FLORA OF PERU
PART I, NO. 2
J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE
CURATOR, PERUVIAN BOTANY
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
VOLUME XIII, PART I, NUMBER 2
AUGUST 17. 1960
E UKttn OF THE
\UG 2 9 I960 PUBLICATION 895
FLORA OF PERU
PART I, NO. 2
J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE
CURATOR, PERUVIAN BOTANY
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
VOLUME XIII, PART I, NUMBER 2
AUGUST 17, 1960
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 36-101+26
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS
FLORA OF PERU
J. FRANCIS MACBRIDE
16. PALMAE. Palm Family.
Ligneous, smooth or more or less rudely spiny or prickly, acaules-
cent or caulescent, sometimes scandent or caudices low or tall, clus-
tered or more often solitary, slender or columnar, nearly always strict,
not rarely magnificent trees conveying the impression of great nobil-
ity, each crowned as it were with a beautifully proportioned cluster
of several to many usually palmate or pinnate frond-like leaves, these
again, especially among low or smaller species, variously divided or
even entire, often few and gracefully ornamental. Petioles in greater
or less degree sheath-like, spadix (inflorescence) commonly with 2-
several spathes, the lower much longer, the upper split in anthesis,
coriaceous or ligneous. Not unlike Cyclanthaceae, but fruit rarely
a syncarp; leaves at least tardily deciduous, the small (rarely about
1 cm. long), soon often chaff -like flowers briefly open, single or ter-
nate, the central ordinarily female, its perianth usually persisting.
Ovary commonly 3-celled, usually 1 ovule developing. Fruit more
or less drupiform, variously fleshy, even plum-like, not infrequently
fibrous or (and) coriaceous, rarely papery, the seed frequently in-
cluded in a mesocarp that is extremely indurated and covered with
the often intricately branched raphe; the fruit within soft or even
early liquid; endosperm finally hard or firm, ruminated or homo-
genous; embryo basal, lateral or apical, sometimes at an intermediate
position. Few families are so generally recognized as this one, but
it is so diverse in all characters that it can be and has been (see
most standard reference works) described in great detail, although
this is not necessary here.
Notwithstanding the relatively few who have proposed and de-
veloped the taxonomy, there has been considerable disparity regard-
ing generic relationships and even more concerning generic lines. By
and large the former as presented in recent works has been generally
accepted but the latter in many cases still often expresses disagree-
ments. In equivocal genera my own desire would be to give prefer-
ence to unique or at least apparently stable characters, and to re-
strict the use of recurring or variable ones to species or groups
(sections) within the genus.
322 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
In the case of the palms the contemporary who has advanced
their study most intelligently is M. Burret, whose thoughtful work,
cited on many of the following pages, is acknowledged with appre-
ciation. The notable bibliographical contribution to the study of
palms is that of my friend B. E. Dahlgren (Field Mus. Bot. 14: 1-456.
1936). Compendiums like this lead without loss of time to all the
literature available. In this family the citations to Weberbauer re-
fer to the Spanish edition (El Mundo Veg. Andes Peru, 1945). The
generic key, traditionally usable only by those whose vocation is the
study of palms, has been devised with some sacrifice of precision for
the benefit of those whose interest in them is a hobby; the natural
but impractical division of the family, however, on character of fruit,
has, regrettably, been retained, with the addition of one or two sup-
The usefulness of palms, especially in primitive societies, has been
described in numerous articles and books. Now, however, many
think of palms chiefly as a source of coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.)
and dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) or are entranced by their noble or
Many contemporaries have been mentioned since the first num-
ber of Part I of Field Museum's Flora of Peru appeared; to this
number I would add a single name, Aven Nelson, my student men-
tor, who enjoyed fame because his interest in others exceeded that
Leaves pinnate; male flowers in dense catkins; fruits capitately
crowded, strongly tubercled 1. Phytelephas.
Leaves flabellate-palmate-parted; fruits never as above.
Fruits tessellate; petioles not ligulate, leaves subconcolor; male
flowers (at least) amentaceous.
Spadix branches long; flowers seriately spiralled; seeds esulcate.
Spadix branches short; flowers often distichous; seeds sulcate.
Fruits corky roughened or smooth; petioles ligulate; leaves silvery
Epicarp corky; leaves subbasally parted 4. Chelyocarpus.
Epicarp smooth; leaves biparted, each half incised.
Leaves various but never palmate, often pinnatifid, pinnate or fur-
cate, rarely simple; fruits various.
FLORA OF PERU 323
Endocarp (nut) without obvious pores, the carpels (usually 3) dis-
tinct or partly coalescent, in any case not finally an osseous
shell; plants smooth or (and) with caudex root props; female
petals sometimes imbricate.
Leaf divisions or leaf more or less expanded apically, cuneate-
based; caudex root-supported.
Spadix branches simple; stamens 9-many; spathes often
Spadix bisexual; leaf parts often much wider at apex.
Spadix unisexual; leaf parts (Peru) oblanceolate.
Spadix often simple, axis thick, sexes separate; stamens 12-16;
fruit villous 11. Wettinia.
Leaves more or less pinnate, rarely entire, often bifid or segments
oblique, sometimes ensiform-acuminate.
Caudices slender, low or tall.
Peduncle-spathes or bracts often 3-many; flowers rarely
monoecious in diverse spadices, these finally simply
Flower groups long-seriate (always?) . . 13. Wendlandiella.
Flower groups not or not clearly seriate (always?).
All spadices same sex on a plant ... 14. Chamaeodorea.
Spadices of each sex on a plant 15. Morenia.
Peduncle-spathes 2 or 3; flowers monoecious in diverse spa-
dices; plants arundinaceous 16. Hyospathe.
Caudices stout or (and) spathes only 2.
Spathes 5; leaf segments rigid, ensiform; caudex robust,
waxy; monoecious 12. Ceroxylon.
Spathes 2; characters otherwise than above.
Leaves unevenly pinnate or (and) flowers immersed.
Flowers sessile, male petals sublanceolate, female im-
bricate 16. Hyospathe.
Flowers immersed, calyx segments imbricate as con-
nate female petals; leaves various as in Chamaeo-
Anther cells united, sagittate-cordate, filaments cupu-
lately united 6. Calyptronoma.
324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Anther cells free, lax from cupulate tube.
Anther cells free but porrect, filaments usually con-
nate 8. Taenianthera.
Leaves evenly pinnate, segments acuminate, divaricate;
female petals imbricate.
Flowers sessile, spadix branches pendulous, sheath fusi-
form, split; male sepals valvate.
17. Jessenia, 18. Oenocarpus.
Flowers more or less immersed, spadix elongate, erect,
sheath cylindric, entire; male sepals imbricate.
Endocarp (nut) with usually 3 obvious pores, the 3 or more carpels
coalescent; typified by the pores and osseous shell of the culti-
vated coconut, but fruit (as Aiphanes) may be drupe-like and
endocarp may be thin (as Desmoncus).
Plants aculeate (more or less, rarely not, Bactris) ; sepals as petals
valvate or connate (always?).
Upper pinnae reduced, spiniform; endocarp thin or firm; plants
dependent, sprawling, clinging 28. Desmoncus.
Upper pinnae developed normally to rachis tip; endocarp osse-
ous; plants independent (erect unless at base).
Pinnae erose; male flowers usually immersed, congested,
female corollas urceolate; spathes cymbiform; peri-
carp often dry, rough, even aculeate. .26. Astrocaryum.
Pinnae same, male flowers sessile, often scattered; petals
fleshy, all basally connate, usually valvate; pericarp
subfleshy 25. Aiphanes.
Pinnae at least terminal, attenuate; flowers sessile, vari-
ously disposed; pericarp more or less fleshy.
Plants smooth, more or less fleshy (lower pinnae rarely spini-
form); perianth parts con volute-imbricate; leaf segments
attenuate apically; fruit 1-6-seeded.
Stamens 6; petals subcoriaceous; fruit 1-3-seeded.
Petals minute; stamens subexserted or exserted; seeds 1.
Petals elongate, thick; stamens included; seeds 1-3.
22. Syagrus, 23. Scheelea.
FLORA OF PERU 325
Stamens 6-many, anthers direct, included; petals lanceolate;
seeds 2-6 21. Attalea.
Stamens 12-24, anthers not direct, at least sinuous; petals
ovate; seeds 2-6 20. Orbignya.
1. PHYTELEPHAS R. & P.
Elephantusia Willd. Sp. PL 4, pt. 2: 175b. 1805. Yarina Cook,
Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 223. 1927. Polandra Cook, I.e. 228.
Reference: Cook, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 218-230. 1927.
Smooth, with erect or inclined and rooting, moderately to very
stout trunks, the species in Peru low but with many or few tall (elon-
gate) terminal pinnate leaves. Flowers large, dioecious, the basal
(Peru) spadices and peduncles squamate, the male rather amenta-
ceous, more or less pendulous, simple, more or less scurvy, elongate,
the female capitate, compact, erect. Stamens many, clustered, an-
thers basifixed. Sepals 3, imbricate, as the 5-10 rather fleshy narrow
acuminate petals. Staminodia many; ovary 4-9-sulcate, -celled, each
cell with a single erect ovule, style terminal, stigma long-filiform.
Fruits more or less pressed together forming a large or small syn-
carp, 1-celled, more or less succulent or lignescent, shortly broadly
and acutely tubercled, the hard nutlets loosely fibrous, embryo sunken
near hilum in plane ivory-like albumen. The several segregate gen-
era proposed by Cook have doubtful merit unless the diagnostic
characters are accepted also in several other genera as defining sep-
arate groups. Many illustrations are available, but some at least
scarcely refer to the two original species unless, as possible, the sev-
eral others proposed, as Panama species, are the same or merely vari-
ants; consequently, only one or two drawings and a photograph are
listed which represent at least the genus as it occurs in Peru. It
stands apart in the family on account of the 4-9 united carpels,
usually maturing several large long seeds.
Vegetable ivory is supplied by the fruits of this extraordinary
palm, described well by the authors: Early the fruits are filled with
a liquid as clear as water, in place of which it is sometimes used; after
some days it turns milky and acid; later it changes into a sweet and
pleasant emulsion and successively acquires greater consistency, solid-
ity and weight until it becomes as hard as ivory; small objects, as
buttons, may be turned in a lathe with more ease than ivory ones
because it is neither splintery nor fibrous; furthermore, it remains
white for many years. The leaves are commonly used for thatch.
326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Besides the following, two or three species have been illustrated under
other names without diagnosis.
Trunks as petioles none or short, stout; leaf segments approximate,
opposite; fruit lignescent P. macrocarpa.
Trunks as petioles more or less developed; leaf segments distant;
fruit succulent P. microcarpa.
Phytelephas macrocarpa R. & P. Syst. Veg. 301. 1798; 224.
Trunk none or short and inclined; leaves equally pinnate, crowded,
the rachis basally incrassate, sessile or nearly, segments about 100
pairs, mostly exactly opposite, basally reduplicate, linear-lanceolate,
attenuate, the medial about 12 dm. long, 3.5 cm. wide, the upper
scarcely 8 dm. long; spadices axillary, male ascending, fleshy, spici-
form, 10 dm. long or slightly longer, peduncle compressed, 2.5 dm.
long, 1.5 cm. thick, rachis nearly 8 dm. long, flowers sessile or sub-
sessile, a cluster of many (150-280) stamens, filaments 7 mm. long,
anthers 4 mm. long; spathes 2, glabrate, the outer nearly 2 dm. long,
the inner 1 dm. long, 5 cm. across, linear-fusiform; peduncle and
female spadix longer than male, the 12-20 sessile clusters apically
compressed in an apical oval receptacle; bracteolate ovaries many,
coalescent, the few central ones fertile, style filiform, 5 cm. long, stig-
mas 5 or 6, 5 cm. long; fruits in a globose mass (12-20) 2.5 dm. in
diameter or longer, the mature by mutual pressure 4-6-angulate-
obpyramidate, apically muricate-tubercled, nutlets about 4 cm. long,
2.5 cm. broad, perianth fragile. After Spruce, Journ. Linn. Soc. 11:
179. 1871, who described P. aequitorialis of Ecuador (Polandra Cook),
trunk 5 meters or taller, leaves unequally pinnate, the segments
aggregate, male capitula stalked or racemed on a pendulous spadix,
each capitulum with a thousand or more stamens; may occur in
adjacent Peru. Illustrated, Huber, Bull. Herb. Boiss. se"r. 2, 6: pi. 11.
San Martin: Vitoc, (Ruiz & Pawn). Tarapoto, (Spruce). Hua-
nuco: Chanchamayo, San Antonio de Playa, Macora, (Ruiz & Pawn,
type). Loreto: Headwaters of Rio Purus, (Chandless) . Rio Acre:
Toward origin, (Huber}. "Pulu-puntu," "polo-ponto," "humiro."
Phytelephas microcarpa R. & P. Syst. Veg. 302. 1798. Yarina
microcarpa (R. & P.) Cook, Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 17: 223. 1927.
Fruiting sometimes with no stem at all, finally with inclined stem
about 1 dm. thick, spirally areolate with the deep leaf-scars; petiole
elongate, leaf segments equal (Spruce), slender, with 6-7 leaves, seg-
ments widely spaced, spreading, retrorse below, the lower much
FLORA OF PERU 327
shorter, the petioles perhaps 3-6 dm. long (Cook). The thick muri-
cated rind of the fruit is reddish within, tough but may be eaten,
flavor of melon or milky cheese; the albumen is drunk while still
watery, eaten when fleshy, suggesting immature coconut, when ma-
ture ivory-like (Spruce). Otherwise apparently unknown. Illus-
trated, Pflanzenfam. 2, Abt. 3: 87 (flowers, fruits, at least in part);
Hudnuco: Pozuzo, Pampa Hermosa, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type).
Loreto: Near mouth of Rio Napo, (Spruce). Rio Pastaza, (Spruce).
Ecuador? "Yarina," "rullipunta," "anon de palma."
2. MAURITIA L. f.
Mauritietta Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 12: 609-611. 1935.
Reference: Burret, I.e. 605-609. 1935.
Trees, the columnar trunk with a dense crown of deeply or fla-
bellately divided semicircular leaves, the often large inflorescences
pendent from their axils. Branches of spadix simple, at least male
amentaceous, sessile, exserted from the spathe, the flowers densely
spiralled, the internodes vaginate. Calyx 3-lobed, corolla 3-fid, male
approximate, female few on short branches, staminodia connate with
petals. Ovary (absent in male flowers) 3-celled, stigma sessile, ovule
basal, erect. Fruit ellipsoid or globose, 1-seeded, tessellate with re-
trorse lustrous scales (and leaves). Small prickly-stemmed species
have been separated as a distinct genus by Burret, also by Hawkes;
cf. M. peruviana Becc. The question of the correct name for those
who wish to use the segregate genus is arguable, and perhaps conser-
vation could here be useful. The segregate has both sexes in aments.
Stems, leaves smooth, these concolor.
Rachis strongly flexuose; fruit depressed M. flexuosa.
Rachis slightly angled; fruit acute M. vinifera.
Stems, leaves prickly, these pale-scaly beneath M. peruviana.
Mauritia flexuosa L. f. Suppl. 454. 1781; 290.
Smooth, the trunk to 7 dm. thick, 50 meters tall, medially slightly
tumid, the leaves deeply radiately flabellate; stout petioles subterete,
canaliculate above, subequaling the blades, these 8-12 dm. long, seg-
ments 2-4 cm. wide; spadices 2-3 meters long, shortly peduncled, the
male branches flexuose, elongate-cylindric, about 30, many 1 meter
long, flexuose between the floriferous branchlets, these 5 cm. long;
328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
bracts scabrous-ciliate; flowers densely fuscous-velutinous or flaves-
cent, calyx (male) turbinate, corolla 3-parted from stipiform base,
segments lanceolate, acute, petals much smaller, stamens 6, anthers
erect, oblique-cordate; calyx (female) urceolate, shortly lobed, corolla
3-lobed; fruit 4 cm. high and thick, depressed-globose. After Drude;
Ule found it on the Rio Jurua Mirim nearly at the Peruvian bound-
ary, and Weberbauer saw it frequently cultivated but also in a natural
state. Possibly occurring is the similar M. minor Burret, Notizbl.
Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 1. 1930, from adjacent Colombia, smaller in all
its parts. Illustrated, Pflanzenf am. 2, Abt. 3 : 42, fig. 33 (habit) ;
Drude, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pis. 62, fig. 2 (fruit), 63, (habit), 65,
fig. 1, 67, fig. 2; Weberbauer, 584, pi. 33.
San Martin rMoyobamba, ( Weberbauer) . Loreto: Tessmann, fide
Dahlgren. To the Guianas. "Aguaje," "achual," "buritisol" (Ule,
Mauri tia peruviana Becc. Ann. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 12, pt. 2:
225. 1918. Mauritiella peruviana (Becc.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart.
Berlin 12: 609. 1935. Lepidococcus peruvianus (Becc.) A. D. Hawkes,
Arquiv. Bot. Sao Paulo 2: 2. 1952.
Type about 20 meters tall, the leaves deeply parted into many
narrow long-acuminate segments, white waxy puberulent above,
minutely and sparsely brown squamate beneath, the scales hair-like,
the margins and midrib smooth; largest segments 7.5-8 dm. long,
2.5 cm. wide; male spadix 1.5 meter long, spathes of the spike bear-
'ing branches broadly infundibuliform, 6-7 cm. long, about as wide
at opening; larger spikes 1 cm. long, the 18-20 male flowers (female
unknown) oblong, obtuse, not distinctly biseriate, 6 mm. long, 3 mm.
broad ; stamens 6. It seems rather closely related to M. armata Mart.
For the basic purpose of this work identification the traditional
designation of this little palm, with apparently solitary trunk (author),
and its allies as a subgroup of Mauritia seems to be the useful classi-
fication. Francia Chisaki kindly copied for me Beccardi's description
from the University of California library at Berkeley.
San Martin: In woody savannah, Moyobamba to Rioja, (Weber-
bauer 4717, type).
Mauritia vinifera Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 42, pis. 38, 39.
Resembles M . flexuosa; cylindric caudex early annulate; male spa-
dix branches about half as long, less bent or angled between the stouter
FLORA OF PERU 329
branchlets; bracts and flowers finally glabrescent; fruit ovoid-ellip-
soid, acute, 5 cm. long, 3.5-4 cm. thick. May extend into south-
eastern Peru from Bolivia; listed by Dahlgren I.e. 418. Illustrated,
Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pis. 62, 67.
Peru (see above). Bolivia; Brazil.
3. LEPIDOCARYUM Mart.
Slender smooth erect or flexuose stemmed with flabelliform pal-
mately parted leaves, slender petioles, elongate inflated convolute
sheaths. Floriferous branches of the spadices short, often distichous.
Ovule horizontal. Allied to Mauritia, to which it has been referred.
Male spadix branches many; flowers of both sexes shorter than 8 mm.
Male spadix branches 6 or 7; flowers at least 8 mm. long.
Lepidocaryum tenue Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 51, pi. 7. 1823.
L. enneaphyllum Barb. Rodr. Enum. Palm. Nov. 19. 1875, fide Trail
Caudex slender, to several meters tall; fronds 12-15 or more, to
2 meters long, glabrous except ciliate-spinulose margins of pinnae and
midnerves, green, lustrous; petioles basally vaginate-lanceolate, ante-
riorly compressed-terete, to three times longer than the flabellate-
pinnatifid blade, this medially biparted even to base, mostly with 4.
lanceolate acute pinnae parted to base (pinnae constantly 9, the 2
ultimate binate, fide Rodriguez) or joined below, medially at least
7.5 cm. wide, primary nerves acutely prominent above; male spadices
not seen, the hermaphrodite to 1 meter long, peduncles subcompressed,
spathes membranous, linear-lanceolate, obliquely truncate, glabrate,
the rachis extension stout, glabrous or evanescently and finely tomen-
tose, the 3-4 amentiferous branches 2.5 cm. distant, exserted from a
tomentose spathe; spathes of branches 15-20, cyathiform, base of
each black-annulate; scales suborbicular, subamplexicaul with rachis,
lustrous; flowers solitary in each little spathe, pale rose color, the
calyx campanulate, 3-denticulate, the corolla two times longer, petals
erect, lanceolate, acute; stamens 6; anthers linear-oblong, 9, ovate
(in male flower observed in hermaphrodite spadix); ovary ovoid,
attenuate at both ends, minutely squamulate; stigma pyramidally
connate, twice as long as ovary; fruit oblong-cylindric, tessellate-
squamate, lower margin of scales membranous, obscurely ciliolate,
330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
apically black-fuscous; inner seed coat soft, very thin, reddish-gray
with fuscous veins and adhering to scales; seed ellipsoid, testa casta-
neous, lustrous; raphe developed entire length; albumen solid, osse-
ous, embryo softer, conical, lateral. Fruit size of a walnut (Martius),
presumably typical in character for the genus. Francia Chisaki gen-
erously copied for me the detailed original description, here much
reduced; also that of the apparent synonym, nearly without signifi-
cant characterization. Since types of both plants are from Brazil
near Rios Negro and Trombetas, the occurrence in Peru may be
questioned. F.M. Negs. 18587, 18588.
Peru (fide Dahlgren). Brazil. "Irapay."
Lepidocaryum Tessmannii Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin
10: 771. 1929.
Original plants a few cm. to 2 meters tall; petioles (as known) in-
cluding sheathed portion about 1 meter long, stout, subglabrous, 6 mm.
broad below the leaf, this rigid, 7 dm. long or longer, concolored,
4-parted, the lateral incised 2 cm. above the rachis, the subequal
lobes 6.5-7.5 cm. wide, the 5-6 primary nerves spinulose above as
the inner margins of the inner lobes and the outer of the outer lobes;
primary nerves 2, prominent only above, intermediate secondary few,
transverse, curved above; male spadix with peduncle this 4.5 dm.
long nearly 8.5 dm. long, branches 6 or 7, lower 13-17 cm. long;
primary spathes narrow, the free part 11 cm. long, 4-5 cm. wide, sec-
ondary funnelform, fuscous furfuraceous, caducous; flowering branch-
lets little exserted, without flowers for 8 mm., the male flowers in
about 7 rows, before anthesis nearly 1 cm. long; calyx turbinate,
4 mm. long, clearly and acutely dentate, densely striate as the linear
petals, these 2 mm. wide; female spadix nearly 5.5 dm. long, branched
part 1.5 dm. long, the 4 branches 7-11 cm. long; flowers (before an-
thesis) at least 8 mm. long, calyx half as long; fruit (after Tessmann
drawing) scarlet, obovoid, 1.6 cm. thick, 3 cm. long with perianth
and beak, this rather slender, acute, nearly 3 mm. long. Flowers
rather white, seen on plants a few cm. high; fruit eaten after it has
been softened in water. Related to L. tenue Mart, with more numer-
ous male spadix branches, flowers of both sexes smaller; less closely to
L. gracile Mart, (author).
Loreto : Below Rio Morona, (Tessmann 4906, type) . "Irapay."
4. CHELYOCARPUS Dammer
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 394-397. 1928.
FLORA OF PERU 331
Trunk annulate, smooth as the flabellate leaves and ligulate peti-
oles, these transversely rhomboid in cross section, obtusely margined,
lightly bicanaliculate beneath and above, the ventral ligule triangu-
late, the dorsal shorter. Leaves basally multi-parted, the elongate-
cuneate apically laciniate, the laciniae minutely bidentate at tips.
Fruiting spadix with only 2 spathe scars. Perianth segments 4, free
or nearly, coriaceous beneath the globose fruit, this with pseudo-
suberose tessellate epicarp similar to Pholidocarpus. Seed globose,
broad raphe with few branches nearly to apex, embryo medially lateral.
Chelyocarpus Ulei Damm. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 7: 395
Usually 3-4, rarely 6 meters tall, the remotely annulate stem 7 or
8 cm. thick; sheath unknown; petioles to 7.5 dm. long, only 5-7 mm.
across, 3 mm. thick, the angles obtuse; ligule at base of leaf 3-angled,
1 cm. wide, 8 mm. long, extended as a 2 mm. wide wing on the petiole,
that at the leaf base beneath 2 mm. long; leaves green above, more
or less white silvery beneath, semicircular, 7-13-parted to base, the
divisions 3.5^4.5 dm. long, 4-10 cm. wide, 3-5-laciniate, these lobes
5-10 cm. long with apical teeth 1-2 mm. long; transverse nerves
between the longitudinal many; spadix in fruit 6 dm. long, branched
part 2.5 dm. long, early white-floccose, peduncle as rachis strongly
compressed; scars 13 mm. distant, upper about 8 mm. from lower
branch, lower nearly the same distance above the base; branches
mostly simple, about 1.5 dm. long, 2-3 mm. thick in herbarium, cari-
nate-pulvinate below fruit, this globose, about 2.5 cm. in diameter,
spiralled, solitary, with a solitary short ovate bract. Spadix descrip-
tion after Burret, I.e., who also considers the possibility that C. Wal-
lisii (Wendl.) Burret, the seed (described fully by him) with uniform
albumen, probably from Colombia or Ecuador, may belong to this
genus or Tessmanniophoenix, the ripe seed of the latter unknown.
Type of C. Ulei (Ule 5885} being from Rio Jurua Mirim at the little
community of Bele"m, nearly on the boundary with Peru, the species
grows also no doubt within Peru, if environment is favorable. Illus-
trated, Burret, I.e. 12: 152 (photograph).
Loreto (surely). Adjacent Brazil.
5. TESSMANNIOPHOENIX Burret
Stems cylindric, smooth as the biconvex petioles, these with rounded
margins, ligulate, the ligule protracted below the leaf-blade. Leaves
palmate-flabellate, equally biparted nearly to base, the 2 divisions
332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
also divided. Spadix simply branched, the well-developed peduncle
apparently with few deciduous spathes, none between the branches,
these long-bracteate. Flowers solitary, hermaphrodite, sessile, 1-
bracted. Perianth erect, closed (anthers exserted), segments seem-
ingly 4, also irregularly 5 or 6. Stamens 7, 6, or 8, free. Filaments
dilated, ovate, contracted above, anthers oblong, dorsally affixed
near sagittate base, shortly incised at apex. Perianth little accres-
cent beneath globose fruit, the obscure stigmas apical. Pericarp
thin, epicarp smooth, mesocarp probably fleshy, endocarp thin but sub-
osseous. Nearly Chelyocarpus Damm. which it resembles in petioles
and division of the leaves and probably also in flowers, but well-
marked by the smooth pericarp according to the author, who com-
ments (I.e. 11: 500) on the validity of the genus as shown by T. dianeura
Burret, from Colombia, also with short stout style, infundibuliform
stigma as in Thrinaceae but that with calyx and corolla united and
ordinarily only 1 carpel developed. The author (I.e. 12: 152-155)
has distinguished the similar T. chuco (Mart.) Burret of Brazil, pos-
sibly to be found in Peru, by the leaves, which are basally divided
into halves, while those of T. longibracteata resemble those of Chelyo-
carpus Ulei; photographs by H. A. Johnstone presented by Burret
show clearly this difference.
The noted ethnographer (Guenther Tessmann) made botanical
collections with excellent data as noted elsewhere in this work; this
generic name could be given greater euphony by omitting one con-
necting (repetitive) vowel, regardless of tradition. Tessmanniodoxa
Burret (one of the repetitive consonants also not deleted), Notizbl.
Bot. Gart. Berlin 15: 336. 1941, defining generically Thrinax chuco
Mart., formerly included here by Burret (I.e. 10: 400), is unlikely to
be found in Peru.
Tessmanniophoenix longibracteata Burret, Notizbl. Bot.
Gart. Berlin 10: 398. 1928; 11: 315. 1932.
Known to attain 5 meters, the stem 7 cm. in diameter, the 10-15
leaves silvery beneath (except major nerves) with a dense or floccose
puberulence as the younger spadices; petioles glabrous, rounded, stri-
ate (dried) above, 2 meters long or longer, 6 mm. thick, below apex
1 cm.; ligule fleshy coriaceous, triangular, smooth above, densely sul-
cate beneath, protracted below and free from the blade, this a meter
long, membranous, divided to 3 cm. above the base, the two parts
semiflabellate, each cuneately 6-7-lobed nearly to base, the 2 medial
lobes the widest, scarcely medially incised into broad segments, these
shortly 2 dentate; laciniae of lower lobes acuminate; longitudinal nerves
FLORA OF PERU 333
many, transverse serpentine ones more obvious above; spathes 3, the
lowest 19 cm. long, linear, 3 cm. wide below, 3.5 cm. above, the second
extending about 2 dm. over the former, the third 2.5 dm. over the
second, all rather strong but still soft, rather densely but evanescently
floccose; spadix 8.5 dm. long, peduncle as rachis strongly compressed,
6-7 cm. thick, little attenuate, annular scars 2 (3), about 1.5 dm.
distant, branches 1-1.5 dm. long, scarcely divergent, basal bract lin-
ear, 7 cm. (type) to 2 dm. long, the upper shorter; perianth erect,
subglobose, closed, anthers entirely exserted; perianth mostly irreg-
ular, segments nearly free, 4, also 6, rarely 5, glabrous; stamens
mostly 7 (6 or 8), filaments free, subfiliform, anthers oblong, black
punctate; carpels 2, free, slightly contracted apically, stigma dilated,
rounded; fruits on umbonate pulvinae from solitary spiralled flowers
but rather irregularly and thus pseudoverticillate, the single elongate
dorsal bract uncinate-curved; fruit depressed globose, 8 mm. in diam-
eter (immature); stigma obscure, scarcely excentric, sterile carpel
present; perianth 7 mm. across, segments apparently 4, the 2 free
sepals ovate, equaled by the alternating petals; mesocarp thin, endo-
carp hard, seed basal. After author, who noted that he had little
doubt of the identity of the flowering (Weberbauer) and fruiting
Huanuco: Rios Pozuzo, Palcaza, (Weberbauer 6765, type); Tess-
mann 4830, fruit. Junin : Capuahuanas, Rio Pichis, (Killip & Smith
6. CALYPTRONOMA Griseb.
Reference: L. H. Bailey, Gentes Herb. 4: 153-172. 1938.
Resembles Geonoma in general and floral character, the filaments
cupulate and tubularly connate below, but the sagittate-cordate par-
allel anther cells united to the connective, and the ovary, at least
early, 3-celled. Leaf segments long-acuminate, often narrowly, even
filiform-caudate. Peduncles of the laterally branched spadices elon-
gate, the lower apically parted spathe much shorter. Included by
Burret in Calyptrogyne Wendl. but distinguished by Drude; Bailey
(I.e. 156) emphasizes in contrast the arboreal habit, uniformly pin-
nate leaves, axillary rather than terminal spadix, 1-2-branched from
a central axis, male and female flowers normally in same cavity any-
where on axis, style central, mesocarp firm-ligneous, marked with
stout interlocking fibers or ribs; perhaps these characters, impres-
sive as they seem, will be found to be similar developments, varying
334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Spadix branches brownish-tomentose C. synanthera.
Spadix branches white pruinose C. Weberbaueri.
Calyptronoma synanthera (Mart.) Bailey, Gentes Herb. 4:
166. 1938. Geonoma synanthera Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 13, pi. 18.
1823. Calyptrogyne synanthera (Mart.) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 30: 137.
Leaves 1-1.5 meters long, pinnatifid, the lanceolate acuminate
pinnae subfalcate; male spadices branched, 3 dm. long or longer,
flowers approximate, the corollas little exceeding calyx. Otherwise
unknown, but Burret (I.e.) observed that the vertical bract-enclosed
ranks or lines of the flower pits are less marked, more delicate in con-
trast to the same characteristic, especially in C. robusta Trail of the
upper Amazon and in C. Kalbreyeri (Burret) Bailey of Colombia,
and, also, in contrast to the latter, the pits are less crowded; the obo-
void fruits, 9 X 12 mm., are said by Burret to resemble those of the
latter in size. C. robusta Trail (Journ. Bot. 330. pi. 183, fig. 3. 1876;
Mart. Fl. Bras. pi. 122} as to type had solitary erect stem to 5 meters
tall, densely annulate, widely divaricate leaves 2-2.5 meters long,
5-7 pairs of long-acuminate pinnae, nerves many, costa beneath fur-
furaceous, spadix 9-12 dm. long, spike 1.5 dm. long, 7-17-branched,
pits 8-10-ranked, lip reflexed, flowers unknown, fruit ligneous, ellip-
soid, 2 cm. long, more than 1 cm. thick, smooth, the mesocarp coarsely
fibrous. Type of C. robusta from Rio Jauary, Brazil, and quite pos-
sibly is the little known C. synanthera or, in any case, it will be found
in Peru. F.M. Neg. 18531.
Hudnuco: Chicoplaya, (Ruiz & Pav6n, type). Brazil?
Calyptronoma Weberbaueri (Burret) Bailey, Gentes Herb. 4:
166. 1938. Calyptrogyne Weberbaueri Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 30: 139.
Type about 4 meters tall; petioles 6 dm. long, sheath short, early
tomentose below (where 5 mm. broad), toward apex acutely carinate-
canaliculate, finally gradually applanate, 4 mm. broad; leaf-segments
laterally 7, filiform caudate, rather regularly disposed, the largest
apical ones 4.5 cm. wide, 9.5-10.5 cm. long, 8- or 9-nerved, the nerves
acute especially above, beneath (in herb.) brownish-paleaceous; up-
per spathe (incomplete in type) 22 cm. long, brown within, paler
without, deciduously ferrugineous tomentose as peduncle below, this
compressed, 3- nearly 4 dm. long, at insertion of lower spathe 1.5 cm.
broad; spadix about 8 dm. long, the 10-13 simple branches white-
FLORA OF PERU 335
pruinose, 6 mm. thick, 2-2.5 dm. long, basal bract broadly ovate, re-
flexed, sterile base short; flower pits in 8 ranks, these 6 mm. distant,
but along 2 elevated lines rather well separated; pit bracts (lip) in
fruit reflexed, 2.5 mm. broad, lanceolate sepals then 3.5 mm. long;
fruit pruinose, obovoid, 11-14 mm. long, 8 mm. thick, rounded api-
cally, subincurved to nearly stiped base, epicarp branched-fibrous,
strongly 14-nerved toward base.
Puno: Chunchusmayo, 900 meters, (Weberbauer 1234, type).
7. GEONOMA Willd.
Reference: Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 144-266. 1930; second page
references refer to descriptions by Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2.
Smooth, slender, the trunk annulate, the terminal or alternate
leaves entire, apically bifid or pinnatisect with acuminate segments,
tubular sheath. Spadices variable in development, the lower of the
2 spathes (these usually caducous) incomplete, truncate, concave,
the upper compressed or fusiform. Flowers glumaceous, unisexual,
immersed in spirally or vertically disposed pits (1-3 in each), the
central (if present) female developed after the male; both sexes with
sepals slightly imbricate below, petals ciliate, connate toward base.
Male flowers deciduous, filaments united into a truncate, entire, den-
tate or laciniate tube, the 6 (typically) anthers with free cells. Ovary
1-celled, ovule ascending, long style lateral, the 3 stigmas subulate.
Fruit with fibrous usually thin pericarp; endosperm uniform. G.
multiflora Mart., 261, G. laxiflora Mart., 239, are scarcely to be ex-
pected within Peru, their known distribution being out-of-line with
that of other Brazilian species extending into Peru; cf. also G. myri-
It is certainly fortunate for the users of this work that Burret's
key (I.e. 145-161) has been available; also, he has clearly presented
his definition of the generic boundaries and his interpretation of the
relative importance of specific characters. With laudable humility,
he expressed his conviction that his key (and his conclusions) are
KEY TO GEONOMA
(After Burret, inserts by me)
Staminodal tube cylindric, truncate or obscurely dentate (subgenus
336 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Spadix simple, rarely bifurcate (branches 3, G. Tessmannii).
Peduncles well-developed, subequaling or longer than spikes (see
Alveoli oval, obliquely truncate, upper edge not produced;
spathes two-thirds as long as spadix.
Leaf segments 3 pairs G. granditrijuga.
Leaf segments 5-8 pairs G. gracilipes.
Leaf segments mostly 6 pairs G. multisecta.
Alveoli bilabiate, upper edge acute, extended; spathes often
three-fourths as long as spadix.
Spathes one-half as long as spadices.
Leaf segments oblong-subquadrate G. Brongniartii.
Leaf segments cuneate-based G. cuneifolia.
Spathes two-thirds (at least) as long as spadices, equaling
or exceeding pedicel G. adscendens.
Peduncles short, exceeded by spikes only a little (G. Tessmannii,
Spadix normally 3-branched, slender G. Tessmannii.
Spadix simple or branches stout.
Spikes 2-10 cm. long.
Alveoli lips (lower) 7-8 mm. distant; spikes rather stout.
Alveoli lips 4-5 mm. distant; spikes stouter.
Spikes 2-2.5 dm. long G. piscicauda.
Leaves pinnate G. Raimondii.
Spadix branches 3 (2) -many.
Alveoli bilabiate, spiralled or verticillate, upper edge somewhat
Spadix branches stout or alveoli spiralled.
Branches rather stout; flowers as alveoli mostly rather large.
Spathes narrow, often long-tubular, thin, the upper often
high above lower.
Leaf segments 2-3 pairs G. andina.
Leaf segments 7 pairs G. floccosa.
Spathes broad, firm to coriaceous, subequal, little remote;
leaf segments many.
FLORA OF PERU 337
Alveoli subapproximate; some spadix branches branched.
Spadix axis 7-9 mm. thick G. Weberbaueri.
Spadix axis 4.5-5.5 mm. thick G. helminthoclada.
Alveoli congested; spadix branches simple.
Branches slender; flowers as alveoli small.
Spadix branches 3, slender, only to 6 cm. long; leaves
simple G. Tessmannii.
Spadix larger or characters not as above.
Spathes 1.5-3.5 dm. long; branches usually simple.
Spathes as noted shorter; spadix branches long, 2-3-
branched G. myriantha.
Alveoli laxly spiralled; leaves simple, oblanceolate.
Spadix branches slender, alveoli alternate in verticils.
Alveoli uniformly edged; spathes more or less dilated, firm or
Branches stout; alveoli mostly subregularly in verticils.
G. megalospatha, G. andicola.
Branches slender; alveoli spiralled.
Leaves unevenly pinnate . . . . G. Poeppigiana, G. interrupta.
Leaves evenly pinnate, segments 3 (4) pairs . . . G. Killipii.
Staminodal tube divided into 6 linear teeth (subgenus Astrandroe-
cium Spruce; cf. Taenianthera Burret, staminodal tube dentate
Alveoli in 5-6 series little inclined toward axis; leaf segments small.
Leaf segments various, 1-7.5 cm. wide G. Spruceana.
Leaf segments (apical) rhombic, 1.5 cm. wide, 2.5 dm. long.
Alveoli in 7-8 series; leaf segments larger G. longisecta.
Geonoma adscendens Damm. ex Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 175.
Finally erect, to 1 meter tall, 8 mm. in diameter above; sheath
amplexicaul, early membranous, 8 cm. long, petioles about 2 dm.
long, hardly 2 mm. thick, leaves 28 cm. long to the cleft (lobes nearly
338 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
1.5 dm. long), segments rather regularly 4 pairs, the broader upper
slightly falcate, acuminate, 8 cm. wide at rachis, the lowest 1.5-2 cm.
wide, primary nerves 26 or 27 in each lateral lobe, rather acutely
prominent beneath, secondary nearly as high; spadices simple, flower-
ing in axils of withered leaves, slender, about 2-3.5 dm. long, spathes
narrow, apparently including the peduncles, these 12-25 cm. long;
floral pits laxly separated, bilabiate, upper lip shorter, acute, lower
emarginate, axis nearly 2.5 mm. thick, glabrous but minutely granu-
late; sepals (male) about 3.5 mm. long, petals two-thirds connate,
lobes ovate, staminal cup rather robust, female calyx (also before
anthesis) nearly 3 mm. long, petals about as male, staminodal tube
about a third longer, truncate. Perhaps comparable to G. arundi-
nacea Mart., 180, Amazonian, the flowers mostly laxly spiralled in
3 series, the short peduncle conspicuously exceeded by the spike, the
nerves about 20 (Burret).
Cuzco: Steep wooded outcrop, 1,700 meters, St. Anna above Haci-
enda Idma, (Weberbauer 5033, type). "Cuculli."
Geonoma andicola Damm. ex Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 218. 1930.
Leaves narrowly pinnate, the linear leaflets not at all falcate, the
first broadest and only about 1 cm. wide, the petioles apieally 7 mm.
broad, rounded beneath, early leprose; primary nerve one, rather
well-developed above, fuscous beneath with crowded narrow scales
between the primary and secondary nerves (the latter marginal), the
tertiary more or less developed, the larger minutely lepidote, others
sparsely; spadices duplicately branched, glabrous, outer spathe sub-
coriaceous, 3.5 cm. broad, 23 cm. long, the inner reddish furfuraceous
or glabrate; peduncle to 5 cm. long, at base of lowest branch 7 mm.
thick; rachis to base of top branch 8.5 cm. long, primary branches 8,
acutely angled, broadly bracted at base, the lower bifurcate, 2.5-
3.5 cm. pedunculate, the rest simple, the spikes floriferous to rounded
tips, 11.5-14.5 cm. long, axis 5 mm. thick; alveoli in 6 nearly vertical
series, 6 or 7 mm. distant, the upper lip none, even fruiting margins
rounded, the lower long-extended, always deeply emarginate; sepals
4.5 mm. long, oblong; petals 4.5 mm. long, these two-thirds connate,
staminodal tube scarcely incised, subtruncate, exceeded 1 mm. by
stigmas; fruit at least 1 cm. long, 6 mm. broad, obscurely mammil-
late, densely elevated-lineolate; male flowers fallen. Type noted as
4 meters tall.
Puno: Chunchusmayo, 1,500-1,800 meters, (Weberbauer 1345,
FLORA OF PERU 339
Geonoma andina Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 188. 1930.
Leaves (type) to 47 cm. long, broadly elliptic, primary nerves on
each side 18 or 19, segments 3 pairs, strongly scattered, lightly fal-
cate, acuminate, the basal nearly 4 dm. long, the apical on interior
margin nearly 2 dm. long, 3.3-4.2 cm. wide; primary nerves very
prominent above, somewhat slenderer than the secondary beneath,
toward the rachis furfuraceous, the tertiary many, obvious both sides,
clearly shortly appressed-pubescent beneath, the primary nerves me-
dial, segments of adult leaves 7 mm. distant; spadix over 4 dm. long,
the branched part 1.5 dm. long, the rachis 3 cm. long, the spathes
equaling three-fourths of the peduncle, the lower 14 cm. long, appla-
nate below, 1 cm. broad, the upper 1 dm. above the lower; peduncle
furfuraceous toward base, bracted above; branches 5, basally bracted,
axis in flower nearly 2.5 mm. thick, 10-12 cm. long or longer, granu-
lose, extended into a slender spine; alveoli rather laxly spiralled,
upper lip somewhat produced, lower incised; male flowers not open.
Cajamarca: Tambillo, Prov. Cutervo, (Raimondi, type). "Frutilla."
Geonoma Brongniartii Mart. Palm. Orbign. 24. pi. 12, fig. 1,
pi. 23C, figs. 3, 5, 6. 1847; 174.
A most attractive subacaulescent palm, the overall height only
1 meter (Ule), the 6 or 7 long leaves reddish beneath, clustered on a
very short caudex this with a few supporting roots the few rufes-
cent spadices erect; leaves about a meter long, the petioles shorter
than the 2-3 pairs of oblong subquadrate acute segments, these to
1.5 dm. wide; primary nerves about 24 each side, more prominent
beneath, the alternating secondary impressed above, nearly as incras-
sate as the primary below and scattered paleaceous, the slender ter-
tiary many (7-9); spathes membranous, finally fibrous, outer 1.5,
inner 2.5 dm. long; peduncles about 4 dm. long, the rachis about as
long, cylindric, attenuate to acute mucro 12-15 mm. long; early
flowers female, soon (as usual) with 2 male in each remote pit, this
with a broad emarginate bract or lip; calyx 2 mm. long, lobes lanceo-
late, carinate, ciliolate, subequaling the ovate-oblong, subobtuse,
marginally membranous sublacerate corolla segments; stamen tube
urceolate; female rachis at maturity incrassate, red, the globose black
fruits 8 mm. in diameter. Burret (I.e.) corrected Martius' descrip-
tion, noting the spadix as both male and female and that fig. 6 is in-
correct as to scales; but cf. G. cuneifolia Burret. F.M. Neg. 38642.
Loreto (no doubt, as Ule 5593 nearly on the Brazilian boundary).
Adjacent Brazil; Bolivia.
340 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Geonoma camptoneura Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11:
Rachis fuscous furfuraceous, the apical portion seen (19 cm. long)
with widely divaricate membranous segments, 2.5 dm. long on upper
margins, 14 or 15 cm. wide, nearly rhombic, the outer margin sub-
parallel to rachis; primary nerves 14 or 15, sigmoid, strongly curved
to margins, to 1.5 cm. distant, secondary beneath nearly twice wider
than primary, the many tertiary prominent both sides; spadix (frag-
ment) 16.5 cm. long, the 8 branchlets 10.5-13 cm. long, minutely
pilosulous but green, apically aculeate, the spine short, the male
flowers immersed, axis nearly 3 mm. thick, granulose; alveoli in 6
series little inclined, 4-5 mm. distant; lower lip densely costate, some-
what protracted, subobtuse, the upper slightly but obviously extended
from the axis; flowers mostly emerged at anthesis, the faded perianth
3.5 mm. long, somewhat shorter than corolla; stamens long-exserted;
staminode teeth 6, linear. Reminds one of G. latisecta Burret with
quite different leaf-segments.
Loreto: Yurimaguas, Williams 7836, type.
Geonoma congestissima Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 224. 1930.
Arundinaceous, 4 meters tall (type) ; petioles 3 mm. broad at apex,
2 dm. long or longer without sheath, this apically auriculate, early
tomentose, the many nerves nearly vertical; leaf -rachis beneath as
petioles scurfy, 3.8 dm. long, not at all extended; primary nerves
31 or 32 each side, prominent beneath, minutely lepidulous, tertiary
above obsolete, beneath 7 between secondary and primary, finely
appressed setulose; leaves membranous, subelliptic, to about 28 cm.
broad, to apices 53 cm. long, to bifurcation 1.5 dm. long, the 3 pairs
of distinct segments falcate, narrowly acuminate, 5-10 cm. wide, to
about 2.5 dm. long, interval between basal and medial pair nearly
7.5 cm. long, primary nerves 8-10 except shortly lobed terminal part
11-12-nerved; spadix about 2.5 dm. long, branches simple, 6-10,
rachis 2.5-10 cm. long, spathes subligneous, early fulvous tomentose,
1 dm. long, 2 cm. broad at apex, peduncle 8-16 cm. long, spikes very
dense, about 7-11 cm. long, before anthesis 8-10, in fruit 15-17 cm.
in diameter, axis alveolate to rounded apex; alveoli approximate in
7 series, the parts 3-3.5 mm. distant; upper as lower lip short, the
latter rounded, finally often reflexed, entire; male sepals before an-
thesis nearly 4 mm. long, the outer spathulate, 1 mm. wide, petals
to 3.25 mm. long, to one-half connate, staminal cup (without stipe)
1 mm. long, as filament to connective, this to 0.75 mm. long, black,
FLORA OF PERU 341
anthers 2 mm. long; female sepals oblong, 4 mm. long, as petals, these
to one-half connate, the staminodal tube little shorter, scarcely in-
cised; fruits congested, subglobose, 7 mm. in diameter, 6 mm. long,
broadly rounded and submammillate apically, broadly protracted
basally, minutely tuberculate, epicarp membranous, mesocarp finely
fibrous, endocarp cartilaginous.
San Martin: Among shrubs, 1,300 meters, Moyobamba, (Weber-
bauer 4560, type).
Geonoma cuneifolia Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 199.
Simulates G. Brongniartii but the caudex developed, leaves about
2 meters long or longer, segments definitely cuneate at base, the
lower 5-7 cm. wide and with many more primary nerves; peduncle
to 5.5 dm. long; spadix 6-8 dm. long, the spike 2 dm. long, 3 mm.
thick. The much larger leaves with basally long-cuneate segments
may distinguish this species from the one to which the author origi-
nally referred the type.
Loreto: Rio Ucayali, (Tessmann 3317, type).
Geonoma floccosa Damm. ex Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 203. 1930.
Type a meter tall, petioles 4.5 dm. long, at apex 3 mm. thick,
canaliculate above, basally vaginate; rachis nearly 3.5 dm. long; pri-
mary nerves 22 or 23; segments on each side about 7, apical broadest
(primary nerves about 7), 14-20 cm. long, mostly 3-3.5 cm. wide,
but sometimes narrower, basal primary nerves about 7, basal seg-
ments nearly 2-2.5 cm. wide, all falcate; nerves subequal except
tertiary, these obscure above, rather many beneath, sparsely and
minutely pubescent; spadix 5 dm. long, simply branched; spathe
narrow, to 34 cm. long, subequaling or little longer than peduncle,
this as branches densely long-floccose-tomentose, somewhat unevenly
deciduous; upper bracts oblong; rachis not flexuose at union with the
7 or 8 divergent branches; alveoli rather densely spiralled in 5 series
little inclined toward the axis and after anthesis equally 5 or 6 mm.
distant, the upper lip clearly extended, the lower often cleft; male
flowers emerged; fruit subglobose, apiculate at base, rounded at apex,
1 cm. long, half as broad, densely and coarsely verruculose, endocarp
little exceeding one-third mm., the seed 7 mm. in diameter. Flowers
brownish-purple (collector) .
Junin: Low moist shrub-wood, west of Huacapistana, (Weber-
bauer 2277, type).
342 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Geonoma gracilipes Damm. ex Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 173.
Original plant recorded as only 1 dm. tall, the fuscous-leprose
petioles and leaf-rachis each about 3.8 dm. long; segments (each side)
5-8, mostly 1.5-2.5 cm. apart, all or nearly all with many primary
nerves, falcate, long-acuminate, the broader apical 15-17 cm. long,
4-5 cm. wide; primary nerves each side about 28, to 7 mm. distant,
subequaling the secondary, the tertiary conspicuous beneath; spike
7.5-11 cm. long, including the more or less spinescent tip, the axis
to 4 mm. thick, alveoli densely in 6-7 series; sepals 2.25-2.5 mm.
long, ovate-oblong, the petals 3 mm. long, staminodal tube subentire;
fruit subglobose, minutely granular, 6 mm. in diameter, the pericarp
one-third mm. thick; male flowers unknown. G. Jussieuana Mart.
(Palm. Orbign. 24. pi 12, fig. 2, pi. 23 A. 1847), to which Burret (172)
with doubt referred the following, may prove to be the same but, as
he noted, the species of Martius ex char, (mostly from description
and drawing of D'Orbigny) and from illustrations has petiole much
shorter than leaf-rachis, peduncle and spadix subequal, in contrast
to the specimen of Weberbauer with petioles and leaf-rachis subequal,
peduncle and spadix very unequal; also, if the same species, and vari-
ety, it would be more expected in southern Peru as the type is from
northeast of Cochabamba, Bolivia.
San Martin: Shrub-wood, 1,100 meters, Moyobamba, (Weber-
bauer 4557, type).
Geonoma granditrijuga Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 171. 1930.
Low (type 2 meters), the leaves, apparently, regularly with 3 pairs
of subequal and subequally disposed segments, all glabrous, the ter-
minal one 14 cm. decurrent, nearly 10 dm. long to the bifurcation,
this to apex of lobes 3.7 dm., upper margins direct, narrowly acumi-
nate, apex little falcate, the medial to 9 cm. wide; primary nerves
finally arcuate, 34 or 35 on each side, strongly prominent only above,
the secondary half as high, the tertiary fine, especially beneath; spa-
dix simple, peduncle and spike subequal, 21 cm. long or longer, 2.5-
3 mm. thick below spike, lower spathe 12-14 mm. long, narrow,
robust, spike apex caudiform-spiniform, 1 cm. long, 3 mm. thick,
leprose; alveoli in 6 exactly vertical lines, the parts of each equally
5 mm. distant; sepals of male flowers 2.25 mm. long, the outer ovate,
the rest ovate-oblong; petals two- thirds connate; staminal cup stout,
aJithers nearly 1.5 mm. long to tip of connective; sepals of female
(young) ovate-oblong, acute, staminodal tube obscurely dentate.
FLORA OF PERU 343
Spadix of 3672, male flowers emerging, nearly 7.5 dm. long, lower
spathe 3.2 dm. long, linear, subligneous, to 16 mm. broad, upper
scarcely longer, peduncle nearly 4.5 dm. long, about 12 cm. larger
than spathe, spike to spine-like tip 2.85 dm. long. This inflorescence
doubtless belongs here (author); so, why not include the measure-
Huanuco: Sparse woods, 700 meters, Monzon to the Huallaga,
(Weberbauer 3673, type; 3672).
Geonoma helminthoclada Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 222. 1930.
Leaf-rachis dorsally plane, glabrous, narrowly triangular toward
the filiform extension; segments irregularly aggregate, at base very
narrowly reduplicate, 1.5 cm. wide, midrib above more or less prom-
inent, beneath the one strong nerve besides the marginal, the tertiary
obsolete; spadix (fragment) twice branched or more, peduncle 6.5 cm.
long, extending into 4 branches 3-3.5 dm. long, 4.5-5.5 mm. thick,
minutely tuberculate, rounded (espinose) apically; alveoli in 3 alter-
nating verticils, upper lip moderately but conspicuously and thinly
produced, the lower split, the series 8-9 mm. distant; female flowers
under anthesis 1 cm. long, staminodal tube equaling petals, truncate,
scarcely incised. Recalls the much more northern G. undata Klotzsch,
213, but the leaves, from the single apical fragment seen, appear to
be distinctly different (author).
Amazonas: Chachapoyas, (Raimondi 509, type).
Geonoma interrupta (R. & P.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 8,
pi. 7. 1823; 249. Martinezia interrupta R. & P. Syst. Veg. 296. 1798.
Type a few meters tall, leaves unequally and interruptedly pin-
nate, segments linear-oblong, falcate-acuminate, multinerved, 4 dm.
long or longer; inner spathe coriaceous, cuspidate, 2.5 cm. broad,
linear-cuspidate, unevenly grayish tomentose; spadices branched be-
low, the rarely bifid branches 1.5 dm. long or longer, shortly attenu-
ate, sparsely puberulent; flowers more or less approximate, 5-seriate,
about 2 mm. long, calyx 3 times shorter than or equaling (?) corolla,
lobes strongly concave, subserrulate; staminodal cup (female flowers)
about as long as corolla; fruit globose; acute, about 4 mm. in length.
After Martius who seems not to have seen the earlier developed
male flowers as he notes distinct female and male spadices. G. eu-
spatha Burret (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 10. 1930) from adjacent
Colombia has larger flowers, the male 2.5 mm. long, spathes much
344 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
longer; it is one of several Colombian species proposed in the same
paper that may be expected in Peru. F.M. Neg. 18509.
Huanuco: Cuchero, Pozuzo, (Ruiz & Pav6n, type). "Cuyol,"
"siasia," (Ruiz & Pavon), "chica-chica."
Geonoma Killipii Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 320.
Stems arundinaceous, the small leaves with 3 pairs (rarely a fourth
reduced pair) of leaflets on a rachis 23 cm. long, the slender petiole
concave above; leaf -blade 33 cm. long, paler beneath, primary nerves
22 each side; leaflets falcate, the apical twice as wide as the medial,
these longer, the basal nearly directly divaricate, sigmoid, half as wide
as the medial, all very narrowly long-acuminate; secondary and pri-
mary nerves equally strong beneath; peduncle 4 cm. long, rachis 5
cm. long, verrucose as the 8 branches, the 2 lower of these furcate,
all slender, at most 1.5 mm. thick at internodes; alveoli deep, lower
margin produced, inflated, truncate, the upper obscurely extended,
rarely spiralled, often decussate, 3-4 mm. distant; fruit (dried) black,
subglobose, at least 5 mm. in diameter. The detached leaf (26532}
scabrous, petiole (above sheath) 2.5 dm. long, rachis 3 dm. long, upper-
most leaf segments 13.5 cm., decurrent, upper margin 1 dm. long,
medial 6-7 cm., length of rachis 13 cm. on margin, at most 6-6.5 cm.
wide, lowest segments 1.7-2 cm. long (rachis), 1.5 dm. on upper mar-
gin, at most 3.5 cm. wide; spadix 19 cm. long. Similar to G. panicu-
ligera Mart, but with smaller slender leaf-segments; the alveoli are
not spiralled or 3-whorled, but placed crosswise (author).
Junin : Puerto Bermudez, (Killip & Smith 26594, type; also 26532} .
Geonoma leptospadix Trail, Journ. Bot. 14: 327, pi. 183, fig. 2.
Caudex reed-like, 1.5-2 meters tall, fulvous, glabrous; leaves 10-12
(petioles 4-5 dm. long, sulcate above), the beaks about 1 dm. long,
long-decurrent, simple, bifurcate, the deltoid segments about 4 cm.
wide; primary nerves faint, 27 pairs; spadices 3-14, in flower and fruit
on same plant, reddish, 2.5-4 dm. long, peduncle to 2 dm. long, spa-
dices finally often inflexed, 3-5-branched, flower pits scattered, ob-
scurely 5-ranked, bract 2-lobed or emarginate; male sepals and petals
subequally, medially connate; sterile staminal tube of female flowers
subentire or minutely 6-denticulate; fruit globose, 6 mm. in diameter,
black-purple. Stem usually partly buried; in one plant I found 14
spadices, the lower ten in fruit (author). Recorded, besides lower
FLORA OF PERU 345
Amazon (type locality), at Jurua Mirim, Brazil, near Peruvian
boundary (Ule 5516, 5516b, det. Burret). F.M. Neg. 38651.
Peru (no doubt). Amazonian Brazil. "Ubim."
Geonoma longisecta Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 257. 1930.
Type 2 meters tall with 12 very rigid leaves each with 2 pairs of
approximate (2-2.5 cm. distant) leaflets, these little falcate, the lower
8 dm. long, about medially 7 cm. wide, apical about 7 dm. long or
longer on upper margin, 1 dm. wide, the apices not seen; rachis
filiform-produced, fuscous scurfy beneath; primary nerves of larger
segments nearly direct, very prominent above, obscure, scaly be-
neath, the secondary impressed above, very prominent beneath, the
tertiary there more obvious than above; peduncle 4.5 cm. long, 6 mm.
thick at apex, the partly twice branched spadix 2.5 dm. long, nearly
3 dm. wide; rachis 1 dm. long, branches 12, the upper 6 simple, in
flower 9.5-11.5 cm. long, axis 2.5 mm. long, pilosulous-granulose,
alveolate to spineless tip; alveoli in 7 series, upper lip thin-margined,
lower produced, often emarginate; stamens 2.5 mm. long, petals not
exserted; female flowers (early) scarcely 2 mm. long, staminodal tube
exserted, teeth linear; fruit oval, rounded both ends, about 13 mm.
long, 11 mm. broad, densely and minutely granular, pericarp at least
1 mm. thick, seed 1 cm. long, 9 mm. broad. Resembles G. Spruceana
Trail with much shorter and narrower leaf segments and with the
spadix rachis marked by the terminal flowers overreaching the spine-
Loreto: Flood-free wood, Iquitos, (Tessmann 5087, type).
Geonoma megalospatha Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 218. 1930.
A larger counterpart of G. andicola Damm., the type 6 meters tall,
petioles apically 9 mm. broad, filiform rachis extension stouter, about
5 mm. long, leaflets nearly 12 mm. wide, tertiary nerves 7-9; spadices
deciduously furfuraceous, outer spathe 36 cm. long, at base 5.5,
medially 6.5-7 cm. broad, coriaceous; lowest branch spadix to apex
37 cm., rachis to base of ultimate branches 23 cm. long, primary
branches 13, upper 7 simple, lowest to 7 cm. pedunculate, spikes
16-17.5 cm., axis 7 mm. thick; sepals nearly 5 mm. long, petals 4.5
mm. long; fruit stoutly stiped (stipe 2-3 mm. long), rounded at base,
obscurely apiculate, including stipe 13 mm. long, 9 mm. broad, lightly
rugulose, yellowish, pericarp nearly 1.25 mm. thick. In all parts,
notably spadix, larger and more robust; the spathes are nearly twice
as long and wide, spadix branches thicker, longer, pinnae wider
346 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
(author). To an ecologist this vigorous condition resulting in greater
size may suggest maximum natural conditions, to a horticulturist, a
personal achievement in providing them. Grows with Ceroxylum
crispum Burret at the altitudinal boundary for Peruvian species of
Huanuco: Pozuzo, (Weberbauer 6800, type).
Geonoma multisecta Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 12:
155. 1934. Taenianthera multisecta Burret, I.e. 11: 13. 1930. T.
Weberbaueri Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 269. 1930, fide Burret, I.e., 1934.
Type like Taenianthera acaulis in habit; petioles (triangular) as
leaf-blade to base of uppermost furcate segment about 7 cm. long; re-
maining segments mostly 6 pairs, long-cuneate to base, upper to 6.5,
rest mostly 4-6 cm. wide, all falcate, narrowly acuminate; primary
nerves many; spadix simple, about 14 cm. long, peduncle 12 cm. long
or longer; spathes slender, narrowly vaginate, not half as long as pe-
duncles; spike 16.5-21.5 cm. long, 8 mm. broad including bracts, the
nearly concealed axis 5 mm. broad; pits densely congested even in
fruit, in 7 series, little inclined; lower lips strongly extended, deeply
incised, in each series 4-5 mm. distant; sepals 3.25 mm. long, oblong-
lanceolate, subequaling petals, to two-thirds connate; fruit oval, 9
mm. long, 6 mm. thick, densely tuberculate, little protracted at
base. After seeing more material with very irregular segments I
believe that T. Weberbaueri is not distinct (author).
Huanuco: In shrub-wood, Monzon, 900 meters, (Weberbauer 3450,
type of T. Weberbaueri). Adjacent Colombia.
Geonoma myriantha Damm. Verb. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48:
1. 1906 (1907); 236. G. paniculigera Mart. var. papyracea Trail,
Journ. Bot. 16: 326. 1876; fide Burret, with query.
Type 4 meters high, with several broadly oval interrupted-pinnate
(3 pairs) leaves to 4.5 dm. broad; petioles to 7 dm. long, the juvenile
bright brown; rachis about 5 dm. long, nerves (each side) about 28;
leaf divisions 6-8 cm. distant, the lower 7, medial 12, uppermost 18
cm. wide; spadices lax, lower branch much branched, all filiform to
3 dm. long, 2 mm. thick, the lower pedicels closely brown-red verru-
culose; alveoli 2-3 mm. distant, 5-ranked; male flowers reddish,
scarcely 2 mm. long, outer segments carinate, inner ovate-lanceolate;
filaments basally connate, anther cells linear. G. Heinrichsiae Burret
(Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 12: 43. 1934) of Ecuador has laxly dis-
posed alveoli. Type, Ule 5882, from nearly at the boundary, as the
FLORA OF PERU 347
variety of Martius' species; the latter, known from southern Colombia
not very far from the Rio Putumayo, is distinguished apparently
chiefly by thin, often split lower lip of the flower pits; the species
may be found to merge. G. laxi flora Mart., 239, from lower Rio
Purus, etc., is marked by the simple or little separated 2 pairs of leaf
segments, and especially by the laxly disposed verticils, these with
intervals 2-3 times longer than the alveoli themselves.
Loreto (certainly). Adjacent Brazil; Bolivia.
Geonoma piscicauda Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48:
122. 1906 (1907); 182. G. Wittiana Damm. I.e. as to spadix (Burret);
cf. Hyospathe brevipedunculata Damm.
Low (1-2 meters), apparently branched at base, with simple
leaves, the sheath at least 1 dm. long, truncate, petioles 16 cm. long,
3 mm. thick, leaf-blade elongate-obovate, apically bifid, 5 dm. long,
21 cm. broad, rachis 5 dm. long, primary nerves 30 each side; outer
spathe 7 cm. long, spadix simple, cylindrical, (peduncle 7-8  cm.
long), about 2.5 dm. long, 7-10 mm. in diameter, alveoli 7-ranked,
7-10 mm. distant; male calyx lobes conchiform, carinate, ciliate,
3 (4) mm. long, corolla lobes ovate, acute, 3.5 (4) mm. long; filaments
5 mm. long, anther cells 1.5 mm. long; female calyx lobes ovate, acute,
5 mm. long, corolla tube subglobose, 2 mm. long, lanceolate lobes
4 mm. long; style trifid, 5 mm. long; fruit subglobose, 6 mm. in
diameter, 7-8 mm. long, attenuate toward base. Type from Jurua
Mirim (Ule 5520), nearly at the Peruvian boundary; G. Wittiana
Damm. I.e. 124 (at least very near, Burret) from neighboring Seringal
Betem (not Para).
Peru (no doubt). Brazil.
Geonoma Poeppigiana Mart. Palm. Orbign. 35. 1847; 263.
Leaves unevenly pinnate, younger leaves divided into few seg-
ments, 7.5-10 cm. long, adult a meter long or longer with 6-8 seg-
ments, these linear-oblong, 4 dm. long or longer, 12-25 mm. wide,
opposite or subalternate, attenuate into an acutely falcate acumen;
petioles convex below (as rachis), concave above, sparsely reddish
tomentose as younger leaves beneath, the peduncles (to 5 dm. long)
and spadices in part densely so; primary nerves acutely prominent
only above, the alternating secondary nerves there impressed, stout
below, in age hard, pale, glabrous; outer spathes linear, 2 cm. wide,
subcoriaceous; male spadix simply few-branched (rarely entire), the
acutely mucronate (mucro 4-20 mm. long) branches 3-4 times shorter
348 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
than the long peduncle, the naked part reddish verrucose-squamate;
bractlets acute, binate or ternate toward apex of peduncle and at
base of branches, these 2-5, always simple, each erect; peduncles of
branches 6-10 mm. long; rachis with the crowded immersed flowers
cylindric, the series mostly 8, obliquely spiralled, the lip of the
alveoli entire; male calyx subequaling corolla. Size and color of
flowers of G. interrupta, calyx segments suboblong, corolla lobes ovate,
acute, same color and texture, the staminodal cup shortly dentate,
but unlike G. interrupta in the membranous inner spathe (Martius) ;
Burret (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 321. 1931) applied this name,
obscurely understood, to the following collections but without new
Huanuco: Cuchero, (Poeppig, type). Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Kil-
lip & Smith 28026). Santa Rosa, (Killip & Smith 28729).
Geonoma pycnostachys Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 16, pis. 17,
21, fig. 1. 1823; 181; 503 (Drude).
A meter or two high, the remotely annulate stem less than a cm.
thick; leaves 10-12, simple, spreading, narrowly elliptic or oblong-
spathulate, one-fifth to one-sixth bilobed, apical divisions broadly
ovate, inflexed-acuminate, the entire leaves 3-4 dm. long, 10-12
(-17) cm. wide, petioles 5-8 cm. long; primary nerves each side about
30; spadices erect-spreading, 12-16 cm. long, ferrugineous lepidote,
the short peduncle gradually incrassate into the 9-12 cm. long rachis,
this in flower more than 1 cm. thick, acute; alveoli exserted, approxi-
mate in 8-10 series, the long-produced lip orbicular; flowers reddish,
male corolla semitrifid, staminal cup short-funnelform, female scarcely
half as long as trifid calyx, long exceeded by the cylindric staminodal
cup, this 6-denticulate; fruit ovoid, obtuse, 6 mm. long, olive-black.
Male flowers carmine red, subpersisting (collector). F.M. Neg. 18523.
Loreto: Flood-free terrain, mouth of the Santiago, (Tessmann
4446). Amazonian Brazil.
Geonoma Raimondii Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 182. 1930.
Leaves (in fragment seen) pinnate, the segments rigid, dark green
above, 4.5-6 dm. long, 8.5 cm. wide; primary nerves 4-9, direct, 1 cm.
distant, prominent above, beneath much slenderer than the second-
ary, the intermediate tertiary 12-14, minutely appressed setulose,
densely pale puncticulate; upper spathe 2.5 cm. above the lower;
peduncle above shortly ovate-bracted, tuberculate, little shorter than
the stout spike, this with fertile female flowers to 12 mm. in diameter;
FLORA OF PERU 349
alveoli in 7-8 series little inclined, 5 more inclined, lower lobe broadly
rounded, entire; flowers more than half emerged, sepals and petals
finally subequal and exceeded by the narrow staminodal tube, this
obscurely 6-dentate; fruit ovoid, faintly striate, 11 mm. long, 5 mm.
broad, pericarp thin, endocarp within fuscous, the seed 7X4 mm.,
male flowers unknown. G. Trauniana Damm., 183, from the lower
Jurud is similar but has many leaf-segments, all except the apical
with only 2-3 primary nerves; G. Trailii Burret, 183, upper Ama-
zonian, has leaves with 3-4 pairs of sigmoid leaf -segments, 22 primary
nerves on each side.
Amazonas: (Raimondi 978, type). "Palmide."
Geonoma Spruceana Trail, Journ. Bot. 14: 328. 1876; 256.
G. juruana Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 119. 1907, fide
Stems 3 or 4 to 5 meters tall (type), 2.5 cm. thick; leaves 3-7 cm.
long (with petiole), the 2-21 pinnae lanceolate-rhombic, ligulate or
grass-like, subfalcate, 3-6 (7.5) dm. long, 1-7.5 cm. wide, sub-
coriaceous, concolor, primary veins 11-15 pairs, the sublinear blades
always 3-nerved; spadices 2-3 (4) dm. long, reddish or green, branches
4-8, simple or 2-8-branched below; peduncle to 1 dm. long, com-
pressed; spathes lanceolate, obtuse, 7 cm. to nearly 2 dm. long,
coriaceous; flower pits 5-7-ranked; male calyx membranous, seg-
ments 3 mm. long; staminal tube 3-crenate but splitting into 6
teeth or 6-lobed from the first; fruit oval or subglobose, 6 cm. X 1.2
cm. After Trail, who designated several Brazilian variants, with
doubt as to their taxonomic validity. Burret adopted two: var.
intermedia Trail, leaves multisected, smaller, segments denser, and
var. compta Trail, leaves larger, segments laxer. He cites Trail 177
from Tabatinga, at the Brazilian boundary with Loreto, as typical,
but the collection is not listed by Trail, I.e., unless it is an error for
170, 176 or 174; type of Dammer's species (Ule 5744), however, was
from mouth of Rio Jurud Miry (Mirim) nearly at the Peruvian
boundary. G. Spixiana Mart., 263, little known, as to Maynas
(Yurimaguas) specimen by Poeppig may be this; Martius himself
suggested he might be mistaken in considering it the same as a
species of Bahia, Brazil.
Peru (surely; see note above). Amazonian Brazil.
Geonoma Tessmannii Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 181. 1930.
Stems several from the same rhizome, 9 mm. thick, lustrous, the
upper internodes 1 dm. long; sheaths 1 cm. long; petioles 12 cm. long;
350 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
leaves simple, often laterally cleft, never disjoined, obovate-lance-
olate, shortly cuneate at base, upper to 17.5 cm. wide, 4.5 dm. long
to apex, about one-fifth bifurcate, upper margin 14.5 cm. long, lobes
shortly acuminate, membranous, paler beneath; primary nerves 26
both sides, slightly curved near rachis, the secondary subequal be-
neath, the tertiary obscure above, about 8 visible beneath; spadix 1
dm. long, branches 3; upper spathe (fragment) 7 mm. long; pe-
duncles about 5 cm. long (2 broadly rounded, nearly truncate bracts),
at apex 2 mm. thick, as branches densely granulose, these 5-6 cm.
long, spikes 4.2-4.6 cm. long, dense, pits in 5 or 6 vertical series,
bilabiate, lower lip inflated, emarginate; male flowers more than
one-half emerged, 3 mm. long, stamens exserted 4 mm.; staminodal
tube of female flowers denticulate.
Loreto: Non-inundated woods, mouth of Rio Santiago, (Tessmann
Geonoma Uleana Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 122.
Stems scarcely 5 mm. thick, the annuli 1.5-3.5 cm. distant;
sheaths cylindric, fibrous, oblique, 6 cm. long; petioles about 12 cm.
long, 2 mm. thick, leaf -rachis 18 cm. long, the oblong leaf attenuate
to base, apically bifid, the lateral margins quite parallel, 2-2.5 dm.
long, 7.5-10.5 cm. wide; primary nerves 18-20, early, as rachis,
floccose-pilose; spadices in the older or lower axils, the included
simple peduncles 3 cm. long, spathe 5-6 cm. long; spadix 7-11 cm.
long, 3 mm. thick, alveoli deep, 5 mm. distant, 4-ranked; fruits
apiculate. Type, Ule 5521, mouth of Rio Tejo, near Peruvian
Loreto: Iquitos, (Ule 6879). Adjacent Brazil.
Geonoma Weberbaueri Damm. ex Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 221.
Type 6 meters tall, the caudex about 5 cm. in diameter at the
great spadix, this a meter and a half long, cernuous, duplicate-
branched, early furfuraceous; leaves 16 dm. long with petiole, this
4 dm. long, 12 mm. broad at apex, at apex of sheath 16 cm. broad;
leaf-rachis above as petioles early broadly canaliculate, finally sub-
plane, apex not at all produced; segments 1-nerved, linear, attenuate
but not at all falcate, middle 10-12 mm. wide, diminished upward;
primary nerve prominent above, acute beneath, marginal secondary
broader beneath than primary, tertiary partly obvious, intervals
FLORA OF PERU 351
beneath minutely white puncticulate; peduncle about 2.5 dm. long,
somewhat shorter than branched part, rachis 57 cm. long, branches
often 20, the 12 lower branched, the lowest with about 10 simple
branches; spikes floriferous to summit, not spine- tipped, to 3 dm.
long, axis about 8 mm. thick; alveoli (as commonly) 3-verticillate in
6 lines, in young fruit about 5 mm. distant, upper lip conspicuously
thin, finally often split unevenly, lower deeply emarginate; sepals
broadly oblong, 5 mm. long, as also petals, these one-half connate,
equaled by the staminodal tube, this scarcely incised, subtruncate;
fruit (young) oblong, mammillate-cusped, pericarp thick; male flow-
Hudnuco: Among evergreens, mostly shrubs, southwest of Mon-
zon, 2,200 meters, (Weberbauer 3552, type).
8. TAENIANTHERA Burret
Reference: Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 267-270. 1930.
Simulates Geonoma but the free anther cells after anthesis are
porrect, being, without any angle, in a direct line with the filament,
and the stigma (known) is applanate. Sepals lanceolate or narrow
(female flower). Filaments connate only toward base. Spadices
in known species simple or furcate, pits dense, spathes 2, narrowly
vaginate, slender. Indubitably the basic character of the species
assigned by Burret to a distinct group is very real, being clearly stabi-
lized, probably ancient; in monographic work, to emphasize the char-
acter, generic status may be preferred, but in floristic, especially when
the plants concerned possess human interest, a more generally useful
taxonomy, when possible, is desirable, and subgeneric rank may be
more feasible. The author himself (267) remarked (trans.): I was
in doubt if it would not be better to treat this as a subgenus but I
have found no intermediate development of the anthers in the many
species of Geonoma examined. In other words, for students whose
interest prompts them to emphasize specific relationships by many
generic names this is a "good" genus; others, if they have the pleasure
of recognizing one of the following closely allied plants, especially
when not in flower, will refer to it as Geonoma, whether in cultiva-
tion or native.
Leaves simple or laterally cleft, basally long-cuneate, nerves ascend-
ing, straight T. tamandua, T. macrostachys.
Leaves somewhat pinnatisected, rounded or shortly cuneate at base,
nerves more spreading, curved.
352 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Floral pits 5-7-ranked, somewhat inclined.
Leaf-segments 2-3.5 dm. X 3-9 cm T. tapajotensis.
Leaf-segments about 2 dm. X 2-5 cm T. oligosticha.
Floral pits in 10-15 verticils or little inclined series.
Leaf-segments 3-6 pairs, upper multinerved.
Leaf -segments distant T. acaulis.
Leaf-segments partly united T. Lagesiana.
Leaf -segments many, 1-nerved T. camana.
Taenianthera acaulis (Mart.) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 267. 1930.
Geonoma acaulis Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 18, pis. 4, 9. 1823.
Leaves pinnate, erect or suberect, rosulately congested (with spa-
dix) on caudex, sometimes as many as 12, a meter long or longer
including the long slender petiole, the younger fuscous-leprose; seg-
ments 3-6, the more or less divaricate subequal lateral oblong-
lanceolate, (1) 2-10 cm. wide, (2) 3-4 dm. long, few- to many-nerved,
the furcate terminal one much wider; peduncle about 6 dm. long;
spadix striate, 6-9 dm. long, simple, cylindric; lower spathe scarcely
1 dm. long, upper 2-2.5 dm. long; spike incrassate-cylindric, 8-13 cm.
long, 7-10 cm. thick, densely flowered, the deep pits 10-12-ranked,
the lip emarginate; flowers 4-8 mm. long, male corolla at least twice
longer than calyx, deeply 3-parted, short or campanulate stamen
tube extended into broadly liguliform filaments, the tube in female
flowers urceolate, dentate. Burret noted that the anthers were
longer than shown in the otherwise good illustration by Drude (Mart.
Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 121, fig. 1. F.M. Neg. 18501.
Peru (probably, as at Jurua Mirim, nearly on the Brazilian bound-
ary). To Colombia; Amazonian Brazil. "Palmilla" (Dahlgren).
Taenianthera camana (Trail) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 270. 1930.
Geonoma camana Trail, Journ. Bot. 14: 324. 1876.
Caudex (type) 1-1.5 meters tall, 2.5-4 cm. in diameter, densely
annulate, erect or flexuose; leaves pinnate, glaucous green, 1.5-2.5
meters long (petiole 6-12 dm. long, sulcate), the 17-21 (31) segments
subfalcate-linear, 1-2-nerved, or lanceolate-rhombic, the upper sev-
eral-nerved; spadix 4.5-6 dm. long (peduncle to about 1 dm. long),
spathes 2-3 dm. long, linear-tubular, spike 1.5-2 dm. long, slender,
obtuse, the densely congested spiralled pits in about 15 ranks; fruit
ellipsoid, scabrous, black, 9 mm. long, 6 mm. thick. Type from
FLORA OF PERU 353
inundated areas on the Rfos Gavary and Jutabi on the Brazilian
border. F.M. Neg. 38643.
Loreto (no doubt; cf. note above). Adjacent Brazil. "Juriti-
Taenianthera Lagesiana (Damm.) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 268.
1930. Geonoma Lagesiana Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 121.
Type 2 meters tall with ample dark green long-oval more or less
3-pinnate leaves, the petioles at least 3.5 dm. long, the rachis about
7.5 dm. long, nerves (each side) about 35; segments 3-8 cm. distant,
to 4.5 dm. long, long-acuminate; spathe obliquely open, peduncle
4.5 dm. long or longer, stout, the 2 branches about 2.5 dm. long,
densely flowered, 1 cm. in diameter; male flowers 3.5 mm. long, calyx
lobes spathulate, ciliate, 3 mm. long, corolla 3.5 mm. long, lobes
oblong; staminal tube short, anther cells clavate, 1.5 mm. long.
Distinct from G. acaulis Mart, by the longer leaves with partly united
segments (Burret), a character that may prove variable; type, Ule
5745 from Jurua Mirim, nearly on the Peruvian boundary.
Peru (certainly). Adjacent Brazil.
Taenianthera macrostachys (Mart.) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63:
268. 1930. Geonoma macrostachys Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 19,
pi. 20. 1823.
Acaulescent, the thick caudex bearing 10 or more crowded simple
or subsimple leaves about 1.5 to nearly 2 dm. long, the younger reddish
tomentose or furfuraceous, soon glabrous, coriaceous, long-decurrent
into petiole at least about 3 dm. long, triangular-lanceolate, falcate,
furcate, the apical segment at least 2.5 dm. long, each part 1 dm.
wide, primary nerves about 30; peduncles tomentose, about 8 dm.
long, spadix erect, 1 meter long, upper spathe narrowly tubular,
about 3 dm. long; spike 1.5-2 dm. long, 8-9 mm. thick, attenuate
and mostly extended into a filiform sterile portion; pits deep, approx-
imate, the short lip rounded, bilobate or deeply emarginate; flowers
3 mm. long, calyx and corolla subequal, male petals free, female
connate medially, staminal tube lageniform in male flower, deeply
6-dentate in female flower; fruit dark purple, lustrous, ellipsoid, 7 or
8 mm. long, perhaps larger (Burret). Burret also observes (I.e.) that
Drude's plate (for G. acaulis), not that of Martius, depicts correctly
the similar stamen-character. Since it has been collected nearly
at the eastern boundary of Peru (Rio Tejo, Ule) it must extend
354 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
into Loreto or Madre de Dios; however, Burret noted (I.e.) that the
record of Poeppig from Cuchero does not pertain to this palm. F.M.
Negs. 18514; 29875.
Loreto (no doubt; see note above). Brazil; Bolivia; Colombia.
Taenianthera oligosticha Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11 :
Acaulescent, leaves small, primary nerves about 20, rachis to
2 dm. long, deciduously fuscous scurfy as peduncles, segments 4-5
pairs, concolor, narrowly long-acuminate, apical broader than the
rest, about 5 cm. wide, 2 dm. long (upper margin), primary nerves 8,
others about 2-2.5 cm. wide, primary nerves 3-5, little narrowed to
base; secondary nerves little narrower beneath than primary, the
tertiary more obvious above than below; spadix simple, slender, the
peduncle much longer than the spike, this 13-17 cm. long, nearly 6
mm. thick (with flowers), apically (type) spinose; pits approximate,
in 7 scarcely declined series, 2 mm. distant, lower lip emarginate,
upper not at all or obscurely produced but forming a very acute
margin; female sepals somewhat emerging, 2.5 mm. long, petals
shorter, densely and acutely nervose, staminodal tube 6-lobed.
Peduncle sometimes longer than 2 meters, petiole 6 dm. long, sheath
7 cm. long, rachis 28 cm. long (Klug). Near T. acaulis but series of
flower groups and nerves fewer, spadix smaller (author).
Loreto: Rio Nanay, Williams 787, type; 740. Mishuyacu,
Taenianthera tamandua (Trail) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 268.
1930. Geonoma tamandua Trail, Journ. Bot. 14: 323. 1876.
Near T. macrostachys; type with leaves 1.5-2 meters long, dark
green, strongly plicate, primary nerves 25-27 each side, nearly
straight, petiole 1.5 dm. long, deeply canaliculate; spike white tomen-
tose, 2.5-3.3 dm. long, to 11 mm. thick, obtuse, the pits 10-11-ranked,
the lower lip bifid, tomentose. Incompletely known, but, as Burret
remarks, spike definitely longer, thicker; type from non-inundated
area at the Rio Javary. F.M. Neg. 38665.
Peru (probably). Brazil. "Tamandua-pecu" or "-ubim" (Trail).
Taenianthera tapajotensis (Trail) Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 269.
1930. Geonoma acaulis Mart, subsp. tapajotensis Trail, Journ. Bot.
14: 342. 1876. Geonoma tapajotensis (Trail) Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras.
3, pt. 2: 508. 1882.
FLORA OF PERU 355
Habit of T. acaulis but smaller in all parts; petiole, with sheath,
4.5-5.5 dm. long; leaves scarcely 1 meter long, segments 3-4 pairs,
broadly ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 2-3.5 dm. long, 3-9 cm.
wide; spadix 5-6 dm. long, spathes firm-membranous, the lower 5,
the upper about 13 cm. long; spike 5-7.5 cm. long, 3^4 mm. thick,
with a mucronate sterile extension 1 cm. long, pits 6-7-ranked;
flowers (Trail) as in T. acaulis; fruit globose, about as large as a pea
but immature. Ordinarily 3 pairs of leaf-segments, but sometimes
1 or 2 narrow segments also, both sides.
Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, flood-free wood, (Tessmann 4715,
det. Burret). Amazonian Brazil.
9. IRIARTEA R. & P.
Socratea Karst. Linnaea 28: 263. 1856. Iriartella Wendl. Bon-
plandia 8: 103. 1860.
Handsome palm marked by partly exposed more or less aculeate
roots supporting and seemingly bracing the tall stem, this bearing
a coma of long pinnate leaves with many deltoid unevenly dentate
or laciniate segments (nerves prominent beneath) and 2-several
spathes; flowers with both sexes in the same spadix, all the younger
(corniform) or the intermediate of each three, female, spiralled. Male
flowers subsymmetric, sepals orbicular, concave, broadly imbricate.
Ovary 3-celled, stigma early apical or central. Fruit 1-seeded, ovoid
or globose, stigma position various. Staminodia always present
(Burret). As to original species see remarks about Socratea sta-
mens are 12-20, stigma terminal or subterminal, embryo sub-basal,
slightly below middle of seed, raphe distinctly anastomosed; the
leaves of /. exorrhiza are merely bifid; in Iriartella the fruit has
stigma at base, embryo subterminal. Socratea is like Iriartea but,
especially, stamens many (to 25), stigma in fruit (as embryo) sub-
terminal, leaves, at least as to original species, equally pinnate,
spadices solitary, spathes 4-8. Drude treated Socratea as a section
(1882), later as a subgenus (1889). Bentham and Hooker (1880)
wrote that Socratea, Iriartella, Dictyocaryum could all be treated as
subgenera or sections. Recently Burret accepted them. The tax-
onomy most generally useful would be that of Drude, a conclusion
reached by Spruce (Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 133. 1871), who remarked
that similar differences exist in single genera of exogens as Cordia;
all these palms (Socratea, Iriartella, Iriartea) are so alike in habit that
the Indians unhesitatingly give them the same generic name (Pax-
iuba); and a closer examination reveals so many essential resem-
356 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
blances that the botanists will probably endorse the opinion of the
Indians and continue to unite them under one title. To date, verily,
this is a vain hope.
Stigmas apical or subapical; stems cylindric; fruit subglobose.
Embryo apical; stamens 20-25 I. exorrhiza.
Embryo sub-basal; stamens (known) 15.
Flowers, fruits in 7 series 7. Weberbaueri.
Flowers, fruits in fewer series 7. deltoidea.
Stigmas excentric; embryo lateral.
Stems ventricose; fruit globose 7. ventricosa.
Stems cylindric; fruit oblong-linear 7. stenocarpa.
Iriartea deltoidea R. & P. Syst. Veg. 298. 1798. Ceroxylon
deltoideum (R. & P.) HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 308. 1815.
Caudex 20 meters tall or taller; earliest leaves bifid, apical seg-
ments of adult deeply bilobed or bifid, all glabrous, size of 7. exorrhiza;
spadix 6 dm. long or longer, branches incrassate, excavate-scrobicu-
late; male calyx glabrous; spathes 10-12, deciduous; stamens 15;
fruits subglobose, (stigma remains subapical), yellowish-brown, with
their flesh mucilaginous (Martius), raphe branches ascending, retic-
ulately anastomose, embryo sub-basal. Illustrated, R. & P. Prodr.
pi. 32. 1794; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 1: pi Z5, figs. 3, 7; Weberbauer,
594, pi. 35. F.M. Negs. 18532; 18532A.
Huanuco: Pozuzo, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type). Junin: Chanchamayo
Valley, (Raimondi 2641; 10405). La Merced, (Weberbauer 1839;
1850). Puno: San Govan, (Lechler 1725; 10405). "Huacra-pona,"
Iriartea exorrhiza Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 36, pis. 33-34.
1824; 538. Socratea exorrhiza (Mart.) Wendl. Bonplandia 7: 103.
Tall, sometimes 20 meters or taller, cylindric but with many
partly branched aerial roots at base, at least the exposed portion
prickly, and crowned with a dense cluster (10-15) of oblong leaves
4-6 meters long with 15-20 pairs of deltoid or oblique-rhombic seg-
ments finally 5 dm. long, 1.5-2 dm. wide, shorter but mostly as wide
toward apex, all radiately about 10-dentate (or entire); spadices
1-4 below the coma, stoutly peduncled, about 5 dm. long, the 5 or 6
spathes ventricose-inflated base to apex, before anthesis horn-like,
4 dm. long, finally caducous, branches nutant, slender, densely flow-
FLORA OF PERU 357
ered; flowers yellowish, the larger male nearly 1 cm. long; stamens
20-25; fruit olive-yellowish, perhaps reddish, 3 cm. long, more than
2 cm. thick, exocarp indurate, seed 2.5 cm. long, 18 mm. in diameter,
reticulately rugulose-lineate, stigmatic remains scarcely discernible;
embryo at depressed apex of seed, barely within the hard horny
albumen; raphe of many flat filaments radiating from base to apex,
subramose, anastomosing (Spruce). By Drude (I.e.) as by Trail
(Journ. Bot. 6 (15): 130. 1870) regarded as a variable species in-
cluding 7. exorrhiza Mart. var. elegans (Karst.) Drude (539), leaf-
segments about 5, incised-dentate, spathes mostly 4, fruit finally
yellow, somewhat smaller, and var. Orbignyana (Orbigniana) (Mart.)
Drude (540), leaf-segments many, radiately dentate, fruit orange,
2 cm. long, scarcely 1.5 cm. thick. Both of these have been re-
corded as varieties or species from adjacent Colombia or (and)
Brazil so no doubt they occur within Peru. Trail (I.e.) observed
"a complete transition" between 7. exorrhiza and 7. Orbignyana but
fide Martius the seed of the latter is only a third as large. The
curious roots that support or brace the beautiful stems near the base
are illustrated by Drude in Pflanzenfam. 2, 6: 14, and the flowers
and fruit in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 126. F.M. Neg. 18533.
San Martin: Tocache, (Poeppig, fide Drude). Colombia; Brazil
to Guianas. "Huacra," "huacra-pona."
Iriartea stenocarpa (Burret) Macbr., comb. nov. Iriartella
stenocarpa Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 233. 1931.
Type 3 meters tall, slender, the sheath (apical part seen) hirsute
velutinous, the longer trichomes yellowish, retrorse, the shorter whit-
ish, dense; petioles about 2.5 dm. long (probably longer), terete but
sulcate-costate, rather closely and retrorsely white-pubescent, the
rachis densely so with short and long trichomes; segments rhombic-
cuneiform, decurrent at base 6-6.5 cm., free 15-16.5 cm., pubescent
as midrib above, more or less glabrescent, conspicuously soft beneath;
immature fruiting spadix 36 cm. long; peduncle 29 cm. long; spathes
4, laxly vaginate, shortly and softly pubescent, nearly attaining
the lower branches; rachis 2.5 cm. long; branches 4-6, simple, curved,
glabrate, 21 cm. long; fruit laxly spiralled, linear, curved, 10-11
mm. long, 3 mm. thick (young); perianth cupulate, somewhat en-
closing fruit-base, 2 mm. high, 3.5 mm. across; sepals erect, broadly
rounded as the twice as long petals. Distinct from 7. setigera Mart,
by the larger perianth and the very slender fruit (author); the
Martius' species probably occurs on the upper branches of Rio Japura
358 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
within Peru; the exposed roots are sparsely muricate, the slender
stem 2-3 meters high and prominently tomentose-setose above, the
leaves tomentulose beneath, the apical segments entire, the lateral
Loreto: Rios Napo and Amazonas, (Hopp 110, type).
Iriartea ventricosa Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 37, pis. 85, 36.
Caudex 20-35 meters, ventricose medially or lower, annulate
above at intervals of 2-3 dm. ; roots sparsely aculeate, at least about
2 meters high; leaves usually 7 or fewer, to 6 mm. long, petioles
subterete, 1 dm. across, sheath scarcely 3 dm. long; rachis acutely
trigonous, grayish tomentose; pinnae many, cuneate-flabellate, soon
glabrate, veins and plicae 10, finally splitting nearly to base, the
lower laciniae much longer and wider (nearly 2 meters long), the
upper gradually reduced to hardly 6 dm. long, all laciniae apically
broadly sinuate-dentate and erose; spadices often binate from the
same annulus, about 5 dm. long, spreading or subpendulous in fruit;
peduncle 7 cm. long, abruptly dilated at base; branches at most 3
dm. long, 8 mm. thick, simple or furcate at base, deeply alveolate
entire length, spathes many, upper before anthesis, lower tardily
deciduous; stamens 12-15; fruit globose, minutely umbonate; stigmas
on fruit clearly excentric; embryo lateral just above middle of seed,
this with fragile testa, filaments of raphe clearly anastomose. In
part after Spruce, who noted it as frequent between 700 and 1,200
meters in the eastern Andean valleys, along with /. exorrhiza Mart,
and I. deltoidea R. & P. F.M. Neg. 13535.
San Martin: Tarapoto, (Spruce). Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Poep-
pig~). "Tarapoto" (Spruce), "huacra-pona," "conduma." Amazonian
Iriartea Weberbaueri Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Fragment of rachis (probably upper portion) broadly triangular,
laterally widely excavated, dorsally nearly plane, opaque, obscurely
but densely and minutely setulose; segments (apical) about 5 dm.
long, cuneate, yellowish; sheath strongly puncticulate, dark brown
within, heavy-ligneous; fruiting spadix pendent, in entirety nearly
2 meters long; peduncle 3.5 dm. long, 4 cm. thick at apex, terete,
scars 12, approximate at base, remotely annulate above, the ultimate
toward apex three-fourths encircling the peduncle; primary branches
FLORA OF PERU 359
crowded, 27, the lower 9 furcate, the rest simple, the basal coarsely
callose within, the upper applanate-rounded; branchlets as seen about
9 dm. long, below 8 mm. thick, flowers (per scars) ternate, 2 male;
alveoli 5 mm. long, 2.75 mm. broad, in 7 vertical series, equally
distant 1.5 cm.; fruit (known) globose, 2.8 mm. in diameter, scarcely
excentric at minutely mammillate apex, lustrous, light yellowish-
brown; perianth (in fruit) to 1.5 cm. across; pericarp fleshy squamose
within; seed about 1.5 cm. in diameter. Distinguished from /.
deltoidea R. & P. by the much larger fruits, thicker spadix rachis,
the flowers and fruits in more series; from /. stenocarpa Mart, sim-
ilarly by the size of fruit, further by the cylindric stem (author).
Puno: Chunchusmayo, Prov. Sandia, (Weberbauer 1279, type).
10. CATOBLASTUS Wendl.
Acrostigma Cook & Doyle, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 228. 1913.
Catostigma Cook & Doyle, I.e. 230.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 932. 1930.
Aerial roots short, stem slender. Flowers remote, all male or
female in each simple or simply branched spadix; spathes 5 or more,
the upper longer. Petals free or basally imbricate. Stigma rostrate,
borne on a columnar style or sessile at the base of the single fertile
carpel (Catostigma). Stamens 9-15, staminodes none or filiform.
Taxonomically significant as evidence of relationship, it would be
more useful to treat the floristic character of Catostigma as sectional
in definition; the differences in development, too, may be tenuous
or merely specific; for instance, Acrostigma was based primarily on
having 3 equal carpels at anthesis, while Catostigma shares with
Catoblastus the diagnostic character of a single enlarged carpel at
anthesis. Spadices often several from the same leaf annulus. The
group (sens, lat.), in view of the variation in distribution of male
and female flowers, could be referred to Iriartea as a subgenus.
Catoblastus Drudei Cook & Doyle, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16:
233, fig. 41- 1913. Iriartea pubescens Karst. var. krinocarpa Trail,
Journ. Bot. 5 (15) : 332. 1876. C. pubescens (Karst.) Wendl. Bon-
plandia 8: 104. 1860, var. krinocarpa Trail ex Drude in Mart. Fl.
Bras. 3, pt. 2: 543, pi. 127, fig. 2. 1882, not C. pubescens Drude,
Pflanzenfam. 2, Abt. 3: fig. 48, Gl, G2. 1887, nor Wendland, fide
Cook & Doyle. Catostigma Drudei (Cook & Doyle) Burret, Notizbl.
Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 932. 1930.
360 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Caudex 3-5 meters tall, 2-3.5 cm. in diameter; leaves pubescent
below, 13-15 dm. long (sheath puberulent-tomentose, 3-5 dm. long),
segments oblanceolate, 10-11 pairs, basal 1.75 dm. long, nearly 2 cm.
wide, medial 3-4 dm. long, 5-7 cm. wide, apical deltoid (connate),
2 dm. long, 12 cm. wide; spadices 3-5 from one axis with 5 simple
caudate branches to 5 cm. long, nutant, in fruit pendulous; female
flowers about 5 mm. long, the tumid fertile ovary equaled by the
ovate-acute petals, the sterile thick gibbous style little longer; sterile
anthers (or anther) present, mucronate; fruit about 2 cm. long,
12 cm. in diameter, stellate puberulent, style rudiment persisting.
Habit of /. setigera Mart, (see under /. ventricosa) ; when not in
flower most readily distinguished by the narrower usually more
numerous pinnae, pubescent below.
This is a species quite different from Iriartea pubescens Karst. of
Colombia as beautifully illustrated by Karsten (PL Col. 1, pi. 81);
type locality, Rio Yavari on the boundary with Brazil, on non-
Loreto (no doubt). Amazonian Brazil. "Ponilla."
11. WETTINIA Poepp.
Wettinella Cook & Doyle, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 235. 1913,
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 939-942. 1930.
Aspect of Iriartea but as in Catoblastus the flowers of one sex in
a spadix, this short, club-like so compactly clothed with the pubescent
fruits. Petals of male flowers subulate, free. Fertile ovary 1, often
with 1 or 2 sterile, the much longer style from the base with elongate
stigmas. Embryo basal. Spadices simple (8-15 for each node) or
4-5-branched, 4 of the 5 inflorescences maturing (Wettinella), this
subgroup also with sepals broader than petals (authors). The pollen
tuberculate, not smooth, as, by error, in lit. (Burret).
Leaf-segments about 20 pairs.
Stamens about half as long as petals, sepals (female) at most half
as long W. augusta.
Stamens at least as long as petals, sepals (female) at least a third
as long W. Weberbaueri.
Leaf-segments about 40 pairs W. maynensis.
Wettinia augusta Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 39,
pis. 153, 154. 1838; 939.
FLORA OF PERU 361
Similar to W. maynensis, aerial roots interposed; leaf -pinnae 18-20
pairs; spathes several, yellowish pilosulous; spadices simple, 8-15,
verticillate; stamens about half as long as petals; sepals of female
flowers a third to half as long as petals; style and 3 stigmas rather
slender; raphe fleshy. The finally incomplete spathes remain on
peduncle as coriaceous sheaths. Kunth (Enum. PI. 3: 109. 1841)
proposed the species name Poeppigii, perhaps not aware that the
author of the genus (published in 1836) had added the species later.
Illustrated, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16. pi 63. F.M. Neg. 29887.
San Martin: Tocache, (Poeppig 2058, type).
Wettinia maynensis Spruce, Journ. Linn. Soc. 3: 194. 1859.
Catoblastus maynensis (Spruce) Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2:
544. 1882. Wettinella maynensis (Spruce) Cook & Doyle, Contr.
U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 235. 1913.
Aerial roots strict, subaculeate; stem to 12 meters tall, 3-4 dm.
in diameter, smooth, annulate; leaves 5 or 6, 4 mm. long, equally
pinnate, pinnae 38-40 pairs, the lowest reduced, the medial 1 meter
long, 7.5 cm. wide, finally incised, veins many, nearly contiguous at
semivertical reduplicate base; spadices 3 (6) in each verticil, 1 female,
2 male, mature fruit usually on fourth ring below the leaves; spathes
6, fusiform, appressed pubescent, the incomplete outer 1 dm. long,
the 3 complete about 3 times longer; male branches 6, 1.5 dm. long,
densely flowered and straight, in anthesis sepals scale-like, rigid,
castaneous, free; petals 14 mm. long, subulate; stamens 13 (12-16);
female branches 5-7, crowded, 2 dm. long, in fruit about half as
thick, sepals 4-6 mm. long, petals 10-12 mm. long; ovaries 3, united
and with style, this central, 14 mm. long, villous, the abortive
ovaries rarely deciduous; stigmas erect, 6 mm. long; fruit dry, gray
villous, endocarp membranous, seed 22 mm. long, half as thick,
albumen uniform. Not infrequent both north and south of the Rio
Mayo, 1,000-1,500 meters, associated with Euterpe and Iriartea ven-
tricosa according to Spruce, who, I.e. 190 (by lapsus, as shown in
index) wrote "W. illaqueans."
San Martin: Tarapoto to Moyobamba, (Spruce, type). Ecuador.
"Shulla-chonta," "pullo-coroto," "cullo-coroto."
Wettinia Weberbaueri Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Original tree 10 meters tall, petioles apparently subterete and
1.5 dm. long; rachis triangled above, furfuraceous, segments seen
362 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
disposed regularly, narrow, maximum seen 5.4 dm. long, upper some-
what reduced, strongly drawn together at base, subconcolor both
sides; male spadix to upper spathe tip 23 cm. long, inner spathes
finally laciniate, mostly several cm. long, 1.5-3 cm. wide, fourth
and fifth early complete, thickly inflated-fusiform, tardily split; pe-
duncle shortly ferrugineous, velvety, finally annulate by the rudi-
ments of the spathes, these early reddish sericeous strigillose; spadix
fusiform, in flower 7 mm. thick at base, attenuate, the male flowers
approximate, 1 cm. long; sepals as petals linear, the former 1, the
latter 8-9 mm. long, acuminate, the 12 stamens at least as long;
female spadix similar; sepals 6-10 mm. long, 4-5 mm. broad at base,
acute, petals to a third longer; fertile carpel yellowish villous; stigmas
at least 5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. thick. Differs from W. augusta Poepp.
& Endl. in subequal stamens and petals, stouter stigmas, probably
also in reddish indument and leaves (author).
Puno: Prov. Sandfa, Chunchusmayo, 900 meters, (Weberbauer,
no number, type).
12. CEROXYLON Humb. & Bonpl.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 841-854. 1929.
Tall, slender or robust, the columnar stem more or less wax-
whitened, annulate, crowned with many multipinnate leaves their
rigid fleshy or coriaceous segments ensiform, and at their nodes elon-
gate, much-branched spadices, the polygamous or monoecious flowers
on different branches. Spathes 3 or more, the upper complete, cori-
aceous. Pedicels short, often arcuate or bent. Calyx minute, petals
ovate- or subulate-lanceolate, acuminate, more or less adnate; male
flowers with 9-15 stamens; female with 9-12 staminodes, 1 sterile
stamen. Fruit with 1 or 3 fertile cells, residual style at base, pericarp
smooth or granulate; seed erect, raphe ascending from base, branched
reticulate, albumen uniform. Seedlings develop rootstocks.
The type species is the Colombian C. andicola HBK., the most
famous wax palm of the Andes. The fruit of C. Schultzii Burret of
Colombia, as probably that of other palms, is sought by parrots
KEY (after Burret)
Calyx teeth at least half as long as corolla tube; leaf -segments regu-
Spadix large, robustly 3-much-branched C. latisectum.
Spadix small, the branches most simple C. Weberbaueri.
FLORA OF PERU 363
Calyx teeth minute, many times shorter than corolla; leaf -segments
Leaves to 6 dm. long; branched part of spadix 2.5 dm. long.
Leaves 2 meters long; spadix ample C. verruculosum.
Ceroxylon crispum Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 849.
A small species with, in general, about the same characteristics
and measurements (except the floral) as C. verruculosum except as
follows: petioles 2-2.5 dm. long, 1 cm. wide at apex, nearly plane
above, convex beneath; segments 40-50, mostly 2-3-aggregate,
crisped (direction various), lowest 15-18 cm. long, apical about 12
cm. long, maximal medial 21 cm. long, little wider than 1.5 cm., all
attenuate to oblique apex, very rigid, the midnerve above and sur-
face beneath furfuraceous; peduncle spathes 5, lower 3 cm. broad;
branches about 30, branchlets 10, early sparsely furfuraceous; young
fruits densely, distinctly verruculose; calyx tube 0.5 mm. long, teeth
minute, obscure; corolla tube at least 1.5 mm. long, teeth acuminate,
striate, 3 (-4) mm. long. These palms, together with Geonoma mega-
lospatha Burret, grow at the highest boundary for Peruvian species
Huanuco: Chinchao, Acomayo, 2,800-2,850 meters, (Weberbauer
Ceroxylon latisectum Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Trunk known to attain 11 or 12 meters, 2.5 dm. in diameter a
meter above the terrain, petioles 8 dm.; leaves 1.75 meters, the seg-
ments disposed evenly in one plane; rachis of apical part of leaf
acute above, plane or nearly beneath, fuscous furfuraceous as the
segments finely beneath, all yellowish-green above, the latter at apex
13 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, 24 cm. below, about 4 cm. wide, those of
the upper third subequal, broader, abruptly contracted, the basal
more approximate, 3.3 dm. long, nearly 5 mm. wide; peduncle stout,
13 dm. long, branched part 7.5 dm. long, the divaricate branches
3-many times branched; spathes many, lowest ligneous, applanate,
at base 8.5 cm. broad, 2.5 dm. above the base 10.5 cm. broad; lowest
primary branches nearly 4 dm. long, 5 cm. pedunculate, intermediate
branches shorter, slenderer, flexuose; fruit globose, smooth, 2 cm. in
diameter without perianth; calyx teeth and tube each 0.75 mm. long,
364 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
equaling corolla tube, its lanceolate acuminate teeth about 3 mm.
long; seed globose, 13 mm. in diameter. Fruit at maturity fiery red
(collector). Illustrated, Weberbauer, page 504, pi. 19.
Amazonas: Congon to Conila, 2,950 meters, (Weberbauer 7161,
Ceroxylon verruculosum Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Trunk 7 meters tall, 2 dm. in diameter, smooth, green but thinly
waxed; sheaths 12 dm. long, petioles 5 dm. long, leaves 2 meters long,
the segments aggregate, yellowish-green above, very finely white fur-
furaceous beneath as the spathes and spadix-rachis, the former com-
pressed basally, 8.5 cm. broad, at least 18 cm. long, probably longer;
peduncle long, stout, transversely oval, spathes many; branches
divaricate, twice branched, the primary nearly 5 dm. long, the many
slender branchlets flexuose, the rachis at base 2 cm. thick; fruits laxly
spiralled, globose, without perianth 1.8 cm. in diameter, minutely but
distinctly and densely verruculose; perianth (in fruit) with low calyx,
the teeth obscure, the corolla tube cylindric, 2 mm. high, teeth
acutely acuminate, 4 mm. long; pericarp thin, one third mm. thick;
seed globose, 12 mm. in diameter. Some leaves have segments only
about 1 cm. wide, others, larger, one with terminal, regularly disposed
segments; some segments 38 cm. long are 2.5 cm. wide; there are also
color differences and some segments, nearly 7 dm. long, 3.5 cm. wide,
are bidentate and in groups of 2 or 3 (author) ; these are all probably
normal variations and belong to the species.
Junin: Huacapistana, 2,700 meters, (Weberbauer 2284, type).
Ceroxylon Weberbaueri Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Type 5 meters high; sheaths lacerate, the short petioles canalic-
ulate above, thin-margined, 1.5 cm. broad at apex; rachis margins
excavated, acute above, pale furfuraceous beneath as segments, these
rather subevenly disposed, the lower very narrow, shorter, the apical
2 dm. long, about 1 cm. wide, the medial 5 dm. long, 8 mm. wide;
spadix 11 dm. long, branched part 2.7 dm. long, visible spathes 4,
the lower dilated at base, ligneous, the upper thin; peduncles com-
pressed above to 7 mm. broad at apex; branches 40-50, only the lower
sparsely branched, all glabrous; fruit obovoid, with perianth at least
13 mm. long, 10 mm. thick, glabrous, rugose but not all verruculose;
calyx cylindric, tube 0.5 mm. long with the small teeth to one-half
FLORA OF PERU 365
as long or subequaling corolla tube, this with triangular or sub-
Puno: Prov. Sandia, Yuncacoya, 1,800 meters, (Weberbauer 1157,
13. WENDLANDIELLA Damm.
Sheath cylindric, obliquely open, leaves simple or paripinnate,
petiole triangular, pinnae 2-3 each side, lower subopposite, the upper
4-, remaining 3-nerved. Inflorescence subdigitate, interfoliaceous,
spathes 2, cylindric, obliquely open, nearly covering peduncle,
branches filiform, densely flowered. Calyx of female flowers 3-fid,
the orbicular lobes gibbous as the similar corolla segments, these
twice as large. Staminodes 3, minute, subulate. Ovary sessile, sub-
globose, 3-celled, stigmas 3 (-4) -reflexed, 1-2 cells sterile, 1 pendu-
lous ovule in each cell. Probably related to Chamaeodorea Willd. but
distinctive in flower segments and branched inflorescence (author) ;
flowers glomerulate in long series (Burret).
Honors worthily the Director of the Garden at Herrenhausen,
Hannover, great admirer and student of palms.
Leaves simple W. simplicifrons.
Segments 2 each side W. polyclada.
Segments 3-4 each side W. gracilis.
Wendlandiella gracilis Damm. Bot. Jahrb. 36: Beibl. 80: 32.
Stem (type) only 4 cm. thick, to 1.5 meters tall, leaves remote,
sheath 5 cm. long, petiole to 6 cm. long, lower pinnae 16-17 cm. long,
1.6 cm. wide, the medial 18 cm. long, 2 cm. wide, the uppermost 2
dm. long, 2.5-3 cm. broad, elongate-obovate-lanceolate; lower spathe
8 cm. long, upper tubular, peduncle canaliculate above, 13 cm. long,
apically ventricose, subdigitate, the crowded flowers scarcely 1 mm.
across; male calyx as corolla lobes 3, connate at base; stamens 6,
anthers affixed dorsally, introrse; stigmas 3; fruit orange-red, oval,
8 mm. long, nearly 6 mm. thick, pericarp thin, fibers none, the
2 larger raphe branches 3-furcate, calyx (fruiting) 1.5 mm. across,
lobes broadly rounded, petals ovate; basal sterile carpels 2; stigmas
small. Description of male flowers and fruits after Burret from
Williams and Killip and Smith specimens.
366 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Loreto: Huimbaio, Pampa de Sacramento, between Rio Ucayali
and Rio Huallaga, (Huber 1541, type). Lower Huallaga, Williams
4566. Puerto Arturo, (Killip & Smith 27775).
Wendlandiella polyclada Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11:
Caespitose, dioecious, the stem of type 12 dm. high, 5 cm. in
diameter, the leaves about 6; sheath green, even the margins, efi-
brose, obliquely truncate, glabrous, long-striate; petioles 14 cm. long,
rachis 4-8 cm. long, segments 2 pairs, concolor, thin-membranous,
narrowly acuminate, the larger lower leaves 27 cm. long, 7-8 mm.
wide at base, widening to 3 cm., acuminate, the apical about 3 dm.
long, at least 1.5 cm. wide at base, 4.5-5 cm. at upper third; spadix
above sheath 3 dm. long, duplicate-branched; visible spathes 2, largely
covering peduncle, little dilated; branches 4, these with 4 attenuate
branchlets 4.5-9 cm. long; male flowers in about 3 vertical series,
above often 2, at most 3 mm. across; calyx nearly 1.5 mm. across,
the 3 lobes suborbicular; filaments connate at dilated base; pistil
with 3 stigmas; fruits solitary, spiralled, oblong (juvenile); stigmas
elongate, sulcate above, at base of fruit the sterile cells 2; calyx
fleshy in fruit, lobes rounded, corolla larger, lobes lacerate. Fruiting
spadix (same collection) detached.
Loreto: Rio Itaya, Soledad, (Tessmann 5240, type).
Wendlandiella simplicifrons Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin
Arundinaceous, 2-3 meters tall, unique at least in Peru by the
simple leaves, these glabrous (as densely striate, obliquely truncate
unevenly dentate sheath), nearly 4 dm. long (petioles 7-8.5 cm. long),
thin, dark green, subconcolor, not at all produced at base, shortly
acute, about 14 cm. wide at the bifurcation; rachis 17 cm. long, lobes
23 cm. long, inner margin nearly direct, outer curved to apex, ob-
scurely, remotely appressed denticulate; spadix solitary from leaf-
sheath, in fruit 29 cm. long, simply branched; peduncle 21 cm. long,
robust, without trace of spathes, medially 4 mm. thick; rachis 6 cm.
long, branches 7, spiralled, upper spreading, lower reflexed, to 5.5
cm. long, acute; flowers vertically disposed; fruit red, suboval, 1 cm.
long, 6 mm. broad, fleshy, obtusely rounded, subacute at base, finely
rugulose, efibrous; calyx (fruit) 1.5 mm. across, obscurely lobed, stig-
mata basal, seed obovoid-oblong, 8.5 mm. long, 5.5 mm. thick;
FLORA OF PERU 367
raphe branches 3 or 4, bifurcately few-branched; embryo medial-
Junin: Puerto Bermudez, (Killip & Smith 26515, type).
14. CHAMAEODOREA Willd.
Nunnezharia R. & P. Prodr. 137. pi 81. 1794.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 724-767. 1933.
Stems solitary or several, slender, annulate, the leaves simple and
bifid or variously pinnatisect. Sheath tubular. Spadices in or below
the leaves, simple or branched; spathes 3 or more, enclosing peduncle,
cleft, more or less persistent. Bracts, bractlets none. Flowers dioe-
cious, sometimes more or less immersed; calyx cupulate, entire, 3-
lobed or -parted, petals free to somewhat connate, valvate or (female
flower) sometimes imbricate; stamens 6, anthers included. Ovary
3-celled, stigmas minute, recurved, ovules solitary, basal, erect.
Staminodes sometimes lacking. Fruit of 1 (2-3) globose or oblong
carpels, stigmas basal, pericarp coriaceous or fleshy, scarcely fibrous;
raphe branches obscure, endosperm cartilaginous, uniform. The
dioecious flowers and absence of scars after they (as fruit) have fallen
apparently mark the group, sens. lat. Name conserved; Kuntze's
transfer (Rev. Gen. 2: 729-730. 1891) of names, including Morenia
species, to the earlier cognomen of Ruiz and Pavon, "corrected" by
him to Nunnezharoa as after Nunez de Haro, Archbishop of Mexico,
being without further interest is not listed.
The small flowers of C. fragrans (R. & P.) Mart, ("sangapilla")
exhale a wonderful fragrance which spreads a long distance in the
mon tafia (Ruiz and Pavon); for this it is cultivated (Weberbauer).
The shoots, called palmitos, and spadices as in similar groups are
eaten cooked or in salads and may be excellent. Sap of ripe fruits is
Flowers not or little immersed; fruits on slight not deep depressions;
perianth usually ecostate.
Leaf segments many pairs, 1-2.5 cm. wide.
Lateral segments 1-nerved C. angustisecta.
Lateral segments 2-3-nerved C. pauciflora.
Leaf segments 6-8 pairs, 7 cm. wide C. boliviensis.
Leaves simple or segments 2, rarely 5.
368 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Leaves often with 2 segments C. integrifolia.
Leaves merely deeply bifid C. Pavoniana, C. fragrans.
Flowers (unless C. depauperata) well-sunken, as fruit; perianth, at
least female, costate.
Segments 2-3 pairs.
Male calyx 1 mm. long, 3 mm. across C. depauperata.
Male calyx minute, annulate C. lanceolata.
Segments about 6 pairs C. Herrerae.
Leaves subsimple, deeply bifid C. geonomoides.
Chamaeodorea angustisecta Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Ber-
lin 11: 318. 1932.
Caudex 1 meter high, 2.5 cm. in diameter, internodes 5 mm. long;
sheath glabrous, long-costate-striate; petioles robust, 1 meter long;
leaves 1.5 meter long, segments many, evenly disposed, all except
the apical 1-nerved, narrowly linear, somewhat falcate, narrowly
acuminate, concolor, thin, the apical 2-3 times wider (almost 2 cm.),
the primary nerves 2-3, maximum seen 2.5 cm. wide, 3.5 dm. long,
the smaller nerves few, very fine, conspicuous both sides; male spa-
dix 8 dm. long; peduncle nearly enclosed in spathes, these 6, diameter
of sheath but 4-7 mm. in diameter, upper the longest; branches about
12, simple, to 1.5 dm. long, slender; male flowers solitary, laxly
spiralled, calyx high-cupulate, the 3 lobes enervose as the valvate
petals; stamens 6; fruiting spadix orange-red, 6 dm. long, pendent,
peduncle 4 dm. long, spathe scars 8, lower approximate, rachis 1 dm.
long, branches to 15, porrect, 1-1.5 dm. long, fruits solitary, laxly
disposed (perianth 4 mm. across), oblong, black, fleshy, 16 mm. long,
half as broad, epicarp and mesocarp fragile, endocarp fibers rather
firm in one plane. Leaves resemble those of Morenia linearis R. & P.
Junin: Colonia Perene", (Killip & Smith 25091, type; also 24926;
25103). Ayacucho: Kimpitiriki, (Killip & Smith 22864).
Chamaeodorea boliviensis Damm. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin
6: 262. 1915; 756.
Slender trunk nearly 1 cm. in diameter, sheaths cylindric, petioles
9-12 cm. long, leaf-rachis 4 dm. long, 2-3 mm. thick, segments re-
mote, 6-8 pairs, the apical confluent, the lateral sigmoid, attenuate
to base, long-acuminate, about 2.5 dm. long, 7-7.5 cm. wide, primary
nerves 5, secondary binate between two of these; peduncle of female
FLORA OF PERU 369
spadix at least 3.5 dm. long, 3-5 mm. thick, closely bracted, these
cylindric, apically 4-7-branched, the branches densely floriferous
nearly to base, 13-16 cm. long; fruit oblong, black, 7 mm. long, 5 mm.
thick; embryo slightly supramedial. Somewhat resembles C. lance-
olata (R. & P.) Kunth with fewer leaf-segments, subequally nerved,
merely acuminate, the petiole and rachis stouter (author). Type
from Alto Rio Acre, vicinity of Lojija, (Ule 115b), near boundary.
Madre de Dios (surely). Adjacent Bolivia.
Ghamaeodorea depauperata Damm. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin
6: 263. 1915.
Type at most a meter tall, petioles 1.5 dm. long, rachis slender,
nearly 3 dm. long, lateral segments remote, subopposite, 2-3 each
side, lanceolate-falcate, long-acuminate, 2-2.5 dm. long, 22-33 mm.
wide, primary nerves 4-5, the secondary as many, apical segments
broadly elongate-lanceolate, at base 11, at middle 6 cm. wide, 32 cm.
long, primary nerves 8-9, secondary as many; male peduncle bracted
to apex, the 7 slender orange branches 17-20 cm. long, the rather
densely disposed flowers a little immersed; sepals 3, 1 mm. long,
3 mm. broad, rounded as the 3 petals, these 2 mm. long and broad;
female flowers unknown. The label data, Alto Acre, Sao Francisco,
(Ule 9155b), may be incorrect (author); if not, the locality is at the
Madre de Dios (probably) . Adjacent Brazil or Bolivia.
Chamaeodorea fragrans (R. & P.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2:
4, pi. 3, figs. 1, 2. 1849; 730. Nunnezharia fragrans R. & P. Syst.
Veg. 1:294. 1798.
Stems scarcely 1.5 cm. thick, flexuose, inclined, rarely erect;
leaves at most 6, glabrous, simple, deeply bifurcate, the divisions
3.5 dm. long, not over 3.5 cm. wide, linear-rhombic, outer margin
apically crenate-incised, nerves 12 each side, acute; spadices some-
what pendulous, solitary, 2-4 dm. long, very slender, the usually
2-6 branches about 2 dm. long; spathes 3, membranous; calyx trifid;
corolla 3 mm. long, fleshy, female 3-parted; 2 aborted ovaries in-
durate at base of fertile; anthers adnate below; fruit black, lustrous,
12 mm. long, mesocarp insipid, seed black, raphe laxly reticulate
(Spruce). Forms large beds under the tall trees and perfumes the
forest far and wide with its orange-colored male flowers, especially
in August (Spruce). Illustrated, Oerst. L'Amer. Central 14. pi. 5,
figs. 18-20. F.M. Neg. 18539.
370 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
San Martin: Tarapoto, 600-1,000 meters, (Spruce 65}. Rio Mayo,
Moyobamba, (Weberbauer 4554; 585). Huanuco: Pozuzo, Cuchero,
(Ruiz & Pavdn, type). Loreto: Shapaya on the Huallaga, (Vie 6850).
Bolivia. "Chutasllium" (Ruiz & Pavon), "sangapilla" (Spruce).
Ghamaeodorea geonomoides (Spruce) Drude in Mart. PI. Bras.
3, pt. 2: 531. 1882; 757. Nunnezharia geonomoides Spruce, Journ.
Linn. Soc. 11: 122. 1871.
A meter or two tall with extremely slender, glabrous stem; peti-
oles long-sheathed; leaves cuneate-obovate, deeply bifid, the furcate
portions subfalcate, scarcely acuminate; veins 10 pairs; spadices
nearly 5 dm. long, simply branched; peduncles arcuate-pendulous,
2.5 dm. long; branches slender, flexuose, about 3 dm. long, alveolate,
the 1-flowered pits oblong-cymbiform, more or less remote; spathes
2, longer than peduncle at anthesis, narrowly fusiform before open-
ing, finally fibrous, deciduous; calyx semi-immersed, shortly 3-lobate,
transversely rugulose, lowest lobe slightly higher, persisting, the 3
suborbicular petals 3 times as long; anthers erect, turgid, deeply
emarginate both ends. Because of the alveolate rachis and the lack
of female flowers in the type the author questioned the genus.
San Martin: Mount Campana, 1,000-1,300 meters, (Spruce 67,
type). Moyobamba, (Weberbauer 4628; 585). Junin: Chancha-
mayo, (Raimondi). Colonia Perene", (Killip & Smith 24929).
Chamaeodorea Herrerae Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11 :
Leaves small, the blades 4-4.5 dm. long, thin, the segments about
6 pairs, regularly disposed, the lower more approximate, all lance-
olate-sigmoid, acuminate; apical segments nearly two times wider
than the rest, the maximum seen about 2.3 dm. long, 3.5 cm. wide;
larger nerves in each segment (apical excepted) 5; fruiting spadix
high, 2.5 dm. or more pedunculate; spathes narrowly cylindric;
branches about 6, a dm. long; fruit insertions laxly spiralled, oblong
or narrow, somewhat excavated, perianth closely costate, the short
calyx 3-lobed, the outer petals imbricate; fruit obovoid, 9 mm. long;
embryo dorsally at slightly above the middle of the seed; male
spadix peduncle slender, branches 10, 1 dm. long, flowers rather
densely spiralled, immersed, subglobose, the lower smaller; petals
laterally free; anthers oblong, cells connate. Distinguished from re-
lated species by the slender finely divided leaves; nevertheless, per-
FLORA OF PERU 371
haps closest to C. geonomoides (Spruce) Drude with simple leaves
Cuzco: Valle de Santa Ana, (Herrera 3641, male and female
spadices, type). "Cuyuli."
Chamaeodorea integrifolia (Trail) Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver-
Brandenb. 48: 125. 1906; 735. Morenia integrifolia Trail, Journ.
Bot. 14. 331. 1876; var. nigricans Trail, I.e. M. Lechleriana Wendl.
ex Damm. Card. Chron. ser. 3, 36: 246. 1904.
To about 1.5 meters high, the simple submedially bifid leaves
sometimes as long (petioles 3-5 dm. long, sheath 1.5 dm. long), nerves
12-20 pairs, the two (rarely 3-5) segments broadly lanceolate, acumi-
nate, to 1 dm. wide at base, the outer margin remotely denticulate;
spadices (male) single, verticillate in the axils, slender, 5-6 dm. long,
peduncles 3 dm. long, spathes 4-5, imbricate; flowers remote, solitary,
spiralled; calyx cupulate, petals orbicular, deep green; filaments
slender, anthers free. Burret noted that in spite of the difference
in the number of primary nerves ex char, be believes M. Lechleriana
to be the same and that a mixture of material may have occurred.
Wood soft; flowers dark orange below, greenish above, violet-scented
(Tessmann). Type of a variety with 3-5-parted leaves (dried dark)
from Tabatinga at the boundary with Peru; also from Jurua Mirim
and mouth of Rio Tejo, nearly at the boundary (Ule).
Loreto : Mouth of Santiago, (Tessmann 4558) . Puno : San Govan,
(Lechler, type, M. Lechleriana). To Colombia and Amazonian Brazil.
Chamaeodorea lanceolata (R. & P.) Kunth, Enum. PI. 3: 172.
1841; 755. Martinezia lanceolata R. & P. Syst. Veg. 297. 1798.
Graceful, the stem often a little flexuose, a meter or two tall, 2-3
cm. thick, the few (4-6) equally (mostly 5) pinnate leaves 1 meter
long borne laxly; leaf -segments lanceolate, sometimes narrowly,
the lateral usually 2-3 dm. long, 2-4 cm. wide, subequally multi-
nerved, the terminal ovate-lanceolate, 7-9 cm. wide, all acuminate;
spathes 4 or 5, long-tubular; peduncles at least 2.5 dm. long, spadices
3-5 dm. long, the many branches of the male 1.5-2 dm. long, nutant-
arcuate, the fewer female suberect; male flowers about 4 mm. across,
calyx minute, annulate, petals cohering apically, the adnate stamens
with erect anthers; female flowers depressed, obtuse; berry maturing
black in the yellowish branches, 12-15 mm. long, ellipsoid. Illus-
372 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
trated, Mart. Palm. Orbign. pi. 16 A and Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3,
pt. 2: pi. 125. F.M. Neg. 18542.
Huanuco: Chinchao, Cuchero, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type). El Valle
de Monzon, 700-900 meters, (Weberbauer, 593; 594). Rio Acre:
Seringal Auristella, (Ule 9152). Bolivia; Brazil.
Chamaeodorea pauciflora Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 5, pi. 3,
fig. 3. 1823; 735. Morenia (?) pauciflora Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3,
pt. 2: 526. 1882. C. amazonica Damm. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6:
263. 1915, fide Burret.
Low, the petioles 2 dm. long, leaf-rachis 4.5 dm. long, segments
of the ovate leaves opposite or subopposite, 9-10 pairs, 2-4 cm.
distant, not decurrent, linear-lanceolate, sigmoid, about 2 dm. long,
1-2 cm. wide, lateral 3-, apical 4-6-nerved; peduncle of the simple
female spadix 3 dm. long, spathe cylindric, obliquely open, rachis
about 3-5 dm. long, gradually attenuate toward apex, flowers 3-
4 mm. distant, slightly immersed, calyx as corolla lobes ovate,
acute, 1.5 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, the former 3, dorsally puber-
ulent, the latter 2, glabrous; staminodes minute, ovary subglobose,
stigmas sessile. After Dammer; Drude (I.e. 527), who also knew
only the female flowers, suggested that the species apparently ex-
hibits the characters of both Morenia and Chamaeodorea. The de-
scription of the Brazilian type agrees essentially : spadix rachis 3 mm.
thick, 2.5 dm. long, laxly scrobiculate, calyx urceolate, trifid, petals
suborbicular, connivent, fruit ellipsoid, olive-black, 10 or 11 mm.
long, 7-8 mm. in diameter, sarcocarp thin, embryo sublateral, in-
clined toward base. Type of Dammer's species from Jurua Mirim
(Ule 5595), nearly at the Peruvian boundary. F.M. Neg. 18545.
Loreto (no doubt). Amazonian Brazil.
Chamaeodorea Pavoniana Wendl. ex Damm. Gard. Chron.
ser. 3, 36: 246. 1904; 731. C. cataractarum Hort. not Liebm. ex
Mart., 1849. C. Ruizii Wendl. I.e.?
Stems proliferous, 3-4 meters high, scarcely 2 cm. thick; petioles
1-4 cm. long; leaves 5-8, simple, cuneate-obovate, more than medi-
ally furcate, 4-4.5 dm. long (or 3-3.5, fide Burret), the divergent
divisions broadly lanceolate, acuminate, the inner margin straight,
the apex slightly serrate-crenate; primary nerves 10-11 pairs; spa-
dices few-branched; fruit rounded-oblong, the seed rounded-ovate,
9 mm. long, 8 mm. broad (Dammer). Near C. fragrans ex char,
and perhaps doubtfully distinct. However, Burret (I.e.) noted that
FLORA OF PERU 373
C. Ruizii Wendl. is not identical with C. fragrans but extraordinarily
near C. Pawniana; the leaves are little larger and the primary nerves
15-16; only known from sterile material.
Peru (fide Linden).
15. MORENIA R. & P.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 332-339. 1936.
Character of Chamaeodorea Willd. but calyx trilobed, the seg-
ments spreading in the male flowers, the corolla stellate, the lobes
nearly free. Stamens erect (Drude). Included in the former group
by Bentham and Hooker and Dammer, but this is the earlier name.
In view of the floral variations now known within the genus, sens,
lat., only sectional divisions appear to be feasible. Drude's char-
acter is questionable, as the anthers may be erect (if included) in
species accepted by him as Chamaeodorea. Dr. D. Gabriel Moreno
was a physician of Lima, well-informed in botany and physical
science (authors). Martinezia R. & P. (Prodr. Fl. Peruv. 148. pi. 82.
1794) was named in honor of an archbishop of Colombia; Burret
(Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 169-170. 1933) showed, apparently correctly,
that the name was based on a mixture of materials, including,
among other groups, Morenia; in any case, it is expedient to follow
Burret's decision and drop the name. The Willdenow name could
Leaf segments lanceolate M. Poeppigiana, M. fragrans.
Leaf segments linear M. macrocarpa, M. linearis.
Morenia fragrans R. & P. Prodr. Fl. Peruv. 140, pi 23. 1794.
A slender graceful species, the type observed as 2 meters tall with
4 or 5 multipinnate leaves a meter long or longer; stem arundinaceous,
slightly flexuose, more or less conspicuously annulate, scarcely 2.5
cm. thick; pinnae lanceolate, divaricate, acute, 1.5 dm. long, medial
wider than 5 cm., midnerve prominent beneath, secondary 4-6, pale;
spadices clustered, the female simply branched, to 5 dm. long, the
male nutant. Fruit, fide Orbigny, ellipsoid, black, 6-8 mm. long.
According to Martius in note under his M. Poeppigiana the leaf
pinnae are somewhat broader, 4 dm. long, nearly 5 cm. wide, a
little more unequal and falcate-acuminate, spathes of the male spadix
larger, and fragrant flowers a little longer, yellowish, and, finally,
the fruit ovoid. Illustrated, Mart. Palm. Orbign. pi. 3, fig. 1 (plant) ;
16c (stem, fruit, leaf); Bot. Mag. pi. 5492 (fide Hooker).
374 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Amazonas: Chachapoyas, (Mathews 31082}. Huanuco: Pozuzo,
Muna, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type). Bolivia. "Siasia" (Ruiz & Pavon),
"san capilla" (Martius).
Morenia linearis (R. & P.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11:
316. 1932. Chamaeodorea linearis (R. & P.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2:
5. 1823; 3: 307. 1849. Martinezia linearis R. & P. Syst. Veg. 297.
Leaves abruptly pinnate, the linear leaflets very acute; spadices
compound, branches recurved and incurved, dioecious. Apparently
not re-collected unless as M. macrocarpa Burret. F.M. Neg. 29564.
Huanuco: Pozuzo, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type).
Morenia macrocarpa Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13:
Dioecious, 6 meters high, the rachis of the rather robust leaves
glabrous, these with linear direct and gradually acuminate segments
paler beneath, many nerves little more slender than the midnerve;
fruiting spadix 4.5 dm. long, ascending at base, finally recurved;
peduncle 2.5 dm. long, spathe-scars 5; rachis 12 cm. long, the 20
branches cernuous; fruits spiralled, orange, 20-22 mm. long, 13 mm.
in diameter; calyx scutellate, subtrilobed; seed obovate-oblong, 14
mm. long, 1 cm. in diameter; raphe branches 2, the lower curved,
the embryo a little above the middle; male spadix 2.5 dm. long,
spathes 5, the upper moderately inflated; peduncle 13 cm. long, rachis
1 dm. long, branches 20-25, spiralled, slender, to 7 cm. long; flowers
rarely solitary, usually 2 or many together; calyx rounded-triangular;
petals subovate, 2.5 mm. long, equaled by the 6 stamens, these with
oblong sagittate apically incised anthers.
Huanuco: Between Monzon and the Huallaga, (Weberbauer 3600,
type; also 8597, male).
Morenia Poeppigiana Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 161. 1837; 309,
pis. ll>0-m. 1849.
Seems to have no character distinct from M. fragrans as remarked
by Hooker (Bot. Mag. pi. 5492. 1865), except that the male flowers
are described as inodorous; leaf-pinnae about 3-4 cm. wide, lanceo-
late-acuminate; lower spathe 2.5 cm. long, upper 5 cm. long. Plate
140 is a landscape of the type locality with several small palms in
the right foreground; plate 141, however, is a drawing of spadices in
flower and fruit, and detailed analysis; Martius' description is com-
FLORA OF PERU 375
plete but seems, ex char., to be without contrasting definitions.
F.M. Negs. 29901; 29902.
Huanuco: Near Rio Chinchao, (Poeppig, type).
16. HYOSPATHE Mart.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin: 854-859. 1929.
Small, arundinaceous, the leaves pinnate or pinnatisect, the
branched spadices below or between them, the small flowers monoe-
cious, normally male. Spathes 2, long-fusiform, 3 together, not, in
anthesis, immersed. Sepals of male flowers connate, petals narrow,
valvate, both imbricate in female flowers, these with 3-celled ovary;
staminodes present, but sometimes minute. Fruit slightly fleshy;
KEY (after Burret)
Leaf segments (known) with 1 primary nerve, 2.5 cm. wide.
Leaves nearly simple or segments, at least mostly, several-nerved.
Spadices about 1.5-2 dm. long, lowest branches 5-13 cm. long.
Male flowers subsessile, only 2 mm. long H. Ulei.
Male flowers pedicellate, 3 mm. long H. Tessmannii.
Spadices larger, lower branches 2-4 dm. long.
Lower branches scarcely 2 dm. long; fruit 1.5 cm. long.
Lower branches 2.5-4 dm. long.
Male flowers sessile, about 3 mm. long H. micropetala.
Male flowers pedicellate.
Leaves basally long-cuneate; calyces and pedicels subequal.
Leaves not long-cuneate at base; pedicels longer than calyx.
Hyospathe brevipedunculata Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Bran-
denb. 48: 126. 1907. Geonoma Wittiana Damm. I.e. 124 as to leaves
fide Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 235. 1931.
Leaves, in outline, obovate, the lower of the two pairs of leaflets
sigmoid, lanceolate, 4 dm. long, 5.5 cm. wide, long-acuminate, 6-
nerved, the upper, placed 3.5-4 cm. distant, similar (unless as to
apex, unknown), nearly 4 dm. long, 9 cm. wide, 9-11-nerved; spadix
376 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
rachis about 4 dm. long, peduncle 9 cm. long, branches many, 1-1.5
cm. pedicellate, 3-3.5 dm. long, flower glomerules about 5 mm.
distant; male calyx cupulate, 3-denticulate, corolla lobes lanceolate,
3 mm. long, a third as wide; filaments unequal, the 3 longer 2 mm.
long, the shorter 1 mm. long as the oval anthers; female calyx min-
utely denticulate, 1 mm. long, the broadly lanceolate corolla lobes
twice as long; staminodes minute, linear. Petioles 2.5 cm. long,
leaf-nerves 11-12 (the synonym from nearby Seringal Bele'm, not
Para!). Type, Ule 5881, from Rio Jurua Mirim, in adjacent Brazil;
also collected at Seringal Bele'm on the same river.
Loreto (no doubt). Amazonian Brazil.
Hyospathe elegans Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 1, pi. 2. 1823;
856; 521 (Drude).
Trunk about 2 meters tall, to 3 cm. thick; leaves 5 or more, lax
or arcuate, at least a meter long, sheath 2-3 dm. long, truncate,
petioles 1.5-2 dm. long, rachis 6-9 dm. long; segments many, various
and mostly remote, nearly 5 dm. long, 1-nerved, linear-acuminate,
1.5-nearly 2 cm. long, the 6-8-nerved intermixed, lanceolate, 6-8 cm.
wide, the secondary nerves unequally interposed; spathe before an-
thesis subequaling spadix; peduncle and rachis of spadices subequal,
the 12-24 divaricate branches mostly 2 (rarely 3.5) dm. long, near
base 2 mm. thick, much longer than rachis, rigid, attenuate; male
flowers at least 3.4 mm. long, the cupulate calyx segments much
shorter than the broadly lanceolate petals, these exceeded by the
stamens; female calyx 1.5 mm. long, corolla about twice longer; fruit
about 1.5 cm. long, 8 mm. in diameter. Original material in part
belongs to two or more species of Geonoma (Burret). Known from
adjacent Brazil. Illustrated, Mart. I.e. pi. Z8, figs. 5, 6. F.M. Negs.
18527; 18528; 18528a (in part, H. filiformis Wendl.).
Loreto (probably). Amazonian Brazil.
Hyospathe gracilis [Poeppig] Wendl. ex Drude in Mart. Fl.
Bras. 3, pt. 2: 523. 1883 (err. sub nom. filiformis).
Slender, a meter or two high, the nearly equally pinnatisect leaves
with linear-lanceolate falcate-acuminate more or less strongly veined
and nerved segments, the solitary uppermost 3.5 dm. long, 2.5-3 cm.
wide, the upper pair about 2.5 dm. long, 8 cm. wide, broadly connate;
peduncles 2-3 cm. long, spadices slender, 2 dm. long at base, rachis
incrassate, branches about 30, crowded, basal to 1.8 dm. long, apical
to 1 dm. long, strict; glomerules 3-flowered, approximate, male early
FLORA OF PERU 377
3-4 mm. long, at anthesis broadly stellate, sepals all 1.5 mm. long,
petals basally connate, finally linear-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 3
mm. long, stamens coherent toward base; female flowers ovoid, 1.5
mm. long, sepals scarcely imbricate, the ovate acute petals twice
longer. F.M. Neg. 29888.
San Martin: Rocky island, Rio Tocache, (Poeppig 2057, type).
Hyospathe micropetala Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Type little more than 3 meters tall, the upper stem only 6-8 mm.
in diameter, internodes 2.3-3 cm. long; sheath 12.5 cm. long, truncate
at apex, longitudinally nerved, nearly glabrous, sparsely scurfy; peti-
oles 17 cm. long, rounded except lightly canaliculate above; leaves
thin, subconcolored both sides, elliptic or obovate-elliptic, nearly
entire, apically bilobed or more or less unevenly 2-3 segmented
each side and with 20 primary nerves, the rachis 24-29 cm. long,
the segments falcate, acuminate, the medial on upper margin about
26 cm. long; spadix 33.5 cm. long, glabrous, smooth; branches about
16, slender, 22-25.5 cm. long, very shortly bracteate at base; male
flowers sessile, before anthesis 3 mm. long, calyx 1 mm. long, petals
oblong, 2.5 mm. long; anthers oval, scarcely 0.5 mm. long. Flowers
orange, stamens bright brown, pleasantly scented (Tessmann).
Loreto: Inundated woods, San Antonio, mouth of Rio Pastaza,
(Tessmann 4935, type).
Hyospathe Tessmannii Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Stem 2.5 meters high, 8 mm. in diameter at the spadix, the
internodes 2.5-3 cm. long; sheath closely costate, sparsely fuscous
scurfy as the petioles, these 1.5 dm. long, canaliculate above, rounded-
triangular beneath; leaves subelliptic or possibly obovate-elliptic,
about 5.5 dm. long, rather thin, drying dark, nearly concolor, primary
nerves 19; rachis 3.5 dm. long; segments 3 pairs, falcate, narrowly
acuminate, subequal or the basal slightly narrower, the medial on
upper margin 3 dm., the apical about 25 cm. long, 5-6.5 cm. wide;
primary nerves at most 11 mm. distant, the intermediary well-
defined on both sides, numerous, the oblique transverse veins more
obvious above; spadix in flower 15-19 cm. long, branches 7-9, spathes
17 cm. long, about 1.7 cm. across, glabrous and nearly smooth, ob-
scurely costate; peduncle 3 cm. long; lower branches 9.5-13 cm.
long, little flexuose to apex, basal bracts acute as the floral, these
378 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
7 mm. long; pedicels rather robust, with calyx 3 mm. long, teeth
rather subfiliform, acute; petals 4.5 mm. long, linear, at most 1 mm.
wide, densely striate; filaments filiform, 3 mm. long, anthers linear,
at least 1 mm. long. Petals scarlet, anthers white, leaves used for
Loreto: Non-inundated woods, mouth of Rio Santiago, (Tess-
mann 3980, type). "Palmiche."
Hyospathe Ulei Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 127. 1907.
A low (1-3 meter) slender palm with irregularly pinnatifid leaves
segments now 1-nerved, again many-nerved and small (1 dm.
long) spadices; petioles about 1.5 dm. long, minutely brown-scaly
as the 3-angled rachis; leaves ovate in outline with 4-5 uneven
segments on each side, the lowest about 22, the uppermost 16 cm.
long, the width 1.5-7 cm.; lateral nerves 21 in all, each segment more
or less sigmoid, long-acuminate; secondary nerves 2 between the
primaries, 3-4 tertiaries between the secondaries; peduncle 2.5 cm.
long, 6 mm. thick at base, rachis 1 dm. long, type with 10 lateral
branches 4-7 cm. long, 3-7 mm. distant; lower flowers ternate, the
2 male 4.5 mm. long; calyx 2 mm. long, with 1 mm. long tip; stamens
unequal, anthers linear, 1.5 mm. long; female calyx 1 mm. long,
corolla twice as long; staminodes filiform. Unique in unevenly pin-
nate leaves and small spadix (author) .
Loreto: Cerro de Escalero, (Ule 4?P).
Hyospathe Weberbaueri Damm. ex Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart.
Berlin 10: 858. 1929.
Three to 5 meters tall, the trunk about 17 mm. in diameter
beneath the spadix; petioles (known) 26.5 cm. long, minutely and
sparsely furfuraceous, rounded-triangular, the margins subacute;
rachis 6.6 dm. long, extended into a filum above the fork of the rigid
leaf-blade, this paler beneath and with 26 primary nerves to 1.5 cm.
distant; segments 3 on each side, the apical pair broader, all falcate,
rather abruptly acuminate; secondary nerves conspicuous both sides,
the obliquely transverse veins approximate; spadix of male flowers
before an thesis 38.5 cm. long, peduncle about 5 cm. long; branches
about 15, the lower 3 dm. long, the upper 2.5 dm. long, slender,
flexuose; floral bracts shortly triangular; pedicels slender, with calyx
2 mm. long, the former longer; petals linear, 4 mm. long; filaments
2-5 mm. long, anthers linear; spadix with fruit (Weberbauer 3657}
48 cm. long, peduncle 9.5 cm. long, rachis blood-red, the 12 stout
FLORA OF PERU 379
branches to 3.2 dm. long, toward apices strongly flexuous; mature
fruit green, with perianth 12 mm. long, without, 10 mm. long,
apically rounded, apiculate; perianth 3 mm. high, calyx 2 mm. long,
teeth short, broad, petals 3-angled.
Huanuco: Near Rio Monzon toward Rio Huallaga, 600-700 me-
ters, (Weberbauer 8650, type; also 3657}.
17. JESSENIA Karst.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 301-312. 1928;
In general character similar to Oenocarpus, at least in Peru, but
minute calyx segments (all) imbricate, broadly cordate. Stamens
12-20, anthers versatile on apically straight (type) or inflexed fila-
ments, the anther connective produced. Male petals valvate, female
convolute-imbricate. Fruit fibrous or also slightly succulent, the
single seed with ruminate albumen, grooved within or irregular.
Burret separates this from Oenocarpus chiefly on the basis of many
(instead of 6) stamens and the ruminate albumen; both characters
are sometimes variable in other groups (as Bactris, Euterpe) probably
also the anther connective. When honored by Karsten, Carl Jessen
was professor of botany at Eldena, Prussia.
Fruit 3-3.5 cm. long, entire spadix 1-2 meters long J. bataua.
Fruit 4 cm. long, spadix branches 1 meter long or longer.
Jessenia bataua (Mart.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
300, 302. 1928; 839. Oenocarpus bataua Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2:
23, pis. 24, 25. 1823.
Only in age the columnar stems smooth when 20 meters high or
higher, 2 dm. in diameter, in youth more or less marked by or
enclosed in the spiniform remnants of the leaf-sheaths; leaves 8-10,
crowded, erect-spreading, 10 meters long or longer, the equally dis-
tant segments linear-lanceolate, mostly about 2 meters long, 1 dm.
wide; spadices few, 1-2 meters long, the many branches fastigiate,
strict, incrassate above; lower spathe half as long as upper, extended
into a fuscous tomentose mucro; male petals ovate-oblong, subacute;
fruit violet-purplish, cylindric-ellipsoid (stigmas nearly on the rounded
apex), 3-3.5 cm. long, 2-2.25 cm. in diameter, the oblong seed
acute at both ends. Known from Rios Japura and lea, adjacent
Brazil; no doubt occurs in Peru. J. polycarpa Karst. (111., Fl.
380 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Colomb. 1. pi. 98), listed by Dahlgren as in Peru, and certainly
similar, is apparently known only from Venezuela and Colombia;
the "Maranon" mentioned by Karsten cannot be Rio Maranon of
Peru. Burret (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 839. 1929) observed
that this species actually has rings of thin white fibers on the upper
part of the stem and is distinct from J. bataua. Illustrated, Wallace,
Palm Trees Amazon, pis. 10, 11.
The thin mesocarp, triturated with water, forms a creamy sweet-
ish beverage similar to that from fruits of Euterpe (Spruce) .
Peru (probably). Brazil to Guiana. "Ungurauy," "sacumana."
Jessenia Weberbaueri Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Caudex 12 meters tall, nearly 4 dm. in diameter, leaves 10 meters
long, rachis 1.5 dm. thick (collector), upper fragment seen 3.5 cm.
high, 2.5 cm. broad, ashy furfuraceous, the regularly disposed seg-
ments 4-5 cm. distant, linear, 5-6 cm. wide, apex abruptly con-
tracted, bifid, paler beneath, sigmoid or falcate, perhaps plicate
above along the longer nerves; fruiting spadix lustrous; peduncle
very stout, below the lower spathe 12.5 cm. thick, below the upper
11.5 cm., above that and at the lower branches 8.5 cm. in diameter,
the space between the spathe scars 9 cm., between the upper of
these and the lower branches 6.2 cm.; branches stout, minutely
bracted at base, about 1 meter long or longer, the peduncles 1-2
meters longer, these apically 7 mm. thick, medially 8 mm. thick;
vestigial flowers mostly ternate, the 2 lateral male; fruit oblong,
4 cm. long (3.8 without perianth), 2.3 cm. broad, beak short, slightly
excentric; perianth to 1.5 cm. high, segments rhombic; seed 2.5 cm.
long, 1.5 cm. in diameter. Unique in large fruit and long, very
stout branches; fruit of J. poly car pa Karst. without perianth is
3.3 cm. long (Burret).
San Martin: Moyobamba, (Weberbauer 4561, type). "Sinami."
18. OENOCARPUS Mart.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 291-301. 1928.
Slender, tall, the unarmed trunks often in clusters, the leaves
pinnatisect, the spadices infrafoliar in base of dense coma, simple or
divided. Upper spathe exceeding lower, often acuminate. Flowers
monoecious, not immersed, the lower or all 3-glomerate, the inter-
mediate usually female. Stamens 6, anthers versatile; sepals as
FLORA OF PERU 381
petals valvate, unless at base. Female flowers much smaller, seg-
ments imbricate, staminodes commonly obsolete. Fruit 1-seeded,
drupiform, more or less fibrous or succulent, stigma terminal or sub-
terminal (type). Seed with plane albumen, embryo basal. The
name, "wine fruit," applies best perhaps to the species "Pataua" or
"Bataua," now, probably not necessarily, separated as part of a
distinct group, Jessenia. For convenience the two species of the
latter are included in this key.
Leaf-segments long-acuminate, mostly aggregate.
Trunks solitary 0. bacaba.
Trunks clustered 0. multicaulis.
Leaf -segments abruptly acuminate, laxly distant; trunks solitary.
Segments 4-5 dm. long 0. minor.
Segments 1-2 meters long (see Jessenia for descriptions).
Fruit 3-3.5 cm. long J. bataua.
Fruit 4 cm. long J. Weberbaueri.
Oenocarpus bacaba Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 24, pi. 26,
figs. 1-2. 1823; 469 (Drude).
Stem solitary, to 20 meters tall, 1.5-2 dm. in diameter, the
marcescent sheaths persisting below the dense spreading coma of 8
or more leaves, these about 5 meters long with many crowded (in
clusters of 2-6) linear-lanceolate acuminate segments a meter or
more long, 4-5 cm. wide; spathes lignescent, caducous before anthesis;
spadices usually many, flowering and fruiting dependent beneath the
coma; upper spathe twice longer than lower; spadix branches 5 dm.
long or longer, strict, basally pedicelliform; male flowers 7 mm. long,
petals ovate-oblong, acute, short calyx cupulate, stamens early con-
nivent, anthers bifid; female flowers depressed globose, 5 mm. high,
the large sepals (enclosing petals) con volute-imbricate; fruit pur-
plish, pruinose, globose-ellipsoid, plum-like, acute, 2.5 cm. long, 2 cm.
thick, the stigmas apical; seed 16 X 12 mm. Type from Rio Negro;
collected also on Rio Solimoes. Illustrated, Wallace, Palm Trees
Amazon, pi. 9; Drude, Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi. 108, fig. 3 (fruit).
San Martin: Tocache, (Poeppig, fide Drude).
Oenocarpus minor Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 25, pi. 27 (part).
1823; 471 (Drude).
Stem solitary, to 10 meters high with a diameter of 7.5 cm. or less,
annulate; leaves many in a dense coma, often 2-3 meters long, equally
382 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
pinnate, the 50-60 segments 4-5 dm. long, 4-5 cm. wide, lanceolate,
abruptly attenuate-acuminate apex, strongly 5-plicate, glaucous or
puberulent beneath; spadices below leaves, about 3 dm. long, the
25-35 simple branches 2.5-3 dm. long, early flexuose toward base;
spathes fuscous tomentose, deciduous after anthesis, the upper ros-
trate; male petals acute, 3 mm. long; segments of female flowers
all reniform-orbicular; fruit lustrous, black, ellipsoid, cusped apically,
1.5 cm. long, 1 cm. in diameter. The fusiform sheaths are more than
double the diameter of the stem, open with a single slit, split up into
soft fibers, soon fall away (Spruce). Said to occur in all the wooded
valleys of the Rio Amazon and listed by Dahlgren (222) as in Peru.
Illustrated, F.M. Negs. 18853; 18853a; Drude, I.e. pi 108 (fruit).
Peru (probably). Brazil; Venezuela. "Ciamba," "manaqui."
Oenocarpus multicaulis Spruce, Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 142.
1871; 299 (Burret); 470 (Drude).
Stems clustered (6-10), 3-10 meters high, to 1.5 dm. thick, re-
motely annulate; leaves broadly lanceolate, 3-4 meters long; sheath
9.5 dm. long, ventricose, splitting down the middle into fibers and
finally deciduous with the leaf; leaf-segments about 60 each side,
linear-lanceolate, acute, about 1 meter long, 7-8 cm. wide, the lower
and apical equidistant, the rest 2-3-aggregate, all glaucous or whitish-
pulverulent beneath; spadix shortly (7 cm.) pedunculate, scapiform,
deciduous spathe tomentose, the lower 2.5 dm. long, the upper 6 dm.
long, elongate-fusiform, obtusely rostrate; rachis 1 meter long,
branches many, nearly 5 dm. long; flowers shortly bracteolate at pit,
male flowers yellowish, petals ovate-lanceolate, little exceeding sta-
mens, female flowers whitish, sepals and petals finally orbicular;
fruit ellipsoid, cusped, stigma apical, 2.5 cm. long, 2 cm. in diameter,
black-purple, mesocarp thin, sweet, the seed oblong. Fruit edible
San Martin: Tarapoto, (Spruce 63, type). Loreto: Mouth of
Rio San Isidro, (Tessmann 4995). "Ciamba," "ciama," "sinami,"
19. EUTERPE Gaertner
Reference: Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 49-76. 1929.
Slender, often tall, monoecious, the trunk smooth but annulate,
solitary (Peru), the petiolar sheaths of the pinnate leaves forming a
conspicuous crown-shaft. Spadices inter- or infrafoliar, the short
FLORA OF PERU 383
outer spathe open apically, the inner elongate, often rostrate;
branches slender, few to many, spreading or pendent. Flowers in
groups of 3, sometimes partly or deeply immersed; stamens 6, petals
valvate, sepals imbricate as also petals of female flowers; staminodes
ordinarily obvious. Fruit small, subglobose, drupe-like, 1-celled, the
stigmatic scar lateral or subapical, early somewhat succulent, soon
hard; seed with plane or ruminate albumen, the embryo lateral
(or essentially apical; Bailey). The contradiction in characters ac-
cepted within this group points up the tenuous lines of generic demar-
cation in the family. Bailey (Gentes Herb. 7: 417-419. 1947) dis-
cussed the validity of the name and suggested that the presence of
clearly homogeneous and completely ruminate albumen and super-
ficial or pitted flowers may indicate two genera.
Early leaves simple, bilobed; filaments apically geniculate; petals
obtuse; female flowers superficial; albumen ruminate.
Peduncle and rachis subequal E. ensiformis.
Peduncle somewhat shorter than rachis E. megalochlamys.
Early leaves flabellate-pinnate; filaments straight; petals obtuse;
female flowers somewhat immersed E. precatoria.
Euterpe ensiformis (R. & P.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 32,
pi. 31. 1824; 58. Martinezia ensiformis R. & P. Syst. Veg. 1: 297.
Caudex erect, cylindric, 12 meters tall; leaf pinnae subensiform,
very long-acuminate; rachis laxly flowered; sepals of male flowers
broadly triangular, 4 times shorter than ovate petals, roseate within,
female whitish; fruit globose, about 6 or 7 mm. in diameter, dull
blue-black, the stigma scar excentric, scarcely succulent (Kunth).
Trunk slender, curved, leaves about 8, pinnae horizontal, spadix
rachis and long peduncle subequal (Tessmann); 5-12 meters high,
leaf (with petiole, this 6-10 dm. long) 3-4 meters long, spadix rachis
rose-red, fruit olive-green (Weberbauer). F.M. Neg. 18555.
Huanuco: Pozuzo, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type; Tessmann, fide Burret).
Near Rio Monzon, 600 meters, (Weberbauer 3585}. Monzon, 900
meters, (Weberbauer 3438}. "Cuyol," "coyol."
Euterpe megalochlamys Burret, Bot. Jahrb. 63: 59. 1929.
Type with caudex 7 meters tall, leaves 12 dm. long the rachis
early fuscous tomentose the nutant fruiting spadices glabrous,
about 7.5 dm. long, the peduncle somewhat shorter; leaf-segments
384 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
subregular, about 40 on each side, the lower 27 cm. long, to 1 cm.
wide, the medial to 32 cm. long, 2 cm. wide, the upper 11 cm. long,
1 cm. wide, all flexible, paler beneath, mid-nerve prominent above
as the 3 secondary nerves (besides marginal) both sides, abruptly
acute, often subcucullate or bifid; bracts at base of the many rachis
branches (these 2-3.5 dm. long), oblong, acute, 2.5 cm. long; fruits
densely spiralled, 10 or 11 mm. in diameter, light brown, smooth,
the stigma residuum above the middle; perianth (in fruit) 8 mm.
across, calyx a third shorter than corolla, both smooth; seed 7 mm.
long, 8 mm. broad, albumen deeply ruminate.
La Libertad: Valle Rio Mixiollo, 1,900 meters, (Weberbauer 7070,
Euterpe precatoria Mart. Palm. Orbign. 10. pis. 8, 18. 1847; 70.
Caudex strict, 12-20 meters tall, 1.5 dm. in diameter at base,
7 cm. at apex; sheaths cylindric, 3 times shorter than the 12-15
spreading leaves, these to 3 meters long with approximate lax or
pendent linear long-acuminate pinnae 6 dm. long or longer; spadices
infrafoliar, the sheaths reddish tomentose, the branches 4.5 dm. long,
flowers crowded, flavescent; petals of the male broadly lanceolate,
acute; sepals and petals of the female suborbicular; fruit globose,
8-10 mm. diameter, residual stigmas excentric; albumen plane.
Dahlgren, 185, lists locality Maynas (i.e. the area of Yurimaguas) ;
Huber found it common on the Rio Solimoes and it is also known
from adjacent Colombia and Bolivia (the type).
Peru (probably). Colombia to Bolivia. "Yuyu-chonta" (Dahl-
20. ORBIGNYA Mart.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 493-516. 1929.
Character in general resembles that of Attalea HBK. but the
free anther cells of the 12-24 stamens are elongate and contorted or
sinuous, petals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, plane. Fruit 2-6-seeded.
It is curious that, as independent developments, similar anther
contortion occurs in some exogens, as Bombacaceae, Cucurbitaceae
and Columelliaceae. Burret (I.e. 493^497) has presented well the
relative characters of this and related genera; as he remarks, male
flowers are necessary to recognize this genus and it may be sug-
gested that at least in floristic work expediency should take prece-
dence over emphasis of a single technical characteristic so that
FLORA OF PERU 385
determination may be more practical, at least rarely if ever impos-
sible. Indicative of the closely uniform development of these groups
may be the occurrence in each of similarly distinctive characters, as
Burret makes clear.
The distinguished naturalist, Alcide D'Orbigny, of the Natural
History Museum of Paris, collected in southern Peru in 1830 and 1834.
Orbignya polysticha Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 324.
Acaulescent (or shortly caulescent) ; leaves 4 meters long, rachis
(fragment, probably medial) laterally excavated, fuscous furfuraceous
as segments beneath, especially apically, these (few seen) apparently
regularly disposed, narrowly reduplicate at base, 8 dm. long, 3.2 cm.
wide, concolor, larger nerves few, densely and finely nervose-striate,
the transverse veins prominent both sides, many short, others 6 or
7 mm. long, narrowly produced; male spadix (part) 3 dm. long, gla-
brous rachis 22 cm. long, branches simple, upper flowers strongly
congested; lower branches 7-9 cm. long, sterile for 2-4 cm., sparsely
ovate-acuminate bracteate; spikes 3-4 mm. thick or with flowers
nearly 2 cm. in diameter, these spirally in 8 or 9 series, the impressed
binate flowers about 7 mm. long, conspicuously bracteate, bracteoles
minute, petals strongly involute apically; calyx 1 mm. high; petals
spathulate, linear at base, suborbicular at tip; stamens 15, filaments
filiform, subglobose anthers more or less contorted. Only 0. Dam-
meriana Barb. Rodr., origin unknown, has spiralled flowers and it is
not closely related, according to Burret, who referred here with little
doubt the second collection, this however with stem 4 dm. high, leaf
segments 6 dm. long, 1.8 cm. wide, edible fruit dark orange.
Loreto: Mishuyacu near Iquitos, (Klug 205, type). Santa Rosa,
below Yurimaguas, (Killip & Smith 28814). "Catirina."
21. ATTALEA HBK.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 517-543. 1929.
Tall or low (rarely stemless), smooth, the leaves pinnate, the
flowers monoecious in each spadix (rarely in each tree), this simple
or simply branched. Stamens 6-many, filaments free, anther par-
allel, often exserted, the calyx segments small, free or connate at
base, the petals valvate. Female flowers much the larger, sepals as
petals imbricate, coriaceous. Fruit ovoid or oblong-ellipsoid, cusped
or pointed, 1-3 (-5) -seeded, fibrous, 3 (-5) -pored at base.
386 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Cocos (C. nucifera L., coconut or cocotero), cultivated for the well-
known subtrigonal-ovoid fruit, also 3-pored at the base, is now re-
garded as a monotype genus; other palms besides Attalea HBK. that
are native to Peru and in general similar include particularly Syagrus
Mart., Scheelea Karsten, Orbignya Mart, and Maximilliana Mart.
See Burret' s thoughtful discussion (I.e. 493-497).
Attalea Tessmannii Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 538.
Vegetatively incompletely known but ex drawing by collector
petioles laterally fibrous, leaf-segments at least the lower irregular,
perhaps disposed in groups; spathe about 24 dm. long, relatively thin,
extended rather suddenly into a long small beak; female spadix
branches many, 2 (seen) 5 dm. long, virgate, 5 smaller 13-18 cm.,
all certainly from same plant, basal bracts linear, acute, rigid, 2.2-
3.5 cm. long, glabrous, one flower in shallow pit 5-7 cm. above the
base; basal bract about 2.5 cm. long, floral bracts broadly ovate;
sepals oblong, longer than petals; stigmas 3; lower sterile male flowers
above female remotely, then rather densely spiralled, the bracts
mostly 3 (lower 5) mm. long; sepals and petals linear or sublanceo-
late, to 1.5 cm. long, stamens 12, a third as long (anthers sterile);
fruits (with perianth and beak) 12-12.5 cm. long, 5 cm. across or
broader, fuscous furfuraceous, more or less abruptly apiculate with
beak 2-2.5 cm. long, style with stigmas conically protracted; perianth
in fruit at least one-third as long as the latter, segments ovate to
broadly ovate, broadly apiculate, petals somewhat longer; mesocarp
3 mm. thick, mostly fibrous, the multifibrose endocarp dark-colored;
male spadix branches 25-27 cm. long, rigidly bracted, the flowers
more or less spiralled in 5 little inclined, 3 strongly inclined series,
2 in juxtaposition in axils of very rigid bracts, the smaller bractlets
ovate-oblong; flowers 1.5 cm. long, sepals oblong, 1.33 mm. long,
petals acute, costate-nerved, denticulate, minutely scabrous; stamens
12, anthers sagittate, linear, about 5 mm. long; pistil reduced, the
3 subulate styles 1 mm. long. No other unquestionably dioecious
species is known to me from the four related genera; the species is
further especially noteworthy by the conspicuously bracted relatively
thick spikes of spirally disposed male flowers, and by the abundant
fibrous tissue of the dark-colored endocarp (author).
Cultivated at Pard and collected by Huber, probably on the Rio
Ucayali (Burret, I.e. 12: 155. 1934).
FLORA OF PERU 387
Loreto: Flood-free woods, Soledad, lower Rio Itaya, (Tessmann
5167, type; 5167a, male). Yarina-cocha, middle Ucayali, (Tess-
mann 5395, male). "Conta."
22. SYAGRUS Mart.
Resembles Scheelea but the putamen of the acute 1-seeded fruit
rugose within except for 3 smooth bands. Female flowers smaller
than male, disk prominent. Stamens 6, exceeded by the lanceolate
petals. Bentham and Hooker followed Drude in regarding this as
a subgenus of Cocos L.; however, compare Scheelea Karst. and Atta-
Syagrus Tessmannii Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 32: 106. 1933.
Caudex to 20 meters tall, in type 3.5 dm. in diameter at base,
1.5 dm. at the coma of 17 leaves; petioles 1.5 meters long, dilated
toward base, marginally tomentose; sheath fleshy coriaceous, semi-
circular at base dissolving into an intermixed mass of fine and very
fine fibers; leaf-rachis 3.1 meters long; segments about 160, base to
apex mostly in distinct groups of 3-4, the basal very narrow and
shorter, the upper about 2.5 dm. long (rarely 1 meter long, 5 cm.
wide), all acuminate, glabrous, slender nerves few above, many be-
neath, obvious, transverse veins obsolete; spadices large, interfoliar;
upper spathe ventricose, 1 meter long, deeply sulcate, deciduously
scurfy tomentose; peduncle at apex nearly 3 cm. broad, rudimentary
spathes or bracts linear or lanceolate, 1-2; branches straight, many,
rather densely spiralled on the long rachis, to about 5 dm. long, all
flowers male (no rudimentary female), scrobiculi shallow, 2-flowered
except toward apex, bracts most minute; flowers ellipsoid-rotund, to
12 mm. long, calyx 2 mm. long, sepals oblong-lanceolate, carinate,
petals oblong-subobtuse; filaments 2.5 mm. long, anthers linear, sagit-
tate, to 7 mm. long; fruit (after Tessmann drawing) yellowish, oval,
erostrate, with perianth 33 mm. long, 24 mm. in diameter; female
spadix larger and each flower with 2 sterile male flowers on the larger
part of the many branches; fruiting bracts minute, broadly rotund;
flowers (known) before anthesis 8 mm. high, about 6 mm. broad,
rounded-ovoid; sepals as shorter petals slightly imbricate in bud, not
seen in anthesis; sterile flowers 6-10 mm. long, calyx 1-2 mm. long,
petals oblong-elliptic. The collector's painting shows an individual
tree with male flowers and fruit. From the Brazilian S. inajai
(Spruce) Becc. and S. ecuadoriensis Becc. this species is distinct by
the thinner leaves without transverse veins; notable is the cushion
388 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
of fibers of the young sheaths; it may be illustrated by Huber (Bull.
Herb. Boiss. se>. 2, 6: pi. 13, as a species of Cocos) under a nomen
nudum (tall, the spadix much-branched), which, of course, must be-
come a nomen dilendum as suggested by Burret; the transfer of
Huber's name without description also gave it no standing.
Fleshy fruit eaten by cattle; stem, used for construction, harbors
edible larvae, the wood serves for lances, etc. (collector).
Loreto: Mouth of Apaga, (Tessmann 4811, type). Middle Ucay-
ali, Rio Ayuaytia, (Tessmann 3286, female spadix). "Inchaui,"
23. SGHEELEA Karst.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 651-689. 1929.
Resembles Orbignya Mart, and Attalea HBK. but the petals of
the male flowers are fleshy, elongate-clavate or cylindrical, and the
stamens are straight as in the latter but only 6. Fruit 1-3-seeded,
the seeds ellipsoid, albumen plane. Cymba (spathe-valve) heavy,
ligneous as in Attalea. S. Wallisii (Huber) Burret (I.e. 657) from
the Rio Ucayali is essentially a nomen nudum. Huber (Bull. Herb.
Boiss. se>. 2, 6: 267. 1907) described the drupes as ellipsoid-cylindric;
only original material will enable identification (Burret). Only one
species in the following key after Burret is acaulescent.
Stigmas (as cells) mostly more than 3; female flowers in mostly 1-5
branches; fruiting bracts large; endocarp fibers large (section
Acaulescent S. Weberbaueri.
Leaf-segments regularly disposed S. Bassleriana.
Leaf-segments 2-4-aggregate S. cephalotes.
Stigmas mostly 1 (-3); female flowers lax on 5 or more branches;
bracts as fibers small (section Dialphocaryum Burret).
Fruit rounded, the beak slender, the perianth to 2 cm. high.
Perianth one-third as large as fruit; flowers (male) 1.5 cm. long,
yellow S. stenorhyncha.
Perianth one-fourth as large as fruit; flowers (male) 1 cm. long,
yellowish S. brachyclada.
Fruit extended into thick beak; flowers yellowish, female 2.5 cm.
long, male 1.5 cm. long S. Tessmannii.
FLORA OF PERU 389
Scheelea Bassleriana Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Type 12 meters tall, fragment (apical) of leaf seen about 1 meter
long, its narrowly linear rachis fuscous furfuraceous only beneath,
the acutely angled segments gradually decreasing in size, regularly
disposed, narrowly reduplicate at base, linear, long-acuminate, shortly
and unequally bifid, subpruinose beneath, green above, midnerve
very prominent, secondary nerves obscure, transverse conspicuous,
obsolete beneath; male spadix (fragment) branches about 2-2.5 dm.
long, bracts scarcely 2 mm. long, abruptly contracted, the flowers
densely spiralled; petals 14 mm. long, stamens one-third as long,
anthers oblong, 3 mm. long; fruit oval, 9.5 cm. (with perianth) long,
5-5.5 cm. in diameter, slender acumen of rounded apex 1 cm. long;
perianth cupulate, 2.4 cm. high, sepals ovate, subacuminate, 2.8 mm.
long, little longer than the broader petals; mesocarp (dried) entirely
fibrous, 4 mm. thick, endocarp 3-celled, 8 mm. thick, densely and
rather regularly spotted, the many fibers mostly 2-4-aggregate, small
fibers nearly none. Trunk to 4 dm. in diameter, flowers yellowish,
oily flesh of fruit edible (Tessmann) ; name commemorates supporter
of botanical work.
Loreto: Yarina-cocha, Rio Ucayali, (Tessmann 5490, type; also
3266}. "Shevao," "shebon."
Scheelea brachyclada Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Apical part of leaf seen 9 dm. long, glabrous, the rachis triangu-
lar, segments reduced upward, nearly regularly disposed, spreading
in one plane (lower probably aggregate?), narrowly linear, reduplicate
at base, rounded but bidentate at apex, medial nerve prominent
above as 3 lateral nerves each side, the numerous transverse ones
obvious only above; female branchlets many (broad-based bract
pungently acuminate), 1-1.5 dm. long, upper fourth to half bearing
sterile male flowers, lower part 4-5 (rarely 3) secund or subdistichous
female, the cupulae of bracts 1 cm. across, about 2.5 cm. long; sepals
long- triangular, longer than petals, equaling stigmas; fruits with
perianth 7 cm. long, 3 cm. in diameter, oblong-cylindric, the sub-
rotund apex with beak-like style 7 or 8 mm. long, transverse section
1-seeded (2 cells aborted), mesocarp 2.5 mm. in diameter, entirely
fibrous, endocarp 8 mm. thick, fibers brown, often few aggregate;
perianth in lobes 2 cm. high, sepals and petals ovate, the latter very
broadly, abruptly contracted; male spadix branches small, slender
390 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
(basal bracts 1.5-2 cm. long), 10-12.5 cm. long, floriferous to 1.5 cm.
of base, rather crowded flowers finally subsecund; floral bracts minute,
suborbicular; flowers 8 or 9 mm. long, petals subulate, about twice
as long as stamens (anthers 2.5 mm. long), sepals oblong, 0.5 mm.
long. Description of leaves and male spadix from 5493, which col-
lection was accompanied by careful drawing of fruit so that the
identity is scarcely to be doubted (Burret) ; fruit, from the aquarelle,
8.3 cm. long, 3.5 cm. in diameter, 9 mm. rostrate from pulvinate-
conic style, perianth lobes 2.5 cm. high. Differs as S. Tessmannii
from the obscure S. kewensis Hook. f. (Bot. Mag. pis. 7552, 7553.
1897), cultivated, by the not exserted stigmas.
Loreto: Soledad, Rio Itaya, (Tessmann 5237, type). Yarina-
cocha, middle Ucayali, (Tessmann 5493}.
Scheelea cephalotes (Poepp.) Karst. Linnaea 28: 269. 1856; 660.
Attalea cephalotes Poepp. ex Mart. Palm. Orbign. 10: 119. 1847.
Type with caudex several meters tall, smooth below, residual peti-
oles toward apex among the leaves, these to 3 meters long including
the petioles, fibrillose toward base and to 1 meter long; leaf-rachis
lepidote-tomentose, pinnae reduplicate (2-4-aggregate), about 1-
2.5 cm. distant, linear, acuminate, to 1 meter long, 16-18 mm.
wide, pale green, punctate beneath, the midrib prominent above,
acute, secondary fewer than 8, branches of male spadices about
1 dm. long, densely fastigiate, subterete, flexuose below; bracts
minute, flowers 8-10 mm. long, calyx minute, ovate-suborbicular
segments apiculate, petals linear, subfleshy, shortly acute, anthers
subsessile; female spadix bracteate at base, coriaceous bractlets 2,
flowers unknown in type; fruit nearly 1 dm. long, about 3.5 cm. in
diameter, fibrose without, fleshy within, the residual stigmas apical;
seed solitary, linear-oblong, subtrigonous, albumen cartilaginous.
Weberbauer noted stem 7 meters high, fruiting spadix without pe-
duncle 6 dm. long, 3.5 dm. across. Illustrated, Mart. Hist. Nat.
Palm. 3. pi. 169. F.M. Neg. 31307.
Huanuco: Mouth of Rio Pozuzo, (Weberbauer 6762}. Loreto:
Yurimaguas area, (Maynas), Poeppig, type. "Shapaja."
Scheelea stenorhyncha Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Type with stem 4 dm. in diameter, 25 meters high, bearing 15-
18 leaves; male spadix branches 2.5-3.5 dm. long, bract 7 mm. long,
FLORA OF PERU 391
farinose puberulent, flowers spiralled, attenuate to nearly acute apex;
floral bracts ovate, pungent, minute; flowers 17 mm. long, yellow,
sepals oblong, petals scarcely broader than 1 mm.; stamens one-
fourth as long as flowers, anthers nearly 3 mm. long; fruiting branch
female below, fruits spiralled; bracts forming a cup about 1 cm.
across; perianth in fruit 1.8-2 cm. high, to 2.5 cm. in diameter;
sepals, petals subequal, about ovate, abruptly acute; fruit cylindric,
6 cm. long (with perianth and beak), 2.3-2.5 cm. in diameter, beaks
5-7 mm. long, transverse section 1-seeded (2 cells obliterated), meso-
carp thin, entirely fibrous, endocarp cinnamon-colored, 6 mm. thick,
inner fibers none. Related to S. regia Karst. of Colombia with male
flowers only 8 mm. long, stamens half as long.
Loreto: Soledad, Rio Itaya, (Tessmann 5256, type). "Shapaja."
Scheelea Tessmannii Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Trunk 12 meters tall, 5 dm. in diameter, the crown with about
15 leaves; spadix about 4.5 dm. long, apically attenuate, the male
flowers finally in 5 laxly spiralled series, 15-17 mm. long, sepals
scarcely 1 mm. long, petals cylindric, 1 mm. thick, stamens shorter
than 5 mm.; lower part of branchlets with 12-17 slightly secund
female flowers, before anthesis oblong, 2.7 cm. long; sepals oblong-
acuminate, stigmas included; fruit 8 cm. long, cylindric-terete, 3 cm.
in diameter, rather gradually extended about two-thirds its length
into a stout beak; mesocarp 2-4 mm. in diameter, endocarp 6-7 mm.
thick, minutely fibrous; perianth nearly 2.5 cm. high, sepals and
petals subequal, the former ovate-oblong, the latter broadly rounded,
both acute. Fruit recalls that of S. kewensis Hook. f. (cf. S. brachy-
clada) but more slender and stigmas included; also, male flowers
spiralled, petals much longer (author). Photograph shows a strong
but slender trunk, smooth but annulate, leaf-rachis little arched,
leaf-segments on same plane, apparently regularly disposed, the in-
terfoliar spadices about 10.
Loreto: Inundated and non-inundated woods, Iquitos, (Tess-
mann 5085, type). "Shapuja," "chapaja."
Scheelea Weberbaueri Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10:
Completely stemless, the leaves 9-10 meters long, the rachis (frag-
ment, probably medial) 3 cm. broad, acutely carinate above, rounded
beneath, only dorsally fuscous furfuraceous; segments aggregate, di-
392 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
rection diverse, 4-5 cm. wide, green above, paler beneath, the mid-
nerve stout, longitudinal and transverse nerves obscure or faint both
sides; male spadix (flowers unknown) 6 dm. long, basal part 14 cm.
long, 2 cm. in diameter at apex, rachis glabrous, much attenuate,
branchlets slender, very numerous, spiralled, lower flowers in 5-6
series on upper third of rachis approximate, floral bracts minute;
fruiting spadix 8 dm. long (base 2.5 dm. long), upper bracts large;
apices of branchlets with sterile male flowers; fruits mostly abnormal,
more or less compressed obovoid, 7-9 cm. long (with perianth and
beak this 7 mm. long), about 4-4.5 cm. in diameter, rounded api-
cally; perianth mostly lacerate, 2.5 cm. high, segments rather ovate;
mesocarp 2-2.5 mm. thick, outer part finely fibrous, endocarp densely
sulcate, 1-2-celled (transversely).
Junin: La Merced, (Weberbauer 1848, type). "Shapaja."
24. MAXIMILLIANA Mart.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 10: 689-701. 1929.
Resembles Scheelea in appearance vegetatively but the approx-
imate (in circles) male flowers with minute petals equaled or far
exceeded by the 6 filaments, the linear anthers affixed at bifid base,
pendulous. Female flowers few, much larger, sepals coriaceous,
broadly imbricate, petals little longer. Fruit 1-seeded, pointed or
one of the rounded lower halves free from fibers (Drude).
Sepals of male flowers about a sixth as long as petals . . M. venatorum.
Sepals of male flowers a third as long as petals M. stenocarpa.
Maximilliana stenocarpa Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin
10: 696. 1929.
In general similar to M. venatorum but leaf-segments probably
16 dm. long, 5 cm. wide, little narrowed below, narrowly bidentate
apically, midnerve stout above, secondary nerves 6; apex of spathe
seen strongly compressed, margins rounded, minutely and decidu-
ously furfuraceous; male spadix glabrous (only fragment seen), prom-
inently carinate, bracts 5 mm. long, often dentate at base, acute,
perianth 2 mm. long, sepals 0.75 mm. high, ovate, filaments longer
than petals, anthers 8 mm. long; female spadix branches about 2 dm.
long, bracts 1 cm. long, flowers 7-9 inserted on lower two-thirds,
elliptic, 1.6 cm. long, sepals ovate, the little longer petals acute, den-
tate; upper third of branches sterile male flowers, these with sub-
oblong petals, sepals 1 mm. long, anthers 5 mm. long; fruiting
FLORA OF PERU 393
branches 2; cup of perianth bracts 7 mm. across; fruit 4.5 cm. long,
18 mm. in diameter, deciduously tomentose, sepals ovate, acute,
petals rotund, apiculate; mesocarp fleshy, finely fibrous, endocarp
smooth, beaked, 4 X 1.6 cm., the pores about 5 mm. above the base.
Contrasts with M. venatorum, as the calyx of male flowers in com-
parison with petals is several times longer, and the heads of the
branches as well as the male flowers are notably longer (author).
Loreto: Iquitos, (Tessmann 5081, type; also 5078, male) . "Ynay-
Maximilliana venatorum (Poepp.) Wendl. Kerch. Palm. 251.
1878; 698. Cocos venatorum Poepp. ex Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3:
325. 1850. Attalea venatorum (Poepp.) Mart. I.e.
Caudex less than 8 meters high, leaves with long petioles, the
4-aggregate pinnae in part erect, all lepidote at base, linear, long-
acuminate; spathe pubescent, longitudinally sulcate, long-cuspidate;
spadix about 8 dm. long, branches of female erect, glaucous-pruinose;
stamens 6, exserted, 4 times longer than the perianth; fruit oval.
Burret described the Tessmann specimen about as follows: apical
leaf fragment with triangular rachis minutely fuscous scurfy beneath;
segments aggregate nearly to apex, the lower variously directed, all
rigid, concolor, secondary nerves about 3, the ulterior obscure above,
many very fine beneath, the transverse more prominent above; lower
segments seen 3-aggregate, 7 dm. long, 2 cm. wide, the upper mostly
binate, the uppermost very narrow; branches male spadix fragment,
incrassate at base, 14-16 cm. long, sparsely bracteate to about one-
third, finally densely flowered, about 2 mm. thick; floral bracts sub-
rotund, minutely extended, oblong, nearly 7 cm. long; perianth
2.75 mm. high, sepals scarcely 0.5 mm. long, petals narrowly oblong,
filaments as long, anthers linear, 7 mm. long. F.M. Neg. 31308.
Indians use petioles as blow-pipes for the arrow poison Urari
San Martin: Tocache, (Poeppig). Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Poep-
pig). Yarina-cocha, (Tessmann 5492). "Ynaynca," "inayuca."
25. AIPHANES Willd.
Martinezia R. & P. Prodr. 148, pi. 32. 1793 (per Dombey, litt.);
1794 (per title) ; Syst. Veg. 295. 1798, a mixture fide Burret, Repert.
Sp. Nov. 34: 169-170. 1933.
Reference: Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 557-577. 1932.
394 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Spiniferous nearly all over, and thus resembling many species of
Bactris but the spadices elongate and sooner or later free from the
slender or thin, not cymba-like spathe. Pinnae usually cuneate-
based, sometimes strongly oblique at the truncate or erose apex.
Flowers variously disposed as to sex but ordinarily 1 female with
2 male, now and then the spadix mostly female, not infrequently
entirely below. Stamens 6, linear or suborbicular, the male flowers
not immersed. Ovary 3-celled. Fruit a small, 1-seeded, firm or
fleshy depressed-globose drupe, the seed rugose or pitted, albumen
plane, solid. A. caryotifolia (HBK.) Wendl., ascribed to Peru by
Martius, is probably an error (cf. Burret, I.e. 560); the species, at
least as to typical state, is restricted, perhaps, to Colombia or area
north of Peru.
Flowers scarcely immersed, male higher than basal, acute; female
staminodal cup teeth 6, obvious (subgenus Macroanthera Burret).
Leaf-segments 3-5-aggregate A. Ernesti.
Leaf-segments distinct A. praemorsa.
Flowers, especially female, more or less immersed; male often broader
than high, rounded; staminodal teeth obscure or little obvious
(subgenus Brachyanthera Burret).
Leaf pairs 5-12, cuneate or deltoid leaflets.
Leaflets 5 pairs, small A. Ulei.
Leaflets 12 pairs, ample A. deltoidea.
Leaf pairs many, narrow.
Leaflets all subequal A. gracilis.
Leaflets unequal A. Weberbaueri.
Acaulescent A. Tessmannii.
Aiphanes deltoidea Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 568.
Cespitose, the larger stems to 2 meters long, regularly spiny as
the petioles, these 3.5 dm. long, densely fuscous scurfy, not setose, the
spines 3 cm. long, black; rachis aculeate, setose and pubescent, be-
neath furfuraceous; leaves 10 or 12, about 14 dm. long, oblong, the
segments around 12 pairs, very unevenly disposed, 2-3-aggregate,
widely spaced, the lower above the base mostly 1-aculeate, 4-4.5 cm.
long, all above smooth and glabrous, subglabrous beneath, broadly
elongate-deltoid-cuneate, the apical decurrent 2-2.5 cm., inner mar-
FLORA OF PERU 395
gin 2.6 dm. long, 8-11 cm. wide, the apex praemorsely obliquely
lobulate and caudately produced 6 cm., lower segments shorter but
often relatively wider; spadices interfoliar, about 1 meter long, the
branched part 47 cm. long; lower spathe linear, about 3 dm. long,
to 12 mm. wide, furfuraceous, free part 7 dm. long, linear, not at all
acuminate; peduncle as rachis and many divaricate branches these
slender, flexuose, the lower 3.5, the upper about 1 dm. long furfura-
ceous, setose and setulose; glomerules mostly 2 males, upper flowers
all male, the latter broader than high, sepals oblong, petals broadly
ovate, costate, anthers oval; female sepals rotund, petals connate,
lobes triangular, staminodal cup obscurely dentate. Male flowers
orange, female more greenish, all odorless; fruit eaten, sweet.
Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, (Tessmann 4709, type) . "Chiqui-
chiqui," "chica-chica," "shica-shica."
Aiphanes Ernesti Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 560.
1932. Martinezia Ulei Damm. I.e. 6: 266. 1915, not 1907.
Petioles, leaf -rachis and spathes whitish-tomentose, brown-squa-
mate and dark brown aculeate with spines to 3.5 cm. long; leaf-
segments 3-5-aggregate, elongate-cuneate, to 3.5 dm. long, 1 dm.
wide, apically erosely crenate-dentate and tricuspidate, glabrous
above, pubescent beneath, the upper of the sparsely setose margins
long-produced; outer spathe membranous toward apex, finally only
fibrous, the inner elongate-lanceolate, subligneous, sparsely short-
aculeate, to 6 dm. long, 3 cm. wide; spadix long-peduncled, branches
many to 26 cm. long, 3 mm. thick at base, tortuous, densely flowered;
flowers solitary toward apex; male calyx subhyaline, lobes long-
lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long, corolla fleshy, petals ovate, acuminate,
3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, those of female cordate, 1.5 mm. long;
fruit red. Type, Alto Acre (Ule 116B, type).
Peru (probably). Adjacent Brazil.
Aiphanes gracilis Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11: 566.
Similar to A. Weberbaueri, but slenderer and smaller; type half
meter tall; petioles about 3 dm. long, densely black-setose and -acule-
ate, the larger spines nearly 4.5 cm. long, these as setae but smaller
on the lower part of the leaf -rachis and the leaf-segments beneath;
leaf-blades to 9.5 dm. long, the 17-20 pairs of segments plicate in the
nerves, rigid, the apical 2 subequal or narrower, to about 14 cm. long,
the longest about medial, 1.5 dm. long on midnerve, upper margin
396 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
produced 3-5 cm., to 3.5 cm. wide, upper segments decreasing in size;
spadix slender, about 13 dm. long, sparsely and minutely black-
setose, the branched part 6 dm. long, the branches 12-15, scattered;
upper male flowers 2 or solitary. Except that the terminal leaf-
segments are little if at all wider than the rest, the differences appear
to be relative developments.
Amazonas: Rio Mayo north of Moyobamba, (Weberbauer 4665,
Aiphanes praemorsa (Poepp.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Ber-
lin 11 : 575. 1932. Bactris praemorsa Poepp. ex Mart. Palm. Orbign.
10: 66. 1847.
Low caudex and basally vaginate petiole aculeate, the smooth
leaf-rachis lepidote-tomentose, the few deltoid leaflets apically erose-
denticulate, marginally aculeolate, early lepidote beneath, finally
green; drupe turbinate-globose. Seems to differ from A. caryotifolia
(HBK.) Wendl. in that the indument and the leaf-rachis are not
aculeate, and the segments are larger (Martius) . No fruit at Munich,
but the leaves most resemble A. caryotifolia; the rachis, however, is
quite without spines; noteworthy, also, is the white tomentum; in
A. Ernesti the lower leaf segments are strongly drawn together
San Martin: River woods near Tocache, (Poeppig, type).
Aiphanes Tessmannii Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11:
Acaulescent; petioles 3 dm. long; spines black, few, to 5 cm. long,
setae many, yellowish-brown, these also on both sides of leaves and
on spadices; leaves long-elliptic, 12 dm. long, rachis not at all acule-
ate, extended as a filum; apical lobes 7-nerved, 11-12.5 cm. across,
the inner margin 2 dm. long, the apical unevenly lobulate-dentate;
remaining segments 1-nerved, 19-20 on each side, rather regularly
spaced, mostly the medial larger, these on midrib about 28 cm. long,
on upper caudate margin 32 cm. long, all sublinear, 2.5-3 cm. wide,
thin, yellowish-green with long rigid trichomes; branched part of
spadix 4.5 dm. long; peduncle elongate; lower spathe apparently
black-setose, the upper very long, thin, narrow, yellowish-setose;
branches not aculeate, the setae minute; glomerules rarely with 2
male flowers, the upper with flowers nearly always solitary; petals
reflexed, ovate-rounded, nervose, calyx not produced basally, sepals
FLORA OF PERU 397
suboblong, anthers oval; female flowers with broadly rounded sepals,
staminodal teeth obscure. An outstanding species (author).
Loreto: Mouth of Rio Santiago, (Tessmann 4281, type).
Aiphanes Ulei (Damm.) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11:
568. 1932. Martinezia Ulei Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48:
Slender, 1-4 meters tall, the pinnate leaves with 5 pairs of cuneate-
truncate, setose-ciliate leaflets about 1 cm. distant and a single pair
6-8 cm. from these, the 3-angled rachis somewhat scaly and strongly
black-spiny; leaflets (known) to 6 cm. long, 2 mm. wide at tip, the
marginal setae 1 mm. long, 2-4 mm. distant; spadix 3 dm. long or
longer; peduncle sparsely aculeate; rachis pilosulous or glabrous,
elongate branches strict, female flowers on lower third or half, male
approximate in 2 series above.
Loreto: Cerro de Escalero, (Ule 6880, type).
Aiphanes Weberbaueri Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 11:
Ascending stems to a meter high, the younger portion long-
aculeate with dark brown spines, these black on the petioles (frag-
ment seen 3 dm. long), many, to 6 cm. long; rachis aculeate, yellowish
setulae toward apex, produced into a filum above the bifurcation,
longer than 1 meter; apical segments both 5-nerved, the inner margin
7.5 cm. long, at the apex 3.5-6.5 cm. wide, praemorsely denticulate,
the remaining 18-20 all 1-nerved, very unevenly disposed in clusters
at long intervals, those below the apical somewhat narrower, the
larger medial segments about 21 cm. long on the midnerve, 24 cm.
on the upper margin, to 4.5 cm. wide above, thin, not at all plicate,
green both sides, often beneath above base 1-aculeate, both sides
between and on veins short- and long-brownish-setulose, the upper
margin (not lower) caudate, the apex unevenly lobulate; spadices
rather slender, branched part 42 cm. long, branches about 24 (pe-
duncle sparsely aculeate, setose, 4 dm. long), the lower 12 remote,
largest seen about 3.5 dm. long, rigid, subflexuose, densely brown
setose; lower glomerules laxly spiralled, upper and those of upper
branchlets male, mostly solitary; petals broadly ovate, obtuse, an-
thers small, suborbicular; fruits oval, setose, with perianth 12 mm.
long, 1 cm. thick, sepals rotund, petals connate below, cup obscurely
Huanuco: Rio Pozuzo, (Weberbauer 6775, type).
398 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
26. ASTROCARYUM G. F. W. Meyer
Reference: Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 35: 114-158. 1934.
Spinescent and vegetatively similar to Aiphanes rarely acaules-
cent, often robust, and, especially, the spathe-valves cymba-like, the
peduncles short, extended as the rachis of the reduced spadix, the male
immersed in the crowded, usually simple branches. Fruit 1 (-2)
-seeded, the pericarp slightly fleshy but soon dry, fibrous within, the
somewhat accrescent perianth persisting, the 3 subapical, often radi-
ately ornamental pores regularly at the same height (Burret) ; albu-
men grooved. Entirely mature fruit with perianth is necessary to
determine the species (Burret).
Spadix branches with 2-many female flowers laxly disposed above
base; fruit not long-cuneate or applanate, not aculeate or setose
(subgenus Pleiogynanthus Burret).
Fruit early scurfy and setulose; staminodal cup elongate.
Fruit glabrous; staminodal cup short.
Leaf -segments 3-4-aggregate A. tucuma.
Leaf-segments equidistant A. jauari.
Spadix branches with 1 female flower, basal or subbasal; endocarp
normally cuneate below, often laterally somewhat prismatically
applanate, mostly aculeate or setose (subgenus Monogynanthus
Calyx and corolla of female flowers subequal.
Plants acaulescent A. huicungo.
Plants caulescent A. murumura.
Calyx shorter than corolla in female flowers.
Fruit finely setulose; female calyx setose A. macrocalyx.
Fruit smooth; female calyx esetulose A. chonta.
Astrocaryum chambira Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 35: 122. 1934.
Caudex solitary, 3.5 dm. in diameter, annulate, the internodal
spines to 9 cm. long; leaves 16, about 6 meters long, petioles deeply
canaliculate, 1 dm. wide, spines to 1 dm. long or longer, rachis acu-
leate and setose; segments many, more or less approximate and
unevenly disposed, the linear basal not at all reduplicate, the apical
rather abruptly contracted, bifid, mostly subobtuse, the remaining
similar but gradually attenuate, all lustrous above, smooth, margin-
ally rather coarsely setose (-ciliate), opaque (probably early silvery)
FLORA OF PERU 399
beneath, the midrib prominent on both sides, the secondary nerves
obscure above, more obvious beneath; upper spathe (fragmentary)
a meter long, furfuraceous, aculei slender, 2-2.5 cm. long, not cov-
ered by the dense setosity; peduncle 12 cm. long, shortly aculeate,
early tomentose and sparsely aculeate, the many branches spiralled,
to 4.5 dm. long, female flowers bright brown, 2-3 on the lower half
of the branch, the upper part a thick, densely white-villous bracted
spike of male chocolate-colored blossoms; female with 2 rudimentary
male, calyx glabrate, cupulate, little or not longer than the similar
but contracted corolla, this white-furfuraceous and black-setulose,
nearly equaled by the staminodal cup; male calyx lobes narrowly
lanceolate, acuminate, the corolla base connately stiped, the oblong
lobes nearly as long; anthers linear, 3 mm. long; fruit elongate- or
obovoid-globose, to 7 cm. long including beak (1 cm. long) and cup-
ulate perianth (13 mm. long), 4 cm. in diameter or more; epicarp
early scurfy and black-setulose, finally opaque, densely gibbous,
mesocarp fibrous, endocarp obovoid, notably produced at base, the
calyx more or less damaged, the corolla nearly crenulate. Distin-
guished from A. tucuma Mart, by the coniform fruiting perianth
and the very high staminodal cup of the female flowers; A. macro-
carpum Huber (Bull. Herb. Boiss. se>. 2, 6: 271, pi. 13. 1906), of
adjacent Brazil, scarcely described, has about 6 leaves, rather weak
spines, lower internodes at least twice longer than broad, fruit larger.
Tessmann noted usual uses for similar palms, including the fiber
and fruits, and observed this species frequently in areas rarely
flooded near Iquitos, on the Ucayali, Tamaya, Yarina-cocha, mouth
of the Santiago, and Rio Chambira.
This may be the species referred to by Spruce (Journ. Linn. Soc.
11: 157. 1871) as A. vulgare Mart, under the same native name, a
species not, apparently, within the range; this native name has
been listed, as by Dahlgren, also for A. tucuma Mart.; Drude's illus-
tration of the fruit of the latter could be this species (Burret).
San Martin: Tarapoto, (Raimondi). Loreto: Flood-free area
near Iquitos, (Tessmann 5079, type). Brazil. "Chambira."
Astrocaryum chonta Orbigny ex Mart. Palm. Orbign. 10: 84,
pi 4, figs. 1, 2; pi. 29C. 1847; 149.
Caudex at least above long-aculeate, to 10 meters tall; leaves
9-12, finally divaricate, 6 or 7 meters long, 2-5 meters wide, the
linear-acuminate subfalcate pinnae 1 meter long or longer, to 7.5 cm.
wide, regularly subopposite, about 2.5 cm. distant, not at all plicate,
400 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
pale or silvery-tomentose beneath, the rachis (this tomentose) and
margins black setulose, the spines about 1-2.5 cm. long; midnerve
prominent above, the secondary many, very fine, approximate;
spathe fusiform, 9 dm. long, violet-tinged, closely black aculeate
especially toward the apex; spadix branches many, 7-10 dm. long;
female flowers subsessile, at base of each branch, calyx as corolla
cupulate, the latter 2 times longer, esetulose; male flowers shortly
pedicellate, calyx segments acute, carinate, the corolla divisions 4
times higher, oblong-linear, obtuse, the filaments 6, basally cohering;
fruit yellow, long-obovoid, smooth, 6-7 cm. long, scarcely 2.5 cm.
thick above, the residual stigmas apical, the pores subapical; black
seed radiately veined. After Martius (I.e. 85), who referred here a
fruiting specimen (Herb. Parker Webb) labeled as collected by Pavon,
not seen by Burret; however, as it is known from the upper Rio Purus
it well may occur in flooded woods and shores in Madre de Dios.
Plate 29 (I.e.) is incorrect in irregular pinnae; fruit perianth sche-
Wood hard but fragile; putamen very sweet (but not eaten) fruit
used as a fire-starter (D'Orbigny).
Peru (perhaps). Bolivia; Amazonian Brazil. "Chonta."
Astrocaryum huicungo Damm. ex Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov.
35: 146. 1934.
Acaulescent; leaf rachis medially 3-angled, early furfuraceous be-
neath, densely aculeate; segments many, regularly disposed, long-
linear, abruptly contracted at base, about 3 cm. wide, smooth,
glabrous, blue-green (glaucous) beneath, marginally spinulose toward
apex; spadix (branched part) nearly 2.5 dm. long, the many branches
as the rachis aculeate, the male spikes rather long; fruits compactly
crowded, thus laterally somewhat prismatic, cuneate below, mostly
oblong-obovoid, verruculose and short-setulose, 5-8 cm. long, rounded
to the short cusp; fruiting perianth 2-2.5 cm. high, calyx to three-
fourths, staminodal cup to two-thirds as high as corolla, both calyx
and corolla long-setulose-hirsute; mesocarp apparently not at all
fleshy, dry. Resembles A.jauarense Trail ex Drude (Mart. Fl. Bras.
3, pt. 2: 372. 1881), with long bracts at the female flowers (no trace
of these found on this fruiting specimen) ; also the setae on the fruits
of Trail's species are 1 cm. long (Burret); A. Ulei Burret (I.e. 147)
from Rio Acre is also acaulescent but the glabrous female calyx is
much shorter than the corolla and also suggests the caulescent
A. murumura with subequal calyx and corolla, the latter setulose.
FLORA OF PERU 401
San Martin: Moyobamba, 800 meters, (Weberbauer, type; 147).
Astrocaryum jauari Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 76, pis. 52, 65,
fig. 1. 1823 (Burret), 1824 (Dahlgren); 125.
Sometimes 14 meters tall, the spiny zones 3-5 cm. long; leaves
about 3 meters long, the short petioles and costa below densely
rufous tomentose and spinescent; segments linear, long-acuminate,
equidistant, arcuate-pendulous from conduplicate base, 7-8 dm. long,
remotely aculeate marginally, silvery beneath; spadix nearly 1 meter
long, hidden among the leaves; peduncle white tomentose, erect,
4 dm. long, branches many, 3^t dm. long, rachis tomentulose; spathe
ventricose, acuminate, fuscous tomentose and aculeate; scrobiculi
of 3-6 flowers 2-3 cm. distant, a single female (glabrous, ciliate as
the subequal corolla) with 2 often rudimentary male, this lower part
finally equaled by the thick upper spike (1.5 dm. long) of cuspidately
bracted immersed male flowers; stamens included, disk fleshy, calyx
as the one-third to one-half longer corolla, 3-parted; fruit insipid,
glabrous, greenish-yellow, obovoid, shortly acuminate, 4-5 cm. long,
2.5-3 cm. in diameter, putamen 3-3.5 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. in diam-
eter, the slender black fibers subparallel. Inundated areas, forming
the "jauary woods" (Huber). Illustrated, Wallace, Palms Amazon,
Loreto: Soledad, lower Rio Itaya, (Tessmann 5210). Amazonian
Brazil. "Huirirma," "jauari" (Brazil).
Astrocaryum macrocalyx Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 35: 150.
Low, perhaps to 9 meters tall, the caudex 2.5 dm. in diameter
with 15 leaves (Tessmann); leaf-rachis narrowly 3-angled, setulose
and aculeate beneath, the segments regularly disposed, not redupli-
cate, the lower (as seen) 6 dm. long, 5 cm. wide, the upper gradually
wider, all with secondary nerves not at all plicate, fragile, smooth
except marginally spinulose, lustrous above, paler but scarcely sil-
very beneath; upper spathe (apical part) 6 dm. long, fuscous setose-
velutinous and aculeate; peduncle spadix to 2 cm. long, aculeate,
pilose, the bracts oblong or lanceolate, the branched part 4 dm. long,
aculei or setae lacking, branches many; female flowers at base of each
branch 1, sessile, the bract little produced, covered by the trichomes
and setae of the truncate calyx, the longer corolla narrowed above,
furfuraceous and densely black-setulose as the pistil, staminodal an-
402 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
mil us present; male flowers all fertile (spikes pedunculate, yellowish-
pilose), in 6 vertical series, calyx small, narrowly 3-denticulate, petals
obovate, cucullate; fruits (by mutual pressure) prismatic below, obo-
void-oblong, 6.5-8 cm. long (beak 5 mm. long), finely setulose; peri-
anth 1.8 cm. high, calyx half as long as corolla, both setulose,
mesocarp more or less reticulate fibrous. Resembles A. murumura
Mart, with calyx and corolla of female flowers subequal. A. uro-
stachys Burret (I.e. 151), of Rio Napo, Ecuador, so probably also in
Peru, has peduncles without aculei or setae, and rudimentary flowers
at the ends of the male spikes.
Loreto: On the Maran6n, (Hoppll26, type). Iquitos, (Tessmann
5117, probably; Burret). "Huicungo" (Tessmann).
Astrocaryum murumura Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 70, pis.
58, 59. 1823; 148.
Caudex rarely attains 6 meters, 2.5 dm, in diameter, the coma
globose with a mixture of leaves, sheath remains and spines often
several to 10 dm. long; petioles aculeate, leaves 3-4 meters long,
segments 30-40 or more both sides, unequally distant, linear-lanceo-
late, falcate-acuminate, about 5 dm. long, half as wide, mostly un-
evenly floccose-tomentose below, secondary nerves mostly 3, very
prominent; spadix about 1 meter long, the long peduncle tomentose
and aculeate, the upper spathe fuscous setose and aculeate, rachis
1 dm. long, branches 200 or so, 1-1.5 dm. long, pedicels 3-^4 cm. long;
male flowers 3 mm. long, half emerged, turbinate-obovoid; female on
dilated base of branches, 1 cm. high, 6 mm. across, calyx glabrescent,
about equaled by the campanulate setose corolla; stigmas elongate,
exserted; fruit 5-6 cm. long, 4 cm. in diameter above the middle,
sparsely setulose, putamen turbinate-obovoid, arcuately lined and
coarsely stellate a little below the acute apex. After Drude. Said
by Spruce (Journ. Linn. Soc. 11 : 157. 1871) to grow along the Hual-
laga to the foot of the Andes, and by Huber (Bull. Herb. Boiss. se>. 2,
6: 267. 1906) to be found in nearly all the Amazonian region, includ-
ing the upper Purus, at the edge of flooded zones; not included in
Peru, however, by Burret. F.M. Negs. 18572; 185720.
Peru (cf. above). Amazonian Brazil. "Huicunga," "uicungu,"
Astrocaryum tucuma Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 77, pi. 65,
fig. 2. 1823; 119. A. princeps Barb. Rodr. Enum. Palm. 22. 1875,
FLORA OF PERU 403
Caudex 15 meters tall or taller, the spreading spines 1 dm. long;
spathes at insertion strongly tumid, spinescent, the 8-12 (or more?)
leaves 2-3 meters long, segments 3-4-aggregate, costa aculeate,
whitish-tomentose beneath, setae ciliate, linear-acuminate, 6-8 dm.
long, 3-4 cm. wide; spadix 1.5 meters long, spathe smooth below,
aculeate toward long-acuminate tip, rachis smooth, branches slender,
finely tomentulose, 400-500, erect, 2.5-3 dm. long; female flowers at
nearly 1 dm. from base, the lageniform setulose calyx deeply parted,
subequaling the glabrous corolla, scarcely 1 cm. long, the staminodal
cup less than half as long; male flowers immersed, minutely bracteo-
late, calyx minute, 4-5 times shorter than corolla; fruit glabrous,
putamen acute at base, obovoid, rostrate. Included by Dahlgren
in his list but possibly replaced entirely within Peru by similar spe-
cies as A. chambira Burret, which compare, but may be known as
near as Rios Solimoes and Japurd (Burret).
Peru (perhaps). Amazonian Brazil.
27. BAGTRIS Jacquin
Guilielma Mart. Palm. Fam. 21. 1824. Pyrenoglyphis Karst. Fl.
2: 141. 1866. Martinezia R. & P. Prodr. Fl. Peruv. 148, pi. 32. 1794,
in part. Amylocarpus Barb. Rodr. Contr. Journ. Bot. Rio Janiero 3:
69. 1902, fide Burret, I.e. 168. Yuba (Barb. Rodr.) Bailey, Gentes
Herb. 7: 416. 1947, not Amylocarpus Currey, 1857.
Reference: Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 167-253. 1934.
Strikingly to inconspicuously spinescent (rarely not at all), usu-
ally clustered (cespitose), the straight annulate commonly slender
trunks rather rarely very tall. Leaves sometimes in part subtermi-
nal, simple, bifurcate or pinnate, the often many segments attenuate-
acuminate, characteristically more or less ciliate, at least at tip.
Spathes cymbiform, ordinarily firm-chartaceous (sometimes lignes-
cent), the inner exceeding the entire spadix, this interfoliar, simple
or once-branched, its peduncle often soon divaricate or pendulous.
Flowers sessile, monoecious in same spadix, typically on the female
scattered or the sexes intermixed or the lower ternate, the central
female; stamens 6, 9 or 12, filaments subulate and long (known), the
erect bifid anthers affixed at bifid base, calyx annular, urceolate or
3-parted; female calyx similarly varies, about half to nearly com-
pletely enclosing the 3-denticulate corolla, the staminodia obsolete
or free or infrequently (subgenus Pyrenoglyphis') forming a ring;
404 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
ovary 3-celled. Fruit 1-celled, 1-seeded, ovoid-subglobose, sometimes
suboblong, stigmas sessile, terminal, pericarp slightly to very suc-
culent, endocarp osseous, more or less subapically 3-pored, seed
pendulous, raphe reticulate, albumen uniform. Subgenus Guilielma
has no staminal cup, and the leaf-segments are usually in more than
one plane (Bailey), but extraordinarily characteristic are the flat
band-like fibers radiating from the pores of the endocarp (Burret) ;
this is usually uniformly covered with fibrous or other tissues (as
prickles). The fruiting perianth may be somewhat accrescent, in-
durated, forming a double merely crenate or entire cup but, especially
in Pyrenoglyphis, it is scalloped and shallow (Bailey). As to Pyreno-
glyphis, fide Burret, no intermediates as regards the development of
the staminodal ring were observed and he therefore retains the genus;
practically, this single difference may be regarded as defining a sub-
genus and still indicate the relationships. Finally, there is the segre-
gate Amylocarpus (Yuba). Bailey (I.e.) implied but did not add basic
information to justify acceptance of Burret's considered judgment
that the group more correctly is treated as a subgenus, having no
distinctive fruit character, but (as redefined by Burret) including
species with lower flowers 3-glomerulate, the upper only male, no
female; this able and thoughtful student noted that the floral position
is too variable within the genus to define, in itself, generic lines.
Burret, who devised no key himself (I.e.), remarked that Drude's
key to the Brazilian species is quite unnatural; the following, com-
piled from literature only, is entirely expedient.
Staminodial ring more or less developed (subgenus Pyrenoglyphis).
Spines pale; leaf-segments to 6 dm. long; spadix branched.
Spines black; leaf-segments to 4 dm. long; spadix simple.
Staminodial ring obsolete, staminodia free (Bactris).
Endocarp fibers radiate in flat bands from pores (Burret) ; leaves
strongly crisped; fruit colored, edible (subgenus Guilielma).
Upper spathe sparsely brownish aculeate; spadix branches 10-12.
Upper spathe densely long black aculeate; spadix branches few.
Endocarp (known) not fibrous as above; leaves and (or) fruits also
different (apparently, ex char.).
FLORA OF PERU 405
Flowers of lower rachis or its branches typically or usually all
ternate, 1 male, upper all single, male (subgenus Amylo-
carpus; see also B. Lakoi).
Calyx (female) as subincluded glabrous corolla cupulate or
subcylindric, in fruit subequal; spathes smooth, spadix
small, not setose.
Primary nerves 9 or 10; spadix simple.
Leaves deeply bifurcate, glabrous B. Killipii.
Leaves submedially bifurcate, apex setulose. . .B. naevia.
Primary nerves 14; spadix bifurcate B. amoena.
Calyx (also fruiting) low, 3-lobed, corolla much longer, pilose,
cylindric; upper spathes setose or aculeate.
Leaves shortly bifid B. hirta.
Leaf-segments 10 pairs or fewer, setose-ciliate.
Segments narrowly lanceolate B, cuspidata.
Segments oblong-lanceolate B. mitis.
Leaf -segments many B. Lakoi.
Flowers not so regularly disposed by sex, usually 2 male with
1 female, and single females also scattered; sometimes (as
B. Lakoi) single, or several male may occur between the
ternate groups (Bactris sens. str.).
Leaf -segments few or leaves merely parted.
Spadix simple; fruit glabrous B. angustifolia.
Petioles 3 dm. long, long-spinescent; fruit glabrous.
Petioles 1-5 cm. long, aculeate; fruit setose.
Segments linear, about 12 mm. wide B. Lakoi.
Segments 2-7 cm. wide.
Many segments 3-4 cm. wide or wider.
Leaves beneath, spathes tomentose . . . B. trichospatha.
Leaves green, margins setulose.
Petioles to 5 dm. long, setulose, spiny.
406 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Petioles 6-9 cm. long, finally smooth.
Many segments 2-2.5 cm. wide or narrower, if linear, not
Spines black; leaves glabrous above, bidentate.
Spines yellowish; leaves green both sides, acuminate.
Bactris actinoneura Drude & Trail, ex Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras.
3, pt. 2: 344, pi 76. 1882; 211.
Caudices 2 or 3, a meter or two (-3) high, 2-3 cm. thick, annulate,
the spines black, compressed (as on sheaths), 2-3 cm. long; leaves
about 8, 2.5-3 meters long, equally pinnate, sheaths 4-5 dm. long,
petioles slender, 6-9 cm. long and, as costa, finally smooth; segments
20-25 each side, unevenly disposed, sometimes binate, sessile, broadly
ovate-arcuate, strongly falcate-acuminate, rather abruptly caudate,
2-3 dm. long, 4-7 cm. wide, smooth, multinerved, one prominent
above, the 14-16 secondary radiating from base, many confluent at
tip, obscurely or not setulose on margins; spadix nutant, about 2 dm.
long, spathe shorter, densely black-aculeate; peduncles scarcely setu-
lose, rachis 2 cm. long, the 6-12 branches slender, 8-12 cm. long,
female flowers to above the middle, approximate, esetulose, after
anthesis 5 mm. long, calyx 3-lobed, glabrous, corolla twice as long,
urceolate, 3-dentate; male flowers and fruit unknown. F.M. Neg.
San Martin: Tocache, (Poeppig). Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Poep-
pig 2072). Amazonian Brazil.
Bactris amoena Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 180. 1933.
Type solitary, 1 cm. in diameter, internodes 11-14 cm. long; peti-
oles 2.5 dm. long, rather stout, quite smooth as the sheath this
fuscous furfuraceous, apex broadly ovate-produced and the simple
leaf-blade, not medially bifurcate; leaves obovate, cuneate to base,
primary nerves 14, slender, glabrous both sides, about 5.5 dm. long,
3.5 dm. wide, the lobes subovate, shortly incurved-acuminate, 27 cm.
long (on upper margin) ; spadix bifurcate, smooth as the fragmentary
spathe; free part of fruiting peduncle 2 cm. long, recurved, branches
5-6 cm. long, 3-flowered glomerules to apices, not alveolate, densely
spiralled; fruit smooth, ovoid, robustly rostrate, 7 mm. wide, 12 mm.
FLORA OF PERU 407
high, with perianth, this cupuliform, 3 mm. high, the 3-lobed calyx
two-thirds as long as the 3-lobed corolla. Suggests B. simplex Burret
(I.e. 179), with 10 primary nerves and aculeate petioles 13 cm. long;
less, B. integrifolia Wallace, abundantly spinescent (author) ; species
range of variation is of course unknown; it also simulates B. bifida
Mart. (Pyrenoglyphis, fide Burret). Type from Rio Putumayo (Rio
lea) on the boundary (Lako 4)>
Peru (no doubt). Adjacent Colombia or Brazil.
Bactris angustifolia Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 128.
1906 (-7); 201.
Type a meter or two high, the simple leaves with spiny petioles
10-13 cm. long (spines few, to 6 cm. long, brown); sheath fibrous;
rachis to 22 cm. long, blade medially bifid, 48 cm. long, 7 cm. wide,
cuneate, 8-nerved each side, the apical, little divaricate lanceolate
lobes 2.5 dm. long, 4 cm. wide, attenuate to base, marginally aculeate;
lower spathe fusiform, the appressed aculei brown, 2-3 mm. long;
peduncle 7-8 cm. long, 2 apical branches 3.5-6 cm.; flowers approxi-
mate (injured) ; fruits black. B. sphaerocarpa Trail, 201, with leaves
more than medially bifid or biparted, the lobes basally linear-lanceo-
late, 6-8-nerved, and widely known rather near Peru, may occur
there; type of Dammer's species from headwaters of the Rio Jurua,
near the boundary, may be a variant.
Peru (undoubtedly). Adjacent Brazil.
Bactris Brongnartii Mart. Palm. Orbign. 59. pi. 7, figs. 2, 28 A.
1847 (fig. 2 under name B. maraja) ; 251. Pyrenoglyphis Brongnartii
(Mart.) Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 35: 251. 1934. B. maraja Mart.
Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 93, pi. 71, fig. 1. 1823 as to fruiting spadix, name
probably based on a mixture (Burret). B. rivularis Barb. Rodr.
Enum. Palm. 36. 1875.
Stems usually clustered, rarely 10 meters tall, cylindric or con-
stricted at the nodes, the internodes stouter above, unequal in length
and in the upper part densely aculeate, the spines pale, divaricate;
petioles, spathes and leaf -rachis also whitish-aculeate; leaves crowded,
9-12, somewhat crisped, adult spreading, 3-4 meters long, segments
to nearly 6 dm. long, 3 cm. or so wide, lanceolate, acute, marginally
rather long-aculeate, duplicate; spadix branched, early included in
the fusiform spathe, 3 dm. long, densely and shortly aculeate; calyx
of female flowers shorter than 5 mm., the oblong-cylindric corolla
408 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
included, minutely pubescent; fruit turbinate or obovate-globose,
shortly cusped, 14 mm. in diameter, violet-black, fleshy, acid; puta-
men depressed globose or lenticular, 3-pored. Illustrated, Barb.
Rodr. Sert. Palm. Bras. 2: pis. 30, 31 (B. rivularis).
Loreto: Inundated terrain, Cashiba Playa, (Tessmann 3267).
Edge of Rio Itaya near Iquitos, (Tessmann 5086). Bolivia; Brazil.
"Chontilla," "nieja," "niejilla," "tana," (all Tessmann).
Bactris chaetochlamys Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 208. 1934.
Caudex (type) to 5 cm. in diameter; sheaths as petioles these
to 5 dm. long fuscous furfuraceous, minutely black setulose and
aculeate with rather dilated spines, to 4 cm. long, nearly subulate,
to 7 cm. long on the petioles; rachis 11 dm. long, furfuraceous be-
neath, minutely more or less darker setulose all over; segments 20-22,
only the upper rather regularly disposed, a few of the remaining aggre-
gate, the larger 3.5 dm. long, 4 cm. wide, all thin, lightly but clearly
sigmoid, green both sides, glabrous but marginally setose-ciliate, ob-
scurely bidentate, the upper part narrowly caudate, the lower obscure;
peduncle compressed, 1.5 dm. long, velvety setulose as the 2.5 cm.
long rachis; branches about 8; male flowers crowded, disposed all
over, as the scattered female; fruit glabrous, to 2 cm. long, 17 mm.
in diameter, cusp 1.5 mm. long, perianth 3 mm. high, calyx striate,
fuscous setose, as the little longer corolla (about 2 mm. long), at last
medially multilobed; putamen subglobose; staminodal cup none.
No doubt the upper spathe has the indument of the peduncle; notable
are the long thick serpent-like setae of the perianth (author). Type
from upper Rio Napo near the boundary with Peru.
Loreto (surely). Amazonian Ecuador.
Bactris chloracantha Poeppig ex Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2:
145. 1837; 234; 346 (Drude).
Clustered (cespitose) stems about 2 meters tall, 8 cm. in diameter,
more or less aculeate with straw-colored subterete spines, especially
abundant on the sheaths and petioles, the latter also white-floccose,
3-5 cm. long; leaves equally pinnate, 6-9 dm. long, the segments
2-5-aggregate, many, linear-oblanceolate, long-acuminate, caudate,
2-2.5 dm. long, 2-2.5 cm. wide, green both sides, margins setulose;
spadix 2 dm. long or longer, slender (upper spathe aculeate, Martius),
peduncle compressed, 2-3 cm. long, branches about 12, a dm. or so
long, floriferous to base; female flowers few, disposed to above the
middle of the branches, 5-6 mm. long, the urceolate corolla at least
FLORA OF PERU 409
twice longer than calyx, glabrous; fruit ovoid, acute, glabrous, dark
violet. F.M. Neg. 18606.
Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Poeppig 2107, type). Brazil. "Cachi-
Bactris ciliata (R. & P.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 95, pi 71.
1823. Martinezia ciliata R. & P. Syst. Veg. 295. 1798. Guilielma
ciliata (R. & P.) Wendl. Kerch. Palm. 246. 1878; 240.
Tall, the trunks and leaf-rachises aculeate and hirsute with spread-
ing white trichomes; leaf -segments equidistant, linear-lanceolate,
long-acuminate, to 4 dm. long, about 3 cm. wide, marginally and
midnerves above setose-aculeate, hirtellous below, the midnerve
prominent above, not decurrent, the secondary and tertiary strongly
approximate, glabrate only above; spathe 4 dm. long or longer (terete
acumen about 12 mm. long), early fusiform, lignescent, completely
covered with setiform aculei 12 mm. long, more robust on the ante-
rior part and imbricate, like an animal pelt, but toward apex of spathe
the covering spreading and reversed; spadix branched; fruit obovoid-
oblong, putamen obovoid (Martius). This palm has the trunk cov-
ered with long black sharp spines; its wood is black on the exterior,
solid, and very hard; nevertheless, it is easy to work lengthwise so
that the Indians use it for bows, arrow points, canes and blow-pipes,
beautifully polished; shoots are tasty, raw or cooked (Ruiz & Pavon).
The upper spathe is covered with long black prickles; the spadix with
young flowers is very small and has only a few branches (Burret,
after the type). Burret adds that the species is rather near G. gasi-
paes (HBK.) Bailey.
Huanuco: Pozuzo, Cuchero, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type). Junin:
Chanchamayo, Huabal, (Ruiz & Pavdn). "Chonta."
Bactris concinna Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 99, pi. 72, figs.
1823; 242; 335 (Drude). Pyrenoglyphis concinna (Mart.) Burret,
Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 242. 1934.
Gregarious, several meters tall, the stem about 2 cm. in diameter,
remotely annulate, aculeate above (as petioles) with subulate-com-
pressed black spines 2-3 cm. long; leaves 1.5-2 mm. long, petioles
2-3 dm. long, rachis less spiny, toward apex smooth; segments 30-40
each side, mostly 3 cm. distant, often alternate, linear-lanceolate,
the longer lower 3-4 dm. long, to 2 dm. long toward apex, 1.5-2 cm.
wide, acute or the lower margin caudate, 1-nerved, the margins black
410 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
ciliate; spadix stout, simple, finally nutant, long peduncle compressed,
the lower spathe membranous, ferrugineous, 5 cm. long, the upper
cylindric-clavate acuminate, nearly 2 dm. long, finely black setose
and aculeate; rachis shorter than peduncle, male flowers congested,
surrounded by female on lower half, these 3-4 mm. long, urceolate
setulose calyx little longer than the hirsutulous corolla, staminodal
cup present; fruits many, lustrous, dark violet, ellipsoid-obovoid, by
pressure sometimes angled, 2-3 cm. long, half as thick, putamen
scarcely 1 mm. thick, 3 stellate pores medial or a little above the
middle. B. aristata Mart. (P. aristata Burret, 242), perhaps occur-
ring, has fewer leaf-segments, rachis of spadix mostly biparted, setose
corolla 2-3 times longer than calyx (female), fruit glabrous. Another
upper Amazon species is B. gaviona Trail (P. gaviona (Trail) Burret,
246), the 30-35 segments equal, the peduncle stout with 4 long
branches, the female corolla 2-3 times longer than calyx, inflated,
the fruit setose-scabrous. Spruce (Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 147. 1871)
treated B. concinna Mart, as a subgroup (Endochlamys). Illustrated,
Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: pi 78, fig. 1; Barb. Rodr. Sert. Palm. Bras. 2:
pi. BE. Wood used in making weapons (Tessmann). F.M. Negs.
Loreto: Among shrubs of shores and flooded terrain, (Tessmann
3263). To Colombia and Amazonian Brazil. "Niejilla."
Bactris cuspidata Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 101, pi 73 B,
figs. 1, 2. 1823; 185.
Stem scarcely 5 mm. thick, smooth, glabrous below, fuscous to-
mentose above; leaves 4 or 5, mostly 6-7 dm. long, sheath and petiole
aculeate (spines dark, 5-10 mm. long), costa smooth, 3 dm. long, the
segments 5-8 pairs, narrowly falcate-lanceolate, caudately acumi-
nate, 1-1.5 dm. long, 2.5-3 cm. wide, 1-nerved, secondary nerves
many, prominent, glabrous except for the sparsely setose margins
and nerves or rarely setulose beneath; spathe sparsely long-setose;
spadix below the leaves, erect, 6 cm. long, peduncle hidden in sheath
and spathe, rachis (about 3 dm. long) divided into 2 or 3 branches;
upper spathe about 6 cm. long, fusiform, coriaceous, tomentose and
early capillaceously setulose; female calyx annulate, 3-lenticulate,
corolla 3 times longer, hirsutulous. According to Burret the var.
mitis of Drude (not Mart.) is B. ucupensis Spruce (Journ. Linn. Soc.
15: 150. 1871), calyx higher, spathe not setulose; perhaps, as sug-
gested by Burret, is a variant; like B. cuspidata and B. mitis Mart,
known from western Amazonian Brazil so may well occur in Peru.
FLORA OF PERU 411
Type from Rios Yapura and Solimoes, so probably, as listed by
Dahlgren, in Peru. F.M. Neg. 18611.
Peru (cf. note). Brazil.
Bactris fissifrons Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 103, pi. 73B, figs.
3, 4- 1823; 202; 327 (Drude).
Stem unarmed, 2-3 meters tall, 1-2 cm. in diameter, vaginate
above; petioles slender, about 3 dm. long, spinescent above with
black teeth, aculei 1-1.5 cm. long, leaf rachis 4 dm. long, smooth as
the 2-4 segments, the upper broadest, multinerved, marginally black-
setose; peduncle nutant, upper spathe fusiform-acuminate, aculei
1 cm. long, appressed, black, finally deciduous; spadix 2 dm. long or
longer, branches 2-4, fastigiate (rachis obsolete), spreading, densely
flowered to base; female flowers (male unknown) 4-5 mm. long, calyx
cupulate, 2 mm. long, corolla appressed setulose, twice as long; fruit
ellipsoid, mucronate-rostrate (5 mm. long), glabrous, 2.5 cm. long,
1.5 cm. in diameter, putamen depressed gibbous-turbinate. B. sphae-
rocarpa Trail (Journ. Bot. 15: 8, pi. 184- 1877; Fl. Bras. 325), widely
distributed near Peru, has sheath and petioles aculeate or smooth,
leaves simple and usually deeply bifid or with 1 opposite pair of seg-
ments, spadix simple, short-cylindric, calyx as longer corolla glabrous
or ciliate, in fruit lacerate; said by the author to be variable; Dam-
mer proposed another, possibly distinct, as B. angustifolia (Verh. Bot.
Ver. Brandenb. 48: 128. 1906 [-7). F.M. Neg. 18612.
Peru (no doubt). Adjacent Brazil; Colombia.
Bactris gasipaes HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 302. 1815. Guilielma
gasipaes (HBK.) Bailey, Gentes Herb. 2: 187. 1930; 237. G. speciosa
Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 81, pis. 66, 67. 1823. G. microcarpa Huber,
Bol. Mus. Goeldi 4: 476. 1904; 239, essentially a nomen nudum.
Trunks usually cespitose, 20 (-30) meters tall, lightly annulate,
long (3 cm.) aculeate, with a coma of incurved crisped leaves about
2 meters long; segments approximate, many, linear-lanceolate, long-
acuminate, about 6 dm. long, 3 cm. wide, midnerve prominent above,
the 3 or 4 secondaries both sides, margins remotely setulose or mi-
nutely aculeate; upper spathe sparsely brownish aculeate; spadix
early yellowish tomentose (peduncle aculeate), branches 2-3 dm.
long; male flowers crowded, 5-6 mm. long, calyx 1.5 mm. long, sub-
patelliform, corolla as subconnate disk fleshy, turbinate globose;
female flowers 7-8 mm. long, calyx 1 mm. long; fruit mostly 4 cm.
long, 3 cm. in diameter, applanate from base or concave-ovoid or
412 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
globose-rounded, glabrous, as many as 70 or 80 to a spadix, the puta-
men (often aborted) central, acutely turbinate from base, 2 cm. long,
half as thick.
Burret (I.e. 237-239) gave a re'sume' of the evidence relating to
the probable origin of the species and suggested that G. microcarpa
Huber (I.e.), fruit scarcely 1.5 cm. thick, may be the native state;
this seems to be borne out by Spruce (Journ. Linn. Soc. 11: 81. 1871),
who, observing that even in the Andes the large-fruited examples are
around habitations, expressed the opinion that a native small-fruited
form might still be found; he noted a small seedless variety (Wallace,
I.e., found the seed usually aborted). Further, Spruce gave a prac-
tical description: the clustered stems grow to 30 meters high and are
thickly armed with long prickles; the numerous curling and droop-
ing leaves rarely exceed 2 meters and have 50-60 leaflets on each
side, aggregate by threes and fours and pointing in all directions; the
fruits are massed into large pendulous corymbs; and if from their size
and vivid colors of yellow and red they may be likened to a well-
ripened peach (hence the name Peach Palm) in shape they more re-
semble a hen's egg, although usually rather more conical (!) ; the thick
firm flesh is mealy when cooked, something between chestnut and
potato in flavor and superior to either. Tessmann, as recorded by
Burret, 237, described the popular "masato" of Loreto, made as
"chiche" or, less conventionally, by the use of sugar; after four or
five days of fermentation, the drink was "very potent." Illustrated,
HBK. I.e. 7, pi. 700; Wallace, Palm, pi 3; Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16:
opposite 308, pis. 55, 56; Weberbauer, 148, pi. 2 A.
Loreto: Pampa de Sacramento, (Huber, type, G. microcarpa).
Yarina-cocha, middle Ucayali (Tessmann, perhaps, fide Burret).
Typical state apparently only in cultivation. "Pijuanyo," "pifuayo"
or "sara-pifuayo" (Tessmann), "pisho-guayo" (bird fruit, Quechua),
"chonta ruru," "chonta dura."
Bactris hirta Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 104, pis. 60, 74, figs. 1-3.
1826; 184. B. mollis Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 129. 1907,
Stems a meter or two high, a half cm. or so thick, not at all spiny
but fuscous tomentose above and the petioles (5 cm. long) as leaf
rachis densely but softly black-setose; leaves cuneate-obovate, shortly
bifid, more or less lanuginose beneath, pilose above, lobes triangular,
scarcely acute, nerves about 12, width below sinus 9-13 cm., length
2.5 dm.; spadix infrafoliar, bifid, erect-spreading in fruit, 5-10 cm.
FLORA OF PERU 413
long, outer spathe reddish-tomentose, inner coriaceous, fuscous-gla-
brous; peduncle compressed, setose, 2-4 dm., the 2 branches half
as long, male flowers approximate above; female corolla setulose,
2.5 mm. long, long-exceeding the calyx; fruit olive-black, acutely
cusped, 1 cm. long, 8 mm. in diameter, sparsely setulose. Leaves of
B. mollis as to type a little deeper parted, the fruit somewhat smaller,
differences not specific (Burret). F.M. Neg. 18614.
Loreto: Leticia, Ule 6221 (type, B. mollis). Adjacent Colombia;
Bactris Killipii Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 175. 1933.
Type (about 2 meters tall) smooth but the sheaths (12 cm. long)
and inner spathes fuscous furfuraceous, the peduncles early arachnoid
tomentose, larger than the spike (4 cm. long) ; petioles 3dm. long, at
first fuscous leprose; leaves simple, deeply bifurcate, glabrous, 4.6 dm.
long, each lobe with 9 direct primary nerves; lobes to 3.5 cm. wide
at base, strongly dilated above, rather abruptly contracted and nar-
rowed in the upper third, the inner margin straight, 4 dm. long;
spadix simple, 12 cm. long; dilated part of spathe about 6.5 cm. long,
acute, slightly produced; glomerules 3-flowered, dense, not alveolate,
male flowers solitary toward apex; female calyx tubular, 3-dentate
as included corolla, pistil glabrous, staminodal tube none. Resem-
bles B. Luetzelbergii Burret, 174, and B. Huberiana Burret, I.e., in the
directly disposed nerves and inner margins but the lobes are much
wider and strongly dilated; in the latter the rachis is 12 cm. long,
lobes 26, 2 cm. long, and as it is known from adjacent Colombia and
Brazil it may be found in Peru.
Loreto: Iquitos, (Killip & Smith 27305, type).
Bactris Lakoi Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 187. 1934.
Slender, more or less setose-hirsute, the stems nearly 7 mm. thick
with about 10 oblong pinnate leaves 6.5 dm. long or longer (petioles
to 2.5 dm. long or longer) ; spathes as petioles densely black-setose,
the slender setae whitish at the tumid base; segments hirsute both
sides, 20-25, mostly aggregate, narrowly linear, falcate toward the
acuminate apex, the larger intermediate to 1.5 dm. long, about
12 mm. wide, the apical shorter, wider, all on nerves and veins both
sides rather long-setulose, flexibly hirsute and margins ciliate; upper
spathe 6.5 cm. long, densely black-setose; spadix branches 2 (-3), in
fruit recurved, 5-6 cm. long, peduncles densely setose, shorter;
414 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
branches about 3 cm. long, the 3-flowered glomerules regularly dis-
posed (type), laxly spiralled; fruiting perianth with broadly 3-lobate
calyx, the fuscous setulose corolla many times longer, staminodal
cup none; fruit mammillate, striate and transversely lineolate.
The Hopp specimen has 3 spadix branches; one, also near the base,
is mostly male, the others have male flowers scattered between the
usual 3-glomerate ones; allied to B. hylophila Spruce, and relations
(more northern), but the foliage is much smaller, more delicate
San Martin: (Hopp 1114}- Rio Putumayo on the Brazil bound-
ary, (Carl Lako 1, type). Brazil.
Bactris mitis Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 102. 1823; 185. B. cus-
pidata Mart. var. mitis Drude in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3, pt. 2: 329. 1881
in part, fide Burret.
Resembles B. cuspidata Mart, but leaves interruptedly pinnate,
(3) 6-10 pairs, oblong-oblanceolate, about 2 dm. long, 1.5-4 cm.
wide, the lower 2-nerved, the medial 1-nerved, the broader apical
2-3-nerved, all glabrous or margins setose-ciliate; spadix branches
2-3, spathes appressed fuscous setose. Type from the Rio Japura
but similar species, probably variants, have been recorded from the
Rios Purus and Jauary. F.M. Neg. 18623.
Peru (probably). Adjacent Brazil.
Bactris naevia Poepp. ex Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 34: 179. 1933.
Stems arundinaceous, about 8 mm. thick, the upper internodes
4.5-5 cm. long, smooth except the leaf-lobes toward apex black-
setulose, otherwise glabrous or early furfuraceous as the sheaths,
these ovate below the petiole, the latter (seen) 16.5 cm. long, the
leaf-rachis 1.5 dm. long and the upper spathe (free part) 6.5 cm.
long; leaves nearly obovate, rather shortly contracted, scarcely to
the middle bifurcate, about 27 cm. long, 16.5 cm. wide, primary
nerves 10, lobes short, subovate, abruptly acuminate, 14 cm. long;
spadix simple, to 7.5 cm. long, broken sheath 4.5 cm. long, spike
glabrous, 3 cm. long, the glomerules 3-flowered to apex, spiralled,
lightly alveolate; perianth in fruit glabrous, calyx 3-lobed as corolla,
subequal, nearly 5 mm. across; staminodal cup none; fruit small
(pea size), glabrous, globose, 6-7 mm. in diameter. Confused with
B. simplicifrons Mart., 176, of the lower Amazon, typically at least
with deeply parted leaves, the lobes sigmoid. B. brevifolia Spruce,
178, the known range more northern, has rachis 1 dm. long, leaf lobes
FLORA OF PERU 415
(as to original) about 18 cm. long and 8 cm. wide (author) ; of course
the stability of these observed differences and thus their genetic sig-
nificance are as yet unknown. Trail, Journ. Bot. 15 (6): 1. 1877,
treated the Spruce plant as a variety of that of Martius, in which
Drude, I.e. 321, included it. F.M. Neg. 31315.
Loreto: Drier woods, Yurimaguas, (Poeppig 2475, type, Herb.
Munich; at Vienna, Poeppig 2476). Brazil (Rio Madeira).
Bactris riparia Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 97, pi. 71, fig. 4- 1823;
220; 353 (Drude).
Crowded, stoloniferous, spiny at the nodes, a few to 15 meters
tall, 5-10 cm. in diameter, the spines black, 1-7 cm. long; leaves
1.5-2 meters long, the 40-50 segments 3-5-aggregate, linear-acumi-
nate, the apex bidentate, the upper part 4-5 dm. long, 2 cm. wide,
glabrous above, the shorter lower part minutely pilose or setulose,
the petioles and leaf-rachis sparsely aculeate; spadix 3-4 dm. long,
peduncle minutely aculeate, elongate, the shorter (1 dm. long) rachis
with 20-30 branches; upper spathe fusiform, long-acuminate, seti-
form-aculeate especially toward tip, the scarcely pungent setae
spreading, black; male flowers ochroleucous, calyx minute, corolla
3-4 times longer, female flowers rarely scattered on the middle of
the branches, calyx 1 mm. long, corolla cylindric, many times longer,
white tomentose and appressed setulose; fruit spheroid, acutely
cusped, glabrous, 1.5-2 cm. in diameter. The similar B. longifrons
Mart. (I.e. 106), of the lower Amazon, listed from Peru by Dahlgren,
is probably a lapsus; spathe tomentose between the brown spines,
these 2.5 cm. long, terete. F.M. Neg. 18628 (B. longipes, 18618).
Peru (perhaps). Adjacent Brazil.
Bactris trichospatha Trail, Journ. Bot. 15: 41. 1877; 204; 339
Stems clustered, rhizomatous, rarely 3 meters tall, 1.5-2.5 cm.
thick, usually aculeate as the sheath, petioles (1-5 cm. long) and
ordinarily leaf rachis; leaves 1.5-2.5 meters long, segments many,
one variety 4-6, broadly lanceolate, falcate, long-acuminate, mostly
1.5-2.5 dm. long, 3-5 cm. wide, reduced toward apex, secondary
nerves 5-7 (9-12), glabrous above, velutinous beneath, all except
apical, free; spadix erect, 2-3 dm. long or longer, upper spathe lig-
neous, reddish tomentose, branches 6-10, fastigiate; male flowers
white, 5 mm. long, calyx segments subulate, petals ovate, female
416 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
setose, usually twice longer than calyx, few toward the apex of the
branches; fruit dark violet, subglobose, setose, 1.5 cm. in diameter.
Peduncle and inner spathe covered with short brown bristles re-
sembling velvet (Trail). Trail lists Tabatinga at the boundary with
Peru as one of several localities. B. longisecta Burret (I.e. 205), re-
lated, has linear-lanceolate segments 5.5-6 dm. long, 4.5 cm. wide,
the upper much smaller. F.M. Neg. 18635.
Loreto (undoubtedly). Adjacent Brazil.
28. DESMONCUS Mart.
Reference: Burret, Repert. Sp. Nov. 36: 197-221. 1934.
Supported by the modified spine-like segments of the whip-like
rachis end of the pinnate leaves or scandent, the stem in time much
elongated, remaining slender, the leaf-rachis with straight or more
or less aculeate (Peru), mostly (or entirely) recurved prickles. Upper
spathe often recurved-aculeate from a conico-lagenif orm base (Peru) .
Stamens 6 or sometimes 9. Otherwise like Bactris, and as various
in floral characters. Name conserved.
Rachis scarcely filiform, the branches probably many.
Leaf-segments long-acuminate both ends D. prunifer.
Leaf -segments acute at base D. longifolius.
Rachis subfiliform as the few (if any) branches.
Spadix branches 3-4 D. leptospadix.
Spadix perhaps simple D. vacivus.
Desmoncus leptospadix Mart. Palm. Orbign. 10: 52. 1847; 216;
308 (Drude). Atitara leptospadix (Mart.) Ktze. Rev. Gen. 727. 1891.
D. leptoclonos Drude ex Damm. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 48: 129.
1907, fide Burret.
Stem diameter 5 mm.; sheath elongate, membranous, smooth or
shortly setose-aculeate; leaves about 1 meter long, rachis shortly and
sparsely aculeate, segments exactly opposite, foliose 3-4 pairs, the
larger lanceolate or elliptic, acuminate, 17 cm. long, 4 cm. wide, the
narrower 2 dm. long, 2.5 cm. wide, lacking toward base, toward apex
spiniform (3-4 pairs), trigonous-conical, the lower 1.5-2.5 cm. long,
spreading or separated; spathe not aculeate as spadix, the latter
2-3 dm. long, long-included, the rachis filiform, the 3-4 very slender
branches lax, 4-10 cm. long; fruit oblong-ellipsoid, acute both ends;
FLORA OF PERU 417
putamen about 8 mm. long, 5 mm. in diameter. D. mitis Mart.
Hist. Nat. Palm. 90. 1823; 217; 308 (Drude) has 15-18 pairs of lan-
ceolate pinnae (6-8 pairs subulate, lanceolate) ; D. setosus Mart. I.e.,
315 (Drude) 9-11 pairs (4-5 subulate), linear leaf segments only
1.5-2 dm. long, 1.5 cm. wide; both have been recorded at more than
one station not far from eastern Peru. Liana 2.5 meters tall, 5 mm.
Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Poeppig, type). Soledad, lower Rio Itaya,
(Tessmann 5236). Amazonian Brazil.
Desmoncus longifolius Mart. Palm. Orbign. 10: 52. 1847;
Sheath 4 dm. long or longer, rather densely aculeate as leaf-rachis
to tip with straight subulate prickles and shorter hamate ones, 2-8 mm.
long; leaf -segments 7-8 pairs, lanceolate, long-acuminate both ends,
3 dm. long, 2.5-4 cm. wide, 2-3 pairs subulate, hamate, straight,
strongly enlarged at nodose base, 3.5-4 cm. long. Burret (I.e.) has
added the following information from Weberbauer specimen (spathe
lacking) : upper part of peduncle aculeate with small straight prickles,
black above; rachis 16 cm. long, branches about 20, scattered, basal
bract obvious, oblong, subacuminate; flowers mostly 3-glomerulate;
perianth (fruiting) cupulate, nearly 3 mm. high, calyx low, minutely
3-denticulate, corolla more than twice as high; fruit ellipsoid, over-
all 19 mm. long, 14 mm. in diameter, rather rugose, sublustrous, apex
not at all mammillate, base shortly contracted, pulp yellow, sweet.
Huanuco: Pozuzo, (Ruiz & Pavdn, type, Herb. Webb). Junin:
Open wood near La Merced, (Weberbauer 1906}. "Cachapurina."
Desmoncus prunifer Poepp. ex Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 148.
1837; 216. Atitara prunifer (Poepp.) Ktze. Rev. Gen. 727. 1891.
Sheath, petiole, inner spathe and peduncle black-setose and acule-
ate, spines conical, straight or especially on the leaf-rachis hamate,
very dense on the lower spathe; leaf -segments 10-15 pairs, oblong,
acute at base, long-acuminate, the 4-5 spiniform pairs subulate; fruit
oval, 2.5 cm. long. Ascends to 10 meters; leaves (with excurrent
rachis) 14 dm. long; spadices subaxillary, solitary, branched, longer
than 4 dm., the peduncle nearly 2 dm. long; drupe orange, succulent,
acid-sweet; albumen edible (Martius). Unfortunately, no other data.
F.M. Neg. 31323.
Loreto: Yurimaguas, (Poeppig, type).
418 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. XIII
Desmoncus vacivus Bailey, Gentes Herb. 8: 186. 1949.
Weak, scandent, only minutely aculeate; sheaths apically retic-
ulate; leaves about 5 pairs, opposite or nearly, lanceolate-elliptic,
acuminate, 10-12 cm. long, 2-3.5 cm. wide, lateral nerves promi-
nent; petioles and rachis sparsely aculeate with hamate prickles
1-2 mm. long; terminal spiniform leaflets about 4 pairs, to 2 cm.
long, very slender, reflexed; spadix perhaps simple; fruit ellipsoid,
2-2.5 cm. long, 2 cm. thick, minutely cusped, smooth; seed strongly
reticulate. No comparison made by author; it will doubtless be
found, whatever its correct name, in adjacent Peru, as type, R. E.
Schultes 3941, is from Rio Igaraparana near the boundary.
Loreto (no doubt). Colombia.
It may be appropriate to cite here, in connection with the generic
problems referred to above, the work of P. B. Tomlinson. Tomlin-
son's summary of systematic anatomy of the palms will appear in
the forthcoming series, edited by C. R. Metcalfe, Anatomy of the
Monocotyledons, published by the Clarendon Press, Oxford.