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Full text of "Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, and British Columbia"

BIOLOGY LIBRAR 




FLORA 



OF THE 

ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

AND 

ADJACENT PLAINS 



COLORADO, UTAH, WYOMING, IDAHO, 

MONTANA, SASKATCHEWAN, 

ALBERTA, 

AND NEIGHBORING PARTS OF 

NEBRASKA, SOUTH DAKOTA, NORTH 
DAKOTA, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA 



BY 

P. A. RYDBERG, PH.D. 

Curator, New York Botanical Garden 



NEW^YOBK 

Published by the Author 

1917 



Copyright, 1917 
PER AXEL RYDBERG 



PRESS OF 

STEINMAN & FOLTZ, 
LANCASTER, PA. 









PREFACE 

After more than twenty-five years of study of the flora of the Rocky 
Mountain region, and seventeen years after the first description was drawn 
for the book, this manual is now presented to the public. Its history, pur- 
pose and scope are given in the introduction, with certain necessary explana- 
tions regarding the general features of the book. 

Thanks are due to the custodians of many herbaria for the privilege of 
studying collections and types, and for the loan of specimens; these herbaria 
are enumerated in my introduction. The author wishes to thank all his 
associates at the New York Botanical Garden, especially Dr. N. L. Britton, 
Director-in-Chief, for encouragement and help in his work; Dr. J. K. Small, 
for help in critical cases and in certain groups, as for instance POLYGONACEAE 
and SAXIFRAGACEAE, and in the original draft of the key to the families; 
and Dr. J. H. Barnhart, for help in questions of nomenclature and literature. 
In drawing the generic descriptions, the author has frequently consulted 
Dr. Small's FLORA OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. Dr. Barnhart 
has contributed also the list of authors, including their full names and years 
of births and deaths wherever it has been possible. 

Thanks are also due to Mr. K. K. Mackenzie, who contributed the manu- 
script of Car ex; to Professor E. Brainerd, who prepared that of Viola; and 
to Mr. W. W. Eggleston, who revised that of Crataegus. 

As most manuals of phaenerogamic botany also contain the ferns and 
their allies, an account of the fern-worts by Miss Margaret Slosson has been 
appended. The families ISOETACEAE, EQUISETACEAE and SELAGINELLACEAE 
were left by her until the last. She did some preliminary work on Selagin- 
ella, but before the work was finished she left the New York Botanical Gar- 
den temporarily, and the completion of the fernworts fell upon the author, 
who feels that the treatment of the three families is not adequate, as the 
manuscript was prepared hurriedly while the book was going through the 
press. 

The author is indebted especially to the following botanists, who have 
kindly corrected the statements of the ranges of all of the species and fur- 
nished additions to the list of species known to occur in their respective 
states and provinces: Mr. J. M. Macoun, western Canadian provinces; 
Professor J. E. Kirkwood, Montana; Mr. J Francis Macbride, Idaho; Pro- 
fessor A. 0. Garrett, Utah; and Mr. George E. Osterhout, Colorado. Thanks 
are also due to the following persons who have gratuitously helped in read- 
ing the proofs: Professor A. 0. Garrett, Mr. G. E. Osterhout, Miss K. D. 
Kimball, and Mr. A. E. Urban, now manager of The Hershey Press, who 
kindly continued proofreading even after he left his old concern. The help 
of Mr. Urban, who is an amateur botanist as well, has been especially valu- 
able. 

P. A. RYDBERG. 

The New York Botanical Garden, November, 1917. 



111 



'48085 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION : v 

TABLES : Abbreviations, Signs and Measurements xii 

DESCRIPTIVE FLORA 

SPERMATOPHYTA : KEY TO THE FAMILIES 1 

GYMNOSPERMAE 11 

ANGIOSPERMAE : Monocotyledones 20 

Dicotyledones 185 

PTERIDOPHYTA 1038 

APPENDIX 

SUMMARY 1057 

NEW GENERA AND SPECIES AND NEW COMBINATIONS 1060 

ABBREVIATIONS OF THE NAMES OF AUTHORS 1070 

GLOSSARY 1078 

INDEX.. . 1088 



iv 



INTRODUCTION 

PRELIMINARY WORK 

In 1890, the author spent a month in western Nebraska. In the following 
summer he was commissioned to collect in the same region for the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and in 1892 in the Black Hills of South Dakota. A 
report on the last was published in 1896, in the CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NA- 
TIONAL HERBARIUM, volume 3. These trips first introduced him to the flora of 
a part of the region covered by this manual. Since then he has done field work, 
partly for the United States Department of Agriculture and partly for the New 
York Botanical Garden, in Montana, Yellowstone National Park, Colorado and 
Utah, and has made shorter stops in eastern Idaho and southern Wyoming. In 
all, he has spent eleven summers in the Rocky Mountain region. In this field 
work he was associated with or assisted by the following men: C. L. Shear, 
Ernst A. Bessey, A. O. Garrett, J. H. Flodman, F. K. Vreeland, and E. C. Carl- 
ton, to whom thanks are due. 

After collecting for two summers and a half in Montana and the Yellowstone 
National Park, the author published in 1900, a CATALOGUE OF THE FLORA OF 
MONTANA AND THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK.* In preparing this, he 
studied the extensive collections made by Frank Tweedy of the United States 
Geological Survey, as well as that of W. M. Canby, and one made for the World's 
Fair in Chicago, 1893. 

In 1901 the author was requested to determine the collection accumulated at 
the Agricultural College at Fort Collins, Colorado, made by James Cassidy, C. 
S. Crandall, J. H. Cowan, and their assistants and students, and finally to pre- 
pare the results for publication. THE FLORA OF COLORADO f appeared in 1906. 
At this time the author had spent a summer and a half collecting in Colorado and 
the New York Botanical Garden had secured an almost complete set of C. F. 
Baker's, and Baker, Earle and Tracy!s collections in that state. Together with 
the older collections preserved in the herbarium of Columbia University the 
material mentioned above made possible an almost complete catalogue of the 
Colorado flora. 

The preparation of the manual has taken a longer time than expected, as 
only a small part of the author's time could be used for the work. During the 
time (1900-1916) the work has been progressing, the author has published a 
series of 29 papers under the title "Studies on the Rocky Mountain Flora," in 
which numerous new species have been published. The publication of a second 
edition of Coulter's Manual in the form of "A New Manual of Botany of the 
Central Rocky Mountains," by J. M. Coulter and Aven Nelson, in 1909, made 
the appearance of the contemplated flora less urgent, as the need was partly 
supplied, and the issuing of the manual was delayed. 

MATERIAL USED IN THE WORK 

The main part of the work has been done in the herbarium of the New York 
Botanical Garden, where also the collections of Columbia University (including 
the Torrey and Morong herbaria) are deposited. These herbaria contain numer- 
ous types or duplicates of types of species described by Torrey, Torrey and Gray, 
Nuttall, Hooker, and Richardson, as well as the first sets of several collections 
and duplicate sets of many others. 

The author has visited the United States National Herbarium five times, 
for weeks at a time, and has often had specimens as loans for study. He has 
gone through it quite thoroughly, except the family CICHORIACEAE. The studies 

* Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. vol. 1. 

t Agr. Exp. Sta. Colo. Agr. Coll. Bull. no. 100. 



vi INTRODUCTION 

there included investigations of the types of species described by Vasey, Coville, 
Rose, Hitchcock, Scribner, Standley, and others; Dr. E. L. Greene's herbarium 
was deposited there at that time. The author has also made four similar visits 
to the Gray Herbarium, mainly to study types, especially those of plants de- 
scribed by Gray, W atson > Robinson, Fernald, Greenman, and others; three 
short visits to the Philadelphia Academy to study the types of Pursh and Nuttall; 
one to the Field Museum, Chicago; one to the Missouri Botanical Garden; one 
to the Geological Survey of Canada; and a day's stop at the Rocky Mountain 
Herbarium at Laramie. In 1901 he spent more than a week at the Royal Gar- 
dens, Kew, where he studied all the types of the plants described in Hooker's 
FLORA BOREALI-AMERICANA, and made a visit to the British Museum, which con- 
tains many of Nuttall's types. The herbarium of the College of Pharmacy of 
New York City has often been consulted and specimens borrowed therefrom. 
In addition, the following herbaria have passed through his hands for study and 
determination: Herbarium of the Agricultural College of Colorado; Herbarium 
of the Agricultural College of Montana (before 1900) ; Frank Tweedy 's herbarium, 
now at Yale University; and the herbaria of F. D. Kelsey and F. E. Leonard, now at 
Oberlin College. The only important collections from the Rocky Mountains 
not studied are that of M. E. Jones and that of the University of Wyoming; 
many duplicates from these have been available, however. The author has also 
corresponded for years with Mr. Osterhout, Prof. Garrett, Prof. Cockerell, Mr. 
Macoun, and many others. 

AREA COVERED BY THE MANUAL 

When the manual was first contemplated the author estimated that it would 
comprise the description of about 4000 species; this estimate might have proved 
correct if the work had been limited to the Rocky Mountains themselves. His 
knowledge of the vegetation of the plains east of them, a flora not adequately 
treated in any manual, induced the" author to include that also. As he has been 
interested in the flora of the northern Rockies, perhaps more than any one else 
in the United States, the Geological Survey of Canada has for years sent the first 
set of its exchanges from the Rocky Mountain region to the New York Botanical 
Garden; it was desirable, therefore, to include the flora of this part of Canada in 
the manual, and perhaps 200 northern species have been added. The parts of 
Utah west and south of Wahsatch Mountains, as well as western Idaho, have not 
been included in any of the floras of the Rocky Mountain region. As many 
collections have been made in the part of Utah mentioned, by Edward Palmer, 
C. C. Parry, A. L. Siler, Mrs. Almon H. Thompson, L. F. Ward, and others, and 
especially by M. E. Jones, the whole of the states of Utah and Idaho was in- 
cluded and at least 500 or 600 species thus added. The total number of species, 
in the meantime, has grown to nearly 5900. 

The area covered by this flora thus includes the entire states of Colorado, 
Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana, and extends eastward to long. 102 W. in 
Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota; it also includes the Canadian prov- 
inces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, south of lat. 55 N. (the old boundary of the 
territories of the same name*), and the Kootenay Districts of British Columbia. 
The Rockies extend for some distance south into New Mexico, but no attempt 
has been made to cover any part of that state; as far as the truly mountain flora 
is concerned, however, it is practically covered. 

As the number of known species within the area has increased, the author 
has been obliged to shorten the descriptions in order to make the book of a con- 
venient size; cutting down original descriptions one-fourth or more, and usually 
avoiding repetition of characters given in the keys. The resulting brevity will 
naturally detract from the value of the work, but otherwise the book would have 
become too bulky to be convenient, especially in the field. The descriptions are 
nearly all redrawn from actual specimens. The original types or duplicates of 
the types have been consulted wherever possible, and rarely have the original 
descriptions been merely copied or condensed. 

* The present boundary is lat. 60, but the region between lat. 55 and 60, is botan- 
ically practically unknown. 



INTRODUCTION vii 

NOMENCLATURE AND LIMITATION OF GENERA AND SPECIES 

The nomenclature used agrees, as far as possible, with the so-called American 
Code, used at the United States National Herbarium and Department of Agri- 
culture, the New York Botanical Garden, and many of the universities and 
botanical institutions of this country. It differs from the International Code, 
followed by many institutions, principally in the following two features: it allows 
few exceptions from the rule that the oldest generic and specific name (after 
Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753) should be used, and provides that, if a 
Latin name has been used for one plant, it can never be used for another. The 
nomenclature used in this manual differs somewhat on this account from that 
used by other writers on the flora of the region or a part thereof. Another im- 
portant difference is due to the fact that the author believes that in many cases 
unnatural groups of species of diverse habit and structure should not be retained 
as genera just because our predecessors have regarded them as such. In other 
words, a genus should be divided into several, if it can be split up into smaller 
and more natural ones. Such divided genera are, for instance, the old large 
genera Astragalus, Oenothera, and Aster. On the other hand, the fully as large 
genera Carex, Eriogonum, and Senecio have been kept intact, as no natural divi- 
sion could be found. 

For those who disagree with the author in the matters of nomenclature and 
limitation of genera and species, there will be very little difficulty in finding the 
scientific name to which they are accustomed, as synonyms have been freely 
cited, in fact as far as deemed necessary. The synonymy, of course, is by no 
means complete; only such is included as has been in use for the plant recently, or 
is necessary for the explanation of the accepted name, or represents supposed 
new species, which the author regards as indistinguishable from the one described. 
In the cases where a synonym is preceded by a "(?)" this means that the author 
has not seen the type of the synonym, but from the description supposes that it 
represents the same species as the one accepted. 

A few of my friends have suggested that the place of publication of each 
name should also be given; while this would have increased the utility of the 
book, it would have added perhaps 150 pages. This manual will be useful to 
three classes: the amateur botanists, the students in high schools and colleges, and 
the professional botanists. The first two classes, as a rule, do not care for the 
full citation, and most of the professional botanists have access to the "Kew 
Index" and the "Card Catalogue," or other reference books. The omission of 
the place of publication will work hardships, therefore, to only a few. 

PRONUNCIATION AND ACCENTUATION 

In most of the schools of this country the so-called Roman pronunciation is 
used in reading Latin, but exceedingly few botanists pronounce the Latin names 
in accordance with it. They are supposed to pronounce it according to the so- 
called English method, but the author has not found two persons who do it alike. 
He frankly admits that he does not know how to pronounce the names according 
to the latter method. According to the Roman method, as he was taught it, 
the vowels are pronounced nearly as follows: 

a long as in father short as in hat 
e " " " there " " " met 

i " " " machine " " " it 
o " " " no " " " not 

u " " " rule " " " put 

The consonants he learned to pronounce as they are in English, except that 
c and g are hard as in cat or go, even before e, i, and y; j as consonant y, z as ts, 
and ch and ph in Greek words as k and /. 

Most of the mispronunciations, whether the English, Continental, or Roman 
pronunciation is used, are due to ignorance of the accent. On the proper ac- 
centuation the author wishes to say more,* as the specific names in this volume 

* The explanations given in this discussion may not agree with most Latin grammars 
in English, but the author thinks that this is because the English grammarians consciously 
or unconsciously interpret constructions in Latin according to the models of the highly 
individualized English language. 



viii INTRODUCTION 

do not have the accent indicated. Clements gives the following rule for accents: 
" In words of two syllables or more the accent is on the penult [next to the last 
syllable], when it is long; when the penult is short, the antepenult [third syllable 
from the end] is accented." This is correct if rightly understood. Long syllables 
are of two kinds, however; one with vowel length, the other with consoramAength, 
that is, when it ends in one or more consonant sounds. Unfortunately, in a 
syllable with consonant length the vowel is usually called short, not only in 
English, but in most modern languages. In many Latin lexicons the vowel in 
such a syllable is marked as long (wrong according to modern notions), in a few 
as short; others are noncommittal. In fact, the syllable is long (as shown in 
verse) although the vowel is short. There are three kinds of syllables, two end- 
ing in vowels, and one in a consonant. If there are one or more consonants 
between two vowels, one of these is always counted to the second syllable and 
the rest to the first, except that ch, ph, and th are regarded as one letter and a 
mute followed by r is carried to the second syllable (hy-dra, as-tra). 

The grave accent (a) is here used to denote a long vowel* and the acute (a") 
a short vowel syllable or a syllable with consonant length. The penult has the 
accent when it ends in a consonant, but if it ends in a vowel it has the accent 
only if this vowel is long. In hy-dro-phyl-lum (water-leaf) the penult ends in a 
consonant and hence has the accent, and the vowel is marked short, as the syllable 
has consonant length; in hy-dro-phi-la (water-lover) the penult ends in a vowel 
and this is short; the accent is removed to the antepenult and, as the connecting 
vowels i (in Latin) or o (in Greek) in compound words are short, the antepenult 
has a short accent. Greek words follow practically the same rules, but un- 
fortunately they do not always have the same quantity as the corresponding 
Latin words. For instance, in Latin the y in stylus (in classical Latin better 
stilus] is short, while in o-rvAos the v is long. In brevistylis (Latin) the accent is 
on the antepenult, while in brachystylis (Greek) it is on the penult. A person 
must not be influenced by the English pronunciation of words similar to or 
derived from the Latin or Greek scientific terms, as it is very often corrupted. 
The words Spermatophyta, Pteriddphyta, etc., have the accent on the antepenult 
and short o and y, while the English Spermdtophyte and Pteridophyte have the 
accent on the antepenult with a long y in the last syllable. Just the reverse we 
find in the Greek and Latin Anemone and the English Anemone. 

As stated before, when the penult ends in a consonant, i. e., when the vowel 
is followed by two consonants or more, or a double consonant, it always has the 
accent and this is short. If, however, the vowel is followed by one or no con- 
sonant, one has to find out whether it is long or short. To determine this one 
has very often to go to the lexicon. Most of the specific names are Latin or 
Greek adjective, some are nouns in the genitive case, and a few are old generic 
names or nouns of barbaric origin. For the last two categories no rules can be 
given, but the following hints may help in pronouncing the adjectives and geni- 
tives: 

The penult is long, as a rule, in the following adjective endings and hence 
takes the long accent: -alis,} -anus, -dm, -dtus, -enus, -etus, -4nus,% 4ws, -ivus, 
oides, -ovus, -6su3, -iinus, -unes, -iirus, -tisus, -utus. In classical Latin there 
were very few compound adjectives, but in botanical Latin they are used freely. 
A few in which the last term has a long vowel in the penult and hence accented, 
may be mentioned: -ftisus, -glumis, -physus, -florus. 

The penult has usually a short vowel in the following adjective endings, and 
hence the accent is removed to the antepenult: -acus, -eus, -eris, -erus, -eger 

* This must not be confused with the so-called long English a, for in English nearly 
all the sounds of a (except the short a as in "hat") are long. The a in "hall" is long in 
English, though not the so-called long sound. In Latin, a word with such a spelling 
would have consonant length and be denoted with the short accent. In English the a 
in the names Hall and Haller are pronounced differently, as it is in mall and mallet, but 
in Latin the a is pronounced the same hi Hdllii and ~B.dlleri. 

t Only the masculine form is given here, the feminine and neuter forms follow the 
same rule; -alis and -anus stand for -alls, -alis, -ale, and -anus, -ana, -anum, etc. 

1 Short in serotinus, gossipinus, cannabinus, and others. On the other hand salicinus 
and cyperinus are usually indicated as long. The classical form of these words were, how- 
ever, salignus and cyprinus. 



INTRODUCTION IX 

(-egra, -egruni), -icus, -ichus, -idis, -idus, -His, -ilus, -imus, -ior, -ius, -mis, -yus. 
The compound words ending in the following syllables have also a short vowel 
in the penult: -dadus, -cola, -color, -fera, -ferum, -gera, -gerum, -gynus, -fidus, 
-filus, -philus, -lepis, -olens, -pilis, -podus, -stomus, -tomus, -virens, -phylum. If 
the short connecting vowels i (in Latin) and o (in Greek) appear in the penult, 
they are not accented; when they appear in the antepenult in words with short 
penult they receive the short accent: drmiger, armigera, spinifer, spinifera. Of 
course, in adjective endings in which the penult has consonant length, this is 
accented and the vowel is short: -ensis, -ellus, -illus, -fdrmis, -estus, Busier, -ester, 
-essus. The same rule applies to compound words enging in -cdrpus, -roslris, 
-phyllus. 

By following the hints given above, any one can accent correctly eighty per 
cent, of the specific names in this flora. A few words may be said concerning 
the genitives of personal names and the same remarks apply to generic names 
dedicated to persons. The usual method of Latinizing a personal name is to 
add ius (genitive -M) or, in case of a generic name dedicated to a person, -ia, to 
it if it ends in a consonant (except r), and -us (-i) and -a if the name ends in a 
vowel or r. If the noun ends in -er, as Palmer, it is better to regard this as the 
proper Latin form with Palmer-i in the genitive. As the i in the penult of -ii 
and -ia always is short, the accent in such words will always be on the antepenult. 
Harder to determine is the place of accent if the genitive ends in a single -i or 
the generic name in merely -a, as it depends upon whether the penult is long or 
short. Many botanists pronounce the names derived from persons as they 
would the family name itself, with the Latin ending added, as Jdmes-i-a and 
Jdmes-i-i, named for James; while the Latin usage would require Ja-me-si-a and 
Ja-me-si-i. In Latin all syllables are pronounced and the accent can never be 
further from the end than in the antepenult. It has been a custom to regard 
the vowel in the antepenult of the endings -esii, -onii, -inii, -unii, -elii, etc., and 
in the penult of -onis, -oni as long. Many include the ending -eri. This would 
be perhaps defendable in the case of Berlandieri, Plumieri, where the ending er 
has the accent in French and in plant names dedicated to some German and 
Scandinavian persons who write their name with an accent on the last syllable, 
but the author does not think it correct in Pdlmeri, Boreri, Breweri, Wdrneri, where 
the English name has a short er and the words in er following the second declen- 
sion in Latin as a rule had short e in the genitive or dropped it altogether. The 
author thinks that the four names just mentioned should have the accent on the 
first syllable. 

The generic names are much harder to treat. They are old Latin or Greek 
nouns, or vernacular names, with or without Latin endings, or modified personal 
names, or compound words (mostly Greek) manufactured according to the whims 
of the authors. The author saw no other way but to indicate their proper ac- 
cent in each case as far as they could be ascertained. 

NAMES OF AUTHORS 

The generic and specific names are followed by the names of their authors, 
usually abbreviated; the abbreviations are explained on pages 1070-8. If an 
author's name is placed in parenthesis after a generic name, it means that he 
published it before 1753 and that it was accepted after that date by the author 
following the parenthesis (usually Linnaeus). After the specific name, an 
author's name in parenthesis signifies that he originally proposed it, either in 
another genus or else only as a subspecies, variety, or form, and the author follow- 
ing the parenthesis was the first one to make the accepted combination. 

COMMON NAMES 

The common names are given in most cases after the Latin generic name. A 
common name has been inserted after the description of a species only where it 
seems to apply exclusively or principally to that species. In the Rocky Moun- 
tain region the common names apply usually to all species of the genus rather 
than to a particular one. No attempt has been made to manufacture a "common 
name" where there is none in existence. 



X INTRODUCTION 

MEASUREMENTS 

The measurements have been given in metric system, now used by most of 
the scientific bureaus of the United States and universities and colleges of the 
country. In the old English system, formerly used in descriptive botany, the 
inch was divided into twelve lines. A ruler with this division is hard to find 
now-a-days, while metric rulers can be had nearly everywhere. For those who 
are more accustomed to the English measurements a table is given on page xii, 
with equivalents near enough for all practical purposes. 

HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION 

Near the end of each specific description is given the usual habitat of the plant 
and its geographic distribution. In order to save space the latter is given in 
abbreviation. Usually four states or provinces, or less, are mentioned; if the 
distribution is irregular, sometimes more than four. The expression: Man. 
Kans. Utah Alta. would mean that the area in which the plant grows naturally 
extends from Manitoba to Kansas, Utah, and Alberta. If a state or province 
is placed within parenthesis with a question mark preceding, as for instance 
(? Colo.), it means that the plant has been reported from said state, but that the 
author has not verified the assertion and doubts its correctness. .Isolated or 
exotic distribution is set off from the general endemic one by a semicolon; and 
immigrants are distinguished as adventive (adv.), i. e., not fully established, or 
fully naturalized (nat.), or escaped from cultivation. The abbreviations used 
are included in the table on page xii. 

ALTITUDES AND LIFE ZONES 

In the original draft, altitudinal distribution was stated. In an area which 
extends in latitude 18 degrees, or approximately 1250 miles, however, a statement 
of the altitudes does not mean very much, as a plant which has its best develop- 
ment in Colorado at 3000 meters (10,000 feet) does not reach half that altitude 
in the Canadian Rockies. Instead of the altitude in meters or feet, the zonal 
distribution is therefore given. The following life zones have been accepted in 
this work: 

Alpine Zone (Alp.), the region above timberline. 

Subalpine Zone (Subalp.), or Spruce Belt. 

Montane Zone (Mont.), or Pine Belt. 

Submontane Zone (Submont.), or Foothills, or in the south the Chaparral Belt. 

Sonoran, or rather Upper Sonoran, Zone (Son.), or Pinon-Cedar Belt and the 
Upper Desert. 

Lower Sonoran Zone (L. Son.) or Lower Desert, limited with the manual 
area to the Colorado River Canon and Virgin River Valley in Utah. 

As the first four of these zonal names apply only to a mountain region, they 
could not be used for the part of the area occupied by the plains, especially east 
thereof. The same life zone that occupies the high mountains in temperate 
latitudes will occupy the lowlands nearer the poles, and these zones there become 
Arctic, Subarctic, Boreal, and Subboreal. The Montane and Subalpine Zone 
reach the lowlands or plains in Alberta and hence also meet the western exten- 
sion of the Boreal and Subarctic Zones of the east. This merging takes place, 
however, mostly north of latitude 55, as the grass-covered plains push across the 
northern branch of Saskatchewan River; it is practically only along the lower 
part of said river that the Boreal and Subarctic flora enters the area of this work. 
The hardwood forests of the subboreal zone does not reach the Rockies; only a 
small element represents it in the foothills of the Black Hills, South Dakota, and 
exceedingly few of its plants reach eastern Saskatchewan. The zone is repre- 
sented on the plains by grasslands and as these are so different from both the 
foothills of the Rockies and the eastern subboreal hardwood forest, it has seemed 
better to designate them with a different name, and the word Plain represents 
the grass-covered portion of the Subboreal Zone. The plains south of the divide 
between the Arkansas and Platte rivers belong in reality to the Sonoran Zone, 
but as the transition is so gradual and the general characters of the two divisions 



INTRODUCTION xi 

are much alike, in many cases the word Plain also includes the Sonoran portion 
of the plains, the so-called Staked Plains. Tables showing the approximate 
altitudes occupied by the different zones in southern Colorado and southern 
Montana, and in Alberta at the crossing of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, and 
also the approximate latitudes at which they meet the plains, lowlands, or level 
basins are shown below. 

The western side of the mountains is warmer than the eastern. It is also 
dryer, except in the northern part, where the moisture conditions are reversed. 
The lower zones, therefore, extend further north on the west side. 

Colorado Montana Alberta 

Alpine (Alp.) 3500-^300 m. 2700-3500 m. 2100-3500 m. 

Subalpine (Subalp.) 3000-3500 m. 2500-2700 m. 1800-2100 m. 

Montane (Mont.) 2500-3000 m. 1800-2500 m. 1200-1800 m. 

Submontane (Submont.) . . . 1800-2500 m. 1500-1800 m. Plain 

Upper Sonoran (Son.) 1350-1800 m. Plain 

This table may be given also in the English measures: 

Alpine... . 11,500-14,400 ft. 9,000-12,000 ft. 7,000-12,000 ft. 

Subalpine 10,000-11,500 ft. 8,000- 9,000 ft. 6,000- 7,000 ft. 

Montane 8,000-10,000 ft. 6,000- 8,000 ft. 4,000- 6,000 ft. 

Submontane 6,000- 8,000 ft. 5,000- 6,000 ft. Plain 

Upper Sonoran 4,500- 6,000 ft. Plain 

The different zones meet the lowlands, plains or level basins at approximately 
the following latitudes: 

East side West side 

Alpine-arctic . . . 69-90 69-90 

Subalpine 55-69 55-69 

Montane 48-55 50-55 

Submontane 38 30'-48 42-50 

Upper Sonoran 35-38 30' 35-42 

TIME OF FLOWERING 

At the end of the specific description is given the month of flowering. The 
symbols used are: Ja, F, Mr, Ap, My, Je, Jl, Au, S, O, N, D. 



TABLES 



ABBREVIATIONS 
The well known abbreviations of the states of the United States are here 



omitted. 

Adv. = adventive 

Alp. = Alpine Zone 

Alta. = Alberta* 

Am. = America or American 

Ap = April 

Arctic = Arctic Zone 

Au = August 

Auth. = Authors! 

B. C. = British Columbia 
Boreal = Boreal Zone 

c = central 

C. Am. = Central America 
cm. = centimeter 

D = December 

dm. = decimeter 

e = eastern 

Eu. = Europe 

Eurasia = Europe and northern Asia 

F = February 

(Fl. Colo.) = The Author's Flora of 

Colorado 
(Fl. Mont.) = Catalogue of the Flora 

of Montana and Yellowstone Park 
Greenl. = Greenland 
Ja = January 
Je = June 
Jl = July 
Labr. = Labrador 
L. Calif. = Lower California 
L. Son. = Lower Sonoran Zone 
m. = meter 

Mack. = Mackenzie Territory 
Man. = Manitoba 
Mex. = Mexico:}: 



mm. = millimeter 

Mont. = Montane Zone 

Mont. = Montana 

Mr = March 

My = May 

n = northern 

N = November 

N. Am. = North America 

Nat. = Naturalized 

N. B. = New Brunswick 

ne = northeastern 

Newf. = Newfoundland 

N. S. = Nova Scotia 

nw = northwestern 

O = October 

Ont. = Ontario 

P. E. I. = Prince Edward's Island 

Plain = Subboreal Plains 

Que. = Quebec 

s = southern 

S = September 

S. Am. = South America 

Sask. = Saskatchewan 

se = southeastern 

Son. = Sonoran Zone 

Subalp. = Subalpine Zone 

Subarctic = Subarctic Zone 

Subboreal = Subboreal Zone 

Submont = Submontane Zone 

sw = southwestern 

Trop. = tropical 

w = western 

W. Ind. = West Indies 



SIGNS 



- (short dash) between figures or words 
means that the two figures or two 
words denote the extreme of varia- 
tion. 

Subgenus or section of a genus. 



(long dash) between the names of 
two or more states denotes the 
extent of distribution. 

X denotes a hybrid between the two 
species mentioned. 



MEASUREMENTS 



1 mm. = ^/25 inch 

3 mm. = Vs inch 

1 cm. = % inches 

5 cm. = 2 inches 

1 dm. = 4 inches 

1m. =40 inches or 3^ feet 



300 m. = 1000 feet 



1 line = 2 mm. 
1/8 inch = 3 mm. 
1 inch = 2.5 cm. 
1 span = 1 dm. 
1 foot = 3 dm. 
1 vard = 9 dm. 



* Many people use the abbreviation "Alb.", but as far as the author has been able to 
ascertain, the official one is "Alta." 

t Used in cases of misapplications of names where the author first using it in such a 
sense has not been ascertained. 

t Observe the difference between N. M. (New Mexico) and n Mex. (northern Mexico) . 

xii 



SPERMATOPHYTA 

SEED-BEARING OR FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Plants with flowers containing stamens, or pistils, or both, and 
producing seeds containing an embryonic plant. Alternation of 
generations not apparent, the gametophyte being exceedingly re- 
duced. The pollen-grains (microspores) contained in the anther- 
sacs of the stamens, after liberation and reaching the stigma of the 
pistil or the naked ovules, germinate and produce a tube, by means 
of which the egg-cell (macrospore) of the ovules (macrosporange) 

is fertilized. 

PAGE 
Ovules and seeds borne on the surface of an open bract or scale; stigmas wanting. 

Class I. GYMNOSPERMAE 11 

Ovules and seeds in a closed cavity (ovary), formed by one or more united modified 
leaves, with one or more stigmas at the end. 

Class II. ANGIOSPERMAE 20 
Cotyledons usually single; earlier leaves alternate; leaves mostly parallel- veined ; 

stem endogenous. Subclass 1. MONOCOTYLEDONES 20 

Cotyledons mostly 2; earlier leaves opposite; leaves mostly netted- veined ; 

stem exogenous. Subclass 2. DICOTYLEDONES 185 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 
Class 1. GYMNOSPERMAE. NAKED-SEEDED PLANTS. 

Perianth none; trees or shrubs with needle- or scale-like leaves not sheathing. 
Pistillate flowers in aments; fruit a cone, either dry or berry-like. 

Carpellary scales subtended by bracts, never peltate; ovules inverted; buds 
scaly ; wings of the seeds formed from a portion of the carpellary scales. 

1. PlNACEAE 11 

Carpellary scales not subtended by bracts, mostly peltate or fleshy; ovules 
erect; buds naked; wings of the seeds, if present, a part of the seed- 
coat. 2. JUNIPERACEAE 17 
Pistillate flowers single or in pairs, without carpellary scales ; fruit drupaceous 

or baccate. 3. TAXACEAE 18 

Perianth present, urn-shaped; pistillate flowers single or in pairs; horsetail-like 
shrubs with jointed branches and the leaves reduced to sheathing scales. 

4. EPHEDRACEAE 19 

Class 2. ANGIOSPERMAE SEED-VESSELED PLANTS. 

Subclass 1. MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Small lens-shaped, ellipsoid, or flask-shaped floating aquatics without leaves. 

15. LEMNACEAE 143 

Plants with true stems and leaves, the latter however, sometimes scale-like. 

Perianth rudimentary or degenerate, its members often bristles or mere scales, 

not corolla-like, or wanting. 

Flowers not in the axils of dry or chaffy bracts (glumes). 
Perianth of bristles or chaffy scales. 

Flowers in elongate terminal spikes; fruit hidden among bristles. 

5. TYPHACEAE. 20 
Flowers in globose lateral spikes; fruit not hidden among bristles. 

6. SPARGANIACEAE 20 
Perianth fleshy or herbaceous, or wanting. 

Flowers in dense spikes subtended by an enlarged bract (spathe); 

fruit baccate; endosperm present; emersed water or bog plants. 

14. ARACEAE 143 

Flowers, if spicate, not subtended by a spathe; fruit drupaceous; 

endosperm wanting; submerged water plants. 

(1) 



2 KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Gynoecnum of distinct cartels; stigma disk-like or cup-like. 

7. ZANICHELLIACEAE 21 
Gynoeciun,. o f enitHO carpels; stigmas 2-4, slender. 

8. NAJADACEAE 26 
Flowers In tte axils of dry or chaffy, usually imbricate bracts (glumes). 

Leaves 2-ranked, their sheaths with their margins not united; stem 

mostly hollow; fruit a grain. 12. POACEAE 29 

Leaves 3-ranked, their sheaths with united margins; stems solid; fruit an 

achene. 13. CYPERACEAE 103 

Perianth of 2 distinct series, the inner series usually corolloid. 
Gynoecium of distinct carpels. 

Petals similar to the sepals; anthers long and narrow; carpels coherent. 

9. SCHEUCHZERIACEAE 26 

Petals different from the sepals, in ours white; anthers short and thick; 

carpels not coherent. 10. ALJSMACEAE 27 

Gynoecium of united carpels. 

Stamens numerous; water plants with broad netted-veined floating leaf- 
blades. 47. NYMPHAEACEAE 284 
Stamens 3-6. 

Ovary and fruit superior. 

Stamens dissimilar, or only 3 with fertile anthers; endosperm 

mealy. 
Calyx and corolla of free, very different members; stamens 

free. 16. COMMELINACEAE 144 

Calyx and corolla of quite similar members and partly united; 
stamens partly adnate to the perianth. 

17. PONTEDERIACEAE 145 

Stamens alike and fertile; endosperm fleshy, horny, or cartilagin- 
ous. 
Styles present, distinct or united; stigmas terminal. 

Styles distinct; capsule septicidal. 18. MELANTHACEAE 146 

Styles united, often very short or obsolete during anthesis. 
Petals and sepals very unlike; capsules septicidal. 

24. CALOCHORTACEAE 171 
Petals and sepals nearly alike; capsules loculicidal. 

Sepals and petals chaffy. 19. JUNCAEAE 149 

Sepals and petals not chaffy. 

Herbs with bulbs, corms or rootstocks. 

Plants with bulbs, or corms, or short erect 

rootstocks. 

Flowers in umbels, at first included in and 
later subtended by a scarious invo- 
lucre. 20. ALLIACEAE 157 
Flowers solitary or racemose, or in Leuco- 
crinum by shortening of the stem 
the inflorescence umbel-like, without 
involucre. 21. LIUACEAE. 163 
Plants with elongate horizontal rootstocks. 

22. CONVALLARIACEAE 166 

Shrubby plants with woody caudices, or trees. 

23. DRACAENACEAE 169 
Styles wanting. 

Flowers perfect; plants not climbing. 

Leaves and bracts alternate; plants with bulbs; fruit 

a capsule. 24. CALOCHORTACEAE 171 

Leaves or leaf-like bracts whorled; plants with rootstock; 

fruit a berry. 25. TRILLIACEAE 172 

Flowers dioecious; plants climbing or trailing. 

26. SMILACACEAE 173 

. Ovary and fruit wholly or partly inferior . 

Flowers regular; androecium not reduced; stamens 3 or more. 
Aquatic plants, dioecious or polygamous. 

11. ELODIACEAE 28 

Land-plants with perfect flowers. 

Stamens 6; leaves not equitant. 27. AMARYLLTDACEAE 
Stamens 3 ; leaves equitant. 28. IRIDACEAE 173 

Flowers irregular, perfect; terrestrial or epiphytic plants; stamens 

1 or 2. 29. ORCHIDACEAE 176 

Subclass 2. DICOTYLEDONES. 

A. Corolla wanting. 

I. Calyx wanting, at least in the staminate flowers. 

ei Land plants; styles distinct, cleft or foliaceous; ovaries 3-celled. 

74. EUPHORBIACEAE 541 

Aauatic plants; styles simple, united into pairs; ovaries 4-celled. 

75. CALLITRICHACEAE 547 
Trees or shrubs. 

Fruit 1-seeded; seeds without tufts of hairs. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 3 

Fruit a nut or an achene. 33. CORYLACEAE 205 

Fruit a drupe or a samara. 101. OLEACEAE 655 

Fruit many-seeded; seeds each with a tuft of hairs. 

30. SALICACEAE 185 
II. Calyx present at least in the staminate or in the perfect flowers. 

1. Flowers, at least the staminate, in aments or ament-like spikes. 

Plant not parasitic; fruit a nut or an achene. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers both in aments; fruit not with a bur 

or cup. 

Staminate flowers 2 or 3 together in the axils of the bracts, each 
with a calyx; pistillate flowers without a calyx. 

32. BETULACEAE 202 
Staminate flowers solitary in the axils of each bract, without a 

calyx; pistillate flowers with a calyx. 

33. CORYLACEAE 205 
Staminate flowers in aments; pistillate ones often solitary. 

Fruit a nut, at least partly enclosed in a cup or bur. 

31. FAGACEAE 199 
Fruit drupaceous, not enclosed in a cup or bur. 

(Garryain.) 95. CORNACEAE. 634 

Plant parasitic; fruit berry-like. 125. LORANTHACEAE 816 

2. Flowers, at least the staminate, not in aments. 

a. Ovary superior. 

Gynoecium of 1, or several and distinct carpels; stigma and style of 
each solitary. 

Carpel solitary. 

Ovary neither enclosed nor seated in a hypanthium or a calyx- 
tube. 

Flowers not solitary in the axils of the leaves; land plants. 
Plants with scarious stipules; flowers cymose. 

43. CORRIGIOLACEAE. 267 

Plants not with scarious stipules; flowers clustered. 

36. URTICACEAE 208 
Flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves; aquatic plants. 

46. CERATOPHYLLACEAE 284 

Ovary enclosed in or seated in a hypanthium or a calyx-tube. 
Stamens borne under the gynoecium; calyx corolla like; 

herbs. 40. NYCTAGINIACEAE 255 

Stamens borne on the hypanthium or adnate to the calyx- 
tube; calyx not corolla-like; shrubs. 
Hypanthium becoming fleshy in fruit, enclosing the 
tail-less achenes; calyx 4-merous; stamens 4 or 8; 
leaves silvery-scurfy. 89. ELAEAGNACEAE 581 

Hypanthium not becoming fleshy; achenes tailed; 
calyx 5-merous; leaves not scurfy. (Coleogyne and 
Cercocarpus in) 60. ROSACEAE 399 

Carpels several. 

Stamens inserted below the ovary. 

(Genera in) 48. RANUNCULACEAE 285 
Stamens inserted on the edge of a cup-shaped hypanthium. 

(Genera in) 60. ROSACEAE 399 

Gynoecium of 2 or several united carpels; stigmas or styles 2 or several. 
Ovary, by abortion, 1-celled and 1-ovuled. 
Leaves with sheathing stipules (ocreae). 

37. POLYGONACEAE 210 
Leaves estipulate, or stipules, if present, not sheathing. 

Trees or shrubs; ovary not seated in a hypanthium. 

34. ULMACEAE 206 
Herbs or vines. 

Stipules herbaceous; inflorescence spicate or racemose; 
leaf-blades palmately veined. 

35. CANNABINACEAE 207 
Stipules scarious, or hyaline, or none; inflorescence 

cymose: leaf-blades pinnately veined. 
Fruit a utricle, or achene, circumscissile or bursting 

irregularly. 
Stipules wanting. 

Flowers subtended by an involucre formed 
by more or less united bracts. 

37. POLYGONACEAE 210 
Flowers not involucrate. 

Bracts not scarious. 

38. CHENOPODIACEAE 239 
Bracts scarious. 39. AMARANTHACEAE 253 

Stipiiles present, scarious. 

43. COBRIGIOLACEAE 267 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Fruit a capsule, dehiscent by apical or longitudinal 

valves. 44. ALSINACEAE 268 

Ovary several-celled, or with several placentae, several-ovuled. 
Stamens hypogynous, inserted under the gynoecium in the per- 
fect flowers, not on a disk in the staminate flowers. 
Flowers perfect. 
Stamens not tetradynamous. 

Stamens 2; inflorescence spicate. 

(Besseya in) 117. SCROPHULARIACEAE 760 
Stamens 3-10; inflorescence cymose or axillary. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Placentae parietal; pistils 2-carpillary. 

57. SAXIFRAGACEAE 376 

Placentae central or basal; pistils of 3-5 car- 
pels. 

Calyx not petaloid, of 4 or 5 distinct sep- 
als. 44. ALSINACEAE 268 
Calyx more or less petaloid, campanulate, 
merely 5-lobed. 

(Glaux in) 100. PRIMULACEAE 646 

Ovary 3-5-celled; leaves verticillate. 

41. TETRAGONIACEAE 261 
Stamens tetradynamous. 

(Apetalous species in) 52. BRASSICACEAE 321 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

74. EUPHORBIACEAE 541 

Stamens perigynous or epigynous, inserted on the margin of a 

hypanthium or a disk. 

Fruit a samara. 78. ACERACEAE 551 

Fruit drupe-like or berry-like. 

(Apetalous species in) 79. RHAMNACEAE 553 

b. Ovary inferior. 

Flowers not in involucrafee heads. 

Fruit a berry, or a drupe, or nut-like. 

Shrubs, with scurfy and usually silvery leaves. 

89. ELAEAGNACEAE 581 
Herbs, not with scurfy leaves. 

Stamens as many as the perianth-members and alternate 

with them, or fewer. 41. TETRAGONIACEAE. 261 

Stamens as many as the perianth-members and opposite 

them, or twice as many; water plants. 
Water plants, with whorled leaves. 

92. HALORAGIDACEAE 605 
Land plants, parasitic or saprophytic, with alternate 

leaves. 126. SANTALACEAE 817 

Fruit a capsule. 

Sepals as many as the ovary-cavities, or one-half as many. 
Hypanthium merely enclosing the ovary. 

90. LYTHRACEAE 582 
Hypanthium adnate to the ovary. 91. ONAGRACEAE 583 

Sepals not of the same number as the ovary-cavities. 

Styles 2; leaves alternate. 57. SAXIFRAGACEAE 376 

Styles 6; leaves 2, basal. 128. ARISTOLCCHIACEAE 821 

Flowers, at least the staminate, in involucrate heads. 

Calyx corolla-like. 40. NYCTAGINACEAE 255 

Calyx not corolla-like. 133. AMBROSIACEAE 827 

Corolla present. 
I. Petals distinct, at least at the base. 

1. Carpels solitary, or several and distinct, or united only at the base. 
Stamens at the base of the receptacle, i. e., hypogynous. 

Plants with relatively firm stems and leaves, not succulent. 
Stamens numerous; anther-sacs opening by slits. 

Submerged water plants with minute axillary sessile monoe- 
cious flowers; anthers with horn-like appendages. 

46. CERATOPHYLLACEAE 284 

Land plants or rarely water plants with perfect or rarely 
dioecious flowers; anthers not with horn-like appendages. 

48. RANTTNCULACEAE 285 
Stamens definite (in ours 6) ; anther-sacs opening by hinged-valves. 

49. BERBERIDACEAE 315 
Plants with succulent stems and leaves. 55. CRASSULACEAE 373 

Stamens on the margin of a hypanthium (the hypanthium very small 

in some Saxifragaceae) . 
Flowers regular or nearly so (actinomorphic) . 

Endorsperm present, usually copious and fleshy. 
Herbs; stipules mostly wanting. 

Carpels as many as the sepals; succulent plants. 

55. CRASSULACEAE 373 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 5 

Carpels fewer than the sepals. 2 or rarely 3, distinct or 
only partly united; plant scarcely succulent. 

57. SAXIFRAGACEAE 376 

Shrubs or trees; fruit thin-walled follicles; stipules present. 

(Opulaster in) 6O. ROSACEAE 399 

Endosperm wanting or scant; stipules mostly present. 

Carpels several or numerous, or, if solitary, becoming an achene. 

60. ROSACEAE 399 

Carpel solitary, not becoming an achene. 

Ovary 2-ovuled; fruit a drupe; leaves simple. 

62. AMYQDALACEAE 450 

Ovary several-ovuled ; fruit a legume; leaves pinnately 

compound. 63. MlMOSACEAE 452 

Flowers irregular (mostly zygomorphic) . 

Upper petal enclosed by the lateral ones in the bud; corolla not 

papilionaceous. 64. CAESALPINIACEAE 453 

Upper petal enclosing the lateral ones in bud; corolla papilionace- 
ous. 65. FAB ACE AE 454 
2. Carpels several and united, 
a. Ovary superior. 

* Stamens inserted at the base of the ovary or receptacle. 
f Stamens numerous. 

Sepals imbricate. 

Filaments united in 3 or more sets ; leaves pellucid-punctate. 

82. HYPERICACEAE 563 

Filaments distinct; leaves not punctate. 

Calyx deciduous. 50. PAPAVERACEAE 316 

Calyx persistent. 

Stigmas distinct or united, but not discoid; land 
plants; petals and sepals 4. 

53. CAPPARIDACEAE 370 

Stigmas united into a disk; aquatic plants; petals 

and sepals numerous. 47. NYMPHAEACEAE 284 

Sepals valvate; stamens with united filaments. 

81. MALVACEAE 556 

ft Stamens few, not over twice as many as the petals. 
Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. 
Anther-sacs opening by hinged valves. 

49. BERBERIDACEAE 315 
Anther-sacs opening by slits. 

Flowers monoecious. 74. EUPHORBIACEAE 541 

Flowers perfect. 42. PORTULACACEAE 262 

Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 
more, sometimes twice as many. 

Stamens 6 or less; petals 4: sepals 2 or 4. 

Sepals 2; endosperm present; flowers irregular; stamens 

diadelphous. 51. FUMARIACEAE 319 

Sepals 4, rarely more; endosperm wanting; flowers 

regular. 
Capsule 2-celled; stamens tetradynamous, rarely 2 

or 4. 52. BRASSICACEAE 321 

Capsule 1-celled; stamens not tetradynamous. 

53. CAPPARIDACEAE 370 

Stamens, petals, and sepals of the same number, or sta- 
mens more, usually twice as many as the sepals or 
petals. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Ovules, or seeds, on basal or central placentae. 

Sepals 2; or, if more (in Lewisia), plant scapose, 
with fleshy basal leaves and the flowers soli- 
tary on a jointed scape. 

42. PORTULACACEAE 262 
Sepals 4-5; plants leafy-stemmed. 

Sepals distinct; petals not clawed; ovary 

sessile. 44. ALSINACEAE 268 

Sepals united; petals clawed; ovary more or 
less distinctly stipitate. 

45. CARYOPHYLLACEAE 280 
Ovules, or seeds, on parietal placentae. 

Stamens with united filaments and no stamin- 

odia. 81. MALVACEAE 555 

Stamens with distinct filaments. 
Staminodia present. 

56. PARNASSIACEAE 375 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Staminodia wanting. 

Stigmas 2-cleft; plants insectivorous, with 
glandular-hispid leaves. 

5> DROSERACEAE 372 

Stigmas entire; land plants, not insectiv- 
orous; leaves not glandular-hispid. 
Styles in ours distinct. 

Sepals persistent, united into a 
tube; leaves not pellucid-dotted. 

84. FRANKENIACEAE 564 
Sepals distinct; leaves pellucid- 
dotted. 

82. HYPERICACEAE 563 

Styles wholly united. 

Corolla regular or nearly so; sta- 
mens 8 or more. 
Sepals and petals 4; the latter 
not fugaceous. 

53. CAPPARIDACEAE 370 

Sepals and petals 3 or 5; the 
latter fugaceous. 

85. ClSTACEAE 565 

Corolla irregular ; one petal spurred ; 
stamens 5. 

86. VlOLACEAE 565 

Ovary several-celled. 

Stamens adnate to the gynoecium. 

106. ASCLEPIADACEAE 669 

Stamens not adnate to the gynoecium. 

Stamens with wholly or partly united filaments. 

Anthers opening lengthwise; corolla regular. 

Leaves punctate; filaments polyadelphous, 

i. e., united in three or more bundles. 

82. HYPERICACEAE 563 
Leaves not punctate; filaments monadel- 

phous, i.e., united in a single bundle 
Styles united around a central column 
from which they break at matur- 
ity. 66. GERANIACEAE 530 
Styles distinct or permanently and 
partly united; the tips and the 
stigmas free. 
Leaves simple; stamens 5. 

68. LlNACEAE 534 
Leaves compound; stamens 10-15. 

67. OXALIDACEAE 533 

Anthers opening by pores; corolla irregular. 

73. POLYGALACEAE 540 

Stamens with distinct filaments. 
Anthers united; flowers irregular. 

69. BALSAMINACEAE 536 
Anthers distinct; flowers regular or nearly so. 

Anthers opening by pores. 

Gynoecium superior; fruit usually cap- 

sular. 

Herbaceous saprophytes without 
green leaves. 

97. MONOTROPACEAE 638 

Herbs with green leaves and root- 
stocks. 96. PYROLACEAE 635 
Gynoeciura inferior; fruit baccate or 
drupaceous. 

99. VACCINIACEAE 643 

Anthers opening by slits. 

Stigmas or styles distinct and cleft, 
or foliaceous. 

74. EUPHORBIACEAE 541 
Stigmas or styles distinct or united, 

neither cleft nor foliaceous. 
Style wanting; dwarf water plants. 

83. ELATINACEAE 564 
Styles present; not water herbs. 

Stamens 2, rarely 3. 

101. OLEACEAE 655 

Stamens more than 3. 

Leaves punctate with trans- 
lucent dots. 

72. RUTACEAE 539 

Leaves without translucent dots. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 7 

Calyx irregular, one of the 
sepals spurred or saccate; 
anthers united around the 
stigma. 

69. BALSAMINACEAE 536 
Calyx regular; none of the 

sepals saccate; anthers 
distinct. 

Style basal, arising between 
the nearly distinct lobes 
of the ovary; leaves odd- 
pinnate. 

70. LlMNANTHACEAE 537 

Styles not basal; leaves in 
ours abruptly pinnate, or 
digitate. 

71. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 538 
** Stamens inserted on the margin of a disk or hypanthium (perigy- 

nous or hypogynous) . 
Styles and upper part of the ovaries distinct. 

57. SAXIFRAGACEAE 376 
Styles united. 

Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. 

Fruit a samara. 78. ACERACEAE 551 

Fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule. 

Sepals manifest; petals involute; fruit capsular or dru- 
paceous; ours shrubs or trees. 

79. RHAMNACEAE 553 

Sepals minute or obsolete; petals valvate; fruit a berry; 

ours vines with tendrils. 80. VITACEAE 556 

Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 

more. 
Hypanthium flat or obsolete; disk fleshy. 

Styles united, arising in the center, between the nearly 
distinct lobes of the ovary; small hydrophytic 
plants. 70. LIMNANTHACEAE 537 

Styles not arising between the ovaries; trees or shrubs. 
Plants without secreting glands in the bark. 

Plants with resiniferous tissue; fruit drupaceous; 
seeds without aril; leaves in ours compound. 

77. ANACARDIACEAE 550 
Plants without resiniferous tissue; fruit a loculic- 
idal capsule; seed with a fleshy aril; leaves 
simple. 76. CELASTRACEAE 548 

Plants with secreting glands in the bark. 

72. RUTACEAE 539 
Hypanthium cup-shaped or campanulate; disk obsolete or 

inconspicuous. 90. LYTHRACEAE 582 

2. Ovary at least partly inferior. 

a. Stamens numerous. 

Ovary partly inferior. 

Fruit a capsule. 58. HYDRANGEACEAE 392 

Fruit a pome. 61. MALACEAE 445 

Ovary wholly inferior. 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5, very unlike each other; leaves ample. 

Trees or shrubs; fruit fleshy. 61. MALACEAE 445 

Herbs with rigid hairs; fruit capsular. 

87. LOASACEAE 569 

Sepals and petals nearly alike, at least the latter numerous; 
leaves typically and in all ours mere scales or wanting; suc- 
culent plants armed with spines. 88. CACTACEAE 575 

b. Stamens not more than twice as many as the petals. 

Styles wanting; stigmas sessile. 92. HALORIGIDACEAE 605 

Styles present. 

Plants without tendrils. 
Styles distinct. 

Ovules several in each cavity of the ovary; fruit a cap- 
sule or a fleshy many-seeded berry. 
Fruit, if dehiscent, valvate. 

Leaves opposite; fruit a leathery capsule. 

58. HYDRANGEACEAE 392 
Leaves alternate; fruit a berry. 

59. GROSSULARIACEAE 394 
Fruit circumscissile. 42. PORTULACACEAE 262 

Ovules solitary in each cavity of the ovary; fruit a 

drupe or 2-5 more or less united achenes. 
Fruit drupaceous or baccate; gynoecium 1-several- 
carpellary, if 2-carpellary the stigmas introrse. 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Ovule with a ventral raphe; leaves mostly alter- 
nate; blades lobed or compound. 

94. ARALIACEAE 633 
Ovule with a dorsal raphe; leaves mostly op- 
posite; blades entire or merely toothed. 

95. CORNACEAE 634 
Fruit dry, a cremocarp; gynoecium 2-carpellary; 

stigmas terminal. 93. AMMIACEAE 606 

Styles united, or single. 

Ovary enclosed in or surpassed by the hypanthium or 

adnate to it. 
Anthers opening by pores; fruit a berry. 

99. VACCINIACEAE 643 

Anthers opening by slits; fruit a capsule. 
Ovary with parietal placentae. 

87. LOASACEAE 569 

Ovary with central or basal placentae. 

Hypanthium merely enclosing the ovary. 

90. LYTHRACEAE 582 
Hypanthium adnate to the ovary. 

91. ONAGRACEAE 583 
Ovary exceeding the hypanthium, the top free. 

58. HYDRANGIACEAE 392 
Plants with tendrils; fruit a pepo; leaf-blades palmately veined. 

129. CUCUHBITACEAE 821 

II. Petals more or less united. 
A. Ovary superior. 

1. Stamens free from, the corolla. 

Gynoecium of a single carpel; corolla papilionaceous. 

65. FABACEAE 454 

Gynoecium of several united carpels. 
Filaments united. 

Stamens diadelphous. 51. FUMARIACEAE 319 

Stamens monadelphqus. 

Anther-sacs opening by slits; calyx and corolla regular. 

67. OXALIDACEAE 533 

Anther-sacs opening by pores; calyx and corolla very 

irregular. 73. POLYGALACEAE 540 

Filaments distinct. 

Corolla regular; anthers distinct. 

Herbaceous saprophytes, without green leaves. 

97. MONOTROPACEAE 638 

Herbs or shrubs with green leaves. 

Corolla of essentially distinct petals, i. e., united only 
at the base; herbs with rootstocks. 

96. PYROLACEAE 635 
Corolla of distinctly united petals; shrubs. 

98. ERICACEAE 639 
Corolla irregular; one of the petals free; anthers united. 

69. BALSAMINACEAE 536 

2. Stamens partially adnate to the corolla. 

a. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite them, or 

twice as many or more; ovary 1-celled; placentae central or 
basal. 100. PRIMULACEAE 646 

b. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with 

them, or fewer. 

* Corolla not scarious, veiny; fruit various, but not a pyxis. 
t Carpels distinct, except sometimes at the apex. 
Styles united; stamens distinct or gynandrous. 

105. APOCYNACEAE 667 
Styles distinct; stamens monadelphous. 

106. ASCLEPIADACEAE 669 

tt Carpels united. 

Ovary 1-celled, with central placentae. 

Corolla-lobes convolute or imbricated in the bud ; leaves 
typically opposite and simple. 

103. GENTIANACEAE 657 

Corolla-lobes induplicate-valvate in the bud; leaves al- 
ternate, in ours mostly basal and trifoliolate. 

104. MENYANTHACEAE 667 
Ovary 2-3-celled, or falsely 4-celled, or if 1-celled with 

parietal placentae. 
Stamens 2, opposite to each other; corolla regular. 

101. OLEACEAE 655 
Stamens usually more than 2, if only 2 not opposite to 

each other and the corolla irregular. 
Leaves with stipules or stipular lines. 

102. LOGANIACEAE 657 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES 



Leaves without traces of stipules. 

Stamens 5, if only 3-4, not didynamous. 

Fruit a capsule or berry; ovary not 4-lobed. 
Styles or stigmas usually distinct. 

Parasitic twining plants, with scale- 
like leaves. 

108. CUSCUTACEAE 677 

Plants not parasitic; leaves normal. 
Inflorescence not scorpioid; flowers 
cymose or solitary ; ovary 23 
celled. 

Corolla plaited and the plaits 
convolute in the bud; flow- 
ers axillary, solitary or 
cymose-conglomerate; plants 
usually twining. 

107. CONVOLVULACEAE 674 
Corolla merely convolute in the 
bud, not plaited; flowers 
cymose; plants never twin- 
ing. 

109. POLEMONIACEAE 679 
Inflorescence more or less dis- 
tinctly scorpioid; ovary in 
ours 1 -celled or imperfectly 
2-celled. 

Fruit a capsule. 

110. HYDROPHYLLACEAE 699 
Fruit more or less drupaceous. 

111. EHRETIACEAE 710 
Styles and stigmas wholly united. 

Ovtiles few. 109. CONVOLVULACEAE 674 

Ovules numerous. 

Median axis of the gynoecium in 
the same plane as the axis of 
the stem; seeds mostly pitted. 

116. SOLANACEAE 753 
Median axis of the gynoecium not 

in the same plane as the axis of 
the stem; seed tuberculate^ 
(Verbascum in) 

117. SCROPHULARIACEAE 760 
Fruit of 1-4 nutlets; ovary more or less dis- 
tinctly 4-lobed. 

Style or stigma furnished with a glandular 
ring. 112. HELIOTROPACEAE 711 

Style or stigma not furnished with a 

glandular ring. 
Fruit 4 dry nutlets. 

113. BORAGINACEAE 712 
Fruit more or less drupaceous. 

111. EHRETIACEAE 710 

Stamens 4 and didynamous, or 2 or 1. 

Stamens 2 and opposite to each other; corolla 

regular. 101. OLEACEAE 655 

Stamens, if 2, not- opposite to each other, 

nor the corolla regular. 
Carpels ripening into 2 or 4 nutlets, an 

achene, or a drupe. 
Style apical on the lobeless ovary. 

114. VERBENACEAE 739 
Style arising between the 4 lobes of 

the ovary. 

115. LAMIACEAE 741 
Carpels ripening into a capsule. 

Placentae of the ovary axile. 

Ovary 2-celled, rarely 3-5-celled; 
land-plants. 

117. SCROPHULARIACEAE 760 
Ovary 1 -celled; ours submerged 

water plants or bog plants. 

118. LENTIBULARIACEAE 801 
Placentae of the ovary parietal. 

Herbs parasitic on the roots of 
other plants; leaves scale-like, 
not green. 

119. OROBANCHACEAE 802 
Herbs with green leaves, not para- 
sitic. 120. MARTYNIACEAE 804 



10 KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

** Corolla scarious, veinless; fruit a pyxis. 

121. PLANT AGINACEAE 804 

B. Ovary inferior. 

Stamens with the filaments free from the corolla. 

Stamens 10; anther-sacs opening by terminal pores or chinks. 

99. VACCINIACEAE 643 

Stamens 5 or fewer; anther-sacs opening by longitudinal slits. 

Corolla regular; anthers distinct. 130. CAMPANULACEAE 822 

Corolla irregular; anthers united. 131. LOBELIACEAE 824 

Stamens adnate to the corolla. 

Ovary with 2-many fertile cavities and 2-many ovules; calyx un- 
modified, at least not a pappus. 

Plants tendril-bearing. 129. CUCURBITACEAE 821 

Plants not tendril-bearing. 

Ovules mostly on basal placentae; plants parasitic or saprophy- 

tic. 
Leaves opposite; fruit a berry; tree-parasites. 

125. LOBANTHACEAE 816 

Leaves alternate; fruit a drupe or nut; root-parasites or 

saprophytes. 126. SANTALACEAE 817 

Ovules variously borne, but not on a basal placenta; plants 

not parasitic. 
Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. 

Leaves with stipules (often leaf-like and usually re- 
garded as leaves) adnate to the stem between the 
leaf-bases. 122. RUBIACEAE 806 

Leaves without stipules or if present these adnate to 

the petioles. 123. CAPRIFOLIACEAE 810 

Stamens twice as many as the corolla-lobes; low herbs with 

ternately dissected leaves. 124. AD9XACEAE 816 

Ovary with one fertile cavity; calyx often modified into a pappus. 
Flowers not in heads, often in head-like spikes or racemes. 

127. VALERIANACEAE 818 
Flowers hi involucrate heads. 

Flowers all with tubular corollas or none, or only the ray- 
flowers with ligulate corollas. 
Stamens distinct. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, surrounded by a cup-like in- 

volucel; anthers versatile. 132. DIPSACEAE 827 

Flowers unisexual, not involucellate; anthers basifixed. 

133. AMBROSIACEAE 827 
Stamens united by the anthers, or if distinct (in Kuhnia} 

the flowers hermaphrodite and anthers basifixed. 

134. CARDUACEAE 833 
Flowers all with ligulate corollas. 135. CICHORIACEAE 1015 



Class 1. GYMNOSPERMAE. NAKED-SEEDED PLANTS. 

Ovules naked, inserted on the upper side of an open, mostly 
flat, more or less developed scale, not enclosed in an ovary. Pollen- 
grains divide into two or more cells, of which one produces a pollen- 
tube; this fertilizes the ovule directly. All trees or shrubs, most 
of them evergreen. 

Family 1. PINACEAE. PINE FAMILY. 

Resinous trees or shrubs, mostly with evergreen, needle-shaped or linear 
leaves. Stamens several together, subtended by a scale, forming elongated 
aments; filaments more or less united; anthers usually 2-celled; pollen-grains 
globose, ellipsoid, or lobed. Pistillate aments consisting of usually numer- 
ous spirally disposed scales subtended by bracts. Ovules inverted, usually 
2 at the base of each scale. Fruit a dry cone. Seeds usually 2 at the base 
of each scale, often samara-like; wing formed by a part of the scale. 

Leaves several together (in one species solitary), surrounded by a sheath at the bae; 

cones maturing the second year. 
Cone-scales with dorsal, usually spine-armed appendages. 

Seeds with elongated wings attached to the seeds when they fall; leaves mostly 

with two fibro- vascular bundles. 1. PiNUS. 

Seeds with narrow or rudimentary wings, which remain attached to the scales 
when the seeds fall; leaves with a single flbro- vascular bundle. 

2. CARYOPITYS. 
Cone-scales with inconspicuous terminal unarmed appendages. 

Seeds with rudimentary wings attached to the scales; cones subsessile, spreading. 

3. APINUS. 

Seeds with well-developed wings, which remain attached to the seeds; cones dis- 
tinctly stalked, pendulous. 4. STROBUS. 
Leaves not surrounded by sheaths; cones maturing the first year. 

Leaves in fascicles at the ends of short branches, deciduous. 5. LARDC. 

Leaves scattered along the branches, persistent. 

Branches smooth, not roughened by persistent leaf-bases. 

Cones erect, their scales and bracts deciduous from the persistent axis; leaves 
sessile with circular leaf-scars. 6. ABIES. 

Cones pendulous, their scales and bracts persistent; leaves petioled with trans- 
versal oval leaf-scars. 7. PSEUDOTSUQA. 
Branches roughened by persistent leaf -bases (sterigmata) . 

Leaf-blades petioled with a single dorsal duct; anthers opening transversely; 

seeds with resin- vesicles. 
Leaves flat, with stomata only on the lower side, 2-ranked by twisting of 

the petioles; cones small, drooping. 8. TSUGA. 

Leaves not much flattened, keeled on the lower side, with stomata on both 
sides, spreading in all directions; cones elongated, erect at least at first. 

9. HESPEROPEUCE. 

Leaf-blades sessile, with two lateral ducts, in ours 4-angled and spreading in 
all directions; anthers opening longitudinally; seeds without resin-vesicles. 

10. PICEA. 

1. PINUS (Tourn.) L. HARD PINES, PITCH PINES. 

Monoecious evergreen trees or rarely shrubs, with two kinds of leaves, the 
primary leaves chaff-like, deciduous, the secondary ones green, needle-shaped, 
usually with two nbro-vascular bundles (in all ours except in P. aristata), in 
fascicles of 2-5, surrounded by a sheath, which is usually persistent. Staminate 
aments elongated, at the ends of branches of the preceding year; anthers 2- 
celled, opening longitudinally; pollen-grains 3-celled, the two lateral cells empty. 
Pistillate aments globose or oblong, sessile or nearly so, below the terminal bud 
or on the young twigs. Cones in ours subsessile, maturing the second autumn; 
scales thick, spreading at maturity, with a dorsal appendage or thickening, 
usually armed with a spine or at least a tubercle. Seeds samara-like, with the wing 
remaining attached to the seed. 

(11) 



12 PINACEAE 

Leaves in 4's or 5's, with solitary flbro-vascular bundles and more or less deciduous 

sheaths ; spines of the cone-scales long and slender. 1. P. aristata. 

Leaves in 2's or 3's, with usually two flbro-vascular bundles and persistent sheaths; spines 

of the cone-scales short or none. 
Cones 6-15 cm. long and 5-6 cm. in diameter; leaves 8-25 cm. long. 

Leaves 12-25 cm. long; cones 8-15 cm. long, elongated-ovoid. 2. P. ponderosa. 
Leaves 8-15 cm. long; cones 6-9 cm. long, rounded-ovoid. 3. P. scopulorum. 

Cones 35 cm. long and about 3 cm. in diameter. 

Cones spreading, or somewhat reflexed ; scales with evident dorsal spines. 

4. P. Murrayana. 

Cones erect, more or less incurved; scales unarmed or nearly so, at least at matur- 
ity. 5. P. Banksiana. 

1. P. aristata Engelm. A low stunted tree, 3-15 m. high; bark of the 
trunks dull reddish brown, shallowly furrowed; that of the smaller trunks and 
limbs smooth, milky-white; leaves dark green above, glaucous beneath, 3-4 cm. 
long, in fascicles of 5, crowded toward the ends of the branches; staminate 
flowers orange-red; pistillate ones dark purple; cones sessile, 7-10 cm. long, 
ellipsoid, obtuse; scales with a thickened purple-brown back. BRISTLE-CONE 
PINE. High mountains: Colo. N.M. Calif. -Nev. Mont. Subalp. 

2. P. ponderosa Dougl. A tree 35-60 m. high, with a trunk 1-2 m. in 
diameter; bark in older trees 5-10 cm. thick, dark brown, separating into cin- 
namon-red scales; leaves in fascicles of 3, yellowish green, 12-25 cm. long; 
staminate flowers yellow; pistillate ones dark red; cones broadly ellipsoid, hori- 
zontal, subsessile, 1-1.5 dm. long. BULL PINE. Slopes and valleys: B.C. 
Mont. Ida. Calif. Submont. 

3. P. scopulorum (Engelm.) Lemmon. A tree 25-30 m. high; bark thick, 
deeply divided into plates; leaves in 2's or 3's, yellowish green, 8-15 cm. long; 
staminate flowers yellow; pistillate ones purple; cones conic-ovoid, horizontal. 
P. ponderosa scopulorum Engelm. ROCK PINE, BULL PINE. Hills and moun- 
tains: S.D. Neb. N. M. Ariz. Mont. Submont. Mont. 

4. P. Murrayana Balf. A tree 20-30 m., sometimes 45 m. high; bark of the 
trunk about 5 mm. thick, close and firm, covered with appressed scales, orange- 
brown; branches light orange; leaves yellowish green, 3-7 cm., usually about 5 
cm. long; flowers orange-red; cones spreading, 3-4 cm. long, short-ovoid. P. 
contorta Murrayana Engelm. LODGE-POLE PINE. Hills and mountains: Sask. 
(Cypress Hills) Colo. Calif. Alaska. Mont. 

6. P. Banksiana Lamb. A tree 10-20 m., rarely 30 m. high; bark dark 
brown, tinged with red, irregularly furrowed; leaves in rather remote clusters of 
2, dark green, 2-3 cm. long; staminate flowers yellow; pistillate ones dark purple; 
cones conic-ovoid, erect and incurved, 3-5 cm. long, dull purple or green, turn- 
ing yellow and shining. P. divaricata (Ait.) Gordon. GRAY or NORTHERN 
SCRUB PINE, BANKSIAN PINE. Sandy soil: N.S. n N.Y. Minn. Alta. Mack. 
Boreal. 

2. CARYOPITYS Small. NUT-PINES, PINONS. 

Monoecious evergreen trees or shrubs, with 2 kinds of leaves as in Pinus; 
secondary leaves with solitary fibro-vascular bundles, in fascicles of 2-4, or in 
one species usually solitary, surrounded by a deciduous sheath. Staminate 
aments as in the preceding. Pistillate cones subsessile just below the terminal 
bud; scales in rather few series. Cones maturing the second season; scales 
becoming leathery, thick, with a dorsal thickening, usually with a small spine- 
tip. Seeds large and edible, with a very narrow wing or mere margin, remain- 
ing attached to the scale when the seed falls. 

Cones about 3 cm. long; leaves usually in pairs, seldom in threes. 1. C. cdulis. 

Cones 4-5 cm. long; leaves singly or sometimes in pairs. 2. C. monophylla. 

1. C. edulis (Engelm.) Small. A tree 6-12 m. high; bark of the trunk 
divided into ridges and brown scales; that of the young branches orange or yel- 
low; foliage-leaves in clusters of 2's, rarely in 3's, semi-terete or triangular, 2-4 
cm. long; staminate flowers dark red; cones very short-peduncled, spreading, 
ehort-ovoid, 2-4 cm. long, almost as wide. Pinus edulis Engelm. PIN ON, NUT- 
PINE. Foot-hills: Wyo. w Tex. Ariz. -Utah; Mex. Son. Submont. 



PINE FAMILY 13 

2. C. monophylla (Torr. & Frem.) Rydb. A tree usually 4-6 m., rarely 
up to 15 m. high; bark irregularly furrowed, brown, tinged with red or orange; 
branches smooth, light gray or yellowish; leaves single or in pairs, yellowish 
green, incurved, 3-5 cm. long, when single terete, when in pairs flat and glaucous 
on the inside; staminate flowers reddish; cones depressed-ovoid, 3-6 cm. long. 
P. monophylla Torr. & Frem. ONE-LEAVED PINON. Dry hillsides and slopes: 
Utah Ariz. -L. Calif. 'Nev. Son. Submont. 

3. APINUS Necker. CEMBRA PINES. 

Monoecious trees or shrubs, with two kinds of leaves as in Pinus; secondary 
leaves with single fibro-vascular bundles, in fascicles of 5. Staminate aments 
as in Pinus. Pistillate cones subsessile below the terminal bud; scales in sev- 
eral series. Cones maturing the second season, spreading; scales more or less 
thickened, but without dorsal thickening or spine. Seeds large, edible, with a 
very short wing or mere margin remaining attached to the scale when the seeds 
fall. 

Cones 8-15 cm. long; scales neither much thickened nor impressed around the scar, 
spreading at maturity. I. A. flexilis. 

Cones 5-8 cm. long; scales much thickened and impressed around the terminal scar, 
remaining closed. 2. A. albicaulis. 

1. A. flexilis (James) Rydb. A tree 10-15 m. high; bark of the old trunks 
blackish or dark brown, deeply furrowed between rectangular blocks; that of 
the branches light gray, shining, smooth; leaves dark green, crowded at the ends 
of the branches, 3.5-7 cm. long; staminate flowers reddish; pistillate flowers red- 
purple; cones 8-25 cm. long, ovoid, short-stalked; scales somewhat thickened, 
opening at maturity, exposed portion greenish or yellowish brown, unexposed 
portion pale red. Pinus flexilis James. LIMBER PINE. High mountains: 
Alta. w Tex. se Calif. Submont. Subalp. 

2. A. albicaulis (Engelm.) Rydb. A tree 1-10 m. high, rarely 15 m. high, 
sometimes in exposed situations a mere sprawling shrub; bark of the trunks 
thin, slightly if at all fissured, ashy; that of the branches yellowish, downy; 
leaves crowded near the ends of the branches, dark green, 4-6 cm. long; flowers 
scarlet; cones ovoid, horizontal, sessile, dark purple; scales much thickened, re- 
maining closed. P. albicaulis Engelm. WHITE BARK or NUT PINE. High 
exposed mountains: Alta. n Wyo. 'Calif. -B.C. Mont. Subalp. 

4. STROBUS Opiz. WHITE PINES. 

Monoecious evergreen trees, with two kinds of leaves as in Pinus; secondary 
leaves mostly with a single fibro-vascular bundle, in fascicles of 5, surrounded at 
the base by deciduous sheathing bud-scales. Staminate aments as in Pinus. 
Pistillate cones stalked, borne behind the terminal bud; scales in many series. 
Cones maturing the second season, drooping; scales becoming leathery, without 
dorsal thickening or spine. Seeds with a well-developed wing remaining attached 
to the seed. 

1. S. monticola (Dougl.) Rydb. A tree often 30 m., rarely 45 m. high, with 
a trunk 7-12 dm. in diameter; bark of the trunk 2-3 cm. thick, grayish purple 
to cinnamon-colored; leaves bluish green, whitened by 2-6 rows of stomata, 5-10 
cm. long; staminate flowers yellow; pistillate cones purple, 1.5-2.5 dm. long; tips 
of scales reddish- or yellowish-brown, lower and inside portions bright red. P. 
monticola Dougl. WESTERN WHITE PINE. Mountains: B.C. nw Mont. 
Ida. s Calif. Submont. Mont. 

5. LARIX (Tourn.) Adans. LARCH, TAMARACK. 

Slender deciduous monoecious trees. Leaves needle-shaped, soft, very many 
in each fascicle, developed in early spring from lateral scaly buds. Staminate 
aments terminating short lateral branches of the preceding year, from naked 
buds. Anthers 2-celled, opening transversely; pollen-grains 1-celled, globular. 
Pistillate aments crimson, usually subtended by leaves; cone-scales persistent. 
Seeds samara-like; wings attached to the seeds. 



14 PINACEAE 

Oonee 1-2 cm. long, subglobose; their scales few, longer than the bracts; leaves 3-angled. 

1. L. laricina. 
Cones 24 cm. long, ovoid; their scales numerous, shorter than the bracts. 

Leaves triangular; branches soon becoming glabrate. 2. L. occidenlalis. 

Leaves quadrangular; branchlets tomentose. 3. L. Lyallii. 

1. L. laricina (Du Roi) Koch. A tree 15-25 m. high, with a trunk 3-6 dm. 
in diameter; bark of the trunk separating into reddish brown or ashy scales; 
twigs smooth, at first whitish, turning yellowish brown; leaves in clusters of 12- 
20, somewhat 3-angled, ridged beneath, 2-3 cm. long, bright green; cones russet- 
brown, 1.5-2 cm. long; scales about 20, obovate, erose, twice as long as the 
bracts. L. americana Michx. TAMARACK, AMERICAN LARCH. Swamps: Lab. 
Maes. Pa. -111. Sask. -Alaska. Boreal 'Subarct. 

2. L. occidentalis Nutt. A tree with a narrow crown, usually 30-50 m. 
high, rarely 60-70 m. high, with a trunk 10-15 dm. thick; bark of the trunk very 
thick, deeply furrowed, cinnamon-brown; twigs dark or grayish brown; leaves 15-30 
in each cluster, pale greenish yellow, 3-5 cm. long, triangular, ridged on their 
inner face; cones 3-4 cm. long, short-peduncled; scales villous below the middle 
outside, obovate, with reflexed margins, shorter than the bracts; the latter 
lanceolate, 3-toothed at the apex. WESTERN LARCH. Wet or gravelly soil, on 
mountain sides and valleys: B.C. nw Mont. Ore. Submont. -Mont. 

3. L. Lyallii Parl. A tree 10-15 m. high, with a trunk 2.5-6 dm. in diam- 
eter, rarely 20 m. high; bark of the trunk slightly furrowed, purplish or reddish 
brown; twigs pale gray, shining, smooth, white-villous for about two seasons; 
leaves 4-angled, pale blue-green, 3-4 cm. long, 30-40 in each cluster; cones ellip- 
soid, 4-5 cm. long, subsessile or short-stalked, tomentose; scales obovate, erose, 
reddish purple, rarely green; bracts much longer, 3-lobed. LY ALL'S LARCH. 
High mountain slopes, near timberline: B.C. Alta. 'Mont. n Ore. Subalp. 

6. ABIES (Tourn.) Hill. FIR, BALSAM. 

Monoecious evergreen trees with spreading branches. Leaves flattened, 
leaving rounded scars on the smooth branches (without sterigmata), with 2 
longitudinal resin-ducts and solitary nbro-vascular bundles, those of the lateral 
branches appearing 2-ranked by the twisting of the base, those of the cone-bear- 
ing branches usually curved upward and shorter. Staminate aments in the 
axils of the leaves of the preceding year, subtended by imbricate bracts; pollen- 
sacs opening transversely or nearly so. Pistillate aments lateral, erect; cones 
maturing the first year, erect; scales and bracts deciduous at maturity. Seeds 
samara-Like; wings remaining attached to the seeds. 

Resin-ducts of the leaves within the soft tissues, remote from the epidermis. 
Bracts longer than the cone-scales; leaves dark green above, pale beneath. 

1. A. balsamea. 
Bracts much shorter than the cone-scales; leaves blue-green and glaucous. 

Bark of the trunk hard, not corky; cone-scales longer than broad. 2. A. lasiocarpa. 
Bark of the trunk elastic, corky; cone-scales broader than long. 3. A. arizonica. 
Resin-ducts of the leaves close to the epidermis on the lower side. 

Bracts obcordate with a short acumination; leaves (except those of the cone-bearing 

branches) emarginate, dark green above, white beneath. 4. A. grandis. 

Bracts truncate with a short acumination; leaves acute or acuminate, seldom obtuse 

at the apex, pale blue-green and glaucous 5. A. concolor. 

1. A. balsamea (L.) Mill. A tree 15-20 m., rarely 27 m. high, with 
broadly conic crown; bark on old trunks scaly, of young trunks and branches 
smooth, warty with resin-blisters; leaves dark green and shining above, silvery 
white beneath; those of the sterile branches 2-3 cm. long, obtuse; staminate 
flowers yellow, tinged with purplish; pistillate deeply purple; cones oblong, 
puberulent, 5-10 cm. long; scales obovate, longer than broad, usually twice as 
long as the bracts, serrulate. BALSAM FIR. Low ground: Lab. Mass. Va. 
Iowa Man. Alta. Mack. Boreal Subarct. 

2. A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. A tree usually 25-30 m., rarely 45 m. 
high, with a trunk 3-10 dm. in diameter, at the timberline a shrub 1-2 m. high; 
bark of the trunks smooth with resin-blisters, only in old trees somewhat cracked 
and scaly; twigs usually puberulent; leaves of the lower branches 2.5-4 cm. 
long, rounded at the apex; staminate flowers dark blue, turning violet; pistillate 



PINE FAMILY 15 

violet-purple, rarely yellow; cones oblong, 5-10 cm. long; scales obovate, narrowed 
at the base, more than twice as long as the bracts. A. subalpina Engelm. SUBAL- 
PINE FIR, BALSAM. Subalpine mountains: Alta. N.M. Ariz. Ore. Alaska. 
Subalp. 

3. A. arizonica Merriam. A tree about 15 m. high; trunk 2-4 dm. in diam- 
eter; bark of the stem whitish, corky, elastic, irregularly ridged; that of the 
branches smooth and with resin-blisters; leaves of the lower branches 2.5-3 cm. 
long, usually notched at the apex; those of the cone-bearing branches 2 cm. 
long, sharp-pointed; pistillate flowers purple; cones oblong, about 5 cm. long; 
scales transversely rounded-oval, nearly twice as long as the bracts. ARIZONA 
BALSAM. High mountains: Ariz. s Colo. N.M. Subalp. 

4. A. grandis Lindl. A tree 75-100 m. high, with a trunk often 12 dm. 
thick; bark of old trees 5 cm. thick, shallowly fissured and scaly; twigs yellowish 
green, puberulous, becoming glabrate; leaves dark green and shining above, 
silvery white beneath; those of the sterile branches 3-5 cm. long, spreading, 2- 
ranked, usually conspicuously emarginate; staminate flowers pale yellow; pistil- 
late yellowish green; cones cylindric, puberulent, 5-10 cm. long; scales obovate, 
broader than long, 3-4 times as long as the bracts. GRAND FIR. Valleys and 
lower slopes: Mont. -Wyo. Calif. B.C. Mont. Submont. 

6. A. concolor Lindl. & Gord. A tree 25-30 m., rarely 45 m. high, on the 
Pacific Coast much higher; bark on the old trees deeply furrowed and scaly; 
that of the upper part and of young trees smooth and grayish, with resin-blisters; 
leaves pale blue or glaucous; those of the lower branches 5-7 cm. long, straight, 
acute or acuminate; staminate flowers dark red to rose-colored; pistillate ones 
purplish or yellowish green; cones oblong-cylindric, rounded, 7-12 cm. long, 
puberulent; scales obovate, broader than long, twice as long as the bracts; seeds 
4-5 mm. long. WHITE FIR. Mountain slopes; Colo. N.M. L. Calif. Ore. 
Mont. 

7. PSEUDOTSUGA Carr. RED FIR, FALSE SPRUCE. 

Monoecious evergreen trees, with spreading branches. Leaves flattened, 
petioled, on the lateral branches appearing 2-ranked by the twisting of the peti- 
oles, leaving transversely oval, slightly raised scars, with 2 resin-ducts close to 
the epidermis on the lower side. Staminate aments axillary to the leaves of the 
preceding season, cylindric; anther-sacs 2, obliquely splitting. Pistillate aments 
sub terminal, drooping; scales persistent, much shorter than the 3-lobed caudate- 
acuminate bracts; cones maturing the first season. Seeds winged. 

1. P. mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. A tree 25-60 m. high, sometimes taller, 
with a trunk 6-25 dm. thick; leaves dark yellowish green, 2-3 cm. long, flat, 
obtuse, short-stalked; staminate flowers orange-red; pistillate ones greenish or 
purplish, the bracts deep purple; cones 5-10 cm. long; scales obovate-rounded, 
puberulent, shorter than the bracts. P. taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. P. Douglasii 
Carr. RED FIR, DOUGLAS SPRUCE, or DOUGLAS FIR. Hills and mountains: 
Alta. w Tex. Calif. B.C.; n Mex. Submont. Subalp. 

8. TSUGA (Endl.) Carr. HEMLOCK. 

Monoecious evergreens with spreading or somewhat reflexed branches. 
Leaves flattened, with stomata only on the lower side, on the lateral branches, 
appearing 2-ranked by the twisting of the petioles, articulate to short persistent 
bases (sterigmata). Staminate aments axillary to leaves of the preceding year; 
pollen-sacs confluent, opening by a transverse slit. Pistillate aments solitary, 
terminal on branches of the preceding year; bracts membranous, inconspicuous; 
scales in few series. Cones drooping, maturing the first year; scale at last loose 
and spreading, persistent. Seeds samara-like; wings attached to the seeds. 

1. T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. A tree 40-50 m., rarely 60 m. high, with 
a trunk 6-20 dm. thick; leaves flat, rounded at the apex, deeply grooved and 
dark green above, with two broad white or glaucous bands beneath, 1-2 cm. 
long, petioled; staminate flowers yellow; pistillate ones purple; cones ovoid, 1.5- 
2.5 cm. long, pendulous; scales obovate, strongly striate, persistent. WESTERN 
HEMLOCK, Moist places: B.C. w Mont. Ida. -n Calif. Mont. Submont. 



16 PINACEAE 

9. HESPEROPEUCE Lemmon. BLACK HEMLOCK, MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK. 

Monoecious evergreen trees with spreading branches. Leaves rather plump, 
keeled beneath, spreading in all directions, articulated to persistent bases (sterig- 
mata), with stomata on both sides. Staminate aments axillary to leaves of pre- 
ceding year; anther-sacs opening transversely. Pistillate aments terminal, at 
first erect; scales in rather many series. Cones maturing the first year; scales 
persistent. Seeds samara-like. 

1. H. Mertensiana (Bong.) Rydb. A tree usually 10-20 m. high, but some- 
times up to 35 m. high, with a trunk 2.5-10 dm. in diameter; leaves bluish green, 
rather thick, blunt-pointed, 1-2.5 cm. long; staminate flowers purple; pistillate 
flowers erect, dark-purple or yellowish green; cones cylindric, 3-7 cm. long; 
scales persistent, obovate, striate. Tsuga Pattoniana Sen. T. Mertensiana 
(Bong.) Sargent. H. Pattoniana Lemmon. Exposed ridges and slopes: Alaska 
w Mont. Ida. Calif. Subalp. 

10. PICEA Link. SPRUCES. 

Evergreen monoecious trees. Leaves needle-shaped, in ours quadrangular or 
nearly terete, leaving persistent bases (sterigmata) when falling, scattered, 
pointing in all directions. Staminate aments from the axils of the leaves of the 
preceding year, or rarely terminal; anther-sacs opening longitudinally. Pistil- 
late aments terminal. Cones maturing the first season, drooping; scales closely 
imbricate, leathery, thin, without dorsal thickening, persistent. Seeds samara- 
like, with hyaline wings, remaining attached to the seeds. 

Cone-scales rounded at the apex. 

Branchlets pubescent; cones 1.5-3 cm. long, persistent for several years; scales rigid, 

erose or dentate. 1. P. Mariana. 

Branchlets glabrous; cones 3-5 cm. long, deciduous in the first winter; scales rather 

thin. 
Cone-scales entire or minutely denticulate on the margins; cones cylindric- 

oblong, 3.5-5 cm. long. 2. P. canadensis. 

Cone-scales erose on the margins ; cones ellipsoid, 3-3.5 cm. long. 3. P. albertiana. 
Cone-scales more or less rhomboid in outline. 

Branchlets pubescent ; cones 3-5 cm. long. 4. P. Engelmanni. 

Branchlets glabrous; cones 5-9 cm. long. 5. P. pungens. 

1. P. Mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. A tree usually 6-10 m. high, occasionally 25 
m. high, with a trunk 1-3 dm. in diameter; bark grayish brown, scaly; twigs 
russet-brown, short-pilose; leaves pale blue-green and glaucous, 1-2 cm. long, 
callous-tipped at the apex; staminate flowers dark red; pistillate ones purple; 
cones short, ovoid, 1-3 cm. long, ashy brown, persistent; scales rounded, erose- 
dentate. P. nigra Link. BLACK SPRUCE. Swamps: Lab. Newf. N.C. 
Wise. Sask. Alta. -Mack. Boreal Subartic. 

2. P. canadensis (Mill.) B.S.P. A tree 10-20 m., rarely 30 m. high, with 
a trunk 3-9 dm. in diameter; bark ashy brown, scaly; branches and sterigmata 
glabrous; leaves incurved, acute or acuminate, blue-green; staminate flowers 
pale red, becoming yellow from shedding the pollen; pistillate flowers pale red 
or yellowish green; cones cylindric or oblong, 3-6 cm. long; scales orbicular, 
slightly emarginate. P. alba Link. WHITE SPRUCE. River banks and hill- 
sides: Lab. Newf. Me. n N.Y. Wise. S.D. (Black Hills) Alta. Alaska. 
Boreal Subarctic. 

3. P. albertiana S. Brown. A slender tree 10-20 m. high; twigs and sterig- 
mata smooth and shining, yellowish brown, becoming darker in age; leaves 
pale blue-green, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, incurved, acute or acuminate; pistillate flowers 
bright crimson; cones ovate, 2.5-3.5 cm. long; scales stiff, rounded, cinnamon- 
brown. ALBERTA SPRUCE. Mountains: Alta. n Wyo. -B.C. Mont. 

4. P. Engelmanni (Parry) Engelm. A tree 25-30 m., rarely 45 m. high, 
with a trunk 4.5-10 dm. thick; bark light cinnamon-red, loosely scaly; leaves 
soft, with acute tips, 2.5-3 cm. long, bluish green; staminate flowers dark purple; 
pistillate ones scarlet, turning chestnut-brown; cones oblong-ellipsoid, subsessile, 
3-6 cm. long; scales thin, erose-dentate. ENGELMANN'S SPRUCE. Cold moun- 
tains and ravines, especially on the north sides: Alta. N.M. Ariz. B.C. 
Yukon. Subalp. -Mont. 



PINE FAMILY 17 

5. P. pungens Engelm. A tree usually 25-30 m. high, occasionally 45 m. 
high, and a trunk 6-9 dm. thick; bark furrowed and scaly, cinnamon-red; leaves 
strongly incurved, rigid, acuminate, 2-3 cm. long on the sterile branches, 1-2 
cm. long on the cone-bearing ones, dull bluish green, often with a silvery bloom; 
staminate flowers yellow, tinged with red; pistillate ones pale green or purplish; 
cones usually 7-8 cm. long, oblong. P. Parryana (Andre) Sargent. COLORADO 
BLUE SPRUCE. Mountains, especially along streams: Wyo. -N.M. -Utah. 
Mont. 

Family 2. JUNIPER ACE AE. JUNIPER FAMILY. 

Evergreen dioecious or monoecious trees or shrubs. Buds naked. Leaves 
opposite or whorled, mostly reduced and scale-like, appressed or sometimes 
subulate and spreading. Perianth wanting. Aments solitary, the pistil- 
late ones with few carpellary scales. Ovules erect, 1-several under each 
scale. Cones often with peltate scales, in some genera fleshy. Seeds wing- 
less or, if winged, the wings formed by a portion of the seed-coat. 

Plants monoecious; cones dry; scales merely imbricate. 1. THUJA. 

Plants mostly dioecious; cones berry-like or drupe-like, with coalescent fleshy scales. 
Aments axillary; cones with smaller scales at the top; leaves all subulate and 
spreading. 2. JUNIPERUS. 

Aments terminal; pistillate cones with larger scales at the top; leaves at least of the 
mature plants scale-like and appressed. 3. SABINA. 

1. THUJA L. ARBOR VITAE, WHITE CEDAR. 

Evergreen monoecious shrubs or trees. Leaves scale-like, 4-ranked, alter- 
nately opposite, usually with a gland on the back. Staminate aments terminal, 
solitary, nearly sessile between the leaves; anthers in 2 or 3 series, stalked; 
anther-sacs 4; pistillate aments solitary, terminal, ovoid or oblong; scales 2- 
ranked in several series. Cones oblong "or ovoid, persistent; scales dry and flat. 
Seeds flat, winged on both sides. 

1. T. plicata D. Don. A tree 45-50 m., sometimes 60 m. high, with a 
trunk 1-3 m. in diameter; bark bright cinnamon; leaves of the leading shoots 
ovate, long-pointed, glandular on the back, 6 mm. long, on the lateral branches 
acute, 3 mm. long, with no or obscure glands; staminate flowers dark brown, 
3 mm. long; cones reflexed, about 12 mm. long; scales elliptic, 3-4 pairs. T. 
gigantea Nutt. Bottom lands: Alaska Mont. Ida. n Calif: Submont. Mont. 

2. JUNIPERUS (Tourn.) L. JUNIPER. 

Dioecious or monoecious shrubs or trees. Leaves in whorls of 3, subulate, 
ascending or spreading, without glands on their back. Staminate aments axil- 
lary, solitary; pollen-sacs several under each scale. Pistillate ament of 2-3 
series of fleshy scales; ovules solitary. Cone berry-like. Seeds wingless. 

Low shrub with depressed branches; leaves abruptly bent at the base, deeply channeled, 
abruptly acute. 1. J. sibirica. 

Tree or erect shrub; leaves straight or nearly so, shallowly channeled, gradually 
acuminate. 2. J. communis. 

1. J. sibirica Burgsd. Shrub seldom 5 dm. high, usually with decumbent 
branches; bark dark red, scaly; leaves 5-12 cm. long, keeled, dark green below, 
white above, ascending; fruit dark blue, with a bloom, 7-9 mm. in diameter; 
seeds 1-3, ovate, acute, angled, about 3 mm. long. /. nana Willd. High 
mountains or dry open rocky places. Lab. N. Y. Mich. N.M. Calif. 
Alaska. Subalp. Mont. 

2. J. communis L. An erect shrub or low tree sometimes 7-8 m. high; 
bark dark red, scaly; leaves spreading, mostly straight, prickly-pointed, keeled, 
1-2 cm. long, dark green on the lower side, white on the upper; fruit 6-7 mm. 
in diameter, dark blue, 1-3-seeded; seeds ovate, acute, about 3 mm. long. Dry 
hills: N.S. N.J. Pa. w Neb. N.M. B.C.; Eurasia. Submont. Plain. 

3. SABINA Haller. RED CEDAR. 

Evergreen monoecious or dioecious shrubs. Leaves alternately opposite or 
in 3's, scale-like and appressed, or in young plants subulate and more spreading, 



18 JUNIPERACEAE 

often with a gland on the back. Staminate aments small, solitary or 3-6 together, 
terminal on the branchlets; pollen-sacs 3-6 under each ovate or shield-like scale. 
Pistillate aments subglobose, of 2-3 series of fleshy scales. Ovules erect, solitary 
or sometimes 2 under each scale. Cones berry-like. Seeds 1-4, wingless. 

Fruit reddish-brown or bluish by a bloom, with dry fibrous sweet flesh. 

1. S. utahensis. 

Fruit blue or blue-black, rarely copper-colored, with juicy resinous flesh. 
Trees or erect shrubs; fruit on straight peduncles. 

Leaves minutely dentate at the apex; fruit 58 mm. in diameter. 

Leaves not glandular or obscurely so; seeds usually 1. 2. S. monosperma. 

Leaves very glandular; seeds 2 or 3. 3. S. occidentalis. 

Leaves entire; fruit 4-5 mm. in diameter, usually with more than one seed. 

4. S. scopulorum. 
Prostrate shrub; fruit on recurved peduncles. 5. S. horizontalis. 

1. S. utahensis (Engelm.) Rydb. A bushy tree, rarely 6 m. high, irregularly 
branched near the base; bark ashy gray or almost white, scaly; leaves in whorls 
of 3, or opposite on the mature branches, rhombic in outline, subacute, 2 mm. 
long, 1 mm. wide, neither glandular nor pitted on the back; fruit copper-colored 
when ripe, 7-10 mm. thick; seeds ovate, acute or obtusish, grooved. Juniperus 
utahensis (Engelm.) Lemmon. J. Knightii A. Nels. Dry hills: Wyo. N.M. 
Ariz. se Calif. Nev. Submont. Son. 

2. S. monosperma (Engelm.) Rydb. A shrub or much branched tree, up 
to 15m. high; bark ashy, ridged and scaly; leaves usually in pairs, rarely in 3's, 
ovate, 1-2 mm. long, thick, with obscure glands or glandless; fruit globose, 56 
mm. thick, dark blue, with a bloom; seeds broadly ovate, obtuse, angled. J. 
occidentalis monosperma Engelm. Foot-hills: s Colo. N.M. Ariz. -Utah; n 
Mex. Son. Submont. 

3. S. occidentalis (Hook.) Heller. A tree 5-10 m., rarely 15-18 m. high, 
with a trunk 6-10 dm. thick; bark cinnamon-red, fissured and scaly; leaves 
in 3's, appressed, ovate, acute, rounded and conspicuously glandular on the 
back, 2 mm. long; berries globose or elliptic, 6-8 mm. long, with thick skin, blue- 
black, with a bloom; seeds ovate, acute, deeply grooved on the back. J. occi- 
dentalis Hook. Arid hills and plains: B.C. w"lda. s Calif. Submont. -Mont. 

4. S. scopulorum (Sarg.) Rydb. A tree sometimes 10-12 m. high, with 
rounded crown; bark dark reddish brown or grayish red, fissured and scaly; 
leaves opposite, appressed, acute or acuminate, with obscure glands on the back, 
dark green, 1-1.5 mm. long; berry globose, dark blue, with a bloom; seeds 4 mm. 
long, acute, angled, grooved. Juniperus scopulorum Sargent. Foot-hills and 
river bluffs: Alta. Tex. Ariz. B.C. Submont. 

6. S. horizontalis (Moench) Rydb. A prostrate shrub, spreading on the 
ground; horizontal branches sometimes 5 m. long; leaves of the mature branches 
ovate, opposite, acute, distinctly glandular on the back, 1-1.5 mm. long; berry- 
like cones on recurved peduncles, globose, 5-7 mm. long, dark blue, with a 
bloom, 1-3-seeded. J. Sabina procumbens Pursh. On banks and hillsides: 
N.S. Me. n N.Y. Minn. Wyo. B.C. MonL Submont. 

Family 3. TAXACEAE. YEW FAMILY. 

Evergreen monoecious or dioecious trees or shrubs. Buds scaly. Leaves 
spirally arranged, but usually 2-ranked, spreading, in ours simple and linear. 
Staminate flowers usually in crowded aments, in ours axillary; pollen-sacs 
opening longitudinally. Pistillate flowers solitary. Ovules solitary, ortho- 
tropous, sessile, without carpellary scale. Fruit berry-like; seed nearly 
enclosed by the pulpy aril or naked; seed-coats woody or bony. Endo- 
sperm fleshy or mealy. Cotyledons 2. 

1. TAXUS (Tourn.) L. YEW. 

Usually dioecious evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves linear, 2-ranked and 
spreading. Staminate Aments short-stalked, subtended by several imbricate 



YEW FAMILY 19 

bracts, axillary. Pollen-sacs 6-8 under each shield-like scale. Pistillate aments 
consisting of a single sessile ovule subtended by imbricate bracts. Aril accres- 
cent into a fleshy cup. Seeds nut-like. 

1. T. brevifolia Nutt. A tree usually 5-10 m. high, occasionally as high 
as 20 m., with a trunk 3-10 dm. thick; bark scaly; leaves 1-2 cm. long, yellowish 
green, paler beneath, slender-petioled, linear, flat, with strong midrib, spinulose- 
tipped; staminate flowers yellow; seed ovoid, fully 5 mm. long, 2-4-angled; 
aril a translucent red cup, 4-5 mm. broad. Banks of streams: Alaska Alta. 
Mont. Calif. Submont. Mont. 

Family 4. EPHEDRACEAE. JOINT FIR FAMILY. 

Shrubs or trees, with jointed opposite or fascicled branches, and scale-like 
opposite or whorled leaves. Plants mostly dioecious; aments with per- 
sistent bracts. Stamens monadelphous, within a bifid, membranous, calyx- 
like perianth; anthers dehiscent by terminal pores. Pistillate flowers of a 
single naked ovule, enclosed in a perianth, which becomes hardened in fruit. 

1. EPHEDRA L. JOINT FIR, BRIGHAM TEA. 

Characters of the family. 

Scales and branches opposite; bracts opposite and connate, only the margins scarious. 
Scales distinct, subpersistent; filaments free above. 1. E. antisyphylitica. 

Scales connate, sheathing, scarious, deciduous; filaments adnate to the top of the 

bracts. 
Branches stout, more or less spreading; plant light brownish green. 

2. E. nevadensis. 

Branches slender, erect; plant bright yellowish green. 3. E. viridis. 

Scales, branches, and bracts in 3's; bracts scarcely connate, those of the pistillate 

aments nearly wholly scarious and more or less unguiculate. 
Scales 2-3 mm. long, not becoming shreddy; fruit scabrous. 4. E. Torreyana. 

Scales 6-12 mm. long, becoming shreddy; fruit smooth. 5. E. trifurca. 

1. E. antisyphylitica C. A. Mey. A shrub 2-3 m. high; stems slender, lax, 
prostrate or reclining; bark neither shreddy nor fibrous; scales triangular-ovate, 
2-4 mm. long, setaceously tipped when young; aments on short bracteate ped- 
uncles; pistillate aments with 3-4 pairs of bracts, which are rounded-ovate; fruit 
5-6 mm. long, smooth. Arid regions: w Tex. $ Colo. (?) n Mex. Son. 

2. E. nevadensis S. Wats. A shrub 6-10 dm. high, with diffusely spread- 
ing branches; bark becoming white and shreddy or fibrous; scales with somewhat 
foliaceous tips, 2-6 mm. long; staminate aments sessile or nearly so; filaments 
long-exserted ; anthers 4-8; pistillate aments on short scaly peduncles; bracts 4 
or 5 pairs, round-ovate, connate; fruit solitary or in pairs, 6-7 mm. long, exserted, 
smooth, acute. Arid regions: N.M. Utah Nev. Calif.; n Mex. Son. 

3. E. viridis Coville. An erect shrub 5-10 dm. high, with erect branches, 
bright yellowish green; bark becoming ash-colored; scales with slender foliaceous 
tips; staminate aments sessile; anthers 4-6; pistillate aments on short scaly 
peduncles; bracts 5 pairs, ovate; fruits in pairs, 6 mm. long, exserted. Arid 
regions: N.M. Wyo. Calif. Son. Submont. Mr -Je. 

4. E. Torreyana S. Wats. An erect shrub 3-10 dm. high, with often flexuose 
branches, not spinose; scales short, 2-4 mm. long, subpersistent; staminate 
aments sessile, of 6-8 whorls of broad bracts; anthers 5-8, stipitate; pistillate 
aments 6^10 mm. long, short-peduncled, of 5 or 6 whorls of bracts; bracts thin, 
broadly dilated, more or less crenate; fruit solitary, or in 3's, 7-8 mm. long. Arid 
regions: N.M. s Colo. Nev. Ariz. Son. 

5. E. trifurca Torr. An erect shrub 6-20 dm. high, with rigid branches, often 
spinescent; scales acuminate, persistent; staminate aments on very short ped- 
uncles, with 5 whorls of ovate bracts; anthers 4 or 5, stipitate; pistillate aments 
nearly sessile, 10-12 mm. long, of 8-10 whorls of very thin, scarious, entire, 
rounded-cordate bracts; fruit solitary, 12 mm. long, 4-sided. Arid regions: w 
Tex. sw Colo. Ariz. Son. 



Class 2. ANGIOSPERMAE. SEED-VESSEL-ED PLANTS. 

Ovules enclosed in a cavity (ovary), formed either by one modi- 
fied infolded leaf (carpel) with united margins, or by several 
united leaves. The apex of the carpel (stigma) is formed of and 
kept moist by secretive cells; when a pollen grain falls on the stigma, 
it germinates and sends out a tube which penetrates the tissues of 
the pistil till it reaches an ovule, which it fertilizes. 

Subclass I. MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Embryo with a single seed-leaf; the first leaves alternate. Stem 
endogenous, i. e., the fibro-vascular bundles irregularly arranged in 
the soft tissues, without differentiation of pith, wood, and bark. 
Leaves usually parallel-veined, or the secondary veins running 
from the midrib to the margins without ramifications. Parts of 
the flowers mostly in 3's or multiples of 3's. 

Family 5. TYPHACEAE. CAT-TAIL FAMILY. 

Tall water or marsh plants, with simple glabrous terete stems and creep- 
ing rootstocks. Leaves alternate, long, linear, striate, sheathing at the 
base. Flowers monoecious, crowded in dense terminal spike-like racemes, 
which are subtended by spathaceous, usually deciduous bracts; staminate 
spike uppermost. Perianth consisting of bristles. Stamens 2-7; filaments 
connate or free. Ovary 1, stipitate, 1-2-celled; styles 1-2. Fruit nut-like. 
Endosperm copious, mealy. 

1. TYPHA (Tourn.) L. CAT-TAIL, CAT-TAIL FLAG. 
Characters of the family. 

Racemes with the staminate and pistillate portions usually separate; pollen of simple 
grains; fruiting pedicels short, 1 mm. long or less. 1. T. angustifolia. 

Racemes with the staminate and pistillate portions usually contiguous; pollen-grains 
in 4's; fruiting pedicels bristle-like, 2-3 mm. long. 2. T. lati folia. 

1. T. angustifolia L. A slender perennial; stem 1-3 m. high; leaves nar- 
rowly linear, 3-15 mm. wide, striate, usually plano-convex; racemes light brown; 
pistillate portion 5-15 mm. in diameter, with bractlets; stigmas linear or linear- 
oblong; nutlets terete, not bursting in water. Marshes, mostly along the coast: 
N.S. Fla. Mex. Calif.; Ida.; W. Ind., C. and S. Am., Eurasia. Plains. 

2. T. latifolia L. A stout perennial, 1-2.5 m. high; leaves flat, 5-25 mm. 
wide; staminate racemes light brown, with intermixed bractlets, the pistillate 
ones dark brown or black, without bractlets, each 1-2 dm. long; stigmas rhomboid 
or spatulate; fruit furrowed, bursting in water. Marshes and shallow lakes: 
Newf. Fla. Mex. Calif. B.C. Mack.; Eurasia. Plain-Submont. Je-Au. 

Family 6. SPARGANIACEAE. BUR-REED FAMILY. 

Marsh or water plants, with creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots, and linear 
alternate leaves sheathing at the base. Flowers monoecious, in dense 
globular heads, the staminate heads uppermost, generally sessile, the pis- 
tillate ones below, sessile or the lowest peduncled, often subtended by leafy 

(20) 



BUR-REED FAMILY 21 

bracts. Perianth reduced to a few (3-6) irregular chaffy scales. Stamens 
usually 5, distinct. Ovary 1- (seldom 2-) celled; style 1; stigma 1, seldom 
2. Fruit nut-like, 1- or 2-celled, 1- or 2-seeded. Ovules anatropous. Endo- 
sperm copious. 

1. SPARGANIUM (Tourn.) L. BUR-REED. 

Characters of the family. 

Achenes broadly obovoid or cuneate-obpyramidal, sessile, long-beaked; stigmas usually 

2; leaves some what keeled. 1. S. eurycarpum. 

Achenes fusiform (in S. minimum somewhat obovoid, but then short-beaked and short- 

stipitate) ; stigmas solitary. 

Stipe and beak of the fruit each 2 mm. long or more; fruiting heads 1.5 cm. in diam- 
eter or more; anthers 3-4 times as long as broad. 

Leaves, at least the middle ones, strongly triangular-keeled; fruiting heads about 
3 cm. in diameter; achenes brown, gradually tapering into the beak, which is 
fully as long as the body. 2. S. simplex. 

Leaves not keeled or only slightly so, narrow and slender; stem often floating; 

beak of the achenes decidedly shorter than the body. 

Leaves usually 5-10 mm. wide, as well as the bracts conspicuously scarious- 
margined; heads 1.7-2 cm. in diameter; achenes gradually beaked. 

3. S. multipedunculatum. 
Leaves 34 mm. wide, not conspicuously scarious-margined ; heads about 1.5 

cm. in diameter; achenes abruptly beaked. 4. S. angusti folium. 

Stipe and beak of the fruit short, less than 1 mm. long; fruiting heads about 1 cm. 
in diameter; stigmas oblong; anthers 1.5-2 times as long as broad. 

5. S. minimum. 

1. S. eurycarpum Engelm. A stout glabrous perennial marsh plant, 5-25 
dm. high; leaves linear, 5-10 dm. long, 7-10 mm. wide; inflorescence more or 
less compound, the branches usually with one or two pistillate heads and several 
staminate heads; the former compact, in fruit 2-2.5 cm. in diameter; achenes 
bluntly 4- or 5-angled, the top rounded, flat or even a little depressed, abruptly 
contracted into the style. In swamps and along streams: Newf. Fla. Utah 
Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

2. S. simplex Huds. A slender marsh plant, 3-7 dm. high; leaves linear, 
5-9 dm. long, 8-15 mm. wide; inflorescence simple; pistillate heads 2-5, generally 
sessile or the lower ones peduncled, usually supra-axillary; achenes fusiform, 
often contracted in the middle, and gradually acuminate at the apex. In marshes 
and shallow water: Que. Ont. Wash. B.C.; Eu. Submont. Je-Au. 

3. S. multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydb. A rather slender marsh 
plant, 3-5 dm. high; leaves linear, 2-5 dm. long, slightly keeled; inflorescence 
simple or a little branched; staminate heads 3-5, often close together, but distant 
from the pistillate ones; these 2-6, the upper ones sessile, the lower peduncled, 
and most often axillary; achenes fusiform, gradually acuminate above. S. sim- 
plex multipedunculatum Morong. S. subvaginatum Meinsh , in part. In shallow 
water: Mack. w Ont. Mont. Colo. Calif. B.C. Plain Subm. Je-Au. 

4. S. angustifolium Michx. A slender, more or less floating water plant; 
leaves narrowly linear, 3-6 dm. long, flat, not keeled, often dilated at the base, 
floating; inflorescence mostly simple; staminate heads 2-5; pistillate ones 2-4, 
sessile, or the lowest one peduncled and supra-axillary; achenes fusiform, abruptly 
acuminate at the apex. S. simplex angustifolium Engelm. In deep water: 
Newf. Conn. Pa. Colo. Calif. B.C. Plain Subalp. Je-Au. 

5. S. minimum Fries. A slender and floating water plant; stem 1-3 dm. 
long, or in shallow water shorter and erect; leaves 1-4 dm. long, 1-7 mm. wide, 
thin and flat, usually floating; inflorescence simple; staminate heads 1 or 2, close 
together; pistillate heads 1-3, sessile or the lowest peduncled and axillary; body 
of the achenes obovoid, abruptly contracted into a short beak. Ponds and 
streams: Lab. N.J. Mich. Utah Ore. Alaska; Eurasia. Mont. Subalp, 
Je-Au. 

Family 7. ZANNICHELLIACEAE. PONDWEED FAMILY. 

Immersed water plants, with slender jointed, often branching stems, flat 
leaves, and perfect or monoecious flowers, in axillary spikes or clusters. 



22 ZANNICHELLIACEAE 

Perianth none, but flowers sometimes in hyaline envelopes. Stamens 1-4, 
seldom more, distinct and hypogynous in the perfect flowers, or solitary 
in the staminate ones. Ovaries 1-4, distinct, 1-ceiled and 1-ovuled. Fruit 
mostly drupelets or achenes. 

Stamens 4, the connectives with dilated appendages ; drupelets sessile. 1. POTAMOGETON. 
Stamens 12, the connectives without appendages; drupelets manifestly stipitate. 

Stigmas sessile; anthers 2; flowers perfect, on long peduncles. 2. RUPPIA. 

Stigma terminating a long style; anther 1; flowers monoecious, the two kinds together 
in the same axils. 3. ZANNICHELLIA. 

1. POTAMOGETON (Tourn.) L. PONDWEED, FISHWEED. 

Immersed water plants, with flat, 2-ranked leaves, alternate or the upper 
opposite, often of two kinds, floating and submerged, the former more or less 
coriaceous and broad, the latter pellucid, thin, and narrower. Stipules present, 
free or adnate to the lower part of the petiole or blade, enclosing the young 
flower-buds. Inflorescence spicate, axillary, mostly emersed. Stamens 4; ap- 
pendages short-clawed, valvate in the bud. Ovaries 4, sessile, distinct, with a 
short style or sessile stigma. Fruit of 4 drupelets. Seeds crustaceous. 

Species with both floating and submerged leaves. 

Submerged leaves bladeless. 1. P. natans. 

Submerged leaves with proper blades. 

Submerged leaves of two kinds, oval or oblong ones and lanceolate and strongly 

curved ones ; floating leaves with 30 or more nerves. 2. P. amplifolius. 

Submerged leaves of only one kind; floating leaves with less numerous nerves. 
Stipules free from the petioles and blades. 
Submerged leaves lanceolate. 

Submerged leaves all petioled, more than 7-nerved. 3. P. americanus. 
Submerged leaves all sessile or the uppermost short-petioled. 

Peduncles of the same thickness as the stem; leaves not serrulate at 

the apex. 

Plant green; submerged leaves narrower than the floating ones. 

7. P. heterophyllus. 
Plant red; submerged leaves as wide as the floating ones or 

wider. 4. P. alpinus. 

Peduncles thicker than the stem; leaves serrulate at the apex. 

5. P. augustifolius. 
Submerged leaves linear. 

Submerged leaves of nearly the same width throughout, coarsely reticu- 
late in the middle. 6. P. epihydrus. 
Submerged leaves broader below the middle, without reticulation. 

7. P. heterophyllus. 
Stipules adnate to the base of the linear-setaceous submerged leaves. 

8. P. diversifolius. 
Species with submerged leaves only. 

Leaves with broad blades, lanceolate or oval, many-nerved. 

Leaves short-petioled or sessile, not amplexicaul. 9. P. lucens. 

Leaves more or less amplexicaul. 

Leaves elongate-lanceolate, semi-amplexicaul, cucullate; the straight apex of 

the embryo pointing to the base of the fruit. 10. P. praelongus. 

Leaves rounded-ovate to short-lanceolate, amplexicaul, not cucullate; the 
curved embryo pointing inside the base of the fruit. 11. P. Richardsonii. 
Leaves narrowly linear to capillary. 

Stipules free from the petioles and the leaf- blades. 
Leaves 1.5-4 mm. wide. 

Species without glands at the base of the leaves; leaves with 3 principal 

nerves and several fine ones. 12. P. compressus. 

Species with glands at the base of the leaves. 

Glands large and translucent; nerves mostly 3; the curved end of the 

embryo pointing inside the base of the fruit. 13. P. obtusifolius. 

Glands small, dull; nerves of the leaves 5-7; the straight end of the 

embryo pointing to the base of the fruit. 14. P. Friesii. 

Leaves seldom more than 1.5 mm. wide, often less. 

Glands absent; nutlets keeled. 15. P. foliosus. 

Glands present; nutlets not keeled. 16. P. pusillus. 

Stipules adnate to the base of the leaves. 

Leaves 1.5 mm. wide or less, with entire margins. 

Stigma broad, sessile; nutlets indistinctly 1 -keeled or keel-less. 

'Leaves filiform, less than 0.5 mm. wide; stipular sheaths 3-8 mm. long. 

17. P. flliformis. 
Leaves about 1 mm. wide; stipular sheaths 1-2 cm. long. 

18. P. interior. 
Stigma capitate, on an evident style; nutlets with 2 lateral but no median 

keel. 19- P- pectinatus. 

Leaves several-nerved, 3-6 mm. wide, finely serrulate seen under a lens. 

20. P. Robbinsii. 



PONDWEED FAMILY 23 

1. P. natans L. Stem 6-15 dm. long, mostly simple; floating leaf-blades 
oval or ovate, abruptly short-pointed, rounded or cordate at the base, thick, 
21-29-nerved, 5-10 cm. long, 2.5-5.5 cm. wide; submerged leaves bladeless 
and early perishing; peduncles 5-10 cm. long; spike cylindric, 3-5 cm. long, very 
dense; fruit 4-4.5 mm. long, 2-5 mm. thick; stone 2-grooved on the back. Ponds 
and streams: N.S.N.J. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

2. P. amplifolius Tuckerm. Stem occasionally branched; floating leaf- 
blades (occasionally wanting) ovate or oval, acute at the apex, rounded or sub- 
cordate at the base; submerged leaves mostly short-petioled ; the blades of the 
upper ovate or elliptic, 7-15 cm. long, 3-6 cm. wide, thin and shining; those of 
the lower lanceolate, often 1 dm. long, about 25-nerved, generally conduplicate 
and falcate; peduncles thickened upwards, 5-20 cm. long; spike cylindric, 2.5 
cm. long; fruit 4-5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. thick, 3-keeled. Lakes: N.B. Ga. 
Neb. B.C. Plain. Jl-S. 

3. P. americanus Cham. & Schlecht. Stem much branched, 1-2 m. long; 
floating leaf-blades rather thick, elliptic, pointed at each end, 5-15 cm. long, 
1.5-3 cm. wide, 1 1-23-nerved ; submerged leaf -blades pellucid, thin, 1-3 dm. 
long, 0.5-2.5 cm. wide, 7-15-nerved, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, with distinct 
petioles; peduncles thickened upwards, 5-7 cm. long; spike cylindric, 3-5 cm. 
long; fruit about 4 mm. long, obliquely obovoid, 3-keeled on the back. P. 
lonchites Tuckerm. P. fluitans Am. auth. Ponds and slow streams: N.B. -Fla. 
Calif. B.C. Plain. Je-O. 

4. P. alpinus Balbis. Stem slender, simple or branched; floating leaf- 
blades rather thin, oblanceplate or spatulate, or sometimes oblong, 11-17- 
nerved, 5-12 cm. long, sometimes wanting; submerged leaves thin, semi-pellucid, 
oblong to linear-lanceolate, 7-30 cm. long, 5-20 mm. wide, 7-17-nerved, sessile 
or the upper short-petioled; spike cylindric, 2-4 cm. long; fruit obovoid-lenticular, 
reddish, 2-5 mm. long, 3-keeled. P. rufescens Schrader. Ponds and streams: 
N.S.N.J. Colo. Calif. Alaska; Eu. PlainMont. Jl.-Au. 

5. P. angustifolius Berch. & Presl. Stem slender, branching; floating leaf- 
blades somewhat coriaceous, elliptic, 4-10 cm. long, 12-35 mm. wide, many- 
nerved; submerged leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, thin, acute or cuspidate, 
5-15 cm. long, 5-30 mm. wide, 7-17-nerved; peduncles thicker than the stem, 
6-15 cm. long; spike cylindric, 2.5-5 cm. long; fruit obliquely ovoid, 2.5-4 mm. 
long, 2 mm. thick, 3-ribbed; style short, blunt. P. Zizii Roth. Lakes and 
streams: Me. Fla. Tex. Calif. B.C.; Mex., C. Am., and Eu. Plain 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

6. P. epihydrus Raf. Stem slender, simple, compressed, 3-18 dm. long; 
floating leaves opposite; blades elliptic or obovate, 4-9 cm. long, 6-17 mm. 
wide, many-nerved, obtuse, short-petioled; submerged leaf -blades linear or 
linear-lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, coarsely reticulate along the 
midrib, 5-nerved; spike cylindric, 1-6 m. long; fruit rounded-obovoid, 2.5-4 
mm. long, 2-3 mm. thick, "3-keeled; style short, terminal. P. Nuttallii Cham. 
& Schlecht. Ponds and streams: Newf. S.C. Iowa B.C. Plain. Je-Au. 

7. P. heterpphyllus Schreb. Stem slender, much branched, sometimes 
3 m. long; floating leaf -blades oval, pointed at the apex, narrowed, rounded, or 
subcordate at the base, 1.5-6 cm. long, 8-28 mm. wide, 9-19-nerved; submerged 
leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, pellucid, 1-5 cm. long, 2-18 mm. wide, 3-9- 
(mostly 7-) nerved, acuminate or cuspidate; peduncles often thickened upwards; 
spike cylindric, 1-2 cm. long; fruit rounded or obliquely obovoid, 2-3 mm. long, 
1-2 mm. thick, indistinctly 3-keeled; style short, apical. A form with the sub- 
merged leaves linear, flaccid, 5-12 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, is P. heterophyllus 
graminifolius. Ponds or lakes, and slow streams: Lab. Fla. -Utah Calif. 
B.C.;Eu. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

8. P. diversifolius Raf. Stem very slender, much branched; floating leaf- 
blades coriaceous, oval or elliptic and obtuse, or lanceolate-oblong and acute, 
1-2.5 cm. long, 4.5-12 mm. wide; submerged leaves linear-setaceous, 2-4 cm. 
long, 1 mm. wide or less; stipules of the floating leaves free, those of the submerged 



24 ZANNICHELLIACEAE 

leaves mostly adnate; emersed peduncles 6-15 mm. long; submerged ones 4-6 
mm. long, clavate, as long as the spikes; emersed spikes 3.5-7 mm. long, often 
interrupted; fruit cochleate, about 1 mm. long, 3-keeled, the middle keel narrowly 
winged. Still water: Me. Fla. Tex. Calif .Mont.; Mex. Je-S. 

9. P. lucens L. Stem thick, branched, leafy; leaves submerged, lliptiec 
or lanceolate, or the uppermost oval, thin, shining, acute or acuminate, or rarely 
rounded at both ends and merely mucronate, 6-20 cm. long, 15-40 mm. wide, 
the ends often serrulate; peduncles 7-15 cm. long; spike cylindric, 3-6 cm. long, 
thick; fruit roundish, 3 mm. long, 2.5 mm. thick. Ponds: N.S. Fla. Mex. 
Calif.; Eu., C. Am., and W. Ind. Plain Mont. Au-O. 

10. P. praelongus Wulf. Stem flexuose, white, often 25 dm. long, flattened, 
much branched; leaves submerged, oblong-lanceolate, thin, bright green, semi- 
amplexicaul, 0.5-3 dm. long, 1-4 cm. wide, with 3-5 principal nerves; peduncles 
7-50 cm. long, straight, as thick as the stem; spike cylindric or globose, 1-3 
cm. long; fruit obliquely obovoid, 4-5 mm. long, 3-4 mm. thick; middle keel 
sharp; style short. Ponds and streams: N.S. N.J. Minn. Calif. B.C.; Eu. 
Je-Au. 

11. P. Richardsonii (A. Bennett) Rydb. Stem very leafy and much 
branched; leaves submerged, thin, lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, 8-15 mm. wide at 
the broadened amplexicaul base, 13-23-nerved, acute or acuminate and incurved 
at the apex; peduncles 3-4 cm. long, thickened upwards; spike cylindric, 2-2.5 
cm. long; fruit about 4 mm. long, 2.5 mm. thick, obscurely 3-keeled. P. 
perfoliatus lanceolatus Robbins. P. perfoliatus Richardsonii A. Bennett. Ponds 
and lakes: N.Y. Del. Wyo. Calif. Alaska. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

12. P. compressus L. Stem branching, much flattened, often winged; 
leaves submerged, linear, obtuse or mucronate, 5-30 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
with 3 principal veins and many fine ones; peduncles 4-10 cm. long; spike cylin- 
dric, 12-15-flowered, about 1 cm. long; fruit obovoid, with a broad base, about 
4 mm. long, 2.5-3 mm. thick, 3-keeled on the back; style short, recurved. The 
plant often propagates by means of terminal leaf -buds. P. zosteraefolius Schum. 
Ponds and slow streams: N.B. N.J. Sask. Ore. B.C.; Eu. Plain. Jl-S. 

13. P. obtusifolius Mert. & Koch. Stem slender, branched above, more or 
less compressed; leaves linear, obtuse or mucronate, 5-8 cm. long, 1-4 mm. wide, 
usually 3-nerved, with a broad midrib, and 2 translucent glands at the base; 
peduncles 2-3 cm. long, slender, erect; spike ovoid, 5-8-flowered, 6-8 mm. long; 
fruit obliquely obovoid, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. thick, 3-keeled; style short. Still 
water: Que Kans. Wyo. Pa.; Eu. Jl-O. 

14. P. Friesii Rupr. Stem compressed, branching, 5-12 dm. long; leaves 
linear, 4-7 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide, obtuse or mucronate at the apex, 5- 
(rarely 7-) nerved; peduncles 2-4 cm. long, often thickened upwards and thicker 
than the stem; spike interrupted; fruit obliquely ellipsoid, about 2 mm. long, 
2-grooved on the back, usually with a shallow pit on the sides; style recurved. 
P. compressus Oeder, not L. Still water: N.B.N.Y. Minn. B.C.; Eu. 
Jl Au. 

15. P. foliosus Raf. Stem very slender, branched, flattened, 3-10 dm. long; 
leaves very narrowly linear, almost filiform, 3-5 cm. long, 0.5-1 mm. wide, 3- 
nerved; peduncles clavate, about 1 cm. long; spike short, about 4-flowered; fruit 
lenticular, almost orbicular, 2 mm. long, 3-keeled on the back; middle keel 
winged, sinuate-dentate. P. pauciflorus Pursh. Ponds and streams: N.B. 
Fla. N.M. Calif. B.C.; W. Ind. PlainMont. Jl-Au. 

16. P. pusillus L. Stem very slender, filiform, much branched, 1.5-6 dm. 
long; leaves filiform, 3-12 cm. long, 0.5-1.5 mm. wide, 1-3-nerved; peduncles 
5-30 mm. long, rarely 3-6 cm. long; spike 3-10-flowered; fruit obliquely ellipsoid, 
about 2 mm. long, 1 mm. thick, 2-grooved on the back, not keeled. It propa- 
gates often by buds. Ponds and slow streams: N.S. Va. Tex. Mex. Calif. 
B.C. Yukon; Eu. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

17. P. filiformis Pers. Stem slender, filiform above, branching, leafy, 1-4 
dm. long; leaves linear-filiform, 5-30 cm. long; free portion of the stipules 3-5 cm. 



PONDWEED FAMILY 25 

long; peduncles 4-7 cm. long; spike interrupted, with 2-12 flowers in each whorl; 
fruit ovoid, 2-3 mm. long, nearly 2 mm. thick, not keeled; stigma sessile. Ponds 
and lakes: Que N.Y. Mich. Wyo. Alta. Je-Au. 

18. P. interior Rydb. Stem slender, branched, 3-6 dm. long; leaves linear, 
3-15 cm. long, about 1 mm. wide, obtuse, with a strong midrib and raised or 
re volute margins; peduncles 3-7 cm. long; spike interrupted; fruit obliquely 
ovoid, 2-grooved on the back; stigma subsessile; free portion of the stipules 2-4 
mm. long. P. marinus occidentalis Robbins. Ponds and lakes, especially in 
alkali water: Ont. N.M. Utah Nev. Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

19. P. pectinatus L. Stem slender, much branched, very leafy, 3-10 dm. 
long; leaves setaceous, attenuate at the apex, 3-15 cm. long, 0.1-0.5 mm. wide, 
sometimes nerveless; stipular sheath 1-2 cm. long; free portion 3-8 mm. long; 
peduncles filiform, 5-20 cm. long; spike interrupted, with several whorls of flow- 
ers; fruit obliquely ovoid, 3-4 mm. long. Fresh, salt, or alkali waters: N.B. 
Fla. L. Calif. Alaska; Eu. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

20. P. Robbinsii Oakes. Stem stout, widely branching, sometimes rooting 
at the nodes, 5-10 dm. long; leaves linear, acute, crowded in 2 ranks, 7-12 cm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide, auricled at the point of union with the stipules; stipular 
sheath about 1 cm. long; free portion of the stipules 1-2 cm. long, mostly lacerate; 
peduncles 3-10 cm. long; spike interrupted, flowering under water; fruit obovoid, 
about 4 mm. long, 3 mm. thick, 3-keeled, the middle keel sharp. Ponds and 
lakes: N.B.N.J Mich. Ida. Ore. B.C. Plain. Jl-S. 

2. RUPPIA L. 

Slender water plants, widely branched and with capillary stems, filiform 
alternate 1-nerved leaves, with membranous sheaths. Peduncles spadix-like, 
filiform, at first very short, at last generally much elongated and spirally coiled. 
Flowers consisting of 2 sessile anthers, and 4 pistils, sessile at first, in fruit long- 
stipitate. Fruit small, more or less obliquely ovoid drupes. 

Sheaths 610 mm. long; drupe about 2 mm. long or less. 

Drupe very oblique; beak 0.5-1 mm. long. 1. R. maritima. 

Drupe scarcely oblique, almost beakless. 2. R. pectinata. 

Sheaths 20-40 mm. long; drupe 3-4 mm. long. 3. R. occidentalis. 

1. R. maritima L. Stem slender, filiform, whitish; leaves 2-10 cm. long, 
0.5 mm. or less wide; sheaths 6-8 mm. long, with a short free tip; peduncles in 
fruit sometimes 3 dm. long; drupes about 2 mm. long; beak almost straight or 
curved. R. curvicarpa A. Nels. In brackish or salt water, along the coasts: 
Newf. Tex. Alaska L. Calif.; occasionally in the interior, Sask. Mex.; Eur- 
asia and S. Am. Plain Je-Au. 

2. R. pectinata Rydb. Stem intricately branched and very leafy, with 
very short internodes; leaves filiform, 3-6 cm. long, 0.5 mm. or less wide; sheaths 
7-10 mm. long, seldom with a small rounded tip; peduncles 3-5 cm. long, in 
fruit recurved, but apparently not in a spiral; drupe about 1.2 mm. long, with 
an almost sessile stigma. In brackish ponds : Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. 
Utah Wash. Calif. Submont. Mont. 

3. R. occidentalis S. Wats. Stem comparatively stout, 3-6 dm. long, with 
very short internodes and fan-like clustered branches; leaves 7-20 cm. long, and 
0.3 mm. wide or less; sheaths with distinct free tips, often overlapping each 
other; peduncles sometimes 5 dm. long; stipes about 25 mm. long; drupes ovoid 
or pyriform, scarcely oblique; beak short, straight. In saline ponds: Neb. 
B.C. Alaska. Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

3. ZANNICHELLIA (Mich.) L. 

Slender branching aquatics, with opposite filiform leaves and sheathing mem- 
branous stipules. Flowers monoecious, sessile, naked, usually both kinds in the 
same axil; the staminate ones consisting of a single 2-celled anther, borne on a 
pedicel-like filament, the pistillate ones of 2-6 sessile pistils in a cup-shaped in- 
volucre. Fruit nut-like, obliquely oblong, flattened, with a short slender beak, 
T ibbed or toothed on the back. Seed orthotropous. 



26 ZANNICHELLIACEAE 

1. Z. palustris L. Stem capillary from a creeping rhizome; leaves 3-7 cm. 
long, 0.5 mm. or less wide, acute, thin, 1-nerved; fruit 2-6 together, 2-4 mm. 
long, sessile or short-pedicelled; style persistent, 1-2 mm. long. In fresh and 
brackish ponds and ditches: Ont. Fla. Tex. Calif. B.C.; also in the Old 
World. Plain Submont. Jl-O. 

Family 8. NAJADACEAE. NAJAS FAMILY. 

Slender submerged aquatic plants, with linear spinulose- toothed whorled 
or opposite leaves, sheathing at the base. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, 
solitary and axillary. Staminate flowers with a double perianth, the inner 
hyaline; stamen 1. Pistillate flowers of a single pistil, with 2-4 subulate 
stigmas. Fruit a small drupe. 

1. NAJAS L. 

Characters of the family. 

Leaves 1-3 mm. wide, coarsely toothed; back of the leaves and internodes spiny; plant 
dioecious. 1. N. marina. 

Leaves 0.51 mm. wide, finely, almost microscopically serrulate; back of the leaves and 

internodes unarmed; plant monoecious. 

Drupe shining, with 3050 rows of indistinct reticulations. 2. N. flexilis. 

Drupe dull, with 16-20 rows of strongly marked reticulations. 3. N. guadalupensis. 

1. N. marina L. Stem stout, compressed, generally armed with teeth 
twice as long as broad; leaves broadly linear, 12-45 mm. long, with 6-10 spine- 
pointed teeth on each margin; sheaths broadly rounded; their margins entire or 
with a few teeth; fruit 4-5 mm. long; epicarp as well as the dull nutlet rugose- 
reticulate. In lakes and ponds with fresh or brackish water: N.Y. Fla. L. 
Calif. Calif, (in the range reported only from Utah); Eurasia and Austr. 
Plain. Jl Au. 

2. N. flexilis (Willd.) Rost. & Schmidt. Stem slender, forking, unarmed; 
leaves narrowly linear, 1-2 cm. long, numerous and crowded, pellucid, with 20- 
30 minute teeth on each margin; sheaths rounded, with 5-10 teeth on each side; 
fruit ellipsoid, 2-3 mm. long. In ponds and slow streams: Que. Fla. La. 
Calif. Ore.; Eu. Plain. My Au. 

3. N. guadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong. Stem very slender, filiform, 3-6 
dm. long, branched and leafy; leaves numerous, crowded, 12-25 mm. long, 0.5-1.5 
mm. wide, with 40-50 teeth on the margins; sheaths as in N. flexilis; fruit about 
2 mm. long. N. microdon R. Br. In ponds and lakes: Neb. Fla. La. Tex. 
Ore.; Mex. and Trop. Am. Plain. Jl-S. 

Family 9. SCHEUCHZERIACEAE. ARROW-GRASS FAMILY. 

Marsh plants, with terete rush-like leaves and small perfect, spicate or 
racemose flowers. Perianth-segments 4 or 6, in two series. Stamens 3-6; 
anthers 2-celled. Carpels 3-6, 1-2-ovuled, more or less united, separating 
at maturity, either dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds anatropous. Embryo 
straight; endosperm none. 

Stem scapose ; leaves all basal ; flowers spicate or racemose. 1 . TRIGLOCHIN. 

Stem leafy; flowers few, in loose racemes. 2. SCHEUCHZERIA. 

1. TRIGLOCHIN L. ARROW-GRASS. 

Marsh herbs, with half-round elongated linear leaves, sheathing at the base, 
and terminal racemes or spikes on long naked scapes. Perianth-segments in 
ours 6, the inner 3 inserted higher up. Stamens 6; anthers 2-celled, sessile or 
nearly so. Ovaries 3-6, 1 -celled and 1-ovuled; style short or none; stigmas 3-6, 
plumose. Fruit of 3-6, cylindraceous, oblong, obovoid, or clavate carpels, 
united at first, at maturity separating from the base upwards. Seeds cylindra- 
ceous or ovoid-oblong, compressed or angular. 

Carpels 3; fruit linear-clavate, tapering at the base. 1. T. palustris. 

Carpels 6; fruit oblong or ovoid, obtuse at the base. 2. 7. maritima. 



ARROW-GRASS FAMILY 27 

1. T. palustris L. A slender plant, with short rootstock and slender stolons, 
2-4 dm. high; leaves shorter than the scape, 1-3 dm. long, sharp-pointed; racemes 
1-3 dm. long; pedicels slender, capillary, in fruit erect, 5-7 mm. long; stigmas 
sessile; fruit 6-7 mm. long. In bogs: Greenl. N.Y. Ind. N.M. -Alaska; 
Eurasia and S. Am. Plain -Mont. Jl-S. 

2. T. maritima L. A stout plant, with subligneous rootstock, without 
stolons; leaves half-cylindric, 2 mm. wide; racemes often 4 dm. long or more; 
pedicels decurrent, 2-3 mm. long, in fruit ascending; fruit 5-6 mm. long, 3-4 
mm. in diameter; carpels triangular, grooved on the back. In salt marshes: 
Lab. N.J. -Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Plain -Submont. Je-S. 

2. SCHEUCHZERIA L. 

Rush-like bog plants, with perennial, creeping rootstock. Leaves half-round 
below, flat above, striate, and with membranous sheaths at the base. Perianth 
with 6 segments in two series. Stamens 6; filaments elongated; anthers linear, 
basifixed. Ovaries 3, rarely 4-6, distinct or connate at the base, 1-celled, each 
cell with 1-2 ovules. Fruit of 3-6 divergent follicles, opening on the inside. 

1. S. palustris L. A leafy bog plant, 1-2.5 dm. high; leaves 1-4 dm. long, 
the upper reduced to bracts; basal leaves with sheaths often 1 dm. long and 
ligules 1 cm. long; pedicels 6-20 mm. long, in fruit spreading; flowers white; 
segments 1 -nerved, 3 mm. long; follicles 5-6 mm. long. In bogs: Lab. N.J. 
Wise. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Boreal-Submont. Je-Jl. 

Family 10. ALISMACEAE. WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY. 

Marsh or aquatic plants, with scapose stems, basal long-petioled sheath- 
ing, mostly cross-veined, leaves, and fibrous roots. Flowers mostly verticil- 
late, in elongated racemes or panicles, regular, pedicelled. Sepals 3, per- 
sistent. Petals 3, deciduous. Stamens 6 or more, included. Pistils many, 
distinct; ovaries 1-celled and generally 1-ovuled, becoming achenes in fruit. 

Carpels in a ring on a small flat receptacle; flowers perfect. 1. ALISMA. 

Carpels in several series on a convex receptacle; flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

2. SAGITTARIA. 

1. ALISMA L. WATER-PLANTAIN. 

Annual or mostly perennial scapose herbs. Leaves erect or floating; blades 
several-veined, petioled. Flowers perfect in compound panicles. Sepals 3, usually 
ribbed, persistent. Petals 3, white or pinkish, spreading, deciduous. Stamens 
6, two opposite each petal. Carpels few or many, in one whorl. Achenes 
ribbed or grooved on the back. 

Acbenes longer than wide, grooved on the back, their inner edges not meeting; pedicels 

straight, ascending. 1. A. brevipes. 

Achenes as wide as long, ribbed on the back, their inner edges meeting; pedicels recurved. 

2. A. Geyeri. 

1. A. brevipes Greene. Perennial; leaf -blades oblong to ovate, 5-19 cm. 
long, acute at the apex, rounded, truncate or subcordate at the base; scape 1 m. 
high or less; sepals orbicular or rounded-ovate, 3 mm. long or more; petals 5-6 mm. 
long; fruiting heads 5-6.5 mm. broad; achenes broadly obovate, 2.5-3 mm. 
long; beak ascending. A. superba Lunell. In water and wet places: N.S. -N.D. 
N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainMont. 

2. A. Geyeri Torr. Perennial; leaf -blades oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 
rarely lance-linear, 5-9 cm. long, acute at both ends; scapes mostly 1-5 dm. 
long, diffusely spreading; sepals rounded-ovate, about 2-5 mm. long; petals 2-4 
mm. long; fruiting heads 4.5-5.5 mm. broad; achenes suborbicular; beaks erect. 
Wet places: w N.Y. N.D. -Nev. Ore. Plain Submont. 

2. SAGITTARIA L. ARROW-HEAD, SWAN OR SWAMP POTATO. 

Perennial water or bog plants, with tuber-bearing or nodose rootstocks. 
Leaves long-petioled, with a sagittate or lanceolate blade or, especially the earlier 
ones, reduced to bladeless phylloids. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, borne 



28 ALISMACEAE 

in verticils of 3's near the top of the scapes, pedicelled, the staminate uppermost. 
Sepals and petals 3; the latter large, white. Stamens numerous, inserted on the 
convex receptacle; anthers 2-celled, dehiscent by lateral slits. Pistillate flowers 
with numerous pistils. Achenes densely aggregated in globular heads, flat and 
often wing-margined. 

Leaf-blades usually without basal lobes; beak borne below the top of the achenes. 

1. S. graminea. 
Leaf-blades or some of them sagittate or hastate, with basal lobes ; beak borne at the top 

of the achenes. 
Beak short, erect; bracts lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. 

Basal lobes of the leaves acute or acuminate. 2. S. cuneata. 

Basal lobes of the leaves rounded or obtuse. 3. S. hebetiloba. 

Beak of the achenes horizontal. 

Beak short; basal lobes of the leaves at least twice as long as the terminal one; 
bracts lanceolate. 4. S. longiloba. 

Beak long; basal lobes of the leaves usually shorter than the terminal one; bracts 
ovate. 5. S. latifoUa. 

1. S. graminea Michx. Plant emersed or submerged, 1-6 dm. high; phyl- 
loids if present, flattened, linear-lanceolate, acute, 8-30 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide; 
leaf -blades lanceolate to ovate-elliptical, acute at both ends, or very rarely trun- 
cate, with short divaricate lobes at the base, 5-15 cm. long, 3-5-ribbed; bracts 
ovate, acute, 3-5 mm. long, connate to the middle; fruiting heads 5-10 mm. in 
diameter; achenes 1.5 mm. long, dorsally crested and obliquely one-ribbed on the 
sides. In shallow ponds and marshes: Newf. Fla. Tex. Sask. Plain. 

2. S. cuneata Sheld. A rather weak plant growing in mud or water, glab- 
rous, 2-4 dm. high; leaves when emersed sagittate; petiole rather stout, usually 
curving outwards; blade 6-18 cm. long; basal lobes narrow, lanceolate, some- 
what divergent; blades in deep water less developed, sometimes not lobed, float- 
ing; bracts lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, acute, 8-20 mm. long, scaripus-mar- 
gined; fruiting heads 10-15 mm. in diameter; achenes 2 mm. long, winged on 
both margins. S. arifolia Nutt. In mud and shallow water: Me. N.D. Conn. 
Kans N.M .Calif .B.C. Plain Submont. 

3. S. hebetiloba A. Nels. A rather stout plant, 2-5 dm. high, monoecious; 
leaf-blades sagittate, 8-14 cm. long, subacute; bracts linear-lanceolate, 15-20 
mm. long, subscarious; corolla about 2 cm. in diameter; fruiting heads 10-15 
mm. in diameter; achenes about 2 mm. long, winged on both margins and the 
summit. In a bog, formed from warm-spring: Laramie Co., Wyo. Submont, 

4. S. longiloba Engelm. A monoecious, slender, erect perennial, 3-5 dm. 
high; leaf-blades sagittate; basal lobes linear-lanceolate, acuminate; fruiting heads 
1(^-12 mm. in diameter; achenes 2 mm. long, narrowly winged on both margins; 
beak lateral. In shallow ponds: Neb. Colo. 'Tex. Sonora. Plain Son. 

5. S. latifolia Willd. A rather stout plant, monoecious, 3-6 dm. high; 
with the lower verticils fertile, or rarely dioecious, 3-6 dm. high; leaf -blades 
sagittate, 15-40 cm. long, very variable, glabrous; lobes from broadly ovate to 
linear-lanceolate [v. angustifolia], acute or acuminate; bracts ovate, acute, 1-3 cm. 
long; flowers 3-4 cm. wide; fruiting heads 15-30 mm. in diameter; achenes about 
3 mm. long, winged on both margins; beak triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, making 
almost a right angle to the achenes. Shallow water: N.B. Fla. Calif. B.C. 
Mex. and C. Am. Son. Plain Mont. Je-S. 

Family 11. ELODEACEAE. WATER- WEED FAMILY. 

Submersed or floating water plants. Leaves in ours opposite or whorled. 
Plants monoecious, dioecious or polygamous. Flowers enclosed in a spathe 
of 1-3, usually united bracts. Hypanthium in the pistillate flowers well de- 
veloped, tubular, in the staminate flowers often shorter or obsolete. Peri- 
anth regular or nearly so. Sepals 3. Petals 3, or wanting. Stamens 3-9; 
filaments short, often monadelphous. Pistil single, compound. Ovary 1- 
celled with 2-6, usually 3, parietal placentae. Ovules numerous. Fruit 
indehiscent, maturing under water. 



WATER-WEED FAMILY 29 

1. PHILOTRIA Raf. WATER-WEED. 

Submerged water plants with elongated branched stems, often rooting at the 
nodes, dioecious or polygamo-dioecious. Leaves opposite or whorled, sessile, 
pellucid, 1-nerved. Spathe 2-cleft at the apex, that of the staminate plant oval 
or obovate, sessile, stipitate, in the pistillate plant lanceolate and sessile. 
Sepals and petals 3 or the latter lacking. Stamens in the staminate flowers 
usually 9, in two series, in the inner series 3; in the hermaphrodite usually only 3. 
Fruit linear or lance-linear. [Elodea Michx.] 

Staminate flowers sessile, breaking off within the spathe; petals wanting. 

1. P. Planchonii. 

Staminate flowers on elongating pedicels, carrying them to the water surface; petals 
present. 2. P. iowensis. 

1. P. Planchonii (Gasp.) Rydb. Dioecious water plant; stem slender, 
1-10 dm. long; leaves in 3's or the lower opposite, oblong to linear, 7-15 mm. 
long, 1-2 mm. wide, acutish; spathe of the staminate plant obovoid-clavate, 
nearly 1 cm. long, on a stipe 5-10 mm. long; sepals elliptic, 5 mm. long; petals 
lacking; spathe of the pistillate plant lance-linear, sessile; tube of the hypanthium 
3-5 cm. long; sepals and petals linear, about 3 mm. long. Lakes and ponds: 
Sask. Colo. Nev. Plain Submont. 

2. P. iowensis Wylie. Dioecious water plant; leaves lanceolate to oblong- 
linear, 8-14 mm. long, 2-3.5 mm. wide; spathe of the staminate flowers obovate, 
contracted to a narrow base; sepals oval, 4 mm. long; petals linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate; spathe of the pistillate flowers linear-cylindric, 1-1.5 cm. long; 
hypanthium 3-15 cm. long; sepals oval, 2 mm. long; petals obovate; staminodia 3. 
Lakes: Iowa Colo. Plain. 

FAMILY 12. POACEAE. GRASS FAMILY. 

Annual or perennial herbs, or in warmer climates sometimes trees or 
vines. Stems (culms) usually hollow except at the nodes. Leaves sheath- 
ing at the base; the sheaths usually split on the side opposite the blades. 
Inflorescence spicate, racemose or paniculate, consisting of spikelets com- 
posed of usually 2-ranked bracts called glumes, the lower 1-4, usually 2, 
empty, the remaining (lemma) enclosing a bract-like organ (the palet), and 
inside this a flower, usually consisting of 3 stamens and 1 pistil. Ovary 1- 
celled, 1-seeded. Styles 1-3, usually 2. Fruit a seed-like grain (caryopsis), 
in some exotic species nut-like or berry-like. 

Spikelets falling from the pedicels entire, naked or enclosed in bristles or bur-like invo- 
lucres, 1 -flowered, or if 2-flowered the lower flower staminate; no upper empty 
glumes; rachilla not extending above the upper glume. 
Spikelets round or somewhat compressed dorsally; empty glumes manifest; hilum 

punctiform. 
Lemma and palet hyaline, thin, much more delicate in texture than the empty 

glumes. 
Spikelets in pairs, one sessile and the other pedicellate. 

Tribe 1. ANDROPOQONEAE. 
Spikelets not in pairs (Alopecurus, Polypogon, Cinna, etc.) 

Tribe 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 
Lemma, at least that of the perfect flower, similar in texture to the empty glumes, 

or thicker and firmer, never hyaline and thin. 
Lemma and palet membranous; the first glume usually larger than the rest. 

Tribe 2. ZOYSIEAE. 

Lemma and palet chartaceous to coriaceous, very different in color and ap- 
pearance from the remaining glumes. Tribe 3. PANICEAE. 
Spikelets much compressed laterally; empty glumes none or rudimentary; hilum 

linear. Tribe 4. ORYZEAE. 

Spikelets with the empty glumes persistent, the rachilla articulated above them, 1-many- 
flowered; upper lemmas frequently empty; rachilla often produced beyond the 
upper lemma. 
Spikelets borne in an open or spike-like panicle or raceme, usually upon distinct 

pedicels. 
Spikelets 1-flowered. 

Empty glumes 4; palet 1-nerved. Tribe 5. PHALARIDEAE. 

Empty glumes 2, rarely 1; palet 2-nerved (except in Cinna.) 

Tribe 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 



30 POACEAE 

Spikelets 2-many-flowered. 

Lemma usually shorter than the empty glumes; the awn dorsal and usually 

bent. Tribe 7. AVENEAE. 

Lemma usually longer than the empty glumes; the awn terminal and straight 

(rarely dorsal in Bromus) or none. Tribe 9. FESTUCEAE. 

Spikelets in two rows, sessile or nearly so. 

Spikelets on one side of the continuous axis, forming one-sided spikes. 

Tribe 8. CHLORIDEAE. 

Spikelets alternately on opposite sides of the axis, which is often articulated. 

Tribe 10. HORDEAE. 

TRIBE 1. ANDROPOGONEAE. 
Racemes singly disposed; apex of the rachis-internodes with a translucent cup-shaped 

appendage. 1. SCHIZACHYRIUM. 

Racemes disposed in pairs or more; apex of the rachis-internodes not appendaged. 
Rachis-internodes and pedicels sulcate, the median portion translucent, the margins 

thickened. 2. AMPHILOPHIS. 

Rachis-internodes not sulcate. 

Some or all of the racemes sessile. 3. ANDROPOGON. 

All of the racemes more or less peduncled. 

Pedicellate spikelets wanting. 4. SORGHASTRTJM. 

Pedicellate spikelets present and usually staminate. 5. HOLCUS. 

TRIBE 2. ZOYSIEAE. 
Only one genus represented. 6. PLEURAPHIS. 

TRIBE 3. PANICEAE. 
Spikelets naked, not involucrate. 
Empty glumes 2. 

Rachis produced beyond the upper spikelet; spikelets narrow. 

39. SPARTINA. 
Rachis not so produced ; spikelets globose or obovoid. 

Spikelets obovoid, turgid. 40. BECKMANNIA. 

Spikelets plano-convex. 7. PASPAL.UM. 

Empty glumes 3. 

Empty glumes not awned. 

Spikelets in very slender 1-sided racemes, which are usually whorled or ap- 

proximate. 8. SYNTHERISMA. 

Spikelets in panicles or panicled racemes. 

Spikelets lanceolate, acuminate, long-hairy. 9. VALLOTA. 

the 



Spikelets orbicular or lanceolate, if the latter, then glabrous. 

10. PANICUM. 

Empty glumes awned or awn-pointed. 11. ECHINOCHLOA. 

Spikelets involucrate. 

Involucre of bristles. 12. CHAETOCHLOA. 

Involucre of two spine-bearing valves. 13. CENCHRUS. 

TRIBE 4. ORYZEAE. 
Spikelets perfect; empty glumes wanting or rarely rudimentary. 14. HOMALOCENCHRUS. 

TRIBE 5. PHALARIDEAE. 

Third and fourth glumes empty, awnless. 15. PHALARIS. 

Third and fourth glumes enclosing staminate flowers. 16. TORRESIA. 

TRIBE 6. AGROSTIDEAE. 
Lemma indurate when mature and very closely embracing the grain, or at least firmer 

than the empty glumes. 
Spikelets all perfect, not in pairs. 

Lemma 3-awned. 17. ARISTIDA. 

Lemma 1 -awned or awnless. 

Awn twisted and bent. 18. STIPA. 

Awn not twisted. 

Lemma broad; awn deciduous. 

Inflorescence paniculate or racemiform. 19. ORYZOPSIS. 

Inflorescence dichotomous. 20. ERIOCOMA. 

Lemma narrow, glabrous or with short, appressed hairs; awn, if any, per- 

sistent. 21. MUHLENBERGIA. 

Spikelets in pairs, one perfect and the other staminate or sterile, in a spike-like pan- 

icle. 22. LYCTJRUS. 

Lemma usually hyaline or membranaceous at maturity, at least more delicate than the 

empty glumes. 
Stigma sub-plumose (i. e., with short hairs all around), projecting from the apex of 

the nearly closed glumes. 
Inflorescence spike-like. 

Rachilla of the spikelets articulated above the empty glumes, which are there- 

fore persistent. 23. PHLEUM. 

Rachilla of the spikelets articulated below the empty glumes, hence the 

spikelets falling off entire. 24. ALOPECURUS. 

Inflorescence an open small panicle; dwarf arctic-alpine plant. 

25. PHIPPSIA. 



GRASS FAMILY 31 

Stigma plumose, projecting from the sides of the spikelets; inflorescence an open or 

spike-like panicle. 
Grain not permanently enclosed in the lemma and palet; pericarp opening readily 

at maturity. 

Flowering glumes long-hairy on the veins. 26. BLEPHARONEURON. 

Flowering glumes not long-hairy on the veins. 27. SPOROBOLUS. 

Grain permanently enclosed in the lemma and the palet; pericarp adherent. 
Spikelets readily falling off when mature. 28. POLYPOGON. 

Spikelets with the empty scales at least persistent. 

Palet 1-nerved and 1-keeled; stamen 1. 29. CINNA. 

Palet 2-nerved and 2-keeled or sometimes wanting; stamens 3. 
Lemma naked at the base. 30. AGROSTIS. 

Lemma with long hairs at the base. 

Flowering glume and palet thin-membranous. 31. CALAMAGROSTIS. 
Flowering glume and palet chartaceous. 32. CALAMOVILFA. 

TRIBE 7. AVENEAE. 

Awn of the lemma inserted dorsally below the teeth. 
Flowers all perfect or the upper staminate. 

Grain free, unfurrowed; spikelets less than 1 cm. long. 

Lemma erose-toothed or shortly 2-lobed at the apex. 33. DESCHAMPSIA. 
Lemma 2-cleft or deeply 2-toothed at the apex; teeth awn-pointed. 
Awn twisted and bent. 34. TRISETUM. 

Awn if present not twisted, straight. 35. GRAPHEPHORUM. 

Grain furrowed, adherent to the glumes; spikelets exceeding 1 cm. in length. 
Ovary not crowned by a villous appendage. 36 AVENA. 

Ovary crowned by a villous appendage (awned species of) 

70. BROMUS. 

Upper flowers perfect, the lower staminate. 37. ARRHENATHERUM. 

Awn of the lemma inserted between the teeth. 38. DANTHONIA. 

TRIBE 8. CHLORIDEAE. 
Plants with perfect flowers. 

Spikelets with 1 (rarely 2) perfect flowers. 

Spikelets deciduous as a whole; rachis articulated below the empty glumes. 
Rachis produced above the upper spikelet; spikelets narrow. 

39. SPARTINA. 
Rachis not produced above the upper spikelet; spikelets globose. 

40. BECKMANNIA. 
Spikelets with at least the empty glumes persistent. 

Glumes above the perfect flower none; spikes digitate, very slender. 

41. SCHEDONNARDUS. 

Glumes above the perfect flower 1-several; spikes scattered. 

Spikes closely approximate, subverticillate. 42. CHLORIS. 

Spikes scattered. 43. BOUTELOUA. 

Spikelets with 2-3 perfect flowers; spikelets alternate. 44. LEPTOCHLOA. 

Plants dioecious; spikelets of the two sexes very unlike. 45. BULBILIS. 

TRIBE 9. FESTUCEAE. 
Lemmas, at least of the pistillate spikelets, 3-lobed and 3-awned; plant dioecious. 

46. SCLEROPOGON. 
Lemmas entire or at most 3-lobed. 

Hairs on the rachilla or the lemma very long and enclosing the latter. 

47. PHRAGMITES. 
Hairs, if any, on the rachilla and the lemma shorter than the latter. 

Stigmas barbellate on elongated styles; spikelets in threes in the axils of spinescent 

leaves. 48. MUNROA. 

Stigmas plumose, sessile or on short styles. 
Lemma 1 3-nerved. 

Lateral nerves of the lemmas hairy. 
Lemma deeply 3-lobed. 

Internodes of the rachilla long, often half as long as the lemma; 

plants without stolons. 50. TRIPLASIS. 

Internodes of the rachilla short, many times shorter than the lemmas. 
Fertile flower one, with 2 empty lemmas below and one above. 

49. BLEPHARIDACHNE. 
Fertile flowers 3 or more, with no empty lemmas below. 

51. DASYOCHLOA. 

Lemma entire or slightly 2-lobed; internodes of the rachilla short. 
Inflorescence a short congested raceme; leaf-blades with thick car- 
tilaginous margins. 52. ERIONEURON. 
Inflorescence a panicle; leaf-blades not with cartilaginous margins. 
Panicle simple or compound, the spikelets on pedicels of vary- 
ing length. 52. TRIDENS. 
Panicle composed of long branches, along which the appressed 
spikelets are arranged on short pedicels. 

54. DlPLACHNE. 
Lateral nerves of the lemmas glabrous. 

Callus of the lemma copiously pubescent with long hairs; panicle open. 

55. REDFIELDIA. 



32 POACEAE 

Callus of the lemma glabrous. 

Second empty glume similar to the first one or nearly so. 

Panicle narrow, dense and spike-like, shining; its branches erect. 

56. KOELERIA. 
Panicle open; its branches spreading. 

Rachilla continuous (except in E. megastachya); lemma decidu- 
ous; palet persistent; plants of dry soil. 

57. ERAGROSTIS. 
Rachilla articulated; lemma and palet both deciduous with 

the rachilla-internodes ; water plants with 2-flowered 
spikelets. 58. CATABROSA. 

Second empty glume very unlike the first one, broad at the summit. 

59. SPHENOPHOIJS. 
Lemma 5 many-nerved. 

Spikelets with two or more of the upper glumes empty, broad and enfold- 
ing each other. 60. MELICA. 
Spikelets with upper glumes flower-bearing or narrow and abortive. 
Stigmas arising at or near the apex of the ovary. 

Spikelets borne in one-sided fascicles which are arranged in a glom- 
erate or interrupted panicle; lemma herbaceous. 

61. DACTYLIS. 
Spikelets borne in panicles or racemes. 

Glumes more or less compressed and keeled. 

Spikelets cordate, large. 62. BRIZA. 

Spikelets not cordate. 

Plants dioecious; lemma of the pistillate spikelets cori- 
aceous; palet strongly 2-keeled and serrate on the 
margin. 63. DISTICHLIS. 

Plants with perfect flowers or in some species of Poa dioe- 
cious; spikelets all alike; lemma thin; palet ciliate 
or smooth on the margin. 
Lemma scarious-margined ; rachis glabrous or with 

webby hairs. 64. POA. 

Lemma membranous, not scarious-margined; rachis 
with stiff hairs, extending into a hairy appendage. 

35. GRAPHEPHORUM. 
Glumes rounded on the back, at least below. 

Lemma with a basal ring of hairs, prominently 7-nerved, 

toothed at the apex. 65. SCOLOCHLOA. 

Lemma naked at the base. 

Lemma obtuse or acutish and scarious at apex, usually 

toothed. 
Lemma distinctly 5-7-nerved; style present. 

66. PANICULARIA. 
Lemma obscurely 5-nerved; style none. 

67. PUCCINELLIA. 
Lemma acute, pointed or more commonly awned at apex. 

Stigmas bilaterally plumose ; flowers hermaphrodite. 

, 68. FESTUCA. 
Stigmas subplumose, the branches arising on all sides; 

plant dioecious. 69. HESPEROCHLOA. 

Stigmas plainly arising below the apex of the ovary which is tipped by 
a hairy cushion. 70. BROMUS. 

TRIBE 10. HORDEAE. 
Spikelets usually single at the nodes of the rachis. 

Empty glumes broad, with their sides turned to the rachis. 

Glumes broad, several-toothed or several-awned. 73. TRITICUM. 

Glumes not toothed, 1-awned or awnless. 

Perennials; spikelets several-flowered. 72. AGROPYRON. 

Annuals or biennials; spikelets 2-flowered. 74. SECALE. 

Empty glumes with their back turned to the rachis. 71. LOLIUM. 

Spikelets 2-6 at each node of the rachis, or if solitary the empty glumes arranged obliquely 

to the rachis. 

Spikelets 1-flowered or with a rudimentary second flower. 75. HORDEUM. 
Spikelets 2 many-flowered. 

Rachis of spikes articulated, readily breaking up into joints. 76. SITANION. 
Rachis of spikes continuous, not breaking up into joints. 

Empty glumes well developed. 77. ELYMUS. 

Empty glumes wanting or reduced to short bristles. 78. HYSTRIX. 

1. SCHIZACHYRIUM Nees. BEARD-GRASS, BUNCH-GRASS. 

Annual or perennial grasses, with spike-like racemes, singly disposed, termin- 
ating the stem or its branches. Spikelets in pairs at the nodes of the articulate 
and frequently hairy rachis, one sessile, the other stalked. Sessile spikelet of 4 
glumes, the outer 2 empty glumes indurate, the third and the lemma hyaline; 
the latter bearing a straight, contorted, or twisted awn; palet small, hyaline. 
Pedicellate spikelet sterile, with 1 or 2 glumes, or rarely wanting. Stigmas 
plumose. 



GRASS FAMILY 33 

1. S. scoparium (Michx.) Nash. Perennial with a strong rootstock; stems 
tufted, 4-15 dm. high, glabrous, scabrous, and in the western form usually glau- 
cous; leaf -blades 4-6 cm. long, 8 mm. wide or less, scabrous and sometimes 
hirsute at the base; racemes 3-6 cm. long, with white-hairy internodes and pedi- 
cels; sessile spikelet 5-7 mm. long; awn of the lemma geniculate, 8-15 mm. long, 
twisted at the base? pedicellate spikelet 2-4.5 mm. long, tipped with an awn 1 
mm. long or less. Andropogon scoparius Michx. Drv sandv soil : N.B. Fla. 
Tex. N.M. Alta. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

2. AMPHILOPHIS Nash. BEARD-GRASS. 

Perennial grasses, resembling Andropogon, with showy, often silvery panicles. 
Racemes numerous, the internodes with manifestly thickened margins; the 
median portion thin and translucent. Sessile spikelet of 4 glumes, the outer 2 
indurate, the first 2-keeled, the second 1-keeled, the third and the lemma hya- 
line, the latter very narrow, gradually merging into the awn; the pedicellate 
spikelet staminate and similar, or sterile and reduced. Stigmas plumose. 

1. A. saccharpides (Sw.) Nash. Tufted perennial, smooth and glaucous; 
stems 5-10 dm. high, simple or somewhat branched; leaf-blades 1-5 dm. long, 
3-7 mm. wide, rough above; racemes 1-4 cm. long, the terminal hairs 1^-2 
times as long as the internodes; sessile spikelet 4 mm. long, half longer than the 
internodes; awn geniculate, more or less twisted, 1-1.5 cm. long; pedicellate 
spikelet consisting of a single glume 2-3 mm. long. Andropogon glaucum Torr. 
A. Torreyanum Steud. Dry soil: Tex. Mo. Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son. Je- 
Au. 

3. ANDROPOGON (Royen) L. BLUESTEM, BEARD-GRASS. 

Perennial grasses, tufted or from elongated rootstocks, with spike-like racemes, 
disposed in pairs or sometimes in 3's or more, terminating the stem or its branches. 
Spikelets sometimes with a ring of short hairs at the base, in pairs at each node 
of the articulated and frequently hairy rachis, one sessile, the other pedicellate. 
Sessile spikelet of 4 scales, the outer 2 indurated, often pubescent, the third 
usually hyaline, the lemma entire or 2-toothed at the apex, bearing a straight 
contorted or spiral awn, or sometimes awnless; palet small, hyaline. Pedicellate 
spikelet usually sterile, of 1 or 2 glumes, sometimes of four glumes and enclosing 
a staminate or more rarely a perfect flower, or frequently entirely wanting, the 
first glume rarely short-awned. Stamens 1-3. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Lemma of the sessile spikelets with a long geniculate awn, more or less spiral at the base. 
Outer two glumes of the sessile spikelets more or less hispidulous all over ; hairs of the 
rachis-intern odes usually 2 mm. long or less, mostly white. 1. A. provincialis. 

Outer two glumes of the sessile spikelets smooth or nearly so, except on the nerves; 
hairs of the rachis-internodes 3-4 mm. long, usually yellow. 2. A. chrysocomus. 
Lemma of the sessile spikelets awnless or with a short straight untwisted awn. 
Marginal hairs of the pedicels and rachis-internodes copious, stiff. 3. A. Hallii. 
Marginal hairs of the pedicels and rachis-internodes scant, lax, crisp, or almost 
wanting. 4. A. paucipilus. 

1. A. provincialis Lam. Stem 1-2 m. high; sheaths glabrous, or sometimes 
slightly hairy; leaf -blades 1.5-6 dm. long, 5-12 mm. wide, usually glabrous and 
smooth beneath, slightly scabrous above and somewhat hairy at the base; racemes 
in 2's-6's, 5-10 cm. long; sessile spikelet 7-10 mm. long; awn 7-15 mm. long; 
pedicellate spikelet nearly as large, staminate, awnless. A. furcatus Muhl. 
Meadows: Me. Fla. Tex. N.M. Mont. Sask. Plain-Submont. Jl-S. 

2. A. chrysocomus Nash. Stem 7-15 dm. high; sheaths smooth and 
glabrous; leaf-blades 2-3 dm. long, 7 mm. wide or less, smooth beneath, slightly 
scabrous above; racemes in 2's-4's, 5-9 cm. long, long-exserted ; sessile spikelet 
about 1 cm. long; outer two glumes hispid on the nerves; awn 10-12 mm. long; 
pedicellate spikelet awnless. Prairies and plains: Neb. Tex. Colo. Plain 
Submont. Jl-S. 

3. A. Hallii Hack. Stem robust, 1-2 m. high, more or less glaucous, 
glabrous; sheaths glabrous and glaucous; leaf -blades 2-3 dm. long, 5-8 mm. wide; 
spikes in 2's-5's, 5-10 cm. long; hairs of the internodes about 2 mm. long, yellow- 
ish or whitish; sessile spikelet about 8 mm. long; outer glumes glabrous at the 



34 POACEAE 

base, pubescent towards the apex; awn straight, 4-10 mm. long or sometimes 
wanting; pedicellate spikelet awnless, usually larger than the sessile one, stam- 
inate. Sandy soil: N.D. Miss. Mex. Mont. Plain Son. Jl-S. 

4. A. paucipilus Nash. Stem 1-1.5 m. tall, stout; sheaths smooth and 
glabrous; leaf -blades 3 dm. long or less; racemes in 2 s-3's, 5-7 cm. long, exserted; 
sessile spikelets 9-10 mm. long; outer 2 glumes hispid on the nerves toward the 
apex, pubescent towards the summit; awn almost none; pedicellate spikelet 
similar to the sessile one, staminate. Dry soil: Mont. Neb. Plain. Jl. 

4. SORGHASTRUM Nash. INDIAN GRASS. 

Perennials with rootstocks. Panicles large, with the principal branches soli- 
tary but branching near the base and hence appearing verticillate. Sessile 
spikelet dorsally compressed; empty glumes 3, the outer two indurate, often 
hairy, the third hyaline. Lemma hyaline, with a long awn, which is spiral at 
the base. Pedicellate spikelet wanting or rudimentary, usually represented 
merely by a hairy pedicel at one side of the sessile spikelet, or at the ends of the 
branches by two pedicels, one on each side. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. S. nutans (L.) Nash. Perennial, with a scaly rootstock; stems 1-2.5 m. 
high; leaf-sheaths usually smooth and glabrous; blades 3-6 dm. long, 5-13 mm. 
wide, very rough; panicles 2-5 dm. long, loose, the apex usually nodding; spike- 
lets 6-8 mm. long, lanceolate, the 2 outer glumes golden-brown, the first one 
densely pubescent with long erect hairs; awn geniculate, 1-1.5 cm. long, closely 
spiral up to the bend, then loosely twisted. Andropogon nutans L. Chrysopogon 
nutans A. Gray. Meadows: Ont. Fla. Tex. Ariz. Sask.; n Mex. Plain 
Submont Son. Jl-S. 

5. HOLCUS L JOHNSON GRASS, BROOM CORN, SUGAR CORN. 

Perennials with rootstocks, or annuals. Branches of the large panicle verti- 
cillate. Spikelets in pairs or at the ends of the branches in 3's, 1 sessile and 
pistillate, 1 or 2 pedicelled and staminate or neutral. Empty glumes 3, the 
outer two indurate, the third hyaline. Lemma hyaline, awned, or awnless. 
Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. [Sorghum Pers.] 

1. H. halapense L. Perennial; stem 5-15 dm. tall; leaf -blades 2-5 dm. 
long, 0.5-3 cm. wide; panicle 1.5-5 dm. long, oblong to oval; sessile spikelet 4.5- 
5.5 mm. long, ovoid, the two outer glumes densely appressed-pubescent ; awn 
readily deciduous, 1-1.5 cm. long; pedicellate spikelets 5-7 mm. long, lanceolate, 
the 2 outer glumes sparingly pubescent. Sorghum halapense Pers. JOHNSON 
GRASS. In fields and waste places: Pa. Fla. Tex. Colo.; Calif.; Mex., 
C. Am. and S. Am.; escaped from cultivation. Je-D. 

6. PLEURAPHIS Torr. BLACK BUNCH-GRASS, GALLETA GRASS, 

TOBOSA GRASS. 

Tufted perennials with scaly rootstocks. Spikelets in sessile clusters of three, 
forming a spike-like inflorescence; central spikelet 1-flowered, the lateral ones of 
2 staminate flowers. Glumes 3 in the central flower, the outer two-ridged, the 
first larger, 2-toothed at the apex, awnless or with an awn between the teeth, 
the second narrower and keeled, the third thin-membranous and like the lemma. 
Glumes of the lateral flowers only two. Styles a little united at the base; stig- 
mas short-plumose. 

Stem and leaf-sheath, at least the lower ones, densely woolly. 1. P. rigida. 

Stem and leaf-sheath not woolly. 

Outer glumes of the spikelets cuneate, awnless; nerves strongly divergent. 

2. P. mulica. 

Outer glumes linear or oblong, awned; nerves parallel. 3. P. Jamesii. 

1. P. rigida Thurb. Stem 3-8 dm. high, branching, covered witli a dense 
tomentum; leaf -blades 3-12 cm. long, rigid, 3-5 mm. wide, often involute; spike 
3-10 cm. long; glumes of the central perfect spikelet cuneate at base, bifid above, 
fringed with wool; awn divergent, a little exceeding the glume; glumes of the 
lateral spikelets irregularly toothed above; awns short, straight or recurved. 
Hilaria rigida Benth. Desert regions : slJtah Ariz. s Calif. L.Calif. L. Son. 
Ap-Je. 



GRASS FAMILY 35 

2. P. mutica Buckl. Stems 2-6 cm. high, smooth and glabrous; blades 
3-10 cm. long, involute, scabrous; spikes dense, 3-6 cm. long, 5-12 mm. thick; 
spikelets usually overlapping; lower glumes of the middle spikelet narrow, 
keeled, bearing 5-6 bristles; those of the lateral spikelets 4-5 mm. long, cuneate, 
the outer one 6-9-nerved with a rounded scarious margin, the inner 4-nerved 
with a short awn. H. mutica Benth. TOBOSA GRASS. Dry plains: Tex. 
Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son. Ap-S. 

3. P. Jamesii Torr. Stem slightly hairy at the nodes, otherwise scabrous 
or smooth, 1.5-4 dm. high; blades 1-15 cm. long, glaucous and scabrous, usually 
revolute; spikes 5-8 cm. long, often purple-tinged; glumes of the middle spikelet 
keeled, ciliate, 2-cleft, with 3-7 bristles on the back; lower glume of the lateral 
spikelets 6-7 mm. long, awned above the middle; upper glume emarginate, cuspi- 
date. H. Jamesii Benth. GALLETA GRASS. Hills and plains: Tex. Wyo. 
Nev. N.M. Plain Submont. Son. My-Au. 

7. PASPALUM L. PASPALUM. 

Usually perennials with root-stocks. Inflorescence of one or more unilateral 
racemes; spikelets 1-flowered, arranged singly or in pairs alternately in two rows 
on one side of a flattened and more or less winged rachis. Glumes 2, rarely 3, 
membranous. Lemma glabrous and shining, convex, with its back turned to- 
wards the rachis, at last indurate. Styles distinct, long; stigmas plumose. 

1. P. stramineum Nash. Stem 2-8 dm. high; sheaths all but the lowest ones 
glabrous, except the ciliate margins; blades yellowish-green, long-ciliate on the 
margins, 5-25 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide; racemes 4-10 cm. long, usually in pairs; 
spikelets in pairs, orbicular, 2 mm. broad; first glume 3-nerved, pubescent; second 
glume 2-nerved, glabrous or nearly so. P. setaceum A. Nels., not Michx. Sandy 
places: Neb. Okla Colo. Plain. Jl-S. 

8. SYNTHERISMA Walt. CRAB-GRASS. 

Annual grasses. Inflorescence composed of spike-like racemes, which are 
disposed in whorls, or approximate at the summit of the stems. Spikelets nar- 
row, acute, in 2's or 3's on one side of the flat and winged or triangular rachis, 
one of the spikelets generally longer-pedicelled than the rest. Glumes mem- 
branous, the first small or wanting, the lemma chartaceous, glabrous and shin- 
ing, at length indurated, enclosing a palet. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 
[Digitaria Scop., not Heist.] 

Pedicels terete or nearly so, sparingly if at all hispidulous ; lower sheaths glabrous ; lemma 

brown in fruit. 

Spikelets more than 2 mm. long. 1. S. Ischaemum. 

Spikelets 1.25-1.5 mm. long. 2. S. paniceum. 

Pedicels sharply 3-angled, the angles strongly hispidulous, as also the sheath; lemma 

white in fruit. 
Spikelets about 2.5 mm. long; third glume with the nerves strongly hispid above the 

middle. 3. S. sanguinale. 

Spikelets 3 mm. long or more; third glume with the nerves smooth or nearly so. 

4. S. marginatum. 

1. S. Ischaemum (Schreb.) Nash. Stems 2-5 dm. long, at last prostrate 
and rooting; leaf-blades 1.5-13 cm. long, 2.5-6 mm. wide, smooth and glabrous 
on both sides; racemes 2-5, 2-8 cm. long; spikelets fully 2 mm. long, elliptic, 
acute; first glume rudimentary or wanting. Panicum linear^ Krock., not L. 
P. glabrum Gaud. Syntherisma humifusum (Pers.) Rydb. Waste places, fields, 
and roadsides : N.S. Fla. Colo. Mont.; introduced from Eu. Plain Mont. 
Jl-S. 

2. S. paniceum (Sw.) Nash. Stem tufted, 1-4.5 dm. high, glabrous; sheaths 
glabrous; blades glabrous, up to 1 dm. long, 6 mm. wide; racemes 3-5, digitate, 
up to 1 dm. long; rachis winged; spikelets about 1.3 mm. long, white, acute, el- 
liptic; first glume wanting, second and third subequal, nearly equalling the 
lemma, appressed-pubescent, 3-5-nerved. Waste places: n Mex. Colo. 
W. Ind.; also in the Old World. Son. 

3. S. sanguinale (L.) Dulac. Stem 3-10 dm. high, prostrate at the base and 
rooting; leaf-blades 4-20 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, more or less papillose-hirsute 



36 POACEAE 

on both sides; racemes 3-10, linear, 5-18 cm. long; spikelets elliptic-lanceolate, 
acute; first glume minute, triangular; lemma apiculate, elliptic-lanceolate. P. 
sanguinale L. CRAB-GRASS. Cultivated ground and waste places: Mass. 
Fla. Calif .Wash. ; Mex. ; naturalized from the Old World. Je-S. 

4. S. marginatum (Link) Nash. Stem 5-8 dm. long, prostrate at the base 
and rooting at the nodes; sheaths densely papillose-hirsute; blades 5-8 cm. long, 
3-10 mm. wide, flat, glabrous or pubescent; racemes 2-9, variously disposed, 
2-12 cm. long; spikelets 3-4 mm. long, lance-oblong; first glume minute, triangu- 
lar, glabrous; second and third glumes long-pubescent; lemma elliptic. Waste 
places: Md. Fla. Mex. Utah; W. Ind., C. Am., and S. Am. 

9. VALLOTA Chase. 

Perennial grasses, with usually tufted stems, panicles usually densely hairy, 
narrow or contracted. Spikelets numerous, articulated below the empty glumes, 
1-flowered, lanceolate, acute or acuminate. Glumes 3, membranous, the second 
and usually also the much shorter first densely silky-pilose or long ciliate on the 
margins, often acuminate, and sometimes with a short bristle at the apex; the 
lemma shorter, chartaceous, glabrous and shining, finally indurated, enclosing a 
shorter palet. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. V. saccharata (Buckl.) Chase. Erect perennial; stem 3-9 dm. high, 
usually much-branched below; sheaths mostly exceeding the internodes, glabrous 
or papillose-hirsute; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, flat, 5 mm. wide or less, more or 
less pubescent; panicle 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long, acute; first glume 
minute, second and third glumes densely silvery-villous. Panicum saccharatum 
Buckl. P. lac-hnanthum Ton*. Trichacne saccaratum Nash. Dry hillsides: Tex. 
Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son. -Submont. My S. 

10. PANICUM L. PANIC-GRASS, WITCH-GRASS. 

Annuals or perennials. Spikelets in open or contraced panicles, 1-2-flowered, 
lanceolate, oblong, ovate to obovate or globose, obtuse to acute or acuminate. 
Glumes 3, membranous, the first and second empty, the first usually much 
shorter than the spikelet, sometimes minute, the third one empty or enclosing a 
shorter hyaline palet and often also a staminate flower; lemma shorter and usually 
more obtuse than the glumes, chartaceous, glabrous and shining, at length in- 
durated, enclosing a palet. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Inflorescence truly paniculate. 

Basal leaf-blades long and narrow; spikelets lanceolate or ovate, acute or acuminate. 
Annuals. 

Branches of the panicle widely spreading, the well developed pulvinus in their 

axils long-hairy; spikelets lanceolate, acuminate. 1. P. barbipuhinatum. 

Branches of the panicle ascending, rarely spreading, the pulvinus glabrous or 

sparingly hairy; spikelets ovate to ellipsoid, acute. 2. P. capillare. 
Perennials, with long scaly rootstocks and stolons. 3. P. virgatum. 

Basal leaf-blades ovate to lanceolate, obtuse. 
Spikelets less than 2 mm. long. 

Stem and sheaths sparingly pubescent, with spreading papillate hairs. 
Vernal leaves glabrous or nearly so on the upper side. 

Autumnal stems branching from the lower nodes, forming a spreading 

bunch, 1-1.5 dm. high. 4. P. occidentale. 

Autumnal stems branching from the middle nodes, forming widely 

spreading mats. 5. P. tennesseensc. 

Vernal leaves pubescent on the upper side, especially towards the base. 
Spikelets 1.8-2 mm. long; autumnal form decumbent- spreading. 

6. P. pacificum. 
Spikelets 1.6-1.8 mm. long; autumnal form not decumbent-spreading. 

7. P. Huach*cae. 
Stem and sheaths densely soft-pubescent; hairs scarcely papillate. 

8. P. thermale. 
Spikelets more than 2 mm. long. 

Blades of stem-leaves elongated, narrowly linear 

Spikelets glabrous or with a few scattered hairs; stem branching only 

at the base. 9. P. perlongum. 

Spikelets densely pubescent; stem branching above. 

10. P. Wilcoxianum. 

Blades of stem-leaves lanceolate. 11. P. Scribnerianum. 

Inflorescence with racemiform branches. 12. P. obtusum. 



GRASS FAMILY 37 

1. P. barbipulvinatum Nash. Annual; stem at length branched and root- 
ing at the nodes; sheaths densely pubescent with spreading hairs, papillate at the 
base; blades hairy on both sides, 4-13 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide; panicles ovate, 
1-2 dm. long; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long; first glume less than one-half as long as 
the spikelet, broadly ovate, 3-nerved; second and third glumes pubescent at the 
apex. WESTERN WITCH-GRASS. \Vet sandy soil: Minn. Kans. Wyo. Ore. 
B.C. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

2. P. capillare L. Erect or decumbent annual; stem 2-8 dm. high, simple 
or sparingly branched ; sheaths papillose-hirsute; leaf-blades 1.5-3 dm. long, 5- 
15 mm. wide, pubescent; terminal panicle 2-3.5 dm. long; lateral ones when 
present smaller; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long, somewhat acuminate or acute; first 
glume 1 A- 1 A as long as the spikelet, 5-7-nerved; second and third glabrous. 
WITCH-GRASS. Dry or sandy soil and waste places: N.S. Fla. Tex. Nev. 
Wash. B.C. Plain. Je-S. 

3. P. virgatum L. Perennial with a creeping, scaly rootstock; stem 1-2 m. 
high, glabrous; sheaths smooth ; leaf-blades elongated, 3 dm. long or more, 6-12 
mm. wide, flat, rough on the margins; panicle 1.5-5 dm. long; spikelets ovate, 
acuminate, 4-4.5 mm. long; first glume acuminate, about half as long as the 
spikelet, 3-5-nerved; second glume usually longer than the rest. Meadows and 
plains. Me. Fla. Tex. Ariz. Sask.; W. Ind. and C. Am. Plain Son. 
Au-S. 

4. P. occidentale Scribn. Tufted perennial, yellowish green; stem 1.5-4 
dm. high, with short lower internodes; blades 4-8 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, 
glabrous or with a few hairs towards the base above, appressed-pubescent be- 
neath; panicle long-exserted, 4-7 cm. long, lax, w r ith flexuose spreading branches; 
spikelets about 1.8 mm. long, obovate, acute, pubescent; first glume one-fourth 
as long as the spikelet or less; second and third glumes subequal, as long as the 
fruit. Bogs and sandy ground: B.C. Ida. Calif. Submont. 

5. P. tennesseense Ashe. Perennial, at first spreading; stem 2.5-6 dm. 
high; sheaths spreading-pubescent; leaf-blades 6-9 cm. long, often ciliate at the 
base, glabrous or nearly so above, appressed-pubescent beneath; panicle 4-7 cm. 
long, rather dense; spikelets 1.6-1.7 mm. long, obovate, obtuse, pubescent; first 
glume about one-fourth as long as the spikelet; second glume shorter than the 
third. Open moist ground: Me. Ga. Miss. Utah. Plain Submont. 

6. P. pacificum Hitchc. & Chase. Tufted perennial; stem 2.5-5 dm. high; 
leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, acuminate, papillose-pilose, with 
shorter hairs intermixed, appressed-pubescent beneath; panicle short-exserted, 
5-10 cm. long, with flexuose ascending branches; spikelets obovate, obtuse, papil- 
lose-pubescent; first glume one-fourth to one-third as long as the spikelet, trun- 
cate; second and third glumes equalling the fruit. Sandy shores: B.C. Ida. 
Ariz. Calif. Plain Submont. 

7. P. Huachucae Ashe. Erect or ascending perennial, at length much 
branched; stems 2-6 dm. high; leaf-blades lanceolate or lance-linear, acuminate, 
pubescent beneath with short hairs, 4-10 cm. long, 5-12 mm. wide; panicle 5-10 
cm. long, usually purplish; branches spreading, few-flowered; spikelets obovate, 
obtuse, 1.5-1.8 mm. long; first glume small, about one-third as long as the spike- 
let; second and third glumes equal, pubescent with spreading hairs. P. pubes- 
cens A. Gray, not Lam. Meadows: Me. N.C. Calif. Mont. Plain Mont. 
Je-S. 

8. P. thermale Bolander. Tufted perennial; stem 1-3 dm. high; leaf- 
blades lanceolate, 2-10 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, thick, finely and densely pubes- 
cent on both sides, or glabrate above; terminal panicle exserted, 2-4 cm. long; 
branches spreading, few-flowered; lateral panicles often included ; spikelets 
obovoid; first glume rounded-ovate, about one-fourth as long as the spikelet; the 
second and third glumes pubescent. Around hot springs: Calif. Nev. Wyo. 
Mont. Mont. Submont. Au. 

9. P. perlongum Nash. Tufted pubescent perennial; stems 2-4 dm. high, 
simple; sheaths hirsute with long ascending hairs; leaf -blades papillose-hispid 



38 POACEAE 

beneath, 2-3 mm. wide, the upper usually 8-14 cm. long; panicle much exserted, 
4-6 cm. long, its branches nearly erect; spikelets about 3.25 mm. long and 1.5- 
1.75 mm. wide; first empty glume ovate, one-third as long as the spikelet. Prair- 
ies and hills: Ind. Okla. (Black Hills) S.D. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

10. P. Wilcoxianum Vasey. Cespitose perennial, tufted; stems 1-2.5 dm- 
high, sparingly pilose with long white hairs; sheaths papillose-pilose; leaf -blades 
3.5-7.5 cm. long, less than 4 mm. wide, pubescent with long hairs; panicle 3-4 
cm. long, ovoid, flexuose; spikelets about 2.5 mm. long, ellipsoid; first glume 
ovate, about one-fourth as long as the spikelet; second and third glumes pubes- 
cent. Prairies: S.D. Kans. Ore. Plains. Je-JL 

11. P. Scribnerianum Nash. Somewhat cespitose perennial; stem erect, 
1.5-6 dm. high, simple or later dichotomously branched, sparingly hairy; sheaths 
strongly papillose-hirsute; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, 6-12 mm. wide, glabrous 
and smooth above, scabrous and sparingly hairy beneath; primary panicle 
ovoid, 3.5-7.5 cm. long, the secondary ones much smaller and more or less in- 
cluded; spikelets obovoid, 3 mm. long; first glume ovate, one-fourth as long as 
the spikelet; second and third glumes glabrous or finely pubescent. Panicum 
scoparium S. Wats., not Lam. Meadows: Me. Va. Ariz. Ore. B.C. Plain 
Submont. My-Jl. 

12. P. obtusum H.B.K. Perennial, with a more or less tufted rootstock, 
producing creeping stolons; stem compressed, 2-8 dm. high, decumbent at the 
base, glabrous; leaf -blades 3-20 cm. long, 2-7 mm. wide, involute towards the 
tip, glabrous or nearly so; panicle short-exserted, 3-12 cm. long; spikelets short- 
pedicelled, 3-4 mm. long, obovoid, glabrous; first glume nearly as long as the 
spikelet; second and third glumes subequal; third glume often enclosing a stam- 
inate flower. Brachiaria obtusa (H.B.K.) Nash. Sandy and gravelly soil: 
Mo. Tex. Ariz. Colo.; Mex. Son. 

11. ECHINOCHLOA Beauv. BARNYARD GRASS, JUNGLE RICE. 

Coarse and often tall annuals. Inflorescence of several unilateral spikes or 
racemes. Spikelets 1- or 2-flowered, crowded in small clusters or racemes, in 
two rows on one side of the flat rachis. Empty glumes 3, membranous, hispid, 
the first much shorter than the spikelet; all awned or awn-pointed. Lemma 
chartaceous, glabrous and shining, indurate, acute or acuminate, enclosing a 
shorter palet. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. E. Crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Stem 4-12 dm. high, branched at the base; 
leaf -sheaths keeled; blades 1.5-4 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, glabrous, smooth; 
panicle of 5-15 secund branches; spikelets ovate, crowded in 2-4 rows, about 4 
mm. long, hispidulous, hispid on the nerves; first glume broadly ovate, nearly 
half as long as the rest; the third glume in the typical form usually with an awn 
4-10 mm. long, but in the native form of the Rocky Mountain region (var. 
mutica] usualty all merely cuspidate. Panicum Crus-galli L. Wet places, culti- 
vated ground and waste places: N.S. Fla. Calif. Wash.; Mex., W. Ind., 
Eurasia. Plain Submont. Je-O. 

12. CHAETOCHLOA Scribn. FOXTAIL GRASS. 

Annuals or perennials. Inflorescence of dense terminal cylindric spike-like or 
narrowly thyrsoid panicles. Spikelets in a cluster of 1-several sterile, barbed 
bristle-like persistent branches. Empty glumes 3, membranous, the first often 
very short and together with the larger second one empty, the third glume fre- 
quently longer than the second, empty, or rarely enclosing a palet and also some- 
times a staminate flower, the lemma usually shorter than the spikelet, chartaceous, 
glabrous, shining, often transversely rugose, finally indurated, obtuse, enclosing 
a shorter palet. Styles distinct, elongated: stigmas plumose. [Setaria Beauv.] 

Inflorescence with the spikelets racemosely arranged; bristles 5-16 at the base of each 

spikelet, involucrate, tawny-orange. 1. C. glauca. 

Inflorescence with the spikelets in clusters on the branches; bristles 1-3 at the base of 

each spikelet, not involucrate. 
Second glume of the spikelet as long as the lemma, or very nearly so; annuals. 

Panicle usually 1 cm. thick or less; bristles commonly green; spikelets about 2 
mm. long. 2. C. viridis. 



GRASS FAMILY 39 

Panicle usually 1-3 cm. thick; bristles usually purple; spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long. 

3. C. italica. 
Second glume manifestly shorter than the lemma; perennials. 4. C. composita. 

1. C. glauca (L.) Scribn. Erect or ascending, glaucous annual; stem 3-12 
dm. high, branching at the base, glabrous, compressed; leaf -blades 5-15 cm. 
longj 4-8 mm. wide, glabrous or with scattered long hairs at the base; spikelet 
broadly ovate, 3 mm. long; second glume one-half to two-thirds as long as the 
spikelet, ovate, acute; third glume equalling the lemma, which is broadly ovate, 
striate, transversely rugose. Setaria glauca Beauv. Waste places and cultivated 
ground: N.S. Fla. Tex. Colo. Sask.; naturalized from Eurasia. Plain 
Submont. Je-S. 

2. C. viridis (L.) Scribn. Erect glabrous annual; stem 2-9 dm. high, branched 
at the base, compressed; leaf-blades 5-25 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, long-acumin- 
ate, slightly scabrous on both sides; bristles slender, scabrous, 1-1.5 cm. long, 
green or rarely purplish; lemma elliptic, finely and faintly wrinkled below or 
only striate. S. viridis Beauv. Waste places and cultivated ground : Newf. 
Fla. Calif. B.C.; Mex.; naturalized from Eu. PlainSubmont. Jl-S. 

3. C. italica (L.) Scribn. Stout, erect, somewhat glaucous annual; stem 
simple or branched at the base, 5-20 dm. high, glabrous; nodes bearded; leaf- 
blades lanceolate, 2-4 dm. long, 1.5-3 cm. wide, scabrous on both sides; bristles 
green or purplish, 3-10 cm. long, scabrous; lemma smooth or faintly trans- 
versely rugose, striate. S. italica Beauv. Waste places and fields; escaped from 
cultivation: Que. Fla. Tex. Colo. S.D.; native of Eurasia. Jl-S. 

4. C. composita (H.B.K.) Scribn. Pale, glaucous perennial; stem geniculate 
and branched at the base, subcompressed, scabrous or pubescent especially below 
the nodes; blades linear, plane, 1-2.5 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, glaucous, scabrous 
on both sides; panicle pale-green, loose, interrupted below: bristles usually single 
below each spikelet, flexuose, 5-15 mm. long, scabrous; spikelets narrowly ovate, 
2-3 mm. long; lemma striate, smooth, obscurely transversely wrinkled below. 
S. composita H.B.K. Hills, plains, and canons: Tex. Colo. Ariz.; Mex., 
and S. Am. Son. Je-O. 

13. CENCHRUS L. BUR-GRASS, SANDBUR, SANDSPUR. 

Annuals or perennials. Spikes terminal. Spikelets 2-6, in an ovate or glo- 
bose involucre, consisting of two thick hard valves, which are exteriorly armed 
with stout spines at the base, the involucres articulated to the rachis and readily 
deciduous, carrying the persistent spikelets with them. The first and second 
glumes empty, the first small or minute, the third equalling or longer than the 
second, enclosing a palet and also sometimes a staminate flower, the lemma 
chartaceous, firmer, enclosing a palet of similar texture and a perfect flower. 
Stamens 3. Styles often connate at the very base; stigmas plumose. 

1. C. carolinianus Walt. Erect or decumbent annual; stem 2-9 dm. long, 
branching; leaf-sheaths usually loose, compressed, smooth; blades 6-12 cm. long, 
4-8 mm. wide, smooth or rough; spikes 3-6 cm. long, sometimes partly included; 
involucres 6-20, enclosing each 2 spikelets, 3-5 mm. broad, pubescent; spines 
3-4 mm. long; spikelets 6-7 mm. long, usually exserted beyond the involucre. 
C. tribuloides Auth., not L. Sandy banks and waste places, sometimes becom- 
ing a noxious weed: Me. Fla. Tex. Colo. S.D.; Mex., C. Am., and W. 
IritL Plain Son. Mr-N. 

14. HOMALOCENCHRUS Mieg. RICE CUT-GRASS. 

Perennials. Panicles usually open, rarely contracted, terminal, the branches 
slender. Spikelets often with a cartilaginous ring at the base, articulated below 
the scales, compressed, 1-flowered. Glumes 2, compressed-keeled, somewhat 
rigid, awnless, the first one usually ciliate on the keel, broader than the second, 
which encloses a perfect flower but no palet. Stamens 1-6. Styles short or 
slender, distinct; stigmas plumose with branched hairs. [Leersia Sw., not Hedw.] 

1. H. oryzoides (L.) Poll. Stem 3-15 dm. high, often rooting at the nodes; 
jeaf -blades 6-25 cm. long, 4-13 mm. wide, very rough; terminal panicle 1-2 dm. 



40 POACEAE 

long, at last exserted; lateral ones often included at the base; spikelets 4-5 mm. 
long, about 1.5 mm. wide, elliptic; outer glumes hispid on the keel and margins, 
hispidulous on the sides; stamens 3. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. In swamps: 
N.S.Fla. Tex. Colo. Sask.; also Eu. Plain Submont. Au-O. 

15. PHALARIS L. CANARY-GRASS. 

Annuals or perennials. Panicles terminal, cylindric and spike-like, capitate, or 
densely thyrsoidal and somewhat interrupted. Spikelets articulated above the 
empty glumes, compressed, 1-flowered, crowded. Empty glumes 4, the lower 2 
persistent, larger than the rest, thin-paleaceous, compressed-keeled, the keel 
usually more or less winged, sometimes wingless, awnless; third and fourth glumes 
shorter, very thin and narrowly lanceolate, sometimes reduced to bristles, or 
rarely one of them wanting; lemma chartaceous, at length indurated, awnless, 
sometimes pointed, obscurely 3-5-nerved, the midnerve sometimes obsolete, 
enclosing a faintly 2-nerved palet. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Outer glumes not winged; inflorescence a narrow panicle. 1. P. arundinacea. 

Outer grumes winged; inflorescence a spike or spike-like panicle. 

Spikelets narrow; third and fourth glumes much reduced; blades subulate-linear, 
hairy. 2. P. caroliniana. 

Spikelets broad; third and fourth glumes thin, membranous; blades lanceolate, 
glabrous, rarely sparingly hairy. 3. P. canariensis. 

1. P. arundinacea L. Glabrous perennial, with a horizontal rootstock;, 
stem erect, 6-15 dm. high; leaf -blades 1-2.5 dm. long, 6-16 mm. wide; panicle 
7-20 cm. long, dense, 1-2 cm. thick; spikelets 5-6 mm. long; outer glumes 3- 
nerved; third and fourths glumes less than half as long as the lemma, which is 
pubescent with long appressed hairs. Wet places: N.S. N.J. Nev. B.C.; 
Eurasia. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

2. P. caroliniana Walt. Glabrous annual; stem 3-10 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 5-15 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide; panicle oblong, 2.5-10 cm. long, 1-1.5 
cm. thick; spikelets 5 mm. long; outer glumes 3-nerved; third and fourth glumes 
less than half as long as the lemma, which is acuminate and with long appressed 
hairs. Wet ground: Fla.S.C Mo Colo Calif.; Mex. Son.Aust. My- 
Au. 

3. P. canariensis L. Glabrous annual; stem 3-9 dm. high, branched at 
the base; leaf-blades 5-30 cm. long, 4-12 mm. wide, strongly scabrous; panicles 
oblong or ovoid, 1-4 cm. long; spikelets 6-8 mm. long; outer glumes whitish with 
green nerves; third and fourth glumes broadly lanceolate, about half as long as 
the pubescent lemma. Waste places: N.S. Va. Colo. S.D.; also Calif. 
Ore.; naturalized from Europe and Africa. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

16. TORRESIA R. & P. SWEET GRASS, HOLY GRASS. 

Sweet-scented perennials with rootstocks. Panicles open or contracted. 
Spikelets 3-flowered, the terminal flower perfect, the others staminate. Empty 
glumes nearly equal, acute, glabrous. Lemma 2-toothed or 2-lobed, with or 
without an awn. Stamens in the staminate flowers 3, in the perfect flowers 2. 
Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. [Hierochloa Gmel. Savastana Schrank.] 

1. T. odorata (L.) Hitchc. Perennial with a creeping rootstock; stem 3-6 
dm. high, smooth; lower leaf-blades elongated, 1-2 dm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, the 
upper ones 1-5 cm. long; panicle 5-10 cm. long, its branches spreading or se- 
flexed; spikelets yellowish brown or purplish, 4-6 mm. long: first and second 
gllumes acute; third and fourth glumes villous and strongly ciliate, awn-pointed. 
H. odorata (L.) Wahl. H.borealis R. & S. Saiastana odorata Scribn. Moist 
paces and among bushes: Lab. N.J. Neb. Colo. Ariz. Alaska; Eur- 
asia. Submont. Alp. Je-Jl. 

17. ARISTIDA L. POVERTY GRASS, W T IRE-GRASS. 

Tufted perennials, with narrow leaves. Inflorescence paniculate or race- 
mose. Spikelets 1-flowered, narrow. Empty glumes 2, membranous, persist- 
ent, keeled, awnless, usually longer than the lemma. The latter firm> narrow, 



GRASS FAMILY 41 

rigid, strongly convolute, with a prominent callus at the base, 3-awned at the 
apex; the central awn often bent and twisted, the lateral ones shorter and spread- 
ing or ascending. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Awns neither twisted nor bent. 

Panicle narrow; branches erect or ascending. 
First glume much shorter than the second. 

Spikelets not crowded, usually 1-3, on branches naked at the base; awn over 

2 cm. long; perennials. 
Second glume of the spikelets 2 cm. long or more, 1.5-2 times as long as the 

lemma. 1. A. longiseta. 

Second glume of the spikelets 1.5 cm. long or less, scarcely exceeding the 

lemma. 2. A. Fendleriana. 

Spikelets crowded, 4-6 on the short branches, spikelet-bearing to near the 

base; awn less than 2 cm. long; annuals. 
Stem 3-6 dm. high; first glume 7-8 mm. long; middle awn 10-16 mm. long; 

leaf-blades usually flat. 3. A. fasciculata. 

Stem 1-3 dm. high; first glume 4-6 mm. long; middle awn 6-8 mm. long; 

leaf-blades strongly involute. 4. A. bromoides. 

First glume nearly equalling the second; perennials with a dense panicle. 

7. A. arizonica. 

Panicle open; branches 3-forked, divergent. 5. A. Humboldtiana. 

Middle awn twisted and divaricately bent near the base. 6. A. Curtissii. 

1. A. longiseta Steud. Densely tufted glaucous glabrous perennial; stem 
1-4 dm. high; sheaths shorter than the internodes; leaf -blades strongly involute,. 
2-11 cm. long; spikelets purplish; first empty glume shorter than the lemma; 
lemma 12-16 mm. long; awns 6-11 cm. long. Sandy soil: 111. Tex. Ariz. 
Wash.; Mex. Plain Submont. My-Au. 

2. A. Fendleriana Steud. Densely tufted glabrous perennial; stem 1.5-3 
dm. high, erect; sheaths smooth, confined to the base of the stem; leaf-blades 
involute, often curved; panicle 7-10 cm. long, strict; spikelets 12-15 mm. long;, 
lemma 9-12 mm. long; central awn 2-3.5 cm. long; lateral awns a little shorter. 
A. purpurea Coult., not Nutt. A. longiseta Fendleriana Merrill. Dry soil: 
Tex. Mont. Calif. Son. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

3. A. fasciculata Torr. A tufted annual; stems 3-6 dm. high, branched; 
leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 2 mm. wide; panicle 5-17 cm. long, loose; branches 
at first strict, later more or less spreading; first glume 1-nerved, shorter than 
the second; lemma equalling or longer than the second; awns ascending, the 
lateral ones shorter than the middle one. (Mistaken for A. oligantha Michx.) 
Dry soil: Tex. Kans. s Utah Ariz. Mex. Son. My-S. 

4. A. bromoides H.B.K. Low tufted annual; stem 1-3 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 2-7 cm. long, involute; panicle purple, 2-5 cm. long, dense; first glume 
one-nerved, shorter than the second, slightly longer than the lemma; awns- 
ascending, the lateral ones 6-8 mm. long. Arid regions: Tex. Colo. Utah- 
Calif.; Mex. Son. Ap-N. 

5. A. Humboldtiana Trin. & Rup. Tufted perennial; stem 3-9 dm. high, 
branched; sheaths rough; blades of the stem-leaves 1.5-3 dm. long, 2-4 mm. 
wide; those of the sterile shoots longer and narrower; panicles 3-5 dm. long, 
open; empty glumes acuminate, awn-pointed, 9-13 mm. long; central awn 1.2-2 
cm. long, erect; lateral ones somewhat shorter, ascending. A. divaricata 
H.B.K. Dry soil: Kans. Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son. Jl-S. 

6. A. Curtissii (A. Gray) Nash. Tufted; stem 2-5 dm. high, branching; 
leaf-blades 4-16 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; panicle spike-like, 5-9 cm. long, branches- 
short, erect; first glume shorter than the second, which usually equals the lemma, 
7-11 mm. long; middle awn 10-15 mm. long; lateral awns 1-2 mm. long, straight. 
Dry soil: Va. w Neb. Okla. Aust. S-O. 

7. A. arizonica Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, rigid, glab- 
rous; leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, becoming involute; panicle 1-2.5 dm. long; 
branches 2 at each node, appressed, one longer, peduncled, the other shorter 
and sessile; glumes 12-14 mm. long, bidentate at the apex; awns of the lemma 
nearly equal, 1.5-2 cm. long, divergent when mature. Plains and hills: Tex. 
s Colo. Utah Ariz. Son. Submont. 



42 POACEAE 

18. STIPA L. SPEAR GRASS, PORCUPINE GRASS, DEVIL'S DARNING- 
NEEDLES, FEATHER GRASS. 

Usually tufted perennials. Inflorescence paniculate. Spikelets narrow, 1- 
flowered; flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, narrow, persistent, keeled, acute, 
rarely awned. Lemma narrow, strongly convolute, rigid, with a strong, usually 
acute callus at the base and ending in a bent awn, which is spirally twisted below 
the knee. Styles distinct, short; stigmas plumose. 

Outer glume of the spikelet 2 cm. long or more. 

Awn plumose. 1. S. neo-mexicana. 

Awn not plumose. 

Base of the panicle exserted; lemma more than 12 mm. long; awn straight above 

the bend. 

Lemma 20-25 mm. long. 2. S. spartea. 

Lemma 12-15 mm. long. 3. S. Tweedyi. 

Base of the panicle usually included in the upper sheath; lemma 8-12 mm. long; 

awn slender and curled above the bend. 4. S. comata. 

Outer glume of the spikelet 1 .5 cm. long or less. 

Panicle loose and open; branches spreading or reflexed. 

Awn plumose. 5. S. Porteri. 

Awn not plumose. 

Callus acute; lemma 7-8 mm. long. 6. S. Richardsonii. 

Callus short, blunt; lemma about 4 mm. long. 7. S. canadensis. 

Panicle dense and spike-like. 

Awn glabrous, scabrous, or strigose, not plumose. 
Lemma long-hairy towards the apex. 
Lemma about 5 mm. long. 

Glumes green, rarely slightly tinged with purple; lemma nearly glab- 
rous below. 8. S. Lettermanii. 
Glumes purplish with paler margins; lemma pubescent throughout, 

though more densely so above. 9. S. pinetnrum. 

Lemma about 8 mm. long. 10. S. Scribneri. 

Lemma equally hairy throughout. 
Sheaths glabrous. 

Empty glumes scarious or hyaline; their nerves hence prominent. 

Lemma 4-6 mm. long, spindle-shaped when mature; callus short. 
Stem-leaves broader than the basal leaves, often flat; sheaths 

with a ring of hairs at the throat. 11. S. viridula. 

Stem-leaves as well as the basal leaves very narrow, involute; 

sheaths glabrous. 

Plant green; sheaths close; inflorescence distinctly exserted. 

12. S. columbiana. 
Plant pale and glaucous; sheaths loose; inflorescence included 

or barely exserted; awn glabrous. 13. S. arida. 
Lemma 6-7 mm. long, almost cylindric; callus long and pointed. 

14. S. Nelsonii. 
Empty glumes firm, thickish, herbaceous; the nerves not prominent. 

Lemma about 5 mm. long; leaf-blades narrow and involute. 

15. S. minor. 
Lemma 810 mm. long; leaf-blades broad. 

Panicle slender; stem low and slender. 9. S. Scribneri. 

Panicle stoxit and dense; stem tall and stout. 16. S. Vaseyi. 
Sheaths and lower leaf-blade pubescent. 17. S. Williamsii. 

Awns plumose or subplumose at least below. 

Hairs of the awns less than 1 mm. long; empty glumes 10-12 mm. long. 
Ligules 1 mm. long or less. 

Sheaths, at least the lower ones, hairy. 18. S. Elmeri. 

Sheaths glabrous. 19. S. oregonensis. 

Ligules 2-4 mm. long. 20. S. Thitrberiana. 

Hairs of the awns 3-6 mm. long; empty glumes 15-18 mm. long. 

21. S. speciosa. 

1. S. neo-mexicana (Thurb.) Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem erect, smooth, 
3-10 dm. high; basal leaf -blades 2-3 dm. long, strongly involute, those of the 
stem-leaves snorter; panicle narrow, 1-1.5 dm. long; branches erect, with 1-3 
spikelets; empty glumes lanceolate, 3-4.5 cm. long; lemma strigose, 10-15 mm. 
long; awn 1-1.5 dm. long, plumose, twisted for one-third its length, twice bent; 
callus long and sharp. S. pennata neo-mexicana Thurb. Dry hills: Tex. 
Colo. Utah Calif. Son. Submont. My-Au. 

2. S. spartea Trin. Tufted perennial; stem 6-15 dm. high, erect, simple; 
basal leaf -blades 2-5 dm. long, usually involute, scabrous above; stem-leaves 
1.5-3 dm. long, usually flat; panicle 1-2.5 dm. long; outer glumes of spikelets 
2.5-3.7 cm. long, acuminate, awn-pointed, glabrous; callus long, sharp; awn 12- 
20 cm. long. Prairies: Man. 111. N.M. B.C. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 



GRASS FAMILY 43 

3. S. Tweedyi Scribn. Tufted perennial; stem 6-9 dm. high, smooth; 
blades of the stem-leaves 1-1.5 dm. long, scabrous above; those of the shoots 
usually longer; first glumes 2-2.5 cm. long, 3-nerved; the second slightly longer, 
5-nerved, long-attenuate; awn about 7-10 cm. long, twice bent, scabrous. S. 
comata intermedia Scribn. & Tweedy. Plains and mountains: Sask. Colo. 
Ariz. Ida. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

4. S. comata Trin. & Rup. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, glabrous; 
sheaths usually longer than the internodes, the uppermost inflated, enclosing 
the base of the panicle; leaf -blades somewhat scabrous, involute; those of the 
basal innovations filiform, 1-3 dm. long, those of the stem 6-15 cm. long, broader; 
panicles 15-20 cm. long, loose; outer glumes 18-25 mm. long, glabrous; awn 1-2 
dm. long, twice bent below. Prairies and sandy places: Alta. Neb. N.M. 
Calif. Alaska. Plain 'Submont. Je-Au. 

5. S. Porteri Rydb. Tufted perennial; stems lender, 3-4 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 4-10 cm. long, involute, filiform; branches of the panicle with 1-2 spike- 
lets; empty glumes membranous, 5 mm. long, purplish; lemma hairy below, 
slightly shorter; callus short, acute; awn 12-15 mm. long, plumose, with a single 
bend. S. mongolica Porter & Coulter, not Turcz. Mountains: Colo. Tex. 
Mont. 

6. S. Richardsonii Link. Tufted perennial; stem slender, 5-10 dm. high; 
leaf-blades involute, filiform, 5-15 cm. long, smooth; panicle open, 7-12 cm. 
long; branches slender, with 1-3 spikelets; empty glumes purplish, 8-9 mm. long, 
broadly lanceolate, acute; lemma thinly pubescent; awn 12-20 mm. long, strigu- 
lose. Hillsides and open woods: Sask. S.D. Colo. Alta. Mont. Jl-S. 

7. S. canadensis Poir. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, smooth or 
somewhat scabrous; blades 5-12 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 5-12 
cm. long; outer glumes 4-5 mm. long, obtuse or acutish, glabrous, membranous; 
lemma silky-strigose; awn 8-10 mm. long, twisted but only slightly bent. S. 
Macounii Scribn. Sand hills and open woods: N.B. Me. Mich. Sask. 
Boreal. Jl. 

8. S. Lettermani Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem 3-5 dm. high, slender; 
basal leaf-blades filiform, 1-1.5 dm. long, involute, glabrous; panicle 1-1.5 dm. 
long; branches mostly single, spikelet-bearing to near the base; empty glumes 
6-7 mm. long, acuminate, awn-pointed, 3-nerved; awn 12-16 mm. long, once 
bent. Hills and plains: Ida. Wyo. Colo. Submont. Jl-Au. 

9. S. pinetorum M. E. Jones. Tufted perennial; stem 2-3 dm. high, 
slender, glabrous; basal leaves with thick brown sheaths; blades filiform, involute, 
5-10 cm. long, glabrous; panicle narrow, 1-1.5 dm. long, barely exserted; branches 
appressed; empty glumes purple-tinged, 7-8 mm. long, the first 3-nerved, the 
second 1-nerved; lemma about 5 mm. long, hairy throughout but more densely 
so at the apex; awn 12-20 mm. long, glabrous, twice bent. Open pinelands: 
Utah. Mont. Au-S. 

10. S. Scribneri Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem erect, strict, 4-7 dm. high, 
glabrous; sheaths close, smooth or slightly scabrous; leaf-blades 1-3 dm. long, 
usually flat, scabrous above; inflorescence 1-2 dm. long; first glume 12-14 mm. 
long, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 3-nerved, the second about 10 mm. long; 
awn 1.5-2 cm. long. Dry hills: N.M. Colo. Utah Ariz. Son. Mont. 
Jl-Au. 

11. S. viridula Trin. Tufted perennial; stem smooth, 3-6 dm. high; leaf- 
blades involute, smooth or scabrous above, the lower 1-2 dm. long; stem-leaves 
6-15 cm. long; outer glumes 7-9 mm. long, prominently 3-nerved, awn-pointed; 
lemma 5-6 mm. long, strigose; awn 2-2.5 cm. long, twice bent, glabrous or some- 
what scabrous. Plains and prairies: Sask. Kans. 'Utah Mont. Plain 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

12. S. columbiana Macoun. Tufted perennial; stem very slender, 3-5 dm. 
high; basal leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long; stem-leaves much shorter; empty glumes 
7-9 mm. long, awn-pointed; lemma silky-strigose, about 6 mm. long; awn about 
3 cm. long, twice bent, minutely strigulose. Hills and mountains: B.C. Wyo. 
Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 



44 POACEAE 

13. S. arida M. E. Jones. Densely tufted perennial; stem erect, about 3 
dm. high, smooth; blades 3-10 cm. long, filiform, involute, smooth; panicle nar- 
row, 1-1.5 dm. long; lower branches in 5's, short; empty glumes lanceolate, 
acuminate, 8-10 mm. long; lemma 4 mm. long, glabrous above, short-pubescent 
below; awn 3-5 cm. long, slender, glabrous, only slightly bent. Dry hillsides: 
Utah Colo. Son. Submont. My-Je. 

14. S. Nelsonii Scribn. Tufted perennial; stem stout, 7-9 dm. high, smooth; 
leaf -blades 1-3 dm. long, those of the innovations narrow and involute; stem- 
leaves 2-4 mm. wide and often flat; panicle 1.5-3 cm. long; first glume 9-10 mm. 
long, 3-nerved; second glume slightly longer, 5-nerved; lemma 7 mm. long, 
almost cylindric, silky-strigose ; awn about 3.5 cm. long, minutely scabrous. 
Plains, hills, and canons: Sask. Colo. Utah Ida. Alta. Submont. Mont. 
Jl-Au. 

15. S. minor (Vasey) Scribn. Densely tufted perennial; stem smooth, 3-6 
dm. high; leaf -blades 1-3 dm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, usually strongly involute, 
scabrous on the margin; panicle purplish, 5-12 cm. long; empty glumes faintly 
3-nerved near the base; lemma thinly strigose; awn minutely scabrous, about 
2 cm. long. Mountain sides: Mont. N.M. Utah. Submont. Subalp. 

16. S. Vaseyi Scribn. Densely tufted perennial; stem 1-2 m. high, stout, 
often 1 cm. thick below; sheaths usually broad and loose, hairy at the junction 
of the blades; blades of stem-leaves usually flat, 3-6 dm. long, scabrous, those of 
the innovations narrower, involute; panicle 2.5-4 dm. long, dense; empty glumes 
nearly equal, lanceolate, about 1 cm. long, acuminate; lemma about 8 mm. long, 
silky-strigose; awn 2.5-3 cm. long, minutely scabrous. Hills and mountain 
sides: Tex. Colo. Ida.; Mex. Son. -Mont. My-Au. 

17. S. Williamsii Scribn. Tufted perennial; stem 7-9 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 1.5-3 dm. long, pubescent on the back, scabrous above; empty glumes 
lanceolate, long-acuminate, 6-8 mm. long; lemma about 6 mm. long, finely 
strigose; awn about 2.5 cm. long, minutely scabrous. Dry soil: Wyo. Mont. 
Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

18. S. Elmeri Piper & Brodie. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, 
glabrous or somewhat pubescent; lower leaf -blades slender and involute, those of 
the stem broader, often flat, 5-15 cm. long; inflorescence 1-2 dm. long; empty 
glumes 10^-12 mm. long, acuminate, hyaline, 3-nerved; lemma about 7 mm. long,, 
finely strigose; awn 3-3.5 cm. long, sub-plumose up to the second bend. 
Meadows and fields: Wash. Wyo. s Calif. Sub-monk Je-Au. 

19. S. oregonensis Scribn. Tufted perennial; stem 3-5 dm. high, glabrous; 
uppermost sheath loose, enclosing the base of the panicle; basal leaf -blades in- 
volute-filiform, 1-2 dm. long; upper stem-leaves 4-6 cm. long; panicle 8-16 cm. 
long, narrow; outer glumes narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 3-nerved, 10 mm. 
long; lemma 7-8 mm. long, thinly pubescent; awn 2.5-3.5 cm. long, sub-plumose 
on the lower half. S. stricta Vasey, not Lam. S. occidentalis Piper, not Thurb. 
Ridges and bench-lands: Wash. Wyo. Calif. Submont. Jl-S. 

20. S. Thurberiana Piper. Tufted perennial; stem 3-10 dm. high, some- 
times tinged with purple, scabrous or puberulent, often pubescent at the nodes; 
sheaths close, usually puberulent; blades 1-2 dm. long, or the upper shorter, 
involute; panicle 7-15 cm. long, with the base often included; first glume 1 cm. 
long, 5-nerved, the second shorter, 3-nerved; lemma 6-7 mm. long, strigose; awn 
3-4 cm. long, plumose below the bend. Dry plains: Wash. Ida. -Nev. Calif. 
Submont. Son. Je-Jl. 

21. S. speciosa Trin. & Rup. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high; lower 
sheaths more or less pubescent, the upper glabrous and loose; lower leaf-blades 
1-3 dm. long, usually involute; panicle 1.5-2 dm. long, included below; empty 
glumes hyaline, long-acuminate; lemma J.0-12 mm. long, pubescent; awn 4-5 
cm. long, long-plumose below, glabrous above, with a single bend. Hills: 
Calif. Utah Ariz.; Mex. Son. My-Jl. 



GRASS FAMILY 45 

19. ORYZOPSIS Michx. MOUNTAIN RICE. 

Tufted perennials. Inflorescence paniculate with racemose branches. 
Spikelets 1-flowered, broad; flowers perfect. Empty glumes subequal, acute. 
Lemma broad, indurate, convolute, with a short and obtuse callus at the base, 
ending in a terminal, early deciduous, mostly straight awn. Styles distinct: 
stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free. 

Lemma glabrous, or pubescent with short appressed hairs. 

Spikelets, exclusive of the awn, 2.5-5 mm. long; leaves slender and involute. 

Awn less than 2 mm. long, much shorter than the glume; outer glumes 3-4 mm. 

long. 1. O. pungens. 

Awn 4-8 mm. long, much longer than the glume. 

Inflorescence very narrow, with short erect branches ; outer glumes 3-5 mm. 

long. 2. O. exigua. 

Inflorescence at length open, with long spreading or reflexed branches ; outer 
glume about 2.5 mm. long. 3. O. micrantha. 

Spikelets, exclusive of the awn, 6-8 mm. long; leaves broad and usually flat. 

4. O. asperifolia. 
Lemma with long loose hairs. 

Inflorescence open; plant 3-6 dm. high. 5. O. Bloomeri. 

Inflorescence narrow and spike-like; plant 1-3 dm. high. 6. O. Webberi. 

1. O. pungens (Torr.) Hitchc. Tufted perennial; stem glabrous, 1.5-3 dm. 
tall, simple; sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth; leaf-blades smooth or 
scabrous, the lower 1-2 dm. long, the upper 3-10 cm. long; panicle 3-6 cm. long; 
branches erect or ascending; spikelets 3-4 mm. long; empty glumes glabrous, 
whitish, faintly nerved, acute; lemma strigose, ellipsoid. 0. canadensis Torr. 
O. juncea B.S.P. Dry rocky places: Que. Pa. S.D. B.C. Boreal Mont. 
My-Je. 

2. O. exigua Thurb. Densely tufted perennial; stem 1.5-4 dm. high; 
panicle 2-6 cm. long; empty glumes 4-5 mm. long, acute or abruptly acuminate, 
the first 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved; lemma sparingly strigose; awn slightly 
twisted below, 4-6 mm. long. Hills and mountain sides: Mont. Colo. Ore. 
Wash. Mont.Subalp. Je-Au. 

3. O. micrantha (Trin. & Rup.) Thurb. Somewhat tufted perennial; stem 
glabrous, 3-7 dm. tall, slender; leaf-blades erect, scabrous, less than 1 mm. wide, 
usually involute, the lower 2-3 dm. long; panicle 8-15 cm. long; empty glumes 
2-2.5 mm. long, glabrous, acute; lemma a little shorter, glabrous, shining; awn 
6-8 mm. long. Hillsides and among bushes: Sask. Neb. N.M. Ariz. 
Mont. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

4. O. asperifolia Michx. Tufted perennial; stem 3-5 dm. high, simple, 
usually scabrous; leaf -blades erect, scabrous, 1-4 dm. long, 4-10 mm. wide; 
panicle 5-8 cm. long, narrow, spike-like; empty glumes glabrous, 6-8 mm. long, 
many-nerved, apiculate; lemma whitish, sparingly hairy, except a ring of dense 
hairs at the base; awn 7-10 mm. long. Woods: N.S. Pa. Minn. N.M. 
B.C. Mont. My-Je. 

5. O. Bloomeri (Bolander) Ricker. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, 
glabrous; leaf-blades involute, 1-2 dm. long; panicle 1-2 dm. long, open but 
rather narrow; empty glumes dull green, tinged with purple, 6-7 mm. long, 
acuminate; lemma 5 mm. long, clothed with spreading or ascending long white 
hairs; awn twisted and bent, about 2 cm. long. 0. caduca (Scribn.) Beal. Erio- 
coma caduca Rydb. Hills: Mont. Colo. Calif. Submont. Jl. 

6. O. Webber! (Thurb.) Benth. Densely tufted perennial; stem 1-3 dm. 
high, wiry; lower sheaths crowded, glabrous; leaf-blades very narrow, stiff, in- 
volute, the lower 5-10 cm. long, glaucous; panicle dense and spike-like, 2-10 
cm. long; branches short and erect; empty glumes 8 mm. long, acuminate, often 
purple- tinged ; lemma 6 mm. long, copiously long-hairy; awn 4 mm. long, very 
slender, soon caducous. Arid regions: Calif. Colo. Son. My-Jl. 

20. ERIOCOMA Nutt. INDIAN MILLET, 'WiLD RICE. 
Densely tufted perennials with involute leaves. Inflorescence cymosely 
and divaricately branched. Spikelets 1-flowered; flower perfect. Empty glumes 
2, membranous, somewhat scarious, acuminate. Lemma rather broad, indurate 



46 POACEAE 

and convolute, densely pubescent with silky hairs, with an obtuse callus at the 
base, and a deciduous straight awn at the apex. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 
Grain oblong, free, enclosed in the lemma. 

1. E. hymenoides (R. & S.) Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high, erect, rigid, smooth; 
leaf-blades 1.5-3 dm. long, involute, less than 2 mm. wide; panicle 1.5-3 dm. 
long; branches spreading, flexuose; lower glumes 6-8 mm. long, long-acuminate, 
with somewhat spreading tips; lemma 4 mm. long, broadly ellipsoid, densely 
pubescent with white hairs. Eriocoma cuspidata Nutt. Bad lands and sandy 
places: Sask. Kans. Tex. Calif. Wash.; Mex. Plain Mont. My-Jl. 

21. MUHLENBERGIA Schreb. 

Perennials or annuals. Inflorescence a narrow contracted or open diffuse 
panicle. Spikelets 1-flowered; flower perfect. Empty glumes 2, membranous 
or hyaline, persistent, keeled, acute to short-awned, the second sometimes 3- 
toothed. Lemma somewhat rigid, enclosing the palet, entire or 2-tpothed at the 
apex, obtuse, acute, or awned. Stamens usually 3. Styles distinct; stigmas 
plumose. 

Panicle contracted, narrow, spike-like, the short branches rarely spreading. 

Empty glumes awl-shaped ; leafy and branched plants, with long rootstocks covered 

by imbricated scales. 
Lemma not awned; basal hairs not equalling the lemma. 

Empty glumes about equalling the lemma in length, sharp-pointed, about 3 

mm. long. 1. M. mexicana. 

Empty glumes exceeding the lemma, generally twice as long, awned, about 

5 mm. long. 2. M. racemosa. 

Lemma distinctly awned; basal hairs equalling the lemma. 3. M. comata. 
Empty glumes lanceolate to ovate. 

Second glume not toothed or slightly so. 

Lemma awnless 01 rarely very short-awned. 

Empty glumes more than half as long as the lemma. 

Plant 1.57 dm. high; sheaths close; empty glumes acuminate, lance- 
olate. 
Lemma scabrous, green or dark. 

Panicle dense, obtuse, 5-10 mm. wide. 4. M. Wrightii. 

Panicle slender and lax, attenuate at the apex, less than 5 mm. 

wide. 5. M. cuspidata. 

Lemma more or less purplish, sparingly long-hairy. 

6. M. Thurberi. 
Plant less than 1.2 dm. high; sheaths loose; lower leaves lanceolate, 

short, squarrose; empty glumes ovate, acute. 7. M. squarrosa. 
Empty glumes less than half as long asf the lemma, obtuse or abruptly 

acute. 

Spikelets (excluding the awn if present) 1.5 mm. or more long. 
Plant with a strong perennial, scaly rootstock. 

Empt\ glumes less than one-fourth as long as the lemma; stem 
diffuse, decumbent or creeping; plant not tufted. 

8. M. Schrebcri. 
Empty ghimes one-third as long as the lemma or longer; stem 

erect or decumbent at the base only; plant tufted. 

9. M. Richardsonis. 
Plant annual ; rootstock, if any, very slender. 

Lemma merelj awn-pointed, decidedly purplish; plant 1-2 dm. 

high. 
Spikelets 2 mm. long or more; inflorescence short and rather 

dense; stem 0.5-1 mm. thick. 10. M. simplex. 

Spikelets about 1.5 mm. long; inflorescence slender and lax; 

stem very slsnder, filiform. 11. M. filiformis. 

Lemma with a distinct awn 0.5-1 mm. long, greenish; plant 

4-6 cm. high. 12. M. aristata. 

Spikelets about 1 mm. long; plant less than 4 cm. high, annual. 

13. M. Wolfii. 
Lemma long-awned. 

Leaf-blades erect, glabrous or minutely scabrous; stem and sheaths glab- 
rous. 

Lemma glabrous; rootstock short and woody. 14. M. pauciflora. 
Lemma pubescent on the lower half; rootstock slender, creeping, 

branched. 15. M. polycaulis. 

Leaf-blades spreading, as well at the stem below the nodes and the sheaths 
scabrous-puberulent ; lemma pubescent on the lower half; rootstock 
creeping. 16. M. curtifolia. 

Second glume sharply 3-5-toothed; flowering glume long-awned; awn at least 

one-half as long as the glume. 

Stem 3-6 dm. high, leafy; panicle 7-12 cm. long; awn 8-15 mm. long. 

17. M. gracilis. 



GRASS FAMILY 47 

Stem 1-3 dm. high, almost naked above ; panicle 3-7 cm. long; awn 1-4 mm. long. 
Spikelets 3-4 mm. long; awn 2-4 mm.; leaf-blades usually stiff. 

18. M. subalpina. 
Spikelets about 2 mm. long; awn 1-2 mm.; leaf-blades filiform. 

19. M. filiculmis. 
Panicle open, its branches long and spreading. 

Plants densely cespitose, branched onlj at the base. 

Secondary branches of the panicle single; basal leaves short, strongly recurved. 

20. M. gracillima. 
Secondary branches of the panicle fascicled; basal leaves not recurved. 

21. M, pungens. 
Plants diffusely branched, prostrate. 22. M. Porteri. 

1. M. mexicana (L.) Trin. Perennial; stem decumbent, prostrate, or erect, 
smooth, branched and very leafy; leaf-blades scabrous, 4-15 cm. long, 2-6 
mm. wide; panicle 5-15 cm. long; spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long; empty glumes some- 
what unequal, scabrous on the keel. Wet meadows and swamps: N.B. N.C. 
Tex. Colo. Wyo. N.D. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

2. M. racemosa (Michx.) B.S.P. Perennial; stem erect, 3-10 dm. high, 
branched, smooth; leaf -blades 5-12 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 
5-10 cm. long, dense, usually interrupted; branches 1-2.5 cm. long, erect; spike- 
lets much crowded; lemma one-half to two-thirds as long as the empty glumes, 
acuminate to awn-pointed. M. glomerata Torr. Wet places: Newf. N.J. 
Mo. N.M. Utah B.C. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

3. M. comata (Thurb.) Benth. Perennial; stem 3-7 dm. high, erect, smooth; 
leaf -blades 5-12 cm. long, erect, flat, scabrous; panicle often tinged with purple, 
5-10 cm. long, dense, 1-1.5 cm. thick; empty glumes equal or the second a little 
longer, 2.5-3 mm. long; lemma a little shorter; awn 6-10 mm. long. Prairies 
and river valleys: Mont. Colo. Calif. Wash. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

4. M. Wrightii Vasey. Somewhat tufted perennial, with short rootstock; 
stem erect or decumbent at the base, 3-7 dm. high, somewhat compressed; leaf- 
blades 6-15 cm. long, scabrous above, about 2 mm. wide; panicle cylindric, more 
or less interrupted; outer glumes nearly equal, 2 mm. long, thin, ovate or lanceo- 
late, awn-pointed; lemma a little longer, tipped with a short awn. Mountains: 
N.M. Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Submont. Jl-S. 

5. M. cuspidata (Torr.) Rydb. Somewhat tufted perennial, occasionally 
with elongated scaly rootstocks; stem slender, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous; leaf- 
blades 2.5-10 cm. long, less than 2 mm. wide, involute-setaceous at least when 
dry; panicle 4-12 cm. long; empty glumes about 2 mm. long, scabrous on the 
keel; flowering glume long-acuminate, about 3 mm. long. Sporobolus brevifolius 
(Nutt.) Scribn. Dry soil: Man. Mo. Colo. Alta. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

6. M. Thurberi (Scribn.) Rydb. Tufted perennial with a scaly rootstock; 
stems 1.5-3 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-3 cm. long, strongly involute, the lower 
more or less spreading; panicle 2-5 cm. long, 2-3 mm. thick; empty glumes 
equal, 1-nerved, lanceolate, 3 mm. long, usually purplish; lemma lanceolate, 
cuspidate, 3-nerved, 4-4.5 mm. long. Sporobolus filiculmis Vasey, not Dewey. 
S. Thurberi Scribn. Dry places and canons: Tex. Colo. N.M. Son. Sub- 
mont. Jl-S. 

7. M. squarrosa (Trin.) Rydb. Tufted perennial; stems less than 1 dm. 
high, decumbent at the base, glabrous and almost smooth; leaf-blades scarcely 
1 cm. long; panicle 1-2 cm. long, narrow and rather f ew-flowered ; empty glumes 
1-1.5 mm. long, 1-nerved, straw-colored; lemma lanceolate, acute, 1.5-2 mm. 
long. Sporobolus depauperatus (Torr.) Scribn. Dry, sandy or alkali soil: Wash. 
Mont. Wyo. Calif. Son. -Submont. Jl-Au. 

8. M. Schreberi Gmel. Perennial, with a creeping, scaly rootstock; stem 
3-9 dm. long; leaf -blades 3-9 cm. long, scabrous; panicle 5-20 cm. long, 2-5 
mm. thick, lax; empty glumes small, the first often \vanting; lemma without the 
awn about 2 mm. long, strongly scabrous; awn 1-4 mm. long. M . diffusa Willd. 
Dry hills and woods : Me. Fla. Tex. w Neb. Minn. Boreal Plain. Au-S. 

9. M. Richardsonis (Trin.) Rydb. More or less tufted perennial, with a 
strong rootstock; stem 1-4.5 dm. high, erect or decumbent at the base, slender, 
smooth; leaves 1-5 cm. long, usually involute; panicle 1-7 cm. long, 2-4 mm. 



48 POACEAE 

thick; empty glumes ovate, obtuse, or abruptly acute, about 1 mm. long; lemma 
2.5-3 mm. long, long-acuminate. Vilfa Richardsonis Trin. Prairies and meadows : 
Que. Me. N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainMont. Je-S. 

10. M. simplex (Scribn.) Rydb. Cespitose leafy annual; stem 5-15 cm. high, 
smooth, with short lower internodes; leaf-blades 1-4 cm. long, 1-2 mm. broad, 
scabrous on the margins and nerves above; panicle 2-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. thick; 
empty glumes less than 1 mm. long, ovate, obtuse or truncate; lemma 3-nerved, 
mucronate, scabrous above, 2-2.3 mm. long. Sporobolus simplex Scribn. Wet 
places: Neb. N.M. Mont. PlainMont. Au-S. 

11. M. filiformis (Thurb.) Rydb. Cespitose annual; stem 7-30 cm. high, 
.slender, filiform, glabrous; leaf-blades 1-2 cm. long, 0.5 mm. wide or less, usually 
flat, scabrous above; panicle long-exserted, narrow, lax, 2-10 cm. long, more than 
"2 mm. thick; empty glumes less than 1 mm. long, ovate, obtuse, 1-nerved, mucron- 
ate; lemma 2 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate. Vilfa depauperata filiformis 
Thurb. V. gracillima Thurb. Wet places: Mont, Colo. Calif. B.C. Siib- 
mont. Subalp. My-Au. 

12. M. aristata Rydb. Cespitose annual; stems usually only 4-6 cm. high; 
leaf-blades 8-14 mm. long, and about 1 mm. wide; panicle few-flowered, very 
narrow, with short erect branches; empty glumes 1-1.25 mm. long, ovate, 
acutish or obtuse and somewhat erose at the apex; lemma about 2.5 mm. long, 
strongly veined. Sporobolus aristatus Rydb. Wet places: Utah Wyo. -Colo. 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

13. M. Wolfii (Vssey) Rydb. Cespitose annual; stem 2-5 cm. high; lower 
sheaths inflated, glabrous; leaf-blades rarely over 1 cm. long, strongly nerved; 
panicle spike-like, about 1 cm. long, scarcely 2 mm. thick, lax; empty glumes 
ovate, about 0.5 mm. long; lemma ovate, acute, about 1 mm. long. Sporobolus 
Wolfii Vasey. Wet places: Colo. Ariz. Mont. Subalp. 

14. M. pauciflora Buckl. Perennial; stems tufted, wiry, erect, 3-5 dm. 
high, scabrous, leafy; leaf -blades narrow, involute, 5-15 cm. long, minutely 
scabrous; panicle 10-15 cm. long; spikelets nearly sessile; empty glumes sub- 
equal, lanceolate, usually awn-pointed, 2 mm. long; lemma 3-nerved, lanceolate, 
acuminate, 3-4 mm. long, scabrous on the keel; awn 8-12 mm. long. Rocky 
hills: Tex. Colo. Utah Mex. -Son. My-S. 

15. M. polycaulis Scribn. Perennial, fasciculate-branched at the base; 
stems ascending or erect, leafy, glabrous or minutely scabrous; leaf-blades erect, 
2-6 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, often involute; panicle 5-10 cm. long, narrow; 
rachis scabrous, triangular; pedicels scabrous, short; empty glumes subequal, 
broadly lanceolate, acute or awn-pointed; lemma broadly lanceolate; awn 1-2.5 
cm. long. Dry ledges and in canons: Tex. se Utah Mex. Son. Au-S. 

16. M. curtifolia Scribn. Perennial, fasciculate-branched at the base; 
leaf -blades 1-2.5 cm. long, 2 mm. wide or less, pungent at the end; panicle nar- 
row, 4-8 cm. long; branches erect; rachis triangular or compressed, scabrous; 
empty glumes lanceolate, acute, subequal, 2.5 mm. long, scabrous along the 
keel; lemma broadly lanceolate; awn scabrous, 1-3 mm. long. Canons: 
s Utah. Son. Au. 

17. M. gracilis (H.B.K.) Trin. Tufted perennial; stems 3-6 dm. high, 
erect; leaf-blades often convolute, 5-20 cm. long; panicle narrow but rather 
loose; branches erect, flowering to the base; empty glumes unequal, the first 2 
mm. long, 1-nerved, acute; lemma without the awn about 4 mm. long, scabrous 
on the back, ciliate on the margins. M. trifida Woot. & Standl., not Hack. 
Mountains: Tex. -Colo. Calif.; Mex. Son. Mont. Je-S. 

18. M. subalpina Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem erect, 1-3 dm. high; 
leaf -blades usually involute, 2-7 cm. long; panicle narrow, dense; branches erect, 
less than 1 cm. long; first empty glume about 2 mm. long, acute, 1-nerved, awn- 
pointed; lemma 3-3.5 mm. long. M. gracilis breviaristata Vasey. Dry ridges: 
Wyo. N.M. Mont. Submont. Jl-Au. 

19. M. filiculmis Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem erect, filiform, 1-2.5 dm. 
high, leafy at the base; leaf -blades filiform, 2-4 cm. long, involute; panicle spike- 



GRASS FAMILY 49 

like, 2-5 cm. long; branches short, erect; first empty glume thin, ovate, acute, 1.5 
mm. long, the second slightly longer; lemma lanceolate, sparsely pubescent 
below, 2 mm. long. Mountains: Colo. Mont. Jl-Au. 

20. M. gracillima Torr Cespitose perennial; stems 1-4 dm. high, erect, 
or decumbent at the base; leaves mostly basal; leaf-blades involute-setaceous, 
somewhat scabrous; panicle 5-20 cm. long, open; empty glumes unequal, the 
first about 1.5 mm., the second 2 mm. long, awn-pointed; lemma 2.5-3 mm. 
long, scabrous; awn 2-4 mm. long. RING GRASS. Plains and foot-hills : Tex. 
Kans. Colo. N.M. PlainMont. Jl-O. 

21. M. pungens Thurb. Perennial, with a cespitose, creeping rootstock; 
stems decumbent at the base, 1.5-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 2.5-5 cm. long, involute, 
rigid, scabrous; panicle 7-15 cm. long, open, its branches 5-7 cm. long; outer 
glumes 2-2.5 mm. long, purplish, scabrous; lemma 3-4 mm. long, scabrous; awn 
short. PURPLE HAIR-GRASS, BLOW-OUT GRASS. Sand hills and bad-lands : Tex. 
'Neb. 'Utah Ariz. Plain 'Mont. Jl-Au. 

22. M. Porteri Scribn. Cespitose perennial; stems geniculate, decumbent, 
branching; leaf -blades usually flat, 3-5 cm. long, about 6 mm. wide, acuminate, 
scabrous above; panicle 7-10 cm. long, about 5 cm. wide; empty glumes narrowly 
lanceolate, 2-2.5 mm. long, purplish; lemma without the awn 3.5-4 mm. long, 
purple, pilose; awn 5-10 mm. long. M. texana Thurb., not Buckley. MES- 
QUITE GRASS. Hills and plains: Tex. Colo. Calif.; Mex. Son. Au-0. 

22. LYCURUS H.B.K. TEXAS TIMOTHY. 

Cespitose perennials. Panicle dense, spike-like. Spikelets 1-flowered, usually 
in pairs. Empty glumes 2, often awned, 3-nerved. Lemma 3-nerved, awned. 
Palet smaller, 2-nerved and 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short; 
stigmas plumose. Grain free, included in the lemma. 

1. L. phleoides H.B.K. Tufted perennial; stems decumbent at the base, 
2-5 dm. high, compressed; leaf-blades scabrous above, 4-7 cm. long, 3 mm. wide] 
spike cylihdric, dense, 4-10 cm. long, 5-8 mm. thick; first glume 1.5 mm. long, 
with 2 awns, 2-3 mm. long; second glume with an awn 4 mm. long; lemma lance- 
elliptic, 3 mm. long, pubescent on the back; awn 2-3 mm. long. Hills: Tex. 
Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son. -Submont. Au O. 

23. PHLEUM L. TIMOTHY. 

Annuals or perennials. Inflorescence a dense spike-like panicle. Spikelets 
1-flowered, compressed; flower perfect. Empty glumes 2, persistent, compressed, 
keeled, oblique at the summit, awned. Lemma shorter, membranous, truncate, 
denticulate. Styles distinct, long; stigmas sub-plumose. Grain free. 

Spikes usually elongated-cylindric; awns less than one-half the length of the outer glumes. 

1. P. pratense. 
Spikes short, ovoid or oblong; awns about one-half the length of the outer glumes. 

2. P. alpinum. 

P. pratense L. Short-lived perennial, with a bulbiform thickened base; 
stem erect, glabrous and smooth, 3-15 dm. high; sheaths often exceeding the 
internodes, the upper long and close; leaf-blades 7-20 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, 
usually somewhat scabrous; spike 3-20 cm. long, 5-8 mm. thick; outer glumes 
3-4 mm. long, ciliate on the keel; awns about 1 mm. long. Meadows; native but 
also often escaped from cultivation: N.S. Fla. -Calif. B.C.; Eurasia. Plain 
Subalp. Je-O. 

2. P. alpinum L. Short-lived perennial; stem 1-5 dm. high, erect or some- 
times decumbent at the base, smooth; sheaths often shorter than the internodes, 
the upper usually inflated; leaf-blades scabrous above, 2-7 cm. long, 3-8 mm. 
wide; spike 1-5 cm. long, 6-12 mm. thick; outer glumes 3 mm. long, strongly 
ciliate on the keel; awns 1.5-2 mm. long. Wet places: Lab. N.H. S.D. 
N.M. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Mont. Alp. Je-S. 



50 POACEAE 

24. ALOPECtTRUS L. FOXTAIL. 

Annuals or perennials. Inflorescence a cylindric dense spike-like panicle. 
Spikelets articulate under the empty glumes, 1-flowered, compressed; flower per- 
fect. Empty glumes 2, acute, sometimes short-awned, more or less united at 
the base, compressed-keeled. Lemma hyaline, obtuse, with a dorsal awn or 
point, their margins usually more or less united at the base. Styles distinct or 
nearly so; stigmas long, sub-plumose. 

Awn about twice as long as the lemma. 

Spikes 8-12 mm. thick; empty glumes 3.5-4.5 mm. long, abruptly acuminate. 

1. A. occidental*!. 
Spike about 5 mm. thick; empty glumes about 3 mm. long, obtuse. 

Stem erect, 3-5 dm. high, slightly if at all geniculate at the base, pale; ligulei 

4-5 mm. long, acutish. 2. A. pallescens. 

Stem decumbent, and geniculate at the base, 1-1.5 dm. high; ligules 2 mm. long, 

obtuse. 3. A. Macounii. 

Awn scarcely exceeding the lemma. 

Stem erect, 1.55 dm. high; spike cylindric, obtuse. 4. A. aristulatus. 

Stem geniculate at the base, 1-5 cm. high; spike oblong, acute. 5. A. caespitosus. 

1. A. occidentalis Scribn. & Tweedy. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 
erect, 2-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 4-7 mm. wide, flat, jscabrous on 
the veins above; spike 2-3 cm. long; empty glumes equalling or slightly exceed- 
ing the obtuse lemma, which is scabrous and ciliate near the tips; awn 6 mm. long, 
twisted below, bent at the middle, attached near the base of the glume. Wet 
meadows: Alta. Colo. Utah Ida. Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

2. A. pallescens Piper. Somewhat tufted perennial, pale green; blades 
flat, 6-12 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, strongly scabrous above; spike exserted, pale, 
2-7 cm. long; empty glumes strongly ciliate on the keel, obtuse; lemma as long 
as the empty glumes, obtuse; awn nearly basal, about 5 mm. long. Wet mead- 
ows: Wash. Mont. Ida. Submont. My-Je. 

3. A. Macounii Vasey. Somewhat cespitose perennial; blades 1-5 cm. 
long; spike 1-3 cm. long, 5 mm. thick; empty glumes ciliate on the keel, smooth 
on the sides, obtuse; lemma slightly shorter, glabrous, ovate-oblong, obtuse; 
awn nearly basal, bent at the middle, 6-8 mm. long. A. geniculatus caespitosus 
Scribn. Rocky places: Sask. B.C. Boreal Mont. My-Je. 

4. A. aristulatus Michx. Somewhat tufted perennial; leaf-blades 5-15 
cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, scabrous, especially above; spike 3-8 cm. long, 4-6 mm. 
thick; outer glumes 2-2.5 mm. long, acutish; lemma somewhat shorter, obtuse, 
glabrous; awn inserted at or near the middle. A. geniculatus Am. auth., not L. 
A. fulvus Am. auth., not Smith. Wet meadows: Me. Pa. Calif. Alaska. 
Plain Subalp. Je-S. 

5. A. caespitosus Trin. Cespitose perennial; leaf -blades flat, less than 2 
cm. long, 1 mm. wide; spike 0.5-1 .5 cm. long, 3-4 mm. thick, acute; outer glumes 
2 mm. long, acutish; lemma nearly as long, obtuse; awn inserted near the base. 
[Perhaps a depauperate form of the preceding.] Wet places : Canadian Rockies 
N. W. Coast. 

25. PHIPPSIA R. Br. 

Tufted annuals. Inflorescence a narrow panicle. Spikelets 1-flowered; 
flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, minute, or the first one wanting. Lemma 
thin-membranous, keeled. Palet shorter, 2-keeled. Stamens 1, rarely more. 
Styles short, distinct; stigmas short-plumose. Grain enclosed in the lemma and 
the palet, which splits and lets it drop. 

1. P. algida (Solander) R. Br. Stems 2-10 cm. high, erect or ascending; 
sheaths short, loose; leaf-blades 1-2 cm. long, 0.5-2 mm. wide, obtuse; panicle 
0.5-3.5 cm. long, narrow; spikelets 11.5 mm. long; empty glumes minute or the 
first one wanting; lemma thin, 1-nerved, obtuse or truncate and somewhat 
erose. Arctic-alpine situations: Greenl. Alaska; Colo.; arctic Eurasia. Alp, 
Jl-Au. 

26. BLEPHARONEURON Nash. 

Tufted perennials. Panicles open, loosely flowered. Spikelets 1-flowered. 
Empty glumes membranous, 1-nerved, smooth, the first shorter and narrower 



GRASS FAMILY 51 

than the second. Lemma 3-nerved, the nerves densely pilose with long silky 
hairs; midnerve usually excurrent into a short awn. Palet as long as the lemma, 
2-nerved, densely pilose between the nerves. Stamens 3. Styles distinct; 
stigmas plumose. 

1. B. tricholepis (Torr.) Nash. Stem often purplish, glabrous, 3-10 dm. 
high; leaf-blades involute, 5-15 cm. long; panicle oblong, open, 1-1.5 dm. long; 
spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long; empty glumes oblong, obtuse, nearly equal. Spor- 
obolus tricholepis Torr. Mountain valleys: Tex. Colo. Utah Ariz.; Mex. 
Submont. Subalp. Jl-N. 

27. SPOROBOLUS R. Br. DROP-SEED, RUSH-GRASS. 

Perennials or rarely annuals. Inflorescence a panicle, either open or narrow 
and spike-like. Spikelets usually 1-flowered; flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, 
the first shorter than the second. Lemma usually longer than the second glume. 
Palet 2-nerved, often deeply 2-cleft, about equalling the lemma. Stamens 2 or 
3. Styles short, distinct; stigmas plumose. Grain free from the lemma and 
readily dropping off. 
Perennials. 

First glume one-half as long as the second or less; plants not with long, scaly root- 
stocks. 

Branches of the panicle verticillate. 1. S. qrgutus. 

Branches of the panicle scattered. 

Spikelets about 2 mm. long; first glume lanceolate. 

Sheath naked or sparingly ciliate at the throat: empty glumes glabrous. 
Plant 3 dm. high or less; spikelets long-pedicelled ; sheaths sparingly 

villous. 9. S. texanus. 

Plant 5-10 dm. high; spikelets short-pedicelled ; sheaths glabrous. 

2. S. airoides. 

Sheath with a conspicuous tuft of hairs at the throat ; empty glumes scab- 
rous on the keel. 
Leaf-blades widely spreading, involute; sheath pubescent with long 

hairs, at least towards the base. 3. S. Nealleyi. 

Leaf-blades not widely spreading; sheaths glabrous, except the apex, 

and slightly on the margins. 

Panicle narrow and spike-like. 4. S. strictus. 

Panicle not spike-like. 

Panicle always exserted, oblong, comparatively narrow; its 
lower branches but little, if any, exceeding the upper ones. 

5. S. flexuosus. 

Panicle usually more or less included in the sheath; its lower 
branches much exceeding the upper ones. 6. S. cryptandrus. 
Spikelets 4.5-5 mm. long; first glume subulate, usually awned. 

7. S. heterolepis. 
First glume almost equalling the second; plants with long, scaly rootstocks. 

8. S. asperifolius. 
Annuals; empty glumes almost equal, ovate. 10. S. confusus. 

1 S. argutus (Nees) Kunth. Tufted perennial; stem 1-4 dm. high, erect or 
decumbent at the base; leaf-blades 2.5-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, often sparingly 
hairy at the base; panicle-branches 1-2.5 cm. long; spikelets 1.5 mm. long. 
Plains: Tex. Kans. Colo. Mex.; W. Ind., C. Am. and S. Am. Son. Ap.-O.; 
in the tropics the year around. 

2. S. airoides Torr. Densely tufted perennial; stem 5-10 dm. high, erect; 
leaf -blades sometimes sparingly hairy at the base, 1-3 mm. wide, involute, 
5-35 cm. long; panicle 1-4 dm. long, its branches at length widely spreading; 
spikelets 1.5-2 mm. long; glumes acute, glabrous. Dry plains and river valleys : 
Tex. Mo. Mont. Calif. PlainSubmont. Au-S. 

3. S. Nealleyi Vasey. Tufted perennial; stems 3-4 dm. high, rigid ; leaf-blades 
2.5-3.5 cm. long, rigid, light-green, spreading, involute; panicle open, branches 
ascending; spikelets 1.5 mm. long; lower empty glume lance-subulate; second 
glume and the lemma lanceolate and acute. Dry ground: Tex. Colo. Son. 
Jl-S. 

4. S. strictus (Scribn.) Merr. Tufted perennial; stem strict, 5-10 dm. high, 
glabrous; blades 5-20 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, mostly flat, glabrous; panicle 
1-2 dm. long, the base included in the upper sheaths; flowers pale or green, 
shining; empty glumes lanceolate, 2-2.5 mm. long, acute, smooth. River bot- 
toms: Tex. Utah -Ariz. Son. Je-O. 



52 POACEAE 

5. S. flexuosus (Thurb.) Rydb. Tufted perennial; stem 3-8 dm. high; 
leaf -blades 5-20 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, usually flat, somewhat scabrous above; 
inflorescence 2-4 dm. long; branches 3-6 cm. long, spreading or reflexed; spike- 
lets about 2 mm. long, usually lead-colored; empty glumes lanceolate, somewhat 
scabrous. Sandy soil: Tex. Nev. Ariz.; Mex. Son. Jl-S. 

6. S. cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray. More or less tufted perennial; stem 4- 
10 dm. long, erect, glabrous; leaf-blades 7-15 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat, gjab- 
rous beneath, scabrous above; panicle 1.5-2.5 dm. long; spikelets lead-colored, 
2-2.5 mm. long; glumes scabrous on the keel. Sandy soil: Mass. Pa. Ariz. 
Wash.; Mex. Plain Submont. Au-O. 

7. S. heterolepis A. Gray. Tufted perennial; stem 3-10 dm. high, erect; 
leaf -blades involute, glabrous, with rough margins and midribs, 2-5 dm. long; 
panicle 7-25 cm. long, open, exserted; branches ascending; glumes smooth and 
glabrous, the first one subulate, 2-3 mm. long, the second lanceolate, 4-5 mm. 
long, awn-pointed; lemma obtuse or acute. Dry soil: Que. Pa. Tex. S.D. 
Sask. Plain Submont. Au-S. 

8. S. asperifolius (Nees & Meyen) Thurb. Perennial with a cespitose 
creeping rootstock; stem 1-5 dm. high, erect from a decumbent base; leaf-blades 
2.5-10 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, flat, very scabrous above; panicles 7-20 cm. long, 
usually included at the base; branches usually spreading in age; spikelets 1.5 
mm. long; glumes acute, glabrous, somewhat scabrous; lemma slightly exceeding 
them. Sandy or dry soil: Sask. Mo. Tex. Calif. B.C.; Mex. Plain Sub- 
mont. Je-S. 

9. S. texanus Vasey. Tufted perennial, otherwise resembling S. asperifolius; 
stems rigid; leaf -blades 2.5-7.5 cm. long, scabrous above; panicle half the length 
of the plant, included in the sheath below; lower glume half as long as the second 
one, which is fully as long as the lemma. Plains: Tex. Okla. s Colo. N.M. 
Son. 

10. S. confusus (Fourn.) Vasey. Tufted annual; stem 1-3 dm. high, slender, 
branched below; sheaths short, loose, glabrous; leaf-blades 1^4 cm. long, 0.5-1.5 
mm. wide; panicle open, 3-20 cm. long; branches spreading; spikelets 1-1.5 
mm. long; empty glumes shorter than the lemma, glabrous or pubescent; lemma 
pubescent. Meadows especially in sandy soil: Neb. Tex. Ariz. -Ida.; Mex. 
Son. Submont. Jl-S. 

28. POLYPOGON Desf. BEARD-GRASS. 

Annuals or rarely perennials. Inflorescence a dense, contracted, spike-like 
panicle. Spikelets articulate below the empty glumes, crowded, 1-flowered. 
Flowers perfect. Empty glumes about equal, each terminating in a slender 
awn. Lemma thin, emarginate or 2-toothed at the apex, awned or awn -pointed 
on the back. Stamens 1-3. Styles short, distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. P. monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Simple annual; stem 1-6 dm. high, erect or 
decumbent at the base; leaf -blades 4-15 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, scabrous; 
panicle 2-10 cm. long; empty glumes about 2 mm. long, bearing a more or less 
bent awn 4-6 mm. long; lemma shorter, erose-truncate, hyaline; awn 0.5 mm. 
long. Waste places: S.C. N.H. B.C. Calif.; Mex.; naturalized from Eurasia. 
Plain-Submont. Ap-Au. 

29. CINNA L. REED-GRASS. 

Tall perennials with broad flat leaves. Inflorescence a large often nodding 
panicle. Spikelets numerous, 1-flowered, articulate under the empty glumes. 
Flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, persistent, keeled, acute. Lemma similar, 
short-awned or awn-pointed just below the apex. Palet 1-nerved, keeled, the 
keel minutely ciliate. Stamen 1. Styles short, distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. C. latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. Stem 6-15 dm. high, erect; leaf-blades 1-2.5 
dm. long, 4-12 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 1-2.5 dm. long; spikelets 3 mm. long; 
empty glumes equal, acute, hispidulous on the keel; lemma somewhat shorter, 
2-toothed at the apex; awn 1-2 mm. long. Cinna pendula Trin. Damp woods: 
Newf.N.C. Utah B.C. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 



GRASS FAMILY 53 

30. AGROSTIS L. RED-TOP, BENT-GRASS, TICKLE-GRASS. 

Annuals or perennial, mostly tufted, Inflorescence paniculate. Spikelets 
numerous, small, 1-flowered, articulate above the empty glumes. Empty glumes 
2, persistent, membranous, keeled, acute, awnless. Lemma shorter, or barely 
equalling the empty glumes, thin-hyaline, awnless or awned. Palet small, thin- 
hyaline, or often wanting. Stamens usually 3. Styles short, distinct; stigmas 
plumose. 

Rachilla prolonged above the palet, naked or minutely pubescent; lemma equalling 

the empty glumes; palet nearly as long. 
Spikelets about 3 mm. long, purple; rachilla one-third to one-half as long as the flower. 

1. A. acQuivaltis. 
Spikelets about 2 mm. long; rachilla less than one-third as long as the flower. 

Empty glumes dark purple, broadly lanceolate, abruptly acute or acuminate; 

inflorescence short and open; stem few-leaved. 2. A. atrata. 

Empty glumes green, only tinged with purple towards the tip, narrowly lanceolate, 
gradually acute; inflorescence long and narrow; stem leafy. 3. A. Thurberiana. 
Rachilla not prolonged above the palet; lemma shorter than the empty glumes. 
Palet evident, 2-nerved, at least one-fourth as long as the lemma. 

Empty glumes obtuse, scabrous on the back; panicle dense; branches flower- 
bearing from the base, verticillate. 4. A. stolonifera. 
Empty glumes acute or acuminate, glabrous or scabrous on the keel only. 
Plant erect or decumbent at the base, but not extensively stoloniferous. 

Plant tall, usually over 3 dm. high; panicle large, open; spikelets over 2 

mm. long. 5. A. alba. 

Plant low, slender, 1-3 dm. high; panicle narrow; spikelets about 2 mm. 

long or less. 
Lemma nearly as long as the empty glumes; palet about two-thirds as 

long as the lemma; plant erect. 6. A. humilis. 

Lemma one-third shorter than the empty glumes; palet about one-half 
as long as the lemma; plant decumbent at the base. 

7. A. depressa. 
Plant extensively stoloniferous; stolons with short leaves; palet one-fourth to 

one-half as long as the lemma. 8. A. reptans. 

Palet lacking or minute. 

Plant with creeping rootstock. 9. A. foliosa. 

Plant tufted, without creeping rootstock. 

Panicle dense and narrow; branches ascending or erect, flower-bearing to 

near the base. 
Plant over 3 dm. high; empty glumes 2.5-3 mm. long. 

Panicle lobed or interrupted; branches densely verticillate and flower- 
bearing to the base; empty glumes narrowly lanceolate, gradually 
attenuate; ligules 4-5 mm. long, lacerate; leaf-blades 6-10 mm. 
wide. 10. A. grandis. 

Panicle usually contiguous; branches few and some naked at the base; 
empty glumes lanceolate, abruptly pointed; ligules 2-4 mm. long, 
entire or toothed; leaf-blades 2-5 mm. wide. 11. A. asperifolia. 

Plant 1-2 dm. high; empty glumes 2 mm. long or less. 

Basal leaf-blades flat, 2 mm. wide; lemma two-thirds as long as the 

empty glumes, obtuse. 12. A. Rossae. 

Basal leaf-blades 1 mm. wide or less, conduplicate ; lemma three-fourths 

as long as the empty glumes, acute. 13. A. variabilis. 

Panicle open; branches more or less spreading, or sometimes reflexed. 
Lemma awnless or with a very short awn. 

Panicle oblong-ovoid, its branches ascending. 

Plant 1-4 dm. high; empty glumes unequal, 1.52 mm. long. 

14. A. idahoensis. 
Plant 3-6 dm. high; empty glumes equal or nearly so, 3 mm. long. 

15. A. oregonensis. 
Panicle triangular-ovoid or broadly conic; branches at least in age 

divaricate or even reflexed. 
Leaf-blades filiform, 1 mm. wide or less, usually involute; the basal 

ones numerous; upper sheaths close. 16. A. oreophila. 

Leaf-blades usually flat, 1-3 mm. wide; upper sheaths loose. 

17. A. hyemalis. 

Lemma awned; awn equalling or exceeding the glume. 
Panicle open, diffuse; branches spreading or ascending. 

Leaf-blades about 0.5 mm. wide; panicle broadly conic; branches 

very scabrous, in age spreading or reflexed. 18. A. geminata. 
Leaf-blades 1-2 mm. wide; panicle ovoid; branches ascending. 

19. A. Bakeri. 
Panicle narrow; branches nearly erect. 20. A. melaleuca. 

1. A. aequivalvis Trin. Tufted perennial; stems 2-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 
erect, 4-6 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, somewhat scabrous; panicle open, 5-15 cm. 
long; empty glumes equal, acuminate, scabrous on the keel towards the end; 
lemma obtuse. Meadows: Alaska B.C. Ore.; Lab. Subalp. Je-Au. 



54 POACEAE 

2. A. atrata Rydb. A somewhat tufted perennial; stems 1.5-3 dm. high, 
few-leaved, more or less bulbous at the base; leaf -blades 5-10 cm. long, about 2 
mm. wide, flat, smooth; panicle 5-8 cm. long; empty glumes nearly equal; 
lemma nearly as long, obtusish. Mountains: B.C. Mont. Subalp. 

3. A. Thurberiana Hitchc. Tufted perennial; stem 2-4 dm. high, 
leafy; leaf -blades 5-10 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, lax, light green; panicle more or 
less drooping, 5-20 cm. long; empty glumes about 2 mm. long, narrow, gradually 
acute; lemma nearly as long, obtuse, faintly 5-nerved. Meadows: B.C. Mont. 
Utah Calif. Submont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

4. A. stolonifera L. Perennial, with a long creeping rootstock and stolons; 
stem 2-8 dm. high; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, light- or glaucous- 
green, scabrous; panicle interrupted, 3-10 cm. long; empty glumes obtuse, 
scabrous on the keel and back, 2 mm. long; lemma about half as long, awnless, 
truncate and toothed at the apex. A. verticillata Vill. Wet meadows: Tex. 
Utah Calif.; Mex., C. Am., S. Am., Eu., Africa and Asia. Son. 'Submont. F-O. 

5. A. alba L. Tufted perennial; stems 2-15 dm. high, erect or decumbent 
at the base; leaf-blades 4-15 cm. long, 3-8 mm. wide; panicle upright, 5-30 cm. 
long, with spreading branches, the lower usually verticillate; empty glumes 2-3 
mm. long, pale or purplish, nearly equal, acute; lemma two-thirds to three- 
fourths as long, obtuse, seldom awned. Wet meadows: Newf. Fla. Calif. 
B.C.; Eurasia. Plain Submont. Je-O. 

6. A. humilis Vasey. Tufted perennial; stems 1-4 dm. high, slender, 1-3- 
leaved; leaves mostly basal; leaf-blades 2-10 cm. long, 1 mm. wide or less, usually 
conduplicate; panicles 2-5 cm. long; branches ascending; empty glumes equal, 
abruptly pointed, 1.5-2 mm. long, purple; lemma nearly as long, awnless. High 
mountains: B.C. Ore. Colo. Wyo. Mont. Alp. Au-O. 

7. A. depressa Vasey. Tufted perennial; stems decumbent and geniculate 
at the base, 1.5-2.5 dm. high, slender, leafy below; leaf -blades 3-5 cm. long, 1 
mm. wide, flat; panicle narrow, 3-5 cm. long, in age open; empty glumes 2 mm. 
long, acute; lemma obtuse or minutely dentate at the apex. Mountains: Colo. 
Mont. Subalp. Jl. 

8. A. reptans Rydb. Cespitose and stoloniferous perennial; stems 2-3 dm. 
long; leaves 2-6 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, flat; panicle 3-5 cm. long; branches 
ascending, flower-bearing to near the base; empty glumes purplish, nearly equal, 
acute; lemma one- third shorter, toothed at the apex, often with a minute awn. 
A. exarata stolonifera Vasey. Bottom lands: B.C. 'Calif. Submont. Jl-Au. 

9. A. foliosa Vasey. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stem 5-10 dm- 
high; leaf -blades 8-15 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; panicles open, but often narrow 
1-1.5 dm. long; branches ascending, naked below; empty glumes pale, nearly 
equal, 2-3 mm. long, abruptly acute; lemma nearly as long, obtuse and minutely 
toothed at the apex, awnless or short-awned. Wet meadows: B.C. Ida. 
Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

10. A. grand! 3 Trin. Tufted perennial; stem 5-15 dm. high; leaf -blades 
1-2 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, very scabrous, abruptly contracted at the ligules; 
panicle 1-2 dm. long, dense, contracted; empty glumes about 3 mm. long, grad- 
ually tapering at the apex, light green, scarious-margined; lemma one-half to 
two-thirds as long, obtuse. Wet meadows: B.C. 'Mont. Neb. -N.M. 
Calif. PlainMont. Je-Jl. 

11. A. asperifolia Trin. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high; blades 5-15 
cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 5-10 cm. long, narrow and dense; 
empty glumes broadly lanceolate, 2.5-3 mm. long, usually abruptly pointed, 
often tinged with purple; lemma two-thirds to three-fourths as long, awnless; 
A. exarata minor Hook. A. Drummondii Tore. Wet meadows: Man. Neb. 
N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainMont. Je-Au. 

12. A. Rossae Vasey. Cespitose perennial; stem about 1.5 dm. high, smooth, 
erect; leaf-blades 2-4 cm. long, flat, 2 mm. wide; panicle oblong, 2-4 cm. long, 
dense; branches nearly erect, 1-2 cm. long, very scabrous; empty glumes 2 mm. 



GRASS FAMILY 55 

long, broadly lanceolate, acute; lemma minutely toothed at the apex. Moun- 
tains: Wyo. Colo. N.M. Mont. Subalp. Au. 

13. A. variabilis Rydb. Tufted, dwarf perennial; stem 1-2-leaved, 1-2 
dm. high; basal leaves numerous, their blades 2-5 cm. long; stem-leaves somewhat 
broader and often flat; panicle contracted, 3-6 cm. long, about 5 mm. wide; 
branches erect or nearly so, usually short; empty glumes 2 mm. long, usually 
more or less purplish, nearly equal, acute; lemma 1.5 mm. long, awnless. Moun- 
tains: B.C. Alta. Colo. Calif. Mont. Subalp. Jl-S. 

14. A. idahoensis Nash. Tufted perennial; stem slender, 1-4 dm. high; 
leaf -blades narrow, 4-9 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, flaccid, somewhat scabrous; 
panicle oblong-ovoid, 5-12 cm. long, 2.5-4.5 cm. wide; empty glumes unequal, 
1.5-2 mm. long, acuminate, purple; lemma two-thirds to three-fifths as long as 
the first glume. A. tenuiculmis recta Nash. Mountain meadows: Wash. 
Mont. 'Colo. Submont. Subalp. 

15. A. oregonensis Vasey. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 5-10 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, often involute; panicle 8-15 cm. long, often 
nodding, flexuose; empty glumes purple, narrowly lanceolate, gradually acute; 
lemma slightly shorter than the empty glumes, obtuse. Meadows: Wash. 
Ore. Wyo. Submont. Jl-Au. 

16. A. oreophila Trin. Densely cespitose perennial; stems slender, 2-4 
dm. high; leaf-blades filiform-setaceous, involute; those of the stem slightly 
broader, about 1 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 1-2 dm. long; lower branches 5-10 
cm. long; empty glumes slightly unequal, about 2 mm. long, pale or purple, 
acute. A. hiemalis geminataHitchc., in part. Mountains: Que. Me. -N.Y. 
Pa. Sask. Colo. Utah B.C. Boreal Mont. Subalp. Jl-S. 

17. A. hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. Tufted perennial; stem 2-8 dm. high; 
leaf-blades 2-3 mm. wide, flat, 5-10 cm. long; panicle large and diffuse, 2-6 
dm. long; spikelets crowded at the ends of the branches; empty glumes nearly 
equal, purplish or pale, about 2 mm. long, acute or acuminate; lemma obtuse, 
two-thirds to three-fourths as long. A. scabra Willd. Open places: Lab. 
Fla. Calif. Alaska; Mex. Plain Subalp. 

18. A. geminata Trin. Cespitose perennial; stem 2-3 dm. high, glabrous, 
slender; leaf-blades about 0.5 mm. wide, 5-10 cm. long, the basal ones usually 
involute; those of the stem-leaves usually flat; inflorescence 5-15 cm. long, 4-8 
cm. wide; empty glumes about 3 mm. long, acute; lemma two-thirds to three- 
fourths as long, obtuse, bearing at the middle of the back a straight awn. Wet 
places: Alaska B.C. Subalp. Alp. Jl-Au. 

19. A. Bakeri Rydb. Cespitose perennial; stem about 3 dm. high, erect, 
slightly geniculate below, glabrous; basal leaves numerous; leaf -blades flat, 1-2 
mm. wide, 5-10 cm. long; panicle ovoid, 8-10 cm. long, open; empty glumes 
nearly equal, purple, 2-2.5 mm. long, acuminate; lemma three-fourths as long, 
obtuse, bearing above the middle a dorsal straight awn. Mountains: Colo. 
Mont. 

20. A. melaleuca (Trin.) Hitchc. Cespitose perennial; stem erect, 2-5 dm. 
high; leaf -blades flat, 1-2 mm. wide, 5-10 cm. long; branches of the panicle 
flower-bearing to near the base; empty glumes copper-colored or purplish, lanceo- 
late, gradually acute or acuminate, 2.5-3 mm. long; lemma slightly shorter, 
bearing above the middle a straight awn. A. canina Rydb. (Fl. Colo.) Wet 
places: Alaska 'B.C. Colo. Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

31. CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. REED-GRASS. 

Erect perennials. Inflorescence paniculate. Spikelets numerous, 1-flowered; 
flowers perfect; the rachilla usually produced beyond the flower; the prolonga- 
tion with a hair-pencil. Empty glumes 2, persistent, narrow, keeled, acute or 
acuminate. Lemma much shorter, thickly hyaline, with a basal ring of long 
hairs, and a dorsal awn, Palet small, narrow, thin, hyaline. Styles short, dis- 
tinct; stigmas plumose. 



56 POACEAE 

Awn of the lemma geniculate, exserted; callus-hairs usually much shorter than the glume. 
Awns of the lemma greatly exceeding the empty glumes; plant tufted; leaf-blades 

involute. 

Empty glumes very scabrous throughout; marcescent basal leaf-sheaths very 

long, loose and numerous. 1. C. purpurascens. 

Empty glumes nearly glabrous, except on the keels; marcescent basal leaf-sheaths 

short and few. 2. C. Vaseyi. 

Awns of the lemma about equalling the empty glumes. 

Empty glumes sharply keeled; spikelets strongly compressed; plant stoloniferous. 

3. C. montanensis. 
Empty glumes not strongly keeled; spikelets not strongly conpressed; plants 

tufted. 
- Leaves usually involute; panicle very dense. 

Panicle very narrow, spike-like, usually red-purplish. 4. C. rubescens. 
Panicle lance-oblong, usually pale green. 5. C. Suksdorfn. 

Leaves usually flat; panicle ovoid, open. 6. C. luxurians. 

Awn of the lemma straight or nearly so, included; callus-hairs usually equalling the 

lemma (except in C. scopulorum and C. Cusickii). 
Panicle open, the lower branches spreading; leaf-blades usually flat; callus-hairs 

nearly or quite equalling the lemma. 

Empty glumes 46 mm. long, narrow, sharp-acuminate; awn of the lemma at- 
tached below the middle, exceeding the lemma. 7. C. Langsdorfii. 
Empty glumes 2-4 mm. long; awn of the lemma aotached at or above the middle, 

shorter than the lemma. 

Awn attached near the middle of the lemma; spikelets usually purple. 
Spikelets 3-4 mm. long; panicle loosely flowered. 8. C. canadensis. 

Spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long; panicle densely flowered. 9. C. Macouniana. 
Awn attached near the apex of the lemma; spikelets pale or white. 

10. C. blanda. 

Panicle more or less contracted. 
Leaf-blades flat or nearly so. 

Empty glumes smooth or nearly so, except on the veins. 

Callus-hairs copious, at least two-thirds as long as the lemma; plant with 

a rootstock. 11. C. Scribneri. 

Callus-hairs sparse, much shorter than the lemma. 

Plant tall, 9-12 dm. high; sheaths bearded at the summit; plant with a 

rootstock. 12. C. (fusickii. 

Plant lower, 3-8 dm. high; sheaths not bearded; plant tufted. 

13. C. scopulorum. 

Empty glumes very scabrous; plant tufted. 14. C. elongata. 

Leaf-blades strongly involute. 

Panicle open. 15. C. lucida. 

Panicle dense, narrow, spike-like. 

Spikelets 2 mm. long; empty glumes thickish, barely acute or obtusish. 

16. C. micrantha. 
Spikelets 34.5 mm. long. 

Plant scarcely cespitose; empty glumes long-acuminate. 

Leaves filiform, soft; plant 4-6 dm. high, slender; empty glumes 

minutely scabrous on the veins. 17. C. neglecta. 

Leaves stiff and hard; plant 8-12 dm. high; empty glumes strongly 

scabrous. 18. C. inexpansa. 

Plant densely cespitose; empty ghimes abruptly acute or short-acumin- 
ate, very scabrous. 19. C. americana. 

1. C. purpurascens R. Br. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high; leaves 
numerous and crowded at the base; blades of the basal leaves 2-4 dm. long, 
4-5 mm. wide, scabrous, rigid, more or less involute; those of the stem 7-15 cm. 
long; panicle spike-like, strict, 7-10 cm. long, purplish; spikelets 6-7 mm. long; 
lemma slightly shorter than the glumes, acute or acuminate; awn near the base, 
twisted below and bent at the middle. Mountains: Greenl. S.D. Colo. 
Calif. Alaska. Mont. Alp. Jl-S. 

2. C. Vaseyi Beal. Tufted perennial; stem 3-7 dm. high, leafy; leaf -blades 
1.5-2 dm. long, 3-7 mm. wide, the lower involute, the upper often flat; panicle 
spike-like, 7-10 cm. long, usually more or less purple; empty glumes 4-5 mm. long, 
equal, lanceolate; lemma one-fourth shorter, obtuse; awn inserted one-third 
from the base and extending little beyond the empty glumes. Mountains: Ore. - 
Wash. Mont. Alp. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

3. C. montanensis Scribn. Stoloniferous perennial; stem 2-4 dm. high, 1 
stiff, erect; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, strongly involute, scabrous; panicle spike- 
like, 5-8 cm. long, dense; empty glumes narrowly lanceolate, acute^4-6 mm. 
long, scabrous, pale or purple; lemma one-fourth shorter, thin, finely scabrous, 
awn borne one-third from the base. Dry plains: Sask. S.D. Ida. Alta. 
Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 



GRASS FAMILY 57 

4. C. rubescens Buckley. Cespitose perennial; stem 4-10 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 5-15 cm. long, involute, scabrous, stiff; panicle strict, spike-like, purplish, 
5-15 cm. long; empty glumes 4-5 mm. long, acute, minutely scabrous; lemma 
about as long, awned below the middle. Grassy banks: B.C. Alta, Wyo. 
Calif. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

5. C. Suksdorfii Scribn. Tufted perennial; stem 6-10 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 1-3 dm. long, mostly involute; panicles 7-12 cm. long, narrow, but not 
spike-like, often lobed and interrupted; empty glumes 3-4 mm. long, acute, 
pale, and somewhat translucent, nearly smooth; lemma one-fourth shorter, oblong, 
obtuse, 4-toothed, awned near the base. Open woods and banks: Sask. Wyo. 
Calif. B.C. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

6. C. luxurians (Kearney) Rydb. Tufted perennial; stem 1-1.5 m. high; 
leaf-blades flat, 1.5-3 dm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 1-2 dm. long, 
ovoid, pale, open; empty glumes narrowly lanceolate, acute; lemma one-fourth 
or one-fifth shorter, nearly glabrous, awn-bearing near the base. C. Suksdorfii 
luxurians Kearney. Open woods: B.C. Mont. Colo. Ida. Submont. Je 
Jl. 

7. C. Langsdorfii (Link) Trin. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 3-6 
dm. high, erect, simple; leaf-blades 1-3 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous, 
usually flat and spreading; panicle 5-15 cm. long; empty glumes 4-6 mm. long, 
long-acuminate, strongly scabrous, lead-colored, brown or purplish; lemma one- 
fourth shorter, scabrous, awned below the middle. Alpine-arctic situations: 
Greenl. N.C. Sask. N.M. Calif. Alaska. Mont. Alp. Jl-S. 

8. C. canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. Perennial, with a rootstock; stems 5-15 
dm. high, erect, simple; blades 1.5-3 dm. long, 2-8 mm. wide, scabrous, usually 
flat; panicle 1-2 dm. long, open, usually purple; branches spreading; empty 
glumes 3-3.5 mm. long, acute, or (in var.. acuminata] 3.5-4 mm. long and acumin- 
ate, scabrous; lemma slightly shorter, scabrous, awn-bearing near the middle; 
awn slender, nearly equalling the glumes. Banks and swamps: Newf. N.C. 
N.M. Calif. Alaska. Plain Subalp. Jl-S. 

9. C. Macouniana Vasey. Perennial; stem 6-10 dm. high, erect, somewhat 
branched below, leafy; leaf-blades flat, 1.5-2.5 dm. long; panicle 7-10 cm. long, 
lanceolate or conic, open; spikelets crowded on the upper part of the branchlets; 
empty glumes about 4 mm. long, purplish, acute, finely scabrous on the back; 
lemma equalling the empty glumes. Wet places: Man. S.D. Wash. Plain 
Submont. 

10. C. blanda Beal. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 6-12 dm. high; 
leafe-blades 1.5-2 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, flat, scabrous; panicle 1.5-2 dm. long, 
loose, spreading; empty glumes about 3 mm. long, long-acuminate, scabrous on 
the veins; lemma one-fourth shorter, thin, acutely toothed. C. pallida Vasey & 
Scribn. Wet places: Colo. Mont. Wash. Submont. Jl. 

11. C. Scribneri Beal. Perennial, with a rootstock; leaf-blades flat, 1-2 dm. 
long, 4-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle contracted, lanceolate, 1-1.5 dm. long; 
branches flower-bearing to near theiase; empty glumes brown or purple, about 
4 mm. long, lanceolate, acute or afcuminate, lemma one-fourth shorter; awn 
attached below the middle, exceeaing the lemma. C. dubia Scribn. Wet 
places: Alta. Colo Wash B.C.| Que. Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

12. C. Cusickii Vasey. JMnnial, with a creeping rootstock; stem 10-12 
dm. high; leaf-blades flat, 1-3 "qj^tlong, 5-8 mm. wide; panicles about 1.5dm. 
long, acute, narrow; branches flowfr-bearing to the base; glumes about 4 mm. 
long, acute or acuminate, smooth, thin; lemma nearly as long as the empty 
glumes, acuminate; awn erect, inserted a little below the middle, slightly exceed- 
ing the lemma. Wet places: Ore. Ida. Calif. Jl. 

13. C. scopulorum M. E. Jones. Tufted perennial; stem 3-8 dm. high; 
leaf-blades 1-3 dm. long, 6 mm. wide, flat, pale; panicle narrow, 1-1.5 dm. long; 
empty glumes about 4 mm. long, white or pale, acute, smooth except on the 
nerves; lemma nearly as long; awn attached below the middle, shorter than the 
lemma. Mountains and hills: Utah Colo. Son. Mont. Au-S. 



58 POACEAE 

14. C. elongata (Kearney) Rydb. Tufted perennial; stem 7-12 dm. high; 
leaf -blades 1-3 dm. long, usually flat, 3-8 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 1-2 dm. 
long, narrow but scarcely spike-like; empty glumes 3-4 mm. long, acute, very 
scabrous; lemma somewhat shorter, scabrous; awn attached below the middle. 
C. hyperborea elongata Kearney. Wet meadows: Ont. Pa. 'Colo. Calif. 
B.C. PlainMont. Jl-Au. 

15. C. lucida Scribn. Perennial, with a slender rootstock; stem 2.5-4 dm. 
high, slender with few marcescent sheaths at the base; leaf-blades 5-13 cm. long, 
2-3 mm. wide, strongly involute, slightly scabrous on the margins and nerves; 
panicle 4.5-7 cm. long, ovoid to lanceolate, strongly flexuose; empty glumes 
about 3 mm. long, short-acuminate, strongly keeled, minutely hispidulous on 
the keel; lemma slightly shorter; awn attached near the middle. C. laxiflora 
Kearney. Meadows: Wyo. Au. 

16. C. micrantha Kearney. Perennial, with a slender, creeping rootstock; 
stems 4-6 dm. high, slender; leaf-blades 5-20 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, more or 
less involute, filiform; panicle 5-8 dm. long, densely-flowered, purple or pale; 
empty glumes 2 mm. long, scabrous; lemma slightly shorter; awn attached at or 
below the middle. Wet places: Sask. Colo. Plain Mont. Jl-Au. 

17. C. neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertn. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 4-6 dm. 
high, slender; leaves narrow, involute, soft, 5-15 cm. long; panicle contracted, 
6-10 cm. long; branches mostly erect; empty glumes about 4 mm. long, gradually 
acute; lemma about one-fourth shorter, obtuse; awn attached near the middle. 
C. stricta Trin. Wet places: Greenl. Me. Wis. Colo. Ore. Alaska; Eu. 
Plain Subalp. Jl-S. 

18. C. inexpansa A. Gray. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem usually 
simple, 8-12 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-3 dm. long, 4 mm. wide or less, scabrous; 
panicle 1.5-2 dm. long, usually nodding at the summit; empty glumes 4-4.5 mm. 
long, very scabrous throughout, gradually acute; lemma scabrous, about as 
long, acutish; awn inserted below the middle, about equalling the lemma. Wet 
places: N.Y. N.J. S.D. Colo. Ida. Wash. B.C. Plain Submont. Jl- 
Au. 

19. C. americana Scribn. Cespitose perennial, with numerous marcescent 
sheaths at the base; stem 3-6 dm. high, scabrous above; leaf -blades 1-3 dm. long, 
4-5 mm. wide, usually more or less involute, scabrous, stiff; panicle contracted, 
7-15 cm. long, spike-like; empty glumes 3-4 mm. long, very scabrous; lemma 
nearly as long, acute, scabrous; awn attached below the middle. C. hyperborea 
Kearney, not Lange. Wet meadows: Lab. Vt. Neb. Colo. Calif. Alaska. 
Plain -Submont. Jl-Au. 

32. CALAMOVILFA Hack. REED-GRASS, SAND-GRASS. 

Tall perennials with horizontal rootstocks and elongated narrow leaf -blades. 
Inflorescence a panicle. Spikelets flattened, 1-flowered, crowded, the rachilla 
articulated above the empty glumes and not prolonged beyond the flower. Empty 
glumes 2, unequal, persistent, rigid, chartaceous, awnless, keeled, 1-nerved; lemma 
with a ring of long hairs at the base, enclosing a 2-keeled palet and a perfect 
flower. Stamens 3. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. C. longifolia (Hook.) Hack. Perennial, with a long, scaly rootstock; 
stem 6-20 dm. high, stout, smooth, and glabrous; leaf -blades 2-3 dm. long, stiff, 
more or less involute; panicle 1-4 dm. long, pale, narrow; empty glumes 6-8 mm. 
long, the first shorter than the second; lemma about as long as the second glume, 
glabrous; callus-hairs copious, half as long as the lemma. Calamagrostis longi- 
folia Hook. Sandy soil: Ont. Ind. Colo. Ida. Sask. Plain Submont. 
Je-S. 

33. DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. HAIR-GRASS. 

Perennials or annuals. Inflorescence a terminal contracted or open panicle. 
Spikelets 2-flowered, the rachilla articulated above the empty glumes and pro- 
longed beyond the flowers. Empty glumes 2, persistent, keeled, acute, mem- 



GRASS FAMILY 59 

branous, usually somewhat shining. Lemma thin-membranous, almost hyaline, 
entire or toothed, acute, obtuse, or truncate and denticulate at the apex, each 
bearing a slender dorsal straight or geniculate awn, which is twisted at the base. 
Palet narrow, 2-nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Empty glumes not extending beyond the apex of the upper lemma; lower empty glume 

1-nerved; densely cespitose tufted perennials. 
Leaves neither stiff nor pungent. 

Awn inserted one-third to one-fifth from the base of the lemma; branches of the 

inflorescence at last spreading or reflexed. 
Awns long-exserted, at least half longer than the lemma. 

Empty glumes 3-4 mm. long; leaves filiform, revolute, scarcely 1 mm. 

wide; plant 2-3 dm. high. 1. D. curtifolia. 

Empty glumes 4-5 mm. long; leaves broader and often flat, 1.52.5 mm. 

wide; plant 3-5 dm. high. 2. D. alpicola. 

Awns scarcely exserted beyond the lemma. 3. D. caespitosa. 

Awn inserted near the base of the lemma, slightly if at all exceeding it; branches 

of the inflorescence ascending. 4. D. confinis. 

Leaves arcuate, strongly involute, very stiff and pungent. 5. D. pungens. 

Empty glumes extending beyond the apex of the upper lemma. 

Spikelets usually dark purple; empty glumes lanceolate, purple, about 5 mm. long, 
the lower 1-nerved. 6. D. atropurpurea. 

Spikelets light green; empty glumes linear-lanceolate, both 3-nerved. 
Spikelets 3-5 mm. long; tufted perennials. 

Leaves filiform-involute; sheaths close; spikelets 3-4 mm. long. 

7. D. elongata. 
Leaves involute but not filiform, or the stem-leaves flat; upper sheaths loose; 

spikelets 4-5 mm. long. 8. D. ciliata. 

Spikelets 5-8 mm. long; annuals. 9. D. calycina. 

1. D. curtifolia Scribn. Basal leaf-blades 1-10 cm. long, the cauline ones 
1-2 cm. long; panicle small, 3-10 cm. long, its branches in 2's or 3's, or single, 
at last spreading; empty glume 3-4 mm. long, lanceolate, acute; lemma nearly 
as long. D. brevifolia R. Br. D. brachyphylla Nash. Alpine ridges: Colo. 
Utah Mont. Subalp.Alp. 

2. D. alpicola Rydb. Basal leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long; stem-leaves 1-4 cm. 
long; panicle short, open, 8-15 cm. long, its branches in 2's to 5's, 3-6 cm. long, 
soon spreading; spikelets about 5 mm. long; empty glumes lanceolate, acute; 
lemma nearly as long, hirsute at the base. Deschampsia caespitosa alpina Vasey. 
Alpine meadows: N.M. -Wyo. Utah. Mont. Alp. Jl-S. 

3. D. caespitosa (L.) Beauv. Stem 3-10 dm. high; basal leaf-blades 2-5 
cm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, flat or in drier situations involute, rather firm; stem- 
leaves 3-10 cm. long; panicles 1-3 dm. long, 5-15 cm. wide; empty glumes 3.5-5 
mm. long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate; lemma 3-4 mm. long, purple or lead- 
colored. Wet meadows and swamps. Newf. N.J. N.M. Calif. Alaska. 
Submont. Subalp. Je-S. 

4. D. confinis (Vasey) Rydb. Stem 3-9 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
1-3 dm. long, more or less involute when dry; panicle narrow, 1-3 dm. long, 
the base often included in the upper sheath; empty glume unequal, 4-5 mm. 
long, lead-colored or purplish with straw-colored margins, lanceolate, acute; 
lemma nearly as long, lanceolate, acute. Wet places: s Calif. s Utah Ariz. 
Son. Je-Au. 

5. D. pungens Rydb. Stem 3-4 dm. high, glabrous and shining, the base 
covered with subchartaceous sheaths from preceding season; leaf -blades bluish 
green or in age straw-colored, scabrous-pruinose; panicle open, with spreading 
branches; empty glumes subequal, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, purplish, lanceolate, acute; 
lemma 3-3.5 mm. long, similar; awn attached at the base, about equalling the 
lemma. Near hot springs: Alta. -Wyo. Mont. Jl-Au. 

6. D. atropurpurea (Wahl.) Scheele. Perennial, with a cespitose root- 
stock; stem glabrous, 1.5-5 dm. high; leaf -blades 2-5 mm. wide, 5-12 cm. long, 
flat and flaccid; panicle narrow, 2-10 cm. long, with short erect branches; Ismma 
about 3 mm. long, erose- truncate at the apex; awn attached about the middle, 
bent. D. latifolia (Hook.) Vasey. D. Hookeriana Scribn. Wet places: Greenl. 
N.H. Colo. Calif. Alaska-n Eu. Subalp.Alp. Jl-S. 

7. D. elongata (Hook.) Munro. Stem 3-10 dm. high, slender; leaf-blades 
5-10 cm. long, 1 mm. wide; panicle very narrow, 1-2 dm. long, with erect 



60 POACEAE 

branches; empty glumes 3-4 mm. long, 3-nerved, green; lemma about 2 mm. 
long, irregularly 5-toothed at the apex; awn inserted near the base, almost 
twice as long as the lemma. Wet places: B.C. Calif. Ariz. Wyo. Mont.; 
Mex. Submont. Je-Au. 

8. D. ciliata (Vasey) Rydb. Stem 4-7 dm. high, comparatively stiff; leaf- 
blades 1-2 dm. long, about 2 mm. wide; panicle elongated, with nearly erect 
branches; empty glumes minutely scabrous; lemma 3 mm. long, erose-dentate 
at the apex; awn attached a little below the middle, 2-3 times as long as the 
lemma. D. elongaia ciliata Vasev. Wet places: B.C. Calif. Ida. Submont. 
My-Jl. 

9. D. calycina Presl. Annual, simple or branched at the base; stems 1-4 
dm. high; leaf-blades 1-10 cm. long, filiform; inflorescence ovoid, 3-20 cm. long, 
with ascending branches; spikelets usually purplish; empty glumes linear-lance- 
olate, acuminate, 3-nerved; lemma 3 mm. long, 3-toothed at the apex; awn 
attached near the middle, about 3 times as long as the lemma. Wet places: 
Yukon B.C. Ida. Ariz. Calif. Submont. My-Jl. 

34. TRISETUM Pers. FALSE OAT. 

Annual or perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaf-blades. Inflorescence a 
spike-like contracted or open panicle. Spikelets usually 2-flowered, rarely 3-6- 
flowered, the flowers perfect, or the upper one staminate. Empty glumes mem- 
branous, unequal, acute, entire at the apex, awnless, persistent. Lemma 2- 
toothed at the apex, the teeth acuminate and often terminating in a bristle or 
slender awn; awn often twisted, inserted below the apex and arising between 
the teeth. Palet hyaline, 2-toothed. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Inflorescence lanceolate, open; lower empty glume shorter than and scarcely more than 
half as broad as the upper; leaf-blades broader than the sheaths and therefore 
with auricles at the base. 

Lemma about 7 mm. long; sheaths hairy. 1. T. canescens. 

Lemma about 5 mm. long; sheaths glabrous. 

Ovary pubescent at the apex; panicle loose; its branches spikelet-bearing above 

the middle. 2. T. ccrnuum. 

Ovary glabrous; panicle denser; its branches spikelet-bearing to the base. 

3. T. monlanum. 
Inflorescence dense, oblong or oblong-lanceolate; lower empty glume nearly as broad as 

the upper; leaf-blades not broader than the sheaths, not auricled. 
Leaf-sheaths and blades long-hairy ; upper part of the stem densely pubescent. 

4. T. subspicatum. 
Leaf-sheaths and blades glabrous or the lowest sheath short-pubescent, with reflex ed 

hairs; stem glabrous or slightly scabrous in the inflorescence. 5. T. ma jus. 

1. T. canescens Buckl. Perennial, with a rootstock, more or less cespitose; 
stem 5-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-1.5 cm. long, about 5 mm. wide; panicle 1.5-3 
dm. long, narrow; branches spikelet-bearing to near the base; spikelets 2-3- 
flowered; awn about twice as long as the lemma. Open woods and hillsides: 
B.C. Mont. Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

2. T. cernuum (Kunth) Trin. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 6-10 dm. 
high; leaves glabrous; blades 1-2 dm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; panicle 1-2.5 dm. 
long, open and nodding; spikelets 2-3-fl owered ; lemma about 6 mm. long, slightly 
scabrous above; awn twice as long as the lemma. Stream-banks : Alaska Ida. 
Calif. Submont. Je-S. 

3. T. montanum Vasey. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 4-10 dm. high, 
glabrous; leaf-blades glabrous, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 3-5 mm. broad; panicle 1-2 dm. 
long, with ascending branches; spikelets about 5 mm. long; upper glume 4 mm. 
long, broadly lanceolate; lemma about 4 mm. long; awn about twice as long as 
the lemma. Moist places among bushes: Wyo. N.M. Utah. Submont. 
Mont. Jl-S. 

4. T. subspicatum (L.) Beauv. Cespitose perennial; stems 2-4 dm. high; 
leaf-blades 3-15 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, flat or in age involute; panicle oblong, 
often obtuse, usually more or less purple, 2-8 cm. long; empty glumes lanceolate, 
acuminate or acute, slightly shorter than the lemma; awn bent and twisted, 
7-8 mm. long. T. subspicatum molle A. Gray. T. spicatum (L.) Richter. Mead- 



GRASS FAMILY 61 

ows and hillsides: Greenl. N.H. N.M. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Subalp 
Alp. Jl-Au. 

5. T. majus (Vasey) Rydb. Cespitose perennial; stems 2-5 dm. high, 
glabrous; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 1-4 mm. wide, usually flat; panicle often 
interrupted, acute, green, rarely purple, 6-15 cm. long; empty glume lanceolate, 
acuminate, about 6 mm. long, usually a little longer than the lemma; awn bent 
and twisted, 7-8 mm. long. T. subspicatum Am. auth., not Beauv Meadows- 
Mont. Colo. Utah B.C. Submont. Subalp. 

35. GRAPHEPHORUM Desv. 

Erect perennials, with short rootstocks. Inflorescence paniculate. Spike- 
lets 2-4-flowered, flattened, the rachilla hirsute and extending beyond the flow- 
ers. Empty glumes 2, somewhat shorter than the lemma, thin-membranous, 
acute, keeled, shining. Lemma membranous, obscurely nerved, entire, some- 
times short-awned just below the apex, shining; awn straight. Styles distinct; 
stigmas plumose. 

Empty glumes nearly equal; inflorescence narrow. 

Sheaths and upper surface of the leaves pubescent; spikelets 3-flowered. 

1. G. mifticum. 
Sheaths and leaves scabrous. 

Empty glumes barely equalling the lemma; spikelets 2-flowered; rudiment lone- 
hairy. 2. G. Wolfii. 
Empty glumes longer than the lemma; spikelets 3-4-fl owered ; rudiment short- 
hairy. 3. G. Brandegei. 
Empty glumes unequal; inflorescence open. 4. G. Shearii. 

1. G. muticum (Bolander) Greene. Stem 4-8 dm. high; leaf -blades 1-4 
dm. long, 3-6 mm. wide; inflorescence 1-2 dm. long; empty glumes 6-7 mm. 
long, acute, scabrous on the back; lemma 5-6 mm. long, minutely scabrous; 
awn very short, or almost none. Trisetum muticum Scribn. Meadows: Calif. 
Wash. Mont. Submont -Subalp. Je-Jl. 

2. G. Wolfii Vasey. Stem erect from a decumbent base; leaf-blades 5-15 
cm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide; panicle 5-10 cm. long, with few branches; empty glumes 
4-5 mm. long, slightly shorter than the lemma, acuminate; lemma 2-toothed at 
the apex; awn about 1 mm. long. Mountain meadows: Colo. Subalp. 

3. G. Brandegei (Scribn.) Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades 
1-2 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous on both sides; panicle 1-2 dm. long, more 
or less interrupted; empty glumes scabrous on the keel, 6-7 mm. long; lemma 
5-6 mm. long, obtusely 2-lobed; awn borne below the apex, often obsolete. Wet 
meadow's: Mont. Colo. Calif. Wash. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

4. G. Shearii (Scribn.) Rydb. Stem 5-7 dm. high, minutely pubescent at 
the nodes; leaf-blades 1-1.5 dm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, minutely scabrous below, 
smooth above; panicle 1 -2 dm. long; spikelets usually 2-flo\vered; empty glumes 
acute; the first 3 mm. long, 1-nerved, lance-subulate, the second 4 mm. long; 
lemma about 4 mm. long, slightly 2-cleft at the apex; awn straight, 1-3 mm. 
long. Trisetum argenteum Scribn. T. Shearii Scribn. Among rocks: Colo. 
Mont. Au. 

36. A VENA (Tourn.) L. OATS. 

Annuals or perennials. Inflorescence a contracted or open panicle. Spike- 
lets usually large, erect or pendulous, usually 2-several-flowered, rarely l-flow r ered, 
the rachilla articulated between the flow r ers, the lower flow r ers perfect, the upper 
ones often staminate or wanting. Empty glumes 2, membranous, exceeding or 
shorter than the lemma, persistent. Lemma 5-9-nerved, rounded on the back, 
the apex frequently shortly 2-toothed, bearing a dorsal twisted and geniculate 
awn, the upper empty ones or those enclosing staminate flowers awnless. Palet 
2-cleft or 2-toothed, narrow. Styles distinct. Grain deeply furrowed, usually 
pubescent. 

Perennials, with rootstocks; empty glumes 5-12 mm. long; lemma hairy at the base. 
Empty glumes shorter than the flowers; panicle lax, narrow, and somewhat nodding; 
plant not tufted. 1- A. striata. 



62 POACEAE 

Empty glumes longer than the flowers; panicle narrow and spike-like, strict; plant 

tufted. 

Plant 11.5 dm. high; leaves strongly involute; callus of the lemma and prolonga- 
tion of the rachilla long-hairy. 2. A. M or toniana. 
Plant 2-4 dm. high; leaves mostly flat; callus and rachilla short-hairy. 

3. A. Hookeri. 

Annuals; panicle open; empty glumes over 2 cm. long; spikelets 2-4-flowered. 
Lemma hairy, at least at the base; awn strongly twisted. 4. A. fatua. 

Lemma glabrous; awn scarcely twisted. 5. A. sativa. 

1. A. striata Michx. Stem 3-6 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 2-15 cm. 
long, 3-6 mm. wide, scabrous above; panicle 7-12 cm. long; spikelets 3-6-flowered; 
empty glumes glabrous, the first 5-7 mm. long, 1-nerved, the second 6-8 mm. 
long, 3-nerved; lemma 7-9 mm. long; awn 8-10 mm. long. In woods: N.B. 
Pa. N.M. B.C. Mont.Subalp. Je-Au. 

2. A. Mortoniana Scribn. Stem erect, 1-1.5 dm. high, glabrous, striate; 
leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 2 mm. wide or less, rigid, convolute, glabrous on both 
sides or pubescent above; panicle 2-4 cm. long; spikelets about 1 cm. long, 2- 
flowered; the first glume 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved; lemma 8-9 mm. long, 
glabrous; awn 7-8 mm. long, twisted below and geniculate. Mountain tops: 
Colo. Alp. 

3. A. Hookeri Scribn. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades flat, firm, 5-15 cm. 
long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, glabrous, scabrous on the margins; panicle 8-12 cm. long; 
spikelets 12-17 mm. long, 3-6-flowered; empty glumes about 1 cm. long, thin, 
greenish; lemma about 8 mm. long, brownish; awn over 1 cm. long, bent and 
twisted. A. americana Scribn. Ridges and hillsides: Sask. S.D. Colo. 
Alta. Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

4. A. fatua L. Annual; stem 3-12 dm. high, stout, glabrous; leaf-blades 
flat, 1-3 dm. long, 5-15 mm. wide; panicle open, 1-3 dm. long; empty glumes 2- 
2.5 cm. long, smooth; lemma 12-18 mm. long, in the typical form covered with 
long brown hairs; awn 2-2.5 cm. long. WILD OATS. A variety with lemma 
glabrous except at the base is A. fatua glabrata Peterm. Fields and waste places: 
Sask. Wis. Mo. -N.M. Calif. B.C.; native of Eurasia and established as 
a weed in grain fields. Plain Submont. 

5. A. sativa L. Erect annual, closely resembling the preceding; stem 
glabrous, 6-12 dm. high; panicle open, 1-3 dm. long, usually with drooping spike- 
lets; empty glumes 2-3 cm. long, glabrous; lemma 15-20 mm. long, glabrous; 
awn 2-3 cm. long. OATS. Occasionally escaped and established: Me. -Fla. 
Tex. Yukon. My-S. 

37. ARRHENATHERUM Beativ. OAT-GRASS. 

Tall perennials. Inflorescence paniculate. Spikelets 2-flowered, the lower 
flower staminate, the upper one perfect or pistillate, the rachilla articulated 
above the empty glumes and prolonged beyond the flowers. Empty glumes 2, 
persistent, thin-membranous, keeled. Lemma more rigid, somewhat toothed at 
the apex, that of the lower flower bearing near the base a long dorsal twisted 
and geniculate awn, that of the upper one awnless, or short-awned below the 
apex. Palet 2-keeled, hyaline, narrow. Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct; stig- 
mas plumose. Grain hardly sulcate. 

1. A. elatius (L.) Beauv. Perennial, with a cespitose rootstock; stem 
glabrous, 6-12 dm. high, erect; leaf -blades flat, 5-30 cm. long, 2-8 mm. wide, 
scabrous; panicle 1-3 dm. long, narrow, with erect blanches; lemmas about 8 
mm. long, that of the lower flower with a bent and twisted awn about 1 cm. 
long. Fields and waste places: Me. Ga. Calif. B.C.; nat. from Eu. Je-Jl. 

38. DANTHONIA DC. WILD OAT-GRASS. 

Usually perennial, all ours cespitose. Inflorescence a contracted or open 
diffuse panicle. Ligules usually represented by a hairy ring. Spikelets 3-many- 
flowered, the flowers perfect or the upper ones staminate, the rachilla pilose, 
articulated between the glumes and prolonged beyond them. Empty glumes 2, 
persistent, usually extending beyond the lemma, keeled, acute or acuminate. 



GRASS FAMILY 63 

Lemma rounded on the back, the margins often ciliate, 2-toothed at the apex, 
the teeth often awned; awn arising between the teeth, more or less flattened, very 
often twisted at the base, and frequently geniculate. Palet obtuse or 2-toothed, 
2-keeled, hyaline. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Lemma hairy on the back; inflorescence spike-like, with short, erect branches 

Empty glumes 15-20 mm. long, long-acuminate. 1. D. Parryi. 

Empty glumes 8-13 mm. long, acute. 

Empty glumes 11-13 mm. long, conspicuously nerved, broad; teeth of the lemma 

subulate, 1-2 mm. long. 2. D. thermalis. 

Empty glumes 8-10 mm. long, narrow; teeth of the lemma ovate, often only 0.5 

mm. long. 3. D. spicata. 

Lemma glabrous on the back. 

Empty glumes acute; inflorescence spike-like, with erect branches; stem-leaves erect. 

4. D. intermedia. 

Empty glumes long-acuminate; inflorescence racemiform or spikelet solitary; stem- 
leaves spreading or ascending. 

Lemma abruptly acuminate; spikelets usually 2-10, on spreading peduncles. 

5. D. californica. 
Lemma not abruptly acuminate; spikelet usually solitary, if more than one, the 

peduncles erect. 6. D. unispicala. 

1. D. Parryi Scribn. Stem 3-6 dm. high, invested by the marcescent leaf- 
sheaths at the base; leaf-blades 5-20 cm. long, about 3 mm. wide; spikelets 3-7 
in the panicle, 5-7 flowered; lemma about 14 mm. long, ovate; awn 12-14 mm. 
long, flat below, twisted. Mountain valleys: Alta. N.M. Submont. Mont. 
Je-Au. 

2. D. thermalis Scribn. Stem 3-5 dm. high; sheaths papillate-pilose; lower 
leaf-blades hairy, the upper glabrous, 5-15 cm. long, involute; spikelets 5-10, 
5-7-flowered ; lemma 5 mm. long, thinly pilose on the back; awn about 7 mm. 
long. D. spicata pinetorum Piper. Near hot springs and in woods: B.C. 
Wash. Wyo. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

3. D. spicata (L.) Beauv. Stems 3-7 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades scab- 
rous, 2-15 cm. long, 2 mm. wide, usually involute, often ciliate; panicle 3-5 cm. 
long; spikelets 5-10, 5-8-flowered; lemma sparingly pubescent with silky hairs; 
teeth usually about 0.5 mm. long; awn 5-8 mm, long. Woods and hillsides: 
NewL N.C. N.M. B.C. Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

4. D. intermedia Vasey. Stem 3-5 dm. high; sheaths more or less pubes- 
cent at least at the mouth; panicle 3-6 cm. long; spikelets 5-10, about 5-flowered, 
12-15 mm. long; empty glumes acute; lemma 6-8 mm. long, hairy on the mar- 
gin; teeth about 2 mm. long; awn stout, 6 mm. long. D. Cusickii (Williams) 
Hitchc. Hillsides and mountains: Que. N.M. Calif. B.C. Mont. Alp. 
Jl-Au. 

5. D. californica Bolander. Stems decumbent, 3-10 dm. long, glabrous; 
leaf-blades 5-20 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, flat, with involute tips; spikelets 5-10- 
flowered; empty glumes lanceolate, purple, glabrous, 15-20 mm. long; lemma 
glabrous, except the base and the margins, 7 mm. long; awn 7-8 mm. long. Wet 
meadows: B.C. Calif. Colo. Mont. Submont. Mont. My-Au. 

6. D. unispicata Munro. Stems 1-3 dm. high, ascending or erect; sheaths 
villous with long white hairs, with papillose bases; leaf -blades 5-15 cm. long, 
2-3 mm. wide, flat, with involute tips; spikelets 4-7-flowered; empty glumes 
lanceolate, 12-20 mm. long, glabrous; lemma about 8 mm. long; awns 7-8 mm. 
long. Meadows and hills: B.C. Calif. Wis. Alta. Submont. Je-Au. 

39. SPARTINA Schreb. MARSH-GRASS. 

Tall perennials, with creeping scaly rootstocks. Spikelets 1-flowered, 
crowded and imbricate in two rows, in one-sided spikes, the rachis extending 
beyond the spikelets. Empty glumes 2, firm-membranous, narrow, unequal, 
keeled. Lemma a little longer and broader than the second empty glume. Palet 
thin and almost hyaline, obscurely 2-nerved, often exceeding the lemma. Styles 
elongate; stigmas thread-like, papillose or short-plumose. 

First glume awn-pointed, equalling the lemma; second glume long-awned. 1. S. pectinala. 
First glume acute, shorter than the lemma; second glume acute. 2. i>. gracilis. 



64 POACEAE 

1. S. pectinata Bosc. Stem 1-2 m. high, glabrous, stout; leaf -blades 3-6 
dm. long, 6-15 mm. wide, scabrous on the margin, usually flat, becoming in- 
volute; spikes 5-30, often short-peduncled, 5-12 cm. long; rachis rough on the 
margins; spikelets 12-14 mm. long; first empty glume equalling the lemma. 
S. cynosuroides A. Gray, not Willd. S. Michauxiana Hitchc. In swamps and 
streams: N.S.NJ. Tex. Colo. Ore. Mack. Plain Submont. Au-O. 

2. S. gracilis Trin. Stem 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 2-4 dm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat or involute; spikes 4-8, apprised, usually short-stalked, 
3-5 cm. long; spikelets 6-8 mm. long; first glume half as long as the second and 
the lemma. Saline soil: B.C. Calif. Ariz. Kans. Sask. Plain Submont. 
Au-S. 

40. BECKMANNIA Host. SLOUGH GRASS. 

Tall grasses with flat leaf-blades. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, orbicular, com- 
pressed, in two rows on several erect spikes. Empty glumes 2, membranous, 
saccate, obtuse or abruptly acute. Lemma narrow, thin-membranous. Palet 
hyaline, 2-keeled. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, free. 

1. B. erucaeformis (L.) Host. Stem 4-10 dm. high, glabrous, simple; 
leaf -blades 7-20 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle simple or compound; 
spikes 1-2 cm. long; spikelets 2-3 mm. long, 1-2-flowered; empty glumes sac- 
cate, abruptly acute; lemma acute or awn-pointed. Wet ground: Yukon 
Calif. N.M. la. Ont, Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

41. SCHEDONNARDUS Steud. 

Annuals, with involute, subulate leaf-blades. Spikelets 1-flowered, acum- 
inate, sessile, alternate on opposite sides of the long rachis, forming several long, 
slender spikes. Empty glumes 2, persistent, narrow, acuminate, somewhat 
unequal. Lemma longer, rigid, enclosing the narrow shorter palet. Styles 
distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. S. paniculatus (Nutt.) Trelease. Annual; branched at the base; stems 
2-5 dm. high, scabrous; leaf -blades 2-5 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, flat, stiff; spike- 
lets nearly 3 mm. long, sessile and appressed; empty glumes hispid on thejveel, 
the second much longer than the first and nearly equalling the lemma. S. tex- 
anus Steud. Sandy soil, especially river banks. Man. 111. Tex. N.M. 
Sask. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

42. CHLORIS Sw. 

Usually perennials. Spikelets 1-flowered, often sessile, with 1 or more empty 
usually awned glumes above the perfect flower, crowded in 2 rows, in verticillate 
or approximate spikes, the rachilla prolonged beyond the flower. Empty glumes 
2, persistent, unequal, keeled, narrow, acute or acuminate, awnless or awn- 
pointed. Lemma acute, usually long-awned, rarely nearly awnless. Palet 
folded, 2-keeled. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. C. brevispica Nash. Perennial; stem 1-3 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-6 cm. 
long, 1-3 mm. wide, scabrous above and on the margins; spikes 6-10, finally 
spreading, 2.5-4.5 cm. long; spikelets (exclusive of the awns) about 2.8 mm. long; 
empty glumes lanceolate, acute; lemma 2.5 mm. long; awn about 2 mm. long; 
the fourth glume (second lemma) empty, about 1.5 mm. long, with an awn of 
about the same length. Sandy soil: Tex. e Colo. N.M. Son. Jl-Au. 

43. BOUTELOUA Lag. GRAMA, GRAMA GRASS, MESQUITE GRASS, 
BUFFALO GRASS 

Perennials or annuals, mostly tufted. Spikelets few or numerous, 1- or 2- 
flowered, crowded in 2 rows and forming few to man}' one-sided, more or less 
curved sessile spikes; rachis usually conspicuously prolonged beyond the spike- 
lets. Lower flowers perfect; the upper when present staminate. Empty glumes 
2, narrow, acute, unequal, keeled. Lemma usually thinner and broader, 3- 
nerved, the nerves excurrent. Lemma of the upper -1-3 imperfect flowers borne 
at the end of a rachilla, 3-awned. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 






GRASS FAMILY 65 

Spikes 1-4, rarely more; spikelets 25 01 more. 
Spikes usually more than one. 

Awns manifestly arising from between the lobes of the lemma; annual. 

1 . B. polystachya. 
Awns terminating the lobes of the lemma; cespitose tufted perennials. 

Stem densely villous below. 2. B.. eriopoda. 

Stem glabrous. 

Rachilla bearing the rudimentary glumes and awns glabrous; second glume 

strongly papillose-hispid on the keel. 3. B. hirsuta. 

Rachilla bearing the rudimentary glumes and awns with a tuft of long 
hairs at the apex; second glume scabrous and sparingly long-ciliate on 
the keel. 4. B. gracilis. 

Spike solitary; tufted annual. 5. B. procumbent. 

Spikes 12 or more; spikelets in each few, less than 12. 6. B .curtipendula. 

1. B. polystachya (Benth.) Torr. Cespitose annual; stem geniculate, 
ascending, 1-3 dm. high; leaf -blades 1-5 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, flat, scabrous, 
ciliate with a few hairs; spikes 4-8, about 2 cm. long; spikelets 1.5-2.5 mm. long; 
first glume very small, the second shorter than the lemma, purplish; awns not 
more than half as long as the glumes. SIX-WEEK GRAMA. River valleys and 
sandy soil: Tex. Colo. Utah Calif.; Mex. Son. 

2. B. eriopoda Torr. Stems 3-6 dm. high, densely villous at least below; 
sheaths glabrous; leaf -blades 5-15 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; spikes 2-5, erect on 
short woolly pedicels, 2-5 cm. long; spikelets 2-flowered, 6-8 mm. long exclusive 
of the awns; empty glumes glabrous. BLACK GRAMA. Dry soil: Tex. Colo. 
Utah Calif.; Mex. Je-O. 

3. B. hirsuta Lag. Stem 1-5 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 2-12 cm. long, 
2 mm. wide or less, flat, rough, sparingly papillose-hirsute near the base; spikes 
1-4. 1-5 cm. long, the rachis conspicuously prolonged beyond the spikelets; 
spikelets numerous, 5-6 mm. long: lemma 3-cleft to near the middle. HAIRY 
GRAMA. Dry or sandy soil: Minn. 111. Tex. Ariz. S.D.; Fla.; Mex. 
Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

4. B. gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. Stem 1.5-4 dm. high, smooth and glabrous; 
leaf-blades 3-10 cm. long, 2 mm. wide or less, flat or when dry involute, usually 
glabrous; spikes 1-3, often strongly curved, 2-5 cm. long; spikelets numerous, 
about 6 mm. long; first glume about half as long as the second. B. oligostachya 
(Nutt.) Torr. BLUE GRAMA. Plains and prairies: Man. Wise. Miss. 
Ariz. Alta.; Mex. Plain Submont. 

6. B. procumbens (Durand) Griffiths. Stems prostrate or ascending, 1-3 
dm. high; leaf-biades 2-5 cm. long; spikes solitary, 1-3 cm. long; spikelets 4-5 
mm. long; first empty glume half as long as the second one; lemma pubescent 
on the veins, 3-lobed, the middle lobe 2-toothed; middle awn equalling the 

g'umes and twice as long as the lateral ones. B. prostrata Lag. SIX-WEEK 
RAMA. Sandy plains: Tex. Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son.-Submont. Jl-D. 

6. B. curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. Perennial, with more or less cespitose 
rootstocks; stem 3-10 dm. high, smooth and glabrous; leaves 5-15 cm. long, 2-4 
mm. wide, scabrous above; spikes many, 6-15 mm. long, spreading or reflexed; 
spikelets 4-12, divergent, 7-10 mm. long; empty glumes scabrous especially on 
the keel; lemma 3-toothed at the apex. B. racemosa Lag. Atheropogon curti- 
pendulum Fourn. TALL GRAMA. Dry soil: Ont. N.J. Tex. Ariz. Sask.; 
Mex. Plain -Submont. Jl-S. 

44. LEPTOCHLOA Beauv. 

Annuals or perennials. Spikelets small, usually close. 2-several-flowered, 
rarely 1 -flowered, flattened, sessile, in two rows, forming many long slender 
spikes. Empty glumes 2, keeled, a little unequal, usually shorter than the 
spikelets. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. L. filiformis (Lam.) Beauv. Annual, branched at the base; stems 3-10 
dm. high, erect, glabrous; leaf -blades 5-20 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; 
panicle 1-4 dm. long; spikes numerous, slender, ascending or spreading, the lower 
5-15 cm. long; spikelets usually 3-flowered, 2 mm. long; lemma 2-toothed at 
the apex, ciliate on the nerves. L. mucronata (Michx.) Kunth. Dry soil: 
Fla. Va. 111. N.M. Calif.; Mex., W. Ind. Son. Jl-S. 



66 POACEAE 

45. BULBILIS Raf. BUFFALO GRASS. 

Creeping, stoloniferous, dioecious perennials. Staminate spikelets 2- or 3- 
flowered, crowded in 2 rows on one side of the short, flattened rachis, in small 
spikes. Empty glumes 2, membranous, lanceolate. Lemma similar. Pistillate 
spikelet 1-flbwered. First empty glume membranous, usually small, the second 
largest, firm, concave at the base, 3-lobed at the apex. Lemma narrow, nearly 
hyaline, enclosing a broad, 2-nerved, convolute palet. Styles distinct, long; 
stigmas elongate, short-plumose. 

1. B. dactyloides (Nutt.) Raf. Stoloniferous perennial; stems bearing the 
staminate flowers 1-3 dm. high, erect, exceeding the leaves, glabrous; those 
bearing the pistillate flowers 1-10 cm. long, shorter than the leaves; leaves 2-10 
cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, papillose-hirsute ; staminate spikelets 2 or 3, approximate, 
0.5-1.5 cm. long; spikelets 4-5 mm. long, flattened, 2-3-flowered; pistillate 
spikelets in the axils of the leaves, ovoid, the empty glumes indurate. Buchloe 
dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Plains and prairies: Minn. Ark. Tex. N.M. 
N.D.; Mex. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

46. SCLEROPOGON Philippi. 

Dioecious perennial herbs with tufted rootstocks. Spikelets in narrow 
panicles, very unlike. Staminate spikelets compressed, linear, many-flowered; 
empty glumes nearly equal, lanceolate; lemma 3-toothed at the apex or entire, 
about equalling the glumes and the palet. Pistillate spikelets cylindric, 3-5- 
flowered; glumes lanceolate, the upper larger; lemma cylindric, rigid, enveloping 
the palet, 3-lobed and 3-awned. 

1. S. Karwinskyanus (Fourn.) Benth. Stems ascending, 1-3 dm. high, 
glabrous; leaf-blades firm, flat, 1-4 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; inflorescence spike- 
like; staminate spikelets 2-5 cm. long, 7-25-flowered ; empty glumes 7-8 mm. 
long; lemma almost as long, slightly 3-toothed at the apex and awn-pointed; 
pistillate spikelets few-flowered; empty glumes very unequal, 7-14 mm. long; 
lemma about 1 cm. long, with three awns often 5-6 cm. long. Dry plains: Tex. 
Colo. Ariz. Mex. Son. My-O. 

47. PHRAGMITES Trin. REED, CANE-GRASS. 

Tall perennials with long creeping rootstocks. Leaves broad and flat. 
Spikelets numerous in large terminal panicles, 3-several-flowered, the lower 
flower staminate, the rest perfect; rachilla articulated between the flowers 
and covered with long hairs. Empty glumes keeled, narrow, acute, the first 
much shorter than the second. Lemma similar, long-acuminate, 3-nerved. 
Palet hyaline, much shorter, 2-keeled. Styles short; stigmas plumose. 

1. P. phragmites (L.) Karst. Stem glabrous, 1.5-5 m. high, stout; leaf- 
blades 1.5-4 dm. long, 8-50 mm. wide, flat, glabrous; panicle 1.5-3 dm. long, 
ample; spikelets numerous; lemma 10-12 mm. long, long-acuminate. F. corn- 
munis Trin. Swamps: Newf. Fla. Calif. B.C.; Mex., W. Ind., Eurasia. 
Plain Submont. Au-O. 

48. MUNROA Torr. FALSE BUFFALO GRASS. 

Low prostrate herbs, dichotomously branched and fasciculate at the nodes. 
Leaves short, rigid, crowded at the nodes and at the ends of the branches. 
Spikelets few, almost sessile in the axils of the leaves and almost concealed in 
the leaf -rosettes. Empty glumes hyaline, nerveless, acute. Lemmas larger, 
3-nerved, retuse or 3-toothed at the apex, the upper one or two often sterile. 
Palet hyaline. Stamens 3. Styles elongated; stigmas barbellate or short- 
plumose. Grain free. 

1. M. squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. Stems 1-2 dm. long; sheath short and in- 
flated, long-hairy at the throat; leaf -blades 1-2.5 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, rigid, 
spreading, scabrous, pungent; spikelets 2-5-flowered; empty glumes shorter than 
the lemma, which is about 5 mm. long, 3-toothed and awn-pointed. Dry plains: 
Sask. S.D. Tex. Ariz. Alta. Plain-Submont. Au-O. 



GRASS FAMILY 67 

49. BLEPHARIDACHNE Hack. 

Low branched perennials or biennials, with crowded involute leaves. Spike- 
lets few in subcapitate panicles, 4-flowered, the two lower flowers neutral, the 
uppermost reduced to a stipitate villous 3-clef t awn . Empty glumes membranous, 
carinate, 1-nerved, acute, glabrous, the first somewhat shorter. Lemma 3-nerved, 
villous on the nerves, 3-lobed, with the middle lobe longest; lobes in the neutral 
flowers obftuse, in the perfect ones attenuate. Palet shorter, 2-keeled, 2-nerved, 
2-toothed at the apex, imperfectly developed in the neutral flowers. Stamens 2. 
Styles 2; stigmas elongated, minutely hairy. Grain free. [Eremochloe S. Wats., 
not Eremochloa Buese.] 

1. B. Kingii (S. Wats.) Hack. Stems 3-7 cm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
1-2 cm. long, rigid, revolute-setaceous, pungent; empty glumes 7 mm. long, 
acuminate, purplish; lemma of the neutral flowers 4 mm. long, very villous at 
the base; that of the perfect flower glabrous at the base, awned; rudiment 3- 
awned. Dry barren foot-hills: Nev. Utah Ariz. Son. My. 

60. TRIPLASIS Beauv. SAND-GRASS. 

Tufted perennials. Panicles in our species narrow. Spikelet short-pedicel- 
late, 2-6-flowered, the flowers perfect or the uppermost staminate, the rachis 
glabrous, articulate between the flowers. Empty glumes keeled, 3-nerved, 
shorter than the lemma. Lemma dorsally rounded at the base, 3-nerved, 
deeply 2-lobed at the apex, with an awn arising between the lobes. Palet shorter, 
with 2 ciliate keels, compressed. Styles short; stigmas plumose. 

1. T. purpurea (Walt.) Chapm. Tufted perennial (?); stem 3-10 dm. 
high, erect, prostrate or decumbent, branched below; leaf -blades 1-6 cm. long, 
2 mm. wide, rigid, scabrous, sparsely ciliate; panicle 2-7 cm. long; spikelets 2-5- 
flowered, 5-8 mm. long; lemma oblong, 2-lobed at the apex, with erose-truncate 
lobes; midvein excurrent in a short point. Sandy places: Me. Fla. 'Tex. 
N.M. Neb. Plain. Au-S. 

51. DASYOCHLOA Willd. 

Stoloniferous perennials. Inflorescence densely paniculate. Spikelets flat, 
5-10-flowered ; flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, membranous, ovate, nearly 
equal. Lemma oblong, more or less pubescent, at least on the veins, cleft to 
the middle, with an awn between the lobes, 3-nerved . Palet broad, prominently 
2-keeled. Styles short, distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. D. pulchella (H.B.K.) Willd. Densely tufted; stem 3-10 cm. high, 
fasciculately branched; leaf-blades 1-3 cm. long, about 1 mm. wide, involute, 
striate, curved, scabrous; inflorescence small and compact; spikelets 5-10- 
flowered, 5-8 mm. long; empty glumes white, lanceolate, 5-7 mm. long, acumin- 
ate; lemma 4-6 mm. long, oblong, cleft to the middle. Triodia pulchella H.B.K. 
Hills and plains: Tex. -w Wyo. Calif.; Mex. Son. Ap-O. 

62. ERIONEURON Nash. 

Tufted, low perennials. Panicles small, dense, subcapitate. Leaves thick, 
with thickened white margins. Spikelets several-flowered. Empty glumes 
narrow, acuminate. Lemma broad, 3-nerved, pubescent on the nerves below, 
with long silky white hairs, acuminate at the apex, entire or slightly 2-toothed, 
the terminal awn rising between the minute teeth. Style short. 

1. E. pilosum (Buckley) Nash. Stem 0.5-3 dm. high, leafy mostly at the 
base; leaf-sheath pilose-ciliate at the summit; blades erect, thick, folded, papillose- 
ciliate, 2-8 cm. long; spikelets 3-8, crowded, 1-1.5 cm. long; lemma 5.5-6 mm. 
long, acuminate, entire or slightly toothed at the apex; awn 1-1.5 mm. long. 
Tricuspis acuminala Munro. Triodia acuminata Vasey. Dry gravelly or sandy 
soil: Kans. Nev. Ariz. Tex. Son. Submont. Ap-O. 

53. TRIDENS R. & S. 

Perennials with rootstocks, ours tufted. Panicles open, or in ours narrow, 
sometimes spike-like. Spikelets 3-many-flowered, the flowers perfect, or the 



68 POACEAE 

upper one staminate. Empty glumes keeled, usually shorter than the lemma. 
Lemma 3-nerved, pilose on the nerves and the margins, entire or 2-toothed at 
the apex. Palet shorter, 2-keeled. Styles short; stigmas plumose. 

Second empty glume 1-nerved. 1. T. muticus. 

Second emptj glume 3-5-nerved. 2. T. elonpatus. 

1. T. muticus (Torr.) Nash. Stem 2-5 dm. tall, glabrous; leaf-blades 
2-12 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, usually involute when dry, scabrous; panicle nar- 
row, 6-15 cm. long; spikelets 6-9-flowered, 10-12 mm. long; lemma 4-5 mm. 
long, obscurely and irregularly lobed at the obtuse or rounded apex, not mucron- 
ate. Hills: Tex. Colo. Ariz.; Mex. Son. Je-O. 

2. T. elongatus (Buckley) Nash. Stem 3-10 dm. tall, scabrous; leaf-blades 
erect or ascending, 4-25 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, long-acuminate, scabrous; 
panicle narrow, 12-25 cm. .long; spikelets 8-10-flowered, 10-14 mm. long; lemma 
5-6 mm. long, obtuse or minutely 2-toothed, mucronate. Plains: Mo. Colo. 
Ariz. Tex. Austral Son. Je-N. 

54. DIPLACHNE Beauv. 

Tall tufted perennials. Panicles composed of several long spike-like or 
raceme-like branches. Spikelets linear, sessile or nearly so, the flowers perfect 
or the uppermost staminate. Empty glumes persistent, keeled, acute, unequal. 
Lemma larger, 2-toothed and mucronate or short-awned between the teeth. 
Palet hyaline, 2-nerved and 2-keeled. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. D. acuminata Nash. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 
erect, 1-3 dm. long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, scabrous; racemes numerous, erect or ascend- 
ing, the longer 7-15 cm. long; spikelets 10-12 mm. long; empty glumes 8-11 mm. 
long; lemma 6-7 mm. long, acuminate; awn 0.75-1.33 mm. long. Wet or moist 
ground: Ark. Neb. -Colo. Plain. Je-Au. 

55. REDFIELDIA Vasey. BLOW-OUT GRASS, SAND-GRASS. 

Tall perennials, with long creeping scaly rootstocks. Panicles diffuse, with 
long capillary branches. Spikelets numerous, 1-3-flowered, the flowers perfect. 
Empty glumes about equal, 1-nerved. Lemma large, compressed-keeled, with 
a basal ring of hairs, 3-nerved, awn-pointed or acute. Palet shorter, 2-nerved. 
Styles long; stigmas short, plumose. 

1. R. flexuosa (Thurber) Vasey. Stem 4-12 dm. high; leaf-blades 3-6 dm. 
long, 2-4 mm. wide, usualh involute; panicle 2-5 dm. long; spikelets about 6 
mm. long, 1-3-flowered; lemma scabrous, twice as long as the acute glabrous 
empty glumes. Sand hills: S.D. Okla. Colo. Wyo. Plain. Au-S. 

56. KOELERIA Pers. JUNE GRASS. 

Tufted annuals or perennials. Panicles narrow, contracted, spike-like. 
Spikelets numerous, crowded, 2-5-flowered, the flowers perfect or the uppermost 
one or two staminate, shining. Empty glumes narrow, unequal. Lemma similar 
to the second, the upper ones gradually smaller. Palet hyaline, 2-keeled, 2-toothed. 
Styles very short; stigmas plumose. 

1. K. gracilis Pers. Stem 3-6 dm. high, slender, glabrous up to the inflores- 
cence; leaf-blades narrow, 1-2 mm. wide, usually involute, glabrous or the lower 
short-pilose, 4-12 cm. long; panicle spike-like, 4-15 cm. long; spikelets shining, 
pale; empty glumes lanceolate, acute, scabrous; lemma similar, more hyaline 
and slightly shorter. K. cristata, in part. K. nitida Nutt. Prairies and plains: 
111. Tex. Calif. B.C.; Eur. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

57. ERAGROSTIS Beauv. STINK-GRASS, SKUNK-GRASS. 

Tufted annuals or perennials, sometimes prostrate or creeping; some species 
dioecious. Spikelets numerous, singly or in fascicles, 2-many-flowered, the 
flowers perfect or unisexual. Empty glumes unequal. Lemma large, 3-nerved, 
usually broad. Palet shorter, prominently 2-nerved and 2-keeled, often incurved 
and persistent on the rachis. Stamens 2 or 3. Styles short; stigmas plumose. 



GRASS FAMILY $9 

Plant extensively creeping, rooting at the nodes ; plant dioecious. 1 E hurmnifle* 

Plant not creeping, not rooting at the nodes; flowers perfect 

Annuals much branched, ascending or decumbent and geniculate at the base 

Spikelets^about 3 mm. broad; first empty glume only slightly shorter than the 

Spikelets5-2 mm. broad; first empty glume only two-thirds^fong ^the 



dark 
Inflorescence narrow; branches erect or strongly ascending; spikelets' light 

Perennials^lg^Se^'often tufted. 4 ' E ' lutescens ' 
Spikelets scattered on the long branches. 

Branches of the panicle widely spreading in age. 5. E. pectinacea 
Branches of the panicle erect or strongly ascending. 

Spikelets 3-9-flowered, on pedicels much longer. 6. E trichodes 
Spikelets 8-15-flowered, on pedicels scarcely as long. 7. E. neo-mexicana 

Spikelets clustered on short branches. 8. E. secundiK 

1. E. hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. Stem 5-45 cm. long, branched, glabrous- 
floral branches erect, 3-15 cm. high; leaves about 5 cm. long or less, 1-2 mm! 
wide, flat; spikelets 10-35-flowered, 4-15 mm. long; empty glumes unequal, the 
first one-half to two-thirds as long as the second; lemma about 2.5 mm long- 
lateral veins prominent; glumes of the pistillate spikelets more acute than those 
of the staminate ones. E. reptans Nees. Sandy or gravelly shores 1 Vt _ Ont 

Neb. N.M.-Fla. B.C. Ida. Calif .; Mex., W. Ind. Plain Submont.' Au-S'. 

2. E. megastachya (Koel.) Link. Stem 1-6 dm. tall; leaf-blades 7-18 cm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicles 5-15 cm. 
long; spikelets 8-35-flowered, 5-16 mm. long, very flat; empty glumes acute- 
lemma obtuse, 2-2.5 mm. long. E. major Host. STINK GRASS. Waste places 
and cultivated grounds: Ont. Fla. Calif. Mont.; Mex.; nat. from Eu. 
Plain Submoni. My-S. 

3. E. Purshii Schrad. Stem 1-4 dm. tall, smooth; leaf-blades 4-9 cm. long, 
1-2 mm. wide; panicle open, 7-20 cm. long; spikelets 5-15-flowered, 3-8 mm. 
long; lemma acute, firm, about 1.5 mm. long. Dry or sandy places: Ont. _ Fla. 

Ariz.; Mex. Plain Submoni. Je-O. 

4. E. lutescens Scribn. Stems 1-2 dm. high, glabrous; leaf -blades 2-5 cm. 
long, 2-3 mm. wide, flat; panicle narrow, 4-7 cm. long; spikelets 2-3 mm. long, 
3-12-flowered; first glume about 1 mm. long, the second 1.3 mm. long; lemma 
obtuse, about 2 mm. long, 3-nerved. Sandv banks: Wash. Ida. Nev Son 
Jl-S. 

5. E. pectinacea (Michx.) Steud. Stem 3-8 dm. high, erect, rigid; leaf- 
blades 1-3 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, flat, sparingly villous at the base; panicle 
1.5-6 dm. long, purple or purplish, strongly bearded in the axils; spikelets 5-15- 
flowered, 3-8 mm. long; empty glumes acute, subequal; lemma 1.75-2 mm. long 
Dry or sandy soil: N.H. Fla. Tex. N.M. S.D. Plain. Au-S. 

6. E. trichodes (Nutt.) Nash. Stem 6-12 dm. high; sheaths pilose at the 
throat; leaf -blades 1.5-7 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; panicle 2-7 dm. long, narrow; 
lower axils sometimes bearded; spikelets usually pale, 3-9-flowered, 5-9 mm. 
long; empty glumes subequal; lemma acute, 2-3 mm. long. Sandy soil: Ohio 
Ark. Tex. N.M. Neb. Plain Son. 

7. E. neomexicana Vasey. Stem 4-8 dm. high, usually branching near 
the base; leaf -blades flat, 4-10 mm. broad; panicle oblong, 2-4 dm. long, open; 
spikelets 5-8 mm. long, 8-15-flowered; lemma hispidulous on the keel near the 
acute apex; palet one-third shorter, ciliate. (?) E. limbata Fourn. (older name). 
Mountain sides: w Tex. s Utah Calif.; n Mex. Son. Je-S. 

8. E. secundiflora Presl. Stems 1.5-10 dm. high, erect, simple; leaf-blades 
5-30 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat; panicle 4-15 cm. long, the branches erect or 
ascending; spikelets crowded, sessile or nearly so, strongly flattened, 8-40- 
flowered, 6-20 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; empty glumes acute, equal; flowering 
glumes 3-3.5 mm. long, acute, usually purple-margined. Dry or sandy soil: 
Mo La. Tex. N.M. Colo.; Mex. Son. Au-S. 



70 POACEAE 

58. CATABROSA Beauv. BROOK-GRASS. 

Creeping or floating aquatic perennial. Panicles open, with slender spread- 
ing or reflexed branches. Spikelets 2- (rarely 3- or 4-) flowered, with the rachilla 
articulate between the flowers. Empty glumes unequal, broad, thin, very ob- 
tuse. Lemma strongly 3-nerved, longer than the empty glumes. Palet 2- 
keeled, nearly as long. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. C. aquatica (L.) Beauv. Stem 1-3 dm. high, bright green, flaccid; leaf- 
blades 3-12 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat, obtuse; panicle 3-20 cm. long, open; 
branches whorled; spikelets 2.5-3.5 mm. long; first glume about 1 mm., the 
second nearly 2 mm. long; lemma 2-2.5 mm. long, 3-nerved, erose-truncate at 
the apex. In water: Lab. Que. Colo. Utah Alaska; Eurasia. Submont. - 
Subalp. Je-Au. 

69. SPHENOPHOLIS Scribn. 

Tall tufted perennials. Panicles usually narrow. Spikelets numerous, 2-3- 
flowered, shining. First empty glume narrow, 1-nerved, acuminate, the second 
much broader, obovate when spread, obtuse or truncate, 3-nerved. Lemma 
narrower than the second glume, obtuse or acute. Palet narrow, 2-nerved. 
Styles short; stigmas plumose. [Eatonia Raf.] 

Second empty glume much wider than the lemma, rounded or truncate and somewhat 

cucullate at the apex. 

Intermediate nerves of the second glume almost as prominent as the lateral ones; 
leaf-blades firm, much broader than the sheaths and therefore with prominent 
auricles. 1. S. robusta. 

Intermediate nerves of the second glume faint, the lateral ones strong; leaf-blades 

soft, not much wider than the sheaths; auricles not prominent. 2. S. obtusata. 
Second empty glume oblanceolate, not much wider than the lemma, obtuse or acute. 
Second empty glume rather firm, as well as the lemma obtusish. 3. S. intermedia. 
Second empty glume thin and with a broad, scarious margin, acutish; lemma acute. 

4. S. pollens. 

1. S. robusta (Vasey) Heller. Stem 4-10 dm. high, erect, glabrous; leaf- 
blades firm, dark green, 1-3 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle dense, 
usually decidedly lobed; spikelets 2.5-3 mm. long; first glume linear-subulate, 
about 1.5 mm. long, the second cuneate, about 2 mm. long, firm, very scabrous; 
lemma about 2 mm. long, obtuse. Eatonia robusta Rydb. River banks: Neb. 
N.M. Ariz. Wash. Plain. My-Jl. 

2. S. obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. Stem 3-7 dm. high, erect, glabrous; leaf- 
blades 3-20 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 5-15 cm. long, dense and 
spike-like, strict; spikelets crowded, 2.5-3 mm. long; first glume linear-subulate, 
the second cuneate, 1.5 mm. long and about as broad; lemma 1.5-2 mm. long, 
obtuse. E. obtusata A. Gray. Prairies, meadows and valleys: Mass. Fla. 
Ariz. Mont.; Mex. Plain Submont. Ap-Au. 

3. S. intermedia Rydb. Stem 6-8 dm. high, striate, shining; leaf -blades 
8-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, usually flat; inflorescence rather narrow and dense; 
first empty glume about 2 mm. long, subulate, scabrous on the back. E. inter- 
media Rydb. Meadows: Sask. >N.M. Wash. Plain -Submont. Jl-S. 

4. S. pallens (Spreng.) Scribn. Stem glabrous, 3-10 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 5-15 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 7-20 cm. long, usually 
nodding, lax; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long; first empty glume subulate, slightly 
shorter than the second; lemma lanceolate, acute, about 3 mm. long. E. penn- 
sylvanica A. Gray. Open woods and among bushes: N.B. Ga. N.M. B.C. 
Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

60. MELICA L. MELIC-GRASS. 

Perennials with rootstocks, the stem often bulbous at the base. Panicles in 
our species narrow, often raceme-like. Spikelets rather few, erect or nodding, 
1-several-flowered, the lower flowers perfect, sometimes 1 or 2 staminate, and 
the upper neutral. Empty glumes membranous or hyaline, unequal in length. 
Lemma larger, membranous, the lateral nerves vanishing in the broad hyaline 
margins; upper empty lemmas gradually smaller, convolute and enclosing each 
other, forming an obovate or clavate mass. Palet shorter than the lemma, 
2-keeled. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 



GRASS FAMILY 71 

Lemma notched at the apex, awned. i JUT Gmifhn 

Lemma neither notched nor awned. 
Lemma attenuate at the apex. 

First empty glume 4 mm. long; second 5-6 mm. long. 2 M subulatn 

First empty glume 6 mm. long; second about 8 mm. long. 3'. M. Pammelii. 

AjGlTHTlci ODtU.SC. 

Stem bulbous at the base. 

Panicle narrow; lemma 7-8 mm. long. 

Spikelets usually nodding, flattened; second empty glume shorter than 
the first flower. 4 ^f snectabilis 

Spikelets erect, terete; second empty glume as long as the first flower 

5. M. bella. ' 

Panicle open; lemma 6 mm. long. 6 M Marbritipi 

Stem not bulbous at the base. 7. M. Porteri 

1. M. Smithii (Porter) Vasey. Perennial with a rootstock; stem 7-12 dm. 
high, scabrous; leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, 6-12 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 1-3 
dm. long, its branches at last spreading or reflexed; spikelets 3-6-flowered; first 
empty glume 4-6 mm. long, obscurely 3-nerved; second glume 6-8 mm. long, 
5-nerved; lemma about 10 mm. long, strongly nerved; awn 3-5 mm. long. Af. 
retrofracta Suksd. Damp shady places: Mich. Wyo. Ore. Wash Mont 
Jl-Au. 

2. M. subulata (Griseb.) Scribn. Stem with a bulbous base, 5-10 dm. 
high, smooth; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 5-12 mm. broad, scabrous; panicle nar- 
row, the erect pedicels swollen just below the spikelets; spikelets 5-6-flowered; 
empty glumes acute, scabrous on the keel and ciliate at the apex; lemma about 
12 mm. long, with scattered hairs below, attenuate. Woods: n Calif. Mont. 
Alta. Alaska. Mont. My-Au. 

3. M. Pammelii Scribn. Stem with tuberous base, 5-10 dm. high; leaves 
flat, 1-3 dm. long; panicle flexuose, with erect branches, scabrous; spikelets 3-6- 
flowered, lanceolate or oblong; empty glumes obtuse or acutish; lemma 9-10 
mm. long, 9-neryed, lanceolate, acuminate, broadly scarious-margined ; palet 
densely ciliate, fringed along the nerves. Parks: Wyo. Submont. Jl. 

4. M. spectabilis Scribn. Stem 3-9 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 
2-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle narrow; spikelets 10-12 mm. long, 5-7-flowered, 
usually purple; lower empty glume 5 mm. long, the upper 6-7 mm. long, acutish; 
lemma 7-8 mm. long, minutely scabrous. M. scabrata Piper & Beattie. Hill- 
sides and meadows: B.C. Ore. Colo. Mont. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

5. M. bella Piper. Stem 4-6 dm. high, simple; leaf-blades 1-3 dm. long, 
3-5 mm. wide, scabrous above; panicle narrow; spikelets 10-15 mm. long, 6-9- 
flowered; empty glumes obtuse, the first 6 mm. long, the second about 8 mm. 
long; lemma about as long, obtuse. M. bulbosa Geyer. Meadows and hill- 
sides: Wash. Ore. Utah Colo. Alta. Submont. Mont. My-Au. 

6. M. Macbridei Rowland. Stem slender, 2-5 dm. high, as well as the 
sheaths hispidulous-scabrous; leaf-blades 1-4 mm. wide, flat; panicle open; rays 
1-3 at each node, some sessile, others peduncled and reflexed; spikelets 2-5- 
flowered, 7-13 mm. long; first glume 4 mm. long, 3-nerved; second glume 6 mm. 
Lng, 5-nerved; lemma 6 mm. long, thick, scabrous, obtusely 2-fid. Dry slopes: 
Ida. Je. 

7. M. Porteri Scribn. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem 4-7 dm. high, 
smooth; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle narrow, 12-15 
cm. long; spikelets 4-5-flowered, nodding, 10-13 mm. long; empty glumes obtuse 
or acutish, the first about 3 mm., the second 5 mm. long; lemma 3-5 mm. long, 
scabrous. M. parviflora (Porter) Scribn. Plains and hills: Tex. Kans. 
Colo. Ariz. Submont. Mont. Je-S. 

61. DACTYLIS L. ORCHARD-GRASS. 

Tall perennials, with creeping rootstocks. Panicles contracted, with the 
spikelets crowded at the ends of the branches in unilateral head-like clusters. 
Spikelets 3-5-flowered, the flowers perfect or the uppermost staminate. Empty 
glumes unequal, 1-3-nerved, mucronate, the second the larger. Lemma more 
rigid, ciliate on the keel, mucronate or short-awned. Palet nearly as long, 2- 
keeled. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 



72 POACEAE 

1. D. glomerata L. Stem 6-12 dm. high, smooth; leaf -blades 7-25 cm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat, scabrous; panicle 7-20 cm. long; branches ascending or 
spreading in flower, erect in fruit; lemma 5-6 mm. long, pointed or short-awned. 
Fields and waste places: N.B. Fla. Calif. B.C.; nat. from Eu. Plain 
Mont. Je-Jl. 

62. BRIZA L. QUAKING GRASS, QUAKE-GRASS. 

Annuals or perennials, with open panicles. Spikelets fe\v, nodding, flattened, 
broad, many-flowered, the flowers perfect. Empty glumes strongly concave, 
thin-membranous, 3-5-nerved, somewhat unequal. Lemmas imbricate, broader 
than the empty glumes, 5-many-nerved. Palet much shorter, hyaline, 2-keeled 
and 2-nerved. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. 

1. B. maxima L. Stem 3-5 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 
3-6 mm. wide, scabrous on the veins; spikelets 2-10, nodding, 1-2 cm. long, 
8-12 mm. wide; empty glumes nearly orbicular, glabrous; lemma similar, but 
more or less pilose. Fields and waste places: Mass. W. Ind. Colo. Calif.; 
adv. from Eurasia. Plain Submont. 

63. DISTICHLIS Raf. ALKALI GRASS, SALT-GRASS, SPIKE-GRASS. 

Tufted dioecious perennials, with creeping scaly rootstocks. Inflorescence 
paniculate. Staminate spikelets many-flowered, very flat. Rachilla continu- 
ous. Empty glumes narrow, acute, keeled, membranous. Lemma broader, 
membranous. Pistillate spikelets few-flowered, less flattened. Lemma nearly 
coriaceous, broad. Palet compressed, the keels narrowly winged. Styles 
thickened at the base, moderately long; stigmas plumose. 

Pistillate spikes 4-5 mm. wide; their floral glumes about 1.5 mm. wide in side- view; 

palet scabrous-ciliate on the keels; leaf-blades 2 mm. wide or less. 1. D. stricta. 

Pistillate spikes 58 mm. wide; their floral glumes about 2 mm. wide in side-view: palet 

distinctly dentate on the margins; leaf-blades usually over 2 mm. wide. 2. D. dentata. 

D. stricta (Torr.) Rydb. Stem 1-4 dm. high, erect or decumbent at the 
base; leaf -blades erect, 5-15 cm. long, more or less involute, long-attenuate; 
panicle of the pistillate plant 3-6 cm. long, dense and spike-like; spikelets 8-15 
mm. long; empty glumes lanceolate, acuminate, about 5 mm. long; the second a 
little broader than the first, scarious-margined ; lemma 5-6 mm. long, acute, 
straw-colored with greenish nerves; palet 4-5 mm. long; panicle of the staminate 
plant looser, 3-10 cm. long; spikelets more flattened, 1-2.5 cm. long, straw- 
colored; lemma narrower, 6-7 mm. long. D. spicata Coult & Nels., not Greene. 
Alkaline soil: Sask. Tex. Ariz. B.C. Wash. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

2. D. dentata Rydb. Stem 1-3 dm. high, very leafy; leaf -blades 5-12 cm. 
long, 2-3.5 mm. wide, flat or slightly involute; panicle of the pistillate plant 4-8 
cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. wide; spikelets 1-2 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, 7-17-flowered; 
empty glumes lanceolate, about 5 mm. long, short-acuminate; lemma ovate in 
lateral view, 6 mm. long, short-acuminate; palet nearly as long; panicle of stam- 
inate plant nearly as in the preceding. Alkaline soil: Sask. Wash. 

64. POA L. BLUE-GRASS, MEADOW-GRASS. 

Annuals or perennials, rarely dioecious, with paniculate inflorescence. Spike- 
lets 2-6-flowered, flat, the flowers perfect or in some species unisexual, the rachis 
articulate between the flowers. Empty glumes persistent, strongly keeled, acute, 
the first usually 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved. Lemma usually longer, more 
or less keeled, acute or obtuse, awnless, 5-nerved, often pubescent on the keel 
and marginal nerve, as well as the rachis, the hairs near the base sometimes long 
and curled (cobweb). Palet shorter than the lemma, 2-keeled and 2-nerved. 
Styles short; stigmas plumose. 

Annuals, but tufted; spikelets 3-5-flowered. I. ANNUAE. 

Perennials. 

Cobweb at the base of the lemma present, although scant in some species; lemma 
acute or acutish, except in P. compressa and P. lanata, and usually strongly keeled. 
Intermediate nerves of the lemma strong. 

Branches of the inflorescence in fruit ascending, the lower in 3's or 4's; lemma 
acutish; cobweb copious; rootstock creeping. II. PRATENSES. 



GRASS FAMILY 7 

Branches of the inflorescence in fruit reflexed or at least spreading; lemma 

usually acuminate or very acute; cobweb scant or sometimes none. 
Spikelets many, light green; branches of the inflorescence numerous, the 

lower in 3's, or 4's, or 5's; rootstock creeping. III. PLATYPHYLLAE. 

Spikelets few, usually more or less purple, except in P. leptocoma; branches 
of the inflorescence few, the lower usually in 2's, rarely in 3's, spikelet- 
bearing towards the ends. IV. REFLEX AE. 

Intermediate nerves of the lemma faint or obsolete. 

Stem compressed; lemma obtuse. V. COMPRESSAE. 

Stem not compressed; lemma acute or acuminate. 

Branches of the panicles reflexed; rootstock creeping. VI. APERTAE. 
Branches of the panicles not reflexed. VII. TRIFLORAE. 

Cobweb wanting. 

Spikelets rounded at the base; empty glumes very broad and their keel strongly 
arched; low tufted perennials, with short open panicle and broad leaves. 

VIII. ALPINAE. 
Spikelets acute at the base; empty glumes narrower, not strongly arched on their 

keels. 
Plants with horizontal creeping rootstocks; not bunch-grasses. 

Spikelets strongly compressed; lemma strongly keeled, strongly 5-nerved,. 
conspicuously scabrous; glumes very acute. IX. WHEELERIANAE. 
Spikelets not strongly compressed; lemma neither strongly compressed: 
nor strongly nerved (except in P. pratensiformis), not conspicuously 
scabrous. 
Lemma acuminate, dark purple; innovations extravaginal. 

X. PHOENICEAE. 

Lemma obtuse or acutish, green or merely tinged with purple; innova- 
tions both extra- and intra vaginal. XI. ARIDAE. 
Plants without extra vaginal rootstocks; densely tufted bunch-grasses. 
Lemma 3-4 mm. long. 

Low alpine plants, with narrow panicles of few purplish spikelets; 

lemma ovate. XII. RUPICOLAE. 

Slender plants, 4-5 dm. high, with open panicles; lemma narrowly 

lanceolate in side-view. XIII. MULTNOMAE. 

Lemma 5 mm. long or more; plants comparatively robust. * 

Spikelets decidedly flattened; lemma acute and keeled on the back. 
Pubescence on the nerves of the lemma, if any, not stronger than. 

on the internerves; flowers perfect. 
Inflorescence dense and spike-like. XIV. EPILES. 

Inflorescence open; branches spikelet-bearing towards their 

ends. XV. GRAOILLIMAE. 

Pubescence of the nerves of the lemma villous or pilose, that of the 
internerves none or almost none; plants dioecious. 

XVI. FENDLERIANAE. 

Spikelets little flattened ; lemma rounded on the backs towards the- 
apex, almost straight, obtuse. XVII. BUCKLEYANAE. 

I. ANNTJAE. 

Low, 1-2 dm. high; branches of the panicle spreading. 1. P. annua. 

Taller, erect, 2-5 dm. high; branches of the panicle erect. 2. P. Bigelovii. 

II. PRATENSES. 

Lemma 3-4 mm. long; ligule truncate. 3. P. pratensis. 

Lemma 5 mm. long; ligule not truncate. 4. P. rhizomata. 

III. PLATYPHYLLAE. 

Ligules truncate or abruptly acute. 5. P. occidentalis. 

Ligules lanceolate, long attenuate. 6. P. callida. 

IV. REFLEXAE. 
Cobweb present but often scant. 

Lemmas obtuse; cobweb dense. 7. P. lanata. 

Lemmas acute or acuminate; cobweb scant. 

Internerves of the lemma more or less pubescent, at least below. 

Spikelets 3-4-flowered; stem-leaves usually folded or involute; plant usually 

less than 3 dm. high, tufted. 
Internerves of the lemma short-pubescent below; leaves filiform, involute; 

those of the sterile shoots usually arcuate. 8. P. cenisia. 
Internerves of the lemma long-hairy, at least below; leaves 1-2 mm. wide, 

usually conduplicate, rather firm. 
Plant low, 1-3 dm. high, usually cespitose; lemma acute. 

9. P. arctica. 
Plant tall, 3-5 dm. high, not cespitose, with a creeping rootstock; 

floral glumes acuminate. 10. P. longipila. 

Spikelets 5-7-flowered; leaves all flat, 3-4 mm. wide; stem fully 3 dm. high. 

11. P. callichroa. 
Internerves of the lemma glabrous; plants with creeping rootstocks. 

Intermediate nerves of the lemma pubescent; plant 3 dm. or less high; leaves 
mostly basal, firm; stem-leaves 1-2, usually conduplicate. 

12. P. pudica. 



74 POACEAE 

Intermediate nerves of the lemma glabrous; plant usually over 3 dm. high; 

stem-leaves several, flat and flaccid. 

Hairs of the mid nerves and lateral nerves copious and spreading. 
Lemma ovate, abruptly acute, usually purple. 13. P. reflexa. 
Lemma lanceolate, gradually acute, usually pale green. 

14. P. ncrvosa. 
Hairs of the midnerves and lateral nerves few and appressed or none. 

15. P. leptocoma. 
Cobweb lacking; internerves and the intermediate nerves glabrous; midnerves and 

lateral nerves hairy; habit like P. arclica. 16. P. alpicola. 

V. COMPRESSAE. 
One species. 17. P. compressa. 

VI. APERTAE. 

Branches of the inflorescence short, usually in pairs. 18. P. aperta. 

Branches of the inflorescence very long, in 3's to 5's. 19. P. macroclada. 

VII. TRIFLORAE. 

Lemma 5 mm. long. 4. P. rhizomata. 

Lemma 3 mm. long or less. 

Stem stout; leaves 2-5 mm. wide; ligule 3-4 mm. long, triangular; branches of the 
panicle at last spreading ; second" glume narrower than the lemma, three- 
fourths as long or more. 20. P. triflora. 
Stem slender; leaves seldom over 2 mm. wide; ligule about 1 mm. long, truncate; 

branches of the panicle ascending or erect. 
Flowers green; the second empty glume with broad, scarious margins and strong 

lateral nerves 
Inflorescence with erect branches; second empty glume narrower than the 

lemma. 21. P. subtrivialis. 

Inflorescence with ascending branches; second empty glume not narrower 

than the lemma. 22. P. interior. - 

Flowers usually purple-tinged; scarious margin of the empty glumes scarcely 
evident and lateral nerves faint. 23. P. crocata. 

VIII. ALPINAE. 
One species. 24. P. alpina. 

IX. WHEELERIANAE. 
Lower sheaths retrorsely strigulose. 

Internerves of the acute lemma merely strigulose or scabrous. 
Nerves of the lemma scabrous ; ligules short, truncate. 

Branches of the inflorescence ascending. 25. P. Olneyae. 

Branches of the inflorescence reflexed. 26. P. subreflexa. 

Nerves of the lemma silky or villous on the lower portion. 

Ligules 2 mm. long, truncate; leaf-blades narrow, ascending. 

27. P. Wheeleri. 
Ligules 4-5 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate; leaf-blades broad, spreading. 

28. P. Vaseyana. 
Internerves of the obtusish lemma villous, at least below. 29. P. tricholepis. 

Leaf-sheaths all glabrous and smooth. 

Ligules lanceolate, acute, 3 mm. long. 30. P. Tracyi. 

Ligules truncate, about 1 mm. long. 31. P. curia. 

X. PHOENICEAE. 
Plant tall, 4 dm. high or more; nerves and internerves of the lemma villous. 

32. P. Grayana. 
Plant low, usually less than 3 dm. high; internerves of lemma glabrous. 

16. P; alpicola. 

XI. ARIDAE. 
Internerves of the lemma pubescent, at least below; stem stout; inflorescence dense; 

ligules acute. 
Intermediate nerves of the lemma strong; plant tall; glumes 5 mm. long. 

33. P. pralensiformis. 
Intermediate nerves of the lemma weak; glumes 3-4 mm. long. 

Keel and the marginal nerves of the lemma villous; empty glumes equalling the 

lemma. 34. P. arida. 

Keel and marginal nerves of the lemma short-hairy, with appressed hairs ; empty 

glumes shorter than the lemma. 35. P. Sheldoni. 

Internerves of the lemma glabrous; stem slender; inflorescence open; ligule obtuse. 

36. P. glaucifolia. 

XII. RUPICOLAE. 

Midnerve and lateral nerves of the lemma pubescent ; plant strict, 15 dm. high. 

Cobweb at the base of the flowers scant; stem slender and leafy, usually 3-5 dm. 

high. 23. P. crocata. 

Cobweb none; stem 1-2 (seldom 3) dm. high, leafy mostly at the base. 

Flowering glumes 3 mm. long or less, firm, obtuse. 37. P. rupicola. 

Flowering glumes about 4 mm. long, acute, thin. 38. P. Pattersoni. 

Nerves of the lemma glabrous; plant seldom over 5 cm. high. 39. P. Leltermani. 



GRASS FAMILY 75 

XIIT. MULTNOMAE. 

One species. 40 . p. Multnomae. 

XIV. EPTLES. 
Plant green; lemma purple or dark green, abruptly acute; ligules acute. 

Blades of the stem-leaves about 3 mm. wide, flat; lemma more than 5 mm lone 
. . dark purple. 41. P. paddensis. 

Blades of the stem-leaves 1-2 mm. wide; lemma 4-5 mm. long. 

Lemma purple, minutely scabrous, nearly smooth. 42. P. Cusickii 

Lemma green, only tinged with purple, hispidulous-scabrous. 

Plant pale; lemma very pale, long-attenuate or subcuspidate; leaves all filiform 
Ligules lanceolate, acuminate. 

Panicle thick; branches with several 5-7-flowered spikelets; leaves very scabrous. 

44. P. scaberrima. 
Panicle narrow, slender; branches very short, with 1-2, only 2-4-flowered spike- 

, lets - 45. P. nematophylla. 

Ligules oblong, 1 mm. long, truncate; panicle dense and spike-like. 

46. P. subaristata. 

XV. GRACII.LIMAE. 

Lemma linear-lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long. 47. p idahoensis 

Lemma ovate, 4-5 mm. long. 

Plant 1-3 dm. high; panicle with ascending branches and many spikelets. 

Plant 0.5-1.5 dm. high; panicle with divaricate branches and few spikelets. 

49. P. Vaseyochloa. 

XVI. FENDLERIANAE. 

Ligules 5-7 mm. long, acute or acuminate. 50. P. longiligula. 

Ligules short, rounded or truncate, or those of the innovations obsolete. 
Leaf-blades erect; spikelets 3-5- (rarely 6-7-) flowered. 

Lemma oblong; leaf-blades very slender, scabrous. 51. P. scabriuscula 

Lemma ovate; leaf-blades more rigid. 

Panicle very narrow, its branches erect and spikelet-bearing to the base; 
lemma 4 mm. long. 52. P. longipedunculata. 

Panicle more open, its branches ascending, usually naked at the base. 

Plant low; panicle short; lemma 3.5-4 mm. long. 53. P. brevipaniculata. 
Plant tall; panicle elongated; lemma 5 mm. long. 54. P. Fendleriana. 
Leaf-blades spreading; spikelets 7-9- (rarely 5-6-) flowered. 55. P. Eatoni. 

XVII. BUCKLEYANAE. 

i.igules lanceolate, acuminate or attenuate. 

Empty glumes strongly nerved, elongate-lanceolate, almost equalling the very scab- 
rous or strigose lemma. 

Leaves 4-0 mm. wide, flat. 56. P. Canbyi. 

Leaves 1-3 mm. wide, conduplicate or involute. 

Lemma strongly scabrous; leaves stiff; plant stout. 57. P. nevadensis. 
Lemma strigose, at least below; leaves filiform, flaccid; plant slender. 

58. P. Helleri. 
Empty glumes not strongly nerved, ovate-lanceolate, usually much shorter than the 

lemma. 
Plant yellowish green ; spikelets yellowish or straw-colored. 

Lemma merely scabrous. 59. P. laevigata. 

Lemma more or less strigose on the lower portion. 60. P. lucida. 
Plant dark green; spikelets dark green or purplish. 

Leaf-blades almost 2 mm. wide, flat or conduplicate; lemma more than 4 mm. 

long. 61. P. Buckleyana. 

Leaf-blades less than 1 mm. wide, filiform, involute; lemma less than 4 mm. long. 

62. P. Sandbergii. 
Ligules 1-2 mm. long, truncate, rounded or abruptly acute. 

Plant 2-4 dm. high; leaves mostly basal and stiff, short, seldom 8 cm. long; ligules 

rounded. 63. P. junci folia. 

Plant taller, 4-10 dm. high, leafy: leaves longer. 

Internerves of the lemma glabrous; nerves silky. 36. P. glaucifolia. 

Internerves of the lemma as well as the nerves scabrous. 

Leaves filiform, less than 1 mm. wide. 64. P. brachyglossa. 

Leaves flat or involute, but not filiform, 2-5 mm. wide. 
Ligules ovate or rounded, acute or obtuse; leaves soft. 

65. P. con f usa. 
Ligules truncate; leaves stiff. 

Inflorescence very narrow; branches erect. 66. P. truncata. 
Inflorescence more open, lobed; branches ascending. 

67. P. ampla. 

1. P. annua L. Stems usually decumbent and branched at the base or 
erect; ligules rounded at the apex, 2 mm. long; leaf -blades flat, flaccid, 1-10 cm. 
long, 1.5-3 mm. wide; panicle 1-10 cm. long; spikelets 3-5 mm. long; empty 
.-glumes smooth, the first lanceolate, acute, 1.5 mm. long, the second obtuse, 



76 POACEAE 

nearly 2 mm. long; lemma 2.5-3 mm. long, the nerves pilose below. Waste 
places and cultivated ground: Lab. Ga. Calif. B.C.; Mex.; nat. from Eu. 
Plain Mont. My-O. 

2. P. Bigelovii Vasey & Scribn. Annual, usually more or less tufted; 
ligules lanceolate, 3 mm. long; leaf-blades flat, flaccid, 5-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. 
wide; panicle 5-15 cm. long, narrow; spikelets 4-6 mm. long, compressed; empty 
glumes glabrous, lanceolate, acute, nearly as long as the lemma; lemma 3-4 mm. 
long, subacute, villous on the midrib and marginal nerves; cobweb scant. Arid 
regions: Tex. Colo. Utah Calif. L. Calif. Son. Submont. 

3. P. pratensis L. Stem 3-12 dm. high, smooth; leaf -blades 1-6 mm. wide, 
those of the stem 5-15 cm. long, the basal ones longer; panicle 5-20 cm. long, 
ovate or conical: spikelets 3-6-flowered, 4-5 mm. long; midvein and marginal 
veins of the lemma silky below, the intermediate ones glabrous. Meadows, 
fields and woods: Greenl. Fla. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Plain Subalp. 
Je-Au. 

4. P. rhizomata Hitchc. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stem 3-6 
dm. high, smooth; sheaths smooth, the lower loose and papery; ligules 2-3 mm. 
long; blades mostly flat, 1-2 mm. wide, 3-7 cm. long; panicle 3-5 cm. long; 
spikelets 3-4-flowered; first glume 3 mm. long, the second 4 mm. long; lemma 
5 mm. long, acutish, copiously webbed at the base; keel and marginal nerves 
short-pilose below; internerves sparingly scabrous. Damp woods: Calif. Ida. 
Ap-Je. 

5. P. occidentalis Vasey. Stem 3-10 dm. high; sheaths flattened, scab- 
rous; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, flat, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle large, 1.5-3 
dm. long, loose; spikelets 2-4-flowered, 4-6 mm. long, light green; empty glumes 
acute, scarious margined, unequal; lemma 3-4 mm. long, slightly pubescent 
below and on the keel; cobweb scant. P. platyphylla Nash & Rydb. Rich 
hillsides: N.M. Colo. Utah. Submont. Subalp. My-Au. 

6. P. callida Rydb. Stem 3-5 dm. high, somewhat flexuose; leaf-blades 
flat, flaccid, 5-12 cm. long, about 3 mm. wide; panicle open, 1-1.5 dm. long; 
spikelets about 3 mm. long, 2- or 3-flowered, light green; first empty glume sub- 
ulate, 2 mm. long, the second slightly broader, 2.5 mm. long, glabrous; lemma 
3 mm. long, glabrous except the keel, which is slightly silky below; cobweb scant 
but long. Warm springs: Mont. Jl. 

7. P. lanata Scribn. & Merr. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stem 
2.5-4 dm. high; sheath loose, the lower marcescent, scabrous; ligule 4 mm. long, 
obtuse; blades 2-4 mm. wide, conduplicate or involute; inflorescence open; 
branches in pairs, 2-3 cm. long, with 1-3 spikelets near the ends; spikelets 3-6- 
flowered; lemma purple, 6-7 mm. long. Subarctic situations: Alaska B.C. 
Subarct. 

8. P. cenisia All. Stem 1-3 dm. high, slender; ligules 1-2 mm. long, trun- 
cate; blades 2-10 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, involute; panicle 2-8 cm. long, open; 

r -1 :elets 2-4-flowered, 5-6 mm. long, purplish; empty glumes glabrous; lemma 
ut 4 mm. long. Arctic-alpine situations: Greenl. Lab. Colo. Alaska; 
Eu. Alp. Jl-Au. 

9. P. arctica R. Br. Stems 1-3 dm. high, smooth, erect or decumbent at 
the base; ligules erose-truncate; basal leaf -blades 5-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; 
stem-leaves shorter and often flat; panicle open, 5-10 cm. long; spikelets purple; 
empty glumes 3-3.5 mm. long, glabrous; lemma 4 mm. long, acute. Alpine- 
arctic situations: Arctic Sea N.M. Utah. Alp. Jl-Au. 

10. P. longipila Nash. Stem 3-5 dm. high; ligules broad, obtuse or acut- 
ish; leaf -blades erect, acuminate, 3-8 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, flat; panicle 6-9 
cm. long; spikelets 6-8 mm. long, 3-4-flowered, purple; lemma 5-6 mm. long; 
cobweb copious and long. Wet places: Wyo. Mont. Submont. 

11. P. callichroa Rydb. Perennial, with a horizontal rootstock, but more 
or less matted; stem about 3 dm. high; blades of the lower leaves 6-10 cm. long, 
firm, dark-green, strongly veined; blades of the upper leaves about 3 cm. long, 



GRASS FAMILY 77 

erect; pa'nicle 6-9 cm. long, open; spikelets 6-8 mm. long, 5-7-flpwered; empty 
glumes about 5 mm. long, purple with greenish or brownish margins; lemma 4-5 
mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate, green below, then purple, then brown, and 
white and scarious above; nerves and internerves more or less villous; cobweb 
scant. Mountain peaks: Colo. -Wyo. Subalp. Mont. Au. 

12. P. pudica Rydb. Stem 2-3 dm. high; lower leaves with short loose 
sheaths; ligules truncate, about 2 mm. long; blades 4-5 cm. long, usually con- 
duplicate, strongly nerved; panicle 4-8 cm. long; spikelets 4-5 mm. long, mostly 
3-flowered; empty glumes strongly veined, usually purple, acuminate; lemma 
lanceolate, sharp-acuminate, greenish below, then purplish, and scarious at the 
apex. Alpine meadows: Colo. Subalp. Alp. Au. 

13. P. reflexa Vasey & Scribn. Stem 3-5 dm. high, slender, erect, smooth; 
ligules 2 mm. long, obtuse; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; panicle 
5-10 cm. long; spikelets 2-3-flowered, 3-4 mm. long, usually purple; empty 
glumes acuminate, smooth; lemma very acute. Wet meadows: Alta. N.M. 
Utah Ore. B.C. Submont. Subalp. 

14. P. nervosa (Hook.) Vasey. Stem 4-7 dm. high, slender, smooth; 
ligules truncate; blades of stem-leaves 2-7 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; those of the 
basal leaves 1.5-2.5 dm. long; panicle 5-12 cm. long, open; spikelets 3-8-flowered, 
flat, lax and flexuose; empty glumes linear-lanceolate, 4 mm. long; lemma linear- 
lanceolate, slightly scabrous on the nerves. Wet places: B.C. Calif. Mont. 
Mont. Subalp. 

15. P. leptocoma Trin. Stems 3-6 dm. high, smooth; ligules obtuse; leaf- 
blades flat, flaccid, 1-3 mm. wide, 4-10 cm. long; panicle open, 5-10 cm. long; 
spikelets 2-3-flowered, about 6 mm. long, green or merely tinged with purple; 
first empty glume about 3 mm. long, the second 3.5 mm. long; lemma linear- 
lanceolate^ gradually acute. Boggy places: Alta. Colo. Wash. Alaska. 
Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

16. P. alpicola Nash. More or less tufted perennial; ligules acute, 2 mm. 
long; leaf -blades 3-10 cm. long, often involute or conduplicate, 1-2 mm. wide; 
inflorescence rather narrow, 3-5 cm. long; branches short; spikelets 5-7 mm. 
long, 2-4-flowered, more or less tinged with purple; empty glumes subequal, 
glabrous, about 3 mm. long; lemma ovate, acute, glabrous. P. laxa Thurber, 
not Haenke. Alpine: Colo. Utah (? Ida.) Alp. Jl-Au. 

17. P. compressa L. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stem 1.5-4 
dm. high, decumbent at the base, much flattened, smooth; ligules truncate; 
leaf-blades bluish green, stiff, erect, 2-10 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide, often 
convolute, scabrous above; panicle narrow, with ascending short branches, 
spikelet-bearing to near the base; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 3-9 mm. long; empty 
glumes acute, nearly equal; lemma 2-2.8 mm. long, obtuse; cobweb scant. 
Waste places, cultivated grounds, and woodlands: N.H. N.C. Calif. B.C. 
Yukon; Eurasia. Plain Mont. Je-Jl. 

18. P. aperta Scribn. & Merr. Stem 4-5 dm. high, erect, wiry; ligules 
acute; leaf-blades firm, striate, minutely scabrous, glaucous, 5-15 cm. long, 
2 mm. wide; panicle ovate; spikelets purplish, 5-6 mm. long, 3-4-flowered; 
lemma lanceolate, minutely pubescent throughout; cobweb conspicuous. Moun- 
tains: N.M. Wyo. Mont. Subalp. Au-S. 

19. P. macroclada Rydb. Stem 6-8 dm. high; ligules ovate, acute; leaf- 
blades 7-10 cm. long, 2 mm. or less wide, flat, glabrous, firm and dark green; 
panicle 2-3 dm. long, open; spikelets often about 5 mm. long; lemma lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, glabrous, slightly purple-tinged; cobweb scant. Moun- 
tains: Colo. Mont. 

20. P. triflora Gilib. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stem 4-12 dm. 
high, erect, smooth; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide; panicle 1.5-3 dm. 
long, open; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 3-5 mm. long; empty glumes glabrous, scab- 
rous on the keel; lemma obtuse, 2-3 mm. long; midnerve and lateral nerves 
pubescent below. P. serotina Ehrh. P. flam Auth., not L. Meadows and 
swampy places: Newf. N.J. Calif. B.C.; Eurasia. Plain Mont. Jl-Au. 



78 POACEAE 

21. P. subtrivialis Rydb. Perennial, with a rootstock; stem slender, 4-6' 
dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades erect, flaccid, 8-15 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide, 
flat, dark green; panicle 1-2 dm. long; spikelets light green, 3-4 mm. long, 2-3- 
flowered; lemma 2.5 mm. long, glabrous; cobweb very scant. Meadows: Wyo.. 
Ida. Mont. 

22. P. interior Rydb. Tufted perennial; stem slender, 3-6 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 2-8 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide, glabrous; panicle 4-10 cm. long; spike- 
lets 2-5-flowered, 3-5 mm. long; lemma 2-2.5 mm. long, scabrous on the mid- 
nerve and lateral nerves. P. nemoralis Scribn., not L. Woods and copses: 
S.D. Neb. N.M. Utah Wash. Alaska. PlainMont. 

23. P. crocata Michx. Tufted perennial; stems strict, erect, 2-4 dm. high; 
leaf-blades narrow, erect, 1-2 mm. wide, 4-10 cm. long, usually involute; panicle 
rather narrow, 5-15 cm. long; spikelets 2-4-flowered, about 4 mm. long; lemma, 
about as long as the glumes, pubescent on the midnerve and lateral nerves. P. 
nemoralis strictior A. Gray. Dry hills and meadows: Lab. Vt. Minn. Colo. 
Ariz. Alaska. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

24. P. alpina L. Stem 0.5-4 cm. high, erect or decumbent at the base; 
ligules truncate; leaf-blades 2-8 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, abruptly acute, flat; 
panicle 2-8 cm. long; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 5-6 mm. long; empty glumes broad,, 
glabrous, acute, scabrous on the keel; lemma about 4 mm. long, obtuse, its 
lower half pubescent. Alpine-arctic regions in wet places: Greenl. Que. 
Colo. Utah Alaska; Eu. Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

25. P. Olneyae Piper. Stem 3-8 dm. high, glabrous; blades of the basal 
leaves 1-2 dm. long, often conduplicate, 2-3 mm. wide, those of the stem-leaves 
3-6 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, flat; panicle pale green, about 1 dm. long, drooping, 
open; spikelets 7-10 mm. long, 4-6-flowered; lemma ovate, 5 mm. long. P. 
Wheeleri Auth., not Vasey. Pine woods and meadows: Mont. Colo. Ore. 
B.C. Submont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

26. P. subreflexa Rydb. Stem ascending, 5-6 dm. tall; leaf -blades flat; 
flaccid, 7-10 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, spreading; panicle open, about 1 dm. long,, 
spikelets pale green, 6-7 mm. long, 3- or 4-flowered; lemma lanceolate, 5 mm., 
long. Wooded banks: Colo. Mont. 'Subalp. Jl. 

27. P. Wheeleri Vasey. Stem simple, 2-6 dm. high; leaf -blades 2-20 cm. 
long, 3 mm. wide, the lower involute or conduplicate; panicle open, 8-12 cm., 
long; spikelets 6-7 mm. long, 3-5-flowered, light green, rarely tinged with purple; 
lemma lanceolate, acute, 5 mm. long. Meadows: Alta. -Colo. 'Utah B.C. 
Submont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

28. P. Vaseyana Scribn. Stem 5-7 dm. high; leaf-blades flat, 5-30 cm. 
long, 4-5 mm. broad; panicle open, 10-15 cm. long; spikelets often tinged with 
purple, 4-6-flowered, 8-10 mm. long; lemma 5.5-6.5 mm. long. Mountain 
meadows: Colo. -Wyo. Mont. Subalp. Au. 

29. P. tricholepis Rydb. Stem slender, 3-5 dm. high; leaf -blades 5-10 cm. 
long, a little over 1 mm. wide, scabrous; stem-leaves 2-6 cm. long, sometimes 
nearly 2 mm. wide; ligules lanceolate, acuminate; panicle 6-8 cm. long, open; 
spikelets 3-4-flowered, 5-8 mm. long; lemma about 4 mm. long, green, bordered 
with purple and a scarious border. Mountains: Colo. Mont. 'Alp. Jl-Au. 

30. P. Tracyi Vasey. Stem 3-8 dm. high; leaf -blades 6-12 cm. long, 2-6 
mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 3-5-flowered, light green, 
loose; lemma finely strigulose-scabrous, especially on the nerves, 4-5 mm. long, 
P. occidentalis (Vasey) Rydb., not Vasey. Mountains: N.M. Colo. 'Utah.. 
Submont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

31. P. curta Rydb. Stem glabrous, 4-5 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-5 cm. long, 
3-5 mm. wide, abruptly acute, dark green; inflorescence short, open, 4-5 cm. 
long; spikelets light green, strongly compressed, about 6 mm. long, 2-4-flowered; 
lemma lanceolate. Wooded banks: Wyo. Mont. Jl. 

32. P. Grayana Vasey. Stem 5-6 dm. high, leafy; ligules triangular- 
lanceolate or ovate, acute; blades 1-2 dm. long, about 2 mm. wide; panicle 6-10 
cm. long, open; spikelets 4-5-flowered, 6-7 mm. long; lemma lanceolate, green 



GRASS FAMILY 7$ 

at the base, purple in the middle and brownish-scarious at the top. P. Phoenicia 
Rydb. Mountains: Colo. Alp. Au. 

33. P. pratensiformis Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades flat, 2-6 
mm. wide, those of the stem 2-7 cm. long, those of the sterile shoots 1.5-3 dm. 
long, scabrous on the margins; panicle 5-12 cm. long, spreading in anthesis. 
only; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 6-8 mm. long; empty glumes nearly equal, acute; 
lemma obtuse, silky-hairy on the nerves to the middle and pubescent all over 
near the base. P. pseudopratensis Scribn. & Rvdb., not Beyer. Wet places' 
S.D. Kans Utah. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

84. P. arida Vasey. Stem 2-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-15 cm. long, erect, 
flat, or becoming somewhat involute, striate; panicle narrow, dense, 7-15 cm. 
long; branches erect; spikelets 6-7 mm. long, 5-9-flowered; lemma obtuse, 
scarcely compressed. P. andina Nutt. P. pratericola Rydb. Prairies and 
meadows: Kan. -N.M. Utah Wyo. Plain -Subalp. 

35. P. Sheldon! Vasey. Stem rigid, 2-3 dm. high, smooth; blades of the 
basal leaves 5-10 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, rigid, flat or conduplicate; panicle 
narrow, 3-7 cm. long; spikelets about 6 mm. long, 3-4-flowered; lemma 4 mm. 
long, subobtuse, short-pubescent near the base, scarious at the apex. Dry hills: 
Colo. Wyo. Utah. Mont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

36. P. glaucifolia Scribn. & Williams. Stem about 6 dm. high, smooth, 
except at the nodes; leaf-blades flat, glaucous, 1.5-2 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; 
panicle open; spikelets compressed, 3-4-flowered; empty glumes ovate, obtuse or 
acutish, 3-nerved, scabrous on the back, about 4 mm. long; lemma obtuse, 
pubescent on the keel and nerves, 3-4 mm. long. Moist banks: S.D. Colo. 
Mont. Submont. -Mont. Jl-Au. 

37. P. rupicola Nash. Stems 1-3 dm. high, erect, rigid; ligules ovate, 2 mm. 
long; leaf-blades 1-4 cm. long, about 1 mm. wide, erect, involute; panicle 2-5 
cm. long, with short ascending branches; spikelets 2-4-flowered, 3-5 mm. long, 
purple; lemma with midvein and lateral nerves pubescent below, otherwise 
glabrous or scabrous. P. rupestris Vasey. High mountains: Mont. Colo. 
Utah Ore. Mont. Alp. Jl-Au. 

38. P. Pattersoni Vasey. Stem 5-40 cm. high; ligules 1 mm. long, trun- 
cate; leaf-blades 1-15 cm. long, about 1 mm. wide, conduplicate or flat, smooth; 
panicle dense; spikelets 4-6 mm. long, 2-5-flowered, purple; lemma pubescent 
on the keel and lateral veins below, otherwise glabrous. P. Gray ana Rydb. (Fl. 
Colo.), not Vasey, a large form. High mountains: Colo. Wyo. Utah. Alp. 
Jl-Au. 

39. P. Lettermani Vasey. Stem 2-10 cm. high; ligules acute; leaf-blades 
mostly flat, 1-3 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; panicle 1-3 cm. long, dense, narrow; 
spikelets 3-4 mm. long, 2-4-flowered, purplish; lemma 2 mm. long, ovate, acute, 
obscurely nerved, glabrous. P. Brandegei Scribn. Alpine peaks: Colo. Wyo. 
(? Wash.) Alp. Au. 

40. P. Multnomae Piper. Stems 1-4 dm. high, very slender, glabrous; 
ligules 1-2 mm. long; leaf-blades narrow, flat or conduplicate, 8-12 cm. long, 1-2 
mm. wide; panicle loose, 5-10 cm. long, usually pale' green; spikelets 5-7 mm. 
long, 3-5-flowered; lemma narrow, lanceolate, glabrous, slightly puberulent on 
the keel and marginal veins below. Cliffs: Ore. Wash. 'Mont. Submont. 
Je-Jl. 

41. P. paddensis Williams. Stem erect, 3-5 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades 
5-8 cm. long; panicle erect, dense, oblong, 4-8 cm. long; spikelets about 8 mm. 
long, 3-5-flowered, purple; empty glumes broadly scarious-margined, about 4 
mm. long; lemma 6 mm. long, minutely scabrous and villous at the base. P. 
purpurascens Vasey, not Spreng. P. subpurpurea Rydb. Mountains: B.C. 
Alta Colo. Wash. Alp. Jl-Au. 

42. P. Cusickii Vasey. Stem smooth, erect, 3-5 dm. high; basal leaf -blades 
filiform, 1 mm. wide, 7-12 cm. long; those of the stem-leaves 5-7 cm. long, erect; 
panicle dense, oblong, 3-10 cm. long; spikelets 8-10 mm. long, 3-5-flowered; 



80 POACEAE 

lemma about 5 mm. long, acute, scarious at the apex, finely scabrous-puberu- 
lent. Canons: B.C. Ida. Ore. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

43. P. epilis Scribn. Stem 4-6 dm. high; leaf-blades smooth, 2-20 cm. long, 
flat, or involute when dry; panicle dense, oblong, 3-7 cm. long; spikelets 3-4- 
ilowered, about 5 mm. long; empty glumes smooth, unequal, the first 2.5 mm. 
long, the second 3 mm. long; lemma about 4 mm. long. Mountains: Mont. 
Colo. Utah B.C. Mont. Alp. 

44. P. scaberrima Rydb. Stem 3-5 dm. high, 2- or 3-leaved, glabrous; 
blades of the basal leaves 8-15 cm. long, less than 1 mm. wide; those of the stem- 
leaves 1-5 cm. long, erect; panicle elliptic, dense, 4-7 cm. long; spikelets about 
1 cm. long; empty glumes ovate, nearly equal, 4-5 mm. long, glabrous; lemma 
ovate, acuminate, pale, slightly tinged with purple, 5-6 mm. long, strongly 
5-nerved, and conspicuously scabrous. Hills: Ida. Submont. Je. 

45. P. nematophylla Rydb. Stem about 3 dm. high; basal leaf-blades 1-1.5 
dm. long, less than 0.5 mm. wide; stem-leaves few, near the base; blades 3-5 cm. 
long; spikelets 7-9 mm. long; empty glumes about 4 mm. long, lanceolate, glab- 
rous and shining; lemma about 6 mm. long, light green, with a silvery scarious 
margin. Mountains: Colo. Utah. Submont. JeAu. 

46. P. subaristata Scribn. Stem 1-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, 
0.5-1 mm. wide, strongly involute, scabrous; panicle oblong, dense, 3-6 cm. long; 
spikelets 4-7-flowered, 6-9 mm. long; empty glumes subequal, 5 mm. long, 
lanceolate, 1-nerved; lemma 6 mm. long, scabrous, acuminate or even cuspidate. 
High mountains: Sask. Wyo. Ida. Alta. Mont. Alp. My-Au. 

47. P. idahoensis Beal. Stems 3-6 dm. high; ligules acute; basal leaf- 
blades filiform, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, flaccid, involute; those of the stem-leaves 2-5 
cm. long, erect; panicle loose, flexuose, 7-10 cm. long; spikelets compressed, 6-10 
mm. long, loosely 5 7-flowered; empty glumes nearly equal, acute, broadly 
scarious-margined, about 4 mm. long; lemma scarious at the apex, minutely 
scabrous throughout*. P. filifolia Vasey, not Schkuhr. P. scabrifolia Heller. 
Rocky banks: Ida. Mont. Ore. Submont. Ap-Je. 

48. P. gracillima Vasey. Stems 3-5 dm. high, slender, erect; blades of the 
basal leaves filiform, flaccid, spreading, 5-12 cm. long; those of the stem-leaves 
2-5 cm. long; panicle 5-10 cm. long, open; spikelets 6-8 mm. long, about 5- 
flowered, lax; empty glumes ovate-lanceolate, acute, unequal; lemma 4-5 mm. 
long, acute, purplish, scarious at the apex, more or less scabrous and somewhat 
pubescent on the keel and marginal nerves. Mountains: B.C. Calif. Mont. 
Alta. Jl-Au. 

49. P. Vaseochloa Scribn. Stems slender, 0.5-1.5 dm. high, 1-2-leaved; 
basal leaves filiform, with thickened bases; panicle 3-5 cm. long; spikelets pur- 
plish, 6-8 mm. long, 3-5-flowered; empty glumes scarious-margined, 2-3 mm. 
long; lemma about 4 mm. long, finely scabrous on the keel and veins. P. pul- 
chella Vasey. River banks: Wash. Alta. Ida. Ore. Submont. Mont. Ap- 
Jl. 

50. P. longiligula Scribn. & Williams. Stem 3-5 dm. high, with numerous 
persistent basal sheaths; blades of sterile shoots 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, 
flat or conduplicate; those of the stem-leaves shorter; panicle 6-12 cm. long; 
spikelets 4-6-flowered, 6-10 mm. long; lemma 4-5.5 mm. long, scabrous on the 
back, villous on the keel and marginal nerves below. Hillsides and plains: S.D. 
N.M. Calif. Ore. Son.Subalp. My-Jl. 

51. P. scabriuscula Williams. Stem 2.5-3 dm. high, smooth; blades of 
the sterile shoots 8-12 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, flat or convolute; those of the 
upper stem-leaves seldom over 1 cm. long; panicle open, subpyramidal, 5-7 cm. 
long, 2-3.5 cm. broad; spikelets 5-7 mm. long; lemma oblong, obtuse, keeled, 
pale green or purplish, about 3.5 mm. long. Mountains: Utah Colo. My-Je. 

52. P. longipedunculata Scribn. Stem smooth, 5-7 dm. high; blades of 
the sterile shoots 5-20 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, involute; those of the stem-leaves 
1-3 cm. long, scabrous; spikelets green or tinged with purple, 6 mm. long; lemma 



GRASS FAMILY 81 

4 mm. long, minutely scabrous. Hills and mountain sides: Wyo. N.M. 
Utah. Son. Mont. My-Au. 

53. P. brevipaniculata Scribn. & Williams. Stem 1-3 dm. high, smooth' 
leaf-blades flat or conduplicate; those of the sterile shoots 1 dm. long or more; 
those of the stem much shorter; panicle 3-6 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide; spikelets 
green or tinged with purple, 4-6-flowered, 4-6 mm. long; second glume 3.5 mm 
long; lemma obtusish or acutish, 3.5-4 mm. long. Perhaps not distinct from the 
next species. Dry meadows and mountain sides: Colo. Utah N.M. Ariz. 
Son. Mont. 

54. P. Fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades flat 
or convolute, scabrous; those of the sterile shoots 1-2 dm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; 
panicle 5-10 cm. long, open in anthesis; spikelets 7-8 mm. long; empty glumes 
unequal, smooth, the second about 4 mm. long; lemma keeled, obtuse, 5 mm. 
long. Hills and tablelands: Colo. N.M. Calif. Son. Subalp. My-Au. 

55. P. Eatoni S. Wats. Stem 4-6 dm. high; leaf-blades flat, scabrous on 
both sides, those of the basal leaves 1-2 dm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, those of the 
cauline leaves 2 cm. long or less; panicle open, 7-8 cm. long; spikelets 5-9-flow- 
ered, obtuse 7-10 mm. long; empty glumes subequal, hispid on the keel; lemma 
4-5 mm. long. Canons: Utah sw Colo. Ariz. Submont. Mont. Je. 

56. P. Canbyi (Scribn.) Beal. Stem 5-10 dm. high, stout, smooth; leaf- 
blades 1-2 dm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, scabrous, flat; panicle narrow, 1-2 dm. 
long; spikelets 6-8 mm. long, 3-5-flowered; empty glumes unequal, acute; lemma 
about 4 mm. long, strongly scabrous, its summit scarious-margined and obtuse. 
Meadows and bogs: Mont. Wyo. Wash. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

57. P. nevadensis Yasey. Stem 5-10 dm. high, scabrous below the panicle; 
blades of the basal leaves 1.5-3 dm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, scabrous; those of the 
stem-leaves 3-10 cm. long; panicle narrow and dense, 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 
6-10 mm. long, 3-8-flowered; empty glumes scabrous, 3-4 mm. long, nearly equal; 
lemma very scabrous, 4 mm. long, obtuse, scarious-margined above. Plains, 
meadows and hillsides: Mont. Colo. Ariz. B.C. Submont. Mont. Ap-Au. 

58. P. Helleri Rydb. Stem slender, 4-6 dm. high, often purple-tinged 
below; leaf -blades very slender, flaccid, 5-15 cm. long, 1 mm. wide; panicle rather 
loose, 8-10 cm. long; spikelets about 1 cm. long, 4- or 5-flowered; empty glumes 
linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved, glabrous; lemma linear-lanceolate, about 5 mm. long, 
scabrous on the upper part. Hillsides: Ida. 

59. P. laevigata Scribn. Stem erect, smooth, 5-10 dm. high; blades of the 
basal leaves 1-2 dm. long, about 1 mm. wide, involute; those of the stem-leaves 
2-5 cm. long; panicle narrow, 1-2 dm. long; spikelets appressed, 6-10 mm. long, 
about 5-flowered; empty glumes nearly equal, acute, thin, scarious-margined; 
lemma 4-5 mm. long, linear-oblong, the apex scarious and yellowish. P. laevis 
Vasey. Dry meadows and hillsides: Mont. N.M. B.C. Submont. Mont. 

60. P. lucida Vasey. Stem 3-6 dm. high, smooth; blades of basal leaves 
12-1 5. cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, soft; those of the stem-leaves 5-7 cm. long; panicle 
1-1.5 dm. long, narrow; spikelets 6-8 mm. long, 3-4-flowered, shining, pale; 
empty glumes abruptly acute, unequal, 3-4 mm. long; lemma 2 mm. long, obtuse. 
Dry hills: Alta. S.D. N.M. Submont. Je-Jl. 

61. P. Buckleyana Nash. Stem 2-6 dm. high, rigid, smooth; leaf-blades 
2-10 cm. long, about 2 mm. wide, flat or becoming involute in drying; panicle 
3-10 cm. long, narrow; spikelets 2-5-flowered, 4-6 mm. long, dark green and 
tinged with purple; empty glumes acute, nearly equal, scabrous on the keel; 
lemma 4-5 mm. long, obtuse, scabrous above, usually more or less pubescent 
below. P. tenuifolia Buckley, in part. (?) P. u-yomingensis Scribn. Dry 
plains and hills: N.D. Colo. Utah Wash. Plain Alp. Je-Au. 

62. P. Sandbergii Vasey. Stem 2-4 dm. high, very slender; ligules acute, 
2-4 mm. long; basal leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long; those of the stem-leaves 1-2 cm. 
long; panicle 3-7 cm. long, very narrow; spikelets 2-4-flowered, about 6 mm. 
long, often purplish; empty glumes lanceolate, subacute; lemma linear-oblong, 



82 POACEAE 

obtusa, nearly 4 mm. long, puberulent, somewhat villous towards the base. P. 
incurva Scribn. & Merr. P. tenuifolia Buckley, in part. Plains and hills: Sask. 
W yo Colo. Utah n Calif. B.C. Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

63. P. juncifolia Scribn. Stem glabrous 1.5-3 dm. high; blades of the 
sterile shoots about 5 cm. long, involute; those of the stem 2-5 cm. long, 1-2 
mm. wide; panicle narrow; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 5-6 mm. long; empty glumes 
ovate, usually obtuse, subequal, 3-4 mm. long; lemma minutely scabrous on 
the back, 3-4 mm. long, obtuse. Plains and meadows: Wyo. Colo. -Utah. 
Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

64. P. brachyglossa Piper. Stem glabrous, smooth, 6-10 dm. high; ligules 
short, truncate; leaf -blades 5-20 cm. long, filiform, involute; panicle narrow, 1-2 
dm. long; spikelets 7-10 mm. long, 3-6-flowered; empty glumes smooth, scarious- 
margined, 4-5 mm. long, slightly unequal; lemma obtuse, smooth or nearly so. 
Plains and meadows: B.C. n Calif. Mont. Son. Submont. Je-Jl. 

65. P. confusa Rydb. Stem 6-9 dm. high; basal leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, 
2-3 mm. wide, flat or involute, puberulent; stem-leaves several; blades about 1 
dm. long; panicle narrow, 1-1.5 dm. long, dense; spikelets 7-8 mm. long, usually 
4-flowered; empty glumes lanceolate, shining, minutely strigulose above; lemma 
narrow, about 3.5 mm. long, yellowish green, with brownish scarious margins. 
Meadows and benchlands: Alta. Neb. Colo. Plain Mont. 

66. P. truncata Rydb. Stem about 9 dm. high, stiff; leaf -blades 1-2 dm. 
long, 2-3.5 mm. wide, scabrous on the back; panicle about 1.5 dm. long, narrow; 
spikelets 3-5-flowered, 7-9 mm. long; empty glumes 5-6 mm. long, tinged with 
purple, scabrous on the nerves; lemma narrow, about 5 mm. long, straw-colored 
or tinged with purple, strigulose throughout. Hills and gulches: Colo. Alta. 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

67. P. ampla Merr. Stem 6-15 dm. high; leaf-blades flat, somewhat 
glaucous, 15-25 cm. long, about 4 mm. wide; panicle 2-3 cm. thick and 1.5-3 dm. 
long; spikelets 7-10 mm. long, 3-6-flowered; empty glumes lanceolate, acute, 
scabrous on the keel and nerves; lemma 4.5-5 mm. long, lanceolate, scabrous 
throughout, hispidulous on the keel. P. laeviculmis Williams. Hills and val- 
leys: B.C. Ore. Mont. Ida. Submont. Je-Jl. 

66. SCOLOCHLOA Link. 

Tall, aquatic perennials. Inflorescence paniculate. Spikelets 2-4-flowered; 
flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, thin-membranous, 3-5-nerved. Lemma 
rigid, with a ring of hairs at the base, rounded on the back, 5-7-nerved. Palet 
usually equalling the lemma, 2-nerved. Styles very short; stigmas plumose. 
Grain hairy at the apex. 

1. S. festucacea (Willd.) Link. Stem 1-2 m. high, smooth; leaf -blades 
1.5-4 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, flat, scabrous on the margins; panicle open, 2-3 
dm. long; spikelets 6-8 mm. long; empty glumes acute, unequal, 3-5-nerved, 
6-8 mm. long; lemma narrow, 5-6 mm. long. In water: Iowa Neb. Sask. 
Ore. B.C. Plain. Jl-Au. 

66. PANICULARIA Fabr. MANNA-GRASS. 

Usually perennials with rootstocks (all ours), rarely annuals. Inflorescence 
paniculate. Spikelets usually numerous, ovate to linear, few-many-flowered, 
the glabrous rachilla articulate between the flowers. Empty glumes 2, obtuse 
or acute, unequal. Lemma obtuse or truncate, often denticulate, convex on 
the back, but not keeled, prominently nerved, hyaline at the apex. Palet 2-keeled. 
Styles short, distinct; stigmas plumose. [Glyceria R. Br.] 

Spikelets ovate or oblong, 6 mm. long or less. 

Lemma 7-nerved, obscxirely denticulate at the apex. 

Spikelets 2-4 mm. long; lemma broadly oval, 1.5-2 mm. long. 

Leaf-blades flat and lax; lemma slightly scarious-margined; branches of the 

inflorescence long; empty glumes obtuse. 

Plant slender; branches of the inflorescence strongly ascending, nodding. 

1. P. nervata. 



GRASS FAMILY 83 

Plant stout; branches of the inflorescence spreading or reflexed, not nodding. 

Leaf : blades conduplicate, stiff, ascending; lemma distinctly scarious-mar- 
gined ; branches of the inflorescence short, strongly ascending, not droop- 

Spikelets 4-6 mm. long; lemma narrowly oval, 2-3 mm. long; inflorescence ample 1 

branches finally spreading. 
Lemma barely scarious-margined ; empty glumes acute, lanceolate. 

Lemma with broad scarious margins; empty glumes obtuse. 

Lemma 5-nerved, distinctly dentate at the apex, broadly scarious-mar|ine C d * 
Spikelets 4-6-flowered. 6. P. pauciflora. 

Spikelets 2-flowered. 7. p. Holmii 

Spikelets linear, 10 mm. long or more; lemma 7-nerved, erose. 

Spikelets 10-17 mm. long, on pedicels at least one-third their length. 

Spikelets 15-20 mm. long, subsessile or nearly so. 9. p. septentrionalis. 

1. P. nervata (Willd.) Kuntze. Stem slender, 3-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 
1.5-3 dm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 7-20 
cm. long, open; spikelets 3-7-flowered, 2-3 mm. long; lemma 1.5 mm. long, obtuse 
or rounded at the apex, striate. Wet meadows and swamps: Lab. 'Fla. 
Calif. Alaska; Mex. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

2. P. elata Nash. Stem 5-15 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades flat, scabrous 
on both sides, 2-4 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide; panicle ample, 2-3 dm. long; spike- 
lets 3-4 mm. long, ovate, 4-7-fl owered ; empty glumes hyaline, 1-1.5 mm. long; 
lemma 2 mm. long, its nerves vanishing near the apex. "Shaded bogs: Mont. 
Wyo. Calif. B.C. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

3. P. rigida (Nash.) Rydb. Stem 3-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 
3-4 mm. wide; inflorescence small, about 1 dm. long; spikelets about 3 mm. long, 
5-6-flowered ; empty glumes about 1 mm. long, purplish; lemma rounded-oval, 
usually purplish, about 1.5 mm. long. Bogs and springs: Mont. Ida. Wyo. 
My-Jl. 

4. P. grandis (S. Wats.) Nash. Stem stout, 1-2 m. high, smooth; leaf- 
blades 1.5-4 dm. long, 6-15 mm. wide, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 
2-4 dm. long, open; spikelets 4-7-flowered; lemma 2-2.5 mm. long. P. americana 
(Torr.) McMill. In water and wet places: N.B. N.Y. N.M. Calif 
Alaska. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

5. P. pulchella Nash. Stem 4-6 dm. high, stout, smooth; leaf-blades 1.5-3 
dm. long, 2.5-6 mm. wide, flat; panicle open, 1.5-3 dm. long; spikelets 4-6- 
flowered; empty glumes brownish or purplish, scarious-margined, obtuse; lemma 
usually purple, scabrous, about 3 mm. long. Swamps: Yukon Mack. -N.M. 
Submont. -Subalp. Jl-S. 

6. P. pauciflora (Presl.) Kuntze. Stem 3-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-3 dm. 
long, 6-10 mm. wide, scabrous on both sides; panicle 1.5-2 dm. long, loose; 
branches ascending or spreading; spikelets 4-5 mm. long; empty glumes 1 mm. 
long, rounded at the apex; lemma about 3 mm. long, scabrous. Wet meadows 
and in water: Mont. Colo. Calif. B.C. Submont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

7. P. Holmii Beal. Stem 2.5-5 dm. high, pale; leaf -blades flat, 4-12 cm. 
long, 4-7 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle open, lax, 5-8 cm. long; empty glumes 
hyaline, 1-1.3 mm. long; lemma scabrous, 2-2.2 mm. long. Shaded streams: 
Colo. Mont. Jl. 

8. P. borealis Nash. Stem glabrous, 6-15 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-2 dm, 
long, 2-10 mm. wide, erect, scabrous on both sides; panicle narrow, 2-5 dm. long; 
branches erect, smooth; spikelets 7-13-flowered; empty glumes scarious-mar- 
gined, 1-nerved, the first acute, the second obtuse, erose; lemma 3.5-4 mm. 
long. Water and wet places : Me. N.Y. N.M. Calif. Alaska. Submont. 
Mont. Jl-Au. 

9. P. septentrionalis Hitchc. Stem 1-1.5 m. high; blades 1-2.5 dm. long, 
6-8 mm. wide; panicle 2-2.5 dm. long, subflexuose; spikelets 8-1 2-flowered; 
empty glumes obtuse; lemma 4-4.5 mm. long, hispidulous. Glyceria fluitans 
Am. 'auth., not R. Br. Shallow water: Newf. Va. Calif. B.C. Plain- 
Submont. 



84 POACEAE 

67. PUCCINELLIA Pad. MEADOW-GRASS. 

Perennials with rootstocks, ours tufted. Inflorescence paniculate. Spike- 
lets 3-several-flowered; flowers perfect. Empty glumes 2, obtuse or acute, 
unequal. Lemma rounded on the back, obscurely 5-nerved. Palet nearly 
equalling the lemma. Styles wanting; stigmas sessile, plumose. Grain usually 
adherent to the palet. 

Leaves mostly basal; panicle less than 1 dm. long. 1. P. Lemmoni. 

Leaves scattered on the stem; panicle usually more than 1 dm. long. 

Lemma 2-2.5 mm. long, distinctly nerved. 2. P. Nuttalliana. 

Lemma 2 mm. long or less, obscurely nerved. 3. P. tenuiflora. 

1. P. Lemmoni (Vasey) Scribn. Stem 1-4 dm. high; leaves smooth, fili- 
form, involute, short, the cauline ones few and reduced; panicle 5-10 cm. long, 
becoming open; branches short, spreading; empty glumes both 1-nerved, 2-3 
mm. long; lemma 3 mm. long, smooth. Glyceria Lemmoni Vasey. Alkaline 
flats: Calif. B.C. Sask. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

2. P. Nuttalliana (Schultes) Hitchc. Stem 3-12 dm. high, erect, strict; 
leaf -blades 5-10 cm. long, 3 mm. wide or less, usually involute or the upper flat; 
panicle open with spreading or ascending branches; spikelets scattered, 1-7- 
flowered, 3-6 mm. long; empty glumes unequal, the first acute, 1-nerved, the 
second obtuse or acute, 3-nerved. P. airoides (Nutt.) Wats. & Coult. G. distans 
airoides Nutt. Saline soil: Man. Kans. N.M. Nev. B.C. Mack. Plain 
Subalp. Je-Au. 

3. P. tenuiflora (Griseb.) Scrib. & Merr. Stems 4-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 
6-9 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, involute; panicle 1-1.5 dm. long; branches capillary, 
ascending or spreading, scabrous, often 1 dm. long; spikelets 3-4 mm. long, 3- 
or4-flowered. Atropis tenuiflora Griseb. Alkaline flats: Alaska -Sask. Boreal 
Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

68. FESTUCA L. FESCUE-GRASS. 

Perennials, or annuals, usually tufted. Inflorescence paniculate. Spike- 
lets 2-several-flowered, the flowers perfect or the upper ones staminate, the 
rachilla articulate between the flowers. Empty glumes 2, membranous, unequal, 
keeled, acute, the first mostly 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved. Lemma rounded 
on the back, at least below, acute, more or less awned, 3-7-nerved. Palet a 
little shorter than the lemma, 2-keeled. Stamens 1-3. Styles very short, 
distinct, terminal or nearly so; stigmas plumose, bilateral. 

Perennials; stamens 3. 

Leaf-blades of the innovations narrow, 3 mm. wide or less, involute. 

Innovations extra vaginal ; i. c., plants with creeping rootstocks and stolons; 

leaves smooth. 

Spikelets pubescent. 1. F. Kitaibeliana. 

Spikelets glabrous or scabrous. 

Body of the lemma 5-7 mm. long; leaf -blades rather flrm. 
Stem-leaves with flat blades; innovations numerous. 

2. F. rubra. 
Stem-leaves with filiform involute blades; innovations few. 

3. F. vallicola. 
Body of the lemma about 4 mm. long; leaf-blades filiform, soft. 

4. F. Earlei. 
Innovations intra vaginal ; plants bunch-grasses. 

Ligules short, truncate or rounded. 

Body of the lemma 3-8 mm. long; leaf-blades long, persistent on the sheaths; 

palet obtuse or 2-toothed at the apex. 
Pulvini at the bases of the branches of the panicle none or obsolete; 

tufts easily separable. 

Lemma (without the awns) 3-4-mm. long, not half longer than the 
first glume; plant 1-2 (rarely 3) dm. high; inflorescence 
spike-like. 
Lemma lanceolate, long-acuminate and long-awned; panicle 

dense; leaf-blades short, scarcely filiform. 
Leaf-blades soft and sulcate, at least in age. 

5. F. brachyphylla. 
Leaf-blades flrm and terete, even in age. 6. F. supina. 

Lemma oblong-lanceolate, abruptly contracted into a short awn ; 
panicle lax; leaf-blades narrowly filiform and soft. 

7. F. minutiflora. 



GRASS FAMILY 85 

Lemma (without the awns) 5-8 mm. long; plant usually over 3 dm. 

high. 
Old sheaths of the innovations brown and papery. 

8. F. calligera. 
Old sheaths of the innovations neither brown nor papery. 

Basal leaf-sheaths short, remaining involute in age; blades 

of stem-leaves rarely 8 cm. long. 

Awn short, less than half as long as the lemma; inflores- 
cence dense and narrow. 9. F. saxim.ontana. 
Awn long, from nearly equalling to much exceeding the 

lemma; inflorescence open. 
Awn little if at all exceeding the lemma in length; 

ovary glabrous. 

Leaves scabrous. 10. F. ingrata. 

Leaves smooth. 11. F. idahoensis. 

AAvn much exceeding the lemma; ovary hispidulous 

at the apex. 12. F. occidentalis. 

Basal sheaths long and becoming flattened in age, often 1 
dm. long; blades of the stm-leaves over 1 dm. long. 

13. F. arizonica. 
Pulvini at the bases of the branches of the panicle rather conspicuous; 

tufts separable with difficulty. 14. F. viridula. 

Body of the lemma 8-12 mm. long; leaf-blades soon breaking off from the 

sheath; palet notched at the apex; bunch-grasses. 
Branches of the panicle spreading or reflexed; spikelets shining; leaves 

smooth beneath. 15. F. altaica. 

Branches of the panicle erect or ascending; spikelets rather dull; leaves 

very scabrous. 

Plant 5-15 dm. high; basal sheaths long, loose, in age more or less 
flattened; empty glumes narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; second 
glume shorter than the spikelet. 16. F. campestris. 

Plant 3-5 dm. high; basal sheaths usually short and close even in 
age; empty glumes acute, lanceolate; second glume about equal- 
ling the spikelet/. 17. F. scabrella. 
Ligules elongate, 4-9 mm. long, acute. 18. F. Thurberi. 
Leaf-blades all flat, 4 mm. wide or more; perennials with rootstocks. 

Lemma abruptly acute, not at all keeled. 19. F. elatior. 

Lemma awned or awn-pointed, keeled at least above the middle. 
Awn or awn-point shorter than the lemma. 

Lemma distinctly 5-nerved; awn from the cleft apex; panicle ciliate. 

20. F. dasyclada. 
Lemma with indistinct intermediate nerves; awn terminal: panicle not 

ciliate. 21. F. sororia. 

Awn longer than the lemma. 22. F. subulala. 

Annuals; stamens usually solitary. 

Spikelets 5-13-flowered; both glumes subulate. 23. F. octo flora. 

Spikelets loosely 1-5-flowered; first glume subulate, the second lanceolate. 

Branches of the shofrt panicle normally divergent, a pulvinus at the base of at 

least one of them. 
Spikelets usually 3-5-flowered, only the main branches of the inflorescence 

divergent. 24. F. pacifica. 

Spikelets usually 1-3-flowered; all branches divergent or reflexed. 

25. F. reflexa. 
Branches of the elongated narrow panicle erect and appressed. 

26. F. megalura. 

1. F. Kitaibeliana Schultes. Stem 2-5 dm. high; blades of stem-leaves 
flat, 3-12 cm. long; inflorescence narrow, often secund; spikelets 8-12 mm. long, 
5-9-flowered; empty glumes unequal, 2-4 mm. long, lanceolate, glabrous; lemma 
narrowly lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long; awn scabrous, 2-4 mm. long. Hills and 
mountain sides: Greenl. N.B. Wyo. Ore. Alaska; Eurasia. Submont. 
Je-Au . 

2. F. rubra L. Stem 3-10 dm. high; blades soft, green or (in var. glaucoidea 
Piper) more*or less glaucous; panicle 5-20 cm. long, often narrow; spikelets 4-6- 
flowered, 7-8 mm. long, green or more or less glaucous, often purple-tinged; 
lemma 5-7 mm. long, lanceolate; awn scabrous, 1-4 mm. long. Hills: Greenl. 
Va. Colo. Alaska; Eurasia. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

3. F. vallicola Rydb. Stem 4-10 dm. high, slender, light-colored, smooth 
and shining; leaf-blades all filiform, 5-10 cm. long; panicle narrow, about 5 cm. 
long; spikelets 4-7-flowered, 8-10 mm. long; lemma about 5 mm. long, lanceo- 
late, indistinctly 5-7-nerved, smooth or minutely scabrous; awn 2-4 mm. long. 
Meadows: Mont. Wyo. Submont. Jl-Au. 

4. F. Earlei Rydb. Stem about 3 dm. high, very slender; basal leaf -blades 
5-10 cm. long, strongly involute, 0.5 mm. wide or less; stem-leaves 3-5 cm. long, 



86 POACEAE 

1 mm. wide or less; panicle narrow and spike-like, 3-5 cm. long; spikelets 2-3- 
flowered, about 5 mm. long; lemma narrowly lanceolate, smooth, usually awned; 
awn 1 mm. or less long. Mountains: Colo. Mont. ,11. 

6. F. brachyphylla Schultes. Stem 1-2 dm. (rarely 3 dm.) high; leaf- 
blades nanow, involute, 1-5 cm. long; panicle 2-5 cm. long; spikelets 2-5-flowered; 
lemma green or purplish, about 3 mm. long, acuminate; awn scabrous, 2-3 mm. 
long. F. brevifolia R. Br. Alpine-arctic regions: Greenl. Vt. N.M. -Ariz. 
Calif. Alaska. Subalp. Alp. Jl-S. 

6. F. supina Schur. Stems 1-2 dm. high; leaf-blades stiff, involute, often 
arcuate-spreading; panicle 1-5 cm. long, nearly simple; lemma lanceolate, 3-3.5 
mm. long, acuminate, often tinged with red or brown; awn 1-3 mm. long. Al- 
pine-arctic situations: Greenl. Lab. Colo. B.C.;Eu. Alp. Jl-S. 

7. F. minutiflora Rydb. Stem very slender, 1-1.5 (seldom 3) dm. high; 
leaves mostly basal; blades* 1-10 cm. long, narrow and flaccid, about 0.5 mm. 
wide; panicle very narrow, lax, 2-4 cm. long, with very short, erect branches; 
spikelets, excluding the awns, about 5 mm. long, 2-3-flowered; lemma about 

2 mm. long, purple-tinged above; awn 1.5 mm. long or less. Mountains: Colo. 
Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

8. F. calligera (Piper) Rydb. Stem pale, 1.5-5 dm. high; leaf-blades fili- 
form, glaucous, strongly striate, 5-15 cm. long, about 0.5 mm. wide; sheaths of 
the stem-leaves looser; panicle narrow, 1-1.5 dm. long; branches ascending; 
spikelets 4-7-flowered; lemma about 5 mm. long, abruptly acuminate; awn 1-2 
mm. long. F. ovina calligera Piper. Mountains: Ariz. Nev. 'Utah Colo. 
Son. Submont. Jl-Au. 

9. F. saximontana Rydb. Densely tufted perennial; stem 2-4 dm. high, 
slender, glabrous; leaf-blades very slender, 3-10 cm. long, less than half a milli- 
meter wide, strongly involute; panicle 4-10 cm. long; spikelets 4-6-flowered; 
lemma lanceolate, 3-5 mm. long, glabrous; awn 1-2 mm. long. Festuca pseu- 
dovina (Beal) Rydb., not Hack. Dry ridges: Mich. -Sask. Colo. B.C. 
Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

10. F. ingrata (Hack.) Rydb. Stem 1-3 dm. high; leaf-blades filiform, 
involute, those of the sterile shoots 1.5-3 dm. long, 0.5 mm. wide or less; panicle 
8-15 cm. long; spikelets 3-8-flowered, 8-15 mm. long; lemma 6-8 mm. long, 
more or less scabrous; awn 3-4 mm. long. F. ovina ingrata Hack. Meadows 
and hillsides: Mont. Colo. Utah B.C. Submont. Subalp. 

11. F. idahoensis Elmer. Stem 7-9 dm. high; leaf-blades filiform, involute, 
those of the sterile shoots 2-4 dm. long, less than 0.5 mm. wide; inflorescence 
7-12 cm. long, open; spikelets 3-5-flowered, about 1 cm. long or less; lemma 
obscurely 5-nerved, 6 mm. long; awn about 3 mm. long. Meadows: Ida. Sub- 
mont. Jl. 

12. F. occidentalis Hook. Stem slender, 5-8 dm. high; leaf-blades 5-20 
cm. long, glabrous; panicle loose, subsecund, flexuose, 8-20 cm. long; spikelets 
3-5-flowered, 6-10 mm. long, pale green or purplish; lemma 5-6.5 mm. long, 
scabrous towards the apex; awn of about the same length. Meadows and hill- 
sides: B.C. Calif. Wyo. Mont. Submont. Ap-Jl. 

13. F. arizonica Vasey. Stem 4-7 dm. high; leaf-blades 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 
scabrous; panicle rather narrow, 7-12 cm. long; branches erect, somewhat secund, 
scabrous; spikelets 4-6-flowered, 10-13 mm. long; lemma 6-7 mm. long, thick, 
acuminate ; awn 1-2 mm. long. F. Vaseyana Hack. Hills and open woods: 
Colo. N.M. Ariz. Utah. Mont. Jl-S. 

14. F. viridula Vasey. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf -blades erect, the basal 
ones 1-3 dm. long, involute; those of the stem often flat, shorter; panicle loose, 
open, 1-1.5 dm. long; spikelets 3-6-flowered, 10-12 mm. long; lemma smooth 
and shining, 6-7 mm. long, pointed. Mountain meadows: B.C. Ida. Calif. 
Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

15. F. altaica Trin. Stem erect, smooth, 3-9 dm. high; leaf-blades involute, 
1.5-3 dm. long; panicle loose and open, 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 



GRASS FAMILY 87 

12-15 mm. long, green or more commonly copper-colored or purple; empty 
glumes smooth or nearly so ; lemma ovate, attenuate, finely and densely scabrous, 
somewhat shiny, 10-12 mm. long. Subarctic regions: Xlaska 'Yukon Cana- 
dian Rockies (Mt. Albert) Que. Lab.; Siberia. Subalp. Je-Au. 

16. F. campestris Rydb. Stem 4-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 3-5 dm. long, 
scabrous; panicle 12-25 cm. long; spikelets 10-12 mm. long, 2-4-fl owered ; empty 
glumes membranous, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; lemma very scabrous, at- 
tenuate, thicker than the empty glumes, 9-10 mm. long. F. scabrella major 
Vasey. Plains and hills: Alta.N.D. Wash. Yukon. Plain Submont. Je- 
Au. 

17. F. scabrella Torr. Stem 3-5 dm. high; blades of the basal leaves 1-2 
dm. long, scabrous, striate; those of the upper stem-leaves short, 3-5 cm. long, 
often flat; panicle small, 5-15 cm. long; branches ascending; spikelets often 
purple-tinged, 3-4-flowered, about 1 cm. long; lemma scabrous, 6-8 mm. long, 
acute. F. Hallii (Vasey) Piper. Mountains: Alta. Mont. Wash. B.C.; 
Colo. Mont. Je-Jl. 

18. F. Thurberi Vasey. Stem 6-10 dm. high; leaf -blades involute, 6-20 
cm. long, very scabrous; panicle 1-1.5 dm. long, loose, slightly drooping; spike- 
lets 3-6-flowered, 8-12 mm. long; empty glumes smooth or scabrous on the keel; 
lemma finely scabrous near the margins or glabrous, cuspidate-acuminate, 7-8 
mm. long. Poa feslucoides and P. Keibensis M. E. Jones. Hillsides and moun- 
tains: N.M. Wyo. Utah. Mont. Subalp. Jl-S. 

19. F. elatior L. Stem smooth, 5-12 dm. high: leaf-blades 1-6 dm. long, 
4-8 mm. wide, smooth beneath, scabrous above; panicle 1-2 dm. long, rather 
open in anthesis, narrowed in fruit; spikelets 3-13-flowered, usually 6-8-flowered, 
9-11 mm. long; lemma 5-7 mm. long, scab rid towards the apex. Meadows and 
copses: N.S. N.C. N.M. Calif. B.C.; cult, and nat from Eu. Plain- 
Submont. Je Au. 

20. F. dasyclada Hack. Stem erect, 2-4 dm. high; leaf-blades soft, often 
folded, glabrous, 5-15 cm. long; panicle open; spikelets 2-flowered, 6-7 mm. 
long; lemma about 6 mm. long, scabrous-puberulent, 2-toothed at the apex; awn 
3 mm. long. Mountains: "Utah." 

21. F. sororia Piper. Stem 6-9 dm. high, smooth and shining; leaf- 
blades thin, flat, spreading, 1-2.5 dm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, scabrous on the 
margins; panicle 1-1.5 dm. long, somewhat nodding, lax; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 
7-12 mm. long; empty glumes membranous; lemma 6-9 mm. long, keeled at 
the base, scabrous; awn 0.5-2 mm. long. F.fratercula Piper, not Rupr. Open 
hillsides, canons, and meadows. Colo. Utah 'Ariz.; Mex. Submont. Subalp. 

20. F. subulata Trin. Stem 4-12 dm. high; leaf-blades dark green above, 
flat, thin, 1-3 dm. long, 3-10 mm. wide, scabrous on both sides; panicle very 
loose, drooping, 1.5-4 dm. long; branches reflexed; spikelets 3-5-flowered, 7-12 
mm. long; lemma somewhat keeled, scabrous toward the apex, 5-7 mm. long, 
attenuate into a scabrous awn 5-20 mm. long. F. Jonesii Vasey. Woods: 
Alaska Calif. Utah Colo. Mont. Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

23. F. octoflora Walt. Usually tufted; stems 5-40 cm. high, glabrous or 
retrorsely puberulent; leaf-blades involute or rarely flat, 2-10 cm. long; panicle 
narrow, erect, racemiform, 3-12 cm. long; spikelets 5-10 mm. long, rarely longer; 
lemma lanceolate, scabrous to glabrous, 4-5 mm. -long, attenuate; awn straight, 
1-7 mm. long. F. tenella Willd. In dry sandy soil: Que. Fla. Calif. B.C. 
Plain Mont. Ap-Jl. 

24. F. pacifica Piper. Simple or somewhat tufted; stem 1-5 dm. high, 
glabrous; leaf-blades glabrous, loosely involute, 3-5 cm. long; panicle more or 
less secund, 5-12 cm. long; branches solitary, bearing spikelets on the lower 
side; spikelets 3-6-flowered; lemma lanceolate, scabrous, except that of the 
lowest flower, which is smooth, 6-7 mm. long; awn scabrous, 10-15 mm. long. 
River valleys and hills: B.C. Utah N.M. Ariz. L. Calif. Son. Submont. 
Ap-Jl. 



88 POACEAE 

25. F. reflexa Buckley. Simple or rarely tufted; stem erect, 2-5 dm. high; 
leaf-blades flat or loosely involute, 2-10 cm. long; panicle 5-12 cm. long; spike- 
lets 1-3- (rarely 4- or 5-) flowered, 5-7 mm. long; lemma lanceolate, smooth or 
scabrous, 4.5-6 mm. long, attenuate; awn scabrous, 2-12, usually 5-8 mm. long. 
Dry places: B.C. Utah Calif. Son. Submont. My-Je. 

26. F. megalura Nutt. Simple or somewhat tufted; stems 2-6 dm. high, 
glabrous; leaf-blades involute or flat; panicle 1-3 cm. long; spikelets 4-5-flowered, 
8-11 mm. long; lemma obscurely 5-nerved, 4-6 mm. long, scabrous and ciliate 
on its upper half; awn scabrous, 8-15 mm. long. Dry soil: B.C. Ida. Ariz. 
Calif.; Mex., Equador, Peru, and Chili. Submont. Ap-Je. 

69. HESPEROCHLOA (Piper) Rydb. 

Dioecious perennials, densely tufted, producing both intravaginal innova- 
tions and stout extravaginal stolons. Panicle narrow. Spikelets 3-5-flowered, 
those of the staminate plant flattened, those of the pistillate one turgid. Empty 
glumes 2, lanceolate, subscarious, the lower 1-nerved, the upper 3-nerved. 
Lemma ovate, 5-nerved, acuminate. Palet shorter than the lemma. Ovary 
hispidulous at the apex, deeply sulcate; stigma elongate, the numerous short 
branches arising on all sides. Grain 2-dentate at the apex. 

1. H. Kingii (S. Wats.) Rydb. Stems stout, striate, glabrous, 4-10 dm. 
high; leaf-blades firm, flat or loosely involute, coarsely striate, 1-3 cm. long, 3-6 
mm. wide; panicle narrow, erect, 8-20 cm. long; spikelets 6-10 mm. long; empty 
glumes nearly smooth, shining, the first 3-4.5 mm. long, the second 5-7 mm. 
long; lemma ovate, abruptly acuminate, scabrous, 5-8 mm. long. Poa Kingii 
S.Wats. Festuca confinis Vasey. Canons and hillsides : Ore. Calif. Colo. 
Neb. Mont. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

70. BROMUS L. BROME-GRASS, CHESS, CHEAT. 

Annuals or perennials, with paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets usually large, 
often drooping, several-many-flowered; flowers perfect or the upper ones im- 
perfect. Empty glumes 2, membranous, persistent, narrow, unequal, acute or 
the second one sometimes short-awned. Lemma longer than the glumes, 
rounded or keeled on the back, usually awned, the awn 'dorsal and inserted just 
below the 2-toothed apex. Palet shorter than the lemma, 2-keeled. Ovary 
crowned with a villous appendage, at the base of which arise the lateral styles; 
stigmas plumose. 

Second empty glume 5-7-nerved; first empty glume 3-nerved. 
Lemma compressed-keeled. 

Palet less than three-fourths as long as the lemma, which is scarcely toothed. 
Sheaths and usually also the blades hairy; lemma pubescent or hispidulous- 

scabrous. 
Lemma hispidulous-scabrous. 

Awns 1015 mm. long. 1. B. Hookerianus. 

Awn 4-6 mm. long. 2. B. Flodmanii. 

Lemma pubescent; awns 4-8 mm. long. 

Lower branches of the panicle 7 cm. long or less, in fruit erect. 

Leaves flat, not canescent. 3. B. breviaristatus. 

Leaves involute, canescent. 4. B. subrclutinus. 

Lower branches of the panicle 1 dm. long or longer, spreading in fruit. 

5. B. latior. 
Sheaths and blades glabrous or minutely scabrous. 

Panicle narrow, strict; awn 4-6 mm. long. 6. B. polyanthus. 

Panicle open, spreading and nodding; awn 6-7 mm. long. 

5. B. paniculatus. 
Palet more than three-fourths as long as the lemma, which is distinctly toothed 

at the apex. 8. B. unioloides. 

Lemma rounded on the back, broadly elliptic; introduced tufted annuals or biennials. 
Lemma nearly as broad as long, awnless or with a very short awn. 

9. B. brizaeformis. 

Lemma much longer than broad, conspicuously awned. 
Lemma and glumes glabrous. 

Awn much shorter than the lemma, nearly erect. 

Sheaths glabrous. 10. B. secalinus. 

Sheaths densely pubescent. 11. B. racemosus. 

Awn fully as long as the lemma, at maturity strongly divergent; sheaths 
pubescent. 12. B. patulus. 



GRASS FAMILY 89 

Lemma and glumes more or less pubescent. 13. B. hordeaceus 

Second empty glume 3-nerved; first empty glume 1-nerved, except in B Porteri 

Awns shorter than the lemma; plants perennial with rootstocks, all native excent 

B. inermis. 
Inflorescence more or less drooping. 

Awn 6-9 mm. long; empty glumes sparingly pubescent or glabrous. 

14. B. eximius. 
Awn 2-5 mm. long. 

Empty glumes decidedly pubescent. 

First empty glume 3-nerved; inflorescence nanow. 

15. B. Porteri. 
First empty glume 1-nerved; inflorescence open. 

Sheaths with a ring of dense hairs at the base of the blades. 

16. B. latiglumis. 
Sheaths without a ring of hairs. 17. B. purgans. 

Empty glumes glabrous or merely scabrous on the nerves. 

Lemma evenly pubescent on the back; sheaths densely hairy. 

18. B. lanatipes. 
Lemma ciliate on the margins, glabrous or sparingly hairy on the back; 

sheaths glabrous or the lower sparingly hirsute. 19. B. 'ciliatus. 
Inflorescence not drooping. 

Inflorescence narrow; its branches erect; lemma usually with awn 2-3 mm. 
long. 20. B. Pumpellianus. 

Inflorescence broad: its branches spreading; lemma usually awnless. 

21. B. inermis. 
Awn longer than the lemma; introduced tufted annuals. 

Spikelets numerous on slender, recurved pedicels; lemma 8-12 mm. long. 

22. B. tectorum. 
Spikelets few; pedicels not recurved; lemma 12-30 mm. long. 

Awn less than 3 cm. long. 23. B. sterilis. 

Awn 3.5-4 cm. long. 24. B. maximus. 

1. B. Hookerianus Thurb. Annual or biennial; stem erect, 4-8 dm. high; 
leaf-blades flat, 1-2.5 dm. long, 5-12 mm. wide; panicle 2-4 dm. long; branches 
spreading; spikelets 5-10-flowered, 3-4 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; empty glumes 
glabrous, 15-18 mm. long, gradually acuminate; lemma about 2 cm. long, broadly 
hyaline-margined. Plains: B.C. Ida. Calif. Submont. My-Jl. 

2. B. Flodmanii Rydb. Short-lived perennial; stem glabrous, 6-10 dm. 
high; leaf-blades 2-3 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, minutely scabrous; panicle 
1-2 dm. long; spikelets 2.5-3.5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; empty glumes lanceolate, 
about 1 cm. long, glabrous, acute; lemma about 15 mm. long, scabrous, narrow- 
margined, acuminate. Meadows: Mont. Submont. 

3. B. breviaristatus (Hook.) Buckl. Tufted short-lived perennial; stem 
6-12 dm. high; leaf-blades sparsely pilose throughout or glabrate, 1.5-2.5 dm. 
long, 6-12 mm. wide; panicle erect, narrow, 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 2.5-4 cm.. 
long, 5-7 mm. wide, 7-9-flowered; empty glumes scabrous or scabrous-puberu- 
lent; lemma 11-14 mm. long; awn 4-5 mm. long. B. marginatus Nees. Mead- 
ows: B.C. Calif. Colo. Neb. Alta. Submont. 

4. B. subvelutinus Shear. Erect tufted perennial; stem pubescent above, 
2.5-5 dm. high; leaf-blades linear, rigid, involute, canescent, with spreading 
hairs; panicle 5-10 cm. long, narrow, erect; spikelets short-pediceled or subses- 
sile, 5-7-flowered, 2-3 cm. long; empty glumes puberulent, 8-12 mm. long; 
lemma appressed-pubescent; awn 3-4 mm. long. Arid regions: Nev. Calif. 
Wash. Ida. Son. 

5. B. latior (Shear) Rydb. Stout perennial; stem 7-18 dm. high; leaf-blades 
2-3 dm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, more or less pilose; panicle 2-3 dm. long; spike- 
lets 2.5-4 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide; empty glumes pubescent, about 1 cm. long, 
acuminate; lemma densely pubescent, about 15 mm. long, acuminate, slightly 
bifid; awn 6-7 mm. long. B. marginatus latior Shear. Meadows: Wash. 
Calif. N.M. Mont. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

6. B. polyanthus Scribn. Stout short-lived perennial; stem glabrous, or 
puberulent at the nodes; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, scabrous, 
especially above; panicle 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 3-3.5 cm. long, densely 7-11- 
flowered: empty glumes smooth or nearly so, subacute or obtuse; lemma smooth 
or minutely scabrous. Meadows: Mont. N.M. Utah Ore. Submont. 
Subalp. Je-Au. 



90 POACEAE 

7. B. paniculatus (Shear) Rydb. Tall leafy perennial; stem 6-10 dm. 
high; leaf-blades 2-3 dm. long, 8-12 mm. wide, scabrous; panicle 2-3 dm. long; 
spikelets loosely 5-7-flowered, 2-3 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide; empty glumes ob- 
tuse, glabrous; lemma glabrous, 11-14 mm. long, scarious-margined, acute. B. 
polyanthus paniculatus Shear. Mountain meadows: Colo. -N.M. Ariz. 
Utah. Submont. Jl-Au. 

8. B. unioloides (Willd.) H.B.K. Stout, more or less tufted annual; stems 
3-10 dm. high, glabrous; sheath pilose-pubescent, rarely glabrous; panicle 1.5-3.5 
dm. long; branches ascending or spreading; spikelets 2-3.5 cm. long, 5-9 mm. 
broad, 7-11-flowered; empty glumes smooth or slightly scabrous; lemma broadly 
lanceolate, acute, nearly glabrous to strongly scabrous, 13-16 mm. .long; awn 
usually present, 2 mm. long or less. Fields, prairies, and waste places: Fla. 
Colo. Calif. Son. Ap-Au. 

9. B. brizaeformis Fisch. & Mey. Stem 3-6 dm. high, glabrous or slightly 
pubescent at the nodes; leaf-blades pubescent on both sides, 5-10 cm. long, 2-5 
mm. wide; panicle 5-25 cm. long, lax, secund, nodding; spikelets 15-25 mm. 
long, ovate; empty glumes obtuse, smooth or minutely scabrous; lemma about 
1 cm. long, very broad, smooth or minutely scabrous, broadly scarious-margined. 
Waste places and fields: Mass. -Del. Calif. B.C.; adv. from Eurasia. Plain 
^Submont. Je-Jl. 

10. B. secalinus L. Stem 3-7 dm. high, smooth or pubescent at the nodes; 
leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, sparsely pubescent above, glabrous beneath; panicle 
8-18 cm. long, at first erect, drooping in fruit; spikelets 10^-18 mm. long, 6-8 
mm. broad; lemma 6-8 mm. long, obtuse, smooth or scabrous, its margins strongly 
incurved in fruit; awn 3-5 mm. long. CHEAT. Fields and waste places: Me. 
Fla. Calif. Wash.; nat. from Eu. Plain. Ap-Au. 

11. B. racemosus L. Stem 3-7 dm. high, scabrous-puberulent under the 
inflorescence and pubescent at the nodes; leaf -blades 7-14 cm. long, pilose- 

gubescent; panicle simple, somewhat nodding; spikelets 15-20 mm. long, 5-9- 
owered. acute; lemma smooth or scabrous, 6-8 mm. long, very shortly bidentate 
at the apex; awn 5-8 mm. long, straight. Waste places: N.S. Ga. -N.M. 
Ore. Wash. Yukon; adv. from Eu. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

12. B. patulus Mert. & Koch. Stem somewhat geniculate at the base, 
4-6 dm. high; leaf-blades pubescent, 4-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; panicle 12-20 
cm. long, , diffuse, somewhat drooping; spikelets 2-2.5 cm. long, 5-6 mm. wide; 
lemma 7-9 mm. long, hyaline-margined, emarginate, glabrous. Waste places: 
'Mass. Colo. S.D.; adv. from Eu. Plains. Je-Jl. 

13. B. hordeaceus L. Stem 2-8 dm. high, usually somewhat pubescent; 
leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, pilose or glabrate; panicle contracted, 
5-10 cm. long; spikelets 5-13-flowered, 12-15 mm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; lemma 
obtuse, coarsely pilose, 8-9 mm. long; awn stout, 6-9 mm. long. B. inollis L. 
HAIRY CHEAT. Waste places, roadsides, fields: Me. N.C. Calif. B.C.; nat. 
from Eu. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

14. B. eximius (Shear) Piper. Stem slender, 8-11 dm. high, somewhat 
pubescent, at least at the nodes; sheaths pilose; leaf-blades 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 
5-9 mm. wide, thinly pilose above; panicle 8-12 cm. long, nodding; spikelets 
few, 15-25 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; lemma 8-10 mm. long, sparsely pubescent 
on the back, ciliate near the margins. B. vulgaris Shear, in part. Wet places: 
B.C. Mont. Wyo. Calif. Submont. Jl-Au. 

15. B. Porteri (Coult.) Nash. Stem 5-9 dm. high, pubescent at the nodes; 
sheaths usually sparingly short-pilose; leaf -blades 7-30 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, 
scabrous; panicle 1-2 dm. long, drooping; spikelets 2-2.5 cm. long, 7-9-flowered; 
lemma 11-13 mm. long^ coarsely pubescent, the apex hyaline, slightly emarginate; 
awn 2-4 mm. long. Hillsides and meadows: Man. N.M. 'Ariz. Alta. Plain 
Subalp. Je-Au. 

16. B. latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc. Stem 6-10 dm. high, very leafy, slightly 
pubescent at the nodes or glabrous; leaf-blades 1-3 dm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, 
scabrous and sometimes sparingly hairy above, with conspicuous auricles at the 



GRASS FAMILY 91 

base; panicle 1-3 dm. long, open, somewhat nodding; spikelets 2-3 cm. long, 
loosely 6-10-flowered; lemma about 1 cm. long, broadly lanceolate, pilose, densely 
so toward the base; awn 4-5 mm. long. B. purgans latiglumis Shear. Mead- 
ows: Conn. Pa. Mo. Neb. Mont. Plain. Je-Au. 

17. B. purgans L. Stem 7-14 dm. high, glabrous or pubescent at the 
nodes; leaf-blades 1.5-3 dm. long, 5-15 mm! wide, somewhat auricled at the 
base, short-pilose on the veins above, scabrous or smooth beneath; panicle lax, 
nodding, 1.5-2.5 dm. long; spikelets 7-14-flowered, 2-2.5 cm. long; lemma acute, 
10-12 mm. long, sparsely pubescent across the back; awn 4-6 mm. long, straight. 
Woods and shady banks : Que. Ga. Okla. Wyo. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

18. B. lanatipes (Shear) Rydb. Stem 4-10 dm. high, smooth, or pubescent 
at the nodes; leaf-blades 2-3 dm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, scabrous on both sides; 
panicle open, 2-3 dm. long; branches ascending; spikelets 2-3 cm. long, 7-11- 
flowered; lemma about 1 cm. long, obtuse, emarginate; awn 4-5 mm. long. Hill- 
sides: Colo. N.M. Calif. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

19. B. ciliatus L. Stem 6-13'dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 1.5-2.5 dm. 
long, 5-12 mm. wide, mostly scabrous above, glabrous beneath; panicle large, 
drooping, 1.5-2.5 dm. long; spikelets 2-3 cm. long, 6^11-flowered; lemma obtuse, 
emarginate, 12-15 mm. long; awn 3-5 mm. long, straight. B. Richardsoni Link. 
Meadows and hillsides: Sask. N.M. Ariz. Ore. B.C. Plain Subalp. 
Je-Au. 

20. B. Pumpellianus Scribn. Stem glabrous, or pubescent merely at the 
nodes; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, smooth beneath, scabrous or 
slightly pubescent above, auricled at the base; spikelets erect, 7-1 1-flowered, 
2-3 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide: lemma 10-12 mm. long, coarsely ciliate along the 
margins and across the back at the base. Meadows and hillsides: Sask. S.D. 
Colo. B.C. Alaska. Submont. Mont. 

21. B. inermis Leyss. Stem 5-10 dm. high; leaf-blades smooth and glab- 
rous, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 5-10 mm. wide; panicle 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 2-2.5 cm. 
long, 4-5 mm. wide; lemma 9-12 mm. long, obtuse, emarginate, typically glab- 
rous. Fields and meadows: Man. Ohio N.M. Wash. Mont. ; escaped from 
cultivation. Je-Au. 

22. B. tectorum L. Stems 3-6 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades mostly 
pubescent throughout; panicle 6-15 cm. long; spikelets 13-20 mm. long; lemma 
lanceolate, scabrous-puberulent to pilose-pubescent, 11-13 mm. long, narrowly 
2-toothed at the apex; awn straight, 13-15 mm. long. Waste places and sandy 
soil: Mass. Va. Miss. Colo. -Calif. -B.C.; adv. or nat. from Eu. Plain 
Submont. My-Jl. 

23. B. sterilis L. Stem erect or ascending, 5-10 dm. high; leaf -blades 
pubescent throughout; panicle 1-2 dm. long, lax, open; spikelets 2.5-3.5 cm. 
long, 6-10-flowered; empty glumes lance-subulate, the first 7-9 mm. long, the 
second 11-13 mm. long; lemma linear-lanceolate, 12-16 mm. long, scabrous; 
awn stout, very rough. Waste places: Mass. D.C. Colo. Wash. B.C.; 
adv. from Eu. Plain -Submont. My-Jl. 

24. B. maximus Desf. Stem 2-4 dm. high, smooth; leaf -blades flat, 3-5 
mm. broad, pilose on both sides; panicle erect, somewhat secund, 5-10 cm. long; 
spikelets 5-7-flowered, 3.5-5 cm. long, exclusive of the awns; lemma 5-nerved, 
2.5-3 mm. long, harshly scabrous, 2-toothed at the apex. Waste places and 
fields: Calif. Wash. Ida. B.C.; adv. from the Old World. 

71. LOLIQM L. DARNEL, RYE-GRASS. 

Perennials with rootstocks, or annuals, with terminal 2-sided spikes. Spike- 
lets with the edge towards the rachis, compressed, several-many-flowered; 
flowers perfect or the upper ones imperfect; rachilla articulate between the flow- 
ers. Empty glumes in the terminal spikelet 2, in the lateral spikelets 1, facing 
the rachis, the inner one lacking. Lemma shorter and broader than the empty 
glume, rounded on the back. Palet shorter than the lemma, 2-keeled. Styles 
distinct, short; stigmas plumose. 



92 POACEAE 

Empty glumes shorter than the spikelet; perennial. 1. L. perenne. 

Empty glume longer than the spikelet; annual. 2. L. temulentum 

1. L. perenne L. Stem 2-8 dm. high, smooth; leaf -blades 5-12 cm. long 
2-4 mm. wide, smooth; spike 7-20 cm. long; spikelets 5-10-flowered, 8-12 mm. 
long; empty glume strongly nerved; lemma 4-6 mm. long, acuminate, awnless. 
Waste places and cultivated ground: N.S. Va. N.M. Calif. B.C. nat. 
from Eurasia. Je-Au. 

2. L. temulentum L. Stem 6-12 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades 1-2.5 dm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide, smooth beneath, rough above; spike 1-3 dm. long; spikelets 
4-8-flowered, 10-18 mm. long; empty glume strongly veined; lemma awned or 
awnless. Poisonous. Waste places and cultivated ground: N.B. Ga. Calif. 
B.C.; nat. from Eu. Je-Au. 

72. AGROPYRON Gaertner. WHEAT-GRASS, QUITCH-GRASS, 
QUICK-GRASS. 

Perennials with terminal, 2-sided spikes; 'spikelets compressed, with the side 
of the spikelet towards the rachis, usually single at each node; flowers perfect, 
or the upper ones imperfect; rachilla articulate between the flowers. Empty 
glumes 2, standing at right angles to the median plane of the spike, i. e., with 
one edge toward the rachis, usually firm. Lemma broader, rigid, rounded on 
the back, from obtuse to acuminate, awnless or awned. Palet shorter than the 
lemma, 2-keeled, ciliate on the keels. Styles very short; stigmas plumose. 
Fruit enclosed in the lemma, adherent to the palet. 

Rachis of the spike breaking up at maturity, the internodes falling with the spikelets; 

lemma long-awned. 1. A. Scnbneri. 

Rachis of the spike remaining continuous. 

Tufted plants with intra vaginal innovations; no horizontal stolons (except in A. 

arizonicum) . 

Lemma long-awned, i. e., the awn usually longer than the body of the lemma. 
Basal leaf-blades shorter than the upper ones; spikelets slightly compressed; 

awns somewhat spreading. 2. A. Gmelini. 

Basal leaf-blades longer than the upper ones. 
Awn divergent. 

, Spikelets remote on the axis, more or less compressed. 

Spikelets erect, empty glumes nearly equalling the spikelet. 

3. A. Vaseyi. 
Spikelets spreading or ascending; empty glumes half as long as the 

spikelet. 
Empty glumes linear-oblong, acute or obtuse; stem-leaves 3 or 

4, not glaucous. 4. A. spicatum. 

Empty glumes narrowly lanceolate, acuminate or awn-pointed; 

stem-leaves 6 or 7, glaucous. 5. A. arizonicum. 

Spikelets crowded on the axis, subterete. 6. A. Bakeri. 

Awns erect. 

Plant tall, usually more than 3 dm. high, erect or ascending; empty 

glumes broadest below the middle; spike elongated. 
Stem stout; spike 7-10 mm. thick, erect, but usually unilateral; 
spikelets (exclusive of the awns) 15-25 mm. long. 

7. A, Richardsoni. 
Stem slender; spike about 5 mm. thick, seldom unilateral; spikelets 

(exclusive of the awns) about 1 cm. long. 8. A. caninoides. 
Plant 2-3 dm. high, decumbent at the base, geniculate; empty glumes 
broadest above the middle, scarious-margined ; spike short and 
dense. 9. A. andinum. 

Lemma short-awned or awnless. 

Spikes stout and dense, 3-8 cm. long; empty glumes broadest above the middle. 
Lemma densely pubescent; empty glumes conspicuously white-margined. 

10. A. latiglume. 

Lemma glabrous or scabrous; empty glumes not conspicuously white- 
margined. 11. A. biflorum. 
Spike slender and lax, 7-20 cm. long; empty glumes broadest below the middle. 
Spikelets terete, appressed; empty glumes nearly as long as the spikelets. 

12. A. tenerum. 
Spikelets flattened; empty glumes much shorter than the spikelets. 

13. A. inermc. 
Stoloniferqus plants with horizontal rootstocks, sometimes slightly tufted; innova- 

vations extravaginal. 
Lemma with a long, more or less divergent awn. 

Lemma pubescent. 14. A. albicans. 

Lemma glabrous or scabrous. 

Spikelets subterete, appressed. 15. A. Grifflthsii. 



GRASS FAMILY 93 

Spikelets compressed, spreading. 5. A. arizonicum. 

Lemma awnless or with a very short erect awn; empty glumes usually narrowly 

lanceolate, acuminate. 

Sheaths conspicuously pilose. 16. A Palmeri 

Sheaths glabrous or nearly so. 

Lemma glabrous or merely scabrous. 

Spikelets erect, nearly cylindric or slightly compressed. 

Spike elongate; empty glumes nearly equalling the spikelets. 

17. A. pseudorepens. 
Spike short; empty glumes about half as long as the spikelets. 

18. A. riparium. 
Spikelets much flattened, spreading. 19. A. Smithii, 

Lemma from villous to hispidulous. 
Lemma short-pubescent. 

Spikelets compressed, more or less spreading; lemma acuminate or 

strongly acute. 20. A. molle. 

Spikelets terete or nearly so, erect; lemma obtuse or acutish. 
Spike loose, elongate; lemma sparingly pubescent. 

21. A. lanceolatum. 
Spike dense and short; lemma densely pubescent. 

22. A. subvillosum. 
Lemma long-villous. 23. A. dasystachyum. 

1. A. Scribneri Vasey. Densely tufted perennial; stems decumbent and 
geniculate at the base, 2-5 dm. high; leaf-blades short, 3-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. 
wide, rigid, attenuate-pointed; spike 5-7 cm. long, flexuous; spikelets 3-6- 
flowered; empty glumes linear-lanceolate or subulate, 3-5-nerved, smooth, long- 
awned; lemma oblong-lanceolate, 8-10 mm. long, smooth, 5-nerved; awn diverg- 
ent, scabrous, 1.5-2.5 cm. long. This species connects the genus with Sitanion. 
High mountains: Mont. N.M. Ariz. Subalp. Alp. Jl-Au. 

2. A. Gmelini (Griseb.) Scribn. & Smith. Stems 6-12 dm. high, glabrous, 
slender; blades of stem-leaves 12-30 cm. long, flat or involute; those of the basal 
leaves 3-7 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; spike slender, 1-2.5 dm. long; spikelets 10- 
20, 6-9 mm. long, 7-9-flowered; empty glumes unequal, 10-14 mm. long, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate or short-awned; lemma oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
10-12 mm. long; awn scabrous, 15-30 mm. long, at last divergent. Hillsides: 
Wash. Alta. Wyo.; Siberia. Submont. Jl-Au. 

3. A. Vaseyi Scribn. & Smith. Stem erect, 3-5 dm. high, wiry, glabrous; 
leaf-blades 3-15 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, usually involute; spike slender, 5-10 
cm. long, often somewhat flexuose; spikelets 3-5-flowered; empty glumes oblance- 
olate or oblong, acute or acuminate, 6-8 mm. long; lemma 8 mm. long, lanceo- 
late, acute; awn 8-10 mm. long. Hills and mountain sides: Wash. Ore. 
Colo. Mont. Submont. My-Au. 

4. A. spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & Smith. Stem 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaf-blades 5-20 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, involute or rarely flat; spikes 8-20 cm. 
long; spikelets 3-6-flowered, flattened; lemma 8-10 mm. long, scabrous above; 
awn stout, 12-25 mm. long. A. divergens Nees. BUNCH GRASS. Dry rocky 
hills and bench-lands: B.C. Calif. Ariz. Colo. Mont. Plain Submont. 
Je-Au. 

5. A. arizonicum Scribn. & Smith. Tufted, but occasionally with long 
stolons; stem 4-6 dm. high, minutely scabrous below; leaf-blades 1-3.5 dm. 
long, 4-6 mm. wide; spike 7-20 cm. long, usually nodding; spikelets 7-14, distant, 
5-7 -flowered, 2-3.5 cm. long, 3-5-nerved; lemma 10-15 mm. long, acuminate, 
scabrous; awn about 2.5 mm. long. Mountains: Colo. N.M. Ariz.;nMex. 
Submont. Subalp. Au-0. 

6. A. Bakeri E. Nels. Stem smooth, 3-5 dm. high; leaf-blades rigid, flat, 
1-3 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; spike 9-12 cm. long, dense, scarcely exserted; 
spikelets about 5-flowered, 15-19 mm. long; empty glumes 11-12 mm. long, 
scarious-margined, abruptly acuminate, short awned; lemma scabrous or nearly 
smooth, about 12 mm. long, attenuate; awn 1-3.5 cm. long. High mountains: 
Colo. N.M. Mont. Au. 

7. A. Richardsoni (Trin.) Schrad. Stems smooth, 6-8 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 8-20 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous, flat, often with involute tips; 
spikes 7-10 cm. long, one-sided; spikelets 3-4-flowered; empty glume 12-16 mm. 



94 POACEAE 

long, short-awned or awn-pointed; lemma 10-13 mm. long, scabrous on the 
margins. A. unilaterale Cassidy, not Beauv. Scarcely distinct from A. caninum 
L. of En. Meadows and among bushes: Sask. Minn. Iowa N.M. B.C. 
Plain Mont. Je-S. 

8. A. caninoides (Ramaley) Beal. Stem 3-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 1.5-3 
dm. long, 3 mm. wide, erect, involute or nearly flat; spike 1-2 dm. long, dense; 
spikelets 1-2 cm. long, pale or purple-tinged; empty glumes 7-9 mm. long, 
short-awned or awn-pointed; lemma 7 mm. long, scabrous. A. caninum Am. 
auth., mostly. Mountain meadows: N.S. Mich. N.M. Calif. Mont. Mont. 
Subalp. Jl-Au. 

9. A. andinum (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. Stems 2-3.5 dm. high; leaf-blades 
2-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat, glabrous beneath, pilose above; spike 3-8 cm. 
long; empty glumes 8-10 mm. long; lemma 8-10 mm. long, puberulent or glabrate; 
awn 4-10 mm. long. High mountains: Mont. Colo. Mont. 'Subalp. Jl-Au. 

10. A. lati glume (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. Stems 2-4 dm. high, erect or 
often decumbent at the base; leaf-blades 3-10 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat, or 
involute when dry, pubescent on both sides or sometimes glabrate; spike 3-5 cm. 
long; spikelets 3 -5-flowered ; lemma oblanceolate, acute or short-awned. High 
mountains: Alta. Mont. Alaska. Subalp. -Alp. 

11. A. biflorum (Brign.) R. & S. Tufted perennial; stem 1.5-6 dm. high, 
often somewhat decumbent at the base; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, 
flat or somewhat involute; spike 2.5-10 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; spikelets 
3-6-flowered; lemma 5-7-nerved, 8-12 mm. long, acuminate or short-awned. 
A. violaceum (Hornem.) Lange. Mountains: Greenl. N.Y. Neb. N.M. 
Alaska; Eurasia. Subalp. Alp. Jl-S. 

12. A. tenerum Vasey. Stem 3-10 dm. high; leaf -blades 2-6 mm. wide, 
7-15 cm. long, scabrous, flat or involute; spike slender, 1-1.5 dm. long, lax; 
spikelets 3-5-flowered; empty glumes 10-12 mm. long, acute to awn-pointed, 5- 
nerved; lemma 8-10 mm. long, lanceolate; awn 1-4 mm. long or more. RYE 
GRASS.' Dry soil: B.C. Calif. N.M. Minn. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

13. A. inerme (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. Stems 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaf-blades erect, 1-2 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, more or less pubescent above, 
somewhat glaucous, flat or involute; spike 1-3 dm. long, lax; spikelets distant, 
1.5-2 cm. long, 6-10-flowered; empty glumes 8-10 mm. long; lemma 10-12 mm. 
long, smooth, often mucronate or with a short awn-tip. Closely related to A. 
spicatum and A. Vaseyi. Plains and meadows: B.C. Wash. -Utah Wyo. 
Submont. Je-Au. 

14. A. albicans Scribn. & Smith. Stem erect, 3-6 dm. high, glaucous; leaf- 
blades rigid, ascending, involate, scabrous, 7-20 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide; spike 
slightly nodding, 7-10 cm. long; spikelets 8-10, 5-7-flowered, 15-18 mm. long; 
empty glumes pubescent, oblanceolate, acuminate, tipped with an awn 4-6 mm. 
long; lemma about 9 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate; awn 12-15 mm. long. Hills 
and benchlands. Mont. -Wyo. w Neb. S.D. Submont. Je-Au. 

15. A. Griffiths!! Scribn. & Smith. Stem glabrous, 3-8 dm. high, striate; 
leaf-blades rather rigid, mostly involute, 5-12 cm. long; spike erect, 8-15 cm. 
long; spikelets pale, closely 5-7-flowered; empty glumes 8 mm. long, with awns 
3 mm. long; lemma oblong, 8-10 mm. long; awns 8-10 mm. long. Plains: Wyo. 
N.D. S.D. Plain. Au. 

16. A. Palmer! (Scribn. <fe Smith.) Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 
glaucous, 1-2 dm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, at last involute, scabrous and often 
sparingly pubescent on both sides; spikes rather dense, 1-1.5 dm. long; spikelets 
compressed, 1.5-2 cm. long; lemma about 1 cm. long, acuminate, pilose to 
hispidulous-scabrous. Bottom-lands and hillsides: N.M. Colo. Utah -Ariz. 
Son. Submont. My-Jl. 

17. A. pseudorepens Scribn. & Smith. Stem 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaf-blades scabrous throughout, 12-20 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat, or involute 
when dry; spike 1-2.5 dm. long; spikelets rather distant, 10-16 mm. long, 3-7- 



GRASS FAMILY 95 

flowered; lemma acuminate or awn-pointed, scabrous, about 1 cm. long. Prair- 
ies and river valleys: Neb. Tex. Ariz. B.C. Plain Mont. Je-S. 

18. A. riparium Scribn. & Smith. Stem glabrous, erect, 4-6 dm. high; 
leaf-blades flat, becoming involute, 5-15 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, scabrous 
throughout; spike 5-10 cm. long; spikelets 8-15, compressed, 5-7-flowered, 
spreading, 5-6 mm. long; lemma oblong-lanceolate, acute, scabrous towards 
the apex, acute or acuminate. River banks: Mont. Colo. Submont. 

19. A. Smithii Rydb. Stem 3-10 dm. high; leaf-blades spreading, rigid, 
bluish green, glaucous, smooth or minutely scabrous beneath, becoming involute, 
1-3 dm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; spikes 7-18 cm. long; spikelets 7-13-flowered, some- 
times in pairs; lemma 8-12 mm. long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, seldom 
awn-pointed, smooth or nearly so. A. spicatum Scribn. & Smith, in par.t. A 
occidentale Scribn. BLUE-JOINT; BLUE-STEM. Prairies and plains: Man. Mo 
Tex. Ariz. Ore. B.C. PlainMont. Je-S. 

20. A. molle (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. Stems 4-8 dm. high; leaf-blades 
more or less glaucous, 1-3 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, at last involute, scabrous; 
spike 1-2 dm. long, rather dense; spikelets about 2 cm. long, 6-8-flpwered; 
lemma 8-10 mm. long, densely hispidulous. River bottoms, especially in alka- 
line soil: Sask. N.M. Utah Wash. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

21. A. lanceolatum Scribn. & Smith. Stem 6-10 dm. high, smooth and 
shining; leaf-blades acuminate, 12-30 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, flat, scabrous 
beneath, pilose above; spike 1-2 dm. long; spikelets 10-20 mm. long, 4-7-flowered, 
erect; lemma 8-15 mm. long, broadly lanceolate, more or less short-pubescent. 
Banks and meadows: Wash. Ida. Ore. Je-Jl. 

22. A. subvillosum (Hook.) E. Nelson. Stems 4-6 dm. high, slender, 
glabrous; leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat or at last involute, scab- 
rous; spike rather crowded; spikelets compressed, 12-15 mm. long; lemma 6-10 
mm. long, obtuse or acute. River banks and sandy soil: Sask. Neb. Colo. 
Nev. B.C. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

23. A. dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn. Stem 3-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 
5-20 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, flat, becoming involute in drying; spike 6-18 cm. 
long; spikelets slightly compressed, 4-8-flowered; lemma broadly lanceolate, 10- 
12 mm. long, acute or rarely short-awned. Sand-dunes: Hudson Bay Mich. 
Wis. Ida. Sask. Plain Boreal. Jl-Au. 

73. TRITICUM L. WHEAT. 

Annuals or biennials with spicate inflorescence. Spikelets solitary at each 
' node, alternate, 2-5-flowered; flowers mostly perfect. Empty glumes with 
one edge towards the rachis, broad, short, often toothed, but seldom awned at 
the apex. Lemma ventricose on the back, several-nerved, often awned or at 
least toothed at the apex. Palet shorter than the lemma, 2-keeled. Grain 
deeply furrowed, free, pubescent at the apex. 

Empty glumes distinctly keeled only at the apex; grain dull, neither glossy nor semi- 
translucent. I- T. aestivum. 

Empty glumes distinctly keeled, almost winged, to the base; grain glossy, often some- 
what translucent. 2. T. durum. 

1. T. aestivum L. Annual or biennial; stem about 1 m. high, hollow, 
smooth; leaves at first rather light green, soft; spike 4-12 cm. long, 4-angled; 
spikelets mostly 4-flowered; lemma with or without awn. T. sativum Lam. 
WHEAT. Old fields and waste places: cult, and rarely escaped. 

2. T. durum Desf. Annual or rarely biennial; stem 1 m. high or more, 
usually with a pith; leaves smooth, whitish green, with hard cuticle; spike almost 
terete, thicker than in the ordinary wheat, 5-10 cm. long; lemma long-awned. 
DURUM or MACARONI WHEAT. Old fields and waste places: cult, and rarely 
escaped. 

74. SECALE L. RYE. 

Annuals or biennials, with spicate inflorescence. Spikelets solitary at each 
node, alternate, 2-flowered. Flowers all hermaphrodite and fertile. Empty 
glumes subulate, awn-pointed, with one edge towards the rachis. Lemma long- 



96 POACEAE 

awned at the apex, keeled to the base. Grain slightly compressed laterally, 
deeply furrowed, free, pubescent at the apex. 

1. S. cereale L. Annual or biennial; stem 1.5-3 m. high, glabrous; leaves 
scabrous, flat; spike 10-15 cm. long, 4-angled; spikelets 2-flowered; empty glumes 
subulate; lemma lanceolate, hispid ulous-ciliate, 5-nerved, awned. Waste 
places and old fields: escaped from cultivation. 

75. HORDEUM L. BARLEY, SQUIRREL-TAIL, FOXTAIL. 

Annuals or rarely perennials, with spicate inflorescence. Spikelets alter- 
nately in 3's, rarely in 2's, at each node of the articulate rachis, sessile or short- 
pediceled, 1-flowered; flower perfect or in the lateral spikelets often imperfect 
or rudimentary; rachilla extending beyond the flower as a long slender bristle. 
Empty glumes 2, awnlike, subulate, or lanceolate, rigid, falling together with the 
rachilla-joint. Lemma lanceolate, rounded on the back, awned, lobed, or in 
the lateral spikelets awnless. Palet shorter, 2-keeled. Styles very short, dis- 
tinct; stigmas plumose. 

Lateral spikelets sessile; annuals. 

Lemma not awned, the awns represented by chartaceous lobes. 1 . H . aegiceras. 

Lemma awned. 2. H. rulgare. 

Lateral spikelets stalked; lemma awned. 
Floret of the central spikelet sessile. 

Empty glumes of the central spikelets lanceolate. 3. H. pusillum. 

Empty glumes of central spikelet not lanceolate. 

Inner empty glumes of the lateral spikelets broadened. 4. H. maritimum. 

Empty glumes all setaceous. 
Lateral floret not awned. 

Plant low, 5-25 cm. high; upper sheaths inflated. 5. H. depressum. 
Plant taller, 2-0 dm. high; upper sheath not conspicuously inflated. 
Lateral floret neutral or staminate; lemma of the central floret 6-8 

mm. long. . 6. H. nodosum. 

Lateral floret usually perfect; lemma of the central flower 10 mm. 

long. 7. //. boreale. 

Lateral florets long-awned. 

Awn 2-3 cm. long. 8. //. caespitosum. 

Awn 4-6 cm. long. 9. H. jubotum. 

Floret of the central spikelets stalked. 

Empty glumes not ciliate. 10. H. montanense. 

Empty glumes or some of them ciliate. 11. H. murinum. 

1. H. aegiceras (E. Mey.) Royle. Stem 5-7 dm. high; leaf-blades glabrous, 
1-1.5 cm. broad; spikes about 1 dm. long; spikelets all fertile; empty glumes 
lance-subulate, strigose; lemma 3-lobed at the apex; lateral lobes lanceolate, 
acute, divergent; middle lobe ovate, obtuse, slightly hooded. PEARL BARLEY. 
Moist waste grounds: cult, and often escaped. Plain Submont. 

2. H. vulgare L. Annual or rarely biennial; stem 5-7 dm. high; leaf-blades 
broad, flat; ligules obsolete; spikes about 1 dm. long; empty glumes small, sub- 
ulate, awned; spikelets all hermaphrodite; lemma lanceolate, long-awned, smooth. 
BARLEY. Waste places and old fields: sometimes escaped from cultivation. 

3. H. pusillum Nutt. Tufted annual; stem 1-4 dm. high, usually de- 
cumbent at the base; leaf-blades 1-7 cm. long, 1-4 mm. wide; spike 3-7 cm. long; 
central spikelets perfect, the lateral ones imperfect; inner empty glumes of the 
lateral spikelets lanceolate, the outer ones subulate, all awned; lemma smooth, 
that of the central spikelet 6-8 mm. long, short-awned, those of the lateral 
spikelets smaller and stalked. Dry soil: Ont. Ga. Calif. B.C. Plain 
Submont. Ap-Je. 

4. H. maritimum With. Annual or perennial, branched at the base; 
branches decumbent below, then ascending, somewhat geniculate, 1-2 dm. high; 
sheaths loose, pubescent; spike short-exserted or the base included, 3-5 cm. long; 
empty glumes setaceous except the inner ones of the lateral spikelets, which are 
sometimes staminate, distinctly awned; otherwise like H. nodosum. Saline soil: 
Calif. Wash. Ida. Utah. My-Jl. 

6. H. depressum (Scribn. & Smith) Rydb. Tufted; stem 5-15 cm. high, 
geniculate at the base, which is covered by the sheaths; leaf -blades 1-3 cm. long, 
1-3 mm. wide, auricled at the base, finely pubescent; spikes 2-3 cm. long; lemma 



GRASS FAMILY 97 

of the central spikelet 7 mm. long, smooth; awn of about the same length; lemma 
of the lateral spikelets about 4 mm. long, acuminate or merely awn-pointed. 
H. npdosum depressum Scribn. & Smith. Meadows: Wash. Ida. Calif. 
Submont. My-Je. 

6. H. nodosum L. Tufted annual or perennial; stems 2-6 dm. high, erect 
or sometimes decumbent at the base; leaf-blades 4-12 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, 
scabrous; spike 3-8 cm. long; lemma of the central spikelet 6-8 mm. long; awn 
6-12 mm. long; lemma of the lateral spikelets smaller. Meadows and waste 
places: Alaska Calif. Tex. Yukon; Eu. Submont. Mont. Ap-Au, 

7. H. boreale Scribn. & Smith. Rather simple perennial; stem 3-10 dm. 
high, lower sheaths often pubescent; leaf-blades 1-2.5 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, 
scabrous; spikes 7-10 cm. long; lemma of the central spikelet scabrous toward 
the apex; awn about 1 cm. long; lemma of the lateral spikelets about 6 mm. 
long, subulate-pointed. Meadows: Alaska Calif. Ida. Colo. (?) Submont. 
Je-Jl. 

8. H. caespitosum Scribn. Cespitose perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, 
smooth; leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; spike 3-5 cm. long; lemma of 
the central spikelet lanceolate, 6 mm. long; awn about 12 mm. long; lemma of 
the lateral spikelets 2-4 mm. long, with an awn of about the same length. Mead- 
ows and springy places: Sask. S.D. Kans. N.M. Ida. Wash. Plain 
Submont. Je-Au. 

9. H. jubatum L. Tufted perennial; stem 2-8 dm. high, erect; leaf-blades 
3-12 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, scabrous; spikes 5-10 cm. long; lemma of the 
central spikelet 6-8 mm. long, scabrous at the apex; awn 4-6 cm. long; lemma 
of the lateral spikelets 4-6 mm. long, short-awned. Dry sandy soil and prairies: 
Lab. N.J. Tex. Calif. Alaska. Plain Subalp. Je-S. 

10. H. montanense Scribn. Erect biennial or perennial; stem 6-10 dm. 
high, smooth; spike 5-7 cm. long; leaf -blades 5-10 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, 
scabrous; central spikelets usually 2-flowered; lemma of the first flower about 1 
cm. long, lanceolate, scabrous; awn 16-18 mm. long; lemma of the second flower 
with the awn 12-14 mm. long; lateral spikelets similar to the central one, but 
the second flower rudimentary. Meadows: Mont. Submont. 

11. H. murinum L. Tufted perennial; stem 2-6 dm. high, erect or de- 
cumbent at the base; leaves 3-15 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous; spikes 5-10 
cm. long; empty glumes of the central spikelet lance-subulate; outer glumes 
of the lateral spikelets setaceous and merely scabrous; awns 18-25 mm. long; 
lemma 10-12 mm. long, scabrous toward the apex; awns about 25 mm. long. 
Ballast and waste places: Calif. B.C. Ida. N.M. ; also along the eastern 
coast: N.Y. D.C.; adv. and nat. from Eu. Son. Submont. My-Au. 

76. SITANION Raf. 

Tufted perennials, with cylindric, spicate inflorescence. Spikelets sessile, 
several at each node of the articulate rachis, 1-5-flowered. Empty glumes 2, 
rarely entire, awn-like, usually 2-5-cleft with subulate awned divisions. Lemma 
broader, entire, long-awned, or 2- or 3-cleft and short-awned. Palet shorter 
than the glume, 2-keeled. Styles very short, distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Empty glumes lanceolate, scarious-margined. 

Leaf-blades not white-margined. 1- S. lanceolatum. 

Leaf-blades white-margined. 2. 5. marginatum. 

Empty glumes setaceous, or cleft into setaceous divisions, not scarious-margined. 
Empty glumes setaceous, entire; lowest flower perfect. 

Lemma soft-pubescent. 3. S. pubiflorum. 

Lemma glabrous. . 4. S. elymoides. 

Empty glumes or some of them 2-cleft; lowest flower rudimentary. 
Lemma pubescent; sheaths and blades densely pubescent. 
Blades and sheaths short-hairy, subvelutinous. 

Awns at least 4 times as long as the lemma. 5. S. Hystnx. 

Awns 2-3 times as long as the lemma. 6. S. cmereum. 

Blades and sheaths long-hairy. 7. S. cihatum. 

Lemma glabrous or scabrous. 

Empty glumes subulate-lanceolate, bifid about two-thirds their length. 

8. O. ITlSMldTC, 



98 POACEAE 

Empty glumes setaceous, or cleft to near the base into setaceous divisions. 
Sheaths and blades more or less long-pubescent. 

Lemma glabrous. 9. S. molle. 

Lemma scabrous. 10. S. strigosum. 

Sheaths and blades glabrous, scabrous, or puberulent; lemma s-mooth 

below, scabrous above. 
Awns of the lemma 3-4 cm. long, divergent ; plant very low, 

11. S. rigidum. 

4wns of the lemma 4-7 cm. long; plant taller, more than 2 dm. high. 
Leaf-blades 2-5 mm. broad, flat or slightly involute. 

Plant perfectly glabrous; awn ascending. 12. S. glabrum. 
Plant puberulent or scabrous; awns divergent. 

13. S. montanum. 
Leaf-blades 1-2 mm. broad, strongly involute. 

14. S. basalticola. 

1. S. lanceolatum J. G. Smith. Stem 3-5 dm. high, erect, smooth; leaf- 
blades 8-15 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, rigid; spikes erect, 6-10 cm. long, barely 
exserted; empty glumes 5-6 mm. long, usually 2-nerved, entire or unequally 
2-cleft, the longer awn scabrous, divergent, 1-1.5 cm. long; lemma 8-9 mm. 
long, glaucous, entire or minutely 3-cleft; awns spreading, 2-5 cm. long. Agro- 
pyron sitanioides J. G. Smith. Mountains: Mont. S.D. Submont. Au. 

2. S. marginatum Scribn. & Merrill. Stem 2-3 dm. high; leaf-blades 3-9 
cm. long; spike 3-6 cm. long; empty glumes 5 mm. long, entire; awn spreading, 
about 1.5 crn. long; lemma glabrous, about 7 mm. long; awn like those of the 
empty glumes. Bare mountain slopes: Wyo. Subalp. Jl. 

3. S. pubiflorum J. G. Smith. Stem erect, 2-3 dm. high, strigose above; 
leaf-blades puberulent beneath, scabrous above, 2-10 cm. long, spreading; spike 
exserted, 5 cm. long; empty glumes 4-6 cm. long; lemma of the lowest flower 
7 mm. long, scabrous and finely pubescent; awn scabrous, straight, ascending, 
5-6 cm. long. Dry hills: Colo. -N.M. -Ariz. Son. Ap-Je. 

4. S. elymoides Raf. Stem 3-6 dm. high, glabrous and glaucous; leaf- 
blades smooth and glaucous or puberulent, 1-2 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat or 
involute; spike somewhat nodding, exserted or enclosed at the base in the upper- 
most sheath; empty glumes 6-8 cm. long; lemma 8-11 mm. long; awn scabrous, 
spreading, 5-6.5 cm. long. S. longifolium and S. brevifolium J. G. Smith. Hill- 
sides and plains: Neb. Kans. N.M. 'Ariz. Nev. -Mont. Plain Mont. 
Je-S. 

6. S. Hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Smith. Stems 1-3 dm. high, erect, scabrous 
above; leaf-blades flat or at length involute, finely pubescent throughout, 2-12 
cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; spike 5-7 cm. long, erect, flexuose; empty glumes scab- 
rous, 3-4 cm. long; lemma 7-8 mm. long, minutely pubescent, 3-awned, the middle 
awn about 3 cm. long. Dry hills and "sage plains": Colo. Wyo. Wash. 
Ore. Son. -Submont. My-Jl. 

6. S. cinereum J. G. Smith. Stem 2-3 dm. high, densely grayish pubes- 
cent; leaf -blades involute, rigid; spike 4-5 cm. long; awns 2-3 cm. long; lemma 
7-8 mm. long, scabrous, 3-nerved towards the apex, 3-awned; lateral awns 
2-4 mm. long, the middle one 2-3 cm. long. Dry places: Wash. Ida. Nev. 
Son. My-Jl. 

7. S. ciliatum Elmer. Stem 1-2 dm. high, cinereous-pubescent just below 
the spike; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, finely pilose, 3-4 mm. wide; spikes 5-7 cm. 
long; empty glumes about 1 cm. long, gradually tapering into a divaricate awn, 
3-4 mm. long; lemma 8 mm. long, pubescent or scabrous on the nerves; awn 
3-4 cm. long. Hills: Wash. Wyo. Submont. Je. 

8. S. insulare J. G. Smith. Stem slender, glabrous, 3-6 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 1-1.5 dm. long, glabrous below, pubescent on the veins above, involute; 
empty glumes 2-awned; awns divergent, scabrous, 1-2 cm. long; lemma 8 mm. 
long, smooth and shining, 3-cleft; middle awn divaricate, 1-2 cm. long; lateral 
awns or teeth 1-2 mm. long. Arid places: Utah. Son. Je. 

9. S. molle J. G. Smith. Stem 3-4 dm. high, pubescent; leaf -blades rigid, 
ascending, 8-15 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; spike 7-8 cm. long, erect, exserted; 
empty glumes 4, entire or unequally bifid, subulate-setaceous, 6-7.5 cm. long, 



GRASS FAMILY 99 

divaricate; lowest flower of the spikelet sterile, like the empty glumes; lemma of 
the second flower about 1 cm. long, trifid or entire; awn 5-7 cm. long. Moun- 
tain sides: Colo. N.M. Submont. Subalp. Au. 

10. S. strigosum J. G. Smith. Stem 3-6 dm. high, glabrous or minutely 
pubescent above; leaf-blades 1-2.5 dm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, flat, or the lower 
involute, pilose; spike stout, exserted, 8-12 cm. long; empty glumes entire or 
bifid, subulate-setaceous, 5-6 cm. long; lemma 8-10 mm. long, 3-cleft above, 
the middle awn 5-7 cm. long, the lateral ones 1-2 mm. long. Valleys: Wash. 
Ore. N.D. S.D. Submont. Je-Au. 

11. S. rigidum J. G. Smith. Stem 1-2 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
3-8 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, rigid, involute, scabrous above; spike 2-8 cm. long, 
exserted or included at the base; empty glumes 4, entire or two of them divided 
to the base, awned, strongly divaricate, 2-3 cm. long; lowest floret usually ster- 
ile; lemma 7-9 mm. long, trifid; awn stout, divaricate. Mountains: Calif. 
Wash. Mont. N.M. Ariz. Subalp. Alp. Je-Au. 

12. S. glabrum J. G. Smith. Stem 3-6 dm. high, smooth and shining; 
leaf-blades 7-15 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, flat, becoming involute; spike 5-8 cm. 
long, sub-flexuose, the base usually enclosed in the uppermost sheath; empty 
glumes bifid to near the base, the lobes subulate-setaceous, 6-8 cm. long; 
lemma 7-8 mm. long, entire or minutely bifid. Hills: Calif. Wash. Wyo. 
Utah. Subalp. Alp. My-Au. 

13. S. montanum J. G. Smith. Stem 2-4 dm. high, glabrous below, scab- 
rous above; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; spike erect, 5-10 cm. long; 
empty glumes subulate-setaceous, some of the lower usually bifid, divergent, 
5-6 cm. long; lemma 10-11 mm. long, 3-fid, 3-awned. Hillsides: Mont. Wyo. 
Utah Ore. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

14. S. basalticola Piper. Stem 1-3 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades 3-10 
cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, minutely scabrous on the nerves above; spike erect, 
3-5 cm. long, barely exserted; empty glumes subulate, or some cleft to near the 
base, spreading, 3-4 cm. long; lemma 8-10 mm. long, glabrous, glaucous, 3-fid; 
middle awn 3-3.5 cm. long, divergent, scabrous, the lateral ones about 1 mm. 
long. Basaltic soil and sandy slopes: Wash. Ida. Submont. Je. 

77. ELYMUS L. LYME-GRASS, WILD RYE, RYE-GRASS, BUFFALO RYE. 

Perennials, with rootstocks and cylindric spikes. Spikelets sessile, usually 
2 or 3 at each node, but in some species mostly single, 2-several-flowered. 
Empty glumes 2, inserted more or less obliquely, rigid, awn-like, subulate or 
lance-linear, persistent, awn-pointed or awned. Lemma oblong or lanceolate, 
rounded on the back, usually awned. Palet shorter than the glume, 2-keeled. 
Stvles very short, distinct; stigmas plumose. 

Lemma long-awned. 

Spike broad; spikelets spreading. 

Empt> glumes lanceolate to lanceolate-subulate; spike dense. 

Empty glumes lanceolate, 5-7-nerved, thick and strongly curved at the base; 

spike erect. 
Plant robust; spike scarcely exserted; lemma glabrous or nearly so. 

1. E. virginicus. 
Plant slender; spike long-exserted ; lemma scabrous-hispid ulo us. 

2. E. jejunus. 
Empty glumes narrowly linear-lanceolate, neither conspicuously thickened 

nor curved at the base; spike often nodding. 

Empty glumes usually minute, less than 15 mm. long. 4. E. diver stglurms. 
Empty glumes 15-30 mm. long. 

Lemma hirsute or villous. 3. E. canaaensis. 

Lemma hispidulous-scabrous to glabrous. 

Robust; spike usually included at the base; leaf-blades 8-15 mm. 

wide 5. E. robustus. 

Slender; spike long-exserted; leaf-blades seldom more than 5 mm. 
wide. 6. E. brachystachys. 

Empty glumes setaceous, hirsute; lemma hirsute; spike laxer. striatus 

Spike narrow; spikelets erect, appressed. 
Lemma pubescent. 

Empty glumes lanceolate, 5-nerved. vuipinus. 

Empty glumes lance-subulate, indistinctly veined. 9. E. angustus. 



100 POACEAE 

Lemma scabrous or glabrous. 

Empty glumes lanceolate, acuminate or short-awned , 2 5-nerved. 
Spike dense; spikelets more or less imbricate. 

Plants not tufted, with rootstocks; leaf-blades spreading. 

Sheaths and blades glabrous; glumes scabrous, at least above. 

10. E. glaucus. 
Sheaths and lower leaf-blades pubescent; glumes glabrous. 

11. E. marginalis. 
Plants tufted; leaf-blades ascending. 12. E. nitidus. 

Spike lax; spikelets distant; glumes glabrous. 13. E. Petersonii. 

Empty glumes linear-subulate. 

Spike 7-8 mm. thick; awns 30-40 mm. long. 14. E. Saundersii. 

Spike 5 mm. thick; awns 5-10 mm. long. 15. E. Macounii. 

Lemma awnless or short-awned; awn less than one-third the length of the body. 
Empty glumes strongly 3-5-nerved. 

Empty glumes thickened and strongly curved at the base, not scarious-margined. 

16. E. curvatus. 
Empty glumes neither thickened nor strongly curved at the base, more or less 

scarious-margined. 17. E. Howcllii. 

Empty glumes 1-nerved or indistinctly 3-nerved. 
Lemma glabrous or hispid ulous 

Empty glumes aristiform or narrowly subulate. 

Plant stout, 1-2 m. high, tufted; spikelets 2-6 at each joint; lemma scab- 

rous-hispidulous. 18. E. condensatus. 

Plant slender, 3-10 dm. high; spikelets 1 or 2 at each joint. 

Lemma broadly lanceolate, acute or awn-pointed; rachis scabrous on 
the sharp angles; spikelets erect; plant with a horizontal root- 
stock. 19. E. triticoides. 
Lemma narrowly lanceolate; rachis nearly terete, strigose; plant tufted. 
Spikelets usually in pairs; lemma awn-pointed. 

Lemma glabrous. 20. E. ambiguus. 

Lemma scabrous or scabro-strigose. 21. E. strigosus. 

Spikelets usually singly; lemma acuminate or acute. 

22. E. salinns. 
Empty glumes lanceolate-subulate, tapering from the rather broad base; 

lemma glabrous. 23. E. simplex. 

Lemma pubescent. 

Plants tufted; lemma long-attenuate, short-awned. 24. E. villiflorus. 

Plants not tufted, or somewhat so in E. cinereus, with horizontal rootstocks; 

lemma not long-attenuate. 
Lemma appressed-pubescent. 

Stem, sheath, and leaves glabrous or minutely strigulose. 

25. E. arenicola. 

Stem, sheath, and leaves densely short pubescent. 26. E. cinereus. 
Lemma with spreading pubescence. 

Spike long; empty glumes lanceolate, silky -villous. 

27. E. flavescens. 
Spike short; empty glumes subulate, scabrous. 28. E. innovatus. 

1. E. virginicus L. Stem 6-10 dm. high; sheath usually glabrous; leaf- 
blades 1-3 dm. long, 4-16 mm. wide, scabrous; spike 5-15 cm. long, thick, erect; 
lemma 6-8 mm. long, glabrous; awn scabrous, 5-18 mm. long. Along streams: 
N.S. Fla. Tex. Sask. Plain. Je-Au. 

2. E. jejunus (Ramaley) Rydb. Stem slender, 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 
1-2 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, scabrous; spike 2-6 cm. long, strict; spikelets usually 
2 at each node; lemma lanceolate, 7-8 mm. long, scabrous, hispidulous; awn 3-10 
mm. long. E. virginicus minor Vasey. E. virginicus jejunus Ramaley. Sand 
hills and river banks: Minn. Neb. Wyo. Mont. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

3. E. diversiglumis Scribn. & Ball. Stem 9-12 dm. high, glabrous; leaf- 
blades spreading, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 6-12 mm. wide, scabrous on both sides; 
spikelets in pairs, 2-flowered; lemma linear-lanceolate, acute; 8-10 mm. long, 
indistinctly 3-5-nerved, hirsute or scabrous, hispidulous; awn 2-3 cm. long. Rich 
open places: Wis. Wyo. N.D. Plain Submont. Jl. 

4. E. canadensis L. Stem 6-15 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 1-3 dm. 
long, 4-20 mm. wide, scabrous; spike 1-3 dm. long, usually long-exserted, nod- 
ding; spikelets spreading, 3-5-flowered; lemma 8-14 mm. long; awn 2-5 cm. long, 
rough. River banks and among bushes: N.S. Ga. N.M. B.C. Plain 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

5. E. robustus Scribn. & Smith. Stem 1-2 m. high, smooth; leaf-blades 
2-4 dm. long, 8-20 mm. wide, scabrous on both sides; spike 12-18 cm. long, 2.5- 
4 cm. thick; spikelets 3-4 at the nodes, 3-4-flowered; lemma 12-16 mm. long, 



GRASS ? AMJLY 101 

attenuate above; awn 3-4 cm. lorg. .Rjv^r valleys: . Ill.-..-M'o,^-N.M. Mont. 
Ida. Plain Submont. Je-Au. ' 

6. E. brachystachys Scribn. & Ball. Stem 3-10 dm. high, smooth; leaf- 
blades 1-2 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, semi-involute, smooth or somewhat scab- 
rous beneath, finely scabrous above; spike dense, nodding, 8-15 cm. long; spike- 
lets usually in 2's, 3-5-flowered; lemma 11-13 mm. long; awn scabrous, 2-4 cm. 
long. Prairies and plains: Mich. Tex. N.M. (Black Hills) S.D.; Mex. 
Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

7. E. striatus Willd. Stem 3-9 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 4-10 
mm. wide, smooth or slightly scabrous beneath, pubescent above; spike exserted, 
nodding, 6-12 cm. long; spikelets divergent, 1-3-flowered; lemma about 6 mm. 
long, hispid; awn 1.5-3 cm. long. Woods and river banks: Me. N.C. Tex. 

Plain Submont. Je-Au. 



long, 
N.D. 



8. E. vulpinus Rydb. Stem 5-7 dm. high, striate, erect; leaves 1-1.5 dm. 
long, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous on the margins; spike exserted, 1-1.5 dm. long, 
6-7 mm. thick, slightly nodding; spikelets 1-2 at each node, 4-6-flowered; lemma 
linear-lanceolate, 8 mm. long; awn 8-10 mm. long. Meadows: Alta. Neb. 
Plain. Jl-Au. 

9. E. angustus Trin. Stem 4-10 dm. high, striate, smooth; leaf-blades 
rigid, 7-15 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, smooth beneath, scabrous above, with in- 
volute margins; spike rather slender, its base enclosed in the upper sheath; 
spikelets in pairs, 2-3-flowered, erect-appressed ; lemma lanceolate, acuminatej 
8-10 mm. long; awn scabrous, 4-6 mm. long. Banks: Wyo. Ida.; Asia. Sub- 
mont. Je. 

10. E. glaucus Buckley. Stem 6-10 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades flat, 
scabrous on both sides, 6-15 mm. wide, 5-20 cm. long; spike erect, 6-15 cm. long, 
5-8 mm. thick; spikelets in pairs, rarely in threes or single, 3-4-flowered; lemma 
scabrous towards the apex, 5-nerved, 7-10 mm. long, with a white margin, or 
in var. tennis Vasey [E. americanus Vasey & Scribn.] narrower and with purplish 
margin; awn scabrous, 7-15 mm. long. Among bushes and in meadows: Mich. 
N.M. Calif. B.C. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

11. E. marginalia Rydb. Stem 6-10 dm. high, glabrous or pubescent at 
the nodes; leaf-blades 1-2 dm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, flat, scabrous beneath, 
usually pilose above; spike 1.5-2 dm. long; spikelets usually in pairs, 4-5-flowered; 
lemma 10-12 mm. long, glabrous and shining; awns 8-20 mm. long. Lake shores 
and banks: B.C. Wash. Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

12. E. nitidus Vasey. Stem 7-10 dm. high, stout and leafy; leaf-blades 
1.5-2 dm. long; spike about 1 dm. long, 5rect; spikelets 1-2 at each node, 3-5- 
flowered; lemma about 1 cm. long, obscurely 5-nerved, smooth or nearly so, 
shining; awn scabrous, of about the same length. Mountains: Ore. Wyo. 
B.C. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

13. E. Petersonii Rydb. Stem 6-8 dm. high, slender, glabrous; leaf -blades 
flaccid, 1-1.5 dm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, light green, minutely scabrous on both 
sides, or sparingly pilose above; spikelets in pairs or single; lemma about 1 cm. 
long; awn about 1 cm. long. Mountains: B.C. (Selkirk Mts.) Mont. Au. 

14. E. Saundersii Vasey. Stem 6-10 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades 12-20 
cm. long, becoming involute, finely scabrous; spike 12-18 cm. long, somewhat 
nodding; spikelets usually in pairs, 2-4-flowered ; lemma lanceolate, 5-nerved, 
finely scabrous, 10 mm. long. Mountains: Colo. Mont. 

15. E. Macounii Vasey. Stem 3-10 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades erect, 
scabrous, 7-15 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; spike slender, 7-12 cm. long; spikelets 
often solitary at the nodes, 1-3-flowered; lemma scabrous above, 8-10 mm. long, 
5-nerved. Meadows: Man. N.M. Utah Alta. Plain Submont. 

16. E. curvatus Piper. Stem erect, 6-10 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
1-2 dm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, usually flat, scabrous on both sides; spike stout, 
erect, short-exserted, 5-12 cm. long; lemma 3-5-nerved, sparingly scabrous- 
hispidulous towards the apex, 8-12 mm. long, acuminate to short-awned; awn 



102 1OACEAE 

2 mm. long or loss. E. virginiciis sHbrnuiicus Hook. River banks: Man. Ills. 
Kans. 'Wash. Plain -Submont. Jl-Au. 

17. E. Howellii Scribn. & Merrill. Somewhat tufted perennial; stem 6-8 
dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades spreading, flat, 10-15 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, 
minutely scabrous; spike exserted, 7-10 cm. long; spikelets usually in pairs, 
2-4-flowered; lemma 10-12 mm. long, acuminate, usually awn-pointed, sparingly 
scabrous toward the apex. E. glaucus breviaristatus Davy. Grassy ground: 
Alaska Ore. Jl-Au. 

18. E. condensatus Presl. Stems tufted, 1-2 m. high, stout, striate, 
scabrous or scabro-puberulent above; leaf-blades 3-10 dm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, 
more or less scabrous; spike 2-4 dm. long; lemma 12-15 mm. long, acuminate 
or awn-pointed. Hills and alkaline ground: Alta. -Neb. N.M. -Calif. -B.C. 
Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

19. E. triticoides Buckley. Stem slender, 6-8 dm. high; leaf -blades 1.5-3 
dm. long, about 7 mm. wide, flat or somewhat involute, scabrous on the margins 
and nerves; spike about 1.5 dm. long, erect; spikelets 12-18 mm. long, 4-6- 
flowered; lemma 8-10 mm. long, 9-nerved, glabrous, awn-pointed. Meadows, 
hillsides, and bottom lands: Alta. N.M. Calif. Wash. Son. -Mont. Je- 
Au. 

20. E. ambiguus Vasey & Scribn. Tufted perennial; stem 6-10 dm. 
high, glabrous; leaf -blades 1-4 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, rigid, flat or at last in- 
volute, scabrous, especially above; spikes 7-12 cm. long, erect; spikelets 5-9- 
flowered, 12-18 mm. long; empty glumes about 12' mm. long, scabrous; lemma 
10-12 mm. long, obscurely 5-nerved; awn 3 mm. or less long. Canons and 
hillsides: Colo. Utah. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

21. E. strigosus Rydb. A cespitose perennial; stem 5-7 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 1-2 dm. long, about 3 mm. wide, flat or involute, scabrous; spike 1-1.5 
dm. long; empty glumes linear-subulate, 7-9 mm. long, very scabrous; lemma 
lanceolate, about 1 cm. long, awn-pointed or short-awn ed. Foot-hills and shale- 
slopes: Colo. Wyo. Submont. Je-Jl. 

22. E. salinus M. E. Jones. Tufted perennial; stem 3-6 dm. high, smooth; 
leaf-sheaths enlarged, long-remaining and becoming fibrous; leaf-blades thick, 
involute, puberulent near the throat, the basal ones 1-1.5 dm. long; stem-leaves 
5-10 cm. long; spike 5-10 cm. long, narrow; spikelets about 12 mm. long, 7-9- 
flowered; empty glumes 4 mm. long, somewhat falcate; lemma about 8 mm. long. 
Saline soil: Utah Wyo. Son. Submont. Jl. 

24. E. simplex Scribn. & Williams. Stems tufted, 3-4 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 4-10 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, becoming involute, strigose-scabrous above; 
spikes 6-10 cm. long; rachis flattened and scabrous on the edges; spikelets singly 
or sometimes in pairs, about 1.5 cm. long, 5-7-flowered; empty glumes very rigid, 
unequal, 8-10 mm. long; lemma about 7 mm. long, smooth, acuminate; awn 
4-6 mm. long. Alkaline soil: Wyo. N.M. Ore. Submont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

24. E. villiflorus Rydb. Stem 4-6 dm. high, finely retrorse-pubescent; 
leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, about 2 mm. wide, strongly involute, scabrous above; 
spike 1-1.5 dm. long; spikelets 1 or 2 at each node; lemma lanceolate, 5-nerved, 
villous-hirsute, about 1 cm. long. Plains and foot-hills: Colo. Alta. Plain 
Submont. Jl. 

26. E. arenicpla Scribn. & Smith. Stem 8-15 dm. high, glabrous; leaf- 
blades 2-4 mm. wide, 2-3 dm. long, strongly involute; spike slender, 1.5-2.5 dm. 
long ,- spikelets in pairs or singly, about 6-flowered; lemma acute, mucronate or 
awn-pointed, about 10 mm. long. E. dasytachys litoralis Am. auth., not Griseb. 
Sand dunes: Wash. Ida. Ore. Son. Je-N. 

26. E. cinereus Scribn. & Merr. Stem densely short-pubescent, except 
where protected by the sheaths, about 1 m. high; leaf-blades 2-3 dm. long, 5 mm. 
wide, often involute; spike about 15 cm. long; spikelets usually 2 at each node, 
3-4-flowered ; lemma 9-10 mm. long, strigose. Dry plains: Calif. Nev. Ida. 
Son. Je. 



GRASS FAMILY 103 

27. E. flavescens Scribn. & Smith. Stem 6-10 dm. high, glabrous, or pubes- 
cent just below the nodes; leaf-blades 2-4 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide smooth 
beneath, scabrous or strigulose above; spike 1-2 dm. long, yellowish' spikelets 
3-6-flowered, 1-2 cm. long; lemma 10-12 mm. long, mucronate or awn-pointed. 
Sand: Wash. Ida. Ore. Son. Jl-Au. 

28. E. innovatus Beal. Stem smooth, or pubescent just below the nodes' 
leaf-blades rather rigid, 5-18 cm. long, 2-8 mm. wide, scabrous on the margins 
and nerves beneath; spike 4-10 cm. long; spikelets 3-6-flowered, 10-15 mm 
long; lemma densely pubescent, usually villous, 8-10 mm. long; awns 2-4 mm 

long. E. Brownii Scribn. & Smith. Hills:' Sask. S.D. Wyo. B.C. Sub'- 

mont. Je-Au. 

78. HYSTRIX Moench. 

Perennials, with rootstocks and terminal spikes. Spikelets in pairs or 3's, 
spreading, 2-several-flowered ; rachilla, articulate below the lemmas. Empty 
glumes in the lowest spikelets subulate, minute, elsewhere wanting. Lemma 
lanceolate, rigid, convolute, rounded on the back, awned. Styles very short; 
stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, adherent to the palet. 

1. H. Hystrix (L.) Millsp. Stem 6-12 dm. tall; leaf-blades 1-2.5 dm. long, 
6-12 mm. wide, smooth beneath, scabrous above; spike 7-18 cm. long; spikelets 
at length spreading. 8-12 mm. long, exclusive of the awns; lemma 8-12 mm. 
long, acuminate; awn about 2.5 cm. long. Asprella Hystix Willd. Rocky woods: 
N.B.Ga. Neb. Sask. Plain. Je-Jl. 

Family 13. CYPERACEAE. SEDGE FAMILY. 

Grass-like or rush-like plants, with mostly solid stems. Leaves 3-ranked, 
with closed sheaths and narrow blades. Flowers perfect or unisexual, in 
spikelets; bractlets (glumes or scales) 2-ranked or spirally arranged. Peri- 
anth composed of bristles, a sack-like organ (perigynium), or wanting. 
Stamens usually 3, rarely 1 or 2, or more than 3; filaments slender; anthers 
2-celled. Gynoecium of 2 or 3 united carpels, but ovary 1-celled and 1- 
ovuled; stigmas 2 or 3. Ovules anatropous, erect. Fruit an achene; endo- 
sperm mealy. 

Flowers all perfect, or at least one in each spikelet perfect. 
Glumes of the spikelets 2-ranked. 

Perianth represented by bristles; inflorescence axillary. 1. DULICHIUM. 

Perianth wanting; spikelets in terminal, solitary or umbellate heads. 

2. CYPERUS. 
Glumes of the spikelets spirally imbricate. 

Base of the style persistent as a tubercle on the achene. 

Basal empty glumes several. 3. RYNCHOSPORA. 

Basal empty glumes wanting, or 1 or 2. 

Spikelets solitary ; stem leafless ; bristles usually present. 4. ELEOCHARIS. 
Spikelets several or numerous ; stem leafy; bristles none. 5. STENOPHYLLUS. 
Base of the style not persistent as a tubercle. 

Base of the style swollen ; bristles none. 6. FIMBRISTYLIS. 

Base of the style not swollen; bristles usually present. 
Flowers without any inner scales. 

Bristles much elongating in fruit, silky. 

Bristles 6, but each 4-6-cleft to near the base, therefore appearing 

numerous. 7. ERIOPHORUM. 

Bristles 6, simple, crisp. 8. LEUCOCOMA. 

Bristles short, or little elongating, rarely wanting. 9. SCIRPUS. 
Flowers with a small inner scale between the flowei and the rachis. 

10. HEMICARPHA. 
Flowers monoecious or dioecious. 

Achenes not enclosed in a perigynium. 

Spikes several, clustered ; glumes subtending a single flower. 1 1 . KOBRESIA. 
Spikes solitary ; glumes subtending 2 flowers. 12. ELYNA. 

Achenes enclosed in a perigynium. 13. OAREX. 

1. DULICHIUM L. C. Rich. 

Tall perennials, with rootstocks and hollow jointed stems, leafy to the top. 
Leaves 3-ranked. Spikelets in axillary, simple or compound spikes, flat, linear, 
many-flowered; glumes 2-ranked, carinate, conduplicate, decurrent on the 



104 CYPERACEAE 

mternode below. Flowers perfect. Perianth of 6-9 retrorsely barbed bristles. 
Stamens 3. Style persistent as a beak on the top of the achene. Stigmas 2. 
Achenes linear-oblong. 

1. D. arundinaceum (L.) Britton. Stem stout, 3-10 dm. high; leaves 
numerous, flat, 2-8 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, spreading; lower sheaths bladeless; 
spikelets 12-25 mm. long, about 2 mm. wide, 6-12-flowered; glumes lanceolate, 
acuminate, strongly nerved, brownish; bristles longer than the achenes. D. 
spathaceum Pers. Wet places: Newf. Fla. Tex. Ore. B.C.; C. Am. Plain. 
Jl-0. 

2. CYPERUS L. GALINGALE, NUT GRASS. 

Sub-scapose perennials or annuals. Leaves basal; blades narrow, grass-like. 
Scapes in our species simple, triangular, with one or more bracts at the summit, 
subtending a simple or compound, umbellate or capitate inflorescence; rays 
usually very unequal in length. Spikelets flat to nearly terete. Glumes 2- 
ranked, concave, conduplicate or keeled. Flowers perfect; perianth none. 
Stamens 1-3. Styles deciduous from the summit of the achenes; stigmas 2 or 
3. Achenes without a tubercle. 

Glumes falling away from the persistent rachis of the flat spikelets. 

Style 2-cleft; achenes lenticular. 1. C. diandrus. 

Style 3-cleft; achenes 3-angled. 

Wings of the rachis none or very narrow. 
Annuals; stamen 1. 

Glumes awned or mucronate. 2. C. inflexus. 

Glumes acute, neither awned nor mucronate. 3. C. acuminatus. 

Perennials; stamens 2 or 3. 

Glumes tipped with a curved or bent awn; perennials with a rootstock. 

4. C. Fendlerianus, 
Glumes blunt or mucronate; perennials with a corm-like base. 

Heads oblong; spikelets ascending; stem rough. 5. C. Schweinitzii. 
Heads short; spikelets more or less spreading; stem smooth. 

Glumes broadly ovate; achenes 1 .5-2 mm. long. 6. C. Houghtoni. 
Glumes oblong-ovate; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long. 7. C. Bushii. 
Wings of the rachis prominent and separating from it as interior scales. 

8. C. erythrorhizos. 
Spikelets wholly falling away, usually leaving the two lower glumes persistent. 

9. C. strigosus. 

1. C. diandrus Torr. Annual; stems tufted, 5-30 cm. high; leaves about 
2 mm. wide; bracts usually 3, at least one much exceeding the spikelets; spikelets 
in terminal capitate clusters, linear-oblong, 8-18 mm. long, flat, many-flowered; 
glumes ovate, green, brown, or with brown margins, obtuse, 1 -nerved: stamens 
2 or 3; achenes oblong, gray. Marshy places: N.B. S.C. Colo. S.D. Plain 
Submont. Au-O. 

2. C. inflexus Muhl. Stems slender, tufted, 2-15 cm. high; leaves 1-2 mm. 
wide; bracts 2 or 3, longer than the umbel; spikelets capitate or in 3-rayed, sessile 
umbels, linear-oblong, 6-10-flowered, 4-6 mm. long; glumes light brown, lance- 
olate, several-nerved. C. aristatus Rottb. Wet sandy soil: N.B. Fla. Calif. 
B.C.;Mex. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

3. C. acuminatus Torr. Stems slender, tufted, 5-35 cm. high; leaves 
usually less than 2 mm. wide, light green; bracts much elongated; spikelets capi- 
tate, in 2-4-iayed umbels, flat, ovate-oblong, 4-8 mm. long; glumes oblong, pale 
green, 3-nerved, with short, more or less recurved tips. Wet soil: 111. La. 
Calif. Wash. Plain. Jl-O. 

4. C. Fendlerianus Boeckel. Stem slender, 3-5 dm. high, triangular above, 
scabrous on the angles; leaves flat, 2-6 mm. wide, scabrous on the margins; 
bracts 3-6, the longer much exceeding the inflorescence; spikelets spicate, in 
simple, often subcapitate, few-rayed umbels, oblong to cylindric, 5-15 mm. long, 
2-3 mm. thick; glumes orbicular-ovate, striate, pale greenish brown with brown 
or yellow margins. Wet places: w Tex. Colo. Ariz.; n Mex. Plain Sub- 
mont. Jl-S. 

5. C. Schweinitzii Torr. Stems tufted, rough, 3-7 dm. high; leaves 2-5 
mm. wide, rough-margined; bracts 3-7, erect; spikelets spicate, in 3-9-rayed 
umbels, flat, linear-oblong, 6-12-flowered, 8-16 mm. long; glumes convex, light 



SEDGE FAMILY 105, 

green, ovate, acute or acuminate, 9-13-nerved. Sandy soil: Ont Mo Kans 
(? N.M.) S.D. Sask. Plain. Au-O. 

6. C. Houghtoni Torr. Stem smooth, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 1-2 mm. wide- 
bracts 3-5, some much exceeding the inflorescence; spikelets loosely capitate in 
1-5-rayed umbels, compressed, acute, 8-15 mm. long, about 2 mm. wide 11-15- 
flowered; glumes chestnut brown, shining, oblong, obtuse, strongly 11-nerved 
Sandy places: Mass. Va. Ark. w S.D. Man. Plain. Jl-Au. 

7. C. Bushii Britton. Stem smooth, 3-6 dm. high, longer than the leaves' 
leaves 3-4 mm. wide, smooth; spikelets capitate in 1-5-rayed umbels, flat, linear,' 
acute, 8-15 mm. long; glumes oblong, mucronate, shining, 11-nerved. ' C. fili- 
culmis Coult., not Vahl. Sandy soil: Minn. Mo. Tex. Colo. Ore Wash 
Plain. Jl-S. 

8. C. erythrorhizos Muhl. Annual; stems tufted, 0.7-6 dm. high; leaves 
3-8 mm. wide, rough-margined, the lower equalling or exceeding the stem; 
bracts 3-7, some 3-5 times as long as the inflorescence; spikelets spicate in 
mostly compound umbels, linear, subacute, 6-30 mm. long, less than 2 mm. wide, 
compressed, many-flowered; glumes bright chestnut-brown, oblong-lanceolate' 
mucronate, appressed. Wet places: Mass. Fla. Tex. Calif. Wash Plain 
Au-O. 

9. C. strigosus L. Perennial, with a corm-like base, 3-10 dm. high; leaves 
rough-margined, 4-6 mm. wide; some of the bracts exceeding the inflorescence; 
spikelets spicate or subcapitate in more or less compound umbels, flat, linear, 
6-25 mm. long, 2 mm. wide or less, 7-25-flowered ; glumes straw-colored, oblong- 
lanceolate, several-nerved, appressed; achenes linear-oblong, acute. Moist 
meadows: Me. Fla. Tex. Calif. Wash. wS. D. Plain. Au-O. 

3. RYNCHOSPORA Vahl. BEAKED RUSH. 

Caulescent perennials, with rootstocks. Spikelets oblong or fusiform; 
glumes spirally imbricate, the lower empty, usually mucronate or cuspidate by 
the excurrent midrib. Perianth of 1-24, mostly 6, barbed or scabrous bristles, 
or rarely wanting. Stamens usually 3. Stigmas 2, rarely wholly united. Achenes 
lenticular, smooth, cancellate or transversely wrinkled. Base of the style per- 
sistent, forming a tubercle, or the whole style persistent. 

1. R. alba (L.) Vahl. Stems slender, glabrous, 1.5-2.5 dm. high; leaves 
bristle-like, 0.5-1 mm. wide; spikelets several, in 1-4 dense corymbose heads, 
narrowly oblong, 4-6 mm. long; glumes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, white, acute; 
bristles 9-15, equalling the achenes, which are obovate-oblong, lenticular, pale 
brown; tubercle triangular, flat. Bogs: Newf. Fla. Ky. Ida. Calif. 
Alaska; Eurasia. Boreal Mont. Je-Au. 

4. ELEOCHARIS R. Br. SPIKE-RUSH, WIRE-GRASS. 

Annual or perennial scapose herbs. Leaves reduced to mere sheaths, or the 
lower rarely blade-bearing. Scape angled or terete. Spikelets solitary, terminal, 
erect. Glumes spirally arranged, imbricate. Perianth of 1-12 bristles, usually 
retrorsely barbed. Stamens 2-3. Stigmas 2 or 3. Achene lenticular or tri- 
angular, sometimes obscurely so. Base of the styles persistent on the summit 
of the achenes, forming a tubercle. 

Style-branches 2; achenes lenticular or biconvex. 

Sheath hyaline, and scarious at the summit. 1. E. thermalis. 

Sheath firm, not scarious at the summit. 
Annuals, with fibrous roots. 

Achenes black, shining. 2. E. atropurpurea. 

Achenes pale brown, dull. 

Spikelets narrowly oblong or subcylindric; glumes blunt, closely appressed. 

3. E. Engelmanni. 
Spikelets lance-ovoid or lance-oblong; glumes acutish, more spreading. 

4. E. monticola. 
Perennials, with rootstocks. 5. E. palustris. 

Style-branches 3; achenes trigonous or turgid; perennials, with rootstocks. 

Achenes cancellate and longitudinally ribbed; spikelets flat. 6. E. ac7>-* 

Achenes smooth, papillose or reticulate. 



106 CYPERACEAE 

Tubercle of the achenes short-conic to depressed, plainly distinguishable from 

the achene. 
Achenes papillose. 

Stem filiform; glumes obtuse. 7. E. tenuis. 

Stem flat; glumes acute. 8. E. acuminata. 

Achenes finely reticulated. 9. E. arcnicola. 

Tubercle of the achenes long-conic, scarcely distinguishable from the body of the 

achene. 10. E. rostellata. 

1. E. thermalis Rydb. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stems tufted, 
yellowish green, 3-10 cm. high, somewhat flattened, striate; spikelet obovate, 
obtuse, 4 mm. long, 3 mm. thick; glumes very thin, ovate, acutish; achenes 
lenticular, broadly obovate, dark brown, smooth and shining, 1 mm. long; 
tubercle conic. Hot springs and thermal waters: Mont. Wyo. Mont. Jl-Au. 

2. E. atropurpurea (Retz.) Kunth. Stems tufted, slender, 3-10 cm. high; 
spikelet ovoid, subacute, 3-4 mm. long, 2 mm. thick; glumes ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
or the upper acute, purple-brown, with green midrib and narrow scarious margins; 
bristles 2-4, fragile, white, about as long as the achenes; achenes 0.5 mm. long, 
smooth, lenticular; tubercles depressed-conic, constricted at the base. Moist 
soil: la. Fla. Tex. (? Colo.); trop. Am.; Eurasia. Austral. Jl-S. 

3. E. Engelmanni Steud. Stems 2-4.5 dm. high, tufted; spikelet obtuse, 
5-15 mm. long, 2-3 mm. thick; glumes pale brown, with green midrib and narrow 
scarious margin, ovate, obtuse; bristles about 6, not longer than the achenes, or 
none; achenes broadly obovate, smooth; tubercle broad, low, covering the top 
of the achene. Wet places: Mass. N.J. Tex. Calif. Wash. Plain Sub- 
mont. Jl-S. 

4. E. monticola Fernald. Stems 1-2.5 dm. high, tufted; spikelets 6-9 mm. 
long, 2-3.5 mm. thick, acutish; glumes chestnut-brown or purplish, with paler 
midribs and margins, acutish; bristles 6, equalling or slightly exceeding the achenes, 
or (in var. leviseta) represented only by the unbarbed basal portion; achenes as 
in the preceding. Wet places: Calif. Wash.; the var. leviseta: Wash. Ida. 
Man. Submont. 

6. E. palustris (L.) R. & S. Stems striate, 3-15 dm. high; spikelets oblong 
to ovoid-cylindric, 6-25 mm. long, 3-4 mm. thick; glumes ovate-lanceolate or 
ovate-oblong, purplish brown with scarious margins and green midrib, or wholly 
green; bristles usually 4, longer than the achenes; achenes yellow, more than 1 
mm. long; tubercle conic, constricted at the base. E. glaucescens Willd., a slender 
form with narrower tubercle. In ponds and marshes: Lab. -Fla. Tex. -Calif. 
B.C.; Eurasia. Plain Mont. Au-S. 

6. E. acicularis (L.) R. & S. Stems tufted, filiform, obscurely 4-angled, 
grooved, 5-20 cm. high; spikelets narrowly ovate, acute, 3-10-flowered, 3-6 
mm. long; glumes oblong, obtuse, or the upper acute, pale green, often with two 
brown bands; bristles 3-4, fragile, fugaceous, shorter than the achenes; achenes 
obovoid, pale, obscurely 3-angled; tubercle conic. Wet places: Newf. N.J. 
N.M. Calif. B.C.; Mex.; Eurasia. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

7. E. tenuis (Willd.) Schultes. Stems tufted, filiform, 4-angled, 2-4 dm. 
high; spikelets narrowly oblong, acute, 6-10 mm. long, about 2 mm. thick; 
glumes thin, obovate or obovate-oblong, obtuse, with greenish midvein and 
scarious margins; bristles 2-4, shorter than the achenes, fugaceous or wanting; 
achenes obovoid, obtusely 3-angled, yellowish brown; tubercle conic, short. 
Wet places: N.S. Fla. Tex. Colo. Sask. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

8. E. acuminata (Muhl.) Nees. Stems tufted, flattened, striate, 2-6 dm. 
high; spikelets ovoid or oblong, obtuse, 6-12 mm. long; glumes oblong or ovate- 
lanceolate, acute or obtusish, purple-brown with green midrib and hyaline mar- 
gins; bristles 1-5, mostly shorter than the achenes; achenes obovoid, very ob- 
tusely 3-angled, light yellowish brown; tubercle depressed-conic. Wet places: 
Que Ga. La. Colo. B.C. Je-Au. 

9. E. arenicola Torr. Stems tufted, slender, 1.5-4.5 dm. high, grooved; 
spikelets oblong to ovoid-oblong, 4-12 mm. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. thick; glumes 
oblong or ovate, thin, blunt, with a brown apex and whitish margins; bristles 6, 
persistent, the longer ones as long as the achenes; achenes 3-angled, oblong- 



SEDGE FAMILY 107 

obovoid, faintly reticulate; tubercle thick, deltoid. Perhaps not distinct from 
E. montana H.B.K. Sandy shores: S.C. Fla. Tex. Calif. Colo. Son. 
Submorit. 

10. E. rostellata Torr. Stems slender, flattened, the sterile ones often re- 
clining and rooting at the summit, grooved; spikelets oblong, 6-12 mm. long, 
2 mm. thick; glumes ovate, obtuse, or the upper acute, green with a darker mid- 
vein; bristles 4-8, longer than the achenes; achenes obovoid, finely reticulate. 

Marshes and wet meadows: N.H. Fla. -Tex. -Calif. 'B.C.; Mex. Plain 

Svhmont. Au-S. 

5. STENOPHYLLUS Raf. 

Scapose annuals, with narrowly linear or filiform leaves. Spikelets umbellate, 
or capitate, rarely solitary; glumes spirally arranged, imbricate, deciduous. 
Flowers perfect; perianth wanting. Stamens 2 or 3. Base of the style swollen, 
persistent, forming a tubercle; stigmas 2 or 3. Achenes 3-angled or lenticular. 

1. S. capillaris (L.) Britton. Annual; stems tufted, filiform, smooth, 5-25 
cm. high; leaves filiform, roughish; bracts 1-3, setaceous; spikelets narrowly 
oblong, 5-8 mm. long, less than 2 mm. thick, in terminal, simple or compound 
umbels; glumes oblong, obtuse or emarginate, dark-brown with green keel; achenes 
yellowish, transversely wrinkled. River valleys: Me. -Fla. Calif. Ore. (but 
no specimens seen from the Rockies). Jl-S. 

6. FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl. 

Annual or perennial sub-scapose herbs, with grass-like leaves. Spikelets 
capitate or in ours umbellate, terete, several- or many-flowered; glumes spirally 
arranged, imbricate. Flowers perfect; perianth none. Stamens 1-3. Style 
usually enlarged at the base, but wholly deciduous at maturity; stigmas 2-3. 
Achenes lenticular or 3-angled. 

1. F. interior Britton. Perennial, with short stolons; stem thickened at 
the base, striate, smooth, 3-6 dm. high; leaves rough-margined, involute; spike- 
lets in somewhat compound umbels, ovoid or ovoid-oblong, acutish, 1 cm. long 
or less; glumes yellowish-brown, ovate, striate, mucronate, dull; achenes broadly 
obovate, blunt, cancellate, chestnut brown. F. castanea and F. thermalis of Fl. 
Colo. Meadows: Colo. Neb. Tex. Plain. Jl-Au. 

7. ERIOPHORUM L. COTTON-GRASS. 

Perennial bog plants, with rootstocks. Stems triangular or terete. Leaves 
with linear blades or some of them reduced to bladeless sheaths. Spikelets 
terminal, solitary, or a few in heads or umbels. Glumes spirally arranged, all 
usually subtending perfect flowers. Perianth of 6 members, but each 4-6-cleft 
to the base into long soft, usually white bristles, exserted much beyond the glumes 
at maturity. Stamens 1-3. Styles deciduous; stigmas 3. Achenes 3-angled, 
oblong, ellipsoid or obovoid. 

Spikelets solitary; involucre wanting. 
Plant stoloniferous. 

Glumes purplish-brown with narrow, pale margins. 1. E. Scheuchzeri. 

Glumes purplish-brown with white, broad margins. 2. E. Chamissonis. 

Plant tufted, not stoloniferous. 

Upper sheaths inflated; stem rough above. 3. E. callitrix. 

Upper sheaths not inflated; stem smooth. 4. E. opacum. 

Spikelets several, subtended by foliaceous bracts. 

Leaf-blades triangular-channeled throughout. 5. E. gracile. 

Leaf-blades flat, at least below the middle. 

Midrib of the glumes not prominent at the tip of the glume. 

6. E. angusti folium. 
Midrib of the glumes prominent to the very tip. 7. E. viridicarinatum. 

1. E. Scheuchzeri Hoppe. Stem slender, 2.5-4 dm. high; sheaths all 
blade-bearing or the uppermost one bladeless; blades filiform, channeled. E. 
capitatum Host. Bogs: Lab. Newf. Wyo. -B.C. -Alaska. Mont. Alp. 
Jl-0. 



108 CYPERACEAE 

2. E. Chamissonis C. A. Mey. Stems 1-7 dm. high, somewhat triangular; 
upper sheaths inflated, bladeless; leaf -blades filiform, triangular-channelled, 
3-10 cm. long; bristles often reddish-brown. E. russeolatum Fries. Bogs: 
N.B. Ont. Wyo. Ore. B.C.; Eurasia. Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

3. E. callitrix Cham. Stems obtusely 3-angted, 2-5 dm. high; leaf -blades 
filiform, triangular-channeled; glumes thin, ovate-lanceolate or the lowest 
lanceolate, acuminate, pale brown. E. vaginatum Torr., not L. Bogs: Newf. 
Mass. Pa. Sask. B.C. Alaska. Boreal Mont. Je-Au. 

4. E. opacum (Bjornstr.) Fernald. Stem terete or nearly so, 3-6 dm. high; 
basal leaves elongate, filiform, channeled; stem-leaves reduced to 2 or 3 close 
sheaths; glumes thin, ovate-lanceolate or the inner ones linear-lanceolate, acum- 
inate. Bogs: Me. Mass. B.C. Yukon; Eurasia. Boreal Mont. My-Jl. 

5. E. gracile Koch. Stem slender, smooth, terete, 3-6 dm. high; blades of 
the stem-leaves 2-3 cm. long, the basal ones longer; bracts about 1 cm. long; 
spikelets 2-6, on pubescent peduncles; glumes ovate, gray or nearly black, 
acutish, \\fith prominent midrib. Bogs: Que. N.Y. Colo. Calif. B.C.; 
Eurasia. Plain Mont. Je-Aa. 

6. E. angustifolium Roth. Stem smooth, obtusely triangular above, 3-6 
dm. high; blades rough-margined, 3-8 mm. wide; bracts 2-4, often black at the 
base; spikelets 2-12, ovoid or oblong; peduncles smooth; glumes ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate, purple-green or brown. E. polystachyon L., in part. E. 
ocreatum A. Nels. Bogs: Newf. Me. 111. N.M. Ore. Alaska; Eurasia. 
Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

7. E. viridicarinatum (Engelm.) Fernald. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 
2-6 mm. wide, the upper 15 cm. long or less; bracts not black at the base; spike- 
lets 5-30; peduncles fine-hairy; glumes ovate-lanceolate; achenes oblong-obovoid. 
E. polystachyon Am. auth., mainly. Bogs and wet meadows: Newf. Ga. 
Ohio Wyo. B.C. Submont. Jl-Au. 

8. LEUCOCOMA Ehrh. ALPINE COTTON-GRASS. 

Perennial bog plants, with rootstocks. Stems triangular. Spikelets soli- 
tary, usually subtended by a subulate bract and attached slightly obliquely. 
Glumes spirally arranged, all usually subtending perfect flowers. Perianth of 
6 white soft bristles, at maturity exserted far beyond the glumes. Stamens 3. 
Styles deciduous. Achenes obovoid, somewhat 3-angled, without tubercle. 
[Trichophorum Pers., in part.] 

1. L. alpina (L.) Rydb. Stems numerous, not tufted, 1.5-2.5 dm. high; 
leaves subulate, 6-20 mm. long, triangular, channelled; lower sheaths often 
bladeless; glumes oblong-lanceolate, yellowish brown with slender midvein. 
Eriophorum alpinum L. Cold bogs: Newf. Conn. Mich. B.C.; Eurasia. 
Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

9. SCIRPUS L. BULRUSH, CLUB-RUSH, TULE. 

Annual or perennial, caulescent or scapose herbs. Leaves grass-like, or in 
many species reduced to basal sheaths. Spikelets terete or somewhat flattened, 
solitary, capitate or umbellate. Glumes spirally arranged, some of the lower 
often empty. Flowers perfect. Perianth of 1-6 barbed, pubescent or smooth 
bristles, rarely wanting. Stamens 2-3. Style wholly deciduous, not swollen 
at the base, or rarely its base persistent as a small tip. Stigmas 2-3. Achenes 
triangular or lenticular, rarely plano-convex. 

Involucre of a single bract or wanting. 

Spikelets solitary, rarely two together; plants tufted (except No. 5). 

Annuals; stamens 2; bristles none. 1. S. color adensis. 

Perennials, with rootstocks. 

Involucre none. 2. S. pauciflorus. 

Involucre present, consisting of one erect bract. 

Bract scarcely exceeding the spikelet, often shorter; bog plants. 

Bristles 6, longer than the achenes. 3. S. caespitosus. 

Bristles none. 4. S. pumilus. 

Bract at least twice as long as the spikelet; aquatic plants. 

5. S. subterminalis. 



SEDGE FAMILY 109 

Spikelets normally more than one, usually several, sometimes numerous. 
Spikelets few, 1-12, appearing lateral, in a single capitate cluster. 

Annuals, with fibrous roots, tufted; achenes dark, transversely wrinkled. 
Spikelets obtuse; achenes plano-convex. 6. S. Hallii. 

Spikelets acute; achenes 3-angular. 7. S. saximontanus. 

Perennials, with rootstocks; achenes plano-convex, obovate. 
Stem sharply 3-angled. 

Spikelets acute; bracts long; glumes awned. 8. S. americanus. 

Spikelets obtuse; bracts short; glumes mucronate. 9. S. Olneyi. 
Stem terete, striate. 10. S. nevadensis. 

Spikelets numerous in small clusters of 17, arranged in compound umbels; per- 
ennials with stout rootstocks. 
Style 2-cleft; achenes obovate and plano-convex, brown. 

Achenes 2 mm. long, nearly as long as the glumes; spikelets ovoid. 

11. S. validus. 
Achenes 3 mm. long, distinctly shorter than the glumes; spikelet oblong- 

cylindric. 12. S. occidentalis. 

Style 3-cleft; achenes obcordate, 3-angled, yellowish. 13. S. heterochaetus. 
Involucre of two or more leaves with flat blades; perennials, with rootstocks. 

Spikelets 3-10, capitate, relatively large. 14. S. paludosus. 

Spikelets numerous, in compound umbels or in umbellate heads, relatively small. 
Bristles downwardly barbed, not much exceeding the fruit. 
Style-branches 2; achenes plano-convex; bristles mostly 4. 

15. S. microcarpus. 
Style-branches 3; achenes oblong, 3-angular; bristles 6. 

Plant dark green; glumes acute; achenes pale brown. 16. S. atrovirens. 
Plant pale; glumes rough-awned; achenes straw-colored. 

17. S. pcllidus. 
Bristles 6, smooth, much exceeding the glumes at maturity; achenes 3-angled, 

whitish. 

Spikelets all sessile; glumes brown. 18. S. cy permits. 

Snikelets mostly pediceled; glumes mostly greenish black. 

19. S. atrocinctus. 

1. S. coloradensis Britt. Annual; stems filiform, 2-5 cm. high; spikelet 
bractless, linear-oblong, acutish, 3-5 mm. long, 2 mm. thick; glumes lanceolate, 
acutish; keel green, bordered with two brown bands and scarious margins; 
achenes brown, obovate, 1 mm. long, 3-gonous, finely papillose. Shores: Colo.; 
Nev. Plain. 

2. S. pauciflorus Lightf. Rootstock filiform; stems 3-angled, filiform, leaf- 
less, 7-25 cm. high; spikelet oblong, compressed, 4-10-flowered, 4r-6 mm. long; 
glumes brown with lighter margins and midrib, lanceolate, acuminate; bristles 
2-6, usually longer than the achenes; achenes .obovoid, abruptly beaked, finely 
reticulate. Wet soil: Que. Me. N.Y.N.M. Calif. B.C.; Eurasia. Mont. 
Subalp. Jl-O. 

3. S. caespitosus L. Stems light green, filiform, 1-4 dm. high; basal sheaths 
numerous, the upper one bearing a short blade; spikelet ovoid-oblong, 4 mm. 
long; glumes yellowish brown, ovate, obtuse; achenes oblong, 3-angled, brown, 
acute. Bogs and wet places: Greenl. 111. Colo. Wash. Alaska; Eurasia. 
Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

4. S. pumilus Vahl. Stems terete, 1 dm. high or less, sheathed at the base; 
upper sheath with a short blade; spikelet rounded-ovoid; glumes ovate, acute 
or pointed, brown with green midrib and margins; achene 3-angular, smooth. 
S. alpinus Schleicher. Alpine wet places: Canadian Rockies; Alps. Jl-Au. 

5. S. subterminalis Torr. Stem slender, terete, nodulose, 3-10 dm. high; 
leaves very slender, 1.5-6 dm. long, 0.5-1.5 mm. wide; spikelet oblong-cyhndric, 
6-15 mm. long; bract subulate, erect, 1-2.5 cm. long; glumes ovate-lanceolate, 
acute, light brown with green midrib; bristles 6, rarely equalling the achenes; 
these obovoid, 3-angled, dark brown, smooth. Ponds and streams: Newf. 
S.C. Mich. Ida. Wash. B.C. Submont. Jl-Au. 

6. S. Hallii A. Gray. Stems slender, smooth, obtusely 3-angular, 1-3 dm. 
high; upper sheath bearing a filiform blade 1-6 cm. long; spikelets 1-7, capitate, 
oblong-cylindric, obtuse, 6-12 mm. long; bract 2-10 cm. long; glumes ovate- 
lanceolate, greenish brown, acuminate; bristles none. V\et places: Mass. 
Fla Tex. Colo. Utah Mex. Plain Submont . Jl-S. 

7. S. saximontanus Fernald. Stems slender, smooth, 1-3 dm. high, tufted, 
short-leaved at the base; bract erect, one-half to one-fourth as long as the stem; 



110 CYPERACEAE 

spikelets 1-4, capitate, oblong-cylindric, acute, 5-12 mm. long; glumes ovate, 
cuspidate-acuminate, with pale brown margins; style 3-cleft. Wet places: Tex. 
Wyo. Utah -Mex. Plain -Subrnont. 

8. S. americanus Pers. Stems erect, 3-12 dm. high; leaves 1-3, narrowly 
linear, keeled; spikelets 1-7, oblong, acute, 8-25 mm. long; bract 2-10 cm. long; 
glumes broadly ovate, brown, often emarginate or 2-clef t, awned ; achenes smooth, 
dark brown. S. punjens Vahl. Fresh or saline swamps: Newf. 'Fla. -Tex. 
Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

9. S. Olneyi A. Gray. Stems stout, 6-20 dm. high; leaves 1-3, narrow, 2-12 
cm. long; spikelets 5-12, oblong, obtuse, 5-8 mm. long; bract short, stout, 1-4 
cm. long; glumes oval or orbicular, dark brown, with green midrib, emarginate 
or mucronate, brown. Salt marshes: N.H. Fla. Tex. Calif. Ore.; W. Ind.; 
Mex.;C. Am. PlainSon. Je-S. 

10. S. nevadensis S. Wats. Stems 2-4 dm. high; leaves several, mostly 
basal, convolute; spikelets 1-5, ovoid or ovoid-oblong, 6-18 mm. long; bract 
flattened above, rough-margined; glumes broadly ovate, obtuse or acute, chest- 
nut-brown, smooth and shining; achenes minutely reticulate. Wet places, 
especially in alkaline soil: Sask. -Wyo. Calif. -Wash. Son. Je Jl. 

11. S. validus Vahl. Stems stout, terete, smooth, spongy, 1-3 m. high, 
sometimes 2 cm. thick, sheathed below; spikelets 5-12 mm. long, 3-4 mm. thick; 
glumes ovate or suborbicular, slightly pubescent, with strong midrib; achenes 
plano-convex. S. lacustris Am. auth., not L. COMMON BULRUSH. In water: 
Newf. Fla. Calif. B.C.; W. Ind.; Mex. Plain Mont. Je-S. 

12. S. occidentalis (S. Wats.) Chase. Similar to S. valiius; basal sheaths 
fimbrillose on the margins; spikelets 20 mm. long, 4 mm. thick; glumes ovate, 
short-awned, viscid above; achenes biconvex. S. lacustris occidentals S. Wats. 
TULE. In water: Newf. N.Y. Mo. N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainSubmont. 
Jl-S. 

13. S. heterochaetus Chase. Similar to S. validus: stem slender, 1-2 m. 
high, sheathed below; bracts glabrous; spikelets usually solitary on the slender 
branches, ovoid or ellipsoid, acutish, 8-15 mm. long, about 5 mm. thick; glumes 
ovate, glabrous, often erose-marginei. In water: Vt. Mass. Neb. Ida. 
Ore. Jl-S. 

14. S. paludosus A. Nels. Stems slender, smooth, sharply triangular, 3-6 
dm. high; leaves pale green, smooth, 2-4 mm. wide; bracts 2 or 3; spikelets 
oblong-cylindric, mostly acute, 15-25 mm. long; glumes ovate, puberulent or 
glabrous, pale brown, 2-toothed at the apex, awned; achenes lenticular, obovate, 
yellowish brown. S. campestris Britt., not Roth. S. interior Britt. S. Brit- 
tonianus Piper. Salt marshes: Que. N.J. -Kans. Tex. -Calif. Wash. Plain 
-Submont. My-Au. 

16. S. microcarpus Presl. Stem 1-1.5 m. high; sheaths often tinged with 
red; leaves rough-margined, often 1 m. long or more; spikelets ovoid-oblong, 
acute, 3-4 mm. long; glumes brown with green midvein; stamens 2; achenes 
oblong-obovate, nearly white. S. rubrotinctus Fern. Swamps: Newf. Conn. 
N.M. Calif. Alaska. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

16. S. atrovirens Muhl. Stem triangular, leafy, 6-14 dm. high; leaf-blades 
elongate, more or less nodulose, rough on the margins, dark green, 6-12 mm. 
wide; spikelets ovoid-oblong, acute, 4-10 mm. long; glumes greenish brown, 
ovate-oblong, acute; bristles rarely wanting. Swamps: N.S. -Ga. -N.M. La. 
Sask. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

17. S. pallidus (Britton) Fernald. Stem triangular, 1-1.5 m. high; leaf- 
blades elongate, pale, 6-15 mm. wide, somewhat nodulose; spikelets oblong to 
oblong-cylindric; glumes pale, ovate, acute, tipped with an awn half as long as 
the body. Wet ground: Man. Kans. Tex. N.M. Wyo. Plain Submont. 
Je-Au. 

18. S. cyperinua (L.) Kunth. Stem smooth, obtusely 3-angled or nearly 
terete, 6-18 dm. high; leaf -blades elongate, 4-6 mm. wide, rough-margined; 
bracts 3-6, their bases often brown or black; umbels irregularly compound; 



SEDGE FAMILY HI 

spikelets ovoid-oblong, obtuse, 3-10 mm. long; glumes ovate or lanceolate, acute 
or subacute. Swamps: Newf. Fla. La. Sask. Plain. Au-S. 

19. S. atrocinctus Fernald. Stem 5-12 dm. high, smooth, terete; leaves 
bright green, 2-5 mm. wide; bracts blackish at the base; spikelets 2.5-6 mm. 
long; glumes lance-ovate, acute; achenes 3-angled, white, ovate. Swamps: 
Newf. N.J. la. B.C. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

10. HEMICARPHA Nees & Am. 

Dwarf annual tufted herbs. Leaves narrow, often setaceous. Spikelets 
terete, solitary or in small clusters. Glumes spirally arranged. Flowers per- 
fect, each with a small translucent scale between it and the axis. Perianth want- 
ing, i. e., bristles none. Stamen 1. Style 2-cleft, not swollen at the base. 

1. H. aristulata (Coville) Smyth. Stem longer than the setaceous glabrous 
leaves, 5-20 cm. high; bracts 1-3, sometimes 2 cm. long; spikelets 4-8 mm. 
long; glumes rhombic-obovate, brown, abruptly contracted into a subulate awn 
about as long as the body; achenes narrowly obovate, black. H. intermedia 
Piper. Sandy banks: Kans. -Tex. 'Calif. Wash. Son. Submont. Jl-S. 

11. KOBRESIA Willd. 

Sedge-like perennials, with monoecious flowers. Spikelets several-flowered, 
forming a terminal spike. Glumes spirally arranged, the lower usually enclos- 
ing a pistillate, the upper a staminate flower. Stamens 3. Perianth lacking. 
Style short; stigmas 3. Achenes obtusely 3-angled. 

1. K. bipartita (All.) Delia Torre. Stems solitary or tufted, 1-3 dm. high, 
smooth; leaves about 1 mm. wide, involute; spikets several in a spike, ascending, 
linear; glumes somewhat serrulate on the keel, fully 1 mm. long. K. caricina 
Willd. Arctic-alpine situations: Greenl. Alta. B.C. Alp. Je-S. 

12. ELYNA Schrad. 

Low, tufted, sedge-like monoecious plants. Leaves mostly basal, narrow. 
Spikelets 2-flowered, forming a terminal spike. Glumes of the spikelets 3 or 4, 
usually only one flower-bearing. Flowers 2, one staminate of 3 stamens, the 
other pistillate with a single pistil. Perianth none. Style slender, not jointed 
to the ovary; stigmas 3. Achenes obtusely 3-angled. 

1. E. Bellardi (All.) C. Koch. Densely tufted; stems slender, 1-4 dm. high; 
old sheaths fibrillose, brown; leaf -blades revolute; spikelet subtended by a short 
bract or bractless, 15-30 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; achenes appressed, ellipsoid, 
2 mm. long or less. Arctic-alpine situations: Greenl. Alta. n N.M. Ore. 
Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. Je-Au. 

13. CAREX (Rupp.) L. SEDGE.* 

Grass-like sedges, perennial by rpotstocks. Culms mostly triangular, often 
strongly phyllopodic or aphyllopodic. Leaves 3-ranked, the upper (bracts) 
elongate or short, and subtending the spikes of flowers pn wanting. Plants 
monoecious or sometimes dioecious; flowers solitary in the axils of scales (glumes). 
Spikes one to many, either wholly pistillate, wholly staminate, androgynous or 
gynaecandrous. Perianth none. Staminate flowers of three (or rarely two) 
stamens, the filaments filiform. Pistillate flowers of a single pistil, with a style 
and two or three stigmas. Achene completely surrounded by the perigynium, 
or rarely rupturing it in ripening, 3-angled, lenticular or plano-convex. Rhacheola 
occasionally developed. 

Spike one, androgynous; perigynia glabrous, thin, not margined or triangular, beaked; 

style withering, not continuous with the achene; stigmas three. 
Pistillate scales persistent; perigynia not stipitate, not becoming reflexed. 
Spike linear or linear-oblong; perigynia not inflated. 1. JN ARDINAE. 

Spike orbicular to short-ovoid; perigynia inflated. 2. INFLATAE. 

Pistillate scales deciduous; perigynia stipitate, at least the lower reflexed at maturity. 

3. ATHROCHLAENAE. 



Contributed by Mr. Kenneth K. Mackenzie. 



112 CYPERACEAE 

^Spikes one to many; if one, plant not as above. 

Achenes lenticular and stigmas two; lateral spikes sessile; terminal spike partly 

pistillate, or if staminate, the lateral spikes short, or heads dioecious. 
Spike one. 

Spike orbicular to short-ovoid. 4. CAPITATAE. 

Spike linear. 5. DIOICAE. 

Spikes more than one. 

Perigynia not white-puncticulate. 

Rootst9cks long-creeping, the culms arising singly or few together. 
Perigynia not thin or wing-margined, the beak obliquely cut. 
Culms not branching. 

Spikes densely aggregate into a globular-ovoid head, appearing 

like one spike. 6. FOETIDAE. 

Spikes distinct. 7. DIVISAE. 

Culms becoming decumbent and branching. 

8. CHORDORRHIZAE. 
Perigynia thin or. wing-margined, the beak bidentate. 

9. ARENARIAE. 
Rootstock not long-creeping, the culms densely cespitose. 

Spikes androgynous. 

Perigynia abruptly contracted into the beak. 

Spikes few (ten or less); perigynia green or tinged with reddish 
brown. 10. MUHLENBERGIANAE. 

Spikes numerous; perigynia yellowish or brownish. 

Perigynia yellowish; opaque part of leaf-sheath transversely 

rugulose. 11. MULTIFLORAE. 

Perigynia brownish; opaque part of leaf-sheath not trans- 
versely rugulose. 12. PANICULATAE. 
Perigynia tapering into the beak. 13. STENORHYNCHAE. 
Spikes gynaecandrous or pistillate or rarely staminate. 
Perigynia at most thin-edged. 

Perigynia spreading at maturity. 14. STELLULATAE 

Perigynia appressed. 15. DEWEYANAE. 

Perigynia narrowly to broadly wing-margined. 

16. OVALES. 

Peiigynia white-puncticulate. 17. CANESCENTES. 

Achenes triangular or lenticular; if lenticular, lower lateral spikes conspicuously 

peduncled, or terminal spike staminate and lateral spikes elongated. 
Achenes strongly constricted at base, rounded at apex. 18. PHYLLOSTACHYAE. 
Achenes not strongly constricted at base, pointed at apex. 

Spike one; perigynia rounded and beakless at apex. 19. POLYTRICHOIDEAE. 
Spikes one or more; when one, perigynia not both rounded and beakless at 

the apex. 

Perigynia both coriaceous and shining, the beak obliquely cut. 
Spike solitary. 20. OBTUSATAE. 

Spikes several. 21. NITIDAE. 

Perigynia not both coriaceous and shining. 

Spike one; perigynia triangular, glabrous, not reflexed or flattened. 
Perigynia prominently beaked, finely many-nerved. 

22. RUPESTRES. 

Perigynia nearly beakless, 2-keeled but otherwise nerveless. 

23. FlRMICULMES. 
Spikes one to many ; when one, perigynia differing from above. 

Perigynia closely enveloping the achene, strongly tapering at base, 

ubescent or puberulent; bracts sheathless or nearly so. 
3 normally one. 
Spikes androg\ nous ; leaf-blades very narrow. 

24. FILIFOLIAE. 
Spikes dioecious. 25. SCIRPINAE. 

Spikes two or more. 26. MONT AN AE. 

Perigynia not as above; or if so, bracts strongly 'sheathing. 
Lowest bract long-sheathing, its blades rudimentary. 
Leaf-blades flat; perigynia puberulent or pubescent. 

27. DlGITATAE. 

Leaf-blades filiform; perigynia glabrous. 

28. ALBAE. 

Lowest bract sheathless or long-sheathing; if long-sheathing, its 

blade well-developed. 
Lowest bract strongly sheathing; perigynia never strongly 

bidentate with stiff teeth. 

Achenes lenticular; stigmas two. 29. BICOLORES. 
Achenes triangular; stigmas three. 
Scales not dark-tinged. 

Pistillate spikes short-oblong to linear, erect. 

Perigynia tapering at base, triangular, closely 

enveloping the achenes. 
Rootstock long-creeping. 

30. PANICEAE. 
Rootstock not long-creeping. 

31. LAXIFLORAE. 



SEDGE FAMILY 113 

Perigynia rounded at base, suborbicular in 
cross-section, loosely enveloping achenes 

32. GRANULARES 
.Pistillate spikes elongate, linear to cvlindrio 

slender peduncled, the lower drooping 
Culms strongly reddish tinged at base aphyl- 

lopodic. 33. DEBILES. 

Culms not strongly reddish tinged at base 

phyllopodic. 

Spikes slender, few-flowered; perigynia 4 
mm long or less, not inflated, the beak 
not becoming bidentate. 

34. CAPILLARES. 
bpikes dense, many-flowered; perigynia 

longer, more or less inflated, the beak 
becoming bidentate. 

35. LONGIROSTRES. 

Scales dark-tinged. 36. FRIGIDAE. 

Lowest bract sheathless, or sheathing; if sheathing, peri- 

gynia strongly bidentate with stiff teeth 
foliage pubescent; perigynia not bidentate. 
^ ,. 37. PALLESCENTES. 

toliage glabrous, or if rarely pubescent, perigynia bi- 



Perigynia rough-papillose. 38. ANOMALAE. 
Perigynia at most granular-roughened. 

Perigynia beakless or very short-beaked; achenes 

triangular. 

Perigynia glaucous. 39. LIMOSAE. 
Perigynia not glaucous. 

40. ATRATAE. 
Perigynia with strongly bidentate beak, or if not, 

achenes lenticular. 
Achenes lenticular; perigynia dull. 

41. ACUTAE. 

Achenes triangular, or if rarely lenticular, 

perigynia shining. 

Perigynia coriaceous, little if at all inflated, 
often pubescent; bracts sheathless. 

42. HlRTAE. 

Perigynia glabrous, often inflated; if rarely 

coriaceous, the bracts sheathing. 
Perigynia little inflated; lower bract 
strongly sheathing. 

43. EXTENSAE. 

Perigynia little to much inflated; lower 

bract not strongly sheathing. 
Spike one. 44. PAUCIFLORAE. 
Spikes more than one. 

Perigynia finely and closely 
ribbed. 

45. PSEUDO-CYPEREAE. 
Perigynia coarsely ribbed or 

nerveless. 

46. PHYSOCARPAE. 

1. NARDTNAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 1. C. Hepburnii. 

2. INFLATAE. 

Represented by one species in our range. 2. C. Engelmannii. 

3. ATHROCHLAENAE. 
Densely cespitose; leaf-blades involute, 1 mm. wide; staminate flowers few; perigynia 

erect until full maturity. 3. C. pyrenaica. 

Short-stoloniferous; leaf-blades flat, 1.5 mm. wide or more; staminate flowers conspicuous; 
perigynia early deflexed. 4. C. nigricans. 

4. CAPITATAE. 
Represented by one species. 5. C. capitata. 

5. DIOICAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 6. C. gynocrates. 

6. FOETIDAE. 
Leaf-blades 2-3.5 mm. wide; perigynium little exceeding the scale at maturity. 

7. C. vernacula. 

Leaf-blades 1.5 mm. wide or less; perigynium much exceeding the scale at maturity. 
Perigynia membranous, not stipitate. 8. C. perglobosa. 

Perigynia not membranous, stipitate. 9. C. incurviformis. 



114 CYPERACEAE 

7. DlVISAE. 

Rootstocks slender, light brownish; culms obtusely triangular, normally smooth; leaf- 
blades narrowly involute. 

Perigynia long-beaked ; heads dioecious or nearly so. 10. C. Douglasii. 

Perigynia short-beaked; heads androgynous. 11. C. stenophylla. 

Rootstocks stout; culms acutely triangular, normally rough above. 
Perigynia not strongly nerved ventrally; leaf-sheaths hyaline. 

Perigynia chestnut, thick, the beak about one-fifth as long as the body. 

12. C. simulata. 
Perigynia blackish in age, piano-con vex, -the beak one-third to one-half as long as 

the body. 13. C. praegracilis. 

Perigynia strongly nerved ventrally; upper leaf-sheaths green-striate opposite the 
blades. 14. C. Sartwellii. 

8. CHORDORRHIZAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 15. C. chordorrhiza. 

9. ARENARIAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 16. C. siccata. 

10. MUHLENBERGIANAE. 

Sheaths tight, inconspicuously, if at all, septate-nodulose. 

Densely cespitose; head ovoid, capitate; perigynia serrulate to the middle. 

17. C. Hoodii. 
Rootstocks elongate; head linear, interrupted; perigynia serrulate at the apex only. 

Scales obtuse to short-cuspidate, not concealing the spreading perigynia. 

Spikes with conspicuous staminate flowers; scales half as long as the perigynia. 

18. C. vallicola. 

Spikes with inconspicuous staminate flowers; scales about as long as the peri- 
gynia. 19. C. occidentalis, 

Scales strongly cuspidate, concealing the appressed perigynia. 

20. C. Hookeriana. 
Sheaths loose and membranous, easilj breaking, conspicuously septate-nodulose. 

21. C. gravida. 

11. MULTIFLORAE. 

Represented by one species in our range. 22. C. vulpinoidea. 

12. PANICULATAE. 

Culms loosely cespitose; sheaths not copper-tinged at the mouth; head little interrupted; 
perigynia 2-2.75 mm. long, shining, not concealed by the scales. 

23. C. diandra. 

Culms densely cespitose; sheaths copper-tinged at the mouth; head interrupted; peri- 
gynia 2.5-4 mm. long, dull, concealed by the scales. 

Leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide; perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long; scales tinged with reddish brown. 

24. C. prairea. 
Leaves 2.5-6 mm. wide; perigynia 3-4 mm. long; scales chestnut-tinged. 

25. C. Cusickii. 
13. STENORHYNCHAE. 

Perigynia 34 mm. long, the beak much shorter than the body; scales strongly dark- 
tinged. 
Leaves clustered at base; sheaths not cross-rugulose ventrally; culms slender. 

26. C. Jonesii. 
Leaves not clustered at base; sheaths cross-rugulose ventrally; culms stout. 

27. C. nervina. 
Perigynia 4-6 mm. long, the beak longer than the body; scales not dark-tinged. 

28. C.stipata. 

14. STELLTJLATAE. 

Spikes in a small (610 mm. long) densely capitate brownish black head. 

29. C. illota. 
Spikes more or less widely separate, not brownish black. 

Perigynia broadest in middle, the beak sparingly serrulate; culms weak. 

30. C. laeviculmis. 
Perigynia broadest near base, the beak strongly serrulate; culms stiff. 

Beak of the perigynia one-fourth as long as the body, the teeth short, and ventral 

suture inconspicuous. 31. C. interior. 

Beak of the perigynia longer, strongly bidentate, the ventral suture conspicuous. 

32. C. angustior. 

15. DEWEYANAE. 

Culms densely cespitose; perigynia tapering at base, 4-5 mm. long, the upper part of 
the body covered by translucent scale. 33. C. Deweyana. 

Rootstocks slender, elongate; perigynia substipitate, 3.5-4.5 mm. long. 

Perigynia shallowly bidentate, the upper part of body not covered by the scale. 

34. C. leptopoda. 
Perigynia deeply bidentate, the body covered by the scale. 35. C. Bolanderi. 

16. OVALES. 

Lower bract or bracts conspicuous, several-many times the length of the head. 

Perigynia subulate, the beak much longer than body; lower bracts more than 1 dm. 
long, without yellowish brown margins at base. 36. C. sychnocephala. 



SEDGE FAMILY 115 

Perigynia lance-ovate, the beak shorter than the body; longer bracts less than 1 dm 

long, with yellowish brown margins at base. 

Perigynia nerveless ventrally, tawny at orifice. 37. C. athrostachya 

Perigynia nerved ventrally, hyaline at orifice. 38 C tenuirostri-s 

Bracts not conspicuous, rarely slightly exceeding the head. 

Beak of the perigynia flattened and serrulate to tip, often strongly bidentate 

Scales about the length of the perigynia and nearly of the same width above 

the perigynia nearly entirely concealed. 
Head stiff, the spikes approximate. 

Perigynia less than 5.5 mm. long, at most faintly nerved on inner face 
loosely ascending; spikes suborbicular; lower bracts prominent stiff 

39. C. adusta. 
Perigynia 5.5-7 mm. long, finely many-nerved on inner face, appressed- 

spikes oblong-elliptic: bracts not stiff. 40. C. petasafa 

Head not stiff, flexuous or moniliform. 41. c aenea 

Scales shorter than perigynia and noticeably narrower above, the upper part of 

perigynia largely exposed. 

Perigynia subulate to lanceolate, at least 2 ^ times as long as wide 
Perigynia subulate, the margin at the base almost obsolete. 

42. C. Crawfordii. 
Perigynia lanceolate, the margin conspicuous to the base. 

43. C. scoparia. 
Perigynia ovate-lanceolate or broader, at most twice as long as wide 

Perigynia narrowly to broadly ovate, 3-4 mm. long. 

Perigynia brownish; spikes closely aggregate, rounded at base 

44. C. Bebbii. 
Pengyma green; spikes contiguous to widely separate, usually tapering 

at base. 
Leaf-blades 2.5 mm. wide or less; perigynia spreading-ascending 

culms slender. 45. C. tenera. 

Leaf-blades 2-6 mm. wide (averaging 4 mm.); perigynia appressed- 

ascending; culms stout. 46. C. tincta. 

Perigynia ovate or broader, 3.75-6 mm. long. 

Perigynia thick, abruptly short-beaked; scales little, if at all, tinged 

with brownish red. 47. C. brevior. 

Perigynia thin, tapering to the beak; scales strongly tinged with chest- 
nut-brown. 48. C. Egglestonii. 
Beak of the perigynia slender, terete and scarcely, if at all, serrulate towards tip, 

obliquely cut, at times becoming obscurely bidentate. 
Scales about the length of the perigynia. and of nearly the same width above, the 

perigynia nearly entirely concealed. 
Culms and head stiff and rigid. 

Culms 1-3 dm. high, in large stools; scales strongly tinged with reddish 

brown ; perigynia lanceolate. 49. C. phaeocephala. 

Culms taller, not in large stools; scales lighter-colored; perigynia ovate, 

in age golden yellow at base. 50. C. xerantica. 

Culms slender; head flexuous or moniliform. 

Scales light reddish brown tinged. 51. C. practicola. 

Scales chestnut-brown tinged. 52. C. Piperi. 

Scales shorter than perigynia and noticeably narrower above, the upper part of 

perigynia largely exposed. 

Perigynia thin and membranous, except where distended by the achene. 
Perigynia 3.5-5 mm. long; culms slender. 

Perigynia lance-ovate, very narrowly margined, spreading; culms 

biennial. 53. C. microptera. 

Perigynia ovate, strongly margined, appressed ; culms annual. 

54. C. festivella, 
Perigynia 4.5-6 mm. long; culms low. 

Perigynia lanceolate to broadly ovate, nerveless or nearly so on inner 
face, the beaks conspicuous; culms slender, ascending or decumbent. 

55. C. nubicola. 
Perigynia narrowly lanceolate, finely nerved on inner face; the beaks 

appressed; culms stiff, erect. 56. C. ebenea. 

Perigynia strongly plano-convex, the walls thick. 

Spikes densely capitate; beak of the perigynia obliquely cut, dark-tipped. 

57. C. pqchystachya. 
Spikes not capitate; beak of the perigynia bidentate, reddish-tipped. 

58. C. Preslii. 

17. CANESCENTES. 

Spikes androgynous; perigynia unequally biconvex. 59. C. disperma. 

Spikes gynaecandrous ; perigynia plano-convex. 

Lowest bract bristle-like, much prolonged, many times exceeding its 1-5-flowered 

spike; spikes widely separate. 60. C. trisperma. 

Lowest bract much shorter or none; spikes several-many-flowered, the upper approxi- 
mate. 
Spikes 2-4, subglobose, closely approximate, forming an ovate or subglobose head; 

perigynia scarcely beaked; scales white-hyaline. 61. C. tenuiflora. 
Spikes one^-many, the lower more or less strongly separate; head elongate; peri- 
gynia shortly to strongly beaked; scales darker. 
Perigynia broadest near middle; beak short, smooth or moderately serrulate 



116 CYPERACEAE 

Beak of the perigynia smooth or very nearly so ; scales obtuse to acutish, 
strongly tinged with reddish brown or chestnut; spikes closely ap- 
proximate. 
Terminal spike strongly tapering at base; culms rough at apex only. 

62. C. Lachenalii. 
Terminal spike little tapering at the bas*: culms usually very rough. 

63. C. Heleonastes. 
Beak of the perigynia serrulate, or if smooth scales acutish to cuspidate and 

scarcely, if at all, tinged with reddish brown; lower spikes remote. 
Plant glaucous; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide; spikes many-flowered; 
perigynia scarcely beaked, appressed ascending, with emarginate or 
entire orifice. 64. C. canescens. 

Plant not glaucous; leaf-blades 12.5 mm. wide; spikes fewer-flowered; 
perigynia distinctly beaked, loosely spreading, with minutely biden- 
tate orifice. 65. C. brunnescens. 

Perigynia ovate, broadest near the base; beak conspicuous, strongly serrulate. 

66. C. arcta. 
18. PHYLLOSTACHYAE. 

Perigynia with long smooth beak; foliage deep green. 67. C. durifolia. 

Perigynia with short sparingly serrulate beak; foliage light or glaucous green. 

68. C. saximontana. 

19. POLYTRTCHOIDEAE. 

Represented by one species. 69. C. leptalea. 

20. OBTUSATAE. 
Represented by one species. 70. C. obtusata. 

21. NITIDAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 71. C. supina. 

22. RUPESTRES. 

Represented by one species. 72. C. rupestris. 

23. FlRMICULMES. 

Represented by one species in our range. 73. C. Geyeri. 

24. FlLTFOLIAE. 

Leaf-blades filiform at base, 0.25-0.5 mm. wide; culms filiform, obtusely triangular, 

smoothish; lowest scale rarely awned. 
Perigynia sharply triangular below, obpyramidal; basal sheaths rarely filamentose. 

i 74. C. clynoides. 

Perigynia rounded on the angles, obovoid to globose; basal sheaths fllamentose. 

75. C. fi It folia. 

Leaf-blades flattened at base, 1.5-2 mm. wide; culms stoutish, sharply triangular, often 
much roughened; lowest scale conspicuously awned. 76. C. oreocharis. 

25. SCIRPINAE. 

Culms phyllopodic, the culm-leaves 6-10; scales concealing perigynia. 

77. C. pseudoscirpoidea. 
Culms aphyllopodic, the culm-leaves 3-6; scales shorter than perigynia. 

Perigynia lanceolate, flattish, 4 mm. long. 78. C. stenochlaena. 

Perigynia broader, triangular, 3 mm. long or less. 

Scales very minutely hyaline-margined; perigynia whitish-pubescent. 

79. C. scirpoidea. 
Scales very broadly hyaline-margined; perigynia yellowish-hirsute. 

80. C. scirpiformis. 

26. MONTANAE. 
Basal spikes absent. 

Long stoloniferous; scales about equalling the perigynia. 81. C. heliophila. 
Without long stolons; scales much shorter than the perigynia. 

82. C. Peckii. 
Basal spikes present. 

Lower bract exceeded by the culm, scale-like, hyaline-margined at base. 

83. C. umbellata. 
Lower bract normally exceeding the culm, leaf-like, not hyaline-margined at base. 

Perigynia 2.75 mm. long or less, shallowly bidentate; rootstocks slender. 

84. C. de.nera. 
Perigynia longer, deeply bidentate; culms densely cespitose. 

85. C. Rossii. 

27. DlGITATAE. 

Basal spikes present; scales abruptly cuspidate. 86. C. pedunculata. 

Basal spikes absent; scales not abruptly cuspidate. 

Staminate spike 36 mm. long; scales obtuse, one-half as long as the perigynia. 

87. C. concinna. 
Staminate spike 8-22 mm. long; scales acute to acuminate, from little shorter than 

to exceeding the perigynia. 
Perigynia loosely pubescent, wider and longer than the scales; Staminate spike 

nearly sessile; pistillate spikes few-flowered. 88. C. concinnoides. 

Perigynia appressed-pubescent, narrower and shorter than the scales; Staminate 
spike noticeably peduncled; pistillate spikes many-flowered. 

89. C. Richardsonii. 



SEDGE FAMILY 117 

28. ALBAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 90. C. eburnea. 

29. BICOLORES. 

Mature perigynia whitish, ellipsoid, not fleshy or translucent. 91. C. Hassei. 
Mature perigynia orange or brownish, broader, fleshy, translucent. 

92. C. aurea. 

30. PANICEAE. 

Beak of the perigynia none or very short. 

Sheaths of the bracts short; plant glaucous; leaf -blades involute; spikes approximate 

93. C. livida. 
Sheaths of the bracts long; plant not glaucous; leaf-blades flat; spikes distant. 

Fertile culm-blades 3-5, 2-3.5 mm. wide; perigynia 3.5 mm, long or less; spikes 
linear. 94. C. tetanica. 

Fertile culm-blades 6-10, 3-7 mm. wide; perigynia longer; spikes oblong or linear- 
oblong. 95. C. Meadii. 
Beak of the perigynia straight, prominent. 96. C. vaginata. 

31. LAXIFLORAE. 

Represented by one species in our range. 97. C. blanda. 

32. GRANULARES. 

Plants cespitose; bracts elongate, overtopping the spikes; staminate spike short-stalked 

98. C. Shriveri. 

Plants with long-creeping rootstocks; bracts short, rarely overtopping the spikes; stam- 
inate spike long-stalked. 99. C. Crawei. 

33. DEBILES. 
Represented bj one species in our range. 100. C. Assiniboinensis. 

34. CAPILLARES. 
Represented by one species in our range. 101. C. capillaris. 

35. LONGIROSTRES. 
Represented by one species hi our range. 102. C. Sprengelii. 

36. FRIGIDAE. 
Terminal spike staminate or gynaecandrous, the lateral ones pistillate. 

Terminal spike usually gynaecandrous, the lateral ones ovoid or short-oblong. 

103. C. misandra. 
Terminal spike staminate (or with a few perigynia), the lateral ones oblong or linear- 

cylindric. 

Perigynia triangular, slightly compressed. 104. C. luzulina. 

Perigynia strongly compressed. 105. C. fissuricola. 

Terminal spike androgynous, the upper lateral staminate, the lower pistillate. 

Perigynia lanceolate, 1.5 mm. wide, tapering to the apex; spikes 2-5, usually 4. 

106. C. petricosa. 

Perigynia oblong-oval, 2.25 mm. wide, abruptly minutely beaked; spikes more 
numerous. 107. C. Franklinii. 

37. PALLESCENTES. 
Represented by one species in our range. 108. C. abbreviata. 

38. ANOMALAE. 
Represented by one species in our range. 109. C. amplifolia. 

39. LIMOSAE. 

Pistillate spikes drooping. 

Plants strongly stoloniferous ; leaf-blades involute, glaucous, 3 mm. wide or less; 

scales little exceeding the perigynia. 110. C. limosa. 

Plant tufted; leaf-blades flat, not glaucous, wider; scales much exceeding the peri- 
gynia. 111. C. paupercula. 
Pistillate spikes erect. 112. C. Buxbaumii. 

40. ATRATAE. 

Terminal spike in some plants pistillate and linear-cylindric or staminate only at apex, 

in others staminate. 

Scales not long-pointed, little exceeding the perigynia; perigynia flattened, sharp- 
edged. 113. C Parry ana. 
Scales long-pointed, 2-3 times as long as the perigynia; perigynia little flattened. 

114. C. tdahoa. 

Terminal spike staminate or gynaecandrous. not pistillate and linear-cylindric. 
Terminal spike staminate. 

Culms few-leaved, strongly aphyllopodic, purplish tinged at base. 
Staminate scales obtuse, the midvein nearly or quite obsolete. 

Staminate scales obovate; pistillate scales with obsolete (or nearly so) 

midvein; perigynia nerveless. 115. C. podocarpa. 

Staminate scales linear-lanceolate; pistillate scales with strong midvein; 

perigynia 2-nerved. 116- C.venustula. 

Staminate scales with conspicuous more or less excurrent jmdvran. ^ 



118 CYPERACEAE 

Culms many-leaved, clothed at base with dried-up leaves of previous year, not 

purplish tinged at base. 

Per igynia flat. 118. C. Tolmiei. 

Perigynia round in cross-section, many-nerved. 119. C. Eaynoldsii. 

Terminal spike gynaecandrous. 

Perigynia triangular in cross-section, nerveless or nearly so, 2.5 mm. long or less. 

120. C. Halleri. 
Perigynia longer, many-nerved or with two prominent marginal nerves, more or 

less strongly flattened. 
Spikes contiguous, sessile or short-peduncled, forming a dense head; culms 

stiff, erect. 
Perigynia subinflated-triangular, scarcely compressed, the beak 1 mm. 

long. 121. C. Nelsonii. 

Perigynia strongly compressed, the beak 0.5 mm. long. 

Lowest spike slightly separate, short-peduncled; scales black, with 
very conspicuous white hyaline apex and upper margins. 

122. C. albo-nigra. 
Spikes closely contiguous and sessile; scales black with inconspicuous 

hyaline apex and margins. 123. C. nova. 

Lowest spike (or spikes) strongly peduncled, usually distant, erect or nodding. 

Spikes 3-5, not oblong-cylindrij; walls of the perigynia nob papery; peri- 

gynia 2.5-4.5 mm. long, nerveless or obscurely nerved on the face, 

dull green to brownish black; scales from a little shorter to a little 

longer than the perigynia. 

Perigynia slightly inflated and sub-triangular, not strongly compressed. 

124. C. atrosquama. 
Perigynia strongly compressed. 

Perigynia sharp-edged, the margins much narrower than the achene; 

lateral spikes linear. 
Scales shining, with the midvein conspicuous the whole length, 

exceeded by the perigynia. 125. C. bella. 

Scales dull with inconspicuous midvein, about covering the 

perigynia. 126. C. atratiformis. 

Perigynia widely margined, the margins as wide as the achene; lateral 

spikes oblong or linear-oblong or ovoid. 
Perigynia granular-roughened; achenes short-stipitate. 

Upper pistillate scales exceeding the perigynia; lateral spikes 
ovoid; lowest peduncle less than the length of the spike. 

127. C. chalciolepis. 

Upper pistillate scales exceeded by the perigynia; lateral 
spikes oblong or linear-oblong; lowest peduncle 1-2 times 
as long as the spike. 128. C. atrata. 

Perigynia smooth; achenes strongly stipitate. 

129. C. epapillosa. 

Spikes 6-10, oblong-cylindric : walls of the perigynia papery; perigynia 5 
mm. long, lightly 3-nerved, light green, much shorter than the peri- 
gynia. 130. C. Mertensii. 

41. ACUTAE. 
Culms phyllopodic. 

Beak of the perigynia, if present, not deeply bidentate. 

Lowest bract exceeded by the inflorescence; scales with obsolete or slender mid- 
vein; culms low, stiff, solitary or in small clumps, freely stoloniferous. 
Perigynia plano-convex, puncticulate, appressed. 131. C. concolor. 

Perigynia soon turgid, papillose, spreading. 

Scales ovate, exceeded by the perigynia. 132. C. scopulorum. 

Scales lanceolate, exceeding the perigynia. 133. C. chimaphila. 

Lowest bract exceeding the inflorescence; scales usually with a slender midvein or 

broad light-colored center; culms taller, less stiff, in larger clumps. 
Perigynia turgid, spreading. 134. C. aperta. 

Perigynia not turgid, appressed or ascending. 

Stolons absent; perigynia conspicuously nerved; leaf-blades 1-3 mm. wide. 
Perigynia substipitate, glaucous, granular-roughened all over, the 

body two-thirds as wide as long. 135. C. lenticularis. 

Perigynia strongly stipitate, green, granular-roughened at the apex 

only, the body half as wide as long. 136. C. Kelloggii. 

Stolons present, long; perigynia nerveless or inconspicuously nerved; leaf- 
blades 26 mm. wide. 
Perigynia narrowly to very broadly elliptic, broadest below apex, less 

than 3 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide. 137. C. aquatilis. 

Perigynia strongly obovate, broadest at the apex, 3 mm. long, 1.75 mm. 

wide. 138. C. substricta. 

Beak of the perigynia markedly bidentate, the body strongly ribbed. 

139. C. nebraskensis. 
Fertile culms aphyllopodic. 

Lower sheaths smooth; scales not blackish. 140. C. Emoryi. 

Lower sheaths strongly hispidulous; scales blackish. 141. C. prionQphylla. 

42. HIRTAE. 

Beak of the perigynia much shorter than the body, the teeth 1 mm. long or less. 
Perigynia glabrous to sparsely pubescent. 142. C. lacustris. 



SEDGE FAMILY 119 

Perigynia densely or strongly pubescent. 

Nerves of the perigynia obscured by pubescence, the teeth of beak short. 
Leaf-blades flat, more than 2 mm. Avide. 143. C. lanuginosa. 

Leaf-blades involute, 2 mm. wide or less. 144. C. lasiocarpa. 

Nerves of the perigynia prominent, the teeth of beak prominent, slender. 

145. C. Houghtonii. 
of the perigynia including teeth nearly as long as body, the teeth 1.5 mm. long or 

more. 
Perigynia glabrous. 

Perigynia ovoid, the teeth less than 2 mm. long, erect or spreading; scales acute 

to aristate; leaf-blades glabrous. 146. C. laeviconica. 

Perigynia lanceolate or ovoid-lanceolate, the teeth 2-4 mm. long, widely spread- 
ing; scales long-aristate ; leaf-blades pubescent beneath. 

147. C. atfierodes 
Perigynia hairy. 148. C. Sheldonii. 

43. EXTENSAE. 

Perigynia 2-3 mm. long, the beak scarcely half as long as the body. 

149. C. viridula. 
Perigynia 4-6 mm. long, the beak about as long as the body. 150. C. flava. 

44. PAUCIFLORAE. 
Rhacheola present, conspicuously exserted; culms with many leaves. 

151. C. microglochin. 
Rhacheola absent or rudimentary, not conspicuously exserted; culms with few leaves. 

152. C. pattciflora. 
45. PSEUDO-CYPEREAE. 

Perigynia suborbicular in cross-section, more or less inflated. 153. C. hystricina. 
Perigynia obtusely triangular, scarcely inflated, closely enveloping achene. 

154. C. comosa. 
46. PHYSOCARPAE. 

Perigynia scarcely inflated; beak entire or emarginate; stigmas normally two and achenes 

lenticular. 
Perigynia lanceolate; fertile culms fllamentose at the base; rootstocks creeping. 

155. C. miliaris. 
Perigynia ovoid; fertile culms rarely if ever fllamentose at the base; plant loosely 

stoloniferous. 156. C. saxatilis. 

Perigynia from little to much inflated; beak bidentate; stigmas normally three and 

achenes triangular. 

Pistillate spikes globose or short-oblong, 5-15-flowered. 157. C. oligosperma. 
Pistillate spikes oblong to cylindric, 15-many-flowered. 

Lower perigynia not reflexed; bracts moderately exceeding the spikes. 

Parigynia ascending; lower sheaths more or less strongly fllamentose; culms 

sharply triangular. 
Perigynia 6-8 mm. long. 

Perigynia oblong-ovoid, tapering into the beak; spikes loosely flowered 

at base. 158. C. Raeana. 

Perigynia ovoid or globose-ovoid, contracted into the beak; spikes more 

closely flowered. 159. C. vesicaria. 

Perigynia 8-10 mm. long, tapering into the beak. 160. C. exsiccata. 
Perigynia spreading at maturity; lower sheaths not fllamentose; culms bluntly 

triangular below the spikes. 161. C. rostrata. 

Lo wer perigynia reflexed; bracts many times exceeding the spikes. 

162. C. retrorsa. 

1. NARDINAE Kiikenth. Very densely cespitose. Leaf-blades filiform. 
Spike solitary, linear-oblong, androgynous, densely flowered, bractless. Peri- 
gynia ascending, biconvex, elliptic-ovate, not inflated, the walls thin, glabrous, 
striate, stipitate, the beak hyaline-tipped, in age bidentulate. Achenes lenticular 
or triangular. Stigmas 2 or 3. 

1. C. Hepburnii Boott. Culms 2-15 cm. high; sheaths strongly hyaline- 
margined above, abruptly contracted into the blades; spike 5-12 mm. long, with 
1-10 perigynia; scales ovate, acutish, the midvein conspicuous; perigynia 3 mm. 
long; achenes usually triangular. C. nardina Auth., in part. C. stantonensis 
M. E. Jones. Dry alpine slopes: Alta. Colo. Wash. B.C. Alp.Subalp. 
Jl-Au. 

2. INFLATAE Kiikenth. Cespitose, the rootstocks elongate. Leaf-blades 
filiform. Spike solitary, ovoid, androgynous, densely flowered, bractless. 
Perigynia inflated, the walls very thin, slightly nerved, sessile, the smooth beak 
hyaline tipped, obliquely cut, in age bidentulate. Achenes triangular. Stigmas 
three. 

2. C. Engelmannii Bailey. Culms 5-20 cm. high; leaf-blades about 0.5 
mm. wide; spike with 15-40 ascending perigynia; scales 1-nerved, acute to cuspi- 



120 CYPERACEAE 

date; perigynia ovate, 4.5-5 mm. long, tapering at apex; achenes 1.25 mm. long. 
Isolated stations on mountain summits: Colo.; Wyo.; Wash. Alp. Subalp. 
Au. 

3. ATHROCHLAENAE Holm. Cespitose or with creeping rootstocks. Leaf- 
blades narrow. Spike solitary, androgynous, bractless, narrow, densely many- 
flowered. Pistillate scales soon falling. Perigynia slenderly strongly stipitate, 
widely spreading or the lower reflexed, obscurely triangular, nerveless, membran- 
aceous, long-beaked, the beak obliquely cut, becoming bidentulate. Achenes 
usually triangular. Stigmas 3, or occasionally 2. 

3. C. pyrenaica Wahl. Culms 3-20 cm. high, wiry, slender, smooth; leaves 
2-3 to a fertile culm; spike 5-20 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; scales chestnut tinged; 
perigynia 3-4 mm. long. Alpine localities: Mack. Colo. Ore. Alaska; 
Eurasia. Alp. Subalp. Jl-S. 

4. C. nigricans C. A. Meyer. Culms 5-20 cm. high, stiff, firm, smooth; 
leaves 4-9 to a fertile culm; spike 8-15 mm. long, 6-9 mm. wide; scales dark 
brown tinged; perigynia 4 mm. long. Alpine localities: Alta. Colo. Calif. 
Alaska. Alp. Mont. Jl-S. 

4. CAPITATAE Christ. Cespitose, the rootstocks somewhat elongate. Leaf- 
blades filiform. Spike solitary, ovoid, androgynous, densely flowered, bractless. 
Perigynia plano-convex, sharp-edged, not inflated, the walls thinnish, essentially 
nerveless, sessile, the smooth beak conspicuously hyaline-tipped, in age bidentu- 
late. Achenes lenticular. Stigmas 2. 

6 % . C. capitata L. Culms 1-2 dm. high; leaf -blades about 0.5 mm. wide; 
spike with 6-25 ascending perigynia; scales ovate-orbicular, obtuse; perigynia 
2-2.5 mm. long, and about as broad, abruptly beaked. An arctic species also 
occurring very locally on mountain summits southward : Greenl. Alaska ; also 
N.H.; Alta.; Calif.; Nev.; Mex.; Eu. Alp. Je-Au. 

5. DIOICAE Tuckerm. Rootstocks elongate. Culms slender. Leaf-blades 
filiform. Spike solitary, bractless, staminate, pistillate or androgynous, narrow. 
Perigynia at length widely spreading, piano- or bi-convex, not inflated, subcori- 
aceous, glabrous, nerved, rounded and spongy at base, sharp-edged, strongly 
beaked, the apex hyaline, in age bidenticulate. Achenes lenticular. Stigmas 2. 

6. C. gynocrates Wormskj. Culms 1-3 cm. high, smooth; rootstocks 
horizontal; spike 5-15 mm. long, 2-5 mm. wide; scales sharp-pointed, reddish 
brown; perigynia few, 3 mm. long, biconvex, nerved, narrowed into a rough 
beak half as long as the body. Sphagnum swamps: Greenl. N.Y. Mich. 
Colo. Alaska; Siberia. Alp. Mont. Southward local. My-Au. 

6. FOETIDAE Tuckerm. Rootstocks elongate, dark-colored, the culms arising 
singly or a few together. Leaf-blades narrow. Spikes few to several, androgy- 
nous, aggregated into a dense subglobose or ovoid head. Perigynia spreading, 
plano-convex, membranaceous, usually obsoletely nerved, loosely enveloping 
the achene, rounded at the base, stipitate, the beak obliquely cut, at times 
bidentulate. Achenes lenticular. Stigmas 2. 

7. C. vernacula Bailey. Culms 1-2 dm. high, smooth; leaf -blades 5-12 
cm. long, stiff; head very dense, globose, about 1 cm. in diameter; perigynia 
ovoid, 3.5-4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, scarcely inflated, more or less nerved. 
Alpine slopes: Wyo. Colo. Calif. Wash. Alp. Jl-Au. 

8. C. perglobosa Mackenzie. Culms 1-1.5 dm. high, smooth; leaf -blades 
2-8 cm. long; head very dense, globose, about 1 cm. in diameter; perigynia 
ovoid-elliptic, 4 mm. long, 2.25 mm. wide, membranous, not stipitate, more or 
less inflated. C. incurva Lightf. var. chartacea Kiikenth. Alpine ridges: Colo. 
Alp. Au-S. 

9. C. incurviformis Mackenzie. Culms 2-5 cm. high, smooth, obtusely 
angled; leaf -blades 2-4 cm. long; head dense, globose, 7-9 mm. in diameter; 
scales lance-ovate, chestnut with narrow hyaline margins, acuminate; perigynia 



SEDGE FAMILY 121 

elliptic-lanceolate, 3.5 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, finely conspicuously many- 
nerved, not inflated, nor membranous, stipitate. Alpine ridges : Alta. Alp. Jl. 

7. DIVISAE Christ. Rootstocks long-creeping, dark-colored, tough, the culms 
arising singly or in small clumps at intervals, mostly stiff, dark-tinged at the 
base, aphyllopodic. Leaf-blades narrow. Spikes few to many, more or less 
closely aggregated into an oblong or oblong-ovoid head, androgynous or dioeci- 
ous, ovoid or oblong. Heads in some species dioecious or nearly so. Lowest 
one or several of the lower bracts developed, short-prolonged, the others bract- 
like. Perigynia appressed-ascending, plano-convex, smooth, often shining, 
coriaceous, more or less nerved on outer and nerved or nerveless on inner surface, 
sharp-edged but not wing-margined, rounded and spongy at base, the obliquely 
cut beak in age bidentulate. Achenes lenticular, closely enveloped. Stigmas 2. 

10. C. Douglasii Boott. Culms 6-30 cm. high; leaf-blades 1-2.5 mm. wide; 
staminate spikes linear-elliptic, 8-15 mm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide: pistillate spikes 
wider; scales ovate to lanceolate, yellowish-brown, with hyaline margins and 
lighter center, concealing the perigynia; perigynia lanceolate, strongly nerved, 
4 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, light brownish; styles elongate. C. irrasa Bailey. 
Dry or alkaline soil: Man. Neb. N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainMont. My- 
Au. 

11. C. stenophylla Wahl. Culms 5-20 cm. higk; leaf-blades 1.5 mm. wide 
at the base, involute above; spikes few, densely aggregated into a head 7-15 
mm. long; scales broadly ovate, brownish with hyaline margins; perigynia few 
to a spike, ovate, lightly nerved on both surfaces, 3 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, 
blackish at maturity; styles short. C. Eleocharis Bailey. Dry soil: Man. 
Iowa N.M. Utah Yukon; Eurasia. Plains Mont. Je-Jl. 

12. C. simulata Mackenzie. Culms 3-5 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. 
wide, flat; head 12-25 mm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, the spikes densely aggregated, 
pistillate, staminate, or androgynous; scales brown with hyaline margins, conceal- 
ing the perigynia; perigynia 2.25 mm. long, 1.4 mm. wide, round-truncate at 
base, abruptly beaked, serrulate above. C. Gayana N. Am. auth. Wet soil: Mont. 
N.M. Calif .Wash. SubmontMont. My-S. 

13. C. praegracilis W. Boott. Culms 2-5 dm. high; leaf-blades 1.5-3 
mm. wide, flattened or channelled; head linear-oblong to ovate-oblong, 1-5 cm. 
long, 6-12 mm. wide, the 5-15 spikes densely aggregated, androgynous, with 
4-10 perigynia; scales ovate-lanceolate, acute to cuspidate, light brownish, with 
hyaline margins, nearly concealing the perigynia; perigynia 3-4 mm. long, 1.5 
mm. wide, dark brown at maturity, nerved on the outer, nearly nerveless on 
the inner surface. C. marcida Boott. C. usta Bailey. C. alterna (Bailey) 
Clarke. C. camporum Mackenzie. Meadows, widely distributed and variable: 
Man. Iowa Kans. Calif. B.C.; Mex. Prairie Plains Submonl. My- 
Au. 

14. C. Sartwellii Dewey. Culms 4-7 dm. high, rough above; leaf-blades 
2.5-4 mm. wide, flat; head oblong, 3-5 cm. long, about 1 cm. wide, the numerous 
spikes densely aggregated, the larger with 15-20 perigynia; perigynia lance-ovate, 
2.5-4 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, finely nerved, the beak much shorter than the 
body. Marshes and bogs: Ont. N.Y. 111. Colo. Mont. Plain Submont. 
Boreal. My-Au. 

8. CHORDORRHIZAE Fries. Culms elongate, prostrate, branching, the root- 
stocks and roots little developed. Leaf -blades narrow. Spikes 3-10, androgy- 
nous, few-flowered, closely aggregated into an ovoid head. Bracts absent or 
inconspicuous. Perigynia very thick, plano-convex, oblong-ovate, smooth, 
shining, coriaceous, closely many-nerved, rounded on the margins, rounded and 
spongy at the base, the short beak obliquely cut. Achenes lenticular, closely 
enveloped. Stigmas 2. 

15. C. chordorrhiza Ehrh. Culms 1.5-3 dm. high; head 1-1.5 cm. long; 
perigynia 4-5 mm. long. Sphagnum bogs: Anticosti Me. Ind. Sask. 
Mack. B.C.; Eurasia. Boreal. My-Jl. 



122 CYPERACEAE 

9. ARENARIAE Kunth. Rootstocks long-creeping, dark-colored, tough, the 
culms arising singly or in small clumps at intervals, mostly stiff, dark-tinged at 
base, aphyllopodic. Leaf -blades narrow. Spikes several to many, more or less 
closely aggregated, some or all gynaecandrous or staminate, some usually pistil- 
late or androgynous. Lower bract or bracts short-prolonged; the others bract- 
like. Perigynia appressed-ascending, plano-convex, sharp or wing-margined, 
at least above, conspicuously rough-beaked, the beak sharply bidentate. Achenes 
lenticular. Stigmas 2. 

16. C. siccata Dewey. Culms 2-9 dm. high, rough above; leaf -blades 2-3 
mm. wide, flat or channeled; head linear-oblong, 2-3.5 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, 
the 6-12 spikes closely aggregated, except the lower 1-3; perigynia few to several, 
ovate-lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, much flattened, several-nerved, 
the beak as long as the body. Dry soil and hills: Me. N.J. Ariz. Alta. 
Boreal Mont. -Submont. My-Jl. 

10. MUHLENBERGIANAE Tuckerm. Densely cespitose or in a few species 
the rootstocks elongate, tough and dark-colored. Culms not flattened. Opaque 
part of sheaths neither transversely rugulose nor red-dotted. Spikes usually 
ten or less, androgynous or pistillate but never gynaecandrous, rarely at all 
compound. Bracts from little to strongly developed. Perigynia plano-convex, 
green or chestnut-tinged oj light brownish in age, from appressed to reflexed, 
often strongly spongy at base, nerveless or sparingly nerved, narrowly sharp- 
margined, conspicuously beaked, the beak sharply bidentate. Achenes lenticular. 
Style-base more or less thickened. Stigmas 2. 

17. C. Hoodii Boott. Culms 3-6 dm. high, rough above; leaf -blades 1.5-3.5 
mm. wide, flat; head globose or oblong-ovate, 1-2 cm. long, 8-15 mm. wide, 
the spikes several, with 5-10 ascending perigynia; perigynia lance-ovate, 4-5 
mm. long, 1.75-2 mm. wide, obsoletely nerved, margined above, the beak one- 
third the length of the body. Mountain meadows and slopes: Alta. 'Colo. 
Calif. B.C. Mont. Submont. Je-Au. 

18. C. vallicola Dewey. Culms 2.5-6 dm. high, rough above; leaf-blades 
about 1 mm. wide, flat or channeled; head 15-20 mm. long, 7 mm. wide; peri- 
gynia 1-10, oblong-elliptic, 3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, not nerved, margined 
above, the short beak minutely serrulate. C. brevisquama Mackenzie. Dry 
slopes: Wyo. Ore. Submont. My-Je. 

19. C. occidentalis Bailey. Calms 2.5-7.5 dm. high, rough above; leaf- 
blades flat, channeled, 1.5-2.5 mm. wide; head 1.5-3 cm. long, less than 1 cm. 
wide; perigynia usually 7-15, lance-ovate, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, 
nerveless, margined above, the serrulate beak one-third the length of the body. 
Dry places: Wyo. N.M. Ariz. Utah. Submont. -Subalp. My-Au. 

20. C. Hookeriana Dewey. Culms 2.5-5 dm. high, rough above; leaf- 
blades channeled, 1.5-2.5 mm. wide; head 1.5-2 cm. long, about 7 mm. wide; 

E3rigynia few, strictly appressed, lanceolate, 4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, nerve- 
jss, margined, the serrulate beak half the length of the body. Dry soil: Alta. 
Boreal Submont. Je. 

21. C. gravida Bailey. Culms 4-8 dm. high, sharply triangular, rough 
above, cespitose from short rootstocks; leaf-blades flat, 3-14 mm. wide; head 
2-3.5 cm. long, 8-14 mm. wide, ovoid or oblong; perigynia 10-20, dull, ascending, 
broadly ovate or suborbicular, 3-4 mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, little-nerved, the 
beak one-third the length of the body. Prairies and plains: 111. Mo. -N.M. 
Mont. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

11. MULTIFLORAE Kunth. Densely cespitose. Culms sharply triangular. 
Opaque part of sheaths usually transversely rugulose, red-dotted. Spikes num- 
erous, small, androgynous or pistillate, but never gynaecandrous, the lower 
more or less compound. Bracts frequently conspicuous. Perigynia plano-convex, 
not very thick, yellowish or yellowish brown, appressed-ascending or somewhat 
spreading, not thick-walled, somewhat spongy at base, short-stipitate, sharp- 
margined, more or less nerved, conspicuously rough-beaked, the beak bidentate. 
Achenes lenticular. Stigmas 2. Style-base more or less enlarged. 



SEDGE FAMILY 123 

22. C. vulpinoidea Michx. Culms 3-9 dm. high, very rough above, exceeding 
the leaves; leaf -blades long-tapering, 2-5 mm. wide; head 2-12 cm. long, with 
very many small spikes; pistillate scales strongly awned; perigynia yellowish at 
maturity, 2-3 mm. long, the beak about the length of the body. Swampy places 
N.B.Fla. Tex. Colo. Ore. B.C. Plains. Je-Au. 

12. PANICULATAE Kunth. Densely or loosely cespitose. Culms not flat- 
tened. Opaque part of sheaths strongly red-dotted. Spikes numerous, small, 
androgynous or pistillate, but never gynaecandrous, the lower compound or 
decompound. Bracts usually inconspicuous. Perigynia thick, strongly convex on 
the dorsal, and often somewhat convex on the ventral face, brownish or chestnut 
in age, ascending or spreading, coriaceous, spongy at base, stipitate, narrowly 
margined, more or less nerved, conspicuously rough-beaked, the beak bidentate. 
Achenes lenticular. Style-base more or less thickened. Stigmas 2. 

23. C. diandra Schrank. Culms slender, sharply triangular, loosely cespi- 
tose, 3-7 dm. high; leaf-blades 1.25 mm. wide; head 2.5-5 cm. long, somewhat 
compound; the lower spikes more or less separated; scales acute, brownish, with 
lighter midvein and hyaline margins; perigynia somewhat biconvex, dark chest- 
nut, shining, nerveless on inner face, spreading at maturity. Wet meadows: 
N.S. Pa. Colo. B.C. Alaska; Eurasia. Mont Bar. My-Jl. 

24. C. prairea Dewey. Culms sharply triangular, 5-10 dm. high; leaf- 
blades with slightly revolute margins; head 4-8 cm. long, decompound, the lower 
3-5 branches separated; scales acute or acuminate, light brown, with broad 
light-colored center and hyaline margins; perigynia 1.25 mm. wide, nerveless, or 
lightly nerved on inner face, ascending, plano-convex or nearly so, reddish brown, 
dull, the beak serrulate. Wet meadows: Que. N.J. la. -Sask. Boreal. 
My-Jl. 

25. C. Cusickii Mackenzie. Culms sharply triangular, 7-12 dm. high; leaf- 
blades with slightly revolute margins; head 4-8 cm. long, decompound, the lower 
branches separated; scales chestnut brown, with lighter midvein and hyaline 
margins; perigynia 1.5 mm. wide, lightly nerved at base on the inner face, some- 
what biconvex, spreading in age, brownish black, dull, the beak setulose-serrulate. 
C. teretiuscula var. ampla Bailey. Wet meadows: B.C. Mont. Calif. Sub- 
mont. My-S. 

13. STENORHYNCHAE Holm. Densely cespitose or with more or less elongated 
rootstocks. Culms triangular or somewhat flattened. Opaque part of sheaths 
usually transversely rugulose or red-dotted. Spikes few to many, androgynous 
to pistillate, but never gynaecandrous, the lower from simple to compound. 
Bracts little developed. Perigynia plano-convex, yellowish or yellowish brown, 
appressed-ascending to spreading, not thick-walled, but strongly spongy at base, 
stipitate, strongly many-nerved, the margins nearly obsolete on the lower half, 
conspicuously beaked, the beak bidentate. Achenes lenticular. Style-base 
more or less thickened. Stigmas 2. 

26. C. J9nesii Bailey. Culms 2-4 dm. high, slender, very rough above, 
densely cespitose from elongated rootstocks; leaves clustered near base, the 
blades 1-2 mm. wide; opaque part of sheath white, not cross-rugulose, truncate 
at mouth; spikes in a dense ovoid head 8-12 mm. long; scales brown with incon- 
spicuous midvein, exceeding the perigynia; perigynia 3.5 mm. long, the beak 
nearly smooth. High mountains: Mont. Wyo. Calif. Wash. Submont. 
Mont. Jl-Au. 

27. C. nervina Bailey. Culms 5-6 dm. high, stout, little roughened above, 
densely cespitose from short elongated rootstocks, strongly aphyllopodic ; leaf- 
blades clustered on the lower fourth of stem, 3.5 mm. wide; opaque part of sheath 
olive-tinged, becoming cross-rugulose, rounded at the mouth; spikes in a dense 
ovoid or oblong head, 15-24 mm. long; scales as in the last; perigynia 4 mm. long, 
the beak slightly serrulate. High mountains: Wyo. Calif. Wash. Jl-Au. 

28. C. stipata Muhl. Culms 3-10 dm. high, strongly serrulate above, 
growing in dense clumps; leaf-blades 4-8 mm. wide, the opaque part of sheaths 



124 CYPERACEAE 

thin, cross-rugulose; head 2.5-10 cm. long, the lower spikes often separate; scales 
light-brownish, hyaline-margined; perigynia serrulate. Swamps and wet 
meadows: Newf. Fla. Utah Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. My-Au. 

14. STELLULATAE Kunth. Densely cespitose. Culms triangular. Sheaths 
not red-dotted or cross-rugulose. Spikes 2 10, or by reduction one, gynaecan- 
drous, pistillate, or in a few species staminate, not compound. Bracts incon- 
spicuous. Perigynia plano-convex, with orbicular, ovate or broadly oval bodies, 
green, yellowish brown or brown, spreading or reflexed at maturity, 2.5-3.5 mm. 
long, strongly spongy at base, sharp-edged nearly, if not entirely, to the rounded 
or truncate base, not puncticulate, nerved on the outer, nerved or nerveless on 
the inner surface, the beak bidentate or obliquely cut. Achenes lenticular. Stig- 
mas 2. 

29. C. illota Bailey. Culms 1-2 dm. high, roughened above; leaf-blades 
short, 1.5-2 mm. wide; spikes 3-4, forming a dense capitate head 6-8 mm. long; 
scales broadly ovate, obtuse, brownish black, with light midvein; perigynia 
ovate, 3 mm. long, brownish black, at length spreading, the beak one-third the 
length of the body, smooth or nearly so. High mountains: Wyo. Colo. 
Calif. Wash. Alp.Subalp. Jl-S. 

30. C. laeviculmis Meinsh. Culms 3-7 dm. high, weak; leaf-blades 1.5-2 mm. 
wide, flat, soft; spikes 3-8, widely separate or the upper approximate, suborbicu- 
lar, with 310, at length spreading perigynia; scales ovate, hyaline, with conspicu- 
ous green midvein; perigynia green or brownish green, ovate, 2.5-3 mm. long, 
lightly nerved on inner surface, the beak slightly bidentate. C. Deweyana var. 
sparsiflora Olney. Wet shaded places: Alaska Ida. Calif.; Siberia. Mont. 
Submont. Je-Au. 

31. C. interior Bailey. Culms 2-3.5 dm. high, slender and wiry; leaf- 
blades 1-2 mm. wide; spikes 2-4, the lateral pistillate, subglobose, with 3-10 
perigynia, the upper long-tapering and staminate at base; scales half the length 
of the perigynia, ovate-orbicular, very obtuse, brownish, hyaline-margined all 
around, the center lighter-colored, the midvein not reaching the tip; perigynia 
ovate, plump, abruptly beaked, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, nerveless or ob- 
scurely nerved on the inner face, sparingly serrulate on the upper margins. 
Boggy places: Me. Fla. Ariz. Calif. -B.C.; n Mex. Plain Subalp. My- 
Au. 

32. C. angustior Mackenzie. Culms very slender, 1-3 dm. high; leaf- 
blades 0.5-1.5 mm. wide; spikes 2 or 3, with 3-15 perigynia, the terminal long- 
clavate; scales as long as the body of perigynia, acute, acuminate or cuspidate, 
ovate, yellowish brown tinged, with hyaline margins and midvein prominent to 
tip; perigynia divaricate, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, with raised margins, the beak serrulate. 
C. stellulata var. angustata Carey. Boggy places: N.S. Md. Colo. Wash. 
Boreal Submont. Je. 

15. DEWEYANAE Tuckerm. Densely cespitose. Culms triangular. Sheaths 
not red-dotted or cross-rugulose. Spikes 3-8, gynaecandrous, pistillate or rarely 
staminate, simple. Lower one or two bracts often conspicuous. Perigynia 
plano-convex, with narrowly ovate or linear-oblong bodies, light or yellowieh 
green, 3.5-5.5 mm. long, appressed, strongly spongy at base, only upper half 
sharp-edged, round-tapering at base, nerved on the outer face, nerved or nerve- 
less on the inner face, the beak bidenticulate to deeply bidentate. Achenes 
lenticular. Stigmas 2. 

33. C. Deweyana Schwein. Culms slender, weak, 2.5-9 dm. high, little 
brownish-tinged at base, strongly roughened beneath head; leaf -blades 2-5 mm. 
wide; spikes 2-7, ovate-oblong or subglobose, the lower more or less separate, 
with 3-15 perigynia; lower bract conspicuous; scales white-hyaline, with green 
midvein, mostly cuspidate; perigynia nerveless on the inner face, shallowly bi- 
dentate. Woods: N.S. Pa. la. Colo. Ida. Mack. Plain Submont. My- 
Au. 

34. C. leptopoda Mackenzie. Culms slender, erect, 3-7.5 dm. high, little 
brownish-tinged at base, roughened beneath head; leaf -blades 2.5-5 mm. wide; 



SEDGE FAMILY 125 

spikes 4-7, ovoid-oblong or linear-oblong, the lower 1-3 separate, with 6-18 
perigynia; lower bracts usually shorter than the head; scales not reddish brown 
tinged, mostly cuspidate; perigynia nerved at base on inner face, shallowly bi- 
dentate. Woods: B.C. Ida. Calif. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

35. C. Bolanderi OlnBy. Culms slender, erect, 4-9 dm. high, brownish- 
tinged at the base, little roughened beneath the head; leaf-blades 2.5-5 mm. 
wide; spikes 4-8, linear-oblong or linear, the lower separate, with 8-20 perigynia; 
lower bracts usually shorter than the head; scales usually reddish brown tinged, 
mostly acute or mucronate; perigynia lanceolate, 4-4.5 mm. long, nerved at 
base on the inner face. Woods: B.C. Calif. N.M. Utah w. Mont. Sub- 
mont. Mont. 

16. OVALES Kunth. Densely cespitose or (rarely) with short-prolonged 
rootstocks. Culms triangular. Opaque part of sheaths not red-dotted or cross- 
rugulose, but sometimes green-striate. Spikes two or three up to twenty, with 
several to many perigynia, the terminal gynaecandrous, the lateral pistillate or 
gynaecandrous, simple, the inflorescence varying from capitate to moniliform. 
Lower bracts from inconspicuous to very conspicuous. Perigynia varying from 
scale-like or flat (except when distended by the achene) to thick and plano-convex, 
the body subulate to reniform, narrowly to broadly wing-margined, appressed 
or ascending or spreading, little corky-thickened at base, prominently beaked, 
the beak bidentate, or obliquely cut becoming bidenticulate, usually serrulate on 
margins. Style-base scarcely thickened. Achenes lenticular. Stigmas 2. 

36. C. sychnocephala Carey. Culms 1-6 dm. high, very smooth; leaf- 
blades 1.5-3 mm. wide; spikes 6-15, densely aggregated into an oblong-ovoid 
head 1.5-3 cm. long; scales lanceolate, half the length of the perigynia; peri- 
gynia 5-6 mm. long, nerved on both faces, the beak deeply bidentate. Meadows 
and thickets: Ont. N.Y. la. Mont. Plains. Jl-Au. 

37. C. athrostachya Olney. Culms 1-5 dm. high, roughened above; leaf- 
blades 2 mm. wide; spikes 4r-20, densely aggregated into an ovoid head 1-2 cm. 
long; scales lance-ovate, somewhat shorter than the perigynia; perigynia 3-4 mm. 
long, obsoletely nerved, the beak bidentate, reddish brown at mouth. Wet 
meadows and copses: Sask. Colo. Calif. Alaska. Mont. Suhmont. My-S. 

38. C. tenuirostris Olney. Culrns 6-9 cm. high, nearly smooth; leaf-blades 
1.5-2.5 mm. wide; spikes 4-5, densely aggregated, ovoid, 5 mm. long, 3-4 mm. 
wide; scales ovate, acute, light brownish, with hyaline margins; perigynia 8-13, 
ascending, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, lanceolate, nerved ventrally, tapering into 
a beak 1 mm. long. C. macloviana f. involucrata Kiikenth. Mountain meadows : 
Mont. Colo. Calif. Wash. Mont. Submont. My-Au. 

39. C. adusta Boott. Culms 2.5-7 dm. high, nearly smooth; leaf -blades 
2-3 mm. wide; spikes 3-15, the lower only slightly separate; scales ovate, straw- 
colored, with greenish mid vein; perigynia broadly ovate, 4-5 mm. long, 2-2.5 
mm. wide, rather abruptly beaked. C. pinguis Bailey. Dry soil: Newf. 
N.Y. Minn. Sask. Mack. Plain. Je-S. 

40. C. petasata Dewey. Culms 3-8 dm. high, nearly smooth; leaf-blades 
2-3 mm. wide; spikes 3-6, aggregated; scales ovate, reddish brown tinged and 
hyaline-margined; perigynia broadly lanceolate, 2.25 mm. wide, round-tapering 
at base, tapering into the beak, which is 2 mm. long. C. Liddonii Boott. Mead- 
ows and open woods: Sask. Colo. Nev. Wash. Submont. Mont. Je-S. 

41. C. aenea Fernald. Culms 4-9 dm. high, rough beneath the head; leaf- 
blades 2.5-4 mm. wide; spikes 3-12, 7-24 mm. long, 5-7 mm. thick; scales ovate, 
light brownish tinged, hyaline-margined; perigynia ascending, ovate, 4 mm. 
long, 2 mm. wide, rounded at base, tapering hi to a beak half the length of the 
body. " C. foenea Willd. " of our range. Dry places and open woods: Lab. 
Conn. Alta. B.C. Yukon. Boreal Mont. My-Jl. 

42. C. Crawfordii Fernald. Culms 2-6 dm. high, rough beneath the head; 
leaf-blades 1-3.25 mm. wide; spikes 3-12, 5-11 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, rather 
closely aggregated, well-defined; scales lance-ovate, acute or acuminate, brown- 
ish; perigynia erect-ascending, brownish, 4 mm. long, about 1 mm. wide, obscurely 



126 CYPERACEAE 

nerved, tapering into a beak half the length of the body. Open places: Newf. 
Conn. Mich. Ida. B.C. Boreal. Je-S. 

43. C. scoparia Schkuhr. Culms 2-8 dm. high, rough beneath the head; 
leaf-blades 1.5-3 mm. wide; spikes 3-10, 6-16 mm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, aggre- 
gate or scattered, clearly defined; scales ovate, acute, brownish tinged; peri- 
gynia erect-ascending, brownish, usually 5.5-6.5 mm. (occasionally 4-5.5 mm.) 
long, 1.2-1.9 mm. wide, nerved, tapering into a beak half the length of the body. 
Moist soil: Newf. Fla. Colo. B.C. Plain Submont. My-Au. 

44. C. Bebbii Olney. Culms 2-8 dm. high, rough beneath the head; leaf- 
blades 2-4.5 mm. wide; spikes 5-10, 4-9 mm. long, 3-6 mm. wide; scales ovate, 
acute, brownish; perigynia ascending, narrowly ovate, 3-4 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. 
wide, rounded at base, obscurely nerved, tapering into a beak half the length of 
the bodv. Low ground: Newf. N.J. Mont. B.C. Plain Submont. Je- 
Au. 

45. C. tenera Dewey. Culms 3-7 dm. high, slender, rough beneath head; 
spikes 3-8, 4-5 mm. thick; scales acutish, hyaline with green midvein, light 
brownish tinged; perigynia ascending or spreading, ovate, thick, 3-4 mm. long, 
1.5-2.5 mm. wide, rounded at base, nerved, tapering into a beak half the length 
of the body. C. stramineaAm. auth., in part. Woodlands: N.B. Mass. Ky. 
Ark. Mont. -Canadian Rockies. Apparently rare in our range. Mont. 
Boreal. Je-Au. 

46. C. tincta Fernald. Culms 6-10 dm. high, rough beneath head; spikes 
4-12, 6-9 mm. long, 5-8 mm. thick; scales ovate, acutish, reddish brownish with 
light midvein; perigynia 10-30, appressed, ovate, thick, 3.75-4.5 mm. long, 
1.5-2 mm. wide, rounded at base, nerved, tapering into a beak less than half 
the length of the body. Woodlands: Que. Me. N.Y. Mich. Alta. Boreal 
Plain. My-Jl. 

47. C. brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie. Culms 3-12 dm. high, rough beneath 
head; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide; spikes 3-10, oblong to globose, 4-9 mm. wide, 
7-15 mm. long, aggregate or separate; scales acute; perigynia ovate to orbicular, 
thick, 4-5.5 mm. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. wide, spreading or ascending, faintly nerved 
on inner face, the beak about one-third the length of the body. C. festucacea 
authors, in part. Dry soil: N.B. Fla. Tex. N.M. B.C. Plain Submont. 
Ap-Au. 

48. C. Egglestonii Mackenzie. Culms 4-9 dm. high, roughened beneath 
head; leaf -blades 2.5 mm. wide; spikes 3-6, closely aggregate, broadly ovoid, 
10-14 mm. long, 6-10 mm. wide; scales ovate, acute, hyaline-margined; perigynia 
numerous, appressed-ascending, ovate, olive-green or brownish in age, 6-7 mm. 
long, 3 mm. wide, thin, obscurely nerved on inner face, strongly winged, rounded 
at the base, the beak one-third the length of the body. "Carex straminiformis 
Bailey" auth., in part. Dry soil: Wyo. -Colo. Utah. Mont. Subalp. Jl- 
Au. 

49. C. phaeocephala Piper. Culms 1-3 dm. high, rough beneath head; 
leaves bunched at the base, the blades more or less involute, 1.5-2 mm. wide; 
spikes 2-5 (rarely 7), aggregate, 6-12 mm. long, 5-8 mm. wide; scales strongly 
hyaline-margined, acute; perigynia ascending, oblong-ovate, 1.8 mm. wide, 
round-tapering at the base, obscurely nerved on inner face, contracted into a 
beak about 1 mm. long. "C. Preslii Steud." Bailey. "C. petasata Dewey" 
Holm. C. leporina v. americana Olney. Mountain summits: Alta. Colo. 
Calif. B.C. Alp. Mont. Jl-S. 

50. C. xerantica Bailey. Culms 3-6 dm. high, nearly smooth; leaf -blades 
2-3 mm. wide; spikes 3-6, approximate but distinct, ellipsoid, 8-14 mm. long, 
5 mm. wide; scales silvery-hyaline, darker tinged; perigynia 4-5.5 mm. long, 
2-2.5 mm. wide, nearly nerveless on inner face, round-tapering at the base, 
tapering into a beak one-third the length of the body. Prairies and plains: Man. 
Sask. Colo. Kans. Plains. Jl. 

51. C. praticola Rydb. Culms slender, 2.5-6 dm. high, roughened beneath 
the head; leaf-blades 1-2 mm. wide; spikes 2-6, elliptic, 6-16 mm. long, 5 mm. 
wide; scales somewhat brownish-tinged, shining; perigynia appressed, ovate- 



SEDGE FAMILY 127 

lanceolate, 4.5-6.5 mm. long, narrowly winged, round-tapering at the base 
nearly nerveless on inner face, tapering to a short hyaline-tipped beak. C. 
pratensis Drejer. Meadows and open woods: Greenl. Me. Colo. Calif. 
Alaska. Submont. Mont. Boreal. Je-Au. 

62. C. Piperi Mackenzie. Culms slender, 3-8 dm. high, roughened beneath 
head; leaf -blades 2-3.5 mm. wide; spikes 3-9, elliptic, 10-18 mm. long, 5-6 mm. 
wide; scales ovate, chestnut-brown with lighter center and narrow hyaline mar- 
gins, shining; perigynia 8-15, appressed, ovate-lanceolate, 4-5 mm. long, 1.75 
mm. wide, narrowly winged, round-tapering at base, nearly nerveless on inner 
face, contracted into the hyaline-tipped beak, 1.5 mm. long. C.furva (Bailey) 
Howell. Damp meadows: Alta. -Wyo. -Ore. B.C. Submont. Mont Je- 
Au. 

53. C. microptera Mackenzie. Culms 3-10 dm. high, smooth or roughened 
beneath the head; leaf -blades 2-6 mm. wide; spikes 5-20, densely aggregate into 
a subglobose to oblong-ovoid head, the spikes ovoid, 5-8 mm. long, 4-6 mm. 
wide; scales ovate-lanceolate, sharp-pointed, brown with light midvein; peri- 
gynia ascending, 15-30, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, lanceolate, nerved 
ventrally, very narrowly winged, tapering into a beak one-third the length of the 
whole. Mountains: Alta. -Wyo. Ore. -Wash. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

54. C. festivella Mackenzie. Culms rather stout, 2-7 dm. high, roughened 
above; leaf -blades 2.5-4 mm. wide; spikes 3-8, densely aggregate, ovoid- 
orbicular, 5-9 mm. long, 4-8 mm. wide; scales ovate, dark reddish brown with 
narrow hyaline margins; perigynia numerous, appressed, 3.5-5 mm. long, 1.75- 
2.75 mm. wide, ovate, lightly nerved on the inner face, rounded at the base, 
narrowed into a beak one-third the length of the body. C. festiva authors, as 
to Rocky Mt. plant. Meadows and mountain sides: Alta. N.M Ariz. Nev. 
B.C. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

55. C. nubicola Mackenzie. Culms 12-35 cm. high, nearly smooth; leaf- 
blades 2-3 mm. wide; spikes 4-7, densely aggregate, ovoid or subglobose, 
5-9 mm. long, 4.5-8 mm. wide; scales ovate, acute, blackish with a light center 
and nearly obsolete hyaline margins; perigynia 15-30, 4.5-5 mm. long, 2-2.75 
mm. wide, ovate, rounded at the base, abruptly beaked, the beak half the length 
of the body. C. Haydeniana Olney. C. festiva var. decumbens Holm. Mountain 
sides: Alta. Colo. Nev. Ore. Mont.Alp. Jl-S. 

56. C. ebenea Rydb. Culms 2-5 dm. high, little roughened; leaf -blades 
2-3 mm. wide; spikes 5-10, densely aggregate, ovoid-oblong, 7-12 mm. long, 
6 mm. wide; scales lance-ovate, acute, brownish black with nearly obsolete 
hyaline margins; perigynia appressed, numerous, 5-7 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, 
lanceolate, round-tapering at the base, narrowed into a beak about 2 mm. long. 
Mountain meadows: Wyo. -N.M. Ariz. -Utah. Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

57. C. pachystachya Cham. Culms rather slender, 3-8 dm. high, nearly 
smooth; leaf -blades 2-4 mm. wide; spikes 4-8, densely aggregate, ovoid or 
subglobose, 5-8 mm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; scales ovate, reddish, with very 
narrow hyaline margins; perigynia 10-30, 3.5-4 mm. long, 1.5-2.25 mm. wide, 
ovate, nerveless on the inner face, rounded at base, contracted into a beak half 
the length of the body. Mountains: Alaska -Alta. Colo. Ore. Submont. 
Mont. My-Au. 

58. C. Preslii Steud. Culms 2.5-7.5 dm. high, rough beneath head; leaf- 
blades 1.5-4 mm. wide; spikes 3-8, well-defined, aggregate or the lower separate, 
5-8 mm. long, slightly narrower, rounded at apex, rounded at the base, the term- 
inal one tapering; scales ovate, reddish brown with green midvein and narrow 
margins; perigynia 10-25, ovate, thick, 3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obscurely 
nerved, rounded at base, abruptly beaked, the beak 1 mm. long. C. festiva var. 
gradlis Olney. C. multimoda Bailey. Mountains: B.C. Mont. Calif. Mont. 
Subalp. My-S. 

17. CANESCENTES Fries. Cespitose, but in some species with slender stolons. 
Culms triangular. Sheaths not cross-rugulose. Spikes 1-10, with few to many 
perigynia, the terminal gynaecandious, the lateral pistillate or gynaecandious, 



128 CYPERACEAE 

simple. Bracts inconspicuous. Perigynia plano-convex, white-puncticulate, 
lanceolate, ovate, oval, or obovoid, ap pressed to spreading, beakless to promi- 
nently beaked, more or less nerved on both sides, not winged or margined, but 
acute-edged above, nearly or entirely filled by the lenticular achene. Style- 
base not enlarged. Stigmas 2. 

59. C. disperma Dewey. Culms weak, 1.5-6 dm. high, in large clamps, but 
with slender rootstocks; leaf-blades 1-1.5 mm. wide; spikes distant or the upper 
aggregate, 1-5-flowered; perigynia ovoid-elliptic, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, 
finely nerved, the minute beak smooth. C. tenella Schk. Bogs: Newf. N.J. 
Ind. N.M. Calif. B.C. Alaska; Eurasia. Subrnont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

60. C. trisperma Dewey. Culms filiform, weak, 1.5-8 dm. long, in large 
clumps, but with slender rootstocks; leaf-blades 1-2 mm. wide; perigynia oblong, 
2.5-4 mm long, nearly 2 mm. wide, finely nerved, narrowed at the apex, the 
minute btak smooth or nearly so. Swamps and wet woods: Lab. Md. 
(?Neb.) Sask. Boreal. Je-S.~ 

61. C. tenuiflora Wahl. Culms slender, weak, 2-6 dm. long, loosely cespi- 
tose and stoloniferous; leaf-blades 0.5-2 mm. wide; perigynia oblong-obovpid, 
2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, obscurely nerved. Bogs: N.B. Me. Minn. 
Alta.; Eurasia. Boreal. Je-Au. 

62. C. Lachenalii Schkuhr. Culms stiff, erect, 0.7-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 
1-3 mm. wide; spikes 2-6, many-flowered; perigynia 2-3.5 mm. long, several- 
nerved, abruptly short-beaked. C. lagopina Wahl. Greenl. Canadian Rock- 
ies Alaska; Eurasia. Arctic. Jl-Au. 

63. C. Heleonastes Ehrh. Culms stiff, erect, 1-4.5 dm. high; leaf-blades 
1-2 mm. wide; spikes 2-5, with 5-10 perigynia; the latter 3 mm. long, 1.25 mm. 
wide, several-nerved, tapering into the short beak. Bogs: Ont. Alta. B.C. 
Mack.; Eurasia. Subalp. Boreal. Jl-Au. 

64. C. canescens L. In large clumps, the culms slender, 2.5-8 dm. high; 
spikes 4-9, 3-12 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; perigynia 1.8-2.8 mm. long, 1-1.8 
mm. wide, faintly few-nerved. Swamps and bogs: Lab. -Va. Calif. -Alaska; 
Eurasia; S. Am.; Australia. Submont. Subalp. My-Au. 

65. C. brunnescens (Pers.) Poir. Culms slender, 2-5 dm. high; spikes 4-8, 
4-10-flowered, subglobose, 4-13 mm. in diameter; perigynia mostly smaller than 
in the preceding species. In wet places, banks and open woods: Lab. N.C. 
Colo. Wash. Alaska; Eurasia. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

66. C. arcta Boott. Culms slender, erect, 1.5-8 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-4 
mm. wide; spikes 5-15, many-flowered, aggregate into a head 1.5-3 cm. long; 
perigynia ascending or somewhat spreading, 2-3 mm. long, many-nerved. C. 
canescens var. oregana Bailey. Swamps and wet woods: N.B. -N.Y. Mont. 
Calif. B.C. Submont. Je-Au. 

18. PHYLLOSTACHYAE Tuckerm. Culms densely cespitose, weak, compressed, 
dilated below the spikes, mostly much exceeded by the leaves. Spikes 2-4, 
androgynous, the rachis zigzag, dilated; one spike terminal, the others basal on 
often much elongated peduncles; staminate portion with small tight scales; 
pistillate portion loosely one-several-flowered, the scales elongated and con- 
spicuous. Perigynia glabrous, 2-keeled, but otherwise nerveless, nearly round 
in cross-section, more or less beaked, the beak flattened-triangular, the orifice 
hyaline. Achenes triangular, stipitate, the sides convex, filling the perigynia, 
the apex rounded. Stigmas 3, short. Style jointed at the base with achene, 
soon withering. 

67. C. durifolia Bailey. Culms up to 2.5 dm. long; leaf-blades green, not 
glaucous, 1.5-3 dm. long, 2.5-6 mm. wide; lower pistillate scales as in the next; 
perigynia 5-6 mm. long, the body oval, the beak smooth, about as long as the 
body. C. Backii Boott. Woods: Que. Mass. N.Y. Alta. e B.C. 

68. C. saximontana Mackenzie. Culms up to 1.5 dm. long; leaf -blades 
glaucous, 1.5-3 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; lower pistillate scales leaf-like, saccate; 
perigynia 4 mm. long, the body oblong-globose, the beak barely 1 mm. long, 



SEDGE FAMILY 129 

the margins weakly serrulate. "C. Backii Boott" Fl. Colo. Woods and thick- 
ets: Colo. Wyo. w Neb. Submont. Jl. 

19. POLYTRICHOIDEAE Tuckerm. Densely tufted. Culms slender. Leaf- 
blades narrow. Spike solitary, linear, androgynous, bractless. Rachis straight, 
not dilated. Perigynia appressed, membranaceous, the upper part empty,' 
oblong-elliptic, many-nerved (not 2-ribbed), compressed-triangular, beakless. 
Achenes triangular. Style slender, flexuous, its base not enlarged. Stigmas 3 
short. 

69. C. leptalea Wahl. Rootstocks elongated; culms 2-6 dm. high, obscurely 
triangular; leaf-blades 0.5-1.25 mm. wide; spike 4-15 mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide; 
perigynia 1-10, 2.5-4.25 mm. long, not concealed by scales. C. polytrichoides 
Willd. Bogs and wet meadows: Lab. Fla. Tex. Colo. Calif! Alaska. 
Plain Mont. Je-Jl. 

20. OBTUSATAE Mackenzie. Rootstocks long, creeping. Culms low, slender. 
Leaf-blades involute. Spike solitary, linear, androgynous, bractless. Perigynia 
appressed-ascending, ovoid, glabrous, many-nerved, coriaceous, shining, sub- 
stipitate, obscurely triangular, the beak hyaline-tipped, obliquely cut, at length 
bidentate. Achenes triangular. Stigmas 3. 

70. C. obtusata Liljebl. Culms 6-20 cm. high, rough above; sheaths spar- 
ingly filamentose; leaf-blades 1-1.5 mm. wide; spike 5-12 mm. long, 3-6 mm. 
wide, the upper two-thirds stamina te; perigynia 1-6, impressed nerved, 3-4 mm. 
long, exceeding the scales. Dry hills and ridges: Mont. Colo. B.C.; Eurasia. 
Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

21. NITIDAE O. F. Lang. Culms slender, leafy at the base. Leaf-blades 
narrow. Terminal spike linear, staminate. Lateral spikes 1-3, small, pistillate, 
subglobose to oblong, few-many-flowered, sessile or short-peduncled. Lowest 
bract squamiform, sheathless or sub-sheathing. Scales reddish brown with 
hyaline margins. Perigynia ovoid, turgid-triangular, smooth, shining, coriaceous, 
round-tapering at the base, tipped with the short, cylindric, hyaline-tipped, 
obliquely cut beak. Achenes sessile, triangular, closely enveloped, short apicu- 
late. Style short, jointed with the apex of achene, thickish. Stigmas 3, long. 

71. C. supina Wahl. Long-stoloniferous; culms 6-25 cm. high; leaf- 
blades 1-1.5 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 1-2, sessile, 4-10-flowered, 4-8 mm. 
long, subglobose or short-oblong; perigynia nerveless (except keels), 2.5-3.5 
mm. long. Dry soil: Greenl. Mack., reported from Minn, and Sask.; Eurasia. 
Boreal Arctic. My-Jl. 

22. RUPESTRES Tuckerm. Stoloniferous. Culms low. Leaf-blades nar- 
row, flattened. Spikes 1 and androgynous, or 2-4, with the terminal staminate 
and linear, the lateral pistillate, approximate or more or less separate, few- 
flowered, sessile or short-peduncled. Bracts of the pistillate spike leaflet-like, 
sheathless or nearly so. Pistillate scales dark chestnut to purplish brown, 
with hyaline margins. Perigynia appressed-ascending, obovoid, glabrous, 
membranous, not polished, rounded and sessile at base, 2-ridged, obscurely tri- 
angular in cross-section, abruptly contracted into a hyaline-tipped, obliquely 
cut, straight beak. Achenes closely enveloped, triangular, with concave sides, 
apiculate. Style-base thickened. Stigmas 3. 

72. C. rupestris All. Culms 7-10 cm. high, sharply triangular, rough; 
sheaths not filamentose; leaf -blades 2-3 mm. wide; spike 1-1.5 cm. long, 3-6 
mm. wide, the upper half staminate; perigynia 6-15, finely many-nerved, 4 mm. 
long, concealed by the scales. Arctic-alpine situations: Greenl. Que. Colo. 
Alta. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. 'Subalp. Je-Au. 

23. FIRMICULMES Kukenth. Culms wiry, triangular, aphyllopodic, the 
leaf-blades rudimentary at flowering time. Spike 1, androgynous, the stamin- 
ate part in age short-peduncled, the pistillate loosely flowered; bracts absent; 
scales more or less chartaceous; perigynia 1 to several, obtusely triangular, smooth, 

8* 



130 CYPERACEAE 

2-keeled but otherwise nerveless, tapering at the base, very minutely beaked, 
the orifice truncate. Achenes triangular, with nearly flat sides, closely enveloped 
by the perigynia, tipped by the minute persistent base of the style, constricted 
at base. Stigmas 3, elongated. 

73. C. Geyeri Boott. Rootstock woody, elongated; culms up to 3.5 dm. 
high, very rough; leaf-blades thick, 2-3.5 mm. wide, those of the culm develop- 
ing after flowering; perigynia 1-3, 6 mm. long. Dry mountain sides and open 
woods: Alta. Colo. Utah Ore. Wash. Submont. Subalp. My-Au. 

24. FILIFOLIAE Tuckerm. Densely cespitose. Leaf-blades filiform or nar- 
row. Spike solitary, linear or linear-oblong, androgynous, densely flowered, 
bractless. Perigynia more or less triangular, nerveless except for the two lateral 
ribs, not stipitate, puberulent or pubescent, the hyaline-tipped beak obliquely 
cut. Achenes triangular. Stigmas 3. 

74. C. elynoides Holm. Culms 8-12 cm. high; spike 8-15 mm. long, with 
4-8 ascending perigynia; pistillate scales with clingy white hyaline margins; 
perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long, slightly puberulent above, slenderly beaked. C. fill- 
folia var. misera Bailey. Mountain summits: Mont. Colo. Nev. Alp. Je-Au. 

75. C. filifolia Nutt. Culms 8-30 cm. high; spike 1-2 cm. long, with 5-10 
perigynia; pistillate scales with broad bright white hyaline margins; perigynia 
3 mm. long, puberulent, abruptly and minutely stout-beaked. Plains and ridges: 
Sask. Tex. N.M. Wash. Yukon. Plains Mont. Ap-Jl. 

76. C. oreocharis Holm. Culms 1-2 dm. high; spike 1-2 cm. long, with 
3-7 perigynia; pistillate scales ovate, acuminate; perigynia 4 mm. long, broadly 
obovoid, minutely pubescent, abruptly short-beaked. C. filifolia var. valida 
Bailey. Dry slopes: Colo. Submont. Je. 

25. SCIRPINAE Tuckerm. Rootstocks creeping. Culms leafy below. Leaf- 
blades narrow. Spike usually 1, linear, staminate or pistillate, many-flowered, 
occasionally with an additional spike and normally with an empty scarcely 
sheathing squamiform bract a short distance below the spike. Perigynia tri- 
angular or flattened-triangular, membranous, 2-keeled, pubescent or puberulent, 
tapering at the base, contracted at apex into the short cylindric entire or bi- 
denticulate beak. Achenes triangular, with flat sides, sessile. Style slender, 
slightly enlarged at the base, not jointed. Stigmas 3, short. 

77. C. pseudoscirpoidea Rydb. Rootstocks stout; culms 1-3 cm. high; 
leaf-blades 2-3 mm. wide; spike 12-36 mm. long, 2-5 mm. wide; scales brownish 
black; perigynia obovoid, strongly pubescent, triangular, 2.5 mm. long, with 
bidenticulate beak. Mountain sides: Mont. Colo. Utah. Mont. Subalp. 
Jl-Au. 

78. C. stenochlaena (Holm) Mackenzie. Rootstocks stout, densely matted ; 
culms 2.5-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-2.5 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 1.5-3 cm. 
long, 4-7 mm. wide; scales oblong-ovate, blackish, with narrow hyaline margins, 
ciliate; perigynia blackish at the apex. Mountains: Alaska Alta. 'Ida. - 
Wash. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

79. C. scirpoidea Michx. Rootstocks stoutish; culms 2-3.5 dm. high; 
leaf -blades 1-2 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 1.5-3 cm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide; scales 
ovate, chocolate-brown, ciliate and puberulent; perigynia 3 mm. long, not black- 
ish. Arctic-alpine, along streams: Greenl. N.H. N.Y. Mich. 'Mont. 
B.C. Alaska; Eurasia, where rare. Alp. Subalp. Je-Au. 

80. C. scirpiformis Mackenzie. Rootstocks stoutish; culms 2.5-4.5 dm. 
high; leaf -blades 2-3 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 2-4 cm. long, 4-5 mm. wide; 
scales ovate, brownish, strongly pubescent and ciliate at the apex; perigynia 
2.5 mm. long, not blackish. Mountains: Alta. N.D. Mont. Jl. 

26. MONT AN AE Fries. Culms slender, leafy at the base. Leaf-blades nar- 
row, rough above. Terminal spike linear, normally staminate. Lateral spikes 
1-5, small, pistillate, or sometimes androgynous, subglobose to oblong, closely 
few-many-flowered, approximate and sessile or short-peduncled, or in some 



SEDGE FAMILY 131 

species radical and long-peduncled. Lowest bract squamiform or leaflet-like, 
sheathless or sub-sheathing. Scales often reddish brown tinged, acute to cus- 
pidate. Perigynia membranaceous, ascending, the body pubescent, at least at 
the base of the beak, obovoid to elliptic, triangular, 2-keeled, strongly stipitate 
at the base, abruptly contracted into a cylindric or terete, emarginate to deeply 
bidentate beak, hyaline-tipped. Achenes normally triangular, the sides concave, 
closely enveloped, short-apiculate. Style short, jointed with apex of achene, 
thickish. Stigmas normally 3, long. 

81. C. heliophila Mackenzie. Culms 12-25 cm. high; leaf-blades 1-2 mm. 
wide; lowest bract squamiform; pistillate spikes 1-2 (rarely 3), subglobose, 
5-15-flowered; perigynia 3.5 mm. long, 2mm. wide, orbicular in cross-section, the 
beak deeply bidentate, in age strongly hyaline-tipped. "C, pennsylvanica 
vespertina Bailey," Fl. Colo. Prairies and plains: Man. 111. Mo. N.M. 
Colo. Plains Submont. Je S. 

82. C. Peckii E. C. Howe. Loosely cespitose, the culms 1.25-6 dm. high; 
leaf -blades 3 mm. wide or less; lowest bract short; staminate spike sessile, 3 mm. 
long or less; pistillate spikes 2-4, subglobose, 2-8-flowered, closely contiguous 
or the lower a little separate; perigynia oblong-obovoid, 3-4 mm. long, 1 mm. 
wide, grayish-pubescent, the beak one-fourth the length of the body; scales 
(except lower) half the length of the perigynia, reddish brown, with broad white 
hyaline margins. "C. albicans Willd." authors. Open woods: Que. Mass. 
N.Y. Mich. (Black Hills) S.D. Alaska. 

83. C. umbellata Schkuhr. Densely cespitose; culms up to 1.5 dm. high, 
much exceeded by leaves; leaf -blades 1.5-3 mm. wide; non-basal pistillate spike 
usually present, oblong, globose; basal spike oblong; perigynia 2.25-3.25 mm. 
long, 1.25 mm. wide, rounded-triangular in cross-section, the beak obscurely 
bidentate, less than half the length of the body; achenes light brown. C. 
umbellata var. brevirostris Boott. Dry sunny places: Que. Del. Alta. B.C. 
Plains Submont. Ap-Jl. 

84. C. deflexa Hornem. Loosely stoloniferous; culms very slender, 2-12 
cm. high; leaf-blades 1-2 mm. wide; staminate spike inconspicuous, 2-4 mm. 
long, 0.5-1 mm. wide; pistillate spikes subglobose, 2-8-flowered; perigynia 1 
mm. wide, nearly orbicular in cross-section. Dry soil: Greenl. N.Y. Mich. 
Sask. B.C. Alaska. Boreal My-Au. 

85. C. Rossii Boott. Rootstock stout; culms wiry, 5-25 cm. high; leaf- 
blades 1-2.5 mm. wide; staminate spike usually conspicuous, 3-10 mm. long, 1 
mm. wide; pistillate spikes globose to short-oblong, 2-12-flowered; perigynia 
up to 3.4 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, nearly orbicular in cross-section. Dry soil: 
Mich. Colo. Calif. B.C. Submont. Subalp. Ap-Au. 

27. DIGITATAE Fries. Culms slender, leafy at the base. Leaf-blades nar- 
row, the sheaths usually strongly purplish. Terminal spike linear, staminate. 
Lateral spikes 1-5, approximate, or separated or sometimes radical, oblong to 
linear, 5-20-flowered in few rows, the peduncles included or exserted. Bracts 
sheathing, more or less strongly purplish tinged, subspathaceous, the blade 
absent or rudimentary. Pistillate scales strongly purplish or reddish brown 
tinged. Perigynia membranaceous, appressed, oblong-obovoid, pubescent to 
glabrate, triangular, long-tapering into the stipitate base, abruptly contracted 
into the minute beak, the orifice entire or nearly so. Achenes triangular, closely 
enveloped. Style-base short, thickened, jointed with the apex of the achene. 
Stigmas 3, early deciduous. 

86. C. pedunculata Muhl. Densely matted, rather bright green; culms 
slender, diffuse, strongly purple tinged at the base, 0.7-3 dm. long; leaf-blades 
2-3 mm. wide; terminal spike long-stalked, usually pistillate at the base; lateral 
spikes few-flowered, filiform-stalked, spreading or drooping, scattered, some ap- 
pearing basal; perigynia sharply 3-angled, puberulent or in age glabrate, stipi- 
tate, tipped with a minute entire beak; scales obovate, purplish, with green mid- 
rib, abruptly cuspidate. Dry woods: Anticosti Va. la. e B.C. My-Jl. 



132 CYPERACEAE 

87. C. concinna R. Br. Strongly stoloniferous; culms 5-15 cm. high; leaf- 
blades 2-2.5 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 2-3, rather closely 4-10-flowered; scales 
broadly ovate, hyaline-margined; perigynia densely pubescent, 3 mm. long, 
nerveless. Dry soil: Que. Sask. Colo. B.C. Alaska. Mont. Boreal Je- 
Jl. 

88. C. concinnoides Mackenzie. Strongly stoloniferous.; culms 25 cm. high 
or less; leaf -blades 2-4 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, approximate, rather 
closely 5-10-flowered; scales narrowly ovate, hyaline-margined; perigynia 2.5-3 
mm. long. Dry soil: B.C. Alta. Mont. Ida. -Calif. Mont. My-Jl. 

89. C. Richardsonii R. Br. Strongly stoloniferous; culms 30 cm. high or 
less; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, approximate or the low- 
est remote, rather closely 8-20-flowered; scales strongly hyaline-margined; 
perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long. Dry soil: Ont. N.Y. 111. -S.D.-Sask. Mont. 
Boreal. My-Je. 

28. ALBAE Aschers. & Graebner. With long slender stolons. Culms very 
slender, obtusely triangular, leafy near the base. Leaf-blades of the fertile culm 
very narrow, involute. Terminal spike linear, staminate. Lateral spikes 2-3, 
oblong or linear, loosely 4-8-flowered, all long-peduncled, linear or oblong, often 
overtopping the staminate one. Bracts sheathing, subspathaceous, bladeless, 
white-hyaline above. Scales white-hyaline, yellowish tinged. Perigynia erect, 
obovoid, triangular, glabrous, nerved, tapering at the base, abruptly minutely 
beaked, the orifice entire, Jiyaline. Achenes triangular, closely enveloped, the 
sides concave. Style-base very short, bulbous-thickened, jointed with the 
achene. Stigmas 3, long. 

90. C. eburnea Boott. Culms 1-3.5 dm. high; leaf-blades 0.5 mm. \\ide or 
less; staminate spike sessile, 3-8 mm. long; perigynia membranaceous, obsoletely 
nerved, 2 mm. long, exceeding the scales. Dry sandy or rocky soil, especially 
limestone rocks : N.B. Va. Tenn. Neb. B.C. Mack. Plain Mont.; Boreal. 
My-Au. 

29. BICOLORES Tuckerm. Stoloniferous. Culms central, slender, leafy 
towards the base. Leaf-blades narrow. Basal sheaths light brown. Terminal 
spike linear, staminate or occasionally gynaecandrous. Lateral spikes 2-5, 
pistillate, rather closely few-many-flowered in few ranks on erect exserted 
peduncles. Bracts sheathing, not colored or dark-auricled, the blades elongated, 
leaf-like. Scales reddish or purplish brown tinged. Perigynia ascending, 
broadly oval or ellipsoid, circular in cross-section, nerved, glabrous, golden- 
yellow or white-pulverulent at maturity, tapering or rounded at the base, essen- 
tially beakless. Achenes lenticular, apiculate, closely enveloped. Style-base 
slender, short, jointed with the achene. Stigmas 2. 

91. C. Hassei Bailey. Culms 1.5-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide; 
pistillate spikes 6-20-flowered; scales usually purplish brown tinged; perigynia 
2.5-3 mm. long, slightly pointed, less than 2 mm. wide; style becoming short- 
exserted and somewhat persistent. River banks and wet rocks: Lab. Me. 
Pa. Alta Utah Calif. Yukon. Boreal Submont Son. 

92. C. aurea Nutt. Culms 0.3-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide; pis- 
tillate spikes 4-20-fl owered ; scales usually reddish brown tinged; perigynia 
subumbonate, 2 mm. wide; style not exserted or persistent. Wet places: Newf. 
Conn. Mich. N.M. Calif. B.C. Plain Subalp. Je-Jl. 

30. PANICEAE Tuckerm. Stoloniferous. Culms central, slender, leafy 
towards the base. Basal sheaths brownish or purplish tinged. Terminal 
spike staminate, linear or linear-oblong. Lateral spikes 1-5, pistillate, loosely 
to rather closely several-many-flowered, in few or several ranks, on erect, ex- 
serted or included peduncles. Bracts sheathing, not colored or dark-auricled, 
the blades developed. Scales purplish or reddish brown tinged. Perigynia 
ascending or spreading, ovoid or obovoid, membranaceous, obtusely triangular, 
slightly inflated, glabrous, puncticulate, light or olive green, pointed or beaked, 
the orifice entire or nearly so. Achenes triangular. Style-base slender, con- 
tinuous with achene. Stigmas 3. 



SEDGE FAMILY 133 

93. C. livida (Wahl.) Willd. Culms 1.5-5 dm. high; leaf-blades 2 mm. wide 
or less; pistillate spikes closely 5-15-flowered; perigynia 3.75 mm. long, 1.75 mm. 
wide, faintly nerved, narrowed above, exceeding the scales. Sphagnum bogs' 
Lab. N.J. Mich. Calif. B.C. Alaska. Boreal My-Jl. 

94. C. tetanica Schk. Rootstocks elongate, deep-seated, slender; culms 
1.5-6 dm. high, slender; culm-leaves usually 3-5, 2-3.5 mm. wide; staminate 
spike long-stalked; pistillate spikes 1-3, linear, 6y20-flowered, distant, erect or 
the lower filiform-stalked and drooping; perigynia 3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, 
obtusely triangular, prominently many-nerved, abruptly minutely beaked; 
scales usually shorter than the perigynia, obtuse or mucronate. Meadows and 
wet woods: Mass. D. C. Mo. Sask. Plain. 

95. C. Meadii Dewey. Resembling the last, but stouter; culms 2-5 dm. 
high; culm-leaves usually 6-10, 3-7 mm. wide; staminate spike long-stalked; 
pistillate spikes 1-3, oblong, densely 8-30-flowered, distant, erect, the lower 
long-stalked; perigynia more than 3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtusely triangular, 
prominently many-nerved, tipped with a minute slightly bent beak; scales obtuse 
to cuspidate. Meadows and prairies: N.J. Ga. Neb. Sask. Plain. 

96. C. vaginata Tausch. Culms 1.5-8 dm. high, weak; leaf-blades 2-5 
mm. wide; pistillate spikes loosely 3-20-flowered ; perigynia 4 mm. long, nearly 
2 mm. wide, faintly nerved, the orifice purplish tinged, 2-toothed; scales purplish 
tinged, exceeded by the perigynia. Boggy woods: Lab. N.Y. Minn. B.C. 
Alaska. Mont. Boreal. Je-Au. 

31. LAXIFLORAE Kunth. Cespitose. Fertile culms mostly lateral, the sterile 
shoots leafy, conspicuous. Basal sheaths brownish- or purplish-tinged. Ter- 
minal spike staminate, linear. Lateral spikes 2-5, pistillate or androgynous, 
loosely to closely few-many-flowered, in few-several ranks, on erect to drooping, 
included or exserted peduncles. Bracts sheathing, the sheaths green or purplish- 
tinged, the blades leaf-like or sometimes reduced. Scales green with hyaline 
margins or more or less colored. Perigynia ascending, membranaceous, tri- 
angular, usually nerved, closely enveloping the achene, glabrous or hispidulous, 
tapering at the base, short-beaked or beakless, the orifice entire. Achenes tri- 
angular. Style-base slender, continuous with the achene. Stigmas 3. 

97. C. blanda Dewey. Calms 1.5-6 dm. high, pale green, brownish at base; 
sterile shoots developing conspicuous culms; leaf-blades 3-14 mm. wide, the 
sheaths with much crisped margins; staminate spike short-stalked or sessile, 
the scales rarely reddish brown tinged; pistillate spikes 2-4, oblong or linear- 
oblong, rather closely 8-25-flowered, the upper two contiguous, sessile or nearly 
so, the lower distant and stalked; perigynia obovoid, 2.5-3 mm. long, strongly 
nerved, contracted into a short, stout, outwardly bent beak; scales with broad 
white scarious margins, the lower strongly awned. Me. Va. Ark. w S.D. 
Plain. My-Jl. 

32. GRANULARES Bailey. Culms central, slender, leafy. Leaf-blades flat. 
Basal sheaths brownish. Terminal spike staminate, linear. Lateral spikes 2-4, 
pistillate, closely many-flowered in several ranks, erect, on more or less strongly 
exserted peduncles. Bracts sheathing, not colored or dark-auricled, the blades 
leaf-like. Scales ovate, pointed, slightly ferruginous. Perigynia ascending, 
elliptic to ovoid, membranaceous, glabrous, with many elevated nerves, sub- 
orbicular in cross-section, loosely enveloping the achene, rounded at the base, 
short-tapering and minutely beaked, the orifice entire or sab-emargjnate. Achenes 
triangular, strongly apiculate, jointed with the slender style. Stigmas 3, short. 

98. C. Shriveri Britton. Culms 1.5-7 dm. high; leaf-blades 4-16 mm. 
wide, somewhat glaucous; staminate spike short-stalked; bracts overtopping 
the culms, the ligules little elongated; perigynia narrowly obovoid, 2.5 mm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide, the beak minute, entire; apiculation of the achene abruptly bent. 
Moist meadows: Me. Va. w S.D. Sask. Boreal. Je-Jl. 

99. C. Crawei Dewey. Culms from long creeping rootstocks, stiff, glabrous 
or nearly so, 0.7-4 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide, rather stiff; bracts similar, 



134 CYPERACEAE 

short, rarely overtopping the spikes; staminate spike long-stalked; pistillate 
spikes 1-4, distant, oblong, 10-45-flowered, sessile or stalked; perigynia ovoid, 
ascending, obscurely many-nerved, 3-3.5 mm. long, suborbicular in cross-sec- 
tion, rounded at the base, tapering into a very short beak; scales obovate, obtuse 
to cuspidate. Meadows and banks, limestone regions: N.S. N.J. Tenn. 
Wyo. Alta. My-Jl. 

33. DEBILES Carey. Culms aphyllopodic, strongly purplish tinged at base, 
tufted, slender, leafy. Leaf-blades flat. Terminal spike normally staminate. 
Lateral spikes 2-5, elongated, narrowly linear, slender-peduncled, the lower 
drooping. Bracts green-sheathing, the blades leaf-like. Perigynia appressed or 
ascending, lanceolate to ovoid, membranaceous, obsoletely nerved, rather 
closely enveloping the achene, tapering to a well-developed conic beak, obliquely 
cut at orifice and strongly hyaline-tipped, at length bidentate. Achenes tri- 
angular, apiculate, jointed with the slender style. Stigmas 3. 

100. C. assiniboinensis W. Boott. Culms 2.5-7.5 dm. high; leaf-blades 
1-2 mm. wide; staminate spike long-stalked; pistillate spikes loosely 1-8-flowered ; 
perigynia narrowly lanceolate, 6 mm. long, 2 mm. wide; scales lanceolate, scarious- 
margined, awned. Wet soil: Man. Minn. S.D. N.D., doubtfully in our 
range. Plain. Je. 

34. CAPILLARES Aschers & Graebner. Culms phyllopodic, light brown and 
leafy at base, tufted, very slender. Blades narrow. Terminal spike staminate. 
Lateral spikes 2-4, linear, drooping on long capillary peduncles, few-flowered in 
few ranks. Bracts green-sheathing, the blades developed. Perigynia appressed, 
ovoid, membranaceous, triangular, closely enveloping the achene, tapering into 
the slender conic beak, truncate and entire at orifice. Achene triangular, short- 
apiculate, jointed with the slender style. Stigmas 3. 

101. C. capillaris L. Culms 0.5-6 dm. high, obtusely triangular, smooth; 
leaf -blades flat, 1-2 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 2-12-flowered; scales broadly 
hyaline-margined; perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long, the beak straight. Greenl. N.H. 
Mich. Colo. Utah. Nev. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. -Subalp. Jl-Au. 

35. LONGIROSTRES Kukenth. Culms phyllopodic, tufted, leafy towards 
the base. Blades flat. Terminal spike staminate. Lateral spikes 2-5, linear- 
oblong or oblong-cylindric, peduncled, many-flowered in several ranks. Bracts 
green-sheathing, the blades developed. Perigynia appressed to spreading, 
membranaceous, globose-triangular, somewhat inflated, prominently beaked, 
the apex bidentate, the teeth weak, scarious. Achenes triangular, apiculate, 
the apiculation very abruptly bent, jointed with the slender style. Stigmas 3. 

102. C. Sprengelii Dewey. Culms 2.5-9 dm. high, roughish above, strongly 
fibrillose at the base: leaf -blades 2.5-4 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 10-40-flowered; 
scales acute to cuspidate; body of the perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long, short-oblong, 
exceeded by the slender beak. C. longirostris Torr. Alluvial banks: N.B. 
N.J. Colo. Alta. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

36. FRIGIDAE Fries. Culms phyllopodic, tufted, the leaves clustered near 
the base. Spikes staminate, pistillate, androgynous or gynaecandrous. Bracts 
green-sheathing, the blades developed or rudimentary. Scales dark tinged, 
usually with light mid vein and margins. Perigynia appressed or ascending, 
flat to flattened-triangular, not inflated, dark tinged, beaked, the beak hyaline 
at orifice, more or less bidentate. Achenes triangular, short apiculate, jointed 
with the straight slender style. Stigmas 3. 

103. C. misandra R. Br. Culms 3-40 cm. high; leaf -blades 2-3 mm. wide, 
much shorter than the culms; sheaths purplish tinged, the blades short; lateral 
spikes 1-3, filiform-stalked, drooping, 6-14 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, closely 5-20- 
flowered; scales blackish, with narrow hyaline margins; perigynia lanceolate, 
narrowed at both ends, serrulate above. High summits or arctic regions : Greenl. 
Ont. -Alaska; Colo.; arctic Eurasia. Arct. Alp. Jl-S. 

104. C. luzulina Olney. Culms densely cespitose, 1.5-7.5 dm. high; leaves 
in a basal rosette, the blades soon spreading, 3-7 mm. wide, stiff; spikes 3-6, the 



SEDGE FAMILY 135 

upper clustered, the lower widely separated, on long-exserted peduncles, the 
lateral pistillate, 6-8 mm. wide, linear, not compound at base; scales dark reddish 
brown or black, obtuse or acutish; perigynium body compressed-triangular, closely 
enveloping achene, 3.75-5 mm. long, not inflated or hispidulous, contracted into 
the short, sparingly cilia te-serrulate, shallowly bidentate beak. C. ablata Bailey. 
C. owyheensis A. Nels. Mountain meadows and bogs: Mont. Wyo Calif 
B.C. MontSubalp. Je-Au. 

105. C. fissuricola Mackenzie. Culms 5-8 dm. high; leaves mostly clus- 
tered at the base, the blades 3-6 mm. wide, 7-14 cm. long; terminal spike" sessile 
or short-stalked, often slightly pistillate; lateral spikes 4-5, the upper contiguous 
and sessile or short-peduncled, the lower separate and strongly peduncled; scales 
ovate, acute to cuspidate, brown, with lighter midrib conspicuous to apex, 
sparsely hairy when young; perigynium body narrowly ovate, much flattened, 
loosely enveloping the achene, 5 rnm. long, 2 mm. wide, sparsely hairy when 
young, remotely ciliate-serrulate on the margins, contracted into a shallowly biden- 
tate beak. C. luzulaefolia W. Boott, in part. Mountain meadows: (?Utah) 
Nev Calif. Mont.Subalp. 

106. C. petricosa Dew. Stoloniferous; culms 1.5-2 dm. high, obtusely 
triangular, smooth; leaf -blades 2 mm. wide; spikes 3-5, oblong, 10-15 mm. long, 
closely flowered, the lower slender-peduncled; scales dark brown with hyaline 
margins; perigynia several-nerved, hispidulous, 4.5-5 mm. long, the orifice of 
the beak obliquely cut. Mountain summits: B.C. Alta. Alp. 

107. C. Franklinii Boott. Stoloniferous; culms 6-9 dm. high, obtusely 
triangular, smooth; leaf-blades 2 mm. wide; spikes 5-8, oblong, 1.2 cm. long, 
closely flowered, the lower slender-peduncled; scales brown with hyaline margins; 
perigynia with slender nerves, 4.5-5 mm. long, rough on the margins, the beak 
with obliquely cut orifice, becoming bidenticulate. Mountain summits : Canadian 
Rocky Mts. (About Lat. 56.) Alp. 

37. PALLESCENTES Fries. Culms aphyllopodic, tufted, leafy towards the 
base. Leaves pubescent. Terminal spike staminate, linear. Lateral spikes 
pistillate, closely 10-30-flowered in several rows. Bracts leaf-like, sheathless or 
nearly so. Perigynia green, rounded-triangular in cross-section, enveloping the 
a,chene, many-nerved, glabrous, rounded at the base, beakless or short-beaked. 
Achenes triangular, apiculate, the style thick, very short. Stigmas 3. 

108. C. abbreyiata Prescott. Culms 2.5-5 dm. high; leaflet-blades 1.5-3 mm. 
wide; pistillate spikes 1-3, short-oblong, 6-16 mm. long, 6 mm. wide, sessile or 
short-stalked, approximate; perigynia obovoid, 2.5-3 mm. long, strongly nerved, 
depressed at the apex, tipped by a^short slender entire beak. C. Torreyi Tuckerm. 
Dry soil: Man. Minn. Colo. Sask. Plains Submont. Je-Jl. 

38. ANOMALAE Carey. Culms stout, leafy. Leaf-blades broad, flat, glab- 
rous, not septate-nodulose. Terminal spike staminate, linear. Lateral spikes 
pistillate, linear-cylindric, scattered, closely many-flowered in several rows. 
Bracts leaf-like, sheathless. Perigynia ascending or in age spreading, obovoid, 
small, 2.5-4 mm. long, olive-green, nerved, tapering at the base, triangular, 
slightly inflated, abruptly beaked, the beak conic, shallowly bidentate. Achenes 
triangular, subapiculate, the style short, thickish, Stigmas 3. 

109. C. amplifolia Boott. Stoloniferous; culms 5-10 dm. high, sharply 
triangular; sheaths hispidulous; leaf-blades 8-18 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 
short-peduncled or nearly sessile, 3.5-8 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide; scales acute to 
mucronate; perigynia 3 mm. long, nerveless except for the keels, glabrous. Wet 
soil: B.C. Ida. Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

39. LIMOSAE Tuckerm. Culms slender, leafy below. Leaf-blades narrow. 
Terminal spike staminate, linear. Lateral spikes 1-4, pistillate, distant, oblong, 
closely several-many-flowered in several ranks, drooping, on slender peduncles. 
Bracts leaflet-like, essentially sheathless (in our species) . Perigynia appressed, 
coriaceous, ovoid, or elliptic, glaucous, papillose, beakless or nearly so. Achenes 
triangular, closely enveloped, the style short, straight, exserted, its base not 
enlarged. Stigmas 3. 



136 CYPERACEAE 

110. C. limosa L. Culms 1.5-6 dm. high, sharply triangular; pistillate 
spikes 1-2.5 cm. long, 5-8 mm. thick, 8-30-flowered ; scales acute or short-cuspi- 
date; perigynia broadly ovate, flattened, 2-edged, 2.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, 
several-nerved. Sphagnum bogs: Lab. N.J. la. Mont. Wash. Alaska; 
Eurasia. Boreal Mont. My-Au. 

111. C. paupercula Michx. Culms 1-8 dm. high, sharply triangular; 
pistillate spikes 0.5-2 cm. long, 4-8 mm. thick, 6-25-flowered; scales long-acumin- 
ate or awned; perigynia subglobose, 2.5-3 mm. long, 2.25 mm. wide, few- 
nerved. C. magellanica Am. auth. Sphagnum bogs: Newf. Pa. Minn. Colo, 
Utah Alaska; Eurasia. Submont. Mont. Au. 

112. C. Buxbaumii Wahl. Densely cespitose; culms 2-9 dm. high, slender 
but stiff, strongly reddish-purple at base; leaf -blades 2-4 mm. wide; spikes 8-40 
mm. long, 8 mm. wide, the perigynia numerous, 3-4 mm. long, glaucous-green, 
lightly many-nerved, the apex minutely bidentate; scales awned, exceeding the 
perigynia. C. Holmiana Mackenzie. Bogs: Greenl. Ga. Ark. Colo. Calif. 
'Alaska; Eurasia. Mont. Submont. My-Jl. 

40. ATRATAR Kunth. Culms leafy below. Terminal spike staminate or 
gynaecandrous, the lateral 1-10, normally pistillate, from sessile, erect, and 
closely approximate, to long-peduncled, nodding, and distant. Bracts sheathless 
or nearly so, dark-colored at the base, the blades short. Scales dark-tinged. 
Perigynia membranaceous, straw-colored, often dark-tinged, elliptic to broadly 
obovate, circular in cross-section to much flattened, papillose to puncticulate, 
glabrous, abruptly short-beaked or beakless, the orifice entire or bidentate. 
Achenes triangular, the style slender, straight, often exserted, its base not en- 
larged. Stigmas 3. 

113. C. Parryana Dewey. Stoloniferous, the culms 1-3.5 cm. high, fibril- 
lose at the base; leaf -blades 2.5-4 mm. wide; spikes 1-5, often all pistillate, or the 
terminal staminate below or throughout, the lateral oblong or linear-oblong, 
erect, approximate; scales obtuse to mucronate, concealing the perigynia; peri- 
gynia 2.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, flattened and sharp-edged, lightly few-nerved, 
the beak minute, bidenticulate. C. Elrodi M. E. Jones. Mountain meadows: 
Hudson Bay N.D. Colo. Alta. Plain Mont. My-Jl. 

114. C. idahoa Bailey. Culms 2-3.5 dm. high, fibrillose at the base; leaf- 
blades 2-4 mm. wide, flat; spikes usually 3, approximate, erect, the terminal 
staminate above, the lateral pistillate, 1-2 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; scales ovate 
to lanceolate, acuminate, concealing the perigynia; perigynia 3 mm. long, 2 mm. 
wide, faintly nerved, the beak 1 mm. long, bidenticulate. Mountain meadows: 
Mont. Ida. Mont. Jl. 

115. C. podocarpa R. Br. Culms aphyllopodic, triangular, slender, nearly 
smooth, 2-4 dm. high, from elongated tough rootstocks; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. 
wide; pistillate spikes 2-4, drooping, oblong or linear-oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 4.5-6 
mm. wide, closely 15-30-flowered; perigynia ovate, flat, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide; 
achene stipitate. C. montanensis Bailey. Mountain sides and meadows : Alaska 
Alta. Mont. Ida. Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

116. C. venustula Holm. Culms sharply triangular, slender, nearly 
smooth, 2-5 dm. high, from stout rootstocks; leaf -blades erect-ascending, 2-4 
mm. wide; pistillate spikes 1-3, drooping, oblong or linear-oblong, 0.5-2 cm. 
long, 4.5-7.5 mm. wide, closely 10-30-flowered ; perigynia oblong-elliptic, flat, 
4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, sub-stipitate, exceeding the scales; achene short-stipi- 
tate. Mountains: Alta. Alaska. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

117. C. spectabilis Dewey. Culms aphyllopodic, sharply triangular, 
2.5-5 dm. high, from densely matted tough rootstocks; leaf -blades 2-3.5 mm. 
wide; pistillate spikes 2-4, oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, closely 15-30- 
flowered; perigynia flat, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide; achene short-stipitate. C. 
nigella Boott. C. invisa Bailey. Mountains and meadows: Alaska Mont. 
Calif. Mont Alp. Jl-S. 

118. C. Tolmiei Boott. Culms phyllopodic, sharply triangular, rough 
above, 2.5-5 dm. high, from densely matted tough rootstocks; leaf-blades 2.5- 



SEDGE FAMILY 137 

4.5 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 3-6, oblong-cylindric, 1-3 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, 
somewhat attenuate at the base, closely many-flowered; perigynia flat, 3 mm. 
long; achene short-stipitate. Mountains: Alta. Wyo. Ida. Wash. Mont. 
Subalp. Jl-Au. 

119. C. Raynoldsii Dewey. Culms 2-4 dm. high, stout; rootstocks stout, 
stoloniferous; leaf -blades 3-8 mm. wide; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, approximate or 
the lowest separate, peduncled, erect, oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 7-8 mm. wide, closely 
15-40-flowered; scales blackish, with light midvein, exceeded by the perigynia; 
perigynia oblong-oval, round in cross-section, 4.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, the 
short beak bidentate. C. dboriginum M. E. Jones. Mountain meadows and 
bogs: Alta. Colo. Calif. Wash. Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

120. C. Halleri Gunn. Culms 1.5-6 dm. high, slender; leaf-blades 1-3 mm. 
wide; spikes 2-4, clustered, erect, sessile or short-peduncled, 4-10 mm. long, 
closely 8-25-flowered; scales black, shorter than the perigynia; perigynia minutely 
bidentate. C. alpina Sw. Rocky places: Greenl. Ont. N.M. Alaska; Eurasia. 
Alp. Mont. Jl-Au. 

121. C. Nelsonii Mackenzie. Culms 2-4 dm. high, stiff, smooth, erect, 
fibrillose at base; leaf-blades 3-4 mm. wide; spikes 2 or 3, oblong or obovoid, 
10-12 mm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, the lateral densely 15-35-flowered; scales black, 
the midvein obsolete; perigynia 4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, roughened on edges 
above, the conspicuous black beak sharply bidentate. Mountain meadows: 
Wyo. Colo. Subalp. Alp. Jl-Au. 

122. C. albo-nigra Mackenzie. Culms 1.5-3 dm. high, stiff, roughened 
above, slightly fibrillose at the base; leaf -blades 3 mm. wide; spikes usually 3, 
the lateral narrowly oblong, 8-10 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, closely 8-15-flowered, 
the terminal spike larger; scales with nearly obsolete midvein; perigynia black- 
ish, 3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, minutely roughened on margins. Mountain mead- 
ows: Mont. Colo. -Ariz. Utah. Subalp. Alp. Jl-Au. 

123. C. nova Bailey. Culms 1.5-6 dm. high, stiff, little roughened, fibrillose 
at the base; leaf -blades 2.5-5 mm. wide; spikes 2-4, broadly ovoid, 7-12 mm. 
long, 6-10 mm. wide, closely flowered; scales with inconspicuous midvein; peri- 
gynia blackish, 3-4 mm., long, 2-3.5 mm. wide, minutely roughened on the mar- 
gins. Mountain meadows: Mont. -N.M. Utah Ida. Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

124. C. atrosquama Mackenzie. Culms 3-4.5 dm. high, slender, often 
nodding, little roughened, slightly fibrillose at the base; leaf-blades 2.5-3.5 mm. 
wide; spikes 3-4, approximate, the lower 1-2 slender-peduncled, oblong, 6-12 
mm. long, 5 mm. wide densely 15-30-flowered; scales black with obsolete mid- 
vein; perigynia olive-green, 3.25 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, round-tapering at the 
base, abruptly minutely beaked. Mountain meadows: Alta. Mont. Ida. 
B.C. Mont. Jl-S. 

125. C. bella Bailey. Culms 5^9 dm. high, slender, nodding, roughened 
above; leaf-blades 3-6 mm. wide; spikes 3-4, gynaecandrous, 1-3 cm. long, 4-6 
mm. wide, 15-30-flowered; scales brownish black, mostly shorter than the perigynia; 
perigynia green or olive-green, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, rounded at the ends. 
Mountain meadows: Colo. N.M. Ariz. ylJtah. Mont. Alp. Jl-Au. 

126. C. atratiformis Britton. Culms 3-9 dm. high, slender, often nodding, 
roughened above, slightly fibrillose at the base; leaf-blades 3 mm. wide; spikes 
3-4, oblong, 1-2.5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, closely 10-30-flowered ; scales dark 
reddish brown; perigynia 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, rounded at the base, 
round-tapering at the apex. Along streams: Lab. Me. Alta. Yukon. 
Mont. Boreal. Je-Au. 

127. C. chalciolepis Holm. Culms 2-7 dm. high, slender, smooth, or nearly 
so; leaf-blades 3-6 mm. wide, the uppermost bract-like, 2-6 cm. below inflores- 
cence; spikes 2-4, contiguous, oblong to broadly ovoid, 1-2 cm. long, 5-10 mm. 
wide, closely flowered in many rows; scales very thin, copper-colored, much 
narrower but longer than the perigynia, the midvein indistinct; perigynia 3-4 
mm. long, 2.5-3 mm. wide, with broadly oval or obovate body, rounded at ends; 



138 CYPERACEAE 

achenes short-stipitate. Mountain meadows: Mont. Colo. Ariz. Nev. 
Mont. Alp. Jl-S. 

128. C. atrata L. Culms 2-7 dm. high, sharply triangular, more or less 
roughened; leaves all towards culm base, the blades 2-8 mm. wide; spikes 3-7, 
at least the lowest separate, oblong or obovoid-oblong, 1-3 cm. long, 5-10 mm. 
wide, closely flowered in many rows; scales brownish black, narrower but mostly 
longer than the perigynia, the midvein indistinct; perigynia 3-3.5 mm. long, oval; 
achenes 2 mm. wide, granular-roughened, short-stipitate. Mountain meadows: 
Greenl. Mont. Wyo. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. Subalp. Je-Au. 

129. C. epapillosa Mackenzie. Culms 1.5-6 dm. high, stiff, sharply tri- 
angular, smooth; leaves all towards base of the culm, the blades 3-8 mm. wide, 
nearly flat; spikes 3-6, approximate or the lowest a little separate, sessile or 
short-peduncled, oblong-obovoid, 1-2.5 cm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, closely flowered 
in many rows; scales lance-ovate, sharp-pointed, brownish black, narrower than, 
but about equalling or exceeding the perigynia, the midvein more or less prom- 
inent; perigynia broadly oval or obovate, 3.5-4 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, ob- 
scurely nerved, not granular; achenes slender-stipitate. Mountain meadows: 
Wyo. Utah Calif. Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

130. C. Mertensii Prescott. Culms 3-10 dm. high, sharply triangular, 
rough; leaf -blades flat, 4-7 mm. wide; spikes 1-4 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, gynae- 
candrous, the perigynia numerous, appressed-ascending ; scales lance-ovate, 
acute, brown, with light midvein and margins; perigynia tapering at the apex, 
minutely beaked. Mountains: Alaska Mont. Calif. Mont.Submont. Jl- 
Au. 

41. ACUTAE Fries. Culms leafy below, aphyllopodic or phyllopodic; term- 
inal 1-several spikes staminate (rarely gynaecandrous), linear, the remaining 
pistillate, linear to cylindric or oblong, closely many-flowered, sessile or ped- 
uncled. Bracts sheathless (rarely short-sheathing), leafy or squamiform, bi- 
auriculate and often darkened at the base. Perigynia membranaceous to cori- 
aceous, piano- or bi-convex, or turgid, elliptic to obovate, puncti^ulate, margined, 
beakless or abruptly minutely beaked, the orifice entire to deeply bidentate. 
Achenes normally lenticular. Style slender, straight, sometimes exserted, its 
base not enlarged. Stigmas normally 2. 

131. C. concolor R. Br. Culms 1-5 dm. high, smooth; leaf-blades 3-7 
mm. wide, with revolute margins; terminal spike staminate, linear; lateral spikes 
1-4, short-oblong to linear-cylindric, 0.5-4 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, sessile or 
short-stalked; scales obtuse or acutish, blackish with lighter midvein; perigynia 
2.5-3 mm. long, nerveless or nearly so, the orifice entire. C. rigida Good. C. 
Bigelovii Torr. Arctic-alpine regions: Greenl. N.H. Alta. -B.C. Alaska; 
Eurasia. Alp. 

132. C. scopulorum Holm. Loosely stoloniferous; culms 1-4 dm. high, 
sharply triangular, smooth; leaf -blades 3-7 mm. wide, with revolute margins; 
terminal spike androgynous or staminate; lateral spikes 2-3, approximate, erect, 
sessile or short-stalked, pistillate or androgynous, 1-2.5 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide; 
scales obtuse, black, the midvein obsolete; perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, with 
short but prominent beak, nerveless. Mountains: Mont. -Colo. -Wash. 
Mont. Alp. Jl-Au. 

133. C. chimaphila Holm. Loosely cespitose and stoloniferous; the culms 
1-4 dm. high, scabrous, flattened, triangular; leaf -blades light green, 3-5 
mm. wide, with slightly revolute margins; spikes 3-4, the upper approximate 
and sessile or short-peduncled, the lowest more distant, peduncled, the terminal 
staminate or androgynous, the lateral pistillate or androgynous, 1-3 cm. long, 
7-10 mm. wide; scales lanceolate, acute or acuminate, black, with lighter or 
obsolete midvein; perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, abruptly minutely beaked. Pos- 
sibly merely a form of C. scopulorum Holm. Mountain slopes: Mont. Colo. 
Alp. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

134. C. aperta Boott. Stoloniferous; the culms 5-10 dm. high, sharply 
triangular, rough above; leaf -blades 2.5-5 mm. wide; terminal spike staminate; 



SEDGE FAMILY 139 

lateral spikes 2-3, pistillate, sessile to slender-peduncled, approximate, 12-48 
mm. long, 5 mm. wide; scales lanceolate, sharp-pointed; perigynia obovoid, 
nerveless, abruptly minutely beaked. Low ground: B.C. Mont. Utah Calif. 
Submont. Je-S. 

135. C. lenticularis Michx. Densely cespitose; culms 3-6 dm. high, some- 
what roughened; staminate spikes 1-2, often partly pistillate; pistillate spikes 
2-5, sessile or short-peduncled, approximate or lower remote, 1-5 cm. long, 3-4 
mm. wide; scales obtuse, with broad light-colored center; perigynia 2.5 mm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide, minutely beaked. River and lake shores: Lab. Mass. Minn. 
Sask. Boreal Je-S. 

136. C. Kelloggii W. Boott. Cespitose; culms 3-7 dm. high, slender, some- 
what roughened; staminate spike usually 1; pistillate spikes 3-5, sessile or nearly 
so, approximate or slightly separate, linear, 1.5-4 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; scales 
obtuse or acutish, with broad light-colored center; perigynia 2.5 mm. long, 1.25 
mm. wide, abruptly minutely beaked. C. vulgaris var. lipocarpa Holm. Alaska 
Ida. -Colo. -Utah Calif. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

137. C. aquatilis Wahl. Rootstock slender, stoloniferous; culms 2-7 dm' 
high, sharply triangular above, slender, reddened at the base; leaf-blades 2-4 
mm. wide; staminate spikes 1-2, slender; pistillate spikes 2-4, sessile or short- 
peduncled, separate, linear, 1.5-6 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; scales oblong-obovate 
to lanceolate, obtuse or acutish, blackish, 1-nerved; perigynia elliptic-obovate, 
2.5 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, nerveless, but with a median ridge, sub-stipitate, 
puncticulate, reddish-dotted all over, granular, very minutely beaked. C. vari- 
abilis Bailey. C. rhomboidea Holm. Wet meadows and swamps: Lab. Que. 
N.M. Calif. Yukon; Eurasia. Mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

138. C. substricta (Kiikenth.) Mackenzie. Cespitose and stoloniferous; 
culms 6-14 dm. high, sharply triangular, reddened at the base; leaf-blades 
often glaucous, 4-8 mm. wide; staminate spikes 2-3, slender; pistillate spikes 
2-4, sessile or short-peduncled, separate, linear, 2-7 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; 
scales lanceolate, sharp-pointed, reddish brown with broad light-colored center, 
narrower than the perigynia; perigynia 3 mm. long, obovate, tapering to the 
stipitate base, obscurely nerved, but the marginal nerves prominent, resinous- 
dotted, abruptly very minutely beaked. C. aquatilis Am. auth., not Wahl. 
Swamps: Me. N.Y. Neb. Sask. Plain. Je-Au. 

139. C. nebraskensis Dewey. Rootstocks creeping and stoloniferous; 
culms 2.5-10 dm. high; leaf-blades 4-8 mm. wide, flat; staminate spikes 1-2; 
pistillate spikes 2-5, sessile or short-peduncled, 1.5-6 cm. long, 6-9 mm. wide, 
contiguous or the lower separate; scales lanceolate, obtusish to acuminate, 
blackish with light midvein; perigynia ascending, 3-3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, 
rounded at the base. Meadows "and swamps: S.D. Kans. N.M. Calif. 
B.C. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

140. C. Emoryi Dewey. Cespitose, long stoloniferous; culms 5-10 dm. 
high, sharply triangular, rarely reddened at the base; leaf-blades green, 3-7 mm. 
wide; staminate spikes 1-3, slender; pistillate spikes 2-4, sessile or short-ped- 
uncled, more or less strongly separate, narrowly linear, 4-10 cm. long, 3-5 mm. 
wide; scales lanceolate, sharp-pointed, with broad light-colored center and hya- 
line margins, narrower than the perigynia; perigynia very numerous, oval or 
ovate, 2.5 mm. long, rounded at the base, sessile or substipitate, few-nerved, 
the marginal nerves not prominent, puncticulate, abruptly minutely but notice- 
ably beaked. Swales and river banks: N.J.D.C. Tex N.M. Colo. 
N.D. Man. Plain Submont. 

141. C. prionophylla Holm. Rootstocks thick; culms 5-9 dm. high, strongly 
aphyllopodic and reddened at base, wing-angled and serrulate; leaf -blades 
flat, 4-5 mm. wide, very scabrous; spikes 4-5, the terminal staminate, the 
lateral pistillate, contiguous or the lower separate, sessile or short-peduncled, 
1-2 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; lowest bract dark-auricled; scales oblong-ovate; 
perigynia appressed, 2.5 mm. long, obovate, green, obscurely nerved, abruptly 
minutely beaked. Mountain streams: Ida. Wash. Submont. Jl. 



140 CYPERACEAE 

42. HIRTAE Tuckerm. Culms stout, leafy. Rootstocks with long stolons. 
Leaves septate-nodulose. Spikes 3-10, the upper 1-5 staminate, slender, the 
others pistillate, many-flowered, erect. Bracts leaf-like, equalling or exceeding 
the culm, often sheathing. Pistillate scales acute or aristate, ovate or lanceolate. 
Perigynia mostly ascending, coriaceous, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, somewhat in- 
flated, nearly orbicular in cross-section, many-nerved, often hairy, round-taper- 
ing at the base, tapering into a bidentate beak. Achenes triangular, often stipi- 
tate, the faces flat or deeply concave, apiculate, continuous with the straight or 
slightly flexuous slender style. Stigmas 3. 

142. C. lacustris Willd. Culms stout, purplish-tinged and filamentose at 
the base, 6-12 dm. high; leaf-blades 5-12 mm. wide, somewhat glaucous; stam- 
inate spikes 1-5, slender; pistillate spikes 2-5, 3-10 cm. long, 1 cm. wide; scales 
purplish tinged, acute to aristate; perigynia ovoid, 6 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, 
strongly nerved. In swamps: Newf. Del. la. Man. Ida. Boreal. Je-Jl. 

143. C. lanuginosa Michx. Culms stoutish, more or less reddened and 
filamentose at the base, 6-9 dm. high, sharp-angled and rough above; staminate 
spikes 1-3, distant; pistillate spikes 1-3, 1-5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; scales 
acuminate or aristate; perigynia ovoid, the beak bidentate. C. Watsoni Ohiey. 
Swampy places: N.S. D.C. Mo. N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainMont. Je- 
Jl. 

144. C. lasiocarpa Ehrh. Culms slender but stiff, strongly reddened and 
filamentose at the base, 6^9 dm. high, obtusely angled, smooth; staminate spikes 
1-3, distant; pistillate spikes 1-3, 1-5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; scales acute or 
short-awned; perigynia oval-ovoid, 2 mm. wide, the beak bidentate. C. fili- 
formis Auth., not L. Swamps: Newf. N.J. la. Colo. Ida. B.C.; Eurasia. 
Plain Submont. 

146. C. Hough tonii Torr. Long-stoloniferous; culms stoutish, 3-8 dm. 
high; leaf -blades 3-7 mm. wide; staminate spikes 1-3, distant; pistillate spikes 
2 or 3, 1-4 cm. long, 7-12 mm. wide, rather loosely 15-35-flowered; scales lance- 
olate, short-awned; perigynia ovoid, 3 mm. wide. Sandy or rocky soil: N.S. 
Me. Minn. Sask. Boreal. My-Au. 

146. C. laeviconica Dewey. Culms 6-12 dm. high, very rough above; 
leaf -blades 3-6 mm. wide, glabrous; sheaths puberulent towards the top, breaking 
and becoming filamentose; staminate spikes 2-6, distant; pistillate spikes 2-4, 
densely flowered, except at the base, 2.5-10 cm. long, 10-16 mm. wide; perigynia 
ovoid, glabrous, 8-10 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide. Marshes: 111. 'Man. Mo. 
Kans. 'Mont. Sask. Plain. My-Jl. 

147. C. atherodes Spreng. Culms stout, 6-15 dm. high, often roughish 
above; leaf -blades 5-12 mm. wide, often pubescent beneath, as are the sheaths; 
staminate spikes 2-6, distant; pistillate spikes 3-5, densely flowered except at 
the base, 3-10 cm. long, 12-16 mm. wide; perigynia 8-12 mm. long. C. aristata 
R. Br. Marshes: N.Y. Mo. Colo. Utah Ore. Yukon. Plain Submont. 
Je-S. 

148. C. Sheldonii Mackenzie. Strongly stoloniferous; culms very smooth 
below the spikes, 6-9 dm. high, neither bright-colored nor fibrillose at the base; 
leaves about four, the blades 5-6 mm. wide, 2-4 dm. long (or longer on sterile 
shoots), sparingly short-pubescent, as are the sheaths, the latter dark-tinged at 
the mouth, the basal breaking and slightly filamentose; staminate spikes 2-3, 
distant; pistillate spikes usually 2, widely separate, sessile or short-peduncled, 
oblong-cylindric, 2-5 cm. long, 8-10 mm. wide, rather closely 25-60-flowered ; 
perigynia 5-6 mm. long, short-pubescent, the beak bidentate, the teeth less than 
l^mrn. long; scales ovate-lanceolate, acuminate or cuspidate. Swamps: Calif. 
Ore. Ida. 

43. EXTENSAE Fries. Culms slender, but strict, obtusely triangular, leafy 
towards the base. Leaves septate-nodulose, the blades narrow. Spikes 2-10, 
normally the terminal staminate, the others pistillate, suborbicular to oblong, 
densely flowered, 3 cm. or less long, the upper sessile and approximate, the 
lower remote, peduncled, erect. Bracts leafy, more or less sheathing. Pis- 



SEDGE FAMILY 141 

tillate scales ovate, mostly reddish, copper- or chestnut-tinged. Perigynia 
ascending, spreading or deflexed, membranaceous, smooth, many-nerved, some- 
what inflated, obscurely triangular, rounded at the base, contracted into a bi- 
dentate beak, the teeth very erect. Achenes triangular, with flat faces, con- 
tinuous with the very slender erect or flexuous style. Stigmas 3. 

149. C. viridula Michx. Densely cespitose, not yellowish green, the culms 
0.7-4 dm. tall, smooth, bluntly triangular; leaf -blades 1.5-3 mm. wide, canalicu- 
late, the sheaths not prolonged at throat; staminate spike sessile or short-ped- 
uncled; pistillate spikes 2-10, aggregate or the lower separate and exsert- 
peduncled, 4-12 mm. long, 4-7 mm. wide; scales ovate, much shorter than the 
perigynia, obtuse or acutish; perigynia whitish-tipped, tapering at the base. C. 
Oederi Am. auth., in part. Lake and river banks: Newf. N.J. N.D. Colo. 
Utah B.C. Calif. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

150. C. flava L. Yellowish green; culms 1.5^6 dm. tall, smooth or nearly 
so; leaf-blades 2-5 mm. wide; staminate spike sessile or stalked; pistillate spikes 
i-4, aggregated or the lower separate, 6-18 mm. long, 9-12 mm. wide; scales 
ovate, strongly reddish tinged, conspicuous at maturity; perigynia 5-6 mm. long, 
the beak deflexed, reddish-tipped. Wet meadows: Newf. N.J. Ohio Mont. 
B.C. Mont.Submont. Je-S. 

44. PAUCIFLORAE Tuckerm. Long-stoloniferous. Culms slender. Leaf- 
blades narrow. Spike solitary, androgynous, bractless, narrow. Pistillate 
scales soon falling. Perigynia few, short-stipitate, soon widely spreading or 
reflexed, obscurely triangular, straw-colored, subulate-beaked, obliquely cut. 
Achenes triangular, linear-oblong. Stigmas 3. 

151. C. microglochin Wahl. Culms 8-25 cm. high, smooth; culm-leaves 
4-8; pistillate scales very quickly deciduous; perigynia 3-12, 4r-6 mm. long, 
obscurely nerved, smooth. Arctic-alpine localities: Greenl. Ont. Alta. 
B.C.; reported from Colo.; Eurasia. Alp. Jl-Au. 

162. C. pauciflora Lightf. Culms 10-25 cm. high, rough on the angles; culm- 
leaves 2-3; perigynia 1-6, 6-7 mm. long, obscurely several-nerved, smooth. 
Sphagnum swamps: Newf. N.Y. Mich. Wash. 'Alaska; Eurasia. (Not 
definitely known from our range.) Boreal -Mont. Je-Au. 

45. PSEUDO-CYPEREAE Tuckerm. Culms tall, generally stout, acutely 
angled, leafy below. Leaf-blades flat, septate-nodulose. Spikes 3-9, the upper 
1-3 slender, staminate, the others normally pistillate, densely flowered, the upper 
approximate, the lower remote and strongly peduncled, often nodding. Bracts 
leaf-like, much exceeding the culms, mostly not sheathing. Pistillate scales 
aristate. Perigynia spreading or reflexed, membranaceous or stiff, triangular 
or circular in cross-section, 3-8 mm. long, closely many-ribbed, greenish straw- 
color, smooth, stipitate, contracted into a rigid, slender beak. Achenes triangular, 
continuous with the slender often flexuous style. Stigmas 3, short. 

153. C. hystricina Muhl. Culms 3-9 dm. tall, reddened at the base, rough 
above; leaf-blades 3-8 mm. wide; staminate spike slender-stalked, the scales 
rough-awned; pistillate spikes 1-4, densely many-flowered, 1-6 cm. long, 10-14 
mm. wide, the lower slender-stalked; scales rough-awned; perigynia 5-6 mm. 
long, 15-20-nerved. Swampy soil: Newf. Ga Tex. Ariz. Calif. Alta. 
Plain. Je-Au. 

154. C. comosa Boott. Culms stout, up to 15 dm. tall, sharply angled; 
leaf-blades 6-14 mm. wide; staminate spike as in the last; pistillate spikes as in 
the last but 12-14 mm. wide; scales very rough-awned; perigynia rigid, closely 
many-ribbed, reflexed when mature. Swamps: N.S. Minn. -Fla. La.; 
Calif. Wash. Ida. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

46. PHYSOCARPAE Drejer. Culms mostly tall and stout, leafy below. Leaves 
not hairy, septate-nodulose. Spikes 2-10, the upper 1-5 staminate, the others 
normally pistillate, subgiobose to linear-cylindric, generally closely many- 
flowered, erect, short-peduncled, more or less remote. Bracts leaf-like, much 



142 CYPERACEAE 

exceeding the inflorescence, normally sheathless. Perigynia ascending, spread- 
ing, or even reflexed, membranaceous, smooth, from little to much inflated, 
suborbicular in cross-section, coarsely man} -ribbed or nerveless, contracted into 
a beak, the beak entire to bidentate. Achenes much shorter than the perigynia, 
triangular or lenticular, continuous with the usually tortuous style. Stigmas 3 
or 2. 

155. C. miliaris Michx. Culms 3-6 dm. tall, smooth, little filamentose at 
the base; leaf -blades 2 mm. wide; staminate spikes 1 or 2; pistillate spikes 1-3, 
oblong-cylindric, 8-25 mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide; perigynia at most faintly nerved, 
2-3 mm. long, exceeding the scale. Border of lakes and streams: Lab. Me. 
B.C. Boreal. Jl-Au. 

156. C. saxatilis L. Culms 3-8 dm. tall, more or less roughened; leaf-blades 
1.5-3.5 mm. wide; staminate spikes 1 or 2; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, separate, oblong- 
cylindric, 1.5-3.5 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, closely 25-75-flowered; scales ovate- 
lanceolate, sharp-pointed, brownish with lighter midvein, hyaline at the apex; 
perigynia obscurely nerved, 4.5-5 mm. long, 1.75-2.25 mm. wide, exceeding the 
scales, minutely beaked. C. physocarpa Presl. Arctic and subarctic places: 
Colo. Mack. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. Mont. Je-Au. 

157. C. oligosperma Michx. Long-stoloniferous; culms slender, 4.5-9 dm. 
high, exceeding the leaves; leaf-blades 3 mm. wide, involute in age; staminate 
spike stalked, linear; pistillate spikes 1-2, subglobose or short-oblong, mostly 
5-15-flowered; scales acute or slightly mucronate, much shorter than the peri- 
gynia; perigynia ovoid, inflated, strongly few-nerved, yellowish green, shining, 
5 in.n. long, 3 mm. in diameter, the beak minutely bidentate. In bogs: Lab. 
Pa. Ind. Sask. Je-S. 

158. C. Raeana Boott. Culms 3-6 dm. high, very slender, triangular and 
roughened above, reddened at the base; leaf -blades flat, 2 mm. wide, little nodu- 
lose; staminate spikes I or 2; pistillate spikes 1-3, narrowly cylindric, 1.5-5 cm. 
long, 5 mm. wide, short-peduncled ; scales lanceolate, acuminate; perigynia 5-6 
mm. long, closely enveloping the achene, yellowish green, strongly few-nerved. 
(Probably a form of the next.) Lake and river shores: Me. Que. Sask. 
Boreal. Je-Au. 

159. C. vesicaria L. Culms 3-9 dm. high, acutely angled and rough above; 
leaf-blades 3-6 mm. wide; staminate spikes 2-4; pistillate spikes 1-3, sessile or 
short-peduncled, erect, oblong-cylindric, 2.5-7 cm. long, 6-15 mm. wide, many- 
flowered; scales ovate or lanceolate, acute, acuminate, or short-awned; perigynia 
5-8 mm. long, yellowish green, 8-10-nerved. C. monile Tuckerm. Wet mead- 
ows and swamps: Que. Pa. Ohio Calif. B.C.; Eurasia. Plain. Je-Au. 

160. C. exsiccata Bailey. Culms 3-10 dm. high, acutely triangular and 
rough above; leaf-blades 3-*6 mm. wide; staminate spikes 2-4', pistillate spikes 
1-3, sessile or short-peduncled, erect, cylindric, 2-7 cm. long, 10-14 mm. wide, 
closely many-flowered; scales ovate, sharp-pointed; perigynia 7-9 mm. long, 
lanceolate, tapering into the beak, yellowish green, 8-10-nerved. "C. mirata 
Dewey" Holm. Wet places: Alaska Mont. Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

161. C. rostrata Stokes. Culms stout, 3-12 dm. high; leaf-blades 2-12 mm. 
wide; staminate spikes 2-4; pistillate spikes 2-4, erect, cylindric, densely flowered, 
sessile or short-peduncled, 5-15 cm. long, 6-20 mm. wide; scales lanceolate, 
awned or acute; perigynia ovoid, spreading at maturity, few-nerved, 4-8 mm. 
long, abruptly beaked. C. utriculata Boott. Boggy places: Lab. Del. N.M. 
Calif. B.C. Alaska; Eurasia. Plain Mont. Je-S. 

162. C. retrorsa Schw. Culms stout, 3-10 dm. high, smooth or slightly 
roughened above; leaf-blades 5-^10 mm. wide; staminate spikes 1-3; pistillate 
spikes 3-8, contiguous and sessile or nearly so, or the lower distant and long- 
stalked, cylindric, densely many-flowered, 2.5-7.5 mm. long, 14-20 mm. wide; 
scales lanceolate, acute or acuminate; perigynia ovoid, few-nerved, 7-10 mm. long, 
tapering into the beak. "C. lupulina Muhl. " of Fl. Colo. Swamps and wet 
places: Newf. Pa. la. Colo. Wash. B.C. Plain Submont. Jl-O. 



ARUM FAMILY 143 

Family 14. ARACEAE. ARUM FAMILY. 

Fleshy, perennial, mostly acaulescent herbs, with rootstocks. Leaves 
basal, usually petioled, with broad, simple or rarely divided, reticulate- 
veined blades, or narrowly linear with sheathing bases. Flowers perfect, 
monoecious or dioecious, borne in a dense fleshy spike (spadix); this sub- 
tended by or enclosed in a large foliaceous or colored bract (spathe). Peri- 
anth of scale-like members or wanting. Stamens 4-10, with very short 
filaments and thick connectives. Gynoecium of a single carpel or of several 
united carpels. Ovaries 1 -several-celled; stigmas terminal; ovules 1 to 
several in each cavity. Fruit a berry or a utricle. 

Spadix terminal, with an oblong sheathing spathe; leaves petioled, with broad blades. 

1. LYSICHITON. 

Spadix borne somewhat laterally on the leaf-like scape; spathe leaf-like, continuous to 
the scape; leaves narrowly linear, equitant. 2. ACORUS. 

1. LYSICHITON Schott. SKUNK CABBAGE. 

Acaulescent perennial swamp plants, with short thick rootstocks. Leaves 
fleshy, petioled, with sheathing bases, the earlier reduced to merely inflated 
sheaths. Spathe sheathing at the base. Spadix cylindric, at last long-exserted. 
Flowers perfect, crowded. Perianth 4-lobed. Stamens 4, opposite. Pistil 
solitary; ovary 2-celled, 2-ovuled; stigma depressed. Ovules horizontal, ortho- 
tropous. Fruit fleshy. 

1. L. kamtschatcensis Schott. Leaf-blades 3-7 dm. long, 7-25 cm. 
broad, elliptic to lance-oblong, acute at both ends; spathe oblong-lanceolate, 
1-1.5 dm. long; peduncles 15-30 cm. long; spadix 7-12 cm. long, becoming 5-6 
cm. thick. Swamps: Alaska Mont. Calif.; e Asia. Submont. My-Je. 

2. ACORUS L. SWEET FLAG, CALAMUS-ROOT. 

Erect swamp plants, with long horizontal rootstocks. Leaves sword-shaped, 
equitant. Scapes 3-angled, bearing a lateral spadix and a foliaceous spathe, 
continuous with the scape. Flowers perfect, densely crowded on the spadix. 
Perianth with 6 membranous concave divisions. Stamens 6. Pistil solitary; 
ovary 2-4-celled, each 2-8-ovuled; stigma depressed-capitate. Fruit berry-like. 

1. A. Calamus L. Leaves linear, erect, 5-20 dm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, long- 
attenuate, 2-ranked; scape 1-2 m. high; spathe 2-7.5 dm. long; spadix 5-7 cm. 
long, about 1 cm. thick, lance-cylindric ; plant seldom fruiting. Swamps and 
.streams: N.S. Fla. Tex. Colo. Ida. Mont.; Eurasia. Plain. My-Jl. 

Family 15. LEMNACEAE. DUCKWEED FAMILY. 

Minute floating perennial aquatics, consisting of a fleshy or membran- 
aceous, loosely cellular thallus-like stem, without leaves and in our genera 
with one or more rootlets. The new stems or fronds are produced from two 
lateral depressions or pouches or a terminal one; the new frond being attached 
to the old one by a short, slender stalk, soon separating. Flowers very 
rare. Inflorescence consisting of 1 pistillate and 1 or 2 staminate flowers, 
borne on the edge on the upper surface of the frond. Staminate flower of 
a single stamen, with 2-4 pollen-sacks. Pistillate flowers of a single flask- 
like pistil, with 1-several ovules. Fruit a 1-6-seeded utricle. 

Rootlets solitary, without a fibro- vascular bundle. 1. LEMNA. 

Rootlets several, each with a fibro- vascular bundle. 2. SPIRODELA. 

1. LEMNA L. DUCKWEED. 

Frond disk-like, 1-5-nerved or nerveless. Stipe attached to the basal mar- 
gins of the frond. Rootlet solitary, without nbro-vascular bundles. Anthers 
dehiscent transversely. 



144 LEMNACEAE 

Fronds long-stalked, mostly submerged, forming large masses 1. L. trisulca. 

Fronds short-stalked or sessile, floating on the surface. 

Frond pale and usually strongly gibbous beneath. 2. L. gibba. 

Fronds green or purplish, not gibbous beneath. 

Frond oblong-obovate, indistinctly 3-nerved. 3. L. minor. 

Frond oblong or elliptical, indistinctly 1-nerved or nerveless. 

Frond unsymmetrical, without papules. 4. L. cyclostasa. 

Frond symmetrical, with a row of papules along the midvein. 5. L. minima. 

1. L. trisulca L. Fronds usually submerged, seldom floating, usually 
several generations attached together, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, slightly un- 
symmetrical and falcate, dentate towards the upper end, 5-10 mm. long, 2-3 mm. 
wide. In springs and running water: N.S. N.J. Tex. Calif. -B.C.; Old 
World and Australia. Plain Mont. Jl-Au. 

2. L. gibba L. Fronds solitary or 2-4 in a group, orbicular to obovate, 2-5 
mm. long and 2-4 mm. wide, thick, convex and slightly keeled above, with large 
air-cavities in the gibbous portion, unsymmetrical, 3-5-nerved. In ponds: Neb. 
Tex. Ariz. Calif.; Mex.; Old World and Australia. Plain Subalp. 

3. L. minor L. Fronds solitary or a few together, round to oval, sym- 
metrical, thickish, convex on both sides, sometimes slightly keeled above and 
with a row of papules along the midrib. In stagnant water and slow streams: 
Lab. Fla. Calif. Alaska; Mex.; Old World and Australia. Plain -Mont. 

4. L. cyclostasa (Ell.) Chev. Frond solitary or 2-8 in a group, oblong to 
obovate-oblong, usually somewhat falcate, 2.5-4.5 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, 
usually unsymmetrical at the base. L. valdiviana Philippi. In pools and streams : 
Mass. Fla. Calif. Ida.; Mex. S. Am. Plain Submont. 

5. L. minima Philippi. Fronds solitary or in groups of 2-4, oblong or 
elliptical, symmetrical, 1.5-4 mm. long, 1-2.75 mm. wide, both surfaces convex 
or the lower flat, with a thin margin around the frond. In pools: Ga. Kans. 
Wyo Calif.; Mex, S. Am. Plain Submont. 

2. SPIRODELA Schleiden. LARGER DUCKWEED. 

Frond disk-like, several-nerved. Stipe attached peltately to the frond back 
of and under the basal margin. Rootlets several, each with a solitary fibro- 
vascular bundle. Anthers dehiscent longitudinally. 

1. S. polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden. Frond solitary or in colonies of 2-5, round- 
ish obovate, flat on both sides, green above, generally purplish beneath, 5-15- 
nerved, 2.5-4.5 mm. wide and 2.5-8 mm. long; rootlets 4-16. In pools and 
ponds: N.S. B.C. Fla. Mex.; Old World and S. Am. Plain. 

Family 16. COMMELINACEAE. SPIDERWORT FAMILY. 

Somewhat succulent herbs, with fibrous or tuberous-thickened roots and 
alternate leaves sheathing at the base. Flowers perfect, subtended by leaf- 
like sheathing bracts. Sepals 3, herbaceous. Corolla regular or irregular, 
with 3, usually showy, colored petals. Stamens 6 or 5, sometimes 2 or 3 
of these sterile. Gynoecium of 2 or 3 united carpels; ovary superior, 2- or 
3-celled; styles united. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. 

Petals all alike; perfect stamens 6; bracts leaf-like. 1. TRADESCANTIA . 

Petals unlike in shape and size; perfect stamens 3 or 2; bracts spathe-like. 

2. COMMELINA. 

1. TRADESCANTIA (Rupp.) L. SPIDERWORT. 

Caulescent perennials, with alternate narrow leaves. Cymes umbel-like, 
terminal, subtended by usually 2 bracts, similar to the leaves. Sepals 3, nearly 
equal, distinct. Petals 3, showy, blue, rose-color or white, sessile, similar and 
equal, delicate. Stamens 6, all perfect; filaments filiform, in ours long-hairy. 
Capsule loculicidal, 3-valved. Seeds 3-6, more or less sculptured. 

Sepals glandular-pilose; petals about 15 mm. long; capsule decidedly ellipsoid. 

Bracts broader than the leaves, strongly gibbous at the base; stem 2-3 dm. high, 
usually simple; pod densely glandular. 1. T. bracteata. 



SPIDERWORT FAMILY 145 

Bracts not broader than the leaves, not strongly gibbous at the base; stem usually 

over 3 dm. high, branched. 

Pod densely glandular-pubescent; sepals broadly lanceolate, densely glandular- 
plant bright green; branches shorter than the stem proper. 2. T. occidentalis ' 
Pod glabrate. pubescent only in lines or at the apex. 

Pedicels strongly glandular; pods pubescent in lines; branches almost equalling 

the stem. 3. T. larimiensis 

Pedicels glabrous or slightly glandular above; pods pubescent only at the apex. 

4. T. universitatis. 
Sepals glabrous or nearly so; petals about 10 mm. long; capsule subglobose. 

5. T. scopulorum. 

1. T. bracteata Small. Stem erect, 1-3 dm. high, simple, or sparingly 
branched, glabrous; leaves linear, 1-2 dm. long, long-acuminate; sepals ovate- 
lanceolate; corolla about 2.5 cm. broad. Wet meadows: Minn. Mo. -Kans 
S.D. PlainSubmont. 

2. T. occidentalis (Britton) Smyth. Stem stout, branched, erect, 2.5-4 
dm. high; leaves narrowly linear, 2-3 dm. long, attenuate, with rather loose 
sheaths, glabrous; bracts 5-15 cm. long; sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, about 1 
cm. long; petals blue or rose-colored, 12-15 mm. long. Wet meadows: la. Mo 
Colo. S.D. Plain^Submont. 

3. T. larimiensis Goodding. Stem 3-4 dm. high, branched, erect, glabrous; 
leaves narrowly linear, 2-3 dm. long, spreading; bracts narrow, 2-3 mm. broad; 
sepals lanceolate, acute, 10-12 mm. long; petals dark blue, 15-20 mm. long; fila- 
ments strongly woolly below. Wet places: Mont. Colo. Utah. Plain -Sub- 
mont. 

4. T. universitatis Cockerell. Stem 3-4 dm. high, branched; leaves 
ascending, linear, attenuate, 2-3 dm. long; bracts narrower, 1-2 dm. long; sepals 
narrowly lanceolate, about 1 cm. long, acuminate; petals blue, broadly ovate, 
acute, 15 mm. long. Scarcely distinct from the preceding. Wet places: Mont. 
S.D. Colo. Plain Submont. 

6. T. scopulorum Rose. Stem more or less branched, 3-4 dm. high; leaves 
erect, 1-2 dm. long, linear, attenuate; bract narrow, unequal, glabrous; sepals 
broadly lanceolate, 8 mm. long; petals 1 cm. long or less, blue. Wet places: 
Ariz. Utah Colo.- N.M. Son.Submont. 

2. COMMELINA (Plum.) L. DAY-FLOWER, DEW-FLOWER. 

Mostly perennials, with alternate leaves. Bracts usually spathe-like, folded. 
Flowers irregular, in small cymes. Sepals 3, unequal, the larger two more or 
less united. Petals 3, usually blue, two larger than the third. Fertile stamens 
3, rarely 2; filaments slender, glabrous; sterile stamens 2 or 3, smaller than the 
fer.tile ones. Seeds 2, one above the other, or solitary. 

1. C. crispa Wooton. Perennial, with tuberous roots; stem 3-8 dm. high, 
branched, finely villous-pubescent above; leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-7 cm. long, 
4-6 mm. wide; spathe 1.5-2 cm. long, strongly curved, pubescent and bearded 
at the base; sepals broadly elliptic-rotund, the upper one slightly narrower and 
half as long; upper two petals broadly reniform, 1-1.5 mm. long, bright blue, 
the third white, lanceolate, 2-3 mm. long; fertile stamens 3; staminodia 3. 
Sandy places: Ind. Neb. Colo. Ariz. Tex. Plain. 

Family 17. PONTEDERIACEAE. PICKEREL-WEED FAMILY. 

Perennial bog or water plants, with rootstocks and alternate or basal 
leaves. Flowers perfect, more or less irregular. Sepals and petals each 3, 
both colored and partly united. Stamens 3-6; filaments partly adnate to 
the perianth. Pistil of 3 united carpels; ovary 3-celled, or by abortion 1- 
celled. Fruit a many-seeded capsule or a 1-seeded utricle. 

Stamens unequal, the 2 posterior ones with ovate anthers, the third with a sagittate 
anther; capsule incompletely 3-celled; leaf-blades broad, long-petioled. 

l. HETERANTHERA. 

Stamens all alike; anthers all sagittate; capsule 1 -celled, with 3 parietal placentae; leaf- 
blades linear, translucent, sessile. 2. ZOSTERELLA. 



146 PONTEDERIACEAE 

1. HETERANTHERA R. & P. MUD-PLANTAIN. 

Creeping or floating water plants. Leaves long-petioled, with broad, ovate, 
cordate, rounded, or reniform blades, sometimes reduced to phyllodes. Flowers 
perfect, solitary or few, subtended by a spathe-like bract. Perianth white or 
blue, with a slender tube. Stamens 3; anthers introrse, that of the anterior 
stamen sagittate, those of the other two ovate. Ovary incompletely 3-celled; 
ovules numerous in two rows on each placenta. 

1. H. limosa (Sw.) Willd. Stem floating, 1-5 dm. long, branched; leaves 
petioled; petioles 3-20 cm. long; blades ovate to oblong-ovate, 1-3 cm. long, 
rounded or subcordate at the base; spathe 1-flowered; perianth blue or white; 
tube 1.5-2 cm. long; lobes linear. Shallow water: Va. Fla. Mex. Colo. 
S.D.; W. Ind. and Trop. Am. Plain. Je-Au. 

2. ZOSTERELLA Small. WATER STAR-GRASS. 

Submersed grass-like plants. Leaves sessile, narrowly linear, translucent. 
Flowers perfect, 1 or 2, subtended by a bract. Perianth yellow, with a slender 
tube. Stamens 3; anthers all sagittate, introrse. Ovary 1-celled with 3 parietal 
placentae; ovules numerous, 2-ranked. [Schollera Schreb.] 

1. Z. dubia (Jacq.) Small. Stem floating or creeping, 2-10 dm. long, 
branched; leaves linear, flat, sheathing at the base, 1-2 dm. long; perianth-tube 
1 mm. thick; lobes linear, 8-12 mm. long. Heteranthera graminea (Michx.) 
Vahl. H. dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Still water: Ont. Fla. Mex. Ore. ; W. Ind. 
Plain. My-S. 

Family 18. MELANTHACEAE. BUNCH-FLOWER FAMILY. 

Leafy-stemmed perennials, with rootstocks or solid bulbs. Flowers race- 
mose or paniculate, perfect, dioecious, or polygamous. Petals and sepals 
each 3, distinct or nearly so. Stamens 6; filaments often partly adnate to 
the base of the sepals and petals; anthers versatile. Pistil of 3 united car- 
pels; ovary 3-celled; styles 3. Fruit a septicidal capsule. 

Plants with rootstocks (except in No. 3) ; petals and sepals glandless. 
Anthers oblong or ovate, 2-celled. 

Anthers introrse; flowers involucrate with 3 bractlets. 1. TOFIELDIA. 

Anthers extrorse; flowers not involucrate. 2. XEROPHYLLUM. 

Anthers cordate or reniform, con fluently 1-celled. 

Flowers racemose, perfect, nodding; plants glabrous, with narrow leaves. 

3. STENANTHELLA. 
Flowers paniculate, polygamous; more or less pubescent plants, with broad 

plaited leaves. 4. VERATRUM. 

Plants with bulbs; petals and sepals with a more or less distinct gland. 

Ovary partly inferior; gland obcordate. 5. ANTICLEA. 

Ovary wholly superior; gland obovate or semiorbicular. 6. TOXICOSCORDION. 

1. TOFIELDIA Huds. SCOTTISH ASPHODEL. 

Perennial herbs, with short rootstocks, fibrous roots, 2-ranked linear equitant 
leaves, and small flowers in a terminal raceme. Flowers involucrate by 3, more or 
less united bractlets below the calyx. Petals and sepals oblong or obovate, sub- 
equal, persistent, glandless. Stamens 6; anthers ovate, introrse. Capsule 
septicidal to the base, many-seeded. 

Stem glabrous, scapiform; seed unappendaged. 

Stem leafy at the base only; flowers short-pedicelled. 1. T. palustris. 

Stem with a leaf also at or above the middle; flowers sessile. 2. T. coccinea. 
Stem viscid-pubescent, at least above; seeds appendaged. 

Bractlets broadly triangular, connate two-thirds their length. 3. T. intermedia. 

Bractlets lanceolate-triangular, connate half their length or less. 4. T. occidentalis. 

1. T. palustris Huds. A glabrous plant, with a scape-like, leafless stem> 
3-15 cm. high, and a few basal leaves, 2-10 cm. long; raceme in flower short, oblong, 
dense; flowers greenish; petals and sepals obovate, obtuse; capsule oblong- 
globose, minutely beaked. In wet places: Greenl. 'Que. Minn. B.C.; Alaska; 
Eu. Alp.Suhalp. Je-Jl. 



BUNCH-FLOWER FAMILY 147 

2. T. coccinea Richardson. A glabrous plant; stem 5-10 cm. high; basal 
leaves 2-6 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide; spike short-oblong or globose; flowers tinged 
with purple; fruit dark purple. In wet places: Mack. Alta. Alaska. Alp. 
ill. 

3. T. intermedia Rydb. Stem leafy, 1.5-3 dm. high, viscid-pubescent 
above; leaves 5-20 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide; raceme short, dense, 1-2 cm. long, 
pedicels usually 3 together; flowers yellow; sepals obovate, 4-5 mm. long; petals 
somewhat narrower and longer; capsule ovoid, about 5 mm. long. Bogs: Sask' 
Wyo. Calif. Alaska. Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

4. T. occidentalis S. Wats. Stem leafy, 3-5 dm. high, viscid-pubescent 
above; leaves 5-20 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, acute; raceme 3-5 cm. long; flowers 
as in the preceding, but sepals and petals narrower; capsule ovoid, about 8 mm. 
long. In bogs: B.C. Calif. Ida. Mont. Je-Au. 

2. XEROPHYLLUM Michx. TURKEY-BEARD, BEAR-GRASS, 

MOOSE-GRASS, PINE-GRASS. 

Glabrous perennial plants, with thick rootstocks, numerous narrowly linear 
leaves with rough margins, and a single, dense and many-flowered raceme. Flow- 
ers perfect, whitish; petals and sepals subequal, ovate or oblong, 5-7-nerved, 
withering-persistent, claw- and gland-less. Anthers oblong, 2-celled, extrorse. 
Styles 3, reflexed. Capsule ovoid; seeds 2 in each cell, oblong. 

Petals and sepals 7-10 mm. long. 1. X. tenax. 

Petals and sepals 4-6 mm. long. 2. X. Douglasii. 

1. X. tenax (Pursh) Nutt. A light green perennial, 5-15 dm. high; lower 
leaves very numerous, firm, strongly 1-nerved, 2-4 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; 
upper stem-leaves subulate, with broad scarious bases; pedicels slender, 3-5 cm. 
long; petals and sepals narrowly oblong, shorter than the filiform filaments; 
capsule broadly ovate. On dry hillsides: Mont. B.C. Calif. Ida. Mont. 
Je-Jl. 

2. X. Douglasii S. Wats. Similar to the preceding; pedicels 1-3 cm. long, 
more erect; sepals and petals equalling the stamens; capsule cordate-ovate. 
Dry hills: Ore. Mont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

3. STENANTHELLA Rydb. 

Erect bulbous glabrous herbs, with few narrow leaves and racemose or panicu- 
late, perfect, greenish, brownish, or purplish flowers. Petals and sepals each 3, 
subequal, withering-persistent, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, with reflexed tips, 
without gland and distinct claw. Stamens 6, free, included; anthers reniform, 
confluently 1-celled. Capsule lance-ovoid, septicidal to the base, wholly super- 
ior. Seeds oblong, winged. 

1. S. occidentalis (A. Gray) Rydb. Stem 3-5 dm. high; leaves linear or 
linear-oblanceolate, acute, 1-2 dm. long, 3-20 mm. wide; raceme simple or 
branched below; flowers narrowly bell-shaped, 10-12 mm. long; capsule about 
2 cm. long. Stenanthium occidental*; A. Gray. In wet places: Alta. B.C. 
Ore. Ida. Mont. Alp. Je-Au. 

4. VERATRUM (Tourn.) L. WHITE HELLEBORE, FALSE HELLEBORE, 
SKUNK CABBAGE. 

Tall poisonous perennials, with broad strongly veined and plaited leaves, 
and stout rootstocks. Flowers paniculate, generally polygamous, i. e., the 
upper perfect and the lower staminate. Petals and sepals each 3, subequal, 

f landless and clawless. Stamens 6, free; anthers cordate, their sacks confluent. 
Vuit a many-seeded, slightly inferior capsule. Seeds flat, broadly winged. 

Flowers greenish; bractlets foliaceous, often equalling or exceeding the flowers 

1. V. Escnschottzianum. 
Flowers white or yellowish white; bractlets membranous, much shorter than the pedicels 

and flowers. 

Petals and sepals oval or broadly oblanceolate. 2. V. speaosum. 

Petals and sepals narrowly oblanceolate. 3. V. tenuipetalum. 



148 MELANTHACEAE 

1. V. Eschscholtzianum (R. & S.) Rydb. Stem 1-2 m. high; leaves from 
broadly round-oval to oblong, or the uppermost lanceolate, sessile and sheathing 
at the base, 2-3 dm. long; petals and sepals pblanceolate, 8-10 mm. long, acute 
or obtuse, fully twice as long as the stamens. Closely related to V. viride Ait. 
of the East, which has longer bracts and stamens. In wet woods : Mont. Ida. 
Ore. Alaska. Mont. Subalp. Jl-S. 

2. V. speciosum Rydb. Stem 1-3 m. high; leaves, except the uppermost, 
broadly oval, 2-3 dm. long, 1-2 dm. wide, finely soft-pubescent beneath, sessile 
and sheathing; petals and sepals yellowish white, mostly obtuse, 5-7-nerved, 
8-10 mm. long. V. californicum S. Wats., not Durand. V. Jonesii Heller. 
Brook- and river-banks : Wash. Calif. N.M. Mont. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

3. V. tenuipetalum Heller. Like the last, but still more leafy; leaves very 
concave; panicle more compound and very many-flowered; petals and sepals mostly 
acute, 3-5-nerved, 6-8 mm. long and about 2 mm. wide. In mountain meadows: 
Colo. Submont. Mont. Jl. 

5. ANTICLEA Kunth. WHITE CAMAS. 

Bulbiforoua glabrouo pcrcnnrater Leaves linear, sheathing. Flowers per- 
fect; greenish or yellowish white, ia-Faeeies--eF -panicles. Petals and sepals 
nearly alike, elliptic to obovate, withering-persistent, bearing an obcordate gland 
within above the narrowed base, perigynous. Stamens free; anthers cordate 
or reniform. Ovary partly inferior. Seeds numerous, angled. 

Base of the stem not covered by conspicuous scarious sheaths; plant not tufted. 
Petals and sepals greenish, the former more or less contracted into a broad claw. 

1. .4. chlorantha. 
Petals and sepals white or straw-colored, greenish only on the midrib, not at all clawed. 

Petals and sepals 7 13-nerved. 

Stem more or less leafy, 3-6 dm. high; petals white, 7-8 mm. long. 

2. A. elegans. 
Stem scapiform, 1-2 dm. high; petals straw-colored, 5-6 mm. long. 

3. A. alpina. 
Petals and sepals 5-6 mm. long, 3-7-nerved. 

Inflorescence usually simple, few-flowered ; petals and sepals usually nearly 6 mm. 

long; flowers not recurved after anthesis. 4. A. coloradensis. 

Inflorescence branched, many-flowered ; petals and sepals rarely exceeding 5 mm. 

in length; flowers reflexed just after anthesis. 5. A. porrifolia. 

Base of the stem covered by numerous, conspicuous, scarious sheaths; plant growing 
in big clumps. 6. A. vaginata. 

1. A. chlorantha (Richardson) Rydb. Stem glabrous, green, 3-10 dm. 
high; leaves 1-3 dm. long, 5-12 mm. wide, keeled; flowers paniculate, about 1 
cm. long; sepals and petals usually 7-nerved, elliptic; capsule ovoid. Zygadenus 
chloranthus Richardson. Z. glaucus Nutt., in part. Rocky or stony places, 
often on limestone: N.B.N.Y. 111. S.D.Sask. Boreal. Je-Au/ 

2. A. elegans (Pursh) Rydb. Stem glabrous, light green, 3-6 dm. high; 
leaves 1-3 dm. long, 5-15 mm. wide, keeled; flowers racemose, or rarely panicu- 
late, dirty white; bracts ovate to lanceolate, often membranous-margined; petals 
and sepals obovate or oval, obtuse; capsule ovoid. Z. elegans Pursh. Z. glaucus 
Nutt., in part. Z. dilatatus Greene. In meadows: Sask. -N.D. N.M. 
Nev. Alaska. Plain Subalp. Je-Au. 

3. A. alpina (Blankinship) Heller. Stem 1-2 dm. high, subscapiform with 
one or two bracts or small leaves; basal leaves 6-12 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; 
bracts ovate, scarious, purple-veined; sepals and petals cream-colored, obovate; 
capsule narrow. Z. alpinus Blankinship. Mountains: Mont. Subalp. Jl- 
Au. 

4. A. coloradensis Rydb. A rather slender glabrous plant, 2-4 dm. high; 
leaves narrow, erect, about 2 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; flowers racemose, yel- 
lowish white, tinged with brownish or purplish; bracts linear-lanceolate; petals 
and sepals oblong or narrowly obovate, acute; capsule ovoid.. Mountains: 
N.M. Colo. Utah. Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

6. A. porrifolia (Greene) Rydb. Stem slender, 3-6 dm. high; leaves thin, 
pale, 2-4 dm. long, 6-12 mm. wide; bracts lanceolate, green; pedicels 1-3 cm. 



BUNCH-FLOWER FAMILY 149 

long; sepals and petals elliptic, not clawed, greenish white; capsule ovoid. 2. 
porrifolius Greene. Mountains and canons: Ariz. se Utah -N.M. Mex. 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

6. A. vaginata Rydb. Growing in clumps; stem 7-10 dm. high; leaves 
linear, 3-7 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, with numerous veins; inflorescence panicu- 
ate; bracts linear or subulate, 3-6 cm. long, green, or the upper ovate, white; 
petals and sepals white, elliptic, 7-8 mm. long, 7-nerved. Loose soil under over- 
hanging canon walls: se Utah. Son. Au. 

6. TOXICOSCORDION Rydb. POISON CAMAS, DEATH CAMAS. 

BulbiferouB glabrous, more or less poisonous perennials, with narrow linear 
conduplicate leaves and yellowish ruocmoGo or pamoulato fl< ^ra FJoweFS-per=_. 
-teetr. Petals and sepals bearing an obovate or semiorbicular gland at or above 
the base of the blade. Ovary wholly superior. Stamens more or less adnate to 
the base of the petals and sepals; anthers sub-reniform, confluently 1-celled. 
Soodo nimiuiuuiJ. 

Petals and sepals rounded or obtuse at the apex. 

Upper leaves without sheaths at the base; both petals and sepals distinctly clawed 
and subcordate at the base; gland with a thick, toothed margin. 1. T. venenosum. 

All leaves with distinct sheaths; petals long-clawed and subcordate at the base; 

sepals subsessule; margin of the gland ill-defined. 2. T. gramineum. 

Petals and sepals acute or acuminate at the apex ; all leaves with sheaths ; sepals cuneate 
at the base and short-clawed or subsessile. 

Leaves less than 5 mm. wide; petals and sepals both cuneate at the base and short- 
clawed. 3. T. acutum. 

Leaves over 5 mm. wide. 

Raceme simple; petals comparatively long-clawed and subcordate at the base. 

4. T. falcatum. 
Raceme branched; petals short-clawed, not subcordate at the base. 

5. T. paniculatum 

1. T. venenosum (S. Wats.) Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaves narrowly 
linear, striate, scabrous, 1.5-3 dm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; raceme many-flowered, 
in fruit elongate; petals and sepals about 5 mm. long; claw about 1 mm. long; 
blades of the sepals broadly ovate, those of the petals more elliptic-ovate. Zyga- 
denus venenosus. S. Wats. Z. salinus A. Nels. Hillsides: Mont. Utah 
Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

2. T. gramineum Rydb. Stem 2-3.5 dm. high; leaves linear, 1-2 dm. 
long, 3-9 mm. wide; flowers light yellow; sepals broadly ovate, obtuse; petals 
ovate, obtuse, subcordate at the base. Z. gramineus and Z. intermedium Rydb. 
Hills and meadows: Sask. S.D. Colo. Utah Ida. Submont. 

3. T. acutum Rydb. Stem 3-5 dm. high; leaves narrowly linear, scabrous 
on the margin, about 2 dm. long and 4-5 mm. wide; petals and sepals 4-5 mm. 
long, both acute at the apex and at the base; glands obovate or cuneate. Z. 
acutus Rydb. Hillsides: (Black Hills) S.D. Submont. Je-Jl. 

4. T. falcatum Rydb. Stem stout, 3-4 dm. high; leaves scabrous, 1.5-2.5 
dm. long, 5-8 mm. wide; raceme short, in fruit elongate; petals and sepals about 
5 mm. long, acute; the former deltoid-ovate, acute at the base; glands semi- 
orbicular, upper margin toothed, thin and not well defined. Z. falcatus Rydb. 
Hills and table-lands: Colo. n N.M. Submont. Je-Au. 

5. T. paniculatum (Nutt.) Rydb. Stem stout, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 
striate, scabrous, 2-4 dm. long, 5-10 mm. wide; flowers panicled, rarely race- 
mose, yellow > petals and sepals 4-5 mm. long; both ovate or deltate-ovate, 
acute at both ends and short-clawed; glands semi-orbicular, upper margins 
toothed, thin and ill-defined. Z. paniculatus S. Wats. On hills: Mont. N.M. 
Calif. Wash. Son. -Submont. My-Je. 

Family 19. JUNCACEAE. RUSH FAMILY. 

Grass-like herbs. Flowers perfect, regular, inconspicuous; sepals and 
petals each 3, similar, scale-like. - Stamens 6 or 3, rarely 4 or 5; anthers 
introrse. Pistil of 3 united carpels; ovary 1- or 3-celled; stigmas 3. Fruit 
a loculicidal capsule. Seeds 3-many, often apiculate or tailed. 



150 JUNCACEAE 

Leaf-sheaths open; capsule 1-3-celled, with axile or parietal placentae; seeds many. 

1. JUNCUS. 
Leaf-sheaths closed; capsule 1-celled, with basal placentae; seeds 3. 2. JUNCOIDES. 

1. JUNCUS (Tourn.) L. RUSH, WIRE-GRASS. 

Caulescent or rarely scapose swamp plants, with glabrous leaves and stems. 
Leaves with laterally or vertically flattened, or terete leaf-blades, or the latter 
sometimes wanting; sheaths with free margins. Cymes paniculate, corymbi- 
form or capitate, flowers subtended by a bract and sometimes also by 2 bract- 
lets. Stamens 6 or 3. Capsule 1-celled or by the intrusion of the placentae 
3-celled. Seeds often tailed or apiculate, reticulate or ribbed, many. 

Lower bracts of the inflorescence terete, erect, appearing like a continuation of the 

stem; inflorescence therefore apparently lateral; stamens 6. 

Flowers several in a more or less compound panicle; seeds apiculate or acute; peren- 
nials with long rootstocks. I. EFFUSI. 
Flowers 1-5, of which one is subsessile and the others peduncled; seeds caudate, i. e., 

with white tails at each end ; densely cespitose perennials. II. SUBTRIFLORI. 

Lower bracts not appearing as a continuation of the stem, or if so, channeled on the 

upper side; inflorescence terminal. 
Leaves neither septate nor equitant. 
Leaves not flstulose. 
Flowers many. 

Flowers bracteolate, inserted singly on the branches of the inflorescence; 
leaves narrowly linear, either flat or subterete and channeled; 
stamens 6. 
Perennials, with short cespitose rootstocks; stems simple. 

III. TENUES. 

Annuals; stem branching; seed apiculate. IV. BUFONII. 

Flowers not bracteolate, in true heads on the branches of the inflorescence ; 
leaves flat, often grass-like; perennials with stoloniferous rootstocks. 

VI. GRAMINIFOLII. 

Flowers solitary on the scape; plant 2-3 cm. high. VII. UNCIALES. 

Leaves fistulose (i. e., hollow); flowers few in small heads; lower sheath bladeless; 

seeds caudate; stamens 6. V. CASTANEI. 

Leaves septate. 

Leaves terete, not equitant. 

Septa poorly developed; heads 1-3. V. CASTANEI. 

Septa well developed; heads usually several (in J. Mertensianus usually only 

one). VIII. NODOSI. 

Leaves equitant, laterally flattened so that one edge is towards the stem; seeds 

apiculate; perennials with creeping rootstocks. IX. ENSIFOLII. 

I. EFFUSI. 
Stem light green, striate when dry on account of the free hypodermal flbro- vascular 

bundles; sepals and petals green. 1. J. filiformis. 

Stem dark green or at the base purplish, not striate; sepals and petals brown. 

Stem terete; sheath naked or merely bristle-pointed; sepals and petals dark purplish 

brown. 

Inflorescence congested; branches 1-3 cm. long; petals and sepals acute or short- 
acuminate, almost equal in length. 2. J. ater. 
Inflorescence open; branches 4-7 cm. long; sepals long-acuminate, much exceed- 
ing the acute petals. 3. J. vallicola. 
Stem flattened; uppermost sheath often leaf-bearing; sepals and petals not very dark 
brown. 4. J. mexicanus. 

II. SUBTRIFLORI. 

Upper sheaths merely bristle-pointed ; petals and sepals with green backs and dark brown 

margins. 5. J. Drummondii. 

Upper sheaths leaf-bearing ; green backs of the petals and sepals less prominent. 
Sepals and petals linear-lanceolate, light brown; capsule acute. 6. J. Parryi. 
Sepals and petals broadly lanceolate, very dark brown; capsule retuse. 

7. J. Hallii. 

III. TENUES. 

Seeds long-caudate; leaves terete with a shallow groove above. 8. J. Vaseyi. 
Seeds apiculate, not caudate; leaves flat, but usually involute, lunate in section. 
Auricles at the summit of the sheaths membranous, whitish. 

Auricles scarcely produced beyond the insertion, scarcely scarious; petals and 

sepals scarcely spreading. 

Perianth 3-4 mm. long, equalling the capsule. 9. J. interior. 

Perianth 4.55 mm. long, exceeding the capsule. 10. J. arizonicus. 

Auricles conspicuously produced beyond the point of insertion. 

Capsule oblong, narrow, 3-celled, equalling the perianth or nearly so; sepals 

and petals erect or appressed. 

Stem stout; leaves short and broad (1.52 mm. wide) ; sepals and petals 4-5 
mm. long, scarious at the base only, stramineous; flowers in an open 
cyme. 11. J. brachyphyllus. 



RUSH FAMILY 151 

Stem slender; leaves narrow and long; sepals and petals 3.5-4 mm lone 
scarious to the apex, fuscous; flowers few, congested. 

12. J. confusus. 
Capsule ovate or oval, 1 -celled, three-fourths as long as the petals or less; 

petals and sepals spreading. 13. J, tennis. 

Auricles cartilaginous, yellowish brown; inflorescence greenish; capsule ovate; petals 
and sepals spreading. 14. J. Dudleyi 

IV. BUFONII. 

Capsule oblong to ovoid, trigonous, 3-4.5 mm. long, at maturity closely embraced by 
the ascending petals. 15. J. bufonius. 

Capsule subglobose or short-ovoid, 2-3 mm. long; petals and sepals at maturity loosely 
spreading, ascending, or squarrose. 16. J. sphaerocarpus. 

V. CASTANEI. 

Stem leafy only at the base, but the uppermost leaf often with a long sheath; perianth 

about 4 mm. long; leaves about 1 mm. in diameter; rootstock short, cespitose. 
Lowest bract of the inflorescence more or less membranaceous, spreading; capsule 

obtuse or mucronate. 17. J. triglumis. 

Lowest bract of the inflorescence foliaceous, erect; capsule deeply retuse. 

18. J. biglumis. 

Stem more or less leafy; leaves about 2 mm. in diameter; perianth 56 mm. long; root- 
stock longer, stoloniferous. 19. J. castaneus. 

VI. GRAMINIFOLII. 
Seeds caudate; ligules with lanceolate, acute auricles at the summit. 

Stem slender, 3-5 dm. high; leaves 5-20 cm. long; auricles about 1 mm. long. 

20. J. Regelii. 
Stem about 2 dm. high; leaves 3-6 cm. long, spreading; auricles of the ligules about 

2 mm. long. 21. J. Jonesii. 

Seeds not caudate; ligules with rounded auricles or none. 

Leaves long, erect; auricles present. 22. J. longistylis. 

Leaves short and broad, ascending, spreading; auricles none. 23. J. orthophyllus. 

VII. UNCIALES. 
One species. 24. J. uncialis. 

VIII. NODOSI. 

Stamens 6 ; seeds not caudate, or slightly so in J. Mertensianus and J. nevadensis; peren- 
nials with creeping rootstocks. 
Inflorescence with short branches; flowers echinate-spreading or the lowest of the 

heads reflexed; capsule narrowly lanceolate. 
Heads 7-10 mm. in diameter; leaf-blades erect; petals usually longer than the 

sepals. 25. J. nodosus. 

Heads 10-16 mm. in diameter; leaf-blades usually spreading; sepals longer than 

the petals. 26. J. Torreyi. 

Inflorescence with elongated branches; flowers erect-ascending; capsule oblong. 
Capsule shorter than or rarely equalling the acuminate sepals and petals. 
Flowers dark brown. 

Capsule acute. 27. J. nevadensis. 

Capsule truncate or obtuse. 

Heads several; leaves terete; seeds not caudate. 28. J. truncatus. 
Heads solitary, or rarely 2-3; leaves somewhat flattened; seeds often 

caudate. 29. J. Mertensianus. 

Flowers light brown or straw-colored. 36. J. columbianus. 

Capsule longer than the obtuse or acutish petals and sepals. 

31. J. Richardsonianus. 
Stamens 3; seeds long-caudate; perennials with cespitose rootstocks. 

32. J. Tweedyi. 

IX. ENSIFOLII. 

Styles long, exceeding the petals by 1 mm. in length. 33. J. Tracyi. 

Style slightly, if at all exceeding the petals. 

Flower-clusters numerous, small, 5-12-flowered, light colored. 

34. J. brunnescens. 
Flower-clusters few, 15-25-flowered. 

Flowers greenish or light brown; stamens 6; ligules of the sheaths usually without 

auricles. 35. J. parous. 

Flowers fuscous or very dark brown. 

Stamens 6; ligules of the sheaths usually produced into small auricles. 

36. J. saximontanus. 
Stamens 3 ; ligules without auricles. 37. J. ensifolius. 

1. J. filiformis L. Stem 1-5 dm. high, slender, 1-2 mm. thick; leaves 
basal and reduced to brown sheaths; inflorescence 6-10-flowered, open; sepals 
4-5 mm. long, lanceolate, acute, slightly exceeding the obtuse or acutish petals; 
capsule obovoid, green, about equalling the petals, 3-celled; seeds acute, but 
scarcely apiculate. In wet places : Greenl. Pa. Utah Wash. Alaska; Eurasia. 
Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

2. J. ater Rydb. Stem dark green, 2-6 dm. high, about 2 mm. thick; sheaths 
loose, dark brown; flowers 5-20; sepals and petals 5-6 mm. long; capsule ob- 



152 JUNCACEAE 

pyramidal, long-mucrpnate, 3-celled. J ' . balticus montanus Engelm. Mountain 
valleys: Alaska Calif. N.M. Neb.- Mont. Plain Subalp. Jl-Au. 

3. J. vallicola Rydb. Stem rather stout, 6-8 dm. high, terete, 2-4 mm. in 
diameter; sheaths at the base short, dark brown, bladeless; sepals narrowly 
lanceolate, slightly if at all scarious on the margin n, about 6 mm. long; petals 
broader and shorter, with broad scarious margins, about 5 mm. long; capsules 
short-ovoid, obtusish and mucronate, shorter than the petals. /. balticus valli- 
cola Rydb. Mountain valleys: B.C. Wash. Colo. Mont. Plain Submont. 
Je-Jl. 

4. J. mexicanus Willd. Stem usually twisted, 3-6 dm. high; sheaths 
brown, short, except the uppermost, with a blade resembling the stems; inflor- 
escence open; sepals light brown, 5-6 mm. long, lanceolate, longer than the 
scarious-margined petals; capsule ovate, triangular, mucronate, equalling the 
petals. J. corapressws H.B.K., not Jacq. Mountains: N.M. Utah Calif.; Mex. 
L. Son. My-Au. 

6. J. Drummondii E. Meyer. Stems 1-3 dm. high, slender; sheaths brown, 
short, striate, not inflated; blades reduced, bristle-like, 3-10 mm. (rarely 20 mm.) 
long; sepals lanceolate, attenuate, 7 mm. long; petals similar but usually slightly 
shorter; capsule oblong, triangular, obtuse, 3-celled. J. subtriflorus (E. Meyer) 
Coville. Mountain sides, especially in damp places: Alaska Calif. N.M. 
Alta. Mont. Alp. Jl-Au. 

6. J. Parryi Engelm. Stem 1-3 dm. high, terete, slender; sheaths brown, 
the upper with a sulcate blade 5-6 cm. (rarely 8 cm.) long; sepals 5-7 mm. long, 
longer than the acute, scarious-margined petals; capsule oblong, triangular, 
3-celled. Mountain sides: B.C. Calif. Colo. Mont. Mont. Alp. Jl-Au. 

7. J. Hallii Engelm. Stems slender, 2-3 dm. high, terete; sheaths brown; 
blades of the uppermost leaves 5-15 cm. long; sepals 4-5 mm. long, exceeding the 
similar petals; capsule dark brown, ovate, triangular, 3-celled, fully equalling 
the sepals. Mountains: Colo. Mont. Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

8. J. Vaseyi Engelm. Stems tall and stiff, 3-8 dm. high, terete; leaf-blades 
three-fourths as long as the stem; inflorescence 1-3.5 cm. long, with erect 2-4- 
flowered branches; sepals and petals 3.5-4 mm. long, green or straw-colored, 
lanceolate, erect, acute and narrowly scarious-margined; capsule oblong-cylin- 
dric, obtuse. Moist shores and wet woods: Me. la. -Colo. -Sask. Plain 
Mont. Je-Au. 

9. J. interior Wiegand. Stems tall, stout, 5>-10 dm. high, nearly terete, 
coarsely grooved; leaves several, with blades one-third as long as the stem, 1-1.25 
mm. wide; inflorescence large and open, 3-10 cm. long, many-flowered; sepals 
and petals 3-4 mm. long, nearly equal, lanceolate, very acute, narrowly scarious- 
margined, erect; capsule oblong, obtuse, imperfectly 3-celled. Dry woods and 
prairies: 111. Ark. Tex. N.M. Wyo. Plain Submont. My-Au. 

10. J. arizonicus Wiegand. Stem 4-7 dm. high, terete, or slightly com- 
pressed, grooved; leaf -blades one-third to one-half as long as the stem, 1 mm. 
wide; inflorescence many-flowered, 4-7 cm. long, with erect branches; sepals 
and petals 5 mm. long, lance-subulate, very acute, erect; capsule ovate-oblong, 
obtuse, triangular above, imperfectly 3-celled. Prairies and plains: Tex. 
Colo. Ariz. Son. Submont. Ap-Jl. 

11. J. brachyphyllus Wiegand. Stem stout, 4-5 dm. high, slightly com- 
pressed, grooved; leaf -blades short, one-fourth to one-third as long as the stem, 
broad and flat, 1.5-2 mm. wide; inflorescence short, many-flowered, 2-6 cm. long; 
sepals lanceolate, very acute, straw-colored; petals similar but scarious-mar- 
gined all around; capsule narrowly oblong, obtuse or retuse. Meadows: Ark. 
Okla. Ida. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

12. J. confusus Coville. Stem slender, 4-5 dm. high, light green, slightly 
grooved; leaf -blades filiform, two-thirds as long as the stem or less, flat or in- 
volute; sepals and petals lanceolate, acute, straw-colored, with dark stripes on 
each side, scarious-margined; capsule oblong, a little shorter than the petals, 
retuse. J. tennis congestus Engelm., in part. Meadows: B.C. n N.M. Neb. 
Sask. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 



RUSH FAMILY 153 

13. J. tenuis Willd. Stem 2-6 dm. high, spreading, slightly flattened, 
stnate; leaf -blades nearly as long as the stem, 1-1.25 mm. wide, flat, soft; in- 
florescence open, 1-7 cm. long, with the flowers near the end of the branches; 
petals and sepals 3-4.5 mm. long, lanceolate, very acute, green, with white 

scarious margins. Roadsides and meadows: Newf. Fla. -Tex. 'Mont. 

Ore. 'Wash. Plain Submont. My-S. 

14. J. Dudley! Wiegand. Stem 3-10 dm. high, stiff, erect, strongly striate; 
leaf-blades half as long as the stem or less, narrow, flat or involute; inflorescence 
small, dense, 2-5 cm. long; sepals and petals 4-5 mm. long, lanceolate, acute, 
yellowish green, with scarious margins; capsule ovoid, somewhat shorter than 
the petals, rounded and apiculate at the apex, imperfectly 3-celled. Damp 
places and meadows: Me. N.Y. N.M. Ariz. Wash. Alta.; Mex. Plain 
-Submont. My-Au. 

15. J. bufonius L. Stem 0.5-2 dm. (seldom 3 dm.) high; leaf-blades flat, 
0.25-1 mm. wide; flowers inserted singly on the branches; sepals 4-6 mm. long, 
narrowly lanceolate, subulate-attenuate, scarious-margined ; petals somewhat 
shorter, less attenuate; capsule shorter than the petals, obtuse, 3-celled. Wet 
places: Greenl. Fla. Calif. Alaska; Mex.; also Old World. PlainMont. 
Ap-S. 

16. J. sphaerocarpus Nees. Stem 0.5-2 dm. high; leaf -blades 0.5 mm. or 
less wide; sepals 3-4 mm. long, pale, lanceolate, acuminate, slightly longer than 
the petals, with broader scarious margins; capsule one-half to two-thirds as long 
as the petals, 3-celled. Wet places: Ore. Calif. Colo. Ida. Plain Sub- 
mont. Ap-Jl. 

17. J. triglumis L. Stem 5-15 cm. high, erect, terete, 1 mm. or less thick; 
blades terete, 1-7 cm. long; sepals and petals ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, brown, 
about 4 mm. long; capsule cylindric, trigonous, imperfectly 3-celled. Arctic- 
alpine regions: Greenl. n N.Y. N.M. 'Alaska; Eurasia. Subalp. -Alp. Jl- 
Au. 

18. J. biglumis L. Stem erect, subterete, 3-10 cm. (rarely 2 dm.) high; 
blades terete or nearly so, 2-7 cm. long, about 1 mm. thick; sepals and petals 
3 mm. long, oblong, rounded-obtuse, fuscous, with more greenish back; capsule 
trigono-cylindric, retuse, imperfectly 3-celled. Arctic-alpine regions: Greenl. 
B.C. -Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. Jl-Au. 

19. J. castaneus J. E. Smith. Stems erect, terete, 1-3 dm. high, more or 
less leafy; blades channeled, 3-10 cm. long, 1-2 mm. thick; sepals linear- 
lanceolate, about 5 mm. long, acute, chestnut-brown; petals obtuse; capsule ovate- 
prismatic, trigonous, acute, imperfectly 3-celled, almost black. Arctic-alpine 
regions: Greenl. Newf. N.M. Alaska; Eurasia. Subalp. Alp. Je-Au. 

20. J. Regelii Buch. Stem erect, terete or compressed, 2-5 dm. high, leafy, 
1-2 mm. thick; blades 5-20 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide, soft, many-nerved; inflores- 
cence consisting of 1-3 globose, several-flowered heads; bractlets scarious, broadly 
ovate, cuspidate; sepals 4-5 mm. long, lanceolate, acuminate, narrowly scarious- 
margined; petals ovate-lanceolate, acutish, broadly scarious-margined; capsule 
equalling the perianth, ovate, trigonous, obtuse, dark brown above. Mountain 
meadows: B.C. Wash. Utah- -Mont. Mont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

21. J. Jonesii Rydb. Stem about 2 dm. high, terete; leaf-blades 3-5 cm. 
long, about 2 mm. wide, spreading; inflorescence capitate, or rarely with a 
second head; sepals lanceolate, 5-6 mm. long, acute or cuspidate, green on the 
back, brown on the sides, and with narrow scarious margins; petals ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, with broad margins; capsule dark brown, ellipsoid, retuse and apicu- 
late. Mountain meadows: Utah. Mont. Au. 

22. J. longistylis Torr. Stem erect, slender, compressed, 3-5 cm. high, 
1-1.5 mm. thick; leaf-blades 1-2 mm. wide, 5-10 cm. long; inflorescence of 1-6 
heads; heads 5-12-flowered; sepals as in the preceding; petals broader, more 
obtuse and with broader margins; capsule shorter than the perianth, oblong, 
brown, trigonous above, obtuse. Meadows: Alta. S.D. N.M. Calif. 
Ore.; Mex. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 



154 JUNCACEAE 

23. J. orthophyllus Coville. Stem erect, 2.5-3 dm. high, compressed, 
1-1.5 mm. thick; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, flat, 4-5 mm. broad, many-nerved, 
those of the stem-leaves narrower; inflorescence of 2-6 heads; heads 8-10-flowered; 
sepals as in the preceding; petals broader, acutish, with broad margins; capsule 
slightly shorter than the petals, oblong, trigonous, obtuse, mucronate, imper- 
fectly 3-celled. J. longistylis latifolius Engelm. Mountains: Wash. 'Calif. 
Utah. Plain Submont. My-Au. 

24. J. uncialis Greene. Annual, 2-3 cm. high, branched near the base, 
glabrous; leaves basal, flat, somewhat fleshy, linear, acute, 3-8 mm. long; scapes 
1-flowered, with a single minute bract; sepals and petals oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
hyaline, with a purplish or greenish midrib, about 1.5 mm. long*; capsule obtuse, 
slightly shorter; seeds apiculate. (?) J. triformis uniflorus Engelm. Wet places: 
Wash. Utah Calif. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

25. J. nodosus L. Stem 1.5-6 dm. high, erect, terete or somewhat com- 
pressed, leafy; leaf -blades erect, 0.5-1 mm. thick, terete, 5-15 cm. long, septate; 
heads 1-30, 8-20-flowered; sepals 2.5-3.5 mm. long, lanceolate, subulate; petals 
similar but slightly longer; capsule lanceolate-subulate, 3-gonous, 1-celled, straw- 
colored, exceeding the perianth. Wet soil: N.S. Va. N.M. Nev. 'B.C. 
Mack. Plain -Submont. Jl-S. 

26. J. Torreyi Coville. Stem stout, 3-9 dm. high, 2-4 mm. thick, leafy; 
leaf -blades 1-3 mm. thick, terete, septate; heads 1-20, congested, 30-80-flowered ; 
sepals and petals lance-subulate, about 5 mm. long; capsule subulate, 3-gonous, 
1-celled. J. nodosus megacephalus Torr. Wet places, especially in sandy soil: 
w N.Y. Miss. Calif. PlainMont. Jl-S. 

27. J. nevadensis S. Wats. Stem slender, erect, somewhat compressed, 
2-4 dm. high, about 1 mm. thick; leaf-blades nearly terete, 0.5-1.5 mm. thick, 
septate; heads 2-11, 3-10-flowered ; petals and sepals lanceolate, acute or mucron- 
ate, dark brown, with membranous margins; capsule slightly shorter than the 
perianth, brown above, acute. J. phaeocephalus gracilis Engelm. In meadows: 
B.C. Calif. Wyo. (? Colo.) Mont. Submont. Mont. Je-S. 

28. J. truncatus Rydb. Stems slender, 3-5 dm. high, terete or slightly 
flattened; leaves 1-3 dm. long, 1-2 mm. thick, septate; inflorescence open, 2-5 
cm. long, irregularly cymose, with 4-10 heads; heads 6-9 mm. in diameter, 5-10- 
flowered; petals and sepals lanceolate, dark brown, about 3 mm. long, acuminate, 
longer than the capsule. J. alpinus insignis Coult., in part. J. Mertensianus 
Auth., not Engelm. (?) J. badius Suskd. Mountain meadows: N.M. Wyo. 
Ida. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

29. J. Mertensianus Bong. Stem erect, slender, 1-3 dm. high, 1-1.5 mm. 
thick; leaf-blades about 1 mm. thick; inflorescence capitate, rarely with 2-3 
heads; head 10-12 mm. thick, 10-25-flowered; sepals and petals lanceolate, acute, 
almost black, the latter distinctly scarious-margined ; capsule scarcely equalling 
the perianth, 3-gonous, obovate, 1-celled, dark brown above. Wet meadows: 
Alaska Calif. N.M. Alta. Mont.Subalp. Jl-Au. 

30. J. columbianus Coville. Stem 2-7 dm. high, terete, 1.5-2 mm. thick; 
leaf -blades terete, 1-2 dm. long, inconspicuously septate, erect; inflorescence of 
4-8 (rarely up to 20) heads; sepals and petals lanceolate, cuspidate, straw-colored 
or brownish, 3-3.5 mm. long; capsule equalling the perianth or a little shorter, 
oblong, acute or beaked. Meadows: Wash. Ore. Mont. Submont. My-Jl. 

31. J. Richardsonianus Schult. Stem erect, 1.5-5 dm. high; blades terete 
or slightly compressed, septate, 0.5-1 mm. thick; inflorescence with 5-25 heads, 
which are 4-6 mm. thick, 3-12-flowered; sepals 2-2.5 mm. long, pale greenish, 
acutish; petals oblong, acute; capsule ovoid-oblong, slightly exceeding the 
perianth. J. alpinus insignis Fries. In wet soil: N.S. -Pa. Neb. Wash. 
Alaska. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

32. J. Tweedyi Rydb. Stem strict, about 3 dm. high, light green, 2-3 mm. 
thick; leaf -blades about 1 dm. long, terete or somewhat flattened, septate; in- 
florescence of 4-10 heads in^a contracted panicle; heads 5-8-flowered; sepals and 



RUSH FAMILY 155 

petals 4 mm. long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, light brown; capsule dark 
brown, oblong, acute, 3-angled, about one-fourth longer than the perianth / 
canadensis coarctatus Coulter, not Engelm. J. canadensis Kuntzei Buch Bogs 
and wet meadows: Mont. Wyo. Utah. Submont. Mont. Jl. 

33. J. Tracyi Rydb. Stem stout, 3-6 dm. high, compressed; blades 5-20 
cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; sheaths with a scarious margin which usually is pro- 
duced into a very short auricle; inflorescence of 5-9 heads; these about 1 cm. in 
diameter; sepals and petals lanceolate, acute, light brown, 3-4 mm. long, slightly 
scarious-margined; capsule oblong, mucronate, shorter than the perianth im- 
perfectly 3-celled. Meadows: Utah Nev. Ida. Submont. Jl-O. 

34. J. brunnescens Rydb. Stem 4-6 dm. high, more or less winged; leaves 
1-2.5 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide; sheaths with scarious margins, abruptly contracted 
above, but scarcely auricled; panicle open, 5-10 cm. long, with '10-60 small 
heads; petals and sepals subequal, lanceolate, acuminate, about 3 mm. long, 
light brown, with green midrib; capsule lance-ovoid, acute. Mountain meadows: 
Colo. N.M. Ariz. Nev. Submont. Je-Jl. 

35. J. parous Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high, distinctly winged; leaves 2-3 dm. 
long, 3-5 mm. wide; petals and sepals lanceolate, sharply acuminate, subequal, 
light brown or greenish on the back; capsule oblong, acute, shorter than the 
petals. Mountain meadows: Colo. N.M. Submont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

36. J. saximontanus A. Nels. Stem winged, 2-5 dm. high; leaf-blades 
3-20 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; inflorescence of 2-15 heads; these about 1 cm. 
thick; sepals and petals lanceolate, acuminate, about 3 mm. long, dark brown; 
capsule oblong, mucronate, a little shorter than the perianth, dark brown. J. 
xiphioides montanus Engelm. Meadows and wet places: B.C. Calif. N.M. 
Alta. Submont Mont. Je-S. 

37. J. ensifolius Wikstr. Stem erect, 3-6 dm. high, winged; leaf-blades 
more or less falcate, 5-30 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide; heads about 1 cm. thick, 
about 25-flowered; sepals and petals dark brown, lanceolate, acuminate, about 
3 mm. long; capsule oblong, acute, often slightly exceeding the perianth, 3- 
gonous. J. xiphiodes triandrus Engelm. Meadows and wet places: Alaska 
Calif. Utah Alta. Submont. Je-Au. 

2. JUNCOIDES (Dill.) Adans. WOOD-RUSH. 

Perennial caulescent herbs, with rootstocks, glabrous or sparingly pubescent. 
Leaf -sheaths closed; blades grass-like. Inflorescence umbel-like, capitate or 
spike-like. Flowers always subtended by usually lacerate or dentate bractlets. 
Stamens 6. Capsule 1-celled; ovules and seeds 3, basal. Seeds reticulate, 
sometimes apiculate but never tailed. [Luzula DC.] 

Flowers on slender pedicels in a corymbiform inflorescence. 
Petals and sepals 1.5-2 mm. long. 

Flowers and capsule pale green; leaves thin, shining; seeds brown, ellips9id. 

1. J. parviflorum. 
Flowers and capsule dark brown; leaves thick, dull; seeds yellow, constricted at 

each end. 2. J. Piperi. 

Petals and sepals 3-3.5 mm. long. 3. J. glabratum. 

Flowers subsessile in head-like or spike-like clusters. 

Blades at least of the lower leaves flat, not attenuate into a subulate tip. 
Spikelets peduncled, forming a corymb. 

Flowers light yellow. 4. J. comosum. 

Flowers brown or ferruginous. 5. J. intermedium. 

Spikelets subsessile, forming a compound spike. 

Plant tall, 4-5 dm. high; inflorescence subcapitate; stem-leaves broad and flat; 
bractlets not ciliate. 6. J. subcapitatum. 

Plant 1-2, dm. rarely 4 dm. high. 

Bractlets ciliate; spike usually elongate and often nodding: stem-leaves 

narrow, attenuate. 7. J. spicatum. 

Bractlets lacerate, not ciliate; spike short, capitate. 8. J. arcticum. 
Blades of the leaves attenuate into subulate, almost pungent tips. 

Spikelets many-flowered; the lower on suberect or ascending peduncles; leaves 

erect. 9. / hyperboreum. 

Spikelets few-flowered on arcuate-spreading peduncles; leaves arcuate-spreading. 

10. J. arcuatum. 



156 JUNCACEAE 

1. J. parviflorum (Ehrh.) Coville. Stem erect, terete, 3-5 dm. high; leaf- 
blades broadly linear, 5-15 cm. long, 5-12 mm. wide, glabrous except the mouth 
of the sheath; flowers singly or rarely 2 or 3 together; sepals and petals lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, acute; capsule ovate, 3-gonous, obtuse, exerted. Luzula 
spadicea parviflora E. Meyer. Meadows, hillsides, and thickets: Greenl. N.Y. 
N.M. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Mont Subalp. My-S. 

2. J. Piperi Coville. Stem erect, 1-3.5 dm. high; leaves mostly basal, 
lance-linear, 2-4 mm. wide, glabrous except a few long hairs on the sheaths and 
margins; inflorescence 5-8 cm. long, nodding, diffuse; flowers solitary on the 
branches, rarely 2 or 3 together; sepals and petals about 1.5 mm. long, ovate, 
acuminate; capsule ovate, acute, exserted. Sandy moraines : Wash. Mont. Ore. 
Alp. Subalp. Jl-S. 

3. J. glabratum (Hoppe) Sheld. Stems erect or ascending, terete, 2-5 dm. 
high; leaf-blades broadly linear to lanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, 
glabrous; inflorescence open, ovoid, with branches often divaricate; flowers 
mostly singly; sepals and petals dark brown, lanceolate, acute; capsule almost 
black, ovate, acute, equalling the perianth. Luzula glabrata (Hoppe) Desv. 
Hillsides and mountains: Alaska Wash. -Ida. Mont.; Eu. Mont. Subalp. 
Jl-Au. 

4. J. comosum (E.Meyer) Sheld. Stem erect or ascending, 1-4 dm. high; 
leaves numerous, pale green; blades linear, 3-10 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, glab- 
rous; heads oblong, 6-7 mm. thick; sepals and petals lanceolate, yellowish brown, 
acuminate, about 3 mm. long, slightly exceeding the ellipsoid or subglobose 
capsule. L. comosa E. Meyer. Woods and copses: Alaska Calif. Colo. 
Mont. Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

5. J. intermedium (Thuill.) Rydb. Stem slender, 2-5 dm. high; leaf-blades 
5-10 cm. long, 1-4 mm. wide; inflorescence with erect or strongly ascending 
branches; heads 4-10, globose or oval, about 6 mm. thick, 8-16-flowered; sepals 
and petals 2.5-3 mm. long, lanceolate, mucronate, brown or reddish, with paler 
margins; capsule obovate, 3-gonous, obtuse or retuse, nearly equalling [the peri- 
anth. L. campestris multiflora Celak. Hills and mountains: Greenl. N.Y. 
N.M. Calif. B.C. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

6. J. subcapitatum Rydb. Stem 3-4 dm. high, glabrous; leaf -blades 
lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 4-10 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide; inflorescence 
compact, consisting of 6-10 heads, conglomerate and forming an irregular head; 
sepals and petals subequal, 1.5-2 mm. long, ovate, acuminate, dark brown, but 
lighter on the midrib; capsule broadly obovoid, obtuse, shorter than the petals. 
Mountains: Silver Plume, Colo. Subalp. Au. 

7. J. spicatum (L.) Kuntze. Stem 1-3 dm. high, erect; leaf -blades 4-6 
cm. (rarely up to 12 cm.) long, 1-3 mm. wide; in florescence spike-like, usually 
nodding; sepals and petals 2-3 mm. long, lanceolate, aristate-acuminate; capsule 
broadly ovoid, acute, about two-thirds as long as the perianth. L. spicata DC. 
Hills and mountain sides: Greenl. N.H. N.M. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. 
Mont. Alp. Jl-Au. 

8. J. arcticum (Blytt) Coville. Stem erect, 5-10 cm. high, terete, slender; 
leaf-blades glabrous, 3-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; inflorescence spicate, erect, 
small; sepals and petals 1.5-2 mm. long, lanceolate, fuscous; capsule ovate, 3- 
gonous, exceeding the perianth. /. nivalis Coville, not L. nivalis Laest. 
L. arctica Blyth. L. hyperborea minor Hook. Arctic-alpine regions: Greenl. 
Canadian Rockies Alaska; Scandinavia and Spitzbergen. Alp. Jl-Au. 

9. J. hyperboreum (R. Br.) Sheld. Stem 1-2 dm. high, erect; leaf-blades 
narrow, 5-10 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; inflorescence of a single erect head, or if 
heads 2-3, the lowest erect and the upper sometimes nodding; sepals and petals 
lanceolate, acute, brown, 2-2.5 mm. long; capsule about three-fourths as long as 
the perianth, 3-gonous, globose or ovate. L. hyperborea R. Br. Alpine-arctic 
regions: Greenl. N.H. Canadian Rockies Alaska; Eu. Alp. Jl-Au. 

10. J. arcuatum (Wahl.) Kuntze. Stem slender, about 1 dm. hrgh; leaf- 
blades 3-8 cm. long, narrow, 1-1.5 mm. wide, often curved; inflorescence of 2-10 



RUSH FAMILY 157 

(rarely more) heads; the lower on slender curved peduncles; heads small, 3-5 
mm. thick; sepals and petals elongated-lanceolate, about 2.5 mm. long, dark 
brown; capsule 3-gonous, globose, mucronate, shorter than the perianth. Arc- 
tic-alpine regions: Greenl. Canadian Rockies B.C. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp 
Jl-Au. 

Family 20. ALLIACEAE. ONION FAMILY. 

Perennial scapose herbs, with bulbs or corms and narrow basal leaves. 
Flowers in terminal umbels subtended by or enveloped in a scarious in- 
volucre. Sepals and petals each 3, very similar, corolla-like, usually mem- 
branous. Stamens 6. Pistil of 3 united carpels; ovary superior, 3-celled; 
styles united. Fruit a loculicidal, 3-celled capsule. 

Perianth-segments distinct or nearly so; style articulate to the 3-lobed capsule ; bracts 

broad, spathaceous. 1. ALLIUM. 

Perianth-segments united into a tube, with adnate filaments; style not articulate to the 

capsule; bracts not spathaceous, distinct. 

Filaments not united into a tube; pedicels articulate; capsule ovate or oblong. 
Filaments apparently in one series. 

Filaments opposite to the petals wing-appendaged at the base; anthers basi- 

fixed; flowers subcapitate. 2. DIPTEROSTEMON. 

Filaments all deltoid; anthers versatile; flowers umbellate. 

3. HESPEROSCORDION. 
Filaments hi two series; the inner adnate to the free part of the petals; anthers 

versatile. 4. TRITILEIA. 

Filaments united into a tube; pedicels not articulate; capsule triquetrous, subglobose. 

5. ANDROSTEPHIUM. 

1. ALLIUM (Tourn.) L. ONION, GARLIC, LEEK, CHIVES. 

Perennial bulbous plants, with a characteristic alliaceous smell. Bracts 
scarious, more or less connate. Petals and sepals free or slightly united at the 
base. Stamens adnate to the bases of the petals and sepals; anthers introrse. 
Ovary sessile, 3-celled; style filiform, usually deciduous; stigmas minute; ovules 
1-6 in each cell. 
Bulb crowning a persistent rootstock; outer coat more or less fibrous. 

Leaves terete and hollow; umbels dense, subcapitate. 1. A. sibiricum. 

Leaves flat or channeled, not hollow. 

Umbels rarely nodding; petals and sepals long-acuminate ; capsule not crested. 
Stamens and styles exserted. 2. A. validum. 

Stamens and styles included, half as long as the petals. 3. A. brevistylum.L-^' 
Umbels nodding; petals and sepals obtuse or acute; capsule 6-crested; stamens 

and style exserted. 
Leaves rounded-convex on the back, not keeled, lunate in cross-section. 

4. A. recurvatum t 

Leaves almost flat or keeled, somewhat broadly V-shaped in cross-section. 
Umbels many-flowered; leaves 3-5 mm. wide. 5. A.cernuum. 

Umbels few-flowered; leaves less than 3 mm. wide. 6. A. neo-mexicanum. 
Bulbs without a rootstock. 
Outer bulb-coat fibrous. 

Umbels bulblet- bearing ; flowers few or sometimes none. 

Capsule with 6 rounded crests. 7. A. fibrosum. 

Capsule not crested. 

Petals and sepals ovate. 8. A. rubrum. 

Petals and sepals oblong-lanceolate. 9. A. canadense. 

Umbels not bulblet-bearing. 

Capsule not crested; involucre usually 3-leaved. 

Petals and sepals with a thick rounded keel. 10. A. aridum. 

Petals and sepals not thickened on the back. 11. A. Nuttallii. 

Capsule crested. 

Petals and sepals more than 1 cm. long; peduncles often 2 or 3; sheaths 
loose; bracts 3. 12. A. macropetalum. 

Petals and sepals less than 1 cm. long; peduncles solitary; sheaths close. 
Bracts broadly ovate, usually 2, in flowers not reflexed; flowers white 

or light rose; several layers of the bulb-coat fibrous. 
Plant 1-3 dm. high; pedicels 8-12 mm. long; petals and sepals 

about 5 mm. long. 13. A. textile. 

Plant 2-6 dm. high; pedicels 12-25 mm. long; petals and sepals 

6-8 mm. long. 14. A. Geyen. 

Bracts lanceolate, usually 3, soon reflexed; only outer bulb-coat fibrous; 

flowers red-purple. 15. A. Pikeanum. 

Outer bulb-coat not fibrous, but often more or less reticulate. 
Petals more or less serrulate or denticulate on the margins. 

Petals and sepals acuminate, the former serrulate near the apex. 

Petals and sepals long-acuminate, one-half longer than the stamens. 

16. A. acuminatum. 



158 ALLIACEAE 

Petals and sepals abruptly acuminate, only slightly longer than the sta- 
mens. 17. A. cuspidatum. 
Petals and sepals obtuse, delicately denticulate below with spreading papillae. 

18. A. simillimum. 
Petals entire, neither serrulate nor denticulate. 

Ovary and capsule crestless or indistinctly 3-crested. 
Petals and sepals obtuse or barely acutish. 

Leaves much longer than the scape. 18. A. simillimum. 

Leaves shorter than the scape. 19. A. scillioides. 

Petals and sepals acute or acuminate. 

Stamens exserted. 20. A. incisum. 

Stamens included. 

Reticulations of the bulb-coat irregular, narrow, with curved sides; 

the outer coat in age becoming flmbrillate. 20v\4. fibrillum. 
Reticulations of the bulb-coat trapezoid, or elongated pent- or hex- 
agonal; the sides not strongly curved; no fimbrillae. 
Sepals and petals neither gibbous at the base, nor keeled on the 

back. 
Involucres 3-leaved; petals and sepals little exceeding the 

stamens. 22. A. tribracteatum. 

Involucres 2-leaved; petals and sepals at least half longer 

than the stamens. 
Petals and sepals half longer than the stamens; pedicels 

8-15 mm. long. 23. A. Diehlii. 

Petals and sepals twice as long as the stamens ; pedicels 

about 4 mm. long. 24. A. minimum. 

Sepals and petals gibbous at the base and more or less keeled 

on the back below. 
Scape flattened; leaf-blades 5-8 mm. wide. 

Scape much exceeding the leaves in length; stamens 
about equalling the petals and sepals. 

25. A. Douglassii. 
Scape low, often exceeded by the leaves; stamens much 

shorter than the petals and sepals. 
Stamens two-thirds as long as the sepals; capsule 

scarcely crested. 26. A. Tolmiei. 

Stamens half as long as the sepals; capsules with 3 

small crests. 27. A. Cusickii. 

Scape not flattened; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide. 

Petals about twice as long as the stamens; capsule not 

crested. 28. A. Brandegei. 

Petals barely exceeding the stamens; capsule with minute 

thick crests. 29. A. Nivii. 

Ovary and capsule distinctly 6-crested. 

Stamens and styles exserted; petals and sepals acute or obtuse. 

30. A. stellatum. 
Stamens and styles not exserted; petals and sepals acuminate. 

Leaves more than one. 

Reticulations of the bulb-coats sinuate; leaves shorter than the 

scape. 
Bulb-coat thin, faintly reticulate; leaves 4-10 mm. wide. 

31. A. bisceptum. 
Bulb-coat thick, strongly reticulate; leaves 1-3 mm. wide. 

32. A. Palmeri. 
Reticulations of the bulb-coats straight; leaves longer than the 

scapes. 33. A. pleianthum. 

Leaves solitary, longer than the scape. 

Petals and sepals long-acuminate, nearly twice as long as the 

stamens. 34. A. cristatum. 

Petals and sepals acute or short-acuminate, slightly longer than 
the stamens. 35. A. nevadense. 

1. A. sibiricum L. Bulb small, oblong-ovoid, often oblique, about 1 cm- 
thick; scapes 3-6 dm. high; leaf -blades 6-20 cm. long; bracts usually 2, ovate, 
about 2 cm. long; petals and sepals bright rose-colored, with dark midrib, fully 
1 cm. long, lanceolate, acuminate; stamens included; capsule not crested. Rich 
soil: Me. N.Y. Colo. Ore. Alaska; Asia. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

2. A. validum S. Wats. Bulb 2-4 cm. thick; scape 3-7 dm. high, stout; 
leaves 2-4 dm. long, 4-12 mm. wide; bracts 2-4, ovate, about 1.5 cm. long; 
sepals and petals dark rose-colored, 7-8 mm. long; capsule subglobose. Meadows: 
Wash. Ida. Nev. Calif. Mont. Jl-Au. 

3. A. brevistylum S. Wats. Bulbs obliquely elongate, lance-ovoid, 1-3 
cm. thick; scape 3-6 dm. high, stout; leaf-blades 1.5-3 dm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, 
flat; bracts usually solitary, ovate, 1.5-2 cm. long; sepals and petals dark rose, 
lanceolate, 8-10 mm. long. Rich meadows and open woods: Mont. Colo. 
Utah. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 



ONION FAMILY 159 

4. A. recurvatum Rydb. Bulb oblong-ovoid, 1-1.5 cm. thick; scape 
slender, 3-5 dm. high, almost terete; leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, 1-3 mm. wide, 
thick; involucre 2-leaved, almost 2 cm. long; petals and sepals elliptic-ovate', 
obtuse, 5 mm. long, rose, with darker midvein. A. cernuum obtusum Cockerell. 
Dry hills and mountain-sides. Alta. S.D. N.M. B.C. Plain Mont. My- 
Au. 

6. A. cernuum Roth. Bulb lance-ovoid, 1-2 cm. thick, often purplish; 
scape 3-6 dm. high, stout; leaf -blades 1-2 dm. long, 3-7 mm. wide, rather thin; 
involucre 2-leaved, rarely more than 1 cm. long; petals and sepals light pink or 
white, with faint midrib, otherwise as in the preceding. On banks and hillsides: 
N.Y. W.Va. Colo. Wash. Sask. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

6. A. neomexicanum Rydb. Bulb oblong-ovoid, 1-2 cm. thick; coats 
membranous, only the outer slightly fibrous; scape 3-4 dm. high, slender, terete; 
leaf-blades narrow, 1-2 mm. wide, almost flat, slightly keeled; involucres very 
small, scarcely more than 5 mm. long; petals and sepals oblong-ovate, nearly 
white, with very faint midrib. Dry mountains: s Colo. N.M. Ariz. Sub- 
mont. Au-O. 

7. A. fibrosum Rydb. Bulb ovoid, about 1.5 cm. thick; scape 2-3 dm. 
high, striate, slender; leaf-blades flat, thick, 3 mm. wide, 1-1.5 dm. long; bracts 
2, ovate, about 1 cm. long: petals and sepals lance-oblong, obtuse, 6 mm. long. A. 
Geyeri M. E. Jones, not S. Wats. Mountain sides and meadows: Mont. Wyo. 
Ida. (? B.C.) Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

8. A. rubrum Osterhout. Bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm. thick; scape 2-3 dm. 
high, terete; leaf -blades 7 mm. wide or less, concave; involucre 3-leaved; petals 
and sepals ovate, obtuse, 6-7 mm. long, with strong midrib; stamens and styles 
equalling the petals. In pastures and meadows: Colo. s Wyo. Submont. 
My-Jl. 

9. A. canadense L. Bulbs ovoid, 1-2 cm. thick; scape 2-6 dm. high, 
stout; leaf -blades 1-5 dm. long, 3-8 mm. wide, rounded on the back; involucre 
2- or 3-leaved; petals and sepals obtuse, pink or white, 4-6 mm. long; filaments 
as long as the petals. In meadows and fields: Me. Fla. La. Colo. Minn. 
Plain. My-Je. 

10. A. aridum Rydb. Bulbs ovoid, about 1 cm. thick, usually 2-4 together; 
scape 1-1.5 dm. high, slender, striate; leaf -blades about 1-1.5 dm. long, often 
equalling or surpassing the scape, about 2 mm. wide, channeled; bracts ovate, 

1 cm. long or less; sepals and petals about 6 mm. long, lance-ovate, acute; fila- 
ments and style shorter than the petals. Dry hills in hard clay: Wyo. Plain. 
Je-Jl. 

11. A. Nuttallii S. Wats. Bulb solitary, ovoid, about 1.5 cm. thick; scape 
1-3 dm. high; leaves 2-3 mm. wide, 1-1.5 dm. long; bracts 1-1.5 cm. long; petals 
and sepals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, rose or white, 4-6 mm. 
long; stamens shorter than the petals. Plains and prairies: S.D. Kans.- Ariz. 
Ida. Plain. My-Je. 

12. A. macropetalum Rydb. Bulb ovoid, solitary, about 2 cm. thick; 
leaf -blades about 2 dm. long, almost equalling the scapes, 2-4 mm. wide; scapes 

2 dm. high or more, stout, 3-4 mm. thick; bracts about 2 cm. long; petals and 
sepals lanceolate, long-attenuate, white, with a purple or pink midrib; capsule 
with 6 conspicuous oblong crests. Mountains: Colo. N.M. Submont. Ap- 
My. 

13. A. textile Nels. & Macb. Bulbs usually solitary, ovoid, 1-2 cm. thick; 
scape slender, terete, 1-3 dm. high; leaf -blades '2-4 mm. wide, 1-1.5 dm. long; 
bracts fully 1 cm. long; petals and sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 
4-6 mm. long; capsule with 6 small rounded crests. A. reticulatum Fraser, not 
Presl. Plains and dry hills: Sask. N.M. Ariz .Alta. Plain Submont. 
Ap-S. 

14. A. Geyeri S. Wats. Bulbs usually solitary, ovoid, 1.5-2.5 cm. thick; 
scape 3-6 dm. high, rather stout; leaf-blades 2-4 mm. wide, 1-2 dm. long; bracts 
1.5 cm. long or more; petals and sepals pink or white, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 



160 ALLIACEAE 

6-8 mm. long; capsule with 6 rather prominent crests. A. reticulatum deserticola 
M. E. Jones. A. deserticola Woot. & Standl. A. dictyotum Greene. Plains and 
valleys: Wash. Ariz. N.M.S.D. Mont. Plain Mont. My-S. 

15. A. Pikeanum Rydb. Bulb obliquely ovoid, about 1.5 cm. long and 
8-10 mm. thick; scape 8-15 cm. long, almost equalled by the narrowly linear 
leaves; bracts 8-10 mm. long; petals and sepals subequal, ovate, acuminate, 
red-purple; capsule slightly crested above. Mountains: Pike's Peak and vicin- 
ity, Colo. Subalp.Alp. Jl-Au. 

16. A. acuminatum Hook. Bulbs solitary, nearly spherical, 1-1.5 cm. 
thick; outer coat rather thick, pitted, the 4-6-angled reticulations being very 
thick and raised; scapes 1-3 dm. high; bracts 2, 1-1.5 cm. long; flowers 12-30; 
sepals dark rose or reddish purple, ovate-lanceolate, keeled on the back and gib- 
bous at the base, 8-12 mm. long; petals similar but slightly shorter. Rich soil, 
prairies and rocky hillsides: B.C. Calif. Ariz. Colo. Mont. Submont. 
My-Jl. 

17. A. cuspidatum (Fern.) Rydb. Bulb solitary, nearly globose, 1.5-2 cm. 
thick; outer coat thick; reticulations similar to those of the preceding, but less 
prominent; scape 2-3 dm. high, slender; leaf -blades less than 1 dm. long, 2 mm. 
wide or less; sepals and petals more oblong and abruptly acuminate than in the 
preceding. A. acuminatum cuspidatum Fern. Rocky hillsides : e Wash. w Ida. 
Submont. Ap-Jl. 

18. A. simillimum Henderson. Bulbs ovate, nearly 1 cm. thick; reticula- 
tions of the coat rectangular-hexagonal; scape 2.5-3 cm. high, flattened and 
winged; leaf-blades 2, 8-9 cm. long, 1 mm. wide, falcate; bracts 2; flowers 6^9; 
sepals and petals narrowly oblong, pinkish white, with a strong green midvein ; 
ovary slightly 3-crested. Open loose soil among rocks: Ida. Mont. Jl. 

19. A. scillioides Dougl. Bulb globose, about 1 cm. thick, dark purplish 
brown; coat thin; reticulations fine and rectangular or square; scape about 2 
dm. high; bracts 2, lanceolate, acuminate, fully 1 cm. long; leaves 1 or 2, about 
15 cm. long, 2 mm. wide; sepals and petals ovate, about 7 mm. long; the former 
saccate at base; capsule slightly 3-ridged at the apex. Dry grounds: B.C. Ida. 
Ore. Submont. Je-Au. 

20. A. incisum Nels. & Macb. Bulb 1-1.5 cm. thick; outer coat brown or 
pinkish, obscurely reticulate; scape 5-8 cm. high, 1.5-2.5 mm. broad, narrowly 
winged; leaves 3-5 mm. wide, slightly falcate, exceeding the scape; bracts 2- 
several or the bracts cleft to the base; flowers many; pedicels 1-2 cm. long; 
petals and sepals white, narrowly lanceolate, acute; capsule very obscurely 
crested. Barren clayey ground: Ida. Je. 

21. A. fibrillum M. E. Jones. Bulb nearly spherical, 1-1.5 cm. thick; 
leaves 2 or 3, 1-1.5 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; bracts 2, ovate, fully 1 cm. long; 
sepals ovate, acute, 6-8 mm. long; petals narrower, lanceolate; capsule slightly 
ridged. A. coUinum Dougl., not Guss. Mountains: Wash. Ore. Ida. w 
Mont. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

22. A. tribracteatum Torr. Bulb ovoid or nearly globose, about 1 cm. 
thick; reticulations transversely rectangular; scape 3-5 cm. high, surpassed by 
the leaves; leaf-blades usually 2, 4-10 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide; sepals and petals 
oblong, acutish, with a purple midrib; capsule not crested. Mountains: Ore. 
Calif Utah (? Colo.) Son. Ap. 

23. A. Diehlii M. E. Jones. Bulb nearly globose; outer coat dark red; 
reticulations rectangular to linear-rectangular; scapes 5-7 cm. high; leaves 2; 
blades 1-1.5 dm. long and about 4 mm. wide; bracts about 12 mm. long; sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; petals narrower; capsule spongy- and sulcate- 
crested, the crests not evident in fruit. A. tribracteatum Diehlii M. E. Jones. 
Mountains: Utah. Mont. My. 

24. A. minimum M. E. Jones. Bulb small, ovate, about 8 mm. thick; 
outer coat very thin and membranous, the inner red; reticulations irregularly 
rectangular; scapes 7-10 cm. high; leaves 2; bracts 6 mm. long; flowers about 
10; sepals and petals ovate, barely acute, 4 mm. long, white, with green ribs 



ONION FAMILY 161 

below; capsule depressed-globose, crestless. Summits: Cuddy Mountains, Ida. 
Alp. Jl. 

26. A. Douglasii Hook. Bulb ovoid, 1.5-2 cm. thick; coats thin; reticula- 
tions obsolete; scape about 3 dm. high; bracts 2, ovate, acuminate, 1.5-2 cm. 
long; leaf -blades 1-1.5 dm. long, falcate; sepals and petals rose-colored, 6-8 mm. 
long, lanceolate, acuminate; capsule not crested. A. Hendersonii Robins. & 
Seat. Hillsides and clay-banks. Wash. Ore. Ida. Submont. Je. 

26. A. Tolmiei Baker. Bulb ovoid, about 2 cm. thick or less; reticulations 
obsolete; scape 5-10 cm. high; leaf -blades 2, 1-1.5 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide; 
bracts 2, nearly 2 cm. long; flowers 20-30; sepals and petals pink with darker 
veins, about 8 mm. long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate. A. anceps aberrans 
M. E. Jones. Arid places: Wash. Ida. Utah. Plain Submont. Ap-Je. 

27. A. Cusickii S. Wats. Bulb rounded-ovate, 1-1.5 cm. thick; reticula- 
tions faint, rectangular; scape 5-10 cm. high; leaves 2, blades 1-1.5 dm. long, 
4-7 mm. wide; bracts ovate, acuminate; flowers rather many; sepals and petals 
pink, with darker veins, long-attenuate, 6-10 mm. long. Valleys and mountain 
sides: Ore. Ida. Plain Mont. My-Jl. 

28. A. Brandegei S. Wats. Bulb globose-ovoid, about 1 cm. thick; outer 
coat very thin, inner ones purplish; reticulations transversely rectangular; scape 
less than 1 dm. high, often surpassed by the leaves; leaf-blades 2, about 1 dm. 
long; bracts 2; sepals and petals rose-colored, broadly lanceolate, acuminate, 6-8 
mm. long. Mountains: Ore. Utah Colo. Ida. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

29. A. Nivii S. Wats. Bulb globose; coat white or reddish; reticulations 
transversely rectangular; scape 1.5-2 cm. high, longer than the leaves; leaf- 
blades narrow; bracts 2; sepals and petals light rose-colored, lanceolate, acum- 
inate, 6 mm. long. Arid places: Wash. Ida. Ore. Submont. Je-Jl. 

30. A. stellatum Ker. Bulb ovoid, 1-2 cm. thick; coats thin, mostly 
reddish; reticulations fine and close, elongated-rectangular; scapes 2-5 dm. high; 
leaves several; blades 1-3 dm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. wide, nearly flat; bracts 2, 
about 1 cm. long; pedicels 1-2 cm. long; sepals rose-colored, ovate, usually acute, 
4-6 mm. long; petals ovate-oblong, mostly obtuse, slightly longer. On rocky 
banks: 111. Mo. Kans Sask. Plain. Jl-S. 

31. A. bisceptum S. Wats. Bulbs ovoid, 1-1.5 cm. thick; scapes often 
more than one, 2-4 dm. high, stout; leaf-blades broad, flat, 4-10 mm. wide, 
1.5 dm. long or more, attenuate; bracts 2; flowers numerous; petals and sepals 
broadly lanceolate, acuminate, white or pink, 7-8 mm. long, not ribbed but 
slightly gibbous at the base. Moist soil : Utah Nev. Calif. Submont. My- 
Je. 

32. A. Palmeri S. Wats. Bulb almost globose; scape 1.5-3 dm. high, 
slender; leaf-blades 1 dm. long or less; bracts 2, lanceolate, about 1 cm. long; 
flowers 12-24; petals and sepals pink, ovate-lanceolate, slightly gibbous at the 
base, acute or acuminate. Dry regions: s Utah Ariz. N.M. L. Son. 

33. A. pleianthum S. Wats. Bulb ovoid, 1-1.5 cm. thick; scape 5-12 cm. 
high, flattened; leaf-blades 1-1.5 dm. long, 4-7 mm. wide, falcate; bracts 2; 
petals and sepals white or pink, lanceolate, acuminate, keeled and gibbous at 
the base, 8-10 mm. long. Valleys: Ore. Ida. Son. Ap-Je. 

34. A. cristatum S. Wats. Bulb ovoid, about 2 cm. thick; outer coat 
rather thick, brown; reticulations faint, irregularly quadrangular; scape less than 




-Ariz. L. Son. Ap. 

35. A. nevadense S. Wats. Bulb nearly globose, 1-1.5 cm. thick; outer 
coat thick and brown; reticulations irregular, with sinuate or curved sides; scape 
less than 1 dm. high; leaf-blades 1 dm. or less, flat, 2-3 mm. wide; bracts 2, about 
1.5 cm. long; sepals and petals lanceolate, 6-8 mm. long. Mountains and hill- 
sides: Nev. Utah Ariz. Son: Submont. My-Jl. 



162 ALLIACEAE 

2. DIPTEROSTEMON Rydb. 

Perennials, with fibrous-coated bulbs, few basal narrow leaves, and naked 
scapes. Flowers in subcapitate umbels, with 3-5 membranous colored bracts. 
Perianth funnelform or campanulate, purple; segments united half their length. 
Stamens 6; filaments subulate, adnate to the perianth-tube, those opposite the 
sepals naked, those opposite the petals with two lanceolate lobes or wings at 
the base; anthers basifixed. Capsule ovoid, 3-celled; cells many-seeded. 

Perianth-tube funnelfprm, gradually widening into the limb; bracts broad, conspicuously 
exceeding the pedicels. 1. D. capitatus. 

Perianth-tube cylindro-campanulate, abruptly widening into the limb; bracts narrow, 
often exceeded by some of the unequal pedicels. 2. D. pauciflorus. 

1. D. capitatus (Benth.) Rydb. Scape 2-5 dm. high; leaves 2-4 dm. long, 
6-12 mm. wide; bracts ovate, lanceolate or elliptic, acute or obtuse, dark violet- 
purple; perianth purple, about 15 mm. long. Brodiaea capitata Benth. Hill- 
sides: Ore. Utah Calif. Son. Ap-Je. 

2. D. pauciflorus (Torr.) Rydb. Scape 1-3 dm. high; leaves 1-3 dm. long, 
2-5 mm. wide; bracts lanceolate, 7-10 mm. long, mostly white, tinged with lilac 
and purple- veined; perianth about 12 mm. long, purple. B. capitata pauci flora 
Torr. Arid regions: N.M. s Utah s Calif. L. Son. Ap-Je. 

3. HESPEROSCORDUM Lindl. 

Plants with fibrous-coated bulb, few basal narrow leaves, and naked scapes. 
Flowers in bracted umbels; bracts 3-5. Perianth openly turbinate; segments 
united one-third their length, white or lilac; lobes ascending. Stamens 6, adnate 
to the tube of the perianth; free portion of the filaments above the throat del- 
toid; anthers versatile, oblong. Capsule ovoid, stipitate, triangular in cross- 
section. 

1. H. lacteum Lindb. Bulb globose, 15-18 mm. thick; scape 3-5 dm. 
high; leaves 2-3 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; bracts narrowly lanceolate, less than 
1 cm. long; flowers many; perianth white, with greenish or purplish veins, 12-15 
mm. long; segments oblong or elliptic, obtuse. Brodiaea lactea S. Wats. Moist 
rich soil: B.C. Ida. Nev. Calif. Submont. My-Je. 

4. TRITELEIA Dougl. WILD HYACINTH. 

Plants with fibrous-coated bulbs, few basal elongated leaves, and naked 
scapes. Flowers in bracted umbels; bracts 3-5. Perianth from campanulate 
to narrowly funnelform, in ours blue or purple; segments united half their length 
or more; lobes ascending. Stamens 6; filaments adnate to the perianth- tube and 
the inner ones even to its lobes, making them apparently inserted in two distinct 
series; anthers distinctly versatile; capsule elongated-ovoid or ellipsoid, more or 
less distinctly stipitate, 3-valved, many-seeded. 

1. T. grandiflora Lindl. Bulb globose, deep-seated, about 2 cm. thick; 
scape 3-6 dm. high; flowers rather many; perianth about 2 cm. long, campanulate; 
lobes elliptic or oval, obtuse. Brodiaea Douglasii S. Wats. Rich soil: B.C. 
Mont. Wyo. Utah Ore. Submont. Ap-Jl. 

5. ANDROSTEPHIUM Torr. 

Scapose herbs, with membranous-coated bulbs. Leaves basal, with elongated 
narrow blades. Bracts several. Flowers perfect, short-pedicelled. Petals and 
sepals blue, or rose-colored, united to about the middle into a funnelform tube. 
Stamens 6, adnate to the perianth-tube; filaments united at least to the middle 
into a tube, which bears tooth-like lobes between the free portion of the filaments; 
anthers introrse. Ovary 3-celled; style filiform. Seeds several in each locule. 
Capsule 3-angled. Seeds few, black. 

1. A. breviflorum S. Wats. Bulb ovoid, fibrous-coated, 1.5-2 cm. broad; 
scape 1-3 dm. high; bracts lanceolate, scarious; flowers rather few; pedicels 
1-2 cm. long; perianth 15-20 mm. long; lobes oblong; lobes of the crown shorter 
than the anthers; pod 15-18 mm. in diameter. Brodiaea Paysonii A. Nels. 
Dry regions: w Colo. s Utah -s Calif. Son. Ap. 



LILY FAMILY 163 

Family 21. LILIACEAE. LILY FAMILY. 

Perennial herbs, mostly caulescent, with bulbs, corms, or short rootstocks. 
Flowers in terminal racemes, corymbs, panicles, or rarely solitary. Sepals 
and petals each 3, similar, petaloid, sometimes partly united. Stamens 6. 
Pistils of 3 united carpels; ovary superior, 3-celled; styles united. Fruit a 
loculicidal capsule. 

Plant with a short rootstock; flowers subumbellate on subterranean pedicels from the 
crown of the rootstock ; petals and sepals united into a long tube. 1 . LEUCOCRINUM . 
Plant with bulbs or corms, either leafy-stemmed or scapiferous ; petals and sepals distinct 

or nearly so. 
Bulb scaly; plant tall, leafy. 

Anthers versatile; petals and sepals oblanceolate, clawed, with a linear nectariferous 

groove. 2. LILIDM. 

Anthers fixed near the base, slightly if at all versatile; petals and sepals obovate- 

oblanceolate, not clawed; nectary a shallow pit. 
Styles distinct from the middle ; flowers purple, mottled with yellowish green; 

fniit winged. 3. FRITILLARIA. 

Styles connate to the summit; flowers yellow or orange; fruit not winged. 

4. OCHROCODON. 

Bulb tunicated. 

Anthers strictly basiflxed. 

Leaves 2, basal or nearly so; flowers nodding. 5. ERYTHRONIUM. 

Leaves several, alternate; flowers not nodding. 

Flowers in ours usually solitary; pedicels not jointed; dwarf alpine plant. 

6. LLOYDIA. 
Flowers racemose; pedicels jointed below the middle; not alpine. 

7. EREMOCRINUM. 
Anthers versatile; scapose plants with racemose flowers. 8. QUAMASIA. 

1. LEUCOCRINUM Nutt. STAR OF BETHLEHEM, MOUNTAIN LILY, 
WILD TUBEROSE. 

Low acaulescent herbs, with short rootstock and fleshy-fibrous roots. Leaves 
basal, numerous, surrounded by scarious sheaths. Flowers in umbel-like sessile 
clusters, with pedicels and ovaries under ground. Petals and sepals each 3, 
alike, united below into along tube. Stamens 6; filaments adnate below to the 
tube of the perianth; anthers linear, attached near the base, introrse; style much 
elongated, filiform; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule triangular, obovoid. 

1. L. montanurn Nutt. Leaves thick, numerous, 1-2 dm. long, 2-8 mm. 
broad; flowers 4-8; perianth white; tube 3-8 cm. long; lobes linear-oblong, about 
2 cm. long; capsule truncate, 6-8 mm. long, 12-18-seeded. Hills and plains: 
Mont. S.D. n N.M. Calif. Ore. Plain Submont. My-Je. 

2. LILIUM (Tourn.) L. LILY. 

Tall, leafy herbs, with thick-scaly bulbs and large funnelform or campanulate 
flowers. Petals and sepals each 3, similar, distinct, each with a nectariferous 
groove at the base within. Stamens 6; filaments filiform or subulate; anthers 
linear, versatile, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 3-celled, many-ovuled; style 
long, somewhat clavate; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule oblong or obovoid; seeds 
numerous, flat, horizontal, in 2 rows in each cavity. 

Flower erect, solitary or subumbellate; petals and sepals unguiculate. 

Leaves linear. 1. L. umbellatum. 

Leaves lanceolate. 2. L. montanum. 

Flowers several, racemose, nodding; petals and sepals not unguiculate. 

3. L. colurribianum. 

1. L. umbellatum Pursh. Stem leafy, 3-6 dm. high; leaves linear, acute, 
4-7 cm. long, 2-7 mm. wide, mostly alternate and scattered, the uppermost 
forming one, seldom two whorls; flowers 1-3, umbellate; petals and sepals 5-6 
cm. long; blade oval, red or orange, spotted below, acute; capsule almost cyl- 
indrical, about 6 cm. long, 15 mm. thick. In dry open woods: Mich, N.M. 
Ohio Sask. Ark. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

2. L. montanum A. Nels. A plant similar to the preceding, but with 
broader leaves; leaves, except the uppermost, alternate and scattered, 5-8 cm. 
long, 6-10 mm. wide; whorl 1, seldom 2; petals and sepals 5-6 cm. long; blades 



164 LILIACEAE 

oval, acute or short-acuminate; capsule cylindric-ovoid. Closely related to the 
eastern L. philadelphicum L. On hills and mountain-sides, among bushes: 
Mont. N.M. Submont.Mont. Je-Jl. 

3. L. columbianum Hanson. Stem a meter or so high; leaves mostly 
verticillate, lanceolate, acute, 5-8 cm. long, 6-15 mm. wide; petals and sepals 
3-4 cm. long, in age reflexed, linear-lanceolate, red, spotted; capsule obovoid, 
2-3 cm. long, 15 mm. or more thick. L. parviflorum (Hook.) Holz. In open 
woods: B.C. Ida. Calif. Submont. Je-Au, 

3. FRITILLARIA L. TIGER LILY, LEOPARD LILY. 

Simple leafy herbs, with thick-scaly bulbs. Flowers open, campanulate, 
large, nodding; petals and sepals 3, nearly equal, oblong or ovate, deciduous, 
each with a nectariferous pit at the base. Stamens 6, hypogynous, free; anthers 
linear or oblong, attached at the base, not versatile. Ovary 3-celled; ovules 
numerous; style slender, 3-cleft. Capsule obovoid, globose or cylindric, 6-angled. 
Seeds numerous, flat, margined or winged. 

Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. 1. F. lanceolata. 

Leaves narrowly linear. 2. F. atropurpurea. 

1. F. lanceolata Pursh. Stem stout, 3-6 dm. high, leafless below, leafy 
above, and 1-4-flowered; leaves in 1-3 verticils of 2's-4's, lanceolate or linear- 
lanceolate, obtuse, 3-10 cm. long; flowers dark purple, mottled with greenish 
yellow; petals and sepals lanceolate or oblong, acutish, 2-3 cm. long; capsule 
less than 2 cm. long and fully 2.5 cm. broad. In rich soil: B.C. Calif. Ida. 
Mont. Submont. Mr-My. 

2. F. atropurpurea Nutt. Stem slender, 1-4 dm. high, leafless below, 
leafy above, 1-4-flowered; leaves mostly scattered, alternate or the upper ver- 
ticillate, narrowly linear, 3-8 cm. long, 3 mm. wide; flowers dark purple, mottled 
with yellowish green; petals and sepals elliptic to linear, 5-25 mm. long; capsule 
about 15 mm. long and as wide. F. linearis Coult. & Fish. On hillsides among 
bushes: Wash. Calif. N.M.N.D. Neb. Plain Submonl. My-Je. 

4. OCHROCODON Rydb. YELLOW BELL. 

Simple leafy herbs, with scaly bulbs. Leaves mostly scattered. Flowers 
yellow or orange, campanulate, nodding, solitary. Petals and sepals 3, oblong- 
spatulate, obtuse. Stamens 6, free; anthers attached at the base. Ovary 3- 
celled; style undivided; stigma slightly 3-lobed. Capsule obovoid, 3-valved. 

3. O. pudicus (Pursh) Rydb. Stem low, strict, 1-3 dm. high, generally 
1 -flowered; leaves 1-5, scattered or sub verticillate, linear, 3-10 cm. long, rather 
thick; flower yellow, or orange; petals and sepals oblong, obtuse, 12-20 mm. 
long; fruit obovoid, 3-4 cm. long, and 15-22 mm. thick, erect. Fritillaria pudica 
(Pursh) Spreng. In rich soil on hillsides: B.C. Calif. Utah Wyo. Mont. 
Submont. Mont. Ap-My. 

6. ERYTHRONIUM L. DOG-TOOTH VIOLET, ADDER-TONGUE, 
STAR-STRIKERS. 

Low herbs, with membranous-coated corms and simple scapiform stems 
bearing two leaves below. Flowers solitary or few, nodding; petals and sepals 
lanceolate, distinct, with a nectariferous groove. Stamens 6, hypogynous, free; 
anthers oblong to linear, attached at the end. Ovary 3-celled; ovules numerous 
in each cell; style filiform, or thickened above, often 3-cleft. Capsule obovoid 
or oblong, in ours bluntly 3-angled. 

Style more or less clavate. 

Anthers of the stamens subequal. 

Anthers 3^1 mm. long; rarely longer, light yellow. 1. E. parviflorum. 

Anthers 4-8 mm. long, usually purplish, in age yellowish. 

Petals 2-3 cm. long; their veins almost equal and equally distributed. 

2. E. obtusatum. 

Petals 3-5 cm. long (in secondary flowers sometimes smaller) ; mid vein prom- 
inent, separated from the next veins by rather broad veinless spaces, side 
veins branched and arching towards the margin. 3. E. grandiflorum 



LILY FAMILY 165 

Anthers of the inner set of stamens much longer than those of the outer- veininc of 

petals resembling that of E. grandiflorum. 4 E utahense 

Style filiform or nearly so; petals narrowly linear-lanceolate. 5'. E. leptopetdlum. 

1. E. parviflorum (S. Wats.) Goodding. Scape 1-3 dm. high, 1-4- (rarely 5-7-) 
flowered; sepals and petals lanceolate, acuminate, 2-3 cm. long, bright yellow; 
capsule short, oblanceolate-oblong to nearly obovate, 3-4 cm. long, 1-1.5 
cm. thick. E, grandiflorum parviflorum S. Wats. Rich soil: Colo. Wyo. 
Utah. Submont. Subalp. Ap-Au. 

2. E. obtusatum Goodding. Scape 2-4 dm. high, 1-3-flowered; leaf-blades 
oblanceolate or oblong, broadest usually above the middle, obtuse and apiculate 
or acute, 1-2 dm. long; petals and sepals pale yellow, in age becoming whitish 
or purplish, 2-3.5 cm. long; filaments dilated at the base, subulate; capsule 
oblanceolate, 3.5-5 cm. long, a little more than 1 cm. thick. Rich soil: B.C. 
Wyo. -Mont. Submont. Mont. Ap-Au. 

3. E. grandiflorum Pursh. Scape 2-4 dm. high, 1-3-flowered; leaf-blades 
from lanceolate to oval or ovate-lanceolate, mostly acute, usually broadest at 
or below the middle, 1-2 dm. long; sepals and petals light yellow, 3-5 cm. long; 
filaments slender but somewhat dilated below; capsule oblong, tapering at the 
base, 3-4 cm. long, about 12 mm. thick. Rich soil: B.C. Wash. Wyo. 
Mont. Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

4. E. utahense Rydb. Scape 1.5-3 dm. high, 1-3-flowered; leaf-blades 
oblanceolate, 1-2 dm. long, acute or obtuse, 1.5-4.5 cm. wide; sepals and petals 
2.5-3 cm. long, narrowly lanceolate, acute or acuminate; filaments subulate, 
dilated below; capsule obovoid, about 2 cm. long and 1 cm. thick. Mountains: 
Utah. Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

6. E. leptopetalum Rydb. Scape 1.5-2 dm. high, slender; leaf-blades 
broadly oval, about 12 cm. long and 6 cm. wide; sepals and petals narrowly 
lanceolate, about 3.5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, acute, evenly veined; filaments 
strongly dilated below; stigma deeply 3-cleft, with slender recurved lobes. Moun- 
tains near Boise City, Ida. Je. 

6. LLOYDIA Salisb. ALP LILY. 

Dwarf caulescent herbs, with bulbs. Leaves narrow, grass-like. Flowers 
white in terminal racemes (often reduced to a single flower) . Sepals and petals 
each 3, nearly alike, with a transverse fold-like gland near the base. Stamens 
6, distinct; filaments subulate; anthers basifixed, dehiscent by marginal slits. - 
Ovary triangular, 3-celled; ovules numerous in 2 rows in each cell, anatropous; 
style persistent; stigma 3-lobed. Capsule loculicidal at the apex. 

1. L. serotina (L.) Sweet. Bulb oblong, fibrous-coated, ending a creeping 
rootstock; stem 5-15 cm. high; leaves several, 5-10 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; 
perianth about 1 cm. long, broadly turbinate; petals and sepals oblanceolate, 
obtuse, yellowish white, purple- veined and tinged with rose on the back; capsule 
obovoid, 8 mm. long. Alpine-arctic regions among rocks: Alta. N.M. Nev. 
Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. 

7. EREMOCRINUM M. E. Jones. DESERT LILY. 

Perennial herbs, with a small tunicated bulb. Stem more or less leafy at the 
base. Flowers racemose, scarious-bracted. Sepals and petals each 3, distinct, 
3-nerved, spreading. Stamens 6; filaments linear, broader at the base; anthers 
linear, obtuse at the apex, subcordate at base, basifixed, in age incurved. Ovary 
3-celled; style slender, elongated. Capsule loculicidal, each cell 2-seeded. 
Pedicels jointed near the base. 

1. E. albomarginatum M. E. Jones. Bulb 5-6 mm. thick; stem 1-3 dm. 
high; leaves basal, 1-2 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide; bracts ovate, scarious, 10-; 12 
mm. long; flowers 1-3 at each node; pedicels 8-12 mm. long; perianth white, 
with green veins; petals and sepals 8-10 mm. long. Desert regions: Utah. 
Son. My. 



166 LILIACEAE 

8. QUAMASIA Raf. CAMASH, BLUE CAMAS, WILD HYACINTH, 

SWAMP SEGO. 

Perennial herbs, with scapiform stems and edible bulbs. Leaves basal, with 
elongated blades. Flowers in terminal racemes. Sepals and petals each 3, 
alike, distinct, blue, white, or purple. Stamens 6; filaments filiform, adnate to 
the base of the petals and sepals; anthers versatile, introrse. Ovary 3-celled; 
styles filiform; stigma 3-lobed; ovules numerous in each cavity. Capsule broad, 
3-angled. Seeds black, shining. 

Flowers somewhat oblique, about 2 cm. long; divisions 3- veined, or some of them 4- or 

5- veined. 1. Q. Quamash. 

Flowers regular, about 3 cm. long; divisions all 5-7- veined. 2. Q. Suksdorfii. 

1. Q. Quamash (Pursh) Coville. Bulb globose, 1.5-3 cm. thick; scape 3-6 
dm. high; leaves 6-15 mm. broad, 2-4 dm. long; petals and sepals linear, blue, 
about 2 cm. long, exceeding the stamens, but slightly shorter than the style; 
capsules ellipsoid, 12-15 mm. long, on almost erect pedicels. Camassia esculenta 
Lindl. Meadows: Mont. Utah Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. Ap-Je. 

2. Q. Suksdorfii (Greenm.) Piper. Bulb ovate, 1-3 cm. thick; scape 3-7 
dm. high, few-flowered; leaves 2-3 dm. long, 0.5-2 cm. broad; petals arid sepals 
3-3.5 cm. long, 8 mm. wide, blue; capsules 1.5-2.5 cm. long, erect on pedicels which 
arch upwards. Meadows: Wash. Ida. Utah. Plain Submont. My. 

Family 22. CONVALLARIACEAE. LILY-OF-THE- VALLEY FAMILY. 

Perennial herbs, with rootstocks and alternate, rarely basal leaves. 
Flowers perfect, in terminal or axillary racemes, panicles, umbels, or rarely 
solitary. Sepals and petals 3 or 2, similar, distinct or partly united, in- 
ferior. Stamens 6 or 4. Gynoecium of 3 or 2 united carpels; ovary 3- or 
2-celled; styles united. Fruit in all our species a berry. 

Stem leafy; leaves alternate. 
Sepals and petals distinct. 

Flowers white, in terminal racemes or panicles; anthers introrse; stem simple. 
Petals and sepals 3; stamens 6. 1. VAGNERA. 

Petals and sepals 2; stamens 4. 2. UNIFOLTUM. 

Flowers extra-axillary or terminal and solitary or in small umbelliform clusters ; 

anthers extrorse or opening laterally ; stem branched. 
Flowers extra-axillary, greenish white; filaments slender; anthers acute. 
Corolla campanulate. 3. STREPTOPUS. 

Corolla rotate. 4. KRUHSEA. 

Flowers terminal, yellow; filaments dilated ; anthers obtuse. 5. DISPORUM. 
Sepals and petals partially united into a tube; flowers axillary. 6. POLYGON ATUM. 
Stem scapiform; leaves basal; flowers in terminal umbels, or solitary and terminal. 

7. CLTNTONIA. 

1. VAGNERA Adans. WILD SPIKENARD, WILD LILY-OF-THE-V ALLEY, 
FALSE SOLOMON'S SEAL. 

Caulescent herbs, with elongated rootstocks. Leaves broad, several-nerved. 
Flowers in terminal racemes or panicles. Sepals and petals white or greenish 
white, distinct or nearly so. Stamens 6; filaments subulate; anthers introrse. 
Ovary 3-celled; styles short; stigma 3-lobed; ovules 2 in each cavity. Berry 
globose. Seeds 1 or 2, with a thin testa. [Smilacina Desf.] 

Inflorescence paniculate. 

Petals and sepals scarcely half as long as the stamens; fruit dark purple. 

1. V. brachypetala. 
Petals and sepals almost equalling the stamens; fruit red with purple spots. 

Leaf -blades acuminate, the lower contracted at the base into distinct petioles ; 

style about 0.5 mm. long. 2. V. racemosa. 

Leaf-blades acute, all sessile and more or less clasping; style fully 1 mm. long. 

3. V. amplexicaulis. 
Inflorescence racemose. 
Leaves 6-12, sessile. 

Petals and sepals linear or linear-lanceolate. 4. V. leptopetala. 

Petals oblong-lanceolate. 

Pedicels short, slightly if at all longer than the flowers or the fruit; leaves 
lanceolate, acute. - 5. V. stellata. 



LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY FAMILY 167 

Pedicels long, the lower often 2-3 times as long as the flowers or the fruit 
Raceme strict; pedicels strongly ascending; leaves narrowly lanceolate. 

long-attenuate. 6. V. liliacea. 

Raceme zigzag; pedicels spreading; leaves broadly lanceolate, usually 

abruptly acuminate. 7. v. sessilifolia 

Leaves 2-4, sheathing the low stem. 8. V. trifolia. 

1. V. brachypetala Rydb. Stem stout, 5-8 dm. high, striate, puberulent; 
leaves subsessile or short-petioled, oval or ovate, 8-18 cm. long, 4-7 cm. wide, 
often short-acuminate and twisted at the apex; panicle rather dense; petals and 
sepals oblong, 1-1.5 mm. long; style about 0.5 mm. long; berry about 4 mm. in 
diameter. Hillsides: B.C. Wash. Ida. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

2. V. racemosa (L.) Morong. Stem somewhat angled, finely puberulent 
above, 3-9 dm. high; blades elliptic or oval, 7-15 cm. long, 3-6 cm. wide, finely 
puberulent beneath; sepals and petals oblong, 2 mm. long or more; berry 5-6 
mm. thick. Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. Woods and thickets: NS Ga 
Colo. B.C. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

3. V. amplexicaulis (Nutt.) Morong. Stem 3-7 dm. high; blades ovate to 
lanceolate, acute, puberulent, 6-15 cm. long, 4-8 cm. wide; sepals and petals 
oblong, about 2 mm. long; filaments lanceolate-subulate; berry light red, dotted 
with purple, 5-6 mm. thick. S. amplexicaulis Nutt. Hillsides and woods: B.C. 
Calif. N.M. Alta. Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

4. V. leptopetala Rydb. Stem 2-3 dm. high, erect, strict or the upper 
portion somewhat zigzag, striate and pale; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 6-8 cm. 
long, 1-2 cm. wide, light green, sessile, long-acute; raceme 3-6-flowered; pedicels 
5-8 mm. long; petals and sepals about 4 mm. long and less than 1 mm. wide, 
very thin, white. Canons: Colo. Mont. 

6. V. stellata (L.) Morong. Stem glabrous, 2-5 dm. high, strict; leaves 
sessile, minutely puberulent beneath, 5-13 cm. long; sepals and petals 3-5 mm. 
long; berry green, with 6 black stripes, turning black, 6-10 mm. thick. S. stel- 
lata (L.) Desf. In moist soil, meadows or copses: Newf. Va. Colo. Alta. 
Submont. Subalp. My-Jl. 

6. V. liliacea (Greene) Rydb. Stem tall and strict throughout, 3-10 dm. 
high; leaves sessile, glabrous, 7-20 cm. long; raceme 4-10 cm. long, 3-10-flowered; 
sepals and petals oblong, obtuse, 5-7 mm. long; style about 1 mm. long; berry 
purplish, 7-10 mm. thick. Unifolium liliaceum Greene. Wooded hills and 
shady places: B.C. Calif. N.M. Mont. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

7. V. sessilifolia (Nutt.) Greene. Stem 2-4 dm. high, more or less flexuose 
above; leaves sessile, 0.5-10 cm. long, glabrous or nearly so; raceme 3-7 cm. long; 
sepals and petals linear-oblong, obtuse, about 6 mm. long; style about 1 mm. 
long; berry red or purple, 8-10 mm. in diameter. S. sessilifolia Nutt. Woods: 
Yukon Calif. Wyo. Mont. Submont. Je-Jl. 

8. V. trifolia (L.) Morong. Stem slender, 0.5-4 dm. high; leaves sessile, 
oval, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, with sheathing bases, acute or acuminate; 
raceme few-flowered, strict; sepals and petals oblong or oblong-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, about 3 mm. long; berry dark red, 5-6 mm. in diameter. V. pumila Standl., 
a small form with rather short style. In bogs and wet woods: Lab. N.J. 
Minn. Mack. Boreal Mont. My-Je. 

2. UNIFOLIUM Adans. TWO-LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL. 

Caulescent herbs, with slender rootstocks. Leaves mostly 2 or 3, with broad, 
several-nerved blades. Inflorescence terminal, racemose. Sepals and petals 
white, similar, each 2, distinct, spreading. Stamens 4, hypogynous; filaments 
narrowly linear; anthers versatile, introrse. Ovary 2-celled; stigmas 2; ovules 
2 in each cavity. Fruit a subglobose pulpy berry; seeds 1 or 2. [Maianthemum 
Wigg.] 

Leaves subsessile; blades cordate-clasping, with shallow and narrow sinuses. 

1. U. cqnadense. 
Stem-leaves distinctly petioled; blades with deep and open sinuses. 2. U. dilatatum. 



168 CONVALLARIACEAE 

1. U. canadense (Desf.) Greene. Stem slender, 1-3-leaved (usually 2- 
leaved), 5-18 cm. high, glabrous; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2-8 cm. long; 
berry pale red, speckled, about 4 mm. thick. Moist woods and thickets: Lab. 
N.C. S.D. Mack. Boreal Submont. My-Jl. 

2. U. dilatatum (Wood) Howell. Stem 2-3-leaved, 2-4 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaf-blades broadly cordate, acuminate, 5-10 cm. long and nearly as broad; 
berry red, globose, about 6 mm. thick. Maianthemum bifolium dilatatum Wood. 
Swampy places: Alaska Calif. Ida. Canadian Rockies. Submont. Mont. 
Je-Au. 

3. STREPTOPUS Michx. TWISTED-STALK. 

Caulescent perennial herbs, with horizontal rootstocks. Leaves many- 
nerved, broad, sessile or clasping. Flowers racemose on 1-3-flowered, extra- 
axillary peduncles. Sepals and petals much alike, greenish or purplish, each 3, 
distinct, with spreading or recurved tips. Petals keeled. Stamens 6, hypo- 
gynous; filaments flattened, very short; anthers sagittate, opening by lateral 
slits. Ovary 3-celled; stigmas 3-lobed or entire; ovules in 2 rows in each cavity. 
Berry oval or globose; seeds numerous. 

Plant branched; pedicels geniculate; berry white. 1. S. amplexifolius. 

Plant simple; pedicels not geniculate; berry red. 2. S. curvipes. 

1. S. amplexifolius (L.) DC. Stem 3-10 dm. high, flexuose-branched; 
leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous and glaucous, 5-13 cm. long; perianth 
campanulate, greenish white, 8-12 mm. long; sepals and petals lanceolate, 
attenuate; berry globose-ellipsoid, 8-12 mm. long. Damp woods: Greenl. 
N.C.N.M. Ore. Alaska; Eu. Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

2. S. curvipes Vail. Perennial, with a rather slender rootstock; stem simple, 
1-3 dm. high; leaves sessile, oval to oblong-lanceolate, 3-8 cm. long, acuminate; 
perianth pale purple or rose-colored; sepals and petals lanceolate, 5-7 mm. long, 
minutely glandular- pubescent inside; berry globose, 7-9 mm. thick. Open 
woods: B.C. Ore. Alaska. Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

4. KRUHSEA Regel. 

Caulescent perennial herbs, with rootstocks. Leaves broad, sessile or slightly 
clasping, several-nerved. Flowers usually solitary, inserted opposite the leaves. 
Flowers rotate; petals and sepals with greenish reflexed tips. Stamens 6; filaments 
very short; anthers 2-lobed. Ovary 3-celled, becoming a berry. Style none. 

1. K. streptopoides (Ledeb.) Kearney. Stem glabrous, 5-15 cm. high; 
leaves 4-8, bright green, ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-5 cm. long; pedicels recurved, 
1 cm. long or less; sepals and petals deeply wine-colored at the base, with yellow- 
ish green tips; fruit globose, bright red at maturity. . Smilacina streptopoides 
Ledeb. Streptopus ajanensis Tiling. S. brevipes Baker. Kruhsea Tilingii 
Regel. Woods: B.C.; Siberia. Mont. My. 

6. DISPORUM Salisb. 

Caulescent branched perennial herbs, with rootstocks. Leaves broad, many- 
nerved, sessile or clasping, often oblique. Flowers terminal, solitary or in small 
subumbellate clusters, drooping. Sepals and petals each 3, whitish or greenish 
yellow, narrow, distinct. Stamens 6, hypogynous; filaments filiform, or some- 
what flattened; anthers extrorse. Ovary 3-celled; stigmas entire or 3-cleft; 
ovules 2 or more in each cavity. Fruit thick, juicy, (in ours) bright red or orange. 

Stigma 3-cleft; fruit deeply lobed, obtuse, papillose. 1. D. trachycarpum. 

Stigma entire; fruit acutish, not papillose, but often pubescent. 2. D. oreganum. 

1. D. trachycarpum S. Wats. Stem 3-6 dm. high, more or less flexuose, 
more or less pubescent; leaves sessile, ovate or oval to ovate-lanceolate, 3-9 cm. 
long, short-acuminate; perianth narrowly campanulate, ochroleucous, 10-15 
mm. long; fruit depressed-globose, deeply 3-lobed, 8-10 mm. thick. Prosartes 
trachycarpa S. Wats. D. majus Britt., in part. Canons and hillsides: Man. 
N.M. Ariz. B.C. Plain Subalp. My-Je. 



LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY FAMILY 169 

2. D. oreganum (S. Wats.) W. Miller. Stem 3-6 dm. high, with ascending 
branches; leaves ovate-lanceolate, more or less short-villous when young, 5-10 
cm. long, long-acuminate; perianth campanulate, yellow, 10-15 mm. 'long- 
fruit obovoid, 10-12 mm. long. P. oreganus S. Wats. Canons and river banks' 
B.C. Mont. Calif. Ida. Submont. My-Je. 

6. POLYGONATUM (Tourn.) Hill. SOLOMON'S SEAL. 

Caulescent perennial herbs, with jointed roqtstocks. Leaves in our species 
broad, many-nerved, sessile. Flowers in axillary 1-few-flowered racemes. 
Petals and sepals each 3, partly united, the free portion shorter than the tube, 
greenish or pinkish. Stamens 6, included; filaments partly adnate to the peri- 
anth-tube; anthers sagittate, introrse. Ovary 3-celled; stigma mostly capi- 
tate; ovules 2-6 in each cavity. Berry subglobose, dark blue or black. Seeds 
with a horny endosperm. [Salomonia Heist.] 

1. P. commutatum (R. & S.) Dietr. Stem 3-25 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaves ovate or oblong, partly clasping, 5-15 cm. long; peduncles 1-8-flowered; 
perianth white or greenish, 1-2 cm. long, drooping; filaments glabrous, adnate 
to the perianth about half its length; berries 8-12 mm. thick, subglobose. P. 
giganteum Dietr. S. commutata Farwell. In woods: Ont. Ga. N.M. Utah 
Man. Plain Submont. Je. 

7. CLINTONIA Raf. 

Subacaulescent perennial, with creeping rootstocks. Leaves basal or nearly 
so, broad, many-nerved. Flowers in terminal umbels, on an almost leafless 
scape, or in our species the umbel reduced to 1 or 2 flowers. Petals and sepals 
each 3, similar, petaloid, distinct. Stamens 6; filaments filiform; anthers versa- 
tile. Ovary 2- or 3-celled; style slender; stigma 2- or 3-lobed. Berry ovoid, 
thin. 

1. C. uniflora (Schult.) Kunth. Sparingly villous; leaves 2-5, oblanceo- 
late, 1-2 dm. long, 3-5 cm. broad; scape shorter than the leaves; flowers 1 or 2, 
white, campanulate, 18-22 mm. long, villous; sepals and petals oblanceolate, 
9-11-nerved; fruit about 1 cm. long, 6-10-seeded. Woods: Alaska Mont. 
Calif. Mont. Je-Au. 

Family 23. DRACAENACEAE. YUCCA FAMILY. 

Shrubby plants or trees, with woody trunks or caudices, very leafy at 
the apex. Leaves narrow, rigid, often with marginal filaments or finely 
toothed. Flowers mostly perfect, or polygamo-dioecious, racemose or 
paniculate. Petals and sepals 3, similar. Stamens 6. Gynoecium of 3 
united carpels. Ovary superior, 3-celled; styles very short, united or obso- 
lete. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, or fleshy and indehiscent. 

Flowers perfect, large; ovary many-ovuled and fruit many-seeded. 

Styles evident; petals and sepals thin, petaloid, spreading in anthesis. 

1. YUCCA. 

Styles wanting; petals and sepals thick, inflexed. 2. CLISTOYUCCA. 

Flowers polygamo-dioecious; ovules 2 in each cell, but capsule often 1-seeded. 

3. NOLINA. 

1. YUCCA (Rupp.) L. YUCCA, SPANISH BAYONET, SOAP-WEED, 
SOAP-ROOT, GRASS CACTUS. 

Coarse plants, with woody trunks or caudices. Leaves firm, narrow, rigidly 
pointed, commonly with thread-like fibers along the edges, or serrulate or entire- 
margined. Flowers in terminal racemes or panicles, drooping. Sepals and petals 
each 3, distinct or slightly united at the base, usually white. Stames 6, hypogy- 
nous; filaments enlarged above. Ovary 3-celled or imperfectly 6-celled, or 1- 
celled; style turgid; ovules numerous. Capsule either dry and dehiscent, or 
fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds numerous, thin, flat. 



170 DRACAENACEAE 

Fruit a dry capsule. 

Leaves narrowly linear, very long. 

Style stout, swollen, green. 1. Y. glauca. 

Style not swollen, white. 2. Y. angustissima* 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, short; style not swollen, white. 

Leaves not papillose. 3. Y. Harrimaniae. 

Leaves densely rough-papillose at least on the back. 4. Y. Gilbertiana. 

Fruit fleshy. 5. Y. baccata. 

1. Y. glauca Nutt. Subacaulescent or branching with decumbent stems; 
leaves rigid, 6-12 mm. wide, 2-4 dm. long, white-margined, finely but sparingly 
filiferous; inflorescence 1-2 m. high, simple or somewhat branched; sepals and 
petals greenish white, oval to lanceolate, acute, 4-5 cm. long; capsule oblong, 
usually not constricted, somewhat roughened, brown. Y. angustifolia Pursh. 
Plains and hillsides: la. Tex. 'Ariz. Mont. Plains Submont. My-Jl. 

2. Y. angustissima Engelm. Acaulescent, with a thick horizontal root- 
stock; leaves 2-4 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, pungent, white-margined, very freely 
curly-filiferous; inflorescence 1-1.5 m. high, racemose, or short-branched below; 
sepals and petals rather short, lanceolate, acute; capsule scarcely 5 cm. long,, 
rough, brown, constricted in the middle. Desert regions: Ariz. s Utah. L. 
Son. 

3. Y. Harrimaniae Trelease. Acaulescent, often cespitose; leaves linear to 
lanceolate, 6-40 mm. wide, rigidly spreading, glaucous or green in age, pungent, 
narrowly brown-margined, with coarse curled fibers; inflorescence 2.5-5 dm. high, 
simple; sepals and petals greenish, oval, obtuse or acute; capsule brown, broadly 
oblong, about 4 cm. long, constricted. Dry regions: Utah w Colo. w N.M. 
Son. Je. 

4. Y. Gilbertiana (Trelease) Rydb. Acaulescent; leaves linear, about 4.5 
dm. long, 2 cm. wide, openly concave, glaucous at least on the upper side, pun- 
gent, fibrous-filamentose on the margin; flowers about 4 cm. long; segments nar- 
row, acute; ovary papillate; style oblong, pale. Y. Harrimaniae Gilbertiana 
Trelease. Dry regions: w Utah. Au. 

6. Y. baccata Torr. Low, usually with stout prostrate branched caudex; 
leaves rigid, spreading, about 6 dm. long and 5 cm. wide, concave, shagreen- 
roughened, with narrow brown margins, coarsely filiferous; sepals and petals 
lanceolate, about 7.5 cm. long; style slender, elongate; fruit large, sometimes 
2 dm. long, oblong- or conical-ovoid, pendent, fleshy. Dry plains: Tex. & 
Colo. Nev. Son. Submont. Ap-Je. 

2. CLISTOYUCCA (Engelm.) Trelease. JOSHUA TREE. 

Large tree. Leaves short, thick, not filiferous. Flowers in panicles. Sepals 
and petals each 3, thick, incurved at the end. Stamens 6, hypogynous; filaments 
thick, curved outward; anthers sagittate, horizontal. Ovary 6-celled; stigma 
sessile, 6-lobed. Capsule 6-celled, spongy, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, flat, 
thin. 

1. C. brevifolia (Engelm) Rydb. A tree 5-10 m. high, with rough bark; 
leaves 1.5-2 dm. long, 6-15 mm. wide, rough, serrulate on the margin, spine- 
tipped, concave above; flowers in sessile short panicles; perianth campanulate, 
4-6 cm. long, greenish white; capsule 5-7 cm. long. Yucca brevifolia Engelm. 
Y. arborescens Trelease. C. arborescens Trelease. Desert regions: s Calif. s 
Utah Ariz. Son. 

3. NOLINA Michx. 

Coarse herbs, with woody caudices. Leaves crowded, rigid, narrow, entire 
or serrulate, keeled, pungent-pointed. Flowers polygamo-dioecious, in open 
panicles. Sepals and petals each 3, distinct, 1-nerved, similar, white. Stamens 
6, reduced to staminodia in the fertile flowers; filaments thick, short. Ovary 
3-celled, abortive in the staminate flowers; styles obsolete during anthesis. 
Ovules 2 in each cavity. Capsule dry, 3-winged, tardily and irregularly open- 
ing. Seeds often solitary, thick. 



YUCCA FAMILY 171 

1. N. Greenei S. Wats. Leaves 6 dm. long, 1 cm. or more wide, rounded 
and smooth on the back, slightly channelled and striate inside, minutely scab- 
rous on the margin; peduncle 1-2 dm. long, shorter than the leaves; fruit about 
6 mm. wide; lobes almost orbicular. Dry mesa: Colo. N.M. Son. 

Family 24. CALOCHORTACEAE. MARIPOSA LILY FAMILY. 

Perennial herbs, with coated corms and narrow leaves. Flowers perfect, 
regular, showy. Sepals 3, narrow, herbaceous. Petals 3, broad, gland- 
bearing within near the base and often bearded within, petaloid. Stamens 
6, hypogynous. Gynoecium of 3 united carpels; ovary 3-celled, many- 
ovuled; styles united, almost none; stigmas 3, recurved. Fruit a septicidal, 
3-angled capsule. 

1. CALOCHORTUS Pursh. SEGO LILY, MARIPOSA LILY, 

BUTTERFLY LILY. 
Characters of the family. 
Capsule winged. 

Petals 1.5-2.5 cm. long, strongly arched and broadly pitted; leaves single; scape 1-4- 

flowered; bracts lanceolate. 

Stem 1-2 dm. high; gland broad. 1. C. elegans. 

Stem 3-4 dm. high; gland very small. 2. C. apiculatus. 

Petals 2.5-4 cm. long, less arched, not pitted; leaves usually 2; bracts linear. 

Purple spot of the petals lune-shaped, broader than long. 3. C. pavonaceus. 

Purple spot of the petals almost orbicular. 4. C. eurycarpus. 

Capsule not winged. 

Flowers white or lilac. 

Petals abruptly acuminate; gland oblong. 

Petals lilac, purplish, or light blue, with greenish mid vein. 5. C. macrocarpus. 
Petals cream-colored, tinged with purple and sometimes with a purplish spot. 

6. C. acuminatus. 
Petals rounded or merely acute at the apex. 

Anthers acute; gland broader than long. 7. C. Gunnisonii. 

Anthers obtuse; gland not broader than long. 

Stem erect, bulbiferous near the base. 8. C. Nuttallii. 

Stem flexuose, not bulbiferous. 9. C. flexuosus. 

Flowers yellow. 10. C. aureus. 

1. C. elegans Lindl. A delicate, slender glabrous plant, 1-2 dm. high; 
leaf surpassing the scape, 1-2 dm. long, 2-9 mm. wide; scape 1-3-flowered ; 
petals 'oval or obovate, rounded or acute, 12-20 mm. long, white, tinged with 
purple, or purplish with whitish margins, densely bearded within and ciliate on 
the margins; capsule 2 cm. long, 12-15 mm. wide. On shaded hillsides: Wash. 
Mont. Utah Calif. Submont. My-Jl. 

2. C. apiculatus Baker. A slender glabrous plant, 3-4 dm. high; leaf 
shorter than the scape, about 2 dm. long, and 8-18 mm. wide; scape 2-3-flowered ; 
petals obovate, acute or short-acuminate, 2-3 cm. long, white or cream-colored, 
tinged with purple, bearded within; capsule 2.5 cm. long and about 1 cm. wide. 
In rich woods: Alta. Mont. Ida. Ore. Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

3. C. pavonaceus Fernald. A rather stout plant, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 
shorter than the stem, the lower 2-3 dm. long, 5-12 mm. wide; flowers sub-um- 
bellate; petals obovate, rounded or acute at the apex, more than 3 cm. long, 
lilac; anthers tapering somewhat upwards, but obtuse; capsule 25 mm. long, 15 
mm. wide. C. nitidus Renders., also Purdy, not Dougl. In open meadows: 
Mont. Wash. Ore. Ida. Submont. Mont. Jl. 

4. C. eurycarpus S. Wats. A strict, glabrous plant, 3-5 dm. high; leaves 
usually 2, the lower 1-2 dm. long, 2-12 mm. wide, much shorter than the stem; 
flowers subumbellate, resembling those of the preceding, but gland narrower; 
petals white or cream-colored with a round purple spot; anthers linear-oblong, 
obtuse; capsule as in the preceding. C. nitidus S. Wats., not Dougl. C. nitidus 
eurycarpus Renders. C. umbellatus A. Nels., not Wood. In open meadows: 
Wyo Mont. Wash. Ore. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

5. C. macrocarpus Dougl. A rather stout and strict plant, 3-5 dm. high; 
leaves several, linear, revolute, and at last curled, 5-10 cm. long; bract similar; 



172 CALOCHORTACEAE 

flowers usually 2; petals obovate, about 4 cm. long; stamens tapering upwards, 
but obtuse; very variable in coloration and hairiness of the petals. C. cyaneus, 
C. bruneaunis, and C. maculosus A. Nels. Sage-brush plains: B.C. Mont. 
Ida. Ore. Plain Submont. Je Jl. 

6. C. acuminatus Rydb. A low plant, 2-3 dm. high, bearing a bulblet 
2-4 cm. above the bulb; leaves very narrow, involute and curved, 3-15 cm. long; 
flowers 1-2; petals obovate, about 3 cm. long; gland broadly oblong; anthers 
gradually tapering upwards, obtuse. On dry hillsides: Mont. -Utah Colo. 
Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

7. C. Gunnisonii S. Wats. A strict plant, 2-5 dm. high, without bulblet; 
leaves several, slender, mostly involute, 5-15 cm. long; flowers 1-2; petals broadly 
cuneate-obovate, 2-4 cm. long, white or cream-colored, tinged and streaked with 
purple, yellow and purple-dotted around the gland; capsule narrowed at both 
ends, about 3 cm. long. In meadows: (Black Hills) S.D. N.M. Ariz. Ida. 
Submont. -Mont. My-Jl. 

8. C. Nuttallii Torr. & Gray. A strict plant, similar to the preceding, 
2-5 dm. high, but with a bulblet borne in the axil of the lowest leaf, 1-4 cm. 
above the bulb; leaves and flowers resembling those of the preceding, but petals 
often narrower, and sometimes acutish; capsule tapering at both ends. C. Wat- 
soni M. E. Jones. Dry hiUsides: (Black Hills) S.D.N.M. Calif. Wash. 
Submont. Mont. My-Jl. 

9. C. flexuosus S. Wats. A decumbent or ascending, more or less flexuose 
and branched plant; leaves several, the lowest 1-2 dm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, the 
rest short, about 5 cm. long, acuminate; flowers several; petals broadly cuneate- 
obovate, 2.5-3 cm. long, white with yellow base; gland orbicular. In dry places: 
s Utah Calif. Ariz. L. Son. Je. 

10. C. aureus S. Wats. Low plant, 1-2 dm. high, 1-4-flowered; leaves 
7-10 cm. long; bracts lance-linear, attenuate, scarious margined; sepals greenish 
yellow, lanceolate, purple-blotched; petals broadly cuneate, about 3 cm. long, 
bright yellow, with a circular densely hairy gland near the base, and a purplish 
lunate spot above; capsule narrowly oblong. Sand-cliffs: s Utah Ariz. N.M. 
L. Son. Ap-Je. 

Family 25. TRILLIACEAE. TRILLIUM FAMILY. 

Perennial caulescent or scapose herbs, with rootstocks. Leaves and bracts 
whorled, broad and often netted-veiaed. Flowers perfect, solitary, terminal, 
or in terminal umbels. Sepals 3 (or in exotic genera 4), green, distinct; 
petals of the same number, in ours white or purplish. Stamens 6-8; fila- 
ments short. Gynoecium of 3 or 4 united carpels; ovary 3- or 4-celled; 
stigmas sessile. Fruit a 3- or 4-celled, lobed berry. 

1. TRILLIUM L. WAKE-ROBIN, BIRTH-ROOT. 

Fleshy herbs, with short stout rootstocks and a whorl of 3, netted-veined, 
leaves near the end of the scape. Flowers solitary, 3-merous, pedicelled or sessile. 
Sepals persistent. Petals early withering or deciduous, white or purple. 

Flowers sessile; leaves long-petioled ; blades rounded. 1. T. petiolatum. 

Flowers peduncled; leaves subsessile, rhombic. 2. T. ovatum. 

1. T. petiolatum Pursh. Rootstock corm-like; stem 1-2 dm. high; petioles 
3-6 cm. long; leaf-blades 7-10 cm. long and 6-10 cm. wide; sepals 3-4.5 cm. long, 
linear-lanceolate; petals dark purple, linear-oblanceolate, slightly exceeding the 
sepals. Rich hillsides and copses: Wash. Ida. Ore. Son. Submont. Ap- 
My. 

2. T. ovatum Pursh. Rootstock corm-like; stem 3-4 dm. high; leaves 
acuminate, 7-12 cm. long, 4-8 cm. wide; pedicels 4-5 cm. long, slender; sepals 
linear-lanceolate, 2.5-4 cm. long; petals somewhat longer, obovate to narrowly 
lanceolate, pink or white, turning purple. T. Scouleri Rydb. T. crassifolium 
Piper. Woods: B.C. Mont. Colo. Calif. Submont. Mont. Mr-Jl. 



SMILAX FAMILY 173 

Family 26. SMIL AC ACE AE. SMILAX FAMILY. 

Vines, with several-ribbed and netted-veined leaf-blades, articulate to 
the petioles. Flowers dioecious, in peduncled axillary umbels. Sepals and 
petals each 3, green, with spreading tips. Stamens 6; filaments flattened; 
anthers introrse. Gynoecium of 3 united carpels; stigmas 3, sessile. Fruit 
a berry, 1-6-seeded. Endosperm bony. 

1. NEMEXIA Raf. CARRION FLOWER, SMILAX. 

Unarmed vines, with herbaceous stems. Leaves membranous, broad. Ovules 
2 in each cavity. Berry blue-black, with 3 bands of strengthening tissue. [Smi- 
lax, in part.] 

1. N. lasioneuron (Hook) Rydb. A herbaceous vine, 1-2 m. long; petioles 
2-5 cm. long; leaf-blades ovate-cordate, abruptly short-acuminate, 5-10 cm. 
long, 5-9-ribbed, rather thin, glabrous above, scabrous-hirsutulous on the veins 
beneath; peduncles 4-7 cm. long; umbel many-flowered; flowers greenish; petals 
and sepals oblong, 4 mm. long; fruit 8-10 mm. thick, globose, purple with a 
bloom. Smilax lasioneuron Hook. S. herbacea Coult. Woods: Sask. Kans. 
Colo. Wyo. Plain Submont. My-Je. 

Family 27. AMARYLLIDACEAE. AMARYLLIS FAMILY. 

Perennial fleshy plants, with bulbs, corms, rootstocks, or woody caudices. 
Leaves basal, usually sheathing. Flowers perfect, racemose, paniculate, 
umbellate or solitary. Sepals and petals each 3, epigynous, often united 
into a tube below, petaloid. Stamens 6. Gynoecium of 3 united carpels; 
ovary inferior, 3-celled, or rarely only partially so; styles united. Fruit a 
3-celled capsule or berry. 

Perennial herbs, with fleshy leaves (often spiny-toothed), clustered on the caudex; 

anthers versatile; flowers in soikes or panicles. 1. AGAVE. 

Perennial herbs, with grass-like leaves, from a subterranean corm or short rootstock; 

anthers erect; flowers in ours umbellate. 2. HYPOXIS. 

1. AGAVE L. AMERICAN ALOE, CENTURY PLANT. 

Partially woody plants, with a more or less elongated caudex. Leaves crowded 
at the base, persistent several years, fleshy, thick, armed with spiny teeth, 
spine-tipped, channeled. Perianth withering-persistent. Stamens 6; filaments 
partly adnate to the perianth-tube; anthers versatile. Capsule 3-celled, thick- 
walled; seeds numerous, in 2 rows in each cell, black, flattened. 

1. A. utahensis Engelm. Leaves very fleshy, 8-10 cm. long, terminating 
in a long channeled spine, sinuate, with flat teeth; spike dense; flowers in pairs 
or 4's; perianth yellowish, fully 1 cm. long; lobes oblong, obtuse, 3-4 times as 
long as the tube; capsule 18-20 mm. long. Desert regions: s Utah Ariz. L. 
Son. 

2. HYPOXIS L. STAR-GRASS. 

Acaulescent small herbs, with corms or short rootstocks and narrow grass-like 
basal leaves. Flowers perfect, regular. Sepals and petals each 3, equal, dis- 
tinct above the ovary, yellow or whitish, the sepals green without. Stamens 6; 
filaments adnate only to the base of the perianth, short. Capsule 3-celled, thin. 
1. H. hirsuta (L.) Coville. Leaves narrowly linear, 2-5 mm. wide, longer 
than the scape, more or less villous; scape 5-15 cm. high, 1-6-flowered; flowers 
umbellate, 6-10 mm. long, bright yellow within, villous without. H. erecta L. 
Meadows: Me. Fla. Tex. Sask. Plain. My-O. 

Family 28. IRIDACEAE. IRIS FAMILY. 

Perennial herbs, with elongated or bulb-like rootstocks and narrow equi- 
tant, 2-ranked leaves. Flowers perfect, regular or nearly so. Sepals and 



174 IRIDACEAE 

petals each 3, often dissimilar but both colored, distinct or united below. 
Stamens 3, opposite to the sepals; anthers extrorse. Gynoecium of 3 united 
carpels; ovary inferior, 3-celled; styles distinct, sometimes petal-like. Fruit 
a loculicidal capsule. Seeds numerous. 

Styles alternate with the stamens; filaments more or less united; flowers rather small; 

sepals and petals similar. 
Filaments united to near the top; flowers blue or white, rarely rose-purple. 

1. SlSYRTNCHITJM. 

Filaments united only at the base; flowers rose or purple. 2. OLSYNITJM. 

Styles opposite to and arching over the stamens, petal-like ; filaments distinct ; flowers large ; 
sepals and petals unlike. 3. IRIS. 

1. SISYRINCHIUM L. BLUE-EYED GRASS.* 

Perennial grass-like herbs, ours tufted, with short rootstocks and fibrous 
roots. Leaves narrowly linear. Scape 2-edged or 2-winged. Flowers in 
terminal clusters from spathes of 2 bracts. Petals and sepals in ours blue or 
white, alike, spreading. Filaments monadelphous. Style-branches filiform, 
alternate with the stamens. Ovules few in each cavity. Capsule subglobose, 
readily opening at the apex. 

Stems bearing several peduncles from leaf -bearing nodes. 1. 5. radicatum. 

Stems simple and leafless, with sessile terminal spathe (casually with a terminal leaf- 
bearing node and a peduncle) . 
Outer bract of spathe little or not at all longer than the inner one, rarely surpassing 

it by more than one-third its length. 

Small and slender; flowers 10 mm. or less long; capsules less than 3 mm. high. 

2. S. halophilum. 
Stouter; flowers 12 mm. or more long; capsules 4 mm. or more high. 

.Outer bract 2-3 cm. long; flowers becoming 14 mm. long. 3. S. occidental. 
Outer bract 3-6 cm. long; flowers becoming 18 mm. long. 4. S. idahoense. 
Outer bract of spathe conspicuously prolonged, sometimes 2-3 times longer than the 

inner one. 

Plant developing capsules among the bases of the leaves different in form from 
those of the terminal spathes. 5. S. heterocarpum. 

No basal capsules. 

Stem winged or margined. 

Perianth-segments not emarginate, narrowed to the aristulate tip. 

Stems and leaves mostly 1-2 mm. wide; capsule obovoid-oblong, 6-7 

mm. long. 6. S. alpestre. 

Stems and leaves mostly under 1 mm. wide; capsule obovoid or sub- 
globose, 3-5 mm. long. 7. S. septentrionale. 
Perianth-segments more or less retuse or abruptly contracted to the 

aristulate apex. 
Stems and leaves mostly 1.52.5 mm. wide; capsules 4 6 mm. high. 

8. S. angustifolium. 
Stems and leaves mostly 1.5 mm. or less in width; capsules 24 mm. 

high. 
Bracts of spathe smooth; valves of capsule veinless. 

9. S. mucronatum. 
Bracts of spathe minutely scabrellous; valves of capsule sparsely 

venose. 10. S. campestre. 

Stem practically marginless. 11. S. inalatum. 

1. S. radicatum Bickn. Stem erect, stout, 2-4 mm. wide, pale, 3-4.5 dm. 
high; basal leaves 2-3 mm. broad, 1-2 dm. long, hyaline-margined; peduncles 
5-10 cm. long, unequal; bracts subequal, acute, 17-22 mm. Jong, scarious-mar- 
gined; perianth violet-blue, about 10 mm. long; segments short-aristulate ; ovary 
and young capsule densely glandular-puberulent. Wet meadows: Wyo. 
Utah Nev. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

2. S. halophilum Greene. Stem erect, wiry and glaucous, 1-3 dm. high, 
very narrowly winged; leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide; bracts 12-18 mm. long, slightly 
scarious-margined; perianth-segments abruptly acuminate; capsule scabrous- 
puberulent. S. leptocaulon Bickn. (?) S.juncellum Greene. Alkaline meadows: 
Ida. Colo. Calif. Submont. My-Jl. 

3. S. occidentale Bickn. Stem 1.5-3.5 dm. high, 1-2 mm. wide, stiff, erect, 
glaucescent; leaves 1-2.5 mm. wide, very acute; bracts green or purplish, slightly 
scarious-margined, 2-3 cm. long, with broad margins; capsule subglobose 
glabrate. Wet meadows: Mont. Colo. Nev. Ida. Plain Mont. Je-Jl. 

* Key and notes supplied by Mr. E. P. Bicknell. 



IRIS FAMILY 175 

4. S. idahoense Bickn. Stem 2-4.5 dm. high, pale green and glaucous, 
often twisted, 1-3 mm. wide, winged; leaves 1-3.5 mm. broad; spathe often de- 
flexed, green or faintly purple; outer bract 3-6 cm. long, a little longer than the 
inner, both with narrow hyaline margins; perianth deep violet-blue, with a rather 
small yellow eye, abruptly cuspidate; capsule globose or ovoid. Wet meadows' 
Mont. Wyo. Ore. B.C. Submont. My-Jl. 

5. S. heterocarpum Bickn. Stem erect, 2-3 dm. high, 1-1.5 mm. wide, 
narrowly winged; leaves 1-2 mm. wide, attenuate; spathe sometimes purple- 
tinged, narrow, 1-3 mm. wide; outer bract 2.5-4.5 cm. long, with hyaline margins 
below; inner bract 1.5-2 cm. long, hyaline-margined to the apex; perianth 
violet-purple, about 1 cm. long, with a large yellow eye; fruit of the terminal 
spathe 1-4, subglobose or somewhat obovoid, 5-7 mm. high; basal capsules 
among the leaves, 2-4, obovoid-pyriform, 7-10 mm. long, 4-5 mm. thick, with a 
narrow base, on slender pedicels 2.5-3.5 cm. long. Moist meadows and sandy 
ground: Wyo. Jl-Au. 

6. S. alpestre Bickn. Stem 1-2 dm. high, green and glaucous, 1-1.5 mm. 
wide, narrowly winged, distinctly broadened into the spathe; leaves 1-2 mm. 
wide; spathe green; outer bract long and slender, 4.5-6.5 cm. long, with narrow 
hyaline margins; inner bract 1.8-3 cm. long; perianth 6-10 mm. long; segments 
white or tinged with purple. Alpine meadows: Colo. Mont. Au. 

7. S. septentrionale Bickn. Stem 1-2.5 dm. high, slender, 0.5-1 mm. 
wide, barely margined; leaves 0.5-1 mm. broad; spathe purplish or green; outer 
bract 2.5-4 cm. long, the inner 1.5-2 cm. long, both hyaline-margined; perianth 
4-7 mm. long, pale rose or violet. Wet meadows: Man. N.D. Wash. 
B.C. Plain. Je-Jl. 

8. S. angustifolium Miller. Stem stiff, glaucous, 1-5.5 dm. high, simple 
or rarely branched, 1-3 mm. wide, winged; leaves 1-3.5 mm. wide; spathe green 
or slightly purplish; outer bract 2-6.5 cm. long, obscurely hyaline-margined; 
inner bract 1.5-3 cm. long, hyaline-margined; flowers deep violet, 10-12 mm. 
long: capsule ellipsoid to subglobose. S. montanum Greene. Meadows: Newf. 
Va. Colo. B.C. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

9. S. mucronatum Michx. Stems numerous, 1-4.5 dm. high, 0.5-1.5 mm. 
wide, margined or narrowly winged; leaves dull green, slender, 1-1.5 mm., 
rarely 2 mm. wide; spathe usually red-purple, rarely green; outer bract 1.8-5.5 
cm. long; inner bract 1-1.5 cm. long, scarious-margined; perianth deep purplish 
blue, rarely white, 6-14 mm. long; capsules subglobose. Wet places: Ont. 
D.C. Pa. Alta. Plain. My-Jl. 

10. S. campestre Bickn. Stem usually 1.5-2 dm. high, erect, stiff, glaucous, 
0.5-1.5 mm. wide, narrowly winged; leaves 1-1.5 mm., rarely 2 mm. wide; spathe 

n!e purple or green; outer bract 2.5-4.5 cm. long, narrowly hyaline-margined 
ow; inner bract 1.2-2 cm. long, white-hyaline on the margins; perianth 8-14 
mm. long, pale blue or white; capsule trigonous-subglobose. Prairies: Wis. 
Mo. La. N.M. N.D. Plain. 

11. S. inalatum A. Nels. Stem simple, 3-4 dm. high, wingless, 10-striate; 
leaves 9-15-nerved, 4-8 mm. broad, often somewhat arcuate; outer spathe 4-6 
cm. long, many-nerved, scarious-margined; inner spathe 6-8-nerved, less than 
half as long; capsule 5-6 mm. long, obovoid-globose. Dry open hillsides: Ida. 
Submont. Je. 

2. OLSYNIUM Raf. 

Perennial grass-like herbs, usually tufted. Leaves narrowly linear, equi- 
tant. Scape flattened but not winged. Flowers in terminal clusters, subtended 
by a spathe of 2 bracts. Petals and sepals rose or purple, spreading, similar. 
Filaments united only at the broad bases. Styles cleft at the apex. Capsule 
globose. 

1. O. grandiflorum (Dougl.) Raf. Stem erect, stout, 2-3 dm. high, 2-3 
mm. thick; outer bract 5-10 cm. long, broadly scarious-margined; inner bract 
scarcely half as long; corolla 15-20 mm. long; segments slightly cuspidate, obo- 



176 IRIDACEAE 

vate; filaments shorter than the style; fruit 7-8 mm. thick. Sisyrinchium 
grandiflorum Dougl. Wet meadows: B.C. Ida. Utah Calif. Son. Submont. 
Mr-Je. 

2. IRIS L. BLUE FLAG, FLEUR-DE-LIS. 

Herbs, with creeping, horizontal rootstocks. Leaves sword-shaped or linear. 
Flowers solitary or in terminal panicles. Sepals and petals highly colored, in 
ours blue, the former spreading or recurved, the latter usually smaller and erect. 
Stamens 3; filaments adnate below to the base of the sepals. Ovary 3-celled; 
styles petal-like, arching over the stamens; stigmas under the usually 3-lobed 
tips. Ovules numerous. Capsule elongated, 3- or 6-angled. Seeds in 1 or 2 
rows, vertically flattened. 

1. I. missouriensis Nutt. Stem 2-10 dm. high, about 5 mm. in diameter; 
leaves 1-5 dm. long, 5-10 mm. broad; perianth pale blue, variegated, glabrous, 
crestless; sepals broadly oblanceolate, about 8 cm. long; petals oblanceolate, 
ascending, about 6 cm. long; capsule oblong-elliptic, about 4 cm. long and 1.5 
cm. thick, 6-ridged. I. pelogonus Goodding. Meadows, marshes and along 
streams: N.D.N.M. Calif. B.C. PlainMont. My-Jl. 

Family 29. ORCHIDACEAE. ORCHIS FAMILY. 

Perennial herbs, usually succulent, with corms, bulbs, or rootstocks, and 
tuberous or fibrous roots. Flowers perfect, irregular. Sepals 3, similar or 
nearly so, the lower two sometimes united. Petals 3; the two lateral ones 
similar; the median one (the lip) usually very dissimilar, sometimes pro- 
longed below into a spur, usually inferior by twisting of the ovary. Stamens 
3, of which 1 or 2 are abortive, adnate to the pistil and forming a column. 
Fertile anthers usually solitary, in a few genera 2, usually 2-celled, contain- 
ing 2-3 waxy or powdery pollinia, these pollen-masses usually stalked and 
often attached at the base to a viscid gland. Gynoecium of 3 united car- 
pels; ovary inferior, 1-celled, twisted. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds numerous. 
Endosperm wanting. 

Fertile stamens 2 ; lip a large inflated sack. 

Sepals distinct; lip with an almost conical obtuse prolongation below. 

1. CHIOS ANTHES. 

Lower sepals united; lip rounded-saccate. 2. CYPRIPEDIUM. 

Fertile stamen 1. 

Pollinia caudate at the base, attached to a viscid disk or gland. 

Glands enclosed in a pouch-like fold ; lip 3-lobed. 3. ORCHIS. 

Glands not enclosed in a pouch. 

Gland surrounded by a thin membrane; lip toothed at the apex. 

4. COELOGLOSSUM. 

Gland naked; lip entire. 

Sepals 3-5-nerved; plants with rootstock or flbro-fleshy roots. 

Stem scapiform; leaves 1-2, basal; anther-sacks divergent; plants in 

ours with rootstocks. 

Basal leaves 2; ovary straight. 5. LYSIAS. 

Basal leaf 1 ; ovary arcuate. 6. LYSIELLA. 

Stem leafy; anther-cells parallel or nearly so; plants with fleshy-fibrous 

roots. 7. LIMNORCHIS. 

Sepals 1-nerved; plants with rounded or oblong, undivided biennial corms. 

8. PIPERIA. 

Pollinia not produced into caudicles. 
Pollinia granulose or powdery. 

Anthers operculate; leaves alternate. 

Green plants, with large leaves. 9. SERAPIAS. 

Plant white, turning brownish; leaves reduced, scale-like. 

10. EBUROPHYTON. 
Anthers not operculate. 

Leaves green, borne on the stem. 

Leaves alternate; spike mostly twisted. 11. IBIDIUM. 

Leaves 2, opposite; spike not twisted. 12. OPHRYS. 

Leaves usually white-reticulate, basal. 13. PERAMIUM. 

Pollinia smooth or waxy. 

Plants with corms or solid bulbs, rarely with coralloid roots; leaves not scale- 
like. 



ORCHIS FAMILY 177 

Leaves unfolding before or with the flowers. 
Lip flat; flowers racemed. 

Leaves cauline; column short; pollinia clavate. 

14. MALAXIB. 
Leaves basal; column elongated; pollinia globose. 

15. LIPARIS. 
Lip saccate; flower solitary. 16. CYTHEREA. 

Leaf l, unfolding after the flowering time. 17. APLECTRUM 

Plants with coralloid roots, bulbless; leaves reduced to scales. 

18. CORALLORRHIZA. 

1. CRIOSANTHES Raf. RAM'S-HEAD, RAM'S-HEAD LADIES' SLIPPER. 

Perennial caulescent herbs, with rootstocks. Leaves sessile, alternate, 
several-veined, plaited. Flowers solitary, terminal. Sepals 3, distinct, spread- 
ing. Lateral petals narrow, spreading. Lips saccate, obtuse- conic, with the 
margin incurved, forming a rounded opening. 

1. C. arietinum (R. Br.) House. Stem 2-3 dm. high, 1-flowered; leaves 3 or 
4, elliptic or lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, 15-20 mm. long, brown- 
ish; petals linear, greenish brown, about as long; lip about 1.5 cm. long, white, 
veined and variegated with red. Cypripedium arietinum R. Br. Cold damp 
woods: Que. N.Y. Minn. Sask. Boreal. My-Au. 

2. CYPRIPEDIUM L. LADIES' SLIPPER. 

Caulescent herbs, with, rootstocks and fibrous roots. Leaves sessile, several- 
nerved, plaited. Flowers solitary or several in a terminal raceme. Sepals 3, 
the lateral two united under the lip. Lateral petals narrow, spreading. Lip 
conspicuous, an inflated round sack, with rounded opening, the margins incurved. 
Column declined, glabrous, bearing a fertile anther on each side, and a petalloid 
sterile stamen above, arching over the style. Pollen pulpy or granular, without 
tails or glands. Stigma terminal, broadest at the base. Capsule ribbed. 

Leaves alternate; flowers solitary, terminal, or also several singly in the axils of the 

upper leaves. 

Sepals obovate to broadly obovate or oval, not longer than the lip; sterile stamen 
elliptic-cordate. 1. C. passerinum. 

Sepals lanceolate, attenuate, often longer than the lip. 

Lip white, purple- veined ; sterile stamen ovate or obovate. 2. C. monianum. 

Lip yellow; sterile stamen triangular, yellow and purple-spotted. 

Lip 2-2.5 cm. long, broader than deep; lower sepal narrower than the upper 

one, exceeding the lip. 3. C. parviflorum. 

Lip 3-4 cm. long, deeper than broad ; lower sepal fully as broad as the upper 

one or broader, usually shorter than the lip. 4. C. veganum. 

Leaves 2, opposite or nearly so; flowers usually several in a contracted bracted spike. 

5. C. Knightae. 

1. C. passerinum Richards. Stem 1-2.5 dm. high, often retrorsel> villous; 
leaves oval to lanceolate, 5-10 dm. long, more or less viscid- villous; flowers 1-3; 
sepals 11.5 cm. long, the lower one slightly 2-cleft; petals oblong, obtuse, about 
1.5 cm. long; lip about 1.5 cm. long, obovate, white, with purple spots inside. 
Pine woods: Ont. Alta. B.C. Alaska Mack. Boreal -Mont. Je-Jl. 

2. C. montanum Dougl. Stem 3-5 dm. high, roughly glandular-puberu- 
lent, 1-3-flowered; leaves oval to lanceolate, 7-15 cm. long, roughly glandular- 
puberulent; sepals linear-lanceolate, 4-5 cm. long, greenish brown; petals nar- 
rowly linear-lanceolate; lip 2.5-3 cm. long. Open woods: B.C. -Calif. Wyo. 
Sask. Submont. Je-Jl. 

3. C. parviflorum Salisb. Stem 2-6 dm. high, leafy, glandular-puberulent, 
usually 1-flowered; leaves oval to broadly lanceolate, often acuminate, 5-12 cm. 
long, puberulent; upper sepal lanceolate, acuminate, about 3 cm. long and 1 cm. 
wide; petals narrowly linear-lanceolate, longer than the sepals. Woods: Newf. 
Ga. Colo. B.C. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

4. C. veganum Cockerell. Stem about 3 dm. high, leafy, puberulent, 1- 
flowered; leaves broadly lanceolate, acuminate, 8-13 cm. long; sepals lanceolate, 
3-4.5 cm. long; petals linear-lanceolate, 4.5-5.5 cm. long. Canons: N.M. Colo. 
Submont. Je Jl. 

10 



178 ORCHIDACEAE 

5. C. Knightae A. Nels. Stem 3-10 cm. high, more or less villous-viscid 
in the inflorescence; leaves oval to nearly orbicular, 5-10 cm. long, glabrous or 
nearly so; sepals and petals purplish, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, about 2 cm. 
long; lip 10-12 mm. long, greenish yellow, with deep purple margins; sterile 
stamen oblong, obtuse. Open woods and hillsides. Wyo. Utah Colo. Sub- 
mont. Ap-Je. 

3. ORCHIS (Tourn:) L. ORCHIS. 

Perennial herbs, with digitately cleft tubers, or in our species with rootstocks 
and fibrous roots. Flowers in terminal spikes. Sepals distinct, equal, spread- 
ing, 3-nerved. Petals ascending, in ours narrower. Lip connate with the col- 
umn, produced below into a spur, usually 3-cleft. Column short. Fertile 
anther solitary, 2-celled; sacs contiguous and slightly diverging; pollinia granu- 
lose, one large mass in each sac, produced into a slender caudicle, attached to 
a small gland, which is enclosed in a pouch. 

1. O. rotundifolia Pursh. Perennial, with a rather slender scaly rootstock; 
stem 1-2.5 dm. high, scape-like; leaf solitary, near the base, orbicular or oval, 
3-7 cm. long; spike 2-6-flowered; flowers 12-15 mm. long; sepals elliptic, 6-7 mm. 
long, rose-colored, the lateral ones spreading; upper petals similar, but slightly 
shorter; lip white, purple-spotted, 3-lobed, with a large middle lobe, notched at 
the apex; spur slender, curved, shorter than the lip. Cold damp woods: Greenl. 
N.Y. Minn. B.C. Yukon. Subalp Boreal Je-Jl. 

4. COELOGLOSSUM Hartman. 

Caulescent herbs, with 2-cleft biennial tubers. Leaves alternate, sessile. 
Flowers perfect, in elongated terminal spikes, greenish. Sepals distinct, con- 
verging, thus forming a hood. Lateral petals narrow, erect; lip obtuse, 2- or 
3-toothed at the apex, produced below into a sack-like spur. Column short. 
Fertile anther solitary; anther-sacs 2. Pollinia solitary, with long caudicles. 
Gland small, surrounded by a thin membrane. 

1. C. bracteatum (Willd.) Parl. Stem 1.5-6 dm. high; leaves 3-5, obovate, 
oblanceolate, oval, or the upper narrowly lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long; bracts linear- 
lanceolate, longer than the flowers; flowers green or greenish; sepals lanceolate, 
about 6 mm. long; lip 6-8 mm. long, oblong or somewhat cuneate, 3-toothed at 
the apex, the middle tooth smallest; spur less than half as long as the lip. Haben- 
aria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br. Wet meadows and woods: N.B. N.C. Colo. 
B.C. Mont. Boreal My-S. 

6. LYSIAS Salisb. 

Subacaulescent herbs, with fleshy rootstocks or tubers. Leaves almost 
basal, 2 in number, broad and many-nerved. Flowers in terminal spikes, white 
or greenish. Sepals distinct, large, spreading; upper sepal in ours broadly cor- 
date, the lateral ones obliquely ovate. Lateral petals small and narrow. Lip 
entire, narrow, produced below into a slender spur. Fertile anther solitary; 
sacks diverging, with beak-like bases projecting forward. Pollinia with their 
caudicles laterally affixed to orbicular naked glands. Stigma without append- 



Leaves orbicular or rounded oval; spur slightly clavate at the apex. 1. L. orbiculata. 
Leaves oval or ovate; spur strongly clavate and curved at the apex. 2. L. Menziesii. 

1. L. orbiculata (Pursh.) Rydb. Scape stout, 3-6 dm. high, bearing several 
lanceolate bracts; basal leaves 1-1.5 cm. long, 8-12 cm. wide; raceme loosely 
many-flowered; lateral petals obliquely lanceolate; lip linear, 12-15 mm. long; 
spur 2-4 cm. long. Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torr. Rich woods: Newf 
N.C. Minn Wash. (? B.C.). Mont. Boreal. My-Au. 

2. L. Menziesii (Lindl.) Rydb. Scape 3-4 dm. high, with 1-2 lanceolate 
bracts; basal leaves 10-12 cm. long, 6-8 cm. wide; raceme lax; pedicels 7-10 mm. 
long; lateral petals narrowly lanceolate; lip narrowly linear, 8-10 mm. long; 
spur less than 2 cm. long. Platanthera Menziesii Lindl. Wet woods: Mont. 
Ida. B.C. Mont. Jl-Au. 



ORCHIS FAMILY 179 

6. LYSIELLA Rydb. 

Small herbs, with rootstocks. Stem scapiform, with a single obovate leaf at 
the base. Flowers greenish yellow. Upper sepal round-ovate, erect, surround- 
ing the broad column; lateral sepals reflexed-spreading. Petals lanceolate, 
smaller; lip entire, linear-lanceolate, deflexed. Spur slightly curved, shorter 
than the ovary. Anther-sacs divergent, wholly adnate, arcuate; glands small, 
their faces incurved. Pod obovoid. 

1. L. obtusata (Pursh) Rydb. Stem slender, 1-2.5 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaf 5-12 cm. long; spike 2-6 cm. long, loosely flowered; flowers about 1 cm. long; 
spur longer than the lip, slender, straight. Habenaria obtusata Richards. Boggy 
places in the woods: Newf. N.Y. Colo. Alaska. Mont.Subalp. Je-Au. 

7. LIMNORCHIS Rydb. BOG ORCHID. 

Leafy-stemmed plants, with elongated fusiform root-like tubers and fleshy- 
fibrous roots. Flowers whitish or greenish or tinged with purple. Upper 
sepal ovate to almost orbicular, erect, 3-7-nerved; lateral sepals from linear to 
ovate-lanceolate, free from the lip, 3-nerved, seldom 4-5-nerved, spreading or 
often somewhat reflexed. Lateral petals erect, lanceolate, 3-nerved, oblique at 
the base. Lip entire, flat or slightly concave, reflexed, free, from linear to 
rhombic-lanceolate, obtuse. Column short and thick. Anther-sacs parallel, 
opening in front. 

Lip more or less lanceolate, i. e., broad near the base. 

Flowers greenish or purplish; lip not rhombic at the base. 

Spur decidedly clavate, thickened and obtuse at the apex, shorter than the lip. 
Petals purplish; spur only one-half to two-thirds the length of the lip, very 

saccate. 
Lip linear or nearly so, 57 mm. long; ovary slightly curved; spike usually 

elongated. 1. L. stricta. 

Lip lanceolate, fleshy, 4-5 mm. long; ovary strongly curved ; spike usually 
short. 2. L. purpurascens. 

Petals greenish; spur almost equalling the lip. 3. L. viridiflora. 

Spur slender, scarcely thickened at all towards the apex, often acutish, equal- 
ling or slightly exceeding the lip; plant tall and stout; flowers comparatively 
large; sepals 46 mm. long. 4. L. media. 

Flowers white or nearly so; lip lanceolate, decidedly dilated, subrhombic at the base. 
Spur only slightly if at all exceeding the lip. 

Spur usually shorter than the lip and clavate. 5. L. borealis, 

Spur equalling or slightly exceeding the lip, slightly or not at all clavate. 

6. L. dilatata. 

Spur from one-fourth to two-thirds longer than the lip. 7. L. leucostachys. 

Lip linear, i. e., not at all dilated at the base. 

Spur shorter than the lip, decidedly saccate. 1. L. stricta. 

Spur much exceeding the lip, filiform. 

Spike comparatively dense. 8. L. ensifolia. 

Spike very lax. 9. L. laxiflora. 

1. L. stricta (Lindl.) Rydb. Stem tall and strict, 3-10 dm. high; lower 
leaves oblanceolate, obtuse, 5-12 cm. long, the upper lanceolate, acute; spike 
1-3 dm. long, lax; flowers 12-14 mm. long; lip linear, obtuse, 5-7 mm. long, 
thick, purple. Platanthera stricta Lindl. Habenaria gracilis S. Wats. Bogs 
and wet meadows: Alta. N.M. Ore. Alaska. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

2. L. purpurascens Rydb. Stem stout, 3-5 dm. high; leaves ovate to 
lanceolate, acute, 6-10 cm. long, dark green; spike rather dense; flowers 10-12 
mm. long; lip about 5 mm. long, scarcely at all dilated at the base. Damp 
wooded hillsides and brook-banks: Colo. Submont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

3. L. viridiflora (Cham.) Rydb. Stem 2-5 dm. high; lower leaves 5-15 cm. 
long, oblanceolate, obtuse; spike short and dense; flowers 10-12 mm. long, light 
green; lip lanceolate, obtuse, less than 5 mm. long. Habenaria hyperborea 
Coult., not R. Br. Bogs: Alta. Colo. Alaska. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

4. L. media Rydb. Stem very stout, 4-8 dm. high; leaves lanceolate, acute, 
1-2 dm. long; spike long, densely flowered; flowers divaricate, about 15 mm. 
long; lip about 6 mm. long. Bogs: Que.N.Y. (Black Hills) S.D. Boreal 
Submont. 



180 ORCHIDACEAE 

6. L. borealis (Cham.) Rydb. Stem tall and leafy, 4-8 dm. high; lowest 
leaves oblanceolate and obtuse, the rest lanceolate, acute, 5-15 cm. long; spike 
often rather dense, 1-2 dm. long; flowers 10-14 mm. long; lip rhombic-lanceolate, 
obtuse, about 5 mm. long. Habenaria dilatata Coult., not Hook. Bogs: Mont. 
Colo. -Wash. Alaska. Submont. -Mont. Je-S. 

6. L. dilatata (Pursh) Rydb. Stem slender, tall, leafy, 3-6 dm. high; leaves 
lanceolate, 7-20 cm. long, the lower obtuse, the upper acute; spike 5-25 cm. long, 
usually rather lax; flowers white, 15-18 mm. long; lip about 7 mm. long. Haben- 
aria dilatata (Pursh) Hook. Bogs: Lab. N.Y. Neb. Sask. Boreal Je-Au. 

7. L. leucostachys (Lindl.) Rydb. Stem stout and tall, 6-10 dm. high; 
lower leaves oblanceolate, 1-2 dm. long; spike 1-3 dm. long, rarely very dense; 
flowers 15-20 mm. long; lip about 8 mm. long. Habenaria leucostachys (Lindl.) 
S. Wats. Bogs: Alaska Ida. Utah Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

8. L. ensifolia Rydb. Stem strict, 3-4 dm. high, light colored, few leaved; 
leaves linear-lanceolate, attenuate, slightly falcate, 1-1.5 dm. long; flowers 
greenish, about 15 mm. long; lip linear, about 8 mm. long, thick; spur about 
1 cm. long. Bogs: N.M. Utah 'Ariz. Son. Jl. 

9. L. laxiflora Rydb. Stem slender, 4-6 dm. high; lower leaves oblanceolate, 
8-10 cm. long; spike 1-2 dm. long, few-flowered; flowers greenish, 10-12 mm. long; 
lip about 6 mm. long; spur about 8 mm. long, slightly clavate. Bogs: Ore. 
Colo. Utah. Son. 

8. PIPERIA Rydb. WOOD ORCHID. 

Somewhat leafy-stemmed plants, but the leaves usually near the base and 
withering at or before the anthesis. Tubers spherical or rounded ellipsoid. 
Flowers greenish or white; sepals and petals 1-nerved or very obscurely 3-nerved; 
the upper erect, the lateral ones spreading. Lateral petals free, lanceolate or 
linear-lanceolate, oblique. Lip linear-lanceolate to ovate, obtuse, truncate or 
hastate at the base, concave, united with the bases of the lower sepals, bordered 
with an erect margin which connects the lip with the column. Anther-sacs 
parallel, opening nearly laterally. 

Spur slightly exceeding the lip. 1. P. unalaschensis. 

Spur 2-3 times as long as the lip, filiform. 

Lip linear to lanceolate, about 6 mm. long; spike dense; spur 1518 mm. long. 

2. P. multiflora. 

Lip ovate or ovate-lanceolate; spike looser; spur 10-12 mm. long. 3. P. elegans. 

1. P. unalaschensis (Spreng.) Rydb. Stem strict, slender, 3-5 dm. high, 
leafy only near the base; leaves oblanceolate, obtuse or acutish, 1-1.5 dm. long; 
stem-leaves bract-like; spike long and lax, 1-3 dm. long; flowers greenish, 8-10 
mm. long; petals and sepals 2-4 mm. long; lip oblong, obtuse; spur filiform or 
slightly clavate. Habenaria unalaschensis (Spreng.) S. Wats. Damp woods: 
Mont. Colo. Calif B.C. (? Alaska); also Que. Submont. Mont. Je-Au. 

2. P. multiflora Rydb. Stem stout, 4-6 dm. high; basal leaves oblong 
or oblanceolate, obtuse or acutish, 1-1.5 dm. long; upper stem- leaves much re- 
duced and bract-like; flowers greenish white, spreading, about 1.5 cm. long; 
spur 15-18 mm. long, filiform. Damp woods: Wash. Mont. Calif. Submont. 
Je-Au. 

3. P. elegans (Lindl.) Rydb. Stem slender, strict, 4-7 dm. high; basal 
leaves 2 or 3; blades lanceolate or oblanceolate or rarely oval, acute or obtuse, 
8-15 cm. long; stem-leaves much reduced, lanceolate; spike usually lax, 1.5-3 
dm. long; flowers greenish white, about 1 cm. long: spur filiform. Habenaria 
elegans (Lindl.) Bolander. Piperia elongata Rydb. Damp woods: B.C. Ida. 
Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

9. SERAPIAS L. HELLEBORINE. 

Caulescent herbs, with rootstocks and fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, 
plaited, many-nerved, clasping. Flowers in bracted terminal racemes. Sepala 



ORCHIS FAMILY 181 

distinct, strongly keeled. Lateral petals distinct, ovate. Lip free, not spurred, 
concave below, constricted in the middle, the terminal portion dilated and 
petal-like. Column short. Fertile anther 1, erect, operculate; its sacs con- 
tiguous. Pollinia granulose, 2-parted, becoming attached to the beaked stigma. 
[Epipactis R. Br.] 

1. S. gigantea (Dougl.) A. A. Eat. Stem 3-10 dm. high, nearly glabrous, 
puberulent in the inflorescence; lower leaves ovate, sessile, the upper narrowly 
lanceolate, 5-20 cm. long, acute or acuminate; flowers 3-10, greenish, veined with 
purple; lip 15-18 mm. long; the terminal portion ovate-lanceolate, many-crested; 
capsule oblong, 15 mm. long. Epipactis gigantea Dougl. Rich woodlands: Mont. 
w Tex. Calif. B.C. Son.Submont. Je-Au. 

10. EBUROPHYTON Heller. 

Saprophytic perennial herb, with branched creeping rootstock; whole plant 
white, leafless, scarious-bracted. Flowers racemose, almost sessile. Lateral 
sepals horizontally spreading, larger than the upper sepal and the petals, strongly 
keeled, somewhat concave. Upper sepal and petals erect, less strongly keeled. 
Lip free, shorter than the sepals, the saccate base with broad wing-like margins, 
articulate at the middle, with a callosity on each side; outer internode curved 
outward and downward, concave, grooved. Column twice as long as the anther. 
Stigma beakless. Pollen-masses not attached to the gland. 

1. E. Austinae (A. Gray) Heller. Stem 3-6 dm. high; perianth about 12 
mm. long; distal portion of the lip suborbicular; nerves in center wavy-crested; 
column 4 mm. long. Chloraea Austinae A. Gray. Cephalanthera oregana 
Reich. Pine woods: Calif. Ida. Wash. Mont. Je-Jl. 

11. IBIDIUM Salisb. LADIES' TRESSES. 

Perennial herbs, with tuberous thickened or fleshy-fibrous roots. Leaves 
alternate, in some species mostly basal. Flowers in terminal spiral spikes. 
Sepals distinct or coherent above or united with the similar lateral petals. Lip 
concave, sessile or slightly clawed, bearing two callosities at the base. Column 
oblique, arched. Fertile anther solitary, erect, without a lid. Pollinia one in 
each sac. Stigma with a beak. [Spiranthes L. C. Rich. Gyrostachys Pers.] 

Callosities at the base of the lip obsolete; lower sepals coherent with the petals and upper 

sepals. 1- G. strictum. 

Callosities nipple-shaped, directed downwards; lower sepals free. 2. G. porrifolium. 

1. I. strictum (Rydb.) House. Stem 1.5-3.5 dm. high, glabrous; lower 
leaves 7-20 cm. long, linear or linear-oblanceolate, the upper bract-like; spike 
5-10 cm. long, 8-14 mm. thick, dense; flowers 3-ranked, white or greenish, 6-8 
mm. long, fragrant; lip oblong, broad at the base, contracted below the dilated 
crisp terminal portion. Gyrostachys stricta Rydb. Spiranthes Romanzoffiana 
Coult., not Cham. Wet places and rich hiUsides: Newf. Pa Colo. Calif. 
Alaska. Plain Mont. My-S. 

2. I. porrifolium (Lindl.) Rydb. Stem 2-4 dm. high, slender, glabrous; 
leaves narrowly oblanceolate or. linear, rather thick, 1-2 dm. long; spike 5-10 
cm. long, 12-15 mm. thick, less dense; flowers greenish white; lip lanceolate, 
scarcely dilated at the apex. Spiranthes porrifolia Lindl. Marshes: Wash. 
Ida. Colo. Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

12. OPHRYS (Tourn.) L. TWAY-BLADE, TWIFOLE. 

Perennials, with rootstocks and fleshy-fibrous roots. Leaves 2, opposite, near 
the middle of the stem. Flowers in terminal racemes, greenish or purplish. 
Sepals and lateral petals distinct, almost alike, reflexed. Lip notched or 2-cleft 
at -the apex, and often with a pair of teeth or auricles near the base, fertile 
anther 1, erect, jointed to the back of the column, without a lid. p oj lima 2 
powdery, attached to a minute gland. Column wingless. [Listera R. Br.J 



182 ORCHIDACEAE 

Lip broad, slightly 2-cleft at the apex, with or without a mucro in the sinus. 
Lip with distinct rounded auricles, slightly cleft at the apex; no mucro. 

1. O. borealis. 

Lip with no auricles, but in their place two divergent small teeth at the base; mucro 

present. 
Lip unguiculate; lateral teeth small, without a papilla at the base. 

2. O. convallarioides. 
Lip not unguiculate; lateral teeth prominent, with a papilla at the base. 

3. O. caurina. 

Lip narrow, 2-cleft for about half its length into linear-lanceolate lobes, without a mucro, 
with narrow teeth at the base. 4. O. nephrophylla. 

1. O. borealis (Morong) Rydb. Stem 7-15 cm. high, pubescent above; 
leaves 1-3.5 cm. long, elliptic-ovate, obtuse at both ends, borne above the middle 
of the stem; flowers about 1 cm. long; lip 7-8 mm. long, oblong-cuneate, with 
2 obtuse lobes at the apex. L. borealis Morong. Damp woods: Mack. Colo. 
Yukon. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

2. O. convallarioides (Sw.) Wight. Stem 1-2 dm. high, glabrous below, 
glandular above the leaves; leaves borne above the middle of the stem, broadly 
oval, obtuse, 3-5 cm. long, rounded at the base; lip about 9 mm. long, narrowly 
cuneate, retuse. L. convallarioides (Sw.) Torr. Moist woods: N.S. Vt. Mich. 
Ida. Calif. Alaska. Mont. JeAu. 

3. O. caurina (Piper) Rydb. Stem 1-3 drn. high, glabrous below, densely 
glandular-pubescent above the leaves; leaves 3.5-7 cm. long, oval to elliptic- 
ovate, rounded at the base, borne above or at the middle of the stem; lip 5-6 
mm. long, cuneate, retuse, with a blunt mucro in the sinus, sessile. L. caurina 
Piper. Damp mossy woods: B.C. Mont. Ida. Ore. Mont. Je-Jl. 

4. O. nephrophylla Rydb. Stem slender, 1-2 dm. high, glabrous or 
slightly pubescent above the leaves; leaves inserted at the middle, rounded-reni- 
form, about 2 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. wide, strongly veined; flowers greenish, 5-6 
mm. long; sepals and upper petals oblong, 1.5-2 mm. long; lip 4-5 mm. long. 
L. nephrophylla Rydb. Damp woods: Mont. N.M. Ore. Alaska. Sub- 
mont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

13. PERAMIUM Salisb. RATTLESNAKE PLANTAIN. 

Caulescent perennial herbs, with rootstocks and fleshy-fibrous roots. Leaves 
alternate, mostly basal, strongly reticulate and often blotched. Flowers in 
terminal spikes, white or pink, inconspicuous. Lateral sepals distinct, spread- 
ing; the upper united with the lateral petals. Lip sessile, concave or gibbous, 
without callosities. Fertile anther solitary, short-stalked on the column, with- 
out a lid. Pollinia 2, one in each sac, attached to a small disk. Column 
straight, rather short. [Goodyera R. Br.] 

Lip evidently saccate, with recurved margins. 1. P. ophioides. 

Lip scarcely saccate, with incurved margins. 2. P. decipiens. 

1. P. ophioides (Fernald) Rydb. Scape 1-2 dm. high, glandular-pubescent; 
leaves 1-2 cm. long, broadly ovate, dark green, usually with white blotches, 
most conspicuous along the cross-veins; flowers greenish white, 4-5 mm. long; 
upper sepal concave, with a short strongly recurved tip; anthers blunt. Good- 
yera repens Am. auth. and var. ophioides Fernald. Cold mossy woods: N.S. 
N.C. S.D. N.M. Alaska. Mont. Jl-Au. 

2. P. decipiens (Hook.) Piper. Scape 2-4 dm. high, glandular-pubescent; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 cm. long, acute at both ends, often without blotches; 
spike one-sided; flowers 7-9 mm. long; upper sepal concave, ovate-lanceolate, 
the tip long, often recurved; anthers ovate, long-pointed. G. Menziesii Lindl. 
P. Menziesii (Lindl.) Morong. Woods: Que. N.H. Minn. Ariz. Calif. 
Alaska. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

14. MALAXIS Soland. ADDER'S MOUTH. 

Caulescent perennial herbs, with corms. Leaves 2 or in our species 1, on the 
stem. Flowers in terminal racemes, white or greenish. Sepals distinct, spread- 
ing. Lateral petals very narrow, often filiform, spreading. Lip broad, cordate 



ORCHIS FAMILY 183 

or auricled at the base. Fertile anther 1, 2-celled, erect between the auricles 
Pollmia 4, two in each sac, waxy, tail-less and without glands. Column em- 
bracing the lip. [Microstylis Nutt. Achroanthes Raf.] 

Lip ovate, acuminate. 1 \f m 

Lip broadly obcordate. with a tooth in the sinus. 2. M. u 

1. M. mpnophylla (L.) Sw. Corm small, ovoid; stem 1-1.5 dm. high 
glabrous, striate; leaf-blade 3-5 cm. long, oval, elliptic, or ovate; pedicels 2-4 
mm. long, nearly erect; capsule ellipsoid, 6 mm. long. Microstylis monophylla 
Lindl. A. monophylla Greene. Woods: Que. Pa. Colo. Man.; Eu. Plain 
Submont. Jl-Au. 

2. M. unifolia Michx. Corm globose; stem 1-2.5 dm. high; leaf-blade 
ovate or nearly orbicular, 2-6 cm. long; flowers greenish, about 2 mm. long; 
pedicels 6-10 mm. long. Microstylis ophioglossoides Nutt. Achroanthes unifolia 
Raf. Woods: Newf. Fla. Ala. Neb. Sask. Plain. Jl-Au. 

15. LIPARIS L. C. Rich. TWAYBLADE. 

Low, scapose, perennial herbs, with corms. Leaves 2-6, basal. Flowers in 
terminal racemes, greenish. Sepals narrow, distinct. Lateral petals distinct, 
filiform. Lip dilated, often bearing two tubercles above the base. Column 
elongated, incurved, margined above. Fertile anther solitary, terminal, lid- 
like. Pollinia 4, two in each sac, waxy; each pair slightly united, without tails 
and glands. [Leptorchis Thouars.] 

1. L. Loeselii (L.) L. C. Rich. Corm globose; scape 5-20 cm. high, ribbed; 
leaves basal, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, obtuse; flowers green- 
ish; lip obovate, pointed, shorter than the sepals; capsule about 1 cm. long, 
wide-angled on thick erect pedicels. Leptorchis Loeselii McMill. Woods and 
thickets: N.S.Md. Neb. Sask. Plain. 

16. CYTHEREA Salisb. CALYPSO, VENUS' SLIPPER. 

Acaulescent perennial herbs, with corms. Leaf solitary, basal, petioled, 
with a broad blade. Flower solitary, terminal, showy. Sepals and lateral 
petals distinct, similar. Lip large, saccate, with two short spurs near the apex, 
hairy within. Column dilated, petal-like, bearing a lid-like anther just below 
the apex. Pollinia two in each sac, united, sessile on a broad gland. [Calypso 
Salisb.] 

Beard of the lip yellow. 1. C. bulbosa. 

Beard of the lip white. 2. C. occidentalis. 

1. C. bulbosa (L) House. Corm nearly globose, 1 cm. in diameter; scape 
5-15 cm. high; leaf-blade rounded-ovate, 2-4 cm. long, nearly as wide, acute at 
the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base; flowers variegated, purple, pink 
and yellow; petals and sepals 10-15 mm. long, with 3 purple lines; lip large, 15- 
20 mm. long. Calypso borealis Salisb. Cold woods: Lab. Me. Mich. Colo. 
Calif. Alaska; Eu. Submont. Subalp. My-Je. 

2. C. occidentalis (Holz.) Heller. Corm rounded-ellipsoid; plant closely 
resembling the preceding species, but the lip comparatively narrower and longer, 
usually fully 2 cm. long, and sepals and petals less strongly purple- veined. 
Calypso bulbosa f. occidentalis Holz. Cold woods: Calif. -Ida. B.C. Sub- 
mont. Mont. Ap-Je. 

17. APLECTRUM Nutt. ADAM AND EVE, PurrY-ROor. 

Acaulescent perennial herbs, with a chain of corms, representing each a sea- 
son's growth. Stem scape- like, leafless, a solitary long-petioled leaf being pro- 
duced from the corm in the fall. Flowers in terminal racemes, showy. Sepals 
and lateral petals almost similar, narrow. Lip slightly clawed, spur-less, with 
3 ridges. Fertile anther solitary, a little below the summit of the column. Pol- 
linia 4. 



184 ORCHIDACEAE 

1. A. spicatum (Walt.) B.S.P. Scape glabrous, 3-6 dm. high, with a few 
scales; leaf-blade ovate or elliptic, or obovate, 1-1.5 cm. long; flowers dull yellow- 
ish brown, streaked with purple, fully 2 cm. long; lip shorter than the petals, 
obtuse, somewhat 3-lobed; capsule oblong-ovoid, 2 cm. long. A. hyemale 
Nutt. Woods: Ont. Ga. Mo. Sask. Boreal My-Je. 

18. CORALLORRHIZA R. Br. CORAL-ROOT. 

Leafless saprophytic herbs, with coralloid roots. Stems scaly, colored. Flow- 
ers in terminal spikes. Sepals nearly equal, the lateral ones united with the 
foot of the column, and often forming a short spur, partly or wholly adnate to 
the top of the ovary. Lateral petals similar to the sepals. Lip broad, spread- 
ing, adnate to the base of the 2-edged or 2-winged column. Fertile anther soli- 
tary, terminal, lid-like. Pollinia 4, waxy, free. 

Spur small, adnate to the ovary. 

Lip entire, ovate, sinuate; whole plant yellow. 1. C. ochroleuca. 
Lip with 2 lobes or teeth below the middle; plant brownish, rarely yellowish. 
Column about half as long as the petals; sepals erect. 

Lip unspotted; teeth or lobes small; spur very small. 2. C. Corallorrhiza. 

Lip spotted; lobes prominent; spur manifest. 3. C. multiflora. 

Column almost equalling the petals; sepals reflexed. 4. C. Mertensiana. 
Spur lacking. 

Petals and sepals 12-14 mm. long, elliptic. 5. C. striata. 

Petals and sepals 7-8 mm. long, oblong. 6. C. Vreelandii. 

1. C. ochroleuca Rydb. Stem 2-4 dm. high, not bulbous-thickened at the 
base; raceme 10-15-flowered; flowers 15-20 mm. long, light yellow, unspotted; 
petals and sepals 7-8 mm. long, oblong-lanceolate, acute, with prominent mid- 
vein. Woods: w Neb. Colo. Utah. Submont. Je-Jl. 

2. C. Corallorrhiza (L.) Karst. Stem glabrous, 1-3 dm. high, usually 
yellowish; racemes 3-7 cm. long, 3-12-flowered; flowers greenish yellow or green- 
ish brown, about 1 cm. long; lip oblong, yellowish or whitish; spur a sack or 
small protuberance; capsule 8-12 mm. long. C. innata R. Br. Woods: N.S. 
Ga. Colo. Alaska; Eu. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

3. C. multiflora Nutt. Stem 2-5 dm. high, purplish, with many scales; 
racemes 10-30-flowered; flowers 12-18 mm. long, brownish purple; lip white, 
spotted and lined with purple, oval in outline, deeply 3-lobed, crenulate, the 
middle lobe longer; spur about 2 mm. long; capsule 15-20 mm. long. Woods: 
N.S.Fla. Calif. Alaska. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

4. C. Mertensiana Bong. Scape 2-4 dm. high, glabrous, purple; raceme 
10-20-flowered; flowers purplish; lip entire, broadly oblong, narrowed at the 
base, thin, concave; spur about 2 mm. long, the lower half free from the ovary; 
capsule fully 2 cm. long. Woods: Alaska Mont. Ida. Calif. Mont. Je- 
Au. 

6. C. striata Lindl. Stem stout, 2-5 dm. high, purple; raceme 10-25- 
flowered; flowers purple with dark veins; lip oval or obovate, entire, undulate, 
about as long as the petals; column half as long as the petals; capsule ellipsoid, 
reflexed, 15-20 mm. long. Woods: Ont. N.Y. Mich. Wyo. -Calif. B.C. 
Submont. My-Jl. 

6. C. Vreelandii Rydb. Stem rather stout, 2-4 dm. high, dark purplish 
brown; flowers 6-15, about 15 mm. long, in fruit drooping; sepals with 3 purple 
stripes; petals slightly broader and with 4 stripes; lip ovate, entire. Wet woods: 
Colo. N.M. Mont.Subalp. Je. 



Subclass 2. DICOTYLEDONES. 

Embryo mostly with 2 seed-leaves, if with only one seed-leaf, 
the first leaves opposite. Stem exogenous, i. e., differentiated into 
pith, wood, and bark; fibro-vascular bundles arranged in concen- 
tric layers around the pith, the new bundles being formed between 
the wood and the bark. Leaves usually pinnately or palmately 
veined, with ramifying veins. Parts of the flowers mostly in 5's, 
less commonly in 4's or 2's, seldom in 3's. 

FAMILY 30. SALICACEAE. WILLOW FAMILY. 

Dioecious trees or shrubs, with soft wood and simple alternate leaves. 
Flowers in bracted aments, solitary in the axils of scale-like bractlets. Peri- 
anth represented by one or more glands or a cup-like disk. Stamens one 
or more. Pistil solitary, with 2-4 parietal placentae, becoming a dehiscent 
capsule; seeds numerous, bearing a tuft of hairs at the apex; endosperm 
wanting. 

Bractlets incised; flowers with a cup-shaped disk; stamens usually more than 10; stigmas 
expanded; winter-buds with several scales 1. POPULUS. 

Bractlets entire or denticulate; flowers with one or more glands; stamens 2-7, in most 
species only 2; stigmas narrow; winter-buds with but 1 scale each. 2. SALIX. 

1. POPULUS (Tourn.) L. POPLAR, COTTONWOOD, ASPEN. 

Trees, with furrowed bark and often resinous buds of more than one scale. 
Leaves petioled, usually with broad, toothed or even lobed blades, and caducous 
stipules. Flowers in drooping aments; bractlets membranous, lobed or fimbriate 
at the apex, usually caducous. Disk present, oblique, entire, toothed, or lobed. 
Stamens adnate to the disk; filaments distinct, glabrous; anthers purple, orange, 
or red. Ovary sessile in the disk; style short; stigmas 2-4, dilated. Ovules 
anatropous. Capsule opening by 2-4 valves. 

Leaves not white-tomentose beneath, toothed or rarely entire. 
Petioles strongly flattened laterally. 

Leaves suborbicular, acute or very short-acuminate, finely crenate or subentire. 
Leaf-blades with 2 conspicuous glands beneath at the base. 

1. P. cercidiphylla. 

Leaf-blades not glandular at the base. 2. P. tremuloides. 

Leaves broadly deltoid, cordate, or ovate, abruptly acuminate, coarsely toothed, 

especially about the middle. 
Cup of the pistillate flowers 6-8 mm. broad. 

Pedicels equalling or exceeding the capsules; leaf-blades longer than broad; 

teeth few, less than 10 on each side. 3. P. Wislizeni. 

Pedicels shorter than the capsules; leaf-blades usually broader than long; 
teeth more than 10 on each side, sometimes obscure. 

4. P. Fremontu. 
Cup of the pistillate flowers less than 5 mm. broad; teeth of the leaves many, 

more than 10 on each side; pedicels shorter than the capsule. 
Leaves flabellate-cordate, with a broad, concave, entire sinus. 

5. P. Sargentn. 
Leaf-blades ovate, rounded or cuneate at the base, which is more or less 

toothed; only the blades of the young shoots cordate. 

6. P. Besseyana. 

Petioles terete or nearly so. 

Petioles at least half as long as the blades ; blades cordate, ovate, or broadly Ian- 
Leaves green on both sides> abruptly long-acuminate. 7. P. acuminata. 
Leaves paler beneath, acute or somewhat acuminate. 

Fruit sessile, usually 3-carpellary. ,*_. 

Ovary and capsule densely pubescent, subglobose. 8. P. tnchocarpa. 

185 



186 SALICACEAE 

Ovary and fruit glabrous, but slightly warty, ovoid. 

9. P. hastata. 
Fruit pedicelled, 2-carpellary, glabrous; capsule ovoid. 

Twigs, petioles, and veins glabrous. 10. P. balsamifera. 

Twigs, petioles, and veins of the lower surface of the leaves more or less 

pubescent. 11. P. candicans. 

Petioles about one-third as long as the blade or less. 

Leaves cordate at the base. 12. P. Tweedyi. 

Leaf-blades lanceolate, usually acute at the base. 13. P. angustifolia. 

Leaves white-tomentose beneath, often lobed. 14. P. alba. 

1. P. cercidiphylla Brit ton. A small tree, with light grayish bark; petioles 
1.5-2 cm. long; leaf-blades orbicular or somewhat reniform, slightly cordate at 
the base, dull green, somewhat paler beneath, entire or slightly undulate, about 
3.5 dm. wide. Hoback Basin, Wyo. Submont. 

2. P. tremuloides Michx. A slender tree, with light green or whitish bark, 
up to 30 m. high; petioles 4-6 cm. long; leaf -blades rounded or subcordate at 
base, 2-6 cm. broad, green and glabrous, ciliate on the margin; bracts silky, 
deeply 3-5-cleft into linear lobes; stamens 6-12; stigma-lobes linear; capsule 
conic, warty. The western tree may be distinct, and if so should be known as 
P. aurea Tidestrom. QUAKING ASPEN. Cold places, sub-alpine forests: Newf. 
N.J. Tenn N.M. Nev. Alaska. Submont. Subalp. Mr-My. 

3. P. Wislizeni (S. Wats.) Sarg. A tree about 15 m. high, with gray trunk 
and yellow branches; petioles glabrous, 4-7 cm. long; leaf -blades truncate or 
broadly reniform, or sometimes broadly cuneate at the base; aments 5-10 cm. 
long; bracts light red, fringed, with linear lobes; capsule ovoid, papillose. COT- 
TONWOOD. Valleys and river banks: Tex. Colo. Ariz. n Mex. Son. 
Mont. Mr-My. 

4. P. Fremontii S. Wats. A tree occasionally 35 m. high, with dark brown 
trunk and gray branches; petioles 5-7 cm. long; blades broadly cordate-deltoid, 
with an open rounded sinus at the base, 4-7 cm. long, 5-10 cm. broad; aments 
5-10 cm. long; capsule 8-12 mm. long. COTTONWOOD. Along rivers and in 
canons: Calif. s Utah Ariz. L. Calif. Son. F-Mr. 

5. P. Sargentii Dode. A tree sometimes 30 m. high, with gray trunk and 
straw-colored or light yellow branches; petioles about as long as the blades; leaf- 
blades broadly deltoid or cordate, abruptly acuminate at the apex, glabrous and 
shining, 5-10 cm. long; aments 5-8 cm. long; capsules ovoid, muricate, on pedirels 
4-6 mm. long. P. occidentalis Rydb. WESTERN or RIVER COTTONWOOD. River 
bottoms: Sask. Kans. Ariz. Alta. Plain Submont. Mr-Ap. 

6. P. Besseyana Dode. A tree about 10 m. high, with gray trunk and 
yellowish terete branches; petioles about as long as the leaf -blades; blades abruptly 
acuminate, 5-10 cm. long, glabrous and shining, slightly paler beneath; aments 
7-8 cm. long; pedicels shorter than the fruit; capsule ovoid, about 5 mm. long, 
muricate, 3-valved; stigma dilated. Valleys: Mont. Ida. Submont. Ap-Je. 

7. P. acuminata Rydb. A tree up to about 20 m. high, with brownish or 
gray trunk and straw-colored branches; petioles 3-7 cm. long; leaf-blades 
rhombic-lanceolate to ovate, usually cuneate at the base, finely crenate, green 
and glabrous on both sides; arnents 3-5 cm. long, or the pistillate in fruit 10-15 
cm.; capsule ovoid, blunt, 6-8 mm. long, papillose; pedicels in fruit 3-5 mm. 
long. RYDBERG'S or SMOOTH-BARKED COTTONWOOD. River banks: Sask. 
Tex. Ariz. Mont. Plain Submont. Ap-My. 

P. acuminata X Sargentii Sarg. Intermediate between the parents, with the fine 
serrations, cuneate base, and texture of the leaves of P. acuminata, but with the broader 
leaves and darker branchlets of P. Sargentii. P. Andrewsii Sarg. Colo. 

8. P. trichocarpa T. & G. A tree sometimes 60-70 m. high, with gray 
trunk and orange or gray, pubescent branches; petioles 2-6 cm. long; leaf -blades 
broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or short-acuminate at the apex, cordate, 
truncate, or rounded at the base, 8-12 cm. long, finely crenate, dark green above, 
pale beneath, usually pubescent when young; aments 4-7 cm. long. WESTERN 
BALSAM POPLAR. River banks: Alaska Mont. Calif. Plain Submont. Ap- 
My. 



WILLOW FAMILY 187 

9. P. hastata Dode. A tree 10-20 m. high, with gray trunk and branches; 
petioles 3-4 cm. long, glabrous; leaf -blades ovate, ovate-deltoid, or subcordate, 
dark green above, pale beneath, mostly acuminate, rounded or cordate at the 
base, crenulate, 6-10 cm. long; aments 5-12 cm. long; cup 4-5 mm. wide. Val- 
leys: Alta. Mont. Ida. Submont. Mont. Ap-Je. 

10. P. balsamifera L. A tree sometimes 25 m. high, with reddish gray 
trunk and light brown or gray branches; petioles 2-5 cm. long; leaf-blades ovate 
to ovate-lanceolate, dark green and shining above, pale beneath, acute or acum- 
inate at the apex, rounded or cuneate at the base, crenulate, 7-12 cm. long; 
aments 5-10 cm. long. BALSAM POPLAR. Along streams and lakes: Newf. 
N.Y. Colo. Nev. Alaska. Submont. Mont. Ap. 

11. P. candicans Michx. A tree sometimes 30 m. high, with gray trunk 
and round branches, pubescent when young, in age glabrate; petioles pubescent 
or ciliate; leaf-blades broadly ovate, acute or acuminate at the apex, cordate or 
truncate at the base, 6-15 cm. long, 3-12 cm. wide, dark green above, pale 
beneath, crenate; aments 6-12 cm. long; capsule oblong-ovoid, smooth, short- 
stalked. BALM OF GILEAD. Roadsides and river banks: Newf. N.J. S.D. 
Alta. Alaska. Boreal. Ap-My. 

12. P. Tweedyi Britton. A small tree, with yellowish twigs; petioles stout, 
5-12 mm. long; leaf-blades ovate to nearly round, acute, finely crenate, cordate 
or rounded at the base, 3-7 cm. long, dark green above, paler beneath; aments 
3-4 cm. long, in fruit 6 cm. ; capsules ovoid, densely papillose, 4 mm. long; pedicels 
about 1 mm. long. COTTONWOOD. River bottoms: Wyo. Submont. 

13. P. angustifolia James. A slender tree, sometimes 20 m. high, with 
upright branches and greenish bark; petioles 6-12 mm. long; leaf-blades lanceo- 
late to ovate, acute or gradually acuminate at the apex, cuneate, rounded or 
rarely subcordate at the base, green above, paler beneath, finely crenate, 5-12 
cm. long; aments 2-6 cm. long; capsule ovoid, rugose. P. coloradensis Dode. 
P. fortissimo, Nels. & Macb. NARROW-LEAVED or BLACK COTTONWOOD. Along 
streams: Sask. Neb. N.M. Ida.; n Mex. Plain Mont. Ap-My. 

14. P. alba L. A large tree, sometimes 35 m. high, with light gray bark; 
petioles shorter than the blades, subterete; leaf -blades densely white-tomentose 
on both sides, becoming glabrate and dark green above, broadly ovate or or- 
bicular in outline, 3-5-lobed and irregularly toothed, 6-10 cm. long; aments 
3-6 cm. long; capsules elliptic, subsessile. WHITE or SILVER POPLAR. In 
yards and along roadsides: N.B. Va. N.M. Utah; cult, and escaped, native 
of Eurasia. Mr-My. 

2. SALIX (Tourn.) L. WILLOW. 

Trees or shrubs, usually with flaky bark and slender, flexible twigs; bud of 
only one scale. Leaves alternate, petioled or subsessile, pinnately veined, 
usually finely toothed. Bractlets of aments entire or rarely denticulate, with 
one or more gland-like nectaries at the base of the stamens or the pistil. Sta- 
mens 1-7, usually 2; anthers usually yellow. Ovary more or less stipitate; 
stigmas 2, often 2-cleft, with narrow branches. Capsule dehiscent at the apex 
into 2 valves. 

Capsule glabrous, or slightly silky when young in nos. 12, 14, and 16. 

Filaments hairy, at least below; bractlets caducous, light yellow; style very short, 
obsolete, or none, evident only in nos. 16 and 18; aments in all ours on short 
leafy branches. 
Stamens 3-7; stipe slender, 2-5 times as long as the nectaries. 

Petioles without glands; leaves remotely serrulate, thin. I. AMYGDALINAE. 
Petioles with glands; leaves densely glandular-serrate, firmer. 

II. PENTANDRAE. 
Stamens 2; stipes usually very short. 

Leaf-blades lanceolate, acuminate. III. ALBAE. 

Leaf-blades linear or linear-lanceolate, acute, rarely acuminate. 

IV. LONGIFOLIAE. 

Filaments glabrous; bractlets persistent, rarely light yellow. 

Trees, or erect or ascending shrubs, several dm. high; leaf-blades more than 1 cm. 

long; style evident. V. CORDATAE. 

Depressed prostrate shrubs, 1-3 cm. high; leaf-blades less than 1 cm. long; style 
none. VI. RETUSAE. 



188 SALICACEAE 

Capsule hairy. 

Filaments hairy; bractlets caducous; leaf-blades linear to lanceolate, not very veiny. 

IV. LONGIFOLIAE. 

Filaments glabrous, or if somewhat hairy, leaf-blades oval or orbicular, very veiny; 

bractlets persistent. 
Capsule rostrate, distinctly stipibate; style none or short, always shorter than the 

stipe. 
Stipe equalling or exceeding the bractlets; style 0.5 mm. long or less. 

VII. ROSTRATAE. 

Stipe shorter than the bractlets; style usually 1 mm. long. 

VIII. CAPREAE. 

Capsule scarcely rostrate, subsessile or, if stipitate, stipe shorter than the style. 
Style evident, at least 0.5 mm. long. 

Leaves permanently silky or tomentose beneath. IX. ARGENTEAE. 

Leaves neither silky-white nor tomentose beneath. X. ARCTICAE. 

Style none; depressed or low shrubs, with entire strongly reticulate leaves. 

XI. RETICULATAE. 

I. AMYGDALINAE. 
Bractlets entire. 

Leaves narrowly lanceolate; petioles short. 

Bark of twigs brownish; aments long and lax; leaf-blades broadest below the mid- 
dle, long-acuminate. 1. S. nigra. 
Bark of twigs light yellow; aments short and dense; leaf-blades usually broadest 

at or above the middle, short-acuminate. 2. S. Wrightii. 

Leaf-blades broadly lanceolate; petioles slender, 6-15 mm. long. 

3. S. amygdaloides. 
Bractlets denticulate. 4. S. laevigata. 

II. PENTANDRAE. 

Leaves narrowly oblanceolate, acute, drying blackish; bractlets of the staminate aments 

ovate, and of pistillate lanceolate, neither toothed. 5. S. erythrocoma. 

Leaves lanceolate to ovate; bractlets of the staminate aments obovate or spatulate, 

usually toothed; those of the pistillate aments oblong. 
Bractlets densely white- villous ; stipe of the capsules scarcely twice as long as the 

nectaries. 6. S. serissima. 

Bractlets sparingly hairy; stipe of the capsules 3-4 times as long as the nectaries. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovate; glands of the leaves very prominent; those on 

the petioles often stalked. 7. S. lucida. 

Leaves lanceolate; glands of the leaf-blades not very prominent; those on the 

petioles always sessile. 
Leaf-blades usually less than 1 dm. long, green on both sides; aments short. 

8. S. Fendleriana. 
Mature leaf-blades often 1 dm. long, glaucous beneath; aments elongate. 

9. S. Lyallii. 
III. ALBAE. 

One species. 10. S. alba. 

IV. LONGIFOLIAE. 
Capsule glabrous or slightly silky when young. 

Leaves with close serrations, glaucous and prominently veined beneath. 

11. S. melqnopsis. 
Leaves entire or with distant serrations, neither glaucous nor strongly veined beneath. 

Styles none. 

Leaves permanently silky. 

Leaves 3-5 mm. wide; ovary without a hairy swelling at the apex. 

12. S. exigua. 
Leaves 2-3 mm. wide; ovary with a hairy swelling at the apex. 

13. S. stenophylla. 
Leaves glabrous in age, or nearly so. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate; bractlets ovate or obovate, obtuse. 

14. 5. interior. 
Leaves narrowly linear; bractlets lanceolate, acute. 

15. S. lineari folia. 
Styles evident; aments dense; bractlets densely silky. 16. S. sessilifolia. 

Capsule permanently densely pubescent. 

Stigma sessile; leaves entire or nearly so. 17. S. argophylla. 

Stigma on a distinct style, which is 0.5 mm. long; leaves dentate. 

18. S. macrostachya. 

V. CORDATAE. 

Leaves white-tomentose or white-villous beneath. 

Leaves entire, or minutely denticulate; aments 3-4 cm. long; bractlets silky-pilose. 
Leaves permanently appressed-silky. 19. S. Sandbergii. 

Leaves in age glabrous and shining, at least above. 20. S. lasiolepis. 

Leaves usually crenate, villous, 3-8 cm. long; aments 3-6 cm. long; bractlets densely 

villous. 21. S. Hookeriana. 

Leaves glabrous or hairy, but not densely white-pubescent beneath. 
Branches without a bloom. 

Capsule long-stipitate; stipe in fruit 1.5-6 mm. long, equalling or exceeding the 

bractlets; style 0.5 mm. long or less. 

Leaves dark green above; young branches not light yellow; aments on short 
leafy branches. 



WILLOW FAMILY 189 

Ma itf width 68 rather thin> dull; length of the blade less than three times 
Mature leaves firm, dark green, shining above, pSelieSS^fe'ngth of 

the blade three times the width or more 
Stipe in fruit 2-4 times as long as the brackets; mature leaves slightly 

StipTs'lfghtly if at all exceeding the bractlets. ^ & Mackenziana - 
Mature leaves lanceolate, strongly serrate. 

Mature leaves oblong or oblanceolate, entire. 

Leaves yellowish green; young branches light yellow ^tmfnfi'naked^or sub- 
tended by a few small leaves. 

Leaves usually long-acuminate, serrate. 26 S lutea 

Leaves acute or rarely short-acuminate, entire or indistinctly crenulate. 

Capsule short-stipitate or subsessile; stipe in fruit less than 1.5 mm. long and much 

shorter than the bractlets; style 0.5-1 mm. long 
Leaves more or less dentate, rarely subentire. 

Young leaves and twigs rather densely pubescent with long white hairs- 

the former glandular-denticulate or dentate. 
Bractlets fuscous. 28 S Barklam 

Bractlets yellowish or light brown. 29. S. commutata. 

Young leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent. 

Capsules 7-8 mm. long; leaf-blades broadly ovate or obovate, glandular- 

dentate. 30. S. Tweedyi. 

Capsule 4-6 mm. long; leaf-blades narrowly obovate to lanceolate 
Leaves dark green above, not reticulate. 

Leaves blackening in drying, finely glandular-dentate. 

31. S. conjuncta. 
Leaves not blackening in drying. 

Leaves thin, ovate, elliptic, or obovate, light green and dull 

above; capsule ovoid. 32. S. padophylla. 

Leaves thick, firm, shining above; capsule lance-ovoid. 
Style 0.5-1 mm. long; aments on short leafy branches, 

2-3 cm. long. 33. S. monticola. 

Style 1-1.5 mm. long; aments subsessile, 3-4 cm long. 

34. S. curtiflora. 
Leaves yellowish green, conspicuously reticulate, thin. 

Leaves acute or acuminate, serrate. 35. S. pseudomyrsinites. 
Leaves obtuse or rounded at the apex, crenate. 

36. S. myrtillifolia. 
Leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or oblong; aments subsessile. 

naked. 

Leaves permanently silky; a low shrub. 37. S. Wolfii. 

Leaves glabrous in age; tree or tall shrub. 20. S. lasiolepis. 

Branches with a bloom, purple. 38. S. irrorata. 

VI. RETUSAE. 
One species. 39. S. Dodgeana. 

VII. ROSTRATAE. 

Leaves linear to lanceolate or obianceolate. 

Leaves sharply serrate, narrowly lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long. 40. S. petiolaris. 
Leaves entire or nearln^o, linear, less than 5 cm. long. 

Leaves more or less silky, oblanceolate; branches purplish, usually with a bloom. 

41. S. Geyeriana. 

Leaves not silky, linear; branches without a bloom. 42. S. gracilis. 

Leaves ovate to obovate or broadly oblanceolate. 

Bracts fuscous, obovate or cuneate. 43. S. discolor. 

Bracts yellow, linear-oblong or lanceolate. 

Mature leaves thin, glabrous. 44. S. perrostrala. 

Mature leaves firm, pubescent or tomentose beneath. 45. S. Bebbiana. 

VIII. CAPREAE. 

Capsule 8-10 mm. long; at least the staminate aments not leafy-bracted. 

Leaves obovate, entire or nearly so, densely silky and fulvous, almost velutinous when 
young, in age glabrate above; bractlets fuscous, obovate. 

46. S. Scouleriana. 
Leaves oblanceolate, closely and finely serrulate, puberulent when young; bractlets 

yellow, oblong. 67. S. MacCalliana. 

Capsule 6 mm. long or less ; aments leafy-bracted. 

Bractlets black, thinly pilose; style about 1 mm. long; leaves glabrate in age. 

47. S. Lemmoni. 
Bractlets brownish, villous; style about 0.5 mm. long; leaves silvery-silky beneath. 

54. S. argyrocarpa. 

IX. ARGENTEA. 
Aments more than 1 cm. broad; ovary over 5 mm. long. 

Leaves obovate, ovate, or broadly oblanceolate. 

Bractlets obovate, fuscous; leaves usually obovate. 

Twigs white- villous; leaf-blades entire. 48. S. alaxensis. 



190 SALICACEAE 

Twigs puberulent; leaf-blades usually glandular-denticulate. 

49. S. Barrattiana- 
Bractlets oblong, yellow; leaf-blades usually broadly oblanceolate. 

63. S. Seemannii. 
Leaves oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; bractlets oblong. 

Leaves silvery-silky beneath, not strongly reticulate; bractlets black. 

50. S. bella. 
Leaves white-tomentose beneath, strongly reticulate; bractlets brown. 

51. S. Candida. 
Aments less than 1 cm. broad; ovary less than 5 mm. long. 

Leaves broadly obovate. 

Twigs puberulent; bractlets light brown; stamen 1. 52. S. sitchensis. 

Twigs glabrous; bractlets blackish; stamens 2. 53. S. Drummondiana. 

Leaves oblong, lanceolate, or oblanceolate. 

Bractlets yellow or brown; stipes 3-4 times as long as the nectaries ; style less than 

0.5 mm. long. 54. S. argyrocarpa. 

Bractlets fuscous; stipes less than twice as long as the nectaries. 

Style about 0.5 mm. long; bractlets obtuse. 55. S. arbusculoides. 

Style 1-2 mm. long. 

Branches without a bloom; leaves tomentose beneath. 

56. S. pellita. 
Branches with a bloom; leaves white-silky beneath. 

Aments peduncled and leafy-bracted. 57. S. subcoerulea. 

Aments sessile and naked. 58. S. pachnophora. 

X. ARCTIC AE. 
Aments on leafy peduncles. 

Leaves grayish villous on both sides, less so on the upper. 
Twigs white- villous or silky; branches yellow or grayish. 

Leaves villous; capsules densely pubescent. 59. S. brachycarpa. 

Leaves silky; capsules finely and sparingly pubescent. 

60. S. idahoensis. 
Twigs puberulent; branches usually purplish. 

Bractlets black or with blackish tips. 

Leaves oblong, 23 cm. long; bractlets obovate; branches divergent. 

61. S. pseudolapponum. 
Leaves oblanceolate or obovate, 3-6 cm. long; bractlets oblong; branches 

ascending. 62. S. glaucops. 

Bractlets yellow, oblong. 63. S. Seemannii. 

Leaves glabrate or when young covered with white hairs parallel to the midrib. 
Shrubs not creeping, although often depressed. 

Leaves broadly oval, often minutely glandular-dentate. 

64. S. subcordata. 
Leaves narrower. 

Leaves oblong or oblanceolate, or ovate. 

Leaves 24 cm. long; capsule 3-5 mm. long. 

Bractlets yellow or brown, oblong; leaves elliptic or oblanceolate, 

thin, darkening in drying; twigs purple. 65. S. desertorum. 
Bractlets fuscous at the apex; leaves oblong, not blackening in 
drying. 61. S. pseudolapponum. 

Leaves 4-6 cm. long. 

Bractlets fuscous; leaves elliptic or oblong, obtuse or acute, usually 

reticulate; glabrous only in age. 62. S. glaucops. 

Bractlets yellow or brown ; leaves usuall-r short-acuminate, glabrous 

except when very young, not reticulate. 
Leaves entire or sparingly glandular-denticulate, oblanceolate. 

66. S. Austinae. 
Leaves finely serrulate, elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate. 

67. S. MacCalliana. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate. 68. S. saskatchewana. 

Shrubs creeping; arctic or alpine. 

Leaves obovate or oblanceolate; aments many-flowered. 

69. S. petrophila. 

Leaves narrowly oblanceolate; aments few-flowered. 70. S. cascadensis. 
Aments naked, from lateral buds. 

Leaves oblanceolate, strongly veined. 71. S. Nelsonii. 

Leaves elliptic, not strongly veined. 72. 3. chlorophylla. 

XI. RETICULATAE. 

Leaves covered beneath with long white silky hairs. 73. S. Fernaldii. 

Leaves at least in age not silky. 

Leaf-blade over 1 cm. long; aments comparatively many-flowered. 

Filaments very hairy on the lower part; leaves strongly reticulate; bracts broadly 
obovate, fuscous, the upper portion almost glabrous. 

74. S. orbicularis. 
Filaments almost glabrous; leaves less strongly reticulate; bracts cuneate-oblong, 

yellow, almost glabrous. 75. S. saximontana. 

Leaf-blade 1 cm. or less long; aments few-flowered; bractlets yellow, almost glabrous. 

76. S. nivalis. 



WILLOW FAMILY 191 

1. S. nigra Marsh. A tree 10-20 m., rarely 30-40 m. high; leaf-blades 
6-12 cm. long, bright green on both sides, finely serrate, usually more or less 
falcate; aments appearing with the leaves, the staminate ones 4-6 cm long- 
bractlets ovate, finely villous; pistillate aments 4-8 cm. or in fruit 10-12 cm! 
long; bractlets oblong, finely pubescent; capsule about 3 mm. long; stipe 1-15 

mm. long. BLACK WILLOW. River banks and wet places: N.B. Fla. Tex 

N.D. Plain. Ap-My. 

5. amygdaloides X nigra Glattf. This hybrid is intermediate between the two 
parents, with narrower leaves, less glaucous beneath, and with shorter petioles than in 
S. amygdaloides, but broader leaves and with longer petioles than in S niara In the 
eastern part of the range. 

2. S. Wrightii Anders. A tree 8-10 m. high; bark of the stem flaky, gray 
leaf-blades 5-15 cm. long, light and usually yellowish green above, paler and 
sometimes glaucous beneath, finely serrate; aments 2-7 cm. long; bractlets of 
the staminate aments ovate, finely pubescent, those of the pistillate ones oblong; 

capsule about 4 mm. long; stipe 1-2 mm. long. River banks: Tex. Colo. 

Nev. s Calif.; n Mex. Son. Submont. Ap-My. 

3. S. amygdaloides Anders. A tree up to 20 m. high; twigs yellowish; 
leaf-blades 8-12 cm. long, acuminate, finely serrate, paler and somewhat glau- 
cous beneath; aments 3-5 cm. long; bractlets oblong or lanceolate, somewhat 
pubescent; capsule about 5 mm. long; stipe 1-2 mm. long. PEACH-LEAVED 
WILLOW. River and lake banks: Que. N.Y. Mo. Tex. Ariz. Ore. 08. C. 
Plain Submont. Ap-My. 

4. S. laevigata Bebb. A tree 5-15 m. high; trunk with brown fissured 
bark; twigs yellowish, pubescent when young; leaves lanceolate or lance-oblong, 
acute or acuminate, 7-15 cm. long, dark green and glossy above, pale or glaucous 
beneath, minutely serrate; aments 5-10 cm. long; bractlets villous, dentate, in 
the staminate aments obovate, in the pistillate ones narrower; stipe 3 to 4 times 
as long as the glands. Along streams: Ore. Utah Calif. Son. Ap-Je. 

6. S. erythrocoma Barrett. A shrub or small tree (?); bark of the twigs 
dark, purplish brown; leaf -blades 3-5 cm. long, finely glandular-serrate, reddish 
pubescent when young, in age glabrate on both sides; aments 2-4 cm. long. S. 
arguta erythrocoma Anders. Banks of rivers and lakes: Man. B.C. Mack. 

6. S. serisstma (Bailey) Fern. A shrub 2-4 m. high; leaf-blades lanceo- 
late, acute or acuminate, when mature dark green, shining above, pale beneath, 
thick and firm, 4-10 cm. long, closely and finely glandular-serrate; aments 1-2.5 
cm. long; capsules 7-12 mm. long. S. pallescens hirtisquama Anders. AUTUMN 
WILLOW. Swamps: Mass. N.J. Wis. Minn. Sask. Boreal. My-Jl. 

7. S. lucida Muhl. A tall shrub or sometimes a tree 6-8 m. high; leaf- 
blades mostly abruptly long-acuminate, acute or rounded at the base, sharply 
glandular-serrate, green and shining, slightly paler beneath, 7-12 cm. long; 
aments 2-5 cm., or the pistillate even 7 cm. long; bractlets sparingly pubescent; 
capsule 5 mm. long. SHINING WILLOW. Swamps and banks: Newf. N.J. 
Ky. Neb. Alta. Boreal. Ap-My. 

8. S. Fendleriana Anders. A shrub or small tree, rarely 10 m. high; leaf- 
blades lanceolate, long-acuminate, finely glandular-dentate, acute at the base, 
6-15 cm. long; aments 2-5 cm. long; bractlets toothed towards the apex; staniens 
5-9; capsule 5 mm. long. S. lasiandra caudata (Nutt.) Sudw. Along mountain 
streams: B.C. Alta. (Black Hills) S.D.N.M. Calif. Submont. Mont. 
Ap-My. 

9. S. Lyallii (Sarg.) Heller. A tree sometimes 20 m. high; bark brown or 
of the twigs yellow; leaf-blades broadly lanceolate, more or less acuminate, finely 
glandular-serrate, 6-20 cm. long; aments 4-8 cm. long, or the pistillate ones 
sometimes 10 cm. long; bractlets toothed above; stamens 5-8; capsule about 6 
mm. long. S. lasiandra Lyallii Sarg. River and lake banks: B.C. Yukon 
Mont. 'Calif. Submont. Ap-My. 

10. S. alba L. A large tree sometimes 30 m. high; leaf-blades serrulate, 
silky-pubescent on both sides when young, pale beneath, 5-12 cm. long; aments 
on short leafy branches, 3-6 cm. long, 4-5 mm. thick; bractlets of the staminate 



192 SALICACEAE 

aTients obovate, those of the pistillate ones lance-oblong; capsule almost sessile, 
4-5 mm. long. WHITE WILLOW. Moist ground, along streams: N.B. Pa. 
Colo.; escaped from cultivation, native of Eu. Plain. Ap-My. 

11. S. melanopsis Nutt. A shrub or small tree; bark chestnut-brown; 
young branches puberulent; leaf -blades oblanceolate or elliptic, subsessile, about 
5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, silky-hairy when young, blackening in drying, somewhat 
glaucous, finely serrate; aments at the end of leafy branches, 5-7 cm. long, cylin- 
dric; bractlets linear-oblong, more or less erose; capsule lanceolate, glabrous. 
DUSKY WILLOW. River banks: B.C. Mont. Ore. Submont. My-Jl. 

12. S. exigua Nutt. A shrub or small tree sometimes 6-7 m. high; twigs 
yellowish or light brown, silky-pubescent when young; leaf -blades linear to 
narrowly linear-lanceolate, 2-8 cm. long, yellowish, silky; staminate aments 
2-6 cm., the pistillate ones 3-5 cm. long; bractlets of the former obovate, of the 
latter broadly lanceolate; capsule elongate-ovoid, slightly silky when young, 
soon glabrate, 4^-5 mm. long. S. luteosericea Rydb. SANDBAR WILLOW. Sand- 
bars: Sask. Okla. Ariz. B.C. Ore. PlainMont. My-Jl. 

13. S. stenophylla Rydb. A shrub 2-5 m. high; young shoots silvery- 
pubescent; leaves narrowly linear, 3-7 cm. long, acute, entire or minutely and 
distantly denticulate, silky-strigose; pistillate aments 3-4 cm. long; bractlets 
oblanceolate; capsule glabrous, about 6 mm. long; staminate aments 2-3 cm. 
long; bractlets more obtuse and more villous. River banks: Colo. N.M. 
Ariz. Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

14. S. interior Rowley. A shrub 1-4 m. high, occasionally a tree 6-9 m. 
high; twigs pubescent when young; leaf -blades 6-10 cm. long, less than 1 cm. 
wide, lance-linear, remotely dentate; aments 2-5 cm. long; bractlets glabrous or 
hairy toward the base, ovate or obovate, rarely oblong; capsule appressed- 
silky when young, soon glabrate. S. longifolia Muhl. SANDBAR WILLOW. 
River banks and snores: Que. Va. La. Tex. Sask. Plain. Je-Jl. 

15. S. linearifolia Rydb. A low shrub, with reddish bark; leaf -blades 
narrowly linear, 4-10 cm. long, remotely dentate; aments loosely flowered, 3-4 
cm. long; bractlets linear-lanceolate, acute, almost glabrous; capsule almost 
glabrous, 3-4 mm. long. S. rubra Richards. S. tenerrima (Howell) Heller. 
Sand-bars: Sask. Okla. Colo. Wash. Plain. My-Je. 

16. S. sessilifolia Nutt. A shrub or small tree sometimes 10 m. high; 
young branches canescent; leaf-blades linear-lanceolate to linear or oblong, 5-10 
cm. long, sessile, obscurely and remotely denticulate or entire, silvery-canescent 
when young, in age more glabrate; aments 6-8 cm. long, nearly 1 cm. thick, 
often several together; capsule silky when young, glabrate in age. Sand-bars: 
(? Mont.) Colo. Calif. Wash. Submont. Je-Jl. 

17. S. argophylla Nutt. A tree or large shrub, usually about 5 m. high; 
young twigs yellow and puberulent, soon glabrate; leaf -blades narrowly linear- 
lanceolate, about 5 cm. long, sessile, densely white-silky on both sides; aments 
3-5 cm. long, 1-2 cm. thick, often in pairs or threes; bractlets of the staminate 
aments oblong and obtuse, those of the pistillate aments lanceolate and acute; 
capsule densely silky, sessile. River banks: Mont. Tex. Calif. Wash. 
Plain Submont. My-Jl. 

18. S. macrostachya Nutt. A shrub or small tree 1-6 m. high; twigs 
densely villous; leaf -blades linear-oblanceolate, about 5 cm. long, sessile, densely 
white- villous; aments often several together, 2-3 cm. long, densely flowered; 
bractlets densely villous all over, oblong; capsule densely villous, sessile. River 
banks: Calif. Ida. B.C. Submont. My-Jl. 

19. S. Sandbergii Rydb. A shrub or small tree; branches chestnut-brown; 
leaves oval or elliptic, 2-4 cm. long, silky on both sides, grayish above, silvery 
beneath; pistillate aments sessile, naked, 4 cm. long; bractlets purple, obovate- 
spatulate, 3 mm. long, white-pilose; capsule glabrous, 4-5 mm. long; stipe about 
1.5 mm. long; style about 0.5 mm. long. S. boiseana A. Nels. Valleys: Ida. 
Submont. Ap-Je. 



WILLOW FAMILY 193 

20. S. lasiolepis Benth. A tree 3-20 m. high, with grayish brown, smooth 
bark; leaves oblanceolate, 10-15 cm. long, often obtuse, more or less short-villous 
when young, in age glabrous and shining above, glaucous or ferrugineous be- 
neath, subcoriaceous hi age; aments sessile or nearly so; bractlets rounded, dark, 
crisp- villous; filaments slightly united at the base; capsule glabrous; stipe short; 
style about 1 mm. long. Along streams: Calif. Utah -Ida. Wash. Son 
Mr-Je. 

21. S. Hookeriana Barrett. A shrub or tree up to 16 m. high; twigs densely 
velvety-canescent when young; leaf -blades broadly obovate or oval, white- 
pubescent when young, in age dark green and more glabrate above, white-villous 
beneath; aments subsessile, naked or nearly so; bractlets obovate, fuscous, but 
usually hidden by the dense white-villous pubescence; capsule about 5 mm. long; 
stipe short; style 0.5-1 mm. long. River banks: Sask. Ore. B.C. Submont. 
Ap-My. 

22. S. balsamifera (Hook.) Barratt. Usually a shrub, about 3 m. high, 
sometimes a small tree up to 8 m. high; leaf-blades thin, ovate, oval, or obovate, 
acute or obtuse at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base, dark green above, 
glaucous beneath, 5-8 cm. long; aments 2-5 cm. long; bractlets persistent, 
brownish or yellowish, silky- villous; capsule 6-8 mm. long; stipe about 3 mm. 
long; style very short. S. . pyrifolia Anders. P. Columbiae Nels. & Macb. 
BALSAM WILLOW. Swamps: Lab. N.Y. Minn. Mont. My. 

23. S. Mackenziana Barratt. A small tree or shrub, sometimes 10 m. 
high; bark brown, glabrous; leaf-blades oblanceolate or lanceolate, 5-10 cm. 
long, acuminate at the apex, crenate or nearly entire, dark green above, pale 
beneath; aments 4-6 cm. long; bractlets obovate, hairy towards the base; capsule 
glabrous, 5-7 mm. long; stipe 3-4 mm. long; style about 0.5 mm. long. DIAMOND 
WILLOW. Along streams: Sask. Man. Ida. Calif. B.C. Mack. Sub- 
mont. Ap-Je. 

24. S. cordata Muhl. A shrub 1.5-4 m. high; leaf -blades from oblong- 
lanceolate and subcordate at the base to narrowly lanceolate and acute at the 
base [var. augustata (Pursh.) Anders., the form found in the Rocky Mountains], 
often somewhat silky-pubescent when young; staminate aments about 2 cm. 
long, the pistillate ones 4-6 mm. long in fruit; bractlets fuscous, white-silky; 
capsule glabrous, 6-7 mm. long; stipe 1-2 mm. long; style minute. HEART- 
LEAVED WILLOW. Wet ground :N.B.Va Colo. Calif. B.C. Plain Mont. 
Ap-My. 

25. S. pedicellaris Pursh. A shrub l.m. high or less; blades oblong, 
elliptic or sometimes oblanceolate, obtuse, entire, 2-4 cm. long, 8-16 mm. wide; 
aments about 2 cm. long; bractlets obtuse, slightly villous; capsule glabrous, 
about 5 mm. long; stipe about 2 mm. long; style minute. S. myrtilloides Am. 
auth., not L. BOG WILLOW. In bogs: N.B. N.J. la. Wash. B.C. Mont. 
Ap-My. 

26. S. lutea Nutt. A shrub or small tree 5-6 m. high, with gray bark; 
leaf -blades lanceolate, 3-7 cm. long, more or less acuminate, somewhat pubes- 
cent when young; aments subsessile, 2-5 cm. long; bractlets brownish, white- 
villous; capsule about 5 mm. long; stipe 1-2 mm. long; style about 0.5 mm. long. 
YELLOW WILLOW. River banks and wet places: Man. Neb. Utah Mont. 
Alta. Submont. -Mont. My-Je. 

27. S. Watsonii (Bebb) Rydb. A shrub or small tree 4-7 m. high; blades 
lanceolate, short-acuminate or acute, 3-7 cm. long; aments 2-3 cm. long, almost 
sessile; capsule ovate, about 6 mm. long; stipe hi fruit often 2 mm. long; style 
about 0.5 mm. long. S. flava Rydb. River banks: Mont. N.M. Calif. 
Submont. My-Je. 

28. S. Barklayi Anders. A tall shrub 1-4 m. high; leaf-blades obovate, 
ovate or oval, 2-5 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate, more or less glaucous 
beneath; aments on short leafy branches, 2-3 cm. long, 8-10 mm. thick; bract- 
lets oblong, obtuse, densely white-villous; capsule about 6 mm. long, subsessile j 
style about 1 mm. long. Mountain meadows: Alaska Wash. 'Mont.; (Gaspe 
Peninsula) Que. Subalp. Alp. My-Au. 

10* 



194 SALICACEAE 

29. S. commutata Bebb. A diffuse shrub 1-3 m. high; branches villous 
when young; leaves broadly oblanceolate or oblong, abruptly pointed; aments 
on short leafy branches, 2-4 cm. long; bractlets woolly; capsule about 5 mm. 
long, greenish or reddish; stipe short; style about 1 mm. long. Alpine and sub- 
alpine bogs: Ore. Ida. B.C. Mont. Alp. Jy-Au. 

30. S. Tweedyi (Bebb) Ball. A tall shrub; twigs at first pubescent with 
gray hairs; leaf -blades acute or obtuse at the apex, from acute to subcordate at 
the base, yellowish green above, paler beneath; aments sessile and naked, ap- 
pearing before the leaves, 4-6 cm. long; bractlets obovate, black, white-silky; 
capsule green; stipe 1 mm. long; style 1.5-2.5 mm. long. Mountains: Mont. 
Wyo. Je-Jl. 

31. S. conjuncta Bebb. A shrub 1-4 m. high; leaf-blades elliptic or 
obovate, 3-4 cm. long, or on the young shoots 5-10 cm. long, acuminate or acute 
at the apex, acute or rounded at the base, glabrous or slightly floccose when 
young; aments on leafy peduncles, 3-5 cm. long; bractlets dark, acute, white- 
villous; stipe and style about 1 mm. each. Wet mountain meadows: Wash. 
Mont. Alaska. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

32. S. padophylla Rydb. A shrub 1-7 m. high; leaf-blades oval or broadly 
elliptic, crenate, short-acute or obtusish, rounded at the base, 3-5 cm. long; 
pistillate aments 3-4 cm. long, densely flowered, borne on very short branches; 
bractlets obovate, fuscous, covered on the outside with white wool; capsule about 
6 mm. long; style about 1.5 mm. long; staminate aments almost sessile, 2-3 
cm. long. S. padifolia Rydb., not Anders. CHERRY WILLOW. River banks: 
N.M. Mont. Utah. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

33. S. monticola Bebb. A shrub 2.5-3.5 m. high; leaf -blades lanceolate 
to obovate, acute or acuminate, 8-15 cm. long, glabrous, pale or glaucous be- 
neath, serrate or crenate; aments thick, 2-3 cm. long; bractlets oval, silky with 
long hairs; capsule sessile or nearly so. Along streams: Colo. Alta. Sub- 
mont. Mont. Je. 

8. cor data X monticola. This has the capsule shorter than in S. cor data but longer 
than in S. monticola, the habit and bark of the latter, but the narrow leaves (although 
less serrate) and the bractlets of the Rocky Mountain form of the former; the capsule 
usually remains undeveloped. Northern Utah. 

34. S. curtiflora Anders. A tall shrub; twigs yellowish or rarely purplish; 
leaves oval-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute or short-acuminate at the apex, 
rounded or rarely subcordate at the base, green and shining above, glaucous 
beneath, finely serrate, 4-8 cm. long; bracts black, white-pilose; capsule long- 
rostrate; stipe very short; stamens light yellow. S. pseudo-cordata Anders. 
Wet places: Sask. Colo Alta. Submont. My-Jl. 

35. S. pseudomyrsinites Anders. A shrub 1 m. high or less; leaf-blades 
obovate or oblanceolate, 2-6 cm. long, 8-25 mm. wide, light green on both sides; 
aments on short leafy branches, 2-4 cm. long; bracts obovate, fuscous, white- 
villous; capsule 4-5 mm. long; stipe about 1 mm. long; style about 0.5 long. 
Mountain bogs: Lab. Que. Wyo. Ore. Alaska. Subalp. Mont. Je-Jl. 

36. S. myrtillifolia Anders. A shrub 1-6 dm. high; leaf-blades obovate, 
oblanceolate or oval, 1-3 cm. long, acute to rounded at the base; aments on short 
leafy branches, 1-3 cm. long; bractlets fuscous, obovate, glabrous, or villous only at 
the base; capsule 4-5 mm. long; stipe scarcely 1 mm. long; style minute. BLUE- 
BERRY WILLOW. Wet places: Alaska Alta. Mack. Alp. Subalp. My-Je. 

37. S. Wolfii Bebb. A low shrub, less than 1 m. high: leaf -blades oblong 
or elliptic, acute at both ends, 2-3 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, entire-margined; 
aments subsessile, but usually subtended by a few small leaves, 1-2 cm. long, 
almost 1 cm. thick; bractlets very dark, sparingly villous; capsule 4-5 mm. long, 
subsessile; style fully 1 mm. long. Mountain valleys: Colo. Wyo. Ida. 
Mont. Alp. My-Jl. 

38. S. irrorata Anders. A shrub 2-3 m. high; leaf-blades linear-lanceolate, 
6-10 cm. long, glabrous, bright green and shining above, pale and glaucous 
beneath, remotely serrate or entire; aments subsessile, usually naked, appearing 



WILLOW FAMILY 195 

before the leaves, 2-4 cm. long; bractlets dark, obtuse, white- villous ; capsule 
subsessile; style about 0.5 mm. long. Canons and river banks: w Tex. Colo 
Ariz. Submont. Mont. Ap-My. 

39. S. Dodgeana Rydb. A delicate suffruticose plant, scarcely more than 
6 cm. high; leaf-blades 4-5 mm. long, oblong or oval, glabrous, obtuse or acute 
strongly veined, light green; staminate aments 3-4-flowered; pistillate aments 
usually 2-flowered; bracts oblong, truncate, sparingly villous; capsule subsessile 
3 mm. long; style obsolete. The smallest willow in the world. Summits- Mont' 
Wyo. Alp. Jl-Au. 

40. S. petiolaris J. E. Smith. A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaf-blades acuminate 
at both ends, slightly silky when young, in age dark green and shining above 
glaucous beneath; aments appearing before the leaves, naked or nearly so, about 
2 cm. long; bractlets yellow with dark tips, white-pilose; capsule 4-6 mm. long 
subconic; stipe 2-3 mm. long; style obsolete. Swamps: N.B. Tenn Ills ' 
S.D. Sask. Boreal. My. 

41. S. Geyeriana Anders. A shrub 2-3 m. high; leaf-blades linear-oblance- 
olate, 2-6 dm. long, densely silky-strigose when young, less so or sometimes 
glabrate in age, somewhat paler beneath; aments on very short leafy branches, 
1-2 cm. long; bractlets oblong, yellowish, sparingly short-villous; capsule sub- 
conic, short-pubescent, 5-6 mm. long; stipe 1-2 mm. long; style obsolete. S. 
macrocarpa Nutt. Creek banks and mountain valleys: B.C. Mont. Colo. 
Ore. Submont. Mont. Ap-Je. 

42. S. gracilis Anders. A shrub 1-2 m. high; leaf-blades 3-5 cm. long, 
about 4 mm. wide, linear or lance-linear, at first tomentulose, soon glabrous and 
green above, slightly glaucous beneath, entire or denticulate; aments on short 
leafy branches, lax, 2-3 cm. long; bractlets oblong, yellowish with dark apex; 
capsule elongate-conic, 5-6 cm. long, grayish silky; stipe 3-4 mm. long; style 
obsolete. S. rosmarinifolia Hook. River banks: Sask. (? Wis.) Boreal. 

43. S. discolor Muhl. A shrub or low tree up to 7 m. high; leaf-blades 
oblong-oblanceolate, acute at both ends, irregularly serrate or entire, bright 
green above, glaucous beneath, glabrate, 4-10 cm. long, 1.5-3 cm. wide; aments 
appearing before the leaves, dense, 3-5 cm. long, or the pistillate ones 4-7 cm. 
in fruit; capsule elongated-conic, about 1 cm. long, long-silky; stipe about 2 mm. 
long; stigma obsolete. PUSSY WILLOW. Swamps and wet places: N.S. Del. 
Mo. S.D. Sask. Boreal Mr-Ap. 

44. S. perrostrata Rydb. A shrub 1-4 m. high; leaf-blades obovate- 
lanceolate or oblanceolate, when young finely silky, in age glabiate, 2-4 cm. long, 
1-1.5 cm. wide, undulate or entire, light green above, pale beneath; aments 
usually on very short leafy branches, 1-3 cm. long; bractlets sparingly silky; 
capsule elongated-conic, 7-8 mm. long, finely pubescent; stipe 2-3 mm. long; 
style obsolete. BEAKED WILLOW. River valleys: Hudson Bay Neb. Colo. 
Utah Alaska. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

45. S. Bebbiana Sarg. A shrub 2-6 m. high, sometimes a tree 8 m. high; 
leaf-blades elliptic, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, acute, blunt, or short-acuminate, 
rounded at the base, sparingly serrate or entire; aments sessile, sometimes sub- 
tended by a few small leaves, 2-5 cm. long; bractlets sparingly long-villous ; 
capsule elongated-conic, finely pubescent, about 8 mm. long; stipe 2-3 mm. long; 
style obsolete. S. rosfrata Richards. Valleys, river banks, and hillsides: Anti- 
costi N.J. N.M. Ariz. Calif. B.C. Plain Mont. Ap-My. 

46. S. Scouleriana Barratt. A shrub or tree, occasionally 9 m. high; young 
twigs from densely velutinous to almost glabrous; leaf -blades obovate, rounded 
or abruptly acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, at maturity thin, dark yellow- 
ish green and lustrous above, pale, glaucous and more or less pubescent beneath, 
4-10 cm. long; aments sessile, naked, 2^4 cm. long, about 1 cm. thick; capsule 
subconic, about 1 cm. long, densely white- villous; stipe short; style very short. 
S. flavescens Nutt. S. Nuttallii Sarg. Along streams: Sask. : N.M. Calif. 
Yukon. Submont. Mont. Mr-Je. 



196 SALICACEAE 

47. S. Lemmoni Bebb. A shrub 1-5 m. high; branches at first pubescent, 
soon glabrate; leaves lanceolate, acute at both ends, entire or subserrulate, silky 
when young, soon glabrous, sometimes slightly glaucous beneath; aments on 
short leafy peduncles, 2-3 cm. long; bractlets obovate; capsules grayish tomen- 
tose, 4-6 mm. long; stipe 2-3 times as long as the glands. Wet places: Calif. 
Nev. -Ida. Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

48. S. alaxensis (Anders.) Coville. A tree sometimes 9 m. high, or a shrub 
1-2 m. high; leaf -blades obovate to oblong-oblanceolate, acute or rounded at the 
apex, acute at the base, densely white-tomentose beneath, 5-10 cm. long, 2-4 cm. 
wide; aments 3-6 cm. long, sessile, naked, appearing with the leaves; capsule white- 
villous, about 6 mm. long, subsessile; style about 2 mm. long. S. speciosa H. & 
A. Subarctic and arctic regions: Alaska Mack. Canadian Rockies. Sub- 
alp. My-Je. 

49. S. Barrattiana Hook. A low shrub; leaf -blades obovate, acute at the 
apex, often subcordate at the base, 5-7 cm. long, densely white-silky, in age 
greener above; aments appearing with the leaves, sessile and naked, 3-5 cm. 
long; capsule white-silky, about 6 mm. long, white-villous; stipe very short; 
style fully 1 mm. long. S. albertana Rowley. Alpine swamps: Alta. -B.C. 
Subalp. Je-Jl. 

50. S. bella Piper. A shrub 2-4 m. high; leaf-blades mostly acute, 3-10 
cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. wide, green and sparsely puberulent above, entire or repand; 
aments sessile, usually naked, appearing before the leaves, the pistillate ones 
2-3 cm. long or in fruit 4r-6 cm. long; capsule grayish sericeous, 5-6 mm. long, 
subsessile; style 1-1.5 mm. long. River banks: Wash. Mont. 'Ida. Sub- 
mont. Ap. 

51. S. Candida Fluegge. A shrub 6-15 dm. high; leaf-blades oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate, thick, sparingly repand-denticulate or entire, acute at both 
ends, dark green above, 5-10 cm. long, 6-16 mm. wide; aments sessile and 
usually naked, appearing before the leaves, 2-5 cm. long; capsule subconic, 
densely white-tomentose, 6-7 mm. long; stipe less than 1 mm. long; style about 1 
mm. long. HOARY WILLOW. Bogs: Lab. N.J. Colo. Ida. Alta. Mont. My. 

S. cordata X Candida. Resembling S. Candida in leaf-form, but less densely hairy 
and thinner; aments more like those of S. cordata, borne on short branches; capsules 
glabrous or nearly so. Collected at Ravalli, Mont. 

52. S. sitchensis Sanson. A tree or shrub 2-9 m. high; leaf-blades 3-6 cm. 
long, entire or remotely glandular-denticulate, acute or abruptly acuminate, at 
first tomentose, in age dark green, shining and glabrous above, densely white- 
silky beneath; aments densely flowered, naked or on short leafy branches, the 
staminate ones 3-5 cm. long, the pistillate ones 4-7 cm. long; capsule grayish, 
short-silky, about 5 mm. long; stipe and style about 0.5 mm. each. SITKA 
WILLOW. River banks: Alaska -Calif. Mont. Submont. Mont. Ap-Je. 

53. S. Drummondiana Barratt. A shrub; leaf -blades broadly obovate, 
5-7 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, glabrous above, white-tomentose beneath, entire- 
margined; aments 2-4 cm. long, subsessile, but usually subtended by a few small 
leaves; capsule 3-4 mm. long, white-silky, with short hairs, subsessile; style 
about 0.5 mm. long. Marshes: Canadian Rockies. Subalp. 

54. S. argyrocarpa Anders. An erect shrub 1-6 dm. high; leaf -blades 
oblong or oblanceplate, acute at both ends, entire or crenulate, bright green and 
glabrous above, silvery-silky beneath, 3-5 cm. long, 6-12 mm. wide; aments on 
short leafy branches, dense, 1-2.5 cm. long; bractlets villous; capsule 2-3 mm. 
long, white-villous; stipe 1-2 mm. long. SILVER WILLOW. Mountains and 
hills: Lab. N.H. w Ont (? Sask.) Mack. Boreal. Je-Jl. 

55. S. arbusculoides Anders. An erect shrub less than 1 m. high; leaf- 
blades elliptic-lanceolate, acute at both ends, glabrous and green above, silky 
beneath, minutely serrulate or entire, 2-5 cm. long; aments appearing with the 
leaves, 2-3 cm. long, usually sessile, naked or subtended by a few leaves; cap- 
sule 3-4 mm. long, subsessile. Swamps: Hudson Bay -Canadian Rockies 
Alaska. Subalp. 



WILLOW FAMILY 197 

56. S. pellita Anders. A low shrub; leaf-blades oblanceolate, 3-7 cm. long 
with entire , somewhat revolute margins, acute or obtuse at the apex, tapering 
at the base, glabrous or slightly pubescent above wh,en young; aments sessile 
and naked, 2-3 cm. long; bractlets obovate, brown, with black tip, or wholly 
blackish, silky; capsule 3-4 mm. long, villous, subsessile; style nearly 1 mm. long. 
River banks: Me. Que. Sask. Alta. Boreal. Je. 

57. S. subcoerulea Piper. Shrub about 2 m. high; leaf-blades oblance- 
olate, entire or nearly so, green ahd minutely pubescent above, 2-5 cm. long, 
1 cm. wide or less; aments 2.5-4 cm. long, less than 1 cm. thick; capsule white- 
silky, 2-3 mm. long, subsessile; style about 1 mm. long. BLUE WILLOW. River 
banks: B.C. Mont. Wyo. Calif. My-Jl. 

58. S. pachnophora Rydb. A shrub 2-3 m. high or perhaps sometimes 
higher; leaf -blades oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, acute at 
both ends, densely white-silky beneath, glabrate above, rather thin; aments 
1-3 cm. long; capsule grayish silky, ovoid, 3-5 mm. long; style slender, about 
1.5 mm. long. River banks: Colo. N.M. Utah. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

59. S. brachycarpa Nutt. A shrub 1 m. high or less; bark yellow; twigs 
densely villous; leaf -blades oblong to oval or oblanceolate, 1-3 cm. long, entire- 
margined; aments 1-2 cm. long; bracts yellow, obovate, villous; capsule 4-5 mm. 
long, villous, subsessile; style less than 0.5 mm. long. S. stricta (Anders.) Rydb. 
Wet places in the mountains: B.C. Colo. Alta; Que. Submont. Subalp. 
Jl-Au. 

60. S. idahoensis (Ball) Rydb. Shrub 1-2 m. high; branches yellowish or 
light brown, silky when young; leaf -blades oblanceolate, 3-5 cm. long, entire; 
aments 1-2 cm. long; bractlets obovate, brownish; capsules ovoid, subsessile, 
finely and sparingly pubescent; style about 1 mm. long. S. Wolfii idahoensis 
Ball. Banks and marshes: Ore. Wyo. Wash. Submont. Mont. Je-Jl. 

61. S. pseudolapponum v. Seem. A shrub 1 m. high or less; twigs brown, 
at first grayish pubescent; leaf-blades oblong or lance-oblong, acute at both 
ends, entire-margined, green above, gray below; aments appearing with the 
leaves, 1-2 cm. long; bractlets brown below, with black tips; capsule grayish, 
villous, subsessile, about 5 mm. long; style about 0.5 mm. long. Summits: 
Colo. Subalp.~Alp. Je-Jl. 

62. S. glaucops Anders. A shrub 1-2 m. high; twigs usually more or 
less villous; leaf -blades green above, paler beneath, entire-margined, 3-6 cm. 
long; aments 2-3 cm. long; bractlets fuscous, oblong, often acutish, short-villous; 
capsule grayish villous, about 5 mm. long, subsessile; style about 0.5 mm. long. 
Mountains: Alta. N.M. Utah Calif. Yukon. Submont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

S. glaucops X monticola. It resembles S. glaucops in the capsules and bractlets, 
but the former are less densely hairy; the leaves and bark are more like those of S. monti- 
cola, the former being finely serrate, glabrate in age, and glaucous beneath; the young 
branches are somewhat villous. Big Cottonwood Canon, Utah. 

63. S. Seemannii Rydb. A shrub 3-4 m. high; young twigs villous- 
pubescent; leaf -blades oval to oblong-lanceolate, 3-7 cm. long, rather firm, entire- 
margined, sometimes glabrate above in age; aments 2-7 cm. long; bracts obtuse, 
villous; capsule about 8 mm. long, densely white-villous, subsessile; style 0.5-1 
mm. long. Mountains: Alaska Yukon -Mont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

64. S. subcordata Anders. A low shrub, with erect stems; leaf -blades 
obovate, oval, or rounded, sometimes subcordate at the base, 2-5 cm. long, 1-4 
cm. wide, paler and strongly reticulated beneath; aments 2-3 cm. long; bractlets 
yellow, usually with darker tips; capsule white-villous, subsessile; style nearly 
1 mm. long. Mountains: Alta. B.C. Mont. Jl-Au. 

65. S. desertorum Richards. A shrub 1-2 m. high; leaf-blades 1-3 cm. 
long, entire-margined, dark green above, glaucous beneath; aments 1-3 cm. long; 
bracts obovate, brown or yellow, sparingly pubescent; capsule densely white- 
villous, 3-4 mm. long, subsessile; style about 0.5 mm. long. BARREN-GROUND 
WILLOW. Wet places: Sask. Alta. Mack.; (Gaspe Peninsula) Que. Boreal 
Subarctic. Jl-Au. 



198 SALIC ACE AE 

66. S. Austinae Bebb. A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaf -blades usually short- 
acuminate, 3-6 cm. long, glabrous or slightly pubescent but green above, glaucous 
beneath; aments 2-5 cm. long; bractlets oblong, brown, sparingly white-silky; 
capsule elongate, subconic, 6-8 mm. long; stipe very short; style nearly 1 mm. 
long. S. glaucops glabrescens Anders. Wet places on the mountains: Alta. 
Wyo. B.C. Yukon. SubmontMont. Je-Jl. 

S. Austinae X pseudolapponum. This has the glabrous leaves and yellowish or 
light-brown bractlets of S. Austinae, but the low habit, smaller leaves and short capsule 
of S. pseudolapponum. S. wyomingensis Rydb. Mountains: Wyo. Jl. 

67. S. MacCalliana Rowley. A shrub 1-2 m. high; leaf-blades 6-7 cm. 
long, 1.5 cm. wide, acute at both ends, puberulent when young, soon glabrous, 
green on both sides, finely serrulate; aments 3-4 cm. long; bractlets greenish or 
brown; capsule elongated-conic, white-velvety, 8-10 mm. long; stipe 1 mm. 
long; style less than 1 mm. long. Low ground: Alta. Mont. 

68. S. saskatchewana v. Seem. A tall shrub or small tree; leaf-blades 
acute at both ends, 3-6 cm. long, 1 cm. broad or less, finely serrate, soon glabrate, 
dark green above, glaucous beneath; aments 2-5 cm. long; bractlets brown, 
oval, sparingly villous; capsule grayish silky, with short hairs, about 5 mm. long, 
nearly sessile; style scarcely 0.25 mm. long. River banks and marshes: Sask. 
Alta. Yukon. Boreal. Je. 

69. S. petrophila Rydb. A depressed creeping undershrub, less than 1 
dm. high; leaf -blades 1-3 cm. long, obtuse, glabrous or sparingly silky at first, 
entire-margined, slightly paler and strongly veined beneath; aments 2-3 cm. 
long; bractlets blackish, obovate, sparingly silky-villous; capsule white-villous, 
sessile, 5-7 mm. long; style fully 0.5 mm. long. S. arctica petraea Anders. ROCK 
WELLOW. Alpine peaks: B.C. Calif. N.M. Mack. Alp Subalp. Jl-Au. 

70. S. cascadensis Cockerell. A depressed creeping undershrub, less than 
1 dm. high; leaf -blades 1-2 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, light green on both sides, 
strongly veined beneath; aments about 1 cm. long; bractlets black, obovate; 
capsule grayish villous, about 4 mm. long, sessile; style about 0.5 mm. long. S. 
tenera Anders. Alpine peaks: B.C. Wash. Utah Wyo. Mont. Alp. 
Mont. Jl-Au. 

71. S. Nelsonii Ball. A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaf-blades acute at both ends, 
8-15 mm. wide, 3-6 cm. long, entire or sparingly crenate, dark green and shining 
above, glaucous beneath; aments 1.5-3 cm. long; bractlets black or nearly so, 
ovate, acute, long-silky; capsule silky-pubescent, sessile, 5-7 mm. long; style nearly 
0.5 mm. long. Bogs and river banks: Colo. Utah. Alta. Mont. Subalp. Je. 

72. S. chorophylla Anders. A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaf-blades at first silky, 
soon* glabrate, dark green and shining above, glaucous beneath, acute at both 
ends, usually entire, 2-5 cm. long; aments 2-6 cm. long; bractlets black, obovate, 
obtuse, silky-pilose; capsule sessile, 5-6 mm. long, grayish silky; style about 0.5 
mm. long. Mountain swamps: Lab. N.H. -N.M. Utah -Alaska. Mont. 
Subalp. Je-Au. 

73. S. Fernaldii Blankinship. A low spreading shrub, up to 1 m. high; 
leaf-blades oval, rarely ovate, rounded at both ends or sometimes acutish at the 
apex, 3-5 cm. long, glabrous and green above, silvery-silky and strongly veined 
beneath; margins sub-entire; aments at the ends of the leafy branches, 2-3 cm. 
long; bractlets brown, short- villous, obovate; capsule short-ovoid, 2-3 mm. 
long, sessile. Perhaps not distinct from the eastern S. vestita Pursh. Moun- 
tains: Alta. Mont. Ore. B.C. Mont. -Subalp. Je-Au. 

74. S. orbicularis Anders. Low creeping undershrub; leaf-blades oval or 
orbicular, 1.5-4 cm. long, 1-4 cm. wide, rounded at both ends or sometimes sub- 
cordate at the base, glabrous, dark green above, pale and somewhat glaucous 
beneath; aments at the ends of the leafy branches, 2-4 cm. long; capsule short- 
ovoid, 3-5 mm. long, short-villous, sessile. (Perhaps not distinct from S. reticu- 
lata L., which has narrower yellow bractlets and usually narrower leaves.) NET- 
VEINED WILLOW. Arctic-alpine situations: Alaska -Canadian Rockies Hudson 
Bay. Alp. Je-Au. 



WILLOW FAMILY 199 

75. S. saximontana Rydb. A densely cespitose, creeping undershrub 
rarely over 5 cm. high; leaf-blades light green above, glaucous beneath, glabrous 
1-2 cm. long, oblong or elliptic, commonly acutish at both ends; aments at the 
ends of the leafy branches, 1-2 cm. long, loosely flowered; capsule ovoid, densely 
grayish pubescent with short hairs, sessile, 3 mm. long; style obsolete S 
reticulata Porter & Coulter, not L. S. aemulans v. Seem. ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
WILLOW. High mountain tops: N.M. Nev. Wash. Alta. Alp. Mont 
Jl-Au. 

76. S. nivalis Hook. A cespitose, creeping undershrub, 1-5 cm. high; leaf- 
blades oval or orbicular, 1 cm. long or less, glabrous, entire, dark green above, 
glaucous beneath; aments at the ends of the leafy branches, 1 cm. long or less, 
few-flowered; capsule grayish, pubescent with short hairs, about 3 mm. long, 
sessile. SNOW WILLOW. High mountains: B.C. Wash. Mont. Alta. Alp 
Jl-Au. 

FAMILY 31. FAGACEAE. BEECH FAMILY. 

Monoecious trees or shrubs, with simple leaves. Staminate flowers in 
elongate or head-like aments; calyx of 4-7 partially united sepals; stamens 
4-20. Pistillate flowers in longer or shorter spikes; calyx of partly united 
sepals. Gynoecium of 3-7 united carpels; styles as many, but usually only 
one ovule maturing. Fruit a one-seeded nut, enclosed or seated in a scaly 
or spiny, in ours cup-like imvolucre. 

1. QUERCUS (Tourn.) L. OAK. 

Trees or shrubs, with hard coarsely grained wood. Leaf-blades entire, 
toothed, or lobed, firm-membranous or leathery, sometimes evergreen. Stamin- 
ate aments elongate, drooping, clustered; calyx campanulate, 4-7-lobed; stamens 
6-12; filaments filiform. Pistillate flowers solitary or in lax spikes; calyx urn- 
shaped or cup-shaped. Ovary usually 3-celled; styles 3; ovules 2 in each cell, 
but seldom more than one maturing in each pistil. Fruit a leathery, 1-seeded 
nut (acorn), partly enclosed in an accrescent scaly involucre (cup). 

Leaves lobed or divided, not evergreen; lobes rounded, obtuse or acute, but not spinulose- 

tipped. 
Leaves bright green, early deciduous. 

Upper scales of the cup with caudate prolongations. 1. Q. macrocarpa. 

Upper scales of the cup not prolonged. 

Mature leaves softly pubescent, almost velvety beneath, deeply divided. 
Scales of the cup thin, not much thickened on the back. 

2. Q. submollis. 

Scales of the cup corky-thickened on the back. 3. Q. utahensis. 

Mature leaves glabrate, puberulent, or somewhat pubescent, but not velvety 

beneath. 
Cup flat, covering less than one-fourth of the acorn. 

4. Q. Vreelandii. 
Cup hemispheric, covering one-third to one-half of the acorn. 

Mature leaves very thin, glabrate beneath or puberulent only on the 
veins; cup covering about one-half of the acorn. 

5. Q. leptophylla. 
Mature leaves firm, puberulent beneath; cup covering about one-third 

of the acorn. 
Leaves mostly oblong in outline, lobed half way to the midrib or 

less, rather dull. 6. Q. Gunnisonii. 

Leaves obovate in outline, divided deeper than half way to the mid- 
rib, very shining above. 

Lobes of the leaves broadly oblong, rounded at the apex. 

7. Q. Gambellii. 
Lobes of the leaves ovate or triangular, acute. 

8. Q. novomexicana. 
Leaves pale or bluish green, more persistent. 

Leaves broadly obovate, with narrow sinuses. 9. Q. Eastwooaiae. 

Leaves oblong-obovate, or elliptic; sinuses broad. 

Lobes oblong-ovate, obtuse or acutish, not mucronate. 

10. Q. venustula. 

Lobes triangular-ovate, mucronate. 11. Q. Fendleri. 

Leaves persistent, usually evergreen, entire, sinuate or dentate, or if more deeply lobed, 

the lobes with spinulose tips. 
Cup hemispheric; acorns barrel-shaped. 



200 FAGACEAE 

Scales of the cups decidedly corky-thickened on the back. 

Leaves decidedly crisp, sinuately lobed; lobes distinctly spinulose- tipped. 

12. Q. pungens. 
Leaves flat, sinuate-dentate or entire; teeth mucronate, or sometimes slightly 

spinulose-tipped . 
Acorns 6-7 mm. thick; cup shallow, enclosing about one-third of the acorn; 

leaves usually sinuate-dentate. 13. Q. undulata. 

Acorns about 1 cm. thick or more; cup deeper, enclosing about half of the 

acorn. 
Leaves usually entire, except those of the young shoots. 

14. Q. grisea. 

Leaves lobed, with few (5-7) lobes. 15. Q. panciloba. 

Scales of the cups thin, only slightly thickened on the back; leaves glabrate and 

shining above in age. 16. Q. Wilcoxii. 

Cup more or less turbinate; acorns elongated-ovoid. 17. Q. turbinella. 

1. Q. macrocarpa Michx. A tree 10-50 m. high; leaf -blades obovate,. 
irregularly round-lobed, usually pinnately divided below the middle, bright green 
and shining above, grayish tomentulose beneath, 1-2 dm. long; fruit short- 
peduncled; cup hemispheric, 1-2.5 cm. in diameter; scales floccose, thick, ovate 
or lanceolate, the upper subulate-tipped; acorns 1.5-2.5 cm. long, ovoid. BUR 
OAK. MOSSY-CUP OAK. Rich soil: N.S. Pa. Tex. (? Wyo.) S.D. Sask. 
Plain Submont. My-Je. 

2. Q. submollis Rydb. Shrub or small tree; leaf -blades obovate in outline,, 
deeply pinnatifid at least two-thirds to the midrib, with oblong segments, rounded 
at the apex, glabrous and shining above, densely and softly pubescent beneath; 
fruit sessile; cup depressed-hemispheric, about 15 mm. broad; acorn obtuse, 12- 
15 mm. long. Mountain sides: Ariz. s Utah N.M. Son. -Submont. 

3. Q. utahensis (A. DC.) Rydb. A small tree, sometimes 10 m. high, or 
more often only a shrub; leaf -blades 6-10 cm. long, broadly obovate, deeply 
divided, often to near the midrib; lobes oblong, rounded at the apex, the larger 
usually again lobed or undulate; upper surface sparingly stellate, in age glabrate, 
dark green and glossy; fruit subsessile; cup hemispheric, 12-15 mm. in diameter; 
scales pubescent, ovate; acorn 15-20 mm. long, light brown. UTAH OAK. Hills 
and mountains: Utah Colo. N.M. Ariz. Submont. -Mont. My. 

4. Q. Vreelandii Rydb. A small shrub 1-1.5 m. high; young branches 
brown, puberulent; leaf -blades 5-7 cm. long, obovate, deeply lobed about two- 
thirds to the midrib, thick, firm; lobes rounded, the larger often lobed or sinuate; 
upper surface soon glabrate, bright green and rather dull; lower surface slightly 
paler; fruit subsessile; scales ovate and very corky on the back; acorn about 15 
mm. long, light brown. Hills and bench-lands: Colo. N.M. Submont. My. 

5. Q. leptophylla Rydb. A tree 10-15 m. high; young twigs brownish or 
purplish, slightly pubescent at first; leaf -blades broadly obovate, very thin,, 
pinnately 5-9-lobed scarcely more than half way to the midrib; lobes rounded; 
upper surface soon glabrate, bright green, but not very glossy; lower surface 
paler; fruit subsessile; cup hemispheric, about 15 mm. wide; scales ovate-lanceo- 
late, obtuse, only slightly thickened on the back. Along mountain streams: 
Colo. N.M. Submont. Mont. My. 

6. Q. Gunnisonii (Torr.) Rydb. A low shrub 1-3 m. high, forming 
chapparels; leaf -blades with rounded lobes, usually directed forward, very thick, 
pale and bluish green above, soon glabrate, scarcely paler beneath; fruit sub- 
sessile; cup rather deep, 12-15 mm. in diameter, hemispheric; scales ovate, corky- 
thickened on the back; acorns barrel-shaped, obtuse. Dry hillsides and table- 
lands: Colo. N.M. Ariz. Utah. Submont. My. 

7. Q. Gambellii Nutt. A shrub 3-5 m. high; young twigs light brown and 
puberulent; leaf -blades broadly obovate in outline, thinner than in the preced- 
ing; upper surface glabrate, green, lower surface only slightly paler, lobes rounded ; 
fruit subsessile; cup hemispheric or somewhat turbinate; acorn ovoid, acute or 
obtuse, about 15 mm. long. Q. nitescens Rydb. Hills and table-lands: Wyo. 
N.M. Utah. Submont. Mont. My-Je. 

8. Q. novomexicana (A. DC.) Rydb. A shrub 3-5 m. high; young branches 
light brown, or grayish, sparingly puberulent or glabrous; leaf-blades obovate in 
outline, deeply divided about three-fourths the distance to the midrib, very 



BEECH FAMILY 201 

firm; upper surface soon glabrous, dark green and glossy; lower surface pale 
green, puberulent; fruit subsessile; cup hemispheric, 10-12 mm. in diameter' 
scales ovate, moderately corky-thickened. Table-lands and hills: N.M. Colo. 
Utah. Submont. Mont. My. 

9. Q. Eastwoodiae Rydb. A shrub 2-3 m. high, not forming thickets; young 
branchlets densely stellate-pubescent, almost velvety; leaf -blades rounded at 
the apex, obtuse or acutish at the base, 6-8 cm. long, 3-6 cm. broad, pale bluish 
green, on the upper surface slightly stellate, especially on the veins, or glabrate, 
on the lower paler, strongly reticulate and decidedly stellate, with broad rounded 
lobes; fruit subsessile; cup hemispheric, 12-14 mm. in diameter; scales ovate, 
acutish, moderately corky-thickened on the back; acorn round-ellipsoid, mostly 
half included in the cup. Canons: Utah. Son. 

10. Q. venustula Greene. A small shrub 1-2 m. high; young twigs brown, 
puberulent or glabrate; leaf-blades 3-6 cm. long, oblanceolate or elliptic in out- 
line, lobed more than half way to the midrib, firm; upper surface pale bluish 
green, sparingly stellate, glabrate and glossy; lower surface paler, densely stellate- 
puberulent, very veiny and reticulate; fruits in peduncled spikes; scales of the cup 
ovate, corky-thickened on the back. Mountains: Colo. -N.M. Submont 
Son. 

11. Q. Fendleri Liebm. A shrub 1-3 m. high, scarcely forming thickets; 
young branches brown, puberulent: leaf-blades lobed about half way to the mid- 
rib, firm, 3-7 cm. long; upper surface sparingly stellate or glabrate, pale bluish 
green and shining; lower surface light brownish, stellate-puberulent, strongly 
veined and reticulate; fruits 2-3 together on a peduncle; cup hemispheric, cover- 
ing about one-third of the acorn, 10-12 mm. broad; scales ovate and much corky- 
thickened; acorns 15-18 mm. long. Barren hills: Ariz. Colo. Tex. Son. 
Submont. My. 

12. Q. pungens Liebm. A low shrub 1-3 m. high, rarely larger; younger 
twigs yellowish or brownish, densely stellate-pubescent; leaf-blades oval or 
broadly oblong, obtuse at the base, acute at the apex, deeply sinuately toothed, 
3-5 cm. long, thick and firm; upper surface pale bluish or brownish green, rather 
dull, sparingly stellate; lower surface more or less densely stellate, pale yellow- 
ish or brownish; lobes triangular; cup hemispheric, 8-10 mm. in diameter; 
acorns 10-13 mm. long. HOLLY OAK. Hills: N.M. Colo. Utah Ariz.; 
n Mex. Son. Mr-My. 

13. Q. undulata Torr. A shrub 1-3 m. high; young twigs sparingly stel- 
late-pubescent; leaf -blades firm, pale bluish or brownish green and shining above, 
pale brownish beneath, stellate when young, almost glabrous in age on both 
sides, or sometimes densely stellate-pubescent beneath; cup hemispheric, 7-10 mm. 
broad; acorn 10-15 mm. long, 6-7 mm. in diameter. LIVE OAK. Barren hills: 
Ariz. Colo. Tex. -Son. Submont. My. 

14. Q. grisea Liebm. A shrub usually a few meters high, rarely a small 
tree; younger twigs yellowish and stellate-pubescent; leaves from oval to oblong 
or sometimes oblong-lanceolate, acute at the apex, cordate or rounded at the 
base, usually entire or undulate, sometimes on young shoots dentate, 2-5 cm. 
long; upper surface pale bluish green, shining; lower surface densely stellate and 
fulvous; acorns about 15 mm. long. Table-lands: Tex. s Utah Ariz. Son. 
Ap-My. 

15. Q. pauciloba Rydb. Tree 4-5 m. high, rarely a shrub; young branches 
brown, pubescent; leaf -blades broadly oval, ovate, or obovate, 5-8 cm. long, 3-5 
mm. wide, sinuately 5-7-lobed, pale bluish green above, pale brownish, strongly 
reticulate, and stellate-pubescent beneath; lobes broadly triangular, spinulose- 
tipped; cup hemispheric, 12-18 mm. in diameter; acorn sometimes 15 mm. long. 
Canons: Ariz. s Utah. Son. 

16. Q. Wilcozii Rydb. A shrub or rarely a small tree 6-9 m. high; young 
branchlets fulvous-tomentulose; leaf-blades usually broadly oval, acute at the 
base, abruptly short-acuminate, thick and firm, 1-4 cm. long, when young de- 
ciduously fulvous stellate-tomentulose especially on the lower surface, dull 



202 FAGAOEAE 

white and punctate beneath, with many lateral veins and obsolete reticulations, 
usually entire or with a few spinulose-tipped teeth; those of the sterile shoots 
almost orbicular or round-ovate in outline, coarsely and deeply dentate with 
spinose-tipped teeth; cup hemispheric, 10-14 mm. in diameter; scales ovate, 
with brown acute tips; acorn ovoid, about 15 mm. long. Mountains: N.M. 
Utah Ariz. Nev. Son. 

17. Q. turbinella Greene. A shrub 1-3 m. high; young branchlets covered 
with a white stellate-pubescence and when young with fulvous tomentum; leaf- 
blades oblong, elliptic, oval or rarely ovate, 1-3 cm. long, acute at the apex, 
usually sinuate-dentate with spinulose-tipped teeth, when unfolding covered 
with a fulvous tomentum, light bluish green and shining above, strongly reticulate, 
fulvous, stellate-pubescent beneath; cup 8-10 mm. in diameter; scales deltoid- 
ovate, obtuse, moderately corky-thickened; acorn 15-20 mm. long, 8 mm. in 
diameter. Dry hills: Calif. Utah Ariz.; Sonora and L. Calif. Son. Ap-My. 

FAMILY 32. BETULACEAE. BIRCH FAMILY. 

Monoecious trees or shrubs, with simple alternate leaves. Staminate 
flowers in long drooping aments, each bract subtending 2 or 3 flowers; calyx 
present. Pistillate flowers also in aments, but the aments seldom drooping, 
without calyx; pistils 2 or 3 at the base of each bract. Fruiting aments 
cone-like; fruit small nuts or samaras; seed solitary. 

Bracts of the mature pistillate aments membranous, in ours 3-lobed, deciduous with the 
fruit. 1. BETULA. 

Bracts of the mature pistillate aments thickened and woody, persistent. 2. ALNUS. 

1. BETULA (Tourn.) L. BIRCH. 

Shrubs or trees, with resinous aromatic bark; branchlets with transverse 
lenticels. Staminate aments slender, pendulous; calyx irregularly 2- or 4-lobed; 
stamens 2, inserted at the base of the calyx; filaments very short, branched at the 
apex; anther-sacs separate. Pistillate aments erect or drooping, oblong or 
cylindric; bracts elongate, in ours 3-lobed, 3-flowered, accrescent, deciduous. 
Fruit small, samara-like or nut-like, flat; outer seed-coat thin, produced into a 
wing or margin ; seeds solitary, pendulous . 

Bark separating into layers or sheets, the very thin outer layer peeling into small shreds; 

all trees. 
Bark chalky white to silvery gray. 

Leaves broadly ovate, with acute apex, mostly subcordate base, and spreading 
teeth; twigs mostly glabrous; middle lobe of the bractlets acute, slightly longer 
than the rounded lateral ones. 1. B. subcordata. 

Leaves narrowly ovate, with long-acute or acuminate apex, rounded or cuneate 
base, and teeth directed forward; twigs pubescent; middle lobe of the bractlets 
narrow, rounded at the apex, about twice as long as the acute or obtuse lateral 
ones. 2. B. papyrifera. 

Bark yellowish or reddish brown, often very dark; twigs very glandular. 

Leaves ovate, very thin, dark green, acute at the apex, irregularly doubly-serrate,. 

with long-pointed, slender teeth. 3. B. occidentalis. 

Leaves deltoid or ovate, thick, bronze-green, long-acuminate at the apex, coarsely 

and more regularly serrate. 4. B. alaskana. 

Bark not separating into layers; outer bark not peeling into shreds. 
Samara-wing broader than the body. 

Twigs and branchlets glandular-resiniferous, not hairy. 

Lateral lobes of the bractlets spreading, obliquely ovate, auricled at the baser 

trees. 

Leaves very thin; fruiting aments narrowly cylindric, elongate, less than 
1 cm. thick; lateral lobes of the bractlets obtuse or rounded; claw much 
shorter than the middle lobe. 5. B. Piperi. 

Leaves thick; fruiting aments broadly cylindric, stout, more than 1 cm. 
thick; lateral lobes of the bractlets mostly acute; claw as long as the 
middle lobe. 6. B. utahensis. 

Lateral lobes of the bractlets ascending, obliquely rhombic, not auricled at the 

base; shrubs or trees. 

Shrubs or small shrub-like trees; bark shining, dark red-brown, smooth; 
leaves broadly oyate, usually less than 4 cm. long, coarsely and irregu- 
larly serrate, thin, dark green, obtuse or acute at the apex, mostly 
rounded at the base; twigs densely glandular-resiniferous. 

7. B. fontinalis. 



BIRCH FAMILY 203 

Trees, often very large, never shrub-like; bark ashy gray or brown, rough- 
ened; leaves ovate, sometimes lobed, 4-7 cm. long, finely serrate dull 
bronze-green acute at the apex, truncate at the base; twigs but slightlv 
glandular-resiniferous. 8 . B montanensis 

Twigs and branchlets more or less pubescent, not or sparingly glandular-resini- 
ferous; shrubs or shrub-like trees. 
Leaves oval or rhombic-ovate. 

Leaves narrowly oval or rhombic-ovate, 6 cm. long or more, sharply serrate 
or dentate; apex acute, base cuneate; twigs finely pubescent, not glandu- 
lar; middle lobe of the bractlets triangular, obtuse; lateral lobes rounded 
obliquely rhombic; fruiting aments 2-4 cm. long. 9. B. Sandbergii ' 
Leaves broadly oval, less than 4 cm. long, acute at both ends, serrate or 
serrate-crenate; twigs pubescent and sparingly glandular- middle lobe 
of the bractlets rounded, as broad as or broader than the ascending 
lateral ones ; fruiting aments less than 2 cm. long. 10. B. Elrodiana 
Leaves obovate, rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base; twigs puberulent 

and with scattered coarse hairs, sparingly glandular. 11. B obovata 
Samara- wing narrower than the body ; shrubs mostly low. 
Twigs and branchlets pubescent, slightly glandular. 

Leaves finely crenate or crenate-serrate, oval, acute at both ends; twigs at first 

puberulent, at length glabrate. 12. B. crenata 

Leaves coarsely serrate, obovate, acute or obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the 
base; twigs with long scattered coarse hairs. 13. B. glandulifera. 

Twigs and branchlets glabrous, densely glandular-resiniferous; leaves obovate or 
orbicular, crenate-serrate. 14. B. glandulosa. 

1. B. sub cor data Rydb. A small tree; twigs reddish brown; leaf -blades 
3-10 cm. long, pubescent when young, in age glabrate and dull bronze-green 
above, paler and pubescent beneath, irregularly toothed, with broad triangular 
teeth; pistillate aments short-peduncled on short lateral branches, 2-4 cm. long 
and 1 cm. thick in fruit; body of the fruit elliptic, the wing of about the same 
width. WHITE BIRCH. Mountain woods: Alta. Mont. Ida. B.C. Mont. 
Submont. Ap. 

2. B. papyrifera March. A tree up to 25 m. high; leaf-blades 3-11 cm. 
long, irregularly or doubly serrate, glabrous and dark green above, pubescent 
beneath; staminate aments 5-10 cm. long, 2 or 3 at the ends of the branches; 
pistillate aments peduncled, solitary on small lateral leafy branches, 2-4 cm. 
long. B. Andrewsii A. Nels. PAPER BIRCH. Cold woods: Lab. N.J. Colo. 
Alaska. Submont. Subalp. Ap-My. 

3. B. occidentalis Hook. A tree sometimes 30-40 m. high; twigs brown, 
at first pubescent or puberulent; leaf -blades acute at the apex, rounded or some- 
times subcordate or acute at the base, more or less glandular-resiniferous, 
pubescent along the veins and in their axils; staminate aments 7-10 cm. long, 
usually several together; pistillate aments 1-4, on lateral leafy branches, in 
fruit 3-4 cm. long; terminal lobe of the bractlets lanceolate, longer than the sub- 
rhomboid, ascending lateral ones. Banks of streams and lakes: B.C. w Mont. 
Wash. Submont. My. 

4. B. alaskana Sarg. A tree 10-12 m., rarely 25 m. high; twigs red-brown, 
verrucose with conspicuous resinous glands; leaf-blades from cuneate to cordate 
at the base, acuminate at the apex, entire at the base, glabrous and glandular- 
resiniferous; staminate aments clustered, 2-4 cm. long; pistillate aments in fruit 
2-3 cm. long, 8-10 mm. thick; terminal lobe of the bractlets lanceolate, slightly 
longer than the rounded-obovate ascending lateral ones. River banks and 
woods: Alaska Sask. Mack. Boreal. My-Je. 

6. B. Piperi Britton. A tree up to 15 m. high; leaf-blades broadly ovate, 
thin, sharply and irregularly serrate, acute or short-acuminate, rounded or acute 
at the entire base; staminate aments 6-8 cm. long; pistillate aments cylindric, 
in fruit 3-5 cm. long; terminal lobe of the bractlets triangular-lanceolate. River 
banks: Wash. Mont. Ida. Ore. Submont. My-Je. 

6. B. utahensis Britton. A tree 4-6 m. high; leaf-blades ovate to nearly 
orbicular, sharply toothed, with broad teeth, glabrate in age, thin, acute, 3-5 
cm. long, acute or truncate at the base, dull green; staminate aments about 5 
cm. long; pistillate ones in fruit 3-4 cm. long; terminal lobe of the bractlets 
triangular-lanceolate. Canons and woods: Utah Wyo Mont. Submont. 
Mont. Ap-Je. 



204 BETULACEAE 

7. B. fontinalis Sarg. A tree occasionally 10-12 m. high, often growing 
in clumps and shrub-like; blades sharply double-serrate, entire towards the base, 
soon glabrous, 2-5 cm. long; staminate aments 57 cm. long, several; pistillate 
aments 2-3 cm. long; terminal lobe of the bractlets lanceolate, decidedly longer 
than the lateral ones. B. occidentalis Nutt., not Hook. MOUNTAIN BIRCH, 
WATER BIRCH, SWAMP BIRCH, BLACK BIRCH. River banks: Sask. Neb. 
N.M. Utah Calif. B.C. Yukon. Plain Mont. My-Je. 

8. B. montanensis Butler. A large tree; leaf-blades 4-6.5 cm. long, thick 
and firm, slightly lobed, finely serrate, glabrous above, conspicuously hairy 
beneath; fruiting aments 2.5-3.5 cm. long; bractlets 5-7 mm. long; middle lobe 
triangular-lanceolate, acute. Lake shores: Mont. Submont. 

9. B. Sandbergii Britton. A shrub or shrub-like tree; leaf-blades up to 6 
cm. long, thick, firm, dull bronze-green above, paler and sparsely hairy beneath, 
rhombic-ovate or oval, acute at both ends; fruiting aments 2-4 cm. long, slender- 
stalked; middle lobe of the bractlets longer than the ascending rounded lateral 
ones. BLACK BIRCH. Swampy places: Sask. Minn. Mont. Plain. 

10. B. Elrodiana Butler. A low shrub; twigs slender, red-brown or gray; 
leaf-blades 1-3 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, oval or rhombic, rarely ovate or obovate, 
often suborbicular, shining, dark green above, duU green and reticulate beneath; 
fruiting aments 10-15 mm. long, 6-8 mm. thick, cyfindric or ellipsoid. Swampy 
places: w Mont. Submont. 

11. B. obovata Butler. A coarse shrub; branchlets red-brown, becoming 
gray; leaf-blades 2-4 cm. long, thick, firm, dark, shining above, paler and dull 
beneath, serrate or crenate-serrate; fruiting aments cylindrical or oval, 2-2.5 
cm. long, 6-8 mm. thick; middle lobe of the bractlets long, ovate or triangular, 
obtuse, or acutish; lateral lobes obliquely rhombic. River banks: w Mont. 
Submont. 

12. B. crenata Rydb. A shrub 2.5-4.5 m. high; branches puberulent and 
reddish when young; leaf -blades slightly pubescent when young, oval or elliptic, 
1-3 cm. long, 8-20 mm. wide, crenate, dark green, shining, reticulate-veined 
above; pistillate aments 12-18 mm. long, about 6 mm. thick; terminal lobe of 
bractlets oblong or elliptic, obtuse or rounded at the apex; lateral lobes ascending, 
obliquely ovate or rhombic, obtuse; nut oval, nearly 2 mm. long; wings of nearly 
the same width. Lake banks: w Mont. Submont. Je. 

13. B. glandulifera (E. Regel) Butler. A shrub 1-5 m. high; leaf-blades 
dentate-crenate, with rounded-ovate or on the vigorous shoots triangular teeth, 
1.5-3 cm. long, sparingly hirsute when young, soon glabrous, dark green above, 
yellowish or reddish green beneath; pistillate aments 1-2 cm. long, 6-7 mm. thick; 
bractlets glabrous; lobes all oblong and obtuse at the apex, of nearly the same 
length; wing one-fourth to one-half as wide as the oval nut. B. pumila glanduli- 
fera E. Regel. Boggy places: Ont. Wis. Minn. Sask. Plain Submont. 
My. 

14. B. glandulosa Michx. A shrub 0.3-2 m. high; twigs brown and 
densely glandular-resinif erous ; leaf-blades 1-2.5 cm. long, rounded at both ends 
or sometimes acutish at the base, bright green above, paler beneath; staminate 
aments usually solitary, 1-1.5 cm. long; pistillate aments 1-2.5 cm. long, 4-5 
mm. thick; bractlets glabrous; lobes oblong, obtuse, the lateral ones shorter, 
spreading, ascending and curved upward; wing of the samara very narrow. 
BOG BIRCH, SCRUB BIRCH. Wet places: Greenl. Me. Minn. Colo. Ore. 
Alaska. Submont. Subalp. Je-Jl. 

2. ALNUS (Tourn.) Hill. ALDER. 

Shrubs or trees, with astringent smooth bark. Staminate aments drooping; 
calyx irregularly lobed; stamens as many as the lobes and opposite to them; 
anthers introrse. Pistillate aments ovoid or oblong, cone-like; bracts subtend- 
ing 2 flowers, becoming woody, truncate or lobed at the apex, persistent. Fruit 
minute, nut-like, winged or wingless, with thin outer coat. Seeds solitary. 



BIRCH FAMILY 205 

Nut bordered on each side with a membranous wing-margin, fully as broad as the nut- 

twigs resin ous-granuliferous; stamens 4. 
Leaves irregularly serrate, usually very oblique at the base, slightly paler beneath. 

Leaves incised and sharply double-serrate, green on both sides. 

2. A. sinuata. 
Nut merely acute-margined. 

Leaves distinctly lobed and doubly serrate; stamens 4. 

Mature leaves pubescent, especially beneath, usually glaucous beneath- bark 

white-speckled. 3. A. incana. 

Mature leaves glabrous, except on the veins beneath and in their axils, green on 

both sides; bark not speckled. 4. A. tenuifolia 

Leaves not lobed, merely sinuate and glandular-dentate; stamens 1-3, usually 2. 

5. A. rhombifolia. 

1. A. fruticosa Rupr. A tree sometimes 12 m." high; young twigs minutely 
puberulent, becoming brown and shining; leaf-blades broadly ovate, 6-10 cm. 
long, short-acuminate or obtuse; staminate aments in pairs, 10-12 cm. long; 
filaments longer than the calyx; pistillate aments elliptic, 12-15 mm. long; nut 
oval, about 2 mm. long. ALASKA ALDER. Along streams: Alaska Yukon 
B.C. Wash.; e Siberia. Submont. My-Je. 

2. A. sinuata (E. Regel) Rydb. A shrub 1-4 m. high; young twigs brown or 
greenish, glabrous or nearly so; leaf-blades ovate, 5-10 cm. long, acute or short- 
acuminate at the apex, acute, rounded or. rarely subcordate at the base, thin, 
glabrous or nearly so; staminate aments 3-8 cm. long; filaments not exceeding 
the calyx; pistillate aments rounded-ellipsoid, 12-15 mm. long; nut elliptic. 
MOUNTAIN ALDER. Mountain streams: B.C. Ore. -Wyo. -Alta. Mont. 
My-Jl. 

3. A. incana (L.) Moench. Shrub or small tree, rarely 6 m. high; leaf- 
blades broadly elliptic to ovate, rounded at the base, sharply and doubly serrate, 
dark green above, downy and ferruginous or glaucous, prominently veined bs- 
neath, 5-13 cm. long; staminate aments 3-8 cm. long, the pistillate in fruit 1-1.5 
cm. long; nut orbicular, thick-margined. SPECKLED ALDER. Swamps and along 
streams: Newf. Pa. Neb. Sask.; Eurasia. Boreal. Ap-My. 

4. A. tenuifolia Nutt. A tall shrub or small tree, sometimes 8-10 m; high; 
twigs pubescent when young; leaf -blades ovate or oval, obtuse or acute at the 
apex, rounded or subcordate at the base, 5-10 cm. long; staminate aments 2.5- 
4.5 cm. long, filaments equalling the calyx; pistillate aments when ripe 1-2 cm. 
long, ellipsoid; nut 2.5 mm. long. A. incana virescens S. Wats. RIVER ALDER. 
Along streams: Alaska Calif. N.M. Yukon. Submont. -Mont. Ap-My. 

5. A. rhombifolia Nutt. A tree sometimes 25 m. high; young twigs green 
and pubescent; leaf -blades oval or rarely ovate, 5-12 cm. long, hairy on both 
sides when young, often glabrate in age and dark green above, paler beneath; 
staminate aments 6-15 cm. long, yellow; pistillate aments ellipsoid, 1.5-2 cm. 
long; nut oval, about 2.5 mm. long. Along streams: B.C. Ida. -Calif. Sub- 
mont. D-Ja. 

FAMILY 33. CORYLACEAE. HAZELNUT FAMILY. 

Monoecious trees or shrubs, with simple alternate leaves. Staminate 
aments elongate, drooping, each bract subtending a single flower; calyx 
wanting; filaments distinct, branched at the apex. Pistillate aments short; 
bracts foliaceous at maturity, each subtending 2 or 3 flowers; calyx present, 
sometimes represented by a cup. Fruit 1-3 nuts, enclosed in the bracts. 
Seeds solitary by suppression. 
Pistillate flowers many in a cylindric ament; nuts small, enclosed in a bladdery bract. 

1. 1JSTRYA. 

Pistillate flowers few in a head-like ament; nutjlarge, in a leaf-like involucre. 

2. CORYLUS. 

1. OSTRYA (Mich.) Scop. IRONWOOD, HOP-HORNBEAM. 

Trees with close-grained, hard wood andjscaly bark. Staminate aments 
clustered, drooping; bracts subtending 3-14^starnens; filaments very short, 



206 CORYLACEAE 

branched at the tips; anther-sacs separate, pilose above. Pistillate aments 
terminal, solitary; bracts subtending two flowers, developing into bladdery 
sacks. Calyx denticulate. Nut ovoid, flattened, obscurely ribbed. 

1. O. virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch. A tree 6-18 m. high; twigs light green and 
pubescent at first; leaf -blades ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, 
sharply serrate, 7-15 cm. long; staminate aments 3-7 cm. long; bractlets tri- 
angular-ovate, acuminate; pistillate aments about 8 mm., in fruit 4-6 cm. long; 
nut 5-8 mm. long, shining. Dry woods: N.S. Fla. Tex. (Black Hills) S.D. 
Submont, Ap-My. 

2. CORYLUS (Tourn.) L. HAZELNUT. 

Shrubs or trees, with branched stem and smooth bark. Staminate aments 
pendulous, very long, solitary or in clusters; bracts enclosing 4-8 stamens; fila- 
ments short, forked at the apex; anther-sacs separate, pilose at the apex. Pis- 
tillafe aments inconspicuous, clustered at the tips of the branches; each bract 
enclosing 2 bractlets and an incompletely 2-celled ovary. Nut large, enclosed 
in a leafy involucre formed by the more or less united bracts. 

Twigs glabrous or nearly so; beak of the involucre fully twice as long as the nut, strongly 
ribbed. 1. C. rostrata. 

Twigs decidedly hirsute, sometimes somewhat glandular; beak of involucre not more 
than half longer than the nut, not strongly ribbed. 2. O. californica. 

1. C. rostrata Ait. A shrub 1-2 m. high, with brown branches; leaf -blades 
ovate or oval, sharply serrate, glabrous or with scattered hairs above, sparingly 
pubescent especially on the veins beneath, 5-12 cm. long; involucral bracts 
bristly hairy, united and prolonged into a tubular beak, laciniate at the summit; 
nut ovoid, scarcely compressed, striate. BEAKED HAZLENUT. Thickets: N.S. 
Ga. Colo. N.D. Submont. Ap-My. 

2. C. californica (A. DC.) Rose. A shrub, or small tree, up to 12 m. high, 
with brown pubescenjb branches; leaf -blades broadly ovate to suborbicular, 
2.5-7 cm. long, cordate or rounded at the base, double-toothed, rough and 
pubescent above, soft-pubescent and paler beneath; involucral bracts bristly- 
hairy, united into a tube, cleft at the apex; nut rounded-ovoid, 1.5 cm. in di- 
ameter. Woods: Calif. B.C. Son Submont. 

FAMILY 34. ULMACEAE. ELM FAMILY. 

Monoecious, polygamous, or hermaphrodite trees or shrubs, with simple 
leaves, often 2-ranked and oblique at the base. Flowers in cymes or racemes. 
Calyx of 3-8 sepals, more or less united at the base, imbricate. Stamens of 
the same number, opposite the sepals. Pistil of 2 united carpels; ovary 
2-celled. Fruit a samara, drupe, or nut. Endosperm scant or wanting. 

Fruit a samara; embryo straight. 1. ULMUS. 

Fruit a drupe; embryo with conduplicate cotyledons. 2. CELTIS. 

1. ULMUS (Tourn.) L. ELM. 

Trees or shrubs, with furrowed, often corky bark. Leaves 2-ranked, oblique, 
straight-veined, serrate, deciduous. Flowers perfect, in axillary clusters. Calyx 
membranous, 4-9-lobed, usually 5-lobed, campanulate. Stamens exserted; fila- 
ments filiform or slightly flattened; anthers extrorse. emarginate at both ends. 
Ovary sessile or short-stalked, 1-celled or rarely 2-celled; stigmas often incurved, 
introrse. Samaras orbicular or oblong, winged all around. Seeds flattened. 

1. U. americana L. A large tree, sometimes 35 m. high, with glabrous or 
sparingly pubescent twigs; leaves oval or obovate, abruptly acuminate at the 
apex, obtuse or acutish at the oblique base, sharply, usually doubly serrate, 
slightly rough above, pubescent or glabrate beneath, 5-12 cm. long; samara 
ovate-oval, reticulate-veined, 10-12 mm. long, glabrous except the ciliate mar- 
gins. AMERICAN OR WHITE ELM. Moist soil: Newf. Fla. 'Tex. se Mont. 
Sask. Plain Submont. Mr-Ap. 



ELM FAMILY 207 

2. CELTIS (Tourn.) L. HACKBERRY. 

Shrubs or trees, with thin smooth or corky-ridged bark. Leaves oblique, 
S3rrate or entire, 2-ranked, membranous or leathery. Flowers polygamo- 
m&noecious or monoecious, axillary, the staminate solitary or clustered; the 
pistillate usually solitary. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed, deciduous. Stamens 4 or 5; 
filaments incurved; anthers extrorse. Ovary sessile, 1-celled, with 2 recurved 
stigmas. Drupe globose or ellipsoid, with scant pulp and bony stone. 

Leaf-blades neither coriaceous nor pale beneath, nor strongly rugose. 

Leaves smooth above. 1. C. occidentalis. 

Leaves very rough, pustulate-scabrous above. 2. C. crassifolia. 

Leaf-blades coriaceous, strongly reticulate and rugose, paler beneath, often yellowish 

green. 
Leaf-blades strongly pubescent beneath. 

Pedicels 15-20 mm. long, more than twice as long as the fruit; leaf-blades toothed. 

3. C. rugulosa. 
Pedicels 4-10 mm. long, usually less than twice as long as the fruit; leaf-blades 

subentire. 4. C. reticulata. 

Leaf-blades glabrous beneath, or slightly hispidulous on the veins and in their axils. 

5. C. Douglasii. 

1. C. occidentalis L. A small tree, sometimes 20 m. high; bark of the 
jsiem gray, corky-ridged; leaf-blades ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pubescent on 
the veins beneath, thin, very oblique at the base, usually sharply serrate, short- 
acuminate, 3-10 cm. long; pedicels in fruit 1-2 cm. long, nearly glabrous; fruit 
globose, 7-10 mm. in diameter, purple or blackish. Rocky places: Que. N.C. 
Okla . w Neb. Man. Plain. Ap-My. 

2. C. crassifolia Lam. A tree occasionally 40 m. high; bark corky-rough- 
ened and warty; leaf -blades ovate or ovate-lanceolate, dark green, short-acumin- 
ate, usually coarsely toothed, 3-10 cm. long, hirsute beneath, especially on the 
veins; pedicels in fruit 1-2 cm. long; fruit globose or nearly so, 8-10 mm. in 
diameter, black. Woods and hillsides: Mass. S.C. Colo. -S.D. Plain 
Submont. Ap-Je. 

3. C. rugulosa Rydb. A tree 5-10 m. high, with round crown; twigs 
somewhat pubescent when young; leaf -blades broadly ovate, oblique, 4-7 cm. 
long, somewhat cordate at the base, short-acuminate, sharply serrate except at 
the base and apex, dark green, shining and slightly scabrous above, brownish or 
yellowish green and dull beneath ; fruit globose, about 8 mm. in diameter, brownish; 
style short but evident. C. rugosa Rydb., not Newberry. Valleys in the foot- 
hills: Colo. Submont. My. 

4. C. reticulata Torr. A shrub 1-5 m. high; bark gray, corky-ridged; 
branchlets densely pubescent, brownish gray; leaf-blades broadly ovate, acute, 
cordate at the base, 2-4 cm. long, entire or with a few broad teeth, shining above, 
pale brown and densely hirsutulous beneath; fruit globose, 6-10 mm. in 
diameter, red. Dry rocky places: Tex. Kans. Colo. -N.M. Son. Staked 
Plains. Ap. 

5. C. Douglasii Planch. A low tree or shrub 5-10 m. high; twigs sparingly 
pubescent; leaf-blades oblique, lance-ovate or ovate, gradually acuminate or 
acute, more or less serrate, 2-6 cm. long, dark green above, light yellowish green 
and reticulate beneath; pedicels 10-15 mm. long; fruit greenish brown to 
nearly black, about 6 mm. in diameter, somewhat ellipsoid; style obsolete. 
Hills: Ore. Utah Ida. B.C. Submont. Son. Ap-Je. 

FAMILY 35. CANNABINACEAE. HEMP FAMILY. 

Herbs or vines, with mostly opposite leaves and persistent stipules. Stam- 
inate flowers in panicled racemes; sepals and stamens 5. Pistillate flowers 
in bracted spikes, with a cup-like calyx; pistil of 2 united carpels, but ovary 
1-celled. Fruit an achene; seed solitary, pendulous. 

Erect herbs; leaves digitately divided to near the base; pistillate flowers in axillary stiff 
spikes. . 1. CANNABIS. 

Twining vines; leaves merely digitately lobed; pistillate flowers in drooping ament-hk e 
spikes with imbricate bracts. 2. HUMULU S> 



208 CANNABINACEAE 

1. CANNABIS L. HEMP. 

Erect annual dioecious herbs. Leaves alternate or opposite, digitately 5-11- 
divided into serrate divisions. Staminate flowers in paniculate racemes; sepals 
5, imbricate; stamens 5. Pistillate flowers in leaf y-br acted spikes; perianth 
undivided; pistil solitary. Fruit a slightly flattened achene. 

1. C. sativa L. Stem branched, 1-4 in. high, rough-pubescent; leaf- 
blades divided into 5-11 linear, serrate, acuminate divisions, 5-15 cm. long. 
Waste places: N.B. Ga. Tenn. Colo. Minn.; escaped from cultivation; 
native of Eurasia. 

2. HUMULUS L. HOPS. 

Perennial, twining herbaceous vines. Leaves opposite, 3-7-lobed, serrate. 
Stipule persistent, free. Staminate flowers in panicled racemes; sepals 5, imbri- 
cate; stamens 5; filaments short, erect. Pistillate flowers in ament-like, droop- 
ing spikes, 2 together, subtended by a bract; ovary 1-celled. Achenes a little 
flattened. Embryo spirally coiled. 

Leaf-blades 3-7-lobed about half-way to the base, with ovate, acute or short-acuminate 
lobes; those of the inflorescence 3-lobed or undivided. 1. H. Lupulus. 

Leaf-blades 5-7-divided to near the base, with lanceolate, long-acuminate divisions ; those 
of the inflorescence 5-cleft. 2. H . neomexicanus. 

1. H. Lupulus L. A vine 5-10 m. high; leaf-blades cordate in outline, 
dark green, scabrous above, glabrous beneath except the pubescent veins; 
lobes coarsely toothed, with ovate teeth; bracts of the pistillate flowers broadly 
ovate, from obtuse to short acuminate. COMMON HOPS. Rocky banks and 
copses: N.S. Ga. Kans. Wyo. Mont.; Eurasia; extensively cultivated. 
Plain Submont. 

2. H. neomexicanus (A. Nels. & Cockerell) Rydb. A vine 5-10 m. high; 
leaf -blades light green, minutely scabrous above, nearly glabrous beneath; bracts 
of the pistillate flowers narrower, lanceolate or ovate, acute or acuminate. H. 
Lupulus neomexicanus A. Nels. & Cockerell. WILD HOPS. Among bushes: 
Wyo. Utah Ariz. N.M. Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

FAMILY 36. URTICACEAE. NETTLE FAMILY. 

Monoecious, dioecious, or polygamous herbs (ours), often armed with 
stinging hairs. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, with stipules. Flowers 
greenish, in axillary cymes. Calyx of 2-5 distinct or partly united sepals. 
Stamens 2-5, in the pistillary flowers reduced to staminodia or wanting. 
Pistil solitary; ovary 1-celled. Fruit an achene. Endosperm scant, oily, 
or wanting; emb yo straight. 

Herbs with stinging hairs; leaves opposite; flowers not involucrate. 1. URTICA. 

Plants without stinging hairs; leaves alternate; flowers involucrate by leafy bracts. 

2. PARIETARIA. 

1. URTICA (Tourn.) L. NETTLE. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with stinging hairs. Leaves opposite, with 
membranous, toothed, 5-7-veijied blades and free stipules. Plants dioecious or 
monoecious; flowers in axillary, paniculate cymes; sepals 4, nearly distinct, in 
the pistillate flowers two of them larger. Staminate flowers with 4 stamens and 
a rudimentary ovary, the pistillate ones with an equilateral ovary and tufted 
stigmas. Achenes flattened. Seeds with membranous coats, often adherent 
to the pericarp. All our species dioecious and perennial with a rootstock. 

Stipules membranous, oblong or broadly lanceolate, obtuse or acutish, often 1 cm. long. 
Stem and leaves densely pubescent. 

Stem and lower surface of the leaves coarsely velvety. 1. U. holosericea. 

Stem finely strigose; lower surface of the leaves finely short-pubescent. 

2. U. Breweri. 
Stem nearly glabrous; leaves puberulent, in age becoming glabrate. 

3. U. Lyallii. 



NETTLE FAMILY 209 

Stipules narrowly lanceolate or linear, attenuate. 

Teeth of the leaves ovate, strongly directed forward. 

Stem glabrous except the presence of a few bristles; leaves thin, almost glabrous 

not strongly veined. 

Petioles one-third to one-half as long as the cordate or broadly ovate leaf- 
blades. 4. u. cardiophylla. 
Petioles one-fifth to one-third as long as the lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate 

leaf-blades. 5. j/. viridis 

Stem more or less strigose or hirsute; leaves decidedly hairy, especially on the very 

strong veins. 
Leaf-blades lanceolate, scarcely cordate at the base. 

Stem sparingly strigose and bristly. 6. U. gracilis. 

Stem densely strigose, scarcely at all bristly. 7. U. strigosissima 

Leaf-blades broad, deeply cordate at base. 8. U. dioica. 

Teeth of the leaves broadly triangular, not strongly directed forward; stem and leaves 
glabrous or nearly so. 9. U. gracilenta. 

1. U. holosericea Nutt. Plant densely velvety; stem 1-3 m. high; leaf- 
blades thick, ovate or the lower cordate, coarsely toothed, 5-10 cm. long, pale 
beneath; staminate flowers in loose panicles, nearly equalling the upper leaves, 
the pistillate ones in shorter and denser clusters; inner sepals ovate, about equal- 
ling the achenes. Alluvial soil: Wash. -Ida. Calif. Son. Submont. Jl-Au. 

2. U. Breweri S. Wats. Stem 1-2 m. high; leaf-blades lanceolate to cordate, 
coarsely toothed, rather thin, somewhat paler beneath; panicles shorter than in 
the preceding, the staminate ones shorter than the leaves, the pistillate slightly 
exceeding the petioles; sepals obovate, about twice as long as the achenes. River 
valleys: Wash. Utah Calif. Submont. Je-Au. 

3. U. Lyallii S. Wats. Perennial, dioecious; stem 1-2 m. high; leaf-blades 
thin, coarsely toothed, 3-15 cm. long, ovate or cordate; panicles shorter than the 
leaves, the pistillate ones scarcely exceeding the petioles; sepals ovate, usually 
shorter than the achenes. Along streams: Alaska Wash.; Newf. -Conn. 
Submont. My-S. 

4. U. cardiophylla Rydb. Stem about 1 m. high; lower leaf-blades cordate, 
the upper lance-ovate, 6-10 cm. long, coarsely toothed, very .thin, shining, dark 
green, glabrous; panicles small, few-flowered, much shorter than the leaves; 
sepals ovate, about equalling the achenes. Wooded creek banks: Mont. Alta. 
B.C. -Ida. Submont. Je-Au. 

5. U. viridis Rydb. Stem 1-1.5 m. high, slender; blades coarsely toothed, 
4-10 cm. long, thin, light green; panicles many-flowered, often equalling the 
upper leaves; sepals oval or ovate, usually half longer than the achene. River 
bottoms: Ida. Wyo. Alta. Submont. Je-Au. 

6. U. gracilis Ait. Stem slender, 0.5-3 m. high, sharp-angled; leaf-blades 
finely serrate, acuminate, 7-15 cm. long, about as wide as the length of the 
petioles; flower-clusters slender, but shorter than the leaves; sepals ovate, about 
equalling the achenes. Alluvial soil and waste places: N.S. N.C. N.M. 
Alaska. Plain Mont. Ap-S. 

7. U. strigosissima Rydb. Stem 1 m. high or more; petioles 2-3 cm. long; 
leaf -blades sharply serrate, long-acuminate, 5-10 cm. long, 1.5-5 cm. wide; 
flower-clusters slender, the upper almost equalling the leaves; sepals ovate, 
about equalling the achenes. River banks: Ida. Utah. Submont. July. 

8. U. dioica L. Stem 0.5-1.5 m. high, strongly bristly and somewhat 
hispidulous above, obtusely angled; leaf-blades thin, very bristly, coarsely 
toothed, acute or short-acuminate, 3-10 cm. long, usually twice as broad as the 
length of the petioles; flower-clusters about half as long as the leaves. Waste 
places: N.S. S.C. Colo. Minn.; nat. from Eu. Plain -Submont. Jl-S. 

9. U. gracilenta Greene. Stem slender, 1-2 m. high, strigose or hirsutulous, 
as well as bristly; petioles slender, 2-8 cm. long; leaf-blades lanceolate, long- 
acuminate, rounded at the base, 5-15 cm. long, more or less pubescent, with 
salient teeth; flower-clusters slender, slightly exceeding the petioles. Along 
streams and in canons : S.D. Wyo. Ariz. Tex.; Mex. Son. Submont. Au- 
S. 

11 



210 URTICACEAE 

2. PARIETARIA (Tourn.) L. PELLITORY. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with diffusely branched, often pellucid stems, 
polygamous. Leaves alternate, with 3-veined blades. Involucres of 2-6, more 
or less united bracts. Flowers in axillary cymes. Perianth of 4, rarely 3, more 
or less united sepals. Stamens 4, rarely 3, in the perfect and the staminate flow- 
ers, in the pistillate ones wanting. Pistils solitary, in the staminate flowers 
rudimentary; stigmas tufted. Achenes included, with a crustaceous pericarp. 

Leaf-blades lanceolate, 2-7 cm. long, twice as long as the petioles or longer. 

Plant comparatively dark green; stem densely puberulent; sepals lanceolate, acute. 

1. P. pennsylvanica. 
Plant very light green; stem long-villous ; sepals ovate, often obtuse. 

2. P. occidentaUs. 
Leaf-blades oblong or ovate-oblong, 0.52 cm. long, not twice as long as the petioles. 

3. P. obtusa. 

1. P. pennsylvanica Muhl. Annual, slender; stem weak, ascending, 1-4 
dm. high, simple or branched; leaf -blades thin and flimsy, obtuse or acuminate 
at the apex, acute or acuminate at the base; bracts of the involucre linear, 4-5 
mm. long. Shaded banks or rocks: Ont. Fla. Mex. -B.C. Plain Sub- 
mont. My-Au. 

2. P. occidentalis Rydb. Annual; stem slender, erect, simple or branched 
at the base, 1-4 dm. high; leaf -blades thin, light green, acute at the base, obtus- 
ish at the apex, 1-4 cm. long, 5-18 mm. wide, sparingly pubescent; bracts of the 
involucre Linear, obtuse. Moist shaded places: Wash. Ida. Nev. Submont. 
My-Au. 

3. P. obtusa Rydb. Annual; stem usually branched at the base, spreading, 
5-20 cm. long, finely villous; leaf -blades obtuse; bracts of the involucres oblong 
or narrowly oblong, obtuse; sepals ovate, obtuse, rarely acutish. Shady places: 
Colo. Utah s Calif. Tex. Son Submont. F-J1. 

FAMILY 37. POLYGONACEAE. BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. 

Herbs or shrubs, or in the tropics trees or vines, with alternate leaves. 
Flowers perfect or rarely unisexual. Calyx inferior, of 2-6 more or less 
united sepals, often corolloid. Corolla wanting. Stamens 2-9. Pistil of 
2 or 3 united carpels, but ovary 1-celled, in fruit becoming a 1 -seeded, tri- 
angular or lenticular achene. 

Leaves without stipules; flowers or flower-clusters subtended by involucres of partly 

united bracts; stamens mostly 9. 
Involucres from tubular to campanulate, of several united bracts. 

Involucres awnless, campanulate or turbinate, 4-8-toothed or -lobed. 

1. EBIOGONUM. 
Involucres awn-pointed. 

Involucres herbaceous; flowers exserted; achenes lenticular. 

2. OXYTHECA. 

Involucres leathery or horny; flowers included; achenes 3-angled. 

Involucres with 3-6 awn-tipped spurs near the base, 1-3-flowered, in open 

dichotomous panicles. 3. CENTROSTEGIA. 

Involucres without spurs, 1-flowered. 

Involucres 6-angled, sulcate; filaments adnate to the base of the peri- 
anth. 4. CHORIZANTHE. 
Involucres 3-angled; filaments adnate to the whole tube of the perianth. 

5. ACANTHOGONUM. 

Involucres bract-like, 2-cleft. 6. PTEROSTEGIA. 

Leaves with sheathing stipules (ocreae); flower-clusters not involucrate; stamens 4-8. 
Stigmas tufted. 

Sepals 6; styles 3; achenes triangular. 7. RUMEX. 

Sepals 4; styles 2; achenes lenticular. 8. OXYRIA. 

Stigmas not tufted. 

Leaf-blades jointed at the base; ocreae 2-lobed, becoming lacerate; filaments, 

at least the inner, dilated. 9. POLYGONUM. 

Leaf-blades not jointed at the base; ocreae not 2-lobed; filaments slender. 
Ocreae cylindric, truncate. 10. PERSICARIA. 

Ocreae oblique, more or less open on the side facing the leaf. 

Herbs, not climbing or twining; sepals neither winged nor keeled. 

Flowers in simple spike-like racemes; plants with thickened tuberous 
rootstocks. 11. BISTORTA. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 211 

Flowers in several racemes or panicles; rootstocks not tuberous-thick- 
ened. 
Racemes in terminal corymbs; plants smooth. 

Embryo in the center of the endosperm; leaves sagittate or 

cordate. 12. FAGOPYRUM. 

Embryo at one side of the endosperm; leaves neither sagittate 

nor cordate. 13. ACONOGONUM. 

Racemes not in terminal corymbs; plant prickly; embryo at one 

side of the endosperm. 14. TRACAULON. 

Herbaceous vines, with twining stems ; sepals winged or keeled. 

15. BlLDERDYKIA. 

1. ERIOGONCJM Michx. UMBRELLA PLANT. 

Annual or perennial herbs or shrubby plants, with basal or cauline, alternate, 
opposite, or whorled leaves and no stipules. Blades entire. Flowers perfect or 
polygamo-monoecious, in involucrate clusters variously disposed. Involucres 
turbinate or campanulate, rarely nearly cylindric, 4-8-lobed. Perianth more or 
less colored, jointed to a short pedicel. Segments 6, in two series. Stamens 9; 
filaments filiform, often hairy at the base. Ovary 1-celled, 3-angled or 3-winged; 
styles 3. 

Achenes 3-winged; perianth not accrescent; perennials with a thick taproot and short 

crown. I. ALATA. 

Achenes merely 3-angled; perianth accrescent in fruit. 

Perianth with a stipe-like base; bracts verticillate, leaf-like. 

Involucres in branching cymes; perennials with a branched woody caudex; flower- 
ing branches scapiform. II. ERIANTHA. 
Involucres in simple or compound umbel-like or head-like clusters. 
Perianth pubescent. 

Perianth yellow; leaf-blades spatulate or oblanceolate. 

Involucres undulate-dentate, tomentose, many, umbellate; embryo 

straight; perennials with a cespitose caudex. III. FLAVA. 
Involucres deeply lobed, solitary, or 2 or 3 together; embryo curved; 

perennials, subacaulescent or suffruticose. IV. CAESPITOSA. 

Perianth white; leaf-blades ovate or elliptic; cespitose subacaulescent 
perennials. V. PYROLAEFOLIA. 

Perianth glabrous ; perennials with a cespitose caudex, with the leaves clustered 

at the ends of the branches. VI. UMBELLATA. 

Perianth without stipe-like base. 

Ovaries and fruit pubescent; involucres few, capitate or subcymose; perennials 

with scapiform stems. VII. LACHNOGYNA. 

Ovaries and fruit glabrous or nearly so. 

Involucres in head-like or umbellate clusters. 

Perianth-lobes very unequal; perennials with a pulvinate-cespitose woody 
caudex. VIII. HETEROSEPALA. 

Perianth-lobes equal or nearly so. 

Heads solitary or, if more than one, proliferous-umbellate, with the 

central head sessile; cespitose perennials. IX. CAPITATA. 

Heads several, paniculate, corymbose or cymose-umbellate. 

Herbs with perennial caudices; heads paniculate, almost ebracteate; 

perennials with a stout rootstock. X. ELATA. 

Leafy undershrubs, with fascicled leaves; heads cymose-umbellate; 

suffruticose perennials. XI. FASCICULATA. 

Involucres in open cymes. 
Bracts scale-like. 

Involucres, except those of the forks of the inflorescence, sessile, the 

uppermost conglomerate. 

Cymes repeatedly dichotomous or trichotomous. 
Perianth-lobes very dissimilar; perennials. 

XII. DlCHOTOMA. 

Perianth-segments not very dissimilar. 

Perennials, shrubby at least at the base. 

XIII. OORYMBOSA. 

Annuals, with a strict herbaceous stem. 

XIV. ANNUA. 
Cymes with more or less raceme-like branches. 

Perennials. XV. RACEMOSA. 

Annuals XVI. VIRGATA. 

Involucres all peduncled, never conglomerate; scapose annuals (except 

E. tenellum); leaves basal, petioled. XVII. PEDUNCULATA. 

Bracts leaf-like. 

Primary stem-leaves scale-like, with a pair or a fascicle of secondary 
well-developed leaves in their axils; caulescent annuals. 

.X. V 111. UIVAIvICAlA. 

Primary stem-leaves well-developed, also often with secondary leaves 

Perianth ei pSoid, not closely investing the achenes; involucres 
toothed or lobed. 



212 POLYGON ACE AE 

Involucres sessile; leaves basal, petioled; bracts sessile, elliptic; 

scapose annuals. XIX. PUBERULA. 

Involucres peduncled; leaves and bracts similar, verticillate, 

linear; caulescent annuals. XX. SPERGULINA. 

Perianth herbaceous, closely investing the achene; involucre divided 
to near the base; leaves spatulate; caulescent annuals. 

XXI. SALSUGINOSA. 
I. ALATA. 
Involucres hairy, 3-3.5 mm. long and 1.5-2 mm. wide; stem and leaves manifestly hirsute 

and tomentose. 1. E. alatum. 

Involucres glabrous, 2-2.5 mm. long and of the same width; stem and leaves nearly 
glabrous. 2. E. triste. 

II. ERIANTHA. 

Perianth whitish; style hairy at least to the middle. 3. E. Jamesii. 

Perianth yellow; style hairy only at the base. 

Involucres 6-8 mm. long; leaf-blades oblong or oblanceolate. 4. E. Bakeri. 
Involucres 9-10 mm. long; leaf-blades suborbicular to oval. 5. E. arcuatum. 

III. FLAVA. 
Perianth (externally) pubescent throughout. 

Involucre elongated-obconic, 6-8 mm. long. 6. E. Piperi. 

Involucre turbinate, 4-5 mm. long. 

Stipe-like base of the perianth very short; old leaf-bases permanently tomentose. 
Leaf-bases thickened; perianth copiously pubescent; leaf-blades silky above; 

involucres usually several. 7. E. flavum. 

Leaf-bases not thickened; leaf-blades slightly floccose above; involucres few. 
Perianth 6-7 mm. long. 8. E. chloranthum. 

Perianth about 4 mm. long. 9. E. polyphyllum. 

Stipe-like base of the perianth slender; old leaf-bases glabrous. 

10. E. xanthum. 
Perianth pubescent at the base only. 11. E. androsaceum. 

IV. CAESPITOSA. 
Involucres with comparatively short, ovate, merely spreading lobes, long-peduncled ; 

leaves linear or nearly so, revolute; stems short, leafy. 12. E. thymoides. 

Involucres with long reflexed lobes. 

Densely cespitose, subacaulescent ; involucre solitary. 

Perianth in flowers 34 mm. long. 13. E. caespitosum. 

Perianth in flowers 2 mm. long. 14. E. andinum. 

Caulescent, suffruticose; involucres 15. 

Perianth greenish yellow, 6-8 mm. long; leaves spatulate or oblanceolate. 

15. E. sphaerocephalum. 
Perianth ochroleucous, 5 mm. long; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate. 

16. E. fasciculifolium. 
V. PYROLAEFOLIA. 

One species. 17. E. pyrolaefolium. 

VI. UMBELLATA. 

Leaf-blades ovate or cordate. 18. E. composition. 

Leaf-blades from obovate or orbicular to oblanceolate. 

Involucres solitary. 19. E. Porteri. 

Involucres several, umbellate. 
Perianth deeply yellow. 

Leaves not densely tomentose beneath. 

Umbels simple; leaves spatulate. 20. E. neglectum. 

Umbels more or less compound; leaves oblanceolate. 

21. E. biumbellatum. 
Leaves densely tomentose beneath. 

Inflorescence more or less compound. 22. E. stellatum. 

Inflorescence simple. 

Leaf-blades obovate-spatulate or oval; perianth 6-7 mm. long. 

23. E. umbellatum. 
Leaf-blades rhombic-ovate or rhombic-oval; perianth 7-8 mm. long. 

24. E. Rydbergii. 
Perianth ochroleucous, in age turning purplish rose-colored. 

Scape naked up to the umbel; leaves spatulate. 

Perianth about 6 mm. long; leaf-blades spatulate-oblong or elliptic, glabrous 

above at maturity. 25. E. subalpinum. 

Perianth about 8 mm. long; leaf-blades oval or ovate, permanently tomen- 
tose above. 26. E. aridum. 
Scape with at least one whorl of leaves below the umbel; leaf-blades oblanceo- 
late. 27. E. heracleoides. 

VII. LACHNOGYNA. 
Leaves and scape silky; the latter elongate, 1 dm. high or more; perennials with a taproot 

and cespitose crown. 

Inflorescence irregularly branched. 28. E. lachnogynum. 

Inflorescence subcapitate. 29. E. Tetraneuris. 

Leaves lanate, subsessile, obtuse; scape short, less than 3 cm. long, or none; pulvinate- 
cespitose perennials; involucres capitate. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 213 

Leaf-blades elliptic or oval, not strongly revolute; scape 1-3 cm long 

Per tube h yell w; lobes of the involucres lanceolate, more than twice as long as the 
Perianth white or pinkish; lobes of the involucres not twice as^'ong ast & hTtube 
Lobes of the involucres oblong or ovate, with a more or less scarious white' or 

pink margin. 31 j$ Shocklem 

Lobes of the involucres triangular, not scarious-margined. 

Leaf-blades linear-oblong, strongly revolute; scape none or very short" *' 

33. E. acaule. 
VIII. HETEROSEJALA. 

Heads several, cymose-proliferous, the central head sessile. 34. E vroliferum 

Heads solitary. 

Involucres about 7 mm. long; leaf-blades oval. 35. E. orthocaulon 

Involucres 4-5 mm. long. 

Perianth bright yellow or in age purplish; leaf-blades about as broad as long. 

36. E. ovalifolium. 
Perianth cream-colored, ochroleucous, or isabel-colored. 

Perianth 2.5-3.5 mm. long; leaf-blades rounded-oval or ovate. 

Perianth 4-5 mm. long; leaf-blades elliptic, oblong, or sp'atulate! 

38. E. ochroleucum. 
IX. CAPITATA. 
Perianth yellow. 

Bracts and involucres membranous; the former broadly lanceolate; the lobes of the 

latter ovate or triangular; densely pulvinate-cespitose perennials 
Perianth bright yellow. 39. E. chrysops. 

Perianth ochroleucous, sometimes tinged with rose. 40. E. Kingii 

Bracts and involucres firm; the former subulate or narrowly lanceolate (except in 
E. medium); the lobes of the latter lanceolate; perennials with a cespitose 
woody caudex. 

Perianth ochroleucous. 41. E. loganum. 

Perianth golden yellow. 

Leaf-blades oblanceolate or oblong, tomentose on both sides. 

42. E. chrysocephalum. 
Leaf-blades linear or narrowly linear-oblanceolate, in age greener above. 

43. E. medium. 
Perianth white or rose-colored. 

Perianth glabrous; perennials with a cespitose woody caudex. 

Lobes of the involucres lanceolate, acute, not scarious-margined. 

Heads about 1 cm. broad; perianth fully 3 mm. long; leaf-blades 3-8 cm. long. 

44. E. Brandegei. 
Heads about 0.5 cm. broad; perianth about 2 mm. long; leaf-blades 1-2 cm. 

long. 45. E. depauperatum. 

Lobes of the involucres oval to orbicular, scarious-margined. 

Leaves glabrate above; perianth 3-5 mm. long; involucres in small heads. 
Lobes of the involucres much shorter than the tube. 

46. E. coloradense. 
Lobes of the involucres about as long as the tube. 

47. E. pauciflorum. 
Leaves white-tomentose on both sides; perianth 2.5 mm. long; involucres 

solitary. 48. E. mancum. 

Perianth pubescent. 

Suffruticose leafy-stemmed perennial, with decumbent branches, villqus. 

49. E. multiceps. 
Pulvinate perennial, acaulescent, silky-hirsute. 50. E. villiflorum. 

X. ELATA. 
One species. 51. E. elatum. 

XI. FASCICULATA. 

One species. 52. E. polifolium. 

XII. DlCHOTOMA. 

Stem leafy, suflfrutescent ; outer perianth-segments suborbicular. 

53. E. niveum. 

Stem scapiform, with a cespitose woody caudex; outer perianth-segments oval. 
Inflorescence more or less floccose. 

Involucres 5-6 mm. long; branches of the inflorescence ascending-spreading. 

54. E. dichotomum. 
Involucres 3-4 mm. long; branches of the inflorescence strongly ascending, almost 

erect. 55. E. lachnostegium. 

Inflorescence glabrous. 56. E. strictum. 

XIII. COBYMBOSA. 

Branches of the inflorescence not grooved. 
Perianth yellow. 

Plants more than 2 dm. high; leaves not heath-like. 
Leafy shrubs; inflorescence shorter than the stem. 

Leaf-blades elliptic, oval, or broadly spatulate; involucres glabrous. 

57. E. aureum. 
Leaf-blades oblanceolate; involucres tomentose. 58. E. idahoense. 



214 POLYGONACEAE 

Undershrubs, leafy only at the base; inflorescence longer than the stem. 
Involucres villous-tomentose; leaf-blades equally white on both sides. 
Leaf-blades narrowly oblanceolate ; branches of the inflorescence strongly 

ascending. 59. E. orendense. 

Leaf-blades broadly spatulate; branches of the inflorescence more 

spreading. 60. E. lagopus. 

Involucres glabrate; leaves usually less tomentose above. 

Leaf-blades oblanceolate or broadly oblong, not strongly revolute. 
Involucres strongly angled, all sessile. 61. E. Thompsonae. 

Involucres not strongly angled; those of the forks peduncled. 

62. E. campanulatum. 
Leaf-blades linear or narrowly linear-oblanceolate, usually with revolute 

margins. 

Involucres in the forks peduncled. 63. E. brevicaule. 

Involucres all sessile. 64. E. micranthum. 

Plants depressed, less than 1 dm. high, with heath-like leaves. 

65. E. contortum. 
Perianth white or rose-colored. 

Suffruticose plants, leafy only at the base; inflorescence longer than the stem. 
Involucres tomentose, all sessile. 66. E. spathulatum. 

Involucres glabrous, at least in age. 
Leaf-blades spatulate or elliptic. 

Pedicels of the lower forks scarcely longer than the involucres; lobes 
of the latter as broad as long; perianth 3 mm. long. 

67. E. spathuli forme. 
Pedicels of the lower forks several times as long as the involucres ; lobes 

of the latter longer than broad; perianth 2 mm. long. 

68. E. Ostlundi. 
Leaf-blades narrowly oblanceolate to linear. 

Involucres all sessile. 

Leaves mostly flat; involucres narrowly turbinate; perianth 2-2.5 

mm. long. 69. E. lonchophyllum. 

Leaves mostly revolute; involucres campanulate; perianth 3-3.5 

mm. long. 70. E. nudicaule. 

Involucres in the forks of the inflorescence, at least the lower, distinctly 

peduncled. 
Involucres broadly campanulate, about as wide as long. 

71. E. scoparium. 
Involucres turbinate, decidedly longer than broad. 

Branches of the inflorescence almost erect. 

72. E. grangerense. 
Branches of the inflorescence ascending-spreading. 

Leaf-blades narrowly linear-oblanceolate or linear, usually 

revolute. 73. E. tristichum. 

Leaf-blades spatulate to oblanceolate, flat. 

74. E. salicinum. 

Shrubby plants, with the leafy stem usually longer than the inflorescence. 
Leaves not revolute or scarcely so, distinctly petioled. 

Leaf-blades relatively broad, oblong to rounded-oval or obovate, obtuse. 
Involucres 4-5 mm. long. 75. E. Fendlerianum. 

Involucres 2-3 mm. long. 

Branches of the inflorescence divaricate. 76. E. divergens. 
Branches of the inflorescence ascending. 

Leaf-blades rounded or subcordate at the base, decidedly crisp. 

77. E. Jonesii. 
Leaf-blades acutish at the base, not crisp, except sometimes the 

margins. 
Inflorescence and stem loosely floccose, in age inclined to 

become glabrate. 78. E. corymbosum. 

Inflorescence and stem permanently and densely white- 

tomentose. 79. E. salinum. 

Leaf-blades narrow, spatulate to linear, mostly acute at the apex. 

Inflorescence many times compound, copiously branched; internodes 

long. 
Inflorescence tomentulose, broom-like, with strongly ascending 

branches; involucres about 1.5 mm. long. 80. E. effusum. 
Inflorescence glabrous, lax and with spreading branches; involucres 

22.5 mm. long. 74. E. salicinum. 

Inflorescence less compound; branches and internodes short, mostly 

spreading. 
Involucres in the forks peduncled ; peduncles slightly floccose. 

81. E. microthecum. 
Involucres all sessile; peduncles densely white-tomentose. 

82. E. nebraskense. 
Leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, strongly revolute, subsessile. 

Peduncles not thickened upwards. 

Leaves glabrous or loosely floccose above. 

Stem 1-4 dm. high; leaves floccose above. 83. E. Simpsoni. 
Stem less than 1 dm. high; leaves glabrous above. 

84. E. Mearnsii. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 215 

Leaves densely villous on both sides. 85. E bicolor 

Peduncles clavate-thickened upwards. 86 E clavellatum 

Branches of the inflorescence strongly angled and deeply grooved. 

87. E. sulcatum. 
XIV. ANNUA. 
One species. 88. E. annuum. 

XV. RACEMOSA. 

Leaves crowded on the short branches of the caudex; blades abruptly narrowed at the 
base or subcordate. 89. E. racemosum. 

Leaves scattered on the fruticose branches; blades tapering at the base. 

Leaf-blades elliptic or oblanceolate. 90. E. Wrightii. 

Leaf-blades linear. 91. E. leptocladon. 

XVI. VlRGATA. 

Stem neither divaricately branched, nor densely floccose. 

Involucres cylindric; perianth-segments oblong or oval; plant with few branches 
Involucres about 3 mm. long. 92. E. vimineum. 

Involucres about 2 mm. long. 93. E. Baileyi 

Involucres campanulate, 1-1.5 mm. long; perianth-segments cuneate, flabellate, or 

fiddle-shaped; plants with numerous branches. 
Branches not incurved in age; leaf-blades ovate or oblong. 

94. E. densum. 
Branches incurved in age; leaf-blades orbicular or subreniform. 

95. E. nidularium. 
Stem divaricately branched, densely floccose. 96. E. Plumatella. 

XVII. PEDUXCULATA. 

Perennials with a woody caudex. 97. E. tenellum. 

Annuals. 

Perianth glabrous or in E. Thomasii and E. nutans somewhat pubescent; segments 

mostly obtuse or rounded at the apex. 
Peduncles not glandular. 

Scape and its branches glabrous. 

Peduncled reflexed or at least divaricate; leaves tomentose on both sides, 

less so above. 
Involucres 1.5-2 mm. long; perianth 1.5-2 mm. long. 

Peduncles shorter than the involucres; outer perianth-lobes ovate or 

subreniform. 
Perianth pale yellow; outer segments subreniform. 

98. E. Hookeri. 

Perianth white; outer segments ovate. 99. E. deflexum. 
Peduncles longer than the involucres; outer perianth-segments 
obovate or panduriform; perianth white or pinkish. 

100. E. cernuum. 

Involucres 0.5 mm. long; perianth 1-1.5 mm. long, yellowish with red- 
dish veins. 101. E. Wetherillii. 
Peduncles erect or ascending. 

Leaves more or less tomentose beneath. 
Involucres 1.5-2 mm. long. 

Perianth yellow; segments similar. 102. E. pusillum. 
Perianth white or rose-colored; segments unlike. 

Involucres campanulate; outer perianth-segments flabellate. 

103. E. rotundi folium. 

Involucres turbinate; outer perianth-segments not flabellate. 
Outer perianth-segments oblong-ovate, the inner ones 

entire. 104. E. insigne. 

Outer perianth-segments subreniform, the inner ones 3- 

toothed, much smaller. 105. E. turbinatum. 

Involucres scarcely 1 mm. long; perianth yellowish or white, usually 

somewhat hispidulous at the base. 106. E. Thomasii. 
Leaves green, glabrate or sparingly pilose. 107. E. Gordonii. 
Scape more or less pubescent, at least at the nodes. 

Leaves white-lanate beneath. 108. E. subreniforme. 

Leaves green on both sides, sparingly pilose. 109. E. trinervatum. 

Peduncles glandular; leaves tomentose. 

Outer perianth-segments oval, emarginate or retuse, the inner ones oblong. 

110. E. nutans. 

Outer perianth-segments ovate-cordate, the inner ones oblong-ovate, acute. 

111. E. Parryi. 
Perianth pubescent; segments ovate or lanceolate, acute. 

Peduncles and usually also the scape glandular; leaves green, merely hirsute be- 
neath. 112. E. glandulosum. 
Peduncles and scape not glandular. 

Leaves floccose or tomentose beneath. 113. E. Ordii. 

Leaves green, merely pilose or hirsute. 

Accessory branches at the lower forks of the inflorescence many and nearly 

as strong as the primary ones; all divaricate. 
Scape slightly if at all inflated. 114. E. trichopodum. 



216 POLYGONACEAE 

Scape strongly inflated under the first node. 115. E. fusiforme. 
Accessory branches of the lowest node of the inflorescence few and small 
or none; branches ascending; scape usually inflated. 

116. E. inflatum. 

XVIII. DlVARICATA. 

Leaves green, puberulent; involucres 5-cleft. usually sessile. 117. E. divaricatum. 
Leaves floccose beneath; involucres 5-toothed, peduncled. 118. E. angulosum. 

XIX. PUBERULA. 

One species. 119. E. puberulum. 

XX. SPERGULINA. 

Leaves green, merely pilose; scape glandular. 120. E. spergulinum. 

Leaves tomentose beneath; scape finely pubescent. 121. E. pharnaceoides. 

XXI. SALSUGINOSA. 
One species. 122. E. salsuginosum. 

1. E. alatum Torr. Stems erect, 3-10 dm. high; leaves mostly basal, 
tufted, spatulate or pblanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, hirsute above, glabrous beneath, 
except the strong midrib; panicle open; involucres in small cymes; perianth cam- 
panulate, greenish yellow, 2 mm. high, glabrous; achenes 5-7 mm. long, glab- 
rous. Plains and table-lands: Neb. Tex. Ariz. Wyo. Son. Plain Mont. 
Je-Au. 

2. E. triste S. Wats. Stems 3-5 dm. high, sparingly hirsute or glabrate; 
leaves mostly basal, oblanceolate, 8-10 cm. long, ciliate on the margins, otherwise 
glabrous; inflorescence paniculate; involucres in cymes; perianth glabrous, cam- 
panulate, 2 mm. long, brownish red; achenes 5-6 mm. long. E. alatum glabrius- 
culum Torr. Sandy soil: Tex. s Colo. s Utah Ariz. Son. Mont. 

3. E. Jamesii Benth. Stems decumbent at the base, 1-3 dm. high, tomen- 
tose; leaves mostly basal, petioled, 3-8 cm. long; blades elliptic-spatulate, thick, 
green, densely white-tomentose beneath; involucres deeply campanulate, 5 mm. 
high, tomentose; perianth 4-5 mm., becoming 7-8 mm. long; inner lobes slightly 
longer than the outer; achenes 4 mm. long, pubescent at the base. Plains and 
hills: Tex. Kans. Colo. Ariz. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

4. E. Bakeri Greene. Stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; leaves basal, petioled, 
2-5 cm. long, somewhat tomentose above, but in age more glabrate and greenish, 
densely white-tomentose beneath; involucres campanulate, tomentose; perianth 
silky-villous. E. Jamesii flavescens S. Wats. E. vegetius (T. & G.) A. Nels. 
Hills: Wyo. N.M. Ariz. Utah. Submont. Mont. 

6. E. arcuatum Greene. Stems scapiform, about 1 dm. high, tomentose; 
leaves basal, petioled, 2-5 cm. long, tomentulose but greenish above, white- 
tomentose beneath; involucres tomentose; perianth 6-7 mm. long, silky below. 
Mountains: Colo. Utah. Submont. Subalp. Jl. 

6. E. Piperi Greene. Stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high, villous; leaves basal, 
petioled, 3-10 cm. long; blades thin, oblanceolate or elliptic-oblanceolate, green 
and villous above, white-tomentose beneath; perianth yellow, 5-6 mm. long, 
turbinate; filaments hairy below; achenes villous at the apex. Open valleys: 
Wash. Wyo. Mont. Submont. Mont. 

7. E. flavum Nutt. Stems 1-2 dm. high, scapiform, white-tomentose; 
leaves thick, petioled, 3-5 cm. long; blades oblanceolate, densely tomentose on 
both sides, greenish in age above, snowy-white beneath; perianth yellow; fila- 
ments villous at the base; achenes 4 mm. long, villous. E. sericeus Pursh. E. 
crassifolius Benth. Dry hills, mountains and canons: Man. Neb. Colo. 
Alta. Plain Subalp. 

8. E. chloranthum Greene. Stems scapiform, 1-2 dm. high, tomentose; 
leaves basal, not very thick, petioled, 3-5 cm. long; blades oblanceolate, some- 
what tomentose, but green above, white-tomentose beneath; perianth orange or 
greenish orange. E. aureum Nutt., not M. E. Jones. E. flavum A. Nels., in 
part. Mountains: Colo. Wyo. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

9. E. polyphyllum Small. Stems scapiform, 1-1.5 dm. high; leaves basal, 
numerous, 1-3 cm. long; blades villous but green and glabrate above, densely 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 217 

and finely white-tomentose beneath, spatulate or oblanceolate; perianth deep 
yellow, sometimes tinged with red, appressed-silky ; filaments villous below the 
middle; achenes sparingly villous at the tip, 2 mm. long. Mountains: Alta 
Mont. Ore. Mont.Subalp. Jl-Au. 

10. E. xanthum Small. Stems scapiform, 3-5 cm. high, tomentose; leaves 
numerous, basal, 2-3 cm. long; blades spatulate, obtuse, somewhat floccose, but 
greenish above, densely villous-tomentose beneath; perianth yellow, becoming 
8 mm. long, silky-pubescent throughout; achenes about 5.5 mm. long, pubescent 
at the apex. E. flavum A. Nels., in part. Mountain tops: Colo. Wyo. Alp. 
Au. 

11. E. androsaceum Benth. Stems scapiform, 2-10 cm. high, white- 
tomentose; leaves basal, short-petioled, 1-2 cm. long; blades spatulate or ob- 
lanceolate, loosely tomentose, but soon glabrate above, densely white-tomentose 
beneath; perianth light yellow, turbinate, barely stipitate, 4-5 mm. long; achenes 
glabrous. Hills and mountains: Alta. Mont. B.C. Submont. Mont. Je- 
Au. 

12. E. thymoides Benth. Stems 1-2 dm. high; leaves 4-8 mm. long, linear, 
white-tomentose beneath, cinereous above; peduncles 3-6 cm. long, slender, 
with a whorl of leaves below the middle; involucre solitary, turbinate, villous, 
about 5 mm. long; perianth 3-4 mm. long, villous, pale yellow, turning purplish; 
lobes obovate; ovary pubescent. Rocky places: Wash. Ida. Son. My-Jl. 

13. E. caespitosum Nutt. Stems scapiform, 3-6 cm. high, tomentulose or 
in age glabrate; leaves basal, oval or elliptic, short-petioled, 5-10 cm. long, white- 
tomentose on both sides, more or less revolute on the margins; involucre tur- 
binate, tomentose; tube about 3 mm. long; lobes elliptic or linear; perianth 
yellow, turning purplish brown in age, villous below; achenes hirsute at the apex. 
Hills: Mont. Wyo. Colo. Nev. Ida. Mont.Subalp. My-Je. 

14. E. andinum Nutt. Stems scapiform, 2-4 cm. high, floccose; leaves 
numerous, basal, oblanceolate or spatulate, 1 cm. long or less, loosely villous- 
floccose on both sides; involucre turbinate, tomentose; tube 2-2.5 mm. long; 
perianth turbinate, bright yellow. Dry hills: Mont. Wyo. Ida. Nev. 
Mont. Je-Jl. 

15. E. sphaerocephalum Dougl. Stem with decumbent cespitose branches, 
rising 1-2 dm. above ground; leaves and bracts verticillate, narrowly oblance- 
olate, 1-3 cm. long, white-tomentose beneath, with more or less revolute margins, 
floccose or glabrate above; involucres solitary or 2 or 3, turbinate, the lateral 
ones sometimes bracted; tube about 3 mm. long; lobes oblong, fully as long; 
perianth-lobes oblanceolate. (?) E. cupreum Gand. Rocky hills: n Calif. 
Ida. Wash. Son. Je-Jl. 

16. E. fasciculifolium A. Nels. Leaves fasciculate or verticillate on the 
enlarged nodes, 1-3 cm. long, petioled, pale green and glabrate above, obscurely 
tomentose beneath; involucres in few-rayed umbels, campanulate; lobes ovate- 
oblong, reflexed, as long as the tube, sparsely silky-villous; perianth slightly 
silky- villous; lobes broadly obovate. Dry mountain sides : Ida. Submont. Au. 

17. E. pyrolaefolium Hook. Leaves clustered at the base, petioled; 
petioles long-villous; leaf-blades oval or broadly spatulate, sparingly villous or 
glabrous, coriaceous; scape 1 dm. long or less; umbels few-rayed; bracts mostly 
2 or 3; involucres campanulate, villous, sinuately toothed; perianth white or 
pinkish, 4-5 mm. long, long-villous. Mountains: Wash. Ida. Calif. Mont. 
Alp. Au-S. 

18. E. compositum Dougl. Floral stems scapiform, 2-4 dm. high; leaves 
basal, 5-15 cm. long, petioled; blades 3-8 cm. long, 3-4 cm. wide, loosely floccose 
above, densely white-tomentose beneath; inflorescence compound-umbellate; 
bracts linear or lanceolate; involucres broadly campanulate, villous or glabrous 
(var. leianthum Benth.), 4 mm. high; perianth ochroleucous, 3-4 mm. long, 
campanulate; achenes hairy above. Rocky soil and dry plains: Wash. Ida. 
Calif. Son. Submont. Ap-Au. 



218 POLYGONACEAE 

19. E. Porteri Small. Floral stems scapiform, 2-7 cm. high; leaves basal, 
numerous, petioled, 1-2 cm., slightly floccose when young, soon green and glab- 
rous; blades suborbicular or rhomboidal; involucres solitary, glabrous, turbinate; 
perianth yellow, 6-8 mm. long; outer lobes oblong-spatulate, the inner cuneate- 
spatulate, slightly longer. Mountain slopes: Utah. Mont. Jl-S. 

20. E. neglectum Greene. Floral stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; leaves 
petioled, 2-6 cm. long; blades spatulate or elliptic or oval, loosely tomentose 
when young, glabrous or nearly so and green at maturity; involucres campanu- 
late; tube 2-2.5 mm. long; perianth about 8 mm. long; lobes spatulate to oblong- 
obovate, the inner longer than the outer; achenes about 5 mm. long. E. umbelli- 
ferum Small. E. glaberrimum aureum Gand. Mountains: Wyo. Colo. Nev. 
Submont. Subalp. Jl-Au. 

21. E. biumbellatum Rydb. Flowering stems scapiform, 2-3 dm. high; 
leaves short-petioled, oblanceolate, finely tomentose on both sides when young, 
soon glabrate and green; involucres 2 mm. long, slightly tomentose; perianth 
yellow, 4-6 mm. long; lobes elliptic, obtuse, the outer slightly longer. Hillsides: 
Utah. Submont. Jl-Au. 

22. E. stellatum Benth. Flowering stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high, some- 
times with a single leaf; leaves petioled, 3-8 cm. long; blades oval or rounded- 
oval, obtuse, tomentose when young, glabrate in age above; involucres turbin- 
ate; tube 2-2.5 mm. long; perianth 5-6 mm. long; outer lobes oblong, the inner 
ones cuneate-spatulate; achenes 4 mm. long, sparingly villous at the apex. E. 
croceum Small. Mountains: Wash. Ida. Colo. Utah Calif. Submont. 
Subalp. Jl-S. 

23. E. umbellatum Torr. Flowering stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; 
leaves 2-6 cm. long, petioled; blades rather thick, loosely white-floccose when 
young, in age glabrate above; involucres turbinate, tomentose; tube 3-4 mm. 
long; divisions of the perianth spatulate, the inner somewhat longer. (?) E. 
marginale Gand. Mountains and dry valleys: Wyo. Colo. Calif. Wash. 
Submont. Subalp. Je-Au. 

24. E. Rydbergii Greene. Flowering stem scapiform, 1.5-2.5 dm. long; 
leaves 2-3 cm. long, petioled, rather persistently floccose above; involucres cam- 
panulate, tomentose; tube 3-4 mm. long; outer lobes of the perianth elliptic, the 
inner longer, obovate; achenes villous at the apex. R. umbellatum cladophorum 
Gand. R. rhomboideum A. Nels. Loose soil and geyser basins : n Wyo. Mont. Au. 

25. E. subalpinum Greene. Flowering stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; 
leaves 2-5 cm. long, petioled, densely white-tomentose beneath; involucres 
tomentose, turbinate; tube 3 mm. long; perianth in age turning rose-colored; 
lobes obovate, the inner longer; achenes about 5 mm. long. E. umbellatum 
majus Benth. SULPHUR PLANT. Dry mountains: Alta. Colo. Nev. B.C. 
Submont. Mont. Je-S. 

26. E. aridum Greene. Flowering stems scapiform, 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 
floccose; leaves 2-6 cm. long, white-tomentose beneath; involucres tomentose, 
campanulate, 4 mm. high; perianth purplish in age; outer lobes elliptic, the inner 
ones spatulate, somewhat longer; achenes villous at the apex. E. latum Small. 
Dry gravelly soil: Mont. Colo. Nev. -Wash. Submont. -Mont. Je-Au. 

27. E. heracleoides Nutt. Flowering stems 2-4 dm. high; leaves 5- 10 cm. 
long, short-petioled, loosely floccose above, densely white- or yellowish-tomen- 
tose beneath; inflorescence compound-umbellate; involucres campanulate, vil- 
lous; tube 3 mm. long; perianth 4 mm. long; achenes hairy above. Dry slopes: 
Mont. Wyo. Utah Nev. B.C. Submont. Mont. 

28. E. lachnogynum Torr. Flowering stems scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; 
leaves crowded, basal, oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, petioled, acute, 
silvery-silky above, grayish tomentose beneath, with revolute margins; bracts 
lanceolate or subulate, rarely verticillate; involucres silky-tomentose, 3-4 mm. 
high, campanulate; lobes oblong; perianth campanulate, tomentose, 3 mm. high, 
yellow; fruit villous. Dry plains and canons: Kans. Colo. Ariz. Tex. 
Son. Plain. Je-Au. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 219 

29. E. Tetraneuris Small. Flowering stems scapiform, 1-1.5 dm. high; 
leaves basal, petioled, elliptic or oblong, 1-3 cm. long, acute, silky-strigose above, 
white-tomentose beneath, somewhat revolute-margined; involucres campanulate, 
3.5 mm. long, silky; perianth lemon-yellow, about 6 mm. long, silky without; 
lobes oblong, the inner broader than the outer; ovary densely pubescent. Dry 
mesas: Colo. Plain Submont. My. 

30. E. longilobum M. E. Jones. Leaves tufted, petioled, densely villous- 
tomentose; blades oblanceolate or spatulate, about 1 cm. long, slightly revolute, 
obtuse; involucres 3-5, densely villous, campanulate; lobes about 4 mm. long, 
erect; perianth white-woolly on the outside, sparingly villous within, yellow, 
campanulate; lobes obovate-oblong, barely 3 mm. long; achenes very woolly. 
Sand and dry places: Utah. Son. Submont. Je-Jl. 

31. E. Shockleyi S. Wats. Leaves spatulate, 8-10 mm. long, rarely longer, 
densely tomentose, thick; bracts small; involucres densely white-tomentose, 
campanulate, abc*ut 4 mm. long; perianth villous, white, with. green midveins, 
3-4 mm. long; lobes oblong; ovary villous. Mountains: Nev. Utah. Son. 
Submont. My-Je. 

32. E. pulvinatum Small. Leaves crowded, spatulate or oval, villous- 
tomentose on both sides, slightly revolute, short-petioled ; involucres turbinate- 
campanulate, 3-4 mm. high, white-tomentose; perianth oblong-campanulate, 
2.5-3 mm. long, villous on both sides; lobes oblong, obtuse, erect, twice a-s long 
as the tube, the inner narrower; achenes 2 mm. long, densely villous. Dry hills: 
Utah 'Ariz. Submont. Je-Jl. 

33. E. acaule Nutt. Leaves crowded, subsessile, white-tomentose on both 
sides, 3-6 mm. long; involucres villous, turbinate, 3 mm. long; lobes rounded, 
obtuse; perianth yellow, campanulate, 2-2.5 mm. long, tomentose without, 
especially below; achenes villous. Dry hills: Wyo Colo. Nev. Ida. Sub- 
mont. Son. Je-S. 

34. E. proliferum T. & G. Scape 1.5-3 dm. high, tomentose; leaves basal, 
petioled, white-tomentose on both sides; blades oval to nearly orbicular, 1-2 cm. 
long; involucres campanulate, 2.5-3 mm. long, pubescent; perianth white, 
turning purplish (a yellow-flowered form is also usually included, which may be 
distinct), about 4 mm. long; outer lobes broadly obovate or oval, the inner 
narrowly cuneate. River flats: Wash. Ida. Calif. Son. Je. 

35. E. orthocaulon Small. Scapes 1-3 dm. high; leaves clustered at the 
ends of short branches, petioled; blades oval, mostly 1-1.5 cm. long, or rarely 
smaller, densely felty-tomentose on both sides; bracts subulate; involucres 
turbinate, floccose; lobes short, rounded; perianth ochroleucous, becoming 4.5-5 
mm. long; outer lobes suborbicular to ovate-orbicular, the inner cuneate, about 
as long as the outer and half as wide. Dry hills: Alta. Colo. Utah Ida. 
Submont. Je-Au. 

36. E. ovalifolium Nutt. Scape 1-1.5 dm. high; leaves numerous, clustered, 
petioled, white- or yellowish-tomentose, almost felty; blades usually about 1 cm. 
long; involucres about 5 mm. long, campanulate, villous-tomentose; perianth 4 
mm. long; outer lobes broadly oval or suborbicular, the inner cuneate, scarcely 
half as wide. E. dichroanthum Gand. SILVER PLANT. Dry plains and hills: 
Alta. N.M .Calif .Wash. Son.Subalp. 

37. E. depressum (Blankinship) Rydb. Scape 1 dm. high or less; leaves 
densely clustered, petioled; blades 3-10 mm. long, densely white-tomentose; 
involucres campanulate, about 4 mm. long; lobes triangular; perianth 2.5-3.5 
mm. long; outer lobes oval, the inner cuneate, about half as broad, ti. ovali- 
folium depressum Blankinship. E. rubidum frigidum Gand. Dry hills: Mont. 
Ore. Mont. -Alp. My-Au. 

38. E. ochroleucum Small. Scape 3-4 dm. high, loosely floccose; leaves 
densely crowded, petioled; blades 1-2 cm. long, obtuse, densely tomentose on 
both sides; involucres 5 mm. long, campanulate, tomentose, ribbed; outer peri- 
anth-segments elliptic, the inner spatulate-oblong, slightly longer. Dry hills: 
Mont. Colo. Nev. Ida. Submont. My-Jl. 



220 POLYGONACEAE 

39. E. chrysops Rydb. Scape 2-5 cm. high, floccose; leaves numerous, 
clustered, oblanceolate or spatulate, 1-2 cm. long, white-floccose on both sides; 
inflorescence 11.5 cm. in diameter; involucres campanulate, membranous, 3 
mm. long; lobes as long as the tube; perianth 2.5-3 mm. long, campanulate; 
lobes cuneate, slightly emarginate, the outer somewhat broader. High moun- 
tains: Ore. -w Ida. Submont. Alp. Je-S. 

40. E. Kingii T. & G. Scape less than 1 dm. high; leaves crowded on the 
ends of the caudex, obovate or spatulate, 0.5-2 cm. long, white-woolly; heads 
about 1 cm. in diameter; bract lanceolate, membranous; involucre turbinate- 
campanulate, deeply 6-7-toothed, membranous; perianth about 3 mm. long; 
lobes cuneate, emarginate. Mountains: Nev. Ida. Mont. Jl-Au. 

41. E. loganum A. Nels. Scape 5-20 cm. high, white-tomentose; leaves 
basal, petioled, 2-5 cm. long; blades oblanceolate or spatulate, densely white- 
tomentose on both sides, obtuse; involucre tubular-campanulate, 4-5 mm. long, 
white-villous; lobes short, ovate; perianth 2-2.5 mm. long; lobes elliptic, sub- 
equal; filaments pubescent below; achenes glabrous. Mountains: n Utah. 
Submont. 

42. E. chrysocephalum A. Gray. Scape 4-15 cm. high; leaves petioled, 
3-10 cm. long; involucre turbinate, ribbed, 3 mm. long; perianth 2.5-3 mm. 
long, campanulate; lobes obovate-oblong, the outer usually slightly longer. 
E. latifolium (T. & G.) A. Nels. Dry hills: Neb. Colo. Utah Ida. Plain- 
Mont. Jl-Au. 

43. E. medium Rydb. Scape 1-2 dm. high; leaves narrowly linear, ob- 
lanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, with somewhat 
revolute margins, loosely floccose and greenish above; inflorescence capitate or 
subumbellately branched, with a sessile involucre in each fork and small heads 
on the branches; bracts ovate, acuminate, membranous-margined; involucres 
turbinate, 4 mm. high, loosely floccose or glabrate; perianth golden yellow, 4 
mm. long, glabrous; segments oblong-obovate. Mountains: Utah. Submont. 
Mont. Jl-Au. 

44. E. Brandegei Rydb. Scape 1-2 dm. high, floccose; leaves narrowly 
oblanceolate, white-tomentose beneath, floccose above; inflorescence capitate; 
bracts subulate, occasionally one of them elongated; involucres turbinate, about 
4 mm. long, slightly floccose; lobes lanceolate; perianth rose-colored, 3 mm. long; 
segments oblong, truncate or emarginate; fruit glabrous. Canons: Colo. Son. S. 

45. E. depauperatum Small. Scapes erect, 5-10 cm. high; leaves crowded, 
petioled; blades thinnish, linear-spatulate, 2-6 cm. long, revolute-margined, 
glabrous above, tomentose beneath; bracts scale-like, lanceolate-subulate; 
involucres 3.5-4.5 mm. high, densely tomentose; lobes about half as long as the 
angled tube; perianth glabrous; lobes unequal, the outer oblong or obovate or 
cuneate, the inner cuneate and narrower. Dry hills: (Black Hills) S.D. Sub- 
mont. Je-Au. 

46. E. cploradense Small. Scape tomentose, about 1 dm. high; leaves 
crowded, petioled; blades narrowly spatulate to linear-spatulate, 2-5 cm. long, 
slightly revolute; bracts subulate; involucres campanulate, about 5 mm. long, 
thinly woolly without; lobes suborbicular or rarely reniform; perianth-lobes 
blunt, the outer ovate or orbicular-ovate, the inner smaller, oblong. Mountains: 
Colo. Mont. Au-S. 

47. E. pauciflorum Pursh. Scape 1 dm. high or less; leaves crowded, 
short-petioled, 3-8 cm. long; blades linear or linear-oblanceolate, revolute- 
margined, white-tomentose beneath; bracts lance-subulate, sometimes mem- 
branous-margined; involucres 4-5 mm. high; lobes petaloid, elliptic; perianth- 
lobes elliptic, nearly equal. Sandy soil and dry places: Wyo. Colo. S.D. 
Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

48. E. mancum Rydb. Pulvinate perennial; scape 2-4 cm. long, slender, 
floccose; leaves narrowly spatulate, densely white-tomentose on both sides, 
1-1.5 cm. long; inflorescence capitate; head 5-8 mm. in diameter, sometimes 
with only 1 involucre; bracts ovate, membranous, floccose; involucres 2.5 mm. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 221 

long, floccose; teeth triangular; perianth pinkish, 1.5 mm. long; segments oblong; 
fruit glabrous. Hills: Mont. Submont. Je-Jl. 

49. E. multiceps Nees. Scape 5-15 cm. long, white-tomentose; leaves 
slender-petioled, 3-8 cm. long, densely white-tomentose on both sides, with ap- 
pressed tomentum; blades from linear-oblanceolate to spatulate; inflorescence 
capitate or rarely umbellate; bracts subulate, or sometimes one or more of them 
elongate and foliaceous; involucres tubular-campanulate, tomentose, 3-4 mm. 
long; lobes triangular; perianth-lobes oblong or cuneate-oblong, rounded. E. 
gnaphaloides Benth. Dry plains and "bad-lands": Sask. N.D. Neb. Colo. 
Ida. Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

50. E. villiflorum A. Gray. Scape 2-4 cm. long, silky-tomentose; leaves 
crowded at the ends of the short branches, oblanceolate or spatulate, acute, 
white-silky on both sides, revolute-margined, 6-10 mm. long; bracts linear or 
subulate; involucres campanulate, 3-4 mm. long; lobes 6-8, oblong; perianth 
campanulate, white, sericeous without; lobes oblong, subequal. Arid places: 
s Utah. Son. 

51. E. elatum Dougl. Stem scapiform, branched, 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; 
leaves basal, long-petioled, 1-2 dm. long; petioles and midvein hirsute, ferrugin- 
ous; blades ovate, oblong-ovate, or lanceolate, cordate, truncate, or cuneate at 
the base, softly villous-pubescent on both sides, almost velutinous beneath, 7-15 
cm. long; involucres in small capitate clusters at the ends of the branches, or 
sometimes solitary in the forks; involucres campanulate, 3 mm. long, repandly 
5-dentate; perianth campanulate, 3 mm. long, pubescent below; lobes oval. 
Dry gravelly soil: Wash. Ida. Nev. Calif. Son. Jl-Au. 

52. E. polifolium Benth. Stem 3-6 dm. high, more or less tomentulose; 
leaves fasciculate, on short lateral branches, oblanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, sparingly 
villous above, white-tomentose beneath, slightly revolute-margined; peduncles 
1-1.5 dm. long, tomentulose; involucres campanulate, pubescent, about 3 mm. 
long, with 5 broadly triangular teeth; perianth campanulate, pubescent at the 
base and along the midveins, white or pinkish; lobes oval. Dry places: Calif. 
Utah Ariz. L. Son. My-Au. 

53. E. niveum Dougl. Stems 2-4 dm. high, leafy below; leaves ovate or 
oblong, white-tomentose; inflorescence tomentose, di- or tri-chotomous; bracts 
foliaceous, oblong; involucres sessile, villous, turbinate; lobes triangular, acute; 
perianth glabrous, 3-4 mm. long; inner perianth-segments cuneate. Hills and 
plains: Ore. Ida. B.C. Son. Submont. My-Au. 

54. E. dichotomum Dougl. Stem 2-3 dm. high, trichotomous; ultimate 
branches short; leaves near the base, petioled, 2-8 cm. long; blades spatulate 
or elliptic, white-floccose on both sides, or glabrate above; branches short; 
bracts minute, subulate; involucres cylindro-campanulate; lobes triangular, 
obtuse; perianth glabrous, 3 mm., or in fruit, 5-6 mm. long; inner lobes cuneate 
or spatulate. Dry places: Wash. Mont. Ida. Son. Submont. Je-Jl. 

55. E. lachnostegium (Benth.) Rydb. Scape floccose, 1.5-3 dm. high, 
trichotomously branched; leaves petioled, 2-4 cm. long; blades elliptic or spatu- 
late, white-tomentose on both sides; bracts minute, subulate; involucral lobes 
triangular; perianth white or straw-colored, turning pink, glabrous, 3 mm. long, 
or in fruit longer; inner lobes oblong, longer than the outer. E. strictum lachno- 
stegium Benth. Dry benches and hills: Mont. Ida. Submont. Jl-S. 

56. E. strictum Benth. Stem about 3 dm. high; leaves near the base, 
petioled; blades oval, elliptic or spatulate, 1-4 cm. long, glabrate in age above, 
densely white-tomentose beneath; inflorescence mostly trichotomous; involucres 
3-4 mm. long, almost columnar, angled; lobes lanceolate; perianth white, glab- 
rous, 3.5-4 mm. long; segments unequal, the outer broadly oval, the inner nar- 
rower, cuneate-elliptic, slightly longer. Hillsides: Ore. Ida. Wash. Son. 
Je-Jl. 

57. E. aureum M. E. Jones. Shrubby, 3-10 dm. high; leaves short-peti- 
ioled; blades 1.5-3 cm. long, densely woolly-tomentose beneath; peduncles 3-( 
cm. long, loosely tomentose; inflorescence with spreading branches; involucres 



222 POLYGONACEAE 

sessile, about 2 mm. long; perianth 2 mm. long; outer lobes oval, obtuse, the 
inner elliptic or oblong. E. fruticosum A. Nels. Sand: s Utah. Son. S. 

58. E. idahoense Rydb. . Shrub, 4-6 dm. high; branches tomentose, erect; 
leaves 2-3 cm. long, short-petioled ; blades oblanceolate, white-tomentose beneath, 
loosely floccose and glabrate above; involucres in the lower forks peduncled, 
turbinate, about 3 mm. long; perianth about 2 mm. long, glabrous. Hills: Ida. 
Submont. Jl. 

59. E. orendense A. Nels. Stems white-tomentose, 7-15 cm. long; leaves 
numerous, 1-3 cm. long, petioled, white-tomentose on both sides; lower in- 
volucres with peduncles nearly 1 cm. long, erect; involucres turbinate, about 3 
mm. long; perianth 2 mm. long; lobes oblong, obtuse. Dry hills: Wyo. Sub- 
mont. Je-Au. 

60. E. lagopus Rydb. Stems scape-like, about 3 dm. high, floccose, trichoto- 
mous; leaves crowded on the ends of the branches of the caudex, spatulate, 
2-3.5 cm. long, tomentose on both sides; bracts subulate; involucres turbinate, 
tomentose, 3-3.5 mm. long, those of the lower forks peduncled; lobes triangular; 
perianth golden yellow, 2.5 mm. long, glabrous; segments elliptic, the outer 
slightly larger; filaments pubescent below; achenes glabrous. Plains: Wyo. 
Plain. 

61. E. Thompsonae S. Wats. Caudex woody, cespitose; branches tomen- 
tose' leaves long-petioled ; blades broadly oblong, 3-4 cm. long, acute at each 
end, glabrous above, white-tomentose beneath; peduncle 2-3 dm. high, glabrous; 
involucres sessile, strongly 5-angled, 3-4 mm. long, glabrous; lobes short-ovate; 
perianth glabrous, 2-3 mm. long; lobes subequal, oval. Sand cliffs: s Utah. 
Son. 

62. E. campanulatum Nutt. Branches short; peduncle 1-3 dm. long; 
leaves basal, petioled; blades tomentose on both sides, but less densely so above; 
inflorescence with ascending branches; involucres campanulate, 2-2.5 mm. long, 
glabrous or nearly so; perianth about 2 mm. long. E. sabulosum M. E. Jones. 
Dry hills and plains: Neb. Colo. Utah. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

E. campanulatum X multiceps. Like E. multiceps in habit, pubescence, and leaf- 
form, but the panicle is tristichous-cymose as in E. campanulatum and the flowers yellow. 
Neb. 

63. E. brevicaule Nutt. Leafy branches short; scapes 1-3 dm. high, soon 
glabrous; leaf -blades 4-7 cm. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, loosely 
floccose and greener above; involucres about 3 mm. long, campanulate, glabrous, 
angled; lobes ovate, acutish; perianth campanulate, 2-2.5 mm. long, glabrous; 
lobes oval, obtuse. Dry hills and plains: Mont. Colo. Utah. Plain Sub- 
mont. Je-S. 

E. chrysosepalum X brevicaule. Like E. brevicaule, but the leaves broader and the 
branches of the inflorescence bearing capitate clusters, with somewhat tomentose involu- 
cres. Utah. 

64. E. micranthum Nutt. Scape 1-3 dm. high; leaves 4-8 cm. long, 
densely white-tomentose beneath, less densely so above; involucres turbinate- 
campanulate, 3 mm. long; lobes ovate, acutish or obtuse; perianth 2 mm. long; 
lobes oval, obtuse. Hillsides: Utah Ida. Submont. Je-Jl. 

E. medium X micranthum. The branches of the inflorescence bearing capitate clus- 
ters of more tomentose involucres. Utah. 

E. chrysocephalum X micranthum. Like the last hybrid, but leaves rather densely 
tomentose above. Utah. 

65. E. contortum Small. Scape 1-2 dm. high, tomentulose; leaves thick, 
clavate, about 1 cm. long, strongly revolute, tomentose on both sides; involucres 
turbinate, glabrous, 2 mm. long; lobes ovate; perianth 2-2.5 mm. long; lobes 
essentially equal, oblong-cuneate; fruit glabrous. Dry hills: w Colo. Son. 
My. 

66. E. spathulatum A. Gray. Scape 2-3 dm. high; leaves all near the 
base, petioled; blades spatulate or oblanceolate, densely white-tomentose on 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 223 

both sides, 2-5 cm. long; involucres tomentose, 3-4 mm. long; lobes ovate* 
perianth white, glabrous, 3 mm. long; lobes oblong, obtuse, unequal' fruit sca- 
brous on the angles. (?) #. Kearneyi Tidest. Dry valleys: Utah. Son. Jl. 

67. E. spathuliforme Rydb. Perennial, shrubby at the base; scape 2-3 
dm. high; leaves all near the base, petioled; blades elliptic to spatulate, 2-3.5 cm. 
long, white-tomentose on both sides, densely so beneath; involucres glabrous 
turbinate, 3 mm. long; lobes rounded, scarious and slightly floccose on the mar- 
gins; perianth white, glabrous; segments equal, obovate. Sandy washes: Utah. 
Son. Au. 

68. E. Ostlundi M. E. Jones. Scape about 2 dm. high; leaves all near the 
base, petioled; blades elliptic, 1-1.5 cm. long, floccose above, white-tomentose 
beneath; involucres turbinate, 2.5 mm. long, glabrous; lobes oval, scarious- 
margined; perianth white or pink; segments obovate. Clay banks: Utah. Son. 
Je-Au. 

69. E. lonchophyllum T. & G. Caudex with leafy branches, 1 dm. long 
or more; leaf-blades 6-10 cm. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, loosely 
floccose or glabrate above; inflorescence elongate, 2-3 dm. long, glabrous; invo- 
lucres 3 mm. long, glabrous, turbinate; perianth-lobes oval or obovate, round. 
E. wasatchense M. E. Jones. Plains and hills: Colo. N.M. Utah. Son. 
Submont. Jl. 

70. E. nudicaule (Torr.) Small. Stem scapiform, 1-2 dm. high; leaves 
short-petioled; blades 3-5 cm. long, white-tomentose beneath, floccose or some- 
times glabrate above, mostly revolute; involucres campanulate, 3-4 mm. high, 
glabrous; perianth-lobes cuneate-obovate. E. effusum nudicaule Torr. Plains 
and hills: Kans. Tex. Utah. Son. Submont. Jl-Au. 

71. E. scoparium Small. Stem scapiform, 1-2 dm. high, glabrous; leaves 
petioled; blades linear to linear-spatulate, 2-5 cm. long, revolute, densely white- 
lanate beneath, floccose above; involucres 2.5-3 mm. long, and almost as wide; 
lobes broad; perianth becoming 3.5-4 mm. long; lobes oblong or obovate. Plains 
and valleys: Colo. N.M. Submont. Jl-S. 

72. E. grangerense M. E. Jones. Stem scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; leaves 
petioled; blades revolute, densely white-tomentose beneath, permanently white- 
floccose above, 4-6 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; involucres turbinate, 3 mm. long, 
glabrous; lobes triangular, acute; perianth campanulate, glabrous, 2 mm. long; 
lobes elliptic, obtuse. E. confertifolium Stansburyi Benth. Barren hills: Wyo. 
Utah. Son. 

73. E. tristichum Small. Stem scapiform, 1-3 dm. high; leaves nearly 
basal, sliort-petioled ; blades 2-7 cm. long, floccose above, densely white-tomen- 
tose beneath; involucres 2.5-3 mm. long; lobes broad, rounded, much shorter 
than the tube; perianth becoming 4 mm. long; lobes obovate or oblong-obovate. 
Plains and valleys: Colo. N.M. Submont. Je-S. 

74. E. salicinum Greene. Stem scapiform, 3-4 dm. high; leaves near the 
base, short-petioled; blades about 4 cm. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, 
loosely floccose and glabrate above, 3-4 dm. long; involucres broadly turbinate- 
campanulate, 3 mm. long, with 5 rounded teeth; perianth about 2 mm. long; 
lobes oval, obtuse. Canons: Colo. Submont. Jl. 

75. E. Fendlerianuiii (Benth.) Small. Low shrub, 1-5 dm. high, with 
tomentose branches; leaves short-petioled; blades oval to oblong, 2-4 cm. long, 
5-18 mm. wide, densely white-tomentose beneath, loosely floccose above; inflo- 
rescence 0.5-2 dm. high, floccose when young, soon glabrous, with ascending 
branches; involucres deeply-turbinate, sparingly floccose or glabrate; lobes 
rounded, scarious-margined ; perianth campanulate, 3.5-4 mm. long; lobes un- 
equal, the outer oval, slightly longer than the elliptic inner ones. E. microthecum 
Fendlerianum Benth. Plains: Colo. N.M. Son. Au-O. 

76. E. divergens Small. Low shrub, 3-6 dm. high, with densely white- 
tomentose branches; leaves short-petioled; blades oval or elliptic, 1-2.5 cm. long, 
densely white-tomentose beneath, loosely floccose above; inflorescence 1-5 cm. 



224 POLYGONACEAE 

high; involucres 2-2.5 mm. long, campanulate, tomentose; lobes rounded; peri- 
anth campanulate, 2-2.5 mm. long; lobes unequal, the outer obovate, truncate 
or emarginate, the inner elliptic. E. corymbosus divaricatus Torr. Plains: Colo. 
N.M. Ariz. -Nov. Son. Jl-Au. 

77. E. Jonesii S. Wats. Shrubby; stem 3-8 dm. high, tomentose; leaves 
scattered, petioled; blades 1-3 cm. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, floe- 
cose above; inflorescence with ascending branches; the lowermost bracts some- 
times foliaceous; involucres all sessile, or rarely the lower peduncled, tomentose- 
villous, about 3 mm. long; perianth campanulate, about 2.5 mm. long; lobes 
obovate. Arid regions: Ariz. -Utah. Son. -Submont. Jl-Au. 

78. E. corymbosum Benth. Shrub, 3-10 dm. high, with tomentose 
branches; leaf -blades oval, 2-3 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, densely white-tomentose 
beneath, loosely floccose above; inflorescence 0.5-2 dm. high, with ascending 
branches; involucres sessile, tomentose, ^-2.5 mm. long, campanulate; perianth, 
about 3 mm. long, campanulate; lobes elliptic, nearlv equal. Dry plains: Colo. 
Utah N.M. Son. Je-S. 

79. E. salinum A. Nels. Low shrub, with shreddy bark; branches white- 
tomentose, leafy; leaves narrowly lanceolate, mostly erect, white-tomentose 
beneath, floccose above, 2-3 cm. long; inflorescence about 1 dm. high, flat- 
topped, with short, spreading branches; involucres turbinate; lobes acute; peri- 
anth-lobes obtuse or apiculate, the outer oblong-elliptic, the inner longer, obo- 
vate. Saline plains: Wyo. Colo. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

80. E. effusum Nutt. Shrub, 2-5 dm. high; leaves short-petioled ; blades 
linear-oblanceolate, 2-4 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, white-tomentose beneath, floc- 
cose above, 3-10 cm. long, tomentulose; involucres short-peduncled, or the upper 
sessile, 2 mm. long, tomentulose; lobes ovate; perianth campanulate, 2 mm. long; 
outer lobes obovate, the inner elliptic. Dry plains and hills: Neb. N.M. 
Utah Mont. Son. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

81. E. microthecum Nutt. Low shrub, 2-6 dm. high; leaves scattered, 
short-petioled; blades linear, oblong, or oblanceolate, densely white-tomentose 
beneath, floccose above, 1-2 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide; inflorescence 2-7 cm. long, 
floccose, small; branches short, spreading or ascending-spreading; involucres, at 
least those of the lower forks, peduncled, tomentulose, turbinate, 2.5 mm. long; 
lobes rounded, scarious-margined ; perianth turbinate, 2.5-3 mm. long; lobes 
obovate, rounded, truncate or even emarginate. E. myrianthum, E. intricatum, 
E. heliochrysoides, and E. sarothriforme Gand. Plains and table-lands : Mont. 
Neb. Colo. Ariz. Calif. Wash. Son. Plain Mont. Je-S. 

82. E. nebraskense Rydb. A low shrub, 2-3 dm. high; branches and 
inflorescence tomentose; leaves short-petioled, oblanceolate, 2-3 cm. long, 
densely white-tomentose on both sides; inflorescence less than 1 dm. high, tricho- 
tomously or verticfllately branched; branches short, more or less spreading; 
involucres tomentose, 2-3 cm. high, turbinate; lobes triangular; perianth rose- 
colored, glabrous or slightly pubescent, 2. 5 mm. long; segments oblong to obovate; 
fruit glabrous. Plains: w Neb. Jl. 

83. E. Simpson! Benth. Low shrub, 1^4 dm. high; leaves scattered; blades 
1-2 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, densely white-tomentose beneath; inflorescence 
2-5 cm. long, floccose, with ascending or spreading branches; involucres of the 
lower forks short-peduncled, 2.5 mm. long, turbinate, slightly floccose; lobes 
ovate; perianth turbinate, 2 mm. long; outer lobes obovate, rounded or emargin- 
ate, the inner somewhat narrower. E. effusum foliosum Torr. (?) E. effusum 
leptophyllum Torr. Dry plains: Tex. Colo. Utah Ariz. Son. Jl-Au. 

84. E. Mearnsii Parry. Depressed undershrub, with lanate twigs; leaves 
crowded, more or less fascicled, linear, 5-10 mm. long, revolute, tomentose beneath, 
glabrous above, acute; inflorescence of few involucres, about 1 cm. long; invo- 
lucres short-peduncled, 3 mm. high, slightly tomentose or glabrate; lobes rounded; 
perianth turbinate, 2.5-3 mm. high; lobes obovate or spatulate, the outer broader. 
Rocks: Ariz. Utah. Son. O. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 225 

85. E. bicolor M. E. Jones. Depressed undershrub, tufted, 1 dm. high or less; 
leaves linear, revolute, 10-15 mm. long, about 2 mm. wide; inflorescence 1-3 cm. 
long, sometimes subcapitate, with few involucres, which are turbinate, tomen- 
tose, 3 mm. long; lobes rounded, scarious-margined ; perianth 4 mm. long, cam- 
panulate; outer lobes broadly obovate or suborbicular, the inner elliptic. E. 
Batemani and (?) E.friscanum M.E.Jones. Clayey hills: Utah. Son. My-Je. 

86. E. clavellatum Small. Undershrub, with a thick woody caudex and 
thinly tomentose branches; leaves fleshy, strongly revolute, cylindric-clavate, 
1-1.5 cm. long, glabrous without; involucres campanulate, 4 mm. long, rib- 
angled, glab rate; lobes acute, erect; perianth 3.5 mm. long, urn-shaped; segments 
saccate at the base, the outer fiddle-shaped, the inner h'near-cuneate. Rocky 
hills: se Utah. Son. Jl. 

87. E. sulcatum S. Wats. Low shrub, 2-3 dm. high, intricately branched, 
with, tomentose branches; leaves petioled; blades narrowly oblanceolate, 1 cm. 
long or less, tomentose on both sides, less so above, rather thin; inflorescence 
about 1 cm. long, its divaricate branches deeply sulcate, glabrate; involucres 
sessile, 1-1.5 mm. long, glabrous. Dry hills: sw Utah Nev. Son. Ap-My. 

88. E. annuum Nutt. Stem simple, leafy, 3-10 dm. high, floccose through- 
out; leaves petioled; blades oblong or oblanceolate, obtuse, slightly revolute, 
densely white-tomentose beneath, floccose above, 3-5 cm. long; inflorescence 
cymose, flat-topped, somewhat irregularly branched; involucres turbinate, 2-3 
mm. long, white-tomentose; teeth short, obtuse; perianth white or whitish, 1.5-2 
mm. long, campanulate; lobes obovate. E. Hitchcockii Gand. Sandy places: 
S.D. Tex. Mex. Mont. Submont. Plain. Je-O. 

89. E. racemosum Nutt. Scapose perennial; scape more or less branched, 
white-tomentose, 3-8 dm. high; leaves basal, long-petioled: blades ovate or oval, 
densely white-tomentose beneath, floccose above, 2-6 cm. long; involucres sessile, 
3-4 mm. long, white-tomentose; perianth pink or white, turbinate, 3 mm., but 
accrescent, becoming 4-6 mm. long; lobes obovate. Dry plains and hills: Colo. 
Tex. Ariz. Utah. Son. Submont. Jl-S. 

90. E. Wrightii Torr. Shrub or undershrub, 3-6 dm. high, with tomentose 
short branches; leaves scattered, short-petioled or subsessile; blades white- 
tomentose on both sides, 1-2 cm. long; inflorescence cymose, irregularly branched, 
2-3 dm. long; involucres elongate-turbinate, 2-3 mm. long, tomentose; lobes 
ovate or lanceolate, acute; perianth 3-4 mm. long; outer lobes suborbicular or 
broadly oval; the inner oval or elliptic. Dry plains: Colo. Tex. Calif.; Mex. 
Son. Je-N. 

91. E. leptocladon Torr. Shrubby; stems several, 3-8 dm. high, diffusely 
branched^ white-floccose; leaves short-petioled, 2-4 cm. long, white-tomentose 
on both sides; margin slightly revolute; inflorescence much branched, lower 
nodes flowerless; involucres near the ends, sessile and secund, about 2 mm. long, 
tomentose; perianth glabrous, campanulate, 2 mm. long; divisions broadly oval, 
white, with rose-colored base. E. ramosissimum Eastw. E. Eastwoodiae M. 
E. Jones. Sandy mesas: se Utah nw N.M. Son. Jl-Au. 

92. E. vimineum Dougl. Branched annual; leaves basal, slender-petioled ; 
blades orbicular or subreniform, densely white-tomentose beneath, floccose 
above, 1-2 cm. long; inflorescence 1-3 dm. high, slightly floccose when young, 
soon glabrate; branches glabrous; involucres about 3 mm. long, glabrous; lobes 
very short; perianth 1.5-2 mm. long, campanulate, glabrous, pink or white. E. 
shoshonense A. Nels. Hills: Wash. Ida. Calif. Son. My-S. 

93. E. Baileyi S. Wats. Branched annual, 2-3 dm. high; leaves basal, 
petioled; blades orbicular or broadly ovate, 1-2 cm. long, floccose-tomentose on 
both sides; inflorescence glabrous and glaucous; involucres sessile, glabrous, 
oblong-campanulate; teeth obtuse; perianth glabrous, pinkish-white, 1-1.5 
mm. long; lobes obovate or spatulate. Dry hills: Wash. Ida. Ariz. se 
Calif. Son. My-Au. 

94. E. densum Greene. Diffusely branched annual, 1-2 dm. high; leaves 
basal, petioled; blades ovate or oblong, about 1 cm. long, white-tomentose; 

11* 



226 POLYGONACEAE 

inflorescence floccose; involucres sessile, 1.5-2 mm. long, glabrate; lobes oblong; 
perianth rose-colored, campanulate, 1.5 mm. long. Dry mountains: N.M. 
Utah Nev. Ariz. Son. My-S. 

95. E. nidularium Coville. Profusely branched annual; leaves basal, 
slender-petioled; blades orbicular, often subcordate at the base or subreniform, 
floccose on both sides; inflorescence 1-2 dm. high; involucres turbinate, 1-15 mm. 
long, sessile; perianth yellowish, turbinate, about 2 mm. long. (?) E. nummulare 
M.E.Jones. Sandy or stony hills: Ida. w Ariz. se Calif. Son. My-Au. 

96. E. Plumatella Dur. & Hilg. Divaricately branched annual; leaves 
clustered near the base, tomentose, short-pet ioled, spatulate; inflorescence 2-4 
dm. long, tomentose; bracts subulate: involucres obconic, glabrous, 2.5 mm. 
long; lobes rounded, ciliolate; perianth white, about 2 mm. long, glabrous; seg- 
ments oval. Desert regions: s Utah s Calif. L. Son. 

97. E. tenellum Torr. Scapose, cespitose perennial, with woody caudex; 
leaves basal, petioled ; blades orbicular or ovate, densely and finely white-tomen- 
tose on both sides, 0.5-1 cm. long; scapes 2-4 dm. high, glabrous; peduncles 
slender, erect, glabrous, 1-2 cm. long; involucres turbinate, glabrous, 3 mm. 
long; lobes triangular-ovate; perianth white, 2.5-3 mm. long; outer lobes broadly 
obovate, the inner oblong or cuneate, both emarginate. Arid or rocky places: 
Tex. Colo Utah N.M. ; n Mex. Son. Ap-N. 

98. E. Hookeri S. Wats. Scape 2-4 dm. high; leaf-blades orbicular, 2-6 
cm. broad; involucres nearly 2 mm. long; lobes broadly ovate; perianth 1.5-2 
mm. long; lobes oblong, much smaller than the outer. Canons and sandy places: 
Nev. Wyo. Utah Ariz. Son. Au-S. 

99. E. deflexum Torr. Scape glabrous, 2-4 dm. high; blades orbicular, 
subcordate at the base, 1-3 cm. broad; involucres campanulate, glabrous, 1.5 
mm. long; lobes rounded-ovate; perianth white, 1.5-2 mm. long; inner lobes 
much smaller than the outer, ovate or lance-ovate. Arid regions: Ariz. s 
Utah Calif. L. Son. My-S. 

100. E. cernuum Nutt. Scape glabrous, 2-4 dm. high; leaf-blades or- 
bicular or oval, 1-2 cm. broad; peduncles 0.5-2 cm. long; involucres glabrous, 
campanulate, 1.5-2 mm. long; lobes ovate, obtuse; perianth white or pinkish, 
about 2 mm. long; inner lobes elliptic-cuneate, narrower, but almost as long as 
the outer. "Bad-lands," hills, and canons: Sask. Neb. N.M. Ariz. -Ida. 
Alta. PlainMont. Je-S. 

101. E. Wetherillii Eastw. Scape 1-2 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
orbicular, obtuse or obliquely truncate at the base, about 1 cm. wide; peduncles 
reflexed or divaricate, about 5 mm. long; lobes of the involucres 4, obtuse; outer 
lobes of the perianth obovate, the inner oblong, slightly longer. Sandstone 
cliffs: N.M. Utah. Son. 

102. E. pusillum T. & G. Scape 1-3 dm. high, glabrous; blades subor- 
bicular, 1-3 cm. broad, slightly floccose, but green above; peduncles 1-4 cm. 
long, erect; involucres hemispheric, glandular-puberulent, 3-4 mm. broad; lobes 
rounded-ovate; perianth yellow, campanulate, 1-1.5 mm. long, glabrous or 
slightly puberulent; segments elliptic. Hills and washes: Calif. s Utah Ariz. 
Son. Ap-Au. 

103. E. rotundifolium Benth. Scape 1-3 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
orbicular, 1-2 cm. broad; peduncles 4-20 mm. long; perianth white, glabrous; 
inner lobes narrowly oblong. Dry plains: Tex. Colo. N.M. Mex. L. & 
U. Son. Ap-O. 

104. E. insigne S. Wats. Scape stout, 3-10 dm. high; leaf-blades reniform, 
2-4 cm. broad; involucres somewhat angled, 2 mm. long, glabrous; lobes rounded; 
perianth rose-colored, nearly 2 mm. long. Hills: s Utah Nev. L. Son. Je. 

106. E. turbinatum Small. Scape erect, 2-4 dm. high; leaf-blades sub- 
orbicular or reniform, 1-4 cm. broad, deeply cordate at the base; involucres 2 
mm. long; lobes broadly ovate, obtuse, scarious-margined ; perianth pink, 2 mm. 
long. Mesas: Ariz. s Utah. L. Son. Mr-My. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 227 

106. E. Thomasii Torr. Scape 1-2 dm. high; leaf -blades orbicular or 
rounded-ovate, 0.5-2 cm. long; peduncles capillary, 6-12 mm. long; involucres 
glabrous, turbinate; lobes rounded; outer perianth-lobes oval or elliptic, shorter 
than the elliptic or oblong inner ones. Desert regions: Ariz. s Utah Calif 
n Mex. L. Son. Mr-Jl. 

107. E. Gordonii Benth. Scape 2-4 dm. high, slender, glabrous; leaf- 
blades coriaceous, glabrous, orbicular, 1-3 cm. broad; peduncles 1-3 cm. long, 
erect; involucres turbinate-campanulate, about 1 mm. long, glabrous; lobes 
rounded; perianth white or pinkish, 2-2.5 mm. long, glabrous; outer lobes oblong- 
ovate, the inner oblong, slightly if at all shorter. E. Visheri A. Nels. Dry 
plains and bad-lands: S.D. Colo. Utah Wyo. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

108. E. subreniforme S. Wats. Scape slender, 1-3 dm. high, more or less 
silky-pilose or villous, especially at the nodes; leaf -blades rounded-reniform, 
1-2 cm. wide; peduncles capillary, ascending, 5-20 mm. long; involucres glab- 
rous, turbinate-campanulate, 1 mm. long; lobes rounded-ovate; perianth rose- 
colored, glabrous or slightly hispid, 1-1.5 mm. long; lobes subequal, elliptic. 
Arid regions: Ariz. s Utah N.M. L. Son. 

109. E. trinervatum Small. Scape about 3 dm. high, more or less villous 
or pilose; leaf-blades suborbicular or rounded-ovate, 1-2 cm. broad, truncate or 
subcordate at the base, conspicuously 3-nerved; peduncles spreading, 6-15 mm. 
long, glabrous; involucres campanulate, glabrous, 1-1.5 mm. long; perianth 
deep-pink, glabrous, nearly 2 mm. long; lobes subequal in length, elliptic or 
oval, the inner broader. Arid places: Colo. Utah. Son. Submont. Je-Au. 

110. E. nutans T. & G. Scape 1-2 dm. high; leaf-blades orbicular, 1-2 cm. 
broad, glabrous; peduncles reflexed, 5-10 mm. long; involucres campanulate, 2.5-3 
mm. long; lobes broadly ovate; perianth rose-colored, 2-2.5 mm. long. E. rubi- 
florum M. E. Jones. Arid regions: Utah Nev. Son. Je. 

111. E. Parryi A. Gray. Scape about 2 dm. high; blades rounded-reni- 
form, 1-3 cm. broad; peduncles 5-10 cm. long, spreading or somewhat reflexed; 
involucres turbinate, oblique, glandular; lobes rounded-ovate; perianth cam- 
panulate, white, green on the midveins. Arid regions: s Utah s Calif. L. 
Son. My-Je. 

112. E. glandulosum Nutt. Scape about 2 dm. high; leaf-blades orbicular 
or reniform, cordate at base, 1-3 cm. broad; peduncles capillary, 1-3 cm. long, 
spreading or reflexed, abruptly bent above the middle; involucres broadly tur- 
binate, glabrous, 2 mm. long, deeply cleft; lobes ovate; perianth yellow, 2-2.5 
mm. long. E. fiexum M. E. Jones. Slopes and hills: Colo. Utah. Son. Je. 

113. E. Ordii S. Wats. Scape 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades elliptic, 2-4 cm. 
long; peduncles filiform, 1-2 cm. long, glabrous; involucres turbinate, 1 mm. long; 
lobes ovate; perianth white, tipped with pink, 2 mm. long. Sand dunes: Ariz. 
Utah. Son. Ap-Jl. 

114. E. trichopodum Torr. Scape 3-5 dm. high; leaf -blades cordate to 
oval, subcordate at the base, 1-3 cm. broad, glabrous above, hirsute beneath; 
peduncles capillary, about 1 cm. long; involucres glabrous, 1 mm. long or less, 
turbinate; lobes rounded; perianth yellowish, 1-1.5 mm. long. Arid and sandy 
places: N.M. s Utah Calif.; n Mex. L. Son. Mr-Jl. 

115. E. fusiforme Small. Scape 2-5 dm. high; leaf-blades suborbicular, 
1-5 cm. in diameter, with scattered hairs on both sides; peduncles capillary, 
spreading, 1-2 cm. long; involucres turbinate, barely 1 mm. long; lobes ovate, 
shorter than the tube; perianth white or yellowish; lobes ovate, 1.5 mm. long. 
Bluffs and sandy places: Colo. Utah -Ariz. Son. My-Je. 

116. E. inflatum Torr. Scape 3-6 dm. high; leaf -blades reniform or orbic- 
ular, hirsute-pubescent or sometimes glabrate; peduncles 1-3 cm. long, spread- 
ing; involucres turbinate, glabrous, 1-1.5 mm. long; lobes ovate; perianth 1.5 mm. 
long, densely pubescent. Arid places: N.M. Colo. Calif. Son. My-Jl. 

117. E. divaricatum Hook. Stem 1-2 dm. high, divaricately branched, 
minutely pubescent; basal leaves petioled; blades spatulate to orbicular, 1-2 cm. 



228 POLYGONACEAE 

broad, pilose on both sides; secondary leaves with orbicular blades; involucres 
turbinate; perianth whitish or yellowish, 1-1.5 mm. long; lobes oblong, subequal. 
Clay hills: Wyo. Colo. Ariz. Utah. Son. Submont. Je-S. 

118. E. angulosum Benth. Stem 1-4 dm. high, di- or tri-chotomously 
branched; basal leaves petioled, spatulate, 2-5 cm. long; primary stem-leaves 
lanceolate, stipule-like; secondary ones fascicled, oblong, linear, or oblanceolate; 
peduncles 1-3 cm. long, divaricate; involucres shortly turbinate, 2 mm. long, 
minutely glandular; lobes rounded; perianth rose-colored or white, deeply 5- 
cleft, about 2 mm. long, the outer lobes ovate, the inner ones oblong or lanceo- 
late, obtuse. Arid regions: Ariz. Ida. Calif. Son. Ap-O. 

119. E. puberulum S. Wats. Scape 5-15 cm. high, canescent, dichoto- 
mously branched; leaf -blades obovate to broadly oval or suborbicular, 5-15 
mm. broad, grayish short-pubescent; bracts more or less foliaceous, narrowly 
oblong, 3-5 mm. long; involucres sessile in the forks, very small, 4-lobed; peri- 
anth glabrous, rose-colored, 1.5-2 mm. long; lobes oblong. Sandy soil: Utah. 
Son. Submont. Je. 

120. E. spergulinum A. Gray. Stem 1-3 dm. high, slender, dichotomously 
branched, glandular-pruinose and more or less hirsute below; leaves and bracts 
verticillate, linear, green on both sides, hirsute; involucres on slender reflexed 
peduncles, glabrous, 4-cleft, 1-1.5 mm. long; perianth white, pilose at the base, 
2 mm. long. Sunny slopes: Calif. Nev. Ida. Ore. Son. Jl-Au. 

121. E. pharnaceoides Torr. Stem slender, 1-3 dm. high, villous; leaves 
and bracts verticillate, linear, revolute-margined, villous above, tomentose 
beneath; involucres on slender peduncles, turbinate, 3 mm. long, villous; lobes 
lanceolate, as long as the tube; perianth rose-colored, 2.5-3 mm. long; outer 
segments oval, saccate below, glabrous; the inner ones oblong. Rocky hills: 
N.M. Utah Ariz. Son. Jl-S. 

122. E. salsuginosum Hook. Stem branched from the base, 1-2 dm. high, 
trichotomous, leafy; basal leaves fleshy, spatulate, 2-4 cm. long; stem- leaves 
linear; involucres partly sessile in the forks, partly long-peduncled, of nearly 
distinct lanceolate bracts; perianth yellowish, hirtellous without; lobes oblong- 
lanceolate; filaments and pistils glabrous. Clayey hills: Wyo. -N.M. Utah. 
Son. Submont. My-Jl. 

2. OXYTHECA Nutt. 

Diffuse dioecious or monoecious annuals, more or less glandular. Leaves 
rosulate at the base. Inflorescence trichotomously cymose. Bracts ternate, 
foliaceous and more or less connate, often awned. Involucres few-flowered, 
campanulate or turbinate, herbaceous, 3-5-cleft; lobes erect or spreading, end- 
ing in straight awns. Perianth 6-parted. Stamens 9, inserted near the base of 
the perianth. Achenes lenticular. 

Stem-leaves and bracts lanceolate, connate only at the base; involucres pedicelled. 

1. O. foliosa. 
Stem-leaves and bracts connate, forming a nearly circular disk; involucres sessile. 

2. O. perfoliata. 

1. O. foliosa Nutt. Stem 1-3 dm. high, with ascending branches; basal 
leaves linear-oblanceolate, 3-6 cm. long, pilose; involucres 1-2 mm. long; lobes 
somewhat unequal, the awns very unequal and varying in length; perianth light 
rose-colored; lobes 6, obovate, 0.5-0.75 mm. long. Dry regions: Wash. Wyo. 
Nev. Son. Je-Jl. 

2. O. perfoliata T. & G. Annual; stem dichotomously branched, sparingly 
glandular, 1-2 dm. high; basal leaves spatulate, 1-4 cm. long, glabrous; stem- 
leaves and bracts 3 at each joint, forming a disk 1-2 cm. broad, with 3 bristle 
points; involucres in the forks; lobes subulate-lanceolate, ending in an awn of their 
own length; flowers 4-6, pedicellate; perianth pubescent. Arid regions: Nev. 
Ariz. s Utah. L. Son. Je. 

3. CENTROSTEGIA A. Gray. 

Branched annuals. Leaves basal, spatulate. Inflorescence cymose-pan- 
iculate. Bracts usually 3-fid; lobes spinulose-cuspidate. Involucres sessile, 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 229 

solitary, 1-3-flowered, tubular, 5-6-dentate, with 3-6 spinulose-tipped spurs 
below. Perianth 6-lobed. Stamens 9, inserted near the base of the perianth. 

1. C. Thurberi A. Gray. Diffusely branched annual, 5-15 cm. high; leaves 
spatulate, glabrous, 1-2 cm. long; involucre 1-2-flowered, chartaceous, venose, 
5-toothed at the apex; spurs 3, large, divergent, conic, as well as the teeth short- 
cuspidate; segments of the perianth linear-spatulate, hirsute towards the base. 
Arid regions: Ariz. s Utah Calif. L. Son. My-Je. 

4. CHORIZANTHE R. Br. 

Low annual or perennial herbs, with sessile cymosely arranged involucres 
and opposite or verticillate leaves, or the lower leaves sometimes alternate. In- 
volucres 1-flowered, gamophyllous, with angular or costate tube and 2-6 cuspi- 
date or aristate teeth or lobes. Perianth corolla-like, 6-lobed or 6-parted. Sta- 
mens 9, rarely 6 or 3. Achenes 3-angled. 

Involucre not strongly sulcate, 5-toothed; filaments adnate to the perianth nearly up to 
the base of the lobes. 1. c. Watsoni 

Involucres strongly sulcate, 6-toothed; filaments adnate only to the lower part of the 

perianth-tube. 

Leaves linear-oblanceolate to linear. 2. C. brevicornu. 

Lower leaves broadly spatulate. 3. C. spathulata. 

1. C. Watsoni A. Gray. Low branched annual, appressed-canescent; 
stem 2-5 cm. high; leaves linear or linear-spatulate, canescent; involucres cy- 
lindric, 5-6 mm. long; teeth 5, unequal, acerose-subulate, recurved; perianth 
with a cylindric tube; stamens 9; embryo straight; cotyledons linear. Desert 
regions: Wash. Ida. Nev. Calif. Son. My-Jl. 

2. C. brevicornu Torr. Branched annual; stem 5-20 cm. high, strigose; 
lower leaves narrowly linear-oblanceolate, 2-7 cm. long, strigose; bracts small, 
with a hooked mucro; involucres narrowly prismatic, about 5 mm. long; lobes 
subequal, subulate-arista te, recurved; perianth 1.5 mm. long, 5-lobed; lobes 
ovate, entire; stamens 3. Desert regions: Ariz. -s Utah -Nev. se Calif. L. 
Son. Ap-My. 

3. C. spathulata Small. A branched annual; stem strigose-canescent, 
5-20 cm. high; lower leaves 1.5-3 cm. long, spatulate, hirsute-strigose on both 
sides; involucre prismatic, 5 mm. long, strigose; lobes 6, subulate, recurved, 
spinulose-tipped, the alternating narrower; perianth 2 mm. long; lobes ovate; 
stamens mostly 3. Desert regions: Ida. Nev. Son. My-Je. 

6. ACANTHOGONUM Torr. 

Dwarf annuals, with obovate leaves. Bracts spinescent-subulate. Invo- 
lucres axillary, sessile, subtended by a 3-fid bractlet, 1-flowered, 3-cleft to near 
the base; tube short, 3-angled; segments unequal, lanceolate, tapering into a 
subulate pungent tip. Flowers hermaphrodite, sessile; perianth equally 6- 
toothed, closed in fruit. Stamens 6-9, adnate to the whole tube of the perianth. 
Styles 3, short; stigmas capitate. Achenes ovate, 3-angled. 

1. A. rigidum Torr. Plant at first lanate; stem 1-3 cm. high; leaves long- 
petioled, white-tomentose beneath; involucres with elongated aristiform or 
subulate spinescent bracts; perianth with a cylindric tube and obtuse base; 
stamens 9. Chorizanthe rigida (Torr.) A. Gray. Desert regions: N.M. s Utah 
Nev. s Calif.; n Mex. L. Son. Ap-My. 

6. PTEROSTEGIA F. & M. 

Slender annuals, diffusely branched, dichotomous, with opposite leaves and 
foliaceous bracts. Involucres axillary, sessile, consisting of a single 2-lobed 
bract, enlarged in fruit, scarious and reticulate, loosely enclosing the achene, 
2-gibbous on the back. Perianth 6-parted, or rarely 5-parted. Stamens 3 or ( 
6. Achenes triangular, glabrous. 

1. P. drymarioides F. & M. Stem 1-3 dm. long; lower leaves long-peti- 
oled, flabelliform, obcordately 2-lobed or emarginate, those of the upper branches 
rounded-obovate or spatulate; fruiting involucre 2-3 mm. long, deeply 2-lobed, 



230 POLYGONACEAE 

dentate or laciniate on the margin. Rocky places: Ariz. s Utah Calif. L. 
Son. Mr-My. 

7. RUMEX L. DOCK, SORREL. 

Perennial, or rarely annual, caulescent herbs, with thick roots. Leaves 
alternate, entire or wavy, with thin brittly ocreae. Flowers green, perfect, 
polygamo-monoecious or dioecious, pedicelled in distant or contiguous whorls. 
Sepals 6, the inner three usually developing entire, toothed, or spiny crests and 
one or more sometimes bearing a tubercle or callosity. Stamens 6. Ovary 
1 -celled, sessile; styles 3; stigmas peltate, tufted. Achenes 3-angled, usually 
invested by the accrescent calyx, margined or winged. 

Flowers dioecious; foliage acid. 

Leaves with auricled or hastate bases. 

Inner perianth-lobes not developed into wings in fruit; achenes granular. 

1. R. Acetosella. 
Inner perianth-lobes developed into wings in fruit; achenes smooth. 

2. R. Acetosa. 
Leaves narrowed at the base, neither auricled nor hastate. 3. R. paucifolius. 

Flowers perfect, or andro-polygamous ; foliage not acid. 
Inner perianth-lobes entire, undulate, or denticulate. 
Inner perianth-lobes in fruit without tubercles. 

Inner perianth-lobes in fruit more than 2 cm. broad; plants perennial, with 

deep-seated woody rootstock. 4. R. venosus. 

Inner perianth-lobes in fruit less than 1.5 cm. in diameter. 

Plants perennial, with clusters of tuberous roots; inner perianth-lobes in 

fruit 1-1.5 cm. broad. 
Achene 7 mm. long or more; inner perianth-lobes in fruit broader than 

long; plant low. 5. R. salinus. 

Achenes about 5 mm. long; inner perianth-lobes in fruit longer than 
broad. 6. R. hymenosepalus . 

Plants with taproots or thickened rootstocks; inner perianth-lobes in 

fruit 5-10 mm. broad. 

Plants low, less than 3 dm. high, perennial, with short tuber-like root- 
stock; fruit maturing before the inner perianth-lobes become enlarged. 

7. R. praecox. 

Plants tall, perennial, with a taproot, not with a tuber-like root- 
stock; inner perianth-lobes well enlarged in fruit. 

Basal leaves 2-3 cm. wide, acute or rarely rounded at the base. 

8. R. hesperius. 
Basal leaves 5-20 cm. wide, rounded, cordate, or truncate at the 

base. 

Inner perianth-lobes in fruit with rounded apex, not conspicu- 
ously punctate. 
Inner perianth-lobes in fruit 8-10 mm. wide. 

9. R. confinis. 
Inner perianth-lobes in fruit 5-6 mm. wide. 

10. R. occidentalis. 

Inner perianth-lobes abruptly pointed, conspicuously punctate. 
Fruiting inner perianth-lobes about as broad as long, sinuate 

on the margin. 11. R. densiflorus. 

Fruiting inner perianth-lobes longer than broad, sharply 

dentate. 12. R. subalpinus. 

Inner perianth-lobes or at least one of them bearing a tubercle in fruit; perennials 

with a taproot. 
Only one perianth-lobe tubercled. 

Leaves dark green, more or less crisp; fruiting inner perianth-lobes 8-9 

mm. broad, reniform. 13. R. Patientia. 

Leaves pale green, not crisp; fruiting inner perianth-lobes 56 mm. broad, 

deltoid-ovate. 14. R. altissimus. 

All three perianth-lobes bearing tubercles. 

Leaves dark, green, crisp; /fruiting perianth-lobes ovate to reniform, den- 
ticulate. 15. R. crispus. 
Leaves pale green, not crisp; fruiting perianth-lobes deltoid, entire. 

16. R. mexicanus. 
Inner perianth-lobes in fruit spinulose-toothed on the margin. 

Tall plants; lower leaf-blades cordate at the base; one tubercle. 

17. R. obtusifolius. 
Low plants; lower leaf-blades narrowed at the base; three tubercles. 

18. R. maritimus. 

1. R. Acetosella L. Perennial, with a creeping rootstock; stem erect, 
glabrous, 1-6 dm. high; leaf-blades hastate, 2.5-15 cm. long, obtuse or acute, 
with entire or 1- or 2-toothed auricles; upper stem-leaves linear; perianth green 
or purplish; achenes ovoid, 3-angled, 1.5 mm. long, exceeding the persistent peri- 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 231 

anth. SHEEP SORREL. Waste places, old fields, etc.: Lab. Fla. Calif. 
Alaska.; nat. from Eu. Plain Submont. Ap-Au. 

2. R. Acetosa L. Perennial, with a short rootstock; stem erect, 3-10 dm. 
high; leaf-blades oblong-hastate or ovate-sagittate, 3-12 cm. long, acute at the 
apex, with acute auricles, the basal ones petioled, the upper cauline ones sessile; 
perianth green, 2 mm. long, in fruit winged, broadly ovate or orbicular, cordate, 
5 mm. long, with delicate callosities at the base. SOUR DOCK. Waste places: 
Lab. N.Y. Mont. 'Alaska; adv. from Eu. Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

3. R. paucifolius Nutt. Perennial, with a taproot and short rootstock, 
somewhat tufted; stem 2-5 dm. high; leaf -blades lanceolate or oblanceolate or 
sometimes elliptic, the lower petioled, 5-12 cm. long, the upper sessile; perianth 
yellowish green or reddish, 1.5 mm. long; divisions winged, in fruit about 4 mm. 
in diameter, rounded, sometimes with a small basal callosity. R. Geyeri (Meisn.) 
Trelease. Meadows: Alta. -Colo. Calif. -B.C. Submont. Mont. My-Au. 

4. R. venosus Pursh. Stem stout, erect or decumbent at the base, 1.5-4 
dm. high, somewhat fleshy; leaf-blades ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, 3-12 
cm. long, fleshy, somewhat glaucous; panicle rather dense, conic; perianth red, 
pedicelled, about 5 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit much enlarged, orbicular, 2-5 
cm. broad, venose, cordate at the base; achene 7 mm. long. WILD BEGONIA, 
SOUR GREENS, WILD HYDRANGEA. Sandy soil: Sask. Mo. Nev. Wash. 
Alta. Plain -Submont. Ap-Je. 

5. R. salinus A. Nels. Stem stout, 2-4 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
moderately thick, somewhat crisp, the lower oblanceolate-oblong, 10-15 cm. 
long, the upper lanceolate; perianth red, about 3 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit 
enlarged, reniform-cordate. R. tuberosus A. Nels. Alkaline soil: w Wyo. 
Colo. Submont. Je. 

6. R. hymenosepalus Torr. Stem 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; leaf-blades 
somewhat fleshy, somewhat crisp, 5-20 cm. long, elliptic or oblanceolate; perianth 
yellowish green, 3-4 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit much enlarged, cordate, 
longer than broad, with an open sinus. Dry or sandy soil: Tex. Okla. Utah 
-Calif.; n Mex. Son. -Mont. Mr-My. 

7. R. praecox Rydb. Stem 2-3 dm. high, striate; basal leaves petioled, 
rather thick, oval or elliptic, 4-10 cm. long, rounded at both ends; perianth-lobes 
oval, rounded at the apex, the inner 3-5 mm. long, without tubercles. Along 
streams, in the mountains: Colo. Wyo. Mont. Je. 

8. R. hesperius Greene. Stem 3-6 dm. high; leaf-blades lanceolate or 
linear-lanceolate, slightly wart} ; panicle small; perianth purplish or greenish, 3 
mm. long; inner lobes in fruit 4-5 mm. long, deltoid or reniform-deltoid, more 
or less reticulate, denticulate on the margins. Bottom lands: Alta. Wyo. 
Wash. Submont. My-Jl. 

9. R. conflnis Greene. Stem stout, 4-15 dm. high; blades of the basal 
leaves 1-3 dm. long, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, cordate at the base; 
panicle large; flowers greenish; perianth 4 mm. long; inner lobes suborbicular or 
rounded-cordate, crenate-dentate, rather strongly reticulate. Wet places: B.C. 
Mont. Wash. Son. Je-Jl. 

10. R. occidentalis S. Wats. Stem 5-20 dm. high; blades of the basal 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, truncate or subcordate at the base, 1-3 dm. long; 
panicle narrow, elongate; perianth greenish, 3-4 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit 
broadly cordate, denticulate towards the base; achenes 3 mm. long. R. 
polyrrhizus Greene, in part. Wet places: Lab. N.D.N.M. Calif. B.C. 
Plain Mont. Jl-Au. 

11. R. densiflorus Osterh. Stem 5-10 dm. high, grooved; blades of the 
basal leaves elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, cordate at the base, 1.5-3 dm. long, 
10-15 cm. wide; flowers polygamous; perianth often red, 3 mm. long; inner 
lobes broadly ovate-cordate, reticulate. R. Bakeri Greene. Wet ground: Colo. 
Wyo. Ida. PlainMont. Jl-Au. 

12. R. subalpinus M. E. Jones. Stem erect, sulcate, 1-2 m. high; blades 
of basal leaves 2-4 dm. long, 5-20 cm. wide, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, entire, 



232 POLYGONACEAE 

not crisp; flowers perfect; perianth greenish, 3 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit 
deltoid or deltoid-cordate, 5-8 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate. Swampy 
grounds in the mountains: Colo. Utah. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

13. R. Patientia L. Stem erect, grooved, 5-15 dm. high; blades of basal 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, 1-4 dm. long; pedicels jointed below the middle; flowers 
perfect; perianth green, 4-5 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit 6-7 mm. long, rounded- 
cordate, sinuate on the margins; achenes 3 mm. long. R. Brittannica of western 
reports, not L. PATIENCE. Waste places: Newf. N.J. Utah; cultivated 
and occasionally escaped; native of Eu. Plain Submont. Je-Jl. 

14. R. altissimum Wood. Stem grooved, 5-12 dm. high; blades of the 
basal leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5-25 cm. long, acute at both ends, 
papillose; flowers perfect; pedicels jointed near the base; perianth light green, 2 
mm. long; inner lobes in fruit triangular-cordate, 4-5 mm. long, reticulate, entire- 
margined. Along streams: Mass. Md. N.M. N.D. Plain. Ap-Je. 

15. R. crispus L. Stem 3-10 dm. high, erect, simple; blades of the basal 
leaves oblong to lin ear-lanceolate, 1.5-3 dm. long, cordate, rounded, obtuse or 
acute at the base, more or less papillose; flowers perfect; pedicels jointed at the 
base; perianth dark green; inner lobes in fruit 3-5 mm. long. CURLED DOCK. 
Waste places: Newf. Fla. Calif. B.C. Plain. Je-Au. 

16. R. mexicanus Meisn. Stem 3-6 dm. -high; blades of the basal leaves 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, pale, 5-15 cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. wide; flowers 
perfect; perianth pale green, 2-3 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit 5-6 mm. long, 
truncate at the base. R. salicifolius Am. auth., not Weinm. Along rivers: Lab. 
Me. Mo. N.M. B.C.; Mex. PlainMont. My-Au. 

17. R. obtusifolius L. Perennial, with a taproot; stem stout, 5-12 dm. 
high, grooved; blades of the basal leaves broadly ovate, 1.5-3 dm. long; pedicels 
jointed below the middle; perianth greenish or purplish, 3 mm. long; inner lobes 
in fruit about 5 mm. long, hastate or deltoid, strongly reticulate. Waste places: 
N.S. Fla. N.M. Ore. B.C.; nat. from Eu. Plain Son. Ap-Au. 

18. R. maritimus L. Annual; stem 3-10 dm. high, leafy; leaf-blades 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 3-25 cm. long, undulate and crisp; pedicels 
jointed at the base; perianth greenish, 1-1.5 mm. long; inner lobes in fruit about 
2 mm. long, with 1-3 bristle-like teeth on the margins. R. persicarioides Am. 
auth., not L. GOLDEN DOCK. Sandy shores: N.B. N.C. -Calif. B.C. 
Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

8. OXYRIA Hill. MOUNTAIN SORREL. 

Low perennials, with acid juice and thick fleshy taproots. Leaves alternate, 
but mostly basal. Flowers perfect, in verticils, arranged in panicled racemes. 
Sepals 4; the outer larger than the inner; stamens 6; filaments short-subulate. 
Ovary 1-celled; ovules solitary; styles 2, short; stigmas fimbriate. Achenes 
thin, lenticular, nearly flat, broadly winged. 

1. O. digyna (L.) Hill. Stem scapiform, 5-30 cm. high; blades of the basal 
leaves reniform or rounded-reniform, 1-3 cm. in diameter, sometimes emarginate 
at the apex; panicle narrow, racemiform; perianth red or green, 1.5-2 mm. long, 
the inner in fruit erect, reni form-orbicular, 4-6 mm. broad; achenes in fruit 
broadly winged. Arctic-alpine regions among rocks: Greenl. N.H. Alta. 
N.M. Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. Mont. Jl-S. 

9. POLYGONUM (Tourn.) L. KNOTWEED, DOORWEED, KNOTGRASS. 

Perennial or annual, sometimes somewhat shrubby herbs, with alternate 
leaves and somewhat fleshy or leathery leaf-blades articulate to the ocreae. 
Ocreae at first 2-lobed, soon lacerate, hyaline. Inflorescence of axillary small 
clusters. Calyx of 5 or rarely 6, partially united sepals, mostly green with 
white, pink, or yellowish margins. Stamens 3-8, usually 5 or 6; filaments, at 
least the inner ones, dilated. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; styles 3, usually dis- 
tinct. Achenes 3-angled, brown or black; endosperm horny; cotyledons incum- 
bent. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 233 

Fruit erect. 

Inflorescence of small axillary clusters scattered more or less thoroughout the plant- 
all except P. minimum with elongated stems or branches; perianth-lobes never 
keeled near the apex. 
Plants copiously leafy throughout; upper leaves scarcely reduced and more 

crowded. 

Very slender and low annuals, with red wiry, terete, non-striate stems. 

1. P. minimum. 
Stouter and larger plants, often perennial, with prominently striate stems 

usually 38 dm. long. 
Perianth-lobes with yellowish green margins; plant erect, with spreading 

branches in age; leaves broad, yellowish green. 2. P. erectum. 
Perianth-lobes with white, pink or purplish margins; plant prostrate or 

diffusely spreading; leaves from bright to pale bluish green. 
Leaves thick, prominently veined, oblong, oval, or spatulate, obtuse or 
rounded at the apex, usually pale; ocreae very conspicuous; 
faces of the achenes granular. 3. P. buxiforme. 

Leaves thin, not prominently veined, bright green ; ocreae not conspicu- 
ous; faces of the achenes finely striate. 
Perianth 2.5-3.5 mm. long; achenes 2.5-3 mm. long, acute; leaves 

2-4 cm. long. 4. P. aviculare. 

Perianth 2-2.5 mm. long; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long, acuminate; leaves 

mostly less than 2 cm. long. 5. P. neglectum. 

Plants with the upper leaves more scattered and reduced; mostly erect perennials. 
Upper bracts not subulate; achenes mostly dull. 

Lobes of the perianth with yellowish margins; perianth 3-4 mm. long; 

achenes about 3 mm. long, nearly smooth. 6. P. ramosissimum. 

Lobes of the perianth with whitish or pinkish margins; perianth 2-3 mm. 

long; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long, distinctly granulate or striate. 
Plant copiously branched and broom-like; leaf-blades linear or nearly 

so; achenes granulate. 7. P. prolificum. 

Plant sparingly branched, mostly below; leaf-blades oblanceolate to 

elliptic; achenes finely striate. 8. P. rubescens. 

Upper bracts subulate; achenes smooth and shining. 9. P. sawatchense. 

Inflorescence aggregate at the ends of the branches, or more scattered in P. parony- 
chioides, in which, however, some of the perianth-lobes are keeled near the 
apex ; bracts leaf-like and usually broader than the narrowly linear leaves ; plants 
dwarf annuals. 
Perianth-lobes not keeled. 

Leaves several, gradually merging into the bracts; achenes blunt-angled and 

strongly striate. 10. P. Watsonii. 

Leaf usually solitary and much longer than the bracts: achenes sharp-angled 

and obscurely striate. 11. P. uni folium. 

Some of the perianth-lobes keeled near the apex. 

Bracts herbaceous or the uppermost with a very narrow scarious margin. 
Bracts linear; ocreae conspicuous; inflorescence interrupted. 

12. P. paronychioides. 

Bracts oblong or narrowly oblong; ocreae inconspicuous; inflorescence con- 
tiguous and dense. 13. P. Kelloggii. 
Bracts with broad white petaloid margins. 14. P. polygaloides. 
Fruit reflexed. 

Upper bracts much reduced and subulate. 

Perianth 1.5-2.5 mm. long; leaves narrowly linear. 15. P. Engelmannii. 

Perianth 3-5 mm. long. 

Outer perianth-lobes oblong, obtusish, thickened and green or purplish on the 
back; lower leaves oblanceolate to linear-oblanceolate. 

16. P. Douglasii. 
Outer perianth-lobes obovate, rounded at the apex, merely with a narrow 

midrib; lower leaves linear. 
Inflorescence long, lax, virgate; ocreae of the bracts inconspicuous. 

17. P. majus. 
Inflorescence dense, crowded at the ends of the branches; ocreae of the 

bracts contiguous and conspicuous. 18. P. spergulari forme. 

Upper bracts foliaceous, relatively broad lanceolate or oblong. 
Perianth 3.5-4 mm. long; lower leaves oblong or nearly so. 

Achenes included. 19. P. montanum. 

Achenes exserted. 20. P. commixtum. 

Perianth 2-2.5 mm. long; lower leaves obovate, very acute. 

21. P. Austinae. 

1. P. minimum S. Wats. Annual; stem erect or spreading, 3-20 cm., 
rarely 30 cm. high, branched mostly at the base; leaves obovate, sometimes 
ovate or elliptic, 0.5-2 cm. long, evenly distributed or crowded above; perianth- 
segments 1.5-2 mm. long, greenish with rose-colored margins; achenes 2-2.3 
mm. long, smooth and shining. P. Torreyi S. Wats. Dry or sandy slopes: 
B.C. Mont. Colo. Calif. Submont. Jl-S. 

2. P. erectum L. Annual; stem usually erect, 2-6 dm. high, yellowish 
green; leaves oval, elliptic or obovate, 1-6 cm. long; flowers in small axillary 



234 POLYGONACEAE 

clusters; perianth 3 mm. long; achenes dark brown, granular and dull. Waste 
places: Me. Ga Ark. N.M. Alta.; (? Ida.) Plain. Je-S. 

3. P. buxiforme Small. Annual o<r perennial; stem usually prostrate, 3-12 
dm. long; leaves oblong, elliptic or oblanceolate, 0.5-2.5 cm. long, usually ob- 
tuse, often crisp on the margin; perianth 2-2.5 mm. long; achenes 2-2.5 mm. 
long, dark brown, mostly dull, granular. Sandy or alkaline soil: Ont. Va. 
Tex. Nev. B.C. Plain Mont. Je-S. 

4. P. aviculare L. Annual or sometimes perennial; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute at both ends, petioled, dull bluish green, rather thin, 1-3 cm. long; flowers 
pedicelled ; perianth 2.5-3.5 mm. long ; achenes dark, rugulose-striate, dull. Waste 
places : Newf . Va. Calif. B.C. ; nat. or adv. from Eu. Plain Submont. My-0. 

5. P. neglectum Besser. Annual or perennial; stems with short internodes, 
strongly striate, usually minutely roughened; leaves firm, narrowly elliptic- 
lanceolate, or the upper rarely linear; margins often revolute when dry; perianth 
2-2.5 mm. long, venose; segments with usually purplish margins; achenes reddish 
brown, apiculate-acuminate. P. aviculare angustissimum Meisn. Waste places: 
Me. Fla. Ark. N.M. Alta.; nat. or adv. from Eu.; more common than 
P. aviculare. Plain -Submont. Je-N. 

6. P. rampsissimum Michx. Annual; stem 2-10 dm. high, somewhat 
virgate, yellowish green; leaves lanceolate, oblong, or linear-oblong, 1-4 cm. long, 
yellowish green, the upper ones much reduced in size; perianth about 3 mm. long; 
achenes 3 mm. long, black, not shining. River valleys and sandy soil: Man. 
Ills. N.M. Nev Wash B.C. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

7. P. prolificum (Small) B. L. Robins. Annual; stem 3-5 dm. high, much 
branched, strongly striate, dark green or reddish; leaves linear-oblong or linear, 
thick, obtuse or acute, strongly veined beneath, dark green, 1-2 cm. long; peri- 
anth about 2 mm. long: achenes brown, 2 mm. long, concave on the lanceolate- 
deltoid faces, shining. (?) P. flexile Greene. Sandy places: Me. Va. Colo. 
Mont. Plain. Jl-O. 

8. P. rubescens Small. Annual or perennial; stem erect, ultimately 
branched, 1-5 dm. high; leaves thick, narrowly oblong or elliptic, 12.5 cm. long, 
the upper reduced; perianth 3 mm. long; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long, dull. Sandy 
soil: Sask. Colo. Nev. Ida. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

9. P. sawatchense Small. Annual; stems erect, striate, obscurely 4-angled, 
branched from the base, 5-30 cm. high; lower leaves oblanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, 
acute or obtuse at the apex, often more or less revolute, with a prominent mid- 
vein; perianth-segments green, only slightly lighter on the margins, 2 mm. long; 
achenes rather blunt at both ends, smooth and glossy. Hillsides and mountains: 
S.D. N.M. Calif .Wash. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

10. P. Watsonii Small. Annual; stem erect, 5-15 cm. high, sparingly 
branched, 4-angled, glabrous; leaves linear, 1-5 cm. long; bracts reduced, 0.5-1 
cm. long, linear-lanceolate; perianth-segments green, pinkish on the margins, 2 
mm. long; achenes nearly black, narrowly ovoid, strongly striate. P. imbricatum 
Nutt., not Raf. P. confertiflorum Nutt. Wet places: B.C. Sask. N.M. 
Calif. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

11. P. unifolium Small. Annual, dwarf; stem 1-3 cm. high, simple, or 
nearly so; well developed leaf mostly solitary, linear, erect, 7-10 mm. long; bracts 
several, crowded, imbricate, linear or linear-lanceolate; perianth-segments about 
1.5 mm. long, white or pinkish, with green ribs; achenes about 1.3 mm. long, 
shining, included. Wet places: Mont. Colo. Utah. Plain -Mont. Jl-Au. 

12. P. paronychioides Small. Annual, bushy; stem copiously branched at 
the base, 8-15 cm. long; leaves linear, 8-10 mm. long; perianths short-pedicelled, 
solitary or a few together in the axils; segments green, with pale or pink margins, 
becoming fully 2 mm. long; lobes slightly keeled, acutish; achenes rhombic, 
about 2 mm. long, granular. Wet places: Mont. Wyo. Submont. Au. 

13. P. Kelloggii Greene. Annual; stem erect, 3-8 cm. high, branched at 
the base; leaves linear, acute, 5-10 cm. long, spreading; perianth-segments 1.5-2 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 235 

mm. long, greenish, with white or cream-colored margins; achenes 1.5 mm. long, 
rhombic-ovoid, light brown, granular, somewhat striate, dull. In wet soil: 
Wash. Mont. Colo. Calif. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

14. P. polygaloides Meisn. Annual, glabrous; stem slender, erect, 1-2 dm. 
high, with ascending branches; leaves narrowly linear, 1-3 cm. long, strict; floral 
leaves oblong or elliptic; perianth-segments 2 mm. long, white or pinkish, with 
dark midribs; outer segment longer than the inner; achenes about 1.5 mm. long. 
Wet places: Wash. Mont. Wyo. Ore. Submont. Je-Au. 

16. P. Engelmannii Greene. Annual; stem often diffusely branched at 
the base, 0.5-3 dm. high; lower leaves linear-oblanceolate, 0.5-2 cm. long, the 
upper reduced, bract- like, subulate; perianth-segments oblong, obtuse, with 
whitish margins; achenes 2-2.5 mm. long, ovoid, black, smooth and shining. P. 
tenue microspermum Engelm. Hillsides and mountains: B.C. Mont. Colo. 
PlainMont. Jl-S. 

16. P. Douglasii Greene. Annual; stem erect, 2-4 dm. high, with ascend- 
ing branches; lower leaves oblanceolate, 2-5 cm. long, mostly obtuse or acutish; 
the upper linear and reduced, scattered; perianth-segments white or rose-colored 
on the margins; achenes 3-4 mm. long, black, smooth and shining. P. consimile 
Greene. (?) P. emaciatum A. Nels. P. pannosum S. S. Sharp. Hillsides and 
in sandy soil: Vt. N.Y. N.M. Calif. B.C.; probably only introduced 
east of the Rockies. Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

17. P. majus (Meisn.) Piper. Annual; stem wiry, terete, 2-4 dm. high, 
with ascending branches; leaves 2-6 cm. long; bracts linear-subulate, remote; 
perianth 4-5 mm. long; segments white, with green midrib; achenes black, shin- 
ing, smooth, 3-3.5 mm. long. P. coarctatum majus Meisn. Stony soil: Wash. 
Mont. Wyo. Ore. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

18. P. spergulariaeforme Meisn. Annual, scurfy throughout; stem erect, 
1-3 dm. high, branched from the base; leaves 1-3 cm. long, usually somewhat 
revolute; bracts rather crowded, subulate; perianth 3.5-4 mm. long, pink; 
achenes about 3.5 mm. long, black, smooth and shining except the granular apex 
and angles. P. coarctatum Dougl., not Willd. Ridges: B.C. w Wyo. Calif. 
Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

19. P. montanum (Small) Greene. Annual; stem branched from the base, 
1-3 dm. high, floriferous from near the base; lower leaves elliptic or oblong- 
oblanceolate, 1-3 cm. long, 1-nerved; upper leaves smaller, lanceolate or oblong; 
perianth-segments oblong, dark green or purplish, with white or pinkish margins; 
achenes black, shining, striate. Mountains: Alta. N.M. Calif. Submont. 
Subalp. Jl-Au. 

20. P. commixtum Greene. Annual; stem 0.5-1.5 dm. high, glabrous, 
branched from the base, glabrous; leaves oval, oblanceolate, or lanceolate, abruptly 
cuspidate-mucronate, 1-2.5 cm. long, 1-nerved, glabrous; perianth about 3 mm. 
long; segments elliptic, green, with yellowish white or purplish margins; achenes 
almost black, smooth and shining. Mountains: Colo. Mont. Submont. 
Subalp. Jl-Au. 

21. P. Austinae Greene. Annual; stem mostly erect, 0.5-1 dm. high, 
branched from the base; leaves ovate-lanceolate to oblanceolate, 0.5-1.5 cm. 
long, the upper much reduced; perianth green, 2.5 mm. long, drooping; segments 
narrowly oblong, obtuse, dark green, with white margins; achenes 2.5-3 mm. 
long, black, smooth and shining. Sandy places: Alta. Wyo. Calif. Sub- 
mont. Au-S. 

10. PERSICARIA (C. Bauhin) Mill. SMARTWEED, LADY'S THUMB, 
WATER PEPPER. 

Perennial or annual, caulescent herbs, not twining, with alternate leaves and 
entire leaf-blades, continuous with the ocreae. The latter cylindnc, mostly mem- 
branous, truncate. Racemes spike-like; pedicels articulate below the calyx. 
Calyx more or less colored, white or greenish, glandular-punctate; perianth-seg- 
ments mostly 5. Stamens 4-8, filaments not dilated. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; 



236 POLYGONACEAE 

styles mostly 2, sometimes 3, usually partially united; stigmas capitate. Achenes 
mostly lenticular, sometimes 3-angular, usually black, smooth or granular. 
Endosperm horny; cotyledons accumbent. 

Racemes terminal only and usually solitary; plants aquatic perennials. 
Ocreae without spreading foliaceous tops. 

Plant usually floating, or decumbent and rooting ; leaves of an oblong type, glabrous, 

acute or obtuse. 1. P. coccinea. 

Plant usually diffuse and emersed ; leaves of a lanceolate type, pubescent, acumin- 
ate. 2. .P. Muhlenbergii. 
Ocreae with spreading foliaceous tops; leaf-blades narrowly oblong or lanceolate 
(broader in floating forms) , pubescent. 3. P. Hartwrightii. 
Racemes axillary as well as terminal, numerous; annuals. 
Ocreae without marginal bristles. 

Racemes erect; glands on the branches and inflorescence numerous, stalked. 

4. P. omissa. 
Racemes drooping; glands on the branches and inflorescence sessile. 

Styles united only at the base. 5. P. incarnata. 

Styles united to about the middle. 

Leaves deep green on both sides. 6. P. lapathifolia. 

Leaves pale beneath. 7. P. incana. 

Ocreae bristle-fringed. 

Racemes oblong or cylindric, about 1 cm. thick in fruit; perianth not punctate, 

usually pink to red-purple. 8. P. Persicaria. 

Racemes slender, loosely flowered, about 5 mm. thick in fruit; perianth white 

or pale green, copiously punctate. 

Racemes erect; achenes smooth and shining. 9. P. punctata. 

Racemes nodding at least in fruit; achenes granular and dull. 

10. P. Hydropiper. 

1. P. coccinea (Muhl.) Greene. Perennial, glabrous, or the young shoots 
somewhat pubescent; stem 5-50 dm. long; leaves oblong or elliptic, 3-10 cm. 
long, glossy, obtuse or acute at both ends, or when growing in mud more elongate, 
elliptic-lanceolate and acute; raceme spike-like, 1-3 cm. long; perianth light rose- 
colored; achenes lenticular, black. Polygonum amphibium Hook., notL. Persi- 
caria plattensis, P. subcoriacea, P. psychrophila, P. oregana, and P. laetevirens 
Greene. In water or rarely in mud: Me. N.J. -N.M. Calif. Alaska. 
Plain Mont. Je-Au. 

2. P. Muhlenbergii (Meisn.) Small. Perennial, more or less strigose- 
hispid throughout; stem erect or creeping at the base, 3-8 dm. high, simple; 
leaf-blades broadly lanceolate, 5-20 cm. long, acuminate or acute; racemes spike- 
like, linear or linear-oblong, 310 cm. long; perianth dark rose-colored, rarely 
pink, 4 mm. long; achenes lenticular, black, granular but shining. Polygonum 
Muhlenbergii (Meisn.) S. Wats. P. emersum (Michx.) Britton. Persicaria 
emersa (Michx.) Small. P. propinqua and P. Wardii Greene. In swamps and 
shallow water: Me. Va. N.M. Calif. B."C.;Mex. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

3. P. Hartwrightii (A. Gray) Greene. Perennial, more or less hispid 
throughout; stem ascending or suberect, 3-7 dm. long, or rarely floating in water; 
leaf -blades narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate or oblong, 618 cm. long; 
raceme spike-like, oblong or ovoid, 1-3 cm. long, erect; perianth rose-colored, 
3-4.5 cm. long; achenes lenticular, 2.5 mm. long, black, smooth and shining. 
Polygonum Hartwrightii A. Gray. Persicaria muriculata and P. villosula Greene. 
Wet places and shallow water. Me. Pa. Calif. Wash. Sask. Plain 
Submont. Je-S. 

4. P. omissa Greene. Annual; stem 3-6 dm. high, with copious stipitate 
glands; ocreae short, cup-shaped; leaf-blades 5-10 cm. long, lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, glabrous, punctate; racemes short-oblong or ellipsoid, 1-2 cm. long; 
perianth deep pink, about 4 mm. long; achenes round-ovate, black and shining, 
nearly flat on one side. Polygonum omissum Greene. Wet ground and dried- 
up ponds: Kans. Colo. Plain. Jl-S. 

5. P. incarnata (Ell.) Small. Annual, nearly glabrous throughout; stem 
erect, 6-10 dm. long, more or less thickened at the nodes; leaf -blades lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, 5-20 cm. long, acuminate or acute; racemes linear, 3-8 cm. 
long, drooping; perianth whitish, green, or rose-colored, 2-3 mm. long; achenes 
lenticular, rarely 3-angled, dark brown or black, shining, smooth. Polygonum 
incarnatum Ell. Wet places: Vt. Fla. Calif. Ida. Plain Submont. Jl-O. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 237 

6. P. lapathifolia (L.) S. F. Gray. Annual, glabrous or nearly so; stem 
erect, 3-6 dm. high, thickened at the nodes; leaf -blades broadly or narrowly 
lanceolate, 5-20 cm. long, attenuate, punctate and ciliolate on the margins; 
racemes linear-oblong, 2-8 cm. long, drooping, dense; perianth flesh-colored or 
whitish, 2-2.5 mm. long; achenes lenticular or rarely 3-angled, black or dark 
brown, slightly granular, shining. Polygonum lapathifolium L. Wet places: 
Que. Fla. Calif. B.C.; Mex., W.Ind.; Eurasia. PlainSubmont. Jl-O. 

7. P. incana (Schmidt) S. F. Gray. Annual; stem erect, 1-4 dm. high, 
slightly scurfy; leaf-blades lanceolate or oblong, acute or obtuse; racemes oblong, 
1-3 cm. long, erect or only slightly nodding; peduncles with sessile glands; peri- 
anth 2-2.5 mm. long, greenish or pinkish white; achenes lenticular, dark brown, 
shining. Polygonum incanum Schmidt. Wet places and swamps: Newf. 
N.Y. Colo. B.C.; Eu. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

8. P. Persicaria (L.) Small. Annual, glabrous or puberulent; stem erect, 
2-8 dm. high, usually branched; leaf-blades lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 2-18 
cm. long, acuminate, conspicuously punctate, usually with a lunar or triangular 
spot in the middle; racemes oblong or ovoid, 1-3 cm. long, 0.5-1 cm. thick, 
mostly erect; perianth aboat 2.5 mm. long, pink or purple; achenes lenticular 
or 3-angled, smooth and shining. Polygonum Persicaria L. LADY'S THUMB. 
Waste places and rich soil: Newf. Fla. Calif. B.C.; Mex.; Eu. Plain Sub- 
mont. My-S. 

9. P. punctata (Ell.) Small. Annual or perennial,* mostly glabrous through- 
out; stem erect, or creeping at the base, 3-10 dm. high, more or less branched; 
leaf-blades lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, acuminate, conspicu- 
ously punctate; raceme linear, erect, 1-6 cm. long, somewhat interrupted below; 
perianth greenish, about 2 mm. long, conspicuously glandular-punctate; achenes 
lenticular or 3-angled, black, smooth and shining. Polygonum punctatum Ell. 
P. acre H.B.K., not Lam. SMARTWEED. Swamps and wet places: Me. -Fla. 
Calif. Wash.; Mex., C.Am., W.Ind., and S.Am. Plain. Mr-D. 

10. P. Hydrppiper (L.) Opiz. Annual, glabrous; stem erect or assurgent, 
2-6 dm. high, simple or branched, sometimes reddish; leaf -blades ovate-lance- 
olate or lanceolate, 1.5-9 cm. long, acute, more or less papillose, punctate; 
racemes linear, 2-6 cm. long, interrupted and drooping; perianth greenish, 2.5-3 
mm. long, glandular; achenes lenticular or 3-angled, dark brown, strongly granu- 
lar and dull. Polygonum Hydropiper L. WATER PEPPER. Wet places: Newf. 
Ga. Calif. B.C.; Mex. and C.Am.; nat, from Eu. Plain. Je-S. 

11. BISTORTA (C. Bauhin) Mill. BISTORT. 

Perennials, with thickened horizontal rootstocks and simple stems. Basal 
leaves long-petioled ; stem-leaves short-petioled or sessile, narrow, entire. Ocreae 
cylindric, hyaline, never cilia te, oblique at the summit. Inflorescence a solitary 
spike-like raceme, sometimes bearing bulblets at the base. Pedicels articulate 
at the base of the perianth. Perianth 5-parted, not glandular-punctate. Sta- 
mens 8, exserted. Style^usually 3-parted; achenes triangular or rarely lenticular. 
Endosperm horny; cotyledons accumbent. 

Racemes not viviparous, not bulblet-bearing, oblong, 1-2 cm. thick. 

Perianth 5-6 mm. long; leaf-blades lanceolate, oblong, or oblanceolate. 

1. B. bistortotdes. 

Perianth 3-4 mm. long; basal leaf-blades linear. 2. B. linearifolia. 

Racemes viviparous, bulblet-bearing below, linear, 5-8 mm. thick. 3. B. vimpara.\ 

1. B. bistortoides (Pursh) SmaH. Stem erect, 2-7 dm. high, simple; blades 
of the basal leaves 10-25 cm. long, 0.5-3 cm. broad, acute or obtuse, glabrous on 
both sides or scabrous-puberulent beneath; stem-leaves lanceolate, sessile; 
raceme oblong, 1-6 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. thick, densely flowered; perianth light 
rose-colored to white; achenes light brown, smooth and shining. Polygonum 
bistortoides Pursh. B. calophylla, B. glastifolia, and B. lilacina Greene. Wet 
meadows and swamps: Mont. N.M. Calif. B.C. Alp. Mont. Je-S. 

2. B. linearifolia (S. Wats.) Greene. Stem slender, 1-3 dm. high; basal 
leaf-blades 3-4 cm. long, acute; cauline leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, sessile; 



238 POLYGONACEAE 

raceme ovoid, less than 2 cm. long; perianth mostly white; achenes smooth and 
shining. Polygonum Bistorta linearifolium S. Wats. B. jejuna Greene. Alpine 
swamps: Mont. Colo. Utah Nev. Alp. Mont. Je-Au. 

3. B. vivipara (L.) S. F. Gray. Blades of the basal leaves oblong or lance- 
olate, 2-10 cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. wide; stem-leaves lanceolate to linear; raceme 
narrowly cylindric, 2-10 cm. long, 0.5-1 cm. thick; perianth pale rose-colored 
or white; achenes dark brown, granular and dull. Polygonum viviparum L. 
B. scopulina Greene. Alpine, arctic, and subarctic swamps: Greenl. -N.H. 
N.M. Alaska; Eurasia. Alp. Mont. Je-Au. 

12. FAGOPYRUM (Tourn.) Mill. BUCKWHEAT. 

Caulescent glabrous annuals. Leaves alternate, petioled; blades hastate or 
cordate; ocreae oblique, entire. Flowers perfect, several in corymbiform cymes, 
with slender pedicels subtended by an ocreola. Calyx corolloid ; sepals 5. equal. 
Stamens 8. Styles 3; stigmas capitate. Achenes 3-angled, margined or crested. 
Embryo S-shaped, central. 

1. F. Fagopyrum (L.) Karst. Stem 1-9 dm. high, branched, pubescent at 
the nodes; leaf -blades hastate, 2.5-8 cm. long; ocreae fugacious; perianth whit- 
ish; achenes ovoid, 5 mm. long, with pinnately striate faces, acute-angled. F. 
esculentum Moench. Escaped from cultivation; native of Eurasia. 

13. ACONOGONUM Reichenb. 

Caulescent herbaceous or rarely suffrutescent plants, with horizontal root- 
stocks. Leaves fleshy or thin. Inflorescence of axillary and terminal racemes 
or panicles. Ocreae funnelform, oblique. Pedicels articulate below the peri- 
anth. Perianth 5-parted, not glandular-punctate. Stamens 5-8, included. 
Style 3-parted; achenes 3-angled, smooth. Endosperm horny; cotyledons ac- 
rumbent. 

1. A. phytolaccaefolium (Meisn.) Small. Perennial; stem erect, 1-2 m. 
high, channeled, branched; leaf -blades lanceolate, 5-15 cm. long, 1-4 cm. wide, 
acute or acuminate at both ends, slightly crisped, ciliate on the margins; inflo- 
rescence paniculate, leafy; perianth greenish or whitish, 3 mm. long; segments 
obovate or oblong, rounded; achenes 4 mm. long, broadly ovoid or oval, light 
chestnut-colored, shining. Polygonum polymorphum and P. alpinum Am. auth. 
Subalpine and alpine regions : Alaska Ida. Nev. Calif.; Asia. Submont. Jl-S. 

14. TRACAULON Raf. TEAR-THUMB. 

Annual or rarely perennial, prickly-armed herbs, with weak 4-angled stems. 
Leaves alternate; blades hastate or cordate, membranous, the petioles and 
veins prickly. Ocreae oblique. Flowers in terminal or axillary spikes, or capi- 
tate clusters. Sepals 4 or 5, somewhat colored, neither keeled nor winged. 
Stamens 5-8; filaments not dilated. Ovary 1-celled; styles 2 or 3, partially 
united. Achenes lenticular or 3-angled, smooth and shining. Endosperm 
horny; cotyledons accumbent. 

1. T. sagittatum (L.) Small. Annual; stem slender, decumbent or re- 
clining, 3-15 dm. high, branched, 4-angled, armed on the angles with sharp re- 
curved prickles; leaves lanceolate or oblong, sagittate at the base, 1-12 cm. long, 
0.5-3 cm. broad, the lower petioled, the uppermost sessile; perianth white, green, 
or red, 4 mm. long, 5-parted; achenes 3-angled, black or brownish. Polygonum 
sagittatum L. Wet meadows: Newf. Fla. Tex. Sask. Plain. Jl-S. 

16. BILDERDYKIA Dum. FALSE BUCKWHEAT, BINDWEED. 

Annual or perennial twining herbaceous vines. Leaves alternate, with 
cordate or hastate blades. Ocreae oblique, naked or fringed. Racemes loosely 
flowered, terminal or axillary, often paniculate. Sepals 5, green, white, or yel- 
lowish, the outer two sepals and the intermediate one keeled or winged. Pedi- 
cels slender, reflexed and articulate. Stamens 8; filaments short, converging. 
Ovary 1-celled; styles 3, short or almost wanting; stigmas capitate. Achenes 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 239 

3-angled, dark brown or black. Endosperm horny. Cotyledons accumbent. 
[Tiniaria Reichenb.] 

Outer sepals merely keeled at maturity. 1. B. Convolvulus 

Outer sepals developing conspicuous wings. 2. B. scandens. 

1. B. Convolvulus (L.) Dum. Annual, glabrous but scurfy, pale green; 
stem ascending and twining, 1-12 dm. long; leaf -blades ovate-sagittate or deltoid, 
2-6 cm. long, acuminate at the apex; racemes 1-6 cm. long; perianth green, 3.5-4 
mm. long; segments oblong, obtuse; achenes 3-angled, 3.5 mm. long, black, 
granular. Polygonum Convolvulus L. Tiniaria Convolvulus Webb. & Moq. 
BINDWEED. Among bushes: N.S. Fla. Calif. B.C.; nat. from Eu. Plain 
Mont. My-S. 

2. B. scandens (L.) Greene. Perennial, glabrous, somewhat scurfy; stem 
extensively twining, 5-30 dm. high; leaf -blades ovate-cordate to oblong-cordate, 
1-12 cm. long, short-acuminate, long-petioled ; perianth greenish yellow, 1 cm. 
long; segments ovate, obtuse; achenes 3.5-4.5 mm. long, black, smooth and 
shining. Polygonum scandens L. Tiniaria scandens (L.) Small. FALSE BUCK- 
WHEAT. Thickets: N.S. Fla. La. Colo. Mont. PlainSubmont. Jl-O. 

FAMILY 38. CHENOPODIACEAE. GOOSEFOOT FAMILY. 

More or less fleshy herbs or shrubs, with alternate or opposite leaves, 
without stipules. Flowers usually clustered in spikes, cymes, or panicles, 
usually greenish. Calyx of 2-5 sepals. Corolla wanting. Stamens opposite 
the sepals; anthers introrse. Pistils of 2-5 united carpels; ovary 1-celled; 
styles 2-5. Fruit a 1-seeded utricle. Embryo curved or spiral. 

Embryo annular. 

Stems and branches not jointed; leaves not scale-like. 

Flowers perfect, all with perianth, not inclosed in a pair of bracts. 
Fruit inclosed in the calyx. 

Calyx in fruit not transversely winged. 
Sepals 35; stamens 15. 

Fruiting calyx herbaceous. 1. CHENOPODIUM. 

Fruiting calyx fleshy, red. 2. BLITUM. 

Sepals 1; stamens 1. 3. MONOLEPIS. 

Calyx in fruit transversely winged. 

Flowers paniculate; leaves ample, sinuate, flat. 4. CYCLOLOMA. 
Flowers spicate; leaves linear, terete. 5. KOCHIA. 

Fruit laterally flattened, exserted from the marcescent calyx. 

6. CORIOSPERMUM. 

Flowers monoecious or dioecious; the pistillate inclosed in two accrescent bractlets. 
Pericarp not hairy. 

Bracts compressed; leaves more or less farinose; testa mostly coriaceous. 
Pistillate flowers without perianth. 7. ATRIPLEX. 

Pistillate flowers with 2-3 hyaline sepals shorter than the bracts. 

8. ENDOLEPIS. 
Bracts ob-compressed ; testa membranous. 

Pericarp hastate with crested margins, 2-toothed apex; herbs more or 

less farinaceous, with toothed leaves. 9. SUCKLEYA. 

Pericarp obovate or orbicular, entire; undershrubs with entire leaves. 

10. GRAYIA. 

Pericarp densely hairy, conic; low and tomentose shrubs. 11. EUROTIA. 
Stems and branches fleshy, jointed; leaves scale-like; flowers sunk into the rachis of 

the spike. 

Flower-clusters decussately opposite; branches opposite. 12. SALICORNIA. 

Flowers spirally arranged ; branches alternate. 13. ALLENROLFIA. 

Embryo spirally coiled. 

Shrubs with monoecious bractless flowers; staminate flowers in spikes, without peri- 
anth; pistillate ones solitary, axillary; fruiting calyx transversely winged. 

Herbs with perfect bracteolate flowers. 

Fruiting calyx transversely winged; leaves spiny. 15. SALSOLA. 

Fruiting calyx not winged; leaves fleshy, not spiny. 16. UONDIA. ^ 

1. CHENOPODIUM (Tourn.) L. GOOSEFOOT, PIGWEED, 
LAMB'S QUARTER. 

Annual (all ours) or perennial herbs, usually with mealy-coated or glandular 
foliage. Leaves alternate, with entire, toothed or lobed blades. Flowers per- 



240 CHENOPODIACEAE 

feet or rarely dioecious, in small axillary or terminal spikes or glomerules. Sepals 
persistent, flat or keeled. Stamens 1-5; filaments filiform. Ovary usually 
depressed, 1-celled; styles 2-5; stigmas filiform or subulate. Utricle contain- 
ing one horizontal or vertical seed. Endosperm mealy. 

Leaves more or less mealy or glabrate, never glandular or sweet-scented, sinuately lobed, 

dentate or entire; embryo forming a complete ring. 
Stamens 5 ; calyx not at all fleshy in fruit. 

Leaves entire or sinuately toothed, but not with large, acute (except in C. murale), 

divaricate teeth; seeds 1-1.5 mm. in diameter. 

Calyx-lobes carinate; at least the upper panicles exceeding the leaves. 
Pericarp easily separating from the seeds. 

Leaves linear or oblong, entire or slightly sinuately toothed. 

Whole plant almost perfectly glabrous; glomerules 1^-flowered, 

in very lax spikes; leaves narrowly linear. 1. C. subglabrum. 
Leaves more or less mealy beneath; glomerules several-flowered; 

spikes denser. 
Leaves thin; inflorescence not very dense; spikes somewhat 

interrupted below. 

Lea ves all narrowly linear, 1-nerved, entire. 2. C. leptophyllum. 
Lower leaves at least oblong or lanceolate, 3-nerved and 

often somewhat hastately toothed. 3. C. pratericola. 
Leaves thick; inflorescence dense and crowded; leaves oblong. 
Plant densely mealy, yellowish. 4. C. desiccalum. 

Plant only slightly mealy, dark green. 5. C. aridum. 
Leaves broadly ovate or triangular, more or less hastate at the base. 
Plant densely farinose. 

Plant low and spreading. 6. C. incanum. 

Plant tall and erect. 7. C. albescens. 

Plant sparingly farinose or glabrate, tall. 

Leaves very thin, distinctly hastate; inflorescence lax. 

8. C. Fremontii. 
Leaves thick, only slightly hastate, rounded at the apex. 

9. C. atrovirens. 
Pericarp firmly attached to the seeds. 

Leaves subentire or merely hastately toothed. 

Leaves linear; calyx closed in fruit. 10. C. inamoenus. 

Leaves broader, oblong, lanceolate, ovate or elliptic. 

Calyx open in fruit; plant ill-scented. 11. C. Titans 

Calyx closed in fruit. 

Leaves thick, more or less farinose, none of them cuspidate. 

12. C. Watsoni. 
Leaves thin, glabrate; inflorescence lax. 

Seeds 1 mm. in diameter; upper leaves cuspidate. 

13. C. Berlandieri. 

Seeds about 1.5 mm. in diameter; upper leaves long-acu- 
minate. . 14. C. lanceolatum. 

Leaves more or less sinuately dentate; inflorescence dense. 

Leaves densely mealy. 15. C. album. 

Leaves green or nearly so. 16. C. paganum. 

Calyx-lobes not carinate; panicles mostly axillary, shorter than the leaves. 
Leaves glabrate; seeds horizontal. 17. C. murale. 

Leaves farinose and glaucous beneath; seeds vertical. 18. C. salinum. 
Leaves with large divaricate acute lobes; seeds about 2 mm. in diameter. 

19. C. hybridum. 
Stamens 1-2; calyx reddish and slightly fleshy in fruit. 

Plant usually more than 1 dm. high, erect; leaves usually more or less toothed. 

20. C. rubrum. 
Plant less than 2 dm. high, prostrate; leaves entire or merely hastately toothed. 

21. C. humile. 
Leaves glandular, sweet-scented, pinnately lobed; embryo horseshoe-shaped. 

Lobes of the leaves rounded or broadly oblong, more or less toothed. 22. C. Botrys. 
Lobes of the leaves lanceolate, entire. 23. C. incisum. 

1. C. subglabrum (S. Wats.) A. Nels. Stem 2-4 dm. high, branched, 
striate, obtusely angled; leaves 1-nerved, 2-10 cm. long, 1-3 mm. (rarely 4 mm.) 
wide, entire, light green; seeds black, shining, about 1.5 mm. in diameter. Sandy 
soil: S.D. Neb. Utah Wash. Ore. Plain. Jl-Au. 

2. C. leptophyllum Nutt. Stem 2-5 dm. high, striately angled; leaves 
l- dm. long, 1-6 mm. wide, green above, rather densely mealy beneath; sepals 
strongly carinate, scarcely covering the seed; seeds shining, fully 1 mm. broad. 
Sandy or dry soil: Man. Mo. N.M. Ariz. Ore. B.C.; adv. in the East: Me. 
N.J. SonPlain Submont. Je-S. 

3. C. pratericola Rydb. Stem 3-6 dm. high, striate and angled, nearly 
glabrous; leaves petioled; blades 2-6 cm. long, 4-18 mm. wide; sepals scarious- 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 241 

margined, green on the back, slightly carinate; seeds black, shining, about 1 5 
mm. in diameter. Sandy soil, fields and waste grounds: Neb. Mo N M 
Ariz. Wash.; n Mex. Plain. Jl-S. 

4. C. desiccatum A. Nels. Stem 2-5 dm. high; leaves short-petioled; 
blades obtuse or acutish, 1-4 cm. long, 4-10 mm. wide, thick, mealy on both 
sides; sepals slightly carinate; seeds black, shining, 1.5 mm. broad. C. oblongi- 
folium (S. Wats.) Rydb. C. desiccatum was described from a depauperate form 
Arid ground: N.D. Mo. Tex. Calif. Wash. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

5. C. aridum A. Nels. Stem erect, 3-4 dm. high; leaves moderately thick, 
dark green; blades 1-3 cm. long, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, entire or rarely 
slightly hastately toothed, obtuse; seeds scarcely 1 mm. in diameter, black, 
shining. C. Wolfii Rydb. Arid ground: Colo. Wyo. Submont. Mont. Jl-Au. 

6. C. incanum (S. Wats.) Heller. Stem divaricately branched, 1-3 dm. 
high, mealy, obtusely angled; leaf -blades rhombic or broadly ovate, hastately 
lobed, 3-ribbed, 1-2 cm. long and nearly as broad; flowers in dense clusters; 
sepals very mealy, slightly carinate; seeds black, shining. Dry ground, especially 
in " prairie-dog towns:" Neb. Kans. N.M. Ariz. Utah. Plain Son. 
My-Au. 

7. C. albescens Small. Stem erect, 5-12 dm. high, mealy when young, 
angled; leaf -blades 2-4 cm. long, sharply acute or bristle-tipped, hastately 
lobed or toothed, 3-ribbed; inflorescence rather lax; sepals mealy, barely keeled; 
seed 1-1.5 mm. broad, black, shining. Dry soil: Tex. N.M. Colo. Son. 
Submont. Je-Jl. 

8. C. Fremontii S. Wats. Stem 2-8 dm. high, with slender branches, 
green; leaf -blades broadly triangular or rhombic, sinuate-dentate, 1-5 cm. long 
and nearly as wide, rounded and mucronate at the apex; sepals strongty carinate, 
nearly covering the fruit-; seed black, shining, fully 1 mm. broad. In canons 
and among bushes: Sask. N.M. Ariz. Nev. B.C.; n Mex. Plain Mont. 
Jl-S. 

9. C. atrovirens Rydb. Stem 3-5 dm. high, striate and obtusely angled; 
leaf -blades broadly ovate, the upper mucronate at the apex, 3-ribbed, 1-3 cm. 
long, 5-15 mm. wide; flowers in short dense spikes, sparingly mealy; seeds black, 
shining, 1 mm. broad. Foot-hills: Mont. -Wyo. Nev. Submont. Jl-Au. 

10. C. inamoenus Standl. Stem erect, 1-8 dm. high, much branched; 
petioles very short; leaf -blades 1-3 cm. long, 1-5 mm. wide, obtuse, 1-nerved, 
thick, densely farinose, becoming glabrate above; flowers in large glomerules 
in dense erect paniculate spikes; sepals ovate, slightly carinate; seeds 0.8 mm. 
broad, black, shining. Dry places: Wyo. N.M. -Nev. Ore.; n Mex. Au-S. 

11. C. hians Standl. Stem 4-8 dm. high, copiously mealy; petioles half 
as long as the leaf-blade or shorter; blade 1.2-3 cm. long, rounded and short- 
apiculate at the apex, green above, densely white-mealy beneath; flowers in large 
glomerules in paniculate spikes; sepals rounded-oblong or ovate, obtuse, obtusely 
carinate, mealy; seeds black, 1 mm. broad, shining. Dry hillsides: N.M. 
Wyo. Au. 

12. C. Watsoni A. Nels. Stem stout, 2-6 dm. high; leaf-blades 1-2 cm. 
long, oval, ovate, or oblong, obtuse, dark green and sparingly mealy; inflorescence 
narrow, dense; seed 1.25-1.5 mm. in diameter. C. olidwn S. Wats. Dry places: 
Mont. N.M. Ariz. Son Mont. Au-O. 

13. C. Berlandieri Moq. Stem erect, 3-9 dm. high, much branched; leaf- 
blades lanceolate, oblong, or ovate, sometimes somewhat rhombic, 1.5-4 cm. 
long; inflorescence open, interrupted, lax; sepals barely keeled; seeds black, 
punctate. Dry soil: N.C. Fla. Tex. Colo.; n Mex. Plain Mont. Jl-S. 

14. C. lanceolatum Muhl. Stem 4-12 dm. high, branched, blunt-angled; 
lower leaf-blades ovate or lanceolate, coarsely toothed, those of the inflorescence 
linear-lanceolate, entire; inflorescence open and interrupted; sepals merely 
keeled; seeds black, shining. C. viride Auth., not L. Waste places and fields: 
Mass. Fla. La. Sask.; B.C. Plain. Jl-S. 

12 



242 CHENOPODIACEAE 

15. C. album L. Stem erect, 6-30 dm. high; leaf-blades ovate or lanceolate, 
more or less rhombic, 2-8 cm. long, acute or obtuse, usually hastately lobed; 
inflorescence dense; sepals with light margins, enclosing the fruit; seed black, 
shining. Fields,, waste places, and thickets: Newf. Fla. Calif. B.C. 
Yukon; Eurasia. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

16. C. paganum Reichenb. Stem erect, 0.5-3 m. high; leaf-blades ovate to 
broadly lanceolate, 3-15 cm. long, coarsely sinuate-dentate, acute at the apex, 
thin; inflorescence dense, much-branched; sepals sharply carinate, enclosing the 
fruit; seeds black, rugulose-pitted. Waste places: Mass. Va. -N.M. Colo.; 
adv. from Eu. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

17. C. murale L. Stem erect or decumbent, 1-6 dm. long, widely branching; 
leaf-blades thin, rhombic-ovate, 2-8 cm. long, acute, coarsely sinuate-dentate, 
cuneate or truncate at the base; flower-clusters small, shorter than the leaves; 
sepals oblong, obtuse; seeds firmly adherent to the pericarp, sharp-angled. 
Waste places: Me. Fla. Calif. B.C.; Mex. and W. Ind.; adv. or nat. from 
Eu. Plain Submont. Mr-O. 

18. C. salinum Standl. Stem prostrate, decumbent or ascending, freely 
branched, more or less fleshy; leaf -blades broadly lanceolate to triangular -ovate 
or oblong, acute, 2-3 cm. long, sinuately toothed and somewhat hastate: flowers 
in small axillary spikes shorter than the leaves; sepals obovate, rounded at the 
apex; seeds finely tuberculate. C. glaucum Am. auth., mainly. Alkaline soils: 
Alta. - Neb. Colo. Utah Ore. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

19. C. hybridum L. Stem erect, 6-13 dm. high; leaf-blades rhombic-ovate 
or triangular-ovate, long-acuminate, sharply sinuate-dentate, with 1-4 large 
teeth on each side, or the uppermost entire, 1-2 dm. long; flowers in large open 
panicles; sepals oblong, slightly keeled; seeds firmly attached to the pericarp, 
acute-margined, punctate. Woods, thickets and waste places: Que. Vt. 
N.Y. Ky. N.M. Calif. B.C.; nat. from Eu. Plain Submont. 

20. C. rubrum L. Stem erect, branched, 3-8 dm. high; leaf-blades thick, 
triangular-hastate to lanceolate, 3-10 cm. long, coarsely sinuate-dentate or the 
upper entire, nearly glabrous, dark green; flower-clusters densely spicate on short 
branches; sepals 2-5, obtuse, rather fleshy; seeds easily separating from the peii- 
carp, less than 1 mm. in diameter. C. succosum A. Nels. COAST BLITE. Alka- 
line or saline soil: Newf. N.J. Mo. -N.M. Ariz. B.C.; Eu. Plain Sub- 
mont. Jl-S. 

21. C. humile Hook. Stem decumbent or spreading, divaricately branched; 
leaf-blades obovate, spatulate, or lanceolate, the upper linear, 1-3 cm. long, 
fleshy, glabrous or nearly so; flower-clusters in small axillary spikes; sepals 
oblong, obtuse, somewhat fleshy; seeds less than 1 mm. broad, easily separating 
from the pericarp. ALKALI BLITE. Alkaline meadows: Sask. -Neb. -Colo. 
Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. Je-N. 

22. C. Botrys L. Stem erect, 1-6 dm. high, branched ; leaf -blades 1-5 cm. long, 
oblong or ovate, irregularly pinnatifid; flower-clusters in small, axillary cymes; 
seeds horizontal or vertical, 0.8 mm. broad, adherent to the pericarp. JERUSA- 
LEM OAK. Waste places: N.S. Oa. 'Tex. Calif. B.C.; Mex.; nat. from 
Eu. Plain Mont. Jl-O. 

23. C. incisum Poir. Stem 2-5 dm. high, branched; leaves lanceolate or 
ovate in outline, 2-4 cm. long, sinuate-pinnatifid or sinuate-dentate, with entire 
lobes or teeth; flowers in axillary cymes; sepals acute, carinate; seeds about 0.5 
mm. broad, obtusely margined. C. cornutum (Torr.) B. & H. Dry places: 
Colo. N.M. Ariz.; Mex. Son. -Submont. Je-S. 

2. BLITUM L. STRAWBERRY BLITE, STRAWBERRY PIGWEED. 

Annual fleshy herbs, with light green, glabrous, toothed leaves. Flowers 
small, green or reddish, aggregate in small axillary, head-like clusters, or the 
upper clusters forming an interrupted spike. Calyx 2-5-lobed, becoming fleshy 
and bright red in fruit. Stamens 1-5, mostly 2. Ovary 1-celled; styles 2-5; 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 243 

stigmas slender. Seed vertical, shining, separating from the pericarp. Endo- 
sperm mealy. 

Leaves more or less dentate, truncate or broadly cuneate at the base; inflorescence dense- 

glomerules 5-10 mm. in diameter. 

Inflorescence naked above; seeds with acute margins. 1. B capitatum 

Inflorescence leafy throughout; seeds round-margined. 2 B virgatum 

Leaves entire, except the hastate teeth at the cuneate base; inflorescence slender and 
naked above; glomerules 3-6 mm. in diameter. 3. B. hastatum. 

1. B. capitatum L. Stem simple or branched from the base, 3-6 dm. high; 
leaves broadly triangular to lanceolate, 3-7 cm. long; the uppermost entire, 
rather thick; flowers in rather large clusters in the axils of the upper leaves and 
in a terminal spike; sepals acute or acutish. In rocky soil: N.S. N.J. N.M. 
Calif. Alaska; Eurasia. Submont. -Mont. My-Au. 

2. B. virgatum L. Stem branched throughout, 1.5-8 dm. high; leaf-blades 
triangular to rhombic-oblong, 2-9 cm. long, coarsely laciniate-dentate, the upper 
smaller and sharply hastate; glomerules large, all axillary; sepals rounded. 
Waste places: Ore. Ida. Wash.; Mass. N.Y.; adventive from the Old 
World. 

3. B. hastatum Rydb. Stem slender, 2-4 dm. high; leaves very thin; 
blades 3-7 cm. long, ovate or ovate-lanceolate in outline, the upper ones smaller, 
not hastate: flowers in the upper axils and in a slender interrupted terminal 
spike. Stony ground: W r yo. Colo. Nev. Submont. Mont. Jl-S. 

3. MONOLEPIS Schrad. POVERTY WEED. 

Low branching annuals, with alternate leaves. Flowers small, perfect or 
polygamous, in small axillary clusters, without bracts. Calyx of a single per- 
bistent sepal. Stamen 1. Ovary 1-celled; styles 2; stigmas filiform. Seed 
vertical, flattened. Endosperm copious, mealy/ 

Leaves lanceolate, hastately lobed; flower-clusters several-flowered; pericarp somewhat 
fleshy. 1. M. Nuttalliana. 

I -eaves spatulate to linear-spatulate, entire; pericarp thin. 

Flower-clusters 10-20-flowered; pericarp easily separating from the seed. 

2. M. spathulata. 
Flower-clusters 1 3-flowered; pericarp adherent to the seed. 3. M. pusilla. 

1. M. Nuttalliana (Schultes) Engelm. Annual; stem decumbent or ascend- 
ing, divaricately branched, 1-3 dm. high; leaves short-petioled or subsessile; 
blades thick, 2-7 cm. long, acute at both -ends, sparingly sinuate-dentate or entire; 
sepal fleshy and foliaceous, oblanceolate or spatulate; pericarp adherent to the 
seed. M. chenopodioides Moq. Saline soils: Man. Minn. Tex. N.M. 
Calif. Wash.; Sonora; Siberia. Plain Mont. Mr-S. 

2. M. spathulata A. Gray. Stem decumbent or ascending, branched at 
the base, 7-15 cm. long; leaves short-petioled, 1-2 cm. long; blades spatulate, 
thick, acute, entire; sepal spatulate, obtuse; seed 0.5 mm. broad. Saline soil: 
Calif. Ida. Ore. Son. 

3. M. pusilla Torr. Stem erect, dichotomously branched, 5-15 cm. high, 
somewhat mealy, glabrate; leaves subsessile, oblong-spatulate, obtuse, 5-15 
mm. long, entire; seeds less than 0.5 mm. broad. Alkaline valleys and sandy 
plains: Wyo. Colo. Calif. Wash. Son. Submont. My-Jl. 

4. CYCLOLOMA Moq. WINGED PIGWEED, TUMBLEWEED. 

Diffusely branched coarse annuals, with alternate toothed leaves. Flowers 
polygamous, i. e., perfect and pistillate, in paniculate spikes, without bracts. 
Sepals 5, keeled, each at maturity with a horizontal wing. Stamens 5. Ovary 
1-celled, hairy; styles 2 or 3, partially united. Utricle depressed, enclosed in 
the calyx. Seed flat, horizontal. Endosperm mealy. 

1. C. atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult. Stem erect, divaricately branched, 
3-6 dm. high; leaves short-petioled or sessile; blades lanceolate or ovate, coarsely 
sinuately dentate, acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, 2-7 cm. long; wing ot 
the calyx irregularly lobed and toothed, 4-5 mm. in diameter, covering the 



244 CHENOPODIACEAE 

utricle. C. platyphyllum (Michx.) Moq. Sandy soil: Ont. Ark. Tex. N.M. 
Ariz. Mont. L. Son. Plain -Submont. Je-S. 

6. KOCHIA Roth. 

Perennial or annual herbs, or undershrubs, wi!h alternate narrow leaves. 
Flowers solitary or few together in the upper axils, perfect or pistillate, some- 
times bracteolate. Calyx herbaceous, 5-cleft, persistent, at length developing 
a horizontal wing. Stamens 3-5, usually exserted; filaments linear. Ovary 
ovoid, narrowed upwards; stigmas 2. Pericarp not adherent to the inverted 
seed. Endosperm scanty. 

Perennial undershrubs; leaves linear-filiform, fleshy. 

Branches tomentulose, soon glabrate; leaves somewhat hairy when young; fruit 
nearly glabrous. 1. K. americana. 

Branches and leaves densely and permanently hairy; fruit very pubescent. 

2. K. vestita. 
Annual; leaves lanceolate, not fleshy. 3. K. scoparia. 

1. K. americana S. Wats. Low undershrub; stems 1-4 dm. high; leaves 
6-25 mm. long, acute, ascending, puberulent or glabrate; ovary ovate, tomentose 
at the apex, shorter than the calyx and styles. Foot-hills and alkaline flats: 
Wyo. Colo. N.M. Calif. PlainSubmont. Je-S. 

2. K. vestita S. Wats. Low undershrub; stems 1-4 dm. high; leaves 6-20 
mm. long, villous, nearly erect, acute; ovary oblong, nearly equalling the calyx. 
Foot-hills and alkaline flats : Wyo. Colo. Calif. Ore. Plain Submont. My- 
Jl. 

3. K. scoparia (L.) Schrad. Branches annual; stems sparingly pubescent 
or glabrous, 3-10 dm. high; branches strongly ascending; leaves lanceolate, or 
the upper linear, the lower 3-nerved, entire; flowering branches and calyces vil- 
lous. Waste places and fields: Vt. Pa. Colo.; adv. from the Old W'orld. 
Plain. Jl-S. 

6. CORISPERMUM (A. Juss.) L. BUG-SEED. 

Caulescent annuals, with narrow sessile leaves and diffusely branched stems. 
Flowers solitary, in the axils of more or less leaf-like bracts. Sepals 1-3, unequal, 
scarious. Stamens 1-3, rarely 5, hypogynous, one longer than the rest; filaments 
dilated. Ovary 1 -celled; styles 2. Utricle more or less flattened, in ours acutely 
margined or winged. Pericarp adherent .to the vertical seed. Endosperm fleshy. 

Fruit with a distinct wing, about 0.5 mm. wide. 

Spike lax ; lower bracts much narrower than the fruit. 1 . C. nitidum. 

Spikes dense; lower bracts usually overtopping, and rarely narrower than the fruit. 

2. C. marginale. 
Fruit merely acute-margined, scarcely at all winged. 

Plant glabrous. 3. C. emarginatum. 

Plant more or less villous. 4. C. villosum. 

1. C. nitidum Kit. Stem branched, 3-6 dm. high, glabrous; leaves linear- 
filiform, 2-5 cm. long, 1 mm. wide or less; lower bracts subulate, about 1 cm. 
long, 1-1.5 mm. broad at the base; the upper lanceolate, shorter; fruit about 
2 mm. broad and 3 mm. long. C. hyssopifolium microcarpum S. Wats. On 
sand-hills and in canons: 111. Tex. N.M. N.D.; Eurasia. Son. -Plain 
Submont. Jl-S. 

2. C. marginale Rydb. Stem glabrous, much branched, 2-5 dm. high; 
leaves narrowly linear, 2-5 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide; lower bracts lanceolate, 
about 1 cm. long, the upper ovate, 5 mm. long, all with conspicuous scarious 
margins; fruit about 4 mm. long and 2.5 mm. wide. C. imbricatum A. Nels. 
Sandy soil: Wyo. -N.M. Plain Submont. Au-O. 

3. C. emarginatum Rydb. Stem branched near the base, 3-4 dm. high; 
leaves narrowly linear, 2-4 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, cuspidate-pointed; bracts 
except the lowest ovate, 5-7 mm. long, acuminate, scarious-margined ; fruit 
2.5-3 mm. long and about 2 mm. wide. Sandy valleys: Alta. Colo. Nev. 
Submont. 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 245 

4. C. villosum Rydb. Stem 2-4 dm. high, diffusely branched from near 
the base; leaves linear, 2-4 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide, cuspidate-mucronate; 
spikes rather dense; bracts more or less imbricate, the lower linear-lanceolate, 
5-10 mm. long, the upper ovate, acuminate, 4-5 mm. long, with broad scarious 
margins; fruit 2.5-3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide. Sandy valleys and fields: Sask 
N.M. Ariz. Ore. Wash. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

7. ATRIPLEX (Tourn.) L. ORACHE, SALT-BUSH, SHAD-SCALES. 
Annual or perennial herbs or low shrubs, with scaly or scurfy, often silvery 
pubescence. Leaves alternate or some opposite. Flowers monoecious or di- 
oecious, in axillary or terminal panicles, or congested axillary spikes. Staminate 
flowers without bracts; sepals 3-5; stamens 3-5; filaments distinct or united; 
anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise. Pistillate flowers subtended by 2, more 
or less united bracts, which are entire or toothed, often crested, tuberculate, or 
winged on the back. Calyx wanting. Ovary 1-celled; stigmas 2, subulate or 
filiform. Utricle wholly or partly enclosed in the accrescent bracts. Seeds 
erect or nearly horizontal. Endosperm mealy. 

Annuals. 

Bracts united only at the base; radicle inferior. 

Bracts thin, rounded-ovate, mucronate. 1. A. hortensis. 

Bracts thick, deltoid or lanceolate, acute. 

Leaves not hastate. 2. A. lapathifolia. 

Leaves more or less hastate. 3. A. hastata. 

Bracts united to about the middle; radicle superior. 

Bracts lanceolate or lance-oblong, not tubercled on the back; often laciniate 

below. 4. A. phyllostegia. 

Bracts broader; if narrow, broadest above the middle. 

Bracts broadly cuneate, truncate at the apex, seldom with tubercles. 
Leaves triangular or cordate-ovate. 

Plant low, decumbent, 1 dm. high or less; leaves less than 2 cm. long. 

5. A. subdecumbens. 
Plant larger, 3-10 dm. high; leaves 1.5-2.5 cm. long. 

Bracts subentire, corky at the apex; fruit short-peduncled ; leaves 

cordate-ovate. 6. A. saccaria. 

Bracts bluntly 3-toothed at the herbaceous apex; fruit subsessile; 

leaves more triangular-ovate. 7. A. truncata. 

Leaves linear. 8. A. Wolfii. 

Bracts rhombic-orbicular to triangular, conspicuously toothed on the margins 

and usually appendaged or tubercled on the back. 
Bracts with linear, subulate, or oblong appendages on the back. 
Staminate flowers few, mixed with the pistillate ones. 

9. A. Caput-Medusae. 

Staminate flowers in terminal clusters. 6. A. saccaria. 

Bracts with triangular lobes and appendages. 
Leaves thin, more or less toothed or hastate. 

Bracts ovate, acute, longer than broad; branches terete or nearly so. 

10. A. rosea. 

Bracts suborbicular, as broad as long; branches distinctly round- 
angled. 

Leaves subsessile, only the lowest with short-winged petioles, 
very thin, usually cuspidate-acuminate; Staminate spikes, 
if present, elongated. 11. A. expansa. 

Leaves petioled, firmer, acute; Staminate spikes, if present, very 

short. 12. A. argentea. 

Leaves ovate or oblong, entire, usually less than 2 cm. long. 
Leaves more or less 3-ribbed ; branches ascending. 

Leaves strongly ribbed; faces of the bracts with short thick ap- 
pendages. 13. A. Powellii. 
Leaves obscurely ribbed ; bracts without dorsal appendages. 

14. A.Rydbergii. 
Leaves 1-ribbed; branches spreading, slender. 

Leaves ovate or oblong, 27 mm. long; bracts ovate, tubercled 

below the middle. 15. A. tenuissima 

Leaves linear, 7-17 mm. long; bracts ovate-oblong, tubercled 

at or above the middle. 16. A. Greenei. 

Perennials. 

Bracts not winged on the back. 

Plant monoecious; lateral wings decurrent on the pedicels. 17. A. gracilliflora. 
Plant dioecious; lateral wings not decurrent. 

Bracts with entire or merely wavy (rarely slightly denticulate) margins, with- 
out appendages on the back. 
Bracts small, 3-4 mm. long, longitudinally veined. 

Bracts united to above the middle; shrub not spinescent. 

18. A. lentiforrms. 



246 CHENOPODIACEAE 

Bracts nearly free; shrub spinescent. 19. A. Torreyi. 

Bracts larger, 510 mm. long, not veined. 

Leaves reniform, coarsely sinuately dentate; free portion of the bracts 

reniform. 20. A. hymenolytra. 

Leaves entire; bracts not reniform. 

Leaves broadly oval or obovate; bracts obovate or suborbicular. 
Bracts entire. 21. A. conferti folia. 

Bracts dentate or denticulate, at least near the base. 

22. A. collina. 

Leaves oblanceolate ; bracts lance-oblong. 23. A. subconferta. 
Bracts with a distinctly toothed margin or appendaged on the back. 
Bracts broadest above the middle. 

Bracts more or less toothed on the margin, only rarely tuberculate on 

the back. 

Bracts 3-toothed at the apex, the middle tooth the longest. 
Bracts oblong-cuneate ; leaves oblanceolate-cuneate. 

24. A. Gardneri. 
Bracts broadly obovate-cuneate ; leaves linear. 

25. A. tridentata. 
Bracts several-toothed at the apex. 26. A. pabularis. 

Bracts entire, spongy, strongly tuberculed or appendaged on the back. 

27. A. corrugata. 

Bracts broadest below the middle, strongly tuberculate or appendaged. 
Leaves oblanceolate to spatulate. 

Leaves oblanceolate, oblong, or narrowly spatulate, subsessile, or 

short-petioled. 

Plant low; staminate flowers brown, in panicles; leaves short- 
petioled. 28. A. oblanceolata. 
Plant usually tall; staminate flowers yellow, in interrupted 

spikes; leaves sessile. 
Bracts ovate, sessile or nearly so ; leaf -blades oblanceolate to 

oblong. 29. A. Nuttallii. 

Bracts fusiform, stalked; leaf-blades oblong-linear to linear. 

30. A. falcata. 
Leaves broadly spatulate, conspicuously petioled; staminate flowers 

brown, in interrupted spikes. 31. A. cuneata. 

Leaves oval, sessile. 32. A. buxifolia. 

Bracts broadly 4- winged. 

Leaves oval, abruptly acuminate. 33. A. Garrettii. 

Leaves from oblong or spatulate to linear, not acuminate. 

Wings thick, laciniate-toothed. 34. A. aptera. 

Wings thin, sinuately dentate or subentire. 

Wings when fully developed 4-6 mm. wide, distinctly dentate. 

Leaves comparatively broad, linear-oblong to spatulate, 4-10 mm. 
wide; sinus at the apex of the fruit narrow; free portion of the bract 
one-half to three-fourths as long as the width of the wing. 

35. A. canescens. 

Leaves very narrow, linear, 2-5 mm. wide; sinus of the strongly reticu- 
late bract broad; free portion of the bract less than half as long as 
the width of the wing. 36. A. tetraptera. 

Wing very broad and thin, fully 8 mm. wide, merely sinuate; leaves linear. 

37. A. occidentalis. 

1. A. hortensis L. Stem 1-1.5 m. high; leaves petioled; lower leaf -blades 
from cordate or hastate to ovate, sinuately toothed, 1-2 dm. long, the upper 
lanceolate and entire; bracts rounded-ovate, about 1 cm. in diameter, thin, 
reticulate. Waste places: N.Y. Colo. Utah Mont.; escaped from cultiva- 
tion; native of Eu. Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

2. A. lapathifolia Rydb. Stem strict, 4-6 dm. high; leaves petioled; blades 
somewhat fleshy, dark green, lanceolate, 3-6 cm. long, entire; bracts in fruit 
about 4 mm. long and 5 mm. wide, often slightly hastate, sometimes with 1 or 
2 tubercles on the back, thin, veiny, acute. Alkaline flats: Mont. Wyo. 
Neb. Plain. Au-S. 

3. A. hastata L. Stem branched, 5-10 dm. high, subglabrous; leaf -blades 
fleshy, rarely sinuately-toothed, 3-7 cm. long; flowers numerous, in large fleshy 
clusters forming interrupted spikes; fruiting bracts triangular-ovate, about 5 mm. 
long and broad, usually with 1 or 2 small teeth on each margin, and sometimes 
with 1 or 2 fleshy tubercles on the back. A. carnosa A. Nels. A. subspicata 
Rydb., a low spreading form. Alkaline meadows or flats: Alta. Kans. N.M. 
Nev. Ida. Plain Son. Au-S. 

4. A. phyllostegia (Torr.) S. Wats. Stem stout, 2-6 dm. high, simple or 
branched; leaves thin, rhombic-triangular, hastate, or ovate, 2-5 cm. long, 
entire; flower-clusters axillary and in short naked spikes at the ends; bracts 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 247 

nearly free, linear-lanceolate, becoming 8-12 mm. long, strongly 3-nerved some- 
what hastately lobed. Obione phyllosteqia Torr. Endolepis phyllostegia Rydb in 
part. A. Draconis M. E. Jones. Valleys and foot-hills: Utah Nev. Son. 
Submont. My-Jl. 

6. A. subdecumbens M. E. Jones. Stem 5-20 cm. long, much branched 
at the base, mealy throughout; leaves barely petioled; blades ovate to lanceo- 
late, 12-18 mm. long, entire, thin; flower-clusters small, axillary; fruiting bracts 
about 2 mm. long, obscurely dentate on the margin. Gravelly meadows: Utah. 
Mont. Au. 

6. A. saccaria S. Wats. Stem ascending, 1-1.5 dm. high, diffusely branched, 
densely scurfy; leaves short-petioled or sessile; blades 1-2 cm. long; flower- 
clusters axillary; fruiting bracts about 3 mm. long, cuneate, reticulate on the 
sides. A. cornuta M. E. Jones. Arid regions: Nev. Wyo. N.M. Ariz. 
Son. 

7. A. truncata (Torr.) A. Gray. Stem stout, 3-10 dm. high, sparingly 
branched; leaves sessile or the lower short-petioled; blades broadly triangular- 
ovate, 2-4 cm. long, truncate or subcordate at the base; inflorescence leafy; 
bracts 3 mm. long; faces not reticulate and rarely tubercled. A. Nelsonii M. E. 
Jones. Alkaline flats: Mont. N.M. Calif. B.C. Plain Submont. . Jl-S. ' 

8. A. Wolfii S. Wats. Stem 1-2 dm. high, slender, branching from the base, 
scurfy; leaves sessile, linear, 1-1.5 cm. long, acute, scurfy; flowers in small axil- 
lary clusters (monoecious); fruiting bracts 1-1.5 mm. long, cuneate-obovate; 
summit foliaceous, 3-toothed. Alkaline flats: Wyo. Colo. Utah. Plain 
Submont. Je-S. 

9. A. Caput-Medusae Eastw. Stem with several, erect branches from the 
base, 4-5 dm. high, much branched; leaves petioled; blades vertical, thin, del- 
toid or hastate; fruiting bracts orbicular, becoming hard, 4-5 mm. long, thickly 
beset with flat horny acuminate processes. River banks: se Utah sw Colo. 
N.M. Son. 

10. A. rosea L. Stem erect, freely branching, often 1 m. high; leaf-blades 
ovate, 2-5 cm. long, coarsely and irregularly toothed; flowers in axillary clusters, 
staminate and pistillate mixed; fruiting bracts about 5 mm. long, hastately 
toothed near the base, the faces with slender green appendages. A. spatiosa 
A. Nels. Alkaline flats and railroad embankments: Wyo. Kans. Chihuahua 
Calif .Wash. ; N. Y. Fla. ; adv. from the Old World. PlainSon. Au-S. 

11. A. expansa S. Wats. Stem divaricately branched, 3-18 dm. high; leaves 
thin, triangular-hastate; pistillate flowers in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts 
coarsely toothed on the margins and somewhat tuberculate on the faces. Alka- 
line soil: Tex. (? Colo.) Calif.; n Mex. Son. Jl-O. 

12. A. argentea Nutt. Stem divaricately branched, angled, 2-10 dm. high; 
leaf -blades ovate, triangular-ovate, or subrhombic, 2-5 cm. long; pistillate 
flowers in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts suborbicular, usually deeply toothed 
and with projections on the faces. A. rolutans A. Nels. SALT-BUSH. Alkaline 
flats: Sask.N.D. Colo. B.C. Plain Son. Jl-S. 

13. A. Powellii S. Wats. Stems 2-5 dm. high, freely branched; leaves 
silvery white, petioled; leaf -blades 0.8-2 cm. long; flowers in small clusters in 
the axils, the staminate and pistillate usually mixed or the staminate ones above; 
fruiting bracts suborbicular, about 5 mm. broad, irregularly toothed; the faces 
with short thick appendages. A. philonitra A. Nels. Alkaline flats and dry 
lakes: Alta. S.D. N.M. Ariz. Mont. Son. Submont. Jl-S. 

14. A. Rydbergii Standl. Stem erect, branched, 2-4 dm. high, subterete; 
leaves petioled or the upper subsessile; blades ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic, 
1.5-3.5 cm. long, obtuse or acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, entire, gray- 
ish; pistillate flowers solitary or in small clusters in the axils, sometimes mixed 
with staminate ones, the staminate ones mostly in interrupted terminal spikes; 
fruiting bracts flabelliform, deeply and coarsely dentate on the margins. Dry 
roadsides and hills: se Utah. Son. Jl. 



248 CHENOPODIACEAE 

15. A. tenuissima A. Nels. Stem branched from the base, 2-3 dm. high; 
branches slender, decumbent; flower-clusters small, axillary; fruiting bracts very 
small, less than 2 mm. long, triangular-ovate, with thick appendages on the faces. 
Arid ground: Utah. Submont. S. 

16. A. Greenei A. Nels. Stem 1.5-4 dm. high, much branched; branches 
strongly ascending, finely furfuraceous; flowers in small axillary clusters; fruit- 
ing bracts ovate-oblong or oblong, 2 mm. long, minutely tuberculate, 3-nerved. 
Arid ground: Wyo. Submont. 

17. A. gracilliflora M. E. Jones. Annual (?) or perennial; stem diffusely 
branched, 3-6 dm. long, round, sparingly mealy; leaves petioled; blades cordate- 
ovate, 1-2 cm. long, entire, fleshy; pistillate flowers in small axillary clusters, 
the staminate ones in terminal panicles; fruiting bracts orbicular, entire, about 1 
cm. broad. Alkaline soil: Utah. Son. Jl. 

18. A. lentiformis (Torr.) S. Wats. Shrubby perennial; stems diffusely 
branched, 6-35 dm. high; leaves short-petioled ; blades ovate or oblong-rhombic, 
1-3.5 cm. long, entire, cuneate at the base; flowers paniculate; fruiting bracts 
orbicular, obscurely crenate, 4-5 mm. broad. Alkaline flats: Ariz. s Utah 
Calif.; n Mex. L. Son. S-F. 

19. A. Torreyi S. Wats. Shrubby perennial; stem diffusely branched, 6-15 
dm. high; leaves short-petioled; blades ovate or oblong- triangular, often sub- 
hastate, 1-3 cm. long, bluish gray; flowers densely paniculate; fruiting bracts 
orbicular or reniform, obscurely denticulate, 3-4 mm. broad. Desert valleys: 
Nev. s Utah Ariz. Calif. L. Son. Jl-S. 

20. A. hymenolytra (Torr.) S. Wats. Shrubby perennial; stem 6-10 
dm. high; leaves petioled; blades 2-3 cm. long; flowers usually in small panicles, 
but also in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts reniform, entire, about 1 cm. broad. 
Alkaline plains: N.M. Utah Calif. Son. D-Ap. 

21. A. confertifolia (Torr.) S. Wats. Shrubby dioecious perennial; stem 
3-15 dm. high; branches terete, spinescent; leaf -blades ovate or obovate to or- 
bicular, 0.5-2 cm. long, short-petioled; flowers in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts 
broadly ovate or suborbicular, about 1 cm. broad. SHAD-SCALES. Alkaline 
valleys and bluffs: N.D. N.M. Calif. Ore. Son. Plain Submont. My- 
Au. 

22. A. collina Woot. & Standl. Shrubby dioecious perennial; stem 2-3 dm- 
high, much branched; branches spinose; leaf -blades oval-oblong to obovate> 
1-2.5 cm. long; flower in axillary clusters, forming densely leafy spikes; fruiting 
bracts ovate-orbicular, 5-8 mm. long, acute or acutish. Dry hillsides: Colo. 
N.M. Ariz. Utah. Son. 

23. A. subconferta Rydb. A low dioecious shrub, with ascending, rather 
slender, spinescent branches; leaf -blades oblanceolate, acutish or obtuse, 1-2 
cm. long, short-petioled, entire; flowers in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts lance- 
oblong, usually acute, 5-8 mm. long, entire. Dry bench-lands: Ida. Submont. Jl. 

24. A. Gardner! (Moq.) Standl. Suffruticose perennial; stems decumbent 
at the base, 2-4 dm. high; leaves sessile or nearly so; blades 3-6 mm. wide, 1.5-3 
cm. long; flowers in axillary capitate clusters or the staminate more paniculate 
above; fruiting bracts 5-6 mm. long; faces smooth and reticulate; staminate 
flowers brown. A. Gordoni Hook. A. fruticulosa and A. eremicola Osterh. 
Alkaline flats or dry lake beds : Wyo. -Colo. Plain. My-Jl. 

25. A. tridentata O. Kuntze. Suffruticose dioecious perennial; stem with 
erect branches, 3-8 dm. high; leaves sessile, linear, 3-6 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, 
entire; flowers in axillary clusters. Saline soil: Utah Wyo. Colo. Son. 

26. A. pabularis A. Nels. Suffruticose perennial; stem with erect branches* 
2-5 dm. high; leaves sessile or nearly so; blades oblong to almost linear, 1-5 cm- 
long; flowers in leafy panicles; fruiting bracts cuneate-obovate, usually 5-toothed 
at the apex; faces smooth. Alkaline flats: Wyo. Jl-S. 

27. A. corrugata S. Wats. Suffruticose perennial; stem much branched, 
2-3 dm. high; leaf-blades linear-oblanceolate to oblong, entire, 6-18 mm. long; 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 249 

pistillate flowers in axillary clusters, the staminate ones in short crowded ter- 
minal spikes; fruiting bracts about 4 mm. long. Alkaline valleys: Colo. Son. 
My-Au. 

28. A. pblanceolata Rydb. Suffruticose perennial, with decumbent base 
and ascending branches, about 2 dm. high; leaves 2-3 cm. long, obtuse or acutish; 
pistillate flowers in small axillary clusters; fruiting bracts ovate in outline, 
slightly dentate, tubercled or irregularly crested on the back. Alkaline or 
clayey flats: Mont. 'Colo. Plain. Jl-Au. 

29. A. Nuttallii S. Wats. Suffruticose or shrubby perennial; stems 3-6 
dm. high, branching near the base; leaves 2-5 cm. long; pistillate flowers in 
axillary clusters; fruiting bracts ovate or orbicular, 3-^4 mm. long, irregularly 
toothed, muricate or tooth-crested on the faces. Plains, bad-lands, and arid 
valleys: Sask. -Neb. Colo. -Nev. Ida. Plain Submont. Je-S. 

30. A. falcata (M. E. Jones) Standl. Suffruticose perennial; stem 2-5 
dm. high, with ascending branches; leaves 1.5-5 cm. long, 2-7 mm. wide; flower- 
clusters both axillary and in terminal spikes; fruiting bracts 5-8 mm. long, entire- 
margined or sparsely dentate at the apex, united to near the tip, often muricate 
or tuberculate below. A. Nuttallii falcata and A. Nuttallii anomala M. E. Jones. 
Plains and hillsides: Wash. Ida. Utah -Nev. Son. 

31. A. cuneata A. Nels. Suffruticose perennial; stem branched near the 
base, decumbent; leaves numerous, petioled; leaf-blades 1-3 cm. long; pistillate 
flowers in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts ovate or suborbicular, irregularly 
toothed and with thick flattened processes on the faces. Arid plains: sw Colo. 
Utah N.M. Ariz. Submont. Je-Jl. 

32. A. bufxifolia Rydb. Suffruticose perennial; stem branched near the 
base, with simple branches, 3-4 dm. high; leaves thick, 1-2 cm. long; pistillate 
flowers in axillary clusters; fruiting bracts ovate, acute, 4-5 mm. long, toothed 
on the margins and with thick, often flattened processes on the faces. Dry 
plains: Wyo. Submont. Au. 

33. A. Garrettii Rydb. A low shrub, with straw-colored branches; leaves 
short-petioled, oval, grayish on both sides; flowers in axillary and terminal clus- 
ters; bracts 8 mm. long and as broad, 4-winged, coarsely toothed, sometimes 
with processes on the back; free portion 1-2 mm. long. Hills: se Utah. Son. 
Jl. 

34. A. aptera A. Nels. A shrubby perennial; stems with shining, white, 
more or less flaky bark, 1-4 dm. high; leaves narrowly oblanceolate to oblong, 
acute or obtuse, 2-4 cm. long, entire; pistillate flowers axillary: fruiting bracts 
3-4 mm. broad, reticulate and ribbed. A. odon loptera Rydb. Saline flats: Alta. 
Colo. Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

35. A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt. Shrubby perennial; leaves 2-5 cm. long; 
pistillate flowers axillary, short-pedicelled, the staminate clusters in subterminal 
spikes; fruiting bracts "orbicular in outline, when fully developed 12-15 mm. 
broad. Dry mesas and alkaline valleys: S.D.Kans.N.M. Calif .-Ore. 
Plain Submont. Je-Au. 

36. A. tetraptera (Benth.) Rydb. Shrubby perennial; stem 6-10 dm. high, 
white, branched; leaves 2-4 cm. long; pistillate flowers axillary, the staminate 
clusters forming subterminal spikes; fruiting bracts about 1 cm. broad, strongly 
reticulate. Desert regions: s Utah Ariz. s Calif. Nev. L. Son. Ap-Jl. 

37. A. occidentalis (Torr.) D. Dietr. Shrubby perennial; stem 5-20 dm. 
high, divaricately branched and somewhat spinose; leaves 2-4 cm. long, 2-5 mm. 
wide, linear or oblanceolate, obtuse or even retuse; pistillate flowers axillary, 
the staminate clusters forming terminal panicles; fruiting bracts 16-18 mm. 
broad. Arid plains: Tex. Colo. Utah Ariz.; n Mex. Son. My-Jl. 

8. ENDOLEPIS Torr. 

Monoecious or dioecious annual herbs. Staminate flowers ebracteate in 
glomerate terminal spikes; calyx gamosepalous, urceolate, 5-lobed, each lobe 



250 CHENOPODIACEAE 

with a gibbosity at its base. Stamens 5; filaments subulate. Pistillate flowers 
solitary or clustered in the axils of the leaves, 2-bracted; bracts ovate, membran- 
ous, united, forming a sack enclosing the flower, or nearly free. Calyx of 2-3 
distinct sepals. Utricle ovate, compressed. Radicle superior. 

Leaves thin, lanceolate, 1-nerved. 1. E. Suckleyi. 

Leaves thick, ovate, or ovate-lanceolate; the lower 3-nerved. . E. dioica. 

1. E. Suckleyi Torr. Low annual; stem erect, with ascending branches, 
1-3 dm. high, almost glabrous; leaves sessile, 2-3 cm. long, entire; staminate 
clusters both axillary and forming short terminal spikes; fruiting bracts ovate, 
2 mm. long, membranous, pubescent. Atriplex Endolepis S. Wats. A. Suck- 
leyana Rydb. Plains: Sask. Mont. S.D. Plain. Jl. 

2. E. dioica (Nutt.) Standl. Low annual, usually less than 1 dm. high, 
rarely 2-3 dm.; stem branched; leaves usually less than 1 cm. long; staminate 
flowers in small clusters in the axils of the upper leaves or at the end of the 
branches. Kochia dioica Nutt. E. ovata Rydb. Plains: Mont. Wyo. Plain. 
Je-S. 

9. SUCKLEYA A. Gray. 

Monoecious fleshy annuals. Flowers axillary, the staminate above. Calyx 
3-4-parted to the base. Stamens 3 or 4, distinct; anther 2-celled. Fruiting 
bracts subhastate, obcompressed, herbaceously cristate on the margins, 2-cleft 
at the apex. Radicle superior. 

1. S. Suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb. Prostrate or ascending annual; stem 
diffusely branched, 1-4 dm. long, sparingly scurfy; leaves petioled; blades 
orbicular to rhombic-ovate, 1-3 cm. broad, acutely sinuate-dentate; fruiting 
bracts 5-6 mm. long, ovate-rhombic and subhastate, with crenate ridges. Obione 
Suckleyana Torr. Suckleya petiolaris A. Gray. Along streams: Mont. Colo. 
Plain Submont. Jl-Au. 

10. GRAYIA H. & A. HOP SAGE. 

Subspinescent or unarmed undershrubs or shrubs, with alternate leaves, dioe- 
cious or monoecious. Flowers small, in axillary clusters and terminal spikes. 
Staminate flowers bractless; calyx 4-parted; stamens 4 or 5; filaments short, 
subulate. Bracts of the pistillate flowers obcompressed, membranous, united 
into a sack with a narrow opening at the apex; calyx none. Ovary 1-celled; 
styles 2. Seeds vertical; embryo annular; radicle inferior. [Eremosemium 
Greene.] 

Plant spiny; leaves 1-3 cm. long, spatulate; bracts 8-12 mm. wide. 1. G. spinosa. 

Plant not spiny; leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, linear-oblanceolate ; bracts 4-6 mm. wide. 

2. G. Brandegei. 

1. G. spinosa (Hook.) Moq. Erect diffusely branched shrub, 3-10 dm. 
high; leaf -blades fleshy, glabrous or at first somewhat mealy, 1-3 cm. long, 
obtuse or acute; fruiting bracts smooth, emarginate, white or pink. G. polyga- 
loides H. & A. Alkaline plains or hills: Mont. Wyo. Utah Calif. Wash. 
Son. Submont. Ap-Je. 

2. G. Brandegei A. Gray. Unarmed shrub, with erect branches, 3-5 dm. 
high; leaves sessile or short-petioled, 4-6 mm. wide, scurfy; fruiting bracts 
scarcely emarginate, scurfy. Arid hills, among rocks : w Colo. seUtah. Son. Jl. 

11. EUROTIA Adans. WHITE SAGE, WINTER SAGE, WINTER FAT. 

Low pubescent undershrubs, with alternate, entire leaves, either polygamo- 
monoecious or dioecious. Flowers in small axillary clusters. Staminate flowers 
bractless; calyx 4-parted; stamens 4; filaments slender. Pistillate flowers 
bibracteate; bracts sessile, somewhat obcompressed, united to the apex, not 
winged, 2-horned, densely long-hairy on the sides. Ovary hairy, oblong-ovate, 
membranous; stigmas 2, elongate. Seeds vertical, obovate; radicle inferior. 

Branches erect, not spinescent; monoecious or some plants only pistillate; pubescence 
of mixed stellate and simple hairs. 1. E. lanata. 

Branches ascending or spreading, becoming more or less spinescent ; dioecious ; pubescence 
of stellate hairs only. 2. E. subspinosa. 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 251 

1. E. lanata (Pursh) Moq. Undershrub, white or later rufous-tomentose, 2-10 
dm high; leaves linear, with revolute margins, 2-4 cm. long, 2-5 mm. wide: stamin- 
ate flower-clusters above the pistillate ones, in some individuals much more numer- 
ous, in others few or none; fruiting bracts 4-6 mm. long, lanceolate; horns about 
I mm. long. Plains and hills: Sask. Tex. Calif. Wash. Son. Plain 
Mont. Je-S. 

2. E. subspinosa Rydb. Dioecious shrub, 6-10 dm. high; leaves linear or 
oblong, obtuse, entire, 1-3 cm. long; flower-clusters of the staminate plant 
crowded and forming simple, leafy spikes; fruiting bracts lanceolate, about 6 
mm. long; horns usually about 2 mm. long. Rocky hiUs in desert regions' 
s Utah Ariz. Calif.; Sonora. Son. Ap-S. 

12. SALICORNIA (Tourn.) L. GLASSWORT, SAMPHIRE. 

Annual or perennial, fleshy, glabrous herbs, with scale-like leaves; branches 
and leaves opposite; internodes very short. Flowers perfect or polygamous, in 
cylindric spikes, sunk in cavities of the internodes, 3-7 together. Calyx fleshy, 
with a truncate or 3-4-toothed border. Stamens 2, rarely 1; filaments filiform 
or subulate. Utricle oblong or ovoid, included in the spongy perianth. Seeds 
erect; endosperm wanting; embryo conduplicate. 

Annual with a taproot. 1. s. rubra 

Perennial with a creeping rootstock. 2. S. utahensis. 

1. S. rubra A. Nels. Stem erect, divaricately branched throughout, 1-2 
dm. high; scale-like leaves short, broadly triangular, wider than long; fruiting 
spikes 2-4 cm. long; internodes very short, scarcely exceeding the middle flower 
of the nodes below. Border of alkaline lakes: Sask. Kans. 'Colo. Nev. 
B.C. Plain. Au-S. 

2. S. utahensis Tidest. Stems 1-2 dm. high, with short branches; scale- 
like leaves connate, broadly triangular, about 3 mm. long, scarious-margined ; 
internodes 1-2 cm. long or the lower shorter, 3-4 mm. thick; spikes on short 
lateral branches, 8-15 mm. long, 4-5 mm. thick; bracts broader than long. 
Alkaline and saline soil: Utah. Son. Je. 

13. ALLENROLFIA Kuntze. BURRO WEED. 

Fleshy, jointed shrubs, with alternate branches and scale-like leaves. Flow- 
ers perfect, arranged spirally in crowded spikes. Calyx of 4 or 5 concave, cari- 
nate, imbricate sepals, more or less united. Stamens 1-2; filaments slender, 
exserted. Ovary oblong; styles 2 or 3, distinct. Fruit with a membranous 
pericarp, free from the seed. Albumen copious; radicle inferior, basal. [Spiro- 
stachys S. Wats., not Sond.] 

1. A. occidentalis (S. Wats.) Kuntze. Shrub 6-15 dm. high, fleshy; scale- 
like leaves broadly triangular, amplexicaul; spikes numerous, cylindric, 1-2 cm. 
long; bracts broadly rhombic; flowers small, crowded; seeds less than 0.5 mm. 
long. Spirostachys occidentalis S. Wats. Salt marshes: Utah Ariz. Calif. 
Nev. Son. Jl-S. 

14. SARCOBATUS Nees. GREASEWOOD, CHICO. 

Spinescent branched shrubs, with fleshy narrow leaves, monoecious or dioeci- 
ous. Staminate flowers in terminal spikes, without calyx; stamens arranged 
around the base of a peltate scale. Pistillate flowers axillary, solitary, with a 
closed compressed calyx, margined by a narrow border, which develops into a 
broad membranous horizontal wing. Ovary thin and hyaline; embryo spiral; 
endosperm scant or none. 

1. S. vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr. Erect shrub, 1-3 m. high, divaricately 
branched and spinescent; leaves linear or linear-filiform, fleshy, 1-4 cm. long; 
aments of the staminate flowers cylindric, 0.5-3 cm. long; stamens 3; fruiting 
calyx about 6 mm. long, its wing-margin 6-12 mm. broad. Alkaline flats: 
Sask .Tex. Calif .Wash. Son.Plain Mont. My-S. 



252 CHENOPODIACEAE 

16. SALSOLA L. SALTWORT, RUSSIAN THISTLE. 

Annual or perennial herbs, or shrubs, bushy-branched, with narrow, entire, 
spine-tipped, rigid leaves. Flowers perfect, solitary or several together in the 
axils, with 2 bractlets. Sepals 5, appendaged with a horizontal wing at matur- 
ity. Stamens 5, rarely less; filaments linear or subulate. Ovary 1-celled, more 
or less depressed; styles 2. Utricle flattened; seeds erect; endosperm wanting; 
embryo spiral in form of a cone. 

1. S. Pestifer A. Nels. Divaricately branched annual; stem 3-10 dm. high; 
leaves filiform, somewhat fleshy, 2-6 cm. long, spine-tipped; bracts subulate, 
5-10 mm. long, with stout spines; calyx membranous, conspicuously veiny, 6-7 
mm. in diameter. S. Tragus Reichenb., not L. Waste places, fields, and loose 
sandy soil: Ont.N.J Tex Calif Wash. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

16. DONDIA Adans. SEA ELITE. 

Annual or perennial herbs, or shrubby plants, more or less fleshy, with al- 
ternate, narrow, terete leaves. Flowers perfect or polygamous, solitary or 
clustered in the upper axils, bracteate. Sepals 5, keeled or narrowly winged at 
maturity. Stamens 5; filaments short. Ovary 1-celled, rounded or flat on the 
top; styles often 2. Utricle surrounded by the calyx; seeds horizontal or vertical; 
endosperm wanting or scant. Embryo coiled in a flat spiral. [Swaeda Forskal.j 

Sepals more or less fleshy, but none of them carinate; leaves narrowed at the base. 
Plant perennial, stout. 

Seeds tubercled. 1. D. Torreyana. 

Seeds not tubercled. 2. D. intermedia. 

Plant annual, more slender. 3. D. niyra. 
Sepals very fleshy, one or two decidedly carinate. 

Leaves subulate, broadest at the base; flowers crowded. 

Plant depressed, spreading. 4. D. depressa. 

Plant erect, strict. 5. D. erecta. 

Leaves narrowed at the base; spike slender; flowers not crowded. 6. D. occidentalis. 

1. D. Torreyana (S. Wats.) Standl. Undershrub, woody at the base; herbace- 
ous branches 6-10 dm. high, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, with strongly 
ascending branchlets; leaves subterete, filiform, 1-4 cm. long, acute; bracts similar 
but shorter; calyx deeply cleft; seeds 1.5 mm. broad. Swaeda Torreyana S. Wats. . 
S. Moqulni (Torr.) A. Nels., in part. Salt marshes: Wyo. Tex. N.M. Calif. 
Nev. Son. Submont. Je-S. 

2. D. intermedia (S. Wats.) Heller. Undershrub, woody at the base; 
herbaceous branches 2-5 dm. high, glabrous, with branchlets ascending but not 
strongly so; leaves narrowly linear, narrowed at the base, 1-2 cm. long; bracts 
shorter and broader; calyx deeply cleft, not appendaged; seeds small, less than 
1 mm. broad. Swaeda intermedia S. Wats. Alkaline soil: Ida. Utah Ariz. 
Calif. Son. 

3. D. nigra (Raf.) Standl. Erect or ascending annual; stem diffusely 
branched, 3-5 dm. high; branches long and flexuose; leaves filiform, terete, 1-3 
cm. long, acute; bracts similar, but much shorter, usually less than 1 cm. long; 
calyx cleft to just below the middle, fleshy; seeds vertical, 1 mm. broad, smooth. 
Swaeda diffusa S. Wats. D. diffusa (S. Wats.) Heller. Sage plains and alka- 
line soil: Wyo. N.M. Ariz. Ore.; n Mex. Plain. Jl-S. 

4. D. depressa (Pursh) Britton. Low and decumbent annual; stems 
branching at the base, 2-10 dm. long; leaves linear, subulate, 1-3 cm. long; bracts 
5-10 mm. long, rather crowded on the branchlets; calyx cleft to the middle; 
seeds about 1 mm. broad, slightly reticulate. Chenopodium calceolariforme 
Hook. Swaeda depressa S. Wats. Dondia calceolariformis Rydb. Saline or 
alkaline soil: Sask. -Kans. Nev. -Mont. Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

5. D. erecta (S. Wats) A. Nels. Erect annual; stems rather simple or 
with short erect branches, very leafy; leaves slender, 2-4 cm. long; bracts often 
more than 1 cm. long; calyx cleft below the middle; seeds smooth, nearly 1.5 mm. 
broad. Alkaline or saline flats: Sask. Colo. Nev. Mont. Plain Mont. 
Jl-S. 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 253 

6. D. occidentalis (S. Wats.) Heller. Erect or spreading annual; stem 
6-35 cm. high, with flexuose ascending or spreading branches; leaves linear 
1-2.5 cm. long, 1 mm. wide; bracts similar only slightly shorter; flowers 1-3 in 

each axil; seeds smooth, black and shining. Alkaline meadows: Wyo. Colo. 

Ore. Wash. Son. 

FAMILY 39. AMARANTHACEAE. AMARANTH FAMILY. 

Coarse herbs, with alternate or opposite leaves, without stipules. Flowers 
inconspicuous, perfect, moneocious, dioecious, or polygamous, subtended 
by more or less imbricate bracts. Calyx of 2- 5 scarious or herbaceous sepals. 
Corolla wanting. Stamens 5 or fewer, opposite the sepals. Pistil solitary, 
1-celled; style 1, terminal, or wanting. Fruit a membranous utricle or pyxis. 

Anthers 2-celled ; green plants with alternate leaves. 

Perianth present in all flowers. 1. AMARANTHUS 

Perianth wanting in the pistillate flowers. 2. ACNIDA. 

Anthers 1-celled ; stellate or woolly plants with mostly opposite leaves. 

Filaments united into a short cup at the base; calyx neither crested nor spiny; plants 
stellate, diffuse. 3. TIDESTROMIA. 

Filaments united into a long tube; calyx crested and tuberculate or spiny at matur- 
ity; plants woolly, erect. 4. FROELICHIA. 

1. AMARANTHUS (Tourn.) L. AMARANTH, PIGWEED, TUMBLEWEED. 

Annual weedy herbs, with alternate, flat, pinnately veined, entire or undulate 
leaves. Flowers monoecious, dioecious, or polygamous, in dense spikes or clus- 
ters, each subtended by usually 3, conspicuous, green, red or purple bracts. 
Sepals 2-5, distinct; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise. Ovary 1-celled; 
styles or stigmas 2 or 3. Ovules solitary. Utricles circumscissile, irregularly 
splitting, or indehiscent. Seeds lenticular, shining. Embryo annular. 

Sepals clawed; flowers in terminal and axillary spikes. 

Monoecious; sepals fimbriate; utricle circumscissile; leaf-blades linear or linear- 
lanceolate. 1. A. fimbriatus. 
Dioecious; sepals not flmbriate; utricle indehiscent; leaf-blades lanceolate-ovate or 

obovate. 
Bracts lanceolate, not exceeding the flowers ; spike not very long. 

2. A. Torreyi. 
Bracts subulate, pungent, exceeding the flowers; spikes very long. 

3. A. Palmeri. 
Sepals not clawed 

Plants tall, simple; flowers in terminal and axillary panicles; sepals 5. 

Stamens 3; sepals 1-2 mm. long; bracts 5 mm. long or more. 4. A. Powellii. 
Stamens 5; sepals 2-3 mm. long; bracts 3-5 mm. long. 

Spikes stout, 8-14 mm. thick, strict; pistillate sepals obtuse or truncate. 

Inflorescence tinged with red; pistillate sepals 1.5-2 mm. long; plant 

glabrous. 5. A. Wrightii. 

Inflorescence pale green; pistillate sepals 3 mm. long; plant villous. 

6. A. retroflexus. 
Spike slender, 4-6 mm. thick, usually drooping; stem glabrous; pistillate sepals 

acute. 7. A. hybridus. 

Plant low, much branched; flowers in small axillary spike-like panicles, shorter than 

the leaves. 
Sepals 3-5, well developed. 

Sepals 4-5; bracts lanceolate, a little longer than the sepals; plant prostrate. 

8. A. blitoides. 
Sepals 3; bracts much longer than the sepals, pungent. 

Plant erect, glabrous. 9. A. graecizans. 

Plant prostrate or diffuse, pubescent. 10. A. puoescens. 

Sepals of the pistillate flowers, all except one, minute or wanting. 

1. A. fimbriatus (Torr.) Benth. Stem 3-10 dm. high, glabrous; leaves 
short-petioled; blades 3-7 cm. long; flowers in a loose spike; bracts shorter than 
the perianth, narrow, acute; sepals of the staminate flowers oblong, those of the 
pistillate ones broadly fan-shaped, 2-3 mm. long. Sandy places: s Utah Nev. 
Calif.; n Mex. L. Son. Au-S. 

2. A. Torreyi (A. Gray) Benth. Stem 3-10 dm. high, somewhat pubescent 
or glabrate; leaves long-petioled; blades lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, strongly 
veined beneath; flowers in a rather lax panicle; sepals of the staminate plant 



254 AMARANTHACEAE 

lanceolate, spinulose-cuspidate, more or less scarious-margined ; sepals of the 
pistillate plants obovate-spatulate, rounded at the apex. Sandy soil: la. Tex. 
Calif. Nev. PlainSon. Jl-Au. 

3. A. Palmeri S. Wats. Stem erect, 6-10 dm. high, branching; leaves long- 
petioled; blades rhombic-lanceolate or obovate, 2-5 cm. long, strongly veined 
beneath; sepals of the staminate flowers lanceolate, spinulose-cuspidate, those 
of the pistillate flowers 2-3 mm. long, oblong or somewhat spatulate, distinct or 
nearly so. Banks and river valleys: Kans. Tex. Colo. Calif.; n Mex. 
Son. Submont. 

4. A. Powellii S. Wats. Stem 3-15 dm. high, glabrous, simple or with 
erect branches; leaves slender-petioled ; blades lanceolate or ovate, 3-10 cm. 
long; bracts subulate, spinulose-cuspidate, 3 mm. long; sepals 1-2 mm. long, 
lanceolate, mucronate. Loose or sandy soil: N.M. Wyo. Ore. Calif.; n 
Mex. Son. Mont. Jl-S. 

6. A. Wrightii S. W ats - Stem 2-10 dm. high, simple or branched at the 
base: leaves slender-petioled; blades lance-elliptic to rhombic-ovate, 1.2-6 cm. 
long, yellowish green, paler beneath; bracts linear-lanceolate or subulate, longer 
than the sepals, pungent; sepals 1.5-2 mm. long, rounded or truncate and retuse 
at the apex. Sandy soil: N.M. s Colo. Ariz. Son. 

6. A. retroflexus L. Stem erect or ascending, usually branched, 3-30 dm. 
high; leaves petioled; leaf-blades ovate or rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, 5-15 cm. 
long; bracts subulate, twice as long as the oblong, scarious sepals. PIGWEED. 
Waste places and fields: Vt. Fla Calif. B.C.; Mex.; nat. from Eu. Plain 
Submont. Je-O. 

7. A. hybridus L. Stem branched, 6-25 dm. high; leaves petioled; leaf- 
blades ovate, 4-10 cm. long, darker green above, scabrous-puberulent; bracts 
subulate, twice as long as the oblong acute sepals. Waste places: R.I. Fla. 
Colo. Calif. Alta.; Mex.; W. Ind.; nat. from Eu. Plain Son. Mr-S. 

8. A. blitoides S. Wats. Stem 3- 10 dm. long, glabrous or nearly so, pro- 
fusely branched; leaf -blades broadly spatulate, obovate or oblanceolate, 1-3 cm. 
long; bracts short-acuminate, 2-3 mm. long; sepals obtuse and mucronate or 
acute; utricle not rugose. Dry ground, roadsides, and waste places: Minn. 
La. Calif. B.C.; Mex.; adv. eastward to Me. and N. J. L. Son. 'Plain 
Mont. Jl-S. 

9. A. graecizans L. Stems bushy-branched, whitish, 2-6 dm. high; leaf- 
blades oblong or spatulate, 1-4 cm. long, papillose, mucronate-cuspidate; flowers 
polygamous; sepals membranous. A. albus L. TUMBLE WEED. Waste places 
and cultivated ground: R.I. Fla. Calif. B.C.; W. Ind.; Mex.; and Old World. 
Plain Submont. Jl-S. 

10. A. pubescens (Uline & Bray) Rydb. Stem spreading, pubescent with 
a viscid pubescence; leaf -blades spatulate, 1-3 cm. long, very crisp, mucronate; 
sepals thicker than in A. graecizans. Sandy places: N.M. Colo. Ariz. Son. 

11. A. californicus (Moq.) S. Wats. Stem prostrate, glabrous, branching 
at the base, 2-5 dm. long; leaf -blades obovate or oblong, 5-20 mm. long, often 
with white veins and margins; bracts lanceolate, membranous, acuminate; 
sepals of the staminate flowers 1.5 mm. long, the single one of the pistillate 
flowers shorter, lateral; utricle rugose. A. carneus Greene. Cultivated or 
loose ground: Calif. -Nev. Alta. Wash. Jl-S. 

2. ACNIDA L. WATER-HEMP. 

Annual coarse herbs, with branching stem and alternate, narrow, entire, 
pinnately veined leaves. Flowers dioecious, subtended by 1-3 bracts, in ter- 
minal or axillary, continuous or interrupted spikes. Staminate flowers with 5 
scarious mucronate sepals. Stamens 5; filaments distinct, subulate; anthers 
2-celled. Pistillate flowers without calyx. Ovary 1-celled; stigmas 2-5, papil- 
lose or plumose. Ovules solitary. Utricle circumscissile or opening irregularly, 
or indehiscent. Seeds smooth, erect, shining. 



AMARANTH FAMILY 255 

Pistillate inflorescence of slender interrupted spikes; fruit circumscissile. 1. A. tamariscina. 
Pistillate inflorescence of closely clustered spikes; fruit indehiscent or irregularly splitting. 

2. A. a'ltissima. 

1. A. tamariscina (Nutt.) Wood. Stem erect, much branched, 1-2 m. 
long; leaf-blades lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or notched at the apex, 
entire or undulate; bracts lanceolate, spinulose-tipped, scarious-margined. 
Swamps and alluvial soil: 111. S.D. Colo. -N.M. La. Plain. Jl-S. 

2. A. altissima Riddell. Stem 1-3 m. high, with flexupse branches; leaf- 
blades lanceolate to rhombic-ovate, entire; bracts rigid, acuminate; sepals of the 
staminate flowers lanceolate, acuminate. A. tuberculata Moq. Swamps: Ont. 
S.D. Colo. Ohio. Plain. Jl-S. 

3. TIDESTROMIA Standl. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with stellate pubescence and mostly opposite, 
entire or merely undulate, short-petioled leaves. Flowers perfect, subtended by 
3 bracts, solitary or clustered in the axils. Sepals 5, unequal, pubescent. Sta- 
mens 5; filaments united at their bases; anthers 1-cell^d. Ovary 1-celled; styles 
short; stigmas capitate or 2-lobed. Ovules solitary. Utricle subglobose, inde- 
hiscent. [Cladothrix Nutt., not Cohn.] 

1. T. lanuginosa (Nutt.) Standl. Annual; stems diffusely branched; 
branches ascending or prostrate, 1-6 dm. long; leaf-blades rhombic-ovate to or- 
bicular, entire, 0.5-2 cm. long; flowers in axillary clusters; bractlets obtuse; 
utricle glabrous, included in the calyx. Cladothrix lanuginosa Nutt. Dry soil: 
Tex. Kans. Utah Ariz.; Mex. Son. Jl-S. 

4. FROELICHIA Moench. 

Annual or biennial herbs, with woolly or silky pubescence and opposite, 
entire or undulate leaves. Flowers perfect, subtended by 3 bracts, in dense 
spikes. Calyx 5-lobed, woolly; tube longitudinally crested or tubercled at 
maturity. Stamens 5, included; filaments united into a tube; anthers 1-celled. 
Ovary 1-celled; styles short or wanting; stigmas capitate or brush-like. Utricle 
indehiscent, enclosed in the tube of the filaments. 

Stout, 4-12 dm. tall; crest of fruiting calyx continuous, dentate. 1. F. campestris. 

Slender 2-5 dm. high; crest of fruiting calyx interrupted, forming distinct spines. 

2. F. gracilis. 

1. F. campestris Small. Biennial or annual; leaves numerous and ap- 
proximate below; blades spatulate to oblong or broadly linear, acute, white- 
woolly beneath ; spikes 1-10 cm . long. F. floridana Coult. & Nels. , not Moq. Dry 
or sandy soil: Minn. 111. Okla. N.M. Colo. Plain Son. Je-S. 

2. F. gracilis Moq. Annual or perhaps biennial; stem usually branched at 
the base, 2-3 dm. high; leaves numerous near the base of the plant, often clus- 
tered; blades linear-oblanceolate or linear-oblong, 1-5 cm. long, acute, white- 
woolly; spikes 1-3 cm. long. Sandy valleys: la. Ark. Tex. Ariz. Colo.; 
Mex. Plain Son. Jl-S. 

FAMILY 40. NYCTAGINACEAE. FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY. 

Annual or perennial herbs (all ours), usually with swollen nodes, and 
alternate or opposite leaves, without stipules. Flowers regular, perfect, 
often subtended by bracts forming a calyx-like involucre. Perianth simple, 
corolla-like, campanulate or funnelform. Stamens 1-many. Pistil solitary; 
ovary 1-celled, surrounded by the perianth-tube. Fruit indehiscent, angled, 
ribbed, or winged. 



or winged; bracts in a whorl at the base of the head-like cluster; peri- 
anth salverform. 
Bra wfnS n n I ot C cSmpletely encircling the fruit, interrupted 



256 NYCTAGINACEAE 

Wings completely encircling the fruit. 2. TRIPTEROCALYX. 

Bracts inconspicuous or lacking. 3. SELINOCARPUS. 

Fruit globular, neither crested nor winged; bracts attached each to a pedicel of the 

umbel-like or corymbose inflorescence ; perianth funnelform. 4. HERMIDIUM. 
Bracts united. 

Fruit neither strongly tubercled nor winged. 

Fruit not ribbed; involucre herbaceous, little if at all enlarging in fruit, not be- 
coming membranous. 
Stamens usually 5 ; involucre campanulate, not enlarged in fruit. 

Flowers several in each involucre. 5. QUAMOCLIDION. 

Flowers solitary in each involucre. 6. HESPERONIA. 

Stamens 3; involucre rotate, somewhat enlarged in fruit in the manner of the 

next genus, but not membranous. 7. ALLIONIELLA. 

Fruit ribbed; involucre rotate, in fruit becoming much enl