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:arrou&cook printers to the assembly. 






By JOHN TORllEY, M.D., F.L.S. 








The copyright of this work is secured for the benefit of the People of the State of New-York. 


Secretary of State. 
Albany, 1843. 


The Act for a Geological Survey of New- York, passed by the Legislature in 1836, makes 
provision for a full account of the Natural History of the State, Having been appointed 
to take charge of the Botanical Department of the Survey, I present in these volumes the 
results of mj' labors. 

From the following historical sketch, it will be seen, that while much has been done to 
make known the vegetable productions of the State, this is the first separate work in which 
all the known plants of New- York have been enumerated and described.* 

The earliest treatise on the Botany of New-York, that has come under my observation, 
/(j is the " Plantae Coldenhamiffi" of Governor Golden, published in the Acts of the Royal 

_J Society of Upsal for the year 1744. It is au account of the plants growing spontaneously 

<j- in the neigliborhood of Coldenham, in Orange County, and embraces only the first twelve 

^ classes of the Linnaian System. The second part was (I believe) never published.! 

{J^ Kalm, a pupil of LiNN^us (and afterwards a Bishop), visited North America in 1747, 

t" and collected plants in New-York, which are often referred to in the writings of Linn^us, 

and many of them are preserved in his herbarium. 

Dr. Wangenheim, a Hessian surgeon in the British Army during the American Revolu- 
tion, made numerous observations on the plants of this country, particularly on those of 
New-York. After his return to Germany, he published a work on the trees of North 
" MicHAUX tiie elder travelled in the nortiiern and southern parts of the State in 1792, 

^ while engaged in collecting plants for the French Government, as well as for his Flora 

J. Boreali-Jlmericana, which was published in Paris in 1803. He was accompanied by his 

^ son, who afterwards revisited this country, and travelled extensively in most of the States 

" east of the Mississippi, and, on returning to Europe, pulilislied, in 1810, his splendid work 

Uj on the Forest Trees of North America. The younger Michaux examined the valley of 

, 1 the Hudson, the borders of Lake Cliamplain, and a considerable portion of the western 

^ counties. 

l\ ' Much of this Iiutorical matter was furnished for Governor Seward's Introduction to t!ic Natural History of the 

^ State. 

t .See Dr. Grav's memoir of Coldem, in .Silliman'a Journal. 

[Flora.] d 


2. The Hudson Valley Region. Tliis includes all ilial portion of the State which is 
watered by the Hudson and its triliutaries, as far north as Wa^hin^ion and Saratoga coun- 
ties, together with the valley of the Mohawk east of the Little Falls ; and also Staten 
Island. Its vegetation, taken as a whole, is similar to that of Connecticut, the western 
part of Massachusetts, the northern part of New-Jersey, and Pennsylvania east of the Blue 
Ridge. It is difficult to indicate its characteristic plants ; but very few of the following are 
found in any of the other regions : Ranunculus pusillus, Brasenia peltata, JVasturtium his- 
pidum, SUene Pennsylvanica, Lespedeza capitafa, Crotalaria. sagittalis, Prunus Americana, 
Jicer dasycarpum, Ludwigia spharocarpa , Ec/iinocystis lobata, Crantzia lineata, Vcrnonia 
JVoveboracensis, Mulgedium acuminatum, Clcthra alnifolia, Kalmia angustifoUa, Hottonia 
inflata, Quercus oUvceformis if macrocarpa, Bctula rubra, Scirpus planifolius, and jithero- 
pogon apludoides. 

In the soutlicrn part of this region (particularly the island of New-York and Staten 
Island) there occur a few species (such as Desrnodium viridiflorum and Stylosanthts elatior) , 
that are found in no other part of the State except Long Island. The mountainous districts 
present a vegetation more resembling that of the northern counties. Thus, the .Myrica 
Gale and Jlrenaria Grcenlandica occur on the higher summits of the Sliawangunk Moun- 
tains ; Pofentilla tridentata and Pyrus Aucuparia, on the peaks of the Fishkill Range ; 
while on the Catskill mountains (some of which attain an altitude of between 3000 and 
4000 feet) are found Goodyera repens, Oxalis Acetosella, Solidago thyrsoidea, Abus balsamea 
fy alba, and Betula papyracea. 

3. The Western Region is bounded on the south by the State of Pennsylvania, on the 
west by Lakes Erie and Ontario, on the north by an irregular line extending along the 
southern borders of Jefferson and Lewis counties to the Little Falls ; so that it includes 
Oswego, the greater portion of Oneida, and the southern part of Herkimer counties. 
Eastwardly it blends with the Hudson River Region. Its vegetation greatly resembles 
that of the middle portions of tiie country east of the Mississippi, lying between the Great 
Lakes and the Ohio River. Some of the peculiar species are the following : Jeffersonia 
diphylla, Hydrasfus Canadensis, Arabis dentata, Solea concolor, Pteka trifoliata, Trifolium 
refkxum, Phaca neglecta, Gymtwcladus Canadensis, Gillenia trifoliata &>• stipulacea, Erigenia 
bulbosa, Fcdia Fagopyrum, Solidago Ohioensis, Collinsia verna, Zigadenus glaucus and 
Cyperus Schweinitzii. 

A few Canadian plants find their way from a considerable distance north, into this 
region, without being known to occur in the intervening country; such as Viola Selkirkii, 
Valeriana sylvatica, Pinguicula vulgaris, and Primula Mistassi7iica. 

4. The Northern Region includes all that part of the State which lies north of the 
Mohawk Valley and the Hoosick River. It is bounded on the west by the River St. Law- 
rence and the northeastern extremity of Lake Ontario, and on the east by Lake Cham- 
plain and the State of Vermont. Much of the central part of this region is still a wilder- 
ness. Towards the east and south the land is elevated with high mountains, among which 
are numerous small lakes. Hero are the sources of tlie Hudson, the Au Sable, the Saranac, 

Black, Racket, and many olhcr smaller rivers. Some of the mountains, si,.:h as Moinu 
Marcy, Mount M'Intyre, and Whiteface, rise to the height of from 4900 to 5400 feet, 
and afford a trul}' alpine vegetation. On some of the higher peaks are found Ejnlobmm 
alpinum, Solidago Virgaurea, Rhododendron Lapponicum, Vaccinium uliginosum, Diapensia 
Lapponica, Empetrum nigrum, Poa alpina, Hierochloa alpina, Juncus trifidus, Carexsaxatilis, 
Jiira atropui-purea, and other plants peculiar to high mountains of the northern hemisphere, 
or natives of the arctic zone. Some of the characteristic plants of the less elevated por- 
tions of this region are Anemone multifida, Draba arabizans, Ceanothus ovalis, JVardosmia 
palmata, Jlster ptarmicoides, Arnica mollis, Halenia deflexa, Batschia canescens,Dracoccphalum 
parvijiorum, Habenaria obtusafa, Alniis viridis, Jillium Canadense, Juncus stygius and 
Equisetum scirpoides. In its general features, the botany of this region is very similar to 
that of Southern Canada and the Northern New-England States, 

Some plants are common to the Northern and Western Regions, but do not occur in the 
Valley of the Hudson, nor on Long Island ; such as Turrids stricta, Nasturtium nutans, 
Hypericum ellipticum, Astragalus Canadensis, GeumrivaleSf Canadense, Comarum palustre, 
Tiarella cordifolia, Gnaphalium decurrens, Pyrola unijiora, Shepherdia Canadensis, Strep- 
topus amplexicaulis, and Juncus filiformis. 

The State of New-York is the northern limit of a considerable number of species. Thus 
Magnolia acuminata occurs on the Niagara River, and on the borders of Lake Ontario, 
somewhat beyond the latitude of 43°, while its eastern limit is the northern part of Cohmibia 
County. Opuntia vulgaris has been found in the southern part of Herkimer County. 
Hydrocharis cordifolia, which Dr. Bradley detected on the swampy borders of Lake 
Ontario, is a remarkable instance of a southern plant being found so far north, without 
occurring in the intervening coimtry. Aconitum uncinatum is sparingly seen on the banks 
of the Chenango River, in latitude 42°. JVelumbium luteum is a native of Big Sodus Bay 
on Lake Ontario, in lat. 43° 20' ; beyond which, to the north, it has not hitherto been 
observed. Long Island is the northern limit of numerous species, such a.s Quercus Phellos, 
prinoides Sf nigra, besides many of those which have been enumerated as the peculiar 
plants of that region. 

The southern limits of plants arc not so well defined as the extent of their range towards 
tlic north ; for many northern species are found along the tracts of mountains, where the 
temperature is low and the air moist, several degrees south of their ordinary places of 
growth. Still we have a few plants in our Flora, which, I believe, have not been observed 
soutii of the State of New- York ; such as Hippnris vulgaris, Myriophyllum tenellum, Selinum 
Canadense, Valeriana sylvatica, Pterospora Andromedea, Populus Balsamifera, and Shej)- 
herdia Canadensis. 

We can boast of but few plants that are unknown out of the limits of our Flora. Pyrola 
vliginosa, a new species, is almost the only unequivocal one of this class. Scolopendrium 
vulgnre (an European fern) is certainly indigenous in the western part of the State, and 
I have no information of its having been found elsewhere in North America. The rarest 
of all ferns, Onoctea obtusilobuta, first dcscril)cd by Scukuur, and now unknown to any 


European hcrliarium, was found more ilian twenly years ago by Dr. Jedediah Smith, in 
Washington County. He obtained only two specimens, both of wliicli (ihoiigii in a muti- 
lated state) are still in existence, and no others have since been obtained. Diligent but 
unsuccessful search has been made for it in the original locality of Dr. Smith. 

It is remarkable, that on the shores of the Great Lakes, there are certain plants, the 
proper station of which is the immediate neighborhood of the ocean, as if they had consti- 
tuted part of the early Flora of those regions, when the lakes were fdled with salt water, 
and have survived the change that has taken place in the physical conditions of their soil. 
Among such species ina}' be enumerated Cakile maritima, Hudsonia tomcntosa., Lalhrus 
marifimiLS, and Euphorbia polygonifolia. 

Of proper maritime phenogamous plants, the shores of Long Island and Staten Island, 
as well as the counties of New-York and Westchester where they border on the Hudson 
and the Sound, afford about fifty species, none of which are seen beyond the limits of salt, 
or, at least, brackish, water, except a few which occur in the saline soils of Salina and 

The whole number of Flowering Plants hitherto found in the State is about 1450 species, 
wliich is 100 more than were enumerated in my preliminary Report of 1840. Of Ferns 
and their allies, 60 species belong to our Flora. The other cryptogamic orders have not 
yet been fully determined, as I find their number so great that they could not be included 
in the two volumes to which 1115^ first Report was limited. An account of such as belong 
to the orders Musci, Hepatica^, Lichencs, Characese and Algae, will be given in a future 
volimie if authorized by the Legislature. The Fungi constitute so peculiar a department 
of the Vegetable Kingdom, and their species are so extremely numerous, that a botanist, 
to do them justice, must make them almost an exclusive study. The late Rev. M. de 
ScHWEixiTZ has given us a list of more than 3000 species belonging to the United States, 
most of which he found in the State of Pennsylvania. There can be little doubt that a 
very large proportion of them grow in New-York ; but in collecting these plants, I have 
been obliged to confine myself to the more important species. 

A Report on the Botany of our State would possess little value, unless the plants were 
described so that they could be identified ; and the only way in which this could be done 
(unless the descriptions are extended to an umeasonable length) , is by employing botanical 
language, and by arranging the plants in methodical order. Hence I was induced to put 
the matter of lU)^ report in the form of a Flora. Having adopted this plan, I could not 
hesitate for a moment as to the system wliich ought to be used ; for the artificial classifi- 
cation of Linnaeus, having accomplished the object for which it was designed, may be 
considered as more than useless in the present advanced state of Botany. The natural 
arrangement has.therefore been followed. In defining the orders, it has been deemed 
advisable, in many instances, to omit characters that belong exclusively to exotic plants. 
The groups of orders have been adopted, with but little alteration, from the admirable 
Botanical Text Book of my friend Dr. Gray. As to the names of synonyms of genera and 
species, the Flora of North America has been followed, as far as that work is published, 


except where changes were necessary. Beyond the Compositae, the Flora is not written 
out, nor have all the plants of the remaining orders been critically studied ; so that here- 
after changes will probably be made in a few of the species described in these volumes, 
when they are reexamined to take their place in the larger work of Dr. Gray and myself. 
Remarks on the medicinal and economical uses of the plants, as well as miscellaneous 
observations, are placed immediately after the detailed descriptions, and not in a separate 
part of the work. In the tables at the end of the second volume will be found a list of all 
the natural orders of which we have representatives in the State of New-York, with the 
number of species belonging to each, and the proportion which they bear to the whole of 
the flowering plants, as well as to the two grand divisions of these. It will be seen that 
our most numerous dicotyledonous orders are the Ranunculace^, which constitute about 
^Vth of the flowering plants ; the Crucifer^, ^'^th ; the Leguminos^, ^\\h ; Rosaceje, 
^'jth ; the UiviBELLiFERiE, j'gth ; the Composite, -ith ; the Ericaceae, j'^th ; the Labiate, 
^'^d ; and Scrophulariace^, ^\t\\. Of monocotyledonous plants, there are but three large 
orders, viz. Orchidace^, which form about j'^th of our flowering plants ; Cyperace^, ith • 
and Gramine^;, yVth. These proportions will vary but little from the average for the 
whole Flora of North America. 

We may take a more popular view of the vegetation of the State. The whole number 
of flowering plants has been stated to be about 1450 species. Of these about 1200 are 
herbaceous, and 150 may be regarded as ornamental. Of woody plants there are 250 
species, including about 80 that attain to the stature of trees, many of which are employed 
in the arts, or are used as fuel. Of plants that are reputed to possess medicinal properties, 
we have (native and naturalized) 150 species. 

The naturalized plants of the State exceed 160 species. Many of them have been intro- 
duced from Europe, with grain and other agricultural products ; and among them are to be 
found most of our troublesome weeds. Indeed, throughout the Northern States, almost all 
the plants that are injurious to the farmer arc of foreign origin. Many useful species, 
likewise, have become so thoroughly naturalized and widely spread, that they every where 
spring spontaneously from the soil. The grasses of our meadows, parks, lawns and road- 
sides, arc, with few exceptions, naturalized European species. The following are the 
principal kinds : Phleum pratcnse, Jlgrostis pohjmorpha, Jinthoxanthuiri odoratum, Holcus 
lanatus, Feduca pratensis, Poa annua, P. trivialis, P. pratensis, P. compressa, Dactylis 
glomerata, and Lolium pratense. 

According to the instructions received with my apjjointmcnt, Ihave prepared an herba- 
rium of the plants found within the limits of the Stale. The specimens are conveniently 
arranged for reference in about 50 folio volumes, and are deposited in the Cabinet of 
Natural History at Albany. Six other sets of the plants have also been prepared, which 
it is understood are to be presented to public institutions. 

It is by no means asserted that all the plants of New-York arc described in this Report. 
The Stale embraces an area equal to the whole of Great Britain ; and notwithstanding (he 
assiduous explorations of numerous botanists for many years, additions arc still made. 


almost every year, to tlie Flora of that country. So in ilie immediate vicinity of New- 
York, which lias prohal>ly been more diligently searched than any other region of the same 
extent in the L'nited Slates, frequent accessions are made to our list of species, and doubt- 
less many others remain to be detected. A considerable number of plants are extremely 
local ; others disappear, or become extremely scarce for a number of seasons ; and some 
wither away shortly after perfecting their flowers and fruit, so that many species may for 
a long time esciipe detection. The parts of the State that have been least explored botani- 
cally arc the counties which lie on the borders of Pennsylvania, and the region which has 
been appropriately called the northern wilderness, included in our Fourth District. Portions 
of Long Island, also, are far from being exhausted. At the end of the work will be found 
a list of such plants as we expect will be added to our Flora by future observers, with the 
pans of (he Stale where they will probably be found. 

It is with pleasure that I make acknowledgments to the numerous botanical friends who 
have kindly assisted me bj' contributing specimens of plants, or information, for this work. 
The most efficient aid has been rendered by Peter D. Knieskern, M. D., lateof Oriskany ; 
Prof. A. Gray, now of Harvard University ; H. P. Sartwell, M. D. of Penn Yan ; and 
J. Carey, Esq. of New- York ; especially in exploring the western and some of the northern 
counties. I am also indebted to Mr. Carey for much judicious criticism respecting many 
obscure plants. Professors Emmons and Hall, of the Geological Department of the 
Survey, supplied me with some rare plants from tlU'ir respective districts. Dr. Bradley, 
of Greece, gave me valuable information respecting the botany of Monroe and Oneida 
counties. From Professor C. Dewey, I have received friendly assistance in obtaining a 
knowledge of the plants around Rochester. He has also supplied me with authentic 
specimens of many species of Carex, described by him in Silliman's Journal. Mr. George 
Vasey, of Oriskany, has sent me some rare plants of Oneida Countj- and other parts of the 
State. Matthew Stevenson, M. D., kindly allowed me to select what I wished from his 
herbarium, and in former years freely gave me the results of his numerous herborizations 
in Washington county, where he resided a long tune. To John Wright, M. D., of Troy, 
I am indebted for plants collected in the neighborhood of that city ; and to Allen Wass, 
M. D., for a list of the plants of Stephentown, Rensselaer County, with their times of 
flowering and fructification. Edward Tuckerman, Esq., and Jonathan Pearson, M. D., 
gave mc information respecting several rare plants which they found in the neighborhood 
of Schenectady. Charles Benxer, Esq., has given me the results of his botanical excur- 
sions among the Catskill Mountains. To Prof. Bailey, of West Point, I am under many 
obligations for remarks on plants of the Highlands, as well as for specimens, besides assis- 
tance in some difficult microscopical investigations, Mr. M. B. Halsted, a zealous young 
botanist of Newburgh, communicated to me many rare plants of Orange County. Mr. 0. 
R. Willis, and Prof. F. C. Schaffer, have supplied me with specimens illustrating the 
botany of Long Island. Dr. S. B. Mead, now of Illinois, has kindly sent me remarks on 
some rare plants collected by him in Westchester County. In exploring the vicinity of 
New-York, much assistance has been given to me by J. Carey, Esq., and Mr. R. J. 

Brownne. Mr. Louis Menard, also, has pointed out to mc the localities of various in- 
teresting plants. In addition to all these sources, I have availed myself of information 
received in former years from other botanists who have explored various parts of the State, 
among whom I would mention the following : Major J. Le Conte, William Cooper, 
Esq.; Abraham Halsey, Esq. ; the late Caspar W. Eddy, M. D., and Dr. Mitchell, 
who collected plants growing around New- York : and Professor Hadley of Geneva, Prof. 
AiKiN, the late Professor Eaton, Dr. J. Eights, Prof. L. C. Beck, and Dr. J. Crawe, who 
favored me with many rare and interesting plants, chiefly from the northern and western 
counties. Very important aid, in examining the botany of Ihe Highlands, has been 
rendered by J. Barratt, M. D., who spent several years in that region, and most liberally 
supplied me with specimens and critical observations. 

The Survey of the State had been in progress about two and a half years, before a painter 
was engaged for the botanical department ; a delay that was owing to the difficulty of 
obtaining a competent artist. The original plan, with regard to the illustrations, was to 
have figured all the plants which are useful in medicine and the arts, besides most of the 
ornamental, new, and rare species, and such as were otherwise possessed of interest. 
Before the work was completed, however, it was found that this plan could not be carried 
into eSect, both on account of the expense, and the time required to procure all the 
drawings. Many of the earlier drawings were executed by Miss Agnes Mitchell ; the 
remainder by Miss Elizabeth Pooley, with the exception of a few that were done by Mr. 
SwiNTON. These are all very respectable artists, but they were unaccustomed to make 
dissections of plants. The lithography was executed at the office of Mr. George Endicott. 
This style of illustration is certainly not so well suited for botanical objects as engraving, 
but was adopted on account of its great economy. Most of the plates are faithful copies of 
the original drawings, and are very creditable to the gentleman to whose care this part 
of the work was committed. 

As regards the typography, I am greatly indebted for its accuracy to tlie compositor and 
proofreader, Mr. John Patterson, of the State Printing-office in Albany, wlio has had the 
principal charge of this part of the labor. 


New- York, December, 1842. 
[Flora.] bb 


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(Flora] c 


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F li O R A 



Plants furnished with flowers (consisting essentially of stamens and 
pistils), and producing seeds. 


Stem with distinct bark and pith, with an intervening circle of woody fibre ; the 
latter increasing in diameter by the annual deposition of new layers of wood 
on the outside, forming concentric zones, which are traversed by medullary 
rays from the pith to the circumference ; the bark growing by new layers 
within. Leaves commonly articulated to the stem 5 the veins, and those of 
the floral envelopes branching and reticulated. Sepals and petals most 
commonly in fours and fives, very rarely in threes. Ovules produced within 
an ovary, and fertilized by the action of pollen through the medium of a 
stigma. Embryo with two opposite cotyledons. 

Subclass I. Polypetalous Exogenous Plants.* 
Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla ; the petals distinct. 

• In this subclass are iiicladed a few apctalous genera and species, and also some in which the petals are united ; while 
there arc excluded from it a small number of plants in which the petals arc distinct to the base : for it must bo remembered 
that the subdivisions of our classes are to a considerable degree artificial ; and in a natural arrangement, plants mut^t not 
bo separated which agree in important cliaractcrs, and only differ in minor points. 
[Flora.] 1 



Group 1. Ovaries several or numerous (\n BcrbcriJaccn: solitary), distinct; when in several rows, sometimes cohering 

tcclhcr, but not united into a compound pistil. Petals and stamens inserted on the receptacle. 

• Stamens or pistils (one or both) numerous. 

Order 1. R.tNCNCULACEJE. Sepals 3 - C, usually 5, deciduous. Petals 3 - 15. Anthers extrorsc (sometimes none). 
Ovaries rarely fevf, distinct.— Herbaceous (rarely shrubby) plants, with acrid watery juice; leaves 
without stipules. 

2. MaonolucEjE. Sepals 3 - C, deciduous. Petals 3 to many. Anthers adnatc, elongated. Carpels in one or 

several rows, often more or less cohering. — Trees or shrubs, with large and usually coriaceous 
punctate leaves ; stipules membranaceous. Flowers solitary, generally large and fragrant. 

3. Akonace«. Sepals 3. Petals G. Seeds with ruminated albumen. — Trees or shrubs, with alternate entire leaves 

destitute of stipules. 
♦• Stamens few. Pistils very few or sohtary. 

4. Me.nispebmaceje. Flowers small, usually dioecious or polygamous. Sepals 3-12, in 1 - 3 rows. Petals as 

many as the sepals, or fewer (sometimes none). Carpels usually several ; only one or two arriving 
at maturity, and forming one-seeded berries or drupes. — Climbing or twining frutcscent plants, 
with alternate palmately veined leaves. 

5. BERBEBiDACEi:. Flowers perfect. Stamens opposite the petals ; cells of the anther xisually opening by valves. 

Ovary solitary, simple. — Shrubs or herbs, usually without stipules. 

Gboup 2. Ovaries several, either distinct or united into a compound pistil of several cells. Stamens usually numerom, 
inserted on the receptacle or torus. — Aquatic herbs. 

• Carpels not united into a compound ovary. Leaves centrally peltate. 

6. Cabombaceje. Torus small ; ovules 2 or several in each carpel, inserted on the dorsal suture. 

7. NELUMEiACEa:. Torus large, turbinate; the ovaries immersed in its disk, each with a solitary ovule. 

*» Ovary compound ; the ovules covering the dissepiments, 

8. NYMPHJEACEi:. Stigmas united in a radiated disk. 

*** Ovary compound; the placentie in the axis. 

9. SARRACENIACE.E. Lcaves hollow, pitcher-shaped. 

Group 3. Ovary compound, with parietal placenta. Calyx not adherent to the ovary ; the stamens and pistils inserted 
on the receptacle. Lcaves not dotted. 
» Styles or stigmas united, 
f Sepals 2, or rarely 3, deciduousi 

10. PAPAVERACEa:. Petals 4, equal. Stamens numerous (rarely few). Seeds albuminous. Juice milky or colored. 

11. FcMARiACEi. Petals 4, irregular. Stamens 6, united in 2 parcels. Pod one-celled. 

tt Sepals and petals 4, or rarely 6, 

12. CRnciFEHiE. Stamens 6, two of them shorter than the others. Pod 2-celled. 

13. CAPPAR1DACE.K. Stamens 6 - 32 ; (when 6, not tetradynamous.) Pod one-celled. Seeds kidney-shaped. 

+ft Sepals 5 (rarely 3), persistent. 

14. VioLACEj!. Petals 5, irregular. Stamens 5. 

15. CisTACEa;. Petals fugacious, regular. Stamens usually numerous. 

»• Styles or stigmas separate. 

16. Droserace*:. Stamens few. Leaves circinnate, usually with glandular hairs. 

Group 4. Ovary compound, with the placenta; parietal, or 2 - 5-celled from their meeting in the axis ; styles distinct, or 
partly united. jEstivation of the calyx imbricated. Stamens and petals inserted on the receptacle. Seeds 
with a straight embryo, and little or no albumen. 

17. HvPERicACE.!. Stamens usually numerous and polyadelphous. Leaves dotted. — Shrubs or herbs, without 


18. ELATiNACEa:. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. Seeds attached to a persistent central axis. — 

Small annual weeds, with axillary flowers. 


Grocp 5. Ovary compound, one-celled with a free central placenta, or several-celled with the placentae in the axis. Calyx 
free from the ovary, or nearly so. Embryo coiled around the outside of the albumen. 

19. CiRTOPHYLLACEiE. Sepals and petals equal in number. Stipules none. 

20. Illecebbaceje. Sepals and petals equal in number, the latter often wanting. Stipules scarious. 

21. PoRTULACAcEa:. Sepals 2-3. Petals 5. StiptJes none. 

Group 6. Ovary compound, several-celled, with the placentse in the axis ; or the numerous carpels more or less coherent 
with each other, or with the central axis. Calyx free from the ovary, with a valvate sestivation. Stamens 
numerous, monadelphous, free, or .somewhat polyadelphous, inserted with the petals into the receptacle or 
base of the calyx. 

22. Malvace^:. Stamens monadelphous ; anthers one-celled. 

23. TiLiACEjE. Stamens distinct, or somewhat polyadelphous ; anthers 2-celled. 

Group 7. Ovary compound, or of several carpels adhering to a central axis, free from the calyx, which is mostly imbri- 
cated in aestivation. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, inserted on the receptacle, commonly 
monadelphous at the base. Flowers perfect. 

* Flowers regular, or nearly so. Sepals imbricate. 

24. LiNACE.1:. Ovary of 3 - 5 united carpels, each in the capsule spuriously 2-ceIled by a false partition from the 

back ; the spurious cells with a single ovule. 

25. GERAMACEa;. Carjwls 5, one-seeded; styles cohering to the elongated axis, from which they at length separate 

by twisting or curling back from below upwards. Seeds without albumen. 

26. OxALiDACEa:. Carpels 5, commonly several-seeded, united in a membranaceous 5-celled capsule. Seeds arillatc, 

albuminous. Trifoliolate. 

** Flowers irregular. 

27. BALSAMiNACEiE. Sepals 5 ; the 2 upper ones commonly united into one ; the lower one spurred. Petals 4, 

united in pairs. Stamens 5. Capsule bursting clastically. 

♦♦♦ Flowers regular. Sepals valvate. 

28. LiMNANTHACEa:. Stamcns twice as many as the petals. Carpels 3-5, distinct, united by their styles, in fruit 

forming fleshy achenia. Seeds without albvunen. Leaves pinnatifid. 

Group 8. Ovary compound, with from 2 to several cells ; or carpels several, and more or less united by their styles. Calyx 
free. Petals as many as the sepals, or rarely wanting. Stamens as many or twice as many as the sepals, 
inserted into the receptacle or base of the calyx. Flowers often dioecious or polygamous. 

29. ANACARDiACEiE. Stamens as many as the petals. Ovary one-celled, with 3 styles or stigmas and a single 

ovule. Leaves not dotted. Albumen none. 

30. ZantHoxylace^. Carpels 2 or more, separate or united ; seeds one or two in each cell or carpel. Seeds 


Group 9. Ovary compound, 2 - 3-lobed, 2 - 3-celled, free from the calyx. Petals (except in Aceracca;) irregular, usually 
one fewer than the sepals, or sometimes wanting. Stamens definite, distinct, inserted on or around a hypo- 
gynous disk. Seeds destitute of albumen. — Mostly trees or shrubs. 

31. AcERACE£. Flowers regular. Fruit formed of 2 cohering samara:. 

32. HiprocASTANACEiE. Fruit large, roundish, dehiscent, with 1-3 very large seeds. Leaves digitate. 

Group 10. Ovary compound, 2 - 5-celled. Calyx free from or adherent to the base of the ovary. Petals and stamens 
equal in number to the lobes of the calyx, and inserted into its base or throat, or upon the disk that covers 
it. Seeds albuminous. — Trees or shrubs. Flowers regular. 

♦ Stamens alternate with the petals. 

33. Cei.astbace£. Calyx imbricated. Seeds usually arillatc. 

•• Stamens opposite the petals. Calyx valvate. 

34. RHAMNACE.E. Ovary usually coherent with the tube of the calyx, mostly 3-cclled, with a single ovule in each 


35. ViTACEi. Calyx free. Ovary mostly 2-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell. 



GtLom 11. Oraiy compound, 3-ccUcd. Sepals and petals Tcry irregular. Stamens monaddphous, the tube of filaments 
split on one side ; anthers opening by a terminal pore. Seeds albuminous. 

36. PoLTGAl^CEX. Character the same as that of the group. 

Group 12. Ovary simple and solitary. Corolla papilionaceous or irregular, sometimes regtilar. Fruit a legume. Seeds 
destitute of albumen. 

37. LEGCMiNosi : Suborder Papilionacea. CoroIU papilionaceous, rarely ahnost regular ; the sstivation imbricated. 

Stamens inserted with the petals on the base of the calyx. 

Group 13. Ovaries one or several, simple and distinct, or combined into a compound ovary, with two or more cells, and 
the placenta: in the aiis. Flowers regular. Petals and (distinct) stamens inserted on the calyx. Albumen 

38. Ros-^CEX. Calyx (except in the suborder P(?nia«<z) free from the ovaries. Stamens usually numerous. Ovaries 

with soUtary or few o\-ulcs. Styles distinct. Leaves alternate, usually with conspicuous stipules, 
which very often adhere to the petiole. 

39. MELASTOsiACza:. Calyx adhering to the angles of the ovary. Stamens 8 - 12. Anthers elongated, mostly 

appcndaged and opening by pores ; in Estivation, indexed, and contained in tubular spaces formed 
by the adhesion of the ovary with the nerves of the calyx. Leaves opposite, ribbed, not dotted. 

40. LTTHRACEi. Calyx tubular, enclosing the 2 - 4-celled ovary, but free from it. Stamens definite ; anthers 

opening longitudinally. Styles united into one. Capsule membranaceous, the dissepimenU often 

41. OsAGBAclLa:. Calyx-tube adherent to the (usually 4-ceUcd) ovary. Petals mostly 4, with as many or twice as 

many stamens. Styles united ; stigmas 4 or united. 

Group 14. Ovary compound, one-celled, with parietal placenta. Petals and stamens inserted in the throat of the calyx. 
Flowers perfect. Calyx adherent to the ovary. 

42. CACTACEi. Sepals and petals numerous, confounded. Fruit baccate. — Succulent and usually leafless plants. 

43. GBOssuLACEi;. Calyx-lobes, petals and stamens 5.— Shrubs, mostly spiny or prickly. Leaves palmately lobed. 

Group 15. Ovary compound, with the calyx adherent. Fruit a pepo. Corolla usually monopctalons. Stamens di- 
triadelphous ; anthers long, sinuous. 

44. CnctTBBiTACEis. Character same as that of the group. 

Grottp 16. Ovaries 2 or more, many-ovuled, distinct or more or less united. Calyx free from the ovary, or the tube 
partly (rarely wholly) adherent to the ovary. Petals and stamens (mostly definite) inserted on the calyx. 
Seeds numerous, albuminous. 

45. CaAssuLACEi;. Calyx free. Ovaries always as many as the sepals, distinct, or rarely partly united, follicular 

in fruit 

46. SAxiTBAGACEa:. Calyi oftcn partly adherent. Ovaries mostly 3, usually united below, distinct at the summit 

Grottp 17. Ovary compound, 2- (rarely 3-5-) celled, with a single ovule suspended from the summit of each cell. 
Stamens (with one exception) as many as the petals and lobes of the adherent calyx. 

47. Haham£lace£. Summit of the ovary free. Capsule locuUcidal. — Shrubs with alternate stipulate leaves. 

48. UMBEiiiTEiLS. Styles 2. Carpels 2, separating at maturity. Albumen homy.— Herbs, with the inflorescence 

in umbels. 

49. Araiiace^:. Styles 3 to 15 (rarely 2). Carpels mostly baccate, not separable. Albumen fleshy.— Herbs with 

the inflorescence in umbels. 

50. CoRNACti. Flowers tetramerous. Styles united into one. Fruit a 3-celled drupe.— Trees or shrubs with 

opposite leaves. Flowers in cymes. 

Clematis. RANUNCULACE^. 5 

Group 1. Ovaries several or numerotis (in Berberidace^ and a few other cases 
solitary), distinct ; when in several rows, sometimes cohering together, hut not 
united into a compound pistil. Stamens and pistils inserted on the receptacle 
(hypogynous). Seeds albuminous. 

Order I. RANUNCULACEiE. Juss. The Crowfoot Tribe. 

Calyx of 3 to 6 (but usually 5) distinct deciduous sepals, which (except in 
Clematis') are imbricated in eestivation. Petals 3 to 15, sometimes irregular 
or deformed, occasionally absent. Stamens indefinite, distinct (very rarely 
definite). Ovaries numerous (rarely few or solitary), distinct ; ovules solitary 
or several, anatropous. Carpels either dry achenia, or baccate, or follicular. 
Seeds solitary or several. Embryo minute, at the base of fleshy or horny 
albumen. — Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs, sometimes climbing, with an 
acrid watery juice. Leaves alternate (opposite in Clematis), usually palmately 
or ternately divided, without stipules. 


Tribe I. Anemone^;. Petals flat or wanting. Anthers mostly extrorsc. Achenia numerous, caudate or subulate with 

the style. Seed suspended. 
Tribe II. Kanunculeje. Petals with a small nectariferous scale, pore or gland at the base inside. Anthers eitrorse. 

Achenia numerous. Seed erect, or sometijues suspended. 
Tribe III. Hellebore.'e. Petals irregular, often bilabiate or tubular, nectariferous; sometimes wanting. Calyx pcta- 

loid. Anthers mostly ( xtrorse. Carpels few (rarely soUtary), follicular, with several seeds. 
Tribe IV. CiMiciFCGEiE. Sepals pctaloid. Petals (dilated sterile filaments or staminodia'?) 3 - G. Anthers introrse or 

innate. Carpels few, sometimes eolitary, rarely numerous, follicular or baccate, and several-seeded • or 

sometimes indehisccnt and one-seeded. 
Tribe V. HTDRAsTiDEa:. Sepals 3, petaloid, caducous. Anthers innate. Ovaries numerous, 2-ovnied. Carpels 1 - 

2-secded, baccate, in a globose head. 

Tribe I. ANEMONEjE. Torr. ^ Gr. 


Petals flat or wanting. Anthers mostly extrorse. Achenia numerous, caudate, subulate or 
mucronate with the persistent style. Seed suspended, 

1. CLEMATIS. Linn.; DC.iSyst. 1. p. 31. virgin's BOWEn. 

[Named from the Greek, klona, a. shoot or tendril; in allusion to the climbing habit of the genus,] 

Involucre none, or resembling a calyx and situated close to the flower. Sepals 4, colored, 
in ajstivation valvatc, or sometimes with the edges bent inwards. Petals usually none, 

6 RANUNCULACEiE. Clematis. 

sometimes few, shorter than the sepals. Anthers Hnear, extrorse. Aclienia terminated by- 
long (mostly plumose or hairy) tails. — Perennial, herbaceous, somewhat shrubby plants, 
mostly sarmentose, with opposite leaves and fibrous roots. 

^ 1. Clematis proper. Involucre none: petals none. 

1. Clematis ochroleuca. Ait. (Plate I.) Silky Virgin's Bower. 

Stem herbaceous, erect, silky-pubescent ; leaves undivided, ovate, silky underneath ; pe- 
duncles sohtary, one-flowered, terminal, inchned. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) p. 260; SIttis, hot. 
mag. t. 1175 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 48 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 8 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 7. 
C. sericea, Michx. fl. 1. p. 319 ; Pursh,Jl. 2. p. 385. 

Stem simple or somewhat branched, 1^-2 feet high, firmly erect. Leaves 1^-3 inches 
lon<T and 1-2 inches in diameter, nearly sessile, rather obtuse, sometimes a little cordate at 
the base, reticulated, nearly smooth when old. Flowers about an inch in diameter, only one 
on a plant when the stem is simple, but usually several when branched. Sepals (rarely 5) 
silky externally, of a dull yellowish color internally, lanceolate, acuminate ; the point some- 
what recurved. Peduncle of the fruit erect. Carpels with long plumose silky tails ; the silk 
of a 3'ellowish color. 

In a small sandy copse about half a mile from the South Ferry, Brooklyn ; the only known 
locahty of the plant in the State. It was first detected there by the late Dr. C. W. Eddy, in 
the year 1806 ; and though often sought for, was not found again until a few years ago, when 
it was collected by Mrs. S. Carey. It flowers in Maj-, and ripens its fruit early in July. 

2. Clematis Virgi.mana, Linn. Virginian Virgitis Bower. 

Flowers panicled, dioecious or polygamous ; leaves temate, smooth ; leaflets ovate or 
roundish, acuminate, often more or less cordate, incisely toothed and lobed ; carpels with long 
plumose tails.— Willd. sp. 2. p. 1290 ; Michx.fl. 2. p. 318 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 384 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 335 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 8. 

Stem 8-15 feet long, climbing over shrubs and bushes, pubescent when young, nearly 
smooth and somewhat shrubby when old. Leaves on petioles which are 2-3 inches long ; 
the leaflets 1-3 inches in length and 1-2 inches in breadth, peliolulate. Panicles axillary, 
trichotomously divided, with small leaves at the divisions. Sepals white, elliptical-obovate, 
longer than the stamens and pistils. Carpels with silky plumose whitish tails, which are about 
an inch long, and recurved in maturity. 

Common in thickets, and along fences and stone walls. Flowers from the latter part of 
July to August ; the fruit mature about the end of September. 

This plant is sometimes employed as an emetic, diaphoretic and alterative. Wood and 
Bache's U. S. Dispensatory, append. 1078. 

Clematis. RANUNCULACE/E. 7 

^ 2. Atragene, DC. Involucre none : petals several, minute. 

3. Clematis \t:rticillaris, DC. Whorl-leaved Virgins Boicer. 

Peduncles one-flowered ; leaves verticillate in fours, ternate ; leaflets petiolulate, ovate, 
acuminate, somewhat cordate, entire or sparingly toothed. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 10; Hook. 
fl. Bor.-Am. \. p.2; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 10. Atragene Americana, Sims, hot. 
mag. t. 887 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 384 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 219. 

Stem suffruticose, climbing over rocks and shrubs, nearly smooth. Leaflets about 2 inches 
long, often entire, but sometimes with a few coarse serratures. Peduncles about the length 
of the petioles. Flowers cernuous, very large, and of a fine purplish blue color, campanulate. 
Sepals oblong-lanceolate, acute, sparingly pubescent externally, woolly on the margin. Petals 
spatulate, passing into stamens. Carpels with long white plumose tails. 

Northern and western parts of the State, not uncommon ; rare in the valley of the Hudson. 
Its most southern station is the Fishkill Mountains, near the summit of which it occurs 
sparingly. Flowers the latter part of April and early in May. A beautiful climber. 

2. ANEMONE. Linn.; Endl. gen. 4773. wind-flower. 

[From the Greek^ anemos, wind ; because many of the species grow in elevated bleak situations.] 

Involucre of 3 leaves, remote from the flower ; the leaflets variously incised. Sepals 5 to 15, 
petaloid. Petals none. Achenia mucronate (sometimes with a long plumose tail). — 
Perennial herbs, with radical (usually divided) leaves. Scapes, when branched, bearing 
leaf-like involucres at each division. Peduncles one-flowered. 

^ 1. Anemonanthea, DC. Carpels tcithout tails: pedicels solitary or in pairs {rarely more), all 
leafless and one-flowered : leaves of the involucre sessile or petiolate. 

1. Anemone nemorosa, Linn. Wood Anemone. 

Leaves ternate ; leaflets undivided, or with the middle one 3-cleft and the lateral ones 2- 
parted, incisely toothed, acute , those of the involucre smaller, pelioled ; sepals 4-6 (com- 
monly 5), oval or elliptical. — Miclix. fl. 1. p. 319 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 387 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 63; 
DC. prodr. 1. p.20; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 6 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 12 ; 
Pritz. revis. Anem. in Linnaa, 1841, p. 650. A. lancifolia, Pursh, I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

var. quinquefolia: lateral leaves of the involucre 2-partcd to tlie base. — DC. I. c. ; Bart, 
ft. N. Am. 2. t. 39. /. 2 ; Torr. comp. p. 223 ; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. quinquefolia, Linn. 

Rhizoma horizontal, 2-3 inches long. Stem or scape 3-8 inches high, slender, usually 
smooth. Radical leaves (often wanting) on long petioles. Leaflets of the involucre resembling 
those of the radical leaves, an inch or more in length, ciliate-pubescent on the margin. Pe- 
duncle slender, 1-2 inclics long, arising from the centre of the involucre. Flower about an 
inch in diameter. Sepals rarely only 4 and occasionally as many as 7, resembling petals, 
white or more or less tinged with purple, especially underneath. Carpels elliptical-ovoid, 
with a small recurved point. 

Moist woods and thickets ; very common. Flowers in April and May. Fr, June. 


2. Anemone cyli.ndrica, Gray. Cylindrical-headed Wind-Jlower. 
Silky-pubescent ; leaves lernatcly divided ; lateral segmenU 2-parted, the intermediate one 

2-cleft ; lobes linear-lanceolate, with the apex incisely toothed , those of the involucre similar 
and petioled ; peduncles 2-6, rarely solitarj' ; sepals 5, obovate, obtuse ; carpels densely 
woolly, in a long cyhndrical head, pointed with a short somewhat curved beak. — Gray in 
ann. lye. N. York, 3. p. 221 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 13 ; Pritz. 1. c. p. 668. 

Plant 1-3 feet high, the stem and peduncles slender and usually of a purpUsh color. 
Radical leaves on petioles, which are 2 - 6 inches long ; lamina 2-3 inches in diameter, 
the ultimate segments only 2-3 hues wide. Peduncles commonly umbellate, very erect ; 
those of the flowers about 6 inches long ; of the fruit, twice or more that length. Leaves of 
the involucre 2-3 times the number of the peduncles. Flowers scarcely more than half an 
inch in diameter, all expanding nearly at the same time. Sepals somewhat coriaceous, hairy 
externally, pale yellowish green within. Style very short. Heads of carpels an inch or more 
in length, and one-third of an inch in diameter. 

Sandy plains near Oneida lake {Dr. Gray). Irondequoit mills, 12 miles east of Rochester 
{Dr. Knieskern). May - June. 

This species, which was first characterized by Dr. Gray, has a general resemblance to 
A. Virginiana, but is easily distinguished by its different inflorescence, more slender habit, 
narrow leaf-segments, and cylindrical head of carpels. 

& 2. Akemonospermos, DC. Carpels without tails, compressed ; pedicels several from one involucre, 
one of them leafless and one-flowered, the others bearing a 2-leaved involucel. 

3. Anemone Virginiana, Linn. Thimble-weed. 
Leaves ternately divided ; segments 3-cleft, acuminate, incisely serrate , those of the in- 
volucre and involucels similar, petioled ; sepals 5, somewhat coriaceous, elliptical, silky- 

. villous externally; carpels densely woolly, in an ovoid-oblong head, mucronate. — Michx. 
Jl.l. p. 320 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 388 ; DC.prodr. 1. p. 21 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 7. t. 4. 
/. B ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 320 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 13 ; Pritz. I. c. p. 671. 

Rhizoma short, and somewhat ligneous. Plant 1-3 feet high. Radical leaves on long 
petioles ; leaflets 2-4 inches long, and 1 - 1^ inch wide. Peduncles 6-12 inches long, 
several from each involucre. Flowers about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, appearing 
in succession, so that the flowers and fruit are found on the plant at the same time. Sepals 
greenish white or ocliroleucous, two of them narrower than the others, with a short acuminate 
point ; the others obtuse. Carpels ovoid, with a subulate and somewhat incurved beak, matted 
together by the whitish dense wool which clothes them ; the heads usually about three-fourths 
of an inch long, and half an inch in diameter. 

Dry woods, hill sides, and banks of rivers. Fl. Latter part of June. Fr. September. 
This is one of the numerous plants supposed to possess the power of curing the bite of the 

Anemone. RANUNCULACE.E. 9 

4. Anemone multifida, Poir. [Plate IL] Cut-leaved Wind-flower. 

Hairy ; leaves lernately divided ; segments cuneiform, laciniately 3-cleft, the lobes linear, 
acute , those of the involucre and involucels similar, on short petioles ; sepals 5-8, oval, 
obtuse; head of carpels oval, woolly. — Poi7-. diet, suppl. 1. p. 364; Deless. ic. 1. t. 16; 
DC. prodr. \.p. 21 (excl. var. uniflora) ; Hook. jl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 7 ; Fritz. I. c. p. 672. 

var. Hudsoniana: stem mostly 2-flowered. — DC. I. c; Gray, in ann. lye. N. York, 3. 
p. 222 ; Torr. <^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. jp. 13. A. Hudsoniana, and var. sanguinea, Richards, 
app. Frank, jour. ed. 2. p. 22 ; Fritz. I. c. A. Hudsoniana, Oakes, in Hovey's-hort. mag. 
May, 1841. A. sanguinea, Pursh, in herh. Lamb. 

About a foot high. Radical leaves on petioles which are 2-5 inches in length ; segments 
1-2 lines wide. Peduncles of the flower 1-3 inches long, of the fruit 6 inches or more ; 
one of them naked, the other with an involucel near the middle. Flowers as large as in A. 
Virginiana, bright purplish red. Sepals usually 5, silky-villous externally. Head of carpels 
about three fourths of an inch long and half an inch in diameter. Carpels pointed with a 
slightly curved subulate beak. 

The only known locality in our State, of this rare plant, is Watertown, Jefferson county, 
where it was discovered about 25 years ago by Dr. I. Crawe. It grows on limestone rocks, 
and, in this place, always occurs with red flowers, which appear in June. Dr. Robbins found 
it in Vermont with the flowers dull white, and sometimes tinged with rose-color. 

DeCandolle, in his Syst. nat. veg. (1818), describes two varieties of this plant, one {Ma- 
gellanica) from the Straits of Magellan, collected by Commerson ; the other {Hudsoniana) 
from Hudson's Bay. These seem to differ merely in the number of flowers on a plant ; a 
character by no means constant. The former is figured in Delessert's Icones, Vol. 1. 1. 16. 
in t. 17 is a representation of a third variety ("pedicellis solitariis"), from the Straits of 
Magellan, but not described by DeCandolle in his Systema. It is the y. uniflora of his Pro- 
dromus. This differs so much from the ordinary A. 7nultifida, that the author of the Icones 
proposed it as a distinct species, under the name of A. Commersonia, which is adopted by 
Sprengel in his Systema veg. In the southern hemisphere the A. multifida has even a more 
extended range than in North America, being found from Conception to the Straits of Magellan. 

5. Anemone Pennsylvanica, L. Pennsylvania Wind-Jbwer. 

Somewhat hairy ; leaves 3 - 5-parted ; segments oblong, incisely toothed at the apex ; in- 
volucre and involucels similar, 2-leavcd, sessile ; sepals 5, obovate ; carpels hairy, margined, 
with a long subulate style which is somewhat recurved at the point ; heads of carpels glo- 
bose.— PwrsA, Jl. 2. p. 387; DC. prodr. \.p.\2\ ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 8. t. 3. /. B ; 
Torr. 4" Gr. fl. N. Amer. \. p. 14 ; Fritz. I. c. p. 667. A. dichotoma, Linn, amc^n. acad. 
\.p. 155. A. aconitifolia, Michx.Jl. i.p. 320. 

[Flora.] 2 

10 RANUNCULACE^. Anemone. 

Plant about a foot and a half high, usually growing in patches. Rhizoma creeping, some- 
what ligneous. Petioles 8-12 inches long. Leaves 4-6 inches or more in diameter. 
Flowers 1 - ij inch in diameter. Sepals white and membranaceous, pubescent externally. 
Style much longer than the ovary or even the ripe carpels. 

Banks of rivers and rather wet meadows ; not uncommon. June - August. Fr. Septem- 
ber. Our plant seems to agree in ever}' essential character with tlie Siberian A. dichotoma. 

3. HEPATICA. Dill. ; DC. syst. I. p. 215 ; Endl. gen. 4T74. liverleat. 

[From the Gieek, hepar, the liver; the 3-Iobed leaves resembling the liver of some animals.] 
Involucre very near the flower, and resembling a calyx of three sepals. Sepals (resembling 
petals) 6-9, arranged in two or three rows. Petals none. Carpels without tails. — Leaves 
radical, 3-lobed. Involucre one-flowered. 

I. Hepatica triloba, Cliaix. Common Liver-leaf. 

Leaves broadly cordate, 3 - 5-lobed, tlie lobes entire. — DC.prodr. 1. p. 22; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 391 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 8; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 331 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 1. p. 15. 
Anemone Hepatica, Linn. ; Michx.fl. I. p. 319; Pritz. I. c.p. 690. 

var. 1. obtusa : leaves 3-lobed ; lobes roundish, obtuse. — Pursh, I. c. ; Torr. ^- Gr. 1. c. 
H. Americana, Ker, in hot. reg. t. 387 ; DC. I. c. 

var. 2. acuta : leaves 3 - 5-lobed ; lobes acute, spreading. — Pursh, 1. c. ; Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. 
H. acutiloba, DC. I. c. 

Root consisting of coarse fibres. Leaves somewhat coriaceous, unsually remaining through 
the winter till the following season ; the older ones purplish underneath. Petioles and scapes 
villous, 3-6 inches long, the latter appearing before the vernal leaves, sheathed at the base 
with oblong imbricated stipules. Involucral leaves ovate, villous externally. Sepals oblong, 
obtuse, usually blue, but sometimes pale purple or white. Carpels oblong, acuminate, 

A very common plant in woods, flowering frequently in the latter part of March, and con- 
tinuing till May. The acute-leaved variety is more common in the northern and western 
counties than in the southern part of the State ; but I have seen this form, when transplanted 
into gardens, produce part of its leaves with obtuse lobes. In their native woods the two 
varieties remain distinct, and seldom grow near each other. 

This plant has for a number of years past been employed as a remedy in pulmonary dis- 
eases, but it is of verj' doubtful efficacy. See Wood 4- Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 347. 

Rantjnctjltis. RANUNCULACE^. 11 


Petals tvith a small nectariferous scale, gland or pore at the base on the inside. Anthers 
extrorse. Seeds erect, or rarely suspended. 

4. RANUNCULUS. Linn.; DC. syst. l.p.231; Endl. gen. 4793. crowfoot. 

[From the Latin, rana, a frog ; the species often growing in wet places where that reptile abounds.] 
Sepals 5, deciduous. Petals 5 (sometimes 10 or more), with a nectariferous scale or pore on 
the inside of the claw. Stamens numerous (rarely few). Carpels ovate, pointed, com- 
pressed, disposed in a cylindrical or roundish head. Seed erect (rarely suspended). — 
Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves mostly radical ; the cauline ones at the base of the 
branches and peduncles. 

^ 1. BATRACHirM, DC. Carpels transversely/ wrinkled: petals whiti : claws yellow, with a con- 
spicuous 7teclariferous pore. 

1. Ranunculus aquatilis, Linn. Water Crowfoot. 
Stem floating ; submersed leaves filiformly dissected, emersed ones 3-parted, with cunei- 
form toothed lobes ; petals obovate, longer than the calyx. — Pursh,Jl. 2. p. 395 ; DC. prodr. 
\.p. 26; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 10; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 327; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N.Am. 1. 
p. 15. 

var. capillaceus : leaves petioled, all immersed and filiformly dissected. — DC. I. c. ; Hook. 
I. c; Torr.<^ Gr. I. c. 

Stem filiform, varying in length according to the depth of the water, smooth and branching, 
producing roots at the lower joints. Leaves dichotomously or trichotomously divided into 
thread-like segments of about an inch in length. Petioles dilated and sheathing at the base. 
Peduncles 1-2 inciies long. Sepals elliptical, smooth. Petals white or ochroleucous. Car- 
pels shghtly rugose, with a short beak. 

Flowing waters and ponds ; rather rare : Singsing, Schenectady, Lake Erie, Chenango 
County, Penn-Yan, &c. Fl. June - August. Fr. August - September. 

^2. Hecatonia, DC. Carpels smooth{not writMed), ovate or roundish, in small globose heads: 
root fibrous : flowers yellow. 

* Leaves all undivided, 

2. Ranunculus Flammula, Linn. Speancort. 
Leaves smooth, linear-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, often toothed, the lower ones petiolate, 

upper ones nearly sessile ; stem declined, rooting at the lower joints ; peduncles opposite the 
leaves; carpels with a subulate beak ; petals longer than the calyx. — DC. prodr. I. p. 32; 
Pursh,jl. 2. p. 391; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 327; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 16. 

12 RANIJNCULACE^. Ranunculus. 

Whole plant smooth, and of a yellowish green color. Stem 1-2 feet long, somewhat 
branching : leaves 3-6 inches long, and from one quarter to nearly an inch in breadth ; upper 
ones acuffe at each end ; lower ones more or less obtuse at the base. Peduncles 1-2 inches 
long. Flowers nearly half an inch in diameter. Carpels in a globose head, beaked. 

A common plant in low wet grounds, ditches, and about springs, flowering from July to 
August. Fruit ripe in November. It is one of the most acrid of the genus, and is sometimes 
employed in domestic practice for bhstering the skin. The distilled water is used as an 
emetic. See Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 543. 

3. Ranunculus reptans, Linn.. Least Spearicort. 

Leaves linear or lanceolate-linear, acute at each end, smooth, entire ; stem creeping (rooting 
at the joints) ; carpels dotted, with a minute blunt point. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 32. 

var. fdiformis, DC. : stem filiform, creeping extensively ; leaves linear ; flowers small. — 
Torr. <$■ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 16. R. filiformis, Miclix. fl. \.p. 320 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 392 ; 
Bart.fl. Am. Sept. 2. p. 101. t. 70, f. 2; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 224. 

Stems numerous, 6-12 inches or more in length, producing leaves and roots at the joints. 
Leaves scarcely one line in breadth, but occasionally broader and somewhat lanceolate. 
Flowers 3-4 lines in diameter. Petals obovate. Carpels roundish, ovoid, the beak very 
short and oblique. 

Sandy banks of rivers and lakes ; rather rare. It is abundant on the shores of the Hudson, 
about Albany and Troy ; on Lake Erie, near Sackett's Harbor ; Chenango County {Dr. Knies- 
kern), and in a few other places. Flowering from July to August. 

4. Ranunculus pusillus. Pair. SmaU-Jloioered Crmcfoot. 

Stem usually erect ; leaves all petiolate, the lower ones ovate and subcordate, entire or 
sparingly toothed, upper ones linear-lanceolate ; petals usually 3 (sometimes 1 - 5), as long 
as the calyx ; carpels ovate, smooth, with a minute blunt point. — Pair. diet. 6. p. 99 ; Pursh, 
Jl. 2. p. 312 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 58 ; DC. prodr. 1 . p. 32 ; Deless. ic. l.t.2S; Darlingt.fl. Cest. 
p. 328; Torr. ^ Gr.jl. N. Amer. I. p. 17. 

var. muticus : carpels without any beak. — Torr. <^ Gr. 1. c. 

A dwarf species, the only locality of which, in this State, so far as I can learn, is on the 
Island of New-York. It occurs sparingly in the low grounds of Bloomingdale, about five 
miles from the City Hall ; flowering in July. When it throws up numerous stems, it is 
sometimes decumbent. 

5. Ranunculus Cymbalaria, Pursh. Sea Crowfoot. 

Stoloniferous ; leaves cordate, ovate or reniform, petioled, obtuse, coarsely crenate ; scape 

Ranunculus. RANUNCULACE^. 13 

1 - 3-flowered ; petals spatulatc, longer than the calyx. — Pursk, fl. 2, p. 392 ; Bigel. jl. 
Bost. p. 225 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \.p.\l ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 19. R. Cymba- 
laria, /3. Americana, DC. prodr. \.p. 33. 

Scapes 2-6 inches high, with one or two minute linear leaves. Stolons extensively creep- 
ing. Radical leaves smooth, somewhat fleshy, about half an inch broad ; petioles 2-4 
inches long. Flowers about a third of an inch in diameter. Sepals oval, concave. Petals 
5-8. Carpels ovate, acute, compressed, with several elevated ribs, disposed in dense oblong 

Salt marshes on the seacoast of Long Island ; also about the salt works of Salina and 
Syracuse. July - September. 

♦' Leaves more or less divided. 

6. Ranunculus abortivus, Linn. Kidney-leaved Crowfoot. 
Smooth ; radical leaves on long petioles, reniform or broadly ovate and subcordate, crenate, 

sometimes 3-cleft ; cauline ones 3 - 5-parted, with hnear-oblong, nearly entire segments ; 
sepals reflexed, longer than the petals ; head of carpels globose or ovate. — Pursli,fl. 2. p. 
392; DC. prodr. 1. p. 34; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 14; Darlingt. fl. Cest.p. 328; Torr. 
4- Gr.fl. N. Amer. I. p. 19. 

Plant very smooth, shining. Root consisting of thick tufted fibres. Stem simple or 
branching, about a foot high. Radical leaves 1-2 inches in diameter. Flowers 2-3 lines 
in diameter. Sepals ovate, obtuse, yellowish. Petals pale yellow, with a conspicuous trun- 
cate and pouch-like scale. Carpels roundish, margined, pointed, with a very short straight 
style, smooth and shining. 

A common species in rocky woods, meadows, etc. ; beginning to flower towards the end of 
April, and continuing through May. Fr. June - July. 

7. Ranunculus sceleratus, Linn. Celery-leaved Crowfoot. 

Smooth ; leaves petioled, 3-parted, radical ones with the divisions 3-lobed and obtusely 
incised, the upper cauline ones with oblong-linear nearly entire lobes ; sepals reflexed, about 
equal to the petals; carpels minute, scarcely mucronate, disposed in oblong cylindrical heads. 
— Pursh, ^. 2. p. 393 ; DC. prodr. l.p.M; Ell. sh. 2. p. 59 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-A m.\.p.\5; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest.p. 339; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Amer. \.p. 19. 

Plant pale green. Stem thick and rather succulent, fistulous, very leafy, branching. 
Leaves 1-3 inches long, with spreading narrow segments : petioles dilated and sheathing at 
the base. Flowers small. Petals pale yellow, with a roundish nectariferous pore on the 
claw. Carpels a hundred or more, forming a head which is sometimes an inch in length. 

A common plant in low grounds and ditches; flowering from May to August. A native 
also of Europe 

14 RANUCULACE.E. Ranunculits. 

8. Ranunculus Purshii, RicJuirds. Pursh's Crowfoot. 
Submerged leaves divided into filiform flat segments, the enierscd ones reniform, 3-5- 

paried ; lobes variously divided ; petals twice as long as the reflexed sepals ; carpels in globose 
heads, smooth, with a short straight ensiform style. — Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 15 ; Torr. 4- 
Gr.Ji. N. Am. \.p. 19. 

var. 1 : leaves all filiformly dissected ; flowers large ; stem fistulous. — Hook. I. c. ; Torr. 
tj- Gr. I. c. R. multilidus, Pursh,Jl. 2. p. 736 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 34. R. fluviatilis, Bigel. 
fl. Bost. ed. I. p. 139. R. delphinifolius, Torr. in Eat. man. ed. 3 (1822), p. 424. R. lacus- 
tris. Beck ^ Tracy, in Eat. man. I. c. and in trans. Alb. inst. I. p. 148 cum icon. 

var. 2: submersed leaves filiformly dissected, floating ones reniform, palmately many-cleft. 
— Hook. I. c. t. 7. B.f.l ; Torr. <f-. Gr. I. c. 

var. 3 : creeping ; lower leaves many-cleft, with linear segments ; upper ones reniform, 
palmately many-cleft. — Hook. I. c. t. 7. B.f. 2 ; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. 

Stem in the floating varieties from one to several feet long, according to the depth of the 
water, much branched ; in the creeping form shorter, and often partly erect. Circumscrip- 
tion of the leaves roundish ; segments of the submerged ones 1-2 inches long. Flowers 
in var. 1, as large as in JR. acris, in the others smaller. Sepals ovate, colored, smooth. 
Petals bright yellow, obovate, one-third longer than the sepals. 

Sluggish streams, and also in still water. Common in the northern and western parts of 
the State. The first and third varieties occur in ponds on Long Island two or three miles 
from Brooklyn. May - July. A well marked species. 

9. R.4.NUNCULUS ACRIS, Linn. Tall Croicfoot. Butter Cups. 

Leaves pubescent or somewhat glabrous, 3 - 5-parted, with the segments deeply 3-cleft ; 
lobes lanceolate, acute, the uppermost linear ; stem many-flowered ; peduncles terete ; calyx 
spreading, villous ; carpels roundish, compressed, pointed with a short recurved beak. — Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 394; DC. prodr. 1. p. 36; Bigel. fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 226; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 
18; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 21. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, the lower part and the petioles usually clothed with spreading hairs, 
but sometimes nearly smooth. Peduncles 1-3 inches long. Flowers about an inch in 
diameter, bright yellow. 

Meadows and pastures, not uncommon ; flowering from June to November. The roots 
and leaves are sometimes bruised and applied to the skin, as a rubefacient, and also to pro- 
duce blistering. It is a naturalized plant of European origin. 

10. Ranunculus repens, Linn. Creeping Croiofoot. 

Stems throwing off from the base long prostrate or creeping branches ; leaves trifoliolate ; 
leaflets cuneiform, 3-lobed, incisely toothed, the middle (and generally the lateral ones also) 
petiolulate ; peduncles sulcate ; calyx spreading ; carpels with a broad short rather straight 

Ranunculus. RANUNCULACE^. 15 

point. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 38; Pursh, ft. 2. p. 394; Barlingt. fl. Cest. p. 329; Torr. ^ 
Gr. fl. N. Am. \. p.2\. R. intermedius, Eat. man. ed. 2. p. 329. R. Clintonii, Beck,fl. 
I. p. 7. R. nitidus, Muhl. cat. ed. 2. p. 56; Ell. sk. 2. p. 60; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 20. 
(excl. syn. DC.) 

var. 2. linearilohus {DC): prostrate; stems very long, floriferous ; lobes of the leaves 
very narrow. — Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. 

var. 3. Marilandicus ( Torr. cj- Gr.) : stem and petioles densely hirsute with very soft hairs ; 
leaflets distinctly petiolulate. — R. Marilandicus, Poir. diet. 6. p. 126 ; DC. syst. 1. p. 291 ; 
Pursh, I. c. 

Stems at first, especially in var. 3, and when growing in woods, only a few inches high and 
wholly erect ; but later in the season, and in rich soils, at length 1-4 feet long and mostly 
prostrate, often rooting at the joints. Sometimes the whole plant is smooth, but more com- 
monly the stem and petioles are hairy. Peduncles 1-3 inches long. Flowers about two- 
thirds as large as in R. acris, bright shining yellow. Carpels in a globose head, margined, 
somewhat orbicular, punctate ; the beak usually straight, but sometimes a little curved. 

Low grounds, particularly along rivers : var. 3, in woods. A variable species, presenting 
very different appearances according to the age of the plant, soil, etc. Early in May - Aug. 

11. Ranunculus FAscicuLARis, Mtihl. Bunch-rooted Croirfoot. 

Plant clothed with an appressed silky pubescence ; stem short, erect or spreading ; leaves 
pinnately divided ; segments oblong-obovate or cuneiform, pinnatifidly lobed ; calyx spread- 
ing, villous, half the length of the petals ; heads subglobose ; carpels orbicular, tumid, slightly 
margined ; style subulate, slender, a little curved, nearly as long as the carpel. — Muhl. cat. 
p. 56 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 40 ; Bigcl.fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 226 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 20. t. 8. 
f. A.; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 329; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 24. 

Root composed of thick, somewhat fleshy, fasciculate fibres. Stem 6-12 inches high, 
erect or oblique. Leaves variously divided ; of the radical ones, the middle lobe is always 
distinctly petioled, or separated from the lower segments by a portion of elongated naked mid- 
rib ; ultimate divisions about 2 lines wide. Flowers nearly as large as in R. acris. Petals 
obovate or oblong, bright or pale yellow ; scale of the claw cuneate-obovatc. Carpels 
minutely punctate, abruptly pointed with the slender style. 

Rocky woods and sunny hill sides, particularly along rivers. Common in the northern 
counties, but rather rare on the Hudson. Fl. April - May, Fr. June. 

12. Ranunculus Pennsylvanicus, Linn. Pennsylvanian Crowfoot. 

Stem and petioles hispid with spreading hairs ; leaves tcrnate, villous, with the hairs ap- 
pressed ; lower ones on long petioles , the leaflets petiolulate , lobes lanceolate, incised ; calyx 
reflexed, longer than the small petals ; heads oblong or somewhat cylindrical ; carpels broadly 


ovate, pointed with a very short oblique style.— £«. sk. 2. p. 63 ; Bigel. jl. Bost. ed. 2. jt. 
221 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 40; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 19; Torr. <^- Gr. Jl. A. Am. 1. p. 22. 
R. Canadensis, Jacq. ic. rar. 1. t. 165. R. hispidus, Pursh,Jl. 2. p. 395. 

Stem 1-2 feet hi^h, stout, usually much branched, erect, clothed with stiff horizontal 
hairs. Leaves 2-4 inches in diameter ; the lower ones with petioles 3-6 inches long ; 
petioles of llie leaflets often an inch or more in length. Penducles obscurely grooved. Flow- 
ers about tliree lines in diameter. Sepals ovate, rather obtuse, reflexed. Petals pale yellow, 
obovate, usually shorter than the calyx and ovoid compact head of pistils ; scale broadly 
cuneate, emarginate. Carpels viscid, very numerous. 

Banks of rivers, in damp soils, chiefly on tlie Hudson River and in the northern counties. 
Fl. latter part of July - August. Fr. September. 

13. Ranunculus recurvatus, Poir. Sanicle-leaved Crmcfoot. 
Erect ; stem and petioles clothed with spreading stiffish hairs ; leaves 3-parted, with ap- 

pressed hairs, or nearly smooth ; segments broadly oval, incisely toothed, ihs lateral ones 2- 
lobed ; calyx reflexed ; petals narrowly oblong, shorter than the sepals ; heads ovoid-globose ; 
carpels roundish, with a sharp hooked style.— PozV. diet. 6. p. 123 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 394 ; 
Deless. ic. 1. «. 41 ; DC. prodr. l.p. 39; Ell. sk. 2. p. 63; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p.20 (in 
part); Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 329; Torr. 4- Gr.Jl. N. Am. l.p. 22. 

Root coarsely fibrous. Stem about a foot high. Leaves 2-3 inches in diameter, with a 
pentagonal outline, petiolate. Flowers small, on short peduncles. Sepals oblong, hairy. 
Petals pale yellow, often only half the length of the sepals, with a conspicuous cuneate scale 
at tlie base. Carpels much compressed, margined ; the beak very slender, about half the 
length of the carpel. 

Shady woods, in rich soil ; common. Flowers from May to June. 

14. Ranunculus bulbosus, Lin7i. Butter-cups. 
Stem erect, hairy, bulbous at the neck; radical leaves cut into 3-5 petiolated leaflets, 

which are 3 - 5-cleft and incisely toothed ; peduncles sulcate ; calyx reflexed, shorter than 
the sepals ; carpels ovoid, with a short acute recurved beak. — Michx.Jl. l.p. 321 ; Pursh, 
Jl. 2.p. 392; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 331 ; Torr. ^ Gr.Jl. N. Am. l.p. 24. 

Root consisting of thick fibres. Stem about a foot high, clothed with appressed hairs, the 
tuber at the base about the size of a filbert. Leaves hairy, deeply parted and variously 
cut ; the segments short, obtusely incised and lobed. Peduncles 1-3 inches long. Sepals 
externally. Petals usually 5, sometimes more, deep yellow and shining. Carpels in a globose 

Fields, pastures and road sides. May - July. A weed of European origin. It is one of 
the most acrid of the genus. 

Caltha. RANUNCULACE.'E. 17 


Petals irregular, often bilabiate or tubular, nectariferous, sometimes wanting. Calyx petaloid. 
Anthers mostly extrorse. Carpels few {rarely solitary), follicular, with several seeds. 


5. CiLTHA. Sepals 6-0. Petals none. 

6. Tkollius. Sepals 5 - 15. Petals 5 - 20, small and one-lippcd. 

7. CopTis. Sepals 5-6, deciduous. Petals 5 - G, with claws. Follicles stipitate, membranaceous. 

8. Helleborus. Sepals 5, persistent. Petals 8 - 10, small, tubular. Follicles sessile, coriaceous. 

9. AaciLEGiA. Sepals 5, deciduous. Petals 5, each with a long spur. 

10. Delphinium. Sepals 5, irregular, one of them spurred. Petals 4, very irregular, two of them with spurs which are 

concealed in the spur of the calyx. 

11. AcoNiTtJM. Sepals 5, irregular, one of them large and vaulted. Petals 5, very irregular, the two upper ones on lonir 


5. CALTHA. Linn.; DC. syst. 1. p. 30G; Endl. gen. i786. MARSH marigold. 

[From the Greek, kalathos, a cup ; in allusion to the form of the flowers.] 

Calyx of 6 - 10 petaloid sepals. Petals none. Stamens numerous. Ovaries 5-10-16. 
Follicles compressed, spreading, many-seeded. — Perennial, very smooth herbs. Leaves 
cordate or reniform. 

1. Caltha palustris, Linn. Common Marsh Marigold. 

Stem erect ; leaves orbiculate-cordate or reniform, obtusely crenatc, or nearly entire, the 
lobes rounded ; sepals usually 5 (sometimes 6), broadly oval. — MicJix.Jl. l.p. 234; Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 390 ; DC.prodr. 1. /). 44 ; Darlingt. f,. Cest.p. 336 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fi. N. Am. 1. 
p. 26. 

var. integerrima : radical leaves ■wholly entire ; floral ones sessile, obscurely crenatc ; 
petals obovate. — Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. C. integerrima, Pursh, I. c. ; DC.prodr. l.p. 45. 

Root consisting of coarse fasciculate fibres. Stem 6-10 inches high, erect, rather thick 
and succulent, corymbosely or dichotomously branched above. Radical leaves 2-4 inches 
broad, on petioles 3-8 inches or more in length, sometimes acutely toothed. Flowers few, 
somewhat corymbose, an inch or more in diameter, bright yellow. Sepals about twice as long 
as the stamens. Carpels 8 - 10, oblong, somewhat recurved, mucronatc with the style. Seeds 
oblong, dark purple, horizontally arranged in a double series. 

Common in swamps. Var. integerrima, near Peekskill (Dr. Crandcll). Fl. April - May. 
In its early spring state, the plant is used as a potherb, or one of the numerous articles called 
" greens " in the United States, A syrup prepared from it is a popular remedy for coughs. 

[Flora.] 3 

18 RANUNCULACE-f:. Trollics. 

6. TROLLIUS. Linn. ; DC. sijst. 1 . p. 31 1 ; Endl. gen. 4787. globe-flower. 

[Said to be derived from the German word Irolla, or Irolcn, signifying a ball or globe.] 
Calyx of 5 - 10 - 15 deciduous petaloid sepals. Petals 5 - 25, small, 1-lipped, tubular at 
the base. Stamens and ovaries numerous. Follicles numerous, sessile, somewhat cylin- 
drical, many-seeded. — Perennial glabrous herbs having the appearance of Ranunculus, 
with fibrous-fasciculate roots, and palmately divided leaves ; the segments many cleft. 
Flowers yellow. 

1. Trollius laxus, Salisb. (Plate III.) American Glohe-Jloioer. 

Sepals 5-6, spreading ; petals 15-25, shorter than the stamens. — Salisb. in Linn, trans. 
8. p. 303 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 391 ; Bot. mag. t. 1988 ; Lodd. hot. cab. t. 56 ; Gray in ann. lye. 
N. York, 3. p. 222; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 28. T. Americanus, Muhl. cat. p. 56 ; 
DC. prod. l.p. 46; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 23. 

Plant 1-2 feet high, erect. Radical leaves on petioles 6-8 inches long ; upper cauline 
ones sessile. Flower about twice as large as in Ranunuculus acris. Sepals broadly obovate, 
ochroleucous, with a tinge of green underneath. Petals scarcely half the length of the sta- 
mens, deep orange yellow. Stamens about half the length of the petals ; anthers linear-oblong. 
Carpels 8-15. Seed oblong, horizontal, somewhat angular. 

Sphagnous swamps near Utica {Dr. Gray). Jamestown, Chautauque county {Miss C. 
Hazeltine). Wet woods, Mount Hope, near Rochester (P/o/". Dewey). Fl. Early in May. — 
A rare and handsome plant, looking at a little distance like a large-flowered Ranunculus. 

7. COPTIS. Salisb. in Linn, trans. 8. p. 305 ; Endl. gen. 4792. GOLDTHREAD. 

[From the Greek, hopto, to cut ; in allusion to the numerous divisions of the leaves.] 
Calyx of 5 - 6 petaloid deciduous sepals. Petals 4-6. Stamens 15 - 25. Follicles 3 - 10, 
on long stalks and somewhat stellately diverging, membranaceous, ovate-oblong, pointed 
with the style, 4 - 8-seeded. — Herbs, with radical somewhat coriaceous divided leaves and 
very slender creeping rhizomas. 

^. CiiBYSA, Raf. Petals very small, cucullaie-ohconic. 

1. CoPTis TRiFOLiA, Salish. Common Goldthread. 

Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets cuneiform-obovate, crenately and mucronately toothed, ob- 
scurely 3-lobed ; scape 1-flowered. — Salisb. I. c. ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 390; Bigel. med. bot. 1 
t. 5 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 47 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 23 ; Torr. S,- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 28. 
Helleborus trifolius, Linn.; Miclix.fl. \.p. 325. Chrysa borealis, Raf. in Dtsv. jour. bot. 
2. p. 170. 


Rliizoma horizontal, throwing off numerous long and slender bright yellow fibres of an in- 
tensely bitter taste. Leaves evergreen, on long petioles, very smooth and shining, strongly 
veined ; leaflets about an inch long. Scape slender, but somewhat rigid and wiry, 3-6 
inches long. Flowers about two-thirds of an inch in diameter. Sepals 5-7 oblong, obtuse, 
white, sometimes purplish underneath. Petals much shorter than the sepals, yellow at the 
base. Carpels acuminate with the persistent curved style. Seeds oblong, smooth and shining ; 
raphe indistinct. 

Common in sphagnous swamps, and in damp shady woods around the roots of trees ; flower- 
ing in May, and ripening its fruit about the end of June. The root is a pure bitter, like that of 
Quassia, without any astringency. It is extensively employed as a tonic, both in domestic 
practice, and as an ordinary article of the materia medica. 

8. HELLEBORUS. Adans. ; Endl. gen. 4789. HELLEBORE. 

[From the Greek, Mcin, to cause death, and 4ora, food; the plant being poisonous.] 

Sepals 5, persistent, mostly greenish. Petals 8 - 10, very short, tubular, 2-lipped. Sta- 
mens numerous. Stigma orbicular. Follicles 3-10, slightly cohering at the base, coria- 
ceous, many-seeded. Seeds elliptical, fungous at the hilum. — Perennial herbs (natives of 
Europe and Asia). Leaves coriaceous, the radical ones palmately or pedately divided. 
Flowers large, nodding. 

1. Helleborus viridis, Linn. Green Hellebore. 

Radical leaves glabrous, pedately divided ; the cauline few, nearly sessile, palmately 
parted; peduncles often geminate; sepals roundish-ovate, green (DC). — Jacq. jl. Austr. 
M06 ; Eng. bot. t. 200 ; Muld. cat. p. 56 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 47 ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N.Am. I. 
p. 659 (suppl.). 

Plant about a foot high, smooth, usually a little branched above. Rhizoma rather thick and 
woody. Radical leaves on long petioles, 5-8 inches wide, divided into 7-15 lanceolate 
serrated lobes. Flowers an inch or more in diameter. Petals shorter than the stamens. 

On the plains near Jamaica, and in a wood near Brooklyn, Long Island (Mr. A. Halscy, 
and Mr. R. J. Brownne). April. A native of Europe, but fully naturalized in these locahlies. 

9. AQUILEGIA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4795. COLUMBINE. 

[Latin, aipiUa, an cagic ; tho spurs of the petals having some resemblance to eagles' claws.] 
Sepals 5, deciduous, colored. Petals 5, somewhat bilabiate ; the outer lip large, flat and 
spreading ; inner one very small, produced at the base into as many hollow spurs or horns, 
which descend between the sepals. Follicles 5, erect, many-sccdcd, pointed with the 
style. — Perennial herbs, with bi- or triternatc leaves. Flowers terminal, scattered. 


20 RANUNCULACE^. Aquilegia. 

1. Aquilegia Canadensis, Linn. Canadian Columbine. 

Spur straight, larger than the limb ; sepals ovate or oblong, a little larger than the petals ; 
stanncns and styles exserted. — Michx. fl. l.p.ZQ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 50 ; Bot. mag. t. 246 ; 
Bart. Jl. Amer. Sept. 1. ^ 36; Hook. fl. Bor.-Amer. 1. p. 24 (in part); Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 320; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 29. 

Root fusiform. Stem 12 - 18 inches high, paniculately branched, smooth. Leaves on 
long petioles, glaucous underneath, commonly biternate ; leaflets cuneiform, crenately lobed. 
Flowers on slender pedicels, pendulous, scarlet externally, yellowish within. Spurs about 
an inch long, swollen, slightly curved and callous at the extremity. Ovaries pubescent : 
styles a little longer than the stamens. 

Rocky hill-sides ; flowering from the end of April to July. 

10. DELPHINIUxM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4796. larkspur- 

[From the Greek, delphin, a dolphin; from the shape of the upper sepal.] 

Sepals 5, deciduous, petaloid, irregular , the upper one produced into a spur at the base. 
Petals 4, irregular ; the two superior ones furnished with a spur-like appendage at the 
base, inclosed in the spur of the calyx. Ovaries 1 — 5, mostly 3. FolUcles many-seeded. — 
Annual or perennial herbs with erect branched stems. Leaves petiolate, palmately divided. 
Flowers in terminal racemes, commonly blue. 

§. CoNsoLiDA, DC. Ovary solitary : petals united into one: inner spur of one piece. — Annual. 

1. Delphinium Consolida, Linn. Common Larkspur. 

Stem erect, smoothish, divaricately branched ; flowers few in a loose raceme ; pedicels 
longer than the bracts ; carpels smooth. — DC. prodr. \. p. 51 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 372 ; Torr. 
^ Gr.fl. N.Am. l.p. 30. 

Annual. About a foot high. Leaves divaricately divided into numerous linear segments. 
Flowers numerous, in a long raceme, bright blue. Pedicels about an inch long. 

Fields and road sides : naturalized in a few places. July - August. 

12. ACONITL '^L Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4797. WOLFSBANE. 

[From Acmte, a town in Bithynia.] 

Sepals 5, petaloid, irregular, deciduous ; the upper one (galea) large, vaulted ; lateral ones 
roundish ; the 2 lower oblong. Petals 5 ; the 3 lower ones minute, often converted into 
stamens ; the 2 upper on long claws, expanded into a sac or short spur at the summit, con- 
cealed under the galea. Follicles 3-5, many-seeded. — Perennial herbs. Leaves pal- 
mately divided. 
The species of this genus contain a powerful narcotic principle called Aconitine. 


1. AcoNiTUM UNCiNATUM, Linii. American Moonkshood. 

Panicle rather loosely flowered, with diverging branches ; galea obtusely conic, compressed, 
with an obtuse beak; spur thick, inclined; leaves deeply 3-lobed. — Miclix. fl. 1. p. 315; 
Bot. mag. ^ 1 1 19 ; DC. prodr. 1 . ;>. 60 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 20 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1 . p. 34. 

Root tuberous. Stem flexuous, slender, 2-5 feet long, often reclining. Leaves 3-5 
inches in diameter, 3 - 5-parted, the segments laciniately and mucronately toothed. Flowers 
as large as in A. Napellus, bright blue. Ovaries 3-5, villous. 

In wet places on mountains, Chenango county {Major J. LeConte : v. s. in herb. LeConte). 
No other botanist has found this plant within the limits of our State. Dr. Knieskern lately 
searched for it in Chenango county, but without success. 

Tribe IV. CIMICIFUGE^. Torr. ^- Gr. 

Sepals petaloid. Fetals {dilated sterile filaments or staminodia?) 3-6. Anthers introrse 
or innate. Carpels few, sometimes solitary, rarely numerous, follicular or baccate, 
sometimes indehiscent and one-seeded. Flowers by abortion occasionally diclinous. 

12. ACT.EA. Linn.; Endl. gen. ^799. BANEBERRY. 

[Name from the Greek, aktc, elder; which this genus resembles in its foliage.] 

Sepals 4-5. Petals (or staminodia) 4-8, spatulate. Stamens numerous : anthers in- 
trorse. Stigma capitate, sessile. Carpels sohtary, baccate, many-seeded. Seeds com- 
pressed, smooth, horizontal. — Perennial herbs. Leaves bi-triternately divided ; segments 
incisely serrate. Flowers in sinij^le racemes, white. 

I. KcTJEk RUBRA, Bigel. White Cohosh. 

Raceme ovate ; pedicels longer than the flower, scarcely any thicker in fruit ; petals rhombic- 
ovate, acute, shorter than the stamens ; fruit nearly ovoid, (red.) — Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 211 ; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 27 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 35. A. Americana, var. rubra, 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 366. A. brachypetala, var. rubra, DC. prodr. 1. p. 65. A. spicata, var. 
rubra, Michx.fl. \.p. 308. 

Stem li-2 feet high, slender, smooth. Leaves tcrnatcly decompound; leaflets ovate, 
acuminate, 1-2 inches long, unequally and incisely serrate ; the terminal one often 3-clcft. 
Raceme 20 - 40-flowcred, broadly ovale or hemispherical. Sepals 4, greenish, ovate. Pe- 
tals sometimes 8 - 10, minute. Berries bright cherry red, the size of a large pea, about 
16-sccdcd ; the pedicels iialf an inch long, and not one-fourth as thick as the peduncle, at 
length spreading horizontally. 

Rocky woods ; not rare. Fl. May. Fr. August - September. 

22 RANUNCULACE^. Act^a. 

2. AcT^A ALBA, Bigel. ^' hite CoJiosh. 

Raceme oblong ; pedicels as long as the flower, much thickened in fruit ; petals oblong, 
truncate at the apex, siiorter than the stamens; fruit roundish-ovoid, (white.) — Bigel. f. 
Bost. p. 21 1 ; Ilook.fl. Bor.-A?n. l.p.27 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 35. A. Americana, 
var. alba, Pursh,fl. 2. p. 336. A. spicata, var. alba, Midix.fl. I. p. 308. A. brachypetala, 
var. a. & S. DC. j)rodr. l.^j. 65. 

Plant about two feet high ; in foliage and inflorescence resembling the preceding species. 
Petals often cmarginate or two-toothed at the apex. Pedicels of the flowers nearly as thick 
as the peduncle, at length i - 1 inch long, spreading, red. Berry about one-third of an inch 
in diameter, milk-while, and often tipped with purj)le. 

Rocky woods ; more common than the preceding in the southern counties. Fl. May. Fr. 
Aug. - Sept. A mild astringent and tonic (See Wood <J- Bache's U. S. Dispcns. app. 1067). 
These two species are generally very distinct, and easily recognized by their peduncles and 
berries ; but intermediate forms now and then occur. Dr. Knieskern found, in Cattaraugus 
county, an Aetata with thick peduncles and red berries. He did not find it in flower. 

13. CIMICIFUGA. Linn. ; Juss. gen. p. 234:. BUGBANE. 

[From the Latin, cimex, a bug, unifugo, to drive away.] 

Sepals 4-5. Petals (or staminodia) 3-5, concave or unguiculate, sometimes by abortion 
fewer or none. Stamens numerous : anthers introrse. Style short : stigma simple. Car- 
pels 1-8, follicular, many-seeded. — Perennial herbs. Leaves bi-lriternately divided; 
segments incisely serrate. Flowers in virgate racemes, white. 

&. Macrotys, Raf. Monogynous: carpels suh globose: seeds compressed, smooth, horizontal : stami- 
nodia several, very small, with long claws. (Botrophis, Raf. ; Fisch. <Sf Meyer.) 

1. CiMiciFUGA RACEMosA, Ell. (Plate IV). Black Snake-root. Rattle-weed. 

Racemes very long ; leaflets ovate-oblong, incisely-tootlied ; staminodia slender, 2-forked. — 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 16 ; Torr. compend. p. 219 ; Torr. <^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 36. Actaea race- 
mosa, Linn. ammn. acad. 7. p. 193. t. 4; Michx. fl. l.p. 308; DC. prodr. l.p. 64 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 27. Macrotys actaeoides, Raf. in Desv. jour. hot. 2. p. 170. Botrophis 
serpentaria, Raf. med. fl. I. p. 85. B. actasoides, Fischer <^ Meyer, ind. scm. St. Petersb. 
1835. Christiphoriana, ^c. Dill. Elth. 79. t. 67. f. 78. 

Root thick and knotted, with long fibres. Stem 3-8 feet high, smooth and furrowed, 
leafy near the middle. Leaves triternate ; leaflets 2-3 inches long. Racemes compound, 
terminal, 6-12 inches long : pedicels 3-4 lines long, bracteate. Flowers very foetid. 
Stamens very numerous, white. Sepals roundish-ovate, very caducous, greenish white. 
Staminodia 4-8, cleft nearly half way down. Carpels globose-ovoid, obliquely beaked 
with the short thick persistent style. Seeds 7-8, angular. 


Woods, in rich soil, not rare. Fl. Latter part of June - July. Fr. September. A showy 
plant when in flower. It is a popular remedy in most parts of the United States, being consi- 
dered tonic and astringent, stimulating the secretions of the skin, kidneys, uterus and lungs. 
See Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 200. 

14. THALICTRUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. Ani2. meadow RUE. 

[Greek, ihallo, to be green or flourishing.] 

Sepals 4, rarely 5, petaloid, usually caducous. Petals none. Stamens numerous ; anthers 
innate. Carpels (achenia) 4 - 15, pointed with the short style or stigma, sulcate or ribbed, 
sometimes inflated. Seed suspended. — Perennial herbs. Leaves bi-triternately divided. 
Flowers corymbose or paniculate, often dioecious or polygamous, greenish-white or yellow. 

^ 1. Edthalictrum, DC. Carpels ovoid or oblong, ribbed, sessile or slightly stipitate. 
t Sepals cadttams, shorter than the stamens : root fibroiis . 

1. Thalictrum dioicum, Linn. Early Meadoto Rue. 
Very smooth, dioecious or polygamous ; filaments filiform ; anthers linear, elongated, 

mucronate ; leaves on short petioles, ternately decompound ; leaflets rounded, crenatelv and 
obtusely lobed, glaucous beneath ; peduncles as long as the leaves ; carpels oblong, sessile, 
strongly ribbed, twice the length of the slender curved style. — Piirsh, jl. 2. p. 388; DC. 
prodr. \.p. 12; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 3; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 333; Torr. tj- Gr.fl. N. 
Am. \.p. 39. T. lajvigatum, Michx.fl. \.p. 322. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, slender, somewhat branched, with sheathing stipules at the base. 
Common petiole 1-3 inches long ; leaflets about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, more 
or less distinctly 3-lobed, the lobes crenately toothed. Sepals 4-5, oval, obtuse, often pur- 
plish. Filaments much longer than the sepals, weak, almost capillary and nearly of the 
same thickness throughout ; anthers yellowish. Fertile flowers with 6-8 stamens. Pistils 
6 - 10 ; the styles (including the stigmatic portion) longer than the ovary ; the persistent base, 
in maturity, shorter than the carpel : stigmas linear, elongated. 

Common in woods, particularly in rich soil among rocks. Fl. April - May. Fr. June. 

2. TiiAi.icTRUM CoRNUTi, Lvin. Common Meadow Rue. 

Dioecious or polygamous; filaments somewliat clavate ; anthers oblong, obtuse; leaves 
sessile (the petiole divided to the base), ternately decompound ; leaflets roundish-obovate or 
elliptical, 3-lobcd, with the lobes rather acute, glaucous or somewhat pubescent beneath ; pe- 
duncles lengcr than the leaves ; carpels nearly sessile, acute at each end, strongly rilibed, twice 
as long as the style ; stigma linear-oblong. — Linn. sp. p. 7G8 ; I'urs/i, Jl. 2. p. 338 ; Hook. 

24 RANUNCULACEiE. TiuucrnrM. 

fl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 3. t.2 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 38. T. pubescens, Pursh, 1. c. 
T. corj'ncllum andT. reTolutam, DC. prod. l.p. 12. T. polygamum, Muhl. cat. p. 56. T. 
rugosum and Cornuti, Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 334. 

Stem 3-6 feet liigli, brandling. Leaves very large, always sessile, the divisions of the pe- 
tiole clonn-ated ; leaflets variable in size, form and pubescence, ovate, elliptical or roundish ; 
often cordate at the base, but sometimes cuneate ; lateral ones sometimes entire ; the veins 
either scarcely prominent, or elevated and rugose ; margin commonlj' revolute. Panicle com- 
pound, loose. Sepals greenish-white, oblong, much shorter than the stamens. Ovaries 
about 12, styles short ; stigmas thick, pubescent. Carpels about 3 lines long, slightly stipi- 
late, beaked with the persistent style. 

A common tall plant in wet meadows, varj'ing in its foliage according to the degree of 
exposure and shade. FJ. July - August. Fr. September. 

n Sepals someichat persistent, longer than the stameia: rootgrunums. — (Syndesmon, Hoffmannsegg.) 

3. TuALicTRUM ANEMONoiDEs, Linn. Ru€ Auemone. 

Root fasciculately tuberous ; flowers few, large, umbellate ; floral leaves resembling an in- 
volucre ; radical ones biternate. — Miclix.ft. l.p. 322 ; DC. prod. l.p. 15; Juss. ann. mus. 3. 
p. 249. ^ 31. /. 2 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 4 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 333 ; Torr. <^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. l.p. 39 ; Brit. fl. gard. (2. ser.) t. 150. Anemone thalictroides, Linn. ; Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 3S7 ; Willd. hort. Berol. 1. t. 44 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 233 ; Bart. fl. Am. Sept. 2. 
t. 44 ; Bot. mag. t. 866. 

Root composed of several club-shaped fleshy tubers. Stems or scapes 4-8 inches high, 
commonlj' several from one root. Radical leaves on long slender petioles ; cauline ones 1-3, 
verticillate, sessile, trifoliolate ; leaflets petiolulate, roundish, obtusely 3 - 5-lobed. Pedun- 
cles 3-6, one-flowered, 1-2 inches long. Flowers nearly an inch in diameter, the central 
one (the first that expands) conmioidy larger than the others. Sepals 6 - 10, elliptical, white, 
sometimes shghtly tinged with purple, twice as long as the stamens. Filaments filiform, or 
somewhat clavate : anthers oblong. Ovaries 6-10: stj^Ie none: stigma simple. Carpels 
oblong, acute, prominently ribbed, slightly stipitate. 

Common in most parts of the State, in open woods, but rather scarce in the western coun- 
ties. It begins to flower in the latter part of April, and continues till June. Although so 
strongly resembling Anemone in its flower, the fruit shows that its true place is in the genus 

Zanthorhiza. RANUNCULACE^. 25 

15. ZANTHORHIZA. Marsh, arb. 167 ; Endl. gen. 4S03. yellow-ROOT. 

[From the Greek, xanthos, yellow, and rkiza, a root.] 

Sepals 5, petaloid. Petals 5, of 2 roundish gland-like lobes, raised on a pedicel. Stamens 
5 - 10. Ovaries 5 - 10 - 15, pointed with the curved styles, 2 - 3-ovuled. Follicles 
nneinbranaceous, sessile, compressed, obtuse, mostly 1 -seeded. Seed suspended. — Suf- 
frutescent : the root and bark yellow and bitter. Leaves pinnately divided, the segments 
incised. Racemes appearing with the leaves, compound. Flowers minute, dark purple ; 
often, by abortion, polygamous. 

1. Zanthorhiza apiifolu, L'Htr. Yellow-root. 

L'Her. stirp. nov. p. 79. t. 38 ; Lam. ill. t. 854 ; B. S. Bart. elem. hot. t. 12; Duliam. 
arb. ed. nov. 3. p. 181. t. 37, ex DC. sj/st. I. p. 386 ; Bart. ( W. I'. C.) veg. mat. med. 2. t. 
46 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ]). 1 . 40. Xanthorhiza simplicissima. Marsh. I. c. 

Root large. Plant 2-3 feet high, branching. Outer bark grayish ; the liber yellow. 
Leaves quinately pinnate ; lobes ovate, 1-2 inches long, acute, sharply and incisely serrate 
and lobed ; petioles 2-5 inches long. Racemes 2-4 inches long, slender, pendulous. 
Sepals elliptical, lanceolate, tapering at the base. Petals scarcely one-fifth as long as the 
stamens, the hmb consisting of two roundish purple lobes, supported on a short narrow claw. 
Ovaries (in the pistillate plant) 12 - 15, oblong, terminated by a curved style of more than 
their own length. Follicles (in the pistillate plant) 7 - 10, membranaceous, 2-valved above, 
gibbous at the base, obtuse and somewhat recurved at the summit, the persistent style, at 
maturity (from the growth of the ventral suture) attached to the back about two-thirds of the 
way from the base. Seed ovoid, suspended from the summit. Embryo near the base of 
fleshy, very oily, albumen. 

In a dark ravine, Sherburne, 11 miles from Hamilton {Dr. Douglass). Fl. April and begin- 
ning of May. I have seen no staminate or perfect flowers of this plant. 


26 RANUNCULACEiE. Hydkastis. 

Tribe V. HYDRASTIDEjE. Torr. ^ Gr. 

Sepals 3, pelaloid, caducous. Petals none. Stamens numerous : adthers innate. Ovaries 
numerous, 2-ovuled : styles short : stiginas dilated, induplicate. Fruit composed of 
baccate 1 - 2-seeded carpels, crowded in a globose head. — Herbaceous, perennial; 
rhizoma and roots ijellotu and bitter. Stem simple, 2-leaved, \-Jlowercd ; the foliage and 
fruit resembling a Rubus. 

16. HYDRASTIS. Linn.; Juss. gen. p. 232 ; Endl. gen. 4:777. yellow-ROOT. 

[Supposed to be from the Greek hydor, water; because it grows in moist places,] 
Character same as of ilic tribe. 

1. Hydrastis Canahensis, Linn. Yelloio-root. 

Micluc.fl. \.p. 317 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 389 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 55 ; DC.prodr. I. p. 53 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 336 ; Bot. mag. t. 3019, and t. 3232 (the fruit). Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 40. 
Warneria Canadensis, Mill. diet. 

Rhizoma a thick yellowish fleshy oblong tuber, about three-fourths of an inch long ; roots 
consisting of numerous strong fibres. Stem 6-10 inches high, simple, pubescent, with 
several oblong, sheathing, greenish-yellow stipules at the base. The summit usually 2-leaved, 
and sometimes a separate radical leaf on a long petiole. Leaves 2-5 inches wide, paknately 
3 - 5-lobed ; the lobes acute, doubly serrate : lower leaf petiolate ; upper one sessile. Pe- 
duncle an inch long. Calyx pale rose-color, small, falling very soon after the flower is 
expanded. Stamens very numerous, filaments linear-spatulate : anthers oval. Ovaries in a 
globose head : stigmas compressed, dilated. Carpels succulent when ripe, forming a com- 
pound purpHsh fruit about the size of a large raspberry. Seeds obovate ; testa crustaceous, 
nearly black, shining, lined with a thin and membranaceous tegmen. Embryo minute, at 
the base of somewhat fleshy and oily albumen. 

Shady moist woods. Parma, Monroe County, and Clinton, Oneida County ; rare {Dr. 
Bradley). Fl. April - May. Fr. July. 

The root (or rhizoma) is a bitter tonic and stimulant {Lindl. med. bot. ; Wood <^ Bache's 
U. S. Dispens. p. 200). This plant has received various names, such as Wild Curcuma,. 
Golden Seal, Yellow Puccoon, Orange-root. 



Order II. MAGNOLIACEiE. Juss. The Magnolia Tribe. 

Calyx of 3 - 6 deciduous sepals, somewhat petaloid. Petals 3 to many, usually 
in several rows. Stamens numerous ; filaments short ; anthers long, adnate 
and introrse. Ovaries several in a single row, or numerous and spicate on a 
prolonged receptacle or axis : styles short or none ; stigmas simple. Carpels 
numerous, 1 - 2-seeded, aggregated or connate, and forming a strobile or cone- 
like fruit. Seeds anatropous, suspended or ascending, often with a pulpy 
exterior covering. Embryo minute, at the base of fleshy albumen. — Trees or 
shrubs, with large, alternate, usually coriaceous leaves, which are commonly 
punctate with minute dots : stipules membranaceous, convolute or applied face 
to face, caducous. 

1. MAGNOLIA. Linn.; Endl gen. i^Sl. MAGNOLIA. 

[Named in honor of Prof. Magnol, a French botanist.] 

Sepals 3, caducous, sometimes none, or confounded with the petals. Petals 6-12, caducous. 
Carpels 1 -2-seeded, persistent, forming a strobile-like fruit, dehiscent by the dorsal suture. 
Seeds baccate, cordate when ripe, and the carpel opens suspended by a long funiculus 
composed entirely of spiral vessels.— Trees (rarely only large shrubs). Flowers sohtary 
and showy, mostly fragrant. 

1. Magnolia glauca, Linn. Common Magnolia. Sweet Bay. Brewster. 

Leaves oblong or oval, white beneath ; petals 9-12, ovate, narrowed at the base, erect.— 
Michx. fl. 1. p. 327 ; Michx. f. sylv. 1 . p. 274. t. 52 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 37 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 
229, and med. hot. t. 26 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 325 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 42. 

A shrub or small tree, from 8 to 30 feet high, with a smooth whitish bark. Leaves 3-5 
mches long and 1 - 2 inches wide, rather acute, or obtuse, bright shining green above, very 
glaucous beneath, silky when young, deciduous. Flowers terminal, 2-3 inches in diameter, 
on thick peduncles of about an inch in length, very fragrant. Sepals oblong, concave. 
Petals white, as long as the sepals. Carpels in a head 1 - Ij inch long, ovate, opening lon- 
gitudinally, 1 -seeded. Seeds as large as small peas, bright red, suspended for some time on 
a long thread-like funiculus. 

Cedar swamps {Cupressus thuyoides), Long Island: not found elsewhere in the State. 
May - June. Fr. September. 

The bark of this plant is a stimulating aromatic tonic and diaphoretic. Wood 4- Bache's 
U. S. Dispent. 

28 MAGNOLTACE/E- Magnolia. 

2. Magnolia acuminata, Linn. Cucumber Tree. 

Leaves decidous, oval, acuminate, pubescent beneath ; petals 6 9, oblong-obovate. — 
Micltx.fl. \.p. 328 ; Miclix.f. sylv. I. p. 278. t. 53 ; rursh,jl. 2. p. 3S1 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. A'. 
Am. l.p. 43. 

A tree 50-70 feet or more in height, and sometimes four feet in diameter. Leaves 6-8 
inches Ion<^, and 3-5 inches wide, membranaceous, more or less pubescent underneath. 
Flowers, when fully expanded, 5-6 inches in diameter, of a yellowish color, glaucous 
externally. Fruit nearly cylindrical, often a little curved, about 3 inches long and three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter, when green resembling a young cucumber. 

Not uncommon in the western part of the State. The younger Michaux found it on the 
Niagara river near the falls, nearly its northern limit. Prof. J. Hall observed it at Lewiston 
and Portage ; also in Cattaraugus, where it attains a great size. Dr. Knieskern saw it in 
Alleghany, Cattaraugus, Chautauque, Eric, Niagara and Orleans counties. Greece, Monroe 
county {Dr. Bradley). Cavuga lake {Dr. Alexander Thompson). It is said to grow between 
Owego and Ithaca, and in Steuben and Chemung counties. Dr. Allen Wass informs me that 
it grows about four miles north of New-Lebanon Springs, Columbia county. In Erie county 
and other places. Dr. Knieskern says that it is sawed into boards and used for floors, etc. 
and also for cabinet work. The grain resembles that of Bass wood ( Tilia), but it is more 
compact, and takes a finer polish. The bark of the tree is a mild aromatic, tonic and dia- 
phoretic. Lindl. med. hot. Wood <^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 417. 

Magnolia Umbrella (iripetala, Linn.) is said by the younger Michaux to grow in the northern 
part of New-York, but this must be a mistake, for no other botanist has found it in so high a 
latitude. He probably meant the western or southwestern part, for it occurs in Pennsylvania, 
and probably in some of the counties bordering that State. I have, however, concluded not 
to admit it into our Flora, till it is actually found within the limits of New-York. 

2. LIRIODENDRON. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4740. TULIP TREE. 

[Greek, leirim, a lily, and dendrcm, a tree ; from the form of its flowers.] 

Sepals 3, caducous. Corolla of 6 petals, campanulate. Carpels densely imbricated, 1—2- 
seeded, deciduous, indehiscent, the summit lengthened into a lanceolate wing. — A large 
tree. Leaves deciduous, 3-lobed ; the middle lobe emarginately tinincate, the lateral ones 
often with 2 sinuses. Flowers large, solitary, greenish-yellow, orange within. Stipules^ 

1. LiRioDENDRON TuLipiFERA, Linji. TuUp Tree. Tulip Poplar. 

Michx. jl.\. p. 326 ; Michx. f. sylv. \. p. 30. t. 61 ; Bot. mag. t. 275 ; Bigel. med. hot. 
t. 31 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 326 ; Land. arb. Brit. abr. p. 36. 

A large tree, 40 - 70 - 80 feet high, and 1 - 3 feet in diameter (in the western States 


much larger) ; the trunk is perfectly straight, and of nearly uniform diameter for some distance 
upward ; and the branches are very regularly disposed. The stipules are large, united face 
to face, forming a kind of pouch out of which the young leaves protrude. Flowers when 
fully expanded, about two inches in diameter, each with 2 large caducous bracts at the base. 
Sepals obovate-oblong, spreading, and at length reflexed. Petals oblong-obovate, obtuse, 
greenish-yellow, the lower half mixed with orange and red. Stamens nearly as long as the 
petals, in a single series ; filaments stout, a little incurved ; anthers linear and very long. 
Ovaries numerous, closely appressed to the axis : style none ; stigmas, recurved. Fruit an 
elongated acute cone, about 2 inches long, consisting of numerous woody carpels, which are 
often mostly abortive, 1 - 2-celIed. 

Fertile woods, common in most parts of the State. Fl. Latter part of May and early part 
of June. Fr. Sept. The wood is valuable, being strong, light and close grained. It is used 
for inside work in building, and pannel work, trunks, etc. There are two varieties known 
to mechanics, the White and the Yellow Poplar ; the latter being much preferred, as of finer 
grain, and more durable. The bark is a stimulating tonic and diaphoretic, and, according to 
the late Prof. Emmet, owes its active properties to a volatile crystalline principle, called by 
him Liriodendrin. The bark is said to enter into the composition of Milne's Tomato Pill. 
See Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispeiis. p. 408. 

Order III. ANONACE^, Juss. The Custard-apple Tribe. 

Sepals 3-4, persistent, often united at the base. Petals 6, in two rows, hypo- 
gynous, coriaceous ; the aestivation valvular. Stamens numerous, inserted on 
a hypogynous torus; the anthers extrorse, connective, large, 4-angled, and 
sometimes nectariferous at the summit. Carpels usually numerous (sometimes 
few), separate or cohering ; styles short, or none ; stigmas simple ; ovules soli- 
tary or several, erect or ascending. Fruit composed of few, or mostly nume- 
rous carpels, closely aggregated, and sometimes cohering and forming a fleshy 
or pulpy mass when mature. Seeds one or more in each carpel ; the testa 
brittle; embryo minute, at the base of hard ruminated albumen. — Trees or 
shrubs, with alternate, entire, usually dotted leaves, which are destitute of 
stipules. Flowers axillary, large, of a dull brown, whitish or greenish color. 

30 ANONACEiE. Uvaru. 

1. UVARIA. Linn.; Bhmc ; Alph. DC. mem. Anon. p. 25; Endl. gen. 4717. 

[So named from vvti, a grape; from the form of (lie fruit in some species.] 

Sepals 3, united at tlic base. Petals 6. Ovaries fcvv^r numerous. Carpels oblong, baccate, 
often torulose, pulpy within, several-seeded. Low aromatic trees or shrubs, with deciduous 
leaves, and usually purplish flowers. 

^. AsiHlNA, Adans. Carpels by abortion 2 - 3 or solitary ; inner petals smaller than the outer 
ones; Jloieers solitary on short axillary peduncles, which are sometimes bracteolate. 

1. UvARIA TRILOBA, ToTT. Sf Gv. PopaW. 

Leaves oblong, obovatc, acuminate, membranaceous ; flowers arising from the axils of 
former leaves ; petals dark purple, the exterior ones roundish, 3-4 times the length of the 
sepals. — Torr. <f Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 45. Anona triloba, Linn. ; Michx. f. sylv. 2. t. 60. 
Orchidocarpum arietinum, Michx. jl. \.p. 329. Porcelia triloba, Pers. syn. 2. p. 95 ; Pursh. 
fl. 2. p. 383. Asimina triloba, Dunal, Anon. p. 81 ; DC. pvodr. I. p. 87 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 42 : 
Darlingt.fl. Cest.p. 325 ; Lond. arb. Brit. abr. p. 38. 

A shrub or small tree 6-10 feet or more in height, with a smooth grayish bark and slender 
branches. Leaves 6-8 inches long, 2i - 3^ inches wide, on short petioles ; the veins 
clothed with a brownish pubescence when young, but smooth when old. Flowers appearing 
rather before the leaves, on recurved pubescent peduncles. Sepals ovate, green, with a pur- 
plish pubescence externally. Petals of a dull purple, mixed with yellow, about an inch long, 
spreading, and more or less recurved. Stamens crowded on the torus. Ovaries 3 to 7, oblong, 
longer than the stamens. Fruit 2-3 inches long, consisting of one, or sometimes of several 
pulpy carpels, of a yellowish color. It is usually of an oval form, gibbous and irregular; 
fragrant, and palatable to some persons. The seeds are oval, compressed, of a light brown 
color, and about three-fourths of an inch long ; the albumen is very distinctly ruminated. 

Banks of rivers, in rich damp soil. Greece, Monroe county {Dr. Bradley). On Chau- 
tauque creek, where it empties into Lake Erie, abundant ; also in several places further 
east {Dr. Knieskem). Prof. J. Hall informs me that it grows at Lewiston and Middleport, 
Niagara county. Fl. May. Fr. August. 

Menispermtjm. MENISPERMACE.E. 31 

Order IV. MENISPERMACEyE. Juss. The Moonseed Tribe. 

Flowers dioecious, rarely monoecious or polygamous. Sepals 3 - 12, in 1 to 3 
rows, deciduous. Petals 1-8 (usually as many as the sepals), sometimes 
wanting in the pistillate flower. Stamens distinct or monadelphous, equal in 
number to the petals and opposite to them, or 2-4 times as many : anthers 
adnate or innate, and consisting of four globose lobes, or with the cells hori- 
zontal and placed end to end, opening longitudinally. Ovaries usually several, 
distinct or rarely united ; commonly only one or two of them fructify. I^'ruit 
a drupe or berry, one-seeded, when young nearly straight, but at length be- 
coming oblique, lunate, or so much incurved that the apex and base are 
brought into contact ; the nut (endocarp) bony, and often tuberculate on the 
broad margin. Seed heterotropous, conformed to the cavity of the nut. 
Embryo large, enclosed in the rather thin fleshy albumen. — Climbing or 
twining shrubby or suffruticose plants. Leaves alternate, without stipules, 
simple and palmately veined. Flowers minute, in racemes or panicles. 

1. MENISPERMUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4685. moonseed 

[From rii'me, the moon, and sperma, a seed ; the seeds or nuts being usually lunate.] 

Flowers dioecious. Sepals 4 - 8, in a double series. Petals 4 - 8, in a double series ; some- 
times none. Stam. Fl. Stamens 12 - 20, distinct. Pistill. Fl. Ovaries 1-4 (usually 
solitary). Drupes 1-4 (usually solitary), globose-reniform. Racemes axillary, or supra- 
axillary. Sterile and fertile flowers often dissimilar. 

1. Menispermum Canadense, Linn. Canadian Moonseed. 

Leaves peltate, with the petiole near the base, smoothish, angularly lobed, the lobes acute 
or obtuse ; racemes compound ; sepals 4 - 7 ; petals 6-7, very small, somewhat fleshy ; 
stamens 15 - 19 ; anthers innate, 4-lobed. — MicJuc.Jl. 2. />. 241 ; Lam. diet. t. 824 ; Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. .370 ; DC. syst. 2. p. 540 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 715 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 570 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr.fl. N. Am.l.p. 48. M. Virginicum, Linn. ; Willd. sp. 4. p. 824. 

Stem sufihiticose at the base, or entirely herbaceous, 8-15 feet or more in length, slender. 
Leaves 3-4 inches long, and of rather greater breadth, with 3-5 angular lobes, often cor- 
date at the base, pubescent on tiic veins and somewhat glaucous underneath ; the petioles 
about as long as the leaves. Flowers very small, greenish yellow ; the sterile ones in pani- 
culate supra-axillary racemes : pedicels about one line long, bracleolatc. Sepals commonly 
4-5, obovale-oblong. Petals much smaller than the sepals, orbicular, obtusely cuncatc al 


the base. Filaments scarcely thickened at the summit : anthers of 4 spherical lobes. Ra- 
cemes of fruit resembling Frost grapes. Drupe stipitate, about one-third of an inch in dia- 
meter, nearly black when mature, pruinose, curved so that the style and base are nearly in 
contact ; pulp small in quantity. Nut compressed, forming a nearly complete ring. Seed 
terete, annular. Embryo linear, in the axis of fleshy albumen, and nearly of the same 

Banks of rivers, woods, and in thickets ; common. Fl. June - July. Fr. September - 
October. The root is employed as a tonic and diuretic, also as a detergent in cutaneous 
diseases (Dr. /. M. Bigelow). See Riddel's Synops. Weslern Flora. 

Order V. BERBERIDACEiE. Vent.; R. Br. The Barberry Tribe. 

Flowers perfect. Sepals 3-9, deciduous, imbricated in one or more rows, often 
colored and calyculate with petaloid scales. Petals as many as the sepals and 
opposite them ! or twice as many, often with a gland or appendage at the base 
inside. Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them ! (twice as many as 
in Podophyllum) : anthers extrorse ; the cells commonly opening by a valve 
from the bottom to the top. Ovary solitary, simple : style continuous, often 
somewhat lateral or oblicj^ue : stigma orbicular or peltate. Fruit baccate or 
capsular. Seeds one or few, and then occupying only the top or bottom of the 
cell ; or numerous and attached to the whole ventral suture, sometimes arillate : 
embryo in the axis, or near the base of fleshy or horny albumen. 

Tribe I. BERBERIDEjE. Torr. ^ Gr. 

Embryo in the axis, and occupying nearly the whole length of the albumen : radicle long : 
cotyledons flat, elliptical. — Shrubs. Leaves compound or reduced to a single leaflet, 
often stipulate. Flowers yellow. Filaments irritable. 

1. BERBERIS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 'iSl'l. BERBERRY. 

[Berbcnjs, the Arabic name of the plaSt.] 
Sepals 6, usually with three bracteolcs at the base. Petals 6, commonly with two glands on 
the inside of each at the base. Stamens 6. Stigma orbicular, depressed, nearly sessile, 
rarely with a distinct style. Fruit a 1 - 9-seeded berry. Seeds erect. 

Berberis. BERBERIDACE^. 33 

1. Berberis vulgaris, Linn. Common Berberry or Barberry. 

Branches with triple spines, minutely dotted ; leaves oval-obovate, closely serrate with 
bristly teeth ; racemes nodding, many-flowered ; petals entire ; berries oblong. — Willd. sp. 
2. p. 227; Lam. ill. t. 243 ; Bigel.fl. Bost.p. 128; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 28, excl. syn.; 
Ton: ^ Gr.jl. N. Am. 1. p. 50 ; Lond. arh. Brit. arh. p. 42. B. vulgaris, var. Canadensis, 
Torr.fl. l.p. 336, not of Willd. 

A shrub 3-8 feet high, witli yellowish-white wood and yellow pith, producing numerous 
suckers ; spines sometimes simple. Leaves deciduous, of a bluish-green color, acid. Flowers 
pale yellow, emitting a peculiar and not unpleasant odor. Berries very acid, about half an 
inch long, 1 - 2-seeded. 

Hedges, fields and road sides : introduced from Europe and naturalized in many places 
along the Hudson, but not yet occurring in the interior of the State. Fl. Middle to the end of 
May. Fr. September. 

The inner bark of the stem and roots, with the addition of alum, affords a yellow dye. The 
fruit is often made into a sweetmeat, and the jelly mixed with water is a pleasant drink in 
fevers. Many agriculturalists are of opinion that the Barberry produces blight in grain. This 
prejudice has come down from ancient times, but it is probably not well founded. In Berberis 
proper, the primary leaves are changed to spines, in the axils of wliich the secondary leaves 
are fascicled. 

Tribe II. NANDINE^. Torr. ^ Gr. 

Embryo minute at the apex of the albumen, often excentric or oblique with respect to the 
hilum : radicle short and thick : cotyledons very small, roundish. Perennial herbs. 
Leaves decompound or lobed. 

2. LEONTICE. Linn. ; R. Br. ; Endl. gen. 4810. 

[Abridged from LeontopetaUm ; the leaf being thought to resemble a lion's foot.] 

Sepals 3-6. Petals 6, bearing a little scale or nectary at the base within. Pericarp mem- 
branaceous, caducous or inflated, 2 - 4-seeded. Seeds erect, globose : albumen horny. 
— Smooth herbs, with a tuberous rhizoma. Radical leaves petiolate, pinnately or ternately 
divided. Flowers in loose racemes or panicles. 

^. Caulophyllum, Michx. Pericarp bursting at an early period ! exposing the finally drupe-like 
seed raised on its thickened funiculus. 

1. Leontice thalictroides, Linn. Blue Cohosh. Pappoose-root. 

Leaves triternate ; the radical ones on long petioles ; cauline 1-2, destitute of a common 
petiole ; the lower triternate, the upper (when present) much smaller and biternate ; leaflets 

[FtORA.] 5 

34 BERBERIDACEiE. Leontice. 

mciscly 2-3 lobed. — R. Br. in Linn, trans. 12. p. 145. 1. 1 ; Torr.Jl 1 p. 33G ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cost. p. 213 ; Torr. ^ N. Am. 1 p. 52. Caulophyllutn llialiclroidcs, 1. 
p. 205. I. 21 ; Pursh,fl. \.p.-Z\9; Bot. mag. t. 2345. 

Plant purplish and glaucous when young. Stem simple, 1-2 feet high, clothed at the base 
with several oblong imbricated scales. Leaves commonly 2, the petiole of the lowest di- 
vided nearly to the base ; leaflets 1 -2i inches long and an inch or more wide, often obtusely 
cunealc at the base, the lateral ones more or less oblique and nearly or quite sessile ; terminal 
one petiolulate. Panicle small, racemose ; the peduncle arising from the base of the upper 
leaf. Petals greenish-yellow, about twice the length of the sepals, obovate-lanceolale, ungui- 
culale, with a reniform viscid scale on the inside at the base. Stamens scarcely one-third the 
length of the petals ; filaments short and thick ; anthers ovate, opening, as in the greater part 
of the family, bv two valves, formed by the separation, all around, of the face of each cell ; 
the valves curving upward, and remaining attached by a small surface. Ovary ovoid, narrowed 
at the base, obliquely beaked with the short style ; ovules 2, ascending. Pericarp extremely 
thin, bursting soon after the impregnation by the growth of the young seeds, the vestiges 
only remaining ; seeds naked, about the size of a large pea (one of them often abortive), glo- 
bose, deep blue when ripe ; the testa somewhat fleshy, supported on a short thick funiculus : 
albumen horny, of the form of the seed. 

Fertile rocky woods ; not uncommon. Fl. April - May. Fr. August. The root of this 
plant is in some repute as a diuretic and bitter, but its powers have probably been overrated. 
The roasted seeds have much the taste and odor of coffee, but I am not aware of their having 
been much used as a substitute for that article. 

3. JEFFERSONIA. Bart, in trans. Amer. phil. soc. 3. p. 334, cum icon. ; Endl. gen. 

no. 4807. TWis-LEAP. 

[Named in honor of Mr. Jeffersos, late president of the United States.] 
Sepals 4, petaloid. Petals 8, oblong. Stamens 8 : anthers linear. Ovarj' obovate ; stigma 
peltate, nearly sessile. Capsule somewhat stipilate, opening by a transverse semilunar 
chink near the summit. Seeds numerous, crowded in several rows on the broad lateral 
placenta : aril lacerate, unilateral. Embryo minute, at the base of fleshy albumen. Rhi- 
zoma horizontal, throwing up a simple one-flowered scape, and bifoliolate or deeply 2-parted 
leaves. Habit of Sangvinaria. 

1. Jeffersonia DiPHYLLA, Pers. Ticin-Ieaf. Rheumatism-root. 

Pers. syn. I. p. 418; \.p. 268; Bot. mag. t. 1513; Torr.fl. l.p. 399; Torr. 
4- N. Am. l.p. 53. J. binata, Bart. I. c. J. Barlonis, Micha:. fl. l.p. 237. Podo- 
phyllum diphyllum, Linn. 

Jeffersonia. BERBERIDACE^. 35 

Rhizoma thick, horizontal, somewhat fleshy, throwing off numerous branching fibrous 
roots. Leaves all radical, glaucous beneath, forming a tuft, with several foliaceous oblong 
sheaths at the base ; lamina parted to the very base, and usually considered as formed of 
two leaflets : lobes when fully grown 3-4 inches long and nearly 2 inches wide, entire, 
obscurely toothed or sinuate. Flowers white, about an inch in diameter. Sepals sometimes 
3 or 5. Stamens shorter than the petals : anthers linear-oblong. Stigma with the margin 
cristate or undulate. Seeds ovate-oblong ; testa brownish, thick. 

Rich calcareous soils in the western and northern counties : not found in the valley of the 
Hudson. Fl. April. Fr. July. 

The root is said to be stimulant, diaphoretic and antispasmodic. It is sometimes employed 
as a remedy in chronic rheumatism. 

4. PODOPHYLLUM. Linn.; Endl. gen. ^801. may-apple. 

[Named from the Greek, pons, a foot, and phyllon, a leaf; the leaf resembling the foot of some birds.] 
Sepals 3, caducous. Petals 6-9, obovate. Stamens 12 - 18 : anthers linear, bursting by 
a double longitudinal line. Ovary ovoid : stigma thick, nearly sessile, peltate. Fruit 
ovoid, fleshy, indehiscent. Seeds numerous, in several rows, on a thick lateral placenta, 
enclosed in a pulpy arillus. — Rhizoma horizontal, (cathartic.) Stem erect, simple, 2-leaved 
and one-flowered at the summit. Leaves peltate, lobed. Fruit large, slightly acid, and 
somewhat edible. 

1. Podophyllum peltatum, Linn. May-apple. Mandrake. Hog-apple. 

Stamens 12- 18; leaves 5 - 7-parted, the segments cuneiform-oblong, somewhat lobed 
or toothed at the apex. — Michx.fl. I. p. 309; Bot. mag. t. 1819; Bigel. mal. med. 2. t. 23; 
Nutt.gen. 2. p. 10; Darlingt.Jl. Cest.p. 318; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N.Am. \.p. 54. 

Rhizoma a little thicker than a goose quill, horizontal, creeping, with thick branching 
fibres at the joints. Stem 10 - 15 inches high, erect, smooth and naked, with several sheath- 
ing scales at the base. Leaves on the fertile stems 2, very c.xccntrically peltate, palmately 
5 - 7-partcd ; barren stems producing but a single leaf, which is peltate in the centre. Flower 
1 J - 2 inches in diameter ; the peduncle about an inch long, and usually drooping. Petals 
while, obovate. Stamens one-third the length of the petals. Fruit the size of a pigeon's 
egg, oval, somewhat gibbous, yellowish when ripe. Seeds ellipsoid, almost entirely enveloped 
in a pulpy arillus : testa membranaceous : raphe linear : embryo minute, at the base of copious 
fleshy albumen. 

Moist open woods and meadows, in rich soil ; common. Fl. May. Fr. August. The 
acid pulpy fruit is eaten by some persons, but it is not very agreeably tasted. The root is a 
well known cathartic, and has long been used as a cathartic, its properties being similar to 
those of Jalap. It is, however, rather drastic (Sec Wood <^ Bachc's U. S. Dispcns. p. 518). 

36 BERBERIDACEiE. Podopuylldm. 

Dr. Knicskcrn informs mc that he knew of a case where a whole family was poisoned, from 
the young pianl having been eaten as greens in the early spring. They were saved by the 
prompt exliibiiiou of einelics. A second species occurs in the mountains of Nepal. 

Group 2. Ovaries several, either separate, or perfecthj united into a compound 
pistil, which is several-celled, tcith the placentie not j^arietal. Statnens indefi- 
nite, inserted on the receptacle or torus. — Aquatic herbs. Leaves involute in 

Order VI. CABOMBACE.E. Ricliard. The Water-shield Tribe. 

Sepals 3-4, colored inside, persistent. Petals 3 - 4, alternate with the sepals, 
Stamens 6 - 36 : filaments slender; anthers innate. Ovaries 2 or many, with 
2 or 3 pendulous anatropous ovules inserted on the dorsal suture ! Carpels 
separate, indehiscent, foUicle-hke, somewhat fleshy. Seed 2-3 (sometimes 
by abortion solitary), pendulous, with a minute embryo enclosed in the thick- 
ened membrane or sac of the nucleus, which is half immersed in the fleshy 
albumen at the extremity next the hilum. — Aquatic perennial herbs, with the 
emersed leaves centrally peltate ; the submerged ones sometimes finely dis- 
sected. Peduncles axillary, solitary, one-flowered. 

1. BRASENIA. Schreb. ; Endl. gen. 5025. Hydropeltis, Michx. WATER-SBIELD. 

Sepals 3 - 4, colored within, persistent. Petals 3 - 4. Stamens 18 - 36. Ovaries 6 -18: 
ovules 2 (sometimes one), alternate. Carpels oblong, acuminate, 1 - 2-seeded. — Stem, 
peduncles, petioles and under surface of the leaves thickly covered with a viscid transpa- 
rent gelatinous substance. Leaves all centrally peltate. Flowers brownish-purple. 

1. Brasema peltata, Pursh. Water-shield. Water-target. 

Pursh, fl. 2. p. 389 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 23 ; Gray in arm. lye. N. York. 4. p. 46 ; Torr. 
^ Gr.jl. N. Amer. \.p. 55. B. Hydropeltis, Muhl. cat. p. 55 ; Torr. Camp. p. 228. Hydro- 
peltis purpurea, Michx. fl. 1. p. 324 t. 29; Bot. mag. t. 1147; Ell. sk. 2. p. 66; DC. 
prodr. \.p. 112; Darlingt.fl. Cest.p. 601. 

Brasenia. CABOMBACEiE. 37 

Stem 1-15 feet long, according to the depth of water. Every part of the plant, except 
the upper surface of the leaves, of a dull purple color. Leaves 2-4 inches long and 1 J - 2 
inches wide, very entire, exactly elliptical, with the petiole inserted in the centre ; upper 
surface shining; veins 11-14, radiating from the centre. Peduncles 3-6 inches long. 
Flowers an inch in diameter. Petals and sepals elliptical-linear. Ovaries in one or more 
whorls ; tapering into a short linear style, which is stigmatose on the inner surface. Carpels 
somewhat ventricose. Seeds often solitary, roundish-obovoid ; testa thick and crustaceous. 

Floating in still water ; Long Island, and in the valley of the Hudson, as far north as 
Troy. I have not observed it in the northern counties. Fl. Latter part of June - July. Fr. 
August. — This plant is remaikable for its beautifully peltate leaves, and the order to which 
it belongs, for the very unusual insertion of the ovules. It is remarkable that it is also a 
native of New-Holland. See Endl. gen. I. c. 

Order VII. NELUMBIACEiE. Bartl. The Sacred-Bean Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 deciduous sepals. Petals numerous, inserted in several rows at 
the base of a large fleshy obconical torus. Stamens numerous, inserted in the 
torus in several rows ; the filaments petaloid : anthers adnate and introrse. 
Ovaries numerous, separately immersed in little hollows of the very laro-e flat- 
topped torus : ovule solitary, suspended, anatropous. Style short : stigma 
minute, capitate. Nuts numerous, ovoid-globose, at length loose and more 
than half immersed in the torus, crowned with the short style. Seed destitute 
of albumen. Embryo large, with two fleshy cotyledons ; the plumule highly 
developed, consisting of a pair of primordial leaves, and a bud, enclosed in 
the persistent membrane of the nucule. — Aquatic perennial plants, with large 
centrally peltate leaves arising from a thick tuberous rhizoma. Flowers very 

1. NELUMBIUM. Juss. ; Endl. gen. 5026. sacred bean. 

[Altered from rul/umbo, the Ceylon name.] 

Character same as of the order. 

38 NELUMBIACEiE. Nelumbidm. 

1. Nelumbium llteum, Willd. Great Yelloto Water-lily. Water Chinqucpin. 

Anthers prod\iced into a linear appendage. — Michx. Jl. \.p. 317 ; Turpin in ann. mns. 7. 
p. 210. t. 11./. 17; DC.prodr. I. p. 113; Torr. compend.p. 228 ; Torr. ^- Gr.jl. N. Am. 
\.p. 57. Nymphxa Nclumbo, Walt.jl. Car. p. 155. Cyamus flavicomus, Salisb. ann. hot. 
2. p. 45 ; Pursh, jl. 2. p. 398. C. luieus, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 25 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 67 ; Bart. Jl. 
Am. Sept. 2. p. 77. t. 63 ; Nutt. in Amer. phil. trans. 2 ser. 5. p. 160. 

Tlie tuberous rliizomas, according to Mr. Nuitall, resemble those of the Siueet Potato, and 
are traversed internally by from five to seven longitudinal cavities. They are found at the 
depth of from twelve to eighteen inches below the surface of the earth, and are connected by 
running roots. When fully ripe (wliich is when the seeds have arrived at maturity), they 
become, after considerable boiling, as farinaceous, agreeable and wholesome as the potato. 
The leaves are orbicular, and a foot or more in diameter, paler beneath, and marked with 
prominent radiating veins. Peduncles slightly muricate, partly emerged. Flowers pale yel- 
low, 6-8 inches in diameter. Sepals obovate, the two exterior ones smaller. Torus turbi- 
nate, when mature 3-4 inches in diameter ; the flat-top with 15-20 excavations, in which 
are lodged the roundish esculent nuts. 

Big Sodus Bay, Lake Ontario {Dr. Sartwell) ; the only known locality of this splendid 
plant in the State of New- York. /•"/. June. Fr. September. 

Order VIII. NYMPH^^ACEJ^:. Salisb. The Pond-lily Tribe. 

Sepals and petals several or numerous, imbricated, passing gradually into each 
other ; the former persistent, the latter inserted on the fleshy torus which 
surrounds the pistil ; inner series gradually passing into stamens. Stamens 
numerous, in several rows, inserted into the torus with or above the petals ; the 
petaloid filaments often produced above the adnate introrse anther-cells. 
Ovary many-celled ; ovules numerous, attached to the dissepiments, anatro- 
pous. Stigma large, peltate, radiate, compound, formed of as many rays or 
united stigmas as there are cells or carpels in the ovary. Fruit not opening, 
somewhat fleshy when mature, crowned by the stigma, many-celled. Seeds 
covering the spongj' dissepiments. Embryo minute, enclosed in the membra- 
nous sac of the nucleus, which is situated next the hilum, and half immersed 
in the mealy albumen. — Aquatic herbs, with peltate or cordate leaves, and 
one-flowered peduncles. Flowers large, white, roso-color or yellow. 


1. NYMPHS A. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 5020. white WATERLILY. 

[So called from its inhabiting the water as the nymphs were wont to i^o] 

Sepals 4, at the base of the torus. Petals numerous, inserted, as well as the stamens, into 
the fleshy torus surrounding the ovary. Flowers white or rose-color. 

1. Nymeh.«a odorata, Ait. Great White Water-lihj. 

Leaves oval-orbicular, or somewhat reniform, with the primary veins prominent and nu- 
merous underneath ; stigma 16 - 20-rayed ; rays incurved. — Torr. cj- Gr.fl. N. Am. \. p. 57. 

var. 1 : sinus and lobes of the leaves more or less acute. — Turr. (j- Gr. I. c. N. odorata, 
Ait. Kew. {ed. 1.) 2. ;;. 227 ; Willd. Jiort. Berol. 1. i. 39 ; Pursh, ft. 2. p. 3G8 ; DC. sijst. 2. 
p. 57 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 7 ; Ilook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 32. N. alba, Michx fl. I. p. 311. 

var. 2: smaller; leaves and peduncles purplish; flowers rose-color. — Torr. 6,- Gr. I. c. 
(under var. ?.) N. odorata, var. rosea, Pursh, I. c. N. odorata, var. minor, Bot. mag. 
t. 1652. N. minor, DC. I. c. 

Rhizoma very thick, creeping in the mud. Petioles and peduncles about the size of a crow- 
quill, varying in length according to the depth of the water. Leaves 4-7 inches long and 
3-6 inches wide, coriaceous, always lying on the surface of the water ; llie sinus reaching 
to the centre of the lamina. Flowers 3 inches or more in diameter when fully expanded, very 
odorous, usually closing in the afternoon. Sepals about as long as tlie outer petals, elliptical. 
Petals about 30, the inner rows gradually becoming narrower and passing into stamens. 
Stigma large, sessile, yellowish, with a roundish gland in the centre ; the margin formed of 
numerous linear incurved rays. Fruit baccate, ovate, marked by the insertion of the stamens 
and petals. 

Not uncommon in ponds and slow-flowing streams. June - August. One of the most orna- 
mental plants of the United States. The var. 2. occurs in shallow ponds on Long Island. 
The rhizoma is sometimes used for dyeing a brown color, and also as a styptic and tonic. 

2. NUPHAR. Smith; Endl. gen. 5021. yellow pond-lilv. 

[The name nuphar, of Dioscorides, has been applied to this genus. According to Furskal, the Arabic name is Ttati/ar.] 

Sepals 5 - 6. Petals numerous, nectariferous on the back, much smaller than the sepals, and 
inserted with them and the stamens at the base of the torus. Flowers yellow. 

1. NupnAR LUTEA, Smith. Small- flowered Yellow Pond-lily. 

Sepals 5; stigma 16 - 20-raycd, deeply umbilicate ; the margin entire; leaves cordate- 
oval, with approximate lobes; petioles triquetrous {DC). — Ait. Kew. {ed. 2.) 3. p. 295; 
Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 309 ; Ilook.Jl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 32 ; Bong. veg. Sitcha, p. 124 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. l.p. 58. Nymphasa lutea, Linn. 

40 NYMPH^ACEiE. Ndphah. 

var. Kalmiana: stigma 8- 14-raycd, somewhat crenatc. Torr. ^- Gr. I. c. N. Kaliniana, 
Pursh, I. c. ; Hook. I. c. Nymphsea lutca, var. Kalmiana, Michx. I. c. N. Kalmiana, Hot. 
mag. t. 1243. 

Leaves always floating, 3-6 inches long (in the var. Kalmiana usually much smaller, 
sometimes scarcely more than an inch long). Flower an inch and a half (the var. scarcely 
an inch) in diameter. 

In ponds and slow-flowing waters : not rare in the interior of the Slate ; but seldom found 
near the seacoast. Fl. June. 

The small-leaved variclv has been considered as a distinct species by some botanists ; but 
it often passes into the common form. 

2. NuPHAR ADVENA, Ait. Comniou Yellow Pond- or Water-lily. Spatlerdock. 

Sepals commonly six, the outer ones smaller ; stigma slightly umbilicate, 1 2 - 25-rayed, 
the margin repand or crenate ; leaves cordate, with the lobes diverging ; petioles semiterete. — 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 36; Ell. sk. 2. j). 8; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 32; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
|). 318; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. \.p. 58. Nymphaea ad vena, Michx. fl. I. p. 311. 

Rhizoma rooting in the mud at the bottom of the water, 2-4 inches in diameter and 
several feet long, marked with the scars of former petioles. Leaves erect in shallow water, 
floating on the surface when the water is deep, 6-10 inches long and 4-7 inches wide, 
somewhat coriaceous ; petioles and peduncles varying in length according to the depth of the 
water, stout. Flowers about two inches in diameter. Sepals roundish, concave, roughish : 
the lluree exterior green, mixed with some yellow ; the three interior larger, yellow tinged with 
green at the base. Petals 10 - 14, oblong, cuneate, truncate, fleshy, not half the length of 
the sepals ; the inner ones gradually passing into stamens. Stamens 100 or more, at first 
closely applied to the ovary, at length spreading. Ovary oblong ; the stigma large and sessile ; 
the upper surface marked with 12 - 25 (usually from 12- 16) elevated radiating lines, which 
are the true stigmas of the several carpels. 

Ponds and slow-flowing streams ; often where the water is brackish : common throughout 
the State. Fl. Early in May - September. Fr. August - September. It is not easy at all times 
to distino-uish this (especially the var. Kalmiana) from the preceding species. The flowers 
sometimes occur with five sepals, and the stigma in the latter is often a little crenate. The 
rhizoma is bitter and astringent, turning quickly black when cut with a steel knife. It is 
sometimes used in domestic practice as a tonic, and, in a bruised form, as a poultice. 


Sarkacenia. SARRACENIACE^. 41 

Order IX. SARRACENIACEvE. De la Pylaie. The Sarracenia Tribe. 

Floral envelopes consisting of 4 - 10 leaflets ; the exterior more or less herbaceous 
and sepaloid. Stamens numerous : anthers more or less versatile, introrse. 
Ovary 3 - 5-celled, with the placentae in the axis : ovules numerous, anatropous : 
style distinct, single, truncate, with a minute stigma ; or expanded into a large 
foliaceous peltate stigma. Capsule 3 — 5-celled; the dehiscence loculicidal ; 
placentiB projecting from the axis into the cells. Seeds obovoid, numerous, 
with a minute cylindrical embryo next the hilum, and copious albumen. — 
Perennial herbs, growing in marshes. Leaves all radical ; the petiole large 
and hollow, pitcher or trumpet-shaped ; the lamina small and resembling a lid, 
but not closing the orifice. Scapes one- or several-flowered ; flowers large, 

1. SARRACENIA. Tourn.; Croom in ann. lye. New-York, i. p. 98; Endl. gen. 5023. 


[In honor of Dr. Sarrazin, a French physician, who resided in Quebec. He sent the plant to Tourncfort, who named 
it Sarracena : since altered to Sarracenia. Sec Tourn. inst. ed. 3. p. 657. t. 476.] 

Sepals 5, persistent, with 3 small bracts at the base. Petals 5. Stigma very large, peltate, 
5-anglcd, covering the 5-celled ovary. Capsule 5-cellcd. — Flowers solitary, on a long 
naked scape. Leaves with a longitudinal wing on the inner side of the tube. 

1. Sarracenia purpurea, Linn. Common Side-saddle Flower. 

Leaves ascending, arched, the tube inflated, gibbous, with a very broad wing; lamina 
erect, cordate, hairy within; flower purple. — B. S. Bart. elem. hot. t. 1.; MicJix. Jl. 1. 
p. 310 ; Bot. mag. t. 849 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 9 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 213 ; Hook. jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 33 ,• De la Pyl. in ann. Linn. soc. Par. 6. p. 388. t. 13 ; Croom, I. c p. 98 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
fi. N. Am. I. p. 59. 

var. hcterophjUa : jlowers ocliroleucous. S. purpurea, /3. Torr. comjycad. p. 211. S. 
heterophylla. Eat. man. ed. 4. (1822), p. 447. 

Rliizoma 2-4 inches long, somewhat woody, yellowish within, throwing off numerous 
brown fibres. Leaves of a yellowish green color, alternate, several of the lowest ones reduced 
to sheathing scales : the petiole 3-6 inches long, tapering at the base, Iwllow and swollen 
upwards into a large pitcher- or cwcr-shapcd cavity, capable of holding several ounces of 
water, the mouth contracted ; the wing 3-7 lines wide in the middle ; lamina 1-2 inches 
in diameter, coarsely reticulated with purplish veins, the inner surface covered with short stiff 
hairs pointing downward. Inner surface of ihc tube from the orifice to near the middle, 

(Flora.] 6 

42 SARRACENIACEiE. Sarracenia. 

smooth and somewhat pohshcd ; the lower part furnished with very slender hairs pointing 
downward. Scape 10-16 inches high, smooth. Flower about two inches in diameter. 
Bracts ovate, about four lines long, resembling a small exterior calyx or involucre. Sepals 
ovate, obtuse, of a dull green color mi.xed with purple. Petals panduriform, purple, willi a 
broad claw, the lamina inflected over the stigma. Stamens concealed by the ample stigma : 
tilaments short : authors large, oblong : pollen globular, extremely minute. Style about a line 
Ion" : stigma an inch or more in diameter, a little concave in the centre, marked on the upper 
surface with five radiating lines, which terminate in notched angles or lobes. The true stigmas 
are five in number, and situated at the angles of the large peltate body. Capsule roundish, 
obtusely 5-angled, the surface rough like shagreen. Seeds very numerous, about a line in 
length, covering the large placentae that project into the cells : raphe very broad and somewhat 
cristate ; testa rough, thick and crustaceous. 

Swamps, particularly where Sphagnum abounds : rather common. Fl. May - June. Fr. 
August. The variety with yellowish flowers was found in Junius, Seneca county, by Dr. Sart- 
well, and hitherto has not been observed in any other part of the State. It was first discovered 
about twenty-five years ago, in Northampton, Massachusetts, by the late Prof. Eaton, who 
at first regarded it as a mere variety of -S. purpurea, but afterwards he described it as a dis- 
tinct species. It does not differ essentially from the common variety, except in the color of 
the flower. The two kijids of fohage noticed by Mr. Eaton are not uncommon in the purple- 
flowered form ; the new and imperfectly developed leaves, and the persistent leaves of the 
previous season, being found on the same specimen. 

The genus Sarracenia (of which there are six species known, all of them peculiar to North 
America, and five of them growing exclusively in the southern Slates) is remarkable for 
Its hollow, pitcher-form leaves, and for the arrangement of the hairs upon the lamina and in 
the tube. The cavity is often found partly full of water, which seems to be derived from 
rain and dews ; for there is no evidence of its being secreted by the hairs of the lube, as sup- 
posed by Lindley. The cavity always contains dead insects, and is sometimes one-third filled 
with lliem, so that in warm weather I have known their putrescence to render the swamp, 
where the plant abounds, highly ofi'ensive. The insects, in creeping over the hairy surface 
of the lamina, find it difiicult to return, in consequence of their feet becoming wedged in the 
short stiff hairs which extend beyond the orifice. Passing over the smooth upper surface of 
the tube, they are again detained by the hairs below, where they are either drowned in the 
water usually contained in the tube, or starved to death. What purpose, in the economy of 
the plant, is thus accomplished, has never been determined. — S. purpurea is, in some parts 
of the State, known by the name of the American Pitcher-plant ; in other places, it is called 
the Huntsman's Cup. 

Sanguinaria. PAPAVERACEyE. 43 

Group 3. Ovary compound (composed of two or more united carpels), with parietal 
placent<zl Calyx entirely free from the ovary. Stamens and petals inserted 
on the receptacle ; the former distinct, except in Fumariaceae. — Leaves not 
punctate or dotted. 

Order X. PAPAVERACEtE. Juss. The Poppy Tribe. 

Calyx of 2 (rarely 3) caducous sepals. Corolla of 4 - 6 regular deciduous 
petals. Stamens 6 — 24, (and then xisually as many or twice as many as the 
petals), or numerous : anthers innate. Ovary composed of 2 or more united 
(very rarely distinct) carpels, with numerous anatropous ovules: style short 
or none : stigmas, when several, usually radiate upon the flat summit of the 
ovary. Fruit one-celled, either pod-shaped with 2-3-5 placentae, or cap- 
sular with numerous parietal placentae, from which the valves often separate. 
Seeds numerous, with a minute embryo at the base of fleshy and oily albu- 
men. — Glabrous herbs (or very rarely shrubs), with commonly a milky or 
colored narcotic and often acrid juice. Leaves alternate, without stipules. 

1. SANGUINARIA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. A818. BLOOD-ROOT. 

(From tbe Latin, sanguis, blood; in allusion to the red color of its juice.] 

Sepals 2. Petals 8 - 12. Stamens about 24. Stigmas 2, connate. Capsule oblong, some- 
what pod-shaped, acute at each end, 2-Talved ; the valves separating from the persistent 
filiform placentae. Seeds obovoid-globose, with a cristate raphe. — An herbaceous peren- 
nial, with orange-red juice, and a large creeping rhizoma. Scapes one-flowered, each 
?iccompanicd usually by a single leaf. Flower rather large, white. 

1. Sanguinaria Canadensis, Linn. Blood-root. Red-root. Red Puccoon. 

Michx. fl. I. p. 309 ; Bot. mag. t. 162 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 9; Bigel. med. hot. 1. p. 75. 
t. 7 ; DC.prodr. I. p. 131 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. S.") ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p, 317; Torr. 
4- Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 62. 

Rhizoma 2-3 inches long and half an inch in diameter, throwing up from a bud at the 
extremity a scape and one leaf, or rarely a pair of leaves with 2-3 membranaceous sheath- 
ing scales at the base. Petiole 2-6 inches long ; the lamina during flowering time only 


44 PAPAVERACEiB. Sangbinaria. 

about 2 inches wide, but later in tlie season more than twice that width ; the outline cordate- 
reniform, sinuately 5-7 lobcd about half way to the base, the lobes entire or repandly 
toothed. Scape 3-8 inches long, often of a purplish color. Flower 1 -1^ inch in diameter. 
Sepals ovate-oblong, falling very early. Petals usually about 8, oblong, narrowed at the base. 
Stamens unequal, one-half or one-third the length of the petals : anthers linear, innate, in- 
trorse. Stigmas sessile, thick, glandularly pubescent. Capsule about an inch long, tapering 
to a sharp point. 

Common in fertile woods, sometimes beginning to flower towards the end of March. Fr. 

The root or rhizoma has long been an officinal article, and is in consider.iblc repute for its 
emetic, cathartic and expectorant qualities. Its active principle is a peculiar vegetable alkali 
discovered by the late Professor Dana, and named Sanguinarina. It is remarkable for form- 
ing orange-red salts. See Ann. lye. N. York, vol. 1, and Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. 
p. 579. 

2. CHELTDONIUM, Linn.; Endl. gen. 4819. eELAXDi.\B. 

[Named from chclidon, a swallow ; probably because the plant begins to flower about the time this bird arrives] 

Calyx of 2 sepals. Corolla of 4 petals arranged in a cruciate manner. Stamens rather 
numerous. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule pod-shaped, linear, 2-valved ; valves dehiscing from 
the base to the apex. Seeds numerous, furnished with a glandular cristate raphe. — Per- 
ennial herbs, with a safiFron-colored acrid and fetid juice. Leaves pinnately divided. 
Flowers middle-sized, yellow. 

1. Chelidomum m.\jus, Linn^ Common Celandine. 

Peduncles many-flowered ; pedicels somewhat umbellate; leaves glaucous ; the segments 
ovate, crenately incised or lobed ; terminal one cuneiform-obovate ; capsules torulose. — Eng. 
hot. t. 1531 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 365 ; Bigel. fl. Best. p. 210; DC, prodr. \.p. 123 ; Dar- 
lingt.fl. Cest. 317; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 62. 

Root fusiform. Stem 1-2 feet high, branching from near the base, somewhat hairy. 
Leaves large, pale green, with 5-7 segments. Peduncles axillan,', 2-4 inches long, bear- 
ing at the summit 3-7 umbellate flowers, the pedicels of which are nearly an inch in length, 
and surrounded by an involucre at the base. Petals 4-5 lines long, and with the sepals 
and stamens very deciduous. Capsule about an inch long. 

A common plant along fences and in waste places ; doubtless introduced from Europe. It 
flowers from the beginning of May to October. The juice is a popular application to warts, 
tetters, etc., and is sometimes employed internally as a purgative and diuretic. See Wood 
^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. app. 1076. 


Order XI. FUMARIACEiE. DC. The Fumitory Tribe. 

Calyx of 2 small deciduous sepals. Petals 4, in pairs, one or both of the outer 
ones spurred or sac-like at the base, the 2 inner ones callous and cohering at 
the apex, enclosing the anthers and stigma. Stamens 6 ; filaments in two par- 
cels placed opposite the outer petals ; the filaments of each set usually more 
or less diadelphous ; middle anther of each set 2-celled ; lateral one with a 
single cell. Ovary composed of 2 united capels, one-celled, with 2 parietal 
placentae ; stigmas united, often lobed or cuspidate, alternate with the inner 
petals. Fruit usually a 2-valved, many-seeded, pod-like capsule of one cell ; 
rarely 1 - 2-seeded and indehiscent. Seeds somewhat reniform or lenticular, 
usually shining, and furnished with a cristate caruncle : albumen copious, 
fleshy ; embryo minute, excentric. — Smooth annual or perennial, and often 
glaucous herbs, with watery juice. Leaves alternate, dissected, without sti- 
pules. Flowers in racemes or cymes. 

Fumariacco; arc reduced to a suborder of Papaveraccas by Lindley, Endlicher and others. The two lateral one-celled 
stamens in each parcel are usually regarded as half-stamens, formed by the division of the two stamens which correspond 
to the inner petals ; the true number being only 4, one to each petal. 

1. DICENTRA. Borckh.; Endl. gen. \8Z6. Diclytra, DC. Dielytra, //oo/i:.; Torr. ^ Gr. 

[Name from the Greek, dis, double, and kcntron, a spur. The original name of Borckhausen, Dulylra, it appears was 

written incorrectly.] 

Exterior petals equally saccate or spurred at the base. Capsule pod-shaped, many-seeded. 
Seeds lenticular, strophiolate. — Perennial herbs. Flowers (usually) on scapes : racemes 
simple, the pedicels furnished with a pair of opposite bracteoles, or compound with the 
divisions cymose. 

1. DicENTRA CucuLLARiA. Dutchmati's Breeches. Breeches-Jlower. 

Spurs divaricate, .straight and rather acute ; wing of the inner petals short ; raceme simple, 
4 - 10-flowered. — Dielytra CucuUaria, DC. syst. 2. p. 118; Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 35 ; 
Darlingt.jl. Cest. p. 398 ; Torr. <^ Gr.Jl. N. Am. \.p. 66. D. Canadensis, Borck. fide DC. 
Fumaria CucuUaria, Linn. ; MicJix. jl. \.p. 51 ; Bot. mag. t. 1127. Corydalis CucuUaria, 
Pers. syn. 2. p. 269 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 4G2 ; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 263. 

llhizoma not creeping, bulbiferous ; the bulbs formed of fleshy imbricated triangular scales 
(the ihrckened and persistent bases of petioles, filled with starch), mostly acuminate, reddish 

46 FUMARIACEiE. Dicentk*. 

externally where exposed to the air, white when subterranean. Leaves commonly 2 from 
each root, on petioles 4-6 inches long, glaucous underneath, trilernately decompound ; the 
primary and secondary divisions pcliolulate ; ultimate segments laciniately pinnatifid, with 
oblong-linear lobes, which are tipped with a small bristle. Scape usually from 5- to 7-flowered; 
the flowers somewhat sccund, nodding, while, tinged with yellow and purple at the summit. 
Sepals cordate. Inner petals carinate ; the keel not projecting beyond the summit. Spurs 
diverging almost at right angles to each other, as long as the rest of the petal. Filaments 
distinct ; the middle one willi a subulate process projecting into the cavity of the spur. Stigma 
compressed, reniform, obtusely 4-lobed. Capsule 15 - 20-seeded ; the seeds shining, black. 
Shady woods, in rich soil, particularly among rocks ; common in most parts of the State. 
Fl. April. Fr. May. The singular form of the flowers (from which it derives its popular 
name) has made this plant generally known, even to persons who are unacquainted with 

2. DicENTRA Canadensis. Squirrel Corn. Turkey Com. 

Spurs short, rounded ; wing of the inner petals projecting beyond the summit ; raceme 
simple, 4 - 6-flowered. — Diclytra Canadensis, DC. prodr. 1. p. 126; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. 
Am. l.p.67; Bot. mag. t. 3033. D. eximia, Beck, boU p. 223 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 399. 
D. eximia, /?. Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 35. Cor}'dalis Canadensis, Gold, in Edin. phil. jorum. 
6. p. 330 ; Thomas in Sill. jour. 26. p. 114. 

Rhizoma creeping, bearing at intervals roundish yellow tubers from a third to half an inch 
in diameter, each marked with the scar of a fallen petiole. Leaves resembling those of the 
preceding species, but the ultimate segments longer and narrower ; commonly only one to 
each scape. Scape, when the flowers are fully expanded, overtopping the leaves (5-6 inches 
high). Flowers very fragrant, cordate-ovate in the outline, about three-fourths of an inch 
long. Corolla greenish-white, often more or less tinged with rose-color : inner petals strongly 
keeled. Spurs scarcely one-third the rest of the petal, slightly incurved. Middle filament 
of each parcel with a callosity, but hardly a spur, at the base. Stigma reniform, more or less 
distinctly 4-lobed. 

Rocky woods, in rich soil : rather common in the western and northern counties ; but not 
found, hitherto, in the valley of the Hudson below Albany. Fl. April. Fr. May. 

3. DicENTRA EXIMIA. Chotce DUentra. 

Spurs short, obtuse, somewhat incurved ; wings of the inner petals projecting beyond the 
summit ; raceme compound, the branches cymulosc ; stigma 2-horned at the apex ; leaves 
numerous. Diclytra eximia, DC. syst. 2. p. 109 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 665 (suppl.). 
Fumaria eximia, Ker, bot. reg. t. 50. Corydalis formosa, Pursh,fl. 2. p. 464 (excl. Canad. 
var.), not Fumaria formosa, Dryand. Diclytra formosa, Ell. sk. 2. p. 177 ; Thomas, in Sill. 
jour, I. c. ; Torr. <^ Gr. I. c, not of DC, nor Fumaria formosa, Andr. 

DicENTRA. fumariacej:. 47 

Rhizoma scaly-bulbiferous. Leaves several, rising from the crown of the rhizoma ; divi- 
sions of the lamina variable in width, but mostly oblong and incisely pinnatifid. Scape 8-12 
inches high. Cymules several-flowered, with conspicuous, crowded purplish bracts. Flowers 
pendulous, reddish purple. Exterior petals attenuated upward, with the lamina somewhat 
spreading : wings of the inner petals projecting beyond the summit in the form of four oblong 
lobes. Stigma 2-lobed, with two slender approximate horns between the lobes. 

Yates county, New- York {Dr. Sartwell). Flowering throughout the season. This beau- 
tiful plant has long been a favorite in gardens, both in this country and in Europe. It is a 
rare species, being chiefly confined to the high mountains of the southern States. Dr. Sart- 
well is the only botanist who has found it within the limits of New-York. 

2. ADLUMIA. Raf. ; Endl. gen. 4837. CLIMBING FUMITORY. 

[Named in honor of Mr. JonN Adlcm, a distinguished cultivator of the vine.] 

Petals united into a spongy persistent monopetalous corolla, 4-lobed at the apex, bigibbous 
at the base. Capsule pod-shaped, linear-oblong, many-seeded. Seeds roundish-lenticular, 
with an obscure beak, shining, not strophiolate. — A biennial herb, climbing by the tendril- 
hke petioles of its delicate biternatcly divided leaves. Flowers in supra-axillary racemose 

1. Adlumia cirrhosa, Baf. Climhing Fumitory. 

Raf. in New-York mcd. repos. 2nd hex. 5. p. 350, and in Desv. journ. bot. 1809. 2. p. 
169 ; DC. St/St. 2. p. Ill ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 399; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 68. 
Fumaria fungosa, Willd. sp. 3. p. 857. F. recta, Michx.Jl. 2. p. 51. Corydalis fungosa, 
Vent, choix. t. 19 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 463 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 263. 

Stem climbing over shrubs and other plants to the length of 10 - 15 feet or more, branch- 
ing, smooth. Leaves 3-6 inches long ; the primary divisions distant ; ultimate segments 
obovate-cuneiform, peliolulatc : petioles twining like tendrils. Cymes compound, 5 - 20- 
flowcred ; the flowers expanding successively, pedicellate, pale-violet or nearly white. Fila- 
ments united below into a tube, distinct above. Stigma with somewhat spreading lobes. 
Capsule included in the marccscent corolla. Seeds 4-8. 

Shady rocks, particularly on the banks of rivers. July - September. A very neat and 
elegant plant, easily cultivated, and frecjuently seen in gardens. It is common in the High- 
lands, and north to Lake Champlain, but rather rare in the western part of the State. 

48 FUMARIACEiE. Cohtdalis. 

3. CORYDALIS. DC. syst. 2. p. 113; Endl. gen. 4839. 

\Conj<Udii is ihc Greek name for Fomitory.] 

Corolla with only one of the exterior petals (the posterior one) spurred at the base. Style 
mostly persistent; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule pod-shaped; few or many-seeded. Seeds 
lenticular, black and shining, strophiolale. — Racemes terminal or opposite the leaves, sim- 
ple : pedicels without bracteoles. 

1. CoRYDALis AUREA, WUld. Goldeu Corydolis. 

Annual or biennial ; stem diffuse; leaves somewhat glaucous, bipinnately divided ; ultimate 
Bfigments oblong, acute ; bracts lanceolate or ovale, acuminate ; pods terete, torulose. — 
Willd.enum.p.l\0; DC.prodr. l.p. 123; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. A63 ; Hook.fl.Bor.-Am. l.p.37; 
Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 400; Torr. ^ Gr.jl. N. Am. l.p. 68. Fumaria aurea, Ker, hot. reg. 

Root fibrous. Stems branching, 6-12 inches long, slender. Leaves thin and deUcatc, 
divided into rather narrow oblong segments. Racemes terminal and opposite the leaves, or 
supra-axillary, 5 - 15-flowered. Flower golden yellow; the early ones (especially in shady- 
places) 3 — 4 lines, the later three-fourths of ^n inch long. Bracts variable in form and size, 
at first longer than the pedicels, but shorter at maturity, often with one or two teeth. Petals 
distinct : spur incurved, about one-fourth as.long as the rest of the petal. Stigma with 2 
spreading lobes. Pods three-fourths of an inch long, strongly iorulose. Seeds obovoid- 
lenticular, highly polished, with a short incurved beak, and a conspicuous membranaceous 

Rocky woods. April - September. Not rare. 

2. CoRYDALis GLAUCA, Pursh. Glaucous ConjdalU. 

Plant erect, glaucous,, annual or biennial ; leaves bipinnately divided ; ultimate segments 
cuneiform, somewhat 3-clefi ; racemes often clustered ; bracts linear, shorter than the pedicels ; 
pods long, terete, scarcely torulose. — Pursh, fl. 2. p. 463; DC. prodr. 1. p. 128; Hook, 
ft. Bor-Am. 1. p. 37 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 605,- Torr. <^ Gr.jl. N.Am. l.p. 69. Fumaria 
sempervirens, Linn.; Michx.jl. 2. p. 51. F. glauca, Bot. mag. t. 179. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, more or less brandling. Leaves 1-3 inches long ; the radical ones 
clustered, on long petioles. Racemes 6 - 10-flower,ed, the flowers 6-7 lines in length, 
spreading somewhat horizontally. Calyx purple. Corolla bright rose-color, tinged with yellow 
and green ; the spur short and obtuse. Stigma with spreading lobes. Pods an inch and a 
half long ; the valves at length separating from the persistent placentae. Seeds lenlicular- 
rcniform, shining, but marked with fine rugx in a radiating manner : strophiole small and 

Rocky hills and river banks ; rather common. May - August. An ornamental plant. 


4. FUMARIA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4843. fumitory. 

[Named from /jiOTM, smoke; in allusion, it is thought, to its smell.] 
Corolla with only one of the exterior petals obtusely spurred or gibbous at the base. Style 
deciduous : stigma 2-parted. Fruit at first somewhat fleshy and drupaceous, at length dry, 
somewhat globose or obovoid, not dehiscent, one-seeded. Seed globose-reniform, dull ; 
without a strophiole. — Annual herbs, with finely dissected leaves, and small flowers in 
dense racemes. 

1. FuMARiA OFFICINALIS, Linn. Common Fumitory. 

Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply notched, about the length of the globose retuse 
fruit ; bracts much longer than the pedicels of the fruit. — Arnolt in Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 37; Terr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 70. 

var. diffuse or climbing ; segments of the leaves broad, glaucous. — Arnott, I. c. ; Torr. 
4- Gr. I. c. F. media, DC.prodr. 1. p. 130. F. ofiicinalis, Pursh,fl. 2. p. 463; Bigel.fl. 
Bost.p. 262; Darlingt.fl. Cest.p. 401. 

Stem at first erect, at length diff"usc, 8-12 inches long. Racemes 1 2 - 20-flowered. 
Flowers pale violet, mixed with green and purple. 

Fields, road-sides and cultivated grounds ; naturalized in a few places ; particularly on the 
banks of the Hudson. May - August. 

Order XII. CRUCIFERiE. Jus.s. The Cruciferous Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 deciduous sepals, which are imbricated, or very rarely valvate in 
aestivation ; the 2 outer (anterior and posterior) corresponding to the stigmas, 
and often narrow; the 2 inner opposite the valves of the capsule. Corolla of 
4 regular deciduous petals, with claws ; the limbs spreading in the form of a 
cross. Stamens G ; the 2 opposite the lateral sepals shorter, and usually inserted 
somewhat lower than the others ; the other 4 in pairs opposite the anterior 
and posterior sepals ; anthers introrse. Torus with 2 or more green glands 
between the stamens and the ovary. Ovary of two united carpels, with 2 
parietal placentte which are united by a membranaceous (false) dissepiment. 
Stigmas 2, opposite the placenta?. Fruit a pod (called a silique when the 
length much exceeds the breadth, and a silicle when short and broad), 2-celled, 
usually several or many-seeded, dehiscent by the separation of the valves from 
[Flora.] 7 


the persistent placentae (rarely indehiscent). Seeds without albumen ; embryo 
with the cotyledons folded on the radicle. — Herbs, or very rarely (never in 
North America) somewhat shrubby plants, with a pungent or acrid watery 
juice. Leaves alternate, often divided, without stipules. Flowers in racemes 
or corymbs, mostly without bracts to the pedicels. 


1. SlLIQCOS«. 

Tribe I. Arabide^. Silique usually elongated (except sumctimcs in Naitvrlium), dehiscent; the valves somewhat 
plane : dissepiment linear. Cotyledons plane, accumbcnt (i. e. the radicle is applied to their edges, 0^)i 
parallel with the septum (i. c. with their edges applied to the placenUe). 

Tribe 11. SisYMBBEa:. Silique longitudinally dehiscent; valves nearly plane or somewhat terete and carinatc : septum 
Uncar. Cotyledons plane, incumbent (i. e. with the radicle rpplied to the back of one of the cotyledons, 
H 0)i contrary to (i. e. with the edges towards) the septum. Seeds not bordered. 

Tribe III, BRiSsicEi:. Silique dehiscent; septum linear. Style often enlarged, with a seminiferous cell at the base. 
Seeds globose. Cotyledons incumbent, conduplicatc or longitudinally plicate, with the radicle lying in the 
sinus (0>>)- 


Tribe IV. Altssinej!. Silicic dehiscent; valves plane or convex : septum broadly oval and membranaceous. Seeds 

compressed, often marj;ined. Cotyledons plane, accumbent, parallel to the septum. 
Tiibe V. CiMELiNEa:. Silicic dehiscent, ovoid or oblong, compressed parallel to the septum, or turgid ; valves plane 

or convex : septum elliptical or ovale, sometimes incomplete or none. Cotyledons plane, incumbent^ 

contrary to (i. e. their margin looking towards) the dissepiments. 
Tribe VI. Thlaspide^. Silicle dehiscent, compressed contrary to the very narrow septum: valves boat-shaped. 

Cotyledons plane, accumbent, contrary to the septum. 
Tribe VII. Lepidines. Silicle usually dehiscent, compressed contrary to the narrow septum (sometimes l-ccUed) ; 

valves boat-shaped, or rarely ventricose. Cotyledons plane, incumbent, parallel to the septum. 


Tribe VIII. CiKiLiNEa:. Silique or silicle separating transversely into several 1-celled, 1-secded joints. Seeds usually 

compressed, not margined. Cotyledons plane, accumbent. 
Tribe IX. RAPHiNEj:. Silique or silicle indehiscent, transversely separating into one- (or few-) seeded joints. Seeds 

globose. Cotyledons conduplicatc (as in Brassicacea). 

1. siuauos^ 

Silique usually elongated ; the valves somewhat plane ; dissepiment linear. Cotyledons 
plane, accumbent {i. e. the radicle applied to their edges, o = ), parallel with the septum 
(t. e. with their edges applied to the placentae). 


1. Nastcrtium. Silique nearly terete, somethnes short ; valves neither nerved nor keeled. Sepals spreading. Seeds 

irregularly disposed in a double series. 

2. Babbabea. Silique 4-angled and somewhat 2-edged : valves nerved or keeled. Seeds in a single row. 

3. TcRRiTls. Silique linear, 2-edged: valves nerved or keeled. Seeds in a double row. 

4. AraBis. Silique linear, flattish : valves one-nerved in the middle. Seeds in a single row. 

5. Cardamine. Silique linear : valves flat, generally separating clastically, without nerves. Funiculus slender. 

6. Dentaria. Silique narrowly lanceolate, tapering : valves flat, generally separating clastically, nerveless. Funicnlua 


Nasturtium. CRUCIFER^. 51 

1. NASTURTIUM. R. Br. in hort. Kew. {ed. 2.) 4. p. 109 ; Endl. gen. 4850. cress. 

[Name derived from the supposed effects of its acrid juices upon the muscles of the nose; Tiasus tortus, signifying a con- 
vulsed nose.] 

Silique nearly terete, sometimes short so as to resemble a silicle, usually curved upward. 
Stigma somewhat 2-lobed. Sepals spreading, equal at the base. Seeds small, irregularly 
disposed in a double series, not margined. — Aquatic or sub-aquatic herbs. Leaves often 
pinnately divided. Flowers yellow or white. 

1. Nasturtium palustre, DC. Marsh Cress. 
Leaves pinnately lobed, clasping and ciliate at the base, smooth ; the lobes confluent and 

toothed ; root fusiform ; petals as long as the sepals ; siliques more or less ovoid, spreading, 
obtuse at each end, somewhat turgid, rather longer (sometimes shorter) than the pedicels ; 
style very short.— Z)C. syst. 2. p. 191 ; Hooh.fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 39; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 
\.p. 73. 

Root perennial, slender, but fusiform, with numerous fibres. Stem 12-18 inches high, 
glabrous, branching above. Leaves 2-3 inches long, with 4-6 pairs of oblong lanceolate 
lobes. Flowers very small, yellow. Peduncles of the fruit 2-4 lines long, spreading almost 
horizontally. Siliques 2-3 lines long, varying from roundish to oblong-ovoid, tipped with 
a very short but distinct style. 

Wet gravelly places, particularly along rivers, June - August. A common coarse plant, 
found in many parts of the State. 

2. Nasturtium hispidum, DC. Hispid Cress. 

Plant hispidly pubescent ; leaves pinnatifidly lobed, or runcinate-pinnatifid ; the lobes rather 
obtusely toothed ; siliques (minute) ovoid, tumid, pointed with the distinct style, scarcely half 
as long as the somewhat spreading pedicels ; petals rather shorter than the calyx. — DC. syst. 
2. p. 201 ; Torr. <Sf Gr. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 74. Sisymbrium hispidum. Pair. enc. 5. p. 161. 

Root perennial, or enduring at least three seasons. Stem 2-4 feet high, much branched 
towards the summit, clothed (as also the leaves) with villous but rough pubescence. Leaves 
2-4 inches long, and nearly an inch wide, more or less deeply pinnatifid, with from 4 to 6 
pairs of lobes. Racemes very numerous, paniclcd. Flower smaller than in the preceding 
species, yellow. Siliques scarcely more than a line long, slightly compressed. Style about 
half the length of the fruit ; stigma capitate. Pedicels 2-3 lines long. 

Wet places, along rivulets. Abundant on Murderer's creek, near Newburgh ; also in Phil- 
lipslown, Putnam county, where it was found many years ago by Dr. Barratt. These are 
the only known localities of the plant in our State. It flowers from July to August. 


52 CRUCIFERiE. Nasturtium. 

3. Nasturtium natans, DC. Floating Cress. 

Emcrscd leaves oblong-linear, entire ; immersed ones cut into many capillary segments ; 
petals scarcely longer than the calyx ; siliques obovate-globose. — DC. syst. 2. p. 198; Deless. 
ic. 2. t. 15. 

var. Americanum, Gray. 

Emcrscd leaves serrate ; petals (while) twice as long as tlic calyx ; siliques obovate ; style 
as long as the ovary and half as long as the fruit. — Gray in ann. lyc. New-York, 3. p. 223 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr.Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 75. N. natans, Jlook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 39 ; Beck, hot. p. 32. 

In Oneida lake {Dr. Gray, Dr. Knieskcrn); also near Ogdcnsburgh, St. Lawrence county 
Dr. Crawc). Flowers in July. One of the rarest plants in the United States, but not remark- 
able for anything but its peculiar habit, being the only aquatic species of the genus. 

S. BARB AREA. R. Brown in hort. Kew. (ed. 2.) 4. p. 109 ; Endl. gen. 4851. 


[So called because the plant was formerly dedieated to St. Babbaua.] 

Siliquc 4-angled or somewhat 2-edged. Seeds in a single scries. Calyx equal at the base. — 
Leaves lyrately pinnatifid. Flowers yellow. 

1. Barbarea vulgaris, R. Broivn. Scurvy Grass. 

Lower leaves lyrate, the terminal lobe roundish ; upper ones obovate, toothed or pinnatifid 
at the base ; siliquc 4-angled, with the sides somewhat convex, acuminate with the style. — 
DC.prodr. I. p. 140 ; Bor.-Ajn. l.p. 39 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest.p. 381 ; Torr. <|- Or. 
fl. N. Am. 1. p. 75. Erysimum Barbarea, Linn.; Willd. sp. 3. p. 509. 

Root perennial, fibrous. Stem 1-2 feet high, glabrous, branched above. Leaves 2-4 
inches long ; the terminal lobe of the lower ones very large ; segments oblong. Flowers ia 
dense racemes, bright yellow. Siliques about an inch long ; the pointed style about a line 
and a half long. 

Common in low wet grounds, particularly along rivulets ; flowering from May to October. 
Probably introduced. The early leaves are sometimes eaten as a salad. It is the Common 
Winter Cress, and is also known by the name of Yellow Rocket. 

TcRRiTis. CRUCIFER^. 53 

3. TURRITIS. Dill. ; Endl. gen. 'iSbS. tower mustard. 

[Named from turns, a tower ; from the pyramidal form of the plant.] 

Silique linear ; the valves plane. Seeds in a double series in each cell. Flowers white or 

1. TuRRiTis STRicTA, Graham. Straight Tmoer Mustard. 

Plant glabrous ; stem straight and erect ; stem leaves linear-lanceolate, clasping and sagit- 
tate, sparingly toothed ; radical ones petioled, narrowly spatulate, remotely and sharply 
denticulate; siliques linear, elongated, and (like the flowers) strictly erect, pointed with the 
very short style. — Graham in Edin. new phil. jour. (1829), p. 7; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 40 ; Torr. §■ Gr. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 79. T. glabra, ^.? Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. p. 78. 

Root biennial. Stem 1-2 feet high, terete, simple. Leaves about an inch long ; the 
cauline ones erect. Flowers in a terminal raceme, which is elongated in front. Pedicels of 
the fruit 3-5 lines long. Silicle 2-3 inches long, and scarcely more than half a line wide. 
Seeds imperfectly two-rowed when young, but at maturity nearly as broad as the dissepiment, 
distinctly winged ; even then, however, the double row can be perceived : funicle slender. 

On rocks, Walertown, Jefferson county, where it was first found by Dr. Crawe. Lebanon, 
Chenango county (Dr. Douglass). May. 

This plant was described as a variety of T. glabra in the Flora of N. America, but we had 
not then seen New- York specimens in fruit, neither had we an opportunity of comparing it 
with T. striata of Graham. As intimated in the Supplement to the Flora (p. 666), there can 
now be little doubt of its being Graham's plant. 

4. ARABIS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4854. wall cress. 

[Etymology uncertain ; but the name is supposed to allude to the Arabic origin of the original species of the genus.] 

Silique linear, plane : valves 1 -nerved in the middle. Seeds in a single series in each cell, 
oval or orbicular, compressed. Flowers white, rarely rose-color. 

» Seeds immarginate, or ur'dh only a nairow margin. 

1. Arabis hirsuta. Scop. Hairy Wall Cress. 

Stem erect ; leaves toothed or somewhat entire, and (like the stem) hirsute with a branched 
pubescence ; radical ones oblong-ovate, petioled or sessile ; cauline ones oblong or lanceolate, 
Bomewhat clasping, mostly auriclcd at the base, or somewhat sagittate ; siliques numerous, 
erect.— DC. prodr. 1 . p. 144 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1 . p. 42 ; Darlingt. fl. Vest. p. 382 ; Torr. 
4" Or. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 80. A. sagittata, DC. prodr. 1. p. 143. Turritis hirsuta, Linn.; 
Wtlld. sp. 3. p. 543. 

54 CUUCIFERyE. Ahabis. 

Root biennial. Stem 12 - 18 inches high, simple, or branched at the base, often smooth 
on the upper part. Radical leaves an inch or more long, and 3-5 lines wide, more or less 
distinctly toothed. Flowers greenish-white, when fully expanded about 3 lines in diameter. 
Siliques straight, 1 - 2 inches long, tipped with the nearly sessile stigma. Seeds with a 
narrow margin. 

Rocky places; rare. May. — In the young state, and when smoother than usual, this 
species often resembles A. Ictvigata, but differs in its smaller size, proportionably wider leaves, 
and in its pubescence of which more or less is found on the leaves and lower part of the stem. 
In fruit they are easily distinguished. 

2. Arabis dentata, Torr. Sf 6r. Toothed Wall Cress. 

Plant more or less rough with a stellate-pubescence ; radical leaves obovate, tapering at 
the base into a petiole which is as long as the lamina, irregularly dentate with sharp salient 
teeth ; cauline ones oblong, clasping ; flowers minute ; petals spatulate, scarcely longer than 
the calyx ; siliques short, spreading, on very short pedicels, pointed with the nearly sessile 
stigma ; stem branched from the base.— Torr. <J- Gr.Jl. N. Am. 1. _p. 80. Sisymbrium den- 
tatum, Torr. in Short's 3rd suppl. cat. pi. Kentucky. 

Root annual. Plant a foot or more in height : the pubescence, particularly of the under 
surface of the leaves, short and rather scabrous. Stem slender, often decumbent at the base. 
Radical leaves 2 inches long and three-quarters of an inch wide ; cauline ones auriculatc at 
the base, irregularly toothed. Flowers scarcely 2 lines long. Sepals and the very short pe- 
dicels, hirsute. Petals dusky white. Silique an inch long ; valves somewhat convex. Seeds 
slightly margined. Radicle long and slender, distant from the accumbent cotyledons. 

Near Utica {Dr. Gray). May. A rather common species in the western States. 

3. Arabis lyrata, Linn. Lyre-leaved Wall Cress. 

Stem branching from the base ; radical leaves lyratc-pinnatifid and somewhat hairy ; cau- 
line ones linear, or spatulate, entire, and with the stem smooth ; siliques rather erect, nearly 
straight ; radicle slightly dorsal.— Pmw/j,/. 2. p. 327; DC. prodr. 1. p. 146; Torr. ^ Or. 
fi. N. Am. 1. p. 81. Sisymbrium arabidoides. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 63. t. 1 ; Darlingt. 
ft. Cest. p. 387. 

Root biennial. Stems usually divided to the root, or rather several from one root, 4-12 
inches high, at first erect, but at length much branched and diffuse. Radical leaves of the 
young plant in a circular cluster, 1-2 inches long, obovate in the outline, usually lyratc- 
pinnatifid, with rounded and mostly entire lobes, but often only toothed. Flowers about five 
lines in diameter, white or rarely pale purple. Petals obovate. Siliques about an inch and 
a half long, very slender ; pedicels about one-fourth the length of the siliques. Seeds with- 
out a border. Cotyledons flat, ovate ; the radicle lying along the edge of one of them, so as 
to be nearly accumbent. 

Common on rocks ; flowering in April and May, and, in shady situations, sometimes until 

Arabis. CRUCIFERiE. 5$ 

* * Seeds with a broad winged vmrgin. 

4. Arabis l^vigata, DC. Smooth Wall Cress. 

Erect ; whole plant very smooth, and glaucous ; radical leaves obovate, acutely toothed ; 
cauline leaves sessile ; the lower ones lanceolate, sagittate, sparingly toothed ; uppermost 
linear, entire ; flowers somewhat spreading ; siliques very long and narrow, recurved-pendu- 
lous. — DC. syst. 2. p. 237 ; Spreng. syst. 2. p. 892 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 382 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 82. A. pendula, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 70, not of Linn. Turrilis laevigata, 
Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 543; Pursh,ft. 2. p. 438. 

Biennial. Stem 1-3 feet high. Radical leaves usually of a purplish color, especially" 
on the under surface, often broadly obovate, and less than an inch in length, with long petioles, 
but commonly 1-2 inches in length, and either sessile or only attenuated at the base ; cauline 
leaves 2-4 inches long and about half an inch wide ; the lower ones, as well as those at the 
root, usually with remote salient teeth. Flowers about 2i lines long. Petals cuneiform, 
nearly white, or ochroleucous, scarcely longer than the greenish-yellow calyx. Siliques 2-3 
inches long and less than a line in breadth, somewhat tortuous ; the pedicels 5-7 lines long. 
Seeds as broad as the septum, conspicuously winged : funiculus adherent at the base. 

In rocky woods and on banks of rivers. May. Fr. June. Common in most parts of the 

5. Arabis Canadensis, Linn. SicMe-pod. Turkey-pod. 

Erect; leaves oblong-lanceolate, sessile, attenuate at each end, remotely toothed; pedicels 
villous, more than twice the length of the calyx, at length recurved ; siliques pendulous, 
falcate, pointed with the distinct style; margin of the seed very broad. — DC. prodr. l.p. 
147; Ell. sk. 2. p. 148; Deless. ic. 2. 28 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 383. A. falcata, Mickx. 
Jl. 2. p. 31 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 437 ; Bigcl.fl. Bost. p. 251. 

Root biennial. Stem 2-3 feet high, smooth above, pubescent below. Leaves 2 to 4 
inches long, usually more or less pubescent with simple hairs ; sometimes nearly glabrous ; 
the lowest coarsely toothed or lyrate, attenuated at the base into a petiole. Raceme elongated; 
the pedicels arillous, even in fruit, spreading, at length recurved. Flowers about 2 lines 
long. Sepals yellowish or rarely pale purple, hispid. Petals white, oblong-linear, twice the 
length of the calyx. Siliques 2-3 inches long and 1^ line broad, ancipital. Seeds 20 - 25 
in each cell, their broad membranaceous margins overlapping one another. Funiculus ad- 
hering to the septum. 

Rocky woods and hill sides. F/. June. i^r. August. A well characterized species, easily 
known by its hairy pedicels and broad falcate pendulous siliques. 

66 CRUCIFER^. Cardamine. 

5. CARDAMINE. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4859. bitter cress. 

[Named from the Greek, cardia, the heart, and damao, to fortify ; in allusion to its supposed strengthening qualities.] 

Silique linear; valves plane, nerveless, usually dehiscing elaslically. Seeds ovate, rarely 
bordered : funiculus slender. — Leaves petioled. Flowers white or pale purple. 

1. Cardamine rhomboidea, DC. Spring Cress. 

Root usually luberiferous ; stem smooth, usually erect or assurgent, fle.\uous ; leaves un- 
divided ; radical ones cordate-orbicular or broadly ovate, entire or repandly toothed, on long 
petioles ; lower cauline ones rhomboid-ovate, sinuately toothed, on short petioles ; upper ones 
sessile, lanceolate-oblong ; silique pointed with the subulate style ; stigma conspicuous. — DC. 
syst. 2. p. 246; Hook. hot. misc. 3. p. 239. t. 108 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 384. C. rotundi- 
folia, var. a. Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 83. Arabis rhomboidea, Pers. syn. 2. p. 204; 
Nutt. gen. 2. p. 70; Ell. sk. 2. p. 149; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 252. A. tuberosa, Pcrs. I. c. 
A. bulbosa, Muhl. cat. p. 63. 

yax. purpurea: stem erect, simple, pubescent; leaves somewhat fleshy, the radical ones 
roundish-cordate or reniform ; flowers deep rose-color or purple. — C. rotundifolia, var. ^. 
Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. C. rotundifolia. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 44. Arabis Douglassii, Torr. 
in Sill. jour. 4. p. 63. 

Root usually producing small white clustered tubes ; but sometimes wholly fibrous. Stem 
9-15 inches high, at first erect, but at length often assurgent ; in cold springy situations, 
prostrate and somewhat diff'use. Radical leaves ^ - 1 inch in diameter ; cauline ones 1—2 
inches long, varying from entire to strongly and sharply toothed. Racernes 10 - 20-flowered ; 
the flowers nearly half an inch in diameter, shorter than their pedicels. Sepals greenish-yellow, 
with awhile margin. Petals obovate-cuneate ; white in the more common form, deep rose- 
color or purple in the var. purpurea. Pedicels ot the fruit 1 - li inch long, smooth in the 
white-flowered var. ; pubescent in the purple. Ripe silique of the former not seen ; in the 
latter about an inch and a half in length, and nearly a line broad, with a long tapering point, 
and tipped with the distinct capitate-bilobed stigma. Seeds few, broadly ovate, not margined. 

Wet meadows and about shady springs. The white-flowered form is common, except, in 
the western part of the State, it is generally replaced by the purple variety, though the two 
varieties sometimes grow in the same situation. The former begins to flower in April, but 
the latter not till the middle of May. The true C. rotundifolia of Michaux, proves to be dis- 
tinct from C. rhomboidea, and has been recently described by Dr. Gray in Silliman's journal, 
vol. 42. p. 30. Numerous specimens of the former, collected last summer by Mr. Buckley 
in the high mountains of North-Carolina (where Michaux discovered it), have all the leaves 
petioled, and the radical or lower cauline ones trifoliolate , the terminal leaflet very large and 
reniform-cordate , lateral ones much smaller, ovate or cordate. I am not yet convinced, how- 
ever, that Dr. Darlington's C. rotundifolia is the same as the North-Carolina plant. 

Cardamine. ■ CRUCIFERiE. 57 

2. Cardamine pratensis, Linn. Common Bitter Cress. Cuckoo-Jlower. 

Stem erect or decumbent ; leaves pinnately 7 - 13-foliolate ; leaflets mostly entire, often 
petiolulate, those of the radical leaves roundish, of the cauline ones oblong or linear ; style 
short and thick ; stigma capitate. — Pursh,fl. 2.p. 440 ; DC.p>-odr. I. p. 151 ; Hook.Ji. Bor.- 
Am. l.p.ib; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. l.;>. 84. 

Root perennial, fibrous. Plant smooth. Stem 12-18 inches high, simple. Radical and 
lower cauline leaves petiolate ; leaflets 6-8 lines long, sparingly toothed or entire ; those of 
the uppermost ones often scarcely a line broad. Flowers rather more than half an inch in 
diameter, white or pale rose-color. Siliques erect, above an inch long. 

Swamps in the western part of the State, particularly in Oneida county. Fl. Latter part 
of April to the beginning of June. — This appears to be identical with the European plant, 
and is undoubtedly indigenous. 

3. Cardamine hirsuta, Linn. Water Cress. 

Leaves pinnate, or lyrately pinnatifid ; leaflets of the, radical leaves roundish, petiolulate, 
of the cauline ones oblong or linear, sparingly toothed or entire ; petals (small), oblong-cunei- 
form, about twice the length of the calyx ; style short or none ; stigma minute ; racemes nearly 
erect or somewhat patulous. — DC. prodr. \. p. 152 ; Hook.Ji. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 45 ; Darlingt. 
ft. Cest. p. 385 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 85. C. Pennsylvanica, Muhl. cat. p. 63 ; 
Willd. sp. 3. p. 486 ; DC. I. c. ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 144 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 253. 

var. Virginica : leaflets with a single tooth on one or both sides ; racemes strictly erect. — 
Torr. 4- Gr. I. c. C. Virginica, Michx. fl. 2. p. 28, not of Linn. ; DC. I. c. 

Root biennial, fibrous. Stem 4-18 inches high, smooth, or rarely with a sparse and 
short pubescence. Leaves with 2-6 pairs of leaflets. Flowers scarcely more than 2 lines 
long (in the var. much smaller), white, or sometimes with a tinge of purple. Siliques about an 
inch long, nearly 3 times the length of their pedicels ; in the common form of the plant, espe- 
cially when growing in shady situations, somewhat patulous. Seeds oblong, not margined. 

Wet places, particularly about springs, and in small streams of water ; the var. on rocks, 
often in dry situations. Fl. May - June. Fr. July. A common plant, very variable in size 
and in the form of its leaves. It is now generally considered as identical with the C. hirsuta 
of Europe, which is also extremely variable, but I have never seen ours so hairy as some of 
my European specimens. 



58 CRUCIFER^. Dentaeia. 

6. DENTARIA. Linn.; Endi gen. iSGl. tootii-WORT 

[So namcj from dens, a tooth; the root or rhizoma of some species being loolhcJ with projecting angles] 

Silique lanceolate, with a long tapering style ; the valves flat and without a prominent nerve, 
often opening elaslically : placenta; not winged. Seeds ovate, not bordered, in a single 
series; funiculi dilated. — Perennial herbs. Rhizoma horizontal, fleshy, often irregularly 
toothed.* Leaves ternately, palmatcly, or pinnalely divided ; radical ones (when present) 
on lonT petioles ; cauline ones (often 3) near the middle of the stem or scape, verticillaie 
or alternate. Flowers white or purple. 

1. Dentaria LACiNiATA, MuM. Common Tooih-tvort. 
Rhizoma moniliform ; cauline leaves 3, on short petioles usually verticillaie, ternately 

parted ; segments incised or acutely serrate-toothed, the lateral ones lobed. — Muhl. in Willd. 
sp. 3. p. 479 ; DC. prodr. l.p. 155 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 144 ; Bart.fl. Amer. Sept. 3. t. 72 ; Bigel. 
fl. Bost.p. 254 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 46 ; Darlingt.jl. Cest. p. 385 ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. 
Am. 1. p. 87. D. concatenata, Michx.fl. 2. p. 30. 

Rhizoma consisting of 2 - 3 or more yellowish-white oblong tubers, connected by a neck 
or fibre, of a pungent taste like horse-radish. Stems or scapes 6-12 inches high, erect, 
simple, smooth below, slightly pubescent above. Cauline leaves verticillate towards the sum- 
mit of the stem; the segments lanceolate, variously cut and toothed ; radical leaves sometimes 
wanting, more cut than those of the stem. Common peduncle 3-4 inches long. Flowers 
pale purple or nearly white. Petals 6-8 lines long, obovatc-cuneiform. Silique about an 
inch long, of which the tapering style forms more than one-tiiird. 

Rich shady soils, particularly along rivers. Middle of April to the beginning of May. 
Fr. June. 

2. Dentaria diphvlla, Michx. Pepper-root. 
Rhizoma elongated, toothed ; cauline leaves 2, ternately divided ; segments ovate or oblong, 

unequally and incisely toothed. — Micluc. fl. 2. p. 30 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 438 ; Nutt. gen. 2. 

p. 66 ; Bot. mag. t. 1465 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 169 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 46 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 

fl.N. Am. l.p. 87. 

Plant 6-10 inches high. Rhizoma creeping extensively, often branched, marked on two 
sides with projecting teeth (the swollen bases of former petioles ?) from the axils of which 
the new petioles arise. Leaves opposite, or closely approximate above the middle of the 
stem ; petioles about an inch long ; leaflets 1 - 2i inches long and 1 - 1^ inch wide, nearly 
sessile, or distinctly petiolulate ; radical leaves on long petioles. Flowers larger than in the 
preceding species, yellowish white or very pale purple ; pedicels spreading, the lower ones 
about an inch long. Siliques an inch long ; tlie pointed style constituting one-third or more 
of the entire fruit. 

Shady woods, in rich soil ; more common than the preceding in the interior of the State. 
May. — The plant is well known on account of its singular and pungent rhizoma. 

Dentaria. CRUCIFERiE. 59 

3. Dentvria maxima, Nutt. Large Tooth-wort. , 

Stem tall ; leaves 5-7, alternate, remote, the margin a little roughened ; leaflets somewhat 
oval, incisely and acutely toothed ; lateral ones lobed ; (flowers pale purple.) — Nutt. gen. 
p. 66 ; DC.prodr. I. p. loo; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 87. 

Stem often nearly two feet high. Tubers concatenate {Nutt.). 

Western part of the State of New-York (Nuttall). This must be an extremely rare plant, 
as I am not aware of its having been found by any botanist except its discoverer. 


Silique longitudinally dehiscent ; valves nearly plane, or so?newhat terete and carinate : 
septum linear. Cotyledons plane, incumbent (i. e. with the radicle applied to the hack of 
one of the cotyledons, \\0), contrary to (i. e. with the edges toioards) the septum. Seeds 
not bordered. 

7. SISYMBRIUM. Allioni ; Endl. gen. 4906. HEDGE MUSTARD. 

[An ancient Greek name applied to some plant believed to he of*lhis genus.] 

Silique somewhat terete. Stigmas 2, somewhat distinct, or connate and capitate. Sepals 
equal at the base. Seeds ovate or oblong. Cotyledons sometimes oblique. — Herbs of 
various habit. Flowers small, mostly yellow or white. 

^ 1. Velahum, DC. SUiques subulate, terminated with a short style : pedicels very short, thickened 
and appressed to the axils after flowering. 

1. Sysymbrium officinale. Scop. Comtnon Hedge Mustard. 

Leaves runcinate, and, as well as the stem, hairy ; flowers very small (yellow). DC.prodr. 
1. p. 191 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 61 ; Darlingt. fl. Ccst. p. 386. Erysimum officinale, 
Linn. ; Michx.fl. 2. p. 31 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 436 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 148 ; Bigel.fl. Bast. p. 253. 

j^nual. Stem more or less hairy. 1-2^ feet high, with numerous, spreading, somewhat 
curved branches. Upper leaves somewhat hastate. Racemes elongated. Petals a little 
longer than the sepals. Siiiqucs 6-8 lines long, tapering to a point. Seeds oval, about 4 
in each cell. 

Road-sides and waste places : introduced from Europe. Flowers from May to September. 
This plant has long been reputed as a diuretic and expectorant, but its powers arc probably 
very feeble. 


00 CRUCIFERiE. Sisymbrium. 

^ 2. Aradidopsis, DC. Silique linear, compressed, somewhat terete : stigma nearly sessile : flowers 
white (or rose-color) : peduncles usually short. 

2. Sysymbrium Thaliana, Gay. Wall Cress. Mouse-ear Cress. 

Annnal : stems often many from one root, rather naked, branching above, erect ; leaves 
(and lower part of the stem) hairy, sparingly toothed ; radical ones ovate-oblong or spatulate- 
oblong, somewhat petioled ; siliques erect-spreading, rather longer than the pedicels. — Gay, 
in ami. sci. nat. 7. p. 399; Hool. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 63; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 388; 
Torr. 4- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 93. Arabis Thaliana, Linn.; Eng. hot. t. 901 ; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 437 ; DC, prodr. 1. p. 144. A. parviflora, Raf. in Amer. month, mag. \. p. 43. 

Stem 6-15 inches high, slender, terete. Leaves mostly radical in a circular cluster, 
scarcely an inch long ; those of tlie stem smaller, stellately hairj', especially on the upper sur- 
face. Fl )W ers scarcely two lines long. Petals spatulatc-oblong, more than twice the length 
of the calyx. Pedicels of the fruit filiform, 4-5 lines long, spreading. Siliques 6-8 lines 
long, moderately compressed, with about 20 oval seeds in each cell, arranged in a single 

In sandy fields on rocks. May. Apparently native, and identical with the European species. 

8. ERYSIMUM. Linn.; Endl. gen. A90S. treacle MUSTARD. 

[From the Greek, enu>, to cure; on account of its supposed medicinal powers.] 

Silique 4-sided. Calyx closed. Seeds not margined : cotyledons oblong, plane. — Herbs, 
mostly biennial, of various habit. Flowers yellow or rarely white. 

§. Erysimastrtm, DC. Style short er scarcely any : calyx decidumis : leaves neither cordate nor 
clasping: flowers distinctly pedicellate. 

1. Erysimum cheiranthoides, Linn. Worm-seed Treacle Mustard. 

Somewhat scabrous with a minute oppressed pubescence ; leaves lanceolate, denticulate or 
entire ; siliques erect, nearly twice the length of the spreading pedicels ; stigma small, entire, 
nearly sessile. — Pursh, fl. 2. p. 436; DC. prodr. I. p. 198; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 64; 
Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. A?n. I. p. 94. E. parviflorum, Pers. syn. 2. p. 199 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p' 16. 

Root biennial, fusiform. Stem 1 - 2J feet high, sparingly branched. Pubescence 3-4- 
parted. Leaves 1-2 inches long and 4-6 lines wide. Flowers small, yellow. Siliques 
about an inch long, pointed with a very short style. 

Along streams in the western part of the State. July - September. A native also of 



Silique dehiscent: septum linear. Style often enlarged, with a seminiferous cell at the 
base. Seeds for the most part globose. Cotyledons incumbent, conduplicate or longi- 
tudinally plicate, with the radicle lying in the sinus ( 0>>). 

9. SINAPIS. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 4950. MUSTARD. 

[Name from the Greek, siiiapi, which again is said by De Theis to be derived from the Celtic nap, a turnip or cabbage.] 

Silique somewhat terete ; valves nerved. Style short, acute. Seeds somewhat globose, in a 
single series. Calyx spreading. — Biennial or annual (rarely perennial) herbs. Leaves 
usually lyrate, incised or pinnatifid. Flowers yellow, in elongated racemes. 

1. SiNAPis NIGRA, Linn. Black Mustard. 

Siliques appressed to the peduncle, glabrous, somewhat 4-cornered ; style short (not ros- 
trate): lower leaves lyrate ; upper ones lanceolate, entire. — DC. prodr. I. p.2\Q; Bigel.fl. 
Bost. p. Q54 ; Beck, bot. jnid. and north. States, p. 33 ; Torr. compend. p. 252 ; JEno-. hot. 
t. 969 ; Darlingt.fl. Cestr.p. 390 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 99. 

Annual. Stem 3-6 feet high, smooth, with numerous spreading branches. Lower leaves 
large, scabrous ; cauline ones smooth. Calyx yellow. Siliques about three-fourths of an 
inch long, slightly torulose, pointed with the short and slender 4-sided style. Seeds dark 
brown, very acrid. 

Fields and waste places. June - August. Naturalized in many parts of the State. The 
seeds afford mustard, so well known as a stimulating condiment. 

2. SiNAPis ARVENsis, Ltnu. Wild Mustard. Charlock. 

Siliques smooth, many-angled, torose, about three times the length of the slender somewhat 
ancipital style; stem and leaves more or less hairy. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 219; Eng. hoi. 
t. 1748; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 99. 

Annual. Plant 2-3 feet high, somewhat diffusely branched, sparsely hispid with short 
retrose stiff hairs. Lower leaves 6 inches or more in length, lyralcly pinnatifid ; upper ones 
oblong-ovate, repandly toothed. Flowers as large as in the common turnip, bright yellow. 
Pedicels of the fruit 2-3 lines long, thick and rigid. Siliques about an inch and a quarter 
in length, pointed with the long stout style, strongly nerved ; septum zigzag, from the large 
round seeds pressing it alternately into the two cells. 

Common in wet meadows and fields in the western part of the State : a noxious weed, in- 
troduced from Europe. June - August. 

.vV . 

02 CRUCIFER/E. Draba. 


Silicle dehiscent ; valves plane or convex ; septum broadly oval and membranaceous. Seeds 
compressed, often margined. Cotyledons plane, accumbcnt, -parallel to the septum. 

10. DRABA. Linn.; Endl. gen. A880. wiiitlow-grass. 

[Named from Ihe Greek, drabe, acrid ; from tasle of the leaves in many of the genus] 

Silicle oval or oblong ; valves plane or convex. Seeds numerous, not margined. Calyx equal. 
Petals entire or bifid. Stamens all toothless. — Herbs of various habit. Flowers white or 

§ 1. Drada, DC. Petals entire. 

1. Draba arabisans, Michx. Arahis-like Whitlow-grass, 

Perennial : whole plant slightly and stellately pubescent; stem leafy, simple, or branching 
from the base ; leaves sparingly and acutely toothed ; radical ones cuneiform-lanceolate, the 
cauline oblong ; silicles smooth, lanceolate-oblong, contorted, pointed with a very short but 
distinct style; petals (white) about twice as long as the sepals. — Michx. Jl. 2. p. 28; DC. 
prodr. I. p. 70 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. p. 55 ; Torr. ^ Gr.jl. N. Am. 1. p. 106. D. incana, 
/3. glabriuscula, Gray in ann. lye. N. York, 3. p. 223. 

Stems usually several from one root, 6-12 inches high. Radical leaves numerous, form- 
ing a circular tuft, about an inch long, acute, with a long tapering base, 1 - 2-toothed or entire ; 
cauline ones slightly clasping, furnished with one or two (rarely more) very acute spreading 
teeth on each side. Flowers about three lines in diameter. Petals broadly ovate. Raceme 
of fruit 4-6 inches long. Silicle half an inch long, and nearly 2 lines wide, nearly erect. 
Pedicels about half as long as the silicles, often cohering at the base by pairs. Seeds 
7 - 10 in each cell. 

Rocky borders of lakes and rivers in the northern part of the State. Fl. May - June. 
Fr. July. 

2. Draba Caroliniana, Walt. Carolina Whitlow-grass. 

Annual. Stem leafy and hispid at the base, naked and smooth above, leaves ovate ; entire, 
hispid ; silicles linear, smooth, somewhat corymbed, longer than their pedicels ; style almost 
none; (flowers white.)— Walt. fl. Car. p. 174 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 138; DC. prodr. 1. p. 171 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 109. D. hispidula, Michx. fl. 2. p. 28 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 433. 
Arabis rotundifolia, Raf. in Amer. month, mag. 2. p. 43. 

Plant 2-5 inches high ; the pubescence branched. Stems commonly several from one 
root, branching from near the base ; the branches widely spreading. Leaves 4-5 lines long, 
the radical and lower cauline ones abruptly narrowed at the base. Flowers nearly twice as 

Deaba. CRUCIFER.E. . • 63 

large as in D. verna. Petals oblong, twice the length of the sepals. Silicles 4-6 lines lon<» ; 
cells 20 - 30-seeded. ° ' 

Sandy fields on the Island of New-York ; rare. April - May. 

^ 2. Erophila, BC. Petals 2-jpartcd. 

3. Draba verna, Lin7i. Common Whitlow-grass. 

Scapes naked; leaves lanceolate, somewhat toothed ; silicles elliptical. — En" 
Pursh,fl. 2. p. 433 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 250 ; Bart.fl. A^n. Sept. 3. p. 49 to 88./. 2 ; Torr. 
4- Gr.Ji. N. Am. l.p. 109. D. verna, (3. Americana, Pers. syn. 2. p. 190. Erophila Ame- 
ricana and vulgaris, DC. prodr. 1. p. 173. E. vulgaris, Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 56. E. 
vulgaris, war. Americana, Darlingt.fl. Cest.p. 378. 

Annual. Scapes 1-5 inches high, often several from one root, and assurgent. Leaves 
4-6 lines long. Flowers minute, white. Petals cleft more than half way to the base. Pe- 
dicels of the fruit 6-8 lines or more in length. Silicles 3-4 lines long; style very short. 
Seeds numerous. 

Fields and hill-sides ; common. March and April. Perhaps introduced. 


Silicle dehiscent, ovoid or oblong, compressed parallel to the septum, or turgid ; valves plane 
or convex: septum elliptical or ovate, sometimes incomplete or none. Cotyledons plane, 
incumbent, contrary to (i. e. their margins looking towards) the septum. 

11. CAMELINA. Crantz ; E?idl. gen. 4919. gold OF PLEASURE. 

[Named from the Greek chamai, dwarf, and limm, flax ; from some resemblance of the plant to ordinary flai,] 
Silicic obovoid or somewhat globose ; valves ventricose, dehiscing with a part of the style ; 
cells many-seeded. Style filiform. Seeds oblong, not bordered. Flowers small, yellow. 

1. Camelina sativa, Crantz. Common Gold of Pleasure. Wild Flax. 

Silicles obovoid-pyriform ; style rather long ; stigma simple ; leaves lanceolate, sagittate, 
nearly entire. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 201 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 379 ; Torr. tj- Gr.fl. N. Am. 
l.p. 110. Myagrum sativum, Linn. Alyssum sativum. Smith, Eng. bot. t. 1254. 

Annual. Stem 1^-3 feet high, paniculate at the summit, somewhat pubescent. Leaves 
usually roughish-pubcsccnt. Silicles about one-fourth of an inch long, on slender pedicels 
which are from half an inch to an inch in length. 

Fields and cultivated grounds ; introduced with grain from Europe. Flowers in May and 




Silicle dehiscent, compressed contrary to the very narrow septum ; valves boat-shaped. 
Cotyledons plane, accumbe?it, contrary to the septum. 

12. THLASPI. Dill. ; Endl. gen. 4885. penny CHESS. 

[From the Greek, thUto to flatten ; probably from the compressed form of its seed-vessel.] 

Silicle eraarginatc at the apex ; valves winged on the back ; cells 2- or many-seeded. Petals 
equal. Calyx equal at the base. — Flowers white. 

1. Thlaspi arvense, Linn. Mithridate Mustard, or Penny Cress. 

Leaves oblong, toothed ; silicles orbicular-obovate, shorter than the pedicels ; style scarce- 
ly any. — Pursh, fl. 2. p. 435 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 175 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 58; Torr. 
^ Gr.fl.N.Am. 1. p. 113. 

Cauline leaves somewhat sagittate ; auricles minute. Valves of the silicic much com- 
pressed, furnished with a conspicuous wing. 

In the State of New- York {Fursh). I have never seen specimens of this plant collected 
within the limits of the State. It is doubtless an introduced species in North America. 


Silicle usually dehiscent, compressed contrary to the narroiv septum {sometimes \ -celled) ; 
valves boat-shaped, or rarely ventricose. Cotyledons plane, incumbent, parallel to the 

13. LEPIDIUM. R. Br. in hort. Kew. 4. p. 85 ; Endl. gen. 4932. PEPPER-WORT. 

[From the Greek Icpis, a scale; the fruit being in the form of little scales.] 

Silicle ovate or somewhat cordate ; valves carinate or rarely ventricose, dehiscent ; cells one- 
seeded. Seeds compressed, or somewhat 3-sided. Flowers small, white. 

1. Lepidium CAMPESTRE, i2. .Br. Mithridote Pepper-iDort. 

Silicles ovate, winged, emarginate, scaly-punctate ; cauline leaves sagittate, denticulate. — 
DC. syst. 2. p. 535 ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 115. Thlaspi campestre, Linn. 

Annual or biennial. Plant 8-12 inches high, simple, or paniculately branched above, 
clothed with a short soft and mostly simple pubescence. Racemes much elongated in fruit; 
pedicels diverging horizontally. Silicles 3 lines long. 

Waste places and road-sides ; rather rare. Long Island and Staten Island. Introduced. 
June - July. 

Lepidittm. CRUCIFERiE. 65 

2. Lepidiusi Virginicum, Linn. mid Pepper-grass. 

Silicles nearly orbicular, wingless, emarginate ; flowers diandrous (petals 4) ; cauline 
leaves linear-lanceolate, incisely serrate ; cotyledons accumbent. — Michx.fl. 2. p. 27; DC. 
prodr. I. p. 205 ; Bigel. ji. Bost. p. 250 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 69 ; Darli7i<^t. / Cest 
p. 380 ; Ton: ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \. p. 115. 

Annual. Plant a foot or fifteen inches high, corymbosely branched above, minutely pubes- 
cent. Leaves 1 - 2 inches long, the lower ones incised or even pinnatifid, nearly smooth. 
Flowers minute, rarely triandrous. Silicles nearly two lines long, slightly emarginate ; 
pedicels slender, spreading, 3-4 lines in length. 

Fields and road-sides : in dry soils ; common. May - September. 

14. CAPSELLA. Vent. tabl. 3. p. 1 10 ; Endl. gen. 4927. SBEPBERD^S-PURSE. 

[Name, the diminutiTe of capsula, a capsule or little box.] 

Sihcle triangular-cuneiform ; valves boat-shaped, wingless, coriaceous ; cells small, many- 
seeded. — Herbaceous, annual. Radical leaves in a rosulate cluster. Flowers minute, 

1. Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Mcench. Common Shepherd! s-purse. 

DC. syst. 2. p. 383 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 380 ; Torr. cf Gr.J. N. Am. \.p.\\l. Thlaspi 
Bursa-pastoris, Linn. ; Bug. hot. t. 1485 ; Bost. p. 250. 

Stems 6-18 inches high, erect, often several from one root, simple or sparingly branched, 
more or less hairy. Leaves variable, sometimes entire, but usually toothed, incised or pin- 
natifid. Pedicels filiform, much longer than the silicles. 

Fields, road-sides, etc. ; a well known weed. Introduced from Europe. Aprd - September. 



Silique or silicle separating transversely into several 1 -celled, 1 -seeded joints. Seeds usuallif 
compressed, not margined. Cotyledons jjlane, accumbent. 

15. CAKILE. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 4899. ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

[An Arabic name of a plant, supposed to be this or some allied gonus.] 

Silicle 2-jointcd ; the upper joint ovate or ensiform. Seed in the upper cell erect ; in the 

lower pendulous. -Annual, glabrous and fleshy (usually maritime) herbs, with pinnatifid 

or lobed leaves. The lower joint of the silicle often abortive. 

[Flora.] 9 

66 CRUCIFERiE. Cakile. 

1. Cakile MARiTiMA, ScoiJ. Sea Rocket. 

Upper joint of the silicle ensiforiu. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 165 ; Lam. ill. t. 55-1. Bunias 
Cakile, Linn. 

var. Americana : upper joint of the silicle o^■ate-ensiforIn. — Torr. ^ Gr, jl. N. Am. 1 . 
y. 119. C. Americana, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 62; DC. I. c. C. edenlula, Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 59. C. niaritima, Pursk,fl. 2. p. 434 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 137. Bunias edentula, Bigel.Jl. Bost. 
p. 251. 

Stem much branched, procumbent, a foot or more in length. Leaves 1-2 inches long, 
obovaie, attenuate at the base, more or less toothed and lobed. Flowers corymbed, pale 
purple. Silicle about three-fourths of an inch long, at length somewhat woody ; lower joint 
short, clavate-obovate ; tlie upper one with a prominent line on each side, minutely 2-3- 
toothcd at the base. Seeds almost always accumbent. — See Torr. in ann. lye. N. York. 4. 
p. 91. 

Sandy seashore of Long-Island, and shore of Lake Erie at Portland harbor {Dr. Kneiskern). 
July - August. 


unique or silicle indehiscent, tranversely separating into one- {or few-) seeded joints. Seeds 
globose. Cotyledons conduplicale, as in Brassicaceas. 

16. RAPHANUS. Linn.;DC.syst.2.p.662. radish. 

[Named from the Greek, ra, quickly, and phainonuii, to appear ; from it3 speedy germmation] 

Sihque transversely man3'-celled. Seeds in a single series. — Leaves lyrate. Flowers yellow, 
white or purple. 

1. Raphanus Raphamstrum, Linn. Wild Radish. 

Silique terete (joints one-seeded), monihform and one-celied when mature, longer than the 
style ; leaves simply lyrate. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 229; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 252; Torr. <^ Gr. 
J. N.Am. 1. p. 120. 

Annual. Stem 1-2 feet high, branching, rough with scattered minute prickles. Leaves 
roughly pubescent ; the terminal lobe large, ovate or obovate. Flowers at first yellow, turning 
white or sometimes pale purple as they grow old, about as large as in the common Radish. 
Pods Ij to 2 inches or more in length ; when mature, much constricted between the joints ; 
style forming from one-third to one-half the length of the pod. 

In fields and waste places on Long Island, about Gowannus Bay. July - September. A 
weed, introduced from Europe. 


Order XIII. CAPPARIDACEiE. Juss. The Caper Tribe. 

Sepals 4 (very rarely 2 or 8), deciduous or marcescent, distinct or more or less 
united and imbricated in a?stivation. rarely valvate. Petals 4 (very rarely 8), 
cruciate or irregular, usually unguiculate and more or less unequal, sometimes 
wanting. Stamens, v^^hen the flowers are tetramerous, most commonly 6, often 
8 - 20 or more, rarely as few as 4, inserted oh the short or sometimes elon- 
gated torus : filaments equal or imequal ; anthers innate or introrse, mostly 
revolute when dry. Ovary often stipitate, composed of 2 (rarely more) united 
carpels, with two parietal placentae : style filiform, sometimes short or almost 
wanting; stigma entire, often discoid or somewhat capitate. Fruit one-celled, 
either a pod-shaped 2-valved capsule, with the valves often separating from 
the persistent filiform placentas (rarely coriaceous, and nearly or quite inde- 
hiscent), or baccate, very rarely 1 - 2-, usually many-seeded. Seeds campuli- 
tropous, reniform, with no albumen, but the lining of the testa often thickened. 
Embryo curved : cotyledons foliaceous, somewhat incumbent. — Herbs (mostly 
annuals in N. America), shrubs, or rarely small trees, with a watery acrid juice. 
Leaves alternate, petioled, simple or palmately compound : leaflets mostly 
entire. Stipules none, or with spines in their place. 

Tride I. CLEOMEjE. DC. 

Capsule membranaceous, dehiscent {rarely somewhat coriaceous and indehiscrnt). Leaves 
mostly compound. 

1. POLANISIA. Raf. injour.phys. (1819), p. 98 ; Endl. gen. 4988. 

[From the Greek, pohj, much, and anisos, unequal ; in allusion to the inequality of the stamens.] 

Sepals distinct, spreading. Petals 4. Stamens 8 - 32 : filaments filiform, or dilated at thr 
summit. Torus minute (often nectariferous). Pod linear, sessile or nearly so. — Annual 
herbs, mostly glandular, with a heavy terebinthine odor. 

\j. PoLANisiA proper. Torus bearing a short fleshy nectary or gland next the upper sepal : filaments 
filiform, often unequal and more or less declined (6-80/ them arising between the nectary and 
the ovary) : petals on slender claws, unequal, emarginate or entire : sepals tardily deciduous. 

1. PoLANisiA GRAVE0LEN8, JRof. HecEoy-scentcd Polanisia. 

Viscidly pubescent and glandular ; leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets and bracts oblong, shorter 

68 CAPPARIDACEiE. Polanisia. 

than the petiole ; sepals (purplish) somewhat unequal, longer than the claws of the cuneate 
emarginate petals ; stamens mostly 10 or 1 1, usually longer than the petals ; style longer than 
the orar)' ; pods broadly lanceolate, turgid, attenuate at the base, reticulated, rough with a 
glandular pubescence; seeds somewhat flattish, nearly smooth or minutely verrucose. — Raf. 
I. c. ; DC. prodr. l.p. 242 ; Hook. ft. Bar. -Am. \.p.l\; Darltngt. ft. Cest. p. 600 ; Torr. 
4" Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 123. Cleome dodecandra, Michx. ft. 2. p. 32 ; Pursh.ft. 2. jj. 441 ; 
Bigel. ft. Bost. p. 254. C. dodecandra, var. Canadensis, Linn. ; Comut. Can. 1. 131. C. 
viscosa, Spreng. syst. 2. p. 125, ex Am. 

Stem branching, 6-15 inches high, often tinged with piuple. Leaflets about an inch long. 
Flowers numerous in a corymbose raceme. Sepals glandularly pubescent on the back. Petals 
yellowish-white, attenuated below into a filiform claw. Filaments purple. Nectary concave, 
truncate, very short. Style at length deciduous. Pod 1^ - 2^ inches long and 3-4 lines 
broad, drv and membranaceous. Seeds brown when mature, reniform-orbicular and mode- 
rately compressed, more or less roughened with minute rugose warts, or nearly smooth. 

Gravelly banks of rivers and lakes ; not found below the Highlands. June - August. 

Order XIV. VIOLACEiE. DC. The Violet Tribe. 

Calyx of persistent sepals, which are often auricled at the ba^e, imbricated in 
a?stivation. Corolla of 5 mostly unequal petals, the superior one (which, by 
the inversion of the flower, becomes inferior) usually spurred or saccate at the 
base ; the aestivation convolute. Stamens 5, inserted on the hypogj-nous disk : 
filaments short and broad, extending beyond the anthers ; two of them furnished 
with a gland, or a slender appendage which is concealed in the spur of the 
corolla : anthers connivent, or somewhat cohering into a ring or tube. St^-le 
usually declined, with a thickened or hooded stigma. Capsule one-celled, 
opening by 3 valves, each valve bearing a parietal placenta in its middle. 
Seeds usually numerous (by abortion sometimes few, very rarely solitary), 
anatropous, witli acrustaceous testa and a distinctly marked chalaza. Embryo 
straight, nearly as long as the fleshy albumen. — Herbs (in tropical countries 
sometimes shrubby plants). Leaves simple, petioled, mostly alternate, furnished 
^vith stipules. 

Viola. VIOLACE^. 69 

1. VIOLA. Linn.; Gingins in DC.prodr. 1. p. 291 ; Endl. gen. 5040. riOLET. 

[A name of obscure origin.] 

Sepals more or less auricled at the base. Petals unequal ; the superior (by inversion inferior) 
one spurred at the base ; the 2 lower ones with appendages on the back, which are con- 
cealed in the spur : anthers connate, the lobes diverging at the base. Ovary sometimes 
surrounded at the base by the concave torus, and then apparently half inferior. Capsule 
bursting elastically. Seeds horizontal, with an evident caruncle. — Low herbaceous plants, 
•with a short subterraneous stem or rhizoma (and tlien called acaulescent or stemless), or 
caulescent. Leaves alternate. Peduncles angular, solitary, one-flowered, furnished with 
2 small bracteoles, recurved at the summit, so that the flower is resupinate or nodding. — 
The species with subterraneous stems produce, late in the season, apetalous flowers on 
short stolons or scapes, which are often concealed beneath the surface of the ground, but 
bear perfect fruit. 

^ 1. Stigma rostrate; the beak more or less, with an orifice at the extremity, margined or convex on 
the back: style tofering from the summit to the base : anthers oblong ; torus fiattish. Gingins. 

♦ Acaulescent, 

1. Viola pedata, Linn. Pedate Violet. 

Plant nearly smooth ; leaves pedately about 7-parted ; segments cuneate-lanceolatc, entire 
or incisely 3-toothed at the summit ; stigma large and thick, margined, obliquely truncate, 
the beak very short ; petals all smooth. — Michx.fl. 2. p. 151 ; Bot. mag. t. 89 ; Pursh,fl. 1. 
p. 171 ; Schwein. mon. Viol, in Sill, jour, 5. p. 50; Ell. sk. l.p. 300 ; Ton: ft. l.p. 249 ; 
DC.prodr. l.p. 291 ; LeConte, mon. Viol, in ann. lye. N. York, 2. p. 147 ; Hook. ft. Bor.- 
Am. 1. /». 74 ; Graham in Edin. new phil. jour. Jan. 1833 ; Torr. 4" Gr- ft- N. Am. 1. 
p. 136. V. flabellifolia, Lodd. hot. cab. t. 111. V. digitata, Pursh, I. c. 

Rhizoma thick and fleshy. Leaves of a firm texture : three of the divisions extend to the 
base of the lamina ; the lateral ones 3-, sometimes 4-parted ; the segments varying in breadth, 
usually more or less cuneiform or oblanccolatc, sometimes very narrow. Stipules ciliate. 
Scapes 3-5 inches high. Flowers nearly an inch in diameter, usually briglit blue, sometimes 
variegated, and rarely almost while. Stigma a little longer than tlic stamens. 

Dry sandy soils. May - June. A beautiful and pretty common species in the neighbor- 
hood of New-York and on Long Island, but rare in the interior of the State. 

2. Viola palmata, Linn. Palmate Violet. 

Plant pubescent ; leaves cordate, palmately or haslately lobcd (the early ones sometimes 
entire) ; lobes crenate and toothed, the middle one much the largest ; stigma capitate-triangu- 

70 VIOLA CEiE. Viola. 

lar, with a short beak; lower petals bearded. — Michx.Jl. 2. p. 101 ; EU. sk. 1. p. 300 : 
Schwein. I. c; Torr. Jl. I. p. 249 ; Le Conte, I. c; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 95 ; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 292; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 71 ; Darlingt.Jl. Ccst. p. 142; Torr. ^ Gr.Jl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 137. V. hetcrophylla, Leconte, I. c. 

Rliizoma thick. Leaves variable in form, lobing and degree of pubescence ; sometimes 
(particularly the first that expand) entire, often palmate and entire on the same plant, at other 
times dilated and reniform, very rarely almost smooth : petioles 3-8 inches long. Scapes 
at first longer, but finally shorter than the leaves : stipules very small, lanceolate, denticulate. 
Flowers middle-sized, bright blue, sometimes pale, rarely almost white. 

Woods, usually in rather moist situations. May. 

3. Viola cucullat.\. Ait. Hoodnleaved Violet. 

Plant glabrous, or rarely somewhat pubescent ; leaves rehiform-cordate, somewhat acute. 
usually rolled in at the base, crenately serrate ; stigma triangular-capitate, margined ; lower 
petals bearded. — Ait. Kew. 3. p. 288 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 172 ; Bigel. jl. Bost. p. 60 ; Ell. sk. 
l.p. 298; Schwein. I. c; Torr. Jl. I. p. 251 ; Le Conte, I. c; DC. prodr. I. p. 292; Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 75. V. papiUonacea, Pursh, I. c; DC. I. c; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N, Am. 1. 
p. 137. V. obliqua. Ait. I. c; Schwein. I. c; Torr. I. e. ' V, affinis, Leconte, I. c. 

Rhizoma thick. Whole plant usually smooth. Leaves sometimes nearly plane, varying 
in size and height. Flowers middle-sized, bright violet-blue or pale. Spur rounded, short. 

Very common in moist low grounds. Fl. Latter part of April to May. — This species 
strongly resembles the entire-leaved form of V. palmata, and can only be distinguished bv its 
almost entire smoothness, undivided leaves, and by the somewhat different form of the stigma. 
It may prove to be a variety of that plant. 

4. Viola Selkirkii, Goldie. Selkirk's Violet. 

Leaves cordate, crenately serrate, minutely hairy above, smooth underneath, the sinus deep 
and nearly closed ; stigma triangular, margined, with a distinct beak ; spur nearly as long as 
the lamina, thick, very obtuse. — Goldie in Edin. phil. jour. 6. p. 319 ; Hook. jl. Bor.-Am. 
p. 75 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. p. 137. 

Rhizoma somewhat creeping. Leaves numerous, forming a small radical tuft ; lamina an 
inch broad, somewhat acute or obtuse. Peduncles shorter than the leaves. Flowers much 
smaller than in V. cuculla'ta ; petals pale blue, obovate ; spur very conspicuous, somewhat 
dilated at the extremity. 

Woody hill-sides in the western part of the State, particularly in Oneida county {Dr. Gray). 
A well marked, but rare species. 

Viola. VIOLACE^. 71 

5. Viola sagittata, Aif. Arrow-leaved Violet. 

Plant somewhat pubescent ; leaves oblong, rather acute-crenate, cordate-sagittate and incised 
at the base ; stigma depressed, margined ; inferior petal smooth, the rest bearded. — Ait. 
Kew. 3. p. 287; Pursh, fl. I. p. 172 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 147 ; Schwein. I. c. ; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 250 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 299 ; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 96 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 294 ; Lc Conte, I. c. ; 
Darlingt.Jl. Cest.p. 143; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 138. 

var. ovata : villous ; leaves ovate, somewhat cordate, crenate, often lacerately toothed at 
the base ; petiole margined. — Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. V. ovata, Nutt. I. c. ; Schwein. I. c. ; DC. 
prodr. I.e.; Hook. Jl. Bar.-Am. 1. p. 76. V. primulifolia, Pursh, I. c. {not oi Linn.). V. 
AUeghaniensis, Roem. 4* Schult. syst, 5. p. 560 ; DC. I. c. 

Rhizoma short and thick. Leaves usually forming a tuft, often somewhat hastate at the 
base, 2-5 inches long (including the petiole, which is about the length of the lamina). 
Peduncles usually several, a little longer than the leaves ; stipules subulate. Flowers middle- 
sized. Sepals linear-lanceolate, smoothish. Petals bright or pale purplish blue. Spur short, 
very obtuse and saccate. Capsule smooth, 20 - 30-seeded. 

In fields and on dry hill-sides ; frequent. Latter part of April to the middle of May. A 
variable species, but easily distinguished from all the other stendess violets by the form of the 
leaves. I have not observed the variety emarginata within the limits of the State. The 
whole plant is mucilaginous, and is employed in domestic practice as a demulcent. 

0. Viola rotundifolia, Michx. Round-leaved Violet. 

Leaves orbicular-ovate, cordate, slightly crenate-toothed, nearly smooth, the sinus usually 
closed; petiole pubescent ; (flowers yellow;) stigma recurved at the apex, margined ; lateral 
petals bearded; sepals obtuse; spur almost none. — Michx. fl. 2. p. 150; Nutt. gen. 1. 
/;. 149 ; Schwein. I. c. ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 97 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 252 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 295 
(excl. syn. Pursh) ; Le Conte, I. c. ; Hook. fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 91; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1 . 
p. 138. 

Rhizoma short and thick. Leaves spreading and appressed to the ground, at the flowering 
time about an inch long, but very much larger late in the season, flat, sprinkled with short 
hairs on the upper surface ; the petiole about as long as the lamina. Scapes 1 -2i inclies 
long, smooth. Flowers small, pale yellow. Sepals lanceolate-oblong, usually rounded at the 
extremity, smooth. Petals obovate, sometimes emarginale ; the lateral ones strongly with 
dark brown lines. Capsule ovate, smooth, speckled with brown. Seeds about 20. 

Shady rocky woods ; rare below the Highlands ; common in the northern parts of the 
Siuic. Fl. Middle of April to May. — Remarkable among- the stemless violets for its yellow 
flowers, and also for the large leaves which it bears in tlie latter part of the summer. 

72 VIOLACE.E. Viola. 

7. Viola blanda, Wi/ld. Sweet-scetited White Violet. 

Leaves broadly cordate and cordate-reniform, smooth or slightly pubescent above, the sinus 
rounded ; petiole smooth ; stigma capitate, depressed, margined with a recurved beak ; petals 
beardless (while); rhizoma creeping. — Willd. hort. Berol. t. 24 ; Nutt. gen. \.p. 149 ; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 298 ; Schwein. I. c. ; Torr.Jl. 1. p. 254 ; Bigel. Jl. Bust. p. 94 ; DC. prodr. 1. 
^.295; Le Conte, I. c; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 14:5 ; Torr. <^ CJr.Jl. N. Afn.l. p. 138. V. clan- 
destina, Pitrsh, fl. I. p. 173(excl. syn. Michx.). V. obliqua, Pursh, I. c. V. amoena, Le 
Conte, I. c. 

Leaves 1-2 inches in diameter, flat and thin ; petiole mostly twice the length of the leaves. 
Scape slender, oblique or decumbent. Flowers small, fragrant. Sepals oblong, rather obtuse. 
Petals obovate, obtuse ; the inferior one strongly veined with purple, and often emarginate ; 
the two lateral ones less distinctly veined : spur short, but distinct. 

Wet meadows and margins of brooks ; common. April - May. — This is the only native 
sweet-scented violet in the United States. 

8. Viola primul^efolia, Liiui. Primrose-lecwed Violet. 

Leaves oblong, somewhat cordate, the lamina abruptly decurrent on the petiole, the under 
surface and the scapes somewhat pubescent ; stigma capitate, margined, slightly beaked 
(flowers white) ; lateral petals smooth or slightly bearded ; rhizoma creeping. — Nutt. gen. 1. 
p. 149; Schioein. I. c. ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 295 (cxcl. syn. Pursh) ; Torr. fl.l. p. 253 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 293; Le Conte, I. c. ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 145; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 139. 

Leaves 3-6 inches high ; the lamina an inch or more wide, and constituting less than half 
the length of the leaf, sometimes truncate at the base ; the upper part of the petiole winged 
by the decurrent lamina. Scapes about the length of the leaves. Flower small ; the lower 
petal conspicuously, and the two lateral ones slightly, marked with purple veins. 

Wet meadows and borders of rivulets ; rare. April - June. 

9. Viola lanceolata, Linn. Lance-leaved Violet. 

Plant smooth ; leaves lanceolate, narrowed at the base into a long petiole, rather obtuse, 
obscurely crenate-serrate ; stigma with a short recurved beak, somewhat quadrangular and 
margined; petals (white) beardless ; rhizoma creeping. — Michx. fl. 2. p. 150; Nutt. gen. \. 
p. 150 ; Schioein. I. c. ; Torr.fl. \.p. 253 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 293 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 94 ; 
Le Conte, I. c; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 76 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 139. 

Rhizoma often throwing off" from its neck long creeping stolons, bearing an apetalous flower 
on a short peduncle at each joint. Leaves 4-6 inches long (including tlie petiole), and 
usually 4-5 lines wide, but sometimes considerably broader ; the lamina shorter than the 
petiole. Scapes generally exceeding the leaves. Flower small, inodorous ; the lowest petal 
veined with purple : spur short and very obtuse. 

Viola. VIOLACE^E. 73 

Wet meadows ; common in the valley of the Hudson, and in the northern parts of the 
State, but rare in the western counties. April - May ; sometimes flowering again in the 
autumn. This and the preceding species are very nearly related. Hooker suspects that they 
pass into each other. 

** Caulescent : stigma convex, Twt margined. 

10. Viola striata, Ait. (Plate VIII.) Striated Violet. 
Nearly smooth ; stem angular, oblique, branching ; leaves roundish-cordate or somewhat 

ovate, serrate, upper ones somewhat acuminate ; stipules oblong-lanceolate, dentate-ciliate ; 
stigma tubular, recurved, pubescent at the summit; spur rather long. — Ait. Kew. {ed. 1.) 3. 
p. 291 ; Pursh,fl. 1. p. 174 ; Nutt. gen. I. p. 150 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 301 ; DC. prodr. l.p.297;. 
Le Conte, I. c. ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 139. V. ochroleuca, Schwein. I. c. ; Torr. 
fl.\. p. 255; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 77; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 146. V. repens, Schwein. 
I. c. V. Lewisiana, DC. I. c. V. debihs, Michx. fl. 1. p. 150? 

Plant 6-10 inches high. Leaves about an inch and a half wide, crenately serrate, slightly 
pubescent above and on the veins underneath. Stipules large. Peduncles usually rather 
longer than the leaves. Flowers large, pale yellow or cream-color ; the lateral petals con- 
spicuously bearded ; the lowest one striate with purple. 

Wet meadows ; western part of the State ; rare. April - May. 

11. Viola Muhlenbergii, Torr. MuMenherg's Violet. 
Plant smooth, or nearly so ; stem assurgent or somewhat prostrate; leaves reniform-cordate, 

the upper ones a little acuminate, crenately serrate ; stipules lanceolate, deeply serrate-ciliate ; 
stigma tubular, papillose-pubescent ; spur about one-third the length of the petal ; the two 
lateral petals somewhat bearded. — Torr. fl. 1. p. 256; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 140. 
V. Muhlenbergiana, Ging. in DC. prodr. I. p. 297 ; Le Conte, I. c. ; Hook.fl. Bor.- Am. 1, 
p. 78; Darling, fl. Cest. p. 146. V. asarifolia and uliginosa, Muhl. cat. p. 25. V. debilis, 
Pursh, fl. l.p. 174 (excl. syn.). V. punctata and uliginosa, Schtvein. I. c. 

Stem 4-8 inches long, branched from the base, at first erect, but at length decumbent 
and geniculate. Leaves about an inch in diameter, sometimes a little pubescent on the under 
surface. Peduncles usually longer than the leaves. Flower middle-sized, pale purplish blue. 
Spur sometimes nearly half the length of the petal, tapering. Style somewhat dilated in the 
middle. Stigma with a conspicuous orifice, hairy-papillose on one side. 

Wet meadows and swamps. May - June. Nearly allied to V. canina of Europe. 

12. Viola hostrata, Pursh. Long-spurred Violet. 
Smooth ; stems numerous, assurgent ; leaves cordate , the upper ones acute, serrate ; 

stipules lanceolate, scrratc-ciliatc ; stigma tubular, very slender, erect, naked ; petals beard- 
[Flora.] 10 

74 VIOLACE^. Viola. 

less ; spur longer llian the corolla.— Pur^/i, Jl. I. p. 72 ; Null. gen. 1. ;>. 150 ; Schwein. I. c; 
Torr. Jl.\. p. 256 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 298 ; Le Conte, I. c; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Ain. 1. p. 78 ; 
Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 140; Reichenb. ic. exot. t. 131. 

Stems 3-6 inches high. Leaves 1 - Ij inch in diameter, sometimes sprinkled with a 
few very short hairs on the upper surface, flat. Peduncles longer than the leaves. Flowers 
as large as in tlie preceding species, pale blue ; the petals veined with deep purple. Spur 
slender, sometimes nearly twice the length of the flower. Appendages of the anthers filiform, 
extending almost the entire length of the spur. Style slender, of nearly uniform thickness 
throughout, terminating in the tubular stigma, the orifice of which is manifest, as in V. Muh- 

Swamps and moist rocky woods. Latter part of May. Rather common in the interior 
of the Stale, but not yet found below Hudson. Fl. Latter part of May and early in June. — 
The whole appearance of the plant, except the long spur, is that of V. Muhlenhergii; but the 
characters given above seem to be pretty constant. 

§ 2. Stigma capitate, bearing a tuft of hairs on each side, itiih a minute somewhat lateral orifice : 
style compressed, clavate : stamens oblong, approximate ; torus rather flat : capsule often triangular. 

13. Viola pubescens, Aii. Yellmo Violet. 

Plant commonly villous-pubescent ; stem erect, naked below ; leaves broadly cordate, 
toothed ; stipules ovate-lanceolate, somewhat toothed ; sepals oblong-lanceolate ; spur very 
short. — A^^ Kew. {ed. 1.) 3. p. 290; NuU. gen. 1. p. 150; Schwein. I. c; Torr. Jl. 1. 
p. 257 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 98; Le Conte, I. c. ; Bot. reg. t. 390 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 147 ; 
Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 142. V. Pennsylvanica, Michx.Jl. 2. p. 149. 

var. 1. eriocarpa: capsules densely villous. — Nutt. I. c. ; Torr. I, c; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. 
V. eriocarpa, Schtuein. I. c. 

var. 2. scahriuscula : stems several, often decumbent, nearly smooth, or with a pubescent 
line on one side ; leaves somewhat scabrous, but hardly pubescent ; capsule smooth or villous. 
— Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. V. scahriuscula, Schtuein. I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

Stem 6-10 inches high. Leaves 2-3, at the summit of the stem, 1-2 inches wide, 
with a broad shallow sinus, somewhat acuminate. Stipules foliaceous. Peduncles variable, 
usually shorter than the leaves. Flowers middle-sized, yellow ; the three lower petals con- 
spicuously striate with dark purple lines ; lateral ones slightly bearded. Appendages of the 
stamens forming a broad dorsal wing or keel, not produced at the base. Style dilated up- 
ward : stigma globose, not rostrate, strongly bearded on each side. 

Dry woods ; common ; the var. scabritiscula in Oneida county {Dr. Knieskern). Fl. Latter 
part of May - June. Fr. July. 

Viola. VIOLACE^E. 75 

14. Viola Canadensis, Linn. Canadian Violet. 

Nearly smooth ; leaves broadly cordate, acuminate, serrate, the nerves pubescent ; stipules 
ovate-lanceolate, very acute, membranaceous, entire; sepals subulate ; petals oblong-elliptical; 
spur very short; capsule somewhat globose, pubescent. — Pz/rs/j, /. 1. p. 174; Schwein. 
I. c. ; Torr. ft. 1. p. 255 ; Bigel. fi. Bost. p. 97 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 301 ; Le Conte, I. c. ; 
Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 80 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Atn. 1. p. 143 ; Don, in Brit. ft. Gard. 
(second ser.) t. 62. 

Stem 6-18 inches high, erect, usually simple. Leaves slightly pubescent on both sides, 
the largest ones 2 inches or more in diameter ; lovv^er ones sometimes only acute, or even 
obtuse. Flowers middle-sized : petals paler inside, the lower ones violet externally, lateral 
ones bearded. Style dilated upward. Seeds roundish, ovate, brown. 

Shady woods in rich soil. Common in the interior of the State ; not found south of the 
Highlands. Fl. Latter part of May - July. 

§ 3. Stigma urceolate, hairy on each side ; orifice large, furnished with a lip on one side : style at- 
tenuated downward: ovary partly immersed in the concave torus : seeds very numerous. Ginoins. 

15. Viola tricolor, Linn. Pansey. Hearf s-ease. 

Root somewhat fusiform ; stems branching, diffused ; lowest leaves ovate, cordate ; stipules 
runcinately pinnatifid, the middle lobe crenate ; petals with short claws ; spur thick, obtuse, 
not produced; appendages short; seeds oblong-ovate. DC. prodr. 1. p. 303. 

var. arvensis : annual : stems assurgent ; upper leaves spatulate-ovate ; petals scarcely 
longer than the calyx, yellowish, blue, or spotted with purple. DC. I. c. ; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 81 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 1. p. 143. V. bicolor, PursJi, fl. I. p. 175 ; Nutt. gen. 1. 
p. 151 ; Schwein. I. c. V. arvensis. Ell. sk. 1. p. 302. V. tenella, Muhl. cat. p. 25 ; Torr. 
fl. \. p. 257 ; Le Conte, I. c. 

Plant nearly smooth. Stem somewhat triangular, slender, 3-6-8 inches high, simple 
and erect, or diffusely branched. Leaves less than an inch long. Peduncles longer than the 
leaves. Stipules very large. Flowers small : petals pale blue, yellowish towards the base 
(sometimes none) ; the lateral ones bearded. Capsule smooth, 

Dry hills ; Long Island, &c. May. 

2. SOLEA. Gingins in DC. prodr. 1. p. 306. 

[Named in honor of AV. Soli, author of an css.iy on the genus Mcrtlka.} 

Sepals nearly equal, not auricled. Petals unequal ; the lowest one 2-lobed, and somewhat 
gibbous at the base ; the rest emarginate. Stamens cohering ; the lowest two bearing a 



gland above the middle. Stigma uncinate, with a pore at the extremity of the point. 
Capsule somewhat 3-sided, surrounded at the base by the concave torus. Seeds 6-8, 
very large. — An herbaceous perennial herb, with alternate cauUnc leaves and small flowers 
on solitary or geminate axillary peduncles. 

1. SoLEA coNcoLOR, ding. Grcen-Jiowered Soka. 

Ging. in DC. prodr. 1. p. 306 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 144. Viola concolor, Forst. 
in Linn, trans. 6. p. 308. t. 28 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 151 ^ Schwein. I. c. ; Torr. Jl. \. p. 258. 
V, stricta, Spreng. pug. rar. I. p. 22. lonidium Sprengelii, Rozm. <^ Schult. syst. 5. p. 401. 

Plant somewhat hairy or pubescent, 1-2 feet high, simple, leafy. Leaves 3-7 inches 
long and 1-2 inches wide, oblong-lanceolate, attenuate at each extremity, entire or sparingly 
toothed. Peduncles 3-4 lines long, recurved. Flowers about one-third of an inch long, 
greenish. Sepals as long as the corolla, lanceolate, smooth. Lowest petal twice as large as 
the others. Filaments produced a little above the anthers : nectariferous glands scssOe, con- 
fluent. Style stout, distorted near the base : stigma smooth, not margined. Capsule nearly 
an inch long. Seeds globose, obovate, with a conspicuous raphe and caruncle. 

Wet shady woods in the western part of the State ; rare. Fl. May - June. Fr. July. 
A homely weed-like plant, with inconspicuous flowers. 

Order XV. CISTACE^. Juss. The Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 persistent sepals; the two outer ones usually small, or sometimes 
wanting ; the three interior imbricated, and somewhat twisted in aestivation. 
Corolla of 5 (rarely 3, or by abortion none), hypogynous, mostly very fuga- 
cious, usually crumpled in aestivation, and twisted in a direction contrary to 
that of the sepals. Stamens indefinite, or rarel}' few, hypogynous, distinct ; 
anthers short, innate. Style single : stigmas as many as the placentae, more or 
less united. Capsule 3 - 5-valved, 1-celled with parietal placentae, or imper- 
fectly 3 - 5-celled, with dissepiments proceeding from the middle of the 
valves, and bearing the placentas at or near the axis. Seeds few or numerous, 
orthotropous (or very rarely somewhat anatropous), with mealy albumen. 
Embryo usually curved, or spirally convolute. — Herbs, or low shrubby plants; 
with simple and entire leaves, opposite or alternate, with or without stipules. 

Heuanthemum. CISTACE^. 77 

1. HELIANTHEMUM. Tourn. inst. t. 12Q ; Endl. gen. 5029. noCK-ROSE. 

[Named from the Greek, hdios, the sun, and aiUheraan, a flower; the flowers opening in the sunshine.] 

The two exterior sepals usually much smaller and bract-hke, or wanting. Petals 5, or rarely 
3, sometimes abortive, fugacious. Stigmas 3, large, fimbriolate, more or less united into 
one. Capsule triangular, 3-valved, few- or many-seeded : placentas filiform, in the axis of 
the valves or on imperfect dissepiments more or less projecting into the cell. Embryo 

The North American species of this genus produce two sorts of flowers, often on the same specimen: 1. Terminal or 
dichotomal flowers, usually preceding the others, on slender peduncles, with conspicuous petals and numerous stamens: 
2. Smaller flowers, mostly clustered in axillary cymes or glomerules, scarcely ever fully expanding, with the petals minute 
or often wanting, fewer stamens, and smaller fewer-seeded capsules. Sometimes the latter only are produced. 

1. Helianthemum Canadense, MicJix. Frost-weed. Frost-wort. 

Stem at first simple, erect or ascending ; the primary or terminal large and petahferous 
flowers few or sohtary, on peduncles about the length of the flower, the erosely emarginate 
petals about twice the length of the calyx ; secondary flowers axillary, very small, nearly 
sessile, sohtary or somewhat clustered on short leafy branches, the petals very small or none, 
and the outer sepals usually wanting ; leaves oblong, or somewhat lanceolate, with revolute 
margins (when dry), and, as well as the sepals and often the branches and peduncles, canes- 
cently tomentose. — Michx. fl.l.p. 308 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 363 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. i ; Hook, 
ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p.72; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 313 ; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 151. H. 
ramuliflorum, Michx. I. c. ; Pursh, I. c. ; Ell. I. c. H. corymbosum, Pursh, I. c. H. ros- 
marinifolium, PMrsA, /. c. Cistus Canadensis, izn«. ,• Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 2\2. Lechea 
major (the apetalous state), Linn, amcen. acad. 3. p. 11. 

Stem about a foot high, rigid, at length branching ; the branches flcxuous, purplisli. Leaves 
about an inch long and 3 - 4 lines wide, the pubescence stellate and fasciculate. Primary 
flowers nearly an inch in diameter. Exterior sepals narrow and linear ; the three interior 
ones ovate with an abrupt point. Petals obovatc, yellow. Secondary flowers sometimes very 
numerous, their capsules not larger than a large pin's head. Capsules of the primary flowers 
3-4 lines long, ovale, shining. Seeds somewhat triangular, rough with minute points. 

Dry sandy woods and hill-sides. Primary flowers appearing in June, the others throughout 
the season. — The plant is sometimes employed as an astringent and tonic. It received its 
popular name from the circumstance of its shooting out, early in the winter, small icy crystals 
from the cracked bark near the root. A similar phenomenon has been noticed in several other 
plants, but has not yet been satisfactorily accounted for.* 

• S«c an article by Sir J, F. W. Hcrscbel, on this subject, in the Philosophical Magazine, 3rd scr. vol. 2. p. 110. 

78 CISTACE^. Lechea. 

2. LECHEA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 5030. PIN-WEED. 

[Named in honor of JouN Leche, a Swedish botanist.] 

Tlic two exterior sepals niucli narrower and bract-like. Petals 3, inconspicuous, lanceolate, 
somewimt persistent. Stamens 3-12. Stigmas 3, nearly sessile, somewhat united, fim- 
briate-laciniate, depressed. Capsule 3-valved, incompletely 3-celled, or one-celled by the 
obliteration of the imperfect dissepiments : placental (internal valves, Linn.) ovate or 
roundish, nearly as broad as the valves, membranaceous or somewhat crustaceous, fixed 
to the dissepiments by the middle of the posterior face, about two-seeded. Seeds borne 
on the posterior face of the placentre near the base, one on each side of the dissepiment, 
about the middle of the valves. Embryo nearly straight. — Perennial herbs, often suffru- 
ticose at the base, mucli branched, with numerous very small racemed or somewhat pani- 
culate flowers : petals brownish-purple. Leaves without stipules, entire, alternate, opposite 
or verticillate (often on the same specimen), sessile or slightly petioled, minutely puncticulate. 

§ Lechea proper, Spach. Placenitt membranaceo-criistaccous, fragile, separating from the very 
thin dissepiments ; the margins rcvolute, and enveloping the seeds. 

1. Lechea major, Michx. Larger Lechea. 

Stem erect, hairy ; young branches villous, the radical ones or stolons prostrate ; cauline 
leaves elliptical, mucronulatc, those of the radical branches roundish or ovate and very small, 
of the floral branches lanceolate ; flowers very numerous, densely clustered in short unilateral 
racemes ; pedicels very short ; capsule depressed-globose and somewhat 3-sided. — Michx. 
Jl.l.p.76; MuM. cat. p. 15 ; Pursh, Jl. I. p. 90 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 47 ; Ton: fl. 1, p. 160 ; 
Torr. 4" Gr. Jl. N. Am. I. p. 153 ; not of Li7in. (which is an apetalous form of Helianthe- 
mum Canadense). L. minor, Li7in. aman. acad. 3. p. 10, ex Smith, in Rees, cycl. L. villosa, 
Ell. sk. l.p. 184 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 285 ; Beck, hot. p. 36 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 96. L. 
Drummondii, Spach? 

Stem 12-15 inches high, rigid, purplish, simple below, paniculately much branched above. 
Stolons numerous, 3-6 inches long, bearing numerous crowded leaves which are often 
verticillate or fascicled and only 2-4 lines long. Cauline leaves alternate, opposite or im- 
perfectly verticillate and more or less crowded, villous with spreading whitish hairs, especially 
on the margins and midrib. Flowers little more than half a line, and the capsules about one 
line in diameter. Seeds oval and somewhat triangular, brownish. 

Dry woods and on hill-sides. July - September. 

Lechea. CISTACEiE. 79 

2. Lechea thymifolia, Pursh. Thyme-leaved Lechea. 

Suffrutescent ; stems assurgent, densely and paniculately branched above, canescently 
villous (especially the branches) with white appressed hairs ; radical shoots short, nearly erect ; 
leaves very numerous, and often verticillate ; cauline ones oblanceolate or linear ; those of 
the floriferous branches narrowly linear with revolute margins, crowded ; of the radical 
branches elliptical, densely imbricated and very villous ; clusters terminal, and axillary near 
the extremity of the floriferous branches, 2 - 6-flowered ; pedicels very short ; calyx tomen- 
tose-canescent ; capsule globose. — Pursh, jl. 1. p. 91 ; Rees, cycl. ? ; Torr. ft. 1. p. 161, 
not of Michx. ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. p. 153. 

Stem about a foot high, stiff, pyramidally branched above, mostly naked below. Cauline 
leaves 6-8 lines long, and about a line and a half wide. Flowers rather larger than in the 
preceding species. 

Sandy margins of swamps, near the sea ; Suffolk county, Long Island. Aug. - September. 

3. Lechea minor, Lam. Smaller Lechea. Pin-weed. 

Stem erect, minutely pubescent with appressed hairs ; radical branches procumbent and 
hairy, or often none ; leaves linear and lanceolate-linear , the cauline one somewhat oblong, 
scattered, or sometimes verticillate ; racemes nearly simple ; the flowers on distinct, often 
appressed pedicels ; capsules ovoid-globose. — Lam. ill. t. 52. /. 1 ? ; Pursh, ft. I. p. 91 ; 
Bigel. ft. Bost.p. 48 ; Torr. fl.\.p.lQ\; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. j7. 73 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. 
p. 97; Torr. <^ Gr. ft. N. Am. I. p. 153 ; not ol Linn, and Smith. L. racemulosa, thymi- 
folia, and tenuifolia, Miclix. ft. I. p. 76. 

var. 1 . gracilis : stem tall and slender, simple or paniculately branched above ; radical 
branches procumbent and hairy ; leaves hnear-lanceolate, or somewhat oblong ; racemes often 
panicled at the extremity of the branches ; capsules rather large. — Torr. <^ Gr. J. c. 

var. 2. dumosa : stem low, much, and somewhat fastigiately branched ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate ; radical branches numerous, slender, with smaller elliptical leaves. 

Stem, in the first variety, a foot or more high, with short branches ; in the other, 5-8 
inches, with longer branches. Flowers on pedicels 2 lines or more in length. Capsules 
twice as large as in L. major. Seeds oblong. 

Dry fields, open woods, and hill-sides. June - September. 

80 CISTACEJ:. Htosonia. 

3. HUDSONIA. Linn. mant. 11 ; Endl. gen. 5031. BVDSONIA. 

[Named in honor of William Hudson, aatbor of the Flora Anglica.] 

Sepals united at the base ; the two outer ones subulate, and often minute ; the three inner, 
oblong or oval, colored within, spreading in flower, connivent in fruit. Petals 5, oblong- 
obovate, somewhat fugacious. Stamens 9 - 30. Style filiform, straight : stigma minute. 
Capsule oblong-obovoid, 1-celled, 3-valved : placentas nerve-like, in the axis of the valves. 
Seeds 1-2 (or by abortion fewer), arising from the base of each placenta on short filiform 
ascending funiculi, minutely granulated. Embryo (in H. ericoides) slender, spirally convolute 
in the midst of the thin albumen. — Low, diffusely and much branched shrubby plants, 
forming dense tufts. Leaves subulate or acerose, densely imbricated, without stipules, 
pubescent or tomentose, persistent. Flowers yellow, terminating the short branches. 

1. HuDsoNiA ERICOIDES, Linn. Heath-like Hudsonia. 
Plant canescently pubescent, erect, with the branches somewhat decumbent ; leaves subu- 
late, slightly spreading ; peduncles exserted, longer than the flowers ; sepals acutish ; capsules 
oblong, slightly pubescent, 1 - 3-seeded. — Linn. mant. p. 74; Willd. hort. Berol. t. 15; 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 364 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 4 ; Torr. compend. p. 215 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 285 ; 
Bot. cab. t. 192 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 154. 

Plant 5-8 inches high ; primary branches elongated ; floral ones short. Flowers about 
5 lines in diameter. Stamens 12 - 15 : anthers roundish. Ovary villous : style about as 
long as the stamens. Capsule smooth, oblong. Seeds oblong, grayish. 

Sandy woods, Suffolk county, Long Island. May and early in June. 

2. HiDsoxiA TOMENTOSA, Nutt. Woolly SudsoJita. 

Whitish-tomentose ; stems ascending ; leaves minute, ovate-oblong, acute, very closely 
imbricated ; flowers nearly sessile (ihe peduncles not longer than the leaves) ; sepals obtuse ; 
capsules ovate, commonly one-seeded. — Nutt. gen. 2. p. 5; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 213 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 285 ; Torr. compend. p. 216 ; Sweet, Cist. t. 57 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. \. p. 73. 
H. ericoides. Lam. ill. t. 407? Richards, app. Frank, nar. ed. 2. p. 18. 

Stems very diffusely branched, forming dense tufts, 4 — 6 inches high ; the branches short. 
Leaves about a line long. Flowers very numerous, rather smaller than in the preceding 
species. Stamens 9-18. Ovary slightly villous. 

Seacoast of Long Island and shore of Lake Champlain. Fl. Latter part of May to the 
middle of June. Easily distinguished from H. ericoides, by its short, closely imbricated, 
hoary leaves and nearly sessile flowers. Both species are handsome little shrubs when in 
full bloom, being almost covered with bright yellow flowers. 

Drosera. DROSERACE.E. 81 

Order XVI. DROSERACEtE. DC. The Sundew Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 equal persistent sepals, imbricated in a?stivation. Corolla of 5 equal 
petals, marcescent. Stamens usually as many as the petals and alternate with 
them, rarely 2-3 times as many, marcescent ; anthers extrorse or innate. 
Stjdes 3-5, usually distinct, or only united at the base, each 2-parted, or 
many-cleft and pencil-shaped ; sometimes all united into one. Capsule one- 
celled, 3 - 5-valved, opening loculicidally with the valves placentiferous in the 
middle, or sometimes bursting iri'egularly with a thick placenta at the base. 
Seeds usually numerous, anatropous ; testa sometimes arilliform. Embryo 
small, at the base of cartilaginous or membi-anaceous albumen. — Small herbs 
growing in wet places, usually clothed with glandular hairs. Leaves alternate 
or clustered at the base of the scape, circinate in vernation. Stipules none, 
or in the form of a fringe of hairs at the base of the petioles. 

1. DROSERA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 5033. SUNDEW. 

[Named from the Greek, drosos, dew ; the plant appearing as if covered with dew.] 

Stamens 5. Styles distinct, 2-parted ; the divisions somewhat thickened towards the apex, 
or many-cleft. Capsule globose or ovoid, usually 3-valved at the top : valves placentiferous 
to the summit. Seeds very numerous, in 2 - 5 rows on each placenta. — Small herbs, 
growing in sphagnous and sandy swamps. The Nortli American species are acaulescenl, 
with a rosulate tuft of leaves and simple scapes, which are circinate when young. Leaves 
covered with numerous reddish gland-bearing hairs, whicli secrete a viscid fluid that stains 
paper red. Flowers usually small, white, rose-colored, or purple. 

1. Drosera rotundifolia, Linn. Round-leaved Sundew. 

Leaves orbicular, spreading, abruptly attenuated into the long hairy petiole ; petals (white) 
oblong ; styles very short, 2-parted, with somewhat club-shaped divisions ; seeds linear, with 
a loose arilliform testa. — E?ig. hot. t. 867; Michx.Jl. 1. p. 186 ; Ell. sk. 1, 2>- 375 ; Nutt. 
gen. \.p. 141 ; Torr.fl.p. 331 ; DC.prodr. \.p. 318; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 81 ; Dar- 
lingt.fl. Cest. p. 211 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 146. 

Leaves (including the petiole) 1 - 1 i inch long ; the lamina about half an inch in diameter ; 
the fringed stipules at the base conspicuous. Scapes soHtary, or 2 - 3 from one root, 4-8 
inches high, .5 - 10-flowered ; the raceme sometimes forked at the base. Pedicels 1 - 2 lines 
long. Capsule oblong. Seeds attenuated at each extremity. 

Sphagnous swamps. Fl. July - August. Fr. September. 

[Flora.] 1 1 

82 DR0S1:RACE.E. Drosera. 

2. Drosera loxgifolia, Linn. Long-leaved Sundew. 
Leaves spatulate-oblong, erect-spreading, attenuate into the long and slender naked petiole ; 

caudex ascending or decumbent, often elongated ; scapes declined at the base ; petals (white) 
short ; styles verj' short, the divisions somewhat thickened ; seeds oblong, slightly punctate, 
the testa not arilliform. — Eng. hot. t. 868 ; Micluc.jl. I. p. 86 ; A^utt. gen. I. p. 141 ; Torr. 
fl. \.p. 331 (excZ. syn. Goldie) ; Bigel. jl. Bost. p. 123 ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 146. 
D.Americana, Muhl. cat. p, 33. D. intermedia, var. Americana, DC. prodr. 1. p. 118. 
D. foliosa. Ell. sk. \.p. 375; DC. I.e. 

Caude.x, when the plant grows in water, sometimes 2-4 inches long. Leaves 1 - 1^ inch 
long, the lamina 2-3 lines wide, with long fringed stipules at the base. Scapes 3-6 inches 
high, usually curved to one side at the base, and then ascending, 5 - 9-flowered. Flowers 
twice as large as in the preceding species. Sepals oblong, obtuse. Capsule ovoid-oblong. 

Sphagnous and sandy swamps. July - August. More rare than the preceding species. 

3. Drosera filiformis, Raf. (Plate X.) Thread-leaved Sundeic. 

Leaves filiform and very long, nearly erect, glandularly hairy, naked at the lower extremity, 
the stipules at the base densely woolly ; scape longer than the leaves, many-flowered ; petals 
(purple) obovate, erosel}' denticulate, much longer than the glandular calyx ; styles 2-parted 
to the base, the segments filiform and slightly thickened upward ; seeds acute at each end, 
minutely punctate, the testa not arilliform. — Raf. in med. rep. 2. p. 360, and in Desv.jour. 
hot. 1. p. 227 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 211 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 142 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 318 ; Torr. 
fl.\. p. 332 ; Hook, in Bot. mag. t. 3540 ; Graham in new Edin. phil. mag. July, 1 836 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 147. D. tenuifolia, Muhl. cat. p. 33 ; Willd. enum. p. 340 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 124. 

Leaves 6-10 inches long, about the thickness of a common packthread. Scapes (often 
several from one root) 8-12 inches liigh, smooth, usually 8 - 12-flowered, rarely forked at 
the base. Flowers, when fully expanded, half an inch in diameter, bright purple. Stamens 5 ; 
anther-cells large, oblong, distinct, at length separating from the rhombic-lanceolate connec- 
livum ; the pollen-grains connected by fine cobweb-like threads. Capsule shorter than the 
calyx. Seeds blackish. 

Sandy wet places, a few miles east of East-Hampton, Sufi"olk county, Long Island. 
August - September. A singular and handsome plant ; first discovered by the late Mr. Rafi- 
nesque, and described by him as early as the year ISOS. According to Bigelow, the flowers 
have ten stamens, but there were only five in all the specimens that I examined. 

Parxassia. DROSERACE.E, 83 

Suborder PARNASsiEiE. Am. 

Sepals 5, persistent, imbricated in aestivation, more or less united at the base, and 
coherent with the base of the ovary. Petals 5, somewhat perigynous, persistent, 
alternate with the sepals : vernation simple. Stamens perigynous, persistent, 
consisting of an outer sterile series (nectaries, Linn. J, somewhat indefinite in 
number, and united in 5 phalanges, which are situated opposite the petals ; and 
an inner series of 5 fertile stamens, alternating with the petals : anthers fixed bv 
the base, introrse. Stigmas 4, sessile, opposite the placentee. Capsule 1-celled, 
4-valved, loculicidal, with parietal placentae. Seeds very numerous, anatropous, 
with an arilliform winged testa : albumen none. Embryo straight, with a 
slender radicle and minute cotyledons. — Smooth perennial herbs (growing in 
wet places). Leaves mostly radical or nearly so, petioled, entire. Stems 
scape-like, elongated, bearing usually a single sessile leaf, one-flowered : flower 

2. PARNASSIA. Tourn. inst. t. 127; Endl. gen. 5039. grass of PARXASSUS. 

[ " From Mount Parnassus, the abode of grace and beauty, where, on account of the elegance of its form, this plant is 
feigned to have first sprang up." Loddbn.] 

Character the same as of the Suborder. 

1. Par.nassia Caroliniana, Michx. (Plate XI.) Carolina Ch-ass of Parnassus. 

Phalanges of abortive stamens formed of 3 stout and thick united sterile filaments distinct 
nearly to the base, about the length of the fertile stamens ; petals nearly sessile, more than 
twice the length of the calyx, with strong greenish veins ; leaves orbicular-ovate or somewhat 
elliptical-ovate, more or less cordate, the cauline one usually low down and clasping. — Michx. 
ft. I. p. 208 ; Bot. mag. t. 1459 ; Pursh, fl. \.p. 208 ; Torr. ft. \.p. 326 ; Bigel. ft. Bost. 
p. 121 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 320 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 82; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 149. P. palustris, Pursh, I. c. P. Americana and ovata, Muhl. cat. p. 32. P. ovata, 
(i. Belvisii, DC. I. c? 

Stem (or scape) a foot or more high, angular, slender. Leaves somewhat coriaceous ; 
radical ones several, an inch or an inch and a half long, very obtuse ; the cauline one always 
below the middle of the stem, and often near its base. Flower an inch in diameter. Sepals 
oblong, obtuse, brown at the tip. Petals ovate, white, with ten or twelve strong greenish 
nerves extending from the base and converging towards the tip. Abortive filaments tipped 
with yellow glandular heads. Stigmas rarely 5, small, recurved. Capsule rarely 5-valved. 

Wet meadows ; rather rare. July - August. 


84 llVl'EIUCACE^. AscYRUM. 

Group 4. Ovanj compound, tvith the lilacentcc paiietal, or 2 - b-celled from their 
meeting in the axis : styles distinct or partly united. yEstivation of the calyx 
imbricated. Stamens and petals inserted on the receptacle. Seeds with a 
st?mght embryo and little or 7io albumen. 

Order XVII. HYPERICACEiE. Jms. The St. John's-wort Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 sepals, which are distinct or somewhat united at the base ; the 2 
exterior often smaller. Petals as many as the seijals, and alternate with them ; 
the veins oblique ; aestivation twisted. Stamens usually numerous, and more 
or less cohering at the base in three or more parcels ; anthers fixed by the 
middle, introrse. Styles distinct or partly united : stigmas simple or somewhat 
cajaitate. Fruit either baccate, or more commonly a capsule with 2-5 valves 
and a sejDticidal dehiscence, 2 - 5-celled with the placentae in the axis, or 1- 
celled with the placentae nearly or quite parietal. Seeds very numerous 
(rarely few), straight or a little curved, anatropous : albumen none, but the 
tegmen sometimes fleshy. Embryo cylindi'ical, straight. — Shrubs or herbs, or 
sometimes trees with a resinous juice, and dotted with small pellucid or black 
immersed glands. Leaves opposite, entire, destitute of stipules. Inflorescence 
various. Flowers commonly yellow. 

Tkibe I. HYPERICEJE. Choisy. 
Fruit capsular. Seeds terete or loundish. — Herbs or shrubby plants. Leaves mostly sessile, 

1. ASCYRUM. Linn.; Choisy, prodr. Hyper., and in DC. prodr. l.p. 55; Endl. gen. 

5463. ST. PETER'S WORT. 

[ Name from the Greek, a, privative, and shjros, roughness; the plant being smooth to the touch.] 

Sepals 4 ; the 2 exterior usually broad and foliaceous ; the inner much smaller. Petals 4, 
caducous. Filaments slightly united at the base into several parcels. Styles 2-3 (rarely 
4), sometimes united. Capsule 1-celled, 2 - 3-valved : placentae parietal. — Shrubby or 
suffruticosc plants. Leaves sprinkled with both black and pellucid dots. Flowers 1-3, 
at the summit of the branches, yellow : a pair of subulate bracteoles at the base of each 

1. AsCYRUM STAN.S, Michx. Upright St. Peters Wort. 

Stem ancipital and somewhat winged, straight, erect, dichotomously branched at the sum- 
mit ; leaves oblong, closely sessile, somewhat clasping, obtuse, a little glaucous ; flowers on 


erect pedicels ; exterior sepals cordate-orbicular , inner ones lanceolate, one-third shorter than 
the others ; styles 3 (rarely 4) ; capsule ovate, rather acute. — Michx.fl. 2. p. 77 ; DC. prodr. 
l.p. 155 ; Torr. compend.p. 219 ; Torr. ^ 1. p. 157. A. hypericoides, Linn, (part- 
ly) ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 22. 

Stem 12-18 inches high, usually simple except at the summit, rigid, woody towards the 
base. Leaves an inch or rather more in length and 4-5 lines wide, opake and rather thick. 
Flowers usually 3 together, nearly an inch in diameter when expanded : pedicels 4-6 lines 
long. Inner sepals somewhat petaloid, about half as long as the corolla. Petals ovate, twice 
as long as the calyx. Stamens very numerous. Styles somewhat spreading. Capsule ob- 
tusely triangular : placentae somewhat prominent. Seeds ovate, longitudinally marked with 
line and transverse lines. 

Sandy swamps, Suffolk county. Long Island. August - September. 

2. HYPERICUM:. Linn. ; Choisy, I. c. ; Endl. gen. 5464. sT. JOHN'S WORT. 

[An ancient name of unknown meaning and derivation.] 

Sepals 5, more or less connected at the base, usually nearly equal. Petals 5, oblique and 
often inequilateral. Stamens very numerous or sometimes few, united at the base into 
3-5 parcels, or sometimes distinct. Styles 3-5, distinct or more or less united, persistent. 
Capsule 1 -celled with 3-5 parietal placentas, or 3 - 5-celled by the placentae meeting in 
the axis. — Herbaceous or shrubby plants. Flowers yellow, solitary or cymose at the 
summit of the stem and branches. 

^ 1. Stamens very numerous, polyadelphous ; capsule .5- (sometimes 6 - 7-) celled ; the dilated placenta 
retrojlexed into the middle of the cells, — Perennial herbs : leaves ample ; flowers very large. 

1. Hypericum pyramidatum, Ait. (Plate XU.) Giant St. John's Wort. 

Stem quadrangular, and usually branching above ; leaves oblong or ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
partly clasping, membranaceous ; sepals ovate or oblong, acute, scarcely one-third tlie lenglJi 
of the petals ; styles about as long as the stamens, united below, at length distinct, recurved 
at the summit ; stigmas capitate. — Ait. Kew. {ed. 1.) 3. p. 103 ; Willd. sj}. 3. p. 1444 ; Vent. 
Malmais. t. 118 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 545 ; Torr. ^- Gr. fi. N. Am. 1. p. 158. H. amplexi- 
caule, Lam. diet. 4. p. 141. H. macrocarpon, Midux. fi. 2. p. 82. H. ascyroides, Willd. 
L c. ; Fursh, fi. 2. p. 374 ; Bigel. fi. Bost.p. 279 ; DC. I. c. ; Hook. fi. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 109. 
Roscyna Americana, Spach, conspect. Hyper, in ann. set. nat. 1836. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, nearly terete below ; branches erect, the Smaller ones and the pedun- 
cles almost ancipital. Leaves 2-4 inches long, and 1 J inch wide, sprinkled with minute 
oblong pellucid dots. Flowers nearly two inches in diameter, few or solitary at the ends of 
the branches ; those at the summit of the stem forming a loose leafy panicle. Peduncles of 

86 HYPERICACEiE. Hypbrictm. 

the solitary flowers 1-2 inches long ; the others on short pedicels. Petals narrowly obovate, 
marcescent. Styles sometimes 6 or 7, at first forming a stout column but free at the summit, 
gradually separating nearly to the base. Capsule ovoid-conical, about an inch long. Seeds 
terete, slender, with a slight winged raphe. 

Banks of rivers : on the Hudson above Albany, and sparingly in the western part of the 
State. July. 

§ 2. Stamens very numerous, more or less polyadelphous : capsules 3 - 5-celled by the meeting of the 
placenta in the axis : placenta either distinct or cohering more or less with each other, seminife- 
rous on the side next the valves. — Perennial herbs or undershrubs. 

^Skrublnj; capSHlc b-celkd ; sttjks 5. 

2. Hypericum Kalmianum, Linn. (Plate XII.) Kalm's St. John's Wort. 

Stem very much branched above ; the brandies quadrangular, with two of the angles 
slightly winged ; leaves crowded, narrowly oblanceolate, obtuse ; cymes fastigiate, 3-7- 
flowered ; sepals ovate-lanceolate, rather obtuse, about half the length of the petals ; styles 
connate at the base ; stigmas very minute. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 1438 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 374 ; 
Hooli. fl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 109 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 158. 

A shrub 12- 18 inches high, growing in patches. Leaves about an inch long, and 2-3 
lines wide ; the margins revolute. Flowers usually 3 together at the extremity of the branches, 
about three-fourths of an inch in diameter ; the central one on a short pedicel ; the others on 
pedicels about half an inch long. Petals obovate, very oblique. Styles scarcely longer than 
the stamens, at first united into a column, and tapering from a broad base to a sharp point, 
at length distinct but closely approximated. Capsule ovate. Seeds oblong. 

Moist rocks about the Falls of Niagara, particularly on Goat Island and Table Rock. 
Fl. Early in August. Fr. September. The only slirubby species in the State. 

»* Herbaceous: capsuk 'i-ceUed : styks3. — Petals artd anlhcrs xcith black doti. 

3. Hypericum perforatum, Linn. Common St. John's Wort. 

Stem slightly ancipital, corymbosely branched ; leaves linear-elliptical and oblong-elliptical, 
obtuse, with pellucid dots ; petals twice as long as the lanceolate-acute sepals ; styles diverg- 
ing. — Willd.- sp. 3. p. 1453 ; Eng. hot. t. 295 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 377 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 279 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 323 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 160. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, marked with two opposite elevated lines, of a yellowish-green color. 
Leaves about three-fourths of an inch long, and 3-4 lines wide, very strongly punctate 
with scattered pellucid dots and a few black and opake ones. Flowers numerous. Stamens 
mostly in three sets. Capsule globose-ovoid. Seeds pitted. 

Fields, pastures and road-sides ; too common in most parts of the State : introduced from 

Hypericttm. HYPERICACE^. 87 

Europe. June - September. — This pernicious weed is generally believed, in this country, 
to be the most common cause of " slabbers " in horses and horned cattle ; and Hkewise to cause 
sores on their skin, especially in animals whose noses and feet are white, and whose skin is 
thin and tender. Dr. Darlington remarks that the dew which collects on the plant appears to 
become acrid. He has seen tlie backs of white cows covered with sores wherever the bushy 
extremity of their tails has been applied, after draggling through the St. John's Wort. Dr. J. 
M. Bigelow of Ohio states that he has known a high degree of inflammation of the mucous lining 
of the mouth and fauces produced by eating a few of the fresh leaves. It was formerly in 
considerable repute for its medicinal virtues, but was chiefly employed as a balsamic for 
wounds. " The flowers tinge spirits and oils of a fine purple color ; and the dried plant boiled 
with alum dyes wool of a yellow color. The common people in France and Germany gather 
it with great ceremony on St. John's day, and hang it in their windows, as a charm against 
storms, thunder and evil spirits ; mistaking the meaning of some medical writers, who have 
fancifully given this pla^ the name of Fuga Dcemonum, from a supposition that it was good 
in maniacal and hypophbndriacal disorders. In Scotland it was formerly carried about as a 
charm against witchcraft and enchantment." Loudon. 

4. Hypericum corvmbosum, MuM. Corymhed Si. John's Wort. 

Every part of the plant marked with black dots ; stem terete, corymbosely branched above ; 
leaves oblong, ol^luse, somewhat clasping; cymes many-flowered, corymbed, sepals ovate, 
rather obtuse ; petals oblong, more than twice the length of the calyx ; styles distinct, about 
as long as the ovary. — Muhl. in Wild. sp. 3. 7^.1457, and cat. p. 71 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 377 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 2S0 ; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 160. H. maculatum, Michx. fl. 2. 
p. 80 (not of Walt.). H. micranthum, Chois. in DC.prodr. l.p. 546 ; Hook.fl. Bar. -Am. 1. 
p. 109. H. punctatum, Torr. compend. p. 220 ; Beck. hot. p. 61 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest.p. 322 ; 
Reichenb. ic. exot. t. 88. 

Stem 1 J - 2 feet high. Leaves 1-2 inches long, sometimes abruptly narrowed at the 
base, marked with pellucid as well as blackish dots. Flowers 4-5 lines in diameter. Sepals 
marked with pellucid dots and lines. Petals pale yellow, strongly marked with black dots 
and lines. Styles slender : stigmas small, capitate, orange-red. Capsule somewhat 3-lobed. 
Seeds cylindrical-oblong. 

Woods and fields. July - September. The black dots and lines in this plant (and probably 
also in most others of the genus) are minute vesicles filled with an intense purple coloring 
matter, which is partially soluble in water, but readily taken up by alcohol. It seems to be 
aUied to the coloring principle of logwood, and to be formed from the material of the pellucid 
vesicles by the action of oxygen. 

88 HYPERICACEiE. Hypericim. 

& 3. Stavicns vcrp numerous, more or less polyadelphous : capsule one-celled, with 3 (rarely 4) parietal 
placentae, tchich are often somewhat intro/lexed but do not reach to the axis, bearing the seed on 
the side next the axis. — Perennial herbs or low shrubs. 

5. Hypericum ellipticum, Hoo/i-. FjUlptical-leaved St. John's Wort. 
Stem herbaceous, quadrangular, simple below, somewhat branched at the summit ; leaves 

elliptical, very obtuse, closely sessile, pellucid-punctate ; cyme nearly naked ; sepals oblong- 
obovate, very unequal, two-thirds the length of the petals, spreading ; styles 3, connate to the 
summit ; stigmas very minute ; capsule ovoid-globose. — Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. p. WO; Torr. 4* 
Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 164. H. sphaerocarpon, Bart. Jl. Phil. 2. p. 14; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 16, 
not of Michx. 

Plant about a foot or eighteen inches high, slender. Leaves nearly an inch long, and 4-5 
lines wide, sometimes oval, a little narrowed at the i)ase. Cyme usually 5- (7 - 15-) flowered : 
the flowers 5-6 lines in diameter ; those in the forks of the cyme on pedicels about one line 
long. Petals obovate. Capsule shorter than the calyx ; the placentie somewhat introflexed. 
Seeds oval, very small and numerous, minutely striate and rugose. 

Moist grounds along rivers ; northern and western counties : rather rare. July. 

§4. Brathys, Mutis. Stamens b - 2Q, distinct : capsule \-celled, with Z strictly parietal placenta : 
styles 3, distinct, short. Annual. 

* Stem simple below, diehotomously cymose above, icith a jU>v:cr in each fork of the cyme. 

6. Hypericum mutilum, Linn. Small-jlowered St. John's Wort. 
Stem quadrangular, usually much branched ; leaves ovate-oblong, obtuse, clasping, 5 

nerved, pellucid-punctate ; cymes leafy ; sepals lanceolate, rather longer than the oblong 
petals ; stamens 6 - 12 : capsule ovoid-conical. — Linn. syst. 2. p. 511 ; Torr. <^- Gr.fl. N. 
Am. 1. p. 164. H. quinquenervium, Walt.fl. Car. p. 190; Michx. fl. 2. p. 79; DC.prodr. 
1. p. 550 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 110 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 323 ; Reichenb.fl. exot. t. 96. 
H. parviflorum, Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1457 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 376 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 24 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 280. Brathys quinquenervia, Spach in conspect. Hyper, in ann. sci. nat. 

Stem 6-12 inches high, slender, with numerous spreading branches. Leaves 6-10 lines 
long, thin, the pellucid dots very minute ; lateral veins obscure. Flowers scarcely more than 
two lines in diameter, pale yellow. Stigmas capitate. Capsule membranaceous. Seeds 
cylindrical-oblong, minutely striate and rugose. 

Low grounds ; common. July September. 


7. Hypericum Canadense, Linn. Canadian St. John's Worf. 

Stem quadrangular, with erect branches ; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, usually narrowed 
at the base, 3-nerved, pellucid-punctate, and with black dots underneath ; sepals lanceolate, 
very acute, longer than the petals and the mature acute conical capsule ; stamens 5 - 10. — 
Willd. sp, 3. p. 1455 ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 79 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 378 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 24 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. p. 550; Bigel. ft. Bost.p. 80; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 110; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 324 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 165. Brathys Canadensis, Spach, I. c. 

Stems 6-15 inches high, slender, moderately branched above. Leaves about an inch 
long and 2 lines wide, sometimes lanceolate and rather broad at the base. Sepals unequal. 
Petals oblong, orange-yellow. Styles somewhat spreading : stigmas capitate. Capsule al- 
most always longer than the calyx, and usually, when mature, twice as long, mostly purplish 
brown. Seeds cylindrical-oblong, marked with a number of elevated lines and faint transverse 
striae, dull yellow. 

Wet places, particularly in sandy soils. The broad-leaved form has been considered a 
distinct species by some of our botanists, but it passes gradually into the common kind. The 
length and shape of the capsule are variable : sometimes, even when nearly ripe, it is scarcely 
as long as the calyx. Flowers from June to August. 

** Stems rather rigid, dichatomously or irregularhj much branched frcm near the base: floteers distinct, and somewhat 
racemose on the branches : leaves subulate, oppressed. (Sarothra, Linn.) 

8. Hypericum Sarothra, Michx. Ground Pine. Nitweed. Pine-weed. 

Stem and branches filiform, quadrangular; leaves very minute, subulate, appressed; flowers 
sessile ; stamens 5 - 10 ; capsule conical, very acute, twice the length of the linear-lanceolate 
sepals.— Afzc^./. 2. p. 79 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 78 ; Torr. compend. p. 221 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 324. H. nudicaule, Walt. fl. Car. p. 190. Sarothra gentianoides, Linn.; Willd. sp. 3. 
p. 1515 ; Ell. sk. l.p.'371 ; Grev. ^ Hook, in hot. misc. 3. p. 236. S. gentianoides, Nuit. 
gen. 1 . p. 204 ; Bart. fl. Am. Sept. 3. t. 92. /. 1 . 

Stem usually from 4 to 8 inches high and fastigiately branched, often tortuous at the base. 
Leaves scarcely more than a hne long, with scattered opakc dots, closely appressed to the 
stem, so that the plant appears almost leafless. Flowers about 2 lines in diameter, orange- 
yellow. Petals oblong-linear, longer than the calyx. Styles somewhat spreading : stigmas 
capitate. Capsule tapering to a long point, dark purple. Seeds oblong, yellowish. 

Sandy fields and road-sides ; common. June - August. — It is a little remarkable that this 
plant, which is a Hypericum in all respects, should have been excluded from the genus, and 
even from the order, by many distinguished botanists. There is considerable difference of 
opinion as to whether the embryo is surrounded with albumen or not. The cndoplcura is lined 
with a fleshy stratum in all the species of the genus ; but in the section BiiATnys, at least, it 
strongly resembles albumen, constituting the chief bulk of the seed, and abounding in oil. 

[Floba.] 12 

90 HYfERTCACE.^. Elodea. 

3. ELODEA. Adans.; Spach in ann. sci. not. {ser. 2.) 5. p. 1G5, 7iot of Miclix. ; Endl. 

gen. 5465. ELODEA. 

[ From the Greek, chda., growing in marshy places.] 

Calyx of 5 equal sepals somewhat united at the base. Petals 5, deciduous, equilateral. 
Stamens 9 (rarely 12 - 15), united in three parcels which alternate with 3 hypogynous 
glands. Styles 3, distinct. Capsule oblong, membranaceous, 3-celled ; the placentas 
somewhat cohering in the axis, at length separating from the valves. — Perennial, smooth, 
and slightly glaucous herbs. Leaves membranaceous, pellucid-punctate, and often with a 
few black dots (the axils never leafy). Cymules few-flowered, terminal and in the axils of 
the upper leaves, pedunculate or nearly sessile : flowers dull orange-purple. 

1. Elodea Virginica, Nutt. Virginian Elodea. 

Leaves sessile, clasping ; stamens united below the middle. — Nutt. gen. 2. p. 17 ; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 33 ; Spach, I. c. ; Tor?-. ^- Gr: ft. N. Am. 1. p. 167. E. campanulata, Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 379. E. Drummondii and Fraseri, Spach, I. c. Hypericum Virginicum, Linn.; Michw. 
ft. 2. p. 81 ; Andr. hot. rep. t. 552 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 281 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 109 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 322. H. campanulatum, Walt. fl. Car. p. 191. 

Plant a foot or eighteen inches high ; the stem and branches, and sometimes even the leaves 
tinged with purple. Leaves oblong, 1-2 inches long, obtuse or slightly emarginate, paler 
and somewhat glaucous underneath. Axillary cymes about 3-flowered ; the terminal one 
often compound. Flowers about half an inch in diameter. Sepals lanceolate. Petals oblong, 
marked with purple veins, pellucid-punctate, nearly twice as long as the calyx. Stamens very 
generally 9 ; the filaments united about one-third of their length ; with a prominent orange- 
colored gland between each parcel. Capsule ovoid, acute, much longer than the calyx. Seeds 
oblong, pitted : testa very thick and crustaceous. Endopleura thin. Embryo oblong, straight. 

Open swamps ; rather common. July - August. ELATINACE^. 91 

Order XVIII. ELATINACEtE. Catnhesscdcs. The Water-wort Tribe. 

Sepals 2-5, mostly distinct, persistent. Petals hypogynous, as many as the 
sepals and alternate with them. Stamens hypogynous, as many or twice as 
many as the petals : anthers fixed by the middle, introrse. Styles 2-5, very 
short, distinct or united at the base, or none : stigmas capitate. Capsule 2-5- 
celled, 2 - 5-valved : dehiscence septifragal. Seeds few or many, oblong- 
cylindrical, with litde or no albumen. Embryo cylindrical : cotyledons short. 
— Small annual plants, growing in marshes, with fistulous rooting stems, oppo- 
site, entire or serrated leaves, and minute axillary flowers. Stipules small and 
inconspicuous, sometimes wanting. 

1. ELATINE. Linn.; Endl. gen. 5i75. water-WORT. 

[ From the Greek, elate, a fir ; its fine leaves bearing some distant resemblance to those of a fir tree.] 

dalyx 2 - 4-parted. Petals 2-4. Stamens 2-8. Capsules 2 - 4-valved ; margin of the 
valves not introflexed. 

1. Elatine Americana, Arnott. American Water-wort. 

Stem diffuse, with assurgent branches ; leaves cuneate-obovate, obtuse ; flowers sessile, 
minute ; sepals, petals, stamens and sessile stigmas 2, sometimes 3 ; seeds few (6 - 8). — 
Am. in Edin. jour. nat. ^ geog. science, 1. p. 430 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 203. 
Peplis Americana, Pursh, fl.l. p. 238. Crypta minima, Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 1. 
p. 111. t. 6./. 1 ; Torr.fl. I. p. 32. Elatine minima, Fisch. et Meyer in Linncea, 10. p. 69. 

Stem rooting and creeping, forming patches ; the assurgent branches rising to the height of 
an inch, or sometimes nearly two inches. Leaves 2-3 lines long, entire. Flowers solitary, 
about the size of a pin's head. Sepals (always?) 2, oval, obtuse. Petals 2, roundish, con- 
cave, closely applied to and enclosing the ovary. Stamens 2, alternate with the petals : 
anthers didymous, lying in close contact with the stigmas. Ovary globose, 3-cclIed, with 
4-5 ovules in each cell : stigmas usually 3, distinct, short. Capsule membranaceous, 
globose, 3-celled (always?); the dissepiments breaking away from the valves, 6 - 8-seeded. 
Seeds large for tlie size of the capsule, a little curved, marked with longitudinal lines, and 
transverse wrinkles with intervening excavations. 

Margins of ponds, Suffolk county, Long Island ; Peach Pond, Westchester county {Dr. 
Mead). Flowers from July to September. 



Group 5. Ovary compound, one-celled xclth a free central placenta, or several- 
celled with the placenttz in the axis. Calyx free from the ovary or nearly so. 

Order XIX. CARYOPHYLLACE.E. Juss. The Pink Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 sepals, which are distinct or cohering below into a tube. Corolla 
of 4 - 5 petals (sometimes wanting), unguiculate and inserted upon the pedicel 
of the ovary, or without claws and inserted on the outside of a fleshy disk 
which is sometimes perigynous. Stamens as many, or, more commonly, twice 
as many as the petals, and inserted with them : anthers fixed by the middle, 
introrse. Ovary often stipitate : styles 2-5, usually stigmatose the whole 
length on the inner surface. Capsule 2 - o- valved, one-celled by the oblite- 
ration of the dissepiments ; or more or less completely 2 - 5-celled, opening at 
the apex by twice as many teeth as there are stigmas, or by loculicidal dehis- 
cence : placenta in the axis. Seeds campuhtropous, numerous (rarely few). 
Embryo curved around the outside of mealy albumen. — ^ Herbs. Stems 
with tumid joints. Leaves opposite, entire, destitute of stipules. 

Tribe I. Alsine j:. Sepals nearly or quite distinct. Petals without claws, inserted with the stamens on the disk. 

Capsule one-celled. 
Tribe II. SiLENE£. Sepals united into a tube. Petals with claws, inserted with the stamens on the stipe of the 

ovary. Capsule one-celled. 
Tribe III. AIoLLCGiNEi. Sepals united at the base. Capsule 3 - 5-cellcd. 

Tribe L ALSINEJE. Bard. 

Sepals nearly or quite distinct. Petals destitute of claws, inserted on the outside of the 
hypogynous, or more or less perigynous, disk. Stamens inserted on the margin of the 
disk. Capsule one-celled. 


1. HoNCKENTA. Scpals and petals 5 ; the latter entire and perigynous. Stamens 10. Seeds few, not strophiolate. 

2. Sagika. Sepals and petals 4-5, the latter entire. Stamens 4 - 10. Styles 4-5. Capsule 4 - 5-valvcd ; the 

valves entire. Seeds numerous. 

3. AREXiRiA. Sepals and petals 5, the latter entire. Stamens mostly 10. Styles 3. Capsule S-valved. Seeds 


4. McEHKiNGiA. Sepals and petals 4 - 5 ; the latter entire or retuse. Stamens 8 - 10. Styles tisually 3. Cajsule 3- 

(rarely 2- or 4-) valved; the valves 2-parted to the base. Seeds rather few, strophiolate. 

5. Stellaria. Sepals and petals usually 5 ; the latter 2-cIeft. Stamens mostly 10. Styles 3 (rarely 4). Capalje 

3- (rarely 4-) valved; the valves 2-parted. 

6. Cerastiuii. Sepals and petals usually 5 ; the latter i-clcft. Styles 5 (rarely 4). Capsule opening at the summit 

by 10 teeth. Seeds numerous. 


l.HONCKENYA. Ehrk.beitr. 2. p. 61 {noiofWilld.); Endl. gen. 5229. SEA CHICKWEED- 

[Named in honor of J. G. Hokckent, a German botanist.] 

Sepals 5, slightly united at the base. Petals 6, perigynous, with short claws, entire. Stamens 
10, inserted with the petals into a glanduliferous disk. Styles 3-5. Capsule 3 - 5-Talved ; 
the valves entire, 8 - 10-seeded. Seeds large, smooth, not strophiolate. — Fleshy, mari- 
time, perennial herbs, with a creeping rhizoma, and erect or prostrate branches. Flowers 
axillary, and generally solitary. 

1. HoNCKENYA PEPLoiDES, Ekrh. Commou Sea C/iichceed. 

Sepals broadly ovale, mostly obtuse, with scarious margins ; petals spatulate-obovate ; 
leaves and stem very fleshy. — Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 176. Arenaria peploides, Linn.; 
Willd. sp. 2. p. Ill ; Eng. hot. t. 189 ; Pursh, fl.l.p. 317 ; Torr.fl. I. p. 453 ; Bigel. ft. 
Bost. p. 181 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 413 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 102 (in part). Adenarium 
peploides, Raf. in Desv.jour. phys. (1818); DC. prodr. 3. p. 366. 

Rhizoma creeping extensively, and throwing up numerous simple or divided branches from 
6 to 10 inches high. Leaves ovate or oval, about tliree-fourths of an inch long, closely sessile 
or clasping, spreading or somewhat recurved, abruptly acute or mucronate. Flowers polygamo- 
dioecious, on very short pedicels. Petals about as long as the calyx. Stamens usually 10 
(in some of the flowers occasionally 8). Styles three in the lower, and usually 5 in the upper 
flowers. Capsule somewhat globose, the size of a pea. Seeds large, pyriform, finely gra- 

On the seacoast of Long Island, forming often large patches in the pure white sand, above 
high-water mark. Whole plant very succulent and heavy. Flowering from the middle of 
May to near the end of June. 

2. SAGINA. Bartl. ord. nat.p. 305; Endl. gen. 5224. pearl-wort. 

[In Latin, the name signifies something nourishing: it has little application to the small weeds of this genus.] 

Sepals 4-5, united at the base. Petals 4-5, entire, sometimes abortive. Stamens 4-10. 
Styles 4-5. Capsule 4 - 5-valved ; the valves entire at the apox. Seeds numerous, not 
strophiolate. — Flowers on axillary and terminal peduncles. Leaves often fascicled in the 

1. Sagina procumbens, Linn. Procumbent Pearl-ivort. 

Plant smooth; stems procumbent ; leaves linear, mucronate ; peduncles ascending in fruit; 
sepals broadly ovale, obtuse, twice the length of the petals, and two-thirds the length of the 


ovate capsule ; stamens, petals and sepals 4-5. — Gart. fruct. t. 129 ; Eng. Lot. t. 880 ; 
Ell. sk. 1. p. 221 ; Torr. jl. 2. p. 195 ; Hook. jl. Bor.-A?n. I. p. 92; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. 
Am. 1. p. 177. 

Annual or biennial. Stems 2 - 4 inches long, diffuse, and rooting at the lower joints. 
Lower leaves connate at the base, spreading or somewhat recurved. Peduncles longer than 
the leaves. Petals white, sometimes wanting. Capsule rather broadly ovoid. 

Borders of creeks and springs, and in rather moist sandy soils ; on Long Island, abundant ; 
also near the city of New-York ; on the banks of the Hudson near Troy, etc. May - August. 

2. Sagina apetala, Linn.? Apetahus Pearl-wort. 

Stem almost setaceous, erect, nearly smooth ; leaves subulate, mucronate ; peduncles erect, 
the terminal ones somewhat fasligiate ; sepals 4-5, oblong, about half the length of the 
mature ovoid capsule ; petals none ; stamens and sepals 4-5. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 389 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. Ill 1 

Annual. Stem 2-4 inches high, scarcely as stout as a horse-hair, somewhat branching 
towards the summit. Leaves 2-5 lines long, not half as broad as in the preceding species, 
with a conspicuous mucronate point, nearly smooth ; upper ones connate and scarious at the 
base. Pedicels filiform ; the upper ones nearly three-quarters of an inch long, forming a 
loose few-flowered cyme. Sepals more than twice as long as broad. No traces of petals. 

Dry hill-sides on the Island of New- York, near Manhattanville. May. — This plant differs 
from S. apetala in its smoothish stem and leaves, and in llie entire absence of petals : in that 
species, Mr. Wilson states that they are always present, but very minute. 

3. ARENARIA. Linn.; Bartl. ord. nat. p. 305. sandwort. 

[Named from the Latin, arena, sand ; because most of the species grow in sandy soils.] 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10, or by abortion fewer. Styles 3, rarely 2 or 4. 
Capsule 3-valved. Seeds numerous, roundish or reniform, not strophiolate. — Flowers 

^ 1. Arenauia proper. Valves of the capsule 2-tooihed al the summit. 

1. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Linn. Thyme-leaved Sand-tcort. 

Plant retrorsely roughish-pubescent ; leaves (small) ovate, acute, minutely ciliate ; calyx 
acuminate, scabrous, 3 - 5-nerved, nearly twice the length of the petals, and equal to the 
ovate capsule. — Willd. sp. 2. p. 720; Eng. hot. t. 923 ; Micha;. fl.l.p. 274 ; Pursh.fl. 1. 
p. 316; Ell. sk.l. p. 5\8; Torr. fl.l.p. ^bi; DC. prodr. I. p. Ul ; Torr. ^Gr.fl. N.Am. 

Annual. Stems 2-6 inches high, usually several from one root, al first erect, at length 
more or less decumbent and somewhat diffuse. Leaves scarcely one-fourth of an inch long. 

Arenaria. CARYOPHYLLACE.E. 95 

closely sessile. Flowers mostly in a small terminal leafy cymule. Petals oval. Capsule 
ovoid, coriaceous, opening at first by six teeth at the summit, finally splitting into 3 valves, 
each 2-toothed at the tip. Seeds numerous, reniform, rough. 

A common plant in sandy fields, cultivated ground, and on dry hill-sides ; introduced from 
Europe, but now found in all parts of the United States. Fl. April - July. 

§ 2. Alsine, Wahl. ; Fenzl. Valves of the capsule entire. 

2. Arenaria squarrosa, Michx. (Plate XIV.) Sqiiarrose Sand-wort. 

Densely casspitosc ; upper part of the stems minutely glandular-pubescent ; leaves short, 
subulate, rigid, channelled on the upper surface ; the lower ones densely squarrose-imbricate, 
rather obtuse ; upper ones distant : petals about three times as long as the ovate very obtuse 
se^zXs.— Michx. fl. 1. p. 273 ; Torr.f,. 1. p. 454 ; DC. prodr. l.p. 403 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 520 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 179. A. Carolinian* Walt. fl. Car. p. 141 ? A. imbricata, 
Raf. in Desv.jour. hoi. 1. p. 229? A. Rafinesquiana, Seringe in DC. prodr. 

Root perennial, perpendicular and very long. Stems numerous, foraiing dense tufts. 
Flowering branches 5-8 inches long, erect or procumbent, simple, about 3-flowered. Leaves 
3 — 4 lines long, with a prominent midrib underneath. Flowers about one-third of an inch in 
diameter. Sepals herbaceous. Capsule roundish-ovoid, obtuse, longer than the calyx. 

Arid sandy fields, Suffolk county. Long Island. April - September. 

A common species in the pine barrens of New-Jersey. 

3. Arenaria stricta, Blichx. Upright Sand-wort. 

Loosely cespitose, at length diffuse, smooth ; stems filiform, branching from tlie base ; 
leaves subulate-setaceous, one-nerved, much fascicled in the axils ; petals oblong-obovate, 
twice the length of the rigid, ovate, very acute, 3-ribbed sepals. — Miclix. fl. l.p. 274 ; Ell. 
sk. l.p. 520 ; DC. prodr. l.p. 503 ; Torr.fl. l.p. 455 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 180 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. l.p. 99. t. 33 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 179. Alsine Michauxii, Fenzl, I. c. 

Perennial. Stems 6-10 inches, very numerous, cymosely divided at the summit, many- 
flowered. Leaves 5-8 lines long, very narrow, at first erect, at length spreading, and the 
lower ones somewhat recurved. Sepals strongly 3-ribbcd. Capsule ovoid, about the length 
of the calyx. Seeds few, large, reniform, compressed, nearly black, rugosely scabrous. 

On rocks and in barren places, particularly on the banks of rivers and lakes ; northern and 
western counties. May - July. 

4. Arenaria Grcenlandica, Spreng. (Plate XV.) Greenland Sand-toort. 

Densely cnespitose, smooth ; stems low, decumbent at the base, 1 - 5-flowcred ; leaves 
narrowly linear, obtuse ; pedicels filiform, nearly erect ; petals obovale-cuneiform, entire or 

96 CARYOPIIYLLACE^. Arenaria. 

with a slight notch, twice the length of the oblong, obtuse, mcmbranaceously margined, nerye- 
less sepals. — Spreng. syst. 2. p. 402 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Ain. 1. p. ISO. Stellaria Grcen- 
landica, Rctz. ; DC. j)''odr. 1. p. 398. Arenaria glabra, Torr. jl. 1. p. 455. {cxd. syn.) ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 180. Alsine glabra, Fenzl, I. c. (in part). 

Stems numerous, 2-4 inches high, slender. Leaves 3-5 lines long, not rigid, erect or 
spreading. Flowers one-third of an inch in diameter. Sepals somewhat gibbous at the base. 
Capsule about as long as the calyx, oblong, acute. Seeds compressed, roundish-ovoid, with 
a short beak. 

Crevices of rocks on the highest summits of the Shawangunk Mountains. On Whiteface 
Mountain, Esse.x county {Dr. Emmons}. June - August. 

4. MCEHRINGIA. Linn. ; Fenzl inKndl. gen. 5235. M(EHRISGJA. 

[ In honor of Paul HENRy Gerard Mcedring, a Gennan physician and botanist of the last century.] 

Sepals 4-5. Petals 4-5, somewhat perigynous. Stamens 8 - 10. Styles usually 3, 
sometimes 2 or 4. Capsule splitting into twice as many (half) valves as there are stigmas. 
Seeds rather few, smooth and shining ; the umbilicus distinctly strophiolate. 

1. McEHRiNGiA LATERIFLORA, FcTizl. Latcral-jhwered MoeJiringia. 

Plant minutely pubescent ; stem erect ; leaves oblong or oval, obtuse ; peduncles lateral 
and terminal 2- (rarely 3 - 4-) flowered, one of the pedicels with 2 bracteoles near the middle; 
flowers pentamerous ; styles 3 ; petals twice the length of the sepals. — Fenzl in ann. Wien. 
Mus. Arenaria lateriflora, I,«>2«. ; P«rs/(,_^. 1. p. 317; ToiT.fl.l.p.ioi; Bigel. Jl. Bost. 
p. 181 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 412 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 102. t. 36 ; Darlingt.jl. Cest. p. 211 ; 
Torr. <J- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 162. 

Stem 4-8 inches high, slender but somewhat rigid, simple or a little branched above. 
Leaves about three quarters of an inch long, pale green, punctate, scabrous-pubescent on the 
margin and midrib. Peduncles an inch or more in length, filiform, usually solitary ; but when 
the stem is branching, sometimes 2 or more on one plant, each commonly but 2-flowered. 
Flowers about one-third of an inch in diameter. Sepals and petals ovate-oblong, obtuse. 
Capsule roundish-ovoid. Seeds reniform-orbicular, compressed, lugosely scabrous ; the 
umbilicus distinctly strophiolate. 

In woods and along streams ; sometimes in dry sandy soils ; rather rare. June. — This 
plant, which had long been regarded as an anomalous species of Arenaria, is, I think, correct- 
ly referred by Fenzl to Mcehringia. It diflfers from the former in its somewhat perigj'nous 
petals, the valves of the capsule splitting into two pieces, and in the strophiolate seeds. 

Stellaria. CARYOPHYLLACE^. 97 

5. STELLARIA. Linn.; Endl. gen. 5240. stitcr-wort 

[ Named from stelia, a star ; in allusion to the form of the flower.] 
Calyx of 5 sepals, which are somewhat united at the base. Petals 5 (sometimes, by abortion, 
fewer or none), 2-cleft or 2-lobed, often more or less perigynous. Stamens 10 (or, by 
abortion, 3 - 8). Styles 3, rarely 4. Capsule 3- (sometimes 4-) valved; valves 2-parted, 
membranaceous. Seeds usually many, sometimes few, not strophiolate. — Herbaceous 
plants, mostly growing in moist situations. Flowers terminal, in dichotomous cymes, or 
solitary. The flowers are often apparently lateral, from the evolution of a branch in the 
axil of the upper leaves, which forms a continuation of the stem. —- Funiculi slender, 2-3 
times the length of the seed. 

1. Stellaria media. Smith. Common Chickweed. 

Stems procumbent, with an alternate pubescent line ; leaves ovate, abruptly petiolate ; 
petals oblong, deeply divided, shorter than the sepals ; stamens 3-10. — Eng. boi. t. 537 ; 
Pursh, fl.l.p. 317 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 452 ; Bigel. fl. Boat. p. 181 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 398 \ 
Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am.l. p. 94 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 274 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 183.' 
Alsine media, Linn. Holosteum succulentum, Linn. 

Annual, but often living through the winter till the next season. Stem much branched, 
tender and somewhat succulent. Leaves about half an inch long, on ciliate petioles the 
length of the lamina. Flowers on hairy pedicels, which are deflexed in fruit. Calyx hairy. 
Stamens mostly 3 or 5. Styles 3. Capsule ovoid. Seeds rather large, reniform-orbicular,.. 

Fields and cultivated grounds ; very common. Flowers from February to December. In- ■ 
troduced from Europe, and now diffused throughout the United States. 

2. Stellaria longifolia, Muhl. Long-lemed Stitch-tvort 

Stem branching, weak, smooth ; leaves linear, mostly attenuate at the base, acutish ; cyme 
divaricate, naked, with lanceolate scarious bracts ; petals cleft nearly to the base, at first 
shorter, at length longer, than the acute 3-nerved sepals ; styles 3-4. — Torr. fl. I. p. 452 
(eicl. syn. Gold.) ; Bigel. fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 182 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 400 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. 
p. 94 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 275 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 185. S. graminea, Bigel. 
fl. Bost. ed. 1. p. 110. Spergulastrum gramineum, Michx. fl. 1. p. 276; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 421. Micropetalon gramineum, Pers. syn. \.p. b09. 

Perennial. Stem about a foot high, slender, usually erect, but sometimes prostrate, 4-angled ; 
the angles often a little retrorsely scabrous. Leaves 1-2 inches long and 1 - 2 lines wide, 
[Flora.] 13 

98 CARYOPHYLLACEiE. Stellaria. 

spreading widely, slightly rough on the margin. Stamens 8 - 10. Styles often 4, and 
occasionally 5. Capsule globose-ovoid, about the length of the calyx. Seeds muricatc. 

Wet shady places, rather common. Latter part of May, and early in June. Nearly allied 
to S. graminea of Europe. 

3. Stellaria borealis, Bigel. Northern Slitch-twrt. 

Smooth and flaccid ; leaves broadly lanceolate, acute, veinless ; petals (often wanting) 
2-parted, nearly the length of the lanceolate-acute nerveless sepals ; capsules ovoid-oblong, 
nearly twice the length of the calyx ; styles usually 4. — Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 182 ; Hook. ft. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 94 ; Torr.^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 185. S. lanceolata, Ton: ft. 1. p. 45, not 
ofPotV. Spergulastrum lanceolatum, Michx. ft. I. p. 275. Micropetalon lanceolatum, Per5- 
syn. 1 . p. 509. 

Perennial. Stem 4-10 inches long, angular, somewhat diffuse. Leaves about an inch 
long, with a single strong nerve. Flowers at first terminal and usualy apetalous, on a slender 
pedicel, becoming lateral by the evolution of a branch from the axil of each of the upper 
leaves ; the lateral branches at length floriferous, bearing petaliferous flowers. Stamens and 
petals distinctly perigynous. Seeds rather large, nearly smooth. 

Wet shady swamps, northern and western parts of the State. June - August. 

6. CERASTIUM. Linn.; Endl. gen. 5241. MOUSE-EAJt CHICKWEED. 

[From the Greek, keras, a horn; in allosion to the form of the capsule.] 

Calyx of 5 ( rarely 4) sepals, which are somewhat united at the base. Petals 5 (sometimes 
4), bifid or emarginate. Styles 5 (rarely 4). Capsule membranaceous, cylindrical or 
oblong, opening at the summit by 10 teeth. Seeds numerous, not strophiolate. — Funiculi 
very short, the seeds separating from them, but remaining suspended from the placenta by 
a spiral vessel. 

1. Cerastium vulgatum, Linn^ Common Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

Hairy, pale green ; stems ascending or spreading ; leaves ovate or obovate, very obtuse, 
attenuate at the base ; flowers somewhat capitate, when young longer than the pedicels ; 
capsule cj'lindrical, twice the length of the cah'x. — ling. hot. t. 789 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 458 ; 
DC. prodr. I. p. ^5 -^ Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 277 ; Torr. 4- Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 187. C. semi- 
decandrum, Walt. ft. Car. p. 241 ; Pursh, ft. I. p. 320. C. hirsutum, Muhl. cat. p. 46 ; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 524 ; Ton: ft. I. c. C. connatum, Beck, hot. p. 55. 

Plant annual, somewhat viscid when young. Stem 4-10 inches long. Leaves 6-8 
lines long, the lower ones obovate. Flowers rather crowded. Petals bifid at the summit. 
Capsule a little curved ; the teeth (as in all the following species) erect and revolute on the 
margin. Seeds muricate. 

Cultivated grounds, road-sides, etc. Introduced from Europe. May - September. 

Cerastium. CARYOPHYLLACE^. 99 

2. Cerastium viscosum, Linn. Viscous Mouse-ear Chickweed. 
Hairy and rather viscid ; stem spreading ; leaves lanceolate-oblong, obtusish ; cymes rather 

loosely flowered, with the pedicels mostly longer than the calyx ; capsule nearly twice as long 
as Ihe calyx. — Eng. bot. t. 790 ; Torr.Jl. I. p. 4:58 ; Bigel.fl.Bost.p.lM; DC.prodr.l. 
p. 415 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 278 ; Ton: <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 187. C. vulgatum, MuU. 
cat. (fide Darlingt.). 

Perennial? Stems 6-12 inches long. Leaves an inch or more in length, sessile and 
rather broad at the base, much shorter than the internodes. Flowers and fruit resembling 
those of the preceding species. — A larger and coarser plant than C. vulgatum, as well as 
deeper green and less hairy. 

Fields, road-sides, and cultivated grounds ; very common. Introduced from Europe. Fl. 
May - September. 

3. Cerastium arvense, Linn, Field Chickweed. 
Stems declined at the base, retrorsely pubescent ; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, rather 

acute ; cymes few-flowered, on an elongoted naked peduncle ; petals obovate, more than 
twice the length of the sepals ; capsule oblong, a little exceeding the calyx. — Eng. hot. 
t. 93 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 419 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 104 ; Torr. ^ N. Am. I. p. 188. 
C. Pennsylvanicum, Hornemann ; DC. I. c. ; Hook. I.e. C. tenuifohum, Pursh,fl. l.p.321; 
Torr. fl. p. 460 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 278. C. elongatum, Pursh, I. c. ; Nutt. in journ. 
acad. Phil. 7. p. 16. 

Perennial. Stems cespitose, more or less assurgent or erect, 4-8 inches high. Leaves 
10 - 15 lines long, and 1 - 2 lines wide, rather acute, and late in the season somewhat rigid, 
often fascicled in the axils. Flowers rather conspicuous. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, strongly 
one-nerved. Petals emarginate, or slightly bifid. Capsule sometimes one-third longer than 
the calyx. Seed reniform, muricate in curved lines. 

Rocky places; rather common. May July. Scarcely distinct from the European 
C. arvense. 

4. Cerastium oblongifohum, Torr. Oblong-leaved Chickweed. 
Stems erect or declined, villous ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, mostly obtuse ; flowers numerous; 

peduncles viscid ; petals obovate, 2-clcft, twice the length of the oblong obtuse sepals ; cap- 
sule cylindrical, about twice as long as the calyx. Torr. in Sill. jour. 4. p. 63, andfi. 1. 
p. 460 ; Torr. 4- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 188. C. villosum, " Muhl. cat. p. 46"; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. l.p. 279. C. pubesccns, Goldie inEdin. phil. journ.'k.p. 387. C. Pennsylvanicum, 
Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 104? (excl. the syn. of C. tcnuifolium). 

Perennial. Stems 6-12 inches high, rather stout, very villous, tomcntose at and below 
the nodes. Leaves an inch or more in length (sometimes shorter), ovale and oblong-lanceolate, 


100 CARYOPHYLLACEiE. Cerastium. 

variable in pubescence, sometimes nearly smooth except on the margins. Cyme 7-15- 
flowered. Flowers larger than in C. arvense. Petals cleft nearly one-third of their length. 
Seed muricale. 

Rocky places ; rare. May. 

5. Cerastium nutans, Raf. Nodding Chickioeed. 

Viscid and pubescent ; stems erect, weak, branching from the base, sulcate-striate ; inter- 
nodes finally much longer than the leaves ; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate , the lower- 
most oblong-spatulate, acute ; cymes much elongated, divaricate, many-flowered, with long 
filiform pedicels ; petals oblong, bifid at the apex, scarcely twice as long as the obtuse sepals ; 
capsule cylindrical, nearly three times the length of the calyx. — Raf. prec. des decouv. p. 36 ; 
Torr.fl. \.p. 450 (excl. the syn. of C. pubescens) ; DC prodr. 1. p. 420 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 
1. p. 104 ; Darlingt.jl. Cest. p. 280 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 189. C. longepeduncu- 
latum, Muhl. cat. p. 47. C. glutinosum, Nutt. gen. 1. p. 291. 

Annual. Plant pale yellowish-green, very viscid, and covered with flocculent woolly pu- 
bescence. Stems 8 - 12 inches high. Leaves 8 - 12 lines or more in length. Petals cuneate 
at the base, slightly bifid. Capsule somewhat curved. Seeds muricate. 

Low moist and rather shady places, particularly along rivulets. May. 


Sepals united into a cylindrical tube. Petals unguiculate, inserted with the stamens upon 
the stipe of the ovary. Capsule one-celled {sometimes 3 - b-celled at the base). 

§. Calyx 5-toothed, without scales at the base ; petals 5 ; stamens 10. 

7. SiiXNE. Styles 3. Capsule 3-cclled at the base. 

8. Lychnis. Styles 5. Capsule one-celled, or 5-celled at the base. 

9. SiPONiRiA. Styles 2. Capsule one-celled throughout 

7. SILENE. Linn. ; Otth in DC. prodr. 1. p. 367. CATCHFLY. 

[ From the Greek, suUon, saliva ; in allusion to the viscid secretion on the stems.] 

Calyx tubular, without scales at the base, 5-toothed. Petals 5, with slender claws, which 
usually are crowned with scales at the summit ; limb 2- or many-cleft, sometimes entire. 
Stamens 10. Styles 3. Capsule 3-celled at the base, opening at the top by 6 teeth. 

1^ 1. Behenantha. Flowers solitary, or in paniculate cymes : calyx vesicular, inflated. 

1. SiLENE sTELLATA, Ait. (Plate XVI.) FouT-leoved Campion. 

Stem erect, branching, minutely pubescent ; leaves whorled in fours, ovate-lanceolate, gra- 


dually acuminate ; cymes in a loose terminal panicle ; petals lacerate-fimbriate, not crowned ; 
stamens about the length of the petals. — Ait. Kew. {ed. 2.) 3. p. 84 ; DC.prodr. 1. p. 368 ; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 88 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 272 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 190. 
Cucubalus stellatus, Linn. ; Michx. fl. 1. p. 271 ; Bot. mag. t. 1107 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 315 ; 
En. sk. 1. p. 514 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 449 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 184. 

Perennial. Whole plant pulverulently pubescent. Stem 2-4 feet high, erect, somewhat 
4-sided, slender. Leaves 2-3 inches long, sessile, with a long tapering point ; the upper- 
most, and also the lowest ones, usually opposite. Flowers as large as in the common Cam- 
pion. Calyx broadly campanulate. Petals white ; the limb dilated, spreading. Capsule 
ovoid-globose, on a short woolly stipe. Seeds reniform, rough with concentric lines of rugose 

Dry woods ; frequent. July - August. 

2. SiLENE Antirrhina, Linn. Snapdragon Gatchfiy. 
Annual ; nearly smooth ; stem erect, simple, or branching above ; leaves lanceolate, acute, 

the upper ones linear ; margins minutely ciliate-scabrous ; cyme few-flowered ; calyx ovoid, 
smooth and shining; petals small, obcordate, slightly crowned. — Pursh, fl. 1. p. 316; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 517 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 451 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 183 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p.89; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 273 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 191 ; Dill. hort. Elth. p. 422. <. 213. 

Stem 1-2} feet high, the lower part a little rough; a portion of the upper intemodes 
viscid. Peduncles erect. Teeth of the calyx very short, purphsh. Petals white or tinged 
with purple, only expanding towards evening, or in moist cloudy weather ; sometimes wanting? 
Capsule ovoid, about the length of the calyx ; the stipe very short. Seeds reniform, rough 
with elevated points. 

Dry sandy and stony places. June - July. 

3. SiLENE NOCTIFLORA, Linn. Night-floweHng Catchflxj. 
Viscidly pubescent ; stem erect ; lower leaves spatulate, upper ones linear-lanceolate ; 

calyx cylindrical-ventricose, the alternate striae veined ; teeth very long, subulate ; petals 2- 
parted.— £w^. bot. «. 291 ; DC.prodr. l.p. 379 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 192. Sapo- 
naria noctiflora, Fenzl. 

Annual. Stem 1-2 feet high, simple or dichotomously branched above. Leaves about 
2 inches long. Flowers rather large, sweet-scented, expanding only in the evening or in 
cloudy weather, white or pale rose-color. Seeds granulated. 

Old fields in the northern parts of the State : introduced. July - August. 

4. SiLENE Pennsylvanica, Miclix. Wild Pink. 
Viscidly pubescent ; stems numerous from the same root ; leaves lanceolate, acute, the 

radical ones spatulate-oblanccolale ; cyme scvcral-llowered (3 - 7), contracted ; petals obo- 


vate, very obtuse, erosely crenulate, emarginate. — 1. jj. 272 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 316 ; 
Ell. sk. 1. p. 516 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 450; Bigcl. fl. Bost.p. 183; DC. prodr. l.p. 380 ; Bot. 
reg. t. 247 ; Toir. ^ Or. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 192. S. Caroliniana, Walt. fl. Car. p. 142. S. 
Virginica, Willd. sp. 2. p. 702 ? S. platypetala, 0«A in DC. 1. /a 383. 

Root fusiform, perennial. Stems 6-10 inches high, erect, or declined at the base. Radical 
leaves 2-4 inches long, and 3-5 lines wide at the broadest part, with a long tapering base. 
Calyx clavate, at length vcntricose above, purplish, very viscid ; the teeth short and rather 
obtuse. Stamens mostly included. Petals bright purplish-red, sometimes rose-color or al- 
most white, spreading. 

Dry rocky places. May - June. Common in the southern part of the State. 

5. SiLENE Virginica, Linn. Virginia Catchfiy. 

Viscidly pubescent ; stem simple ; radical leaves spatulate, with ciliate petioles ; cauline 
ones oblong-lanceolate ; cyme several-flowered, loose ; petals narrowly oblong, bifid. — Linn, 
syst. 2. ;;. 311 (in part); Miclix. fl. 1. p. 272 (in part); Ell. sk. 1. p. 516; Torr.fl. 1. 
p. 450 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 380 ; Torr. cj- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 192. S. CatesbEi, Walt. fl. 
Car. 1. p. L42; DC. I. c. 

Root horizontal, perennial. Stem mostly erect, 1-2 feet high, branching above. Leaves 
8-4 inches long and 3-6 lines wide, rather acute ; petioles strongly ciliate. Flowers 
larger than in the preceding species. Calyx campanulate-cylindrical, at length ventricose ; 
teeth lanceolate, acute. Petals crimson ; the lamina more than twice as long as broad, con- 
spicuously 2-cleft at the summit. 

Yates county {Dr. Sartivell) ; the only known locality of this handsome species in the State. 
It is sometimes employed in the Western States (where it is common) as an anthelmintic ; 
but its virtues are probably very feeble. See Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. app. 1087. 

8. LYCHNIS. Town. ; Endl. gen. 5250. LYCHNIS. 

[ From the Greek, lydiTws, a lamp ; the cotton-like substance on the leaves of some species having been used for the 

wicks of lamps.] 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales at the base. Petals 5, with slender claws, mostly 
crowned. Stamens 10. Styles 5. Capsule one-celled, or 5-celled at the base. 
* GiTHAGO, Desf. Calyx q/liTidrieal-campan'ulaie, coriaceons ; Ueth very hmg ; ovary without a stipe. 

1. Lychnis Githago, Lam. Cockle. Corn-cockle. Rose Ca?njnon. 

Hairy: stem dichotomous ; flowers on long peduncles; leaves Hnear. — DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 387 ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 194. Agrostemma Githago, Linn. ; Eng. hot. t. 576 ; 
Torr. fl. I. p. 461 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 281. 

Plant pale green, annual. Flowers large, bright purple, not crowned : limb obcordate. 

Common in cultivated fields, particularly among wheat and rye. June. Introduced from 

Saponaria. CARYOPHYLLACE^. 103 

9. SAPONARIA. Linn. ■ DC. prodr. 1. p. 365. SOAP-WORT 

[ Prom the Latin, sapo, soap ; its mucilage having been used as a substitute for that article.] 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales at the base. Petals 5 ; claws as long as the calyx. 
Stamens 10. Styles 2. Capsule 1-celled throughout. 

1. Saponaria officinalis, Linn. Common Soap-icort. Bouncing Bet 
Fascicles of flowers paniculate ; calyx cylindrical, smooth ; crown of the petals linear ; 

leaves oval or oval-lanceolate. — Smith, fi. Brit. 3. p. 459 ; Eng. hot. t. 1060 ; Pursh, ji. 1. 
p. 314 ; Torr. fl. \. p. 447 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 179 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 365 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 272 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 195. 

Perennial ; about a foot high, spreading very much by the roots. Flowers large, often 
double, rose-color. 

Road-sides, waste grounds, and about houses ; common. July - August. Introduced. 

The leaves form a lather with water. The plant was formerly used to cure the itch. 

2. Saponaria Vaccaria, Linn. Perfoliate Soap-wort. 

Flowers in paniculate cymes ; calyx pyramidal, 5-ai1gled, smooth ; bracts membranaceous, 
acute ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, sessile. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 365 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl,. N. Am. 1. 
p. 195. 

Annual. .Stem 1-2 feet high. Flowers rose-color. 

Cultivated grounds ; rare. July - August. Hardly naturalized. 


Sepals united at the base. Disk none. Petals mostly none. Stamens hypogynous. Capsule 
completely 3 - 5-celled. 

10. MOLLUGO. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 5186. Indian Ciiickweed. 

[An ancient name of a plant sujiposed to be Galium MoUugo, which resembles some of the species of this genus.] 

Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals none. Stamens 3-5, opposite the sepals ; or very 
rarely 6 - 10, when the exterior ones are alternate with the sepals, hypogynous. Disk 
none. Stigmas 3, linear. Capsule membranaceous, 3-valved, 3-celled, loculicidal, many- 
seeded. — Annual, diffusely branched plants. Leaves pseudo-verticillatc or opposite. 
Flowers in axillary or dichotomous cymulcs or umbels. 


1. MoLLUGO VERTiciLLATA, Linn. Carpet-toeed. 

Stem depressed ; leaves spatulale, pseudo-verlicillatc ; pedicels one-flowered, forming a 
sessile umbel ; seeds smooxh.— Michx. fi.l.p.ll; Pursh, Jl.l.p.92; Ell. sk. l.p. 183 ; 
Torr.fl. l.p. 160 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 48 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 96 ; TV?-. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 
1. p. 176. 

Stem much branched in a dichotomous manner, spreading flat upon the ground, and forming 
a circular patch 6-18 inches in diameter. Leaves about 6 in a whorl ; the upper ones 
oblanceolate. Sepals oblong, obtuse, 3-nerved, white inside and on the margins. Stamens 
mostly 3, sometimes 4. Capsule ovoid, somewhat triangular, roughened or torulose by the 
prominence of the enclosed seeds. Seeds reniform, smooth and sliining, striate on the back. 

Sandy fields, cultivated grounds, etc. June - September. 

This genus, although placed by most botanists in the tribe Alsinea of Caryophyllace^ 
differs in its want of petals and disk, and in its completely 3-celled capsule. Bartling refers 
it to Paronychie.e {IlleccbracecE), making it the type of his section MoUuginea. Fenzi and 
Endlicher place it among Portulacace.i:, in tli£ tribe MoUuginea. 

Order XX. ILLECEBRACE^. R. Broivn. The Knot-grass Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 persistent sepals, which are distinct or united at the base. Petals 5, 
alternate with the sepals ; often minute and resembling sterile filaments, fre- 
quently wanting. Stamens as many as the sepals and opposite them, or fewer, 
rarely twice as many, inserted into the edge of a disk that lines the base of the 
calyx. Ovary one-celled by the obliteration of the dissepiments, sometimes 
imperfectly 2 — 5-celled : styles 2-5, sometimes more or less combined, 
stigmatose along the inner surface. Fruit commonly a utricle, with a solitary 
seed ; or a 2 - 5-valved, 1-celled, many-seeded capsule, with the placentae in 
the axis. Seeds campuUtropous. Embryo more or less curved around the 
outside of mealy albumen. — Small herbaceous (rarely suffruticose) plants, 
with opposite or fasciculate entire leaves and scarious stipules. Flowers often 
minute, axillarj' or terminal, cymose or glomerate, or sometimes nearly solitary 
in the axils of the leaves : bracts usually similar to the leaves. 

This order differs from Cartophtllaceje, in which it is included by Fenzl and Endlicher, chiefly in having scariour 

Anychia. ILLECEBRACEiE. 105 


Sepals often cuspidate or atoned, visually more or less cucullate or concave at the apex 
internally. Petals resembling sterile filaments, or none. Styles or stigmas 2, distinct 
or united. Utricle l-seeded. — Leaves opposite, often crowded and fascicled. 

1. ANYCHIA. Michx.fl. \.p. 112 (in part); Juss. mem. mus. 2. p. 389 ; Torr. <^ Gr.jl. 

N. Am. 1. p. 172. FORKED CBICKWEED. 

Section of Paronychia, Feiizl <Sf Endl. 

[From the Greek, onyx, onychos, a finger nail; a similar plant having been used for curing whitlows.] 

Sepals ovate-oblong, united at the base, slightly concave, somewhat saccate at the apex, 
slightly mucronate on the back. Petals or sterile filaments none. Stamens 2, 3 or 5, in- 
serted on the base of the sepals. Styles very short, distinct or united at the base, stigma- 
tose within. Utricle included in the connivent sepals. — Annual herbs, with minute axillary 
or terminal, solitary or more or less clustered, nearly sessile, flowers. Leaves oblong or 
lanceolate, mostly punctate, somewhat petiolate, slightly ciliate. 

1. Anychia dichotoma, Mkhx. Common Forked Chickweed. 

Stem erect or spreading; stamens commonly 3.— l.p. 113; Cest. 
p. 162; Torr. <^ N. Am. 1. p. 172. 

var. 1 : stem more or less pubescent above ; leaves varying from linear-lanceolate to ellip- 
tical ; flowers more or less clustered.— Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. dichotoma, l.p. 273 ; 
DC. prodr. 3. p. 369. A. Canadensis, Ell. sk. 1 . p. 307 ; Bor.-Am. 1 . p. 226. Queria 
Canadensis, Linn.; Willd. sp. pi. 1. p. 494. 

var. 2 : smooth ; branches capillary ; leaves oval or oblong, cuneiform at the base ; flowers 
mostly solitary, slightly exserted from the stipules at their base.— Tbrr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. di- 
chotoma, var. capillacea, l.p. 273. A. capillacea, Nutt. gen. 1. p. 158. 

Plant 3-10 inches high, with numerous forking, and, usually, almost filiform branches; 
when growing in dry sterile situations, often of a purplish color. Leaves 4-10 lines long, 
minutely ciliate-scabrous, doited with round minute immersed glands, which are at first some- 
what pellucid, then whitish and opake, and finally brownish. Flowers scarcely the size of a 
small pin's head, greenish, solitary in the forks of the stem ; in the second variety, the ter- 
minal ones in small leafy cymulcs ; pedicels shorter than the flowers. Sepals with a minute 
point on the back close to the summit. Stamens rarely 5. Styles slightly united at the base, 
rscurved: stigmas capitate. Utricle granulated with minute vesicles. Seed reniform, 
brownish, smooth. 

Dry woods and hill-sides ; very variable in size. On sterile, sunny hill-sides, it is often 
stunted, with more crowded and thicker branches. 
[Flora.] 14 

106 ILLECEBRACE^. Spergula. 

Tribe II. SPERGVLEJE. Bartl. 

Sepals nearly plane. Petals usually 7nanifest, sometimes wanting. Styles or stigmas 3-5. 
Capsule one-celled, 3-5 valved, many-seeded : placenta central. 

1. SPERGULA. Bartl. ord. nat. p. 302; Torr. ^- Or.fl. N. Am. I. p. 174. SPURHEV. 
{ From the Latin, spargere, to scatter ; because it scatters its sccOs abroad.] 

Sepals nearly distinct. Petals 5, entire, mostly somewhat perigynous. Stamens 5 - 10, 
inserted with the petals. Styles 3-5. Capsule 3 - 5-valved, many-seeded. Seeds com- 
pressed, orbicular or reniform, often surrounded with a membranaceous margin. — Leaves 
mostly fascicled in the axils. Flowers loosely cymosc. 

^ I. Spergula proper. — Styles 5, distinct to the base. Capsule 5-valv<:d ; the valves opposite the 


1. Spergula arve.nsis, Lifin. Corn Spurreij. Tares. 
Leaves verticillate and mostly fascicled, subulate-linear ; stipules minute ; peduncles reflexed 

in fruit; stamens 10; seeds rough, somewhat globose, with a narrow margin. — 
t. 130 ; Eng. hot. t. 1536 ; Pursh,fl. \.p. 320 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 523 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 185 ; 
Torr. ft. \.p. 457 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. l.p. 92 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 174. Sper- 
gularia arvensis, A. St. Hil. fl. Bras. 2. p. 178. 

A foot long, erect or spreading. Stem swollen at the joints. Leaves 1-2 inches long, 
almost filiform, somewhat terete. Flowers in terminal divaricate naked cymes : pedicels of the 
fruit nearly an inch long. Sepals ovate. Petals white, rather longer than the calyx. Cap- 
sule the size of a small pea, about the length of the calyx. Seeds blackish, with an acute 
edge or narrow border. 

Fields and waste places ; introduced in grain from Europe. Fl. May - October. Culti- 
vated on the continent of Europe, particularly in Holland and Germany, as fodder for sheep 
and cows. It is said greatly to enrich the milk of the latter. Hens are said to eat the plant 

^2. Spergularia, Pers. Styles 3. Capsule 3-valved. — Species of Arenaria, Linn. 

2. Spergula rubra. Tor/: Sf Gr. Red-Jlowered Spurrey. 

Stems decumbent, much branched ; leaves narrowly linear, acute or mucronate, somewhat 
fleshy ; stipules ovate, cleft ; sepals lanceolate, with broadly scarious margins ; (petals red or 
rose-color ;) seeds compressed. — To)r. <^- Gr. I. c. Spergularia rubra, A. St. Hil. I. c. 
Arenaria rubra, Lmn. ; Torr.fl.l.p.i56; DC. prodr. I, p. iOl ; Cham. <^ Linnaa, 
\. p. 52; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 93. A. Canadensis, Pers. syn. l.p. 504. 

Spergula. ILLECEBRACE^. 107 

var. 1 : leaves usually shorter, or only a little longer than the internodes, somewhat mucro- 
nate, slightly fleshy; seeds not margined. - Torr. 4. Gr. I. c. A. rubra, var. campestris 
Lmn. ; DC. I. c. A. rubra, Bigel. ft. Bost. p. 179. 

var. 2 : leaves fleshy, usually much longer than the internodes, not mucronate ; seeds not 
margined. — Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. A. rubra, var. marina, Linn. ; DC. I. c. A. marina Bisel 
fl. Bost. p. ISO {excl syn. Sm.). ' 

Stems 3- 10 inches long, at first erect, at length diffuse, smooth or pubescent: the var. 2. 
when growing in salt marshes, often nearly or quite smooth. Leaves about an inch long and 
scarcely a line wide, in maritime situations semiterete and fleshy, but in dry places narrower 
and scarcely succulent. Flowers axillary and solitary, and in terminal leafy cymules ; or in 
leafy racemes. Pedicels reflexed after flowering ; those of the fruit about half an inch long. 
Sepals scarious on ihe margin. Petals ovate, rather shorter than the sepals. Seeds some- 
what reniform, compressed, without a trace of border. 

The first variety occurs in sandy fields, and is not common : the other form is very common 
on the seacoast, and about the harbor of New-York ; usually in salt marshes, but sometimes 
in wet sandy places. It grows along the Hudson as far as the water is brackish. Flowers 
from April to November. 

Suborder SCLERANTHACE^. Link. The Knawel Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 sepals ; the tube urceolate. Petals none. Stamens 1, 5 or 10, 
inserted into the throat of the calyx-tube. Ovary 1-celled, with a, solitary 
ovule : styles 2, distinct and stigmatose on the inside, or united to the summit. 
Fruit a utricle with a soUtary seed, enclosed in the indurated tube of the calyx. 
Embryo curved around mealy albumen.— Small annual or perennial, diffusely 
branched plants. Leaves opposite, destitute of stipules. Flowers small, usually 
disposed in cymules. 

Thi« Bubordcr is more nearly related to Illecedbaceje than to Cartophyllaceje ; diffenDg from tho former chiefly in 
the mduratcd calyx-tube, and in the want of stipules. 


108 SCLERANTHACEiE. Scleranthus. 

1. SCLERANTHUS. Linn. ; Eridl. gen. 5222. KSAWEL. 

[ Named from skleros, hard, and anthos, a. flower; the base of the flower becoming indurated.] 

Sepals 5. Stamens 10, rarely 5 or 2. Styles distinct. — Leaves somewhat connate-linear, 
with scarious margins. Flowers in axillary leafy c}Tnules, greenish. 

1. ScLERANTHUs ANNUus, Linn. ConvtTwn Knawel. 

Annual ; flowers mostly decandrous ; sepals of the fructiferous calyx spreading, acute. — 
Linn. ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 660 ; Eng. hot. t. 351 ; Pursh, fl. 1. /;. 315 ; Ton: fl.\. p. 448 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 177; DC. prodr. 3. p. 378. 

Plants spreading and forming tufts 3-6 inches or more in diameter, dichotomously much 
branched, somewhat pubescent. Leaves subulate, carinate, scarious and dilated at the base. 
Flowers inconspicuous, very numerous, nearly sessile. Sepals lanceolate, green, with a 
white scarious margin. Stamens sometimes only 5, shorter than the calyx. Seed lenticular, 
smooth, contained in a thin membranaceous pericarp, which is enclosed in the hardened base 
of the calyx. 

A common weed in sandy fields and barren hill-sides ; flowering from May to July. Pro 
bably an introduced plant. 

Order XXI. PORTULACACEtE. Jim. The Purselane Tribe. 

Sepals 2 (rarely 3), mostly united at the base, free or rarely cohering with the 
base of the ovary. Petals 5, or very rarely 3, 4 or 6, imbricated in aestivation. 
Stamens variable in number, opposite the petals when of the same nuinber, 
inserted with the petals into the base of the calyx, or hyjDogj-nous : filaments 
all fertile, distinct : anthers fixed by the middle, versatile or introrse. Ovary 
one-celled : styles 2-6, usually more or less combined, stigmatose along the 
inner surface. Capsule 1-celled, dehiscing transversely (like the lid of a box), 
or locuUcidal with as many valves as stigmas. Seeds few or numerous, attached 
to a central j^lacenta. Embryo curved around the outside of mealy albumen. 
— Succulent or fleshy insipid herbs. Leaves entire, alternate or opposite, 
without stipules. Flowers usually ephemeral. 


1. PORTULACA. Toum. ; Endl. gen. 5174. PURSELANE. 

[ The name is of uncertain meaning,] 
Sepals 2, united below, and cohering with the base of the ovary ; the upper portion at length 
separating from the lower near the base, by a transverse line. Petals 4-6, inserted on 
the calyx, equal. Stamens 8 - 20. Style 3 - 6-cleft at the apex, or parted. Capsule 
ovoid-globose, dehiscing transversely near the middle. Seeds numerous, on filiform funiculi. 
— Humble fleshy herbs. Leaves scattered, often whorled near the flower, frequently with 
a tuft of hairs in the axils. Flowers axillary, in the forks of the stem, or crowded at the 
summit of the branches, expanding only in the morning sun, very fugacious. 

1. PoRTULACA OLERACEA, Limi. Common Purselam. 

Stem diffuse ; leaves cuneiform, the axils and nodes naked ; flowers sessile ; petals 5, 
cohering at the base ; stamens 10-12; style almost wanting; stigmas 5, distinct. — DC 
plant, gras. t. 123, and prodr. 3. p. 353 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 534 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 188 ; Bar- 
hngt. ft. Cest. p. 314 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 196. 

Annual. Stem fleshy, spreading on the ground, with the branches somewhat assurgent. 
Flowers in axillary and terminal clusters, small, yellow. Seeds reniform, with a short beak 
on one side, blackish, finely granulated. 

Very common in gardens and waste places ; doubtless an introduced plant in the Atlantic 
States, but apparently indigenous towards the Rocky Mountains. Flowers from July to 
August. Formerly used as a potherb and for pickHng, but now not much esteemed for these 

2. CLAYTOMA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 5180. ,^^,^.^ ^^^^,^. 

[ In honor of John Clatton, a botanist of Virginia, who sent plants to Gronorius.] 
Sepals 2, persistent, distinct or united at the base, ovate, mostly obtuse. Petals 5, hypo- 
gynous, unguiculate, the claws more or less united at the base. Stamens 5, inserted on 
the claws of the petals. Styles 3-cleft ; the divisions stigmatose inside. Capsule S-valved, 
2 - 5-seeded. Seeds turgid, smooth or punctate, shining.— Smooth and rather succulent 
herbs. Stems simple, with a pair of opposite somewhat connate leaves (or with several 
alternate ones) ; radical leaves on long petioles. Racemes often one-sided. Flowers rose- 
color or white. 

IMf PORTULACACE^. Claytonu. 

* Claytonu proper. Perennial : stems simpU, arising froM a suitetranean cormut or rhiioma : cauline leaves 2, opposite 
distinct: raceme terminal, rarely geminate. 

1. Claytonia Virgimca, Linn. Narroxc-kaved Spring Beauty. 

Leaves all linear, and linear-lanceolate, elongated and attenuated into a petiole below ; ra- 
dical ones very few ; raceme at length elongated ; pedicels slender, nodding ; petal* mostly 
emarginate. — Michx. fl. \. p. 160 ; Bot. mag. t. 941 ; Pursh, fl.\. p. 175 ; EU. sk. 1. 
p. 306 ; Bart. f. Am. Sept. t. 51 ; Torr. Jl. I. p. 259 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 98 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.- Am. I. p. 224 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 361 ; Sweet, Brit.fl. gard. (ser. 2.) t. 163 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 140 r Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 198. C. grandiflora, Sweet, 1. c. t. 216. 

Cormus fleshy and farinaceous, situated deep in the ground. Stem 6-10 inches high, 
■weak, erect or procumbent. Leaves 2-4 inches long and 2-3 lines wide, mostly rather 
acute, succulent. Racemes 5 - 12 : pedicels recurved ; the lowest ones with a small bract 
at the base. Sepals variable, usually with an abrupt blunt point, but often quite obtuse ; a 
little recurved after flowering. Petals. elliptical or obovate, sometimes rather acute, pale rose- 
color with deeper colored veins. Stamens shorter than the petals. Style longer than the 
stamens ; stigmas spreading. Capsule ovoid-globose. Seeds tumid-lenticular, 3-5, black, 
minutely striate-rugose, but shining. 

Low moist grounds, and damp woods. April - May. 

2. Claytonia Caroliniana, Michx. Broad-leaved Spring Beauty. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovd, somewhat spatulate, or abruptly decurrent into a petiole ; 
radical ones very few, spatulate ; pedicels slender, nodding ; sepals and petals very obtuse. — 
Michj;. fl. 1. p. 160 ; EU. sk. 1. p. 306 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 199, C. spathulse- 
folia, Salisb. parad. Lond. t. 71 ; Pursh, fl. \.p. 174 ; ?i^utt. gen. 1. p. 152. C. spathulata, 
Bi<^el. fl. Bost. p. 98. C. Virginica, var. latifolia, Torr. fl. 1. p. 259. C. Virginica, var. 
spathulaefoUa, DC. prodr. 3. p. 361 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 224. 

Cormus as in the preceding species. Stem 4-8 inches high. Leaves 1-3 inches long 
and 5-8 lines wide ; the cauline ones sometimes oval. Sepals roundish-ovate. Petals entire 
or shghtly emarginate. Seeds as in C. Virginica. 

Woods, usually in hiUy or mountainous places ; common in the northern and western parts 
of the State, but not found in the valley of the Hudson below the Highlands. April. Very 
near the preceding species, and regarded by many botanists as only a variety of it. 



Group G. Ovary compound, several-celled, with the placentcB in the axis; or tlie 
numerous carpels more or less coherent icith each other, or tcith the central axis. 
Calyx free from the ovary, with a valvate (estivation. Stamens numerous, 
monadelphous, free, or somewhat polyadelphous, inserted with tlie petals into 
the receptacle or base of the calyx. 

Order XXII. MALVACE^. Juss. (m part); DC. The Mallow Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 (rarely 3 or 4) sepals, which are more or less united at the base ; 
often with an involucel, so as to appear double : asstivation valvate. Petals 
hypogynous, as many as the sepals, twisted in aestivation. Stamens hypo- 
gynous, usually numerous, monadelplious : anthers one-celled, reniform. 
Ovary formed by the union of several carpels round a common axis, either 
distmct or cohering. Styles as many as the carpels, united or distinct. Fruit 
capsular, or rarely baccate ; carpels one- or many-seeded, sometimes closely 
united, sometimes separate or separable ; the dehiscence loculicidal or septi- 
cidal. Seeds with little or no albumen. Embryo curved: cotyledons twisted 
and doubled up. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, stipulate, mostly 
palmately veined : pubescence commonly stellate. 


1. M.LV.. Calyx with a 3-leaved involucel. Capsules numerous, arranged in a circle round a central axis, one-seeded 

2. ALTHiEi. Involucel 6 - 9-cleft. Capsules numerous, one-seeded. "o^eeucu. 

3. Abctilo.n. Involucel none. Capsule consisting of 5 or more, 2-valved, 3 - 6-seedcd carpels 

4. SiD4. Involucel none. Carpels 5 or more, 2-valved, l-sceded. 

^' "'T^'ed )°^°'"'*' °^ ''^''^ " "''^^ °''"°'' '^*''* ^^^^ ^- ^"P'"'' ^■'^•^"'^'^ • """^ ^-^"^ ^^^"'J- ("rely 

1. MALVA. Linn.; Endl. gen. 5211. mallow. 

\ The name is said to be altered from the Greek, m<aci^u,s, soft ; in aDusion to the emollient nature of the species.] 
Calyx S-cleft, surrounded usually by an involucel of 3 (sometimes 1 - 2, or 5 - C) oblong or 
setaceous bracteoles ; very rarely naked. Capsules numerous (rarely only 5), dry, "i n^de- 
hiscent, one-seeded, circularly arranged round the axis. Radicle inferior. 

1. Malva rotundifolia, Linn. Dwarf Mallow. Running Malloxo. 

Stem prostrate ; leaves cordate-orbicular, obtusely 5-lobcd, the lobes crenately toothed • 

petioles pubescent; pedicels axillary, declined in fruit; segments of the calyx acutely trian- 

112 :MALVACEyE. Malva. 

gular; bracteoles oblong-linear; carpels numerous, \vrinkled. — Eng. hot. t. 1092; Pursk, 
ft. 2. p. 454 ; EU. sk. 2. p. 163; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 395 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 225. 

Root perennial. Stem 8-18 inches long, more or less pubescent. Leaves 1 -2i inches 
in diameter, on elongated petioles. Flowers about half an inch in diameter. Petals rose- 
colored or nearly -white, with purple veins. 

Common in waste grounds, and about houses ; often a troublesome weed in gardens. Like 
most plants of the order, it is mucilaginous, and is often employed as a popular article of 
medicine ; the leaves being used for poultices, and for demulcent drinks. It is of European 
origin, but has become naturalized in most parts of North America. 

2. Malva sylvestris, Linn. High Mallmc. 

Stem erect, herbaceous ; leaves somewhat acutely 5 - 7-lobed ; peduncles and petioles 
hairy ; petals obcordatc, three times as long as the cal}'x. — Eng. hot. t. 671 ; Beck, hot. 
p. bl ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 394. 

Root perennial. Stem 2-3 feet high, branched. Leaves 2-3 inches wide. Flowers 
large, 3-4 together, axillary. Petals obcordate, purplish rose-color, veined. 

Naturalized in some parts of Westchester county {Dr. Mead). 

2. ALTH^A. Cavan. diss. 2. p. 91 ; Endl. gen. 5270. MSBSH-MALLOW. 

[ From the Greek, aUho, to cure ; from the salutary effects of its mucilaginous roots.] 

Calyx surrounded by a 6 - 9-cleft involucel. Carpels numerous, indehiscent, one-seeded, 
arranged in a circle round the axis. 

1. Althaea officinalis, Linn. Common Marsh-mallow. 

Leaves ovate, or somewhat cordate, softly tomentose on both sides, toothed, entire or 
somewhat 3-lobed ; peduncles axillary, many-flowered, much shorter than the leaves. — Eng. 
hot. 1. 147 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 259 ; Torr. compend. p. 255 ; DC. prodr. l.p. 436 ; Darlingt. 
ft. Cest. p. 395 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 229. 

Root perennial, fusiform, white. Plant densely clothed with a soft velvety pubescence. 
Stem 2 feet high or more, erect. Leaves 2-4 inches long. Peduncles 3 - 6-flowered. In- 
volucre usually 9-parted. Flowers somewhat paniculate, an inch or more in diameter, pale 

Borders of salt marshes on the north side of Long Island, Oyster Bay, Flushing, &c. Fl. 
August - September. Introduced from Europe. 

Abtjtilon. MALVACE^. 113 

3. ABTJTILON. Dill. ; Endl. gen. 5292. Indian mallow. 

[A name of uncertain origin.] 

Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel. Ovary 5- to many-celled, with 3 (or rarely more) ovules 
in each cell. Capsules composed of 5 or more, 2-valved, 3- (rarely 4 - 6-) seeded carpels. — 
Leaves cordate, rarely somewhat lobed. Peduncles axillary, solitary or rarely in pairs, 
1 - 2- or many-flowered ; sometimes (by the abortion of the upper leaves) in terminal 

1. Abutilon AvicennjE, Gcert. Velvet-leaf. 

Leaves orbicular-cordate, velvety-tomentose, acuminate, crenately toothed ; peduncles 
shorter than the petioles; carpels about 15, truncate, furnished with two oblique beaks, 
hairy. — 2. p. 251, 1 135 ; Torr. 4- Gr.jl. N. Am.l. p.^^O. Sida Abutilon, Zmw. ; . 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 253 ; Ell. sh. 2. p. 162 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 470 ; Torr. compend. p. 255 ; 
Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 397. 

Annual. Stem 2-5 feet high, with spreading branches. Leaves 4-7 inches in diameter, 
with a slender abrupt acumination. Flowers axillary ; primary ones solitary : from the side 
of the pedicel arises a short slender branch, bearing several clustered flowers, which are often 
abortive, and one of two small leaves. Corolla orange-yellow. Capsule an inch in diameter, 
blackish when mature, crowned with the numerous long beaks of the carpels, which spread 
in a radiated manner. 

Waste places, gardens and road-sides. Fl. August - October. Litroduced from Lidia, 
and now abundantly naturalized in the middle and southern States. 

4. SIDA. Linn.; Cavan. diss. l.p. 5. SIDA. 

[ An ancient Greek name, said to have been applied to some malvaceous plant,] 

Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel, or rarely with 1-2 setaceous bracteoles. Ovary 5- or 
many-celled, with a single ovule in each cell. Capsule consisting of 5 or more, 1-seeded, 
usually 2-valved carpels. Radicle (by the resupination of the seed) superior. 

1. SiDA spiNosA, Linn. PricMy Sida. 

Stem minutely pubescent ; leaves ovatc-lanceolale, serrately toothed, with a somewhat 
spiny tubercle at the base of the petiole ; stipules setaceous ; pedicels axillary, solitary or 
several together, mostly shorter than the petioles ; carpels 5, each with two beaks. — Micluc. 
fl. 2. p. 43 ; Pursh, fl 2. p. 452 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 101 ; DC. prodr. 1. p.4C0 ; Darlingt.fl. 
Cat. p. 397 ; Torr. 4- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1.;?. 231. 

[Flora.] 15 

114 MALVACEiE. Sida. 

Annual. Stem a foot or eighteen inches liigh, somewhat branched from near the base. 
Leaves 1-2 inches long, and half an inch wide, obtuse or cordate at the base : petioles 6-8 
lines long. Peduncles articulated near the flower. Calyx hemispherical, 5-angled. Petals 
obovale, yellow. Carpels with two erect hairy beaks, easily separable when ripe. Seeds 
dark purplish-brown, smooth. 

Road-sides three or four miles south of Pcekskill {Dr. Mead). Probably an introduced 
plant in the State of New-York. 

5. HIBISCUS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 5277. HIBISCUS. 

[An ancient Greek name for some malvaccous plant.] 

Calyx 5-cleft, or 5-toothed, surrounded by a many- or sometimes few-leaved involucel, the 
leaflets of which are usually distinct, but sometimes more or less united. Petals not auri- 
cled on one side. Stigmas 5. Ovary 5-celled ; the cells with many or few ovules. Car- 
pels 5, united into a 5-celled loculicidal capsule ; margin of the valves not introflexed ; the 
cells several- (rarely by abortion one-) seeded. 

§ 1. Pentaspermum, DC. Cells of the capsule one-seeded. 

1. Hibiscus Virginicus, Linn. Virginian Hibiscus. Sweating-weed. 

Roughish-tomentose ; leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate, unequally serrate-toothed, upper 
ones undivided, lower ones 3-lobed ; pedicels longer than the petioles ; flowers in paniculate 
racemes, nodding; column declined; capsule hispid. — Jacq. ic.rar. 1. t. 142; Michx.jl. 
2. p. 46 ; Pursh, ft. 2. j>. 456 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 167 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 447 ; Torr. ^ 
N. Am. 1. p. 236. H. clypeatus, Walt. ft. Car. p. 177. 

Perennial. Stem 2-4 feet high. Leaves 2-3 inches long ; the upper and lower ones 
usually entire, those about the middle of the stem more or less 3-lobed. Flowers about two 
inches in diameter, numerous : peduncles 1-2 inches long. Involucel of 8 - 9 very narrow 
leaves. Petals bright rose-color, obovate-cuneate, hairy on one side of the outer surface. 
Column slender, antheriferous above tlie middle. Capsule with very acute angles. Seeds 
smooth : radicle inferior. 

Borders of salt marshes on the north side of Long Island. I never found this plant on 
Long Island myself, but I saw it in a collection made by the late Dr. S. L. Mitchill, I beUeve 
in the neighborhood of Oyster Bay. . Fl. August. 

Hibiscus. MALVACE:^. 115 

^ 2. Abelmoschus, DC. Cells of the capsule many-seeded : seeds smooth, or with a villous line on 
the back: leaves of the involucel 8 - 15, distinct, entire. 

2. Hibiscus Moscheutos, Linn. 3fallow Rose. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrate, often 3-lobed, whitish tomentose underneath, somewhat 
scabrous-pubescent above ; peduncles (1-flowered) and petioles often united. — Cavan. diss. 
3. t. 65./. 1 and 2 ; Michx.fl. 2. p. 47 ; Bot. mag. t. 882 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 445 ; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 165; DC.prodr. l.p. 450; Torr. compend. p. 255; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. \.p. 107; Torr. 
4* Gr. jl. N. Am. l.p. 237. H. palustris, Linn. ; Pursh, I. c. 

Perennial, Stem 3-5 feet high, minutely pubescent. Leaves about 5 inches long and 
3 wide, mostly obtuse at the base ; velvety underneath, unequally dentate-serrate, sometimes 
with three short acute lobes : petioles an inch and a half long. Peduncles either free or coa- 
lescing with the petioles at the base, articulated near the calyx. Leaflets of the involucel 
linear. Flowers about as large as in the common Hollyhock, pale purple or sometimes nearly 
white, with or without a crimson centre. Petals obovate. Stamineal column about one-third 
the length of the petals. Styles exserted : stigmas large, capitate. Capsule as large as in 
H. Syriacus. 

Borders of marshes, particularly near salt water, but not rare in the interior of the State. 
August - September. A showy plant, sometimes cultivated in gardens. 

^3. Trionum, Medik. Cells of the carpel many-seeded : seeds smooth; involucel many-leaved : calyr 
membranaceous, at length inflated. — Annual plants. 

3. H1BISCU.S Trionlm, Linn. Bladder Ketmia. Venetian Mallow. 

Leaves toothed ; lower ones nearly undivided, upper ones deeply 3-parted ; lobes lanceolate, 
the intermediate one very long. — DC. prodr. \. p. 453 ; Beck, hot. p. 58 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. 
p. 396. H. pallidas, Raf. 

Stem 12-18 inches high, sparingly hispid. Leaves somewhat hairy ; segments incisely 
toothed or almost pinnatifid. Flowers axillary, solitary. Livohicel of 9 - 10 linear leaflets, 
hispid. Calyx large, with about twenty prominent hispid ribs, 5-clcft, 5-winged at the apex. 
Petals greenish-yellow with a purple spot at the base. Seeds rough. 

In gardens and cultivated grounds : partially naturalized. A native of the south of Europe 
and Africa. July - August. 


116 TILIACEiE. TiuA. 

Order XXIII. TILIACEiE. Juss. The Linden Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 deciduous sepals ; the asstivation valvate. Corolla of 4 - 5 
liypogynous petals, rarely wanting. Stamens usually indefinite, hypogynous : 
filaments distinct, or often in 3-5 clusters : anthers 2-celled. Disk often 
with 4-5 glands (transformed stamens) at the base of the petals. Ovaiy of 
2-10 united carpels f styles united : stigmas as many as the carpels. Fruit 
a 2 - 5-celled cajisule with several seeds in each cell, or coriaceous or drupa- 
ceous, sometimes by abortion 1-celled and 1 - 2-seeded. Seeds anatropous. 
Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen : cotyledons foliaceous, flat. — Trees or 
shrubby plants, with alternate leaves, deciduous stipules and axillary flowers. 

1. TILIA. Linn.; Vent.monog. Til. 1803; Endl. gen. 5373. linden or LIME thee. 

[A name of obscure origin.] 

Sepals and petals 5. Stamens numerous, usually somewhat united into five parcels ; the 
central one of each parcel (in the North American species) transformed into a pctaloid scale. 
Ovary globose, villous, 5-celled ; the cells with 2 ovules. Fruit coriaceous or woody, 
scarcely globose, by abortion 1-celled, 1 - 2-seeJed. — Trees with obliquely cordate leaves 
and a tough fibrous bark. Flowers cymose, with the lower part of the peduncle adnate to 
a large foliaceous bract. 

1. TiLiA Americana, Linn. Whitetoood. Basswood. 

Leaves cordate or truncate at the base, somewhat coriaceous, smooth, abruptly acuminate ; 
petals obtuse or truncate, crenate at the apex. — Willd. sp. 2. p. 1261 ; Michx. f. sylv. 2. 
p. 233. 1. 131 ; Bigel.Jl. Bost.p. 214 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 239. T. glabra, Vent. 
I. c. t. l.f. 1 ; Pursh, jl. 2. p. 362 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 2; DC. prodr. \.p. 513 ; Hook.fl. Bor.- 
Am. I. p. 108; Darlingt.jl. Cest. p. 312. T. Canadensis, MicJix. fl. l.p. 306. 

A large tree, often 60 - 80 feet high and 2-4 feet in diameter, with grayish bark and 
soft white wood. Leaves 3-5 inches long and about the same in breadth, coarsely and 
mucronately serrate, with a small tuft of reddish hairs in the axils of the veins underneath : 
petioles about 2 inches long. Peduncle about 4 inches long, trichotomously cymose at the 
summit, the lower half firmly united to a linear-oblong yellowish foliaceous bract, tlie free 
portion pendulous. Flowers nearly an inch in diameter. Sepals triangular-lanceolate, pu- 
bescent externally, woolly within. Petals yellowish-white, nearly twice as long as the calyx. 
Scales (staminodia) nearly as long as the petals, and resembling them in form. Stamens 
shorter than the petals. Style variable in length, sometimes longer, sometimes shorter than 


the petals, hairy below. Fruit the size of a large pea, nearly globose or slightly oval, covered 
with a dense short gray pubescence. Seed usually solitary, obovoid, brownish. 

Woods, usually in fertile soil. Fl. Early in June. Fr. September. 

A beautiful and useful tree. The wood is easily wrought. It is sometimes formed into 
wooden bowls ; and in places where the Tulip-tree does not grow, it is used for chair seats 
and the pannels of coach bodies. The bark, as in all the species, is tough, and may be 
manufactured into an inferior cordage. As a shade tree in cities, it is objectionable, being 
very generally attacked by caterpillars ; and the bark readily separating in long strips, is 
peeled off by vicious boys. 

Group 7. Ovary compound, or of several carpels adhering to a central axis, free 
from the calyx, ivhich is 7nostly imbricated in cestivation. Stamens as many or 
twice as many as the petals, inserted on the receptacle, commonly monadelphous 
at the base. Flowers perfect. 

Okder XXIV. LINAGES. DC. The Flax Tribe. 

Sepals 5 (sometimes 4), distinct or united at the base, persistent : ecstivation 
imbricated. Petals as many a^ the sepals and alternate with them, hypogynous, 
with short claws, fugacious : aestivation twisted. Stamens as many°as the 
petals (often with intermediate teeth or abortive stamens), united at the base 
in a hypogynous ring. Ovary of 5 (rarely 3-4) united carpels : styles filiform, 
distinct. Gapsule globose, 5- (or sometimes 3 - 4-) celled ; each cell com- 
pletely or partially divided by a spurious longitudinal dissepiment, proceeding 
from the back (or dorsal suture) ; each spurious cell one-seeded : dehiscence 
Bepticidal. Seeds suspended from near the sunmiit of the cell : testa smooth 
and usually shining, mucilaginous when moistened. Embryo straight, flat 
fleshy and oily, without albumen. Endoplcura tumid, and resemblii^g 1 thin 
albumen. — Herbaceous or suffrutesccnt plants. Leaves entire and sessile, 
without sti2)ules, alternate or ojjposite. Flowers terminal, often corymbose or 


1. LINUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 605G. FLAX. 

["Llin, in Celtic, signifies thread ; whence lirum, in Greek, and liiivm, its derivation in Latin." Loud.] 
Sepals (distinct, entire), petals and stamens 5. Styles 5, or rarely 3. 

1. Li.\UM ViRGiNiANiM, Ltfin. IMld Flox. 

Smooth ; stem corymbosely branching above ; leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate or linear, 
the lowermost oblong or spatulate ; divisions of the corymbose panicle racemose, leafy ; 
flowers (yellow) on short pedicels ; sepals ovate, mucronate, 1 -nerved, a little shorter than the 
mature globose-depressed capsule. — Walt.fl. Car. p. 117 ; Michx.Jl. 2. p. 36 ; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 210 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 375 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 330 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 123 ; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 424 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1 . p. 105 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 210 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 
1. p. 204. 

Root biennial. Stem 1-2 feet high, slender, often with a tuft of short leafy stolons at the 
root. Leaves about an inch long, marked with minute pellucid dots, rarely opposite. Flowers 
about one-fourth of an inch in diameter ; the pedicels 1-3 lines long, racemose and some- 
what secund. Capsule scarcely 2 lines in diameter ; splitting at maturity tliroOgh both the 
true and the (complete) spurious dissepiments, into 10 indehiscent half-carpels or cocci. 
Seeds oblong, dull, yellowish. 

Dry open woods, hill-sides and fields; common. Fl. June - August. — The fibre of the 
stem has but little strength. 

2. LiNUM usiTATissiMUM, Linn. Common Flax. 

Smooth ; stem branching above ; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, very acute ; panicle 
corymbose, loose ; sepals ovate, acute, 1-nerved (3-nerved at the base), membranaceous on 
the margin ; petals somewhat crenate (blue) ; capsule acuminate. — Smith, fl. Brit. I. p. 342; 
Eng. hot. t. 1357 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 210 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 330 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 204. 

Annual. Stem 2-3 feet high. Leaves 3-nerved. Flowers large : petals obovaie. Cap- 
sule depressed-globose. 

In fields ; not uncommon : scarcely naturahzed. Fl. June - July. Fr. August. 

Geranium. GERANIACEiE. 119 

Order XXV. GERANIACE^. DC. The Geranium Tribe. 

Cal^'X of 5 persistent sepals, which are imbricated in aestivation. Corolla 5- 
petalled, hypogynous or somewhat perigynous : petals alternate with the sepals, 
distinct, unguiculate, twisted in imbrication. Stamens usually twice as many 
as petals, and inserted with them ; some of them occasionally sterile : filaments 
broad, somewhat monadelphous at the base. Ovary composed of 5 two-ovuled 
carpels, placed alternate with the sepals round the base of an elongated axis 
(gynobase). Styles cohering with the axis, free at the summit, stigmatose on 
the inner side. Carpels dry, 1-seeded, distinct at maturity, and separating 
from the axis by the twisting or curling back of the persistent style from the 
base upwards, mostly dehiscent by the inner suture. Seeds without albumen. 
Cotyledons convoluted and plaited. — Herbs or shrubby plants, commonly 
strong-scented. Leaves palmately veined and usually lobed, mostly with 
stipules. Flowers regular, or somewhat irrregular. 

1. GERANIIIM. Linn, (xn^din); Endl. gen. QO'iQ. CRANESBILL. 

[ From gcTutws, a crane ; the pointed fruit resembling the bill of that bird.] 

Sepals equal. Petals 5, equal. Stamens 10, all fertile; alternate ones longer, with a nec- 
tariferous gland at the base. Persistent styles at length spirally revolute, smooth on the 
inside. — Herbaceous or rarely suffrutescent plants. Peduncles 1-2- (rarely 3-) flowered. 

1. Geranium maculatum, Linn. Spotted Geranium, or Cranesbill. 

Stem erect, somewhat angular, dichotomous above ; leaves 3 - 5-parted ; the segments 
acute, cuneiform below, incisely serrate above ; radical leaves on long petioles ; uppermost 
opposite ; sepals sparsely villous, the hairs scarcely glandular ; petals entire ; filaments sliglnly 
ciliate at the base. — Michx. fl. 2. p. 38; Ell. sk. 2. p. 157; Bigel. nied. hot. t. 8, and ft. 
Bost. p. 256 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 642 ; Torr. compend.p. 254 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 115; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 392 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 206. 

Root somewhat ligneous, perennial. Stem 12 - 18 inches high, clothed (as are also the 
petioles) with a retrorse pubescence. Leaves 2 — 3 inches in diameter, hairy-pubescent ; 
the lobes incisely toothed or cleft. Stipules lanceolate. Peduncles mostly 2-flowcrcd. Pedi- 
cels an inch or more in length. Flowers about an incii in diameter. Sepals oblong or oval- 
lanceolate, sparsely clothed, partictilarly about the margins, with long villous hairs, whicli are 
mostly tipped with a very minute gland. Petals purple, obovate, with a small dense tuft of 

120 GERANIACE^. Geranium. 

hairs on the inside of the claw. Stamens in a double series, the exterior alternating with the 
petals, the inner opposite to them : filaments (imder a lens) slightly ciliate at the base. Seeds 
minutely reticulated. 

Open woods, etc. ; common. Flowers from the end of April to June. 

The root of this plant is a valuable astringent ; being equal to the officinal Kino and Catechu. 
See Wood and Bache's U. S. Dispens. 330. 

2. Geranium Carolixianum, Linn. Carolinian Craneshill. 

Stem diffusely branched ; pubescence simple ; leaves deeply 5-lobed or parted ; segments 
incisely lobcd or toothed ; peduncles and pedicels scarcely longer than the sepals, rather 
crowded at the summit of the branches ; petals cuneate-oblong, slightly cmarginate, about the 
length of the awned sepals; carpels hairy; seeds oval, minutely reticulated. — Walt.Jl. Car. 
p. 175 ; "Cavan. diss. t. 84./. 1, and t. 124./. 2." ex DC. ; Michx.jl. 2. p. 28 ; Pursh, Jl. 
2. p. 449 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 157 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 643 ; Hook. Jl. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 115 ; Dar- 
lingt. Jl. Cest. p. 392 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 207. 

var. Pubescence partly glandular ; peduncles and pedicels much longer than the sepals ; 
flowers larger ; petals obovate, conspicuously emarginate. G. dissectum, Pursh? 

Root somewhat fusiform. Plant somewhat hoary with a spreading or retrorse pubescence, 
at first erect or oblique, at length diffuse, 6-12 inches long. Leaves 1-2 inches in dia- 
meter, 5-lobed almost to the base, the ultimate segments rather obtuse. Peduncles, in the 
common variety, usually much crowded among the leaves at the extremity of the branches, 
and appearing umbellate or fasciculate ; in the other form, they are an inch or two long, and 
the pedicels (of the fruit) full an inch in length. Calyx almost villous : awns about one-third 
the length of the sepals. Petals rose-color or nearly white. Seeds finely reticulate under a 

Dry barren fields and hill-sides ; rather common : the variety, in Yates county {Dr. Sart- 
well). May - June. The form described as a variety seems to be pretty constant, but it is 
hardly distinct from G. Carolinianum. 

3. Geranium pusillum, Linn. Sinall-Jbwered Craneshill. 

Stem procumbent, minutely pubescent ; leaves reniform or nearly orbicular, deeply 5-7- 
lobed ; lobes of the lower leaves 3-cleft, of the upper ones entire ; petals emarginate, about 
the length of the hairy, acute (not mucronate) sepals ; carpels minutely pubescent ; seeds 
smooth. — Eng. hot. t. 385 ; Muhl. cat. p. 64 ; Torr. compcnd. p. 254 ; DC. prodr. I. p. 643; 
Torr. 4- Gr. Jl. N. Atn. 1. p. 207. 

Stem 1-2 feet long, spreading, very slender. Leaves slightly pubescent, from scarcely 
half an inch to an inch in diameter ; segments oblong-cuneiform. Peduncles 2-3 lines, and 

Geranium. GERANIACEiE. _ 121 

the pedicels half an inch or more in length. Flowers 2-3 lines in diameter. Petals obovate, 
pale purple. Alternate stamens usually sterile. 

Sandy soils, Long Island, a few miles from Brooklyn, and in the western part of the State. 
Fl. May - August. Our plant agrees well with European specimens of G. pusillum, and is 
possibly only naturalized in this country. 

4. Geranium Robertianum, Linn. Herb Robert. 

Diffusely branched, hairy; leaves ternately or quinately parted ; segments pinnatifid ; lobes 
mostly incised or toothed ; petals entire, twice the length of the mucronate-awned sepals ; 
carpels wrinkled, not hairy ; seeds smooth. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 714 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 449 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 257 ; Torr. compend. p. 254; DC. prodr. \. p. 644 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. 
Am. l.p. 207. 

Stems usually several from one root, 6-15 inches long, of a dark red color, brittle, hirsute 
with spreading hairs. Leaves about 2 inches in diameter ; lower ones with 5, upper ones 
with 3 divisions ; ultimate segments mucronate. Peduncles long and slender. Flowers about 
half an inch in diameter. Sepals purplish. Petals obovate-spatulate, purple, sometimes pale 
or nearly white. 

Moist rocky situations ; common. June - October. — The whole plant exhales a heavy and 
rather disagreeable odor, especially when bruised or handled. 

2. ERODIUM. VHerit.; Endl. gen. 60i5. HEiiON'S bill or STORK" S-bill,. 

[ From the Greek, erodios, a heron ; the fruit resembling the head and beak of that bird.] 

Sepals equal, regular. Petals 5, mostly equal. Stamens 10 ; the 5 exterior (opposite the 
petals) shorter and sterile ; the perfect ones with a nectariferous gland at the base. Per- 
sistent styles bearded on the inside, at length spirally twisted. — Peduncles axillary or 
opposite the leaves : flowers umbellate. Cotyledons sometimes pinnately lobcd. 

1. Erodium cicutarium. Smith. Hemlock Heron's-bill. 

Stem prostrate or difl"use, hairy ; leaves pinnately divided ; segments sessile, pinnatifid, 
incised or acute; peduncles several flowered ; petals unequal. — Eng. hot. t. 1768; DC. 
prodr. I. p. 6^6; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. l\6 ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \. p. 208. Geranium 
cicutarium, Linn. 

Leaves 2 - 4 inches long, oblong, with numerous pinnatifid lobes. Flowers as large as 
in G. pusillum. 

Gravelly shore of Oneida Lake, near Rotterdam ; abundant. May - June. Probably 

[Flora.] 16 

122 OXALIDACEiE Oxalis. 

Order XXVI. OXALIDACE^. DC. The Wood-sorrel Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 persistent equal sepals, imbricated In aestivation. Corolla of 5 equal 
hj-pogvnous deciduous petals, twisted in aestivation. Stamens 10, hj-pogynous; 
the filaments broad, and somewhat united at the base. Ovary of 5 united 
carpels placed opposite the sepals : styles distinct : stigmas capitate or pencil- 
late. Capsule usually membranaceous, 5-lobed, 5-celled, opening by the 
dorsal suture, 1 — several-seeded. Seeds with a loose fleshy arilliform epi- 
dermis, which bursts elastically when ripe. Albumen between fleshy and 
cartilaginous. Embryo straight, as long as the albumen, with a rather long 
radicle : cotyledons broad and foliaceous. — Mostly low herbaceous plants 
(rarely suffrutescent or arborescent), with an acid juice. Leaves alternate, 
compound : leaflets usually obcordate. 

1. OXALIS. Linn.; Endl. gen. 6058. WOOD-SORREL. 

[ From the Greek, ozys, sharp or soar ; in allusion to the strong acid taste of the plant] 

Sepals distinct, or only united at the base. Capsule oblong or somewhat globose, membrana- 
ceous. Seeds 1, or commonly several in each carpel : testa 5 - lO-ribbed, transversely 
rugose. — Perennial (rarely annual) herbs ; caulescent or stemless. Leaves in all the 
North American species trifoliolate, circinate in vernation : leaflets articulated to the petiole. 
Stipules coherent with the base of the petiole, or wanting. 

1. Ox.\Lis AcETosELLA, Linn. Common Wood-sorrd. 

Rhizoma creeping, scaly ; leaflets obcordate, puberulent ; scapes at length longer than the 
leaves, one-flowered, with 2 bracteoles above the middle ; petals oblong-obovate (white, with 
red veins) ; styles and longer stamens of equal length, longer than the sepals. — Eng. hot. 
t. 762; Michx.fl. 2. p. 38; Pursh,Jl. I. p. 322; Torr.Jl. \.p. 461 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 257 ; 
DC. prodr. 1. p. 700 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p.US (partly) ; Torr. ^- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 211. O. Americana, Bigel. in DC. I. c. ; Zucc. man. Oxdl.p, 35. 

Rhizoma scaly and somewhat toothed with the persistent and somewhat fleshy^ bases of the 
petioles. Petioles 2-3 inches long : leaflets broadly obcordate. Scape 3-5 inches long. 
Flower about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, drooping. Sepals villous-ciliate, with 
reddish hairs. Petals often obliquely emarginate, yellow at the base. Stigmas 2-lobed. 
Cells of the caprule about 2-seeded. 

In woods ; often on high mountains ; west and north of Catskill. June. — The American 
plant is identical with the European, except that the petals of the former are for the most 


part emarginate, while they are only occasionally so in the latter. Like the rest of the species, 
the whole plant has an agreeably acid flavor, nearly as intense as that of lemons. The ex- 
pressed juice yields, when purified and evaporated, crystals of the binoxalate of potash, and 
was formerly sold under the name of Salt of Sorrel, for the purpose of removing inkstains 
from linen. 

2. OxALis vioLACEA, Linn. Violet Wood-sorrel. 

Bulb scaly ; leaflets obcordale, broader than long, nearly smooth ; scapes longer than the 
leaves, 3 - 9-flowered ; pedicels umbellate, with minute bracts at the base ; sepals with a 
thickened orange-colored tip; petals obovate (violet); filaments usually hairy, the exterior 
ones rather longer than the styles. — Jacq. Oxal. p. 35. t. 80. Jig. 2. fide Willd. sp. 2. p. 786 ; 
Michw.fl. 2. p. 39 ; Pursh, fi. I. p. 322 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 525 ; Torr.Jl. \.p. 462 ; Bigel.fl. 
Bost. p. 258 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 695 ; Zucc. mon. Oxal (1831), p. 273 ; Darlingt. fi. Cest. 
p. 394 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fi. N. Am. 1. p. 21 1. 

Bulbs clothed with membranaceous 3-nerved scales, the margins of which are fringed with 
shaggy hairs. Root fibrous, proceeding from a roundish bulb formed of ovate-acuminate im- 
bricated scales ; the outer ones 3-nerved, membranaceous, and fringed with long shaggy hairs ; 
the inner ones thick and filled with starch, minutely ciliate : both kinds probably the dilated 
persistent bases of former petioles (as in Dicentra Cucullaria). Petioles 2-4 inches long. 
Leaflets with an orange-colored spot at the base of the sinus on the under side, often, in ex- 
posed situations, of a purple color. Scapes 4-8 inches high, often several together ; pedicels 
6-10 lines long. Flowers nodding. Sepals oblong, with a roundish 2-lobed gland at the 
base. Petals bright violet. Filaments sometimes smooth (in specimens from Mr. Oakes). 
Styles hairy, at first long*, but at length rather shorter, than the stamens : stigmas somewhat 
2-lobed. Capsule few-seeded. 

Common in woods, particularly in rocky places. April - June ; sometimes flowering again 
late in the season. 

3. OxALis STRicTA, Linn. Yellow Wood-sorrel. 

Root fibrous, perennial ? stoloniferous ; stem at first erect, branching, at length often 
spreading or prostrate at the base ; leaflets obcordatc ; peduncles 2 - 6-flowered, longer than 
the leaves ; petals (yellow) entire ; style the length of the inner stamens ; pedicels of the 
fruit erect. — Jacq. Oxal. t. 4, ex DC. prodr. \.p. 692; 2. p. 39; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 323 ; Ell. sk. 1 . p. 526 ; 1 . p. 462 ; Bigcl. fi. Bost. p. 258 ; Zucc. Oxal. p. 64 ; 
Darlingt. fi. Cest. p. 393 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fi. N. Am. 1. p. 212. O. Dillenii, Willd. sp. 2. 
p. 799. O. recurva. Ell. sk. I. c. 

Root producing tortuous, branching, underground stolons, which sometimes run to a con- 
siderable distance and throw up new plants. Stems 3-12 inches high, smooth or a little 
hairy. Leaves often partly pseudo-verticillate : leaflets broadly obcordate, slightly ciliate, 


124 OXALIDACE/E. Oxalis. 

smooth : petioles 1-3 inches long, hairy. Peduncles nearly smooth. Umbel or cyme siinj)lc, 
2 - 3-flowered ; or 2-foiked, each division with a 2 - 3-flowered cymule. Sepals oblong- 
lanceolate, rather acute. Petals obovate, twice the length of the calyx. Styles hairy : stigmas 
capitate. Capsule prismatic, somewhat hairy : cells 7 - 8-seeded. Seeds obovoid, compressed, 
with 6-8 longitudinal ridges, and strongly wrinkled transversely ; enclosed in a thick rather 
fleshy epidermis, which splits on the back, and retracting clastically, throws the seed out of 
the capsule. 

Common in fields, road-sides and cultivated grounds ; flowering from May to September. — 
I am confident that this plant is usually perennial, or at least lives through two seasons. The 
specific name is very inappropriate. O. coi-niculala of Pursh and Michaux seems to be only 
the procumbent state of this species. 

Order XXVII. BALSAMINACEiE. A. Richard. The Balsam Tribe, 

Calyx of 5 deciduous, colored sepals ; the 2 upper (anterior) ones commonly 
united into one, the lowest (posterior) one spurred or gibbous. Corolla hypo- 
gynous, 4-petalled ; the petals united by pairs (so that they are, apparently, 
only 2). Stamens 5, hj^pogynous, more or less connected above. Ovary 5- 
celled, with the placentae in the axis : stigmas 5, distincl| or more or less united. 
Capsule 5-celled, somewhat fleshy, bursting elastically by 5 valves, septifragal 
(rarely drupaceous). Seeds several in each cell, with a straight embryo, and 
destitute of albumen. Cotyledons large and flattish : radicle short — Succulent, 
herbaceous (mostly annual) plants, with a watery juice. Leaves simple, with- 
out stipules (Arn.). 

1. IMPATIENS. Linn. ; Wight ^ Arn.prodr.Jl. Ind. Or. l.p. 135; Endl. gen. 6060. 


[ Named in allusion to the sudden bursting of the ripe seed vessels by the slightest touch.] 

Sepals apparently only 4, from the union of the 2 upper ones. Petals 4, apparently only 2, 
from the union of the lateral ones on each side. Filaments 5, more or less united at the 
apex : anthers opening longitudinally or transversely. Cells of the ovary formed by mem- 
branous projections of the placentae which occupy the axis of the ovary, and are connected 

Impatiens. BALSAMINACEiE. 125 

wilh its apex by 5 slender threads. Capsule often one-celled by the disappearance of the 
dissepiments. Seeds numerous or few (Arn.). 

I have adopted Arnott's view of the structure of tlic flowers in this genus. Roeper, Endlicher and many other learned 
botanists consider the 2 upper (anterior) sepals as wanting ; while the two unitcil sepals of Arnott they refer to the corolla, 
and regard it as formed of a single (anterior) petal. Respecting the other parts, there is no essential difference of opinion. 

^. Leaves aUernate : peduncles mon than \-flowered. {Smooth : stems transparent, tumid at the joints.) 

1. Impatiens pallida, Nud. Touch-me-not. Snap-ioeed. 
Leaves oblong-ovate, on short petioles, coarsely and obtusely serrate, the teeth mucronate ; 

peduncles 2 - 5-flowered ; lower sepal obtusely conic, dilated, shorter than the petals, broader 
than long, with a very short recurved spur ; flowers (pale yellow) sparingly dotted. — Nutt. 
gen. 1. p. 146 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 248; DC. prodr. 1. p. 687 ; Hook. fl. Bor. Am. \.p. 117 ; 
Darlingt fl. Cest. p. 141 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 208. I. nolitangere, Michx. fl. 2. 
p. 149 (var. a.) ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 171 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 303. 

Stem 2-5 feet high, much branched. Leaves mostly rather obtuse at the base, 2-5 
inches long ; the petiole seldom half an inch in length ; uppermost leaves nearly sessile. 
Peduncles 1-3 (and sometimes 5) inches long, rarely as many as 7-flowered : pedicels about 
an inch in length, with a small lanceolate bract near the middle. Flowers larger than in the 
following species. Lateral sepals roundish-ovate, somewhat herbaceous ; the 2 superior ones 
united into one, petaloid, slightly emarginate ; lower sepal distended into a large conical 
spurred sac, the spur about one-fourth the length of the sepal. Petals 2 on each side, un- 
equal, united below ; the lower one mucli larger and retuse, sparingly spotted with brownish 
red towards the base. Capsule about an inch long, somewhat clavate, 5-anglcd, few-seeded 
(6 - 8). Seeds narrowly oblong, smooth. 

Moist shady places, particularly in rich soil along ravines. July - September. This species 
does flot occur south of the Highlands, but in the western part of the State it is very common, 
and in many situations takes the place of the following. 

2. Impatiens fulva. Null. Balsam-ioeed. Jewel-weed. 

Somewhat glaucous ; leaves rhombic-ovate, on longish petioles, coarsely and obtusely ser- 
rate, the teeth mucronate ; peduncles 2 - 4-flowercd ; lower sepal acutely conic, longer than 
the petals, with a rather long rcsupinate spur ; flower (deep orange) with numerous spots. — 
Null. gen. I. p. 146; Torr.fl. l.p.249; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I.p.ll7; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 141 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1 . p. 209. L biflora, Walt. fl. Car. p. 219 ; Pursh. fl. 1. 
p. 171 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 304. I. nolitangere, Michx. fl. 2. p. 149 (var. /b'.) ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 93. I. maculata, Muhl. cat. p. 26. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, at length rather tawny. Leaves 1-3 inches long, mostly acute at 
the base, tawny underneath on the nerves and midrib : petioles an inch or more in length. 

126 BALSAMINACEiE. Tmpatiens. 

Peduncles 1-2 inches long, usually 2 - 3-flowered. Lower sepal longer than broad ; the 
spur about twice as long as in I. pallida, marked with numerous reddish-brown spdts. Cap- 
sule shorter and more ventricose than in the preceding species. Seeds 2-5, quadrangular, 
with prominent tumid angles. 

Wet shady places ; common every where. June - September. 

This and the preceding species possess active medicinal properties ; being emetic, calharlic 
and diaphoretic (See Wood ij- Bache's U. S. Dispens. lOSSJ. I.fulva gives to the papers in 
which the dried plant is kept, an orange-colored slain, which sometimes strikes through several 
leaves, and of the exact form of the specimen. I have not observed the other species to 
produce the same effect. 

Early in the season, and in very shady places, the flowers of this species are very minute, 
scarcely colored, and with only a rudimentary spur. They do not expand ; but after im- 
pregnation, the united calyx and corolla, with the enclosed stamens, are separated from the 
base of the ovary by the growth of this organ, and remain for a time on its apex like a calyptra. 
The ovary then attains its usual size, and perfects its seeds. 

Order XXVIII. LIMNANTHACE^E. R. Broicn. False-mermaid Tribe. 

Calyx of 3 - 5 persistent sepals, united at the base, valvate in aestivation. Petals 
3-5, marcescent. Stamens twice as many as the petals, and united with 
them upon a thin somewhat perigynous disk. Ovaries 3 - 5, united by their 
styles, opposite the sepals : stigmas simple. Achenia somewhat fleshy ; the 
cell filled by the solitarj- seed, which is destitute of albumen. Embryo with 
very large and thick cotyledons. Radicle very short, included. — Annual, 
smooth and tender herbs, somewhat acrid (like Tropceolum). Leaves alternate, 
pinnatifidly divided, without stipules. Flowers axillar}', solitary. 

1. FL(ERKEA. Willd. in neue Berol. schrift. 3. p. 148 (1801); Lindl. in Hook. jour, 
hot. \. t. \; Endl. gen. 6065. FALSE MERMAID. 

[ Named in honor of FloerkE, a German botanist.] 

Sepals 3 (rarely 4). Petals 3, shorter than the calj-x. Stamens 6. Ovaries 2-3, tubercu- 
late. Leaves pinnately divided ; the divisions mostly entire. 

Fl(erkea. LIMNANTHACE^ 127 

1. Flcerkea proserpinacoides, Willd. (Plate XVII.) False Mermaid. 

Willd. I. c; Lindl. I. c. ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 210. F. uliginosa, Muhl. cat. 
p. 36 ; Raf. in Sill. jour. 1. p. 373 ; Torr. Ji. 1. p. 339 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 212. F. 
lacustris, Pers. sijn. l.p. 393. F. palustris, Nutt. gen. l.p. 229. Ncctris pinnata, Pursh, 

Plant somewhat succulent, of a pale green color. Stem flaccid, at length decumbent, 
4-10 inches long, nearly simple or branching a little from the base. Leaves on slender 
petioles, with about 5 lanceolate or elliptical divisions ; the lowermost ones often 2 - 3-lubed. 
Peduncles at first short, finally an inch or more in length, recurved. Flowers about 3 lines in 
diameter. Sepals ovate, acute, acuminate. Petals oblong, white, scarcely half as long as the 
sepals. Stamens shorter than the petals ; the alternate filaments with a small process or gland 
at the base on the outside. Ovary usually of 2 obovoid carpels, seated on the flattened torus, 
to a slight prolongation of which the styles are united. The common style is thus placed 
between the ovaries, and is only connected with them at their bases. Stigmas 2-3, small, 
capitate. Achenia (sometimes solitary) large for the size of the flower, globose-ovoid, slightly 
tubcrculale, somewhat coriaceous, blackish, closely investing the seed. Testa of the seed 
thin and membranaceous. Cotyledons elliptical, very thick and fleshy : radicle extremely 
short, and retracted between the cotyledons : plumule conspicuous. 

Marshes and shady banks of rivers, in the western parts of the State. Fl. April - May. 

This interesting plant was long in finding its place in the Natural System. Its afl5nities 
were finally determined by Dr. Brown. See Lond. <^ Edin.phil. mag. July 1833. 

Group 8. Ovary compound, with from 2 to several cells ; or carpels several, and 
more or less united by their styles. Calyx free. Petals as many as the sejmls, 
or rarely wanting. Stamens as many or twice as many as the sepals, inserted 
into the receptacle or hose of the calyx. Flowers often diascious or polygamous. 

Order XXIX. ANACARDIACE^. R. Brown. The Cashew Tribe. 

Flowers perfect, or by abortion often diclinous, regular. Sepals usually 5, rarely 
3-4-7, distinct o» more or less combined, usually persistent. Petals as 
many as the sepals, inserted into the disk which lines the base of the calyx : 
sestivulion imbricated, or rarely valvate. Stamens as many as the petals and 
alternate with the;ii, or twice as many or more, a portion sometimes sterile : 


filaments distinct, sometimes alternately shorter, inserted with the petals. 
Ovary solitaiy (of 1-5 carpels, distinct or united, but all abortive excej)t one), 
free, or rarely adhering to the calyx, 1-celled, or with one or two abortive cells 
of the suppressed carpels. Ovule solitary. Styles 3 or rarely 3-5, distinct 
or combined : stigmas usually 3. Fruit indehiscent, usually drupaceous, 1- 
seeded. Seed erect or suspended ; the testa membranaceous, often confounded 
with the endocarp ; albumen none. Embryo more or less curved : cotyledons 
thick and fleshy, sometimes foliaceous. — Trees or shrubs, with a resinous, 
gummy, caustic or milky juice. Leaves simple or compound, alternate, not 
dotted, without stipules. Flowers axillary or terminal, mostly panicled. 

1. RHUS. Linn.; Endl. gen. 5905. sumach. 

[From the Greek, rhoos, or Celtic, rhudd, red; from the color of the fruit] 
Sepals 5, united at the base, small, persistent. Petals 5, ovate, spreading, inserted under the 
margin of the orbicular disk. Stamens 5, equal, inserted into the disk. Styles 3, short, 
distinct or united : stigmas obtuse or capitate. Fruit a nearly dry drupe : nut bony. Seed 
suspended on a funiculus that rises from the base to the apex of the cell. Cotyledons fo- 
liaceous, incumbent on the radicle. — Shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple or unequally 
pinnate. Flowers often, by abortion, polygamous or dioecious. — All the following species 
give out, when broken, a more or less milky acrid juice. 

§ 1. Sumac, DC. Flowers perfect, polygamous or diacious : disk entire or lobed : drupe roundish, 
sometimes hairy : nut smooth or sulcate. Leaves unequalli/ pinnate or trifoliolate : the petiole 
often winged : flowers panicled. 

1. Rhus typhina, Linn. Siag's-Jiorn Sumach. 

Branches and petioles densely villous ; leaflets in numerous pairs, whitish and more or less 
pubescent beneath, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, acutely serrate ; panicle terminal, thyrsoid ; 
fruit densely clothed with crimson hairs. — Duham. arh. 2. t. 47; Michx. Jl. I. p. 182; Ell. 
sk. l.p.360; Pursh, fl. l.p. 204; Torr.fl. \.p. 322; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 118; DC.prodr. 
2. p. 67 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 205 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 217. R. Canadense, 
Mill. diet. R. viridiflora, Poir. diet. 7. p. 504 ; BC. I. c. Datisca hirta, Linn, fide Bennett 
in Jl. Jav. rar. 1 . p. 80. 

A large shrub 8-15 feet high, or sometimes a tree 20 feet high and 4-8 inches in dia- 
meter, with large irregular spreading branches. Leaflets in 5 - 15 pairs, 2-4 inches long; 
common petiole 1-2 feet or more in length. Flowers greenish yellow, often polygamous or 
dioecious. Sepals lanceolate, hairy. Petals oval-oblong, exceeding the calyx. Drupes com- 
pressed, velvety, of a bright crimson color, and of an acrid taste. 

Rocky and gravelly hill-sides. Fl. June. Fr. September - October. Juice of the plant 
milky and resinous. 



2. Rhus glabra, Lmn. Smooth Sumach. 

Leaves and branches smooth ; leaflets in numerous pairs, lanceolate-oblong, acuminate 
acutely serrate, whitish and glaucous underneath ; panicles terminal, ihyrsoid ; fruit clothed 
with short velvety crimson h^\xs.- Michc. Jl. 1. p. 182; Pursh, fl.l.p. 204 • Torr fl 1 
^^322; Brgel.Jl. Best. p. 118; DC. prodr. 2. p. 67 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 20Q ; Hook fl 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 126 ; Torr. 4. Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 217. R. Caroliniana, Mill. diet. R 
elegans, Alt. Kew. {ed. l.)p. 162. R. Virginicum, &c. Catesb. Car. app. t. 4 

A shrub 5-15 feet high, with straggling smooth branches. Leaflets in 6 - 15 pairs 
2-3 inches long, sometimes only obscurely serrated ; common petiole 12-18 inches long' 
Flowers often dioecious. Sepals lanceolate, acute. Petals greenish-yellow. Fruit of a fine 
crimson color; the pubescence consisting of short conical acute and shining hairs, containing 
a pleasant acid substance which Prof. W. B. Rogers has ascertained to be bimalate of lime 
See Amer.journ. of pharmacy, (n. ser.) 1. p. 56. 

Common in rocky barren places, and in old fields. Fl. Early m July - August Fr Sep 
tember - October. An infusion of the fruit is used as a pleasant cooling drink in fevers 
Ihe leaves of this and the preceding species abound in tannic acid, and are employed for 
tanning morocco. See Wood 4. Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 556. 

3. Rhus Copallina, Linn. Mountain Sumach. 

Branches and petioles pubescent ; leaflets in many pairs, oval-lanceolate or oblong, mostly 
acute or acuminate, shining above, pubescent beneath, unequal at the base ; petiole winged ; 
panicles terminal, thyrsoid, sessile ; fruit red, hairy.— Torr. 4. Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 217. 

var. I : leaflets entire, usually acuminate.— Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. R. Copallina, Linn. ; Walt. 
Jl. Car. p. 225 ; Jacq. hort. Schoenb. 3. p. 50. f. 341 ; Michx. Jl. I. p. 182; Pursh, Jl 1 
p. 205 ; Ell. sk. 1 . p. 362 ; Torr.Jl. 1 . p. 323 ; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 119; DC. prodr. 2. 'p. 68 ' 
Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 206. ' 

var. 2 : leaflets coarsely and unequally serrate. — Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. 

A shrub 3-8 feet high, with numerous spreading branches. Leaflets mostly 4-6, but 
sometimes as many as 10 pairs, 1 - 2 inches long, in var. 1. entire or only a little waved on 
the margin : common petiole with the margin either slightly or broadly winged, contracted at 
the insertion of the leaflets. Panicles usually only terminal, but sometimes there are several 
small panicles in the axils of the uppermost leaves, larger and more open in the sterile than in 
the fertile plant. Flowers greenish-yellow. Sepals ovate. Petals oblong, 4 times as long 
as the sepals. Fruit compressed, thinly clothed with short slender hairs, strongly acid and 
somewhat bitter. 

Rocky and sterile hills. August. Fruit ripe in September. The second variety I have 
found only in the Highlands around West-Point. 

[Floea.] 17 

130 ANACARDIACE^. Rhus. 

4. Rhus venenata, DC. Poison Sufiiach. Poison Elder. 

Young branches and petioles smooth; leaflets 7-13 (membranaceous), obovate-oblong, 
entire, abruptly acuminate ; panicles slender, in the axils of the uppermost leaves ; drupes 
nearly globose, smooth, greenish-white. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 68 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. ^. 127 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 207 ; Torr. <^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 218. R. Vernix, Linn, (in part) ; 
Mickr.fl. 1 . /). 183 ; Piirsh,ft. 1 . p. 205 ; Ell. sk. 1 . p. 362 ; Bigel. med. hot. 1 . p. 96. 1. 10, 
and fl. Bost. p. 1 1 9 ; Tcrrr. fl. I. p. 323. 

A shrub 10-18 feet high, branching above ; the young branches a little verrucosa. 
Leaflets 1^-3 iitches long, abruptly contracted at the base, smooth, or sometimes slightly 
pubescent underneath : common petiole often of a purplish color. Flowers greenish, in long 
loose panicles ; pedicels pubescent. Fruit dry, about the size of a small pea, shining. Nut 
orbicular, rtbbed. Cotyledons oval, rather thick and fleshy. 

In swamps : common. Fl. June. Fr. September. 

This is a violent poison to many persons ; a contact with the plant, or sometimes its mere 
effluvium, causing a most painful eruption on the skin. The greater number of persons, 
however, who handle or approach the plant, are unaffected by it. One of the best applications 
in cases of- poisoning by this and the following species, is a solution of sugar of lead, to be 
applied after the use of saline cathartics. This treatment has been very successful in the 
hands of Dr. Knieskem. The North American plant was formerly considered as identical 
with R. Vernix (now called R. vernicifera) of Japan, especially as it yields a varrush like 
that species ; but it was at length found to be distinct. 

5. Rhus Toxicodendron, Linn. Poison Oak. Poison Vine. Mercury. 

Stem erect, decumbent, or climbing hy radicles ; leaves trifoliolate, somewhat pubescent 
underneath ; leaflets (membranaceous) broadly oval or rhomboid, acuminate, entire or toothed, 
the lateral ones unequal at the base ; panicles racemed, axillary, nearly sessile ; fruit nearly 
globose, smooih.—Michx.fl. l.p. 183; l.p.323; Torr. ^Gr.fl.N.Am. l.p.218. 
R. Toxicodendron and radicans, Linn., Nutt , DC. prodr. 2. p. 70. 

var. 1 : not climbing ; leaflets entire, or variously and irregularly toothed or lobed. — Torr. 
^ Gr. I. c. R. Toxicodendron, Linn., Nutt. I. c. <^c. R. Toxicodendron, far. quercifolium, 
Mickx. I. c. ; Pursh, ft. I. p. 205. 

var. 2 : climbing ; leaflets entire, or sometimes slightly toothed. — To7-r. <^ Gr. I. c. R. 
radicans, Linn.; Bot. mag. t. 1806 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 363 ; Bigel. med. bot. 3. p. 19. t. 42, and 
fl. Bost. p. 120; DC. 1. c; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 207. R. Toxicodendron, var. radicans, 
Torr. fl. I. c. 

The upright variety, a suffrulicose plant 1-2 feet high ; the other, climbing from 5 to 40 
feet high, its woody trunk (sometimes 2 - 5 or 6 inches in diameter) furnished with in- 
numerable dark-colored rootlets, by which it adheres to trees and other objects. Leaflets 
2-5 inches long, pubescent when young ; lateral ones sessile, terorinal one on a partial 


petiole an inch or more in length. Flowers yellowish-green, dioecious. Fruit the size of a 
small pea, greenish or pale brown. Nut broader than long, irregular, ribbed and tuberculate. 

Woods, hedges, along fences, etc. Fl June. Fr. September. 

Poisonous like the preceding, but in a less degree. The dwarf upright form of this plant 
is not uncommon on the borders of woods, and on rocky hill-sides. It is certainly not a distinct 
species. In the more common or climbing state, its numerous stems sometimes become mat- 
ted together, and finally strangle the tree to which they are attached. The plant thus assumes 
an arborescent appearance, the trunk and decayed branches of the tree being concealed by the 
stems and foliage of its destroyer. 

§ 2. LoBADiuM, Raf. Flowers dicecious or polygamous : disk glandular, deeply 5-lobed : drupe 
globose, villous : nut smooth, compressed : floioers in short ameni-like spikes or panicles, preceding 
the leaves. Leaves Irifoliolaie. 

6. Rhus aromatica, Ait. Sweet-scented Sumach. 

Leaves pubescent when young, at length often smooth ; leaflets sessile, rhombic-ovate, 
unequally and coarsely toothed or serrated, the terminal one narrowed at the base. — Ait. Kew. 
{ed. 1.) 1. p. 367 ; Turpin in ann. Mus. 5. p. 445. t. 30 ; Pursh, Jl. l.pp. 184 et 205 ; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 364 ; Torr.Jl. l.p. 324 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 73 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 130 ; Torr. 
4- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 219. R. suaveolens. Ait. I. c. R. Canadense, Marsh, arbitst. ? ; 
DC. I. c. Lobadium aromaticum, Raf. in jour. phys. 89. p. 98. Turpinia, Daf. in Desv. 
jour. hot. 2. p. 170. 

A small shrub ; the branches of a light brown color, and pubescent when young. Leaves 
1 J - 2^ inches long, at length coriaceous. Inflorescence in the form of numerous small dense 
ament-Iike axillary racemes, which are formed the preceding summer. Scales reddish, with 
a hairy border. Flowers yellow. Fruit the size of a small pea, light red, more or less hispid, 
slightly compressed, acid. 

Dry rocky hills and gravelly banks, north and west of Catskill. April - May. The specific 
name is inappropriate, as the flowers are not aromatic. To many persons they are unpleasant. 


132 XANTHOXYLACEiE. Zanthoxylum. 

Order XXX. XANTHOXYLACE^E. Ad. Juss. The Prickly-ash Tribe. 

Flowers by abortion dioecious or polygamous, regular. Calyx of 3 - 5 sepals. 
Petals as many as the sepals, or rarely none, convolutely imbricated in aestiva- 
tion. Stamens as many as the sepals and alternate with them, or twice as 
many, arising from the base of the torus Avhich bears the abortive carpels. 
Ovaries usually equal in number to the sepals, sometimes fewer, inserted on the 
convex or elevated torus, distinct or more or less united, each with 2 (rarely 4) 
ovules. Styles united into one when the ovaries are combined ; usually distinct, 
or partly so, when the ovaries are not connate. Fruit sometimes baccate or 
membranaceous, sometimes composed of 1 - 5 drupes or 2-valved capsules ; 
the rather fleshy sarcocarp partly separable from the endocarp. Seeds one 
or two in each cell or carpel, anatropous, pendulous, with a crustaceous testa, 
usually smooth and shining. Embryo lying within fleshy albumen : cotyledons 
oval, flat. — Trees or shrubs, aromatic, pungent and bitter. Leaves without 
stipules, simple or pinnate, usually marked with pellucid dots. 

1. ZANTHOXYLUM. L. ; H. B. <^ K. nov, gen. ^ spec. 6.p. 1 ; Endl. gen. 5972. 


[ From the Greek, xanthei, yellow, and xyUm, wood.] 

Flowers polygamo-dioecious. Sepals 3-5, small. Petals longer than the sepals, or none. 
Stamens as many as the sepals and opposite them (or fewer) ; those of the pistillate flower 
rudimentar}'. Ovaries 1-5, raised on a globose or cylindrical torus, distinct or united at 
the base, with 2 collateral suspended oynles : styles distinct or united at the ape.x, some- 
times very short. Carpels sessile or stipitate on the torus ; crustaceous in fruit, 1-2- 
seeded. Seeds oval-globose when solitary, hemispherical when in pairs, black and shining. 
— Trees or shrubs, usually with strong prickles. Leaves usually pinnate, rarely simple or 
trifoliolate. Flowers small, greenish or whitish. 

§. Zanthoxtlcm proper, Colden. Sepals 5, mth, a minute glandular beard at ike apex: petals 
none : ovaries as many as the sepals and opposite them : styles at first somewhat united : stigmas 

1. Zanthoxylum Americanum, Mill. Common Prickly Ash. 

Branches, and often the petioles, armed with short strong (slipular) prickles ; leaves pin- 
nate ; leaflets ovate-oblong, nearly sessile, obscurely serrulate or entire, more or less pubescent; 
flowers in short axillary sessile umbels; carpels stipitate. — Willd. heschr. (1781), p. 116; 

Zanthoxylum. XANTHOXYLACE^. 133 

Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 214. Z. fraxineum, Willd. Berol. baum. (1796), and sp. 4. 
p. 757 ; Pursh, fl. 1. ^. 210 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 726 ; Bigel. med. hot. t. 59, and fl. Bost. 
p. 376 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 118. Z. tricarpum, Hook. I. c. not of Michx. Z. rami- 
florum, Michx. fl. 2. p. 235. Z. Clava-Herculis, var. Linn. Z. mite, Willd- enum. p. 1013; 
i)C. I. c. 

A shrub 4-6 feet high ; the stronger prickles mostly in pairs at the base of the young 
branches. Leaves 4-5 pairs, with an odd one ; common petiole often with a few short 
prickles : leaflets 1-2 inches long, downy when young, but at length only slightly pubescent 
beneath. Flowers expanding before the leaves, greenish. Barren and perfect flowers growing 
on the same plant. Sepals oblong, obtuse. Stamens much longer than the sepals. Ovaries 
3 - 4 in the perfect flowers, mostly 5 in the pistillate ones, raised on a short stalk, ovoid- 
globose. Styles as long as the ovaries, scarcely connate, a little twisted. Capsules about 
the size of a peppercorn, greenish or with a red tinge, marked with impressed dots, half 2- 
valved. Seed solitary, suspended from near the summit of the cell. 

Banks of rivers and lakes, and in rocky woods ; northern and western parts of the State ; 
not found below the Highlands. Ft April and May. Fr. June. The bark is pungent, and 
is employed as a stimulant and diaphoretic in rheumatism. lis virtues are owing to a peculiar 
active principle, called Zanthoxylin, or Xanthopicrite. See Bigelow's Med. Bot. I. c, and 

Wood 4- Bache's U. S. Disp. p. 697. 

2. PTELEA. Linn.; Endl. gen 5977, sbrubby trefoil. 

[ The Greek name of the Elm, derived from plao, to fly ; in allusion to the winged seed-vessels.] 

Polygamo-dicecious. Sepals 3-6 (usually 4), small. Petals much longer than the sepals, 
spreading. Stamens (commonly 4) alternate with and longer than the petals : filaments 
subulate, thickened below, and hairy on the inside ; in the fertile flowers, very short, and 
with sterile anthers. Ovary of 2 united carpels, placed on a convex torus : ovules 2 in 
each carpel, situated one above the other : style short or united, or none : stigmas 2. Fruit 
a samara, 2-celled, the margin expanded into a broad orbicular membranaceous and reticu- 
lated wing. Seeds oblong-ovoid, one in each cell. — Shrubs with pinnately 3 - 5-foliolate 
leaves, which are furnished with pellucid dots. Lateral leaflets inequilateral. Flowers 
whitish-green, in corymbose or paniculate cymes. 

1. Ptklea trifolfata, Linn. Swamp Dogwood. StinJdng Ash. 

Leaflets sessile, ovate, mostly acuminate, the terminal one cuneiform and attenuate at the 
base ; flowers commonly with 4 stamens ; style short. — Walt. fl. Car. p. 88 ; " Schmidt. 
arb. 2. t. 76 ;" Miclix. fl.].p.99; Ell. .sk. 1. /;. 21 1 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 189; DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 82 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 215. 

134 XANTHOXYLACEiE. Ptelea. 

A shrub 6-8 feet high, pubescent when young. Petioles about 2 inches long. Leaflets 
2-4 inches long, obscurely crenate-scrrate, more or less pubescent beneath. Flowers lateral 
and terminal ; the odor disagreeable. Samara three-fourths of an inch in diameter. 

On the shore of Lake Erie, near Presque Isle {Nuttall), and probably also within the Umits 
of New- York Stale. New-York to Carolina {Pursh). Fl. June. Tonic and aromatic. It 
is said to be good for worms, and to cure inlermittcnts. The fruit has likewise been used as 
a substitute for hops. 

Group 9. Ovary compound, 2 - 3-lobed, 2 - 3-celled, free from the calyx. Petals 
usually one fewer than the sepals, or sometimes tcanting. Stamens definite, 
distinct, inserted on or around a hypogynous disk. Seeds destitute of albumen. 
— Mostly trees or shrubs. 

Order XXXI. ACERACEiE. Juss. The Maple Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 (rarely 6 — 9) more or less united sepals, colored : sestlvation im- 
bricated. Petals as many as the sepals and alternate with them, inserted round 
a hypogynous disk ; sometimes none. Stamens usually 8 (sometimes 3 - 12), 
distinct, inserted on the disk. Ovary 2-lobed, composed of 2 united carpels, 
each containing 2 collateral ovules. Styles between the lobes of the ovary, 
more or less united, stigmatose on the inside. Fruit composed of 2 samaroid 
indehiscent carpels, each usually perfecting but a single seed, finally separating 
from the short filiform axis. Seeds with little or no albmnen. Embryo curved 
or conduplicate, with wrinkled foliaceous cotyledons irregularly folded. — 
Trees or shrubs, with opposite palmately lobed or pinnately 3 — 6-foliolate 
leaves and no stipules. Flowers small, regular, by abortion often polygamous, 
in racemes, corymbs or fascicles ; often preceding the leaves. 

1. ACER. Mcench. ; Endl. gen. 5558. MAPLE. 

[ From the Latin, acer, sharp or hard ; on account of the hardness of the wood, which was employed for making 

spears, etc.] 

Flowers mostly polygamous. Petals colored like the sepals, often wanting. Stamens 7-10, 
rarely 5. — Leaves simple. The sap in many species contains sugar. 

Acer. ACERACEiE. 135 

• Flowers in racemes terminating the leafy branches, ajipearing after the leaves have expanded. 

1. Acer Pennstlvanicum, Linn. Moose-wood. Striped Maple. 

Leaves pubescent underneath, finely and acutely doubly serrate, 3-lobed at the extremity ; 
lobes with a slender serrate acumination ; racemes simple, drooping ; (flowers large ;) petals 
obovate ; fruit smooth, with large diverging wings. — Michx.fl. 2. p. 252 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 451 ; 
Torr. fl. \.p. 397 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Ain. 1. p. Ill ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 246. A. 
striatum. Lam. diet. 2. p. 381 ; Michx. f. sylv. 1. ?. 45 ; Pers. syn. 1. p. 417 ; DC. prodr. 
1. p. 593. A. Canadense, Duham. arb. 1. t. 12; Marsh, arbust. p. 4. 

A shrub (or small tree), seldom exceeding 20 or 25 feet high ; the bark smooth, greenish, 
and marked with dark stripes. Leaves 3-6 inches in diameter, more or less cordate at the 
base. Flowers larger than in any of the following species, yellowish-green. Caly.x 5-parted ; 
segments linear lanceolate. Petals one-third longer than the calyx. Styles united neariy to 
the summit : stigmas linear, recurved. Carpels about an inch long. 

In woods, common in those of beech ; frequent on mountains ; not found south of the 
Highlands. Yields a sweet sap almost equal to that of the Sugar Maple, but in smaller 
quantities {Dr. Knieskern). 

2. Acer spicatum. Lam. Mountain Maple. 
Leaves pubescent underneath, somewhat cordate, coarsely serrate, 3- (or somewhat 5-) 

lobed, the lobes acuminate ; racemes erect, slightly compound ; petals linear-spatulate ; fruit 
nearly smooth, with diverging wings. — Lam. diet. 2. p. 381 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 593 ; Torr. 
^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 246. A. montanum. Ait. Kew. 3. p. 435 ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 253, and 
f. sylv. I. t.45; Pursh, fl.l. p. 267 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 452 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 398 ; Bigel. fl. 
Bast. p. 379; Hook. fl. Bar.-Am. I. p 111. A. Pennsylvanicum, Du Roi, harbk. t.2; 
Wang. Amer. t. 12. /. 30. 

A shrub 6-15 feet high. Leaves 2 - 2i inches wide ; the acumination of the lobes mostly 
entire, somewhat rugose when old. Racemes about 2 inches long, often simple. Calyx hairy, 
the segments oblong. Petals very narrow, three times as long as the calyx, greenish. Sta- 
mens 6-8. Styles united to the summit : stigmas small, recurved. Fruit usually reddish 
or purple when ripe ; the wings obovate, spreading to an obtuse angle. 

Rocky hills and banks of small streams ; usually growing in clumps. May - June. 

»• FhuKTs in nearly sessile nmiel-'ike corymljs, with very Img jUifirm pedicels, appearing during the cvolulian of the leaves ; 
the fertile a/ryttiis terviiruUing the branches ; the infertile from lateral leafless buds. 

3. Acer saccharinum, Linn. Sugar Maple. Hard Maple. 

Leaves truncate and somewhat cordate at the base, whitish and minutely pubescent or 
smooth underneath, 3 - 5-lobed, with the sinuses gbtusc ; lobes with a slender acumination, 

136 ACERACEyE. Acer. 

coarsely and sparingly sinuate-toothed ; sepals bearded at the apex within ; petals none ; fruit 
smooth, on long nodding and partly hairy pedicels , the wings dilated above, somewhat erect 
or slightly diverging. — Wang. Amer. p. 36. t. 11./. 26 ; Michx ft. 2. p. 252 ; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 266; Michx. sylv. 1. t. 42; Ell. sk. \.p. 450; Torr.Jl. \.p. 397; Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. 1. 
p. 113 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 245 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 248. 

var. nigrum: {Black Sugar Maple.) Leaves pale green beneath, the veins of the lower 
surface and petioles minutely villous-pubescent ; wings of the fruit a little more diverging. — 
Torr. 4- Gr. I. c. A. nigrum, Michx. f. sylv. 1. ^ 43 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 266 ; Ell. sk. 1. 
p. 450; Torr.fl. 1. p. 397. 

A handsome tree, often from 50 - 80 feet high, and the trunk 2-3 feet in diameter ; bark 
smooth and light-colored ; tlie wood compact. Leaves 3-5 inches in diameter, deep green 
and smooth above ; when young, almost villous underneath, but finally only slightly pubescent 
except on the veins : lobes diverging, usually 5-lobed, the 2 inferior lobes smaller and entire : 
petioles 2-3 inches long. Calyx campanulate, greenish-yellow, unequally crenate-toothed. 
Pedicels of the sterile flowers 1-3 inches long. Stamens 6-8. Wings of the fruit semi- 
obovate, greenish-yellow, about an inch long. 

Fertile woods ; common, particularly in the western part of the State. Fl. April - May. 
Fr. September. 

The wood is valuable for fuel ; and accidental varieties of it are the Birdseyc Maple and 
Curled Maple of cabinet-makers. The sap, early in the season, affords the well known maple 
sugar. For the details of its manufacture, see Michaux, Sylv. vol. I. pp. 228 - 234. The 
Black Sugar Maple is by some botanists regarded as a distinct species, but I have been 
unable to discover its peculiar characters. Neither the descriptions nor the figures of the 
younger Michaux exhibit any well-marked difference between it and the Common Sugar 
Maple, and yet they can generally be distinguished in their native woods. 

♦♦♦ Pedicels in fascicles, proceeding from lateral leafless buds: fUnocrs preceding the leaves. 

4. Acer dasycarpum, Ehrh. (Plate xviii.) Silver -leaved Maple. White Maple. 

Leaves somewhat cordate or often truncate at the base (white underneath), deeply 5-lobed, 
with the sinuses rathes obtuse ; lobes acute, unequally incised and toothed, entire towards the 
base ; pedicels much shorter than the fruit ; petals none ; fruit woolly when young, nearly 
smooth when old, with very large upwardly dilated wings. — " Ehrh. heilr. 4. p. 24 ;" Willd. 
sp. 4. p. 985 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 252 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 449 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 379 ; Torr. fl. 
p. 396 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 113 ; Torr. <J- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 248. A. eriocarpum, 
Michx. fl. 2. p. 253 ; Desf. in ann. Mus. 7. t. 25 ; Michx. f. sylv. 1. «. 48 ; DC. prodr. 1. 
p. 595 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 245. 

A tree 30 - 50 feet high, and often 1-2 feet in diameter, with widely spreading branches ; 
the wood white and soft ; sap less sweet than that of the Sugar Maple, Leaves on long 
petioles, lobed beyond the middle, nearly smooth when old. Flowers greenish-yellow or 


purplish, usually about 5 together : pedicels 2-3 lines long, in fruit about an inch. Stamens 
3-6. Ovary woolly. Wings of the fruit 2-3 inches long, slightly falcate, somewhat 
diverging, one of them often abortive. 

Banks of rivers. Fl. April. Fruit ripe in July and August. This tree is not uncommon 
in the valley of the Hudson, particularly in the neighborhood of Fishkill Landing. It forms 
a beautiful shade tree, the silvery white of the under surface of the leaves strongly contrasting 
with the bright green of the upper, especially when they are agitated by the winds. 

5. Acer rubrum, Linn. Red Maple. Swamp Maple. 

Leaves cordate, whitish and at length usually smooth underneath, 3 - 5-lobed, with the 
sinuses acute , the lobes acute or acuminate, doubly serrate or incisely toothed, the terminal 
one longest ; pedicels of the fruit elongated ; petals oblong or linear ; fruit (and ovaries) 
smooth, the wings slightly falcate, at first converging, at length somewhat spreading. — Michx. 
fl. 2. p. 253 ; Willd. sp. 4. p. 984 ; Michx. f. sylv. 1. ^ 41 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 449 ; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 395 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 377 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 595 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 244 ; Torr. 
4- Gr. fl. N. Am. l.p. 249. Acer, &c. Catesb. Car. 1. 1. 62. 

A tree 30 - 60 feet high, sometimes 2 feet or more in diameter ; the wood close-grained, 
and sometimes of the variety called Curled Maple ; the sap yielding a little sugar ; young 
branches purplish red. Leaves 2-4 inches wide ; the sinuses scarcely extending to the 
middle, very pubescent underneath when young, at length downy only on the nerves. Flowers 
on very short pedicels, red or sometimes yellowish. Calyx nearly as long as the petals, the 
segments oblong. Petals 3-6, ovate, obtuse. Stamens 5 - 6 : anthers red. Disk lobed, 
glandular. Pedicels of the fruit 2-3 inches long : wings about an inch in length, usually 
reddish, sometimes yellowish. 

In swamps and wet woods ; rarely in dry situations. March - April. Fruit mature in 
September. The wood makes good fuel, but is inferior to that of the Sugar Maple. 

[Flora.] 18 

138 HIPPOCASTANACE/E. ^sculus. 

Order XXXII. HIPPOCASTANACEiE. DC. The IIorse-ciiestnlt Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 united sepals. Petals usuall}- 4, sometimes 5, irregular, unguiculate, 
hypogynous. Stamens 6-8 (mostly 7), distinct, unequal, inserted on the 
hypogynous disk : anthers oval. Ovary composed of 3 united carpels, 3- 
celled, with 2 collateral ovules in each cell : style filiform, acute. Fruit 
roundish, coriaceous, dehiscent, 3- (or, by abortion, 1 - 2-) celled, 2 - 3-valved, 
loculicidal. Seeds 1-3, very large, with a smooth shining coriaceous testa 
and a broad pale hilum : albumen none. Cotyledons very thick and fleshy, 
cohering : radicle conical, curved : plumule large, 2-leaved. — Trees or shrubs, 
•with opposite digitate (rarely alternate and pinnate) leaves, without stipules. 
Flowers showy, in large panicles or racemes: pedicels articulated. 

1. .^SCULUS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 56il. HOUSE CHESTNUT. 

[An ancient Latin name, originally applied to a species of oak.] 

Sepals united into a 5-toothed, campanulate or tubular calyx. Petals 4-5, more or less 
unequal. — Leaves palmalely 5 - 7-foliolate : leaflets simply pinnately veined. Flowers in 
terminal thyTsoid racemes or panicles. 

1. yEscuLUS HippocASTANUM, Li/iu. CommoTi Horse Chestnut. 

Fruit echinate ; flowers with 5 petals and 7 stamens ; leaflets 7, obovate-cuneate, acute, 
toothed. — DC. prodr. 1. p. 597. 

A tree with smooth bark and a large round head. Leaflets irregularly and doubly toothed ; 
veins on the underside clothed with a brown wool. Flowers large, white spotted with purple 
and yellow. Ovary stipitate. Fruit abounding in starch, bitter and somewhat poisonous. 

About houses. A native of northern India. Flowers early in May. 

Staphylea. CELASTRACEyE. 139 

Group 10. Ovary compound, 2 - b-celled. Calyx free from, or adherent to the base 
of the ovary. Petals and stamejis equal in number to the lobes of the calyx, 
and inserted into its base or throat, or upon the disk that covers it. Seeds 
albuminous. — Trees or shrubs. Floxoers regular. 

Order XXXIII. CELASTRACE.E. R. Broum. The Spindle-tree Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 sepals, which are united at the base, and imbricated in aestivation. 
Petals as many as the sepals and alternate with them, plane, inserted by a 
broad base under the flat disk which surrounds the ovary ; the gestivation 
imbricated. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, inserted 
upon the margin or upper surface of the disk. Ovary free from the calyx, 
2 - 5-celled (rarely by abortion 1-celled), with 1, 2 or several erect or as- 
cending ovules in each cell. Styles and stigmas 2-5, distinct or united. Fruit 
a capsule or drupaceous, sometimes samara-like, with one or few seeds in each 
cell. Seeds often furnished with an arillus. Albumen usually fleshy, some- 
times thin or wanting: radicle short: cotyledons thick or foliaceous.— Shrubs 
or rarely trees, with alternate or opposite leaves and small caducous stipules. 

Tribe I. STAPHYLE^. DC. 

Seeds without an arillus, with a large truncate hilum and a bony testa. Cotyledons thick. 
Disk urceolate, 5-angled. — Leaves opposite, unequally pinnate or trifoliolate : leaflets 
serrate. Floiuers in terminal racemes or panicles. 
Bartling, Lindlcy and Endlicher consider this tribe as a distinct order. 

1. STAPHYLEA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 5673. (Plate XIX.) bladder-nut. 

[ Named from the Greek, staphyle, a bunch of grapes; from its mode of flowering.] 
Flowers perfect. Sepals 5, oblong, erect, colored, persistent. Petals 5. Stamens 5. Ovary 
of 3 carpels, united at the axis. Styles distinct or slightly united. Fruit a membranaceous 
and inflated, 2 - 3-celied, 2 - 3-lobcd capsule. Seeds globose, ascending, few, or by 
abortion solitary in each cell : albumen little or none. — Shrubs. Leaves 3 - 7-foliolate : 
leaflets involute in vernation. Flowers white ; the racemes sometimes panicicd. 

1. Staph YLEA tiu folia, Linn. Ainerican Bladder-nut. 

Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets ovate, acuminate, finely serrate, more or less pubescent when 

young ; styles smooth, united above. — " Schn. arh. t. 81 ;" Michc.fl. \.p. 184 ; Ell. sk. 1. 


140 CELASTRACE^, Staphylea 

p. 369 ; Toi~r. fl. 1 . ;;. 325 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 121 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 2 ; Hook. fl. Bar.- 
Am. 1. p. 119 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 209 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 256. 

A shrub 6-12 feet high, with straight, slender, smooth and dotted branches. Leaves on 
long pubescent petioles : leaflets 2-4 inches long, thin and membranaceous, the lateral ones 
nearly sessile, terminal one on a petiole more than an inch long. Common and partial sti- 
pules subulate, very caducous. Racemes or panicles pendulous, axillary and terminal. Petals 
obovate-spatulate, ciliale at the base. Stamens slightly cxserled : filaments hairy below : 
anthers cordate. Capsule about the size of a pigeon's egg, sometimes 4-lobed, distinct at the 
summit, acuminate, and tipped with the persistent styles, opening by the inner suture. Seeds 
1-3, obovoid, smooth and polished. 

Rocky places, particularly along rivers. May. Fruit mature in September. 


Seeds furnished with an arillus. Cotyledons mostly foliaceous. — Leaves simple, entire or 
serrate, with minute deciduous stipules. Flowers in terminal racemes or aocillary cymes. 

2. CELASTRUS. Linn, (partly); Kunth, syn. 4.;;. 185; Endl. gen. 5679. 

[An ancient Greek name of a plant, supposed to be allied to this genus.] 

Flowers, by abortion, somewhat dioecious or polygamous. Petals 5, united below into a very 
short turbinate calvx-tube. Petals 5, ovate or oblong, sessile. Stamens inserted on the 
margin of the orbicular fleshy disk. Ovary 3-celled, seated on the disk : ovules 2 in each 
cell, erect. Styles short and thick : stigma 3-lobed. Capsule globose, coriaceous, 2-3- 
celled, the dissepiments sometimes incomplete or loculicidal. Seeds 1 — 2 in each cell, 
enclosed in a pulpy arillus : testa membranaceous. Embryo enclosed in a rather thin al- 
bumen, nearly the length of the seed : cotyledons broad and foliaceous : radicle short. — 
Climbing, unarmed shrubs. Leaves alternate, thin. Stipules minute. Racemes terminal, 
somewhat compound, the lower part often leafy : pedicels articulated. Flowers small, pale 

1. Celastrus scandens, Linn. Bittersiceet. Wax-ivark. 

Leaves oval or obovate, acuminate, with glandular incurved serratures, smooth ; petals 
obovate-oblong. — Willd. sp. 1. p. 1125 (excl. syn.); " Schk. handb. 1. t. 47;" Michx. fl. 1. 
p. 154 ; GoErt. fr. t. 95 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 167 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 92 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 262 ; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 6; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 148; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 257 

Stem twining around shrubs and small trees, or along stone fences, 10 -20 feet long. 
Leaves 2-3 inches long, rather variable in form, but usually more or less obovate, acute at 
the base. Stipules very minute, setaceously 2 - 3-parted, deciduous. Racemes, or rather 

Celastrus. CELASTRACEiE. 141 

panicles, 1 - 2 inches long. Flowers only 2-3 lines in diameter. Segments of the caiyx 
oblong. Petals ovate-oblong, obtuse. Capsule about one-third of an inch in diameter, of an 
orange color when mature ; the valves widely opening in dehiscence, each marked with a 
central ridge or imperfect dissepiment on the inside. Seeds elliptical-oblong, reddish brown, 
coated with a thick bright orange or scarlet arillus. Albumen oily. 

Borders of woods, banks of rivers, and along fences ; common. Fl. Early in June. Fr. 
September. — The plant is said to be narcotic and stimulating. It is sometimes employed as 
a domestic medicine in the Western States. 

3. EUONYMUS. Tourn. inst. t. 388 ; Endl. gen. 5676. spindle-tree. 

[ "Named from Euonyvie, mother to the Furies j in aUusion to the injurious effects produced by the fruit of this plant." 


Sepals 4-5, united at the base, spreading. Petals 4-5. Stamens inserted on the upper 
surface of the broad flat fleshy disk : filaments short : anthers with a broad connectivum at 
the back ; the cells opening transversely or longitudinally. Ovary half immersed in the 
disk ; the cells as many as the petals, each with 2-3 ovules. Style short and thick : 
stigma obtuse or lobed. Capsule 4 - 5-Iobed, 4 - 5-celled, loculicidal. Seeds 1 - 2 in 
each cell, usually enclosed in a fleshy or pulpy, red or purple arillus. Embryo with broad 
foljaceous cotyledons : albumen fleshy and oily. — Shrubs erect, trailing, or climbing by 
rootlets. Leaves opposite, serrate. Stipules mostly wanting. Peduncles axillary, cy- 
mosely ievr- or one-flowered. 

1. EuoNYMUs ATROPURPUREus, Jocq. Buming-hush. Indian Arroto. 

Branches smooth.; leaves oval or elliptical-oblong, acuminate, mostly acute at the base, 
finely serrate, on distinct petioles, puberulent underneath ; peduncles divaricately cymose' 
several-flowered ; parts of the flower usually in fours ; petals roundish-obovate ; capsules 
smooth, deeply lobed.— "/ac^. hort. Vind. 2. t. 120;" Willd. sp. \. p. U32; Miclix. fl. 1. 
p. 155 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 293 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 4 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 261 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest 
p. 149; Tmr. 4- Gr. 1. p. 258. 

A shrub 6 - 10 - 12 feet high ; the branches somewhat quadrangular and straight. Leaves 
3-4 inches long, thin, conspicuously acuminate ; the petiole half an inch or more in length. 
Peduncles 1 - 2 inches long, 5 - 7-flowered ; the flowers of a dark purple color. Capsule 
crimson when mature. Seeds elliptical, whitish, nearly enclosed in the bright red, succulent 

Moist woods and along rivers, in the western part of the State. Fl. June. Fr. October. 
From this shrub is prepared the " Wa-a-hoo," a quack medicine of some reputation {Dr. 

142 CKLASTRACEiE. Euonymus. 

2. Euonymus Ameuicanus, Linn. (Plate XX.) Strawberry-tree. 

Branches smoolli, 4-sidcd ; loaves varying from clliplical-laiKcolalc to oval-obovate, sliglitly 
crcnale-serratc, sinoolli ; petioles very short ; peduncles 1 - 3-flowercd ; parts of the flower 
mostly in fives ; petals roundish-obovate ; capsules depressed-globose, v.rrucosc. — Willd. 
sp. 1. p. 1132 ; Michx. jl. 1. p. 155 ; Duham. arh. 3. «. 9 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 292 ; Torr. Jl. 1. 
p. 261 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 4 ; Hook. Jl. Bor-Am. 1, p. 119 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 150 ; 
Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 256. 

var. 1 : erect, oval, oblong, or elliptical-lanceolate, soinclinics a little falcate, var. a. &c p. 
Torr. <S,- Gr. I. c. 

var. 2 : trailing and often rooting ; leaves ovatclanccolatc. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. E. Anncri- 
canus, var. sarmentosus, Nutt. gen. 1. p. 154. 

var. 3 : trailing and rooting, with short erect branches ; leaves obovale or oval-obovate, 
obtuse or sliglitly acuminate, acute at the base. Torr. ^- Gr, I. c. E. obovatus, Nult. I. c. 

The common or upright variety is a shrub from 2 to 5 feet high ; the prostrate form is 
2-3 feet long, with erect flowering branches about a span high. Leaves 1-3 inches long, 
somewhat coriaceous : petioles 1-2 lines long. Flowers about one-third of an inch in 
diameter, flat when expanded. Segments of the calyx very short, or nearly obsolete. Petals 
greenish-yellow with a tinge of purple ; the claw short. Capsule 6-7 lines in diameter, 
densely covered with acute warts, of a bright crimson when mature ; the dissepiments and 
arillus of a scarlet color. Seeds whitish, ovoid, smaller than in the preceding species, 1-3 
in each cell. 

Moist woods, and in swamps ; western part of the State : rathsr rare. Fl. June. Fr. 

Order XXXIV. RHAMNACEiE. Juss. The Buckthorn Tribe. 

Calyx of 4 - 5 sepals united at the base, valvate in aestivation. Petals 4-5, 
cucullate or convolute, inserted on the throat of the calyx, sometimes wanting. 
Stamens as many as the petals, and opposite them ! Ovary usually cohering 
with the tube of the calyx, more or less immersed in the fleshy disk, composed 
of 2 - 4 united carpels, 2 - 4-celled, with a single erect ovule in each cell : 
styles more or less united : stigmas simple, usually distinct. Fruit a capsule, 
berry or drupe, commonly more or less cohering with the calyx. Seeds erect, 
without an arillus : albumen fleshy, or rarely none. Embryo nearly as large 

Rhamnus. RHAMNACE^E. 143 

as the seed : radicle short : cotyledons large, flat. — Shrubs or trees, often 
thorny. Lea\es mostly alternate, simple, usually with minute stipules. Flowers 
small, sometimes by abortion dioecious or polygamous : inflorescence various. 

1. RHAMNUS. Linn. ; Brongn. in ann. sci. nat. 10. p. 3G0 ; Endl. gen. 5722. 

rr. u ^ . , BUCKTHORN. 

[ k rom the UreeK, ramnvs, a branch ; in allusion to its numerous branches.] 

Calyx urceolate, 4 - 5-cleft. Petals 4-5, emarginate or 2-lobed, often more or less con- 
• volute, sometimes very minute or wanting. Torus thin, lining the tube of the calyx. Ovary 
free from the calyx, not immersed in the torus, 2 - 4-celled : styles 2-4, distinct or more 

or less connected. Fruit drupaceous, roundish, containing 2-4 cartilaginous nuts. 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, on short petioles. Flowers 
minute, usually in short axillary clusters. 

1. Rhamnus catharticus, Linn. Common Buckthorn. 

Erect : branches thorny at the summit : leaves ovale, denticulate-serrate ; flowers fascicled, 
polygamo-dioecious, mostly tetrandrous ; fruit nearly spherical, 4-seeded. — Eng. hot. t. 1629; 
Torr. fl.\.p. 263 ; Twr. cj- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 260. 

A large spreading shrub, with grayish bark. Leaves spreading and somewhat opposite, 
1-2 inches long, with a short abrupt acumination, smooth, with 5-7 strong nearly longi- 
tudinal veins. Pedicels 3-4 lines long. Fertile flowers with lanceolate sepals, linear-oblong 
petals and abortive stamens. Styles free at the summit, recurved : stigmas somewhat clavate. 
Sterile flowers with ovate sepals and petals, and an abortive ovary. Fruit black, nauseous 
and cathartic. 

In the Highlands of New-York, naturalized in many retired situations. Fl. May. — The 
berries were formerly employed as a cathartic, but they are drastic. The syrup of buckthorn 
is still a common article of the materia medica, but is chiefly used for uniting other medicines. 
The pigment called sap green is prepared from the juice of the berries mi.xed with alum. 

2. Rhamnus alnifolius, I'Herit. Alder-leaved Buckthorn. 

Erect, without spines ; leaves oval, acuminate, serrate, somewhat pubescent on the veins 
underneath ; flowers polygamo-dioecious, solitary or aggregated, pentandrous (or rarely te- 
trandrous), apetalous ; styles 3, very short, at first united nearly to the summit ; disk some- 
what flesliy ; fruit roundisli-turbinatc. — "Vllcrit. sert. p. 5 ;" Torr. Jl. I. p. 263 ; DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 25 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 122. /. 42 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 262. 
R. franguloides, Michx. fl. \.p. 153; Pursh, fl. I. p. 166? 

144 RHAMNACEvE. Riiamots. 

A slirub 2-4 feet higli, branching ; ihe bark of the younger branches grayisli. Leaves 
1-4 inches long, acute at the base, nearly smooth when full grown. Flowers produced on 
the lower part of the young branches. Pedicels 1-2 lines long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 
spreading. Styles in the sterile flowers short, united ; in the fertile flowers, at length free 
above, and recurved. Fruit black, the size of a snnall pea, obtusely triangular ; the pedicel 
3-4 lines long. Seeds plano-convex, without a furrow. 

Sphagnous swamps in the northern and western parts of the State. Fl. June. Fr. August. 

2. CEANOTIIUS. Linn, (in part) ; Brongn. I. c. ; Endl. gen. 5726. 

[An ancient Greek name, applied to a plant supposed to resemble this genus.] 

Calyx 5-cleft ; the upper portion at length separating by a transverse line ; the tube adhering 
to the base of the ovary. Petals 5, longer than the calyx, saccate or cucullate and arched, 
compressed, on long slender claws. Stamens exserted : anthers ovate, 2-celled. Disk 
annular, somewhat 5-angled, fleshy on the margin, surrounding the ovary. Styles 3, united 
to the middle, diverging above. Fruit dry and coriaceous, usually 3-cellcd, obtusely tri- 
angular and somewhat tricoccou.s, surrounded below by the persistent tube of the calyx ; 
the cells at length opening by the inner suture. Seeds oval, without a lateral furrow. — 
Shrubs or sufi"rutescent plants, not thorny, with large reddish astringent roots. Leaves 
alternate, mostly ovate or elliptical, serrate or entire. Flowers (perfect) white, blue or 
yellowish, in umbel-like fascicles which are aggregated at the extremity of the branches in 
small dense thyrsoid panicles or corymbs. 

1, Ceanotiius Americanus, Linn. New-Jersey Tea. Red-root. 

Leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, 3-ribbed from the base, acuminate, serrate, nearly smooth 
above, more or less velvety-pubescent underneath ; peduncles axillary, elongated ; thyrsus 
oblong, leafless.— M?c/w./. 1. jo. 154 ; Bot. mag. t. 1479 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 167 ; Ell. sk. 1. 
p. 290 ; Torr.fl. l.p. 260 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 9 1 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 31 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 
\. p. 124 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 148 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 264. 

Root dark red. Stem shrubby or suff'ruticose, 2-3 feet high, with numerous terete pu- 
Tjescent branches. Leaves 2-3 inches long, the base acute or sometimes slightly cordate, 
the serratures tipped with black glands ; the petiole 3-4 lines long. Peduncles often longer 
than the leaves, naked, or with 1-2 small leaves at the base of the thyrsus. Pedicels, calyi 
and corolla white. Disk with a 10-toothed border. Seeds, when fully ripe, convex on both 
sides, of a brownish or ash-color, smooth and shining : testa coriaceous. 

Dry woods and copses ; common. Fl. Latter part of June. Fr. September. 

The leaves of this plant, when properly dried, form a pretty good substitute for tea, and 
were used for that purpose during the American Revolution. 

Ceanothus. RHAMNACE.E. 145 

2. Ceanothus ovalis, Bigehw. (Plate XX.) Narroiv-leaved Ceanothus. 

Leaves narrowly oblong or elliptical-lanceolate, 3-nerved from the base, serrulate, nearly 
smooth; thyrsus umbel-like, the pedicels elongated and closely approximated. — ^z^eZ. /. 
Bost. p. 92 ; Gray in ann. lye. N. York, 3. p. 224 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 265. 
C. intermedius. Hook. fl. Bor.-Ajn. 1. p. 124, (not of Pursh?) 

A shrub 2-3 feet high. Leaves 1 - 2^ inches long, varying from oval to linear-oblong, 
acute at each end, or sometimes obtuse at the summit ; pubescent when young, but at length 
nearly or quite smooth, except a slight pubescence on the veins underneath ; the serratures 
tipped with black glands. Peduncles 1 - 2 inches long, naked, or with one or two small 
leaves just below the flowers. Pedicels 8-10 lines long. 

Barren rocky places ; western shore of Lake Champlain, and in Jefferson county. May - 
June. — Easily distinguished from the preceding, by its narrow leaves, and short, almost 
hemispherical thyrsus. 

Order XXXV. VITACE.E. Juss. The Vine Tribe. 

Ampelide*, Kunth, Eyidl. ^c. 

Calyx minute, entire or 4 - 5-toothed. Petals 4-5, inserted on the outside of 
an annular or urceolate disk, distinct or cohering by their tips, caducous, 
valvate in aestivation. Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them ! , 
inserted on the surface of the disk. Ovary 2-celled, with 2 erect anatropous 
ovules in each cell. Style short or none : stigma simple. Fruit a globose, 
mostly pulpy berry, with 1 or 2 seeds in each cell, often by abortion 1 -celled,' 
1 - 2-seeded. Seeds erect, with a bony or coriaceous testa. Embryo much 
shorter than the horny or fleshy albumen : cotyledons lanceolate or subulate. 
— Shrubby plants, climbing by tendrils, with simple or compound leaves. 
Flowers small, greenish, often polygamous, in racemose or thyrsoid panicles. 

1. VITIS. Linn. ; t. 106 ; W. cj- Am. prodr. fl. Ind. Or. 1. p. 124 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 242. ^y;v£. 

[An ancirnt Latin name of tlic vine] 

Calyx elighlly 4 - 5-tooihod. Petals 4-5, distinct and spreading, or united at the apex but 
distinct at the base, and falling off like a calyptra. Disk elevated in the centre, and sur- 
[Floba.] 19 

146 VITACE^E. ViTis. 

rounding ihe lower pari of ihe ovary, wilh which it is incorporated ; girt at the base by a 
short ring or expansion of the disk, upon whicli the stamens are inserted. Ovary ovate, 
partly innmersed in the disk, 2- (sometimes 3-) celled. Berry 1-2- (rarely 3-) celled, 
1 _ 4-seedcd. Peduncles usually changed, in whole or in part, into tendrils. — Arnott. 

^. ViTis proper. Petals 5, mostly united at the apex : stamens 5 ; sli/!e short, conical : stigma 
depressed and somewhat pel/ate. Peduncles sometimes partly changed into tendrils : Jloivers, in 
the N. American species, polygamous ; the panicle or thyrsus formed of numerous small umbels. 

1. ViTis Labrusca, Linn. Fox Grape. 

Leaves broadly cordate, somewhat lobed and angular, repandly toothed, densely grayish- 
tomentose or tawny underneath, the veins somewiiat ferruginous ; fertile panicles oblong, 
compact, rather few-flowcrcd ; berries large, — Michx. fl. 2. p. 230; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 169; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 689 ; Torr.fl. I. p. 264 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 93 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 634 ; Dar- 
lingt.Jl. Cest. p. 150 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 1 15 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 244. 

Stem very long, straggling over bushes and shrubs, or climbing ihc highest trees, sometimes 
6-8 inches in diameter near the base ; the younger branches clothed wilh a ferruginous 
pubescence. Leaves usually 4-6 inches in diameter, sometimes much larger, often distinctly 
3-lobed ; upper surface dark green, dull ; teelh short, mucronate. Panicles about 25 inches 
long ; the fertile ones less compound than the sterile. Fruit nearly three-fourths of an inch in 
diameter, globose, usually very dark purple when ripe, but sometimes amber-color or greenish 
white, of a strong musky odor and somewhat rancid taste, filled wilh a tough pulp. 

Common in woods and swamps, Fl. Eai-ly in June. Fr. September. 

Several varieties of this grape have long been cultivated, but they all have more or less of a 
tough pulp and strong flavor : the most esteemed are the Isabella, Schuylkill or Alexander's, 
the Catawba and Bland's Grape. 

2. ViTis ^sTiVALis, Michx. Summer Grape. 

Leaves broadij- cordate, often 3 - 5-Iobed, or sinuately palmate, coarsely and unequally 
toothed, sparingly ferruginous-tomentose underneath, at length somewhat smooth ; fertile 
panicles long ; berries small. — Michx. ft. 2. p. 230 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 169 ; Ell. sk. 2. p 688 ; 
Torr. fl.l.p. 265; DC. prodr. 1. p. 164 ; Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 151 ; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. 
Am. 1. p. 244. V. intermedia, Muhl. cat. p. ii6. 

Stem very long, climbing the highest trees. Leaves 4-7 inches wide, often deeply lobed, 
with the sinuses rounded ; the upper surface bright green, not shining ; under surface clothed 
with a loose reddish cobweb-like pubescence, particularly when young; when old, sparsely 
hairy, with much less of the cobweb-like down. Panicles larger than in the preceding species, 
and more compound. Berries about one-fourth of an inch in diameter, globose, deep blue or 
almost black, of a pleasant flavor. 

Vms. VITACE^. . 147 

Woods and river banks ; common. FI. Early in June. Fr. October. " It sometimes 
attains a great height ; the upper branches sustaining it by clinging to the limbs of tall trees, 
and gradually ascending, whilst the older branches die and drop off, leaving the stem naked 
and suspended, somewhat resembling a topgallant halyard belayed at the root." Darlington. 

3. ViTis coRDiFOLiA, 3fichj:. Winter Grape. Frost Grape. 

Leaves cordate, acuminate, somewhat equally and rather coarsely toothed, thin and some- 
what membranaceous, smooth above , the under surface (when young) slightly pubescent on 
the veins, and a little shining, finally smooth ; panicles loose ; berries small. — Miclix. fl. 2. 
p. 231 ; Pursli, fl. 1. p. 169 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 364 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 244. 
V. vulpina, Muhl. cat. p. 26 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 264, (not of Willd.) ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 115. 

Stem 10-20 feet long, climbing over shrubs and small trees. Leaves 3-5 inches in 
diameter, sometimes slightly 3-lobed ; teeth broad and mucronate ; petiole longer in proportion 
to the lamina than in the preceding species. Berries numeroi>s, about one-fourth of an inch 
in diameter, nearly black when mature, very acerb ; but after having been frozen, rather 

Thickets and banks of rivers : not uncommon in the vicinity of New- York. Fl. June. 
Fr. November. 

4. ViTis RiPARiA, Michx, Winter Grape. 

Leaves unequally and incisely toothed, more or less 3-lobed, thin and somewhat membrana- 
ceous , the petioles, veins and margins pubescent ; raceme loose ; fruit small. — Midix.fl. 2. 
p. 231 ; Pursh, fl. l.p. 169 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 364 ; Torr. ^- Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 245. V. 
cordifolia, Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 151? excl. syn. 

Stem long. Leaves 3-5 inches in diameter, deeply toothed and more or less incised, 
sometimes sinuately palmate, the segments and lobes acuminate, dull above, slightly shining 
underneath. Flowers very sweet-scented. Berries about a quarter of an incli in diameter, 
dark purple or amber-color when mature. 

Western part of the State ? I think I have specimens from one of the western counties, but 
neglected to label the locality. This speci'cs is most readily dislinguislicd from the preceding, 
with which it is often confounded, by its incisely serrate leaves. 


148 ' VITACE^. Ampelopsis. 

2. AMPELOPSIS. Michx. fl. 1. p. 159; Ton: <^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 245. 


[ Named from the Greek, ampelos, vine, and opsis, rcseniblancc] 

Calyx entire. Petals 5, distinct, spreading. Disk without a ring. Ovary conical, not im- 
mersed ill the disk : style very short, conical : stigma small, simple. Berry rallier dry. — 
A shrubby vine. Leaves digitalely S-foliolate. Flowers perfect, in spreading corymbose 

1. Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Michx. Virginian Creeper. A?nerican Ivy. 

Michx. fl.l.p.loQ; Hook. ft,. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 114 ; Torr. <^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 245. 
A. hederacea, DC. prodr. 1. p. 633 ; Beck, hot. p. 65 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 153. Vitis 
quinquefolia, Lam. V. hederacea, Willd. sp. 1. p. 1182. Hedera quinquefolia, Li7in. 
Cissus hederacea, Pers. syn. 1. p. 143 ; Pursh,fl. l.p. 170 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 305 ; Torr.fl. 1. 
p. 266. 

Stem climbing trees and other objects ; spreading extensively, and adhering by little disks 
or expansions of the extremities of the tendrils. Leaves smooth : leaflets oblong, acuminate, 
petiolulate, coarsely serrate : petioles as long or longer than the leaflets. Panicle compound, 
with 2 or 3 principal divisions ; the pedicels somewhat umbellate. Flowers greenish-yellow, 
only a few opening at a lime. Calyx distinct, spreading, the margin very entire or slightly 
crenate. Petals at first cohering, at length distinct and reflexed. Anthers large, oblong. 
Ovary 5-angled, and somewhat lobed at the base. Berry about the size of a small pea, of a 
dark blue color when ripe ; the peduncles and pedicels bright crimson. Seeds large for the 
size of the berry, commonly 2 in each cell, but sometimes only one. 

Borders of woods, copses, etc. ; common. J'/. July. i^r. October. A favorite vine about 
houses, being of rapid growth, and presenting a beautiful and striking appearance in the 
autumn from its crimson foliage. It is difficult to dry specimens of the plant, without their 
falling to pieces at the articulations. 


Group 11. Character same as of the following order. 

Order XXXVI. POLYGALACEiE. Juss. The Milkwort Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 distinct irregular sepals ; three of them exterior and smaller, of which 
one is superior (next the axis of inflorescence) and two inferior ; the two lateral 
or inner ones (loings) larger, and usually petaloid : aestivation imbricated. 
Petals usually 3, hypogynous, irregular, deciduous ; the anterior (keel) larger 
than the rest, usually crested or lobed. Stamens 6-8, hypogynous : filaments 
combined into a tube, which is split on the upper side, and more or less united 
below with the claws of the petals : anthers innate, mostly 1-celled, opening 
by a terminal pore. Ovary formed of 2 united carpels, 2-celled, with a single 
pendulous anatropous ovule (rarely 2 ovules) in each cell : style curved and 
often hooded. Fruit (usually a capsule) compressed, loculicidal, sometimes 
indehiscent. Seeds with a crustaceous testa, usually with an arilliform caruncle. 
Embryo straight, in copious fleshy albumen. — Herbaceous (all the North 
American species) or shrubby plants, with simple entire leaves destitute of 
stipules ; the roots bitter, and often milky. Flowers mostly in racemes or 
spikes ; the pedicels with 1 — 3 bracts. 

1. POLYGALA. Tourn. ; A. St. Hil. Sf Moq.-Tand. in mem. mus. 17. p. 313 ; Endl 

gen. 5647. MILK-WORT. 

[Named from the Greek, poly, much, and gah., milk; from its supposed power of increasing the secretion of milk.] 

Sepals persistent; the wings large and petaloid. Petals 3, their claws cohering with the 
stannineal tube ; the lowest one keel-shaped. Ovary 2-celled, with a single ovule in each 
cell. Capsule compressed contrary to the very narrow dissepiment, elliptical, obovate or 
cordate. Seeds mostly with a 2-lobcd, arillate caruncle. — Racemes often spiked or capitate. 

ij 1. Spikes thick, capitate or oblong, terminal : keel crested (the crest often minute) : style mostly 
cucullate, and dilated in the middle : filaments united nearly to the summit : caruncle with 
a 2-lobed appendage. — Annual or biennial. 

1. PoLYGALA SANGUiNEA, Linn. Purpk Milk-wort. 

Spikes ovoid or oblong, compact ; wings broadly ovate or obovate ; crest minute ; seed 

obovate, hairy ; caruncle nearly as long as the seed ; leaves linear and oblong-linear ; stem 

fastigiately branched. — Micluc. Jl. 2. p. 52 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 465 ; Bigcl. Jl. Bost. p. 264 ; 

150 POLYGALACE^. Polygala. 

Bart. fl. Am. Sept. 2. t. 46. P. purpurea, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 88 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 328 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 41 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 401 ; Ton: <^- Gr.Jl N. Am. 1. p. 127. 

Annual. Stem 8-12 inches liigli, erect, sometimes simple, angular and slightly winged. 
Leaves about an inch long and 2 lines wide. Spike at first nearly globose, at length oblong, 
obtuse, 4-5 lines in diaincler ; lower flowers deciduous ; bracts minute, the middle one 
longer than the pedicel. Wings usually dilated at the base, or somewhat cordate, rose-color 
and green, generally twice as long as the fruit. Style much dilated and cucullatc in the 
middle, with a filiform bearded process at ihe summit. Seed grayish-black, hairy ; processes 
of the caruncle linear. 

Moist meadows and sandy fields ; rather common. July - September. 

2. Poi.YGALA cRUCiATA, Lin/i. Cross-kaved Milk-wort. 

Spikes ovate, dense, sessile or on short peduncles ; wings deltoid-cordate, acute or cuspi- 
date ; crest minute ; caruncle nearly as long as the seed ; stem somewhat fasligialely branched, 
winged on the angles ; leaves verticillate in fours, linear and lincar-spalulate, dotted. — Miclix. 
/. 2. p. 52; Nutt. gen. 2. p. S9; DC. prodr. 1. p. 323; Ell. sk. I. p. 183 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. 
p. 26G ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. ;;. 85 ; Beck, hot. p. 45 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 127. 
P. brevifolia, Nutt. I. c. ; DC. I. c. P. cuspidata. Hook. <^ Arn. in hot.journ. \. p. 195. 

Annual. Stem 4-8 inches high, with opposite somewhat erect branches. Leaves about 
an inch long and 2 lines wide, marked with obscure resinous dots. Spikef at first dense, 
usually sessile or nearly so, finally an inch or more in length and nearly half an inch in 
diameter. Wings greenish with a purple margin, longer than the capsule. Lateral petals 
oblong. Style as in the preceding species. Seed obovoidoblong, sparsely hairy ; lobes of 
the caruncle linear. 

Sphagnous swamps ; not rare in the southern parts of the State, but seldom found in the 
interior counties. August - September. 

^ 2. Spikes elongated or racemose : keel cristate: filaments united nearly to the summit : style 
dilated and cucullate in the middle : appendage of the caruncle 2-lobed. 

3. Polygala verticillata, Linn. TMiorl-Ieaved MUk-xcort. 
Spikes pedunculate, acute, dense ; rachis naked ; wings roundish-obovate ; crest con- 
spicuous ; stem erect, branching ; leaves mostly verticillate, linear and lanceolate-linear, 
glandularly dotted. — Michx.fl. 2. p. 54 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 89 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. \82 ; Bigel. ft. 
Bost. p. 266 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 329 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 85; Beck, hot. p. 45 ; Dar- 
lingt. fl. Cest. p. 402 ; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 130. 

Annual. Stem slender, quadrangular, 6-10 inches high ; branches erect, elongated. 
Leaves an inch long and 1^ line wide, mostly in whorls of 4 or 5, but sometimes partly or 
entirely alternate, acute. Spike an inch long, about 2 lines in diameter at the base, tapering 


to a pretty acute point. Flowers about one line long, greenish-white, and sometimes tinged 
with purple. Bracts very deciduous. Exterior sepals unequal ; posterior ones ovate, twice 
as large as the other two. Wings a little longer than the corolla. Lateral petals nearly as 
large as the wings, and somewhat spreading. Slyle dilated and saccate almost immediately 
above the ovary : gland inconspicuous, the terminal appendage subulate, with a hairy tuft at 
the extremity. Seed minute, obovoid, hairy. Lobes of the caruncle somewhat distant, oblong, 
about half the length of the seed. 

Dry sandy soils, hill-sides and borders of woods ; common. June - October. 


Spikes pedunculate, rather obtuse, dense ; rachis squarrose with the persistent bracts ; 
wings roundish ; stem erect ; leaves linear, not glandular, the lower ones sometimes verticil- 
late, the others scattered. — A^w^. gen. 2. p. 89 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 329 ; Beck, hot. p. 45 ; 
Darlmgt. Jl. Cest. p. 402 ; Ton: ^ Gr. fl. N. A??i. 1. p. 130. 

Annual. Stem 6-12 inches high, slender, somewhat angular, with erect branches. Leaves 
6-8 lines long and about one line wide, mostly scattered. Spike of nearly uniform diameter, 
except near the summit, which is rather obtuse than acute, about three-fourths of an inch 
long. Flowers greenish-white, usually tinged (sometimes pretty strongly) with purple. Seeds 
as in P. verticilluta. 

Dry sandy woods and fields. August - September. 

Nearly related to the preceding species, but pretty constant in its characters. It is dis- 
tinguished by its shorter and thicker spikes, squarrose rachis, and most commonly scattered 
leaves which are destitute of glandular dots. In both species, the exterior sepals, the ovary 
and the keel of the corolla are marked with several oblong or linear vesicles, which are filled 
with a yellow farinaceous matter. 

4. PoLYGALA Senega, Linn. Seneca Snake-root. 

Spike rather dense, somewhat acute ; flowers on very short pedicels ; wings orbicular- 
obovate, concave, rather longer than the obovate petals; capsule nearly orbicular; seed some- 
what hirsute with spreading hairs ; lobes of the caruncle collateral, spongy, nearly as long as 
the seed ; stems numerous, simple ; leaves lanceolate, scabrous on the margin. — Willd. sp. 
3. p. 894 ; Bat. mag. t. 10.51 ; Bigel. med. hot. 2. p. 97. t. 30, a?id Jl. Bost. p. 265 ; DC. 
prodr. \.p. 130; Hook. Jl. Bar. -Am. 1.;?. 85; Beck, hot. p. 45; Darlingt. Jl. Cesf. p. 403. 
P. Senega, var. albida, Michx. Jl. 2. p. 53 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 465. 

Root perennial, thick, rather ligneous, with coarse fibres. Stems about a foot high, as- 
surgent or somcwlial inclined, the base usually invested with small oval scale-like leaves, 
minutely scabrous-pubescent above, smooth below. Leaves 1 - 2 inches long and 3-5 lines 
wide, finely serrulate and fringed under a lens. Spike 1 - 2 inches long, somewhat inclined. 
Flowers nearly 2 lines long, greenish-while. Sepals all obtuse. Crest short. Style short, 

152 POLYGALACEiE. Polygala. 

galcate an 1 somewhat beaked ; tl>c appendage wanting, but in its place a short tuft of hairs. 

Dry rocky woods. Fl. Latter part of May to June. 

The root of this plant is a valuable medicine, and is well known in the shops. It is prin- 
cipally employed as a stimulating expectorant and diaphoretic. Its powers depend on the 
polygalic acid which it contains. See Wood <^ Baches U. S. Dispens. p. 601. 

5. roLVGAL.\ poLYGAMA, Walt. Polygamous Milk-wort. 

Terminal racemes spiked, loose, the flowers at length pendulous ; wings broadly obovate, 
spreading, longer than the corolla ; crest conspicuous ; radical racemes w-ilh wingless flowers; 
capsule oblong, emarginate ; lobes of the caruncle more than half as long as the very hairy 
seed; stems numerous, assurgent ; leaves oblong-lanceolate and oblong-linear. — Walt. fl. 
Car. p. 179 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 75 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 181 ; DC. prodr. 1. p. 330 ; Hook.fl. Bor.- 
Am. l.p. 86. t. 29 ; Beck, hot. p. 43 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1 . p. 133. P. rubella, Willd. 
sp. 3. p. 875 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 264, and med. hot. t. 54 ; DC. I. c. 

Biennial. Stems 5-10 inches high. Leaves about an inch long, slightly mucronate. 
Terminal racemes 10 - 25-flowercd : pedicels slender. Flowers about 2^ lines long, deep 
rose-color or purplish. Wings with short claws. Style short and cucullate ; gland exserted : 
appendage strongly bearded. Radical racemes leafless, prostrate, often subterranean. Seed 
almost villous : lobes of the caruncle somewhat distant. 

Sandy fields and woods ; pine plains near Rome, Oneida county, and in Suffolk county, 
Long Island. Fl. June — July. The whole plant is very bitter. 

^3. CHAM.EBirxrs, Dill. Floicers fetv, large, terminal : posterior sepal concave-cucuUale, with a 
gland at tht base on the inside : keel crested or callous at the tip. — Perennial herbs or small 

6. Polygala paucifolia, Willd. Fringed Milk-icort. 

Rhizoma creeping and branching, throwing up simple erect branches, which are leafy at 
the summit, and furnished with scales below ; leaves ovale, petioled ; terminal flowers 2-3 
(very large) ; crest fringed ; radical flowers wingless. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 880 ; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 464 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 180 ; Bart. fl. Am. Sept. 2. t. 56./. 1 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 266 ; DC. 
prodr. 1. jj. 331 ; Hook, in bat. mag. t. 2852, and fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 86 ; Beck, hot. p. 45 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 132. P. uniflora, Michx. fl. 2. p. 53. P. purpurea, Ait. 
Kew. 4. p. 244 (not oi Nutt.). Trichosperma grandiflora, Raf. speech. I. p. 7. 

var. alba. Eights : flower solitary, smaller, white ; stem somewhat leafy at the base. Beck, 
hot. p. 46 ; Torr. <$■ Gr. I. c. 

Perennial. Rhizoma slender, tortuous. Stalks 3-5 inches high ; the lower part fur- 
nished with small ovate distant leafy scales. Leaves 4-5, about an inch long and half an 
inch or more wide, the margin minutely fringed. Flowers nearly three-fourths of an inch 


long, purple or deep rose-color ; the pedicels 3-4 lines long. Wings obovate, attenuate at 
the base, as long as the corolla. Lateral petals oblong, concave, united to the keel the greater 
part of their length : crest conspicuous, compound. Stamens 6 : anthers 2-lipped, imperfect- 
ly 2-celled. Style long, a little curved, slightly enlarging upward ; the orifice irregularly 
4-toothed, without hairs. Capsule (immature) emarginate, strongly margined. Seeds . . 
Radical flowers on short horizontal shoots. 

Woods, usually in dry sandy soils ; rarely in moist places : the variety alba in sandy plains 
near Albany {Dr. Eights). Fl. May. A small but very handsome species. 

Group 12. Character same as of the folloioing order. 

Order XXXVII. LEGUMINOStE. Juss. The Bean Tribe. 

Calyx of 5 sepals, more or less combined. Corolla of 5 petals, either papiliona- 
ceous or regular, hypogynous. Stamens definite or indefinite, inserted with 
the petals, distinct, or monadelphous or diadelphous. Ovary solitary, simple, 
free from the calyx. Fruit a legume. Seeds destitute of albumen (except in 
a few cases). — Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate and usually com- 
pound, furnished with stipules ; the margin of the leaves or leaflets almost 
always entire. 

Suborder I. Papilionace^. Linn. 
Sepals imbricated in aestivation. Corolla papilionaceous, or rarely almost regular. 
Stamens 10, diadelphous, sometimes monadelphous or distinct, inserted with 
the petals upon the base of the calyx. 

♦ Corolla papilionaceous. liailicU incurved. 

Tribe I. VicrE^. .Stamens diadelphous (9 & I ). Legume not articulated, dehiscent. Cotyledons thick and farina- 
ccouH, remaining underground during germination. — Herbs, with abruptly pinnated leaves; the petiole 
extended into a tendril. 

Tribe II. Pii«8eoi.f:«. .Stamens mostly diadelphous (9 & 1 ). Legume not jointed, but sometimes with cellular par- 
titions between the seeds. Cotyledons thick.— Twining, herbaceous, or sometimes shrubby plantB. 
Leaves pinnatrly trifoliolatc, or sometimes unequally pinnate, stiiiellato. 

Tribe III. Gii.ECRjE. Stamens iliadclphous, or sometimes monadelphous. Legume not jointed, several-seeded and 
dehiscent, or 1 - 2-ccllcd and indehiscent. Cotyledons foliaccous.— Erect herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves 
usually unequally pinnate, seldom stipcllato. 

[Flora.] 20 

154 LEGUMINOSiE. Vicia. 

Tril)e IV. Trifolice. Slaracns diadelphous. Legume not jointed, Jchisccnt and several-seeded, or I - 2-sceJed and 

indchisccnt. — Mostly low herbs. Leaves trifoliolate, without stipcllcs : leaflets often toothed or serrulate. 
Tribe V. Astragale.e. Stamens diadelphous. Legume turgid or inflated, often spiuiously 3-ceIlcd longitudinally 

by thcintroflexionof one of the sutures. — Herbs, mostly with unequally pinnate leaves which are destitute 

of stipelles. 
Tril>e VI. Hkdvsire.e. Stamens monadelphous or diadelphjus. Legume (lomcnt) transversely divided into several 

indehiscent one-seeded joints, or sometimes reduced to a single one-sccdcd cell. — Leaves (in all the United 

States genera) pinnately trifoliolate. 
Tribe VII. GENisTEiE. Stamens monadelphous: anthers of two forms. Lcgumesnol jointed, but sometimes intercepted 

internally.-:— Leaves simple or palmately compound, not slipellatc. 
Tribe VIII. SoPHOREjE. Stamens distinct : anthers uniform. Legume continuous, or frequently moniUform, but not 


»• Corolla irregular, or sometimes ncarli^ regular, never truly papilionaceous. 

Tribe IX. CiSsiE.!:. Stamens distinct, sometimes fewer than 10: anthers mostly of two forms. Legume not jointed, 
or spuriously many-celled by transverse partitions between the joints. — Ijcavcs pinnate or bipinnate. 

Tribe I. VICIE.i:. DC. 

Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens diadelphous (9 <^ 1). Legume continuous {not articulated^ 
2-valved, dehiscent. Radicle bent back on the edge of the cotyledons. Cotyledons thick 
and farinaceous, remaining under ground unchanged in form during germination. — 
Herbs with abruptly pinnate leaves ; the common petiole not articulated to the stem, 
extended beyond the apex into a bristle or tendril. 


1. Vicia. Style with a tuft of hair at the summit, particularly on the outside (next the keel). 

2. Ervu.m. Style pubescent on the sides, or all around, below the stigma. 

3. Lathyrcs. Style pubescent on the inner surface (next the free stamen). 

1. VICIA. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 6oSl. vetch. 

[ " Name originally derived from the Celtic word gmg " (De Theis) ; widen in German ; vida, Latin ; vesce, French.} 

Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-cleft or 5-toothed ; the 2 upper teeth shortest. Style filiform, 
bent at a right angle with the ovary, villous at the apex, particularly on the outside (next 
the keel). Legume oblong, several-seeded. — Mostly climbing herbs. Leaflets in several 
pairs. Petioles produced into branching tendrils. Peduncles axillary. 

• Peduncles elongated. 

1. ViciA Americana, Muhl American Vetch, 

Smooth; leaflets numerous (10- 14), elliptical-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or retuse, 

mucronate ; stipules (small) semisagittate, deeply toothed ; peduncles shorter than the leaves, 

4 - 8-flo\vered ; lower teeth of the calyx broadly lanceolate ; style very villous at the apex ; 

legumes linear-oblong, compressed, reticulated, smooth. — Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1096 ; 


ViciA. LEGUMINOSiE. 155 

Pursh, fl. 2. p. 471 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 355 ; Hooh ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 157 ; Darlingt. ft. 
Cest. p. 424; Torr. 4- Gr. ft. N. A?n. I. p. 269. 

Stem 1 - 3 feet long, slender, somewhat quadrangular. Leaflets about three-fourths of an 
inch long, on very short partial petioles. Stipules many times smaller than the leaflets. 
Tendrils 2 - many-parted. Flowers about 8 lines long, purplish blue. Upper teeth of the 
pubescent calyx very short. 

Moist shady places, particularly in the northern and western counties ; rare. June. 

2. ViciA Cracca, Linn. Tufted Vetch. 

Stem branching ; leaflets numerous (20 - 24), oblong, minutely pubescent, mucronate ; 
stipules lanceolate, semisagittate, nearly entire ; peduncles many-flowered, about as long as 
the leaves , the flowers crowded, retrorsely imbricate ; teeth of the calyx shorter than the 
tube, the upper ones very short ; style hairy at the summit ; legume oblong, coriaceous, re- 
ticulated, smooth; seeds globose, black. — Michx. ft. 2. p. 69; Engl. hot. t. 1168; Pursh, 
ft. 2. p. 472; DC. prodr. 2. p. 357; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 269; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. l.p. 157; 
Beck, bot. p. 88 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 270. 

Stem 2-3 feet long, slender. Leaflets about three-fourths of an inch long, usually rather 
obtuse. Raceme 15 - 30-flowered, at length often longer than the leaves. Flowers 4-6 
lines long, bright blue or pale purple ; their pedicels short and pubescent. Legume com- 
pressed, brownish. 

Borders of woods, fields, etc. ; western part of the State. June - July. Possibly an 
introduced plant, but it has much the appearance of being indigenous here. 

3. ViciA TETRASPERMA, Loisel. Slender Vetch. 

Smooth ; leaflets 4-6, oblong ; stipules lanceolate, semisagittate ; peduncles mostly 2- 
flowered ; teeth of the calyx lanceolate, shorter than the tube, the sinuses acute ; legume 
oblong, smooth, usually 4-seeded. — Loisel. ft. Gall. 1. p. 460; Torr. <^- Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. 
p. 272. V. pusilla, Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1106 ; Pursh, ft. 2. p. 471 ; Bigel. ft. Bost. 
p. 270. Ervum telraspermum, Linn.; Engl. bot. t. 1223 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 367; Torr. 
compend. p. 264 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 1 58. 

Stems somewhat cespitose, 1 - 2 feet long, very slender, quadrangular. Leaves half an 
inch long, rather obtuse, tipped with a short fine point. Flowers very small, rarely solitary, 
sometimes 3-4 together. Peduncles at first rather shorter, but in fruit longer than the leaves, 
filiform. Corolla white, or tinged with purple. Legumes half an inch long, resembling 
minute peas. Seeds blackish, with a linear hilum, somewhat compressed. 

Banks of rivers ; rather common in the neighborhood of the city of New-York, and for 
some distance up the Hudson. June - July. A native also of Europe. 


156 LEGUMINOS^. Vicia. 

•• Flowers nearly sessile. 

4. Vicia sativa, Linn. Common Vetch or Tare. 

Stem simple ; leaflets 6-12, varying from obovatc-oblong to linear, retuse, mucronate ; 
stipules semisagittate, toothed ; flowers solitary or in pairs ; calyx cylindrical , the segments 
as long as the tube, lanceolate-subulate, nearly equal ; style short, bearded at the summit ; 
legumes somewhat erect, torulose ; seeds smooth. — Engl hot. t. 234 ; Michx. Jl. 2. p. 69 ; 
Purshy fl. 2. p. 270 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 360 ; B^el. jl. Bost. p. 270 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 157 ; Beck, hot. p. 89 ; Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 425 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 272. 

Plant somewhat pubescent, annual. Stem a foot or more high, erect or decumbent. Leaf- 
lets about an inch long, conspicuously mucronate, ihc lower ones strongly retuse. Stipules 
usually marked with a dark spot. Tendrils branched. Flowers half an inch long, pale violet- 
purple. Legume 1 - 2 inches long, compressed, reticulated, slightly hairy, S - 10-seeded. 
Seeds orbicular, compressed, nearly black when ripe. 

Fields, waste places, etc. ; introduced from Europe. June - July. 

Two varieties of this plant arc cultivated in Europe, under the names of Winter Tare and 
Summer Tare. They yield valuable herbage for cattle. 

2. ERVUM. Town. ; Endl. gen. 6580. TARE. 

[ Said to be derived from the Celtic word cric, a ploughed field ; some of its species being troublesome weeds ] 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; the segments nearly equal, linear, acute, about the length of the corolla. 
Style filiform, pubescent on the sides or all around below the stigma. Legume oblong, 
2 - 4-seeded. Seeds orbiculeir or globose. — Annual plants. Leaflets usually numerous. 
Petioles terminating in tendrils. Peduncles axillary. 

1. Ervum htrsutum, Linn. (Plate XXI.) Hairy Tare. 

Leaves linear or linear-oblong, truncate or retuse, slightly mucronate ; peduncles 3-6- 
flowered, about the length of the leaves ; calyx hairy, the subulate segments rather shorter 
than the corolla ; legumes oblong, obliquely truncate, 2-seeded, drooping. — Engl. hot. t. 971 ; 
Torr. compend. p. 264 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 366 ; Beck, hot. t. 89 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 426 ; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 158 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 273. Vicia Mitchelli, Raf. 
prec. decouv. p. 37 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 224 ; DC. I. c. p. 360. 

Annual. Stem branching, weak, climbing, 2-3 feet long, nearly smooth. Leaflets 8 - 20, 
about half an inch long and a line wide, narrow at the base. Stipules semisagittate, entire or 
cleft. Flowers very small, bluish-white. Legume scarcely half an inch long, torulose. Seeds 
nearly spherical, brownish. 

Banks of rivers and thickets ; common in the neighborhood, usually near salt water, and 
m company with Vicia tetrasperma. Probably an introduced plant. 

Lathyrcs. LEGUMINOS.E. 157 

3. LATHYRUS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6582. vetcbling. 

[ From the Greek, lathuros, a leguminous plant described by Theophrastus.J 
Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft ; ihe two upper segments somewhat shortest. Style usually 
somewhat flattened and dilated towards the summit, bent nearly at a right angle with the 
ovary, pubescent or villous along the inside (next the free stamen). Legume oblong, several- 
seeded. — Mostly perennial, climbing herbs. Leaflets in from one to several pairs. Petioles 
terminating in tendrils. Peduncles axillary. 

1. Lathyrus m.^ritimus, Bigel. Seaside Vetchling. Beach Pea. 
Plant usually smooth ; stem stout, at length decumbent ; leaflets 4-6 pairs, oval or slightly 

obovate ; stipules cordate-hastate, nearly the size of the leaflets ; peduncles 6 - 10-flowered, 
rather shorter than the leaves ; segments of the calyx hairy on the inargin, the two upper ones 
triangular and shorter, the others lanceolate. — Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 268 ; Hook. Brit. ft. ed. 4. 
p. 270 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 273. L. venosus, Brit. ft. gard. {ser. 2.) t. 37. L. 
Californicus, Dougl. ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1144. L. pisiformis, Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. \.p. 158. 
Pisum maritimum, Linn. ^ Engl. hot. t. 1047; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 95; DC.prodr. 2. p. 368; 
Torr. compend. p. 263. 

Perennial. Stem 1-2 feet long, angular, but not winged. Leaflets often scattered on the 
petiole, of a firm texture, 1^-2 inches long, with prominent reticulated veins. Stipules 
usually somewhat toothed below. Tendrils branching. Flowers large and showy, purple ; 
the wings and keel paler. Legume oblong, somewhat falcate. 

Sandy seacoast of Long Island ; abundant, and on the shore of Lake Ontario. Lake Erie, 
near Dunkirk, and Oneida lake {Dr. Knieskern). June —July. This plant was very pro- 
perly removed to the genus Lathyrus by Dr. Bigelow. 

2. Lathyrus ochrolrucus. Hook. (Plate XXII.) Cream-colored Vetchling. 

Whole plant smooth, pale and somewhat glaucous ; leaflets 3-4 pairs, broadly oval or 
ovate, thin ; stipules semicordate, smaller than the leaflets, entire or obtusely toothed at the 
base ; peduncles 7 - 10-flowered, shorter than the leaves ; upper segments of the calyx 
broadly triangular, and scarcely half ihe length of the oblong lateral ones ; the lower, lanceo- 
late, and a little longer ; corolla yellowish-white. — Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 159 ; Gray in 
ann. lye. N. York, 1. p. 225 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 275. L. glaucifolius. Beck, 
hot. p. 90. L. pisiformis, Richards, in app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 28. 

Stem slender, somewhat angular but not winged, \i - 2^ feel long. Leaflets 1-2 inches 
long, usually three pairs. Stipules variable in size, but seldom more than half as large as the 
leaves. Flowers rather smaller than in the preceding species. Calyx obtuse at the base ; 
the teeth slightly hairy on the margin. Legume linear-oblong, compressed, smooth. 

Shady hill-sides and banks of streams, Gorham, Ontario county ; also in Yates county {Dr. 
Sartwell); Jefferson county {Dr. Crawe). Fl. June - July. 

158 LEGUMINOSiE. Lathvrus. 

3. Latiiyrus MYRTiFOLius, Muhl. Myrtk-leavcd Vetchling. 

Whole plant smooth ; stem slender, often slightly winged ; leaflets 2-3 (rarely 4) pairs, 
oval-clliplical or oblong, obtuse at each end ; stipules ovate-semisagittate, smaller than the 
leaflets, nearly entire ; peduncles 3 - 6-flo\vered, longer than the leaves ; upper teeth of the 
calyx broad and shortest, the others triangular-lanceolate. — Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1091 ; 
Pursh,fl. 2. p. 471 ; DC. proJr. 2. p. 371 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 159; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 
N. Am. 1. p. 275. L. stipulaceus, Le Conte in Torr. cat. pi. N. York, p. 92; DC. I. c. ; 
Hook. I. c. 

Stem 2-4 feet long, climbing or straggling. Leaflets 1 - 1^ inch long and half an inch 
or more in breadth, somewhat glaucous underneath, rather coriaceous, with prominent veins. 
Stipules usually much smaller than the leaflets, but sometimes half an inch long, acute at each 
end, often coarsely toothed at the base. Flowers pale purple ; the wings and keel whitish. 
Legume oblong-linear, compressed, smooth. 

Banks of rivers, borders of swamps, etc. Northern and western counties ; also in the 
neighborhood of New-York. 

This plant can generally be distinguished from the following, by its more slender stem, and 
broader leaflets and stipules ; but there sometimes occur forms that seem almost intermediate 
between the two species. 

4. Lathvrus palustris, Linn. Marsh Vetchling. 

Plant mostly smooth ; stems often winged, rather rigid ; leaflets 3 (sometimes 4) pairs, 
oblong, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, somewhat coriaceous ; stipules semisagittate, lanceo- 
late, acuminate at each end ; peduncles 3 - 5-flowered. — Linn. sp. 1034 ; Engl. hot. t. 169 ; 
Michx. fl. 2. p. 66 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 471 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 209 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 371 ; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 161 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 276. 

Stem 2-3 feet long, climbing or straggling, rarely pubescent, the angles commonly more 
or less winged. Leaflets li - 2^ inches long, often not more than 3-4 lines wide. Pedun- 
cles at length e.xceeding the leaves. Calyx tinged with purple ; the upper teeth short and 
triangular ; the lower and lateral ones lanceolate, about the length of the tube. Corolla bluish 
purple. Legume broadly linear, compressed, pubescent. 

Wet borders of streams ; common in the northern and western parts of the State. Fl. 
July - August. 


Phaseolus. LEGUMINOS^. 159 

Tribe II. PHASEOLEJE. Brmm ; Benth. 

Corolla papilionaceous. Stameris mostly diadelphous (9 <J- 1 ). Legume continuous, dehis- 
cent, never separating into joints, hut often torose, and with cellular partitions between 
the seeds. Cotyledons thick : radicle incurved. — Mostly tioining, herbaceous or shrubby 
plants. Leaves usually pinnately trifoliolaie {rarely reduced to a single leaflet), some- 
times unequally pinnate, stipellate. Inflorescence axillary. 


Subtribe 1. EcPHASEOLEiE. Ovary with several ovules. Inflorescence racemose. Style often indurated above 
the middle. Cotyledons thick, nearly unaltered in germination. 

♦ Leaves pinnaUly trifoliolak. 

4. Pbaseoll's. Keel, with the stamens and style, spirally twisted or circinate. 

•* Leaves unequally pinnaU. 

5. Apios. Keel, with the stamens and style, at length spirally twisted. Legume nearly terete. Root tuberous. Leaves 

5 - 7-foliolate. 

Subtribe 2. GLTCiNEiE. Ovary with several ovules. Inflorescence racemose. Style not indurated. Cotyledons 
flattish, foliaceous in germination. 
fi. Galactia. Calyx 4-cleft. Vexillum incumbent, broad, without callosities. Legume compressed, linear, many- 
seeded. — Leaves pinnately trifoHolate. 

Subtribe 3. CLiTORiEiE. Ovary with several ovules. Vexillum large, not appendiculate at the base. Inflores- 
cence axillary : peduncles 1 - many-flowered, often cymose-fasciculate. 

7. Clitoria. Calyx tubular, .5-cleft at the summit. Vexillum not spurred on the back. Style longitudinally hairy. 

Legume stipitate, hnear-oblong, torulose ; the valves nerveless.— Twining herbs, with trifoliolate leaves and very 
large flowers. 

8. Amphicarpjea. Flowers of two kinds ; upper ones perfect, in many-flowered racemes, the legume Unear-oblong, 

3 - 4-seeded : lower flowers on prostrate branches (often subterraneous), imperfect or apetalous, producing obovate 
1 - 2-6eeded legumes. — Twining herbs with trifoliolate leaves. 

Subtribe 1. Euphaseole^, Benth. Ovary with several ovules. Style of ten indurated above 
the middle. Vexillum with two appendages at the base. Cotyledons nearly 
unchanged in germination. 

4. PHASEOLUS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 667i. KIDNEY bean. 

[ Latin, phaselus, a little boat ; from the form of the legumes.] 

Calyx campanulalc, 5-toothcd or 5-clefl ; the 2 upper teelh often more or less united. Keel, 
witli the stamens and style, spirally twisted or circinate. Legume linear or falcate, more 
or less compressed, or somewhat terete, many-seeded. Hilum small, oval-oblong, naked, 
or rarely with a small membranaceous strophiole. — Herbaceous (in tropical countries often 
Buffrutescent), twining or trailing plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate : leaflets with con- 
spicuous stipellcs. Pedicels usually in pairs. 

160 LEGUMINOSiE. Phaseolus. 

& 1. Drepanospron. Bcnlh. Stipules not produced at the base; teeth of the calyx broad, much 
shorter than the tube: legume compressed, broad and falcate. 

1. Phaseolus perennis, Wali. (Plate XXIII.) Perennial Kidney-bean. 

Perennial ; leaflets broadly ovate, acuminate, palmately 3-veined ; racemes solitary or 
somewhat clustered, simple or a little branched, longer than the leaves ; legumes pendulous. 
— Walt.Jl. Car. p. 182; Pursh, ji. 2. p. 469 ; Beck, hot. p. 91 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 429; 
Torr. 4" Gr.Jl. N. Am. I. p. 279. P. perennis and macrostachyus. Ell. in jour. acad. Phil. 
I. p. 384 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 391 . P. paniculatus, Michx.Jl. 2. p. 60. Dolichos polystachyos, 
Linn. ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1049. 

Stem 4-10 feet long, pubescent, climbing over shrubs and bushes. Leaflets 2-3 inches 
long, and often nearly as broad as long ; under surface clothed with short uncinate hairs, by 
which the leaves adhere to paper, clotiiing, etc. Stipules small, lanceolate. Racemes nu- 
merous, 4-12 inches long, slender, loosely flowered : pedicels filiform, 2-4 lines long, with 

3 minute hairy bracts at the base. Calyx campanulate, much shorter than the corolla, some- 
what bilabiate. Corolla purple. Legume 2 - 2\ inches long and 4-5 lines wide, strongly 
falcate, 4 - 5-seeded. Seeds oblong-reniform or roundish, somewhat compressed, dark purple, 

Borders of woods, and in shady copses. Island of New- York, and Long Island, near 
Brooklyn. Latter part of July - August. Fr. September. I have found this species only 
in the southern part of the State. It is highly ornamental when in full flower. 

& 2. STRornosTYLEs, Ell. Stipules adhering to the petiole, produced and free at the base ; lower 
tooth of the calyx as long or longer than the tube : legume linear, straight, somewhat terete. 

2. Phaseolus diversifolius, P€7s. Various-leaved Kidney-bean, 

Annual ; stem prostrate, diffuse, retrorsely and roughly hairy ; leaflets broadly ovate, an- 
gular or 2 - 3-lobed, sometimes entire, about the length of the petioles ; stipules lanceolate ; 
peduncles longer than the leaves ; flowers few, capitate ; legume slightly pubescent, broadly 
linear, nearly terete, 6 - 7-seeded ; seeds oblong-cylindrical, woolly. — Pers. syn. 2. p. 296 ; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 394 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 279. P. trilobus, Mtckx. fl. 2. p. 60, 
not of Roth ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 470 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 268. P. angulosus, Ort. ; DC. I. c. ? 
Glycine angulosa, Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1056. Strophostyles angulosa, Ell. sk. 2. p. 229. 
Dolichos? angulosus, DC. I. c. p. 369, excl. syn. Walt. 

Roots often bearing numerous small roundish tubes, from the size of a peppercorn to that 
of a pea. Stem 2-6 feet long, rather stout, usually spreading on the ground. Leaflets 
IJ -2^ inches long, commonly more or less distinctly 3-lobcd ; the lobes rather obtuse. 
Peduncles, when in flower, but little longer than the leaves ; in fruit, about twice as long, 

4 - 6 - 8-flowered. Calyx with 2 lanceolate lateral bractcoles ; lower tooth narrow, one-third 

Phaseolus. LEGUMINOSJE. 161 

longer than the tube. Corolla purplish red : keel with a very long curved beak, without a 
tooth at the base. Legume 3 - 3^ inches long and 3 - 4 lines wide, black when ripe. Seeds 
about twice as long as wide, nearly cylindrical, covered with a kind of mealy pubescence 
which easily rubs off, leaving a smooth purplish testa : hilum linear. 

Common on sandy shores, particularly in the neighborhood of New- York. I have not found 
It above the Highlands. August - September. 

3. Phaseolus helvolus, Linn. Long-stalked Kid,mj-hean. 

Perennial ; stem slender, hairy backwards ; leaflets ovate, oblong, usually entire, about the 
length of the petiole ; stipules lanceolate ; peduncles slender, 3-6 times as long as the leaves ; 
flowers few, capitate; legume narrowly linear, 9-ll.seeded, slightly pubescent; seeds 
pubescent, reniform-quadrangular. — Linn. sp. 1017 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 470 ; Michx fl 2 
p. 60 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 395 ; Torr. 4. Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 280. P. vexillatus, Lm7i. l.c'?'- 
Pursh, I. c; DC. I. c. ; Beck, hot. p. 92 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 430. C. peduncularis'. 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 230. Glycine peduncularis, Mvhl. cat. p. 67. 

Stems 3-4 feet long, much more slender than in the preceding species. Leaflets 1 - If 
inch long, rarely somewhat 3-lobed. Peduncles usually 3 - 5-flowered, sometimes 8-10 
inches long. Flowers nearly as in the preceding species : beak of the keel with a tooth at 
the base. Legume about 2^ inches long and 2 lines wide. Seeds covered with a mealy 
pubescence, somewhat truncate at each end, so that they have a square outline : hilum hnear- 

Sandy fields. Long Island ; not found elsewhere in the State. Fl. August - September.— 
This species can in general be easily distinguished from the preceding, by its perennial root, 
long peduncles, and very narrow legumes. 

5. APIOS. Boerh.; Moench, melh. p. 165 ; Endl. gen. 6673. ground-NUT. 

[ Greek, a^os, a pear ; from the form of ils tuberous roots.] 
Calyx broadly campanulate, obscurely 2-lipped ; the upper lip of two short rounded teeth. 
Vexillum very broad, with a longitudinal fold in the centre, reflexcd : keel long, falcate, 
and with the stamens and style at length spirally twisted. Stigma emarginatc."' Legume' 
somewhat terete, slightly falcate, many-seeded. Seeds reniform. — A perennial, twining, 
nearly smooth herb. Root producing numerous small, oblong or pear-shaped, somewhat 
edible tubers. Leaves 5 - 7-foliolatc, with minute stipules. Racemes axillary, dense, 
sometimes compound ; the pedicels short, growing 3 or 4 together from little knobs of the 
rachis. Calyx with 2 minute caducous bracteoles at the base. Flowers brownish purple. 
[Flora.] 21 

162 LEGUMINOSiE. Apios. 

1. Apios tuberosa, Mocncli. Ground-nut. 

Moench, I. c. ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 273 ; Nult. gen. 2. p. 1 13 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 235 ; DC. prodr. 
2. p. 391; Torr. compend. p.21Q; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \. p.\CA ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. ^128; 
Beck, hot. p. 91 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 282. Glycine Apios, Linn. ; Bol. mag. 
t. 1 198 ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 83 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 277. 

Root producing fleshy tubers about the size of a chestnut, arranged at intervals like beads. 
Stem 4-8 feet long, climbing over bushes, nearly smooth. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 
inches long, acuminate, each articulated to the common petiole by a short hairy stalk. Ra- 
cemes shorter than the leaves. Flowers in crowded oval racemes, rather fragrant, of a dull 
purple mixed with green. Legume 3-5 inches long, 8 - 10-seeded. Seeds dark purple : 
hilum very small. 

Low grounds and moist thickets ; rather common in many parts of the State. Fl. August. 
Fr. September. The tubers are farinaceous, and would probably increase in size and quality 
by cultivation. 

Subtribe 2. Glycine.^, Bcnth. Ovary with several ovules. Inflorescence racemose, with 
the pedicels more or less aggregated on small alternate knobs. Bracteoles very 
small, often deciduous. Vexillum usually with two small appendages at the 
base. Style not indurated. Cotyledons flat, foliaceous in germination. 

6. GALACTIA. P. Browne ; Endl. gen. 6653. milk pea. 

[ Named from the Greek, gala, milk ; some of the species yielding a milky juice when wounded.] 

Calyx 4-cleft ; segments acute, of nearly equal length ; the upper one broadest. Vexillum 
incumbent, broad : keel-petals slightly cohering towards the apex. Legume compressed, 
linear, many-seeded. Seeds orbicular or somewhat reniform. — Twining or prostrate (rarely 
erect) herbaceous plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate. Racemes axillary, usually loosely 
flowered. Flowers purplish. 

1. Galactia glabella, Michx. Smooth Milk-vine. 

Stem prostrate, nearly smooth ; leaflets elliptical-oblong or ovate-oblong, obtuse, emarginate, 
smooth above, slightly hairy underneath ; racemes at length a little longer than the leaves ; 
flowers approximated, distinctly pedicellate ; calyx nearly smooth ; legumes somewhat hairy. 
— Michx. fl. 2. ;;. 62 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 117 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 239 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 238 ; 
Beck, bol. p. 81 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 409 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 287. Glycine 
regularis, Linn.; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1049. 

Root fusiform. Stems numerous, 2-4 feet long, spreading on the ground, or sometimes 
twining, slightly pubescent. Leaflets about an inch and a half long, often somewhat cordate 

Galactia. LEGUMINOSiE. 163 

at the base, bright green and somewhat shining above, paler underneath : partial stalks hairy, 
with minute deciduous stipelles at the base : common petiole an inch long. Racemes 4-8- 
flowered, at first usually shorter than the leaves, but at length (particularly in fruit) exceeding 
them. Calyx-segments erect, the lowest one longest. Corolla reddish purple and white, with 
tinges of green, very handsome. Anthers linear-oblong. Style long and filiform. Legume 
slightly falcate, 1 J - 2 inches long, 4 - 6-seeded. 

Hill-sides near the Hudson river, Peekskill {Dr. S. B. Mead). July - August. — I have 
not seen the plant collected by Dr. Mead, and therefore describe from specimens collected in 
New-Jersey, where this species is very common. It will very probably be found in the sandy 
soils of Long Island, although I have not yet detected it there. 

Subtribe 3. Clitorie^, Benth. Ovary with several ovules. Inflorescence axillanj : pedun- 
cles 1 - 2-flowered at the summit, or many-flowered, with the racemes often 
fasciculate or branching. Bracts {except in Amphicarp.ea) and hracteoles 
opposite, striate. Vexillum large, not appendiculate at the base. — Flowers 
commonly large. 

7. CLITORIA. Linn, (in part) ; Benth. comm. Legum. gen. p. 50 ; Endl. gen. 6635. 
[ Name derived from an anatomical term.] 
Calyx tubular, 5-toothed ; the teeth much shorter than the tube ; lowest one lanceolate, the 
others triangular-ovate. Vexillum very large, emarginate or bifid, not spurred on the back : 
keel small, shorter than the wings, incurved, acute, on very long claws. Style dilated at 
the apex, longitudinally bearded. Legume stipitate, linear or linear-oblong, torulose, flat- 
tish, without nerves. Seeds orbicular, somewhat compressed.— Twining, perennial herbs. 
Leaves pinnately trifoiiolate. Stipules somewhat persistent, striate : partial stipules seta- 
ceous. Peduncles 1 - 2- (or many-) flowered. Bracts similar to the stipules : bracteoles 
larger. Flowers very large. 

1. Clitoria Mariana, Linn. (Plate XXIV.) Maryland Clitoria. 

Smooth ; stem trailing or somewhat twining ; leaves trifoiiolate ; leaflets more or less ovate ; 
peduncles short, 1 - 3-flowcred ; bracteoles lanceolate-subulate, much shorter than the calyx^ 
similar in size and form to the bracts ; legumes linear-oblong, 4 - 8-seeded, smoolh.— Walt. 
fl. Car.; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1070 ; Micluc. fl. 2. p. 62 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 1 18 ; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 240 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 234 ; Beck, bot. p. 80 ; Torr. compend. p. 271. 

Stem 2 feet or more in length, usually trailing over small bushes. Leaflets about 2 inches 
long, rather obtuse, sometimes a little cordate, the middle one distant. Peduncles seldom 
more llian two- and often onc-flowercd. Bracteoles about one-fourth the length of tlic calyx. 


1G4 LEGUMINOSiE. Clitoria. 

Flower two inches in length, pale blue tinged with purple. Legume 2-3 inches long and 
about one-third of an inch wide, strongly torulose ; the stipe stout, as long as the peduncle. 
Seed the size of small peas, covered with a glutinous kind of varnish, brown ; the hilum small 
and roundish. 

Sandy soil on a busiiy hill-side about half a mile from the South Ferry, Brooklyn ; the only 
known locality of this beautiful ])lant in the State. Fl. Latter part of .luly - August. Fr. 

8. AMPHICARPiEA. Ell. in jour. acad. Phil. 1. p. 372 ; Torr. <J- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
■p. 292 ; Endl. gen. 3660. IIOO-MT. 

[ Greek, amphi, on both sides, and citrpos, fruit ; producing fruit both above and under ground.] 

Flowers of two kinds ; those of the upper many-flowered racemes perfect and petaliferous, 
but often sterile ; those at the base of the stem or underground mostly on one- or few- 
flowered peduncles, imperfect and deformed, but usually fertile. Perfect fl. Calyx 
tubular-campanulate, 4-toothed, without bracts. Vcxillum incumbent, and partly folded 
round the other petals. Ovary 4-ovuled : style smooth : stigma small, capitate. Legume 
linear-oblong, stipitate, compressed, somewhat scimitar-shaped, 3 - 4-seeded. Imperfect 
or Apetalous fl. Calyx nearly as in the petaliferous flowers. Corolla none, or with the 
rudiment of a vexillum. Stamens either wanting or 5 - 10, several of them bearing perfect 
anthers, the others rudimentary : filaments distinct. Ovary 1 - 3-ovuled, with a short 
recurved style. Legume obovate or pyriform, 1 - 2-seeded, usually maturing beneath the 
surface of the ground. — Annual, twining or sarmentose herbs. Stems retrorsely pubescent. 
Leaves pinnately trifoliolate. Stipules resembling the bracts, striate. Racemes of the 
perfect flowers often somewhat compound : bracts orbicular, often emarginate or 2-cleft 
(each formed by the union of a pair), clasping. 

1. Amphicarp^.a. monoic.4, Torr. Sf- Gr. Common Hog-nut. 

Racemes of the petaliferous flowers nodding ; teeth of the calyx short and broad, somewhat 
triangular ; bracts shorter than the pedicels. — Torr. ^- Gr. I. c. A. monoica <^ sarmenlosa, 
Ell. I. c, and sk. 2. p. 233 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 213 ; DC. I. c. ; Beck, hot. p. 91 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 427. Glycine monoica, comosa and bracteata, Linn.; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1058 
(also G. sarmentosa) ; Pursh.fl. 2. p. 485. G. monoica, Micluc.fl. 2. p. 64 ; Bigel.fl. Best, 
p. 276. Cryptolobus Americanus and sarmentosus, Sprcng. syst. 3. p. 218. 

Root fibrous and branching, usually producing numerous small subterraneous flowers. 
Stem slender, 3-8 feet long, climbing over shrubs, etc., angular, more or less hairy or villous; 
the hairs retrorse, and more or less appressed, but sometimes spreading, and of a brownish 

Amphicarp.ea. LEGUMINOS^. 165 

color. Leaflets smoolii or pubescent, ih - 3 inches long, rhombic-ovate or oblong-ovate, the 
lateral ones oblique. Racemes of the stem about an inch long, on rather short slender pedun- 
cles, solitary or in pairs. Bracts persistent, about a line and a half in diameter. Flowers 
pale purple or nearly white, clustered or in pairs in the axils of the bracts. Vexillum broadly 
obovate-oblong. Keel and wing-petals similar. Apetalous flowers produced on slender, 
prostrate, simple or branching peduncles, thrown out from near the base of the stem, or 
growing directly from the fibrous roots, the former usually partly or wholly covered with loose 
earth or decaying leaves. Legumes of the stem about an inch long and a third of an inch 
wide, hairy along the sutures. Seeds orbicular, compressed, dark purple. Underground 
legumes short and thick, hairy, usually perfecting but one seed, and that larger than those 
produced by the stem flowers. 

Woods and thickets ; common. August - September. In places where this curious plant 
abounds, the hogs often root up the ground to obtain the subterraneous nuts. 

Tribe III. GALEGE^. Brown (partly). 

Corolla papilionaceous {or otherwise irregular). Stamens diadelphous (9^1), or sometimes 
monadelphous. Legume continuous, dehiscent, one-celled, several-seeded {rarely with 
cellular transverse partitions between the seeds, hut never separating into joints) ; or 
1 - 2-seeded and indehiscent. Radicle iiicurved or inflexed. Cotyledons foliaccous. — 
Erect herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves usually unequally pinnate, seldom stipellate. 
Inflorescence axillary or terminal, in racemes or spikes. 

• Leaves uncquaUy pinnate. 

9. ROBINIA. Linn. ; DC. mem. Leg. p. 273 ; Endl. gen. 6546. locust. 

[ In honor of John and Vespasun Robin, French botanists, who introduced the Locust into Europe more than 200 years 

ago ] 

Calyx short, somewhat campanulate, 5-toothed or 5-cleft ; the two upper segments shorter, 
approximated or cohering. Vexillum broad and large : keel obtuse. Stamens diadelphous. 
Style bearded along the inner side. Legume many-seeded, compressed, straight, nearly 
sessile ; the seminiferous suture margined : valves thin. Seeds reniform. — Trees or shrubs 
(exclusively North American), usually bearing stipular spines. Leaves unequally pinnate : 
leaflets petiolulatc, stipellate. Flowers showy, while or rose-color, in simple, usually 
pendant axillary racemes. 

1. RoBiNiA PsEUDACACiA, Linn. Common Locmt-tree. 

Branches armed with stipular spines ; racemes loose, drooping and (as well as the legumes) 

smooth ; leaflets ovale and oblong-ovate. — Lam. ill. t. 606 ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 65 ; I'ursh, fl. 

2, p. 487 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 242 ; Michx. f. sylv. 2. p. l.t.lQ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 2(5 1 ; Beck, 

hot. p. 82 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 410 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 294. 

166 LEGUMINOS^. Robieia. 

A tree seldom more tlian 40 or 50 feel liigh, but occasionally attaining a height of 90 feet. 
The young plant is armed with very strong and sharp prickles, which disappear after the trunk 
is 3 - 4 inches in diameter. The wood is conipacl, hard and very durable, generally of a 
greenish-yellow color, but sometimes reddish or while. Leaflets in from 4 to 9 pairs, thin 
and membranaceous, furnished with minute setaceous slipelles. Racemes 3-5 inches long : 
pedicels one-third of an inch long. Flowers about as large as a pea-blossom, mostly resupi- 
nate when fully expanded, white and fragrant. Lower tooth of the calyx subulate. Legume 
2-3 inches long and half an inch wide, 4 - 6-sceded, rather obtuse. Seeds dark brown. 

Not indigenous in any part of the State, but common about houses, and cultivated for the 
sale of its wood : almost naturalized in many places. Fl. May - June. Fr. September. 

The Locust is one of the most valuable trees of this or of any other country. Its wood 
grows rapidly, and long resists decay, even under the most unfavorable circumstances. It is 
chiefly used for posts, and underground structures. The most durable kind is that with a 
reddish heart, and the white-heart variety is the least so. Its strength is as remarkable as its 
durability, and hence it is employed in shipbuilding ; but it can hardly be obtained in sufficient 
quantity, and of the requisite size, to be extensively used for this purpose. It answers ad- 
mirably for trenails, or the pins by which the planks are fastened to the sides of the vessel. 
In the Northern States, where the cultivation of the Locust has been attended lo, great num- 
bers of the trees have been destroyed by the grub of an insect that perforates the wood in 
every direction, quite to the centre. The largest locust trees that I have noticed in New- 
York, are those on the estate of J. P. Dewint, Esq. at Fishkill Landing, Dutchess county, 
where they are about ninety feet in height. 

In the western part of the State, R. viscosa is almost naturalized in some places, being 
used for hedge-fences. 

10, TEPHROSIA. Pers sy7i. 2. p. 328 ; Endl. gen. 6539. TEPimosiA. 

[ From the Greek, Icphros, ash-coloreJ ; in allusion to the color of the foliage.] 

Calyx without bracleoles, about equally 5-cleft or 5-toolhed. Vexillum large, roundish, 
spreading or rcflexed, usually pubescent on the outside : keel obtuse, cohering with the 
wings. Stamens monadelphous, or occasionally diadelphous ; the tenth filament sometimes 
half united with the others. Style filiform : stigma obtuse, pubescent. Legume linear, 
much compressed, many-seeded : valves usually flat. — Shrubby or herbaceous plants, 
clothed with a silky villous pubescence. Leaves unequally pinnate. Stipules free from 
the petiole, lanceolate or subulate, never sagittate. Flowers in racemes, white or purplish. 

Tephrosia. LEGUMINOSiE. 167 

^. Brissonia, Neek. Style longitudinally bearded. Legume more or less velvety or hispid. Sieds 

reniform, compressed. 

1. Tephrosia Virginiana, Pers. Goat's Rue. Catgut. 

Stem villous-pubescent, erect; leaves nearly sessile ; leaflets 8-14 pairs, oblong-linear or 
elliptical, mucronate, silky villous underneath, minutely silky-pubescent above ; calyx very 
villous, the segments acuminate and cuspidate, about the length of tlie tube. — Pers. syn. 2. 
p. 329 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 245 , Nutt. gen. 2. p. 119 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 248 ; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 139 ; Beck, hot. p. 81 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 409 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 296. Galega Virginiana, Linn.; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1244; Michx. fl. 2. p. 67. 

Roots slender, long and tough. Whole plant clothed with a whitish pubescence. Stems 
about a foot high, usually clustered, sometimes inclined. Leaflets about an inch long, of 
variable breadth, sometimes only about 2 lines wide, but more commonly about one-third of 
an inch. Flowers in a dense terminal raceme, about the size of a pea-blossom, dull yellow 
handsomely tinged with purple. Legume about 2 inches long and 3 lines wide, villous, 
6 - 8-seeded. Seeds brownish, often speckled. 

Dry sandy soils ; often on hill-sides : rather common. Fl. Middle of June to the end of 
July. Fr. September. Dr. Darlington states that an infusion of the root is a popular 

Tribe IV. TRIFOLIEjE. Broun. 

Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens diadelphaus (9 <^ 1). Legume continuous, one-celled, 
dehiscent and several-seeded, or nearly indehiscent with one or few seeds. Radicle 
inflexed. — Erect or procianbent, mostly loto herbs, rarely somewhat shrubby. Leaves 
palmately or pinnately trifoliolate, without stipelles : leaflets often toothed or serrulate ! 
Iriflorescence in racemes, spikes, heads or umbels, which are either terminal or axillary. 


11. Trifolium. Legumes (small) mostly shorter than the calyx, one- or several-seeded, mciiiliranaccous, indehiscent, 

or only opening by the ventral suture. — Flowers more or less capitate. 
13. Meliloti/3. Legume globose or ovoid, longer than the calyx, rugose, scarcely dehiscent. — Flowers in racemose 

13. Medicago. Legume falcate or spirally twisted, compressed, membranaceous. 

11. TRIFOLIUM. Tourn.inst.t.'2,2H;Endl.gcn.65n. CLOVER. TREFOIL. 

[ Named from the Latin, Ires, three, and folium, a leaf.] 

Calyx tubular or campanulale, 5-cIeft or 5-toothed ; the segments or teeth subulate or seta- 
ceous. Corolla mostly persistent or marccscent ; the petals all usually more or less united 
at the base, free from (or occasionally coherent with) the slamcn-tubc. Vcxillum longer 

168 LEGUMINOSiE. Trifolium. 

than tlic wings, and mostly longer than the keel. Ovarj' 2 - 6-ovuled : style filiform. 
Legumes small, membranaceous, 1 - 2- or sometimes 3 - 6-sceded, indehiscenl or often 
dehiscent by the ventral suture, included in the calyx-tube, or sometimes exserted on a short 
stipe. — Herbs, often cwspitosc or diffuse. Leaves palmately 3- (rarely 5 - 7-) foliolate, 
or occasionally pinnalely trifoliolate : leaflets usually denticulate ; the veins straight, simple 
or forked. Stipules growing to the base of the petiole. Flowers in dense spikes or heads ; 
sometimes only few, and then umbellate, bracteate. 

» CoroUa marccsceni or deciduous, never yellow ; Jlmcers in ovate heads, net dcjlexed tchen old : calyx iwt injlalcd after 


1. Trifolium arvense, Linn. Stone Clover. Rahhit-foot. 

Plant somewhat silky-pubescent ; stem erect, branching ; leaflets spatulate-lanccolate, 
obtuse, longer than the petiole ; stipules ovate, acuminate ; heads oblong-cylindrical, very 
villous ; teeth of the calyx setaceous, longer than the corolla, at length spreading. — Engl. hot. 
t. 944 ; Michx.Jl. 2. p. 59 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 202 ; Bigel.jl. Bost.p. 270 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 190 ; 
Hook. J!. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 131 ; Beck, hot. p. 79 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 406 ; Torr. <^ Gr. 
ft. N.Am. 1. p. 313. 

Annual. Stem 6-12 inches high, usually much branched, but often nearly simple. 
Leaflets about three-fourths of an inch long, emarginate and mucronate, entire or obscurely 
serrulate. Stipules with a long subulate point. Spikes from half an inch to an inch long, 
finally tawny, at first nearly sessile, but at length pedunculate. Corolla very small, white or 
pale rose-color, with a purple spot on the wings. Legume one-seeded. Seed oval. 

Old sandy fields, sterile hill-sides, etc. ; common. Introduced from Europe. April - No- 

2. Trifolium pratense, Linn. Red Clover. 

Stems ascending ; leaflets oval, obovate or broadly obovate, often retuse or emarginate, 
nearly entire ; stipules broadly lanceolate, acuminate with a long subulate point ; heads of 
flowers ovoid, dense, nearly sessile, bracteate ; teeth of the calyx setaceous, lower one much 
longer than the others, which are equal and about half the length of the corolla. — Pursh, fl. 
2. p. 478 ; E7igl. hot. t. 1 170 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 202 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 195 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. 
p. 271 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 191 ; Beck, hot. p. 79 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 406 ; Tmr. 
4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 314. 

Root perennial, according to most authors ; biennial, according to some. Stem from 1 to 
2 feet high or more. Leaflets often marked with a whitish lunulate spot. Flowers purplish 
red ; the petals united into a tube at the base. Legume one-seeded. Seed nearly reniform. 

Meadows, cultivated fields, etc.; extensively naturalized. May - September. — The 
Common Red Clover is well known as a most valuable fodder plant ; making either by itself, 
or mixed with true grasses, the best sort of hay. "Authors generally consider this species a 

Trifolium. LEGUMINOS^. 169 

perennial ; but a dislinguished agriculturalist of New-England asserts positively that it is a 
biennial, and my own observation inclines me to the same opinion. It is certain that a very 
large proportion of the plants disappear after the second year ; and those which apparently 
remain, may be only a succession of young plants from fallen seeds. T perceive also that 
Mr. Sinclair, in his Hortus Gramineus, speaks of the Red Clover as a biennial." Darlington. 

** Cirolla persistent, never ijelloic, turning brmonish ichcn old : flowers in globose heads, dcflexed when old : calyx not 

inflMed after flmoering. 

3. Trifolium reflexum, Linn. Buffalo Clover. 

Plant pubescent ; stem ascending or decumbent ; leaflets obovate or obovate-oblong, some- 
times emarginate, crenulate-serrulate ; stipules foliaceous, ovate-lanceolate ; heads of flowers 
somewhat umbellate, dense ; calyx hairy, parted nearly to the base , the teeth subulate, half 
as long as the corolla ; vexillum broadly ovate ; legume 3 - 5-seeded. — Michx. fi. 2. p. 59; 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 447 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 282 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 20i (not of Waldst. ^- Kit.); 
Hook, in hot. mag. t. 3471 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 315. T. Pennsylvanicum, Willd. 
enum. p. 793 ; DC. I. c. 

Root annual or biennial? perennial according to Muhlenberg. Stems afoot or more in 
length. Head of flowers globose, an inch in diameter. Flowers distinctly pedicellate ; the 
lower ones at length deflexed. Vexillum rose-red : wings and keel white. 

Near Salina Lake, Dr. Sartwell ; also in the neighborhood of Utica, Miss Shelden {Dr. 
Knieskern). Genesee Falls, Prof. Dewey {Eaton). June. A common species in the Western 

4. Trifolium repens, Linn. White Clover. 

Plant smooth ; stems creeping, diffuse ; leaflets obcordate, serrulate ; stipules scarious, 
narrowly lanceolate ; heads of flowers globose, somewhat umbellate, on long axillary pedun- 
cles ; teeth of the calyx unequal ; legume about 4-seeded. — Engl. hot. t. 1769 ; Michx. fl. 2. 
p. 59 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. ^11 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 201 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 271 ; Beck, hot. p. 80 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 407 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 316. 

Root perennial. Leaves on long slender petioles : leaflets often obovate and emarginate or 
nearly entire, commonly marked with a pale semilunar spot. Heads of flowers depressed- 
globose. Teeth of the calyx lanceolate-subulate, shorter than the tube. Corolla white, be- 
coming purplish, and at length of a pale dirty brown. 

Fields and pastures, every where. April - November. This species must be native, for 
it springs spontaneously from the soil, even when turned up from considerable depths, where 
the seeds have probably lain dormant for ages. In climates that arc not too warm, it is 
superior to all other plants for pasturage. In the South, according to Mr. Elliott, stock of 
every description eat it ."paringly, and apparently with reluctance. He states that it aflects 
very sensibly the salivary glands, sometimes producing complete salivation. 

[Flora.] 22 

170 LEGUMINOSiE. Trifolium. 

• •• Corolla ycUow, turning brmcn xchcn oW, scarious and persislcni : Jlmccrs in ovale heads, dejkxed tcicn old : calyx not 

inflated after flowering. 

5. Trifolium agrarium, Linn. Yellow Clover. Hop Clover. 

Stem ascending or erect, minutely pubescent ; leaves on rather short petioles ; leaflets 
cuneate-oblong or obovate-oblong, often emarginate, denticulate, all nearly sessile ; stipules 
foliaccous, linear-lanceolate, cohering with the petiole for more than half its length ; heads of 
flowers dense, on rather short peduncles ; teeth of the calyx unequal ; vexillum striate when 
old ; legume 1-seedcd. — Pursh,jl. 2. p. 478 ; Torr. compend. p. 266 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 205 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 79 ; Darlingt. fl. Ccst. p. 408. 

Root annual. Stems about a foot high, usually growing in patches, branching. Leaflets 
nearly an inch long, smooth. Heads of flowers about half an inch in diameter, on rather short 
peduncles, mostly terminal. Calyx nearly smooth ; the two upper teeth shorter. Corolla at 
first bright yellow, but of a chestnut brown when old. 

Sandy soils and dry woods, in various places along the Hudson, particularly in the vicinity 
of Troy. Shore of Lake Ontario, near Sacket's-Harbor {Dr. Knieskern). Fl. June - Au- 
gust. Introduced from Europe. 

12. MELILOTUS. Tourn. inst. 406. t. 229 ; Endl. gen. 6510. MELILOT. 

[From the Greek, mel, honey, and loins, a leguminous plant so called.] 

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla deciduous : vexillum free, longer than the wings : keel petals 
completely united, cohering with the wings, free from the stamen-lube. Style terminal, 
filiform. Legumes coriaceous, globose or ovoid, longer than the calyx, scarcely dehiscent, 
1- or few-seeded. — Annual or perennial (odorous) herbs. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate : 
leaflets mostly toothed ; the veins simple or forked. Stipules growing to the base of the 
petiole. Flowers in axillary somewhat spiked racemes, yellow or white. 

1. Melilotus officinalis, Willd. Yelloio MelUot. 

Stem erect ; leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse, remotely serrate ; racemes loose ; teeth of the 
calyx unequal, as long as the tube ; corolla (yellow) more than twice the length of the calyx ; 
petals nearly equal in length ; legumes ovoid, wrinkled, 2-seeded. — Willd. enum. p. 190 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 199; DC. prodr. 2. p. 1S6 ; Hook. fi. Bar. -Am. I. p. 130 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 
N. Am. 1. p. 320. M. vulgaris, Eat. man. ed. 7. p. 391. Trifolium officinale, «. Linn. 
T. officinale, Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 272 ; Engl. bat. t. 1340. 

Root annual. Stem 2-4 feet high, smooth, with spreading branches. Leaflets about an 
inch long, sharply serrate. Racemes 2 — 3 inches or more in length ; the flowers retrorsely 
imbricated, about 3 lines long. Style long and tapering. Legume about 2 lines long, gibbous. 

Melilotus. LEGUMINOSiE. 171 

Banks of rivers ; common along the Mohawk ; rather rare in other parts of the State, and 
not found to my knowledge below Hudson. Fl. June - August. Introduced from Europe. 

The plant, when dry, has an agreeable odor, much like that of the Sweet-scented Vernal- 
grass {Anthoxanthum odoratum). It is said to be the chief ingredient used for flavoring the 
Gruyere cheese. 

2. Melilotus leucantha, Koch. White Melilot. 

Stem erect ; leaflets ovate-oblong, truncate at the apex, mucronate, remotely serrate ; 
racemes loose ; teeth of the calyx unequal, as long as the tube ; corolla (white) more than 
twice the length of the calyx, the keel and wings shorter than the vexillum ; legumes ovoid, 
wrinkled, 2-seeded. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 186 ; Hook, in Engl. hot. suppl. t. 2689 ; Torr. <^ 
Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 321. M. vulgaris, Willd. enum. \.p. 190. M. officinalis, Pursh,fl. 2. 
p. 477. M. officinalis, P. alba, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 104. M. alba, Thuil.; Eat. I. c. Tri- 
folium officinale, /3. Linn. 

Root biennial (DC). Stem 3-6 feet high, branching. Leaflets about an inch long, 
sharply serrate. Flowers smaller than in the preceding species. Legumes strongly wrinkled, 
often one-seeded. Seeds ovoid. 

With M. officinalis, and flowering at the same time. It is a stouter plant, and easily dis- 
tinguished by its yellow and smaller flower. Both are sweet-scented when dry. 

13. MEDICAGO. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6507. mbdick. 

[A name applied by the Greeks to one of tho species of this genus, introduced into their country by the Medes.'] 

Calyx somewhat cylindrical, 5-cleft. Keel of the corolla remote from the vexillum. Style 
smooth. Legume usually many-seeded, of various forms, falcate or spirally coiled. — 
Herbaceous, or rarely shrubby plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate. Stipules often in- 
cised, growing to the petiole. Peduncles axillary, 1 - 2- or several-flowered. Flowers 
mostly yellow, sometimes purple or violet. 

1. Medicago sativa, Linn. Lucerne. Spanish Trefoil. 

Stem erect, smooth ; leaflets obovatc-oblong, toothed above, mucronate ; flowers in oblong 
racemes ; legumes spirally twisted, finely reticulated. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 173 ; Engl. hot. 
t. 1479 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 405 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 321. 

Root perennial. Stem 1-2 feet high, erect or oblique. Leaflets about an inch long, 
pubescent underneath, the terminal one remote. Racemes on peduncles 6-10 lines long. 
Flowers pedicellate, violet-purple. 

Fields and cultivated grounds ; scarcely naturalized. A native of Europe. June - July. 
This apecics is much cultivated in the south of Europe as an herbage plant, and was once in 


172 LEGUMINOS^. Medicago. 

great repute in England and the United Stales ; and though now generally neglected, it is a 
favorite with some intelligent agriculturalists. The late Jesse Buel, Esq. of Albany, cultivated 
it with great success. Its average duration is ten or twelve years. 

2. Medicago lupulina, Linn. Black Medick, or Nonesuch. 

Stem procumbent ; leaflets obovate-cuneate, toothed at the apex ; stipules nearly entire ; 
flowers in capitate spikes , legumes reniform, one-seeded. — Engl. hot. t. 971 ; Michx. Jl. 2. 
p. 60 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 247 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 172 ; Bigel. jl. Bost. p. 278 ; Beck, hot. p. 78 ; 
Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 405 ; Torr. ^ Gr. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 322. 

Root annual. Stems 6-12 inches long, several spreading from the same root, pubescent. 
Leaflets about half an inch long, often broadly obovate, or nearly orbicular. Peduncles usually 
longer than the leaves. Heads of flowers at first roundish, about one-fourth of an inch in 
diameter, at length oblong. Corolla pale yellow. Legumes black when ripe, reticulated with 
elevated curved lines. 

Fields and cultivated grounds, road-sides, etc. ; common. June - August. Introduced 
from Europe. 

Several other species of this genus are occasionally found in the neighborhood of cloth 
factories, having been introduced in foreign wool ; but they can hardly be considered as yet 

Tribe V. ASTRAGALEjE. Adans. 

Corolla papilionaceous. Stamen diadelphous (9 ^ 1). Legumes continuous, turgid or 
injlated {rarely Jlattened), ojten spuriously 2-celled by the introjlexion of one of the 
sutures, dehiscent, mostly several-seeded. Cotyledons foliaceous in germination : radicle 
incurved. — Herbaceous {all the North American species), or rarely somewhat shrubby. 
Leaves unequally pinnate {vei-y rarely palmately trifoliolate), without stipelles. In- 
florescence axillary or radical, racemose or spiked. 

14. ASTRAGALUS. Linn, (partly) ; Endl. gen. 6573. milk vetch. 

[A name given by the Greeks to a leguminous plant supposed to be of this genus,] 

Calyx 5-toothed. Keel obtuse. Legume longitudinally more or less perfectly 2-celled by 
the introflexion of the lower (dorsal) suture. — Herbaceous, more or less canescent plants ; 
the hairs often fixed by the middle. Leaflets numerous. Stipules often adhering to the 
base of the petiole. Flowers in spikes or racemes. 

1. Astragalus Canadensis, Linn. (Plate XXV.) Canadian Milk Vetch. 

Tall and erect, canescent ; stipules broadly lanceolate, acuminate, not cohering with the 

petiole, nor with each other ; leaflets usually 10 (rarely 12 - 14) pairs, elliptical or oblong, 

Astragalus. LEGUMINOS^. 173 

obtuse ; peduncles about as long as the leaves ; spikes oblong or elongated ; bracts subulate, 
nearly as long as the calyx ; flowers (ochroleucous) spreading and partly reflexed ; legumes 
ovate-oblong, terete, erect, coriaceous, smooth, 2-celled, many-seeded ; the upper suture 
prominent and acute. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 1274 ; " Dodar. mem. t. 64 ;" Pursh, fl. 2. -p. 472 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 227 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 93 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 152 ; Torr. ^ Ch: fl. N. 
Am. 1. p. 33. A. Carolinianus, Limi. ; Michx.fl. 2. p. 66 ; Pursh, I. c. ; Ell. I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

Root perennial. Stem 1-3 feet high, robust, with somewhat erect branches. Leaflets 
from three-fourths of an inch to an inch and a half long, nearly smooth above, pubescent 
underneath ; the hairs fixed by the middle. Spikes erect, at first ovate and only about an 
inch long, finally cylindrical and 2 - 4 inches or more in length. Flowers three-fourths of an 
inch long, yellowish-white. Teeth of the calyx scarcely one-fourth the length of the tube. 
Legumes sessile, 5-6 lines long and 2-3 lines in diameter, abruptly pointed with the 
remains of the style, forming a compact head or spike, perfectly 2-celled. Seeds 10 - 15, 
reniform, compressed, light brown. 

Banks of rivers and lakes ; chiefly in the northern and western counties ; not found below 
Hudson. Fl. June - August. — No other Astragalus has hitherto been found within the 
limits of New- York. Forty other species are natives of North America, chiefly in the regions 
west of the Mississippi and in British America. 

15. PIIACA. Linn.; Endl. gen. 6571. bastard vetch 

[ From phale or phakos, the Greek name for lentil.] 

Calyx 5-toothed or 5-cleft ; the 2 upper teeth often a little remote from each other. Keel 
obtuse. Legume mostly turgid or inflated, one-celled, the upper (placental) suture some- 
what tumid. — Mostly perennial herbs, with axillary pedunculate racemes. Legumes, when 
mature, often resupinate by the twisting of the pedicels. 

1. PiiACA NEGLECTA, Torr. S)' Gr. (Plate XXVI.) Bastard Vetch. 

Plant nearly smooth ; stem erect, branching ; leaflets 6-10 pairs, elliptical, often emargi- 
nate, smooth above, pubescent with appressed hairs underneath ; stipules triangular-ovate ; 
peduncles about the length of the leaves ; spikes oblong, many-flowered ; calyx campanulate, 
pubescent with blackish hairs, the subulate teeth much shorter than the tube ; legume sessile, 
globose-ovoid, pointed, coriaceo-membranaceous, flattened on the upper side, and deeply 
grooved by the introflexion of the ventral sutjre. — Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. ;}. 344. 

Root perennial. Stem 1 - 2 feet high, rather slender, terete, sparingly branched. Leaflets 
about three-fourths of an inch long and one-fourth of an inch wide, each with short partial 
petioles. Hairs of the pubescence fixed by the middle. Stipules 2-3 lines long. Peduncles 
somewhat spreading, slender. Spikes 15 - 25-flowcrcd ; the flowers about as large as in 
Astragalus Canadensis, while. Legumes three-fourths of an inch long and half an inch in 

174 LEGUMINOSiE. Phaca. 

diameter ; the dorsal suture slightly, the placental suture rather deeply introfleied, so that 
the fruit is imperfectly 2-celled. Seeds numerous, small. 

Gravelly banks of rivers and lakes ; also in sandy woods. Western part of the State, from 
the Onondaga Lake to the Falls of Niagara. Fl. June - July. Fr. August. This plant, 
which is by no means rare in our State, and which occurs also in Ohio and Wisconsin, was 
discovered about twenty-five years ago by William Cooper, Esq., but was never described 
till lately. In flower it strongly resembles Astragalus Canadensis, but can be known by its 
shorter emd looser spikes, white corolla, and by the nearly campanulate, not tubular calyx. 
In fruit they are easily distinguished. 


Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens either monadelphous or diadelphous (9^1, or 5 <J- 5). 
Legume {lament) transversely divided into several indehiscent one-seeded joints, occa- 
sionally reduced to a single one-seeded cell. Embryo mostly with foliaceous cotyledons : 
radicle incurved, rarely almost straight. — Herbs or shT^bs. Leaves abruptly or un- 
equally pinnate, or pinnately 2 - 3-foliolate, rarely palmately 2 - 5-foliolate, occasionally 
reduced to a single leaflet, often stipellate. 

16. STYLOSANTHES. Swartz ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 354; Endl. gen. 6606. 

[From the Greek, styU>i, a column, and anOios, a flower ; the long narrow calji-tube appearing to support the flower.] 

Flowers of two kinds intermixed ; the one kind complete, but sterile ; the other destitute of 
calj-x and corolla, and fertile. Sterile fl. Calyx somewhat bilabiate, with 2 bracteoles 
at the base ; the tube long and slender : upper lip 2-cleft ; lower, lip 3-cleft. Corolla 
inserted in the throat of the calyx : vexillum broad : keel c)Tnbiform, small. Stamens 
monadelphous : anthers alternately linear and ovate. Ovary sessile, with 2-3 ovules, 
always sterile : style filiform, very long : stigma capitate, minute, smooth. Fertile fl. 
consisting of a sessile ovary between 2 bracteoles. Stamens none. Style short and re- 
curved. Legume 1 - 2-jointed ; the upper joint ovoid, acuminate and uncinate with the 
persistent style ; the lower joint often abortive, and resembling a stipe. Seeds ovate. 
Cotyledons thick. Embryo curved or nearly straight. — Small herbaceous or suffruticose 
plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate. Stipules adnate to the petiole, and sheathing. Spikes 
few-flowered, terminal, imbricated with stipules and hispidly ciliate bracts. 

1. Stylosanthes elatior, Swartz. (Plate XXVII.) Pencil-Jlower. 

Stem herbaceous, erect or procumbent, pubescent on one side ; leaflets lanceolate, smooth ; 
spikes few-flowered ; bracts lanceolate, and, as well as the uppermost leaflets, spinulose- 

Stylosanthes. LEGUMINOS^. 175 

ciliate ; legume 2-jointed, the lower joint sterile and stipe-like.— Swartz in act. Holm. 1789, 
t. 11./. 2, ex DC. prodr. 2. p. 318 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1167; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 106 ; Ell sk. 
2. p. 203 ; Beck, hot. p. 83 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 411 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 354. 
S. hispida, Michx.fl. 2. p. 75, not oi Richard. Arachis aprica, Walt.fl. Car. p. 182. Tri- 
folium biflorum, Linn. 

Root perennial. Stem 6-12 inches long, somewhat cespitose, slender and wiry, sparingly- 
branched at the summit. Leaves on short petioles. Leaflets about an inch long, acute at 
each end, prominently veined underneath ; those of the lower leaves sparingly ciliate towards 
the summit. Stipules cohering (except their long subulate points) with the petiole, and also 
with each other on the opposite side of the stem, forming a close cylindrical sheath (like the 
ochrea of Polygonum) ; those on the lower part of the stem often naked (from the abortion 
of the leaflets, or their failing off with the growth of the plant). Spikes 3 - 6-flowered ; the 
flowers subtended by leafy bracts, and each with a pair of lanceolate-ciliate bracteoles at the 
base ; one or more of the flowers fertile, but destitute of calyx, corolla and stamens. Ovary 
of the fertile flower attenuated at the base, 2-ovuled ; in maturity, forming a small, obovate, 
2-jointed, coriaceous legume, the lower joint of which is constantly abortive, furnishing a short 
thick stipe. Seed solitary : radicle very short, either nearly straight or slightly curved. 
Sterile flowers 4-5 lines in diameter, seldom more than two in each spike. Calyx-tube 
slender and resembling a pedicel, concealed by the sheathing bases of the bracts. Corolla 
orange-yellow : vexillum twice as long as the other petals, retuse : wings obovate : keel 
cymbiform, entire at the apex. Ovary linear-oblong, enclosed in the base of the calyx-tube, 
and falling oS with it, apparently always abortive : style long and thread-like. 

Sandy woods, and dry gravelly hills. Suff^olk county. Long Island ; and Manhattanville, on 
the Island of New-York. Fl. Latter part of July - September. Fr. September - October. 

17. DESMODIUM. DC. 7nem. Leg., ^ prodr. 2. p. 325 ; Endl. gen. 6615. desmodium. 

Species of Hedysarum, Linn. 

[ From the Greek, dcsnws, a chain ; the jointed fruit having some resemblance to that article.] 

Calyx with two bracteoles at the base, usually more or less 2-lipped (rarely almost entire) ; 
upper lip 2-cleft or 2-toothed, often entire ; the lower 3-parted or 3-toothed. Corolla in- 
serted mto the base of the calyx : vexillum roundish : keel obtuse, but not truncate. Stamens 
diadelphous (9 & 1), or monadelphous from the base to the middle and free above, rarely 
wholly monadelphous. Legume (loment) compressed, composed of several one-seeded 
joints, which at length separate. — Herbaceous (all the North American species) or suf- 
frutescent plants. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate : leaflets stipellate. Flowers in axillary or 
terminal (often paniculate) loose racemes, small, purplish, often turning green in withering. 
Joints of the pod (in the North American species) reticulated, and more or less hispid with 
short hooked liairs. 

17ft LEGUMINOSiE. Desmodium. 

^ 1. Slamens wholly or partly monadelphcms : calyx toothed or nearly entire : leffume stipitate. 

1. Desmodium nudiflorum, DC. Naked-Jhwered Desmodium. 

Stem erect, simple, leafy at the summit ; leaflets broadly ovate ; raceme much longer than 
the stem, proceeding from its base, scape-like, usually naked ; stamens perfectly monadel- 
phous ; calyx broadly campanulate, upper lip entire, the lower slightly 3-toothed ; legumes 
on a very long stipe, straight on the back, of 2 - 4 obtusely triangular joints. — DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 330 ; Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. 1. js. 154 ; Beck, hot. p. 85 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 418 ; Torr. 
^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 358. Hedysarum nudiflorum, Linn. ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 71 ; Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 483 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 209 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 275. 

Stem 6-12 inches high, pubescent. Leaflets 2-3 inches long, a little glaucous under- 
neath, slightly acuminate, the margin finely ciliate. Stipules subulate, caducous. Scape arising 
from near the root, 1^-3 feet high, curved at the base, and then ascending some distance 
from the leafy stem ; not unfrequently furnished with one or more small trifoliolate leaves. 
Panicle racemose ; the flowers on slender pedicels 5-10 lines in length, which are sometimes 
in pairs. Calyx a little pubescent, the border at length spreading ; lowest tooth small, acute ; 
the other teeth obscure or obsolete. Corolla bright purple ; the keel pale : vexillum with 
two dark spots near the base. Legume mostly 2 - 3-joinled, slightly pubescent ; lower angle 
of the joints rounded : stipe slender, nearly sm inch long. 

Dry woods ; common. July - August. 

2. Desmodium acuminatum, DC. Pointedr-kaved Desmodium, 

Stem erect, simple, leafj' at the summit ; leaves on verj' long petioles ; leaflets conspicuous- 
ly acuminate, broadly ovate or roundish ; panicle terminal, on a long naked peduncle ; calyx 
campanulate ; upper lip obtuse, slightly emarginate ; lower lip 3-lobed ; stamens monadelphous 
below the middle ; joints of the legume 2-3, semioval. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 329 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. I. p 154 ; Beck, hot. p. 85 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. il7 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 
1. p. 358. Hedysarum acuminatum, Linn. ; Michx. fl. I. p. 72; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 48 ; Ell. 
sk. 2. p. 209 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 275. H. glulinosum, Willd. sp. 3. p. 1198. 

Stem about a foot high, nearly smooth, or sprinkled with soft hairs. Leaflets 2 — 4 inches 
long, thin and membranaceous : petioles 2-6 inches long. Stipules subulate, hairy. Fhiwers 
in a long racemose slender panicle ; the peduncle a foot or more in length ; pedicels 2—4 
lines long. Flowers pale purple, not turning green in decay. Teeth of the calj'x much 
deeper than in the preceding species. Legume with large joints ; the stipe about as long as 
the pedicel. 

Fertile woods ; common. July. 


Desmodium. LEGUMINOS^. 177 

^ 2. Stamens diadelphous (the tenth stamen sometimes connected with the others near the base) ; calyx 
2-lipped, cleft below the middle ; legume subsessile. 

3. Desmodium Canadense, DC. Canadian Desmodium. 

Stem erect, hairy, striate ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, very much longer than the petioles ; 
stipules lanceolate, rather persistent ; racemes terminal, and in the axils of the uppermost 
leaves ; bracts ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; calyx deeply bilabiate ; upper lip oblong, 2-cleft 
at the point , the lower 3-parted, with lanceolate segments ; joints of the legume semiovate- 
triangular, truncate at both ends, hispid. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 328 ; Hook. Jl.Bor-.-Am. 1. p. 154; 
Beck, bot. p. 83; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p.Z59. Hedysarum Canadense, Linn.; Willd. 
sp. 3. p. U87 j Torr. compend. p. 267 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 275. 

Stem 3-6 feet high, often branched. Leaves on comparatively short petioles (about half 
an inch long) : leaflets 2-3 inches long, tapering to the summit but rather obtuse, strigosely 
pubescent underneath, nearly smooth above. Racemes numerous, erect, forming a terminal 
panicle. Bracts imbricated, of a reddish brown color, very conspicuous before the flowers are 
expanded. Flowers rather pale violet-blue. Stamens diadelphous ^out half their length. 
Legume an inch long, very hispid : joints 3-4 (sometimes 5), about #o lines in diameter, 
a little convex on the upper side, rounded and somewhat angular below. 

Borders of woods, and rather moist copses ; not rare. August - September. This species 
can be distinguished by its tall stem, and large, rather close panicle of flowers, the bracts of 
■which are very conspicuous in the bud. 

4. Desmodium canescens, DC. Hoarxj Desmodium. 
Stem erect, branching, clothed with horizontal hairs, and somewhat scabrous ; leaflets ovate, 

rather acute, scabrous-pubescent on both sides, reticulated underneath ; petiole as long as the 
leaflets ; stipules large, obliquely ovate, acuminate ; upper lip of the calyx entire or slightly 
bifid, the lower tooth lanceolate and longest ; legume of 4 - 6 oblong-triangular strongly hispid 
joints. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 328 ; Beck, hot. p. 84 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 415 ; Torr. <^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 1. p. 359. D. viridiflorum, DC. i. c. D. Aikinianum, Beck, I. c. Hedysarum 
canescens, Linn. kort. Cliff, (not of Willd.); Pursh, fl. 2. p. 482. H. viridiflorum, Willd. 
sp. 3. p. 1192 (not of Linn.); Michx.fl.2. p. 71 ; Pursh, I. c. H. Aikini, Eat. ?nan. ed. 7. 
p. 166. 

Stem 3-5 feet high, more or less hairy ; the hairs partly long and spreading horizontally, 
and partly very short and hooked. Leaflets 2-4 inches long, tliin ; the pubescence like that 
of the stem, of two kinds, the longer hairs stifl'and appresscd, the shorter ones uncinate, .so 
that the leaves adhere pretty strongly to cloth and rough paper. Stipules nearly half an inch 
long, persistent, scarious. Racemes forming a loose terminal panicle : pedicels 4-8 lines 
long. Corolla violet-purple, becoming green in withering. Legume 1^-2 inches long, on 
a very short stipe : joints one-third of an inch long, truncate at both ends. 

Moist rich soils : common in the interior of the State, particularly in the western and soulh- 
weslem counties ; also on the islands near Troy. August. 
[Flora.] 23 

178 LEGUMINOSiE. Desmodium- 

6. Desmodium Dillenii, Darlingt. Dillenius's Desmodium. 

Stem erect, branching, pubescent ; leaflets oblong or ovate-oblong, somewhat villous and 
glaucous underneath ; stipules subulate ; racemes slenJcr, forming a loose terminal panicle ; 
bracts ovate-lanceolate ; upper lip of the calyx entire or slightly cmarginate ; lower tooth twice 
as long as the lateral ones ; legumes of 3 - 4 rhomboid reticulated hispid joints. — Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 414 ; Torr. (^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 300. D. Marilandicum, DC. prodr. 1. p. 238, 
excl. syn. Linn.; Beck, hot. p. 84. D. Boottii, Torr. in Curt. cat. Wilmingt. pi. Hedy- 
sarum Marilandicum, Willd. sp. 3. p. 1 189 (not of Linn.) ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 482 ; Ell. sk. 2. 
p. 214. 

Stem about 3 feet high, sulcate, clothed wilii soft pubescence. Leaflets 1 J - 3 inches long, 
thin, sometimes acute, but commonly more or less obtuse ; the hairs on the under surface 
appressed, not rough to the touch. Common petiole often nearly or quite as long as the 
leaflets. Stipules small and deciduous. Panicle large and slender. Flowers smaller than in 
most of the preceding species. Lower tooth of the calyx twice as long as the lateral teeth. 
Corolla purple, changing to bluish green. Stamens diadelphous nearly to the base. Legume 
about an inch long, on a stipe a little longer than the calyx ; the joints distinctly rhomboid, 
connected by a narrow isthmus, smaller than in the preceding species. 

Dry fertile open woods, and in thickets ; rather common. August. 

Resembles D. canescens, but distinguished by its smoother leaves (which do not adhere to 
paper), narrow stipules, and less numerous rhombic joints of the legumes. 

6. Desmodium cuspidatum, Torr. Sf Crr. Large-biacted Desmodium. 

Stem erect, smooth ; leaflets ovate or lanceolate-ovate, acuminate, smooth ; stipules lanceo- 
late, acuminate ; panicle elongated, sparingly branched ; bracts (conspicuous) ovate, cuspidate, 
striate ; lower tooth of the calyx much longer than the triangular teeth ; stamens perfectly 
diadelphous ; legumes of 4 - 6 triangular-oblong sparingly hispid joints. — Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. 
Am. I. p. 360. D. bracteosum, DC. prodr. 2. p. 329 ; Beck, hot. p. 85 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
^.416. Hedysarum cuspidatum, Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1188; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 482; 
Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 276 ; Torr. compend. p. 269. H. bracteosum, Michx. fl. 2. p. 73 ; Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 483 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 213. 

Stem 3-5 feet high, nearly simple. Leaflets 2-5 inches long, much paler underneath, 
almost perfectly smooth on both surfaces : stipelles subulate, conspicuous ; stipules persistent, 
half an inch or more in length, with a long subulate point. Flowers in a large open panicle, 
the branches of which are only slightly rough. Flowers often sterile, violet-purple. Legume 
often two inches in length, nearly sessile ; the joints a little rounded on the back. 

Banks of rivers, and rocky open woods. August. 

Desmodium. • LEGUMINOS^. 179 

7. Desmodium viridiflorum, Beck. Velvet-leaved Desmodium. 

Stem erect, densely pubescent, a little rough towards the summit ; leaflets ovate, mostly 
obtuse, rough above, velvety tomentose underneath ; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
rather persistent ; panicle elongated, naked ; upper lip of the calyx slightly bifid ; legume of 
3-4 roundish-triangular very hispid joints. — Beck, bot. p. 83 ; Darlingt. jl. Cest. p. 415, 
(not of DC.) ; Torr. <^ N. Am. 1. p. 360. Hedysarum viridiflorum, Linn. sp. 1055 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 217 (not of Willd.). 

Stem 3-4 feet high, rather stout, paniculately branched. Leaflets 2-3 inches long, of a 
thick and firm texture ; the under surface usually clothed with a very dense soft pubescence, 
but sometimes rather hairy than velvety : common petiole about one-fourth the length of the 
leaflets. Panicle with few rather short branches. Bracts very small, shorter than the flower- 
buds. Lowest tooth of the calyx elongated. Corolla violet-purple, turning greenish soon after 
it is fully expanded. Legume about three-fourths of an inch long ; the joints convex above, 
rounded and very obtusely angular below. 

Sandy copse on the borders of a small wood about half a mile from the South Ferry, 
Brooklyn, Long Island ; also borders of Harlem river from Manhattanville to Kingsbridge, 
on the Island of New-York. Latter part of July --September. 

8. Desmodium Marilandicum, Boott: Smooth Small-leaved Desmodium. 

Stem erect, simple, slender, nearly smooth ; leaflets (small) ovate, very obtuse, often 
slightly cordate, thin ; petiole as long as the lateral leaflets, smooth ; stipules lanceolate- 
subulate, caducous ; panicle elongated ; bracts lanceolate-ovate, very small i pedicels 2-3 
times as long as the flower ; legume with 2 — 3 hispid, somewhat semiorbicular joints. — 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 412 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. \.p. 362. D. obtusum, DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 329 ; Beck, bot. p. 84. Hedysarum Marilandicum, Linn. sp. 2. p. 748 (excl. syn. Dill.), 
not of Willd., Muhl., <^c. H. obtusum, Willd. sp. 3. p. 1190?; Pursh,,fi. 2. p. 482 ; Ntttt. 
gen. 2. p. 109 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 212. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, smooth, except near the summit, which is often a little rough. Leaves 
about three-fourths of an inch in length, the lower ones broader and often nearly round ; 
petioles slender. Stipules usually falling very early. Pedicels filiform, 5 — 8 lines long. 
Flowers small, violet-purple, becoming greenish in withering. Calyx smooth ; upper lip 
nearly entire, shorter than the others : lower tooth lanceolate, nearly twice as long as the 
obtuse-triangular lateral ones. Legume half an inch long, sometimes reduced to a single 
joint, which is then larger than usual, nearly sessile in the calyx. 

Dry hill-sides, sandy fields and borders of woods ; rather common. August. 


180 LEGUMINOSyE. Desmodium. 

9. Desmodium ciliare, DC. Hairy SmaU-leaved Desmodium. 

Stem erect, mostly simple, rather slender, hairy ; leaves crowded, on short hairy petioles ; 
leaflets (small) ovate or oval, obtuse, rather coriaceous, pubescent and somewhat ciliale ; 
stipules subulate-linear, rather persistent; lower branches of the panicle mostly elongated; 
pedicels little longer than the flowers ; legumes with 2-3 semiorbicular or obliquely roundish- 
obovate hispid joints. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 330 ; Beck, hot. p. 84 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 413 ; 
Ton: 4- Gr. Jl. N. Am. l.p. 362. Hedysarum ciliare, Willd. sp. 3. p. 1190 ; Pursh, jl. 2. 
p. 482 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 109 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 212 ; Ton: compend. p. 268. 

Stems 2-3 feet high, commonly several from one root, more or less hairj-. Leaflets 
about three-fourths of an inch long, and half an inch or more in breadth. Petioles of the upper 
leaves very short ; those of the lower ones a little longer. Panicle scabrous with short hooked 
hairs. Calyx hairy ; the upper lip notched : lower tooth lanceolate, one-third longer than the 
2 oblong, obtuse lateral ones. Corolla and fruit as in the preceding species. 

Sandy fields, hill-sides and copses. August - September. Very near D. Marilandicum, 
and best distinguished by its hairy stem and leaves, short hairy petioles and pedicels. 

10. Desmodium rigii>um, DC. Rigid Desynodium. 

Stem erect, branching, clothed with a rough pubescence ; leaflets ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
ciliate, rough above, hairy underneath, the lateral ones smaller, much longer than the hairy 
petiole ; stipules ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, ciliate, caducous ; racemes paniculate, erect, 
very long ; pedicels a little longer than the flowers ; legumes with 2 or 3 semiobovate or 
obliquely ovate hispid joints. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 330 ; Darltngt. Jl. Cest. p. 413 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. jl. 1. p. 362. Hedysarum rigidum., Ell. sk. 2. p. 315. 

Stem 2 — 3 feet high, paniculate-branched and somewhat rigid, striate ; the pubescence 
consisting of short hooked hairs. Leaflets 1-3 inches long, rather coriaceous ; the veins 
strongly reticulated and elevated. Petiole varying in length from 3 to 8 lines. Flowers 
small ; the pedicels rather thick. Calyx pubescent ; segments of the caly.x rather acute, 
lowest one longest. Stamens diadelphous nearly to the base. Legume nearly sessile, 5-8 
lines long. 

Dry hill-sides and borders of woods in sandy soil ; Island of New-York, Staten Island, 
and Long Island. August. This species sometimes has the leaves smaller and broader, 
when it is not easy to distinguish it from D. ciliare. 

11. Desmodium paniculatum, DC. Panicled Des?nodium. 

Whole plant nearly smooth ; stem erect, slender ; petioles about one-third the length of the 
oblong-lanceolate, rather obtuse leaflets ; stipules subulate, deciduous ; racemes forming a 
large spreading panicle ; pedicels rather longer than the flower, slender ; legume straight, 

Desmodium. LEGUMINOS^. 181 

slightly hispid ; legume of 3 - 5 triangular-rhomboid joints. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 329 ; Beck, 
hot. p. 85 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. jp. 411 ; Torr. <f Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 363. Hedysarum 
paniculatum, Linn. sp. 2. p. 748 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 483 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 210 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 276 ; Tbrr. compend. p. 269. 

Stems 2-3 feet high, often clustered. Leaflets 1-3 inches long, ofteu lanceolate, and 
the lower ones sometimes oval-oblong, rather thin, bright green, and often a little shining 
above : common petiole from half an inch to an inch in length. Panicle loose, widely spread- 
ing ; the flowers small, purple. Calyx pubescent ; upper lip emarginate ; lower tooth much 
the longest. Legume about three-fourths of an inch long, raised on a short stipe ; the joints 
considerably larger than in the preceding species, distinctly angled on the back. 

Dry woods, copses and hill-sides ; very common. August. 

12. Desmodium rotundifolium, DC Round-leaved Desmodium. 

Stem prostrate, hairy ; leaflets orbicular, pubescent ; stipules (large) broadly ovate, acumi- 
nate, reflexed, persistent ; racemes axillary and terminal ; calyx deeply and somewhat equally 
4-cleft, the upper segment 2-toothed ; legumes almost equally sinuate on both edges, of 3 - 6 
rhomboid-oval joints. — DC. prodr. '2. p. 330; Beck, hot. p. 85; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 418; 
Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 36'4. Hedysarum rotundifolium, Michx.fl. 2. p. 72; Pursh, 
fl. 2. p. 484 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 213 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 274. 

Stem a little branching, 2-4 feet long, striate, clothed with brownish spreading or retrorse 
hairs. Leaflets 1—2 inches in diameter, thin, strigosely hairy on both sides ; terminal one 
obtusely cuneate at the base. Petiole 1-1^ inch long. Racemes few-flowered, pedunculate : 
pedicels slender, about half an inch long ; the terminal ones often panicled. Calyx smoothish, 
except the lower lip, which is hairy : segments narrow, acute. Corolla violet-purple. Le- 
gume about an inch in length, on a stipe longer than the calyx, commonly 4 - 5-jointed, very 

Dry open woods, and on rocky hill-sides. August. 

18. LESPEDEZA. MtcJu:. fl. 2. p. 70. t. 39 4- 40 ; Endl. gen. 6623. lespedeza. 

[DedicatcJ to Lesfedez, a Spanish governor of FloriJa, wlio assisted Michaux in his exjiloration of that country.] 

Calyx with 2 persistent bracteoles at the base, deeply 5-clcft. Corolla inserted into the base 
of the calyx : vexillum roundish or oblong : wings nearly straight, as long as the very 
obtuse keel. Stamens diadelphous (9 & 1) : anthers uniform. Style filiform in the petali- 
feroua flowers ; short and hooked in the apetalous. Legume lenticular, mostly flat, reticu- 
lated, unarmed, indehiscent, one-seeded, usually clothed with sliort hairs. — Perennial herbs 
or sufl'rutescent plants, with pinnately trifoliolate reticulate leaves. Stipules minute, subu- 


182 LEGUMINOSiE. Lespedeza 

late or setaceous : stipelles none. Flowers in axillary pedunculate spikes or racemes, and 
often with other apetalous and imperfect but fertile ones, mostly in subsessile glomerales. 
Torr. ^ Gr. 

^ 1. EcLESPEnEZA, Torr. &, Gr. Flmoers of tioo kinds: compteie, but seldom perfecting fruit, in 
loose few-flowered racemes with purp'e or violet petals; and fertile, but mostly destitute of 
petals and stamens ; the latter often in separate, nearly sessile glomerules. 

1. Lespedeza procumbens, Michx. Trailing Lespedeza: 

Whole plant woolly-pubescent, except the upper surface of the leaves, procumbent, with 
the branches assurgent ; leaflets oval, obovatc or elliptical, mostly rclusc ; peduncles axillary, 
elongated, few-flowered, sometimes paniculate at the extremity of the branches ; apetalous 
flowers occupying the lower peduncles, and also often the axils of the lower leaves ; legumes 
nearly orbicular.— Mic/ij?. fl. 2. p. 70. t. 39 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 108 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 408 ; DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 350 ; Torr. compend. p. 267 ; Beck, hot. p. 88 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 422 : 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 366. Hedysarum repens, WilM. sp. 3. p. 1200. 

Stems numerous, much branched, slender, 2-3 feet long, clothed with a dense whitish 
spreading pubescence. Leaflets about half an inch long. Common petioles very short in the 
upper leaves ; in the lower, 3-6 lines long. Calyx slightly 2-lipped, shorter than the corolla 
(as in all the species of this section) ; the 2 upper segments often united at the base, hairy. 
Flowers handsome purple tinged with violet. Apetalous flowers sometimes mixed with the 
others ; the calyx small. Legume more than twice as long as the calyx. 

Sandy fields, dry woods and hill-sides. August. Common in the valley of the Hudson, 
and on Long Island ; rare in the interior of the State. 

2. Lespedeza repens, Torr. S^ Grr. Slender Lespedeza. 

Plant minutely pubescent with appressed hairs, or nearly smooth, diffusely procumbent ; 
leaflets oval or obovate-elliptical, the uppermost ones emarginate ; petioles mostly very short ; 
peduncles axillary, elongated, few-flowered, the lower ones (sometimes short) bearing apetalous 
flowers ; legumes nearly orbicular. — Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 367 ; Bart. fl. Phil. 2. 
p. Ill L. prostrata, Pursh, fl. 2. p. 481 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 108 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 350 ; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 156 ; Beck, hot. p. 88. Hedysarum repens, Linn. sp. {ed. 1.) 2. 
p. 749. H. prostratum, Willd. sp. 3. p. 1200. 

Stems 2 feet or more in length, very slender. Flowers rather smaller, but in other respects, 
as well as in the fruit, resembling those of the preceding species. 

Sandy fields, Long Island. August. 

Lbspbdeza. LEGUMINOS^. 183 

3. Lespedeza violacea, Pers. Bush Clover. 

Stein erect or diffuse ; leaflets varying from oval-oblong to linear, equalling or longer than 
the petiole ; racemes axillary, few-flowered, shorter or a little longer than the leaves ; apeta- 
lous flowers glomerate, and nearly sessile in the axils of the leaves ; legumes of the sessile 
flowers nearly orbicular, of the petaiiferous ones ovate. — Pers. syn. 2. p. 318 ; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 481 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 367. Hedysarum violaceum, Linn. sp. 2. p. 749 
(excl. syn. Gron.) ; Willd sp. 3. p. 1195. H. frulescens, Linn. I. c. 

var. 1. divergens : peduncles, towards the extremity of the branches, filiform, and much 
longer than the leaves , the flowers rarely producing fruit ; leaflets oval or oblong. Torr. ^• 
Gr. I. c. L. divergens, Pursh, I. c. ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 350. Hedysarmn divergens, Willd. 
I. c. 

var. 2. sessiliflora : flowers somewhat .glomerate, on peduncles much shorter than the 
leaves ; those at the base chiefly apetalous and fertile ; leaflets oblong or elliptical. Torr. <^ 
Gr. I. c. L. sessiliflora, Michx. I. c. (partly); Pursh, ft. I. c. ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 108; DC. 
I. c. (including L. violacea) ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 204 ; Beck, hot. p. 86 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 420. 
Hedysarum violaceum, Linn, (in part) ; Willd. 1. c. 

var. 3. angustifolia : peduncles short ; the flowers glomerate towards the extremity of the 
branches ; petioles slender, mostly erect ; leaves much crowded above, and fascicled on short 
branchlcts ; leaflets narrowly oblong or linear. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. Lespedeza reticulata, Pers. 
st/n. I. c. ; DC. I. c. ; Beck, hot. p. 86 ; Darlingt. I. c. L. sessiliflora (partly), Michx. I. c. 
L. frutescens, DC. not of Ell. Hedysarum reliculatum, Willd. I. c. Medicago Virginica. 

Stems usually several from one root, usually erect, but in the third variety often inclined or 
diverging, slender, nearly simple or somewhat branching, pubescent. Leaves all petiolate : 
leaflets half an inch to an inch and a quarter long, and in var. 1. only 1-3 lines wide, a little 
hairy with appressed pubescence underneath. Stipules subulate, minute. Flowers smaller 
than in L. procumbens ; the petaiiferous ones sometimes fertile. Calyx hairy ; the segments 
narrowly lanceolate, the 2 upper ones united nearly to the summit. Corolla violet-purple. 
Legumes of the petaiiferous flowers diff"erent in form from the others, being longer, and 
acuminated with the long straight style. 

Dry woods and thickets ; common. August - September. 

if 2. Lespedezaria, Torr. & Gr. flowers all fertile and perfect, in dense or capitate spikes: corolla 
about the length of the calyx, white or ochroleucous, with a purple spot on the vcxillum : stems 

4. Lehpedeza iiirta, Ell. Hairy Lespedeza. 

Stem branching above, villous ; leaflets roundish-oval, emarginale, pubescent or silky, 
mostly longer than the petiole ; spikes oblong-cylindrical, the peduncles al length much longer 


184 LEGUMINOSiE. Lespedeza. 

than the leaves ; calyx scarcely exceeding the oval legiime. — Ell. sk. 2. p. 207 ; Torr. com- 
pend. p. 267 ; Torr. <^ N. Am. 1. p. 368. L. polystachya, Mickc. fi. 2. p.ll.t.iO; 
Pursh,fl. 2. p. 480; DC.prodr. \.p. 349; Bor.-Am. l.;j. 156; Beck, bat. p. 87; Cest. p. 421. L. villosa, Pers. syn. 2. p. 318; DC. I. c. Hedj'sarum hirtum, 
Lin?), sp. 2. p. 748 ; Wilhl. sp. 3. p. 1193. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, paniculately branched. Leaflets about an inch long, sometimes 
broadly obovate, strongty pubescent underneath, and sometimes also above, with appressed 
hairs. Stipules narrowly lanceolate. Spikes an inch in length, dn rather short axillary 
peduncles 1-3 inches in length. Calyx deeply 5-parted, liairy. Corolla yellowish-white. 
Legume very villous. 

Dry hill-sides and sandy fields ; rather common. August - September. 

5. Lespedeza capitata, Michx. Round-headed Lespedeza. 

Stem erect, nearly simple, villous-pubescent ; leaves on very short petioles ; leaflets varying 
from elliptical to linear, silky underneath ; spikes capitate, on short peduncles ; calyx much 
shorter than the oval legume. — Michx. fi. 2. p. 71 ; Pursh, fi. 2. p. 480; Nult. gen. 2. 
p. 107 ; Bigcl. fi. Best. p. 272 ; DC. prodr. 2. p, 349 ; Beck, hot. p. 87 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fi. 
N. Am. 1. p. 368. L. frutescens, Ell. sk. 2. p. 206 ; Beck, bat. p. 87 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 421. L. fruticosa, Pers. syn. 2. p. 318. Hedysarum frutescens, Willd. sp. 3. p. 1193, 
not of Linn. sp. ed. 1. 

var. vulgaris : leaflets elliptical-oblong, smooth, or somewhat pubescent above. Torr. <^ 
Gr. I. c. 

var. angustifolia, Pursh : leaflets linear, narrow, elongated, smooth above ; peduncles 
longer^ Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. L. angustifolia. Ell. I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

Stems 2-4 feet high, straight, the pubescence often tawny, entirely herbaceous. Leaflets 
1-1^ inch long : in the common variety, 4-6 lines wide ; in the other form, scarcely two " 
lines ; when young, commonly silky-pubescent on both surfaces, but finally smoothish above. 
Spikes oblong or nearly globose, scarcely an inch long ; the peduncles 4 — 6 lines in length. 
Calyx very hairy, deeply 5-parted. Corolla white or cream-colored. Legume hairy, scarcely 
more than half the length of the calyx. 

Sandy fields ; southern part of the State, and valley of the Hudson ; also on Long Island. 
August - September. 


Genista. LEGUMINOSiE. 185 


Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10, monadelphous : anthers of two forms. Legumes con- 
tinuous, one-celled, sometimes intercepted internally, but not jointed. Radicle incurved 
or inflexed. Leaves simple or palmately compound, not stipellate. 

19. GENISTA. Linn.; Endl. gen. 6500. grebn-WEED. 

[ From the Celtic word gen, signifying a small bush.] 

Calyx 2-lipped ; the upper lip 2-parted ; the lower 3-toothed. Vexillum oblong-oval, straight, 
scarcely including the stamens and style. Stamens unequal ; the 5 alternate anthers shorter. 
Legume flat, many-seeded, not glandular. — Shrubby or suflfruticose, often spiny plants, 
with simple leaves and yellow flowers. 

1. Genista tinctoria, Linn. Dyer's Green-weed. Wood-xoaxen. 

Stem erect ; branches terete, striate ; leaves lanceolate, nearly smooth ; flowers in spiked 
racemes ; legumes smooth. — Engl. hot. t. 44 ; Bigel.f,. Bost.p. 267; DC.prodr, 2. p. 151 ; 
Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 369. 

Stem a foot or more high, erect or ascending, branching, shrubby. Leaves sessile, rather 
distant. Flowers nearly sessile, with a small bracteal leaf at the base of each. 

On a hill-side north of Peekskill, on the Hudson {Dr. S. B. Mead). Introduced from 
Europe. The plant yields a coloring matter that is used for dyeing wool yellow. It has also 
been employed medicinally as a diuretic and mild purgative. 

20. CROTALARIA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6472. rattlebox. 

t From the Greek, crotalon, a rattle ; the loose seeds making a rattling noise in the ripe legume.] 

Calyx 5-cleft, somewhat 2-lipped ; the upper lip 2-cleft, lower 3-cleft. Vexillum large, 
mostly obcordate. Keel falcate, acuminate (rarely obtuse). Sheath of the stamens usually 
cleft on the upper side. The 5 alternate anthers smaller and roundish. Style bearded on 
the sides. Legumes turgid, inflated. Seeds several, reniform, compressed. — Herbaceous 
or shrubby plants. Leaves simple (as in all the North American species), or palmately 
compound. Flowers in racemes, commonly yellow, with one or two bractcoles at the base 
of the calyx. 

1. Crotalaria sagittalis, Linn. Small Annual Rattlebox, 

Annual, hairy ; stem erect, branching ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, nearly sessile ; stipules 
united and decurrent on the stem, obvcrsely sagittate ; peduncles about 3-flowcrcd ; corolla 
rather shorter than the calyx ; legumes much inflated, oblong, many-seeded. — Linn. ; Mickt: 

[Flora.] 24 

186 LEGUMINOS^E. Crotalaru. 

fi. 2. p. 55 {var. oblonga) ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 469 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 293 ; DC. prodr. 2. />. 124 ; 
Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 267 ; Beck, hot. p. 77 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 404 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. 
Am. 1. p. 370. C. parviflora, Rolh ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 973. 

Stem 4 — 8 inches high, clothed with brownish hairs ; the branches spreading. Leaves 
1 - 1^ inches long and 4-6 lines wide, hairy on both side. Stipules conspicuous, adhering 
for two-tliirds of their length to the stem, free and acute above ; tlie lower ones often wanting. 
Racemes opposite the leaves. Flowers yellow. Calyx deeply parted ; the segments almost 
foliaccous. Legume an inch or more in length and nearly half an inch in diameter, blackish 
when ripe, thin and coriaceous. Seeds curved, shining. 

Dry sandy soils ; not rare in the southern part of the Stale. July - August. 

21. LUPINUS. Tourn.; Agardk,/. syn. gen. Lupin. {\835); Endl. gen. &A12. LUPINE. 

[ So called from the Latin, lupus, a wolf; because it was supposed to devour the fertility of the soil.] 

Calyx deeply 2-lipped, mostly with 2 bracteolcs at the base; the upper lip 2-cleft or toothed ; 
the lower entire or 3-toothcd. VexiUum with the sides refle.\cd : wings united at the 
summit : keel acuminate. Anthers alternately oblong and roundish ; the former earlier 
matured than the others. Stigma bearded. Legume coriaceous, oblong or linear, more or 
less compressed, often torulose or intercepted by oblique cellular partitions. — Herbaceous 
plants. Leaves palmately 5 - 15-foliolate. Flowers in terminal racemes or spikes. 

1. LuPiNus PERENMs, Linn. Common Wild Lupine. 

Perennial, somewhat hairy ; leaflets 7-11, obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, obtuse, slightly 
mucronate, smootliish above, a little heavy underneath and on tlie margins ; stipules setaceous, 
deciduous ; flowers scattered, in a long loose raceme ; bracts shorter than the pedicels, subu- 
late, caducous ; upper lip of the calyx emarginate, gibbous at the base ; lower nearly entire ; 
keel ciliate ; legumes linear-oblong, very hairy. — Linn.; Michx. Jl. 2. p. 55 ; Bot. mag. 
t.20l; Pursh, jl. 2. p. 467 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 191 ; Bart. f. N. Am. 2. t. 38 ; DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 408 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 267 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 163 ; Beck, bot. p. 92 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 431 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 377. 

Root creeping. Stem a foot or eighteen inches high, erect. Leaflets usually 8 or 9, one 
or two inches long, radiating from a common centre : petiole 2-4 inches in length. Raceme- 
6-10 inches long. Flowers large and showy, purplish blue. Calyx with minute subulate 
bracteoles, which are caducous, or often wanting. Legume about an inch and a half long, 
brownish when ripo, 4 - 5-seeded. Seeds obovoid, smooth, variegated. 

Sandy fields and woods ; not rare. Fl. June. Fr. July. A very ornamental plant, often 
seen cultivated in gardens. Forty-four oilier species of this genus arc described in the Flora 
of North America. 

Baptisia. LEGUMLNOS^. 187 


SophohejE and Podalyrieje. Bcnlh. 
Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10, distinct: anthers uniform. Legume continuous, or 
frequently moniliform, but not jointed. Embryo incurved or injlexed, or often straight. 
— Leaves unequally pinnate, palmate or simple, not stipellate. 

22. BAPTISIA. Vent. dec. nov. p. 9 ; Eenth. comm. Leg. mem. p. 2; Endl. gen. 6421. 


[ From the Greek, baplo, to i!yc ; some of the species yielding a coloring matter lilie indigo.] 

Calyx campanulate, 4 - 5-cleft at the summit. Vexillum rather shorter than the wings, or 
about tlie same length, orbicular, emarginate, the sides reflexed : wings oblong : keel 
slightly incurved, nearly as long as the wings ; the petals somewhat united. Ovary stipate, 
with numerous ovules. Style curved, dilated below, attenuated upward : stigma minute. 
Legume slipilate, inflated. — Perennial North American herbs, with simple or paltnately 
trifoliolate leaves. Stipules often small or caducous. Flowers in terminal racemes, or 
sometimes solitary and axillary. Pedicels usually without bracts. 

1. Baptisia tinctoria, R. Brown. Common Wild Indigo. 

Plant smooth, much branched ; leaves trifoliolate, nearly sessile ; leaflets obovate-cuneiform, 
rounded and often emarginate at the summit ; stipules and bracts minute, deciduous ; racemes 
short, few-flowered ; pedicels shorter than the (yellow) flowers ; legume oval-globose, on a 
long stipe. — R. Br. in hort. Kew. {ed. 2 ) 3. p. 6 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 467 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 282 ; 
Torr. fl. l.p. 441 ;. DC. prodr. 2. p. 100 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 129 ; Beck, bot. p. 77 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 404 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 386. Sophora tinctoria, Linn. 
Podalyria tinctoria, Lam. ill. t. 327 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 503 ; Michx. fl. I. p. 265 ; Pursh, 
fl. l.p. 308 ; Bot. mag. t. 1099 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 170. 

Plant 2-3 feet high, with very numerous spreading branches, somewhat glaucous. Leaf- 
lets about three-fourths of an inch long : common petiole 1-3 lines long, in the upper leaves 
almost wanting. Stipules very minute. Racemes 3 - e-flowered, loose. Flowers about half 
an inch long. Calyx 4-cleft ; the upper segment (consisting of the 2 upper ones united) 
broader. Corolla bright yellow. Ovary with 6 - 8 ovules. Legume about half an incli long, 
exclusive of the stipe which is nearly of the same length, acuminate with tlie persistent base 
of the style ; of a dark bluish color, or nearly black when ripe. Seed ovoid, light brown, 
with a small round hilum. 

Dry sandy woods and fields. Fl. Jime - August. Fr. September. The plant usually 
turns black in drying. It yields a quantity of coarse indigo, much resembling the common 
fig blue. It is also employed medicinaily, being reputed to possess aslringcnt, cathartic, 
emetic and stimulating properties. Sec Thatcher^ Dispensatory, and Wood ^ Bache's U. S. 
Dispens. appen. 


189 LEGUMINOSiE. Baptisia. 

2. Baptisia australis, R. Browti. Blue-Jlmuered False Indigo. 

Smooth : leaves on short petioles, the uppermost sometimes nearly sessile ; leaflets oblong- 
cuneiform, obtuse ; stipules lanceolate, about as long as the petioles ; racemes elongated, 
erect ; bracts ovate-lanceolate, caducous ; pedicels shorter than the calyx ; flowrers large, blue; 
legumes oval-oblong, the stipe about the length of the calyx. — R. Br. I. c. p. 6; Ell. sk. 1. 
p. 468; DC.prodr. 2. p. 100 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. \.p. 385. B. ccerulea, Nutt. gen. 1. 
p. 281. Sophora australis, Linn.; Bot. mag. t. 509. S. ccerulea, Treiv, pi. rar. 6. t. lA, 
ex R. Br. S. alba, Murr. in com. GorU. 1. p. 96. t. 6. Podalyria australis, Willd. sp. 2. 
p. 503 ; Vent, liort. Cels. t. 56. P. coerulea, Michx. fl.\. p. 264, 

Stem 2-3 feet high, erect or somewhat decumbent. Leaflets 2-3 inches long. Stipules 
foliaceous, often persistent. Flowers an inch long, bright indigo-bluc. Calyx 4-toothed ; the 
upper tooth broader. Legume 2 inches long, with a short abrupt point. 

Near Canandaigua {Prof. Eaton). A common species in the Western Slates, and often 
cultivated in gardens. 

23. CERCIS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6750. JUDAS-TREE. 

{ From kerkis, a name of Theophrastus, applied to a tree supposed to be the modern Ccrcis.] 

Calyx broadly campanulate, with 5 short obtuse teeth. Petals scarcely papilionaceous, all 
distinct and unguiculate : vexillum smaller than the wings : keel petals larger than the 
wings. Stamens somewhat unequal. Legume oblong, much compressed, acute at each 
end, many-seeded, slightly stipitate ; upper suture with a winged margin. — Trees, with 
simple cordate leaves and membranaceous caducous stipules. Flowers deep rose-color or 
purple, fasciculate, appearing before the leaves. 

1. Cercis Canadensis, Linn. Red-hud, or American Judas-tree. 

Leaves orbicular-cordate, acuminate, hairy along the veins underneath. — Mill. ic. t. 2, ex 
DC. ; Michx. ft. \.p. 265 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 308 ; \.p. 441 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 518 ; 
Darlingt. fi,. Cest. p. 433 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 392 ; Loud. arh. etfr. uhr.p. 258. 

A tree 15 — 30 feet high, with smooth grayish brown bark and flexuous branches. Leaves 
3-4 inches in diameter, with a short abrupt point, about 7-nerved. Flowers covering tlie 
branches in numerous fascicles of 4 to 8 together, on short slender pedicels. Calyx colored, 
gibbous at the base, pubescent on the margin of the teeth. Legume about 3 inches long, 

Niagara county? {Dr. Kinnicutt). Some years ago I received specimens of this plant from 
Dr. Kinnicutt, which I think were collected near Lcwiston, but they may not have been native. 
The flowers are acid, and are said to be used by the French Canadians for salads and pickles. 

Cassia. LEGUMINOS^. 189 

Tribe IX. CASSIEj^. Bronn. 
Corolla irregular, or sometimes nearly regular, never truly papilionaceous. Stamens 10, 
or sometimes fewer, distinct : anthers mostly of two forms. Legume continuous {not 
jointed), 1-celled, or spuriously many-celled by transvetse partitions between the seeds. 
Embryo straight, frequently with a small quantity of albumen. — Trees, shrubs or herbs. 
Leaves pinnate or bipinnate, not stipellate. 

24. CASSIA. Linn.; Vogel, syn. gen. Cass. (1837); Endl. gen. 6781. CASSIA. 

[ "According to Olaus Celsus, this name is to be traced to the Hebrew, ketziath, rendered by kasian in the Septuagint, 
and latinized by cassia." Loddon.] 

Sepals slightly united at the base, usually unequal, deciduous. Petals 5, unequal. Stamens 
10 (the 5 alternate ones rarely wanting), unequal or rarely equal ; the 3 upper (posterior) 
commonly abortive : anthers opening at the summit, or sometimes by a pore at the base. 
Legume terete or compressed, one-celled, or many-celled by transverse partitions which 
are sometimes filled with pulp. Seeds with a small quantity of albumen. — Trees, shrubs 
or (as in all the North American species) herbaceous plants, with simple, abruptly pinnated 
leaves. Flowers mostly yellow. 

^1. CiiAMXSENNA, DC. Anthers of the lower stamens fertile, thick; the 2 upper sterile and 


1. Cassia Marilandica, Linn. American or Wild Senna. 

Perennial, erect; leaflets 12-18, lanceolate-oblong, mucronate ; gland near the base of 
the petiole clavate ; racemes axillary, and somewhat paniculate at the summit of the branches, 
many-flowered ; legumes linear, somewhat curved, at first hairy, finally smooth. — Michx. 
fl. I. p. 261 ; Pursh, fl.\. p. 306 ; " Schk. handb. 1. <. 113 ;" Ell. sk. 1. p. 473 ; Bigel. 
med. bot. t. 39, and ^. Bost. p. 171 ; Bart. veg. mat. med. t. 12 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 498 ; 
Torr. fl. I. p. 439 ; Beck, bot. p. 94 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 433 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 
1. p. 395. Senna foliis Mimosa, &c. Dill. Elth. t. 260. f. 339. 

Stem 3-4 feet high, smooth or somewhat pubescent. Leaflets 1-1^ inch long and 4-6 
lines wide, abruptly pinnate, conspicuously mucronate, slightly ciliatc : petiole with a small 
green stipitatc gland near the base. Stipules and bracts subulate, hairy, striate, persistent. 
Racemes one or two inches long, in the axils of the upper leaves, and also clustered at the 
summit of the stem. Sepals nearly half as long as the corolla, obtuse, greenish-yellow. 
Corolla yellow, often whitish when old : petals obovatc-cuneate ; the 3 upper ones erect; the 
2 lower longer, deflected. Stamens unequal ; the 3 upper ones flattened and sterile ; the 3 
lowest longest, with broad filaments and large incurved anthers ; all the anthers dark purplish 
brown. Ovary villous, declined : style incurved. Legume about 4 inches long, flattened. 
Seeds 9 - 15 or more, compressed, separated by transverse partitions. 

Banks of rivers ; common. Fl. July - August. Fr. September - October. This plant 

190 LEGUIVflNOS^. Cassia. 

resembles llic Senna of the shops (which is also a species of Cassia) in its medicinal proper- 
lies, and may he siibsiilutcd for it. See ihe works on materia medica quoted above ; also 
Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 182. 

^2. Lasiorhecma, Vogel. Slamens \0, or bi/ abortion 0- 5. Anthers all fertile, commonly oj 

unequal length, linear. 

2. Cassia Ciiam^ecrista,. Linn. Pai-tridge Pea. Sensitive Pea. 

Annual, erect or decumbent ; leaflets in numerous pairs, linear-oblong, oblique at the base, 
obtuse, mucronatc ; gland on the petiole cnp-shaped ; fascicles of flowers above the axils of 
the leaves ; pedicels slender, bracteolate near the summit ; flowers large ; sepals with a long 
attenuate point ; style filiform. — Michx. Jl. 1. p. 262 ; Smith in Abbot, ins. Georg. t. 94 ; 
Bot. mag. t.iOl; Pursh, Jl. I. p. 306 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 473 ; Bigel. jl. Bost. p. 171 ; Torr. 
fl. I. p. 439 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 503 ; Beck, bot. p. 94 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 433 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 395. 

Stem commonly procumbent, spreading and branching from the base, about a foot long, 
pubescent. Leaflets 10-15 pairs, 6-8 lines long, smooth. Stipules and bracts subulate, 
striate, persistent. Fascicles 2 - 4-flowered : pedicels nearly an inch long, each with two 
bractcoles a little below the flower. Calyx colored, two-thirds the length of the corolla. Petals 
orange-yellow, obovate, two and sometimes three of them with a purple spot at the base. 
Anthers elongated, nearly sessile, four of them yellow, the rest purple. Style smooth, longer 
than the villous ovarv. Legume about 2 inches long and one-third of an inch wide, 10 - 15- 
seedcd, hairy along the suttires, smoothish on the sides. 

Sandy fields : Sla'en Island ; Long Island ; in the neighborhood of New-York ; and along 
the Hudson to Troy ; rare in the interior of the State. July - September. 

3. Cassia nictitans, Linn. Wild Sensitive Plant. 

Annual, erect or decumbent ; leaflets in numerous pairs, oblong-linear, obtuse, mucronatc ; 
gland beneath the lowest pair of leaflets cup-shaped, slightly pedicellate ; fascicles of flowers 
above the axils of the leaves, 2 - 3-flowered ; pedicels very short ; flowers small ; sepals 
acuminate ; slamens 5, nearly equal ; style very short. — Linn, liort. Cliff, t. 36 ; Michx. 
Jl. I. p. 262 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 206 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 474 ; Torr. Jl. 1. p. 440 ; DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 503 ; Beck, bot. p. 94; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 432 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 396. 

Stem 8 - 12 inches high, with spreading branches from the base, pubescent, commonly 
purplish, slender. Leaflets 10-20 pairs, 4-6 lines long, a little oblique at the base, often 
cmarginate, nearly smooth. Gland on the petiole dilated, purplish, on a short stalk. Flowers 
3-4 lines long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, with a long acumination. Petals deep yellow, 
obovate. Anthers truncated at the summit, opening by longitudinal slits their whole length. 
Ovary villous, more than twice the length of the style, which is thickened at the extremity : 
stigma truncate. Legume an inch and a half long, flat, clothed with appresscd hairs. 

Cassia. LEGUMINOS^E. mi 

Sandy fields ; common in the southern part of the State, and in the counties along the 
Hudson, but rare in the interior. August. — This and the preceding species are very sensitive, 
folding their leaves in a few moments after being handled. 

25. GYMNOCLADUS. Lam. diet. I. p. 773, and Hit. 823 ; Endl. gen. 6757. 


. [ Named from the Greek, gymnos, naked, and klados, a branch ; from the remarkably naked appearance of the tree in 
winter ; its branches being few and large] 

Flovirers dioecious. Calyx tubular, the limb 5-cleft ; lobes lanceolate, equal. Petals 5, oblong, 
inserted into the summit of the tube. -Stamens 10, included, inserted with the petals. 
Legume oblong, compressed, very large, thick, pulpy inside. — A pretty large tree, destitute 
of spines or prickles, with rough bark and few stout branches. Leaves unequally bipinnate. 
Flowers in axillary racemes. Petals white. 

1. Gymnocladus Canaden.sis, La7n. Coffee-tree. 

La7n.l.c.; Miehx. f. 2. p. 2il. t. 51 ; Pursh, Jl. I. p. 304 ; Michx. f. sylv. \. t. 50 ; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 480 ; Torr. ^- Gr. Jl. N. Am. \. p. 398. Guilandina dioica, Linn. sp. 1. 
p. 381. 

Trunk 30 - 50 feet high, and often a foot or more in diameter ; the branches few for the 
size of the tree, and thick. Bark bitter and acrid. Leaves 1-3 feet long, with 4-7 pinnse, 
the lowest of which consists of a single pair of leaflets, the others 7 - 13-foliolate : leaflets 
ovate, acuminate, 1-2 inches long, mostly alternate, on partial stalks, nearly smooth. Ra- 
cemes 3-6 inches long, somewhat compound. Flowers about an inch in length, on pedicels 
2-4 lines long. Tube of the calyx as long as the lanceolate-acute lobes. Legume 6-10 
inches long and nearly 2 inches broad, a little curved, and of a brown color. Seeds more than 
half an inch in diameter. 

On Seneca Lake, near the mouth of Cachong creek, vvhere was one tree eighteen inches 
in diameter {Prof. J. Hall). At ihc bottom of a ravine near the borders of Cayuga Lake 
{Mr Alexander Thompson). 

According to Michaux, the wood of the CofTec-tree, from the fineness and closeness of its 
grain, is fit for cabinet-making ; and its strength renders it proper for building. Like the 
Locust, it has the valuable property of rapidly converting its sap into perfect wood ; the pro- 
portion of the latter to the former being greater than in most other trees. It is much esteemed 
as an ornamental tree in parks and about houses. 

192 LEGUMINOSiE. Gleditschia. 

26. GLEDITSCHIA. Linn.; Lam. ill. I. 6r)7 ; Endl. gen. 6756. BOTfEY LOCUST. 

I In honor of Joii.n Gottlieb Gi-editscii, a German botanist of the last century.] 

Flowers polygamous. Sepals 9-5, equal, united at the base. Petals as many as the sepals, 
or sometimes fewer ; the 2 lower ones sometimes united. Stamens as many as the sepals, 
and opposite to them ; or often 6-9, one or more of them abortive, and belonging to an 
inner series. Style short, incurved : stigma pubescent. Legume flat, continuous, often 
intercepted internally between the seeds, dry or with a sweet pulp surrounding the seeds, 
which are solitary or numerous. Seeds oval, compressed : testa hard and crustaceous. 
Embryo surrounded with a thin albumen. Cotyledons flat, greenish. — Trees, with the 
supra-axillary branches often converted into simple or branched spines. Leaves abruptly 
pinnate or bijiinnale ; the leaflets somewhat serrate f Flowers small, greenish, spicate. 

1. Gleditschia triacanthos, Linn. Honey Locust. Siceet Locust. 

Spines thick ; leaflets lanceolate-oblong ; legume linear-oblong, much elongated, many- 
seeded ; the intervals filled with a sweet pulp. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 1056 ; Michx. Ji. 2. p. 257 ; 
" Duham. arh. {ed. nov.) 4. t. 25 ;" Michx. f. sylv. 2. t. 79 ; Willd. sp. 4. p. 1097 ; Pursh, 
fl.l.p. 221 ; Ell. sk. 2 p. 709 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 479 ; Torr. compend. p. 375 ; Beck, hot. 
p. 93 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl.N.Am.l. p. 398. 

A middle sized tree ; the trunk, in this State, seldom more than a foot and a half in dia- 
meter ; when young, very spiny. Spines 2-3 inches long, usually triple, or furnished with 
two branches towards the base, sometimes compound, often disappearing as the tree advances 
in age. Leaves 6-10 inches or more in length, pinnate. Leaflets three-fourths of an inch 
long, nearly smooth. Racemes 1-2 inches long ; the staminate and perfect ones nearly 
similar in form. Calyx villous, turbinate at the base : sepals oblong, rather obtuse. Petals 
a little smaller than the sepals. Stamens 5 - 7 in the staminate flowers, 6 - 8 in the perfect 
ones, 1 - 3 of them often abortive : anthers oval, versatile, opening longitudinally. Ovary 
villous : style rather short, incurved : stigma thick, capitate. Legume 9-18 inches long, 
somewhat falcate and twisted. 

Not native in the State, but often planted about houses for ornament, and for hedges ; nearly 
naturalized in some places. July. It is a native of the Western and Southern States. The 
wood is of but little value. Its foliage is very neat, but so thin as hardly to exclude the rays 
of the sun. 

ROSACEiE. 193 

Group 13. Ovaries one or several, simple and distinct, or combined into a compound 
ovary of 2 or more cells, with the placentce in the axis. Flowers regular. 
Petals and (distinct) stamens inserted on the calyx. Albumen none. 

Order XXXVIII. ROSACEiE. Juss. The Rose Tribe. 

Sepals 5 (rarely 3 or 4), more or less united, often with as many bracts ; the 
odd one superior, or next the axis. Petals as many as the sepals (rarely none), 
inserted on the edge of a thin disk that lines the calyx. Stamens indefinite,' 
rarely few. Ovaries solitary or several, with 1 - 2 or sometimes more ovules : 
styles often lateral. Fruit either a drupe, a pome, achenia, or follicular. 
Embryo straight : cotyledons flat or plano-convex. — Trees, shrubs or herba- 
ceous plants, with alternate leaves, and usually furnished with conspicuous 
stipules. Flowers mosUy handsome. 


1. Amtgdalei. Calyx free from the ovary, deciduous. Ovary solitary, with two suspended ovules, and a terminal 

style. Fruit a drupe. — Trees or shrubs. 

2. Rosaces proper. Calyx often braeteolate, and appearing double. Ovaries several or numerous, rarely solitary 

free from the calyx, but sometimes enclosed in its persistent tube: styles terminal or lateral. Fruit follicular or 
consisting of numerous achenia. — Trees or shrubs. ' 

3. VouzM. Calyx campanulate or urceolate; the tube becoming very thick and fleshy, including and coherintr with 

the ovaries. Fruit a pome, with one or few ascending seeds in each cell. ° " 

Suborder I. AjiYGDALEiE. Juss. 

Calyx free from the ovary, deciduous. Ovary solitary, with 2 collateral suspended 
ovules : styles terminal. Fruit a drupe. Seed mostly solitary ; the funiculus 
adhering to the side of the cavity of the ovary. — Trees or shrubs, with simple 
leaves. Stipules free. Fruit mostly eatable ; the kernel (as well as the leaves) 
yielding hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid).* 

• The seedi of Amygdalee do not contain the prussic acid ready formed, but two peculiar principles called amygdaline 
and ernvMru, which are contained in distinct cells. When the kernels are bruised, and especially when heat is applied 
»he« substances immediately react on each other, giving rise to the formation of prussic acid, together with some other 

[Flora.] 25 

194 ROSACEA. Prunus. 

1. PRUNUS. Toum.; Juss. gen. j).M\ ; Endl. gen. 6A06. PLUM. 

[ The Latin name for Plnm] 

Calyx urceolate-lip.misplierical ; tlic limb 5-parted, regular, deciduous. Petals spreading. 
Stamens numerous. Ovary smooth. Drupe ovate or oblong, fleshy, smooth, usually 
covered with a bloom ; the stone or nucleus more or less compressed, acute, smooth, the 
margins somewhat grooved. — Small trees or shrubs. Leaves serrate, convolute in vernation. 
Flowers white, usually appearing before the leaves, from lateral buds ; the pedicels in 
umbellate fascicles. 

1. Prunus Americana, Marsliall. Red Plum. Yellow Plum. 

Branches somewhat thorny ; leaves ovate or obovate, conspicuously acuminate, sharply and 
often doubly serrate, strongly veined underneath, finally almost smooth ; petioles often with 
2 glands ; umbels 2 - 5-flowered ; drupe roundish-oval (red or yellow when ripe), nearly 
destitute of bloom. — Marsh, arhust.p. Ill ; Darlingt. in ann. lye. New-York, 3. p. 87. t. 1, 
and fl. Cest. p. 287 ; Beck, bot. p. 95 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 407. P. nigra, Ait. 
Kew. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 165 ; Bot. mag. t. 1117 ; Pursh, Jl. I. p. 331 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 993. 
P. hyemalis. Ell. sk. 1. p. 542. Cerasus nigra, Loisel. ; Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 538 ; 
Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. I. p. 167. 

A tree or large shrub, 8-15 feet high, irregularly branched, and somewhat spiny. Leaves 
2-3 inches long, pubescent underneath when young. Umbels mostly 3 - 4-flowered. 
Calyx-segments linear-lanceolate, pubescent. Fruit half an inch to an inch in diameter, oval 
or nearly globose, mostly reddish-orange when ripe, with a juicy yellow pulp and a thick 
tough skin. It is palatable when cultivated, but rather acerb in a wild state. 

Banks of streams, borders of woods, etc. ; frequent in the valley of the Hudson, and along 
the Mohawk. Fl. April. Fr. August. This species is widely diffused throughout the United 

2. Prunus maritima, Wang. Beach Plum. Sand Plum. 

Low, with straggling branches, seldom thorny ; leaves varying from ovate to obovate, 
usually somewhat acuminate, finely and sharply serrate ; petioles, or lower part of the lamina, 
mostly with 2 glands ; umbels few-flowered ; pedicels short, pubescent ; fruit subglobose, 
covered with a bloom. — To7t. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 408. 

var. 1 : leaves softly pubescent underneath ; fruit large. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. P. maritima, 
Wang. Amer. p. 103 ; Willd. enum. 1. p. 519 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 533. P. sphasrocarpa, 
Michx.fl. I. p. 284. P. pubescens, Pursh, fl. l.p. 231 ; Torr.fl. l.p. 469. P. htloralis, 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 193. Cerasus pubescens, Seringe in DC. I. c. p. 538. 

Prunus. ROSACEiE. 195 

var. 2 : leaves, when old, nearly smooth on both sides ; fruit smaller. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. 
P. pygmaea, Willd. sp. 2. p. 993, and enum. 1. p. 518. P. acuminata, MicJuv. I. c. Cerasus 
pygmaea, Loisel. ; DC. I. c. ? 

A shrub 2-5 feet high, in exposed situations sometimes almost prostrate. Leaves 2-3 
inches long, of a firm texture vv^hen old ; sometimes (particularly in var. 1 .) without an 
acumination, or even obtuse : petioles about one-third of an inch long, pubescent. Flowers 
very numerous, appearing just before the leaves unfold ; the umbels usually 2 - 3-flowered : 
pedicels three-fourths of an inch long. Calyx pubescent. Fruit usually purple, but some- 
times crimson ; in the first variety, often an inch in diameter, and somewhat oval, but often 
much smaller and globose on the same plant ; in the second variety, they are always small 
(the size of a small cherry). 

The first variety is abundant on the sea-beach of Long Island ; the other grows in sandy 
fields and woods, not far from the salt water. Fl. April - May. Fr. September. When 
fully ripe, and growing in exposed situations, particularly on the sides of sand-banks, the fruit 
is agreeably flavored ; but much of it is acerb and astringent. It is sometimes sold in the 
New-York market under the name of Beach Plum. 

2. CERASUS. Juss. ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 535. CHERRY. 

[ Cerasus is the name of an Asiatic town, whence the Cherry-tree is said to have been introduced into Europe.] 

Flowers as in Prunus. Drupe globose, destitute of bloom ; the stone mostly globose and 
smooth (not sulcate on the margins). — Trees or shrubs. Leaves conduplicate in vernation. 

^ 1. EucERASus, Torr. &, Gr. Flowers from lat:ral leafless buds, appearing before or with the 
leaves : pedicels in umbellate fascicles, or corymbose. 

1. Cerasus pumila, Michx. Sand Cherry. 

Stem depressed or prostrate ; leaves oblanceolate, obovate-lanceolate or sometimes oval, 
acute or obtuse, slightly and sparingly serrate, smooth, whitish underneath ; umbels sessile, 
few-flowered ; drupes ovoid. — Michx. Jl. 1. p. 286 ; Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 537 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 168. C. depressa, Seringe, I. c. ; Hook. I. c. Prunus pumila, Linn. mant. 
p. 75 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 990 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 538 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 470 ; " Guimp. Otto ^ 
JIayne, holz. t. 119." P. depressa, Pursh, I. c; Bigel. fl. Boat. p. 192. P. Susquehannae, 
Wiltd. enum. 1. ;>. 519. 

Stem trailing, 2-3 feet long, with ascending branches. Leaves 1-3 inches long, and 
usually about half an inch broad. Utnbcls appearing with the young leaves, about 4-flowered. 
Pedicels smoolii, short. Fruit small, dark red, eatable. 

Sandy and rocky shores ; Highlands of New-York: rare. Shores of Lake Champlain 
(Bigelow). Near Troy {Dr. Wright and Prof. J. Hall). Fl. May. 



2. Cerasus Pennsylvanica, Loisel. Wild Reel Cherry, or Bird Cherry. 
Leaves oval or oblong-lanceolale, acuminate, finely and sharply serrate, smooth and sliining 

wlien old ; umbels somewhat pedunculate and corymbose, many-flowered ; pedicels rather 
long and slender ; drupe small, ovoid-globose. — Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 529 ; Hook.jl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 168 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 409. C. borealis, MicJuc. fl.l. p. 286 ; 
Miclix.f. sylv. 2. p. 96. t. 90 ; Seringe, I. c. Prunus Pennsylvanica, Linn, suppl. p. 252 ; 
Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 165 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 992 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 331 ; Torr.fl. l.p. 168. 
P. lanceolata, Willd. arh. t. 3./. 1. P. borealis, Pursh, I. c. ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 193. 

A tree seldom exceeding 20 or 25 feet in height and 5 or 6 inches in diameter ; the bark 
reddish, and marked with white dots. Leaves 2-4 inches in diameter, rather thin, acute at 
the base, often with 2 small glands on the petiole or near the base of the lamina ; the serratures 
glandular and incurved. Umbels 3 - 6-flowered ; the pedicels about an inch long. Calyx 
smooth ; segments semiovate, obtuse. Petals obovate. Fruit the size of a large pea, red, 
austere, scarcely eatable. 

Rocky woods ; rather common throughout the State, except below the Highlands, where 
it is rare. Fl. May. Fr. July. 

§ 2. Padus, Torr. &l Gr. Flowers in racemes terminating leafy branches, appearing after the 
evolution of the leaves : leaves deciduous. 

3. Cerasus Virginiana, DC. Choke Cherry. 
Leaves broadly oval or somewhat obovate, with a short abrupt acumination, very sharply 

serrate with subulate teeth, mostly hairy in the axils of the veins underneath ; racemes short, 
erect or spreading ; petals orbicular ; drupes subglobose, dark red. — Seringe in DC. prodr. 
2. p. 539 (excl. syn. Michx.) ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 410. C. serotina. Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 169. C. obovata. Beck, hot. p. 97. Prunus Virginiana, Linn. sp. 1. p. 473 
(excl. syn.) ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 896, and arb. t. 5./. 1 ; " Guimp. Otto ^ Hayne, holz. t. 36." 
P. rubra. Ait. Kew. {ed. 1.) 2. p. 163. P. serotina, Pursh, I. c; Torr.fl. 1. p. 468. P. 
obovata, Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 192. 

A shrub or small tree. Leaves 2-4 inches long, membranaceous, the serratures sometimes 
double, commonly with several small glands on the upper part of the petiole. Racemes 2-3 
inches long. Calyx hemispherical ; the teeth very short, obtuse and ciliate. Fruit about the 
size of a pea, bitter and astringent, scarcely eatable. 

Rocky hill-sides ; rather common north and west of the Highlands. Fl. May. Fr. July 
- August. 

4. Cerasus serotina, DC. Wild Cherry. Black Cherry. 
Leaves oval-oblong or lanceolate-oblong, rather coriaceous, acuminate, smooth or bearded 

Cerasus. rosacea. 197 

along the midrib underneath, smooth and shining above, finely serrate with incurved callous 
teeth ; racemes elongated, spreading ; petals broadly obovate ; drupes globose, purplish- 
black. — Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 540 ; Torr. <^ Gr.jl. N. Am. 1. p. 410. C. Virginiana, 
Michx. fi.l. p. 283 ; Michx.fl. sylv. 2. p. 89. t. 88 ; Hook. I. c. (excl. syn.) ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 289. Prunus serotina, Ehrk. beitr. 3. p. 20 ; Willd. arh. t. 5. /. 2, and spec. 2. 
p. 986 ; Guimp. Otto <^ Hayne, liolz. t. 37, not of Pursh, Torr. ^c. P. Virginiana, Nutt. 
diet. ; Wang. Amer. t. 14. /. 3 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 540 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 467 ; Bigel. fl. Bast, 
p. 192 ; Beck, hot. p. 97 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 289. 

A tree 30 - 60 feet (in favorable situations 80 feet) high. The heart-wood is a reddish 
color, hard and very close-grained. Leaves 2-4 inches long, of a deep brilliant green on 
the upper surface ; the serratures inflexed so abruptly at the point, that they appear rather 
obtuse. Racemes 3-4 inches long, finally pendulous ; the pedicels about 3-4 lines long. 
Calyx hemispherical, smooth ; the teeth very short and acute. Fruit about 3 lines in diameter, 
dark purple or nearly black when mature, bitter and rather nauseous to most persons. 

Woods, shores of rivers, and along fences. Fl. May — June. Fr. August. 

The wood of this tree is employed extensively by cabinet-makers, being nearly as handsome 
as the inferior kinds of mahogany. The bark is a strong aromatic bitter, and is considered a 
valuable tonic (See Wood <^ Backers U. S. Dispens. p. 536). — This synonymy of this and 
the preceding species has been confounded or transposed by many botanists. The Prunus 
Virginiana of Linnaeus is undoubtedly the Choke Cherry, but until lately it had generally 
been considered the Wild Cherry (See the Flora of North America, I. c). 

Suborder IL RosacejE proper. Torr. Sf Gr. 

Calyx 5-cleft (rarely 3 - 4-cleft), naked, or often with bracteoles alternating 
with the segments, free from the ovaries. Stamens occasionally few. Ovaries 
visually several or numerous, rarely solitary, with 1 - 2 or more suspended or 
ascending ovules, distinct or very rarely combined, sometimes included in the 
persistent calyx-tube : styles terminal or lateral. Fruit follicular, or consisting 
of numerous achenia. — Herbs, shrubs or very rarely trees, with simple or 
compound leaves. 


Tribe I. SptRES. Carpels mostly 5 (rarely more, or reduced to 1 or 2), fullicular or 2-valvcd in fruit. — Shrubs or small 
trees, rarely herbs. 

Tribe II. DbyidejE. Aclicnia or little dru()e8, either few or solitary; or numerous, and then crowded on a hemispheri- 
cal torus. — HotIm, sfirubs, or rarely trees. 

Tribe III. Roses. Achenia numerous, iniicrtcd on the inner nurface of the disk or hollow torus that linos the urn-shaped 
c&lyx-tube. — Shrubby and prickly plants, with pinnated leaves. 


Tribe I. SPIRES. Juss. 

Calyx campanulale, imbricate, or sometimes valvate in (Estivation. Carpels mostly 5 {rarely 
more, sometimes reduced to \ or 2), verticillate, follicular or 2-valved in fruit : styles 
terminal. Seeds 1 - 10 m each carpel, pendulous or ascending. — Shrubs or small 
trees, rarely herbs. 

3. SPIR/EA. Linn.; Endl. gen. 6391. MEADOW-SWEET. 

[ Supposed to be the Speircia of Theophraslus. Speira signifies a cord.] 

Calyx 5-cleft, persistent. Petals 5, obovate or roundish, equal. Stamens 20 - 50. Carpels 
3-5 (sometimes 6 - 8), distinct or rarely united at the base, sometimes with a short stipe : 
style terminal. Seeds 2 — 15, suspended, or very rarely one of them ascending. — Unarmed 
shrubs or perennial herbs. Flowers white or rose-color. 

& 1. Physocarpds, Camb. Carpels large, someichat united at the base, inflated: seeds with a firm 
shining testa. — Shrubs, with somewhat lobed stipulate leaves. 

1, Spiraea opulifolia, Linn. Nine-hark. 

Leaves roundish, often subcordate, slightly 3-lobed, doubly crenate-serrate, pelioled, 
smoothish ; corymbs umbel-like, pedunculate, hemispherical ; pedicels filiform ; carpels 
3-5, finally spreading, much longer than the calyx. — Linn. sp. I. p. 489 ; Michx. fl. 1. 
p. 293 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 540 ; Torr. fl. \.p. 482 ; Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 542 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 171 ; Beck, hot. p. 98; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 298. 

A shrub 3-5 feet high, much branched ; the old bark loose, and separating in numerous 
thin layers. Leaves about 2 inches in diameter, often roundish-ovate, more or less distinctly 
3-lobed and crenately incised. Corymbs numerous, about two inches in diameter, many- 
flowered. Calyx (and pedicels) pubescent ; the teeth ovate, acute. Disk entirely cohering 
with the tube of the calyx. Ovaries with 1-4 ovules, one of which is suspended, the others 
ascending : stigmas capitate. Carpels about three times as long as the calyx, compressed, 
a little acuminate, somewhat membranaceous, smooth and shining. Seeds about 2 in each 
carpel, reniform-obovoid. 

Rocky banks of rivers, etc. ; rather common. Fl. May - June. Fr. August. 

^ 2. Ecspir.s:a, Torr. & Gr. Carpels distinct, not inflated : seeds mostly with a loose membranaceous 
testa. — Shrubs, with entire leaves destitute of stipules. 

2. SpiRiEA SALiciFOLiA, LifiTi. Quecn-of-the-meadow. 

Plant nearly smooth ; leaves lanceolate or obovate, simply or doubly serrate ; racemes in 
crowded panicles ; carpels 5, smooth. — Linn. ; Pall. ft. Ross. t. 21 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1055 ; 

Spiraea. ROSACEA. 199 

Michr.fl. \.p. 293 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 341 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 560 ; Torr.Jl. 1. 481 ; DC.prodr. 
2. p. 544 ; Beck, bol.p. 98 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 299 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. I. p. 415. 
"S. alba, Du Roi, beitr. 7. p. 137;" Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 196 ; Wats, dendrol. t. 133. 

Shrubby or suffruticose, 3-5 feet high ; the branches purpHsh, very brittle. Leaves 
variable in breadth and outline, usually about 2 inches long, mostly acute, but sometimes 
quite obtuse ; commonly smooth on both sides, but sometimes (particularly a narrow-leaved 
state of the plant from Oneida county) a little pubescent on the veins underneath, and minutely 
fringed on the margin : petioles very short. Flowers white, commonly with a tinge of purple. 
Disk with a free crenulate border. Petals crenulate. 

Wet bushy meadows ; also in dry elevated situations (abundant on the Fishkill mountains). 
Fl. June - July. Fr. October. 

3. Spiraea tomentosa, Linn. Hard-hack. Steepk-hush. 

Stem and lower surface of the leaves clothed with a rusty-colored tomentose pubescence ; 
leaves ovate or oblong, crowded, unequally serrate ; racemes crowded in an elongated tapering 
panicle ; carpels 5, woolly. — Linn.; Michx. fl. \. p. 293 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1056 ; Pursh, 
fl.l. p. 341 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 560 ; Mead in N. York med. repos. (n. ser.) 6. p. 256, with a 
plate ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 481 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 197; DC. prodr. 2. p. 544 ; Beck, hot. p. 99 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 299 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 415. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, somewhat branched, brittle, clothed with a loose wool that easily 
rubs off. Leaves 1-2 inches long, deep bright green above, finely contrasting with the 
rusty pubescence of the under surface, obtuse or acute ; the petioles scarcely 2 lines long. 
Panicle 2-6 inches long, very compact. Calyx woolly. Petals pale purple, crenulate, 
sometimes becoming green in withering. Seeds few in each carpel, subulate at each end. 

Swamps ; rather rare. July - August. This plant is very astringent, and has been em- 
ployed with success in chronic diarrhoea. See Dr. Mead's paper quoted above. 

^ 3. Arunciis, Seringa. Flowers dimcious : carpels distinct, not inflated : seeds with a loose mem- 
branaceous testa. — Herbs, with tripinnately divided leaves destitute of stipules : spikes filiform, 
in a large compound panicle. 

4. Spir/ea Aruncus, Linn. Goat's-beard. 

Leaves tripinnatc, membranaceous ; leaflets lanceolate-oblong, acuminate , the terminal 
ones ovalc-lanceolatc, sharply and incisely doubly serrate ; flowers very numerous ; carpels 
3-5, very smooth. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 496 ; Miclix. fl. I. p. 294 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 343 (excl. 
/3.); Ell. sk. 1. p. 561 ; Scringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 545 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 173 ; 
Beck, hot. p 99; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 417. S. Aruncus, (8. Americana, Torr. fl. 
1. p. 482 (excl. syn. Miclix.). 

200 ROSACE^E. Spir^a. 

Stem branching, 3-5 feet high, smooth. Leaves very large, sometimes bipinnatcly divided: 
leaflets 2-3 inciics long, smooth. Flowers very small, white, in numerous long slender 

On the Catskill mountains {Prof. Eaton). I have seen no specimen recently from this 

5, GILLENIA. Moench, suppl. p. 286 ; Nutt. gen. 1 . p. 307 ; Endl. gen. 6393. 


[A name of unknown meaning.] 

Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-toothed ; the teeth glandular-ciliate. Petals 5, linear-lanceolate, 
very long, inserted into the throat of the caly.v. Stamens 10 - 20, mostly included, inserted 
in 2 or 3 scries below the petals. Carpels 5, distinct, 2-valved : styles filiform. Seeds 
2 (or more ?), oblong, ascending from the base of each carpel ; the testa thin, and rather 
crustaceous. — Perennial herbs, with trifoliolate, stipulate, nearly sessile leaves ; the leaflets 
membranaceous, doubly serrate and incised. Flowers (rose-color) paniculate-corymbose ; 
the peduncles and pedicels elongated. — Roots emetic and cathartic. 

1. GiLLENiA TRiFOLiATA, Mceuch. Indian Physic. BowmarCs-root. 

Stipules very small, linear-setaceous, entire ; leaflets ovate-oblong, acuminate ; ovaries 
pubescent. — Nutt. gen. I. c. ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 546 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 562 ; Torr.Jl. I. p. 463 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 108 ; Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 300 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 418. Spiraea 
trifoliata, Linn. sp. 1. p. 489 ; Michx. fl.l. p. 294 ; Bot. mag. t. 489 ; Mill. ic. t. 252; 
Bigel. med. hot. 3. p. 11. i. 41 ; Bart. veg. mat. med. \.t. 5. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, slender, smooth, paniculately branched. Upper leaves on very short 
petioles, the lower ones petiolate : leaflets 2-3 inches long, a little pubescent underneath, 
nearly smooth above, cut and irregularly serrate. Flowers few, in loose corymbose terminal 
panicles ; the pedicels slender. Calyx smoothish ; the teeth much shorter than the tube, 
acute. Petals pale rose-color or nearly white, about three-fourths of an inch long and 2 lines 
wide, much narrowed at the base, rather unequal. Stamens about 15, scarcely the length of 
the calyx. Ovaries slightly cohering, hairy, each with 4 collateral ovules ascending from the 
base of the placenta : style slender. 

Shady woods, and on rocky hills ; western and southwestern counties. Fl. June. Fr. 

The root of this plant has long possessed much reputation for its medicinal properties. It 
acts as an emetic or a cathartic, according to the dose ( Wood <Sf Bache's U. S. Dispensatory, 
p. 560). 


2. GiLLENiA STipuLACEA, Nutt. American Ipecacuanha. 

Stipules very large, ovate, foliaceous, doubly incised ; leaflets lanceolate, deeply incised ; 
ovaries smooth. — Nutt. gen. I. c. ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 562 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 564 ; DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 546 ; Beck, hot. p. 108 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 418. Spir^a stipulata, Willd. 
enum. 1. p. 542. S. stipulacea, Pursh, Jl. I. p. 343 ; Bart. I. c. 1. t. 6 ; Cambass. in ann. 
sci. nat. 1. p. 387. t. 28. 

Stem 2 — 3 feet high, branching, smooth or minutely pubescent. Leaflets about as large 
as in the preceding species, but more cut and with coarser serratures ; those of the lower and 
radical leaves almost pinnatifid. Stipules an inch or more in length, and of nearly the same 
breadth. Calyx and petals nearly as in G. trifoliata, but the latter rather smaller. Ovaries 
smooth, with 4 ovules ascending from above the base of the placenta. Ripe fruit not seen. 

In the western part of the State {David Thomas, Esq.). The late Dr. Cleaver, of Phila- 
delphia, informed me many years ago that he had found this species in the State of New- York. 
It is abundant west of the Allegany mountains, where it takes the place of G. trifoliata. 
Both species have nearly the same medicinal properties. See Wood ^ Bache, I, c. 

Tribe II. DRYABEjE. Torr. ^ Gr. 
Calyx valvate or often imbricate in eestivation. Stamens sometimes definite. Carpels 
{achenia, sometimes drupaceous) l-seeded and indehiscent, either few or solitary, or 
numerous and collected into a head on a conical or hemispherical torus : ovules solitary, 
rarely 2, suspended or ascending. Styles lateral or terminal. — Herbs, shrubs, or rarely 


Subtribe I. EcDRYADEa:. Calyx campanulate or turbinate, or rather flat ; the a;stivation valvate. Stamens numerous. 
Carpels numerous, dry. Seeds erect. Style terminal. — Mostly herbs. 

Subtribe II. Sanguisorbe.e. Calyx-tube indurated and contracted at the mouth; the segments valvate. Petals often 
wanting. Stamens few or definite. Carpels 1-2, rarely 3-4, dry : stigma often plumose. Seed sus- 
pended. — Mostly herbs. 

Subtribe III. Fbagarieje. Calyx flattish, valvate. Stamens numerous. Carpels numerous, dry, crowded on a conical 
or hemispherical (dry or flcsliy) torus. — Herbs, or rarely shrubby plants. 

Subtribe IV. Dalibardeje. Calyx flattish, mostly imbricated. Stamens numerous. Carpels drup.iccous, crowded on 
the conical receptacle. Styles terminal or nearly so. — Herbaceous, or mostly somewhat shrubby and often 
prickly plants. 

Subtribe I. EudryadejE, Torr. & Gr. Calyx campanulate or turbinate, or rather flat, 
valvate in eestivation. Stamens numerous. Carpels numerous, dry : style terminal. 
Seed erect. Radicle inferior. — Herbs, or sometimes shrubby plants. Flowers perfect. 

6. GEUM. Linn. ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 550. avens. 

[ From the Greek, geuo, an agreeable flavor ; the roots of one 8(iecics being aromatic] 
Calyx concave at the base ; the border flattish, deeply 5-cleft, usually with 5 small bracteoles 
[Flora.] 26 

202 ROSACEA. Geum. 

alternate with the segments. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, inserted into the disk that 
lines the base of the calyx. Achenia numerous, crowded on the conical or cylindrical dry 
receptacle, caudate with the terminal persistent styles. — Perennial herbs, with the leaves 
(at least the lower or radical ones) pinnately divided. Flowers white, yellow or purplish. 

^ 1. Ei'GEUM, Torr. & Gr. Segments of the calyx rejiexed. Style jointed, geniculate and corUoried 
above the middle ; the lower portion smooth, persistent, hooked at the point after the vpper 
{usually hairy) portion falls off. 

1. Geum Virgima.num, Linn. Virginian Avens. 

Radical leaves pinnate, or lyrately pinnate, or trifoliolate ; cauline ones 3 - 5-foliolate, the 
uppermost usually undivided, incisely serrate, softl}' pubescent or smoolhish ; stipules mostly 
incised ; peduncles elongated and diverging in fruit ; bracteoles minute ; petals (white) about 
the length of the calyx, cuneate-obovate ; carpels sparingly hispid ; upper joint of the style 
hairy at the base. — Linn. sp. I. p. 500 ; Murr. in comtn. Gcett. 5. p. 30. t. 3 ; Willd. sp. 2. 
p. 1113 ; Michx.fl. \.p. 301 ; Pursh, ft- \-P- 351 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 572; Torr. ft. l.p.493; 
Bigel. ft,. Bost. p. 206 ; Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 550 ; Hook. ft. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 175 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 101 ; Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 301. G. album, Gmel. syst. 2. p. 861 ; Willd. 
enum. 1 . p. 556 ; Pursh, I. c. ; Bigel. I. c. ; DC. I. c, iSfC. 

Stem I5 - 3 feet high, a little hairy or nearly smooth. Radical leaves on long petioles, 
sometimes nearly undivided, but commonly spuriously trifoliolate, or pinnately divided with 
5 large segments and several very small ones ; cauline ones on short petioles, the uppermost 
nearl}^ sessile : leaflets broadly ovate or elliptical, 1 J - 3 inches long, usually acute. Pedun- 
cles 1—3 inches long, terminating the branches. Flowers at first nodding, finally erect. 
Calyx somewhat hairj' ; the segments reflexed : bracteoles subulate. Petals white or some- 
times cream-color, scarcely 2 lines in length. Carpels in a roundish sessile head, bristly with 
a few long straight hairs : style straight and smooth below the joint ; upper joint thicker than 
the lower, at length falling ofT, leaving a minute but strong hook at the summit of the lower 
portion. Receptacle densely hairv^. 

Borders of woods, thickets, etc. Fl. June - July. Fr. September. 

2. Geum strictum. Ait. Small-jloxcered Yellow Avens. 

Stem and petioles hispid ; radical and lower cauline leaves interruptedly and somewhat 
lyrately pinnate, the leaflets cuneiform-obovate ; upper cauline leaves 3 - 5-foliolate, the 
leaflets rhombic-ovate or oblong, acute, sharply toothed and incised ; stipules large, incised ; 
petals (yellow) roundish-oval, longer than the calyx ; carpels hispid at the summit ; upper 
joint of the style hairy towards the base. — Ait. Ketv. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 207 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1113; 
Pursh, ft. 2. p. 351 ; Bigel. ft. Bost. p. 207 ; Torr. comp. p. 208 ; Hook. ft. Bar. -Am. 1. 
p. 175 (excl. /3.); Torr. ^- Gr.ft. N. Am. \.p.42\. G. Canadense, Murr. comm. Gaett. 5. 
p. 33. t. 4 (not of Jacq.); DC. prodr. 2. p. 550. G. ranunculoides, Seringe, I. c. 

Gettm. rosacea. 203 

Stem 2-4 feet high, simple, paniculate at the summit, the lower part (and sometimes the 
upper also, as well as the petioles) hispid with spreading or retrorse hairs. Radical and lower 
cauhne leaves on long petioles, the upper ones nearly sessile : larger leaflets 2 inches or more 
in length, with scattered appressed hairs on both surfaces. Flowers in a loose dichotomous 
panicle, larger than in the preceding species ; the peduncles 1-2 inches long. Bracteoles 
subulate-linear, shorter than the segments of the calyx. Head of carpels sessile. Receptacle 
densely pubescent. 

Wet meadows and swamps. July - August. Common in the northern and western parts 
of the State ; not found on the Hudson far below Albany. 

^ 2. Caryophyllata, Tourn. Segments of the calyx erect or spreading : style jointed, geniculated 
and contorted near the middle ; the upper joint mostly plumose. 

3. Geum RivALE, Linn. Water Avens. Purple Avens. 

Siem pubescent, rather naked ; radical leaves interruptedly pinnate and lyrate , cauline 
ones (1-2) trifoliolate or 3-lobed ; flowers few, nodding ; petals broadly cuneiform-obovate, 
emarginate, about the length of the calyx ; carpels in a stipitate head, very hairy ; lower joint 
of the persistent style smooth above, the upper joint plumose. — Linn. sp. I. p. 501 ; Michx. 
fl.l.p. 301 ; Engl. hot. t. 106 ; Pursh, /. 1. p. 351 ; Torr. fl.l.p. 493 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 206 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 422. 

Rhizoma creeping. Stem 1-3 feet high, erect, clothed with a short soft retrorse pubes- 
cence mixed with longer hairs. Radical leaves on petioles often a foot long ; terminal leaflets 
broadly ovate or obovate. 2-4 inches in diameter. Flowers in a loose terminal panicle, an 
inch in diameter ; the peduncles erect in fruit. Calyx purplish : bracteoles scarcely one- 
third the length of the segments. Petals abruptly narrowed into a claw, dull purplish-orange, 
finally longer than the calyx. Carpels in a globose head, which at first is nearly sessile, but 
finally raised on a distinct, stipe. Lower joint hispid about half its length ; upper joint plumose 

Bogs and wet meadows ; northern and western parts of the State. May - June. The root 
or rhizoma is astringent, and, made into a syrup, is a popular medicine " for cleansing the 
blood." It is also said to be used as a substitute for chocolate. 

^ 3. SiEVERsiA, Willd. ; R. Br. Style not articulated, wholly persistent. 

4. Geum triflorum, Pursh. Three-Jbwered Purple Avens. 

Stem nearly naked, softly pubescent, about 3-flowcrcd at the summit ; radical leaves inter- 
ruptedly pinnate, the petioles hairy ; leaflets cuneiform-oblong, deeply incised and toothed ; 
flowers at first nodding ; pedicels finally elongated ; bracteoles lanceolate-linear, longer than 
the calyx segments, and about the length of the clhptical-oblong petals ; styles very long, 


204 ROSACEA. Geum. 

and filiform in fruit, plumose. — Pursh, Jl. I. p. 736 ; Seringe in DC. prodr. 2. p. 533 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr.Jl. N. Am. \. p. 423. Bieversia triflora, R. Br. in Parry's \st voy. app. p. 276; 
Richards, app. Frankl. journ. ed 2. p. 21 ; Hook, in bot. mag. t. 2858, and Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 176. S. rosea, Graham in Edin. phil. journ. 1831. 

Rhizoma creeping, thick and brown. Stems or scapes in the flowering state only 4-6 
inches, in fruit a foot or 15 inches high, with 2 opposire small laciniatc leaves near the middle, 
and several others resembling an involucre at the base of the peduncles ; the 2 lateral flower- 
stalks also furnished with similar but smaller leaflets about the middle. Radical leaves 
numerous : leaflets mostly 3 - 5-toothed, or 3 - 5-cleft at the summit. Flowers nodding 
when first expanded ; the peduncles at first scarcely half an inch long, in fruit 3-4 inches. 
Calyx and involucral leaves usually of a purplish color. Petals yellowish-white tinged with 
purple, persistent. Styles of the mature fruit more than 2 inches long, very slender, purple, 
plumose with white silky hairs. 

On rocks, Watertown, Jefferson county ; very rare {Dr. Crawe). A beautiful plant when 
in fruit. It has not recently been found within the limits of this State. 

7. WALDSTEINIA. Willd. act. nat. cur. Berol. 2. p. 106. t. 4./. 1 ; Torr. ^ Or. fi. 

N. Am. 1 . p. 426. WALDSTEINIA. 

Waldsteinia and Comaropsis, DC; Endl. 

[Named in honor of Franz de W^i.dstein, a distinguished Gennan botanist.] 

Tube of the calyx turbinate or obconic ; the limb 5-cleft, with 5 alternate, sometimes minute 
and deciduous bracteoles, which are occasionally wanting. Petals 5, sessile, deciduous. 
Stamens numerous, inserted into the throat of the calyx above the free border of the disk 
that lines the calyx-tube. Achenia 2-6, dry or somewhat fleshy, inserted on a short 
receptacle : styles terminal, filiform, separating from the carpel by an articulation. Seed 
erect. Radicle inferior. — Low perennial herbs, with a prostrate or creeping rhizoma, and 
mostly radical, roundish, 3 - 5-lobed or divided leaves. Scapes bracteate. Petals yellow. 

1. Waldsteinia fragarioides, Tratt. Strawberry -like Waldsteinia. 

Leaves trifoliolate , the leaflets broadly obovate-cuneate and petiolulate, crenately toothed 
and incised ; scapes erect, bracteate, 3 - 5-flowered ; segments of the calyx shorter than the 
oblong petals ; (bracteoles sometimes wanting) ; carpels 4-6, hairy. — Torr. <^ Or. Jl. N. 
Am. 1. p. 426. Dalibarda fragarioides, Michx. Jl. 1. p. 300. t. 28; Pursh, Jl. 1. p 351 ; 
Bot.mag.t.lbQI; Torr. Jl. 1. p. 4^91 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost p. 203. Comaropsis fragarioides, 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 555 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 177. C. Doniana, DC. I. c. 

Rhizoma rather thick, brownish. Leaves all radical ; the petioles 3-4 inches long : 
leaflets a little hairy on both sides, \ — \\ inch long, and often nearly as wide as long. Scapes 

Waldsteinia. ROSACEjE. 205 

slender, finally longer than the leaves, with a small leafy bract below the middle, and others 
at the forks of the pedicels. Calyx a little pubescent ; the tube conical : segments lanceolate- 
oblong, acute, sometimes with alternate minute bracteoles. Petals scarcely twice the length 
of the calyx. Stamens numerous. Carpels minute. 

Woods ; rather common in the norlhern part of the State, and not rare in the western 
counties, but not hitherto found in the valley of the Hudson south of Catskill. Fl. May - 
June. Fr. July. 

Subtribe 2. Sanguisorbe^e, Torr. & Gr. Calyx-tube moistly indurated and contracted at the 
mouth ; the segments valvule, or rarely imbricated in aestivation. Petals often wanting. 
Stamens few or definite {rarely numerous). Carpels 1 - 2, or rarely 3-4, dry : styles 
teMninal or lateral : stigma often plumose. Seeds suspended, very rarely ascending. 
Radicle superior. — Herbs, or sometimes shrubby plants. Flowers sometimes polygamous 
or dioBcious. 

8. SANGUISORBA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6373. great burnet. 

[Named from the Latin, sanguis, blood, and sordco, to absorb; the plant having been used to stop bleeding.] 

Flowers perfect. Tube of the calyx quadrangular, with 3 bracteoles at the base ; the limb 
4-parted. Petals none. Stainens 4, opposite the calyx-segments : filaments often dilated 
upwards. Ovary solitary : style filiform, many-cleft or pencil-form. Achenium dry, in- 
cluded in the hardened 4-winged calyx-tube. Seed suspended. — Perennial, rarely annual 
herbs, with unequally pinnate leaves and foliaceous persistent stipules ; tiie leaflets petiolu- 
late, serrate or pinnatifid. Flowers in dense ovoid or cylindrical spikes. 

1. Sanguisorba Canadensis, Linn. American Great Burnet. 

Perennial ; spikes finally cylindrical and much elongated ; stamens much longer than the 
calyx ; filaments flattened and dilated upwards ; leaflets ovate or oblong, serrate, cordate. — 
Willd. sp. 1. ;;. 654 ; Michx. fl.\. p.lOO; Pursh,fl. 1. j9. 116; Ell. sk. 1. p. 206 ; Torr. 
fl. l.p. 176 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 62 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 594 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 198 ; 
Beck, bot. p. 115 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 106 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 429. S. media, 
Linn. ; DC. I. c. ; Hook. I. c. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, smooth, with a few erect branches. Leaflets in numerous pairs, 
1-2 inches long, acutely serrate : petioles long, sheathing at the base. Stipules often lunate 
or falrate, sharply serrate, adhering to ihc petiole ; the lower ones sometimes wanting. Spikes 
at first elliptical, at length cylindrical, 3-6 inches long ; the flowers much crowded and 
sessile, each with 3 small persistent bracts at the base. Calyx yellowish- or greenish-white ; 
the segments ovate, with a callous tip. Filaments very long, while, flattened and dilated 


upward ; anthers small, roundish. Style a little longer than the calyx, slender : stigma large 
and capitate, divided into numerous narrow segments. Achenium pyriform, contained in the 
quadrangular, strongly winged and thickened calyx-tube. 

Wet meadows ; common. August - September. A neat and rather showy plant when in 
flower. Tiie root is slightly astringent and tonic. 

9. AGRIMONIA. Tourn. inst. t. 155; Endl. gen. 3368. AGRIMONY. 

[A name corrupted from argevimie, which was appUed by the Greeks to a plant supposed to cure cataract (argema) in 

the eye.] 

Calyx turbinate, armed with hooked bristles on the upper part, contracted at the throat, with 

2 bracteoles at the base : the limb 5-cleft, closing in fruit. Stamens about 12, inserted 

with the petals into the glandular margin of the disk in the throat of the calyx. Ovaries 2 : 

styles terminal, exserted. Achenia 1-2, included in the indurated tube of the calyx. 

Seed suspended. — Perennial herbs, with interruptedly pinnated leavts and yellow flowers 

in spicate racemes. Bracts 3-cleft. 

1. Agrimonia Eupatoria, Linn. Common Agrimony. 

Stem and petioles hairy ; leaflets 5-7, oblong-ovate, coarsely toothed ; stipules with a few- 
coarse teeth ; calyx sulcatc towards the base ; petals twice the length of the calyx. — Pursh, 
fl. I. p. 335 ; Engl. hot. t. 1335 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 473 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 189 ; DC. prodr. 
2. p. 587 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 196 ; Beck, hot. p. 108 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 300 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 431. 

Tar. parviflora : smoothed ; racemes more slender, with the flowers rather remote. Hook. 
1. c. (excl. syn.) ; Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. A. striata, Michx.fl. \. p. 287. A. parviflora, DC. I. c. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, simple, sometimes very hairy, often flexuous. Leaflets 1-2 inches 
long, with smaller ones intermixed, either nearly smooth or strigosely pubescent. Racemes 
solitary or several, wand-like, 4-8 inches long ; the flowers on short erect pedicels. Calyx 
with 2 small 3-toothed bracteoles at the base ; the upper part surrounded with hooked bristles. 
Petals oval. Achenes often solitary, in the bottom of the hardened calyx-tube. 

Borders of woods, fields, etc. ; very common. The root of Agrimony, which is sweet- 
scented, was formerly in repute as a tonic and deobstruent. The whole plant is sometimes 
used for dyeing a nankeen color. 


Subtribe 3. Fragarie.e, Torr. & Gr. Calyx flattish, valvate in cesiivation. Stamens 
numerous, inserted with the petals into the margin of a disk that lines the base of the 
calyx. Carpels numerous, dry, crowded on a conical or hemispherical {dry or fleshy) 
receptacle : styles lateral or nearly terminal. Seed suspended or ascending. Radicle 
superior. — Herbs, or very rarely shrubby plants. 

10. POTENTILLA. Linn. gen. p. 255 ; Endl. gen. 6363. CINQUEFOIL. 

[From the Latin, potens, powerful; in allusion to its supposed medicinal virtues.] 

Calyx concave at the base, deeply 4 - 5-cleft, with 5 alternate exterior segments or bracteoles. 
Petals 4-5, obtuse or obcordate. Ovaries collected on a flattish, persistent, dry, villous 
receptacle. Styles either lateral or nearly terminal, deciduous. Seed inserted next the 
insertion of the style : radicle superior. — Herbaceous or rarely sufiruticose plants, with 
pinnately or palmately compound leaves. Flowers solitary or in cymes, yellow or white, 
rarely red. 

♦ Leaves palmately trifoliolaie. 

1. PoTENTiLLA NoRVEGicA, Linn. Nofwegian Cinque/oil. 

Annual ; hairy ; stem erect, at length dichotomous above ; upper leaves on short petioles ; 
leaflets oblong-obovate or lanceolate-oblong, coarsely and acutely serrate ; stipules ovate- 
lanceolate, mostly entire ; cyme leafy ; pedicels elongated ; petals obovate, shorter than the 
calyx ; achenia rugose-striate. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 449 ; Fl. Dan. t. 171 ; Michx. ft. 1. p. 302 ; 
Pursh, fl. 1. p. 355 ; Lehm. Potent, p. 153 ; Torr. fl.l. p. 396 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 205 ; 
DC.prodr. 2. p. 573 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 193 ; Beck, bot. p. 106 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 303 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 436. P. Monspehensis, Linn, P. hirsuta, Michx, 
I. c. ; Pursh, I. c. ; Hook. I. c. P. Morisoni, DC. I. c. 

Whole plant hairy. Stem 8 — 18 inches high, sometimes almost hispid, at first nearly 
simple, finally more or less branched, occasionally decumbent. Lower and radical leaves 
petiolate : leaflets 1-2 inches long : petioles hispidly pilose. Flowers in a compound leafy 
cyme ; the pedicels half an inch or more in length. Segments of the calyx ovate-oblong, 
acuminate. Petals pale yellow, a little emarginate. Carpels commonly marked with several 
strong curved wrinkles, but these are sometimes faint : style terminal or nearly so, short. 

Old fields, cultivated grounds ; an introduced plant in most parts of the State, but in the 
northern counties apparently native. 

2. PoTENTiLLA TRiDENTATA, Ait. Thrce-toothed Cinquefoil. 

Stems ascending, woody and creeping at the base ; leaflets oblong-cuneiform, 3-toothed at 
the extremity, nearly smooth and somewhat shining above, pale and pubescent underneath ; 


Stipules lanceolate ; petals (white) oblong-obovate, longer than the calyx. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 
2. p. 216. t. 9 ; Miclur. jl. \. p. 304 ; Engl. hot. t. 2389 ; Lchm. I. c. ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 495 ; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 585 ; Beck, hot. p. 106 ; Torr. ^- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 445. 

Flowering stems 4-10 inches high, clothed with appressed hairs, sheathed at the base 
with the imbricated persistent petioles and stipules of fornaer leaves. Leaflets nearly an inch 
long, somewhat coriaceous, mostly 3-toothed, but often 4 - 5-toothed. Flowers 6 - 8 at the 
summit of each stem, in a corymbose cyme. Caly.x hairy ; the segments a little longer than 
the bracteoles. Petals sometimes with a tinge of red. Carpels and receptacle villous. Style 
lateral. Seed ascending. 

Clefts of rocks on mountains ; Fishkill, Catskill and Essex mountains. A native also of 

•♦ Leaves palmatchj b-foliolaU. 

3. PoTENTiLLA CANADENSIS, Linn. Common Cinque/oil. Five-finger. 

Hairy ; stems sarmentose, procumbent and ascending ; leaflets obovate-cuneiform, silky 
underneath when young, incisely serrate ; pedicels axillary, solitary, elongated ; bracteoles 
longer than the calyx-segments, and rather shorter than the broadly obovaie retuse petals. — 
Linn. sp. 1. p. 498 ; Michx. fl. 1 p. 303 ; Nestl. Potent, p. 10. t. 5 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 354 ; 
Lehm. Potent, p. 118 ; Ell. sk. \.p. 574 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 496 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 575 ; Beck, 
hot. p. 106; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 303 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. \. p. i^3. P. pumila, 
Poir. diet. 5. p. 594 ; Pursh, I. c. P. simplex, Miclix. I. c. ; Nestl. I. c. t. 9./. 2 ; Lehm. 
I. c; Ell. I. c. ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 204 ; Beck, I. c. ; Darlingt. I. c. P. sarmentosa, Willd. 
enum. 1 . p. 554 ; Bigel. I. c. 

Root perennial. Stems at first very short and nearly erect, finally 1-2 feet long, sarmen- 
tose, and more or less ascending at the extremity, often several from one root. Leaves very 
silky-villous when young : leaflets about an inch long, the lower part entire, the upper acutely 
serrate or incised. Pedicels slender, longer than the leaves. Calyx hairy ; segments and 
bracteoles lanceolate. Petals yellow ; when first expanded, often a little shorter than the 
calyx, but usually somewhat longer. Ovaries smooth : style inserted a little below the sum- 
mit. Seed suspended. 

Fields and woods ; very common. April - August. 

This species varies considerably in appearance, according to its age, and the situation in 
which it grows. Early in the spring, and in open sterile places, it is very dwarfish, and 
clothed with white silky hairs. In this slate it is the P. pumila of Poiret. Later in the 
season, when it becomes smoother and throws out prostrate runners, it is the ordinary P. 
Canadensis. Its smoother and more erect state, as it grows in woods and bushy situations, 
is the P. simplex and P. sarmentosa of authors. 


4. PoTENTiLLA ARGENTEA, Linu. SUver-leavcd Cinquefoil. 

Stems ascending, corymbose at the summit, tomentose ; leaflets oblong-cuneiform, laciniate- 
ly pinnalifid or incised, entire towards tiic base, revolutc on the margin, smooth above, white 
and downy underneath ; flowers crowded ; petals obovate, retuse, longer than the calyx. — 
Linn. sp. 1. p. 497 ; Engl. hot. t. 89 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 355 ; Torr. fl. \.p. 497 ; Bigel. fl. 
Bost.p. 204; DC. prodr. 2. p. 576; Beck, hot. p. 106; Torr. ^ N. Am. l.p. 441. 

Root perennial, somewhat woody. Stems at first nearly erect, finally spreading and 
ascending. Lower leaves petiolale ; upper ones nearly sessile : leaflets variable in breadth, 
the under surface clothed with a dense white wool. Stipules ovate, acuminate, somewhat cut. 
Corymbs spreading, many-flowered ; the flowers small. Bracteoles nearly as broad and long 
as the segments of the calyx. Petals bright yellow. Ovaries smooth : style straight, nearly 

Barren hills and fields ; rather common. June - September. A native also of Europe, 
and possibly only an introduced plant in this country. 

•♦• Leaves pinnate. 

5. PoTENTiLLA ARGUTA, PuvsJi. Close-Jlowered Cinquefoil. 
Stem erect, very pubescent ; the upper part, and also the peduncles and caly.T, villous and 

viscid : radical leaves pinnately 7 - 9-foliolate , the cauline ones few, 3 - 7-foliolate ; leaflets 
roundish-ovate, incised or doubly serrate, pubescent underneath ; stipules toothed or entire ; 
flowers in a more or less crowded cyme ; petals (yellowish-white) roundish-obovate, rather 
longer than the calyx ; disk glandular, thickened, 5-lobed. — Pursh, fl. 2. p. 636 ; Richards, 
app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 20 ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 137 ; Bor.-Am. 1 . p. 186. t. 63; 
Torr. (^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 445. P. confertiflora, Torr. fl. I. p. 449 ; Lehm. stirp. pug. 
3. p. 24. P. Pennsylvanica, /3. arguta, Torr. in ann. lye. N. York, 2. p. 197, not of DC 
Geum agrimonioides, Pursh, fl. I. p. 351. Boottia sylvestris, Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 206. 

Root perennial. Stem from 18 inches to 3 feet high, simple, clothed with a brownish 
pubescence which is glutinous when young. Radical leaves on long peduncles ; leaflets 
1—2 inches long, often with much smaller ones at the base. Flowers aggregated in small 
corymbose cymes at the extremity of the peduncles. Bracteoles lanceolate, a little shorter 
than the oblong-acute segments of the calyx. Petals cream-color or nearly white. Stamens 
inserted on the edge of the 5-lobed disk at the base of the calyx. Ovaries smooth, compressed : 
style very thick and fusiform : stigma oblong, minute. Receptacle villous. 

Rocky hills, particularly on the banks of lakes and rivers ; not uncommon in the High- 
lands, as at West-Point and on Polybell's Island ; shores of Lake Champlain ; near Troy, 
&c. June. 

The thickened styles of tiiis species consist chiefly of large oblong cells filled with a thick 
yellow gummy matter, which is soluble in water. I have noticed the same structure, but 
with much smaller cells, in several other species of PotentilUi. 
[Floba.] 27 

210 ROSACEiE. Potentilla. 

6. Potentilla fruticosa, Linn. Shrubby Cinque/oil. 

Shrubby, much branched ; leaves pinnately 5 - 7-foliolale ; leaflets crowded, oblong- 
lanceolate, entire, hairy ; petals (yellow) nearly orbicular, longer than the calyx. — Lirin. sp. 
\.p. 495 ; Engl. hot. t. 88 ; Michx. fl.\. p. 304 ; Pursh,fl. \.p. 355 ; Lehm. Potent, p. 31 ; 
Torr. fl. \. p. 497 ; DC. prodr. a. p. 579 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 186 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. 
N. Am. 1. p. 445. P. floribunda, Pursh, I. c. ; Bigel. fl. Bast. p. 203. 

A slirub about 2 feet high, with reddish brown branches. Leaves very numerous, on rather 
short petioles : leaflets usually only 5, but sometimes 7, usually about three-fourths of an 
inch long, but often much larger, pale and more hairy underneath ; the 3 upper ones more or 
less confluent : stipules scarious, very acute, pubescent. Flowers numerous, 2 or 3 at the 
extremity of each branch, large. 'Calyx-segments and bractcoles of nearly equal length ; the 
former yellowish and broader. Disk villous. Petals about one-third longer than the calyx. 
Ovaries (and also the receptacle) very villous : style filiform, inserted near the base of the 

Bog meadows ; Orange county ; Yates county {Dr. Sartwell). June. 

7. Potentilla Anserina, Linn. Silver-weed. Wild Tansey. 

Stem creeping ; leaves interruptedly pinnate ; larger leaflets 7-15 or more, oblong, 
pimiatifidly serrate, silvery-canescent underneath ; stipules many-cleft ; pedicels scape-like, 
solitary, as long as the leaves. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 495 ; Engl. bat. t. 861 ; Michx. fl. l.p. 304 ; 
Pursh, fl. I. p. 356 ; Lehm. Potent, p. 71 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 498 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 203 ; 
DC. prodr. 2. p. 582 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 189 ; Beck, hot. p. 107 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 
N. Am. 1. p. 444. 

Root perennial. Stem throwing out long slender creeping stolons, which produce a tuft of 
leaves and one or more pedicels at each joint. Leaves sometimes very silky and white on 
both sides, but commonly green and nearly smooth on the upper surface and white underneath ; 
leaflets an inch or more in length ; the intermediate ones very small : petioles varying in 
length. Bracteoles rather shorter and narrower than the segments of the calyx. Petals bright 
yellow, broadly obovatc, twice as long as the calyx. Ovaries smooth : style lateral, filiform. 
Receptacle villous. 

Wet meadows, borders of ponds, etc. Shores of the Hudson ; Lake Ontario ; salt marshes 
of Long Island, &c. June - October. 


11. COMARUM. Linn. gen. p. 257 ; Endl. gen. 6362. marsh cinqubfoil. 

[Camaros was a name given by the Greeks to a plant supposed to be the modern Arbutus.] 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft, colored inside, with 5 alternate much smaller exterior segments or 
bracteoles. Petals 5, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Achenia aggregated on a large fleshy 
and spongy persistent hairy receptacle. Styles lateral. Seed attached near the insertion 
of the style, pendulous : radicle superior. — A perennial herb, creeping at the base. Leaves 
pinnate. Petals, stamens and styles dark-purple. 

1. CoMARUM PALUSTRE, Linn. Common Marsh CinquefoU. 

Engl. hot. t. 172 ; Michx. fi. \. p. 302 ; Pursh, jl.\. p. 156 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 203 ; 
Torr. 4" Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 447. Potentilla palustris, Scopoli,fl. Cam. (ed. 2.) l.p. 359, 
ex Lehm. Potent, p. 52 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 498 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 187. P. Comarum, 
Nest. Pot. p. 36 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 583. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, nearly simple, smoothish below, pubescent with short appressed hairs 
above. Leaves petiolate : leaflets 5 — 7, approximate, lanceolate-oblong, rather obtuse, acutely 
serrate, whitish underneath, green and smooth above. Stipules ovate ; the upper ones partly 
free, the lower ones wholly adnate to the petiole. Flowers somewhat corymbose at the summit 
of the stem. Segments of the calyx ovate, acuminate, nearly twice as long as the lanceolate 
bracteoles. Petals scarcely half the length of the calyx. Receptacle, when mature, large 
and spongy, somewhat resembling a strawberry, covered by the calyx. 

Sphagnous swamps, northern and western counties ; common. June - JulV/ 

12. FRAGARIA. Tourn. ; Linn. gen. p. 255 ; Endl. gen. 3361. STRAWBERRY. 

[ Named from the Latin, fragrans, odorous ; on account of its fragrant fruit.] 

Calyx and corolla as in Potentilla. Achenia scattered on the large pulpy or succulent 
receptacle. Styles lateral. Seed inserted next the base of the style, ascending : radicle 
superior. — Perennial stoloniferous herbs, with trifoliolate leaves ; the leaflets coarsely 
serrated. Scapes cymosely several-flowered. Petals white. Receptacle red, edible when 

1. Fragaria Virginiana, Ehrh. Wild Strawberry. 

Fruit roundish-ovoid, the achenia imbedded in the deeply pitted receptacle ; calyx spreading 
in fruit ; peduncles commonly shorter than the leaves. — Willd. sp. 2. p. 1091 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. 
p. 397 ; Torr.fl. 1 . p. 590 (in part) ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 202 ? ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 570 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 184 ; Darling^, fl. Cest. p. 304? ; Torr. ^ Or. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 447. 
F. Canadensis, Michx. fl. \. p. 299. 


212 ROSACEiE. Fragaru. 

Rhizoma short, throwing up a tuft of leaves and scapes, and producing numerous long 
slender stolons, which become new plants. Leaflets broadly oval or obovate, 1-2 inches or 
more in length, smoolhish above, slightly hairy underneath : petioles 2-6 inches long, tH- 
lous ; the hairs appressed, spreading or reversed. Scapes 4 - 7-flowercd, sometimes forked 
at the summit, and then bearing a large foliaceous bract or leaflet at the bifurcation ; the 
direction of the hairs variable. Calyx hairy : segments ovate, acuminate : bracteoles a little 
shorter, linear-lanceolate. Petals roundish, a little longer than the caly.x. Receptacle usually 
roundisli-oToid, sometimes rather conical, scarlet ; the pits on its surface so deep that the 
achenia are more than half imbedded. 

Fields and rocky places ; common in most parts of the State, but rare in the neighborhood 
of New-York and on Long Island. April - June. 

2. Fragari.\ vesca, Linn. Wild Strawberry. 

Fruit conical or hemispherical, the achenia superficial ; calyx much spreading or reflexed 
in fruit; peduncles commonly longer than the leaves. — Engl. hot. t. 1524; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 357 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 569 ; Book. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 184 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 448. 

Resembles the preceding, but produces fewer and less slender runners, the leaves with 
smaller serratures ; the flowers are nearly twice as large, the segments of the calyx narrower, 
and the fruit especially differs in the achenia not being immersed in little pits upon the surface. 

Fields and meadows, and sometimes on rocks ; very common around New-York, on Long 
Island, and in the valley of the Hudson, but also found in most other parts of the State, 
generally confounded with the preceding under the name of Wild Strawberry. It seems to 
be indigenous. 

Subtribe 4. Dalibarde,«, Torr. & Gr. Calyx flattish, 5-parted, mostly imbricate in estiva- 
tion. Petals deciduous. Stainens numerous, inserted into the border of the disk. Carpels 
few, dry, and seated at the bottom of the calyx ; or drupaceous, juicy, and crowded on 
a conical receptacle : ovules 2, collateral : styles terminal or nearly so. Seed suspended. 
Radicle superior. — Herbaceous or mostly somewhat shrubby, often prickly plants. 

13. DALIBARDA. Linn. ; Richard in Nestl. Pot. p. 16. t. 1 ; Endl. gen. 6359. 

[ In honor of Denis Dalibard, a French botanist of the last century.] 

Calyx concave at the base, deeply 5 - 6-parted, without bracteoles ; the segments imbricated 
in estivation ; 3 of them larger, and 3 - 5-toothed or serrate. Petals 5, sessile. Ovaries 
5-10. Achenia dry; the endocarp cartilaginous, sessile in the bottom of the calyx. — 
Small perennial herbs, with creeping stems and simple roundish-cordate leaves. Scapes 
1 - 2-flowered. Petals white. 

Dalibarda. ROSACEiE. 213 

1. Dalibarda repens, Linn. Creeping Dalibarda. 

Leaves obtusely crenate-dentate ; stipules laciniate ; sepals not bristly. — Linn. sp. I. 
p. 491 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 350 ; Torr. Jl. 1. p. 491 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 202 ; DC. prodr. 2. 
p. 564 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 184 ; Beck, hot. p. 104 ; Tor7: ^- Gr.Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 449. 
D. violffioides, Michx. fl. \. p. 299. t. 27. Rubus Dalibarda, Linn. sp. ed. 2 ; Smith, ic. 
ined. t. 20 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1090. 

Stem with short rooting joints. Leaves 1-2 inches in diameter, strigosely hairy and 
fringed, with a deep and often closed sinus at the base : petioles 1—2 inches long ; the hairs 
reflexed. Calyx more or less hairy, almost hispid at the base : sepals oblong. Petals obovate- 
oblong, obtuse, about twice as long as the calyx. Stamens 40 or 50 : filaments slender, 
deciduous. Achenia white, oblong, rather obtuse, hairy when young, slightly pubescent when 
mature, a little wrinkled transversely. Receptacle not elevated. 

Moist shady places ; common in the northern and western counties ; not found south of 
Catskill. June - August. 

14. RUBUS. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 6360. raspberry, and blackberry. 

[ Supposed to be derived from the Celtic word rvb, which signifies red ; the color of the fruit in many of the species.] 

Caly.t concave or flattish at the base, 5-parted ; the segments mostly imbricate in aestivation. 
Petals 5. Achenia numerous (rarely few), pulpy and drupaceous, aggregated on a conical 
or cylindrical spongy receptacle, either persistent or deciduous. — Perennial, mostly suf- 
fruticose or shrubby plants, with erect or procumbent mostly prickly and biennial stems. 
Leaves pinnately or pedately compound, often simple. Flowers white or reddish ; terminal 
ones opening first. Fruit eatable. 

^ I. (Raspberry.) Carpels forming a somewhat hemispherical fruit, concave underneath, and falling 
away from the dry receptacle when ripe; sometimes few in number, and falling away separately. 

1. RuBus ODORATUS, Linn. Flowering Raspberry. 

Stem sufTruticose, without prickles ; peduncles, petioles and calyx hispid with viscid 
glandular hairs ; leaves simple, large, 3 - 5-lobed , the lobes acuminate, unequally and finely 
toothed with mucronatc serratures ; stipules lanceolate, nearly free ; peduncles many-flowered, 
compound ; flowers very large ; sepals appendiculale with a very long cusp, shorter than the 
roundish (purple) petals ; fruit very broad and flat. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 194 ; Miclix. fl. 1. 
p. 297 ; Bot. mag. t. 323 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 348 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 570 ; Bart. fl. N. Am. 2. 
t. 42 ; Torr. fl. l.p. 490 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 201 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 566 ; Audub. birds of 
America, t. 133 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 183 ; Beck, bot. p. 104 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 309 ; Torr. <J- Or. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 460. 

214 ROSACEiE. Rubus. 

Stem 3-5 feet Iiigli ; the younger branches, as well as the petioles, peduncles and calyx, 
particularly the latter, covered with roughish glandular hairs which secrete a viscid matter. 
Leaves 4-8 inches in diameter, cordate, the upper ones 3-lobed, the lower 5-lobed ; middle 
lobe prolonged. Flowers 2 inches in diameter. Sepals ovate, the point abruptly drawn out 
into a long narrow appendage. Petals of a beautiful purplish rose-color. Fruit large but 
thin, red when mature, well flavored. 

Rocky places, particularly on hill-sides ; common. June - August. This showy species 
is often seen in cultivation. 

2. Rubus triflorus, Richards. Dioarf Ra^herry. 

Stem without prickles, suflfrutescent at the base, ascending ; the branches mostly herba- 
ceous, often long, slender and prostrate ; leaves 3- (sometimes pedately 5-) foliate, on slender 
petioles ; leaflets membranaceous, rhombic-ovate, acute at both ends, nearly smooth, coarsely 
and doubly serrate, or sometimes incised ; stipules ovate, entire ; peduncles terminal, 1-3- 
flowered, the pedicels elongated ; sepals 5 — 7, lanceolate, glandularly pubescent, at length 
reflexed, rather shorter than the spatulate-oblong erect (white) petals ; fruit small, red. — 
Ricliards. in app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 19 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 181. t. 62 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 452. R. sa-xatilis, /3. Canadensis, Michx. fl.l. p. 298. R. saxatilis, 
Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 201. R. saxatilis, /3. Americanus, DC. prodr. 2. p. 565. R. Canadensis, 
Torr. Ji. 1. p. 483, not oi Linn. Cylactis montana, Raf. in Sill, journ. 1. p. 377. 

Stem woody below ; the flowering branches 6-10 inches high, and ascending ; the sterile 
ones prostrate, and often 12-18 inches long, nearly smooth below, pubescent above. Leaflets 
1-2 inches long ; the terminal one on a short stalk. Flowers small. Calyx often 6 — 7-cleft. 
Petals sometimes one-third longer than the calyx. Fruit reddish purple, usually of few, but 
sometimes of numerous grains, sour, but having a distinct raspberry flavor. 

Swamps and moist woods, but sometimes in rather dry situations ; rather common. Fl. 
June. Fr. August. 

3. Rubus strigosus, Michx. Red Wild Raspberry. 
Erect, suflfruticose, armed with straight spreading rigid bristles (some of which become 

weak hooked prickles) which are glandular when young ; leaves pinnately 3 - 5-foliolate ; 
leaflets oblong-ovate, acuminate, incisely serrate, whilish-tomentose underneath ; stipules 
small, setaceous ; peduncles 4 - 6-flowered ; petals obovate-oblong, erect, as long as the 
spreading sepals ; fruit light red. — Michw. fl.l. p. 297 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 346 ; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 488 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 198 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 177 ; Beck, hot. p. 104 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 453. R. Pennsylvanicus, Pair. diet. 6. p. 246. R. Idsus, Autt. gen. 
1. p. 308. 

Stem much branched, light brown and shining ; the lower part often nearly unarmed ; 
upper part, petioles and peduncles hispid ; the hairs at first soft and tipped with a minute 
gland, finally becoming indurated, but not firm enough to wound the skin. Leaflets 1^-3 


inches long, green and smooth above, densely pubescent and whitish underneath ; the terminal 
one often cordate, and elevated on a partial stalk about one-third of an inch long. Flowers 
small, in leafy panicles at the extremity of the branches. Calyx woolly ; the segments 
lanceolate, very acute. Petals white. Fruit bright red, very juicy, and having much the 
flavor and appearance of the common Garden Raspberry {R. Idceus), but more tender. 

Rocky hill-sides ; very common in the northern and western parts of the State, and also 
on the Hudson River above Peekskill. May. 

4. RuBus occiDENTALis, Linn. Black Raspberry. Thimble-berry. 
Stem shrubby, recurved, glaucous, armed with hooked prickles ; leaves mostly 3-foliolate ; 

leaflets ovate, acuminate, coarsely and doubly serrate or incised, whitish-tomentose underneath; 
peduncles terminal, the pedicels short, in an umbellate corymb ; petals obovate-cuneate, shorter 
than the refiexed sepals ; fruit dark purple. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 493 ; Miclix. Jl. \. p. 297 ; 
Pursh, jl.\. p. 347 ; Torr. fl.\. p. 489 ; Bigel. f. Bost. p. 198 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 178(excl. ^.); Beck, hot. p. 102; Darlingt. fl. Cest.p. 306; Torr. ^ Gr. jl. N.Am. 1. 
p. 453. R. Idffius, fructu nigro. Dill. Elth. t. 247. 

Stems long and slender, often arching and recurved to the ground, the summits taking root, 
covered with a fine glaucous powder which easily rubs off. Leaves sometimes 5-foliolate : 
leaflets 2-4 inches long, the under surface covered with a short very close white pubescence. 
Flowers small. Petals white, sometimes emarginate, erect. Fruit dark purple or almost 
black , the grains sometimes covered with a grayish mealy substance ; pretty well flavored, 
but rather dry and seedy. 

Borders of woods and along fences ; very common. Fl. May. Fr. June - July. 

^ 2. (Blackberry.) Carpels persistent on the somewhat juicy receptacle : fruit mostly ovate or oblong. 

5. RuBus viLLosus, Ait. Common Blackberry. 

Stem sufTruticose, erect or reclined, angular, armed with stout curved prickles ; branches, 
peduncles and lower surface of the leaves tomentose-villous and glandular ; leaves trifoliolate 
or pedalely 5-foliolate ; leaflets ovate, doubly or unequally serrate ; stipules linear or subulate; 
peduncles many-flowered, the flowers racemose ; bracts many times shorter than the pedicels ; 
sepals with an abrupt linear acumination, much shorter than the obovate-oblong spreading 
petals ; fruit large, black. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 210; Michx.Jl. 2. p. 297; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 346 ; Bigel. med. hot. t. 38, and fl. Bost. p. 199 ; Ell. sk. \.p. 567 ; Bart. vcg. mat. med. 
t. 39 ; Torr. ft. \. p. 487 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 179 ; Beck, hot. p. 103 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 307 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 454. 

vaiT.frondosits: much less glandular, smoother; stems erect or inclined ; leaflets incisely 
serrate; flowers fewer, corymbose, with leafy bracts. Torr.fl. I. c; Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. R. 
frondosus, Bigel. I. c. ; Beck, I. c. 

var. humifusus ; stems procumbent or trailing ; leaves smaller ; peduncles 1 - 5-flowered. 
Torr. 4- Gr. I. c. 

216 ROSACEA. RuBUs. 

Stems 4-8 feet long, and erect or reclined when growing along fences, in bushy places, 
or in woods, but usually prostrate or trailing in open fields, armed (as well as the petioles and 
under surface of the midrib) with strong prickles ; the younger branches and peduncles clothed 
with a villous pubescence, which is usually mixed with glandular hairs. Leaves mostly tri- 
foliolate, with the terminal leaflet on a long stalk ; but often, particularly in vigorous shoots, 
there arc 5 leaflets, three or all of which are on long partial footstalks : leaflets 2-5 inches 
long, often cordate at the base, usually acuminate. Racemes (in the common large upright 
forms) oblong, loose, 10 - 30-flowercd, the upper flowers commonly opening first ; in the 
other varieties, few-flowered, or even reduced to solitary flowers. Pedicels 1-2 inches long. 
Sepals abruptly contracted at the summit into a long narrow point. Petals nearly an inch 
long, often almost lanceolate. Fruit ovoid-oblong or nearly cylindrical, half an inch to an inch 
in length, black and shining, very juicy and sweet when ripe. 

A very common plant throughout the United States. Fl. May - June. Fr. July - August. 
It varies much in its appearance according to its place of growth ; the prostrate and trailing 
state of it, as found in open fields, being very unlike its upright form as seen along fences and 
in thickets ; yet the two often pass into each other. The ripe fruit is very wholesome, and 
an infusion of the astringent root is a popular remedy for diarrhoea. 

6. RuBus Canadensis, Linn. Low Blackberry. Dewberry. 

Stem shrubby, ascending at the base, trailing or procumbent, somewhat prickly ; leaves 
trifoliolate or pedately 5-foliolatc, smooth or pubescent ; leaflets rhombic-ovate or almost 
lanceolate, mostly acute or acuminate, membranaceous, sharply and unequally serrate, often 
somewhat incised ; stipules linear, entire or serrate ; flowers racemose or somewhat corym- 
bose, with leafy bracts, the lower peduncles distant, the upper crowded ; petals obovate, twice 
the length of the mucronate sepals; fruit very large, black. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 494; DC. 
prodr.2. p. 564; Torr. <^- Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p.454. R. procumbens, Muhl. cat. R. trivialis, 
Pursh,fi. 1. p. 347 (not of MicJix.) ; Torr. fl.l.p. 489 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 200 ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am, 1. p. 180 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 308. R. flagellaris, Willd. enum. 1. p. 549 ; 
DC. I. c. 

Stems 4-8 feet long, slender, often several from the same root, which sometimes ascend 
a foot or more, and then trail along the ground in difTerent directions, shooting up at intervals 
leafy tufts or branches 2-6 inches high. Leaflets 1-2 inches long ; lateral ones sessile ; 
terminal one on a. distinct footstalk. Flowers few (sometimes solitary), in a loose leafy raceme 
or corymb, terminating the short branches, nearly as large as those of R. villosus. Fruit 
oblong or roundish, often three-fourths of an inch in diameter, very juicy and sweet when 

Rocky barren fields ; common. Fl. May. Fr. July August. 

This species much resembles the smoother and prostrate variety of R. villosus, so that they 
cannot easily be distinguished. The fruit ripens earlier, and is usually larger and sweeter 
than in the latter. 

Rusrs. ROSACEiE. 217 

7. RuBUs HispiDus, Linn. Rvnning Sumnp BlaMerry. 
Stems slender, prostrate, somewhat shrubby, clothed with retrorse bristles or weak prickles; 

leaves mostly trifoliolate, somewhat persistent ; leaflets rather coriaceous, obovate, commonly 
obtuse, unequally serrate, smooth and shining ; stipules linear ; peduncles naked, corymbosely 
several-flowered ; pedicels filiform ; flowers small ; petals obovate, twice as long as the 
spreading acute sepals ; fruit small, black. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 493 (not of DC); Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 1. p. 456. R. obovalis, Michx. fl. 1. p. 298 ; Pursh, fl. 1. 349 ; DC. prodr. 2. 
p.bQb; Beck, bot. p. 104. R. ohoxalus, Pers. syn. l.p.52; Hook. Jl. Bor.- Am. 1. p. 180. 
t. 60; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 308. R. sempervirens, Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 201. 

var. setosus : stems reclining ; leaflets oblong-obovate, narrowed at the base ; branchlets 
and pedicels bristly. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. R. setosus, Bigel. I. c. ; DC. I c. 

Stem 2-3 feet or more in length, trailing and throwing up short flowering branches, more 
or less hispid (often very much so) with slightly curved reversed bristles, which finally harden 
so as to be somewhat pungent. Flowering branches 4-8 inches high. Leaves rarely 5- 
foliolate, on long slender petioles which are usually hispid like the stem : leaflets 1-1^ inch 
long, all of them on distinct footstalks, sometimes rather acute. Peduncles 3 - 5-flowered, 
in a more or less open corymb which is often leafy ; sometimes 2 or 3 pedicels in the axils of 
the lower leaves. Flowers about half an inch in diameter. Sepals ovate-oblong, acute, but 
scarcely appendiculate. Petals white. Fruit usually consisting of a few large grains, and 
sour, but sweet when it grows in exposed situations. 

Swamps and wet woods ; sometimes in rather dry, but shady situations. Fl. June. Fr. 
August. In swamps the leaves are generally persistent through the winter. 

8. RuBus cuNEiFOLius, Puvsh. 8and Blackberry. 
Shrubby, low, and armed with stout recurved prickles ; stems mostly erect, terete ; young 

branches and under surface of the trifoliolate leaves pubescent-tomentose ; leaflets cuneiform- 
obovate, rather coriaceous, with the veins prominent underneath, serrate above the middle, 
entire and slightly revolute near the base ; stipules lanceolate ; peduncles 2 - 4-flowered ; 
petals oblong-obovate, twice as long as the woolly mucronate sepals ; fruit ovoid, black. — 
Pursh, fl.l. p. 347 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 308 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 586 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 488 ; DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 563 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 306 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 456. R. parvi- 
folius, Walt. fl. Car. p. 149, not of Linn. 

Stem 1-3 feet high, much branched. Leaflets 1 - 2 inches long, all sessile, dark green 
above, whitish and pubescent underneath, rather obtuse, or with a very short abrupt acumina- 
tion. Flowers at the extremity of the branches ; the lower pedicels elongated and axillary. 
Petals nearly as large as in K. villosus. Fruit large, black, abundant and well flavored. 

Sandy fields. Fl. May - July. Fr. July - August. I think this sj)ccics grows in Suffolk 
county. Long Island. It is abundant in New-Jersey ; certainly within a few miles of New- 

[Flora.] 28 

218 ROSACE.E. Rosa. 

Tribe III. ROSEjE. Juss. 

CahiT b-partcd, spirally imbricated ; the tube urceolate, contracted at the mouth, at length 
fleshy or baccate, including the numerous distinct ovaries. Stamens numerous. Achenia 
bony, hairy, inserted on the whole inner surface of the disk that lines the tube of the 
calyx : styles terminal, distinct, or cohering into a column above. — Shrubby and prickly 
plants, with pinnate leaves {in Hcltheimia or Lowea, which is hardly a distinct genus, 
reduced to a single leaflet), and mostly adnate stipules. Flowers large, showy and 

15. ROSA. Tourn.; Linn.; Lindl. monogr. Ros. {1820). rose. 

[ Derived from the Celtic word rhos, signifying red; the prevailing color of the flowers.] 
Character same as of that of the tribe. Stipules present. 

1. Rosa Carolina, Linn. Swamp Rose. 

Stem smooth, armed with stout recurved mostly stipular prickles, not bristly ; leaflets 
5-9 (rarely 9), elliptical, often acuminate, finely serrate, not shining above , the lower 
surface (as well as the petiole) puberulent and pale ; stipules long and narrow, the margins 
involute ; flowers corymbose ; calyx and peduncles glandular-hispid ; sepals mostly entire, 
with foliaceous terminations ; fruit depressed-globose, mostly somewhat glandular-hispid. — 
Linn. spec. (ed. 2.) 1. p. 703 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 341 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 565 ; Lindl. Ros. p. 23. 
t. 4 ; Torr. fl.l. p. 486 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 605 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 199 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p.ZU; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 458. R. corymbosa, Ehrh. heitr. 4. p. 21. 
R. Pennsylvanica, Michx. fl. 1. p. 296 (partly). R. Caroliniana, Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 197. 

Stem 3-6 feet high, armed with short but strong broad slightly recurved prickles. Leaf- 
lets 1-2 inches long, acute at the base, and furnished with short partial footstalks ; the 
petiole commonly a little prickly, as well as bristly and glandular. Flowers terminal, 4-7 
in each corymb, crowded. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, tapering into a long slender point which 
is somewhat leafy at the extremity. Petals purple, nearly an inch long. Fruit dark red and 
shining when mature, usually hispid, seldom quite smooth. 

Swamps and wet thickets ; common. June - July. Sometimes the fruit is a little elongated, 
and acute at the base ; but in such cases I have generally found that the change was produced 
by insects stinging the young calyx-tube, and lodging their eggs inside. 

2. Rosa lucida, Ehrh. Dwarf Wild Rose. 

Stem armed with numerous scattered and stipular, unequal, mostly deciduous prickles ; 
those of the flowering branches stipular, slender, straight or slightly recurved, or sometimes 
wanting ; leaflets mostly 7 (sometimes 5 or 9), elliptical, sharply serrate, smooth and shining 
above ; petioles somewhat glandular or hispid ; stipules dilated ; flowers 1 - 3 ; the calyx- 

Rosa. ROSACEA. 219 

segments as long as the petals, with a foliaceous elongated extremity, and (as also the pedun- 
cles) glandular-hispid ; tube of the calyx sometimes smooth ; fruit depressed-globose, mostly 
smooth when mature. — Torr. <^- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 458. R. lucida and parviflora, Ehrh. ; 
WtUd.; ^c. 

var. 1 : leaflets crowded, elliptical-oblong or lanceolate-ovate, acute or obtuse ; the under 
surface scarcely pale, smooth or slightly pubescent on the veins ; petioles mostly smooth. 
Torr. 4- Gr. I. c. R. lucida, Ehrh. beitr. 4. p. 11 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1068; " Jacq. frag, 
t. 107./. 3 ;" Ell. sk. 1 . p. 563 ; Lindl. Ros. p. 17 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 602 ; Hook.fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 199. R. Carolina, Du Roi. R. Rapa, Bosc ; DC. I. c. R. Caroliniana, Michx. 
fl.l. p. 295. R. parviflora, Torr. ft. \. p. 484 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 310. 

var. 2 : leaflets less crowded, oval, mostly very obtuse, paler but often nearly smooth 
underneath ; petioles pubescent or smooth. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. R. parviflora, Ehrh. I. c. ; 
Willd. I. c. ; Lindl. Ros. p. 20. R. lucida, Torr. I. c. 

About 2 feel high, slender ; the branches usually greenish. Prickles 3-5 lines long, 
mostly straight and horizontal, not dilated at the base ; 2 at the base of each petiole often 
deciduous. Leaflets an inch or an inch and a quarter long (shorter in the 2nd variety) : 
petioles often a little prickly ; the pubescence not glandular. Flowers often larger than in 
the preceding species, seldom more than three together, and often sohtary. Tube of the calyx 
sparingly hispid with glandular hairs ; the segments also hispid towards the base, tapering 
into a long narrow point which is lanceolate and foliaceous at the extremity. Petals pale red. 
Fruit about half an inch in diameter, dark-red. 

Borders of swamps ; also in dry thickets, fields and hill-sides. Flowers two or three weeks 
earlier than the preceding species. 

3. Rosa blanda, Ait. Early Wild Rose. 

Stems and sterile branches (reddish) armed with scattered unequal straight and slender 
deciduous prickles, the flowering branches and petioles mostly naked ; leaflets 5-7, oval or 
oblong, obtuse, unequally serrate, not shining above, pale and commonly minutely pubescent 
underneath, the petiole tomentose-pubcscent or sometimes smooth ; stipules much dilated, with 
entire or glandular-serrate margins ; flowers 1-3, on short smooth peduncles ; segments of 
the calyx shorter than the petals, the tube smooth and glaucous ; fruit globose. — Ait. Kew. 
(ed. 1.) 2. p. 202; Jacq. frag. t. 105; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1065; Lindl. Ros. p. 25; Hook.fl. 
Bor.-Am. I. p. 199; Torr. 4- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 460. R. Pennsylvanica, Michx. fl. l.p. 
296 (in part). R. gemella, Willd. enum. 1. p. 344 (partly). R. fraxinifolia, Seringe in DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 606. R. parviflora, var. inermis, 77. 77. Eaton in Transylv. journ. med. 1832. 

Stems 1-3 feet high, often unarmed or with only short prickles towards the base. Leaflets 
usually 7. Flowers about 2 inches in diameter. Petals pale red, obcordate. Fruit crowned 
with the persistent connivent calyx-segments. 

On rocks, and along the banks of rivers in dry situations. Northern part of the State, and 
on the banks of the Mohawk. Latter part of May - June. 


220 ROSACE-E. Rosa. 

4. Rosa rubiginosa, Linn. Sweet-briar. Eglantine. 

Stem armed witli scattered, very strong, recurved prickles ; leaflets 5-7, roundish-oval or 
obovate, sharply serrate , the margins, lower surface and stipules more or less clothed with 
ferruginous glands ; flowers mostly solitary on short bristly peduncles ; fruit ovoid or obovate, 
mostly smooth.— Lmn. mant. p. 564 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1073 ; Engl. hot. t. 991 ; Torr.jl. 1. 
p. 486 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 197 (also R. myricantha of the same work ?) ; Beck, hot. p. 109 ; 
Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 310; Toir. <^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 461. R. suaveolens, Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 346; Ell. sk. 1. p. 566. 

Stem 4-8 feet high (sometimes much taller when growing on the borders of thick woods). 
Prickles very broad at the base. Leaflets 6-8 lines long, green above, more or less russet- 
colored underneath and somewhat viscid, very fragrant. Flowers about an inch and a half in 
diameter. Peduncle with an ovate acuminate bract at the base. Calyx-segments foliaceous 
at the tip, entire or the exterior ones laciniate. Petals pale red, turning white, emarginate. 
Fruit reddish-orange when mature. 

Borders of woods, road-sides, etc. ; common. Introduced from Europe, but now perfectly 
naturalized. Fl. June. Fr. September - October. 

Suborder III. Pome^. Juss. 

Calyx-tube campanulate or urceolate, more or less globose in fruit, when it 
becomes extremely thick and fleshy, including and cohering with the ovaries. 
Ovaries 2 — 5 (rarely solitary), mostly cohering with each other, with two 
collateral ovules : styles terminal, distinct or more or less united. Fruit a 
pome, 1 - 5-celled ; the cells sometimes spuriously divided by the inflexion of 
the dorsal suture. Seeds usually 1 - 2 in each carpel. — Trees or shrubs, with 
simple or rarely pinnated leaves. Fruit usually eatable. 

16. CRAT^GUS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6ZbZ. thors-TREE. 

[ From the Greek, kraUis, strength ; in allusion to the extreme hardness of the wood in the original species.] 

Calyx-tube urceolate ; the limb 5-cleft. Petals orbicular, spreading. Stamens numerous. 
Styles 1-5. Pome fleshy or baccate, crowned with the teeth of the calyx, containing 
1-5 bony one-seeded carpels; the summit contracted or closed by the disk. — Thorny 
shrubs or small trees, with simple often incised or lobed leaves. Flowers in terminal 
corymbs, rarely solitary, white or with a tinge of rose-color. Bracts linear or subulate, 
deciduous. Fruit sometimes eatable. 

Cratjigus. ROSACE.E. 221 

1. Crataegus Oxyacantha, Linn. Hmotlwrn. English Thorn. 
Leaves obovate, laciniately lobed and serrate, obtusely cuneate at the base, shining, nearly 

smooth ; segments of the calyx ovate, acute, not glandular ; styles 1 - 3 ; fruit ovoid, small. 
—Linn. sp. I. p. 497 ; Engl. hot. t. 2054 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 628 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 294 ; 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 463. 

A shrub 4-10 feet high; the branches armed with sharp, rather slender thorns. Leaves 
about an inch long, 3 - 5-lobed, decurrent at the base on the slender petiole. Corymbs many- 
flowered, on short branches or spurs ; the pedicels smooth. Styles mostly solitary. Fruit about 
one-third of an inch long, purple when mature, containing usually a single thick bony carpel. 

Hedges and fields ; a native of Europe, but naturalized in some places. May. 

2. Crataegus Crus-galli, Linn. Cockspur Thorn. 

Leaves obovate-cuneiform, shining and smooth, coriaceous and nearly sessile, serrate ; 
peduncles and pedicels smooth, or nearly so ; calyx-segments lanceolate, a little serrate ; 
styles 1 - 3 ; fruit (red) somewhat pyriform. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 476 ; Michx. fl.l. p. 288 ; 
Pmt-sA, /. 1. p. 338; Ell. sk. \. p. 5'^Q ; Torr. fl. I. p. ^IQ ; Wats, dendr. t. 56 ; DC. 
prodr. 2. p. 626 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 200 ; Beck, hot. p. Ill ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 290 ; Torr. ^ Gr.ft. N. Am. 1. p. 463. C. lucida, Wang. Amer. t. 17. f. 42. Mespilus 
lucida, Ehrh. beitr. 4:. p. 17. M. Crus-galh, Lam. diet. 4. p. 441 ; Willd. enum. l.p. 523. 

Trunk 10-20 feet high, and sometimes 6-8 inches in diameter, but usually much 
smaller, much branched ; the younger shoots often long and flexuous. Spines slender, 
1^ - 2^ inches long. Leaves about two inches long, and varying from half an inch to more 
than an inch in breadth, acute or obtuse, often rounded at the summit, tapering to a long 
narrow base, but with scarcely any petiole ; bright shining green on the upper surface. 
Corymb smooth. Segments of the calyx often nearly entire. Petals white. Stamens about 
10. Styles mostly solitary, and seldom more than two. Fruit the size of a small cherry. 

Borders of woods, thickets, along fences, etc. Fl. June. Fr. October. Used for hedges 
in many places, and seems to be preferable to most other thorns for this purpose. It is 
sometimes called Newcastle Thorn. 

3. Crat^gus coccinea, Linn. White Thorn. 
Leaves ovate or roundish-ovate (membranaceous), acutely incised or angularly lolied, 

sharply serrate, on long slender petioles, at length nearly smooth, often truncate or a little 
cordate at the base ; spikes stout ; corymbs and calyx at first a little pubescent, finally 
smoothish ; styles 3 - 5 ; fruit large (red), globose. — Linn. sp. I. p. 476 ; Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 
2. p. 167 ; Willd. sp. 2. p. 1000 ; Michx. Jl.l. p. 288 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 553 ; Torr. fl. 1, 
p. 474 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 627; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1957 ; Bot. mag. t. 3432; Beck, hot. 
p. 112 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 293 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. A7n. 1. p. 465. C. glandulosa, 
Willd. I. c; DC. I. c. ; Hook. I. c. C. viridis, Linn. 

222 ROSACEJE. Crat^gtjs. 

A shrub or small tree 10-20 feet high ; the spines 1-2 inches long, usually a little 
curved. Leaves about 2 inches long, cut into frona 5 to 9 shallow lobes, which again are 
irregularly serrate, for the most part abruptly narrowed and acute at the base, but often obtuse, 
truncate or cordate, especially on the sterile branches, smooth, or very sparingly pubescent 
with short appressed hairs ; the petiole often a little glandular. Flowers white, of a powerful, 
and, to most persons, disagreeable odor, as they are in several other species of the genus. 
Segments of the calyx lanceolate, denticulate and usually (as also the bracts) glandular on the 
margin. Stamens about 20. Fruit nearly half an inch in diameter, red or reddish-purple 
when ripe, eatable, but the pulp thin. 

Borders of woods, in thickets, and along streams of water. Fl. May. Fr. September. 

4. Crat.(Egus tomentosa, Lin7i. Black Thorn. 

Leaves ovate-elliptical or obovate, abruptly narrowed at the base into a short margined 
petiole, slightly lobed and incisely serrate, somewhat plicate or furrowed above from the 
impressed veins, smoothish above, softly pubescent especially on the veins underneath, finally 
almost smooth ; peduncles and calyx villous-tomentose ; segments of the calyx pectinately 
serrate and glandular ; styles 2-3, or solitary ; fruit (orange red) pyriform. — Linn. sp. 1. 
p. 476 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 466. C. pyrifolia. Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 168 ; 
Willd. sp. 2. p. 1001 ; Pursh.fl. 1. p. 337 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 168 ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1877. 
C. leucophaeus, Mosnch, hort. Weiss, t. 2 (ex Ait.). C. latifolia, Pers. syn. p. 36. C. flava, 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 292? Jlespilus pyrifolia, Willd. enum. 1. p. 523. 

var. : leaves strongly furrowed, nearly smooth, smaller. To7r. ^ Gr. I. c. 

A shrub 8-20 feet high. Leaves 3 - 4J inches long and 1^-3 inches wide, with 5-7 
short lobes which are irregularly and sharply serrate, the base tapering into a margined petiole, 
somewhat plicate above from the veins being impressed below the surface ; more or less soft 
and tomentose underneath ; but when old, smoothish, the veins often rusty. Corymb large, 
leafy. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, as long as the ovary. Stamens about 20, alternately 
longer and shorter. Styles mostly 2 or 3, sometimes solitary. 

Wet thickets; western part of the State. Oneida county {Dr. Knieskern); Penn-Yan 
(D;-. Sartivell) ; near Auburn (the variety), {Mr. John Carey). Fl. May - June. 

5. Crat.(Egus punctata, Jacq. Common Thorti. 

Leaves obovate-cuneiform, decurrent into a slender petiole, entire near the base, doubly 
serrate and often somewhat incised towards the apex, somewhat plicate above from the im- 
pressed veins, pubescent with appressed hairs when young, especially on the veins underneath; 
spines often wanting ; corymbs and calyx villous-pubescent ; segments of the calyx entire or 
sparingly serrate ; styles 2 - 3 ; fruit dull red or yellowish, globose, dotted. — Jacg. hort. 
Vind. I. p. 10. t. 28 ; Ail. Kew. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 169 ; Michx. fl. I. p. 289 ; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 338 ; Torr.fl. I. p. 476 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 627 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 466. C. 
latifolia, DC. I. c. Mespilus punctata, Spach. M. cuneifolia, Ehrh. beitr. 3. p. 21. 

Crat^gus. ROSACEiE. 223 

A tree 12 — 25 feet high ; the trunk sometimes 6-8, and rarely 12 inches in diameter ; 
the wood very hard. Leaves 2 - 2^ inches long, and seldom (except in the young shoots) 
more than an inch and a half wide, light green, rather thick ; the veins very straight and 
prominent underneath, conspicuously impressed above. Corymbs leafy. Bracts numerous, 
subulate, glandular, deciduous. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, usually entire, but some- 
times with a few indistinct teeth. Stamens about 20. Fruit half an inch or more in diameter, 
somewhat eatable when ripe. 

Borders of woods, banks of rivers, etc. ; common in the western part of the State, but not 
found below the Highlands. Fl. June. Fr. September. The broader leaved slates of this 
species make a near approach to C. tomentosa. In the former the leaves are seldom lobed, 
and never so deeply as in the latter species. 

17. PYRUS. Linn.; Lindl. in liort. trans. 17. p. 97. APPLE, PEAR, <fc. 

[ The Latin name for Pear.] 
Pyrhs and Sorbus, Linn. Pyrus, Malus and Sorbus, Tourn. 
Calyx-tube urceolate ; the limb 5-cleft. Petals roundish. Styles 5, or sometimes 2-3, 
distinct, or often united at the base. Pome fleshy or baccate, closed : carpels 2-5, car- 
tilaginous or nearly membranaceous. Seeds 2 in each cell ; the testa cartilaginous. — 
Trees or shrubs, with simple or pinnated leaves. Flowers white or rose-color, in spreading 
terminal simple or compound corymbose cymes. Fruit mostly eatable. 

^ 1. Malus, Tourn. Leaves simple, not glandular: cymes simple; the pedicels mostly umbellate : 
petals spreading, flat : styles 3-5, united at the base : pomes mostly depressed-globose, umbili- 
cate at the base : carpels cartilaginous. 

1. Pyrus coronaria, Linn. Crab-apple, or Sweet-scented Crab-tree. 

Leaves ovate, on slender petioles, rcninded or cordate at the base, serrate and somewhat 
incisely lobed, finally smooth ; pedicels smooth ; styles united and woolly at the base ; fruit 
small, fragrant. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 480 ; Ait. Kew. (ed. l.)2. p 473 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 340 ; 
Torr.fl. 1. p. 480 ; DC. prodr. 2. p. 635 ; Hook. hot. mag. t. 2009 ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 651 ; 
Beck, bat. p. 113 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 296 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 470. Malus 
coronaria, Michx. fl. 1. p. 292 ; Miclix. f. sylv. 1. p. 333. t. 65. 

A small tree 10-20 feet high, with a trunk 4-6 inches in diameter. Leaves when fully 
grown 2-3 inches long, somewhat shining above, pubescent on the veins underneath : petioles 
about half the length of the lamina, pubescent. Corymbs 5 - 7-flowcrcd ; the pedicels about 
an inch long. Flowers very fragrant. Calyx woolly inside, smooth externally ; the segments 
lanceolate, acute. Petals pale rosc-color, three-fourths of an inch long, on short claws. Fruit 
dcprcssed-globosc, yellowish-green, \ - \\ inch in diameter, hard, very acid and fragrant. 

Borders of woods, etc. ; western part of the Slate. Fl. May. Fr. September. The fruit 
is often used for preserves, and is also said to make good cider. 

224 ROSACE.E. Pyri's. 

^ 2. Adesorachis, DC. (Aronia, Pers. partly.) Leaves simple ; the midrib glandular along the 
upper side: cymes compound: petals spreading, concave: sti/les 3-5, united at the base: 
pome (small) turbinate or globose : carpels somewhat cartilaginous. 

2. Pyrus arbutifolia, Linn.f. Clwhe-herry. 

Leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse, acute or acuminate, crenately serrulate, attenuate into a 
short petiole, somewhat shining above ; fruit pyriform or nearly globose. — Linn. f. suppl. 
p. 256 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 204 ; Bed, hot. p. 114 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 296 ; Torr. 
^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 471. Aronia arbutifolia, Torr. Jl. 1. p. 476. 

var. 1 . eryth-ocarpa : calyx, peduncles and lower surface of the leaves, at least when 
young, tomentose ; fruit dark red. Hook. I. c. ; Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. P. arbutifolia, Willd. sp. 
2. p. 1012 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 339 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 195 ; DC.prodr. 2. p. 637. P. flori- 
bunda, Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1006. Mespilus arbutifolia, Linn. sp. 1. p. 478; Miclus. fl. 1. 
p. 292 (var. erythrocarpa). Aronia pyrifolia and arbutifolia, Pers. syn. 2. p. 39. A. arbuti- 
folia. Ell. sk. 1. p. 556. 

var. 2. melanocarpa : calyx, peduncles and leaves smooth, or nearly so ; fruit purplish- 
black. Hook. I. c; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. P. melanocarpa, Willd. enum. \.p. 525; DC. I. c. 
P. grandifolia, Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1154. Mespilus arbutifolia, var. melanocarpa, Michx. I. c. 
Aronia melanocarpa. Ell. I. c. A. arbutifolia, var. melanocarpa, Torr. I. c. 

A shrub 2-3 feet high, with slender branches. Leaves 1-2 inches long, sometimes 
obtuse or even emarginate, but commonly acute and with a slight acumination, bright green 
above, pale underneath, and the midrib with one or two rows of dark purple glands ; the 
margin finely serrate, with the points of the teeth much inflexed. Corymbs numerous, 
10 - 20-flowered. Flowers white. Fruit the size of a large whortleberry, sweetish, but 

Thickets and woods, in both wet and dry situations ; common. Fl. May - June. Fr. 
August - September. The Red and Black Chokeherries are certainly varieties of one species. 
The former sometimes occurs with the leaves smooth, and the calyx only slightly pubescent. 

^ 3. SoRBUs, Linn. Leaves pinnate or pinnately lobed : cymes compound: petals spreading, fiat ; 
styles 2-5, distinct : pome (small) globose or turbinate : carpels not cartilaginous. 

3. Pyrus Americana, DC. Mountain Ash. 

Leaves pinnate, smooth ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate with mucro- 
nate teeth ; cymes large ; fruit (bright red or scarlet) compound. — DC. prodr. 2. p. 637 ; 
Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 204 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 472 ; Wats, dendrol. Brit. t. 54. 
Sorbus Americana, Willd. enum, \.p. 520 ; Pursh, fl. \.p. 341 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 477 ; Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 194. S. aucuparia, var. Americana, Michx. fl. \. p. 290. 

A shrub or small tree, 10-25 feet high, and sometimes 4-6 inches in diameter, with a 
emooth bark. Leaves 8-12 inches or more in length : leaflets 6-8 pairs, 2-3 inches 

Ptrus. rosacea. 225 

long, pubescent when young, but smooth in the adult stale. Flowers white, the corymbs very 
compound, 4-10 inches in diameter. Styles usually 3. Fruit acid, bright red or scarlet 
when mature. 

Mountain sides, and in swamps ; not found south of the Highlands. The largest trees of 
tliis species that I have ever seen, are on tlie high mountains of Essex county. Fl. Latter 
part of May - June. Fr. September. The handsome red fruit is persistent through the 
winter. The Mmmtain Ash of this country, or American Service-tree as it is sometimes 
called, is nearly allied to the S. aucuparia of Europe, and is by many botanists considered 
as a variety of that species. 

18. AMELANCHIER. Medic; Lindl. in Linn, trcms. 13. p. 100. june-berry. 

[Amclancier, according to Clusius, is the Savoy name for A. vulgaris. Loddon.] 

Calyx 5-cleft. Petals ovate-oblong or oblanceolate. Stamens short. Styles 5, more or less 
united. Pome 3 - 5-celled ; each cell imperfectly divided by a false longitudinal dissepi- 
ment, with a single seed in each division : endocarp cartilaginous. — Small trees or shrubs, 
with simple serrated leaves and racemose white flowers. 

1. Amelanchier Canadensis, Torr. S^- Gr. Common June-herry. Shad-Jtower. 

Leaves ovate, elliptical or oblong, more or less cordate at the base, often acuminate, very 
woolly when young, smooth when mature ; segments of the calyx triangular-lanceolate, about 
the length of the tube; fruit purplish. — Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 473. Mespilus Cana- 
densis, Linn. sp. 1. p,A78 (excl. syn. Gron.) ; Michx. fl. 1. p. 291. Pyrus Botryapium, 
Linn. f. suppl. p. 255. 

var. 1. Botryapium: arborescent ; leaves ovate-oblong, mostly somewhat cordate, acuminate 
and cuspidate ; petals oblong, four times tlie length of the calyx. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. Mespilus 
Canadensis, var. cordata, Michx. I. c. M. arborea, Michx. f. sylv. \.p. 336. t. 66. Pyrus 
Botryapium, Willd. sp. 2. p. 1013 ; Pursh,fl. I, p. 339. Crataegus racemosa, Lam. diet. 1, 
p. 74. Aronia Botryapium, Pers. syn. 2. p. 39 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 357. Amelanchier Botry- 
apium, DC. prodr. 2. p. 632 ; Beck, lot. p. 112; Darlingt.fl. Cest. j}. 294. A. Botryapium 
and ovalis, Hook. fl. Bor:-Am. 1. p. 202. 

var. 2^oblongifolia : shrubby; leaves oval-oblong, mucronatc, the tomenliim of the lower 
surface often remaining during the flowering ; racemes shorter ; petals obovatc-oblong, about 
thrice the length of the calyx. Torr. 6f Gr. I.e. A. ovalis, Hook. I, c. Mespilus ovalis, 
var. obovalis, Miclix. I. c.l Aronia Botryapium, Torr. fl. 1. p. 479. 

var. 3. rotundifulia : shrubby or arborescent ; leaves roundish-oval, often somewhat acumi- 
nate or cuspidate ; racemes 6 - lO-flowered ; petals narrowly oblong, rather small. Torr. 
<y Gr. I. c. A, ovalis, DC. I. c. ; Darlmgt. I. c. ? Mespilus Canadensis, var. rotundifoiia, 
Miclus. I. c. Pyrus ovaHs, Willd. I. c. P. sanguinca, Pursk, I. e, Aronia ovalis, Pers. I. c. 
[Flora.] 29 

226 ROSACEA. Amelanchier. 

var. 4. ohgocarpa : shrubby ; leaves mostly smooth, even when young, narrowly oval or 
oblong, cuspidate ; racemes 2 - 4-flo\vered ; petals obovate or obovate-oblong, 2-3 times the 
length of the calyx. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. Mespiius Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, Michx. I. c. 
Pyrus sanguinea, Pursh, I. c? Aronia sanguinea, Nutt. gen. l.p. 306. Amelanchier san- 
guinea, DC. I. c. ; Lindl. hot. reg. 1171 ; Hook. I. c. 

Stem variable in height : in the 1st and 3rd rarieties, 15-25 feel high, with a stem 4-6 
inches in diameter ; in the 2d and 4th varieties, a shrub from 4 to 12 feel high. Leaves 
1-3 inches long, sharply serrate, at- first in all the varieties (but much less so in 1. and 4.) 
densely clothed with a whitish or somewhat rusty-colored woolly pubescence, which at length 
disappears. Stipules linear, hairy, deciduous. Flowers appearing before tlie leaves are fully 
expanded, and so numerous that they give the bush or tree a white appearance. Bracteoles 
purplish; deciduous. Petals considerably larger in the var. Botryapium than in the others. 
Stamens a liule longer than the calyx. Styles united nearly to the summit. Fruit the size 
of a large whortleberry, red until fully ripe, when it becomes rather dark purple, sweet and 

Borders of woods, low grounds, etc. ; common : the var. oligocarpa on mountains in the 
northern part of the State. The 2nd is the common kind in the neighborhood of New-York 
city. Fl. Latter part of April - May. Fr. June - July. The varieties here described often 
pass into each other, so that they can never be regarded as distinct species. 

Order XXXIX. MELASTOMACE^. Juss. The Melastom.^ Tribe. 

Sepals 4-6, united below into an urceolate tube which is more or less coherent 
with the angles of the ovary. Petals as many as the sepals, alternate with 
them, and inserted into the throat of the calyx ; aestivation twisted. Stamens 
as many as the petals and alternate with them, or more commonly twice as 
many; those opposite the petals often sterile: anthers 1 — 2-celied, often 
appendaged, usually opening by one or two terminal pores ; before flowering, 
contained in interstices between the ovar}- and calyx. Ovary 3 - 6-celled, 
with thick placentae in the axis : ovules numerous, anatropous. Fruit capsular, 
and at length nearly free from the tube of the cal^-x, or often baccate, 3 — 6- 
celled. Seeds very numerous, v\-ilhout albumen. — Herbs, trees or shrubs, with 
opposite, mostly entire, ribbed leaves, destitute of stipules. Flowers terminal, 
solitary or cymose. 

A large order, chic6y natives of tropical America. 

Rhexia. MELASTOMACE^. 227 

1. RHEXIA. Linn. ; R. Br. in Tuckey's voy. p. 436 ; Endl. gen. 6200. rhexia. 

[A Greek name originally applied to a very different plant.] 

Tube of the calyx ovoid-ventricose at the base, contracted into a neck above ; the limb 4-cleft. 
Petals 4, oborate or roundish. Anthers 8, uniform, not appendaged, one-celled. Style 
somewhat declined : stigma obtuse. Capsule nearly free from the investing calyx-tube, 
4-celled ; the placentje projecting into the cells. Seeds cochleate. — Perennial herbs, with 
ciliate, 3-nerved, mostly sessile leaves. Flowers showy, purple or yellow : petals caducous. 

1. Rhexia Virginica, Linn. Meadow Beauty. Deer-grass. 

Stem with winged angles, somewhat hispid ; leaves oval-lanceolate, acute, serrulate-ciliate, 
sprinkled with bristly hairs above and on the ribs underneath ; calyx hispid, the tube above 
the ovary longer than the segments. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 346 ; Michx. jl. 1. p. 222 ; Bot. mag. 
t. 968 ; Pursh, jl. \. p. 288 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 439 ; Bart. Jl. Am. Sept. 1. t.i; Torr. Jl. 1. 
p. 385 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 148 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 121 ; Beck, bot. p. 127 ; Darlingt. Jl. 
Cast. p. 242 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. ill. 

Stem about a foot high, cymosely dichotomous at the summit, with narrow winged angles 
which are sparingly hispid. Leaves 1-2 inches long, closely sessile, acute, strongly 3-ribbed. 
Flowers an inch in diameter, seldom more than two or three expanded at one time. Calyx- 
tube beautifully urceolate ; the segments lanceolate, acuminate. Petals bright purple, obliquely 
obovate, often hispid externally. Stamens shorter than the petals : anthers long and linear, 
curved ; the connectivum furnished with a small subulate process at the insertion of the 
filament. Style longer than the filaments, a little curved above. Capstile globose, enclosed 
in the ventricose tube of the calyx. Seeds numerous, with a large umbilicus. 

Swamps and wet sandy places ; common. July - September. 

Order XL. LYTHRACE^. Juss. The Loosestrife Tride. 

Sepals combined into a 4 - 7-toothed calyx ; the sinuses sometimes produced 
into accessary teeth or processes. Petals alternate with the teeth of the calyx 
and inserted into its throat, very deciduous, sometimes wanting. Stamens as 
many as the petals, or 2 - 4 times as many, inserted into the tube of the calyx. 
Ovary enclosed in the calyx, but not adherent to it, 2 - 4-cclIed ; the j)lacent8S 
in the axis. Style filiform, or very .short. Cajjsule membranaceous, often one- 


228 LYTHRACEiE. Ammannia. 

celled by the obliteration of the dissepiments, many-seeded. Seeds without 
albumen. — Herbs, rarely shrubs or trees, with usually 4-sided branches, and 
ojiposite leaves which are destitute of stipules and dots. Flowers mostly 

). Calyx campanulate. Petals small. Style short. Capsule globose or ovoid. 

2. Lytukcm. Calyx cylimlrical. Petals conspicuous. Style filiform. Capsule oblong. 

3. Decodon. Calyx campanulate ; the acccssury teeth spreailiiii; and elongated. Stamens 10 ; five of them much 

exserted. Petals largo and showy. Style filiform. Capsule globose. 

4. CoPHEA. Calyx tubular or ventricose. Petals unequal. Stamens included. Capsule oblong. 

1. AMMANNIA. Houst. ; Lam. ill. t. 77 ; Endl. gen. 6li6. AMMANNl.i. 

[ Named in honor of John Ammann, a Russian botanist of the lost century.] 

Calyx campanulate, 4 - 5-toothed or lobcd ; the sinuses usually expanding into teeth or horns. 
Petals often wanting. Stamens as many, or sometimes twice as many as the lobes of the 
calyx. Ovary 2 - 4-celled. Style mostly short : stigma capitate. Capsule globose or 
ovoid, included in the calyx, either bursting transversely or opening by valves. Seeds 
numerous, attached to thick central placentas. — Herbaceous, mostly smooth annual plants, 
destitute of beauty, growing in wet places, with square stems and opposite entire leaves. 
Flowers small, axillary, sessile or somewhat peduncled, bracteolate : petals small. 

§ Ammannta proper. Arnott. Flowers ietramerous : lobes of the calyx with as mani/ small inter- 
mediate horn-like processes : capsule i-celled. 

1. Ammannia humilis, Michx. Dwarf Ammannia. 

Stem branched from the base, ascending ; leaves linear-oblong or lanceolate, obtuse, tapering 
at the base into a short petiole ; flowers solitary in the axils of the leaves, closely sessile ; 
style very short, or almost none. — Michx. fl. l.p.99; l.p.218; Torr.Jl. I.p.l89; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 53 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 79. A. ramosior, Linn. sp. 1. p. 120 ; Walt. fl. 
Car. p. 88, not of Linn. mant. and subsequent authors. 

Stems 4-8 inches high, sometimes almost simple, of a reddish color, nearly terete below, 
somewhat 4-sided above, rather slender. Flowers with 2 small subulate bracts at the base. 
Calyx quadrangular, 8-toothed ; the 4 intermediate (accessory) teeth shorter and spreading, 
rather obtuse ; the others erect and acute. Petals white or pale purple, orbicular, inserted 
opposite the shorter teeth of the calyx, caducous. Ovary turbinate. Style very short, but 
distinct ; stigma capitate. Capsule quadrangular, short and thick ; the cells many-seeded. 

Wet places ; about three miles from Brooklyn, on Long Island. Augiist. 

Lythrum. LYTHRACE^. 


2. LYTHRUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 6149. ^crple loosestbipe. 

[ From the Greek, luthmn, blood ; in aUusion to the color of the flower in some species.] 
Calyx cyliiidrical, striate ; teeth 4-6, short, usually with as many minute intermediate teeth 
or processes. Petals 4-6. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals, inserted, 
about the middle or near the base of the caly.x, nearly equal. Style filiform : stigma 
capitate. Capsule oblong, 2-celIed, many-seeded, enclosed in the calyx.— Herbs, or rarely 
suffruticose plants, with opposite scattered or entire leaves and purplish or white flowers. 

1. Lythrum hyssopifolia, Li7m. Common Purple Loosestrife. 

Annual ; leaves alternate or sometimes opposite, linear-lanceolate, obtuse ; flowers axillary, 
solitary ; calyx obscurely striate ; petals and stamens 5 - Q.— Linn. sp. 1. p. 447 ; Jacq fl 
Austr. t. 133 ; Nutt. ge7i. l.p.303; DC. prodr. 3. p. 81 ; Torr. 4. Gr.Jl. N.Am.'l. p.481. 
L. hyssopifolium, Engl. bot. t. 292 ; Torr. fi. 1. p. 472 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 188. 

Stem simple, sparingly branched from the base, quadrangular and somewhat margined. 
Flowers pale purple. Nutt. 

In the State of New-York {Nuttall). I have never found tliis plant in the State ; nor has 
it ever, to my knowledge, been found in New- York by any other botanist than Mr. Nuttall, 
who has not recorded its precise locality. It occurs in Massachusetts, and is also a native of 

3. DECODON. Gmel syst. p. 677 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 543. sWAMP willow-herb. 

[ From the Greek, dclcas, ten, and odous, a tooth ; there being ten teeth to the calyx.] 
Calyx campanulate, not bracteolate at the base, with 5 erect teeth, and 5 accessory spreading 
horn-like processes. Stamens 10 - 12 ; those opposite the proper teeth of the calyx very 
long, the alternate ones shorter. Style filiform : stigma small, undivided. Capsule included 
m the calyx, 3 - 4-celled. Seeds numerous, wingless.— Stem herbaceous or suffruticose, 
recurved, with opposite or verticillate lanceolate leaves. Flowers somewhat umbellate, on 
short axillary peduncles. Petals purple, 

1. Decodon verticillatum, Ell. (Plate XXVIII.) Sivamp Willoio-herh. 

Ell. sk. I. c; DC. prodr. 3. p. 90 ; Torr. 4. Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 483. D. aquaticus, 
Gmel. I. c. Lythrum verticillatum, Linn. sp. 1. p. 446 ; Michx. fl. 1. p. 281 ; Pursh,fl. 1. 
p. 334 ; Torr. fl.l.p. 471 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 188. Anonymos aquatica. Walt. fl'. Car. 
p. 137. Neesea verticillata, //. B. ^ K. nov. gen. 6. p. 191. 

Stems 2-6 feci long, 4 - 6-si(Jcd, smooth or pubescent, recurved and sometimes taking 

230 LYTHRACE.E. Decodon. 

root at tlie summit. Leaves 3-4 inches long, on short petioles, acute, smooth above, more 
or less pubescent underneath, often opposite and verticillate on the same plant. Umbels 
3 - 6-flowered, rather crowded so as to appear verticillate. Calyx purplish, mostly 10-loothed. 
Petals oblonfT-lanceolate, clawed ; 5 of the claws twice as long as the petals, and inserted at 
the base of the shorter teeth of the calyx ; the others inserted lower down : filaments purple : 
anthers small. Capsule coriaceous, dehiscing loculicidally. Seeds saxooth, angular, 6 - 9 in 
each cell. 

Swamps and borders of ponds ; rather common. July - August. It is sometimes used 
as an emmenagogue. 

4. CUPHEA. Jacq. hort. Vindoh. 2. p. 83 ; Endl. gen. 6151. CVPIIEA. 

[ Named from the Greek, huphos, curved ; in reference to the form of the capsule.] 

Capsule tubular or ventricose, gibbous or sometimes spurred on the upper side, 6-toothed, and 
usually with as many accessory intermediate processes. Petals 6-7, unequal. Stamens 
about 12, unequal. Ovary with a gland at the base next the gibbosity of the calyx : style 
filiform : stigma somewhat capitate. Capsule 1 - e-celled. Seeds several, mostly large, 
lenticular, wingless. — Herbs or suffruticose plants, with opposite or rarely verticillate leaves. 
Peduncles axillary or between the petioles, one- or several-flowered. Calyx colored. Petals 
violet or white. 

1. CupiiEA viscosissiMA, Jacq. Viscid Cuphea. 

Annual, viscidly pubescent ; stem erect, branching ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, on slender 

petioles, rough ; calyx ventricose, gibbous at the base ; petals clawed. — Jacq. I. c. t. 177; 

Michx. fl. \. p. 281 ; Pursh, fl.l.p. 335 ; Nutt. gen. l.p. 304 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 546 ; Bart. 

fl. Amer. Sept. l.t.lS; Torr. fl. \. p. 472 ; Beck, hot. p. 126 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 234 ; 

Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 482. 

Stem about a foot high, clothed with a viscid purplish pubescence. Leaves 1-2 inches 
long, slightly hairy ; the petiole 3-6 inches long. Flowers solitary, pedicellate. Cal\-x 
12-ribbed, purplish, very viscid. Petals purple, very unequal. Stamens included. Capsule 
opening with the calyx before maturity, and exposing the naked seeds. 

Old fields and gravelly places. Northern part of the State {Dr. M. Stevenson and Dr. 
Knieskern) ; near Astoria, Long Island {Mr. Menard). July - August. 

Epilobtom. ONAGRACE^. 


Order XLI. ONAGRACEyE. Juss. The Evening-Primrose Tribe. 

Calyx adherent to the ovary, and produced above it into a tube; the Hmb 4- 
parted. Petals usually 4 (rarely absent). Stamens as many or twice as many 
as the petals, and inserted with them into the throat of the calyx. Ovary 
mostly 4-celled : style elongated ; stigma capitate or 4-lobed. Fruit mostly 
capsular, with loculicidal dehiscence, or indehiscent. Seeds indefinite or 
solitary in each cell. Embryo straight.— Herbaceous or sometimes shrubby 
plants, With entire or toothed leaves. Flowers usually showy, axiUary, or in 
terminal spikes or racemes. 

Tribe I. ONACfRE^. Torr. ^- Gr. 
Petals as many and stamens twice as many as the lobes of the calyx, regular. Pollen con 
nectedby cobweb-like threads. Ovules mostly numerous. Fruit capsular, or rarelu 
dry and indehiscent. [Stamens 4 in Ludwigia, and some of the species apetalous.) 


♦ Stamens 8. 

'■ ""rra?! ext;^t "' '"'"°"' '"■" "^ "'"'- ""^'^""^ """' '■""^'- '^^'^^ '^"■""°-'' -"^ ^ '"" °f 
2. a:.soTBERA. Calyx-tubc prolongea above the ovary. Capsule 4-celIed. Seeds numerous naked 
i. Gauba. Calyx-tube much prolonged. Capsule mostly one-celled and indehiscent, 1 - 4-seeded. ' 

** Stamens 4. 

'• ''"'cr;:e mostlt."" '"'°"'^'- '''='" ""^" -^"'^ "' "^"'^"- ^'" °PP-^'^ ^^^ ■»"- °f '-^e -lyx. 
1. EPILOBIUM. Unn. ; Endl. gen. C121. wiLLOW-HEns. 

[ Prom the Greek, epi, upon, and fofos, a pod ; the flower growing at the top of the seed-vessel.] 

Tube of the calyx not produced above the ovary ; the limb 4-parteJ, deciduous. Petals 4. 
Stamens 8: anthers elliptical or roundish. Stigma 4-lobcd ; the lobes spreading, or co- 
hering, and then clavate. Capsule linear, 4-sided. 4-celled, 4-valved. Seeds numerous, 
crowned with a tuft of hairs.- Perennial herbs, with alternate or opposite nearly sessile 
leaves. Flowers rose-color, purple or white, nodding before expansion. 

• Pclals spreading: stumms and style declined : stigma i-hbed. 

1. Epilobium angustifolium, Linn. Rose-bay Willow-herb. 

Stem erect, simple, mostly smooth ; leaves scattered, lanceolate, remotely denticulate, the 

veins pellucid ; flowers (large) in a long spicate raceme ; petals clawed, obovatc.— Zj/i«'. sp 

1. p. 347; Engl. hot. t. 1947 ; Michx. Jl. \. p. 223 ; Pursh, Jl. I. p. 259 ; Bigcl. Jl. Bost 

232 ONAGRACE^. Epilobium. 

p. 146 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 205 ; Torr. <$■ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 487. E. spicatum, 
Lam. diet. 2. p. 273 ; Torr. fl.l. p.29\ ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 40 ; Beck, hot. p. 116. 

Stem 3-5 feet high. Leaves lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, glaucous underneath, 
nearly sessile, with minute very remote serratures or glandular teeth. Raceme often a foot 
or more in length. Pedicels bracteate at the base, 4-8 lines long, slender, thickened up- 
wards. Limb of the calyx cleft nearly down to the ovary : segments linear-lanceolate, acute, 
spreading, purplish. Petals more than half an inch long, of a light bluish purple. Stamens 
unequal ; the 4 alternate ones shorter. Stigma with 4 narrow spreading lobes. Capsule an 
inch or more in length, purplish-hoary. Seeds in two rows ; the pappus long and silky. 

Fields, and new^ly cleared land ; common. July. A very showy plant. 

»♦ Petals, stamens and stiik erect : stigma undivided. — Ftoicers small. 

2. Epilobium alpinum, Linn. Alpine Willow-lierb. 
Stem creeping at the base, usually marked witli 2 pubescent lines ; leaves opposite, ovate 

or ovate-oblong, slightly petioled, denticulate, smooth ; stigma entire ; capsules mostly pe- 
dicellate.— LtVin. sp. 1. p. 348 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 147 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. \.p. 488. 

Perennial. Stem 6 - 10 inches high, slender, simple. Leaves mostly ovate-oblong, the 
lower ones opposite and about an inch long, upper ones alternate and smaller; the margin 
glandularly denticulate. Flowers small (about as large as in E. color alum). Calyx cam- 
panulate. Petals pale rose-color. Fruit pedicellate. 

High mountains of Essex county. July - August.- A native also of Europe. 

3. Epilokium coloratusi, Muhl. Purple-leaved Willow-Jierb. 

Stem nearly terete, erect, much branched, more or less pubescent ; leaves mostly opposite, 
lanceolate, with fine toolh-like cnllous serratures, the veins often purplish ; petals 2-cleft ; 
stigma clavate ; capsules on short pedicels, slightly pubescent. — Muhl. in Willd. enutn. 1. 
/). 411; Nutt.gen. 1.^.250; Tdrr.fl. I.;?. 392; Bigel. fl. Bost p. 147 ; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 206 ; Beck, hot. p. 116 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 239 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 489. E. tetragonum, JPursh, fl. 1. p. 259 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 445. 

Perennial. Stem 1-3 feet high, late in the season very much branched, a little pubescent 
or nearly smooth, mostly of a purj^iish color ; the branches marked by four narrow lines, two 
of them slightly elevated and decurrent from the midrib of the leaves ; the others intermfediate, 
pubescent. Leaves 3-6 inches long, acute, smooihtsh, marked with, very minute roundish 
and narrow dots. Flowers numerous, terminating the branchlels, 2-3 lines in diameter. 
Sepals lanceolate, ratlier shorter than the corolla. Petals pale purple, or sometimes nearly 
white. Stamens unequal. Slyle scarcely included. Capsule about % inches long when mature. 

Wet thickets ; common, except in the western part of the State, where I have not found it. 
- July -August. Differs from jB. tetragonum, which it much resembles, in its round stem, 
larger flowers, and more deeply cleft petals. 

Epilobitjm. ONAGRACE^, 233 

4. Epilobium molle, Torr. Soft Willow-herb. 

Whole plant clothed with a soft dense velvety pubescence ; stem terete, straight and erect ; 
leaves alternate and opposite, crowded, sessile, lanceolate or oblong-linear, remotely repand- 
denticulate or entire ; petals deeply emarginate, twice the length of the calyx ; stigma large 
and thick, somewhat turbinate ; capsules elongated, on longish pedicels. — 1. ». 393; 
Torr. 4- Gr. f,. N. Am. 1 . p. 390. E. strictum, Muhl. cat. p. 39 ; Spreng. syst. 2. p. 233 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 117. 

Perennial. Stem 1 i - 2 feet high, slender, nearly simple or somewhat branched. Leaves 
1-1^ inch long and 2-4 lines wide, closely sessile, mostly fasciculate in the axils ; the 
margin with remote obscure glandular teeth. Flowers axillary in the upper part of the stem, 
2-3 lines in diameter. Segments of the calyx lanceolate. Petals pale purple or rose-color. 
Stamens included. Capsules about 2 J inches long when mature, tapering at the base into a 
pedicel half an inch or more in length. 

Sphagnous swamps in the northern and western part of the State. August - September. 

5. Epilobium palustre, Linn. Narroio-kmed Willow-herb. 

Stem terete, clothed with a minute crisped pubescence ; leaves lanceolate, rather acute, 
attenuate at the base, nearly sessile, entire or obscurely denticulate , the lower ones opposite ; 
petals rose-color, about twice the length of the calyx ; stigma clavate ; capsules pubescent, 
on short pedicels. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 348 ; Leh7n. in Hook. fi. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 207. 

var. albiflorum : stem slender, at first simple ; leaves narrowly linear, slightly denticulate 
or entire ; capsules canescent. — Lehm. I. c. ; Torr. ^,. N. Am. 1. p. 490. E. palustre, 
var. albescens, Suec. I. p. 234. E. oliganthum, Michx. fi. I. p. 223 ; DC.prodr. 
3. p. 43. E. rosmarinifolium, Pursh, fi. I. p. 259 ; Torr. fi.l. p. 392, not of DC. E. 
lineare, Muhl. cat. p. 39 ; Bigel. fi. Bost. p. 147. E. squamatum, Nutt. gen. 1. p. 250 ; 
DC. I. c; Beck, hot. p. 116 ; Darlingt. fi. Cest. p. 239. 

Perennial. Stem very slender, 1-2 feet high, finally branching at the summit ; the 
pubescence very short, but woolly or crisped. Leaves about an inch long, revolute on the 
margin, a little pubescent on both sides. Flowers about as large as in E. coloratum, pale 
purple or nearly white. Capsules hoary-pubescent, an inch and a half long. » 

Sphagnous swamps ; rather rare. August. 

[Flora.] 30 

234 ONOGRACE^. CEnothera. 

2. OENOTHERA. Linn. ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 491. evening primrose. 
r Named from the Greek, oinos, wine, and thcro, to hunt ; the roots being incentives to wine-drinking.] 

Tube of the calyx prolonged above the ovary, deciduous : segments 4, reflexed. Petals 4, 
equal, obcordatc or obovate, scarcely clawed. Stamens 8. Ovary 4-celled, with numerous 
ovules in each cell. Stigma 4-lobed or capitate. Capsule 4-valved, many-seeded ; the 
dissepiments often disappearing. Seeds naked. — Herbs or rarely sufTrulescent plants, with 
alternate leaves. Flowers showy, often opening towards evening. 

§. EuffiNOTHERA. Stigma A-parted; the lobes elongated: anthers linear, fixed by the middle: petals 
yellow, sometimes turning to rose-color in fading. 

1. CEnothera biennis, Linn. Common Evening Primrose. 

Stem erect, mostly simple, usually hairy ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, repandly denticulate, 
acute, pubescent ; flowers in a terminal somewhat leafy spike ; tube of the calyx much longer 
than the ovary, and mostly twice as long as the calyx ; capsules sessile, oblong, slightly 
tapering upwards, obscurely 4-angled. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 346 ; Michx. fl. 1. p. 224; Engl, 
hot. t. 1534 ; Pursh, /. 1. p. 261 ; Ell sk. 1. p. 441 ; Torr. fl.l. p. 387 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 148 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 46 ; Beck, hot. p. 118 ; Darlingt fl. Cest. p. 240. 

Root annual or biennial. Stem 2-5 feet high, more or less hairy and sometimes rough, 
branching, terete. Leaves 3-6 inches long, tapering at each end ; the lower ones on short 
petioles. Spike 3-12 inches long. Calyx yellowish-green ; the tube above the ovary 1-2 
inches long : segments at first more or less cohering, splitting on one side by the expansion of 
the flower, finally more or less distirxt, less than half the length of the tube. Petals variable 
in size, usually about three-fourths of an inch long, but sometimes nearly twice as large, ob- 
cordate. Stamens shorter than the petals, a little unequal : anthers versatile. Style filiform : 
lobes of the stigma spreading. Capsule somewhat cylindrical, about an inch long. Seeds in 
two rows in each cell. 

Fields and moist meadows ; common. July - September. This plant has become na- 
turalized in many parts of Europe. It presents several varieties, which have been regarded 
as species by some botanists ; such as CE. muricata, Murr., grandiflora, Ait., parviflora, 
Linn., and cruciata, Nutt, 

2. CEnothera fruticosa, Linn. Sundrops. 

Hairy or almost smooth ; stem erect ; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, repandly 
denticulate ; corymb peduncled, naked below, elongated in fruit ; tube of the calyx much 
longer than the ovary ; petals broadly obcordaie, longer than the acuminate calyx-segments 
and stamens ; capsule oblong-clavate, 4-winyed, with intermediate ribs, longer than the pcdi- 

CEnothera. ONAGRACE^. 235 

eels. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 456 ; Bot. mag. t. 332 ; Pursh, fl.\. p. 262 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 247 ; 
Ell. sk. I. p. 442 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 389 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 50 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 212, 
and hot. mag. 3548 ; Beck, bot. p. 118 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 241 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 
1. p. 496. ffi. hybrida, Michx. fl. 1. ^. 225. CE. ambigua, Spreng. syst. 2. p. 229 ; DC. 
Z. c. (E. incana, iVw/f. Z. c. 

Biennial? Stem 1^-2 feet high, rigid, mostly purplish, with slender erect branches, 
variable in pubescence, sometimes villous, and often nearly smooth. Leaves 1^-3 inches 
long and 3-7 lines wide ; the lower ones with short petioles. Flowers about an inch and a 
half in diameter, in corymbose spikes at the summit of the stem and branches. Calyx pur- 
plish ; the tube about an inch long : segments acuminate, more or less united. Petals pale 
yellow, broadly obcordate. Style longer than the stamens, and shorter than the corolla. 
Capsule about twice as long as the pedicels ; the angles distinctly winged, and decurrent on 
the pedicel : intermediate ribs rounded, slightly projecting. 

Fields, meadows and borders of woods ; rather common. June - July. Variable in size, 
breadth of the leaves and pubescence, according to the soil, degree of exposure, etc. It appears 
to be only a biennial. 

3. CE.\oTHERA LINEARIS, Michx. Narrow-Uooed Evening Primrose. 
Stem erect, slender ; leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, rather obtuse, remotely denticu- 
late or entire ; flowers somewhat corymbose at the extremity of the branches ; tube of the 
calyx longer than the ovary, but scarcely exceeding the segments ; petals longer than the 
stamens and calyx-segm.ents ; capsules clavate-turbinate or obovate, mostly pubescent or 
canescent, with the alternate angles slightly winged above, tapering at the base into a slender 
pedicel. — Michx. fl. 1. p. 225 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 262; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 248 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl.N.Am. 1. p. 497. 

var. : stems often decumbent at the base, finally much branched ; leaves smaller. Torr. &■ 
Gr. I. c. 

About a foot high, often decumbent at the base ; the whole plant more or less canescently 
puberulent. Leaves varying from linear to linear-oblong, tapering at the base, and slightly 
petioled. Flowers twice as large as in OS. pumila. 

Dry sandy fields, Suffolk county. Long Island. August. 

4. OENOTHERA CHRYSANTiiA, Michx. Goldeti-Jlowered Evening Primrose. 
Pubescent ; stem ascending ; leaves lanceolate, rather obtuse, attenuate at the base, entire 

or obscurely denticulate, the radical ones obovate-spatulate ; flowcfs (small) in a rather 
crowded spike ; tube of the calyx as long as the ovary, and longer than the segments ; petals 
broadly obovate, emarginatc, longer than the stamens ; capsules nearly smooth, clavate- 
oblong, distinctly pedicelled, the alternate angles very narrowly winged. — Miclix.fl. I. p. 825 ; 
Pursh, fl.l. p. 263 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 444 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl.N. Am. 1. p. 498. 


236 ONAGRACE.f:. CEnothera. 

Biennial ? Stem a foot high, purplish, smooth above. Leaves 1 - Ij inch long and 3-5 
lines veide, narrowed below into a short slender petiole. Flowers smaller than in CE. jruticosa, 
bright orange-yeUow. Capsules somewhat pyriform, tapering into a slender stipulate base ; 
the wings narrow, not decurrent on the pedicel : intermediate ribs very prominent. 

Near Oswego [Dr. Kniesktrn) ; Niagara Falls {Mr. J. Carey). June - July. I fear not 
sufficiently distinct from the following. 

5. CEiNOTHERA PUMiLA, Linn. Dwarf Evening Primrose. 

Minutely pubescent ; stem ascending ; leaves lanceolate, mostl}' obtuse, entire, acute or 
attenuate at the base, the radical ones obovate-spatulate ; flowers (small) in a loose elongated 
leafy spike, the apex nodding before expansion ; tube of the calyx shorter than the ovarj^ and 
about the length of the segments ; petals obcordate, scarcely longer than the calyx-segments 
and stamens ; capsules oblong-clavate, almost sessile, the alternate angles narrowly winged. 
— Linn. sp. (ed. 2.) 1. p. 493 ; Bot. mag. t. 335 ; Pursh,fl. I. p. 262 ; Torr.Jl. \.p. 390 ; 
DC. prodr. 3. p. 51 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. \. p. 212; H. H.Eaton in Transylv. joum. med. 
1832; Beck, bot. p. 119; Torr. ^ Gr. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 498. CE. pusilla, Micluc. Jl. 1. 
p. 225. 

Biennial. Stem 6-12 inches high, simple or sometimes sparingly branched, somewhat 
canescent with very short crisped hairs. Leaves 1 — IJ inch long and 3-4 lines wide, 
strigosely pubescent. Flowers, when fully expanded, scarcely half an inch in diameter. 
Sepals lanceolate, with a very short abrupt acumination. Petals pale yellow. Stamens 
somewhat declined. Raceme elongated in fruit. Capsules nearly smooth when mature ; 
the lower ones often with a short pedicel. 

Dry fields ; not uncommon, particularly in the northern and western part of the State. On 
Long Island (Dr. Knieskern.) June - July. 

3. GAURA. Linn.; Etidl. gen. 6131. GAURA. 

[ So named from its showy flowers ; gauros, in Greek, signiiying superb.] 

Tube of the calyx much prolonged above the ovary, deciduous : segments 4 (rarely 3), re- 
flexed. Petals 4 (rarely 3), clawed, somewhat unequal or one-sided. Stamens mostly 8. 
Ovary usually 4-celled, with 1-2 suspended ovules in each cell : stigma 4-lobed. Fruit 
4-angled, by abortion mostly 1 -celled, dry and indehiscent, 1 - 4-seeded. Seeds naked. — 
Herbaceous or suffruticose plants, with mostly sessile, alternate leaves. Flowers in terminal 
spikes or racemes. Petals white or rose-color. 

1. Gaura biennis, Litin. Biennial Gaura. 

Stem herbaceous, hairy ; leaves lanceolate, acute, repandly denticulate or toothed ; segments 


Gaura. ONAGRACE^. 237 

of the calyx about the length of the tube, rather longer than the spatulate-elliptical petals ; 
fruit sessile, oval-oblong, somewhat acuminate, tapering at the base, with 4 prominent rounded 
angles and 4 slight intermediate ribs. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 347 ; Michx. Jl. 1. p. 286 ; Pursh,Jl. 
l.p. 260 ; Bot. mag. t. 389 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 346; Torr. fl.l.p. 391 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 44 ; 
Beck, bot. p. 117; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 598 ; Torr. 4- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 517. 

Root biennial. Stem 3-8 feet high, much branched, firm and somewhat ligneous but not 
suiTrutescent, almost villous with whitish hairs. Lower leaves 3-6 inches long and three- 
fourths of an inch wide, often strongly toothed, nearly smooth above ; those of the branches 
much smaller. Flowers at first crowded in a corymbose manner (the long calyx-tubes of the 
lower ones resembling pedicels) at the summit of the stem and branches, at length spiked. 
Bracts small, caducous. Sepals linear-lanceolate, rather obtuse. Petals at first very pale or 
nearly white, finally deep rose-color, inclining towards the upper side of the flower. Stamens 
about the length of the petals : anthers fixed by the middle, hnear-oblong. Style much longer 
than the stamens : stigma 4 oblong spreading lobes. Fruit somewhat woody ; the dissepiments 
often remaining till near maturity. Seeds mostly abortive, seldom more than 2 or 3 of them 

Dry soil, banks of the Mohawk, Chemung, Hudson, &c. ; rather rare. Not found below 
the Highlands. August - September. 

4. LUDWIGIA. Linn. ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 523. false loosestrife. 

[ Named in honor of C. G. Ludwio, professor of botany at Leipsic, in the last century.] 

LuDwiGiA and Isnardia, Linn, and most other authors. 

Calyx-tube 4-angled or nearly cylindrical, mostly short, not prolonged above the ovary ; the 
lobes 4, usually persistent. Petals 4, often minute or wanting. Stamens 4, opposite the 
lobes of the calyx. Summit of the ovary truncate, or crowned with the dilated base of the 
style (stylopodium) : style short : stigma capitate. Capsule short (or rarely elongated), 
4-celled, many-seeded, finally opening by 4 valves. — Perennial, or sometimes annual herbs, 
growing in wet places. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire. Flowers axillary, or sometimes 
in terminal spikes or heads. 

f) 1. Euludwigia, Torr. &, Gr. Leaves alternate, sessile. 

1. LuDwiGiA ALTERNiFOLiA, Linn. Sced-box. 

Stem erect, slightly angled by the dccurrcnt petioles, smoothish ; leaves lanceolate, rather 
acute, narrowed at the base ; flowers axillary, pediccUed, the pedicels with two bracteolcs ; 
petals scarcely the length of the large ovate, acuminate lobes of the calyx ; capsules with 
winged angles. — Linn. sp. 1. p.\\%; Lam. ill. t. 77; Ell. sk. 1. p. 217; Bigcl.fl. Bost. p. 60; 
Torr. 4" Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 522. L. ramosissima, Walt.fl. Car. p. 89. L. macrocarpa, 

238 ONAGRACEiE. Ludwigia. 

MidiT. fl. \. p.S9; Pursk, f.l. p.UO; Torr. ft. 1. p. ISO ; Bart. Jl. N. Am. 1. t. 14. 
Isnardia allcrnifolia, DC. prodr.S.p. 122; Beck, hot. p. 119; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 109. 

Perennial. Stem 2-3 feet high, slightly pubescent or almost smooth, purplish, much 
branched, marked with elevated lines descending from the bases of the petioles. Leaves 
2-4 inches long, the lateral veins uniting so as to form a continuous line within the margin. 
Pedicels 2-4 lines long. Bracteoles lanceolate, acute, situated close to the flower. Calyx- 
segments longer than the ovarj', becoming purple on the inside. Petals yellow, roundish- 
obovate, caducous. Stamens much shorter than the petals : anthers large, oblong. Style 
tliick : stigma obscurely 4-Iobed. Capsule globose-cubical, crowned with the large dilated 
base of the style, opening at first by a small hole left by the separation of the deciduous style ; 
afterward, the summit (stylopodium) of the capsule falls off. Seeds very numerous, attached 
to a large central placenta. 

In swamps ; common. July - August. 

2. Ludwigia sph.«rocarpa, Ell. (Plate XXIX.) Round-fruited Ludwigia. 
Whole plant nearly smooth ; stem erect, much branched ; leaves narrowly lanceolate, 

mostly acute, attenuate at the base ; flowers solitary, axillary, or r.lnstered towards the summit 
of the branches, and appearing as if in leafy interrupted spikes, apetalous ; bracteoles minute 
or wanting ; lobes of the calyx as long as the capsule, triangular-ovate ; capsules turbinate- 
globose, obscurely 4-sided, canescent, crowned with the deeply 4-lobed stylopodium. — EU. 
sk. \. p. 211 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 524. Isnardia sphaerocarpa, DC. prodr. 3. p. 61. 

Perennial. Stem about 2 feet high, slightly pubescent above, smooth below, of a reddish 
tinge. Leaves of the stem 3-5 inches long, of the branches about 2 inches, remotely and 
obscurely repand-denticulate with a long tapering base, nearly smooth ; the veins confluent 
near the margin. Flowers in somewhat compound leafy spikes. Calyx pubescent ; the 
segments a little spreading. Petals none. Stamens scarcely half the length of the sepals : 
anthers broader than long ; the lobes rather remote. Stigma oval, not lobed. Capsule about 
2 lines long, crowned with the reddish depressed stj'lopodium, which is deeply divided into 4 
obtuse lobes. Seeds oval. 

In water near PeekskOl {Mr. R. I. Brownne). July - August. 


§2. Isnardia, Linn. Leaves opposite, mostly petioled : flowers sessile : petals very small or none: 
capsules short, truncate at the apex. 

3. Ludwigia palustris, Ell. Water Purselane. 
Plant smooth and slightly succulent ; stems procumbent, rooting or floating at the base ; 

leaves ovate-spatulate, shining, tapering into a slender petiole ; flowers axillary, apetalous, 
or with small purplish petals ; lobes of the calyx very short ; capsules oblong, 4-sided, not 
attenuate at the base. — Ell. sk. 1. p. 214 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 525. L. apetala, 
Wali.fl. Car. p. 89. L. nitida, Michx.fl. 1. p. 87 ; Pursh,fl. 1. p. 111. Isnardia palustris, 


Linn. ; Torr. fl. I. p. 182 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 61 ; Hook, in Engl. hot. suppl. t. 2593, and 
fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 215 ; Beck, hot. p. 120 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 109. I. palustris, /3. Ame- 
ricana, DC. prodr. 3. p. 61. I. ascendens. Hall in Eat. man. ed. 8. p. 285. 

Root annual. Stem 6-12 inches long when growing in mud or wet ground, sometimes 
assurgent, but commonly prostrate, rooting at the joints. Leaves about an inch long, narrowed 
abruptly at the base into a petiole. Flowers very small. Segments of the calyx ovate, acute. 
Petals commonly absent, but occasionally found in an almost rudimentary state. Stamens 
much shorter than the calyx : anthers roundish. Style almost none. Capsule obtusely 4- 
angled. Seeds oblong, yellowish. 

Ditches and slowly flowing water ; common. July - October. A native also of Europe. 
The rudimentary petals occur most frequently when the plant grows in rather dry exposed 

Tribe II. CIRCJEE^. DC. 

Calyx scarcely produced above the ova?-!/. Lobes of the calyx, petals and stamens 2. Fi-uit 
indehiscent, 2-celled, with a single erect seed in each cell. — Leaves opposite, petioled. 

5. CIRCvEA. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 6130. ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. 

[ " Poetically named after the enchantress Circe : the genus growing in damp shady places, where plants used for 

incantations are found." Loudon.] ' 

Tube of tiie calyx contracted above the ovary ; the limb 2-parted. Petals 2, obcordate, 

inserted into the cup-shaped disk at the summit of the ovary. Stamens alternate with the 

petals. Style fihform : stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Fruit obovate, hispid with hooked hairs. 

— Perennial herbs, with opposite petioled membranaceous leaves. Flowers small, white 

or pale rose-color, in terminal and lateral racemes : pedicels reflexed in fruit. 

My friend, Prof. Bailpy, of West-Point, has observed a very distinct circulation in the transparent hairs of the 
fruit in this genus. 

1. CiRCvGA LuTETiANA, LiJin. Commou Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Leaves ovate, somewhat cordate, acuminate, slightly repand-toothed, usually longer than 
the petiole ; bracts none ; disk projecting beyond the tube of the calyx. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 8 
{var. Canadensis) ; Michx. fl. \ p. \1 ; Pursh, fl.l.p.2l; Ell. sk. I. p. 7; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 29 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 11 ; Beck, hot. p. 120 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 7 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 
N. Am. 1. p. 527. C. Canadensis, Muhl. cat. p. 2. 

Stem about a foot and a half high, mostly quite smooth, but sometimes slightly pubescent, 
swollen at the nodes. Leaves mostly rounded, but sometimes cordate at the base ; the lamina 
usually more than twice the length of the petiole. Flowers in slender racemes. Pedicels 
2-3 lines long, spreading, and at length reflexed. Calyx contracted into a short neck above 
the ovary. Sepals ovate-oblong, rather obtuse. Petals mostly white, or very pale rose-color. 
Style slender : stigma with 2 small hemispherical lobes. Fruit covered with whitish hairs 
which are hooked at the extremity. 

Moist shady woods ; common. July - August. 


240 ONAGRACE^. Circ^a. 

2. CiRC^A ALPiNA, Linn. Alpine Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Stem weak ; leaves cordate, shining, rather coarsely toothed, the lower ones as long as the 
petioles ; pedicels with a minute setaceous bract at the base ; disk scarcely projecting beyond 
the tube of the calyx. — Linn. sp. I. p. 8; Engl. hot. t. 1057 ; Michx. fl.\. p. M ; Piirsh, 
fi. \.p.2\; !.;>. 30; Bigel. fl. Bost. p.U; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 215; Torr. 
4- Of. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 527. 

Stem 4-8 inches high, sometimes assurgent. Leaves very thin and somewhat translucent, 
broadly cordate, always either cordate or truncate at the base ; the lower ones with elongated 
petioles. Flowers and fruit as in the preceding species, but considerabl}' smaller ; the hairs 
on the fruit also are weaker. 

Dense woods, on prostrate trunks of trees, and about springs, particularly in mountainous 
districts ; very common in the northern and western parts of the State ; not foimd south of 
Catskill. July - August. The two species of Circ(ta are verj' nearly allied, but they can 
usually be distinguished by the characters here given. Some botanists consider them varieties 
of one species. 

Suborder HALORAGEiE. R. Br. ; DC. (excl. Callitriche). 

Limb of the calyx 3 - 4-lobed or -toothed, sometimes nearly wanting. Petals 
3 — 4, or wanting. Stamens double the number of the petals, or equal to them, 
or fewer, inserted with the petals into the throat of the calyx. Ovary cohering 
with the calyx, 1 - 4-celled : style none : stigmas equal in number to the cells, 
papillose or pencil-formed. Fruit 1 - 4-celled, membranaceous or bony, in- 
dehiscent, with a solitary pendulous seed in each cell. Embryo straight, in 
the centre of thin fleshy albumen : radicle long and slender : cotyledons smalL 
— Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants, gromng in wet places or in water. 
Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate. Flowers very small, axillary, sessile, 
or in spikes, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. 

6. PROSERPINACA. Linn. ; Juss. in ann. mus. 3. p. 320. t. 30./. 1 ; Endl. gen. 6137. 

[ From the Latin, proscrpo, to creep ; the stems creeping and rooting at the base.] 

Tube of the calyx 3-sided ; the limb 3-parted. Petals none. Stamens 3. Stigma oblong, 
papillose. Fruit bony, triangular, 3-celled. — Perennial aquatic herbs ; the stems creeping 
at the base. Leaves serrate or pectinately cut. Flowers axillary, perfect, solitary or 
several togeilier. 

Proserpinaca. HALORAGEJS. 241 

1. Proserpinaca palustris, Linn. Common Mermaid-weed. 

Leaves lanceolate or almost linear, upper (emersed) ones sharply serrate, lowermost (sub- 
mersed) pectinately incised or pinnatifid ; fruit acutely 3-cornered, the sides broadly cordate 
and concave.— Linn, act Upsal. 1741, p. 81 ; Michx. fl. 1. p. 76 ; Pur&h, fl. 1. p. 92; 
Ell. sk. 1. p. 181 ; Tarr.Jl. 1. p. 161 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 48 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 67; Torr. 
4- Gr.fl, N. Am. 1. p. 528. 

Stem a foot and a half or more in length, the lower part usually submerged, mostly simple. 
Leaves 2 inches long ; the upper ones finely serrated ; the lower ones gradually more and 
more cut, till they are pectinate, with long and very narrow divisions. Flowers mostly solitary, 
sometimes 2-4 together, scarcely 2 lines long. Calyx-segments broadly lanceolate. Stamens 
exserted : anthers roundish, large. Stigmas obtuse, purplish. Sides of the fruit broader than 
long, often a little rugose when mature. 

Shallow ponds, ditches and swamps. June - August. 

2. Proserpinaca pectinacea, Lam. Cut-leaved Mermaid-weed. 

Leaves all pectinately cut into narrow linear segments ; angles of the fruit rather obtuse, 
the sides ovate and slightly convex. — Lam. ill. t. 50. /. 1 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 92; Ell. sk. 1. 
p. 192 ; Torr. fl.l.p.l62; DC. prodr. 3. p. 67 ; Torr.^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 528, P. 
palustris, /3., Miclix. fl. 1. p. 76. 

Stem seldom more than a foot long, slender. Leaves scarcely an inch long ; the segments 
rather distant. Flowers resembling those of the preceding species, but the ovary longer in 
proportion to the breadth. Stigmas attenuate upward. Capsule a little rugous on the sides 
when mature. 

Beaver meadow near Vernon {Dr. Douglas). I have not seen the specimens collected by 
Dr. Douglas ; and were he not so good a botanist, I should doubt whether this species grew 
in the western part of the State. It will very probably yet be found on Long Island. 

7. MYRIOPHYLLUM. VaUl. ; Linn.; Endl. gen. 6135. water MILFOIL. 

[ From the Greek, myrios, a myriad, and pkyllon, a leaf; the leaves being cut into innumerable fine segments.] 

Flowers either monoecious or perfect. Calyx 4-parted in the staminate, 4-loothed in the 
pistillate and perfect flowers. Petals 4, often rudimentary or wanting. Stamens 4 or 8. 
Ovary 4-celIcd : stigmas oblong or linear, pencil-form or papillose along the inner surface. 
Fruit of 4 nut-like carpels cohering by their inner angles, and enclosed in the adherent tube 
of the calyx. — Aquatic and usually submersed perennial plants, the upper part emersed 
while flowering. Leaves vcrticillate, sometimes opposite or alternate ; those under water 
[Flora.] 31 



242 HALORAGE.^:. Myr:ophyllum. 

pinnately cut into numerous fine segments. Flowers sessile in the axils of the upper leaves ; 
sometimes in terminal spikes, from the leaves being reduced to bracts ; the uppermost 
commonly staminale (with abortive pistils), the lowest fertile (with abortive stamens), and 
the intermediate ones perfect. 

^1. Floiccrs oclandrous : carpels not ridged on the hack : leaves verticillate. 

1. Myriophyllum sriCATU.M, Linti. Spiked Water Milfoil. 
Leaves all pinnately cut into capillary segments ; bracts shorter than the flowers, ovate, 

entire, the lowermost larger and serrate ; petals broadly ovate ; carpels smooth and even. — 
Lirm. sp. 2. p. 992 ; MicJix. Jl. I. p. 190; Engl. bot. t. 83 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 274 ; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 588 ; Torr. comp. p. 354 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 345 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 68 ; Hook. Jl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 216 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 529. 

Stem varying in length with the depth of the water, sometimes 10 - 15 feet long, slender. 
Leaves 3 - 5 in a whorl, all very finely cut. Flowers in an interrupted leafless spike, which 
rises above the water ; the upper bracts or floral leaves entire, very small, but increasing in 
length towards the lower part of the spike, where they are sharply serrate. 

Deep ponds and slowly flowing waters ; not common. July - August. 

2. Myriophyllum verticillatum, Linn. Whorled Water MilfoiL 

Lower leaves cut into capillary segments ; floral ones, or bracts, pectinately pinnatifid, 
commonly much longer than the flowers ; petals oblong-obovate ; carpels smooth and even. — 
Linn. sp. 2. p. 992 ; Michx. Jl. 2. p. 190 ; Engl. bot. t. 218 ; Pursh, Jl. \. p. 274 ; Ell. sk. 
2. p. 588 ; Torr. compend. p. 355 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 68 ; Torr. <^ Gr.Jl. N. Am. I. p. 529. 

Stem very long, stouter than in the preceding species. Submerged leaves all finely divided ; 
those belonging to the emersed part of the stem, much smaller and pectinate. Flowers in a 
leafy spike. Segments of the calyx much smaller than the petals, acute. Anthers oblong. 
Stigmas large and thick ; the surface covered with purplish woolly hairs. 

Ponds and small streams ; rather common. July - September. 

^ 2. Floicers ietrandrous : carpels uith one or two ridges on the back : leaves verticillate. 

3. Myriophyllcm heterophyllum, Michx. Various-leaved Water Mil/oil. 

Stem thick ; lower leaves cut into capillary segments ; floral ones ovate or lanceolate, thick, 
sharply serrate, crowded, usually 5 in a whorl ; petals oblong ; carpels minutely roughened, 
slightly 2-ridged and tuberculale on the back. — Michx. Jl.2. p. \9\; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 274 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 588 ; Torr. comp. p. 355 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 69 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 529. 

Stem very long ; much stouter, and the submerged leaves smaller, than in the preceding 

MYRiopiiYLLrM. HALORAGE^. 243 

species. Floral leaves about half an inch long, of a firm texture ; upper ones serrate, lowest 
ones pectinately toothed. Flowers whorled, in the axils of the upper leaves. Anthers linear- 
oblong. Stigmas woolly, purple. 

Ponds and slowly flowing streams ; common in the western part of the State. July - 

^ 3. Flowers tetrandrous : carpels not ridged on ike back : leaves alternate, or almost wanting. 
4. Myriophyllum ambiguum, Nutt. Polymorplwus Water Milfoil 

Submersed leaves cut into capillary segments ; the emersed ones pectinate ; upper floral 
ones linear, tapering into a short petiole, sparingly incised or toothed, sometimes entire ; 
flowers mostly perfect ; petals oblong ; carpels smooth and even. — DC. prodr. 3. p. 70 ,' 
Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p 530. 

var. 1 nutans : stem floating ; emersed leaves narrow, rigid, serrate or pectinate, the floating 
ones capillary. DC. I. c. ; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. M. ambiguum, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 212; Torr. 
cornp. p. S.'i.T. 

var. 2. capillaceum : leaves all immersed and capillary. Torr. cj- Gr. I. c. M. capillaceum, 
Torr. comp. I. c. 

Tar. 3. limosum : small ; stem procumbent and rooting; leaves all narrow, rigid, sparingly 
toothed or pinnately cut into several narrow lobes, sometimes nearly entire. Nutt. I. c. ; Torr. 
comp. I. c. ; DC. I. c. ; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. M. procumbens, Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 346. Purshia 
humilis, Raf. in Neio-York mecl. rep. 2. p. 361. 

A very variable plant. The floating forms have long slender stems, and the leaves are cut 
into very narrow attenuated segments. In var. 3. the stems creep in the mud, and are only 
from 2 to 6 inches long, forming large green patches on the margins of ponds. Flowers very 
small, reddish. Anthers oblong. Stigmas pencillate. 

Ponds and miry places on Long Island. July - August. 

5. Myriophyllum tenellum, Bigel. Leafless Water Milfoil 

Stems (scapes) almost leafless, arising from a prostrate rhizoma ; bracts minute, entire ; 

flowers alternate ; petals linear-oblong ; carpels smooth and even.— Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 346 ; 

Torr. comp. p. 355 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 69 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 216; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. 

N. Am. 1 . ;;. 530. 

Rhizoma slender, rooting in the mud, and throwing up several scapes or flowering branches 

4-10 inches high, the lower part submerged. Leaves reduced to mere little alternate scales. 

Flowers mona-cious, very small. Bracts oblong, obtuse, mostly rather longer than the flower. 

Calyx-scgmcnl8 very short, acute. Petals purplish. Anthers oblong. Stigmas at length 


Borders of ponds and small streams of water. Northern part of the State. Peach Pond, 

Westchester county {Dr. Mead). July - August. 


244 IIALORAGE^. Hippuris. 

8. HIPPURIS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 613'i. MARESTAIL. 

[Prom the Greek, hippos, a horse, and aura, a tail.] 

Border of the calyx very narrow and entire. Petals none. Stamen solitary, inserted on the 
margin of the calyx. Style filiform, stigmatose on one side, at first placed between the two 
lobes of the anther. Fruit one-celled, one-seeded. — Aquatic perennial herbs, with simple 
stems, verlicillate entire leaves, and axillary minute flowers which are often polygamous. 

1. Hippuris vulgaris, Linn. Common Marestail. 

Leaves in whorls of 8 - 12, linear, callous at the tip (Hook.). — Linn. sp. 1. p. 4 ; Engl, 
hot. t. 763 ; Michx. Jl. I. p. I ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 3 ; Torr.jl. \.p.2; DC. prodr. 3. p. 71 ; 
Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 217; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 531. 

Stem usually a foot or eighteen inches high, jointed. Leaves about a line wide ; those on 
the emersed part of the stem scarcely an inch in length ; the submersed ones much longer, 
and crowded. Flowers inconspicuous ; the free portion of the calyx forming a very narrow 
border at the summit of the ovary. Filament short and flat : anther large, red ; the two lobes, 
when young, folded around the style which passes between them. Fruit small, somewhat 
drupaceous ; the endocarp cartilaginous. 

Ponds and lakes. Cayuga lake {Dr. Jed. Smith) ; near Schenectady (Dr. Beck) ; ditches 
near Coldspring, Putnam county (Pro/". Bailey). It appears to be identical with the European 

Group 14. Ovary compound, one-celled, with parietal placentee. Petals and stamens 
inserted in the throat of the calyx. Floicers perfect. Calyx adherent to the 

Order XLIL CACTACEtE. Juss. The Cactus Tribe. 

Calyx consisting of numerous imbricated sepals, which cohere with and crown 
the ovary, or cover its whole surface ; the inner ones confounded with the 
numerous petals. Stamens numerous, cohering with the base of the petab, 
and inserted with them into the throat of the calyx. Ovary fleshy, one-celled, 
with numerous parietal placentae : ovules numerous : styles united : stigmas 
as many as the placentae. Fruit a berry, 1-celled, many-seeded ; the seeds 

Opuntia. CACTACE^. 245 

finally losing their connection with the placentae, and immersed in the pulp. 
Albumen none. Embryo with a thick obtuse radicle : cotyledons often united 
or nearly wanting. — Succulent shrubby plants of singular habit ; the stems 
usually somewhat globose, angular, 2-edged, or foliaceous and jointed, mostly 
destitute of true leaves. Buds spiny. Flowers mostly large and showy, 
sohtary, sessile. 

1. OPUNTIA. Tourn. inst. t. 122 ; Endl. gen. i\Ql. indian fig. 

[A name of Theophrastus, applied to this genus.] 

Sepals and petals not produced into a tube, spreading. Stamens shorter than the petals. 
Style cylindrical, constricted at the base : stigmas 3-8, thick, erect. Berry ovoid, umbih- 

cate at the. summit, .tuberculate, often prickly. Embryo somewhat spiral, nearly terete. 

Shrubby plants with jointed branches ; the joints mostly compressed and dilated, bearing 
tufts of bristles or prickles. Flowers yellow or red, arising from the clusters of prickles, 
or along the margin of the joints. DC. 

1. Opuntia vulgaris, Mill. Common Indian Fig, or Prickly Pear. 

Prostrate or somewhat assurgent, diffuse and creeping ; joints ovate ; prickles short and 
very numerous, often with several strong subulate spines ; fruit crimson. — Mill. diet. <. 191 ; 
DC. prodr. 3. p. 474 ; Hook. bot. mag. t. 2393 ; Torr. ^ Gr.jl. N. Am. 1. p. 555. Cactus 
Opuntia, -Linn. ; Mickx. fi. k- p. Q^ j Pursh, fl. I. p. 327 ; Nutt. gen. \.p. 296 ; Ell. sk. 
1. p. 537 ; Torr. jl. \. p. 466. 

Plant usually growing in tufts ; the branches often more or less assurgent : joints very 
fleshy, 3-6 inches long : tufts of bristles arranged (as in all the genus) in a quincuncial or 
spiral order ; the bristles very slender, rigid and acute, barbed. Spines, when present, about 
three-fourths of an inch long, and of a yellowish color. Flowers more than two inches in 
diameter, usually several on the margin of the upper joints. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate. Petals bright yellow, mucronate. Stamens very numerous : filaments smooth : anthers 
linear. Style longer than the stamens. Fruit nearly two inches long, obovate, nearly smooth, 
pulpy and eatable. 

On rocks and in sandy fields ; common around New- York and on Long Island ; rare on the 
Hudson above West-Point. The most northern locality in the State is Fairfield, where it was 
found by Prof. JIadley. At Manliattanviile, on the Island of New- York, I have found it with 
the strong yellow spines which it so commonly bears in the Southern States. Fl. June - July. 
Fr. August. 

246 GROSSULACE/E. Rides. 

Order XLIII. GROSSULACEJ*:. DC. The Currant Tribe. 

Calyx campanulate or tubular, often colored, withering, 5- (rarely 4-) cleft ; 
segments at length spreading or reflexed. Petals small, as many as the seg- 
ments of the calyx and alternate with them, inserted into the throat of the 
calyx. Stamens as many as the petals, and inserted alternately with them. 
Ovary coherent with the calyx-tube, 1-celled with 2-parietal placentas : ovules 
mostly numerous : styles 2 (very rarely 3 or 4), united or distinct. Fruit a 
berry, crowned with the withered flower. Seeds anatropous ; the raphe at 
length distinct from the gelatinous testa : the tegmen crustaceous, strongly 
adhering to the dense almost horny albumen. Embryo minute. — Shrubs, 
mostly spiny or prickly, with alternate (often fascicled) palmately veined and 
lobed leaves. Flowers racemose, sometimes solitary. 

1. RIBES. Linn.; DC. prodr. 3. p. 477. currant and GOOSEHrr^RV. 

[An ancient Arabic name for a plant, supposed by tlie older botanists to be the Gooseberry.] 

Character same as ihat of the order. 

^ 1. Grossvlauia, a. Rich. Stems usually armed with subaxillary spines, and often prickly: 
peduncles mostly 1 -3-Jlowered: calyx more or less campanulate: berries often prickly. 

1. RiBES Cynosbati, Linn. Prickly Gooseberry. 

Stem either unarmed or prickly ; subaxillary spines 1 - 3 ; leaves cordate, roundish, 
3 _ 5-lobed, more or less pubescent, the lobes incisely serrate ; peduncles 2 - 3-flowered ; 
tube of the calys broadly campanulate, slightly contracted at the mouth ; the segments at 
length reflexed, shorter than the lube, and longer than the obovate petals ; stamens and styles 
slightly included ; style undivided, hairy at the base ; fruit prickly, or rarely smooth. — Linn, 
sp. 1. p. 202 ; MicJix. fl. I. p. Ill ; Jacq. hort. Vindob. 2. t. 123 ; Pursh, fi. 1. p. 166 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 91 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 479 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 230 (excl. y.); 
" Guimp. Otto <^ Hayne, holz. t. 135." R. gracile, Torr. fl. 1. p. 269, not of Alichx. 

A bush 2-4 feet high, erect, the lower part often prickly. Subaxillary spines mostly 2, 
sometimes wanting. Leaves clothed with a soft pubescence, particularly underneath ; petioles 
downy. Raceme nodding; the pedicels long and slender, divaricate. Calyx greenish-white; 
the segments lanceolate, rather acute, ciliate , at first erect, but at length reflexed. Fruit 
brownish when ripe, usually armed with strong prickles so as to resemble a burr, but occa- 
sionally smooth. 

Woods, particularly on mountain sides. Fishkill and Catskill mountains ; also in the 
northern and western part of the Stale. May - June. 

RjiiEs. GROSSULACE^. ?47 

2. RiBEs ROTUNDiFOLiuM, Michx. Round-kavcd Gooseberry. 

Stems not prickly ; subaxillary spines short, usually solitary (sometimes absent) ; leaves 
roundish, 5-lobed, nearly smooth, a little shining above ; the lobes short and obtuse, incisely 
toothed ; peduncles slender, 1 - 2-flowered, smooth ; calyx cylindrical, narrow, smooth as 
well as the ovary ; the segments linear-oblong, twice the length of the tube ; filaments ex- 
serted, smooth, twice or thrice the length of the broad ly-spatulate unguiculate petals ; style 
deeply 2-parted, hairy below; fruit sraooxh.— Michx. fl. I. p. HO; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 
I. p. 547. R. triflorum, Willd. hort. Berol. t. 61, and enum. 1. p. 51 ; Pursh,Jl 1 p 165 ' 
Torr. fl.l.p. 269 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 479 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Avi. 1. p. 230 ; '' Guimp. Otto 
4- Hayne, holz. t. 3." R. gracile, Pursh, fl. 1. p. 165, not of Michx. 

A shrub 3-4 feet high, with spreading recurved branches, often destitute of spines. Leaves 
1 - 2 mches in diameter (at the time of flowering often only about half an inch), cordate or 
obtusely cuneate at the base, smooth or a Httle pubescent underneath ; the lobes obtuse 
Flowers greenish with a tinge of purple. Fruit about the size of a large black currant, 
purplish when ripe, pleasantly flavored. 

Mountain woods ; common in the Highlands. Fl. May - June. Fr. July. 

3. RiBES LACUSTRE, Poir. Sioump Gooseberry. 

Young stems very hispid-prickly ; subaxillary spines few, weak ; leaves cordate, 3-5- 
parted , the lobes deeply incised ; racemes 5 - 9-flowered, loose ; calyx broad and flattish ; 
stamens as long as the petals ; style short, smooth, 2-cleft ; fruit hispid. — Poir. suppl. 2. 
p.856; Pursh, fl.l. p. 165; Nutt. gen. 1. p. UO ; Torr. fl. I. p. 270; Bigel. fl. Bast. 
p. 91 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 478 ; Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. 1 . p. 230 ; " Guimp. Otto ^ Hayne, holz. 
t. 136 ;" Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 548. R. oxycanthioides, Michx. fl.l. p.Ul (not 
of Linn.). R. oxycanthoides, ^. lacustris, Pers. syn. 1. p. 252. 

Stem 3-4 feet high ; the branches of a reddish color, thickly covered with slender rather 
soft prickles, which are spreading or a little reflexcd. Subaxillary spines 2-5, united at the 
base. Leaves lobed nearly to the middle, slightly pubescent on both sides ; petioles villous. 
Peduncles slender, pendulous, mostly 5 - 6-flowered, pubescent. Calyx greenish-yellow. 
Petals minute. Fruit dark purple, and ill-flavored. 

Mountain swamps. Catskill. I have also seen specimens which I believe were collected 
in the northern part of the State. May - June. 

2-18 GROSSULACEiE. Ribes. 

6 2. RiBEsiA, Berland. Stems neither prickly nor spiny: racemes several-flowered: calyx cam- 
panulate or cylindrical : berries not prickly. (Currant.) 

4. Ribes floridum, V Merit. WUd Black Currant. 

Leaves sprinkled on both sides with resinous dots, acutely 3 - 5-lobed, pubescent ; racemes 
pendulous, villous ; bracts longer than the pedicels ; caljx tubular-campanulatQ, smopth, th? 
segments about as long as the tube ; style undivided ; fruit smooth. — L'Herit. slirp. \. p. A; 
Torr. fl.l. p. 267 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 90 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 482 ; Guimp. Otto ^ Hayne, 
holz. 1. 1 ; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 233 ; Darlingt.jl. Cest. p. 160 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. 
J). 549. R. nigrum, /3., Z,fnn. R. recurvatum, Alidut. Jl. I. p. 110. R. Pennsylvanicum, 
Lam. did. 3. p. 49. 

Stem 3-4 feet high : branches somewhat recurved, covered with a grayish bark. Leaves 
2-3 inches in diameter, with spreading acutely toothed lobes, slightly sprinkled with minute 
yellowish dots : petioles as long as the lamina, pubescent, and fringed towards the base with 
long compound hairs. Racemes about 3 inches long, many-flowered, rctrorsely pubescent. 
Calyx yellowish green. Petals greenish-yellow, oblong. Stamens included. Style scarcely 
exserted, sulcate : stigma slightly 2-cleft. Berries roundish-ovoid, a little smaller than the 
cultivated Black Currant, which it resembles in taste and odor ; nearly black when mature. 

Borders of woods, fences, etc., sometimes in low grounds ; common. Fl. May. Fr. July 
- August. Flowers larger than in any of the preceding species. 

5. Ribes prostratum, VHerit. Fetid Currant. 

Stems reclining or prostrate ; leaves deeply cordate, 5 - 7-lobed ; the lobes somewhat 
ovate, acute, spreading, incisely and doubly serrate ; racemes erect, slender ; bracts much 
shorter than the bristly-glandular pedicels ; calyx hemispherical, the segments obovate ; petals 
spatulate, very small; style deeply 2-parted ; fruit glandular-hispid. — VHerit. stirp. 1. p. 3. 
t. 2 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 163 ; Torr. f.. 1. p. 268 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 482 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 
I. p. 232; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 550. R. glandulosum. Ait. Keiv. (ed. l.)l. p. 279. 
R. rigens, Michw. fl. 1. p.UO; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 90. 

Stems 1-3 feet long, prostrate and rooting, with somewhat erect branches. Leaves 2-3 
inches in diameter, lobed nearly to the middle, smooth above, strigosely pubescent underneath. 
Racemes 8 - 13-flowered, at first erect, in fruit somewhat pendulous. Calyx greenish, with 
purple veins : segments broad and spreading. Petals and anthers purplish. Fruit red, the 
size of a large currant, hispid with glandular hairs, of a rank odor when bruised. 

Rocky places in the northern and western part of the State. Fl. May. Fr. July. 


Group 15. Character the same as of the following order. 

Order XLIV. CUCURBITACEiE. Juss. The Gourd Tribe. 

Flowers moncEcious or dioecious. Calyx of 5 (rarely 6) sepals united into a 
tube, which, in the fertile flowers, is adherent to the ovary. Petals as many 
as the sepals, commonly united with each other and with the calyx. Stamens 
5 or rarely 3, united so as to appear 2 or 3 (one or two pairs and a separate 
one), variously united by their filaments and long sinuous or variously folded 
anthers. Ovary 2 - 5-celled (very rarely one-celled, with a solitary ovule) ; 
the thick and fleshy placentas often filling the cells, or carried back so as to 
reach the margin ; the dissepiments often at length obliterated. Fruit a pepo, 
usually fleshy, but sometimes membranous when mature. Seeds flat, often 
arillate, without albumen. Cotyledons foliaceous. — Juicy herbaceous plants, 
cUmbing by tendrils. Leaves alternate, palmately veined. Flowers axillary. 

1. SICYOS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 51i6. SINGLE-SEEDED CUCUMBER. 

[Sikyos is an ancient Greek name for the Cucumber.] 

Flowers monoecious. Sterile Fl. Calyx flattish : teeth subulate or minute. Petals 5, all 
cohering in a tube, at length separating into three parcels : anthers tortuous. Fertile Fl. 
Calyx consiricted above the ovary, campanulate. Corolla campanulate. Ovary 1-celled, 
with a solitary suspended ovule. Style rather slender : stigmas 3, thick, obtuse, spreading. 
Fruit ovale, membranaceous, mostly spiny or hispid. Seed large, compressed, smooth ; 
the testa almost crustaceous. — Annual plants. Sterile flowers in racemes ; fertile ones in 
pedunculate capitate clusters ; both usually from the same axils : corolla greenish-white. 

1. SiCYos ANGULATus, Linti. Comrtion Single-seeded Cucumber. 

Stem, petioles and peduncles somewhat viscidly pubescent with long hairs ; leaves 
roundish-cordate, angularly 5-lobed, with as many primary veins , the lobes denticulate and 
acuminate ; sterile flowers in a corymbose crowded raceme, on a very long peduncle ; fertile 
flowers on a much shorter peduncle ; style slender ; fruit viscidly pubescent, and covered 
with rough prickly bristles. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 1013 ; Michx.Jl. 2. p. 217 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 44 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 663 ; Torr. compend. p. 362 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 309 ; Beck, hot. p. 178 ; Dar- 
lingt. fl. Cest. p. 554 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 541. S. acutus, Haf.; DC. I. c. 
Bryonoides, &c. Dill. Ett/i. t. 51. /. 59. 

[Flora.] 32 

250 CUCURBITACEiE. Sicyos. 

A vine 10-15 feet long, climbing by 3 - 5-cleft tendrils. Leaves 4-6 inches in diameter, 
with a pentagonal outline, rougliish pubescent. Peduncles of the staminate flowers 4 - S 
inches long ; the raceme often somewhat compound, finally somewhat elongated. Fertile 
flowers not half the size of the staminate ones, sessile, on a peduncle which is 1 or 2 inches 
long. Fruit about half an inch long, compressed, acute, collected in a head at the summit of 
the peduncle ; the prickles about one-third of an inch long. 

Banks of rivers, cultivated grounds, and along fences ; common. August - September. 
Often a troublesome weed in gardens. 

2. ECHINOCYSTIS. Ton: ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 542 ; Endl. gen. svppl. 1. 5141, 1. 


[ From the Greek, cckinos, prickly, and kystis, a bladJer ; in allusion to the appearance of the fruit.] 

Flowers monoecious. Calyx flatlish, in the fertile flowers slightly contracted above the ovary ; 
the segments 6, filiform-subulate, shorter than the corolla. Corolla 6-parted, rotate- 
campanulate. Sterile Fl. Stamens 3, diadelphous, short : anthers flexuous, united. 
Fertile Fl. Abortive fllaments 3, very small, distinct. Style very short : stigmas 2, large, 
broadly obcordate, connivent. Fruit globose-ovoid, bristly-echinate, at first watery and 
spongy, at length bursting elastically at the summit, and becoming fibrous, 2-celled, 4- 
seeded ; the cells divided at the base by a transverse spurious dissepiment. Seed (large) 
not arillate, erect from the base of each spurious cell, obovate-oblong, flat, slightly 2-toothed 
at the base, the margins obtuse. — An annual climbing herb, with palmately 5-lobed leaves 
and 3-cleft tendrils. Flowers small, greenish-white ; the sterile in long compound racemes; 
the fertile ones from the same axils, solitary or clustered on a short peduncle. 

1. EcHiNocYSTis LOBATA, TotT. Sf Gr. (Plate XXX.) Wild Balsam-apple. 

Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. Sicyos lobata, Miclix. fl. 2. p. 217. Momordica echinata, Muhl. in 
Willd. sp. 4. p. 605 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 444 ; Torr. compend. p. 362 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 312 ; 
H. H. Eaton in Transylv. journ. med. 1832; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 220. Hexameria 
echinata, Torr. <^ Gr. in Torr. rep. pi. N. York, p. 137. 

Stem smooth, 10 - 15 feet long, climbing over shrubs, etc. Leaves nearly smooth, 3-5 
inches in diameter, slightly scabrous, with 5 deep acuminate sharply denticulate lobes. Sterile 
racemes compound, erect, 5 — 7 inches long. Corolla nearly white, pubescent ; the segments 
linear-lanceolate. Fertile flowers solitary, or 2 - 3 together. Fruit about the size of a 
pigeon's egg, covered with short soft bristly spines, green, bursting rather irregularly at the 
summit, the lacerated edges of the orifice becoming revolute. Seeds about three quarters of 
an inch long, obovate-oblong, nearly black. 

Banks of the Hudson, and on the islands about Troy ; also abundant on the banks of the 

EcHiNocvsTis. CUCURBITACE^. 251 

Mohawk. Fl. July - August. Fr. September. An ornamental plant when in full flower, 
being covered with numerous graceful racemes of wliitish flowers. It is sometimes seen in 

The name Hexameria, given to this genus in my Report of 1840, was changed, because it 
had been employed previously by Bennett in his Plant. Jav. rariores. 

Group 16. Ovaries 2 07- more, many-ovuled, distinct or more or less united. Calyx 
free from tlie ovary, or the tube partly (rarely wholly) united to the ovary. 
Petals and stamens (mostly definite) inserted on the calyx. Seeds numerous, 

Order XLV. CRASSULACEiE. Juss. The Houseleek Tribe. 

Sepals 4 - 5 (in Sempervivum 6 - 20), free from the ovaries, persistent, more or 
less united at the base. Petals as many as the sepals, sometimes combined 
into a monopetalous corolla. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. 
Pistils always equal in number to the sepals, distinct or partly united. Carpels 
follicular, usually several-seeded. — Herbaceous or sometmies suffruticose 
plants, mostly fleshy or succulent, with simple leaves and the flowers commonly 
in cymes or racemes. 

1. TILLjEA. Mich. gen. t. 20; Endl. gen. 4607. TILLJEA. 

[ In honor of Mich. Aug. Tilli, an Italian botanist who died in 1740.] 

Sepals, petals and stamens 3-4. Carpels 3-4, distinct, opening by the inner suture, 
2 - many-seeded. — Small, more or less aquatic plants, and small axillary flowers. 

• Bcllurdji, DC. Fhwers Utramcrovs : petals oval or oblong : hypngi/nous scales UncaT : carpels b - ZO-sccded. 

1. TiLi.iEA .SIMPLEX, Nutt. Pigmy-io€ed. 

Stem diffusely branching from the base, and rooting ; the branches ascending ; leaves 
linear-oblong, rather obtuse, connate at the base ; flowers solitary, nearly sessile ; petals nearly 
as long as the carpels, and twice as long as the sepals. — NiUt. in jour. acad. Phil. 1. p. 114, 
and gen. appx. ; DC. prodr, 3. p. 381 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N, Am. 1. p. 557. T. ascendens, 
Eat. man. ed. 8. p. 453. 


252 CRASSULACE^. Till^a. 

Stems 1-2 inches long, branching towards the base, and rooting in the mud. Leaves 
2-3 lines long, spreading and somewhat recurved, their bases uniting round the stem. 
Flowers about the size of a pin's head, on short pedicels. Sepals oblong, obtuse, united at 
the base. Petals oblong, obtuse, white. Stamens shorter than the petals : filaments slender : 
anthers roundish. Hvpogynous scales none ? Carpels membranaceous, slightly united. Seeds 
oblong ; the testa crustaccous, striate and doited. Albumen very thin. Embryo conformed 
to the seed : cotyledons short : radicle thick. 

On the banks of the Hudson one or two miles north of Peekskill {Dr. Mead). Very nearly 
related to T. aquatica of Europe. 

2. SEDUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4622. STONECROP. 

[ From the Latin, sedo, to sit j the plants of this genus appearing to sit on naked rocks.] 

Sepals 5 (sometimes 4 - 8), more or less united at the base, often resembling the leaves. 
Petals distinct, mostly spreading. Stamens twice the number of the petals. Carpels as 
numerous as the sepals, many-seeded, with a scale at the base of each. — Herbaceous or 
rarely suffrutescent plants, mostly branching from the base. Leaves alternate or scattered, 
sometimes opposite or verticillate, usually crowded on the sterile branches. Flowers cymose. 

1. Sedum telephioides, Michx. American Orpine. 

Leaves flat, ovate or oval, attenuate at the base, rather acute, somewhat toothed, smooth ; 
stem erect ; cymes paniculate-corymbose, densely flowered ; stamens 10, scarcely exceeding 
the ovate-lanceolate petals. — MicJuc. Jl. l.p. 277; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 324; Ell. sk. 1. p. 529; 
Torr. Jl. I. p. 464 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 402 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 558. 

Perennial. Stem about a foot high, simple, leafy. Leaves about an inch and a half long, 
smooth and fleshy, broadly oval, obtusely toothed. Cymes compound, crowded, witli small 
leafy bracts interspersed. Sepals lanceolate-obtuse. Petals elliptical-oblong, pale purple, 
twice as long as the calyx. 

Shore of Seneca Lake {Prof. J. Hall). I have not seen the plant from this locality, and 
it may possibly be the following, which it greatly resembles. 

2. Sedum Telephium, Linn. Orjnne, or Live-forever. 

Leaves flat, oblong and oval, attenuate at the base, toothed, smooth ; stem erect ; cymes 
corymbose ; stamens shorter than the corolla. — Engl. hot. t. 1319 ; DC. plant, grass, p. 92, 
and prodr. 3. p. 402. 

Diflers from the preceding chiefly in the more obtuse leaves and shorter stamens. 

Rocks ; Catskill Mountains, particularly near the Mountain House. In fields, Orville, 
Onondaga county (Dr. Bradley). A naturalized plant of European origin, and very common 
in gardens. 


3. PENTHORUM. Gronov. ; Lam. ill. t. 390 ; Endl. gen. 4625. 


[ From the Greek, penle, five, and oros, a column ; in allusion to the 5 carpels.] 

Sepals 5, united at the base. Petals none (always?). Stamens 10. Scales at the carpels- 
none. Carpels united into a 5-angled, 5-celled capsule, with 5 diverging beaks, dehiscent 
by the separation of the beak with the back part ofeach carpel. Seeds numerous, minute. 
— Erect perennial herbs, not succulent, with alternate membranaceous and serrate leaves, 
and yellowish flowers which are unilateral on the simple branches of the cyme. 

1. Penthorum sedoides, Linn. Virginian Stonecrop. 

Stem somewhat branched ; leaves lanceolate, acute at each end, almost sessile ; branches 
of the cyme many-flowered ; seeds elliptical, acute at one end.— Linn. act. Upsal. (1774), 
p. 12. t. 2 ; Michx. fl. I. p. 278 ; Pursh, ft.l. p. 323 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 528 ; Torr. fl. I. 
p. 463 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 184 ; DC. prodr. 3. p. 414 ; Beck, hot. p. 133 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 281 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 462. 

Stem about a foot high, terete below, somewhat angular above. Leaves 2-4 inches long, 
acutely and unequally serrate, smooth on both sides. Cymes pedunculate, terminating the 
branches, each with 3-4 recurved divisions, which (as well as the peduncles and Ihort 
pedicels) are glandularly pubescent. Calyx spreading ; the segments ovate, acute, entire or 
with several minute deniiculations. Petals none in any of my specimens. Stamens longer 
than the ovaries : filaments smooth : anthers minute, oblong. Ovaries adherent to the style 
at the base, abruptly beaked with the styles : stigmas small, capitate. Carpels sometimes 6, 
the dehiscence taking place by a vertical line on each side of each carpel, between the ventral 
and dorsal sutures ; the back and the style falling away, leaving the ventral portiohs and 
placentae in the a.xis. Seeds very numerous, surrounding the projecting placenta, light brown, 
very rough under a lens. 

Low wet places ; common. July - September. 

254 SAXIFRAGACE^. Saxifraga. 

Order XL VI. SAXIFRAGACEiE. Juss. The Saxifrage Tribe. 

Sepals 4-5, united or nearly distinct. Petals as many as the sepals and alter- 
nate with them, sometimes wanting. Stamens as many or twice as many as 
the petals, and inserted with them into the throat of the calyx. Ovary either 
free from the calyx or coherent with the tube, of 2 or sometimes of 3 - 5 or 
more carpels, which are either partially or completely united, 1 -celled with 
parietal placentae, or with as many cells as carpels and the placentfE in the 
axis : ovules mostly numerous, anatropous : styles distinct or more or less 
united. Capsules mostly with septicidal dehiscence. Embryo straight, in the 
axis of fleshy albumen. — Herbs or shrubby plants, with alternate or opposite 
leaves. Inflorescence various. 

Suborder SAXiFRACEiE. DC. 

^Estivation of the petals imbricate. Capsule usually beaked ; the distinct 
summits of the carpels opening along the inner suture. — Herbs ; the base of 
the petioles sometimes dilated, and resembling stipules. 

1. Saxifraga. Sepals imbricate. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10. Capsule 2-cclled below. Seeds smooth or wrinkled. 
3. Heuchera. Calyx campanolate, 5-cleft, imbricate. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 5. Capsule one-ccUed. Seeds 
muricatc or hispid. 

3. MiTELLA. Calyx campanulatc, 5-cleft, valvatc. Petals 5, pinnatifid. Stamens 5 or 10. Capsule one-celled. Seeds 


4. TiARELLA. Calyx campanulatc, 5-partcd, valvate. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10. Capsule 2-cclIed. Seeds smooth 

and shining. 

5. Chrtsosplenicm. Calyx 4 - 5-lobed, colored inside. Petals none. Stamens 8 - 10. Capsule 1-celled. 

1. SAXIFRAGA. Linn. ; R. Brown in Parry''s Ist voy. suppl. p. 273 ; Endl. gen. 4634. 


[ From the Latin, samm, a rock, and frango, to break; many of the species growing in tlic cracks or crenccs of rocks.] 

Calj'x free, or cohering with the base of the ovary : sepals 5, more or less united, imbricate 
in asstivation. Petals 5, entire. Styles 2. Capsule adhering to the calyx below, or free, 
mostly of 2 more or less united carpels, 2-beaked, 2-celled below, many-seeded, opening 
by a chink between the spreading beaks. Seeds smooth or wrinkled ; the testa not separable 
from the nucleus. — Perennial (rarely annual) herbs. Radical leaves usually in a rosulate 
cluster ; the cauline ones mostly alternate. 

Saxifraga. SAXIFRAGACE^. 255 

1. Saxifraga Virginiensis, Michx. Virginian Saxifrage. 

Leaves radical, more or less spatulate-obovate, rather thick, crenately toothed, tapering at 
the base into a broad petiole ; scape nearly leafless, paniculately branched at the summit ; 
flowers in dense or finally open cymose clusters ; calyx adherent only to the base of the ovary ; 
petals oblong, obtuse, twice as long as the calyx ; carpels united at the base, at length divari- 
cate. — 1. p. 269; Pursh, fl. l.p. 310; Don, monog. Saxifr. in Linn, trans. 13. 
p. 386; Ell. sk. 1. p. 311 ; l.p. 444; DC. prodr. 4:.p. 39; Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 24S; Beck, hot. p. 137; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 269; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 571. 
S. vernalis, Willd. liort. Berol. t. 43 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 177 ; Hook. I. c. S. nivalis, Muhl. 
cat. p. 45. S. elongata, Sternb. Saxifr. p. 9. t. 4. 

Rhizoma thick, short. Leaves in a radical spreading tuft, about an inch long, rather thick, 
minutely pubescent. Scape 4 — 12 inches high, fleshy, naked, viscous-pubescent. Panicle 
when young close and compact, at length spreading and rather loose. Segments of the calyx 
ovate, acute or obtuse, reddish at the tip. Petals white, with branching veins, which are 
distinct in the dried, but obscure in the living plant. Stamens about as long as the calyx : 
anthers roundish. Capsule purple when mature ; the beaks widely diverging. 

On rocks and iiill-sides ; common. April - June. 

2. Saxifraga Pennsylvanica, Linn. Pennsylvanian Saxifrage. 

Leaves oblanceolate, rather acute, attenuate at the base into a long naked petiole, obscurely 
denticulate, slightly pubescent; scape naked, viscous-pubescent; cymes in a large oblong 
panicle, finally loose ; flowers pedicellate ; segments of the caly.x triangular-lanceolate, re- 
curved, scarcely as long as the linear-lanceolate one-nerved petals, the tube adherent to the 
base of the ovary only ; carpels in the mature fruit distinct above. — Linn. sp. l.p. 399 (excl. 
syn. Pluk.); Miclur. fl. I. p. 269; Pursh, fi. I. p. 211; Don, Saxifr. I. c. p. 384; Torr. 
fl. I. p. 344 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 177 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 39 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 249 ; 
Beck, bat. p. 138 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 270 ; Torr. ^- Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 571. Saxifraga, 
&c. Dill. hort. Elth. t. 253. /. 328. 

Rhizoma short and thick. Leaves all radical, 4-8 inches long, rather thin, pale green, 
slightly ciliatc and pubescent. Scape 1-3 feet high, somewhat succulent. Panicle at first 
contracted ; the branches at length distant, with a small lanceolate leafy bract at the base of 
each. Flowers small. Petals greenish-yellow. Stamens longer than the calyx : anthers 
purplisii-orangc. Capsule free from the calyx nearly to the base ; the carpels distinct more 
than half their length, and somewhat recurved. Seeds very numerous and minute, angular, 
dark brown. 

In swamps and wet meadows ; common. May - June. 

256 SAXIGRAGACE^. Hedchera. 

2. HEUCHERA. Linn. ; R. Brown in Richards, app. to Frankl. nar. ed. 2. p. 52. t. 29 ; 

Endl. gen. 4639. ALLMliOOT. 

[ Named in honor of John Hcnby de Hedcber, a German botanist of the last century.] 

Calyx campanulate, coherent with the ovary, 5-cleft, sometimes unequal ; the segments obtuse. 
Petals 5, small, entire. Stamens 5, inserted with the petals into the throat of the calyx. 
Styles 2. Capsule 1 -celled, with 2 parietal placentas, many-seeded, 2-beaked, opening 
between the beaks. Seeds horizontal, muricate or hispid. — Perennial, mostly stemless 
plants. Radical leaves on long petioles, roundish-cordate, lobed and crenate or incised ; 
cauline ones, when present, alternate. Stipules adnatc to the base of the petiole, free above. 
Flowers in compound cymose panicles. 

1. Heuchera Americana, Linn. Common Alum-root. 

Roughish and somewhat viscidly pubescent ; scape naked ; leaves roundish-cordate, 7-9- 
lobed ; the lobes very short and rounded, crenate-dentate, witli short and broad mucronate 
teeth ; panicle elongated, loose, many-flowered ; the pedicels divaricate ; petals spatulate, 
about the length of the calyx-segments ; stamens at length much exserted. — Linn. sp. 1 . 
p. 226 ; Ell sk. 1. p. 337 ; Torr.fl. \.p. 280 ; Bart. veg. mat. med. t. 40 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. 
p. 106 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 51 ; Beck, hot. p. 139 ; Darlingt. fi. Cest. p. 175 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 577. II. Cortusa, Michx. jl. 1. p. 171. H. viscida, Pursh, Jl.\. p. 187. 

Rhizoma thick and astringent. Leaves all radical, 3-4 inches in diameter, deeply cordate, 
palmately veined, strigosely pubescent on both sides : petioles 3-10 inches long. Scape 
erect, 2-4 feet high, very rarely with one or two small leaves. Panicle at first contracted, 
finally nearly a foot in length, with linear bracts at the base of the divisions. Calyx turbinate, 
lO-striate, with ovate-obtuse segments, glandularly pubescent. Petals small, purplish or 
nearly white. Stamens 2-3 times as long as the petals : anthers orange-yellow. Capsule 
ovoid, acuminate, opening between the beaks. Seeds oblong, nearly black. 

Shady rocky woods, and banks of rivers ; common. May - June. The root or rhizoma 
is a powerful astringent. See Wood ^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 349. 

3. MITELLA. Tourn. ; Lam. ill. t. 373 ; Torr. <^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 585. 

[A (liminatiTe of milra, a mitre or cap; so named from the form of the seed-vessel.] 

Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft, adherent to the ovary at the base : aestivation valvate. Petals 5, 
pinnatifid (rarely 3-cleft). Stamens 10 or 5, included. Styles 2, short, diverging. Capsule 
one-celled ; the placentae parietal or at the base, many-seeded. Seeds smooth and shining. 
— Perennial herbs, with mostly radical, cordate, lobed or crenate leaves. Scapes slender. 
Flowers small, in a simple spiked raceme. 


^. EuMiTELLA, Torr. & Gr. Petals peciinaie-pinnatifid : stamens 10; filaments short: calyx 
adherent only to the base of the ovary: stigmas obtuse and simple: placenta bearing ovules 
at the base; mature seeds feio, ascending: scape with 1 - 2 alternate or opposite leaves, or 

1. MiTELLA DiPHYLLA, Linu. Co?nmon BisJwp's-cap. 

Leaves cordate, acute, slightly 3 - 5-lobed, serrate-toothed, the radical ones on long petioles ; 
caulines ones 2, opposite, sessile; scape many-flowered. — it>jn sp. 1. p. 406 ; Lam. ill. 
t. 373. /. 1 ; Michx. fl.l. p. 270 ; ScJik. hand. 1. 1. 120, fide Pursh, f. 1. p. 213 • Bart 
fl. Am. Sept. 3. t. 89 ; Torr. Jl. 1. p. 246 ; Bigel. fl. Boat. p. 178 ; DC. prodr. A. p. 49 ; 
Beck, bot. p. 138 ; Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 271 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 586. 

Plant pubescent. Radical leaves deeply cordate, 1 - 2 inches in diameter ; the petiole 
2-4 inches long : cauline leaves about the middle of the scape, longer and less cordate than 
the radical ones ; sometimes a third occurs near the flowers. Scape 12-18 inches high, 
erect, 10 - 15-flowered, in fruit 5-8 inches long : pedicels shorter than the flowers : bracts 
almost wanting. Calyx-segments and petals white, the latter recurved. Styles very short : 
stigmas minute. Capsule 2-valved at the summit, spreading out nearly flat when it bursts, 
the black shining seeds remaining for some time attached to the basic placentae. 

Rocky and shady moist banks, in rich soil. Fl. April - May. Fr. June. 

2. MiTELLA NUDA, Liuu. Stoloniferous Bishop' s-cap. 
Stem usually stoloniferous ; radical leaves roundish-cordate or somewhat reniform, on long 

petioles, slightly crenate-lobed or doubly crenate ; scape filiform, few-flowered, naked or with 
a single sessile leaf; petals pinnatifid, with distant filiform segments.— Linn. spic. l.p. 408 ; 
Willd. sp. 2. p. 660 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 49 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. l.p. 240 ; Torr. ^ Gr. ft. 
N. Am. 1. p. 586. Mitella scapo nudo, &c. G7nel. fl. Sihir. 4. p. 175. t. 68. /. 2. M. 
cordifolia. Lam. ill. t. 373. /. 3 ; Pursh, fl. I. p. 314 ; Torr. ft. 1. p. 446 ; DC. I. c. M. 
reniformis. Lam. I. c. t. 373. /. 2. M. prostrata, Michx. I. c. 

Stems or rhizomas slender, creeping, throwing up scapes and tufts of radical leaves at the 
extremity, and also, after flowering, producing filiform leafy stolons. Leaves 1 - 1^ inch in 
diameter, hispid with a few stiff hairs on both surfaces ; petioles retrorsely hispid : cauline 
leaves much smaller than the radical ones. Scape about a span high, 5 - lO-flowercd; the 
lower pedicels often 2-flowered. Flowers greenish-white. Calyx spreading ; the segments 
ovate. Petals pectinalcly cut into long, very slender, distant segments. Stamens half the 
length of the calyx. Stylos very short, spreading. Seeds 8-10, attached to each nearly 
basic placenta. 

Moist shady woods, and in sphagnous swamps. Northern and western part of the State ; 
not found south of Saratoga. May - June. A very neat little plant. 

[Flora.] 33 

258 SAXIFRAGACIS^. Tiarella. 

4. TIARELLA. Lmn.; Lam. ill. t. 3nZ ; Endl. gen. AGiZ. nitrh-woht. 

[ From tiara, a kind of hcaO-drcss oi mitre ; in allusion to the form of the capsule.] 

Calyx cainpanulate, nearly free from the ovary, 5-partcd, valvatc. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 
10: filaments cxscrted. Styles 2: stigmas simple. Capsule membranaceous, 1-celled, 
with 2-parietal j>lacenta', 2-valved, the valves very unequal. Seeds few, near the base of 
the capsule, smooth and shining. — Perennial herbs, with simple cordate or trifoliolate in- 
cised and serrate leaves. Flowers small, paniculate or racemose, white. Bracts minute. 

1. Tiarella cordifolia, Linn. Heart-leaved Mitre-wort. 

Leaves simple, cordate, acutely lobcd, and unequally dentate with mucronate teeth, strigose- 
ly hairy, pubescent underneath ; scape naked ; raceme simple ; petals oblong, clawed. — 
Linn. sp. 1. ]j. 405 ; Lam. ill. t. 373 /. 1 ; Michx.Jl. 1. p. 271 ; Bot. mag. t. 1589 ; Pursh, 
Jl. I. p. 313; Tan: Jl. \. p. 415 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 178 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 50 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. jl. N. Atn.l. p. 587. 

Stolons creeping, leafy. Radical leaves on long petioles, 2-3 inches in diameter. Scape 
6-12 inches high, sometimes with a small leaf about the middle, rougliish-pubescent. 
Raceme many-flowered; the pedicels 4-6 lines long. Segments of the calyx white, obovate- 
oblong, obtuse. Petals white, spreading, as long as the calyx. Stamens longer than the 
petals. Ovary of 2 unequal carpels, which are distinct at the summit and attenuated into 
short styles, opening by the inner suture at a very early period. Capsule elongated : valves 
oblong, very unequal, erect, or very slightly diverging. Seeds black and shining, with a 
prominent raphe. 

Shady moist woods, and in swamps ; northern and western part of the State. May - June. 

■ 5. CHRYSOSPLENIUAL Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 4638. golden saxifrage. 

[ From the Greek, chrysos, gold, and ^pkn, the spleen ; a figurative name, given in allusion to the supposed medicinal 

virtues of the genus.] 

Cal}rx-tube cohering with the ovary, 4 - 5-lobed ; the lobes colored inside. Petals none. 
Stamens 8 - 10, inserted on the margin of a toothed disk that surrounds the ovary. Styles 
2, distinct, short, tapering. Capsule with 2 short spreading beaks, 1-celled with 2 parietal 
placentas at the base, 2-valved at the summit. Seeds numerous, spherical. — Annual or 
perennial, smooth, subaquatic, and mostly prostrate plants, with somewhat fleshy alternate 
or ojiposite crenate leaves, and small yellowish-grcen flowers. 

1. Chrysosplenium Americanum, Schwcin. Golden Saxifrage. 

Stems prostrate, dichotomous above ; leaves ojjpositc, the ujiper ones often alternate, 

Chrysosplenu-m. SAXIFRAGACE.-E. 259 

roundish-ovate, obscurely crenate-lobed ; flowers dichotomal, distant, nearly sessile. 

Schweinitz, mss. ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 242 ; Darlingt. ft. Cest.p. 270 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
ft. N. Am. 1. p. 5S9. C. opposilifolium, Michx. fl. 1. p. 269 ; Pursh, ft. \. p. 299 ; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 511 ; Torr. ft. 1. p. 445 ; Bigel. ft. Bast. p. 154, not of Linn. 

Root perennial. Stems spreading and often forming a dense mat ; the flowering branches 
sometimes assurgent. Leaves about half an inch in diameter, often broader than long, abruptly 
narrowed at the base into a distinct petiole. Flowers scarcely more than 2 lines in diameter, 
on very short pedicels in the uppermost forks of the stem, and terminal. Calyx mostly 4- 
clcft, green and slightly purple inside. Stamens mostly 8, very short : filaments inserted into 
the indentations of the purplish disk : anthers at first orange-red, at length turning brown. 
Styles divaricate. Capsule dehiscent between the two short beaks. Seeds 10 - 12, hispid, 

About springs and in brooks, usually in shady places ; common. April - May. This 
species w?" for a long time regarded as the C. opposilifolium of Europe. The latter is, 
however, a much stouter plant, with larger yellow flowers. The late Mr. Schweinitz first 
p,ointed out the difference between the two species. 

Group 17. Ovary compound, 2- (rarely 3 - 5-) celled, icith a single ovule suspended 
from the summit of ea^h cell. Statnens as many as the petals (or numerous in 
Fothergilla) and lobes of the adherent calyx. 

Order XL VII. HAMAMELACE J^. R. Br. The Witch-hazel Tribe. 

Calyx 4 - 5-cleft, or with 5-7 obscure teeth ; tlie tube more or less adherent. 
Petals 4 — 5, long and narrow, rarely wanting. Stamens either twice the 
number of tlie petals, the alternate ones sterile and scale-like ; or (in Fother- 
gilla) numerous and all fertile : cells of the an.thers opening by valves. 
Ovary comfx^scd of 2 united carpels, the summit free from the calyx : styles 
2, distinct. Capsules cartilaginous or bony, 2-beakcd, 2-celled, dehiscent at 
the summit. Seeds bony. Embryo straight, in the axis of Ileshy albumen. — 
Shrubs or small trees, with alternate simj)Ie feather-veined leaves and deciduous 
stipules. Flowers often polygamous, in sessile fascicles or heads. 


260 HAMAMELACEvE. Hamamelis. 

1. HAMAMELIS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. i59l. WITCB HAZEU 

[Origin of the name uncertain.] 
Cdvx 4-parted, with 2-3 bracteoles at the base. Petals 4, very long and linear, withering. 
Fertile stamens 4 : filaments very short : anthers 2-ceUed ; the cells opening by a lid-like 
valve. Sterile stamens scale-like, and opposite the petals. Styles 2, short. Capsule thick 
and somewhat woody ; the base coherent with the calyx-tube : endocarp separating and 
enclosing the seed, at length bursting elastically into two pieces. Seeds oblong : testa 
shining, cruslaceous. — Shrubs or small trees. Leaves on short petioles, sinuate-toothed. 
Clusters of flowers axillary. Petals yellow. 

1. Hamamelis Virginica, Linn. Witch Hazel. 

Heads of flowers surrounded with a scale-like 3-leaved involucre ; leaves obovate or oval, 
repandly or sinuately toothed, unequal and slightly cordate at the base, roughened underneath 
with elevated points. — Linn. sp.l. p.\\6; Catesb. Carol. 3. t. 2 ; Wang. Amer. p. 89. 
t. 29. /. 62 ; Micfuc. fl.\. p. 100 ; Pursh, ft.\.p.\\6\ Ell. sk. 1 . p. 219 ; Nutt. gen. 1 . 
p. 107; Torr.Jl. \.p. 192 ; Bart. ft. Am. Sept. 3. t. 78 ; Bost. p. 61 ; DC.prodr. 
4. p. 268 ; Beck, hot. p. 152 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 114 ; " Guimp. Otto <^ Hayne, holz. 
t. lb." H. macrophylla, Pursh, I. c. 

A shrub 6-12 feet high, often with several stems, which are sometimes 4 inches in dia- 
meter near the base ; the branches numerous, long and flexuous. Leaves 3-5 inches long, 
clothed with a stellate pubescence when young, nearly smooth when old ; the petioles about 
half an inch long. Flowers usually three together, proceeding from a bud-like pubescent 
involucre, which is supported on a short axillary peduncle. Calj'x(and bracteoles) pubescent; 
the segments recurved. Petals about three-fourths of an inch long and scarcely a hne wide, 
somewhat crisped, in the bud spirally involute. Fertile stamens much shorter than the sterile 
ones : anthers adnate, introrse ; the cells rather distant, opening on the side b}' vertical valves. 
Sterile stamens flat, wedge-shaped, truncate. Capsule roundish-ovoid, hard and almost 
woody, the lower half invested by the persistent calj^x, the upper half naked, bursting trans- 
versely to the dissepiment and through the short recurved beaks into two valves, and at length 
also the valves are 2-cleft : endocarp separating firom the exocarp, and enclosing the seed, 
finally splitting lengthwise into two valves, black and glossy inside. Seeds narrowly oblong, 
smooth. Embryo large, flat, in the axis of thin fleshy albumen : cotyledons oval, veined. 

Borders of moist woods, and banks of rivers. Fl. End of October - November. The fruit 
ripens about September the following year. The flowers begin to open just before or after 
the fall of the leaves ; rarely in the spring. As Nuttall suspected. Dr. Darlington found the 
flowers to be frequently polygamous. — It is hardly necessary to state, that the popular belief 
of this plant having the power of indicating the presence of water and ores, is utterly without 


Order XL VIII. UMBELLIFER^. Juss. The Umbelliferous Tribe. 

Calyx adherent to the ovary ; the Hmb very small, 5-toothed or entire. Petals 
5, usually inflexed at the jioint. Stamens 5, inserted with the petals on the 
margm of a disk which crowns the ovary. Ovary composed of two united 
carpels, invested with the calyx, 2-celled, with a solitary suspended anatropous 
ovule in each cell : styles 2, their bases often united and thickened (forming a 
stylopodium). Fruit dry, consisting of 2 indehiscent carpels (mericarps) which 
adhere by their faces (commissure), and also to a common axis (carpophore); 
at maturity separating from each other, and usually likewise from the axis at 
the summit of which they are suspended. Carpels marked by several ribs or 
\vings : in the intervening spaces (intervals) are lodged longitudinal canals or 
receptacles (vittce),* filled wth a colored volatile oil or turpentine ; the vittse 
are sometimes placed opposite the ribs, and in the commissure. Seeds usually 
cohering with the carpel. Embryo minute, at the base of copious fleshy or 
horny albumen.— Herbs, with hollow stems. Leaves mostly alternate and 
pmnately or ternately divided ; the petioles dilated and sheathing at the base. 
r lowers in umbels, commonly with involucres. 

Seriea 1. ORTHOSPERM^, DC. AHmmcn fiat or jUlliik mi the face. 
• Umbeh simple or impafcdly compound, with the partial umbels capitate. 
Tribe I. HvDBOCOTYLE^. Fruit laterally compressed. 
Tribe II. Sanicclej:. Fruit ovoid-o 

•• Umbels compound ; the rays more cnr less elmigated : partial umbels not capUcUe. 
t Fruit with primary ribs only. 
Tribe III. Ammines. Fruit compressed laterally, or didymous. 
Tribe IV. Sesei.ine^. Fruit with the transverse section orbicular. 

Tribe V. Angelices. Fruit compressed .iorsally; the margin dilated into a double win<r 
Tnbe VI. Pecczdaneje. Fruit compressed dorsally ; the margin dilated into a single wing, 
ft Fruil uilh both primary and secondary ribs. 

Tribe VII. DACCujEiE. Secondary ribs mostly winged : fruit terete, or somewhat dorsally compressed ; the wings jT 

Series 2. CAMPYLOSPERM^, DC. AWumc„ u-Uh a longUudin^ groove intenuUly, or the ntargins 

Tribe VIII. ScANmciNE^E. Fruit elongated, laterally compressed, furnished with primary ribs only 
Tnbe IX. Smyrnie*. Fruit turgid, laterally compressed, furnished with primary ribs only; 

Seric. 3. CCELOSPER.MiE, DC. AlMim^n involute at the apex and base. 
Tribe X. CoRf ANDREW. Fruit laterally comi)rc8i«jd, didymous or globose. 


' The vUta are best seen in a thin transverse slice of the fruit. They are oflen perceptible, however, externally. 

262 UMBELLIFER^. Hydrocotvle. 

Series 1. Orthosi'erm^, DC. Inner face of the seed and albumen plane, yieither convolute 

nor involute. 

Tribe I. HYDROCOTYLEjE. Spreng. ; DC. 
'Fruit laterally compressed. Carpels convex or rarely acute on the hack: primary ribs 5, 
sometimes obscure ; the lateral 07ies either marginal, or on the face of the comjnissure ; 
intermediate ones most prominent : secondary ribs sometimes filiform, sometimes almost 
or entirely wanting. Vittce seldom present. Seed flaltish on the face. — Umbels simple 
or imperfectly compound. 

1. HYDROCOTYLE. Tourn. ; Lam. ill. «. 188 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 59 ; Endl. gen. 4355. 


[ From the Greek, hvilor, water, and cotyle, a cup ; the species grow in wet places, and the leaves of some of them arc a 
little concave and stalked in the centre] 

Margin of the calyx obsolete. Petals ovate, entire, acute, spreading, straight at the point. 
Fruit nearly orbicular, flattened laterally. Carpels without vittaj : primary ribs 5, filiform ; 
the dorsal and lateral ones often obsolete ; intermediate ones enlarged. — Slender plants, 
growing in wet places, with creeping stems and peltate or cordate leaves. Umbels simple. 
Involucre few-leaved. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, white. 

1. Hydrocotvle Americana, Linn. American Marsh Penny-wort. 

Plant very smooth and shining ; leaves orbicular-reniform, slightly lobed and doubly cre- 
nate ; umbels nearly sessile, 3 - 5-flowered ; fruit orbicular-ovate, 2-ribbed on each side. — 
Linn. sp. 1. p. 234; Michx.fl. 1. p. 162 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. \Q2 ; A. Rich. Hydrocot. in ann. 
sc. phys. 1820, 4. p. 184. t. 55. /. 10 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 348 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 303 ; Bigel. Jl. 
Bost. p. 109 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 64 ; Beck, hot. p. 140 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 183 ; Torr. 
4- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 599. 

Stems very slender, branching, terete, with long suckers. Leaves thin, 1-2 inches in 
diameter, palmately about 9-nerved : petiole as long as the lamina, inserted at the base of tlie 
sinus. Flowers very small, greenish, often with a tinge of purple. Fruit scarcely a line 
wide : ribs filiform : intervals smooth. 

Wet shady places ; common. Fl. July - August. Fr. September. 

2. Hydrocotyle umbellata, Linn. Mamj-Jlowered Marsh Penny-wort. 

Smooth; leaves peltate, orbicular, emarginate at the base, doubly crenate ; scape usually 
longer than the petioles ; umbel 20 - 30-flowered, sometimes proliferous ; pedicels slender ; 
fruit didymous, 2-ribbed on each side. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 234 ; Spreng. umb. p. 1. t. 1 ; Ell. 
sk. 1 . p. 346 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 303 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 109 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 60 ; Beck, hot. 

Hydrocotyle. USIBELLIFERiE. 263 

p. 140; Tmr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 599. H. umbellulata, Mich^. fl. 1. „. 161 • A 
Richard, I. c. t. 52. /. 3. ' 

Perennial. Stem creeping and rooting in the mud, or partly floating. Leaves 1 - 2 inches 
m diameter, with about 12 broad obtuse shallow lobes or crenatures, and as many radiating 
vems : petioles 4-8 inches long. Umbels nearly an inch in diameter, usually simple. Frui'l 
a little emarginate at the base and apex, broader than long, somewhat tumid : ribs sli<Thtlv 
elevated. ° - 

Overflowed boggy places and shallow ponds. Near Albany {Dr. Beck and Mr. Tracy) ■ 
Suff-olk county, Long Island ; Long Pond, South Salem, Westchester county (Dr. Mead). 
July - September. 

2. CRANTZIA. Nutt. gen. 1. p. 177; Endl. gen. 4.^56. Crantzia. 

[ In memory of Prof. H. I. N. Crantz, an Austrian botanist of tlie last century, author of a work on Umbeliifera,, &c.J 

Calyx-tube somewhat globose ; the margin obsolete. Petals roundish, entire, obtuse. Fruit 
nearly globose ; the commissure excavated, nearly orbicular, with 2 vitta;. Carpels unequal, 
with 5 filiform ribs ; 3 of them dorsal and narrow, the others marginal, and united with the 
thick corky margin which surrounds the fruit : intervals with single vitt«. Carpophore 
adhering to the carpels, and indistinct. Transverse section of the seed orbicular. — Very 
small creeping herbs, with hnear entire succulent leaves, marked with transverse lines. 
Umbels few-flowered, simple, involucrcd. Flowers white or rose-color, pedicellate. Hardly 
belonging to this tribe. 

.1. Crantzia line ATA, Nutt. Narrow-leaved Crantzia. 

■ Leaves cuneate-linear, obtuse, shorter than the peduncles.— iVw^. I. c. ; DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 71 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 600. Hydrocotyle lineata, Michx. ft. I. p 62- A 
Richard, I. c. t. 68. /. 38 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 347; Torr. fl.l.p. 304. Elaline foliis oppositis, 
Oron. fl. Virg. p. 62. 

Perennial. Stem creeping and rooting in mud, throwing up leaves and peduncles at the 
jomts. Leaves about 2 at each joint, 1 - 2 inches long and a line and a half wide, erect, 
marked with 4-6 transverse lines ; the longitudinal veins obsolete. Umbels 8 - 10-flowered ;' 
the pedicels 3-4 lines long. Involucre of 5 - 6 small lanceolate leaflets. Petals white,' 
v»ith-a linge of red. Styles short and recurved. Fruit about a line in diameter : commissure' 
oval, with a broad white corky margin. 

Muddy banks of rivers, generally where the water is brackish. West-Point (Prof. Bailev) ■ 
near Peckskill (Dr. A/earf). 

264 UMBELLIFERJ:. Sanicula. 

Tribe II. SANJCULE^. Koch; DC. 
Transverse section of the fruit somewhat orbicular. Carpels with 5 equal primary and no 
secondary ribs, or covered with scales or prickles. Vittce none, or numerous when the 
f-uit is prickly. Seeds flattish on the face. — Umbels fascicled or capitate, simple or 
somewhat irregularly cojnpound. 

3. SANICULA. Toum. ; Endl. gen. 4382. SASICLE. 

[ Named from the Latin, sanio, to heal ; on account of its supposed mediciniJ virtues.] 

Calyx-tube, in ihe fertile flowers, echinate ; the teeth somewhat foliaceous and persistent. 
Petals erect, with a long inflexed point. Fruit ovate-globose, densely clothed with hooked 
prickles. Carpels without ribs : vitts numerous. Carpophore indistinct. Seeds semi- 
globose — Perennial herbs. Radical leaves with long petioles, palmately or pinnatifidly 
lobed ; the segments incised and serrate. Umbels with few rays : umbellets capitate ; the 
flowers numerous, and mostly polygamous ; sterile flowers small, with the calyx smooth. 
Involucre foHaceous ; the leaflets often lobed. Leaflets of the involucels entire. 

1. Sanicula Marilandica, Linn. (Plate XXXI.) Long-styled Sanicle. 

Leaves digitately 5 - 7-parted, the segments incisely and mucronately serrate ; sterile 
flowers numerous, distinctly pedicellate, and nearly as long as the fertile ones ; styles long 
and recurved. — Linn. sp. I. p. 235 ; "Jacq. ic. rar. t. 348 ;" Michx.f.. 1. p. 162 ; Lam,, ill. 
t. 191. /. 2 ; Torr. f. 1. p. 302 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 84 ; Beck, bot. p. 141 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 184 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 602 (in part). 

Root consisting of numerous thick fasciculate fibres, slightly aromatic and stimulating. 
Stem about 2 feet high, branching at the summit. Radical leaves on long petioles, 3-5- 
parted to the base ; the lateral segments deeply 2-parted ; all the segments oblanceolate or 
cuneate-obovate : cauline leaves resembling the radical ones, but with much shorter petioles, 
or sessile. Primarj' and secondary divisions of the umbel 2 or 3, with a sohtary umbellet in 
the forks, consisting chiefly of numerous staminate flowers. Involucral leaves mostly 2-3- 
parted at the base. Umbellets somewhat globose, consisting of two kinds of flowers. Staminate 
ones 10 - 15 ; the pedicels slender, 2-3 lines long. Calyx 5-parted to the base ; the seg- 
ments lanceolate, mucronate. Petals nearly white, or yellowish. Stamens exserted. No 
rudiments of an ovary or styles. Fertile flowers 2-6, sessile. Calyx-segments, petals and 
stamens as in the fertile ones. Styles at first nearly erect, at length recurved and nearly as 
long as the ovary. Fruit densely clothed throughout with strong hooked prickles, dilated and 
somewhat bulbous at the base, disposed in no regular order ; at maturity, separating into two 
carpels, diverging, and remaining attached by their bases to the summit of the peduncle. 

Woods and thickets ; common. Fl. June - August. Fr. August - September. 

Sanicula. UMBELLIFERyE. 265 

2. Sanicula Canadensis, Linn. (Plate XXXII.) Canadian Sanicle. 

Leaves digitately 3 - 5-parted, the segments incisely and mucronately serrate ; sterile 
flowers few, slightly pedicellate and much shorter than the fertile ones ; styles shorter than 
the prickles. — Linn. sp. l.p. 235 ; Willd. sp. 1. p. 1366 ; Muhl. cat. p. 30 ; DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 84. S. Marilandica, ;S. Canadensis, Torr. fl. 1. p. 302. 

Differs from the preceding species chiefly in the less divided leaves, fewer sterile flowers 
on much shorter pedicels, smaller fruit, and in the very short inconspicuous styles. The 
prickles of the fruit are also pretty regularly arranged in rows. 

Woods and thickets ; common. Fl. June - August. Fr. August - September. I am 
indebted to my valued friend, J. Carey, Esq., for pointing out to me the principal diagnostic 
marks of our two species of Sanicula, and am now persuaded that they are quite distinct. 
By the difi"erences in their styles alone, they can always be readily known. Both species are 
employed as domestic medicines, under the name of Blacksnake-root ; being reputed dia- 
phoretic, stimulant and stomachic. 

Tribe III. AMMINEjE. Koch. 

Fruit evidently compressed laterally, and usually so7newhat didymous. Carpels with 5 
equal filijorm and sometimes slightly winged primary ribs ; the lateral ones marginal : 
secondary ribs none. Vittce. various. Seed gibbously convex on the hack and Jlattish 
on the face, or terete. — Umbels perfectly compound. 


4. DiBCOPLEDR*. Fmit ovoid. Carpels with the 3 dorsal ribs filiform ; the two lateral ones united with a thick corky 

accessory margin. Intervals with single vittaj. — Leaves finely cut. 

5. BcPLEiRCM. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Fruit ovoid-oblong, crowned with the depressed stylopodium. Carpels with 5 

more or less prominent ribs, with or without vittoe. — Leaves undivided. Flowers yellow. 

6. CicuTA. Calyx-teeth distinct. Fruit roundish, didymous. Carpels with 5 flattish equal ribs. Intervals with single 

vitUe. — Involuccis many-leaved. Flowers white. 

7. SiUM. Fruit ovoid or globose, somewhat didymous, crowned with the depressed stylopodium. Carpels with 5 rather 

obtuse ribs. Inter\'als usually with several vittie. — Involuccis many-lcavcd. Flowers white. 

8. Cbyptot«:nia. Fruit linear-oblong, crowned with the short stylopodium and straight styles. Carpels with 5 equal 

filiform obtuse ribs. Vittffi very narrow ; one beneath each rib, and one in each interval. — Leaves 3-parted, 
Involucre none. Involuccis many-leaved. Flowers white. 

9. ZiziA. Fruit roundish or oval, somewhat didymous. Carpels with 5 or more or less prominent (not winged) equal 

rib«. Intervals with 1-3 vittie. — Leaves tcrnatcly divided. Flowers yellow. 

4. DISCOPLEURA. DC. mem. Urnh.p. 38. ^ S ^ 9; Endl. gen. 4398. DISCOPLEURA. 

[ From the Greek, diskns, a disk, and iikurim, a side ; the two sides of the fruit being marked with a kind of disk.] 

Calyx-leeth minute, subulate, persistent. Petals ovate, entire, with a minute inflc.vcd point. 
Fruit ovoid. Carpels wilh the 3 dorsal ribs filiform, prominent and rather acute ; the two 
[Flora.] 34 

266 UMBELLIFERiE. Di?copleura. 

lateral ones united with a thick corky accessory margin. Intervals with single vittae. 
Carpophore 2-cltft. Seed somewhat terete. — Annual smooth herbs. Leaves finely cut 
into narrow segments. Leaflets of the involucre pinnately 3 - 5-parted, or nearly entire. 
Flowers white. 

1. DiscoPLEURA CAPiLLACEA, DC. Few-royed Dlscopkura. 

Stem erect or procumbent ; umbels 3 - 12-rayed ; leaflets of the involucre 3-5, usually 
3-cleft ; fruit ovale. — DC. I. c. t. 8. A. ^ prodr. 4. p. 106 ; Beck, hot. p. 143 ; Torr. <^ 
Gr.fl. N. Am. I. p. 607. Ammi majus, Walt.fl. Car. /). 1 13, not of Linn. A. capillaceura, 
Michx. J!. 1. p. 164 ; Nutt. gen. 1. p.. 179 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 349. Sison capillaceus, Spreng. 
in Schult. syst. 6. p. 41 1 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 306. 

Stem 10-18 inches high, flexuous and divaricately branched, deeply sulcate. Leaves 
lernately and pinnately cut; the segments remote, filiform and spreading. Involucral leaves 
sometimes bipinnatifid. Involucels of 2 - 3 filiform entire leaflets. Rays of the umbel usually 
not more than 8, about an inch long, rigid. Umbellets 5 - 10-flowered. Flowers very small. 
Anthers purple. Styles short, diverging. rn.U lulhei ucuie, about a line and a half in length. 

Swamps, generally where the water is brackish ; common on Long Island, and in the 
neighborhood of New-York. July - September. 

5. BUPLEURUM. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. 4414. HABE'S-EAR. 

[ From the Greek, bms, an ox, and pleuron, a rib ; supposed to be in allusion to the ribbed leaves of some of the species.] 

Margin of the caljTC obsolete. Petals roundish, retuse, with an inflexed point. Fruit ovate- 
oblong, laterally compressed, crowned with the depressed stylopodium. Carpels with 5 
more or less prominent ribs ; the lateral ones marginal. Intervals with or without vittae. 
Seed teretely convex, flattish on the face. — Herbaceous, or sometimes shrubby smooth 
plants. Leaves commonly entire. Involucres various. Flowers yellow. 

The leaves in this genus are regarded by most modern botanists as destitute of lamina, and consisting of mere dilated 
petioles, or pht/Uodia. 

1. BuPLEURUM ROTUNDiFOLiuM, Litui. ThorougJi-wax. Modcsty. 

Leaves broadly ovate, entire, perfoliate ; involucre none ; involucels of 5 ovate, mucronate, 
united leaflets. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 236; Engl. hot. t. 99; Beck, hot. p. 145; DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 129 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 191 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 609. 

Annual. Stem about 1 -2 feet high, branching. Leaves 1-2 inches long, glaucous 
underneath, perforated by the stem excentrically, acute. Umbels of 5 - 9 unequal rays. 
Involucels somewhat cup-shaped ; the leaflets united at the base, longer than the small 
greenish-yellow flowers. Carpels with 5 slender ribs ; the interstices without vittae. 

A weed about gardens and cultivated grounds ; nearly naturalized in some places. June - 
August. Introduced from Europe. 



6. CICUTA. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 193; Endl. gen. 4391. 

[A name given by the Latins to the hollow joints of the reed, of which they made their pipes. It was afterwards applied 
to this genus on account of its fistular stems.] 

Margin of the calyx S-toothed ; the teeth acute. Petals obcordate ; the point inflexed. Fruit 
roundish, laterally contracted, somewhat didymous. Carpels with 5 flattish equal ribs ; the 
lateral ones marginal. Intervals filled with large single vittE. Commissure with 2 vittK. 
Carpophore 2-parted. Seed terete. — Perennial, smooth, poisonous plants, with hollow 
stems, growing in water or in swamps. Leaves tripinnately or triternately divided. In- 
volucre few-leaved, or none. Involucels many-leaved. Flowers white. 

1. CicuTA MACULATA, Linfi. Water Hemlock. Sjwffed Cotcbatie. 

Roots thick, oblong, fleshy ; stem streaked with purple ; leaves biternately divided ; seg- 
ments lanceolate, mucronately serrate. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 255 ; Piirsh,Jl. 1. ;>. 195 ; Ell. sk. 1 . 
p. 257; Bigel. med. hot. I. t. 12, and Jl. Bost. p. 115; Torr. fl. \. p. 308; DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 99; Beck, hot. p. 142; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 185; Torr. 4- Gr. Jl. N. Am. l.p. 610. 

Root consisting of several fleshy diverging tubers, about the thickness of the finger. Stems 
3-6 feet high, finely streaked with glaucous green and purple, sometimes spotted, at other 
times almost entirely purple ; or, when growing in the shade, wholly green. Lower leaves 
on long petioles, the primary divisions ternate or quinate ; the leaflets in each division 5-7, 
lowest ones often deeply 2 - 3-lobed, all of them petiolulate ; primary veins terminating in 
the notches (instead of the points) of the serratures (as first noticed by Dr. Bigelow). Rays 
of the umbel 15 - 20 or more, slender, li - 2 inches long. Involucre usually none, or only 
one or two small leaflets. Involucels of 5 - 6 linear leaflets. Fruit about a line and a half 
in diameter, nearly orbicular, aromatic, and somewhat resembling anise : ribs broad and 
prominent, yellowish-brown, lateral ones broadest : intervals purplish. 

In swamps ; very common. Fl. July - August. Fr. September.— The root of fhis plant 
is the most dangerous vegetable poison indigenous to the United States. It is frequently the 
cause of death in children, who mistake it for the "Sweet Cicely," or Osmorhiza longistylis. 
In the western part of the State, it is known by the name of Beaver poison, or Musquash. 
The active principle has not been insulated, but it is probably similar to the conicine, or the 
poisonous alkaline material of Conium. 

2. CicuTA BULniFERA, Linn. Bulbiferous Water Hemlock. 

Roots thick, oblong, fleshy ; axils of the branches and uppermost leaves bulbiferous ; leaves 

bi-trilernalcly divided ; segments linear and linear-lanceolate, remotely and acutely toothed. 

Linn. sp. l.p. 255 ; Micluc.jl. l.p. 165 ; Null. gen. l.p. 192 ; Torr.fl. l.p, 308; Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 1 15 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 99 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl,. N. Am. 1. p. GIO. 


268 UxMBELLIFEIl^. Cicuta. 

Root as in the preceding species, but smaller. Stem 2-3 feet high, branching, striate, 
glaucous. Lower leaves on long petioles ; upper ones nearly sessile, with sheathing petioles : 
segments usually not more than a line wide, the margin furnished with salient teeth, and also 
minutely serrulate. Bulbs about 2 lines long, ovate, acute, compressed, often several crowded 
close together, but always alternate, forming short spikes in the axils of simple and sometimes 
nearly oj)posite leaves : each bulb is a short branch or bud, the axis of which is thick, fleshy, 
and invested with several scales or rudimentary leaves. Umbels small, in the forks of the 
stem, about 12-rayed. Involucre none. Involucels of 5 - 6 small lanceolate leaflets. Flowers 
mostly abortive. Fruit nbt half as large as in the preceding species, only one of the carpels 
usually ripening : ribs nearly equal, thick, but not very prominent. 

Swamps, and in ditches and on the margin of ponds ; common in the northern and western 
part of the State ; rare in the neighborhood of New- York. Fl. August. Fr. September - 
October. The veins of the leaves, as in C. maculata, terminate in the notches of the serratures. 

7. SIUM. Lm?i. (partly); E«fZZ.g-en. 4413. water parsnep. 

[ From the Celtic vvorJ sue, signifying water ; its usual place of growth. TtiEis.] 

Calyx-teeth small or obsolete. Petals obovate or emarginate, with an inflexcd point. Fruit 
ovate or nearly globose, somewhat didymous, crowned with the depressed stylopodium. 
Carpels with 5 rather obtuse ribs, and usually with several vittae in the intervals. Seeds 
somewhat terete. — Perennial, mostly aquatic herbs. Leaves pinnately divided ; segments 
toothed or serrate : submerged leaves finely divided. Umbel and umbcllets many-rayed. 
Involucre many-leaved. 

1. SiuM LATiFOLiuM, Linn. Broad-leaved Water Parsnep. 
Root creeping ; stem sulcate-angular ; segments of the leaves lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, 

rarely pinnatifid ; teeth of the calyx elongated {DC). — Linn. sp. 1. p. 251 ; Nutt. gen. 1. 
p. 186 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. Ill; Torr. fl. 1. p. 311 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 124 ? ; Hook. fl. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 262 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 611. S. occidentale, Nutt. mss. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, branching. Segments of the leaves varying in breadth, but sometimes 
ahnost ovate-lanceolate ; in tiie lower leaves, when submerged, pinnatifid or finely cut. In- 
volucres of 6-12 narrowly lanceolate and usually reflexed leaflets. Umbels terminal. 
Calyx-teeth very minute. Ripe fruit not seen. 

Swamps ; rather common. July - August. 

2. SiuM LiNEARE, Mlclix. Narrow-kavcd Water Parsnep. 
Stem sulcate-angular ; segments of the leaves linear-lanceolate and linear, acutely and finely 

serrate. — I. p. 167; Nutt. gen. I. p. 186 (excl. syn. Pursh) ; l.p. 811 ; 


DC prodr. 1. p. 125 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 262 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 611. 
S. tenaifolium, Muhl. cat. p. 30. 

Roots thick, fasciculate. Stem 2-5 feet high, rather rigid, erect. Segments of the leaves 
m 3 - 5 pairs, 2-4 inches long, mostly linear-lanceolate, but often linear and only 1 - 3 lines 
wide. Rays of the umbel about 20. Leaflets of the involucre 5-10, sometimes 2-cleft. 
Calyx-teeth very minute, acute, scarcely projecting beyond the margin of the stylopodium. 
Petals broadly obcordate, the point small and inflexed. Fruit broadly oval or orbicular, 
strongly ribbed ; the ribs whitish. Intervals with 1 - 3 vitta;. Commissure with 2-4 vitt^'. 

Swamps ; common. Fl. July - August. Fr. September. Our two species are still in 
an unsettled state, for want of the, ripe fruit of the former. It is probable that they are not 
distinct, as the differences in the involucrum and breadth of the leaves, and number of the 
vitta;, are not constant. Whether they are distinct from the Sium latifolium of Europe, is 
also uncertain. In my specimens of that species, the calyx-teeth are nearly as short as in 
ours ; but I have never seen it with the leaves so narrow, and so sharply serrate as in our 
S. linear e. 

8. CRYPTOT^NIA. DC.mem. Umb. p. 4:2; Endl. gen. AA09. bone-wort. 

[ From the Greek, kryptos, hidden, and tainia, a fillet ; the narrow vitta: being concealed in the carpels.] 
Margin of the calyx obsolete. Petals obcordate, with a narrow inflexed point. Fruit oblong- 
elliptical or ovoid, contracted at the sides, crowned with the short stylopodium and straight 
styles. Carpels with 5 equal filiform obtuse ribs ; the lateral ones nearly marginal. VittE 
very narrow, one beneath each rib and one in each interval. Seed somewhat teretely 
convex ; the face slightly concave. Carpophore free, 2-cleft.— Perennial, smooth, erect 
herbs. Root consisting of fasciculate fibres. Leaves 3-parted ; the segments ovate, entire 
or 2 - 3-lobed, doubly serrate, with coarse mucronate teeth. Umbels numerous, somewhat 
panicled. Rays of the umbel and umbellets very unequal. Involucre none. Involucels 
none. Flowers white. 

1. Cryptot^nia Canadensis, DC. Common Hone-wort. 

Umbels opposite the leaves, and terminal; fruit oblong-elliptical. — DC. prodr. 4. p. 119 • 
Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. \.p. 262 ; Beck, hot. p. 144 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 189 ; Torr. 4- Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 1. p. 613. Sison Canadense, Linn. sp. I. p. 252 ; Michx. fl. I. p. 168 ; JSi^e/. 
fl. Boat. p. 114. Sium Canadense, Lam. diet. \. p. 407. Chaerophyllum Canadense, Pers. 
syn. \.p. 320 ; Pursh,fl. 1. p. 195 ; Ell. sk. I. p. 358. Myrrhis Canadensis, Nutt. gen. 1. 
p. 192 ; Sj^eng. in Schult. sysl. 0. p. 516 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 310. Myrrhis Canadensis tri- 
lobaU, Moris, hist. 9. t. 11. /. 4. 

Stem 1 i - 2 feet high, branched above, often purplish. Leaves very thin, and usually 

270 UMBELLIFER.E. Cryptot^nia. 

more or less shining ; segments 2-5 inches long, attenuated below, and serrate quite to the 
base : petioles broad and sheathing. Rays of the umbel 3-6, somewhat erect. Fruit about 
3 lines long, often curved from the unequal growth of the carpels, dark olive-green when 
mature ; the straight styles nearly one-third the length of the fruit. 

Damp shady woods and thickets ; common. Fl. June - August. Fr. September. 

9. ZIZIA. Koch, Umb. p. 129 ; Endl. gen. 4^392. MEADOW PARsyEP. 

[ In honor of I. B. Zizii, a German botanist.] 

Margin of the calyx with 5 very short teeth. Petals oblong, with a long inflexed point. 
Fruit contracted laterally, somewhat didymous, roundish or oval. Carpels with 5 filiform, 
more or less prominent (but not winged), equal ribs ; the lateral ones marginal : intervals 
with 1-3 vittae. Commissure with 2-4 viltae. Carpophore 2-parted. Seed very convex 
on the back, fiat on the face. — Perennial herbs. Leaves ternately or biternately divided, 
with oblong or ovate segments; radical ones often cordate and entire. Involucre none. 
Involucels few-leaved. Flowers yellow. 

§ 1. EcziziA, Terr. & Gr. Carpels with prominent ribs: intervals with single vitta: commissure 

■icilh 2 vitlce. 

1. ZiziA coRDATA, Koch. (Plate XXXIII.) Heart-leaved Alexanders. 

Radical leaves simple, cordate, on long petioles, crenately toothed ; stem-leaves nearly 
sessile, ternately divided ; the segments ovate or ovate-oblong, serrate, lateral ones sometimes 
2-parted nearly to the base. — Koch, Umb. p. 129, ex DC. prodr. 4. p. 100 ; Hook. fl,. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 260; Beck, bot. p. 143 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 186. Smyrnium cordatum, Walt. 
fl. Car. p. 114; Michx.fl. l.p. 170 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 359; Torr.fl. 1. p. 307. S. trifoliatum, 
Nutt. gen. l.p. 195 (excl. syn. Linn.). Thaspium cordatum, var. a. (in part), Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 1. p. 615. 

Stem about two feet high, usually smooth, or sometimes minutely pubescent. Radical 
leaves sometimes a little lobed, but commonly cordate and entire, 2-4 inches in diameter, 
the petioles 4-8 inches long : lower cauline leaves on very short sheathing petioles ; the 
uppermost sessile, rather obtusely serrate. Umbels opposite the leaves, on long naked pe- 
duncles ; the rays 6 - 10, about an inch in length, and twice as long in fruit. Involucels a 
mere entire border, or consisting of one or two small leaflets. Styles slender, about the length 
of the ovary. Fruit about a line and a half long, roundish-oval, dark purple when mature : 
dorsal ribs angularly prominent. Viltaa nearly as broad as the intervals, filled with a terebin- 
thine bitterish oil. 

Borders of woods, and thickets on hill-sides. Fl. May. Fr. July. Confounded, in the 
Flora of North America, with Thaspium cordatum, from the first variety of which it can 
hardly be distinguished except by the fruit. 

ZiziA. UMBELLIFER^. 271 

2. ZiziA AUREA, Koch. Goldeu Meadow Parsnep. 

Lower leaves bilernately, and the uppermost ternately divided ; segments oblong-lanceolate 
or rhomboid, sharply serrate, the serratures cartilaginous on the margin.— A'oc/t, Vmb.p. 129, 
ex DC. prodr. 4. p.lOO; HooTi. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 260 ; Beck, hot. p. 143 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 185 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. A7n. 1. p. 614. Smyrnium aureum, Linn. sp. 1. p. 262 ; 
Michx. fl.l. p. 171 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 359. Sison aureus, Sprerig. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 41o'. 
Root branching, with thick fasciculate descending fibres. Stem about 2 feet high. Leaves 
all divided ; the radical and lower cauline ones on long petioles ; upper ones nearly sessile, 

sometimes biternately divided : leaflets 1 - 2 inches long, sometimes all, but usually only the 

middle one of each division attenuate at the base ; the serratures, when old, with a distinct 

cartilaginous border. Umbels opposite the leaves and terminal, on very long naked peduncles ; 

the rays 10-15, rigid and somewhat erect in fruit. Fruit about 2 lines long, oval, dark 

purple ; the ribs rather prominent, but obtuse. 

Woods, banks of rivers, etc. Highlands of New- York {Dr. Barratt). Differs from the 

preceding in the leaves being all divided, and more acutely serrate. The fruit of the two 

species can hardly be distinguished. 

^ 2. T^NiDiA, Torr. & Gr. Carpels with slightly prominent ribs : intervals with three vitta : 
commissure with four vittce. 

3. ZiziA iNTEGERRiMA, DC. Entire-kaved Zizlu. 

Leaves all bi-trilernately divided, the segments oblong-ovate, entire; rays of the umbel 
filiform, elongated.— DC. in mem. hist. nat. Genev. 4, and prodr. 4. p. 100 ; Beck, hot 
p. 143 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 187 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 614. Smyrnium integer- 
nmum, Linn. sp. l.p.263; Michx.fl. 1. p. 171 ; Pursh,fl. I. p. 196; Nutt. gen. \.p. 195. 
Sison inlegerrimus, Spreng. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 410 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 305. 

Whole plant very smooth and somewhat glaucous. Stem two feet high, terete, slender. 
Leaves thin; the lowest ones on longish petioles, and biternatc ; upper ones with dilated 
sheathing petioles ; alternate segments about an inch long, unequal at the base, and sometimes 
a little cordate. Umbels opposite the leaves ; the rays numerous, 2-4 inches long. Umbel- 
lets many-flowered ; many of the flowers abortive. Petals oval, with a narrow inflc.xed point. 
Fruit nearly orbicular or oval, dark purple or brown when mature. 

Rocky woods, hill-sides and banks of rivers. Fl. May - June. Fr. July. 

272 UMBELLIFER^. Thaspium. 

Tribe IV. SESELINEM. Koch. 

Transverse section of the fruit orbicular, or nearly so. Carpels with five filiform or winged 
rihs, of which the lateral ones are marginal, and either equal with or a little broader 
than the others. Intervals with one or more vitt<B, very rarely without any. Seed 
somewhat teretely convex on the back, fattish on the face. — Umbels perfectly compound. 

10. THASPIUM. Nutt. gen. 1. p. 196 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 153. THASPWM. 

[ " From the Isle of Tliaspia, which gave name to the Thapsia of the ancients."* Nctt.] 

Calyx-teeth lanceolate or nearly obsolete. Petals elliptical, attenuated into a long inflexed 
point. Styles slender, as long as the ovary, somewhat diverging. Fruit not contracted at 
the sides, elliptical. Carpels convex, with 5 winged mostly equal ribs. Intervals striate, 
with single vittae. Commissure with 2 vittae. Seed somewhat terete. — Perennial herbs. 
Leaves ternately or biternately divided ; the radical ones sometimes cordate and entire. 
Umbels terminal and opposite the leaves, without an involucre. Involucels lateral, small. 
Flowers yellow or purple. 

1. Thaspium atropurpureum, Nutt. (Plate XXXIV.) Purple Alexanders. 

Radical leaves on long petioles, mostly cordate and undivided, crenately toothed ; cauline 
ones ternately divided, serrate, terminal one ahva3's (and the lateral ones also in the lower 
leaves) peliolulate ; umbels opposite the leaves, and terminal ; flowers dark purple ; winged 
ribs of the carpel equal. — Nutt. gen. 1. p. 196 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 154. T. cordatum, /3. 
atropurpureum, Torr. ^ Gr. jl. N. Am. 1. p. 615. Thapsia trifoliata, Linn. sp. 1. p. 162. 
Smj'rnium atropurpureum, Lam. diet. 3. p. 667; Pursh, f.. 1. p. 196. Cnidium atro- 
purpureum, Spreng. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 418 ; Torr. fl. \. p. 307. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, smooth, terete. Radical leaves sometimes 2 - 3-lobed or ternately 
divided, one or more of them usually entire, 1-2 inches in diameter. Cauline leaves petio- 
lale ; the petioles in the uppermost ones short, but distinct : segments rather obtusely serrate, 
the terminal ones more or less cordate or-*hombic-ovate. Umbels on peduncles 1-3 inches 
long ; the rays, when in flower, less than an inch long, and little more than an inch when in 
fruit. Calyx-teeth very small. Petals thick and somewhat succulent, very deep purple. 
Styles slender, diverging. Fruit strongly winged, light brown with dark-colored intervals 
when mature. 

Rocky hill-sides and borders of woods. Fl. June. Fr. August. 

♦ The name of the island was Thapsus or Thapsos, and had already l>ecn appropriated for another plant. It is to be 
regretted that some other name had not been employed for the present genus. 

Thaspium. UMBELLIFER.E. 


2. Thaspium aureum, Nutt. Golden Thmpimn. 

Lower and middle cauline leaves biternately, and the uppermost ternately divided ; segments 
oblong-lanceolate, mostly cuneate at the base, sharply serrate, the serratures cartilaginous on 
the margin ; carpels with the winged ribs nearly equal.— iVw«. gen. 1. p. 196 ; Torr. cj. 
Gr.fl. N. Am. l.p. 616. Smymium aureum, Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 1 13. Sison aureus, Torr 
fl. 1. p. 305. 

Root rather thick, horizontal, somewhat pungent. Stem 1 - 3 feet high, simple or a little 
branching towards the summit, nearly smooth at the nodes. Lower leaves on long petioles 
which are deeply 3-parted, the divisions ternately divided, the middle segment often 3-lobed 
or deeply 3-parted ; uppermost leaves for the most part ternately divided, but sometimes 
biternate ; segments 1 - 2 inches long, acute. Umbels on long peduncles, 10 - 20-rayed ; 
the rays 1-1^ inch long. Involucels often very short. Fruit oval, about 2 lines long; the 
wmgs conspicuous, sometimes a little unequal. 

Wet meadows, and banks of rivers ; western part of the State. June. 

T. cordatum, var. a. (in part), Fl. N. Am. I. c, I now think is a variety of this species, as 
I have numerous specimens from the Western States, sent by Mr. Sullivant, Dr. Short and 
Dr. Clapp, that show a gradual transition from one species to the other. I have not found it 
however, in this State. From Zizia aurea it is scarcely to be distinguished except by the 
fruit, the characters of which seem to be very constant. It will be seen, by a reference to the 
Flora of North America, that some changes have been made in the arrangement of the species 
of this genus and of Zizia. With the exception of the fruit, the resemblance between Z 
aurea and T. aureum, and between Z. cordata and T. cordatum (now T. aureum, var cor- 
datum) IS so great that they may easily be confounded. It is possible that these species may 
not be distmct, and perhaps the two genera (excluding Z. integerrima) should be united. 

3. Thaspium barbinode, Nutt. Hairy-jointed Thaspium. 

Stem dichotomous above, bearded at the nodes ; leaves bi-trilernately compound ; segments 
rhombic-ovate, unequally and incisely serrate, entire at the base ; umbels in the forks of the 
stem, and terminal ; fruit elliptical or ovoid, the 3 dorsal wings usually alternately narrower 
-hutt. gen. 1. p. 196 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 154 ; Beck, hot. p. 146 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 192; 
Torr. 4- Gr.Jl. N. Am. 1. p. 616. Ligusticum barbinode, Miclix. fl. 1 ;,. 167; Pursh, 
fi.l.p. 193. Thapsia trifoliata, Sj)reng. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 6\b ; Torr. fl. \. p 317' 
Smyrnium barbinode, Muhl. cat. />. 31. ■ ■ jj. . 

Stem about 2 feet high, terete, smooth except at the joints. Lower leaves mostly biternate • 
those at the forks of the stem opposite ; uppermost only simply ternate : segments 1 - 2 inches 
long : petioles pubescent at the base. Umbels on peduncles which arc 2 - 3 inches in length • 
rays about an inch long. Involucels of about 3 narrow leaflets. Calyx-teeth very short, acute' 
Styles slender, nearly erect, almost the length of the ovary. Fruit varying from roundish-ovoid 
[Flora.] 35 


lo elliptical ; the dorsal ribs conspicuously winged : usually one of ihc carpels has a single 
broad and two narrower wings ; the other two broad and one narrower. 

Borders of woods, and rocky banks of rivers. Valley of the Chemung {Dr. Knieskem). 
Near the Falls of Niagara, on the Canada side (Dr. Gray). Fl. June. Fr. August. 

11. iETHUSA. Linn.; Endl. gen. 4^4:24:. fool's PARSLEY. 

[ Named from the Greek, aitho, to burn ; on account of its acrid quality.] 

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals obovate, emarginatc, w'ith an inflexed point. Fruit ovoid-globosc. 
Carpels with 5 acutely carinated ribs ; the lateral ones marginal, and a little broader. In- 
tervals deeply acute-angled, with single vitta;. Commissure with 2 vitta;. Seed teretcly 
convex on the back, rather flat on the face. Carpophore 2-parted. — Annual, erect, poisonous 
herbs. Leaves many-cleft. Involucre none, or one-leaved. Involucels 1 - 5-leaved, 
lateral, spreading or pendulous. Flowers white. 

1. yExHUSA Cynapium, Linn. Common Fool's Parsley. 

Segments of the leaves ovate-lanceolate, with lanceolate lobes ; involucre none ; involucels 
3-leaved, mostly longer than the partial umbels, pendulous ; vittse of the commissure distinct 
at the base {DC.).— Linn. sp. 1. p. 256 ; Engl. hot. 1192 ; Bigel fl. Bost. p. 113 ; DC. 
prodr. 4. p. 141 ; Beck, hot. p. 145 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 618. 

Stem 1-2 feet high, hollow, not spotted. Leaves bi-triternately compound ; the ultimate 
lobes or segments linear-lanceolate. Umbels terminal, and opposite the leaves : rays very 
unequal, the longest seldom an inch in length. Leaflets of the involucels linear, all on one 
side. Fruit nearly as broad as long, about 2 lines in diameter ; the ribs very prominent and 
keeled. Vittse very narrow. 

Waste places and road-sides ; naturalized in some places. A native of Europe. Fl. July 
- August. Fr. September. Tiie whole plant emits a nauseous odor. It is considered 
poisonous, but in a less degi-ee than Coniurn maculatum. From the latter it is easily dis- 
tinguished by its spotless stem, long pendulous one-sided involucels, and straight ridges of the 


12. CONIOSELINUM. Fisch. in Hoffm. Utnb. ed. 2. p. 185 tit. f. 5, ex DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 163 ; Endl. gen. 4448. conioselinum. 

[ Name compounded of Coniuni and SeUnuvi.'] 

Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals obcordate or obovate, with an inflexed point. Styles slender, 
at length reflexed. Fruit convex or compressed on the back. Carpels with 5 winged ribs ; 
the lateral ones twice as broad as the others, and marginal. Lateral intervals with 3 vittje ; 
dorsal ones often with 2 vittaj. Commissure with 4-8 unequal vittje. Carpophore 2- 
parted. Seed flat on the face. — Biennial (and perennial ?) smooth herbs, with branching 
and fistulous stems. Leaves with very large and inflated petioles, ternately divided ; the 
divisions bipinnately parted, with oblong-linear lobes. Involucre none, or few-leaved. 
Involucels of 5 - 6 linear-subulate leaves. Flowers white. 

1. Conioselinum Canadense, T. 8^- G. (PI. xxxv.) Canadian Conioselinum. 

Fruit oval, nearly twice the length of the pedicels ; dorsal ridges narrowly winged. — Torr. 
4" N.Am. I. p. 619. Sehnum Canadense, Michx.fl. 1. p. 165 ; Pursh,Jl. I. p. 192. 
Cnidium Canadense, Spreng. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 415 (excl. syn.) ; DC^ prodr. 4. p. 153. 

Root perennial. Stem 3-5 feet high, terete, branching above, finely striate. Leaves with 
inflated sheathing petioles, 3-parted, the divisions pinnately compound ; segments pinnatifid, 
the lobes linear-oblong, acute. Umbel of 10-16 slender rays, which arc about two inches 
long. Involucre none, or merely 1-3 small subulate leaflets. Involucels 5 - 6-leaved, 
nearly as long as the umbellets. Styles slender, diverging. Calyx-teeth nearly obsolete. 
Petals spreading, emarginate ; the point short and inflexed. Fruit about 3 lines long, com- 
pressed on the back : dorsal ribs decidedly, though rather narrowly winged ; lateral ribs dilated 
into a conspicuous wing. Vittae of the lateral intervals sometimes solitary, but usually 2 or 3 ; 
those of the dorsal intervals often solitary, frequently 2 or even 3, sometimes running into 
each other ; in the commissure at least 4, and sometimes several other shorter ones, besides 
occasionally one in the margin of the wing. 

Swamps, usually in shady places. Oriskany, Oneida county ; and on the banks of Che- 
nango River {Dr. Knieskern). Fl. August - September. Fr. October. 

Since the description of this plant in the Flora of North America was published, I have 
obtained perfectly ripe fruit, and its resemblance to that of C. Fisheri is found to be very 
close indeed ; ihc chief difference being in the breadth of the dorsal ridges. 


276 UMBELLIFER^. Archancelica. 

Tribe V. ANGELICEJE. Koch. 

Fruit dorsally compressed, with a double winged margin : carpels with three dorsal ribs, 
filiform or winged ; the lateral ones dilated, and forming winged margins. Seeds convex 
on the back, flattish on the face. 

13. ARCHANGELICA. Hoff.; DC. prodr. 4. p. 169; Endl. gen. Aibi . ARCHANGEL. 
[ The name alludes to its supposed archangelk properties.] 

Calyx-teeth short. Petals ovate, entire, acuminate, with the point incurved. Fruit somewhat 
dorsally compressed. Carpels with 3 rather thick and prominent dorsal ribs : lateral ribs 
dilated into marginal wings. Seed not adhering to the pericarp. Vittas very numerous, 
entirely surrounding the seed. — Perennial herbs. Leaves usually with large inflated 
petioles, 3-parted, with the divisions pinnately or bipinnately divided ; the segments ovate, 
toothed or serrate. Involucre almost none. Involucels many-leaved. Flowers white or 

1. Archangelica atropurpurea, Hoff. Common Angelica. 

Stem deeply striate (dark purple) ; divisions of the leaves bipinnately divided ; segments 
of the secondary divisions 5 - 7 , the three terminal ones confluent and decurrent at the base, 
somewhat acuminate, unequally serrate, membranaceous ; petioles very large and inflated ; 
peduncles nearly smooth ; fruit smooth. — Hoff. Umb. I. p. 169 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 621. Angelica atropurpurea, Linn. sp. 1. p. 251 ; Pursh, fl. \. p. 193 ; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 316 ; DC. prodr. \.p. 168 ; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 267 ; Beck, bot. p. 147; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 194. A. uiquimU, Michx, fl. 1. p. 167; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 110. Imperatoria 
lucida, Nutt. gen. 1. p. 181. 

Stem 3-6 feet high, very stout, hollow, glaucous, generally of a dark purple color. 
Leaflets 2-5 inches long and 1-2 inches wide ; the terminal one united with the upper 
pair, or deeply 3-lobed : serratures discolored at the tip : petioles 1—2 inches in diameter. 
Umbels 6-8 inches in diameter ; the rays at length somewhat converging, more or less 
pubescent. Involucels of 8 - 12 small subulate leaflets. Petals greenish-white. Fruit about 
one-third of an inch long and nearly 3 lines wide, often tricarpellary. Carpels with prominent 
dorsal ribs ; the lateral ribs expanded into narrow wings. Seeds free from the pericarp. 
Vittse not lodged in the substance of the pericarp, but in the coats of the seed, very numerous, 
and filled with a pungent and rather disagreeable aromatic oil. 

Moist low grounds ; rather common. Fl. May - June. Fr. August. A popular aromatic, 
tonic and carminative. See Wood <^ Backers U. S. Dispens. p. 86. 

Archangelica. UMBELLIFERiE. 


2. Archangelica hirsuta, Torr. df Gr. (PI. xxxvi.) Downy Angelica. 

Stem striate, the summit with the peduncle and rays of the umbel tomentose-pubescent ; 
leaves bipinnately divided, the divisions usually quinate ; segments ovate-oblong, equally 
serrate, rather thick ; the upper pair connate, but not decurrent at the base ; umbels spreading • 
fruit pubescent.- Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 622. Angelica hirsuta, Muhl. cat. p. 3o! 
Angelica triquinata, Nutt. gen. l.p. 186; Ell. sk. l.p. 252; Torr.fl. l.jj.315; DC. prodr. 
4. p. 166; Hook. ji. Bar.- Am. 1. p. 267 ; Beck, hot. p. 147 ; Darlingt fl. Cest. p. 193^ 
Pastinaca triquinata, Spreng. Umb. p. 68. t. 6. /. 2. Ferula villosa, Walt.fl. Car. p 115 • 
Pursh, fl. 1. p. 192 (excl. syn.). ' 

Stem 3-5 feet high, straight and erect, much more slender than in the preceding species, 
simple. Leaves distant ; lower ones on long slender petioles, the secondary divisions with 
5-7 segments ; upper leaves on shorter, somewhat sheathing, dilated petioles : segments 
1 - 2 inches long, mostly acute, the lower exterior one often lobed or auriculate at the base- 
Umbels on long peduncles, the upper part of which, and the rays, are clothed with a dense 
white pubescence. Umbels usually 3 ; the numerous spreading rays about 2 inches long. 
Involucels of 6 - 10 subulate leaflets, as long as the umbellets. Petals obovate, with a small 
inflected point. Fruit about 2^ lines long and of about the same breadth, emarginate at each 
end, greenish-white when mature : dorsal ribs very prominent and acute. Vittce usually 20 ; 
8 of which belong to the commissure. 

Dry woods, thickets and hill-sides. Fl. July - August. Fr. September - October. In 
this species the seed does not so readily separate from the pericarp, as in the preceding. 


Fruit more or less compressed dorsally, surrounded with a single dilated entire smooth 
margin, which is flattened or slightly convex, but not thickened at the edge. Capsule 
with five filiform or rarely winged ribs, of which the lateral ones are contiguous to the 
dilated margin or united with it. Seed flattened, or convex on the back. 

14. ARCHEMORA. DC. mem. Umb. p. 52, and prodr. 4. p. 188. aucbemora. 

[A fenciful name, given by De Candolle, in aUusion to Arch^wrus, who ia said to have died from eating parsley, or some 

other umbelliferous plant.] 

Margin of the calyx 5-toothed. Petals obcordate, with an inflexcd point. Fruit lenticularly 
compressed, oval or obovate. Carpels with 5 filiform, obtuse, approximated, equidistant 
ribs ; the lateral ones dilated into a flattish margin, nearly as broad as liie disk. Intervals 
with single large vittx. Commissure willi 4-6 vitlje. Carpophore 2-parted. Seed flat.— 
Perennial smooth herbs, growing in swamps. Leaves pinnately or tcrnalely divided ; the 
BegmenlB entire or remotely toothed. Involucre none or few-leaved. Involucels of numerous 
leaflets. Flowers white. 

278 UMBELLIFER^. Archemora. 

1. Archemora rigida, DC. (Plate xxxvi.) Rigid-leaved Arche?nora. 

Leaves pinnately divided. — DC; Torr. <^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 1. />. 631. 

var. 1 . Segments of the leaves ovale, oblong or lanceolate, remotely toothed or denticulate, 
often entire. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. A. rigida, tricuspidata and denticulata, DC. I. c. A. rigida. 
Beck, hot. p. 148; Darlingt. ft. Cest. p. 195. Slum rigidius, Linn. sp. 1. p. 251. S. 
rigidius, tricuspidalum and dcnticulatum, Ell. sk. 1. p. 354. Sison marginatum, Michx. 
jl. \. p. 168 ; Pursh,jl. \.p. 194. ffinanthe rigida, Nutt. gen. \.p. 189. Pastinaca rigida, 
Spreng. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 586 ; Torr. fl.\. p. 314. 

var. 2. Segments of the leaves linear, elongated, mostly entire. Torr. ^- Gr. I. c. A. 
ambigua, DC. I. c. ; Beck, I. c. Slum longifolium, Pursh, Jl. l.p. 194. (Enanthe ambigua, 
Nutt. I. c. Pastinaca ambigua, Spre?ig. I. c. ; Torr. I. c. 

Root fasciculate, fleshy. Stem 2-5 feet high, erect, slender but somewhat rigid, terete, 
striate. Leaves light green, with 2-5 pairs of leaflets, of a firm texture : in the first variety, 
from half an inch to more than an inch wide, the teeth few and remote, or often wholly wanting; 
in the second form, only 2-4 lines wide, and seldom toothed. Umbels usually 3 on each 
plant ; the rays numerous and slender. Fruit about 3 lines long, broadly elliptical, greenish- 
yellow, the ribs slightly elevated : intervals dark purple : commissure white. 

Swamps ; western part of the State ; rare. Fl. August. Fr. September - October. The 
two varieties often grow together, and pass into one another. The plant is generally supposed 
to be highly poisonous. 

15. PASTINACA. Tourn. ; Endl. gen. Ai73. parsnep. 

[ Name derived from the Latin, pnstus, food.] 

Calyx-teeth obsolete or minute. Petals somewhat orbicular, entire, involute ; the point broad 
and retuse. Fruit much compressed, with a dilated flat margin. Carpels with 5 very 
slender ribs ; 3 of them dorsal and equidistant ; the lateral ones remote, and contiguous to 
the margin. Intervals with single vittae. Commissure with 2 or more vittas. Carpophore 
2-parted. Seed flat. — Perennial or biennial herbs, with fusiform often fleshy roots. Leaves 
pinnately divided ; the segments toothed, incised or lobed. Involucre and involucels few- 
leaved or none. Flowers yellow. 

1. Pastinaca sativa, Linn. Co7nmon or Wild Parsnep. 

Stem sulcate, smooth ; leaves minutely pubescent ; segments ovate-oblong, obtuse, un- 
equally toothed and serrate, cut at the base, the terminal one 3-lobed ; fruit oval, the com- 
missure with 2 vittae. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 262 ; Engl. hot. t. 556 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 196 ; Torr. 
Jl. 1. p. 314 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p.lVd; DC. prodr. 4. p. 188 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 196 ; 
Torr. «J- Gr. Jl. N. ylm.l. p. 632. 

Pastinaca. UMBELLIFER^. 279 

Root biennial, fleshy. Stem 3-6 feet high, smooth, strongly sulcate. Leaves somewhat 
shming ; the segments sessile, 3-8 pairs. Umbels large and flat. Fruit about one-third 
of an mch long, broadly oval, the border a little thickened : ribs very slender and slightly 

Fields and waste grounds ; very common. July - October. Introduced, and now com- 
pletely naturalized in many places. In the wild state, the root is hard and unfit for food. 

16. HERACLEUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. AAll. cow parsnep. 

[ Named after Hercules, who is said to Iiave brought this plant into use.] 

Calyx-teeth distinct, or sometimes obsolete. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed point ; in the 
exterior flowers often radiate, and apparently 2-cleft. Fruit much compressed on the back, 
with a broad flat margin : ribs slender ; 3 of them dorsal and equidistant ; the 2 lateral 
ones remote, and contiguous to the dilated margin. Vitts mostly clavate, shorter than the 
fruit ; one in each interval, and usually 2 in the commissure. Seed flat.— Stout herbaceous 
plants, with pinnately or ternately divided or lobed leaves : petiole large and sheathing. 
Umbels with numerous rays. Involucre caducous, mostly few-leaved. Involucels many- 

1. Heracleum la.\atum, Michx. American Coio Parsnep. 

Stem sulcate, pubescent ; leaves ternately divided, woolly-pubescent underneath ; the 
segments petiolulate, roundish-cordate, somewhat palmately lobed ; fruit oval or obovate — 
Michx. Jl.l.p. 166 ; Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 181 ; Bigel. ft. Bost p. 1 10 ; Torr. ft. 1. p. 313 • 
DC.prodr. A. p. 192 ; Hook. ft. Bor..A?n. 1. p. 270 ; Beck, bat. p. 149 ; Darlm<rt fl Cast 
p. 196; Torr. 4- Gr. ft. N. Am. 1. p. 632. 

Stem 4-8 feet high, and 1 - 2 inches in diameter at the base. Leaves with 3 primary 
divisions, each on a footstalk 2-6 inches in length ; the divisions 3 - 5.1obed and inciscly 
serrate, often 6-8 inches in diameter : common petiole much inflated and membranaceous. 
Umbels very large, spreading. Involucre of 6 - 10 oblong-lanceolate caducous leaflets. 
Leaflets of the involucels tapering to a long point. Flowers white : petals of the exterior 
ones appearing deeply and often very unequally 2-lobed, with a short inflexed point between 
the lobes. Fruit nearly half an inch long, emarginate. Vittae clavate, extending about half 
way down the carpels. 

Wet meadows and river banks. Fl. May - June. Fr. July - August. A strong-smelling 
I)lant, called in some places Master-wort. The root is stimulant and carminative. See Wood 
4" Bache's U. S. Disp. p. 86, 

280 UMBELLIFER^. Daccus. 


Fruit lenticvJarly compressed on the back, or somewhat terete. Carpels with five filiform 
bristly primary ribs, of which the lateral ones are placed on the flat commissure ; and 
four more prominent prickly secondary ones, the prickles distinct or united into a wing. 
Seed fattened or convex on the back, flattish on the face. — Umbels compound. 

17. DAUCUS. Tourn.; Linn. ; Endl. gen. 4i97. carrot. 

[Daukos is the ancient Greek name of the Carrot.] 

Margin of the calyx 5-toothed. Petals obovate, emarginate, with an inflexed point ; the 
exterior ones often larger than the others, and deeply 2-cleft. Fruit somewhat dorsally 
compressed, ovate or oblong. Carpels with 5 primary filiform bristly ribs, of which 3 
are on the back and 2 on the flat commissure : secondary ribs 4, equal, more prominent, 
winged, divided into a single row of prickles. Intervals with single vittae under the se- 
condary ridges. — Mostly perennial herbs. Leaves 2 - 3-pinnately divided. Involucre of 
several trifid or pinnatifid leaflets. Flowers white or yellow ; the central one often fleshy 
and sterile. 

1. Daucus Carota, Linn. Common, or Wild Carrot. 

Stem hispid ; leaves 2 - 3-pinnatifid, segments pinnatifid, ultimate lobes lanceolate and 
cuspidate ; leaflets of the involucre pinnatifid, nearly the length of the umbel ; prickles about 
equal to the diameter of the oblong-ovoid fruit {DC). — Linn. sp. 1. p. 242 ; Engl bot. t. 1 174; 
Pursh, fl. 1. p. 191 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 308 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 109 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 211 ; 
Beck, bot. p. 149; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 197; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 635. 

Root fusiform, yellowish, biennial. Stem about 2 feet high, branching. Leaves hispidly 
pubescent. Umbels with very numerous rays, which are turned inwards after flowering. 
Flowers white, or sometimes cream-colored ; a solitary central one of each umbellet sometimes 
abortive and colored. Primary ribs of the carpels very slender, ciliate ; secondary ones much 
stronger, cut into slender prickles. 

Fields, road-sides, etc. ; very common. Of European origin, and now generally naturalized 
in the United States. In a cultivated state, the Carrot is well known as a culinary vegetable. 
The root is frequently used as an antiseptic poultice, and the seeds as a carminative ; but the 
plant is probably of little use in calculous affections. 


Series 2. Campylospeum.e, DC. Seed with the margins involute, or deeply furrowed on 

the face. 


Fruit compressed or contracted laterally, equally rostrate. Carpels with five equal filiform 
or winged ribs, of which the lateral ones are marginal ; all of them sometimes obliterated 
at the base, and only conspicuous at the apex. Seed teretely convex, either furrowed on 
the face or involute. — Umbels compound. 

18. OSMORHIZA. Raf. in journ. phys. 1821 ; Endl. gen. A51o. sweet cicely. 

[ From the Greek, osme, odor, and rhiza, root : the roots have a sweet smell.] 

Margin of the calyx obsolete. Petals oblong, nearly entire ; the point cuspidate and incurved. 
Fruit linear-elongated, acutely angled, lobed, attenuate at the base, crowned with the 
stylopodium and straight styles. Ribs of the carpels acute, bristly upward. Intervals flat, 
without viltas. Commissure narrow, with a deep channel. Seed somewhat terete. — 
Perennial herbs, with fleshy aromatic roots. Leaves biternately divided ; the segments 
ovate or oblong, incisely toothed. Umbels opposite the leaves. Involucre of 2 - 4 linear- 
lanceolate leaflets. Involucel about 5-leaved. Flowers white. 

1. OsMORHiz.\ LONGisTYLis, DC. (Plate XXXVIII.) True Stveet Cicely. 

Styles filiform, nearly as long as the ovary; fruit clavate. — DC. prodr. 4. p. 232; Hook. 
fl. Bor.-Am. l.p. 271. t. 96; Beck, bot. p. 150; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 199; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. 
N. Am. l.p. 638. Uraspermum Claytoni, Nutt. gen. l.p. 193 (e.xcl. syn.) ; Bigel.Jl. Bost. 
p. 112. Myrrhis Claytoni, Spreng. in Schult. syst. 6. p. 508. M. longistylis, Torr.fl.l. 
p. 310. 

Root thick, somewhat fleshy and branching, or fusiform and fasciculate, of a sweet spicy 
flavor resembling anise. Stem 2-3 feet high, purplish, pubescent when young (as well as 
the petioles and peduncles), at length nearly smooth. Radical and lower cauline leaves on 
long petioles, a little pubescent on both sides, shining underneath, somewhat lobed at the base. 
Umbels with about 4 rays ; the rays 1-2 inches long. Involucre of 1 - 3 narrowly lanceo- 
late and ciliate leaflets. Umbellcts 3 - 6 flowered. Involucels of about 5 lanceolate and 
ciliatc leaflets. Flowers twice as large as in the following species. Fruit dark green or 
blackish, much attenuated below, rather obtuse at the summit. 

Rich moist soils, amongst rocks. Fl. May. Fr. August. Children arc very fond of 
gathering the roots of this plant, on account of its sweet aniseed flavor ; but they sometimes 
mistake for it the Cicuta, or other poisonous species of Umbelliferce. 

[Flora.] 36 

282 UMBELLIFERiE. Osmoriiiza. 

2. OsMORHiZA BREviSTYLis, DC. Spurious Swcet Cicely. 

Styles conical, their length scarcely equal to the breadth of the ovary ; fruit somewhat 
tapering at the summit. — DC. prodr. 4. p. 232 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 271. t. 97 ; Beck, 
bat. p.°l50; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 200; Torr. ^ Gr.ji. N. Am. 1. p. 639. Myrrhis Glay- 
toni, Michx. fl. \. p. 170 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 308, e.vcluding most of the synonyms. Chaero- 
phyllum Claytoni, Pers. syn. 1. ;>. 320. Uraspcrmum hirsutum, Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 112. 

Root sweetish, but rather nauseous, and without the anise-flavor of the preceding species. 
Stem pale green, often hoary-pubescent when young, but finally (especially in shady places) 
almost smooth. Leaves slightly hairy on both sides ; secondary divisions pinnatifid ; segments 
oblong, incisely and sharply serrate. Umbel with longer rays than in the preceding species. 
Involucre and involucels at length deciduous. Fruit shining, nearly black. 

Moist rocky woods. Fl. May. Fr. August. This species is much more common than 
the preceding in the southern part of the State : both are frequent in the northern and western 

Tribe IX. SSIYRNIE^. Koch; DC. 

Fruit turgid, mostly laterally compressed or contracted. Carpels with five ribs ; the lateral 
ones marginal or placed opposite the margin, sometimes nearly obliterated. Seed 
involute, or sulcate on the face. — Umbels compound. 

19. CONIUM. Linn.; Endl. gen. 4532. poisos hemlock. 

[ " The koneion of Theophrastus ; from liorws, a cone or top, whose whirling motion resembles the giddiness produced on 
the human constitution by the poisonous juice of this plant." Hooker.] 

Margin of the calyx obsolete. Petals obcordate, with a short inflexed point. Fruit ovoid, 
compressed at the sides. Carpels with 5 prominent, equal, undulate or crenate ribs ; the 
lateral ones marginal. Intervals without viltfe. Seed with a deep narrow groove on the 
face. — Biennial, poisonous herbs. Root fusiform. Stem terete, branched. Leaves de- 
compound. Involucre and involucels 3 — 5-leaved, the latter one-sided. Flowers white. 

1. CoNiUM MACULATUM, Linn. Common Poison Hemlock. 

Stem smooth, spotted ; segments of the leaves lanceolate, pinnatifid, the lobes acute ; leaflets 
of the involucel lanceolate, shorter than the umbellets. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 243; Ensl. bot. 
t. 1191 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 195; Bigel. med. bot. I. p. 113. t. 11, a7ul fl. Bost. p. 195; Torr. 
fl. l.p. 312 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 272 ; Beck, bot. p. 150 ; Barlingt. fl. Cest. p. 201 ; 
Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 640. 

Root white and fleshy, often forked. Stem 2-4 feet high, much branched, striate and 
spotted with purple. Leaves petiolate, bright green, ternately much divided ; ultimate lobes 
about a line wide. Umbels terminal : rays numerous, about an inch long. Involucre and 


involucels about 3-leaved. Fruit crowned with the conspicuous stylopodium and short recurved 
styles ; the ridges distinctly waved. 

Road-sides, waste grounds, etc. ; naturahzed in many places. A native of Europe. Fl. June 
- September. Fr. August - October. The leaves exhale a strong disagreeable odor when 
bruised. This plant is a powerful narcotic poison. It has long been used in medical practice. 
The active principle, called conicine, is a colorless oily liquid, lighter than water, of a strong 
aod penetrating odor, and causing death almost as rapidly as prussic acid. 

Series 3. Ccelosperm.e, DC. Seeds with the base and apex curved inwards, or saccately 


Fruit globose, or the carpels globose and didymous : primary ribs of each carpel 5, depressed 
and fleocuous, or nearly obsolete ; the secondary ones i, more prominent : all ivin^less 
— Umbels compound. 

20. ERIGENIA. Nutt. gen. 1. p. IS7 ; Endl. gen. A359. ERIGENIA. 

[Erigenia is a name of Aurora, tlie harbinger of day or of the spring. Nhttall.] 

Margin of the calyx obsolete. Petals obovate-spatulate, flat, entire. Stylopodium depressed. 
Fruit contracted at the commissure, didymous. Carpels ovoid-reniform : ribs filiform ; the 
3 dorsal ones slightly prominent ; the lateral ones near the commissure. Vittae very slender, 
3 - 4 in each interval and 6 - 8 in the commissure. Carpophore adherent. Seed with a 
broad deep cavity on the face, gibbously convex on the back. — A small smooth vernal 
perennial, with a globose tuberous root and a short caudex. Leaves 1-2, nearly radical, 
bi-triiernately divided ; the segments pinnately 3 - 5-parted. Peduncle elongated. Umbel 
of 3 - 4 rays, compound, subtended by an involucral bipinnatifid leaf; or the peduncle 
may be regarded as a branch, bearing a single sessile leaf, and a compound sessile umbel 
at the summit. Involucel of 3 - 8 linear-oblong entire leaflets. Umbellets 3 - 5-flowcred. 
Flowers white. 

1. Erigenia bulbosa, Nuit. (Plate XXXIX.) Bulbous-rooted Erigenia. 

Null. I. c; DC. I c. ; Torr. <^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. p. 645. Sison bulbosum, Michx.fl. 1. 
p. 169. Hydrocotyle composita, Pursh, fl. 1. p. 190; Torr. fl. 1. p. 304. H. ambigua, 
Pursh, I. c. 2. p. 732. H. bipinnata, Muhl. cat. p. 29. 

Root a small round fleshy tuber, about half an inch in diameter, and buried deep in the 
ground. Caudex 1-2 inches high, usually furnished with but a single leaf. Petiole twice 
3-partcd, sheathing at the base : secondary divisions bipinnately dissected ; the lobes linear- 
oblong, mostly obtuse. Peduncles 1 - 2, or rarely 3, from the sheathing base of llic petiole, 


281 UMBELLIFERiE. Erigexia. 

2-6 inclies long. Involucral leaf resembling the radical one, but sessile and much smaller. 
Umbellcts usually 3, at length shorter than the leaflets of the involucel. Petals expanding, 
rather obtuse, flat at the tip. Anthers dark purple. Styles subulate, longer than the ovary, 
recurved. Fruit conspicuously didymous, the commissure narrow. Carpels gibbous, one of 
them often abortive, deeply emarginate at each end ; the faces separating between the apex 
and the base, so that there is often a perforation between the carpels. Viltae very small, 
indistinct, except at maturity. 

Shady rich soils, Buflalo {Dr. Kinnicuit). March - April. This genus does not well 
accord with any of the tribes of U.mbei.lifer^, as they are characterized by the latest writers. 
Mr. Sullivant, who first noticed the viltie, truly remarks that the plant exhibits an union of the 
campylospermous and ccelospermous structures. It is left for tlie present in the tribe in which 
it was placed in the Flora of North America. 

Order XLIX. ARALIACEJL. Juss. The Arali.\ Tribe. 

Calyx adherent to the ovary ; the limb usually very small, entire or toothed- 
Petals 5-10, valvate in aestivation, rarely wanting. Stamens as many as the 
petals. Ovary crowned with a disk, 2 - 15-celled, with a solitary susj)ended 
ovule in each cell. Fruit drupaceous or baccate, sometimes nearly dry, the 
carpels not separating : endocarp coriaceous or thin. Seed solitary in each 
cell. Embrvo short, at the base of copious fleshy albumen. — Shrubs, trees or 
perennial herbs, with compound or simple leaves which are destitute of stipules; 
the petioles dilated and thickened at the base. Flowers mostly umbellate, often 
polygamous ; the umbels commonly panicled or racemed. 

1. AR.4.LIA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. AlOoS. aralia. 

[A name of unknown origin.] 

Flowers mostly perfect. Limb of the calyx short, 5-toothed or entire. Petals 5, spreading. 
Stamens 5, alternate with the petals : filaments short. Styles 5, often united below, at 
length divaricate. Drupe baccate, 5-lobed, 5-celled ; the endocarp chartaceous. — Shrubs,, 
trees or perennial herbs, w:ith mostly compound leaves. Umbels often panicled. 

1. Aralia racemosa, Linn. Spikenards 

Stem herbaceous, divaricately branched, smooth ; leaves ternately and quinalely de- 
compound ; leaflets cordate-ovate, acuminate, doubly serrate ; umbels disposed in large doubly 


compound racemose panicles. — Linn. sp. 1 p. 273 ; Michx. Jl.l.p.l85; " Schk handb 

t 86 ;" Pursh, fl. 1. p. 209 ; Ton: fi.l.p. 327 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 122 ; DC. prodr. 4' 
p. 257; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 174 ; Beck, hot. p. 151 ; DarUngt.fl. Cost. p. 209; Torr 

^ G-r. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 646. 

Root large and thick, strongly aromatic. Stem 3-5 feet high, with spreading branches 

Leaves very large ; leaflets 2 - 6 inches long and 2 - 4 inches wide, on short stalks, nearly 
smooth, somewhat shining underneath. Panicle 4-8 inches long. Flowers small, greenish- 
white. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals ovate-lanceolate. Styles short, united below, at length 
distmct and spreading above. Fruit small, dark purple. '^ 

In rich woodlands and banks of ravines ; not uncommon in the interior of the State but 
rare near the seacoast. It is often seen in gardens. Fl. July. Fr. September. The' root 
and berries are in great repute as aromatic tonics. They are used in the form of tincture • 
but, as Dr. Darlmgton correctly observes, the habit of taking such medicines is perilous to the 
patient. See Wood ^- Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 106. 

2. Aralia nudicaulis, Linn. (Plate XL.) Wild SarsapariUa. 

Stem very short or none ; leaf mostly solitary, radical , the petiole elongated, 3-cleft each 
division usually pmnately 5-foliolate ; leaflets ovate or oblong-oval, acuminate, sharply and 
doubly serrate ; scape shorter than the leaf; umbels 2. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 274 • Michx i 1 
p. 185 ; Torr. fl.l.p. 327 ; Raf. med. hot. l.t.S; Bigel. fl. Bast. p. 122 ; Beck, hot. 
p.\5\; Darling f. fl. Cent. p. 209 ; Torr.,^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 646. 

Root (or rhizoma) long, thick and irregular, yellowish-brown, prostrate, somewhat aromatic 
throwing up from Us extremity a solitary leaf and scape, which are clothed at the base with 
several brownish membranaceous scales. Petiole 6- 12 inches long, 3-forked above- the 
divisions commonly bearing 2 pairs of leaflets with an odd one, but sometimes they are bi- 
ternately divided, each subdivision 3-foliolate : leaflets 2-4 inches or more in length, sessile 
or on short stalks, smooth. Umbels globose : pedicels about half an inch long, "involucre 
none. Calyx-teeth minute. Petals oblong, greenish-white, at length reflexed. Stamens 
erect, longer than the ovary. Styles distinct, slender, shorter than the stamens. Fruit very 
dark-purple when mature, juicy : endocarp strongly 5-angled. 

Rocky woods, in rich soils ; common. Fl. May. Fr. July. The root is officinal, and is 
often sold and used as the genuine Sarsaparilla. Both medicines are harmless, and probably 
nearly inert. See Wooil <^ Bache, I. c. 

3. Aralia hispida, Mchir. Wild Elder. 

Stem a little shrubby at the base, and very hispid with rigid bristles ; leaves bipinmtcly 
compound, the petiole often hispid ; leaflets about 3 pairs with a terminal one, oblong-ovate 
acute, incisely serralc, smooth; umbels several, terminal, somewhat corymbose ; involucre of 
several small setaceous leaflets. — Mc/«:. fl.l.p.lQb; Vent. hort. Ccls. t. 41 ; Sims lot 

286 ARALIACEiE. Arali*. 

mag. t. 1085 ; Lodd. hot. cab. t. 1306 ; Torr. ft. 1. p. 328 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 258 ; Hook, 
ft. Bor.-Am. l.p. 274 ; Beck, hot. p. 151 ; Torr.<^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 647. 

Stem 1 — 2 feet high, the base rather stout and woody ; the bristles spreading. Leaflets 
about an inch long, sessile or nearly so, acute at the base, smooth. Umbels pedunculate and 
often fastigiate ; the rays very slender, nearly an inch long, spreading. Calyx-tube turbinate, 
obtusely 5-angled : teeth small, acute. Petals white, ovate. Stamens exserted. Styles 
united below, spreading above. Fruit blackish when mature, with five projecting angles : 
endocarp thick and somewhat crustaceous. 

Rocky banks of rivers, and in dry rather poor soils. June - July. 

2. PANAX. Linn. ; Lam. ill. t.Q60; Endl. gen. Ai^X. aiSSENG. 

[From the Greek, pan, all, and a}:os, a remedy; a universal remedy or panacea, it being consideKd by the Tartars and 
Chinese a medicine for all diseases.] 

Flowers polygamous. Limb of the calyx very short, obscurely 5-toothed. Petals 5, spreading. 
Stamens 5. Fruit fleshy, drupaceous, compressed, orbicular or didymous, 2 - 3-celled ; 
the endocarp rather thin and somewhat coriaceous. — Perennial herbs, shrubs or trees, 
somewhat diverse in habit. Petioles sheathing at the base. 

§. EuPANAx, Torr. & Gr. Herbaceous and unarmed : root tuberous : 'leaves ternately verticillate at 

the summit of the low simple stem, palmately compound : umbel solitary, simple, on a long peduncle. 

1. Panax qdinquefolium, Linn. Common Ginseng. 

Root fusiform, often branched ; leaflets mostly 5, on distinct footstalks, obovate-oblong, 
acuminate, the midrib and nerves mostly smooth ; the lateral ones smaller ; peduncle about 
the length of the petioles ; styles and cells of the ovary 2 (one of each often abortive). — 
Linn. sp. 2. p. 1058; Miclix.Jl. l.p. 256; Pursh,fl. l.p. 191 ; Bat. mag. t. 1333 ; Bigel. 
med. hot. 3. p. S2. t. 29, and fl. Bost. p. 375 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 292 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 273; Beck, hot. p. 152; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 181 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 648. 

Roots fleshy, transversely wTinkled, 3-6 inches long, whitish, slightly aromatic and 
sweetish. Stem about a foot high, divided at the summit into 3 equal spreading petioles which 
are 3 - 4 inches in length. Leaflets rarely more than 5, very thin and menibranaceous, the 
terminal and two lateral ones 3-5 inches long ; the others smaller, doubly and unequally 
serrate : petioles 2-3 inches long. Peduncle nearly as long as the petioles. Umbel 8-16- 
flowered ; the central flowers often abortive. Involucres consisting of several fenceolate-acute 
leaflets. Calyx-teeth triangular, acute. Petals ovate-oblong, yellowish-green. Styles at first 
erect, at length spreading. Fruit reniform, somewhat compressed ; one of the carpels often 
abortive, and then gibbous, bright crimson when ripe. Sometimes the fruit is tricarpellary, 
with 3 styles. 

Shady woods, in rich soil. Fl. July. Fr. September. 

Panax. ARALIACE^. 287 

The root of this plant is in high estimation among the Chinese as a medicinal article, being 
an ingredient in nearly all their prescriptions. It was formerly exported in large quantities to 
Canton, but comparatively little has been sent for the last twenty-five years. Its real medicinal 
virtues seem to be very feeble. See Bigelow's med. hot. l. c, and Wood <^ Bache's U. S. 
Dispells, p. 494. 

2. Panax trifolium, Linn. Dwarf Ginseng. 

Root globose ; leaflets 3-5, lanceolate-oblong or obovate-elliptical, sessile on the common 
petiole ; peduncle much longer than the petioles ; styles and cells of the ovary mostly 3. — 
Linn. sp. 2. p. 1058 ; Michx. fl. I. p. 256 ; Bat. mag. t. 1334 ; Pursh,fl. \.p. 191 ; Torr. 
fl. 1. p. 291 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 252 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 273; Beck, bat. p. 152 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cast. p. 182 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 648. 

Root a round tuber, about half an inch in diameter, buried deep in the ground, pungent to 
the taste. Stem 4-8 inches high. Leaflets mostly 3, but sometimes 5, from half an inch to 
an inch or more in length, acutely and unequally serrate. Peduncle mostly rather longer than 
the leaves. Flowers polygamo-dicecious. Involucre of a few setaceous leaflets. Sterile 
umbel many- (20 - 40-) flowered, white. Calyx-teeth very minute. Petals oblong, obtuse. 
Stamens erect. Style solitary : ovary abortive. Perfect umbel few- (4 - 8-) flowered. 
Petals caducous (sometimes wanting ''). Stamens often wanting. Styles diverging. Fruit 
obtusely triangular, with 3 elevated ridges on each side, greenish-yellow when mature. 

Moist shady woods, along streams. Fl. April. Fr. May. A very neat and delicate vernal 

288 CORNACE^. Cornus. 

Order L. CORNACEiE. DC. The Dog-wood Tribe. 

Calyx adherent to the ovary ; the limb 4-toothed : testivation valvate. Petals 
distinct, equal in number to the teeth of the calyx. Stamens 4, alternate with 
the petals. Ovary ■i-celled, with a solitary pendulous ovule in each cell : styles 
united into one. Fruit a 2-celled drupe, crowned with the remains of the 
calyx. Testa of the seed coriaceous. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen, 
and nearly equalling it in length. — Trees or shrubs, with opposite (very rarely 
somewhat alternate) leaves destitute of stipules. Flowers in cymes, or some- 
times in heads surrounded with a petaloid involucre. Hairs mostly fixed by 
the centre. 

1. CORNUS. Tourn.; VHerit. mon. Corn. 1788; Endl. gen. A^bl^. DOGWOOD. 

[ From the Latin, romu, a horn ; owing to the tonglincss of the wood.] 

Limb of the calyx minute. Petals oblong, spreading. Filaments filiform. Style clavate : 
stigma obtuse or capitate. Drupes not united with each other into a syncarpium. — Leaves 
entire, minute or scabrous with appressed hairs. Flowers white, rarely yellow. Bark 
bitter and tonic, the active principle being a peculiar substance (as yet little known) called 

ij 1. Flowers in cymes, without an involucre. 

1. Cornus altermfolia, Linn./. Alternate-leaved Dogwood. 

Branches alternate ; leaves more or less alternate, broadly oval or ovate, acuminate, the 
lower surface whitish and somewhat rough ; cymes loose, spreading and depressed ; drupes 
bluish-black. — Linn.f. nuppl. p. 125 ; VHerit. Corn. p. 10. t. 6 ; Michx.Jl. 1. p. 93 ; Pursh, 
fi. 1. p. 109 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 210 ; Torr.fl. \.p. 180; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 58; "Guimp. Otto 
4- Hayne, holz. t. 43 ;" DC. prodr. 4. p. 271 ; Beck, bat. p. 154 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 108 ; 
Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 65U. 

A small tree (10-20 feet high), the trunk sometimes 6 inches in diameter, with widely 
spreading branches and a smooth j^ellowish-green bark. Leaves sometimes nearly opposite, 
but usually alternate, though closely approximated, about 3 inches long, smooth above ; the 
under surface pretty thickly sprinkled with centrally fixed hairs ; the base acute : petiole 
slender, 1-2 inches long. Flowers in large flat cymes. Anthers linear-oblong (as in all the 
species of this section). Petals lanceolate, cream-colored. Drupes globose, very dark blue 
when mature. 

Moist woods, and banks of rivers. Fl. May - June. Fr. August. The bark is one of 
the Shaker medicines, being considered diaphoretic and astringent. 



2. CoRNUs ciRciNATA, VHerit. Round-kaved Dogwood. 

Branches spotted and warty ; leaves (large) very broadly oval or roundish, abruptly acumi- 
nate, rather densely clothed underneath with a soft whitish pubescence ; cymes rather small 
depressed; drupes ovoid-globose, light blue.— L'i/en(. /. c. j». 9. <. 3 ; Pursh, fl 1 p 108- 
Torr.fl. I. p. 179; Bigel. fl. Bost.p. 59; Beck, hot. p. 154; DC. prodr. i.'p. 272;' Torr 
4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 650. C. tomentulosa, Michx. fl.l.p.Ql. 

A shrub 4-8 feet high, with straight slender branches. Leaves 4-5 inches lon<T and of 
nearly the same breadth, obtuse at the base : pubescence of the under surface of two kinds • 
one closely appressed, the hairs centrally fixed ; the other simple, loose and somewhat crisped ' 
petiole less than an inch long. Cyme 2 - S| inches in diameter, on a peduncle about an inch 
m length. Calyx-teeth very short. Petals ovate-lanceolate, at length spreading or reflexed 
white. Stamens longer than the petals. Style about half the length of the stamens : stigma 
capitate. Drupe small. 

Shady banks of rivers ; common in the northern and western part of the State ; rare below 
the Highlands. Fl. June. Fr. September. 

3. CoRNUs STOLONiFERA, Michx. White-berried Dogwood. 

Stems often reclined and stoloniferous ; the shoots virgate, bright reddish-purple ; branches 
smooth, a little spreading; leaves ovate, slightly acuminate, obtuse at the base, rather rough 
on both sides with a minute appressed pubescence ; cymes small, flat, rather crowded ■ petals 
ovate ; drupes white. - Mc/^cr. Jl.l.p.92; Torr. 4. Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 650 C alba 
Wang. Amer. p. 91 ; I'Herit. I. c. (partly); Pursh, fl. I. p. 109; Bigel fl. Bost p 58 ' 
DC. prodr. 4. p. 272; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 276 (partly). C. Purshii, G. Don, syst. 3 
p. 399. C. sangumea, Pursh, I. c ? not of Linn. 

Stems 5-10 feet long, erect, or prostrate and rooting; the bark dotted with a few small 
oval warts. Leaves 3 - 4 inches long and 2 - 3 inches wide ; the hairs on both sides fixed 
by the middle : petiole an inch or more in length. Cymes about an inch and a half in dia- 
meter. Calyx-teeth very minute. Petals white. Drupes small, globose, white or somewhat 
lead-colored when fully ripe. 

Banks of streams, and in swamps. Northern and western parts of the State. May - June. 
This species has been confounded with C. alba of Siberia, from which it is quite distinct. 

4. CoRNus PANicuLATA, VHevit. (Plate xli.) Panicled Dogtoood. 

Branches (grayish) erect, smooth ; leaves ovate-lanceolate or oval, finely acuminate, acute 
at the base, roughish on both sides with a minute appressed pubescence, whitish underneath ; 
cymes loose, convex or usually paniculate ; petals lanceolate ; drupes small, depressed — 
Vllerit. I. c. p. Q.t.5; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 109 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 209 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 179 ; Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 59 ; Beck, bat. p. 154 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 108 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl N Ain 1 
p. 650. J • ■ ■ 

[FtORA.] 37 

290 CORNACEiE. Cornits. 

A shrub 4-8 feet liigli, with straight somewliat dotted brandies. Leaves 2-3 inches 
•long and 1 - li incli wide, pale green above, sprinkled with short whitish hairs. Cymes 
very numerous, giving the shrub a white appearance when in flower, elongated when in fruit. 
Calyx-tccth minute. Ovary canescent : stigma thick, capitate. Petals rather acute. Drupes 
about the size of a small pea, at first nearly white, but when fully mature assuming a leaden 

Tiiickets, low grounds, and on hill-sides. Fl. May - June. Fr. September. Very distinct 
from C. stolonifera. 

5. CoRNUs SERICEA, Limi. Sicamp Dogtvood. Red-rod. 

Branches spreading, purplish ; the branchlets, cymes and petioles woolly-pubescent ; leaves 
ovate or elliptical, acuminate, nearly smooth above, silky-pubescent underneath ; cymes 
depressed, crowded ; calyx-teeth lanceolate ; petals lanceolate-oblong, obtuse ; drupes globose, 
pale blue. — Linn. mant. p. 199 ; IHerit. I. c. p. 5. ^ 2 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 108 ; Ell. sk. 1. 
p. 208 ; Bart. veg. mat. med. l.t.9; Torr.fl. I. p. 178 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 472 ; Beck, hot. 
p. 153; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 107; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 652. C. lanuginosa, 
MicJix. ft. I. p. 92. 

A shrub 6-12 feet high, with straight spreading branches ; the bark of a greenish- or 
brownish-purple color. Leaves 2-4 inches long and 1-2 inches wide, the pubescence a 
little shining ; veins somewhat rusty-colored : petioles about three-fourths of an inch long. 
Cymes on a long peduncle, about 2^ inches in diameter. Calyx-teeth verj' conspicuous. 
Petals white. Stigma thick, capitate. 

Margin of swamps and banks of streams. Fl. June. Fr. September. 

§ 2. Flowers capitate, surrounded hy a pctaloid involucre. — Trees. 

6. CoRNUs FLORIDA, Liun. CommoTi Dogwood. FUncering Dogwood. 

Leaves of the involucre 4, obcordate, with a callous notch at the apex ; drupes oval ; leaves 
ovate, acuminate. — Linn. sp. I. p. 117 ; VHerit. I. c.p.A; Michx. fl. 1. p. 91 ; Bot. mag. 
p. 526 ; Midix. fl. sylv. t. 48 ; Pursh, fl.l. p. 108 ; Ell. sk. l.p. 207 ; Bigel. med. bot. 2. 
t. 28, andfl. Bost. p. 57 ; Torr.fl. \. p. 178 ; Bart. veg. mat. med. 1. t. 3; Beck, bot. p. 153 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 106; "Guimp. Otto ^ Hcyne, holz. t. 19;" Torr. 4- Gr.fl. N. Am. 1. 
p. 652. 

A tree 15 - 30 feet high, with a trunk 3-7 inches in diameter ; the bark grayish, and 
cracked into small portions which are more or less square in their outline : wood hard and 
very compact, the alburnum white, and the heart of a brownish or chocolate color. Branches 
expanding. Leaves acute at the base, whitish underneath ; the hairs mostly fixed by the 
middle. Flowers sessile, in small dense heads, which are subtended by a large white or 
slightly purplish involucre nearly three inches in diameter. Calyx-teeth short, triangular, 

CoE^a•s. CORNACE^. 291 

rather obtuse. Petals oblong, obtuse, at length reflexed, greenish-yellow. Anthers oval. 
Stigma capitate. Drupe bright scarlet and shining when mature. 

In woods ; common. Fl. May. Fr. September - October. 

This tree, when in full flower, is one of the greatest ornaments of the American forest. 
The wood, on account of its close grain and hardness, is extremely useful. It is often em- 
ployed as a substitute for box, and is susceptible of a fine polish. It also makes excellent 
cogs for wheels, teeth for harrows, and is used for a variety of other purposes where a hard, 
durable, fine-grained wood is required. It frequently constitutes a portion of the firewood 
brought to the city of New-York, and is esteemed nearly equal to hard maple. The bark is 
a valuable tonic. See the works of Bigelow and Barton quoted above ; also Wood ^ Bache's 
U. S. Dispens. p. 265. 

§ 3. Flowers in contracted umbel-like cymes, surrounded by a pctaloid involucre : stem herbaceous. 

7. CoRNUs Canadensis, Lirm. Dicarf Dogwood. 

Subterranean trunk creeping, a little woody ; flowering stems simple, ascending ; upper 
leaves verticillate, on very short petioles ; involucre 4-leaved, much longer than the flowers ; 
petals greenish-white.— Li«w. amain, acad. I. p. 157, and spec. I. p. Ill; VHerit. I. c. p. 2. 
t. 1 ; Bot. mag. t. 880 ; MicJix. fl. 1. p.91; Pursh, fl.l.p.107; Torr. fl. I. p. 177 ; 
Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 57 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 277 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 274 ; Bed, bot. 
p. 153 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 1. p. 652. 

Subterranean stems long, slender. Flowering stems about 6 inches high, with one or two 
pairs of bracts or small opposite leaves, and a whorl of usually 6 oval or oval-lanceolate leaves 
at the summit, both surfaces of which are sprinkled with very minute centrally fixed hairs. 
Peduncle about an inch long. Involucral leaves greenish-white, broadly ovate, abruptly 
acuminate. Cyme many-flowered, much shorter than the involucre. Calyx-tube oblong- 
turbinate : teeth short, obtuse. Petals ovate, one of them (in all my specimens) with a long 
subulate process at the summit. Anthers oblong, yellow. Drupes globose, bright red, 
somewhat edible. 

Damp woods and shady swamps ; rather common. Fl. Jlay - June. Fr. September. 



Subclass II. Monopetalois Exogenous Plants.* 

Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla ; the petals more or less 
united (monopetalous or gamopctalous). 


Groi'P 1. Ovary coherent with the calyx (inferior), 2 - several-celled, with one or many ovules in each cell. Seeds 

albuminous. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 
Order 51. Caprifoluce^. Stipules none. Leaves opposite. 

52. RuBiACEfi. Stipules hetwecn the petioles ; or the leaves in whorls. 

1. Suborder StellatjB. Leaves in whorla. 

2. Suborder Cincuoneje. Leaves opposite. 

Group 2. Ovary coherent with the calyx, one-celled and one-ovuled, rarely 3-celIed with two of the cells empty. Seeds 
with little or no albumen. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 

53. Valerunaceje. Flowers not in involucratc heads. Stamens distinct. Seeds without albumen. 

54. DiPSACEiE. Heads dense, involucrate. Stamens distinct. Seeds albuminous. 

55. CoMPOSiTjE. Heads dense, involucrate. Stamens syngenesious. Seeds without albumen. 

Group 3. Ovary coherent with the calyx, with 2 or more cells and numerous ovules. Fruit capsular. Seeds albuminous. 
Stamens inserted with the corolla : anthers not opening by pores. 

56. LoBELiACEiE. Corolla irregular. Stamens united. 

57. Campandlacbje. Corolla regular. Stamens distinct. 

Group 4. Ovary free from the calyx, superior, or sometimes coherent with it, with 2 or more cells and numerous ovules. 
Seeds albuminous. Stamens inserted with the corolla, or rarely coherent with its base, as many or twice as 
many as its lobes: anthers mostly opening by pores or chinks. 

58. ERicACEa:. Character same as that of the group. 

Group 5. Ovary free, or rarely coherent with the calyx, several-celled, with a single ovule (or at least a single seed) in 
each cell. Stamens definite : anthers not opening by pores. — Trees or shrubs. 

59. AauiFoi.iACE^. Sepals 4 - G. Corolla 4 - G-parted or cleft. Stamens as many as the segments of the corolla. 

Fruit drupaceous, with 2 - G stones or nucules. — Leaves mostly coriaceous. Flowers small, axillary. 

60. Ebenaceje. Calyx and corolla 3 - 6-clefl. Stamens 2-4 times as many as the lobes of the corolla. Fruit a 


Group 6. Ovary free (superior), or with only the base coherent with the tube of the calyx, one-celled, with a free central 
placenta. Stamens inserted into the regular corolla opposite its lobes, wliich they equal in number. 

61. PRiMCLACEiE. Corolla rotate, hypocrateriform or campanulatc. Style and stigma single. Fruit capsular, with 

a free central placenta at the base of the cell. — Herbaceous plants. 

Group 7. Ovary free, one-celled, with a single ovule ; or 2-celled, with several o^Tiles attached to a tliick central placenta. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the regular corolla, or the nearly distinct petals. 

62. PLANTAGiNACEffi. Calyx 4-cleft, persistent. Corolla tubular or urn-shaped, membranaceous, persistent, 4-cleft. 

Stamens 4, inserted on the tube of the corolla. Capsule 2-cclled, opening transversely. — Mostly low 
herbs, with small flowers in spikes. 

63. PLUMBAQiNACEa:. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, plaited. Corolla 5-parted, or sometimes 5-petalled. Styles or 

stigmas 5. 

♦ A few Ericace^ are more or less polypetalous (See note, page 1). 


Grocp 8. Ovary free, 1 - 2- (sometimes spnriously 4-) ceUed, with numerous ovules. Corolla 2-lipped or irregular ; the 
stamens inserted upon its tube, and mostly fewer than its lobes, or often didynamous. 
* Ovary one-celled. 

64. Lentibclace^. Oxary with a free central placenta.— Herbs, Rowing in water or wet places. Flowers on 


65. OROBiNCniCE^. Ovary with parietal placenta;.— Herbs ; parasitic on roots, destitute of foliage; 

*• Ovary 2-celled, with the placenta; in the axis. 

66. PEDiLucEi. Ovary surrounded wth a fleshy disk. Fruit indurated or drupaceous, often 2 - 4-homed. Seeds 

without albumen. — Usually viscid herbs. 

67. ScHoPHULARiAcEa:, Stamens 4, didynamous (rarely only 2, or with a 5th sterile filament). Capsule 3-valved. 

Seeds numerous, albuminous. 

Grocp 9. Ovary free, 2 - 4-Iobed, and in fruit separating into as many one-seeded little nuts or achenia, or else entire 
and drupaceous, including as many one-seeded nucules. Corolla regular or irregular ; the st'amens inserted 
upon its tube, equalling its lobes, or fewer in number. 

68. Verben-acej:. Corolla 2-lipped, or 4 - 5-lobed and more or less irregular. Stamens mostly 4 and didynamous 

sometimes only 2. Ovary entire, 2 - 4-celled. Fruit drupaceous, baccate or dry, usually splittin.^ 
into 2-4 indehiscent carpels. "^ 

69. Labiate:. Corolla 2-lipped. Stamens 4, didynamous, or only 2. Ovary deeply 4-lobed ; the style proceeding 

from the base of the lobes. Fruit consisting of 4 little nuts or achenia included in the persistent 
calyx, — Aromatic herbs, or somewhat shrubby plants with square stems. 

70. B0RAGIKACE.1:. Corolla regular; the limb 5-lobed, often with a row of scales in the throat. Stamens as many 

as the lobes of the coroUa, and alternate with them. Fruit consisting of 4 little nuts or achenia. — 
Herbs or sometimes shrubby plants, with round stems and alternate rough leaves. 

Group 10. Oyary free (superior), compound or with the carpels distinct, with several or numerous (rarely soUtary) ovules 
in each cell. Corolla regular ; the stamens inserted on its tube, as many as its lobes and alternate with them . 
• Ovary compound, of 2 or more united carpels. 

71. Htdroputllaceje. Calyx 5-cleft, with the sinuses often appendaged. Corolla usually furnished with scales 

or honey-bearing grooves inside ; the five stamens inserted into its base. Ovary with two parietal 
placenta;.— Herbs with lobcd leaves. 

72. DiAPE.s-siACEi:. Calyx of 5 imbricated sepals. Corolla 5-lobed. Stamens with petaloid filaments : anthers 

transversely 2-valved. Capsule 3-vaIved. Embryo with a slender radicle and short cotyledons.— 
Low evergreen shrubs. 

73. CoNVOLVCLACEiE. Calyx of 5 imbricated sepals. Corolla plaited and twisted in Estivation ; the limb often 

entire. Stamens 5. Capsule 2-4- (sometimes 1-) celled, septifragal. Seeds large, with foliaceous 
crumpled cotyledons. — Twining plants, with showy flowers. 

74. SoLA-VEi. Calyx of 4 - 5 more or less united sepals. Corolla regular or sometimes a little irregular, plaited in 

estivation. Capsule or berry 3-celled, many-seeded. Embryo mostly curved, in fleshy albumen. — 
Herbs or shrubs, with watery juice and alternate leaves. 
i5. GENTiA.VACEi:. Calyx of 4 - 5 persistent, more or less united sepals. Corolla mostly twisted in a;stivation. 
Ovary onc-celled, with 2 parietal but often introflexed placentae. Capsule many-seeded. Seeds with 
fleshy albumen and a minute embryo.— Herbs with a waterj' juice. Leaves mostly opposite. Flowers 

•• Ovaries mostly 2, and distinct. Fruit usually consisting of 2 follicles. 
7C. Apocy.NACEa:. FilamcnU distinct ; the anthers sometimes slightly connected. Pollen granular. 

77. AscLEPlADACE*:. Stamens consolidated with the stigma. Pollen collected into masses, which arc attached to 

the angles of the stigma. 

Group U. Otary free, 2K:eiled, with 1 -3 ovule, in each cell. Fruit 1 - 2-seeded. Corolla regular, sometimes nearly 
polypctalous, occasionally wanting. Stamens 2, or fewer than the lobes of the corolla, inserted upon its 
tube or upon the receptacle. — Shrubs or trees. 

78. OLEACEjt. Calyx persistent. Corolla 4-cloft, or of 4 distinct petals. Stamens 2. Fruit usually onc-celle<l 

1 - 2-«ccded. 

291 CAPRIFOLIACEiE. Linn^a. 

Group 1. Ovary coherent with the calyx (inferior J, 2 - several-celled, with one or 
many ovules in each cell. Seeds albuminous. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 

Order LI. CAPRIFOLIACEiE. Juss. The Honeysuckle Tribe. 

Calj'x 5- (rarely 4-) toothed or cleft. Corolla tubular or sometimes rotate, 
regular or irregular. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla, and alter- 
nate with them (rarely one of them wanting). Style filiform. Fruit usually 
a berry or drupe, rarely capsular. — Shrubs or rarely herbaceous plants, with 
opposite leaves which are destitute of stipules. Inflorescence various. 

Tribe I. LONICERE^. R. Brcnen. 

Corolla tubular ; the limh sometimes irregular. Style filiform. Raphe on the outer side of 

the ovule. 

Subtribe 1. Caprifoli^, Torr. & Gr. Fruit baccate, or sometimes neaj-ly dry. Testa of 
the seed crustaceous or coriaceous. 


1. LiNKjEA. Limb of the caljTC 5-partC(l. Corolla regular, somewhat campanulate, 5-Iobed. Stamens didynamous. 

Ovary 3-cclled ; two of the cells abortive. Fruit dry, one-seeded. 
8. Stmphoricarpds. Calyx 4 - 5-tootlied. Corolla campanulate, short, nearly regular, 4 - 5-Iobcd. Berry 4-celled ; 

2 of the cells abortive ; 2 opposite ones fertile and one-seeded. 

3. LoKicERi. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla 5-cleft, often ringent ; the tube more or less elongated. Stamens 5. Berry 

1 - 3-celled, few-seeded. 

4. DiERviLLA. Calyx with linear segments ; the tube elongated. Fruit capsular, 2-celled, 2-valvcd. 

1. LINNyEA. Gron. in Linn. gen. no. 744 ; Endl. gen. 3332. LIXN.ea. 

[ Named in honor of the immortal Swedish naturalist.] 

Calyx-tube ovate ; the limb 5-parted, with lanceolate-subulate segments, deciduous. Corolla 
turbinate-campanulate, 5-lobed, nearly equal. Stamens 4, didynamoUs, included, inserted 
toward the base of the corolla. Ovar)'^ 3-celled ; two of the cells with several abortive 
ovules ; the third with a single fertile ovule suspended from the summit. Fruit ovoid- 
globose, dry and indehiscent, 3-celled (the 2 sterile cells smaller), one-seeded. — A creeping 
or trailing evergreen, with broadly oval sparingly crenate-toothed leaves, abruptly narrowed 
into a petiole. Peduncles filiform, terminating the short ascending branches, bearing 2 
pedicellate nodding flowers. Corolla purplish rose-color, or nearly white. 



1. LiNNiEA BOREALis, Grou. Two-Jlowered Liunaa, or Twin-Jlotver. 

Linn. fl. Lapp. p. 214. t. 12. f.\; Jl. Suec. ed. 2. p. 219 (icon.) ; and spec. 2. p. 631 ; 
Engl. hot. t. 1297; Michx. Jl. 1. p. 87; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 413; Torr. fl. 1. p. 175; Bigel. 
fl,. Bost. p. 241 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 340 ; Hooli. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 285 ; J5ec/c, hot. p. 159 ; 
Tom ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 3. 

Stems filiform, somewhat woody, pubescent, throwing up numerous short leafy branches. 
Leaves about half an inch long, sparsely hispid on both sides ; the petioles 1-3 lines long. 
Peduncles 2-4 inches long, slender, clothed with glandular hairs, with two bracts at the 
bifurcation. Flowers about half an inch long, very fragrant. Calyx-tube with two pair of 
minute hispid bracteoles at the base. Corolla obtusely 5-lobed, hairy inside. Style slightly 
exserted : stigma capitate. 

Moist shady woods, and in swamps ; sometimes in rather dry situations ; common in the 
northern and western counties, but rare along the Hudson below the Highlands. June - July. 
A very neat and graceful plant. 

2. SYMPHORICARPUS. Dill. Ellh. p. 371 ; Endl. gen. 3334. Symphoria, Pursh. 


[ From the Greek, sijmphyo, to grow together, and iMTpos, fruit ; the berries growing in dense clusters.] 

Calyx-tube globose ; the limb 4 - 5-toothed, persistent. Corolla funnel-form or campanulate, 
4 - 5-lobed, nearly regular. Stamens 4-5, inserted into the throat of the corolla. Ovary 
2-celled ; 2 of the cells with several abortive ovules ; the 2 others (opposite) each with a 
single fertile o\Tile pendulous from the summit. Stigma capitate. Fruit a globose or ovoid 
berry, 4-ccllcd ; 2 opposite cells one-seeded, the others empty. Seeds coriaceous. — Small 
branching shrubs, with oval leaves on short petioles. Flowers small, rose-colored or white, 
in short axillary clusters or terminal spikes. Berries red or white. 

1. Sympiioricarpus racemosus, Michx. Common Snowbernj. 

Spikes terminal, loose, interrupted, often somewhat leafy ; flowers on short pedicels ; corolla 
campanulate, densely bearded inside ; style (smooth) and stamens included. — Miclix. fl. 1 . 
p. 107; DC. prodr. 4. p. 339 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 285 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. 
p. 3. Symphoria racemosa, Pers. syn. \. p. 214 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 169 ; Bot. mag. t. 2211 ; 
Nutt. gen. 1. p. 139 ; Lodd. bot. cab. t. 230 ; Bart.fl. Am. Sept. 1. /. 19 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 246. 

A shrub 2-3 feet high ; the branches numerous, slender, sliglitly pubescent, clothed with 
loose bark. Leaves 1-2 inches long, more or less broadly ovate, often undulate on the 
margin, and those of the young shoots sometimes obluscly toothed ; under surface softly and 
densely pubescent, smoolhish above : petioles 2-3 lines long. Spikes mostly pedunculate ; 
the flowers opposite, with 2 ovate-acute bracteoles at the l)asc of the caiyx-tube. Teotii of 

296 CAPRIFOLIACE^. Symphoricarpus. 

the calyx acute. Corolla about three lines long, rose-color. Berries globose and roundish- 
obovoid, very while and opakc, 4-5 lines in diameter, spongy and somewhat juicy ; the 2 
abortive cells each containing about 3 shrivelled ovules. Seeds elliptical, compressed ; the 
testa thick and coriaceous. 

Rocky banks of rivers, mostly on limestone. On the Black River, near Walertown ; 
Rochester ; Falls of Niagara, &c. Fl^ June - July. Fr. August - October. 

2. SvMPHORicARPUs VULGARIS, Michx. Indian Currant. 

Spikes axillary, almost sessile, in little glomerate heads ; corolla campanulate, the lobes 
smoothish inside ; stamens and bearded style included. — Michx. jl. l.p. 106; DC. prodr.4. 
p. 339; Torr. <^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 2. p. 4. Lonicera Symphoricarpos, Linn. sp. 1. p. 175. 
Symphoria conglomerata, Pers. sijn. 1. p. 215. S. glomerata, Pursh, Jl. 1. p. 161 ; Nutt. 
gen. 1. p. 139 ; Ton: Jl. 1. p. 246. Symphoricarpus, Dill, liort. Elth. t. 278. 

A shrub 2-3 feet high, wifh numerous erect purplish and pubescent branches. Leaves 
entire or undulate, on shorter petioles than in the preceding species, tomentosc-pubescent 
underneath. Spikes or little heads not one-fourth part the length of the leaves, 6 - lO-flowered. 
Corolla about 2 lines long, greenish-red ; the tube bearded inside. Berries about the size of 
a small currant, dark red, globose. 

Banks of rivers. Yates county {Dr. Sartwell). 

3. LONICERA. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 3337. HONEYSUCKLE. 

Xtlosteon, Caprifolium, ChamjEcerascs and Periclymenum, Tourn. 

[ In honor of ADiM Lonicer, a German botanist of the 16th century.] 

Calyx-tube ovoid or nearly globose ; the limb short, 5-toothed. Corolla tubular, furmel-form 
or campanulate, often gibbous at the base ; the limb 5-cleft, nearly regular, or ringent. 
Stamens 5. Stigma capitate. Berry 2 - 3-celled, or by obliteration 1 -celled, few-seeded. 
Seed crustaceous. — Climbing or erect shrubs. Leaves entire ; the upper ones often connate. 
Flowers axillary and pedunculate, or in sessile heads or whorls, often fragrant. 

i 1. Caprifolium, Juss. Stem climbing : leaves ojten connate: Jlawers sessile, in verticillate-capitate 
clusters : berries never eonnate, often one-celled when mature, crowned with the persistent limb 

of the calyx. 

* Periclymenum, Tourn. Corolla nearly regular. 

1. Lonicera sempervirexs. Ait. Scarlet or Trumpet Honeysuckle. 

Leaves oblong and elliptical, smooth above, glaucous and slightly pubescent underneath, 
the lower ones somewhat peliolcd, the upper connate-pcrfoliate ; flowers in somewhat distant 
whorls ; corolla trumpet-shaped, with short and broad nearly equal lobes. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 


I. p. 230 ; Walt. fl. Car. p. 131 ; Bot. mag. t. 781 ^- 1753; Bot. reg. t. 556; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 244 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 432 ; Bed, bot. p. 158^ Torr. ^ Gr.Ji. N. Am. 2. p. 5. Capri- 
folium sempervirens, Micluo. fl. 1. p. 105 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 160 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 271. 

Stem twining over shrubs, 6-15 feet long. Leaves 2-3 inches long ; the lower ones of 
the flowering branches narrow-elliptical, the upper ones much broader : petioles of the stem- 
leaves often half an inch or more in length. Peduncles an inch long : whorls about 6-flowered. 
Flowers inodorous. Corolla nearly an inch and a half long, scarlet externally, yellowish 
within ; the tube slightly ventricose above, and a little gibbous towards the base. Stamens 
slightl}' exserted. Berries scarlet, about 4-seeded. 

Borders of swamps, and on bushy hill-sides ; in several places on the Island of New-York; 
also on Long Island, near Brooklyn : not found in the interior of the State. Fl. May - June. 
This species is very common in gardens, but it is undoubtedly native in the vicinity of New- 

♦* CAPBirotiuM, Tourn. Corolla ringent ; the upper lip i-lobed or ^toothed. 

2. LoNicERA GRATA, Ait. Wild Houeysuckle. 

Stem twining ; leaves obovate, smooth, glaucous underneath , the lower ones contracted at 
the base , the two or three upper pairs connate-perfoliate ; flowers verlicillate in the axils of 
the upper leaves or leaf-like connate bracts ; tube of the corolla long and slender, not gibbous; 
filaments smooth. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 1. p. 231 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 332; Beck, hot. p. 158; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 159; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 6. Caprifolium gratum, Pursh, 
fl. 1. p. 161 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 152. 

Stem 10-20 feet long, twining or trailing ; the young branches often quite hairy. Leaves 
about 2 inches long, very obtuse, or with a short blunt point. Flowers about 6 in each whorl, 
very fragrant ; the smooth corolla^n inch and a half long, externally red or purplish ; the 
limb (large) at first nearly white, soon changing to tawny yellow. Stamens exserted. Berries 
orange-red. Torr. ^ Gr. 

Mountains ; New-York to Carolina {Pursh). I have not found the plant in the State, and 
give the description from the Flora of North America, taken from Pennsylvania specimens. 
It is very near L. Caprifolium of Europe. 

3. LoNiCERA FLAVA, Sims. Ycllow Honeijsuchle. 
Smooth and somewhat glaucous ; stem scarcely twining ; leaves ovate, obovate or oval, 

with a narrow cartilaginous margin , the upper pairs connate-perfoliate , the lowest distinct ; 
flowers in small heads or approximate whorls ; tube of the smooth corolla slender, not gibbous; 
filaments smooth. — Sims, hot. mag. t. 1318 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 243 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 332 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 158 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 6. Caprifolium Frascri, Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 160. C. flavum, Ell. sk. 1. p. 271. 

[Floua.] 38 

298 CAPRIFOLIACE^, Lonicera. 

Leaves U - 3 inches long, yen' smooth above, glaucous and often with a minute and soft 
whitish caducous pubescence underneath, obtuse or with a blunt mucronate point. Flowers 
8 - 12, in a subscssile or somewhat pedunculate head, or sometimes in 2 - 3 verlicillate 
clusters, fragrant. Corolla bright yellow, an inch or more long ; the tube much longer than 
the ventricose limb, very slightly dilated near the base, but not gibbous ; the lower lip narrowly 
oblong ; the upper 4-lobed. Stamens exserled. Torr. ^ Gr. 

On the Catskill Mountains {Pursh). I have never seen specimens of this plant collected 
within the limits of New-Yo.'-k. 

4. Lonicera hiusuta, Eaton. Hairy Honeysuckle. 

Stem twining, the younger branches pubescent ; leaves broadly oval, somewhat hairy above, 
softly villous underneath, ciliate , the upper one or two pairs connate-perfoliate, often nearly 
smooth ; the lower ones sessile or petioled ; peduncles mostly three together ; the flowers in 
approximate capitate whorls ; tube of the corolla viscid-pubescent, rather slender, slightly 
gibbous at the base. — Eaton, man. hot. ed. 3. p. 341 ; Torr. Jl. I. p. 242 ; Bigel. fl. Bast, 
p. 88 ; Hook. hot. mag. t. 3163, and fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 282; Beck, hot. p. 158 ; Torr. <^ 
Gr. fl. N. Am. 3. p. 6. L. villosa, Muhl. cat. p. 22, not of DC. L. pubescens, Sweet, hort. 
Brit. p. 194; DC. prodr. 4. p. 332. L. Goldii, Spreng. syst. 1. p. 758. Caprifohum 
pubescens, Goldie in Edinh. phil. journ (1822), 6. p. 323; Hook, exot.fl. t. 27. 

Stem 15-30 feet long. Leaves pale green and dull, 3-4 inches long and 2-3 broad, 
rather acute, or with a short abrupt acumination ; the veins very conspicuous ; the upper 
surface more or less pubescent when voung, nearly smooth when old : the upper connate 
leaves nearly smooth on both sides. Peduncles, and often also the ovaries, glandularly 
pubescent. Flowers numerous, about an iuch and a quarter long, sulphur-yellow. Corolla 
hairy inside ; the limb large, and conspicuously ringent. Style and stamens exserted. Berries 
orange, glandularly pubescent, 3 - 5-seeded. * 

Rocky banks and damp thickets ; northern and western parts of the Slate ; also near Troy 
{Eaton). June - July. 

5. Lonicera parviflora, Lam. STTudl-Jlowered Honeysuckle. 

Leaves elliptical or oblong, smooth, very glaucous underneath, with a slight often undulate 
cartilaginous border, the upper pair connate-perfoliate, the others sessile and mostly somewhat 
connate ; flowers in a more or less pedunculate head of 2 - 3 closely approximated whorls ; 
corolla short, smooth externally, gibbous at the base. — Lam. diet. 1. p. 728; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 245; Bigel. fl. Best. p. 87; DC. prodr. 4. p. 332; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 282; Beck, 
hot. p. 158 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 158 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 7. L. dioica, Linn, 
syst. (ed. 13.) p. 181 ; Ait. Keiv. (ed. 1.) I. p. 130 ; Bot. reg. 1. 138. Caprifolium glaucum, 
Mcencli. metli. p. 505. C. bracteosum, Miclix. fl. 1. p. 105. C. parviflorum, Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 161. C. dioicum. Ram. <^ Schult. syst. 5. p. 260. 

'■°'"""- CAPRIFOUACE^. 599 

st:; :s- :z;"'' <'°"'"'"'^ ^""^' -^ ^"'^"- ^-»^ --< ^ -t;^ 

Rocky banks of rivers, and on mountains ; not rare. June. 
*■ ^"°'Zr;J"'A ^"'•■" -«'^-;--'e •• peduncles azillary, 2 - 4-Jrac^,.,« and 2- (r.«Z, 3-) 

6. Lo.:cKR. CI.UT., i/./,/. (Plate XLII.) p^y Honeysuckle. 

btem erect ; leaves ovate-oblong, often cordate, ciliate with fine hairs th^ .r.,, 
V lou underneath ; peduncles shorter than the lea'ves ; bract! shor:erh; t IZZ Zl 
of the calyx very obtuse ; corolla somewhat funnel-form, obtusely saccate a. Z f 1 
obes s ort and somewhat equal ; distinct, ^.r^.J^^T;.:.'^^:;^^ 
tt f'r 'f' '°^-P-''^' I.;,. 283; Torr. I Gr fl N Zl. 

dei:dr ;;:^.^^;;::r"Lrr2rtri"^''^^ '-- -^^^^^ 

,f ,. „ I .,. . ^ '**^'^'' ^ ^5 "icnes long, more or ess ovate hrnarl 

at the base, thm, quite smooth when mature excent th^ niU.,. ■ • , ' 

I.nes long. Peduncles of the flowers ^::::^:!::r:ZZ:/:t:£:::'l 
or more. Flowers about 8 hnes long. Bracteole! at the base of the Ze on ha^^h 
ovary Corolla pale greenish-yellow. Filaments smooth. Style exserted Re l! / 



7. LoMCEHA c^KULEA. Linn. Hairy Fly-Honeysuckle. 

whe!.Tld'"'^' 'T' °"' r ""^"^f -'^'-g- ^--y - both surfaces, nearly smooth above 
whe old peduncles very short, reflexed in fruit; bracts subulate, longer than the ovaries 
corolla gibbous at the base, the lobes short, nearly equal ; berries (deej blue and gla c us) 
globose, formed by the union of two ovaries.- Linn. sp. 1. ;,. 174 ; kll fl Rol t 37 
^0.. .a^. 1965; DC. pro^r. 4. p. 437; Hook. A BoSm. I p. ^^t^:^Z flN 

p. 518. X. villosum. B^sel. Jl. Bos, p. 88 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 245 (excl. syn. Gold. 4. Mukl ) 

38* ^ '' 

300 CAPRIF0LIACEJ3. Lonicera. 

A shrub 1-3 feel liigh ; the younger brandies mostly villous. Leaves about three-fourths 
of an inch long when the plant is in flower, considerably larger and much less hairy at maturity, 
very obtuse. Flowers 7-8 lines long, on peduncles only 1-2 lines long. Corolla some- 
what bilabiate, yellow, smooth or a little pubescent ; the lobes longer than the tube, oblong, 
nearly erect. Stamens somewhat exscrtcd : filaments bearded. Berries closely united to the 
summit, crowned with the remains of two closely approximated calyces. 

Woods, and on the sides of mountains. I'oughkeepsie ; Highlands of Putnam county {Dr. 
Barratt); Mountains of Essex county ; near Vernon (Dr. Dou^-Zas). Fl. June. 

8. Lonicera oblongifolia, Hook. Long-stalked Honeysuckle. 

Stem erect ; leaves oblong or oval, velvety-pubescent when young, at length nearly smooth ; 
peduncles filiform, erect, much longer than the flowers ; bracts minute ; corolla gibbous at 
the base, deeply 2-lipped ; berries (purple) formed by the union of two ovaries. — Hook, fi. 
Bor.-Am. 1. p. 284. t. 100 ; Torr. Sf N. Am. 2. p. 10. L. villosa, DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 337 (partly). Xylosteum oblongifoliuin, Goldie in Edirib. phil. journ. {\S22), 6.^.323. 

A shrub 3-4 feet long, much branched. Leaves 1-2 inches long, narrowed at the base, 
but scarcely petioled. Peduncles an inch or more in length. Caly.x-tube nearly globose ; the 
bracteoles at the base nearly obsolete. Corolla about three-fourths of an inch long, greenish- 
yellow, tinged with purple inside ; lower lip oblong-linear, often spreading ; upper lip erect, 
with 4 short lobes. Stamens slightly exserted ; the filaments smoothish. Style hairy. Berries 
ibout the size of a small pea, slightly separate at the summit, and crowned with the remains 
)f two calyces. - 

Spliagnous swamps ; northern and western parts of the State ; rare. May - June. Easily 
listinguished from the preceding by its long peduncles and obsolete bracteoles, as well as by 
ts larger leaves, etc. 

4. DIERVILLA. Tourn. in act. acad. Par. (1706), t. 7. /. 1 ; Sieb. ^ Zucc. fl. Japan. 

p. 68. t. 29 - 32. BUSB HONEYSUCKLE. 

[ Dedicated to iSI. Diertille, a French surgeon, who sent the plant to Tournefort.] 

Calyx-tube oblong or cylindrical, often attenuated at the summit : segments of the 5-parted 
limb linear or subulate. Corolla funnel-form ; the limb 5-cleft, nearly regular or slightly 
2-lipped. Stamens 5. Fruit capsular, membranaceous or crustaceo-coriaceous, 2-celled, 
2-valved ; the 2-lobed placentas usually strongly projecting into the cells, each bearing 
numerous seeds in a double series. Seeds naked or crested. — Shrubby plants, with ovate 
or oblong acute-serrate leaves. Peduncles axillary or terminal, one-flowered or cymosely 
3 - 7-flowered : the flowers all with 2 bracteoles at the base. 


§. DiERviLLA proper, Torr. df Gr. Flowers yellowish: capsule membranaceous : seeds not furnished 
with a crest or wing ; the testa crustaceous. 

1. DiERviLLA TRiFiDA, Moenck. CoJUTHon Bush-HoncysucMe. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, on short petioles, smooth or somewhat hairy on the veins 
underneath ; peduncles 1 - 3-flov(rered ; capsule attenuate at the summit, crowned with the 
linear-setaceous teeth of the calyx. — Manch, meth. p. 492 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 2. p. 11. 
D. Acadiensis fruticosa, &c. Tourn. D. Tournefortii, Michx. fl. I. p. 107; Torr. fl. 1. 
p. 238 ; Beck, hot. p. 157. D. humilis, Pers. syn. \.p. 214. D. Canadensis, Willd. enurrt 
1. p. 222 ; Bigel. fl. Bast. p. 69 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 330 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 281 ; 
Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 157. D. lutea, Pursh, fl.l. p. 162. Lonicera Diervilla, Linn. sp. 1. 
p. 175. 

Stem 2-3 feet high ; the branches smooth and somewhat quadrangular. Leaves 2-4 
inches long, obtusely serrate, ciliate. Peduncles growing from the axils of the upper leaves 
and also terminal, mostly 3-flowered ; the central flower sessile ; lateral ones pedicelled. 
Bracteoles subulate, shorter than the ovary. Corolla about three-fourths of an inch long, 
greenish-yellow, pubescent externally, hairy inside. Stamens and style exsertcd. Capsule 
ovoid-oblong, contracted above into a sort of beak, often a little curved, crowned with the 
long and somewhat spreading calyx-segments ; the placenta reaching almost to the dorsal 
suture, so as to give the appearance of 4 cells. 

Rocky woods ; rather common. FL June. Fr. September. 

Subtribe 2. Trioste.e. Fruit drupaceous ; the endocarp bony. Testa of the seed mem- 

5. TRIOSTEUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 3338. fever-root. 

[ From the Greek, treis, three, and osteon, a bone ; the fruit containing three bony nucules.] 

Cal3rx-tube ovoid ; segments of the 5-parted limb linear-lanceolate, foliaceous, persistent. 
Corolla tubular, gibbous at the base ; the limb somewhat equally 5-lobcd. Stamens .5, 
included. Fruit rather dry, roundisii-obovoid, crowned with the calyx-segments, containing 
3-5 elliptical bony nucules. Embryo minute, oblong, in the axis of fleshy albumen. — 
Perennial, herbaceous, or rarely suffrutescent plants. Leaves lanceolate or oval, connate 
at the base. Flowers axillary and sessile, or nearly so. 

1. Trio.steum perfoliatum, Linn. Fever-wort. Horse Gentian. 

Stem glandularly hairy ; leaves ovate or spatulatc-ovatc, acuminate, abruptly narrowed at 

the base, velvety-pubescent underneath, somewhat hairy above ; axils 1 - 3-(lowered ; flowers 

302 CAPRIFOLIACE^. Tuiosteum. 

dark purple. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 176 ; Pursh, Jl. \.p. 162; Bart. veg. mat. med. t. 4 ; Bigel. 
Vied. hot. 1 . p. 90. t. 9, and fl. Host. p. 89 ; Ell. sk. 1 . p. 269 ; Torr. jl. I. p. 247 ; Sweet, 
Brit. fl. gard. (ser. 2 ) <. 45 ; Beck, hot. p. 157 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 159 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 2. p. 12. T. majus, Michx. fl. 1. p. 107. Triosteospcrmum, Dill, liort. Elth. 
t. 293. /. 378. 

Root thick and fleshy, divided into several horizontal portions. Stem 2-4 feet high, thick, 
fistulous, simple. Leaves 4-8 inches long and 2-4 wide, sometimes sinuate on the margin, 
the long contracted base being often so narrow as to resemble a winged petiole. Flowers 
sessile, clustered in the axils of the middle leaves. Bracts linear. Corolla about three-fourths 
of an inch long, a little curved, of a dull purplish color, about the length of the calyx-segments, 
viscidly pubescent. Filaments bearded : anthers oblong. Style nearly as long as the corolla : 
stigma thickened, obscurely 3 - 5-lobed. Fruit half an inch long, pubescent, orange-colored. 
Nucules usually 3 ; the back strongly 3-ribbed. 

Shady rocky places ; rather common. Fl. May - July. Fr. September. The root is 
cathartic, emetic and diuretic. It has long been a popular medicine. In some places the 
plant is called Wild Coffee. See Wood <^ Bache's U. S. Dispens. p. 673. 

Tribe II. SAMBUCEJE. Kunth. 

Corolla regular, rotate, or rarely somewhat tubular. Stigmas 3-5, nearly sessile. Endo- 
carp of the fruit crustaceous or coriaceous. Testa of the seed membranaceous ; the raphe 
occupying the inner side. 

6. SAMBUCUS. Tourn; Linn. ; Etidl. gen. 33U. ELDER. 

[ From samlnikc, the Greek name of a musical instrument, supposed to have been made of the wood of this plant.] 

Limb of the calyx small, 5-clcft. Corolla rotate or urceolate, with 5 obtuse lobes. Stamens 
5. Fruit baccate, pulpy, roundish : nucules (seeds of most authors) 3 (rarely 5), crusta- 
ceous, oblong, finely wrinkled, obtusely angled on the back, flattish on the face, each 
containing a suspended seed. — Shrubby perennial herbs, with a heavy odor. Leaves 
pinnate or 1 - 2-pinnately divided ; the leaflets or divisions serrate or incised. Cymes 
compound, thyrsoid or fastigiate. Flowers white or sometimes reddish. 

1., Sambucus fubens, Michx. Red-herried Elder. 

Stem shrubby ; leaves pinnately 5 - 7-foliolate ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, tlie 
lower surface and the petioles pubescent ; thyrsus ovoid or pyramidal, rather loose. — Michx. 
fl. \.p. 181 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 321 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 323 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 13. 
S. pubescens, Pers. syn. 1. p. 328 ; Pursh,fl. 1. p. 204 ; EU. sk. \.p. 368 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 118. S. racemosa. Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 279. 

var. leucocarpa : berries white. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. 

^^"=^^^'- CAPRIFOLIACE^. 3^3 

2. Sambucus Canadensis, Linn. n 

c, rr Common Elder. 

Stem 6 - 10 feet high, stout, filled with pith; the branches straight, swelled at the ioints 
Lower leaves somet.mes bipinnate ; upper ones usually whh from 5 to 7 leaflet and oft n 
w,th several large foliaceous stipelles : leaflets with short stalks, nearly smoo h bo.e ^h n 
young, velvety-pubescent underneath, but at length smoothish Cvmes 5 8 117 ' 
.n d.ameter. Flowers of a sickly odor. Teeth !f the calyx acut^ror^'w^L IZ:: 

Th, kets, banks of streams, and along fences ; very common. Fl. June - August Fr 
August - September. Th,s plant, like the S. m,ra of Europe, which h greatly ^esmbl^s' 
.a popular med.cme. The inner bark is used in makmg an ointment for 'or ,'and T ike- 
^.se employed as a purgative. An infusion of the flowers is thought to be a dTapl^or Uc 
The hemes are apenent and sudorific. See Wood 4. Backers U. S. Lpens. p. ',7'°"'" 

7. VIBURNUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 3340. ^^,,,,^ ^^^^ ^ 

[An ancient Latin name, of uncertain origin.] 

Ltmb of the calyx 5-toothed. Corolla rotate or somewhat campanulate, 5-lobed. Stamens 5 
Ovary 3-ceIled ^ one of the cells contaming a single suspended ovule, the others abortive • 
st,gmas3. sessile Fruit drupaceous, l-celled, 1 -seeded, with a thm pulp ; the endocarp 
(seeds of most authors) crustaceous, mostly compressed. Seed conformed to the cavity of 
the endocarp; the testa membranaceous. - Shrubs or small trees, with petiolate, entire or 
lobe leaves. Flowers white, .a terminal cymes, rather showy ; the marginal ones sometimes 
sterile and very large. 


^ 1. Lentago, DC. Flovers all similar and fertile : corolla rotate. 
• Leaves undivided. 

1. Viburnum nudum, Linn. Swamp Viburnum. 

Leaves somewhat coriaceous, oval or oblong, obtuse, dotted underneath with brownish 
scales (particularly on tlie veins), smooth above, the margin crenulate or entire : petiole 
somewhat margined ; cymes pedunculate ; fruit ovoid. — Torr. <^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 2. p. 14. 

var. 1. Claytoni : leaves broadly oval, oblong-obovale or oblong, somewhat shining above, 
obtuse or slightly acuminate, entire or obscurely crenulate, slightly revolute on the margin, 
the veins rather prominent underneath ; cyme on a long peduncle. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. V. 
nudum, Linn. sp. 1. p. 268 ; Midix. Jl. I. p. 178 ; Bot. mag. t. 22S1 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 375 ; 
7orr. Jl. 1. p. 319 ; Bigel. fi. Bost. p. 116; DC. prodr. 4. p. 325 ; Beck, bot. p. 156 ; 
Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 203. 

var. 2. cassinoides : leaves ovate, slightly obovate or oblong, dull above, often abruptly 
acuminate , the margins crenate-serrate or undulate , the veins not prominent underneath ; 
cyme on a short peduncle. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. V. cassinoides, Linn. sp. ed. 2. p. 384 ; Pursh, 
Jl. 1. p. 202 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 326, not of Mickc. V. nudum, Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. L p. 279. 
V. pyrifolium, Pursh, I. c. ; Torr. Jl. I. p. 318 ; Bigel. I. c. ; Beck, bot. p. 156, not of DC. 
^c. V. squamatum, Willd. enum. 1. p. 327. 

Stem 6 — 12 feet high, slender, branching. Leaves 2-4 inches long, thickly sprinkled 
with minute bran-like scales underneath, sparingly dotted above ; mostly entire on the margin, 
attenuate at the base, and rather obtuse, in the first variety ; more or less crenate-serrate 
(sometimes rather acutely), acute but not attenuate at the base, and rather conspicuously 
acuminate, in the second. Cyme 2 - 2J inches in diameter ; the peduncle often two inches 
long in the former var., less than an inch and often nearly sessile in the latter. Fruit about 
one-third of an inch long, ovoid, abruptly pointed, slightly compressed, dark blue, with a 
glaucous bloom. Nucleus or stone much compressed, slightly convex on one side and a 
shallow groove on the other. 

Swamps : the first variety common in the northern and western parts of the State, but not 
found south of Hudson ; the other in the neighborhood of New-York, and I think also in the 
cedar swamps of Long Island. Fl. May - June. Fr. September. 

Many botanists consider the V. cassinoides, Linn, (pyrifolium, Pursh, ^-c), a distinct 
species from V. nudum, but there are intermediate forms that seem to connect them. 

2. Viburnum prunifolium, Linn. Black Haw. Sloe. 

Leaves roundish-oval, broadly ovate or obovate, coriaceo-membranaceous, obtuse or with a 
slight abrupt point, finely serrate with appressed or uncinate teeth, smooth ; petiole with a 
very narrow and even margin ; cymes sessile or nearly so ; fruit oblong-ovoid. — Linn. sp. I. 
p. 268 ; Michx.Ji. l.p. 178 ; Pursh, Jl. I. p. 201 ; "Duham. arb. (ed. nov.) 2. t. 38 ; Wats. 

Viburnum. CAPRIFOLIACE^E. 305 

dendr. Brit. t. 23 ; Guimp. Otto 4- Hayne, holz. t. 101 ;" Ell. sk. 1. p. 365 ; Torr. fl. 1. 
/». 318 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. \.p. 279 ; Beck, hot. p. 156 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest.p. 202 ; Torr. 

4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 14. V. pyrifolium, Poir. diet. 5. p. 658 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 325. 

A shrub or small tree (8 - 15 feet high), with numerous spreading branches, and short 
lateral spurs which are sometimes almost thorny. Leaves usually 1 - 2 inches long and 
rounded, smooth on both sides : petiole about half an inch long. Cymes about 3 inches in 
diameter, terminating the short lateral branches or spurs ; the primary divisions usually about 
4. Fruit one-third of an inch long, bluish-black and slightly glaucous when mature ; the 
nucleus much compressed. 

Woods and thickets ; rare north and west of the Highlands, but very common in the 
neighborhood of New-York. Fl May - June. Fr. September - October. 

3. Viburnum Lentago, Lbm. Siceet Viburnum. 

Leaves ovate, conspicuously acuminate, finely serrate with sharp slightly uncinate teeth, 
rather thin, smooth , the midrib and undulate margin of the petiole dotted with minute brown 
scales when young ; cymes sessile ; fruit oval.— i?««. sp. 1. p. 268 ; Michx. fl.l.p.l78; 
Ell. sk. 1. p. 365 ; Torr. fl.l. p. 318 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p.UQ; Wats, dendr. Brit. t. 21 ,' 
DC. prodr. 4. p. 325 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 279 ; Beck, hot. p. 156 ; Darlingt.fl. Cest 
p. 203 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 15. 

A tree 15-20 feet high. Leaves 2-3 inches long ; the upper ones usually broadly ovate; 
lower ones narrower, acute at the base, or sometimes slightly cordate : the petiole 6-8 lines 
long, distinctly margined. Cymes often 4 inches in diameter. Fruit rather larger than in the 
preceding species, bluish-black, with a glaucous bloom ; the pulp thin and sweetish : nucleus 
nearly flat on both sides. 

Woods and banks of streams, commonly in rich soils ; common, particularly in the interior 
of the State. Fl. May. Fr. October. The fruit is rather palatable, especially after having 
been frozen. 

4. Viburnum dentatum, Linn. Arrow-ioood. 

Leaves roundish-ovate, coarsely and sharply serrate-toothed, mostly acute, appearing plicate 
from the strong and nearly simple straight veins, smooth and somewhat shining above, pale 
underneath, with tufts of villous hairs in the axils of the veins ; cymes pedunculate, nearly 
smooth ; fruit small, globose-ovoid ; the nucleus deeply grooved or excavated on one side, and 
obtusely ridged on the other.— Lmn. sp. I. p. 268; Jacq. hort. Vind. 1. «. 36; Pursh, 'fl. 1. 
p. 202 ; Torr. fl.l. p. 210; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 116; DC. prodr. 4. p. 326 ; Hook.fl'. Bor.. 
Am. 1. p. 280; Beck, bat. p. 156 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 203 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. 
p. 16. V. denUtum, var. lucidum, Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) l.p. 372. V. dentatum, var. glabellum, 
Michx. fl.l. p. 179 (partly). 

[Floha.] 39 

306 CAPRIFOLIACEiE. Viburnum. 

A shrub 6-8 feet high, with obtusely angular smooth branches ; Uie young shoots slender 
and very straight. Leaves about 2 inclies long, and of nearly the same breadth, often more 
or less cordate ; the teeth slightly ciliate with fine hairs : petioles half an inch long. Cymes 
on long naked peduncles. Calyx-teeth obtuse. Fruit the size of a small pea, nearly black 
when ripe ; the pulp thin. Transverse section of the nucleus reniform ; the sides somewhat 

Low grounds and borders of rivers ; common. Fl. June. Fr. September. 

5. Viburnum pubescens, Pursh. (Plate XLIII.) Pubescent Viburnum. 

Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, acuminate, with very short petioles, coarsely dentate-serrate, 
appearing plicate from the straight sparingly branched veins, smoothish above, pubescent or 
villous-tomentose underneath ; cyme pedunculate, nearly smooth ; fruit oblong ; the much 
compressed nucleus slightly 2-grooved on one side, and obtusely ridged on the other. — Pursh, 
fl. I. p. 202 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 320 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 326 ; Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 280 ; 
Beck, bat. p. 156 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 16. V. dentatum, var. pubescens. Ait. 
Kew. (ed. 1.) 1. p. 168. V. dentatum, var. semitomentosum, MicJuc. fl. 1. p. 179 (partly). 
V. villosum, Raf. in med. repos. (hex. 2 ) 5. p. 361 (not of Swartz). V. tomentosum, Raf. 
I. c. V. Rafinesquianum, Rcem. <^ Schult. syst. 6. p. 630. 

A shrub 2-3 feet high, with grayish slender angular branches. Leaves about 2 inches 
long, often cordate at the base, sometimes only pubescent on the veins underneath, but usually 
clothed with a soft almost velvety pubescence. Peduncle at first about an inch long; of the 
fruit nearly twice as long. Calyx-teeth acute, purplish. Corolla larger than in the preceding 
species. Fruit about one-fourth of an inch long, reddish, with a thin pulp. 

Dry rocky banks, and in bushy places. Highlands of New-York ; about Albany and Troy, 
and in the northern and western counties ; rather rare. Fl. June. Fr. August. 

•• Leaves lobed or incised. 

6. Viburnum acerifolium, Linn. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood. 

Leaves roundish or broadly ovate, mostly somewhat cordate, 3-lobed, 3-Tibbed from the 
base, coarsely and unequally toothed, velvety-pubescent and woolly in the axils underneath ; 
the lobes diverging and mostly acuminate ; petioles (and young branchlets) pubescent, furnished 
near the base with two setaceous stipule-like appendages ; cymes pedunculate ; fruit oval, 
compressed. — Linn. sp. 1. p. 268 ; Vent. hort. Cels. t. 272 ; MicTix. fl. 1. p. 180 ; Pursh, 
fl.l. p. 203 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 264 ; Wats, dendr. Brit. \.t. 118 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 320 ; Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 116 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 280 (partly) ; Beck, hot. p. 156 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 204 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 17. 

A shrub 3-5 feet high, with smooth, straight and slender branches ; the smaller twigs 
somewhat quadrangular. Leaves 3-5 inches in diameter, nearly smooth or with short scattered 


hairs above, stellately and softly pubescent underneath ; the petioles 1 - U inch long. Peduncle 
about two inches long. Cyme rather loose. Calyx-teeth obtuse. Anthers deep rose-color. 
Drupes nearly black when ripe, 3-4 lines long ; the pulp thin : nucleus wilii two obtuse 
ridges on one side, and two corresponding shallow grooves on the other. 
^ Dry open woods ; very common. Fl. June. Fr. September. In the western part of the 
State, this species is sometimes known by the name of Dogmackie. 

7. Viburnum pauciflorum, Pylaie. Mountain Bush-Cranherry. 

Branches and petioles smooth, or Nearly so ; leaves roundish, seldom subcordate, slightly 
3-lobed or mcised at the summit, mostly 5-nerved from the base, unequally toothed-serrate 
sparingly pubescent on the veins underneath ; petioles destitute of glands and stipuliform 
appendages; cymes small and simple, pedunculate, terminating the very short lateral branches • 
filaments much shorter than the corolla.— Torr. 4. Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 17. V. Oxycoccusi 
var. eradiatum, Oakes in Hovey^s hort. mag. May, 1841. 

A shrub 2-4 feet high. Leaves 1^ - 2| inches in diameter, a little woolly in the axils of 
the veins, sometimes scarcely at all lobed. Cymes about an inch in diameter. Anthers on 
very short filaments, not exserted beyond the tube of the corolla. Fruit (rather immature) 
roundish-ovoid, compressed, red : nucleus much compressed. 

Mountains of Essex county. Fl. July 1st {Dr. Knieskern). Fr. (immature) August. 
Mr. Oakes is confident that this plant is only an alpine form of V. Oxy coccus {Opulus) ; and 
It IS certainly more nearly allied to that species than to V. acerifolhan. It seems, however, 
to be constant in its characters. 

^ 2. Opulus, Tourn. Exterior flowers of the corymb much larger than the others, and neutral; their 

'pedicels elongated. 

8. Viburnum Opulus, Linn. Bush Cranberry, or High Cranberry. 

Nearly smooth ; leaves 3-lobed, 3-ribbed from the base, the lobes acutely toothed ; petioles 
glandular above, and often with stipule-like appendages at the base ; cymes pedunculate ; 
fruit ovoid-globose, red. — Z,mn. sp. 1. p. 268 ; Engl. hot. t. 322 ; Torr. d- Gr fl N Am 
2. p. 18. 

var. Americana : leaves remotely and rather obtusely toothed. Ait. Kew. (cd. I.) \.p. 373; 
Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. V. trilobura, Marsh, arhust. p. 162. V. Opulus, /3. Piniina, and y. edule,' 
Midix. fl.\. p. 180. V. opuloides, Muhl. cat. p. 32. V. O.xycoccus and edule, Pursh, fl. 
1. p. 203; Torr.fl. \.p. 320; DC. prodr. A. p. 328; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1./). 281 ; Beck, 
hot. p. 157; Audubon, birds of Amer. t. 148. 

A shrub 3-10 feet high, with smooth gray spreading branches. Leaves 3-5 inches in 
diameter , the lobes often somewhat falcate, nearly smooth above, sparsely Imiry underneath : 
petiole about an inch long, with 4-6 glands on tlic upper part : stipular appendages one or 


308 CAPRIFOLIACE^. Yiduunum. 

two pairs at or near the base of the petiole, subulate, often tipped with a gland. Cyme 3-4 
inches in diameter ; tlic sterile flowers few or numerous, nearly an inch in diameter. Calyx- 
teeth nearly obsolete. Drupes half an inch long, juicy, intensely acid and slightly bitter, 
translucent when dry. 

Swamps and banks of streams : rather common in the western part of the State, particularly 
along the banks of the Mohawk ; rare elsewhere. Fl. May - June. Fr. End of September. 
The acid fruit is sometimes used as a substitute for cranberries. The common Snowball 
Bush of our gardens is a variety of this species, with the flowers all sterile. The two plants, 
in the wild state, do not differ sufficiently to be considered separate species. 

9. Viburnum lantanoides, Michx. Hohhle-hush. 

Leaves ovate-orbicular, cordate, with a short abrupt acumination, finely and unequally or 
doubly serrate, membranaceous ; the lower surface, and especially the prominent veins and 
petioles, tomentose with a stellate rusty pubescence ; cymes sessile, the exterior flowers sterile 
and very large ; fruit ovoid, the nucleus with a longitudinal groove on each side. — Micluc. 
JL. 1. p. 179; Pursh,fl. I. p. 202; Torr.Jl. l.p. 319; Bigel.fl. Bost.p. 117; DC.prodr. 
4. p. 326 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 280 ; Beck, hot. p. 156 ; Torr. tj- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. 
p. 18. V. Lantana, /3. grandifolium, Ait.Kew. (ed. 1.) 1. p. 373. V. Lantana, (i. Canadense, 
Pers. syn. 1. p. 327. V. grandifolium. Smith, in Rees, cycl. no. 14. 

A low shrub, with long flexuous reddish and often procumbent branches. Leaves 3-6 
inches long, and of nearly the same breadth ; when young, clothed (as well as the cyme) with 
a copious rusty pulverulent pubescence, much of which at length disappears, beautifully veined 
underneath : petioles often with small stipular appendages at the base. C3'mes 4-5 inches 
in diameter ; the sterile flowers usually numerous, very large. Stamens about the length of 
the lobes of the corolla. Drupes nearly black when ripe. 

Shady primitive forests ; common in the northern and western parts of the State. Fl. May. 
Fr. September. The long prostrate branches of this shrub are often an impediment to the 
pedestrian in woods where it abounds : hence its common name. 

Galium. RUBIACE.E. 309 

Order LII. RUBIACE^. Juss. The Madder Tribe. 

Tube of the calyx adherent to the o\'ary, or rarely partly or almost completely 
free ; the Umb mostly 4 - 5-cleft or toothed, rarely obsolete. Corolla with as 
many lobes as there are divisions to the calyx. Stamens as many as the lobes 
of the corolla, and alternate witli them. Fruit various. Embryo straioht or 
slightly curved, in the axis or at the extremity of horny albumen. — Trees, 
shrubs or often herbs ; the leaves either in whorls, or opposite and furnished 
with stipules. Flowers regular. 

Suborder I. Stellat^e. R. Brown. 

Leaves in whorls; all but one pair generally supposed to take the place of 
stipules, and only to be distinguished from true leaves by their never bearintr 
buds in their axils. iEstivation of the corolla valvate. Ovary wholly coherent 
with the tube of the calyx. Fruit consisting of two united indehiscent (dry 
or baccate) one-seeded carpels. — Herbs or rarely sufFrutescent plants. 

I.GALIUM. Linn. ; Endl. gen. ZUO. bedstraw. CLEAVERS. 

[ Named from the Greek, gala, milk ; one of the species having been used to curdle milk.] 

Calyx-tube ovate-globose or oblong ; the limb obsolete. Corolla rotate, 4- (rarely 3-) parted. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla, short. Styles 2, united at the base : stigmas 
globose. Fruit didymous, dry or sometimes fleshy, separable w^hen ripe into 2 indehiscent 
globose one-seeded carpels. Albumen homy. — Herbaceous or very rarely suffrutesccnt 
plants, with square stems ; the roots frequently containing a coloring matter. Flowers 
small, axillary or terminal, in small cymes (which are often paniculate) or rarely solitary. 

§ 1. Aparine, DC. Root annual. 

1. Galium Apari.\e. Common Cleavers, or Goose-grass. 

Stem weak, branching, retrorscly aculeate-hispid, liairy about the joints ; leaves mostly 
eight in a whorl> linear-oblanceolate, mucronate, the margin and keel aculcolatc ; peduncles 
elongated, a.xillary, 1 - 2-flowered ; fruit large, very hispid with hooked prickles. — Linn, 
sp. 1. p. 108 ; Engl. hot. 816 ; Pursh, Jl. \. p. 103 ; Torr. jl. I. p. 166 ; Bigcl. Jl. Bust, 
p. 57; DC. prodr. 4. p. 608 ; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 290 ; Becli, hot. p. 162 ; Darlin<rt 
Jl. Cest. p. 100; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 2. p. 20. 


310 RUBIACE.C Galium. 

Stem 4-8 feet long, trailing or supported by other plants, with numerous short branches. 
Whorls rather remote ; the leaves (sometimes only 6)1-2 inches long and 2-3 lines wide, 
tapering to the base. Flowers very small, white. Fruit larger tlian in most other species of 
the genus, densely clothed with short white hooked hairs. 

Shady thickets, margins of woods and along fences : common in the neighborhood of New- 
York ; rather rare in the interior of the State. Fl. May. Perhaps introduced from Europe. 

^ 2. EcGALiTM, DC. Root perennial: peduncles 3 - many-fioicered. 

* FloiMrs white or somclimcs greenish ; pcduneks axiUary or terminal, fetc-jlowercd, occasionally somewhat clustered al the 

cxlrcmily of the brandies. 

2. Galium trifidum, Linn. Small Bedstraw. 

Stem flaccid, decumbent or ascending, branching, the angles retrorsely scabrous ; leaves in 
whorls of 4 - 6 (the lower frequently 5 or 6, the upper 4 or 5), linear or oblanceolate , the 
margin and midrib minutely (often retrorsely) aculeolate-scabrons ; peduncles axillary and 
terminal, 1 - 3-flowered ; lobes of the corolla and stamens often 3 ; fruit smooth and even. — 
Linn. sp. 1. p. 105 ; Fl. Dan. t. 48 ; Pursh, Jl.\. p. 103 ; Torr. fl. 1. p. 165 ; Bigel. fl. 
Bost. p. 56 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 597 ; Beck, hot. p. 161 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 99 ; Torr. ^ 
Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 22. G. Claytoni, Micha:. fl. I. p.78\ Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 288. 

var. tinctorixim : stem (usually stouter) scarcely or not at all rough ; lobes of the corolla 
and stamens mostly 4. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. G. tinctorium, Linn. I. c. ; Pursh, I. c. ; Torr. 
I. c; DC. I. c; Darlingt. I. c. p. 100. 

var. latifolium : stem diffuse, not rough ; leaves elliptical or oblong, the margins and midrib 
manifestly ciliolate-scabrous. Torr. fl. 1. p. 165; Torr. ^- Gr. I. c. G. obtusum, Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 55 ; Beck, hot. p. 162. 

Stem sometimes only a few inches high, but usually a foot or eighteen inches, at first erect, 
but finally diffuse and assurgent. Leaves often only four in a whorl, about three-fourths of 
an inch long, variable in breadth, usually very narrow, but in the second variety sometimes 
3-4 Knes wide. Pedicels of the fruit slender. Fruit very small. 

Swamps and moist shady woods. Fl. June - July. Fr. August - September. Indigenous 
also to the north of Europe. The two varieties have been regarded as distinct species from 
G. trifidum by many botanists, but they are all connected by intermediate forms, so that it is 
impossible to separate them by any constant marks. All our varieties usually turn black in 

3. Galium asprellum, Michx. Rough Bedstraw. 

Stem diffuse, much branched, the angles very rough with minute and rigid retrorse prickles; 
leaves 6 (those of the branchlets often 4 - 5) in a whorl, elliptical or lanceolate, mucronate or 
acuminate, the margins and midrib aculeolate-hispid ; branches 2 - 3-forked ; pedicels filiform. 

Galium. RUBIACE^. 311 

divaricate; fruit smooth or somewhat hispid. ~ Michx. fl. 1. p. 78 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 103; 
Torr.Jl. I. p. 166 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 54 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 598 ; Beck, bot. p. 162 ; Dar- 
lingt. ft. Cest. p. 100. G. Pennsylvanicum, Muhl. cat. p. 15. G. micranthum, Pursh, fl. 
1. p. 103? 

Stem flaccid, 4-8 feet long, usually supported on other plants, to which it adheres by its 
numerous little hooked prickles, very much branched above. Leaves 6 - S lines long, taperino- 
at the base ; the lower ones rather obtuse, with a short mucronate tip ; the upper ones 
acuminate and cuspidate. Flowers minute, but very numerous ; the filiform peduncles twice 
2 - 3-forked. Segments of the corolla ovate, acute. Fruit usually smooth, but sometimes 
with a very few hooked prickles ; one of the carpels often abortive. 

Wet thickets ; not rare. Fl. July - August. The plant usually turns black in drying. 

4. Galium trifloruim, Michx. Sweet-scented Bedstraw. 

Stem flaccid, reclining or procumbent, retrorsely somewhat aculeate-scabrous or slightly 
hispid on the angles, shining ; leaves 6 in a whorl, narrowly elliptical or elliptical-lanceolate, 
acuminate-cuspidate, 1-nerved, veiny, smooth, the margins and sometimes also the midrib 
minutely ciliolate-hispid or scabrous; peduncles axillary and terminal, mostly ^-flowered at 
the extremity ; the flowers all pedicellate ; segments of the corolla cuspidate ; fruit hispid 
with hooked hairs. — Michx. fl. 1. p. 80; Willd hort. Berol. t. 66 ; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 104 ; 
Torr. fl.l. p. 167 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 56 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 601 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. 
p. 290 ; Beck, bot. p. 162 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 101 ; Tort. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 23. 
G. cuspidatum, Muhl. cat. p. 15 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 197; DC. I. c. G. brachiatum, Pursh, fl. 
1. p. 103. G. suaveolens, Wahl. fl. Lapp. p. 48, G. Pennsylvanicum, Bart, compend. fl. 
Phil. 1. p. 83, not of Muhl. 

Stem 1 - 4 feet long, generally procumbent, with a few short diverging branches, sometimes 
quite smooth, but commonly a little rough. Leaves from half an inch to an inch and a quarter 
in length, thin and membranaceous ; the midrib very prominent. Flowers rather few ; the 
pedicels widely divaricate. Corolla greenisli-while. Fruit densely hispid with white hairs. 

Moist woods and shady thickets ; common. Fl. July. Fr. September. The plant exhales 
a vanilla-like odor in drying. 

♦• Flotccrt dull purple or bnncnish : jicduncki a^riUary and terminal, usually tii-ice or IhrUc forked or 3-parled. 

5. Galium pilosum. Ait. Hairy Bedstraw. 

Stem ascending, nearly simple, hairy; leaves 4 in a whorl, oval or ovate, mucronate, 
indistinctly 3-ncrved at the base, punctate with pellucid dots, hairy and ciliate ; peduncles 
usaaliy twice or thrice 2.forked, or tricholomous ; fruit densely iiispid with hooked prickles. 
—Ait. Kew.{cd. 1.) l.p. 145; Pursh, fl. \.p. 104; Ell. sk. \.p. 196; Torr.fl. I. p. 167; 
Beck, bot. p. 163 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 101 ; Ton: <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 24. G. punc- 
ticulosum, /3. pilosum, DC. jirodr. 4. p. 601. 

312 RUBIACEiE. Galium. 

Stems 2 feet liigh, often several from one root, more or less pubescent, particularly on the 
angles. Leaves 6-8 lines long, and about 3 lines wide. Flowering branches or peduncles 
twice or thrice divided, with a wliorl of small leaves as the division. Corolla brownish-purple ; 
the lobes acuminate. Fruit middle-sized, densely clothed with white bristles. 

Dry woods and copses ; not rare. Fl. June. Fr. August. 

6. Galium cikcezans, Mickx. Wild Liquorice. 

Stems usually several from one root, or branching from the base, erect or ascending ; leaves 
4 in a whorl, oval or ovate-oblong, mostly obtuse, 3-nerved, somewhat pubescent, the margin 
and nerves ciliatc ; peduncles terminal and in the axils of the uppermost leaves, once or twice 
2 - 3-forked, divaricate in fruit ; the flowers remote, dcflexed, on very short lateral pedicels ; 
fruit densely hispid with hooked bristles. — Michx. Jl. 1. p. 80; Pursh, fl. \. p. 104 ; Ell. 
sk. 1. p. 197; Ton: fl. I. p. 168 (excl. syn. Gron.) ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 55 ; DC. prodr. 4. 
p. 601 ; Beck, hot. p. 163 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 102 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 24. 
G. brachiatum, Muhl. cat. p. 15, not of Pursh. G. borealc, Walt. fl. Car. p. 257. G. 
circaeoides, Ra-vi. <Sf Schult. syst. 3. j)- 256. 

var. lanceoJatum : leaves lanceolate or often ovate-lanceolate, rather acute. Torr. cat. pi. 
N. York, p. 23 ; DC. I. c. ; Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. G. lanceolatum, Torr. fl. 1. p. 168 ; Hook. 
Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 280; Beck, hot. p. 103; Darlingt. I. c. G. Torreyi, Bigel. I. c. p. 56. 

Stems 10-18 inches high, shining, a little pubescent towards the summit, usually nearly 
or quite smooth below. Leaves 1 - 1 2 (and in var. lanceolatum often more than 2) inches 
long, more or less pubescent, sometimes hairy on both sides (particularly on the veins), marked 
on the under surface with indistinct scattered roundish and linear dots. Terminal peduncle 
3-forked to the base ; the divisions either simple or two-forked, with several somewhat secund 
flowers on each branch : a very small bractcal leaf at the base of each short pedicel. Corolla 
usually brownish-purple, rarely cream-colored ; the lobes acuminate-cuspidate. Fruit clothed 
with dense white bristles. 

' Fertile woods ; common. Fl. June - July. Fr. August - September. The root is slightly 
sweetish in both varieties. The two forms seem to pass into each other, but in their extreme 
slates they certainly appear very difl'erent. 

♦ •♦ Flowers vhitc; the pediiiiclcs disposed in a ierniinal panicle. 

7. Galium boreale, Linn. Northern Bedstraw. 

Stem straight, erect, smoothish, paniculately branched above ; leaves 4 in a whorl, linear- 
lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, rather obtuse ; panicle elongated, somewhat pyramidal ; fruit 
hispid with short scarcely uncinate hairs, or sometimes smooth. — Linn. sp. I. p. 108; Pursh, 
fl. I. p. 104 ; Torr.fl. I. p. 169 ; Hook.fl. Bor -Am. I. p. 289; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 103; 
Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 25. G. Bermudianum, Muhl. cat. p. 15. G. strictum, Torr. 
cat. pi. N. York, p. 23. G. septcntrionale, Ro'?n. <J- Schult. syst. 3. p. 253 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 53 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 601 ; Beck, hot. p. 163. 

Galium. RUBIACE^. 313 

Whole plant somewhat glaucous. Stem 1^-2 feet high, usually smooth and shining, or 
only slightly rough on the angles. Leaves of the stem about an inch and a quarter long • of 
the branches scarcely half as long, 2-4 lines wide, when dry a little revolute on the margin, 
which IS slightly scabrous, as is also the midrib. Flowers numerous and rather crowded. 
Lobes of the corolla acute. Fruit rather small, usually a little hispid. 

Dry woods and rocky banks of rivers ; Tather common in the northern and western counties ; 
rare in the southern part of the State. Fl. July - August. 

Suborder II. Cinchone^. Torr. S^- Gr. 

Leaves opposite or very rarely verticillate. Stipules one or two on each side 
between the petioles (interpetiolar), often united with each other or with the 
petioles, or with both so as to form a sheath. Estivation of the corolla 
valvate, imbricated or contorted. Ovary coherent with the tube of the calyx, 
or very rarely with the upper portion free. — Trees or shrubs, very rarely 
herbs. ^ ^ 

Tribe I. SPERMACOCE^. Cham. ^ Schlecht. 
Fruit dry or scarcely fleshy, composed of two {rarely three or four) l-seeded carpels, which 
are variously combined ; sometimes separating and indehiscent, or variously dehiscent, 
but never loculicidal. Albumen fleshy and somewhat horny. Estivation of the corolla 
usually valvate.— Herbs or shrubs. Stipules membranaceous at the base, usually with 
several bristles at the apex. 

2. CEPHALANTHUS. Linn. ; Endl. gen. 2U8. BVTTON-BUSH. 

[ From the Greek, kephak, a head, and anthos, a flower; the flowers growing in heads.] 
Calyx-tube obpyramidal ; the limb 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, slender ; the lobes of the 
4-cleft hmb erect, imbricate in estivation. Stamens 4, scarcely exserted. Style filiform, 
much exserted : stigma clavate-capitatc. Fruit inversely pyramidal, coriaceous, 2-4- 
celled, separating from the base to the summit into 2-4 closed l-seeded portions. Seeds 
pendulous, conformed to the cell, crowned with a kind of corky arillus. Embryo straight, 
m the axis of somewhat cartilaginous albumen : cotyledons oblong, foliaceous : radicle 
slender.— Shrubs, with oval or lanceolate, opposite or ternatc leaves. Flowers while, in 
dense globose heads. 

1. Cephalanthus occidentalis, Linn. Butter-hush, or Fond-Dogioood. 

Leaves opposite and ternatc, ovate or oval-oblong, acuminate, distinctly petioled, usually 
smooth ; peduncles longer than the heads, usually ternate at the extremity of the branches.— 
[Floiia.] 40 

314 RUBIACEiE. Cephalanthus. 

Michx. Jl.l.p.87; Diiham. arh. t. 54 ; Schk. handb. t. 21, and t.b ^ ; Pursh, fl. 1. 
p. 114 ; Ell sk. I. p. 186; Torr.Jl. \.p. 164; Bart.fl. Am. Sept. 3. t. 91 ; Bigel.jl. Bost. 
p. 51 ; Beck, hot. p. 161 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 98 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 31. 

A shrub 3-8 feet high, with opposite branches. Leaves 8-5 inches long and 1-2 
inches wide, opposite and ternate often on the same branch : petiole about an inch long. 
Stipules small, ovate, often serrate or toothed ; sometimes united. Heads of flowers (exclusive 
of the exserted styles) about an inch in diameter, on peduncles an inch and a half long. 
Flowers sessile, inserted on a globose hairy receptacle. Calyx-tube produced a little above 
the ovary ; lobes ovate. Corolla tapering downward into a long funnel-form tube ; the lobes 
obtuse. Style nearly twice as long as the corolla. 

Borders of ponds and rivers, and in swamps ; common. Fl. July - August. Fr. September. 

Tribe II. GUETTARDEJE. Kunth. 
Fruit drupaceous, 2 - 8-celled, or containing 2-8 one-seeded nucules. Seeds somewhat 
terete, elongated, usually erect. Albumen mostly fleshy. Estivation of the corolla 
usually contorted or valvate. — Small trees, shrubs, or very rarely herbs. Stipules 
between the petioles. 

3. MITCHELLA. Linn.; Lam. ill. t. 63 ; Endl. gen. 3188. partrwge-berry. 

[ In honor of Dr. Jobn Mitchell, a botanist of Virginia.] 

Flowers in pairs, with their ovaries united. Limb of the calyx 4-toothed. Corolla funnel- 
form, with a slender tube, 4-lobed ; the lobes spreading, densely bearded inside with white 
hairs. Stamens 4 : filaments inserted into the throat of the corolla : anthers oblong. Style 
filiform : stigmas four, linear. Fruit baccate, depressed-globose, composed of the united 
ovaries of both flowers, each of which contains 4 small horny 1-seeded nucules. Embryo 
minute, at the extremity of somewhat cartilaginous albumen : cotyledons short ; the radicle 
thick. — Smooth creeping evergreen herbs, with opposite or roundish petioled leaves. 
Stipules triangular-subulate, minute. Flowers terminal, white or pale rose-color, fragrant. 
Fruit bright red, edible. 

1. MiTCHELLA REPENs, Linii. Partridge-beny. 

Leaves roundish-ovate, often slightly cordate ; peduncle 2-flowered. — Linn. sp. \.p.\\\ ; 
Michx. fl. I. p. 86; Pursh, fl. I. p. 101 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 198 ; Torr. fl. I. p. 174 ; Bigel. 
fl. Bost. p. 52 ; Bart. fl. Am. Sept. 3. t. 95. /. 1 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 452 ; Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am. 1. p. 287 ; Beck, bot. p. 160 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 105 ; Torr.<^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. 
p. 34. Syringa baccata, Pluk. amalth. t. 444. /. 2 ; Catesb. Carol. 1. t. 20. 

Stems slender, 6-12 inches long, branching in all directions, and striking root at the joints. 
Leaves about half an inch long, dark green and shining, generally marked with a central 



• whitish longitudinal line, of a firm and somewhat coriaceous texture : petiole shorter than the 
lamma. Flowers about half an inch long, of two kinds in different plants : one kind with the 
stamens conspicuously exserted, and the style included ; the other with the stamens included 
and the style exserted : the parts usually in fours, but not unfrequently in fives, and some- 

Zu 'f r'!' Z 'u°"' ""'^'"^ °^ '" '"'^'^ '" '^'^'"^^'^'' ^--"«d with the persistent 

teeth of 2 calyces edible but insipid, remaining through the winter and following spnng. 

Moist woods about the roots of trees ; common. Fl. June. Fr. September. The plant 
turns black m drymg. ^ 

Tribe III. HEDYOTIDE^. Cham. ^ Schlecht. 

Fruit capsular, Z-celled, usually loculictdal ; the cells several- o,- manv-seeded Seeds 

^ Albumen ftesUy. ^st^vat^on of the corolla mostly rn^hricullrcontorfed- 

Herbs or shrubs Strpules betroeen the petroles, eUher one or tu.o on each ^^ or 

^h'b^t^ ""' '^' ''''''''' "'^ « -«.^ra«ac.o«. sheath, .luch rs often ^^^ 

4. HEDYOTfS. Linn. ; A. Richard, Rubiac. m mem. soc. hist. Par. 5. p 133 ■ Wight 
4- Arn. prodr. fl. Ind. Or. 1 . p. 405 ; Endl. gen. 3240. BLUETS. 

Hedtotis, Houston/a and OLDEm,ANDu, Lmn. Anotis, &c. DC. 
[ From .he Greek, koUjs, sweet, and ous (otos), an ear; the leaves resembling the cars If some animals.] 

Calyx-tube ovate or globose ; the limb 4-tooihed. Corolla funnel-form, salver-form or rotate 
4-lobed; the lobes imbricate in estivation. Stamens 4, inserted either into the throat o^ 
towards the base of the tube. Stigma usually 2-cleft or 2-lobed. Capsule globose ovoid 
or obcordate, mostly coriaceous, the summit often free from and exserted beyond the calyx 
2.celled, open across the summit by loculicidal dehiscence, and at length the valves also 
split at the top. Seeds few or numerous, on placenta which project into each cell • the 
testa pitted or reticulate.- Herbs or suffruticose plants. Stipules connate with the peJiole 
entire, toothed, or sometimes fringed with bristles. Flowers axillary or terminal, solitary 
or cymulose, or glomerate. Most of the species turn blackish in drying. 

* *• ^^7"'; fnnnd.form or salver-form ; the tube much longer than the caly.-teeth : stamens in one 

n M« 0/A.r, the flamens inserted ^nto the tube of the corolla near its base, an.1 the style exserted- 
cap^le more or less free from the calyx towards the summit, ..ith fe. (8 - ^0) eelTL 
cell : seeds v>Uh a deep hollow on the face, pitied or reticulated. 

1. Hedvotis c^auLBA, Hook. n,rn„,on Bluets. Dwarf Risk. 

Annual or biennial, smooth; stems numerous, erect or spreading, dichotomous • leaves 
0,41-spatulate or obianceolate , the radical and lower ones tapering at tLe base a^d somewli: 


316 RUBIACE^. Hedyotis. 

petioled, usually sparsely ciliate ; peduncles filiform, elongated ; corolla salver-form ; capsule 
reniform-obcordate, free above the middle ; seeds roundish, scrobiculate. — Hook. fl. Bor.- 
Am.l. p. 2S6 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 104 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 38. Houstonia 
cierulea, TJmi. sp. 1. p. 105 ; Bat. mag. t. 370; Pursh, fl. 1. p. 106 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 192 ; 
Bart.fl. Am. Sept. t. 34./. 1 ; Torr.fl. 1. p. 172 ; Bigel.fl. Bost. p. 53 ; Beck, hot. p. 242, 
H. Linnasi, a. elatior, Michx. fl. I. p. 85. 

Stems 3-6 inches high, branching from the base ; the branches very slender, at first mostly 
erect, finally somewhat spreading. Radical leaves 3-5 lines long and about 2 lines wide, 
almost hispid on both sides, as well as on the margin ; the upper ones smaller, much narrower 
and nearly smooth. Peduncles 1-2 inches long in fruit. Flowers 4-5 lines long. Segments 
of the calyx oblong, (distant in fruit, with the sinuses rounded.) Corolla blue or blue and 
white, sometimes all white, with a yellow centre ; the lobes somewhat ovate and acute. 
Capsule broader than long, more than half free from the calyx, dehiscent down to the calyx. 
Seeds 8 - 15 in each cell. 

Grassy wet banks, and in woods. April - September. 

2, Hedyotis ciliolata, Torr. (Plate XLIV.) Fringed-leaved Bluets. 

Stems usually numerous and somewhat cespitose, at length spreading, nearly smooth ; 
leaves rather thick, obscurely one-nerved ; cauline ones oblanceolate or linear-oblong ; the 
radical and lowest cauline ones oval- or oblong-spatulate, tapering into a petiole, ciliate with 
short rigid hairs ; cymules mostly 2 - 3-flowered, in corymbose clusters ; peduncles and 
pedicels short ; lobes of the calyx lanceolate-subulate, about the length of the nearly globose 
capsule ; corolla funnel-form. — Torr. in Spreng. cur. post. p. 40 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 422 ; 
Hook.fl. Bor.-Am. I. p. 286 ; Torr. ^ Gr.fl. N. Am. 2. p. 40. Houstonia ciliolata, Torr. 
fl. I. p. 174 ; Beck, bat. p. 243. H. serpyllifolia, Graham in hot. mag. t. 2882, not of Michx. 

Stems 4-6 inches high, at first erect, at length spreading. Radical leaves in a spreading 
circular tuft, 6-8 lines long, somewhat coriaceous ; the cauline pairs rather few and distant 
(the lower internode often 2 inches in length), all of them ciliolate. Stipules broadly ovate, 
obtuse. Flowers numerous, about one-third of an inch long, lilac or pale purple. Calyx- 
segments about one-third the length of the corolla, Capsule about one half 
free from the calyx; the cells 8 - 10-seeded. 

Banks of rivers and lakes. Goat Island, Falls of Niagara {Prof. Hadletj). On the Genesee 
river, near Rochester {Prof. Dewey and Mr. J. Carey). Shore of Lake Ontario and on the 
banks of Black river, Jefferson county {Dr. Knieskern). Fl. May - August. 

3. Hedyotis lo.ngifolia, Hook. Long-leaved Bluets. 

Smooth ; stems erect ; leaves linear and oblong-linear, acute or obtuse, tapering to the 
base, 1-nerved, roughish on the margin, but not cihate ; the radical ones narrowly oval or 

Hedtotis. RUBIACE^. 317 

oblong, attenuated below into a petiole ; cymules 2 - 3-flowered, somewhat paniculate ; the 
pedicels at first short, finally nearly equal, and longer than the fruit ; lobes of the calyx 
subulate-lanceolate, mostly longer than the tube, but shorter than or scarcely exceeding the 
nearly globose capsule ; corolla funnel-form.— i/ooi./. Bor.-Am. I. p. 286 (excl. syn. Michx.); 
Torr. <J- Gr.fl. N. Am. 2. p. 40. Houstonia longifolia, I. p. 226. t. 49./. 8 (fruit); 
Witld. sp. 1. p. 583 ; Ell. sk. 1. p. 192 ; Torr. Jl. \.p. 173 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 53 ; Hook, 
hot. mag. t. 3099; H. H.Eaton in Transylv. jour. med. March, 1832; Beck, hot. p. 243. 
H. angustifolia, Pursh, fl.\. p. 106, not of Michx. 

Stems 5-8 inches high, slender, usually several from one root, 4-sided, the angles promi- 
nent. Leaves about three-fourths of an inch long, and 1 - 2 lines wide ; the pairs somewhat 
approximated. Stipules short and broad, but rather acute, scarious. Flowers about 3 lines 
long. Corolla about three times as long as the lobes of the calyx, pale purple, or sometimes 
nearly white. Capsule about half free from the calyx ; the cells about 10-seeded. 

Dry hill-sides, fields, etc. Catskill and Troy ; also abundant on Hempstead Plains, about 
Oyster Bay, &c. Long Island. Fl. June - August. 

§ 2. Flowers all similar : corolla rotate, shorter than the calyx-teeth : capsule wholly adherent to the 
calyx; the cells many- (GO or more) seeded : herb annual. 

4. Hedyotis glomerata, Ell. Cluster-fowered Bluets. 

Stem erect or somewhat diffuse, hairy-pubescent, branching ; leaves oblong or elliptical- 
lanceolate, narrowed at the base or slightly petioled, nearly smooth ; flowers mostly glomerate 
in the axils; tube of the calyx hairy, shorter than the lobes. — Ell. sk. \.p. 187; Torr.fl. 1. 
p. 171 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 421 ; Beck, hot. p. 160; Torr. ^ Or. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 42. H. 
auricuJaria, Walt.fl. Car. p. 85, not oi Linn. H. glomerata and Virginica, Spreng. syst. 1. 
p. 412. Oldenlandia uniflora, Linn. sp. 1. p. 119. 0. glomerata, Michx. fl. l.p. 83 ; Pursh, 
fl. 1. p. 102. 

Whole plant of a dull green color. Stem 2-4 inches high, at first simple and erect, at 
length branching from the base, and assurgent. Leaves about half an inch long ; upper ones 
nearly sessile and crowded. Stipules adnate to the short petioles, cleft into two subulate 
divisions. Flowers sometimes solitary, or 2 - 3 together, but usually clustered ; when few 
or terminal, they are mostly pedicellate. Calyx with ovate foliaceous segments. Corolla 
white ; tube very short : segments ovale, generally spinulous, one-third the length of the 
calyx. Stamens scarcely exserted : anthers somewhat globose. Style almost none : stigmas 
oblong, obtuse. Capsule large for the size of the flower, globose-didyraous, crowned with 
the persistent teeth of the calyx. 

Moist and usually shady places. In a wet woods, Bloomingdale, on the Island of New- 
York ; and on the borders of a swamp about a mile from Brooklyn, Long Island. Fl. August. 

318 VALERIANACEiE. Valeriana. 

Group 2. Ovary coherent with the calyx (the limb assutning the form of a crown 
or pappus, or else is obsolete), one-celled or sometimes with tico empty cells, 
one-ovuled. Seeds with little or no albumen. Stamens inserted on the corolla. 
Fruit a kind of acJienium. — Flowers co?n?nonly in heads. 

Order LIII. VALERIANACEtE. DC. The Valerian Tribe. 

Limb of" the calyx 2 - 4-toothed, obsolete or forming a kind of pappus. Corolla 
tubular-funnelform or obconical, sometimes gibbous or with a spur at the base ; 
the limb mostly 5-lobed. Stamens distinct, usually fewer than the lobes of 
the corolla. Ovary with one perfect cell, and two abortive ones. Fruit 
membranaceous or coriaceous, indehiscent, one-celled, or 3-celled with two 
of the cells empty. Seed suspended. — Herbs with opposite leaves and no 
stipules ; the perennial species with thick strong-scented roots or rhizomas. 
Flowers in dichotomous cymes or panicles. 

1. VALERIANA. Tourn. ; DC. mem. Valer. ; E)idl. gen. 2186. VALERIAN. 

[ From the Latin, valeo, to be powerful ; on account of its medicinal \-irtues.] 

Limb of the caly.t involute after flowering, at length unfolding into a feathery pappus. Corolla 
obconical, with a cylindrical tube which is often gibbous, but not spurred at the base ; the 
limb obtusely 5-lobed, regular. Stamens 3. Fruit one-celled when mature, one-seeded. — 
Perennial herbs, or sometimes shrubby plants, with the leaves entire or divided. Flowers 
cymose ; those in the forks sessile ; the cymules often paniculate or glomerate. Bracts 
usually opposite. Corolla white, sometimes bluish or rose-color. 

1. Valeriana sylvatica, Herb. Banks. (PI. XLV.) Tall Swamp Valerian. 

Smooth ; stem slightly striate, simple ; radical leaves ovate or oblong-spatulate, entire or 
rarely with two small auriculate lobes, on slender petioles ; cauline ones pinnately divided ; 
the divisions lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, entire or obscurely serrate, the terminal one larger; 
flowers all perfect and similar, numerous, in a cyme which is at first compact, but at length 
open corymbose ; lobes of the stigma 2-3, minute ; fruit oblong-ovoid, compressed, smooth. 
— Richards, in app. Frankl. journ. ed. 2. p. 2; Hook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 291 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
ft. N. Am. 2. p. 47. V. dioica, Pursh, ft. I. p. 727. 

var. uliginosa : leaves ciliate, the surface often minutely pubescent ; the terminal division 
frequently toothed. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. V. sylvatica? Beck, hot. p. 164. 

Roots consisting of numerous long fibres, having the odor of V. officinalis. Plant 2-3 feet 
high. Stem simple, sometimes a little pubescent when young, but commonly smooth, erect. 

Valeriana. VALERIANACE.E. 319 

Stem-leaves 3-6 inches long; the divisions in 2 - 5 pairs, varying from oblong-ovate to 
bnear-lanceolate, mostly acute, often entire, but usually with a few remote and small teeth 
Flowers numerous, in a pedunculate 2 - 3.forked compound cyme. Calyx, as in the rest of 
the genus, with the hmb at first curled inwards so as to be almost concealed, at length un- 
foldmg mto a beautiful pappus of numerous feathery rays. Corolla about three lines long 
f Fruirr!bbed'''' '"'"°'"'"" ^'''"'" '''"'"^- ^^^^^ ^"^^^ '°"S -^ filiform: stigmas 
Sphagnous swamp in Savannah, Wayne county (Dr. Sartwell). Fl. June - July The 
only other known locality of this interesting plant, in the United States, is Fairhaven, Vermont 

to those of V. dioica, to which it is nearly allied. 

2. FEDIA. Mcench. ; J. Woods in Linn, trans. 17. p. 421. t. 21. COrn-salad. 

Fedia and Valerianella, Manch., DC, Endl, <f.f. 

[A name of uncertain meaning.] 

Limb of the calyx toothed and persistent, or obsolete. Tube of the corolla not spurred, but 
sometimes gibbous at the base ; the limb 5-lobed, regular or somewhat irregular. Stamens 
2 or 3. St,gmaentire,or2-3-lobed. Fruit 3-celled ; two of the cells empty (sometimes 
confluent into one); the other one-seeded.-Annual smoothish herbs, more or less dichoto- 
mous above. Leaves oblong or linear, sessile, entire, or often toothed or incised near the 
base. Flowers in glomerate or crowded cymules, white, rose-color or purple. Bracts 
opposite, or somewhat involucellate. 

f Valerianella, Mo^nch Corolla mth a short tube and regular limb : stamens 3 : stigma S-cleft 
or ent^re : empty cells of the fruit membranaceous and inflated, or somet^mes nerv^form. ^ 

1. Fedia Fagopvrum, Ton: ^- Gr. (PI. XL VI.) Buckwheat Corn-salad. 

Fruit triangular, with an ovate outline, nearly smooth when mature, obscurely 3 - 5-toothed 
at the apex; the lateral angles acute , the anterior somewhat obtuse; upper leaves mostly 
entire and rather acute ; flowers white.- Torr. 4- Gr.jl. N. Am. 2. p. 52. F. radiata Torr 
Jl. 1. p. 35 (chiefly), not o( Michx. Valeriana radiata, Beck, bot. p. 164 (partly) 

Stem 6-18 inches high, usually twice 2-forked above. Leaves about an inch long some 
what glaucous, a hllle connate ; the lower spatulate , uppermost lanceolate-oblong Bracts 
anceolatc, acute ; the margins slightly scarious. Corolla funnel-form, about a line and a half 
long with a small protuberance on the side of the short narrow lube : lobes scmiovate nearly 
equal. Stamens and styles included. Stigma small, nearly entire. Fruit about 1 J line Ion- 
acute, crowned with the minute border of the calyx : two of the angles sharp ■ the othe,' 
occupied by the 2 contracted empty cells, which always remain distinct 

Wet shady grounds. Banks of the Mohawk river, near Utica(Z)r. Gray c|- Dr. Knicskcrn) 
Penn-Yan {Dr. Sartwell). May - June. 


Order LIV. DIPSACEiE. VailL; DC. The Scabious Tribe. 

Tube of the calyx adherent to the ovary, or sometimes free except at the summit; 
the limb various, sometimes forming a bristly or plumose pappus. Corolla 
tubular ; the limb 4 or 5-lobed, somewhat irregular. Stamens 4, distinct or 
rarely united in pairs, often unequal. Ovary one-celled, with a single suspended 
ovule. Fruit an achenium or membranaceous, not opening, crowned with the 
limb of the calyx, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Embryo nearly the length of the fleshy 
albumen. — Herbs with opposite or whorled sessile leaves, destitute of stipules. 
Flowers aoforregated on a common receptacle, in dense involucrate heads, each 
surrounded at the base with a very short involucel. 

1. DIPSACUS. Tourn.; Linn. ; Endl. gen. 2191. TEASEL. 

[ From the Greek, dipstw, to be thirsty; the upper leaves holding water at their connate bases ] 

Flowers capitate ; the involucre many-leaved, longer than the somewhat foliaceous and 
acuminate chaff of the receptacle. Involucels 4-sided, closely investing the ovar}- and 
fruit. Tube of the calyx coherent with the ovary ; the limb cup-shaped or discoid. Limb 
of the corolla 4-cleft. Stigma longitudinal. — Biennial erect stout herbs, hairy or prickly. 
Leaves opposite, often connate at the base, undivided or laciniate. Heads large, oblong or 
roundish ; the expansion of the flowers commencing about the middle, and proceeding in 
opposite directions. Corolla pale purple, yellowish or whitish. 

1. DiPSACUs sYLVESTRis, Mill. Wild Teasel. 

Leaves sessile, slightly connate , radical ones crenate-toothed ; scales of the receptacle 
straight at the extremity; involucres curved upward. — Mill. diet. no. 2 ; Engl hot. t. 1032 ; 
Pursh,Jl. 1. p. 96 ; Torr.fl. I. p. 164 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 645 ; Beck, hot. p. 165 ; Darlingt. 
ft. Cest. p. 98 ; Torr. ^ Gr. Jl. N. Am. 2. p. 54. 

Stem 3 — 5 feet high, branching, angular and (as well as the involucres and midrib of the 
leaves) prickly. Radical leaves lanceolate-oblong ; cauline ones lanceolate, serrate or entire. 
Leaflets of ihe involucre slender, longer than the head. Heads of flowers oblong-ovoid. 
Corolla pale purple or almost white, pubescent. Scales of the receptacle oblong-cuneate, 
tapering into a long straight point ; those at the top of the head longest. 

Fields, road-sides, etc. ; naturalized in many places. A native of Europe. Fl. July — 
August. This is suspected by some botanists to be the original of the D. Fullonum, or 
Fullei's Teasel. 


Order LV. COMPOSITE. VailL; Linn. The Composite Tribe. 

Flowers collected into a dense head (compound flower of the older botanists), on 
a common receptacle, and surrounded by bracts (scales) forming an involucre 
common calyx of LinncsusJ ; the separate flowers often furnished with brac- 
teoles (chaff' or paleae). Tube of the calyx coherent with the ovary, and 
inseparable from it ; the limb (called pappus) composed of bristles, plumose 
hairs, scales, etc., or rarely foliaceous, often wanting or reduced to a mere 
margin. Corolla usually composed of 5 united petals, either ligulate or tubular. 
Stamens 5 (rarely fewer); the anthers linear, united into a tube(syngenesious), 
sometimes with an appendage at the top (appendiculate), or at the base (caudate). 
Ovary one-celled, with a single erect ovule : style in the fertile flowers 2-cleft ; 
the lobes or branches mostly flattish inside, and often furnished with hairs for 
collecting the pollen, the proper stigmatic surface being in the form of slightly 
elevated lines along the inner margin.* Fruit an achenium, crowned with the 
limb of the calyx or pappus. Seed destitute of albumen : radicle short : 
cotyledons flat or plano-convex. — Herbs, rarely shrubs or trees ; the branches 
often corymbose. Flowers in each head expanding from the margin to the 
centre ; either all of the same color (Jwmochromous), or the marginal ones 
different from those of the disk (heterochromous). 

An immensely large and very natural order, embracing about one-tenth of all the phcnogamous plants of the world, or 
of this .State about one-ninth. The head of flowers may be considered as a very short or contracted spike j the receptacle 
being the axis, and the scales of the involucre and the chafl', the bracts. The head is said to be homogavious, when all 
the flowers are perfect; or /tetcrogamous, when the marj^nal ones are pistillate or neuter, and the others are perfect or 
Btaminate. It is iliscnid, when all the flowers are tubular ; ligulalc, when they arc all flat or ligulate ; and ratliaic, when 
the marginal ones only arc ligulate, and the others tubular. Sometimes the flowers are wholly staminatc on one plant 
and pistillate on another, when tlicy are said to be dictcious. The receptacle is pakacanis or chaffy, when it is covered 
with membranaceous scales (generally thinner than those of tlie involucre, and like them consisting of mocliflcd bracts) ; 
it is naked, when destitute of scales ; tdvcuUUe, when, after the acheniu arc removed, it is dec[)ly pitted like a honeycomb ; 
fimlrnllaU;, when the margins of the little cells arc fringed or bristly ; arcolate, when divided into numerous little angular 

• As the characters of the tribes arc chiefly taken from the forms of the style and the stigmatic surfaces, these must bo 
carefully studied, and the student must become familiar with their various apjjcarances. 

[Flora.] 41 

322 COMPOSITE. Veknonia. 


Suborder I. TUBII'LORiE. Corolla of the perfect flowers tubular, and regularly 5- (rarely 3 - 4-) toothed. 

Tribe I. Vebnoniaceje. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraccous ; the branches usually elongated and subulate, 

liispid throughout ; the stigmatic lines not extending beyond their middle. 
Tribe II. Eupatoriace.e. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraccous ; the branches elongated, obtuse or clavatc, 

externally pubcrulcnt or papillose towards the summit ; the stigmatic lines obscure, terminating near their 

Tribe III. AsrzRoiDEiE. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraccous ; the branches linear, externally flattish, minutely 

and equally pubescent above ; the stigmatic lines prominent, extending to about the origin of the exterior 

Tribe IV. Senecio.\ide.e. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraccous ; the branches linear, truncate at the summit and 

pcncillate, or often produced into a conical or elongated hispid appendage ; the stigmatic lines rather 

broad and prominent, extending to the commencement of the appendage or hairy portion. 
Tribe V. CxNAREa:. Style of the perfect flowers thickened and nodose towards the summit, and often pencilled at the 

node ; the branches either concrete or distinct, pubenilcnt on the outside : the stigmatic lines reaching to 

and confluent at the summit of the branches. 

Suborder II. LIGULIFLOR.S. Flowers all perfect or ligulate. 
Tribe VI. Cichobaces:. Style cylindraccous above; the branches rather long and obtuse, equally pubescent; the 
stigmatic lines terminating below their middle. — Plants with milky juice. 

Suborder I. TUBIFLORtE. DC. 

Corolla of the pei'fect flowers tubular, and regularly 5- (rarely 4-) toothed or 
lobed. Pollen globose, echinate, or (in Cynare^) rarely smooth and elliptical. 

Heads discoid, with the flowers all tubular and perfect (homogamous), or rarely radiate ; 
the ray-floioers ligulate and pistillate. Corolla occasionally palmate, or obscurely 
2-lipped. Style cylindrical above ; the branches subulate and elongated {rarely short 
and obtuse), equally hispid ; the stigmatic lines terminating below or near the middle, 
not confluent. 

1. VERNONIA. Schreb.gen. p. 541 ; Endl. gen. 220-i. iro.\-weed. 

[ Named after Mr. William Vernox, an English botanist, who many years ago travelled and collected plants in this 


Heads several- or many-flowered, homogamous ; the flowers all equal and tubular. Involucre 

imbricate. Receptacle commonly naked. Corolla regular. Filaments smooth. Achenia 

mostly striate or ribbed, with a cartilaginous callus at the base. Pappus usually double ; 

the inner of numerous bristles ; the outer mostly short or minute, often somewhat chafiy. — 

Mostly perennial herbs, with usually alternate leaves ; in the North American species, 

corymbose-cymose. Flowers purple, rose-color or white. 

Vernonia. composite. 


1. Vernoma Noveborace^sis, WUld. Common Iron-weed. 

Stem slightly pubescent ; leaves lanceolate or elliptical-lanceolate, finely and sharply serrate 
roughish above; cyme fastigiate; heads numerous, 20 - 30-flowered ; involucre hemispherical- 
campanulate, shorter than the pappus; the scales appressed, ovate, mostly produced into a 
subulate or filiform appendage ; several of the outermost subulate, loose and bracteolate ■ 
achenia smooth or slightly hairy when young, glandular, shorter than the pappus — Willd 
sp. 3. p. 1632; MicJuv. fl. 2. p. 95 ; Pursh, /. 1. p. 511 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 293 • Torr 
comp. p. 282 ; Beck, hot. p. 175 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 63 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2 p 57 
V. praalta. Less, in Linncea, 4. p. 264; Hook. Jl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 57, Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 448. Serratula Noveboracensis, Linn. sp. 2. p. 818. 

var. prcBalta : scales of the involucre acute or acuminate, unarmed, or only a part of them 
filiform at the top .— Torr. 4. Gr. I. c. V. pr^alta, Willd. I. c. (not of DC.) ; Michoo. I. c. ; 
Pxirsh, I. c. ; Beck, I. c. Serratula prsalta and glauca, Linn. I. c. 

Stem stout, 3-6 feet high, striate, usually purple, simple or a little branching above and 
leafy to the summit. Leaves 3 - 6 inches long, often narrowly lanceolate, attenuated at each 
end and sometimes with short petioles, a little pubescent, and the veins prominent underneath ; 
the upper surface a little roughened with minute elevated points. Heads nearly half an inch 
in diameter ; the scales brownish-purple, mostly ciliate with cobweb-like hairs ; the filiform 
tips spreading or flexuous. Corolla deep clear purple. Pappus tawny, or sometimes dull 

Wet meadows and borders of swamps ; very common on Long Island, and in the neighbor- 
hood of New- York, but not found in the interior of the State. August. 

Heads discoid, with the flowers all tubular and perfect {homogamous), or sometimes hetero- 
gamous; the ray-flowers either tubular or ligulate. Style cylindrical above- the 
branches usually much elongated, obtuse or clavate, puberulent or papillose externally 
towards the summit ; the stigmatic lines inconspicuous, terminating near the middle 
branches of the style, not confluent at their termination. Anthers never caudate. Flowers 
mostly white, blue or purple. Leaves commonly opposite. 

Sublribc 1. EUPATORIEyE. Hcad« diBCoid homogamous. 
+ Pappus composed of slender hairs or bristles. 

2. L.ATBis. Receptacle naked. Scale, of the involucre not Htriato. Lobes of the corolla elongated. Achonia ribbed 

3. E0PATO8.UM. Receptacle naked, flat. Seal™ of the involucre numerous. Achenia 5-angled, not striate 

4. M.KA,-..A. Recepucle naked, flat. .Scales of the involucre (and floWcrs) <J - 5. Achenia S-angled. not striate. 
Subtribe 2. TUSSILAGLVE^. with the flowers heterogamous, or dicecious. 

5. Nardosmia. Heads corymbose, many-flowered, somewhat diacious. 

C. Tuss.LACO. Head solitiiry, many-flowered, heterogamous; the pistillate flowers ligulate, in several scries 


324 COMPOSITiE. Liatris. 

Subtribe 1. ErPATORiE^, DC. Heads discoid ; the Jlowers all perfect and similar, usvalhj 
white, rose-color or purple {rarely cream-color), never yellow. 

2. LIATRIS. Schreh. gen. p. 5^2; Endl. gen. 2270. button SNAKEROOT. 

[A name of unknown derivation.] 

Heads few, many-flowered. Scales of the involucre few or numerous, imbricate, not striate. 
Receptacle naked. Corolla tubular, 5-lobed ; the lobes usually elongated. Branches of 
the style much exserted, cylindraceous or somewhat flattened, obtuse. Achenia nearly 
terete, tapering to the base, about 10-ribbed. Pappus of numerous plumose or barbellate 
bristles. — Perennial herbs, with simple stems and a tuberous root. Leaves alternate or 
scattered, usually lanceolate or linear and entire, with a rigid or cartilaginous margin. 
Heads disposed in an elongated spike or raceme (flowering from the summit downward), 
sometimes paniculate, rarely corymbose. Flowers purple (very rarely pale or white) ; the 
corolla, style, etc. commonly dolled with resinous globules. — Very showy plants when in 

$. EuLiATRis, Terr. & Gr. Root a globose tuber : leaves linear or lanceolate, grass-like, 1-5- 
nervcd, mostly punctate with impressed and resinous dots : heads in a virgate spike or raceme : 
involucre manifestly imbricate : lobes of the corolla lanceolate or linear : pappus phimosc or 

1. Liatris cylindracea, Michx. Small BiUtonSnakcroot. 

Smooth or slightly hairy ; stem (low) leafy ; leaves linear and lanceolate-linear, rigid, 
scarcely punctate, mostly one-nerved ; heads few (1-7, rarely more), turbinate-cylindrical, 
sessile or pedicellate, 16 - 20-flowered ; scales of the involucre numerous, all short and ap- 
pressed, with rounded or obtuse abruptly mucronale tips, often ciliate, not punctate ; achenia 
pubescent ; pappus very plumose. — Michx. fl. 2. p. 93 ; Ell. fk. 2. p. 275 ; DC. prodr. 5. 
p. 130, not of Pursh ; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 69. L. stricta, M'Nab in Edinb. phil. 
journ. 19. p. 60. L. flexuosa, Thomas in Sill, journ. 37. p. 328, with a figure. 

Stem 6-18 inches high, straight or somewhat flexuous. Leaves 6-10 inches long, the 
lower ones broader and somewhat lanceolate. Heads about an inch long ; the pedicels often 
an irtch or more in length, but frequently almost none. Exterior scales commonly short and 
broad, rarelj- a little prolonged and foliaceous. Flowers bright purple. Lobes of tlie corolla 
hairy inside. 

Banks of the Niagara river, near the Falls, on the east side {Mr. D. Tho7nas). Fl. August. 
Tiie specimens from this locality have the stem more fle.xuous. and the heads with longer 
pedicels than usual. 

^^^-^^is. COMPOSITE. 


2. LiATRis sPicATA, WW. (Plate XL VII.) TaU Button- Snakeroot. 

Smooth; stem strict, very leafy; leaves linear, acute, often ciliate towards the base • the 
upper ones very short often subulate ; the lowermost elongated, 3 - 5-nerved ; heads a'bout 
9 - 13-flowered, sessile, m a dense elongated spike ; involucre cylindrical-campanulate, obtuse 
at the base; the numerous scales appressed, resinous, punctate, and with narrow scarious 
(purphsh) margms, obtuse; inner ones oblong; exterior oval or ovate or roundish, short- 
achenia ha-ry ; pappus densely barbellate. - WUld. sp. 3. p. 1636; Bot. mag. 1411 ; Eli 
sk. 2. p. 273 ; Brtt.Jl. gard. t. 49 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 131 ; Torr. compend. 3 p 282 ■ Beck 
hot. p. 175; Darlingt.fl. Cest. p. 448; DC. prodr. 5. p. 130; Torr. ^ Gr'flN.f^l^ 
p. 73. -L. macrostachya, Mic/ix. /?. 2. n. 91 • PursJi ff 9 ■» ^n-r «» . i ■ . 

M. 9 « RiQ. .( J ; / : '■•''■' ^ ursh,ji. z.p.507, Serratula spicata, im«. 

sp. 2. p. 819; Andr. hot. rep. t. 401. 

Stem 3 - 5 feet high. Leaves extremely numerous, erect, more or less hairy on the nerves 
underneath strongly punctate ; those of the stem about 2 lines wide and 3 - 6 mches long 
gradually dimm.shmg m length upward, till they are only about an mch long ; radical ones 

Spikes 6-18mches long; the heads about 8 lines long: lower bracts longer, the upper 
shorter than the heads. Flowers bright purple. Corolla slightly sprmkled^^k resiZs 
dots ; the lobes smooth mside. Achenia about the length of the pappus 

Borders of a swamp on Staten Island, about three miles from the Quarantine. Fl. Auc^ust 
Ihe root of th,s plant is a popular medicine, being employed as a tonic and diuretic. It is 
one of the medicinal articles sold by the Shakers. 

3. LiATRis scARiosA, Willd. Large-jhimred ButtonSnakeToot. 

Stem a httle pubescent; leaves lanceolate, pubescent or smooth; radical ones obovate- 
oblong, tapering mto a petiole; heads (very large) racemose or spicate, globose, 20-40- 
flowered; scales of the involucre very numerous, obovate or spatulate, very obtuse, often 
punctate, with more or less ciliate scarious often denticulate and colored margins, the lower 
ones sometimes a little spreading or squarrosc, the lowest bracteolate ; achenia hairy or villous • 
pappus plumose-barbellate.-m/W. sp. 3. p. 1635; Ell. sk. 2. p. 281 ; Bot. ma<r t 1709- 
Bru fl.gard. t. 87 ; Bot. reg. t. 590 ; Bigel. fl. Bast. p. 293 ; Torr. compend. p. 282 ' 
Hook. fl. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 302 ; Beck, hot. p. 175 ; Torr. 4. Gr. fl. N.Am 2 p 75 L 
equarrulosa, aspera and spha^roidea, Micht. fl. 2. p. 92. L. scariosa and spha^ioidea' DC 
prodr. 5. ;,. 129 6, 130. L. heterophylla, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 131. Serralula scariosa \inn 
sp. 2. p. 818. 

Stem 2-5 feet high, stout, striate. Slem-lcaves 2 - 4 lines wide, the lilUc impressed dots 
often so slight as to be almost imperceptible, at other times quite distinct, especially when the 
leaves are quite smooth ; radical leaves often an inch or more in breadth. Heads varvinc 
from few to 20 or more, uiiually on very distinct pedicels, but sometimes nearly sessile men 


the plant is very robust, the lower part of the spike is somewhat branched. Heads often an 
inch in diameter. Scales with a broad rounded summit, and a little scarious on the margin. 
Flowers bright purple. Corolla smooth inside. Achenium about the length of the plumose- 
barbellate pappus. 

Sandy, moist bushy places ; Long Island, particularly in Suffolk County. Fl. August - 
September. I have not seen this very handsome species in any other part of the State. 

3. EUPATORIUM. Town. inst. t. 259; Endl. gen. 2280. HEMP-WEED. 

[ Named after Eiipniar, king of Pontus, wlio is said to have used one of the species as a medicine.] 

Heads 3 - many-flowered. Involucre cylindrical or campanulate ; the scales imbricated in 
2 - 3 or more scries, or sometimes nearly equal in a single series. Receptacle flat, naked. 
Corolla tubular- funnelform, or often with a campanulate limb, 5-toothed, frequently dilated 
at the base. Anthers included. Branches of the style mostly exserted and elongated, 
cylindraceous or somewhat flattened, obtuse. Achcnia 5-angled, without intermediate striae. 
Pappus a single series of very slender capillary bristles, rough or minutely serrulate. — 
Perennial herbs, often sprinkled with resinous dots, with opposite (rarely alternate or 
vcrticillate) simple or rarely divided leaves. Heads corymbose. Flowers purple, blue or 

§ 1. Heads cylindrical, 5 - \0-Jloivered : scales of the involucre colored, obtuse, imbricated in several 
series, the outermost much shortest: leaves verticillate : flowers purplish. 

1. EuPATORiuM PURPUREUM, Linn. Joe Pye Weed. 

Stem sout, simple, hollow or nearly solid ; leaves 3 - 6 in a whorl or rarely opposite, oblong- 
ovaie or lanceolate, more or less petioled, acuminate, veiny, rough or smooth above, somewhat 
pubescent underneath and sprinkled with resinous dots, serrate ; heads in a large compound 
corymb, 5 - 9-flowered ; achenia smooth, glandular. — Linn. sjj. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 838 ; Hook, 
fl. Bar. -Am. 1. p. 304 ; Darlingt. fl Cest. p. 453 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2 p. 82. E. 
trifoliatum, Linn. I. c. E. purpureum, maculatum, vcrticillatum, ternifolium and dubium, 
DC. prodr. 5. p. 151. 

var. 1. Stem tall, somewhat smooth and glaucous, purple at the nodes (and sometimes 
throughout) ; leaves mostly 4 - 6 in a whorl, slightly petioled, oblong-ovate or oblong- 
lanceolate, serrate, often rugosely veiny (smooth and even in shady places). — Torr. ^ Gr. 
I. c. E. purpureum, Linn. sp. ed. 2. p. 1173 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1759 (partly) ; Michx. fl. 2. 
p. 98 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 297. E. verticillatum, Willd. I. c. E. trifoliatum, Darlingt. I. c. 
E. angustifolium, Torr. cat. pi. N. York. E. falcatum, Micfix. I. c. 

var. 2. Stem mostly striate or grooved, pubescent and often glandular or viscid above, 
marked with purple linear spots ; leaves mostly 3-4 (sometimes 5) in a whorl, ovate, pe- 


tided.- E. purpureum, /3. Linn. sp. ed. 1. I. c. E. purpureum, var. maculatum, DarUngt. 
I. c; Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. E. maculatum, Linn. sp. ed. 2. p. 1174; Willd. I. c ■ Michv I c ■ 
Bart. fl. Am. Sept. t. 102. E. punctatum, Willd. enum. 2. p. S53 ; Pursh, Jl. 2 p 515 
E. amcEnum, Fursh, I. c. E. ternifolium, Ell. sk. 2. p. 306. E. trifoliatum, Linn. I. c. 

An extremely variable plant. Stem 3-8 feet high, hollow, or more or less completely 
filled with pith. Leaves 3-8 inches long and 2 - 3 inches wide, sometimes (particularly in 
dry open situations) very rugose and of a thick texture, at other times (especially in shady 
swamps) thin and membranaceous, often cuneate at the base, with a very distinct petiole. 
Corymb sometimes nearly a foot in diameter. Involucre purplish or whitish ; the scales 
12-18, lanceolate and oblong, slightly 2 - 3-nerved. Corolla pale purple or flesh-color 
Style very much exserted, bulbous at the base. 

Swamps, borders of low woods, and wet thickets ; very common. August. 
The various forms of this plant have been regarded as distinct species by many botanists, 
but they seem to pass insensibly into each other. A decoction of the root is used as a remedy 
for gravel. The popular name is said to be that of an Indian who recommended it to the 

§ 2. Heads somewhat cylindrical or campanulate, 5 - many-floicered : scales 8-15, viore or less 
imbricate; the exterior shortest : leaves opposite : flowers while : leaves, corolla and achcnia 
more or less dotted with resinous grains. 

2. EuPATORiuM LEucoLEPis, T. S^' G. (PI. xlviii.) White-scakd Hemp-weed. 

Stem mostly simple, puberulent ; leaves opposite, divaricate, lanceolate or linear, obtuse 
closely sessile, serrate, very rough on both sides, punctate, strongly one-nerved , the lower 
ones obscurely 3-nerved or somewhat veiny; corymb fastigiate, canescent ; scales of the 
mvolucre 8-10, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, very pubescent and glandular on the back 
white and scarious at the summit, as long as the flowers ; achcnia minutely glandular. — 
Torr. 4r Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 84. E. glaucescens, /3. leucolepis, DC.prodr 5 p 177 E 
hnearifolium, Michx.fl. 2. p.'97 (partly) ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 513 (partly) ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 135.' 

Stem about 2 feet high, slender. Leaves 2 inches long and 4 - 5 lines wide, spreading and 
often a little recurved, sometimes fascicled in the axils, of a pale glaucous hue ; the serratures 
appressed. Branches of the small compound corymb clothed with a short whitish pubescence. 
Corolla dilated at the base ; the limb campanulate ; lobes ovate, short. Style much cxscrtcd.' 

Rather dry sandy swamps ; near Sag-Harbor, Long Island {Mr. S. B. Buckleij). Fl. 
August - October. 

3. EuPATORitM TEucRiFOLiUM, WiHd. Gerinandcr-leavcd Ilcmp-weed. 

Stem roughish-pubesccflt, corymbose at the summit ; leaves opposite (the uppermost often 

altemato), closely sessile, ovatc-oblong and ovatc-lanceolatc, obtuse or truncate at the base. 

328 COMPOSITE. Ecpatorium. 

somewhat triply-nerved, veiny, rough and a little pubescent, coarsely serrate-toothed ; branches 
of the corymb few, often alternate ; heads glomerate ; scales of the involucre 10, hispidly 
pubescent, oblong-lanceolate, rather acute, the interior ones shorter than the flowers. — Wi'ld. 
sp. 3. p. 1753, and hort. Berol. t. 32; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 513; Torr compend. p. 234 ; DC. 
prodr. 5. p. 178 ; Torr. 4- Gr. Jl. N. Am. 2. p. 86. E. verbenaefolium, Michx.fl. 2. p. 98 ; 
Eil. sk. 2. p. 301 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 296 ; Beck, hot. p. 196 ; Darlingt. fl Cest. p. 450. 
E. lanceolatum, Mtihl. in Willd. I. c. E. pubescens, Bigel. I. c. not of Muhl. ^ Willd. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, strict, rather slender, finely striate. Leaves 2-3 inclies long; the 
serratures or teeth often very coarse ; lower leaves so closely sessile and broad at the base as 
to appear somewhat clasping ; upper ones obtusely cuneaie at the base ; the epidermis of the 
upper surface sometimes furnished with minute bristles. Corymbs usually dense, but in shady 
places often open. Heads often 6-flowered. Scales of the involucre a little scarious and 
whitish at the tip. 

Low grounds and borders of thickets ; Long Island, &c.; not found in the interior of the 
State. Fl. August - September. 

4. EuPATORiuJi ROTUNDiFOLiuM, Linn. Round-leaved Hemp-weed. 
Stem densely pubescent, corymbose at the summit ; leaves opposite, roundish-ovate, mostly 

obtuse, truncate or somewhat cordate at the base, sessile, triply nerved, veiny, rough and 
pubescent, pale or somewhat hoary and glandular underneath, deeply crenate-toothed ; corymb 
fastigiate ; heads 5-flowered ; scales of the involucre 8-10, very pubescent, glandular; the 
exterior very short ; the interior linear-lanceolate, abruptly acute or acuminate. — Linn. sp. 2. 
p. 3S7 ; Michcc. fl. 2. p. 98 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 514 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 310 ; Torr. compend. 
p. 284; Hook.fl. Bor.-Am.l.p. 304; Beck, bot. p. 196; DC. prodr. 5. p. 178; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 450; Torr. ^ Gr fl. N. Am. 2. p. 87. E. Marrubium, Walt. fl. Car. p. 199. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, slender, the pubescence rather rough. Leaves 1-2 inches long, 
sometimes almost orbicular, sprinkled with resinous dots. Corymb flat-topped. Styles much 
exserted. Achenia glandular. Pappus a little longer than the corolla. 

Sandy fields. Queens county, Long Island {Mr. Willis). Fl. August - September. 

5. EuPATORiuM sEssiLiFOLiuM, Linn. Upland Boneset. 

Smooth ; stem usually flexuous, corymbosely branched at the summit ; leaves lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, closely sessile or partly clasping, rounded at the base, tapering to the 
acuminate apex, sharply serrate, obscurely punctate and paler underneath ; heads 5-flowered ; 
scales of the involucre 10, imbricated somewhat in a triple series, oval or oblong obtuse, 
canescently pubescent, glandular. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 837 ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 98 ; Pursh, fl. 2. 
p. 513 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 297 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 295 ; Beck, bot. p. 197 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 451 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 151 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 88. E. truncalum. Ell. I. c. 


Stem 2 -4 feet high, very smooth, finely striate ; the corymbose branches and pedicels 
pubescent, l,,,,, 3 _ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ _ ^^ .^^^ ^^^^^^^ Coryl'w ddv 

spreading, very compound. Heads cylindrical, always 5-flowered. Scales greLth-whhe 

very pubescent. Pappus longer than the flower. greenish-white, 

Borders of woods, in dry bushy places and on rocky hill-sides. August - September Not 

rare, except m the western part of the State. -^epiemDer. JNot 

6. EUPATORIUM PEKroLiATUM, Liun. Boueset or Thoroughwort. 

Leaves connate-perfoliate, lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, crenate-serrate, rugose pubescent 
underneath; heads commonly 10.flowered._Z.„«. sp. 2. p. 838 ; Pursh Jl Z' lie Z 
sk. 2. p 302; Bigel. med. 60, 1. p. 328. . 2, aJ fl. Lt. p.'sST; Rff.JdH'] f 
Beck, hot. p. 198 ; DarUngt. fl. Cest. p. 451 ; Hook. fl.Bor.-Am 1 l 305 7)r r, ' 
5. p. 151 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 88. E. connlm, McL /s / ^9 ' ' 

L^Z ri' inc'heVr' '"'t T'' ^°'''' ^"'='^' ^'"'^'^ '-'''' ^ -°°">^ or hr;ry pubescence. 
Leaves 4 - 8 mches long, for the most part perfectly united at their bases, but sometimes 

contraced and on y slightly connate, decussate, divaricate; the veinlets reti ula ed a^pTo 

mment underneath, copiously sprinkled with resinous dots. Corymb lar.e fast l.o v. 

compound. Scales of the involucre ,2-15, very pubescent, glLula ' mn r leaT 

z:^'::^r-''- ^'^— '---^^- Achen. gianduh... Pappus%h:::; 

Low swampy grounds ; very common throughout the State. July - September A nnn„, 
as weU as oflicmal medicine It is a tonic, diaphoretic, emetic or'aperieC'l-dtftt 
Z'a ?, """" " °^ administering it ,s in the form of infusion ; but sometim s th 

TspZ:;:"::;. ''' "^'^"- ''' '''''^"''' ''-"-' ^"-'^' ' ^■' -^ "^-^ ^ ^-^^. 

i 3. Heads 8 ~ SOflowered : scales of (he campanulale involucre 8 - 20 nearlv eaual anrl i„ n ■ 1 

7. EUPATORIUM AGERAToiDEs, Linu.f. White Suakeroot 

ngniiy cordate acuminate, triply nerved, membranaceous, coarsely and sharnlv .nrr-.. 

altissimum, Linn. sp. 2. p. 839. ^ " ^S'^ratum 

[Flora.] ^2 


Stem 2-3 feci higli, usually a lilllc branched above. Leaves 3-5 inches long and 2-3 
inches wide, obluse or truncate, or abruptly tapering at the base ; the petiole 1-2 inches 
long: corymb compound. Heads usually 12 - 15-flowcred. Flowers pure while, somewhat 
fragrant. Corolla narrowed below, campanulatc at the summit ; the lobes ovale, smooth. 
Style much exserted. 

Moist woods and thickets, in rich soil ; common. August - September. 

8. EuPATORiuM AROM.-vTicuM, Linn. Sweet-scented Hemp-weed. 

Pulverulent-pubescent ; stem branching at the summit ; leaves on short petioles, or some- 
times almost sessile, ovate or ovate-oblong, somewhat cordate, acute but scarcely acuminate, 
triply nerved, of a thickish and firm texture, mostly roughish-pubescent, coarsely and rather 
obtusely serrate ; heads mostly 12 - 15-flowered ; scales of the involucre linear-lanceolate, 
pubescent, with slightly scarious and rather obtuse tips. — Linn. sp. 2. jj. 839; Willd. sp. 3. 
p. 1765 ; Micha:. Jl. 2. p. 100; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 516 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 304 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. 
p. 298 ; Beck, hot. p. 198 ; BC.prodr. 5. p. 175 ; Darlingt. jl. Cest. p. 452 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 2. p. 90. E. cordatura, Walt.fl. Car. p. 199 ; DC. I. c. E. melissoides, Willd. 
t. c. p. 1754. E. ceanothifolium, Muhl. in Willd. I. c. ; DC. I. c. 

Stem 1 J - 3 feet high, slender, corymbose at the summit. Leaves 2-3 inches long (rarely 
3 in a whorl) ; the veins prominent underneath ; lower ones often cordate : petiole 1-5 lines 
long. Corymb with fewer heads than in the preceding species. Flowers somewhat fragrant. 

Dry sandy thickets ; about half a mile from the South Ferry, Brooklyn, Long Island. 
August - September. This species can be distinguished from E. ageratoides by its pubescent 
stem, smaller and thick leaves and short petioles. 

4. MIKANIA. Willd. sp. 3. p. Ii52; Endl. gen. 2282. climbisg uemp-weed. 

[Dedicated to Prof. Mikan, of Prague; a botanist who lived in the last century.] 

Heads mostly 4-fiowered. Receptacle naked, narrow. Scales of the involucre 4 or 5. Corolla 
dilated or campanulate at the summit, 5-toothed. Anthers partly exserted. Achenia angled. 
Pappus in a single series, capillary, rough. — Shrubby or herbaceous, mostly climbing 
plants, with opposite commonly cordate Ifeaves. Heads corymbose, panicled or spiked. 
Flowers whitish. 

1. MiKANiA scANDENs, Willd. Comvion Climbing IIe??i]}-weed. 

Stem smooth, twining ; leaves on slender petioles, hastate-cordate, acuminate, repandly 
toothed ; corymbs panicled, clustered ; scales of the involucre lanceolate ; achenia glandular. 
—Willd. sp. 3. p. 1743 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 517 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 292 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. p. 295 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 198 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 454 ; Torr. ^ Gr.Jl. N. Am. 2. p. 91. Eupatorium 
scandens, Linn.; Micha:. fl. 2. p. 97; "Jacq. ic. rar, t. 169." 


Stem 3-6 feet or more in length, branching, striate. Leaves mostly about 2^ inches long, 
somewhat triangular in the outline, tapering above into a long slender point, sprinkled on both 
sides with very minute resinous particles. Flowers in numerous compound cymose panicles. 
Involucral scales acute. Corolla purplish white, or pale flesh-color. 

Moist shady thickets, particularly along rivers ; rather common. August - SepteTnber. 

Subtribe 2. Tussilagine/E, Less. Heads with the flowers dissimilctr or somewhat diacious 
{white, purplish, or sometimes yellow) ; the pistillate one either ligjilate or tubular. 

5. NARDOSMIA. Cass, in diet. sc. nat. 34. p. 186 ; Endl. gen. 2285. 


[ From the Greek, nardos, spikenard, and osme, odor.] 

Heads many-flowered, somewhat dioecious. Sterile Pl. Flowers of the ray in a single 
series, pistillate, ligulate ; of the disk numerous, perfect but infertile, with the corolla 
tubular. Fertile Pl. Flowers of the ray in several series, pistillate, mostly ligulate ; 
those of the disk few. Scales of tlie involucre in a single series, equal to or shorter than 
the flower. Receptacle flat, naked. Achenia somewhat terete, smooth. Pappus capillary, 
shorter and less copious in the sterile than in the fertile plant. — Perennial herbs. Leaves 
radical, cordate, toothed or lobed, petioled. Scapes with scaly bracts ; the heads in a 
fastigiatc thyrsus or corymb. Flowers purplish or nearly wliite, fragtant. 

1. Nardosmia palmata. Hook. (Plate XLIX.) Sweet Coltsfoot. 

Leaives reniform or roundish-cordate, tomentose underneath, paimately 5 - 7-lobed ; the 
segments coarsely toothed, often incised or somewhat lobed. — Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 308 ; 
DC. prodr. 5. p. 206 ; Torr. 4- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 93. N. palmala, Hookeriana, and 
speciosa, Nutt. in trans. Amer.phil. soc. (n. ser.) 7. p. 288. Tussilago palmala. Ait. Kew. 
(ed. 1.) 3. p. 188. t.U; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 531 ; Beck, hot. p. 199. 

Leaves (when the plant is in flower) 3 - 5 inches in diameter, much larger and smoothish 
late in tiie season, variable in the divisions and toothing. Scape stout, 0-12 inches high, 
clothed with numerous naked sheathing scales. Heads in a corymbose thyrsus. 

Swamps near Saratoga (Dr. Steele; Prof. Hitchcock). Fl. May. This plant has not 
recently been found in the locality here given, which is the only one for tiiis rare species 
known in tiic State. It hae been found in Fairhavcn, Vermont, within a lew miles of the 
Iwundary of New-York. 


332 COMPOSITiE. TussitAco. 

6. TUSSILAGO. Toum. ; Endl. gen. 2288. coltsfoot. 

[ From the Latin, tussis, a cough ; for the cure of which the plant is uscO.] 

Heads many-flowered, heterogamous. Flowers of the ray very narrowly ligulate, in several 
series, pistillate ; those of llie disk few, tubular, slaminale. Scales of the involucre oblong, 
obtuse, somewhat in a single scries. Receptacle naked. Anthers scarcely caudate. Style 
abortive in the flowers of the disk ; in those of the ray 2-cleft ; the branches somewhat 
terete. Achenia of the ray cylindrical-oblong, smooth ; in the disk abortive. Pappus of 
the ray-flowers in many series ; of the disk in a single series, capillary. — A perennial herb. 
Rhizoma rather thick. Leaves radical, appearing later than the flowers, cordate, angular- 
toothed, petioled. Scape clothed with scaly bracts, woolly, bearing a single head. Flower* 

1. TussiLAGO Farfara, Linn. Common Coltsfoot. 

Engl. hot. t. 429 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 1967 ; Torr. compend. p. 307; Beck, Lot. p. 200; 
DC. prodr. 5. p. 208 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 94. 

Caudex short. Leaves (when fully grown) 3-5 inches in diameter, smoothish above ; the 
under surface and the long petiole whitish and tomentose ; the margin irregularly toothed and 
angular, with the points of the teeth discolored. Scape 4-8 inches high, clothed with oblong 
brownish scales. Head of flowers about three-fourths of an inch in diameter. 

Moist clayey banks ; perfectly naturalized in the northern and western part of the State. 
Fl. March - April. A native of Europe. The dried leaves are sometimes smoked for the 
relief of asthma. 


Heads heterogamous or sometimes homogamous, rarely dicecious. Style {in the perject 
flowers) cylindraceous above ; the branches flat or flattish, mostly linear or lanceolate, 
the upper part equally and minutely pubescent externally ; the conspicuous sligmatic 
lines, terminating xuhere the exterior pubescence commences, not confluent. — Leave* 
alternate, or rarely opposite. 


Subtribe 1. Asterine^. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous. Receptacle seldom chaffy. Anthers not 
caudate. Leaves alternate. 
Div. 1. ASTERE.E. Heads radiate, heterochromous (rays never yellow). 
Div. 2. CflRTSocoMEiE. Heads radiate or homogamous, homochromous (both the ray and the disk yellow). 

Subtribe IL Bacchabideje. Heads dioecious or heterogamous, but never radiate ; the pistillate flowers tubular, slender 
or filiform, in several series. Receptacle not chaiTy. Anthers not caudate. 

Subtribe III. TARcnoNANTHEi;. Heads dioscious or heterogamous, but never radiate ; the pistillate flowers tabulai and 
very slender, mostly in several series. Anthers caudate. 

Subtribe IV. Inule*;. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous and discoid, never dioecious. Receptacle not 
chafly. Anthers caudate. Leaves alternate. 

Sericocarpus. composite. 


Subtribe I. AsTERiNE^. DC. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous, never 
diacious. Receptacle seldom chaffy. Anthers not caudate. Leaves almost always 
alternate. ■' 


DiT. 1. ASTERE.C Heads heterogamous, radiate ; the rays white, purple or blue ; the disk-flowers vellow 
but frequently changing to purple in fading. ' ' 

7. SERicociRPDS. Pappus Simple, unequal. Flowers of the ray and disk few. Involucre oblong, imbricated, cartilaffi- 

nous. = 

8. AsTEB. Pappus simple, copious. Rays numerous, in a single series. Involucre more or less imbricated. Receptacle 

alveolate. ^ 

9. D.PLOPAPPus. Pappus double; the exterior short and setaceous, or squamellate-subulate. Rays in a sin.le series 

Involucre imbricated. " >-•■>.'■• 

10. EaiGERON. Pappus either simple or double ; the exterior setaceous-subulate, or squamellate. Rays very niunerous 
and often m two or more series. Scales of the involucre nearly equal, almost in a single series. Receptacle naked! 

Div.2. CHRYSOCOME^. Heads either heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous and discoid; the 
rays and disk-flowers yellow and unchanging. Receptacle never chaffy. 
U. SoLiDAGo. Rays few; disk-flowers several. Pappus similar in the disk and ray, simple. Receptacle alveolate 
12. CBRYSopsrs. Pappus of the ray double, and dissimilar ; exterior pappus short, setose or chatVy ; the inner capillary. 

Div. 1. AsTERE^, DC. Heads kelerogamous, radiate; the rays white, purple or blue; disk-flowers 
yellow, but frequently changing to purple in fading. Receptacle not chaffy. 

7. SERICOCARPUS. Nees, Ast. p. 148 ; Endl. gen. 2310. SEmcoCA^PVS. 

Species of Aster, Linn. <f olkers. 
[ From the Greek, serikos, silky, ani karpos, fruit; the achenia being very silky J 

Heads 12 - 15-flowered ; the ray-flowers about 5 ; those of the disk tubular, fertile. Involucre 
oblong or somewhat cylindrical ; the scales closely imbricated in several series, nerveless 
or obscurely one-nerved, whitish and cartilaginous towards the base, the upper part herba- 
ceous and often spreading or squarrose. Receptacle small, alveolate ; the alveoli toothed 
or lacerate-ciliate. Rays oblong-linear. Appendages of the style (in the disk-flowers) 
subulate. Achenia obpyramidal, short, densely silky. Pappus composed of simple, rigid, 
rough bristles.— Perennial herbs, corymbose at the summit, with alternate entire or serrate 
gessile leaves. Heads in crowded corymbs. Flowers of the ray white ; of the disk yellowish. 

1. Sericocarpus conyzoides, Nees. Broad-leaved Sericocarpus. 

Stem somewhat pubescent, slightly angular ; leaves ciliate, smooth underneath, veiny, 

obscurely 3-ncrvcd ; the upper ones oblong or lanceolate ; lowermost spatulatc-oval, coarsely 

serrate towards the apex, tapering into a margined petiole at the ; involucre oblong- 

turbinatc , the scales squarrose at the tip ; rays rather short ; pappus ferruginous. — Nees, 

334 COMPOSLTiE. Sericocakpus. 

Ast.p. 150; DC. prodr. 5. p. 261 ; Darlingt. fl. Cost. p. 470; Torr. 4- Or. fl. N. Am. 2. 
p. 102. Conyza asleroides, Linn. sp. 2. p. 861. Aster conyzoides, Willd. sp. 3. p. 2043 ; 
Pursh, jl. 2. p. 555 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 341 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 158 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 311 ; 
Beck, hot. p. 181. A. Marilandicus, Miclix. fl. 2. p. 108. 

Stem 12-18 inches high, straight, slender but rigid, smoothish below, more or less 
pubescent above. Leaves of a firm te.\lure, 2-3 inches long ; the radical ones often an inch 
or more in breadth ; upper ones mostly entire. Heads solitary and pedicellate, or more 
commonly sessile in small clusters. Scales closely appressed and whitish at the base, more 
or less spreading above ; outer ones bright green at the tip ; inner ones pale. 

Dry woods and hill-sides ; common. FL. Latter part of June - August. 

2. Sericocakpus solidagineus, Nees. Narroio-haved Sericocarpus. 

Smooth ; stem slender, somewhat fle.\uous, angled witli elevated lines ; leaves spalulate- 
linear or linear, obtuse, entire, rougli on the margin, obscurely 3-nerved or slightly veiny ; 
involucres cyhndraceous ; scales squarrose at the tips ; rays elongated ; pappus white. — 
Nees, Ast. p. 149 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 2. p. 14 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 261 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 470 ; Torr. <^- Gr.fl. N. Am. 2. p. 102. Conyza linifolia, Linn. I. c. Aster solidaginoides, 
mild. sp. 3. p. 2024 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 503 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 303 ; Beck, hot. p. 180. 
A. solidagineus, Michx. fl. 2. p. 108. 

Plant pale yellowish green. Stems about a foot and a half higii, usually flexuous and 
sometimes tortuous, often several from one root. Lea\'es 1-2 inches long and 2-3 lines 
wide, occasionally broader. Peduncles of the corymb elongated, with the flowers glomerate 
at the extremity. Outer scales of the involucre broad, and green at the tip ; inner ones pale, 
ciliate. Rays 3-8, much longer than the disk. 

Woods and copses, both in dry and in moist situations.; more rare than the preceding. 
Fl. July - August. 

8. ASTER. Tourn. inst. t. 174 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 103. star-wort. 

Aster, Biotia, TripoliUiM and Heliastbum, IIC. 
[ The name, which is the Greek for star, alludes to the appearance of the heads of flowers.] 

Heads many-flowered ; the ray-flowers in a single series, pistillate ; those of the disk tubular, 
perfect. Scales of the involucre more or less imbricated, usually with membranaceous or 
foliaceous tips. Receptacle flat, alveolate or rarely naked. Appendages of the style (in 
the disk-flowers) lanceolate or subulate. Achenia usually compressed. Pappus composed 
of simple rough capillary bristles. — Perennial (or rarely annual) herbs. Leaves alternate, 
entire or serrate. Inflorescence generally corymbose-paniculate. Rays white, purple or 
blue, never yellow ; disk-flowers yellow, often changing to purple in withering. 

Aster. COMPOSIT.E. 335 

An immense genus, and perplexing even to the experienced botanist. Many of the species are very difficult to 
characterize, especially those belonging to the section of Aster proper. I have followed very closely the arran<rement 
and description of the species as they are given in the Flora of North America. " 

i) 1. BioTiA, DC. Scales apipressed, nearly destitute of herbaceous tips; bristles of the pappus unequal, 
rather rigid, the inner series mostly a Utile thickened towards the apex ; achenia slender, 
scarcely compressed: leaves ample, mostly petioled, coarsely serrate; the radical ones cordate. 

1. Aster corvmbosus, Ait. Corymhed Aster. 

Stem slender, often flexuous, terete ; leaves membranaceous, coarsely or incisely and un- 
equally serrate with sharp spreading teeth, conspicuously acuminate, all but the uppermost 
cordate and on slender naked petioles, ovate or ovate-lanceolate ; heads loosely corymbose ; 
mvolucre shorter than the disk ; the exterior scales roundish-ovate ; rays (white) 6 - 9 — 
Ait. Keio. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 207 ; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 552 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 365 ; BJgel.Jl. Bost. p. 314 • 
Torr. compend.p. 299 ; Beck, hot. p. 187. Eurybia corymbosa, Cass ; Nees, Ast. p. 143 \ 
Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1532 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 2. p. 14 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 69. Biotia 
corymbosa, DC. prodr. 5. p. 265. 

Stem 1^-2 feet high, smooth, often purple, corymbosely branched at the summit. Leaves 
2-4 inches long, thin and nearly smooth, except a little pubescence on the veins underneath ; 
uppermost ones sessile : petioles 1 - 2 inches long. Heads usually rather few, in a loose 
fastigiate corymb. Scales of the involucre pubescent on the margin ; the rest smooth. Rays 
narrow. Pappus tawny. Achenia nearly smooth when mature, sparsely hairy when young. 

Dry woods ; common. Fl. July - August. 

2. Aster macrophyllus, Linn. Large-leaved Aster. 

Stem stout, roughish-pubescent above, the corymbose branches rigid; leaves thickish, 
rough, closely serrate, somewhat acuminate ; the radical and lower ones cordate, on slender 
petioles , the upper sessile or on margined petioles ; heads in large corymbs ; involucre nearly 
the length of the disk ; scales rigid, oblong or ovate-oblong ; rays (white or purplish) 12 - 15. 
— Linn. sp. (ed. 2.) p. 1232 ; Michx. fl. 2. p. 114; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 552; Bigel. fl. Bast, 
p. 314 ; Beck, hot. p. 187. Eurybia macrophylla, Cass. ; Nees, Ast. p. 140 (excl. syn. Ait. 
divaric); Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 465 ; Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 2. p. 14. Biotia macrophylla, 
DC. prodr. 5. p. 265. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, with a large corymbose summit, striate-anglcd, often purplish. 
Radical leaves 4-8 inches long and 3 - 5 wide, roundish-cordate or cordate-oblong, coarsely 
crenate-serrate, the teeth mucronate, a little hairy on the veins underneath : pet?oles 3-8 
inches long : cauline leaves ovate or oblong, the lower ones abruptly narrowed into a winged 
petiole. Heads much larger than in the preceding species ; exterior scales ciliate; inner ones 
larger and membranaceous. Rays mostly white, sometimes pale blue. Pappus reddish- 

Dry open woods ; not rare. August - September. 

Biotia Schreberi, glomerata and lalifolia, DC. seem to be only slight varieties of this 

336 COMrOSIT^. AsTKR. 

& 2. Calliastrum, Torr. 6l Gr. Scales coriaceous, with herbaceous spreading! or squarrose tips : 
rays numerous ( 12 - 30) ; bristles of the pappus rigid, unequal, a portion of the inner ones more 
or less thickened toward the summit : achenia narrow, angled, slightly or scarcely compressed ; 
cauline leaves rigid, sessile ; the radical ones never cordate : heads large and showy. 

3. Aster Radula, Ait. (Plate L.) Rasp-leaved Aster. 

Stem smooth, loosely corymbose at the summit ; the branches few, nearly simple and naked ; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, more or less acuminate, mostly narrow toward 
the base, closely sessile, rough on both sides and somewhat rugose, sharply and rather re- 
motely serrate ; involucre campanulate-hcmispherical, shorter than the disk ; the scales oblong, 
rather obtuse, ciliate, appressed, with slightly spreading herbaceous tips ; achenia smooth. — 
Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 210 ; Pursh, Jl. 2. p. 556 ; Nccs, Ast. p. 43 ; Ilook.Jl. Bor.-Am. 2. 
p. 7 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 230 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 106. A. nudiflorus, Nutt. gen. 
2. p. 157 ; Darlingt. Jl. Cest. p. 462 ; DC. I. c. 

Stem 2-3 feet high, with a few spreading branches at the summit, purplish. Leaves 
2-3 inches long and from half an inch to an inch in breadth, hairy on the veins underneath, 
entire towards the base ; the serralures mucronate, and usually salient. Heads seldom more 
than 6 - 10 on a plant, and often only 2-4, large ; the peduncles 1-3 inches long, pubes- 
cent. Scales of the involucre smooth, except the ciliate margins, rather acute. Rays pale 
violet ; the disk yellow, turning brownish. Achenia narrowly oblong, turgid, slightly com- 
pressed. Pappus reddish-tawny. Receptacle alveolate ; the pits with a lacerate chaffy 

"On the high mountains of New- York and Pennsylvania." Pursh. 

I introduce this plant into our flora on the authority of Pursh, having not yet delected it 
myself within the limits of the State. I have, however, found it in New-Jersey, and it occurs 
in Connecticut and other parts of New-England ; always in low grounds, and rarely, I suspect. 
on mountains. Fl. August. 

4. Aster spectabtijs, Ait. (Plate LI.) Showy Aster. 

Stem pulverulent-scabrous, glandularly pubescent and corymbose at the summit ; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, spreading, very rough; upper ones sessile, entire; lower and radical ones 
remotely appressed-serratc, narrowed below into a short petiole ; corymb few-flowered, the 
branches rather short and leafy, 1 - 3-flowercd ; involucre hemispherical-campanulate, as long 
as the disk ; scales numerous, somewhat equal in length, glandular-pubescent, linear-oblong 
or spatulate, acute, with large foliaceous squarrose tips ; rays 20 or more ; achenia slightly 
hairy. — Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 209 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 554 ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 157 ; Beck, hot. 
p. 184; Nees, Ast. p. 42 ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1527 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 230 ; Torr. ^ Gr. 
fl. N. Am. 2. p. 108. A. grandiflorus, Walt. fl. Car. p. 209. A. elegans, Willd. sp. 3. 
p. 2042, in part. 

-Aster. COMPOSITE. 337 

Stem 12-18 inches high, sometimes assurgent, reddish, slender, shghtly angular. Leaves 
2 - 4 inches long, thick, very rough with minute elevated points ; upper cauline ones often a 
httle falcate. Peduncles 1 - 2 inches long. Heads about an inch in diameter. Scales loosely 
imbricated, one-nerved, with large green spreading tips. Rays very long, violet. Appendages 
of the style subulate, hispid. Pappus white, nearly equal. Achenia linear 

Pine woods. Queens County, Long Island {Mr. WUUs). Fl. September - October. One 
ot the most showy species of this immense genus. 

^ 3. Aster proper, Torr. & Gr. Scales of the involucre wUh herhaceous or foliaceous tips, or the 
exterior ones entire y herbaceous : rays numerous: bristles of the pappus soft, capillary, nearly 
uniform, none of them thickened at the apex: achenia compressed. t y, y 

• BeaAs (rath^ Urge) mostly solitary, termi^ing the spreading branchlcts : scales oflh= involucre closely imMcaied rigid 
.nth hM,a^<yus rnosUyame a^ul sovuwhat spreading tips: aekcnia U^ar-obl^g, rru^ny-stri^te, Iky ca^^scml : Z^s 
aunculate^rdate and clasping the stem, entire, pubescent or scabrous; those of the hanchlets very smaU. 

5. Aster patens, Ait. Spreading Aster. 

Stem pubescent, paniculate at the summit ; leaves ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate 
pubescent or rough, with ciliate and very rough margins, sometimes narrowed below the 
middle, auriculate-cordate and clasping, those of the divaricate slender branchlets very small- 
heads mostly solitary on the branchlets ; scales of the involucre lanceolate, puberulent ' 
achenia si]ky.— Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 201 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 551 ; Nees, Ast. p. 49 (excl' 
syn. Micha:.) ; Beck, hot. p. 183 ; Darlingt. fl. Cost. p. 463 ; DC. prodr. 6. p. 232 ; Torr 
4r Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 114. A. undulatus, Linn. sp. ed. 2. p. 1228 (not of hort. Clif.) ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 361. A. amplexicauhs, Michx. fl. 2. p. 114 ; Bigd. fl. Bost. p. 312. 

var. phlogifolius : heads large, usually somewhat racemose on the short branches ; involucre 
more lax and herbaceous; leaves much larger, membranaceous, pubescent underneath, scarcely 
rough, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, tapering to an acute point, usually contracted below the 
middle.- .Vee*, I. c. ; Darlingt. I. c. ; Torr. 4. Gr. I. c. A. phlogifolius, Muhl. in Willd 
sp. 3. p. 2034 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 550 ; Null. gen. 2. ;>. 156 ; DC. I. c. 

Stem 1 - 2i feet high, rather slender, with widely spreading branches, usually rough 
Leaves of the stem 1 - 3 inches long (in the var. often 4-5 inches) ; of the branches mostly 
4-10 hues long, and bract-like. Heads 5 (in the var. 8) hues in diameter, either solitary 
or nearly so, at the extremity of the long slender branches ; or several, arranged in a somewhat 
racemose manner on short but slender peduncles. Rays 20 or more, purplish-blue. Scales 
of the involucre minutely pubescent or hairy, and somewhat granulate ; the inner ones acute 
oracummate; exterior ones more obtuse and greener. Pappus ferruginous or tawny. Achenia 
very hairy. 

Open woods, usually in dry soil ; common. August - October. 
[Flora.] 43 

338 COMPOSITE. Aster. 

•♦ Heads (miJJlc-sheJ, shoinj) paniculate or somewhat racemose ; scales closely imbrUaied, charlaceovs and vhilc {except the 
miihierve), wUk short ajipressed or slightly spreading green tips; rays bright blue; achcnia smooth or nearly so, 
broadish, compressed, 2-5-rilibcd: whole plant svwoth, except the braiichlels and rough margins of the leaves, often 
glaucous; eaulitie leaves lanecolaic or oblong-ovate, ihickish, sessile or clasping, entire or sparingly serrate; the radical 
ones ovate or oblong, tapering into a short margined petiole. 

G. Aster l^vis, Willd. Smooth Blue Aster. 

Smooth and more or less glaucous ; stem loosely paniculate or somewhat corymbose at the 
summit ; leaves lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, coriaceous, very smooth, with rough 
margins entire or sparingly serrate ; the lower narrowed towards the base, or tapering into a 
margined petiole ; the upper clasping, and mostly auriculate or cordate at the base ; those of 
the branches very small ; scales of the involucre closely imbricated, appressed, rigid, lanceolate 
or broadly linear, with very abruptly acute or acuminate herbaceous tips ; achenia shining, 
smooth, or pubescent with a few scattered hairs. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 876; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 313; 
Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1500 ; Beck, hot. p. 185 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 468 ; Torr. <^ Gr. Jl. N. 
Am. 2. p. 116. A. Isevis, lasvigatus, mutabilis, amplexicaulis, rubricaulis and cyaneus, Nees, 
Ast. p. 128 - 132 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 245 <^ 246. A. rubricaulis, Lam. diet. p. 305. A. 
amplexicaulis, Muhl. in Willd. sp. pi. 3. p. 2046. 

var. cyaneus : more glaucous ; upper leaves cordate-clasping, oblong-lanceolate ; scales of 
the involucre more numerous. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. cyaneus, '' Hoff. phyt. hi. p. 71. t. B. 
f. 1 ;" Pursh.fl. 2. p. 550 ; Nces, I. c. ; Lindl. hot. reg. 1495. A. glaucus & politus, Nees, 
synops. p. 23. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, very smooth, usually dark purplish and glaucous, more or lesa 
branched above. Radical leaves 2-5 inches long and an inch or rather more in breadth, 
varying from ovate- to spatulate-oblong, narrowed into a winged and often ciliate petiole : 
stem-leaves 2-4 inches long, often wider than the radical ones. Branches of the inflorescence 
rather rigid, few or numerous. Heads middle-sized. Scales rather coriaceous, whitish, with 
a green midrib and short rhombic green tips. Rays bright violet blue ; the disk yellow, 
changing to dull purple. Pappus tawny when old. 

Borders of woods, thickets, and banks of rivulets ; very common. August - October. A 
very handsome, and variable but easily recognized species, remarkable for its very smooth 
stem and thickish shining leaves. 

»♦• Heads (middle-sized or small) paniculate or raccm/>se ; scales commordy appressed, charlaceous or sonunehalmcmiranaceous, 
with sliorl green tips : achenia svwoth or slightly ptiiesccnt : radical and lowest cauline leaves {large) cordate, wHA 
elongated Tiaked or margined petioles ; the upper also oftenpetiolcd. 

7. Aster undulatus, Linn. Various-leaved Aster. 

Pale, with a close grayish and more or less rough pubescence ; stem paniculate or often 
racemose-thyrsoid at the summit ; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, somewhat woolly-pubescent 
underneath and rough above, acute, with the margins frequently undulate or slightly crenate- 

Aster. COMPOSITE. 339 

serrate ; the radical and lowest cauline cordate, on slender slightly margined petioles, which 
are usually dilated and clasping at the base ; the others abruptly contracted into a short 
broadly winged clasping petiole, the uppermost cordate-clasping ; involucre nearly the length 
of the disk ; the scales linear, mostly acute, pubescent, closely imbricated.— ZiVzn. hort Cliff 
p. 408, and sp. (ed. 1.) 2. p. 875?; Pursh,fl. 2. p. 551 ; Nees, Ast.p. 57 ; Beck, hot. p 186- 
Darhngt.fl. Cest. p. 464 ; Torr. 4. Gr.fl. N. Am. 2. p. 119. A. diversifolius, Michx.Jl. 2. 
p. 113 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 361; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 3\2 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 234. A. sagittifoHus 
and scaber. Ell. I. c. 

Stem 1 J - 3 feet high, for the most part pyramidally branched at the summit ; the branches 
and branchlets with small lanceolate and subulate leaves. Radical and lower cauline leaves 
li - 4 inches long, varying from broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sometimes minutely and 
softly pubescent on both sides, but usually rough above, remotely crenate or serrate ; pri- 
mordial ones often obtuse or reniform : petioles 1 - 3 inches long. Heads of flowers middle- 
sized, rather loosely disposed on the branches ; the peduncles pubescent. Scales of the 
involucre nearly membranaceous, acute green at the tip, ciliate. Rays pale violet blue : disk 
yellow, turning purplish. Pappus tawny or brownish. Achenia 5-ribbed, slightly pubescent 
when young, nearly smooth when mature. 

Dry woods and copses ; very common. September - October. 

8. Aster cordifolius, Linn. Heart-leaved Aster. 

Stem often flexuous, racemose-paniculate at the summit ; radical and lower cauline leaves 
cordate, acummate, sharply serrate, on slender naked or margined and ciliate petioles ; heads 
numerous or somewhat crowded, in oblong spreading or divaricate panicles ; scales of the 
mvolucre closely imbricated, rather obtuse, appressed, with short green tips ; achenia smooth 
— Linn. sp. 2. p. 875 ; MicJix. fl. 2. p. 114 ; Pursh, fl. 2. p. 552 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 365 • 
Lindl. hot. reg. t. 1597 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 212 ; Beck, hot. p. 187 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest 
p. 463 ; Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 120. A. paniculatus. Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 207 •" 
Pursh, I. c. A. hetcrophyllus, Willd. enum. 2. p. 882. A. cordifolius, heterophyllus and 
paniculatus (chiefly), Nees, Ast. p. 52 4- 55 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 233. 

Stem 1 -3 feet high, smooihish or a little pubescent below, often somewhat hairy or roughish 
above. Leaves rather membranaceous, varying from broadly 10 narrowly ovate, usually smooth 
or only a little rough above and pubescent underneath, sometimes nearly smooth both sides, 
coarsely serrate ; the radical and lower cauline ones 2-4 inches long, with the petioles slender 
and narrowly winged ; tiic upper ones, and those of the branchlets, gradually diminishing in 
size to subulate bracts. Branches of the panicle open or contracted. Heads small, crowded 
on the spreading branches. Scales of the involucre small, whitish, green at the extremity, 
often purple at the apex, minutely pubescent-ciliatc. Rays about 12, pale violet (or nearly 
white in shady places) ; disk yellowish, changing to purple. 

Woods, generally in fertile soil ; common. September. 


340 COMPOSITiE. Aster. 

9. Aster sagittifolius, Willd. Arrow-lmved Aster. 
Stem strict, smooth, thyrsoid-racemose above , the branches erect and somewhat rigid ; 

leaves ovate-lanceolate, attenuate-acuminate, slightly ciliate ; radical and lower cauline ovate- 
oblong, cordate at the base, on slender narrowly winged smoothish petioles ; the uppermost 
lanceolate or nearly linear, acuminate at each end, sessile, often entire ; heads numerous, in 
strict dense compound racemes, on very short peduncles ; scales of the cylindraceous involucre 
linear-subulate, apprcssed at the base, rather loose below. — Willd. sp. 3. p. 2035?; Nees, 
Ast. p. 56?; Hook. ft. Bor -Am. 2. p. 9; Terr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 121. A. paniculatus, 
Muhl. ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 365 ; Darlingt. fl. Cest. p. 464, not of Ait. <^c. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, with numerous erect branches above , the branchlets pubescent. 
Radical leaves 2-5 inches long and 1-2 broad, cordate or somewhat sagittate at the base, 
more or less pubescent, particularly underneath : petioles 2-6 inches in length : stem-leaves 
narrowed abruptly at the base into a winged petiole ; uppermost gradually diminishing to 
subulate bracts. Heads rather small, numerous, in crowded racemes. Scales with slender 
pointed tips. Rays about 12, pale purple or sometimes nearly white : disk yellow, turning 
brownish purple. 

Dry woods, in rich soil ; Yates county {Dr. Sartwell). August - October. This, although 
a common species in the Western States, is rare in New- York and New-England. 

»♦•* Heads (smaU and numermis) paniculate-racemose ; scales of tkccampanulate or hemispherical involucre closely imbricaUd, 
rigid, the arriaccons and whitish base appressed, with abrupt vioslh/ squarrose or spreading herbaceous tips: achcnia 
minutely puicsccnl : rays white or pale purple : stems much branched or diffuse : cauline leaves rigid, sessile, linear- 
lanceolate or sulmlate, entire ; the radical and lowermost oblanccolalc or spatulate, sometimes serrate. 

10. Aster ericoides, Linn. Heath-like Aster. 

Smooth or slightly hairy, racemose-compound ; peduncles mostly unilateral on the virgate 
spreading branches ; leaves rather rigid ; the radical and lowest cauline oblanceolate or oblong- 
spatulate, tapering into a short margined petiole, often serrate , the others linear-lanceolate 
and linear-subulate ; scales of the involucre broadest at the base, with a small acute or abrujaly 
acuminate tip , the exterior ones subulate. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 875 ; Willd. sp. 3. p. 2027 ; 
Pursh, fl. 2. p. 546 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 348, not of Lam. ^ Michx ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. 
p. 123. A. ericoides ^ glabellus, Nees, Ast. p. 107 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 242. A. sparsifli us, 
Michx. fl. 2. p. 242 ; Willd. enum. 2. p. 880 (in part), not of Pursh. A. tenuifolius, WiUd. 
sp. 3. p. 2026 (excl. syn.) ; Nutt. gen. 2. p. 155 ; Darlingt fl. Cest. p. 467. A. tenuifolius 
and ericoides, Muhl. cat. p. 77. A. dumosus, Hofl^. ; Willd. enum. 2. p. 880. 

Stem 1-3 feet high, much branched often from the base, and resembling a small bush ; 
the stem and branches rigid and brittle. Leaves very numerous ; radical and lower cauline 
ones 2-4 inches long, and often half an inch or more in breadth ; those of the branches and 
branchlets gradually becoming very small and narrow, with a subulate point. Heads ::J - 4 
lines in diameter, solitary on the small leafy branchlets or pedicels, which are mostly arranijed 

^^^^^- COMPOSITE. 341 

in a secund and sometimes crowded manner on the principal branches. Involucres mostly 
hemispherical, or somewhat turbinate. Scales in several series : a few of the outermost ones 
resembhng the small leaves of the branchlets ; inner ones a little ciliate, with green rhomboid 
acute tips which are loose and somewhat spreading. Rays 15 - 25, white or pale purple ■ 
disk purphsh when old. Achenia minutely pubescent. f f i' , 

Old fields and barren soils ; common. August - October. This plant presents many 
varieties in size, branching, length and breadth of leaves, etc., depending on diversities of sofl 
and situation. 

11. Aster multiflorus, AiL Many-Jlowered Aster. 

Grayish with a dense pubescence, or hairy ; stem diffusely racemose-compound ; the heads 
very numerous and crowded, somewhat unilateral ; leaves crowded, linear, entire, not taperin. 
at the base, serrulate-scabrous on the margin, spreading or reflexed ; scales of the involucre 

1T3 r^o*; w/T; '""^f"^ "J "'""''^ 'P^ ' '''' ^^^^"°^ °"^^ obtuse.-^^-. Ken,, (ed. 
1 .) 3^ p. 203 ; W^lkl. sp. 2027 ; Pursh, fl. 2. ;,. 546 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 249 ; Ness, Ast. p. 14 • 
Lindl. zn DC. prodr. 5. p. 243, and in Bor.-Am. 2. p. 13 ; Torr. &■ Gr fl N Am 
2. p. 124. A. encoides. Lam. diet. p. 304 ; Mzch..fl. 2. p. 313. A. ericoides, 'var. multi- 

pr2. ^7.Z'. '■''■ '''■ ""' '""'"' '^"'' '" '^'''^- ^^- '•^- ''''• ^- '^""^°-«' ^^• 

.IT tr' rfr^'^'f orTioary from its dense pubescence, but sometimes rather 
smooth. Stem 1 - 2 feet high, rigid, much branched and bushy ; the branches crowded with 
small leaves Leaves mostly somewhat clasping ; the cauline ones an inch or rather more in 
kngth and 1 - 2 hues wide, rather obtuse ; those of the branches about half an inch long 
Heads somewhat racemose and unilateral, or (in sterile soils) terminal and nearly solitary • 
the pedicels or branchlets covered with small leaves. Involucre about 3 lines in diameter 
shorter thaa the disk ; the scales commonly spalulate and obtuse, whitish and appressed with 
green spreading tips ; the outer ones broader. Rays 10 - 15, white or with a tinge of purple • 
d^sk-flowers purplish when old. Achenia minutely pubescent, turgid. Pappus somevvhat 

Dry sterile fields, particularly in gravelly soil ; not rare. September - November The 
ordinary form of this species is easily recognized by its hoary appearance, bushy mucii 
branched stem with small white flowers, and small rather obtuse crowded leaves which are 
not narrowed at the base. 

342 COMPOSITE. Aster. 

•♦♦•• Heads (middle-sized or small) mostly racemose : scales of the involucre imbricated anil unequal in length, mcmbranaeeo- 
kabaceous, irilh short apprcsfcil or somcvhal sprcadin<: {not sipiarrosc) greenish lips; ram usually pale or while, often 
small: stems at length much Irranehed, racemose or paniculate: leaves serrate or entire (tlie radical ones spatulaU:, 
obovate or oblong) ; the cauline sessile, usually tapering at the base. 

12. Aster dumosus, Linn. Bushy Aster. 
Stem smooth or slightly scabrous-pubescent, racemosely branched or decompound ; the 

heads solitary at the extremity of the spreading branchlets, or rarely somewhat racemed ; 
leaves linear, crowded, smooth with rough margins, sessile ; the lower cauline ones linear- 
lanceolate, often remotely serrate with small and sharp appressed teeth ; those of the branch- 
lets small and mucronulate ; scales of the involucre linear-spatulate, obtuse (or sometimes 
abruptly and slightly mucronulate), closely imbricated in 4 - 6 series. — Torr. <^ Gr, fl. N. 
Am. 2. J). 128. 

var. l.vcrus: paniculate-racemose; the branchlets clothed with numerous linear-oblong 
and obtuse (obscurely mucronulate) small and spreading leaves ; the upper cauline leaves 
frequently obtuse. Torr. <^ Gr. I. c. A. dumosus, Li/in. sp. 2. p. 873 ; Bigel. Jl. Bost. 
p. 311. 

var. 2. striclior : leaves sparingly paniculate or racemose-compound ; leaves usually more 
or less acute , the lower ones often slightly serrate ; those of the short branches rather nu- 
merous, scarcely spreading. Torr. <Sf Gr. I. c. 

var. 3. suhracemosus : stem racemose-compound ; the heads often somewhat racemed ; 
leaves mostly acute , the cauHne ones often remotely serrulate ; those of the branches more 
scattered, slender and proportional, acute ; scales of the involucre rather narrower, often 
slightly acute. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. dumosus, Nees, Ast. p. 105. A. foliosus. Ait. Kew. 
(ed. l.)3. p. 202? 

Stems 1-3 feet high. Lower leaves 2-3 inches long, 2-5 lines wide, diminishing in 
size to the branchlets, where they are 2-3 lines long and very narrow. Heads mostly about 
one-fourth of an inch in diameter, scattered. Exterior scales much shorter than the inner 
ones. Rays 20 - 30, short, pale purple or nearly while. Achcnia slightly and minutely 

Shady bushy places, and in open woods ; common. August - October. A polymorphous 
species, of which several varieties, besides those here described, occur in other parts of the 
United States. 

13. Aster Tradescanti, Linn. Tradescanfs Aster. 

Stem slender, often somewhat pubescent, much branched ; the (small) heads numerous, 
usually densely racemose on the erect-spreading or at length diverging virgate branches, often 
unilateral ; leaves sessile, smooth, with rough margins ; the cauline ones lanceolate-linear, 
elongated, mucronate-acute or acuminate, remotely serrate in the middle with fine and sharp 
teeth ; the upper, and those of the branches, successively shorter and usually entire, mucronu- 

Aster. COMPOSITiE. 343 

late ; those of the branchlets oblong-hnear, small ; scales of the involucre narrowly linear, 
acute or acutish, imbricated in 3 - 4 series, appressed , the innermost rather shorter than the 
disk.— Linn. sp. 2. p. 876 ; Michx.fl. 2. p. 115 ; Pursh, ft. 2. p. 556 ; Ell. sk. 2. p. 538 ; 
Nees, Ast.p. 103 ; DC.prodr. 5. p. 241 ; Ton: cf- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 129. A. vimineus, 
Lam. diet. p. 303. 

va.T.fragilis : cauline leaves, except the lowermost, minutely appressed-serrulate or entire, 
usually shorter ; heads more scattered on the branchlets. Torr. cj- Gr. I. c. A. fra"-ilis^ 
Willd. sp. 3. p. 2051 ; Nees, Ast. p. 102. A. tenuifolius, Ell. sk. 2. p. 347, not of Linn. 

Stem 2-4 feet high, bushy, slightly pubescent often in lines, with numerous slender 
branches which at first are somewhat erect, but at length widely spreading. Lower cauline 
leaves 3-4 inches long and 3 - 4 lines wide, with minute remote teeth. Heads small, 
numerous, solitary or 2 - 4 together, on short leafy branchlets or peduncles which are arranged 
in a racemose manner along the larger branches. Scales of the hemispherical-campanufate 
involucre acutish, slightly pubescent, purplish-green, with a pale nearly smooth margin. Rays 
about 20, pale purple or almost white ; the disk tuining purplish. Achenia slightly pubescent. 
Pappus a little tawny. In the var. fragilis, the branches are more slender, the branchlets 
larger, more paniculate and looser, and the leaves smaller and more crowded. 
Fields, and bushy places along rivulets ; not rare. August - October. 

14. Aster miser, Linn. Starved Aster. 

Stem mostly pubescent or hairy, raccmosely branched or compound ; the numerous heads 
racemose along the spreading or divaricate branches ; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 
sessile, attenuate or acuminate at each end, sharply serrate in the middle ; the radical ones 
spatulate-lanceolate or oval, tapering into a petiole ; those of the branches and branchlets 
successively smaller and often entire ; scales of the involucre linear, imbricated in 3 or 4 
series (the exterior much shorter, the inner about the length of the disk), acute or rather 
obtuse ; rays short and often inconspicuous. — Linn, sp 2. p. 887?; Torr. d- Gr. Jl. N. 
Am. 2. p. 130. A. miser, divergens, diffusus and pendulus. Ait. Kew. (ed. 1.) 3. p. 205, 
and of most succeeding authors. 

var. 1. miserrimus ; stem and elliptical-lanceolate or cuneiform-lanceolate leaves more or 
less scabrous or pubescent ; the flowering branches short, seldom divergent ; scales of the 
involucre narrowly linear or linear-lanceolate, acute. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. miser (excl. y.) 
Nees, Ast. p. 111. 

var. 2. glomerellus : mostly cinereous-pubescent or rough ; leaves obiong-lanccolate, 
elliptical-lanceolate or cuneiform-oblong, rough above, mostly short ; hnads glonicratc-spicato 
at the summit of the stem, or on divergent branches ; scales of the involucre linear, oblusish 
or abruptly acute. 7Vr. <^ Gr. I. c. A. miser, Darlijigt. Jl. Cost. p. 460. A.' diffusus, 
Muhl.; Nees, Ast. (partly). 

var. 3. diffusus : stem pubescent or .smooth below, nnich branciicd ; leaves nearly smooth 
(mostly a little rough above, and sometimes sparsely pubescent underneath), lanceolate, oblong- 

443 COMPOSITE. Aster. 

lanceolate, or the lowermost often oblong-oval ; branches diffuse, mostly elongated, divergent, 
recurved-spreading or divaricate ; heads loosely or densely racemose ; scales of the involucre 
linear, acute or acutish. Torr. <^ Gr. I, c. A. diffusus, divcrgens, pendulus and parviflorus, 
Nees, Ast. p. 99, <^c. 

var. 4. Iiirsuticaulis : stem and midrib of the narrowly lanceolate elongated leaves more or 
less hairy ; heads racemose or spicate on short spreading or diverging branchlets, the upper- 
most in axillary glomerules much shorter than the leaves ; scales of the involucre very narrowly 
linear, acute. Torr. ^ Gr. I. c. A. hirsuticaulis, Lindl. in DC. prodr. 5. p. 242. 

An extremely variable species, having the general appearance of the others belonging to 
this group. Like them it presents every diversity in size, branching, length of the leaves, 
etc. The heads are small, and usually very numerous. The involucre is campanulate- 
turbinate, and the scales have a green tip, and are nearly smooth. Rays 10- 16, linear- 
lanceolate, white or very pale purple. Disk-flowers purplish, few, large. Achenia a little 
pubescent. Pappus dirty white. 

Old fields, thickets, etc. ; very common. August - October. 

15. Aster simplex, Willd. Willow-leaved Aster. 

Stem smooth, racemose-decompound ; the branches somewhat corymbose at the summit ; 
branchlets bearing few middle-sized heads ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, very smooth, rough 
on the margin, the lower (and sometimes the upper) ones serrate ; scales of the involucre 
loosely imbricated, linear-subulate {Nees). — Willd. enum. 2. p. 887; Nees, Ast. p. 91 ; DC. 
prodr 5. p. 239; Torr. tj- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 132. A. salicifolius, Darlingt. fl. Cest. 
p. 467. 

Stem varying from a foot and a half to six feet in height, often (particularly the branchlets) 
pubescent in lines, and striped with green. Leaves 2-5 inches long and from 3-8 lines 
wide, thin, remotely serrate with appressed serratures, tapering to the base, sessile or a little 
clasping. Heads loosely racemose, or a little crowded on the short branchlets. Involucre 
nearly half an inch in diameter, campanulate-obovoid ; the scales smooth, acute, green with a 
pale margin. Rays 20 or more, blue or bluish white ; disk-flowers dull purple. Achenia 
minutely pubescent. 

Margin of swamps, etc. ; rather common. August - October. 

IC. Aster tenuifolius, Linn. Slender-leaved Aster. 

Nearly smooth ; stem paniculate-compound, or the branches and (rather small) heads often 
slightly racemose ; leaves narrowly lanceolate or lanceolate-linear, mostly elongated, attenuate- 
acuminate, rough on the margin , the lower ones usually sharply serrate in the middle ; those 
of the branches and branchlets entire, attenuate, gradually reduced in size ; scales of the 
ovoid-hemispherical involucre linear, acute, closely imbricated below, the points loose or a 
little spreading ; rays rather short. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 873 ; Nees, Ast. p. 119; DC. prodr, 5. 

''^^TER. COMPOSIT.E. 345 

p. 244 ; Torr. 4. Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 132. A. polyphyllus, Willd. enum. 2. p. 888 A 
junceus, Pursh, fl. 2. p. 557. 

x^r.l. ramosissimus: paniculately much branched; the branches and branchlets rigid 
somewhat erect, roughish-pubescent ; leaves often rough ; scales of the involucre more closely 
imbricated and numerous, linear-subulate. Torr. 4. Gr. I. c. A. tenuifolius, y. Nees, I c 

var. 2. belhdiflorus : paniculate-compound, rather strict; the branchlets and head's often 
somewhat racemose ; leaves smooth, or frequently rough above ; scales of the involucre 
narrowly hnear, acute, loosely imbricated. Torr. 4. Gr. I. c. A. bellidiflorus, WUld. enurr,. 
2. p 886 ; Nees, Ast. p. 97; DC. prodr. 5. p. 240; Lindl. in Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 2 p 11 
A. dracunculoides, Willd. sp. 3. p. 2050. A. leucanthemos, Desf.; Nees I c ■ DC I c ' 

Stem 2 - 5 feet or more in height. Leaves variable in length and breadth,' sometimes 
broadly lanceolate, either sharply and often coarsely serrate, or nearly entire, narrowed at the 
base, finely cil.olate on the margin. Heads middle-sized. Scales of the involucre acute or 
acummate, greemsh, with a narrow pale margin. Rays numerous, considerably shorter than 
the disk, pale purple or nearly white. 

Low grounds, etc. August - October. 

17. Aster Greenii. Ton: S,;Gr. ch,,^,^ ^^^^,. 

Stem very smooth, racemosely branched or compound ; leaves nearly all remotely adpressed- 
serrulate, smooth, acute or acuminate, rough above ; the cauline ones narrowly lanceolate 
elongated, slightly clasping (not dilated) at the base, spreading ; heads (hardly middle-sized) 
simply racemose on the leafy branches, on very short bracteate peduncles ; involucre cam 
panulate, somewhat shorter than the disk ; the scales linear-lanceolate, acute, rather closely 
imbricated in nearly 3 series, the exterior somewhat shorter.— Torr <i. Gr it N A,r, 9 
p. 134. -7 • '• ^i'«. 'i- 

Stem . . feet high. Radical leaves not seen ; cauline ones 3 - 5 inches long and about 
half an inch broad, of rather firm texture, more or less rough on the upper surface ; those of 
the branches nearly uniform in size and shape, and from half an inch to an inch in length 
Heads racemose, or sometimes rather crowded along the slender branches. Scales of the 
involucre pale, with a greenish midnerve. Rays rather short, broadly linear, purplish ? ; the 
disk turning to reddish-purple. Achenia finely pubescent. 

Fields. Schenectady (Mr. Tuch'rman). 

[Flora.] 44 


•••••• Heads {middle-sized err large, sKmcy) mosllii eortfmbose or panievlate : scales of the incMucrt eqiud or somarkat unequal, 

more or less imbrieated^ vritk loose or spreading herbaceous or foliaecous tips, the aierior frequently entirety hirbaeeous : 
achAiia pubescent or smooth : rays usually large and numerous, blue or purple : cauline leaves sessile, the upper more 
■ or less clasping. 

18. Aster laxus, Willd. Loosely-branched Aster. 

Stem smooth or a little pubescent in lines, racemose-compound or decompound, the branches 
loose and corymbose at the summit, the branchlets elongated ; leaves narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, the margin (and often the upper surface) rough, the lower ones somewhat serrate ; 
those of the branchlets linear, obliquely spreading ; scales of the involucre broadly linear, 
loose, a little squarrose-spreading. — Willd. enum. 2. p. 886; Nees, Ast. p. 95; DC.prodr. 
5. p. 240 ; Torr. ^ Gr. fi. N. Am. 2. p. 135. 

Stem apparently 3-4 feet high, with numerous rigid ascending branches, purplish. Radical 
leaves not seen ; cauline ones 2-4 inches long and about half an inch broad ; those of the 
branchlets much smaller, broad and a little clasping at the base. Heads loosely corjTnbose, 
about as large as in .4. punicens. Scales of the involucre herbaceous, green, rather acute ; 
the exterior ones (particularly in the terminal heads) at length squarrose. Rays very numerous 
(40 - 50), narrow, purplish-blue. 

Island of New- York, near the Deaf and Dumb Asylum [Mr. Brownne). 

19. Aster elodes, Torr. Sf Gi: Blue Smooth Marsh Aster. 

Very smooth ; stems simple or somewhat branched, flexuous, slender, loosely somewhat 
paniculate at the summit ; leaves varj-ing from lanceolate to linear, somewhat coriaceous, 
narrowed at each end, nearlj' entire or sparingly appressed-serrulate, shining, the upper ones 
somewhat clasping by a narrow base ; scales of the hemispherical involucre spatulate-linear, 
acute, mucronulate, with recurved-spreading herbaceous tips ; achenia smooth. — Torr. ^ 
Gr. fl. N. Afn. 2. p. 136. A. elodes, Nutt. gen. 2. p. 155, not of Ait. 

Stem 1-21 feet high, often simple, with a few flowers in a loose paniculate raceme at 
the summit ; at other times somewhat compoundly branched above, with the flowers more 
numerous ; and more rarely (especially in the narrowest-leaved forms) fastigiately branched. 
Leaves 2-6 inches long, varying from little more than a line to 6 or 8 lines in breadth, the 
largest ones usually occurring on the specimens with simple stems, often tapering below, and 
then suddenly dilated a little at the base ; those of the flowering branches usually 1-2 inches 
long and few in number, but in the much branched forms often very small and rather nu- 
merous. Heads large and showy, sometimes only very few or almost solitary, and seldom 
numerous, solitary on the rather short branchlets. Involucre more than half an inch in dia- 
meter. Scales ciliate on the margin, the inner ones usually more or less tinged with purple. 
Rays 25 - 30, large, deep blue or violet. Disk-flowers yellow, sometimes turning purplish. 

Deep swamps. Long Island. August — October. A very handsome species, common in 
the sandy swamps of New-Jersey, but not found hitherto in the State of New- York, except 
on Long Island. It is, perhaps, too near A. longif alius, Lam. 

Aster. COMPOSITE. 347 

20. Aster puniceus, Li7in. Hispid Tall Aster. 

Stem hispid, stout, paniculate above ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, rather coarsely 
serrate in the middle, very rough above and on the midrib underneath, clasping by a more or 
less auriculate base ; heads (rather large) somewhat crowded in a racemose or paniculate 
manner towards the summit of the leafy branches ; scales of the involucre narrowly linear, 
tapering to a long acute point, loose and somewhat spreading, nearly equal in about 2 series, 
as long as the disk. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 875 ; Michx. ft. 2. p.\\5; Willd. sp. 3. p. 2040 ; 
Pursh, ji. 2. p. 554 ; Bigel. fl. Bost. p. 312 ; Hook. ft. Bor.-Am. 2. p. 10 ; Darlingt. fl. 
Cest. p. 465 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 236 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 140. A. amoenus mid 
hispidus, Lmth. dict.-l. p. 306. 

Stem 3-6 feet high, usually purplish, hispid with short strong prickly hairs, paniculately 
or corymbosely much branched above. Leaves often almost equally rough on both surfaces ; 
the cauline ones 3-5 inches long, and varying from rather narrowly lanceolate to nearly 
obiong, usually a little narrow below nearly to the base, which is clasping-auriculate ; leaves 
of the branches and branchlets of the same form as the cauline, but smaller. Heads (with 
the rays expanded) an inch or more in diameter, on nearly naked pedicels. Scales very acute, 
the inner ones often a little longer than the disk. Rays numerous, violet-purple, often pale. 
Achenia somewhat pubescent. 

Low wet thickets ; common. September - October. A coarse well-marked species. 
There are varieties (but I have not found them in New-York) in which the stem is smoothish, 
particularly below, with the exterior scales of the involucre rather broad and more foliaceous. 
To these belong A. vimineus and A.firmus of authors. 

21. AsTEE PEENANTHoiDES, Mulil. Prermnthes-lihe Aster. 

Stem pubescent or hairy in decurrent lines, loosely paniculate-corymbose at the summit ; 
leaves spatulate-lanceolate or lanceolate-oval, incisely serrate in the middle, conspicuously 
acuminate, abruptly tapering into a long narrow base like a winged petiole, with a cordate or 
auriculate clasping insertion, rough above, smooth underneath ; heads (rather large) on short 
rigid spreading peduncles ; scales of the hemispherical involucre lanceolate-linear or spatulate- 
linear, acute or acuminate, imbricated in 3 - 4 series, with recurved-spreading herbaceous 
summits.— j1/mW. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 2046 ; Nees, Ast. p. 61 ; Beck, hot. p. 185 ; Darlingt. 
fl. Cest. p. 465 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 234 ; Torr. <^ Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 142. 

Stem 1 - 4 feet high, sparingly branched ; the pubescence commonly in lines, with the 
mlervals smooth. Leaves 3-6 inches or more in length and an inch or more in breadth, 
entire and remarkably contracted below, with a conspicuous dilated and clasping base, of a 
rather thin texture. Heads rather few, loosely clustered towards the extremity of the branches; 
liie upper ones and those of the branches smaller, and usually less narrowed at the base. 
Scales of liie involucre smooth, or slightly ciliatc on the margin; the exterior ones often 
spatulatc and green. Rays 20 or more, pale violet or lilac, sometimes nearly white. Pappus 
unequal. Achenia somewhat hispid. 

Moist woods and thickets. Western part of the State {Dr. Knieskern and Dr. SartwcU). 
September - October. 


348 COMPOSIT.E. Aster. 

»•>>««« Ucads (large and showy) tennhuiiing the conjmbose or paniculate bratuhcs : scales of the involucre numerous, in 
several series, somcjehal equal, the elongated foliaceous portion spreading or squarrose : achcnia viBow : rays numermis, 
purple or viokl : leaves lanceolate or Hncar-oblong, mostly entire, sessile, often partly clasping : branchlels and involucre 
glandular or glandular-pviesccnt. 

22. Aster NoViE-ANCLi^, Linn. New-England Aster. 

Stem stout, hispid, corymbose at the summit ; the branchlcts and involucre somewhat 
viscid; leaves very numerous, linear-lanceolate, auriculate-clasping, entire, roughish-pubescent; 
scales of the involucre subulate-linear, glandularly viscid, loose, nearly equal, as long as the 
disk. — Linn. sp. 2. p. 875 ; Miclix.fl. 2. p. 1 13 ; Pnrsh,Jl. 2. p. 549 ; Nutt. gen 2. p. 156 ; 
Ell. sk. 2. p. 351 ; Lindl. hot. reg. t. 183 ; Bigel.Jl. Bost. p. 310 ; Nees, Ast. p. 46 ; Hook, 
fl. Bor.-Am. 2. p. 8 ; Beck, hot. p. 182 ; Darlingt.Jl. Cest. p. 462 ; DC. prodr. 5. p. 233 ; 
Torr. ^- Gr. fl. N. Am. 2. p. 144. A. amplexicaulis, Lam. diet. 1. p. 304, not of Willd. 
A. spurius, Willd. sp. 3. p. 2032. 

Stem 3-6 feet high, often brownish purple, clothed with white spreading hairs, and the 
upper part somewhat viscid with a terebinthine secretion. Loaves 2-4 inches long and 
4-6 lines wide, gradually tapering to the summit, the auriculate base folding round the stem. 
Heads (including the rays) more than an inch and a half in diameter, arranged in a loose 
more or less compound thyrsus or corymb. Involucre hemispherical ; the scales very narrow, 
glandularly rough and viscid, more or less tinged with brownish-purple. Rays very numerous 
(40 or more), bright violet-.purple : disk-flowers yellow, becoming purplish when old. Achenia 
very hairy. Pappus rather rigid, dirty reddish-white. 

Low grounds, borders of fields, etc., sometimes in rather dry situations ; common.