler and H. picturata (Lind. & Andre") Regel, the 
former with sagittate-hastate leaves and the latter with cordate- 
ovate ones. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig). Colombia. 

11. XANTHOSOMA Schott 
Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23E. 1920. 
Herbs, usually huge, with petioles vaginate below and cordate, 
hastate, or dissected leaves. Spadix shorter than the persistent 
spathe, partly sterile. Ovary 2-4-celled, the ovules many. The 
tubers of some species, boiled or roasted, are edible. Herrera has 
recorded for some unknown form the name "uncucha." 
Leaves entire or merely cordately lobed at base. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Cordate-ovate, 3-4.5 dm. long X. Poeppigii. 

Cordate-sagittate . 

Leaves to 1 meter long; spathe white. . . . X. brevispathaceum. 

Leaves to 4 dm. long; spathe purple X. purpuratum. 

Leaves pubescent, especially beneath. 

Distinctly cordate at base X. pubescens. 

Rounded-obtuse at base X, trichophyllum. 

Leaves hastately lobed at base or divided. 

Merely lobed at base, the lobes divaricate X. tarapotense. 

Pedately dissected X. helleborifolium. 

Xanthosoma brevispathaceum Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 137. 
1905; 53. 

A gigantic herb, its great opaque leaves to 1 meter long and 6 dm. 
broad, their basal lobes a third to a half as long as the upper one; 



FLORA OF PERU 481 

spathe tube ovoid, 4-6 cm. long, the white oblong-lanceolate blade 
1.5-2 dm. long and 4 cm. wide; spadix about as long, sessile, the 
cylindrical pistillate portion 2 cm. long, the sterile little longer, the 
staminate 10 times longer. X. hylaeae Engl. & Krause may be dis- 
tinguished by its smaller leaves, their lateral nerves about 2.5-4 
instead of 4-6 cm. remote. Neg. 12304. 

Junin: La Merced, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1821; 282. 
Huanuco: Muna, 4267 (det. Krause). 

Xanthosoma helleborifolium (Jacq.) Schott, Oesterr. Bot. 
Zeitschr. 15: 33. 1865; 61. Arum helleborifolium Jacq. Icon PI. 
Rar. 3: pi. 613. 1786-93. 

The only Peruvian species with divided leaves. Typically the 
spathe is about 1 dm. long. The following Poeppig collection is var. 
variegatum (Desf.) Engler with purple-dotted and lined petioles and 
peduncles; the Weberbauer number, var. Weberbaueri Engler, robust, 
with a spathe 2 dm. long. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig}. Iquitos, cultivated, Williams 
3554. (det. Krause). Piura: Hacienda San Antonio, 1,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 6007. To Central America and the West Indies. "Mano 
abierta." 

Xanthosoma Poeppigii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 
417. 1854; 51. X. Mafaffa Schott, var. Poeppigii (Schott) Engler 
in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 193. 1878. 

Petioles 4-6 dm. long, pale green with violet sheaths; blades 
2-3.5 dm. broad, green above, pruinose beneath, subacuminate- 
cuspidate, the basal lobes retrorse, 1-1.5 dm. long; principal lateral 
nerves 5-6; peduncles 3-4 dm. long; spathe tube green without, deep 
purple within, 6-7 cm. long, the blade yellowish green with brown- 
purple nerves, to 3 dm. long and half as broad; spadix stipe 2 mm. 
long; pistillate inflorescence 3-3.5 cm. long, orange, the sterile 5 cm. 
long, violet, the staminate rose-color, twice as long. The var. Mafaffa 
(Schott) Macbride has the basal lobes slightly introrse and the tube 
of the spathe yellowish green. 

Loreto: Ule 6301 ; Poeppig 1753. Bolivia. 

Xanthosoma pubescens Poepp. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 89. pi. 
299. 1845; 54. 

Well marked by its ashy-puberulent petioles (2.5 dm. long) and 
its oblong-ovate, shortly pilose blades (especially beneath), about 
2 dm. long and 1-1.5 dm. broad, their basal lobes suborbicular ; 



482 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

spathe pubescent, yellowish green, less than 1 dm. long, the tube only 
2.5 cm. long. Neg. 12314. 

Huanuco: Quebrada de Casapi (Poeppig). Junin: La Merced, 
Schunke 366 (det. Krause). 

Xanthosoma purpuratum Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11: 621. 1932. 

Petioles 3-3.5 dm. long; blades subtriangular, deeply sagittate, 
nearly 3 dm. broad, the broadly ovate- triangular upper lobe obliquely 
acuminate, 2 dm. long or longer, at base to 2.5 dm. broad, the lower 
lobes shorter and broadly oblong; spathe deep purple, paler at base. 
Allied to X. hylaeae Engler with broader leaf sinus and whitish 
spathe. 14a. 

Loreto: Soledad on the Rio Itaya (Killip & Smith 29570'). 

Xanthosoma tarapotense Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 138. 1905; 58. 

Leaves about 4 dm. long and 1 dm. broader, the widely spreading, 
oblong basal lobes 2.5 dm. long and 12 cm. wide; spathe tube 5 cm. 
long, the oblong blade 7.5 cm. long and 3.5 cm. broad; pistillate 
inflorescence 1.5 cm. long, the staminate 9 cm. long. Neg. 12317. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Ule 6906. 

Xanthosoma trichophyllum Krause, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
11: 622. 1932. 

Similar to X. pubescens, but shorter petioles subvillous and leaves 
nearly emarginate at base; spathe white, 4-4.5 cm. long. 15a. 

Loreto: Soledad on the Rio Itaya (Killip & Smith 29640). 

12. CALADIUM Vent. 
Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23E. 1920. 
Large, acaulescent herbs from rhizomes or tubers, the leaves often 
mottled and usually peltate-sagittate. Very similar to Xanthosoma 
but style none. The rhizomes of some species are edible when 
cooked. 
Leaves glabrous, distinctly peltate. 

Basal lobes about one-fourth connate or the leaves large. 

Leaves sagittate-ovate C. tricolor. 

Leaves sagittate-lanceolate C. picturatum. 

Basal lobes about one-half connate, the leaves 3 cm. wide. 

C. Humboldtii. 
Leaves pubescent, little if at all peltate C. pubescens. 



FLORA OF PERU 483 

Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent. Descr. Gels. pi. 30. 1800; 31. 
Arum bicolor Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 316. 1789. 

Petioles smooth, 3-4 times longer than the sagittate-ovate or 
ovate- triangular blades; blades usually green above and the semi- 
ovate basal lobes connate to one-half their length, in var. surinamense 
(Miq.) Engler, or variously colored above and almost wholly connate 
(mostly cultivated states); peduncle little shorter than the leaves; 
spathe tube ovoid, often violet in the throat, little exceeding the 
white-cuspidate blade; staminate portion of the spadix twice longer 
than either the pistillate or sterile portions. C. marmoratum Mathieu, 
with a subspheric spathe tube, strongly constricted above, from 
Guayaquil, may be found in Peru, as also C. sororium Schott, with 
ovate leaves, shallowly cordate at base, and an oblong-ellipsoid 
spathe tube. 

Huanuco: Posuso (Ruiz & Pav6ri). Junin: Maranioch Valley 
(Philippi). Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig). Rio Acre, Ule 9209. La 
Victoria, cultivated, Williams 3181, 3183, 2602. Pebas, in forest, 
Williams 1929, 1833. Yurimaguas, cultivated, Williams 4648, 
4512, 4511. Iquitos, Williams 3579. Caballo-cocha, in forest, 
Williams 2433, 2380, 2020. Brazil. "Tasha," "oreja de perro," 
"patquina." 

Caladium Humboldtii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4:417. 
1854; 38. 

Chiefly distinctive by its small size, the mottled leaves rarely 
7 cm. long, oblong-ovate, with ovate-triangular basal lobes connate 
for half their length; petioles very slender, to 17 cm. long, usually 
much shorter. Neg. 12320. 

Loreto: Along Rio Itaya, Williams 172 (det. Krause). Pebas, in 
forest, Williams 1919. Brazil. "Pavoncito," "brasilerina." 

Caladium picturatum (Lind.) Koch & Bouche", Ind. Sem. Hort. 
Berol. App. 6. 1854; 36. 

Very much like C. bicolor, but the leaves of a sagittate-lanceolate 
type, with lanceolate basal lobes often connate for less than a quarter 
their length; also variable as to coloring, the Peruvian material being 
referred to var. porphyroneuron (C. Koch) Engler, more or less violet 
and red, with hastate-sagittate leaves, their basal lobes one-sixth 
to one-third connate, and the var. Trouletzkoyi (Chantin) Engler, 
similar but the nerves above pale or rosy. The valid publication 
of the name of this species is uncertain, but it was designated by 
Linden in his catalogues at least in 1852, and the above citation gives 



484 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

it precedence, fortunately, over several variants published as species 
about the same time. Well marked and also to be expected is C. 
macrotites Schott, with hastate-sagittate leaves, the lobes all elongate- 
lanceolate. 

Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig 2286}', Williams 3956 (det. Krause). 
Brazil. 

Galadium pubescens N. E. Brown, Bot. Mag. 137: pi. 8402. 
1911; 29. 

Petioles to 3 dm. long, densely pubescent, as also the pale green 
peduncles and cordate-ovate blades, the latter 2-3 dm. long and 
1-2.5 dm. broad, their semiorbicular basal lobes 1.5-3 cm. long. 
Unique except for C. puberulum Engler, which has sagittate leaves 
with white-pilose nerves. The type locality is uncertain. 

San Martin: Moyobamba (Forget}. 

14. ASTEROSTIGMA F. & M. 

Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23F. 1920. 

Herbs from depressed rounded tubers. Leaves 3-parted, the 
middle segment pinnatifid, the lateral irregularly so. Peduncles 
spotted. Spathe erect, free. Ovary 3-5-celled, the ovules solitary. 

Asterostigma Pavonii Schott, Prodr. 339. 1860; 46. 

Petioles 2.5 dm. long; blades about 2 dm. long and 1.5-1.75 dm. 
broad, the adult pinnately dissected, the 7-9 oblong-lanceolate 
segments long-acuminate; staminodia of the pistillate flowers free. 
The other known species are geographically remote. Neg. 12290. 

Huanuco: Posuso, Ruiz. Huancavelica: Between Huancamayo 
and San Gregorio, 1,600 meters, Weberbauer 6567. Puno: Sandia, 
Weberbauer. Bolivia. 

15. TACCARUM Brongn. 
Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23F. 1920. 
A tuberous herb with dissected leaves. Spathe adnate to the 
soon greatly elongate spadix. Ovary 3-celled, the ovules solitary. 

Taccarum Weddelianum Brongn. ex Schott, Gen. Aroid. pi. 
65. 1858; 43. 

The much larger, ovate-triangular, middle division of the leaf 
bi- or tri-pinnately parted, the ultimate divisions in the mature 
leaf 1 cm. broad; petiole 4-8 dm. long, the blade to 4 dm. long and 



FLORA OF PERU 485 

5 dm. broad, the lateral segments 2-3 dm. long; spadix finally greatly 
exceeding the ovate-ventricose spathe. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 
23F: 44. Other known species are remote geographically. 
Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9208. Brazil; Paraguay. 

13. SYNGONIUM Schott 

Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23E. 1920. 

Scandent shrubs with divided leaves. Peduncles reflexed in 
fruit, shorter than the spathes. Ovary 1-2-celled, the ovules solitary. 
Williams has recently found an additional species, as yet unde- 
scribed, that is distinctive in lacking the characteristic lateral ear-like 
leaf lobes. 

Syngonium Vellozianum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4: 
418. 1854; 125. 

A scandent plant with 3-parted leaves, the lateral divisions each 
with an ear-like oblong-elliptic lobe at the base; petioles little longer 
than the leaves; peduncles long and slender. This form is var. 
oblongisectum Engler, illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23E: 126. 

Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1822. 
Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 4986. Leticia, Williams 3054- La 
Victoria, Williams 2631 (all det. Krause). Brazil. 

Syngonium yurimaguense Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 141. 1905; 
128. 

Petioles about 3 dm. long, 2-3 times longer than the 3 oblong 
leaf segments, the lateral ones with a triangular auricle 2-3 cm. long 
at base; peduncle scarcely 1 dm. long. S. amazonicum Engler has 
5-parted leaves. Neg. 12302. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Ule. Rio Acre, Ule 9287 (det. Engler). 

16. ULEARUM Engler 

Reference: Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 23F. 1920. 

A rather small herb from a horizontal rhizome. Spathe adnate 
below. Inflorescence strongly interrupted, with a few scattered 
sterile flowers, and with a club-shaped appendix. Appropriately 
named for Ernest Ule, in recognition of his wide botanical exploration. 

Ulearum sagittatum Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 95. 1905; 66. 
Petioles 1.5-2.5 dm. long, the sagittate blades 9-13 cm. long, 
7-9 cm. broad, the spreading obtuse triangular lobes to 7 cm. long 



486 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

and 3.5-4 cm. wide; peduncles 2-2.5 dm. long; spathe 4 cm. long. 
Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 23F: 65. 

Loreto: Pongo de Cainarache, Ule 6323. 

17. PISTIA L. Water Lettuce 

This curious and widely distributed little plant, floating on the 
borders of sunny slow-flowing waters, is too well known to need 
description here. It is illustrated in Pflanzenr. IV. 23F: 251. It 
naturally suggests a close relationship between the aroids and the 
duckweeds, and thereby has given students of classification much 
to write about. 

Pistia Stratiotes L. Sp. PI. 963. 1753. 

The leaves vary from obverse-triangular to obovate-spathulate, 
var. obcordata (Michx.) Engler; or to linear-oblong, var. linguifor- 
mis Engler. 

Lima: Callao and Lurin, Ruiz; Gaudichaud; Lesson (Dombey 
189}. Loreto: Caballo-cocha, Williams 2425. Rio Ampiyaco, 
Williams 1988. Iquitos, Killip & Smith 29278. Generally distrib- 
uted in tropical America. 

19. LEMNACEAE. Duckweed Family 
Reference: Hegelmaier, Bot. Jahrb. 21: 268-305. 1895. 
The smallest flowering plants are duckweeds, distributed around 
the world and well known because of the green scum they form as 
thousands of individual plants float together on the surface of quiet 
semi-stagnant waters. 

1. LEMNA L. 

Each little disk-like plant has a solitary rootlet and no vascular 
tissue. Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid., with several rootlets, 
is widely distributed in South America. Three species of Wolffia 
(rootlets none) are also to be expected: W. colombiana Karst., W. 
brasiliensis Wedd. and W. oblonga (Phil.) Hegelm. The last, known 
also as Wolffiella oblonga (Phil.) Hegelm., is oblong-elliptic, the other 
species roundish. The first is bright green, the second densely 
brown-punctate. 

Lemna gibba L. Sp. PL 970. 1753. 

Plants somewhat irregular in outline, 2-4 mm. long, usually 3-5- 
nerved; spathe sac-like. 



FLORA OF PERU 487 

Cuzco: Valley of Oropeza, Huambutio, Herrera 2081. Huanuco: 
Llata, 2,100 meters, 2269. Widely distributed in both hemispheres. 

Lemna minima Philippi, Linnaea 33: 239. 1864. 

Plants oblong-elliptic, thick, papulose, 1-4 mm. long, 1-nerved 
or nerveless; spathe open; root cap straight or nearly so. L. cyclos- 
tasa (Ell.) Chev. is thin, epapulose, and has a curved root cap. 
Both species are widely distributed in the New World. All three 
illustrated, Britton and Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. 1: 447, 448. 1913. 

20. MAYACACEAE 

Moss-like plants bearing near the summit of the densely leafy, 
simple stems a small solitary long-peduncled flower. Sepals, petals, 
and stamens 3, the latter free. A single genus. 

1. MAYACA Aubl. 

Besides the following, M. longipes Mart, and M. fluviatilis Aubl., 
both known from Amazonian Brazil, are to be expected. The former 
is about 3 dm. high, and the latter may be known by the lateral 
chinks of the anthers. M. longipes is illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 



Mayaca Endlicheri Poepp. ex Seubert in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, 
pt. 1: 230. 1855. 

Stems a few cm. high; anthers with a short tube at the upper end; 
flowers lilac. 

San Martin: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4670. Without locality 
(Poeppig). Brazil. 

21. XYRIDACEAE. Yellow-eyed Grass Family 
Reference: Malme, Arkiv Bot. 13, pt. 3: 1-103. 1913. 
Besides the following genus, Abolboda H. & B. may be found in 
the Amazon region. It has blue flowers. Most likely to occur is 
A. Poeppigii Kunth, a little tufted plant with few-flowered heads and 
narrow, sharply acuminate bracts. Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, 
pt. 1: pi. 30. 1855. 

1. XYRIS L. 

Small or tall and slender herbs with narrow, rather rigid and often 
compressed leaves sheathing the base of a scape that bears a head 
of densely imbricated, yellow or white flowers, each flower sub- 
tended by a hard scale-like bract. Sepals 3, 2 small, boat-shaped and 



488 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

persistent, the third thin or wanting. Petals 3, with a fertile stamen 
on each claw, often alternating with a bearded staminodium. 
Leaves only a few mm. wide, often shorter than 1 dm. 

Leaves usually transversely rugulose; spikes often many-flowered; 
some of the bracts with prominent flat backs. 

Bracts entire or not lacerate-margined X. savanensis. 

Bracts conspicuously lacerate-margined X. lacerata. 

Leaves not rugulose; spikes few-flowered, the dark bracts often 

carinate below the apex X. subulata. 

Leaves about 1 cm. wide, often 2-3 dm. long X. macrocephala. 

Xyris lacerata Pohl ex Seubert in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: 216. 
1855. 

Often 3-4 dm. high, the slender stems and leaves (about 1-2 dm. 
long, 2 mm. wide) densely but minutely verruculose-rugulose; old 
leaf bases very dark, up to 1 cm. wide; heads nearly globose, the pale 
green and brown-margined roundish bracts (or finally brown) faintly 
carinate but flat-backed. Illustrated, Pflanzenfam. 15a: 37. fig. 12. 

Junin: Enefias, 1,700 meters, open sphagnum bog, Killip & 
Smith 25693. Brazil. 

Xyris macrocephala Vahl, Enum. 2: 204. 1806. 

Readily recognizable from our other species by its much greater 
size, the spikes about 1 cm. thick, but simulating exactly X. Jupicai 
L. C. Rich., most likely occurring, and distinguishable from it only 
by its dense brown beard, the staminodium of the latter with but 
few and hyaline hairs. 

Loreto: Pebas, Williams 1708 (det. Malme). South America. 

Xyris savanensis Miquel, Linnaea 18: 605. 1844. 

Typically a pale green annual with leaves (a little tuberculate- 
scabrous) 5-8 cm. long and 2-3 mm. broad; spikes 5-8 mm. long, 
3.5-4.5 mm. thick; bracts 3-5 mm. long, entire, not at all keeled. 
X. andina Malme, collected by Pearce in Ecuador, perhaps in Peru, 
has erugulose leaves 1-1.5 mm. broad. Other species with several- 
flowered spikes to be expected in the Amazon region are X. filiscapa 
Malme, X. Uleana Malme, and X. eriophylla Reichenb. The last 
resembles X. savanensis, but its leaves are often narrower and its 
spikes subglobose, with bracts 6-7 mm. long; the other two species 
have erugulose leaves, the first with leaves 1 mm. wide and with 



FLORA OF PERU 489 

cartilaginous margins; the diagnostic feature of the second is its 
broader leaves and narrow intermediate bracts, up to 2.5 mm. broad. 
San Martin : Moyobamba, edge of savanna, Weberbauer 4571 (det. 
Malme); 292. Colombia and Guiana to Paraguay. 

Xyris subulata R. & P. Fl. 1: 46. pi. 71. 1798. 

Leaves 4-5 cm. long, setaceous, somewhat tuberculate-scabrous; 
scapes about twice as long; spikes 5-8 mm. long, less than 4 mm. 
thick. 

Huanuco: Pillao, Ruiz. Vilcabamba, 5183. Cuzco: Paso de Tres 
Cruces, Pennell 1 3886. Sachapata (Lechler 2548) . Puno : Sangaban, 
Lechler. Ecuador. 

Xyris subulata HBK. var. macrotona Nilss. Svensk. Vet. Akad. 
Handl. 24, No. 14: 45. pi. 2. 1892. 

Leaves glabrous, 8-15 cm. long; scapes to 3.5 dm. high, the 
spikes as much as 4 mm. thick. 

Junin: Huacapistana, 3,500 meters, Weberbauer 2088; 252. 
Amazonas: Molinopampa, 2,000 meters, Weberbauer 4349; 264. 
Cajamarca: Jae"n, Weberbauer 6142. Ecuador. 

22. ERIOCAULACEAE. Pipewort Family 
Reference: Ruhland, Pflanzenr. IV. 30. 1903. 
Rather rigid, stemless or tufted terrestrials, or the pedicels not solitary. 

Stamens 4 or 6; petals glandular 1. Eriocaulon. 

Stamens 2 or 3; petals not glandular 2. Paepalanthus. 

Laxly growing leafy-stemmed aquatic or subaquatic ... 3. Tonina. 

1. ERIOCAULON L. 

Apparently stemless (Peruvian species), more or less linear- 
leaved, little plants, the minute flowers borne in dense, often whitish 
heads at the summit of slender, sometimes elongate peduncles. 
Flowers trimerous or dimerous. Stamens 4 or 6. Petals glandular 
within at apex, rarely lacking in the pistillate flowers. 

Eriocaulon microcephalum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 253. 
1816; 53. E. brachypus Heurck & Muell. Arg. in Heurck, Obs. Bot. 
1: 96. 1870. 

A tiny plant, the subulately narrowed leaves to 1.5 mm. broad at 
the middle and 1-2 cm. long; peduncles sometimes a little longer; heads 
laxly flowered, sparsely white-villous; sepals of the pistillate flowers 



490 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

slightly winged dorsaly. The similar E. Spruceanum Koern. (in Mart. 
Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: 488. 1863), with leaves and peduncles 1-3 dm. 
long, is to be expected in eastern Peru. 

Junin: Huacapistana, 3,400 meters, Weberbauer 2269 (det. Ruhl- 
and); 251. Cuzco: In mats, Paso de Tres Cruces, 3,800 meters, 
Pennell 13864- Cajamarca: Nancho, Raimondi. Ecuador; Mexico. 

Eriocaulon peruvianum Ruhl. Pflanzenr. IV. 30: 58. 1903. 

Similar to E. microcephalum, but the leaves 4-4.5 cm. long, the 
fasciculate peduncles 1 dm. long or longer, and the sepals rounded on 
the back. Neg. 10564. 

San Martin: Chachapoyas (Mathews). 

2. PAEPALANTHUS Mart. 

Small, often tufted or stemless herbs, not infrequently simulating 
Eriocaulon in aspect, but the stamens of the same number as the 
petals, 2 or 3, and the latter eglandular. The petals of the pistillate 
flowers may be free, or somewhat connate at the middle (Syngonan- 
thus). A plant at least vegetatively nearly similar to P. muscosus 
Koern. of Colombia was collected by Raimondi at Cutervo, Caja- 
marca. It is distinguishable from P. pilosus by its larger (4-5 mm. 
thick) heads, with acutish bracts. 

Plants with evident stems. 

Peduncles many at apex of stems. 
Peduncles subapressed-pubescent; leaves oblongish . P, caulescens. 

Peduncles glabrous or pilose, or puberulent above; leaves 
linear-subacute, at least above. 

Involucre green, stellately spreading, the bracts acuminate. 

P. bifidus. 

Involucre brownish, pilose, the bracts obtuse or, if acuminate, 
obscure. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 
Peduncles glabrous or nearly so, often short ... P. pilosus. 

Peduncles pilose, capillary P. polytrichoides. 

Leaves conspicuously villous-ciliate P. Weberbaueri. 

Peduncles solitary in the leaf axils or one terminal. 
Leaves to 1 mm. wide, rigid, pungent, merely ciliate. 

P. Stuebelianus. 



FLORA OF PERU 491 

Leaves to 3 mm. wide, scarcely pungent, hirsute-villous, at 

least on edges P. Weberbaueri. 

Leaves to 1.5 mm. wide, soft or mucronate, glabrous or the 

long hairs sparse and straggling P. pilosus. 

Plants apparently stemless. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, mostly more than 3 mm. 

wide. 
Leaves puberulent or villous, 1-3 cm. wide at the middle. 

P. planifolius. 
Leaves hirsute (sometimes sparsely), 2-8 mm. wide at the middle. 

Leaves subulately acute P. ensifolius. 

Leaves obtuse or obtusish P. flavescens. 

Leaves linear, less than 2 mm. wide. 

Bracts acutish, straw-colored P. peruvianus. 

Bracts very obtuse, orange-yellow or brown. 

Bracts yellow, as long as the flowers P. nitens. 

Bracts brown, shorter than the flowers P. pilosus. 

Paepalanthus bifidus (Schrad.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 512. 1841; 
153. Eriocaulon bifidum Schrad. in R. & S. Mant. 2: 468. 1824. 

Stems several to many cm. long, usually simple; leaves linear- 
subulate, pilose, 1 to several cm. long; peduncles spreading-pilose; 
heads sordidly white-villous at apex, 3-4 mm. broad; bracts linear- 
lanceolate. 

San Martin: Moyobamba, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 4607 (det. 
Ruhland). Brazil to Colombia and the Guianas. 

Paepalanthus caulescens (Poir.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 537. 1841; 
267. Eriocaulon caulescens Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 162. 1813. 
Syngonanthus caulescens Ruhl. Pflanzenr. IV. 30: 267. fig. 38. 1903. 

Green and glabrate or more or less pilose, 1 cm. to 8 dm. high; 
leaves mostly 2.5 mm. broad at the middle; heads pale or straw- 
colored, like the glabrous or ciliolate, narrowly oblong-ovate, acute 
bracts; petals of pistillate flowers united at middle. 

San Martin: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4565 (det. Ruhland); 
292. Loreto : Balsapuerto, Killip & Smith. South America generally. 

Paepalanthus ensifolius (HBK.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 501. 1841; 
208. Eriocaulon ensifolium HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 254. pi. 70. 
1816. 



492 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, subulate, shortly hirsute and, especially 
toward the base, ciliate, 5-6 mm. broad, 8-9 cm. long; peduncles 
near apex spreading-puberulent; bracts very broadly ovate, light 
brownish. 

San Martin: Chachapoyas (Maihews). Bagua to Chachapoyas, 
Raimondi. Colombia. 

Paepalanthus flavescens (Bong.) Koern. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, 
pt. 1: 423. 1863; 231. Eriocaulon flavescens Bong. Me"m. Acad. 
St. Pe"tersb. VI. 1: 628. 1831. Leiothrix flavescens Ruhl. Pflanzenr. 
IV. 30: 231. 1903. 

Leaves spreading-hirsute, lanceolate, 5-13 cm. long, 2-8 mm. 
broad; peduncles shortly pubescent or glabrous; heads 1 cm. thick; 
bracts oblong-obovate, acute, somewhat yellowish. 

Puno: Cachicachi, toward Sandia, 1,100 meters, Weberbauer 1292 
(det. Ruhland); 242. South America. 

Paepalanthus nitens (Bong.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 531. 1841; 254. 
Eriocaulon nitens Bong. Me"m. Acad. St. Pe'tersb. VI. 1: 633. 1831. 
Syngonanthus nitens Ruhl. Pflanzenr. IV. 30: 254. 1903. 

Leaves rigid, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, glabrous or lightly puberulent; 
peduncles glabrous, to 4.5 dm. high; heads 5-8.5 mm. thick; petals 
joined at middle; bracts obovate-oblong, very obtuse, glabrous, 
orange or yellow, as the heads, or paler. P. gracilis Koern., similar, 
has been found at Manaos. The bracts slightly exceed the small 
(3-5 mm. thick) heads. 

Amazonas: Molinopampa, in sphagnum moor, 2,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 4328 (det. Ruhland) ; 264. Brazil. 

Paepalanthus peruvianus (Ruhl.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
8. 1931; 253. Syngonanthus peruvianus Ruhl. Pflanzenr. IV. 30: 
253. 1903. 

Similar to P. nitens; leaves pilose above; peduncles shortly 
pubescent; heads yellow; bracts curved, rigid, yellowish. A Rai- 
mondi specimen from Cutervo, Cajamarca, would key here. Its 
leaves are 2.5-3 cm. long, and the peduncles are slightly viscidulous 
below the heads. Neg. 10695. 

San Martin: Cuesta de Lejia near Moyobamba, Stuebel 196, 
type. 

Paepalanthus pilosus (HBK.) Kunth, Enum. 3: 518. 1841; 
156. Eriocaulon pilosum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 251. 1816. 
E. dendroides HBK. op. cit. pi. 69, f. 2. 



FLORA OF PERU 493 

Plants only a few cm. high, often growing in mats or forming 
cushions; leaves 1-2 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, more or less pilose; 
peduncles puberulent or glabrous above, 3-9 cm. long; heads yellow- 
ish, villous, 2-3 mm. thick. Variable in size and habit. P. um- 
bellatus (Lam.) Kunth, a bog plant about 10 cm. high with gray heads 
on many lax peduncles, has been found as near as Manaos. 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler}. Cuzco: Paso de Tres Cruces, 3,800 
meters, Pennell 13866. Amazonas: Chachapoyas, 3,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 4416 (det. Ruhland); 264. Huanuco: Monzon, Weber- 
bauer (det. Ruhland). Chinchao region, Weberbauer 6826. Vilca- 
bamba, 1,800 meters, sphagnum banks, 5182. Colombia. 

Paepalanthus planifolius (Bong.) Koern. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
3, pt. 1: 413. pi. 52. 1863; 208. Eriocaulon planifolium Bong. Me"m. 
Acad. St. Pe"tersb. VI. 1: 729. 1831. 

Leaves 1.5-5 dm. long; bracts fuscous, ciliate. The only Peruvian 
species with broadly lanceolate leaves. 

Huanuco: Pillao (Pawn}. Monzon, 2,500 meters, Weberbauer 
3535; 255. Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi (det. Ruhland). 
Amazonas: Molinopampa, 2,000 meters, Weberbauer 4531 (det. 
Ruhland); 264. Brazil. 

Paepalanthus polytrichoides Kunth, Enum. 3: 504. 1841; 
157. 

Slender, 3-4 cm. high; leaves linear from an ovate-dilated base, 
6-7.5 mm. long; heads hemispheric, densely white- villous at the tip; 
exterior bracts glabrate, all spatulate. Neg. 10637. 

Peru: (Henschel). Amazonian Brazil. 

Paepalanthus Stuebelianus Ruhl. Pflanzenr. IV. 30: 174. 1903. 

A rigid, densely leafy plant, 1-2 dm. high; leaves linear, 7-9 
mm. long; peduncles puberulent, 7-9 cm. long; heads globose, 
4-5 mm. thick; bracts broadly ovate or rhombic, shortly acuminate, 
ciliate and puberulent. Neg. 10651. 

San Martin: Cuesta de Lejia, Moyobamba (Stuebel 19a, type). 
Laurel, Raimondi (det. Ruhland). Molinopampa, 2,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 4350 (det. Ruhland) ; 264. Chachapoyas, Williams 7571 . 

Paepalanthus Weberbaueri Ruhl. Bot. Jahrb. 37: 519. 1906. 

Stems 4-20 cm. long; leaves lance-linear, acuminate, mostly 
arcuate, 1.5-4 cm. long; peduncles 1-3 dm. high; heads villous, 



494 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

5-7 mm. thick; bracts narrowly elliptic or subovate, acute or acutish, 
greenish brown, subappressed-villous, thin. Neg. 10662. 

Puno: Near Cachicachi, 2,000 meters, Weberbauer 1152. Pamas- 
pata, Weberbauer 1326; 242. 

3. TONINA Aubl. 

A laxly growing, leafy-stemmed, aquatic or subaquatic herb. 
Flowers trimerous; staminate shortly tubular; pistillate with free and 
conspicuously pilose-ciliate segments. Peduncles seemingly extra- 
axillary. Illustrated, Pflanzenr IV. 30: 239. A rather artificial 
genus, but conveniently accepted. 

Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 857. pi. 330. 1775. 

Stems 2 to several dm. long; leaves at base and bracts at base 
and apex ciliate, otherwise glabrous; peduncles mostly less than 1 cm. 
long, solitary, axillary; flowers greenish. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Williams 7995, 3779; Killip & Smith 26908. 
Mishuyacu, 100 meters, Klug 305. San Martin: Moyobamba, 
1,200 meters, Weberbauer 4652. Extending to Brazil and Central 
America. 

23. THURNIACEAE 

Thurnia sphaerocephala (Rudge) Hook. f. Icon. 15: 6. pi. 1407. 
1883, could occur in Amazonian Peru, since it grows in adjacent 
Brazil. It is sedge-like in appearance, with a tight globose head of 
small flowers with exserted stamens and style. The original illus- 
tration is repeated in Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 58. 1930. According 
to Ducke, it grows in small streams where the current is swiftest. 

24. RAPATEACEAE 

These shore plants often resemble certain sedges, such as the 
typical group of Dichromena. 

1. RAPATEA Aubl. 

Scapose herbs with ensiform leaves and a terminal capitate 
inflorescence of few to many spikes closely subtended by a spathe of 
2 leaf-like bracts. Flowers densely imbricate in many series of 
scale-like bracts. Spikelets long-pediceled. Other genera are to be 
expected, as the family is chiefly Amazonian. Spathanthus unilat- 
eralis (Rudge) Desv. has been found at Manaos. It has only one 
bract and a 1-seeded fruit. 



FLORA OF PERU 495 

Rapatea spectabilis Pilger, Verb. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 47: 101. 
1905. 

Leaves 4-5 dm. long and 6-7 cm. wide; spathe bracts long-atten- 
uate, to 1.5 dm. long; brown bracts of the numerous spikelets 
subrotund, 3-5 mm. long; sepals 11-14 mm. long; petals rotund, 
yellow. Other species are smaller plants. Neg. 7556. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Vie 6251; Williams 3789; Killip & Smith 27321. 
La Victoria, Williams 2916. 

25. BROMELIAGEAE J. St. Hil. 
By Lyman B. Smith 1 

References: Mez in DC. Monogr. 9. 1896; Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 32. 
1934-35. 

Herbs or rarely shrubby perennials, mostly epiphytic or saxi- 
colous. Leaves spirally arranged, usually basal, dilated-sheathing 
below, simple, entire or spinose-serrate, at least in youth bearing 
peltate scales which serve to collect and hold moisture. Inflorescence 
simple or compound, of spikes or racemes, usually bearing brightly 
colored, conspicuous bracts. Flowers perfect in all the Peruvian 
species. Perianth heterochlamydeous, the segments free or variously 
joined. Stamens 6, the filaments free or joined to the petals or to 
each other. Style 3-parted. Ovary superior to inferior, 3-celled. 
Fruit capsular or baccate. Seeds naked, winged, or plumose. Em- 
bryo small, situated at the base of the copious, mealy endosperm. 
About 50 genera and 1,500 species, strictly confined to tropical and 
subtropical America. 

Ovary partly or wholly superior; fruit capsular. 
Seeds winged or caudate-appendaged ; leaves usually spinose- 
serrate. 

Ovary wholly superior. 
Petals naked; herbs. 
Seeds with a lateral wing; large, coarse plants with large 

flowers 1. Puya. 

Seeds caudate-appendaged at both ends; rather delicate 

plants with flowers 4-9 mm. long 2. Lindmania. 

Petals each with a single large scale at base; woody perennials. 

3. Deuterocohnia. 
Ovary in large part inferior, or if almost superior the seeds 

caudate-appendaged 4. Pitcairnia. 

1 By courtesy of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 



496 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Seeds plumose; leaves entire. 

Coma basal, straight; style usually long and slender. 

Petals free; inflorescence of one or more distichous-flowered 

spikes or rarely of a single polystichous-flowered spike. 
Petals naked or rarely with vertical folds .... 5. Tillandsia. 

Petals each bearing 2 scales 6. Vriesia. 

Petals more or less joined or conglutinated below; spikes 

polystichous-flowered 7. Guzmania. 

Coma apical, folded over; style short or none; spikes polystich- 
ous-flowered ; sepals asymmetrical 8. Catopsis. 

Ovary wholly inferior; fruit baccate; leaves usually spinose-serrate. 
Petals with their margins free but centrally fused to the filament 

tube, large, fleshy 9. Bromelia. 

Petals with their margins free or joined, but not fused centrally 

to a filament tube. 
Inflorescence sunk in the center of the leaf rosette, or lateral. 

Sepals symmetrical; pollen smooth 10. Greigia. 

Sepals asymmetrical; pollen with pores 11. Neoregelia. 

Inflorescence at the end of a definite scape, central. 
Fruits and bracts always remaining distinct. 

Petals naked 12. Streptocalyx. 

Petals each bearing 2 scales. 

Stamens exserted at anthesis by the recurving of the 
petals; flowers 8-13 cm. long; pollen with longitu- 
dinal folds 13. Billbergia. 

Stamens included at anthesis; flowers not more than 4 
cm. long in the Peruvian species; pollen with pores. 

14. Aechmea. 

Fruits and bracts coalescing at maturity to form a compound 
fruit; inflorescence simple, crowned with a coma of 
sterile foliaceous bracts 15. Ananas. 

1. PUYA Molina 

Perennial, usually long-caulescent, simple or branching, coarse, 
often several meters high. Leaves densely rosulate, spinose-serrate 
in all the Peruvian species except P. mitis. Inflorescence various. 
Flowers showy. Sepals free, much shorter than the petals. Petals 
free, usually spreading at anthesis, naked in the Peruvian species. 



FLORA OF PERU 497 

Stamens nearly or quite included; filaments free. Ovary wholly 
superior, glabrous. Style slender, elongate. Capsule septicidal or 
loculicidal or both together forming six divisions. Seeds many, 
each with a single dorso-apical wing. From 80 to 90 species. Chiefly 
in the Andes, with outlying species in the mountains of Costa Rica, 
Guiana, and northern Argentina. Type species, P. chilensis Mol. 

Inflorescence or its branches fertile throughout or with only a slight 
tuft of much reduced sterile bracts at apex; flowering plant not 
over 4 meters high. 

Inflorescence compound. 

Branches of the inflorescence elongate, much exceeding the 
primary bracts. 

Branches of the inflorescence laxly or subdensely flowered, 
definitely not strobilate. 

Sepals acuminate. 

Floral bracts pectinate. 

Panicle lax, its branches spreading; sepals not more 
18 mm. long 1. P. Roezlii. 

Panicle contracted, cylindric; sepals 35 mm. long. 

2. P. grandidens. 

Floral bracts entire or at most minutely serrulate. 

Inflorescence dense; lateral branches not more than 
twice as long as the primary bracts . 3. P. densiflora. 

Inflorescence laxly paniculate; lateral branches several 
times longer than the primary bracts. 

4. P. longisepala. 

Sepals rounded or abruptly acute and apiculate. 

Plants large; leaves 6 dm. long 5. P. glaucovirens. 

Plants small; leaves not over 15 cm. long. .6. P. tuberosa. 
Branches of the inflorescence densely strobilate. 

Floral bracts pectinate 2. P. grandidens. 

Floral bracts entire. 

Floral bracts nearly equaling the sepals or exceeding 

them at anthesis, soon glabrous. 
Spikes slender; sepals 30-33 mm. long. 

Sepals acuminate . . .7. P. oxyantha. 

Sepals obtuse 8. P. ferox. 



498 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Spikes broadly ellipsoid; sepals 18 mm. long. 

9. P. Weberbaueri, 

Floral bracts reaching about the middle of the sepals at 
anthesis, persistently lanate. 

Spikes sessile or subsessile 10. P. llatensis. 

Spikes definitely stipitate 11. P. stipitata. 

Branches of the inflorescence abbreviated, shorter than the 

primary bracts. 
Sepals subglabrous; primary bracts pectinate, laccate. 

12. P. laccata. 

Sepals densely appressed-lepidote to villous. 
Sepals acuminate. 

Floral bracts about equaling the sepals; indument ferru- 
ginous 13. P. cylindrica. 

Floral bracts distinctly shorter than the sepals; indument 
whitish. 

Axis of the raceme longer than the flowers; floral 

bracts denticulate 3. P. densiflora. 

Axis of the raceme shorter than the lower flowers; 

floral bracts entire 14. P. longistyla. 

Sepals obtuse or broadly acute. 
Sepals villous. 

Primary bracts serrulate 15. P. fastuosa. 

Primary bracts entire 16. P. Herrerae. 

Sepals appressed-lepidote 17. P. depauperata. 

Inflorescence simple, racemose or subspicate. 

Bracts coarsely and evenly serrate 18. P. pyramidata. 

Bracts entire or with a few weak serrulations. 

Leaves entire 19. P. mitis. 

Leaves spinose-serrate. 

Sepals densely tomentose or villous. 
Flowers subsessile and floral bracts much shorter than 

the sepals 20. P. lanuginosa. 

Flowers distinctly pedicellate or else the floral bracts 

equaling the sepals. 
Flowers distinctly pedicellate. 

Floral bracts mostly shorter than the pedicels. 

21. P. Macbridei. 



FLORA OF PERU 499 

Floral bracts much exceeding the pedicels. 

Sepals obtuse or apiculate .... 22. P. reflexiflora. 

Sepals acute 23. P. dolichostrobila. 

Flowers subsessile. 

Floral bracts furfuraceous or glabrous. 

Upper floral bracts subobtuse, apiculate, fur- 
furaceous 24. P. isabellina. 

Upper floral bracts acuminate, glabrous. 

25. P. macrura. 

Floral bracts lanate 26. P. lanata. 

Sepals glabrous or at most stellate- or appressed-lepidote. 
Sepals acuminate; floral bracts serrulate. .27. P. gracilis. 
Sepals broadly acute or obtuse. 

Floral bracts densely appressed-lepidote, dull, purplish. 

17. P. depauperata. 
Floral bracts soon glabrous, lustrous, brown. 

28. P. strobilantha. 

Inflorescence with the apical half of each branch sterile; sterile 
bracts only slightly smaller than the fertile; flowering plant 
9.5 meters high 29. P. Raimondii. 

1. Puya Roezli E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 35: 80. 1885. Pitcairnia 
megastachya Baker, Brom. 120. 1889. Puya pectinata L. B. Smith, 
Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 12. pi. 4, /. 1-2. 1932. 

One meter or more high; stem short and stout. Leaves narrowly 
triangular, 1 meter long, 3 cm. wide above the sheath, densely white- 
tomentulose below, spinose-serrate, the spines mostly straight, 10 
mm. long. Scape stout, its bracts dense, foliaceous. Inflorescence 
laxly bipinnate, up to 5 dm. long, white-tomentulose; primary 
bracts broadly ovate with a narrow lamina, coarsely spinose-serrate, 
shorter than the racemes. Racemes spreading, 15 cm. long, densely 
15-25-flowered. Floral bracts broadly ovate, pungent, pectinate, 
much shorter than the sepals at anthesis. Flowers 3 cm. long, short- 
pedicellate; sepals sub triangular, acuminate, 18 mm. long, pale red; 
petals blue or dark purple; stamens and pistil included. 

Rocky slopes. Lima: Common especially on southeastern expo- 
sures, in rock crevices, Matucana, 2,700 meters, 2920. Indefinite: 
Central Peru, western slopes of Andes, Weberbauer 1695; Roezl. 
Endemic. 

Puya pectinata was based on stunted and immature material. 



500 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

2. Puya grandidens Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 10. 1906. 
Scarcely 1 meter high; stem branching (Weberbauerl). Leaves 

5 dm. long, narrowly triangular, 45 mm. broad, densely white-lepi- 
dote below, glabrous and lustrous above, pungent, the spines 7 mm. 
long. Scape slender, white-tomentose, becoming glabrous. Inflo- 
rescence densely bipinnate, contracted, cylindric, over 25 cm. long, 
its branches exceeding the primary bracts. Floral bracts ovate- 
elliptic, acute, pectinate, cobwebby-tomentose, exceeding the sepals. 
Flowers 4 cm. long, erect, short-pediceled ; sepals triangular, acu- 
minate, 35 mm. long, mucronate, cobwebby-tomentose; petals 
narrowly ligulate, tubular-erect, glaucous-green. 

Ancash: Cajatambo, below Ocros, 3,000-3,200 meters, Weber- 
bauer 2788. Endemic. 

3. Puya densiflora Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
791. 1929. 

One meter or more high. Leaves not known. Scape 4 dm. long, 
its bracts dense, scarious, broadly ovate-lanceolate, long-caudate, 
spinose-serrate. Inflorescence elongate, densely subcylindric ; racemes 
many, 10-flowered, 4-10 cm. long. Primary bracts like the scape 
bracts. Floral bracts oblong-lanceolate, aristate, sparingly villous 
to glabrous, 2-3 times as long as the pedicel. Sepals 3 cm. long, 
lance-acuminate, pungent; petals 4-5 cm. long, the blade narrowly 
oblong. 

Cuzco : Valle del Apurimac, Province of Anta, Pueblo de Huanca- 
calle, 2,500 meters, Herrera 1954- Valle de San Miguel, Media 
Naranja, 2,000 meters, Herrera 2019. Ollantaitambo, 3,000 meters, 
Cook & Gilbert 569. Endemic. "Aehupalla." 

4. Puya longisepala Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 629. 1904. 
Conspicuous, 2 meters high. Leaves 75 cm. long, the blade 

narrowly triangular, 3 cm. broad, dark brown and lustrous above, 
densely white-lepidote below, the spines 8 mm. long. Inflorescence 
many-flowered, 5 dm. or more long, laxly bipinnate; axes stout, 
angled, soon glabrous; branches elongate, fertile throughout, sub- 
erect, 25 cm. long, 20-30-flowered. Primary bracts ovate-elliptic, 
pungent, serrate, equaling the lowest flowers. Floral bracts elliptic, 
acute, serrulate, shorter than the sepals. Pedicels stout, 1 cm. long; 
flowers suberect, 50-55 mm. long; sepals 3 cm. long, acuminate, 
appressed-pale-lepidote; petals linear, acute. 

Rocky places. Puno: Near Sandia, 2,100 meters, Weberbauer 
550. Endemic. 



FLORA OF PERU 501 

5. Puya glaucovirens Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 9. 1906. 

Conspicuous, 2 meters high. Leaves up to 6 dm. long, 2 cm. 
wide above the broadly ovate sheath, narrowly triangular, pungent, 
glabrous and lustrous above, sparingly lepidote below. Scape stout, 
erect, glabrous, its bracts foliaceous. Inflorescence bipinnate, ample, 
its branches suberect, 2 dm. long, rather densely flowered but not 
strobilate, bearing several sterile bracts at the base. Floral bracts 
broadly ovate, apiculate, entire, 9 mm. long, shorter than the pedicels, 
cobwebby-tomentose. Flowers erect or nearly so, 4 cm. long, their 
pedicels stout, 13 mm. long; sepals subelliptic, thick, 2 cm. long, 
rounded, minutely mucronate, tomentulose; petals twice as long as 
the sepals, the blade elliptic, glaucous-green. 

Rocky places. Cajamarca: Near Huambos, Province of Chota, 
2,300-2,500 meters, Weberbauer 4208. Endemic. 

6. Puya tuberosa Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 483. 1896. 

Less than 3 dm. tall. Rhizome short, tuberous- thickened. 
Leaves 15 cm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, furfuraceous below, the apex 
filiform, the spines thin, 1 mm. long. Scape glabrous, its bracts 
ovate-acuminate, lustrous, about equaling the internodes. Inflo- 
rescence few-branched, the branches short but exceeding the primary 
bracts. Floral bracts ovate-acuminate, entire, glabrous, slightly 
shorter than the pedicels. Pedicels 7-10 mm. long; sepals 9 mm. 
long, ovate, acute, glabrous. 

Indefinite: Haenke. Endemic. 

7. Puya oxyantha Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 631. 1904. 

At least 1 meter high. Leaves 7 dm. long, 2 cm. wide, densely 
furfuraceous below with long piliform scales, the spines 5 mm. long. 
Scape stout, its bracts dense, spinose-serrate, the apex filiform- 
subulate. Inflorescence bipinnate, subpyramidal, acute, 5 dm. long, 
its branches slenderly strobilate, 13 cm. long, 10-15-flowered, sub- 
spreading. Primary bracts entire, glabrous, the apex long-subulate. 
Floral bracts ovate, long-aciculose, exceeding the sepals, entire. 
Flowers subsessile, erect, 45 mm. long, largely concealed by the 
bracts; sepals 33 mm. long, narrowly triangular, lanate, the apex 
acicular; petals acute, bluish green. 

On rocks. Puno: Between Sandia and Tambo Azalaya, on road 
from Sandia to Chunchosmayo, 1,500-2,000 meters, Weberbauer 
1058. Endemic. 



502 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

8. Puya ferox Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 632. 1904. 

Conspicuous, probably over 1 meter high. Leaves more than 
1 meter long, 35-40 mm. wide, glabrous and lustrous above, lepidote 
between the nerves below, the spines 13 mm. long. Inflorescence 
bipinnate, ample; racemes slenderly strobilate, long-stipitate, much 
exceeding the primary bracts. Primary bracts somewhat spreading, 
thick, coriaceous, entire, glabrous, lustrous. Floral bracts erect, 
imbricate, slightly shorter than the sepals, ovate-elliptic, entire, 
acute, glabrous, lustrous, the apex short-aciculose. Flowers 5 cm. 
long, erect, the pedicels short and thick; sepals subelliptic, 3 cm. 
long, carinate, obtuse, short-mucronate, lanate, glabrescent; petals 
bluish green, broad, acute. 

In open, brushy and rocky places. Puno: On the road from 
Sandia to Chunchosmayo, between Tambo Yuncacoya and Ramos- 
pata, 2,200-2,400 meters, Weberbauer 1344- Endemic. 

9. Puya Weberbaueri Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 633. 1904. 

Conspicuous, 1 meter or more high. Leaves 17 mm. wide, 
acuminate, obscurely lepidote below, the spines 5 mm. long. Scape 
slender, glabrous, its bracts lax, ovate- triangular, produced into a 
linear, spinose, stiffly erect blade. Inflorescence amply and laxly 
bipinnate, 3 dm. long, acute, densely white-lanate, its branches 
ellipsoid-strobilate, 55 mm. long, subsessile, much exceeding the 
primary bracts. Primary bracts broadly ovate, acute, reflexed or 
spreading, lanate, soon glabrous and lustrous, rigidly coriaceous, 
strongly nerved. Floral bracts erect, imbricate, ovate-elliptic, 
abruptly acute, entire, exceeding the sepals, soon glabrous and lus- 
trous. Flowers 45 mm. long, with short, thick pedicels; sepals white- 
lanate, 18 mm. long, carinate, abruptly acute; petals bluish green, 
the blade large, elliptic, obtuse. 

Common on rocks. Puno: Province of Sandia near Cuyocuyo, 
3,100 meters, Weberbauer 847. Endemic. "Tica." 

Killip & Smith 22137, a very immature specimen from near 
Huancayo, Junin, is doubtfully referred here. 

10. Puya llatensis L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 11. 
pi 3, f. 14-16. 1932. 

Four meters in height. Leaves narrowly triangular, 1 meter long, 
evenly pale-appressed-lepidote on both sides, becoming glabrous 
above, the spines 7-8 mm. long. Scape 15 cm. thick at the base 
(Macbride & Feather stone!}. Inflorescence compound, its branches 



FLORA OF PERU 503 

densely strobilate, ovoid or ellipsoid, exceeding the primary bracts. 
Floral bracts broadly elliptic, acuminulate, entire, densely ferrugi- 
nous-lanate, about half as long as the sepals, broadly convex, ecarinate. 
Flowers 7-8 cm. long, the pedicels stout, 15 mm. long; sepals broadly 
elliptic, 3 cm. long, densely ferruginous-lanate; petals 65 mm. long, 
the blade elliptic; stamens and pistil included; ovary pyramidal. 

Huanuco: Llata, steep canyon slope, 2,300 meters, 2300. 
Endemic. 

11. Puya stipitata L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 13. 
pi. 4, f. 5-6. 1932. 

About 2 meters high. Leaves narrowly triangular, 5-6 dm. long, 
18 mm. wide, glabrous above, covered with a thin, even layer of 
cinereous scales below, the spines 5-6 mm. long. Scape erect, stout, 
its bracts foliaceous, elongate. Inflorescence compound, its racemes 
densely strobilate, 9-10 cm. long, 3 cm. thick, spreading or reflexed, 
densely pale-lanate throughout, the stipe 20-25 mm. long. Primary 
bracts narrowly ovate, acute, slightly exceeding the stipe. Floral 
bracts broadly ovate, abruptly acute, about half as long as the sepals, 
entire, broadly convex, ecarinate. Flowers 35 mm. long, erect, 
obscurely stout-pedicellate for 7 mm. ; sepals broadly elliptic, obtuse, 
2 cm. long; petals blue-green, 28 mm. long; stamens and pistil equal- 
ing the petals, the ovary pyramidal. 

Rocky grass-shrub hillsides. Huanuco: Cani, pueblo 7 miles 
northeast of Mito, 2,800 meters, 3436, 3854- Endemic. 

12. Puya laccata Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 11. 1906. 
Conspicuous, up to 1 meter high. Leaves 4 dm. long, 3 cm. 

broad, narrowly triangular, subglabrous above, appressed-cinereous- 
lepidote below, the spines straight, 8 mm. long. Scape slender, 
glabrous, its bracts dense, broadly ovate, strongly spinose-serrate, 
glabrous, lustrous, long-caudate. Inflorescence bipinnate, 4 dm. 
long, densely cylindrical, its branches short but slender, shorter than 
the primary bracts, laxly 4-flowered. Primary bracts 45 mm. long, 
ovate, acuminate, pectinate, glabrous, laccate. Floral bracts broadly 
elliptic, acuminulate, much shorter than the sepals. Flowers 38 
mm. long, glabrous, the pedicels 3-4 mm. long; sepals 21 mm. long, 
linear-elliptic, abruptly acute; petals greenish yellow, the blade 
broadly elliptic, acute. 

Swampy places. Huanuco: Province of Huamalies, southwest- 
ern mountains near Monzon, 3,300-3,500 meters, Weberbauer 3376. 
Endemic. 



504 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

13. Puya cylindrica Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 66. 1919. 
Stout, 1 meter high; stem thick, decumbent, branching. Leaves 

narrowly triangular, 5 dm. long, 35 mm. wide, acuminate, pungent, 
appressed-gray-lepidote throughout, the spines 1 cm. long. Inflo- 
rescence bipinnate, densely cylindrical, 4 dm. long, 7-8 cm. broad, 
densely and finely ferruginous-tomentose throughout. Primary 
bracts large, broadly ovate, triangular-acute, spinose-serrate, mostly 
exceeding the axillary racemes. Racemes densely 5-flowered; rachis 
slender. Floral bracts lance-ovate, acuminate, about equaling the 
sepals, the lowest ones remotely denticulate. Flowers erect, the 
pedicels slender, 1 cm. long; sepals lance-triangular, acuminate, 35 
mm. long; petals 45 mm. long, bluish green; stamens and pistil 
slightly exserted. 

Arequipa: Province of Union, near Cotahuasi, 2,500-2,600 
meters, Weberbauer 6873. Endemic. 

14. Puya longistyla Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 12. 1906. 
Stems short, stout, much branched. Leaves spreading, narrowly 

triangular, 8 dm. long, 25 mm. wide, pungent, glabrous above, 
appressed-cinereous-lepidote below, the spines 12 mm. long. Scape 
stout, ascending, its bracts imbricate, broadly ovate, laciniate- 
spinose, long-caudate, farinose-lepidote. Inflorescence bipinnate, 
densely cylindric, 5 dm. long, 9 cm. in diameter, finely white-stellate- 
tomentose throughout, its branches 6-flowered, slender, shorter than 
the primary bracts. Primary bracts 9 cm. long, 45 mm. wide, 
broadly ovate, triangular-acute, densely denticulate. Floral bracts 
lanceolate, acuminate, much shorter than the sepals, somewhat 
carinate, entire. Flowers erect; pedicels slender, 9-20 mm. long; 
sepals narrowly triangular, acuminate, 33 mm. long; petals 5 cm. 
long, glaucous-green; pistil exserted for 6 mm. 

Stony slopes. Cuzco: Province of Urubamba, 3,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 4916 (type). Near Yucai, 2,900 meters, Herrera 777. 
Endemic. "Achupalla." Used as firewood (F. L. Herrera!). 

15. Puya fastuosa Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 12. 1906. 
Very conspicuous, 2.5 meters high. Leaves narrowly triangular, 

4 dm. long, 3 cm. wide, glabrous above, appressed-gray-lepidote 
below, the spines 6 mm. long. Inflorescence densely paniculate, 
cylindric, 1 meter long, 1 dm. in diameter, its branches few-flowered, 
shorter than the primary bracts, sterile at the extreme apex, the 
lowest 8 cm. long. Primary bracts ovate, acute, erect or nearly so, 
lacimate-serrulate, glabrescent except for the lanate base. Floral 



FLORA OF PERU 505 

bracts 3 cm. long, exceeding the sepals, broadly elliptic, acute, 
glabrescent, subcoriaceous. Flowers 37 mm. long, the pedicels stout, 
7 mm. long; sepals elliptic, subobtuse, thick, 2 cm. long; petals 
greenish yellow, obtuse, equaling the stamens. 

Swamps. Cajamarca: In the northwestern mountains near 
Hualgayoc, 3,700-3,900 meters, Weberbauer 4069. Endemic. 

16. Puya Herrerae Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
792. 1929. 

Leaves not known. Scape probably 3-4 dm. long. Inflorescence 
compound, cylindric, 3-4 dm. long, its branches few-flowered, dense, 
5-7 cm. long, covered by the primary bracts. Primary bracts 
broadly ovate, entire, acute, imbricate. Floral bracts broadly ovate, 
acuminulate, 40-45 mm. long, 25 mm. wide, densely villous. Flowers 
with short, thick pedicels; sepals oblong, obtuse or subacute, 25 mm. 
long; petals 50-55 mm. long. 

Cuzco(?) : Valle del Apurimac, Hacienda Paucarcoto, 3,000 meters, 
Herrera 1965. Endemic. "Ccjayara." 

17. Puya depauperata L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 
10. pi. 3J. 10-11. 1932. 

About 5 dm. high. Leaves narrowly triangular, 4 dm. long, 3 
cm. broad, glabrous above, very finely appressed-lepidote below, the 
spines 6 mm. long. Scape erect, slender, its bracts dense, foliaceous, 
coarsely spinose-serrate. Inflorescence dark purple, densely and 
finely appressed-lepidote, consisting of a single terminal strobilate 
raceme 15 cm. long and two short, almost bud-like branches at its 
base. Primary bracts (below the short branches) suborbicular, apicu- 
late, largely concealing the axillary raceme, entire. Floral bracts 
ovate or elliptic, apiculate, exceeding the sepals. Flowers erect, 
40-45 mm. long, the pedicels stout, obconic, up to 1 cm. long; sepals 
oblanceolate, acute, 25 mm. long; petals lurid green, fading to purple 
(Macbride & Featherstone!), 37 mm. long, the blade not distinct; 
stamens and pistil included, the ovary pyramidal. 

Shrubby, rocky canyon side. Junin: Cabello, hacienda 9 miles 
above Huertas, 2,700 meters, 1339. Endemic. 

18. Puya pyramidata (R. & P.) Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 
7: 1235. 1830. Pourretia pyramidata R. & P. Fl. 3: 34, pi. 257. 1802. 
Pitcairnia pyramidata Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 344. 1805. Bromelia 
pyramidata Beer, Brom. 34. 1857. 



506 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

One meter or less in height. Leaves narrowly triangular, about 
2 dm. long, 2-3 cm. broad, rigid, pungent, glabrous on both sides, 
the spines black, 3-4 mm. long, erect. Scape erect, much exceeding 
the leaves, glabrescent, its bracts densely imbricate, making a very 
gradual transition between the leaves and floral bracts. Inflores- 
cence racemose, at first dense and pyramidal, later elongate, cylindric, 
glabrous. Bracts ovate, acuminate, spinose-serrate, much exceeding 
the sepals. Flowers pedicellate, spreading to reflexed ; sepals ovate, 
acute, 18 mm. long; petals yellowish green, acute, more than twice 
as long as the sepals. 

Clearings, open sphagnum uplands. Huanuco: Mountains, 
Chinchao to Macora, Ruiz & Pavdn. Chavin to Monzon, Ruiz & 
Pavdn. Playa-pampa, 3,000 meters, 4891. Endemic. 

Lechler 3131 collected near Sachapata has been referred to this 
species, but the specimen is very old and defective and shows no 
spines on the bracts, so that the determination is probably erroneous. 

19. Puya mitis Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 10. 1906. 

Slender, 7 dm. high. Leaves entire throughout, 15 cm. long; 
sheaths persistent, forming an ellipsoid bulb; blade 5 mm. wide, 
narrowly triangular, subulate-involute. Scape slender, erect, its 
lower bracts long-caudate, entire, its upper bracts ovate-acute, 
serrulate. Inflorescence simple, 2 dm. long, 15-flowered, glabrous, 
laxly racemose. Bracts broadly ovate-elliptic, entire or the lowest 
minutely serrulate, shorter than the sepals. Flowers nodding at 
anthesis, later erect, 32 mm. long, the pedicels 15 mm. long; sepals 
16 mm. long, elliptic, obtuse; petals greenish yellow, obtuse, tubular- 
erect; stamens and pistil included. 

Junin: Province of Tarma, in the mountains east of Huacapistana, 
3,000-3,100 meters, Weberbauer 209 %. Endemic. 

20. Puya lanuginosa (R. & P.) Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 
7: 1234. 1830. Pourretia lanuginosa R. & P. Fl. 3: 33. pi. 256. 1802. 
Bromelia lanuginosa Beer, Brom. 32. 1857. Pitcairnia crystallina 
Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 344. 1805. Puya Ruiziana Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 
491. 1896, as to material cited. 

Over 1 meter high. Leaves densely imbricate, narrowly tri- 
angular, glabrous, spinulose-serrate. Scape erect, its bracts foli- 
aceous. Inflorescence simple, subspicate, large. Bracts broadly 
ovate, acute, much shorter than the sepals, lanate, finally reflexed 
at the apex. Flowers imbricate, 6 cm. long, subsessile; sepals 



FLORA OF PERU 507 

broadly ovate, 30-35 mm. long, cinereous-lanate; petals greenish, 
purple on withering, spreading to reflexed at the apex. 

Woods and hills, or rocky clearings. Huanuco: Posuso, Panao, 
Acomayo, Ruiz & Pavdn. Junin: Pillao, Ruiz & Pawn. Endemic. 

21. Puya Macbridei L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 12. 
pi. 3, f. 17-18. 1932. 

About 1 meter high. Leaves narrowly triangular, 7-8 dm. long, 
25 mm. wide, glabrous above, minutely appressed-lepidote below, 
the apex long-caudate, the spines stout, dark brown, hooked, 6 mm. 
long. Scape erect, terete, glabrous, its bracts deciduous. Inflorescence 
elongate, laxly racemose, finely cinereous- tomentose throughout. 
Bracts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, mostly shorter than the pedi- 
cels, thick, reflexed. Flowers erect or suberect, the pedicels rather 
stout, enlarged upward, 2 cm. long; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 35 
mm. long, 7 mm. broad; petals 6 cm. long, spirally twisted. 

Gravel river bluffs. Ancash: Recuay, 3,000 meters, 2516. 
Endemic. 

22. Puya reflexiflora Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 66. 1919. P. 
stenostele Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 57. 1930. 

About 1 meter high; stem prostrate, branching, thick. Leaves 
rigid, narrowly triangular, acuminate, 8 dm. long, 37 mm. wide, 
appressed-gray-lepidote below, the spines stout, hooked, dark brown, 
5 mm. long. Scape stout, erect, its bracts broadly lanceolate, 
acuminate, 4-5 cm. long. Inflorescence racemose, 6 dm. long, 9 
cm. in diameter, subcylindric, dense above and lax below; axis, 
pedicels, and sepals densely cinereous-lanate. Bracts broadly ovate 
or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, at first about equaling the sepals 
but at maturity not reaching beyond their mid-point, entire, thick, 
coriaceous. Flowers spreading or reflexed at anthesis, the pedicels 
stout, 1 cm. long; sepals narrowly ovate, obtuse or apiculate, 25-35 
mm. long, 16 mm. broad; petals 6 cm. long, tubular-erect, blue-green, 
the blade broadly lanceolate, acute. 

Rocky places. Ancash: Below Hacienda Cajabamba, between 
Samanco and Caraz, 3,300-3,400 meters, Weberbauer 3148. Endemic. 

23. Puya dolichostrobila Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
10:215.1928. 

Caulescent, decumbent, branching. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate, 5-6 dm. long, 4-5 cm. wide, glabrous above, minutely 
puberulent below, the spines stout, dark brown. Inflorescence 4 



508 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

dm. long, slender, dense. Bracts imbricate, lance-ovate, acuminate, 
up to 5 cm. long, 15-20 mm. broad, entire or sparsely denticulate, 
villous below, glabrescent above. Flowers ferruginous-tomentose 
throughout, the pedicels about 1 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, acute, 
33 mm. long; petals 6 cm. long, greenish yellow. 

Stony slopes, open xerophytic formation. Libertad: Province 
of Otuzco, left bank of the Rio de Chicama below Hacienda Mem- 
brillal, 1,400 meters, Weberbauer 6981. Endemic. 

24. Puya isabellina Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 66. 1919. 
Stem decumbent, 8-10 cm. thick. Leaves decurved, rigid, 3 

dm. long, 4 cm. wide, acuminate, the spines 8 mm. long. Inflo- 
rescence densely cylindric, subspicate, 3 dm. long, 1 dm. in diameter. 
Bracts elliptic, acuminate or apiculate, minutely furfuraceous, 35 
mm. long, about equaling the sepals, the upper ones subobtuse, 
somewhat spreading. Flowers 5 cm. long, short-pedicellate, sub- 
erect, isabelline; sepals 24 mm. long, acute, furfuraceous. 

Cajamarca: Province of Hualgayoc, below Santa Cruz, Weber- 
bauer 4144- Endemic. 

25. Puya macrura Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 13. 1906. 
Stem 8-10 cm. thick, decumbent, branching. Leaves rosulate, 

recurved, rigid, narrowly triangular, 4 dm. long, 35 mm. broad, 
appressed-white-lepidote throughout, the spines stout, hooked, dark 
brown, 9 mm. long. Scape stout, erect, exceeding the leaves, densely 
white-lanate, its bracts glabrous, exceeding the internodes, ovate, 
the lower caudate, the upper acute. Inflorescence densely sub- 
spicate, attenuate-cylindric, 35 cm. long, 5 cm. in diameter; axis 
thick, densely white-lanate. Bracts ovate, acuminate, entire, 4 cm. 
long, exceeding the sepals, erect or nearly so, brown, pergamentaceous, 
aciculose-pungent, glabrous, strongly nerved. Flowers subsessile, 
47 mm. long; sepals 26 mm. long, triangular, acuminate, densely 
white-lanate; petals dark violet, tubular-erect, exceeding the pistil 
and stamens. 

Rocky places. Ancash: Near Caraz, 2,200-2,500 meters, Weber- 
bauer 8022. Endemic. 

26. Puya lanata (HBK.) Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 
1233. 1830. Pourretia lanata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 296. 1816. 
Pitcairnia lanata Dietr. Lexicogr. Nachtr. 6: 303. 1820. 

Up to 3 meters high. Stem erect, elongate. Leaves 5 dm. long 
or longer, narrowly triangular, pungent, about 35 mm. wide, coarsely 



FLORA OF PERU 509 

spinose-serrate, punctulate-lepidote above, densely white-appressed- 
lepidote below. Inflorescence simple, densely cylindric, 4 dm. long, 
1 dm. in diameter; rachis stout, densely lanate. Bracts narrow, sub- 
lanceolate, entire, about equaling the flowers, ferruginous-lanate, 
pungent. Flowers 55 mm. long, suberect, the pedicels very short, 
obconic; sepals narrowly triangular, 35 mm. long, aristate, lanate; 
petals rounded-apiculate, greenish white; stamens included. 

Cajamarca: Between Cajamarca and Magdalena, 350 meters, 
Humboldt & Bonpland. Endemic. 

27. Puya gracilis L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 11. pi. 
3, f, 12-13.1932. 

About 8 dm. high. Leaves narrowly triangular, 6-7 dm. long, 
18 mm. broad, ferruginous-lepidote, furfuraceous, the spines slender, 
hooked, 7 mm. long. Scape erect, glabrous, 5 mm. in diameter, its 
bracts remote, ovate, spinulose-serrate, the lowest ones long-caudate. 
Inflorescence slenderly racemose, 35 cm. long, minutely stellate- 
lepidote throughout. Bracts membranaceous, ovate, apiculate, 
mostly shorter than the sepals. Flowers erect or suberect, slender, 
the pedicels slender, 5-7 mm. long; sepals narrowly ovate, acuminate, 

3 cm. long; petals tubular-erect, about equaling the stamens; pistil 
exserted. 

Indefinite: Weberbauer 6474- Endemic. 

28. Puya strobilantha Mez, Repert Nov. Sp. 3: 13. 1906. 
Probably 1 meter high, stout. Leaves rigid, narrowly triangular, 

9 dm. long, 25 mm. wide, glabrous and lustrous above, appressed- 
lepidote below, the spines 6 mm. long. Inflorescence subspicate, 
ellipsoid, strobilate, many-flowered, 14 cm. long, 6 cm. in diameter. 
Bracts densely imbricate, broadly ovate, acute, entire, stellate- 
puberulent, soon glabrous, lustrous, brown, exceeding the sepals, 

4 cm. long, 3 cm. broad. Flowers erect or nearly so, the pedicels 
very short and thick; sepals 25 mm. long, linear-elliptic, obtuse, 
thick. 

Rocky places. Junin: Province of Tarma, near Palca on the 
road above Huacapistana, 2,000-2,100 meters, Weberbauer 2050. 
Endemic. 

29. Puya Raimondii Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
213. 1928. Pourretia gigantea Raimondi, El Peru 1: 297. 1874, not 
Puya gigantea Phil. 1865, nor P. gigantea Andre", 1879. 



510 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Columnar, 9.5 meters high. Trunk 4 meters high, 6 dm. in 
diameter, surmounted by the dense leaf rosette. Leaves many, 
1-1.25 meters long, subglabrous; sheath 15 cm. broad; blade narrowly 
triangular, pungent, the spines curved, dark brown, 1 cm. long. 
Inflorescence compound, scapose, 4.3 meters long, 6 dm. thick, 
slenderly cylindric, attenuate, lanate throughout; branches spreading 
or reflexed, densely racemose, sterile toward the apex. Floral bracts 
densely imbricate, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, membranaceous, 
subglabrescent, exceeding the sepals. Flowers stout-pedicellate. 
Sepals lanceolate, acute, 4 cm. long. Petals 6-8 cm. long, greenish 
white, often purplish, the blade broad. Capsule globose-ovoid. 
Seed, including its irregular circumferential wing, 3-5 mm. broad. 

Steep, rocky slopes. Ancash: Huaraz, vicinity of Aija, 4,000 
meters, Weberbauer 2955. Cordillera Negra, vicinity of Huaraz, 
3,800 meters, Weberbauer 3746. Western slopes, Pomopampa, 
30 miles east of Huaraz, 4,000 meters, 2496. Bolivia. "Cunco," 
"junco," "llakuash." The largest and most striking member of the 
Bromeliaceae. Used for timbers in roofs (Macbride!). 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Puya Pearcei (Bak.) Mez was formerly attributed to Peru, but 
is now proved to have been collected in Bolivia. 

2. LINDMANIA Mez 

Slender herbs. Leaves entire or remotely serrate. Scape erect, 
slender. Inflorescence a lax panicle, twice or thrice pinnate; floral 
bracts small. Flowers minute, whitish or green. Sepals free, scale- 
like. Petals twice as long as the sepals, free, naked. Ovary supe- 
rior, glabrous, the style slender, equaling the stamens. Capsule 
septicidal or loculicidal. Seeds narrowly fusiform, with narrow 
dorsal wing caudate-produced at the ends. Eleven species. Terres- 
trial. Chiefly Andean with outlying species in Mexico, Salvador, 
Guiana, and Argentina. Type species: L. guianensis Mez. 

Flowers neither secund nor nutant 1. L. petiolata. 

Flowers secund or nutant, usually both. 
Flowers not more than 5 mm. long. 

Leaf blades entire 2. L. Weberbaueri. 

Leaf blades serrulate toward the base 3. L. Rusbyi. 

Flowers 8-9 mm. long 4. L. penduliflora. 



FLORA OF PERU 511 

1. Lindmania petiolata Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 864. 1904. 
Slender, 1 meter high. Leaves many, fasciculate, entire, the 

outer scale-like, the inner narrowed into a grooved petiole 35 mm. 
long above the short, triangular sheath; blade narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, 4 dm. long, 35 mm. wide, submembranaceous, densely 
pale-lepidote below. Scape slender, strict, cobwebby-tomentose 
then glabrous, its bracts membranaceous, narrowly lanceolate, 
much exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence narrow, tripinnate, 
subglabrous, 25 cm. long, 3 cm. in diameter; primary branches 
elongate, the ultimate branches in the form of ellipsoid heads in the 
axils of large, lanceolate, membranaceous bracts. Floral bracts 
broadly lanceolate, acute, slightly exceeding the pedicels. Flowers 
greenish white, suberect to spreading, 4 mm. long, glabrous, the 
pedicels 1.5 mm. long; sepals elliptic, narrowly obtuse, 2.5 mm. long; 
petals broadly elliptic, emarginate; stamens free, the anthers obtuse 
at both ends, 1.75 mm. long; style stout, equaling the ovary. 

Woods. Puno: Near Tambo Isilluma, on the road between 
Sandia and Chunchosmayo, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1210. 
Endemic. 

2. Lindmania Weberbaueri Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 417. 
1913. Cottendorfia Rusbyi Baker, Bull. Torrey Club 29: 697. 1902, 
not Lindmania Rusbyi Mez, 1901. 

Up to 9 dm. high. Leaves about 10, laxly rosulate, entire, 
constricted above the sheath but not definitely petiolate, broadly 
lanceolate, acuminate, 25 cm. long, 4 cm. wide, membranaceous, 
glabrous, light green (when dried). Scape slender, erect, glabrous, 
its bracts shorter than the internodes, entire. Inflorescence laxly 
bipinnate, glabrous, many-flowered, 3 dm. long, 75 mm. in diameter, 
its branches curved-ascending, slender, 8 cm. long, laxly flowered. 
Floral bracts ovate, acute, 1.5 mm. long, slightly shorter than the 
pedicels, erect. Flowers nodding, rather obscurely secund, 5 mm. 
long, white; sepals subtriangular, obtuse, half as long as the petals; 
petals subelliptic, acute, erect at an thesis; stamens included. 

Tropical rain forest. Ayacucho: Province of Huanta, by the 
Rio Pieni, Weberbauer 5635 (type). Junin: La Merced, 700 meters, 
5352. Rio Paucartambo Valley, near Peren Bridge, 700 meters, 
Killip & Smith 25326. Bolivia. 

3. Lindmania Rusbyi Mez, Bot. Jahrb. 30: Beibl. 67: 6. 1901. 
Slender, 5-9 dm. high. Leaves 5 dm. long, constricted above 

the sheath but not definitely petiolate, 25 mm. wide, linear-lanceo- 



512 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

late, filiform-acuminate, thin, pale green and glabrous above, densely 
white-lepidote below, somewhat dimorphic with the narrower leaves 
distinctly, the broader ones obscurely serrate just above the sheath. 
Scape slender, erect, glabrous, its bracts entire, all but the upper- 
most exceeding the internodes and with long, filiform-acuminate 
apices. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate or tripinnate, glabrous, many- 
flowered, 3 dm. long, its branches curved-ascending, slender, laxly 
8-15-flowered. Floral bracts broadly ovate, acute, 1-2 mm. long, 
membranous. Flowers nodding, secund, 3-4 mm. long; sepals ovate, 
2 mm. long; petals narrowly elliptic, soon recurved. 

Cuzco: Pumachaca, Santa Ana Valley, 1,400 meters, Herrera 
8316. Bolivia. 

4. Lindmania penduliflora (C. H. Wright) Stapf, Bot. Mag. 
150: pi. 9029. 1924. Catopsis penduliflora C. H. Wright, Kew Bull. 
Misc. Inf. 197. 1910. 

Leaves rosulate, linear-lanceolate, with a soft, narrow apex, 25 
cm. long, 35 mm. wide, thin, glabrous above, sparingly scurfy below. 
Scape slender, glabrous, its bracts lanceolate, acuminate, entire, the 
upper remote. Inflorescence laxly paniculate, 2 dm. long, its branches 
simple, or the lowest branched and 2 dm. long. Primary bracts like 
the upper scape bracts, 5-10 mm. long, hyaline. Floral bracts ovate- 
acuminate, 1-1.5 mm. long, thin, green. Flowers secund, nodding, 
the pedicels 2, rarely 3 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, acute, 3.5 mm. 
long, green with white margins; petals lance-oblong, 8-9 mm. long, 
over 2 mm. broad, white; stamens included. 

Indefinite: Forget, in a lot of living plants from Peru. Argentina, 
Bolivia. 

3. DEUTEROCOHNIA Mez 

Shrubby perennials. Leaves densely rosulate, rigid, narrowly 
triangular, coarsely serrate, with a membrane of whitish scales 
below or on both sides. Scape woody. Inflorescence paniculate, 
2-4-pinnate, its branches polystichous-flowered, developing from the 
buds in the axils of the persistent bracts. Flowers sessile or pedicel- 
late, showy. Sepals free. Petals erect, regular, each with a single 
large scale at the base. Stamens free. Ovary superior, glabrous. 
Capsule septicidal. Seeds brown, with a dorsal wing. Six species. 
Xerophytic plants of the eastern slopes of the Andes. Type species, 
D. longipetala (Baker) Mez. 

1. Deuterocohnia longipetala (Baker) Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
3, pt. 3: 507. pi. 95. 1894. Dyckia longipetala Baker, Brom. 135. 



FLORA OF PERU 513 

1889. D. decomposite Baker, Brom. 136. 1889. Puya flava Willd. 
ex Baker, Brom. 135. 1889, nomen. 

Leaves 3 dm. long, the apex produced into a long, whip-like, 
entire point, the spines 3-4 mm. long. Scape glabrous, its upper 
bracts shorter than the internodes. Inflorescence many-flowered, 
its branches laxly flowered. Floral bracts broadly ovate, abruptly 
acute. Flowers erect, sessile, 25 mm. long; sepals 8-10 mm. long, 
strongly asymmetric, obliquely truncate; petals yellow with a green 
spot at the apex. 

Cajamarca: Between Trembladera and Llallan, on the road from 
the coast to Cajamarca, Weberbauer 3781. Amazonas: Province 
of Luya, valley of the Rio Marafion, Tupen, 800 meters, Weberbauer 
4798. Brazil, Argentina. 

4. PITCAIRNIA L'He"r. 

Mostly stemless herbs, but a few species definitely caulescent. 
Leaves fasciculate or imbricate and many-ranked along a stem, entire 
or spinose-serrate, the sheath small, often bulbous-thickened, the 
blade linear to lanceolate or obovate with a definite petiole or nar- 
rowly triangular, sometimes dimorphic with some blades reduced 
to horny, spinulose-serrate spines. Inflorescence simple or com- 
pound. Sepals free. Petals free, usually slightly zygomorphic, 
naked or with a single triangular scale at the base or with 2 vertical 
or oblique calli. Stamens free, included or rarely exserted, the 
anthers linear, versatile. Ovary usually partly inferior, but the 
greater part superior, the style filiform. Ovules many. Capsule 
septicidal in the Peruvian species. Seeds caudate-appendaged at 
both ends or rarely with a dorsal or dorso-apical wing. About 180 
species. Terrestrial or saxicolous, rarely epiphytic. Mexico and the 
Antilles south to northern Argentina. Type species, P. bromeliaefolia 
L'HeY. 

Petals each with a single scale or ligule at the base, or this becoming 

2 oblique calli by recession of the point. 
Leaf blades 6-10 cm. broad, distinctly petiolate. 

Inflorescence pendulous or trailing; flowers secund. 

1. P. corallina. 

Inflorescence erect; flowers erect. 

Sepals mucronulate, carinate; petals violet. 2. P. cyanopetala. 
Sepals entire at the apex, ecarinate; petals red. 

3. P. Sprucei. 



514 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaf blades not more than 45 mm. broad at most, rarely petiolate. 
Floral bracts equaling or exceeding the pedicels. 
Leaves dimorphic, the outer ones reduced to serrate spines. 
Sepals acute; inflorescence simple. 
Sepals wing-keeled. 
Blades of the functional leaves spinulose-serrate. 

4. P. eximea. 

Blades of the functional leaves entire . . 5. P. Augusti. 
Sepals convex or merely keeled, the keels not produced 

into wings. 

Blades of the functional leaves entire . . 6. P. pungens. 
Blades of the functional leaves spinulose-serrate. 

7. P. lanuginosa. 
Sepals obtuse-mucronulate; inflorescence paniculate. 

8. P. Lechleri. 
Leaves all alike. 

Sepals acuminate; inflorescence ample. .9. P. cassapensis. 
Sepals emarginate; inflorescence simple or few-branched. 

10. P. rigida. 

Floral bracts much shorter than the pedicels. 
Sepals acute or acuminate, lanceolate. 

Sepals 15-18 mm. long 11. P. paniculata. 

Sepals only 6 mm. long 12. P. pulverulenta. 

Sepals obtuse or truncate. 

Inflorescence simple 13. P. subpetiolata. 

Inflorescence paniculate. 

Inflorescence thyrsoid with the primary bracts nearly or 

quite equaling the axillary branches . . 14. P. inermis. 

Inflorescence pyramidal with the primary bracts much 

shorter than the axillary branches. 
Pedicels 12 mm. long; sepals glabrous. 

15. P. tarapotensis. 

Pedicels 6 mm. long; sepals densely white-furfuraceous. 

16. P. truncata. 

Petals naked, or with 2 vertical calli. 
Inflorescence simple, racemose or spicate. 

Floral bracts shorter than the pedicels . . 17. P. brevicalycina. 



FLORA OF PERU 515 

Floral bracts equaling or exceeding the pedicels, or the flowers 
sessile. 

Flowers definitely pedicellate. 
Sepals obtuse or obtuse-mucronate. 

Flowers strict, polystichous 18. P. straminea. 

Flowers spreading, secund 19. P. viridis. 

Sepals acute or acuminate. 
Leaves definitely petiolate, 7 cm. wide. 

20. P. sceptriformis. 
Leaves not petiolate, much narrower. 

Leaves all alike, strongly serrate 21. P. grandiflora. 

Leaves dimorphic, the broader ones entire. 

22. P. scandens. 
Flowers sessile; floral bracts nearly equaling the sepals. 

23. P. Poeppigiana. 
Inflorescence compound, paniculate. 
Sepals glabrous or minutely tomentose-lepidote, but not 

stellate-lepidote. 

Leaves serrate, at least at the base. 
Floral bracts much shorter than the pedicels. 

Scape stout; sepals 24 mm. long 24. P. puyoides. 

Scape slender; sepals 12 mm. long. 15. P. tarapotensis. 
Floral bracts about equaling the pedicels . 25. P. cuzcoensis. 

Leaves entire 26. P. Ruiziana. 

Sepals covered with a dense stellate ferruginous tomentum. 

27. P. ferruginea. 

1. Pitcairnia corallina Linden & Andre", Belg. Hort. 23: 112. 
1873. 

Leaves dimorphic, the outer ovate, acute, scale-like, the inner 
petiolate, entire except for the petiole, the blade elongate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, strongly plicate-nerved, up to 1 meter long and 
1 dm. wide, glabrous above, densely and finely white-lepidote below. 
Scape pendulous, stout, coral-red, its bracts green, ovate, acuminate, 
usually exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence simple, racemose, 
densely many-flowered, trailing on the ground; axis stout. Bracts 
lanceolate, much exceeding the pedicels. Flowers secund, coral- 
red, 75 mm. long, the pedicels about 1 cm. long; sepals subtriangular, 



516 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

acute, 26 mm. long; petals appendaged, red with a narrow whitish 
margin; ovary about one-half superior. 

Abundant in open places in the lowlands. Loreto: Balsapuerto, 
220 meters, King 3018. San Martin: Tarapoto, 250 meters, Wil- 
liams 6062; Ule 6316. Alto Rio Huallaga, 120-300 meters, Wil- 
liams 6564- Colombia. 

2. Pitcairnia cyanopetala Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
139. 1907. 

Up to 8 dm. high. Leaves persistent; sheath short; petiole dis- 
tinct, entire, grooved, 5 dm. long; blade 6 dm. long, 8 cm. broad, 
narrowly oblanceolate, subglabrous, the apex acuminate, minutely 
spinulose. Scape erect, its sheaths acuminate, exceeding the inter- 
nodes. Inflorescence laxly racemose, sparingly furfuraceous. Floral 
bracts oblanceolate, acuminate, purple, exceeding the pedicels but 
much shorter than the sepals. Flowers, including the slender 
pedicel 15-18 mm. long, up to 8 cm. long; sepals ovate, acuminate, 
25 mm. long, 7 mm. broad, slightly carinate, lepidote; petals nar- 
rowly lingulate, acute, violet, bearing a scale at the base; stamens 
slightly shorter than the petals; pistil 5 cm. long, the ovary 5 mm. 
long. 

Terrestrial. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,400 meters, Ule 6608. 
Endemic. 

3. Pitcairnia Sprucei Baker, Journ. Bot. 19: 303. 1881. 

The Peruvian specimens as here noted are larger throughout 
than the type but do not differ in essential form. Leaves dimorphic, 
some triangular, scale-like, others elongate and definitely petiolate; 
sheath ovate; petiole slender, grooved, sparingly serrate toward the 
base; blade up to 5 dm. long and 9 cm. broad, lanceolate, tapering at 
both ends, minutely serrate especially toward the apex, glabrous 
above, minutely appressed-white-lepidote below. Scape erect, its 
bracts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, sparingly appressed-lepi- 
dote. Inflorescence simple, racemose. Floral bracts like the scape 
bracts, much exceeding the pedicels. Flowers slender, suberect to 
spreading, the pedicels slender, 10-18 mm. long; sepals narrowly 
oblong, red, slightly asymmetric, obtuse, glabrous, 18-25 mm. long; 
petals red, appendaged, 5-6 cm. long; ovary more than half superior. 

Forests. Loreto: Tierra Doble on the Rio Nanay, Williams 1052. 
Timbuchi on the Rio Nanay, Williams 1040. Santa Ana on the 
upper Rio Nanay, Williams 1241. Manfinfa on the upper Rio 
Nanay, Williams 1171. Brazil. "Bijanillo." 



FLORA OF PERU 517 

4. Pitcairnia eximea Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 5. 1906. 

Leaves dimorphic, some reduced to linear, brown, serrate spines, 
others foliaceous, linear, scarcely or not at all narrowed above the 
sheath, 1 meter long, 3 cm. wide, spinulose-serrate throughout, 
cobwebby-tomentose when young, becoming glabrous. Scape stout, 
erect, its bracts foliaceous, elongate, spinulose, exceeding the inter- 
nodes. Inflorescence simple, racemose, lax, at least at the base, 
subcylindric, 4 dm. long, furfuraceous. Bracts elliptic-lanceolate, 
much exceeding the pedicels, deflexed with the flowers after anthesis, 
pergamentaceous, 4 cm. long, cobwebby-tomentose, becoming gla- 
brous. Flowers up to 12 cm. long, the pedicels 1 cm. long; sepals 
triangular, acuminate, 46 mm. long, wing-keeled; petals appendaged,, 
greenish white, acute; ovary three-fourths superior. 

Junin: Province of Tarma, above Huacapistana on the Palca 
road, 1,900-2,000 meters, Weberbauer 2025. Endemic. 

5. Pitcairnia Augusti Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
211. 1928. 

Up to 2 meters high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, about 3 dm. 
long and 3 cm. wide, glabrous, pungent, entire. Scape stout, elon- 
gate, its bracts long-acuminate, sparingly spinulose or subentire. 
Inflorescence simple, racemose, about 3 dm. long. Floral bracts 
lanceolate, acuminate, up to 35 mm. long, glabrous or nearly so, 
exceeding the pedicels. Pedicels up to 13 mm. long; sepals lanceo- 
late, acute, alate-carinate, 33 mm. long; petals 75 mm. long, linear, 
appendaged, yellowish white. 

Libertad : Province of Pataz, drainage of the Mixiollo, one of the 
left tributaries of the Huallaga, 2,200-2,300 meters, Weberbauer 
7074. Endemic. 

6. Pitcairnia pungens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 294. 1816. 
P. laevis Willd. ex Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1249. 1830. 
P. concolor Baker, Journ. Bot. 19: 269. 1881. 

Rarely more than 4 dm. high, the base often appearing somewhat 
bulbous. Leaves dimorphic, some persistent and reduced to brown 
serrate spines, others deciduous above the sheath, green, linear, 
3 dm. long, 15 mm. wide, entire except for the persistent base. 
Scape erect, its bracts acuminate, pungent, soon glabrous. Inflores- 
cence simple, racemose, usually few-flowered, tomentose-lepidote. 
Floral bracts subovate, entire, acuminate-mucronate, exceeding the 
pedicels. Flowers erect at anthesis, 55 mm. long, yellowish red, the 



518 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

pedicels up to 1 cm. long; sepals 25 mm. long, acuminate, carinate; 
petals bearing a large emarginate scale at the base, about equaling 
the stamens; ovary almost wholly superior. 

Cajamarca: San Pablo, Weberbauer 3853. Huanuco: Near 
Mufia, Pearce 201, 377. Rock outcrop crevices, Piedra Grande, 
near Rio Santo Domingo, 1,600 meters, 3669. Lima: Near Canta, 
Maclean. Open hillside, Rio Blanco, 3,000-3,500 meters, Killip & 
Smith 21661. Moist eastern slope, Matucana, ca. 2,600 meters, 
460. Same, crevices of perpendicular rock cliffs, 2935. Huariquina 
to Matucana, Weberbauer 76. Tambo de Viso, Weberbauer 76a. 
Indefinite: Grisar. Colombia, Ecuador. 

7. Pitcairnia lanuginosa R. & P. Fl. 3: 35. pi. 258. 1802. 
Puya Ruiziana Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 491. 1896, as to synonymy 
cited but not as to specimen. 

Over 1 meter high. Leaves dimorphic, some reduced to dark 
serrate spines, others foliaceous, linear, acuminate, scarcely if at 
all narrowed above the base, spinulose-serrate except for the extreme 
apex, gray-lanuginose below. Scape erect, stout, its bracts rather 
remote, subtriangular, long-caudate. Inflorescence simple, laxly 
racemose, incanous-lepidote. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 
equaling or exceeding the pedicels. Flowers pedicellate, suberect; 
sepals ovate, acute, convex or slightly carinate; petals linear, append- 
aged, pale violet, three times as long as the sepals; stamens and pistil 
included; ovary almost wholly superior. 

On rocks in woods. Huanuco: Near Posuso, Ruiz & Pav6n. 
Endemic. 

8. Pitcairnia Lechleri Baker, Journ. Bot. 19: 269. 1881. 
Leaves dimorphic, the outer ones dark brown, persistent, almost 

spine-like, spinose-serrate, the inner ones deciduous, not at all 
narrowed above the base, linear, 4 dm. long, 2 cm. wide, acuminate, 
entire above the persistent spinulose base. Scape stout, erect, sub- 
glabrous, its bracts narrowly triangular, aciculose-pungent, equaling 
or exceeding the internodes, the lower ones spinulose-serrate at the 
base. Inflorescence paniculate, pyramidal, glabrous, 4 dm. long or 
more, its lower branches about 15 cm. long, with lower half sterile 
and upper half densely flowered. Floral bracts narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, exceeding the pedicels or even the lowest flowers. 
Flowers somewhat secund, spreading, the pedicels slender, 6 mm. 
long; sepals 12 mm. long, obtuse-mucronulate, ecarinate; petals 
ligulate-appendaged . 



FLORA OF PERU 519 

Puno: Eastern slopes of the Andes near Sachapata, Lechler 3132. 
Endemic. 

9. Pitcairnia cassapensis Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 8. 1919. 
Leaves homomorphic, persistent, narrowed above the sheath but 

not truly petiolate, linear, 1-1.5 meters long, 45 mm. wide, entire, 
white-lepidote below when young, becoming glabrous. Inflorescence 
laxly and amply paniculate, gray-pulverulent throughout, its 
branches 15 cm. long, laxly 4-12-flowered. Floral bracts elliptic, 
acuminulate, 15 mm. long, about equaling the slender pedicels. 
Flowers crimson, 55 mm. long; sepals 22 mm. long, triangular, 
acuminate, carinate; petals acute, ligulate-appendaged, exceeding 
the stamens; ovary more than half superior. 

Huanuco: Casapi, near Cochero, Poeppig 1526 (type). Indefi- 
nite: Mathews 2089. Endemic. 

10. Pitcairnia rigida Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 625. 1904. 
About 5 dm. high. Leaves all alike, fasciculate, deciduous, entire 

above the persistent, spinose-serrate base, linear, not at all petiolate, 
21 cm. long, 9 mm. wide, glabrous throughout at maturity. Scape 
slender, erect, soon glabrous, its bracts lanceolate, acuminate, entire, 
slightly exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence a depauperate 
panicle, 21 cm. long, scantly furfuraceous, its basal branches 2-5- 
flowered, subsecund. Floral bracts narrowly triangular, acuminate, 
equaling or exceeding the pedicels except near the apex where 
reduced. Flowers spreading or reflexed, 4 cm. long, glabrous, the 
pedicels slender, 5 mm. long; sepals 12 mm. long, oblong, emarginate, 
slightly carinate; petals red, appendaged, exceeding the stamens; 
ovary more than half superior. 

In shrubby growth. Puno: Above Tambo Cochicachi, Weber- 
bauer 1303. Endemic. 

11. Pitcairnia paniculata R. & P. Fl. 3: 36. pi. 260. 1802. 
Pourretia paniculata R. & P. Syst. 1: 81. 1798. Pitcairnia longifolia 
Hook. Bot. Mag. 80: pi 4775. 1854. P. excelsa E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 
25: 381. 1875. P. fruticetorum Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 4. 1906. 
P. biattenuata Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 457. 1907. 

Two meters or more high; stem stout, erect, ringed with leaf 
scars. Leaves densely fasciculate, dimorphic or trimorphic, the 
outer ones reduced, scale-like or some with setiform, spinose blades, 
the inner elongate, contracted above the sheath but not always 
petiolate, up to 1.5 meters long, 35 mm. broad, remotely spinulose- 



520 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

serrate, acuminate, glabrous above, scantly furfuraceous below. 
Scape white-furfuraceous, its bracts narrowly triangular, filiform- 
caudate, the uppermost about equaling the internodes. Inflores- 
cence laxly paniculate, pyramidal, 5 dm. long or more; axis furfur- 
aceous; branches suberect to spreading, secundly many-flowered. 
Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, acute, much shorter than the pedi- 
cels. Flowers slender, the pedicels 13 mm. long; sepals narrowly 
triangular, acuminate, 15-18 mm. long; petals up to 45 mm. long, 
red, ligulate-appendaged, exceeding the stamens; ovary almost 
wholly superior. 

Thickets; open slopes. Huanuco: Chinchao, Ruiz & Pavdn 
(type). Pampayacu, hacienda at mouth of Rio Chinchao, 1,200 
meters, 5114. Rio Huallaga Canyon, below Rio Santo Domingo, 
1,300 meters, 4266. Junin: Province of Tarma, on the Palca road 
above Huacapistana, 1,700-1,900 meters, Weberbauer 1983. La 
Merced, Hacienda Schunke, 1,300 meters, 5749; Killip & Smith 
24610. Colonia Perene", 680 meters, Killip & Smith 25074. La 
Merced, 700 meters, Killip & Smith 23756. Cuzco: Lares Valley 
between Calca and Pasto Grande, Weberbauer 7930. Indefinite: 
Mathews 3132. Bolivia. 

12. Pitcairnia pulverulenta R. & P. Fl. 3: 36. pi 259. 1802. 
Plant large, probably over 1 meter high. Leaves subdimorphic, 

the outer ones distinctly petiolate, the inner merely narrowed between 
sheath and blade; sheath ovate, entire; blade linear-lanceolate, 25- 
30 mm. wide, plicate, densely serrulate throughout. Scape erect, 
stout, pulverulent, its bracts imbricate, ovate, acute, serrulate; 
inflorescence amply paniculate; primary bracts like the upper scape 
bracts, much shorter than the axillary branches. Racemes spread- 
ing, lax. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, much shorter than the 
pedicels. Flowers spreading, the pedicels slender, 1 cm. long; sepals 
lance-ovate, acute, 6 mm. long; petals narrow, acute, 4 cm. long, 
bearing a truncate scale at the base, red; stamens and pistil about 
equaling the petals; ovary two-thirds superior. 
Woods. Junin: Vitoc, Ruiz & Pavon. Endemic. 

13. Pitcairnia subpetiolata Baker, Journ. Bot. 19: 267. 1881. 
P. sessiliflora Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 457. 1907. 

Leaves dimorphic, some reduced to serrate spines, others folia- 
ceous, narrowed above the sheath but not definitely petiolate, linear, 
acuminate, entire except at the base, the blade 6-9 dm. long, 15 mm. 
wide, glabrous above, densely whitish-lepidote below. Scape erect, 



FLORA OF PERU 521 

its bracts triangular, acuminate, much shorter than the internodes. 
Inflorescence laxly racemose, scantly furfuraceous to glabrous. 
Floral bracts broadly elliptic, apiculate, shorter than the pedicels. 
Flowers erect or nearly so, the pedicels stout, straight; sepals 20-22 
mm. long, ecarinate, sublinear, emarginate, sparingly lepidote; petals 
red, exceeding the stamens, bearing a large, strongly bidentate scale 
at the base; ovary more than half superior. 

San Martin: Near Tarapoto, Spruce (type). In dry, red, sandy 
loam, cliff, Lamas, 840 meters, Williams 6377. Huanuco: Grassy, 
brushy slopes, Posuso, 600 meters, 4624- Bolivia. 

14. Pitcairnia inermis Meyer ex Schult. f . in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 
7: 1238. 1830. Pourretia inermis Meyer in Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 123. 
pi. 23. 1827. Orthopetalum inerme Beer, Brom. 72. 1857. 

Acaulescent, up to 5 dm. high. Leaves all alike, deciduous, not 
at all contracted above the broadly ovate, dark sheath; blade entire, 
linear, acuminate, 4-9 dm. long, 7-12 mm. broad, white-lepidote 
below. Scape stout, soon glabrous, its bracts ovate-lanceolate, 
entire, filiform-caudate, much exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence 
thyrsoid; axis stout, soon glabrous; branches abbreviated. Primary 
bracts almost or quite equaling the axillary branches. Floral 
bracts thin, scale-like, shorter than the pedicels. Flowers 30-35 
mm. long, the pedicels slender, about 7 mm. long; sepals obtuse, 
ecarinate, 11-15 mm. long; petals scarlet, rapidly fading to white, 
ligulate-appendaged, exceeding the stamens; ovary more than 
three-fourths superior. 

Steep, rocky grasslands. Huanuco: Near Casapi, Poeppig 
1385. Chinchao Valley, Weberbauer 6804- Huacachi, near Muna, 
2,200 meters, .4077. Indefinite: Haenke (type); Mathews 2088. 
Bolivia. 

15. Pitcairnia tarapotensis Baker, Brom. 102. 1889. 
Stemless, 5-14 dm. high. Leaves dimorphic, all persistent, 

some reduced to dark, spinulose-serrate spines, others foliaceous, 
narrowed above the sheath but not definitely petiolate, spinose 
only at the base, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, 4-10 dm. long, 15 mm. 
wide. Scape slender, erect, furfuraceous at first, becoming glabrous, 
its bracts narrowly triangular, acuminate, entire, glabrous, the 
upper ones shorter than the internodes. Inflorescence laxly bipin- 
nate; axis glabrous. Floral bracts narrowly elliptic, apiculate, much 
shorter than the pedicels, glabrous. Flowers suberect to spreading, 
glabrous, 4 cm. long, the pedicels slender, 12 mm. long; sepals oblong, 



522 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

broadly acute or obtuse and apiculate, 12 mm. long, ecarinate; 
petals red, naked or with 2 minute, oblique calli, narrow, acute; ovary 
three-fourths superior. 

Grassy mountain top, mountain forest. San Martin: Near 
Tarapoto, Spruce (type). Zepelacio, near Moyobamba, 1,200- 
1,600 meters, King 3281. Endemic. 

16. Pitcairnia truncata L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 
10. pi 3, f. 8-9. 1932. 

Slightly less than 1 meter high. Leaves fasciculate, dimorphic, 
some reduced to dark brown, serrate spines, others foliaceous, 
somewhat narrowed above the sheath but not at all petiolate, the 
blades linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 4-5 dm. long, 2 cm. wide, 
remotely and minutely spinulose-serrate, glabrous above, densely 
minute-puberulent below. Scape erect, sparingly furfuraceous- 
lepidote, its bracts narrowly triangular, filiform-caudate, sub- 
membranaceous, entire. Inflorescence laxly paniculate, pyramidal, 
white-furfuraceous; branches spreading, straight, up to 7 cm. long 
(not fully developed), the sterile base very short. Floral bracts 
elliptic, apiculate, shorter than the pedicels and enfolding their bases. 
Flowers slender, about 4 cm. long, mostly spreading, the pedicels 
slender, 6 mm. long; sepals oblong, truncate, 1 cm. long, carinate, 
slightly asymmetric; petals bright red, ligulate-appendaged, about 
equaling the stamens; style exserted, the ovary more than half 
superior. 

Wooded hillsides. Ayacucho: Carrapa, between Huanta and 
Rio Apurimac, 1,500 meters, Kittip & Smith 22414- Endemic. 

17. Pitcairnia brevicalycina Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 9. 
1919. 

Leaves persistent, narrowed above the sheath but not petiolate, 
lanceolate, 13 dm. long, 4 cm. wide, entire, soon glabrous. Scape 
more than a meter high, stout, strict, its bracts triangular, shorter 
than the internodes. Inflorescence simple, densely racemose, 4 dm. 
long; axis stout, angled. Floral bracts ligulate, shorter than the 
pedicels. Flowers erect, 42 mm. long, glabrous, greenish yellow, 
the pedicels slender, 8 mm. long; sepals 1 cm. long, oblong, obtuse, 
ecarinate; petals naked, obtuse, exceeding the stamens. 

Huanuco: Province of Huanuco, valley of Chinchao, Weberbauer 
6825a. Venezuela. 



FLORA OF PERU 523 

18. Pitcairnia straminea Poeppig ex Mez in DC. Monogr. 
9: 427. 1896. 

Imperfectly known, probably 1 meter high. Leaves narrowed 
above the sheath but not definitely petiolate, linear-lanceolate, 
filiform-acuminate, 7 dm. long, 20 mm. wide, entire, densely white- 
lepidote below. Scape stout, scantly furfuraceous, its bracts remote, 
ovate-apiculate, 18 mm. long. Inflorescence laxly racemose, inter- 
rupted at the base, 45 cm. long; axis stout, straight. Floral bracts 
ovate-elliptic, obtuse, exceeding the pedicels. Flowers erect, the 
pedicels 5 mm. long; sepals narrowly triangular, 15 mm. long, obtuse- 
mucronulate; petals naked. 

Huanuco: Near Cochero, Poeppig 1442. Endemic. 

19. Pitcairnia viridis Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 8. 1919. 

Giving off low shoots from a short, erect rhizome, densely cespi- 
tose, slender, up to 33 cm. high. Leaves all alike, squarrose, rosulate, 
persistent, green above, densely appressed-white-lepidote below, 12 
cm. long, 8 mm. wide, acuminate, spinulose-serrate. Scape slender, 
erect, glabrous, its bracts entire, pale, all but the lowest remote. 
Inflorescence up to 5-flowered, racemose; axis glabrous. Floral 
bracts broadly ovate, acute, entire, brown, membranaceous, glabrous, 
longer than the pedicels and secund with them. Flowers spreading, 
secund, 27 mm. long, the pedicels stout, 5 mm. long, densely brown- 
tomentose; sepals obtuse, 12 mm. long, densely brown-lepidote; 
petals green, naked, obtuse; stamens included; ovary more than 
three-fourths superior. 

Indefinite: Weberbauer. Endemic. 

20. Pitcairnia sceptriformis Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 
628. 1904. 

Caulescent. Leaves not deciduous, glabrous; sheath not known; 
petiole 15 cm. long, grooved, spinose-serrate; blade entire, acuminate, 
6 dm. long, 7 cm. broad. Scape evident, its bracts thin and mem- 
branaceous, not leaf-like. Inflorescence racemose, elongate, densely 
cylindric, 4 dm. long, 35 mm. in diameter, glabrous; axis stout. 
Bracts ovate, acute, membranaceous, 2 cm. long, exceeded by the 
sepals. Flowers erect, 43^48 mm. long, the pedicels 3-8 mm. long; 
sepals rigid, coriaceous, subtriangular, acuminate, recurving-mu- 
cronate at the apex, 24-30 mm. long; petals red, scaleless but with 
two vertical calli each, Ungulate, mucronate, exceeding the stamens 
and pistil; ovary pyramidal, superior. Seeds caudate. 



524 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Scandent on trees. Loreto: Cerro de Ponasa, 1,300 meters, 
Ule 62p. Endemic. 

21. Pitcairnia grandiflora Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 5. 1906. 
Stems decumbent, branching, 8-9 cm. thick. Leaves 7-8 dm. 

long, the blade narrowly triangular, acuminate, 36 mm. wide, 
densely cinereous-lepidote on both sides, serrate with spines 1 cm. 
long. Inflorescence simple, densely racemose, cylindric, 3 dm. 
long, 55 mm. in diameter, glabrous at anthesis; axis stout. Floral 
bracts lanceolate, about 45 mm. long and 12 mm. wide, slightly 
shorter than the sepals, thick, coriaceous, entire, reflexed or revolute. 
Flowers 7 cm. long, erect or nearly so, the pedicels thick, 15 mm. 
long; sepals narrowly triangular, acuminate, 35 mm. long, coriaceous 
or fleshy; petals oblong, obtuse, reddish brown, naked. 

Amazonas: Province of Chachapoyas, eastern slopes of the 
valley of the Rio Maranon above Balsas, 1,100-1,200 meters, 
Weberbauer 4268. Bolivia. 

22. Pitcairnia scandens Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
140. 1907. P. riparia Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 416. 1913. 

Rhizome elongate, giving off stolons, covered with persistent 
leaf bases. Leaves dimorphic, some persistent, reduced to dark, 
spinulose-serrate spines, others deciduous, narrowed above the 
sheath but not petiolate, entire except for the persistent base, glab- 
rous, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 40-45 cm. long, 10-24 mm. wide. 
Scape slender, erect, its bracts shorter than or about equaling the 
internodes, ovate-elliptic, apiculate. Inflorescence laxly racemose. 
Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, much exceeding the 
pedicels, entire. Flowers suberect, up to 7 cm. long, the pedicels 
10-15 mm. long; sepals triangular, acute, 23-25 mm. long; petals 
naked; ovary almost wholly superior. 

Scandent on trees. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,300 meters, 
Ule 6687. Cajamarca: Province of Jan, dry banks in the valley of 
Rio Tabaconas, Weberbauer 6156. Endemic. 

23. Pitcairnia Poeppigiana Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 
461. 1894. 

Leaves strongly petiolate, the blade spinulose-serrate, glabrous, 
lanceolate, 1 meter long, 85 mm. wide. Inflorescence simple, densely 
spicate, strobiliform, many-flowered. Floral bracts elliptic, rounded- 
mucronulate, 28 mm. long, 12 mm. wide, membranaceous, glabrous. 



FLORA OF PERU 525 

Flowers sessile, 7 cm. long; sepals oblong, abruptly acute, mucronate, 
25 mm. long, 6 mm. wide; petals naked, obtuse; ovary half superior. 
Swamps in virgin forest. Loreto: Province of Mainas, near 
Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2424- Endemic. 

24. Pitcairnia puyoides L. B. Smith, Field Mus. Bot. 11: 147. 
1936. 

Plant stout and like a Puya in habit, probably well over 1 meter 
high. Leaves 9 dm. long; sheath broadly ovate, 7 cm. long, dark 
castaneous, lustrous, glabrous above, sparsely sordid-flocculose below; 
blade linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 33 mm. wide, slightly con- 
tracted at the base but not petiolate, densely serrate, the spines 
straight, 3 mm. long, soon glabrous. Scape erect, 15 mm. in diameter, 
subglabrous, its bracts suberect, foliaceous, densely imbricate. 
Inflorescence laxly compound, flocculose, soon glabrous; racemes 
laxly flowered, 15-21 cm. long; rachis stout. Floral bracts ovate, 
acuminate, about half as long as the pedicels. Flowers suberect or 
divergent; pedicels slender, 15-20 mm. long; sepals asymmetrical, 
ovate, acute, 24 mm. long, 8 mm. wide, thick, coriaceous; petals 
narrow, 6 cm. long, cream-colored; stamens included; ovary two- 
thirds superior; ovules caudate. 

Epiphytic in forest. San Martin: Zepelacio, near Moyobamba, 
1,200-1,600 meters, King 3547. Endemic. 

25. Pitcairnia cuzcoensis L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 
98:9. pi. 3, f. 3-5. 1932. 

About 9 dm. high. Leaves dimorphic, the outer reduced to dark 
brown, scale-like, pungent-mucronate sheaths, the inner green, 
narrowed above the sheath but not petiolate, entire except near the 
base, linear-lanceolate, 5-6 dm. long, 25 mm. wide, glabrous above, 
minutely white-puberulent below. Scape erect, slender, scantly 
furfuraceous, its bracts narrowly triangular, acuminate, the upper- 
most shorter than the internodes. Inflorescence a depauperate 
panicle; axis scantly pale-furfuraceous. Floral bracts elliptic- 
lanceolate, acute or acuminate, about equaling the pedicels. Flowers 
suberect to spreading, 4 cm. long, slender, the pedicels slender, 
1 cm. long; sepals narrowly triangular, acuminate, scantly punctu- 
late-lepidote; petals scarlet-red, naked; stamens exserted; ovary 
three-fourths superior. 

Mixed grass and shrub formation. Cuzco: Province of Quis- 
picanchi, Chaupichaca, Marcapata Valley, 1,700 meters, Weber- 
bauer 7825. Endemic. 



526 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

26. Pitcairnia Ruiziana Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 420. 1896. 
Up to 5 dm. high. Only the inner leaves known, these not at all 

contracted above the narrow sheath, sublinear, acuminate, entire, 
with a membrane of subferruginous scales below, 3 dm. long, 8 
mm. wide. Scape erect, glabrous, its bracts leaf -like below, ovate- 
triangular above, exceeding the internodes, glabrous. Inflorescence 
a few-branched panicle, glabrous throughout, lax, narrowly thyrsoid, 
its branches 2 cm. long (without the flowers), suberect, 3-6-flowered. 
Floral bracts lanceolate, acute, 5 mm. long, hyaline, shorter than 
the pedicels. Flowers 42 mm. long, the pedicels slender; sepals 
narrowly subtriangular, 2 cm. long, obtuse-mucronulate; petals 
naked, white or yellowish when dry, exceeding the stamens, narrow, 
acute; ovary more than three-fourths superior. 
Indefinite: Ruiz & Pavon. Endemic. 

27. Pitcairnia ferruginea R. & P. Fl. 3: 36. 1802. Pourretia 
ferruginea Spreng. Syst. Veg. 2: 23. 1825. Pitcairnia asterotricha 
Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. 2: 42. pi. 158. 1838. Puya grandiflora 
Hook. Bot. Mag. 87: pi. 5234. 1861. Pitcairnia consimilis Baker, 
Journ. Bot. 19: 266. 1881. Puya echinotricha Andre", Rev. Hort. 60: 
565. 1888. Pitcairnia echinotricha Baker, Brom. 119. 1889. P. 
Weberbaueri Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 627. 1904. P. cotahuasiana 
Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 788. 1929. P. Herrerae 
Harms, op. cit. 789. 1929. P. imperialis Harms, op. cit. 790. 1929. 
P. latibracteata Harms, op. cit. 788. 1929. P. laresiana Harms, 
Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin. 11: 58. 1930. 

A very variable species. Up to several meters high; stem stout, 
woody, covered with the remains of dead leaves. Leaves all alike, 
densely rosulate, up to 1 meter long and 5 cm. wide, narrowly 
triangular, acuminate, pungent, coarsely spinose-serrate, white- 
lepidote below. Scape stout, rather woody, ferruginous-furfuraceous, 
then glabrous, its bracts ovate, acuminate, serrate. Inflorescence 
usually paniculate, pyramidal, covered with ferruginous stellate 
scales; branches secundly many-flowered. Floral bracts ovate, acute, 
usually shorter than the pedicels. Flowers up to 14 cm. long though 
often much smaller, long-pedicellate; sepals oblong, obtuse, densely 
stellate-ferruginous-lepidote; petals greenish white to various shades 
of purple, usually with 2 vertical calli near the base but varying to 
completely naked in a single flower; ovary two-thirds superior. 

Open or shrubby, rocky hillsides. Amazonas: Near Chacha- 
poyas, Mathews. Huanuco: Near Casapi, Cochero, Poeppig 1531. 
Yanahuanca, ca. 3,300 meters, 1160. Ambo, 2,300 meters, 3148. 



FLORA OF PERU 527 

Mountains near Huanuco, Haenke. Lima: Near Lima, Ruiz & 
Pavdn; Cuming 976; Wilkes Expedition. Rio Blanco, 3,000-3,500 
meters, 711; Killip & Smith 21660. Junin: Tarma, 3,000-3,200 
meters, Killip & Smith 21806. Huacapistana, 1,800-2,400 meters, 
Killip & Smith 24209. Province of Tarma, above Huacapistana on 
the Palca road, 1,700-1,900 meters, Weberbauer 1989. Cuzco: 
Province of Quispicanchi, Paucartambo Valley, Hacienda Capana, 
3,450 meters, Herrera 1075. Province of Calca, Lares Valley above 
Mantoc, 2,500 meters, Weberbauer 7915. Urubamba Valley near 
Yucai, 3,000 meters, Herrera 1463. Province of Cuzco, Sacsahua- 
man, 3,500-3,600 meters, Herrera 857, 1196, 2180, 3085. Vicinity 
of Cuzco, 3,300-3,500 meters, Herrera 61, 125, 164, 426. Province 
of Cuzco, Valle de Oropeza, Sailla, 3,200 meters, Herrera 1760. 
Sicuani, 3,550 meters, Hicken 9. Arequipa: Province of La Union, 
above Alca in the valley of Cotahuasi, 3,000-3,100 meters, Weber- 
bauer 6880. Puno: Near Sandia, 2,100 meters, Weberbauer 570. 
Indefinite: Gay 1921. Ecuador, Bolivia. "Achupalla," "orcco- 
achupalla," "ccoe-achupalla," "china-achupalla." 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Pitcairnia odontopoda Baker was formerly attributed to Peru, 
but is now proved to have been collected in Bolivia. 

5. TILLANDSIA L. 

Caulescent or acaulescent herbs of very variable habit. Leaves 
rosulate or fasciculate or distributed along a stem, polystichous or 
distichous, entire, ligulate or subtriangular. Scape usually distinct. 
Inflorescence various, usually of distichous spikes or sometimes 
reduced to a single polystichous spike by the reduction of the spikes 
to single flowers or rarely the whole inflorescence reduced to a single 
flower. Flowers perfect. Sepals usually symmetric, free, or equally 
or posteriorly joined. Petals free, naked or rarely with vertical folds. 
Stamens of various lengths relative to the petals and to the pistil. 
Ovary superior, glabrous. Ovules usually many and caudate. 
Capsule septicidal. Seeds erect, narrowly cylindric or fusiform; coma 
white, straight, basal. Dedicated to Elias Tillands, 1640-1693, 
Swedish botanist. Over 350 species. Tropical and subtropical 
America, from the southeastern United States, Mexico, Central 
America, and the Antilles, to northern Argentina and Chile. Type 
species, Tillandsia utriculata L. 

Spikes with flowers distichous or secund, or else the inflorescence 
reduced to a single flower. 



528 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Sepals asymmetric, free, oblong or broadest near the apex, not 

over 10 mm. long. 

Inflorescence simple or few-branched, floral bracts membran- 
aceous, nearly twice as long as the sepals. 

Leaves straight 1. T. Seemanni. 

Leaves undulate-crisped 2. T. crispa. 

Inflorescence amply paniculate or the floral bracts shorter than 
the sepals. 

Floral bracts equaling or longer than the sepals. 
Floral bracts even or faintly few-nerved near the margin. 

3. T. triticea. 

Floral bracts closely and prominently nerved. 

4. T. pendulispica. 

Most of the floral bracts distinctly shorter than the sepals. 
Branches of the inflorescence divided. 
Floral bracts and sepals glabrous or sparingly pale- 

lepidote. 

Scape bracts nearly or quite equaling the internodes. 

Flowers more than twice as long as the internodes; 

floral bracts sharply carinate . . 5. T. multiflora. 

Flowers remote; floral bracts scarcely carinate. 

Leaf blade 3 cm. broad .... 6. T. pallidoflavens. 

Leaf blade not over 5 mm. broad. 

7. T. Weberbaueri. 

Scape bracts small, the upper ones less than half as 

long as the internodes 8. T. commixa. 

Floral bracts and sepals densely ferruginous-lepidote. 

9. T.Bakeri. 

Branches of the inflorescence simple. 
Leaf blade not over 2 cm. broad at the base; sepals 3-5 
mm. long. 

Leaf blade linear; scape bracts small, remote. 

10. T. parvi flora. 

Leaf blade narrowly triangular; scape bracts usually 

imbricate 11. T. adpressa. 

Leaf blade over 2 cm. broad ; sepals up to 9 mm. long. 

12. T. tetrantha. 



FLORA OF PERU 529 

Sepals symmetric, broadest near the base, often more than 10 
mm. long. 

Inflorescence of a single terminal or pseudo-axillary spike or 
reduced to a single flower. 

Leaves distichous. 

Stem rarely over 2 dm. long, wholly concealed by the 
imbricate leaf sheaths. 

Leaf blade well over 2 mm. thick, acuminate. 

13. T.Gilliesii. 

Leaf blade not over 2 mm. thick, obtuse. 

Sepals free or equally short-connate; inflorescence 
always terminal. 

Scape bracts 2 or 3 immediately below the first 
floral bract; stem up to 2 dm. long; sepals 
lepidote 14. T. Landbeckii. 

Scape bract only one immediately below the first 
floral bract; stem not over 1 dm. long; sepals 
usually glabrous 15. T. recurvata. 

Sepals connate posteriorly; inflorescence often becom- 
ing pseudo-axillary 16. T. capillaris. 

Stem several meters long, exposed between alternating 
bunches of leaves; inflorescence 1-flowered, pseudo- 
axillary 17. T. usneoides. 

Leaves polystichous. 

Spike lax with the floral bracts less than twice as long as 
the internodes, or reduced to a single flower. 

Flowers strict or spike 1-flowered. 

Leaves not more than 15 mm. long, strict; spike always 
1-flowered 18. T. bryoides. 

Leaves 2-4 cm. long; spike usually several-flowered. 

19. T. loliacea. 
Flowers divergent or spreading. 

Plant caulescent; petals blue 20. T. caerulea. 

Plant stemless; petals yellow 21. T. aurea. 

Spike dense with the floral bracts at least twice as long as 
the internodes. 

Plant caulescent; leaves distributed along the stem. 



530 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaf blades flat, less than 3 times as long as the barely 
distinct sheaths. 

Inflorescence scapose; petals blue or violet. 

22. T. cauligera. 
Inflorescence sessile; petals rose . 23. T. Macbrideana. 

Leaf blades mostly involute-subulate, many times 
longer than the sheaths. 

Floral bracts not over 2 cm. long. 

Floral bracts carinate 43. T. latifolia. 

Floral bracts ecarinate. 

Leaves pungent, strict, appressed- or sub- 
pruinose-lepidote 24. T. caulescens. 

Leaves with soft filiform apices, tomentose- 
lepidote. 

Plant long-caulescent; leaves shorter than the 
stem 25. T. paleacea. 

Plant short-caulescent; leaves much longer 
than the stem 26. T. streptocarpa. 

Floral bracts 4 cm. long 27. T. Werdermannii. 

Plant stemless; leaves rosulate or fasciculate. 
Sepals rarely over 25 mm. long. 

Leaf blades narrowly triangular or linear, long- 
acuminate. 

Floral bracts much exceeding the sepals. 

Floral bracts narrowly lanceolate . . 28. T. patula. 
Floral bracts suborbicular . . .29. T. juruana. 

Floral bracts equaling or shorter than the sepals. 

Leaves strict; floral bracts equaling the sepals; 
petal blades narrow 30. T. floribunda. 

Leaves recurving; floral bracts shorter than the 
sepals; petal blades suborbicular. 

26. T. streptocarpa. 

Leaf blades ligulate, abruptly acute or obtuse and 
apiculate. 

Inflorescences several from a single rosette; floral 
bracts 15 mm. long 31. T. complanata. 



FLORA OF PERU 531 

Inflorescence single, terminal; floral bracts 35-45 
mm. long. (Fruiting specimens of Vriesia 
chrysostachys or of V. heliconioides may be 
sought here.) 

Sepals 35-40 mm. long. 

Floral bracts obtuse, inflated, ecarinate. 

32. T. Walteri. 

Floral bracts acute, sharply carinate . 33. T. Lindeni. 
Inflorescence compound. 

Sheaths of the primary bracts shorter than the axillary 
branches. 

Floral bracts about half as long as the sepals; spikes lax. 
Rachis deeply excavated, winged .... 34. T. platyrhachis. 
Rachis not excavated nor winged. 

Flowers strict; spikes many-flowered, elongate. 

35. T. extensa. 
Flowers divergent; spikes few-flowered, short. 

Petals purple 36. T. humilis. 

Petals yellow with brown spots . 37. T. aureobrunnea. 

Floral bracts equaling or exceeding the sepals or else the 
spikes dense. 

Inflorescence digitate. 

Leaf blades obtuse and apiculate, broadly ligulate. 

38. T. brevilingua. 

Leaf blades acuminate, narrowly triangular or linear. 
Leaves tomentose-lepidote. 

Floral bracts sharply carinate, equaling the sepals; 
stem elongate 39. T. tectorum. 

Floral bracts ecarinate, shorter than the sepals; 
stem short 26. T. streptocarpa. 

Leaves appressed-lepidote. 

Scape short or none 40. T. heteromorpha. 

Scape elongate. 
Leaf sheaths suborbicular, inflated. 

41. T. disticha. 
Leaf sheaths narrowly triangular to elliptic, flat. 



532 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaf blades setaceous, strict. 

Floral bracts lepidote; stamens exserted. 

42. T.juncea, 

Floral bracts glabrous; stamens included. 

30. T. floribunda. 

Leaf blades broader. 

Floral bracts not carinate.22. T. cauligera. 
Floral bracts carinate. 

Floral bracts densely lepidote; leaves 
narrowly triangular . . 43. T. latifolia. 

Floral bracts glabrous; leaves linear. 

44. T. subandina. 

Inflorescence pinnately divided. 

Floral bracts remote, strict 45. T. adpressiflora. 

Floral bracts either imbricate or divergent. 

Branches of the inflorescence divided; inflorescence 
laxly pyramidal. 

Spikes not more than 15 mm. broad. 

Floral bracts carinate; spikes not over 11 cm. 
long, straight. 

Sepals lanceolate, acute 46. T. maculata. 

Sepals oblong, obtuse 47. T. Arnoldiana. 

Floral bracts ecarinate; spikes up to 22 cm. long, 
often curved 48. T. platyphylla. 

Spikes up to 5 cm. broad 49. T. rubra. 

Branches of the inflorescence simple or else the 
inflorescence densely cylindric. 

Floral bracts lepidote. 

Leaf sheath suborbicular, sharply distinct from 
the blade 50. T. Ulei. 

Leaf sheath narrower, scarcely distinct from 
the blade. 

Sepals strongly carinate; petals naked. 

43. T. latifolia. 

Sepals ecarinate; petals bearing vertical calli. 

51. T. Harmsiana. 



FLORA OF PERU 533 

Floral bracts glabrous. 

Inflorescence pendulous, of 3-4 linear spikes. 

52. T. cereicola. 
Inflorescence erect. 
Floral bracts prominently nerved throughout. 

Primary bracts lanceolate or elliptic, not 
caudate. 

Flowers divergent to spreading; bracts 
thin. 

Primary bracts purple, densely lepi- 
dote 53. T. purpurea. 

Primary bracts stramineous, glabrous. 
54. T. straminea. 

Flowers strict; bracts coriaceous. 

Stemless; petal blades narrow. 

55. T.Gayi. 

Caulescent; petal blades suborbicular. 
26. T. streptocarpa. 

Primary bracts broadly ovate, the lower 
ones caudate 56. T. oroyensis. 

Floral bracts even or faintly nerved near apex. 

Leaves with dark cross bands. 

56. T. Roezli. 
Leaves concolorous. 

Spikes perfectly linear, the rachis not 
at all concealed by the floral bracts. 
(Imperfect specimens of Vriesia albi- 
flora Ule may be sought here.) 

Spikes lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 
the rachis almost wholly concealed 
by the floral bracts. . . 49. T. rubra. 

Sheaths of the primary bracts exceeding at least the lower 
axillary branches. 

Inflorescence elongate, interrupted toward base. 

Branches of the inflorescence divided; floral bracts 

carinate 58. T. pinnato-digitata. 

Branches of the inflorescence simple. 



534 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaf blades narrowly triangular, acuminate. 

59. T. interrupta. 
Leaf blades ligulate, acute. 
Spikes densely 4-flowered; floral bracts barely 

carinate near the apex 60. T. ionochroma. 

Spikes laxly 1-3-flowered; floral bracts strongly 

carinate 64. T. biflora. 

Inflorescence compact, not interrupted. 
Floral bracts equaling or exceeding the sepals. 

Rachis elongate, more than half the total length of the 
spike. 

Floral bracts lepidote, nerved 43. T. latifolia. 

Floral bracts glabrous, even .... 61. T. Schimperiana. 
Rachis abbreviated, much less than half the length of 
the few-flowered spike. . . .62. T. sphaerocephala. 
Floral bracts shorter than the sepals. 

Plant caulescent 63. T. calocephala. 

Plant acaulescent. 
Leaf blades linear, not over 2 cm. wide. 

Floral bracts much shorter than the sepals, not at 

all imbricate 64. T. biflora. 

Floral bracts but slightly shorter than the sepals, 

imbricate 65. T. fusco-guttata. 

Leaf blades lance-triangular, 45 mm. wide. 

66. T. Wangerini. 
Spikes single with flowers many-ranked. 

Leaf blades ligulate, often dark-spotted 64. T. biflora. 

Leaf blades narrowly triangular or subulate. 

Floral bracts coriaceous; stamens exserted 42. T. juncea. 

Floral bracts thin; stamens included. 
Sepals lanceolate, membranaceous, connate posteriorly. 

Scape evident 67. T. pulchella. 

Scape none 68. T. nana. 

Sepals suborbicular, coriaceous, free 69. T. latisepala. 

1. Tillandsia Seemanni (Baker) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 737. 
1896. Guzmania Bulliana Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 173. 1887, not 
Andre 1 , 1886. Caraguata pulchella Andre", Rev. Hort. 60: 565. 1888, 



FLORA OF PERU 535 

not Tillandsia pulchella Hook. 1825. G. Seemanni Baker, Brom. 153. 
1889. T. Mezii Andr ex Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 738. 1896. 

Caulescent or acaulescent, 2 dm. high. Leaves 10-15 cm. long, 
thin; sheath broadly ovate, dark brown; blade not over 8 mm. 
broad, narrowly triangular. Scape slender, erect; scape bracts 3 or 
4, suborbicular, clasping the scape, pale-lepidote, shorter than the 
internodes. Inflorescence erect, straight or slightly curved, simple 
or sometimes of 2 spikes, dense, few-flowered; rachis ferruginous- 
tomentose; floral bracts imbricate, 14 mm. long, exceeding the 
flowers, suborbicular, broadly subacute or apiculate, membranaceous, 
strongly nerved, appressed-pale-lepidote. Flowers erect, subsessile, 
12-15 mm. long; sepals 9.5 mm. long, distinctly asymmetrical by a 
large wing, obtuse, submembranaceous, few-nerved, appressed- 
lepidote; petals obtuse, much longer than the stamens; ovary sub- 
globose. 

Cuzco: C. Bues in herb.', Herrera 2152. Ecuador. 

2. Tillandsia crispa (Baker) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 739. 1896. 
Guzmania crispa Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 173. 1887. T. undulifolia 
Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 740. 1896. T. plicatifolia Ule, Verh. Bot. 
Ver. Brandenb. 48: 144. 1907. 

Acaulescent, 1-3 dm. high. Leaves many, densely rosulate, 
finely appressed-lepidote throughout; sheath large, brown-lepidote; 
blade very narrowly triangular, undulate-crisped. Scape erect or 
slightly curved, slender; scape bracts elliptic, subinflated, apiculate 
to finely caudate, appressed-lepidote. Inflorescence of one or of 
several digitate spikes. Spikes oblong, densely 6-36-flowered, 3-8 
cm. long, 15-25 mm. wide; rachis brown-lepidote; floral bracts 9-15 
mm. long, much exceeding the sepals, suborbicular, inflated, lepidote. 
Flowers sessile; sepals 5-8 mm. long, broadly elliptic, asymmetric, 
ecarinate, coriaceous, sparingly lepidote or glabrous, even; petals 
exceeding the sepals; stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,400 meters, Ule 6665. 
Panama, Colombia, Ecuador. 

3. Tillandsia triticea Burch. ex Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 42. 1888. 
T. Parkeri Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 42. 1888. T. viridis Baker, Brom. 
204. 1889. Vriesia viridis Morr. ex. Baker, Brom 204. 1889. V. 
Luschnathii Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 555. pi. 103. 1894. 

Acaulescent, 4-7 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 2-3 dm. long, 
densely punctulate-lepidote throughout; sheath broadly ovate- 
elliptic, brown; blade ligulate, 30-35 mm. broad, obtuse, apiculate, 



536 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

usually with irregular, dark purple mottling. Scape erect, glabrous; 
scape bracts imbricate, narrowly ovate, apiculate, dense'y punctu- 
late-lepidote. Inflorescence laxly compound with simple branches, 
distichous, 2-3 dm. long, glabrous; primary bracts like the scape 
bracts, much shorter than the spikes. Spikes 8.5-15 cm. long, linear, 
flexuous, spreading, 1 cm. broad, often long-stipitate with several 
sterile bracts at the base, 14-36-flowered ; floral bracts broadly ovate, 
acute, 7 mm. long, equaling the sepals, ecarinate, glabrous, coriaceous, 
even or faintly nerved; rachis angled, flexuous. Flowers suberect to 
spreading, normally 3-4 mm. apart, sessile; sepals obovate, glabrous, 
coriaceous, even; petals yellowish; stamens included; ovary broadly 
ellipsoid; style short. Capsule 23 mm. long, slenderly cylindric. 

Epiphytic. Junin: Dense forest, Pichis Trail, San Nicolas, 
1,100 meters, Killip & Smith 26055. Trinidad, British Guiana, 
Brazil, Bolivia. 

4. Tillandsia pendulispica Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 745. 1896. 
T. scorpiura Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 104. 1905. T. triangularis 
Rusby, Descr. So. Amer. PI. 3. 1920. 

Acaulescent, 5 dm. high. Leaves 3 dm. long, densely rosulate, 
coriaceous, densely and finely appressed-lepidote, often dark purple- 
spotted; sheaths very large, ovate, forming an ellipsoid pseudobulb, 
brown-lepidote; blade 8-12 mm. wide, linear or narrowly triangular, 
acuminate. Scape slender, erect, glabrous; scape bracts lanceolate, 
acute, strict, remote. Inflorescence compound with the lower 
branches sometimes divided, composed of 16 spikes; axis scantly 
tomentose-lepidote, becoming glabrous; primary bracts like the 
scape bracts but obtuse, strict, usually much shorter than the stipe 
of the axillary spike. Spikes subdensely 10-20-flowered, oblong, 
5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide with the rachis strongly geniculate or longer 
and narrower when the rachis is more nearly straight, subequal, the 
lower ones long-stipitate and deflexed; rachis tomentose-lepidote, 
becoming glabrous; floral bracts imbricate, ovate to suborbicular, 
7 mm. long, ecarinate, submembranaceous, prominently nerved, 
soon glabrous. Flowers erect, sessile; sepals 5 mm. long, obovate, 
emarginate, cucullate, even, soon glabrous; petals 7 mm. long, 
yellow with opaque dots; stamens included; ovary broadly ellipsoid; 
style short. Capsule cylindric, 13-15 mm. long, short-beaked. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Near Cochero, Poeppig 1348. Junin: 
Hacienda Schunke, La Merced, 1,200 meters, 5784. Puno: Near 
Tambo Cotani on the road between Sandia and Chunchosmayo, 
1,500 meters, Weberbauer 1287. Bolivia. 



FLORA OF PERU 537 

5. Tillandsia multiflora Benth. Bot. Sulph. 174. 1844. T. 
decipiens Andre", Rev. Hort. 60: 567. 1888. 

Acaulescent, 4-8 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 4 dm. long, densely 
punctulate-lepidote; sheaths scarcely distinguished from the blades; 
blades narrowly triangular with a long, caudate tip, 1-3 cm. wide. 
Scape erect, glabrous, its bracts usually imbricate, stramineous, 
punctulate-lepidote, at least the lower ones caudate. Inflorescence 
erect, tripinnate, lax, 4 dm. long, 15 cm. in diameter; primary bracts 
variable in size in relation to the branches, punctulate-lepidote; 
branches spreading; secondary bracts but little larger than the 
floral bracts. Spikes oblong, 3-5 cm. long, 10-13 mm. wide, spread- 
ing, rather densely 15-21-flowered ; rachis geniculate, glabrous. 
Floral bracts ovate, acute, nerved, sharply keeled, 3-5 mm. long, 
scantly lepidote to glabrous. Flowers 6 mm. long, spreading; sepals 
oblong, asymmetric, 5 mm. long; stamens included; pistil short. 
Capsule cylindric, short-beaked, 15-25 mm. long. 

Epiphytic. Piura: Prov. Paita, Talara, Haught 94.. Ecuador. 

6. Tillandsia pallidoflavens Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 36. 1906. 
Plant 1 meter or more high. Leaves about 20, densely sub- 

bulbose-rosulate, 3-4 dm. long, punctulate-lepidote; sheath large, 
elliptic, densely brown-lepidote; blade 3 cm. broad, linear, acumi- 
nate, light green, concolorous. Scape erect, slender, subglabrous; 
scape bracts imbricate, lanceolate, acuminate. Inflorescence erect, 
amply compound, 5 dm. long, 12 cm. in diameter; axis straight; 
branches ascending, 12 cm. long, the lower ones bearing 2-6 spikes; 
primary bracts much shorter than the axillary branches. Spikes 
short-stipitate, laxly 12-flowered, suberect, 4 cm. long; rachis angled, 
flexuous, pale-appressed-lepidote, soon glabrous; floral bracts 4 mm. 
long, shorter than the sepals, subreflexed, triangular, acute, densely 
appressed-lepidote, even, pale yellow. Flowers sessile; sepals 
asymmetric, obtuse, coriaceous, densely pale-lepidote; stamens 
included; style short. 

Epiphytic. Ancash: Prov. Huari, Puccha Valley above Masin, 
2,600-2,700 meters, Weberbauer 3298. Endemic. 

7. Tillandsia Weberbaueri Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 104. 
1905. 

Acaulescent, 3-5 dm. high. Leaves densely bulbous-rosulate, 
2-3 dm. long, covered throughout with hyaline, brown-centered, 
appressed scales; sheaths broadly elliptic; blades 5 mm. wide, linear, 
acuminate. Scape slender, erect, subglabrous; scape bracts nar- 



538 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

rowly lanceolate, acute or acuminate, cinereous-lepidote, the upper 
ones slightly shorter than the internodes. Inflorescence very laxly 
compound with the branches divided, distichous, pyramidal, 12-23 
cm. long, 8-15 cm. in diameter; primary bracts like the scape bracts, 
enfolding the bases of the axillary branches. Spikes oblong, 25-45 
mm. long, 1 cm. wide, laxly 6-14-flowered, long-stipitate; rachis 
slightly geniculate; floral bracts ovate, acute, 2-3 mm. long, not 
keeled, even or obscurely nerved, pale-lepidote. Flowers suberect 
to spreading, sessile; sepals 3-4 mm. long, asymmetric, obovate, 
lepidote, coriaceous; petals scarcely exceeding the sepals, narrow, 
greenish white; stamens included; ovary subglobose; style short. 
Capsule slenderly cylindric, 25 mm. long. 

Epiphytic. Junin: Dense forest, Schunke Hacienda, above San 
Ramon, 1,400-1,700 meters, Kittip & Smith 24543, 24595. Hacienda 
Schunke, La Merced, 1,200 meters, 5757. Puno: Open woods near 
Chunchosmayo, prov. Sandia, 900 meters, Weberbauer 1231 . Endemic. 

8. Tillandsia commixa Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 75. 1919. 
T. parviflora Auct., not R. & P. 1802. T. parvifolia Baker, Journ. 
Bot. 25: 303. 1887; error, not R. & P. 

Acaulescent, 55 cm. high. Leaves ventricose-rosulate, 3 dm. 
long; blade 18 mm. wide, narrowly triangular, acuminate, dark- 
spotted, minutely appressed-lepidote. Scape slender, erect; scape 
bracts few, remote, lepidote, the upper obtuse. Inflorescence laxly 
compound with the lowest branches bearing 2 spikes, 2 dm. long, 1 
dm. in diameter; axis nearly straight, subglabrous; branches 7 cm. 
long, the primary bracts 9 mm. long, enfolding the base of the 
axillary branch, obtuse. Spikes short-stipitate, laxly 18-flowered, 
linear, 4 cm. long, 9 mm. wide, truncate; rachis angled, undulate, 
lepidote; floral bracts 2 mm. long, ovate, obtuse, sparingly lepidote, 
even, subreflexed. Flowers spreading, not at all secund, 4 mm. long; 
sepals asymmetric, broadly elliptic, obtuse; petals 0.5 mm. longer 
than the sepals, yellow, exceeding the stamens. 

Amazonas: Near Chachapoyas, 1840, Mathews. Endemic. 

9. Tillandsia Bakeri L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 95: 45. 
1931. Catopsis flexuosa Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 175. 1887. T. flex- 
uosa Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 744. 1896, not Swartz, 1788. 

Acaulescent, 11 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, erect, 3 dm. long, 
punctulate-lepidote, thin; sheath narrowly ovate, dark brown; 
blade narrowly triangular, caudate-acuminate, light gray-green, 
pale-lepidote. Scape slender, soon glabrous; scape bracts lanceolate, 



FLORA OF PERU 539 

acuminate, submembranaceous, densely punctulate-lepidote, the 
upper ones shorter than the internodes. Inflorescence erect or pendu- 
lous, compound, narrow, 4 dm. long, 14 cm. in diameter, lax; axes 
slightly flexuous, slender; lower branches with a long stipe which 
equals or exceeds the primary bract, composed of 2-3 spikes; second- 
ary bracts not extending beyond the second lowest flower. Spikes 
laxly 8-14-flowered, oblong, 4-5 cm. long, spreading or ascending; 
rachis terete, densely ferruginous-lepidote; floral bracts shorter than 
the mature sepals, ovate, acute, nerved, ferruginous-lepidote. Flow- 
ers suberect to spreading, sessile; sepals 4-5 mm. long, asymmetric, 
elliptic, broadly obtuse, keeled, ferruginous-lepidote; petals 6 mm. 
long, yellow with opaque spots, the limb narrow, acute, spreading; 
stamens included; ovary subglobose; style short. Capsule cylindric, 
acute, short-beaked, 18 mm. long. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Llata, along the Rio Maranon, 2,300 
meters, 2278. Bolivia. 

10. Tillandsia parviflora R. & P. Fl. 3: 41. pi. 269. 1802. 
Platystachys parviflora Beer, Brom. 88. 1857. (1}Pogospermum par- 
viflorum Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 1: 329. 1864. T. exigua Ule, 
Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 145. 1907. 

Acaulescent, less than 3 dm. high. Leaves subbulbous-rosulate, 
15 cm. long, densely and finely pale-lepidote; sheath broadly ovate 
to suborbicular; blade linear. Scape slender, flexuous, erect or 
ascending, pale-lepidote; scape bracts small, narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, pale-lepidote, remote. Inflorescence lax, erect or pen- 
dulous, of 2-7 spikes, pale-lepidote; axis slender, flexuous; primary 
bracts lanceolate, acute or acuminate, not reaching farther than the 
lowest flower of the spike. Spikes linear, laxly 6-20-flowered, usually 
long-stipitate, spreading, flexuous; rachis slender, angled, geniculate 
to nearly straight; floral bracts ovate, acute, about half as long as the 
sepals, nerved, obscurely keeled. Flowers suberect to spreading, 
sessile; sepals 3-4 mm. long, asymmetric; petals slightly exceeding 
the sepals, obtuse, yellow; stamens included; ovary globose; style 
1 mm. long. Capsule cylindric, apiculate. 

Saxicolous and epiphytic. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,200 
meters, Ule 6602. Huanuco: Rio Huallaga Canyon below Rio 
Santo Domingo, 1,300 meters, ^216. Near Muiia, and Huanuco, 
Ruiz & Pawn. Bolivia. 

11. Tillandsia adpressa Andre", Rev. Hort. 60: 566. 1888. 
Catopsis Schumanniana Wittm. Bot. Jahrb. 11: 70. 1889. T. Schu- 



540 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

manniana Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 740. 1896. T. Tonduziana Mez, 
Bot. Jahrb. 30: Beibl. 67: 9. 1901. T. orthiantha Standl. Journ. 
Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 248. 1927. 

Extremely variable in habit, acaulescent, 2-7 dm. high. Leaves 
many, rosulate, usually forming an ovoid pseudobulb, 15-30 cm. 
long, densely punctulate-lepidote; sheath broadly elliptic, dark- 
brown; blade not over 2 cm. broad at base, narrowly triangular, 
involute-subulate at least near the apex, erect or recurved, pale- 
lepidote. Scape ferruginous- or pale-lepidote with minute spreading 
scales; scape bracts narrowly ovate, long-caudate, usually imbricate, 
densely appressed-lepidote. Inflorescence narrow, of 4-12 spikes, 
erect or pendulous; axis straight to strongly geniculate; primary 
bracts narrowly ovate, attenuate to caudate, densely appressed- 
lepidote. Spikes distichous, normally 8-12-flowered ; floral bracts 
shorter than the sepals at maturity, ovate, acute, densely tomentose- 
lepidote. Flowers sessile, spreading, the terminal ones often abor- 
tive; sepals 5 mm. long, obovate, very asymmetric. Capsule cylin- 
dric, apiculate, 20-25 mm. long. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,200 meters, Ule 6601. 
Junin: Thickets and open woods, Huacapistana, 1,800-2,400 
meters, Killip & Smith 24219. Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador. 

12. Tillandsia tetrantha R. & P. Fl. 3: 39. pi. 265. 1802. 
Tussacia fulgens Klotzsch ex Beer, Brom. 100. 1857. T. aurantiaca 
Griseb. Goett. Ges. Wiss. Nachr. 1864: 16. 1865. Catopsis Garckeana 
Wittm. Bot. Jahrb. 11: 70. 1889. 

Extremely variable in habit, acaulescent, 4-8 dm. long. Leaves 
rosulate, densely punctulate-lepidote; sheath large, broadly elliptic, 
dark brown; blade 3-8 cm. broad, linear-lanceolate, usually flat, 
often irregularly purple-spotted. Scape usually much curved, its 
bracts elliptic, long-caudate, inflated, the sheaths shorter than the 
internodes. Inflorescence erect or pendulous; axis more or less 
geniculate, tomentose-lepidote, becoming glabrous; primary bracts 
broadly ovate, apiculate or short-caudate, usually as long as the 
spikes. Spikes distichous, often becoming secund-flowered, spreading 
or reflexed; rachis nearly straight; floral bracts shorter than the 
sepals (minute or wanting in the Peruvian variety), broadly ovate. 
Flowers spreading, sessile or short-stipitate; sepals asymmetric, 
obovate or oblong; petals slightly longer than the sepals; stamens 
included; ovary ovoid; style short. Capsule 3 cm. long, cylindric, 
acute with small beak. 



FLORA OF PERU 541 

Saxicolous and epiphytic. Huanuco: Muna, Ruiz & Pavon. 
Yanano, 2,000 meters, 3768. Cuzco: Prov. Calca, Lares Valley 
above Mantoc, 2,600-2,700 meters, Weberbauer 7913. Venezuela, 
Colombia, Ecuador. 

13. Tillandsia Gilliesii Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 240. 1878. T. 
compressa Gill, ex Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 240. 1878, in synon., not 
Bertero. T. andicola Gill, of Wittm. in Reiss & Stuebel, Todtenfeld 
v. Ancon pi 106, f. 15, not Gill. 

Plant over 2 dm. long. Stems many from a single point, forming 
a dense mass, up to 8 cm. long, simple or few-branched. Roots 
present. Leaves distichous, 2-8 cm. long, densely subappressed- 
lepidote; sheaths broadly oblong, merging imperceptibly with the 
blade, densely imbricate, making the stem appear 5-7 mm. thick; 
blades arching-recurved, narrowly triangular, much compressed 
laterally, acuminate. Scape distinct to almost lacking, terminal or 
pseudoaxillary, up to 13 cm. long, appressed-lepidote, naked or 
bearing a single lanceolate, involute bract. Inflorescence 1-3- 
flowered, densely cinereous-lepidote. Floral bracts erect, lance- 
ovate, acute, 2 cm. long, usually equaling or exceeding the sepals, 
ecarinate, thin. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, 16 mm. long, lepidote, 
subfree; petals narrow; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. 
Capsule slenderly cylindric, 25 mm. long. 

Epiphytic. Arequipa: Below Tingo, Rose 19014- Arequipa, 
2,500 meters, Tate 1196. Bolivia, Argentina. 

14. Tillandsia Landbeckii Phil. Linnaea 33: 248. 1864. T. 
recurvata Auct., not L. 1762. 

Flowering plant 3 dm. long. Stems densely massed, 2 dm. long, 
slender. Roots soon lost. Leaves laxly distichous, 6-12 cm. long, 
densely cinereous-lepidote; sheaths laxly imbricate; blades linear, 
terete, 1-1.5 mm. thick. Scape terminal, slender, densely cinereous- 
lepidote, its bracts 2 or 3 immediately below the inflorescence, linear- 
lanceolate, densely lepidote. Inflorescence 1-2-flowered. Floral 
bracts like the scape bracts, equaling the sepals. Sepals elliptic, 
acute, 1 cm. long, thin, sparsely lepidote, subfree; petals ligulate, 
obtuse, yellow; stamens deeply included, slightly exceeding the 
pistil. Capsule 22 mm. long. 

Terrestrial and epiphytic. lea: Foggy crests of Sangayan 
Island, 300-440 meters, Murphy 3468. Viejas Island, on crumbling 
rocks at summit, Murphy 3221 . Ecuador, Chile. 



542 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

15. Tillandsia recurvata L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 410. 1762. Reneal- 
mia recurvata L. Sp. PI. 287. 1753. T. uniflora HBK. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 1: 290. 1816. Diaphoranthema uniflora Beer, Brom. 154. 1857. 
D. recurvata Beer, Brom. 156. 1857. 

Plant 4-23 cm. long. Stems densely massed, simple or few- 
branched, 1-10 cm. long. Roots present. Leaves distichous, 3-17 
cm. long, densely pruinose-lepidote; sheaths imbricate and com- 
pletely concealing the stem; blades erect to recurved, linear, terete, 
0.5-2 mm. in diameter. Scape terminal, slender, its bracts linear- 
lanceolate, usually only one immediately below the inflorescence. 
Inflorescence 1-5-flowered, dense. Floral bracts like the scape 
bracts, about equaling the sepals, densely lepidote. Sepals lanceo- 
late, 4-9 mm. long, subfree, mostly glabrous; petals narrow, obtuse; 
stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. Capsule slenderly 
cylindric, up to 3 cm. long. 

Terrestrial and epiphytic. Piura: Cerro Prieto, Haught 215. 
Huanuco and Junin: Ruiz & Pavdn. Lima: Chosica, 2880. Matu- 
cana, 457 in part. Obrajillo, Mathews 650 in part. Southern 
United States to northern Argentina and Chile. 

16. Tillandsia capillaris R. & P. Fl. 3: 42. pi. 271, f. c. 1802. 
T. virescens R. & P. Fl. 3: 43. pi. 270, f. b. 1802. T. propinqua Gay, 
Fl. Chil. 6: 15. 1853. Diaphoranthema capillaris Beer, Brom. 153. 
1857. D. virescens Beer, Brom. 154. 1857. T. lanuginosa Gill, ex 
Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 237. 1878, in synon. T. pusilla Gill, ex 
Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 237. 1878. T. incana Gill, ex Baker, Journ. 
Bot. 16: 238. 1878, in synon. T. cordobensis Hieron. Icon. & Descr. 
Argent. 10. pi. 3,f.l. 1885. T. Stolpi Phil. Anal. Univ. Chile 91: 
614. 1895. T. Hieronymi Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 876. 1896. T. 
dependens Hieron. ex Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 880. 1896. T. Wil- 
liamsii Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 6: 489. 1910. 

Varying between several well-marked forms by numberless 
intergradations, caulescent, up to 16 cm. long. Roots present. 
Stems many from a single point, densely massed, simple or branched. 
Leaves distichous, mostly 1-4 cm. long, densely pruinose-lepidote; 
sheaths elliptic, thin; blades erect to spreading, linear and less than 

2 mm. thick in the Peruvian forms. Scape often pseudo-axillary, 
from almost none to 8 cm. long, slender, naked, glabrous or sparsely 
lepidote toward the apex, developed almost wholly after anthesis. 
Inflorescence 1- or rarely 2-flowered. Floral bracts ovate, thin with 

3 or more nerves, densely lepidote to glabrous, usually equaling or 



FLORA OF PERU 543 

exceeding the sepals. Sepals lanceolate, 8 mm. long, connate 
posteriorly; petals linear; stamens deeply included, exceeding the 
pistil. 

Saxicolous and epiphytic. Huanuco: Ruiz & Pav6n. Huanuco, 
2,300 meters, 2035. Lima: Matucana, 2,700 meters, 457 in part; 
Rose 18661 . Rio Blanco, 3,000-3,500 meters, Killip & Smith 21640. 
Junin: Tarma, 3,000-3,200 meters, Mathews 650 in part; Killip & 
Smith 21785, 21940. Oroya, Kalenborn 177; Stevens 14- Casa- 
cancha to Culnai, Wilkes Expedition. Tarma to Oroya, Weber- 
bauer 2555. Cuzco: Ollantaitambo, 2,900-3,100 meters, Cook & 
Gilbert 550; Pennell 13659. Mollepata, valley of the Apurimac, 
2,750 meters, Hen era 1206. Sicuani, 3,550 meters, Hicken 10. 
Cuzco, Rose 19033; Herrera 47, 821; C. Watkins. Arequipa: 
Near Arequipa, 2,500 meters, R. S. Williams 2530. Yura, 2,800 
meters, R. S. Williams 2539. Puno: Near Puno, 3,125 meters, 
Shepard 48. Indefinite: Ruiz & Pawn; Dombey 162; C. Gay 546; 
Meyen; Stuebel. Bolivia, Argentina, Chile. "Huachuacsso," "huay- 
huago." 

17. Tillandsia usneoides L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 411. 1762. Renealmia 
usneoides L. Sp. PI. 287. 1753. T. trichoides HBK. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 1: 290. 1816. Dendropogon usneoides Raf. Fl. Tellur. 4: 25. 1838. 
Strepsia usneoides Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 645. 1841. T. crinita 
Willd. ex Beer, Brom. 152. 1857. 

Plant hanging from trees in branching strands up to 8 meters 
long. Roots lacking from the first. Stem sympodial, less than 1 mm. 
thick, the internodes 3-6 cm. long with only the extreme base 
covered by the leaf, the pseudo-axillary branches very short, con- 
cealed by the basal leaf, bearing 2-3 leaves. Leaves distichous, 25- 
50 mm. long, densely lepidote; sheaths elliptic, 8 mm. long; blades 
filiform, less than 1 mm. thick. Scape none. Inflorescence reduced 
to a single flower, pseudo-terminal. Floral bract ovate, apiculate or 
caudate, densely lepidote, shorter than the sepals. Sepals nar- 
rowly ovate, acute, 7 mm. long; petals linear, 11 mm. long, pale 
green or blue; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil; capsule 
cylindric, 25 mm. long, abruptly short-beaked. 

Always epiphytic; widely distributed and common. Piura: 
Cerro Prieto, Haught F-124. Huanuco: Near Huanuco, 2378. 
Lima: Matucana, Rose 18671. Cuzco: Valle del Paucartambo, 
3,000 meters, Herrera 3378. Cuzco, 3,200-3,500 meters, Herrera 
246, 820. Ollantaitambo, 2,800 meters, Herrera 128. Hacienda 



544 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Capana, valley of the Paucartambo, Herrera 39. Indefinite: 
Ruiz & Pavdn; A. Diehl 2566 a; Dombey 161 ; Mathews 652; Philippi. 
(See Weberbauer in Engler & Drude, Veg. Erde, Peruanischen 
Anden, for further details. ) Southern United States to central Argen- 
tina and Chile. "Salvaje," "salvajina." 

18. Tillandsia bryoides Griseb. ex Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 
236. 1878, emend. L. B. Smith, Proc. Amer. Acad. Sci. 70: 192. 1935. 
T. coarctata Gillies ex Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 236. 1878, in synon., 
not Willd. 1830. 

Habit like that of Lycopodium Selago. Stems many from a single 
point, densely massed, simple or few-branched, 5 cm. long. Leaves 
densely polystichous, strict, 4-9 mm. long; sheath ovate to sub- 
orbicular, as long as the blade, scarious, 3-nerved ; blade subtriangular, 
acute, 2 mm. thick, densely cinereous-lepidote. Scape lacking or 
elongating only after anthesis, erect, slender, glabrous, usually naked, 
3 cm. long. Inflorescence usually terminal, 1-flowered. Floral 
bract 7 mm. long, triangular-ovate, hyaline, 1-nerved, usually 
glabrous. Sepals narrowly elliptic, 5-9 mm. long, 3-nerved; petals 
linear, fleshy, yellow; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. 
Capsule slenderly cylindric, 17 mm. long, abruptly short-beaked. 

Epiphytic and saxicolous. Indefinite: Gay 1574; Weberbauer. 
Bolivia, Argentina. 

19. Tillandsia loliacea Mart, ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1204. 
1830. T. undulata Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 240. 1878. T. quadriflora 
Baker, Brom. 163. 1889, in part. T. atrichoides S. Moore, Trans. 
Linn. Soc. II. 4: 491. 1895. 

Plants up to 17 cm. long. Roots present. Stem simple or 
branched, 4 cm. long. Leaves densely polystichous, 2-3 cm. long, 
densely and coarsely pruinose-lepidote; blades erect to arching- 
secund, rigid, linear-triangular, acuminate, 3-5 mm. broad. Scape 
terminal, up to 1 dm. long, less than 1 mm. thick, lepidote, its 
bracts numerous, about equaling the internodes, elliptic, acute, 
densely lepidote. Inflorescence simple, 4 cm. long; rachis geniculate, 
lepidote. Floral bracts remote, not at all imbricate, closely enfold- 
ing the flowers, ovate, acute, 8 mm. long, equaling or shorter than the 
sepals, thin, nerved, densely lepidote. Flowers erect and appressed 
to the rachis, subsessile; sepals lanceolate, acute, glabrous; petals 
narrow, 1 cm. long; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. 
Capsule slenderly cylindric, short-beaked, 45 mm. long. 



FLORA OF PERU 545 

Terrestrial and epiphytic. Indefinite: Mathews. Brazil, Bolivia, 
Paraguay, Argentina. 

20. Tillandsia caerulea HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 291. 1816. 
T. squamulosa Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1209. 1830, in synon. 
Diaphoranthema squamulosa Beer, Brom. 266. 1857. 

Plants up to 25 cm. long, sometimes pulvinate. Roots lacking. 
Stem simple, 4-6 cm. long. Leaves polystichous, 10-15 cm. long, 
densely spreading-lepidote, cinereous; sheaths ovate, 1 cm. long; 
blades spreading to reflexed, involute-subulate, soft, 2 mm. thick. 
Scape terminal, erect, 15 cm. long, 1 mm. thick, lepidote. Inflores- 
cence simple, 4-7 cm. long, lax; rachis very slender, lepidote. Floral 
bracts divergent, closely enfolding the calyx, barely exceeding the 
internodes, elliptic, acute, 15 mm. long, equaling or exceeding the 
sepals, chartaceous, nerved, lepidote. Sepals lanceolate, acute, 
thin, glabrous; petals 2 cm. long, the claw linear, the blade sub- 
rhombic, 7 mm. wide, blue; stamens deeply included, exceeding the 
pistil. 

Epiphytic. Piura: Rio Macara, Humboldt & Bonpland 344%- 
Saucecito, about 40 miles north of Sullana, Negritos, Haught F-ll. 
Amotape Mountains, Haught 128. Ecuador. 

21. Tillandsia aurea Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 44. 1906. 
Stemless, 3 dm. high. Leaves irregularly rosulate, uncinate- 

recurved, coarsely pruinose-lepidote; sheaths scarcely distinct from 
the blades; blades narrowly triangular, acuminate, 75 mm. long, 
15 mm. wide. Scape slender, elongate, erect, lepidote, its bracts 
narrow, acute or the lowest laminate, mostly shorter than the 
internodes, submembranaceous, densely lepidote. Inflorescence 
simple, laxly 6-flowered, 9 cm. long; axis undulate, densely lepidote. 
Floral bracts elliptic, acute, 14 mm. long, shorter than the sepals, 
submembranaceous, lepidote. Flowers divergent, the pedicels 2.5 
mm. long; sepals lanceolate, acute, glabrous; petals yellow, the 
blades 1 cm. long, broadly elliptic, spreading; stamens deeply 
included, exceeding the pistil. Capsule cylindric, acuminate, 35 mm. 
long. 

Epiphytic. Ancash: Prov. Huari, Puccha Valley above Masin, 
2,600-2,700 meters, Weberbauer 3297. Endemic. 

22. Tillandsia cauligera Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 42. 1906. 
Stem simple, 6 dm. long. Leaves densely polystichous, 21 cm. 

long, cinereous, densely pruinose-lepidote; sheath ovate, 30-45 mm. 



546 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

broad, half as long as the blade and merging into it; blades suberect 
or slightly secund, triangular, acuminate, rigid. Scape terminal, 
erect, 3-25 cm. long, its bracts densely imbricate, striate, densely 
lepidote, the lower ones foliaceous-laminate, the upper acute or 
apiculate, often bright red. Inflorescence simple or rarely with a 
small second spike. Primary bract much shorter than the spike. 
Spike lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute, complanate, 8-9 cm. long, 
densely 10-14-flowered. Floral bracts 3-4 times as long as the 
internodes, completely concealing the rachis, ovate, 20-25 mm. long, 
exceeding the sepals, ecarinate, reddish, striate, lepidote. Sepals 
elliptic, chartaceous, soon glabrous, short-connate posteriorly; 
petals 37 mm. long, blue; stamens and style included. 

Saxicolous. Cajamarca: Hacienda La Tahona, near Hualgayoc, 
2,600 meters, Weberbauer 4050. Junin: Between Tarma and Palca, 
2,700-3,000 meters, Weberbauer 2415. Tarma, 3,000-3,200 meters, 
Killip & Smith 21803. Cuzco: Ollantaitambo, 3,000 meters, 
Cook & Gilbert 568, 785. Cuzco, 3,000-3,600 meters, Herrera. 
Endemic. "Salvajina," "oquenhueycontoy." 

23. Tillandsia Macbrideana L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 
89: 11. pi. 2,f. 1-3. 1930. 

Plant over 3 dm. long. Roots present. Stem much branched. 
Leaves densely polystichous, 3-4 cm. long, densely appressed-lepi- 
dote, cinereous; sheath broadly elliptic, scarcely distinct from the 
blade and over half as long; blade triangular, acuminate, recurving. 
Scape none. Inflorescence terminal, simple, lanceolate, acute, 4 
cm. long, 15 mm. broad, 5-10-flowered ; rachis nearly straight, 
glabrous. Floral bracts erect, 3-4 times as long as the internodes 
but so narrow as to expose most of the rachis, lanceolate, 2 cm. 
long, exceeding the sepals, ecarinate, striate, submembranaceous, 
densely appressed-lepidote at first, rose. Sepals narrowly lanceo- 
late, carinate, glabrous, connate posteriorly for 5 mm.; petals 
25 mm. long, narrow, obtuse, rose; stamens and pistil shorter than 
the petals. 

Saxicolous. Huanuco: On eastern face of rock cliffs, Llata, 2,100 
meters, 2258. Endemic. 

24. Tillandsia caulescens Brongn. ex Baker, Brom. 168. 1889. 
Plant up to 45 cm. long. Roots present. Stem much branched, 3 

dm. long. Leaves very numerous, densely polystichous, rigid, 10-15 
cm. long, densely appressed- or subpruinose-lepidote; sheath sub- 
triangular, several times shorter than the blade; blade linear- 



FLORA OF PERU 547 

triangular, acuminate, involute, pungent. Scape distinct to almost 
none, terminal. Scape bracts densely imbricate, the lower foliaceous, 
the upper elliptic, nerved, roseate, lepidote. Inflorescence simple, 
linear or lance-linear, acute, complanate, 14-flowered, 5-7 cm. long, 
10-12 mm. wide. Floral bracts erect, 3 times the length of the 
internodes, lance-ovate, acute, 15-20 mm. long, exceeding the 
sepals, ecarinate, subcoriaceous, faintly nerved, glabrous, roseate. 
Flowers 25 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, acute, glabrous; petals 
ligulate, white, exceeding the stamens and pistil. 

Cuzco: Near Ollantaitambo, Prov. Urubamba, 2,900 meters, 
Herrera 825. Indefinite: C. Gay 1186. Quebrada Versalles, Diehl 
2451. Bolivia. 

25. Tillandsia paleacea Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 125. 1827. 
T. fusca Baker, Journ. Bot. 16: 240. 1878. T. scalarifoUa Baker, 
Journ. Bot. 25: 235. 1887. T. Schenckiana Wittm. Bot. Jahrb. 11: 
63. 1889. T. chilensis Baker, Brom. 166. 1889. T. lanata Mez, 
Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 109. 1905. T. farillosa Mez, Repert. Nov. 
Spec. 3: 43. 1906. 

Plant 1-7 dm. long. Roots present at first. Stem at least 
35 cm. long, much branched. Leaves polystichous in few rows, 
cinereous, tomentose-lepidote; sheaths broad; blades abruptly 
spreading, contorted, linear-triangular, 4-6 mm. wide, involute- 
subulate, up to 12 cm. long. Scape slender, from very short to over 
15 cm. long, glabrous or subglabrous, its bracts usually imbricate, 
narrowly elliptic, lepidote, the lower ones filiform-laminate. Inflo- 
rescence simple, linear-lanceolate, acute, complanate, 5 cm. long, 12- 
flowered. Floral bracts imbricate, 3 times as long as the internodes, 
ovate or elliptic, about equaling the sepals, 12-17 mm. long, ecari- 
nate, nerved, lepidote at first. Sepals lanceolate, free, glabrous; 
petals with a narrow claw and a large, suborbicular, spreading, blue 
or violet blade; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. Cap- 
sule cylindric, 2 cm. long. 

Epiphytic and terrestrial. San Martin: Near Moyobamba, 
Stuebel 62b. Lima: Obrajillo, Brackenridge in Wilkes Exped. Near 
Matucana, 2,370 meters, Weberbauer 1697. Chosica, 1,000 meters, 
2879. Cuzco: Prov. Urubamba, near Ollantaitambo, 2,800-3,000 
meters, Weberbauer 4983; Cook & Gilbert 554; Herrera 702, 801. 
Torontoy, Urubamba Valley, 2,400 meters, Cook & Gilbert 1774 
Arequipa : Cachendo, 1,000 meters, Guenther & Buchtien 357. Colom- 
bia, Bolivia, Chile. 



548 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

26. Tillandsia streptocarpa Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 241. 1887. 

T. tricholepis Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 234. 1887, not Baker, Journ. 
Bot. 1878. T. Bakeriana Britten, Journ. Bot. 26: 170. 1888. 

Stemless or short-caulescent, 4 dm. high. Leaves 25 cm. long, 
densely tomentose-lepidote; sheaths broadly ovate; blades linear- 
triangular, 15 mm. broad, involute-subulate at least toward the apex, 
recurving. Scape erect, slender, glabrous, its bracts lanceolate, 
acute, imbricate, striate, densely lepidote. Inflorescence compound 
or rarely simple; spikes 5-8-flowered, narrow, the lateral ones 
arching-decurved. Floral bracts lanceolate, acute, glabrous, shorter 
than the sepals. Flowers erect; sepals free, 12.5 mm. long, ecarinate, 
glabrous; petals 23 mm. long, the claw linear, the blade broadly 
obovate, violet; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. 
Capsule cylindric. 

Epiphytic. San Martin: Salinas de Pilluana on the Rio Hua- 
llaga, Vie 6663. Cuzco: Pumachaca, Santa Ana Valley, 1,400 meters, 
Herrera 314- Indefinite: C. Gay 9093. Brazil, Paraguay. 

27. Tillandsia Werdermannii Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 10: 218. 1928. 

At least 5 dm. long. Roots lacking. Stem procumbent, 2 dm. 
long, much branched, some of the branches apparently breaking 
away and serving to propagate the species vegetatively. Leaves 
densely polystichous, 15-20 cm. long, densely cinereous-lepidote; 
sheaths indistinct, mostly less than 3 cm. long; blades suberect, 
linear- triangular, 10-15 mm. broad, involute-subulate, rigid. Scape 
terminal, 2-3 dm. long, 4 mm. thick, glabrous, its bracts erect, 
densely imbricate, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 5-8 cm. long, 
subcoriaceous, nerved, appressed-lepidote. Inflorescence simple, 
linear, 2 cm. broad, scarcely enlarged from the scape. Floral bracts 
like the scape bracts but glabrous, 4 cm. long, 3-4 times as long as 
the internodes, much exceeding the sepals, erect, ecarinate. Flowers 
very short-pedicellate; sepals linear-lanceolate, broadly acute, 25 
mm. long, glabrous; petals many and stamens and pistil aborted as 
apparent beginning of a viviparous flower. 

Terrestrial. Tacna: Above Tacna, 800-1,200 meters, Werder- 
mann 717. Endemic. 

28. Tillandsia patula Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 35. 1906. 
Cespitose, stout, 4 dm. high. Leaves subbulbous-rosulate, 

2 dm. long, densely lepidote, brownish gray; sheath broad, ovate- 
triangular; blade 25 mm. broad, linear-triangular, acuminate, the 



FLORA OF PERU 549 

apex involute-subulate. Scape stout, its bracts imbricate, elliptic, 
lepidote, only the lowest laminate. Inflorescence simple, erect or 
pendulous. Floral bracts imbricate but so narrow as not to conceal 
the rachis, 45 mm. long, much exceeding the sepals, recurved- 
spreading at the apex, glabrous, striate. Rachis glabrous, straight, 
wing-angled. Flowers suberect, short-stipitate, 7 cm. long; sepals 
free, glabrous, elliptic, narrowly obtuse, 24 mm. long, nerved; 
petals yellow, tubular-erect, shorter than the stamens; style elongate. 
Junin: Prov. Tarma, above Huacapistana on the Palca road, 
1,900-2,000 meters, Weberbauer 2012. Carpapata, above Huaca- 
pistana, 2,400 meters, Killip & Smith 24349- Endemic. 

29. Tillandsia juruana Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
143. 1907. 

Cespitose, 5 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 36 cm. long, densely and 
finely appressed-lepidote, the outermost ones much reduced and 
scale-like; sheaths narrowly ovate, forming an ovoid pseudobulb; 
blades of the inner leaves linear, thick, abruptly acute. Scape erect 
or ascending, slender, its bracts broadly elliptic, amplexicaul, 
inflated, striate, all but the uppermost long-laminate. Inflorescence 
simple, distichous; rachis slender, geniculate, largely concealed by 
the bracts; floral bracts purple, submembranaceous, suborbicular, 
obtuse or minutely apiculate, 3 cm. long, much exceeding the sepals, 
densely and minutely appressed-lepidote. Flowers erect, 4-7 cm. 
long; sepals free, lanceolate, acute, 24 mm. long, finely appressed- 
lepidote; petals red, tubular-erect, shorter than the stamens; style 
elongate. Capsule cylindric, acute, beaked. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, 
Killip & Smith 29914; King 1020, 1059, 1197. Caballo-cocha 
on the Amazon, Williams 2251. Brazil. 

30. Tillandsia floribunda HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 292. 1816. 
Platystachys floribunda Beer, Brom. 264. 1857. T. coarctata Willd. 
in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1217. 1830. 

Cespitose, 2-3 dm. high. Leaves many, densely fasciculate, 
densely and finely cinereous-lepidote, 2-4 dm. long; sheaths sub- 
triangular; blades filiform-subulate, stiff. Scape erect, its bracts 
leaf-like, densely imbricate. Inflorescence simple or of several 
densely digitate spikes; primary bracts like the scape bracts. Spikes 
sessile, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 12-flowered; floral bracts 
ovate, 11-15 mm. long, glabrous, even, strongly carinate, equaling 
the sepals, densely imbricate. Flowers subsessile, 2 cm. long; sepals 



550 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

elliptic, acute, strongly carinate, coriaceous, glabrous; petals violet; 
stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Piura: Aipate and Guamani Mountains near Olleros, 
Humboldt & Bonpland. Cape Parinas, Haught 213. Cerro Prieto, 
Amotape Hills, 700 meters, Haught F '-127. Ecuador. 

31. Tillandsia complanata Benth. Bot. Sulph. 173. 1845. 
T. axillaris Griseb. Goett. Ges. Wiss. Nachr. 1864: 17. 1865. 

Plant stemless. Leaves many in a dense rosette, 3-4 dm. long, 
mostly exceeding the inflorescences, spotted, streaked or suffused 
with dark purple especially toward the base; sheath elliptic, 10-16 
cm. long, densely and minutely brown-appressed-lepidote; blade 
ligulate, abruptly acute or obtuse, apiculate, 3-5 cm. wide, obscurely 
punctulate-lepidote. Scapes many from the axils of the leaves, 
ascending, slender, glabrous, their bracts erect, usually imbricate, 
narrowly lanceolate. Inflorescences simple, lanceolate or linear, 
acute, densely 4-24-flowered, up to 8 cm. long, 15-20 mm. wide, 
complanate, glabrous. Floral bracts erect, imbricate, elliptic, obtuse, 
15-25 mm. long, exceeding the sepals, ecarinate. Flowers subsessile; 
sepals lanceolate, acute, subcoriaceous, the posterior ones carinate 
and usually much connate; petals ligulate, cm. long, rose, purple, 
or blue, obtuse; stamens and pistil slightly shorter than the petals. 
Capsule slenderly cylindric, acute, 4 cm. long. 

Epiphytic. Amazonas: Heights east of Chachapoyas, Weber- 
bauer 4400. San Martin: San Roque, 1,350-1,500 meters, Wil- 
liams 7203. Junin: Huacapistana, 1,800 meters, Killip & Smith 
24280. Antilles, Trinidad, Guiana, Venezuela, Colombia, Costa 
Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia. 

32. Tillandsia Walteri Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 43. 1906. 
T. Herrerae Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 215. 1928. 

Stemless, 5 dm. high. Leaves many, densely utriculate-rosulate, 
cinereous-lepidote; sheaths longer than the blades, narrowly ovate; 
blades narrowly triangular, 2 dm. long, 4 cm. wide. Scape stout, 
erect, its bracts imbricate, densely lepidote, rigid, nerved, the lower 
ones caudate. Inflorescence simple, densely distichous, 12-16- 
flowered, lanceolate, 2 dm. long, 4 cm. wide. Floral bracts imbricate, 
inflated, ecarinate, obtuse, broadly elliptic, 5 cm. long, exceeding 
the sepals, nerved. Flowers with stout pedicels 4 mm. long; sepals 
free, glabrous, nerved, obtuse; petals violet, 2 cm. longer than the 
sepals; stamens included. 



FLORA OF PERU 551 

Terrestrial. Amazonas: Open places on the route south of 
Chachapoyas, 2,400-2,500 meters, Weberbauer 4319. Cuzco: Vicin- 
ity of Cuzco, Herrera 181,1195. Bolivia. 

33. Tillandsia Lindeni E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 19: 321. pi. 18. 
1869, not T. Lindeniana, Regel, 1868. Vriesia Lindeni Lem. 111. 
Hort. 16: pi. 610. 1869. T. Morreniana Regel, Gartenfl. 19: 41. 1870. 
Wattisia Lindeni E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 20: 102. 1870. Phytarhiza 
Lindeni E. Morr. ex Baker, Brom. 210. 1889, in synon. 

Cespitose. Leaves rosulate, 2-3 dm. long; blades narrowly 
triangular, acuminate, 1-2 cm. broad, recurving. Scape erect, short, 
largely concealed by the leaves, its bracts even, densely imbricate, 
not at all foliaceous. Inflorescence simple, very dense, about 20- 
flowered, broadly lanceolate, complanate. Floral bracts broadly 
ovate, acute, 4 cm. long, exceeding the sepals, even, glabrous, deep 
rose when fresh. Flowers subsessile; sepals free, lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, glabrous; petals more than twice as long as the sepals, the 
claw linear, white, the blade very large, broadly ovate, apiculate, 
deep bluish purple; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. 

Epiphytic. Piura: Forests, Huancabamba, Wallis. Ecuador. 

34. Tillandsia platyrhachis Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 848. 1896. 
Stemless, up to 6 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 6-7 dm. long, 

densely and minutely pale-appressed-lepidote below, glabrous above; 
sheath ovate, inconspicuous; blade ligulate, acute, thin, 35 mm. 
broad. Scape stout, erect, its bracts foliaceous, densely imbricate. 
Inflorescence bipinnate or with the lowest branches slightly divided, 
lax, glabrous; primary bracts triangular, acuminate, minutely 
lepidote. Spikes short-stipitate, oblong, obtuse, 15 cm. long; rachis 
geniculate, broadly winged, forming pouches into which the flowers 
fit before maturity, the wings prolonged onto the base of each floral 
bract, whitish in drying; floral bracts suberect to spreading, elliptic, 
obtuse, 2-3 cm. long, much shorter than the sepals, striate, miniate, 
the margins white on drying. Flowers distinctly pedicellate; sepals 
free, elliptic, striate, the margins white on drying; petals 1 cm. 
longer than the sepals, the blade suborbicular, spreading, deep 
violet; stamens deeply included, exceeding the pistil. 

Terrestrial. Junin: In dense forest, Schunke Hacienda above 
San Ramon, 1,400-1,700 meters, Killip & Smith 24604. Colombia, 
Ecuador. 



552 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

35. Tillandsia extensa Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 33. 1906. 
One meter high. Leaves 8 dm. long, densely appressed-lepidote; 

sheath ovate, large; blade narrowly triangular, acuminate, 6 cm. 
broad at the base. Scape erect, stout, its bracts foliaceous, densely 
imbricate. Inflorescence amply 4-pinnate; axis stout; branches 
up to 4 dm. long, spreading, with a single prophyllum on the sterile 
base. Spikes linear, nearly straight, 16 cm. long, 15 mm. broad, 
densely 16-flowered; rachis glabrous, angled, sulcate; secondary 
bracts but slightly larger than the floral bracts. Floral bracts 
erect or nearly so, not imbricate, elliptic, much shorter than the 
sepals, glabrous, strongly nerved. Flowers stoutly pedicellate for 
5 mm., 4 cm. long; sepals obtuse, 25 mm. long, glabrous, strongly 
nerved, ecarinate; petals ligulate, tubular-erect, violet; stamens 
exserted. 

Saxicolous. Ancash: Valley above Masin, Prov. Huari, 2,500 
meters, Weberbauer 3296. Endemic. 

36. Tillandsia humilis Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 125. 1827. T. 
Mathewsii Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 236. 1887. T. Dombeyi Baker, 
Brom. 199. 1889. 

Short-caulescent, up to 3 dm. high. Leaves rosulate or poly- 
stichous along the stem, 13 cm. long, densely and coarsely tomen- 
tose-lepidote, cinereous; sheath scarcely distinct; blade narrowly 
triangular, acuminate, involute, recurving. Scape slender, erect, 
densely pale-lepidote, its bracts elliptic, imbricate, long-laminate. 
Inflorescence few-branched, ellipsoid, up to 9 cm. long; primary 
bracts elliptic, acute, densely lepidote, much shorter than the 
spikes. Spikes laxly few-flowered; rachis geniculate, densely white- 
lepidote. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, much shorter than the 
sepals, purplish, densely lepidote. Flowers subsessile, 26 mm. long; 
sepals free, lanceolate, acuminate, 18 mm. long, membranaceous, 
densely lepidote; petals purple; stamens and pistil included. 

Lima or Junin: Near Obrajillo and Tarma, Mathews 651. 
Indefinite: Haenke; Dombey. Endemic, 

37. Tillandsia aureobrunnea Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 36. 
1906. 

Stemless or short-caulescent, up to 4 dm. high. Leaves densely 
and coarsely pruinose-lepidote, up to 3 dm. long, 25 mm. wide; 
sheath scarcely distinct; blade narrowly triangular, acuminate. 
Scape slender, erect, shorter than the leaves, densely lepidote, its 
bracts involute, densely lepidote, long-laminate. Inflorescence of a 



FLORA OF PERU 553 

few spikes; primary bracts elliptic, acute, shorter than the spikes. 
Spikes laxly 7-flowered, suberect, 6 cm. long; rachis geniculate, 
densely lepidote. Floral bracts elliptic, acute, much shorter than 
the sepals, ecarinate. Flowers short-pedicellate, 25 mm. long; 
sepals free, elliptic, acute, 18 mm. long, densely lepidote; petal blade 
subtrapeziform, yellow with brown spots; stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic and saxicolous. Cajamarca: Near San Miguel, 
Prov. Hualgayoc, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 3921. Huanuco: Llata, 
2,300 meters, 2256. Lima: Canta, Pennell 14743. Near Matucana, 
Rose 18662. Endemic. 

38. Tillandsia brevilingua Mez ex Harms in Engl. & Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanzenf. ed. 2. 15a: 132. 1930. Catopsis latifolia Ule, Verh. 
Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 142. 1907, not T. latifolia Meyen, 1843. 

Stemless, 3 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 16-20 cm. long, sparsely 
fine-lepidote; sheaths elliptic, 45 mm. broad; blades ligulate, broadly 
rounded, apiculate, 35 mm. wide. Scape erect, slender, exceeding the 
leaves, its bracts broadly elliptic, apiculate, roseate. Inflorescence 
of a few spikes, digitate; primary bracts like the scape bracts, much 
shorter than the spikes. Spikes lanceolate, densely 6-flowered; 
floral bracts erect, densely imbricate, elliptic, acute, 26 mm. long, 
exceeding the sepals, carinate, glabrous, striate, roseate, incurved 
at the apex. Flowers sessile, 3 cm. long; sepals free, narrowly ovate, 
carinate; petals ligulate, blue; stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,200 meters, Ule 61p. 
Endemic. 

39. Tillandsia tectorum E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 27: 328. pi. 18. 
1877. T. argentea C. Koch, Cat. Verschaff. 4. 1867, not Griseb. 1866. 
T. saxicola Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 41. 1906. 

'Caulescent, 3-5 dm. long. Leaves densely imbricated along the 
stem, polystichous, densely tomentose-lepidote, up to 2 dm. long, 
cinereous to fuscous; sheaths triangular-ovate; blades involute- 
subulate, spreading, the apex filiform. Scape slender, erect, much 
exceeding the leaves, its bracts imbricate, involute, broadly ovate, 
filiform-laminate, reddish. Inflorescence compactly digitate from 
about 5 spikes; primary bracts like the scape bracts, much shorter 
than the spikes. Spikes sessile, densely 7-flowered, lanceolate, 
complanate. Floral bracts imbricate, lanceolate, acute, about 
equaling the sepals, soon glabrous, red and green or roseate, carinate. 
Flowers 20-25 mm. long; sepals free, lanceolate, glabrous, 1 cm. 



554 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

long; petals tubular-erect, white with a blue band below the apex; 
stamens included; style elongate. 

Saxicolous. Piura: Huancabamba, RoezL Ancash: Between 
Huaraz and Carhuaz, 2,700 meters, Weberbauer 3290. Huanuco: 
Llata, 2,300 meters, 2299. Huanuco, 2,700 meters, Kanehira 91. 
Junin: Between Tarma and Palca, Weberbauer 2412. Lima: Along 
Rio Chillon, near Viscas, 2,000-2,300 meters, Pennell 14443. Caba- 
lleros and Obrajillo, Wilkes Exped. Endemic. 

40. Tillandsia heteromorpha Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 41. 
1906. 

Prostrate, caulescent, 2-3 dm. long. Leaves densely imbricate 
along the stem, polystichous, mostly secund-curving, 55 mm. long, 
densely appressed-lepidote; blade 7 mm. wide, subulate, acuminate, 
rigid. Scape very short, exceeded by the leaves, its bracts imbricate, 
mostly laminate, submembranaceous, lepidote, striate. Inflorescence 
ellipsoid or globose, 25 mm. long; primary bracts elliptic, acute, all 
somewhat shorter than the spikes, lepidote, membranaceous, striate. 
Spikes 5-flowered, sessile, lanceolate, 2 cm. long. Floral bracts 
imbricate, acute, carinate, finely lepidote, 12 mm. long. Flowers 
subsessile, 17 mm. long; sepals free, acute, carinate, glabrous, 12 
mm. long; petals erect, violet with white apices; stamens and pistil 
included. 

Saxicolous. Ancash: Prov. Huari, valley of Rio Puccha above 
Masin, Weberbauer 3742. Endemic. 

41. Tillandsia disticha HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 292. 1816. 
T. cinerascens Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1218. 1830. Platy- 
stachys cinerascens Beer, Brom. 263. 1857. 

Stemless, up to 3 dm. high. Leaves bulbous-rosulate, 3 dm. 
long, appressed-cinereous-lepidote; sheaths broadly ovate to orbicu- 
lar, inflated, with large scales on the margins forming an irregularly 
dentate, membranous border; blades involute-subulate, 3 mm. broad, 
erect, filiform-acuminate. Scape slender, erect or ascending, shorter 
than the leaves, its bracts imbricate, lanceolate, filiform-laminate, 
lepidote with particularly large scales on the margins. Inflorescence 
digitate from 3-8 spikes; primary bracts lanceolate, acuminate, much 
shorter than the spikes. Spikes subsessile, linear, about 12-flowered, 
4 cm. long, 8 mm. wide. Floral bracts imbricate, triangular, acute, 
7-10 mm. long, exceeding the sepals, carinate, striate, subglabrous. 
Flowers subsessile, 13 mm. long; sepals acute, carinate, glabrous; 



FLORA OF PERU 555 

petals yellow, the blade narrowly lanceolate; stamens and pistil 
included. 

Epiphytic. Piura: Ayavaca, Humboldt & Bonpland. Cerro 
Prieto, 700 meters, Haught 214, F-126. Ecuador. 

42. Tillandsia juncea (R. & P.) LeConte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2: 
130. 1828. Bonapartea j uncea R. & P. Fl. 3: 38. pi. 262. 1802. Mis- 
andra juncea F. C. Dietr. Vollst. Gaertn. Nachtr. 5: 103. 1819. 
Acanthospora juncea Spreng. Syst. 2: 25. 1825. T. quadrangularis 
Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10, pt. 2: 9. 1843. Platystachys 
juncea Beer, Brom. 86. 1857. T. juncifolia Regel, Gartenfl. 23: 
321. pi. 811. 1874. 

Stemless, often propagating by scaly, branching rhizomes, 2-4 
dm. high. Leaves numerous in a dense, fasciculate rosette, densely 
and minutely subappressed-lepidote, the sheath triangular-ovate, 
ferruginous; blade setaceous, filiform-acuminate. Scape erect or 
ascending, stout, its bracts densely imbricate, lanceolate, filiform- 
laminate, densely lepidote. Inflorescence very densely digitate from 
a few spikes or reduced to a single densely polystichous-flowered 
spike, ovoid ; primary bracts like the upper scape bracts, their sheaths 
slightly shorter than the lower axillary spikes. Spikes sessile, 
elliptic or lanceolate, acute, up to 4 cm. long, stout, slightly com- 
planate. Floral bracts densely imbricate, broadly ovate, acute or 
obtuse, exceeding the sepals, carinate in the distichous-flowered 
spikes, coriaceous, nearly or quite even, densely lepidote. Flowers 
subsessile; sepals lanceolate, acute, 15-20 mm. long, coriaceous, 
much connate posteriorly; petals tubular-erect, 4 cm. long, violet; 
stamens and pistil exserted. 

Epiphytic and saxicolous. Huanuco: Near Muna, Ruiz & Pavdn. 
Mexico and the Antilles south to Venezuela and Peru. 

43. Tillandsia latifolia Meyen, Reise 437. 1843. T. divaricala 
Benth. Bot. Sulph. 174. 1845. T. Kunthiana Gaud. Atl. Bonite 
pi. 53. 1846. Platystachys Kunthiana Beer, Brom. 90. 1857. P. 
latifolia C. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. App. 4: 5. 1873. T. grisea 
Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 245. 1887. T. oxysepala Baker, Journ. Bot. 
26: 141. 1888. T. murorum Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 420. 1913. 

Caulescent or acaulescent, very variable, up to 6 dm. high. 
Leaves densely gray-appressed-lepidote; sheath scarcely distinct; 
blade narrowly triangular, filiform-acuminate, usually spreading or 
recurved. Scape erect, its bracts imbricate, gray-lepidote, narrowly 
laminate, the tips spreading or recurved. Inflorescence bipinnate or 



556 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL, XIII 

rarely simple, dense with erect spikes or lax with spreading spikes, 
sometimes viviparous; primary bracts like the scape bracts, usually 
shorter than the spikes. Spikes subsessile, densely 6-12-flowered, 
lanceolate. Floral bracts densely imbricate, broadly ovate, acute, 
15-20 mm. long, equaling or exceeding the sepals, carinate, gray- 
lepidote, at length glabrous. Flowers subsessile; sepals acute, 
carinate, slightly lepidote, connate posteriorly; petals narrow; 
stamens and pistil included. 

Common on rocks and sand, chiefly near the coast. Piura: 
Near Paita, Gaudichaud. Cerro Prieto, east of Cape Parinas, 600- 
800 meters, Haught 128, 190. Lima: Callao, 1852, N. J. Andersson. 
San Lorenzo, Wilkes Exped.; Hombrdn. Obrajillo, Wilkes Exped. 
Near Lima, Wawra 2562, 2655 in part; Cuming 981 ; Gaudichaud 64.. 
Baiios, Wilkes Exped. Lurin, 5929. Valley of the Rimac near Santa 
Clara, Seler 253. lea: Sangayan Island, Murphy 3482. Arequipa: 
Near Islay, 100 meters, Meyen. Quebrada of Guerreros, Bridges. 
Cachendo, 1,100 meters, Guenther & Buchtien 356. Upper valleys, 
lomas, Mollendo, over 200 meters, Stafford 284- Colombia, Ecuador. 

44. Tillandsia subandina (Ule) Mez ex L. B. Smith, Contr. 
Gray Herb. 98: 16. 1932. Cipuropsis subandina Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. 
Brandenb. 48: 148. 1907. 

Stemless, 7 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 6 dm. long, minutely 
appressed-lepidote below; sheaths narrow; blades linear, erect, 15 
mm. wide, acuminate, flat. Scape slender, erect, its bracts imbricate, 
acute. Inflorescence of a few spikes; primary bracts elliptic, acumi- 
nate, much shorter than the spikes. Spikes suberect, lanceolate, 
4-7 cm. long, 6-12-flowered. Floral bracts imbricate, elliptic, 
acuminate, 2 cm. long, exceeding the sepals, strongly carinate, 
glabrous. Flowers 22 mm. long, pedicellate for 3 mm.; sepals 
lanceolate, acute, carinate; petals yellow, with two vertical auricled 
calli each (Mez!); stamens and pistil included. 

Terrestrial. Loreto: Cerro de Isco, 1,000 meters, Ule 6684. 
Endemic. 

45. Tillandsia adpressiflora Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 661. 1896. 
Stemless, 12-15 dm. high. Leaves up to 4 dm. long, densely and 

minutely appressed-lepidote; sheaths suborbicular, large, dark 
brown; blades narrowly triangular, 4 cm. broad, filiform-acuminate, 
cinereous. Scape stout, erect, its bracts leaf-like, densely imbricate. 
Inflorescence laxly paniculate, red; primary bracts narrowly lanceo- 
late, acute, scarcely larger than the floral bracts, involute about the 



FLORA OF PERU 557 

sterile base of the spike. Spikes spreading, linear, elongate, laxly 
6-13-flowered with several involute sterile bracts at the base; rachis 
nearly straight, sulcate. Floral bracts narrowly lanceolate, 5 cm. 
long, tubular-involute around the flower and rachis together, much 
exceeding the sepals, but slightly longer than the internodes, sub- 
glabrous, ecarinate. Flowers subsessile, 6-7 cm. long; sepals nar- 
rowly lanceolate, free, acute; petals violet, slightly exceeding the 
stamens and pistil. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, Klug 
1184- Surinam, Brazil. 

46. Tillandsia maculata R. & P. Fl. 3: 40. pi. 267. 1802. 
Vriesia maculata Beer, Brom. 98. 1857. 

Stemless, 1-2 meters high. Leaves rosulate, 1 meter long, 
obscurely punctulate-lepidote; sheath ovate, brown; blade linear, 4 
cm. broad, acuminate, often irregularly spotted. Scape erect, its 
bracts triangular, the lower ones acuminate and exceeding the inter- 
nodes. Inflorescence 3-4-pinnate, pyramidal, red; primary bracts 
lanceolate, acute, shorter than the branches or spikes. Spikes oblong, 
laxly 12-20-flowered ; rachis glabrous, sulcate, strongly angled, 
nearly straight. Floral bracts elliptic, narrowly obtuse, 2 cm. long, 
exceeding the sepals, somewhat spreading and not concealing the 
rachis, carinate toward the apex, strongly nerved, membranaceous. 
Flowers suberect, sessile, 23 mm. long; sepals lanceolate, acute, all 
slightly connate at the base, glabrous, strongly nerved; petals violet; 
stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic and saxicolous. Cajamarca: Northwest of Hualgayoc, 
Weberbauer 4088. Huanuco: Muna, Chaclla, Posuso, Chinchao, 
Cochero, Ruiz & Pavdn. Pampayacu, Poeppig 1528. Pampayacu, 
hacienda at mouth of Rio Chinchao, 1,200 meters, 5094. Endemic. 
"Pucca-huehle." 

47. Tillandsia Arnoldiana Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
10:579. 1929. 

Stemless, 13-15 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 5-7 dm. long, 
glabrous above, obscurely punctulate-lepidote below; sheath large; 
blade ligulate, 7-10 cm. broad, rounded-triangular at the apex, 
apiculate. Scape erect, its bracts broadly ovate, acute or apiculate, 
imbricate. Inflorescence laxly 3-4-pinnate; primary bracts lanceo- 
late, enfolding the sterile base of the branch; branches and spikes 
with one or more prophylla at the base. Spikes linear-lanceolate, 
6-10-flowered, nearly straight, 4-9 cm. long (including the sterile 



558 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

base). Floral bracts imbricate, ovate-oblong, 13-15 mm. long, acute 
or rounded-apiculate, carinate toward the apex, glabrous, striate. 
Flowers 2 cm. long, subsessile; sepals free, oblong, obtuse, strongly 
carinate, glabrous, striate; petals narrow, erect; stamens and pistil 
included. 

Epiphytic. Junin: Huacapistana, 1,800 meters, Killip & Smith 
24298. Colombia. 

48. Tillandsia platyphylla Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 37. 1906. 
Probably over 1 meter high, but known only from fragments. 

Leaves rosulate, 1 meter long, subglabrous; sheaths large, dark 
brown; blades ligulate, 1 dm. wide, acute, apiculate. Inflorescence 
amply 3-pinnate; axis stout, glabrous; primary bracts short, triangu- 
lar; branches suberect, bearing 2 sterile bracts at the base. Spikes 
linear, 20-flowered, 22 cm. long, 11 mm. wide, arching-decurved. 
Floral bracts 2 cm. long, obtuse, exceeding the sepals, ecarinate, 
glabrous, strongly nerved. Flowers erect, subsessile, 23 mm. long; 
sepals coriaceous, glabrous, strongly nerved, obtuse; petals violet, 
the blade narrowly elliptic, acute; stamens and pistil included. 

Saxicolous. Cajamarca: Between San Pablo and San Miguel, 
1,700 meters, Weberbauer 3888. Endemic. 

49. Tillandsia rubra R. & P. Fl. 3: 40. pi 266. 1802. T. 
paniculata Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 54. 1831, not L. 1762. 
T. Deppeana Steud. Norn. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 688. 1841. Vriesia rubra 
Beer, Brom. 98. 1857. T. Fendleri Griseb. Goett. Ges. Wiss. Nachr. 
1864: 17. 1865. T. excelsa var. latifolia Griseb. Goett. Ges. Wiss. 
Nachr. 1864: 17. 1865. T. Kalbreyeri Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 45. 
1888. T. pyramidata Andre", Brom. Andr. 86. 1889. Phytarhiza 
rubra E. Morr. ex Baker, Brom. 206. 1889. T. leiochlamys Baker, 
Brom. 184. 1889. T. clavigera Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 783. 1896. 
T. Bangii Baker, Mem. Torrey Club 6: 124. 1896. T. macrodactylon 
Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 39. 1906. 

Stemless, 1-2 meters high. Leaves densely rosulate; sheath 
subovate, inconspicuous; blade ligulate, up to 8 cm. broad, triangular- 
acute. Scape stout, erect, its bracts leaf-like, imbricate. Inflores- 
cence amply bipinnate or tripinnate, lax; primary bracts like the 
upper scape bracts, much shorter than the spikes. Spikes lanceolate, 
acute, complanate, densely 6-28-flowered, 1-3 dm. long, up to 5 cm. 
wide, often spreading or recurved, more or less stipitate with sterile 
bracts at the base. Floral bracts narrowly obovate, keeled at the 
apex, glabrous, even, about equaling the sepals. Flowers erect, 



FLORA OF PERU 559 

short-stipitate; sepals equally subfree, up to 45 mm. long, oblong- 
lanceolate, carinate; petals slightly exceeding the stamens. 

Terrestrial and epiphytic. Huanuco: Huacachi, near Mufia, 
2,200 meters, 4192. Yanahuanca, 3,300 meters, 1255. Yanano, 
2,000 meters, 3766, 3852, 4920. Cani, near Mito, 2,800 meters, 
3435. Junin: Near Tarma, Ruiz & Pavdn. Above Huacapistana 
on the Palca road, 2,000-2,100 meters, Weberbauer 2049. Below 
Huacapistana, 1,600-1,800 meters, Weberbauer. Carpapata, above 
Huacapistana, 2,400 meters, Killip & Smith 24357. Cuzco: Valley 
of the Urubamba .between Cedrobamba and La Maquina, 2,060- 
2,260 meters, Herrera 2037. Mexico and the Antilles to Venezuela, 
Peru, and Bolivia. "Huehle." 

50. Tillandsia Ulei Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5:102. 1905. T. 
glumaciflora Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 143. 1907. 

Stemless, 25 cm. high. Leaves bulbous-rosulate, 25 cm. long, 
densely and finely appressed-lepidote; sheaths large, suborbicular, 
dark brown; blades 1 cm. broad, narrowly triangular, involute- 
subulate, cinereous. Scape slender, erect or arching, half as long as 
the leaves, its bracts broadly elliptic with long, filiform laminae. 
Inflorescence bipinnate from about 12 spikes, distichous; primary 
bracts broadly elliptic, acuminate, erect, barely exceeding the sterile 
base of the spike, lepidote. Spikes suberect to spreading, bearing 
several prophylla on the erect sterile base, linear-lanceolate, 20- 
flowered. Floral bracts imbricate, slightly shorter than the sepals, 
ecarinate, subchartaceous, lepidote, strongly nerved, acute. Flowers 
subsessile, erect; sepals free, narrowly elliptic, obtuse; petals white, 
entire, exceeding the stamens and pistil. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,300 meters, Ule 54P- 
Endemic, but very closely related to T. didistichoides Mez of Trini- 
dad and Venezuela. 

51. Tillandsia Harmsiana L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 
16. pl.4,f> 12-15. 1932. 

At least 6 dm. high. Leaves narrowly triangular, acuminate, 6 
dm. long, 4 cm. wide, densely appressed-cinereous-lepidote through- 
out. Scape erect, stout, its bracts densely imbricate, ovate with 
long, narrow, recurving laminae. Inflorescence bipinnate from about 
7 spikes, densely cylindric, 3 dm. long, less than 5 cm. thick; axis 
wholly concealed ; primary bracts ovate, acute, erect, tightly sheath- 
ing the base of the spikes. Spikes straight, stiffly erect, linear- 
lanceolate, acute, 11-15 cm. long, 3 cm. wide, 12-20-flowered ; 



560 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

rachis densely lepidote, deeply excavated opposite the flowers. 
Floral bracts imbricate, ovate, acute, 3-4 cm. long, exceeding the 
sepals but not wholly concealing the rachis, carinate, sparsely lepi- 
dote, yellow-brown with dark purple at the base. Flowers stipitate, 
5 cm. long; sepals free, narrowly ovate, 3 cm. long, glabrous, ecar- 
inate; petals narrow, purple, each with 2 vertical auricled calli; 
stamens about equaling the petals; pistil exserted. 

Huanuco: Steep, rocky, shrubby slopes, Mito, 3,000 meters, 
3272. Endemic. 

52. Tillandsia cereicola Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 34. 1906. 
Stemless, up to 1 meter high (extended). Leaves rosulate, 3 dm. 

long, densely subappressed-lepidote; sheaths broadly elliptic, dark 
brown; blades narrowly triangular, 4 cm. wide, acuminate, the apex 
angular-subulate. Scape stout, arching-decurved, about equaling 
the leaves, its bracts imbricate, the lower short-laminate, the upper 
obtuse. Inflorescence pendulous, of 3-4 spikes; primary bracts but 
slightly larger than the floral bracts, enfolding the base of the spike. 
Spikes linear-lanceolate, 3 dm. long, 18-flowered, bearing several 
sterile bracts at the base, complanate. Floral bracts imbricate, 
lanceolate, obtuse, 35 mm. long, much exceeding the sepals, ecar- 
inate. Flowers 52 mm. long (with pistil), erect, pedicellate for 3 mm. ; 
sepals free, coriaceous, glabrous, acute; petals tubular-erect, violet; 
stamens and pistil exserted. 

Epiphytic. Ancash : Near Caraz, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 3025. 
Endemic. 

53. Tillandsia purpurea R. & P. Fl. 3: 41. pi. 270, f. a. 1802. 
T. azurea Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 124. pi. 24- 1827. T. longebracteala 
Meyen, Reise 438. 1843, in synon. Anoplophytum longebracteatum 
Beer, Brom. 264. 1857. Platystachys purpurea Beer, Brom. 89. 1857. 
Phytarhiza purpurea E. Morr. ex Baker, Brom. 167. 1889. 

Very variable, stemless to long-caulescent, up to 7 dm. long. 
Leaves rosulate or distributed along the stem, polystichous, 1-2 dm. 
long, cinereous, densely tomentose-lepidote; sheath not distinct; 
blade narrowly triangular, 14 mm. wide, filiform-acuminate, recurv- 
ing. Scape slender, erect, variable in length, its bracts imbricate, 
narrowly elliptic, filiform-laminate, densely lepidote. Inflorescence 
bipinnate; primary bracts lanceolate, acute, lepidote, purple, shorter 
than the spikes. Spikes laxly 7-flowered, lanceolate; rachis genic- 
ulate, exposed. Floral bracts subspreading, lanceolate, acute, 
15-20 mm. long, slightly exceeding the sepals, carinate, incurved, 



FLORA OF PERU 561 

glabrous, stramineous, finely striate. Flowers pedicellate; sepals 
lanceolate, glabrous; petals purple or blue and white, the blade 
narrowly ovate; stamens and pistil included. 

On sandy lomas or on ledges. Huanuco: Llata, 2,300 meters, 
2298. Near Huanuco, Haenke. Lima: Obrajillo, Brackenridge. 
Lurin, 5930. Canta, Huarochiri, and near Lima, Ruiz & Pavon. 
Near Lima, Cuming 981 in part; Dombey 11*2; Wawra 2655 in part; 
W. Nation. Santa Clara, Rose 19480. Junin: Uspachaca, 2,800 
meters, 1314- Arequipa: Near Islai, Meyen. Endemic. "Cardo 
de lomas." 

54. Tillandsia straminea HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 292. 1816. 
T. scoparia Willd. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1217. 1830. Platystachys 
scoparia Beer, Brom. 265. 1857. 

Stemless, up to 5 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, spreading, 25 cm. 
long, densely tomentose-lepidote, fuscous or cinereous; sheath not 
distinct; blade narrowly triangular, 14 mm. wide, filiform-acuminate. 
Scape slender, erect, its bracts imbricate, narrow, submembranaceous, 
stramineous, lepidote, filiform-laminate. Inflorescence bipinnate, 
glabrous; primary bracts lanceolate, shorter than the spikes, stramin- 
eous, glabrous. Spikes laxly 6-8-flowered; rachis geniculate. Floral 
bracts spreading, ovate, acute, 18 mm. long, about equaling the 
sepals, closely and finely nerved, carinate. Flowers 22 mm. long; 
sepals ovate; petals purple; stamens included. 

Epiphytic. Piura: Near Olleros, Humboldt & Bonpland 3496. 
Huanuco: Near Huanuco, Haenke. Lima: Ruins of Cajamar- 
quilla, Rimac Valley, Seler 252. Ecuador. 

55. Tillandsia Gayi Baker, Brom. 179. 1889. 

Stemless, 4 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 25 cm. long, pruinose- 
lepidote; sheath narrowly ovate, not distinct; blade narrowly triangu- 
lar, 1 cm. wide. Scape erect, glabrous, its bracts imbricate, red, 
elliptic, lepidote, the lower laminate. Inflorescence densely bipin- 
nate; primary bracts like the upper scape bracts, suberect, shorter 
than the spikes, acute, sparsely lepidote. Spikes erect, 8-10-flow- 
ered, red, subsessile, lanceolate. Floral bracts imbricate, ovate- 
elliptic, 16 mm. long, ecarinate, glabrous, strongly nerved. Flowers 
subsessile, 2 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, obtuse, 14 mm. long; petals 
spreading at the apex, exceeding the stamens and pistil, white(?). 

Indefinite: Gay. Endemic. 



562 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

56. Tillandsia oroyensis Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 77. 1919. 
Stout, 5 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 3 dm. long, densely sub- 

appressed-lepidote; blade narrowly triangular, rigid, 25 mm. wide. 
Scape stout, erect, its bracts lax, ovate-elliptic, laminate. Inflores- 
cence bipinnate or the lowest branches digitate-divided, subclavate, 
dense above, interrupted below; primary bracts ample but even the 
lowest somewhat shorter than the axillary spikes, laminate or apicu- 
late, lepidote. Spikes erect, sessile, laxly 6-flowered, subelliptic, 
acute, 35 mm. long. Floral bracts suberect, 10-15 mm. long, dis- 
tinctly shorter than the sepals at maturity, ecarinate, glabrous, 
obtuse-mucronate, strongly nerved. Flowers 18 mm. long; sepals 
nearly free, ovate, acute, carinate, glabrous; petals bright purple. 

Huanuco: Yanahuanca, 3,300 meters, 1161. Junin: Between 
Tarma and La Oroya, Weberbauer 2523. Endemic. 

57. Tillandsia Roezli E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 27: 272. pi. 15. 
1877. Allardtia Roezlii E. Morr. ex Baker, Brom. 207. 1889. Vriesea 
Roezlii Hort. Linden ex E. Morr. in Baker, Brom. 207. 1889. 

Stemless, up to 5 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 4 dm. long; sheath 
elliptic, slightly inflated; blade ligulate, acute, 35 mm. wide, green 
with irregular brown-black cross bands. Scape erect, glabrous, its 
bracts imbricate, lanceolate, acuminate, spreading at the apex. 
Inflorescence laxly bipinnate from a few spikes; primary bracts 
spreading, lanceolate, acuminate, shorter than the spikes, reddish. 
Spikes narrowly lanceolate, subsessile, 6-10 cm. long. Floral bracts 
densely imbricate, lanceolate, acute, 3 cm. long, exceeding the sepals, 
green with a red apex, lustrous. Flowers sessile, 4 cm. long; sepals 
free, lanceolate, acuminate; petals erect, lilac; stamens and pistil 
included. 

Terrestrial. Indefinite: Northern Peru (probably in or near the 
department of Junin), Roezl. Endemic. 

58. Tillandsia pinnato-digitata Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 
39. 1906. 

More than 5 dm. high. Leaves subpruinose, cinereous-lepidote. 
Scape stout, erect, glabrous, its bracts densely imbricate, cinereous- 
lepidote, with long involute-subulate laminae. Inflorescence broadly 
thyrsoid, tripinnate, lax below, dense above, 3 dm. long, 11 cm. 
thick; primary bracts ample, the lower ones long-laminate and 
exceeding the axillary branches, the upper ones acuminate. Spikes 
digitate at the end of short naked branches, sessile, 10-flowered, 
broadly lanceolate, suberect to spreading, 6 cm. long, 14 mm. wide, 



FLORA OF PERU 563 

compressed. Floral bracts densely imbricate, concealing the rachis, 
ovate- triangular, 18 mm. long, red, striate, coriaceous. Flowers 
subsessile, 23 mm. long; sepals acute, glabrous, connate posteriorly 
for 8 mm. ; petals ligulate, violet. 

Saxicolous. Ancash: Prov. Cajatambo, near Ocros, 2,400-2,900 
meters, Weberbauer 2736 in part. Endemic. 

59. Tillandsia interrupta Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 38. 1906. 
Stemless, up to 1 meter high. Leaves rosulate, 1 meter long, 

densely and finely appressed-lepidote; sheaths narrowly elliptic, 
chestnut; blades narrowly triangular, 4 cm. broad, filiform-acumin- 
ate, cinereous. Scape stout, erect, its bracts imbricate, subinflated, 
long-laminate. Inflorescence thyrsoid, interrupted at the base, 
dense above, 5 dm. long; axis stout, glabrous; primary bracts broadly 
elliptic, exceeding the lower and middle spikes, inflated, the lower 
ones long-laminate. Spikes suberect to spreading, sessile, densely 
10-12-flowered, narrowly lanceolate, 7 cm. long, compressed. Floral 
bracts ecarinate, 17 mm. long, equaling or slightly shorter than the 
sepals, acute, glabrous, strongly nerved, coriaceous. Flowers sub- 
sessile, 22 mm. long; sepals posteriorly connate for 3 mm., elliptic, 
glabrous, nerved, acute; petals violet, ligulate; stamens and pistil 
included. 

Epiphytic. Ancash: Prov. Cajatambo, near Ocros, 2,400-2,900 
meters, Weberbauer 2736 in part. Lima: Matucana, 2,700 meters, 
403. Endemic. 

60. Tillandsia ionochroma Andr4 ex Mez in DC. Monogr. 
9: 801. 1896. Caraguata violacea Andre", Rev. Hort. 60: 566. 1888, 
not Tillandsia violacea Klotzsch, 1857. 

Up to 4 dm. high (extended). Leaves subglabrous, 4-5 dm. 
long; sheath narrowly ovate; blade ligulate, 25 mm. wide, acute, 
recurved. Scape slender, glabrous, its bracts leaf-like, imbricate, 
slightly divergent. Inflorescence bipinnate, thyrsoid, dense above, 
interrupted below, arching, 25 cm. long, obscurely punctulate- 
lepidote; primary bracts equaling or exceeding the spikes, bright 
rep! when young, the lower ones ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
upper ones broadly ovate, apiculate. Spikes distichous, subsessile, 
broadly ovate, 3 cm. long, 4-flowered, complanate, the uppermost 
ones reduced to a single flower so that the end of the inflorescence 
appears to be a single poJystichous spike. Floral bracts elliptic, 
obtuse, weakly or not at all carinate, strongly nerved, the lowest 
distinctly shorter than the sepals. Flowers short-stipitate, 2 cm. 



564 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

long, the uppermost much smaller and often sterile; sepals oblong, 
obtuse, 13 mm. long, carinate, strongly nerved; petals ligulate, 
purple; stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Cani, near Mito, 2,800 meters, 3542. 
Cuzco: Urubamba Valley, 2,300 meters, Herrera 3497. Ecuador. 

61. Tillandsia Schimperiana Wittm. Bot. Jahrb. 11: 67. 1889. 
Stemless, stout, 5 dm. or more high. Leaves rosulate, 7 dm. long, 

sparsely punctulate-lepidote below; sheath large, ovate; blade linear, 
acuminate at the apex, 4 cm. wide. Scape stout, erect, shorter than 
the leaves, its bracts densely imbricate, leaf -like, attaining the middle 
of the inflorescence, the upper red. Inflorescence compact, bipinnate ; 
primary bracts broadly triangular, exceeding the spikes, suberect, 
acuminate, red. Spikes subsessile, 6-9-flowered, elliptic, acute, 
compressed, 45 mm. long. Floral bracts imbricate, ovate, apiculate, 
22 mm. long, equaling or exceeding the sepals, glabrous, even, 
chestnut-colored with pale margins, carinate, incurved. Flowers 
subsessile, 29 mm. long; sepals free, narrowly ovate, obtuse, glabrous, 
even, strongly carinate; petals white, the blade narrowly ovate, 
obtuse; stamens included. 

Epiphytic. Junin: Prov. Tarma, mountains west of Huacapis- 
tana, 2,700-3,000 meters, Weberbauer 2296. Colombia. 

62. Tillandsia sphaerocephala Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 141. 
1888. 

Stemless. Leaves densely rosulate, 2-4 dm. long, densely ap- 
pressed-lepidote, lustrous; sheath large, elliptic, dark brown below, 
cinereous above and merging imperceptibly into the blade; blade 
narrowly triangular, 2 cm. broad, involute-subulate toward the 
apex, erect or decurved. Scape usually curved and ascending, its 
bracts leaf-like, densely imbricate. Inflorescence bipinnate, densely 
capitate, 5-6 cm. long; outer primary bracts with a broad ovate 
base and long, triangular tip which exceeds the inflorescence, the 
inner primary bracts ovate, obtuse, apiculate, equaling the spikes. 
Spikes few-flowered, strongly complanate. Floral bracts ovate, 
23-30 mm. long, carinate, scantly furfuraceous-lepidote to glabrous, 
strongly nerved. Flowers subsessile, 2-3 cm. long; sepals ovate, 
acute, 20-25 mm. long, carinate; petals ligulate, obtuse; stamens about 
equaling the pistil, shorter than the petals, the filaments straight. 

Saxicolous. Cuzco: Valley northeast of Vilcanota, below Caicai, 
3,300-3,500 meters, Pennell 14194. Urubamba Valley, Caicai, 
3,200 meters, Herrera 1146. Bolivia. "Ccacca-huiccontoi." 



FLORA OF PERU 565 

63. Tillandsia calocephala Wittm. Med. Rijks Herb. 29: 90. 
1916. 

Caulescent, 2-3 dm. long. Leaves imbricate along the stem, 
polystichous, 6-8 cm. long, densely subappressed-lepidote; sheath 
not distinct; blade narrowly triangular, subulate-acuminate. Scape 
none. Inflorescence capitate, surrounded by the upper leaves, 
25-30 mm. long; primary bracts broadly ovate with subulate apices, 
much exceeding the spikes. Spikes 2-3-flowered, 15 mm. long; 
floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, acute, 1 cm. long, slightly shorter than 
the sepals, carinate, lepidote, scarlet. Flowers 15 mm. long; sepals 
lanceolate, carinate, glabrous, connate posteriorly for 2 mm. ; petals 
purple, exceeding the stamens. 

Saxicolous. Cuzco: Ollantaitambo, 2,850-2,900 meters, Herrera 
290, 860. Hills of Sacsahuaman, 3,400-3,500 meters, Herrera 455. 
Paucartambo, Hacienda Capana, 3,400 meters, Herrera 1267. 
Bolivia. "Huiccontoi," "ccacca-huiccontoi." 

64. Tillandsia biflora R. & P. Fl. 3: 41. pi. 268, /. b. 1802. 
T. violacea Klotzsch ex Beer, Brom. 266. 1857, nomen. Anoplophy- 
tum violaceum Beer, Brom. 266. 1857, nomen. T. tetrantha R. & P. 
of Griseb. Goett. Ges. Wiss. Nachr. 1864: 18. 1865. T. Grisebachiana 
Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 143. 1888. 

Stemless, up to 3 dm. high. Leaves utriculate-rosulate, 2 dm. 
long, obscurely punctulate-lepidote, often purple-mottled; sheath 
ovate, large; blade ligulate, 2 cm. wide, acute. Scape slender, 
usually curved, its bracts leaf-like, densely imbricate. Inflorescence 
densely bipinnate or rarely reduced to a single polystichous spike, 
ovoid, glabrous or obscurely punctulate-lepidote; primary bracts 
broadly ovate, thin, inflated, exceeding the lower and middle spikes, 
the lower acuminate, the upper apiculate. Spikes laxly 1-3-flowered, 
short-stipitate. Floral bracts broadly ovate, obtuse, much shorter 
than the sepals, carinate, strongly nerved, membranaceous. Flowers 
suberect, 2 cm. long; sepals oblong, obtuse, 12-15 mm. long, carinate, 
nerved; petals ligulate, lavender; stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Near Mufia, Ruiz & Pavdn. Yanano, 
2,000 meters, 3658, 3780. Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, 1,200 
meters, Schunke 542. Carpapata, above Huacapistana, 2,700- 
3,200 meters, Killip & Smith 24367. Hacienda Schunke, La Merced, 
1,700 meters, 5653. Indefinite: Tabina, Lechler 2132. Venezuela, 
Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia. 



566 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

65. Tillandsia fusco-guttata Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 
101. 1905. 

Stemless, 4 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, subglabrous; sheath large, 
ovate-elliptic, chestnut; blade linear, 15 mm. broad, acuminate. 
Scape stout, erect, its bracts imbricate, leaf-like. Inflorescence 
densely bipinnate, subpyramidal, 6 cm. long; primary bracts ovate- 
elliptic, long-laminate with recurving tips, exceeding the middle and 
lower spikes. Spikes densely 6-7-flowered, erect or nearly so, ovate- 
elliptic, acute, 25 mm. long, compressed. Floral bracts imbricate, 
1 cm. long, slightly shorter than the sepals, glabrous, carinate, 
nerved. Flowers subsessile, 16 mm. long, glabrous; sepals obtuse; 
petals suberect, blue, obtuse; stamens and pistil included. 

Saxicolous. Puno: Near Sandia, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 568. 
Endemic. 

66. Tillandsia Wangerini Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3: 40. 1906. 
T. pastensis Andr of Weberbauer in Engl. & Drude, Veg. Erde 12: 
257. 1911, not Andre. 

Stout, over 5 dm. high. Leaves densely utriculate-rosulate, 4 
dm. long; sheath large, narrowly elliptic, violet, brown-lepidote; 
blade triangular-lanceolate, flat, 45 mm. wide. Scape stout, erect, 
much exceeding the leaves, its bracts densely imbricate, leaf-like, 
subinflated. Inflorescence bipinnate, densely thyrsoid; primary 
bracts dull red, broadly ovate-elliptic, exceeding the middle and 
lower spikes, the lower laminate, the upper apiculate. Spikes rather 
laxly 6-flowered, sessile, broadly ovate, 3 cm. long. Floral bracts 
coriaceous, elliptic, obtuse, 13 mm. long, shorter than the sepals, 
glabrous, the lower strongly carinate. Flowers suberect, glabrous, 
19 mm. long; sepals obtuse, coriaceous, striate; petals violet; stamens 
and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Cajamarca: San Pablo, Weberbauer 3875. Ancash: 
Prov. Huari, between Pichin and Conin, 3,500-3,600 meters, Weber- 
bauer 2920. Endemic. 

67. Tillandsia pulchella Hook. Exot. Fl. 2: pi. 154. 1825. 
T. subulata Veil. Fl. Flum. 133. 1825. T. pityphylla Mart, in R. & S. 
Syst. Veg. 7: 1208. 1830. T. rosea Lindl. Bot. Reg. 16: pi. 1357. 
1830. Diaphoranthema subulata Beer, Brom. 155. 1857. Anoplophy- 
tum pulchellum Beer, Brom. 41. 1857. T. recurvifolia Hook. Bot. 
Mag. 87: pi. 5246. 1861. A. amoenum E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 33: 265. 
pi. 17. 1883. A. brachypodium E. Morr. ex Baker, Brom. 196. 1889. 
T. surinamensis Miq. ex Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 603. 1894. 



FLORA OF PERU 567 

Plant caulescent with stem up to 25 cm. long, often branching 
and pulvinate, rather variable. Leaves 5-10 cm. long, densely and 
minutely appressed-lepidote; sheath barely distinct; blade narrowly 
triangular, subulate-acuminate, 2-7 mm. wide. Scape erect or 
ascending, short, slender, its bracts imbricate, elliptic, caudate, 
membranaceous, rose. Inflorescence simple, polystichous-flowered, 
ovoid, dense, 4-10-flowered. Floral bracts suborbicular, short- 
caudate or apiculate, much exceeding the sepals, membranaceous, 
punctulate-lepidote. Flowers erect; sepals lanceolate, acute, glab- 
rous, 1 cm. long, much connate posteriorly; petals blue, white, or 
rose, 2 cm. long, obtuse; stamens included, the filaments transversely 
plicate. Capsule cylindric, 15 mm. long. 

Epiphytic and saxicolous. Puno: Near Sandia, 2,000-3,200 
meters, Weberbauer 549. Antilles through Venezuela and Brazil to 
Bolivia and northern Argentina. 

68. Tillandsia nana. Baker, Brom. 172. 1889. 

Caulescent, up to 1 dm. high. Leaves densely imbricate along the 
stem, polystichous, 6 cm. long, densely subappressed-lepidote, 
silvery; sheath not distinct; blade narrowly triangular, 6-10 mm. 
wide, complicate. Scape none. Inflorescence simple, ovoid, 3 cm. 
long, densely polystichous-flowered. Bracts broad, acute, 16 mm. 
long, much exceeding the sepals, red. Flowers subsessile, 18 mm. 
long; sepals lanceolate, acute, connate posteriorly for 2-3 mm., 
glabrous; petals rose, spreading at the apex; stamens and pistil 
included. 

Saxicolous. Cuzco: Right bank of the Rio Urubamba, near 
Urubamba, 3,200-3,700 meters, Weberbauer 2554. Valley of the 
Rio Paucartambo, Hacienda Churu, 3,500 meters, Herrera 1113a. 
Indefinite: Gay. Endemic. 

69. Tillandsia latisepala L. B. Smith, Proc. Amer. Acad. 68: 
US.pl.l,f.6-7. 1933. 

Caulescent, silvery-lepidote. Leaves densely polystichous, dense- 
ly subpruinose-lepidote; sheath inconspicuous; blade spreading, 
narrowly triangular, 20-25 cm. long, 17 mm. broad, involute toward 
the apex. Scape slender, erect, slightly curved, 15 cm. long, its 
bracts imbricate, elliptic, long-caudate. Inflorescence simple, poly- 
stichous-flowered, rather densely ovoid, 6 cm. long. Floral bracts 
submembranaceous, broadly ovate, exceeding the sepals, the lower 
caudate, 3 cm. long, exceeding the flowers. Flowers 22 mm. long, 
subsessile; sepals free, thick-coriaceous, 11 mm. long, 9 mm. wide, 



568 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

apiculate, densely white-pruinose-lepidote; petals white, narrow, 
obtuse; filaments transversely plicate near the apex. 

Cuzco: Valle de Santa Ana, Huadquina, 1,500 meters, Herrera 
3313. Paraguay. 

EXCLUDED SPECIES 

Tillandsia andicola Gill. Peruvian material referred to this 
species has proved to be T. Gilliesii Baker. 

Tillandsia Pavonii Mez. This name is a synonym of Monotagma 
laxum (P. & E.) Schum. 

6. VRIESIA Lindl. 

Large, showy herbs. Leaves densely rosulate, often banded or 
mottled, entire. Inflorescence simple or compound, the spikes 
usually distichous-flowered. Floral bracts conspicuous. Flowers 
subsessile to pedicellate. Sepals free. Petals free, ligulate, bearing 
either one or two scales each according to the species, entire. Ovary 
nearly or quite superior, the style elongate. Ovules many, usually 
caudate. Seeds fusiform, with a long, straight, basal coma. About 
100 species. Epiphytic, rarely terrestrial. Chiefly Brazilian with 
outlying species from Mexico and the Antilles to Argentina. Type 
species, Vriesia psittacina Lindl. 

Floral bracts chartaceous, 45 mm. long; plant rarely over 4 dm. 

high 1. y. heliconioides. 

Floral bracts coriaceous, not over 35 mm. long; plant over 1 m. high. 

Floral bracts broadly ovate, twice as long as the sepals, concealing 
the rachis at anthesis 2. V. chrysostachys. 

Floral bracts lanceolate, equaling the sepals, not concealing the 
rachis 3. V. albiflora. 

1. Vriesia heliconioides (HBK.) Hook, ex Walp. Ann. Bot. 
3: 623. 1853. Tillandsia heliconioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 
293. 1816. T. disticha Willd. ex Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 
1226. 1830. Platystachys disticha Beer, Brom. 264. 1857. V.Falken- 
bergii Hort. ex Gard. Chron. II. 13: 759. 1880. V. bellula Linden, 
Cat. 109: 7. 1883. V. disticha Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3: 304. 1898 (as 
to material cited; not as to Renealmia disticha L.). 

Rarely over 4 dm. high. Leaves 2 dm. long, green above, suf- 
fused with red and sometimes spotted below; sheaths distinct, 
obscurely punctulate-lepidote; blades ligulate, acute or acuminate, 
subglabrous. Scape erect, usually much shorter than the leaves, its 



FLORA OF PERU 569 

bracts imbricate, broadly ovate, acute. Inflorescence simple, dis- 
tichous-flowered, oblong, dense, 6-18-flowered, 2 dm. long, 6 cm. 
wide, strongly complanate. Floral bracts very broadly ovate and 
triangular-acute or subrhombic, 45 mm. long and nearly as wide, 
chartaceous, the base suberect, the middle spreading horizontally 
and the apex incurved and sharply carinate. Flowers subsessile, 
6 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 27 mm. long; petals ligulate, 
acute, white, bearing 2 obtuse entire scales; stamens included. 
Capsule 5 cm. long. 

Epiphytic, in dense forest. Ayacucho: Rio Apurimac Valley, 
near Kimpitiriki, 400 meters, Killip & Smith 23013. Guatemala to 
Bolivia and southwestern Brazil. 

2. Vriesia chrysostachys E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 31: 87. 1881. 
Tillandsia chrysostachys Baker, Bot. Mag. 112: pi 6906. 1886. 
V. aurea Hort. ex Baker, Brom. 222. 1889. V. cryptantha Hort. ex 
Baker, Brom. 222. 1889. T. trinitensis Baker, Brom. 211. 1889. 

Leaves 3-5 dm. long, minutely punctulate-lepidote; blade linear, 
4-5 cm. wide, acute. Scape slender, erect, its bracts imbricate, 
broadly ovate, the lower acuminate, the upper obtuse. Inflorescence 
of 1-3 spikes. Spikes linear, many-flowered, up to 1 meter long. 
Floral bracts densely imbricate, broadly ovate, triangular-acute, 
35 mm. long, exceeding the flowers, yellow, coriaceous. Flowers 
subsessile, 25 mm. long; sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, 15 mm. long; 
petals yellow; stamens included. 

Terrestrial. Junin: East of Quimiri Bridge, La Merced, 700 
meters, Killip & Smith 24010. Indefinite: Davis. Trinidad. 

3. Vriesia albiflora Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 141. 
1907. Tillandsia rhododactyla Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 76. 1919. 

Over 1 meter high. Leaves 6 dm. long, the blade ligulate, 7 cm. 
wide, flat, rounded-apiculate, subglabrous. Scape erect, stout, its 
bracts elliptic, acute, imbricate. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate; 
primary bracts lanceolate, much shorter than the spikes. Spikes 
suberect, linear, 25 cm. long, 2-3 cm. broad, compressed, prophyl- 
late. Floral bracts lanceolate, 25 mm. long, equaling the sepals, 
keeled, glabrous, even, imbricate. Flowers erect; sepals narrowly 
elliptic, acute, coriaceous; petals ligulate, bearing 2 scales 1 cm. from 
the base, white; stamens and pistil included. Capsule short, equaling 
the sepals. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Rio Huallaga Canyon below Rio Santo 
Domingo, 1,300 meters, 4265. Trinidad, Guiana, Amazonian Brazil. 



570 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

7. GUZMANIA R. & P. 

Leaves densely rosulate in the Peruvian species, entire; sheaths 
usually conspicuous. Inflorescence various; spikes always poly- 
stichous-flowered. Flowers perfect. Sepals usually somewhat 
connate. Petals connate or closely conglutinated, naked, yellow or 
white. Stamens usually included; filaments more or less fused to the 
petals. Ovary wholly superior, pyramidal, ellipsoid or ovoid, 
glabrous. Ovules many, densely glomerate. Capsule septicidal. 
Seeds with a long, basal, usually brownish coma. Named in honor 
of Anastasio Guzman, Spanish naturalist. Over 80 species. Chiefly 
Andean with outlying species in southern Central America, the 
West Indies, Venezuela, Guiana, and the Amazon Basin. Type 
species, Guzmania tricolor R. & P. 
Inflorescence simple, spicate or racemose. 

Inflorescence cyathiform, corymbose, with conspicuous bracts at 

base 1. G. brachycephala. 

Inflorescence globose to elongate, not corymbose. 
Leaves acute or acuminate. 
Floral bracts membranaceous. 
Young floral bracts glabrous; inflorescence sterile at the 

apex 2. G. monostachia. 

Young floral bracts dark-ferruginous-farinose; inflorescence 

fertile throughout 3. G. calothyrsus. 

Floral bracts coriaceous. 

Floral bracts acute 4. G. conifera. 

Floral bracts rounded-apiculate 5. G. strobilantha. 

Leaves rounded-apiculate 6. G. apiculata. 

Inflorescence compound, paniculate. 
Floral bracts equaling or exceeding the sepals. 

Inflorescence densely capitate 7. G. Morreniana. 

Inflorescence elongate. 
Spikes dense, strobiliform. 

Spikes stipitate, ovoid or obovoid, 4-5 cm. thick. 
Leaves and bracts finely and irregularly cross-striate. 

8. G. Lindeni. 
Leaves concolorous; bracts regularly and heavily marked 

with longitudinal stripes 9. G. Killipiana. 

Spikes subsessile, slenderly ellipsoid, not over 2 cm. thick. 



FLORA OF PERU 571 

Floral bracts enfolding the sepals, 13 mm. long. 

10. G. brevispatha. 
Floral bracts nearly flat, 21 mm. long. 11. G. tarapotina. 

Spikes lax, elongate 12. G. panniculata. 

Floral bracts much shorter than the sepals. 
Primary bracts exceeding the axillary spikes. 13. G. Weberbaueri. 
Primary bracts much shorter than the axillary spikes. 

14. G. Roezli. 

1. Guzmania brachycephala (Baker) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 
902. 1896. Tillandsia brachycephala Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 40. 1888. 

Up to 4 dm. high. Leaves 4 dm. long, tubular-rosulate, erect; 
sheath narrowly ovate; blade linear, 9 mm. wide, glabrous, acumi- 
nate. Scape slender, erect, its bracts imbricate, the lower leaf-like, 
the upper lanceolate, acuminate. Inflorescence simple, few-flowered, 
dense, corymbose; subtending bracts 3 cm. long, the interior bracts 
similar to the exterior, exceeding the sepals, glabrous, lustrous, 
broadly elliptic, stramineous. Flowers erect, subsessile; sepals all 
connate for one-third their length, elliptic, obtuse, 12 mm. long, 
coriaceous. Capsule cylindric, 32 mm. long; coma ferruginous. 

Epiphytic. Puno: Near Sangaban, Lechler 2409. Endemic. 

2. Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez in DC. Monogr. 
9: 905. 1896. Renealmia monostachia L. Sp. PI. 287. 1753. Til- 
landsia monostachia L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 410. 1762. T. clavata Lam. 
Encycl. 1: 617. 1783. Pourretia sympaganthera R. & P. Syst. 1: 82. 
1798. G. tricolor R. & P. Fl. 3: 38. pi. 261. 1802. G. comosa R. & S. 
Syst. Veg. 7: 1232. 1830. G. sympaganthera Beer, Brom. 103. 1857. 
T. pachycarpa Baker, Journ. Bot. 25: 238. 1887. T. gymnophylla 
Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 41. 1888. G. maculata Hort. ex Baker, Brom. 
152. 1889. G. grandis Hort. ex Baker, Brom. 152. 1889. G. fragrans 
Hort. ex Baker, Brom. 152. 1889. G. clavata Urban, Repert. Sp. Nov. 
15: 99. 1917. 

Stemless, 2-4 dm. high. Leaves obscurely punctulate-lepidote, 
soon glabrous; sheaths broadly ovate, brownish; blades ligulate, 
2 cm. wide, acute, yellow-green. Scape erect, its bracts ovate, acute, 
imbricate, pale green. Inflorescence of a single elongate, poly- 
stichous spike, cylindric, 8-15 cm. long, sterile at the apex. Floral 
bracts imbricate, ovate, acute, membranous, the fertile ones pale 
green with conspicuous, brown, longitudinal stripes, about equaling 
the flowers, the sterile ones bright red. Flowers erect, white, 23-29 



572 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

mm. long; sepals joined equally for about one-fourth their length, 
18 mm. long, obovate, broadly obtuse, even, coriaceous; petals fused 
for most of their length, the lobes elliptic, obtuse; stamens included, 
the filaments connate with the petals for most of their length. 
Capsule cylindric, 2-3 cm. long. 

Epiphytic and terrestrial. Tumbes: Mountains east of Hacienda 
Chicama, Prov. Tumbes, 800-900 meters, Weberbauer 7643 
San Martin: San Roque, 1,350-1,500 meters, Williams 7238 
Huanuco: Near Pillao and Chacahuassi, Ruiz & Pawn. Florida, 
Costa Rica, Panama, Antilles, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia. 

3. Guzmania calothyrsus Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 910. 1896. 
Anoplophytum calothyrsus Beer, Brom. 263. 1857, nomen. Tillandsia 
calothyrsus Poeppig ex Beer, Brom. 263. 1857, nomen. 

Up to 1 meter high. Leaves densely punctulate-lepidote below, 
3-6 dm. long; sheath narrowly elliptic, brown-lepidote; blade linear- 
lanceolate, acuminate, 2 cm. broad, thin. Scape stout, erect, exceed- 
ing the leaves, ferruginous-tomentose, its bracts densely imbricate, 
lanceolate, acuminate, ferruginous-tomentose. Inflorescence simple, 
polystichous, densely strobiliform, fertile throughout, 6-12 cm. long. 
Floral bracts imbricate, membranaceous, densely dark-farinose, 
broadly elliptic, triangular-acute. Flowers subsessile; sepals con- 
nate for 6 mm., herbaceous, 22 mm. long, narrowly elliptic, acute, 
ferruginous-tomentose, soon glabrous; petals narrowly elliptic, 
obtuse, much connate. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Near Pampayacu, Poeppig 1224- Junin: 
La Merced, 1,700 meters, 5346. Endemic. 

4. Guzmania conifera Andr ex Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 911. 
1896. Caraguata conifera Andre", Rev. Hort. 60: 565. 1888. 

Nearly 1 meter high. Leaves finely appressed-lepidote, 6-8 dm. 
long; sheath indistinct, dark-lepidote; blade ligulate, acute, 6-8 
cm. wide. Scape stout, erect, its bracts densely imbricate, the lower 
leaf-like, the upper lanceolate, acuminate, red. Inflorescence simple, 
polystichous, densely strobiliform, globose or ellipsoid, 11 cm. long. 
Floral bracts coriaceous, thick, triangular-acute, 4-6 cm. long, red 
with yellow tips. Flowers sessile, 65-70 mm. long; sepals sub- 
triangular, 25-30 mm. long, glabrous, coriaceous, dark brown with 
pale margins; petals stramineous, high-connate, obtuse. 

Epiphytic and terrestrial. Junin: Hacienda Schunke, La Merced, 
1,300 meters, 5615. Hacienda Schunke, above San Ramon, 1,400- 
1,700 meters, Killip & Smith 24872. Ecuador. 



FLORA OF PERU 573 

5. Guzmania strobilantha (R. & P.) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 
913. 1896, excl. syn. Andre*. Bonapartea strobilantha R. & P. Fl. 
3: 39. pi. 263. 1802. Tillandsia strobilantha Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 5: 
309. 1817. Acanthospora conantha Spreng. Syst. Veg. 2: 25. 1825. 
Misandra strobilantha Dietr. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1198. 1830, 
in synon. Anoplophytum strobilanthum Beer, Brom. 42. 1857. T. 
conantha Baker, Brom. 228. 1889. G. parviflora Ule, Verb. Bot. Ver. 
Brandenb. 48: 146. 1907. 

About 6 dm. high. Leaves brown-punctate-lepidote below, 
4-5 dm. long; sheath ovate; blade linear, acuminate, 20-25 mm. 
broad. Scape slender, erect, its bracts leaf -like, imbricate. Inflo- 
rescence simple, polystichous, densely strobilate, globose or ellipsoid, 
5 cm. long. Floral bracts broadly elliptic, rounded-apiculate, 15 mm. 
long, coriaceous, glabrous, striate. Flowers subsessile, 18 mm. long; 
sepals elliptic, obtuse, 12-15 mm. long, connate for 2 mm.; petals 
yellowish white, equaling the stamens. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Pampas de Ponasa, 1,000 meters, Ule 55p. 
Huanuco: Chicoplaya, Ruiz & Pavdn. Junin: Pichis Trail, Santa 
Rosa, 625-900 meters, Killip & Smith 26199. Endemic. 

6. Guzmania apiculata L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 
25. pi. 5, f. 8-9. 1932. 

About 5 dm. high. Leaves rosulate, 5 dm. long, obscurely 
punctulate-lepidote below; sheath ovate, broad; blade linear, 30-35 
mm. broad, broadly rounded, apiculate. Scape slender, erect, 
glabrous, its bracts ovate, apiculate, thin, slightly longer than the 
internodes. Inflorescence simple, densely strobilate, 8 cm. long, 
fusiform, sterile toward the apex, glabrous. Floral bracts sub- 
orbicular, somewhat broader than long, membranaceous, striate, 2 
cm. long, much exceeding the sepals. Flowers short-stipitate; sepals 
elliptic, broadly acute, equally connate for 3 mm., thin, striate. 
Capsule 3 cm. long; coma reddish brown. 

Epiphytic. Junin: Hacienda Schunke, La Merced, 1,300 meters, 
5711. Endemic. 

7. Guzmania Morreniana (Linden) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 
932. 1896. Massangea Morreniana Linden in Cat. Expos. Brux. 
1880. Schlumbergera Morreniana E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 33: 46. 
pi. b-6. 1883. Caraguata Schlumbergerii Baker, Brom. 151. 1889. 

Up to 1 meter high. Leaves soon glabrous, 11 dm. long; sheath 
indistinct, dark brown, punctulate-lepidote; blade linear, acute, 7 
cm. wide, green with fine, irregular, dark brown cross-banding. 



574 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Scape stout, erect, its bracts densely imbricate, broadly ovate, 
acuminate, pungent, brownish purple. Inflorescence bipinnate, 
densely subcapitate or pyramidal, 1 dm. long, dark brown; primary 
bracts broadly elliptic, acute. Spikes ovoid, erect or nearly so, longer 
than the primary bracts at maturity. Floral bracts imbricate, 
coriaceous, broadly ovate, obtuse, 25 mm. long, equaling or exceed- 
ing the sepals. Flowers sessile, 4 cm. long; sepals acute, equally 
connate for 2-3 mm.; petals yellowish, slenderly tubular, obtuse. 

Epiphytic. Cuzco: Slopes of Media Naranja, Urubamba Basin, 
2,000 meters, Herrera 2039. Endemic. 

8. Guzmania Lindeni (Andre") Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 933. 
1896. Massangea Lindeni Andre", 111. Hort. 25: 55. pi. 309. 1878. 
Schlumbergera Lindeni E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 33: 121. pi. 10-12. 1883. 
Caraguata Lindeni Baker, Brom. 151. 1889. 

Several meters high. Leaves subglabrous, 7 dm. long; sheath 
ovate, densely punctulate-lepidote; blade linear, acute, 7-8 cm. broad, 
green with fine, irregular, sinuous, dark green or dark red cross lines. 
Scape stout, erect, 1 meter high, its bracts imbricate, ovate, tri- 
angular-acute, green with dark cross lines. Inflorescence bipinnate 
or at the base tripinnate, elongate, narrow, interrupted; axis green, 
striate, glabrous; primary bracts broadly triangular or elliptic, acute, 
cross-lined, shorter than the branches; branches 1 dm. long, bearing 
1-few spikes. Spikes densely strobiliform, ovoid or ellipsoid, 6 cm. 
long. Floral bracts broadly ovate, obtuse, green, equaling the 
sepals. Flowers sessile, 2 cm. long; sepals elliptic, acute, 13 mm. 
long; corolla tubular, white, the lobes spreading, acute. 

Indefinite: Northern Peru, Linden. Endemic. 

9. Guzmania Killipiana L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 
29. pi. 6, f. 1-2. 1932. 

Up to 1 meter high. Leaves 8-9 dm. long, obscurely punctulate- 
lepidote below; sheath indistinct, brown; blade ligulate, acuminate, 
5-7 cm. broad. Scape very stout, erect, glabrous, its bracts imbri- 
cate, broadly ovate, acuminate, pungent, yellow-green with longi- 
tudinal red stripes. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate; axis stout, angled, 
glabrous; primary bracts like the scape bracts, all shorter than the 
spikes or the lower slightly longer. Spikes stout-stipitate for 1 cm., 
densely strobiliform, ellipsoid or obovoid, 30-40-flowered, 7 cm. long, 
4-5 cm. broad. Floral bracts 3 cm. long, much exceeding the sepals, 
narrowly elliptic, obtuse or apiculate, nearly flat, coriaceous, striate, 
subglabrous. Flowers subsessile, 38 mm. long; sepals ovate, acumi- 



FLORA OF PERU 575 

nate, 16 mm. long, nearly free, carinate, coriaceous, punctate; petals 
white, erect; stamens included. 

Terrestrial. Junin: Pichis Trail, Enenas, 1,600-1,900 meters, 
Kittip & Smith 25630. Pichis Trail, Yapas, 1,350-1,600 meters, 
Killip & Smith 25561 . Endemic. 

10. Guzmania brevispatha Mez, Repert. Nov. Sp. 3 : 45. 1906. 
Up to 1 meter high. Leaves densely rosulate, 3 dm. long, dark- 

punctulate-lepidote above, covered with a white membrane of scales 
below; sheath conspicuous, elliptic, brown; blade 2 cm. wide, ligu- 
late, acuminate. Scape erect, slender, its bracts lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, the upper lax. Inflorescence bipinnate from 6-8 spikes, lax 
below, dense at the apex, 16 cm. long; axis glabrous; primary bracts 
shorter than the spikes, spreading, ovate-triangular, acute, scarlet. 
Spikes subspreading, ellipsoid, subsessile, 35 mm. long, substrobilate. 
Floral bracts elliptic, obtuse, glabrous, striate, 13 mm. long, enfolding 
and exceeding the sepals. Flowers subsessile, glabrous, 2 cm. long; 
sepals elliptic, obtuse; petals yellow, erect, obtuse; stamens and 
pistil included. 

Terrestrial. Huanuco: Prov. Humalies, southwestern mountains 
near Monzon, 2,000-2,500 meters, Weberbauer 3537. Endemic. 

11. Guzmania tarapotina Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
147. 1907. 

Up to 1 meter high. Leaves 7 dm. long ; sheath ovate, dark brown ; 
blade linear, 4 cm. wide, acuminate, glabrous. Scape erect, its bracts 
leaf-like, imbricate. Inflorescence bipinnate, lax below, 20-35 cm. 
long, green; primary bracts broadly ovate, acuminate, suberect, 
shorter than the spikes. Spikes strobiliform, narrowly ellipsoid or 
subpyramidal, 4-6 cm. long. Floral bracts 21 mm. long, broadly 
elliptic, exceeding the sepals, obtuse, striate. Flowers 27 mm. long; 
sepals 18 mm. long, ovate, acute, carinate; corolla narrowly tubular, 
the lobes ovate; stamens and pistil included. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Chilcayo, near Tarapoto, Ule 6683. Mouth 
of Rio Apaga, Tessmann 4894. San Martin: Alto Rio Huallaga, 360- 
900 meters, Williams 6782. Endemic. 

12. Guzmania panniculata Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 116. 
1905. 

Leaves punctulate-lepidote, 85 cm. long; sheath narrow; blade 
linear, 2 cm. wide. Scape erect, glabrous, its bracts lax, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence 



576 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

tripinnate or barely 4-pinnate, lax; primary bracts like the scape 
bracts, scarlet with yellow tips, all but the lowest shorter than the 
branches; branches suberect, 1 dm. long. Spikes laxly 7-flowered, 
4 cm. long. Floral bracts suberect, broadly ovate, obtuse, 15 mm. 
long, exceeding and enfolding the sepals, ecarinate, coriaceous, 
nerved. Flowers sessile, 21 mm. long, glabrous; sepals connate 
posteriorly for 3 mm., elliptic, acute, ecarinate, coriaceous; petals 
yellow. 

Terrestrial. Puno: Between Tambo Yuncacoya and Tambo 
Cachicachi on the road from Sandia to Chunchosmayo, 2,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 1136. Ecuador. 

13. Guzmania Weberbaueri Mez, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 114. 
1905. 

Stout, 1 meter high. Leaves minutely lepidote below, 9 dm. long; 
sheath narrowly elliptic; blade linear, 6 cm. wide, acuminate. Scape 
erect, glabrous, its bracts elliptic, acuminate, erect, exceeding the 
internodes. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate, subcylindric, 3 dm. long; 
primary bracts broadly ovate, abruptly acuminate, exceeding the 
spikes, scarlet, coriaceous, glabrous, strongly nerved, suberect. 
Spikes thick-ellipsoid, obtuse, short-stipitate, densely 5-8-flowered, 
25 mm. long. Floral bracts erect or nearly so, broadly elliptic, 
rounded-emarginate, much shorter than the sepals, coriaceous, 
glabrous. Flowers yellow, short-pedicellate; sepals 19 mm. long, 
equally connate for 11 mm., the lobes elliptic, asymmetric, obtuse. 

Terrestrial. Puno: Near Tinco on the road from Sandia to Chun- 
chosmayo, 1,200 meters, Weberbauer 1300. Ecuador. 

14. Guzmania Roezli (E. Morr.) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 948. 
1896. Schlumbergera Roezli E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 28: 311. 1878. 
Tillandsia rigidula Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 44. 1888. 

Stemless, 6-10 dm. high. Leaves 4 dm. long; sheath broadly 
ovate, finely brown-lepidote; blade ligulate, rounded-apiculate, 
3-4 cm. broad. Scape slender, erect, exceeding the leaves, glabrous, 
its bracts ovate, obtuse or apiculate, shorter than the internodes. 
Inflorescence laxly bipinnate, glabrous; primary bracts like the 
scape bracts, enfolding the sterile base of the spikes. Spikes spread- 
ing, elongate with long sterile prophyllate bases, laxly flowered. 
Floral bracts green, ovate, narrowly obtuse, shorter than the sepals. 
Flowers suberect, sessile, 23 mm. long; sepals elliptic, obtuse, 16-18 
mm. long, connate for 2 mm.; petals white, recurved-spreading; 
stamens slightly longer than the petals. 



FLORA OF PERU 577 

Terrestrial and epiphytic. San Martin: Zepelacio, near Moyo- 
bamba, 1,200-1,600 meters, King 3532. San Roque, 1,350-1,500 
meters, Williams 7236. Junin: La Merced, 700 meters, Killip & 
Smith 24063. Ayacucho: Aina, between Huanta and Rio Apurimac, 
750-1,000 meters, Killip & Smith 22686. Colombia, Guiana. 

8. CATOPSIS Griseb. 

Stemless herbs. Leaves densely utriculate-rosulate, entire, 
minutely appressed-lepidote, green; sheath large, ovate. Scape 
conspicuous. Inflorescence usually bipinnate, rarely simple or 
tripinnate, its branches polystichous-flowered. Flowers small 
or minute, sessile or subsessile, perfect in the Peruvian species. 
Sepals free, usually rounded, asymmetric, glabrous. Petals free, 
naked. Stamens included, the anthers ovate or elliptic. Ovary 
superior, broadly ovoid or ellipsoid, the style shorter than the ovary 
or lacking. Ovules few-several, long-caudate. Capsule septicidal. 
Seeds with coma apical and folded over, their bases projecting from 
the capsule. Greek, a view, the significance not evident. About 20 
species. Chiefly in Mexico, Central America, and the Antilles, with 
outlying species in Florida, northern South America, the Andes, and 
southern Brazil. Type species, Catopsis nutans (Sw.) Griseb. 

1. Catopsis sessiliflora (R. & P.) Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 625. 
1896. Tillandsia sessiliflora R. & P. Fl. 3: 42. pi. 271, f. b. 1802. 
Tussacia sessiliflora Beer, Brom. 101. 1857. Pogospermum sessili- 
florum Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. V. 1: 328. 1864. 

From 2 to 4 dm. high. Leaves tubular-rosulate, 15 cm. long; 
blade ligulate, 22 mm. wide, rounded-apiculate. Scape erect, its 
bracts remote. Inflorescence simple or of only a few spikes; rachis 
straight; floral bracts shorter than the sepals. Flowers suberect, 1 
cm. long; sepals suborbicular, 7.5 mm. long; petals ovate-lanceolate, 
slightly exceeding the sepals, white; ovary large, ovoid. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Cerro de Escalera, 1,200 meters, Ule 59p. 
Huanuco: Indefinite, Ruiz & Pavdn. Mexico and the Antilles to 
Peru and eastern Brazil. 

9. BROMELIA [Plum.] L. 

Coarse, terrestrial herbs, spreading by subterranean stolons. 
Leaves usually rosulate, with large, curved spines along the margin. 
Inflorescence sessile or stipitate, always compound. Sepals free or 
somewhat united, obtuse or acute, rarely mucronulate. Petals 



578 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

rarely with a definite claw, medianly united by the filaments, but 
their margins free, unappendaged, fleshy in most species. Stamens 
included, the filaments connate at least below. Anthers narrow, 
acute. Ovary passing gradually into the thick pedicel, the epigy- 
nous tube conspicuous to nearly lacking. Berry succulent, relatively 
large. Seeds few to many, flattened, naked. Commemorates Olans 
Bromel, 1639-1705, physician and botanist in Gothenberg. About 
30 species. Mexico and the Antilles to Argentina. Type species, 
Bromelia Pinguin L. 
Inflorescence sunk in the leaf rosette, capitate. 

Floral bracts exceeding the sepals 1. B. Poeppigii. 

Floral bracts shorter than the sepals 2. B. tarapotina. 

Inflorescence scapose, laxly paniculate 3. B. fastuosa. 

1. Bromelia Poeppigii Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 188. 1891. 
Leaves glabrous; sheaths large, suborbicular, herbaceous-lacini- 

ate on the margin; blade narrowly triangular, not at all contracted at 
the base, pungent, the spines stout, 3 mm. long. Inflorescence 
capitate, sunk in the center of the leaf rosette; branches 7-flowered, 
subdistichous; axes brown-farinose; primary bracts like the inner 
leaves. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, equaling the flowers, sparsely 
dentate, concave-carinate, acute, subglabrous. Flowers 6 cm. long, 
the pedicels short but distinct, brown-tomentulose; sepals free, 
narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 3 cm. long, glabrous except at the 
base; petals 35 mm. long, glabrous; ovary 25 mm. long, tomentose. 
Swampy woods. San Martin: Toca.che,Poeppigl824> Endemic. 

2. Bromelia tarapotina Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
130. 1907. 

Leaves 1-2 meters long; sheath dark brown, lepidote on both 
sides; blade narrowly triangular, not contracted at the base, 3-4 
cm. wide, the spines 5 mm. long. Inflorescence capitate, sunk in the 
center of the leaf rosette, brown-tomentose-lepidote, its outer 
bracts scarlet. Floral bracts linear-lanceolate, serrate toward the 
apex, shorter than the sepals. Flowers 4-5 cm. long, the pedicel 
1 cm. long; sepals free, narrowly triangular, 20-25 mm. long, acumi- 
nate, carinate, spinulose-serrate toward the apex; petals white, gla- 
brous, united at the base, 3 cm. long; stamens included. 

Dry soil. Loreto: Tarapoto, Ule 6682. Endemic. 

3. Bromelia fastuosa Lindl. Collect. Fasc. 1: pi. 1. 1821. 
B. antiacantha Bert, in Virid. Bonon. 4. 1824. B. Commeliniana de 



FLORA OF PERU 579 

Vriese, Del. Sem. Hort. Amst. 1844. Agallostachys Commeliniana 
Beer, Brom. 39. 1857. A. fastuosa Beer, Brom. 36. 1857. A. antia- 
cantha Beer, Brom. 37. 1857. 

Up to 1.5 meters high, very variable. Leaves 1.5 meters long; 
sheath broad, ferruginous- tomentose; blade narrowly triangular, 
not at all contracted at the base, 26 mm. broad, coarsely spinose- 
serrate. Scape stout, white-tomentose, its bracts leaf-like but with 
glabrous and relatively larger sheaths, the blades bright red. Inflo- 
rescence paniculate, narrowly thyrsoid, many-flowered; branches 
laxly racemose, 7-flowered; axes white-tomentose. Floral bracts 
subelliptic, obtuse, 6-10 mm. long, tomentulose or subglabrous, 
white. Flowers 4 cm. long, the lower pedicellate for 1 cm.; sepals 
free, often spreading, oblong-elliptic, obtuse, 7-15 mm. long; petals 
violet, 21 mm. long, glabrous; ovary ovoid to subcylindric, densely 
white-tomentose. 

Virgin forest. San Martin: Near Tocache, Poeppig. Brazil. 

10. GREIGIA Regel 

Large herbs, stemless or caulescent. Leaves narrowly triangular, 
spinose-serrate at the base or throughout. Inflorescence lateral or 
central and sunk in the leaf rosette, simple, corymbose or capitate. 
Sepals free or nearly so, symmetric. Petals connate, fleshy, naked. 
Filaments connate with the petals; anthers narrow, acute; pollen 
grains large, spherical, unmarked. Ovary glabrous, triangular. 
Berry fleshy. Commemorates Major-General Von Greig, Russian 
horticulturist. Nine or ten species. Costa Rica and Venezuela to 
Chile. Type species, Greigia sphacelate, (R. & P.) Regel. 

1. Greigia Macbrideana L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 
l.pl.lj. 9-11. 1932. 

Leaves 3-7 dm. long, appressed-white-lepidote below; sheath 
large, dark brown, densely serrate with spines 3-4 mm. long; blade 
linear, acuminate, 22 mm. wide, slightly constricted at the base, its 
spines minute and distant. Inflorescence about 8-flowered, dense; 
outer bracts dark chestnut throughout, triangular-ovate, acuminate, 
pungent, densely uncinate-serrate, appressed-lepidote. Floral 
bracts linear-lanceolate, 35 mm. long, exceeding the sepals, entire, 
pungent, punctate-lepidote, the lower half stramineous, mem- 
branaceous, the upper half dark chestnut, subcoriaceous. Flowers 
4 cm. long; sepals resembling the floral bracts, 2 cm. long; corolla 



580 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

27 mm. long, pink, the tube about as long as the lobes, the lobes 
erect; stamens and pistil included. 

Wet places. Huanuco: Tambo de Vaca, 3,700 meters, 4442. 
Endemic. 

11. NEOREGELIA L. B. Smith 

Regelia Lindm. Ofvers. Akad. Holm. 542. 1890, not Schauer, 
1843. Aregelia Mez in DC. Monogr. 9: 61. 1896, not Kuntze, 1891. 

Leaves densely rosulate, usually spinose-serrate; sheath large; 
blade acute or rounded-apiculate. Inflorescence simple, densely 
capitate, cyathiform, sunk in the center of the leaf rosette. Flowers 
pedicellate; sepals strongly asymmetric with the right side produced 
into a large wing; petals spreading, acuminate, violet, blue, or white, 
longer than the stamens and pistil. Named in honor of Eduard 
Regel, 1815-1892, German botanist. About 30 species. Species all 
Brazilian except for one in Guiana and the following one. Type 
species, Nidularium Meyendorffii Regel. 

1. Neoregelia eleutheropetala (Ule) L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray 
Herb. 104: 78. 1934. Nidularium eleutheropetalum Ule, Verh. Bot. 
Ver. Brandenb. 48: 131. 1907. Aregelia eleutheropetala Mez ex L. B. 
Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 5. pi. l,f. 4-6. 1932. 

Stoloniferous. Leaves 5-6 dm. long; sheath large, dark brown; 
blade ligulate, abruptly acute, 6-8 cm. broad, densely serrate with 
spines 5-7 mm. long. Inflorescence many-flowered; outer bracts 
elliptic, membranaceous, lepidote. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolate, 
4 cm. long, acute, brown-lepidote toward the apex, exceeded by the 
sepals. Flowers 5-6 cm. long, the pedicel slender, passing imper- 
ceptibly into the ovary; sepals free, glabrous, strongly carinate, 21- 
26 mm. long; petals white. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Yurimaguas, Ule 6304. Brazil. 

12. STREPTOCALYX Beer 

Leaves densely rosulate. Scape very short to elongate. Inflo- 
rescence central, 2-3-pinnate, subcapitate to laxly paniculate. 
Flowers sessile; sepals free or nearly so, strongly asymmetric, with a 
broad lateral wing; petals free, narrow, naked; stamens and pistil 
shorter than the petals; pollen grains with 2 or 4 pores; ovary usually 
farinose, the epigynous tube definite. Berry somewhat fleshy; 
seeds ellipsoid or ovoid, naked. Greek, twisted-calyx. Fourteen 
species, natives of Guiana, northern Brazil, and Peru. Type species, 
Streptocalyx Poeppigii Beer. 



FLORA OF PERU 581 

Floral bracts entire. 
Floral bracts shorter than the ovary. 

Floral bracts reniform, apiculate 1. S. Poeppigii. 

Floral bracts ovate, acuminate. 

Inflorescence cylindric 2. S. Williamsii. 

Inflorescence pyramidal 3. S. Furstenburgii. 

Floral bracts concealing the ovary. 

Primary bracts cucullate 4. S. Tessmannii. 

Primary bracts straight 5. S. brachystachys. 

Floral bracts serrate. 

Sepals serrulate 6. S. arenarius. 

Sepals entire 7. S. angustifolius. 

1. Streptocalyx Poeppigii Beer, Brom. 141. 1857. 

Leaves 6-10 dm. long; sheath distinct, dark brown; blade linear, 
3-4 cm. wide, acuminate, pale-appressed-lepidote below, the spines 
3 mm. long on the outer leaves, 1 mm. long on the inner. Scape 
slender, arching, tomentulose, its bracts ovate, laciniate-dentate, 
mucronate. Inflorescence bipinnate, narrowly cylindric, farinose; 
primary bracts like the scape bracts, broad, pink, concealing the 
spikes. Spikes distichous-flowered, lax, 2-5-flowered, often sterile 
at the apex; rachis slender. Floral bracts minute, entire, reniform, 
apiculate. Flowers 3 cm. long; sepals entire, free, 19 mm. long, 
mucronate; petals white with blue apices; ovary cylindric. 

Terrestrial. Huanuco: Near Cochero, Poeppig. Brazil. 

2. Streptocalyx Williamsii L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 
98: 14, pi. 4, /. 7. 1932. 

Leaves 6-7 dm. long; blade linear, acuminate, 3 cm. wide, densely 
punctulate-lepidote below, the spines 1-2 mm. long. Inflorescence 
narrowly cylindric, farinose; primary bracts broadly ovate, thin, 
pink, laciniate-dentate, exceeding the spikes, mucronate. Spikes 
very laxly 2-5-flowered, sterile at the apex, distichous-flowered; 
rachis slender, nearly straight. Floral bracts broadly ovate, 
acuminate, entire, up to 12 mm. long. Flowers 3 cm. long, sub- 
erect; sepals free, mucronate, 17 mm. long; petals 26 mm. long, 
purple when dry. 

Forest. Loreto: La Victoria on the Amazon River, Williams 2722. 
Endemic. 



582 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

3. Streptocalyx Furstenburgii (E. Morr. & Wittm.) E. Morr. 
Belg. Hort. 33: 13. 1883. Aechmea Furstenburgi E. Morr. & Wittm. 
Belg. Hort. 29: 42. pi. 2. 1879. 

Leaves 5-7.5 dm. long; sheath dark brown; blade acuminate, 
densely spinose-serrate. Scape very stout, erect, its bracts densely 
imbricate, broadly ovate, triangular-acute, mucronate, laciniate- 
dentate, white-lepidote, bright carmine. Inflorescence densely 
bipinnate, pyramidal, 3 dm. long, white-farinose; primary bracts 
like the scape bracts, concealing the spikes. Spikes distichously up 
to 9-flowered. Floral bracts broadly ovate, acuminate, entire, 
shorter than the ovary. Flowers over 3 cm. long; sepals 15 mm. long 
without the mucro. Fruiting ovary subglobose, 8 mm. long. 

Epiphytic. Junin: Prov. Tarma, valley of the Rio Chanchamayo 
near La Merced, 700 meters, Weberbauer 1808. Prov. Jauja, valley 
of Rio Masamerich, Weberbauer 6664- Brazil. 

4. Streptocalyx Tessmannii Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
9: 1151. 1927. 

Leaves elongate; blade linear, acuminate, 3-4 cm. wide, spinulose. 
Scape stout, arching, subglabrous, its bracts broadly ovate, long- 
laminate. Inflorescence densely bipinnate, capitate or pyramidal; 
primary bracts broadly ovate, red, concealing the spikes, denticulate 
to entire, the lower acuminate, the upper apiculate and strongly 
cucullate. Spikes densely 7-10-flowered. Floral bracts ovate or 
lanceolate, broad, 15-20 mm. long, concealing the ovary and part of 
the sepals, entire, mucronulate. Sepals lanceolate, entire, 17 mm. 
long, carinate, mucronate, glabrous; petals 32 mm. long, blue. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Barranquilla on the lower Rio Cahuapanas, 
Tessmann 3802. Puerto Arturo, lower Rio Huallaga below Yuri- 
maguas, 135 meters, Killip & Smith 27887. Mishuyacu, near 
Iquitos, 100 meters, Klug 9. Endemic. 

5. Streptocalyx brachystachys Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 9: 1152. 1927. 

Leaves over 6 dm. long; blade linear, at least 2 cm. wide, spinu- 
lose. Scape slender, much shorter than the leaves, its bracts ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate. Inflorescence densely bipinnate, subcapitate, 
6 cm. long; primary bracts ovate, acute, mucronate, concealing the 
spikes except for the petals, 3-4 cm. long, bright carmine. Spikes 
few-flowered. Floral bracts broadly ovate, concealing the ovary, 
mucronate, entire. Sepals broadly lanceolate, 17 mm. long, mucro- 
nate, carinate, glabrous; petals 26 mm. long, white with blue apices. 



FLORA OF PERU 583 

Epiphytic in rain forest. Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tess- 
mann 4645. Endemic. 

6. Streptocalyx arenarius Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
134. 1907. 

Leaves 8 dm. long; sheath narrowly ovate, dark; blade linear, 
acuminate, 15 mm. wide, lepidote below, the spines 2.5 mm. long, 
retrorse-uncinate. Inflorescence densely bipinnate, ovoid, 18 cm. 
long, slightly farinose; primary bracts ovate, acute, 8 cm. long, con- 
cealing the spikes, mucronate, densely and coarsely spinose-serrate. 
Spikes distichously 2-6-flowered. Floral bracts broad, more or less 
3-parted at the apex with short, obtuse lateral lobes and a triangular- 
acute middle lobe, 25 mm. long, concealing the ovary but much 
shorter than the sepals, spinulose-serrate. Flowers 4 cm. long; sepals 
free, 17 mm. long, mucronate, distinctly serrulate; petals white, 
33 mm. long. 

Sandy soil in dry woods. San Martin: Juan Guerra, near Tara- 
poto, Ule 6335. Endemic. 

7. Streptocalyx angustifolius Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 
3: 283. pi. 62. 1892. 

Leaves 4-7 dm. long; sheath distinct, dark brown; blade linear, 
acuminate, 5-10 mm. wide, spinulose-serrate. Scape very short or 
none. Inflorescence densely bipinnate, subcapitate; primary bracts 
broad, mostly concealing the spikes, weakly denticulate. Spikes 
3-5-flowered. Floral bracts ovate-elliptic, 25 mm. long, concealing 
the ovary, serrulate. Sepals free, 2 cm. long, acuminate, pungent, 
entire, wing-keeled; petals 25 mm. long, white. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Pantano, middle Rio Blanco, Tessmann 3133. 
La Victoria on the Amazon River, Williams 2927. Caballo-cocha on 
the Amazon River, Williams 2439. San Martin: Alto Rio Huallaga, 
360-900 meters, Williams 6656. Brazil. 

13. BILLBERGIA Thunb. 

Stemless plants. Leaves rosulate; sheath large; blade linear, 
spinose-serrate, often banded. Scape erect or arching, its bracts red, 
membranaceous. Inflorescence simple in the Peruvian species. 
Flowers showy. Sepals free, erect. Petals free, actinomorphic or 
slightly zygomorphic, bearing 2 scales, the claw long, the blade 
narrow, spirally recurving in the Peruvian species. Stamens exserted 
at anthesis, both series free or the second joined to the petals only as 
high as the scales. Pollen grains with longitudinal folds but no 



584 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

pores. Pistil exceeding the stamens, the epigynous tube large. 
Ovules many, obtuse. In honor of Gustav Johannes Billberg, 
Swedish botanist. From 40 to 50 species. Chiefly Brazilian with 
outlying species in the rest of South America, Mexico, Central 
America, and Trinidad. Type species, Billbergia speciosa Thunb. 

Floral bracts scale-like, much shorter than the ovary. 
Sepals broad, abruptly acute to rounded-apiculate, not over 12 

mm. long 1. B. decora. 

Sepals linear-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 25-40 mm. long. 
Inflorescence cylindric; sepals 35-40 mm. long . 2. B. Tessmannii. 
Inflorescence ovoid; sepals 25-28 mm. long. . . .3. B. formosa. 
Floral bracts all linear-lanceolate, exceeding the ovary. 

4. B. incarnata. 

1. Billbergia decora Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. 2: 42. pi. 157. 
1838. Helicodea Baraquiniana Lem. 111. Hort. 11: pi. 421. 1864. 
B. boliviensis Baker, Brom. 81. 1889. 

Leaves tubular-rosulate, 5-6 dm. long, finely lepidote, white- 
mottled; sheath narrowly elliptic; blade ensiform, acute, 55 mm. 
wide, the spines 1-1.5 mm. long. Scape slender, pendulous, white- 
farinose, its bracts large, elliptic, acute, bright carmine, aggregated 
below the inflorescence. Inflorescence spicate, densely white- 
farinose; rachis straight. Floral bracts squamiform, broadly ovate, 
4 mm. long. Flowers sessile, 8 cm. long; sepals asymmetric, unequal, 
the largest not over 12 mm. long, abruptly acute or rounded-apicu- 
late; petals linear, acute, green; scales basal, dentate; ovary sub- 
globose, 8 mm. long, the epigynous tube short. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Prov. Mainas, near Yurimaguas, Poeppig 
2432. Yurimaguas, lower Rio Huallaga, 135 meters, Killip & 
Smith 27646. Junin: Pichis Trail, Yapas, 1,350-1,600 meters, 
Killip & Smith 25609. Brazil, Bolivia. 

2. Billbergia Tessmannii Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
10: 177. 1927. 

Leaves up to 1 meter long; blade 4-6.5 cm. wide, acuminate, 
finely spinulose-serrate. Scape elongate, white-farinose, its bracts 
lance-oblong, acute, 15 cm. long, membranaceous, aggregated below 
the inflorescence. Inflorescence cylindric, spicate, many-flowered, 
white-farinose. Floral bracts 2-3 mm. long, almost aborted, deltoid. 
Flowers sessile; sepals linear-lanceolate, 35-40 mm. long; petals 
linear; style slender, up to 12 cm. long. 



FLORA OF PERU 585 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Lower Rio Itaya, Soledad, Tessmann 5318. 
Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, Klug 1324- Endemic. 

3. Billbergia formosa Ule, Verb. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 
48: 138. 1907. 

Leaves 6 dm. long; sheath narrowly elliptic; blade linear, acum- 
inate, 5 cm. wide, finely spinulose-serrate. Scape arching, slender, 
its bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1 dm. long, rose, aggregated below the 
inflorescence. Inflorescence spicate, ovoid, white-farinose. Floral 
bracts squamiform, acute. Flowers sessile, 9 cm. long; sepals lanceo- 
late, acute, 25-28 mm. long; petals narrow, acuminate, 85 mm. 
long, yellow-green, violet at the apex. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Iquitos, Ule 60p. Endemic. 

4. Billbergia incarnata (R. & P.) Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. 
Veg. 7: 1261. 1830. Bromelia incarnata R. & P. Fl. 3: 32. pi. 255. 
1802. Billbergia stenopetala Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 9: 
1153. 1927. 

Leaves 6 dm. long; sheath large, broadly ovate, dark brown; 
blade 65 mm. wide, concolorous, rounded or acute, coarsely spinose- 
serrate, the spines black, 5 mm. long. Scape pendulous, brownish- 
farinose, its upper bracts broadly elliptic, 17 cm. long. Inflorescence 
simple, laxly spicate, farinose, 3 dm. long, about 30-flowered; rachis 
straight or nearly so. Floral bracts 9-19 mm. long, exceeding the 
ovary, acuminate, glabrous. Flowers sessile, spreading, 11 cm. long; 
sepals triangular, acuminate, 2 cm. long; petals lorate, violet- 
purple; ovary constricted at the apex, the epigynous tube as long as 
the ovary and somewhat broader, urceolate. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Rio Blanco at the mouth of the Rio Capana- 
hua, Rio Ucayali drainage, Tessmann 3060. Huanuco: Near Posuso, 
Ruiz & Pavdn. Indefinite: Ruiz. Endemic. 

14. AECHMEA R. & P. 

Large or medium-sized, stemless herbs. Leaves rosulate, usually 
linear. Scape conspicuous. Inflorescence of various types. Flow- 
ers usually sessile. Sepals often asymmetric, usually mucronate. 
Petals free, bearing 2 scales near the base or high up. Second series 
of stamens more or less joined to the petals. Pollen grains with 2 
or 4 pores. Pistil shorter than the stamens, the stigma lobes linear, 
often twisted. Ovules caudate or obtuse. Berry usually dry. Seeds 
small, rugose, dark, naked. Greek, pointed, referring to the arma- 



586 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

ment. From 120 to 130 species. Mexico and the Antilles to northern 
Argentina. Type species, Aechmea paniculata R. & P. 

Inflorescence compound. 

Flowers slenderly pedicellate 1. A. ferruginea. 

Flowers sessile. 
Rachis deeply excavated opposite the flowers; floral bracts 

distichous, often imbricate. 

Sepals almost wholly exserted at maturity. .2. A. amazonica. 
Sepals mostly concealed by the floral bracts at maturity. 

3. A. Tessmannii. 
Rachis flattened but not truly excavated; floral bracts never 

imbricate. 

Inflorescence with its lower branches sterile, laxly paniculate. 

4. A. paniculata. 
Inflorescence fertile throughout. 
Floral bracts forming a tubular sheath about the base of 

the flower 5. A. Mertensii. 

Floral bracts boat-shaped, not forming a sheath about the 
base of the flower. 

Flowers erect; sepals unarmed 6. A. Schultesiana. 

Flowers spreading; sepals mucronate. .7. A. angustifolia. 
Inflorescence simple, spicate. 
Floral bracts entire, erect; inflorescence cylindric. 
Floral bracts exceeding the ovary; leaf blade constricted at the 

base 8. A. contracta. 

Floral bracts minute or wanting; leaf blade not contracted at 

the base 9. A. nudicaulis. 

Floral bracts serrate, reflexed at the apex; inflorescence stout, 
strobilate 10. A. Veitchii. 

1. Aechmea ferruginea L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 5. 
pl.lj. 1-3. 1932. 

Leaves 6-7 dm. long, punctulate-lepidote below; sheath large, 
dark brown; blade linear, 3 cm. wide, spinulose-serrate, the spines 
1-2 mm. long. Scape slender, erect, much shorter than the leaves, 
its bracts lanceolate, acuminate, about equaling the internodes, 
membranaceous. Inflorescence paniculate, tripinnate, pyramidal, 
17 cm. long, lax below, dense above, stellate-ferruginous-lepidote; 
primary bracts like the scape bracts, all but the lowest shorter than 



FLORA OF PERU 587 

the branches. Branches laxly flowered, suberect to spreading. 
Floral bracts minute, acicular. Flowers slenderly pedicellate, 2 
cm. long, the pedicels up to 8 mm. long; sepals 4 mm. long, unarmed, 
red, strongly asymmetric with the right side produced into a thin 
wing larger than the central portion; petals white with pinkish blue 
apices, 13 mm. long, the scales basal; ovules obtuse, borne at the 
summit of the cell. 

Terrestrial in dense forest. Junin: Pichis Trail, Dos de Mayo, 
1,700-1,900 meters, Killip & Smith 25815. Endemic. 

2. Aechmea amazonica Ule, Verb. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 
136. 1907. 

Up to 1 meter high. Leaves 4-10 dm. long, densely punctulate- 
lepidote; sheath large, castaneous; blade linear, 6-9 cm. broad, 
spinose-serrate, abruptly acute or rounded-apiculate, often with 
conspicuous white cross bands below. Scape erect, white-flocculose, 
its bracts lanceolate, acuminate, remotely denticulate, bright 
carmine, the lower remote and erect, the upper denser and spreading. 
Inflorescence bipinnate; lower primary bracts like the scape bracts, 
6-12 cm. long, exceeding the spikes, the upper primary bracts 
abruptly much shorter than the lower, closely resembling the floral 
bracts in size and form. Spikes long-stipitate, distichous-flowered, 
linear-lanceolate, densely 12-flowered; rachis geniculate, excavated 
opposite the flowers. Floral bracts broadly ovate, subtruncate, 
10-13 mm. long, barely exceeding the mature ovary, striate, lepidote. 
Flowers sessile, up to 32 mm. long; sepals asymmetric, 10-12 mm. 
long, unarmed; petals 2 cm. long, orange, obtuse; ovary glabrous, 
the ovules long-caudate, borne at the top of the cell. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Caballo-cocha on the Amazon River, 
Williams 2220. Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, Klug 349. 
San Martin: Tarapoto, 750 meters, Ule 6315; Williams 5913, 6124. 
Endemic. 

3. Aechmea Tessmannii Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
9: 1153. 1927. 

One meter or more high. Leaves 5-7 dm. long; blade linear, 
6-10 cm. wide, acute, spinose-serrate, appressed-white-lepidote, the 
spines 3-5 mm. long. Scape stout, erect, its bracts lanceolate, 
acuminate, spinulose-serrate, bright red. Inflorescence amply 
bipinnate; primary bracts like the scape bracts, 6-15 cm. long, 
diminishing evenly in size toward the apex of the inflorescence, the 
lowest about equaling the spikes. Spikes long-stipitate, spreading, 



588 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

distichous-flowered, oblong, 8-15 cm. long, densely 12-20-flowered, 
glabrous. Floral bracts ovate, obtuse, lustrous, 15-25 mm. long, 
nearly equaling the sepals, green tipped with orange. Flowers 
sessile; sepals obovate-oblong, obtuse, 13 mm. long, glabrous; petals 
orange, acute, 6-7 mm. longer than the petals. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Valley of the upper Rio Maranon, Tessmann 
3937. Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, King 1002. Rio 
Maranon valley, 150 meters, Killip & Smith 29185. Lower Rio 
Huallaga, 135 meters, Killip & Smith 29275. Endemic. 

4. Aechmea paniculata R. & P. Syst. 83. 1798. 

Leaves over 3 dm. long; blade acuminate, 37-50 mm. wide, 
whitish below, densely spinose-serrate, the spines 4-6 mm. long. 
Scape stout, erect, lateral. Inflorescence ample, laxly 4-pinnate, its 
lower branches sterile with setiform bracts; primary bracts large, 
lanceolate, exceeding the lowest branches. Spikes spreading, laxly 
2-4-flowered, 5 cm. long; rachis geniculate, glabrous. Floral bracts 
symmetric, suborbicular, 15 mm. broad, with a mucro 8 mm. long, 
striate. Flowers sessile, nearly 4 cm. long; sepals free, asymmetric, 
with a large lateral wing, 9 mm. long, glabrous, twisted; petals 
yellow-green, 27 mm. long, their scales basal, coarsely dentate. 
Berry 1 cm. long. 

Epiphytic. Huanuco: Near Posuso, Ruiz & Pawn. Endemic. 

5. Aechmea Mertensii (Meyer) Schult. f. in R. & S. Syst. 
Veg. 7: 1272. 1830. Bromelia Mertensii Meyer, Fl. Esseq. 144. 1818. 
A. spicata Mart, in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1273. 1830. A. mucroniflora 
Hook. Bot. Mag. 81: pi. 4832. 1855. 

Leaves laxly rosulate, up to 4 dm. long, densely appressed- 
lepidote; sheath narrowly ovate; blade linear, acute, spinulose- 
serrate. Scape slender, erect, its bracts large, lanceolate, bright 
carmine, serrulate, the lower lax and erect, the upper spreading and 
crowded at the base of the inflorescence. Inflorescence bipinnate, 
fertile throughout, narrowly thyrsoid, acute. Spikes 2-8-flowered, 
spreading. Floral bracts broadly ovate, mucronate, entire, enfolding 
the flowers, 5 mm. long, tomentulose. Flowers sessile, 13 mm. long; 
sepals free, mucronate, strongly asymmetric, 4 mm. long; petals 
yellow, mucronate; ovary constricted at the apex, the ovules long- 
caudate, borne near the top of the cell. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, 100 meters, Klug 
575. Iquitos, 100 meters, Killip & Smith 26964, 27203. Between 
Yurimaguas and Balsapuerto, 135-150 meters, Killip & Smith 



FLORA OF PERU 589 

28267. Santa Rosa, lower Rio Huallaga below Yurimaguas, 135 
meters, Killip & Smith 28949. Alto Rio Itaya, 145 meters, Williams 
3263. Rio Mazan near Iquitos, 125 meters, Williams 8151. La 
Victoria on the Amazon River, Williams 2793. Caballo-cocha on the 
Amazon River, Williams 2350, 2464- Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana, 
Amazon Basin. 

6. Aechmea Schultesiana Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 
334. 1892. Billbergia paniculata Mart, in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1268. 
1830, not Aechmea paniculata R. & P. 1798. A. Friedrichsthalii 
Mez & Bonn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 19: 263. 1894. A. inermis Mez, 
Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 4: 620. 1904. 

Leaves 5-7 dm. long; sheath ovate, brown-lepidote; blade 2-4 
cm. wide, minutely serrate, appearing entire, subglabrous. Scape 
erect, its bracts elliptic, acute, glabrous, entire, the lower ones shorter 
than the internodes. Inflorescence densely paniculate, ellipsoid, 
7-15 cm. long; primary bracts broadly lanceolate, scarlet, about 
equaling the branches; branches suberect to spreading, simple or the 
lowest divided, distichously 6-10-flowered. Floral bracts ovate, 
acute, short-mucronate, entire, convex, 2-5 mm. long, about equal- 
ing the ovary. Flowers sessile, 13 mm. long; sepals free, unarmed, 
obtuse, 6 mm. long, asymmetric; petals orange, mucronulate; ovary 
glabrous, the ovules caudate, borne high in the cell. 

Epiphytic. Loreto or Amazonas: Mouth of the Rio Santiago, 
Tessmann 4287. Puno: Prov. Sandia, near Chunchosmayo, 900 
meters, Weberbauer 1183. Costa Rica, Venezuela, Amazonia. 

7. Aechmea angustifolia Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 
2: 43. pi. 159. 1838. Hoplophytum angustifolium Beer, Brom. 132. 
1857. A. Cumingii Baker, Journ. Bot. 17: 227. 1879. A. boliviana 
Rusby, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 456. 1907. A. cylindrica Mez, 
Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 413. 1913. 

Leaves 5-6 dm. long; sheath elliptic, 1 dm. long, light tan; blade 
linear, acuminate, 3-5 cm. wide, appressed-cinereous-lepidote, 
spinose-serrate, concolorous. Scape stout, erect, subglabrous, its 
bracts elliptic, acute, denticulate, red. Inflorescence densely bipin- 
nate, cylindric, fertile throughout, 3 dm. long; axes puberulent; 
primary bracts like the scape bracts, exceeding the lowest spikes. 
Spikes spreading or reflexed, distichously 10-flowered, 35 mm. long; 
rachis undulate, compressed. Floral bracts broadly ovate with a 
straight mucro, convex, puberulent, 5 mm. long. Flowers sessile, 
12-16 mm. long; sepals free, mucronate, asymmetric, subglabrous; 



590 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

petals yellow, mucronate, the scales borne well above the base; 
ovary ellipsoid ; ovules caudate, borne at the summit of the cell. 

Epiphytic. Loreto: Yurimaguas on the lower Rio Huallaga, 
155-180 meters, Williams 7817. San Martin: Near Tocache, 
Poeppig 1823. Lamas, 840 meters, Williams 6384- San Roque, 
1,350-1,500 meters, Williams 7316. Huanuco: Monzon region, 
Weberbauer 3625. Madre de Dios (?): Seringal Auristella, Ule 
9164- Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia. 

8. Aechmea contracta (Mart.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 17: 234. 
1879. Billbergia contracta Mart, in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1263. 1830. 

Leaves 5-10, subfasciculate, 4-6 dm. long, distinctly petiolate; 
sheath broadly ovate; petiole up to 12 cm. long, grooved, spinose- 
serrate; blade narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 35 mm. broad, ser- 
rate, sparsely lepidote. Scape very slender, more or less arching, 
white-floccose, its bracts lanceolate, acuminate, aggregated below 
the inflorescence, bright red. Inflorescence narrowly cylindric, 
spicate, subdistichous. Floral bracts ovate, acute. Flowers sessile, 
35 mm. long; sepals free, 8 mm. long, strongly asymmetric, apiculate; 
petals 26 mm. long, yellow; ovary tomentose, cylindric; ovules long- 
caudate, borne high in the cell. 

Loreto: Valley of the Rio Maranon, Tessmann 3711. Lower 
Rio Nanay, Williams 633. Mishuyacu near Iquitos, 100 meters, 
Klug 1140. Chimbote, Solimoes, J. G. Kuhlmann 1594- Brazil. 

9. Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., Fl. West Ind. 593. 1864. 
Bromelia nudicaulis L. Sp. PL 286. 1753. B. lutea Meyer, Fl. Esseq. 
145. 1818. Tillandsia unispicata Veil. Fl. Flum. 132. 1825. Billbergia 
nudicaulis Lindl. Bot. Reg. 13: sub. pi. 1068. 1827. B. oblonga Mart, 
in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1256. 1830. B. lutea R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 
1258. 1830. Pothuava spicata Gaud. Atl. Bonite pi. 117. 1847. 
Hoplophytum nudicaule C. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. App. 6. 
1856. H. unispicatum Beer, Brom. 138. 1857. H. languinosum 
Beer, Brom. 138. 1857. Billbergia lanuginosa Hort. ex Beer, Brom. 
138. 1857. Hoplophytum spicatum Beer, Brom. 140. 1857. Hohen- 
bergia nudicaulis Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 4: sub pi. 284' 1871. 
Pothuava nudicaulis Regel, Gartenfl. 31: 291. pi. 1096. 1882. Aechmea 
Cornui Carr. Rev. Hort. 57: 36. 1885. Billbergia quadricolor Hort. 
ex Baker, Brom. 62. 1889. Aechmea sulcata Lindm. Svensk. Akad. 
Handl. 24: No. 8: 31. pi. 5,f. 15-21. 1891. 

Leaves 5 dm. long, 6-10 cm. broad above the narrow sheath, 
linear, apiculate, strongly spinose-serrate. Scape slender, erect or 



FLORA OF PERU 591 

arching, white-floccose, its bracts erect, elliptic, acute, entire, red, 
membranaceous, congested at its apex. Inflorescence simple, 
polystichous, cylindric, fertile throughout. Floral bracts minute 
or sometimes wanting, entire. Flowers 22 mm. long; sepals free, 
mucronate, strongly asymmetric; petals 12 mm. long, yellow, acute, 
bearing fimbriate scales 4 mm. from the base; ovary subglobose, the 
epigynous tube conspicuous; ovules short-caudate, borne at the 
middle of the cell. 

Epiphytic and terrestrial. San Martin: Salt Mountain near 
Pilluana on the Rio Huallaga, Ule 6662. Mexico and the Antilles to 
southern Brazil. 

10. Aechmea Veitchii Baker, Bot. Mag. 103: pi. 6329. 1877. 
Chevalliera Veitchii E. Morr. Belg. Hort. 28: 177. pi 9. 1878. 

Leaves up to 1 meter long; sheath distinct, ovate; blade ensiform, 
rounded-apiculate, 6 cm. wide, densely white-lepidote below, spinu- 
lose-serrate, the spines 1 mm. long. Scape stout, its bracts green, 
densely imbricate, strict, pungent, densely serrulate. Inflorescence 
simple, many-flowered, densely strobiliform, up to 5 dm. long, with 
a coma of sterile bracts at the apex. Floral bracts lanceolate, 
acuminate, about equaling the mature flowers, densely serrulate, 
reflexed, bright scarlet, lepidote. Flowers sessile, 3 cm. long; sepals 
free, subtriangular, acute, glabrous, 14 mm. long; petals erect, 
white; scales basal; ovary obconic, 7 mm. long, the epigynous tube 
lacking. 

Epiphytic. San Martin: Mountains east of Moyobamba (Weber- 
bauer in Engl. & Drude, Veg. Erde 12: 267. 1911). Colombia. 

15. ANANAS Mill. 

Leaves densely rosulate, scarcely enlarged at the base, acuminate- 
pungent, usually spinose-serrate. Scape erect, stout, spiny-bracted. 
Inflorescence densely strobiliform, crowned with a tuft of sterile, 
foliaceous bracts. Flowers sessile, violet or red. Sepals free, obtuse, 
slightly asymmetric. Petals free, erect, each bearing 2 slenderly 
infundibuliform scales. Stamens included, the pollen grains ellipsoid, 
with 2 pores. Ovaries coalescing with each other and with the bracts 
and axis to form a fleshy, compound fruit, the epigynous tube short. 
Ovules borne near the top of the cell. Berry sterile in the cultivated 
varieties and forms. Name Brazilian. A single variable species of 
which the common cultivated variety is typical taxonomically. 



592 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

1. Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill, Interpret. Humph. Herb. 
Amboin. 133. 1917. Bromelia Ananas L. Sp. PI. 285. 1753. B. 
comosa L. in Stickm. Herb. Amboin. 21. 1754. Ananassa saliva, 
Lindl. Bot. Reg. 13: sub pi. 1068. 1827. Ananas sativus Schult. f. 
in R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1283. 1830. A. Ananas Cockerell, Proc. 
Acad. Phila. 1896: 776. 1896. 

Characters of the genus. Wild specimens small, with fruit only 
slightly fleshy. 

Terrestrial, cultivated on the eastern slopes of the Andes up to 
an elevation of 1,800 meters (Weberbauer!). Junin: La Merced, 
700 meters, 5482. Native of Brazil and Guiana, cultivated and 
becoming an escape elsewhere in tropical America. 

26. COMMELINACEAE. Spiderwort Family 
Reference: C. B. Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3. 1881. 

Although this family is largely tropical, it is not especially well 
represented in Peru. The genera are annoyingly ill-defined and 
even the number of fertile stamens is inconstant sometimes. The 
following key, based on Bruckner's careful synopsis, Pflanzenfam. 
ed. 2. 15a. 1930, is supplemented by another that leads one to most 
or all of the more conspicuous plants. 

Rhoeo discolor (L'HeY.) Hance, probably native of Mexico, is 
grown sometimes in gardens. It has rather showy flowers and 
elongate strap-shaped leaves which usually are deep purple beneath. 
The name "flor de pina" is given to it at Iquitos. 

Fertile stamens normally 5 or 6. 
Petals free or nearly free. 
Petals equal, the flowers regular, umbellate or fasciculate. 

Peduncles perforating the leaf sheaths 1. Campelia. 

Peduncles exserted from the leaf sheaths .... 2. Tradescantia. 
Petals unequal, the flowers irregular or racemose-paniculate. 

Flowers regular or nearly so 3. Dichorisandra. 

Flowers irregular. 

Filaments glabrous 4. Floscopa. 

Filaments, or some of them, hairy. 

Flowers fasciculate-umbellate 10. Geogenanthus. 

Flowers racemose 5. Tinantia. 

Petals connate into a long slender tube 11. Zebrina. 



FLORA OF PERU 593 

Fertile stamens 3 or rarely 6. 
Flowers irregular, in spathe-bracted racemes or cymes. 

Capsule dehiscent 6. Commelina. 

Capsule indehiscent 7. Athyrocarpus. 

Flowers regular, minute, axillary-congested or in open terminal 

panicles or umbels. 

Flowers axillary-congested or in terminal umbels. 8. Callisia. 
Flowers in open terminal panicles 9. Aneilema. 

SUPPLEMENTARY KEY 

Flowers enclosed in or subtended by a spathe or spathe-like structure. 
Peduncles exserted from the leaf sheaths, often lacking or short. 
Flowers neither minute nor congested-axillary. 

Flowers more or less obviously umbellate 2. Tradescantia. 

Flowers not umbellate. 
Flowers tubular, the tube exserted from the bracts. 

11. Zebrina. 

Petals free or nearly so. 

Capsule dehiscent; plants glabrous or somewhat pubes- 
cent 6. Commelina. 

Capsule indehiscent; stems laterally or sheaths conspicu- 
ously hairy 7. Athyrocarpus. 

Flowers minute, congested-axillary or rarely umbellate. 

8. Callisia. 
Peduncels perforating the leaf sheaths, greatly elongate. 

1. Campelia. 
Flowers not closely enclosed in bracts. 

Flowers umbellate or fasciculate-umbellate-racemose, terminal. 

Pedicels 2 cm. long or longer 10. Geogenanthus. 

Pedicels 1 cm. long or shorter. 

Flowers umbellate, small 2. Tradescantia. 

Flowers racemose-umbellate, about 1 cm. long . . 5. Tinantia. 
Flowers paniculate-racemose or at least not fasciculate-umbellate 

unless lateral. 
Flowers tiny, inconspicuous. 

Pedicels glabrous, several mm. long 9. Aneilema. 

Pedicels often hairy, very short 4. Floscopa. 



594 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Flowers rather conspicuous. 

Flowers borne in lateral, peduncled or subsessile fascicles. 

10. Geogenanthus. 
Flowers borne in terminal racemes or panicles. 

3. Dichorisandra. 

1. CAMPELIA L. C. Rich. 

A stout herb with large leaves and long axillary peduncles bearing 
a number of small, nearly regular, fascicled, white flowers. Stamens 
subequal. Filaments bearded. Anther connective oblong- tri- 
angular. Capsule 2-3-celled, each cell 1-2-seeded. 

Gampelia Zanonia (L.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 264. 1816; 
314. Commelina Zanonia L. Sp. PI. 41. 1753. 

Sometimes 1 meter high and the leaves 2 dm. long and 5 cm. wide; 
inflorescence bracts 2-5 cm. long; bractlets many; petals and sepals 
subequal. The only species, typically more or less pilose- villous; in 
the var. glabrata (Kunth) Clarke the leaves are glabrous and the 
petals exceed the sepals. Illustrated, Kerner, Pflanzenleben ed. 3, 
pt. 1: 163. 

Ayacucho: Estrella, 500 meters, Killip & Smith 23081. Near 
Kimpitiriki, 400 meters, Killip & Smith 22882. Huanuco: Below 
Muna, 1,200 meters, 4204- Posuso, 600 meters, 4661 (both det. 
Bruckner). Junin: La Merced, 600 meters, 5370 (det. Bruckner). 
Chanchamayo Valley, 1,200 meters, Schunke 470. Above San 
Ramon, Killip & Smith 24719. La Merced, Killip & Smith 23733. 
Yapas, Killip & Smith 25470. Loreto: Yurimaguas, 135 meters, 
Killip & Smith 27613. Pampas del Sacramento (Huber 1505). 
Rio Acre, Ule 9156. San Martin: Tarapoto, Ule 6331. Alto Rio 
Huallaga, Williams 5749, 5648. Rio Mayo, Williams 6195. San 
Roque, Williams 7723. Widely distributed in tropical America. 

2. TRADESCANTIA L. 

Herbs, usually more or less procumbent, with small or medium- 
sized leaves and regular, blue, roseate, or white flowers borne in 
sessile or pedunculate umbels. Stamens 6 or rarely only 3, the fila- 
ments equal or 3 a trifle to much shorter, the anthers all alike or more 
or less dissimilar. Capsule 3-celled, the cells usually 2-ovuled. 
Bruckner has recently taken up Descantaria Schlecht. on the basis 
of its dissimilar anthers. There is a practical loss rather than gain 
in this purely academic action. 



FLORA OF PERU 595 

Leaves mostly about 1-1.5 cm. wide. 
Leaves glabrous, at least beneath; anthers similar. 
Bracts small; flowers white; plants not fleshy. 
Filaments glabrous; leaves drying subdiaphanous. 

T. cordifolia. 

Filaments hairy; leaves firm, opaque T. gracilis. 

Bracts foliaceous; flowers rose; plants fleshy T. navicularis. 

Leaves pilose, at least beneath; anthers dissimilar or the connec- 
tive elongate-arcuate. 

Leaves pilose on both sides T. ionantha. 

Leaves pilose only beneath. 

Leaves mostly 2.5-3 cm. long T. parviflora. 

Leaves rarely 2.5 cm. long T. gracilis. 

Leaves mostly 2-3 cm. wide. 
Leaves lanceolate (typically), about 2 cm. wide; petals 4-6 mm. 

long. 

Flowers well exserted or ebracteate. 

Pedicels not capillary nor the sheaths conspicuously villous. 
Leaves more or less pubescent; peduncle longer than the 

subtending leaf T. elongata. 

Leaves glabrous; peduncles shorter than the subtending 

leaf T. cumanensis. 

Peduncles and pedicels capillary; sheaths villous. 

T. geniculata. 
Flowers nearly concealed in the conspicuous bracts. 

T. cymbispatha. 
Leaves cordate-ovate or broadly lanceolate, 2-3 cm. wide; petals 

8-9 mm. long. 
Bracts small. 
Coarse plants with several axillary flower clusters. 

T. ambigua. 

Slender plants, the flowers terminal T. encolea. 

Bracts conspicuous T. cymbispatha. 

Tradescantia ambigua Mart, ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1170. 
1830. 

A stout, leafy, somewhat pubescent plant with several to many 
axillary umbels of showy purple flowers; leaves often 1 dm. long and 



596 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

3-4 cm. broad, ashy-pubescent beneath; filaments nearly glabrous: 
seeds 2 mm. long, rugose. 

Huancavelica: Below Surcubamba, 1,500 meters, Weberbauer 
6495 (det. Bruckner). Brazil and Bolivia. 

Tradescantia cordifolia Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1: 601. 1797; 300. 

Nearly glabrous; leaves subcordate, 2 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; 
peduncles 4-8-flowered; pedicels and sepals (2 mm. long) pubescent; 
petals white; capsule 1.5 mm. long. A delicate plant with flaccid 
stems and leaves. 

San Martin: Tarapoto (Spruce); Vie 6610. North to Mexico 
and the West Indies. 

Tradescantia cumanensis Kunth, Enum. 4: 96. 1843; 306. 
Descantaria cumanensis Briickn. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 171. 1930. 

Glabrous except for the sheaths and the usually glandular-pilose 
inflorescence; leaves 7-8 cm. long; stamens unequal, the 3 shorter 
glabrous, their anthers dissimilar. T. multiflora (see under T. parvi- 
flora) has shorter leaves. These species and T. elongata are often 
scarcely distinct, and probably there is really one species with merging 
variations. Neg. 10739. 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas, Mathews 3117. North to Central 
America. 

Tradescantia cymbispatha Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3: 296. 
1881. 

Leaves broadly lanceolate, shortly petioled at the oblique base, 
about 1 dm. long, 3 cm. wide, sparsely pilose beneath, or those of the 
sterile branches smaller and pilose on both sides; umbels conspicu- 
ously 2-bracted, the bracts to 2 cm. long; sepals 5 mm. long; stamens 
unequal, the longer bearded, the shorter scarcely so, the anthers 
nearly similar. Flowers white. 

Huanuco: Near Mito, 3382, 1617. Huanuco Mountains, 4,000 
meters, 2159. Lima: Huariaca, 3122 (all det. Bruckner). Bolivia. 

Tradescantia elongata G. F. W. Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq. 146. 
1818; 303. Descantaria elongata Briickn. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 
172. 1930. 

Leaves about 8 cm. long and 2 cm. wide; peduncles mostly or all 
terminal, glabrous or hairy on one side; stamens unequal, glabrous 
or pubescent, the anthers dissimilar. 



FLORA OF PERU 597 

San Martin: Tarapoto (Spruce 4071). Junin: La Merced, 600 
meters, 5338. Brazil to the West Indies and Mexico. 

Tradescantia encolea Diels, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 381. 1906. Des- 
cantaria encolea Briickn. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 172. 1930. 

Stems (1.5-5 dm. long) above and inflorescence fuscous-pilose; 
sheaths ample, 3-4 cm. long and 7 mm. broad; leaves cordate-ovate, 
6-8 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. wide; peduncles 1.5-2 cm. long; pedicels 5 
mm. long; petals 8-9 mm. long, white (?); longer stamens bearded, 
5 mm. long. Allied to T. cumanensis HBK. Neg. 10740. 

Peru: Weberbauer 3855 (without locality). Lima: Matucana, 
2,400 meters, 350. 

Tradescantia geniculata Jacq. Select. Stirp. Am. Hist. 94. 
pi. 64. 1763; 300. 

Well marked by its geniculate stems, more or less villous laterally, 
as also the leaves, especially beneath, and the long and slender- 
peduncled, axillary and terminal umbels of capillary-pediceled flow- 
ers; leaves 3-6 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide; sheaths conspicuously 
villous; flowers greenish white; stamens subequal; ovary glabrous. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 5506, 6182. Junin: Near La 
Merced, Killip & Smith (all det. Bruckner). South America; 
Mexico; West Indies. 

Tradescantia gracilis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 261. pi. 672. 
1816; 297. 

Flaccid-stammed, procumbent and rooting at nodes below; leaves 
ciliate or glabrous, usually broadly ovate, 1.5-2 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 
sometimes larger; peduncles mostly terminal, 1 to several cm. long; 
pedicels 3-6 mm. long, like the sepals minutely glandular; flowers 
small, white; anthers similar but the connective narrowly ligulate, 
arcuate. The var. bicolor (Kunth) Clarke has the leaves pubescent 
beneath, and this form is scarcely distinguishable from T. parviflora 
except by the similar anthers. 

Cajamarca: San Pablo, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 3855. With- 
out locality (Mathews, the var.). San Martin: San Roque, Williams 
7147 (det. Bruckner). Huanuco: Ambo, 3156. Ecuador: Colombia. 

Tradescantia ionantha Diels, Bot. Jahrb. 37: 382. 1906. 
Descantaria ionantha Briickn. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 172. 1930. 

Stems erect above the branched base, 1.5-3.5 dm. high; sheaths 
5-8 mm. long, pilose at throat; leaves broadly sessile, ovate, 1.5-4 



598 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. broad, above sparsely, beneath densely pilose; 
pilose inflorescence much aggregate in the upper leaf axils and 
terminal; pedicels about 2 mm. long; petals pale lilac, 3 mm. long; 
longer stamens bearded, 3 mm. long. Allied to T. multiflora Sw. 
Neg. 10741. 

Puno: Sandia, 2,100 meters, Weberbauer 588. 

Tradescantia navicularis Ortg. Gartenflora 26: 130. pi. 901. 
1877; 291. 

Fleshy, the short thick ciliate leaves 1-2 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 
closely sessile and below often imbricate, above remote, the upper- 
most subtending the umbel-like inflorescence of showy roseate 
flowers 5-7 mm. long; pedicels 1-2 cm. long, glabrous; filaments 
roseate-bearded below. Cultivated at Dahlem. T. brachyphylla 
Greenm. of Mexico seems to be the same. 

Peru: (Roezl). 

Tradescantia parviflora R. & P. Fl. 3: 43. pi. 272. 1802; 306. 

Similar in habit to T. gracilis, but the leaves oblong-lanceolate 
or ovate, 2.5-3 cm. long, 8-15 mm. broad, densely short-pilose 
beneath; sheaths pilose and long-ciliate; peduncles to 1 cm. long, 
minutely glandular-pubescent as also the short pedicels and sepals; 
flowers white, tiny; stamens dissimilar, 3 larger. T. multiflora Sw., 
similar and to be expected, is a stout plant, the leaves usually gla- 
brous, ovate, about 2 cm. broad and 3-4 cm. long, the flowers typically 
larger and rose. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Spruce 1+190, 4198. Huanuco: Posuso 
and Huanuco (Ruiz & Pavori). 

3. DICHORISANDRA Mikan 

Stout perennials with large leaves and terminal racemes of blue- 
violet, nearly regular flowers. Stamens 5 or 6, equal or the outer a 
little shorter. Filaments short, glabrous. Anthers dehiscent apically 
by a pore. Capsule 3-celled, the cell 4-5-ovuled, rarely 2-3-ovuled. 
The species are not well marked, and it is probable that they are 
fewer and variable. The generic name is conserved. 
Sepals pubescent; flowers racemose-paniculate. 

Leaves glabrate or finely pubescent beneath D. hexandra. 

Leaves yellowish-villous beneath D. villosula. 

Sepals glabrous; flowers often merely racemose. 

Petioles and sheaths 2-3 mm. broad. 



FLORA OF PERU 599 

Sheaths sparsely long-ciliate; petals and sepals subequal. 

D. inaequalis. 

Sheaths densely ciliate; petals exceeding the sepals . . D. hexandra. 
Petioles and sheaths 4-8 mm. broad D. Ulei. 

Dichorisandra hexandra (Aubl.) Standl. in Standl. & Calderon, 
Lista PI. Salvad. 48. 1925. Commelina hexandra Aubl. PL Guian. 1: 
35. pi. 12. 1775. D. Aubletiana R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1181. 1830. 

Plants 1-2 meters high; leaves about 6 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, 
acuminate, unequally and broadly cuneate or subrotund at base, 
typically not at all transversely striate; petioles 1-2 mm. broad; 
sheaths more or less villous; panicle usually equaling or exceeding 
the leaves; sepals puberulent, 6 mm. long; petals subrotund, obtusish. 
The Peruvian plant, perhaps specifically distinct, is var. per- 
sicariaefolia (Clarke) Macbr. (D. Aubletiana R. & S. var. persi- 
cariaefolia Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3: 274. 1881), with transversely 
striate leaves. 

Junin: La Merced, 5593 (det. Bruckner). Puerto Yessup, 400 
meters, Killip & Smith 26391. Loreto: La Victoria, Williams 2828, 
2751, 3109, 3111. Caballo-cocha, Williams 2326. Leticia, Williams 
3064. Pebas, Williams 1625. Rio Itaya, Williams 145, 3480, 47, 
165. Iquitos, Williams 8181, 8195, 1424, 7943, 1439, 1539, 3532; 
Killip & Smith 27405, 27246, 27114, 27106. Mishuyacu, King 369. 
Lower Rio Nanay, Williams 603, 381. Yurimaguas, Williams 4433. 
San Antonio, Killip & Smith 29359. San Martin: Moyobamba, 
Weberbauer 4624. Tarapoto (Spruce 4497); Williams 6034, 6061, 
6395, 6474. San Roque, Williams 6948, 7355. Puno: Sandia 
region, Raimondi (det. Bruckner). Widely distributed in tropical 
America. "Puchu-yuiyui," "tambisi." 

Dichorisandra inaequalis Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 140. 1827; 278. 

Apparently similar to D. hexandra; leaves often shorter, unequally 
subrotund at base, sometimes sparsely pubescent beneath; racemes 
elongate, yellowish-pubescent; sepals 9 mm. long; petals ovate. 
Perhaps the same as the variety of D. hexandra. 

Huanuco: (Haenke). Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2506). Brazil. 

Dichorisandra Ulei Macbr. Field. Mus. Bot. 11: 8. 1931. 
D. longifolia Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 50: 71. 1908, not Mart. 
& Gal., 1842. 

Ascending-erect, 1-3 meters high, glabrous or nearly so except for 
the apex of the sheaths and the short inflorescence; leaves oblong- 



600 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

lanceolate, long-acuminate, 1.5-2 dm. long, 3.5-4 cm. wide, con- 
stricted at base to a very short petiole 4-5 mm. broad ; petals bright 
blue, acutish, longer than the glabrous sepals. Distinguished by 
Ule from D, ovata Mart, by the longer and glabrous leaves. Perhaps 
not distinct from D. thyrsiflora, with leaves gradually narrowed to 
the petiole, a subpaniculate inflorescence, and obtuse petals, but the 
elongate leaves of this plant are nearly oblong. D. densiflora Ule, 
similar, is distinguishable by its ample inflorescence and elliptic 
leaves. Neg. 10751. 

Loreto: Cerro de Ponasa, 1,200 meters, Ule 6669. 

Dichorisandra villosula Mart, ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7: 1185. 
1830; 276. 

Except in pubescence very much like D. hexandra; panicle typi- 
cally 3-4 cm. long; sepals pilose, 8 mm. long. The Peruvian plant 
is sometimes the var. evolutior Clarke, with leaves to 5.5 cm. broad, 
panicles to 12 cm. long, and fulvous-villous sepals 11 mm. long. 
Petals rich blue or purple, the fruit orange-red. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Mathews 31). Junin: La Merced, 5707 
(det. Bruckner). Brazil. 

4. FLOSCOPA Lour. 

Diffuse herbs with medium to large leaves and small to ample, 
terminal racemes or panicles of small flowers. Stamens typically 
all fertile and equal. Filaments glabrous. Anther cells ellipsoid, 
usually similar. Capsule 2-celled, the cells 1-seeded. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2.5 to rarely 3.5 cm. wide. .F. peruviana. 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, mostly 4-5 cm. wide or wider. 

Stems stout; leaves 5-5.5 cm. wide F. robusta. 

Stems slender; leaves 3.5-4.5 cm. wide .F. elegans. 

Floscopa peru viana Hassk. ex Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3: 270. 
1881. 

Stems yellowish-hirsutulous; leaves rarely elliptic, narrowed 
and somewhat petioled at base, acute, minutely scabrous above, 
glabrate beneath, to 11 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wide; panicle to 6 dm. 
wide; upper bracts 5-10 mm. long; seeds whitish, radially striate. 
The var. (?) perforans Clarke has smaller leaves, a looser smaller 
panicle, and sometimes the branchlets perforating the sheaths. 
Plants a few cm. to about 2 dm. high, in small plants the inflorescence 
only 1 cm. long. Flowers blue or white. 



FLORA OF PERU 601 

Puno: Sangaban, Lechler 2467, type. Huanuco: Monzon, Weber- 
bauer 3684- Loreto: Iquitos and vicinity, Williams 8163; Klug 
313, 1142. Caballo-cocha, Williams 2140, 2360. Yurimaguas, Ule 
6297. Pebas, Williams 1675 (all det. Bruckner). San Antonio, 
Killip & Smith 29500. 

Floscopa robusta (Seub.) Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3: 271. 1881. 
Dithyrocarpus robustus Seub. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: 255. 1855. 

Stems fleshy, the large leaves as much as 2 dm. long and 5 cm. 
wide, crowded above; panicle 5 cm. wide; seeds depressed-conical, 
transversely rugose. The Peruvian plant is var. Sprucei Clarke, 
with minutely pubescent leaves and larger, less pubescent panicle, 
the sepals glabrate. 

San Martin: Tarapoto (Spruce 4427). Huanuco: Pampayacu 
(Poeppig 1295). Junin: La Merced, 5813 (det. Bruckner). Weber- 
bauer, 288. Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4695 (det. 
Bruckner). Brazil and Colombia. 

Floscopa elegans Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 541. 1906. 

Stems glabrous, geniculate-ascending, the lower internodes to 1 
dm. long and 2-3 mm. thick; sheaths 4-5 mm. broad, 1.5 cm. long, 
oblique, with a rusty-villous line toward the internode, otherwise 
glabrous; leaves lanceolate, 10-18 cm. long, acuminate, contracted 
to a petiole about 1 cm. long, minutely scabrous above, glabrous 
beneath; panicle to 8 cm. broad, densely hispidulous but eglandular; 
bracts and bractlets glabrate; flowers white, the sepals densely hir- 
tellous; capsule lustrous, discoid, the seeds whitish, striate. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo (Huber). 

5. TINANTIA Scheidw. 

Erect herbs with rather large leaves and solitary peduncles bear- 
ing 2-3 dense racemes, scarcely umbellate. Stamens 6, or rarely only 
3 unequal, the shorter with hairy filaments. Anthers dissimilar. 
Capsule 3-celled, the cells 3-5-seeded. The name is conserved. 

Tinantia erecta (Jacq.) Schlecht. Linnaea 25: 185. 1852; 286. 
Tradescantia erecta Jacq. Coll. Bot. 4: 113. 1790. T. latifolia R. & P. 
Fl. 3:44. pi 272. 1802. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, glabrous beneath, to 7 cm. long and 3 
cm. broad; peduncles villous, sometimes glandular; petals blue or 
purplish 1-1.5 cm. long. 



602 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Ayacucho: Carrapa, 2,200 meters, Killip & Smith 22304- Cuzco: 
Near Chilechile, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 7856. Huanuco: Muna, 
2,100 meters, 3980. Mito, 2,700 meters, 3378 (both det. Bruckner). 
Weberbauer, 145. Lima: Chancai and Lurin regions (Ruiz & Pavdn). 
Widely distributed in tropical America. 

6. COMMELINA [Plumier] L. Dayflower 

Rather succulent, branching perennials or annuals with sessile or 
subsessile leaves and irregular flowers, usually blue, borne in cymes 
from spathe-like bracts. Two of both the sepals and petals larger 
than the third; one of the fertile stamens incurved and its anther 
often larger. Capsule 3-celled, with 3-6 seeds. Species not well 
defined and probably they are fewer than here accepted, but variable. 
Spathes not connate, or only below; seeds reticulate or rugose- 

foveolate. 

Usually most of the spathes about 3 cm. long (2-4 cm.). 
Spathes evidently cross-striate; plants scabrous above. 

Plants erect; leaves 3-4 cm. wide C. coelestis. 

Plants erect or diffuse; leaves 1-2 cm. wide. 
Leaves mostly less than 1 cm. wide; plants erect. 

C. graminifolia. 
Leaves mostly more than 1 cm. wide; plants diffuse. 

C. tuberosa. 
Spathes obscurely cross-striate; plants villous to glabrous. 

C. fasciculata. 
Usually most of the spathes about 2 cm. long (1.5-2.5 cm.). 

Inner sepals definitely connate C. Jamesonii. 

Sepals distinct or nearly so. 

Plants pubescent; leaves about 3 cm. wide C. hispida. 

Plants glabrate; leaves about 2 cm. wide. 

Capsule 2-celled; seeds usually 4 C. communis. 

Capsule 3-celled; seeds usually 5 C. longicaulis. 

Spathes more or less united or, if only below, the seeds smooth. 

Branches decumbent, rooting; seeds 3, smooth C. elegans. 

Plants erect or subscandent; seeds 5, rough C. monticola. 

Commelina coelestis Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1: 69. 1809; 153. 

Erect with strict branches, scabrous above as usually also the 

leaves and peduncles, these 1-6 cm. long; leaves about 1 dm. long, 



FLORA OF PERU 603 

3-4 cm. broad, sometimes cordate at base; spathes 2-4 cm. long, 
the margins free, pubescent; lower racemes 1-2-flowered, the upper 
4-10-flowered ; sepals free or nearly so; petals 1.5 cm. long; seeds 5, 
foveolate-rugose. Roots fibrous or fasciculate-tuberous. Illus- 
trated, Bailey, Encycl. Hort. 835. 

Junin: Tarma, 3,000 meters, Killip & Smith 21814- Lima: Rio 
Chillon, 3,000 meters, Pennell 14389. San Buenaventura, 2,800 
meters, Pennell 14536. Matucana, 2,400 meters, 79, 2908. Mexico. 

Commelina communis L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 60. 1762; 170. 

Diffuse, glabrous or nearly so, with elongate stems often rooting 
at the nodes; leaves to 8 cm. long and 2 cm. wide; spathes 2 cm. 
long; upper racemes 3-4-flowered; capsule 2-celled, usually 4-seeded, 
the foveolate-rugose seeds 2-3 mm. long. My material perhaps 
introduced. Supported in higher plants. Illustrated, Addisonia 1: 
pi 20. 

Lima: Huariaca, 3123 (det. Bruckner). China. 

Commelina elegans HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 259. 1816; 182. 

Decumbent branches rooting at the nodes; leaves usually 5-10 
cm. long; spathes 1.5-2 cm. long, united below; petals sometimes pale; 
seeds 3, ellipsoid, somewhat compressed, smooth, 3 mm. long. 
Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: pi 37. 

Tumbes: Plain southwest of Hacienda La Choza, Weberbauer 
7715. Cuzco: Paucartambo, Herrera 1113. Junin: La Merced, 
Killip & Smith. San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 5575 in part, 
5543, 5659, 5783. Loreto: Santa Catalina, Raimondi. Without 
locality, Weberbauer 6508. General in tropical America. 

Commelina fasciculata R. & P. Fl. 1: 44. pi. 72. 1798; 154. 
C. nervosa R. & P. loc. cit. 

Procumbent-ascending, the branches often pubescent on one 
side; leaves about 1 dm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. wide, villous or soon 
glabrous; spathes 2.5-4.5 cm. long, nearly glabrous; interior sepals 
connate; capsule 3-celled, 5-seeded, the subquadrate seeds 2-2.5 
mm. long, foveolate. According to Clarke, the free sepals illustrated 
are an error. 

Lima: Chancai (Pavdri). Puente Infiernillo (Ball). Matucana 
(Ward). Huariaca, 3128, 3131 (?; det. Bruckner) . Huanuco: 
Cochero (Ruiz & Pavdn). (Mathews 1031, 1032). Puno: Lake 
Titicaca, 3,500 meters, (Pentland). Arequipa: Cachendo, 1,000 
meters (Gunther & Buchtien 353). Mollendo, Weberbauer 1449. 



604 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Cajamarca: San Pablo, Weberbauer 3849. Ancash: Ocros, Weber- 
bauer 2744- Cuzco: Paucartambo, Herrera 40. Bolivia "Sara-sara." 

Commelina graminifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 258. 1816; 
152. 

Apparently very similar to C. tuberosa and C. coelestis, but perhaps 
distinguishable from the former in habit and in the narrower obovate- 
oblong sepals, and from the latter, more obviously, by the narrow, 
and elongate leaves. The following collections referred here by 
Bruckner as "var." 

Ancash : Prov. Pomabamba, Raimondi. Cajamarca : San Marcos 
region, Raimondi. Ranging northward to Mexico. 

Commelina hispida R. & P. Fl. 1: 43. pi. 73. 1798; 156. 

Closely related to C. fasciculata; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2-4 
cm. broad; interior sepals connate only at base, petaloid. Var. 
Gaudichaudii Clarke has villous stems and leaves and scarcely 
exserted peduncles. My 3259 and 1446 from Mito seem to be the 
same, but apparently only vegetatively, as Bruckner has compared 
the first with C. communis as a "spec, nov." 

Lima: Atocongo, Pennell 14767 (det. Bruckner). Callao (Gaudi- 
chaud). Chancai (Ruiz & Pavbri). Amancaes, Weberbauer 1592. 
San Geronimo, 5918. Arequipa: Lomas of Atiquipa (Tafalla). 
Junin: Huacapistana, Weberbauer 2025 (det. Bruckner, but the 
stems glabrous and the leaves narrow). Bolivia. 

Commelina Jamesonii Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3: 155. 1881. 

Similar to C. fasciculata and perhaps only a variety with spreading 
peduncles, shorter and narrower leaves, hirsute on both sides, and, 
especially, shorter sepals, about half as long. 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas (Maihews). Ecuador. 

Commelina longicaulis Jacq. Coll. Bot. 3: 234. 1789; 144. 
C. gracilis R. & P. Fl. 1: 44. pi. 72. 1789. 

Procumbent or ascending, the stems often several dm. long, 
glabrous or nearly so; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2.5 to several cm. long, 
acute or acuminate, the sheaths usually ciliate; spathes pointed, 
1-2.5 cm. long, not united; seeds 2-3, oblong, 2-3 mm. long, retic- 
ulate. Perhaps distinct from C. nudiflora L., with somewhat united 
spathes, to which, however, Clarke and others have referred it, 
including Bruckner, at least as to the following specimens. The form 
with glabrous sheaths has been described as C. gracilis, var. glabrata 
Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 136. 1827. 



FLORA OF PERU 605 

Cajamarca: Casas, Raimondi. Huanuco: (Ruiz & Pavdn). 
Huanuco, 2,100 meters, 3520, 3226. Lima: (Ruiz & Pavdn; Haenke). 
San Mateo, Raimondi. Lima, Pennell 14797. Chorrillos, 5866. 
San Geronimo, 5S91. Chosica, 900 meters, 487. Loreto: La 
Victoria, Williams 2521. Iquitos, Klug 1208. Rio Itaya, Williams 
33, 245. Lower Rio Nanay, Williams 276. Puerto Arturo, Wil- 
liams 5129. San Martin: Lamas, Williams 6374- Widely dis- 
tributed in tropical America. 

Commelina monticola Seub. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: 264. 
1855; 162. 

To 1 meter high, supported in vegetation; branches hirsute; leaves 
scabrous above, 5-7 cm. long and 1 cm. broad ; peduncles 1 cm. long 
or very short; spathes glabrate, 2 cm. long, shortly cucullate; seeds 5, 
rugose-foveolate, 2 mm. long. C. robusta Kunth, similar, is nearly 
glabrous. C. erecta L. has longer leaves, and smooth puberulent 
seeds. Williams 7172 from San Roque, San Martin, represents the 
former (Bruckner). It appears to be only a glabrous state and, if so, 
is the earlier name. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Poeppig 1692). Brazil to Central America. 

Commelina tuberosa L. Sp. PI. 41. 1753; 149. 

Similar to C. coelestis, but diffuse; peduncles to 1.5 dm. long; 
leaves 1-2 cm. broad, the margins thin and pilose. 9. Illustrated, 
Bot. Mag. 41: pi. 1695. 

Lima: Canta, Pennell 14344 (?; det. Bruckner). Mexico. 
7. ATHYROCARPUS Schlecht. 

Branching herbs with medium-sized leaves and few-flowered 
racemes partially included between spathe-like bracts. Two or 3 
stamens sterile with hastate-triangular anthers. Filaments glabrous. 

Capsule 3-celled, 5-seeded, indehiscent. 

Sheaths densely red-villous A. rufipes. 

Sheaths glabrous or ciliate at throat. 

Leaves long-acuminate, glabrous or nearly so .A.persicariaefolius. 

Leaves acute, villous above A. Matthewsii. 

Athyrocarpus Matthewsii (Clarke) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3: 319. 
1898. Phaeospherion Matthewsii Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3 : 137. 1881. 



606 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Branchlets long, densely bearded on one side; leaves about 1 dm. 
long and 2-2.5 cm. wide, minutely pilose beneath, villous above; 
racemes 3-5-flowered; spathes 2 cm. long. 

Peru: (Mathews 148). 

Athyrocarpus persicariaefolius (DC.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. 
Am. Bot. 3: 386. 1885. Commelina persicariaefolia DC. in Redouts', 
Lil. 8. pi. 472. 1816. Phaeospherion persicariaefolium Clarke, var. 
scabratum Clarke in DC. Monogr. 3: 137. 1881. 

Glabrous or nearly so, except the reddish-ciliate mouth of the 
sheaths; otherwise very similar to A. rufipes, but the difference in 
pubescence striking and constant in degree. 

Loreto : Mainas (Poeppig 2461 ) . North to British Guiana and the 
West Indies. 

Athyrocarpus rufipes (Seub.) Standl. in Standl. & Cald. Lista 
PL Salvad. 47. 1925. Commelina rufipes Seub. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
3, pt. 1:265. 1855. 

Similar to A. Matthewsii, but the leaves long-acuminate and 
villous beneath and the sheaths red-hairy throughout, but the stems 
glabrous or nearly so. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Tessmann 5105, 3605; King 1343, 1485; Williams 
3692. Lower Rio Nanay, Williams 61 7, 665. Yurimaguas, Williams 
4371; Killip & Smith 29108. Mishuyacu, King 201. La Victoria, 
Williams 2799. San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 6109. Brazil to 
Central America. 

8. CALLISIA L. 

A procumbent-ascending, somewhat translucent, nearly glabrous 
herb with small leaves and almost tiny flowers, congested-axillary 
in sheaths or umbellulate. Stamens 3-6. Filaments glabrous. 
Capsule 2-celled, usually 4-seeded. 

Callisia repens L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 62. 1762; 310. 

Leaves to 2.5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide; sepals linear-oblong, 
2-3 mm. long, the petals shorter; flowers scarcely exserted from the 
sheaths; style filiform. C. monandra (Sw.) Schult. has umbellate 
flowers on exserted pedicels. Illustrated, R. & P. Fl. 1: pi. 73. 

Huanuco: (Ruiz & Pavdri). Ambo, 3159 (det. Bruckner) . 
Lima: Matucana, 321 (det. Bruckner). Cuzco: Ollantaitambo, 
Pennell 13653 (det. Bruckner). Huancavelica : Huancamayo region, 
Weberbauer 6569 (with 6 fertile stamens! Bruckner). Ayacucho: 



FLORA OF PERU 607 

Aina, 750-1,000 meters, Kittip & Smith 22702. Widely distributed 
in tropical America. 

9. ANEILEMA R. Br. 

The Peruvian species a flaccid-stemmed herb with terminal 
panicles of small flowers not subtended by spathe-like bracts. Petals 
nearly similar. Lateral filaments barbellulate. 

Aneilema ovato-oblongum Beauv. Fl. Oware 2: 71. pi. 104- 
1818; 226. 

Stems 2 to several dm. long, with rather numerous subovate 
leaves 5-6 cm. long and about 2 cm. wide; panicle lax, the branchlets 
slender; capsule 3-4 mm. long. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9160. Iquitos, Killip & Smith. Yuri- 
maguas, Williams 4270, 3930. Rio Nanay, Williams 539, 375 
(all det. Bruckner). South America; Africa. 

10. GEOGENANTHUS Ule 

Chamaeanthus Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 50: 71. 1908, 
not Schlechter. 

Erect simple-stemmed herbs, with the leaves more or less crowded 
toward the apex, and with long-pediceled blue flowers, fasciculate- 
umbellate. Sepals and petals free. Fertile stamens 5 or 6, the 3 
most strongly developed with pubescent filaments. Capsule 3-celled, 
with 5-6 ovules in each cell, often developing fewer seeds. 

Leaves cuneate-elliptic, acuminate G. rhizanthus. 

Leaves rotund-ovate or suborbicular. 

Leaves acute, marked above with stripes of paler green .G. undatus. 

Leaves rounded at apex, apiculate, bluish green above. G. ciliatus. 

Geogenanthus ciliatus Briickn. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 
224. 1931. 

Leaves about 1.5 dm. long and broad, densely ciliate on the 
margins, deep purple beneath; stems, sheaths, and few-flowered 
lateral fascicles more or less reddish-pubescent; pedicels to 12 mm. 
long; flowers brownish red, apparently small. 

Loreto: San Antonio, Killip & Smith 29347, type. 

Geogenanthus rhizanthus (Ule) Briickn. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 10: 56. 1927. Pyrrheima rhizantha Ule, Verh. Bot. Ver. 
Brandenb. 50: 69. 1908. 



608 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Stems 1 meter high or less, glabrous or puberulent; leaves cuneate- 
elliptic, acuminate, rusty-pilose-ciliate, 2-2.5 dm. long and 8 cm. 
broad; petals long-bearded on the margins; capsule cells 6-seeded. 
Neg. 10735. 

Loreto: Pongo de Cainarache, Ule 6327. Ecuador. 

Geogenanthus undatus (C. Koch & Lind.) Mildbr. & Strauss, 
Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 279. 1913. Dichorisandra undata C. Koch & 
Lind. Wochenschr. 9: 346. 1866. Chamaeanthus Wittianus Ule, 
Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 50; 71. 1908. 

Often lower and more slender; leaves rotund-ovate, acute, about 
1 dm. long or shorter and 5-8 cm. broad; capsule cells 2-seeded. 
Illustrated, Fl. Serres 17 : 87. pi. 1 763-1 764. Especially in cultivation 
the nerves are marked above with stripes of lighter green, and the 
stems and leaves beneath are purple or purplish. 

Loreto: Mainas (Wallis); Williams 5338, 5065, 5298. Junin: 
Raimondi (det. Bruckner). Brazil. 

11. ZEBRINA Schnizl. 

A slender-stemmed herb with spathe-bracted tubular flowers. 
Stamens 6, equal, the filaments hairy or glabrous. Often cultivated, 
this is the "Wandering Jew" of English-speaking people. 

Zebrina pendula Schnizl. Bot. Zeit. 7: 870. 1829; 318. 

Decumbent or pendulous, often glabrous except for the densely 
long-ciliate sheaths; leaves ovate-lanceolate, purplish beneath, 3-5 
cm. long and 1-2 cm. broad; flowers nearly included in the spathe- 
like uppermost leaves. 

Loreto: Soledad, Tessmann 5196 (det. Bruckner). Near Iquitos, 
King 360 (det. Bruckner); cultivated, Williams 3628. Pebas, 
Williams 1831. Yurimaguas, in garden, Williams 4509. Ranging 
to Mexico. 

27. PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerel-weed Family 

The three Peruvian genera are easily distinguished : Heteranthera 
grows in mud and has small, loosely borne flowers with 3 stamens; 
Eichhornia and Pontederia have showy 6-stamened flowers in dense 
spikes; the former floats, and the latter is erect in mud or shallow water. 

1. EICHHORNIA Kunth. Water hyacinth 

Flowers tubular, with a spreading limb. Capsule 3-celled, 
many-seeded. The name is conserved. 



FLORA OF PERU 609 

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms in DC. Monogr. 4: 527. 
1883. Pontederia crassipes Mart. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 9. pi. 4- 1824. 
Piaropus crassipes Britton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 7: 241. 1893. 

Well marked by its tufted leaves with inflated petioles and its 
floating habit. E. diversifolia (Vahl) Urban has alternate leaves, 
the submerged ones grass-like. 

Loreto: ''Rare on the Ucayali" (Huber). Caballo-cocha, Wil- 
liams 2426. South America. 

2. HETERANTHERA R. & P. 

Creeping, with cordate-reniform petioled leaves and a few tubular 
blossoms. Ovary 3-celled, many-ovuled. The name is conserved. 

Heteranthera reniformis R. & P. Fl. 1: 43. pi 71. 1798. 

Flowers whitish or pale blue; stamens unequal. H. limosa (Sw.) 
Willd. usually has ovate leaves and often blue flowers, solitary in 
the spathes. 

Lima: Lurin, Surco, and vicinity (Ruiz & Pawn}. Weberbauer, 
149. Amazonas: Rioja, west of Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4711; 
149. Loreto: La Victoria, Williams 3097. Pebas, Williams 1854. 
Iquitos, Tessmann 3894a; Killip & Smith 27177. Yurimaguas, 
Killip & Smith 27960. General in tropical America. 

3. PONTEDERIA L. Pickerel-weed 
Perianth with a short tube. Capsule 1-celled, 1-seeded. 

Pontederia rotundifolia L. f. Suppl. 192. 1781. 

Leaves orbicular-subcordate, very obtuse, 1-2 dm. long; inflo- 
rescence capitate, with an involucral spathe. P. cordata L. has 
cordate-oblong leaves and oblong-ovate spikes. 

Loreto : Rio Sarayacu ( Huber 1 491 ) . General in tropical America. 

28. JUNCACEAE. Rush Family 
Reference: Buchenau, Pflanzenr. IV. 36. 1906. 

This family in most parts of the world is of little economic im- 
portance, but in Peru Distichia generally constitutes the larger part 
of the champa upon which many of the dwellers in the higher Andes 
depend chiefly for fuel. Without the dried blocks of this cushion 
plant it would be difficult for thousands to live on the higher slopes, 
grow the country's supply of potatoes, and range the sheep, cattle, 



610 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

and llamas. These ordinary plants, therefore are of exceptional 

economic significance. 

Densely pulvinate plants with imbricate leaves. 

Leaves closely imbricate, erect, pointed 1. Distichia. 

Leaves somewhat divaricate, long-caudate 2. Oxychloe. 

Loosely leafy or not pulvinate perennials or annuals. 

Leaves more or less ciliate-pubescent; seeds 3 3. Luzula. 

Leaves glabrous; seeds many 4. Juncus. 

1. DISTICHIA Nees & Meyen 

This low plant, forming such dense and hard cushions that a mass 
is often broken with difficulty, even with an axe, is unmistakable. 
There is a beautiful photograph by Weberbauer (pi. 16} of a highly 
characteristic Distichia moor, and a figure of the plant (p. 214). 

Distichia muscoides Nees & Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. 
Cur. 19: Suppl. 1:128. 1843. 

Leaves 3-7 mm. long, with a callous-obtuse tip. The similar 
D. filamentosa (Buchenau) Griseb., of Bolivia, has longer (6-15 
mm.) leaves terminating in a bristle 2-4 mm. long. 

Puno: Titicaca Highlands, Weberbauer 948; 219. Agapata, 
Lechler 1954. Junin: Yauli, 4,400 meters, Weberbauer, 222. Moro- 
cocha, 4,500 meters, 899; Hauthal 370. Between Chiquian and 
Pucha valleys, 4,300 meters, Weberbauer. Puno: Pisacoma, Meyen. 
Libertad: Quiruvilca, 4,200 meters, Weberbauer 7089. Ancash: 
Weberbauer, 224. Huanuco: Yanashallas, 2484- Cuzco: La Raya, 
Pennell 13492. Lima: East of Canta, Pennell 14693. Andes of 
South America. "Champa." 

2. OXYCHLOE Philippi 

Similar in habit to Distichia, with which it could be merged, but 
conveniently separable, particularly by the long-caudate or rather 
spine-like, spreading leaves. 

Oxychloe andina Phillippi, Reise Atac. 52. pi. 6. 1860. 
There is an illustration in Pflanzenr. IV. 36: 37. 
Puno: Sandia, 4,400 meters, Weberbauer 987. Bolivia and 
Argentina. 

3. LUZULA DC. 

Soft-leaved, leafy-stemmed, more or less pubescent perennials. 
Leaf sheaths closed. Capsule 1-celled. The name is conserved. 



FLORA OF PERU 611 

The widely distributed L. campestris (L.) DC. could occur. It has 
an umbellate inflorescence and usually entire perianth segments 
only 2-3 mm. long. At least the last three species in the key are very 
doubtfully distinct. 

Inflorescence many-flowered, very compound, the flowers mostly 
scattered, sometimes subcorymbose L. gigantea. 

Inflorescence rather few-flowered and simple, the flowers spicate or 
in little heads. 

Inflorescence open or narrowly oblong; perianth segments entire 
or crenulate-ciliate. 

Perianth segments white-membranous, not exceeding the capsule. 

L. chilensis. 

Perianth segments distinctly longer than the capsule, brown, 
at least below L. racemosa. 

Inflorescence dense and ovate or lobate; perianth segments lace- 
rate-denticulate or black-aristate. 

Low plants, to 6.5 cm. high; inflorescence white- villous. 

L. macusaniensis. 
Usually 1-3 dm. high; inflorescence brownish or blackish. 

L. peruviana. 

Luzula chilensis Nees & Meyen in Kunth, Enum. 3: 312. 
1841; 74. 

Except as indicated, similar to L, racemosa, to which it could be 
referred as a variety, but typically its character is reasonably 
definite. It is as yet unknown from Peru but almost certainly occurs. 
Chile. 

Luzula gigantea Desv. Journ. Bot. 1: 145. 1808; 59. 

A beautiful plant with gracefully borne, narrowly acuminate 
leaves and more or less nodding, abundantly flowered corymbs. 
Sometimes several dm. high. Its habit separates it at once from L. 
racemosa which, in a broad sense, is our only other species. L. 
sylvatica (Huds.) Gaud., recorded from Peru on the basis of a Pa von 
specimen, which I have not seen, is probably an error, as suggested 
by Buchenau, op. cit. 55. Other South American material referred 
to that species, because of the characteristic corymbose inflorescence, 
could be a juvenile state of L. Ulei. 

Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi. Hualgayoc, Weberbauer 4025. 
Junin: Tarma, Ruiz (all det. Markgraf & Gross). Huanuco: 



612 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Mito, 3367. Tambo de Vaca, 4388. Ayacucho : Choimacota Valley, 
Weberbauer 7585. Bolivia to Mexico. 

Luzula macusaniensis Steud. ex Buchenau, Abh. Nat. Ver. 
Brem. 4: 131. pi. 3. 1874; 78. 

Little plants 2 to several cm. high, with long-ciliate leaves 1 mm. 
broad; inflorescence ovate or conical, exceeded by the 2-3 bracts; 
flowers 3.2 mm. long, the segments more or less hyaline and lacerate 
and ciliate above; stamens 3. At 4,000-4,800 meters. 

Junin: La Oroya, 4,300 meters, Weberbauer 2608 (?; det. Buch- 
enau). Puno: Macusani, Lechler 1839. Ananea, Weberbauer 958, 
1033 (det. Engler). Ancash: Above Ocros, Weberbauer 2795; 
(det. Buchenau). 

Luzula peruviana Desv. Journ. Bot. 1: 160. 1808.; 78. L. 
boliviensis Buchenau, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem. 4: 128. pi. 4. 1874. 

Usually about 3 dm. high, but also smaller, with densely ciliate 
to glabrate leaves 1.5-4 mm. broad; inflorescence erect or nodding, 
conical or ovoid, compact or more or less "lobed," equaled or exceeded 
by the leaf -like bracts; flowers 4 mm. long, the segments more or 
less ciliate, brown; stamens 3. As suggested, this is a variable species, 
forms approaching L. racemosa and, it may be added, low states, L. 
macusaniensis. 

Puno: Asangoro, Lechler 1739. Ancash: Ocros to Chonta, 4,500 
meters, Weberbauer 2807. Junin: Near Huacapistana and Palca, 
3,500 meters, Weberbauer 2257, 2474, 6623, 6475 (the last two det. 
Gross). Bolivia to Central America. 

Luzula racemosa Desv. Journ. Bot. 1: 162. 1808; 75. 

Often several dm. high, with more or less ciliate leaves varying 
from 1-6 mm. in breadth and with a simple or compound but narrow 
and mostly nodding inflorescence; bracts not at all or scarcely leaf- 
like; flowers 2-3 mm. long, the outer segments aristate; stamens 
mostly 3. A low form is var. humilis (Buch.) Ball, Journ. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 22 : 57. 1885, and there is a very slender form typified by 
Weberbauer 2449 from Palca (det. Buchenau). 

Lima: Chicla (Ball); Weberbauer 248 (det. Engler). Matucana, 
Raimondi (det. Gross). Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi (det. 
Gross). Ocros, 3,500 meters, Weberbauer 2696 (det. Buchenau). 
Ancash: Huaraz, 4,200 meters, Weberbauer 3072 (det. Buchenau). 
Puno: Asangoro, 4,000 meters, Weberbauer 496 (det. Engler). 



FLORA OF PERU 613 

Araranca, 4,200 meters, Pennell 13456. Cuzco: Paso de Tres 
Cruces, 3,800 meters, Pennell 13846 (det. Gross). Huanuco: Tambo 
de Vaca, 4389 (inflorescence short; det. Gross). Chile to Mexico. 

4. JUNCUS L. Rush 

Always glabrous and usually perennial. Sheaths of the leaves 
typically open and not infrequently auricled. Capsule 1-3-celled. 
In the Peruvian species the stamens are usually 6 unless otherwise 
stated. Some of the taller wiry species are much used to tie bunches 
of fruits and vegetables. 

Stems usually scapbse; leaves undeveloped or usually all crowded 
below, never septate; inflorescence open or pseudo-lateral. 

Plants annual J. bufonius. 

Plants perennial. 
Leaves well developed. 

Inflorescence terminal, exceeding or not greatly exceeded by 
the bract. 

Flowers about 3.5 mm. long J. tennis. 

Flowers about 5 mm. long J. imbricatus. 

Inflorescence pseudolateral, i.e., exceeded many times by the 

bract J. capillaceus. 

Leaves undeveloped, sheath-like. 

Flowers about 2 mm. long J. effusus. 

Flowers usually 3-4 mm. long J. balticus. 

Flowers 5-7 mm. long J. andicola. 

Stems more or less leafy, the leaves septate, or, if not, grass-like and 

the inflorescence capitate. 
Leaves septate, sometimes not obviously. 
Low plants, rarely 1 dm. high. 

Leaves obviously septate; flowers capitate J. stipulatus. 

Leaves obscurely septate; flowers mostly single. .J. Mandoni. 
Plants usually more than 1.5 dm. tall. 

Inflorescence 1-3 cm. broad and somewhat echinate-bracteate. 

Inflorescence about 1.5-3 cm. broad J. involucratus. 

Inflorescence about 1 cm. broad J. densiflorus. 

Inflorescence usually narrower, not echinate-bracteate. 
Flowers reddish; anthers and filaments very unequal. 



614 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Flowers 2-6 (-10), 3-4 mm. long J. microcephalus. 

Flowers 6-10, 4-5 mm. long J. Dombeyanus. 

Flowers nearly black; anthers and filaments subequal. 
Septa of leaves obscure; flowers 2.5-3 mm. long. 

J. L/iebmanni. 

Septa obvious; flowers 3-5 mm. long J. brunneus. 

Leaves not septate; plants ascending-erect J. cyperoides. 

Juncus andicola Hook. Icon. 8: pi. 714- 1848; 148. J. Lesurii 
(Lesueurii) of auth. in part. 

Stems densely cespitose, to 5 dm. high, 4-6 mm. thick; inflo- 
rescence dense and somewhat lobate; bracts 8-16 cm. long, or twice 
as long; filaments 0.5-1 mm. long; anthers 1-1.25 mm. long; perianth 
segments green with reddish brown sides and thin edges, exceeding 
the mucronate fruit. 

Huanuco: Llata, 2,500 meters, 2272. Below Chavanillo, 2306. 
Ancash: Yungai, Weberbauer 3283. Colombia to Chile and Bolivia. 

Juncus andicola var. Schulz-Korthii Macbr. Field Mus. 
Bot. 11:44. 1931. 

Robust, 10-12 dm. high, the stems 11 mm. in diameter below, 
the sheaths to 1.5 dm. long; inflorescence pale; perianth 5-6 mm. 
long; arfthers 1.2 mm. long, on filaments 0.5 mm. long; capsule 
hardly 4 mm. long. Neg. 11689. 

Puno: Pucara, Weberbauer 1367. San Antonio (Lechler 1808, 
probably). 

Juncus balticus Willd. Ges. Naturf. Freund. Berl. Mag. 3: 
298. 1809; 144. 

Stems slender, terete, strict, 2.5-7.5 dm. high and as much as 
2.5 mm. thick; inflorescence many-flowered, the branches elongate; 
lower bracts 5-20 cm. long; perianth segments greenish and brown- 
chestnut with pale margins, equaling or shorter than the nearly 
pyramidal, mucronate capsule. Widely distributed in the Old 
and New Worlds except in the tropics. The var. mexicanus (Willd.) 
Kuntze probably occurs in Peru. Neg. 10728. 

Cuzco: (Herrera). Puno: Chuquibambilla, Pennell 13379 (det. 
Gross). 

Juncus brunneus Buchenau, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem. 6: 403. 
1879; 206. 

Stems 2-3 dm. high, strict or compressed; septa prominent; heads 
1-3, many-flowered, subglobose, capsule attenuate, more or less 



FLORA OF PERU 615 

exceeding the perianth; style long. The heads are very dark. 
128. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 36: 207. 

Ancash: Above Samanco, 3,500 meters, Weberbauer 2700 (det. 
Buchenau). Puno: Asangaro, Lechler 1749. Island of Titicaca 
(Copeland). Cajamarca: Nancho, Raimondi (det. Markgraf); 
Bolivia. 

Juncus bufonius L. Sp. PL 328. 1753; 105. 

This small tufted species, common to wet sunny places around the 
world, needs no characterization here, especially since it is the only 
annual Juncus of Peru. 

Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi (det. Gross). Without locality 
(Kaenke). 

Juncus capillaceus Lam. Encycl. 3: 266. 1789; 122. 

Stems and leaves filiform, to 2.5 dm. long; flowers few, pale, 
3-3.5 mm. long, far exceeded by the lower bract, so appearing lateral; 
capsule retuse. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 36: 122. 

Cajamarca: Nancho, Raimondi (det. Markgraf). Argentina to 
Ecuador. 

Juncus cyperoides Laharpe, Monogr. Jonc. 145. 1827; 241. 
J. graminifolius E. Mey. ex Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 : 144. 1827. 

Stems leafy above, the leaves 2-12 mm. broad. Well marked by 
its Luzula-like aspect. 

Huanuco: (Haenke). Mito, 3319. Amazonas: Chachapoyas, 
Mathews. Cajamarca: Nancho, Raimondi (det. Markgraf and 
Gross). 

Juncus densiflorus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 238. 1816; 187. 

Stems stout, 1 meter tall or taller, from a very thick rhizome; 
cauline leaves 1-3, cylindric, to 3 mm. thick; inflorescence erect, 
the numerous many-flowered heads 6-10 mm. in diameter; flowers 
straw-colored or brownish, rigid; stamens 3; capsule shortly beaked, 
slightly exceeded by the inner perianth segments. J. scirpoides Lam. 
of Brazil, which may be expected, may be distinguished by its beaked 
capsule lightly exceeding the perianth. Neg. 10726. 

Peru: Probably occurring. Argentina; Colombia. 

Juncus Dombeyanus Gay in Laharpe, Monogr. Jonc. 132. 
1827; 199. 

Like J. microcephalus except for the glabrous flower heads, these 
6-12 mm. in diameter (in var. pycnanthus Buchenau to 17 mm.), 



616 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

and the slightly longer flowers. The capsule is evidently shorter 
than the perianth. 166. 

Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi. Huancayo, Esposto (?) (both 
det. Markgraf). Huanuco: Mito, 1450. Junin: Tarma, 1030 
Cuzco: San Sebastian, Pennell 13619 (det. Gross). Without 
locality: Dombey; Haenke. Uruguay; Chile. 

Juncus eifusus L. Sp. PL 326. 1753; 135. 

Rather similar to J. balticus, but the flowers only half as long and 
the stamens usually 3. 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas, Mathews. Widely distributed in both 
hemispheres. 

Juncus imbricatus Laharpe, Monogr. Jonc. 149. 1827; 121. 

Similar to J. capillaceus, but the stems and leaves not so fine and 
the few to many flowers to 6 mm. long, sometimes conspicuously 
exceeded by the bract in var. Lechleri (Steud.) Buchenau. 

Puno: (Lechler). Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi (the var., det 
Markgraf). Huanuco: Mito, 3,000 meters, 1451. Junin: Chinche, 
3,500 meters, 1276. Ecuador to Chile and Argentina. 

Juncus involucratus Steud. ex Buchenau, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem. 
3: 121. 1874; 187. 

Usually lower than J. densifloms; inflorescence lobate; stamens 
rarely if ever only 3. Inflorescence densely capitate, often a single 
head. 

Puno: Tabina, Lechler 2078. Bolivia to Colombia. 

Juncus Liebmanni Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 9. 1931. 
J. brevifolius Liebm. Kj0b. Vid. Medd. 40. 1850, not Hoffm. & Link 
ex Rostk. 1801. 

Except for the scarcely apparent septa and the smaller flowers, 
this species closely resembles J. brunneus; the capsule is trigonous- 
ovate. 

Peru: Probably occurring. Mexico; Ecuador. 

Juncus Mandoni Buchenau, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem. 4: 121. pi. 
3. 1874; 169. J. depauperatus Philippi, Fl. Atac. 53. 1860; An. 
Univ. Chil. 93: 277. 1896, not Tenore, 1830. 

Pulvinate-cespitose from diffuse filiform rhizomes; sheaths long, 
pale; leaves 1.5-3 cm. long, filiform, grooved above; flowers 3-3.5 
mm. long, often peduncled in the leaf axils or rarely bracteate and 



FLORA OF PERU 617 

subsessile; style very short; capsule equaling the greenish perianth, 
orbicular-trigonous. 

Peru: (According to Hicken.). Bolivia; Chile; Argentina. 

Juncus microcephalus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 237. 1816; 
198. 

A variable species, 1.5 to many dm. high, the culms more or 
less compressed, the leaves usually slightly so; inflorescence com- 
pound, anthelate; perianth segments mostly reddish dorsally, with 
broad thin margins; capsule broadly ovate or obovate. J. rubens 
Lam., if the same, is an earlier name. 

Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi (det. Markgraf). Mexico to 
Chile and Argentina. 

Juncus stipulatus Nees & Meyen, Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 
19: Suppl. 1: 126. 1843; 171. J. microcephalus HBK. var. pusillus 
Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 142. 1827(7). 

Stems 1-5 or rarely 10 cm. high; inflorescence simple or com- 
pound, with 1 to several heads; capsule a little longer than the 
brownish perianth ; style elongate. J. chilensis Gay is similar, but 
the capsule is shorter and the style is very short. 

Peru: Probably occurring. Ecuador to Chile. 

Juncus tenuis Willd. Sp. PI. 2: 214. 1799; 115. 

Stems often tall, about equaled by the curved flat leaves 1-15 
mm. broad; inflorescence open, more or less anthelate, with 1-3 long 
bracts; capsule shorter than the yellow-green, mostly remote flowers. 
Widely distributed. The var. platycaulos (HBK.) Buch. Monogr. 
194. 1890, lacks the large auricles of J. tenuis. As Buchenau suggests 
(Pflanzenr. IV. 36: 117), it is probably the same as (and an earlier 
name for) J. dichotomus Ell. Its leaves are distinctly grooved and the 
inflorescence more anthelate. Neg. 10727. 

Cajamarca: Nancho, Raimondi (as the var., det. Markgraf & 
Gross). North and South America. 

29. LILIACEAE. Lily Family 
Reference: Krause, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 227-386. 1930. 

A number of the well-known plants of this family are widely 
cultivated in Peru and now and then occur or sometimes perhaps 
persist as escapes. Notable among them are the "cebolla" and 
"ajo" (Allium Cepa L. and A. sativum L.), i.e. the most useful onions 



618 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

and garlic, natives of Asia, but greatly appreciated in all countries. 
Others of some economic importance include asparagus, the "espa- 
rrago" or "esparraguero" (Asparagus officinalis L.); aloes, the 
"sabila"or "zabila" (Aloe vera L. or A. soccotrina Lam.); and 
"cebadilla" (Veratrum officinale Schl.), sold in the markets (Herrera) 
as "jamiccatu." Those usual to flower gardens, of course, are found 
also, as the "tulipan" (Tulipa), "agapanto" (Agapanthus umbel- 
latus); the "azucena blanca" (Lilium candidum), this (ace. to Her- 
rera) of some medicinal repute; and Taetsia fruticosa (L.) Merr. 

The genus Herreria, well marked by its densely fascicled, whorled 
leaves, is unknown from Peru, collections so labeled certainly 
originating in Chile. An undescribed herb with umbellate, green and 
purple flowers, apparently, allied to Gillesia, has been found by 
Herrera at Pincopata, Cuzco. 

Flowers umbellate or borne in a branching inflorescence. 
Flowers blue. 

Stout plants about 1 meter high with large flowers. 1. Excremis. 
Slender plants, much lower, with small flowers. . . .2. Pasithea. 
Flowers not blue. 
Erect herbs. 

Flowers not umbellate 5. Chlorophytum. 

Flowers in terminal umbels. 

Segments 1-nerved 3. Nothoscordum. 

Segments 5-nerved 4. Trichlora. 

Leafy vines 8. Smilax. 

Flowers in a simple, close or lax raceme or one or two in leaf axils or 

in the axils of the upper bract-like leaves. 
Erect herbs. 
Flowers distant and long-pediceled. 

Anthers oblong-oval; bulbous plants 7. Fortunatia. 

Anthers linear; rhizomatous plants 6. Anthericum. 

Flowers approximate and shortly pediceled 10. Tofieldia. 

Creeping or sprawling, shrubby plants 9. Luzuriaga. 

1. EXCREMIS Willd. 

Coarse plants from short rhizomes, the lance-linear leaves crowded 
below and gradually reduced above to bracts. Flowers deep blue, 
borne rather loosely on nodding pedicels that terminate the panic- 
ulately branched stem. 



FLORA OF PERU 619 

Excremis coarctata (R. & P.) Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
15: 320. 1876. Anthericum coarctatum R. & P. Fl. 3: 67. pi. 299. 1802. 

A stout, rather conspicuous plant, sometimes 1.5 meters high. 
A useful lasting yellow color is obtainable from the plant (Ruiz & 
Pavdn). My specimens grew in dense woods. 

Cuzco: Cerro de Cusilluyoc, Pennell 13966 (det. Diels). 
Huanuco: Tambillo and Pillao (Ruiz & Pavdri). Chinchao, 5106. 
Monzon, Weberbauer 3516 (det. Krause). Puno: Sandia region, 
Weberbauer 1327. Amazonas: East of Chachapoyas, Weberbauer 
4396. 

2. PASITHEA D. Don 

Stems from a short erect rhizome, densely leafy at base, sparsely 
so above and paniculately branched, bearing long-pediceled flowers 
in a loose, pyramidal or thyrsoid inflorescence. Bracts minute or 
none. 

Pasithea coerulea (R. & P.) D. Don, Edinb. N. Phil. Journ. 13: 
237. 1832. Anthericum coeruleum R. & P. Fl. 3: 67. 1802. 

A slender plant, sometimes 6 dm. high, of lomas. Illustrated, 
Bot. Mag. 118; pi. 7249. 

Arequipa: Loma de Atico, Raimondi (det. Krause). Mollendo, 
Weberbauer 1524, 1570. Below Cachendo, 900 meters (Gunther & 
Buchtien 350). Chile. "Espuela de caballero," "illcu." 

3. NOTHOSCORDUM Kunth 
Reference: Beauverd, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 8: 993-1007. 1908. 

Bulbous plants similar to onions but lacking the odor of the 
latter, and the perianth segments more or less united. Stamens 6, 
all fertile. The generic name has been conserved. The genus is 
maintained distinct from Allium only as a matter of convenience. 
The species, as they have been proposed, are mostly of doubtful 
validity. 

Scapes well developed. 

Pedicels subequal, about 1 cm. long, the flowers (usually purplish) 
and fruits crowded N. andicola. 

Pedicels mostly unequal, the longer often 2 cm. long, the umbel 

of usually whitish flowers open. 

Coarse plants, the leaves usually 4-10 mm. wide; capsule 
obcordate . . . N. inodorum. 



620 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Slender plants with narrow leaves; capsule elliptic or subglobose. 

N. bivalve, N. gramineum. 
Scapes concealed in the bulb neck N. fictile. 

Nothoscordum andicola Kunth, Enum. 4: 463. 1843. Allium 
bivalve (L.) Kuntze, var. andicola Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3: 313. 1898. 
A. andicolum Regel, Nov. Act. Petrop. 3: 211. 1875. 

Bulbs obconic, 2-3 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide; scapes 3-15 cm. long; 
leaves 1-4 mm. wide; flowers few, roseate, the obovate-elliptic 
segments united below for one-third their length; style equaling the 
oblong ovary. Typically well marked but varying, especially in 
habit, though usually low. Neg. 10008. 

Puno: Lake Titicaca, Meyen. Cuzco: Sacsahuaman, Hen era 
2381, 935, 126 (det. Herb. Dahlem). Arequipa: Weberbauer 6878. 
Moquehua: Carumas, Weberbauer 7311. To Argentina and Chile. 
"Chchullcos," "anas-sibilla," "chchullcu." 

Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton, 111. Fl. 1: 415. 1896. 
Ornithogalum bivalve L. Sp. PI. 306. 1753. Allium bivalve Kuntze, 
Rev. Gen. 3: 312. 1898. N. striatumK\mth, Enum. 4: 459. 1843. 
A. striatum-Jacq. Coll. Suppl. 51. 1796; Icon. 2: pi. 366. 1786-93. 

Bulb subglobose, often proliferous; scapes usually 1-2 dm. high; 
leaves 1-3 mm. wide; spathe valves linear-lanceolate, shorter than 
the pedicels; perianth segments white, with brown or green nerves, 
oblong-lanceolate, 1 cm. long; anthers ovate-oblong; style filiform, 
about as long as or longer than the depressed-globose capsule. 
Probably the following collections are rather N. andicola. 

Arequipa: Near Mejia, 200 meters (Gunther & Buchtien 348). 
Cuzco: Prov. Canchis, 3,550 meters (Hickeri). South America to 
eastern Canada. 

Nothoscordum fictile Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 12. 1931. 

A very well-marked plant because of its large bulbs, to 3 cm. 
thick, with a neck 8-15 cm. long; leaves prostrate, 1-1.5 dm. long, 
5-8 mm. wide; scape not obvious, the white flowers 5 mm. long, on 
slender pedicels 2 cm. long; capsule oblong, 4 mm. long, the style 
scarcely 1 mm. long. Related to N. sessile (R. E. Fries) Beauv., of 
Argentina, but the leaves much broader, the style shorter, and the 
capsule longer. Grass steppes. Later, with the specimens not before 
me, it seems to me doubtful if this is a Nothoscordum. 

Moquehua: Carumas, 3,300 meters, Weberbauer 7262, type. 



FLORA OF PERU 621 

Nothoscordum gramineum (Sims) Beauv. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
II. 8: 1002, 1004. 1908. Ornithogalum gramineum Sims, Bot. Mag. 
50: pi. 2419. 1823. N. striatellum Kunth, Enum. 4: 458. 1843. 
Allium striatellum Lindl. Trans. Hort. Soc. 6: 97. 1851. N. flavescens 
(Poepp.) Kunth, op. cit. 459. A. bivalve (L.) Kuntze, var. flavescens 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 3: 313. 1898. 

Bulb about 1 cm. thick; scape 5-15 cm. long, scarcely rigid; leaves 
2 mm. wide; flowers about 6, on pedicels longer than the ovate- 
lanceolate spathe valves; perianth segments yellow or yellowish, 
oblong-elliptic, faintly nerved ; style a little longer than the ovary. 
Probably only a form of N. bivalve. Neg. 10009. 

Cuzco: (ace. to Herrera). Chile to Uruguay and north to Mexico. 
"Guilli de perro." 

Nothoscordum inodorum (Ait.) Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitt. 
Eur. Fl. 3: 167. 1905. Allium inodorum Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 427. 1789. 

Bulb subglobose, about 1 cm. in diameter; leaves usually 4-10 
mm. wide or wider; scapes 2-4 dm. high; flowers usually lilac-tinted, 
fragrant, the elliptic segments connate about one-half their length; 
anthers lanceolate; ovary obcordate. Widely distributed in warm 
countries or naturalized. Not clearly distinct from N. bivalve in the 
color of the flowers, but the shape of the larger capsule is diagnostic. 
The following young specimen perhaps should be referred to N. 
bivalve or proposed as another form. 

Junin: Tarma, Killip & Smith 21879(1}. 

4. TRICHLORA Baker 

An onion-like plant, but the 2 involucral bracts very unequal, 
one spathe-like, the other narrow, and the stamens united at base 
and only 3 of them fertile. 

Trichlora peruviana Baker in Hook. Icon. 13: 29. pi. 1237. 
1877. 

Leaves linear, all basal; flowers long-pediceled, yellowish. 

Lima: Tambo de Viso region, Weberbauer 132; 164, 166. Obra- 
jillo and Surco to San Mateo, Raimondi (det. Kranzlin). 

5. CHLOROPHYTUM Ker 

Schidospermum Griseb. in Lechler, Berb. Amer. Austr. 56. 1857. 

Nearly Anthericum except for the acutely angled capsule, but the 

single Peruvian species readily recognized by the loosely branching 



622 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

inflorescence. Leaves all from the short rhizome. The plant has the 
aspect of some bromeliads. 

Chlorophytum schidospermum Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 15: 326. 1876. 

Leaves thin, lanceolate; stems 2-3 dm. high; flowers white, 
small. 

Puno: Sangaban, Lechler 2382. Sandia region, Weberbauer 
1204; 279. Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, Schunke 273 (det. I. M. 
Johnston). 

6. ANTHERICUM L. 

Roots often fleshy; leaves grass-like, all basal, or the lower bracts 
leaf -like; inflorescence wand-like, bracteate; capsule keg-shaped, 
bluntly or obscurely if at all 3-lobed. 
Leaves about 1 cm. wide or wider. 

Leaves glabrous or sparsely ciliate on the edges .A. eccremorrhizum. 

Leaves densely ciliate on the edges A. Herrerae. 

Leaves about 5 mm. wide, strongly conduplicate A. glaucum. 

Anthericum eccremorrhizum R. & P. Fl. 3: 67. pi. 301. 1802. 

A rather coarse, glabrous or nearly glabrous plant with broad 
(to 2.5 cm.) ensiform leaves and usually many white or yellowish 
white flowers borne in twos or threes at each bract, the lowest of 
which are often leaf -like. Variable in size and pubescence. A. 
latifolium (HBK.) R. & S., not Peruvian, seems to be the same. 
Neg. 12987. 

Ancash: Ocros, Weberbauer 2749. Lima: Chancai (Ruiz & 
Pavdri). Puente Infiernillo (Ball). Matucana, 2933, 81. Barranco, 
Weberbauer 1604, 1645. Arequipa: Mollendo, Weberbauer 1508. 
Posco, 650 meters (Gunther & Buchtien 351}. Cuzco: Paucartambo 
Valley, Herrera 147, 2332. Junin: Rio Blanco, Kittip & Smith 
21638. 

Anthericum glaucum R. & P. Fl. 3: 68. 1802. 

A slender glabrous plant with much narrower leaves that are 
glaucous above; perianth segments white, green dorsally and apically 
or sometimes yellow (Weberbauer 6841, with broader leaves). 
A. peruviana Willd. Herb, is this species and not A. ciliata! Illus- 
trated, Bot. Mag. 64: pi. 3610. Neg. 9996. 

Junin: Tarma, Weberbauer 2355; 176; Raimondi; (Ruiz & Pavdn); 
Kittip & Smith 21797. Lima: Chorrillos, 150 meters, 5857. Canta, 



FLORA OF PERU 623 

Pennell 14-580. Huancavelica: Below Surcubamba, Weberbauer 
6881 . On the Maranon at Balyas, Stuebel 48a. 

Anthericum Herrerae Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 16: 
566. 1926. 

About 3 dm. high, with linear leaves to 1 cm. wide that are 
densely ciliate; flowers yellowish white, the narrowly oblanceolate 
segments about 1 cm. long and 2-3 mm. wide; filaments 5 mm. long. 
Except for the flowers, similar to A. Sprengelii Rusby (A. ciliatum 
R. & S.), supposed to have longer filaments; but it is not clear to me 
how A. Herrerae can be distinguished from A. eccremorrhizum. 

Cuzco: Paucartambo Valley, 3,500 meters, Herrera 1012. 

7. FORTUNATIA Macbr. 

Scilla L. sect.(?) Hesperoscilla Benth. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. 
PI. 3: 815. 1883. 

A small bulbous plant with basal linear leaves and medium-sized 
white flowers mostly borne in two's in a loose raceme. Ovules in each 
cell 3. Related to the entirely Old World group Scilla but altogether 
different, by virtue of the inflorescence, in aspect and further dis- 
tinguishable by the 3-ovulate cells and the complanate filaments. 
The name commemorates the Peruvian botanist, Dr. Fortunato L. 
Herrera. 

Fortunatia biflora (R. & P.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 9. 1931. 
Scilla biflora R. & P. Fl. 3: 69. pi. 302. 1802. S. geminiflora Kunth, 
Enum. 4: 325. 1843. Ornithogalum biflorum Don in Sweet, Brit. Fl. 
Card. II. 4: pi. 246. 1834. 

Plants 1-3 dm. high; flowers geminate, long-pediceled ; bracts 
ovate, small. A Chilean form with flowers in threes, doubtfully 
distinct, was found at Atiquipa by Raimondi (S. triflora Phil.). 
A loma plant. 

Lima: Lurin, 5942. Matucana, 2,400 meters, 213. San Agustin, 
Weberbauer 5236, 5237. Chancai (Ruiz & Pavdn). Arequipa: 
Mollendo, Weberbauer 1512. Near Mejia, 50 meters (Gunther & 
Buchtien 349), and Cachendo, 900 meters (349a). Moquehua: 
Between Moquehua and Torata, 2,000 meters, Weberbauer 7423. 

8. SMILAX [Tourn.] L. 
Reference: DC. Monogr. 1: 1-217. 1878. 

Well-known dioecious, often clambering plants with small 
umbellate flowers and 1-3-seeded, berry-like fruits. The species 



624 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

are imperfectly known and the following key, based of necessity 
largely on staminate material, is at best only suggestive. Many 
unnamed Peruvian fruiting specimens in herbaria are probably 
referable to the species here listed, but unassociated with flowering 
material, they are not surely determinable. 

Leaves distinctly pubescent beneath or conspicuously mottled. 

Leaves fulvous-tomentose S. tomentosa. 

Leaves glabrous S. argyrea. 

Leaves glabrous or essentially so, green throughout. 

Umbels solitary, axillary on peduncles shorter than or barely as 

long as the petiole. 

Leaves obtuse, acute, or acuminate but not caudately. 
Branchlets smooth or nearly so. 
Leaves rarely if ever over 1.5 dm. long. 

Leaves thin and pellucid-punctate, even in age. 
Leaves acute, under 1 dm. long. 

Stems unarmed, smooth S. cumanensis. 

Stems aculeate, tuberculate S. vaga. 

Leaves acuminate, about 1.5 dm. long. . . .S. obliquata. 
Leaves firm and opaque, at least at maturity. 
Flowers 4-7 mm. long. 
Leaves obtusely or shortly acuminate . .S. floribunda. 

Leaves gradually acuminate S. eucalyptifolia. 

Flowers 2-2.5 mm. long. 
Petioles vaginate to the middle, tendril-bearing. 

Branchlets purple-lineate S. irrorata. 

Branchlets not at all lineate S. Williamsi. 

Petioles vaginate at base, not, or tardily, tendril- 
bearing S. colubrina. 

Leaves of the branchlets nearly 3 dm. long. .S. magnifolia. 

Branchlets conspicuously verruculose S. bella. 

Leaves with a caudate acumen 5-7 mm. long S. gilva. 

Umbels on peduncles longer than petioles, often more or less 
panicled or, if shortly peduncled, bracted or the subtending 
leaves poorly developed. 

Flowering branchlets or peduncles tuberculate or minutely 
aculeate. 



FLORA OF PERU 625 

Leaves of flowering branchlets bractiform or poorly developed. 

S. Schomburgkiana. 
Leaves all well developed. 

Branchlets verruculose .S. insignis. 

Branchlets smooth, aculeate S. obliquata. 

Flowering branchlets and peduncles smooth. 

Branches and branchlets terete or subterete, not densely 
aculeate; pedicels in flower often shorter than 1 cm. 

Flowers 2.5-4.5 mm. long, green or yellow-green; leaves 
thin, opaque only in age S. Poeppigii. 

Flowers 5-7 mm. long, drying dark; leaves firm, opaque 
or subcoriaceous. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or elliptic S. Ruiziana. 

Leaves cordate-ovate S. febrifuga. 

Branches and branchlets strongly angled, the oldest densely 
aculeate; pedicels often 12-20 mm. long. . .S. papyracea. 

Smilax argyrea Lind. & Rod. 111. Hort. 41: 12. 1894. 

Leaves narrowly ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, deep green 
and conspicuously white-mottled. Apparently unique or a sport, 
first recorded op. cit. 39: 51. 1892, again 40: 39. 1893, and illustrated 
as cited above; the two earlier references not seen by me. 

Peru: Introduced into cultivation from Peru. 

Smilax bella Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 47. 1931. 

Stems markedly tuberculate-verruculose and slightly angled and 
aculeate, bearing remotely the handsome, almost rigid, heavy, 
acuminate leaves, these obscurely 5-nerved and laxly reticulate- 
veined, about 2.5 dm. long and 7.5-9 cm. wide; petioles 2 cm. long, 
shortly vaginate; female peduncles scarcely 5 mm. long, the pedicels 
shorter and the 50-60 green flowers much shorter (2 mm.), their 
segments linear-oblong. An apparent ally of S. cinnamomea Desf., 
with the nerves deeply impressed above. S. tuberculata Presl, of 
Guayaquil, has very obtuse, usually aculeate leaves. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 374, type. 

Smilax colubrina Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 45. 1931. 

Stems smooth, slender, elineate; petioles 1-1.5 cm. long; leaves 
opaque, slightly lustrous, ovate-lanceolate, the margins undulate; 
the nerves 5, 3 subprominent only beneath, the reticulation lax; 



626 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

male peduncles 3-5 mm. long, the pedicels as long, the white or yellow 
flowers about 25, with narrowly oblong segments; anthers much 
shorter than the filaments. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, King 1327, 886, 867. 

Smilax cumanensis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 783. 1806; 118. 

Stems unarmed, smooth, subterete or the branchlets subangulate; 
petioles 5-10 mm. long, narrowly vaginate for one-third to half their 
length; leaves ovate-oblong-lanceolate, 8-13 cm. long, 2-4.5 cm. 
wide, acuminate, mucronate, membranous, pellucid-punctate and 
lineate; male peduncles 2.5 mm. long; pedicels 4-10 mm. long; 
receptacles globose, 3 mm. thick; flowers 10-20, the segments oblong 
or ovate-oblong, 2 mm. long; anthers obtuse or mucronulate, much 
longer than the filaments; female inflorescence similar, the peduncle 
to 15 mm. long. See also S. gilva and S. colubrina, referred here by 
Gleason. Neg. 10056. 

Junin: San Nicolas, 1,100 meters, Killip & Smith 26048 (det. 
Gleason). Extending to the Guianas. 

Smilax eucalyptifolia Kunth, Enum. 5: 250. 1850; 97. S. 
subinermis Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 : 132. 1827, probably. 

Unarmed; petioles 1-1.5 cm. long; leaves oblong-ovate-acuminate, 
8-14 cm. long, 3-7 cm. wide, rigid, the nerves decurrent to the petiole; 
male peduncles 5-10 mm. long, 10-40-flowered; receptacle globose; 
bracteoles ovate-acuminate; flowers 3-4 mm. long(?), the female 
unknown; anthers apiculate; fruiting peduncles 3-5 mm. long, the 
pedicels 7-8 mm. long; fruit 6-10 mm. thick. Neg. 10059. 

Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi. Huanuco: Prov. Huamalies, 
Weberbauer 3UO, 3542. Panao, 3612 (or near, det. Killip). With- 
out locality ; Ruiz. ' ' Purtrampui . ' ' 

Smilax febrifuga Kunth, Enum. 5: 201. 1850; 158. 

Stems, or branches below, stout, smooth and little striate, but 
aculeate, the branchlets rarely armed; petioles 2-3 cm. long; leaves 
broadly ovate, finally cordate, 9-23 cm. long, 6-17 cm. wide, opaque; 
peduncles 1.5-3 cm. long; bracts 12-15 mm. long, 3-lobed; male 
umbels 6-20-flowered ; pedicels 8-9 mm. long; sepals 5-6 mm. long; 
anthers not apiculate; female umbels 5-10-flowered ; pedicels 5-6 
mm. long; fruit 14 mm. broad, on pedicels 10-12 mm. long. Neg. 
10060. 

Huanuco: Cochero and Posuso (Pavdri). Huacachi, 4084 (or 
near, det. Killip). Posuso, 4685 (or near, det. Killip). Tingo Maria, 



FLORA OF PERU 627 

Raimondi. Loreto: Tierra Blanca region, Raimondi. Rio Itaya, 
Williams 3392 (with young leaves). "Putrampui," "santo-palo." 

Smilax floribunda Kunth, Enum. 5: 229. 1850; 97. 

Similar to S. eucalyptifolia, but the leaves ovate-elliptic, 
cuspidate-acuminate, 5-7 cm. long and 3-5 cm. broad, only the 
broadest 9-nerved; umbels 8-40-flowered; sepals 5-7 mm. long; 
anthers obtuse; female flowers unknown. Neg. 10062. 

Junin: Huacapistana, Killip & Smith 2451. Cajamarca: Mon- 
tana de Nancho, Raimondi (det. Krause). Without locality, Ruiz. 
Ecuador. "Palo chico." 

Smilax gilva Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 44. 1931. 

A slender smooth terete-stemmed vine, the branchlets and leaves 
neither lineate nor punctate, the latter broadly or narrowly ovate 
and rather abruptly caudate, 10-12 cm. long, 3-3.5 cm. broad, on 
petioles 1 cm. long; nerves 3-5, obscure, the reticulation lax; male 
peduncles 3 mm. long; receptacles cylindric-globose, 4 mm. long; 
pedicels 6 mm. long; flowers greenish yellow and rose, drying sordid 
yellow, the obovate segments 4 mm. long; anthers obtuse, twice 
longer than the filaments. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, King 874* type. 

Smilax insignis Kunth, Enum. 5: 200. 1850; 147. 

Branchlets and peduncles verruculose; leaves ovate-oblong, 
acuminate, 5-12 cm. wide; peduncles 4, 1.5-2 cm. long; flowers 
unknown, apparently 18-20. Here would key a specimen (by 
Esposto?) from mouth of the Pangao, referred in Herb. Dahlem to 
S. papyracea. It has, however, small male flowers, and in 
DeCandolle's treatment must rather be allied to species 80-84, from 
all of which its angled tuberculate stems, small (8-9 by 3-4 cm.) 
leaves, and elongate (3-4 cm.) peduncles separate it. Neg. 10064. 

Puno: Carabaya, Raimondi. Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9166. 
Without locality, Ruiz. 

Smilax irrorata Mart, ex Griseb. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: 
10. pi. 2. 1842; 134. 

Stems and branches punctate and lineate with purple; petioles 
5-10 mm. long; leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, 14 cm. long and 8 
cm. broad, lustrous above, the broader 7-nerved; peduncle* 3-12 
mm. long, 6-15-flowered. Williams has collected similar fruiting 
specimens from the region of Tarapoto, not clearly referable here 



628 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

nor clearly distinct. S. pseudosyphilitica Kunth, op. cit. 188, and 
S. syphilitica Willd., both Amazonian, are to be expected. Their 
dull leaves are all 5-nerved. The petiole sheath of the latter is 
accrescent and obtusely lobed. 

Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig). San Martin: Tarapoto (Spruce 
4913). Brazil. 

Smilax magnifolia Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 46. 1931. 

Moderately stout, the terete branches lightly striate but other- 
wise smooth; petioles 2.5 cm. long, vaginate at base, tardily tendril- 
bearing; leaves elongate-ovate, rounded at base, shortly acuminate, 
over 3 dm. long and over 1 dm. wide below, subcoriaceous, opaque, 
scarcely lustrous above, reticulate- veined, distinctly so only beneath, 
the 5 nerves indistinct; peduncles strongly compressed, 1 cm. long; 
receptacles oval, nearly 7 mm. long and 5 mm. wide; flowers and 
fruit unknown. Perhaps nearest S. phyllobola Griseb., with smaller 
leaves, shorter peduncles, and globose receptacles. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 1000, type. 

Smilax obliquata Poir. Diet. 6: 469. 1804; 150. 

Branches fleshy, nearly tetragonous, shortly aculeate; leaves 
unarmed, lanceolate- triangular, truncate at base or slightly cuneate 
to the petiole, long-acuminate, 5.5 cm. broad, thin, drying pale green; 
flowers and fruit unknown. 

Peru: (Jussieu). 

Smilax papyracea Poir. Diet. 6: 468. 1804; 150. 

A coarse vine, the old stems inordinately aculeate, the younger 
remotely so and smooth but all strongly angled; petioles finally 2-3 
cm. long, the leaves to 2 dm. long and more than a half as wide, but 
often smaller, even in age thin, rounded or lightly cordate at base, 
cuspidately acuminate; perianth segments strongly recurved, the 
staminate 6 mm. long. Not recorded in Peru but no doubt occurring. 
According to Ducke, the roots of this species furnish probably all the 
sarsaparilla for export. 

Brazil and Guianas. "Salsaparilha de Maranhao." 

Smilax Poeppigii Kunth, Enum. 5: 192. 1850; 142. 

Branchlets smooth or remotely aculeate; leaves ovate or elliptic, 
in age cordate and mucronulate, 1-2 dm. long and 6-13 cm. broad, 
7-nerved, coriaceous, dull; peduncles 1-3 cm. long, 15-20-flowered; 
pedicels 7-15 mm. long; sepals 2.5-4 mm. long. Probably S. 



FLORA OF PERU 629 

syphilitica of Poeppig in his Reise, with the native names "sarsa 
fina" and "sarsa gruesa." Neg. 10073. 

Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig 1916}. Mouth of Rio Apaya, Tess- 
mann 3846. Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4081. Mishuyacu, 
Klug 38. Iquitos and lower Rio Huallaga, Killip & Smith 29281, 
29013. Caballo-cocha, Williams 2087(1). Brazil. "Chicjasacha." 

Smilax Ruizana Kunth, Enum. 5: 200. 1850; 158. 

Near S. febrifuga; stems aculeate, especially near the leaves; 
leaves ovate-elliptic, the base obtuse but cuneate to the petiole; 
male peduncles 8-20 mm. long; bracts 5-7 mm. long. S. Spruceana 
DC., to be expected, has obtuse anthers, the mature leaves are 
cordate at base, and the branches are somewhat verruculose. Neg. 
10079. 

Huanuco: Cochero and Pillao, Ruiz. 

Smilax Schomburgkiana Kunth, Enum. 5: 187. 1850; 155. 

Branches and branchlets terete or nearly so, more or less black- 
tuberculate, in our specimens smooth; petioles 1-1.5 cm. long; well- 
developed leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acute at base, acumi- 
nate, finally 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 6-9 cm. broad, often much smaller; 
umbels many, pseudoracemose, often nearly subsessile; male flowers 
greenish yellow, 2 mm. long. Our material is not surely referable 
here but otherwise it is nameless. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 213. Santa Rosa, Yuri- 
maguas, Williams 4948(1). Ranging to the Guianas. 

Smilax tomentosa HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 272. 1816; 70. 

In Peru the only densely pubescent species; leaves subtriplinerved 
at the middle, with 9 principal nerves. 

Cajamarca: Raimondi. Junin: Huacapistana, Weberbauer 2101, 
2165 (det. Krause). Colombia, Venezuela, and Central America. 

Smilax Williamsi Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 46. 1931. 

Very slender, the stems green, smooth, tortuous; leaves elliptic 
or ovate-elliptic, highly polished, beautifully net-veined, opaque, 
about 8 cm. long and 4 cm. broad, rounded at both ends; lateral 
nerves faint; petioles 7-10 mm. long, long-vaginate, tendril-bearing; 
young peduncles 3 mm. long, the receptacles globose, 3 mm. thick. 
In sandy soil. Apparently as near S. irrorata Mart, as any species. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 5432, type. 



630 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

9. LUZURIAGA R. & P. 

Woody plants with many small leaves and pendent flowers on 
bracteate axillary pedicels. The generic name is conserved. 

Luzuriaga radicans R. & P. Fl. 3: 66. pi. 298. 1802. 

Flowers yellowish- white with red lines and dots; berries red. 
Peru, according to Krause, on the basis of a Humboldt and also a 
Dombey specimen in Herb. Dahlem, purporting to come from Peru; 
but doubtful. The fruit is called "coral," and the Chilean names of 
the plant, according to Gay, are "esparto" and "quilinejo." 

10. TOFIELDIA Huds. 

Isidrogalvia R. & P. Fl. 3: 69. pi. 302. 1802. 
Leaves densely rosulate at the base of the stems, the upper few 
and bract-like. Flowers rather crowded, in a spike-like raceme. 

Tofieldia falcata (R. & P.) Pers. Syn. PI. 1: 399. 1805. Isidro- 
galvia falcata R. & P. loc. cit. T. flexuosa Willd. Ges. Nat. Berl. 
Mag. 2: 28. 1808. T. frigida HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 267. 1816. 
T. sessiliflora Hook. Icon. PI. 7: pi. 691. 1844. 

Plants about 1 dm. high; flowers whitish or becoming purple- 
tinged, as the fruit. Possibly more than one species is concerned. 

Huanuco: Pillao (Ruiz}. Mojon Cruz, Pacasmayo to Moyo- 
bamba, Stuebel 23. Vilcabamba, 1,800 meters, 5185. Panao, 2,700 
meters, 3606. Amazonas: Between Bagna and Chachapoyas, Rai- 
mondi. Chachapoyas, Weberbauer 4284- East of Huancabamba, 
Weberbauer 6131. 

30. HAEMODORACEAE 

Besides the following genus, there is in the Amazon region 
Hagenbachia brasiliensis Nees & Mart., distinguishable by its radical 
leaves and subsessile anthers, and Schiekia orinocensis (HBK.) 
Meisn., readily known by its somewhat woolly inflorescence. Both 
are further distinct from Xiphidium by the few seeds in each cell of 
the capsule. 

1. XIPHIDIUM Aubl. 

Perennials with iris-like equitant leaves and terminal panicles 
of regular, rather small flowers. Pedicels erect, bracteolate at 
base. Filaments and entire style filiform. Ovary free, with many 
ovules in each cell. The genus is sometimes accredited to Loefling, 
Iter Hisp. 179. 1758, who actually treated it as a synonym of the 



FLORA OF PERU 631 

Iridaceous genus Ixia L. Its first valid publication appears to have 
been by Aublet. 

Xiphidium album Willd. Sp. PI. 1, pt. 1: 248. 1798. 

Leaves 1-2 cm. broad; inflorescence yellowish-pubescent with 
crisped hairs; perianth segments narrow, whitish. X. caeruleum 
Aubl., similar, has bluish flowers with broader segments. The inflo- 
rescence becomes long and open, with many red fruits. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 2322. Posuso, 
4636. Amazonas: Chachapoyas, Weberbauer 4625; 288. Junin: 
Below Huacapistana, Weberbauer; 252. La Merced, 5558; Killip 
& Smith 23558. Loreto: Yurimaguas, Ule 6309; Williams 7845. 
Yarina-cocha, Tessmann 3416. Pinto-cocha, Williams 794. La 
Victoria, Williams 2597. Lower Rio Nanay, Williams 419, 427. 
Brazil. 

31. AMARYLLIDACEAE Lindl. Amaryllis Family 

Reference: Pax & K. Hoffmann, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 391-430. 
1930. 

No group of Peruvian plants has a single member more con- 
spicuous or important than this family, for to it belongs the agave or 
"pacpa," seen everywhere in the middle hill country where it is grown 
as hedges to protect the steeply sloping chacras, and utilized as the 
source of "pita," each family often preparing its own supply of this 
useful fiber. Otherwise the importance of the Amaryllidaceae in 
Peru is largely horticultural, based upon the beauty of the blossoms. 
Numerous large-flowered plants of the amaryllis type are in culti- 
vation, and the native species, particularly the climbing Bomareas, 
the Stenomessons, Urceolinas, Alstroemerias, and amancaes with 
their bell-shaped, brightly colored and variegated flowers, con- 
tribute to the beauty of the land. The blossoming of the last, 
especially, is the occasion for the spectacular festival, the Amancaise 
(cf. Hymenocallis Amancaes). 

The tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.), a native of Mexico, with 
very fragrant, white flowers, is cultivated commonly for ornament. 
In Loreto and San Martin it is known by the name "margarita." 
Scapes or stems leafy. 

Leaves remote; inflorescence more or less umbellate. 

Plants twining, with regular flowers. 1. Bomarea. 

Plants not twining, the flowers irregular 2. Alstroemeria. 



632 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves crowded; inflorescence not umbellate. 

Stamens exserted 5. Agave. 

Stamens included 6. Fourcroya. 

Scapes leafless (sometimes very short), or the leaves all near the base. 

Plants grass-like, with long hairs 3. Hypoxis. 

Plants glabrous. 

Flowers blue throughout 4. Distrepta. 

Flowers never blue throughout. 
Flowers white or greenish white (in Crinum, with narrow 

segments, often red-flushed). 
Stamen cup lacking or obscure. 

Flowers very slender, with a very long tube . . 8. Cooperia. 
Flowers funnelform. 

Tube short 7. Zephyranthes. 

Tube about 1 dm. long 15. Hippeastrum. 

Tube about 2 dm. long 11. Crinum. 

Stamen cup conspicuous. 

Leaves broad, petioled 13. Eucharis. 

Leaves narrow, sessile 12. Hymenocallis. 

Flowers variously colored but never white. 
Flowers widely open, about 1 dm. (or more) across or, if 
smaller, with a conspicuous stamen cup. 

Filaments attached to a large cup .... 12. Hymenocallis. 
Filaments free, the cup lacking or obsolete. 

15. Hippeastrum. 

Flowers more or less tubular, funnelform, or urceolate. 
Leaves slender (usually about linear), always sessile, or 

lacking at flowering time. 

Stamen cup lacking; flowers solitary, sessile or nearly so. 
Flowers solitary (or 2). 
Filaments free; plants not crocus-like, or flowers 

whitish 7. Zephyranthes. 

Filaments short-connate at base; plants crocus- 
like, orange-flowered 9. Crocopsis. 

Flowers umbellate (1-4), bright yellow. 

10. Chlidanthus. 



FLORA OF PERU 633 

Stamen cup present (rarely obscure); flowers more or 

less pediceled in umbels of 1 to several. 
Filaments free, winged and toothed . . 19. Eustephia. 
Filaments from the edge of the cup . 14. Stenomesson. 

Leaves broad and more or less petioled (cf . Stenomesson) ; 
stamen cup very short or obsolete. 

Stamens little exserted. 

Flowers more or less urceolate-dilated above. 

16. Urceolina. 

Flowers nearly cylindrical 17. Phaedranassa. 

Stamens long-exserted 18. Eucrosia. 

1. BOMAREA Mirb. 
By Ellsworth P. Killip 

Vines, often high-climbing with tortuose stems, in a few species 
erect or suberect herbs, the roots fibrous, sometimes bearing tubers; 
leaves alternate, short-petiolate, resupinate, sometimes reduced to 
scales on the lower part of the stem; inflorescence umbellate, rarely 
1-flowered, simple or compound, usually subtended by bracts; 
perianth funnel-shaped, the tube none, the outer segments (sepals) 
prevailingly oblong, firm in texture, similar, the inner (petals) 
spatulate or unguiculate, rarely obovate, thinner than the sepals and 
equaling or exceeding them; stamens attached to base of segments, 
the filaments filiform, the anthers oblong, basifixed; fruit turbinate 
or subglobose, 3-celled (always?), 3-angled or obscurely 6-ribbed, 
dehiscent, indehiscent or at least very tardily dehiscent in a few 
species; seeds subglobose, usually with a pulpy testa. Collania 
Herb., Sphaerine Herb., Wichaurea M. Roemer. 

Bomareas are often a conspicuous feature of the higher mountains. 
The flowers are highly colored, and sometimes as many as 75 or 100 
are massed in a single umbel. 

Ovary partly superior, the base of the style being much enlarged and 
constituting more than half of the ovary; erect plants, often 
recurved at summit, the stem wand-like, the leaves linear, 
usually stiff and strongly revolute. (Wichaurea.) 

Flowers averaging about 6.5 cm. long, green or cream-color, usually 
more than 6, in a compact head subtended by numerous long 
bracts which envelop the short rays and the lower part of the 
flowers. . , .1. B. involucrosa. 



634 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Flowers smaller (rarely 6 cm. long in B. crocea), the sepals red or 
pink, the petals yellowish. 

Sepals broadly ovate, only about twice as long as broad. 

2. B. campanuli flora. 

Sepals oblong or linear-oblong, more than twice as long as broad. 
Bractlets 4-5 cm. long; umbel rays stout, more than 10 cm. 

long; ovary rufo-tomentose 3. B. bracteata. 

Bractlets smaller; umbel rays slender, rarely more than 8 cm. 
long; ovary glabrous, usually glaucous. 

Leaves pubescent on both surfaces 4. B. puberula. 

Leaves glabrous above. 

Leaves distinctly revolute, often appearing acicular, 
1-3 mm. wide when curled, often closely appressed 
to the stem; stem strongly recurved toward apex. 
Sepals more than 4 cm. long, rounded or subtruncate, 

1-1.5 cm. wide. 5. B. Fiebrigiana. 

Sepals not more than 4 cm. long, subacute, less than 1 

cm. wide. 

Umbel rays more than 2 cm. long. 
Leaves not more than 5 cm. long, rigid, puberulent 

beneath; umbel erect 6. B. porrecta. 

Leaves longer, rather lax, glabrous; umbel nodding. 

7. B. zosteraefolia. 

Umbel rays not more than 2 cm. long . . 8. B. dulcis. 

Leaves flat or very slightly revolute, more than 3 mm. 

wide, at least the upper divaricate; stem often 

straight throughout. 

Sepals linear-oblong, not more than 5 mm. wide; 

leaves puberulent beneath 9. B. petraea. 

Sepals oblong or lance-oblong, more than 5 mm. wide; 

leaves pilose or hirsutulous beneath. 
Leaves averaging about 3 cm. long, subobtuse; 

umbel rays 1 or 2 10. B. uniflora. 

Leaves averaging much more than 3 cm. long, acumi- 
nate; umbel rays 3 or more. 
Perianth less than 3 cm. long; leaf nerves hirsutu- 
lous beneath 11. B. phyllostachya. 

Perianth 4-6 cm. long; leaf nerves densely pilose 
beneath . . . 12. B. crocea. 



FLORA OF PERU 635 

Ovary wholly inferior, the style filiform, not enlarged at base; low, 
erect or suberect plants or elongate twining vines. (Ovary 
partly superior in species 44 and 45, which are twining vines.) 
Fruit indehiscent (but always?) ; plants erect or suberect, decum- 
bent inB. pumila. (Sphaerine.) 

Inflorescence 1-flowered; plant very slender, decumbent, the 

leafy portion rarely more than 5 cm. long . . 13. B. pumila. 

Inflorescence umbellate; plants stouter, the leafy portion much 

more than 5 cm. long. 

Flowers more than 2 cm. long; bracts lanceolate, long- 
acuminate, persistent; under side of leaf nerves strongly 

flattened 14. B. secundifolia. 

Flowers rarely more than 2 cm. long; bracts often minute and 
soon deciduous; under side of leaf nerves not flattened. 
Rays of umbel more than 10; sepals pubescent. 

15. B. nervosa. 

Rays of umbel less than 10; sepals glabrous. 
Pedicels and ovary pubescent; ovary turbinate, broadest 

at apex. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, less than 5 mm. wide, sub- 

revolute, glabrous 16. B. cruenta. 

Leaves ovate, more than 1 cm. wide, flat, pubescent 

beneath 17. B. coccinea. 

Pedicels and ovary glabrous; ovary ovoid, narrowed at 

apex. 

Leaves prevailingly oblanceolate, broadest above 
middle; sepals corniculate; stem usually curved 

at apex 18. B. brevis. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, broadest at 
or below middle; sepals ecorniculate; stem straight. 

19. B. distichophylla. 
Fruit dehiscent; plants elongate twining vines, sometimes suberect 

herbs in B. ovata. (Eubomarea.) 
Umbel rays simple, ebracteolate or with small, usually soon 

deciduous bractlets. 

Pedicels and ovary glabrous (ovary puberulent in B. rosea 
but not viscous). 

Sepals corniculate 20. B. cornigera. 

Sepals ecorniculate. 



636 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, not more than 5 mm. wide, 
slightly revolute, crowded toward top of stem. 

21. B. torta. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate, much broader, flat, distant. 

Perianth more than 4 cm. long; leaves densely tomen- 
tose beneath 22. B. Stuebelii. 

Perianth less than 4 cm. long; leaves glabrous, puber- 
ulent or strigillose. 

Umbel rays less than 15, usually fewer than 10. 

Ovary narrowly funnel-shaped, much broader than 
long, acute at base; leaves subcoriaceous. 

23. B. Klugii. 

Ovary globose-turbinate, nearly as broad as long, 
rounded at base; leaves thin-membranous. 

51. B. ovata. 
Umbel rays more than 15. 

Leaves rufo-puberulent beneath; ovary puber- 
ulent; sepals dull red; petals red and green, 
purple-blotched 24. B. rosea. 

Leaves and ovary glabrous; sepals pink; petals 
yellow and green, purple-striped. 

25. B. anceps. 
Pedicels and ovary pubescent, usually viscous. 

Stem densely hirsute with spreading moniliform hairs; 
leaves densely hirsute-tomentose beneath. 

26. B. aurantiaca. 

Stem and leaves glabrous or variously pubescent but not as 
above. 

Leaves small, up to 4 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, linear- 
oblong. 

Flowers solitary; leaves distant; stem filiform, gla- 
brous 27. B. filicaulis. 

Flowers umbellate; leaves more crowded; stem coarser, 
pubescent 28. B. sclerophylla. 

Leaves larger, more than 4 cm. long, lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate. 

Rays of umbel less than 7, most of them strongly 
recurved. 



FLORA OF PERU 637 

Anthers very large, about 5 mm. long; leaves less 
than 1 cm. wide; stem glabrous. 

29. B. macranthera. 
Anthers smaller; leaves at least 1 cm. wide; stem 

pilosulous 30. B. cernua. 

Rays of umbel more than 7, most of them erect. 
Perianth not more than 3 cm. long. 
Nerves of leaves strongly flattened beneath, 
usually less than 1 mm. apart. 

Petals red; leaves membranous, long-acuminate, 
dark green above; inflorescence at length 
subracemose 31. B. purpurea. 

Petals yellow; leaves coriaceous or subcori- 
aceous, acute or subobtuse, yellow-green; 
inflorescence strictly umbellate. 

32. B. setacea. 

Nerves of leaves not flattened beneath, usually 
more than 1 mm. apart. 

Sepals ecorniculate; inflorescence at length 
subracemose. 

Leaves rufo-tomentose beneath; flowers 
usually more than 20. .33. B. densiflora. 

Leaves crispate-pilose on nerves beneath; 
flowers 10-15 34. B. denticulata. 

Sepals long-corniculate; inflorescence strictly 
umbellate 35. B. caudata. 

Perianth more than 3 cm. long. 

Umbel rays less than 12, arcuate-ascending, 10-15 
cm. long 36. B. crinita. 

Umbel rays 12 or more, straight or the outer 
recurved, less than 10 cm. long. 

Under surface of leaves scaberulous; leaf nerves 
about 1 mm. apart 37. B. loreti. 

Under surface of leaves smooth; leaf nerves less 

than 1 mm. apart. 
Leaves broadly lanceolate, more than 3 cm. 

wide 38. B. formosissima. 

Leaves narrower, not more than 2.5 cm. wide. 



638 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Perianth segments subequal, the petals 
not more than 2 mm. longer than the 
sepals, unspotted 39. B. superba. 

Perianth segments markedly unequal, the 
petals about 5 mm. longer than the 
sepals, densely spotted. 

40. B. sanguined. 
Umbel rays forked, bearing a persistent bractlet at each fork. 

Perianth less than 1.5 cm. long; leaves oblong, small, not more 
than 3.5 cm. long 41. B. nematocaulon. 

Perianth more than 1.5 cm. long (sometimes shorter in B. 
campylophylla) ; leaves longer (less than 3.5 cm. long in a 
few species but, if so, linear). 

Leaves linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate, less than 6 mm. 
wide, revolute. 

Bractlets linear-lanceolate, less than 2 mm. wide; leaves 
8-10 cm. long . . .42. B. angustissima. 

Bractlets broadly lanceolate, more than 2 mm. wide; 
leaves less than 6 cm. long. 

Leaves villous beneath; petals broadly dilated toward 
apex 43. B. Engleriana. 

Leaves glabrous; petals slightly dilated. 

Umbel rays divaricate and much curved; stem 
glabrous or sparingly pubescent . 44. B. praeusta. 

Umbel rays erect or ascending; stem tomentose. 

45. B. parvifolia. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate, more than 6 mm. wide, flat. 
Petals and sepals subequal. 

Leaves coriaceous, the nerves strongly elevated on 

both surfaces; bracts and bractlets falcate, the 

bractlets 4 cm. or more long. 46. B. campylophylla. 

Leaves membranous, the nerves not strongly elevated ; 

bracts and bractlets less than 4 cm. long. 
Sepals corniculate, the horn 3 mm. or more long. 

47. B. cornuta. 
Sepals ecorniculate. 

Bractlets suborbicular, complanate, the lower- 
most about 2.5 cm. wide. 48. B. ayavacensis. 



FLORA OF PERU 639 

Bractlets not suborbicular and complanate, 
narrower. 

Leaves puberulent beneath; umbel rays not 
more than 3 cm. long. . . .49. B. tarmensis. 

Leaves glabrous, or pilose beneath; umbel rays 
longer. 

Bractlets minute or wanting, even the lower- 
most not more than 5 mm. long; umbel 
rays often unbranched; stem often 
suberect. 

Umbel rays 20 or more, minutely rufo- 
pilosulous. 50. B. amoena. 

Umbel rays less than 20, glabrescent. 

51. B. ovata. 

Bractlets larger, almost always present; rays 
predominately branched; stems voluble. 

Leaves broadly ovate, more than 6 cm. 
wide. 

Petals not spotted; leaves cordate. 

52. B. cordifolia. 

Petals spotted ; leaves abruptly narrowed 
to petiole 53. B. latifolia. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 
narrower. 

Umbel compact, the rays more than 25, 

less than 6 cm. long. 

54. B. Hookeriana. 
Umbel diffuse, the rays fewer and much 

longer. 

Flowers 2-3 cm. long; rays and ovaries 
glabrous 55. B. dolichocarpa. 

Flowers 4-5 cm. long; rays and ovaries 

pubescent 56. B. speciosa. 

Petals much longer than the sepals. 

Umbel compact, the rays not more than 5 cm. long; 

flowers more than 2.5 cm. long. . . .57. B. lyncina. 

Umbel loose, the rays much more than 5 cm. long; 

flowers smaller . . . . 58. B. declinata. 



640 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

1. Bomarea involucrosa (Herb.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 20: 201. 
1882. Collania involucrosa Herb. Amaryl. 103. pi. 9. 1837. 
Wichaurea involucrosa M. Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 4: 278. 1847. 
Alstroemeria Pavoniana Beauverd, Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve II. 13: 
176. f.12. 1921. 

Erect herb, with a stout wand-like stem 1-2 meters high, densely 
leafy throughout, usually recurved at summit; leaves linear or linear- 
lanceolate, up to 12 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide (usually much nar- 
rower), slightly or strongly revolute, with sharp acicular tips, 
coriaceous, cano-pilosulous beneath; bracts ovate-lanceolate, about 
2 cm. wide, completely concealing the very short, simple umbel rays; 
flowers up to 20, compact, the segments green, or cream-color tinged 
with green, not spotted, 5-7 cm. long, subacute, the sepals slightly 
unequal and the petals, also, slightly unequal; ovary deeply 3- 
grooved, glabrous. 

Department uncertain: Dombey 170; Gay 1613; Raimondi 8630; 
Maclean; Lobb 278; Martinet 1090. Lima: San Mateo, Mathews 
863 (type). Rio Blanco, 3,200 meters, Killip & Smith 21726, 2958. 
Lima-La Oroya railroad, Weberbauer 218, 1706. Junin: Acopalca 
Valley, Huancayo, 4,000 meters, Ledig 1 , 25. La Oroya, Kalenborn 
5. Tarma, Ruiz & Pavdn (type of Alstroemeria Pavoniana) . Cuzco: 
Cuzco, 3,500 meters, Herrera 269, 465, 530; Stafford 250. Sac- 
sahuaman, 3,600 meters, Herrera 799. Crapeza Valley, Herrera 
2680. Rio Tapfi, Herrera 816, 856. Santa Ana, Herrera 566 
Puno: Uco, Raimondi 11265. "Sulla-sulla." 

2. Bomarea campanuliflora Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
25: 371. 1935. 

Stem erect, recurved toward apex, glabrous; leaves linear, 3-9 
cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, crowded, strongly revolute, rigid, rufo- 
pilosulous beneath; umbel rays 4, about 4.5 cm. long, glabrous, once 
or twice forked, bracteolate; ovary broadly turbinate-campanulate, 
glabrous; sepals broadly ovate 2-2.5 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, red; 
petals oblanceolate-unguiculate, 2.5-3 cm. long, red, green-tipped. 

Puno: Quebrada de Toipata, Raimondi 10229 (type). 

3. Bomarea bracteata (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 112. 1837, as 
to synonymy only. Alstroemeria bracteata R. & P. Fl. 3: 61. pi. 291, 
f. b. 1802. 

Stem slightly voluble, densely villous-tomentose; leaves linear- 
lanceolate, up to 6 cm. long and 1.2 cm. wide, flat, minutely pul- 
verulent on both surfaces or glabrescent above; bracts slightly larger 



FLORA OF PERU 641 

than the leaves; umbel 4-6 rayed, the rays stout, 10-15 cm. long, 
once or twice forked above the middle; sepals oblong-lanceolate, 
4-5 cm. long, 0.8 cm. wide, purplish, green-tipped; petals cuneate- 
unguiculate, 5-6 cm. long, green in the upper half, yellow at the base, 
the blade purple-dotted at the margin. 

Ancash: Between Acas and Huauri, Raimondi 12077. Junin: 
Huasahuasi, Dombey 169; Ruiz & Pavdn (type). 

4. Bomarea puberula (Herb.) Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 49: 132. 
1913. Collania puberula Herb. Amaryl. 105. pi. 11, f. 1. 1837. 
Wichaurea puberula M. Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 4: 279. 1847. B. 
glaucescens var. puberula Baker, Journ. Bot. 20: 201. 1882. 

Erect herb 1-1.5 meters high, the stem densely rufo-tomentellous, 
recurved at the summit; leaves linear, up to 8 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, 
slightly or usually strongly revolute, coriaceous, rufo-tomentellous 
on both surfaces; inflorescence loosely flowered, subtended by 
oblong-lanceolate bracts up to 1 cm. wide, compound, the primary 
rays 3-4, once or twice forked, bearing large, persistent bractlets 
similar to the bracts; sepals oblong-lanceolate, 2-3.5 cm. long, red, 
green-tipped; petals spatulate-unguiculate, subequal to the sepals, 
about 1 cm. wide toward the apex, subacute, reddish yellow, green 
distally, purple-dotted at the upper margin. 

Department uncertain: Andinamarca, Mathews 1165, in part 
(type) . Huanuco : 1 824. Also in Bolivia. 

This is one of the few species of Bomarea with a conspicuous 
indument on both sides of the leaves, a character which, with the 
larger flowers and looser, conspicuously bracteolate inflorescence, 
distinguishes it from B. dulcis, with which it has been confused. 

5. Bomarea Fiebrigiana Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 230. 1908. 
Collania Fiebrigiana Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. Ill: 5. 1913. 

Plant erect, usually recurved at the summit; leaves narrowly 
linear, up to 5 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, strongly revolute, appearing 
acicular, subappressed; bracts lanceolate, up to 4 cm. long, 1 cm. 
wide; flowers 4.5-5 cm. long, the segments subequal, 1-1.5 cm. wide; 
sepals oblanceolate, rounded or subtruncate at the apex, rose-color, 
tinged with greenish yellow, purple-spotted. 

Cuzco: Alturas del Chaco, Santa Ana Valley, Biles (Herrera 
2120). Type from Tarija, Bolivia. 

6. Bomarea porrecta Killip, nom. nov. Bomarea slricta 
Kranzl. Ann. Nat. Hofm. Wien 27: 156. 1913, non Pax, 1889. 



642 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Stem erect, straight throughout, glabrous; leaves linear, 4-5 cm. 
long, 2-3 mm. wide, revolute, rigid, cano-puberulent beneath; umbel 
rays about 4.5 cm. long, once or twice forked; sepals ovate-oblong, 
about 1.8 cm. long, red; petals spatulate-unguiculate, slightly longer 
than the sepals, light yellow, greenish at the apex. 

Peru (?): Locality uncertain, Lobb (type). 

7. Bomarea zosteraefolia Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
25: 372. 1935. 

Plant erect, rigid, 30 cm. high or more, glabrous throughout; 
leaves linear, 4-12 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, slightly revolute, mem- 
branous, divaricate; umbel rays about 6, 2.5-3 cm. long, slender, 
forked near the middle; sepals linear-oblong, about 2.5 cm. long and 
6 mm. wide, red, green-tipped; petals oblong-spatulate, subequal to 
the sepals, yellowish (?), green-tinged and purple-maculate at 
the apex. 

Ancash: Martinet 742 (type). 

8. Bomarea dulcis (Hook.) Beauverd, Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 
II. 14: 172. 1922. Alstroemeria dulcis Hook. Bot. Misc. 2: 237. pi. 
95. 1837. Collania dulcis Herb. Amaryl. 104. pi. 7, f. 1-8. 1837. C. 
dulcis var. parvifolia Herb. op. cit. 400. pi. 46, f. 6. Wichaurea dulcis 
M. Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 4: 278. 1847. W. dulcis var. Cruik- 
shanksii M. Roemer, loc. cit. W. parvifolia M. Roemer, op. cit. 279. 
W. acicularis M. Roemer, op. cit. 280. Bomarea glaucescens var. 
dukis Baker, Amaryl. 147. 1888. 

An erect, rigid herb 10-30 cm. high, the stem glabrous or short- 
tomentose, strongly recurved at the summit; leaves narrowly linear, 
up to 6 cm. long but usually much shorter, strongly revolute, appear- 
ing acicular, finely cano-puberulent beneath; primary rays 1-4, 
usually forked near the base, bearing at the fork a conspicuous, 
lanceolate bractlet; flowers 2-2.5 cm. long, the segments subequal, 
the sepals oblong, about 5 mm. wide, subacute, red, the petals 
spatulate, yellow, green-tipped or sometimes purple at the tip. 

Department uncertain: Nee; Gay 2055. Portachuelo, Mathews 
(type of Collania dulcis var. parvifolia). Cajamarca: Weberbauer 
4026, 4235; Raimondi 391. Ancash: Yungai, Weberbauer 3268. 
Pichin, Weberbauer 2948. Huaraz, Weberbauer 2967. Lima: Lima- 
La Oroya railroad, Weberbauer 214- Junin: Cerro de Pasco, 4,000 
meters, Cruikshanks (type; also type of Wichaurea dulcis var. 
Cruikshanksii) ; Mathews. Huaron, 4,200 meters, 1122. La Oroya, 
Kalenborn 161. Huancavelica: Godet 85. Puno: Sandia, Weber- 



FLORA OF PERU 643 

bauer 965. Poto, Stafford 45. Moho, Shepard 100. Arequipa: 
Arequipa, Hopp 69. Nevado de Chachani, Pennell 13265, 13292 
Moquehua: Raimondi 11311. Cuzco: Cuzco, 3,600 meters, Herrera 
187, 817. Crapeza Valley, Herrera 2636, 2679. "Mullupaycha," 
"habaya," "huaca-sulla." 

9. Bomarea petraea Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 229. 1908. Col- 
lama petraea Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. Ill: 5. 1913. 

An erect herb up to 70 cm. high, the stem glabrous, densely 
leafy except in the lower part; leaves linear-lanceolate, up to 7 cm. 
long, 1 cm. wide, glabrous above, minutely grayish-puberulent 
beneath; bracts similar to the leaves, slightly smaller; primary umbel 
rays about 5, once or twice forked, the bractlets oblong, persistent; 
sepals linear-oblong, about 3 cm. long and 5 mm. wide, obscurely 
pellucid; petals linear-spatulate, subequal to the sepals, about 1 
cm. wide. 

Puno: Asangaro, 4,000 meters, Weberbauer 476 (type); Lechler 
1 777. Also in western Bolivia at Lake Titicaca. 

10. Bomarea uniflora (Mathews) Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. 
Sci. 25: 372. 1935. Alstroemeria uniflora Mathews ex Herb. Amaryl. 
104. 1837, as synonym. Wichaurea dulcis var. uniflora M. Roemer, 
Fam. Nat. Syn. 4: 278. 1847. 

Stem erect or slightly curved, 30-60 cm. high, glabrous; leaves 
divaricate or somewhat ascending, linear-oblong, 2.5-3.5 cm. long, 
4-6 mm. wide, subobtuse, scarcely revolute, densely crispate- 
pilosulous on the prominent nerves beneath; peduncles 1 or 2, 1-2- 
flowered, nearly 2 cm. long; sepals oblong, 2-2.2 cm. long, scarlet; 
petals cuneate-spatulate, subequal to or slightly longer than the 
sepals, yellowish (?), deep green at the upper margin. 

Department uncertain: Huayllay, Mathews 864 (type). Ancash: 
Quebrada Cajavilca, Savatier 1454- Also in Bolivia. 

11. Bomarea phyllostachya Mast, ex Baker, Amaryl. 143. 
1888. 

An erect plant 30-45 cm. high, the stem sparingly puberulent, 
leafy above the middle; leaves linear, 4-10 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, 
subrevolute, hirtellous on the nerves beneath; umbel rays 3-4, once 
or twice forked, bearing at the fork a large, persistent bractlet up to 
7 cm. long and 8 mm. wide; sepals oblong, 2-2.2 cm. long, reddish; 
petals spatulate, subequal to the sepals, greenish yellow. 



644 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Peru(?): Locality uncertain, Lobb (type). Huanuco: Mito, 
2,800 meters, 1660. The type locality is given as "Andes of Colum- 
bia" by Baker. Most of these Lobb "Colombia" collections were 
made in Peru or southern Ecuador. 

12. Bomarea crocea (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 119. 1837. 
Alstroemeria crocea R. & P. Fl. 3: 61. 1802. Collania andimarcana 
Herb. Amaryl. 105. pi. 8, f. 1. 1837. Wichaurea andimarcana M. 
Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 4: 279. 1847. Bomarea andimarcana Baker, 
Journ. Bot. 20: 201. 1882. Collania grandis Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: 
Beibl. 111:2. 1913. 

An erect herb, up to 70 cm. high, the stem stout, recurved at the 
apex, glabrous or tomentose; leaves linear or linear-oblong, up to 
12 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, glabrous above, densely pilose on the 
nerves beneath, divaricate; umbel rays 2-4, once or twice furcate, 
the bractlets lanceolate, persistent; perianth 3.5-6 cm. long, the 
segments subequal, the sepals oblanceolate, red or yellowish, green- 
tipped, the petals spatulate, yellow, green- tipped. 

Department uncertain: Maclean; Lobb (type of Collania grandis, 
described from a plant grown in England). Andinamarca, Mathews 
1164 (type of Collania andimarcana}. Lima: Viso, 2,800 meters, 
588. Junin: Churupallana, Ruiz & Pavon (type). Cuzco: Lucu- 
mayo Valley, 3,600 meters, Cook & Gilbert 1267. "Chocllopa." 

13. Bomarea pumila Griseb. ex Baker, Amaryl. 145. 1888. 

A very slender plant with a prostrate, leafless, filiform stem, only 
the upper 4-5 cm. ascending and leafy; leaves ovate or obovate, 
1-2.5 cm. long, up to 1.5 cm. wide, obtuse, glabrous; flowers solitary, 
the peduncles, ovary, and sepals hirsutulous with moniliform hairs, 
the peduncles slender, 1-1.5 cm. long, ebracteolate; ovary turbinate; 
sepals broadly ovate, about 1 cm. long, reddish; petals spatulate, 
subequal to the sepals, greenish yellow. 

Cuzco: Sachapata, Lechler 2240 (type). Alturas de Chaco, 3,000 
meters, Biles (Herrera 2151, 2162). 

This is the smallest Bomarea known and is easily recognized. 
Bomarea pumila and the six species which follow constitute a 
well-marked group, maintained by some authors as a separate genus, 
Sphaerine. The style is filiform throughout and is readily detached 
from the ovary. The ovary is slightly hexagonal, with obscure ribs 
marking the angles. In the few specimens with well-developed fruit 
which have been examined, the fruit appears always to be indehiscent, 
an observation made by Ruiz and Pavon. 



FLORA OF PERU 645 

14. Bomarea secundifolia (R. & P.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 20: 
202. 1882. Alstroemeria secundifolia R. & P. Fl. 3: 60. pi. 290, f. 
a. 1802. Sphaerine secundifolia Herb. Amaryl. 107. pi. 12, f. 1, 2. 
1837. 

Plant about 60 cm. high, the stem nearly straight, terete, gla- 
brous; leaves secund, lanceolate, 8-10 cm. long, 2.5-3 cm. wide, 
acuminate, rounded at the sessile base, dark green and glabrous 
above, very pale beneath with the nerves elevated but strongly 
flattened, hispidulous at the sides; bracts lanceolate, similar to the 
leaves, 3-3.5 cm. long, tapering to a slender point; umbel 4-6-rayed, 
the rays 2-3 cm. long, finely hirtellous, ebracteolate; ovary turbinate, 
densely tomentose; sepals linear-oblong, 2-3.5 cm. long, pilosulous 
without, yellow-red or purplish red; petals obovate-spatulate, sub- 
equal to the sepals, 5-6 mm. wide, yellow, green-tipped; capsule 
ovoid, hexagonal. 

Cajamarca: Jelski 8127. Huanuco: Mufia, Ruiz & Pavdn (type). 
Vilcabamba, 1,800 meters, 4962. 

15. Bomarea nervosa (Herb.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 20: 202. 
1882. Sphaerine nervosa Herb. Amaryl. 108. pi. 13. 1837. 

An erect herb, leafy in the upper 30 cm., glabrous except the 
inflorescence; leaves lanceolate, 10-12 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, short- 
petioled, subdivaricate, strongly and closely nerved; outer bracts 
similar to the leaves but smaller, persistent, the inner setaceous; 
umbel simple, 10-25-rayed, the rays suberect, up to 3 cm. long, 
tomentulose, ebracteolate; ovary turbinate; sepals oblong-lanceolate, 
about 1.5 cm. long, puberulent without, red; petals spatulate, sub- 
equal to the sepals, about 6 mm. wide, yellow, green toward the apex. 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas, 2,700-3,000 meters, Mathews 1661 
(type); Williams 7574, 7581. 

16. Bomarea cruenta Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 228. 1908. 

A suberect plant 60-70 cm. high, the stem essentially glabrous, 
densely leafy in the upper half, the leaves reduced to distant scales 
in the lower half; leaves linear-lanceolate, up to 6 cm. long and 4 
mm. wide, subrevolute, glabrous, erect or ascending; bracts linear, 
1-1.5 cm. long, about 1 mm. wide; umbel simple, the rays about 4, 
2-3 cm. long, fuscous-scabrid, ebracteolate; ovary obconic, scabrid; 
sepals obovate, 1-1.5 cm. long, red; petals spatulate, subequal to the 
sepals, up to 5 mm. wide, red without, orange within. 

Amazonas: In sphagnum bog, east of Chachapoyas, 2,400-2,600 
meters, Weberbauer 4395 (type). 



646 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

17. Bomarea coccinea (R. & P.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 20: 202. 
1882. Alstroemeria coccinea R. & P. Fl. 3: 62. pi. 291, /. a. 1802. 
Sphaerine coccinea Herb. Amaryl. 108. pi. 16, f. 1. 1837. 

Plant suberect, 30-50 cm. high, leafy only toward the summit, 
the leaves ovate, 4-5 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide, subsessile, glabrous 
above, hirtellous on the nerves beneath with crispate hyaline hairs; 
bracts soon deciduous; umbel 2-4-rayed, the rays simple, up to 3 
cm. long, ebracteolate, rufo-villosulous; ovary turbinate, densely- 
rufo-tomentose; sepals oblanceolate, 1.5-2 cm. long, red; petals 
spatulate, subequal to the sepals, reddish, purple-blotched within; 
fruit ovoid, about 1 cm. long, pubescent. 

Huanuco: Muna, 2,500 meters, 4308. Between Huanuco and 
Pampayacu, Kanehira 88, in part. Junin: Huasahuasi, Ruiz & 
Pav6n (type). Palca, Weberbauer 2481. Also in the mountains of 
western Bolivia. 

18. Bomarea brevis (Herb.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 20: 202. 1882. 
Sphaerine brevis Herb. Amaryl. 108. pi. 18, f. 1. 1837. Bomarea 
recurva Baker, Amaryl. 145. 1888. 

A suberect herb 30-50 cm. high, leafy only toward the summit, 
glabrous throughout, the stem often recurved at the end; leaves 
ovate, ovate-oblong, or oblanceolate, up to 8 cm. long, 3 cm. wide, 
acuminate or abruptly acute; bracts minute, soon deciduous; umbel 
3-4-rayed, the rays simple, 3-4 cm. long, ebracteolate; ovary ovoid; 
sepals oblanceolate, 1-1.2 cm. long, reddish yellow, prominently 
horned dorsally just below the apex; petals spatulate, as long as the 
sepals, yellow, not marked ; fruit ovoid, yellow. 

Peru: Locality uncertain, Mathews 1660 (type). Huanuco: 
Cani, 2,700 meters, 3545. Playapampa, 2,800 meters, 4872. Yanano, 
1,800 meters, 3773. Panao, 2228, 2229. Between Huanuco and 
Pampayacu, Kanehira 88, in part. Junin: Santiago, Raimondi 1555. 
Huacapistana, Weberbauer 2074- Cuzco: Sachapata, Lechler 2628 
(type of B. recurva). Also in the mountains of western Bolivia. 

19. Bomarea distichophylla (R. & P.) Baker, Journ. Bot. 
20: 202. 1882. Alstroemeria distichifolia R. & P. Fl. 3: 60. pi. 287, 
f. a.(?) 1802. Sphaerine distichophylla Herb. Amaryl. 107. pi. 12, 
f. 3, 4- 1837. 

An erect, glabrous herb 40-60 cm. high, the stem very straight, 
the leaves crowded, distichous, stiff, ascending or somewhat spread- 
ing, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 6-10 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide, 
prominently nerved; umbel 3-6-rayed, the rays simple, slender, up 



FLORA OF PERU 647 

to 2 cm. long, erect; flowers about 1 cm. long, the sepals and petals 
subequal; ovary ovoid; sepals narrowly oblong, bright red; petals 
spatulate, red or orange. 

Huanuco: Chaclla, 2,800 meters, 3633. Mima, 2,100 meters, 
3893; Ruiz & Pavdn (type). Junin: Rio Masamerich, 2,700 meters, 
Weberbauer 6634Cuzco: Cerro de Cusilluyoc, 2,000-2,500 meters, 
Pennell 13947. Marcapata Valley, Weberbauer 7865. Also in the 
mountains of western Bolivia. 

Ruiz and Pavon's illustration is evidently based upon specimens 
of both B. setacea and B. distichophylla, the larger flowers, the wider, 
divaricate or reflexed leaves, and the linear persistent bracts repre- 
senting B. setacea and the subglobose, apparently indehiscent fruit 
B. distichophylla. 

20. Bomarea cornigera Herb. Amaryl. 116. pi. 17, f. 2, 3. 1837. 
A vine; stem slender, glabrous; leaves lance-ovate, 3-5 cm. long, 

0.5-1.5 cm. wide, acute, glabrous; umbel 1-4-rayed, the rays about 
3 cm. long, ebracteolate; sepals oblong, 2 cm. long, conspicuously 
horned, the horn about 3 mm. long; petals subequal to the sepals, 
about 7 mm. wide. 

Peru(?): Locality uncertain, probably northern Peru, Mathews 
1659 (type). 

21. Bomarea torta (HBK.) Herb. Amaryl. 115. 1837. Al- 
stroemeria torta HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 283. 1816. 

A vine, glabrous throughout; leaves linear-lanceolate, up to 4 
cm. long and 5 mm. wide, acuminate, revolute, rigid, crowded 
toward the end of the stem; bracts numerous, similar to the leaves; 
umbel about 6-rayed, the rays about 1 cm. long, 1-flowered; sepals 
narrowly oblong-lanceolate, as long as the sepals, very slightly 
broader at the apex than the sepals, green, black-spotted, yellowish 
toward the base. 

Cajamarca: Between Cajamarca and Paramo de Yanahuanga, 
3,000 meters, Humboldt & Bonpland (type). Amazonas: Chacha- 
poyas, Mathews. Without definite locality: Raimondi 8584- 

22. Bomarea Stuebelii Pax, Bot. Jahrb. 11: 333. 1889. 

A vine; stem glabrous; leaves narrowly elliptic or oblong, about 
10 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, acuminate, narrowed at the base, 
glabrous above, densely pilose or tomentose beneath; bracts numer- 
ous, lanceolate; umbel 15-30-rayed, the rays 5-6 cm. long, ebracteo- 
late, glabrous; ovary short-turbinate; sepals oblong, about 5 cm. 



648 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

long, nearly 2 cm. wide, obtuse; petals spatulate, 4-5 cm. long, about 
1.5 cm. wide at the apex. 

Amazonas: Between Ventilla and Bagazan, 3,000 meters, Stuebel 
in 1875 (type). Chachapoyas, Mathews. Junin: Rio Mantaro, 
Weberbauer 6563. 

23. Bomarea Klugii Killip, sp. nov. 

Caulis volubilis, glaber; folia lanceolata vel oblongo-lanceolata, 
subcoriacea, valde nervata, in nervis hispido-hirtella; radii ca. 4, 
simplices, cum ovario minutissime puberuli; ovarium anguste 
obconicum; segmenta perianthii aequalia, rubra, sepalis oblongis, 
petalis spathulato-unguiculatis. 

Herbaceous vine; stem slender, subangular, glabrous; petioles 
about 1 cm. long, finely pilosulous; leaves lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, 7-15 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. wide, long-acuminate, rounded 
at the base, subcoriaceous, glabrous above, hispid-hirtellous on the 
nerves beneath, prominently nerved, the nerves about 0.5 mm. 
apart, the cross veins numerous and also prominent; bracts mem- 
branous, reflexed, reddish, the outer 1 cm. long, the inner half as 
long; umbel simple, about 4-rayed, the rays slender, 3.5-4 cm. long; 
ovary narrowly obconic, tapering at the base, about 3 times as long 
as broad, the ovary and rays very minutely puberulent; perianth 
segments red, subequal, about 2 cm. long, the sepals oblong, 5-7 
mm. wide, the petals spatulate-unguiculate, the blade about 4 mm. 
wide, much shorter than the claw, unspotted; stamens 1-1.2 cm. long. 

Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, No. 1,457,816, collected 
at Zepelacio, near Moyobamba, Department of San Martin, Peru, in 
forest at 1,600 meters altitude, December, 1933, by G. Klug (No. 
3410). Duplicates widely distributed. 

This species is related to B. rosea and B. anceps, differing from 
these, and, indeed, from all other species of Eubomarea section Multi- 
florae, by the elongate ovary, which is similar to that of B. dolicho- 
carpa, of a different section. 

24. Bomarea rosea (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 118. 1837. Al- 
stroemeria rosea R. & P. Fl. 3: 61. 1802. Alstroemeria fimbriata R. & 
P. op. cit. pi. 293, f. a. B. fimbriata Herb. Amaryl. 116. 1837. 

A vine; stem terete, glabrous; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 6-10 cm. 
long, 1.5-2.5 cm. wide, acuminate, glabrous above, densely and 
minutely rufo-puberulous beneath; bracts numerous, reflexed, 
unequal, linear or narrowly ovate-lanceolate; umbel 15-25-rayed, 
the rays very slender, often recurved at the apex, 3.5-4 cm. long, 



FLORA OF PERU 649 

glabrous; ovary usually finely rufo-puberulous when young, at 
length glabrous; sepals oblanceolate, 2-2.5 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, 
obtuse, deep red, tipped with dull purple; petals spatulate, as long 
as or slightly longer than the sepals, 9-10 mm. wide, red without 
toward the base, green above and purple-lined at the upper margin, 
green within, with large purple blotches. 

Ancash: Andamayo, Raimondi 1292. Huanuco: Yanano, 2,000 
meters, 3657. Mufia, 2,300 meters, 3981. Junin: Huasahuasi, 
Ruiz & Pavdn (type). 

25. Bomarea anceps (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 116. 1837. 
Alstroemeria anceps R. & P. Fl. 3: 61. 1802. 

A vine, glabrous throughout; leaves lanceolate or the upper 
ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide, acuminate; bracts 
ovate, up to 3.5 cm. long, reflexed; umbel 20-35-rayed, the rays 
slender, 2.5-5 cm. long, simple; ovary black, when dry much darker 
than the perianth; sepals oblanceolate, 2.2-2.5 cm. long, 6-7 mm. 
wide, obtuse, rich pink, (deep purple, Ruiz & Pavdn) ; petals spatu- 
late, subequal to or slightly longer than the sepals, 8-9 mm. wide, 
yellow in the lower half, green in the upper, purple-striped toward 
the upper margin. 

Junin: Type collected by Ruiz and Pavon at Huasahuasi. Hua- 
capistana 2,400 meters, Killip & Smith 24500. Carpapata, above 
Huacapistana, Killip & Smith 24370. 

26. Bomarea aurantiaca Herb. Amaryl. 399. pi. 46, /. 2. 
1837. B. Madeanica Herb. Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 66. 1842. B. Weber- 
baueriana Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 233. 1908. 

A coarse vine; stem densely hirsute with spreading, moniliform, 
brownish hairs; leaves lanceolate-ovate, 6-15 cm. long, 2.5-5 cm. 
wide, abruptly acuminate, glabrous, streaked with reddish brown 
above, densely hirsute-tomentose beneath with brownish, crispate 
hairs; umbel 12-20-rayed, the rays stout, 4-5 cm. long, densely 
rufo-hirsutulous, viscid; bractlets wanting or soon deciduous; sepals 
broadly oblanceolate, 2.5-4 cm. long, 1-1.3 cm. wide, orange; petals 
spatulate, subequal to the sepals, about 1.5 cm. wide, orange. 

Department uncertain: Panahuanca, Mathews 1160 (type). 
Ayacucho: Putis, Choimacota Valley, Province of Huanta, 3,400 
meters, Weberbauer 7528. Cuzco: Sandia, 2,900 meters, Weber- 
bauer 669 (type of B. Weberbaueriana}. 

This showy Bomarea is fairly common in Bolivia, but is known in 
Peru only from the type locality and from the eastern Andes adjacent 



650 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

to Bolivia. The type of B. Macleanica was collected by J. Maclean, 
at Vitoc, Peru. 

27. Bomarea filicaulis Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 228. 1908. 

A decumbent herb, the stem filiform, glabrous; leaves distant, 
oblong-lanceolate, 1-3 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, subcoriaceous, 
glabrous above, pilose beneath; flowers solitary, the peduncles 
scarcely 1 cm. long, pilose; ovary turbinate, pilose; sepals obovate- 
oblong, 1.8-2 cm. long, 4 mm. wide, red; petals spatulate-unguicu- 
late, subequal to the sepals, up to 5 mm. wide, yellow, green toward 
the apex. 

Huanuco: Monzon, 3,300-3,500 meters, Weberbauer 3384 (type). 

28. Bomarea sclerophylla Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. 112: 
6. 1913. 

A slender, tortuous vine; stem pilosulous with dark hairs at the 
nodes, otherwise glabrous; leaves numerous, linear-oblong, 1.5^1 
cm. long, 0.5-1 cm. wide, acute or subobtuse, subrevolute, thick- 
coriaceous, glabrous above, puberulous between the nerves be- 
neath and short-pilose on the nerves; bracts narrowly lanceolate, 
deciduous; umbels 10-15-rayed, the rays up to 2 cm. long, viscid- 
villosulous; sepals obovate-oblong, 1-1.5 cm. long, red; petals 
broadly spatulate, subequal to the sepals, puberulous toward the 
base, red. 

Huanuco: Monzon, Province of Huamalies, 3,400 meters, Weber- 
bauer 3352 (type). Mufia, 2,500 meters, 4307. Playapampa, 2,800 
meters, 4479. 

This may prove to be merely a robust form of the preceding, with 
the single flower developed into an umbel. 

29. Bomarea macranthera Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 230. 1908. 
A vine; stem glabrous, leafy; leaves lanceolate, 5-6 cm. long, 

6-8 mm. wide, sharply acuminate, glabrous above, pilose beneath; 
bracts linear, subpersistent; umbel simple, about 5-rayed, the rays 
1.5-2 cm. long, densely fuscous-pilose like the ovary; sepals ligulate, 
up to 1.5 cm. long, 4 mm. wide, red; petals spatulate-unguiculate, 
subequal to the sepals, 6-7 mm. wide, orange, red at the apex; 
filaments short, about 4 mm. long; anthers about 5 mm. long. 
Junin: Huacapistana, 3,000 meters, Weberbauer 2201 (type). 

30. Bomarea cernua Griseb. ex Baker, Amaryl. 149. 1888. 

A vine, the stem slender, finely pilosulous; leaves lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, 4-7 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, glabrous above, 



FLORA OF PERU 651 

pilosulous and glaucous beneath, membranous; bracts 3-5, similar 
to the leaves; umbel 3-6-rayed, the rays 2-4 cm. long, recurved, 
densely viscous-tomentellous, ebracteolate; ovary viscous- tomentu- 
lose; sepals oblanceolate-spatulate, about 2.5 cm. long, 4-5 mm. 
wide, red proximally, green distally; petals spatulate, 4-6 mm. wide, 
greenish yellow, sparingly dotted with dark red within, the mid- 
nerve red without. 

Huanuco: Playapampa, 2,500 meters, 4477. Cuzco: Sachapata, 
Lechler 2597 (type). 

31. Bomarea purpurea (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 118. 1837. 
Alstroemeria purpurea R. & P. Fl. 3: 63. pi. 294, f. a. 1802. B. 
glomerata var. longifolia M. Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 4: 271. 1847. 
B. endotrachys Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 234. 1908. 

A vine; stem glabrous or usually rufo-tomentulose; leaves lanceo- 
late, 5-12 cm. long, 1-4 cm. wide, long-acuminate, usually drying 
blackish above and pale beneath, the nerves strongly flattened 
beneath, glabrous, or hirtellous or scariose at the side; inflorescence 
with 25 or more flowers, the axis at length elongate, the pedicels and 
ovaries densely viscous- tomentose; perianth segments subequal, all 
deep red, the sepals narrowly oblanceolate, the petals cuneate- 
unguiculate. 

Locality uncertain, Mathews 1662, in part (type of B. glomerata 
var. longifolia). Amazonas: Between Tambo Almirante and Baga- 
zan, 2,700 meters, Weberbauer 4431 (type of B. endotrachys). Moyo- 
bamba, Stuebel 25e. Huanuco: Pillao, Ruiz & Pavdn (type). Tambo 
de Vaca, 3,700 meters, 4443. Yanano, 1,800 meters 3665. Also in 
Colombia and Ecuador. 

32. Bomarea setacea (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 117. 1837. 
Alstroemeria setacea R. & P. Fl. 3: 62. pi. 292, f. b. 1802. B. glomerata 
Herb. op. cit. 115. pi. 15, f. 1. B. tomentosa var. pangoensis Herb, 
op. cit. 118. 

A vine; stem subterete, sparingly villosulous, at length glabrous; 
leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 4-8 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, 
acute, rounded at the base, closely nerved, coriaceous, glabrous 
above, short-pubescent on the nerves beneath; bracts linear-lanceo- 
late to setaceous, up to 2 mm. wide, reflexed or suberect, deciduous; 
umbel 15-40-rayed, the rays slender, up to 2.5 cm. long, densely 
viscous-tomentose, bearing near the middle a single setaceous, 
eventually deciduous bractlet about 5 mm. long; flowers 1-1.5 cm. 
long, the sepals and petals subequal; sepals linear-oblong, 3-4 mm. 



652 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

wide, red or yellowish red; petals spatulate, 4-5 mm. wide, red, 
shading yellowish toward the margin. 

Department uncertain: Mathews 1662, in part (type of B. glom- 
erata); Lobb 27, 256; Dombey 164. "Prov. de Carabaya," Weddell 
4686, 9897. Cajamarca, Huancabamba, Weberbauer 6106. 
Huanuco: Pillao, Ruiz & Pawn (type). Rio Chinchao, 1,800 meters, 
5169. Panao, 3,100 meters, 2216. Huanuco, Weberbauer 3352. 
Monzon, Weberbauer 3380. Posuso, Raimondi 10369. Pampayacu, 
Sawada P39; Kanehira 105. Junin: Pangoa, Mathews 1162, in 
part (type of B. tomentosa var. pangoensis). Curupallana, Ruiz & 
Pavdn. Cuzco: Cerro de Cusilluyoc, 2,800 meters, Pennell 14102. 
Paucartambo Valley, Herrera 3336. Puno: Sandia, Weberbauer 
1099, 1335. Also in southern Ecuador. 

33. Bomarea densiflora Herb. Amaryl. 399. pi. 46, f. 4- 1837. 
(?) Bomarea tomentosa var. ebracteata Herb. op. cit. 118. 

A vine; stem pubescent toward the apex, otherwise glabrous, 
stout; leaves sparse, ovate, 8-10 cm. long, 3-5 cm. wide, rufo- 
tomentose beneath, the nerves elevated beneath; inflorescence at 
length subracemose, the pedicels 20 or more, 2.5-3 cm. long, densely 
tomentulose, bearing a subulate bractlet near the base; perianth 
segments subequal, 2-2.5 cm. long, deep red, the sepals oblanceolate, 
the petals spatulate. 

Department uncertain: Mathews 1666 (type of B. tomentosa var. 
ebracteata, doubtfully referred here as the leaves are proportionately 
much narrower). Amazonas: Chachapoyas, Mathews 1667 (type). 
Also in Ecuador. 

34. Bomarea denticulata (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 118. 1837. 
Alstroemeria denticulata R. & P. Fl. 3: 62. pi. 293, f. b. 1802. 

A vine; stem fulvo-tomentose toward the apex, otherwise gla- 
brous; leaves ovate, 5-9 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide, entire, crispate- 
pilose with hyaline hairs on the elevated nerves beneath; inflorescence 
at length subracemose, the pedicels 10-15, up to 5 cm. long, rufo- 
tomentose, bracteolate near the base; perianth segments subequal, 
2-2.5 cm. long, deep rich red, the sepals oblanceolate, the petals 
oblanceolate-spatulate. 

Department uncertain: Patasaria, Ruiz & Pavdn (type). 
Huanuco: Vilcabamba, Rio Chinchao, 2,800 meters, 4965. 

In the type specimen the margin of the leaves is slightly callous- 
thickened and subrevolute. In drying, the "overflow" has pro- 
jected beyond the rest of the margin so that, when viewed from above, 



FLORA OF PERU 653 

the leaves have a denticulate appearance. A similar condition in a 
specimen of Lehmann's from Colombia has given rise to an article 
on the identity of Bomarea denticulata by Kranzlin. 

35. Bomarea caudata Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 22: 
59. 1932. 

A vine; stem subangular, tortuous, glabrous; leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, 7-10 cm. long, 2.5-3.5 cm. wide, subabruptly acuminate, 
rounded at the base, glabrous above, sparingly hirsute with long 
crispate hairs on the principal nerves beneath, the nerves about 1 
mm. apart, unequally prominent; bracts lanceolate, 1.5 cm. long, 
6 mm. wide, the inner setaceous; umbel 18-rayed, the rays 2.5-3 cm. 
long, densely rufo-tomentose, ebracteolate; sepals oblanceolate, 
about 2 cm. long, 7-8 mm. wide, blood-red, dorsally corniculate 
near the apex, the horn slender, 5-6 mm. long; petals spatulate, 
subequal to the sepals, 5-6 mm. wide, green, brown-spotted. 

Ayacucho: Choimacota Valley, Province of Huanta, 2,800 
meters, Weberbauer 7559 (type). 

36. Bomarea crinita Herb. Amaryl. 119. pi. 15, f. 4. 1837. 

A vine; stem terete, finely and softly tomentellous; leaves lanceo- 
late, 7-11 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. wide, subacute at the base, closely 
nerved with the cross veins prominent, glabrous above, glaucous 
and sparingly pubescent beneath, rigid ; bracts similar to the leaves, 
about 6 cm. long, subreflexed; umbel 6-10-rayed, the rays 10-15 
cm. long, densely pubescent, ebracteolate; sepals lanceolate-spatu- 
late, 4-5 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, red, orange at the margin; petals 
oblanceolate-spatulate, slightly longer than the sepals, 10-14 mm. 
wide, narrowed at the apex, red, orange at margin. 

"Andes of Peru," Mathews 1664 (type). Amazonas: East of 
Chachapoyas, Weberbauer 4422. 

37. Bomarea loreti Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. Ill: 4. 1913. 
A vine; stem angulate, glabrous; petioles about 1 cm. long; leaves 

ovate-lanceolate, up to 12 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. wide, acuminate, 
glabrous above, minutely scaberulous beneath, the nerves 1 mm. 
apart; bracts numerous, lanceolate, about 1.5 cm. long, reflexed; 
umbel 20-25-rayed, the rays 2.5 cm. long, pilosulous; ovary densely 
pilose; sepals oblanceolate, 3.3-3.5 cm. long, narrowed at the apex, 
pilosulous without; petals cuneate-spatulate, slightly longer than 
the sepals, about 1 cm. wide, rounded or subtruncate and crenulate 
at the apex. 

Loreto: Cerro de Ponasa, 1,300 meters, Ule 46 (type). 



654 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

38. Bomarea formosissima (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 111. pi. 
14, f. 4. 1837. Alstroemeria formosissima R. & P. Fl. 3: 64. pi. 
296. 1802. 

A vine; stem stout, glabrous; leaves broadly lanceolate, 10-25 
cm. long, 3.5-6 cm. wide, acuminate, abruptly tapering at the base 
to a winged petiole, glabrous; bracts lanceolate, up to 3 cm. long, 
the inner linear-lanceolate; umbel up to 80-rayed, the rays 3-5 cm. 
long, densely rufo-tomentose, ebracteolate; sepals oblanceolate, 
3-4 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, obtuse or slightly narrowed at the 
apex, rufo-puberulous, red, purplish red at the apex; petals spatulate, 
equal to or slightly longer than the sepals, 1.5-2 cm. wide, yellow, 
densely spotted. 

Peru(?): Locality uncertain, Lobb 258. Huanuco: Muna, Ruiz 
& Pavdn (type); 4313; Pearce 214- Ayacucho: Province of Huanta, 
Weberbauer 5655. 

Ruiz and Pavon give the local name of this as "sumac-huaita," 
meaning a most showy flower. This is one of the most gorgeous of 
Peruvian Bomareas. 

39. Bomarea superba Herb. Amaryl. 117. pi. 6 J.I. 1837. 

A vine with a stout, angular, glabrous stem; leaves lanceolate, 
up to 12 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, rigid, glabrous, closely nerved; 
bracts numerous, crowded, reflexed, lanceolate, up to 6 cm. long and 
1.5 cm. wide; umbel about 12-rayed, the rays up to 4 cm. long, 
ebracteolate, rufo-tomentulose; ovary short- turbinate, rufo-tomen- 
tulose; sepals oblanceolate, 3-3.5 cm. long, 8-9 mm. wide, red; 
petals broadly spatulate, subequal to the sepals, about 1 cm. wide, 
orange (?), not spotted. 

Locality uncertain: Mathews 1663 (type). 

40. Bomarea sanguinea Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. 112: 
6. 1913. (?). subglobosa Herb. Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 66. 1842. (?). 
fimbriata var. paltarumensis Herb. Amaryl. 116. 1837. 

A vine with a stout, glabrous, angular or subterete stem climbing 
to 6 meters or more; leaves lanceolate, up to 20 cm. long and 2.5 cm. 
wide, long-acuminate, tapering at the base to a narrowly winged 
petiole, closely nerved, glabrous; bracts dissimilar, the outer lanceo- 
late, about 4 cm. long, reflexed, persistent, the inner linear, erect, 
deciduous; umbel up to 35-rayed, the rays 2-4 cm. long, ebracteolate, 
densely viscid-torn entulose; ovary turbinate, pubescent as the rays; 
sepals obovate-oblong, averaging 3.5 cm. long, 8-9 mm. wide, 



FLORA OF PERU 655 

reddish yellow to "ox-blood red"; petals spatulate, averaging 4 cm. 
long, 1.5-2 cm. wide at the apex, minutely crenulate at the upper 
margin, yellow, shading to dull red at the margin, spotted with 
dark red. 

Department uncertain: Agapata, Lechler 2141- Huanuco: Mito 
2,800 meters, 1666. Huanuco, 3,200 meters, 2123. Cuzco: Weddett, 
4766. Urubamba, 3,400 meters, Weberbauer 4918 (type); Herrera 
805. Machupicchu, 2,100 meters, Cook & Gilbert 845. Lucumayo 
Valley, Cook & Gilbert 1313. Lares Valley, 2,900 meters, Herrera 
827. Also in western Bolivia. 

This species has been confused with both B. superba and B. 
formosissima. It is known as "pachanca" in Huanuco and "sullo- 
sullo" in Cuzco. 

41. Bomarea nematocaulon Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
22: 60. 1932. 

A vine; stem slender, wiry, subterete, glabrous, glandular- 
puberulent at the tip, leafy throughout; leaves narrowly oblong or 
lanceolate-oblong, 1.5-3.5 cm. long, 0.4-1 cm. wide, subacute and 
callous-thickened at the apex, rounded or rarely subacute at the 
base, slightly revolute, coriaceous, glabrous and sublustrous above, 
strigillose with crispate hyaline hairs on the nerves beneath; bracts 
3-4, similar to the leaves; umbel 2-3-rayed, the rays up to 4 cm. 
long, glandular-puberulent, once or twice forked, bearing at the 
forks a single linear-lanceolate bractlet 5-8 mm. long; ovary glandu- 
lar-puberulent; sepals oblanceolate, 10 mm. long, 5 mm. wide, 
yellowish red; petals unguiculate, equal to the sepals, 4 mm. wide at 
the widest point, yellow, purple-blotched distally. 

Huanuco: Playapampa, 2,800 meters, 4870 (type). 

This species is obviously related to B. Salsilla, a common plant 
of Chile. The small, thick leaves and the small flowers suggest B. 
sclerophylla, which has a simple umbel and glabrous leaves. 

42. Bomarea angustissima Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
22: 60. 1932. 

A vine; stem subterete, glabrous; leaves linear, 8-10 cm. long, 
3-5 mm. wide, caudate-acuminate and twisted at the apex, subsessile, 
strongly revolute, glabrous above, finely pilosulous on the nerves 
beneath; bracts similar to the leaves, up to 1.5 cm. long; umbel 
3-rayed, the rays 12-15 cm. long, arcuate-ascending, glabrous, once 
or twice forked, bracteolate at the forks, the bractlets linear-lanceo- 
late, 5-10 mm. long; ovary glabrous; sepals oblanceolate, about 1.8 



656 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

cm. long, 7-8 mm. wide, proximally deep red, distally green; petals 
unguiculate, as long as the sepals, about 1 cm. wide at the apex, 
green, purple-blotched within. 

Huanuco: Tambo de Vaca, 4,000 meters, 4409 (type). 

43. Bomarea Engleriana Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 231. 1908. 

A vine; leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate, 3-3.5 cm. long, 2-3 
mm. wide, acute, revolute, coriaceous, glabrous above, villous 
beneath; bracts oblong and lanceolate, up to 4 cm. long and 1 cm. 
wide; umbel 4-6-rayed, the rays filiform, up to 6 cm. long, glabrous, 
once furcate, bearing at the fork a single oblong-lanceolate bractlet 
similar to and slightly smaller than the bracts; sepals obovate- 
oblong, about 2 cm. long, apiculate; petals oblong-spatulate, slightly 
shorter than the sepals, 1-1.2 cm. wide. 

Huanuco: Monzon, Province of Huamalies, 3,500-3,700 meters, 
Weberbauer 3307 (type). 

44. Bomarea praeusta Kranzl. Ann. Nat. Hofm. Wien 27: 
155. 1913. Collania nutans Herb, in Baker, Amaryl. 147. 1888, 
as synonym. 

A vine; stem wiry, very leafy, sparsely pilosulous toward the 
apex, otherwise glabrous; leaves narrowly linear, 2.5-5 cm. long, 
2.5-3.5 mm. wide, sessile, revolute or subrevolute, glabrous; umbel 
rays 2-10, 2-3-forked, 4-5 cm. long including the forks, divaricate 
and strongly curved, glabrous, the bractlets linear-lanceolate, 
broader than the leaves; ovary partly superior; perianth segments 
subequal, 2-2.5 cm. long, the sepals linear-lanceolate, red, the petals 
spatulate-unguiculate, apparently yellow, deep purple at the upper 
margin; anthers often exserted. 

Locality uncertain : Lobb (type; from Peru?); Maclean; Mathews; 
Raimondi 8584. Arequipa : Stafford 370. 

This species and the following connect the subgenera Wichaurea 
and Eubomarea, having the floral characters of the former but the 
strongly voluble stems of the latter. 

45. Bomarea parvifolia Baker, Amaryl. 154. 1888. 

A vine; stem stout, tomentose; leaves linear, 2.5-4 cm. long, 4-5 
mm. wide, sessile, glabrous; bracts similar to the leaves, numerous; 
umbel 10-12-rayed, the rays ascending, 9-10 cm. long, stout, once 
or usually twice furcate, bracteolate at the forks, the bractlets linear- 
lanceolate, subequal to the bracts; perianth segments bright pink, 



FLORA OF PERU 657 

subequal, about 3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the petals only slightly 
broader than the sepals, dark purple at the tip. 
Huantanga, Maclean (type). 

46. Bomarea campylophylla Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
25: 374. 1935. 

A vine; stem glabrous; leaves linear-lanceolate or narrowly 
oblong-lanceolate, 6-12 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, subfalcate, rounded 
at the base, strongly and closely nerved, glabrous, concolorous; 
bracts similar to the leaves, 7-10 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide; umbel 
5-6-rayed, the rays 10-15 cm. long, divaricate or arcuate-ascending, 
rufo-puberulent and viscid at the apex, otherwise glabrous, forked 
near the apex, 2-flowered, bracteolate at the fork and sometimes 
just below the fork, the lower bractlets similar to the bracts, 4-5 
cm. long; ovary rufo-tomentose; sepals oblong, about 1.5 cm. long, 
7-8 mm. wide, red and rufo-puberulent without, yellow within, 
green at the apex; petals spatulate, slightly shorter and narrower 
than the sepals, yellow and purple-maculate proximally, green 
distally. 

Huanuco: Vilcabamba, Rio Chinchao, 1,800 meters, 4961 (type). 

47. Bomarea cornuta Herb. Amaryl. 114. pi. 17, f. 4. 1837. 
B. edulis var. cornuta Baker, Amaryl. 154. 1888. 

A vine; stem glabrous; leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, up 
to 15 cm. long and 3.5 cm. wide, tapering to a long, slender apex, 
rounded at the base, membranous, glabrous above, strigillose on the 
nerves beneath with spreading, curved hairs; bracts lanceolate, up 
to 2 cm. long, deciduous; umbel 3-5-rayed, the rays 15-25 cm. long, 
glabrous or sparingly rufo-pilosulous at the ends, 3-4 times furcate, 
bracteolate at the forks, the bractlets up to 1 cm. long; sepals about 
2 cm. long, red, green-tipped, puberulent without, horned dorsally 
just below the apex, the horn 5-7 mm. long; petals spatulate, about 
as long as the sepals, 7-8 mm. wide. 

Huanuco: Huacachi, near Mufia, 2,100 meters, 4112. Between 
Huanuco and Pampayacu, 2,800 meters, Kanehira 252, 285. 
Department uncertain: Mount Parahuanca, Mathews 1161 (type). 

48. Bomarea ayavacensis Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 
2. 1916. 

A vine, glabrous throughout; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 6-9 cm. 
long, 2-2.5 cm. wide, acuminate, membranous, glaucescent beneath; 
bracts broadly oblong, about 4 cm. long; umbel 3-rayed, the rays up 



658 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

to 12 cm. long, furcate near the middle and bearing at the fork a 
large, suborbicular, convolute bractlet about 3 cm. long and broad; 
sepals oblong, about 2.5 cm. long, 8-10 mm. wide, rose, green dis- 
tally; petals spatulate-obovate, as long as or slightly shorter than 
the sepals, pale green, spotted with brown. 

Piura: Above Ayavaca, 2,900 meters, Weberbauer 6373 (type). 

49. Bomarea tarmensis Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 233. 1908. 

Plant subscandent, the stem straighter than in most species of 
this relationship, finely and sparsely or densely pilosulous; leaves 
lanceolate, up to 20 cm. long and 2 cm. wide, thin-membranous, 
glabrous and bright green above, very short-pilosulous or sub- 
puberulent and glaucous beneath, the leaves reduced toward the 
apex; bracts oblong-lanceolate, up to 3 cm. long, soon deciduous; 
umbel densely flowered, the rays 2-3 cm. long, cano-pilosulous, the 
primary rays 12-18, usually once furcate, bearing a lanceolate 
bractlet 5-7 mm. long; sepals 1.5-2 cm. long, 8-10 mm. wide, con- 
cave, orange-yellow; petals unguiculate, about as long as the sepals, 
4-6 mm. wide, orange-yellow, green-tinged and dotted with red or 
purple near the apex. 

Huanuco: Cueva Grande near Posuso, 1,100 meters, 4780. 
Junin: La Merced, 700-1,000 meters, Weberbauer 1846 (type). 
Ayacucho: Kimpitiriki, Apurimac Valley, 400 meters, Killip & 
Smith 22858, 22936, 22992. 

50. Bomarea amoena (Herb.) M. Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. 
4: 274. 1847. B. purpurea var. amoena Herb. Amaryl. 399. pi. 46, 
/. 5. 1837. B. purpurea var. guancana Herb. op. cit. 399. 

A vine; stem glabrous; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 8-15 cm. long, 
1.5-3 cm. wide, pale and crispate-pilose beneath; umbel rays 20-30, 
4-8 cm. long, divaricate, rufo-pilosulous, simple or forked, the 
bractlets up to 5 mm. long; ovary rufo-pilosulous; perianth segments 
subequal, 2-2.5 cm. long, the sepals oblanceolate, red, the petals 
cuneate-unguiculate, yellowish, green-tinged toward the apex. 

Department uncertain: Gay 992. Guancas, Mathews 1665 (type 
of B. purpurea var. guancana). Amazonas: Chachapoyas, Mathews 
(type). 

51. Bomarea ovata (Cav.) Mirb. Hist. Nat. PI. 9: 72. 1804. 
Alstroemeria ovata Cav. Icon. PI. 1: 54. pi. 76. 1791. (?) A. tomentosa 
R. & P. Fl. 3: 62. pi. 292, f. a. 1802. A. macrocarpa R. & P. op. cit. 
63. pi. 294, f. b. B. ovata var. Cavanillesiana Herb. Amaryl. 113. 



FLORA OF PERU 659 

1837. B. macrocarpa Herb. op. cit. 114. (?) B. tomentosa Herb. op. cit. 
117. B. simplex Herb. op. cit. 119. pi. 15, f. 5. B. punctata Herb. 
Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 66. 1842. B. variabilis Herb. loc. cit. B. varia- 
bilis var. simplex Herb. op. cit. 67. B. edulis var. ovata Baker, 
Amaryl. 154. 1888. B. tribrachiata Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 235. 1908. 

A suberect, trailing, or subscandent, tuber-bearing herb; stem 
slender, glabrous; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, up to 12 cm. 
long and 4 cm. wide, averaging about 5 cm. by 2.5 cm., gradually or 
abruptly acuminate, membranous, glabrous above, sparsely crispate- 
strigillose on the nerves beneath; bracts similar to the leaves, usually 
much reduced, deciduous; umbel rays 2-7, simple or once furcate, 
bearing at the forks small, deciduous bractlets up to 5 mm. long; 
ovary sparingly puberulent, at length glabrous; sepals oblong or 
ovate-oblong, 2-3 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, pink or reddish, green- 
tipped; petals subequal to the sepals, rarely slightly longer, usually 
narrower, green, purple-dotted; fruit about 1.5 cm. in diameter. 

Department uncertain : Type, from a cultivated plant at Madrid, 
said to have been of Peruvian origin. Dombey 172; Martinet 207, 
494; Gay 2018; Mathews (type of B. punctata). "Southern Peru," 
Weddell. Puruchuco, Mathews 483, 786 (type of B. simplex and B. 
variabilis). Cajamarca: Huambos, Weberbauer 4197. Ancash: 
Between Tallenga and Piscapacha, 3,600-3,800 meters, Weberbauer 
2884 (type of B. tribrachiata). Ocros, Weberbauer 2734. Caraz, 
Weberbauer 3141- Huanuco: Pillao, Ruiz & Pav6n (type of B. 
macrocarpa): Yanahuanca, 3,300 meters, 1172, 1217. Mito, 2,800 
meters, 2957. Lima: Matucana, 2,500 meters, 352, 364. San 
Geronimo, 150 meters, 5917. Huarachiri, Hrdlicka. Junin: Hua- 
riaca, 2,900 meters, 31 05. La Oroya, Kalenborn 67. Huacapistana, 
Weberbauer 1767. Moquehua: Carumas, Weberbauer 7308. Cuzco: 
Cuzco, Pentland; Hen era 40a, 451, 1018; Stafford 251. Santa Ana 
Valley, Herrera 952. Sacsahuaman, Hefrera 855, 2727, 3085. Lares 
Valley, 1,500 meters, Herrera 1009. Urubamba Valley, Herrera 
1380, 1462. Ollantaitambo, 3,000 meters, Cook & Gilbert 279. 

A local name for this is "ulubaya." The sweet tubers borne on 
the roots are eaten. 

This is one of the earliest described species of the present genus 
Bomarea and to it have been referred specimens of great variation 
and of a wide geographical range. Recent studies, however, indicate 
that it is confined to Peru and the adjacent parts of Bolivia. Most 
of the specimens cited above appear to come from suberect or 
decumbent plants; certainly there is little indication that they are 



660 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

high-climbing vines as are most of the true Bomareas. The quickly 
dehiscent capsule, however, shows that the relationship is with the 
true Bomareas rather than B. distichophylla and its allies in the 
subgenus Sphaerine. These specimens show little variation in leaf 
shape, and all have a characteristic indument of long, strigillose hairs 
on the under side of the nerves. The umbel rays are forked or simple, 
the latter condition having led Herbert to propose the species 
B. simplex. 

52. Bomarea cordifolia (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 113, 1837. 
Alstroemeria cordifolia R. & P. Fl. 3: 64. pi. 290, f. b. 1802. 

A vine; stem stout, glabrous; leaves orbicular-cordate, 10-12 
cm. long, 7-8 cm. wide, sparingly strigillose on the nerves beneath; 
umbel 5-6-rayed, the rays 12-14 cm. long, sparingly pubescent, 2-3 
times forked; ovary viscous- tomentose; perianth segments subequal, 
about 2.5 cm. long; sepals oblong, 5-6 mm. wide, red, the petals 
spatulate, yellowish red, not spotted. 

Huanuco: Posuso, Ruiz & Pavon (type). 

53. Bomarea latifolia (R. & P.) Herb. Amaryl. 113. 1837. 
Alstroemeria latifolia R. & P. Fl. 3 : 64. pi. 295. 1802. (?) A. grandifolia 
HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 285. 1816. (?) B. grandifolia Herb. Amaryl. 
113. 1837. 

Stem stout, glabrous; leaves broadly oblong-ovate, 10-12 cm. 
long, 5-6.5 cm. wide, strongly nerved, subglabrous or sparingly 
strigillose on the veins beneath; bracts ovate-lanceolate, 5-7 cm. 
long; umbel 7-14-rayed, the rays 4-6 cm. long, once or twice forked, 
glabrous, the bractlets linear, about 1 cm. long; perianth segments 
subequal, 3.5-4 cm. long, the sepals 8-10 mm. wide, red, green at 
the apex, the petals spatulate, about 1.2 cm. wide, green, densely 
punctate. 

Arequipa: Atiquipa, Ruiz & Pavon (type). 

54. Bomarea Hookeriana Herb. Amaryl. 398. pi. 46, f. 3. 1837. 

A vine, the stem stout; leaves oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceo- 
late, 12-20 cm. long, 2.5-4.5 cm. wide, glaucous and strigillose with 
long, crispate hairs on the nerves beneath ; bracts linear or setaceous, 
deciduous; umbel compactly flowered, the rays 4-7 cm. long, pilosu- 
lous, once furcate, bearing a filiform bractlet at the fork; sepals 
oblong, 2-2.5 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, red; petals subequal to the 
sepals, 6-7 mm. wide, deep orange (?). 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas, Mathews (type). Junin: La Merced, 
700 meters, Killip & Smith 23502. 



FLORA OF PERU 661 

55. Bomarea dolichocarpa Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
22: 62. 1932. 

A vine; stem glabrous; leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
10-15 cm, long, 1.5-3.5 cm. wide, glabrous, or finely pilose on the 
nerves beneath; bracts similar to the leaves but smaller; umbel 
compound, the rays divaricate, up to 25 cm. long, glabrous or finely 
pilosulous, the primary ones 3-6, 3-4 times furcate, bracteolate at 
the forks with linear-lanceolate bractlets, the lowest up to 2 cm. 
long; ovary narrowly obprismatic, more than twice as long as broad, 
attenuate at the base, glabrous or finely rufo-puberulent; sepals 
oblong, 2-3 cm. long, 6-9 mm. wide, pink proximally, green distally; 
petals spatulate-unguiculate, as long as or slightly shorter than the 
sepals, 6-7 mm. wide, colored like the sepals and densely purple- 
spotted toward the apex. 

Department uncertain: Maclean. Huanuco: Casapi, Poeppig 
D.1633 San Martin: San Roque, 1,500 meters, Williams 7022, 
7326, 7679, 7771. Pongo de Cainarachi, King 2724. Zepelacio, 
Klug 3546. Rio Huallaga, Spruce 4590. Loreto: Puerto Arturo, 
near Yurimaguas, 200 meters, Williams 5290. Mouth of Rio Ucayali, 
Tessmann 3102, 3502. Junin: Puerto Yessup, 400 meters, Killip 
& Smith 26306 (type). 

56. Bomarea speciosa Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 22: 
61. 1932. 

A vine; stem stout, glabrous; leaves broadly lanceolate, 15-20 
cm. long, 4.5-5 cm. wide, cuspidate-acuminate, rounded at the base, 
membranous, glabrous; umbel compound, the primary rays 10-12, 
about 15 cm. long, stout, rufo-pilosulous, viscid, once or (rarely) 
twice furcate, bearing at the forks a narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 
rufo-puberulent bractlet up to 3 cm. long and 8 mm. wide, the 
secondary rays up to 6 cm. long; sepals oblanceolate, 4-5 cm. long, 
8-10 mm. wide, pink, finely puberulent without; petals spatulate, 
subequal to the sepals, 12-15 mm. wide, the outside white prox- 
imally, green distally, pink-ribbed, the inside white, green at the 
margin, blotched and dotted with purple throughout. 

Huanuco: Yanano, 1,800 meters, 371 1 (type). Between Huanuco 
and Pampayacu, Kanehira 295. 

57. Bomarea lyncina Herb. Amaryl. 398. pi. 46, f. 2. 1837. 
(?)B. sulphurea Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 236. 1908. 

A vine; stem glabrous; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, up 
to 20 cm. long and 7 cm. wide, long-acuminate, glabrous; bracts 



662 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

numerous, persistent, oblong, up to 2 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, thick, 
tomentulous; umbel compound, the rays 8-12, tomentulous, 2-4 cm. 
long, once furcate, bearing at the fork an oblong, concave, per- 
sistent bractlet about 1 cm. long; sepals linear-oblong, 2.5-3 cm. long, 
5-7 mm. wide, rose; petals spatulate, 3.5-4 cm. long, twice as wide 
at the apex as the sepals, white, purple-mottled within. 

Department uncertain: Sambrabamba, Mathews 1668 (type). 
Junin: Schunke Hacienda, La Merced, 1,200 meters, 5700. 

Further study of the type of B. sulphured (Weberbauer 4109, from 
the Department of Cajamarca) must be made before the status of 
that species can be fully established. 

58. Bomarea declinata (Poepp. & Endl.) Klotzsch ex Kunth, 
Enum. 5: 802. 1850. Alstroemeria declinata Poepp. & Endl. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 2: 44. pi 160. 1835. B. dispar Herb. Amaryl. 115. 1837. 
B. Ulei Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. Ill: 3. 1913. 

A vine, glabrous throughout; leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceo- 
late, up to 25 cm. long and 10 cm. wide, acuminate, rounded at the 
base; bracts up to 5 mm. long, soon deciduous; umbel compound, the 
rays 5-6, up to 30 cm. long, 1-3 times forked, the bractlets lanceo- 
late, 5-7 mm. long; sepals oblong, about 2.5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 
orange(?); petals spatulate, about 3 cm. long, 8 mm. wide, yellow, 
green toward the apex; fruit subglobose, about 2.5 cm. in diameter, 
bright yellow. 

Peru : Without precise locality, Mathews 1658 (type of B. dispar} . 
San Martin: Tarapoto, 1,200 meters, Ule 6848 (type of B. Ulei). 
Huanuco: Cochero, Poeppig 1586 (type). Junin: Porvenir, Pichis 
Trail, 1,500 meters, Killip & Smith 25942. 

SPECIES DOUBTFULLY OCCURRING IN PERU 

Bomarea Lobbiana Kranzl. Ann. Nat. Hofm. Wien 27: 155. 
1913. This is identical withB. cumbrensis Herb., a common species of 
Ecuador. Doubtless the type, at Vienna, collected by Lobb, was 
wrongly labeled "Peru." 

Bomarea oligantha Baker, Card. Chron. 1877, pt. 2: 648. 1877. 
Based upon a cultivated specimen said to have been of Peruvian 
origin. 

Bomarea sternbergiiflora Kranzl. Ann. Nat. Hofm. Wien 27: 
156. 1913. This is 5. obovata Herb., known only from Ecuador, and 
probably is another instance of a mislabeled Lobb collection. 



FLORA OF PERU 663 

2. ALSTROEMERIA L. 

Roots thick; flowering stems often nearly leafless; flowers slightly 
irregular, one inner segment differing from the others. The species, 
as they have been accepted, are poorly defined and in Peru there are 
probably only three, somewhat variable. A. insignis Anne"e ex Her- 
incq, Hort. Franc. 4: 2. 1854, is unknown. 

Seemingly stemless, the flower sessile in the crowded leaves. 

A. pygmaea. 
Stems well developed. 

Leaf-like inflorescence bracts densely imbricate. .A. recumbens. 
Inflorescence leaves or bracts relatively remote. 
Flowers not uniformly violet or lavender, about 3 cm. long. 
Bracts linear, acuminate, or all reduced to scales. . .A. Ligtu. 
Bracts lanceolate to oblong or spatulate. 
Leaves acute; outer flower segments 2 cm. wide. 

A. pelegrina. 
Leaves obtuse; outer flower segments 1.5 cm. wide. 

A. chorillensis. 
Flowers uniformly violet or lavender, 4 cm. long. . . .A. violacea. 

Alstroemeria chorillensis Herb. Bot. Reg. 29: pi. 58. Misc. 
No. 95. 1843. 

About 3 dm. high, with thin oblong-spatulate leaves 5-8 cm. long 
and 2 cm. wide; flowers 3 cm. long, the outer segments purple or lilac, 
dryng rose-red, obovate, slightly emarginate, the inner narrower, 
flushed with yellow at the middle and dotted. The type, figured as 
A. lineatiflora, was a cultivated specimen grown from roots sent by 
Maclean from Lima. I think most if not all the Peruvian material 
referred to A. pelegrina is rather this species, which, however, seems 
to be doubtfully distinct from the latter Chilean plant. 

Lima: Chosica, 5350 (purple, the 2 lower segments white with 
yellow middle stripe and with brown streaks). Matucana, 419. 
Chorrillos, 5865. 

Alstroemeria Ligtu L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 462. 1762. 

An erect or weak-stemmed plant often several dm. long, with 
rather numerous thin, narrowly lanceolate leaves sometimes 5-7 
cm. long and 6-12 mm. wide, those in the inflorescence reduced to 
linear bracts about 2.5 cm. long; flowers 3 cm. long, lilac or pinkish, 
obliquely purple-streaked, the outer segments obovate-unguiculate, 



664 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

12 mm. wide, obtuse or cuspidate. The Weberbauer plant had rose- 
colored flowers except that the 2 inner segments, only tipped with 
rose, were yellow with brown streaks. Its crowded inflorescence 
and nearly leafless stems suggest that it is rather a form of A. recum- 
bens Herb., to which I should refer it. Illustrated in Bot. Reg. "pi. 3. 

Lima: Chorrillos, Weberbauer 16 (det. Kranzlin). Chile. 

Alstroemeria pelegrina L. Sp. PI. ed. 2: 461. 1762. 

Similar to A. Ligtu, but the leaves broader, and the broader 
perianth segments, especially the outer, oblong-cordate with a large 
cusp. The inflorescence is open. The flowers are apparently variable 
in color. The specific name was written peregrina by Ruiz and Pavon 
and by Weberbauer, 82; 143; 146; 170. Illustrated, Bot. Mag. 4: 
pi. 139. 

Ancash: Samanco to Huaras, Weberbauer 3131 (det. Kranzlin). 
Lima: Raimondi (rose and yellow). Chancai (Ruiz & Pav6ri). 
Huanuco: (Ruiz & Pavdn). Chile. "Peregrina," "azucena de 
Lima." 

Alstroemeria pygmaea Herb. Amaryl. 100, 397. pi. 8. 1837. 

A glaucous, loosely tufted, little plant, its stems several cm. 
long, scarcely produced above the ground, where they bear closely a 
number of linear-lanceolate leaves (about 2 cm. long) that subtend 
the solitary, yellowish white flower. The specific name was first 
spelled "pigmaea." 

Junin: Rio Blanco, 2997. Chicla, toward La Oroya, Weberbauer 
233 (det. Kranzlin); 169. Andes of Pasco (Maihews). Bolivia; 
Patagonia. 

Alstroemeria recumbens Herb. Amaryl. 97. pi. 3. 1837. 

Leaves of the recumbent-ascending flowering stems reduced to 
scales except in the inflorescence where well-developed, and linear to 
oblong-lanceolate; flowers crowded, 3.5 cm. long, bright purple, the 
segments all acuminate, the upper petals crossed with bright yellow 
streaked with purple. Allied by Baker to A. versicolor R. & P. of 
Chile. The species should perhaps include A. chorillensis Herb. 
Weberbauer has described the flowers as "rose," the 3 inner segments 
brown-streaked, 2 of them flushed with gold. The crowded leaves 
are broader than illustrated for the type. 

Lima: Amancaes, Weberbauer 1617 (det. Kranzlin). Without 
locality (Cuming 384, type). Garden of Dr. R. Aspiazu, 2571. 



FLORA OF PERU 665 

Alstroemeria violacea Philippi, Fl. Atacam. 51. 1860. 

Flowering stems several dm. long, clustered, without foliar leaves 
below but with scales about 1.5 cm. long; leaves of the sterile stems 
petioled (petioles to 18 mm. long), eciliate, about 5 cm. long and 2 
cm. wide; umbel about 5-rayed; inner and outer flower segments 
equally long, the former 11 mm. wide, serrulate and long-apiculate 
with some obscure violet lines but no yellow or white, the outer 14 
mm. broad, obovate. Johnston, Contr. Gray Herb. 85: 24. 1929, 
describes this beautiful species with violet or lavender flowers and 
suggests that it merits cultivation. It has the many fleshy roots 
that characterize all the species, and often a number of old stalks 
persisting about the base of the flowering ones. Neg. 10049. 

Arequipa: Mejia, Cachendo, and Pasco (Gunther &Buchtien 343; 
343a; 343b, ace. to Bruns). Northern Chile. 



A. spathulata Presl, Rel. Haenk 1: 122. pi. 22. 1827, is a Chilean 
plant. 

3. HYPOXIS L. 

Reference: Brackett, Rhodora 25: 120-163. 1923. 

The Peruvian species a small, tufted, hairy plant with grass- 
like leaves that overtop the long-peduncled inflorescence of a few 
small, yellow flowers. 

Hypoxis decumbens L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 986. 1759. 

Peduncles filiform, 1-4-flowered, or in var. major Seub. coarser 
and 4-8-flowered; mature seeds black, covered with low rounded 
pebbling. H. humilis HBK., with brown, sharply muricate seeds, 
known from Ecuador and Bolivia, probably grows in Peru. Both 
species illustrated, Brackett, /. 4, 5, 12. 

San Martin: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4682 (det. Kranzlin); 
288. Huanuco: Mito, 2,700 meters, 3314. Widely distributed in 
tropical America. 

4. DISTREPTA Miers 
Tecophilaea Bert, ex Colla, 1836. 

A slender but low plant with a caudate-acuminate leaf longer 
than the 1-3-flowered stalk of blue flowers, these borne openly on 
long pedicels. Corm fibrous-covered. 

Distrepta vaginata Miers, Trav. Chile 2: 529. 1826. Tecophi- 
laea violaeflora Colla, Mem. Accad. Tor. 39: 20. pi 55. 1836. 



666 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Although the range extension is unexpected, the material cited 
seems to be exactly the same as Chilean specimens. 

Lima: San Agustin, 400 meters, Weberbauer 5230, 5225 (det. 
Kranzlin). Chile. 

5. AGAVE L. 

The well-known agave or "maguey" is frequently planted on 
stone walls or in hedges. Apparently only one species is concerned, 
referred by Weberbauer 83, 161, 176, 297, 299 (following Ruiz and 
Pavon), to A. americana L., but a single collection at Berlin-Dahlem, 
Weberbauer 2378 from Tarma, is labeled by Trelease "true A. lurida 
Ait." Although, as observed by Weberbauer, it is apparently wild 
in some places, it is doubtful if it is truly indigenous. Native names 
are "pacpa," "cocui" (Spruce), "pita," and "azul champahra." In 
Peru as elsewhere it is an important source of fiber. Herrera has noted 
that the terms "cceshuapacpa" or "occe-pacpa" apply when it is 
grown as a fence to protect chacras, and "orcco-pacpa" applies to 
single examples. "Pita," "cabuya," and "cordel" refer to the fiber. 

6. FOURCROYA Vent. 

Coarse plants similar in habit to Agave, but the flowers whitish 
and wheel-shaped, and the filaments fleshy at base. The name is 
spelled variously, originally by the author as above, and also as 
Furcraea, but it commemorates Antoine Francois de Fourcroy, a 
chemist of the late eighteenth century. 

Fourcroya andina Trel. in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 3: 1305. 
1915. F. Deledevanti Riv. Rev. Cult. Colon. 11: 68. 1902(?). 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, large, with prominent curved remote 
teeth. Apparently the name of Riviere is valid, but Trelease refers 
it, with "F. altissima Hort.," to doubtful synonymy, and as I have 
not seen the publication, the action is followed. Neg. 9999. 

Junin: On the Perene", Furlong, type. Cuzco: Santa Ana, 
Herrera 1000. Cedrobamba, 2,500 meters, Herrera 1721. Lima: 
Matucana, 2,400 meters, 2921. Cabello, 2,400 meters, 1 338. "Chu- 
chau," "chunta pacpa." 

Fourcroya occidentalis Trel. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. Ill: 5. 
1913. 

Leaves narrowly oblong and minutely aculeate. Most of 
Weberbauer's many references to F. cubensis Vent, concern this 



FLORA OF PERU 667 

plant rather than the preceding. It belongs to the western hill 
country, at least typically. Neg. 10000. 

Ancash: Matucara, 2,300 meters, Weberbauerl687, type. Loreto: 
Upper Rio Huallaga, 900 meters, Williams 6766 (?) (doubtful, the 
flowers smaller and the leaves narrower). Lima: Matucana, 2,400 
meters, 2922. "Penca." 

7. ZEPHYRANTHES Herb. 
Pyrolirion Herb. 

Bulbous plants with short or elongate scapes bearing 1-2 funnel- 
shaped flowers, the tube little prolonged. Filaments long, entirely 
free. Cultivated forms taken by Williams include (apparently) 
Z. carinata Herb. andZ. gradlifolia (Schult. f.) Baker. 

Flowers large (several cm. long), bright-colored. 

Perianth throat without scales Z. flava. 

Perianth throat with scales within Z. tubiflora. 

Flowers small, 1-3 cm. long, pale. 

Flowers about 12 mm. long, the tube obsolete Z. gracilis. 

Flowers twice as long, with obvious tube. 

Tube 5 mm. long; stigmas foliose Z. Briquetii. 

Tube 15 mm. long; stigmas capitate Z. parvula. 

Zephyranthes Briquetii Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 9. 1931. 

Diminutive, the 2-3 linear leaves prostrate, scarcely 1 mm. wide, 
3-6 cm. long; scape 1-3 cm. long, 1-flowered; spathe bifid to base, 
1.5 cm. long; pedicel 3-4 mm. long; perianth white, sometimes violet- 
dotted, 2 cm. long, the slender tube rather abruptly ampliate, the 
subequal segments subrotund; filaments free, 3 mm. long, dilated 
below, affixed at top of tube; stigma 3-foliose, well included. 
Growing with cushion and rosette plants. 

Moquehua: Carumas, Weberbauer 7322. 

Zephyranthes flava (Herb.) Baker, Amaryl. 37. 1888. Pyrolir- 
ion flavum Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 37. 1821. Z. Beustii Schinz, Viertelj. 
Zur. Nat. Ges. 60: 424. 1915(?). 

Scapes 1-3 dm. high or taller and exceeding the leaves; flower 
yellow, sessile in the membranous sheath, to nearly 1 dm. long; 
perianth tube destitute of scales within. Apparently known only in 
cultivation from material sent from Lima in 1834, unless recently 



668 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

collected by von Beust (654) but unfortunately without recorded 
locality. Illustrated, Bot. Reg. 20: pi. 1724, as P. aureum. 

Zephyranthes gracilis Herb. Amaryl. 172. pi. 29. 1837. 

Peduncle short, slender; pedicel shorter than the spathe, this 
15 mm. long; perianth white(?), 12 mm. long, the tube nearly 
obsolete, the segments oblanceolate, 2 mm. wide, equaled by the 
trifid style and nearly by the stamens. 

Peru: Puerto de Santa Maria (Ruiz). 

Zephyranthes parvula Killip, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 16: 566. 
1926. 

Peduncle about 1.5 cm. high; spathe closely investing the perianth 
tube, this narrowly funnelform and 1.5-2 cm. long, pink above as 
also the (5-7 mm. wide) oblong segments; stamens inserted at about 
the middle of the tube, reaching the lower third of the segments; 
stigmas capitate. 

Cuzco: Hills of Sacsahuamdn, 3,500 meters, Herrera 822. "Pulla- 
pulla." 

Zephyranthes tubiflora (L'He"r.) Schinz, Viertelj. Ziir. Nat. 
Ges. 60: 425. 1915. Amaryllis tubiflora L'H^r. Sert. Angl. 10. 1788. 
A. aurea R. & P. Fl. 3: 56. pi. 286. 1802. A. peruviana Ker, Bot. 
Mag. 27: pi. 1089. 1808. Pyrolirion aureum Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 
37. 1821. Z. aurea Baker, Amaryl. 37. 1888. 

Similar to Z. flava (which could be treated as a variety), but 
the perianth at the throat provided with small toothed scales. 
This, with Hymenocallis, is one of the most attractive flowers in the 
green season on the coastal hills. 

Lima: Lurin, Chorillos, etc. (Ruiz & Pavdri); (Haenke). "Hua- 
mancae de Antibo." 

Zephyranthes tubiflora (L'He'r.) Schinz, var. flammea 
(R.&P.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 9. 1931. Amaryllis flammea 
R. & P. Fl. 3: 56. pi. 286. 1802. Z. flammea Baker, Amaryl. 37. 1888. 

Flowers flame-colored. 

Lima: Chancai (Ruiz & Pavdn). "Huamancae," "huamancayos." 

8. COOPERIA Herb. 

Distinguished from Zephyranthes by the white flowers with 
greatly elongate, slender tube and very short filaments. 



FLORA OF PERU 669 

Cooperia albicans (Herb.) Sprague, Kew Bull. 386. 1928. 
Pyrolirion albicans Herb. Amaryl. 184. 1837. Zephyranthes albicans 
Baker, Amaryl. 38. 1888. 

Scapes and narrow leaves 1-2 dm. high; flowers very fragrant, 
sessile in the tight spathe, the tube 7 cm. long, slightly widened only 
at throat, the lobes 4 cm. long; filaments slightly united at the 
broad base, 1 mm. long. On the sandhills of Mollendo in October. 

Arequipa: Ilo (type locality). Near Chule, 80 meters (Gunther & 
Buchtien 347). Mollendo, Weberbauer 1510 (det. Kranzlin); 82, 144; 
(Albert Paw). "Amancaes," "flor de amancaes." 

9. CROCOPSIS Pax 

Crocus-like in habit, the solitary, orange and black-dotted flower 
rising directly from the bulb, the base more or less concealed in the 
sheath and leaves. Otherwise nearly Cooperia, but the tube not 
greatly prolonged, and longer filaments more definitely connate at 
the base. 

Crocopsis fulgens Pax, Bot. Jahrb. 11: 324. 1889. 

Leaves 3-4 cm. long; flowers 6 cm. long, the lobes one-third as 
long as the tube, the throat 1 cm. broad; filaments 1.5 cm. long. 

Peru: Tacore to Tomarape, 4,200 meters (Stuebel, type). Cuzco: 
Redonda, 3,350 meters, Herrera 3040. 

10. CHLIDANTHUS Herb. 

A rather coarse plant with a solid 2-edged scape arising from 
a cluster of several leaves and terminating in an umbel of 1-4 bright 
yellow flowers. Filaments short, from a deltoid base; anthers 
ligulate. 

Chlidanthus fragrans Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 46. 1821. 

Flowers sessile or subsessile in the large lanceolate spathes, 
fragrant, the tube 3-10 cm. long, tinged with green, the segments 
oblong, cuspidate, 3-3.5 cm. long. Illustrated, Bot. Reg. 8: pi. 
640; Fl. Serres 4: pi. 326. 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas (Mathews 3180). Without locality: 
(Pavdn). Arequipa: Lomas of Atiquipa and Capac, Raimondi 
(det. Kranzlin). Tacna: Woitschach. Ecuador; Argentina. "Aman- 
caes," "amancay." 



670 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

11. CRINUM L. 

Similar to Chlidanthus, but the flowers white or reddish, often 
many, and the filiform filaments with linear versatile anthers. 
Williams has collected several cultivated species as escapes at 
San Roque and on the Amazon, apparently C. asiaticum L., C. 
erubescens Ait., and C. zeylanicum L. 

Crinum undulatum Hook. Exot. Fl. 3: pi. 200. 1827. 

A stout plant from a long-necked bulb; leaves ensiform, to 4.5 
dm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, longer than the peduncle; spathe valves 
and perianth tube green, the latter twice as long, about 2 dm. long, 
curved before the flower expands; segments undulate, 7 cm. long; 
filaments red. 

Loreto: Ule (det. Kranzlin). Middle Rio Blanco, Tessmann 
3063 (det. Kranzlin.) Brazil. 

12. HYMENOCALLIS Salisb. 

Ismene Salisb. ; Elisena ~H.erb.;Liriope Herb. ; Liriopsis Reichenb. 
Stout plants with oblong or linear leaves and solid peduncles 
bearing an umbel of several showy, white or yellow flowers. Perianth 
tube not at all funnelform, or only above, or broadly funnelform, the 
narrow lobes finally spreading. Stamens from a more or less con- 
spicuous, often serrate cup, the free part of the filaments often short. 
As with Zephyr anthes, frequently cultivated for the beautiful 
fragrant flowers. Williams found H. littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb. culti- 
vated or as an escape on the Rio Huallaga. 
Perianth tube elongate, narrow or funnelform only above. 

Flowers bright yellow H. Amancaes. 

Flowers white or more or less tinged with green. 

Flowers solitary H. quitoensis. 

Flowers 2 or usually several. 

Stamen cup irregularly lacerate; tube 2.5 cm. long. . H. nutans. 
Stamen cup with rounded but toothed processes; tube 3.5 
cm. long or longer. 

Filaments 2.5 cm. long or longer H. deflexa. 

Filaments 5-12 mm. long. 

Perianth tube straight, 3-5 cm. long . . . . H. pedunculata. 
Perianth tube funnelform above, 7-10 cm. long. 

H. narcissiflora. 



FLORA OF PERU 671 

Perianth tube broadly funnelform, short. 

Filaments 4-6 cm. long H. longipetala. 

Filaments half as long or shorter. 

Filaments about 3 cm. long H. ringens. 

Filaments about 1 cm. long H. sublimis. 

Hymenocallis Amancaes (R. & P.) Nichols. Diet. Gard. 2: 
165. 1885. Narcissus Amancaes R. & P. Fl. 3: 53. pi. 283. 1802. 
Pancratium Amancaes Ker, Bot. Mag. 30: pi. 1224. 1809; Bot. 
Reg. 7: pi. 600. 1821. Ismene Amancaes Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 
46. 1821. 

The only species with yellow flowers; perianth tube tinged with 
green, about 7 cm. long, the linear segments bright yellow and 5 cm. 
long, or about equaling the cup, this green-striped and toothed. 
The Amancaise or festival of Amancaes celebrated at Lima on June 
24 is a gala day somewhat similar to May Day in English lands. 
At that time the Amancaes mountain near Lima is glorified with 
thousands of the brilliant blossoms, and their abundance and beauty 
seem all the more remarkable because of the semi-desert character of 
the mountain slopes they color. There is a vivid account by Stewart 
of the festival, which is quoted from his "Visit to the South Seas" 
in Bot. Mag. 65: under pi. 3675. 

Lima: In the loma hills, Weberbauer, 82; 143; 146. Recorded by 
Ruiz and Pavon from the hills of Amancaes, Hamancaes, Chancai, 
Lurin ? and Surco. Atonocongo, 250-500 meters, Pennell 14746. 
"Amancaes," "hamancaes." 

Hymenocallis deflexa (Herb.) Baker, Amaryl. 128. 1888. 
Ismene deflexa Herb. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 88. 1839. 

Leaves less than 5 cm. wide; flowers 3-4, the curved tube about 
3.5 cm. long, the linear segments 7.5-10 cm. long, the funnel-shaped 
cup 5-7.5 cm. long, with rounded recurved processes. Produced by 
Col. Trevor Clarke by crossing H. narcissiflora and H. longipetala. 

Hymenocallis longipetala (Lindl.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 11. 1931. Elisena longipetala Lindl. Bot. Reg. 24: Misc. 45. 1838; 
Bot. Mag. 67: pi. 3873. 1841; Saund. Ref. Bot. 4: pi. 264. 1871. 

Leaves about 6, to 3.5 cm. wide, shorter than the tall peduncle, 
6-9 dm. long; flowers 5-10, the tube 6-9 mm. long, the linear seg- 
ments 1 dm. long, the deflexed funnel-shaped cup about 3.5 cm. long, 
its edge reflexed. 



672 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Lima: (F arris). Libertad : Prov. Santiago de Chuco, 3,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 7204- Prov. Huamachuco, Weberbauer 7213. Cuzco: 
Mollepata, cultivated, Herrera 1457. "Tamancay." 

Hymenocallis narcissiflora (Jacq.) Macbr. Meld Mus. Bot. 
11: 11. 1931. Pancratium narcissiflorum Jacq. Fragm. Bot. pi. 
138. 1809. P. calathiforme Redoute", Lil. 6: pi. 353. 1812. P. cal- 
athinum Ker, Bot. Reg. 3: pi. 215. 1817. Ismene calathina Herb. 
App. Bot. Reg. 46. 1821; Bot. Mag. 53: pi. 2685. 1826. H. cala- 
thina Nichols. Diet. Card. 2: 165. 1885. 

Leaves 6-8, to 5 cm. wide and 6 dm. long, about equaling the 
2-5-flowered peduncle; perianth segments white, lanceolate, as long 
as the green tube, 12 mm. broad; cup green-striped, 5 cm. long and 
wider, with rounded spreading toothed processes. Introduced into 
cultivation in 1794. According to Herbert, native to the Andes of 
Peru and Bolivia. 

Peru : According to Herbert. 

Hymenocallis nutans (Herb.) Baker, Amaryl. 128. 1888. 
Ismene nutans Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 46. 1821. Pancratium cala- 
thinum Ker, Bot. Mag. 38: pi. 1561. 1813, not of later date and 
authors. 

A species of doubtful origin but Herbert thinks "Andean." Its 
tube is only about 2.5 cm. long, the linear segments twice as long, the 
cup 3.5 cm. long, and the free filaments 6-8 mm. long. 

Hymenocallis pedunculata (Herb.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 11. 1931. Ismene pedunculata Herb. Amaryl. 222. pi. 35. 1837. 
/. Macleana Herb. Bot. Mag. 65: pi. 3675. 1839. I. virescens Lindl. 
Bot. Reg. 27: pi. 12. 1841. H. Macleana Nichols. Diet. Card. 2: 
165. 1885. 

Similar to H. narcissiflora except for the slender and much 
shorter tube, the linear segments, and the shorter cup, about 3.5 cm. 
long. 

Peru: (Maclean). 

Hymenocallis quitoensis Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 44. 1821. 
Ismene tenuifolia Baker, Bot. Mag. 104 : pi. 6397. 1878. Pamianthe 
quitoensis Stapf, Bot. Mag. pi. 9315. 1933. 

A beautiful plant with thin tufted leaves about 2.5 cm. wide, and 
a slender peduncle several dm. high, bearing a single large, green 
and white flower; tube 7-10 cm. long, the segments lanceolate, 6-7.5 



FLORA OF PERU 673 

cm. long and 12 mm. broad; cup 5 cm. long, with large, quadrate, 
sharply toothed processes between the inflexed filaments, these about 
9 mm. long. 

Tumbes: Hacienda Chicana, Weberbauer 7628. Ecuador. 

Closely related to this species is Pamianthe peruviana Stapf, Gard. 
Chron. II. 93: 106. /. 51. 1933; Bot. Mag. 156: pi. 9315. 1933. It was 
described from plants grown by Major Albert Pam in his warm-house 
at Wormley Bury, Broxbourne, Herts, England, from bulbs col- 
lected in the "warm-temperate zone in northern central Peru at an 
altitude of 1800 m." The genus Pamianthe needs further study be- 
fore its validity is determined. 

Hymenocallis ringens (R. & P.) Macbr., comb. nov. Pan- 
cratium ringens R. & P. Fl. 3: 53. pi. 283. 1802. Liriope ringens 
Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 42. 1821. Elisena ringens Herb. Amaryl. 
201. 1837. 

Similar to H. longipetala, but flowers much smaller; tube 18mm. 
long, the segments only 3.5 cm. long; cup 12 mm. long. Apparently 
known only in cultivation, even by Ruiz and Pavon. 

Hymenocallis sublimis (Herb.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
11. 1931. Elisena sublimis Herb. Bot. Mag. 67: sub pi. 3873. 1841. 

Distinguished from H. ringens by the pedicellate flowers with 
segments 5 cm. long, and shorter filaments. 

Libertad: Cajamarquilla (Maclean). 

13. EUGHARIS Planch. 

Well marked by the petioled, ovate to ovate-elliptic leaves and 
large white umbellate flowers. Stamens borne from the edge of a 
cup, the filaments undulate or dentate below. Beautiful plants, 
well known in cultivation as "Amazon lilies." There are many 
illustrations besides those cited here. 

Flowers about 5-6 cm. broad. 

Perianth tube dilated at throat, to 12 mm. wide . . E. grandiflora. 

Perianth tube little dilated, much narrower E.Bakeriana. 

Flowers to about 4 cm. broad. 
Flowers medium-sized, 3-4 cm. wide, pediceled. 

Flowers few, 3-5 E. Ulei. 

Flowers 7-10 E. narcissi flora. 



674 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Flowers small, about 1.5-2 cm. wide. 

Flowers sessile E. galanthoides. 

Flowers pediceled E. Castelnaeana. 

Eucharis Bakeriana N. E. Brown, Gard. Chron. III. 7: 416. 
1890. 

Flowers 6 cm. in diameter, the tube little dilated; cup funnel- 
form, about 15 mm. deep and wide, with 2 obtuse oblong teeth be- 
tween each pair of filaments. Illustrated, Bot. Mag. 116: pi. 7144. 

Loreto: Pampas de Ponasa, Ule (det. Kranzlin). Colombia. 

Eucharis Castelnaeana (Baill.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11:47. 
1931. Calliphruria Castelnaeana Baill. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 
2: 1135. 1894. 

Apparently very distinct by the small and narrow flowers, the 
corolla tube 1.5 cm. long, the limb 2 cm. wide; petioles to 3 times 
longer than the oval leaves; peduncle twice as long as the petiole, 
bearing several white flowers, the bracts and bractlets scarious; 
crown 6-lobed, each lobe 2-toothed; style obtusely 3-lobed. 
Perhaps in the narrow corolla simulating the Colombian genus 
Calliphruria Herb., which, however, has free filaments, winged below 
and toothed at each side. 

Loreto: Pampa del Sacramento (Castelnau). 

Eucharis galanthoides (Klotzsch) Planch. & Lind. Cat. 17, 
pt. 1: 4. 1862. Mathieua galanthoides Klotzsch, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 
337. 1853. 

Leaves ovate, blunt, long-petioled, about 1 dm. long and 3 
cm. broad ; perianth 3.5 cm. long, the tube 1.5 cm. long, dilated at the 
throat to 5 mm. broad, the limb inflated-campanulate, 1.5 cm. long 
and broad; cup adnate to the tube throughout, edentate; filaments 
slightly dilated at the base; ovary subsessile, 3-celled. A species 
known to me only from a single flower at Dahlem referable to the 
genus. Very distinct by its small capitulate sessile white flowers, 
and doubtfully referable to the genus. 

Piura: Paita, Warscewicz. 

Eucharis grandiflora Planch. & Lind. Fl. Serres 9: 255. pi. 
957. 1854. E. amazonica Lind. Cat. Hort. 4. 1856. 

Perianth tube curved, 5 cm. long, dilated at the throat to 12 
mm. wide; cup consisting of 4 quadrate connate segments about 12 
mm. long, with a short filament, lanceolate at the base, from the 
center of each. 



FLORA OF PERU 675 

Cajamarca: Prov. Jae"n, Weberbauer 6251 (det. Kranzlin). 
Loreto: Upper Maranon, Tessmann 4782. Middle Ucayali, Tess- 
mann 3179. San Martin: North of Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4642. 
San Roque, 1,350 meters, Williams 7802, 7748(1). Lamas, 840 meters, 
Williams 6348. Colombia. "Amancay." 

Eucharis narcissiflora Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 543. 1906. 

Leaves about 4 dm. long, the petiole and lance-ovate blade sub- 
equal; scape to 4 dm. high, bearing an umbel of 7-10 flowers; pedicels 
2-4 cm. long and 6-10 mm. wide; cup 5 mm. high. Seemingly dif- 
ferent from other species in its numerous small flowers, 4 cm. broad, 
and long petioles. Fruits of the Williams specimens nearly 2 cm. 
broad, the pedicels 1.5 cm. long; seeds black, 8 mm. long, only 
slightly lustrous and not at all metallic. 

Loreto: Sarayacu to Catalina, Pampa del Sacramento (Huber 
1514)- Pebas, Williams 1896 (ex char.). Santa Rosa, Williams 4906 
(?; fruit). Puerto Arturo, Williams 5051 (?; fruit). Santa Rosa, 
135 meters, Killip & Smith 28886. Puerto Arturo, Killip & Smith 
27844. Junin: Puerto Yessup, 400 meters, Killip & Smith 26394. 
"Sacha-cebolla," "amangay." 

Eucharis Ulei Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 50: Beibl. Ill: 4. 1913. 

Apparently very similar to E. narcissiflora, but the pedicels 
mostly shorter, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, the flowers fewer, and the cup 
7-10 mm. high. The author referred here doubtfully Vie 5737b, 
in fruit, with elliptic rather than oblong-lanceolate leaves. Williams 
2629, 2878, and 2619 from La Victoria have the same foliage. The 
first is accompanied by flowers; the latter two collections by fruits 
with lustrous purple seeds like those of Ule's plant. Williams 4906 
and 5051 from the lower Rio Huallaga have dull seeds and elliptic 
leaves, and probably represent another species. The following 
collections are typical in foliage, and the fruits resemble those 
of Ule 5737b. The species is thus variable in leaf form or, more 
likely, two species are concerned, the flowers of only one being 
known. Neg. 9965. 

Loreto: Lower Rio Nanay, Williams 431. Pebas, Williams 1787. 
Brazil. 

14. STENOMESSON Herb. 

Reference: Baker, Amaryl. 113-117. 1888. 

Slender-leaved bulbous plants with solid or fistulose scapes, 
rarely greatly reduced, bearing one to several umbellate flowers, 



676 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

variously colored but never white. Stamens from or below the 
edge of a cup which is often toothed between the filaments. 
The species are mostly not well marked, and the following resume" 
is compiled chiefly from Baker, Handb. Amaryl. 1888. Two keys are 
provided in an attempt to lead to the species accepted by him, 
without passing on their validity, often doubtful. The synonymy 
is often involved and no attempt has been made to have it complete. 
The juice from the bulbs is sometimes used as mucilage. 

Key based on flower color 

Flowers green or tipped with green, or greenish white, never yellow 

or yellowish. 
Flowers green throughout. 

Cup crenate S. viridiflorum. 

Cup deeply 6-cleft S. Elwesii. 

Flowers more or less suffused with red. 

Flowers red or yellow, or red and yellow or orange, or green-tinged. 
Flowers yellow, or in part orange, if rather red, solitary. 
Flowers yellow or greenish yellow. 

Pedicels 5-10 cm. long; leaves to 2.5 cm. wide S. Pearcei. 

Pedicels 1-3 cm. long; leaves to 1.5 cm. wide. 
Leaves well developed after the flowers; filaments long. 

S. croceum. 
Leaves well developed with the flowers; filaments short. 

Flowers 2; filaments broad at base S. luteum. 

Flowers 1; filaments slender S. Macleanicum. 

Pedicels about 2.5 cm. long; leaves about 2.5 cm. wide. 
Cup acutely toothed; bulbs somewhat elongate. 

Cup teeth simple or reduced S. latifolium. 

Cup teeth bifid S. pauciflorum. 

Cup shortly and obtusely toothed; bulb depressed. 

S. vitellinum. 

Flowers bright orange or reddish yellow or, if orange- or blood- 
red, solitary. 
Flowers 2-6 in an umbel. 
Leaves with the flowers; flowers 5-6 cm. long. 

S. recurvatum. 



FLORA OF PERU 677 

Leaves usually after the flowers; flowers 2.5-4 cm. long. 

S. aurantiacum. 

Flowers solitary S. humile. 

Flowers blood-red or scarlet, or sometimes orange-red but not 
solitary. 

Leaves developed after the flowers. 

Cup distinctly toothed S. coccineum. 

Cup not toothed S. suspensum. 

Leaves developed with the flowers. 
Leaves about equaling the scape; flowers not dotted. 

S. incarum. 
Leaves much exceeding the scape; flowers dotted. 

S. longifolium. 

Key based mostly on characters 
other than color 

Stamen cup entire; flowers never green. 

Peduncle very short; flower solitary S. humile. 

Peduncle well developed; flowers usually 2 to several. 
Leaves lanceolate, about 2.5 cm. wide. 

Flowers greenish yellow, the throat dilated. . .S. latifolium. 

Flowers orange, narrow S. aurantiacum. 

Leaves linear, 0.5-1.5 cm. wide. 
Leaves usually much exceeding the scape, 4 dm. long or longer; 

flowers dotted S. longifolium. 

Leaves about equaling the scape or developed after the 

flowers; flowers apparently never dotted. 
Leaves developed after the flowers. 

Flowers horizontal or ascending, yellow or bright orange. 
Flowers solitary; filaments about 6 mm. long. 

S. Macleanicum. 

Flowers several; filaments about 1 cm. long. 
Flowers bright orange, the tube not abruptly dilated. 

S. aurantiacum. 
Flowers yellow, the tube abruptly dilated at the 

middle .S. croceum. 

Flowers somewhat drooping, bright scarlet. 

S. suspensum. 



678 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves developed with the flowers. 

Flowers reddish yellow; filaments elongate. 

S. recurvatum. 
Flowers red or yellow; filaments very short. . 

Flowers red, the pedicels flexible or drooping, 4-6. 

S. incarum. 
Flowers yellow, ascending, 1-2. 

Flowers 2; filaments broad at base S. luteum. 

Flower 1; filaments slender S. Macleanicum. 

Stamen cup toothed or, if merely crenate, the flowers green. 
Flowers entirely green. 

Stamen cup crenate S. viridiflorum. 

Stamen cup deeply 6-cleft S. Elwesii. 

Flowers not green, sometimes partly so or green-tinged. 
Teeth of the stamen cup entire. 
Teeth acute and well developed; flowers red. . . .S. coccineum. 

Teeth obtuse or acute but short, or obscure; flowers reddish 
or greenish yellow or yellow. 

Cup teeth obtuse, short; flowers yellow. . . .S. vitellinum. 
Cup teeth obscure; flowers pale yellow or reddish. 

Leaves developed with the flowers S. recurvatum. 

Leaves developed fully after the flowers . . . S. croceum. 
Teeth of the stamen cup bifid or toothed. 

Flowers 6-10 cm. long, usually reddish and green-tipped. 

S. variegatum. 
Flowers 3-5 cm. long, yellow and green-tinged, or red or 

orange-red. 
Flowers yellow, 2, on short pedicels S. pauciflorum. 

Flowers greenish yellow, several, the limb broad; pedicels 
5-10 cm. long S. Pearcei. 

Stenomesson aurantiacum (HBK.) Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 40. 
1821 ; 113. Pancratium aurantiacum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 280. 
1816. S. Hartwegii Lindl. Bot. Reg. 30: pi. 42. 1844. 

Bulb globose; leaves linear, well developed only after the flowers; 
peduncle 3 dm. long or longer, bearing 3-6 flowers, these sometimes 
nodding, about 3.5 cm. long; filaments dilated at base, the cup entire. 



FLORA OF PERU 679 

Lima: Matucana, Weberbauer 6294 (det. Krause as S. flavum). 
Cajamarca: Rio Huancabamba above Shumaya, Weberbauer 6294 
(det. Kranzlin). Cuzco: Hills of Sacsahuaman, 3,600 meters, 
Herrera 1574- Ecuador. "Cebolla-cebolla." 

Stenomesson coccineum (R. & P.) Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 40. 
1821; 115. Pancratium coccineum R. & P. Fl. 3: 54. pi. 285. 1802. 
S. rubrum Herb. Amaryl. 199. pi. 28. 1837. Coburgia coccinea Herb. 
Bot. Mag. 67: pi. 3865. 1841. C. venusta Herb. Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 
54. 1842. C. praecipitata Herb. loc. cit. 

Leaves 4-5, appearing after the flowers, linear, bright green, 
channeled, about 3 dm. long, to 12 mm. wide; flowers 4-8, on pedicels 
2.5-4 cm. long, bright or salmon or cinnamon red, 3-4 cm. long, 
the tube 4 mm. wide and half as long as the oblong segments; cup 
teeth simple or shortly toothed; style finally exserted. A form with 
rose-colored flowers and lanceolate leaves (S. breviflorum Herb. 
Amaryl. 199. 1837) was collected by Maclean. Baker suggests that 
it is a variety. My specimens from the type locality have shortly 
2-toothed cup teeth; No. 1584 has laterally toothed cup teeth. 
Weberbauer 1692 has the orange flowers of S. aurantiacum, but the 
cup is toothed! 

Junin: Tarma (Ruiz & Pav6n); 1078. Rio Maranon, 1980. 
Morocancha; Cajamarquilla. Huanuco: Mito, 1584. Lima: San 
Agustin, Weberbauer 5 (det. Krause as S. flavum). Pacharra, Dom- 
bey. Ancash: Cajabamba, 3,700 meters, Weberbauer 3038 (det. 
Kranzlin as S. suspensum, but cup long-toothed, the teeth simple). 
Cuzco: Urubamba Valley, Herrera 1969. 

Stenomesson croceum (Savigny) Herb. Amaryl. 199. pi. 28. 
1837; 114. Pancratium croceum Savigny in Lam. Encycl. 4: 735. 
1797. P. flavum R. & P. Fl. 3: 54. pi. 284. 1802. S. flavum Herb. 
Bot. Mag. 53: pi. 2641- 1826, as to name. S. Ruizianum Kunth, 
Enum. 5:642. 1850. 

Leaves and scape about 3 dm. high; flowers pale yellow, 3.5-5 
cm. long or longer, the slender tube abruptly dilated at the middle; 
cup indistinctly toothed. Referred to by Weberbauer, 137, pi. 7; 
143; 146; 164; 166. 

Lima: Lurin (Ruiz & Pavdn); (Dombey). 

Stenomesson Elwesii (Baker) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 10. 
1931. Callithauma viridiflorum (R. & P.) Herb. var. Elwesii Baker, 
Gard. Chron. n. s. 9: 756. 1878. S. viridiflorum (R. & P.) Benth. 
var. Elwesii Baker, Amaryl. 116. 1888. 



680 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Stamen cup deeply 6-cleft, the lobes quadrate and emarginate. 
Although no further differences between S. viridiflorum and this 
plant have been described, the floral structure is so entirely at 
variance to that of the former species that it appears to merit more 
than varietal recognition. Known only in cultivation, by Elwes. 

Stenomesson humile (Herb.) Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 5: 
pi. 308. 1872; 114. Clitanthes humilis Herb. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 87. 
1839. Coburgia humilis Herb. op. cit. 28: 55. 1842. S. acaule Kranzl. 
Bot. Jahrb. 40: 237. 1908. 

A readily recognized species by virtue of its crocus-like habit, 
the very short (to 1 dm.) peduncle bearing a single erect orange-red 
flower; leaves linear, at anthesis only 2-4 cm. long, developing to 3 
dm. long; flowers 5-6 cm. long; cup entire. Neg. 97. 

Junin: La Oroya, 3,700 meters, Weberbauer 1714; 180; 182. 
Palcamayo, 3,300 meters (Maclean). Cuzco: At 4,000 meters 
(Pearce). Ancash: Huaras, Raimondi. 

Stenomesson incarum Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 238. 1908. 
Coburgia minita Lindl. Bot. Reg. 30: Misc. 13. 1844 (?). 

Bulb globose; leaves before anthesis 3-3.5 dm. long, to 12 mm. 
wide; flowers 4 or 5, nodding, 6 cm. long, gradually ampliate to nearly 
2 cm. wide; cup not toothed; filaments very short; style and stamens 
subequal. Allied to S. coccineum and S. suspensum. Rocky places 
in the lomas. Neg. 9967. 

Arequipa: Tambo, near Mollendo, Weberbauer 1564; 146. Below 
Cachendo, 800 meters (Gunther &Buchtien 344)- 

Stenomesson latifolium Herb. Bot. Mag. 67: pi. 3803. 1841; 
114. Chrysiphiala flava Ker, Bot. Reg. 10: pi. 778. 1824, as to plant. 
S. flavum Herb. Bot. Mag. 53: pi. 2641. 1826, as to plant. S. flavum 
of auth., not R. & P. 

Leaves oblanceolate, several dm. long and about 2.5 cm. wide, 
equaling the peduncle; flowers 4-6, the tube greenish or pale yellow, 
the limb and lobes bright yellow; cup teeth more or less regularly 
developed, simple and acute; style finally exserted. The inter- 
pretation of the application of the names S. croceum and S. flavum 
is that of Herbert and Baker. To avoid confusion, the name S. 
flavum should not be used for the S. flavum of authors, and since the 
name S. latifolium seems to refer to essentially the same plant, it 
becomes the next available name. 

Lima: (Maclean). Cuzco: Above Piri, Weberbauer 4935; 243. 



FLORA OF PERU 681 

Stenomesson longifolium Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 238. 1908. 

Allied to S. recurvatum, but the leaves greatly elongate, 4 dm. 
or longer, the red, apparently dotted flowers 4 cm. long, and the 
filaments very short. Flowers nodding only after anthesis. Neg. 
9966. 

Lima: Tambo de Viso, Weberbauer 121, type. Between Surco and 
Matucana, Raimondi. Rocky cliff, Matucana, 2942, 461 . Arequipa : 
Mascuri, Raimondi. "Amancay Colorado." 

Stenomesson luteum (Herb.) Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 5: 
sub pi. 308. 1872; 115. Clinanthus luteus Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 40. 
1821. Clitanthes lutea Herb. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 87. 1839. Cobur- 
gia lutea Herb. op. cit. 28: Misc. 55. 1842. 

Leaves linear, 1-2 dm. long, about equaling the 2-flowered scape; 
pedicels 3 cm. long or shorter; perianth yellow, 5 cm. long, funnel- 
form, erect or ascending; filaments broadly winged below with no 
space between them. Later referred by Baker to S. recurvatum. 

Peru: (Ruiz, type). 

Stenomesson Macleanicum (Herb.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 10. 1931; 115. Clitanthes Macleanica Herb. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 
87. 1839. Coburgia Macleanica Herb. op. cit. 28: Misc. 55. 1842. 

Similar to S. luteum, but the scape 1-flowered and the cup truncate 
between the slender filaments. Referred by Baker to S. recurvatum. 

Lima: At about 3,500 meters, below Chicla above San Mateo 
(Maclean, type). 

Stenomesson pauciflorum (Lindl.) Herb. Amaryl. 198. pi. 
28. 1837; 114. Chrysiphiala pauciflora Lindl. ex Hook. Exot. Fl. 
2: pi. 132. 1825. 

Similar to S. latifolium, but the thick golden-yellow green-tipped 
flower with an abruptly ampliate limb, and the short teeth between 
the filaments bifid. With its variety it approaches S. variegatum., 
of which it is perhaps only a variety. Introduced from Peru by 
Cowan in 1824, and apparently not recollected. By Baker, with the 
following variety, treated as a variant of S. flavum. 

Stenomesson pauciflorum var. curvidentatum (Herb.) 
Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 11. 1931. S. curvidentatum Herb. Bot. 
Mag. 53: pi. 2640. 1826. 

Perianth slender, and bifid cup teeth elongate. Apparently 
not known since its introduction in 1825. 



682 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Stenomesson Pearcei Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 5: pL 308. 
1873; 113. 

Related to S. pauciflorum; leaves developed after(?) the flowers, 
several dm. long; peduncle 6-9 dm. high; flowers 6-8, only 3-4 cm. 
long, the limb broad, yellow or green- tinged ; cup teeth bifid. The 
Weberbauer specimen was referred by Kranzlin to S. latifolium, but 
the cup teeth are bifid! 

Cuzco: Ollantaitambo, 2,800 meters, Herrera 698. Piri, 3,000 
meters, Weberbauer 4935. Junin: Yanahuanca, 3,000 meters, 1227. 
Puno(?): (Lechler). Bolivia. 

Stenomesson recurvatum (R. & P.) Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 
5: sub pi. 308. 1872; 115. Pancratium recurvatum R. & P. Fl. 3: 
54. pi. 285, f a. 1802. (?) Coburgia recurvata Herb. Bot. Reg. 28: 
54. 1842. Carpodetes recurvata Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 41. 1821. 

Leaves linear, 3 dm. long and to 1 cm. wide, developed with the 
flowers and about equaling the peduncle; pedicels 2.5-9 cm. long; 
flowers reddish yellow or rarely yellowish, 6 cm. long; cup obscurely 
toothed; style finally exserted. Baker, probably rightly, refers here 
Coburgia discolor, C. obragillensis, and C. angusta, all proposed by 
Herbert, Bot. Reg. 28: 54-55. 1842. 

Lima: Canta and Obrajillo (Ruiz & Pavdn). Raimondi (det. 
Herb. Dahlem as S. aurantiacum). "Chihuanhuaita." 

Stenomesson suspensum Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 1: pi. 
22. 187. 1869; 115. 

Leaves and slender peduncle about 3 dm. long; flowers 4-6, 
drooping, on pedicels 2.5-4 cm. long, bright scarlet, the limb 2.5-3 
cm. long; filaments lanceolate at base, with no tooth between them. 
Described from cultivated plants. 

Libertad: Prov. Otuzco, 1,200 meters, Weberbauer 6985. 

Stenomesson variegatum (R. & P.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 
11: 11. 1931; 115. Pancratium variegatum R. & P. Fl. 3: 55. 1802. 
P. incarnatum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 280. 1816. Coburgia 
trichroma Herb. Bot. Mag. 67: pi. 3867. 1841. C. variegata Herb. 
Amaryl. 196. 1837. C.fulva Herb. Bot. Reg. 18: pi. 1497. 1832; Bot. 
Mag. 60: pi. 3221. 1833. S. incarnatum Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 
5 : sub pi. 308. 1872. 

Bulb with a well-developed neck; leaves several, with the flowers, 
several dm. long and about 2.5 cm. wide; peduncle stout, hollow, 
to 6 dm. high; flowers 2-4, on short pedicels, the curved tube 6-8 



683 

cm. long, pale or bright red or tawny, the segments, conspicuously 
keeled with green, 2-2.5 cm. long; filaments united below, with a 
bifid tooth between them. Variable in color and, according to 
Baker, Coburgia chachapoyensis, C. versicolor, C. laeta, and C. langensis 
proposed by Herbert, Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 53. 1842, are only forms. 
There are further synonyms. 

Amazonas: Chachapoyas (Mathews). Cuzco: Hills of Sacsahua- 
man, Herrera 37, 197, 1265. "Naihua," "flor del clarin," "huac- 
canquilla." 

Stenomesson viridiflorum (R. & P.) Benth. & Hook. Gen. 
PI. 3: 733. 1883; 116. Pancratium viridiflorum R. & P. Fl. 3: 55. 
1802. Callithauma viridiflorum Herb. Amaryl. 225. 1837; Bot. Mag. 
67: pi. 3866. 1841. 

A remarkable species, to 1 meter high, the stout peduncle bearing 
several emerald-green flowers 7 cm. long; leaves 2-2.5 cm. wide; 
stamens inserted below the edge of the crenate cup, equaling the 
perianth segments; style not exserted. The var. angustifolium 
(Herb.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 10. 1931 has narrower leaves, 
stamens shorter than the segments, and style exserted. 

Junin: Woods, Huasahuasi (Ruiz & Pavdn). Rocky headlands, 
Palca (Ruiz & Pavdn; Maclean). 

Stemonesson vitellinum Lindl. Bot. Reg. 29: pi. 2. 1843; 114. 

Confused with S. latifolium and S. croceum, but the long peduncle 
arising abruptly from the much-flattened bulb, and the cup teeth 
short, obtuse, and entire. Apparently known only in cultivation. 

Lima: (Maclean). 



Callithauma (?) spathulatum Herb. Amaryl. 225. 1837, with coriace- 
ous petioled spatulate leaves, may be a Peruvian species of Steno- 
messon related to S. viridiflorum. It is practically a nomen nudum. 

75. HIPPEASTRUM Herb. 

Reference: L. H. Bailey in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1492- 
1494. 1915. 

Vigorous bulbous plants with stout hollow peduncles bearing 
2 to several large and very showy flowers. Throat of the perianth 
closed or provided with a crown or scales. This genus is the amaryllis 
of cultivation, but the true Amaryllis is restricted more or less 



684 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

arbitrarily to a single species with a solid peduncle and without scales 

between the filaments. 

Perianth tube 2.5 cm. long or shorter. 

Perianth throat narrowed, or closed by a neck or collar. 

Plant entirely leafless at flowering H. fuscum. 

Plant with at least developing leaves at anthesis. 

Flowers red-spotted; stigma capitate H. pardinum. 

Flowers striped, not spotted; stigma 3-parted. . . H.Forgetii. 
Perianth throat not constricted. 
Flowers with 2 red feathery stripes on each side of the segments; 

stigma 3-parted H. vittatum. 

Flowers evenly red, at least in part. 

Flowers bright red with a green-white base . . . . H. puniceum. 
Flowers red but with a white star in the throat or a bifid white 
mark on each segment. 

Leaves developing after the flowers H. reginae. 

Leaves developing with the flowers. 

Perianth segments 5 cm. wide; anthers 12 mm. long or 

longer H. Leopoldii. 

Perianth segments 2.5-3 cm. wide; anthers 6 mm. long. 

H. miniatum. 
Perianth tube about 1 dm. long H. solandriflorum. 

Hippeastrum Forgetii Worsley, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. 38: 
73. 1912. 

Intermediate between H. vittatum and H. pardinum; flowers only 
partially striped, green at base; leaves well developed at flowering 
time. 

Cuzco: (Forget}. 

Hippeastrum fuscum Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 237. 1908. 

Flowers dark-dotted, about 1 dm. long, the segments only 2.5- 
3.5 cm. broad. Neg. 341. 

Puno: Between Sandia and Cuyocuyo, 2,500 meters, Weberbauer 
1056; 237. 

Hippeastrum Leopoldii (Moore) Dombrain, Floral Mag. 9: 
pi. 475-476. 1870. Amaryllis Leopoldii Moore, Gard. Chron. 30: 
733. pi. 140. 1870. 



FLORA OF PERU 685 

Flowers nearly regular, about 1.5 dm. across, the segments 5 cm. 
wide, bright red at the middle, white toward the tip and with a bifid 
white mark in the red below, the throat greenish white. 

Peru: (Pearce). 

Hippeastrum miniatum (R. & P.) Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 31. 
1821. Amaryllis miniata R. & P. Fl. 3: 57. 1802. 

Nearly H. reginae, but apparently the leaves developing earlier. 
The validity of this species is doubtful. 

Cuzco: Valley of the Apurimac, Herrera 807 (det. Herb. Dahlem). 
Huanuco: Chinchao, etc. (Ruiz & Pavon). Quebrada of Paria- 
huanco (Mathews). "Lacre de montana," "aputocto," "apotocto." 

Hippeastrum pardinum (Hook, f.) Dombrain, Floral Mag. 6: 
pi. 344- 1867. Amaryllis pardina Hook. f. Bot. Mag. 93: pi. 5645. 
1867. 

Readily known by the greenish yellow flowers densely spotted 
with red, the segments about 4 cm. broad but much narrowed at 
the base. 

Peru: (Pearce). 

Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Urban, Symb. Ant. 4: 151. 
1903. Amaryllis punicea Lam. Encycl. 1: 122. 1783. H. equestre 
Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 31. 1821. A. equestris Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 417. 
1789. 

This is the widely cultivated and widely distributed "Barbados 
lily." The flowers are sometimes 10 cm. across, with a green tube 
2.5 cm. long. Illustrated, Bot. Mag. 9: pi. 305. 

Puno: Valley of Sangaban, Raimondi. Loreto: Middle Ucayali, 
Tessmann 3126. Chanchahuayo (Huber 1386). Pebas and Caballo- 
cocha, Williams. Junin: Chinchao Valley, Weberbauer 6816 (det. 
Kranzlin). Mexico to Chile and Brazil. 

Hippeastrum reginae (L.) Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 31. 1821. 
Amaryllis reginae L. Syst. ed. 10. 977. 1759. H. stenopetalum A. 
Dietr. ex Koch, Wochenschr. 37. 1874(7). 

Flowers bright red with a large, greenish white star in the throat, 
the segments 2.5-3 cm. wide; stigma slightly lobed. Illustrated, 
Bot. Mag. 13: pi. 453. 

Junin: Chanchamayo, Raimondi (det. Herb. Berol.). 



686 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Hippeastrum solandriflorum Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 31. 1821. 

The long, greenish white, funnel-shaped flowers identify this 
species. There are illustrations in Bot. Mag. 52: pi. 2573, and 66: 
pi. 3771. 

Cuzco: Valley of the Apurimac, 2,700 meters, Herrera 1242. 
Valley of Paucartambo, 3,450 meters, Herrera 199. Brazil to 
Colombia and the Guianas. "Jamancai." 

Hippeastrum vittatum (L'HeY.) Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 31. 
1821. Amaryllis vittata L'He>. Sert. Angl. 13. 1788. 

The only species whose flowers are striped with red between the 
white keel and white, more or less irregular edges of each perianth 
segment. The flowers are 7-12 cm. across, the segments 2.5 to nearly 
4 cm. broad. Illustrated, Bot. Mag. 4: pi. 129. 

Peru: Said to be a native of the Andes and introduced into Europe 
in 1769. A common species of cultivation. 

16. URCEOLINA Reichenb. 

Sphaerotele Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 119. pi. 16. 1827; Sphaerothele 
Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3: 733. 1883. 

Bulbous plants with petioled, oblong or lanceolate leaves, often 
developed after the slender-pediceled pendulous umbellate flowers. 
Perianth tube cylindrical but suddenly dilated, the upper portion dis- 
tinctly urceolate. Except for lacking the cup, the genus approaches 
Stenomesson. The generic name is conserved in preference to several 
earlier ones. 

Flowers red, not green or white-tipped U. peruviana. 

Flowers not red, or at least green-tipped. 

Flowers 5 cm. long or longer, the slender tube abruptly terminating. 

U. urceolata. 

Flowers 3.5 cm. long or shorter, the tube more or less dilated at tip. 
Lobes white-margined; tube 6-12 mm. long. 

Tube about 12 mm. long U. fulva. 

Tube about 6 mm. long U. microcrater. 

Lobes green-margined; tube less than 2.5 cm. long. 

U. latifolia. 

Urceolina fulva Herb. Amaryl. 194. pi. 26. 1837. U. pendula 
Herb. var. fulva Herb, ex Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 4. 1916. 



FLORA OF PERU 687 

Similar to U. latifolia, but the flowers more slender and the much 
narrower tube only slightly dilated beneath the tawny or yellow, 
apparently white-margined limb which is nearly 2.5 cm. long; 
leaf blades about 2.2 dm. long and 1 dm. wide, the petiole 1 dm. long. 

Peru: Parcahuanca (Mathews 868). 

Urceolina latifolia (R. & P.) Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3: 732. 
1883. Pancratium latifolium R. & P. Fl. 3: 54. pi. 284. 1802. 

Petioles only 2-3 cm. long; flowers 6-8, yellow or reddish, tipped 
with green and white, the thickish tube dilated suddenly into a 
funnel in the upper third, the segments to 2.5 cm. long. 

Junin: Vitoc (Ruiz & Pavon). Ecuador. 

Urceolina microcrater Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 3. 
1916. 

Leaves absent at anthesis; flowers about 5; tube green, slightly 
dilated to 6 mm. ; perianth campanulate, with lanceolate yellow lobes 
2 cm. long, green-margined and white-tipped. Neg. 9998. 

Huanuco : Posuso Valley, 1,600 meters, Weberbauer 6741 Posuso, 
600 meters, 4712. Rio Huallaga below Rio Santo Domingo, 1,200 
meters, 4245. 

Urceolina peruviana (Presl) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 11. 
1931. Sphaerotele peruviana Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 120. pi. 16. 1827. 
Pentlandia miniata Herb. Bot. Reg. 25: pi. 68. 1839. P. miniata 
var. lacunosa and var. Sulivanica Herb. loc. cit. S. coccinea Link, 
Kl. & Otto, Icon. 95. pi. 38. 1842. U. miniata Benth. & Hook. 
Gen. PI. 3: 732. 1883. 

Leaves produced after the flowers, narrowed at each end, to 
3.5 cm. wide at the middle or narrower; flowers 2-6, scarlet or reddish 
yellow, the limb 3.5 cm. long, the lower half of the tube cylindrical 
but the upper somewhat urceolate. The flowers, as Herbert remarks, 
simulate those of Stenomesson croceum, and connect the genera. The 
stamens are exserted several millimeters. 

Cuzco: Urubamba Valley, 3,200 meters, Herrera 1120. Quis- 
picancha (Pentland, type). Lima: (Maclean). Puno: Sandia, 
Weberbauer 1354a (det. Kranzlin). Apurimac: Prov. Cotabambas, 
Raimondi. Without locality: Mathews. Bolivia. "Uluipina," 
"caruay pifia." 

Urceolina urceolata (R. & P.) Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitt. 
Eur. Fl. 3: 409. 1906. Crinum urceolatum R. & P. Fl. 3: 58. pi. 287. 



688 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

1802. U. pendula Herb. Amaryl. 193. 1837; Bot. Mag. 90: pi. 5464* 
1864. 

Readily known by its narrow green tube 2.5 cm. long, which is 
most abruptly dilated for the upper third, this bright yellow; limb 
green, with a white edge. The leaves, to 1 dm. wide, borne on 
elongate petioles, are developed with the flowers. The first Weber- 
bauer collection was referred by Kranzlin to U. latifolia. 

Huanuco: Posuso and Pampayacu (Ruiz & Pavdn). Junin: 
Rio Portachuelo, Weberbauer 6652. Cuzco: Marcapata Valley, 
1,600 meters, Weberbauer 7822. 

17. PH AEDRAN ASS A Herb. 

Very similar to Urceolina except that the flowers are cylindrical 
from base to apex. Besides the species recorded, P. dubia (HBK.) 
Macbr. (P. chloracea Herb.) of Ecuador is to be expected. It has red 
flowers, deeply stained at the tip with green, the tube somewhat 
shorter than the segments, and the style well exserted. 

Flowers greenish. 

Leaves several; flowers many P. megistophylla. 

Leaves solitary; flowers few P. viridiflora. 

Flowers red, with green tips P. Carmioli. 

Phaedranassa Carmioli Baker in Saund. Ref. Bot. 1: pi. 46. 
1869. 

Leaves 1-2, oblong-lanceolate, acute, to 7.5 cm. wide and 6 dm. 
long, equaling the glaucous-green peduncle; flowers 8-10, on pedicels 
2.5 cm. long; perianth limb 5 cm. long, the tube 3 times longer than 
the oblong-lanceolate connivent segments which are green with a 
pale edge; style not reaching tip of stamens. It would seem, from a 
range standpoint, that the following collection is referable rather to 
P. dubia (see under generic description). 

Cuzco: At 3,450 meters (Herrera). Costa Rica. 

Phaedranasssa megistophylla Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 
117: 2. 1916. 

Largest leaves about 4 dm. long and 1 dm. broad; peduncle 
7-10 dm. high, bearing as many as 20 blue-green flowers on pedicels 
6-8 cm. long; perianth segments connate below, 4 cm. long. Neg. 340. 

Cajamarca: Between Bellavista and the mouth of the Chinchipe, 
500 meters, Weberbauer 6225. "Oreja de burro." 



FLORA OF PERU 689 

Phaedranassa viridiflora Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 134. 

1877. 

A single lanceolate leaf to 5 cm. wide; flowers about 4, drooping, 
greenish yellow but whitish toward the base and green at the tip, 
3.5 cm. long. 

Cajamarca: Prov. Jae"n, Weberbauer 6228 (det. Kranzlin). 
Huancayo: On the way to the montana, Raimondi. Ecuador. 

18. EUCROSIA Ker 

Callipsyche Herb. Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 49. 1842. 

Allied to Phaedranassa, which it resembles in foliage, but the 
funnelform flowers irregular, with very long-exserted stamens. 
Besides the species listed, E. bicolor Ker, with orange-red and E. 
aurantiaca (Baker) Pax with bright yellow flowers, both Ecuadorian, 
may be expected. 

Eucrosia eucrosioides (Herb.) Pax, Pflanzenfam. II. 5: 115. 
1887. Callipsyche eucrosioides Herb. Bot. Reg. 28: Misc. 50. 1842. 
C. mexicana Roem. Syn. Ensat. 155. 1847. 

Flowers fewer than a dozen, green except for the scarlet limb 
which is about 2.5 cm. long; stamens over 1 dm. long. Except for the 
Weberbauer collection, with no locality indicated, known only in 
cultivation. 

Peru: Weberbauer 9. 

19. EUSTEPHIA Cav. 

Slender plants, the compressed scape, terminating in an umbel of 
several to many pediceled flowers. Perianth regular, the tube short; 
filaments free but narrowly or broadly winged in the lower half, and 
with a slender tooth on each side. 

Eustephia armifera Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 47. 1931. 

Conspicuously leafy, the nearly oblong leaves 2-3 dm. long, 12- 
15 mm. wide, lax and probably sometimes prostrate; scape about 1.5 
dm. tall; larger bract nearly 4 cm. long; flowers about 5, 2.5-3 cm. 
long, subsessile, gradually ampliate, the tube obsolete, the very 
unequal lobes 6-8 mm. long; filaments narrowly winged, the lateral 
teeth borne at the apex just below the anther, this 7 mm. long, sub- 
equal to the discoid foliose stigma. The collector described the 
flowers as "blood-red without, yellowish within." The stamen 
recalls to mind the ancient type of spear. 



690 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Cuzco: Grassy places in shrub-wood, Marcapata, 3,100 meters, 
Weberbauer 7806, type. 

Eustephia coccinea Cav. Icon. PI. 3: 20. pi. 238. 1794. E. Mac- 
leanica Herb. Bot. Mag. 67: sub. pi. 3865. 1841(7). 

Leaves 3-4, linear, developing after the flowers, several dm. long, 
as also the scape; pedicels to 2.5 cm. long; perianth bright red, tipped 
with green, 3-3.5 cm. long. Until recently, known only in cultiva- 
tion from Andean plants sent to England by Maclean. 

Cuzco: About Cuzco, 3,400 meters, Herrera 806. Huanuco: 
Rio Maranon below Chavanillo, 2,250 meters, 2304-. Junin: Yana- 
huanca, 3,000 meters, 11 77. "Campanilla," "uluipifia," "para-para." 

32. TACCACEAE 

Reference: Limpricht, Pflanzenr. IV. 42. 1928. 

Tacca Ulei Limpricht, op. cit. 22, has been found at Manaos, 
Brazil, so the occurrence in Peru of this or other species is probable. 
T. Ulei has part of the leaves entire and lacks the curious filiform 
bract-like structures that are so conspicuous among the bracteate 
leaves in some other species. 

33. DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family 
Reference: R. Knuth, Pflanzenr. IV. 43. 1924. 

1. DIOSCOREA [Plum.] L. 

Herbaceous or ligneous vines with alternate or opposite, more or 
less cordate-based leaves and tiny, usually dioecious, 6-parted flowers. 
Stamens 6 or 3, or 3 often reduced to staminodia. Fruit a 3-winged 
capsule. Seeds more or less winged. Knuth arranges the species 
according to the character of the fruits and seeds, but the pistillate 
plants of the Peruvian forms are mostly unknown. The tuber of 
D. trifida L. is the well-known "yam," or in Spanish "name" or some 
modification of this name. The widely distributed (but not native 
to America) and widely grown D. alata L. (called "sacha-papa" 
according to Poeppig, Reise 2: 377), known by the many little bulbs 
borne on the stems, probably occurs in some parts of Peru, as already 
recorded from the Amazon region. Determinations by or verified 
by Knuth. All key statements, unless otherwise stated, apply to the 
staminate plants. 



FLORA OF PERU 691 

Leaves lobed or 3-5-foliolate. 

Leaves mostly 3-parted to the base. 
Flowers solitary. 

Male flowers pedicellate; anthers small D. trifoliata. 

Male flowers sessile; anthers large D. cubijensis. 

Flowers glomerulate D. trisecta. 

Leaves more or less deeply 3-5-lobed D. trifida. 

Leaves entire or at least not lobed (the base often cordate). 
A. Vines. 

B. Flowers, at least the male, mostly fasciculate, partly in 

clusters of 2-3. 
C. At .least some of the male flowers pedicellate or the 

fascicles pedicellate. 
Leaves small, only to 3 cm. long and 13-14 mm. wide. 

D. Weberbaueri. 
Leaves rather to much larger. 

D. Leaves firm or papery, mostly longer than 4 cm., the 

cross veins obvious. 

Racemes 2-8 cm. long, or few, if any, longer. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Leaves cordate-lunate at base D. putisensis. 

Leaves rounded-cordate at base. .D. callacatensis. 
Leaves puberulent on the nerves beneath. 

D. ainensis. 
Racemes or the inflorescence mostly more than 1 dm. 

long (1-5 dm.). 

Leaves glabrous; racemes few to many. 
Leaves cordate. 
Sinus about 1 cm. deep. 
Sinus open; leaves acutely acuminate. 

D. moyobambensis. 

Sinus narrow; leaves obtuse, mucronulate. 

D. tambillensis. 
Sinus about 5 mm. deep. 

Leaves merely acute . .D. iquitosensis. 

Leaves often mucronate D. ramonensis. 

Leaves rounded at base D. apurimacensis. 



692 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves puberulent beneath; racemes many. 
Leaves large (to 1.5 dm.), with 9-13 nerves. 

D. Stegelmanniana. 
Leaves about half as large, the nerves fewer. 

D. tarmensis. 
D. Leaves very thin, rarely 4 cm. long, the cross veins 

obscure D. chancayensis. 

C. Flowers and glomerules sessile. 
Spikes usually simple or not corymbed with spreading 

branches. 

Leaves more or less lunate-cordate at base; stamens 3. 
Inflorescence often 1-2-branched ; leaves usually 6-10 

cm. wide D. polygonoides. 

Spikes simple; leaves rarely 5 cm. wide. .D. elegans. 

Leaves V-cordate at base; stamens 6 D. sandiensis. 

Spikes branched or corymbose. 
Spikes glabrous, as also the leaves. 

Leaves about 2.5 cm. wide D. apurimacensis. 

Leaves about 10 cm. wide D. perenensis. 

Rachis pubescent, as also the leaves beneath. 

D. arifolia. 
B. Flowers, at least male, solitary or mostly not definitely 

fasciculate. 
E. Flowers many, the stamens not connate. 

Leaves definitely pubescent beneath or the hairs fasciculate- 
stellate. 
Leaves cordate at base. 

Leaves 12-14-nerved D. grandis. 

Leaves 7-9-nerved. 

Inflorescence spicate, branching. 

Leaves glabrous above D. arifolia. 

Leaves minutely scabrous above (typically). 

D. amarantoides. 

Inflorescence racemose, simple D. calcensis. 

Leaves attenuate at base D. Pavonii. 

Leaves (mature) glabrous or merely scabrous or minutely 
puberulent on the nerves. 



FLORA OF PERU 693 

Flowers sessile. 

Spikes neither panicled nor corymbed (rarely in D. 
bulbifera). 

Leaves 9-nerved, more or less cordate; stems terete 
or subangled. 

Leaves deeply cordate. 

Spikes mostly 3 in each axil D. bulbi/era,' 

Spikes mostly solitary D. Poeppigii. 

Leaves shallowly cordate D. pozucoensis. 

Leaves 5-7-nerved, sub truncate; stems sometimes 
angled. 

Stems angled, herbaceous, slender. . . .D. riparia. 

Stems terete, subligneous, stout D. Klugii. 

Spikes paniculate or corymbose, at least the upper. 

Woody vine, the leaves 2-2.5 cm. wide. 

D. apurimacensis. 
Herbaceous, the leaves wider. 

Leaves conspicuously reticulate-veined and lus- 
trous above D. Macbrideana. 

Leaves neither conspicuously reticulate nor lus- 
trous. 

Leaf sinus 2-4 cm. deep D. chagllaensis. 

Leaf sinus about 1 cm. deep or shallower. 

Leaves somewhat bulging above the base; 
fruits about 1 cm. long. .D. nicolasensis. 

Leaves gradually narrowed to tip; fruit 
somewhat larger. 

Leaves more or less cordate at base; spikes 
to 4 cm. long D. amarantoides. 

Leaves truncate or subtruncate at base; 
spikes often longer. .D. pinedensis. 

Flowers pedicellate. 

Pedicels 5-8 mm. long or longer or the racemes very lax. 
Leaves 13-15-nerved. 

Stems scarcely if at all sulcate D. mitoensis. 

Stems deeply sulcate D. grandis. 



694 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves 5-9-nerved. 
Leaves 7-9-nerved, about 1 dm. long. 

D. piperifolia. 
Leaves 5(-7)-nerved, about half as long. 

D. quispicanchensis. 
Pedicels 1-4 mm. long (cf. D. piperifolia with very 

lax racemes). 
Male racemes rarely single, simple, or sometimes 

branched (D. coriacea). 
Petioles 1.5-3 cm. long. 

Stamens 6; leaf nerves glabrous or the pubes- 
cence minute. 

Leaves about 1 dm. long. . . .D. larecajensis. 
Leaves about half as long. 

Leaves thin, the veinlets obscure. 

D. chancayensis. 

Leaves firm, the veinlets obvious. 

D. syringaefolia. 

Stamens 3; leaves glabrous or arachnoid. 
Flowers 4-5 mm. broad; conspicuous nerves 

7-9 D. tayacajensis. 

Flowers half as broad; conspicuous nerves 3. 

D. incayensis. 

Petioles much shorter D. coriacea. 

Male racemes single, or branched. 
Leaves cordate-lanceolate, about 13 cm. long and 

9 cm. wide or smaller. 
Longer petioles to 6 cm.; stems about 3-4 

mm. thick. 
Inflorescence ample, much branched. 

D. Wittiana. 

Inflorescence simple or partly so.D. cakensis. 
Longer petioles to 2.5 cm. long; stems slenderer. 

D. coriacea. 
Leaves cordate-ovate or subrotund, the larger 

about 2 dm. broad. 

Stems rigid, subterete; style column very short. 

D. Haenkeana. 



FLORA OF PERU 695 

Stems sulcate-angled; style column elongate (?). 
Leaves not caudate-acuminate. 

D. dodecaneura. 
Leaves markedly caudate-acuminate. 

D. huallagensis. 

E. Flowers few (about 4) or sometimes 12 and the stamens 
connate. 

Leaves puberulent beneath. 

Sinus widely open D. monadelpha. 

Sinus closed below by the lobes D. mitoensis. 

Leaves glabrous or soon glabrous beneath . . . D. longirachis. 
A. Erect herb a few cm. high D. ancachsensis. 

Dioscorea ainensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 93. 1931. 

Stems 3-4 mm. thick, sulcate and minutely puberulent; leaves 
6-8 cm. remote, on slender petioles often 4.5 cm. long, 9-nerved, 
cordate-acuminate, incised 1 cm. at base, abruptly caudate, the 
acumen very acute, 1 cm. long; male racemes 6-10 cm. long, 1-3 in 
the axils or corymbed; fascicles 1-3-flowered, 2-4 mm. distant; 
perianth campanulate, 3-3.5 mm. long, the obtuse lanceolate lobes 
red-glandular-punctate, little exceeding the stamens. Sect. Macro- 
gynodium. 

Ayacucho: Aina, between Huanta and Rio Apurimac (Killip & 
Smith 2271*2}. 

Dioscorea amarantoides Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 134. 1827; 243. 

More or less pubescent or sometimes glabrous; leaves cordate- 
ovate or cordate-lanceolate, more or less scabrous above, 7-nerved, 
sometimes small or very large but usually about 1 dm. long and half 
as broad; petioles from 2.5 cm. long, typically, as the leaves beneath, 
villous; male spikes 2.5 to nearly 4 cm. long, congested in panicles 
as much as 4 dm. long; stamens 3; capsule 2 cm. wide and 13 mm. 
long. The principal Peruvian variations have been recorded by 
Knuth as var. cruminigera (Mart.) Uline, with oblong-ovate glaucous 
leaves with narrow sinuses; var. pendula (Poeppig) Knuth with the 
ovate-lanceolate leaves sparsely scabrous beneath; var. decorticans 
(Presl) Uline with elliptic-rotund leaves, these all pubescent; and 
vars. Ulei Knuth and paniculata Knuth, with glabrous leaves, in 
the latter with exceptionally elongate panicles. 



696 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2446b; Spruce 3899. Huanuco: 
(Haenke). Casapi, Poeppig 1074, type. Rio Acre, Ule 9171, 
9172, 91 73. Without locality: Ruiz & Pavdn. 

Dioscorea ancachsensis Knuth, Pflanzenr. IV. 43: 202. 1924. 

A glabrous, glaucous, nearly succulent, diminutive plant from a 
tuber 2 cm. thick, the branchlets square; male flowers many, in 
subumbellate fascicles; leaves cordate or triangular-rotund, about 
8 mm. long and broad, but the upper even smaller; female spikes 
solitary, 2-3-flowered; stamens 6; capsule apparently rotund- 
quadrangular. The specific name is from that of the department, 
which is sometimes spelled Ancach. Neg. 10419. 

Ancash: Prov. Pallasca, 3,800 meters, Weberbauer 7249, 7248. 

Dioscorea apurimacensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 94. 1931. 

A scandent but scarcely twining, glabrous plant with rather stout 
(4 mm. thick), subterete stems and oblong, abruptly and acutely 
acuminate leaves, the upper 5.5 cm. long, 2.5 cm. wide; petioles 
1-1.7 cm. long; racemes 5-11 cm. long, often corymbed, the inflores- 
cence to 4 dm. long; rachis naked for about 1 cm. ; capitulate verticels 
3-6 mm. distant; perianth pale, urceolate, the obtuse lobes about 
twice exceeding the small-anthered stamens. Sect. Cryptantha. 

Ayacucho: Valley of the Rio Apurimac, 400 meters (Killip & 
Smith 22938). 

Dioscorea arifolia Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 134. 1827; 245. 

Petioles (2.5 cm. long) and terete branches (except at tip) gla- 
brous; leaves subhastate-cordate, long-acuminate, 7-nerved, about 
1 dm. long and half as broad ; male peduncles to 3 dm. long, only the 
upper simple, the spikelets mostly in 3's, the rachis puberulent. 
Not clearly distinct from D. amarantoides. 

Peru: According to Presl. 

Dioscorea bulbifera L. Sp. PI. 1035. 1753; 88. 

Often well marked by the presence of aerial bulbs; leaves ample, 
thin, on petioles 6-14 cm. long provided at base with oblong-lanceo- 
late stipules; male spikes 3-10 cm. long; stamens 6, minute; female 
spikes 1-2.5 dm. long; flowers 4-5 mm. long, usually appressed; 
capsules oblong, 2.5 cm. long, 1.5 cm. broad. According to Klug, 
the Loreto name refers to the falling of the ripe "edible fruit" when 
touched. Widely cultivated or distributed; cf. Knuth, 38. Illus- 
trated, Pflanzenr. IV. 43: pi. 13; 19. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu near Iquitos, Klug 1015. "Toca y cae." 



FLORA OF PERU 697 

Dioscorea calcensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 30: 159. 1932. 

Stems striately sulcate, with the petioles (4-10 cm.), leaves 
beneath, and rachis puberulent; leaves broadly cordate-ovate, to 1 
dm. long and 8 cm. wide, often much smaller, thin, 9-11-nerved, the 
sinus broadly V-shaped, the apex markedly apiculate; male racemes 
solitary or with 1-2 shorter, the longer 1.5 dm.; pedicels filiform, 
about 4 mm. long; flowers turbinate-campanulate, nearly 3 mm. 
long; stamens 3; included; female spikes solitary; flowers about 3 
mm. wide; capsules about 17 mm. long, 7 mm. wide, the seeds winged 
toward the apex. 

Cuzco: Lares Valley, Prov. Calca, 1,400 meters, Weberbauer 
7928, 7928a. 

Dioscorea callacatensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 83. 1930. 

More or less branching, glabrous, the scarcely sulcate stems 2 mm. 
thick above; leaves lanceolate, rounded at base or slightly cordate, 
gradually narrowed and very acute at apex, papery, often 7 cm. 
long and 1.5 cm. wide at base; petioles 1 cm. long; racemes 2.5-5 
cm. long, the peduncle 1 cm. long, like the rachis filiform; pedicels 
1 mm. long; flowers subcampanulate, 1.5 mm. broad; stamens 3. 
With D. elegans the only Peruvian species of the section Hyper ocar pa. 

Cajamarca: Cayacati, Raimondi. 

Dioscorea chagllaensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 88. 1930. 

Glabrous, tall, the stems slightly sulcate, 3 mm. thick, the inter- 
nodes often 1 dm. long; leaves papery, to 1.5 dm. long and 9 cm. wide 
but often smaller, elongate-ovate with a basal sinus 2 cm. deep, 
gradually and acutely acuminate; nerves 9 or 11; petioles slender, 
sometimes 6 cm. long; male inflorescence much branched, to 9 dm. 
long, the rachis puberulent; flowers nearly 2 mm. wide; stamens 6; 
female racemes glabrous, in flower 1 dm. long, greatly elongating in 
fruit; capsules 15 mm. long and broad, brown, quadrate, the angles 
rounded; seeds 5 mm. long and broad, winged. High on tree tops. 

Huanuco: Chaclla, 2,800 meters, 3651, type. Loreto: Mishu- 
yacu, Klug 168. 

Dioscorea chancayensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 81. 1930. 

Glabrous, scarcely tall, the stems slender; leaves alternate, 1-1.5 
dm. distant, thin, about 5 cm. long, triangular with cordate base, 
acute, 9-nerved, the 3-nerved area narrowly lanceolate, the basal 
lobes rounded; petioles often 3 cm. long; male racemes to 4.5 cm. 



698 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

long, 1 to many in the leaf axils; pedicels 1-2 mm. long; flowers a 
little over 1 mm. long, deeply parted; stamens 6, the filaments free. 
Allied to D. sandiensis. 

Lima: Pativilca, Chancai, 200 meters, Weberbauer 7486. 

Dioscorea coriacea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 794. 
1806; 116. D. saliva Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 134. 1827, not L. 

Glabrous, the angulate stems ligneous; leaves variable in shape, 
size, and texture, but distinctive by the very short petioles; male 
racemes often floriferous to base, typically but not always 3-5 in the 
leaf axils; pedicels 2-4 mm. long; perianth 2.5-3.5 mm. broad, the 
segments oblong; stamens 3. 

Huanuco: (Presl). Mito, 1840. Playapampa, 3,000 meters, 
4481. Junin; La Merced, 5758. Ranging to Colombia and 
Venezuela. 

Dioscorea cubijensis Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
202. 1917; 129. 

Similar to D. trifoliata, but the petioles and the nerves of the 
leaves beneath more or less setosely ciliate; flowers rather remote 
and sessile, minute, 1-1.5 mm. broad. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Cubija, Ule 9379. Iquitos, Tessmann 5359. 

Dioscorea dodecaneura Veil. Fl. Flum. 10: pi. 123. 1827; 249. 

A glabrous vine with thin, cordate-ovate or orbicular, long- 
petioled, 9-11-nerved leaves and solitary or geminate, simple or 
laxly branched racemes; stamens 6; capsules 2 cm. long and 4 cm. 
broad. Frequently grown in conservatories. D. discolor Knuth, 
slightly pubescent, the leaves purplish beneath, is scarcely distinct. 
Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 43: 249. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9177. Junin: Chanchamayo, Raimondi 
(det. Knuth as D. discolor). 

Dioscorea elegans Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 83. 1930. 

Very smooth, to 3 meters high, with simple, scarcely sulcate 
stems to 2 mm. thick; leaves cordate-ovate, to 7 cm. long and 5 cm. 
broad, contracted-acuminate, thin; spikes many in the axils, to 1.5 
dm. long, the flowerless portion 3-4 cm. long; flowers sessile in glom- 
erules of 2-4, crateriform, parted three-fourths of the way to the 
base, about 2.5 mm. long; stamens 3. In shrubs. 

Cuzco: Marcapata, 2,800 meters, Weberbauer 7815. 



FLORA OF PERU 699 

Dioscorea grandis Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 194. 
1917; 105. 

A robust, finally glabrate vine with deeply sulcate stems and 
large cordate-ovate leaves to 2 dm. long and nearly as broad, with 
lobes 7 cm. long; petioles (to 1 dm. long) and leaf nerves beneath 
scabrous; male inflorescence densely and somewhat viscidly puberu- 
lent; perianth segments lance-spatulate, 3-4 mm. long; stamens 6. 
Neg. 10522. 

Puno: Sandia, 2,300 meters, Weberbauer 629, 630, 

Dioscorea Haenkeana Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 135. 1827; 248. 

Glabrous, with firm 9-11-nerved leaves about 2 dm. long and 17 
cm. broad; male racemes much branched ; perianth segments reflexed, 
the tube campanulate; stamens 6. Perhaps a variety of D. ama- 
zonum Griseb., which probably will be found in Peru and which has 
somewhat smaller leaves, 8-15 cm. long and broad, and 7-nerved. 
Neg. 10451. 

Peru: Haenke. 

Dioscorea huallagensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 95. 1931. 

Known only from a sterile specimen, but apparently of sect. 
Lasiogyne and related to D. dodecaneura; glabrous; stems 3 mm. 
thick; leaves 3-7 cm. distant, about 9 cm. long and 7.5 cm. wide, 
cordate, the base most obtusely incised to 1.2-1.7 cm., gradually 
narrowed to an acute acumen 1-1.2 cm. long, this usually dilated at 
the middle; petioles about 7 cm. long, 1.5 mm. thick. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, on the lower Rio Huallaga, 135 meters 
(Killip & Smith 27660). 

Dioscorea incayensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 85. 1930. 

Among Peruvian species nearest D. coriacea but the racemes not 
floriferous below, on peduncles to 2 cm. long, often with the lower 
flowers male, the upper female, and the perianth 2 mm. broad, with 
ovate-lanceolate segments; filaments very fleshy; capsule 14 mm. 
long, 7.5 mm. broad. 

Cuzco; Incay, valley of the Urubamba, 2,950 meters (Herrera 
2300, 2993). Cajamarca: Tambillo, Prov. Cutervo (Raimondi 
7248). 

Dioscorea iquitosensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 94. 1931. 

Quite glabrous, with round stems 2 mm. thick; leaves 3-6 cm. 

remote, ovate-oblong, 5-nerved, often 6.5 cm. long and 3-5 cm. wide, 



700 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

borne on petioles about 3 cm. long; female racemes solitary, to 27 
cm. long, flowerless for 3-4 cm. above the base; capsules numerous, 
27 mm. broad, 16 mm. long, the wings somewhat rounded; seed wing 
12-13 mm. wide, the seed itself 3 mm. wide. Sect. Cryptantha. 
Loreto: Iquitos (Killip & Smith 27315). 

Dioscorea Klugii Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 30: 158. 1932. 

A dark-stemmed vine with beautiful reticulate- veined parchment- 
like subrotund-ovate leaves to 12 cm. long and 8 cm. wide, abruptly 
caudate-acuminate; distinct nerves only 5; petioles rather slender, 
about 3 cm. long; male racemes simple, solitary, slender, 1.5 dm. long, 
closely flowered; flowers deep lilac, tubular, nearly 3 mm. long; 
stamens 6. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu near Iquitos, Klug 344- 

Dioscorea larecajensis Uline, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
195. 1917; 108. 

A ligneous vine with glabrous angulate stems and ovate-acumin- 
ate, cordate-based, simply 9-nerved leaves about 1 dm. long and 6 
cm. broad; male racemes mostly 3 in the axils, about equaling the 
leaves; perianth purple, 2.5 mm. wide; stamens 6; capsule deflexed, 
8 mm. wide and twice as long. There is a good illustration in 
Pflanzenr. IV. 43: 109. 

Peru: Ruiz. Ecuador; Bolivia. 

Dioscorea longirachis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 30: 159. 1932. 

With flaccid angled stems and very thin leaves, the latter some- 
times conspicuously but very evanescently pilose in youth; mature 
leaves cordate-oblong, acuminate, about 12 cm. long, 4-5 cm. wide, 
5- or incompletely 7-nerved, glabrous, repandly and remotely sub- 
crenate or entire; racemes solitary, simple, about 8-flowered, on a 
peduncle several cm. long; flowers greenish, when spread open 7 
mm. wide; stamen column conspicuous. Suggests D. monadelpha 
Griseb. and was once referred by the author to D. Demourae Uline 
(originally spelled De Mourae). The racemes of both these species 
are floriferous to near the base. 

Cuzco: Marcapata Valley, 2,500 meters, Weberbauer 7862. 

Dioscorea Macbrideana Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 87. 1930. 

Glabrous and moderately tall, with subligneous slender purple 
stems 1 mm. thick, the internodes about 4 cm. long; leaves rather 
firm, cordate-ovate, 1 dm. long and 4-5 cm. broad; sinus of the leaves 



FLORA OF PERU 701 

to 1.5 cm. deep, somewhat rounded at the juncture with the purple 
petioles, these 1.5-2.5 cm. long; male inflorescence elongate, the 
remote simple spicate branches about 5 cm. long; flowers tiny; 
stamens three; fruiting racemes united into corymbs 1.5 dm. wide, 
7-8 dm. long; capsules very numerous, 2 cm. broad, half as long, 
light brown; seeds with the wing 6 mm. wide, the wing itself half as 
broad. On shaded shrubs. 

Junin: La Merced, 5347, type. Loreto: Caballo-cocha, Williams 
2460. 

Dioscorea mitoensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 84. 1930. 

Similar in aspect to D. monadelpha, but the leaves often larger, 
the pedicels to 1.5 cm. long, and the perianth segments broadly 
obovate. A beautiful plant with large flowers borne gracefully on 
almost filiform pedicels. 

Huanuco: Cani, near Mito, 2,700 meters, 3449. 

Dioscorea monadelpha Griseb. Kj0b. Vid. Medd. 164. 1875; 
126. D. lagoa-santa Uline ex Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
201. 1917. 

A glabrous or minutely puberulent vine with 8-9-nerved leaves 
varying from orbiculate-ovate to oblong and from broadly cordate to 
hastate at base, 7-8 cm. long and 5 cm. wide; flowers campanulate, 
greenish purple, 8 mm. broad, on long filiform pedicels; stamens 3, 
the fleshy filaments connate into a column 2-4 mm. high; capsule 
elliptic, 12-16 mm. long. Well marked by the stamen structure. 
Knuth adopts Uline's name because of the existence of Helmia 
monadelpha Knuth, which is known correctly by another name. 

Puno: Sandia, 3,000 meters, Weberbauer 653, 668a. Cuzco: 
Lares Valley, Weberbauer 7902. Bolivia; Brazil; Uruguay. 

Dioscorea moyobambensis Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
7: 185. 1917; 54. 

A glabrous vine with terete slender stems and lance-ovate, 
abruptly and acutely acuminate leaves about 8 cm. long, openly 
cordate at base, the lobes about 1 cm. long; petioles often 4 cm. long; 
male spikes 2-3 in the axils; perianth subrotate, 3 mm. wide; stamens 
6; capsule 2 cm. long and 8 mm. wide. Flowers sordid violet; open 
savanna woods. D. Traillii Knuth is to be expected; its spikes are 
solitary and its flowers sessile. Neg. 10475. 

San Martin: North of Moyobamba, 1,100 meters, Weberbauer 
4621 ; 289. 



702 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Dioscorea nicolasensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 94. 1931. 

Slender and glabrous-stemmed, but the leaf nerves beneath 
minutely puberulent; leaves 5-6 cm. distant, ovate-lanceolate, about 
1 dm. long and half as wide, gradually and acutely acuminate, the 
petioles about 3 cm. long; male spikes 1-2, the upper corymbose, 1.5 
dm. long; flowers solitary, 2-3 mm. distant; perianth subglobose, 
1 mm. long, the ovate acutish lobes definitely longer than the 
stamens. Thick woods. Sect. Triapodandra. 

Junin: San Nicolas, 1,100 meters (Killip & Smith 26075, type). 
San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 6146. 

Dioscorea Pavonii Uline ex Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
7: 215. 1917; 243. 

Similar to forms of S. amarantoides, but the thin, densely pellucid- 
punctate leaves obovate and shortly attenuate at base into a petiole 
only 3-5 mm. long; blades rounded at the obliquely mucronate tip, 
4 cm. long, 2 cm. broad, 3-nerved; female spikes simple; perianth 
campanulate; style column very short. Neg. 10485. 

Peru: Pavdn. 

Dioscorea perenensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 92. 1931. 

Glabrous, the scarcely or not at all sulcate stems 4 mm. thick; 
leaves 9-15 cm. remote, glaucous, ovate, often 1.5 dm. long, 11 cm. 
broad, obtusely incised for 1.2-2 cm. at base, acute, 7-9-nerved; 
petioles often 4.5 cm. long; male spikes corymbed, 7-8 cm. long, 
flowerless for 1 cm. above base; verticels 2-5 mm. distant; perianth 
globose, 1-1.2 mm. broad; stamens 6. Sect. Sphaerantha. 

Junin: Colonia Perene", 680 meters (Killip & Smith 25414.). 

Dioscorea pinedensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 95. 1931. 

Stems lightly sulcate, 4 mm. thick, glabrous; petioles 5-6 cm. 
long; leaves drying very thin, scabrous, puberulent on the nerves 
beneath or glabrous, elongate- triangular-hastate, often 14 cm. long, 
5.5 cm. wide at the retuse (1 cm. deep) base slightly narrowed at the 
very acute tip; male inflorescence to 3 dm. long, the branches about 
1 dm. long; flowers 2 mm. long, approximate; stamens 3; capsules to 
2.5 cm. wide, 1.2-1.5 cm. long, the reddish yellow seed wing 6 mm. 
wide, the seed 2 mm. Sect. Struthantha. 

Junin: Rio Pinedo, north of La Merced (Killip & Smith 23610), 
type. Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 7823. Iquitos or near, 
Williams 8096, 7994; King 968. 



FLORA OF PERU 703 

Dioscorea piperifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 
795. 1806; 107. D. maynensis Kunth, Enum. 5: 357. 1850. 

Allied to D. larecajensis, but the leaves 7-9-nerved, the male 
racemes often solitary and, particularly, the flowers on slender 
pedicels 5-8 mm. long. The racemes are very lax. Weberbauer 
found the plant in a mixed formation of shrubs and herbs. See also 
D. pozucoensis, known only in fruit. Neg. 10530. 

Loreto: Mainas, Poeppig. San Martin: Tarapoto (Spruce). 
Cajamarca: Below San Pablo, 2,250 meters, Weberbauer 3852. 
Colombia; Ecuador; Brazil. 

Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 
795. 1806; 215. 

Glabrous; stems subangulate, 2 mm. thick; leaves deeply but 
broadly cordate at base, medium-sized, 5-7-nerved or to 11-nerved 
on female plants; spikes usually simple, often 2 and sometimes 5 
dm. long; perianth green; fertile stamens 3; capsule 2-2.5 cm. long, 
2 cm. broad. Male plants are characterized by the remote dense 
little glomerules of flowers on the elongate rachis. 

Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi. Loreto: Mishuyacu, near 
Iquitos, King 1088, 164. 

Dioscorea Poeppigii Kunth, Enum. 5: 365. 1850; 83. 

A high-climbing glabrous liana with subangulate stems 6 mm. 
thick or thicker, and with large, deeply cordate (the basal lobes to 
3.5 cm. long) leaves on petioles 6-7 cm. long; spikes solitary in the 
axils, 3-4 dm. long, much longer than the leaves; perianth subrotate, 
5 mm. broad; stamens 6. Compare D. chagllaensis. Neg. 10489. 

Loreto: Mainas, Poeppig 2356. 

Dioscorea pozucoensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 86. 1930. 

Glabrous, high-climbing, the simple or branched stems 4 mm. 
thick, densely and minutely tuberculate; leaves firm, often 12 cm. 
long and about half as wide, oblong, shallowly cordate at base, rather 
abruptly contracted at apex to a mucronate tip 5 mm. long, with 9 
subparallel nerves; petioles about 2 cm. long; fruiting racemes 2-3 
dm. long, often united; capsule 3 cm. long and nearly 2 cm. broad; 
seeds 5 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, with a wing 2 mm. wide. Flowers 
unknown. The name is from a modification of the locality name. 

Huanuco: Posuso, 700 meters, 4641- 



704 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Dioscorea putisensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 82. 1930. 

A high-climbing, entirely glabrous vine with somewhat sulcate 
stems 2-3 mm. thick; leaves about 1 dm. distant, 1 dm. long, about 
6 cm. broad, semilunate at base, very acutely acuminate; male 
racemes floriferous to base, often 1 dm. long, frequently many in the 
leaf axils and corymbose; flowers 2-2.5 mm. long, in verticels of 1-4, 
the pedicels 1-3 mm. long; stamens 6. A member of the same group 
(sect. Dematostemon) as D. tambillensis. 

Ayacucho: Putis, Choimacota Valley, 3,200 meters, Weberbauer 
7534, 7588. 

Dioscorea quispicanchensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 
93. 1931. 

Glabrous, the smooth stems scarcely 1 mm. thick; leaves 6-8 cm. 
distant, lanceolate, 4 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, narrowly incised for 2 
mm. at base, gradually narrowed to the acute tip, on petioles only 
3-5 mm. long; male racemes 4-7 cm. long, 1-2 in the axils, basally 
naked for 1-2 cm.; flowers solitary, 2-5 mm. distant, the filaments 
5 mm. long, filiform; perianth stellately spreading, 4 mm. wide, the 
lanceolate lobes twice as long as the 3 stamens; female raceme 4 
cm. long, the few capsules 1 cm. long, 6.5 mm. broad. The type 
monoecious. Sect. Cycladenium. 

Cuzco: Marcapata, Prov. Quispicanchi, Weberbauer 7810. 

Dioscorea ramonensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 29: 95. 1931. 

Of the same section as D. iquitosensis and similar to that species, 
but the stems slightly angled, the leaves more lanceolate, to 10 cm. 
long and 4 cm. wide, usually with a mucro 3 mm. long, the racemes 
shorter, and the capsules smaller. 

Junin: San Ramon (Killip & Smith 24903). 

Dioscorea riparia Kunth & Schomb. in Kunth, Enum. 5: 364. 
1850; 83. 

Similar to D. Poeppigii, but the much smaller leaves rounded- 
truncate at base and the perianth 4 mm. broad. Stems and espe- 
cially the petioles slender. Neg. 10494. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9170. Mainas, Poeppig 2138. Without 
locality (Pavdn). British Guiana; Brazil. 

Dioscorea sandiensis Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
192. 1917; 56. 



FLORA OF PERU 705 

A tall slender vine with few if any branches and with cordate- 
lanceolate 7-nerved leaves about 7 cm. long; male spikes 1-1.5 dm. 
long, 1-3 in the axils; flowers sessile, campanulate, green, 2 mm. wide; 
stamens 6, the filaments connate. In dense shrubs. Allied to D. 
campestris Griseb. (to be expected in Peru) with 5-nerved leaves. 
Neg. 10497. 

Puno: Sandia, Weberbauer 668. 

Dioscorea Stegelmanniana Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
7: 203. 1917; 162. 

A tall, robust, more or less densely puberulent-tomentose vine; 
leaves deeply cordate at base, about 1.5 dm. long and broad; flowers 
racemosely fasciculate in ample panicles; perianth 3 mm. long; 
stamens 6. Allied to D. trifida. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 43: 163. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9178. Junin: La Merced, Killip & Smith. 

Dioscorea syringaefolia Kunth & Schomb. ex Schomb. Faun. 
Fl. Guian. 1119. 1848; 107. Helmia syringaefolia Kunth, Enum. 
5:423. 1850. 

Similar to D. piperifolia but the leaves often smaller and always 
firmer, the racemes strict, and the pedicels shorter. The specimen 
cited is minutely scabrous on the leaf nerves beneath. Neg. 10542. 

Cuzco: Marcapata Valley, Weberbauer 7839. 

Dioscorea tambillensis Knuth, Repert. Sp. Nov. 28: 81. 1930. 

Glabrous; leaves nearly coriaceous, deeply (1 cm.) cordate, 
slightly contracted at the obtuse mucronulate apex, often 11 cm. 
long, 7-nerved, the 3 middle nerves forming a lanceolate-ovate area; 
cross veins beneath slender; petioles often 2.5 mm. thick; male 
racemes to nearly 3 dm. long; flowers campanulate, 2 mm. long or 
longer; stamens 6, the filaments connate. Related to D. moyo- 
bambensis, but the racemes often floriferous to the base. 

Cajamarca: Tambillo, Prov. Cutervo (Raimondi 3346). 

Dioscorea tarmensis Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
188. 1917; 60. 

A relative of D.. moyobambensis and D. sandiensis; petioles 1.5-2 
cm. long; male spikes often numerous in each leaf axil; flowers 
pedicellate. Neg. 10505. 

Junin: West of Huacapistana, 2,600 meters, Weberbauer 2180. 



706 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Dioscorea tayacajensis Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
212. 1917; 234. 

A slender little-branched glabrous-stemmed vine with lanceolate- 
hastate, conspicuously 9-nerved leaves about 1 dm. long and half as 
wide; petioles filiform, 2.5-3.5 mm. long; perianth subcampanulate, 
4-5 mm. broad; stamens 3; female spikes solitary; capsule about 
1 cm. long and 6 mm. broad. 

Huancavelica: Mantaro Valley, 2,200 meters, Weberbauer 6445, 
6566. 

Dioscorea trifida L. f. Suppl. PL 427. 1781; 158. D. Ruiziana 
Klotzsch ex Kunth, Enum. 5: 374. 1850. 

This widely distributed species, well marked by its lobed leaves, 
is probably more common in Peru than the known collections indicate. 
In at least a part of its range its stems and tubers are the source of 
an arrow poison (Cheney). 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2386. Mishuyacu, Klug 976, 
1157, 1109. Cashoboga, Tessmann 5501. Huanuco: Chicoplaya, 
Ruiz. "Sacha papa," "cush-cush." 

Dioscorea trifoliata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 275. 1816; 129. 

Leaves mostly trifoliolate; racemes simple or branched; male 
flowers shortly pediceled; anthers 3, minute; capsule oblong. 
Probably represented in Peru only by the var. amazonica Knuth with 
flowers twice as large (about 5 mm. broad) as the type. The some- 
what similar D. crotalarifolia Uline may be found in Peru; it has 6 
stamens. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 43: 130. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9134, 9135. Brazil; Venezuela. 

Dioscorea trisecta Griseb. Kj0b. Vid. Medd. 159. 1875; 169. 

Very well marked among the Peruvian species by its 3 small 
oblong-lanceolate acuminate leaflets and its tightly clustered flowers; 
petioles 2-4 mm. long; male spikes to 3 dm. long; stamens 6; capsules 
3 cm. long, 2 cm. wide, obsoletely winged, the elliptic seeds winged 
all around. 258. 

Loreto: Mainas (Poeppig}. Yurimaguas, Williams 7865. Brazil. 

Dioscorea Weberbaueri Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 
205. 1917; 198. 

A glabrous twining plant with almost filiform stems only a few 
dm. long; leaves about 1.5 cm. wide, cordate-lanceolate; male spikes 
often with a lateral branch at the base; flowers subsessile, greenish, 



FLORA OF PERU 707 

2-3.5 mm. wide; stamens 6. In a dense society of shrubs and herbs. 
Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 43. 198. 

Cajamarca: Above San Pablo, 2,500 meters, Weberbauer3834; 257. 

Dioscorea Wittiana Knuth, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 194. 
1917; 105. 

Closely related to D. grandis, but the leaves sometimes 13 cm. 
long and 9 cm. wide and only 9-nerved, the sinus widely open; 
inflorescence glabrous or minutely pubescent; perianth segments 
shorter than 2 mm. Neg. 10546. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9169. 

32. IRIDACEAE. Iris Family 

Reference: Baker, Handbook Irideae, 1892. 
Iris pallida Lam. was collected by me as an escape, apparently 
established. Particularly the yellow-flowered Sisyrinchiums are 
conspicuous in May and June in the grass formations of middle 
(3,000-3,500 meters) elevations. Tigridias and probably other 
members of the family are said to be used for the dye they supply. 
Segments of the flowers similar or not strongly dissimilar; style 

branches alternate with the anthers. 
Bulbous plants. 

Flowers white; style branches petaloid 1. Cipura. 

Flowers usually blue or greenish; style branches bifid. 

2. Nemastylis. 

Rhizomatous plants with more or less fleshy roots. 
Perianth tube obsolete. 
Capsules exserted; small, tufted or slender plants. 

3. Sisyrinchium. 

Capsules included; coarse plants 4. Orthrosanthus. 

Perianth tube developed 5. Symphyostemon. 

Segments of the flowers definitely dissimilar in size or shape; style 
branches opposite the anthers. 

Style branches not winged, deeply divided 6. Tigridia. 

Style branches winged-lobed 7. Cypella. 

1. CIPURA Aubl. 

Perianth tube obsolete, the outer segments spreading, the inner 
erect. Style branches alternate with the stamens. Stems simple, 



708 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

bearing several small spathes with usually a number of very fugitive, 
pale lilac flowers in each one. 

Cipura paludosa Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 38. pi. 13. 1775; 105. 

Spathes sessile or nearly so, bracted by the upper leaves; inner 
perianth segments with 2 yellow blotches near the base. Illustrated, 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 1: pi. 64. 

Huanuco: Vitoc, Ruiz. Brazil to Cuba and Mexico. 

2. NEMASTYLIS Nutt. 

Bulbs with many brown coats. Stems leafy. Inflorescences 
1-several, pedunculate, with 1-several pedicellate, evanescent, 
usually blue flowers. Perianth tube lacking. Stamens more or less 
united. Style branches bifid. 

Flowers greenish, with purple dots N. Huyanae. 

Flowers violet-blue, blue, or purple. 

Filament column about as long as the anthers N. Pearcei. 

Filament column very short N. purruchucana. 

Nemastylis Huyanae Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 13. 1931. 

Stems 1 to several dm. high, bulbous in the axil of the lowest 
leaf, usually simple, much shorter than the very long-acuminate 
lowest leaf; leaves 2; inflorescence terminal, simple, the flowers 
several; spathes subequal, acuminate, about 4-5 cm. long; flowers 
1 cm. long; filament column a little shorter than the anthers which 
scarcely equal the style branches. Named for King Huyana, 
father of the last kings of the Incas, Huascar and Atahuallpa. 
Moist rocky slopes. 

Lima: Matucana, 469, 829(1} . 

Nemastylis Pearcei Baker, Handb. Irid. 114. 1892. 

Usually several dm. high, often assurgent below, with 1 to several 
inflorescences and a number of long, strongly veined leaves; spathes 
3 to often 5 cm. long, usually several-flowered; flowers about 2 cm. 
long, velvety, deep purple; style branches overtopping the anthers 
(typically) or shorter. Perhaps more than one species, but fresh 
or formalin material is necessary. The leaves sometimes are a little 
longer than the stems. Grassy, often rocky hillsides. 

Lima: Matucana, 355; 151. Huanuco: Northeast of Huanuco, 
2155 (det. Diels). Mi to, 3379; (Pearce 85}. Cajamarca: Cascas, 



FLORA OF PERU 709 

Raimondi. Amazonas: Bagua to Chachapoyas, Raimondi. Cuzco: 
(Herrera 555). "Michi-michi," "supai-ttica." 

Nemastylis purruchucana (Herb.) Benth. ex Baker, Handb. 
Irid. 114. 1892. Gelasine purruchucana Herb. Bot. Mag. 66: under 
pi. 3779. 1840. 

Flowers about 2.5 cm. long; filament column very short; other- 
wise apparently like N. Pearcei. Herbert named, under Gelasine, 
two varieties, one with leaf-like and the other with filiform bracts. 
He also credited the origin of N. grandiflora (Herb.) Benth. collected 
by Jameson in Ecuador, to Peru. 

Lima: (Mathews 784). Lurin, 60 meters, 5988 (det. Diels). 

3. SISYRINCHIUM L. 

Slender short-rhizomatous herbs of grassy slopes, with usually 
narrowly 2-edged stems, grass-like leaves, and several, rarely soli- 
tary, pedicellate flowers exserted from a single spathe. Perianth 
tube nearly obsolete. Filaments free or somewhat united. Style 
rather long, the branches entire. Species imperfectly known and 
distinguishable with difficulty, since few of the characters are always 
constant or easily discerned. So two keys follow, in an attempt to 
simplify identification according to condition of material. 

Key to flowering specimens 
Flowers deep to pale yellow throughout, often brown-veined. 

Plants tall, 8-10 dm. high; leaves 7-8 mm. wide; flowers 17 mm. 
long S. praealtum. 

Plants usually lower, leaves narrower, flowers smaller, or in one 
respect different from S. praealtum. 

Filaments united into a column. 
Spathes usually several-flowered; stems tall. 
Stems flat, distinctly winged, often branched. 

S. iridifolium. 

Stems terete or wiry, scarcely margined, strict. .S. trinerve. 
Spathes 1-3-flowered; stems very short. 

Flowers pedicellate; spathes acute, 6-8 mm. long. 

S. pusillum. 
Flowers subsessile; spathes blunt, 4-5 mm. long. 

S. brevipes. 



710 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Filaments free nearly or quite to the base. 
Stems broadly winged, with 1 to several leaves. 

Leaves not ensiform or ribbed S. convolutum. 

Leaves ensiform, ribbed S. palmifolium. 

Stems narrowly if at all margined, usually leafless. 
Stems fibrous-coated at base, tall. 

Flower cluster terminal S. Jamesonii. 

Flower cluster overtopped by the bract . . S. caespitificum. 

Fibers at base lacking; plant small S. palustre. 

Flowers not yellow, unless at base, sometimes white. 
Flower clusters often pseudo-lateral or leafy-bracted; plant rarely 

less than 1 dm. high, or the bract not greatly elongate. 
Stems flat, narrowly margined. 

Leaves flaccid ; pedicels soon exserted S. chilense. 

Leaves rigid; pedicels rarely exserted S. rigidifolium. 

Stems terete, somewhat fistulose; leaves weak; pedicels soon 

exserted S. junceum. 

Flower cluster terminal ; alpine plants, rarely if ever 1 dm. high, or 
the bract 3-4-times exceeding the flower cluster. 

S. porphyreum. 
Key to sterile or fruiting specimens 

Diminutive alpine species usually only a few cm. high. 
Plants without fibers at base; pedicels well exserted. . .S. palustre. 
Plants with fibers at base, or these sometimes few but the pedicels 
included or nearly so. 

Spathes foliaceous .S. porphyreum. 

Spathes not foliaceous. 

Flowers pedicellate; spathes acute, 6-8 mm. long. 

S. pusillum. 

Flowers subsessile; spathes blunt, 4-5 mm. long. . .S. brevipes. 
Plants with well-developed stems, rarely as low as 1 dm. 

Plants tall, 8-10 dm.; leaves 7-8 mm. wide; flowers 17 mm. long. 

S. praealtum. 
Plants usually lower, leaves narrower, flowers smaller, or in one 

respect different. 

Stems flat or distinctly wing-margined, often branched. 
Leaves ensiform, ribbed S. palmifolium. 



FLORA OF PERU 711 

Leaves neither ensiform nor distinctly nerve-ribbed. 

Stems straight or nearly so; leaves firm S. convolution. 

Stems angled; leaves soft S. iridifolium. 

Stems terete or flat and narrowly margined. 
Stems wire-like, or flattened but the leaves flaccid. 
Stems wire-like. 

Stems not fibrous at base S. junceum. 

Stems distinctly fibrous at base S. trinerve. 

Stems flattened S. chilense. 

Stems flattened and rigid, as also the leaves, very fibrous at 

base. 
Bract not greatly elongate. 

Leaves to 2 mm. wide S. Jamesoni. 

Leaves to 3 mm. wide S. rigidifolium. 

Bract greatly overtopping the flower cluster. 

S. caespitificum. 

Sisyrinchium brevipes Baker Handb. Irid. 130. 1892. 

Stems very slender, subterete, leafless, 1 dm. long or less, nearly 
equaled by the narrowly linear leaves; spathes to 12 mm. long, the 
outer with a broad white edge; flowers yellow, 5 mm. long, the 
segments broad; filaments united. Many fibers of old leaves present 
about the base of the plant. Steep grassy hillsides. 

Junin: Rio Blanco, 2978, 744 (det. Diels). Yauli, 4,400 meters, 
Weberbauer 322 (det. Diels). Cuzco: Herrera 192. 

Sisyrinchium caespitificum Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 242. 1908. 

Densely tufted, with more or less of the old leaves evident about 
the base, the aspect juncaceous; stems 3.5 dm. high, the leaves to 
2 dm. long; flower cluster exceeded by a linear pungent bract; 
flowers about 6, 5 mm. wide, the petals oblong; filaments free. 
Compared by the author with S. trinerve, to which the Pearce speci- 
men was originally referred by Baker, but later questioned. Doubt- 
fully distinct from S. Jamesoni, unless by the more robust habit and 
elongate bract. Neg. 10879. 

Ancash: Above Huaras, 4,000 meters, Weberbauer 3089; 226. 
Huanuco: (Pearce 87?). 

Sisyrinchium chilense Hook. Bot. Mag. 54: pi. 2786. 1827; 124. 

Stems 2 to several dm. high, more or less angulate, narrowly 

winged above, with often 4-6, sometimes 12-20 winged peduncles, 



712 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

each leafy-bracted ; basal leaves soft, shorter; spathes 3-6-flowered ; 
flowers lilac, with a yellow base, 12 mm. long; filaments united; 
capsules globose. S. azureum Phil., reported by Hicken from Prov. 
Canchis, Cuzco, is probably this species, to which Baker referred 
Philippi's plant. The Peruvian plant usually has only 1-2 flower 
clusters. Collections cited all determined by Diels. 14. 

Cuzco: Sacsahuaman, 3,500 meters, Pennell 13595 (dwarf form; 
det. Diels); Herrera2355,449. Without locality, Pavon. Huanuco: 
Chinche, 3,450 meters, 1275. Yanahuanca, 3,000 meters, 1241. 
Mito, 2,700 meters, 1779, 3423. Huariaca, 2,850 meters, 3115 
Junin: Rio Blanco, 4,500 meters, 805, 2967. Ayacucho: Weber- 
bauer 5503. Cajamarca: Cutervo, Raimondi. Mexico to Argentina 
and Chile. "Pfalco-ccollanan," "pascua-ccollanan." 

Sisyrinchium convolutum Nocca, PL Select. Hort. Ticin. 
pll. 1800; 128. 

Stems about 3 dm. high, usually branched, longer than the weak 
basal leaves; spathes 2.5 cm. long; flowers 12 mm. long, bright 
yellow, brown- veined ; anthers linear; capsule oblong. A species 
well marked by the broadly winged stems, often 5 mm. wide. 

Huanuco: Cani, near Mito, 3481 (det. Diels). Pillao, Ruiz. 
Puno: Sandia, Weberbauer 238. Junin: Huacapistana, 2,600 meters, 
Weberbauer 2188 (det. Kranzlin). 

Sisyrinchium iridifolium HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 324. 
1816; 128. 

One to several dm. high, with 2-3 branches and as many reduced 
leaves, the basal leaves weak and much shorter; spathes 4-6-flowered, 
2.5-4 cm. long; flowers pale yellow, with brown veins, 12 mm. long; 
anthers small, oblong; capsule turbinate. Neg. 10887. 

Cajamarca: Raimondi. Huanuco: (Haenke). Chinchao, Ruiz. 
Ayacucho: Pampalca, 3,200 meters, Killip & Smith 23261(1). 
Widely distributed in South America. 

Sisyrinchium Jamesoni Baker, Journ. Bot. 14: 269. 1876; 126. 

Densely tufted, with narrow stems winged above, to 2 dm. high, 
rather longer than the linear rigid leaves; spathes 2-4-flowered, the 
outer over 2.5 cm. long; flowers 8 mm. long; capsule oblong. 

Cuzco: Cuzco, 3,600 meters, Hen era 2392, 2356. Ecuador. 

Sisyrinchium junceum E. Mey. ex Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 118. 
1827; 123. S. Weberbauerianum Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 240. 1908. 



FLORA OF PERU 713 

Stems 3-6 dm. long, ending in a long whip-like bract subtending 
one sessile or several peduncled flower clusters; basal leaves 2-3; 
spathes narrow, often less than 2 cm. long, few- to many-flowered; 
flowers 8-12 mm. long, rose-red or white, more or less nodding; 
elongate filaments connate; capsule globose. Hicken has recorded 
S. scirpiforme Poepp. from Prov. Canchis, Cuzco, but that species 
seems referable here. A very slender, flaccid plant, often of moist 
rocky places. All specimens determined by Diels. 

Moquehua: Carumas, 3,200 meters, Weberbauer 7297. Lima: 
Matucana, 430, 2952. Viso, 618. Weberbauer, 170. Junin: Rio 
Blanco, 642, 992, 2994; Killip & Smith 21550. Weberbauer, 177. 
Between Tarma and La Oroya, Weberbauer 2541, type of S. Weber- 
bauerianum. Chile, Bolivia, Argentina. 

Sisyrinchium palmifolium L. Mant. 1: 122. 1767; 132. 

Vigorous and very well marked by its ensiform leaves, tall, 
broadly winged stems often 8 mm. wide, and its fascicled clusters 
of large flowers, all subtended by a rather large, bifid bract; leaves 
about 6 mm. broad, many-ribbed, rigid; spathes 2.5 cm. long; flowers 
pale yellow, 12-18 mm. long; filaments connate only at base; cap- 
sule subglobose. 

Ayacucho: Pampalca, 3,200 meters, Killip & Smith 22220. 
Cuzco: Cerro de Cusilluyoc, Pennell 14124 (det. Diels). Huanuco: 
(Haenke). Mito, 1786 (det. Diels). Huanuco Mountains, 2156 
(det. Diels). Junin: Palca, Weberbauer 1773 (det. Kranzlin); 
247, 249. Colombia to Patagonia. 

Sisyrinchium palustre Diels, Field Mus. Bot. 8: 79. 1930. 

Only a few cm. high, with rosulate-crowded leaves, very broadly 
vaginate, 3-7 cm. long; spathe 1.5 cm. long; flowers pale yellow, 2-5, 
the slender pedicels exserted 1 cm.; stamens free except at base. 
In wet uplands. 

Huanuco: Chasqui, 3308. 

Sisyrinchium porphyreum Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 240. 1908. 

A little plant a few cm. high with 2 leaves 4-6 cm. long and 2-3 
flowers 7 mm. long in a spathe 5 cm. long; filaments united, 2.5-3 
mm. long, the anthers as long or shorter. Neg. 10897. 

Junin: Yauli, 4,400 meters, Weberbauer 321 ; 220. 

Sisyrinchium praealtum Kranzl. Repert. Sp. Nov. 13: 119. 
1914. 



714 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Tall, 8-10 dm. high, with many long-acuminate grass-like leaves, 
4-6 dm. long, 7-8 mm. broad; scape leafless, terete below; flowers 
3-4, about 17 mm. long, the oblong petals 5 mm. wide; filaments and 
anthers subequal, 4 mm. long, the former more or less united. 
The outer spathe is acuminately produced to 15 cm., the inner 
being a third shorter. Perhaps a luxuriant state of a species already 
described. 

Apurimac: Between Rio Pinco and Rio Apurimac, 3,500 meters, 
Weberbauer 5862. 

Sisyrinchium pusillum HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 323. 1816; 
125. 

A tufted little plant, usually less than 5 cm. high, with numerous 
narrow leaves a few cm. long and a 1-flowered spathe 8-12 mm. long, 
somewhat exceeded by the bract; flowers 4-6 mm. long, the narrow 
segments acutish. Reported from Mejia, Arequipa, at 200 meters 
(Gunther & Buchtien 342), certainly a doubtful record. Raimondi 
recorded its use, internally and externally, as a remedy for syphilis. 

Junin: Yauli, 4,400 meters, Weberbauer 366 (det. Kranzlin); 
83, 220. Rio Blanco, 2998 (det. Diels). Ayacucho: Huanta, Rai- 
mondi. Ecuador. "Hunajusma." 

Sisyrinchium rigidifolium Baker, Handb. Irid. 131. 1892. 

Tufted, with many old leaf fibers; stems slender, wiry, leafless, 
to about 2 dm. high, the rigid leaves shorter; stem extended as a 
terete bract, typically several cm. long, above the 1-2 flower clusters; 
spathes 3-4-flowered; flowers 8 mm. long; filaments free; capsule 
oblong, torulose. This was described from material past flowering. 
The bract of the Weberbauer specimens, with flowers, is only 1 cm. 
longer than the inflorescence. The bases of old stems and leaves 
persist in abundance. Neg. 10899. 

Puno: Pucara, 3,700 meters, Weberbauer 4%6 (det. Kranzlin); 
186. Bolivia. 

Sisyrinchium trinerve Baker, Journ. Bot. 14: 267. 1876; 122. 

Stem simple, slender, rigid, terete, 3 dm. high, the single flower 
cluster overtopped by a linear subulate bract; leaves rigid, sub- 
terete, about as long as the stem; spathes 2-3-flowered, linear- 
lanceolate, not white-edged, 2-3.5 cm. long; flowers 6-8 mm. long; 
capsule oblong. Neg. 10902. 

Junin: Rio Blanco, 3008 (vel aff., det. Diels). Huacapistana, 
Weberbauer 1 (det. Kranzl.). Bolivia. 



FLORA OF PERU 715 

4. ORTHROSANTHUS Sweet 

Very much like a gigantic Sisyrinchium except that the capsules 
are included in the spathe. Style very short. Rather coarse, vig- 
orous plants with very firm stems and leaves from short stout root- 
stocks. Tufted plants of upland grasslands. 

Qrthrosanthus chimboracensis (HBK.) Baker, Card. Chron. 
II. 6: 67. 1876. Moraea chimboracensis HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 
322. 1816. M. gladioloides HBK. loc. cit. 

Stems often many dm. high, the scarcely shorter, rigid leaves 
basal except 1 or 2 greatly reduced ones; inflorescences often numer- 
ous, racemose, paniculate; spathes 3-4-flowered, less than 2.5 cm. 
long; perianth blue, with a short tube and oblong segments about 
12 mm. long, the stamens half as long. Illustrated, Bot. Mag. 143 : 
pi. 8731. 

Huanuco: Mito, 3374, 1659 (det. Diels). Cajamarca: (Hum- 
boldt). Junin: Palca, Huacapistana, 3,000-3,500 meters, Weberbauer 
2429; 248, 249, 252. North to Mexico. 

Orthrosanthus Ocisapunga Ruiz ex Diels, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 
15a: 478. 1930. Sisyrinchium Oncissapungum Ruiz ex Klatt, Linnaea 
34: 736. 1866, nomen. 

Similar but lower, the flowers always solitary and usually white. 

Huanuco: Mito, 1785 (det. Diels). Above Huanuco, 2151 
(det. Diels). Huancavelica: Raimondi (det. Diels). Cuzco: Paucar- 
tambo, Herrera 927. Bolivia. 

5. SYMPHYOSTEMON Miers 

Ours a small herb a few cm. high from fascicled fibrous roots. 
Spathe several-flowered. Perianth tube well developed. Filaments 
united at the base. 

Symphyostemon album Kranzl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 242. 1908. 

Diminutive, the very short stem clothed with the old leaf remains; 
leaves rigid, acuminate, 4 cm. long, 2 mm. wide; flowers white, with 
a median lilac vein, to 2 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide, the segments 
obovate-triangular. The similar S. acaule (Klatt) Benth. has 
blue flowers with oblong lobes. 

Junin: Yauli, 4,400 meters, Weberbauer 345; 221, 309. 



716 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

6. TIGRIDIA Juss. 

Hydrotaenia Lindl. Bot. Reg. 24: Misc. 69. 1838; 28: pi. 39. 
1842. 

Bulbous, with round stems and 1-2 few-flowered pedunculate 
spathes. Perianth segments unequal. Style branches deeply 
divided and more or less recurving, shorter than the anthers. Fila- 
ments more or less joined. Capsule elongate. 

Tigridia grandiflora (Cav.) Diels, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 

497. 1930. Sisyrinchium grandiflorum Cav. Diss. 6: 345. pi. 192. 
1788. T. lutea Link, Kl. & Otto, Icon. 85. pi. 34. 1841. T. Pavonia 
Ker ex Konig & Sims, Anan. Bot. 1: 246. 1805. 

Stems 2-4 dm. high, with 2-3 distant plicate linear leaves some- 
times 2 dm. long; spathe to 5 cm. long; flowers light yellow with 
violet dots, to 3 cm. broad, the segments roundish, clawed, spreading. 

Arequipa: Arequipa, Raimondi (det. Diels). Lima: Amancaes 
Hills, Weberbauer. Chancai, Ruiz. Chile. 

Tigridia lobata (Herb.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 13. 1931. 
Hydrotaenia lobata Herb. Bot. Reg. 30: Misc. 66. 1844. 

Similar to the preceding but apparently distinct; flowers cam- 
panulate, the oblong-cuneate segments suberect, densely brown- 
spotted at base. 

Lima: (Maclean); Weberbauer, 146. 

7. CYPELLA Herb. 

Bulbous plants similar to Tigridia, but the spathes often several, 
the blossoms 1-3, and, particularly, the often irregularly lobed or 
winged styles or style branches overtopping the anthers. 
Flowers bright yellow or somewhat brown and violet-banded; 

leaves lanceolate C. peruviana. 

Flowers blue, violet, or purple; leaves linear or nearly so. 
Stems flexible or very short, equaled or exceeded by the leaves; 
spathe bracts acute. 

Stems well developed C. cyrtophylla. 

Stems very short, the leaves greatly elongate C. Hoppii. 

Stems stiff, scarcely flexible; spathe bracts long-acuminate. 

C. Herrerae. 

Cypella cyrtophylla (Johnst.) Diels, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 15a: 

498. 1930. Mastigostyla cyrtophylla Johnst. Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 
85. 1928. 



FLORA OF PERU 717 

Stems 1-3 dm. high, often with 2 forks; leaves 3-4, the lower 
1-4 dm. long, 2-4 mm. broad; outer bracts 2-3 cm. long, acute; 
flowers violet-blue, sometimes with darker spots, the lobes connate 
below, the outer ones 3 cm. long, the much narrower inner ones half 
as long; filaments united below; capsule 1 cm. long and half as thick; 
seeds brown, 2-2.5 mm. long, dull, undulate-rugose and very densely 
and minutely tuberculate. Johnston proposed his genus on the 
basis of the wing-margined styles and the curious decurrent wing- 
like flagellum. 

Arequipa : Chichani ( Hinkley 1 6} . Above Arequipa, 2,500 meters, 
Pennell 13172, 13173, 13180, 1317 3a. Yura, Weberbauer 6838. 

Cypella Herrerae Diels, ined. 

Apparently near C. cyrtophylla, but probably distinct. Neg. 
11093. 

Cuzco: Sacsahuaman, 3,500 meters, Herrera 2348; Pennell 13570. 

Cypella Hoppii Diels, ined. 

This little plant with very long leaves, apparently sprawling on 
the ground, seems to be a very distinct species. Neg. 11094. 

Arequipa: Hopp. Tacna: Candarave, Weberbauer 7387. 

Cypella peruviana Baker, Bot. Mag. 102: pi. 6213. 1876; 65. 

Leaves 2-3, lanceolate, very plicate; stems terete, about 3 dm. 
long, with 1 or 2 flower clusters; spathes 3-4 cm. long, the green 
ventricose valves subequal; flowers bright yellow, the outer segments 
broadly obovate-cuneate, about 3.5 cm. long, the lighter yellow claws 
densely brown-spotted; inner segments pilose and ridged medially, 
the broad blade deflexed, the cuneate claw concave; style crests 2, 
flat, petaloid, with a small intermediate tooth. 

Cuzco: Weberbauer 5884 (det. Kranzlin). Huancavelica : Rio San 
Bernardino, Weberbauer 6579 (det. Kranzlin). Junin: Rio Blanco, 
4,500 meters, 3046. Bolivia(?). 

34. MUSACEAE. Banana Family 

Reference: Schumann, Pflanzenr. IV. 45. 1900. 

No species of banana (Musa) is native to Peru but M. paradisiaca 
L. (Weberbauer 298, 299) is frequently cultivated, as well as several 
varieties or other species, some of which are especially delicious. 
Spruce recorded the native name "pacova" or "bacove," and 
Poeppig (Reise 2: 375) listed a number of varieties with their Indian 



718 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

names. However, in Peru the common Spanish name is "platano." 
Martinet, Jard. Bot. Lima 51. 1873, lists the more common sorts as 
"platano guineo," "platano lugo," "platano de la isla," and "mieja" 
or "platano de Taiti," to which list Herrera has noted as additions 
(for M. paradisiaca) "Colorado," "brasilero," "palillo," "pama," 
"dominico," "ordinario," "artate-bellaco," and "capon," and (for 
M. sapientum) "enano," "pera," "seda," "imperial" and "morado." 

These are very definitely divisible into two species, one edible 
fresh and the other edible only after cooking (M. sapientum L.). 
The latter has been treated as only a variety of the soft-fruited 
M. paradisiaca L. 

The striking Amazonian plant, Ravenala guianensis (L. C. Rich.) 
Benth., may be found in Peru. Its long-petioled leaves, the leaf 
blades often 1 meter long, and large white flowers distinguish it 
readily from any Heliconia. 

1. HELICONIA L. 

Banana-like or canna-like plants of sunny and low or wet forest, 
with the flowers in a compound inflorescence subtended by large 
cymbiform colored bracts, the colors often gay and variegated. 
The determination of herbarium material is difficult unless the color 
of the bracts and flowers, which at present is considered constant for 
each species, has .been noted by the collector, as well as the size or 
habit of the plant. With the accumulation of more collections 
accompanied by careful color observations, the number of species 
may be reduced, as suggested by the color variations exhibited in 
H. Schumanniana. The generic name has been conserved. 

Inflorescence covered with an inordinately long pubescence. 

H. vellerigera. 
Inflorescence glabrous, or pubescent or villous in some part. 

A. Stout plants, generally 1 to several meters high, the leaves 
often 5 dm. long or much longer. 

Bracts broadly ovate-lanceolate. 

Bracts densely imbricate, deciduous H. episcopalis. 

Bracts scarcely imbricate, persistent. 
Bracts tapering and acute. 

Pedicels and rachis both distinctly pubescent; bracts 
acuminate or acute. 

Leaves over 1 meter long; bracts red throughout. 



FLORA OF PERU 719 

Bracts not ciliate H. penduloides. 

Bracts densely villous-ciliate H. pruinosa. 

Leaves about 6 dm. long; bracts green-margined. 

H. rostrata. 

Pedicels and usually the rachis glabrous; bracts tapering- 
acuminate. 

Rachis also glabrous; bracts distant H. Bihai. 

Rachis strigillose; bracts contiguous H. stricta. 

Bracts blunt H. Standleyi. 

Bracts (relatively) narrowly lanceolate. 
Inflorescence erect. 
Rachis glabrous; bracts red or scarlet. 

Rachis straight; bracts scarlet H. variegata. 

Rachis flexuous; bracts red H. acuminata. 

Rachis pubescent; bracts reddish yellow or red above. 

Bracts acuminate, mostly about 1 dm. long. 

H. brasiliensis. 
Bracts rounded to apex, mostly 1.5-2 dm. long. 

H. lingulata. 
Inflorescence pendulous or nodding. 

Bracts not scarlet, the lower usually much exceeding 1 dm. 
Rachis glabrous; bracts yellow, at least below. 
Bracts red-tipped ; leaves lustrous H. subulata. 

Bracts not red-tipped; leaves glaucous, especially 
beneath H. Weberbaueri. 

Rachis pubescent; bracts reddish yellow. . H. lingulata. 
Bracts scarlet, even the lowest only 1 dm. long . . H. affinis. 

A. Slender plants, canna-like, rarely over 1 meter high, the leaves 
usually about 3 dm. long, or shorter. 

Lower bracts longer than 1 dm. 

Flowers greenish yellow, black-spotted at tip; inflorescence 
dense even in fruit, the bracts ascending . . . H. densi flora. 

Flowers not black-spotted; inflorescence open, the bracts 
soon widely spreading. 

Rachis straight or nearly so. 
Rachis densely puberulent, as also bracts and flowers. 



720 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Inflorescence open, reddish-puberulent; sheaths gla- 
brous H. roseoflava. 

Inflorescence close, hirsutulous or villous; sheaths often 

villous H. hirsuta. 

Rachis glabrous. 

Bracts in part rose; flowers orange H. aureorosea. 

Bracts scarlet; flowers yellowish green. . . H. variegata. 
Rachis definitely flexuous. 

Pedicels about 2 cm. long; flowers reddish. . H. acuminata. 

Pedicels about 1 cm. long; flowers yellow. . . H. affinis. 

Lower bracts rarely 1 dm. long, even the lowest, unless leaf -like, 

or rarely in H. psittacorum with narrow leaves. 
Bracts orange; greenish yellow flowers black- tipped ; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; plants glabrous. 

H. psittacorum. 

Bracts not orange nor flowers black-tipped; leaves elliptic 

or ovate-lanceolate. 

Plants glabrous; bracts purple, red and yellow, or red. 
Bracts and flowers purple, the latter 12 or more in each 

bract H. Uleana. 

Bracts and flowers red or yellow or the flowers purple but 

few to several. 

Leaves 4-6 dm. long and 1 dm. wide, shortly acuminate. 

H. affinis. 
Leaves smaller, caudate-acuminate. 

Inflorescence open, the bracts 1.5-2.5 cm. remote. 
Leaves oblongish, 4 to rarely 7 cm. wide. 

H. Schumanniana. 

Leaves elliptic, 7-9 cm. wide H. aureorosea. 

Inflorescence close, the bracts mostly about 1 cm. 
remote. 

Petioles about 1 dm. long H. tenebrosa. 

Petioles about 1 cm. long H. cannoidea. 

Plants not glabrous; peduncles and often flowers pubescent; 
bracts scarlet H. hirsuta. 

Heliconia acuminata L. C. Rich. Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 
15: Suppl. 26: pi. 11, 12. 1831; 38. 



FLORA OF PERU 721 

Plants 2 meters high or higher, glabrous, with oblong long- 
petioled leaves and a long and strict inflorescence with a strongly 
flexuous rachis; bracts red, remote, the lower 12-17 cm. long; pedi- 
cels 2 cm. long or longer; flowers reddish green. The Peruvian 
material determined by Loesener, with remark "vel aff." The 
Ecuadorian H. aequatoriensis Loes. might be sought here; its lowest 
bracts are leaf-like, the lower proper ones 1.5-2.5 dm. long. Neg. 
9937. 

San Martin: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4664- Huanuco: Hua- 
malies, Weberbauer 3558. Cueva Grande near Posuso, 1,050 meters, 
4802. Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, 1,500 meters, Schunke 386, 278. 
Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9188. Brazil to Venezuela and the Guianas. 

Heliconia affinis Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 10. 1916. 

Glabrous and low, but the leaves sometimes nearly 6 dm. long; 
inflorescence curved at base (pendulous?), the rachis flexuous; bracts 
scarlet, the lowest 1 dm. long; flowers yellow, 4 cm. long, the pedi- 
cels 8-13 mm. long, Allied to H. densiflora. Neg. 9939. 

Puno: Chunchosmayo, 900 meters, Weberbauer 1169. 

Heliconia aureorosea Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 11. 1916. 

Glabrous, with sessile or subsessile leaves, rounded at base, 
2-2.5 dm. long, and 7-9 cm. wide, long-acuminate; inflorescence 
suberect, the lower bracts yellow and paler toward the apex, the 
upper, especially above, rose-color, 10.5-4.5 cm. long; pedicels 8-14 
mm. long; flowers curved at base, 2 cm. long. The specific name 
was hyphenated by the author. Neg. 9940. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9183. 

Heliconia Bihai L. Mant. 2: 211. 1771; 36. 

Vigorous and tall, the long-petioled oblong leaves to 1.3 meters 
long, the inflorescence to 6 dm. long and half as wide, glabrous 
throughout; bracts scarlet, with long narrow acuminate yellow tips, 
to 1.5 dm. long; flowers green, or yellow and green-tipped. Widely 
distributed and commonly cultivated. 

Huanuco: Huamalies, Weberbauer 3636 (det. Loesener). 
Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9190 (det. Loesener). La Victoria, Williams 
3098. 

Heliconia brasiliensis Hook. Exot. Fl. 3: pi. 190. 1827; 38. 

Similar to H. acuminata, but the lower bracts to sometimes 22 
cm. long, red at apex, and the rachis pubescent; flowers greenish white 
or greenish yellow or red. 



722 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, 5080. Loreto: Leticia, Ule 6911 (or aff., 
det. Loesener). Iquitos, Williams 1377, 3718, 3709, 1242; King 172. 
Brazil to the Guianas. "Bijanillo," "situlli," "uchpa-situlli." 

Heliconia cannoidea L. C. Rich. Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 15: 
Suppl. 24: pi 9. 1831; 39. 

This has been referred to H. hirsuta as a variety by Baker, but 
as species of Heliconia are accepted at present, it seems to merit 
recognition, as indicated in the key. 

Loreto: Rio Itaya, Williams 31. Mishuyacu, Klug 308. For- 
taleza, Yurimaguas, Williams 434$- Santa Rosa, Williams 4840. 
Recreo, Williams 3923. Yurimaguas, Killip & Smith 27569. 

Heliconia densiflora Verlot, Rev. Hort. 274. 1869; 39. 

About 6 dm. tall, with long-petioled oblong leaves, cordate at 
base, and a dense inflorescence of about 6 lustrous scarlet bracts, the 
lowest 1.5 dm. long. Said to grow in Peru (originally from French 
Guiana), and with the greenish yellow flowers, black-spotted at tip, 
of H. psittacorum. Illustrated, loc. cit. 

Peru: Without data. 

Helieonia episcopalis Veil. Fl. Flum. 3: pi. 22. 1827; text, ed. 
Netto 109. 1881; 35. 

Tall, with a strict erect inflorescence of yellowish red bracts, 
sometimes 6-7 cm. long, and pale lilac flowers; rachis light-colored. 
Often 3-4 meters high. Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: pi. 2. 

Huanuco: Huamalies, Weberbauer 3598 (det. Loesener). Loreto: 
(Huber). Rio Acre, Ule 9534 (det. Loesener). Brazil; Colombia. 

Heliconia hirsuta L. f. Suppl. PI. 158. 1781; 39. Limnocharis 
Haenkei Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 88. 1827. 

About 1 meter high, with oblong, sessile or subsessile leaves; 
inflorescence, including the yellow flowers, pubescent. Rarely the 
leaf sheath also is villous, var. villosula Loes. 

Junin: La Merced, 5363; Weberbauer 1811 (det. Loesener). 
Chanchamayo Valley, Schunke 403. San Martin: Tarapoto, Ule 
6312 (det. Loesener). Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo ( Huber 1385). 
Rio Acre, Ule 9187. Yurimaguas (Poeppig 2183); Williams 3902, 
3896. Ranging to Colombia. 

Heliconia lingulata R. & P. Fl. 3: 71. pi. 304. 1802; 38. 
Resembling H. brasiliensis, but the obtuse bracts, even the lowest, 
less than 2 dm. long; flowers yellow. Recent authors have described 



FLORA OF PERU 723 

the inflorescence as erect, although, as shown in the plate and as the 
original description indicates, it may be pendulous. 

Huanuco: Rio Monzon, Weberbauer 3579 (det. Loesener). 
Chinchao and Cochero (Ruiz & Pavon). "Purum-kcagni," "purum- 
kcagne." 

Heliconia penduloides Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 6. 1916. 

About 3 meters high, with long-petioled leaves nearly 2.5 dm. 
wide that are strongly white-pruinose beneath as also the upper 
portion of the bracts; inflorescence pendulous, to 8 dm. long; peduncle 
and rachis densely villous; bracts glabrous without except at base, the 
lowest nearly 3 dm. long; pedicels 2 cm. long; flowers yellow, the 
outer parts pubescent. The related H. pendula Wawra of Brazil 
is not pruinose and has glabrous flowers. Neg. 9944. 

Huanuco: Valley of the Mairo, 500 meters, Weberbauer 6759. 

Heliconia pruinosa Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 7. 1916. 

Similar to H. penduloides, but the inflorescence erect, and the 
largest villous bracts less than 2 dm. long. Neg. 9945. 

Puno: Near Chunchosmayo, 900 meters, Weberbauer 1216. 

Heliconia psittacorum L. f. Suppl. PI. 158. 1781; 39. 

With the habit and flowers of H. densiflora, but the leaves cuneate 
or subrotund at the base, and the largest bracts only 8 cm. long. 
Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: pi. 7. 

Loreto: Timbuchi, Williams 987. Caballo-cocha, Williams 2198. 
Santa Ana, Williams 1228. Generally distributed in South America. 
"Bijauillo." 

Heliconia roseoflava Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 10. 1916. 

Leaves about 3 dm. long, long-petioled, cuneate at base; bracts 
puberulent, glabrous within, the largest 17 cm. long, rose with yellow- 
ish and whitish tips; pedicels to 12 mm. long, puberulent like the 
orange flowers, these 5 cm. long. Allied to H. densiflora. The 
name was hyphenated originally. Neg. 9946. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9184. 

Heliconia rostrata R. & P. Fl. 3: 71. pi. 305. 1902; 36. H. 
Poeppigiana Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 18. 1890. 

Sometimes 2.5 meters high; leaves subcordate at base; inflores- 
cence 3 dm. long and half as broad; bracts 1 dm. long; flowers yellow. 
This doubtless included formerly several of the recently proposed 



724 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

segregates, such as H. penduloides Loes. The somewhat similar 
H. juruana Loes. may be expected ; its bracts are only half as long. 

Junin: La Merced, Weberbauer 1851, 5110. Huanuco: Pillao, 
Cochero, Chinchao, Panao, Muna, Posuso (Ruiz & Pawn). Cochero 
(Poeppig 1567). Pampayacu, 1,050 meters, 5110. Loreto: For- 
taleza, Yurimaguas, Williams 4380. Rio Acre, Ule 91 89. "Kcagni," 
"kcagne." 

Heliconia Schumanniana Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 
12. 1916. H. Schumanniana var. basirubra Loes. op. cit. 13. 

A glabrous plant, about 1 meter high, or sometimes 3 meters, but 
the leaves small, less than 3 dm. long and only 4-7 cm. wide, obtuse or 
cuneate at base and long-acuminate at apex; inflorescence erect or 
ascending, with a flexuous or nearly straight rachis; lowest bracts 
leaf-like, the lowest proper bracts 6-8 cm. long, red below, yellow 
above; flowers yellow, 2 cm. long. Allied by the author to H. 
aureorosea and H. Uleana. This species, at least, varies in color: 
f. apicirubra (Loes.) Macbr., bracts yellow below the middle, scarlet 
above; f. acreana (Loes.) Macbr., flowers purple. Neg. 9948. 

Huanuco: Between the Monzon and the Huallaga, 600 meters, 
Weberbauer 3703. San Martin: Moyobamba, 1,000 meters, Weber- 
bauer 4627. Loreto: Rio Itaya, Williams 3427. Rio Acre, Ule 
9186. "Bijanillo." 

Heliconia Standleyi Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 48. 1931. 

A magnificent, entirely glabrous plant, the stems at least 2 meters 
high, the leaves even longer, on petioles more than half as long, and 
the drooping inflorescence sometimes nearly 2 meters long; rachis 
strongly flexuous; bracts 2-4 cm. remote, to 1 dm. long, 3-3.5 cm. 
wide below, and 1 cm. wide just below the subobtuse tip; pedicels 
many, about 1 cm. long. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Killip & Smith 27444, type. 

Heliconia stricta Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 543. 1906. 

Commonly 1.5 meters high; petioles glabrous, 3^4 dm. long; 
leaves to 1 meter long and 2 dm. wide, at base strongly unequal, con- 
tracted to the petiole, acuminate; rachis strict, minutely strigillose; 
bracts 6-8, cymbiform, to 6 cm. wide at insertion, 1-1.5 dm. long or 
longer, acuminate, green; flowers many; pedicels and ovaries gla- 
brous; flowers 6 cm. long, white below, green above. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo (Huber}. "Citolle." 



FLORA OF PERU 725 

Heliconia subulata R. & P. Fl. 3: 70. pi. 303. 1802; 39. H. 
psittacorum L. f. var. subulata Baker, Ann. Bot. 7: 199. 1893. 

A robust plant, the leaves often exceeding 1 meter; inflorescence 
curved, becoming reflexed; bracts yellow with red tips, in fruit 
puniceous; flowers many, 16-33 in each bract, on short angled 
pedicels, attenuate to base; flowers yellow. 

Huanuco: Chinchao, Cochero, Chacahuasi, Posuso, and Iscutuna 
(Ruiz & Pawn). "Puca-kcagni." 

Heliconia tenebrosa Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 48. 1931. 

Slender, especially the long lustrous petioles 1.5-2 dm. long; 
leaves deep green, long-acuminate, 7-8 cm. wide, 2.5 dm. long; inflor- 
escence erect, 2 dm. long; lowest bracts 7-8 cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide at 
base, strongly narrowed toward the acute tip, about 1 cm. remote; 
rachis very flexuous; flowers 3 cm. long; stamens free, exserted; 
anthers 5 mm. long. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 1089, type. 

Heliconia Uleana Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 12. 1916. 

Nearly H. Schumanniana, but the leaves distinctly elliptic, 
about 2 dm. long and 7-10 cm. broad, and both the bracts and flowers 
dull purple. Neg. 9949. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9185. 

Heliconia variegata Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 9. 1916. 

Similar to H. acuminata, but the slender rachis straight; flowers 
yellowish greenish. Neg. 9950. 

Huanuco: Posuso, 1,000 meters, Weberbauer 6766, type; 600 
meters, 4708. Pampayacu, 1,050 meters, 5068. 

Heliconia vellerigera Poepp. Reise 2: 295. 1836; 37. 

One species that can not be mistaken, because the inflorescence is 
literally covered with a dense, long, brownish red pubescence. 
Weberbauer, collecting the plant for the second time, noted its 
height as 6 meters and its flowers as yellow. Neg. 1186. 

Huanuco: Posuso, Weberbauer 6764 (det. Loesener). 

Heliconia Weberbaueri Loes. Bot. Jahrb. 54: Beibl. 117: 10. 
1916. 

Apparently very similar to H. subulata and perhaps only a form; 
bracts yellow throughout, the lower 15-21 cm. long; flowers yellow, 



726 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

on pedicels 1-2 cm. long. Compared by the author with H. lin- 
gulata. Neg. 9951. 

Ayacucho: Rio Apurimac, 600 meters, Weberbauer 5628. 

35. ZINGIBERACEAE. Ginger Family 
Reference: Schumann, Pflanzenr. IV. 46. 1904. 
This family, interesting for its well-known products such as ginger, 
turmeric, and cardamon, is represented in Peru by no native species of 
economic importance, but the ornamental Hedychium coronarium 
Koen. of the Himalayas, frequently cultivated, has sometimes 
escaped to grow as wild. It has ample oblong-lanceolate leaves and 
densely bracteate spikes of pure white flowers, the tube to 8 cm. long 
and the segments spreading, the lower lip broad and notched. It 
is pictured by Schumann, op. cit. /. 8. Tessmann found it at 
Iquitos, as "la flor desgraciada," Williams at San Roque, as "Navi- 
dad sacha," and Herrera at Calca. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, the 
source of ginger, is sometimes an escape, as Klug 1227 from Iquitos. 
Known as "gengibre," it is recognizable by its small head of densely 
bracted, red and yellow flowers, the bracts dark-dotted, on a leafless 
but sheath-bracted stalk. The leaves are linear-acuminate. 
Corolla lip short and more or less definitely 3-lobed ... 1. Renealmia. 
Corolla lip prominent and obovate or elliptic, entire, crisped, or 2- 

lobed. 

Flowers in dense spikes. 
Bracteoles complicate, not bicarinate; corolla lip more or less 

2-lobed 2. Costus. 

Bracteoles tubular or bicarinate; corolla lip merely crisped. 

3. Dimerocostus. 
Flowers solitary, axillary 4. Monocostus. 

1. RENEALMIA L. f. 

Simple-stemmed perennials from a fleshy aromatic rhizome, the 
distichous leaves linear to elliptic-lanceolate, the inflorescence 
paniculate or racemose, the flowers solitary or several in the often 
colored subtending bracts. Calyx tubular or turbinate, at anthesis 
rupturing laterally or more or less regularly, with 3 lobes. Corolla 
tube often shorter than the calyx. Lateral staminodia tooth-like. 
Stamen sessile or subsessile. The species possess good habital dif- 
ferences and collectors should note whether the inflorescence is basal 
or terminal. As so few specimens show clearly the habit, the follow- 



FLORA OF PERU 727 

ing key is based on less important characters that suffice, however, to 
distinguish the Peruvian species. 

Inflorescence very dense in flower, rarely 1 dm. long. 
Leaves huge; bracts densely fulvous-puberulent . R. nicolaioides. 
Leaves small to medium; bracts glabrous or lightly puberulent 

but not conspicuously so. 
Bracts firm, ovate-lanceolate, acute. 

Bracts 1-flowered, broadly lanceolate, crowded . . . . R. cernua. 
Bracts several-flowered, narrowly lanceolate, loose. 

R. hygrophila. 
Bracts soft, more or less crinkled in drying, rounded or obtusish. 

Lower bracts remote (1-2 cm. distant) R. breviscapa. 

Lower bracts imbricate or touching. 

Bracts glabrous or glabrate; leaves rarely 2.5 dm. long. 

R. geostachys. 
Bracts more or less pubescent; leaves mostly several dm. 

long R. thyrsoidea. 

Inflorescence relatively open even in flower, a narrow elongate 
raceme or spike-like panicle, usually at least 1.5 dm. long. 

Inflorescence minutely stellate-pubescent . R. micrantha. 

Inflorescence glabrate or puberulent. 

Inflorescence red or reddish, the bracts oblong-lanceolate. 
Flowers small, 1 cm. long or less. 

Bracts several- to many-flowered R . occidentals. 

Bracts 1-flowered R. Regnelliana. 

Flowers large, about 2 cm. long or longer. 

Bracts lance-acuminate, 4 cm. long , . . .R. macrantha. 

Bracts ovate-acute, 2-2.5 cm. long R. lativagina. 

Inflorescence pale, the bracts suborbicular R. spicata. 

Renealmia breviscapa Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 
25. pi. 135. 1838; 300. R. racemosa Poepp. & Endl. op. cit. 26. 
Amomum racemosum R. & P. Fl. 1: 2. pi. 1. 1798. Alpinia Ruitziana 
Steud. Nom. ed. 2. 1: 63. 1840. Renealmia Ruiziana Horan. (as to 
name), Prodr. Scit. 33. 1862. 

Glabrous except for the subtomentose peduncle, pedicels, and 
rachis, the stems about 6 dm. high, the leaves to 2.5 dm. long, on 
petioles to 6 cm. long; panicle pyramidal, the peduncle to 2.5 dm. long; 



728 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

bracts red, ovate-lanceolate, acute, 2 cm. long (as the calyx) ; corolla 
yellow, the lobes scarcely 8 mm. long, the lip subtrilobed-ovate; 
capsule 1 cm. long, to 12-seeded. R. floribunda Schum., with 
cylindrical panicle and smaller capsule, and R. oligosperma Schum., 
with calyx 1 cm. long and fewer seeds, may be found. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, Poeppig. Cochero, Chinchao, Muna, and 
Pillao (Ruiz & Pavdn). Junin: La Merced, Weberbauer 1805 (det. 
Loesener). San Martin: Tarapoto, Ule 6605. Loreto: Rio Acre, 
Ule 9199 (det. Loesener). "Achira de monte." 

Renealmia cernua (Sw.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 14. 1931. 
Costus cernuus Sw. ex R. & S. Syst. Veg. 1: 25. 1817. R. strobilifera 
Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 26. pi. 136. 1838. 

About 2 meters high, with sessile lanceolate leaves to 3 dm. long, 
and 6 cm. wide, and ovate or ellipsoid, terminal spikes; bracts 
indurate, orange, the fertile densely imbricate, lanceolate, 4 cm. 
long; tube of the coriaceous yellow corolla obtuse. An unusual 
species with the aspect of Costus. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2182; Williams 4116, 523 4- 
Colombia; Venezuela; Costa Rica; Surinam. 

Renealmia geostachys Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 303. 1904. 

Glabrous except the hirsute corolla lip, about 1 meter high; 
leaves lance-oblong, the petioles 5-12 mm. long, thick, the ligule 
scarcely 1 mm. long, truncate; racemes elongate-ellipsoid, obtuse, 
about 1 dm. long; corolla yellow, the tube 1.5 cm. long, the lobes 1 
cm. long. Neg. 9919. 

Loreto: Leticia, Ule 6188. San Antonio, Alto Rio Itaya, Wil- 
liams 3468(1). 

Renealmia hygrophila Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 284. 1904. 

A robust perennial with the aspect of R. cernua, but the bracts 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, and loosely subtending 3-4 flowers. 
Neg. 9923. 

Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4676. Colombia. 
"Mishipanga." 

Renealmia lativagina Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 50. 1931. 

Robust, to 2 meters tall or taller, the basal inflorescence closely 
enveloped below with conspicuous sheaths 1-2 dm. long and 2.5-3 
cm. wide on each side; leaves long-petioled, 8 dm. long and 2 dm. 
wide; flowers solitary, 3 cm. long, pale red; bracts salmon-pink, 



FLORA OF PERU 729 

oblong-obovate, acute; fruit red. A specimen by Williams (3113} 
from La Victoria, consisting of a leaf blade and the upper portion of 
an inflorescence, would be sought here. It has nearly sessile flowers 
scarcely 2 cm. long, calyx 15 mm. long, and obtusish bracts 12 mm. 
broad. It could be R, goyazensis Schum., R. latebracteata Loes., or 
new. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Killip & Smith 27099. Caballo-cocha, Williams 
2174(1', specimen incomplete). 

Renealmia macrantha Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 
25. pi 134. 1838; 306. 

One meter high or taller, with sublanceolate leaves sessile but 
long-attenuate at base; racemes red, to 3 dm. long, the peduncles 
subtomentose; bracts lance-acuminate, to 4 cm. long; calyx clavate- 
tubular, 2 cm. long; corolla yellow, the obovate lip puberulent at the 
middle. 

San Martin: Tocache, Poeppig. Loreto: Iquitos, Williams 3591. 
' ' Mishqui-panque. ' ' 

Renealmia micrantha Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 298. 1904. 
Amomum racemosum R. & P. Fl. 1: 2. 1798, in part. R. Ruiziana 
(Steud.) Horan. Prodr. Scit. 33. 1862, ace. to Loesener. 

A stout perennial with sessile or subsessile, thick, glabrous, 
oblong-lanceolate leaves 3-3.5 dm. long or longer and 7-10 cm. wide; 
peduncle about 6 dm. long; panicle 2 dm. long; bracts lance-acumi- 
nate; flowers little longer than the tomentulose pedicels. Remark- 
able because of its stellate pubescence. According to Loesener, 
Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 87. 1931, the Madrid specimen of 
Ruiz & Pavon is partly this plant and partly R. breviscapa. The 
Steudel name, however, as a name, applies only to the latter, which 
is the earlier available for A. racemosum R. & P., not (L.) A. Rich. 
My specimens were from open hillside thickets; plants 2 meters high 
with basal inflorescence. The flowers were orange, the black fruits 
orange within. Neg. 9935. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, 5100. Chinchao, etc., Ruiz. 

Renealmia nicolaioides Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
65. 1927. 

A magnificent banana-like perennial attaining 5 meters, with huge 
leaves exceeding 1.2 meters, bearing its flowers on separate scapes; 
spikes at first head-like, 6 cm. long, becoming 3 dm. long in fruit; 



730 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

bracts 4.5-6 cm. long; flowers red. Unique in the genus for its easily 
disjoined stamen structure. Neg. 9928. 

Huanuco: By the Monzon, 900 meters, Weberbauer 3435. 

Renealmia occidentalis (Sw.) Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2. 493. 
1830. Alpinia occidentalis Sw. Prodr. 11. 1788. 

Stout and glabrous (except the rachis), with sessile or subsessile 
leaves often several dm. long and about 1 dm. broad; bracts reddish, 
lanceolate-acute, many-flowered; calyx scarlet, 5-6 mm. long, the 
tube of the yellow corolla slightly exserted. 

San Martin: Moyobamba, Weberbauer 4513 (det. Loesener). 

Renealmia Regnelliana Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
66. 1927. 

A small plant, the leaves about 3 dm. long and 6-7 cm. wide, 
shortly acuminate, and the basal inflorescence only 2 dm. long; 
lowest bracts imbricate; pedicels 6 mm. long, lightly rusty-pubescent, 
like the bracts and sepals, especially at tip, the former 2-2.5 cm. long, 
the latter 1 cm. long; flowers inconspicuous. Neg. 9932. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 5245. Brazil. "Mishqui panga." 

Renealmia spicata Gagnepain, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 49: 27. 
1902; 298. 

A species with sessile or shortly petioled, abruptly acuminate 
leaves and a dense cylindrical spike-like panicle about 1 dm. long; 
bracts suborbicular, 7-10 mm. wide, deciduous; calyx campanulate, 
coriaceous, irregularly lobed; middle lobe of corolla lip emarginate. 

Peru: (Gay). Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9200 (?; det. Loesener). 

Renealmia thyrsoidea (R. & P.) Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 2: 26. 1838; 302. Amomum thyrsoideum R. & P. Fl. 1: 2. pi. 2. 
1798. 

Stout, 2 meters high; leaves subsessile; bracts lanceolate, to 3 
cm. long, the calyx 1.5 cm. long; capsule ellipsoid, nearly 4 cm. long. 
Otherwise about like R. geostachys. 

Huanuco: Cochero, Chinchao, Posuso, Ruiz. Cushi, 4814- 
Junin: La Merced 5243; Weberbauer 1835 (det. Loes.); Killip & 
Smith 23447. 

2. COSTUS L. 

Similar to Renealmia, but not aromatic and the leaves spirally 
disposed, the corolla lip enlarged, and the lateral staminodia often 



FLORA OF PERU 731 

lacking. Filament sometimes petaloid. Inflorescence usually 
strobilate, the bracts 1-2-flowered. Ovary 3-celled. Bracteoles 
complicate. Besides the following, a specimen from Tarapoto 
( Vie 6475) has been referred to the often cultivated Asian C. speciosus 
(Koenig) Smith (or aff. det Loesener), a species distinguishable 
from all ours by its distinctly pungent-mucronate bracts. But in 
aspect, at least, this particular Ule specimen suggests C. Ulei Loes.! 

A. Leaves pubescent beneath, at least on the nerves, sometimes 

minutely so but uniformly. 
B. Stems well developed. 

Leaves silvery beneath with a dense appressed silky pubescence. 

C. argenteus. 

Leaves more or less pubescent, at least beneath, but not strik- 
ingly silvery. 

Plants densely villous throughout, except the inner bracts, with 
spreading reddish hairs. 

Bracts unappendaged C. lasius. 

Bracts appendaged C. scaber. 

Plants in part glabrate, or the pubescence fine and appressed 

or subappressed or sparse (or the bracts appendaged). 
Leaves usually sparsely villous above; bracts all more or 

less appendaged C. scaber. 

Leaves glabrous or glabrate above; bracts not definitely 

appendaged (sometimes softer at tips or acute). 
Leaves puberulent beneath, the hairs appressed or 

minute. 
Stout herbs, the flowering stalks 2 cm. thick or thicker, 

even above C. cylindricus. 

Slender herbs, the stems 1-1.5 cm. thick. 
Bracts broadly ovate, rounded-acutish. 

C. Puchucupanga. 

Bracts narrow, acuminate C. Ulei. 

Leaves sparsely hirsute on both sides, the hairs straggling. 

Leaves elongate-oblong C. tarapotensis. 

Leaves broadly ovate C. amazonicus. 

B. Stemless plant with rosulate leaves C. kaempferoides. 

A. Leaves glabrous. 

Bracts narrow, acute or acuminate. 



732 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Bracts callous-lineate; spikes sessile, terminal. .. .C. tarmicus. 
Bracts not calloused; spikes nodding or lateral. . . .C. cernuus. 
Bracts broad, rounded or, if acutish, not tapering. 

Plants slender, linear-leaved, or flexuous-stemmed, the stems 
about 0.5 cm. thick. 

Leaves ovate. 

Ligule cobwebby-pubescent C. spiralis. 

Ligule glabrous or nearly so C. gracilis. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate C. zingiber mdes. 

Plants stout, the stiff stems about 1 cm. thick or thicker. 

Bracts not callous-lineate or, if obscurely, manifestly append- 
aged. 

Bracts neither appendaged nor lineate; leaves green. 

C. erythrocoryne. 

Bracts manifestly appendaged, obscurely lineate; leaves 
purple beneath C. erythrophyllus. 

Bracts calloused, not appendaged, unless sometimes the 
outermost. 

Flowering stalks leafy, the spikes often short. 
Spikes cylindrical, sometimes short; callus line evident. 

Ligule rounded, or at any rate not ciliate, sometimes 
hairy. 

Leaves mostly less than 1.5 dm. long; flowers white. 

C. validus. 

Leaves mostly 2-3 dm. long; flowers mostly yellow 
or reddish C. cylindricus. 

Ligule truncate, arachnoid-ciliate C. brasiliensis. 

Spikes ovoid-turbinate; callus line very prominent. 

C. laevis. 
Flowering stalks leafless, closely bracteate. 

Ligule eciliate; bracts and flowers red. .C. erythrothyrsus. 

Ligule arachnoid-ciliate; bracts green or red, the flowers 
white or variegated C. brasiliensis. 

Costus amazonicus (Loes.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 13. 
1931. Costus Malortieanus Wendl. var. amazonicus Loes. Notizbl. 
Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 710. 1929. 



FLORA OF PERU 733 

Hirsute, especially the leaf margins, and with broad (about 2 
dm.) leaves to 3.5 dm. long, glaucous beneath; spikes ellipsoid, to 
1.5 dm. long; bracts broadly ovate, callous-lineate, sparsely pilose, 
the margin obscurely lacerate; flowers large. Neg. 9904. 

Loreto: Tierra Blanca, on the lower Maranon, Tessmann 4903. 

Costus argenteus R. & P. Fl. 1: 3. pi. 4- 1798; 389. 

Sometimes 1 meter high; leaves glabrous above, to 3 dm. long and 
4-5 cm. broad, narrowed to a subcordate base, the petiole 3 mm. 
long; ligules 7-8 mm. long, the margins lanuginose-ciliate; spikes 
terminal, finally elongate-cylindrical, with red ovate soft-appendaged 
bracts, the lower leaf -like, 1 dm. long and 3-4 cm. wide; calyx 
turbinate; corolla yellowish (?). Loesener, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 11: 91-92. 1931, has established the true character of this 
long misunderstood species. 

Huanuco: Cochero and Chinchao (Ruiz & Pavdn). Junin: 
Chanchamayo Valley, 1,200 meters, Schunke 384 (fide Loesener). 
"Purum-pina." 

Costus brasiliensis Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 403. 1904. C. 
arabicus Veil. Fl. Flum. 1: pi. 5. 1827; text, ed. Netto 2(?). 1881. 

Allied to C. cylindricus, but the leaves commonly smaller, the 
ligule twice as long (3-5 mm.), and the firmer reddish bracts usually 
drying darker and 3-4 cm. long; corolla tube to 1.5 cm. long, the lip 
to 6 cm. long. C. congestiflorus Gagnp., to which Loesener doubtfully 
refers Ule 9198 from Rio Acre (or to C. lanceolatus Peters), would 
key here. It has oblongish bracts 2 mm. long and villous flowers. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Tessmann 3699 (vel aff., det. Loesener). Caballo- 
cocha, Williams 2497 (vel aff.). Brazil. 

Costus cylindricus Jacq. Fragm. 54. pi. 77. 1809. 

Similar to C. scaber, but the slightly petioled leaves glabrous or 
somewhat pilose and usually longer (1.5-3 dm. long), and the bracts 
often longer. The typical form has spikes 1 dm. long or shorter, red 
bracts, and yellow flowers. Our material is probably all the var. 
pulcherrima (Kuntze) Schum. (var. acreanus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. 
Gart. Berlin 10: 712. 1929, apparently), more robust, the spikes to 
1.5 dm. long, the bracts tomentulose, and the flowers rose or yellow. 
Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 380. 

Junin: La Merced, 4809; Schunke 435. Loreto: Middle Ucayali, 
Tessmann 3292. Iquitos, Killip & Smith 27266. Rio Acre, Ule 



734 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

9194, 9193, 9195 (var. acreanus). Bolivia to the West Indies. 
"Cafiagre." 

Costus erythrocoryne Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 410. 1904. 

Leaves 18-28 cm. long, 7-9 cm. wide, the margins and nerves 
beneath minutely appressed-pilose; ligule 6-7 mm. long, ciliate; 
spikes ellipsoid, rounded at apex, 1-1.5 dm. long; bracts red, tomen- 
tose and ciliate, very broadly ovate, 4-5 cm. long and broad, not at 
all calloused; calyx 1.5 cm. long; flowers yellow, red toward the tip; 
corolla lip obovate, obtuse, 3.5-4 cm. long. Well marked by the 
diverse flowering stems, virtually stout-bracteate peduncles, 3-9 
dm. high. The similar C. geothyrsus Schum. of Ecuador, with leaves 
twice as large, is to be expected. Neg. 9892. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Ule 6188. 

Costus erythrophyllus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
707. 1929. 

Glabrous except the puberulent bracts, several dm. to 1 meter 
high; leaves mostly crowded toward the apex of the stem, shortly 
petioled, obovate-oblong, 1.5-2.5 dm. by 5.5-10 cm.; spikes sub- 
capitate, 4.5 cm. long, 3.5 cm. thick; smaller bracts 4 cm. long, the 
appendage half as long; flowers yellowish with reddish streaks. 
Leaves reddish beneath. Related to C. juruanus Schum. and C. 
discolor Schum., both with shorter and entire ligules. Neg. 9890. 

Loreto: Mouth of the Apaga, Tessmann 4813. 

Costus erythrothyrsus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
713. 1929. 

Allied to C. erythrocoryne, but glabrous, the leaves 3-4 dm. long, 
the bracts 3-4 cm. long and 2.5-3 cm. broad, and the flowers red. 
The Ecuadorian C. geothyrsus Schum. has leaves 2 dm. broad and 
hairy bracts, and probably will be found in Peru. Neg. 9891. 

Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4262. Timbuchi, 
Rio Nanay, Williams 977. "Cafiagre Colorado." 

Costus gracilis Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 711. 1929. 

Slender, the ascending stems to 3.5 mm. thick, glabrous, or the 
sheaths granulate-punctate; petioles 2-3 mm. long; leaves 8-12 cm. 
long and 1.5 cm. wide; bracts, excluding the lower, more or less leaf- 
like ones, about 22 mm. long and 8 mm. broad, with an obsolete 
callus line; flowers white. Allied by Loesener to C. pubescens 
S. Moore, of Brazil. Neg. 9897. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 95 bis. 



FLORA OF PERU 735 

Costus kaempferoides Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
714. 1929. 

The only stemless species of Peru; leaves about 3 dm. long and 1 
dm. wide, sparsely hirsute on both sides; spikes 6 cm. long and 
broad; flowers yellow. Neg. 9899. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Vie 9197. 

Costus laevis R. & P. Fl. 1: 3. 1798; 400. C. Weberbaueri Loes. 
Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 712. 1929. 

Petioles to 1 cm. long; sheath broad, puberulent; ligule and 
petioles purple; spikes very long, fusiform, the bracts broadly 
lanceolate; flowers large and showy, the elongate obtuse lobes 
puberulent, the middle lobe of the ample lip trifid. Neg. 9900. 

Huanuco: Pillao (Ruiz & Pavdri). Cochero (Poeppig 1587}. 
Junin: La Merced, Weberbauer 1852, 1820 (the same as the R. & P. 
plant, fide Loesener). 

Costus lasius Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 710. 1929. 

Striking because of its reddish pubescence; spikes ovoid, sessile; 
corolla yellowish, the oblong lobes 6 cm. long, the lip to 9 cm. long. 
This was referred to C. villosissimus Jacq., of the West Indies, by 
Schumann. Neg. 9901. 

Puno: Sangaban (Lechler 2475?). Loreto: Leticia, Ule 6180, 
type. Yurimaguas, Poeppig. La Victoria, Williams 3004- 

Costus Puchucupanga Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 49. 1931. 

Rather slender, the rusty-puberulent stems 1 cm. thick; sheath 
margins densely woolly-ciliate; leaves sessile, narrowed to the base, 
shortly caudate-acuminate, 2-2.5 dm. long, 7-10 cm. wide, glabrous 
above except the margins and midnerve, these densely fulvous- 
pubescent, finely pale-puberulent all over beneath; spike ovoid, 
sessile; bracts broad, rounded, conspicuously callous-lineate; flowers 
unknown. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 4570. "Puchucu-panga." 

Costus scaber R. & P. Fl. 1: 2. pi. 3; 406. 

Recognizable by its pubescent leaves, the larger about 8 cm. long 
and 7 cm. broad; bracts also hairy, purple, 2 cm. long, with a callus 
line below the apex. The species is not well named. 

Huanuco: Pillao, Chinchao, Cochero, Posuso (Ruiz & Pavon). 
Loreto: Cumaria, Tessmann 3324 (det. Loesener). Puerto Metendez, 



736 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Tessmann 4781 (vel aff., very pubescent, det. Loesener). Mishuyacu, 
King 790, 922. Palta-cocha, Rio Nanay, Williams 1272. 

Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Rose. Trans. Linn. Soc. 8: 350. 1807; 
400. Alpinia spiralis Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. l.pl.l. 1797. 

A rather well-marked species because of the obviously woolly- 
ciliate ligules, the usually slender stems, and, especially, the short 
corolla lip; leaves small, usually 1.5 dm. long and a third as broad; 
spikes 2-5 cm. long, the bracts villous-margined to glabrate (our 
form) ; corolla red, the tube 1 cm. long, the stamen far exceeding the 
short lip. 

Loreto: Timbuchi, Rio Nanay, Williams 968, 772. "Agrio-wiru." 
South America. 

Costus tarapotensis Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 50. 1931. 

Habit unknown; leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, 
acuminate, about 3 dm. long and 6 cm. wide, glabrous above but 
conspicuously rusty- villous beneath, very thin; spikes ovoid, about 
1 dm. long; bracts glabrous, oblongish, acute, to 5 cm. long and 7 
mm. wide, soft toward the tips; flowers 2 cm. long. Probably related 
to C. amazonicus. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 6529. 

Costus tarmicus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 709. 1929. 

More or less lightly pubescent, about 3 meters high; petioles 
3-8 mm. long; leaves 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 2.5-6 cm. wide; spikes 5.5- 
7.5 cm. long and 3.5-4.5 cm. thick; bracts glabrous, obsoletely or 
conspicuously calloused, the upper scarious; flowers 6.5 cm. long, the 
lip reddish-bordered. Neg. 9993. 

Junin: La Merced, 900 meters, Weberbauer 1856. 

Costus Ulei Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 709. 1929. 

Similar to the preceding, but more or less yellowish-pubescent; 
bracts purple, the acumen of the upper 1 cm. long. Neg. 9914. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9192. 

Costus validus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 711. 1929. 

Apparently very near C. brasiliensis; bracts rigid-coriaceous, the 
obtuse or rounded apex somewhat incised. Neg. 9915. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9196. 



FLORA OF PERU 737 

Costus zingiberoides Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 49. 1931. 

By its slender stems, only 5-6 mm. thick, its almost grass-like 
leaves 1.5-2 dm. long and 12-15 mm. broad, and its small (to 10 cm. 
long, 2.5 cm. thick) heads with orange-red bracts, this species is 
readily known; the leaves are glabrous, the sheaths hirsutulous; 
bracts ovate, striate, puberulent or glabrous, the faint callus to 4 
mm. long; bracteoles hyaline, truncate, 7 mm. long; calyx 22 mm. 
long; corolla deep yellow, 3 cm. long; connective petaloid; ovary 
3-celled. In aspect suggesting Zingiber officinale. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 3985 (type), 3924- 

3. DIMEROCOSTUS Kuntze 

Flowers in dense spikes, the bracteoles and calyces rigidly 
coriaceus. Bracts more or less sheath-like. Ovary 2-celled. 
Leaves glabrous or minutely puberulent beneath. 
Bracteoles entire or nearly so. 
Leaves nearly glabrous; bracts not long-pubescent. 

Bracts conspicuously calloused, entire D. Tessmanni. 

Bracts obscurely calloused, toothed D. Williamsi. 

Leaves puberulent beneath; flowers white; bracts cobwebby- 
pubescent D. uniflorus. 

Bracteoles deeply fissured; flowers yellow D. elongatus. 

Leaves appressed silvery-pubescent beneath D. bicolor. 

Dimerocostus bicolor Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 8: 114. 1930. 

Similar to D. uniflorus, but the shortly petioled leaves with a 
very dense, silvery indument beneath of almost microscopic hairs; 
flowers unknown; seeds subquadrate, lustrous black. Plants 2 
meters high; inflorescence greenish white. In shady ravine. 

Huanuco: Vilcabamba, Rio Chinchao, 5001. 

Dimerocostus elongatus Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 545. 1906. 

Leaves minutely puberulent beneath; calyx nearly 4 cm. long; 
spikes 3 dm. long or often longer; bracteoles cleft one- third to one- 
fourth, bicarinate; flowers yellow, with a bright sulphur-yellow lip. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo and Pampa del Sacramento 
(Huber 1384, 1461). 

Dimerocostus Tessmanni Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 
715. 1929. 



738 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Leaves glabrous except near the midrib beneath, to 6 dm. long 
and nearly 1 dm. wide; calyx 3.5-4 cm. long; spikes 2.5 dm. long, the 
bracts 3 cm. long, with a callus line 4-6 mm. long, proceeding from 
the 3-cornered apex. Also collected at Chicoplaya by Ruiz and 
Pavon (Loesener). Neg. 9888. 

Loreto: Parinari, Tessmann 3751. Yurimaguas, Williams 4472. 
"Nunio uaskanan," "sacha huiro." 

Dimerocostus uniflorus (Poepp.) Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 
427. 1904. Costus uniflorus Poepp. ex Peters, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, 
pt. 3: 58. 1890. 

Robust, several meters high; leaves green on both sides but 
minutely puberulent beneath; bracts long-ciliate; bractlets 2-3 cm. 
long, bicarinate, pubescent; calyx 2.5-3 cm. long; corolla lip 6-7 
cm. long; seeds narrowly ellipsoid, ashy-black. Illustrated, Pflan- 
zenr. IV. 46:426. 

Peru: (Maclean}. Ecuador; Panama. 

Dimerocostus Williamsi Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 50. 1931. 

Similar to D. Tessmanni, but the leaves only 1 dm. long and 3-4 
cm. wide, the bracts shortly but evidently cleft, the sepals 2 instead 
of 3 cm. long, and the brown seeds 4 instead of 5 mm. long. D. 
Guttierezii Kuntze, little known, if sought here can be distinguished 
by its glabrous sheaths, broad (5-7 mm.) petioles, and black seeds. 
D. bolivianus (Rusby) Loes. has ciliate instead of glabrous bracteoles. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 4%91. 

4. MONOCOSTUS Schum. 

Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves. Ovary 2-celled. 
-Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 428. 

Monocostus Ulei Schum. op. cit. 429. 1904. 
A low plant with glabrous leaves 4-8 cm. long and 3-3.5 cm. 
broad; bracteoles 2 cm. long, the lip 5-6 cm. long. In dry woods. 
San Martin: Near Tarapoto, Ule 6333. 

36. CANNACEAE. Canna Family 

Reference: Kranzlin, Pflanzenr. IV. 47. 1912. 

The canna, besides its use as an ornamental plant, is important 
in South America (to some extent in Peru) as a source of a meal 
prepared from the roots. The species cultivated for this purpose 
(especially C. edulis Ker) are known as "achira." 



FLORA OF PERU 739 

CANNA L. Canna 

The only genus. There are many cultivated forms or races. 
Herbarium material poorly preserved and without color notes, as in 
most of the recent collections that have come to notice, is not prac- 
tically determinable. 

Staminodia none; flowers paniculate C. paniculata. 

Staminodia 2 or 3 ; flowers usually racemose. 
Plants more or less lanuginose. 
Staminodia 2; racemes elongate; sepals greenish red. 

C. lanuginosa. 

Staminodia 3; racemes often shorter than the leaves. 
Flowers 6-7 cm. long; Staminodia connate at base. 

C. Lambertii. 
Flowers to 12 cm. long; staminodia tubular-connate. 

C iridijhra. 
Plants glabrous. 

Leaves paler beneath; staminodia 2 C. concinna. 

Leaves green, sometimes glaucous; staminodia 3, the third 

sometimes greatly reduced. 

Leaves evidently white-margined, 1-1.5 dm. broad. C. glauca. 
Leaves entirely green, usually 2-2.5 dm. broad. 

Flowers red, suffused with orange or yellow. . . .C. indica. 
Flowers scarlet or yellow. 

Leaves elliptic; staminodia very dissimilar. .C. formosa. 
Leaves ovate-oblong; staminodia similar. . . . .C. edulis. 

Canna concinna Bouche", Linnaea 18: 491. 1844; 39. 

About 1 meter high, slender in all parts; leaves 3-4 dm. long, 
1 dm. broad; inflorescence well exceeding the leaves, subpaniculate; 
sepals and petals green, the latter to 3.5 cm. long; staminodia longer, 
strongly unequal. C. coccinea (see C. formosa), with the third 
staminodium reduced, might be sought here. 

Huanuco: Muiia, 4066. Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, Schunke 
286. Without locality (Mathews 885). Brazil; Chile. 

Canna edulis Ker, Bot. Reg. 9: pi. 775. 1823; 64. 

Leaves to 6 dm. long and 2 dm. wide, often purplish beneath; 
pedicels with 2-colored bracts; sepals 12 mm. long; petals 4 cm. long, 
7-8 mm. wide; staminodia to 6 cm. long, more than 12 mm. broad. 



740 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Nearly C. indica, except for the longer and reddish flowers and the 
bracted pedicels. Cultivated for its edible tubers. 

Peru: (Mathews 445)- Widely distributed in tropical America. 

Canna formosa Bouche", Linnaea 18: 491. 1844; 61. 

Similar to C. indica, but the staminodia very unequal and dis- 
similar, the two larger unequal ones spatulate and obtuse or rounded, 
the third much narrower and acute. C. coccinea Mill, is nearly the 
same, but the third staminodium is greatly reduced. The var. 
bicolor Kranzl., with yellow flowers, probably occurs in Peru. 
Illustrated, Berlin Allg. Gartenzeit. 1858: pi. 11. 

Loreto: Yurimaquenrib, Mainas (Martins). Brazil. 

Canna glauca L. Sp. PI. 1. 1753; 54. 

Leaves green but glaucescent and white-margined, to 5 dm. 
long; flowers 8 cm. long, the petals joined in a tube, yellow or suffused 
with red. Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: pi. 16. 

Lima: (Wawra 2580). South America and the West Indies. 

Canna indica L. Sp. PI. 1. 1753; 59. 

Tall, with green oblong leaves as much as 5 dm. long and 2.5 
dm. broad; staminodia subequal and suberect, 4-5 cm. long. In 
Peru only in cultivation. 

Peru: Cultivated (Ruiz & Pavdn). Central America; West Indies. 

Canna iridiflora R. & P. Fl. 1: 1. 1798; 68. 

. Sometimes several meters high; leaves to 6 dm. long and 2 dm. 
wide; racemes little if all exceeding the leaves, nodding; flowers a 
beautiful rose color. Illustrated, Bot. Mag. 45: pi. 1968. 

Huanuco: Pillao (Ruiz). Ayacucho: Prov. Huanta, 2,700 
meters, Weberbauer 5597. Cuzco: Urubamba Valley, Herrera 1566. 
"Monte achira," "sumac achira" (the beautiful achira). 

Canna Lambertii Lindl. Bot. Reg. 6: pi. 470. 1820; 68. 
A stout plant with elliptic leaves to 5 dm. long and 12 cm. wide; 
racemes short, few-flowered, about as long as the upper leaves; 
sepals and petals lilac or purple, the unequal staminodia bright 
purple, the larger nearly 1.5 cm. broad. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. 
IV. 47: 69. 
. Peru: (Mathews 445). Brazil to Colombia and the West Indies. 



FLORA OF PERU 741 

Canna lanuginosa Rose. Monandr. PI. pi. 16. 1828; 35. 
Well marked by its long and long-bracted racemes of orange 
flowers. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 47: 36. 
Lima: (Wawra 2536). Brazil. 

Canna paniculata R. & P. Fl. l:l.pl.l. 1798; 28. 

A tall, more or less lanuginous plant with petioled leaves to 6 
dm. long and 1.5-2 dm. wide; scapes slender; flowers in a squarrose 
panicle; sepals 2 cm. long, green; petals greenish yellow, 5-7.5 cm. 
long. The roots are edible but insipid (R. & P.). 

Huanuco: Pampayacu, 5067. Chinchao (Ruiz). Chile; Brazil. 
"Achira cimarrona." 

37. MARANTACEAE. Arrowroot Family 

Reference: Schumann, Pflanzenr. IV. 48. 1902. 
The chief plant of this family is arrowroot, Maranta arundinacea 
L. Meal made from its tuber-like rhizomes is used as food in many 
parts of the world. Historically interesting is its reputation as an 
excellent agent to overcome the effects of poisoned arrows. Spruce 
records its native name as "araruta," from which, someone has sug- 
gested, the English name may be derived. The genera as restricted 
by Schumann apparently conform only in part to the natural rela- 
tionships, and from a practical standpoint several were better 
treated as sections of one or two. The following partially artificial 
key perhaps accounts for the Peruvian species. 
Flowers in simple dense spikes, racemes, or panicles, closely bracted 
(except sometimes in Calathea foliosa) and spreading, but the 
inflorescence subcapitate. 

Inflorescence consisting of 1 or more very slender, tubular, spike- 
like racemes 2. Ischnosiphon. 

Inflorescence of 1-many more or less egg-shaped spikes, racemes, 

or panicles. 

Corolla tube longer than or not much shorter than the sepals. 
Flowers in a simple spike or head; ovary 3-celled . 1. Calathea. 
Flowers in a congested ovoid panicle; ovary 1-celled. 

3. Monotagma. 

Corolla tube much shorter than the sepals 4. Myrosma. 

Flowers or the inflorescence paniculate or, if racemose and bracteate, 
not very densely so, or the bracts not strongly imbricate or 
foliose. 



742 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Corolla tube longer or not much shorter than the sepals; bracts 

persistent. 
Bracts few (1-5). 

Inflorescence very open; bracts distichous 6. Maranta. 

Inflorescence simple or compound but rather dense; bracts 

dorsiventral 5. Saranthe. 

Bracts about 8 3. Monotagma. 

Corolla tube very short; bracts deciduous 7. Thalia. 

1. CALATHEA G. F. W. Mey. 

Perennial herbs with commonly simple flower stalks, leafy at base, 
or leafy, the leaves often long-petioled and colored. Spikes sessile 
or stalked and accompanied by a solitary leaf or sometimes one to 
several, and borne as though from a leaf axil. Ovary 3-celled. 
Bracts few to 5 and the spikes rarely 1.5 cm. long, or outermost bracts 
curved-tubular. 

Outer bract tube-like, including the inner C. Pavonii. 

Bracts imbricate, not curved. 

Leaves oblongish, 1-sided, rarely 5.5 cm. wide; bracts often 5. 
Leaves mostly 3.5-4.5 cm. wide. 

Leaves drying pale green, acuminate C. micans. 

Leaves drying purplish or mottled, obtusish. . .C. undulata. 

Leaves about 2 cm. wide, acuminate C. Klugii. 

Leaves elliptic, to 6 cm. wide; bracts 3, subdistichous. 

C. microcephala. 
Bracts many, or at least the spikes 2 to many cm. long. 

A. Terminal bracts dissimilar, the sterile forming a coma, or all 

the bracts soft-appendaged and widely spreading. 
B. Bracteoles thin or hyaline; spikes mostly 5 cm. long or 

wide or even larger. 

C. Bracts, at least the lower, obviously imbricate. 
Inflorescence villous, much exceeded by the roundish 
white-striped leaves C. velutina. 

Inflorescence glabrous or somewhat hairy but then, espe- 
cially, long-peduncled or the leaves not as above. 

Peduncles and lower bracts conspicuously villous- 
lanuginose C. lanata. 



FLORA OF PERU 743 

Peduncles, at least, not conspicuously hairy. 

Terminal bracts erect, little exserted C. allouia. 

Terminal bracts conspicuous, erect or spreading. 
Spikes subglobose or globose- turbinate; leaves green 

or uniformly colored beneath. 
Leaves oblong-elliptic. 
Leaves green; sterile bracts erect, reddish. 

C. comosa. 
Leaves dark red, pale green, or rose beneath; 

sterile bracts spreading, green. 
Leaves pale or rosy beneath; sterile bracts 
pale, about 10, the uppermost rhombic. 

C. ucayalina. 

Leaves red beneath; sterile bracts green, 
about 16, the upper oblong-ovate. 

C. Sophiae. 

Leaves rotund-elliptic .C. jocosa. 

Spikes cylindrical-turbinate; sterile bracts few; 

leaves purple-splotched beneath. C. Veitchiana. 

C. Bracts not clearly imbricate, all soft or the lower soft 

above and as long as or longer than the upper. 
Leaves ample, long-villous or puberulent beneath. 

Leaves villous C. silvosa. 

Leaves puberulent C. jocosa. 

Leaves small, glabrous C. enclitica. 

B. Bracteoles indurate-clavate (often exserted); spike usually 

smaller or at least narrower. 
Leaves very acuminate, longer than broad. 

Leaves about 5 cm. wide; bracts puberulent or partly 

villous C. Loeseneri. 

Leaves about 1.5-2 dm. wide; bracts densely villous and 

ciliate C. ulotricha. 

Leaves broadly rounded at apex, sometimes shortly acute, 

often subrotund. 

Bracts very broadly ovate, densely rusty-pilose. 
Leaves broadly elliptic or broader; sterile bracts usually 
several. 



744 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Sterile bracts acute; leaves elliptic, 20-30 cm. long. 

C. peruviana. 

Sterile bracts obtuse; leaves suborbicular, 5 cm. long. 

C. virginalis. 
Leaves unequally oblong; sterile bracts 2. .C.Legrelleana. 

Bracts suborbicular, sparsely pubescent with minute or 
lax hairs C. roseopicta. 

A. All the bracts alike or at least all floriferous. 

D. Inflorescence lateral, i. e. peduncled from a bract or leaf, 
or the peduncle sheathed. 

Bracts obviously distichous. 
Spikes elongate-cylindrical, narrow. 

Leaves pruinose beneath C. lutea. 

Leaves green beneath C. Casupito. 

Spikes flat, 6-7 cm. wide C. insignis. 

Bracts evidently spiraled; spikes (1-3) ellipsoid to broadly 
cylindrical. 

Peduncle accompanied by a leaf C. allouia. 

Peduncle bract-sheathed, the sheath sometimes produced 
as a bract. 

Spikes globose, 2-3 cm. long; bracts purple. .C. dicephala. 
Spikes ovoid or cylindrical, several to many cm. long. 

Petioles and peduncle bract glabrous. C. pachystachya. 

Petioles and peduncle pubescent. 

Leaves violet beneath; bracts 1.5 cm. long. 

C. contamanensis. 
Leaves metallic blue-green; bracts 3-4 cm. long. 

C. Standleyi. 

D. Inflorescence solitary, terminal or basal, not (or not ob- 
viously) from a more or less remote bract or leaf. 

Peduncle elongate, sometimes 1 meter high. 
Bracts many, yellowish or purple. 
Bracts acuminate or lacerate. 
Spikes yellowish, globose, to 8 cm. thick. C. altissima. 

Spikes dark purple, cylindrical, about 1 dm. long. 

C. contamanensis. 



FLORA OF PERU 745 

Bracts rounded or obtuse and apiculate. 
Bracteoles present; leaves glabrous C. gigas. 

Bracteoles lacking; leaves puberulent beneath. 

C. aberrans. 

Bracts about 7, reddish C. lateralis. 

Peduncle lacking or short (to about 7 cm. high). 
Spikes ovoid-turbinate or ellipsoid, 2-3 cm. wide. 

Bracts somewhat brownish purple; petioles short- vagi- 
nate C. exscapa. 

Bracts pale green or yellowish; petioles long-vaginate. 
Spikes about 6 cm. long. 

Peduncle about 4 cm. long; ovary glabrous. 

C. pacifica. 

Peduncle obsolete; ovary pubescent. .C. laetevirens. 
Spikes ovoid, about 3 cm. long. 

Peduncle about 4 cm. long or longer; leaves very 
thin C. chrysoleuca. 

Peduncle nearly lacking; leaves firm . . .C. mishuyacu. 
Spikes narrowly cylindric, about 1 cm. wide. .C. Williamsi. 

Calathea aberrans Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 549. 1906. 

One to 5 meters high, the oblong-ovate leaves green and light 
green above, uniformly pale green and puberulent beneath; scapes 
3 dm. long; spikes ovoid, 12 cm. long; bracts numerous but bract- 
eoles lacking; corolla tube pilose, a little longer than the calyx; 
flowers white, 5 cm. long, the sepals yellowish, 2.5 cm. long; outer 
staminodia in the lower flowers often 2 (Nudiscapae). 

Loreto: Region of the Pampa del Sacramento (Huber). 

Calathea allouia (Aubl.) Lindl. Bot. Reg. 14: sub pi. 1210. 
1828; 85, Maranta allouia Aubl. PI. Guian 1: 3. 1775. 

Plants 1-2 meters high; leaves large, glabrous or nearly so but 
the long petioles and especially the sheaths pubescent; spikes ellip- 
soid, subsessile or on peduncles to 1 dm. long; bracts soft, pale, 
lightly pilose; corolla white, 3-4 cm. long, the pubescent tube 2-2.5 
cm. long. 

Loreto: Yarina-cocha, Tessmann 5491 (vel. aff., det. Loesener). 
West Indies. "Daledale." 



746 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Calathea altissima (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 141. 1862; 94. Phrynium altissimum Poepp. & 
Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 20. 1838. 

Leaves glabrous, purple beneath, to 5.5 dm. long and nearly 
2 dm. wide, long-petioled ; spikes globose, to 8 cm. long, the oblong- 
ovate acuminate bracts appressed-puberulent; sepals under 2 cm. 
long, pubescent, especially at apex; corolla yellow, the tube pubes- 
cent, 3 cm. long, the lobes to 13 mm. long. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 7833, 3+111; Poeppig. Caballo- 
cocha, Williams 2331. Rio Acre, Vie 9259 (det. Loesener). 
Huanuco: Weberbauer 3580. San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams. 
Brazil; Panama; Surinam. 

Calathea Casupito (Jacq.) G. F. W. Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq. 10. 
1818; 72. Maranta Casupito Jacq. Fragm. 51. pi. 64. 1809. 

Similar to C. lutea, but the bracts many, usually about 18, and 
the leaves green beneath. 

Huanuco: Monzon, Weberbauer 3603 (det. Loesener). Venezuela. 

Calathea chrysoleuca (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 142. 1862; 96. Phrynium chrysoleucum Poepp. & 
Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 19. 1838. 

Glabrous except for the noticeably villous sepals and strigose- 
sericeous corollas; leaves to 3 dm. long and half as wide; spikes egg- 
shaped, on peduncles to 7 cm. long; outer bracts ovate, acute, to 
3.5 cm. long, the inner oblong, white; corolla tube 3.5 cm. long, 
the lobes to 12 mm. long. About 5 dm. tall. C. Mansoi Koern. is 
very similar, but the bracts are villous within. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poeppig 2332). San Martin: Tocache 
(Poeppig). 

Calathea comosa (L. f.) Lindl. Bot. Reg. 14: sub pi. 1210. 
1828; 89. Maranta comosa L. f. Suppl. 80. 1781. M. capitata R. & 
P. Fl. 1: 3. pi. 5. 1798. Phrynium Achira Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. 
& Sp. 2: 21. 1838. 

A stout plant to 3 meters high, with very long-petioled, one- 
sided, oblong leaves to 3 dm. long and 1 dm. wide, appressed-puberu- 
lent on the nerves beneath or glabrous; spikes globose, to 1 dm. 
thick, the petiole of the companion leaf to 4 dm. long; bracts to 5 
cm. long, ovate-lanceolate, the inner puberulent and greenish yellow 
with red tips; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, white, 1.7 mm. long; 



FLORA OF PERU 747 

corolla yellow, the outer staminodium 18 mm. long. Variable, as 
interpreted. 

Huanuco: Posuso, Cochero, and Chicoplaya, Ruiz & Pavdn; 
(Poeppig 1228}. Loreto: Cumaria, Tessmann 3347, 3357. Mouth of 
Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4571. Rio Acre, Ule 9258. San Martin: 
Tarapoto, Williams 6059. Colombia; Surinam. "Achira de monte." 

Calathea contamanensis Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 547. 1906. 

Similar to C. altissima, but the leaves marked with red or white 
above, the spike stalk only 3-6 dm. long, the spikes about 5 cm. 
thick, and the bracts dark violet. Nudiscapae according to the 
author, but from description better referred to the Scapifoliae. 

Loreto: Cerros de Contamana and Canchahuayo, and less fre- 
quently on the Pampa del Sacramento (Huber). "Bijanillo." 

Calathea dicephala (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 127. 1862; 86. Phrynium dicephalum Poepp. & 
Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 20. pi. 128. 1838. 

Several dm. high, with slender-petioled, one-sided, broadly 
ovate, subcordate leaves, white-pruinose beneath, up to 2 dm. long 
and 11.5 cm. broad; spikes solitary or geminate, subglobose; bracts 
glabrous, ovate or suborbicular; sepals 9 mm. long, equaling the 
tube of the white corolla, its lobes to 4 mm. long; outer staminodium 
pale rose. 

Huanuco: Pampayacu (Poeppig 1547). 

Calathea enclitica Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 53. 1931. 

Glabrous, slender, pale green, the scarcely at all oblique leaves 
nearly obtuse at base and apex, about 1.5 dm. long and 6-7 cm. wide; 
peduncles at least 1 dm. long; spikes turbinate-globose, the outer 
bracts to 4 cm. long, the inner to 3 cm. and widely spreading, all 
soft and greenish white; bracteoles thin; sepals 12 mm. long; outer 
staminodium 17 mm. long; ovary glabrous. 

Loreto: Pebas, Williams 1955, type. 

Calathea exscapa (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 122. 1862; 96. Phrynium exscapum Poepp. & 
Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 18. pi 125. 1838. 

A low plant, lightly pubescent on the long (about 1.5 dm.) 
petioles, the middle area of the oblong-lanceolate leaves above, and 
the inner bracts; leaves paler beneath, variegated above, acuminate, 



748 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

5-7 cm. wide and 1-1.5 dm. long; spike about 2 cm. broad, the 
peduncle 1-5 cm. long; bracts ovate, acuminate, somewhat purplish; 
sepals 2 cm. long, glabrous; corolla white suffused with rose, callose, 
twice exceeding the sepals. C. Sellowi Koern., if sought here, is 
definitely distinguishable only by its glabrous ovary. Neg. 9816. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2332a; Williams 7868. 

Calathea gigas Gagnep. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 50: 589. 1904. 

Very large, the great leaves purplish beneath, several dm. long 
and about 3 dm. broad, glabrous; peduncles greatly elongate, puberu- 
lent; spikes 8-10 cm. long, 5-6 cm. wide, pale or roseate; flowers 
3 cm. long. 

Loreto: San Isidro, Tessmann 4994 (vel. aff., det. Loesener). 
Bolivia. 

Calathea insignis Peters, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 124. 
1890; 73. 

Tall, with ample foliage, the leaves somewhat oblique at tip; 
spikes 6-7 cm. wide and often 2.5-3 dm. long, the broad and evenly 
distichous, straw-colored bracts scarious on the margins. Immedi- 
ately recognizable by the nodding inflorescence. 

Ayacucho: Kimpitiriki, Killip & Smith 22885. Loreto: San 
Antonio, Killip & Smith 29315 (det. Gleason). Ecuador. 

Calathea jocosa Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 53. 1931. 

Known only from a leaf and one spike, but apparently related to 
C. silvosa, from which the ample (23 cm. long, 15 cm. wide) roundish 
leaves, puberulent beneath, and the large globose glabrous spikes 
readily distinguish it; bracts widely divaricate, thin, the outer nearly 
5 cm. long, the numerous sterile little shorter; bracteoles thin; 
ovary glabrous; flowers unknown. 

Loreto : Recreo near Yurimaguas, Williams 3986, type. 

Calathea Klugii Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 55. 1931. 

A glabrous, distinctly rhizomatous herb 1-2 dm. high, with 
slender petioles, peduncles, and leaves, the last conspicuously acum- 
inate, little oblique, mostly about 12 cm. long, green or purple 
beneath; bracts oblong-ovate, subacute, the outer 7 mm. long, all 
glabrous or minutely and sparsely pubescent; flowers white and violet, , 
the tube 1 cm. long, the subequal lobes and staminodium 4 cm. long. 

Loreto : Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 532, type. 



FLORA OF PERU 749 

Calathea laetevirens Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 548. 1906. 

Leaves pale green, or sometimes silvery above through the middle 
and pale rose beneath ; spike scape scarcely 1 dm. high; spikes globose- 
turbinate, 6 cm. long; bracteoles 2.5 cm. long; sepals 1.5 cm. long, 
the tube of the yellow corolla twice as long. Nudiscapae. 

Loreto: Cerros de Contamana and Canchahuayo and also on the 
Pampa del Sacramento (Huber). 

Galathea lanata Peters, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 119. pi. 31. 
1890; 89. 

Resembling C. comosa, but the long petioles and scapes and 
especially the lowest bracts very densely lanuginose with long soft 
brownish hairs; spike about 1 dm. long, crowned with erect sterile 
bracts; flowers over 3 cm. long, the tube nearly 2 cm. long. Killip 
and Smith noted the bracts and perianth as white, the lip blue-tinted. 

Junin: Puerto Yessup, 400 meters, Killip & Smith 26262. Brazil. 

Calathea lateralis (R. & P.) Lindl. Bot. Reg. 14: sub pi. 
1210. 1828; 75. Maranta lateralis R. & P. Fl. 1: 4. 1798. Phrynium 
laterale Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 21. 1838. 

Cespitose, about 1 meter high, glabrous except for the villous 
bract tips; leaves long-petioled, oblong, thick, white-pruinose 
beneath, to 4.5 dm. long and 2.5 dm. wide; spikes sessile, 8 cm. long 
and thick; bracts reddish; tube of the yellow corolla 3.5 cm. long, 
more than thrice the length of the lance-acuminate sepals. 

Huanuco: Cochero (Ruiz & Pavdn; Poeppig 1307). Colombia. 

Calathea Legrelliana Regel, Gartenfl. 28: 301. 1879; 78. 

A low plant, the inequilateral oblong-rotund leaves exceeding 
the narrow spikes; leaves minutely puberulent beneath, to 3 dm. 
long and more than half as wide; peduncles 5-20 cm. long; spikes 
5-10 cm. long; flowers 2 cm. long, the corolla tube 12 mm. long. 
Neg. 9821. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9254. Colombia; Ecuador. 

Calathea Loeseneri Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 51. 1931. 

A trim and graceful plant, its long slender peduncles bearing a 
narrowly turbinate inflorescence conspicuously adorned by several 
oblongish terminal bracts; leaves very oblique at base, nearly 1.5 
dm. long, glabrous above but puberulent beneath, especially on the 
nerves, as also the petioles, the latter (to 13 cm. long) vaginate to 
the middle; peduncles to 3 dm. long, below the spike (about 7 cm. 



750 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

by 2-2.5 cm.) with the lowest bracts (2-2.5 cm. long) somewhat 
long-villous or merely puberulent; capsule glabrous; flowers unknown, 
except as "lilac." 

Loreto: In marsh, Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 940, type. 

Calathea lutea (Aubl.) G. F. W. Mey. Primit. Fl. Esseq. 10. 
1818; 72. Maranta lutea Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 4. 1775. M. Casupo 
Jacq. Fragm. 51. pi 63. 1809. 

A gigantic plant, sometimes attaining a height of 5 meters, with 
thick, elliptic or suborbicular leaves pruinose beneath, the basal ones 
as much as 1.5 meters long by 6 dm. broad; spikes erect; bracts 
reddish or brownish, coriaceous, rarely as many as 12; corolla yellow- 
ish, the tube about three times longer than the sepals, these 1 cm. 
long; staminodium 2 cm. long. Illustrated, Linnaea 22: pi. 3 
(flowers). 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig); Killip & Smith 27512. Rio 
Acre, Ule 9251. Junin: La Merced, Weberbauer 1825. Central 
America; West Indies. 

Calathea micans (Mathieu) Koern. Gartenfl. 7: 87. 1858; 112. 
Maranta micans Mathieu, Cat. PI. 1853, according to Peters, in 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 96. 1890. 

Usually less than 2 dm. high; leaves oblong-lanceolate, rounded 
at base, about 1 dm. long and 3.5 cm. wide; spikes ellipsoid, to 1 cm. 
long; bracts ovate-oblong, acuminate, glabrous; sepals lanceolate, 8 
mm. long, equaling the tube of the white corolla; outer staminodium 
bilobed, 5 mm. long, pale violet. Our material is hairy or glabrous. 
101. Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: pi. 20. 

Loreto: Prov. Mainas (Poeppig). Mouth of Rio Santiago, 
Tessmann 4%70 (vel aff., det. Loesener). Without locality (War- 
scewicz). Brazil. 

Calathea microcephala (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 125. 1862; 111. Phrynium microcephalum 
Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 2.0. pi. 128. 1838. 

A small herb, similar to C. micans, but with the corolla tube 
slightly exserted and the flowers entirely white. An obscure species, 
not recollected unless by Huber. Perhaps the type was abnormal or 
poorly developed. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig). Cerros de Contamana and 
Canchahuayo, and on the Pampa de Sacramento (Huber). 



FLORA OF PERU 751 

Calathea mishuyacu Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 54. 1931. 

Similar to C, exscapa, but the leaves larger, to 1 dm. wide, the 
bracts coriaceous, and the yellowish flowers apparently much smaller, 
the sepals only 12 mm. long. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, near Iquitos, Klug 416, type. 

Calathea pachystachya (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. 
Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 142. 1862; 87. Phrynium pachystachyum 
Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 19. pi. 127. 1838. 

Allied to C. dicephala, but tall and the leaves lanceolate-oblong, 
to 3.5 dm. by 13 cm.; spikes to 18 cm. long; outer bracts 3 cm. long; 
sepals 2.5 cm. long, equaling the white corolla tube, the corolla lobes 
yellow, the staminodium violet. C. Sodiroi Eggers, of Ecuador, has 
entirely yellow flowers, the corolla tube hirsute. 

Huanuco: Paquio, below Pampayacu (Poeppig). 

Calathea pacifica Linden & Andr, 111. Hort. 19: pi. 101. 
1872; 105. 

About 3 dm. high; leaves oblong, medianly puberulent above, 
purplish beneath, to 17 cm. long and 9 cm. wide, the petioles very 
long-vaginate; spikes ellipsoid, to 6 cm. long and 3 cm. thick, the 
peduncle 4 cm. long; bracts glabrous, very broadly ovate; sepals 1 
cm. long, a little shorter than the corolla tube and the outer stamin- 
odium. C. Sellowi Koern. has subsessile subglobose spikes. Intro- 
duced by Linden in 1870. Illustrated, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 
pi 32 (flower). 

San Martin: Moyobamba (Wallis). 

Calathea Pavonii Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 116. 
1862; 80. C. tubispatha Hook. Bot. Mag. 91: pi. 5542. 1865. 

A slender plant of medium height with more or less variegated, 
green leaves, minutely puberulent beneath; outer bract suborbicular 
and tube-like, more or less including the others; sepals 12 mm. long; 
tube of the yellow corolla 16 mm. long; outer staminodium 13 mm. 
long. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 46: 79. 

Huanuco: Chicoplaya (Pavdri). Without locality (Pearce). 
Loreto: Yarina-cocha, Tessmann 3391 (det. Loesener). Rio Acre, 
Ule 9253 (det. Loesener). 

Calathea peruviana Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 

128. 1862; 91. 



752 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Similar to C. roseopicta but taller and the foliage green; leaves to 
3 dm. long and 2 dm. wide, puberulent at least medially beneath; 
bracts to 2.5 cm. long, yellow- villous; sepals 7 mm. long, the corolla 
tube twice as long, the staminodium 11 mm. long. Flowers tinted 
pinkish blue. Neg. 9827. 

Huanuco: Chicoplaya (Pavdri). Junin: La Merced, 1,000 
meters, Weberbauer 1817 (det. Loesener). North of La Merced, 
Killip & Smith 23669. 

Calathea roseopicta (Linden) Regel, Gartenfl. 18: 97. pi. 610. 
1869; 91. Maranta roseopicta Linden, Belg. Hort. 16: 202. 1866. 

Leaves beautifully suffused with red near the margins above and 
purplish beneath, very one-sided, about 2 dm. long and 1.5 dm. 
wide; spikes subcylindrical, 9 cm. long; bracts suborbicular, 3 cm. 
long, pubescent with long hairs (in our material glabrate), the sterile 
narrower, glabrous, colored; sepals 15 mm. long, nearly equaling the 
corolla tube, the staminodium a little shorter. About 2 dm. tall. 
Flowers white and violet (Klug). The name was originally 
hyphenated. 

Loreto: Between Loreto and Iquitos (Wallis). Mishuyacu, near 
Iquitos, Klug 506, 1035. 

Calathea silvosa Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 52. 1931. 

Leaves beneath, peduncles, and bracts lightly but conspicuously 
villous with long, brown, mostly wide-spreading hairs; petioles 
vaginate at base, to 6 dm. long; leaves thin, green, nearly equilateral, 
very shortly acuminate, about 3 dm. long and half as wide; spike 6 
cm. thick; bracts thin, strongly depressed-spreading, 5 cm. long, 
12 mm. wide, the inner sterile ones half as large; sepals glabrous, 
17 mm. long; corolla green and brown, the tube 2.8 cm. long, the 
lobes and staminodium subequal, about a third as long; ovary 
glabrous. 

Loreto: In woods near Iquitos, Klug 11, type. 

Calathea Sophiae Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 550. 1906. 

Closely related to C. Veitchiana(t) but the leaves dark green 
above, the spikes subglobose and depressed at apex, the corolla 
tube nearly 3 cm. long, the sepals nearly 2 cm. long. The outer 
staminodium toward the apex is rose- violet. C. Leonia Hard., 
possibly represented by a sterile plant from Iquitos ( Killip & Smith 
27118), has smaller flowers and leaves white- variegated above. 

Loreto: Pampa del Sacramento (Huber). 



FLORA OF PERU 753 

Calathea Standleyi Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 54. 1931. 

A stately plant, suffused throughout with a blue-metallic tint; 
petioles (below the 2 cm. long callus) and peduncles conspicuously 
appressed-villous, otherwise glabrous; petioles to 10 dm. long, the 
leaves to nearly half as long, about 2 dm. wide; peduncle 1 dm. long, 
above the middle bearing an oblong-lanceolate bract 1 dm. long; 
spike nearly 1 dm. long, fully half as thick; bracts broadly ovate or 
subrotund, scarcely acute, to 3.5 cm. wide; bracteoles thin; flowers 
pale yellow, 4 cm. long, the calyx half as long, the corolla tube 3 
cm. long, the staminodia subequal, 8 mm. long. 

Junin: Puerto Yessup, Killip & Smith 26263, type. 

Calathea ucayalina Huber, Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 551. 1906. 

Apparently very similar to C. comosa, but the bracts white or 
pale green, the sterile broad. Described from cultivated specimens. 

Loreto: Cerro de Canchahuayo and Pampa del Sacramento 
(Huber). 

Calathea ulotricha Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 52. 1931. 

Unknown except for the broadly elliptic, oblique leaf, 4 dm. long, 
green but beneath minutely puberulent, and the pale yellowish and 
densely soft-pubescent spike about 8 dm. long and 3 cm. broad or, 
with the flowers, 5 cm. broad; bracts subtruncate, 2 cm. long and 1 
cm. broad, except the subacute sterile terminal one 5 mm. wide; 
sepals 1 cm. long; flowers 2.5 cm. long, the glabrous exserted tube 
18 mm. long, the outer staminodium 9 mm. long. 

Loreto: Santa Rosa, Williams 4921, type. 

Calathea undulata Linden & Andre", 111. Hort. 19: 160. pi. 98. 
1872; 113. 

Allied to C. micans, but leaves with a median light-colored zone 
and violet beneath; spikes turbinate, under 2 cm. long; bracts white- 
margined and densely white-punctate; staminodium white. The 
similar C. Baraquinii (Lem.) Regel, of adjacent Brazil, has green and 
white-lined leaves to 1.5 dm. long. 

Loreto: On the Huallaga (Wallis); Williams 5301. Junin: 
Chanchamayo, Raimondi (det. Loes.). San Martin: Tarapoto and 
San Roque, Williams 6787, 5301, 7393. 

Calathea Veitchiana Hook. f. Bot. Mag. 91: pi. 5535. 1865; 90. 

A beautiful plant about 1 meter high, its ample lustrous green 

leaves with lighter lunate markings above and with purple splotches 



754 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

beneath; spikes turbinate, to 8 cm. long; bracts to 3 cm. long, ap- 
pressed-pilose; sepals 10 mm. long; tube of the white corolla 13 mm. 
long; staminodium 1 cm. long, violet-spotted. Often cultivated. 

Peru: (Pearce). 

Calathea velutina (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 127. 1862; 89. Phrynium velutinum Poepp. & 
Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 19. pi 126. 1838. 

Scapes much shorter than the broad roundish-elliptic leaves, about 
2.5 dm. long and 1.5 dm. wide; spikes turbinate, to 5 cm. long; 
flowers white, the staminodium 8 mm. long. Illustrated, Horaninow, 
Monogr. Scitam. pi. 3. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2142. 

Calathea virginalis Linden, Gartenfl. 28: 299. 1879; 90. 

Low, 2-3 dm. high, with one-sided suborbicular leaves (to about 
1 dm. long) that are finely and softly pubescent beneath; spikes 3-5 
cm. long and 2.5-3 cm. wide, the broadly ovate fertile bracts rusty- 
pilose; ovary glabrous; corolla 2.5 cm. long, the tube 13 mm. long. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 4254- Brazil. 

Calathea Williams! Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 55. 1931. 

In aspect rather similar to C. Legrelleana, but the leaves softly 
pubescent above, about 1.5 dm. long and nearly half as wide; the 
nodding spike obviously without sterile terminal bracts. 

Loreto: La Victoria, Williams 2541, type. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES 

Calathea Wallisi (Linden) Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 14. 
1869; 116. Maranta Wallisi Linden, Belg. Hort. 17: 105. 1867. 

From the meager description of only the foliage, it seems probable 
that this is an earlier name for C. undulata Linden & Andre 1 . It was 
sent in also by Wallis from an unknown locality in Peru. 

2. ISCHNOSIPHON Koern. 

Tall branching plants, tree-like or bamboo-like, or the stems 
simple and naked, with a tuft of leaves at the summit, or less fre- 
quently leafy at base, but always with the slender-tubed flowers 
arranged in very narrow, cylindrical, spike-like racemes, solitary or 
many. Bracts persistent or tardily deciduous. Flowers geminate. 
Staminodia solitary. Ovary 1-celled. 



FLORA OF PERU 755 

Huge erect plants, their large leaves decidedly one-sided at the tip. 
Leaves concolorous or at least not white-pruinose beneath. 
Spikes 5-7 mm. thick. 

Stems smooth or nearly so; spikes several, fascicled . I. Arouma. 
Stems strongly verruculose; spikes solitary or geminate. 

I. verruculosa. 

Spikes about 10 mm. thick /. obliquus. 

Leaves white-pruinose beneath 7. obliquiformis. 

Lianas or herbs, often small and slender, rarely suffrutescent, the 

leaves, if large, with centered tips. 
A. Leaves never suborbicular and in most species not strongly 

inequilateral at tip. 

B. Leaves green or glaucous but never white-pruinose beneath. 
C. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, 3 to many cm. wide. 
Spikes glabrous or nearly so; stems not verruculose nor 
leaves definitely pubescent. 

Leaves large, to 5-6 dm. long I. cerotus. 

Leaves much smaller. 

Petioles evidently annulate at sheath tip, 3-6 cm. long. 

7. annulatus. 

Petioles not annulate, usually short. 
Leaves concolorous, 3-4 cm. wide; bracts 3 cm. 

long I. gracilis. 

Leaves 4.5-12 cm. wide or, if narrower, very dark 
beneath; bracts often 3-4 cm. long. 

Flowers solitary, at least the upper, glabrous or 
nearly; leaves typically drying dark brown 

beneath I. surinamensis. 

Flowers geminate, pubescent, or the leaves 8-12 

cm. wide. 
Leaves not at all or obscurely oblique at tip, 

not crowded. 

Leaves 4.5-5.5 cm. wide, gradually acu- 
minate /. surumuensis. 

Leaves 8-12 cm. wide, abruptly acuminate. 

I. neotericus. 

Leaves strongly oblique at tip, crowded at 
nodes /. Killipii. 



756 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Spikes puberulent or hairy, or stems verruculose, or leaves 

pubescent. 

Spikes puberulent, at least minutely. 
Stems not verruculose. 

Leaves puberulent beneath /. puberulus. 

Leaves glabrous /. wyomingensis. 

Stems strongly verruculose 7. verruculosus. 

Spikes more or less shaggy- villous. 

Leaves subconcolorous, roundish at base . /. lasiocoleus. 

Leaves paler beneath, cuneate at base 7. ornatus. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2-2.5 cm. wide. . . ./. bambusaceus. 
B. Leaves definitely white-pruinose beneath. 

Tall plants, leafy /. surinamensis. 

Low plants, leafy only from the base 7. leucophaeus. 

A. Leaves suborbicular and strongly one-sided at tip. 

7. rotundifolius. 

Ischnosiphon annulatus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 
273. 1915. 

Several meters high, the tips of the branchlets notably annulate; 
leaves few, cuneate at base, very shortly acuminate, glabrous except 
the tips, 1.5-3 dm. long, the petioles callous only above, 3.5-7 cm. 
long; racemes 2, about 17 cm. long, the peduncle 8 cm. long; bracts 
4-6.5 cm. long, 4 scarious; sepals 3, linear, acute, 2.3-2.7 cm. long; 
corolla pink. Related to 7. Arouma (Aubl.) Koern. and 7. poly- 
phylltis (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern., but differing in its annulate branch- 
lets from both, also from the former in its cuneate-based leaves, and 
from the latter in its tall stature. 7. Uleanus Loes., also to be 
expected, resembles most 7. polyphyllus, but its leaves are subrotund 
at base and obliquely acuminate. Neg. 9864. 

Loreto: Cerro de Ponasa, 1,200 meters, Vie 6847. Mouth of Rio 
Santiago, Tessmann 4532 (vel. aff., det. Loesener). 

Ischnosiphon Arouma (Aubl.) Koern. Nouv. Me"m. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 11: 348. 1859; 159. Maranta Arouma Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 
3. 1775. 

A coarse herb 1-3 meters high with large, commonly ternate, 
concolorous leaves; petioles elongate, the terete callus to 2.5 cm. 
long; sheaths somewhat pilose-puberulent; inflorescence commonly 
compound, the long spikes appearing fascicled ; bracts minutely and 



FLORA OF PERU 757 

sparsely puberulent; sepals narrowly linear, 2.5 cm. long, glabrate; 
corolla yellow and reddish, 2.5 cm. long or longer. The name was 
spelled "aruma" by Koernicke. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 48:157. 

Loreto: Yarina-cocha, Tessmann 5553 (det. Loesener). Brazil; 
Guianas; West Indies. 

Ischnosiphon bambusaceus (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Bull. 
Soc. Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 94. 1862; 162. Calathea bambusacea 
Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 23. 1838. 

A high-climbing plant, branching and nodose in the manner of 
some bamboos; leaves glabrous, glaucous beneath, to 12 cm. long 
and 2 cm. broad or a little broader; racemes to 8 cm. long, sessile, 
solitary or in pairs at the nodes, the bracts coriaceous, glabrous, 
pale, to 2.5 cm. broad; sepals setiform; corolla tube to 3 cm. long, 
the lobes a third as long, pale yellow; staminodia violet. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2431. Pebas, Williams 1699. 

Ischnosiphon cerotus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 
278. 1915. 

Leaves little oblique at the broadly cuneate-rotund base, 2.5-4.5 
dm. long, 1.5-2 dm. wide, puberulent on the nerves above; racemes 
1-2 dm. long, on glabrous peduncles 4-7 cm. long; bracts 5-9, about 
3 cm. long; sepals linear-lanceolate, 22 mm. long, equaling the tube 
of the dull yellow corolla. Similar to the probably Peruvian I. 
hirsutus Peters., of Brazil, but the latter with leaves to 1 dm. long 
and more or less villous. Neg. 9866. 

Huanuco: On the Monzon, 600 meters, Weberbauer 3631. 

Ischnosiphon gracilis (Rudge) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 
35, pt. 1: 94. 1862; 163. Maranta gracilis Rudge, PI. Guian. 8. 
pi. 3. 1805. 

Slender-stemmed, much branched, with short-petioled small 
oblong-ovate leaves; petioles calloused; spikes solitary, rarely more 
than 1.5 dm. long; sepals 2 cm. long; flowers 3 cm. long, sometimes 
pubescent. Distinctive in habit. The var. Wallisii Schum. has 
petioles to 4 cm. long, callous only on the upper portion, and the 
leaves are as much as 17 cm. long and 4 cm. wide. 

Loreto: La Victoria, Williams 2930. Caballo-cocha, Williams 
2221. Brazil; British Guiana. 

Ischnosiphon Killipii Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 55. 1931. 
Scandent and apparently much branched at the enlarged nodes; 
leaves green, not paler beneath, elliptic, rounded at base, about 12 



758 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

cm. long and 5 cm. broad, the petioles 7 cm. long, the articulation 
3-6 mm. long; spikes 12 cm. long, 6 mm. thick; bracts 3.5 cm. long; 
sepals puberulent, 2 cm. long; corolla tube glabrous, nearly twice as 
long; staminodium 12 mm. long; ovary slightly pilose. With the 
habit of I. gracilis, but with different foliage and spikes. 
Loreto: Iquitos, Killip & Smith 26929, type. 

Ischnosiphon lasiocoleus Schum. ex Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 6: 279. 1915. I. lasiocoleus var. bolivioides Loes. op. cit. 280. 

Plants 1.5-2 meters high, branching, more or less, but lightly, 
villous-hirsute except the glabrous or glabrate leaves; petioles 2-4 
cm. long, typically calloused the entire length; leaves broadly oblong- 
lanceolate, 2-3.5 dm. long, 6-14 cm. wide, concolorous or nearly so 
but the veins above marked with lighter green; spikes solitary or 
usually 2-3, slender, to 2 dm. long; bracts 2 cm. long; sepals 1 cm. 
long, pubescent; flowers white or tinted. Neg. 9868. 

Loreto: Balsapuerto, Killip & Smith 28686. Junin: Puerto 
Bermudez, 375 meters, Killip & Smith. Brazil. 

Ischnosiphon leucophaeus (Poepp. & Endl.) Koern. Nouv. 
Me"m. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 11: pi. 10, 11. 1859; 160. Calathea leucophaea 
Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 21. pi. 129, 1838. 

Rather similar to /. surinamensis, but a low plant, the leaves 
all basal; leaves larger, often several dm. long and 1 dm. or more 
broad, or smaller, and with a broad -based but very slender- tipped, 
scarcely excentric acumen; spikes usually several, mostly 1-1.5 dm. 
long; flowers white or tinted, 3.5 cm. long. 

Loreto: Pebas, Williams 1891 (?; stem lacking). Iquitos, Killip 
& Smith 27373; King 221*. Brazil; Panama. 

Ischnosiphon neotericus Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 57. 1931. 

A glabrous plant, notable for its long (to 2.5 dm.) petioles, 
vaginate only at base, the callus 2 cm. long, and for its large equi- 
lateral leaves with an acumen to 2 cm. long; leaves green on both 
sides; spikes solitary, 12 cm. long, 4 mm. thick; bracts 3 cm. long, 
the indurate bracteoles slightly longer; sepals linear, minutely 
puberulent, 18 mm. long; flowers apparently rose-color, glabrous, 
the tube 3.5 cm. long, the narrow lobes 9 mm. long, the crenulate 
staminodium 11 mm. long; ovary glabrous. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Williams 3761, type. 

Ischnosiphon obliquiformis Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
6:272.1915. 



FLORA OF PERU 759 

Apparently the same as I. Arouma except the leaves white- 
pruinose beneath and the flowers yellow. In our specimen the 
collector noted the flowers as "yellow and lilac-rose." As suggested 
by Loesener, the plant could be treated as a variety of /. Arouma. 
Neg. 9869. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 1006. Brazil. 

Ischnosiphon obliquus (Rudge) Koern. Nouv. Me"m. Soc. 
Nat. Mosc. 11: 341. 1859; 163. Maranta obliqua Rudge, PI. Guian. 
liS.pl. 2. 1805. 

In general not particularly different from /. Arouma, but the 
spikes much more robust and the flowers a little longer; bracts 3-4.5 
cm. long. I. grandibracteatus Loes. has many fasciculate spikes 
several dm. long, the bracts 5 cm. long or longer. Illustrated, 
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: pi. 35. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Tessmann 5115 (det. Loesener). Martinique to 
Colombia and Brazil. 

Ischnosiphon ornatus Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 57. 1931. 

Sheaths, peduncles, and bracts rusty-pilose or the latter almost 
shaggy; petioles to 1.5 dm. long, vaginate below the middle, glabrate 
or puberulent; leaves equilateral, 1.5-2 dm. long and 6 cm. wide, 
glabrous except for the midnerve; bracts about 2 cm. long, the bract- 
lets only 17 mm. long; sepals linear, pilose, 15 mm. long; corolla 
tube puberulent, 18 mm. long, the narrow lobes 6 mm. long, a little 
longer than the staminodium; ovary pubescent at the tip. Near 
I. sphenophyllus Schum. of Brazil, but that has glabrous sheaths and 
corolla and longer bracteoles. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 3870, type. 

Ischnosiphon puberulus Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 
281. 1915. 

Stems apparently leafless below; leaves few, puberulent beneath, 
broadly ovate, subrotund or broadly cuneate at base, 1-2 dm. long 
and 5.5-8 cm. broad; racemes terminal, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, sessile or 
on puberulent peduncles about 4 cm. long; bracts 5-8, 3.5 cm. long; 
sepals linear, one a little broader, about 2 cm. long; corolla purplish, 
the tube 3 cm. long, the throat barbellate, the lobes narrowly lanceo- 
late, 1.5 cm. long. Neg. 9870. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Vie 9203. 



760 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Ischnosiphon rotundifolius (P. & E.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 95. 1862; 162. Calathea rotundifolia P. & E. Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. 2: 23. 1838, 

High-climbing, bamboo-like and branching at the distant leafy 
nodes; petioles 2 cm. long; leaves suborbicular, acute or very broadly 
acuminate, glabrous, to 18 cm. long and 12 cm. wide or only 15 cm. 
long and 12 cm. wide; spikes many, very minutely puberulent; 
sepals narrowly linear, 2 cm. long; corolla tube puberulent; otherwise 
unknown. From a drawing in herb. Dahlem (copy in Field Mu- 
seum), apparently a very distinct species in its roundish leaves. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas (Poeppig 2186}. 

Ischnosiphon surinamensis (Miq.) Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 93. 1862; 60. Maranta surinamensis Miq. Linnaea 
18:603. 1844. 

Leafy simple-stemmed plants to 3 meters high, sometimes sup- 
ported in shrubs; petioles calloused, to 1.5 cm. long; leaves ovate, 
somewhat one-sided at the acuminate tip, glabrous, the under side 
drying deep brown or dark, mostly about 1 dm. long by 4-5 cm. 
broad; spikes glabrous, slender, 1.5 dm. long, usually solitary; 
sepals nearly glabrous, very narrow; flowers 3-4 cm. long, rose, or 
(according to Tessmann) orange and white, the lip violet-red or 
yellow and white, the tube orange. Peruvian material perhaps is 
better referred to /. polyphyllus (P. & E.) Koern., as the leaves are 
nearly concolorous. The species are not clearly distinct. Neg. 9872. 

Loreto : Yurimaguas, Williams 3931 . Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tess- 
mann 4541 (aff., det. Loesener). Yarina-cocha, Tessmann 3384 (aff., 
det. Loesener). Brazil; Guianas. "Aniuji pingullo," "etsonchana." 

Ischnosiphon surumuensis Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
6: 276. 1915. 

Shrubby or clambering, with few remote branchlets; leaves firm, 
concolorous or nearly so, glabrous, 1-1.5 dm. long and 4.5-5.5 cm. 
wide, rounded at base, narrowly and very sharply acuminate, little 
oblique; spikes solitary, 1.5-3 dm. long; bracts glabrous or sparsely 
puberulent; corolla tube about 3 cm. long, conspicuously pubescent 
only within; staminodium broadly obovate, over 1 cm. long; sepals 
and corolla lobes pubescent. Flowers yellow. Neg. 9873. 

Loreto: Iquitos, Williams 3726. Brazil. 

Ischnosiphon verruculosus Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
56. 1931. 



FLORA OF PERU 761 

Differs from I. Arouma chiefly by the densely rough-verruculose 
stems and sheaths; leaves 1.5-2 dm. long and 8-10 cm. wide, ovate, 
somewhat one-sided at the acuminate tip, glabrous except along the 
midrib beneath; spikes only 1-2, very minutely puberulent, to 2.5 
dm. long; flowers yellow, red, and violet, 2.5 cm. long, the slender 
tube 1.5 cm. long, the outer narrowly lanceolate, acuminate segments 
appressed-pilose. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 430, type. 

Ischnosiphon wyomingensis Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
57. 1931. 

A scandent plant with yellow and brown flowers, glabrous except 
for the closely but minutely pubescent bracts 3.5 cm. long, pilose 
sepals 3 cm. long, conspicuously villous corolla tube 3 cm. long, 
and sheaths 4-5 cm. long; petioles 1-1.5 cm. long; leaves oblong- 
elliptic, gradually and subobliquely subcaudate-acuminate, 5-6 cm. 
broad, about 1.5 dm. long, slightly paler beneath; spikes apparently 
solitary, about 2 dm. long, 7 mm. thick, not at all flexuous; stam- 
inodium oblong-lanceolate. Distinguished from I. surumuensis 
chiefly by the pubescence and the narrower staminodium, and from 
/. Uleanus Loes. of Brazil by the smaller leaves and strict spikes. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 854, type. 

3. MONOTAGMA Schum. 

Allied to Ischnosiphon but the flowers never geminate and borne 
in terminal panicles, open or congested and ovoid, or accompanied 
by a bract-like leaf. Plants often less than 1 meter high, with long- 
petioled, usually strongly oblique basal leaves. 
Leaves oblong- or linear-lanceolate, 1.5-4.5 cm. broad, 2-4.5 dm. 

long M. angustissimum. 

Leaves broadly ovate-lanceolate or rarely oblong-lanceolate and 

5.5-6 cm. wide, usually 6-10 cm. wide or much wider. 
Petiole callus obscure, never densely ciliate-barbate . . .M. laxum. 
Petiole callus conspicuously thickened, often annulate at base, 

pilose or barbate. 
Petiole callus densely barbate; inflorescence with a leaf. 

Bracts conspicuously pilose, few M. contrariosum. 

Bracts glabrous, usually many M. plurispicatum. 

Petiole callus slightly to densely pilose but not annulate- 
barbate. 



762 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Inflorescence with a leaf, spike-like or long-paniculate. 
Leaves ovate-elliptic, 6-12 cm. broad. 

Inflorescence spike-like; petioles sheathed only below. 

M. dolosum. 
Inflorescence usually paniculate; petioles sheathed. 

M. anarthronum. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, to 3.5 cm. broad. .M. parvulum. 
Inflorescence without a leaf, ovoid M. spicatum. 

Monotagma anarthronum Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
58. 1931. 

Similar to M. dolosum, but the petioles long-vaginate, often 
nearly to the callus, the leaves 8-12 cm. broad and 2 dm. long, and 
the panicles not spiciform; sepals 1 cm. long; corolla tube glabrous, 
nearly 2.5 cm. long, the elliptic lobes 3 mm. long; ovary glabrous. 
M. Ulei Schum. of Brazil has densely villous spikes only a few cm. 
long and a pubescent corolla tube only 1 cm. long. 

Loreto: San Antonio, Rio Itaya, Killip & Smith 29363. Alto 
Rio Itaya, Williams 8251. 

Monotagma angustissimum Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 
6: 284. 1915. 

About 1 meter high, the stems below and leaf sheaths lanuginose; 
petioles 3-10 cm. long, puberulent; leaves little oblique, pubescent 
above only on the midrib; panicle spikes about 8 mm. long; panicle 
bracts 2.5-3 cm. long, puberulent, villous-margined, the shorter 
floral ones roseate with white margins; sepals elliptic, scarcely 4 
mm. long; corolla white, the tube about 12 mm. long. Neg. 9877. 

Huanuco: Posuso, 300 meters, Weberbauer 6763. Loreto: 
Balsapuerto, Killip & Smith 28680. 

Monotagma contrariosum Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 58. 
1931. 

Apparently low, the long (2 dm.) petioles vaginate nearly to the 
densely barbate callus, this 2 cm. long; leaves very oblique, rounded 
to the acute base, shortly acuminate, nearly 2 dm. long, half as wide, 
beneath, with the sheaths, peduncles, and bracts, pilose, glabrous 
above except for the midnerve; panicle narrow, about 12 cm. long; 
sepals hyaline, glabrous, 1 cm. long; corolla strongly cucullate; 
ovary villous at apex. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 116, type. 



FLORA OF PERU 763 

Monotagma dolosum Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 58. 1931. 

Slender, the stems above, petioles, and leaves beneath minutely 
pilose; petioles vaginate to about the middle, to 18 cm. long; leaves 
not or scarcely oblique, acute at base, ovate-elliptic, acuminate, 
mostly 15-18 cm. long, 6-7 cm. wide, pilose on the midrib above; 
panicles few, spike-like, about 1 dm. long, nearly glabrous; bracts 
17 mm. long; flowers sessile; sepals 1 cm. long, the glabrous corolla 
tube a little longer, its oblong-elliptic lobes 2.5 mm. long; stamino- 
dium nearly 5 mm. broad, deeply emarginate. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 5052, 5115. 

Monotagma laxum (Poepp. & Endl.) Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 
48: 168. 1902. Calathea laxa Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 
22. pi. 130. 1838. MarantalaxaD. Dietr. Syn. 1:7. 1839. Ischnosi- 
phon laxus Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 85. 1862. 

About 1 meter high; basal and stem leaves subequal, to 3.5 dm. 
long, glabrous except for the tips, the long (to 2 dm.) petioles gla- 
brous or puberulent but not pilose-annulate; panicle with its leaf 
to nearly 2 dm. long, the racemes few to many; bracts oblong, orange, 
the lower puberulent, to 3 cm. long; sepals linear, 12 mm. long; 
tube of the yellow corolla 2.5 cm. long, the lobes about 6 mm. long. 
The similar and possibly Peruvian M. exannulatum Schum. has 
roseate flowers with pilose tubes scarcely 2 cm. long. Var. oblongi- 
folium Macbr. has leaves oblong, about 5.5 cm. wide, to 3 dm. long, 
little oblique; sheaths densely long-pilose below; sepals about 17 
mm. long. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 48: 157. 

Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, Tessmann 4568. Iquitos, Tess- 
mann 5065. Between Rio Nanay and Rio Napo, Williams 721. 
San Martin: Tocache (Poeppig). Without locality: Pavdn. 
Huanuco: Monzon, 700 meters, Weberbauer 3683. 

Monotagma parvulum Loes. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 
283. 1915. 

More or less puberulent nearly throughout, to about 4 dm. tall; 
leaves not oblique, rounded-cuneate at base; panicle dense; sepals 
linear-lanceolate, 1 cm. long; corolla white, the tube 1.5 cm. long, 
the oval lobes 2-3 mm. long; outer staminodia apparently lacking. 
Neg. 9881. 

Loreto: Cerro de Ponasa, 1,200 meters, Ule 6846. 

Monotagma plurispicatum (Koern.) Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 
48: 169. 1902. Ischnosiphon plurispicatus Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc. 35, pt. 1:83. 1862. 



764 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

Acaulescent, 1-2 meters high; petioles of the basal leaves 50 
cm. long; leaves glabrous unless at the very oblique tip, several dm. 
long and 1.5-2 dm. wide; panicle ample, the many bracts glabrous; 
sepals lanceolate, 7 mm. long; corolla tube glabrous, 12 mm. long; 
lobes oblong, 4 mm. long. The ring at the leaf callus base is densely 
pubescent with hispid or almost bristle-like hairs. 

Cuzco: Cosnipata, 700 meters, Weberbauer 6943 (det. Loesener). 
Huanuco: Monzon, Weberbauer 3604 (det. Loesener). Loreto: 
Rio Acre, Ule 9248 (det. Loesener). Junin: La Merced, Schunke 592. 
Brazil. 

Monotagma spicatum (Aubl.) Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 
14. 1931. Maranta spicata Aubl. Hist. PL Guian. 1: 4. 1775. Isch- 
nosiphon spicatus Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 83. 1862. 
Calathea Parkeri Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 22. 1838. 
Phrynium Parkeri Rose. Monandr. PI. pi. 42. 1828. 

Well marked by the lack of a leaf accompanying the narrowly 
ovoid panicle; leaves very oblique, glabrous except at the tips, to 
3.5 dm. long, the petioles elongate; peduncle villous, to 5 dm. long; 
lower bracts to 6 cm. long; corolla tube puberulent, to 2.5 cm. long, 
three times as long as the oblong sepals, the corolla lobes to 6 mm. 
long. 

San Martin: Tocache (Poeppig). Guianas. 

4. MYROSMA L. f. 

Similar to Maranta technically, but the Peruvian species seem- 
ingly all acaulescent and with geminate racemes. Bracts more or 
less densely imbricate. Here would be sought the Ecuadorian 
Thalia Pavonia Koern. and T. Andersonii Schum., both probably 
referable to Myrosma in a broad sense. The inflorescence of the 
former is an interrupted panicle; of the latter, a solitary raceme. 

Bracts linear-lanceolate M . hexantha. 

Bracts broadly oblong-obovate or subrotund. 

Bracts densely imbricate; leaves less than 1 dm. wide. 

M. unilateralis. 
Bracts loosely imbricate; leaves more than 1 dm. wide. 

M. stromanthoides. 

Myrosma hexantha (Poepp. & Endl.) Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 
48: 144. 1904. Thalia hexantha Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 
2: 24. pi. 132. 1838. Maranta hexantha D. Dietr. Syn. 1: 6. 1839. 



FLORA OF PERU 765 

Plants to 6 dm. high, with shortly petioled, oblongish leaves to 
4 dm. long and over 1 dm. broad, minutely puberulent above; 
inflorescence stalk to 18 cm. high, the peduncles to 10 cm. long; 
bracts many, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, green, to 3 cm. long; 
sepals similar, 1.5 cm. long; corolla tube 7 mm. long; staminodium 
yellow. 

Loreto: Yurimaguas, Poeppig 2260. 

Myrosma stromanthoides Macbr. Field Mus. Bot. 11: 59. 1931. 

Leaves glabrous, broadly elliptic, shortly acuminate, to 7 dm. 
long, 1.5-1.8 dm. wide, racemes mostly 2-3; peduncles loosely 
villous, 1.5-5 cm. long, long-bracteate; inflorescence bracts laxly 
imbricate, about 8-12, scarious-chartaceous, persistent; flowers 7-8, 
on pedicels scarcely 2 mm. long, usually much shorter. 

San Martin: Tarapoto, Williams 6563, 6017. "Bijahuillo." 

Myrosma unilateralis (Poepp. & Endl.) Schum. Pflanzenr. IV. 
48: 144. 1902. Thalia unilateralis Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 
2: 24. pi. 133. 1838. Maranta unilateralis D. Dietr. Syn. 1: 6. 1839. 

Similar to the preceding, but the leaves narrower, the flowering 
stalk tomentose, the broadly oblong-obovate bracts very obtuse, 
and the corolla tube only 3 mm. long. 

San Martin: Tocache (Poeppig). Junin: Puerto Bermudez, 
Killip & Smith 26423. 

5. SARANTHE Eichl. 

Similar to Maranta in its exserted flowers but essentially allied 
to Myrosma, from which genus, in a broad sense, it is not to be 
distinguished. 

Saranthe urceolata Peters, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 3: 167. pi. 48. 
1890; 139. 

Glabrous, to several dm. tall, the petioles 1.5 dm. long, very 
thickly calloused below the subelliptic leaves, the latter sometimes 
2 dm. long and half as wide; racemes solitary, more often many in a 
compound inflorescence, loosely bracted but the elliptic obtuse 
bracts about touching; ovary sericeous. A solitary leaf accompanies 
the inflorescence. 

Loreto: Rio Acre, Ule 9243 (det. Loesener). Brazil; Guianas. 



766 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

6. MARANTA L. 

Tall herbs, branching above, with loosely racemose flowers, or the 
short racemes paniculate. Bracts few, 1-4. Outer staminodia 2, 
petal-like. Ovary 1-celled. "Uarama," "uarca," "vijau." 
Leaves homotropous, sometimes 1-2 dm. long. 

Bracts to 5 cm. long; flowers about 2 cm. long. . . .M. arundinacea. 

Bracts and flowers smaller M. divaricata. 

Leaves antitropous, to 7 cm. long M. Ruiziana. 

Maranta arundinacea L. Sp. PI. 2. 1753; 125. 

Glabrous or somewhat pilose, with attenuate-acuminate leaves to 
8 cm. broad; racemes terminal, often widely branched, peduncled; 
bracts linear-lanceolate, to 5 cm. long; flowers white, about 2 cm. 
long. Cultivated for the meal prepared from its fleshy rhizomes 
but not known as native to Peru, unless by the following recent 
collections. Illustrated, Pflanzenr. IV. 48: 127. 

Junin: Chanchamayo Valley, Schunke. La Merced, 600 meters, 
5350, 5706. Loreto: Iquitos, Williams 3581. "Shimi-panpana." 

Maranta divaricata Rose. Monandr. PI. pi. 27. 1828; 126. 

Similar to M. Ruiziana, but the leaves not borne together (homo- 
tropous); leaves rarely on petioles 4 mm. long, to 15 cm. long and 
6.5 cm. wide, often much smaller; ovary typically sericeous or in the 
Peruvian form glabrous or nearly so. The Peruvian material rather 
doubtful. 

Loreto: Mishuyacu, Klug 1342. 

Maranta Ruiziana Koern. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 35, pt. 1: 
45. 1862; 128. 

Widely branched; leaves subsessile, densely puberulent margin- 
ally and toward the tips, to 3.5 cm. broad; bracts 2-3; sepals 13 mm. 
long, slightly exceeding the tube of the white corolla. -Simulating 
the genus Stromanthe, from which it is most easily distinguished by 
the glabrous ovary. Neg. 9846. 

Hudnuco : Chicoplaya (Pavdn) . Cochero, Poeppig 1 862. Loreto : 
Cashiboya, Tessmann 5495. Mishuyacu, Klug 251, 1342. Yuri- 
maguas, Williams 5051 . "Yunca oca," "sio," "inchahuy," "cuycuy." 

7. THALIA L. 

Characterized especially and typically by the very short-tubed 
flowers that are borne in ample, elongate, often diffuse panicles, the 
few bracts deciduous. Inflorescence with or without a leaf. 



FLORA OF PERU 767 

Thalia geniculata L. Sp. PL 1193. 1753; 173. 

Panicle to 4 dm. long, with a solitary leaf; sepals 2 mm. long; 
outer staminodium violet, 14 mm. long. General in South America 
but apparently not definitely recorded from Peru. "Arumarana." 

38. BURMANNIACEAE. Burmannia Family 

Although this family is widely distributed through Brazil, only 
the following genera and species have clearly been recorded within 
Peru. Apteria Nutt., distinguished by its 1-celled capsule and 
broadly winged, forked filaments, has been found as near as Manaos 
(A. Ulei Schlechter, which is, perhaps, A. hymenanthera Miq.). 

Perianth tubes with broad membranous wings 1. Burmannia. 

Perianth tubes not winged 2. Dictyostega. 

1. BURMANNIA L. 

Very slender, often saprophytic, simple-stemmed, little herbs 
with scale-like or linear leaves and with 1-several, or rarely many, 
usually yellowish pink, tubular, regular flowers in a terminal, some- 
times capitate cyme. Perianth tube persistent on the 3-celled 
capsule. Filaments 3, elliptic, merely emarginate. 

Burmannia Stuebelii Hieron. & Schlechter, Bot. Jahrb. 54: 
Beibl. 117: 15. 1916. 

Erect, nearly simple, 3-4 dm. high; leaves rosulate, lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, below the middle 4-5 mm. 
wide; cyme densely 3-16-flowered; flowers about 1.5 cm. long, 
tubular, 3-winged, the wings semielliptic, the outer segments triangu- 
lar-acute, the inner elliptic-obtuse and half as long. Differs from 
B. bicolor Mart, by the several times larger leaves and the broader 
petals. According to Weberbauer, "ovary violet, perianth golden 
yellow." Schlechter, Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 47 : 102-3. 1905, has 
proposed other segregates of B. bicolor from Amazonas, Brazil, 
notably B. amazonica, a little saprophyte without rosette or other 
developed leaves, and B. polygaloides with leafy stems. 

Amazonas: Sphagnum moor, Molinopampa, 2,000 meters, 
Weberbauer 4$41 / 264, 267; Stuebel 25b, type. 

2. DICTYOSTEGA Miers 

The Peruvian species readily distinguished from Burmannia by 
the open inflorescence of lilac flowers. Perianth marcescent. Fila- 



768 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII 

ments very short, triangular. Capsule 1-celled but 3-valved at tip. 

Dictyostega pectinata Karst. Linnaea 28: 422. 1856. 

Erect, simple or nearly so, with geminate racemes of nodding, 
white or lilac flowers; bracts solitary; perianth subequal; capsule 
crowned by the persistent flower. The rhizome scales are pectinate- 
ciliate. 

Huanuco : Monzon, Weberbauer 3570 (det. Schlechter) . Colombia. 



INDEX 



Aechmea, 585 
Agave, 666 
Alstroemeria, 663 
Amaryllidaceae, 631 
Ananas, 591 
Aneilema, 607 
Anthericum, 622 
Anthurium, 442 
Araceae, 428 
Asterostigma, 484 
Athyrocarpus, 605 

Billbergia, 583 
Bomarea, 633 
Bromelia, 577 
Bromeliaceae, 495 
Burmannia, 767 
Burmanniaceae, 767 

Caladium, 482 
Calathea, 742 
Callisia, 606 
Campelia, 594 
Canna, 739 
Cannaceae, 738 
Carludovica, 421 
Catopsis, 577 
Chlidanthus, 669 
Chlorophytum, 621 
Cipura, 707 
Commelina, 602 
Commelinaceae, 592 
Cooperia, 668 
Costus, 730 
Crinum, 670 
Crocopsis, 669 
Cyclanthaceae, 421 
Cyclanthus, 427 
Cypella, 716 

Deuterocohnia, 512 
Dichorisandra, 598 
Dictyostega, 767 
Dieffenbachia, 460 
Dimerocostus, 737 
Dioscorea, 690 
Dioscoreaceae, 690 
Distichia, 610 
Distrepta, 665 
Dracontium, 440 

Eichhornia, 608 
Eriocaulaceae, 489 
Eriocaulon, 489 
Eucharis, 673 
Eucrosia, 689 
Eustephia, 689 
Excremis, 618 



Floscopa, 600 
Fortunatia, 623 
Fourcroya, 666 

Geogenanthus, 607 
Greigia, 579 
Guzmania, 570 

Haemodoraceae, 630 
Heliconia, 718 
Heteranthera, 609 
Heteropsis, 430 
Hippeastrum, 683 
Homalomena, 479 
Hymenocallis, 670 
Hypoxis, 665 

Iridaceae, 707 
Ischnosiphon, 754 

Juncaceae, 609 
Juncus, 613 

Lemna, 486 
Lemnaceae, 486 
Liliaceae, 617 
Lindmania, 510 
Luzula, 610 
Luzuriaga, 630 

Maranta, 766 
Marantaceae, 741 
Mayaca, 487 
Mayacaceae, 487 
Monocostus, 738 
Monotagma, 761 
Monstera, 434 
Musaceae, 717 
Myrosma, 764 

Nemastylis, 708 
Neoregelia, 580 
Nothoscordum, 619 

Orthrosanthus, 715 
Oxychloe, 610 

Paepalanthus, 490 
Pasithea, 619 
Phaedranassa, 688 
Philodendron, 464 
Pistia, 486 
Pitcairnia, 513 
Pontederia, 609 
Pontederiaceae, 608 
Puya, 496 

Rapatea, 494 
Rapateaceae, 494 
Renealmia, 726 
Rhodospatha, 431 



Saranthe, 765 Tonina, 494 

Sisyrinchium, 709 Tradescantia, 594 

Smilax, 623 Trichlora, 621 
Spathiphyllum, 438 

Stenomesson, 675 Ulearum, 485 

Streptocalyx, 580 Urceolina, 686 

Symphyostemon, 715 Urospatha, 441 
Syngonium, 485 

Vriesia, 568 
Taccaceae, 690 

Taccarum, 484 Xanthosoma, 480 

Thalia, 766 Xiphidium, 630 

Thurnia, 494 Xyridaceae, 487 

Thurniaceae, 494 Xyris, 487 
Tigridia, 716 

Tillandsia, 527 Zebrina, 608 

Tinantia, 601 Zephyranthes, 667 

Tofieldia, 630 Zingiberaceae, 726 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOI9-URBANA 




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