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Full text of "The Flora Of The South India Hill Stations Vol I"

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THE FLORA OF THE 
SOUTH INDIAN HILL STATIONS 

OOTACAMUND, COONOOR, KOTAGIRI, 
KODAIKANAL, YERCAUD 
AND THE COUNTRY ROUND 



BY 

P. F. FYSON 

Principal^ Presidency (Jollege, Madras 



With 611 full page plates by MRS. FYSON, 

LADY BOURNE, R. NATESAN, 

the Author and others 



VOLUME I 



MADRAS 
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS 

PRICE, Two Vol$., Rs* 18] 1 9 3 3 



PREFACE 



IN 1914, I published a " Flora of the Nilgiri and 
Pulney Hill-Tops," in two volumes, one of letterpress, 
the other of plates, in which were described the flowering 
plants of the down or uplands only of these mountains. 
It was soon realized that this ^vas too restricted a range, 
and, in order to include more giants from the Kotagiri and 
Coonoor areas and also to add a large number of new 
figures drawn by my wife, a supplementary third volume 
was issued in 1920. 

The publication of the official Flora of the Madras 
Presidency by the late Mr. J. S. Gamble and on his death 
by Mr. G. E. C. Fischer, with re-determinations of many 
othe species, made it necessary to revise some of the 
rfkitie^s but I have had to leave the grasses as they were 
srthat part of the Madras Flora has not yet appeared. 
At the same time, it seemed worth while to include the 
plants about Yercaud, for a great many of the species 
described occur there, and this is one of the hill stations 
to which people go in summer. The number of species 
has risen in consequence from the 483 of the first volume 
to 877 in the present work ; the genera also from 264 
to 429, and they belong to 116 families as compared 
with 95. After discarding about 20 of the plates as 
unnecessary and adding 60 fresh figures, those of the 
two issues have been rearranged in one serial order. 
With these changes a new title seemed called for ; so it 
is now the Flora of the South Indian Hill Stations. 
A- 1 



IV PREFACE 

The present work is by no means a mere compilation 
of the old with the addition of new matter. Many of the 
former descriptions have been rewritten ; most have been 
shortened, some considerably. New keys have been 
constructed to the genera ; new localities given for the 
species. I should have liked to work over the localities 
more fully, but time has not allowed. Rome species have 
been inserted on the authority of the official Flora of the 
Presidency. These are acknowledged by [G.F.M.P.] or 
[P.M. P.] after the distribution : but there are not many 
of these, for except the Shevaroys which I think still 
needs further work, these areas are well represented in 
the collections at the Presidency College made by myself 
or by Sir Alfred and Lady Bourne before me. As in my 
former work the arrangement of the families, genera and 
species follows that of the Flora of British India and 
reference is made to the descriptions in that work, both 
by the page and by the number of the family, genus 
or species, or where the species was not in the F.B.I, 
by the number starred to which it should come next. I 
have followed (but with a few exceptions noted on page xvii) 
the naming given in the official Flora of the Madras 
Presidency. Reference to the individual sheets in the 
College herbariums has been dropped as that seems now 
to serve no useful purpose. 

Of the 611 illustrations, half are by my wife, 90 by 
Lady Bourne, about 80 by R. Natesan, 50 by myself, 
20 by Mrs. Harrison and the remainder by different 
people, chiefly friends of Lady Bourne. It is impossible 
sufficiently to thank these ladies for their very valuable 
contribution. 

I have to thank Mr. V. Narayanaswami, Mr. Jacob 
and the staff of the Madras Herbarium at Coimbatore for 



)P REF ACfc V 

help in determining plants and for lending sheets named 
for the official Flora of the Presidency and Mr. Mayura- 
nathan of the Madras Museum for information and some 
new records. To Mr. E. C. Barnes I owe notes on 
recently described species of Impatiens, and two men- 
tioned on page 84 as perhaps new. Probably no one has 
searched so diligently for species of these genus on the 
edge of the Nilgiri plateau. Miss Lechler sent me fresh 
specimens of Rotala Fysonii till then not collected on 
the Shevaroys, and of the new Notonia shevaroyensis ; 
and the help of other friends too numerous to mention 
is . also gratefully acknowledged. 

I was very greatly assisted in this revision by 
Mr. A. Srinivasayya, the herbarium- keeper of the 
Presidency College. Every day for the last few months, 
Sundays and holidays, he has come early and stayed late 
to help me with the sheets before and after my ordinary 
college hours. To Mr. T. V. Narasinga Rao, who read 
through the proofs, my debt is also very great. I doubt if 
the work could have been done in the time without such 
help. 

P. F. F. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface iii 

Glossary of the commoner botanic terms used x 

Note on botanical nomenclature xiii 

Changes in names of genera xv 

Species extra to or named differently from those in the Flora of the 

Madras Presidency xvii 

Key to the families and certain abnormal genera or species ... ix 

Descriptive text i 

Appendix 683 

Index 685 



GLOSSARY OF THE COMMONER 
BOTANIC TERMS USED. 



STEM, BRANCHES AND LEAVES. 

axil the angle between a leaf or its stalk and the stem. 

base the part nearest the stem, whether of leaf or stalk. 

nerves ... ... the veins of a leaf. 

node ... ... the part of the stem, usually swollen, where the leaf 

joins it. 

petiole ... ... the stalk of a leaf. 

rootstock the perennial underground portion which lives on 

when the leaves die down. 

scape ... ... a leafless flowering stem (or branch). 

stipules small organs, usually in pairs, at the base of a leaf- 
stalk. 

A LEAF OR OTHER PART is DESCRIBED AS 

simple ... ... when the blade is single, however much it may be 

cut or lobed. 
compound when the leaf consists of several blades (leaflets) 

each with its own stalk. 
sessile ... ... when there is no stalk. 

pinnate when the leaflets are arranged to right and left on 

either side of the main stalk (t. 139). 
bi-pinnate when the leaf is doubly pinnate, consisting of 

several pinnas, each with leaflets to right and 

left (t. 144). 
pedate ... ... when the leaflets are irregularly stalked (t. 562). 

palmate when the leaflets are attached together at the end 

of the main stalk (t. 561). 
palmati-fid t when cut or lobed in palmate or pinnate fashion 

pinnati-fid. (t. 37). 

palmati-sect when more deeply so cut, almost into separate 

pinnati-sect. leaflets. 

cordate when the shape of a conventional heart, attached at 

the broad end (t. 17). 

ob-cordate similar but attached at the other end. 

ovate when egg-shaped in general outline and attached by 

the broader end. 

ob-ovate similar, but attached at the narrower end. 

lanceolate when narrower than ovate, like the head of a lance. 

oblanceolate ... similar but attached at the narrower end. 



X GLOSSARY 

linear when slender or very narrow. 

setaceous when thin and pointed. 

reniform when broad and kidney- shaped. 

cuneate when wedge-shaped. 

obtuse with blunt tip. 

acute with sharp point. 

acuminate with long-drawn out point (leaflets in t. 96). 

mucronate the midrib prolonged as a tiny point. 

emarqinate or when indented at the point. 
notched. 

entire if the margin is perfectly even. 

serrate if there are teeth pointing forward. 

crenate if there are rounded teeth'. 

lobed ... ... if the margin is much waved. 

pectinate deeply jagged, like a comb. 

coriaceous ... ... when thick and firm or leathery. 

scarious ... ... when thin and papery. 

glabrous ... ... when the surface is smooth without hairs. 

scabrid when the surface is roughened by low hard hairs. 

tomentose when covered with a close mat of short hairs. 

pubescent ... ... when thinly covered with soft short hairs. 



THE FLOWERING PART OR INFLORESCENCE. 

raceme ... ... an arrangement of flowers one above another, on 

short stalks : the stem continuing to grow and 

produce buds at the top (tt. 13, 15). 

spike similar, but the flowers not stalked (t. 511). 

cyme ... ... typically of three flowers, the middle one opening 

first : the main stem ending in a flower, while a 

second and third flower are produced just below 

in the axils of bracts (t. i). 
scorpioid cyme ... a double row of flowers along a stalk which is 

curled up backwards at first (as in Heliotrope). 
corymb a flat- topped bunch. Strictly speaking, a flattened 

raceme but also of cymose bunches. 
panicle ... ... a branched raceme, or mixture of raceme and cyme 

(tt. i, 88). 
umbel the flowers on stalks arising together at one spot 

(tt. 20, 50) ; usually compound an umbel of 

umbels (t. 200). 

fascicle a close cluster, with or without stalks (t. 86). 

head a close mass of flowers with bracts below. 

involucre cup of bracts below a head (t. 246). 

bract small leaf-like or very small organ. When flowers 

are not solitary the stalks nearly always arise in 

the axils of bracts. 
bracteoks bracts on the flower-stalk. 



GLOSSARY 



XK 



pedicel 
peduncle 
receptacle 
torus 



the stalk of a single flower, 
the common stalk of several flowers, 
the expanded end of a flower-stalk, 
the enlarged centre of some flowers. 



THE FLOWER AND ITS PARTS. 
THE ESSENTIAL ORGANS. 

stamen a stalk, or filament, carrying an anther, which con- 
tains grains of pollen. The latter is the male 
medium which fertilizes the egg-cell in the young 
seeds. 

carpel or ovary of a closed case of one or more compartments or cells 

several carpels. containing the immature seeds, ovules ', and 

surmounted by a stalk, style, bearing a sticky 

surface stiqma, on which the pollen grains are 

caught. 



OTHER PARTS. 

corolla the petals considered together, and v\hether united 

or not. 

sepals ... ... the outer, usually, green envelope. 

calyx the cup formed by the union of sepals or the expan- 

sion of the end of the flower-stalk. 

perianth the envelope of a flower, calyx or corolla or both, 

considered collectively. 

epicalyx bracts occasionally below and outside the calyx. 

staminodes sterile stamens, usually flattened, often petal-like. 

disc a honey-secreting part at the base of the flower : 

it may be flat, or cup-shaped (t. 98) or in two or 
more parts. 

versatile anther ... lightly attached so that it swings easily. 

unisexual a flower with stamens but no ovary, or ovary but 

no stamens. 

mono3cious the flowers of either sex, both on the same plant. 

dieecious flowers male or female on separate plants. 



PETALS AND SEPALS ARE DESCRIBED AS 

valvate when in bud the edges touch but do not overlap. 

convolute when in bud each overlaps the one next it, to the 

right or to the left. 
imbricate when some overlap by both edges, some by one 

only, others are overlapped by both edges. 



xii GLOSSARY 

OVARY, FRUIT, SEED, ETC. 

placenta the slightly raised ridge, inside the carpel or ovary, 

along which the ovules are borne. 

axtle placent ation ... the placentas are at the inner angles of the many- 
chambered ovary. 
parietal placent ation. the placentas run down the outer wall of the 

(nearly always) single-chambered, or one-celled > 

ovary. 

capsule a dry fruit, which opens in various ways. 

loculiddal the opening of a capsule down the middle of each 

cell. 

indehiscent a fruit which does not open usually one-seeded. 

achcne ... ... a dry seed-like fruit, containing one seed. Not 

opening. (Sunflower.) 
drupe ... ... a juicy fruit, the seed enclosed inside a hollow 

stone. 
berry ... ... a juicy fruit with one or more seeds, not enclosed 

in a stone. 
pyrcne ... ... the hard or tough partial stone inside some fruits. 

micropyle ... ... a small hole leading through the coating of a seed. 

raphe the part along which the stalk of a seed is attached 

to it. 
hilum ... ... the scar left on a seed by separation from the stalk. 

endosperm ... ... food material contained in some seeds round the 

embryo. 
cotyledons the first leaf or pair of smooth leaves of the seedling 

plant ; and formed in the seed. 
aril ... ... ... a fleshy outgrowth on the surface of the seed, 

usually from the base. 
caruncle a fleshy outgrowth round the micropyle of a seed. 



NOTE ON BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 



It may perhaps be of interest to some users of this book, 
and may make the changes in the names of plants which are 
shown in this volume appear more reasonable, if I briefly 
explain the principles underlying the scientific naming of 
plants. Every kind, or species, of plant or animal is known by 
a double name, the second being the special or individual name 
of the species and the first that of the group or genus to which 
the species obviously belongs. This system was introduced 
by Linnaeus in the eighteenth century, and fits in so well with 
the natural relationships of the varied forms of life that it has 
been universally adopted. Its usefulness is unquestioned. 

The second, species name, is always that given to it by the 
man who first scientifically described the species, i.e., ' found- 
ed ' it, and is in general unalterable. The only valid reason 
for changing the name of a species is the discovery that the 
name had already been given to another species of the same 
genus, or that the supposed new species is not really distinct 
from an older-named species. For the first reason the South 
Indian Asparagys subulatus Steudel has had to be changed 
to Asparagus Fysoni MacBride (page 608) and for the second 
Derris oblonga has been * reduced ' to Derris canarensis 
(page 177). The decision on second of these reasons must 
necessarily be to some extent a matter of opinion, as also 
sometimes whether a certain plant does really belong to a 
pre-existing species (perhaps as a * variety ') or should be 
considered distinct. The tendency at the present time is 
to split off varieties or distinct species. (See the species of 
the Sect. Alatce of CROTALARIA in Volume I, page 139 et seq.). 

The first of the names is the genus to which the species 
belongs. It also is the name first scientifically given to that 
genus* The same rules apply as with species. Thus ZEHNERIA 
(of the F.B.I, i) was merged in (reduced to) MELOTHRIA a few 
years ago, and MUKIA is now following suit (see page 242). 
BRASSAIA, a genus founded by Clarke, is now judged to be not 



XIV NOTE ON BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE 

really distinct from HEPTAPLEURUM, and the latter name has 
had to give way to the earlier SCHEFFLERA. Sometimes, on the 
other hand, a genus formed perhaps by the amalgamation in 
this way of several becomes so large that it is convenient to 
split it up again. For this reason ANDROPOGON has been 
divided into seven or eight genera (see page 665) and now 
EUGENIA also into smaller genera, of which one genus belong 
to SYZYGIUM (page 219). 

Very occasionally the merging of one genus in another 
means that the name of a species must be changed too, so as to 
avoid having two of the same name in the genus or the converse 
may happen, and on account of a change in the genus the 
species name previously * reduced ' may now be restored : 
but both these changes are rare. 

After the two names it is customary to add the name of the 
author of the combination, so as to obviate confusion between 
the plant meant and another to which the same names have 
perhaps been given in ignorance or error by a later botanist. 

It will thus be seen that however much we may sometimes 
be inclined to deplore the passing away of some well-established 
name or the use of new and strange one, changes are made only 
when necessitated either by historical research or by a change 
of view brought about by fresh discoveries : and though these 
due to purely historical reasons must become fewer and fewer 
till in time they finally cease to appear, so long as the science is 
a living one there must always be new discoveries and new 
points of view. The systematic naming of plants can no more 
be fixed than any other branch of science. 



CHANGES IN NAMES OF GENERA. 



Former name. New name. 

Heptapleuron b . Schefflera. 

Hedyotis Oldenlandia. 

Canthium Plectronia. 

Myrsine Rapanea. 

Viscum (part only) Korthasella. 

Loranthus ( do. ) Elytranthe. 

Habenaria ( do. ) Peristylus. 

Do. ( do. ) Platanthera 

Do. ( do. ) Phyllomphax. 

The first four names disappear from our Flora ; to the 

remaining three some species remain but others are separated 

in the new genera. 



SPECIES EXTRA TO OR NAMED DIFFER- 
ENTLY FROM THOSE IN THE 
FLORA OF THE MADRAS PRESI- 
DENCY. 



Rotala Fysonii Blatter and Hallberg (Appendix) described 

in Journal of the Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. XXV. 
Osbeckia rosea Fyson (page 225), described in Jour. 

Botanical Soc. India, 1932. 

Notonia shevaroyensis Fysow (page 345) do. do. 

Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia DC. to include D. latifolia 

DC (page 3 17) as in Fa. Nl. & P. Ht. 
BlumeaMacrostachya(page324) a * variety ' raised. 
Disperis zeylanica (page 596). 
Eriocaulon Mariae Fyson, described in Kew. Bull 1914 

reduced in S.I.B.S., Volume II, now restored. 
Smilax zeylanica L. (page 606), restricted. 
Smilax macrophylla Roxb. (page 607), reduced in P.M. P. 

to S. zeylanica. 



B 



KEY TO THE FAMILIES AND CERTAIN 
ABNORMAL GENERA OR SPECIES. 



THIS key is intended for those not perfectly familiar with 
the families. In each bracket is offered two or more alterna- 
tives ; at the end of the line which fits the flower best will be 
found the number of the bracket next to be consulted, or the 
name of the family or genus. 

The key should be worked from the beginning, for though 
it is divided by headings polypetals, monopetals, etc., these 
do not correspond strictly to the botanical classification of the 
families, because there are several genera which do not conform 
to the ordinary rules. Thus Loranthus and the Cucurbitaceae 
will be found among monopetals, Thalictrum and Zizyphus in 
the petal-less section. 

Flowers in compact heads backed by an involucre of green 
bracts 2 

Flowers solitary or variously arranged, if in a head with no 
involucre of separable bracts below 3 

Flowers minute, on a rounded receptacle (mulberry) or 
embedded in a flat one, or inside a hollow one (fig.) 

/>. 540. MORACE^E. 

Heads white or grey on leafless stalks rising from a group 
of narrow radical leaves. Flowers minute. (Hatpin 
flower) p. 625. ERIOCAULON. 

Anthers united round the style. No calyx. (Sunflower, 
etc.) p. 299. COMPOSITE. 

Anthers free attached at various heights to the inside of 
the slender perianth. Heads very densely woolly. 

p, 510. LASIOSIPHON. 

Anthers free on slender filaments. Leaves opposite. 

p. 297. DIPSACUS. 
Anthers opening by flaps ..../>. 501. LAURACE^. 



XX KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA 

f Flowers small in spikelets. (Grasses and Sedges) . 86 

3 < Flowers minute, without sepals or petals .... 74 

LA perianth round each flower 4 

fPerianth inconspicuous, of one whorl not distinguishable 

. J as petals and sepals, greenish or brownish ... 58 

j Perianth conspicuous, usually of white or coloured petals 

^ and green sepals 5 

" Sepals or petals two, four or five ; petals quite free at the 

base 7 

Sepals or petals two, four or five ; petals united at least at 

the base 36 

Sepals and petals three, all alike or sepals less coloured, or 

one petal or sepal larger or spurred 76 

^Sepals five, petals three 6 

("Flowers minute in large panicles : fruit \ inch, drupe. 

*s (Spiraea tree) p. 129. MELIOSMA. 

v. Lowest petal boat-shaped, fringed . p. 32. POLYGALA. 

r Ovary or carpels, superior, i.e., inserted above the base of 

the petals and stamens or half inferior 8 

Ovary inferior, clearly sunk in the end of the flower 

stalk below the sepals 31 

Ovary at the bottom of but not enclosed in the calyx : 
petals and stamens arising above it. p. 233, LYTHRACE^E. 



Polypetals with superior ovary. 

Style unbranched or stigmas without style, on an ovary of 

one or more cells 10 

Styles three to five, or branched : ovary of one or more 

cells 25 

Ovary of several distinct carpels each with its short 

style 9 

Trees : branches ringed at each leaf : flowers 2 to 3 inches 

across : fruiting carpels i inch in a spike of 3 to 5 inches. 

p. 9. MAGNOLIACE^. 

Herbs : no epicalyx below the spls. p. i. RANUNCULACE-SS. 
Prickly shrubs or if herbs then with five bracteoles imme- 
diately below the sepals .... p. 187. ROSACR/E. 



KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA XXI 

Style single, unbranched. 

f Ovary and fruit of one cell only n 

\Ovary and fruit of two to five cells 17 

f Stamens five only : flowers regular or nearly so . . . 12 

I Stamens seven to ten or many free or united : seed attach- 

11 j ed to one edge only of the pod . p. 132. LEGUMINOSE/E. 

Stamens many : fruit fleshy with many seeds 

^ p. 28. SCOLOPIA. 

r Trees : fruit more or less fleshy 13 

j Trees : fruit a two-valved capsule : leaves pinnate. . . 

{ p. 104. HEYNEA. 

(^Herbs : fruit dry 15 

fSeed one only 14 

Fruit \ inch, orange ; pulp sticky : style \ inch . . . 
j^J p. 30. PITTOSPORUM.. 

I Fruit 1 1 3 inches, brown, no pulp, a narrow scale against 

(^ each petal ^.29. IIYDNOCARPUS. 

("Flower in tall panicles : Is. simple hard, or pinnate p. 129. 

" Spiraea tree " p. 129. SABIACE^E. 

j.J Flower in flat corymbs, evil smelling : leaves simple, 

I broad, soft p. 106. MAPPIA. 

^ Flower solitary or few, lateral . . p. 107. GOMPHANDRA. 

(Marsh herbs with opposite leaves />/>. 233 and 683.ROTALA. 
Land herbs ; leaves alternate 16 

TOne petal spurred : fruit three-valved . p. 25. VIOLA. 
1 \Petals fringed : fruit opening at the top . p. 24. RESEDA. 

{Trees and thorny climbers with scented gland-dotted 
leaves p. 97. RUTACE^:. 
Water-plants, flowers in pale blue spikes 
p. 684. APONOGETON. 
Herbs, shrubs, trees and climbers. Not thorny . .18 
'Petals four ; stamens six ; capsule two-celled. , Herbs. 19 

Petals four or five ; stamens same number 20 

Petals five ; stamens eight. . . ^.127. SAPINDACE^E. 
Petals 4 ; stamens many. Herb. p. 25. CLEOME. 
^Petals five ; stamens numerous : trees or herbs . . .23 
f Sepals two, petals unequal : leaves delicate, much divided. 

19 < p. 1 8. FUMARIACE^E. 

LSepals four, petals equal p. 19. CRUCIFERJE. 



22 4 



XX11 KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA 

f Stamens opposite the petals 21 

\ Stamens alternate with the petals 22 

fTendril climber ; leaves simple or compound . . 

21 -S p. 122. VITACE^. 

L Trees, shrubs, or stragglers . . p. 116. RHAMNACE^:. 

^Leaflets five to seven : disc in flower a crenulate cup . . 

p. 125. TURPINIA. 

Ls. simple, glossy : flowers white ; fruit fleshy small . . 

p. 107. ILEX. 

Ls. simple : flowers green or brownish : fruit a capsule ; 
seed with coloured skin or aril . p. 109. CELASTRACE^. 

r Leaves opposite : buds large ; fruit with yellow juice. 

23 < p. 50. GARCINIA. 

(^Leaves alternate 24. 

rPetals deeply cut : fruit a drupe . . p. 64. EL/EOCARPUS. 
I Petals entire : buds usually large 

24^ p. 51. TERNSTRGEMIACE^E. 

j Petals yellow : fruit spiny or fleshy, p. 61. TILIACE^E. 
LPetals small or white : trees . . . . p. 187. ROSACES. 



Style divided. 

f Ovary one-celled 26 

* \Ovary of several cells or carpels 28 

Seed solitary : stipules tubular encircling the stem at each 
node. Leaves alternate . . p. 490. POLYGONACE/E. 

Seeds several on a central placenta. Herbs with opposite 
leaves and swollen nodes . p. 36. CARYOPHYLLACE^E. 

.Seeds several, on the walls of the ovary 27 

Climber with axillary tendrils ; stamens and style raised 
on a central column .... ^.239. PASSIFLORA. 

Slender trailing herb with opposite gland-dotted leaves : 
flower yellow : stamens many . . p. 45. HYPERICUM. 

Herb with very sticky often red leaves : flower white : 
stamens five. In damp ground . p. 210. DROSERA. 

f Stamens 10 only 30 

2 \Stamens or anthers numerous 29 



29 4 



30^ 



KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA XXlll 

Trees : leaves finally serrate : flowers inch in small 
subsessile bunches p. 53. EURYA. 

Herbs : leaves divided or lobed : flowers J to 2 inches : 
anthers numerous kidney-shaped . p. 55. MALVACEAE. 

Herbs and shrubs with opposite gland-dotted leaves . . 

p. 45. HYPERICUM. 

Fruit splitting into five, long-tailed, one-seeded carpels. 

p. 68. GERANIACE^:. 

Fruit a drupe or splitting into five two-seeded, or ten 

one-seeded parts : leaves entire . p. 67. LINUM. 

Fruit opening along five lines, the carpels not separating 

. from each other p. 72. OXALIDEJE. 



Polypetals with inferior ovary. 

^Parts of flower in twos or fours. Stamens as many or 

twice, straight. Herbs 32 

Petals four to five ; anthers eight to ten, large or small, 
horned at the base or filament bent 

p. 223, MELASTOMACE^E. 

Petals five or six, stamens as many 33 

^Stamens numerous 35 

f Flowers unisexual, small . . . p. 212. SERPICULA. 
3 2 \Land plants ; flowers small or large./). 235. ONAGRACE^E. 

"Herbs with small opposite leaves and pink flowers in leafy 
spikes. In damp places . . . p. 233. LYTHRACEJE. 
33*^ Herb with alternate heart-shaped leaves and solitary white 
flowers. In damp places. . . . p. 204. PARNASSIA. 
^Strongly smelling plants with small umbelled flowers. 34 

rShrubs or trees : leaves large palmate, p. 257. ARALIACEJE. 

34 -< Herbs : leaves entire or much divided : fruit separating 

L into two halves p. 245. UMBELLIFER;E. 

r Leaves entire, scented, opposite except in Eucalyptus : 
stamens curled inwards in bud . p. 215. MYRTACEJE. 
Leaves alternate toothed, simple or not. p. 187. ROSACE^E. 
Sepals and petals two, ovary three- winged 

p. 244. BEGONIA. 

* Water plants. Stamens broad . . . p. 17. NYMPH^A. 



XXIV KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA 

Monopetah. 

fOvary or carpels superior 42 

36 < Ovary inferior : fruit crowned by the dried calyx or its 
I scar 37 

Monopetah with inferior ovary. 

fShrubs parasitic on other trees : seed very sticky, anthers 

37-^ five, slender p. 512. LORANTHACE^E. 

L Herbs, shrubs or trees rooting in the ground .... 38 

f Leaves alternate 39 

3^ \Leaves opposite . . (See also 2) 41 

fFruit one-seeded : trees with many stamens ; leaves 

39 J usually toothed p. 380. SYMPLOCOS. 

L Fruit with many seeds 40 

'"Stigma unbranched : stamens ten, opening by holes, 
horned : tree or shrub . . p. 363. VACCINIACE^. 
Stigmas three, climber, leaves angular rough : stamens 
4^ three, S-shaped, or five straight, p. 241. CUCURBITACE/E. 
Herbs, small or tall : sitgmas two or three : flowers bell- 
shaped or two-lipped . . p. 358. CAMPANULACE^E. 

Stamens three : fruit with feathery hairs. Herbs . . . 

p. 295. VALERIANACE-flE, 

Stamens four or five : leaf-stalks at least when young con- 
nected by united stipules . . . p. 268. RUBiACE-flS. 
Stamens five ; leaves of a pair connected by a line only, 
^ no stipules p. 262. CAPRIFOLIACE/E. 

Monopetah with superior ovary. 

/-Stamens united round and to the stigma : carpels and 
J styles inside, two, distinct ; fruit of two follicles : leaves 

I Opposite p. 393. ASCLEPIADACE^E. 

LStamens distinct 43 

r Stamens five equal in number to the corolla lobes . . 45 

J Stamens eight or ten double the corolla lobes ... 44 

** j Stamens four or two usually fewer than the corolla lobes. 52 

^Stamens many 47 



44 



KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA XXV 

Stamens eight : succulent herbs with thick leaves, and 
yellow, four-petalled flowers. p. 206. CRASSULACE./E. 
Stamens ten : anthers opening by terminal pores : leaves 

hard />. 365. ERICACE/E. 

^Stamens eight to sixteen, trees 47 

f Stamens on the corolla, opposite its lobes : ovary one- 

45 < celled 46 

[^Stamens between the corolla lobes 48 

C Herbs : flowers yellow or pink : seeds many on central 

46 < placentum />. 368. PRIMULACE^. 

LTrees or shrubs : seed one only . p. 372. MYRSINE^E. 
/Stamens five or eight,staminodes 5 or o.p. 376.SAPOTACE^E. 
\Stamenssixteen p. 379. DIOSPYROS. 

{Leaves radical : flowers in a spike terminating a leafless 
stem : capsule opening across . p. 484. PLANTAGO. 
Leaves alternate at least the lower 49 
All leaves opposite 51 

fTwining plants : corolla folded inwards and twisted in 

49 < bud p. 414. CONVOLVULACE^:. 

LErect shrubs, trees or herbs 50 

Rough herb : flowers in a double row, on one side of 

a curled spike p. 412. BORAGINACE^:. 

Upper leaves often in unequal pairs : anthers opening by 
terminal pores : seeds flat. p. 416. SOLANACE^:. 
..Small tree : flower white ..../>. 107. GOMPHANDRA. 
Shrub with milky juice : corolla twisted in bud . . . . 

p. 392. APOCYNACE^E. 

5! J Climber or tree, no milky juice . . p. 404. LOGANIACE^E. 
Erect herbs : leaves three to seven-nerved : capsule incom- 
pletely two-celled ..../>. 406. GENTIANACE^. 

/Leaves opposite 53 

\Leaves radical : or upper at least alternate . . . . 56 
fCorolla regular, twisted or valvate in bud, stamens 

53 < two : fruit fleshy p. 384. OLEACE/E. 

LCorolla-lobes imbricate in bud 54 

f Fruit of four (dry) nutlets : flowers usually in dense 

J whorls : scented herbs .... p. 462. LABIATE. 

54^ Fruit fleshy or of two parts : flowers in spikes or open 

panicles /> 459- VERBENACE/E. 

LFruit a capsule with few or many seeds 55 

C 



XXVI KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA 

"Nodes swollen : bracts in spike conspicuous : capsule 
oblong : seeds on springy stalks. />. 441. ACANTHACE^E. 



55 



Capsule long and slender : leaves thick. 



p. 439. ^SCHYNANTHUS. 

^Capsule short 56 

Small marsh plants with submerged, finely divided leaves, 
often bearing bladders : flowers few with sharp spur . . 

p. 436. UTRICULARIA. 

Green plants : capsule globose or oblong : seeds not on 

hard stalks : bracts not conspicuous 57 

.Brownish plants : no real leaves, p. 434. OROBANCHACE^. 

{Ovary and capsule completely divided 
p. 424. SCROPHULARIACE^:. 
Capsule one-celled, the seeds on large placentas intruded 
from the walls p. 439. GESNERACE^:. 

Petal-less or sepal- less flowers. 

(The following are a mixed lot, containing families with only 
one perianth whorl and petal-less genera and species from 
families which have normally complete flowers. For flowers 
with conspicuous coloured sepals but no petals see Nos. 2 
and i.) 

1 Flower ' apparently consisting of a four or five-lobed cup 
enclosing numerous stamens (male flowers), and a soli- 
tary stalked, three-lobed ovary (female flower). Herbs 

with milky juice p. 526. EUPHORBIA. 

Flowers unisexual in a short thick spike with bracts below : 
male perianth red, lobed 1 inch : stamens united ; 
, female without perianth. Thick warty leafless plant 
5 ) parasitic on the roots of trees, p. 523. BALANOPHORA. 
Stamens two, ovary one celled ; seed hairy : tree. p. 553. 

SALIX. 
Stamens three to five, or opposite to the sepals. . . 59. 

Stamens six to twelve 68 

^Stamens numerous ...... .... 71 

f Ovary inferior .... 60 

\Ovary superior 64 

{Land plants 61 
Parasites on trees 62 
Water plants. Stem and leaves indistinguishable : flower 
and fruit on exposed rocks, p. 497. PODOSTEMACE./E. 



KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA XXV11 

f Leaves roundish, longstalked, folded fanwise 

I p. 198. ALCHEMILLA. 

6* ^ Leaves usually toothed nearly sessile, often red .... 

^ p. 212. SERPICULA. 

{Stems leafless, jointed green, sepals 3 
p. 518. KORTIIASELLA. 
Stems leafy. Sepals usually . p. 519. VISCUM. 
Shrub often straggling or spiny : all parts covered with flat 
glistening scales p. 511. EL^EAGNUS. 



63 



Shrub often straggling or spiny but no glistening scales 



p. 117. ZIZYPHUS. 

w Not spiny p. 521. SANTALACE^E. 

f Ovary one-celled 65 

64 J Ovary two-celled but fruit one-seeded. Trees. . . 67 

] Ovary three-celled, fruit capsule 

^ p. 524. EUPHORBIACE^E. 

fFlowers in spikes or spike like panicles 66 

65 < Flowers in loose cymose inflorescence, stamens reversed 

L in bud p. 543. URTICACE^E. 

, , /Flowers spiny, deflexed . . p. 486. AMARANTACE^. 
\Flowers green. Scented herb. p. 488. CHENOPODIACE^E. 

Fruit dry p. 537. ULMACEJE. 

Fruit a drupe p. 524. EUPHORBIACE^. 

Trees 69 

Shrubs, anthers large. Capsule three-angled .... 

p. 128. DODON^A. 

Herb or shrubby. Stipule tubular. Seed erect. . . 

p. 490. POLYGONACE^E. 

Water plant. Flower small in spikes, carpels distinct, 
Appendix p. 684. APONOGETON. 

f Flowers in spikes 70 

q i Flowers fascicled. Seed with coloured aril 

I p. 238. CASEARIA. 

(^Flowers in a wooly head (see 2). p. 510. LASIOSIPHON. 

{Stamens ten straight . . . . p. 214. TERMINALLY. 
Stamens twelve weak. Fruit two-lobed p. 189. PYGEUM. 
Stamens in 3 or 4 circles, anthers opening by flaps . . . 
p. 501. LAURACE^B. 
D 



68 



XXV111 KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA 

Herb. Carpels many separate . p. 5. THALICTRUM. 
Shiub. Carpels many separate but fleshy in fruit . . 

p. 489. PHYTOLACCA. 

Trees 72 



7 1 



Climber with stamens in axils of ring-bracts 

P' 554- GNETUM. 

/Leaves alternate, flowers unisexual 73 

\Leaves opposite p. 215. MYRTACE^E. 

f Female flower with imbricating scales at the base which 
I in fruit becomes a cup holding the nut (acorn) . . . 

73 *S p. 553. QUERCUS. 

(^ Fruit dry or fleshy ..../>. 524. EUPHORBIACE^E. 

"Flowers in a thick spike enclosed in a spathe : leaves large 

radical p. 622. ARACE/E. 

Flowers in slender spikes : climbers with alternate three- 
, nerved leaves or epiphytes with leaves in fours . . . 

74 \ p. 498. PIPERACE^E. 

Flower consisting of two or more stamens and an ovary 
only in the axil of a small bract, arranged in spikes . 

75 

/Leaves narrow finely toothed . . . p. 553. SALIX. 
\Leavesentire p. 553. QUERCUS. 



Sepals three, petals three, stamens usually three or six. 

Stamens and style united into one column : one petal 
(usually the front one) larger, often spurred or saccate : 
seeds minute. Perennial herbs, on the ground or on 

f j trees p. 556. ORCHIDACE^E. 

' * Anthers five, connected round the stigma, but free of it : 
hind petal hooded, two front petals bifid : front sepal 
spurred or saccate. Herbs . . p. 78. BALSAMINE./E. 
w Other herbs, shrubs and trees 77 

Anther one only, large ; style passing between its lobes : 
ovary inferior p. 597. ZINGIBERACE^E. 



77 



Slender twining plant with ovate peltate leaves : fruits 
crescent-shaped . . . . p. n. MENISPERMACE^. 

Stamens three, six, nine or twlve. Trees, shrubs and 
herbs 78 



8o 



KEY TO FAMILIES AND ABNORMAL GENERA XXIX 

C Anthers opening by lateral holes, covered by flaps : stamens 

y8< six to twelve 79 

L Anthers opening by slits : stamens three to six . . 80 
79 /Stamens all fertile. Fruit fleshy p. 14. BERBERIDACEJE. 
\Somestamenssterile; fruit dry . p. 501. LAURACE^. 
Flowers in cymes or clustered fruit : J inch drupe or 
splitting into one-seeded parts : leaves pinnately veined. 

p. 524. EUPIIORBIACE^E. 

Fruit a capsule, herbs : leaves absent or veined from the 

base 81 

.Stamens three : small creeping herb p. 45. ELATINEJE. 

Monocotyledons with three to six stamens. 

f Ovary inferior 84 

\Ovary superior - . 82 

'Stem and branches green, needle-like and thorny : 
flowers white : fruit j- inch berry, p. 608. ASPARAGUS. 
Green stem and narrow roundish leaves almost indistin- 
guishable : flowers scarious : fruit dry 

p. 619. JUNCACEJE. 



82 <{ 



Flowers in a small cone on a leafless stem : basal leaves 



narrow, ribbed : petals three, bright yellow .... 

p. 613. XYRIS. 

^ Leafy herbs 83 

rPetals three, connected at the base, distinct from the 

\ sepals : usually blue . . p. 613. coMMELiNACE-flE. 

1 | Petals and sepals usually both white, never blue . . . 

L p. 604. LILIACE^E. 

f Small often leafless marsh plant ; perianth surrounding the 
I ovary with three twisted wings . p. 555. BURMANNIA, 

84 j Large climber. Leaves ovate : fruit three-winged . . . 

I p. 604. DIOSCOREA. 

(^Ground herbs with narrow leaves 85 

f Flowers solitary or umbelled, in the axil of a spathe on a 

85 < leafless stem . . p. 600. AMARYLLIDACE^E. 

L Flowers racemed p. 600. OPHIOPOGON. 

fStems triangular : sheathing base of leaf not split . . . 

86 < />. 631. CYPERACE/E. 

LStem roundish : sheath split, a flap or line of hairs at 
junction between sheath and blade p. 650. GRAMINE^E. 



THE FLORA OF THE SOUTH 
INDIAN HILL STATIONS. 



RANUNCULACE^:. 

THE predominant feature of the flower of this family 
is the spiral arrangement on a Convex centre (torus) of 
the numerous stamens and carpels, the latter being quite 
free of each other even in fruit. The flowers may be 
solitary at the ends of the branches, or in cymes, or 
occasionally in racemes, and are usually showy. Often 
there is no marked difference between the sepals and 
petals, the former being coloured ; and in some genera 
there are no petals, the sepals supplying all the colour, 
as in Clematis and Anemone. The plants are mostly 
perennial herbs with stout rootstocks and alternate, 
mostly radical, leaves which are often characterized by 
a sheathing base to the stalk and irregularly parallel or 
palmate venation ; but Clematis is an exception. Among 
garden plants are various species of Anemone (including 
the Hepaticas), Clematis, Monk's Hood, Larkspur, Poeony, 
and Columbine. 

The family consists of 70 genera and about 700 species, 
nearly all in the northern temperate regions, or (a few only) 
on high mountains in the tropics and south temperate. One 
species, however, Naravelia zeylanica, DC, allied to Clematis, 
grows in Madras. With the exception of these two genera 
there are only three rare species between the southern high 
lands of the Western Ghauts and the Himalayas : even on the 
hills of Mysore, Bombay, or the United Provinces, 



2 RANUNCULACEJE 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Climbing plants with opposite compound leaves and the 
achenes (carpels in fruit) ovate and tailed. No petals. 
Sepals four, white or coloured. (Travellers' Joy). CLEMATIS. 

Similar to CLEMATIS but petals narrow green, sepals shorter, 
achenes narrow NARAVELIA. 

Ground herbs. Stem with two or three leafy bracts a few 
inches below the flowers. Achenes longer than broad and 
beaked. No petals ANEMONE. 

Ground herbs. No involucre of leaves below the flower. 
Achenes not much longer than broad. Sepals and petals. 
(Buttercup) RANUNCULUS. 

Tall well-branched herbs with smooth slender stem and leaves 
like (Maiden Hair). No petals. Sepals soon falling and 
leaving only a fluffy ball of white stamens. . THALICTRUM. 



CLEMATIS. F.B.I, i i. 

Travellers' Joy, etc. 

Thin stemmed woody plants climbing by leaf-stalks 
coiling round the support. Leaves opposite, pinnately 
or ternately compound. Flowers axillary or terminal, 
solitary or panicled, without bracts and without petals, 
but with sepals (usually 4), often highly coloured and large. 
Carpels many, one-ovuled, ripening into achenes (contain- 
ing only one seed and not opening) with long feathery 
tails. 

Species about 180, almost all over the temperate and, less 
commonly, tropical regions of the world. 

Named after the Greek, from the word KLEEMA (a climber), but the 
Greek name KLEEMATIS was given to other climbers as well. 

In Europe the commonest wild species is C. vitalba Linn.; Eng. 
Travellers* Joy, Old Man's Beard, or Virgin's Bower ; Ger. Waldrebe ; Fr. 
Consolation, Vigne blanche, Berceau de la tres-sainte Vierge ; which 
flowers in the autumn. Several others are grown in gardens. 



RANUNCULACE/E 3 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Leaflets very hairy. Flowers 2 inches, cream or pale 
a< yellow, t* 1 C. Wightiana. 

I Leaflets smooth or nearly so b 

fFlrs. many, small, white ; leaflets 3 or more. C. Gouriana. 
b< Firs, usually 3, nodding, brown on back. C. Munroana. 

L Flower solitary, red inside, hairy . . . C. theobromina. 

Clematis Wightiana Wallich Cat. 4674 / ; F.B.I. 
i 5, I 15 ; a woody climber with opposite pinnate leaves 
compounded of three to five softly hairy leaflets, and 
axillary panicles of cream-coloured flowers. Leaflets 
ovate, lobed or cut into rounded teeth with short points, 
hairy on both sides, densely so on the lower ; veins 
conspicuous. Panicles of flowers up to 12 inches or more ; 
buds globular, of strongly veined sepals ; flowers when 
fully open 2 inches across. Sepals four, yellow or cream- 
coloured above, pale or yellowish green on the back. 
Stamens hairy below the middle. Fruiting carpels with 
long grey fluffy tails, t 1. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 30 ; Ic. t. 955. 

On thickets and small trees on the edges of sholas. Nilgiris : 
near Ootacamund, flowering November-February ; Avalanche. 
Pulneys : below Kodaikanal. Shevaroys common. 

Gen. Dist. Higher levels of the Western Ghauts, Mahabaleshwar 
(Dalzell !). Nearest ally appears to be C. sinensis of Ceylon. 

Clematis Munroana Wight ; F.B. I. i 3, under C. 
smilacifolia Wall. ; I 6 ; a climber with three glabrous, 
ovate-acute, entire leaflets, and large white nodding 
flowers which are velvety brown outside, in stalked 
cymes of three. Connective of stamens continued beyond 
anthers, filaments narrow. 

Coonoor on Lamb's Rock, Shemboganur and similar levels. 

Gen. Dist. Coorg, Anamalais, etc. (G.F.M.P.). 

C. smilacifolia Wall belongs to Ganjam and Kanara. 
I-A 



4 RANUNCULACE/E 

Clematis theobromina Dunn ; Kew Bull. 1914. 
p. 181. Leaflets up to 5 inches. Flowers hairy, brown 
on backs, red inside. Filaments as broad as the anthers. 
Connective not produced. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Neduvattam (March-September). 

Clematis gouriana Roxb ; F.B. 7. i 4, 1 9 : Distin- 
guished from others of our species by its numerous small 
white flowers, and sepals not brown on backs. Leaflets 
3 or more, glossy on upper side, with veins prominent on 
the lower. 

Nilgiris : on the Eastern plateau, Kodanad to below 
Coonoor. Shevaroys on upper plateau. 

Gen. Dist. All hilly districts. Ceylon, Java, Philippines. Closely 
resembles C. vitalba (' Travellers' Joy ' of Europe \ 

NARAVELIA. F.B.I, n. 

A very small genus, like CLEMATIS in growth, but with 
small greenish flowers. 

Naravelia zeylanica DC. ; F.B.I. 16, II. i. Leaves 
ovate, toothed or entire, nearly glabrous, and with pro- 
minent network of berries raised on the lower side when 
dry. Flowers numerous in compound panicles, petals 
cylindrical, | inch or more green. Ripe achene about 
| inch long, tail 1 1- inches; feathery. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud ; Horsleykonda and at lower 

levels in nearly all districts. 

<t 

ANEMONE. F.B.I, i in. 

Perennial herbs with an involucre of two or three leafy 

bracts a little below the flowers ; white or coloured sepals 

but no petals ; and numerous one-ovuled carpels ripening 

into achenes with hardened, hook-like style. 



RANUNCULAC&SE $ 

Species about 90 in temperate regions and mountains of 
the tropics ; a few only in South America, South Africa, and 
Australia. 

Named from the Greek, ANEMOS, wind, because most European species 
grow in windy places or* flower at a windy time of the year, spring. 

Anemone rivularis Hamilton ; F.B.I, i 9, III 10, 
common wild Anemone : a perennial herb with well- 
branched stem ; leaves divided into three, and those of 
the flowering stems into narrow-toothed segments ; and 
large white flowers ; purplish outside. Carpels with 
short-hooked style, in fruit J to -| inch, each with one 
seed. t. 2, Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 4, Ic. t. 936. (A. 
Wightiana.) 

Everywhere on the upper levels, luxuriant in damp places, 
dwarfed in dry. Nilgiris : all over the plateau. Pulneys : in 
and above Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dtst. Higher mountains of India 5,000 to 13,000 feet on the 
Sikkim Himalayas and 16,000 at Samlung (J. D. H. leaves nearly 
glabrous). In North Indian specimens the segments of the bracts are 
often broader, and near Simla is a form with umbelled flowers. 

THALICTRUM* F.B.I, i iv. 

Meadow Rue, etc. 

Herbs with perennial rootstock, ternately multi- 
compound leaves, and racemes or panicles of yellow, 
purple, or white flowers, usually small but with numerous 
conspicuous stamens, numerous one-ovuled carpels ripen- 
ing into ribbed achenes, imbricate sepals, and no petals. 
Differs from Anemone in having no involucre of leaves 
whorled just below the flowers. 

Species about 76 almost all over the world outside tropical 
climates, more especially in Europe, Asia and America. In 
India only on the higher mountains where the climate is 
temperate. 

Name from the Greek, THALLOS, green, because of the bright green of 
the young shoots. 



RANUNCULACE^E 

Thalictrutn j a van i cum Blume ; F.B.I. i 13, IV 16 
(T. glyphocarpum W. & A. !) ; distinguished by its 
maiden-hair-fern foliage, and tall well-branched smooth 
stem ending in a loose panicle of fluffy balls of white 
stamens. Stem and branches slender, grooved, glabrous. 
Flowers \ inch across. Sepals soon falling. No petals. 
Stamens white, thickened upwards ; anthers not pointed. 
Achenes J to -/. inch with short, curved beak. t. 3. Wight 
Ic. t. 48, ex. stamens. 

In damp places. Pulneys : in Kodaikanal in the swamp 
near Tinnevelly settlement, flowering summer. Nilgiris : 
on Dodabetta. Not on the Bombay Ghauts, north of the 
Nilgiris. 

Gen. Dist. Anamalais, Ceylon, Sikkirn, Simla and Khasia, Thibet and 
Java. As grown here the leaves are rather larger than those from Java. 



RANUNCULUS. F.B.I, i vn. 

Buttercup, etc. 

Annual or perennial herbs with mostly radical leaves 
whose petiole has a distinct sheathing base ; and blade 
usually, but not always divided more or less completely 
into three wedge-shaped segments which again have teeth 
of various depths. Stem leaves small and less divided. 
Flowers solitary or panicled at the ends of the stem and 
leaf-opposed branches. Petals in all our species yellow, 
glossy, with a small pocket containing honey at the base ; 
Stamens numerous. Carpels many, one-seeded ; in 
fruit forming a globular head, and differing in the various 
species as regards thickness and surface markings. 

A large genus of 1 60 species, scattered all over the world in 
temperate climates (in the tropics on mountains). In Britain 
there are fifteen species, known popularly as Buttercup, Celan- 
dine, Pilewort, Spearwort, Water- crowfoot, etc. India has 



RANUNCULACE/E 7 

about twenty-one species, all but three on the Himalayas ; and 
none of our three indigenous species occurs north of the 
Nilgiris. 

Named after the Latin RANA, a frog, because several species grow in or 
near water. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves not deeply cut ; flowers a rich yellow. R. reniformis. 
Leaves deeply cut but not to the base of the blade, carpels, 

covered with hooked spines R. muricatus. 

Leaves compound or cut to the base into three to five segments, 
which are again cut and toothed : 

Tufted plant ; sepals not reflexed. * * * R. subpinnatus. 
Diffuse plant ; sepals reflexed . * * R. Wallichianus. 

Ranunculus reniformis Wallich 4709 / ; F.B.I, i i6 f 
VII 4. Perennial herb, stem mottled red and green. 
Ground leaves rather thick, kidney-shaped or broadly 
ovate, crenate with red margin and white tips to the teeth, 
glabrous : Flowers yellow glossy. Petals variable in 
number. Achenes small massed into a compact nearly 
globular head, t, 4. Wight Ic. t. 75 ; 111. t. 2. 

In damp spots on the open downs, quite common. Pulneys : 
above and round Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : all over the plateau. 

Gen. Dist. On the mountains of South India only. Its nearest ally 
appears to be R. sagittifohus Hook, of Ceylon which differs in the much 
more cordate base of the leaf ; and it links that species with R. lingua L. 
(Eng. Great Spearwort ; Fr. Douve ; Ger. Yungen Hahenfuss) which 
occurs in Kashmir and the Western Himalayas. 

Ranunculus subpinnatus Wight and Arnott ; Herb. 
Wight Prop. ! ; F.B.I. i 19, included in R. diffusus DC., 
VII 15 ; an erect, tufted, glossy plant with large yellow 
flowers. Roots thick, white. Leaf blade divided into three 
or five distinct leaflets, glossy and sometimes almost 
glabrous on the upper side, often densely pilose below ; 
each divided more or less completely into three wedge- 
shaped segments, themselves cut and toothed, the ultimate 



8 RANUNCULACE^E 

teeth with hardened tips pointing rather outwards. 
Flowering stems a foot high, hairy ; the lower leaves 
like the radical ones ; the upper smaller and with only 
three leaflets ; branches a to 4 inches, spreading. 
Flowers yellow i to i inch, petals round with numerous 
parallel veins. Sepals not reflexed. Achenes not as 
thick as broad, with distinct margin and finely pitted 
centre, t, 5* Wight Ic. t. 49. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund flowering July. Pulneys : Kodai- 
kanal, May- September. A rather more delicate plant than 
the Ootacamund one. 

The species was included in* the F.B.I, under R. diffusus DC., 
a species founded on a Nepal plant of Wallich's. I have not seen De 
Candolle's type sheet, but Wallich's K. diffusus DC. in Herb, Hook at Kew, 
is clearly a diffuse plant rooting at the nod^s and with small, apparently 
white, flowers on leaf-opposed peduncles, in habit therefore much more 
like R. Walhchianus W. <t' A. Wight's R. subpinnatus W . cO A. collected 
on the Nilgiris is a sturdier plant, not rooting at the nodes. I have, there- 
fore, retained Wight and Arnott's name. 

Ranunculus Wallichianus Wight and Arnott ; Wight 
Herb. Prop. ! ; F.B.I, i 20, VII 19 ; common Buttercup. A 
gregarious herb spreading by runners, with soft not 
glossy leaves, and small flowers. Roots thin and fibrous. 
Radical leaves digitate ly trifoliate, not glossy above, 
light green below, sparingly hairy on both sides and 
soft to the feel ; leaflets deeply cut into three segments 
which are again cut and toothed, the teeth pointing 
forwards rather than outwards and not ending in firm 
points. Flowering stems 3 to 4 inches only, their lower 
leaves three-fid but upper entire. Pedicels J to i inch. 
Sepals reflexed. Corolla - inch yellow. Achenes orange- 
tipped, with distinct margin and few and conspicuous 
warts on the sides. 

Distinguished from R. subpinnatus. W. <k A. by 
the diffuse habit, softer leaves, smaller flowers, reflexed 



9 

sepals, and shorter pedicels, t 6. Wight Sp. Nilg. 
t. 5, Ic. t. 937. 

In cool shady spots, very common, in and about both 
Ootacamund and Kodaikanal, and all over the two plateaus. In 
damp places succulent. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India and Ceylon. Allied to R. arvensis 
(Eng. Corn Celandine ; Fr. Ren depres) and also to the next species. 

Ranunculus muricatus Linn. ; F.B.I, i 20, VII 20 ; 
distinguished by its deeply slit broad leaves and by the 
conspicuous spines on the comparatively large and flat 
achenes. A much larger plant than the two preceding, 
running to 2 feet in height. Radical leaves long stalked ; 
blades roundish cut to below the middle, but not to the 
base, into three lobes which are again cut in three or 
more teeth. Flowers terminal and leaf-opposed ; pedicels 
| to i inch. Achenes 1 to inch, with strong margin, 
hard curved beak, and spines perhaps $ l $ inch long on 
the flat sides, t* 7* 

In gardens and under hedges in Ootacamund, and in some 
sholas ; not indigenous. 

Gen. Dist. A weed of cultivation, native of temperate America and 
Europe, but not England. 



MAGNOLIACE^E. F.B.I. 3. 

The Magnolieae (the greater number of the family) 
are trees with alternate simple leaves and large hood-like 
stipules which cover the buds and are pushed off as each 
expands, leaving scars round the axis. (The only other 
trees with such' stipules are' the Figs or Banyans and 
their allies, but they are quite different and are distin- 
guished further by having a glutinous milk-white juice.) 
The flowers are large, of nine, twelve or fifteen sepals 



10 MAGNOLIACE/E 

and petals ; numerous slender stamens ; and a number of 
carpels arranged spirally on a convex or tall centre. This 
central torus may grow enormously and become a stalk 
3 to 4 inches long, on which the carpels, now inch or 
more thick, look very much like the separate fruits of as 
many distinct flowers. 

The family is a comparatively small one of about ten genera 
and seventy species, and has its home in the Atlantic States 
of America from Virginia to Lousiana and again in Japan and 
Eastern Siberia extending across China to the Himalayas. 
There appears to be only one species native to these hill-tops, 
but the American Tulip-tree or Lyre-tree, LIRIODENDRON, has 
been planted near Lovedale, 



Named MAGNOLIA in honour of Pierre Magnol, a Professor of 
cine at Montpellier (b. 1638). The anomalous genera outside the tribe 
MAGNOLIE^E are by some placed in another family. 



MICHELIA, F.B.I. 3 vi. 

Flowers large and bisexual ; anthers opening inwards ; 
torus stalked below the carpels (distinction from MAGNOLIA); 
ripe carpels opening widely to let out the seeds. Species 
sixteen, all on the tropical mountains of Asia (India, 
Malaya, China). 

Named in honour of Antonio Mitheli, a Botanist of Florence. 

Michelia nilagirica Zenk. ; F.B.L i 44, VI 8. Tree 
at a distance rather pale green devoid of shadows. Bran- 
ches white ; twigs erect ; buds long, silky, leaves elliptic, 
acuminate, entire, hard, glabrous and shiny, flat and 
drooping. Flowers white or a pale cream colour, easily 
crushed and quickly fading. Stamens with very short 
swollen bases and slender |-inch anthers with small tips. 
Fruiting torus erect, 3 to 4 inches ; carpels covered with 
white warts and opening by a slit beginning on the outer 



MENISPERMACE/E 1 1 

side. Seeds two, red, the outer coat * soft with a mango 
smell, inner hard ; completely filling the carpel ; funicle 
at first remarkably elastic. Wood yellow, valuable. 
t. 8. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 6 ; Ic. t. 938 ; 111. t. 5 (ex. 
carpels fruit and colour of flower). 

In sholas, very common. Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Kotagiri, 
Avalanche, etc. Pulneys : Kodaikanal and above. Anamalais. 
Not apparently below 5,000 feet. 

With reference to the distribution of the seeds, see note on Ternstrcemia 
japonica Thunb., p. 53. 

Michelia Champaca Linn. ; F.B.I, i 42, VI 2 ; a 
tall tree with leaves 6 to 10 inches long, tapering to a long 
point, and fragrant yellow or orange flowers is occasionally 
found in gardens, e.g., Trewin near the bund at 
Kodaikanal, and ' Bear's Cave ' Garden on the Sheva- 
roys ; but belongs to lower levels. 

MENISPERMACE^. F.B.I. 5. 

A family of slender twining plants with alternate 
leaves usually attached to the stalks inside the margin, 
small unisexual, dioecious, greenish flowers in axillary 
umbels and fleshy fruit with its stone and enclosed embryo 
curved into a horse-shoe or crescent shape. The parts 
of the flower are usually in sixes, except that there may be 
only one carpel, or in some species as many as twelve. 
The umbels of small flowers and the curved stone are the 
most characteristic features ; the latter gives the name to 

the family (menis the crescent moon, sperma = a seed). 


Genera 58. Species 200 ; in the warmer parts of the world. 

As the plants are unisexual (flowers dioecious) they are often very 
difficult to determine. STEPHANIA is the only genus commonly found in 
our area, but others occur on the outskirts of it. 



MENISPEfcMACE^E 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Stamens free, or drupes i inch. Panicles large 

drooping DIPLOCLISIA. 

a ^ Stamens united, anthers on rim of stalked disc 

or drupes ovoid b 

"Leaves peltate, smooth : flower-heads umbelled 

STEPHANIA. 

ft . i j Leaves peltate, hairy ; flowers in panicles . . 

CYCLEA. 

Leaves cordate or kidney-shaped : sepals 4 
spreading CISSAMPELOS. 

DIPLOCLISIA. 

Climbing plants with large drooping panicles, free 
stamens, globose anthers, a curved ovate seed, and coty- 
ledons lying close against each other. 

Species about 5 only, in tropical Himalaya and here. 

Closely allied to COCCULUS (F.B.L 5 X) but separated because of the 
drooping panicles and the centre of the endocarp reduced to a thm flat 
septum. 

Diploclisia glaucescens Diels. ; F.B.L as Cocculus 
macrocarpus W. & A., iioi, Xi. A large climber, 
leaves round or broader than long, 5-nerved, glaucous 
beneath, 2 to 4 inches across, shorter than their stalks ; 
flowers yellow ; drupes reddish, obovoid i in. long. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys in forests, up to 6,000 feet. (G.F. 
M.P.) 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 

STEPHANIA. F.B.I. 5 xn. 

Leaves peltate, sepals six to ten ; petals three to five 
shorter ; stamens connected together as a column in the 
centre of the flower with a broad top along the edges of 
which the anthers open by horizontal slits ; carpel one 



MENISPERMACE/E 13 

only with three-partite style ; stone of fruit tubercled 
along the back, hollowed at the sides. 

Species about 30, in Asia, Africa and South Australia. 

Stephania japonica Myers. ; formerly S. hernandi- 
folia. F.B.I. i 103, XII i. A twining plant thin and 
tender, or nearly J inch thick and woody, with heart- 
shaped leaves attached inside the margin, and small 
heads, not J inch across, of minute flowers, in stalked 
umbels of three to five heads. Distinguished at once by 
these characteristics from all our plants. Whole plant 
glabrous. Leaves and flowers on young shoots terminal 
and on the woody stems. 

Blade usually i| by i^ inches but up to 6 inches 
diameter (F.B.I.) broadly ovate, or triangular with the 
basal corners round, and veins radiating from the point of 
attachment. Stalks of umbels i inch, but variable ; 
stalks of the heads o to ] inch, in the axils of small narrow 
bracts. Male flowers numerous, ^ inch across or slightly 
more when fully expanded. Sepals six or eight, in two 
series, oblong. Petals opposite the outer sepals, about 
half as long, thick and concave. Staminal column ^ 
inch high, expanded at the top round which the anthers 
open all in one line, horizontally. Ovary flowers similar, 
with one carpel only. Fruit a red glabrous drupe 1 to 
J inch ; the stone inside horse-shoe shaped with tubercled 
ridges along the back and hollow sides. Seed inside 
annular with longitudinal cotyledons, t* 9. Wight Ic. 
t. 939. Sp. Nilg. t. 7 (Clyphea). 

A lowland plant reaching the lower limits of our Nilgiri 
plateau, e.g., Kotagiri, Wellington. Very occasionally at the 
highest levels, e.g., on the exposed top of hill north of 
Vengadu, on the edge of the plateau at 7,200 feet. Sheva- 
roys, Yercaud, 



14 BERBERIDACE^E 

CYCLEA* 

Very similar to STEPHANIA but our species distinguished 
by its narrow and hairy leaves. 

Cyclca Arnotti Mien.; F.B.L i. 104 as C. peltata 
Hf. & T. occurs near Yercaud. 

Western Ghauts to Tinnevelly. 

CISSAMPELOS. 

A small genus of one or two species only. 

C* Pareira Linn. ; F.BJ. i 103, V 13. Leaves hairy 
underneath broadly cordate ; the basal sinus much 
rounded : Flowers greenish in stalked cymose umbels. 
Drupe scarlet. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud : and down to the plains in all 
districts. 

BERBERIDACE^. F.B.I. 6. 

BKRBERIS and MAHONIA the only genera here, as in 
Europe, of this family are distinguished by their yellow 
globular flowers, of rounded sepals and petals in four 
circles of three each ; the six stamens, their anther lobes 
opening, not by slits as in nearly all other families but by 
large lateral flaps ; and the ovary of one carpel only, 
which in fruit becomes fleshy and has one or more seeds. 

The family is almost confined to the north temperate regions 
of Asia and America, being absent from Africa, south of 
Algeria, Australia, and the Pacific islands, and from all but the 
highest mountains of South America. There are forty-nine 
genera, and some 140 species in the tribe Berber ece, and most 
of these occur on the Pacific coasts of North America and 
Northern Asia. 

In Europe the best known species of Berberis is B. vulgaris L., the 
common Barberry or Pipperidge, a hedge-row shrub, which was much 



BERBERIDACEJE 15 

commoner before the discovery that it harboured the rust-disease of wheat. 
But several introduced species are common in gardens, as also of Mahonia. 

Berberis is from an old Arabic name. 
Leaves simple, in bunches just above a three-pronged spine. 

The common Barberry, etc BERBERIS. 

Leaves pinnate, radiating usually from the top of the stem ; 

leaflets prickly like Holly MAHONIA. 

BERBERIS. F.B.I. 6 i. 

Berberis tinctoria Leschenault ; F.B.I. i no, 
included in B. aristata DC. ; IV 4 ; common Nilgiri 
Barberry. A shrub, but very variable in size and form ; 
in the open often only 2 or 3 feet high, but in a shola 
sometimes reaching 15 feet with stem as thick as one's 
arm and long scandent branches bearing numerous slender 
leafy twigs ; wood very tough, bright yellow in colour. 
Leafy twigs green or purple, grooved and angular, studded 
with triple spines in the axils of which are tufts of leaves. 
Leaves when young purplish, obovate, entire or with a 
few spiny teeth, glabrous, i to 2| inches. Racemes of 
flowers drooping, sometimes branched ; pedicels slender, 
red ^-inch ; petals notched. Berry sausage-shaped when 
young, eventually top-shaped, ; \- by <l inch, purplish red, 
turning to a dark-blue with glaucous bloom, with the dry 
style and large round stigma still attached. t, 10* 
Wight 111. t. 8. 

Distinguished from B. aristata DC. by the slender drooping pedicels 
and the shape of the fruit. 

By roadsides, on the edges of and inside sholas ; quite 
common. Nilgiris : 'Ootacarmind, Pykara, Kotagiri. Pulneys : 
Kodaikanal downs. 

Schneider in Bull : de L'Herbier Boissier, Ser. 2. 5. 1905, p. 432 divides 
the Nilgiri specimens into three species, B. tinctoria, B. wightiana, and 
B. ceylanica, by the colour and surface of the under side of the leaves, the 
hairiness of the twigs, and the inflorescence. I am not, however, able to 
distinguish these, nor does Gamble in G.F.M.P. 



1 6 BERBERIDACE^: 

MAHONIA. 

Differs from Berberis in its pinnate leaves. 
Species about 20. 

Mahonia Leschcnaultii Take da (Berberis Leschen- 
aultii Wallich Cat. 1479 !) F.B.L i 109 included in B. 
nepalensis Spr. y IV i ; the Holly-leaf Barberry. Stem 
slender or stout, sometimes almost a tree with rough, 
greyish-brown, corky bark ; branches slender. Leaves 
in circles at the ends of the branches, 6 to 18 inches long, 
pinnate with two filiform stipules, /. to J inch. Leaflets 
five to twenty-five in pairs, with one terminal, increasing 
in size towards the end and in shape from polygonal 
dose to the base (like a pair of large stipules) to ovate at 
the outer end, lobed and spiny. Flowers in dense, erect 
racemes or spikes, 5 to 7 inches long. Bracts triangular- 
acute, conspicuous. Sepals spreading. Petals erect, 
notched. Fruit globular, the size of a pea, containing 
four or five seeds attached rather to one side of the base ; 
stalk slender, t* 11. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 8, Ic. t. 940. 

Distinguished from the Himalayan M. nepalensis, Spr. by the more 
globular fruit and more slender pedicels. 

On the outskirts of sholas, at high elevations very common. 
Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Pykara. Pulneys : Kodaikanal downs. 
Shevaroys doubtfully indigenous. 

The arrangements for cross-fertilization appear to be the 
same in both species and exactly as in the common Barberry of 
England. Honey is secreted by nectaries at the base of the 
stamens, and is partially protected from rain by the concave 
petals in the ordinarily half-drooping position of the flower. 
The stamens are very sensitive, and when an insect probing 
the base of the flower for honey touches them the filaments 
move inwards so that the insect's head or proboscis is touched 
by the anthers and carries away pollen to another flower. 
The stigma being large and round cannot fail to receive 
pollen if the insect visits a flower with the side that is dusted 



NYMPH;EACE/E 



with pollen inwards. Self-fertilization will occur, if pollination 
be not previously effected, by the stamens moving in when the 
flower fades. The flowers are thus adapted to the visits of 
short-tongued insects (beetles and bees). 



The Water- Lily family is perhaps too well known to 
need description. The plants are all perennial rooting 
in the bottom of slow streams or ponds, with large round or 
heart-shaped leaves floating on the surface, or less often 
standing above it. The flowers are borne singly on long 
stalks, usually above the surface of the water. Sepals 
3 to 5, greenish. Petals 3 to 5 white or coloured. Stamens 
6 to many, the outer or all filaments sometimes broadened 
and resembling petals : but anthers small. Carpels 
many combined into a flat or slightly depressed broad 
ovary without style, but covered with the many-angled 
stigma : or in the Sacred Lotus (NELUMPIUM) sunk in a 
arised fleshy ' torus.' 

A family of but few genera, but world-wide, being found in 
fresh water in all regions. 

The stalks of the leaves and flowers are spongy, i.e., full of many large 
spaces filled only with air. This structure found also in other water 
plants is held to facilitate the interchange of air, between the living parts 
and the atmosphere, which is hindered by immersion in water. Like 
other submerged water plants the surface" is slimy, but the upper surface 
of the leaf has a very smooth tough surface on which water does not readily 
lodge. 

NYMPHJEA. 

Only genus here. Characters as in the family. Leaves 
heart-shaped, floating : the ovary of many carpels com- 
bined with a sessile many-angled stigma, 



1 8 FUMARIACE/E 

Nymphaa stcllata Wittd. ; F.BJ. I 114. A Water- 
Lily with blue flowers and entire or bluntly-sinnate- 
toothed floating leaves. 

Nilgiris : in the Lake possibly introduced from lower 
levels. 

Nymphaea lotus Linn, with sharply sinnate-toothed 
floating leaves is the common red or white water-lily of the 
plains. 

Nelumbium spcciosum Willd. with round leaves 
carried often above the water-level and large fragrant 
flowers is the so-called * sacred lotus '. 

FUMARIACE/E. 

Herbs with usually delicate much divided leaves and 
the parts of the flower in twos. Sepals 2. Petals 4 in two 
dissimilar pairs, one or both of the outer pair swollen 
or spurred at the base, the inner pair smaller and usually 
coherent at the tips. Stamens 6, in two bundles opposite 
the outer petals the middle anther 2-celled, the outer 
i -celled. Ovary i -celled, but of 2 carpels ; fruit 
i -seeded and indehiscent, or a many-seeded capsule. 

Species about 150, in the temperate and warm regions of the 
N. Hemisphere. 

Common European weeds v\hich may at any time appear on these hills 
are various species of MJMARIA (Fumitory) and CORYDAUS. 

Species of DICENTRA (DIELYTRA) especially D. spectabilis are culti- 
vated in gardens. 

CORYDALIS, F.B.I. 9 in. 

Herbs with the characters given above but one outer 
only spurred and capsule many-seeded. 

Species about 80, mostly in temp. Europe and Asia. 



CRUCIFERJE 19 

Corydalis lutea DC. A small herb of 6 to 15 inches 
Leaves delicate, much divided into narrowly oblong 
segments of different lengths. Flower yellow, about 
| inch, in short racemes ; spur a roundish sac. Fruit 
a pod, J to | inch long with several seeds. 

Nilgiris : as a weed in gardens, etc. 
Gen. Di$t. Southern Europe, in stony places. 

FUMARIA. 

Very similar to CORYDALIS but capsule one-seeded. 

Fumaria parviflora Lamk. F.B.I, i 128, IV i. 
A pale-green herb. Leaf segments very narrow ; flowers 
pink about inch long ; fruit pointed even when ripe. 

A weed of cultivation on the E. Nilgiris. [G.F.M.P.] 

CRUCIFER^;. F.B.I. 10. 

One of the largest and most useful families in regions 
of temperate climate, the CRUCIFER^E have but few 
representatives here ; and on the plains of South India 
none but the cultivated Mustard, Cabbage, Radish and 
other vegetables. 

The chief features of the family are the very regular 
arrangement of the four petals with their narrow upright 
stalks and spreading blades ; the six stamens arranged two 
opposite two sepals, and two pairs of longer ones opposite 
the other two sepals ; and the two-celled ovary with 
seeds on the side-walls not in the centre of the partition 
as in all other two-celled ovaries. The peculiar arrange- 
ment of the stamens is because each of the pairs is formed 
by the splitting of a single rudiment. The flowers 
are always in racemes without bracts to the pedicels, and 
the fruit is a dry pod opening by the two sides coming 

2-A 



20 - ORUCIFER^B 

off and leaving the partition with the seeds often still 
attached to its edges. 

There are usually two honey glands at the feet of the two 
single and shorter stamens causing them and the corresponding 
sepals to bulge out a little. 

The family is found all over the world, but chiefly round 
the Mediterranean. Common garden plants are CHEIRANTHUS, 
Wall-flower, Ger. Goldlack, Fr. Violier or Giroflee jaune ; 
IBERIS, Candytuft, Ger. Baurensenf ; MATHIOLA, Stock or 
Gilly-flower, Ger. Leukoje rote, Fr. Giroflee. 

Species of BRASSICA are cultivated for their seeds, 
(Rape and Mustard), their tuberous roots (Turnip), their 
edible leaves (Cabbage, Brussels-sprouts, Savoy, Kale), 
or their much enlarged inflorescence (Cauliflower). The 
common Watercress, Nasturtium officinale L., is another 
of the family. 

For distinguishing the genera importance is attached to the 
shape of the pod, whether long and narrow as in the Wall-flower, 
or broad and thin, and in the latter case whether the partition 
is across the narrower diameter as in the Shepherd's Purse, or 
the broader as in Honesty ; and further to the relative position 
of the radicle and the cotyledons in the seed, whether the 
radicle lies along their edges as in the Wall-flower and Stock, 
or across them when they are folded over it as in the Cabbage. 
This distinction can be seen without difficulty in the ripe and 
dried seed, since there is no endosperm and the seed coat fits 
tightly over the embryo. When one groove only shows on the 
surface it is the division between the radicle and the cotyledons 
(i.e., the radicle lies along their edges), when two grooves are 
seen they separate the radicle in the centre from the cotyledons 
which wrap round the other side of it. 

Named in allusion to the spreading of the four petals in the form of 
a cross. 

A. Pod long narrow, radicle along the edges of the cotyledons. 

Flowers white or whitish. 
Pod flattened. Seeds in one row .... CARDAMINE. 



CRUCIFER/E 21 

Lower leaves three-foliate, toothed . . . C. africana. 

Lower leaves pinnate or pinnatisect. . . . C. hirsuta. 

Pod cylindrical. Seeds in two rows . . . NASTURTIUM. 

Ls. pinnate (Watercress) N* officinale. 

B. Pod long and narrow, indented between the seeds and 
beaked. Radicle across the cotyledons. . . . BRASSICA. 

Lower leaves broad, lyrate ; upper narrower, finely 
toothed. Flowers yellow. . Mustard . . . B. juncea. 

C. Pod short, as broad or broader than long. 

Partition across the narrower diameter. Pod heart-shaped. 
Shepherd's Purse CAPSELLA bursa-pastoris. 

CARDAMINE* F.B.I. 10 viu. 

Bitter-cress, etc. 

Herbs. Leaves usually pinnatisect. Flowers white or 
purple. Pod narrow, opening by two valves. Seeds in 
one row only ; radicle of embryo along the edges of the 
cotyledons. 

Species about fifty over the whole of the temperate and 
arctic regions. 

Named on account of the use the leaves zvere once put to as a cure for 
that form of indigestion which produces palpitation of the heart, from the 
Greek KARDIA a heart and DAMAO / subdue. Compare the name Cardamon 
for the spice which has the same property. But the Greek KARDAMON was 
also the common garden Cress. 

To the genus belong the English wild plants, Cookoo- 
flower, Bitter-cress ; the German Gaucheblume, Wiesenkresse, 
the French Cresson-nette. 

Cardamine africana Linn. ; F.B.I, i 137, VIII 3. 
A small perennial herb with long-stalked, pinnately 
three-foliate leaves about i inch by i inch, small white 
flowers, and slender rather erect pods. Main stem very 
often ending soon in a raceme of flowers, with leaves and 
axillary branches continuing on one side. Pods, i^ 
by y\ } inch. t. 12. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 9, Ic. t. 941 (C. 
borbonica). 



tt CfctJCIFER/fc 

Very common in sholas. In the higher mountains of India 
and Ceylon. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of tropical Africa and south temperate regions. 

Cardamine hirsuta Linn. ; F.BJ. i 138, Wall. Cat. 
4781 / ; not 4780 ; VIII, 6. Hairy Bitter-cress. An 
annual herb very variable in size and in the toothing of the 
stem leaves, hairy or quite glabrous. Leaves mostly 
radical ; leaflets five to seven, from ovate-cuneate to 
reniform, almost entire or coarsely three-lobed, terminal 
one largest ; those of the stem leaves much narrower almost 
linear. Flowers small, white. Pods slender, by ; / inch, 
to 1 1 by 2\ } inch, tapering off at the end. Seeds brown, 
circular, t* 13. 

Nilgiris : Pykara. Pulneys : on the downs. Very common 
on the higher hills of South India. 

Gen. Dist. All over the temperate parts of India, and in Bengal during 
the cold weather, and generally in all temperate countries including 
England. 

NASTURTIUM. F.B.I. 10 v. 

Similar to CARDAMINE but pods cylindrical not flat, and 
seeds globose in two rows. 

Species 2 or 3, in temperate and tropical countries. 

Nasturtium officinale Br. ; F.B.I, i 133, V I, Water- 
cress ; is given in Gamble's Flora of the Presidency of 
Madras i 37, as on the Nilgiris, * probably introduced '. 

BRASSICA. F.B.I. 10 xxiv. 

Cabbage, Mustard, etc. 

Well-branched biennial or perennial herbs with 
bluish foliage. Flowers usually yellow in long leafless 
racemes. Pods long cylindrical, ending in a round beak 



CRUCIFER^E 23 

and large stigma. Seeds roundish, in one row ; radicle, 
across the cotyledons which are wrapped round it. 

Species about fifty, in the Mediterranean region, central 
Europe, and central and eastern Asia. 

Named from the old Celtic name BRESSIC (Cabbage] or possibly from the 
Greek BRAZEIN to cook. 

Brassica juncca J. D. Hooker and Thompson ; F.B.L 
i 157, XXIV 6 ; Indian Mustard. An annual growing 
to 4 feet. Lower leaves elliptic or oblong lanceolate, 
irregularly toothed, and often with irregular triangular 
segments on the long and wide stalk ; upper leaves 
narrower, lanceolate and more regularly toothed. Flowers 
yellow. Pods I inch or more, with a long beak tipped 
by the stigma, t* 14. 

Cultivated all over India, and from Egypt to China. 

CAPSELLA, F.B.I. 10 xxvm. 

Pod broad and flat with partition across the narrower 
diameter, heart-shaped ; its halves boat-shaped, keeled, 
many seeded. Radicle lying across the cotyledons. 
Small herbs with white flowers and lobed or entire 
leaves. 

Species four, in temperate climates of both hemispheres. 

Capsclla bursa-pastoris Medic. ; F.B.I, i 159, 
XXVIII I ; Shepherd's Purse. Lower leaves usually on 
the ground as a rosette, lobcd or deeply cut ; stem leaves 
few, oblong or lanceolate, clasping the axis by large 
ear-shaped bases. Flowers, white. Pods with the partition 
showing down the middle of each side. Seeds oblong. 

t* 15. 

A weed of cultivation nearly all the world over except in 
tropical climates. To be found in flower at all seasons because 
very quick to mature. At once recognizable by its pod. 



24 RESEDAC&* 

Name CAPSELLA, a little capsule ; and BURSA-PASTORIS the literal 
Latin for Shepherd's Purse, an old and universal name. Ger. Hirten- 
tasche ; Fr. Bourse de Berger. 



CORONOPUS (SENEBIERA). F.B.I. 10 xxx. 

Annual or biennial prostrate branching herbs with 
leaf-opposed racemes of small white flowers charac- 
terized by the fruit being composed of two globular 
one-seeded parts. 

Species about twelve, mostly in sub-tropical climates. 

Coronopus didyma Linn. (Sencbiera Poir) ; 
XXX i ; Wartcress. A small weed. Leaves ^ to ii by 
^ inch, deeply pinnatified into narrow leaflet-like 
segments. Fruit of two globular parts each ^ inch. 

A native of tropical America now spread as a weed in many 
lands. Ootacamund roadsides. 



RESEDACE^;. 

A very small family of the temperate parts of the old 
world. 



RESEt)A. 



F.B.I. 12 I. 



Herbs with alternate, entire or lobed leaves, and 
glandular stipules. Sepals and petals 4 to 7, the latter 
unequal, much cut, and posterior one with a membrane 
above its stalk. Stamens 10 to 40. Ovary one-celled, 
with three parietal placentas. Fruit a capsule, opening 
at the top. 

Species about thirty, in North Africa and West Asia. 

Reseda luteola L. y Mignonette, the common garden 
plant, is reported as a weed about Ootacamund. 



CAPPARIDE^fi 25 

CAPPARIDE^:. 

A small family confined almost entirely to the hotter 
parts of the world. 

CLEOME. 

Herbs with simple or digitately compound leaves, and 
terminal racemes of flowers, like the CRUCIFER^; with 4 
sepals and 4 petals, but with numerous stamens, and the 
capsule not divided by a partition. 

Cleome monoplylla Linn. ; F.B.I, i 168, I. i. 
Leaves stalked, lanceolate, horizontal or nearly cordate at 
base, entire. Flowers pink, about | inch across. Pod 
cylindrical, narrow up to 4 inches in length. 

Shevaroys : Green Hills flower June. Belongs to the 
plains. 

VIOLACE^:. F.B.I. 13. 

A family of twenty-one genera of which the most 
important is VIOLA. 

VIOLA. F.B.I. 13 i. 

Violet y Pansy, etc. 

Small perennial herbs, with mostly radical leaves and 
flowers singly on long stalks. Leaves on long stalks, 
mostly heart-shaped. Sepals five pointed produced back- 
wards at the base. Petals five four of them normal, the 
fifth and lowest produced backwards as a hollow spur. 
Stamens five with short broad filaments, large anthers, 
and small brown flaps surmounting them. Ovary one- 
celled with three rows of seeds attached to the wall. 
Fruit is a round or oblong capsule which splits into three 
boat-shaped pieces, with a row of seeds down the 
middle of each. 



26 VIOLACfe^E 

Two of the stamens have thick extensions running back 
into the spur of the lowest petal, and when these are jogged 
by the proboscis of a bee or other insect, while it is sucking 
the honey secreted 'inside the spur, pollen is shaken out of the 
anthers, where it had been held in by the flaps, on to the insect's 
back. When the insect visists another flower of the same 
species, cross-fertilization is effected. In the common English 
Dog-violet and Pansy self-pollination is prevented by a flap 
which closes over the (lateral) stigma as the proboscis is with- 
drawn, but that does not occur in our species. Pollination 
would often not take place in wet weather for lack of insects ; 
and to compensate for this there are sometimes other flowers, 
very much smaller, which do not open at all, but are fertilized 
by the pollen growing directly out of the anthers on to the 
stigma (of the same flower). 

Species 300 all over the world but mostly in temperate 
regions and the mountains of the northern hemisphere. 

Many are peculiar to the Andes of South America, a few occur in Brazil, 
South Africa and tropical Africa, eight in Australia and New Zealand, 
five in the Sandwich Islands. 

Named from the old Greek name io\,for a common European species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Plants of the dry grass land, not connected by runners ; 

a-{ leaves much longer than broad .... V. patrinii. 

^Leaves heart-shaped. Plants with runners. . . b 

f Shade-loving plants. Hairy. Stigma minute terminal, 

j capsule globose. V. serpens. 

Shade-loving plants. Glabrous. Stigma minute terminal ; 
leaves blunt. . . .V. canescens. 
I Marsh plants. Quite glabrous. Stigma three-lobed. 
Capsule conical oblong V. distans. 



1 



Viola patrinii DC. ; Wall. Cat. 1445 ! ; F.B.I, i 183, 
I 2 ; the Spear-leafed Violet. Rootstock stout and woody, 
without runners. Leaves variable, but usually lanceo- 
late, abruptly narrowed at the base, finely but distantly 
serrate or crenate, glabrous ; blade 2 to 3 inches ; stalk 
long and clasping the root-stock at the base, t, 16. 



VIOLACE^E 27 

Nilgiris, Pulney and Shevaroys : on the open downs, in 
grass, quite common. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India, Ceylon, Thibet and over North Asia 
from Russia to Japan: 

Viola scrpcns Wallich ; Wight's Kew dist. 74 / ; 
F.B.L i 184, I 6, our common Wood Violet. All parts 
hairy, branches and runners very slender and long, rooting 
occasionally at the nodes. Stipules lanceolate, deeply 
toothed. Petioles i to 3 inches, slender ; blades delicate, 
hairy, triangular-cordate, apex distinctly drawn out, base 
with a deep rounded sinus, teeth blunt pointing forward. 
Normal flowers f inch across blue or white sepals -*- by ^ ] 
inch : style ending in a hardly visible stigma. Cleistogamic 
flowers white, k / inch on peduncles of less than i inch. 
Capsule round, % inch. Seed pointed, aril on one side of 
the top. t, 17. 

In sholas, on the downs, Nilgiris and Pulneys common. 

Viola canescens Wall. Cat. 1442 ! ; a closely tufted 
plant with hardly any stem, and no long runners. Stipules 
very laciniate, flowers i inch across. Leaves as broad or 
broader than along, not drawn out at apex, glabrows, with 
very shallow crenatures and drying a darker colour than 
V. serpens. 

Pulneys in woods. 

This appears to be indistinguishable from Wallih's V. canescens 
(Cat. 1442) and to be very close indeed to a V. sylvatica collected in 
Northern Japan. I consider it, therefore, distinct from V. serpens Wall. 

Viola distans Wall. ; F.B.L i 183 ; V 5 ; Marsh 
Violet. Very like V. serpens but grows in wet land in 
open sunlight, and distinguished by its broader flowers, 
the lowest petals being small, by a total absence of hairs, 
except in the throat of the flower, by the broader, obtuse 
sepals by the stipules without any teeth, and conspicuously 



28 BIXACE/E 

three-veined, by the style at its top three-lobed, the 
anterior lobe a stigma, and -by the capsule much longer 
than broad and almost conical. 

Nilgiris : on the downs in marshes and on banks of 
streams ; flower April (Avalanche), September (Ootaca- 
mund), Pulneys : near Poombari. 



BIXACE/E. 

Trees with alternate stipulate leaves. Sepals and 
petals 4 to 6, stamens indefinite, or not. Ovary one- 
celled. 

Species about 200, chiefly tropical. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Flowers in spikes ; petals small, stamens many . . SCOLOPIA. 

Flowers axillary ; petals i inch, each with a scale nearly as long 
lying in it ; stamens as many ; fruit large grooved from apex 
to base IIYDNOCARPUS. 

SCOLOPIA. F.B.I. 14 ii. 

A small genus in Asia, Africa and Australia. 

Scolopia crcnata Clos. ; F.B.I, i 191, II 3. A medium 
sized tree. Young branches brown, with rough bark 
and many small lenticels. Leaves ovate, 4 by 2 inches, 
the margin indented with shallow and irregular serra- 
tures from near the base to the obtuse or short acuminate 
tip, glabrous on both sides ; lateral nerves 6 to 8 pairs. 
Flowers in axillary simple or compound racemes ; 
pedicels J inch. Calyx tube | inch narrow tubular, 
obconic above J inch ; sepals and petals 5, each about 
J by J inch. Stamens numerous, straight, in apparently 
more than two rows,, white ; anthers small round. Ovary 



BIXACE/E 29 

glabrous, one-celled in early fruit ovoid ; style thick 
| inch or J inch, stigma three-lobed. Ovules numerous, 
anatropous, erect, from 3 or 4 parietal-placentas, t* 18. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, common on Lamb's Rock Road at 6,000 
feet. Shevaroys : Green Hills, abundant. 

Gen. Dist. Western side of South India. 

HYDNOCARPUS. F.B.I. 14 iv. 

Almost always a dioecious tree, the male and female 
flowers on different trees. Petal with a scale lying along 
it. 

Species about six, chiefly Australian. 

Hydnocarpus alpina Wight ; F.B.I. i 197, IX 3. A 
tree of the dense shola, with very dark green almost 
black foliage, and brilliant red young leaves. Branch- 
lets zigzag ; leaves alternate, narrow ovate-acute, with 
6 to 8 pairs of veins visible above and the smaller veins 
distinct below. Flowers few in short axillary spikes. 
Sepals ovate, nearly equal, or the inner two slightly larger. 
Petals 5, white, f inch by | inch, linear, the margins folded 
to hide the oblong scale which lies against each petal and 
is about half as long ; this scale has a truncate fimbriate 
end. Stamens 5 ; filaments short ; anthers ^ inch, 
curved, not reniform. Male flowers with rudimentary 
ovary. Female flowers with fully formed stamens, the 
anthers of which however do not open ; ovary globose, 
surmounted by the broad, pink, lobed stigma. Berry 
ovoid, the size of a fair-sized apple, or custard-apple. 
Wood of no value, t. 19. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, etc., on slopes 6,000 feet and under, 
forming often dense woods of this species alone, e.g., on the 
Droog. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts and Ceylon, in moist valleys. 



30 PITTOSPORACE^: 

PITTOSPORACE^E. F.B.I. 15. 

A family of nine genera and ninety species, chefly 
Australian, of which fifty belong to one genus PITTOSPORUM. 

PITTOSPORUM, F.B.I. 15 i. 

Sticky-seed. 

Trees with alternate simple, entire leaves, small flowers 
and small orange-coloured fruits Branchlets charac- 
teristically umbelled. 

Flowers in umbels or corymbs often close down amogn 
the young leaves, white or yellowish-green in colour. 
Calyx small. Petals five, yellowish, oblong. Stamens 
five. Ovary covered with short erect hairs, and ending 
in a short stiff style ; incompletely two-celled. Fruit a 
small berry, when young having a turpentiny smell, 
with short persistent style, and marked on the outside 
with a vertical equator along which the rind splits open 
and spreading out flat exposes the red or orange sticky 
seeds. 

Species about 50 in the tropical and subtropical regions of 
Australia, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. 

Named by Banks from PITTE to cover with pitch and SFOROS=a seed. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers in panicles, seeds 6 P. floribundum. 

Flowers on short, stout pedicds, umbelled at the ends of 

the twigs. Seeds 4 P. tetraspermum. 

Flowers on slender pedicels in racemes from among the 

uppermost leaves, forming a -loose corymb. Seeds 5 to o 

P. nilghirense. 
Flowers in umbellate racemes P. dasycaulon, 



PITTOSPORACE^E 3 1 

Pittosporum tetraspermum Wight and Arnott ; 
Herb. Wight No. 124 / ; F.BJ. i 198, I 3 ; Cherry Orange, 
or Common Yellow Sticky-seed. A small tree with thick 
trunk and grey bark (usually covered with flat encrust- 
ing lichens). Twigs thickly studded with yellow pustules 
(lenticles), usually in bunches of three or four together. 
Foliage rather thick and dark. Leaves whorled at the ends 
of the twigs, or at the forkings, elliptic or oblanceolate, 
quite glabrous, leathery, with slender but on the lower 
side quite distinct veins ; stalk I inch. Pedicels /. inch 
lengthening to ^ inch in fruit, stout, umbelled or in short 
irregular racemes. Sepals small. Petals creamy yellow, 
curved backwards. Stamens stiff, half the length of the 
petals. Style -J { * inch ; stigma capitate. Fruit J- inch 
round, in colour and shape much as an orange when ripe. 
Seeds three or four, imbedded in orange-coloured sticky 
flesh, which smells strongly of turpentine, t* 20. 

In and at the edges of sholas, quite common on Nilgiris and 
Pulneys. Flowers December-March. Fruit summer. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Shevaroys, Anamalais and Ceylon only. 

Pittosporum nilghirense Wight and Arnott ; Herb. 
Wight No. 141 / ; F.BJ. i 198, I 4. Very similar to the 
last in general habit. Leaves obovate i to 2 inches. 
Flowers in loose racemes of i to 3 inches, with slender 
pedicels of | to i inch terminating the twigs or in the 
uppermost leaf-axils. Fruit J inch, often solitary on the 
peduncle. Seeds 5 to 9. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri, Sispara, Ootacamund. Pulneys : at 
lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Nilgiris, Pulncy and Anamalais. 

Pittosporum floribundum Wight ; F.BJ. i 199, I 6. 
Racemes of flowers branched. Fruit 1 inch with six small 
seeds. 



32 POLYGALACEjE 

On the Kodaikanal Ghat below Shembaganur, flowering 
profusely in the autumn and then very conspicuous. 

Gen. Dist. From Mahendragiri (Ganjam) southwards, 4,000 to 5,000 
feet. 

Pittosporum dasycaulon Mig. F.B.L i 199, I 7. 
Not unlike P. floribundum, but the inflorescence much 
less dense, its branches densely hairy. Flowers white ; 
anthers bright yellow ; capsule large, compressed, and 
densely tomentose. 

Shevaroys : * Green Hills ' ; flower, June. 
Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts above 3,000 feet southwards. 



POLYGALACE^E. F.B.I. 16. 

A family of ten genera and about 700 species, occur- 
ring all over the world but only rarely in the Arctic 
regions, Polynesia, and New Zealand. POLYGALA is the 
chief genus. 

POLYGALA. F.B.I. 16 i. 

Milkwort. 

Flower in general appearance very like that of the 
Pea, there being a pair of spreading wings (the two inner 
and lateral sepals) and a keel (the lower petal) ; but 
at once distinguished from that family by a fringe at the 
tip of the keel, and in essential details quite distinct. 
Sepals five, of which three are small. Petals three only, 
the anterior one boat or keel-shaped fringed at top. 
Stamens eight, united together at the base and to the keel : 
anthers free, opening by pores at the ends. Ovary two- 
celled. Fruit a flat oval capsule, winged slightly along the 
edges except at the top, where is a notch. Seeds one 



POLYGALACE/E 33 

only in each cell pendulous, large and with a branched 
appendage (aril) which in the different species varies in 
size and form. Trees, shrubs or herbs, with simple 
alternate leaves and no stipules. 

Species about 450, in all the temperate and warmer parts of 
the world. 

There is a bract and two bracteoles below the flower, and in some 
species the latter disappear before the flower opens, in others they persist. 
In some species also the two larger wing sepals are green (herbaceous), in 
others coloured (petaloid}. The aril of the seed may be very large and red, 
covering nearly the whole seed, or more usually white, and then with two 
or three outgrowths (arms) spreading down over the seed, or without any. 
These characteristics are therefore to be observed for the determination of 
a species. 

Pollination is brought about in much the same way as with 
the Papilionaceae. The anthers shed their pollen into the 
keel and it is pushed out when an insect alights to suck 
honey from the base of the flower and depresses the keel 
by its weight. The species differ in details. 

i 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers bright yellow, 4 inch ; seeds with large red aril 
and a black circular disk ; shrub P. arillata. 

Flowers mauve or pink, I inch, in short racemes from the axils 
of the upper leaves ; rootstock woody, stems slender spread- 
ing on the ground Common Milkwort . P. sibirica. 

Wings yellow, keel pink ; leaves oblanceolate. . P. javana. 

Flowers solitary in the leaf-axils ; annual, erect or spreading, 
with narrow leaves P. rosmarinifolia. 

Polygala arillata Hamilton, Wall. Cat, 4191 c and 
d ! ; F.B.I, i 200, I I ; Red-eye or Yellow Milkwort. 
Shrub 3 to 12 feet with loosely growing branches covered 
with light coloured bark. Leaves up to 6 by 3 inches, 
elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, accuminate or not entire, 
glabrous, dark dull-green. Flowers in drooping racemes 

3 



34 POLYGALACE^E 

from the upper leaf-axils, yellow, i to -;/ inch across : 
bracteoles deciduous. Sepals unequal ; upper very con- 
cave ; lateral (wings) oblong, spreading, greenish-yellow, 
very conspicuous ; two lower small. Petals yellow. 
Capsule almost heart-shaped when ripe, straw-coloured, 
and opening on each side. Seeds in two pairs, about 
three-quarters covered by three large red fleshy outgrowths 
which rise from the base and leave a rounded area at the 
top : this area a jet black circular patch with a slaty-blue 
zone round, like the pupil and iris of an eye in a red 
fleshy setting, t* 21. 

The seed remains some considerable time attached to the 
dried capsule, which does not fall from the bush. See note on 
Ternstroemia japonica Thumb., p. 53. 

Nilgiris ; in sholar frequent. Pulneys : from Shembaganur 
upwards. Flowers, June ; fruit from September. 

Gen. Dist. Hills of South India Western Ghauts, Bababoodums, 
Coorg, Anamalais, etc. Ceylon from 4,000 feet. 

Not elsewhere. Nepal and Khasi plants have the flowers in branched 
racemes, and have been separated by Chodat as P. tncholopha. In the 
F.B.I, the wings are given (? Nepal and Khasi) as red-purple, but in our 
plant they are a clear lemon yellow. 

Polygala javana DC. ; F.B.L i 201, I 3. At these 
levels a small loosely branched under-shrub : Leaves 
obovate or oblanceolate, slightly wedge shaped, 4 to 2 
inches, with one strong vein. Racemes longer. Wings 
conspicuous, broadly ovate, yellow. Keel with large 
pink fringe. Capsule globose enclosed in the now larger 
wings. 

Shevaroys : Green Hills flowering June. 

Gen. Dist. At lower levels Deccan, etc. 

Polygala rosmarinifolia Wight and Arnott ; F.B.I. 
204, I 13 ; Rosemary Milkwort. An erect or spreading 
well-branched annual, 2 to 18 inches high. Stem very 



POLYGALACE/E 35 

slender throughout, but rigid, pubescent. Leaves | to 
i by J to ( \ inch, narrow linear, erect on the branches, 
with thickened and recurved margins and strong midrib ; 
but not coriaceous or with the hard apex of P. sibirica. 
Flowers greenish, solitary or in short racemes in the leaf- 
axils, erect, i to /. inch long. Bracteoles persistent 
minute at the base of the pedicel and close 
against the equally small bract or the subtending leaf* 
Wings obliquely ovate. Petals rounded : Pod elliptic, 
with a narrow purple margin. Seeds two, black, covered 
with short hairs of and capped by a large white aril with 
two short extensions round the scar. t. 22. 

Pulneys : upwards from Shembaganur 5,500 feet. 
Shevaroys : in Yercaud. 

From Northern Circars and Vizagapatam southwards. 

Polygala sibirica Linn., var. heyneana (not Wallich 
4184 /) ; F.B.I, i 205, I 14 ; Common Milkwort. A small 
plant with numerous stems, r ] (; inch or less in thickness 
and four to many inches long, trailing on the ground 
from a thick perennial rootstock. Leaves nearly sessile, 
Jj to i inch long and usually not more than J- inch wide, 
elliptic or oblong, with recurved margins and only one 
strong vein (midrib) ending in a short recurved point ; 
but when dry marked on the upper side with a fine raised 
network quite characteristic in containing no straight 
veins. Flowers in short erect racemes, or occasionally 
solitary, in the upper leaf-axils ; pinkish-mauve or 
purple. Bracteoles minute, deciduous before the flower 
opens. Outer sepals J inch inner (wings) by 1 inch, 
acute, and very slightly oblique. Lateral petals broadly 
obovate or * triangular, joined at the base, usually 
spreading out horizontally, very conspicuous : keel 
3-* 



36 CARYOPHYLLACE^E 

shorter or longer, with conspicuous fringe. Style longer, 
with conspicuously large spoon-shaped and incurved 
violet end which arches over the anthers. Capsule i by J- 
inch flat, surrounded except at the middle of the 
top by a wing 2 ] () inch wide. Seeds two, black ; capped 
by a small white aril which bears a tuft of hair at the top 
and three flat oblong white appendages, with rather 
broader fringed ends, reaching two-thirds down the seed. 
t. 23. 

From the type species the plant which occurs here differs in the stouter 
midrib, more recurved margins, oblong leaves, and larger appendages. 

In the grass of the open downs, very common from 5,500 
feet upwards, often trailing over the edges of cattle tracts : 
flowering after the early rains. Occasionally with white 
flowers. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas from Kashmir to the Khasi Hills, and beyond to 
Siberia, China and Japan. In Ceylon, on the highest mountains, as a larger 
form. Not on the Western Ghauts to the north of the Nilgiris. 

Pollen is shed from the anthers and collects in the hallowed 
side of the style, and is presented to insects which alight on the 
flower and depress the keel. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^. 

This is the family of our garden Pink, Carnation, 
Gypsophila and Chickweed. Its members are all herbs, 
with sessile simple leaves and conspicuously swollen 
nodes. The flowers are usually terminal on the branches ; 
sometimes in very regular cymes, as in the common pink 
Catch-fly of our gardens (SAPONARIA). The sepals 
may be united or free ; the petals are always free, and five ; 
the stamens usually twice as many. But the character 
which distinguishes the family from all others except 
the PRIMULACE/E and MYRSINE^E (and they are very 
different in every other respect), is the one-celled fruit 



CARYOPttYLLACE/E 37 

with its large, round, central placenta, on which the, 
usually numerous, seeds are arranged. The seed is deeply 
indented at the scar, being bent round so that the apex 
lies near the base ; and the embryo inside is in conse- 
quence bent round too. This curving of the embryo is 
also characteristic of the family, and of a few others for 
that reason considered allied to it. 

The family is a large one of 80 genera and 1,300 species, 
and belongs chiefly to the temperate regions. In India it is 
practically confined to the Punjab and temperate Himalayas, 
and to small mountain areas like the Nilgiris and Pulneys. 
On the plains of Southern India only two species occur wild. 

Named from two Greek words KARION a nut, and PHYLLUM a leaf, 
because the buds consist of ordinary unexpanded and rather long leaves, not 
short specialized scales, and takes the form of rather hard leafy lumps at 
the ends of the branches. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

c Sepals united as a tubular calyx ; flowers pink. . . b 

a \Sepals not united ; flowers white c 

'Styles 2, flowers in dichotonous cymes . . SAPONARIA. 
.Styles 3, flowers in axils of leaves .... SILENE. 
f Leaves four or many at a node with thin stipules . . d 
\Leaves two only at a node without stipules . . . . e 

{Leaves i inch or so, narrow ; petals 4 ... SPERGULA. 
Leaves four only at a node, flowers J inch ; sepals 
keeled ; petals 5 POLYCARPON. 
Leaves 4 6 ; flowers silvery POLYCARP^EA. 

Lower leaves stalked ; petals deeply divided ; capsule not 
much longer than broad STELLARIA. 

Leaves all sub-sessile ; petals entire : otherwise similar 
to the above ARENARIA. 

All leaves sessile ; petals notched ; capsule two or three 
times as long as broad, glistening. . . CERASTIUM. 

Leaves narrow, petals minute SAGINA. 



38 CARYOPHYLLACE^S 

SAPONARIA, 

A genus not wild here, but cultivated in gardens, 
from which one species is found sometimes as an escape. 
Named from the soapy nature of its leaves when bruised. 

Saponaria vaccaria Linn. ; an annual herb with 
regularly decussate ovate sessile stem-lasping leaves 
and terminal corymbs of pink flowers, in regularly- 
forking cymes. 

A common garden plant which occurs occasionally as an 
escape. 

SILENE* F.B.I. 18 vi. 

Campion, Catch-fly. 

Calyx tubular (inflated or not), five-toothed, ten- 
nerved. Petals five, with narrow lower part and spread- 
ing upper, often with two swellings at the middle. Ovary 
often slightly stalked : capsule of firm material, three 
to five locular at the base, one locular at the top, open- 
ing in six teeth. Seeds kidney-shaped covered with 
transverse rows of tubercles on the back and sides. 

Annual or perennial herbs with solitary, cymose, or 
variously panicled flowers. 

Species 300, chiefly round the Mediterranean region. 
Ger. Pechnelke, Fr. Attrapemouche. 

Named after the drunken, slobbering god SILENE, because some of the 
species are covered with sticky secretion. 

Silcnc gallica Linn. ; F.B.L, i 218, VI 3. A loose 
straggling herb with opposite leaves, but the flowers 
developed only along one side of the stems thus forming 
unilateral racemes. Stem or branches erect or ascend- 
ing, 4 to 1 8 inches. Leaves oblong or oblanceolate 



CARYOPHYLLACE;E J9 

about i by inch, sometimes sticky. Flowers nearly 
sessile in 'the axils of one of each pair of upper leaves. 
Calyx tube A- to J- inch, with long and shorter glandular 
hairs, ten-ribbed. Petals not much exserted from the tube, 
pink, each with two erect scales at the throat. Styles 
three. Capsule egg-shaped. Seed with rows of tubercles, 
and an ear-shaped depression on each side. t. 24. 

As a weed by roadsides, etc. 

Gen. Dist. A weed of cultivation in all parts of the world, native of 
Europe. 

CERASTIUM. F.B.I. 18 x. 

Chickweed. 

Named from the Greek KERAS, a horn, because of 
the comparatively long and curved capsule, its most 
distinguishing characteristic. Pubescent and sticky weak- 
stemmed herbs with broad sessile leaves and small white 
flowers in terminal cymose panicles, and having the sepals 
free. Not unlike STELLARIA but for the long pod, which 
opens by short teeth. 

Species 100 distributed over the northern termperate 
regions and on tropical mountains, but absent from Australia 
(except the common garden Chickweed, C. vulgatum L.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Capsule \ inch, or less ; flowers few, the branches of the 
panicle bifurcating ; leaves pointed . . . C. indicum. 

Capsule i! inch or more ; branches of panicle constantly 
branching into three ; leaves blunt . . . . C. vulgatum. 

Cerastium indicum Wight and Arnott ; Wight Herb. 
No. 149 / ; F.B.I. i 227, X 3. Stems very slender. Leaves 
lanceolate or elliptic, acute, ij by } inch, smaller towards 



4 CARYOPHYLLACE^E 

the top, and reduced to small scales under the branches of 
the inflorescence. Flowers few, in dichotomous cymes 
with widely spreading pedicels. Capsules not much 
longer than the sepals ; teeth turned back. t. 25. 

In sholas on the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills, but not on the 
Bombay Ghauts. 

Cerastium glomeratum Thuillier ; F.B.L i 228, 
X 4 as C. vulgatum Linn. ; Common or Mouse-ear 
Chickweed. A coarsely hairly, more or less sticky herb, 
typically annual but occasionally perennial, very variable 
in habit. Ground leaves narrow and stalked, stem 
leaves sessile, broadly ovate to narrow oblong. Flowers 
in an almost perfect close three-chotomous panicle. Sepals 
Y\ inch with conspicuous scarious margins. Petals shorter, 
sometimes absent. Stamens often reduced to five 
or fewer. Capsule projecting far out of the calyx, 
slightly bent and opening at the top in ten small straight 
teeth, very smooth and glistening when ripe. t. 26. 

A garden weed, found now all over the world, wherever it 
is not too hot. Fr. Morgeline, Ger. Hornkraut. 

STELLARIA* F.B.I. 18 xi. 

Stitchwort, Chickweed. 

Flowers similar to CERASTIUM, except that the petals are 
divided nearly to the base, the styles three only, or if five 
then alternative with the sepals, and capsule globose, 
opening in as many valves. Herbs with opposite exsti- 
pulate leaves, and flowers in cymose panicles. 

Species about 100 in temperate regions and tropical moun- 
tains, many cosmopolitan. Ger. Wasserstern. 

Named beacuse of the star-like flowers. 



CARYOPHYLLACE^E 41 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Plants with tomentum of stellate hairs . . S. saxatilis 
Hairs simple b 

C Flowers in long-peduncled cymose panicles ; seed one 

6< only S. paniculata. 

L Flowers axillary ; seeds many in the capsule . S. media. 

Stellaria paniculata Edgew ; F.B.I. i 229, XI 2. 
Stem 2 feet. Leaves i to 2 inches, variable in shape. 
Flowers small. Young ovary three-celled, but when 
ripe with only one wrinkled seed. 

Nilgiris ; 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate Himalayas, Kashmir and Khasia. 

Stellaria media Linn. ; F.B.I. i 230, XI 5 ; Chick- 
weed or Starwort. A common weed with weak stem 
and small white star-shaped flowers. 

Stem weak, much branched, flaccid, green and marked 
with two opposite lines of fine white hairs. Lower 
leaves with slender stalks, ^ inch or more, ovate, acute, 
glabrous, quite entire ; upper leaves sessile. Flowers in 
the axils of the upper leaves, or in irregularly forked 
leafy cymes. Sepals J inch. Stamens ten to five. 
Styles fre.e, capsule ovoid, projecting beyond the sepals, 
seeds brown, covered with sharp tubercles. Wight Ic. 
t. 947. 

In sholas and as a weed, Nilgiris, Pulney, Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. All through the temperate regions of India and Ceylon 
and over the arctic and north temperate regions. 

Stellaria saxatilis Ham ; F.B.I, i 232, XI 14. Stem 
2 to 3 feet, decumbent below, densely tomentose above. 
Flowers in umbel-like cymes, with very slender pedicels 
of i to i inches. Petals J inch, two-partite. Capsule 
5-valved. Seeds tubercled. 



42 CARYOPHYLLACE^E 

Nilgiris, as a weed. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate Eastern and Central Himalayas, Khasia and 
across to Java, Siberia and Japan. 

ARENARIA. F.B.I. 18 xm. 

Sandwort. 

Like STELLARIA but the petals not divided or notched ; 
styles not divided ; capsule opening by the same or 
double the number of valves as styles. 

Species 100, almost all over the world, more especially 
in the temperate and cold regions. 
Name from the Latin ARENA = sand. 

Arenaria ncclghcrrcnsis Wight and Arnott, Herb. 
Wight 148 / ; F.B.T. i 239, XIII 14 ; Nilgiri Sandwort. 
Stem and its numerous branches slender, with a line of 
pubescence down one side. Internodes _J to J, inch. 
Leaves ;-; to J $ inch, ovate, one-nerved, hardly acute. 
Flowers on slender pedicels of i inch, in the axils of the 
upper leaves or in leafy cymes. Sepals J inch long and 
broad, ovate-acute, with a single hairy nerve and thin 
scarious edges. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund and Dodabetta (Gough !) and below. 

Very close to A. serpyllifolia L. of Europe, but in habit much laxer, 
leaves less acute, inflorescence less distinctly cymose, and sepals with only 
one nerve and that pubescent. A. serpyllifolia L.; F.B.L i 239, XIII 
14 ; may also occur in a lax form as an introduced weed. It has more 
pointed leaves, more distinct cymes, and the sepals and bracts with three 
or five veins. 

SAGINA. F.B.I. 18 xiv. 

Herbs with very narrow leaves connate at the base, but 

without stipules. Sepals free. Petals not notched, usually 

minute. Stamens 4 or 5, or 8 to 10. Styles 4 or 5 

opposite the sepals, and also to the valves of the capsule. 



CARYOPHYLLACE^E 



43 



Species about 10, in temperate regions. 

Name from the Latin SAGINA = fatness because supposed good herbage 
for sheep. 

Sagina procumbens L* ; F.B.I, i 242, IV i. A 
perennial herb, i to 6 inches with procumbent branches 
forming a tuft. Leaves subulate, bright green. Flowers 
solitary on very slender axillary pedicels, I inch. Sepals 
usually 4. Petals smaller, 4 or more. 

Nilgiris : above 6,000 feet as a weed. (G.F.M.P.) 
Gen. Dist. Throughout Europe and in North America, Australia. 

SPERGULA. F.B.I. 18 xvi. 

Spurry. 

Annual herbs with narrow leaves and small scarious 
stipules. Sepals free ; petals entire ; styles five, alternate 
with the sepals ; capsule opening by five valves opposite 
the sepals. 

Species two or three only in temperate climates ; a weed of 
cultivation. Eng. Spurry. Fr. Spergule. Ger. Spark, Spergel. 
Named from the Latin SPARGO / scatter because the seeds are well 
scattered. 

Spcrgula arvensis Linn. ; F.B.I, i 243, XVI i ; Corn 
Spurry. An annual with dense false whorls of long 
linear leaves at the base of which are small scarious stipules, 
and small white flowers in regular three-chotomous 
cymes, white. Stems 6 to 12 inches, pubescent or glan- 
dular, green, simple or forked. Leaves, half-cylindrical, 
grooved beneath, in bunches at the nodes because of the 
development of those of the axillary buds. Stipules small 
scarious. Petals shorter than the sepals. Stamens ten 
or five. Capsule subglobose, longer than the sepals. 
Seeds black, slightly flattened and with a narrow scarious 
border, t, 27, 



44 CARYOPHYLLACE/E 

A weed of cultivated ground on these hills. 

Not recorded in C.B.F. on the ghauts to the north, but in Scind and 
on the Kirthar mountains. 

Gen. Dist. Cosmopolitan in temperate climates. 

POLYCARPON, F.B.I. 1 8 xvm. 

Diffuse herbs with flat, often falsely whorled, leaves 
and small flowers in much branched cymose panicles. 
Bracts scarious ; sepals with scarious edges and coloured 
green or red keels ; petals small hyaline ; stamens three 
to five ; style short, three-fid ; capsule opening by three 
valves. 

Species about 6, over temperate and tropical regions. 

Polycarpon tctraphyllum ; F.B.I, i 245, XVIII i. 
A perennial with weak angular branches spreading on 
the ground in a flat circular patch 6 to 12 inches across. 
Leaves of a whorl unequal, from j to inch, obovate- 
cuneate. The whole plant sometimes red, leaves and 
keels of sepals red. Cymes terminal or in the forks 
dense or not. Flowers i inch diameter, t. 28* 

Ootacamund in waste ground. Flowering after the first 
spring rains. Also all over the plains of this Presidency. 

Gen. Dist. Tropics of Asia and Africa. 

POLYCARPJEA, F.B.I. 18 xix. 

Similar to POLYCARPON but sepals not keeled ; style 
three toothed only ; and whole flower silvery white. 
A small genus of perhaps 30 species, in warm climates. 

Polycarpaea corymbosa Lamk. ; F.B.L i 245, 
XIXI. Stems thin hairy. Leaves narrow, often fascicled 
in the axils. Stipules fimbriate. Flowers to $ inch, in 
dense silvery terminal corymbs. 



HYPERICINE^: 45 

Nilgiris : Kaity valley. Belongs properly to much lower 
levels. 



ELATINACE^. 

ELATINE* F.B.I. 21 i. 

Very small and tender herbs, creeping on mud, with 
opposite or whorled leaves and very small flowers, usually 
one to each node, pedicelled or sessile, of 2 to 4 sepals, 
petals and stamens, and a 3 to 5 celled ovary with as 
many styles. 

Elatine americana Am. ; F.B.L i 250, I i. On 
mud in patches of i to 3 inches diameter, rooting at the 
nodes. Ends of branches ultimately ascending. Leaves 
J to \ inch ovate, lanceolate, entire, narrowed to the base. 
Flowers ^ inch diameter. Sepals 3. Petals 3. Seeds 
curved, about 12. 

Nilgiris. (G.F.M.P.) 

HYPERICINE^E. 

A small family of 8 genera and some 200 species, of 
which 1 60 belong to the genus HYPERICUM distributed in 
temperate climates of the northern hemisphere. 

HYPERICUM. F.B.I. 22 n. 

St. John's Wort. 

This is perhaps the easiest of all genera to recognize, 
for the bright yellow flowers have numerous stiff straight 
stamens in bunches alternating with the petals, and the 
leaves contain oilglands which against the light show as 
translucent dots or streaks. 

The only plants which have similar oilglands have either alternate 
leaves (RUTACE/B and MYRSINE^) or inferior ovaries (MYRTACE^E). 



46 HYPERICINE;E 

Plants mostly small, either herbs or shrubs, never 
trees ; leaves opposite, sessile, entire. Flowers typically 
in cymes of three (the middle one opening first and 
terminating the axis) ; but also solitary or panicled. 
Quite regular. Sepals five. Petals five, yellow, over- 
lapping each other in bud and twisted. Stamens nume- 
rous, united into one, three, or five groups, alternating with 
glands. Ovary superior with a corresponding number 
of cells and of styles. Fruit a capsule which splits open 
into its constituent cells (not down the back of each 
one as with so many capsules), leaving the placentas 
attached to the central axis or the edges of the valves. 

Species 160, in temperate climates. England has about 10, 
St. John's Wort, or Tutsan ; Ger. Johanniskraut. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Shrubs. Stamens in five groups ; styles five . . . . b 

j Herb. Stamens in 3 groups ; ovary 3-celled. . . . 

I H. humifusum. 

(_ Herbs. Ovary i -celled c. 

f Branches stiff ; leaves decussate ; styles slender longer 

I than the ovary. (Common) ... H. mysorense. 
b-l Branches drooping, the bush round-topped ; leaves 

I bifarious ; styles stout, shorter than the ovary . . . 

(^ (Rare) H. Hookerianum. 

f Bracts and sepals fringed with long-stalked glands ; seeds 

dotted, but not ribbed .... H. Wightianum. 

c\ Bracts and all parts devoid of stalked glands, but fringed 

f with small dots just inside the margin ; seeds ribbed... 

^ H. japonicum. 

Hypcricum mysorense Heyne, Wall. Cat. 4808 / ; 
F.B.I. i 253, II 2 ; common St. John's Wort. A shrub, 
3 to 8 feet high ; twigs four-angled, green or reddish. 
Leaves stiffly decussate, sessile, narrow elliptic lanceolate 



HYPERICINE^: 47 

with strong midrib. Flowers at the ends of the branches 
solitary or in threes, of a rich yellow colour, 3 to 4 inches 
across, mostly facing upwards. Sepals lanceolate inch 
by I inch. Petals obovate-oblong, limp and flat when 
fully out and therefore widely separated, reddish on the 
back of the parts exposed in bud. Stamens slender and 
very numerous, in five bundles : anthers globular, - 1 
inch. Ovary five-celled, with five styles longer than 
its elf. Fruit a rich crimson colour, egg-shaped, pointed ; 
surmounted by the five styles, t* 29. Wight Ic. t. 56. 

The commonest species and abundant everywhere on the 
Ni Igiri downs, more especially on poor soil, on the borders of 
the plateau as near Kotagiri, Aval anche and Pykara, where it 
covers whole hill-sides to the exclusion of every other shrub. 

Gen. Dist. On the hills generally of South India and Ceylon, but rare 
in the Bombay Presidency and not reported from elsewhere in India. 

Hypericum Hookerianum Wight and Arnott ; Herb. 
Wight Prop ! ; F.B.I, i 254, II 6. A shrub with weak 
spreading, not erect, branches. Leaves ovate lanceolate, 
set bifarious, i.e., in two rows all facing upwards, not 
decussate. Flowers pale yellow and saucer-shaped, the 
petals not separating widely as in H. mysorense. Fruit 
ovid on a thick base -J inch. Styles thick shorter than the 
ovary, t* 30. Weight Ic. t. 949. 

The two plants are totally different in habit and general appearance. 
Nilgiris : near streams (gorge opposite Bangitappal). 
Rare. Pulneys : Seen by me only in the garden of the Obser- 
vatory (lower house). Not common. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas, Khasia. 

Hypericum Wightianum Wall. Cat. 4010 / ; F.B.I. 
i 256 incl. in H. nepaulense ; II 15*. A weak spreading 
herb with smooth round stems up to 15 inches long. 
Leaves ovate \ to inch, all except the uppermost devoid 



48 HYPERICINE^: 

of stalked glands. Bracts and sepals with slender teeth 
tipped by black or red glands and with long pellucid 
veins. Some of the uppermost leaves also with a few 
gland tipped teeth near the base, but for the most part 
the leaves entire and with round pellucid dots and also 
when dried large black dots on the under-side. Anthers 
tipped by round black glands. Styles three, free, about 
I inch, with conspicuous round red stigmas. Ovary 
one-celled, the seeds attached to the outer wall in three 
rows, round and dotted, not ribbed, t, 31. Wight 

1 11. t. 43 . 

Very common in moist places, both Nilgiris and Pulneys, 
above 5,000 feet. 

H. nepaulense Choisy occurs on the higher slopes of the Himalayas 
from Sikkim to Kashmir. It has a two-edged stem, short teeth only on 
the sepals, and a three-celled ovary. 

Hypcricum japonicum Thumb. ; F.B.L i 256, 
II 17 ; Marsh St. John's Wort. A very delicate herb, 
growing, in marshy and damp places, in tufts a few inches 
high ; stems straight, up to 8 inches ; branched or not, 
four-angled. Leaves 1 inch or less, oval or ovate, quite 
entire, clasping the stem at the base ; midrib strong, 
veins two to four from the base, very slender ; glands 
in the leaf as round pellucid dots. Flowers at the ends 
of the main stem and its branches, in comparatively 
large loose cymes ; bracts and sepals quite entire, without 
any stalked glands. Flower J inch diameter pale yellow. 
Stamens all free or all equally united, not in bundles. 
Ovary one-celled, with three parietal placentas and three 
very short (^ inch) styles. Capsule J inch, red. Seeds 
flat short oblong, with about seven longitudinal ribs 
and numerous transverse striations, t 32* 



GUTTIFERJE 49 

Very common in moist places or shallow standing water. 
Nilgiris : all over both sides. Pulneys : on the downs. 
Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Anamalais, Ganjam, Poonachi hills but on the Ghauts to the 
north rare, and recorded in C.B.F. from Castlerock, S.M. country, only. 
Widely distributed in eastern temperate climates, Himalayas, Khasi hills, 
Assam, Burma, and on to China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. 

Var. major Fyson. A trailing weak-stemmed plant, 
about twice the size in every detail of H. japonicum, with 
no intermediate formes, much less branched, the flowers 
terminal and in the upper axils only. It differs from 
H. humifusum, with which I suspect that it has been 
confused, in its one-celled ovary; and from H. Wightianum, 
which it resembles in size and habit, in its absolutely 
entire sepals and bracts. 

Nilgiris : on western downs. Rare. Flower June. 

Hypericum humifusum L. ; F.B.I, i 255, II 13. 
Similar in habit to H. wightianum (Vol. II t. 31) but the 
sepals unequal and with black glands inside the margin, 
and no gland-tipped teeth or stalked glands ; and the 
ovary completely divided into three chambers. 

Nilgiris : (G.F.M.P.). I have not seen this plant. 
Gen. Dist. Europe, Atlantic Islands and South Africa. 

GUTTIFER^;. 

Trees with opposite leathery leaves and yellow or 
greenish juice. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual with 
the sexes on the same or on different trees. Sepals and 
petals 2 to 6. Stamens numerous, round a rudimentary 
ovary. Ovary in the female or hermaphrodite flowers of 
2 to 12 cells, surrounded by a ring of staminodes. Fruit 
usually a berry with large seeds. 

Species about 300, in the tropics. 
4 



50 GUTTIFER^E 

The mangosteen, Garcinia Mangostemma, is cultivated in the Berliyar 
gardens (half-way down the Mcttupalaiyam Ghaut from Ootacamund). 
The fruit of Garcinia morella yields Gamboge. 



GARCINIA. F.B.I. 23 i. 

Trees with the characters given above and distinguished 
further by the stigma being sessile on the ovary, without 
style ; the seeds solitary in each cell of the ovary ; and 
the fruit a large berry with thick rind, and in our species 
scored with five deep grooves up to the stigma. 

Species about 60 in tropical Asia, Africa and Polynesia. 

Garcinia Cambogia Desrouss ; F.B.L i 261, I 6 as 
var. 2. A tree with dark green rather thick oval leaves, 
and sessile flowers remarkable for the thick concave yellow 
sepals and erect thick, reddish petals. Leaves elliptic 
with or without a short acumen, quite entire, coriaceous 
dark green, acute at the base with numerous faint parallel 
side-nerves. Male flowers nearly sessile, in 3-merous, 
terminal sessile cymes : sepals and petals 4 ; buds large, 
the outer sepals bright yellow thick, the inner larger and 
greener ; petals reddish, i by \ inch ; stamens 20 or 30 
in a square mass with often no pistillode, anthers opening 
by parallel slits, on shorter, thick filaments. Female or 
hermaphrodite with deeply lobed stigma, sessile on the 
ovary. Fruit ovoid, i by 2 inches, deeply grooved 
from the base to near the top where the stigma persists. 
Seeds large, usually 2 or 3 only, t, 33. Tarn. Kodak- 
kapuli. Mai. Kodapuli, Pinaru. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor and Kodanad, etc., in the jungles of 
the slopes and on roadsides, 6,000 feet. 

G. morella is distinguished by its anthers which open by a horizontal 
circular slit. G. mangostama has much larger flowers and its stamens in 
four masses. 



TERNSTROEMIACE;E 51 

TERNSTRCEMIACE^E. 

TribesTERNSTRCEMIACEJE and GORDONIEM. 

Woody plants with alternate, thick or hard leaves ; 
flowers solitary on their stalks ; sepals 5, imbricate and 
progressively larger, rather hard and often brown ; petals 
5, imbricate and lightly attached to each other at the base ; 
stamens numerous, sometimes attached to the base of 
the petals ; ovary three to five-celled, with a single 
style. Rather characteristic of the family are the hard, 
comparatively large, buds. 

A family of some 240 species, common in the tropics of 
Asia and America, but very rare in Africa ; absent from 
Australia, and practically so from all temperate climates. 

Economically the most important member is the Tea-plant, Camellia 
theifera Griff a native of Assam and China. Another species of the same 
genus, C. japoncia L., is cultivated in European gardens, for its rose-like 
but scentless flowers. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Flowers small, white very numerous on the older and 
a < leafless parts of the small branches .... EURYA. 

L Flowers 4' or i inch across, few, yellow or cream . . . b 

f Leaves entire ; seeds with soft, warty, red covering ; a large 
b < tree TERNSTRCEMIA. 

L Leaves serrate ; seeds winged ; tree .... GORDONIA. 

TERNSTRCEMIA. F.B.I. 24 n. 

Evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves firm and leathery ; 
entire or serrate. Petals connected at the base. Stamens 
many ; anthers glabrous, fixed firmly on the ends of their 
filaments. Ovary of two or three cells, each with two 
pendent seeds, style simple. Fruit indehiscent, seeds 
few, pendent from the top of each cell. Embryo bent, 
with very short half-cylindrical cotyledons, 
4-A 



52 TERNSTRCEMIACE/E 

Species $8 mostly in tropical America ; but about six in the 
warmer jpairts of Asia and the Indian archipelago. 

Named by Linneeus in honour of a Swede, C. TERNSTROEM, who as a 
naturalist travelled over China in 1745. 

Ternstroemia japonic a Thunbergh ; F.B.I, i 280, 
II i. A very fine, shady tree, growing in the open to 40 
feet or more, with straight stem and hemispherical crown 
of foliage ; bark smooth and wrinkled ; branches rather 
crowded, and swollen at the point of attachment. Leaves 
crowded near the ends of the branches : stalks ] inch, 
red, thick : blades 2} by ij, oblong-obovate, entire, thick, 
glabrous. Flowers from the axils of the fallen leaves, 
fragrant : stalks i inch, erect in bud, afterwards bent 
down : bracteoles two, close under the sepals and hardly 
distinguishable from them. Petals spreading ^ inch, 
pale yellow, stiff and easily crushed. Anthers opening at 
the side, and ending in minute points. Ovary two or 
three-celled : fruit ^ inch, clasped at the base by the 
enlarged sepals and the two small bracteoles, and peaked 
at the top by the persistent style ; smooth like an apple, 
with pericarp -J- inch thick. Seeds four, hanging for some 
time after the pericarp has opened ; covered with a scarlet 
soft and deeply papillate outer skin ; inside this stony : 
endosperm very hard ; embryo inside almost S-shaped, 
the radicle pointing upwards. Wood reddish brown, 
smooth, t* 34. 

Nilgiris : in sholas, 6,000 ' to 7,000 feet. Avalanche, Pykara 
below Kodanad, Coonoor, etc., quite common. Not found on 
the Kodaikanal downs. 

Gen. Dist. Not at all on the Ghauts to the north (Bombay Presidency) ; 
but on the Khasi hills and southwards to Moulmein, and on to Sumatra, 
China and Japan. I am unable to distinguish the variety Wightii of the 
F.B.I. 



TERNSTRCEMIACE^E . 53 

In foliage this tree with its erect red-stalked oval leaves 
is very like Symplocos obtusa, the leaves being only slightly 
smaller, and slightly more erect. 

The length of time these highly coloured seeds hang in the 
opened fruit, while most seeds fall quickly to the ground, is 
significant, and clearly a very useful adaptation for dispersal by 
birds, which are attracted by the high colour, are rewarded by a 
little soft flesh to eat, but are prevented from damaging the 
embryo by the stony endosperm and smooth skin. The 
flowers are adapted for pollen-seeking bees, which are attracted 
by the scent and the yellow colour. 

EURYA* F.B.I. 24 VI. 

Usually shrubs. Flowers unisexual, on separate plants 
(dioecious) ; sepals imbricate. Petals connected at the 
base. Stamens many, attached to the base of the corolla ; 
anthers firmly fixed on their filaments ; ovary three- 
celled, with many ovules ; styles three ; fruit a berry. 
Seeds many, attached to the middle of the placentas ; 
embryo as in TERNSTRCEMIA. 

Species about 50 in Mexico, South America, West Indies 
and East Indies. 



dy it is said, from the Greek EURUS broad, because of the broad 
leaves, but this is hardly applicable to our species. 

Eurya japonica Thunbergh, var. nitida, Korths ; 
F.B.L i 284, VI i. Most often, as near Ootacamund, a 
shrub barely 10 feet high, but in the sholas of the Pulney 
downs also as a tall tree, overtopping all others. Its most 
distinguishing characteristic is the arrangement of the 
quite small flowers or berries on the lower, and leafless, 
3 to 5 inches of short lateral branches which are leafy at the 
ends. Twigs very slender, much indented by the scars 
of the fallen leaves, and soon covered with grey or whitish 
bark. Leaf-stalks ] inch ; blades i to z inches elliptic or 



54 TERNSTRCEMIACE/E 

oblanceolate, shortly acuminate, closely serrated except on 
the lower third, hard and shiny glabrous. Flowers white 
in little groups of two or three, shortly stalked in the axils 
of the fallen leaves ; less than ) inch across when fully 
open. Fruit a black berry, ! inch diameter with a minute 
three-fid style in the centre of a depression at the top, 
and sitting in the remains of the dried sepals. Seeds 
\J l} inch, light brown, flat ; embryo inside curved, t, 35. 

The F.B.I, gives three varieties, t\\o of them as occurring here. But 
I have seen only this one. It has smaller leaves than the type. 

Very common in sholas on both plateaus, as a shrub by 
small streams, e.g., at Andy's Corner, Governor's Shola Road, 
Ootacamund ; also in sholas as a tree, even a very large tree. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India, Ceylon, Burma and the Malay 
archipelago to China, Japan, Fiji, etc. 

GORDONIA* F.B.I. 24 xii. 

Anthers lightly attached to their filaments ; fruit 
a loculicidal capsule ; seeds with a wing at the top. 
Trees with evergreen entire or crenate leaves and often 
beautiful flowers. Petals lightly connected at the base ; 
the inner larger. Stamens many. Ovary three to five- 
celled, with many pendent ovules ; style simple. Seeds 
without endosperm ; embryo straight. 

Species about 16, mostly in India, Malaya and South 
China ; also in North America. 

blamed in honour of GORDON, a horticulturist. 

Gordonia obtusa Wallich, Cat. 1459 / ; F.B.I, i 291, 
XII 2. A moderate sized, evergreen tree, with rather 
erect and not widely spreading branches, which end in 
large silky buds. Leaves 2 to 4 inches elliptic, crenate, 
acute at both ends, firm and smooth ; stalk J inch ; 
midrib strong. Flowers lateral on the branches, solitary 



MALVACE/E 55 

in the leaf-axils, i to 2 inches diameter, very handsome, 
white or creamy, with bright yellow centre of numerous 
stamens ; very similar to those of Tea. Sepals silky on 
the back ; outer smaller. Petals thin, distinctly connected 
at the base, from which spring the stamens, and falling off 
as a whole corolla bearing the stamens. Ovary five-celled ; 
style single ; fruit a five-angled, woody capsule, i inch long, 
furrowed at the top, and opening loculicidally and the 
valves (carpels) separating from the persistent axis to 
which the ten seeds are attached. Flowers May to 
December. t* 36. Wood reddish, hard. Vern. Nagetta. 
Fairly common, especially near water. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund in the swamp below Havelock road ; 
in sholas on the downs ; Pykara ; Coonoor. Flowers May. 
Pulneys : on the downs in sholas ; Silver cascade. 

Gen. Dist. Permade, Anamalais, Travancore and on the Bombay 
Ghauts to the north, but not elsewhere in India. 



MALVACE^. 

Mallow, Hollyhock, etc. 

This family is distinguished from all others chiefly by 
the very numerous anthers being of one cell (two pollen 
sacs) only instead of two, and attached by short stalks 
to a staminal tube which stands up round the style in the 
centre of the flower. 

The plants are as a rule more or less covered with 
both simple and stellate hairs ; have a fibrous and slimy 
inner bark ; alternate simple, stipulate leaves, and showy 
flowers borne solitary in the leaf-axils. The flowers have 
five petals twisted over each other in bud ; numerous 
stamens united as above mentioned in one tube, or in 
definite bundles ; and a three to five-celled ovary with 



56 MALVACEAE 

single branched style and capitate stigmas. The fruit is 
always dry, either a capsule or breaking up into separate 
seed-containing sections. 

The family is mainly a tropical one, and abundant on the 
plains, where various species of HIBISCUS are cultivated, either 
for the fibre of the inner bark (Hemp) or the edible fruit 
(Bandikai) or as garden flowers. On these hill-tops only two 
genera appear to be indigenous. 

Well-known members of the family are HIBISCUS ALTHAEA 
Hollyhock, GOSSYPIUM Cotton-plant, ERIODENDRON and BOM- 
BAX Silk-cotton trees, THESPESIA, planted on the Madras 
beach. 

The name MALVA (Eng. Mallow, Ger, Malvc, Fr. Mauve) was adopted 
by Linncsus from the Greek MALAKKF, soft in allusion to the sliminess of 
the plant when crushed. HIBISCUS was the Greek name for our Mallow. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Fruit a capsule b 

\Fruit separating into its constituent carpels . . . . c 

f Tall herb or shrub with entire or lobed leaves . . . . d 
\Low herb with roundish, cut leaves . . . MODIOLA. 

{Styles as many as the carpels, i.e., 5 SIDA. 
Styles twice as many, i.e., 10 URENA. 

r Capsule opening in 5 valves HIBISCUS. 

\Capsule in 10 valves DECACHISTA. 



MALVA. F.B.I. 26 m. 

Mallow. 

Downy herbs with lobed leaves and axillary clusters 
of flowers, each with three free bracteoles and characterized 
further by having in each carpel one ascending ovule 
and by the carpels separating from each other in fruit. 

Species under 20, in temperate regions of the Old World 
some widely distributed as weeds. 



MALVAC&E 57 

Malva verticcllata Linn. ; F.B.I, i 320, III i ; Mal- 
low. Stem branched a to 4 feet. Leaf-stalk z to 7 
inches : blade as long and nearly as broad, with five large 
lobes, and crenate margin. Flowers nearly sessile in dense 
clusters at the nodes. Petals notched, slightly longer than 
the sepals. Carpels ten to twelve, enclosed within the- 
calyx, accrescent, netted at the sides, prominently ribbed 
at the back. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri ; a weed. 

Gen. Dist. Europe to Abyssinia and China. Himalayas. Nilgiris. 

MODIOLA. 26 iv * 

A small herbaceous plant distinguished by its fruit 
separating into carpels each with two seeds separated by 
a horizontal partition ; epicalyx of three bracteoles. 

One species only, a native of North and South America 
but found also in South Africa. 

Closely allied to ABUTILON, and the fruit in general appearance so like 
one of that genus that it may easily be mistaken for it ; but the carpels 
in ABuriLON are not divided by a horizontal partition. 

Modiola caroliniana Linn. ; IV * i. A small herb 
with green prostrate stems and branches matted close to 
the ground, and covered with numerous large stellate 
hairs or nearly glabrous. Leaf-stalks \ to i. 1 , inches ; 
blades roundish deeply cut into large and small lobes 
recalling those of Ranunculus diffusus, nearly glabrous. 
Flowers, solitary in the leaf-axils ; stalk jointed one-third 
from the top, hairy like the branches. Epicalyx of three 
lanceolate, acute ; bracteoles with hairs along the 
veins. Petals pink, J inch, hardly longer than the sepals. 
Fruit ? { inch across, black, very hairy, breaking into its 
constituent carpels (about twenty) : these with two hair- 
tipped points at the outermost corner and a deep rounded 



58 MALVACR& 

bay in the middle of the inner edge where they are attached 
to the centre,, and opening by a slit at the top. Seeds 
glabrous, t* 37* 

Ootacamund, covering the bank of the stream between the 
bazaar and the Gymkhana ground. Kotagiri : bazaar 
stream ; Kodanad T. E. 

SIDA, F.B.I. 26 IV. 

Herbs or undershrubs with toothed leaves, and linear 
stipules. All green parts pubescent with simple or stellate 
hairs. Flowers of the family type, but the fruit splitting 
into five carpels, which may or may not have each two 
awns at the top. Radicle in the seed pointing upwards. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves glabrous S. acuta. 

Leaves hairy ; pedicel jointed about the middle ; carpels awned. 

S. rhombifolia. 

Pedicel jointed at the base ; carpels hardly awned 

S. rhomboidea. 

Sida rhomboidea Roxb. ; F.B.I, i 324 as var. 
rhomboidea of S. rhombifolia Masters. A wayside weed, 
i to 2 feet, leaves i to 2 inches, ovate, toothed in the distal 
half, entire and more or less cuneate in the nearer. Flower 
stalks longer than the short petioles, jointed at the base. 
Flowers pale yellow. Carpels 6 to 10, with very short or 
no awns, t, 38* 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, on waysides. 

Sida acuta Burn. ; F.B.I, i 323, as part of S. car- 
pinifoliaLmn./. 

Leaves lanceolate or ovate, or oblong ; serrate, glab- 
rous ; stalk of flower about equal to the petiole. 

A common roadside weed : Shevaroys and at all low eleva- 
tions. 



MALVACE/E 59 

Sida rhombifolia Masters. ; F.B.I, i 323 (in part). 
Similar to the first, but stalk of flower jointed about the 
middle, and carpels in fruit awned. 

A common weed : Shevaroys, and at all low elevations. 

URENA* F.B.I. 26 vi. 

Similar in habit to SIDA but the flowers with an epi- 
calyx of 5 bracteoles attached to the calyx, and the styles 
twice as many as the carpels. Ripe carpels covered 
with hooked bristles. Radicle in the seed pointing down- 
wards. 

Species very few, in tropical countries. 

Urcna lobata Linn. ; F.B.I, i 329, VII. An under- 
shrub with slender branches covered as are all green parts 
with stellate hairs. Leaves deeply lobed, palmately or 
pinnately, the middle lobe in the lower leaves much the 
largest, and with shallow serrations all round the mar- 
gin ; dark green above, lighter below. Flowers solitary 
or two or three of unequal ages in the leaf-axils. Calyx 
of ten parts, five outer green bracteoles, five inner lighter 
and thinner sepals. Corolla i inch diameter, pink with 
darker centre, usually turned down or to the back, and 
more so with age. Staminal tube cylindrical, with only 
a few scattered anthers attached near the upper end, 
which is entire not toothed. Stigmatic arms 10, capping 
the staminal tube. Ovary five-celled. Fruit of 5, one- 
seeded parts, thickly covered with hooked bristles 
t. 39. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor and at lower levels. Shevaroys : in 
and around Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout the hotter parts of India, and in the tropics 
generally. 



60 MALVACEAE 

HIBISCUS. F.B.I. 26 xii. 

Fruit is a capsule of five cells, which open loculicidally 
(i.e., down their backs, the cells not separating from one 
another) ; and below the calyx a whorl of three or more 
bracteoles (these in our species might be mistaken for 
sepals). Herbs or woody plants, their young parts covered 
usually with stellate or with simple hairs. Staminal 
column continuing in five-pointed teeth above the inser- 
tion of the topmost filaments. Ovary of five cells, each 
with three, or usually more, ovules. Style divided 
above into five branches with round velvetty stigmas. 
Seeds kidney-shaped. 

Species about 150, nearly all in the tropics. In Europe only 
two and in England none. 

Common Indian plants of this genus are H. rosa-sinensis 
the ornamental Shoo-tiower in its many varieties, H. esculentus 
(Bendekai), H. sabdariffa (Roselle), H. cannabinus (Deccan 
hemp). 

HIBISCOS was the Greek name for the Marsh Mallow, now known as 
Althoea offic'nalc, a near ally of the Hollyhock ; and this name is said to 
have been derived from IBIS the Egyptian goddess. 

Hibiscus angulosus Masters, Wight Herb. No. 202 ! ; 
F.B.I, i 341, XII 27 ; the Hill Mallow. A tall coarse 
herb, clothed in all the younger parts with long straight 
hairs which hide the short stellate ones with which the 
whole plant is covered. Leaf-stalks variable, from .! to 
5 inches ; blades 2 to 4 inches across, deeply or shallowly 
five-lobed, the lobes acute and irregularly toothed. 
Flower-stalks in the axils of the upper leaves, longer 
than the petoles ; bracteoles three, large and leaf-like, 
meeting round the base of the flower. Calyx white, 
thin, in the form of a tube split down one side. Corolla 



TILIACE^E 6 1 

when fully open up to four inches across. Capsule 
i to 1 1 inches, pointed, splitting open in five acute, hairy 
valves, t* 40, Wight Ic. 951. 

By the edges of sholas ; flowering in the colder months, 
September to January. Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Kotagiri, 
Kodanad and below. Pulneys : on the downs quite common, 
Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon on the higher mountains. Not on 
the Ghauts to the north (C.B.F.). 

It is perhaps worth noticing that the duty of^ protecting the 
petals and inner parts of the flower, ordinarily left to the sepals, 
is here undertaken by the large bracteoles, and that the calyx has 
degenerated to a thin tube, while the petals are thickened at the 
top where they are exposed. 

DECACHISTA, 

Tomontose shrubs with entire or lobed or toothed 
leaves and solitary or clustered flowers, similar to those 
of HIBISCUS but distinguished by the carpels (cells of 
ovary) styles and valves of capsule being ten. Bracteoles 
ten, narrow, oblong. 

Decachista crotonifolia W. & A. ; F.B.L i 332. 
Flowers 4 inches diameter, pale yellow. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Mysore plateau, Deccan, Nilgiri and Pulneys up to 2,500 
feet. 

TILIACE^E. 

Of this rather varied family of trees, shrubs and 
herbs, with alternate leaves, small flowers in cymes, 
numerous stamens situate on a central torus, with long 
anthers opening by lateral slits, and an ovary often also 
on a central stalk, we have only two generas TRIUMFETTA, 



62 TILIACE/E 

a herb or undershrub distinguished by its globular fruits 
covered with anchoring spines, and GREWIA many tree 
species of which grow close below our area. 

The family is mainly a tropical one, TILIA, the Lime tree of 
England, Fr. Tilleul, Ger. Linden, being almost the only genus 
occurring north or south of the 30 line of latitude. It is also 
pre-eminently Indian, some of the genera and many of the 
species being found only in this country. 

Economically the most important species is the Jute or Gunny-plant, 
CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS, the fibre of which is obtained from the bark. The 
Linden, TILIA EUROPEA, is also a source of fibre (the bast of gardeners), 
and ropes used to be made of this in various parts of England, and also in 
olden days a rough kind of paper. 

The name TILIA is said to have been derived from the Greek PTILON, a 
wing, because of the long bract attached to the flower-stalk. 

TRIUMFETTA, F.B.I. 28 ix. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves and all green 
parts covered with stellate hairs. Flowers yellow, with 
five sepals and petals, ten or more stamens springing from 
a fleshy lobed and distinctly raised torus, and a 2 to 5 
celled ovary with filiform style. Fruit a round capsule 
covered with long spines. 

Species about 60, tropical weeds. 

Triumfctta pilosa Roth. ; F.B.L i 394, IX 2. A 
herb covered with bristles on bulbous bases. Leaves 
hairy on both sides, the lower three-lobed, the upper 
ovate of ovate-lanceolate, unequally toothed, about 4 by 
2.] inches, with petiole -\ inch and subulate stipules. 
Flowers inch, yellow. Fruit including the spines, 
i inch diameter ; four-celled, with two seeds in each cell. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor at 6,000 feet, on roadsides. 

GREWIA* F.B.I. 28 vi. 

Trees with alternate leaves, which have as a rule 

several veins springing from the end of the stalk, and 



TILIACE^E 63 

axillary fascicles of yellow flowers, in which the sepals 
are free, the petals glandular at the base, the stamens 
spring from the apex of a raised torus, without staminodes, 
and the ovary, its cells opposite to the petals, with one 
or two seeds in each, becomes a small drupe. 

A genus of the warmer parts of the world. Many of the 
species difficult to define and to distinguish. 

Grcwia tilia>folia. Vahl ; F.B.I. i 386, VI n. A 
moderate sized tree. Leaves 2 to 5 inches long and broad, 
slightly cordate at the base, roundish but more or less 
angular and finely toothed. Flower beds tomentose : 
sepals about -J inch. Petals, I inch, yellow. Peduncle 
of cyme shorter than the stalk of the subtending leaf. 
Fruit J inch glabrous. 

Nilgiris : Lovedale (P. V. Mayuranathan) belongs pro- 
perly to lower levels. 

Other species of this genus which may be found 
(G.F.M.P.) on the borders of our area are 

Grewia obtusa Wall. ; F.B.I, included in G. bracteata 
Roth, i 389, VI 21. A shrub with lanceolate, serrate, 
3-veined leaves 3 to 4 by li to ij inches ; flowers on 
axillary peduncles which are shorter than the leaf-stalks ; 
and large, not lobed ; fruits, an inch in diameter. Nilgiris 
on the eastern slopes. 

Grcwia hctcrotricha Masters ; F.B.I. i 385 VI 6. 
A climbing shrub with elliptic acuminate 3-veined leaves 
4 by 2 inches covered with stellate hairs; peduncles opposite 
the leaves and twice as long as the petioles, 3 -flowered 
flowers i inch diameter, yellow, with the ovary raised a 
torus of nearly | inch, and 4-lobed fruit. Nilgiris on the 
eastern and northern slopes. 



64 EUEOCARPACE/E 

Grcwia Gamblei J. R. Drummond. Similar to the 
above but stalk of ovary J inch only ; leaves and twigs 
softly tomentose. 

Nilgiris : Northern and western slopes. 

Grewia Barbcri J. R. Drummond. Leaves narrow, 
lanceolate acuminate, sharply serrate glabrous. Peduncles 
about twice as long as the petioles, and fruit 2-lobed. 

Nilgiris : Northern and eastern slopes. 

EL^EOCARPACE^:. 

ELiEOCARPUS. F.B.I. 28 xin. 

Only genus. 

Trees with simple alternate leaves, and lateral 
spikes of perfectly regular flowers, consisting of five 
sepals valvate in bud, five petals with conspicuous 
fringe at the ends, numerous stamens standing in a raised 
centre with long anthers opening by pores at the top, 
and an ovary of several (a variable number of) cells topped 
by a single style and ripening into a fleshy fruit with one 
or more stones. 

The family differs from the TILIACE/E, with which the 
genus was formerly united, in the absence of mucilage 
(slime) in bark and leaves, and in its anthers. 

Species about 50, mostly in or near India, a few only in 
Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. 

Named from the Greek ELAIS oil and CARPON fruit. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

r Anthers equal at end ; leaves flat, oval, serrate, turning 
a < bright crimson E. oblongus. 

i. Anthers with one side prolonged b 

r Leaves round-backed, like an inverted boat, and rusty ; 
fcj anthers with a long projection . . . E. ferrugineus. 

L Leaves flat, margin waved E, Munroii. 



ELJEOCARPACE/E 65 

Elaeocarpus oblongus Gartner ; F.B.I, i. 403, 
XIII 13 ; the Nilgiri Mock-olive. Stem white, well 
branched, with domed foliage ; twigs with conspicuous 
lenticels as yellowish pustules. Leaves 4 to 6 inches by 
2 inches, elliptic, acute or acuminate, glabrous and shining 
above, crenate-serrate with gland-tipped teeth almost 
or quite to the acute base ; petiole also with two minute 
glands near the top. Racemes 2 to 6 inches long, in the 
axils of the upper or the fallen leaves, slender ; pedicels 
J to J inch ; sepals J inch, acute, finely pubescent all 
these red. Petals white, 1 inch wedge-shaped, with cuts 
extending from the end half-way down forming a fringe. 
Stamens on a raised torus L> Y> inch high, very numerous ; 
anthers J inch gaping at the end, not produced beyond, not 
hairy at the tips. Ovary J inch covered with short erect 
hairs ; style twice as long, tapering to a point. Fruit 
an olive-like drupe, i by i inch. t. 41, Vern, Tarn. 
Bikki ; Mai. Katta kara. 

In the axils of the main veins, on the underside of the leaves, one 
nearly always finds small perforated swellings. These though probably 
the result of insect agency occur too consistently to be left out of a descrip- 
tion. The crimson colouring of the autumn foliage is very striking ; one 
nearly always finds a few leaves turned, and a tree may be identified by 
them. When a whole tree is crimson, the effect is comparable to that of 
the " Virginia-creeper." 

Quite common towards the lower limit of our areas, often 
planted near villages. Coonoor, Kotagiri, etc., 6,000 feet ; 
flowering May. 

Distributed to the north in the evergreen forests of Kanara, and 
Mahabaleshwar ; westwards to Burma and the Malay islands, but not on 
the intervening plains. Confined to the semi-temperate hill-tracts of the 
tropics of Asia. 

Elaeocarpus fcrrugincus Wight, Herb. Prop. ! ; F.B.L 
i 406, XIII 27. A shola tree with greyish or brownish 
green foliage in well-marked tiers easily recognizable 
5 



66 EUEOCARPACE^E 

at a distance, and more closely by its absolutely charac- 
teristic round-backed leaves. All young parts and leaves 
covered with a dense, rusty or greyish tomentum of short 
stellate hairs ; leaf-scars flat ; lenticels small ; petiole 
i inch. Leaf very convex, like an inverted boat without 
its keel, elliptic, shortly acuminate, with very shallow 
serrations ^ to -J- inch apart and tipped with short hairs ; 
densely cinnamom tomentose on the lower side ; veins 
about nine pairs, very regular and repeatedly bifurcating 
towards the margin. Racemes 2 to 4 inches, pedicels 
% inch ; buds elliptic, inch. Sepals 1 by /> inch, all 
densely tomentose. Petals as long, J inch wide, covered 
with long appressed hairs fringed with cuts from the 
margin about one-third down. Stamens twenty or so, 
on a low yellow torus ; anthers J inch, one lobe prolonged 
at the end into a slender curved awn or bristle, the other 
much shorter. Ovary densely covered with hairs, three- 
celled. Fruit oval ^ by 1 inch, fleshy, green, with one 
stone containing a cell with one matured seed and dried- 
up undeveloped ovules, and two other squashed and 
aborted cells. Endosperm thick, horny, smelling and 
tasting strongly of cocoa, t* 42, 

The leaves turn red, but fall very soon after, so that this colouring is 
not conspicuous as with E. oblongus. 

In sholas only, very common at high levels, especially on 
the Pulney downs, where there is hardly a shola without several 
trees. Nilgiris : on the Western plateau, from Dodabetta to 
Avalanche, Mukarte, etc. 

Not on lower levels and absent entirely from the Bombay Ghauts to 
the north. Apparently confined to these South Indian hill-tops. 

Elaeocarpus Munroii Masters ; F.B.I. i 407, XIII 
32. A tree. Leaves long-stalked, drooping, glabrous with 
wavy margin, broadly ovate acute, about 4 by 3 inches. 



LINAGES 67 

Flowers facing downwards, in short erect racemes above 
the terminal tufts of leaves, white and very prominent : 
anthers with long bristle. Drupe about by | inch, 
smaller than in the other two species, t, 43* Vern. Tarn. 
Narebikki ; Mai. Pungari. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, very common and conspicuous in the 
early summer months. 

LINAGES. 

Tribe I. 

Small herbs or shrubs with alternate simple leaves, 
and racemes of regular and symmetrical flowers on the 
four or five plan. Petals usually twisted in bud, soon 
falling. Stamens as many. Carpels dehiscing septicidally. 

LINUM. F.B.I. 29. i. 

Flax, etc. 

Flowers usually blue, but here yellow, with five sepals 
imbricate in bud, five petals twisted in bud, five fertile 
stamens, five minute staminodes, five glands outside the 
stamens (all these alternately with each other) and a five- 
celled ovary which ripens to a capsule, breaking into 5 
two-seeded or 10 one-seeded parts. Seeds oily. Leaves 
quite entire, narrow. 

Species about 90, mostly round the Mediterranean. 

Named from LINUM, Latin for thread cotton or flax. The root LIN 
K one of the oldest root ivords known. 

Flax, the fibre which is spun and woven into linen, is obtained from 
the outer part of the stems of Linum usitatissimum which has blue flowers. 

Linum mysorense Heyne ; Wall. Cat. 1507 / ; F.B.I. 
i 411, II 4. An annual herb with slender stem 3 to 16 
inches high, unbranched till near the flowering region, 

5" A 



68 GERANIACEffi 

where it forms broad corymbs ; stem glabrous, striate, 
Y^; inch or less in thickness. Leaves sessile, narrow 
elliptic or oblanceolate, entire, three-veined from the 
base. Branches of the corymb very slender ; flowers 
opposite the leaf-like green bracts. Outermost sepals 
herbaceous with narrow scarious margin, entire ; inner 
very thin. Petals yellow, twice as long as the sepals, 
rounded. Anthers broadly oval. Styles connate below. 
Capsule opening in ten valves. Seeds oval, flat J by 
J Q inch, t* 44. 

Nilgiris : Lovedale. Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan and Western Ghauts, Himalayas, Ceylon, 

Tribe II. 
ERYTHROXYLON. F.B.I 29 vi. 

Shrubs with alternate leaves, and small axillary flowers. 
Petals imbricate (not twisted), each with a scale on the 
inner face. Stamens twice as many. Stigma 3, fruit a 
drupe. 

Erythroxylon monogynum Roxb. ; F.B.I, i 414, 
VI i. Leaves obovate, wedge-shaped at base, entire ; 
midrib conspicuous, but remaining net-work without 
distinct primary veins. 

Gen. Dist. Shevaroys ; on green Hills, flowering June. In dry hill 
forests. 

The wood is hard, reddish brown and useful for turning [G.F.M.P. \ 

GERANIACE^:. 

This family as defined in the Gen. Plant, and F.B.I, 
(i 426) comprises, in India, three tribes : the GERANIE/R 
(Crane's bill), the OXALIDE/E (Wood-sorrel), and the 



69 

&ALSAMINE/E (Touch-me-not). These tribes are by some 
systematists considered distinct families, and are for 
convenience treated separately here. 

GERANIE2E. 

The most distinguishing characteristic of this tribe is 
the stout beak (Crane's bill) which forms in the centre of 
the flower as the seeds ripen and from which the carpels 
split off, each with a slender beak which by a quick curling 
upwards jerks the solitary seed out (GERANIUM), or 
by its hygroscopic twistings and untwistings buries 
it and its seed in the ground (ERODIUM). The parts of 
the flower are in perfect systems of five : five sepals, 
five petals twisted in bud, with small round glands 
between them, ten or fifteen stamens, and five carpels 
in the ovary. They are usually showy. 

The tribe occurs in all parts of the world, but not on the 
plains of South India ; and is represented here by only one 
truly wild species, Geranium nepalense Sw. y but Erodium 
and a strongly scented Pelargonium, a native of South Africa, 
occur as garden-escapes. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

("Leaves palmately cut or lobed b 

a \Leaves pinnate. Carpels indehiscent . . . ERODIUM. 

f Flowers solitary or in pairs, on slender pedicels; carpels 
, j opening to jerk out the seed GERANIUM. 

I Flowers in umbels, flower-stalk with a slight swelling on 

(^ one side near the base PELARGONIUM. 

GERANIUM* F.B.I. 32 in. 

Crane's bill. 

Herbs with opposite or alternate stipulate, toothed or 
palmately cut, leaves, at swollen nodes ; and flowers 



"JO 

solitary or in pairs on axillary peduncles. Seed one to each 
ripe carpel, jerked out of it by the curling of the " beak." 

Species 260 in temperate climates. Ger. Storkhschnabel ; 
Fr. Bec-de-grue. 

Named from the Greek GERANOS, a Crane, in allusion to the beak of the 
ripe fruit. 

Geranium nepalense Sweet ; F.B.I, i 430, III 9 ; 
Nepal Crane's bill. A delicate perennial herb with pink 
stem and flowers. Roots stout ; stems slender, weak, 
much branched, hairy. Leaves opposite, stalks slender, 
li to 3 inches, densely hairy near the top ; stipules -J- 
inch, very acute ; blade deeply divided into five lobes 
which are again cut and lobed, the ultimate lobes oblong 
mucronate ; surface thinly hairy above, below much 
more so, and whitish ; margin often red. Flowers in 
pairs or solitary on slender peduncles. Sepals } inch, 
with three coarsely hairy nerves, strongly mucronate. 
Petals | inch, pink or mauve. Carpels hairy ; seeds 
smooth, shining, t. 45. Wight 111. i. t, 59. 

Fairly common in grass near sholas on high elevations, 
but not lower down or on the ghauts to the north. 

Gen. Dist. Kashmir, Himalayas 3,000 to 10,000 feet, and Khasia hills, 
and on the higher peaks of Ceylon, Indo-China. 

ERODIUM* F.B.I. 32 iv. 

Stork's bill or Heron's bill. 

Similar to GERANIUM but carpels not opening, the seed 
remaining in the carpel and buried by the twisting of the 
beak. 

Species 60, mostly round the Mediterranean, a few also in 
South Africa, temperate America, and south-west Australia. 

Named from the Greek ERODIOS, aHeron t to distinguish from GERANIUM 
with which the species used to be linked. 



GEftANI&E *ri 

Erodiutn cicutarium Leman ; F.B.L i 434, IV i. 
Similar in habit to E. moschatum but the leaflets more 
deeply toothed or pinnatifid. 

A garden escape, naturalized on the Nilgiris [G.F.M.P.]. 

Erodiutn moschatum UHeritier ; IV 6. Branches 
stout ; leaves alternate or opposite, pinnate ; stipules 
large, j inch scarious, those of the unopened leaves as 
bud-scales ; leaflets obliquely ovate, sharply toothed. 
Flowers umbelled on long peduncles ; bracts like the 
stipules ; pedicels \ inch. Sepals J to 1 inch, five-ribbed, 
pubescent. 'Fails of carpels i to 2 inches, with a few 
long, yellow permanent bristles below, and many much 
shorter hairs above, not woolly ; when dry much twisted. 
t. 46. 

A roadside plant of the Mediterranean region, and spread 
from it over northern Europe, the Cape, North and South 
America and Australia. This appears to be the first record of 
it on these hills ; probably a garden-escape. 

PELARGONIUM. 32 iv.* 

The Garden " Geranium." 

Stamens two to seven only fertile, the rest sterile ; 
flower-stalk with a long tubular cavity inside, ending in 
a slight enlargement near the base (really the spur of one 
of the sepals fused to the pedicel) ; no glands ; seed 
remaining inside the carpel as in ERODIUM. 

Species 230, practically all in South Africa, six only outside 
(Australia, Asia Minor, Abyssinia). 

Named from the Greek PELARGOS, a Stork. 

Pelargonium glossularioides DC. IV * i. A very 
strongly scented plant, with lobed roundish soft leaves and 
pink flowers is found near habitations as a garden-escape 
especially on dry soil. 

Native of South Africa. 



72 

OXALIDE^E. 

As in the Geranieae the flowers are on a very regular 
five plan, and the petals are twisted in bud ; but the fruit 
is a capsule, not separating into one-seeded parts but 
opening down the backs of the carpels ; the leaves are 
compound, and there are no glands between the petals. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Leaflets three or four, attached together to the end of the 

petiole (Wood-sorrel, " Capebulb," etc.) . . OXALIS. 

Leaflets many, pinnately arranged BIOPHYTUM. 



OXALIS* F.B.I. 32 V. 

Wood-sorrel. 

Herbs, some bulbous, with acid-tasting three or four 
foliate leaves, and umbels of flowers on long peduncles ; 
fruit a narrow capsule which splits open in five lines, the 
side curling back but remaining attached to the central 
axis. 

About 300 species, chiefly in South Africa, but also in 
tropical South America. A few in Europe, Asia, tropical Africa 
and North America. Several have been introduced as garden 
plants, and because of the difficulty of eradicating the bulbs 
some have become very troublesome weeds. 

The name is an old Greek one, from oxus, sharp, and ALS, salt, in 
allusion to the taste of the leaves. 

The leaflets fold inwards and downwards at night, showing as marked a 
sleep movement as occurs in the family LEGUMINOS/E. Charles Darwin 
found that if such movement was prevented the leaves suffered (perhaps 
from excessive radiation of heat to the sky, i.e., from cold), and thus 
demonstrated the usefulness, to the plant, of this habit. The stamens and 
styles are often of three different lengths, some plants of a species having 
short styles and five medium and five long stamens, others with medium 
styles and short and long stamens, others with long styles and short and 



OXALIDE/E 73 

medium stamens. Charles Darwin showed by experiment that this was 
connected with the cross-fertilization of the seeds by insects, pollen from 
long anthers 'producing on the long styled ovaries (necessarily of different 
plants) better results than on short styled flowers (possibly on the same 
plant). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

"No stem above ground, leaves and flower-stalks from a 

bulb d 

Stem above ground bearing leaves and flowers, creeping 

and erect b 

'Flowers solitary, it inches, limb red and tube yellow. 
Leaflets i to i inch with apex rounded. O. variabilis var. 
^ rubra. 

| Flowers yellow, in few flowered simple or compound 

^ umbels. Leaflets notched at apex c 

f Leaflets { to \ inch green ; flowers \ inch pale yellow ; 
I stem creeping slender, yellowish . . O. corniculata. 
c \ Leaflets \ to i inch blotched with dark markings ; stem 
(^ purplish creeping and erect .... O. pubescens. 
, /Leaflets, wedge-shaped deeply notched at apex . e 

\ Leaflets four, rounded or acute at apex . O. tetraphylla. 
'Flowers, blue or violet or purple. Leaflets i inch . . 

O. latifolia. 

Flower lemon-yellow. Leaflets \ inch . . O. pes-caprae. 
Flower pale pink. Leaflets i inch ; bulb j.- inch . . 

O. corymbosa. 

Oxalis corniculata Linn. ; F.B.I, i 436, V i ; Yellow 
Wood-sorrel. A small herb with slender stems running 
horizontally on the ground. Leaf-stalks i to 3 inches 
slender ; stipules pale and hairy, adnate to them ; leaflets 
three, obcordate. Peduncles slender, ending in a single 
flower, or an umbel ; pedicels f inch, in the axils of linear 
inch long bracts. Flowers pale yellow, } to J inch 
across ; petals obovate or notched ; fruit i by J inch, 
tapering and contracted suddenly at the top, many seeded . 
Seeds flesh coloured, transversely ribbed, t. 47. 



74 

A common weed in grass occurring at all elevations upwards 
from sea level. Distributed all over the world. Ger. Sauerklee, 
Fr. Oseille sauvage. 

Oxalis pubcscens H.B. & AT. ; V 4. Roots fibrous 
without bulb ; stem creeping or erect, elongated, leafy, 
pink. Stipules hairy. Leaflets, i to i by J to H inch, 
obovate or obcordate, with dark markings and a few 
scattered hairs. Flowers yellow, | inch, in broad, irregular 
umbels on axillary peduncles longer than the leaves. 
Fruit cylindrical, narrowed upwards, torrulate by the 
bulging of the seeds, t* 48. 

Ootacamund on the Snowdon road, as a garden-escape. 

Very similar to O. corniculata in habit but larger and quite distinct in 
the dark markings on the leaves. 

Oxalis variabilis Lindl., var. rubra ; V 5. Distin- 
guished from all our other species by the flowers, large and 
solitary, not umbelled, on short peduncles ; and the leaflets 
rounded or obtuse, not emarginate. Bulb dark, i to 2 
inches, smooth. Leaf-stalk i to 2 inches densely pubes- 
cent ; leaflets pubescent, gland dotted, broadly rhomboid, 
rounded at the end. Flower-stalks equal to or shorter than 
the leaves, one-flowered. Corolla 1} inches, funnel-shaped 
erect, tube yellow and limb cerise-pink. Inner stamens 
toothed, t. 49. 

Ootacamund by roadsides and in waste places. A beautiful 
species, native of South Africa, introduced no doubt as a 
garden plant. First brought to England about 1794. 

Oxalis tetraphylla Cav. ; V 6. Remarkable for the 
leaflets being usually four, and marked with a broad V of 
darker colour. Bulb very scaly, i to i \ inches. Leaf- 
stalk 8 inches, scapes longer, flowers umbelled on pedicels 



OXALIDE/E 75 

of i inch. Petals f inch pink or red on upper side, white 
on lower, t, 50. 

A native of America (Mexico), introduced as a garden plant 
and spreading rapidly by its bulbs, now in many places, espe- 
cially Kotagiri and lower levels and on the Shevaroys, a 
troublesome weed. 

Oxalis latifolia H.B. & K. ; V 7. Bulb 1 inch, of 
fibrous scales. Leaf-stalks 5 to 8 inches ; leaflets three, i 
by i J inches, triangular, broader than long, with triangular 
(straight sided) notch. Scapes 5 to 10 inches, flowers 
umbelled ; pedicels slender. Petals \ inch, blue, purple 
or purple-violet, with greenish base. t. 51. 

Native of Mexico, in some places a troublesome weed. 

In the figure : a. staniinal column ; b. projection at base of the filaments 
of the long stamens and attached thereto ; c. styles protruding between 
the filaments (E.T.B.). 

Oxalis pes-caprae Linn. ; V 8. Leaves all from the 
bulbous root-stock ; leaflets deeply two-lobed like the 
last but \ inch only, glabrous, spotted red or brown. 
Flowers yellow, an inch or more across, facing upwards ; 
petals rounded : buds pendulous, t. 52. 

A native of the Cape of Good Hope, introduced into 
England in 1757. Curtis Bot. Mag. t. 237. A troublesome 
weed among Potato because of its long conical tubers. 

Oxalis corymbosa DC. Prod. /, p. 696. Bulbs numer- 
ous about | inch, scapes hairy bifid or branched corym- 
bosely. Flowers numerous, pale pink, on often i inch long 
slender pedicels. Leaflets notched, the lobes so formed 
rounded (quite distinct from last two species). 

Shevaroys : on coffee estates a native of Bourbon and 
Mauritius. 



76 OXALIDE/E 

BIOPHYTUM* F.B.I. 32 vi. 

Capsule splitting down the backs of the carpels, and 
also down the partitions into five boat-shaped valves 
which spread out flat, with the seeds on the placentas 
(normal loculicidal dehiscence). Herbs. Leaves even- 
pinnate, crowded or whorled at the top of the stem, 
which may be branched ; stalks swollen at the base. 
Flowers umbelled on terminal peduncles, small, yellow. 
Stamens ten, all fertile ; five long, five short. (Cf. 
OXALIS.) Stigmas notched or two-fid. Capsule ovoid 
opening as above. 

Species 20, in tropical Asia, America and Africa. 

Named from the Greek BIOS, life, W</PHYTON, leaf, because the leaves 
are sensitive. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 



a 



J^Stem simple, terminal leaflets largest . B, candolleanum. 
\ Stem usually branched ; terminal leaflets not longest . b 
f Leaflets 15 to 25 pairs, pedicels ,', inch, sepals glandular. 
b 4 B. intermedium. 

I Leaflets 30 to 50 pairs ; pedicels ,\, inch, sepals glabrous. 

B. polyphyllum. 

Biophytum intermedium Wight ; F.B.I, i 438, VI 7. 
A small woody plant, an annual, or with thick rootstock 
and branching stems, which end in flat whorls of pinnate 
leaves and umbels of small flowers on slender peduncles. 

Branches slender clothed above with fine deflexed 
hairs, and enlarged at the insertion of the leaves. Leaves 
all terminal, 2 to 3 inches long, oblanceolate, the terminal 
leaflet being shorter than the middle ones. Leaflets 
twenty to thirty pairs, sensitive, thin, oblong-oblique 
with midrib mucrdnate near the forward angle, more or 



OXALIDEJE 77 

less hairy on both sides ; lateral veins numerous and close 
set. Peduncles slender, very pubescent, swollen at the 
top ; pedicels umbelled, J to inch, pilose. Calyx 
campanulate, YT mc ^ 5 sepals, free, narrow, acute 
covered with glandular hairs. Petals yellow, not spreading 
widely. Stamens of two lengths, the outer five half the 
length of the inner : anthers dorsifixed : filaments 
broadening slightly towards the base. Styles as long again 
(three times the length of the shorter stamens) clothed with 
short erect hairs : stigmas capitate. Capsule -J inch, 
membranous, hairy, enclosed in the sepals and ending in 
the equally long persistent styles. Seeds one or two in a 
cell, oval, shining, with two or three spiral rows of minute 
red warts, and down the whole length of the ventral side a 
broad red scar, t* 53. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal. Not collected on the Nilgiris 
and recorded from nowhere else in India. 

The plant flowers apparently its first season, and is to ho found therefore 
as an annual, with slender hut woody forked stems and no rootstock. 
Ceylon specimens (the type in F.B.I.) have thick rootstock ; and in F.B.I. 
this Pulney plant is separated, as var. pulncyense, because of this difference 
of habit. It is also a stronger growing plant than the Kandy one. Our 
plant is however to be found also with perennial rootstock and woody stem ; 
so the distinction may not hold good. 

Biophytum Candolleanum Wight ; F.B.L as var. 
Candolleanum of B. sensitivum i. 437, V i. Stem simple, 
leaflets 10 to 15 pairs. Wt. 111. t. 62. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, etc., 6,000 feet in shady places. 

Biophytum polyphyllum Munro ; F.B.L i. 439, V 8. 
Stem stout umbellately branched. Leaves very long and 
flexuous with minute leaflets, 30 to 50 pairs, J inch long 
only ; rachis villous with long hairs. 

Nilgiris : Kundahs, etc. 6,000 to 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 



7$ BALSAMINE/E 

BALSAMINE^E. 

IMPATIENS. F.B.I. 32 VIIK 

Balsam. 

The Balsams are easily recognized, but the flower 
may need some explanation. There are three sepals, 
only very occasionally five, and of these two are green 
and very small, while one is coloured like the petals and 
almost indistinguishable from them. This large sepal is 
usually prolonged downwards as a sac or spur, and fits 
closely in front and underneath, with the spur pointing 
forwards. There are apparently also only three petals ; 
one, on exactly the opposite side of the flower to the 
spurred sepal, is outside the others in bud and is usually 
called the standard ; each of the other two has a slit 
dividing it into two lobes, and is in reality made up of 
two petals more or less fused together. These wings, 
as they are usually called, hang down or project horizon- 
tally in front over the lip of the spurred sepal, and in 
some species, the " Orchid Balsams " look together very 
like the labellum of an orchid. In the centre of the flower 
are five stamens packed tightly round the ovary, their 
anthers joined together and showing their nature only in 
the five narrow slits from which pollen oozes out. The 
ovary has five cells with very thin partition walls and a 
number of ovules. In fruit it becomes a long and narrow, 
or a comparatively short and fat, barrel-shaped pod, the 
sides of which have a tendency to curl up inwards, and 
do so when ripe so violently that the seeds are ejected 
some considerable distance. It is to this explosiveness 
of the capsule that the genus IMPATIENS owes its name. 

The flower is therefore on the 5, 5, 5, 5 plan, except 
that two of the sepals are usually absent ; and its peculiar 



BALSAMINE^E 79 

appearance is due to the differences of size of the sepals and 
petals, and the fusion of the lateral pairs of petals to form 
the wings. A spurred sepal occurs also in TROP^OLUM, the 
common garden " Nasturtium" ; and also in PELARGONIUM, the 
garden " Geranium" where however it is fused to the flower-stalk 
and so invisible. Both these genera are included in the family 
GERANIACE^E of the Gen. Plant. The stem is usually smooth, 
more or less translucent, and conspicuously swollen at the 
nodes ; and the leaves are always crenate or serrate, with 
rounded teeth ending in sharp points which at the base of the 
leaf, where there are hardly crenations, appear as glandlikc 
hairs perhaps V,. inch long. 

The genus IMPATIENS, the true Balsams, is one of the largest among 
flowering plants, there being over 400 species described, and is found chiefly 
on the mountains of tropical Africa and south-east Asia (India, China 
and Malaya). North America has two species only, Europe one, Siberia 
two, Japan four these are all closely allied ; while in tropical Africa there 
are nearly fifty species, in India about two hundred and in China about as 
many. But there are none at all in Australia, New Zealand, Polynesia, or 
the whole continent of South America, so that this is essentially a genus of 
the Old World tropics, with Borneo and the Phillipines as the eastern limit. 
In India itself, the distribution is remarkably local. There are six \\ell- 
defined regions, and of the two main series into which the species naturally 
fall (130 with short swollen spindle-shaped pods, and 60 with long and 
narrow or club-shaped ones) one only of the first occurs in the north- 
western Himalayas, and of the second not one in South India, Ceylon or the 
Malay Peninsula. The Western Ghauts are peculiarly rich in species, 
especially Travancore, and out of the 54 species described from the Nilgins 
and the mountains to the south, 24 are peculiar to the Pulneys and Travan- 
core. Most of these grow however at lower elevations than ours. 

The narrowness of the distribution of each series and of most of the 
species, seems to point to their having arisen in their separate areas after the 
conditions, whether of climate or some other factor which had allowed of 
free intercourse between the areas had passed away and left parts 
of the genus isolated on the higher hills : for the hot plains between are 
barriers for such a delicate plant, as impossible of crossing as are 
the seas to most animals. A similar confinement of species to small 
areas was found by Charles Darwin in the flora of the Galapagos islands, 
off the coast of South America, by Bates in the butterflies of districts 
separated by the tributaries of the Amazon, and perhaps most remarkable 
of all, in the snails that inhabit the deep valleys of Hawaii. It \vas a strong 
argument in favour of the theory that species are not immutable and that 
new ones may arise in isolated areas when there is no general mixing \\ith 
the main stock to prevent divergence. 



80 BALSAMINE^E 

In the following key divisions with sections (i.Scapi gerae, etc.), is 
taken from Sir Joseph Hooker's " Epitome of the Indian species of 
Impaticns," published 19041906. Rec. Bot. Sntv. Ind. IV. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{No ordinary leafy stem above ground, the leaves all from 
the rootstock ; flowers racemed on slender leafless 
stems ( i. Scapigerce) d 
Stem above ground leafy b 

f Flowers on axillary pedicels c 

| Flowers in very short umbel-like racemes, which are 

^ "S peduncled ( 6. Sub-umbellatce) r 

(^Flower in distinct racemes, peduncled ( 7. Racemose) . v 
f Sepals long. Annuals with opposite Is. ( 3. Annuce) . h 
c { Sepals minute. Shrubs mostly ( 4. Microsepalce) . . k 
I Sepals broad. Hairy shrubs ( 5. Tomentosce) . . o 
- i. Scapiverrc. Orchid Balsams. The wing petals are 
each cut into oblong lobes and together remind one of the 
lip of an orchid. 
Wing divided into 3 nearly equal lobes e 



d 4 



Wing of 2 nearly equal lobes and a third much shorter, g 



Distal (inner) lobe long and tubiform, lateral smaller, 

flower i inch white on wet moss 

10. I. neo-Barnesii. 
f Spur oblong, straight or curved : shorter or not much 

[ longer than flower f 

I Spur slender much longer than flower, up to 3 inches 

i. I. scapiflora. 
T Flower carmine, on wet rocks . . . .3. I. Levingei. 

< Flower white, in grass 2. I. clavicornu. 

I Flower mauve, in shade 4. I. modesta. 

^Spur long slender. Flower white or pink, i inch or more . 

5. I. acaulis. 
Spur i inch bulbous at base. Flower white or pink . 


6. I. laticornis. 

Spur | inch flattened laterally into which fits a thorn-like 
extension of the distal lobe of each wing 

8. I, Lawsoni, 



BALSAMINEZE 8 1 

Spur J inch cylindrical curved, basal lobe obliquely 

ovate 8-b. I. Sp. ? 

Spur J- inch triangular, basal lobe rounded 

8-a. I. Sp. ? 

Spur I inch cylindrical. Mid lobe of lip widest, basal 

erect 7. I. nilagirica. 

No spur. Fir. | inch brown lobes 2 slender .... 

9. I. orcheoides. 

3. Annual. Flowers. Annual herbs with opposite leaves. 
Ffavers on axillary pedicels and black, smooth seeds. 

_ Spur slender i 

Spur ^ inch, stem red tomentose 15. I. tomentosa. 
No spur j 

f Flowers over i inch. Fruiting pedicels stiff deflexed, 

s marshplants n. I. chinensis. 

I Flowers | inch 12. I. tenella. 

["Stem i foot, firm. Flowers J inch diameter. 

-\ 14. I. rufescens. 

Lstem slender, under i foot. Firs, small. 13 I. pusilla. 

4. Microsepalte. Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled. 
Flowers in slender axillary pedicels ; sepals minute, 
k ^ Mostly shrubs. 

Ls. opposite or whorled or alternate on the same plant . m 
Leaves all alternate ; no spur 21. I. scabriuscula. 

, f Basal lobes of wings smaller than the distal . n 

\ Basal lobe equal to or larger than the distal . . . . p 

f Leaves usually whorled, crenate o 

m < Leaves alternate narrow, serrate, spur long. . . . 
L 20. I. Balsamina. 

fStem reddish. Leaves i to 3 inches long ; petiole short. 

' 1 6. I. Leschenaultii. 

n ] Sulphury. Spur slender, flower facing upwards ; fruits 

(^ erect. Leaves 2 to 4 inches . . . 17. L latifolia. 

("Spur stout. Stem glaucous. Midrib of leaf hairy under- 

o < neath 18. I. cuspidata. 

LSpur slender. St. green. Lf. glabrous . 19. 1. floribunda. 

6 



" 5. Tomentosa. Shrubby plants. Leaves hairy on both 
sides. Pedicels solitary in the leaf -axils. Standard and 
lip of flower tomentose. 

Flowers small, white or red, wings short 

22. I. Munronii. 
Flowers to i^ inches across, white ; wings large. 

23. I. Henslowiana. 
r 6. Subembellatce. Flowers in umbels or umbel-like , very 
I short racemes j on axillary peduncles, the pedicels with 
q < bracts at the base. 

I Shrubs. Leaves alternate r 

I Herbs. Leaves opposite t 

rFlrs. white, bonnet-shaped, without spur 

r J 26. I. campanulata. 

[_ Flowers pink, spur longer than lip s 

f Tall shrub under the shade of trees. Bracts slender. 
s < 24. I fruticosa. 

L Herb of wet ground. Bracts ovate. . . 25. I. viscida. 
f Leaves ovate, long-stalked 27. I. Goughii. 

\Leaves oblong or elliptic, subsessile . . 28. I. omissa. 
' 7. Racemosce. Leaves alternate. Flowers in peduncled 
axillary racemes. Pedicels bracteate at the base. Sepals 
broad. Lip spurred. 

Flowers scarlet ; lip tubi-form 30. I. phoenicea. 

Flowers pink : lip boat-shaped with slender spur. . w. 

/Leaves lanceolate sessile 31. I. Tangachee. 

\Leaves ovate, stalked 29. I. sp. 

i. Scapigerce * Orchid Balsams' The wing petals are 
each cut into oblong lobes and together remind one of the 
labellum of an Orchid. 

i. Impatiens scapiflora Heyni ; F.B.I . i 443, VIII 7. 
Flowers on slender i-inch pedicels pink or white. Wings 
i inch long, deeply cut into 3 nearly equal lobes ; 
standard J inch ; spur 2 inches incurved. Leaves ovate- 
oblong, shallowly cordate, serrate from base to apex, 
z\ to 4 inches long, on petioles of 2 to 4 inches. Scapes 
as long or longer, perfectly glabrous. t 54. Wt. Ic. 751. 

Nilgiris : On wet rocks on the western margin and at 
lower levels. 



BALSAMINE^E 83 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, from South Kanara to Travancore, 6,000 
to 8,000 feet. 

2. Impaticns clavicornu Turcz ; F.B.I, i 442, VIII i 
as I, Beddomii Hook f. Flowers mainly white ; wings f 
by inch, cut into three oblong lobes, tinged with yellow 
at the base ; spur shorter, curved forwards, sometimes 
yellowish with touches of red ; standard J inch, hood- 
shaped, and arching over and concealing the anthers and 
style, white or reddish on the back. Capsule J inch, 
elliptic ; seeds granulate. Rootstock | inch thick. Leaves 
circular-reniform or cordate, entire or with shallow 
crenations ending in short red -points, fleshy ; veins 
mostly from the base, arching forwards. Scape up to 12 
inches high and J or more thick at the base, white or 
blotched with red ; bracts \ inch, edged with red ; 
pedicels slender, i inch, similarly coloured, t* 55. 
Wight Ic. 967. 

In grass on the open downs, flowering plentifully July 
to September after the rains. Not collected on Pulneys. 

3. Impatiens Levingei Gamble ; Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 
IV 45. Flowers carmine : lobes of wing nearly equal, 
J inch long. Spur f inch oblong curved. Leaves nearly 
round. Very similar to I. clavicornu in form. t. 56. 

Nilgiris : On wet rocks on the margins of our area 
Coonoor Lamb's Rock. Road. Slope below Biccapatti. 

4. Impatiens modesta Wight, Herb. Prop ! ; F.B.I. 
i 442, VIII 2. Flowers mauve-pink, up to f inch diameter, 
the spur - inch only, and curved backwards ; wing 
of 3 narrow lobes, the middle one shortest, spotted near 
the base. Leaves up to 5 by 4 inches, ovate or oblong, the 
base deeply cordate, acute or obtuse, coarsely crenate, 
with a few hairs scattered over the surface and margin. 

6-A 



84 BALSAMINE/E 

Scape 3 to 10 inches tinged with red ; bracts inch ; 
pedicels \ to f inch, very slender. Capsule ^ to J inch, 
acute at both ends, t* 57. Wight Ic. t. 968. 

Nilgiris : in shady places, Pykara, Coonoor, Naduvattam. 
Not collected on the Pulneys. 

Not recorded northwards in the Bombay Ghauts (C.B.F,). 

In the figure : a. fruit natural size ; b. same burst ; c. the contents 
a median placenta with numerous seeds attached, many have dropped off 
and show their attachments ; d. enlarged seed showing hairs (E.T.B.). 

5. Impatiens acaulis Am. ; F.B.I. i 443, VIII 6. 
Stem 2 to 12 inches. Flower pink or white, i to i\ inches 
wide. Wings of two spreading lobes, and much smaller 
basal lobe. Spur long and slender. Leaves round, ovate 
cordate, or oblong, usually on slender petioles, more or 
less crenate, glabrous, t. 58. 

Nilgiris : on the western edge to 8,000 feet on wet rocks : 
Avalanche, Kundahs. Shevaroys : under Shevaroyan. 

6* Impatiens laticornis C E. C. Fischer ; Kew Bulle- 
tin 4. 1930, p. 154. Flowers white with yellow or orange 
hairs or pink with magenta hairs, i to i| inches across. 
Two lobes i to ^ inch rounded. Spur inch stout, 
curved, inflated at the base as a bulb. Basal (rear) 
lobe of wing inch, ovate, obliquely backwards, incurved 
inside the lip. Leaves heart-shaped or nearly round with 
wide basal sinus, and very shallow crenations, i to i 
inches, hairy on upper side. Scape 5 to 10 inches. Plant 
increases by stolons, t. 59. 

Nilgiris : Kundahs at 8,000 feet. Flower September 
(E. Barnes). 

" Common on wet rocks and on tree trunks and other shady places 
exposed to rain and mists from Malabar." E. Barnes. 

j. Impatiens nilgirica C. E. C. Fischer, Kew, Bull. 
193 1 , 41. Flowers light to pink, f inch long. Lip 



BALSAMIN&E 85 

three-lobed, the distal longer and narrower than the ovate 
middle lobe : basal lobe, broad oblong, truncate with 
slightly concave margin outwards ; erect : all three with 
thick hairs on the palate. Spur short. Stems from 
6 to 12 inches, leaves broadly ovate or nearly round t, 60 
(like I. clavicornu). 

Nilgiris : in grass on Kundahs 8,000 feet. Flower 
September (Cdl. E. Barnes). 

8, Impatiens Lawsoni Hook.; Rec. Bot. Sur. India IV. 
45. Remarkable for the spur being compressed laterally, 
and enclosing a spiniform extension at the base of each 
distal lobe of the wings. Leaves cordate to elliptic, 
hairy : veins on under side red with bulbils. 

Nilgiri : Kundahs on wet rocks in dense shade of wet 
shoias. The species was not described by Hooker. I am 
indebted to Mr. E. Barnes for this amount of description. 

Two other plants have been collected by Mr. E. Barnes 
on the Kundahs in September. In both the distal lobe is 
produced as a very small spine which lies in the spur. 

(a) Spur short (^ inch) ; basal lobe rounded. 

(b) Spur -J- inch, cylindrical curved ; basal lobe ovate 
obliquely forwards. 

9* Impatiens orchioides Bedd ; F.B.I. i 443, VIII 
5. A very small plant. Flowers reddish brown, inch 
diameter. Wing of two narrow divergent lobes J inch 
long, and a shallow basal one ; no spur. Leaves round, 
ovate deeply cordate up to 2! inches, acuminate or not, 
very hairy above, glabrous beneath and with bulbils, 
capsule J inch, t, 61* Bedd. Ic. t. 152. 

In wet shoias, on the ground, occasionally on a mass of 
branches, Nilgiris : on the western margin at 8,000 feet. 



86 BALSAMINE/E 

10* Impatiens neo-Barnesii C. E. C. Fischer, Kew 
Bulletin 4 1930, p. 153. An epiphyte on trees. 
Flowers i inch, cream coloured or white, very fragile 
and soon falling. Wings two-lobed the basal lobe J inch, 
the distal much larger f by J inch, tubiform, No spur. 
Capsule ellipsoid | inch. Leaves ovate, or elliptic ovate, 
acute or rounded or very slightly cordate at the base, f 
to 1 1 inches by ^ to f inch. Scape 2 to 3 inches and 
pedicels very slender, glabrous, t. 62. 

Nilgiris : Kundahs about 8,000 feet. Flower September 
(E. Barnes). 

" On moss covered tree trunks with its leaves and flowers hanging down, 
in deep shade in very wet sholas or \\ here enveloped in mist overlooking 
Malabar near top of Mukarte, etc. In the few specimens I saw, the 
wing petals were curled to form a tube and were dripping water." 
E. Barnes. 

3. Subverticillata. Flower son axillary pedicels. Annual 
herbs ; leaves all opposite. 

ii. Impatiens chinensis Linn. ; F.BJ. i 444, VIII 
10. Stem unbranched 4 to 20 inches high, from a 
thickened, rooting, prostrate base ; glabrous. Leaves all 
opposite, very shortly stalked, i to 4 inches long and a 
sixth to a quarter as broad, ovate, acute, oblong or lanceo- 
late, not narrowed to the base, sharply serrate ; lower side 
silvery-grey ; nerves three pairs, not hairy ; stipules linear, 
inch. Pedicels solitary or in fascicles, slender, ii to a| 
inches, deflexed usually in fruit, but sometimes not. 
Flowers mauve-pink or white, i inches across ; spur 
2 inches slender, curving forwards ; lateral sepals by 
inch ; wings with one large lobe slightly indented on the 
inside, and one much smaller on the outside (usually 
covered). Capsule \ to f inch : seeds black and shining 
The stiffly deflexed fruiting pedicels are very characteristic 
t. 63. Wight Ic. t. 748. 



BALSAMINE/E 87 

One of the commonest species here wherever the ground is 
a little moist ; very variable in size. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout the Western Ghauts down to 3,000 feet in 
Mysore, Assam, Bhotan, Khasia, and westwards to Burma and China. 
For a Balsam the distribution is unusually wide. 

12. Impatiens tenclla Heyne ; F.B.I. i 446, VIII 15. 
Stem branched succulent. Leaves all opposite, to 3 
inches ; lowest smallest petioled, upper often dilated 
at the base. Pedicels slender, solitary or in pairs, in 
the leaf axils, deflexed in fruit. Flowers flat, rosy ; 
spur curved upwards, as long or longer than the flower. 
Pod | inch. Seeds few, black globular, shining, t. 64. 

Nilgiris : Naduvattam, flower. September. 
Gen Dist. Nilgiris. 
Western Ghauts : 6,000 feet. 

13. Impatiens pusilla Eentham (inFl. N. & P. as I. 
inconspicua Benth.) ; F.B.I. i 447, VIII 18. A small plant 
4 to 7 inches high, with numerous branches, the lowest 
almost as long as the stem rather thick and flaccid, glabrous. 
Leaves all opposite, from t by I to ij by |inch, elliptic, 
acute at both ends, with a few (six or fewer) bristle-like 
teeth on each margin, whitish below, occasionally pubes- 
cent above ; veins inconspicuous. Pedicels solitary or in 
pairs, hairlike, to I- inch, with a line of red pubescence, 
deflexed in fruit. Flowers i to | inch : lateral sepals 
linear lanceolate, nearly as long : lip without spur, 
hardly even saccate : wing with large round terminal 
lobe and small linear lateral one near the narrow base, 
purplish with white ends. Capsule f inch with about 
five globose, black, shining seeds ^ inch diameter, t* 65. 
Wight Ic. t. 970. 

Nilgiris : Dodabetta, flowering September. Not collected 
on Pulneys. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of the Western Peninsula, 3,000 to 8 ,000 feet. 



88 BALSAMINE/E 

A very variable plant. It may be only a few inches high unbranched 
or branched (t. 65 left) : the flowers white blotched with pink : or in 
long grass it may be 8 inches high with very narrow leaves and almost 
colourless flower, (t. 65 right). The latter is what Wight figured as 
I. ? ros marinifolia Ic. t. 750. 

14. Impatiens rufescens Benth. Wall. Cat. 4747 / ; 
VIII 23 ; Pink Marsh Balsam. Stems numerous, weak and 
decumbent at the base, and rooting at the much swollen 
nodes, rising up in clumps ; pinkish, very hairy (for a 
Balsam) and flaccid. Leaves all opposite, thick, white 
below, with short silvery hairs on the upper side ; faintly 
serrate, the teeth hardly more than mere points ^ to ^ 
inch apart : lower leaves obovate-obtuse, narrowed to 
the short petiole ; upper oblanceolate or oblong-ovate, 
cut off square at the base : veins three or four pairs. 
Pedicels, slender, i| to 2 inches, hairy. Flowers f inch. 
Lateral sepals ^ by -^ inch linear-acute, hairy. Lip with a 
sac $ to J inch deep but no spur. Standard rose-pink, 
nearly circular, distinctly keeled, mucronate. Wing 
petals pinkish-purple or mauve ; the outer (and main) 
lobes rounded J inch across ; posterior lobe T 1 ^ inch 
wide, falcate. Capsule | to f inch. Seeds dark brown, 
smooth and shining, t* 66. Wight Ic. t. 969. 

Nilgiris : in swamps, Ootacamund downs, Dodabetta. 
Pykara on bank above the rapids. Not recorded from other 
hills. 

In F.B.I, and in G.F.M.P. this species is reduced to I. tomentosa 
Heyne from which however it seems to me to differ in several respects 
prominently in not having the small horizontal spur at the bottom of the 
sac (Wight No. 453 and his I. ovalifolia !) 

In the figure : a. two-lobed lateral petal ; b. the anterior petal (outer in 
bud) ; c. a narrow lateral sepal ; d. posterior sepal (anterior in flower). It 
is petaloid and produced into a hollow sac (E.T.B.). 

15. Impatiens tomentosa Heyne, Wight's Kew dist. 
No. 317 and Ic. t. 749 ; F.B.I. i 449 ex parte, VIII 23 ; 
Red Liberty Cap. Stems usually a little branched below, 



BALSAMIN&E 89 

red, very variable as regards hairiness, from glabrous to 
densely pubescent in the same locality, and as regards 
length running up to 18 inches and rooting at the lower 
nodes in water of varying depth, but by the edge of deep 
constant pools short and erect. Petioles variable, J 
inch or less. Upper leaves narrow, oblong-acute, f to 
i \ inches by \ inch ; lower shorter and broader, the 
lowest sometimes \ inch only and nearly as broad ; 
variable like the stem in respect of hairiness ; remotely 
serrate with pink-tipped teeth. Stipules only on fully 
developed leaves, as short soft spines which early wither 
and fall. Flower-stalks one to three, usually three, the 
middle bud not opening ; glabrous or pubescent, but 
always with a single line of pubescence following the 
twist of the stalk from the upper side at the base to the 
lip ; i to I inch but lengthening continuously till in 
fruit about i to \ inch long ; with a small persistent bract 
at the base. Buds pointed, the standard covering the 
back completely. Flowers \ to \ inch of various shades 
of rose pink to almost yellowish white in the more 
pubescent forms : wings mauve or magenta, splotched 
with dark purple near the crimson base. Spur short 
somewhat variable but always present : lateral sepals 
linear \ by ^V inc ^ : wm g with one large lobe narrowed 
at the base where it joins the other much smaller one, 
rather larger in the more pubescent forms and projecting 
over the edge of the lip. Capsule pointed at each end, 
about 3 by ^ inch. Seeds about five, black, smooth and 
shining, but slightly compressed from a globose shape ; 
not variable, t* 67. Wight Ic. t. 749. 

Pulneys : on the Kodaikanal downs. Fyson 351, 354. 
Bourne 316, 503, 5208. 

The above description is taken very largely, and in part verbatim, from 
a note made by Sir Alfred Bourne, " after examination of many living 



gO BALSAMINE/E 

specimens." The plant is quite common on the Kodaikanal downs wher- 
ever there is water (and there are several streams and much marshy land 
there), and occurs in such varying states as regards size and hairiness hat 
it is impossible to separate it into two varieties though the extremes might 
almost be considered sufficiently distinct to be classed as species. Its most 
constant characteristic features are the redness of the stem and the peculiar 
short-spurred lip, in shape like an inverted cap of liberty. I. rufescens 
Benth. united with this in F.B.I, and in G.F.M.P. seems to me to be quite 
a different plant. 

4. Leaves alternate or opposite ; bush or shrubby plant. 

1 6. Impatiens Leschenaultii Wall. Cat. 4739.'; 
F.B.I. i 450, VIII 27 ; common shrubby Balsam. A 
well-branched very leafy plant 2 to 3 feet high (or more 
in shady places) with stem at the base as thick as 
the finger : branches perfectly glabrous, smooth, 
conspicuously swollen at the nodes. Leaves sub- 
opposite or whorled : blade f to 2 by J to f inch, 
elliptic, acute at both ends or acuminate, crenate, with a 
few very distinct hair-points " j 1 ,.- inch long*' towards the 
base, glabrous ; petioles shorter ; stipules linear, -j l 
inch. Flowers nearly white, with some pink. Flower- 
stalks mostly solitary in the upper axils, i inch, very 
slender, glabrous. Lateral sepals minute : lip boat- 
shaped, yellow : spur slender tinged with red on the 
lower side, and ending in a slightly swollen yellow tip. 
Corolla open, nearly flat, i by f inch : terminal lobe of 
wing to | inch, nearly straight on the inside but 
notched near the end and broadest opposite this notch ; 
lateral lobe smaller triangular, f by inch. Standard, 
circular, notched at the top with small spur behind. Cap- 
sule up to f by | inch. Seeds thickly rugose. t 68. 
Wight Ic. t. 970 bis. 

Common near Ootacamund in shady places or even where 
partly exposed as on the edge of a shola, and in flower at all 
times. 



BALSAMINE7E gt 

This is the wild Balsam most commonly grown in gardens at these 
levels. 

17. Impatiens latifolia Linn. ; F.B.I. i 450, VIII 26. 
In general habit and shape of leaflike I. Leschenaultii but 
larger, leaf-stalks and blades 2 to 4 inches long. Stem 
grooved. Fruiting pedicels erect, flowers pink-purple 
Or white, flat and facing upwards basal lobe of wing 
smaller than the apical, t* 69. 

Nilgiris : Naduvattum to Pykara by streams. Coonoor : 
by stream in Sims Park. 

In t. 54 : a. pedicel with lip boat-shaped lip and spur, staminal column 
and standard in face view ; b. pedicel with lateral sepals and standard from 
behind ; c. a two-lobed wing (E.T.B. sheet No. 6147). 

18. Impatiens cuspidata Wt. ; F.B.I. included in I. 
latifolia. A shrub, 3 to 5 feet, well branched. Stems 
and branches covered with bluish white powder. 
Leaves serrate alternate, opposite or several at a node, 
often unequal in size, petioles with glandular filamantous 
outgrowths ( inch) mid-rib hairy below. Flowers pale 
pink ; standard broadly obcordate, nearly flat ; lip small 

with long straight spur ; basal lobe of wings much 
longer and broader than the distal and notched. Wight 

Ic. t. 741. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor on Lamb's Rock Road, common. May 
September. 

19* Impatiens floribunda Wt. ; F.B.I. incl. in I. 
flaccida Arn. y i. 457 VIII 50. Habit of the last two, but 

inner or apical lobe of wing quite small. 

Nilgiris to Travancore, 6,000 to 7,000 feet. Not seen here. 

20. Impatiens Balsamina Linn ; F.B.I. i 453 ; VIII 
37. Stem usually not branched. Leaves alternate, narrow 
lanceolate, deeply serrate. Flowers on slender axillary 
pedicels, large rose-coloured. Wings very broad, distal 



92 BALSAMINE^E 

lobe much larger than the basal. Capsule tomentose. 
Spur long, incurved. Seeds globose, tubercled. 
Shevaroys common ; Horsleykonda. 

Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India with much variation. 
The original of the common garden Balsam. 

21. Impatiens scabriuscula Heyne ; F.B.L i 454, 
VIII 38. A small plant, 4 to 10 inches, branched from the 
base. Leaves petioled, narrowly elliptic, lanceolate to 
obovate, i to 2 inches. Flowers i inch, pink. Lip and 
standard hairy. Wings three-lobed, the middle lobe more 
than twice the outer, and the inner lobe very small. No 
spur. Capsule inch, ellipsoid, mucronate, villous. 
Seeds few, globose dark brown, tubercled. t. 70. 
Bedd. Ic. cxliv. 

Nilgiris : 6,000 feet at Naduvattam. Flower September. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, from South Kanara and Coorg to VVynaad 
and Nilgiris. 

The entire absence of even a v estige of a spur is remarkable in a Balsam. 

5. Tomentosce. Shrubby plants ; leaves hairy on both 
sides ; pedicels solitary in leaf-axils ; standard and 
lip of flower tomentose. 

22. Impatiens Munronii Wt. ; F.B.L i 456, VIII 48. 
An undershrub up to 2 feet, sparingly branched. Leaves 
hairy on both sides, 3 to 4 by i| to 2 inches, elliptic, 
acuminate. Flowers, on axillary pedicels with pink 
wings paler standard and white spur. Standard hel- 
met-shaped with greenish keeL Spur hairy like the leaves, 
tapering nearly evenly from the boat-shaped lip to the 
slightly swollen curved tip (similar to that of /. Phoenicia, 
1.76). Wt. Ic.t. 1049. 

Nilgiris : Sispara jungles in dense shade (Wight). Kundahs 
(Barnes). 



BALSAMINEJE 93 

23. Impatiens Hcnslowiana Arnott ; F.B.I, i 456*, 
VIII 53. An undershrub easily recognized among our 
Balsams by the very large white flowers. Branches with 
prominently swollen leaf scars. Leaves 3 to 5 inches, 
crowded at the ends of the branches, petioled, elliptic, 
hairy on both sides. Flowers i to 2 inches diameter, on 
stout axillary pedicels, white with pinkish tinge at the 
base of the petals. Wings deeply divided into two broad 
flat parts, the distal ones also notched. Spur longer, 
curved up slightly, t. 71. Wt. Ic. t. 743. 

Pulneys : in ravines and clefts of rocks and on steep 
banks, up to 7,000 feet, near Poombari, Neutral Saddle, etc. 
Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, 2,000 to 7,000 feet. 

6. Subumbellatce. Flowers in umbels or umbel-like very 
short racemes on axillary peduncles ; pedicels with bracts 
at the base. 

24. Impatiens fruticosa DC. ; F.B.I, i 459, VIII 57. 
An erect much-branched shrub, up to 8 feet high. 
Branches glabrous, but leaves hairy on the underside ; 
peduncles i to 2 inches, dividing into 3 or 4 pedicels 
bearing the flowers. Flowers ij inches, pink ; lobes 
of the wings two, well separated ; spur i to i i inches. 
Capsule erect, t. 72. Wight Ic. t. 966. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor and Kotagiri, near streams in jungles. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Nilgiris, Pulney and Travancore hills, 
5,000 to 6,000 feet. 

25. Impatiens viscida Wight, Herb Prop. ! ; F.B.I, i 
462, VIII 65. A small herb of very wet rocks. Stems 
red, decumbent and rooting at the lower nodes. Leaves 
petioled, ovate-acute, about 2 by i inches. Flowers light 
purple or pink, two or three together on a slender axillary 
peduncle of about 2 inches ; bracts J inch ; sepals by 



94 BALSAMINE/K 

J inch, light brown ; hinder lobe of wing about one- 
third only the size of the distal, which is nearly semi- 
circular in shape and f inch long ; standard inch, 
concave ; spur i to ij inches, bent at upper end then 
lying nearly straight close under and parallel to the wings, 
in bud curled up over the rest. Capsules erect, t. 73. 
Wt. Ic. t. 746. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal or Jesuits Walk near Pambar, etc., on 
dripping rocks. 

Gen. Dist. Madura and Tinnevelly hills, 3,000 to 7,000 feet. 

26. Impatiens campanulata Wight ; F.B.I, i 463, 
VIII 70. A stout herb, i^ feet high and upwards, not much 
if at all branched, glabrous. Leaves all alternate, 3 to 4 by 
li to 2\ inches, broadly elliptic, acute at both ends, crenate 
with sharp points which are especially conspicuous near 
the base ; stalk A to 2 inches. Peduncles stout 2 to 3 
inches ; pedicels f inch, crowded (three to five) near the 
top, in axils of ovate-lanceolate bracts inch long. Buds 
ovoid-acute with a very distinct hooked point showing on 
the apex of the large standard, and enclosed by the sepals 
which hides the short swollen spur. Sepals nearly \ inch, 
broadly ovate with short acumen : lip i by ^ inch in depth, 
with very short slightly turgid spur. Corolla campanulate, 
horizontal with the lower side rather longer than the upper 
like a white bonnet ; wings laterally concave, the terminal 
lobe obovate retuse or obliquely obcordate, with a small 
yellow auricle on the inner side near the base ; lateral lobe 
much smaller. Capsule glabrous, turgid, pointed at each 
end. Seeds globose, t. 74. Wt. Ic t. 744. 

Easily recognized by the horizontal campanulate corolla, 
which might be likened to an open mouth with protruding 
tongue, or to a white v< sun-bonnet " facing upwards. 



BALSAMIN&ZE 95 

On the outskirts of sholas and in other shady places ; 
common on the Pulneys at 7,000 feet. 
No specimens from other localities seen. 

27. Impatiens Goughii Wight Herb. ! ; F.B.L i 452, 
VIII 33; Cough's Water Balsam. A delicate well-branched 
herb, 4 to 8 inches high, but sometimes with longer 
horizontal stem from which erect branches rise ; quite 
glabrous. Leaves without stipules, mostly opposite or 
often two to three near each other, the internodes varying 
much in length : stalk | to J inch ; blade up to i 
inch, ovate-lanceolate acute, often rounded at the base but 
drying acute, coarsely serrate (seven to ten teeth on each 
margin), glabrous, thin Peduncles i| to 3 inches, solitary 
in the leaf-axils but often falsely whorled, slender ; pedi- 
cels falsely umbelled in the axils of minute bracts, to 
f inch, capillary. Flowers pink, to } inch across, in 
shape not unlike a UTRICULARIA. Buds globose. Lip 
shallow, spur half its length acute, curved slightly for- 
wards. Wing petal with a slight projection at the base 
fitting into the spur, and two lobes : the terminal lobe 
with a shallow bay in the end side, the lateral lobe rectan- 
gular rounded at each end and attached at the side. Stand- 
ard nearly circular with short spur just below the upper 
margin. Capsule ovoid, acute at both ends, $ inch. 
Seeds hairy, t* 75. Wight Ic. t. 1603. 

By the side of streams. Pulneys : below and near Kodai- 
kanal. Nilgiris : Pykara and below. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

28. Impatiens omissa//A./.; Rec. Bot. Sur. IV, p. 43. 
A very small, slender annual herb. Leaves all opposite, 
oblong or elliptic subsessile, J to i inch long. Flowers 
in many-flowered short umbel-like racemes, on long 
peduncles. 



96 BALSAMINEffi 

Western Ghauts, Anamalai and Pulney hills, 6,000 to 
7,000 feet. 

29. Impatiens (species not traced). A shrub reach- 
ing 6 feet. Leaves hairy, 2 J inches long, ovate acumi- 
nate, serrulate : stalk i to f inch usually with glands. 
Flowers racemed. Peduncle much longer than its sub- 
tending leaf, bracteate. Pedicels i inch horizontal. 
Flowers, i inch or more, distal (terminal) lobe inch, 
rounded, basal lobe minute. Spur slender, twice as long, 
curled upwards. Capsule | inch glabrous. 

Nilgiris : Lovedale (P. V. Mayuranathan). 

Mr. Mayuranathan showed me this as I. -maculata Wt., but it is 
much smaller in every way than the plant in the Madras Herbarium 

30, Impatiens phcenicea Beddome ! ; F.B.I. i 466, 
VIII 8 1 ; Scarlet Balsam. Stem slender, branched or not, 
i to 3 feet, very dark coloured. Leaves alternate, dark 
green, 2 to 5! by ij inches elliptic-acute or occasionally 
ovate with blunt cusp, crenate-serrate ; stalk \ inch. 
Flowers racemed, four or five along the uppermost third 
of axillary peduncles 2 to 4 inches long. Bracts ovate 
J inch, persistent ; pedicel slender, i inch nearly hori- 
zontal when the flower opens. Flower in shape somewhat 
different from other balsams, rather narrow for its depth, 
with the lip narrowing into the trumpet-shaped spur, and 
the standard more than usually helmet-shaped. Sepals 
\ inch obliquely ovate with a short point ; lip \ inch and its 
spur i inch, but the two hardly separable, blood-crimson, 
trumpet-shaped with swollen tip. Wings scarlet, but 
yellow at the base, with an oblong terminal lobe and a 
smaller lateral cordate one, not much exserted ; standard 
scarlet, deeply vaulted, with a rose-pink ridge down the 
middle of the back, t* 76. 



RUTACEJE 97 

A very striking plant, its bright scarlet flowers showing up 
against the dark green foliage. There are in these levels no 
other balsams at all like it in colour. 

In woods, quite common on the Pulneys, flowering from 
June but mostly September to October. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Pulneys and Tinnevelly hills, above 6,000 
feet. 

31. Impatiens Tangachcc Bedd. ; F.B.I, i 467, VIII 
82. Stem 6 to 15 inches, usually unbranched. Leaves 
crowded towards the top, oblanceolate, finely-serrate. 
Flowers in racemes, the lower flowerless part of the 
peduncle longer than the leaves ; bracts ^ inch ; pedicels 
i inch. Flowers rose-pink ; standard helmet-shaped ; 
terminal lobe of wing with broadly truncate, erose tip ; 
lateral lobe inch long ; spur i inch, nearly straight. 
Bedd. Ic. t. 147. 

Pulneys : in streams at 5,000 feet, etc. 
Gen. Dist. Anamalais, above 4,000 feet, Bolampatti hills. 

RUTACE^E. 

A family easily recognized by the very numerous 
small oil glands in the (usually pinnately) compound 
leaf, which show against the light as translucent dots. 
(In a few genera, one leaflet only is developed.) Flowers 
quite regular, with all the parts in fives or fours ; calyx 
always very small ; anthers opening inwards, and inside 
the stamens a prominent honey-secreting disc. 

A fairly large family of 650 species, confined almost exclu- 
sively to the warmer parts of the world, more especially South 
Africa and Australia. In Europe it is hardly represented at all, 
the common Rue, Ruta graveolens L. a native of the Mediter- 
ranean being almost the only species found. In India the best 
known are the Orange, Lime, Pumelo, etc. (species of Citrus) 
and wood-apple (Feronia). 



RUTACE/E 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Leaf simple, flowers in long-pedimcled cyme, stamens 8. b 
Leaves opposite, leaflets 3 ; a small tree. 

Evodia lunur ankenda Merr. 

Leaves alternate, leaflets 3 or more ; erect or climbing 
shrubs c 

{Leaves opposite ; peduncles decurved ; flowers few . . 
MELICOPE. 
Leaves opposite, peduncles erect, flowers many .... 
ACRONYCHIA. 

(Petals i inch, sweet scented ; unarmed shrubs . MURRAYA 
Flowers \ inch ; prickly shrubs and climbers . . . d 
{Leaflets 3 to 5, carpels in fruit dry with one black seed, 
wood yellow XANTHOXYLUM. 
Leaflets 3 only, often climbers with warty stems, fruit 
a small yellow berry TODDALIA. 

EVODIA* F.B.I. 33 v. 

Unarmed trees and shrubs with opposite, simple or 
tri-foliate or odd-pinnate leaves ; and small flowers in 
panicled cymes, with deeply four-lobed ovary which in 
fruit divides into two or four hard dry carpels each with 
one shining seed. 

Species about thirty, in tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, East 
African Islands, Australia. 

Evodia Roxburghiana Benth. ; F.B.I, i 487, V i. 
A small well-branched tree with dark green foliage. 
Leaves of three leaflets : main stalk 2 inches : stalks of 
the leaflets inch. Leaflets nearly equal, quite glabrous, 
shiny, obovate-oblong, entire, rounded at the apex or with 
a short point : nerves numerous, parallel, conspicuous 
when dry, glands minute, but leaf aromatic when crushed. 
Panicles long-stalked, axillary : branches horizontal. 
Flowers yellow-green, small, in dense clusters of J inch 
across. Capsule light brown | inch. Seeds black, shiny. 
t.77. 



RUTACE^E 99 

Nilgiris : Downs towards Pykara, Kotagiri, Biccapatti, 
Shevaroys. Very common in the sholas. Not at higher levels. 

Gen. Dist. On lower hills, Tinnevelly, to Mysore : northward to the 
Khasi hills and eastwards to Ceylon, Sumatra and Java. 

MELICOPE. F.B.I. 33 vn. 

Shrubs with opposite i to 3 -foliate leaves, and the 
parts of the flower in fours (eight stamens). Fruit of 
four parts which open on the inner side. 

Species about 20, chiefly in Polynesia. 

Melicope indica Wt. ; F.BJ. i 492, VII i. A shrub or 
small tree. Leaflet one only, shining, 3 to 4 inches long 
narrowed to the base with long petiole. Flowers inch 
diameter, two or three together on axillary peduncles 
of 2 to 4 inches. Carpels in fruit inch, one-seeded. 
Wt. Ic. 1051. 

Nilgiris in woods near Avalanche, and on the Kundahs. 

XANTHOXYLUM. F.B.I. 33 vm. 
Yellow-wood. 

Shrubs or trees with yellow-wood, usually prickly. 
Leaves alternate, pinnately three or more-foliate. Flowers 
small, the parts three, four, or five ; unisexual. Ovary 
deeply lobed ; carpels with two ovules each ; when ripe 
globose with one black shining seed which may hang from 
the opened carpel for some time. 

Species 80 in the hotter parts of the world. 

Xanthoxylum tetraspermum Wight and Arnott ; 
Herb. Wight Prop. 981 / ; F.BJ. i 494, VIII 8 ; Common 
Yellow-wood. A woody climber covered all over the 
young parts with short curved prickles, glabrous except 

7-A 



IOO RUTACE^E 

for the velvety cymes. Leaves 4 to 7 inches, very prickly 
on the stalk. Leaflets usually five, nearly sessile, elliptic- 
ovate and suddenly contracted to a J inch notched tip, 
crenate-serrate, shining above, with numerous nearly 
parallel veins. Panicles axillary and terminal. Flowers 
nearly sessile, bunched at short intervals on the alternate 
branches. Calyx very small. Petals four, ^ inch 
valvate. Stamens twice as long. Ripe carpels four, i inch 
diameter, woody, opening to expose the single, black, 
very shining seed which remains attached some time before 
falling. 

In sholas ; belonging rather to the lower limits of our area. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri, 6,600 feet. Pulneys : Shembaganur, 
etc. Not Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. Nilgiris, Anamalais, etc. 

For a note on the significance of the seeds remaining on the plant see 
under Ternstroemia japonica, p. 52. 

TODDALIA, F.B.I. 33 ix. 

Climbing or straggling woody plants, armed with 
prickles. Leaves of three sessile leaflets. Flowers small, 
in cymes or panicles, unisexual. Stamens of the male 
flower as many or more than the petals. Ovary of the 
female flower egg-shaped, entire, the carpels completely 
united, each with two ovules. Fruit leathery or fleshy ; 
berry of several cells each with usually one seed. 

Species 9, in the tropics of the Old World mainly of Africa. 

Name taken direct from the Malay alam name kaka-toddali. 

Toddalia asiatica Lamk. formerly T. aculeata 
Pers. ; F.B.I. i 497, IX i ; var. floribunda ; the 
Toddali. A rambling woody plant, with stem near the 
ground as thick as one's arm or, higher up, as one's wrist, 
and there studded with pyramidal lumps of cork three- 
quarters of an inch high. Twigs armed with curved 



RUTACEE 

prickles. Leaves alternate, three-foliate : petiole i to ij 
inches, with an occasional prickle : leaflets, i to 3 by | to 
i inch, obovate cuspidate, with short blunt acumen notched 
at. the end, coriaceous, glabrous, finely crenulate, dark 
green : midrib strong, lateral veins numerous, slender, 
parallel nearly to the margin. Flowers white, .1 to | inch 
across, in close axillary cymose panicles 2 to 3 inches long ; 
unisexual. Petals oblong, thickened and incurved at the 
apex. Male flowers globular in bud, the petals short ; 
stamens equal in number to the petals ; ovary rudiment- 
ary. Female flowers oblong in bud, the petals longer and 
the ovary well formed on a low disc, with a nearly sessile 
stigma lobed like it. Fruit the size of a pea, with a few 
angular seeds. Embryo bent, enclosed in a fleshy endos- 
perm, t. 78. Wight 111. t. 66. 

In sholas very common on both the Nilgiri and Pulney 
downs, extending even down to the plains and all over South 
India. Very variable in regard to the size and breadth of the 
leaflets : on the plains usually a low shrub with smaller and 
narrower leaflets. 

Var. obtusifolia, an erect shrub unarmed or only slightly 
prickly. Leaflets obtuse. Flowers in short dense panicles. 

Nilgiris : In roadside hedges near Kotagiri. 

Gen. Dist. Widely over the Indian and Malayan tropics, to Java, 
Sumatra, China and the Phillipines. 



MURRAYA* 

Shrubs with rather dark foliage of alternate, pinnate 
leaves ; the leaflets alternate, oblique or cuneate at the 
base. Flowers solitary or in terminal corymbs, petals 5. 
Stamens 10, attached outside the disc, their filaments 
white, thick but not much enlarged at the base. Ovary 



102 RUTACEflE 

seated on the disc, with two styles connate more or less, 
bearing two stigmas. Fruit an orange-coloured berry. 

Named in honour of John Adam Murray, a Professor of Botany at 
Gottingden and editor of some of Linnaeus' works. 

Murraya exotica Linn. ; F.B.I. i 502, XIV i. Leaflets 
3, easily mistaken for distinct leaves, terminal largest. 
Flowers axillary i inch, campanulate, white and very 
fragrant. 

Nilgiris : on eastern plateau near Biccapatti. Frequently 
planted in garden on the plains. 

M, Kcenigii is a small tree with numerous leaflets and numerous 
small flowers in axillary panicles. Its leaflets are highly aromatic and used 
n curries. 

CITRUS* F.B.I. 33 xx i. 

Spiny trees, with winged petiole having a single leaflet 
jointed to its end only cultivated. 

Citrus aurantiun L., the Orange, hasentire leaflet. 

C, dccumana Murr the " Pumelo " or " Shaddock " 
has crenate leaflet. 

C* Mcdica L. the " Citron " is distinguished by its 
hardly winged petiole very large serrate leaflet, and purple 
roughly pear-shaped fruit. Varieties of this species are 
acida the " lime ", " limetta" the " sweet lime " and 
limonum the " lemon." 

Citrus nobilis Lour, is the " Mandarin orange " or 
" Tangerine." 

ACRONYCHIA* F.B.I. 33 x. 

Trees with i, rarely 3 -foliate leaves, and small flowers 
in long-peduncled cymes, the parts in fours (stamens 8). 
Ovary not deeply lobed, fruit a four-celled drupe. 



MELIACE^E 103 

Species few, in tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific 
islands. 

Acronychia laurifolia Blume ; F.B.I. i 498, X i. 
Leaflet 3 to 9 inches, thick. Peduncles 3 to 6 inches, cymes 
as broad corymbs. Petals with white hairs inside at the 
base, t, 79, Wight 111. r. 65. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor on roadsides, not above. Pulneys : 
Shembaganur, etc. 



Trees with pinnate or bi-pinnate leaves and rather 
small flowers in large axillary panicles, characterized by 
the stamens being united into a tube bearing the anthers 
sessile in the inner side. Fruit a drupe. 

Species about 400 mostly in the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres, and especially in the Indian Archipelago. Common 
trees of the plains are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, (Melia 
azadirachta L.), the Neem or Margosa ; Melia azedarach Z,., 
the Persian Lilac ; Chloroxylon swietenia DC., the Satin Wood 
or White Cedar ; Cedrela Toona Roxb. Swietenia Mahagoni 
L., Mahogany, a native of the West Indies, is planted in gardens. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

r Filaments of stamens broad at least at the base and con- 
J nected ; bifid at tip .......... b 

a ] Filament free, subulate : leaves 2 to 3 feet long ; leaflets 
^ many, 2 to 7 inches long. A tall tree . . CEDRELA. 

f Fruit a small drupe ; shrub ..... CIPADESSA. 

\ Fruit a capsule, seeds with aril ; a tree . . . HEYNEA. 

Cipadessa bacciferaM**?.; F.B.I. i 545 as C. fruticosa 
B i ; V i. A well-branched shrub. Leaves alternate 
imparipinnate, leaflets 9 or 11, the basal ones smaller 
than the terminal, opposite, more or less ovate, entire or 



104 MELIACE/E 

coarsely toothed in the distal half, glabrous. Flowers J 
inch, in irregular axillary panicles, the branches of which are 
towards the end (i.e., unbranched part of peduncle long) 
the whole shorter than the leaves. Sepals small, Petals 
^ inch, lanceolate or narrow triangular, spreading pubescent 
on the backs. Stamens erect, nearly as long and broad 
as the petals, united at the base only, bifid at the tips, with 
small anthers on the inner face. Ovary globose ; style 
swollen above and extended into a point above the ring- 
shaped stigma. Fruit a small drupe, under inch, red, 
with very thin flesh through which the five division 
show ; and one or two seeds in each chamber. 
Shevaroys : roadsides about Yercaud. 
Gen. Dist. Low hills of South India especially on laterite. 

HEYNEA. F.B.I. 37 xm. 

Trees. Leaflets opposite, with one terminal, quite 
entire. Panicles terminal and axillary, on long pedun- 
cles. Flowers small. Stamens connate into a tube, with 
two teeth to each on either side of the anther. Stigma 
thickened at the base, two to three cleft at top. Fruit 
one-celled, seeds surrounded with fleshy aril. 
Species very few in India and adjacent islands. 

Heynea trijuga Rozb.; F.B.L i 565, XIII i. A small 
or large tree. Leaflets ovate-t)blong or lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, glabrous above. Flowers in corymbose panicles 
standing above the leaves, small, pale cream in colour, 
with bright orange-yellow stamens massed in the centre. 
Fruit round, opening in two valves, with one seed, 
t. 80. Bedd. Fl. Syl. t, Ixxxiv ; Curt. Bot. Mag. 
t. 1738- 



ICACINACEJE 105 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, on roadsides and at lower level, com- 
mon. Shevaroys : Yercaud and below. 

Gen. Dist. Eastern and Western Ghauts, to 6,000 feet, forests of 
Oudh, and the Himalaya, Khasia Mountains and southwards to Penang. 

CEDRELA* F.B.I. 37 xvm. 

Cedrela Toona Rozb. ; F.B.I. i 568, XVIII i. A 
handsome tree, with large pinnate leaves and small 
white flowers in large axillary well-branched panicles. 
Leaves 2 to 3 feet ; leaflets glossy ; ovate acute 2 to 6 
inches long. Panicles i foot or more. Calyx ^ 
inch. Corolla J inch. Filaments of stamens broad 
below but narrow in upper half, not bifid or toothed. 
Fruit an oblong capsule i to i\ inches with winged seeds. 

Nilgiris : wild or planted, here and there on the Eastern 
plateau, Kotagiri, Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Lower South Indian hills. 

Wood red, soft and scented, used for cigar boxes. 



ICACINACE^. 

Trees and shrubs with alternate entire leaves ; flowers 
in compound panicles, with lobed calyx, four or five 
petals and stamens, and one cell only to the ovary, in 
which are two ovules pendent from the top of the cell, 
with their micropyles pointing inwards and upwards ; 
fruit usually a drupe. 

Species about 200, chiefly tropical. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Flowers in large terminal cymose corymbs. Anthers 

a < oblong, embryo large ; flowers often foetid . . MAPPIA. 

L Flowers axillary, few ; petals lightly united. GOMPHANDRA. 



io6 

MAPPIA* F.B.I. 39 xv. 

Trees distinguished in the shola by their rather flaccid, 
usually drooping, broad leaves, and terminal corymbs of 
small white evil smelling flowers or red drupes. 

The genus is a small one of about seven species, in Asia and 
tropical America. 

Branches angular with large leaf-scars. Leaves 5 by 
3 to 12 by 7 inches on the same branch, alternate, shortly 
petioled, broadly ovate or obovate, abruptly acuminate, 
entire, sparingly hairy on both sides, especially on the 
nerves ; standing erect when young and folded along the 
midrib, later on laxly spreading : nerves about six pairs, 
rather straight and closer towards the base : stalk inch. 
Flowers in terminal cymose panicles, white ; buds very 
hairy. Calyx small. Petals five, free or slightly united, 
hairy inside, about J inch long. Stamens five, free of 
the petals, with slender filaments. Ovary superior, one- 
celled. Fruit a drupe, to j* inch long, purple. Seed in 
the stone pendent, t. 81. Wight Ic. 955. 

Common shola trees. Nilgiris : on both the Western and the 
Eastern plateau. Pulneys : on the downs. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts and Mysore. 

Three species are distinguished by Miers and in 
F.M.P. are given as occurring here, but our trees appear to 
me to grade into each other. 

Leaves thick, very tomentose on lower side. M. tomentosa. 
Leaves thin, hairy or not. Flowers foetid. . . M. foetida. 
do. Flowers not foetid. . M. ovata. 

Trees standing alongside each other and otherwise indis- 
tinguishable will be found with leaves 3 inches long and fruits 
inch, or leaves 7 inches long and fruits inch. 



AQTTIFOLIACE^: 167 

GOMPHANDRA* F.B.I, xxxix. 

A small genus of under ten species, natives of tropical 
Asia. 

Gomphandra coriacca Wt.; F.B.I. i 586 in part. 
A small tree or shrub with young branches, and both sides 
of leaves, all equally green. Leaves variable, elliptic, or 
obovate, glabrous, about 2 by i inch. Flowers solitary 
or in few-flowered cymes, peduncled often opposite, 
greenish white ; the leaves pleasantly scented. Calyx 
minute. Petals erect, inch, irregularly connate into 
a tube, tips inflexed. Stamens with very thick filaments 
and small anthers pendulous from the inside. Ovary 
oblong as long as the filaments, surmounted by the large 
lobed stigma, without style. Fruit pale clear yellow, 
about 2 inches long, with the five-angled stigma I inch wide 
at the top. Stone with wrinkled skin. Seed with raphe 
completely round from top to bottom, t. 82. Wt. 

Ic. 953> 954- 

Nilgiris : on the outskirts of heavy sholas, 3,000 to 6,000 
feet, Coonoor, Kodanad, etc. Pulneys at Kodaikanal and 
below. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 

AQUIFOLIACE^E. 
(formerly ILICINE^). 

ILEX. F.B.I. 40 i. 

Practically the only genus of the family, having 150 
or more species, the other genera with one or two only. 
Trees with erect or spreading, simple alternate glossy 
leaves, entire or toothed and small white, in short cymes 
or umbels at the leaf-axils, not in showy inflorescences ; the 
sexes usually on separate trees (dioecious). Sepals small. 



I08 AQUIFOLIACRffi 

Petals four to five even in the same cyme, sometimes 
united at the base. Stamens on the male trees of the 
same number. Ovary on the female trees with short 
thick style, and of four cells, each with one ovule only, 
hanging from the top corner with its micropyle facing 
inwards and upwards, with a thickened funicle. Fruit 
a drupe with two or more small stones. 

Distributed in the tropics chiefly of Central and South 
America, Asia, Africa, Australia ; and one species, the common 
Holly, in Europe. 

Name from the Celtic AC or oc signifying a point because of the prickly 
leaves of the European species the Holly. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Leaves toothed. Large tree I. denticulata. 
Leaves entire b 

, /Leaves elliptic narrowed at base. Tree . I. Wightiana. 
\Leaves ovate, rounded at base. Shrub I. Gardneriana. 

Ilex denticulata Wall. ; F.B.I, i 600, 1 7. A tree, often 
very large with thick spreading branches. Leaves z\ 
to 3 inches, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, acute or obtusely 
acuminate, serrate when mature, thick and very tough 
when dry. Male flowers in small branched cymose 
panicles up to \ inch long, in the leaf-axils, with minute 
bracts. Petals white, round, inch across. Stamens as 
many, with very short filament and thick anther, --$ inch. 
Female flowers pedicelled in axillary fascicles. Petals 
free. Stamens often with long filaments persistent till 
the fruit is ripe, their anthers (?) sterile. Ovary four- 
celled. Fruit the size of a pea, with four stones. 
t* 83. Wight 111. t. 142. 

In sholas quite common especially on the Nilgiri downs 
from Ootacamund to Pykara. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 



CELASTRACFJE 

Ilex Wightiana Wall. ; F.B.I, i 603, 1 16. Flowering 
as a small but growing to a very large tree, with branches 
numerous and sloping steeply upwards ; bark grey, 
lenticelled. Leaves 2 by i inch or less, elliptic, acute or 
not, narrowed at the base entire or with a few small teeth 
near the end ; stalks reddish, and young blades red and 
erect. Flowers white, | to J inch across fascicled or in 
peduncled cymes or compound cymes ; sometimes few 
only, sometimes many together ; peduncles and pedicels 
J inch, red. Petals four to six, obtuse, united at the base. 
Stamens in the male flowers attached to the base of 
the corolla, anthers heart-shaped, filaments stiff and 
thickened at the base. Fruit the size of a small pea. 
t 84* Wight Ic. 1216. 

Very common both in sholas and in the open. Nilgiris : 
in Ootacamund itself in many gardens. Pykara, on the open 
hill-sides as small rounded trees, 10 to 15 feet high, and 
the commonest tree in every little stream all over the downs 
to Pykara, Avalanche and Sispara. Pulneys : in sholas, 
sometimes as very large trees. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills. 

Ilex Gardneriana Wt. ; F.B.L i 603, I 15. A shrub 
or small tree. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 2 to 3 
inches, with rounded base. Flowers on stalks of | inch 
in solitary or fascicled umbels on peduncles of \ inch. 
Sepals and petals 5. Wt. Ic. 1217. 
Nilgiris : Sispara, 6,000 feet (Wight). 

CELASTRACE^E. 

Shrubs and trees with opposite or alternate simple 
leaves ; small greenish or purplish brown perfectly 
regular flowers, yellowish or in some kind of cymose 
inflorescence, and two erect ovules to each cell of the 
ovary. There is usually, but not always, a well-marked 



IIO CELASTRACE/E 

disc round and above the ovary on which the stamens 
are borne ; and there is usually also an aril, often bril- 
liantly coloured, on the seed. 

Species about 300 in the warmer parts of Europe, North 
America and Asia. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

/Leaves alternate b 

\Leaves opposite c 

/Tree. Firs, in axillary dichotomous cymes. GYMNOSPORIA. 
\Large climber. Flowers in drooping panicle. CELASTRUS. 
"Leaves stiffly erect ; flowers yellowish, without disc ; 
capsule two-valved ; seed one only without aril. 

MICROTROPIS. 

Leaves spreading ; flowers brownish purple, three or seven 
on slender axillary peduncles ; disc well marked ; cap- 
sule red, five-valved ; seeds five with red or orange 
aril EUONYMUS. 

EUONYMUS. F.B.I. 41 i. 

Spindle-tree. 

Small trees and shrubs with opposite simple leaves 
and flowers in peduncled cymes with large disc covering 
the ovary, but chiefly distinguished by the angular or 
winged pear-shaped capsule from which after dehiscence 
hang the brilliantly coloured seeds with their large red or 
orange arils. 

Species about sixty, mostly in India, especially on the 
Himalayas. Malaya, has four or five, the Phillipines two, 
Australia, North America and Europe one each. The last is 
the Spindle tree of England. Fr. Fusain. Ger. Spindlebaum. 

Euonymus crcnulatus Wallich, ex Wight and Arnott, 
Prod. 161, omitting Wall Cat. 4409, Herb. Wight. Prop. 
482 / ; F.B.I i 608, 14; the Spindle-tree. A small tree 
or shrub with rather loosely spreading branched and 
yellowish green leaves more or less horizontal so that the 



CELASTRACEE: in 

foliage is in flat tiers and light. Year's shoots four- 
angled, not or slightly lenticelled. Leaves shortly peti- 
oled, elliptic, or occasionally ovate, entire or obscurely 
serrate towards the top, quite glabrous ; margins revolute, 
midrib strong but nerves obscure. Flowers in small 
cymes or cymose panicles of three or seven, on slender 
peduncles i inch long, often in pairs in the upper leaf- 
axils. Bracts and bracteoles minute ; pedicels | inch ; 
buds globular | inch. Sepals rounded. Petals ^ inch, 
rounded, purplish brown, surrounding the thick fleshy 
disc on which stand the four or five stamens with broad 
anthers. Ovary sunk in the disc with short thick style, 
of five cells each with two ovules hanging from the 
upper corner. Fruit a brilliantly crimson pear-shaped 
capsule (with the dried calyx as a ring at its base), 
opening so as to allow the five or more orange-coloured 
seeds, each capped by a large orange red aril, to hang 
down on slender but firm stalks, where they remain some 
time attached to the valves, against whose silvery white 
inner surfaces they are very conspicuous, t. 85. Wight 
Ic. t. 973. 

In sholas everywhere on both plateaus, quite common ; on 
the Nilgiris especially near Pykara. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills. 

The wood of this genus is usually hard and can be put to a variety of 
uses ; that of our species and several others is, according to Colonel Bed- 
dome, one of the best substitutes for Boxwood. The red aril on the seeds 
is said to be used in some parts of India by women to mark their foreheads. 
For a note on the persistence on their capsules of brilliantly coloured seeds 
see Ternstrocmia japonica Thunh, p. 52, and compare Polygala arillata. 

MICROTOPIS. F.B.I. 41 in. 

Trees with simple opposite leaves conspicuously erect, 
with revolute margins ; flowers in terminal much- 
branched cymose corymbs or in dense clusters on the 



112 CELASTRACE^E 

thick branches ; petals united at the base ; disc reduced 
to a ring or absent altogether ; ovary with two ovules in 
each cell ; fruit a capsule with only one seed, and opening 
in two valves ; seed without aril. 

Species 10 on the mountains of India, Ceylon, the Malay 
Peninsula and Java. 

The three or four species which occur here are in respect of the absence 
of an aril to the seed and often too of any disc to the flower not typical of 
the family. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

(Flowers sessile in dense clusters in axils of fallen leaves, b 
Flowers in terminal and axillary corymbs c 

f Leaves stiffly erect, notched or rounded at apex. 
b< M. ramiflora. 

(^Leaves acuminate (Sispara and below) . . M. latifolia. 
J^Petals rounded, not clawed. Seed brown. M. microcarpa. 
C \Petals clawed. Seed crimson M. ovalifolia. 

Microtropis ramiflora Wight ; F.B.I. {613, 111 3. 
Distinguished from all others of the order and from, 
practically all other trees by the dense clumps of small 
stalkless flowers along the rather thick branchlets ; and 
among trees in general remarkable for its very stiff 
nearly erect dark green oval leaves with margins curled 
back. 

A medium-sized tree with thick branches and smooth 
dark purple twigs. Leaves i to 4 by * to 3 inches, 
broadly elliptic or obovate, coriaceous, quite glabrous ; 
Flowers honey-scented ; Sepals imbricate, rounded, with 
scarious broken margin. Petals | inch, broadly obovate, 
spreading.* Fruit an ovoid capsule, f inch long, brown 
opening by two valves which fall off before the seed. 
Seed one only, red, without aril, erect ; cotyledons leafy, 
orbicular, flat ; radicle pointing downwards, t. 86. 
Wight Ic. t. 977. 

* F.B.I, in description of genus says petals erect. 



CELASTRACE7E 1 13 

Nilgiris : in the sholas of the plateau, frequent. Pulneys : 
on the downs above and around Kodaikanal and below. 
Gen. Dist. Also in Ceylon. 

In t. 62 : /. bud from above ; c. corolla opened showing the stamens 
on the annular disc ; d. a closed, faded flower ; e. section of flower ; c. 
calyx tube ; s. sepal ; p. petal ; d. disc ; o. section of ovary ; d. above a 
cluster of fruits, one open and showing the solitary seed ; /. seed with 
aborted ovule and carpels at the base. 



Microtropis microcarpa Wight ; F.B.I. i 614, III 5. 
Shrub or small tree with the stiffly erect leaves of a 
MICROTROPIS, but the slender peduncles of a EUONYMUS. 
Tree up to 20 feet with ascending branches. Foliage 
bluish green ; leaves elliptic or broadly lanceolate, i to 2 
inches by J to ij- inch, quite glabrous, coriaceous ; 
obtuse and notched : margin revolute ; stalk J inch. 
Flowers in cymose corymbs, peduncled in the leaf-axils. 
Sepals two to four, scarious persistent. No disc. Petals 
round. Style with four-notched stigma. Fruit oblong ; 
i by ! inch, asymmetric, the small stylar point to one 
side of the top. Seed rusty-brown. Wight Ic. t* 975. 

Nilgiris : Elk Hill and eastwards to Kotagiri, etc. ; flower 
April. Pulneys. 

Gen. Dist. Western Peninsula, Mysore, Concan. 

Microtropis ovalifolia Wight ; F.B.I, i 614, III 6. 
A shrub. Leaves larger, 2 to 3 inches, elliptic, glossy and 
with recurved margin. Flowers in cymose panicles on 
axillary or terminal peduncles ; buds and fading flowers 
-J inch egg-shaped or obconic ; petals clawed. Fruit 
\ by 1 inch, seated on the slightly enlarged calyx, brown, 
warty, and containing one crimson seed, t* 87. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Pykara, and on the western side near 
streams. 

8 



114 CELASTRACE^E 

CELASTRUS* F.B.I. 41 vn. 

Climbing shrubs with alternate leaves and panicles 
of small flowers, of the family type ; characterized by the 
ovary being free of, or but half immersed in, the disc ; the 
stamens inserted on the margin of the disc ; style with 
three-lobed stigma ; fruit a dehiscent capsule. Seed 
with aril, and with erect embryo radicle pointing down- 
wards. 

Species 40 in Asia, Australia, Polynesia and North 
America. 

The name is of Greek origin and connected zvith the word KEELAS 
meaning the latter part of the year, because the seeds ripened rather late on 
in the autumn and hung some time on the tree. But the Greek KKLA.STROS 
was probably a EUONYMUS. 

Cclastrus paniculata Willd. ; F.B.I. i 617, VII i. 
A large woody climber or straggler over trees. The 
numerous short leafy shoots of the current year rising 
each from a cup or swelling marking the bud scales, and 
covered with shiny grey bark studded with numerous pale 
lenticels, ending in drooping panicles of small yellowish 
flowers. Leaves alternate, oblong-elliptic, nearly circular 
or obovate, usually cuspidate, finally crenate (the teeth j 1 ,, 
inch apart about) from near the base to the apex, in length 
about 3 inches (i to 4), with five or six main pairs 
of nerves arching from the midrib. Pedicels 1 I fl inch, 
with minute bract and bracteoles at the base. Calyx 
T-V inch deep, sepals rounded, imbricate. Petals ^ inch, 
yellowish-green, surrounding a cup-like disc which is 
clear of the ovary. Filaments of stamens short ; anthers 
as long. Ovary three-celled : style very short. Fruit 
the size of a pea, on a slender pedicel inch or more, 
when ripe of a brilliant orange colour opening loculicid- 
ally in three roundish shortly pointed valves which 



CELASTRACE^E 115 

break away from the axis, each with one brown seed 
imbedded in a red fleshy aril, t* 88* Wight 111. t. 72. 

In sholas, commoner at lower levels. Pulneys : near Kodai- 
kanal, Bearshola, etc., and below. Nilgiris : Kotagiri and 
below. 

Gen. Dist. Hilly districts of India Mysore, Wynaad, etc., Ceylon, 
Malay Archipelago and the Phillipines. 

GYMNOSPORIA, F.B.I. 41 vm. 

Trees with alternate leaves, and dichotomous axillary 
cymes of small flowers. Fruit a globose or obovoid, 
often angular, capsule with one or two arillate seeds in 
each cell ; the walls hard and stiff and splitting (loculi- 
cidally) down the back of each carpel and also away from 
the central (placental) axis. 

Species about 60 in the hotter parts of the world. 

Gymnosporia ovata Lawson ; F.B.I, i 619, VIII 
7. A shrub ; no thorns. Leaves ovate rounded or 
cordate at base, finely crenate, about two inches long, 
very hard and thick, drying dark green or blackish. 
Flowers very small, in dense fascicles of | to i\ inches, 
on short peduncles. Fruit | inch, broadly obovate, 
three-celled ; seed with aril only at the base, t, 89. 

Nilgiris : on the eastern plateau at Kodanad, etc. Pulneys : 
Poombarai, etc. Shevaroys : Honey Rock. 

Gymnosporia Heyneana W. & A. ; F.B.I. 1620, 
VIII 10. A spiny tree. Leaves twice as long as broad 
cuneate at the base serrate. Cymes up to 4 inches, and 
flowers larger than in G. ovata. Capsule inch pink 
turning brown as it opens. Seed with fleshy crenulat e 
aril at base only. 

Nilgiris : below Kodanad. Shevaroys : near Yercaud and 
on " Green Hills/' 

8-A 



Il6 RHAMNACE-flE 

RHAMNACE^:. 

The chief distinguishing characteristic of this family 
is the arrangement of the stamens, for being equal in 
number to the petals they stand not between them, as 
in all other families with isomerous stamens (except that 
of the Grape-vine) but opposite, that is, alternately with 
the sepals. 

Plants all woody, either shrubs or small trees, never 
herbs. Leaves nearly always alternate, but sometimes 
approximate in pairs or even quite opposite : simple, 
shortly stalked and finely toothed, glabrous on the upper 
side, and usually all in one plane, facing upwards. 

Flowers small and greenish, with yellow centres (disc) ; 
in cymes, fascicles, or small umbels at the leaf-axils. 
Sepals and petals either five or four. Stamens as many, 
quite short, and in some genera covered by the spoon- 
shaped petals. Ovary of two (or three) cells surrounded 
by or imbedded in the yellow disc. The nature of the 
disc, whether it completely fills the calyx cup, and so 
covers the ovary, or is only a saucer-shaped lining to 
it is used to class the genera in their " tribes." Fruit 
fleshy, with one to three stones, quite free from the rest 
of the flower or girt up to its middle by the calyx tube 
(i.e., partly inferior). 

Species 500, in all parts of the world, wherever trees grow- 
In Europe the common and the Alder-Buckthorn, Rhamnus 
cathartica L. and R. frangula L. Ger. Wegdorn, are wild. 
R. alaternus, and various species of Ceanotus and Pomaderris 
are common in English gardens. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Flowers egg-shaped, very woolly . . . POMADERRIS. 
a \ Flowers flat, not woolly b 



RfcAMNACEE 117 

, r Leaves opposite or nearly so ...>.. SCUTIA. 

1 Leaves distinctly alternate c 

C Thorns stipular, curved ; main veins 3 to 5 at base, 

c < branched above ZIZYPHUS. 

I Branches spiny or not ; main vein single at base, pinnate. 

RHAMNUS. 

ZIZYPHUS. F.B.I. 42 in. 

Trees and shrubs, with alternate leaves and often the 
stipules modified as curved or straight prickles. Flowers 
fascicled in the axils, or in sessile or peduncled cymes. 
Disc completely filling the calyx so that the receptacle 
is flat. Fruit fleshy with hard stone. Stamens erect not 
enclosed in petals. 

In most (all ?) species the leaf has three main veins starting 
from the base. The midrib gives off short lateral veins pin- 
nately ; the other two main veins curve outwards and then 
inwards to meet at the tip and give off conspicuous veins on 
the outer side, but hardly any inwards. The whole venation 
is so peculiar as almost to suffice to identify the genus, but 
some English species of Rhamnus are very similar. 

Species about 50, in tropical Asia and America, and in 
temperate regions. 

On the plains there are several species, quite common. 

Zizyphus rugosa Lamk. ; F.B.I, i 36, III 147. A 
large straggling shrub, armed with solitary curved and 
formidable prickles. Leaves 2 to 4 inches, elliptic, glabrous 
on the upper densely tomentose on the lower side as also 
the young twigs. Flowers greenish yellow, in peduncled 
cymes near the ends of leafless branches, forming large 
panicles. Fruit fleshy, small with one stone and one 
seed. t. 90. 

Nilgiris : in dry thickets Eastern plateau, 6,500 feet, Ghaut 
Road just below Coonoor, etc. Pulneys : Poombarai and 
on Ghauts to 6,000 feet. 



1 18 RHAMNAC&fc 

Gen, Dist. Common in dry deciduous forests on the Western Ghautt 
to 6,000 feet. 

Zizyphus incurva Roxb. ; F.B.I. i 635, III 12. A 
large tree up to 50 feet high, quite glabrous except for a 
brown pubescence on the young parts, petioles and main 
veins the stouter and non-flowering branches with slender 
stipular spines, up to i inch long on a broad base. Leaves 
obliquely ovate, about 3 by 2 inches, finely crenate-serrate 
membranous : veins 3 at the base much raised on the 
underside, and impressed on the upper : veinlets from the 
outer pair joined in loops : base of leaf truncate or almost 
cordate and decurrent on the short J inch petiole. 
Flowers in axillary cymes, the peduncle longer than the 
petiole and pedicel about I inch. Disc rich yellow, ten- 
lobed, with a pit behind each lobe. Style of two short 
branches. Fruit J inch, globose or obovoid, seated on the 
hardly enlarged calyx with one seed covered only by a 
thin flesh. 

Nilgiris : Fernhill, flowering September. 

Apparently wild though perhaps introduced from its home in northern 
India. F.B.I, gives it as occurring on these hills, but G.F.M.P. does not 
include the species in the Madras Flora. 

RHAMNUS* F.B.I. 42 v. 

Buckthorn, etc. 

Shrubs and trees with alternate penninerved leaves 
and small greenish flowers fascicled in the leaf-axils ; 
characterized by the disc being only a thin lining to 
the hollowed receptacle (not filling it), and the fruit a 
berry-like drupe, girt at the base by the remains of the 
calyx. Petals small, spoon-shaped, enclosing the 
stamens. 



fcHAMNACEdS 119 

Species about 70, in temperate climates of the northern 
hemisphere. 

Ncme said to have been taken from the Celtic word RAM meaning a 
tuft (>f branches, in allusion to the habit of the Buckthorn the common 
European species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Branches ending in spines : leaves tufted on short spurs ; 
floral parts in fours. Shrubs or trees usually in the open. 

R. virgatus. 

No spines : leaves all scattered, dark dull green ; parts of 
tne flower in fives. Shrubs or trees very common in woods. 

R. Wightii. 

Rhamnus virgatus Roxburgh ; F.B.I, as R. dahuricus 
Pall, i 639, V 3 ; the Indian Buckthorn. In dry places a 
very spiny, stunted shrub, with tufts of small, finely 
toothed leaves, and white, thin, smooth bark. Shoots of 
two kinds (i) ordinary branches ii to 6 inches long, with 
leaves, or more usually leaf-scars, at intervals of } to i 
inch, and (ii) very short shoots (spurs) from the axils 
of the leaf-scars on (i) barely } inch long, crowded with 
bud-scars and ending in a tuft of leaves. Leaves i to 
i.V inches or up to 3 inches in moist places, ovate-acute, a 
little oblique, finely serrate from near the base to the tip, 
with usually two veins on either side of the midrib, 
starting from below the middle. Flowers numerous, on 
slender pedicels of { inch, fascicled in the leaf-axils. 
Sepals four, narrow acute. Ovary two-celled with two 
styles. Fruit I inch. Seeds plano-convex with a deep 
:urrow on the outer side (Bedd.). t* 91* 

A spur (ii) may continue as such for several seasons, or in 
mother year lengthen into a branch of the first kind, and per- 
kaps all the latter start as spurs, for they have usually crowded 
baf-scars at the base. The combination of leafless spine- 
tpped branches and leafy spurs is very characteristic. Since 



RHAMNAC&E 

the formation of a spine of necessity terminates the growth of a 
branch and further extension can be only by a lateral shoot, 
the spines frequently appear in the forks of the branch system. 

In t. 91 : b. flower as- seen from above showing the four long sepals ; 
c. flower in section through two opposite sepals ; d. the same through two 
opposite petals, sepals not shown ; e. stamen and petal in position as in 
the flower ; /. stamen and petal separated. 

Nilgiris : between Kotagiri and Coonoor. Pulneys : lot 
very common. 

Gen. Dist. Tinnevelly Hills and Western Ghauts. Punjab, Temperate 
Himalaya from Simla to Bhotan, and on to China and Japan. 

A close ally of R. catharticus L., the common Buckthorn of Englanc 1 , 
Fr. Nerprum medicanal, Ger. Kreuzdorn. Also of R. dahuricus Pall, of 
northern Asia which however is not the same plant. 

Rhamnus Wightii Wight and Arnott ; Wight Herb. 
Prop. 507 / ; F.B.I, i 639, V 4. A shola shrub or tree, 
growing on the Kodaikanal downs to a height of 50 feet 
with branches 15 inches thick at 15 feet from the ground ; 
twigs dark green and like all the other parts glabrous. 
Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, elliptic or oblong, shortly 
acuminate, finely serrate, when dry black. Flowers in 
fascicles in the leaf-axils ; pedicels shorter than the 
petioles ; floral parts in fives. Sepals triangular. Petals 
flat. Styles three. Disc thin. Fruit 1 inch, purple, 
set on the half-cup-shaped expansion of the pedicel (calyx 
tube), t. 92. Wight Ic. 159. 

Very common in sholas near Ootacamund and everywhere 
on the Nilgiri and Pulney downs. The short flowering bran- 
ches are often arranged in large terminal panicles. Flowers 
April to September. 

Gen. Dist, Western Ghauts and Ceylon, at high elevations only. 

SCUTIA* F.B.I. 42 vu 

Shrubs with opposite or sub-opposite leaves and axil- 
lary fascicles of small flowers, in which the disc fills the 



RHAMNACE^E 

calyx tube. Fruit half superior, surrounded at the base 
by the calyx tube. 

Species about 10, in Asia, Africa and tropical America. 

Scutia myrtina Kurz ; F.B.f. i 842, VII. A strag- 
gling shrub. Leaves opposite or sub-opposite, about i 
inch, round or obovate, coriaceous, shining, penni-nerved. 
Flower white. Sepals with prominent incurved tip. 
Petals rounded, two-lobed, wrapping round the violet 
anthers. Stigma bi-globosc. Fruit ] inch purple, with a 
small violet stylar point in the slightly depressed apex, 
and seated obliquely on the saucer-shaped calyx, t* 93* 

Nilgiris ; on the Eastern plateau near Kotagiri, Biccapatti, 
etc., at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Flowering April. 

Gen. Dist. In dry deciduous and scrub forest, in Northern Circars 
Deccan and Carnatic. Eastern slopes of Western Ghauts. 

POMADERRIS. 42 ix. 

An Australian genus, one species introduced here, 
peculiar in its egg-shaped calyx tube and comparatively 
long flat petals. 

Species 20, of which 18 in south and south-east Australia 
and 2 in New Zealand. 

Named from POMA, a lid, am/DERRis, skin. 

Pomaderris lanigcra Situs, Bot. Mag. t. 1823. 
A shrub with softly woolly branches, thick lan- 
ceolate leaves very tomentose below, and wide terminal 
panicles of long stalked very woolly flowers. Calyx tube 
lined up to the acute sepals by the thin disc, very woolly. 
Petals as long, obovate clawed. Stamens half as long 
again : anthers large. Ovary three-celled : style three- 
branched. Fruit of three bony cocci, which separate from 



VITAC&E 



the central axis dehiscing at the inner angle : embryo 
flat, radicle pointing downwards. t* 94. 
Ohly where planted. 

The stamens move one at a time from the petals to which each is at 
first attached towards the style and shed pollen on the stigma. A good 
instance of a special mechanism for ensuring self-pollination. 



VITIS Linn. F.B.I. 43 i. 

Grape-vine. 

The vines are slender woody plants which climb up 
trees by the help of tendrils placed opposite some of the 
leaves. Their flowers are small and in much branched 
panicles also placed opposite leaves, and are distin- 
guished from those of almost all other families, except 
the RHAMNE^E, by the stamens being opposite not alternate 
to the petals. The fruit is a berry with three or four seeds. 

For the morphology of the tendrils and the flowering parts, and the 
reason of their position opposite the leaves reference may be made to any 
text-book of Botany. 

Named from the Greek AMPELOS, vine, and OPSIS, resemblance, because 
like a vine. 

The old genus VITIS of Linnaeus has been split up 
into a number of genera distinguished chiefly by details 
of the petals and stigma, characters not always easy to 
determine. Of these genera we have four represented, 
and they may be distinguished here as follows : 

Leaflets 3 only, panicle of flowers only, petals 5, seeds 

Smooth. PARTHENOCISSUS. 

Leaflets 3, a tendril from a branch of the panicle. Flowers 
red AMPELOCISSUS. 

Leaflets 3 or 5, pedate ; petals 4 ; stigma four-lobed. . 

TETRASTIGMA. 

Leaflets 7 or 9, pedate ; stigma obscure. . . CAYRATIA. 



VITACE/E 123 

TETRASTIGMA. 

Climbers with simple or forked tendrils, leaves usually 
five-foliate, pedate, but also with 3 or i leaflet only. 
Flowers polygamo-dioecious. Petals 4, spreading. Stigma 
four-lobed. Seeds globose with two furrows on face and a 
prominent chalaza on the back. 

Tetrastigma muricatum Gamble ; F.B.L i 660, as 
Vitis lanccolaria in Part I, 64. Stem warty. Leaves 
usually three-foliate, sometimes with five leaflets ; leaflets 
acute, glabrous, serrate. Seeds pyriform with shallow 
grooves on the face and oblong chalaza. t. 95. Wt. Ic. 177. 

Nilgiri and Puiney Hills, below 6,000 feet common. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 

PARTHENOCISSUS. 

Climbing shrubs with much-branched tendrils opposite 
the leaves, which attach themselves by discs. Leaves 
three-foliate. Petals 5. Seed globose with narrow raphe 
half round it. 

Parthcnocissus ncilgherriensis Planchuon ; for- 
merly Vitis anamalayana Bedd. Herb f ; F.B.L i 656, 

145- 

Branchlets quite glabrous, younger smooth, older with 
a few minute lenticels. Leaves on the young shoots 
simple, in older three-foliate, stalk i to 8 inches. Leaf- 
lets pubescent on the nerves of the under side, elliptic 
or obovate, sharply serrate (teeth J to A inch apart), 
with long acumen of about i inch ; the lateral ones very 
oblique and broader on the outer margin : conspicuously 
reticulate below. Tendrils branched and bearing small 
bracts opposite the ^branches. Flowers in loose cymose 
panicles, calyx small, five-lobed. Petals four or five, 



124 

oblong, with incurved tip, bent right back when open. 
Disc fused to the ovary and hardly distinguishable except 
by colour and the secretion of honey. Ovary very thick 
with short stumpy style and minute stigma, t* 96. 

In sholas. Pulneys : on the Kodaikanal downs and below. 
Nilgiris : apparently only on the edge of our area and below. 
Anamalais. 

In F.B.I, i 655-6 the Nilgiri and Pulney Anamallal plants (Wight Ic. 
t. 965) are given under V. himalayana Brand, a Kashmir species. 

AMPELOCISSUS, 

Vines with leaf-opposed stalked panicles of flowers 
containing a sterile branch developed as a tendril. Leaves 
simple and lobed or of three leaflets. Flowers in our 
species red. 

Ampelocissus arancosa Planch. ; F.B.L i 657 as 
Vitis araneosa Lawson, I 51. Leaflets 3 ovate acute, 
irregularly serrate, densely white tomentose underneath, 
with abbut 4 pairs of rather straight main veins from the 
midrib : the lateral leaflets very oblique in shape. Flowers 
small in crowded cymes, i inch across. Petals 5, a rich 
red-brown, curled back after opening and soon falling. 
Stamens a little longer than the petals, red : anthers 
yellow. Disc embracing base of ovary, finely fluted. 
Ovary broadly conical, stigma a mere point. Berry J 
inch. 

Shevaroys : on Green Hills. Nilgiri and Pulneys at low 
levels. 

CAYRATIA. 

Climbing shrubs with tendrils opposite the leaves. 
Calyx without lobes but flowers in axillary cymose corymbs 



STAPHYLEACEjE 125 

all bisexual. Petals 4, valvate. Seeds two-grooved, 
slightly angular, or endosperm T-shaped. 

Cayratia pedata Juss ; F.B.L i 66 1 as Vitis pedata 
Vahl, I 69. A large climber, with cylindrical hirsute 
branches. Leaflets five or seven, 4 to 8 by il to 3 
inches, oblong lanceolate, acuminate, serrate densely 
tomentose on lower side. Main petiole 3 to 6 inches, 
secondary to \ inch an d those of individual leaflets | inch. 
Flowers in widely branching corymbose cymes, yellow- 
ish or green. Fruit globose, white. Seeds | inch 
semi-hemispherical, hollowed out on the flat side and the 
opening close by a membrane. 

Nilgiri and Pulney Hills below 6,000 feet. 

Gen. Dist. Bengal, Silhet, Khasia and to Burma and Singapore, and 
down the Western Ghauts. 

Var. glabra Gamble a weaker climber. Stem hirsute but 
leaves quite glabrous except on the veins underneath ; 
minutely rugose on the upper side. Petiole about 3 inches. 
Petals \ inch reflexed soon falling, leaving a conspicuous 
wavey, tubular, at first yellow later white, disc outside the disc 
proper. Stamens also very fugitive, anthers large. Stigma a 
mere point. Berry bilobed. t. 97. Kodanad. 

STAPHYLEACE^. 

A small family formerly considered part of the SAPIN- 
DACE/E now separated, and represented here by our genus 

only* 

TURPINIA. F.B.I. 44 XXIII. 

Glabrous trees with opposite shining odd-pinnate 
leaves and panicles of small regular flowers with five 
sepals, five petals, five stamens and ovary of three carpels ; 
characterized and distinguished from the Sapindacese 
by the cup-shaped crenulate five-partite disc inside the 



126 STAPHYLEACE^E 

ring of five stamens ; by the arrangement of the seeds in 
more than one row in each cell of the ovary, erect with 
ventral raphe or hanging with dorsal, and by the very 
hard seed coat and straight embryo. 

Species 10, widely distributed over the northern tropics of 
Asia and America, but not known south of the Line nor in 
Africa. 

Named in honour of M. Turpin, a French botanical artist and 
naturalist. 

Turpinia nepalensis Wall ; F.B.I. i 698, XXIII i 
as Turpinia pomifera DC. A shola tree with rather dark 
drooping foliage and axillary panicles of small pale yellow 
flowers, and small berries marked at the top with three 
fine lines and containing a few very hard and smooth 
round seeds. Twigs round, smooth. 'Leaves opposite, 
the pair joined by a line above their 'insertion : leaflets 
three or five, occasionally seven, their stalks about 
\ inch, the terminal stalk much longer, all with a pair 
of minute stipels and very variable in size, from 2 to 8 in.; 
more or less crenate-serrate, glabrous, usually somewhat 
drooping and folded upwards along the midrib. Branches 
of the panicle opposite, and repeatedly branched, with 
small bracts. Stamens with filaments broader at the 
base, and dull brown anthers. Ovary three-lobed, with 
three, easily separable, styles. Fruit inch. Seeds two 
or three only, smooth and with very hard seed coat. 
Embryo straight with minute radicle and large round 
cotyledons, enclosed in thin fleshy endosperm. t. 98. 
Wight Ic. t. 972. 

One of the commonest of shola trees. On the Nilgiris in 
both halves of the plateau up to 7,500 feet. Coonoor 6,000 
feet. Sometimes under other trees but also above them. 
Pulneys abundant. 



SAPINDACE/E 1 2J 

Gen. Dist. On the Western Ghauts, south-east Himalayas, Assam, 
Burma, Malay Peninsula down to Penang, Yunan and China. 

In t. 98 : /. flower after removal of the sepals, petals and one stamen 
showing the crenulate five-partite disc inside the stamens ; s. seed, show- 
ing the thick testa and embryo inside ; a. embryo showing large cotyle- 
dons and very small radicle. 



SAPINDACE^E. 

Trees, shrubs or climbing herb, with alternate simple or 
pinnately compound leaves, and panicles of flowers with 
five sepals and petals, usually eight stamens, and an ovary 
of three carpels ; and characterized also by the presence 
of a crenulate or lobed disc (honey-secreting gland) outside 
the stamens (but in DODONEA inside). The fruits are in 
s >me genera (ACER) winged, but not in ours. 

Well-known extra-Indian members of this family are the 
Litchee (NEPHELIUM) of China, in which the seed is covered 
with a thick edible 4< aril " ; the Maples and Sycamore (ACER) 
examples of which are grown in gardens ; and the Horse 
Chestnut. The Indian soap-nut tree is a species of SAPINDUS, 
the genus which gives its name to the family SAPO INDICUS 
Indian soap. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 
Trees with 3-foliate leaves and small flowers in erect slender 

Spikes ALLOPHYLUS. 

Shrubs with erect shiny simple leaves, reddish flowers and 3 
(or 4) winged capsule DODON^EA. 

ALLOPHYLUS, F.B.I. 44 v. 

Small trees or shrubs with simple or three foliate leaves 
and small globose, uni- or bi-sexual flowers, white or 
yellowish, in simple or branched axillary spikes. Sepals 
4. Petals 4, small or obsolete, naked inside or with a 
reflexed shaggy scale. Disc of four glands. Stamens 8, 



128 SAPINDACE^E 

inside the disc. Ovary usually two-lobed, of two cells with 
one seed in each cell. Fruit indehiscent ; seeds erect with 
short aril, embryo curved, cotyledons folded. 

Species about 20, chiefly in tropical America, also Africa, 
tropical and South Madagascar and Indian Archipelago. 

Allophylus scrratus Radlk. ; F.B.I, as part of 
A. Cobbe /?/., described as a very variable species, i 673, 
V. 2. A tree. Leaflets 3, elliptic or obovate, cuspidate, 
about 2\ by i \ inches at this elevation, with short hairs on 
the upper side and tornentose on lower ; petiol<*2 inches. 
Spikes unbranchcd, longer than the petiole but shorter 
than the whole leaf, with cyme-like fascicles of small 
globular flowers, about ,', inch across. Petals with a 
hairy scale on the inside. Fruit \ inch ovoid, embraced 
at the base by the small sepals, t. 99. Roxb. Fl. Cor. 
t. 61. 

Nilgiris : About Coonoor and Kotagiri and lower down. 
Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 

In Gamble's FL Mad. Pres. five species are given, four 
being included in A. Cobbe in the F.B.I. 

DODON^EA. F.B.I. 44 xx. 

Shrubs with alternate exstipulate leaves, greenish or 
brownish, unisexual or bisexual flowers with small sepals 
no petals, large anthers, a dry fruit breaking septicidally 
into two to six valves, winged on the back, and seeds 
without aril containing a spirally coiled embryo. 

Species 40 to 45 all, with two exceptions, Australian. 

Named by Linnrcus in honour of Robert Dodoons> a botanist and 
physician. 

Dodonaea viscosa Linn. ; F.B.I, i 697, XX i. A 
bush or small tree with thin ascending branches, the 
youngest angular or compressed, the older round, not 



SABIACEJE 129 

lenticelled. Leaves erect, simple, 2 to 4 inches by J to 
inch elliptic or oblanceolate, acute at both ends and 
narrowed to the hardly distinct petiole, dotted above and 
below with small surface glands and shining with the 
secretion poured from them, quite glabrous : midrib pro- 
minent, lateral nerves straight, close (-J inch apart); margin 
entire revolute. Flowers in terminal cymose bunches, 
some unisexual. Sepals five, oblong, ciliate. No petals. 
Stamens eight with large ( to T ^ inch) anthers and very 
short filaments, set in the normal flowers outside the small 
disc which surrounds the ovary, in the purely staminate 
flowers without disc. Ovary three to four-celled, with 
short angular style and lobed stigma. Fruit a reddish or 
pinkish-brown capsule with very thin walls and three or 
four broad wings, breaking through the partitions into its 
constituent, winged cells. Seeds black with only a very 
short thick stalk, but no aril; wood dark brown, hard and 
heavy and useful for tool-handles and walking sticks 
(F.M.P.). t* 100. Wight 111. i. t. 52. (D. burmanniana.) 

In open places and on the edges of sholas, abundant in the 
drier parts of the Nilgiri plateau, especially on abandoned 
land. Pulneys : below Kodaikanal. Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. One of the commonest plants in India, extending from the 
Indus to Ceylon and distributed in all warm countries. 

SABIACE^. 

A small family closely allied to the Sapindaceae and 
represented here by only one genus with two species. 

MELIOSMA, F.B.I. 45 n. 

Flowers small, crowded and almost sessile on the 
branches of racemose panicles. Sepals five, smaller than 
Q 



130 SABIACE^E 

the petals. Petals three, outer T ^ inch, triangular, enclos- 
ing all the rest of the flower, two inner reduced to very 
small bifid scales behind the two fertile stamens. Fila- 
ments of fertile stamens strap-shaped with a broad hollowed 
scale at the top and two globular anthers. Sterile stamens 
three, as scales fitting over the ovary, with two lateral 
hollows like double ears. Ovary -^ inch, silky. Fruit a 
small drupe the size of a pea. 

Species 45, mostly natives of tropical and sub-tropical Asia ; 
some in the Antilles and from Mexico to Brazil. 
Leaves simple, 6 to 10 inches long, hard ; flowers in large 

panicles solitary at the ends of the branches . . M. Wightii. 
Leaves pinnate ; panicles in the axils of the uppermost leaves 

and bracts forming flat compound masses. . M. Arnottiana. 

Meliosma Wightii Planch ; F.B.I, ii 4, II 3 ; Spiraea 
tree. Usually a small tree, though in the middle of a shola 
it may attain a good height, of irregular outline, the 
foliage being in lumps of a few large drooping leaves ; 
recognized at once, when in flower, by the tall pyramidal 
panicles of small cream-coloured flowers (recalling those 
of the Mango). 

Branchlets thick, studded with numerous large lenti- 
cels ^ inch long, and coated with a yellowish tomentum 
of branched hairs. Leaves alternate, simple, 4 to 8 by 
2 to 3 inches, elliptic or obovate, the youngest with a few 
short sharp teeth about one inch apart, towards the apex, 
otherwise entire ; dark green and glossy on the upper 
side with a few hairs only, yellow-tomentose on the 
prominently raised reticulate veins of the lower and 
Tiore especially in their axils. Panicles terminal, tall 
ind well branched, thickly covered with small flowers, 
n bud for some weeks before the rains, and then fawn 
oloured and drooping ; when out a creamy yellow. 



SABIACE/fc 131 

Wood reddish-brown, soft and useless. Fruit J inch. 
t, 101. Wight Sp. Nilg. 34 and 35 Ic. t. 964, 3. 
(Milingtonia). 

Common in sholas at the highest levels, near Ootacamund 
and eastwards and westwards, and on the Kodaikanal downs. 
At lower levels its place is taken by the next species. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Coorg, Mysore, northwards to Bombay 
and southwards to Ceylon (5,000 to 7,000 feet). 

Meliosma Arnottiana Wight ; F.B.I. ii 6, II 9. 
A round-topped tree, common in sholas and the open hill- 
side, flowering before the rains with broad shallow cream- 
coloured masses of small flowers. 

Tree 30 or 40 feet in the shola, or in the open 15 to 
20 feet ; round-topped ; trunk thick. Young parts gene- 
rally and leaf-stalks and midribs clothed with brown 
rusty pubescence. Branches angular, with very large 
lenticels, as much as |- inch long and leaf-scars of % inch. 
Leaves 6 to 10 inches usually drooping the main stalk with 
thick pulvinus-like base ; leaflets eleven, progressively 
larger from the basal pair upwards, 2 to 9 by i to 2 inches, 
ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, rounded at the 
base, glossy on the upper side, dull on the lower ; stalk 
and midrib rusty or pinkish ; nerves seven to eleven pairs 
with tufts of hairs in the axils, much raised on the lower 
side ; secondary reticulation very fine. Flowers in com- 
pound panicles made up of panicles in the axils of the 
uppermost leaves and bracts, each 6 to 10 inches, branches 
of panicles spreading stiffly, crowded with flowers. 
t* 102* Wight 111. t. 53. (Milingtonia.) 

Nilgiris : very common on the lower parts of the plateau ; 
in sholas west of Pykara down to Naduvattam 6,700 feet and 
below ; Kotagiri and slopes to north and east. Also in 
Coonoor'at the first bend on the road from the station. Not 
near Ootacamund or Kodaikanal. 
9 -A 



132 LEGUMINOS^E 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Coorg, etc., to Bombay, Manipur, 
Burma and Ceylon. 

The flowers have a sweet almost sickly honey smell, and 
come out early in May before the rains in such quantities as to 
make the whole tree cream-coloured and unmistakable even at 
a distance. 



LEGUMINOS^:. 

This large order comprises three easily distinguished 
families. A. PAPILIONACE/E consisting of the Pea, Gram, 
Bean, Clover, Vetch and their allies ; B. C^SALPINE/E 
consisting of the Tamarind, CASSIA, POINCIANA, BAUHINIA, 
and other trees common on the plains ; C. MIMOSE^E 
consisting of ACACIA and its allies. These three families 
are alike in having one carpel only to the ovary attached 
below the rim of the more or less hollowed flower-stalk 
(calyx tube), and seeds containing a curved embryo with 
much proteid matter as well as starch in the thick cotyle- 
dons ; many have an outgrowth round the micropyle 
(strophiole). Most have compound leaves, and both 
main and subsidiary stalks are attached by a swollen base 
(pulvinus) which bend up or down carrying the leaf and 
leaflets with them. 

The PAPILIONACETE, found all over the world are 
well represented here ; the C#:SALPINE/E, mainly tropical, 
are doubtfully indigenous at these levels : the MIMOSE^E, 
an almost entirely tropical family, occur only where planted. 

PAPILIONACE^E. 

Bean, Pea, Gram, etc, 

The flowers of this family are remarkably alike in 
general appearance, and different from all others. The 
Sweet-pea may be taken as an example. There is a 



PAPILIONACE^E 13 3 

green more or less bell-shaped calyx with five teeth. 
Of the petals, the top one is much the largest and wraps 
round the others in bud : this is conveniently called 
always the standard. Below and inside this are a pair, 
called the wings ; and between these again a second 
pair which are united towards the tip and are together 
called the keel. This keel encloses the ovary and stamens. 
The latter, ten always in number, are nearly always con- 
nected into a tube, either complete, all ten being united 
(monadelphous), or with a split on the upper side in which 
is one free stamen (diadelphous) as in the Sweet-pea. 
The ovary is attached by a short stalk somewhat below 
the level of the other parts to one side of the deeply 
hollowed centre, and has one row only of seeds inside, 
attached to the upper edge. It narrows gradually into the 
style, which is usually bent sharply upwards, and ends in a 
small stigma. The Sweet-pea has a pod which opens by 
both the upper and the lower edges, and this is the usual 
type of fruit ; but in some the pod breaks up transversely 
into a number of one-seeded sections, which may open or 
not ; and in a few genera there is only one seed and the pod 
does not open. 

Exceptions to the above are that in the common introduced Gorse, 
ULEX, the calyx is coloured yellow and divided deeply into two parts ; and 
that in SOPHORA the keel petals are hardly united, and the stamens are all 
free. Otherwise the flowers are all made on this plan. There are small 
individual differences, which serve to distinguish the genera. Jn CROTA- 
LARIA and the introduced Gorse and Broom, the anthers are small alter- 
nately short and attached lightly by the middle of the back (versatile), or 
long and fixed firmly at the base : in the Beans, PHASEOLUS, the keel and 
its enclosed stamens and style are remarkably long and curled up into 
a complete spiral. In some genera the keel is sharp-pointed, in others 
blunt ; in DUMASIA it is joined more or less firmly at the back to the wing 
petals. In some the style is hairy all round ; in others only on the upper 
side ; in others again it has no hairs ; and in one genus, DUMASIA, it has 
a thickening just at the bend. These differences only serve to show 
the essential similarity of the flowers. Greater and more useful differences 



occur in the leaves. These may be simple, as in CROTALARIA, or composed 
of leaflets : either three only, all equally stalked (digitate) or with the 
central stalk longer (pinnately trifoliate) ; or several, either an even num- 
ber, or an odd number, i.e., in pairs with one at the end ; or as in the 
Vetch with a tendril at the end. It is chiefly by these differences that 
the family is divided into sections (tribes). 

In all the PAPILIONACE/E the base of the leaf-stalk (or, if 
that is very short as with most leaflets, the whole of it), is 
swollen and so constructed as to be capable of bending up 
or down. By doing so, it changes the position of the blade 
morning and evening, so that while by day the blade is more or 
less horizontal, at night it becomes more or less vertical. The 
evening movement is in some cases upwards, in others down ; 
and often brings the blades not only vertical but also with the 
upper sides of adjacent leaflets together : and sometimes the 
leaflet is folded along the midrib with the same effect. It 
is apparently a protective movement designed to prevent loss of 
heat by radiation to the sky, and is shared, but to a much 
smaller extent, by a number of other plants. Attention is here 
called to it because it is one which one can hardly help noticing 
if out after dark. 

The PAPILIONACE^ show interesting adaptations to the 
visits of insects to their flowers. In some cases the simple 
weight of the insect pressing the keel petals down brings the 
anthers into contact with its body. In flowers with sharp pointed 
keel pollen is shed previously out of the anthers, and when a 
heavy insect, such as a bee, alights on the keel, is pushed out by 
the style. This is the purpose of the hairs below or round the 
stigma. More advanced still is the mechanism of the Gorse 
and Broom, for here the staminal tube is inclined to rise but is 
held down by the keel, and when an insect presses with more 
than a certain weight on this, is suddenly released and springing 
up sends out a cloud of pollen. These flowers require the 
visiting insect to be of some weight, and do not waste their 
pollen on butterflies, but give it to bees. On the other hand, 
there are flowers, mostly of a red colour, in which the release 
of the stamens is brought about quite easily by a slender 
proboscis separating the knobs on the wings or keel which hold 
the stamens down. Such flowers offer honey to their visitors 
and are adapted for butterflies. Individual flowers differ in 



PAPILIONACE^E 135 

details, and these are well worth investigation. The lateral 
facing of the flower ; its blaze of yellow for bees, or red for 
butterflies, so that the right insect may easily find it ; and the 
little details of anthers, keel and wings, must all be regarded as 
designed for the one end of cross-pollination : and the precision 
with which a flower will open to the insect and close again after 
planting pollen on that part of its body which will come in 
contact with the stigma of an older flower, shows how well 
every part is adapted to its purpose. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

(Very spiny green shrub without flat leaves, p. 136. ULEX. 
Leafy plants b 

["Anthers alternately long and pointed or short and 

b-{ rounded c 

L Anthers all similar d 

("Leaves all simple ; pod inflated . p. 138. CROTALARIA. 

c< Stem green, angular ; leaves small or absent . CYTISUS. 
Ldimber : flower purple : pod very hairy/). 166. MUCUNA. 
rPod i -seeded herb leaflets 3 . p. 160. LEPTODESMIA. 
I or sjirub p. 158. LESPEDEZA. 

d^ Pod i -seeded Trees o 

| Pod i -seeded hairy herbs : leaflets 7, narrow PSORALEA. 

LPod 2 or more seeded e 

f Pod jointed and breaking between the seeds ... / 

\Pod not jointed, opening by edges g 

r Flowers yellow p. 158. SMITHIA. 

f^ Flowers pink or blue : joints of pod flat . DESMODIUM. 
L Flowers blue : joints turgid . . . p. 160. ALYSICARPUS. 

{Leaves at least the lower of three leaflets .... b 
Leaves old pinnate, flowers blue, mauve, pink or white />. 
Leaves pinnate ending in a branched tendril, p. 164. VICIA. 

f Stalks of leaflets all equal i 

\Stalk of middle leaflet distinctly longer than the others k 
r Leaflets notched or heart-shaped, finely toothed ; tender 

i J herbs with creeping stem or erect g 

^Lfts. not toothed, gland-dotted as also petals. FLEMINGIA. 
.T Flowers blue, solitary or in pairs . p. 154. PAROCHETUS. 
s. in heads, yellow, white or pink. p. 153. TRIFOLIUM. 



PAPILIONACE^E 



/"Leaflets gland-dotted ........... / 

\Leaflets not gland-dotted ......... tn 

j fFlowers in stalked pairs : pod indented, p. 170. ATYLOSIA. 

\Fldwers in racemes : pod flat, i to 2 seeded . RHYNCOSIA. 

f Flower yellow : calyx truncate. . p. 165. DUMASIA. 

m< Flower purple, small : standard equal to wings. SHUTERIA. 

L Flower purple, showy : standard exceeding wings . . n 

{Upper lip. of caylx long ; large woody climber . . . 
p. 167. CANAVALIA. 
Calyx teeth equal : keel and ovary inside spiral . . 
p. 167. PHASEOLAS. 
Calyx teeth equal : keel straight . VIGNA and DOLICHOS. 
^Flowers yellow, showy . . . p. 176. PTEROCARPUS. 
\Flowers white, small ..../>. 175. DALBERGIA. 
f Flowers pink, leaflets elliptic . . />. 155. INDIGOFERA. 
I Flowers mauve, leaflets oblong . . . p. 177. SOPHORA. 
^"i Flowers white. Climber . . . . p. 176. DERRIS. 
(^Flowers blue or white, shrub or herb p. 157. TEPHROSIA. 

ULEX. 50 VII.* 

Furze or Gorsc. 

Spiny shrubs, the main branches thickly set with 
short branches ending in thorns and bearing other short 
thorns and spine-like leaves. Flowers yellow in masses. 
Calyx yellow like the petals, deeply divided into two lips, 
which are finely toothed and hairy ; with two small broad 
bracteoles at the base. Stamens alternately with short 
versatile anthers and long rigid ones. Pod short, few- 
seeded, seeds with strophiole. 

Species about 24 scattered over western Europe and North 
Africa. 

Name said to be connected with the Celtic Ac,- a point. 

Ulex europaeus Linn. ; VII * i ; common Gorse. 
Calyx hairy ; bracteoles ^ to inch easily seen, 
hairy, t. 103. 



An introduction well established near Ootacamund and at Kodai- 
kanal presumably from Britain, where, as Gorse, Furze or Whin, it is 
common on dry gravelly ground. The species is spread all over western 
Europe, wherever the ground is stony, and as far east as northern and 
central Germany and southwards to Teneriffe, but not to the Mediterra- 
nean. Ger. Stechginster, Fr. Genet piquant. 

If the keel be pressed down it will begin to split against the 
staminal tube, till pollen is suddenly ejected in a little cloud. 
(Cf. Cytisus.) 

CYTISUS. 50 VII.*' 

Broom. 

Shrubs with green angular stems, leaves small, three- 
foliate or simple. Flowers yellow or white, solitary or 
fascicled in the leaf-axils. Calyx with short broad lips. 
Stamens all joined into a tube ; anthers alternately 
longer and attached near their base, or shorter and 
lightly attached by the middle. Pod opening by both 
edges ; seeds many with fleshy outgrowth strophiole 
near the hilum, smooth and olive green in colour. 

Species about 40 belonging mostly to the countries border- 
ing the Mediterranean; from one of the islands CLYTHOS, it was 
said by Pliny to have taken its name. 

Flowers white, 1 inch C. monspessulanus. 

Flowers yellow, i inch C. scoparius. 

Cytisus monspessulanus (Genista candicans L.) ; 
VII ** I ; White Broom. Stems thin, closely grooved. 
Flowers white, often several together in a leaf-axil, 
inch or less. Style glabrous, short, curving upwards but 
not coiled as in C. scoparius. Pod hairy all over, small. 

By roadsides in Ootacamund introduced from European 
gardens, native of Algeria. 

Pollen is pushed out by the weight of the insect depressing the keel. 
There is no explosion as with C. scoparius. 



138 PAPILIONACE^E 

Cytisus Scoparius Link ; VII* * 2 ; common Yellow 
Broom. Foliage very dark-green ; upper leaves reduced 
to single leaflets. Flowers usually solitary in the leaf- 
axils, yellow. Style hairy, very long and coiled. Pod 
1 1 by ^ inch smooth, but with fine long hairs down 
the sutures, t* 104. 

Established in Ootacamund and the cultivated valleys 
to the south, a native of western Europe, common in England 
and Scotland on dry hilly wastes. Ger. Ginster, Fr. Genet. 

The mechanism for cross-pollination is interesting. Insects 
are attracted by the yellow colour of the flowers, but there 
is no honey, though the reddish streaks at the bottom of 
the standard would suggest that honey could be found 
below. The keel petals and wing petals are interlocked by 
folds near the base of each, and tend to move downwards, 
but are prevented by the stamens and style held under 
the rounded tip of the keel. When a fairly heavy bee alights 
on the flower it grasps the wings with its middle and hind 
legs, and pushes its forelegs and head down the opening at the 
base of the standard. In doing this it depresses the wings and 
keel petals, and the latter come apart and allow the five short 
stamens with their stiffer anthers to spring up and scatter pollen 
on the insect's lower surface. Then the longer stamens also 
spring out and, with a more violent explosion, scatter more 
pollen all over the bee. The long style, coiled inside the 
keel, also comes and winds itself round the insect's body, 
taking any pollen which the latter may have brought from 
another flower. Once opened in this way the flowers do not 
close again. 

CROTALARIA, F.B.I. 50 vin. 

The peculiar characteristic of the genus is the inflated 
pod in which the seeds rattle about when ripe, and its 
name is from the Greek KROTALON, a child's rattle. 

Great differences occur in the general habit, some species 
being trailing plants, others erect herbs, and others again quite 
large shrubs or small trees. There are differences too in the 



139 

stipules, for these may be ear-shaped encircling the axis, or 
prolonged downwards as narrow wings, or absent altogether. 
Some species are nearly glabrous, others covered with a shiny 
coating of silky hairs. And by a combination of these charac- 
teristics the genus, being a very large one, is conveniently 
divided into sections. But the flowers are remarkably uniform. 

The calyx has always a short tube and five nearly 
equal teeth ; the corolla, in all our species yellow, has a 
broad rounded standard and sharp pointed keel ; the 
stamens are all united into a tube (monadelphous) and 
are of two lengths, alternately short and long, and with 
anthers round and versatile, or pointed-oblong and 
rigidly fixed to the filament ; the style has a tuft of hairs 
at the tip ; and the pod, as said above, is always much 
inflated. All our high level species have simple leaves 
but digitately (not pinnately) compound leaves also 
occur. The wing petals have each a patch of minute 
ridges or puckerings, which no doubt is of value in con- 
nexion with the visits of insects. 

Species about 250, scattered over the tropics and the sub- 
tropical parts of the world, but not in temperate regions. The 
F.B.I, gives 77 species for India alone, to which must be added 
seven or eight described since. 

KEY TO THE SECTIONS. 
Leaf simple. 

Stipules broad at the top and decumentas wings nearly 

to the next leaf, shrubs and wiry herbs 

3. Alatce. 

Stipules narrow or ear-shaped, curved : shrubs. . . 

7. Eriocarpece . 

* Spikes few : foliage glabrous : pods hairy. 

* * Spikes panicles : foliage silky : pods smooth. 
Stipules small or o : leaves very silky, racemes or 

panicles terminal : 



140 PAPILIONACE^l 

Erect plants ; pod two or more times as long as 
calyx. 6. Erectce. 

Low plants ; pod shorter or not much longer than 
calyx. 4. Calycince. 

Stipules small or o : leaves not silky, racemes mostly leaf- 
opposed prostrate plants 2. Diffusa. 

Leaves of three leaflets. 
Erect shrubs and undershrubs . . . 9. Trifoliatce. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Leaves simple h 
Leaves of three leaflets i 

C Stipules broad at the top and decurrent to nearly the next 

b i leaf, forming wings to the stem c 

Stipules ear-shaped oblong or curved i 

I Stipules small or absent d 

r Shrubs ; Is. to 4 inches, fls. i inch. i. C. Wightiana. 
I Shrubby to 2 feet, leaves mostly i inch. 2. C. scabrella. 
I Usually | foot, leaves inch, narrow pod f inch with 
1 stalk of one-sixteenth of an inch . .3. C. conferta. 
| Small bushy plant : corolla two-thirds of calyx. 

5. C. Bourneae. 
Stems prostrate, not much branched : corolla about equal 

to the calyx 4. C. ovalifolia. 

f Racemes of flowers opposite leaves. . . 6. C. Fysonii. 

d < Racemes of flowers terminal e 

I Racemes of flowers in the upper leaf-axils . . . . h 

{Tall shrubs or herbs f 
Trailing plants or small herbs g 

f Spikes slender, leaves glabrous above 9. C. Leschenaultii. 

/ -^ Spikes slender, leaves shaggy on upper side. 1 1 . C. barbata. 

(^ Spike very short, leaves silky . . . 10. C. formosa. 

f Branches erect. Racemes simple, terminal. Leaves f 

j inch wedge-shaped 7. C. albida. 

Calyx very brown shaggy ; two upper teeth overtopping 
the corolla. Corolla i inch . . . . 8. C. calycina. 



PAPILIONACE^E 14! 

f Racemes long, bracts very conspicuous, shining, deflexed. 
\ 17. C. subperfoliata and 16. C. shevaroyensis 
L Racemes short, but peduncled. 15. C. madurensis. 

Large shrub or small tree. Stipules conspicuously ear- 
shaped, flowers 'in handsome terminal spikes, the pod 
pubescent ... 12. C. semperflorens. 

Shrubs similar to the above but pod very shaggy. 

14. C. obtecta. 
Low undershrub 13. C. Walkeri. 

{Leaflets i inch obovate 18. C. Notonii. 
Leaflets 3 to 4 inches acute 19. C. striata. 

3. Alatcz. 

In all the five species which follow the stipules are continued 
downwards as wings, broadest at the top. Three species 
were formerly considered to be varieties of C. rubiginosa Willd. 
This however was an error, Willdenow's plant belonging 
to the west India, not the East Indies (see note in F. I. N. and 
P. Ht., Vol. I, p. 102). The first three species may perhaps 
be regarded as climatic or altitudinal varieties of one, and the 
last two are also certainly closely allied to each other. 

1. Crotalaria Wightiana Graham ; F.B. I. ii 69. 

Shrubs up to 3 or 4 feet. Leaves up to 4 inches by 3^, 
covered with golden silky hairs. Upper end of stipular 
wing very broad with hooked apex. Flowers i inch. 
Pod to nearly 2 inches* A handsome shrub. 

Nilgiris below 6,000 feet. Pulney Hills on old ghaut below 
Shembaganur, etc. Shevaroys. 

2. Crotalaria scabrella Wight and Arnott; Wight Cat. 
692 / ; F.B.I, ii 69, as a var. of C. rubiginosa ; VIII 18. 
A sturdy bushy plant i to 2 feet, with hard and stiff 
branches ; most variable as regards size of leaves and 
stipules in different parts of the same plant : older parts 
often black, with large persistent stipular wings i inch 
across, wider than the leaves. Leaves elliptic, ovate or 



142 PAPILIONACE^E 

obovate, acute, mucronate, silky on both sides, or slightly 
scabrid above, from ii by i inch on strong parts to i| 
by % inch on short lateral branches and then like 
C. conferta : nerves three to four pairs impressed on the 
upper side, raised on the lower. Peduncles 2 to 4 inches, 
two to four-flowered, attached about i inch below the 
opposing leaves : bracts ^ inch lanceolate, ciliate, with 
distinctly swollen base ; lower two or three empty : 
bracteoles on the calyx, * inch, falcate lanceolate, acute. 
Calyx tube very short ; lower teeth f inch, upper nearly 
as long, divided half-way. Corolla scarcely exserted. 
Pod i^ by f inch ; seeds sixteen to twenty, t. 105. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : on the open downs on banks in long 
grass, etc. 

3* Crotalaria conferta Fyson ; distinguished from C. 
scabrella Wight and Arnott, by the uniformly smaller 
leaves, more distinctly stalked and shorter pod, and 
corolla exserted from the calyx. Branches from a 
rootstock, twiggy, 6 to 8 inches. Leaves f to i by -^ to 
inch elliptic acute at both ends, silky pubescent and 
glossy on both sides, drying a rich shiny brown ; nerves 
not conspicuous below ; stipular wing J inch at the 
top, narrowing in a curve gradually to the next node. 
Peduncles f inch, with one or more small bracts and 
aborted flowers. Calyx I inch, very silky. Corolla 
larger. Pod by J inch with stalk of ^ inch. 

Pulneys : on the downs above 7,000 feet in grass. 

Though I originated this species and it is accepted by Gamble in 
F.M.P. I am inclined to think it should really be merged in the preceding. 

4* Crotalaria ovalifolia Wall. Cat. 5411 / ; typica of 
F.B.L ii 69 as C. rubiginosa but not of Willdenow ; VIII 
18-0. Rootstock perennial, 3 inches, thick ; branches 



PAPILIONACEJE 143 

weak, 6 to 12 inches, diffuse or more or less erect in 
herbage ; all green parts pubescent. Leaves nearly 
sessile, J to i inch, elliptic to obovate or orbicular, 
obtuse or emarginate ; when young clothed as are all 
the younger parts and veins underneath with soft grey 
or brown pubescence, at length glabrescent ; upper 
sides drying black, lower with three or four pairs of 
prominent raised veins : stipules decurrent to the leaf 
next below or half-way only. Peduncles 2 to 3 inches, 
with one or two flowers, the lowest bract fertile : brac- 
teoles I inch, lanceolate-acute on the very short calyx 
tube. Calyx teeth J to 2 inch, hairy not silky. Corolla 
included or hardly exserted. Pod ij by J inch, sessile 
or practically so. t. 106. Wight Ic. t. 885. 

In grass on the open downs. Nilgiris : on Snowdon 8,000 
feet. Wight Herb. Prop. Nos. 689, 690, 69O-A Schmidt ; 
Gcertner. Pulneys : Wight Kew. Dist. No. 586 at Kew. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud, flower December-January. 
Gen. Dist. Dinchgul Wall. Cat. No. 541 1 ; Mayaburan Sir F. Adam. 

5* Crotalaria Bourncas Fyson No. 1093. Stems 
from the rootstock much forked, 4 to 6 inches, more or 
less erect, slender, pubescent. Leaves to f by \ to 
I inch, elliptic or oblong, obtuse or sub-acute at both 
ends, densely pubescent on both sides, drying black 
above : nerves three or four pairs raised underneath : 
stipules $ inch or less at the top, narrowing suddenly to 
a barely visible wing extending a little more than half- 
way to the next node. Peduncles | to 4 inch, leaf- 
opposed, one-flowered with a bract and aborted flower at 
about the middle. Calyx tube ^ 2 inch, with two linear- 
oblanceolate distinctly stalked bracteoles attached at 
the base ; teeth ^ inch. Petals included two-thirds of 
calyx. Pod i by J inch, with stalk of T V inch. t. 107. 



144 PAPILIONACE/E 

Pulneys in grass. 

Allied to C. ovalifolia Wall., and like it leaves drying black above 
but branches stiff though slender, and very much more bifurcating, leaves 
two or three times as long as^ broad, peduncles one-flowered, and corolla 
well included. 

2. Diffuse?. Prostrate plants with small or no stipules 
and flowers in racemes from opposite the leaves. 

6. Crotalaria Fysonii Dunn ; VIII 13 *. A small 
trailing plant with spikes of large yellow flowers from near 
the ends of the stems or branches. 

Stems several from the perennial rootstock, 6 to 24 
inches long, occasionally bifurcating, minutely ridged 
and usually downy, prostrate. Leaves all facing up- 
wards, with pulvinus but hardly petioled, f to ij inches 
by i to f inch, mostly ovate ; but the lower often 
smaller, J inch, and rounded to orbicular ; acute mucro- 
nate or retuse ; usually more or less downy by white 
hairs springing from persistent swollen bases which 
roughen the surface when the hairs have fallen : margin 
revolute : nerves raised underneath, obscure above. 
Racemes terminal and leaf opposed ; the stem entirely bare 
for 2 or 3 inches below them, ascending and carrying the 
four to six flowers up off the ground : bracts T * ff inch 
ovate acute or lanceolate, one-veined : pedicels J inch : 
bracteoles minute or o. Calyx obscurely two-lipped, 
shaggy with white hairs ; teeth lanceolate acute, J to ^ inch 
or three or four times the short tube ; upper teeth slightly 
broader than the lower and connate for one-third their 
length. Corolla well exserted, up to i inch or more 
across ; standard pure yellow veined reddish brown 
especially on the back, often reflexed : wings with minute 
cross-ridges between the veins of the upper half. Style 
swollen and very hairy at the tip. Pod i to ij by J to | 



PAPILIONACE^E 145 

inch, or three times the calyx, elliptic oblong or truncate, 
and broadest at the further end, usually downy, some- 
times shaggy : seeds eight to ten. Varies much in hairi- 
ness, pods may be quite shaggy ; and there is also a per- 
fectly glabrous form. t. 108* 

One of the commonest plants on the Kodaikanal downs where 
it sprawls by roadsides, over the edges of paths and cattle-tracks 
or runs in the grass. 

Docs not grow on the Nilgiris and till collected by Sir Alfred Bourne 
was unknown to the herbariums of Calcutta and Kew. Described 
recently by Dunn, in Kew Bulletin 1913. 

Calycince. Usually low-growing plants, with small or no 
stipules and terminal racemes of flowers, in which the calyx 
is hairy and the pods short. 

7. Crotalaria albida Heyne ; Wallich Cat. No. 5401, 
2 and 3 / ; F.B.I, ii 71, VIII 23. Branches numerous and 
slender from a short woody stem, forking low down but 
not branching above. Leaves subsessile, wedge-shaped, 
| to f by J to ^ inch, strongly one-nerved, with rounded 
end, covered on the underside with short hairs and small 
round translucent glands. No stipules. Flowers in long 
terminal racemes of eight to ten. Pedicels -J inch, calyx 
}- inch, hairy, two-lipped : the two upper lobes connate, 
and the three lower also connate, for about one-third. 
Corolla yellow : standard with green veins and a patch 
of silky hairs outside at the top, and with two scales at 
the base inside : wings a deeper yellow with a patch of 
cross-ridges. Style hairy. Pod quite glabrous. Seeds 
black and shiny with conspicuous radicle, t, 109* 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal and below, flowering early spring. 
Nilgiris . 

Gen. Dist. Hills of Ganjam and Vizagapatam. Tropical regions of 
India, Ceylon, Malay, China and the Phillipines, 

10 



146 PAPILIONACE^E 

8, Crotalaria calycina Schrank ; F.B.I. ii 72, VIII 28 ; 
Rabbit's Ears. Distinguished from all other (high level) 
species growing near the ground, by the densely hairy 
calyx, whose upper lip stands up like two brown silky 
ears behind the pale yellow flower. 

An annual from a few inches to 2 feet, the stem and 
branches flexuous, and clothed throughout with erect, 
appressed, coarse brown hairs, more numerous and 
shining on the younger parts, which give the whole 
plant a brown shaggy look. Leaves J to i inch, by * 
to i inch, elliptic or oblanceolate, acute, sessile ; 
densely hairy on the lower side. Flowers at the ends of 
leafy branches. Calyx inch, very shaggy and brown, 
the two upper sepals f inch wide, obtuse, united half-way, 
the two lower less than half as wide, free to the base and 
acute. Corolla glabrous, pale yellow, not exserted beyond 
the sepals ; standard with long hairs down the middle 
line behind or near the blunt apex. Pod sessile | inch, 
enclosed in the calyx, glabrous, dark brown, very turgid, 
and closely packed with twenty-five to thirty seeds* 
t* 110. 

Pulneys : common on the open grass land of the Kodai- 
kanal downs. 

Gen. Dist. Widely over the tropics of the Old World, from Africa to 
South India, Ceylon and North Australia and on the Himalayas eastward 
into Burma. 

The plant appears to vary enormously according to locality. On the 
higher downs it is a dwarf (like C. crinita Graham) of 4 to 6 inches, with 
flat leaves J to } inch ; or in long grass a tall plant with linear leaves, 
of over i inch, densely clothed with long hairs which meet along the 
midrib. Near Vilpatti (a few hundred feet below Kodaikanal) and lower 
down it becomes a sturdy plant with elliptic acute leaves if by inch 
(C. Roxburghiana DC.) and at still lower levels it has a stem of 3 feet and 
more, and leaves 3 to 4 inches by \ inch ; but also a form with much 
narrower leaves like those of the tall grass form of the higher levels 
(Bourne 1067), 



PAPILIONACE^E 147 

6. Erectoe. Erect herbs and shrubs, with more or less 
silky foliage flowers in terminal racemes, and glabrous pods. 

9. Crotalaria Leschenaultii DC. ; Wall. Cat. 5407 ; 
F.B.I, ii 76, VIII 42. A small bush with erect rather 
long and narrow wedge-shaped leaves, handsome spikes 
of large yellow flowers, and enormous pods frilled at the 
base by the dried calyx. 

Branches ascending from a perennial rootstock ; 
stout to J inch thick striated not hairy. Stipules ^ 
inch, triangular recurved. Leaves sessile, 3 by i to 5 
by ij inches, oblanceolate-cuneate, green and glabrous 
above, clothed underneath with very regular short 
straight hairs ; midrib prominent ; lateral nerves straight 
nearly to the margin. Racemes of sixteen to twenty 
flowers ; bracts lanceolate acute ; pedicels inch, 
without bracteoles. Calyx tube | inch broad ; three 
lower teeth ^ inch by J inch at the base ; two upper 
I by j inch. Corolla handsome ; standard i by 
inch, notched spreading backwards, yellow but even- 
tually tinged at the base with brown, wing-petals 
forming a steep roof over the keel, fading a reddish 
terra-cotta ; keel J inch by J inch, with ^ inch 
point, fringed with white hairs, fading yellow ; style 
eventually protruding. Pod when young horizontal, 
sharply bent at the apex ; when ripe 2 by .J inch, nearly 
rectangular in section, stalked and well exserted from the 
calyx which forms a conspicuous untidy cup at the base, 
and tipped by the stout persistent style, t. 111* 

Flowers on the Pulney downs in September, the pods remain- 
ing till the following summer, on the open downs frequent 
on paths and clearings from 8,000 feet down as far at least 
as 5,500 feet. Nilgiris : (W. & A.). Shevaroys, 
IO-A 



148 PAPILIONACEJE 

Gen. Dist. Not on the ghauts to the north nor elsewhere in India or 
beyond. It might be said to be replaced on the plains by C. retusa. 

10. Crotalaria formosa Graham, Wall. Cat. 5393 / ; 
F.B.I. ii 76, VIII 43. A shrub, distinguished by the 
tawny hairs of the stem and the very dense short thick 
racemes of yellow flowers. Foliage bluey-green. 

Stem dwarfed, much branched, covered with tawny 
hairs ; stipules 1 inch, narrow and curved downwards. 
Leaves 2 by i inch, obovate, narrowed to the short 
stalk, dark green above, silky below and brown with 
tawny hairs on the veins, mucronate ; usually stiffly 
erect. Racemes i to 2 inches long and as broad, pedicels 
short, densely silky. Calyx teeth J to | inch, four times 
the tube, shaggy, acute. Corolla rather small not much 
longer than the calyx, the standard veined brown. 
Pod distinctly stalked, at first black, afterwards green and 
finally straw-coloured, about i| by | inch, smooth and 
shiny, and frilled below by the dried calyx, t, 112* 
Wight Ic. t. 981. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund on Snowdon, flowering Sep- 
tember to February. In sholas and on the open downs near 
Pykara. Not known on the Pulneys. 

The foliage is quite like C. Leschenaultii DC. in which however the 
spikes are four or five times as long, and there are no tawny hairs. 

11. Crotalaria barbata Graham, Wall. Cat. 5394 /; 
F.B.I, ii 76, VIII 44. A sturdy shrub with erect spikes of 
rich yellow flowers, conspicuous against the dark brown 
axis and pedicels ; and with erect rather crowded leaves. 

Branches thickly clothed with brown hairs. Leaves 
sessile (but pulvinus ^ inch), erect, 2 to 4 inches, obovate 
with rounded base, clothed below with long white hairs, 
on the upper side nearly glabrous and glossy. Racemes 



PAPILIONACE/E 149 

terminal, 4 to 8 inches ; bracts | inch, pedicels | inch, 
densely clothed with dark brown hairs. Calyx very 
distinctly two-lipped ; tube | inch ; teeth f inch, 
the two upper broader than the three lower, all clothed 
with brown silky hairs. Standard i inch across, notched. 
Pod erect green, quite glabrous, if by f inch, widest at 
the upper end, surmounted by the J inch stout style with 
at the base the dried calyx, t. 113* Wight Ic. t. 980. 

Nilgiris : Near Ootacamund on the slopes of Snowdon 
7,700 feet, flowering Christmas. Pykara 6,600 feet. Coonoor. 
Not collected on Pulneys. 

Gen. Dist. Only on the South Indian mountains of Nilgiris and 
Travancore, not northwards on the Bombay Ghauts. 

Eriocarpece. Erect shrubs with small or large (not 
decurrent) stipules, terminal spikes or panicles of flowers, and 
hairy or smooth pods. 

* Spikes few : foliage smooth : pod hairy. 

12. Crotalaria semperflorens Vent. ; F.B.I, ii 78, 
VIII 50. Distinguished by its large ear-shaped stipules, 
broad oval green leaves, and magnificent spikes of yellow 
flowers. One of the commonest of roadside shrubs. 

Shrubs or small trees, up to 10 feet ; branches striate : 
stipules up to inch, ear-shaped. Leaf-stalk % inch, 
blade broadly ovate, 2 to 4 inches, conspicuously veined 
and densely pubescent on the underside, ultimately 
glabrous on the upper. Racemes terminal or opposite 
the leaves, naked for the lowest one-quarter ; bracis 
small, reflexed ; pedicels J inch. Calyx teeth | inch, 
twice the broad tube, narrow. Corolla well exserted ; 
standard erect veined green. Pod oblong, turgid, 2^ by 
| inch, stalked above the persistent calyx. Seeds J 
inch, brown, with very prominent radicle. t* 114* Wight 
Ic. t. 982. 



150 PAPlLlONACE/E 

By roadsides and the edges of sholas. Nilgiris : in Ootaca- 
mund itself very common. Pulneys on the downs above 
Kodaikanal and down to Shembaganur. 

Gen. Dist. Tropical mountains of South India, Ceylon and Java. 

A near ally of the common C. verrucosa L. of the plains, which how- 
dver is but a herb and has blue flowers. 

1 3. Crotalaria Walkcri Arn. ; F.B.L ii 78 as var. 
of C. semperflorens. A low undershrub. Stipules small. 
Leaves smaller than in the last species and the smaller 
nerves few and not prominent on the lower side. 

Nilgiri and Pulney hills, at lower levels. 

14. Crotalaria obtccta Grah. ; F.BJ. ii 79, VIII 55. 
A straggling shrub densely clothed with brown silky hairs. 
Leaves 2 to 4 inches, nearly elliptic, obovate or oblong, 
velvety above and below. Stipules narrow, | inch. 
Racemes close, 12 to 20 flowered. Pod il to 2 inches by 
| to | inch, densely covered with short stiff brown hairs. 

Nilgiris : 4,000 to 6,000 feet. Coonoor, etc. 

** Spikes many panicled : foliage silky : pod glabrous. 

15. Crotalaria madurensis Wight in Wall. Cat. 
5376 /; F.B.L ii 79, VIII 56. A small tree, 10 or 12 feet, 
with light brown stem and very regular upward sloping 
branches ending in large panicles of pure yellow flowers 
and covered with white hairs, some simple others 
stellate. Petioles inch all pulvinus, without stipules. 
Leaves obovate cuneate, with a silky sheen on the upper 
and on the nerves of the lower side. Nerves about twelve 
pairs, curving slightly forwards at the ends and joined 
by others, all raised on the lower side and depressed on 
the upper. Flowers racemed on axillary branches of 



4 to to inches, which are leafy for the greater part 
and so form large leafy panicles i to 2 feet high by 6 to 
8 inches wide : bracts boat-shaped J inch, caducous 
after the standard has fallen ; bracteoles similar. Calyx 
obscurely two-lipped ; three lower teeth lanceolate, \ by 
\ inch at the base, two upper broader, ovate ; all pubes- 
cent or silky with short white hairs. Corolla when 
open large and conspicuous ; standard ij by i inch, 
thinly silky on the back : wings obliquely obovate- 
oblong, | by f inch ; all three petals alike in 
colour a light yellow without any red in it : keel \ inch 
at the broadest part, its tip \ inch light green. Pod ij 
by 1 1 inches deep by f inch broad, somewhat flattened 
above and below ; when young thinly canescent, when 
ripe frilled by the brown but not much shrunken sepals. 
t. 115. 

Pulneys : on the open downs, flowering July to September, 
and then a magnificent sight, especially on the hill-side to the 
left of the Poombari road two miles beyond the Observatory, and 
below the new ghaut road a little above Shembaganur. 
Nilgiris : top of Sigur ghaut : Coonoor. Appears to thrive 
on steep slopes. 

1 6. Crotalaria shcvaroycnsis Gamble ; Kew Bulletin 
1917, 28. Somewhat like the last species but distinguished 
by its very conspicuous shining bracts and bracteoles 
which persist after the flowers have fallen. 

A shrub 3 to 5 feet high. Leaves obovate or elliptic, 
acute at both ends : thinly silky and shiny both sides : 
veins about 9 pairs almost straight to the margin. Spikes 
terminal on short branches from the upper axils with two 
or three leaves only, and many bracts, forming large 
terminal panicles over 18 inches by 12 inches. Bracts 



152 PAPlLIONACE/E 

ovate brown shiny, deflexed ; upper sepals brown (thinly 
silky) on back, lateral narrow, acute. Corolla yellow, 
standard racemed erect, wings and keel pointing down. 
Pod 1 1 inches by f inch. Stalked well beyond the 
sepals. 

Shevaroys : roadside above Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Pulneys and Dindigul hills at low levels (2,000 feet). 

17. Crotalaria subperfoliata Wt. F.BJ, ii 79, VII 
57. Very similar to the last species, but with fewer 
veins, more acute bracts and broad sepals enclosing the 
stalkless-pods, is abundant on Horsleykonda, flowering 
mid-February. 

18. Crotalaria Notonii W. & A. ; F.B.L ii 82, VIII 
66. A shrub 2 to 6 feet high. All parts thinly pubescent 
with yellowish hairs ; stipules setaceous I inch. Leaves 
trifoliate, rachis inch ; leaflets about as long, J inch, 
broad, obovate or elliptic, obtuse mucronate. Flowers in 
axillary racemes, forming a large corymbose panicle 2 
feet across. Bracts and bracteoles linear. Calyx teeth 
subequal, reflexed. Corolla yellow ; standard f inch wide 
and long, streaked with brown and with two oval brown 
marks at the base, bent quite back ; wings -| inch wide, 
horizontal over the very acute keel. Pod -J inch, hardly 
longer than broad, with prominent incurved beak, finely 
pubescent ; seeds i or 2, dark olive brown, t, 116* Wt. 
Ic. t. 752. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, on the slope above Brooklands estate, 
etc., at 6,000 feet, common ; flowering best in September. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Nilgiri and Anamalai hills, 4,000 to 6,000 
feet. 

The flowers have the scent of the English Melilotus. 



PAPILIONACE^E 153 

19. Crotalaria striata DC. ; F.B.L ii 84, VIII 73. 
An erect low shrub, 2 to 4 feet, with robust thinly silky 
branches. Petioles 2 to 4 inches. Leaflets, 3, 3 to 4 
inches, obovate, oblong, obtuse. Flowers 20 to 50 in 
racemes of \ to i foot, yellow striped with red. Pod 
cylindrical, \ to 2 inches, slightly decurved, with 20 to 30 
seeds. 

Introduced on estates as a green manure and now run wild 
near Coonoor (C. Brown). 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas to Ceylon and Malacca. 

TRIFOLIUM. 

Small herbs easily recognized by their conical heads 
(short spikes) of pink white or yellow flowers and the 
three leaflets on longish petioles. The leaflets show 
five teeth on the obtuse end, the keel-petals arc obtuse, 
and all the petals persist and enclose the ripe pod. 

A genus of temperate regions and cultivated for animal 
food. Here only as an escape. Species about 200. 

Trifolium (three-leaf) was the Latin name of the common CLOVER. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers red or pink, in dense globose heads i inch diameter, 
with a pair of simple leaves below ; leaflets oblong 
obscurely toothed. An erect perennial herb, pod one- 
seeded (Red Clover) T* pratense* 

Flowers white, or pinkish, in globose heads f inch diameter, 
no leaves below ; leaflets obovate, notched. (White Clover) 

T* repens* 

Flower-heads yellow, 1 inch diameter, no leaves below ; 
peduncles \ inch, leaflets obcordate J- inch finely toothed. 

T, dubium* 

These three species are all introductions from Europe and 
may be found in grass, flowering after the first rains. 



154 

PAROCHETUS* F.B.I. 50 xi. 

A genus of one species only. 

Parochctus communis Hamilton ; F.B.I, ii 86, 
XI i. A small creeping plant with clover-like leaves, 
and blue and white flowers solitary or in pairs on slender 
stalks. 

Stem or rhizome very slender, running to a or 3 feet, 
and rooting at the nodes. Leaf-stalks i to 4 inches leaflets 
three, i inch long, all sessile, obcordate or obovate cuneate, 
notched, glabrous on the upper, sparingly pubescent 
with coarse hairs on the underside and round the margin : 
stipules acute. Peduncles longer than the leaf-stalks, 
usually one, but occasionally two-flowered, with a pair 
of small bracteoles | inch below the flower. Calyx 
campanulate of four lobes (by union of the two upper 
teeth as shown by a small notch in the upper lobe) lowest 
tooth much the largest. Standard petal reflexed, blue, 
obovate with a short claw : keel abruptly bent upwards, 
narrow, white. Style glabrous : stigma capitate, even- 
tually exserted beyond the keel. Pedicels after flower- 
ing reflexed. Pod f by | inch, straight, opening by 
both margins. Seeds seven or more, ovate with hilum 
notch in the middle of one side, t, 117* Wight Ic. 483. 

Very common on damp ground, in the open and round the 
edges of sholas ; in and near Ootacamund and on the Kodai- 
kanal downs. Not at much lower levels nor on the ghauts to 
the north, nor apparently anywhere else. 

Distributed widely over the higher mountains of tropical Asia, the 
Himalayas from Simla to Assam, the mountains of Burma, Java, etc. ; and 
of Africa and Zambesi land. The only species of its genus. 

Named from the Greek PARA = near and OCHETOS = a brook or conduit, 
because found in damp places. (C.F.S.) 



PAPILIONACE/E 155 

INDIGOFERA, F.B.I. 50 xvn. 

Indigo, etc. 

A large tropical genus distinguished by a more or 
less dense covering of white hairs closely appressed to 
the surface and attached by the middle (not at one end) ; 
by minute points at the top of the anthers ; and by a 
continuous not jointed pod containing usually several 
seeds. Leaves in the majority of species pinnate (in 
one of ours three-foliate). Corolla generally pink and 
quickly falling ; keel petals with a spur on the outer 
side near the base. Stamens diadelphous. 

Nearly 300 species, scattered over all the warmer parts of 
the world, but more especially South Africa. 

India alone has over 40 species, most of them growing on the plains. 
Indigo, by far the most important of blue dyes, was, until the last decade or 
two, obtained exclusively in India from the cultivated /. tinctoria and 
/. erecta, by fermentation of the stalks and leaves. Hence Latin name 
indicum for the colour and hence also indigofera (fero I bear). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

r Leaflets three. Small trailing plant with young parts 
a< almost black, and bright red flowers . I. pedicellata. 

[.Leaflets many b 

f Shrub with pinnate leaves and racemes of pink flowers . 
b< I. pulchella. 

(^ Trailing plant with purple flowers . . . I. endecaphylla. 

Indigofera pedicellata Wight and Arnott ; Wight 
Cat. 868 / ; F.BJ. ii 95, XVII 15. Rootstock perennial ; 
branches very slender, wiry, black-pubescent on the 
younger parts, trailing on the ground but not rooting. 
Petioles | to \ inch ; leaflets three, in the larger form 
occasionally four, -J to I inch long, elliptic obtuse, covered 
with black glands. Flowers crowded six to twelve, in 
short corymbs ; pedicels J inch ; bracts linear T \, inch. 



156 PAPlLIONACE^E 

Calyx ^ inch with long teeth. Corolla red. Pod f inch 
straight, even, sharply pointed, t. 118* Wight Sp. 
Nilg. t. 56. 

Very common especially on gravel paths and exposed spots 
in pastures. Pulneys near Kodaikanal, Nilgiris, Shevaroys. 

In general habit this species is not unlike the very common /. ennea- 
phylla L. of the plains, but differs in its three-foliate leaves and less 
crowded flowers. The floral mechanism to secure pollination by insects 
is also very similar. See Pres. Coll. Bot. Bull. No. n. 

There appear to be two forms distinct enough perhaps to be called 
varieties. In the smaller the leaflets are not more than J by { 
inch and very black below like the young branches, and the flowers 
i inch bright red. In the larger the leaflets are not less than J 
by i inch when fully expanded ; there is much less black on them 
and on the branches, and the flowers are considerably larger, about J 
inch and pink rather than red. It is as if the same quantity of black and 
of red colour were distributed over larger areas. This larger form is the 
type of Wight and Arnott's species, Wight Cat. 868. 

Indigofcra cndccaphylla Jacq. ; F.B.I, ii 98, 
XVII 24. An annual herb with trailing stems i to 2 feet 
long. Leaves i to 3 inches, of 9 to 12 leaflets. Racemes 
up to 4 inches long, many-flowered. Flowers small, 
purple. Pod f to i inch. 

Nilgiris : on the borders of the plateau and below. 

Gen. Dist. Hills of Deccan and Mysore, Western Ghauts, Coimbatorc. 

Indigofera pulchella Roxburgh; F.B.I, ii 101, 
XVII 37. Shrub, 4 to 6 feet with trunk up to 4 inches 
thick at the base and slender branches. Leaves 2 to 4 
inches, of eleven to fifteen leaflets. Leaflets distinctly 
stalked, f to i by \ to \ inch, elliptic or oblong-obovate, 
mucronate, dark green on the upper side, covered on both 
sides with very regularly arranged closely appressed hairs. 
Racemes i to 5 inches ; pedicels very short. Flowers 
purplish pink, mostly before the leaves. Corolla | inch ; 



PAPILIONACE/E 157 

standard petal reflexed persistent after the keel and wings 
have dropped. Pod straight i to i| by J inch, sharply 
pointed, glabrous, projecting nearly horizontally. Seeds 
Vir inch, t, 119. Wight Ic. t. 367. 

On the open downs. Pulneys : common above Kodai- 
kanal. Nilgiris on the plateau in early spring, but does better 
at lower levels. Shevaroys : flowering Christmas. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas and other Indian hills above 5,000 feet, Kanara 
and the Ghauts to the north of us, Mahabaleshwar, etc. 

PSORALEA* F.B.I. 50 xvni. 

Shrubs or herbs with odd-pinnate gland-dotted leaves 
and indehiscent one-seeded pods. 

Species about 100 mainly in South Africa and North 
America. 

Psoralea pinnata ; XVIII 3 ; a shrub of 2 to 6 feet, 
with numerous branches sloping steeply upwards and 
close set leaves of about seven narrow, linear, pointed 
leaflets. Flowers towards the ends of the branches, blue. 
t. 120. 

Near Ootacamund on the bank of the deep cutting through 
which the road to Coonoor passes near the old aqueduct, 
and by the toll-gate. An introduction. Not recorded from 
anywhere else in South India. 

TEPHROSIA. F.B.I. 50 xxii. 

Herbs or undershrubs with odd-pinnate leaves, recog- 
nizable as a rule by the very close straight nerves which 
run at an acute angle to the margins of the leaflet. Flowers 
pinkish or white in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes. 
Pods straight, many-seeded. 

Species over 100 in the tropics of both worlds. 



158 PAPILIONACE/E 

Tcphrosia tinctoria Pers. ; F.B.I, ii in, XXII 4. 
An undershrub covered with golden-brown pubescence. 
Leaflets variable in number from 3 to 13, the end one 
usually the longest, glabrous above, pubescent below. 
Racemes peduncled. Flowers red. Pod slightly bent, 
i to 2 inches. Wt. Ic. t. 388. 

Pulneys : on the slope above Shembaganur, etc. Nilgiris ; 
Shevaroys, flower January. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts up to 7,000 feet, Mysore, Coimbatore and 
North Arcot. 

Tcphrosia Candida DC.; F.B.L ii in, XXII 2. 

A shrub with slender, grooved, velvety branches : leaflets 
from 15 to 25, silky below ; white flowers, densely silky 
on the standard ; and a slightly curved pod 2 to 4 inches 
long, is grown as a green manure on Tea estates. It is 
a native of the Himalaya from Kumaon to Khasia. 

LESPEDEZA* F.B.I. 50 xxx. 

Herbs or undershrubs with pinnately three-foliate 
leaves and one-seeded indehiscent strongly-veined pods. 
Species few. 

Lespedeza scricca Miq. ; F.B.L ii 142, XXXII i. 
An erect undershrub with long twiggy branches. 
Leaflets, linear cuneate, silky. Flowers white tinged with 
purple, about J inch, in small fascicles in the axils of the 
upper leaves of short branchlets all down the branches. 
Pod -| inch, round, flattened, thinly silky. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund and down to Coonoor, Pulneys : 
6,000 to 7,000 feet. (P.M. P. gives only Pulneys). 

SMITHIA, F.B.I. 50 xxxvia. 
Herbs with short, pinnate leaves which end in a bristle 
and have sensitive leaflets, soon closing if plucked. 



PAPILIONACE/E 159 

Flowers in axillary racemes, calyx two-lipped. Corolla 
blue or yellow ; keel obtuse. Stamens in two bundles of 
five each. Pod jointed, or divided into one-seeded parts, 
and folded inside the calyx. 

Species about 30 in the tropics of the old world. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers in loose racemes with filiform peduncles and pedicels. 

Calyx with dense fringe of short hairs. . . S. gracilis. 
Flowers in close or open corymbose racemes ; calyx with yellow 

bristles on black bulbous bases S. hirsuta. 

Flowers in terminal panicles of corymbose racemes, one-sided 

in fruit ; calyx with soft yellow bristles . . . S. blanda. 

Smithia gracilis Benth. ; F.B.I, ii 150, XXXVIII 6. 
A diffuse slender perennial plant. Leaflets 4 or 6. 
Flowers yellow. Calyx strongly ciliated. Pod veined. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys, in grass, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Smithia hirsuta Dalz. ; F.B.I, ii 151 in part. A 
small herb with short erect stem and trailing branches. 
Leaflets three pairs, -1 to J inch, wedge-shaped. Branches, 
petioles and calyx covered with yellow hairs on black 
bulbous bases ; calyx conspicuously so. Flowers \ inch, 
yellow, standard erect. 

Nilgiris : on the downs in damp places. Shevaroys : 
slope of Shevaroyan. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, 3,000 to 7,000 feet. Eastern Ghauts. 

Smithia blanda Wall. ; F.BJ. ii 151, XXXVII 12, 
A tall almost shrubby plant, reaching 2 feet in height. 
Young branches hairy, old quite glabrous. Leaflets 6 to 10. 
Calyx lips equal, densely clothed with fine bristles. 
Corolla bright yellow. Joints of fruit T \>- inch, t. 121. 
Wt. Ic, t.. 986. 



l6o PAPILIONACE/E 

Nilgiris : 4,000 to 6,000 feet, Naduv^ttam. Shevaroys : 
slope of Shevaroyan. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Mysore to Travancore, East Himalayas. 



LEPTODESMIA. F.B.I. 50 XLI. 

Diffuse perennial herbs with one or three foliate leaves 
and small flowers crowded in dense terminal racemose 
heads, yellow or whitish by the dense hairs on the sepals. 
Stamens 9 and i. Ovary with one ovule only ; pod flat, 
one-seeded, and opening in two membranous valves. 

Species two or three only. 

Leptodesmia congcsta Benth. ; F.B.I, ii 152, XLI i. 
Leaves roundish, f inch. Heads of flowers to I inch. 

Nilgiris 4,000 to 7,000 feet. Pulneys : Poombarai, Shem- 
baganur. 

ALYSICARPUS* F.B.I. 50 XLVII. 

Herbs with slender stems, with one-foliate leaves, 
conspicuous stipules, small flowers in terminal racemes, 
and cylindrical pod constricted between the seeds like a 
row of beads, which separate into one-seeded, indehiscent 
parts. 

Species about 20, weeds in the tropics. 

Alysicarpus racemosus Benth. ; F.B.I, as var. of A. 
belgaumensis, II 60, XLVII 9. A small erect plant with 
golden pubescence. Upper leaves sometimes three-foliate, 
lower one-foliate. Leaflet under i inch. Flowers purple, 
pedicelled in long racemes. Pod of three or four joints, 
not much exserted from the calyx. t 122* 

Nilgiris, 3,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Gen. Dist. Northern Circars, Deccan, Western Ghauts, Nilgiris, 
Anamalais, etc. [G.F.M.P.] 



PAPILIONACE^E l6l 

DESMODIUM* F.B.I. 50 L. 

A large tropical genus, characterized by the pods 
being composed of a number of flat one-seeded segments ; 
the leaflets three, each with a pair of stipels ; and the 
flowers in terminal racemes, blue or pink or a mixture 
of these colours, never yellow. The middle leaflet is 
usually the largest and has a longer stalk. 

Species about 120, cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

Named from the Greek DESMOS, a chain, because of the jointed pot. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Shrub ; leaves 2 inches, racemes 2 to 4 inches, erect ; flowers 

blue D. rufescens. 

Twiggy plant ; leaflets i to 3 inches across ; flowers few, red. 

D. scalpe. 

Very thin-stemmed twiggy plant ; leaves not above ^ inch, 
flowers blue or pinkish in very slender racemes . . . 

D. parvifolium. 

Desmodium rufescens DC. ; F.B.I, ii 171, L 37. 
A shrub, the slender branches, stipules, leaf-stalks and 
veins of the underside, densely clothed with reddish 
brown hairs. Leaf-stalks i inch ; stipels linear, | inch ; 
leaflets obovate, cuneate at the base or rounded at both 
ends, mucronate, the upper side covered when young 
with a very fine pile of short grey hairs but glabrous 
when older, the underside covered with white silk. 
Racemes 3 to 6 inches, occasionally axillary, more densely 
flowered in the upper part. Pedicel J inch, and calyx 
densely hairy. Corolla | inch purple to deep blue. 
Staminal tube f inch, slender, appearing often outside the 
keel ; anthers obtuse, style abruptly bent, without hairs. 
Pod i by J inch, nearly straight on the upper edge, indented 
by the five to seven divisions along the lower, downy, 
II 



l62 PAPILIONACEffi 

where ripe curved and reflexed in a dense spike below the 
younger still open flowers. Remarkable for its very silky- 
brown buds and young leaves, t. 123* Wight Ic. t. 984, 
111. t. 79. 

Very common in thickets on the Pulney and the Nilgiris 
downs ; flowers summer. Kodaikanal, Ootacamund, Coonoor, 
Kotagiri, Bisccapatti, Kodanad, Pykara and lower levels, 
Shevaroys, but not on the ghauts to the further north. 

Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon where plants are less thickly covered but 
hairs long. 

Desmodium scalpe DC. ; F.B.I, ii 165, L 16. 
Stem woody, slender, young parts pubescent. Stipules 
J to | inch, lanceolate acuminate, glabrous except on the 
margin, closely appressed to the stem. Leaf-stalk 2 
inches hairy. Leaflets three, i to 3 inches wide ; the 
middle one rhomboid ; lateral oblique ; stalks \ inch. 
Flowers small in lax terminal racemes or panicles, up to 
12 inches. Bracts deciduous ; pedicels very slender, 
usually in pairs, sloping up. Calyx -J inch. Corolla 
^ to i inch, red. Pod of one to three half-diamond- 
shape joints, J- to | inch long, with upper suture slightly 
curved, t* 124* Wight Ic. 985. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund. Pulney at lower levels. 
Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. Usually at lower levels on the hills of South India. Also 
tropical Africa, Abyssinia, Natal, Mascarene islands. Varies to a certain 
extent, leaflets acute or blunt, with entire or sinuate-crenate margin. 

Desmodium parvifolium DC. ; Wall. Cat. 5700 / ; 
F.B.I, ii 174, L 47. Stems (main branches) pubescent in 
the younger parts, glabrous and often red in the older, 
2^- inch thick. Lateral branches numerous, sticking 
out stiffly at right angles, leafy from the base to the flowering 
part. Stipules finely pointed, up to inch hairy, persist- 
ent after the leaf has fallen, e,g,, at the base of a branch. 



PAPILIONACEJE 163 

Leaves reflexed close to the axis, of one or pinnately of 
three leaflets ; leaflets ovate, obtuse mucronate, with 
reticulate translucent veins ; the terminal largest, | to 
J inch long ; the lateral smaller ; stalks not longer than 
the stipules. Racemes terminating the lateral branches, 
slender as a hair, pubescent : bracts ovate, boat-shaped 
deciduous ; pedicels up to \ inch. Sepals -^ to \ inch, 
slender pubescent, the calyx tube a quarter as long ; 
Corolla blue, pale, purple or pinkish, not much exserted, 
keel rounded. Fruits on slender erect stalks \ by \ 
inch, three to five jointed by indentations on both edges ; 
the joints opening on the top edge only, obscurely reti- 
culately veined, pubescent, with the calyx persistent at 
the base. t. 125. 

Quite common on the higher downs in grass and still more 
so at lower levels. Flowers March to October. 

Gen. Dist. India on the hills : Simla, Nepal, 4,000 to 6,000 feet ; Khasia, 
3,000 to 5,000 feet ; Nilgiris, Pulneys 7,000 feet ; Ceylon, not in the 
Bombay Presidency (C.B.F.) ; Java and New Guinea, 6,000 feet. The 
" Everywhere in the plains " of F.B.I. Ic. appears to be incorrect. 

Desmodium rotundifolium Baker ; F.B.I, ii 172, 
L 40. A small plant with very slender stems and younger 
branches covered with sticky hairs. Leaves of one or of 
three leaflets intermixed, the lateral leaflets much smaller 
than the middle one, which varies from J to i inch, 
and is nearly round ; stipules, petioles and margin of 
leaf with long brown hairs. Racemes, slender terminal : 
pedicels often in pairs, very slender J to i inch, erect. 
Sepals strongly veined and shaggy with brown hairs, 
Corolla pink. Pod distinctly constricted between the 
seeds. 

Nilgiris : on the downs on moist hill-side. Flower 
September. Also on the Western Ghauts at 3,500 feet. I 
cannot find any reference to this in G.F.M.P. 

Gen. Dist. Plains of Concan (F.B.L)- 
II-A 



164 PAPILIONACE^: 

VICIA* F.B.I. 50 LIII. 

Vetch. 

Slender-stemmed herbs with pinnate leaf, part of 
which is transformed into a branched tendril by which 
the plant climbs : stamens diadelphous oblique at the 
mouth : pod dehiscent not jointed. 

A large genus of too species scattered widely over the 
north temperate regions and also in South America. England 
has nine species. 

Vicia saliva Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 178, LIII 9 ; common 
Vetch. A slender-stemmed herb, climbing by branched 
tendrils, and having reddish or bluish purple flowers, 
solitary or in pairs at the leaf-axils. Stipules rather 
large and coarsely toothed, leaflets four or more pairs in 
each leaf, less than an inch in length variable in shape 
but usually oblong, narrowed to the base and cut off 
abruptly at the apex or indented, with a conspicuous 
mucro, otherwise entire. Flower stalk } inch. Calyx 
tube campanulate : teeth as long, slender, subequal. 
Corolla well exserted, f to i inch across : petals narrow. 
Pod if inches by ^ inch straight, pointed : seeds seven 
to ten globular, t, 126* 

An introduction from Europe, where it is cultivated for 
forage and so has spread widely over the temperate parts of the 
World ; Fr. Vesce cultive, Ger. Futterwicke. 

The flower has a simple pistol mechanism for the presentation of pol- 
len to insect visitors. The anthers open inside the keel and shed their 
pollen into its tip. When a fairly heavy insect, such as a bee, alights on the 
flower it depresses the keel and in consequence pollen is pushed out of the 
end by the hairs on the style. In older flowers the stigma hits the insect's 
body in the same place and being receptive takes pollen from it. 

The name is an old Latin one. 



165 

SHUTERIA. F.B.I. 50 LVI. 

Slender herbs with pinnately trifoliate leaves, racemes 
of flowers, and flat curved pods. 

Species under 10, Indian and tropical Africa. 

Shutcria vcstita W. & A. ; F.B.I. ii 181, LVI i. 
Stem slender twining hairy, leaflets ovate mucronate, 
stipules scarious. Flowers purplish. Seeds brown 
t. 127. 

Nilgiris, Pulneys and Shevaroys : 2,000 to 6,000 feet. 
Gen. Dist. Sikkim and Khasia to South India and Ceylon. 

DUMASIA* F.B.I. 50 LVIU 

Slender-stemmed twining plants with pinnately 
three-foliate leaves distinguished by the calyx with bulging 
base and oblique truncate mouth (hardly any teeth) ; the 
standard petal with two spurs at the base ; the style 
long and flattened above the curve, and capitate stigma. 
Flowers yellow. 

Species three only, India, South Africa, Malaya and Japan. 

Dumasia villosa : F.B.L ii 183, LVII i. A climber 
with pinnately three-foliate leaves ; short racemes of 
flowers with long and almost toothless calyx out of which 
pokes the yellow corolla ; and velvety pod contracted 
between the seeds. 

Stem slender, twining, thickly coated, as also the 
stipules, leaf-stalks, undersides of leaflets, calyx and 
pod with short yellowish hairs. Stipules J inch acute ; 
petiole i to 2 inches. Leaflets nearly equal, ovate, obtuse, 
mucronate, glabrous above, when young ciliate ; middle 
stalk J inch, lateral J inch. Racemes 2 to 4 inches, few 



1 66 PAPILtONAC&fi 

flowered : peduncle slender, 2 inches or more, in var. 
Congesta, very much shorter. Calyx J inch bulging 
forwards at the base and narrowed to the very oblique 
mouth. Corolla exserted to f inch, hanging with 
the small round standard downwards : wings obovate, 
curved downwards, adhering slightly to the keel which 
is shorter, and has slender claw longer than the oval blade. 
Style thickened suddenly at the bend, then thinner : 
stigma with radiating hairs. Pod enclosed at the nar- 
row base by the calyx, contracted between the few seeds 
veiy velvety, opening by both edges, t 128. Wight Ic. 

t- 445- 

Quite common in sholas on the Ootacamund and the 
Kodaikanal downs. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, above 6,000 feet but not common to the 
immediate north. (In the Bombay Presidency rare, only found by Cooke 
and at Mahabaleshwar) [C.B.F.]. 

Ceylon, Himalayas from Simla to Khasia and eastwards to Java, also 
in Madagascar and Natal. 

MUCUNA. 

Large climbing plants with pinnately three-foliate leaves 
and flowers in which the standard is only half as long as 
the keel, the anthers are alternately long and short, and 
the fruits (variable in shape) are covered with stinging 
hairs. 

Species about 20, in the tropics. 

Mucuna hirsuta W. & A. ; F.B.L ii 187, LX 7. 
Lateral leaflets obliquely ovate, about 3 inches by 2 inches, 
densely covered below with golden hairs. Flowers about 
1 1 inches, reddish-purple. Fruits 2 inches by -J- inch, 
S shape, densely covered with irritating hairs, t* 129* 

Shevaroys : below " Lady's Seat, " Yercaud. Pulneys : 
on the lower slopes. 



tAPILiONACE/ 167 

CANAVALIA. F.B.I. LXX. 

Twining plants with pinnately trifoliate leaves (of the 
bean type) which are not gland-dotted, and racemes of 
flowers in which the nodes are swollen more or less, the 
bracts small or caducuous ; calyx campanulate, the two 
upper lobes united into a very broad indented one, and the 
other three teeth very small ; corolla is well exserted and 
conspicuous, with large roundish standard, free at the 
base from the stamens, which are united (monadelphous); 
and large fattish pods with thickened or winged upper 
suture. 

A small tropical genus, of Asia and America. 

Canavalia virosa W. & A. ; F.B.I, as variety 
of C. ensiformis ii 196, LXX i. A large climber, 
Leaflets ovate-acute, hairy on the underside 2 to 3 inches 
long. Racemes long peduncled ; flowers i to i| inches 
pink. Pod 4 to 5 by i inch ; seeds about 7. t* 130* 

Shevaroys : on the Nagalur plateau. 

PHASEOLUS. F.BJ. 50 LXXIII. 

Bean. 

Twining plants with pinnately three-foliate leaves 
and axillary racemes of flowers characterized and dis- 
tinguished by the keel being very long and coiled in a 
spiral ; the style also long and conspicuously bearded 
below the stigma ; and the pod long and narrow. 

Species about 60, some widely cultivated, e.g., the French, 
Kidney and Haricot bean. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Both our species have yellow flowers and the stipulefixcd 
above its base 



1 68 tAlLIONACE 

Stem with stiff deflexed hairs ; leaflets 2 to 4 inches ; stipules 
i inch ; pod glabrous P. calcaratus. 

Leaflets variable, usually small, lobed ; stipules large ; young 
pod silky P. sublobatus. 

Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb. ; F.B.I. ii 203, LXXIII 
12. Similar in habit to the next species, but the leaflets 
2 to 4 inches broadly ovate, acuminate, scarcely ever lobed, 
and pods glabrous. Flowers yellow. 

Nilgiri and Pulney Hills, to 7,000 feet. 
Gen. Dist. Himalayas to Ceylon. 

Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb. ; formerly P. trinervius 
Heyne ; Wall. Cat. 5603 / ; F.B.I. ii 203, LXXIII 12- 
Stem and leaves hairy. Stipules ovate-acute, attached 
above their base. Leaves J to 2^ inches, ovate, more or 
less lobed. Stalks of racemes 3 to 6 inches ; flowering 
part i to i inches. Corolla yellow or reddish. Pod at 
first very silky, 2 to 2\ inches long, 10 to 12 seeded, 
slightly curved. 

A native of lower levels but found near Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Plains of South India, Ceylon and Malaya. 

The various cultivated beans Lima, French or Haricot, 
Scarlet Runner and others are cultivated varieties of this 
species. 

VIGNA. F.B.I. 50 LXXIV. 

Twining plants with the characters of Phaseolus but 
the keel not spirally twisted, and btigma oblique. 
Species about 50. 

Vigna vcxillata Benth. ; F.B.I, ii 206, LXXIV 5. 
Leaflets ovate or lanceolate, acute. Flowers i inch or 



t>APILlONACEJE 169 

more, reddish purple, 2 to 4 together on a long peduncle. 
Calyx strigosely hirsute. Pod 3 to 4 inches by J inch 
with blackish hairs, with 10 to 15 seeds. 

Nilgiris and Pulney Hills, up to 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, South Kanara, Nilgiris and Pulneys. 
^ Wynaad Sweet Pea." 

Vigna Wightii Benth. ; F.B.L ii 206, LXXIV 7. A 
slender twiner, differing from the last species in the stem 
being hairy, the calyx softly villous, the petals with shorter 
claws, the leaflets obtuse mucronate, and the pod with 
brown hairs. 

Pulneys, about 5,000 feet, below Shembaganur. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Wynaad, etc. 

DOLICHOS. F.B.I. 50 LXXVII. 

Twining herbs with pinnately three-foliate leaves, 
and minute sub-persistent bracts, bracteoles and stipules. 
Differs from Phaseolus in the keel not being spiral, the 
stigma terminal and the pod flat, slightly curved. 

Species about 20, in the tropics of both worlds. 

Dolichos lablab is cultivated on the plains for the pods 
which are eaten green like French Beans. D. biflorus L. is 
cultivated on the plains for its seeds (Horsegram). 

Dolichos falcatus Klein ; F.B.L ii 211, LXXVII 6. 
A slender twiner. Leaflets entire or slightly three-lobed, 
| to i inch. Stipules small, reflexed persistent. Flowers 
lilac or pink in colour, 2 to 8 on slender peduncles of 
about 2 inches. Calyx under J inch. Corolla twice as 
long. Pod 2 to 3 inches by f inch curved. 

Shevaroys : Yercaud, etc. Pulneys : below Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas to Ceylon, on the lower hills. 



1^0 PAPILIONACEjfc 

ATYLOSIA* F.B.I. 50 LXXIX* 

Herbs or shrubs, erect or twining with pinnately three- 
foliate leaves ; characterized by the flowers in pairs ; all 
parts covered with small red resinous glands which 
however are concealed under short hairs ; pods with 
depressed lines between the seeds ; and the strophiole 
(aril) of the seeds large and divided. 

Species about 20, India, Mauritius and to Australia. 

Named from the Greek A, without, and TYLOS, callosity, because the 
standard is without the hard basal knobs possessed by some genera. 

Shrub 2 feet A. trinervia. 

Slender twiner running in grass A. rugosa. 

Atylosia trinervia Gamble ; formerly Atylosia Can- 
dollei Wight and Arnott ; Herb. Wight Prop. 1631.'; 
F.B.I, ii 212, LXXIX i. Branches, leaf-stalks, under- 
sides of leaflets, calyx, and more especially in the younger 
parts densely clothed with erect hairs : twigs stiff. Stem 
grooved, very hairy on the ridges between. Leaf-stalk 
\ inch erect : internodes hardly longer so that the foliage is 
usually very dense. Leaflets elliptic or obovate-cuneate, 
i to 3-| inches by \ to i inch ; lateral somewhat oblique ; 
terminal slightly larger ; stalks about equal ; pubescent 
on the upper side, densely so on the raised veins of the 
lower ; distinctly sticky. Peduncles of the pairs of 
flowers erect, in the lower axils 2 inches, in the upper 
short to o : pedicels \ inch. Calyx \ to f inch densely 
silky, teeth two to three times the cup. Petals as long 
again, pure gamboge yellow : keel blunt without beak. 
Stamens all equal, upper one free. Pod very hairy, ij 
by | inch, with a short abrupt point, surrounded at the base 
by the persistent calyx and corolla, and slightly indented 
between the three or four seeds, t, 131. Wight Ic. 754. 



IPAPILIONACE;E 171 

Nilgiris : Eastern and Western plateaus, flowering April- 
July. Common on land which has been cleared and left. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. Also Ceylon. 

The flowers face upwards with the keel erect and standard horizontal. 
The standard is bent back near its base, and there presses against two 
small points on the wing petals. These latter are attached to the keel. 
Honey can be got only by a stout proboscis pushed home between the 
standard and the wings. But the standard stiffened at this point by being 
bent, and supported also by the calyx behind it, remains firm, so that, 
the wings and with them the keel petals are pushed apart exposing the 
stamens. 

The flowers have the smell of musk, the leaves a little that of the 
" Cedar- wood " of pencils. The petals fade a rich purple- terracotta 
colour beginning with the back of the standard, and remain for some time. 

Atylosia rugosa Wight and Arnott ; Herb. Wight 
Prop. 761 / ; F.B.L ii 215, LXXIX 12. Remarkable for its 
very slender stems running in grass and the very conspi- 
cuous veins of the underside of the small leaflets. Leaf- 
stalks J> to i inch, erect, clothed like the young branches 
with brown pubescence. Leaflets f inch ; terminal one 
obovate-cuneate, lateral obliquely obovate ; velvety on the 
upper side with impressed veins ; white or almost orange 
below especially on the much-raised veins. Peduncles 
to ii inches, f to i inch apart along leafless branches : 
pedicels inch, bracts conspicuous, ^ inch ovate. Calyx 
-| inch, teeth equal to the tube. Corolla J inch, yellow ; 
remaining for some considerable time, but not quite until 
the pod has ripened. Pod inch by J inch, rounded at 
both ends except for the short stylar point, mostly one- 
seeded but also with two or three seeds, densely pubescent, 
brown, opening by both edges, the valve curling up when 
dry : if with two seeds divided inside between them. 
Seeds brown or purple, with a large double fleshy 
excrescence (strophile) on the hilum side, more than half 
as long as the seed itself, t, 132* 



JPAPILIONAC&E 

Pulneys : on the Kodaikanal downs, very common. 
Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, much less common. Fyson 
1089, 1099, J 488 Bourne 1091, 2040. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills and Ceylon. Not on the Bombay Ghauts 
to the north, nor apparently anywhere else in India. 

The leaflets show very marked sleep-movements, folding along the mid- 
rib, and becoming nearly erect against the stalk at sundown. I have not 
detected any scent as in the other species. 

RHYNCOSIA, F.B.I. 84. 

Twining plants with pinnately three-foliate leaves, 
dotted on the underside with resinous glands, and usually 
axillary, racemes of flowers, with one or two seeds only in 
the flat or slightly turgid pod. 

A fairly large genus of about 100 species everywhere in the 
tropics. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

r Flowers on axillary pedicels not racemed. Leaflets 

J woolly below R. filipes. 

I Flowers few well separated on raceme ; sepals broad, 

I enclosing the shorter corolla. . . . R. rufescens. 

Flowers many on long spikes : sepals acuminate less than half 

the corolla R. viscosa. 

Rhyncosia rufescens DC. ; F.B.I, ii 220, LXXXIV 
i. Shrubby, with long slender zigzag branches. Leaflets 
about i inch, terminal larger than lateral, broadly elliptic 
acute. Flowers on very slender peduncles, and pedicels 
distinctly separated. Sepal | by J inch. Corolla enclosed. 
Pod \ to j|- inch, roundish with one seed. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Plains. 

Rhyncosia viscosa DC. ; F.B.I, ii 225, LXXXIV 
15. A stronger plant than the last, twining widely. 
Leaflets broadly ovate-deltoid, broader than long, acute. 



PAPILIONACEJE 173 

Spikes up to 12 inches; flowers close; calyx and its 
teeth about J inch. Corolla i inch. Pod ij inches 
two-seeded. 

Shevaroys : on the upper plateau in thin jungle. 

Rhyncosia filipes Benth. ; F.B.I, ii 221, LXXXIV 
5. Stem very softly and densely hairy, as also underside 
of leaflets which are velvety on the upper side, and ovate- 
acute in shape. Flowering branches very slender and long, 
the nodes 2 to 4 inches apart. Flowers solitary on very 
slender pedicels of J to i inch in length, small. Pod f by 
-J- inch densely pubescent, two-seeded. 

Nilgiris : at low levels. Pulneys : Pillar rocks and 
below. Shevaroys : on plateau. 

FLEMINGIA* F.B.I. 50 LXXXV. 

Leaflets three, gland-dotted below and equally stalked 
or one only. Flowers yellow in dense spikes or clover- 
like heads, stipules and bracts large and conspicuously 
striate. Pods turgid not divided between the seeds, and 
seeds without strophiole. No stipels to the leaflets. 

Species about fifteen, nearly all Indian. 

Erect herb or undershrub, leaflets up to 3 inches .... 

F. Grahamiana. 
Trailing herb, leaflets f inch F. nilgheriensis. 

Flemingia Grahamiana Wight and Arnott ; 
Wight Herb. Prop. ! ; F.B.I, ii 228, LXXXV 6. 
Shrubby, stem erect, finely striate ; young parts 
tomentose. Petioles i inch with narrow wing, when 
young closely erect against the stem. Terminal leaflet 
2 to 3! inches by i to 2\ inches, obovate-cuneate, with 
three main veins, the middle one pinnately branched, 



174 PAPILIONACRffi 

the lateral one more closely so on their insides than 
on the outsides, recalling the venation of ZIZYPHUS ; 
lateral leaflets oblique, venation similar but inside lateral 
vein absent or not well marked ; all acute entire, equally 
and shortly stalked, hairy on the veins on the lower side, 
and dotted with glands ; when in bud erect, folded 
between the shaggy veins, then horizontal, later hanging 
perpendicular from erect petioles, then rising as they 
unfold and the petioles spread outwards. Spikes very 
dense, oblong, i to 2 inches ; bracts J inch, ciliate, acute. 
Flowers pink. Calyx teeth hairy round the edges, 
spiinkled with black glands. Corolla small, not exserted 
yellow. Pod short and stout, under J- inch by J inch, 
finely pubescent and covered with clammy red glands. 
t. 133. 

Pulneys : on the Kodaikanal downs, extremely common, 
where in summer the young shoots are conspicuous above the 
herbage, for their horizontal folded leaves. Flowers October 
and November. Fyson 1129, 2151. Bourne 45, 402. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor. Shevaroys : Lady's Seat near Yercaud. 

Flemingia nilghcricnsis Wight, Manuscript in Herb. 
Kew ! ; F.B.I, ii 230, LXXXV 10 * ; formerly F. procum- 
bens var. Stem and branches many, 12 to 18 inches, 
spreading on the ground, terete, clothed as alsp the leaf- 
stalks and calyx with long spreading hairs and sprinkled 
with dark red glands. Petioles J inch to f inch, leaf- 
lets equally subsessile, rounded at the end, mucronate, 
pinnately veined, middle one obovate, cuneate, lateral 
more oblong and oblique. Heads of flowers terminal 
about | inch across, peduncled to i inches above 
the last leaf, but often with a pair of stipule-like bracts 
J inch below ; bracts by j\ inch lanceolate acute, 



PAPILIONACE^ 175 

hairy. Calyx densely hairy, the hairs often springing 
from large yellowish bulbous bases, and with also small 
dark-red glands ; teeth more than twice the tube, linear 
lanceolate, shaggy especially round ,the edges. Corolla 
yellow, not much exserted, purple ; standard hairy and 
glandular on the back, auricled. Pods ^ inch, shorter 
than the calyx, ovoid or sub-globose, pointed, glabrous, 
veined ; seed one only as a rule, ellipsoid, quite filling 
the pod, dark brown, smooth, t* 134, Wight Ic. 987. 

Pulneys : Lidcot valley near Kodaikanal on rocks and 
elsewhere. Bourne 893. On the Nilgiris on the western 
downs. Pykara, Naduvattam, flowering September. Confined 
to the Western Ghauts to the Bababoodons but rare in the 
Bombay Presidency. 

In the F.B.I, this was placed as a variety of F. vestita, Bcnth apparently 
because named by Wight F. procumbens by a slip which he corrected 
in a manuscript in the herbarium at Kew while F. procumbens 
Roxb. = F. vestita Bcnth. The plant is restored to specific rank 
by Cooke in the Bombay flora, from which this explanation and the 
description of the pod is taken. 

DALBERGIA, F.B.I. 50 LXXXVI. 

Trees and large woody climbers with pinnate leaves 
of alternate leathery leaflets, panicles of numerous small 
flowers, in which the anthers are small and fixed back to 
back on their filaments and open by a vertical slit ; and 
thin flat indehiscent pods containing one or more seeds, 
but not winged. 

Species about 70, in the tropics. 

Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. and D. sissoides Grah. are the 
trees whose wood is usually called '* Rosewood " in S. India. 

The Indian species were monographed by D. (now Sir David) Prain in 
the Annals of ^he Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, Vol. X. 

Dalbergia congcsta Roxb. ; F.BJ. ii 232, LXXXVI 
8, in part. Leaflets i by | inch, elliptic or obovate, 



176 PAPILIONACKE 

obtuse, notched. Flowers in small cymose panicles, in th 
leaf-axils, about J inch only. Pod i to 2 inches by f inch, 
with one oblong seed in the middle. 

Nilgiris : On the Qhaut Road below Coonoor, etc. 

Dalbergia Gardneriana Benth. ; F.B.I, as part of the 
last. Like D. congesta, but the branches and undersides 
of leaflets covered with dense brown tomentum, the 
leaflets elliptic-oblong, not notched and the panicles 
more contracted, 

Nilgiris : Coonoor and just below. 

In the F.B.I, these last two species were united. 

PTEROCARPUS. F.B.I. LXXXVII. 

Trees. Leaves of 3, 5 or 7 alternate leaflets. 
Flowers in axillary panicles, yellow, showy : petals 
crinkled stalked. Ovary with 2 ovules, but pod as a rule 
with one seed only, flat, roundish with a broad wing, not 
opening. 

Species about 20, in the tropics of the whole world. 

Ptcrocarpus santalinus Linn. /.; F.B.L ii 239, 
LXXXVIII 3. " Red Sanders/' Leaflets 3 roundish- 
oblong, obtuse or apex notched, veins numerous and 
close. Flowers inch, yellow, t* 135* Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 
t. XXII. 

Shevaroys : On the Nagalur road, flower June. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan, Cuddapah Hills to Chingleput, etc., at 1,500 feet. 
Properly belongs to these latter lower levels. 

DERRIS, F.B.I. 50 LXXXIX. 

Large climbers with imparipinnate leaves with oppo- 
site leaflets and showy panicles of small flowers fascicled 
along the spike or branches of the panicle. Calyx teeth 



PAPILIONACE^ 177 

very short. Corolla much longer. Pod thin, indehiscent, 
with a few flat seeds. 

Species about 50, in the tropics. 

Dcrris canarensis Baker ; F.B.I. ii 246, LXXXIX 21. 
Leaflets about 7, broadly ovate, acuminate, 1 1 to 2 inches 
by i inch. Spikes of flowers erect, 3 to 6 inches, three 
or four together fascicled or on very short peduncles in 
the leaf-axils, rachis brown. Flowers fascicled. Pedicels 
about | inch. Calyx inch, brown. Corolla nearly J inch 
longer, white. Standard strongly reflexed ; keel obtuse ; 
wings shorter. Pod not seen. t. 136. Trim. El., Ceylon, 
t. xxix. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal near the junction of the upper and 
middle lake roads. Fyson 4205. 

I name this from the illustration in Trimen's Flora, though the flowers 
are shown there as pink, for in all other respects it seems to agree with 
that figure. But if this is correct the species attains a higher elevation 
than has been supposed, for Gamble in F.M.P. gives its locality as in 
evergreen forests and along backwaters. It should then probably be 
considered a highland white flowered form of the species. 

SOPHORA, F.B.I. 50 xcn. 

Shrubs with pinnate leaves, very small calyx teeth, 
stamens all free (an unusual thing in this family), and 
the pod constricted between the seeds and usually not 
opening. 

Sophora glauca Leschenault ; F.B.I, ii 249, XCII 4. 
A shrub with soft greyish green foliage and dense spikes 
of small purplish flowers. Height 6 to 12 feet ; branch- 
lets round densely pubescent. Leaflets ten to fifteen 
pairs plus a terminal one, J- by | inch, oblong, obovate- 
elliptic, blue-green or olive-green, softly hairy on both 
sides, with strong midrib produced as a mucro. Flowers 
in dense terminal racemes with small and very quickly 



178 

falling linear bracts and bracteoles. Calyx J inch long 
and broad, with small but distinct teeth, pinkish purple. 
Corolla twice as long, standard purple, keel white. 
Pedicels erect -J inch, petals with long claws, equal : 
standard obovate, J inch broad, notched : wings oblong : 
keel petals overlapping at the back but scarcely united. 
Pod cylindrical with a stalk of J to i inch and equally 
]ong point, constricted between the seeds which if few 
may be far apart, very densely velvety. Seeds one to six, 
almost perfectly ovoid except for a swelling near the 
small hilum, polished, light coloured, t. 137. Wight 
Ic. 1054 ex. pods. 

Nilgiris : On the open downs especially dry hill-sides near 
Ootacamund, in flower all the year round, and down to Pykara, 
Kotagiri, Biccapatti and Coonoor. Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 
Not collected on Pulneys. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Peermade, the hills of Western India, but 
apparently somewhat local, and not on the ghauts of the Bombay Presi- 
dency. 

The leaves have a rank smell when bruised, somewhat like that of the 
English Elder, and on drying turn black. The flower is much compressed, 
the standard being folded round at the base and leaving a small tubular 
opening above the upper edge of the keel and wings. Partly because of 
this folding but also of its thickness, the standard is very stiff, and is made 
more so by the support of the upper calyx lobe. The keel and wings are 
free of each other but small projections at the base of the latter fit into 
hollows in the wings so that they must move together. A heavy insect 
pushing its way down the tubular opening between the firm standard and 
the wing petals would necessarily force the latter down and with them the 
keel and so come into contact with the anthers, held in place as these are 
by their stiff filaments. The flower thus appears adapted for visits by short- 
tongued bees. 



C.ESALPINE/E. 

In this family (or sub-order) of the LEGUMINOS^E the 
petals are nearly equal and similar, the uppermost is 
inside the others in bud and often much the smallest, 



CJESALPINE^E 179 

the stamens are all free of each other, and typically ten 
but often reduced to seven or fewer. In other respects it 
is as given under LEGUMINOSJE, p. 132. 

The pod varies it may be flattish and open by both 
edges (as in the Papilionaceae) or by the upper edge only, 
or be cylindrical and break open irregularly ; or again it 
may be constricted between the few seeds and break up 
into one-seeded parts, or have only one seed, and be com- 
pressed above it into a wing by which it is distributed 
down the wind. 

The family is one of warm climates and consists of trees and 
shrubs. Many are cultivated for their beautiful flowers, e.g., 
Caesalpinia (Peacock flower), Poinciana (Gold mohur), Cassia 
(Indian laburnum and other species), Amherstia and Bauhinia. 
Another well-known member is the Tamarind. On these 
elevations most of the species of Cassia are introduced garden 
plants, run wild. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Leaves bi pinnate, thorny shrubs C^SALPINIA. 

Leaves pinnate. CASSIA. 

CAESALPINIA* F.B.I. 50 xcvi. 

Trees, shrubs or woody prickly climbers with bi-pinnate 
leaves and showy yellow flowers in axillary racemes. 
Calyx of five almost free sepals, the lowest and largest 
of which is spoon-shaped. Petals roundish sub-equal 
with distinct claw. Stamens 10, bent down a little. Pod 
thin or turgid, dehiscent or not. 

Species about 50 in the tropics. 

Caesalpinia pulcherima Swartx, the Peacock flower of the Chinese, or 
Barbados hedge, with large orange red flowers, is almost universal in 
Madras gardens. 

I Z- A 



C^ESALPINE/E 

Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb. ; F.B.T. ii 256, XCVI 6 ; 
the Mysore thorn. A very prickly straggling shrub* 
Branches more or less covered with grey or brown pubes- 
cence and small hooked prickles. Leaves 9 to 12 inches 
long, of 12 to 20 pinnae, each with 1 6 to 24 leaflets, | to 
i inch long, green on the upper side, glaucous on the 
under. Corolla i inch across, pale yellow, facing side- 
ways or down, on ascending pedicels of i to ij inches. 
Stamens about f inch, anthers red. Pod 3 by i inch, 
reddish brown, stout and woody, with a very narrow wing 
along the upper edge ; open pod horizontal boat-like, with 
about 6 brown-grey mottled seeds, t. 138. Vern. Chilian. 

Nilgiris, on the Eastern plateau : Biccapatti mund, 6,500 
feet, below Coonoor on the ghaut road and towards Kodanad. 
Pulneys, at Vilpatti about 6,500 feet. 

CASSIA. F.B.I. 50 cm. 

Herbs, shrubs and trees. Leaves even-pinnate, with 
one or more glands on the rachis. Flowers usually yellow 
and showy ; sepals five, on the margin of a short and 
scarcely hollowed calyx tube ; stamens ten, but often 
only seven of the anthers fertile, some at least of these 
opening by pores or short slits. 

A large genus of 300 to 360 species, inhabitants of all 
tropical countries, and divisible into four well-marked sub- 
genera, according to the number and dehiscence of the fertile 
anthers, the nature of the pod and the lie of the seeds in it, the 
general habit and the arrangement of the flowers. 

Monographed by G. Bentham in Trans. Linn. Soc., Vol. xxvii 
(1871). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

("Leaflets 30 to 40 pairs : a small spreading undershrub. 

J C. mimosoides. 

J Leaflets 16 to 24 pairs : pod hairy . . C. Leschenaultiana. 

v Leaflets 3 to 10 pairs : shrubs or trees . . . , , . b 



C^ESALPINE^E l8l 

r Stamens 10, 3 lower anthers larger . . c. FISTULA. 

I Fertile anthers 7, 3 upper sterile c 

b<( Glands on the leaf-stalk between all or most of the 

I leaflets c 

I One gland only at the base of the leaf-stalk. C. occidentalis. 

{Leaflets glabrous C. Isevigata. 
Leaflets tomentose underneath . . . . C. tomentosa. 

Cassia Fistula Linn.; F.B.L ii 261, c in I; the 
Indian Laburnum. Stamens all with anthers, but 3 
lower largest. A medium sized tree. Leaflets 4 to 8 
pairs 2 to 5 inches long, narrowed at the apex. Flowers 
i to 2 inches across, in large pendent racemes, pale yellow. 
Pod i to 2 feet by i inch, cylindrical, t* 139* Wt. 
Ic. t. 269. 

Shevaroys : on the Nagalur Road, apparently wild, but 
frequently planted. 

Gen. Dist. Central Himalayas to South India, Ceylon, Malaya and 
China. Commonly planted. 

Cassia occidentalis Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 262, CIII 5. A 
low undershrub with foliage and inflorescence of C. laevi- 
gata except for the solitary gland on the leaf-stalk near 
its base ; and pod when ripe flat, 4 inches by inch with 
prominent sutures thicker than the rest of the pod. 
Leaflets 3 to 5 pairs, ovate acuminate. Flowers rich 
yellow. Fertile stamens 6 or 7. Seeds flattened at 
right angles to the pod and parallel to the division walls, 
except sometimes in the upper part of the pod they are 
parallel to the sides. 

A native probably of tropical America and introduced elsewhere. Now 
abundant in waste and cultivated places in tropical Asia and Africa. 

Cassia Isevigata Willd. A handsome shrub with 
golden yellow flowers in terminal corymbs of axil- 
lary racemes, distinguished by the acute or acuminate 



182 

dark green glabrous leaflets, with a cylindrical pointed 
gland between the two of every or all but the terminal 
pair. Branches round, smooth. Stipules | inch but 
often falling early. Leaves from 4 to 8 inches, the lowest 
pair of leaflets i| to 2 inches from the branch. Leaflets 
lanceolate, from i to 5 inches, the terminal pair usually 
the largest, from long. Flowers over an inch across. 
Three upper stamens sterile, next four with anthers J 
inch, the next pair with filaments longer than the lowest 
one and anthers, like the latter, I inch curved ; all these 
opening by pores at the top, and having a line of pubes- 
cence down the middle line on each side, which however 
soon withers. Pod brown, 3^ to | inch, thick, opening 
elastically along one edge, segmented inside and indented 
between the seeds. Seeds horizontal with short stalks. 
t. 140. 

A native of tropical America, Brazil to Mexico, and now wild, but 
probably introduced, in similar parts of Asia and Africa. 

Cassia tomentosa Linn. ; F.B.L ii 263, CIII 7* ; the 
Yellow Cassia of Ootacamund. A small tree or shrub, with 
large panicles of buttercup-yellow flowers. Young 
branches, sepals, ovary and the underside of leaves 
densely covered with short hairs. Leaflets six to eight 
pairs, oblong obtuse, pubescent on the upper side and 
dark-green, i to ij by J inch, prominently one-nerved, 
with a gland between the two of all or most pairs, densely 
pubescent on the underside. Racemes of flowers in the 
upper axils ; stamens as in C. laevigata. Pod 4 by 
J inch tomentose. t. 141. 

Nilgiris : in Ootacamund very common by roadsides and 
flowering abundantly. Pulneys : at Poombari. 

A native of tropical America in the valleys of the Andes from Bolivia 
to Central America. 



Cassia mimosoides Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 266, CIII 18 ; 
Pink or Yellow Ground-Cassia. A low diffuse perennial 
with slender downy branches. Stipules J inch acute. 
Leaves i to 2 inches ; leaf-stalk hairy, with one gland on 
below the lowest pair of leaflets, and produced beyond 
them in a soft spine ; leaflets thirty to fifty pairs, J by 
:/ inch linear, mucronate with a red outer margin. 
Flowers solitary, pedicelled in the leaf-axils ; sepals J to 
inch linear. Petals about as long. Stamens ten, 
filaments short ; anthers alternately long and short, and 
opening by terminal slits. Pod flat, i|- to 2 inches by ^ 
inch, the partitions inside oblique nearly or quite 
glabrous. 

In woods and on shady roadsides. Nilgiris : Ootacamund, 
Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. Rare in America. 

Cassia Leschenaultiana DC. Similar in habit to C. 
mimosoides Linn, but with only 1 6 to 24 pairs of leaflets 
and the pods hairy, not glabrous, t. 142. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, etc. Pulneys : Shembaganur, etc. 

Cassia didymobotrya Fres. A handsome shrub with 
large brown bracts under the flowers is grown often in 
gardens in Coonoor. Native of Africa. 

MIMOS EIE. 

In this family (or sub-order) of the LEGUMINOS/E 
the flowers are small and massed in small dense heads or 
short spikes ; the petals all equal, often united at the 
base, and in bud valvate (none overlapping another) ; 
the stamens may be ten or very many. In other respects 
the family is as given for the LEGUMINOS^E, p. 132, but in 
many of the ACACIA genus the leaves are apparently 
simple, being only the flattened petiole. 



184 MIMOSE^E 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Stamens 5 only. Tall tree ACROCARPUS. 

Flowers pink, stamens 10, low undershrub . . . MIMOSA. 
Flowers yellow or white in globular heads. Leaves in some 

simple. Stamens many ACACIA. 

Flowers in thick spikes, pod vdry broad . . . ALBIZZIA. 

MIMOSA. 

Herbs and shrubs with bi-pinnate, often sensitive, 
leaves ; and globular heads of small flowers with 4 or 5 
triangular lobes to the corolla, as many or twice as many 
stamens, t^eir anthers not crested ; and oblong pods. 

About 300 species chiefly of the American tropics. 

The word MIMOSA has been used in popular language to cover a 
number of widely different plants. 

Mimosa pudica Linn. ; F.B.I, iiagi, CXXV i. ; the 
sensitive plant. Stem and branches slender, armed with 
recurved prickles. Leaf-petiole i J to 2 inches, pinnas 2 or 
4 nearly sessile, and attached close together, i^ inches ; 
ultimate leaflets 12 to 20 pairs, i to J inch long. 

Shevaroys : about Yercaud, common roadsides and often 
a troublesome weed. 

The leaflets may be made to close one by one by touching them 
gently. Violent stimulus will cause all to close and the pinnas to drop 
down ; and this reaction may spread to all the leaves of a plant, and by 
the movement to other plants also. A. R. Wallace suggested that this 
served to protect the leaves from grazing animals. 

ACROCARPUS. 

Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight ; F.BJ. ii F.B.I 
50 CXXVI 292, CXXVI i. A lofty unarmed tree! 
Leaves doubly pinnate of about 5 pinnae 12 inches long f 
each of about 8 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets 2^ to 3! inches 
by i i to 2 inches, obovate, cuspidate, entire, glabrous. 



MIMOSEJE I $5 

Flowers in stiff spikes 5 to 10 inches long. Calyx J inch, 
shallow-cup shaped. Corolla ^ inch, cream-coloured 
stamens 10, filaments red very conspicuous. Pod flat, 
winged along the upper edge. 

Nilgiris: Coonoor possibly only planted, at bridge at foot 
of Tiger Hill Road, Sims Park, etc. Flower March-April. 
Gen. Dist. Lower levels on these hills. 

ACACIA* F.B.I. 50 CXXVII. 

Wattle, etc. 

Flowers small in yellowish balls | inch across ; calyx 
campanulate } \. inch ; petals four or five united in the 
lower half ; stamens many. 

Species over 400. More than half Australian, the others in 
the tropics. 

In many Australian species the leaves are apparently simple. Seed- 
lings however all begin with bi-pinnate leaves, and the apparently simple leaf 
is really a broadened leaf-stalk of which the pinnas and leaflets have not 
developed : they are known as phyllodes. It will be seen that the veining 
of these is not like that of an ordinary leaf. 

There are no species indigenous to these levels, but three or four 
introduced from Australia are now well established in and near hill 
stations. 

KEY TO SOME OF THE INTRODUCED SPECIES. 

r Leaves apparently simple b 

a<\ Leaves bi-pinnate ; leaflets forty to fifty pairs on each of 

L eight to fifteen pairs of pinnas c 

r Phyllode with one main nerve and many slender side- 

J veins A. retinodes. 

b< Phyllode with 2 nerves only A. longifolia. 

Phyllode with three or four main nerves and very slender 

I parallel veins A. melanoxylon. 

-Foliage green, young shoots golden. Flower-heads pale, 
yellow. Pod distinctly constricted between the seeds. 

A. decurrens. 

Foliage bluish, young parts not yellow. Flower-heads 
w golden yellow. Pod not constricted. . A. dealbata. 



1 86 MIMOSEJE 

Acacia mclanoxylon R. Br. ; Benth. FL Aust. ii 388 ; 
CXXVII ** ; Black-wood of Australia. Planted every- 
where on these levels. Native of New South Wales, 
Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Flowers Octo- 
ber. Styles often long exserted, seeds black with long 
red funicles. t. 143. 

Acacia dccurrens Willd. ; Benth. FL Aust. ii 414 ; 
CXXVII *** ; Green or Black Wattle of Australia. 
Planted. Native of South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, 
New South Wales. Flowers : Kodaikanal, March-April , 
Coonoor early summer. 

Acacia dealbata Link; Benth. FL Aust. ii 415; 
CXXVII ***** ; Silver Wattle of Australia. Native of 
New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria. Flowers : Oota- 
camund, September, t. 144. 

The above are the commonest species planted. 

Acacia longifolia Willd. ; Benth. FL Australiensis 
ii- 397- A shrub or small tree. Branchlets angular, 
glabrous. Phyllodes very nearly straight, about 3 inches 
by \ inch ; nerves 2 or more parallel from the base with 
reticulations between. Flowers in spikes of about i inch, 
2 or 3 in an axil. Petals 4. Pod 2 to 4 inches narrow, 
constricted often between the seeds which lie length- 
wise in the pod and have their stalk (funicle) thickened 
into a short cup-shaped aril, t* 145. 

Nilgiris : at Coonoor planted. 

Gen. Dist. Native of Australia from Moncton Bay, Queensland, to the 
Brown River in S. Australia. 

Acacia retinodes Schlecht ; Benth. FL Aust. ii 362, 
CXXVII*. A native of Victoria and South Australia. 



ROSACES 

ALBIZZIA* F.B.I. 50 cxxvui. 

Like ACACIA but sepals and petals always five each ; 
stamens numerous, united at the base in a tube ; pod very 
broad and thin ; seeds compressed, their stalks slender. 

Species 25 to 30, in the tropics of Africa, Asia and Australia. 
In India ten, one of the commonest being A. Lebbek, grown 
in Madras. 

Albizzia lophantha Bentham ; CXXVIII 10 *. A 
shrub or small tree with bi-pinnate leaves of very small 
leaflets, and remarkable for its thick axillary spikes of 
small flowers and thin flat pods. Branches, leaf-stalks 
and peduncles usually velvety. Pinnas eight to ten 
pairs ; leaflets twenty to thirty, or more pairs, | inch 
long, narrow, with the vein near the upper margin ; 
silky pubescent underneath. Flower-spikes, ii to 3 
inches long by i| inches thick when the flowers open 
because of the long stamens ; pedicels \ inch. Pod 3! 
inches by to I inch, thin, the valves not twisting 
up after opening. 

A native of western Australia but planted and now natu- 
ralized on the Nilgiris and one tree in Bombay shola near 
Kodaikanal. 

ROSACES. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate, stipulate, simple 
or leathery leaves, and quite regular flowers of five free 
sepals, with occasionally an epicalyx of five bracteoles 
below them ; five free rounded petals attached to the 
margin of a cup-shaped or ring-shaped honey-secreting 
disc ; numerous stamens bent inwards in bud, with 
small anthers ; and one or more carpels, with one or more 
seeds in each. 



1 88 ROSACftffi 

The centre of the flower may be raised and the carpels 
separate, ripening into (dry) achenes as in the Straw- 
berry where the torus (centre) becomes juicy, or into 
juicy berries enclosing each one small stone as in the 
Raspberry ; or may be nearly or quite flat with one 
carpel only which ripens into a stone fruit, as in the Plum, 
Cherry and Apricot ; or be hollowed and enclose a few 
one-seeded carpels, as in the Lady's mantle and Agri- 
mony ; or have many carpels which lie free inside what 
is eventually a more or less juicy case (calyx tube), as in 
the Rose ; or the carpels may be completely sunk in a 
juicy fruit, with the seeds inside hard stones as in the 
Hawthorn, or in horny cases as in the Apple and Pear. 
All these variations in the fruit are met with in our flora. 

Species over 1,000 all over the world but mostly in tem- 
perate climates and the countries surrounding the Pacific 
Ocean. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

A. Carpels superior, 
(a) Carpel one only. 

Petals and sepals small, hairy ; fruit transversely oblong . . 

p. 189. PYGEUM. 

Petals \ inch white : spiny shrub . . />. 190. PRINSEPIA. 
Petals large, pink or white ; no spines (Peach, etc.) . . . 

p. 189. PRUNUS. 

(b) Carpels many. 

Carpels in fruit fleshy on a dry centre (Raspberry) .... 

p. 191. RUBUS. 
Carpels in fruit dry on a fleshy centre (Strawberry) . . . 

p. 196 FRAGARIA. 

Carpels dry, centre dry p. 197. POTENTILLA. 

B. Carpels inferior. 

(a) Fruit leathery, hollow, enclosing many hairy achenes . . 

p. 199. ROSA. 



ROSACEJE 189 

(b) Fruit fleshy, under J inch. 

Trees with corymbose panicles of small flowers . . . 

p. 200. PHOTINIA. 

Low shrub with small leaves . . . p. 202. COTONEASTER. 

(c) Fruit fleshy i inch or more. 

Flowers in fascicles (Pear, etc.) p. 204. PYRUS. 

Flowers in pyramidal panicles, leaves white underneath . . . 

p. 203. ERIOBOTRYA. 



PRUNUS. F.B.I. 51 in. 

Ovary superior. Seeds enclosed in a hard endocarp 
(' stone ') surrounded by the fleshy mesocarp. No wild 
species. 

Prunus Persica Benth and Hook. Leaves narrowly 
lanceolate, finely serrate ; petiole with glands ; stipules 
fimbriate. Flowers pink, sessile. Fruits smooth 
(Nectarine) or downy (Peach). 

Cultivated on the Shevaroys, etc. 

PYGEUM. F.B.I. 51 v. 

Evergreen shrubs and trees with small greenish, often 
imperfect flowers in axillary racemes. Petals and sepals 
hardly distinguishable, very small, round a saucer-shaped 
disc. Stamens many. Carpel one only, ripening to a 
transversely oblong or mallet-shaped leathery fruit, 
attached by its middle. 

Species 18. South Asia, Ceylon, Malaya. 

Leaves acute, not acuminate ; petals longer than sepals ; 
stamens about 20 : racemes short : fruit slightly notched in 
middle p. 190. SISPARENSE. 

Leaves acuminate ; petals and sepals nearly equal, drupe 
slightly notched : stamens about 30 , p. 190. GARDNERS 



I 9O ROSACE/E 

Pygcum Gardner! Hook. /. ; F.B.I. ii 321, V 12. 
A large tree with smooth pointed leaves and axillary 
spikes of small velvety flowers. 

Branches lenticelled, glabrous ; stipules minute, soon 
falling. Leaves 4 to 8 by i \ to 3 inches ovate, acuminate, 
entire; base rounded or acute; veins conspicuous below : 
stalks \ to i inch, stout. Spikes 2 to 4 inches, with stout, 
thickly pubescent rachis : pedicels \ inch stout. Flowers 
\ inch across. Calyx obconic with ten to twelve hairy 
obtuse lobes alternately larger petals and smaller sepals, 
deciduous as a whole. Stamens twice as many in two 
rows, exserted. Ovary glabrous surrounded at the base 
by hairs : style short. Fruit \ to \\ by \ inch, transversely 
oblong and obscurely two-lobed, rounded at the ends 
attached by the middle of one side. t. 146. Wight Ic. t. 

993- 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal. In the station shola and in others. 
Nilgiris : hill above Pykara 7,500 feet. Flowering after the 
rains, fruiting in December and June. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts and northwards to Mablcshwar. 

In F.B.I, the stamens are given as twelve and short. C.F.B. rightly 
gives them as more than twenty and well exserted. Both remark on the 
inequality of the lobes of the calyx ; they seem to me alternately large and 
small. 

Some species have glands at the base of the leaves; this one has not. 

P, sisparcnsc Gamble, at Sispara (G.F.M.P.), and 
possibly occurs at Bangitappal. 

PRINSEPIA. F.B.I. 151 vu 

One species only. 

Prinscpia utilis Royle ; F.B.I, ii 323, VI i. A spiny 
shrub : branches green, round and smooth. Leaves 
shortly stalked, 2 by | inch, elliptic acute, entire or 
finely serrate except towards the base, glabrous. Flowers 



ROSACES IQI 

in the axils of the upper leaves or of bracts, forming 
racemes along the upper branchlets, on rather stout | to 
i inch pedicels, which may have two or three minute 
scales. Buds top-shaped, purplish brown in the lower 
half. Sepals J inch, concave, round. Petals J inch, 
round with crinkled edge, white. Stamens numerous 
with yellow anthers, from a conspicuous disc. Ovary 
superior, one-celled ; ovules two, attached to one side, 
pendulous : style basal, bent below the large flat stigma. 
Fruit roughly oblong, rounded at each end, with the 
persistent style attached near the base. Seed one only, 
erect with thick cotyledons, t. 147. 

Nilgiris : on the Coonoor-Kotagiri road at 7,000 feet, 
flowering June, apparently wild. A native of the Himalayas 
used sometimes as a hedge plant. 

Gen. Dist. Dry rocky hills of temperate Himalayas to Sikkim at 
9,000 feet and Khasi hills at 6,000 feet. 

RUBUS, F.B.I. 51 vin. 

Bramble. 

Prickly rather straggling shrubs with simple lobed or 
compound leaves, and terminal or axillary corymbs of 
pink or white flowers of five sepals, five petals, many 
stamens and on a raised centre (torus) many separate 
carpels, each of which becomes fleshy, with a small stone 
inside ; the whole fruit being composed therefore of a 
number of small drupes (Blackberry, Raspberry). 

Species about 100, abundant in the northern hemisphere. 

Name from the Celtic RUB = red. 

Great variations occur in both the leaves and inflorescence of many of 
these species, and this has led to the genus being divided up not only into 
sections or sub-genera and species but the latter also again into sub-species 
and micro-species, which are supposed to come true to seed. The genus 
has recently been monographed on these lines by Foche. The sub-species 



1 92 ROSACE J3 

distinguished by Gamble as occurring here are difficult to determine 
with any degree of confidence. I retain therefore the more comprehensive 
species of the F.B.I, which are the group species or sub-genera of 
Foche. 

Leaves simple, lobed . . . i. R. moluccanus, L and sub- 
species. 

Leaves of three leaflets 2. R. ellipticus. 

Leaves of five to seven leaflets . . . R. niveus and race- 

mosus. 

i. Rubus moluccanus Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 330, VIII n ; 
Purple Bramble. Very prickly shrubs, the shoots covered 
with a dense or fine tomentum. Leaves up to 8 inches by 
5 inches, simple, with three to seven lobes, ovate or 
triangular, deeply cordate at the base, very rugose on the 
upper side by the impression of the veins, tomentose 
on the under. Stipules oblong, laciniate or fimbriate. 
Flowers in terminal panicles. Bracts deeply cut. Sepals 
tomentose with fimbriate margin. Petals white. Fruit 
dark purple. Wight Ic. 225. 

Everywhere on the downs of Ootacamund and Kodaikanal 
forming thick clumps, but not seen below our level. 

Gen. Dist. Central, eastern and tropical Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim, 
Burma, Assam, South Indian hills but not, or only very rarely, on the 
Bombay Ghauts ; Ceylon, Malaya. 

This protean species includes the following : 

(a) Bracts broadly ovate or obovate, laciniate at 
apex. 

Rubus rugosus var. Thwaitesii. Leaves orbicular 
in outline, up to 6 inches diameter, the lobes rounded 
scarcely lobulate, the sinuses shallow ; tomentum thick, 
fulvous : inflorescence dense. A large strongly growing 
shrub with large purple black fruits. 

Nilgiris at high levels. Doddabetta at 8,000 feet. 



ROSACE^E 193 

Rubus Farholmianus Card. Leaves ovate, up to 
9 inches by 7 inches ; the lobes acute, the end one long 
and usually again lobulate ; tomentum short, white or 
pale fulvous ; inflprescence loose. A large shrub with 
white tomentum and red fruits. 

Pulneys : 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

(b) Bracts pectinately laciniate with linear segments : 

leaves deeply cordate, not tabulate, rugose with 

small areoles. 

Rubus fulvus* Petals nearly as long as the calyx 
lobes : leaves up to 6 inches diameter, the lower lobes 
rounded or sub-acute, the end lobe acute ; inflorescence 
large in spreading panicles. 

Hills of Coimbatore, 3,000 to 6,000 feet. 

2. Rubus ellipticus Smith ; F.B.I, ii 336, VIII 28 ; 
Yellow Bramble or Yellow Raspberry. Shrub, young 
parts covered with white tomentum partially or wholly 
concealed by red hairs ; prickles slender, curved down. 
Leaves pinnately three-foliate ; leaflets i to 4 inches, 
rounded or pointed, obovate or elliptic or nearly circular, 
irregularly dentate, very variable in regard to the covering 
of the lower surface, that being nearly glabrous, white- 
tomentose, or shaggy : midrib with prickles : nerves very 
straight forking near the margin : terminal leaflet i to 4 
inches ; lateral smaller, sometimes only half as long. 
Flowers white in dense terminal and axillary racemose 
panicles : bracts lanceolate. Petals with long stalks, 
reflexed between the sepals. Sepals ovate, acute or 
mucronate, white on the outer (under) side, with or 
without red hairs. Fruit yellow, luscious with the flavour 
of a Raspberry. Wight Ic, 230. 



IQ4 ROSACEJE 

On the open downs. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : 
Ootacamund westwards to Naduvattam, and very common 
on Eastern plateau, Coonoor to Kodanad. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate and tropical Himalaya, Khasia, Burma, 
Western Ghauts but not in Bombay C.B.F., Ceylon, Yunan. 

var. Wallichiana Wight and Arnott ex Foche ; leaves green under- 
neath ; appears to me to be connected with the type by many gradations. 



3. Rubus nivcus Thumb., in the Fl. N. & P. Ht. 
as R. lasiocarpus Sm., and 4. R. racemosus Roxburgh. 

For convenience of distinguishing these two very closely allied species, 
I take them together. 

Rambling shrubs with odd-pinnate leaves of seven, 
five or occasionallly three leaflets. Older branches reddish 
brown, often with a white powdery bloom, very prickly, 
as also the leaf-stalks and even the midrib of the end 
leaflets. Lateral leaflets ovate or obovate, acute or not ; 
end one broader and more rounded at the base, often 
lobed ; all sharply and irregularly toothed, and with 
five to ten pairs of very straight veins running from the 
midrib right to the margin, near which they may fork : 
but occasionally, especially when there are only three 
leaflets, the terminal one has three veins from the base, 
exactly as if the three end leaflets were fused in one. 
Flowers in corymbs terminal and axillary : pedicels 
slender, \ to inch. Sepals triangular acute or long 
pointed.. Petals red, roundish. Carpels hairy, fruits red. 
Always in flower. 

i. R. nivcus ; F.B.I. ii 339, VIII 35. Branchlets 
and other parts without glands, but covered with a dense 
white tomentum, as also the undersides of the leaflets 
and the inflorescence, I/eaves 4 to 7 inches, lateral 



ROSACES 195 

leaflets i to ^\ inches. Flowers many, \ inch across. 
Sepals densely white inside and out, acute but not acu- 
minate. Fruit \ inch, purple, covered with white bloom. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal downs in thickets, common. Nil- 
giris : Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Widely over the mountains of India, Ceylon, Burma, 
Java. 

ii. R. niveus var, subglaber. Leaves not white under- 
neath, glabrous except on the nerves. Thorns large, 
recurved from broad bases. 

At high elevations [G.F.M.P.]. 

4. R, racemosus Roxburgh (hairy form) ; F.B.L ii 
340, VIII 36. Branchlets, leaf-stalks, and inflorescence 
clothed with glandular hairs and also other short hairs, 
but not a thick tomentum. Leaves from 4 inches, includ- 
ing the stalk to 8 inches. Leaflets five or three, densely 
white below ; the lateral i J to 3! inches, acute or obtuse. 
Flowers few, nearly an inch across on pedicels of 1 to 
4 inch in mostly axillary corymbs or corymbose cymes. 
Sepals white inside and out, prickly, with fine point 
(acuminate). Petals as long or longer, J inch across, dis- 
tinctly stalked. Fruiting stalks decurved. t, 148* 

Kodaikanal clowns. Vembadi shola. Nilgiris : on the 
downs. 

This occurs also near Ootacamund with much white bloom 
on the branches and corymbs mainly terminal. Also, with 
long dark purple branches covered with white bloom, leafless 
but bearing short leafy twigs covered with red hairs ; corymbs 
in the uppermost axils very dense ; fruiting pedicels decurved 
and the adjacent corymbs forming together dense terminal 
clusters of fruit. Pykara. 

This plant is matched exactly by a sheet of Wight's (Kew Dist. 912, at 
Kew), labelled Pulney mountains September 1836 and is probably therefon 
the plant referred to in the F.B.I, as Wight's glabrous specimen, whicl 
" resembled var. subglaber of R. lasiocarpus " (R. niveus). 

I 3 -A 



196 ROSACE/E 

FRAGARIA* F.B.I. 51 x. 

Strawberry. 

Small herbs with trifoliate leaves and creeping stolons, 
by which they spread and multiply ; and distinguished 
in fruit by the fleshy torus on which the dry seed-like 
achenes are set. Branches, leaves, etc., silky ; stipules 
large. Flowers on axillary stalks mostly solitary Calyx 
tube wide, bearing below an epicalyx of five green 
bracteoles alternating with the sepals ; both persistent, 
Stamens about twenty. Carpels on a convex centre 
which in fruit becomes fleshy ; achenes very numerous 
and small, glabrous. 

A very small genus of perhaps half a dozen species, found 
only in temperate and Alpine climates, all over the northern 
hemisphere, but also on the mountains of Mexico and Chile. 

Named from the Latin FRAGRANS because of the fragrant fruit. 
Flowers white in tall panicles or solitary ; fruits pale pink. 

F. nilgerrensis. 
Firs, yellow, solitary ; fruits red ; epicalyx large . . F. indica. 

Fragaria indica Andr. ; F.B.I, ii 343, X i. Root- 
stock stout, runners slender, with long internodes making 
the plant diffuse ; green parts more or less silky, densely 
hairy below. Flowers i to i inch across, on peduncles 
of 2 to 4 inches ; epicalyx broadly triangular and three- 
lobed, sometimes much exceeding the sepals, reflexed in 
fruit, but also smaller and less conspicuous. Petals 
yellow. Fruit bright red, J to | inch diameter spherical, 
insipid ; achenes obscurely pitted, t. 149. Stipules 
and bracteoles variable in size. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : common. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate and sub-tropical Himalaya, Sikkim 4,000 to 
8,000 feet, Darjeeling, Khasia, Tenasserim. 



kOSACE^E 197 

Pragaria nilgerrensis Schldl ; F.B.I, ii ; 344, X 
3 ; White Nilgiri Strawberry. A strong growing plant, 
with stout rootstock surrounded by the broad bases of the 
leaf-stalks, with their stipules of k to inch. All green 
parts clothed with stout hairs. Leaflets regularly and 
coarsely toothed ; veins numerous, close, running parallel 
and straight from the midrib nearly to the margin. Pedun- 
cle simple or repeatedly forked above, 6 to 8 inches 
high villous ; bracts to inch deeply bifid. Flowers 
white t to f inch across. Sepals reflexed in fruit. Fruit 
conical, pale, edible, t* 150. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 61 (F. 
elatior), Ic. t. 988. 

In shady places flowering early in summer. Pulneys : 
Kodaikanal, etc. Nilgiris : on both halves of the plateau : 
Ootacamund, Kodanad, Pykara. Bourne 1065. 

F.B.I, unites with this plant one from the Khasi hills, which how- 
ever differs slightly in fruit. 

POTENTILLA. F.B.I. 51 xi. 

Small herbs in habit like the Strawberry, but with 
hard not juicy fruits (torus) and usually with at least the 
lower leaves of five or more leaflets. 

Species about 150 in the cold and temperate regions of the 
northern hemisphere ; on tropical mountains and in the 
southern hemisphere only a very few. Great Britian has 9 
species Cinquefoil, Silverweed, etc. 

Leaves pinnate ; flowers inch ... P. Leschenaultiana. 
Leaves digitate ; flowers | inch P. Kleiniana. 

Potentilla Leschenaultiana Ser. ; F.B.L ii 350, 
XI 15. Whole plant softly hairy, much tufted, a few 
inches high. Root very stout tapering downwards, the 
top (root-stock) | inch, covered with the remains of the 
leaf-bases. Lower leaves with their stalks, 6 to 10 inches ; 



198 ROSAC&E 

leaflets three at the end of the stalk, and a pair a little 
below, and sometimes a second pair, a third down the 
stalk. Upper leaves three-foliate : leaflets f to 3 by 1 
to i^ inches, obovate-oblong with cuneate base, closely 
and deeply serrate, with broadly triangular sharp or blunt 
teeth. Stipules large. Corymb branches much forked. 
Flowers bright yellow, ^ to f inch. t. 151* Wight 
Ic. 990. Achenes wrinkled, but not deeply, r l n inch. 
In open grass land common. 

Very variable in size and hairiness. Glabrous specimens from Kodai- 
kanal are very similar to P. fragarioides L. but the teeth are not so sharp. 

This name was given (DC. Prod, it 584) to the Nilgiri plant. The 
species should perhaps be reduced to P. fragarioides L. which occurs all 
over northern Asia and Europe. 

Potentilla Kleiniana W. & A. ; F.B.L ii 359 
A prostrate plant. Leaves digitately five-foliate ; leaflets 
obovate or oblanceolate. Flowers j inch to .1 inch 
yellow : achenes dark deeply wrinkled, J inch. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund. Kotagiri. Kodanad. 



ALCHEMILLA. F.B.I. 51 xnr. 

Lady's- mantle. 

Small herbs with trailing stems and long-stalked 
roundish leaves, peculiar in their very regular rounded 
lobes and the strong palmate nervation and fanwise 
folding ; and characterized by the small greenish flowers 
of four sepals, no petals, and one to four inferior carpels 
enclosed in the calyx tube. 

Species about 60. Mostly from the Andes of Central 
America from Mexico to north Chili. A few in the tem- 
perate zone of the northern hemisphere, mountains of India, 



ROSACES 

Ceylon, Madagascar, South Africa and Java. Absent from 
northern India, south of Kashmir, Australia and temperate 
North America. 

Some of the species on the Peruvian Andes show marked adaptation 
to the conditions of mountain life : they grow in tufts with small leaves 
closely appressed to the stem, as wooly points resembling the Horsetails. 

Name from AL-KENNELYEH, the Arab'u name. 

Alchemilla indica Card. ; F.B.L ii 361, XIII z ; 
Indian Lady's-mantle. Rootstock woody ; stem slender 
,' inch thick, trailing in grass, covered with soft hairs 
Leaf-stalk i to 2 inches ; stipules i inch connected into 
a tube with oblong acute tips. Blades circular and 
deeply cordate (or kidney-shaped) very evenly five to 
seven lobed ; the lobes rounded finely toothed ; glabrous 
above, nearly so underneath ; margin silky ; nerves one 
to each lobe ; veins obscure ; stalk of inflorescence up 
to 5-!- inches, forked or branched several times with 
small deeply lobed or three-fid bracts. Flowers j- to J 
inch across. * Sepals eight, villous outside, glabrous inside, 
outer four sepals smaller ; inner four triangular, thin. 
Stamens four, alternating with these. Wight Ic. t. 229. 

In open grass land on the higher downs abundant : much 
less common elsewhere. 

Very similar to the Lady's-mantle of Great Britain. 

ROSA* F.B.I. 51 xvi. 

Rose. 

Very prickly often straggling shrubs with odd-pinnate 
leaves having large stipules adnate to the leaf-stalk, and 
showy terminal flowers solitary or in corymbs ; distin- 
guished from all others of the family by the egg-shaped 
calyx tube in which are a number of separate carpels each 



fcOSACE/fc 

with its style protruding through the mouth of the cham- 
ber, and which in fruit becomes slightly enlarged and 
leathery and contains a number of hairy achenes. 

Many of the species are highly variable and the number is variously put 
at from 30 to 300 according to the conception of species held. Dist. over 
the temperate and sub-Alpine regions of the northern hemisphere but rare 
in America ; not south of Abyssinia, India or Mexico. 

Name from t/ie Celtic RHOD = re d. 

Rosa Leschenaultiana Wight and Arnott ; F.B.I. \\ 
368, XVI 9 ; Nilgiri Dog-rose. A large straggler. Leaflets 
five, glabrous, obovate-oblong-acute or shortly acuminate, 
sharply and finely serrate, glabrous on both sides: midrib 
with a few prickles : main stalk glandular and prickly ; 
stipules adnate for as much as an inch with five spreading 
points. Flowers white 2 to 3 inches diamater, in terminal 
cymose corymbs : pedicels slender. Calyx tube con- 
tracted below the much larger acuminate sepals, t. 152. 
Wight Ic. t. 38. 

On the edges of shola, roadsides, etc. Abundant. Nil- 
giris : on both plateaus, flowering May. 
Gen. Dist. Nilgiri and Pulney hills only. 

Rosa indica Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 364. A large shrub. 
Leaves glabrous pinnate. Leaf-stalks with very narrow 
stipular wings at the base. Flowers pink, rather large 
on long pedicels. 

A cultivated plant, wild or run wild near Pykara and 
elsewhere on the Nilgiris. 

Flowers : March and April. 

PHOTINIA* F.B.I. 51 xxi. 

Trees with simple evergreen leaves and small flowers 
of five sepals, five petals, many stamens, and a few (one to 
five) carpels, entirely enclosed in calyx tube which ripens 



fcOSACE/fe 261 

into a small berry with one to five thin-walled chambers 
containing the seeds. 

Species under ten in tropical and sub-tropical regions of 
Asia. 

Name from PHOTEINOS = shining, because some species have shiny 
leaves. 

Leaves serrate or crenate P. Lindleyana. 

Leaves quite entire P. Notoniana. 

Photinia Lindleyana Wight and Arnott ; Herb. Wight 
Prop. 1012 and 1013 / ; F.B.I. ii 380, XXI I. A medium 
sized tree with crooked branches. Leaf-stalks i| inches, 
red : blade ovate-elliptic or lanceolate, rounded or occa- 
sionally unequal at the base, acute, mucronate, serrate- 
crenate or sometimes almost entire sometimes very hard 
and coriaceous, dark-green above, lighter underneath ; 
nerves slender about sixteen pairs, joined by close reticu- 
lation. Panicle irregular, i| to 3 inches high. Fruit 
\ inch bright pinkish scarlet, t* 153. Wight Ic. t. 228. 

Nilgiris : Pykara, Coonoor, Biccapatti. Not collected on 
Pulneys nor at the highest levels. 

In outline the tree is somewhat like P. Notoniana but flatter, without 
tall pyramidal masses of foliage. 

Var. tomentosa Gamble. Petioles under surface of 
young leaves and inflorescence softly tawny-tomentosc : 
leaves almost entire, serrate towards the apex up to 7^ by 
4 inches. 

Nilgiris : chiefly in sholas towards Sispara, at and above 
7,000 feet [G.F. M.P.]. 

Photinia Notoniana Wight and Arnott ; Herb. Wight 
Prop. 1014 / ; F.BJ. ii 380, XXI 2. In the open a small, or 
in woods, a large tree with straight or crooked trunk and 
spreading branches. Bark rough and dark, and on the 



202 

young branches smooth but for the numerous lenticels : 
branchlets angular green or red. Leaf-stalks f to i\ 
inches, glabrous as is the whole plant except the inflores- 
cence. Blades quite entire, ovate, oblong-obovate or 
oblanceolate, abruptly acuminate : midrib stout, nerves 
slender about \ inch apart, joined by a close net-work 
of veins. Panicles terminal, rounded, excessively bran- 
ched ; the branches greenish white pubescent, becoming 
stout in fruit. Flowers sessile, sepals minute, rounded, 
white or tinged with pink. Petals ^ inch, rounded, 
white. Stamens about four times as many, in four whorls : 
filaments white ; those of the two outer whorls spreading 
as long as the petals, those of the inner shorter and erect. 
Ovary two-celled, the crown hemispheric, reddish pubes- 
cent. Fruit a round purple berry J, inch diameter, quite 
smooth with a small five-lobed depression ; flesh very 
acid. Seeds brown -| by ^ inch, elliptic, with short 
blunt point at the upper end, bent to one side, t, 154. 
Wight Ic. t. 991, 111. t. 86. 

The habit of the young shoots which grow often to 4 or 5 feet above the 
rest remind one of the Apple and Pear, near relatives of this genus. In 
September the trees often show tall irregular masses of erect bright purplish 
red leaves, as if on stumps denuded of their smaller branches. The fruit 
reminds one of the Rowan or Mountain Ash of England. 

On the outskirts of sholas on the Nilgiri and Pulney downs 
6,500 feet and above. Flowers September in profusion of white 
blossom. 

COTONEASTER. F.B.I. 51 xxv. 
Shrubs or small trees with entire leathery leaves, often 
downy on the backs ; and axillary or terminal cymes of 
small flowers, with five sepals on a top-shaped calyx tube, 
five petals, about twenty stamens, an ovary of two to five 
cells, and a small fruit with two to five hard one-seeded 
stones. 



Species 20 to 30, difficult to distinguish, scattered over 
Asia, Europe and North America. One or two are commonly 
cultivated in English gardens for the brightly coloured fruits 
which remain on through the early winter. 

Cotoncastcr buxifolia Wall. F.B.I. ; in 387, XXV 11. 
A small shrub often only ij feet high with thick woody 
branches. Leaves to | inch, elliptic entire, acute at 
both ends, one-nerved. White tomentose underneath. 
Flowers inch in small clusters. Fruit globular, scarlet. 
Wood hard and tough, tl 155. 

Nilgiris : in the lower and dryer parts of the plateau, 
abundant in the Kaity valley and near the old Boer camp ; 
Kodanad, also in Ootacamund, Pulneys : Poombari but not 
seen at high levels. 

Gen. Dist. Doubtfully on the Himalayas. 

C. microphylla Wall., a species of Kashmir which is sometimes grown 
in gardens, is distinguished by the dull surface and the flowers solitary. 

ERIOBOTRYA. F.B.I. 51 xix. 

Trees with simple, very coriaceous leaves, and white 
flowers, in dense narrow pyramidal panicles. Ovary 
inferior, two to five-celled. Fruit a berry with two or 
three seeds. 

Species few, in sub-tropical Asia. 

Eriobotrya japonica LindL ; F.B.I, i 372, XIX 19 ; 
Loquat. A fair-sized tree. Leaves, up to 12 inches by 
3 inches, coarsely toothed, very dark-green, rugose and 
shining, above on the upper and white tomentose on the 
lower side. Calyx and short pedicels golden brown 
tomentose. Petals white inch. Fruit like a small oval 
guava, yellow, smooth, stone very large. 

Nilgiris : Planted and common in and about Coonoor and 
elsewhere on the plateau at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Has run wild on the Shevaroys where it was first planted by 
the Rev. James Lechler in the eighteen forties. 



204 SAxiFRAGACE^: 

PYRUS. F.B.I, xx. 

Apple, Pear, etc* Ovary inferior. Seeds enclosed 

in leathery endocarp surrounded by the fleshy mesocarp. 
There are no wild species of this genus. 

Pyrus communis Linn. ; Pear. Leaves broadly 
ovate, acuminate, crenate. Flowers erect, white, in very 
short racemes. 

Commonly cultivated on the Nilgiri, Pulney and Shevaroy 
hills. 

Pyrus malus, Linn Apple. Leaves ovate, crenate ; 
flowers pink, in close bunches, and a more rounded 
fruit. 

SAXIFRAGACE^. 

A large family not easy of definition but typically with 
perfectly regular flowers of five sepals, five petals, five or 
ten stamens, and semi-inferior ovary of two or three carpels. 

Well-known wild or garden plants are Saxifrage (Ger. 
Steinbrech), London-Pride, Grass of Parnassus, Hydrangea, 
Deutzia, Philadelphus (" Syringa ") and Currant. Species 
500 or 600 all over the world. 

PARNASSIA. F.B.I, vi. 

Grass of Parnassus. 

Marsh plants with perennial rootstock. Leaves all 
radical, heart-shaped, entire, glabrous, long stalked. 
Flowers solitary on slender much longer stalks with a 
bract about half way up ; white or very pale yellow. 
Sepals, petals, stamens and staminodes five, in alter- 
nating whorls. Ovary one-celled, with three or four 
nearly sessile stigmas, and, inside, alternating with the 
stigmas, as many parietal placentas to which are attached 



SAXlFRAGACEj*E 305 

the numerous horizontal ovules. Seeds with thick 
embryo and thin endosperm. Capsule semi-superior, 
small, globose, one-celled, opening by three or four 
valves. 

Species about 12, over the northern hemisphere extending 
south to these hills. 

Named from PARNASSOS, because of the beauty of the plant. 

The species differ very little in general appearance, though slightly in 
regard to size, which is always an uncertain character. The main differences 
lie in the shape of the staminodes, whether fimbriate, three-lobed, or club- 
shaped, and of the petals, whether entire or cut. The staminodes end in 
glistering drops of honey, or in some merely appear to do so, and thus 
attract flies by whom cross-pollination is carried out. 

Petals fimbriate, white or pale yellow, \ inch ; lobes of stami- 
nodes five, cylindrical P. Wightiana. 

Petals entire or nearly so, white -} inch ; lobes of staminodes 
three, obscure and rounded P. mysorensis. 

Parnassia wightiana Wall. ; F.B.I. ii 402, VI 3 ; 
Grass of Parnassus of Ootacamund. Leaf-stalks 2 to 4 
inches, blades to i inch broad, deeply cordate, with five 
basal veins, the three inner curving forward to meet at the 
apex. Flowering stems 6 to 8 inches, or more, with a 
bract half-way up nearly as large as the leaves, and similar 
to them, clasping the stem. Sepals ] inch. Petals | to i 
inch, oblong obovate, fringed in the lower and narrower 
part with slender hair-like fimbriae, white or pale yellow. 
Staminodes as long as the stamens ending above in five 
oblong processes with globular glandular heads. Stigma 
pink, three-lobed. Capsule three-angled or rounded, 
obcordate ; seeds all near its base, ellipsoid with wrinkled 
coat. t. 156. 

The anthers at first stand above the stigmas. Later they 
are reflexed down between the petals and lie each just above a 
sepal. There they persist after the petals have fallen and until 
the fruit is nearly ripe, 



206 CRASSULACE^E 

On the Ootacamund downs in swamps, common. Flowers 
after the beginning of the rains. Not at Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. On the southern and eastern Himalayas, Khasia, etc., 
China and Yunan. Not northwards on these ghauts, nor on the Himalayas 
at Simla. 

Though placed in a different section of the genus because the stami- 
nodes are less divided at the top, in general appearance this is remarkably 
like the European species, P. palustris, Fr. Parnassie des marais, Ger. 
Herzbluemchen. 



Parnassia mysorensis Heyne ; Herb. Rottler., Wall. 
Cat. 3754 / ; F.B.I. VI 4, in part ; Grass of Parnassus of 
Kodaikanal. Leaf-stalks, -J to 2 inches : blades cordate, 
nearly circular, thick, with five or seven veins curving 
forwards to the apex but not conspicuous. Flower stems 
5 to 8 inches : bract about half-way, like the leaves or more 
often smaller. Sepals J inch. Petals obovate-oblong, the 
narrow basal part entire or nearly so. Staminodes ob- 
scurely three-lobed or club-shaped, much shorter than 
the stamens. Capsule obcordate, three-lobed ; seeds 
small, t. 157. Wight 111. t. 21. 

Pulneys : in swamps common. Nilgiris : on the downs to 
Avalanche and Naduvattam. 

* Nilgiri Form. Petals slightly fringed ; staminodes with 
3 distinct lobes. A smaller plant growing on wet rocks, t* 157, 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Mysore, Bababoodons. 



CRASSULACE^. 

A cosmopolitan family, closely allied to the last, and 
differing from it chiefly in the carpels being of the same 
number as the petals or sepals, so that the flowers are 



CRASSULACE7E 

perfectly symmetrical. The fruit too consists of folli- 
cles (the carpels being separate), which open down the 
inner faces and have usually many seeds. In some 
genera the petals are united into a tube, so that the 
distinction of polypetally and sympetally, so important 
in other cases, here breaks down. A very large number 
of the family have smooth succulent leaves, and are able 
to grow in places where water is at times scarce ; as instance 
the Stone-crop or Wall-pepper (Ger. Mauerpfeffer, Fr. 
Orpin), Pennywort and House leek (Ger. Hauslauch, 
Fr. Joubarbe) and the common BRYOPHYLLUM of the 
Indian plains, whose leaves will remain alive for weeks 
after being detached from the plant, and throw out 
shoots and roots. 

Species 400, scattered all over the world, except Polynesia, 
rare in Australia and South and North America. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Sepals quite free KALANCHOE. 

Sepals connate into a tubular calyx . . BRYOPHYLLUM. 

KALANCHOE. F.B.I. 53 iv. 

Stout perennial herbs with lower leaves at least oppo- 
site ; four-partite calyx ; flask-shaped tubular corolla 
with four spreading lobes, persistent round the fruit ; 
eight stamens ; and oblong seeds with eight to fifteen 
longitudinal ribs. 

Species 25 chiefly in tropical and South Africa, some in 
Asia, one in Brazil. 

KALANCHOE is the Chinese name of one species. 

Sepals narrow, inflorescence glandular . . . K. floribunda. 
Sepals broad, inflorescence not glandular . . K. grandiflora. 



208 CRASSULACMS 

Kalanchoe grandiflora Wight and Arnott ; F.B.L ii 
415, IV 4. A thick-stemmed, thick-leafed shrub with 
masses of bright yellow four-petalled flowers. 

Stem and lower branches an inch or more thick, 
but tapering upwards, round and smooth except for the 
numerous flat leaf-scars, which are in opposite pairs and 
may be f inch wide and J inch deep and are joined 
round the axis by a smooth ridge, the younger scars 
showing a row of three to six bundle-scars. Leaves 
opposite, obovate-obtuse, almost flat at the end, crenulate, 
glabrous, glaucous and thick. Flowering stem terminal, 
leafless, 2 or 3 feet high, dividing above repeatedly 
into three yellowish-green branches, the middle one of 
which always ends in a flower (very regular three-choto- 
mous cymose panicle). Bracts ^ (T to } inch scarious, 
obovate or elliptic acute : pedicels | to -J inch expanded 
under the flower. Calyx tube , ! inch sepals J by 
J inch, oblong-acute. Corolla tube, four-angled, -i inch, 
contracted at the top and then spreading in four yellow 
obovate lobes by inch. Stamens eight, four at 
the mouth of the tube between the lobes and very short, 
four longer, about ,\j inch, on the base of the lobes : 
anthers small. Carpels distinct very nearly to the base, 
by i,| inch tapering above to the J inch style : a slender 
gland or staminode J inch long opposite each. Fruit 
sheathed by the dried, stretched, corolla tube. Seeds 
very numerous, attached in pairs on rounded bases to the 
placentas, t. 158. Wight 111. t. in. Our figure gives 
but a poor idea of this handsome plant. 

On the higher slopes on rocky ground or poor soil. Near 
Ootacamund it flowers December to February in masses on the 
Dodabetta-Snowdon ridge, colouring it yellow. Occasional 



CRASSULACEJE 209 

flowers may be found up to July. Pulneys : on downs towards 
Fort Harrlilton, flowering December. Kodaikanal ; flower 
February and March. 

Kalanchoe floribunda W. & A ; F.B.I, ii. 414, 
IV. 3. Similar in habit to the last species, but upper 
parts of stem and inflorescence covered by glandular 
hairs, and sepals narrow. Flowers smaller, yellow ; in 
fruit the tube portion shiny white. 

Shevaroys : on plateau flowering Christmas, also Deccan, 
etc. 

K. laciniata, D.C. ; F.B.I. ii 415, IV. 6, with leaves pinnate 
(or deeply pinnately cut) and leaflets (or segments) also deeply 
cut ; and large terminal corymbs of pale yellow flowers occurs 
on the top of the hill of Horsleykonda. 

K. Bhidei. T. Cooke ; similar in habit to K. floribunda, 
but not glandular, and with pink, or reddish flowers, occurs 
on Horsleykonda. 



BRYOPHYLLUM* 

Shrubby plants with opposite, simple or whorled 
fleshy leaves. Flowers in terminal panicles. Calyx and 
corolla both tubular, four-lobed. Stamens 8, attached 
to the base of the (monopetalous) corolla. Carpels 4, 
quite free of each other, each with a slender straight 
style without stigmatic head. Fruit of many follicles. 

Species mostly Mexican, introduced and occasionally 
found wild. 

Bryophyllum pinnatum Kurz Stem four-angled. 
Leaflets 3 to 7, ovate to obovate, 2 to 3 inches long 
by i o to 2 inches, crenate and with bristles in the notches. 
Panicle 3 to 4 feet high, the branches opposite and flowers 



21 DROSERACEJE 

well separated. Calyx ij inches long, pale yellowish 
green with reddish base. Corolla f inch longer, reddish- 
brown towards the tips of the lobes. Stamens of different 
lengths shorter or longer than the styles. 

A native of Mexico, Nilgiris : Coonoor, Kotagiri, etc. 

Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. very similar to the 
above and possibly the same species, but with usually 
simple leaves 4 to 5 inches long is frequent in Madras 
and the drier parts of Mysore. The leaves readily 
sprout at the notches if hung up separately, or if immersed 
in water. 



DROSERACE.E. 

A small family of no species chiefly remarkable for 
their folding or sticky leaves by which small insects are 
caught and digested. 

DROSERA. F.B.I. 54 i. 

Sundew. 

Small herbs with perennial rootstock or tuber. All 
the leaves as a rosette on the ground or some on a short 
stem, covered with long-stalked sticky glands. Flowers 
in raceme-like scorpioid cymes. Calyx tube short ; 
sepals four or five suberect, imbricate. Petals as many 
persistent. Stamens as many. Ovary free of the calyx, 
one-celled with two to five styles. Fruit a capsule. Seeds 
many on parietal placentas. 

Species about 90 distributed all over the world except the 
Pacific islands. 

The glands are of two kinds, long-stalked glands which secrete a 
sticky solution by which flies and other small winged insects are caught, 
and which then by a bending of the stalk bring the insect close against 



DROSERACE/E 211 

the leaf, and short ones almost sessile on the surface of the leaf. See 
Darwin's Insectivorous plants. 

No stem. Leaves all on the ground forming a red rosette. 

D. burmanni. 
Stem leafy, 3 inches, with peltate leaves . . . D. peltata. 

Droscra Burmanni Vahl. ; F.B.I. ii 424, I i ; 
common Sundew. Flowering stems 3 to 6 inches, bare 
for the lower four-fifths. Leaves in a rosette i inch across, 
where growing in full sunlight very red and glistening, 
fringed with long-stalked glands, cuneate or spathulate. 
Flowering stem 3 to 6 inches : flowers in a close one-side 
raceme-like scorpioid cyme, white. Sepals entire, red, 
covered with minute papillae. Ovary with five styles. 
t 159. Wight 111. t. 20 ex. styles ; Ic. t. 944. 

In damp places common. Everywhere from near Madras 
to the top of these hills. 

Gen. Dist. All over India. 

Drosera peltata Smith ; var. lunata ; F.B.I, ii 424, 
I 3 ; Moon-leaf Sundew. A delicate herb distinguished 
among all our plants by the roundish crescent-shaped 
leaves, inch across, fringed by long-stalked glands, and 
attached by stalks of | inch to the slender almost un- 
branched stems. Stem 3 to 12 inches, very slender often 
red. Basal leaves of the young plant soon disappearing 
so that only stem leaves remain. Stalk of stem leaves 
| inch, blade % to J inch, with fringe of long-stalked 
glands, often red, very sticky. Sepals not fimbriate. 
Styles three, bifid, t. 160. Wight 111. t. 20. 

On the open downs everywhere, more especially in damp 
spots. 

Distributed throughout India, 
14-A 



212 HALORAGIACEJE 

HALORAGIACE.E 

Weak water or land plants with opposite or whorled 
leaves often toothed at the apex and small flowers with 
the parts in fours or by reduction fewer, and an inferior 
ovary containing typically four seeds. 

Species about 80, all over the world. In Europe Marestail, 
Ger. Tannenweudel ; Water milfoil, Ger. Tausendblatt, Fr. 
Mille feuille d'eau ; and Hornwort, Fr. Cornifle. 
Name from HALS = the sea, and RHAX=# berry. 

SERPICULA. F.B.I. 56 ii. 

Small marsh herbs, usually reddish with opposite 
leaves and small unisexual inconspicuous flowers. Stem 
single or branched, very variable in length and robustness, 
from 2 to 14 inches, glabrous or hairy. Leaves from 
i by ^ inch, to f by inch, oblanceolate, cuneate at the 
base, entire or with two or four spreading acute teeth and 
a middle ovate one or crenate in upper half. Ovary 
flowers shortly stalked, ^ by - 4 \, inch elliptic, the calyx 
tube surmounted by four small lobes but no petals. 
Male flowers on hair-like pedicels of J to inch in the 
same axils as the female. Female flowers sessile or 
nearly so with 4 stray stigma producing from calyx, 
iepals 1^ inch. Petals ^ inch, boat-shaped, soon falling. 
Anthers as long. Nut -, 1 -,, inch with or without about 
eight ridges or ribs in the lower half. Wight Ic. t. 1001. 

Name from the Latin SERPO = / creep. 

Two species have been distinguished. 

Serpicula brcvipcs W. & A. Glabrous plants : 
leaves entire or toothed : male pedicels under \ inch, 
petals acute : fruit glabrous, ribbed and with warte. 
t* 161. 



HALORAGIACE^E 

Western Ghauts. Nilgiris : Pykara to Kodanad ; and 
Pulneys 6,000 to 7,000 feet in wet places. 

Scrpicula hirsuta W. & A. Hairy plants, 
much branched : leaves obovate 3 to 5 toothed : male 
pedicel longer than \ inch : petals obtuse : fruit hairy, 
not ribbed. Usually a shorter plant than the last. 

Nilgiris : on banks ; common on slope of Church Hill, 
Ootacamund, flower September. 

These two species may perhaps be regarded as wet and dry land forms 
of the same species and were included in my F. N. F. Ht. as in the F.B.I. 
under the name Serpicula indica Thwaites. I find characters of the one 
also in the other, e.g., a glabrous plant with long filliform male pedicels 
and obtuse petals, the fruits ribbed and warty. 

MYRIOPHYLLUM. F.B.I. 56 iv. 

Herbs in water or on mud, with narrow whorled or 
opposite leaves and very small unisexual flowers at the 
leaf axils. Ovary inferior, four-celled ; ovules solitary, 
pendulous. Fruit separating into 4 or 2 cocci. 

Species about 20, in all parts of the world. 

Myriophyllum intermedium DC. ; F.B.L ii 433, 
IV 5. Leaves 2 or 4 at a node, linear, distantly serrate. 
Calyx minute. Male petals 4. Stamens 4. Anthers 
sub-sessile, nearly as long as the petals. Fruit covered 
with short spines, t, 162. Wt. Ic. t. 1061. 

Nilgiris on the plateau, Ootacamund, Kotagiri, etc., in wet 
places. 

CALLITRICHE, FB.I. 56 v. 

Aquatic glabrous herbs, with opposite narrow leaves 
and minute unisexual flowers a male and female in the 
same axil. Bracteoles 2, white, caducous, but no sepals 



COMBRETACE^g 

or petals. Male with i stamen only. Female with 2 
styles and an inferior four-celled ovary ; ovules pendulous. 
Species few, all over the world. 

Callitriche stagnalis ; Scop. F.B.L ii 434, V i. A 
small weak herb, rooting at the nodes. Leaves oblan- 
ceolate or spathulate, \ inch. Wight Ic. 1917. 

Nilgiris and Pulney Hills, in ponds, 7,000 to 8,000 feet 
[G.F.M.P.]. 

COMBRETACE^]. 

A tropical family of trees, shrubs, and climbers, with 
alternate or sub-opposite simple leaves, not gland-dotted ; 
and spikes or racemes of flowers, in which the stamens 
are definite in number, the ovary inferior and of one cell 
only, and the fruit fleshy and angular or dry and winged. 

Quisqualis indica Linn., the Rangoon creeper, so com- 
monly grown in gardens, is perhaps the one most generally 
known. 

TERMINALLY F.B.I. LVIII i. 

Trees with alternate or nearly opposite, often whorled, 
simple leaves ; and terminal, usually simple, spikes of 
small flowers, with 5 small sepals, no petals, 10 stamens, 
and an inferior ovary of one cell only, which ripens to an 
ovoid, angular or winged one-seeded fruit. 

Species about 100 in the tropics of the Old World. 

Terminalia Chcbula Retz ; F.B.L ii 446, I 5 in 
part. Leaves ovate or broadly elliptic, usually rounded at 
base and blunt or apiculate at apex, slightly pubescent 
below ; veins fairly straight, 7 to 8 on each side. Fruits 
one or two on peduncles of 3 to 5 inches, about i inch by 
| inch softly hairy when young, at length glabrous shiny, 
obovoid and pointed at each end. 



2*5 



Shevaroys : on Green Hills. 



Gen. Dist. In dry deciduous forests of Northern Circars and the 
Deccan. 



MYRTACE^B. 

The chief characteristics of this family are the opposite 
often gland-dotted leaves, inferior ovary, roundish 
sometimes quickly falling petals, and numerous long 
stamens curled inwards in bud. Most are trees or shrubs, 
herbs being rare, and can be recognized even when the 
translucent glands are not visible by the leaves which have 
as a rule a distinct scent, and the lateral veins running 
into one which is close inside the margin. The fruit may 
be dry or fleshy, and has usually many small seeds. In 
many the beauty or attractiveness of the flower is due to 
the stamens. 

Species about 2,000 in the warmest parts of the world. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Leaves with 3 to 5 veins from the base, tomentose : 

i < fruit fleshy ; flowers pink (Hill Guava) . Rhodomyrtus. 

L Leaves penni-veined or narrow ........ b 

Lateral veins numerous and slender ; fruit a drupe. 

SYZYGIUM. 

Lateral veins inconspicuous ; on mature plants leaves 
alternate : fruit dry ...... EUCALYPTUS. 

Similar to Eucalyptus but fruits in globular heads. 

SYNCARPIA. 
Leaves J inch wide only : flowers J inch . . B^ECKEA. 

B^ECKEA* F.B.I. 59 i. 

Leaves narrow and small. Flowers small. Stamens 
five or ten only. Ovary two to three celled ; ovules many 
3n peltate placentas. 

Species 60, mostly Australian 



Baeckca virgata Andrs. ; I 2. Loosely branched 
shrub with slender twigs. Leaves f by $ inch, linear- 
lanceolate to narrow-oblong, acute, flat, one-nerved, with 
numerous pellucid glands, raised on the lower side when 
dry. Flowers in the upper axils, umbelled by pedicels of 
i inch on peduncles of i inch. Calyx hemispheric, 
J inch lobes small and round. Petals round, stamens 
five : filaments short. Ovary inferior, three-celled : 
ovules round the edges of peltate placentas. Capsule 
flat-topped, t. 163. 

An introduction from Australia, native of New Zealand and from 
Victoria northwards to Queensland. 

The Australian " May " or " Ti-tree." 

EUCALYPTUS. 59 n.* 

Australian Gum. 

Trees with the leaves on the young plants, and on those 
which spring up from a stump, opposite, sessile hori- 
zontal ; but on the upper and newer branches alternate, 
petioled and drooping. Flowers three or more, on axillary 
peduncles. Calyx top-shaped, scarcely toothed. Petals 
five, united into a hemispherical cap which soon falls 
being pushed off by the very numerous, long, slender, 
many-seriate stamens, with small versatile anthers. 
Ovary immersed in the calyx tube, three or four celled, 
with slender style and small stigma : ovules many. Fruit, 
a hard conical capsule, opening by valves at the top. 
Seeds small, linear-cuneate : embryo straight, cotyledons 
longer than the radicle. 

Species 150, almost all Australian, but introduced now in 
many parts of the world. 

The change in the position and shape of the leaves appears to be an 
adaptation to a dry climate, for vertically hanging leaves do not get so 
much sun in the middle of the day, its hottest time, as the horizontal ones 



MYRTACEJE 



217 



proper to this family would. The leaf- stalk, which is then formed, not 
only is necessary if the leaves are to hang free of the branch, but enables 
the blades to give to the wind and not suffer as they would if attached 
stiffly like the young leaves. The stripping of the bark is unusual, and it 
seems to have at any rate this advantage that parasitic Loranthuses do not 
get a foothold as they do on the Melanoxylon, Rhododendron, and other 
trees. 

Many species are planted of which the chief are 

Eucalyptus Globubus Labill the " Blue-gum/' t. 164. 
A Native of Victoria and S. Tasmanian. Its great usefulness 
lies in the fact that it can be " coppiced " i.e., if cut down 
near the ground it will send up shoots, which in a few years 
become trees. Oil is extracted from the young leaves, and 
for this reason all side branches are sometimes lopped off, so 
that the single stem is covered for many feet with a dense 
growth of small branches. The Nilgiri plantations date 
from 1863. 

Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., easily recognized by the 
drooping habit of its branches, slender leaves and its distinct 
scent is planted also, e.g., at Shambaganur on the Pulneys, 
but much less commonly. 

Eucalyptus ficifolia, F. M. V. A much smaller tree with 
conspicuous crimson or scarlet flowers finely pointed leaves, 
and egg-shaped pod. 

Many other species will be found named in and round 
Sims Park, Coonoor. 



SYNCARPIA. 59 n.* 

Turpentine tree. 

Trees with the flowers coalescing in globular heads, 
the inferior ovaries joined in fruit into an irregular mass 
with hardly more than the round crater-like mouths of 
each flower showing. 

Species 2 or 3 only, Australian. 
Named from SYN = with, and CARPON = fruit in allusion to this. 



2l8 

Syncarpia glotnulifcra Sm. (S. laurifolia Ten). 
A small tree, recognized at once by the fruit, in which four 
to seven dry hard capsules coalesce into a mass about 
inch wide, each opening by small valves at the top is 
planted occasionally, t* 165* 

RHODOMYRTUS. F.B.I. 59 vi. 

A small genus chiefly remarkable for the tomentose 
young parts, three-nerved leaves, and ovary divided hori- 
zontally (as well as vertically) into one-seeded chambers. 
Trees or shrubs. Calyx tube turbinate. Petals four to 
five. Stamens many, in several series : filaments free 
slender. Fruit a drupe-like berry of one-seeded cells or 
pyrenes in two to six superimposed series. 

Species 5 or 6, nearly all inhabitants of east Australia ; our 
species widely distributed. 

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Wight ; F.B.I. ii 469, 
VI i ; Hill Guava. A round topped bush. Branches 
downy and compressed towards the tips. Foliage very 
grey-green, the youngest leaves almost white. Lower leaves 
often in threes, upper opposite, subsessile : blades ellip- 
tic or obovate, 2 by iJ inches (less or more), with three 
or five main veins. Flowers pink in small cymose axillary 
corymbs. Peduncles 2 inches, pedicels inch. Petals 
J to \ inch, downy on the backs. Not falling soon. 
Stamens deeper pink. Fruit globular, size of a cherry 
yellowish crowned by the calyx teeth : seeds compressed. 
t. 166. Wight 111. t. 971 /. 3 ; Sp. Nilg. t. 71. 

Common on dry slopes. Nilgiris : on the Eastern plateau, 
abundant, from the slopes of Snowdon to Kotagiri and 
Kodanad. Pulneys : on the open downs not common, but 
abundant lower, near Poombari. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India, Ceylon, Malacca, Singapore. 



MYRTACE/E 219 

SYZYGIUM. F.B.I. 59 vm. 

One of the three sub-genera, considered now distinct 
genera, Jambosa Syzygium and Eu-eugenia into which 
the old genus EUGENIA is divided. 

Large trees or shrubs, with opposite, simple and entire 
slightly scented leaves. Flowers in terminal cymose 
panicles, with short pedicels, small. Calyx tube egg- 
shaped, the ovary quite immersed in it : sepals four or five 
short. Petals as many, round without any stalk ; some- 
times connected together and falling off as a whole. 
Stamens many, in several series : filaments slender, curled 
down in bud : anthers versatile, small. Fruit a globular 
or oblong berry, with two seeds. 

Species in this sub-genus about 100, most of them belonging 
to India and Malaya. The F.B.I, gives 76 for India alone. 

Several species are cultivated for their fruits, buds, etc., as Clove, Rose 
Apple, Malabar Plum, Jambalam ; Fr. Jambosier ; Ger. Kirschmyrthe. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Panicles terminal b 

a "\Panicles in axils of fallen leaves . . . S. Jambalanum. 

{Leaves zi by \\ inches elliptic acuminate drooping. . . 
S. Arnottianum. 
Leaves 4 by 2 inches elliptic obtuse, thick, stiff ; twigs thick, 
four-angled S. montanum. 
Leaves i by inch nearly round, close set, stiff . . . 

E. calophyllifolium. 

Syzygium Arnottianum Walp. (Eugenia Arnottiana 
Wight, Herb. Prop.!); F.B.I. ii 483, VIII 41. Dis- 
tinguished among our species by its spreading habit, its 
bunches of red flower-buds or berries, and its limply 
drooping leaves. 



220 MYRTACE/E 

Bark grey, smooth, usually well covered with lichens ; 
main branches spreading, crooked and bent. Leaves 
opposite or nearly so, when freshly opened pinkish-red 
and erect, but soon drooping ; elliptic narrowed at the 
base to the | inch stalk, and acute or acuminate at the 
apex ; with strong midrib and very close lateral nerves 
meeting in a marginal one very close to the edge ; finely 
dotted both sides, hard and shining, coriaceous. Flow- 
ers nearly sessile, in terminal umbel-like cymes, with 
square branches i inch long : bracts soon falling. Calyx 
broad above, lobes four. Petals distinct, cream-coloured, 
in bud crimson. Stamens white, spreading stiffly. Berry 
^ inch by <V inch rather long-egg or urn-shaped, crowned 
by the sepals, purple when ripe, juicy but quite inedible. 
t* 167. Wight Ic. t. 999. 

Nilgiri, Pulney and Shevaroy hills ; everywhere on the 
plateaus, one of the very commonest trees by the wayside or in 
sholas where it overtops most others. Pulneys : down to 
5,500 feet. Not on the Bombay Ghauts, nor elsewhere in 
India. Flowers in the winter months to April, in fruit dur- 
ing the summer. 

In the shola this tree has usually a reddish look at the top from either 
the numerous bunches of berries or the flush of young leaves ; and the 
leaves always droop. 

What is apparently a variety of this species but distinguished 
by its leaves shorter and not acuminate, the veins thicker and 
more veticulate, the petioles and blades stiffer, so that they 
stand erect, more as in S. calophyllifoiium occurs in a valley 
near and immediately north of Mukarte Peak. 

Syzygium montanum Gamble, formerly Eugenia 
montana Wight F.B.I. ii 488, VIII 57. A large tree, 
distinguished from all other of our species by the wings 
on the four edges of the youngest branches, especially in 
the flowering part ; the branchlets also very (J inch) 



MYRTACE^E 221 

thick, and the leaves larger than in other of our species, 
with stronger, not closely set veins. The foliage is dis- 
tinctly lumpy. 

One of the very largest of shola and wayside trees, 
the main trunk short, but thick : the branches spreading 
widely, very bent and crooked, with dull red-brown 
bark cracked like that of the Scotch Pine. Branchlets, 
smooth green, four-angled and winged. Leaves opposite 
or occasionally alternate, obovate or oblong-obovate, up to 
6 by 3 J inches, on short stout stalks of J to | inch ; dark 
dull green, dotted below : midrib channelled on the upper 
side ; veins about ^ inch apart (the alternate stronger), 
prominent on the underside. Flowers in dense cymose 
corymbs, on stoutstalks in the axils of the uppermost leaves 
and leaflike bracts I to f inch long, forming dense panicles : 
cyme branches all very stout, angled. Sepals four obtuse. 
Petals four united and falling as one piece. Fruit purple, 
crowned by the sepals, t. 168. Wight Ic. t. 1060. Wood 
greyish brown moderately hard. Badaga. Poonagay. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund and below to Pykara, and 
Coonoor. Is not common on the further down south-westwards 
and not seen on Eastern plateau. Young leaves in December, 
flowers soon after. 

Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. ; formerly Euge- 
nia calophyllifolia Wight Herb. Prop. ! ; F.B.I, ii 494, 
VIII 86. Distinguished among our species by its almost 
round, closely set and stiffly-erect, leaves. 

A tree flowering when only 10 feet high, but becoming 
eventually one of the largest, 40 to 60 feet and overtop- 
ping all others in the shola. Branches with brown bark 
when young square ; often arising three or four together 
and almost umbelled. Leaf-stalks J inch, blade broadly 



222 MYRTACEJE 

elliptic or obovate, obtuse or retuse at apex, acute at the 
base, i by f inch, or a little larger ; with numerous veins 
more or less parallel but also reticulate below, ending in a 
hardly distinct marginal vein ; without pellucid dots ; 
very hard and firm. Flowers in terminal cymose corymbs : 
peduncles ^ to f inch, green, rough but glabrous. Calyx 
conical, T ^ inch, with four short erect sepals. Petals 
round united and falling as one hemispherical piece, white. 
Stamens 16 inches curled up in bud, white. Style J 
inch. Fruit erect, dark purple, i to J inch by f to 
inch, juicy and edible. Seed one, cotyledons very thick. 
M69. Wight Ic.t. 1000. 

Nilgiris : Western plateau from Snowdon to Avalanche and 
beyond, and to Pykaras abundant ; flowering in early January, 
the whole tree at once, for a day or two only. Not on the 
Pulneys nor anywhere else but Ceylon, on Adam's Peak. 

As a small tree remarkable for its dense mass of rather upright branches 
and close set erect leaves, as stiff as the Box, but in the shola on Snowdon 
and Ganapakkam near Pykara at 7,800 feet for its very flat top, pinkish 
in young leaf, below which are exposed rather bare spreading branches, 
with usually a dependent fringe of grey lichen. Rare eastwards except on 
higher exposed shojas where it takes the place apparently of E. Arnottiana 
but commoner westwards. 

Syzygium Jambolanum formerly Eugenia jamb. : 
DC. ; F.B.I. II 499, VIII 106. Sometimes quite a large 
spreading tree. Leaves oblong, ovate to lanceolate, 
obtuse or slightly acuminate, coriaceous, smooth and shiny. 
Panicles open with rather widely diverging branches, 
lateral or in the axils of the uppermost and fallen leaves. 
Flowers numerous, ultimately in cymes. Calyx lobes and 
petals 4, white or pinkish. Stamens white. Fruit 
purple, variable in size. t. 170. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor Lamb's Rock Road, etc., common ; Bicca- 
patti valley and below Kotagiri. Pulneys : below Kodaikanal. 
Gen. Dist. Wild and cultivated throughout India, Malaya, Australia. 



MELASTOMACE;E 223 

MELASTOMACE^E. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with opposite leaves and usually 
very showy flowers, characterized by the conspicuous 
anthers, which may be long and open by pores at the top, 
or short and open by slits, but are set at an angle to the top 
of the filament and may have projections or outgrowths at 
the base. Stamens equal to or double the petals. Ovary 
inferior. Fruit a capsule or berry ; seeds small. Leaves 
often with 3 to 7 main veins from the base, but also 
penni-nerved. 

Species about 1,800 chiefly in the tropics of South America 
and Asia ; a few also in Africa and Polynesia. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

(a) Leaves with three or more main veins. Petals four or five. 
Shrubs ; anthers large ; calyx hairy and with a hairy 

growth between the sepals OSBECKIA. 

Similar to OSBECKIA, but anthers with knobs at base (culti- 
vated only) TIBOUCHINA. 

Epiphytic shrubs with small flowers . . MEDINILLA. 

(b) Leaves three-veined. Petals 3. Inflorescence scorpioid. 

Shade-loving herbs SONERILLA. 

(c) Trees. Leaves penni-nerved. Flowers small. Anthers 

curved, and with projections at the base . . MEMECYLON. 

OSBECKIA. F.B.I. 60 i. 

Mostly woody plants, shrubs of 2 to 10 feet, with 
purple flowers, conspicuously long and pointed bright 
yellow anthers curving downwards from the tops of the 
filaments, and very bristly calyx tube, which as in all 
the family encloses the ovary and fruit. Leaves opposite, 
shortly stalked : blades with five to seven main veins 
starting at the base and curving forwards to meet in the 
tip : joined by numerous straight cross-veins ; but with 



224 MELASTOMACE^E 

no ordinary network. Stamens all equal : filaments 
with a pair of small yellow swellings just below the anthers 
(distinction from the native MELASTOMA and the garden 
TIBOUCHINA or PLEROMA). Ovary entirely enclosed in the 
calyx tube, and opening by four or five holes in the flat 
top. Seeds curved, minutely punctate. 

An eminently Indian genus, nearly all of the 30 species 
being confined to this country, most of them to the hills. 

Some or all of the bristles of the calyx tube are tufts or combs, combs 
pointing upwards on short or long stalks, and the number and nature of 
these, whether covering the whole calyx or only towards the top, are import- 
ant characteristics of the several species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Petals 4, anthers blunt; flowers pink and white: herb. 
a { O. cupularis. 

I Petals usually 5, anthers pointed, shrubs b 

j Hairs of calyx tube all simple, hairs on upper side of leaf 

attached almost their full length . . . O. lineolata . 

* ] Lower hairs of calyx tube simple, upper comb-tufted d 

I^AH hairs comb-tufted e 

C Flowers purple : Leaves and calyx densely hairy : fruit 

c < about \ inch O. Wightiana. 

L Flower pink : Leaves and calyx not very hairy. . . O. Sp. 
"Comb-tufts of calyx stalked : branches reddish, fruit 
nearly | inch globose, leaves usually i inch. 

O. leschenaultiana. 

Comb-tufts very broad, sessile : fruit nearly f inch, 
leaves up to 3 inches ovate ... O. reticulata. 

Osbeckia cupularis Don ; F.B.I, ii 514, I 2. A small 
plant, growing in grass, with slender yellowish branches 
and white flowers blotched with pink on the outside. 

Herbaceous from a perennial rootstock. Bark thin 
and scaly ; stem and younger branches four-angled, 
yellowish and hirsute with erect hairs, as also the upper 
surface of the leaves and the veins on the underside. 



MELASTOMACEJE 225 

Leaf-stalk fa to | inch ; blade \ inch, ovate-elliptic, 
drying yellowish, with three to five nerves curving from 
base to apex. Flowers in close bunches on tall slender 
branches with a pair of leaves just below. Calyx J inch, 
deep red inside and partly on the outside too, with bristles 
of the lower half simple of the upper comb-like ; teeth 
four, about j l () inch, alternating with long-stalked tufted 
or comb-bristles and ending each in a few long hairs. 
Petals four, spreading, white with blotches of pink on the 
outside. Stamens eight : their filaments slender, white : 
anthers } \ } inch. Fruiting calyx tube ^ by 1 inch 
campanulate, nearly white and at length glabrous ; mouth 
J inch across, encircled by a fairly wide band : capsule 
inside opening by four holes and not protruding above 
the mouth, t, 171. Wight Ic. 996. (O. Leschenaultiana.) 

Quite common in long grass, near sholas ; flowering when 
the first rains begin. Pulneys : on the downs near Kodai- 
kanal. Nilgiris : Ootacamund downs. 

Gen. Dist- Mountains of South India from Coorg southwards to 
Ceylon. 

Osbcckia lincolata Gamble. A shrub, branchlets 
slender, glabrous, glaucous. Leaves drying yellow, 
broadly elliptic, three-nerved ; nearly smooth but strongly 
lined on the upper surface by the hairs being adnate for 
nearly their whole lengths. Flowers capitate or racemed 
purplish red. Calyx bristles all simple, except at the- 
tips of the triangular appendages. Capsule inch cam- 
panulate. 

Pulneys : near Perumal. Nilgiris : S.W. downs, Bangi- 
tappal, etc. These hills only. 

Osbeckia rosca Fyson ? A small shrub. Branches 
square, thinly covered with erect hairs. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, three-ribbed. Hairs on upper surface sparse 



226 MELASTOMACE-ffi 

adnate about one* third their lengths, on lower surface 
slightly adnate. Cymes dense, terminal. Calyx bristles 
in tufts of 3 or 4, the tufts sessile ; appendages of calyx 
unusually long, and narrowed upwards. Petals about 
\ inch pink, with no trace of purple. Anthers hardly 
attenuate upwards, t, 172. 

Nilgiris : at Coonoor on roadsides, common. Flowers, 
in September. 

I have described this as a new species in Jour Indian Bot. 
Soc XI-i-1932. 

Mr. Ranga Achariyar, who was in charge of the Madras Herbarium at 
Coimbatore, tells me that this plant has hitherto been regarded as a variety 
of O. octandra, and was apparently so considered by Gamble in the F.M.P. 
pt. 3, for no reference is made to it ; but that he himself thinks it is probably 
a good species. The petals and calyx lobes, as may be seen in the figure, 
vary from 4 to 5, on the same plant. The colour is quite distinctly a pure 
pink, whereas O. octandra is described in G. F.M.P. as having purple 
flowers and the leaves are much broader. 

Osbeckia Wightiana Benth. ; F.B.I. ii 519, I 17 ; 
distinguished by its silky leaves, white on the under 
side ; calyx shaggy with simple hairs not stalked comb- 
bristles, and handsome flowers. 

A well-branched shrub 4 to 8 feet high ; younger 
branches rough with short stiff hairs or their semi- 
persistent bases ; youngest very hairy. Leaves ovate- 
oblong, 2 by f inch (ii to 3 by i to ii inches), closely 
covered with short silky hairs. Flowers one to five 
clustered, nearly sessile : bracts by J inch, ovate-acute, 
silky. Calyx tube inch, covered thickly with straight 
hairs -J- inch long, and in the upper part from stalked 
scales. Corolla if to 2 inches, purple, handsome. Anthers 
J inch. Style i inch, prominently curved, and thickened 
at the stigma. Fruits in short racemes, marginal teeth 
strongly ciliated, t. 173. Wight Ic. t. 998. 

Pulneys : on the Kodaikanal downs and down to 4,000 
feet at Poombari. Nilgiris : Kotagiri and below. 



MELASTOMACE^ 227 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 

The plant is very hardy growing to 8 feet on what appears to be 
almost bare rock and on the Pulneys is almost always to be found at the 
base of bare rock-slopes. On the Nilgiris it is much less common. 

Osbeckia LeschenaultianaZ>C. ; F.B.I, ii 520, 1 18 ; 
Red Osbeckia. Distinguished from the other purple 
flowered species by its smaller habit and narrower leaves 
and red branches. 

Branchlets square ; older roundish, with two opposite 
pairs of ridges decurrent from the leaves ; covered with 
spreading hairs. Leaves sessile, f to ij by f to f inch, 
ovate, narrow or broad, acute, sparsely hairy on both 
sides, but more so on the veins of the lower. Main vein$ 
three and a much fainter marginal pair. Flowers in dense 
tri-chotomous heads : pedicels -| inch. Calyx tube 
densely clothed with brown stalked bristles. Corolla 
\\ to 2 inches, purple. Petals five. Filaments \ inch, 
anthers \ inch, acuminate. Fruiting calyx \ by \ inch, 
thickly set with comb-bristles with stalks of ^o inch, 
and bristles nearly as long. Ovary five-celled ; opening 
ciliate with simple hairs of ^ to yV inch. t+ 174* 
Wight Ic. t. 997 (O. Gardneriana), not Ic. t. 996. 

Common, on banks by sholas and on rocks. Flowering 
December to June. Pulneys and Nilgiris only. 

Osbeckia reticulata Beddome ; F.B.L ii 520, I 20 ; 
Giant Osbeckia. > A small tree, distinguished by the very 
shaggy branchlets, the large shaggy or silky leaves, with an 
immense number of cross-veins joining the seven main 
ones, and the coarse comb-tufts which completely cover 
the calyx tube. 

Height 4 to 10 feet. Young branches four-angled 
covered with closely appressed hairs and at the nodes 
shaggy. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, or ovate, 1} to 2 by 

I5-A 



228 MELASTOMACEJE 

| to ij inches, but in the shade and on young shoots 
reaching 5 by 3 inches ; with seven main nerves and 
numerous almost horizontal cross-veins, ^ (T to | inch 
apart ; densely covered with long brown silky hairs between 
the veins on the upper side, and on the veins of the lower : 
stalk i to i inch shaggy. Flowers large in umbellate 
clusters of three or four at the ends of the branches, 
their stalks J inch long, joined across the branch by a 
line of bristles. Calyx tube | inch, nearly hemispherical, 
densely clothed by bristly scales : lobes oblong obtuse, 
inch, contorted and overlapping to the left, ciliate and 
tipped each by a large stellate hair, and with a very densely 
tufted comb-tuft between each two, but soon falling and 
leaving a truncate mouth. Stamens large, the anthers 
| inch long, with two small semi-circular flap-like appen- 
dages at the base, t. 175. 

Near and in sholas and by roadsides. Pulneys : flowering 
May, a distinctive feature of some of the roads of Kodaikanal. 
Not Nilgiris. 

Gen. Dist. Also Anamalais (where first collected by Col. Beddome). 

TIBOUCHINA* F.B.I. 600. * 

Tibouchina semicandra Cogn. (Pleroma of Triana) ; 
O * i . Planted in gardens, in Ootacamund ; has the leaves 
of O. reticulata but the calyx tube covered with simple 
erect hairs, not comb-bristles ; and the anthers with two 
appendages near the base. Bot. Mag. t. 5721. 

A native of Brazil, and known as Brazilian Spider Flower. 
Ger. Thee-elpe. 

MEDINILLA. F.B.I. 60 xvi. 

Erect, scandent or epiphytic shrubs. Leaves ribbed 
from the base. Flowers in terminal panicles or axillary 
cymes, white or pink, five or rarely six-merous. 



MELASTOMACE/E 22Q 

Mcdinilla malabarica Bedd. ; F.B.I. ii 548, XVI 8. 
An epiphytic sub-scandent shrub. Petioles, bases of 
the leaves, peduncles and the large flowers all brilliant 
crimson. Leaves 3 to 3^ inches by i\ inch, elliptic 
lanceolate, acute at both ends, thinly fleshy. Flowers 
i to 3 on a peduncle, in axillary fascicles. Petals 4. 
Anthers short. 

Nilgiris : 3,000 to 7,000 feet. Also Anamalais. 

SONERILA, F.B.I. 60 x. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, 3 to 5 nerved from the base. 
Flowers in racemes or scorpioid spikes and remarkable 
for the parts being all in threes ; three short calyx teeth, 
three showy petals, three stamens with anther-cells 
slightly divaricate at the base, and a three-celled ovary 
with single style and numerous ovules on axil placentas. 
Fruit an obovoid capsule opening in three valves. 

Species about 60 in tropical India and Malaya. On the 
Nilgiris and Pulneys they are rare but occasionally met with 
in cultivation. 

The name is taken from the Kanarese. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

rStem erect. Leaves thin, with arching or pinnate nerves, 

1 thick stem and mauve flowers . . . . S. elegans. 
a -< Stem erect. Leaves fleshy b. 

I Stem creeping S. pulneyensis. 

LStemless, leaves orbicular, deeply cordate. S. rotundifolia. 

C Leaves ovate, seven to eight-ribbed. Calyx glandular. 
b < S. speciosa. Leaves, lanceolate, three-ribbed. Calyx 

L glabrous . . S. grandiflora. 

Sonerila speciosa Zenk. ; F.B.L ii 534, X 20. Stem 
nearly or quite glabrous. Leaves petioled, 2 to 3 by i^ 
to 2 inches, ovate-acute, finely serrate, with 5 to 9 basal 



MELASTOMACBJE 

nerves which curve forwards and meet at the apex. Upper 
flowering portion of the stem hirsute, red, bifurcating 
cymosely into two one-sided racemes. Calyx tube with 
much brown hair. Petals ovate-acute, pink. Capsule 
definitely but lightly six-ribbed. Seeds numerous, with 
raised points and a large raphe, like a hood at one end. 
t* 176. Wight. Ic. t. 995-2. Sp. Nilg. t. 67-2. 

In moist places, near Avalanche, etc. Flower February 
[Wight]. 

Sonerila grandiflora Wall. ; F.B.I, ii 535, X 21. 
Stem woody below, round, with numerous prominent leaf- 
scars. Leaves elliptic, acute at both ends, finely serrate. 
Flowers crowded in short, one-sided racemes. Calyx 
tube glabrous, in fruit funnel shaped. Petals f inch, 
elliptic acute, t. 177. Wt. Sp. Nilg. t. 67. 

Nilgiris : S.W. downs by streams Bangitappal, etc. Also 
Pulney and Anamalai hills, at 6,000 feet. 

Sonerila clegans Wight ; F.B.I. ii 535, X 22. Her- 
baceous. Leaves ovate-acuminate, 2 to 4 inches, penni- 
nerved. Peduncles terminal, bifurcating cymosely into 
long one-sided racemes. Petals ^ inch, ovate-acute. 
Capsule scabrid. Seeds with prominent raised points. 
Wight Ic. t. 995-3 ; Sp. Nilg. t. 67-3. 

Nilgiris : Sispara, 6,000 feet. 

Sonerila rotundifolia Bedd. ; F.BJ. ii 535. A 
small stemless plant. Leaves round, deeply cordate, up 
to i inch diameter. Peduncles bright red, i to 3 inches, 
with i to 4 flowers. Flowers mauve, capsule short hemi- 
spherical, glabrous. 

Nilgiris and Anamalai hills, 4,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Sonerila pulneyensis Gamble ; Kew Bulletin, 1919, 
p. 226. Stem fleshy, creeping, rooting. Leaves fleshy, 



MELASTOMACE^E 231 

ovate, with spine-tipped serrations, acute at both ends, 
| to 2 by J to i J inches, with 5 basal nerves. Cymes 
axillary of 2 to 5 flowers on pedicels J inch long on a com- 
mon peduncle of i J to if inches. Flowers unknown. 
Capsule campanulate, ^ to f inch, pale. Seeds surrounded 
with conspicuous raphe. 

Pulneys : in the Pambar ravine. Bourne 1341. 

MEMECYLON. F.B.I. 60 xxi. 

Trees with opposite leaves and numerous quite small 
flowers in axillary bunches, usually blue with bright 
yellow anthers which have a horn-shaped projection 
behind. Ovary one-celled, with eight radiating grooves. 
Fruit a small one-seeded berry, usually thick on the 
branchlets. 

Species about 100, in south-east Asia, tropical Africa, and 
a few in Polynesia and Australia. 

KEY TO OUR SPECIES. 
(A) Flowers sessile or nearly so. 

{Leaves sessile, cordate at base, curved 
M. malabaricum. 
Leaves shortly stalked, acute at the base b. 

r Leaves green when dry : calyx above ovary shallow . . 
J M. Lushingtonii. 

j Leaves yellow when dry : calyx above ovary campanulate. 
t M. flavescens. 

(B) Flowers in peduncled cymes. 

Leaves yellow when dry, under 2 by f inch 

M. molestum. 

Memecylon malabaricum Cogn. ; formerly M. 
amplexicaule var. malabarica ; F.B.L ii. 559. XXI 24. 
A small tree, common in sholas under the shade of others 



232 MELASTOMACEJE 

distinguished by its curved sessile leaves and clusters 
of small flowers with pink or crimson calyx, light blue 
petals and stamens. Leaves 2 to 3 inches Flower- 
clusters sessile. Fruit inch pink, t* 178* 

Nilgiris : very common on the Eastern plateau. Kotagiri, 
Baccapatti, Kodanad. Pulneys : in or near Kodaikanal. 

Memecylon amplexicaule of Roxburgh was founded on a plant col- 
lected in Penang. 

Memecylon Lushingtonii Gamble in Kew Bull. 
1919. p. 227. A small tree or shrub. Leaves shortly 
stalked, oblong elliptic obtuse, notched at the apex, 
about 1 1 by f inch. Cymes dense sessile. Flowers 
pale blue. Calyx above ovary saucer-shaped. Berry -J 
inch, otherwise as in the following. 

Nilgiris : near Coonoor below 6,000 feet [G.F.M.P.] 
(not seen). 

Gen. Dist. From the Ceded Districts southwards on the lower hills. 
Horsleykonda. 

Memecylon flavescens Gamble ; Kew Bull. 1919, 
p. 226. A large shrub with many branches, usually 
obovate yellowish leaves, pale blue flowers and greyish 
berry inch diameter. Branchlets slender, nodose, 
rough, the youngest often quadrangular. Leaves elliptic 
or elliptic-obovate under 2 by i inch. Tubercles bearing 
the flowers small. Flowers shortly pedicelled. Bracteoles 
lanceolote. Calyx above the ovary campanulate ; disc 
rays obscure. 

Nilgiris : Kundahs, between Avalanche and Sispara in 
sholas at and above 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.] (not seen). 

Memecylon angustifolium Wt. F.B.L ii 562, XXI 
37. At our levels a tall tree. Leaves narrow, lanceolate 
about 3 by \ inch, petiole \ inch quite glabrous and opaque 



LYTHRACEJE 



233 



(veins not visible). Inflorescence dense purplish blue. 
' Calyx tube saucer-shaped, disc clearly but not thickly 
rayed. Berries black purple. ' Wt. Ic. t. 276. 

Shevaroys : Green Hills by stream. 

Gen. Dist. Hitherto described as a shrub and as from near Courtallam 
in Tinnevelly only. I was unable to get either the flowers or the fruit 
as they were beyond my reach, but I have no doubt that this is Wight's 
plant. 

LYTHRACE.E. 

The family of LYTHRACE^: is a medium-sized one of 
200 to 300 species and includes LYTHRUM (L. salicaria y 
the Purple Loosetrife) ; LAGERSTRCEMIA (L. Flos-regince 
and L. indica common in Madras gardens) ; and the 
Pomegranate. 

AMMANNIA and ROTALA. 

Small often aquatic herbs with opposite entire ex- 
stipulate leaves and the ovary free in the membranous 
deeply hollowed calyx tube. Flowers crowded. Corolla 
usually pink or absent ; stamens equal to or twice as many 
as petals, capsule very thin, opening in two valves each 
with its own style (ROTALA) or irregularly (AMMANNIA). 

Species about 38, mostly in the warmer parts of Asia (21) 
and Africa (17) ; also in Australia and Central Europe. 

ROTALA is a Linnsean genus combined later with AMMANNIA, 
also LINN^EAN but again separated. See Engler's Pflanzen- 
reich IV, 216 Lythracece y s. 40. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves roundish : flowers sessile pink. , , R. rotundifolia. 

Leaves i inch, ovate-cordate reddish : flower spring 
(appendix) R. Fysonii. 

Leaves narrow, cordate at base ; flowers in dense sessile axil- 
lary clusters on short branches : capsule opening in two 
valves A. baccifera. 



234 LYTHRACE/E 

Leaves narrow, acute at base : flowers axillary on short 
leafy branches : capsule opening irregularly. . R. densiflora. 

Rotala rotundifolia Kochne ; formerly Ammannia 
rotund : Ham. ; F.B.I, ii 566, I 3 ; a small herb growing 
by the waterside, with opposite leaves \ inch long, and 
dense terminal spikes of small pink flowers in the axils 
of green bracts. 

Stem often creeping at the base, 3 to 8 inches. Leaves 
^ to ^ inch long and a little narrower, subsessile, round 
or obovate, very obtuse, penni-nerved. Racemes terminal, 
dense bracts green, I inch, broadly ovate acute, adnate 
to the pedicel : bracteoles very narrow. Calyx T V to 
inch long and broad, membranous with four triangular 
teeth. Petals four, obovate twice as long as the tube, 
attached to it between the teeth. Anthers round. Fruit 
a septicidal capsule showing when ripe very close and 
fine horizontal striations. t* 179* Wight Ic. t. 258. 

On the margin of the lake at Kodaikanal, very abundant. 
In damp places generally on the Kodaikanal and Ootacamund 
downs. 

Gen. Dist. India, Ceylon, Malacca, South China, Formosa, etc. 

Ammannia baccifera Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 569, I u. 
Herbs of marshy places. Stem leaves i to 2 inches by 
J and i inch, cordate at base : leaves of lateral branches 
smaller. Flowers in peduncled corymbs. Sepal tri- 
angular. Capsule opening irregularly. 

Shevaroys : Green Hills and at lower levels to the plains 
in all districts. 

Rotala densiflora Kochne ; Ammannia pentandra, 
Roxb. in F.B.L ii 568, I 10 in part only. Similar in gene- 
ral habit to the last species but leaves acute at base, flower 
clusters sessile, and capsule opening in two valves. 



ONAGRACE/E 235 

Shevaroys : in swamps on Green Hills and lower to the 
plains in all districts. 

CUPHEA. 

An American genus of about 160 species. 

Cuphea pinetorum Benth. A slender-stemmed 
sticky plant, with red tubular drooping flowers remarkable 
for a pair of round black petals which fold back erect 
from the narrow mouth of the crimson coloured calyx. 
All young parts, pedicels and calyx glandular-pubescent. 
Leaves narrow lanceolate, \ to 2 inches long, with mid- 
rib and nerves impressed on the upper side. Flowers 
on pedicels of \ inch, in axillary fascicles, forming com- 
pound leafy racemes. Calyx f to i inch, widest at the 
base, and prolonged below in a short sac ; teeth small. 
Petals 4 ; 2 lower small red ; upper inch across black, 
round stamens 8, inserted inside the calyx and a little 
below the mouth. Ovary free at the base of the calyx, 
four-celled, with one style and small stigma. Fruits 
\ inch with seeds in four rows on an axile placenta which 
bursts through the calyx when ripe, t, 180* 

Coonoor, Kotagiri, etc., as a garden escape on roadsides, 
under hedges. Other species also occur. 

ONAGRACE^:. 

Herbs with opposite or alternate undivided but toothed 
leaves and mostly solitary flowers, characterized by the 
inferior ovary of two or four cells : sepals and petals two 
or four and stamens two, four, or eight. 

Species 300 to 400 all over jhe world but especially in the 
north temperate zone. 

Common garden and wild European plants are FUCHSIA CLARKIA, 
OENOTHERA, EPiLOBiUM (Willow herb), ciRC/EA (Enchanter's Nightshade). 



236 ONAGRACEffi 

QSNOTHERA, 

Evening Primrose. 

Herbs with erect stems well clothed with alternate 
simple but often much cut leaves. Flowers terminal, 
solitary, often large ; with very long calyx tube continued 
as a tube above the ovary in long sepals ; four very thin 
petals, twisted in bud ; eight stamens with long conspi- 
cuous, anthers ; a four-celled ovary containing many seeds, 
and four long narrow spreading stigmas ( Ewcenotherd). 
Fruit a four-angled or four-winged capsule opening by 
four valves. 

The extra tropical species were monographed by S. Watson in " Con- 
trib : Amer : Bot. I. p. 573." As given in the Gen. Plant, the genus 
has over 100 species, nearly all in America, outside the tropics. In science 
the genus has become famous because of a theory of evolution which 
De Vries founded mainly on the great variations in a species which has 
run wild in Holland. These mutations, as he called them, were he consi- 
dered differences of sufficient importance to warrant the plants being 
considered new species, and mainly on this evidence, but with that of 
other mutations too, he founded his theory of evolution as being brought 
about, not by the slow accumulation of small (fluctuating) variations 
as C. Darwin suggested, but by big changes which once made do not 
vary back to the original form. His theory has been vigorously opposed 
by the older followers of Darwin, particularly Alfred Russell Wallace. 
Many, however, of those who have worked on and support Mendelian 
methods in the study of inheritance are inclined to support him. 

OE. odorata Jacq. Flowers yellow, scented at night. 

OE, tctraptcra Cav. Flowers white, 2 inches ; capsule 
winged. t 181* 

OE* rosea Ait. Flowers pink, i inch. t 182* 

FUCHSIA. 62 in.* 

Herbs shrubs or small trees with pendent usually 
reddish or purple flowers solitary in the leaf-axils, remark- 
able for the very long calyx tube carrying the four sepals, 
four petals and eight stamens well beyond the ovary. 



ONAGRACEJE 237 

Style single with capitate or lobed stigma. Fruit a 
berry. 

Species 60, natives of Mexico and the western side of South 
America ; one or two also in New Zealand. Much cultivated 
in English gardens. 

Fuchsia corymbiflora Ruiz and Pav : * A coarse 
shrub with ovate oblong leaves acute at both ends and 
terminal racemes of magenta-red flowers, with calyx- 
tube of 2 1 to 4 inches scarlet pointed sepals and petals. 
t. 183. 

Common on roadsides in Ootacamund : introduced as a 
garden plant. 

CIRCEA. F.B.I, 62 IV. 

Small herbs with alternate ovate or sinuate or toothed 
leaves, and small flowers of two sepals, two petals, two 
stamens, and one or two cells to the ovary, each with 
one seed only. 

Species under 10, in Europe, Asia, temperate and arctic 
North America. 

Circaea alpina Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 589, IV 3 ; Enchan- 
ter's Nightshade. Stem 2 to 6 inches, pubescent or nearly 
glabrous, seldom branched below the racemes. Leaves 
f to ij inches, sinuate-serrate, cordate or abruptly 
narrowed at the base ; lower leaf-stalks longer, upper 
shorter than the blades* Racemes short, long peduncled, 
2 to 6 inches. Flowers J inch. Fruiting pedicels stiffly 
horizontal ; fiuits i\ inches, obovoid, covered with 
hooked hairs, t. 184. Wight 111. t. 101. 

In woods and shaddy places. 

* Incorrectly named. F. fulgens in my Fl. N. & P. Ht. F. fulgens 
as ovate cordate-toothed leaves and sepals greenish at tip. 



238 SAMYDACF/E 

Gen. Dist. Temperate climates of the northern hemisphere. (Ger. 
Hexenkraut, Fr. Herbe de S. Etienne.) 

The flowers face downwards and are visited by small hovering flies. 
To get the honey secreted round the base of the style they must hold on 
to the stamens and style. The latter being the longer is touched first and 
so receives pollen from the underside of the insect's body. Later on the 
visitor, in sucking the honey, catches hold of the stamens and rubs against 
the anthers. Self-pollination would occur by the bending of a stamen 
against the stigma. (Koerner.) 



SAMYDACE^E. 

A small tropical family the SAMYDAC&E; allied to the 
Passion-flower, Papaw, Begonia and Melon, but differing 
from these in its two-ranked or bifarious gland-dotted 
leaves, small clustered flowers, persistent sepals, and by 
the large fleshy lacerate aril of the seeds. 

CASEARIA, F.B.I. 63 i. 

Species 80 in warm climates especially of America. 

Casearia coriacca Thu. ; F.B.L ii 592, 14. A tree 
with yellowish-white smooth bark, obovate gland-dotted 
leaves, and small groups of nearly sessile petal less 
flowers close down in the leaf-axils or orange yellow 
fruits, f inch long, which stand on a frill of the persistent 
sepals. 

Tree, 20 feet or more high, branches glabrous. Leaves 
standing to right and left (bifarious though spirally 
arranged), elliptic or obovate, entire, acute or acuminate, 
tapering to the base, thick, dotted with translucent dots 
and streaks ; petiole inch, blade 2 to 3! inches by i to 
2 inches. Flowers in the axils of the present or fallen 
leaves, pedicels J inch. Calyx T \y inch, glabrous, with 
four to five round, concave lobes. Stamens eight, with 
minute, round anthers ; mixed with shorter oblong 



PASSIFLORACEJE 239 

staminodes, villous at the top. Ovary one-celled, with 
one very short style : ovules many on parietal placentas. 
Fruit orange-yellow, glabrous, the ^ inch ; stalk jointed 
near the base and marked there by a raised ring ; at first 
fleshy, but opening when dry in three thick valves. Seeds 
many, covered by a large red fleshy and lacerate aril. 
Kodaikanal downs in Gundattu shola. 

Gen. Dist. On the Western Ghauts from Bombay southwards, 
Ceylon and the Malaya Peninsula. 

Vernacular name, Vella Kunnan, Malayalam ; Mori. Mar. 

PASSIFLORACE^. 

A family of some 300 species, the greater number 
belonging to the genus. 

PASSIFLORA. F.B.I. 64 i. 

Passio n -flower. 

Shrubs or herbs, twiners or tendril-climbers. Leaves 
simple, entire or lobed, stipulate, stalked. Flowers 
solitary or in cymes peduncled in the leaf-axils, with 
three bracteoles. Sepals, petals and stamens five. Ovary 
and stamens borne on a stalk well above the rest, and this 
stalk surrounded at the base by a single or double corona, 
composed of a membranous cup and a ring or rings of 
slender filaments. Anthers oblong, unusually large, 
versatile. Ovary one-celled, with three parietal placentas ; 
style with three branches. Fruit a berry. 

A large genus, natives mostly of America ; a few also in 
Asia and Australasia. 

C Leaves entire, half- moon shaped ... P. Leschenaultii. 

\Leaves three-lobed b. 

f Lobes entire : stipules f inch P. calcarata. 

^ Lobes toothed or crenate : no stipules ... P. eduis. 



240 



PASSIFLORACEJE 



Passiflora Lcschcnaultii DC. ; F.BJ. ii 599, I i. 
Leaves semi-circular attached at the middle of the rounded 
margin with a cuspidate point in the opposite side, 
glabrous : stalk i inch ; nerves five all from the base, the 
three middle ones very straight to the opposite centre and 
corners. Tendrils axillary. Peduncles in pairs in the 
leaf-axils, i| to 2 inches, jointed i to below the flower : 
bracteoles three, linear. Sepals f inch, oblong obtuse. 
Petals as long, but narrower, white. Outer corona of 
two rows of linear filaments, the outer row shorter than 
the petals, the inner much shorter and more slender. 
Inner corona a much folded membranous cup ; and 
inside this again a small shallow cup round the base 
of the column. Fruit ovoid il inches, t* 185* Wight 
Ic. t. 39. Vern. Covayonkou. 

Common, climbing on the outer trees of a shola. Pulneys : 
near Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Kotagiri, Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Also Khasia. 

Passiflora calcarata Mast. ; la; Madagascar 
Passion-flower* A slender climber with three-lobed leaves 
and large stipules f to i inch by J inch which distinguish 
it at once from all our others. Corona, an outer set of 
slender filaments, white with purple base and blue tips ; 
and an inner set of much shorter ones which fit closely 
round the central column and cover a honey-secreting 
circular channel formed by the dipping downwards of 
the calyx tube. Ovary egg-shaped, green, with a slight 
bloom : stylar arms spreading upwards and outwards, 
and ending in large two-lobed stigmas, t* 186* 

A garden escape. Nilgiris : near Ootacamund and 
Naduvattam. Shevaroys : Flowering March to May. What 
appears to be a variety with much narrower lobes to the 
leaf (i^ by J inch) occurs on the Shevaroys. 



CUCURBITACE-flE 24! 

A native of Madagascar belonging to the section GRANADILLA of the 
genus. 

Passiflora edulis Sims. ; I 4 ; edible Passion fruit. 
A nativeof Brazil, has gone wild below Kodaikanal, near 

Ootacamund and near Yercaud. t* 187* Bot. Mag. 
t. 1989. 

It has larger leaves than the last species and the lobes 
irregularly serrate all round. 

Tacsonia mollissima H. B. & K. with a long tube 
below the pink sepals and petals and velvety leaves is 
grown in gardens. It is a native of Peru, t* 188* 

CUCURBITACE^E* 

Melon, Marrow, Pumpkin, Bryony, etc. 

Weak-stemmed, often scabrid herbs, climbing by 
tendrils, which may be simple or branched and usually 
spring from a little to one side of a leaf-axil. Leaves 
stalked, lobed but not compound. Flowers white or 
yellow, unisexual, monoecious (both kinds on the same 
plant) or dioecious. Petals often quite united. Stamens 
typically five with one-celled (i.e., half) anthers ; more 
often apparently only three, two having two half anthers 
each (i.e., a pair fused), anthers rigid on the filaments, 
straight or doubled in an " S " curve. Ovary inferior, 
one-celled with three parietal placentas. Fruit a berry 
with firm rind and enlarged juicy placentas : seeds many, 
flat. 

Species about 400, mostly in the warmer parts of the world 
especially the tropics. The family has been put by many 
systematists among the Monopetalce, because of the often quite 
typically monopetalous flower not unlike that of a CAMPANULA. 
Cultivated plants of the family include the Melon, Marrow 
and Pumpkin. The bathroom " luffa "* is the dried placentas 
of a wild species. 
16 



242 CUCURBITACE^E 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 
Anthers S-shaped ; petals inch or more with long fringe. 

TRICHOSANTHES. 

Anthers S-shaped ; petals short ; leaves simple . MELOTHRIA. 
Leaves compound, pedate ..".... GYMNOSTEMMA. 

TRICHOSANTHES, F.B.I. 65 n. 

Flowers dioecious, male in racemes, female solitary. 

Distinguished from all others of this order very easily 
by the petals, which are deeply cut into long fimbriae. 
Anther cells doubled back. Fruit smooth. 

Species 42, India, Malaya, Australia. T. Anguina Linn, is 
the Snake Gourd of the plains. 

Trichosanthes villosula Cogn. A stout climber with 
very hairy stems and large white flowers. Male racemes 
with small bracts. Ovary and calyx tube of female nearly 
2 inches. Fruit ovoid-acuminate, 2o inches long. 

The flower opens after dark and is strongly and sweetly 
scented. In bud the petals (corolla lobes) are folded to 
the centre with the fimbriae folded inside, making five 
radiating ridges, t* 189* 

Nilgiris : in deep valleys below Coonoor-Karteri stream 
5,000 to 6,000 feet. 

T* palmata Roxb. ; var. tomentosa Heyne ; F.B.I, ii 
606, II. Male racemes with large laciniate bracts. Leaves 
scabrid. A woody climber. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys 3,000 to 6,000 feet. Also Mysore 
Hills [G.F.M.P.]. 

Gen. Dist. (of species) Himalayas to Ceylon, Japan and north Aus- 
tralia. * 

MELOTHRIA. F.B.I. 65 xvn. 

Including ZEHNERIA and MUKIA. 
Slender and weak-stemmed herbs. Flowers small 
white or yellow, monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers 



CUCURBITACE^: 243 

in racemes or corymbs. Calyx campanulate with five 
short teeth. Corolla deeply five-partite, petals not toothed. 
Stamens three : anthers usually free, oblong or sub- 
orbicular, free. Female flowers solitary, fascicled or 
corymbose. Calyx and corolla as of the male. Stami- 
nodes three. Ovary egg-shaped, globose or pear-shaped. 
Style short, surrounded by an annular disc. Fruit a 
small berry. Seeds usually margined. 
Species about 40 all in the tropics. 

Very similar to BRYONIA White Bryony, Fr. Couleuvr6e, Ger. Zaunrube 
(Black Bryony is quite distinct). 

Name taken from the Greek name for Bryony. 

The genus now includes ZEHNERIA and MUKIA which were formerly 
considered as distinct. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Stamens with long filaments. 

Flowers monoecious ; berry globose J inch . M. perpusilla. 
Flowers dioecious : berry oblong . . . . M. mucronata. 
Anthers sessile. 

Fruit globose inch or more : striped white and green . . 

M. leiosperma. 

Mclothria perpusilla Cogniaux ; F.B.I, as Zehneria 
hookeriana Arn. y ii 624, XVI 2 ; Kodai Bryony. 

Stem slender herbaceous : tendrils from one side of 
the leaf stalks. Leaves angular, sharply lobed. Flowers 
in small corymbs, peduncled in the leaf-axils ; pedicel 
J inch ; peduncle J to ^ inch : female flowers J inch, 
male flowers ^ inch, crowded. Fruit globose. t* 190* 

In thickets and sholas, common on the downs. Pulneys : 
as high as Kodaikanal and above. Nilgiris : Pykara, Kotagiri. 

Gen. Dist.' Mountains of South India, south-east and central Hima- 
layas, Assam, Khasia to Sikkim and Nepal, 

l6-A 



244 BEGONIACE/E 

Melothria mucronata Cogn. ; F.B.L ii 624. Leaves 
cordate, five-angled or lobed and irregularly toothed. 
Flowers dioecious, berry long-oval. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys up to 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

Melothria leiosperma Cogn. ; F.B.L ii 623, as 
Mukia leiosperma Wt. A scabrid climbing herb with 
unbranched tendrils. Leaves angular, not deeply lobed. 
Flowers small, solitary. Corolla five-lobed. Stamens 
of male flowers 3, anthers straight two two-celled, one one- 
celled. Female flowers like the male, small campanulate. 
Fruit golobose, green with white markings, seeds few. 
t. 19L 

Nilgiris : near Coonoor, etc. Pulneys at Shembaganur. 

The fruit might be likened to the familiar peppermint 
"bull's eye." 

GYMNOSTEMMA, 

A genus of one or few species. 

Gymnostemma pedata Blume. ; F.B.I, ii 633, 
XXVIII i. A slender climber with simple tendrils and 
pedately compound leaves. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate. 
Flowers minute, in diffuse axillary panicles, 3 to 6 inches 
long, greenish. Male and female corolla both rotate, 
five partite. Stamens 5, united below ; the anthers straight 
two-celled (i.e., normal). Fruit ^ inch diam., greenish, 
one to three-seeded. 

Nilgiris, 4,000 to 6,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

Gen. Dist. Eastern Himalayas to Ceylon, Malaya and Japan. 

BEGONIACE^:. 

BEGONIA. F.B.I. 65, 

Only genus. Name in honour of M. Bagon, a French 
botanist. 



UMBELLIFER^E 245 

Succulent herbs or undershrubs with alternate, asym- 
metrical and toothed or lobed leaves. Flowers unisexual, 
monoecious, usually pink or white, showy, in peduncled 
dichotomous cymes. Perianth of two outer coloured 
sepals with or without two inner smaller petals. Male 
flowers : stamens numerous, the filaments free or connate. 
Female flowers : ovary inferior three-celled and three- 
winged. Fruit a three-winged capsule with numerous 
small seeds. 

Most are perennial herbs with thick rhizomes. 

Species about 400. 

Many are cultivated for their beautiful flowers and foliage, the horti- 
culturist dividing them into two groups, " Rex " and " Tuberous." 
They reproduce readily by the leaves, pieces of which if placed in damp 
sandy soil give rise to buds and roots. 

Begonia malabarica Lamk. ; F.B.L ii 653, I 64. 
Almost shrubby. Leaves cordate, very unequal-sided. 
Flowers rose-coloured, no petals in male. Capsule 
| inch long and broad, the wings unequal. 

Pulneys : at foot of Silver Cascade, etc., Nilgiris. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, to 6,000 feet. 

Begonia floccifera Bedd. F.B.I. ii 654. Leaves nearly 
circular, toothed. Flowers many on a tall scape. Sepals 
of male flowers 2. Capsular wings sub-equal. Broadest 
at the middle. 

Nilgiris : Kaity valley [P. V. Mayuranathan], 

Gen. Dist. Hills of Tinnevelly and Travancore. 

UMBELLIFER^:. 

A large family characterized chiefly by the flowers 
being in compound umbels (umbels of umbels), with 
inferior ovary which always splits into two one-seeded 
parts (mericarps). Herbs, usually strongly scented, with 



246 UMBELLIFER/E 

hollow stems. Leaves nearly always much dissected 
or compound, and with large sheathing base. Sepals 
small or none. Petals folded down the middle, notched, 
usually white. Stamens five. Styles two. Mericarps 
with five ridges and sometimes others between them, and 
in the valleys between long oil cavities (vittas). 

Species 1,300 mostly in the temperate regions of the Old 
World. Absent from North America and south of the Line. 

HYDROCOTYLE and SANicuLA have simple umbels and no vittas in the 
fruit, and are removed by some systematists into a family of their own. 
For distinguishing the genera importance is attached to the presence or 
absence on the mericarps of secondary ridges between the main ones ; 
on the number of vittas between the ridges ; and on the shape of the fruit 
and mericarps, whether these are widest at the split and flat ; or equally 
thick as wide ; or narrowest at the split and therefore flattened at right 
angles to it. 

Familiar members of the family are the Carrot, Celay, 
Parsnip, Fennel, and Coriander and Carraway. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

(A) Umbels simple. 

Creeping herbs, flowers few HYDROCOTYLE and CENTELLA. 
Erect herbs, umbels irregular SANICULA. 

(B) Umbels compound. 
Leaves narrow, grass like : flowers yellow : fruits thick . . 

BUPLEURUM. 

Basal leaves broad, cordate : flowers white : fruits narrow . 

PIMPINELLA. 

Leaves mostly much divided, flowers white : fruit flat . . . 

HERACLEUM. 

HYDROCOTYLE and CENTELLA. F.B.I. 70 I. 

Small herbs prostrate and rooting at the nodes. Leaves 

long stalked with small scarious stipules, roundish, angular 

or lobed, cordate (or slit behind the point of attachment), 



UMBELLIFEIUE 247 

palmately nerved. Umbels simple, small. Flowers usu- 
ally 3, only white or red. Fruits compressed at right 
angles to the plane of division, i.e., splitting faces narrow : 
no vittas. 

Species about 70 in wet and damp places, especially in the 
southern hemisphere. A few in Europe : Pennywort, Ger. 
Wassernabel. 

The two genera are separated by the fruit. 

That of HYDROCOTYLE having 3 ridges, that of CENTELLA 
7 or 9 primary and as many secondary, to each mericarp. 

C Leaves J inch Hydrocotyle rotundifolia. 

a < Leaves i inch kidney-shaped . . . Centella asiatica. 

L Leaves i inch or more deeply cordate, lobed and toothed, b 

C Umbels on peduncles of | inch or more . . H. javanica. 

\ Umbels on peduncles of ^ inch only. . . . H. conferta. 

Hydrocotyle javanica Thumb. ; F.B.L ii 667, I i. 
Stem succulent, pubescent below the nodes, with erect 
branches up to 6 inches. Leaves i|- to 4 inches, nearly 
circular, with five to nine triangular lobes, these again 
five to seven-lobed or crenate ; hairy above on the veins 
only, pubescent underneath : stipules entire : stalks 
on the prostrate stem up to 10 inches, on the erect branches 
i to 2 inches. Flowers small, pale green, nearly sessile 
and crowded on very slender peduncles of \ to i inch, 
fascicled in the leaf-axils. No sepals. Petals with 
incurved tips. Fruits \ by jV inch broader than long ; 
mericarps compressed, with five primary but no secondary 
ridges, t, 192* Wight Ic. t. 1003. 

In shady places and woods on the downs. Pulneys : Kodai- 
kanal. Nilgiris : common. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India and Ceylon, Burma. Absent or very 
rare on the Bombay Ghauts to the north of us. 

Hydrocotyle conferta Wight ; Kew Dist. No. 1 158 / 
F.B.I, ii 668, I 3. Very similar in general appearance 



248 UMBELLIFER/E 

to H. javanica, but peduncles in fruit quite short, o to J 
inch ; mericarps smooth not compressed, in section 
pentagonal ; stem more slender, t, 193* Wight Ic. 
t. 1 002. 

Pulneys : below Kodaikanal, head of Pallangi valley above 
Villappatti and down to 5,000 feet. Nilgiris ; in Ootacamund, 
in wet places. 

Gen. Dist. Not elsewhere. 

Hydrocotylc rotundifolia Roxb. ; F.B.L ii 668, 
I 4. Stems slender. Leaves J to f inch, deeply divided 
into five to seven lobes, each with two or four rounded 
teeth. Umbels peduncled. Petals minute reddish. 
t. 194. 

Common on bare damp black soil and in bogs, in the open. 
Everywhere on the downs. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India and Ceylon and Malaya. 

Ccntclla asiatica Urban ; F.B.I, ii 669, I 5 ; for- 
merly Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. Rootstock vertical, 
stout, 3 to 4 inches. Stem wiry, rooting at the nodes : 
stipules adnate to the leaf-stalks. Leaves kidney-shaped ? 
f by i to i by i i inches, or larger in the shade, with round 
crenulations. Peduncle inch ; no pedicel. Flowers 
few in the umbel, pink : bracts ovate-concave, two to an 
umbel. Ripe mericarps -$ inch, showing both primary 
and secondary ridges, t* 195. Wight Ic. t. 565. 

On bare, even gravelly soil and in grass ; in the opens very 
common. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout India and tropical and sub-tropical countries 
generally. 

SANICULA* F.B.I 70111. 

Erect herbs characterized by the umbels irregular 
and globular, not flat-topped, and the fruits covered 
with hooked bristles. 



UMBELLIFER^: 249 

Species 30. Europe, Asia, Atlantic and Pacific sides of 
North America, Mexico, Chili, highlands of tropical Africa, the 
Cape, Sandwich island. Ger. Heilknecke. 

Name said to be from the Greek SANO, / heal, because of its medicinal 
properties. 

Sanicula europaea Linn. ; F.B.I, ii 670, III i ; 
Wood Sanicle. Rootstock perennial. Radical leaves on 
long stalks, three-foliate ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate acute, 
serrate or ^bristle-toothed, thin, glabrous sometimes 
again deeply cut or lobed. Stems i to i^ feet, nearly or 
quite leafless or with small three-fid bracts at the branch- 
ings. Flower-heads in groups of about three, sessile at 
the forkings and at intervals on the branches of a broadly 
spreading cymose panicle. Fruits covered with long 
hooked bristles, t, 196* Wight 111. t. 117, fig. 2 ; Ic. t. 
334 and 1004. 

In shady places, sholas, etc. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal and 
down to 5,500 feet. 

Gen. Dist. Higher mountains of India and Ceylon ; not on the lower 
hills nor on the Bombay Ghauts. 

BUPLEURUM. F.B.I. 70 vii. 

Harems-ear. 

A genus remarkable in this family for its entire and 
for the most part grass-like leaves. Mericarps not com- 
pressed, with no secondary ridges, and with one to three 
vittas in the valleys. 

Species 60 in the temperate regions of the Old World. One 
in South Africa, one in Arctic North America. In Europe we 
have Hare's-ear, Thorowax ; Ger. Hasenohr. 

Leaves 4 to 10 by f to i inch . . . . B. plantaginifolium. 

Leaves 2 to 6 by J inch or more B. mucronatum. 

Leaves \ to 2 by /<. to \ inch, grass-like 

B. distichophyllum. 



250 XJMBELLIFERJE 

Bupleurum plantaginifolium Wight ; F.B.I, ii 
675, VII i ; Giant Hare's-ear. A tall perennial herb 
up to 4 or 5 feet with stem towards the top, where all the 
leaves are as thick as a stout lead-pencil ; base bare. 
Leaves with broad base half encircling the axis, then 
narrowed and widening gradually into the blade, which 
may be 10 inches long and over i inch wide ; oblong- 
lanceolate, acute at both ends, strongly mucronate, with 
prominent midrib and five to eight slender nerves starting 
from near the base, and running at a very acute angle 
to meet the margin near the apex ; upper leaves crowded, 
shorter to ovate, obtuse but mucronate, with much less 
distinct midrib. Umbels in branched panicles, with 
conspicuous elliptic mucronate bracts at the forkings : 
bracts of the umbels four to five, J inch, three to seven- 
nerved, oblanceolate, mucronate ; pedicels J inch. Petals 
yellow, reflexed. Mericarps J to f inch by *$ to inch, 
prominently five-ribbed, slightly curved towards the 
inner, flatter, side. t* 197, (b) an unripe fruit. Wight 
Ic. t. 281. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund on Snowdon, Elk Hill, etc. 
Fruiting October to July ; Coonoor. Not collected on the 
Pulneys. Bourne 4635. 
Gen. Dist. Not elsewhere. 

Bupleurum mucronatum Wight and Arnott ; F.B.I. 
ii 676, VII 8 ; common Hare's-ear. A slender green 
stemmed, sometimes tall and well branched herb, with 
narrow grass-like erect leaves and terminal panicles of 
yellow-flowered umbels. Fruits with five prominent 
ridges, and in the furrows one to two vittas. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India and Ceylon. 

* type : Herb. Wight Prop. 1197 I Stem usually 2 feet, 
but may be as tall as a man and much branched. Leaves 



UMBELLIFE1UE 25! 

2 to 7 inches by J inch, linear oblong or oblanceolate, 
mucronate. Bracts of the umbellules narrow, acute. 
Fruits black, t. 198. 

Pulneys : on the open downs frequent. Nilgiris. 
G.F.M.P. says " scarce on Pulneys/' 

** var. ramossima Wight ; Herb. Prop. 1198. Stem 
J inch thick wittT prominent ridges at the nodes, excess- 
ively branched upwards. Leaves comparatively short 
and broad, i to 2\ inches by to \ inch, but also 4 by 

3 inch oblanceolate, obtuse, mucronate. Main peduncles 
of the umbels \ to i inch, slender ; secondary peduncles 
J to i inch filiform : involucral bracts prominently 
oblanceolate mucronate. Fruit | inch. Wight Ic. 
t. 1007. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund. Pulneys and Shevaroys 
[G.F.M.P.]. 

*** var. virgatum ; Herb. Wight Prop. 1165 (from 
Ceylon). Stem simple or nearly so below, twiggy. Leaves 
about J inch by 2 inches. Rootstock a tuber, i inch 
thick. Fruit markedly ellipsoid, often } inch only. 

In grass on the Kodaikanal downs, near Gundattu shola, 
Lidcot valley and the road to Lone Cottage. 

This variety is restored to specific rank as B. virgatum W. and A. in 
G.F.M.P., but I regard it as a dry ground form. 

Bupleurum distichophyllum Wight and Arnott ; 
Herb. Wight Prop. 1196 /; F.B.I, ii 677, VII 9. Stem 
slender, 4 to 8 inches. Leaves narrow, i to 2 inches, 
grass-like mostly crowded and closely imbricated clasp- 
ing the lower part of the stem, which may be there * z inch 
thick ; upper few, smaller and merging into the inch 
bracts. Bracts of umbels J inch finely acuminate, 
longer than the rays, t* 199* Wight Ic. t. 1006. 



252 UMBELLIFEIUfi 

On the open downs : Nilgiris at Ootacamund (Bourne) 
flowering July, and below Avalanche. Pulneys : above Kodai- 
kanal. 

Gen.Dist. These hills only. Fyson 1839^. Bourne 4624. 



PIMPINELLA* F.B.I. 70 xin. 

Our three species are distinguished from all others of 
the family by the large heart-shaped basal leaves, with 
stalks of 4 to 12 inches. (Most of the genus how- 
ever with much divided leaves.) Stem slender. Lower 
leaves occasionally lobed : but upper bractiform leaves 
deeply cut or divided into three to five wedge-shaped 
segments with long clasping base. Umbels compound 
(of the usual type) : peduncles about f inch, bracts 
linear ^ inch. Flowers white, % inch across or less : 
petals slightly unequal. Mericarps narrowest across the 
division, contracted above, bulging below so that the 
pair appear in side view heart-shaped, each with five 
ridges and two or three oil ducts in the shallow furrows. 

The above refers to our three species. The differences 
between them lie in the texture and toothing of the leaves 
(more pronounced in the upper ones), and the hairiness of the 
fruit. They may also be distinguished on the Pulney downs 
by the fact that P. candolleana grows on the open hill-side, 
P. pulneyensis in the cooler damper parts near sholas. 

Species 75, all over the world except Australia. (In Europe 
Burnet Saxifrage, Anise.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Fruit pappilose P. candolleana. 

Fruit glabrous 

Nilgiri plant P. leschenaultii. 

Pulney plant P. pulneyensis. 



UMBELLIFER^ 253 

Pimpinella Candolleana Wight and Arnott ; F.B.I. 
ii 687, XIII 14. Stem usually unbranched, except near the 
top, from i to 2 feet in height, pubescent. Lower leaves 
sharply and regularly toothed, softly hairy on both sides ; 
veins often reddish below : for the most part stiffly 
erect though the lowest may be spreading. Bracts of 
the flowering branches without petioles, but with long 
clasping bases, palmately three to five-fid ; the segments 
sharply and coarsely toothed, with mucros. Flowering 
branches divaricating at angles of about 30 degrees : 
peduncles i inch : the compound umbels flat in flower, 
rounded in fruit : bracts -J inch. Filaments white with 
brown or violet anthers. Styles white, in early fruit 
spreading and tipped by the violet, stigmas. Fruit 
papillose, t* 200. Wight Ic. t. 341. 

Pulneys : very common in the grass of the open downs, 
flowers freely May to September. Nilgiris : on the downs 
near Ootacamund to Coonoor, flower September. 

The leaves have a faint smell of Aniseed. 

Pimpinella pulncyensis Gamble ; Kew Bull. 1919, 
p. 228. Stem often branched 2 to 5 feet high, red in the 
lower parts and clothed with fairly long white hairs, 
which are conspicuous also on the leaf-stalks. Leaves 
somewhat flaccid, spreading, more or less hairy, with 
irregular and blunt teeth ; the lowest entire, but often 
some three-lobed or three-foliate. Upper bractiform 
leaves palmately three-fid ; the segments again divided, 
and these again bluntly toothed. Peduncles rather under 
| inch. Bracts none ; bracteoles few, linear. Filaments 
white, with brown anthers. Styles at first white, after- 
wards turning brown, or dark purple. Fruit quite glab- 
rous and smooth, t* 201. Wight Ic. t. 1005. 



254 UMBELLIFEIUE 

Pulneys : in damp or cool places near sholas, flowering 
May to September. 

Pimpinella Lcschcnaultii DC. ; F.B.I, ii 687, XIII 
13. Stem 12 inches only, basal leaves two or three only, 
roundish, i to i| inches diameter, lying flat on the ground. 
Toothing of these, and upper leaves and fruits as in the 
previous species. Bracts none ; and bracteoles inch. 

Nilgiris : on the open dry hill-sides springing up and 
flowering in May after the first rains. 

These last two species were, for want of a name to the first, placed 
together as form of P. leschenaultii in my first edition with the following 
note : 

" These two forms are very unlike in general appearance. One might 
suspect their differences to be due only to differences of habitat. But 
while the Nilgiri plant grows in the open, and not I think in the shade ; 
the Pulney plant I have never seen except near sholas, its place in the 
open being taken by P. candolleana." 

Gamble has misquoted me in his Flora of the Madras Presidency 
(though not in the Kew Bulletin) transposing the habit of the Pulney 
plant to the Nilgiri. 



HERACLEUM. F.B.I, xxxui. 

Cow Parsnip. 

Distinguished among our genera by the mericarps 
being much broader than thick (widest at the division), 
and when quite ripe often flat and winged by the extra 
large lateral ridges : by the obscure middle ridges, and 
between them solitary vittas which are prominent when 
dry, three or four only to each mericarp, and usually 
extend from near the top not quite to the base, being 
thicker downwards. 

Very large herbs with wide spreading flat compound 
umbels, of which the outermost flowers have usually 
yery conspicuous petals especially on the outer side 
(" radiate umbels "). 



r 
< 



UMBELLIFER/E 355 

Species about 70, mostly in temperate Europe and America 
(Fr. fierce, Ger. Herkuleskraut). 

In some of the species considerable variation occurs and also differ- 
ences between the upper and lower leaves it is not easy to determine 
and define the species from dried herbarium material. Considerable 
confusion had therefore crept in, and in the first edition I expressed 
uncertainty about the exact distribution of some of the forms. H. 
hookerianum W. & A. appeared to be a young form of H. rigens Wall and 
H. candolleana of Wight's herbarium not the same as H. candolleana of 
Wight and Arnott's Prodromus. H. pedatum Wight differs from the 
others in its fruit. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Flowers white : inside vittas 2 only b 
Flowers yellow : inside vittas 2 or 4 c 

'Lower leaves simple H. Hookerianum. 

Lr. Is. pinnate. Large marsh plant . H. ceglanicum. 
I^Lr. Is. pedate. Small woodland plant . . H. pedatum. 
T Lower leaves pinnate, lobes rounded . H. rigens. 

\ Lower leaves pinnate, lobes acute d 

r Fruit ^ by J inch or more : outside vittas nearly to base 
, J H. Candolleanum. 

I Fruit J by i inch outside vittas three-fourths of face 
L inside very unequal H. Sprenjelianum. 

Hcracleum Hookerianum Wight and Arnott ; Herb. 
Wight Prop. " Avalanche"; F.B.I, ii 715, XXX 14. 
Leaves nearly all on the ground. Stem and branches 
of umbel and bracts sticky with glandular hairs i to i J feet. 
Petals white, pinkish on the back, some radiate. Ic. t. 
1010. 

Nilgiris : on downs from Snowdon to Avalanche, etc. 

Heracleum rigens Wall. Cat. No. 575 / ; F.B.I, ii 75 
(in part), XXXIII 15 ; common Cow Parsnip of the Kodai- 
kanal downs. 

Rootstock stout, stem puberulous or pubescent. 
Leaves of three to five leaflets. Leaflets and their lobes 
rounded, margin serrate or dentate. Rays of umbel 



256 UMBELLIFERJE 

numerous (fifteen to thirty), 2 to 3 inches : pedicel \ inch, 
sepals green with pink tips. Petals creamy yellow, anthers 
dark reddish purple. Mericarps when fresh half as thick as 
broad, J to | inch, broadly elliptic, brownish red or 
pink, drying flat: inside vittas four, slender extending half 
to three-fourth down, as regards width occupying 
the middle half of the fruit, i.e., in two very close pairs. 
t, 202* Wight Ic. t. 1009. 

On the open downs in dry places. Pulneys : fairly common. 
Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Coonoor. 

Heracleum ccylanicum Gardner, Thwaites Enum 
131 C.P. 145 ; F.BJ. ii 716, and H. rigens var. candollena, 
ii 716 ; XXXIII 17. " Queen Anne's Lace." Basal leaves 
pinnate. Leaflets, oblong, twice or thrice as long as broad ; 
lateral lobes and segments rounded, terminal, acute ; 
pubescent or tomentose, dentate. Rays 2 to 4 inches. 
Petals pure white, large, especially the outer mericarps very 
large, | by ^ inch : vittas occupying one-third of the 
breadth, convergent below. Umbels very strongly 
radiate, the largest petals obovate or obcordate, \ inch. 
A very beautiful plant, t, 203* 

Pulneys : on the downs. Abundant on the Pulneys in 
moist valleys and by streams as soon as the rains begin. 

Heracleum Candolleanum Gamble : F.B.I, as part 
of var. Condolleana of H. rigens. Stem glabrous below, 
pubescent under the rays. Leaves very large, over one 
foot. Leaflets cordate sessile or decurrent, acute, often 
irregularly lobed at the base, serrate on both sides, pubes- 
cent. Rays very numerous ; pedicels slender, | inch. 
Mericarps broadly elliptic, | by inch : vittas four on 
outside, two on inside, occupying half or more than half 
of the width, not convergent below. 

Pulneys on the downs, common. 



ARALIACE^E 257 

Heracleum Sprcngclianum W. & A* F*B.L ii. 
716, XXXIII 18 ; Giant Cow Parsnip a very large 
plant. Leaves very large, over i foot. Leaflets cordate 
sessile or decurrent, acute and acutely lobed, often irre- 
gularly at the base. Rays numerous. Flowers yellow, 
pedicels in fruit I inch. Mericarps elliptic | by J inch. 
Vittas 4 on back, not reaching the base, unequal on inside. 
(Gamble gives the fruits as J by ^ inch only). t, 204. 

Pulneye : in grass on the downs and to Poombari. 

Heracleum pedatum Wight, Herb. Prop ! ; F.B.I. 
ii 716, XXXIII 20. Stem up to 18 inches, decumbent and 
rooting at the nodes. Leaves pedately divided into five 
leaflets, which are sharply serrate or deeply cut ; lateral 
ones i by i inch, terminal ii by | inch. Main umbels 
on slender peduncles ; rays few, final umbels i inch very 
radiate, the outermost petal three or four times the inner 
ones. Two outer sepals linear, long and spreading ; 
inner obsolete. Petals white, triangular-cordate, deeply 
notched. Mericarps J- by -*-- inch, broadest at the 
base, nearly as thick as wide, not winged but five-angled, 
ridges obsolete. Vittas one between each angle and two 
on the inner side t. 205, 

In sholas forming a dense growth. Pulneys : common, 
flowering June to September. 

The fruits arc more than those of a Sium than of a Heracleum. They 
mature late and cannot be found ripe before September. The foliage 
reminds one of that of the Wood Sanicle (Sanicula europae). 

ARALIACE^. 

Shrubs and trees with digitately CHEFFLERA or pin- 
nately (PENTAPANAX) compound leaves on stalks with 
broad sheathing bases. Flowers small, woody, in spikes, 
umbels or heads, which are again in racemes. Calyx 



258 ARALIACE^E 

more or less enclosing the ovary and surmounted by five 
or six small teeth. Petals woody, valvate. Stamens as 
many. Ovary inferior or half inferior : cells five or six 
with one seed hanging from the top with micropyle facing 
upwards and outwards. Fruit fleshy or leathery with a 
few seeds. 

Species about 400, mostly tropical. 

Many of the family have a peculiar smell when crushed and are poison- 
ous (e.g., Ivy). Species of ARALIA and PANAX are well-known garden 
foliage plants, showing under cultivation great variation in the cutting of 
the leaves. The family is allied to the UMBELUFERfli and might be 
considered its tropical representative, but with its peculiar characteristics 
much less fully developed. In Europe there is only the very common 
Ivy. Ger. Epheu, Fr. Lierre On the plains species of ARALIA and PANAX 
are commonly cultivated as ornamental shrubs. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

^Flrs. sessile in heads, racemed in stout peduncles . . . 

i . Schefflera capitata. 
Flower stalked in branched racemes (panicles) leaflets 2 

to 8 inches acuminate 2. S. racemosa. 

-Flower stalked in umbels b 

{Umbels in branched racemes, venation of leaflets not 
prominent e 
Umbels in simple racemes c 
Umbels stalked in irregular terminal corymbs, leaves 
pinnate Pentapanase Leschenaultii. 

r Peduncles stalks of racemes very stout. Lfts. to 10 inches 

J leathery, venation not prominent . 3. S. Wallichiana. 

c I Peduncles slender leaflets to 4 inches ovate or obovate, 

L venation very prominent d 

^Leaflets obovate, rounded or notched . 4. S. stellata. 

d -^ Lfts. obovate or elliptic, shortly acuminate . S. venulosa. 

L Peduncles of umbels with bracts below as if compound . e 

/Leaflets ovate accuminate ; umbels i inch often one only 
with woolly bracts at intervals below . 6. S. rostrata. 
L Umbels J inch, bracts glabrous . . . 7. S. micrantha. 



ARALIACE^E 259 

PENTAPANAX. F.B.I. 71 n. 

Climbers with pinnate leaves of 5 to 9 leaflets. 
Flowers in umbels, which are in simple or compound 
racemes. Pedicels jointed just below the flowers. 

Species few in India only. 

Pcntapanax Leschenaultii Seem. ; F.B.I. ii,p. 724. 
II 4. A tree with large pinnate leaves. Leaflets usually 
5> 3 to 5 by 2 to 3 inches, ovate-acute, with fine bristle- 
tipped serration from base to apex, glabrous. Main 
branches of panicle 2 to 4 inches, again branched or simple. 
Umbels perfect, pedicels i inch, jointed just below the 
flower. Fruits globose, inch, with persistent style ; 
deciduous from the flat slightly expanded end of the 
pedicel. 

Nilgiris : Doddabetta and in sholas on the western side, to 
7,000 feet. 

Gen. Dist. Also Sikkim and Burma. 

SCHEFFLERA F.B.I. 71 vii AND ix. 

(formerly known as HEPTAPLEURON and including 
BRASSAIA). 

Large shrubs or trees, sometimes straggling, glabrous 
and without prickles. Leaves alternate, crowded near 
the ends of the branches : stalk with broad sheathing 
base extended up above the insertion (or stipules adnate 
to it and joined together above as in the POLYGONACE^) : 
leaflets five to seven, stalked, entire or nearly so. Calyx 
teeth obsolete. Petals five to six or more, valvate. 
Stamens as many. Ovary more or less inferior and 
surmounted by a honey-secreting disc fully developed or 
aborted ; cells of ovary as many as the petals, one-ovuled : 
styled columnar. Fruit subglobose. 

I7-A 



260 ARALIACE^: 

I* Schcfflcra capitata Harms, formerly Brassaia 
capitata C.B. Clarke ; F.B.I, ii 732, IX I. A low well- 
branched tree with palmately compound leaves and the 
flowers in dense sessile heads of six or seven, at the ends 
of comparatively short stalks standing out along the stout 
branches of a large terminal panicle. 

Lenticels on the branches and leaf-bases very large, 
up to i by T \j inch. Leaf-base sheathing and con- 
tinued above the insertion for \ i n h as a triangular 
intra-petiolar stipule, covering the axillary bud. Petiole 
7 inches : leaflets seven, their stalks 2 inches ; blade 6 
by 2 inches, thick and firm, glossy on the upper side, dull 
and light green on the under ; midrib very stout, brown ; 
veins very slender, but distinct on the upper side, both 
veins and the smaller reticulations distinct on the lower 
sides. Branches of panicle 14 inches, stout, in the axils 
of triangular acute J inch bracts, dark purple in colour, 
and with scattered stellate hairs. Peduncles ij inches, 
standing out almost at right angles from the main branches, 
bracts ^ inch. Heads 2 to 4 inch wide, of about ten 
flowers. Buds round J inch, sessile above three concave 
brown tomentose bracts. Petals six, valvate hard. 
Stamens as many, longer, bent abruptly inwards just 
below the anther ; anther opening inwards. Ovary 
bluntly conical, continuous with the disc at the base, in 
which are twelve small hollows containing glistening drops 
of honey ; no style ; cells six. t. 206. 

Nilgiria : Pykara waterfall road, near the short cut to Glen 
Morgan estate : flowering May. Kotagiri and Vellyengry 
hill. Also Wynaad. Not collected on Pulneys. 

2* Schefflera racemosa Harms., formerly Hepta 
pleurum racemosum Bedd., F.BJ. ii 729, VII 6, A 



ARALIACE/E 261 

medium sized well-branched tree, easily distinguished 
in the shola by its bunches of hanging leaflets and its 
axillary compound spikes of small white flowers. 

Main petiole 3 to 5 inches, leaflets 3 to 8 inches, 
elliptic, acuminate, with undulate margin ; smaller veins 
not conspicuous when dry. Branches of panicle puberous, 
in early stage often ending in an umbel of flowers, opening 
long before the lateral branches develop. Styles connate. 
Berries J inch. t. 207. Wight Ic. t. 1015. 

In sholas common. Pulneys : Kodaikanal downs and 
Shembaganur. Nilgiris : Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India and Ceylon. 

3. Schefflera Wallichiana Harms., formerly Hept. 
Wall. C.B. Clarke ; F.B.I. ii 730, VII ii. Petioles of 
leaves very stout up to 1 1 feet in length. Leaflets 8 to 
12 inches by 2o to 4 inches, leathery, oblong, acute or 
accuminate, entire ; veins not prominent. Peduncle stout : 
stalks of umbels i| inch, bracts caducous, umbels i inch, 
berry six-celled. 

Belongs to lower levels, e.g., Courtallam, but occurs on 
these hills. My Kodaikanal specimen has a bluish bloom on 
the underside of the leaflets. 

4. Schefflera stellata Harms., formerly Hept. stelL 
Gcertu ; F.B.I, ii. 8, 730, VII 9. Distinguished among 
our species by the very slender branches of the inflores- 
cences and the obovate strongly veined leaflets, t* 208, 
Wight Ic. tt. 1011-2. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys up to 6,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 
Shevaroys : near Yercaud, etc. 

5. Schefflera venulosa Harms^ formerly Hept. ven. 
Seem. ; F.B.I, ii. 729, VII 8. A large climbing shrub. 
Very similar to the last but with larger and more acute or 
acuminate leaflets. Berries orange. 



CAPRIFOLIACE^ 

Nilgiris on the Gudalur Ghaut and low levels. Wt. 111. 
t. 118. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan, Horsleykonda, etc,, frequent on trees near 
villages [G.F.M.P.]. 

6. Schcfflcra rostrata Harms., formerly H. rostratum 
Bedd., F.B.I, ii. 729, VII 5. Leaflets 3 to 5 by i inch, 
narrowed at both ends, glabrous. Branches of panicle 
often bearing only one terminal umbel : nodes with 
persistent, tomentose or woolly bracts. Berries black, 
inch. Seeds 5, like segments of an orange. 

Nilgiris : Kundhs, flowers May. 

7. Schcfflcra micrantha Harms. : (H. rostratum var. 
micrantha C.B. Clarke), F.B.L ii 729, VII 5. Similar 
to the last but leaflets 3 to 5, by i| to 2 inches, coarsely 
toothed. Bracts glabrous. 

Nilgiris : on western edge, Naduvattum to Sispara 
[G.F.M.P.]. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^E. 

Trees, shrubs, or stragglers with opposite leaves joined 
by lines round the stem but no definite stipules : petals 
five, united at least at the base with a short tube : stamens 
as many : ovary inferior of two cells each with one 
pendant ovule : fruit usually a drupe. 

Species about 200 mostly in the northern hemisphere. 
Western Europe has about 10 species. Honey suckle, Guelder 
Rose ; Elder (Ger. Flieder, Fr. Surean). 

Flowers regular, in panicles VIBURNUM. 

Flowers in pairs, with ovaries united .... LONICERA. 

VIBURNUM. F.BJ. 74 in. 

Trees and shrubs with opposite simple leaves, and 
characterised by the terminal rather flat- topped cymose 
panicles or corymbs of small white or cream-coloured 



CAPRIFOLIACEJE 263 

flowers, and the seeds of a flat oval shape with two more 
or less deep grooves lengthwise so that the cross section 
is a flat T or W shape and the inside a flat W. 

Species 100 in temperate and sub-tropical regions, chiefly 
of Asia and North America. In Europe both wild and culti- 
vated : Guelder Rose, Wayfaring tree (Fr. Viorne, Ger. Schlinge). 
/Corolla rotate (tube very short). V. acuminatum Z)C. 
\ Corolla tubular with spreading lobes b 

C Leaves entire : bracts not conspicuous. . V. coriaceum. 
b < Ls. sinuate ; light green : bracts linear . V. hebanthum. 

I Leaves dentate with crimson stalks . . V. erubescens. 

Viburnum acuminatum DC. ; Wall. Cat. 4651 /; 
F.B.I, in 5, III 7, as V. punctatum Ham., var. acuminata ; 
III 7. * A small tree. Leaves elliptic, 3 to 5 inches long 
and usually less than half as broad, entire, acuminate, with 
recurved margins and covered on the underside with small 
round rust-coloured scales or glands ; as also the young 
parts : veins few. Flowers white in terminal, very regu- 
lar, congested corymbs with peduncles i to 2 inches, 
fruiting corymbs more open. Drupe red elliptic or oblong 
% by 5 inch : seeds, much compressed, obscurely 
grooved, t. 209. Wight Ic. 1021 Bedd. Fl. Sylb. 
t. ccxvii. 

Nilgiris : on the downs towards Pykara at 7,000 feet. 
Not Ootacamund. Pulneys : at lower levels, not Kodaikanal. 
Shevaroys : Green Hills abundant. The leaves are slightly 
smaller, and thicker than at higher levels. 

Gen. Dist. Mahendragiri to Travancore in evergreen forest. 

Viburnum coriaceum Blume, var. capitellata Wight 
Herb. Prop, as V. capitellata W. <b A. ! ; F.B.L iii 6, III 9. 
A small tree with, usually, much lobed outline. 

Twigs lenticelled. Leaves ovate-elliptic, acuminate, 
with almost acute base and waved or shallow-toothed 
margin, glabrous except for tufts of hairs in the axils of 



264 CAPRIFOLIACEJE 

the nerves on the underside. Panicles rounded : pedun- 
cles I to i inch, dividing into threes : cymes umbellate. 
Flowers yellowish white nearly sessile, buds glistening : 
ovary T ^ inch : corolla tube ^ inch ; lobes very small. 
Fruit -J by inch compressed. Seed, in cross-section a 
flat W-shaped. t. 210. Wight Ic. t. 1022. 
On the margins of sholas. 

Pulneys : below and about Kodaikanal and above on 
the downs, common. Nilgiris : on the Eastern plateau, 
Coonoor, Biccapatti. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 

Viburnum hcbanthum Wight and Arnott; F.B.L iii 6, 
III 10. A small spreading tree with rounded or lobed 
outline distinguished from V. coriaceum by the brighter 
green of its foliage and the very distinct linear bracteoles. 

Branches with smooth grey bark heavily lenticelled. 
Leaves all erect in dense tufts at the ends of the year's 
shoots, elliptic or obovate, hardly acuminate, with sinuate or 
serrate margin, glabrous except for tufts of hairs in the axils 
of the, rather few, veins underneath ; stalk ] to inch. 
Corymbs of flowers flat-topped or rounded much as in 
V. coriaceum : its branches green, four-angled, sticky ; 
bracteoles I inch, very conspicuous in bud, then withering 
and at length falling : buds J inch green, nearly sessile, 
densely pubescent. Corolla tube to by ^ inch, 
greenish ; lobes very small, erect. Stamens five, ex- 
serted, attached to the base of the corolla. Fruit ellip- 
soid, i by ^ inch, with the stylar point a little to the dorsal 
side, black but not shining and with a little yellowish 
powder. Seed, one only in the posterior cell, oval, with a 
sharp groove on the ventral side and two shallow ones on 
the dorsal, and so in section a shallow W-shape. t. 211* 



CAPRIFOLIACE;E 265 

On the outskirts of shola along with V. erubescens. Nilgiris : 
Ootacamund and below on the downs to Pykara, very common ; 
flowering March, but buds as early as June. 

Not elsewhere. 

Viburnum erubescens Wall, (in the first edition 
as var. wightiana Wall PL As. Rar. ii 293. Cat. 3729) ; 
F.B.I, iii 7, in part III 15 * ; a roadside or hedge-row 
shrub distinguished by its laxly spreading forked white- 
barked branches, crimson leaf-stalks and drooping 
racemes. Bark on the younger branches a light pinky grey 
colour, smooth and shining, but with obscure lenticels. 
Leaves few, rather stiff, stalks crimson, pubescent with 
stellate hairs, as also are the veins of the lower side : 
blades broadly ovate or obovate, serrate except the broad 
rounded base, with often a short triangular or cuspidate 
point ; midrib pinkish, nerves about six on either side. 
Flowers in open panicles of cymes, curving downwards 
in bud, 2 inches long, when the flowers fully open with 
pinkish or pale green branches. Pedicel or calyx 
tube, ^ to | inch dark green ; calyx of five minute 
triangular teeth. Corolla campanulate ; tube -^ inch, 
white ; lobes ^V inch, sulphur or cream-coloured, imbricate. 
Stamens attached to the mouth and alternating with the 
lobes. Fruit one-celled, ^ by \ inch, usually erect, 
ovoid or obovoid, red and shining crowned by the thick 
short style ; section of the stone a flat W. t. 212. 

Differs from the type species in the broader leaves the stel- 
late pubescence on their stalks and the drooping panicles. 
White Ic. t. 1024. Gamble has dropped the variety. 

On roadsides and the edges of sholas. Pulneys : about 
Kodaikanal at 7,500 feet, not common. Nilgiris : in and about 
Ootacamund, common, flowering during the winter months. 

Wallich's species V. erubescens was founded on a Nepal plant shown 
in his figure (PI. As. Rar, ii, t. 134) and also described as having erect 



266 CAPRIFOLIACE^I 

panicles. His Cat. Nos. 459 and 7474 are slenderer plants with not the 
same laxly drooping habit and narrower leaves. His V. wightianum 
distinguished as a separate species differs, according to his description, 
chiefly in the leaves being broader and stellately pubescent below. I find 
also the panicles drooping. Erubescent is a good name for our plant ; 
its leaf-stalks are so red. 



LONICERA. F.B.I. 74 vi. 

Shrubs erect or straggling characterized by the flowers 
being in close pairs with ovaries almost or quite united. 

Leaves opposite, entire : buds scaly. Pairs of flowers 
with a bract and usually also two bracteoles, peduncled 
in the leaf-axils (or in terminal heads or clusters). Sepals 
five, short. Corolla tube slender, often bulged at the 
base ; lobes five, unequal or nearly equal. Stamens five, 
inserted on the tube. Ovary of two or three cells ; style 
long and slender with capitate stigma. Fruit a berry of 
two or three cells, with a few seeds. 

Species about 80 in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia 
and America. Not in the southern hemisphere. In Europe 
we have the English common and Fly Honeysuckles, Ger. 
Geiss blatt, Fr. Chevre feuille. 

Straggling plant. Corolla i to 2 inches . . L. Leschenaultii. 
Erect shrub. Corolla | inch L. ligustrina. 

The genus is divided into a number of subgenera and sections according 
to the habit of the plant, whether erect or straggling, the arrangement of 
the pairs of flowers, the bracts, the lobes of the corolla and other differ- 
ences. Of our species L. Lesch. belongs to the nintooa and L. lig. to 
isikia. 

Lonicera Leschenaultii Wall, Cat. 471 / ; F.B.I. 

iii 10, VI i ; common Honeysuckle. A straggling 
climbing shrub with reddish brown bark on the main 
stem, and the younger parts, calyx and underside of leaves 
covered with short white hairs. Leaves broadly ovate 
to lanceolate, 2 to 3 by i| to 2 \ inches, dull green above, 
whitish below. Pairs of flowers on peduncles of inch, 



267 

in the axils of the uppermost leaves, often forming termi- 
nal leafy bunches ; or occasionally the pairs solitary 
on short axillary branches. Calyx -*-# inch, and teeth 
^ - inch white tomentose. Corolla white, turning 
cream colour, tube ij inches, slender, erect, as also in 
bud; upper lip i by % inch, obtuse, curved back in a spiral ; 
lower four-lobed, slightly longer and less curved, J inch 
wide at the top, Stemens long. Fruits in pairs, globular 
the size of a small pea, crowned by the calyx, t* 213. 
Wight III. ii. t. 120 (not 121-6.). 

In thickets and straggling over small trees on the edges of 
sholas. Common. Nilgiris : Ootacamund and below, espe- 
cially on the eastern plateau. Flowering profusely in May. 
Pulneys : below Kodaikanal at the level of Shembaganur, 
etc. Shevaroys : Green Hills, abundant. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian mountains, Mysore, Coorg. 

Lonicera ligustrina Wall., Cat. 479 / ; F.B.I, iii 12, 

VI 9. Erect untidy shrub with grey bark ; branches 
numerous, ascending, tufted ; the youngest from a persis- 
tent sheath of decussate budscales, pubescent and purplish. 
Leaf-stalk J inch, blade ij by i inch or thereabouts, 
ovate, entire ; in bud erect and flat ; when young purplish 
with distinctly revolute and ciliate margin ; when older 
spreading and quite smooth. Flowers on the young 
shoots in opposite pairs, pendent : peduncle of a pair 
$ inch, axillary bracteoles J inch linear : common, 
spherical part of calyx tube i inch ; free part -fa inch with 
minute teeth : buds clavate. The two corolla tubes 
of a pair divergent, with a very distinct bend T ! ^ inch 
above the base, then erect and parallel, bulged at the 
bottom into a small sac outwards in each case ; lobes 
unequal, cream coloured. Styles of the pair bent abruptly 
inwards so that the stigmas nearly touch ; very hairy 
below, t* 214. Wight Ic. t. 1025 ; 111. t. 121, B. 3. 



268 RUBIACE^ 

Tn thickets and round sholas. Nilgiris : near Ootacamund 
and on the plateau generally. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal. 
Sometimes used as a hedge plant. 

Gen. Dist. Khasia, Nepal and Western Ghauts. 



Trees, shrubs or herbs with opposite 'leaves connected 
across the branch on each side by one combined stipule 
(except in the tribe Stellatce) and flowers solitary* or in 
some form of cymose inflorescence, having an inferior 
ovary of two to five one-seeded or many-seeded cells ; 
calyx teeth four or five ; corolla monopetalous with as 
many equal lobes ; stamens as many ; and fruit dry, 
then a capsule or of cocci, or fleshy, then a drupe or a berry. 

A very large family of some 350 genera and 4,000 species, 
distributed over the warmer parts of the world. Britain has 
four genera only, members of one small tribe, the Stellatce^ in 
which the stipules are not combined and may be divided and 
are enlarged to equal the leaves, so that at each node there is 
a whorl of four, six or eight leaves (Madder, Goosegrass, 
Bedstraw, Woodruff). With the exception of this tribe, the 
family can nearly always be recognized by the inferior ovary 
and the four stipules belonging to a pair of opposite leaves 
being combined into two connecting the leaf-stalks. 

The family is divided into a number of tribes arranged in two main 
series : those with many seeds to each cell of the ovary (fruit a capsule or 
berry) and those with one seed only to each cell (fruit splitting into cocci 
or a drupe). 

Common cultivated plants are species of CINCHONA (brought 
here from America for the quinine extracted from the bark), 
Coffee, IXORA (common in Madras gardens, with bunches of 
long slender scarlet corollas) and MORINDA (with the ovaries 
of several flowers coalescing). MUSS/ENDA, with one calyx 
lobe much enlarged like a white or yellow leaf, is common on 
the Ghaut road below Kodaikanal and Coonoor. 



RUBIACE;E 269 

KEY TO THE GENERAL. 

("Leaves six at a node : narrow stem . . . GALIUM. 
I Leaves four at a node, heart-shaped, stalked . . RUBIA. 
[ Leaves three ; panicles terminal, large . WENDLANDIA. 

L Leaves two only at a node b 

f Flowers in terminal cymose corymbs or panicles . . h 

\Flowers axillary, few or many, white c 

rHerbs d 

C \Shrubs e 

r Flowers sessile SPERMACOCE. 

L Firs, pedicelled or in peduncled umbels . OLDENLANDIA. 
f Leaves or flowers fetid ; corolla hairy at the throat . . 

e< LASIANTHUS. 

(^ Leaves not fetid ; fruit fleshy / 

.f Seeds many ; fruit crowned by the calyx-teeth . RANDIA. 

* \Seeds 2 only g 

f Corolla valvate in bud CANTHIUM. 

g< Corolla twisted COFFEA. 

L Petals imbricate STYLOCORYNE. 

f Lobes of corolla valvate in bud ; herbs and shrubs . . i 
\Lobes of corolla twisted in bud ; shrubs / 

(Herbs : flowers pink, blue, mauve or white j 
Shrubs : flowers orange, one sepal enlarged like a white 
leaf MUSS/ENDA. 
Shrubs : flowers white, or tinged with mauve . . . . k 
{Stem and leaves very slender .... OLDENLANDIA. 
Ls. fetid : seeds i or many : flowers pink or white ANOTIS. 
Ovules 2 only, with cap at upper end : flowers usually 
blue KNOXIA. 

"Capsule small : flowers white or tinged with mauve . . 

OLDENLANDIA. 

Capsule i inch long : petals ciliate : tree . . CINCHONA. 

Capsule flat opening by a broad terminal mouth . . 

OPHIORRHIZA. 

Berry black : flowers white ; style short . . PSYCIIOTRIA. 
(" Flowers pink, tube slender ; anthers linear ; stigmas 

j separate. Petals 4, seeds 2 IXORA. 

jj Flowers white ; stipules and lower bracts tubular ; style 
I very long. Petals 4, seeds 2 PAVETTA. 

Flowers white, stout : stigma long, undivided. Petals 5, 
L seeds 4 CHOMELIA. 



270 RUBIACE/E 

CINCHONA. 

Trees or shrubs with petioled elliptic, or lanceolate 
leaves, and the inter-petiolar stipules glandular inside. 

Flowers rose or yellowish-white, in dense or open 
cymose panicles peduncled in the upper leaf axils or ter- 
minal. Calyx small with 5 teeth. Corolla tabular 
below, with 5 spreading lobes very hairy on the margins. 
Anthers linear attached to the middle of the tube. Fruit 
a capsule splitting open from the base upwards. Seeds 
numerous. 

Species about 30 in the Andes of South America. 

The two commonest species planted and found scattered 
in hedges, etc., are 

C* Icdgcriana Moens ; " Yellow bark." Leaves 
small, elliptic, rather leathery, and red underneath. 
Flowers golden. Capsule short, almost globular. This is 
the one richest in the alkaloid from which quinine is 
prepared. 

C, succirubra Pav. ; " Red bark." Leaves thin up 
to 12 by 9 inches, calyx and corolla red. Capsule long. 

WENDLANDIA. F.B.I. 75 xn. 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite or in threes. 
Flowers small in dense thyrsoid terminal panicles, white 
or rosy. Calyx small. Corolla funnel-shaped with 4 or 
5 spreading lobes, imbricate in bud. Stamens as many. 
Ovary inferior two-celled. Fruit, a small round capsule, 
with many seeds. 

Species about 20 in tropical Asia. 

Wendlandia notoniana Wall, F.B.I. iii 40, XII n. 

Sometimes only a herb, but also with thick woody 
base, and even a small tree. Leaves three at a node, 



RUBIACE^E 271 

3 to 5 by i to 2 inches, entire, glabrous on the upper side 
pubescent on the lower ; with 6 to 10 pairs of nerves 
and fine reticulation between. Panicle and young parts 
generally pubescent. Flowers white or pinkish, t* 215. 
On the lower downs, about 6,000 feet, common larger. 

Nilgiris : Pykara, Coonoor, etc. Not seen on eastern plateau ; Bicca- 
patti, Kodanad. Pulneys : Shembaganur. Shevaroys. 

OLDENLANDIA F.B.I. 75 xx. xxxi* 

(including HEDYOTIS). 

Small herbs or shrubs (Hcdyotis) with long bristles 
to the stipular cup. Flowers white or blue, in axillary 
or terminal cymes or panicles, or sometimes on axillary 
pedicels ; calyx teeth usually well separated on the fruit ; 
corolla valvate ; stamens in the corolla tube or not far 
exserted ; ovary two-celled : capsule thin-walled : seeds 
angular, many. 

Species perhaps 200 in tropical and sub-tropical Asia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

r Small herbs with narrow leaves : flowers white, solitary or 

J in axillary umbels (OLDENLANDIA) 'b 

I Shrubs or stout herbs, flowers mauve or white ; in terminal 

L panicles (HEDYOTIS) c 

f Flowers solitary, branches very slender . . O. Heynei. 

\Flowers umbelled O. umbellata. 

"Stout herbs, without stem ; leaves up to 6 by 3 inches . . 

O. verticilaris. 
Small undershrub -/leaves sessile ; calyx lobes longer than 

tubes ; flowers lilac O. swertioides. 

Shrubs with flexuous branches ; stipular bristles long . . 

O. stylosa. 

Stiff shrub ; stipules persistent ; veins of leaf thick . . . 

O, articularis. 



272 RUBIACEJE 

Oldenlandia Heynei, Br. ; F.B.L iii 65, XXI 3. 

All parts very slender. Peduncles axillary | inch one- 
flowered. Corolla tube short, capsule ^\ } inch, its crown 
much protruded. Seeds smooth. t 216. 

On all three plateaus common. Flower summer. 

Oldenlandia umbellata Linn. ; F.B.I, iii 66, 
XXX 5. Leaves fascicled, flat or almost needle-like. 
Flowers in small umbels, on axillary peduncles. Corolla 
tube short. Fruit { \ 2 - in., crown of ovary low. Pres. Coll. 
Bot. Bull. No. 6. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, a weed from the plains. 

Gen. Dist. South India, Burma, Ceylon. 

Oldenlandia stylosa O. Kze ; formerly Hedyotis 
stylosa Brown, in Wall Cat. 853 / ; F.B.L iii 51, XX 8. 
A shrub with rather loosely growing flexuous branches, 
very variable in habit. Leaf-stalk \ inch ; blade ovate- 
lanceolate or eilliptic, i to 5 inches long according to 
position and strength of shoot, glabrous or pubescent 
on the nerves underneath : stipular cup with three or 
four |-inch bristles. Capsule entirely within the calyx- 
tube, J by yl, inch, ellipsoid, splitting in two halves which 
open along their inside faces : calyx-teeth in fruit ^ inch. 
t* 217* Wight Ic. t. 1027. 

By sholas and in cool places. Pulneys : on the downs and 
below to Shembaganur, common. Nilgiris : on the downs, 
Ootacamund to Pykara and Sispara. 
Gen. Dist. South Indian hills. 

The place of the capsule is often taken by a fleshy gall the 
size of a small pea. 

Oldenlandia articularis Gamble, formerly Hedyotis 
articularis Brown, in Wall Cat. 854 / ; F.B.L iii 51, XX 
9. A shrub characterized by its very close-set erect 



RUBIACE^E 273 

narrow sessile leaves and, where the leaves have fallen, 
the rings of dried bristly stipular sheaths. 

Leaves i by J inch, lanceolate or elliptic lanceolate, 
rigid, glabrous or nearly so, with reflexed margin, and 
very broad nerves underneath. Cymes terminal, com- 
pact. Capsule -J- inch, egg-shaped : calyx tube unaltered 
or occasionally lengthening to J inch, t* 218* Wight 
Ic. t. 1028. 

Nilgiris : on Elk hill near Ootacamund abundant. Pulneys : 
on the downs in hollows by streams, etc. ; flowers summer. 
Nowhere else. 

Oldenlandia swcrtioidcs O. Kze., formerly Hedyotis 
swertioides Hook. f. ; F.B.I, iii 51, XX u ; Ground 
Lilac. A small undershrub characterized by its stiff ovate 
leaves and dense terminal panicles of lilac-coloured 
flowers. 

Height i to 2 feet, usually in tufts. Leaves sessile 
ovate, i to 3 inches by half as broad, erect, glabrous, 
firm. Cymes densely pubescent. Calyx lobes longer 
than the tube. t. 219. 

Pulneys : on the downs above Kodaikanal, very common : 
flowers summer. Nowhere else. 

Oldenlandia vcrticillaris O. Kze. y formerly Hed- 
yotis verticillaris Wight and Arnott ; F.B.I, iii 56, XX 29. 
Stem short or none, as thick as the finger. Leaves 
numerous close-set, 4 to 6 by i to 2 J inches, elliptic or 
lanceolate-oblong ; with three main and several minor 
parallel nerves. Flowers lilac to violet small in dense 
bunches in three-chotomous panicles on peduncles of 
3 or 4 inches, t. 220. Wight Ic. t. 1029. 

Nilgiris on the western downs near streams abundant in 
places. 

18 



274 RUBIACE^E 

Oldcnlandia hirsutissima O. Kze. y formerly Hed- 
yotis hirsutissima Bedd. ; F.B.I, iii 55, XX 28. A low 
growing shrub with very stout stems and branches, and 
terminal tufts of hairy-yellowish leaves, from the axils of 
which spring erect peduncles of small flowers. Leaves 
1 1 by i inch ovate acute. Veins few. 

Nilgiris : Western downs towards Sispara Ghaut ; flower 
winter. 

Oldenlandia purpurascens Bedd., Ic. PL In. Or. 
t. V ! ; F.B.I, iii 50 XX 6. A wooly shrub, similar to 
O. stylosa but differing in the nearly entire or gland- 
toothed ovate stipules, and the larger purple flowers 
though recorded so far only from Tinnevelly has been 
found near Coonoor (Mayuranathan). 

Oldenlandia viscida Bedd., Ic. PL hid. Or. t. IV !; 
F.B.I, iii 57, XX 35. A large handsome shrub with 
slender branches small triangular viscid stipules, and 
cymes both terminal and axillary forming large panicles 
with slender branches has been collected near Coonoor 
(Mayuranathan) but hitherto reported only from Tinne- 
velly. 

ANOTIS. F.B.I. 75 XXII. 

(Our species only.) 
Herbaceous plants with evil-smelling leaves and 

peltate seeds, otherwise as in Hedyotis. 

Species about 25, in the tropics of Asia and Australia. 
r Flowers pink. Stems weak usually creeping, in the open. 
I A. Leschenaultiana. 

f Flowers white, stems erect woodland and shade-loving 

I plants b 

r Flowers small c 

t Flowers \ inch, in close panicles .... A. longiflora. 
f Peduncles of cymes long, capillary . . A. monosperma. 

c \ Peduncles \ inch; hairy plant ... A. Wightiana, 



RUBIACE^E 275 

Anotis Leschenaultiana Wight and Arnott ; F.B.L 
iii 72, XXII 3. A small herb with ovate hairy leaves and 
flat bunches of pinkish purple flowers. 

Whole plant except the corolla tube hairy. Stems 
weak and rooting at the nodes : stipular band joining 
the leaf- stalks bristly. Leaves ovate acute, with four 
or five pairs of rather broad hairy nerves on each side 
of the midrib, about j\ inch apart, running very regularly 
to the margin and without connecting veins. Inflorescence 
regularly and cymosely trichotomous with minute toothed 
bracts. Pedicels -, J fi inch, calyx tube './ inch ; teeth 
four, iV inch. Corolla tube \ inch, glabrous on the 
outside, very slightly hairy inside : lobes four spreading 
flat, fa by inch, stamens erect, the filaments white and 
attached to the backs of the small purple intorse anthers. 
Style slender : stigma bifid : top of ovary round and flat, 
not grooved. Capsule didymous, with hemispherical 
raised crown, two-seeded with one to eight seeds in each 
cell : seeds deeply pitted, t, 22L 

Common on the downs. 

Gen. Dist. Western (ihauts of South India. 

var. i type. Herb. Wight Prop. 1398 ! ; leaves i inch or 
more, hairy : panicle 2 to 4 inches across, hairy : stipular 
bristles long. Stems erect or trailing, often on a bare sloping 
patch. Wight III. t. 125 but flowers pink not blue. Fyson 
3<H9- 

var. 2 affinis, Herb. Wight Prop. 1297 ! ; plant smaller 
than var. i. Leaves to f inch hairy ; stipular bristles short ; 
panicle i to 2 inches, forms flat patches a foot or more across 
in short grass ; very fetid ; stems often red on the upper side. 
Wight Ic. t. 1030. 

var. 3 deltoides, Herb. Wight Prop. 1298 ! ; leaves to 
J inch, nearly glabrous, as also the cymes. 

l8-A 



276 RUBIACE/E 

Anotis longiflora Hutchinson ; Kew Bulletin 1916, 
p. 35. A weak fetid plant, straggling through others 
in the shade, with terminal bunches of white or pale 
pink, long-tubed, fragrant flowers. 

Stem terete, almost glabrous, with internodes of 
2 to 4 inches, green or reddish, but white and swollen 
under the nodes, and never rooting there. Stipular 
bristles long \ inch. Leaf-stalks \ inch : blades oblong 
ovate, up to 2 by f inch, covered with short hairs on the 
upper side and on the nerves underneath : nerves eight 
to nine pairs, the more basal ones closer together than 
the distal, all curving forwards and reaching the margin. 
Panicle with, fewer flowers than in A. Leschenaultiana 
not regularly trichotomous, bracts and bracteoles with 
hairy teeth. Calyx tube nearly glabrous, T ] 2 - inch, the 
teeth more than twice as long, and half as wide, ciliate. 
Flowers very fragrant ; tube ^ to \ inch, white or pale 
pink ; lobes four, g inch, white ; ciliate. Stamens 
four erect, on short filaments at the mouth of the corolla. 
Stigma purple parted in the bud before the flower opens. 
Seed one only in each cell, t, 222* 

In sholas among other shade-loving plants. Pulneys : 
above Kodaikanal, flowering September, at night, fading by 
10 a.m. 

Quite distinct from A. Leschenaultiana, though the leaves have a 
superficial resemblance. 

Anotis Wightiana Hook.f. ; F.B.I, iii 75, XXII 16. 
A small weak herb with stem 2 to 8 inches, all green 
parts covered with soft hairs. Leaves ovate or elliptic, 
acute, sessile or nearly so. Flowers in small terminal 
cymes with a pair of leaves just below. Calyx tube y 1 ^ inch, 
lobes ciliate. Corolla % inch long and wide, three or four 



277 

lobed, usually white but also pink or blue. Fruit roundish, 
usually with two seeds, also with three or four, rugose 
when dry. t* 223. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Pykara, Ootacamund. Damp places. 
Kodanad. 

Gen. Dist. Nepal to Khasia, mountains of South India, Malaya, 
China. 

Anotis monosperma Hooker, Wight's Herb. Prop. 
1295 I - > F.B.I, iii 75, XXII 17. A very delicate, shade- 
loving plant with slender stem and thin leaves and pale 
mauve flowers nearly sessile on the long capillary branches 
of a loose cymose inflorescence. 

Stem and leaves pubescent. Leaf-stalk to i inch ; 
blades ovate, i to 2 inches by f to i inch, or occasionally 
much less, acute or acuminate, broadest near the base and 
then narrowed suddenly and cuspidately to the stalk. 
Inflorescence axillary ; branches capillary and divergent. 
Flowers nearly sessile in twos and threes, in irregular 
corymbose cymes, white tinged with pink or mauve. Fruit 
iV inch, rather broader than long, broadest at the top 
and crowned by the small calyx teeth. Capsule slightly 
convex and compressed laterally with entire, not bi-lobed, 
crown ; when nearly ripe almost golden yellow. Seed 
one or two, coarsely pitted, t* 224* 

In sholas and shady places. Pulneys : on the plateau. 
(Pillar rocks, Glen Falls). 

Wight's type sheet, No. 1295, has leaf-blades one-fourth to three-fourth 
inch, and appears to be a smaller plant altogether. Possibly the one 
described here is a shade form of it. 

Anotis dccipicns Hook. /. ; F.B.I. iii 72, XXII 4 ; 
is reported from these levels. It appears to differ only 
in the fruit which is rounder than that of A. monosperma, 
and opens by a slit between the calyx teeth. I am how- 
ever uncertain about the occurrence. 



2j8 RUBIACE/E 

OPHIORRHIZA. F.B.I. 75 xxv. 

Small shrubs with opposite entire leaves and white, 
pink or greenish tubular flowers arranged along one side 
only of the branches in terminal forking cymes, and 
distinguished from all other of our genera by the fruit, 
which is flat, much wider than long, and opens by a split 
along the long narrow top. Stipules soon falling. 

Species about 50, mostly in tropical Asia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

(Bracteoles very short O. pykarensis. 
Bracteoies long, linear b 

, f Corolla inch, glabrous O. Brunonis. 

\Corolla i inch, hairy O. Roxburghiana. 

Ophiorrhiza Brunonis Wight and Arnott ; F.B.I 
iii 79, XXV 10. Leaves 2 to 3 inches ovate-elliptic, 
acute or acuminate, narrowed to the slender i-inch stalk. 
Terminal cymes of flowers rounded. Corolla tube | inch, 
with narrow lobes. Capsule ;} inch. t 225* 

Nilgiris : near Lovedale, flowering September to October. 

Very common in sholas of medium density near Coonoor, 
flower May. 

A hairy form, separated in F.B.I, as var. hirsutior, and in 
G.F.M.P. as a distinct species O. hirsutella Wt. has been 
found on the Kundahs (Mayuranathan) though commoner at 
lower levels. 

Ophiorrhiza Roxburghiana Wt. ; F.B.I, iii 81, 
XXV 15. Leaves oblong, ovate or obovate, shortly acu- 
minate narrowed at the base at the short stalk, glabrous 
on the upperside, puberous on the nerves of the lower. 
Bracteoles linear. Corolla tube i inch funnel-shaped 
yellow, hairy. Capsule hairy. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal shola, at 7,000 feet. Flower May. 



RUBIACE^ 279 

Ophiorrhiza pykarcnsis Gamble. An erect slender 
undershrub. Leaves i to i| inches with acute apex and 
cuneate and decurrent at the base, pale underneath, 7 to 
8 veined. 

Nilgiris : at Pykara Gamble [G.F.M.P.]. 

MUSS^ENDA* F.B.I. 75 xxix. 

Shrubs of the usual rubiaceous type, and distinguished 
among all ours by the large white or yellow leaf-like 
sepal against some flowers. Corolla valvate. Ovary two- 
celled. Fruit a many-seeded berry. 

Species about 50, in tropical Africa, Asia and Polynesia. 

Mussaenda hirsutissima Hutch. (Mussaenda fron- 
dosa Linn. ; var, hirsutissima) ; F.B.I, iii 89, XXIX 9. 
Very hairy all over. Leaves ovate acute, shortly stalked, 
2 to 4 inches. Leaf-like sepal white. Corolla tube ij 
to i o, limb stellate, orange-brown, i inch across, with 
lighter very hairy mouth, t. 226* 

Nilgiris and Pulneys. Abundant on the lower slopes up to 
6,000 feet. Shevaroys : on plateau. 

Gen. Dist. From Nepal to South India, and to Malaya. 

Mussaenda lutea with leaf-sepal yellow, is grown in Madras gardens. 

CHOMELIA (formerly included in WEBERA). 

F.B.I. 75 XLII. 

Trees or shrubs with terminal corymbiform cymes 
of bisexual flowers ; corolla lobes twisted in bud ; fila- 
ments of stamens short and anthers long ; style stout, 
stigma long and thick ; fruit a two-celled berry with two 
or more seeds. 

Species few, in tropical Asia. 

Chomelia asiatica O.Kze. formerly Webera 
corymbosa Willd ; F.B.I, iii. 102, XLII i. Asholashrub 



2&> RUBtACE^E 

or small tree, distinguished by its terminal cymose 
corymbs of white fragrant flowers with five waxy, 
spreading petals, slender anthers, and thick style ; and 
remarkable for the hard glossy leaves, furrowed by the 
deeply impressed main nerves. 

Branches nearly round, with smooth reddish brown 
bark, not lenticelled, slightly swollen at the nodes : stipules 
forming a complete, short tube 3 inch long above the 
insertion of the leaves. Leaf-stalk inch, stout, puberu- 
lous ; blade about 4 by 2 inches, larger or smaller, elliptic, 
bluntly acuminate, entire, hard, glabrous, very glossy, 
deeply furrowed ; nerves about ten pairs, impressed on 
the upper side, raised on the lower often (? always), with 
perforations at the axils ; veins inconspicuous. Corymbs 
terminal, regularly three-branched ; peduncle one inch, 
branches stout, pedicels T <V inch, calyx tube inch, 
campanulate, lobes half as long triangular. Corolla tube 
not as long as the calyx ; petals spreading out flat from 
just inside it, i by ^ inch, ovate, waxy. Anthers slender, 
\ inch, nearly sessile in the mouth of the corolla. Style 
projecting about I inch above, thickened upwards and 
ridged. Ovary two-celled, with two or more ovules in 
each cell. Fruit a small round berry, J inch, surmounted 
by the very conspicuous calyx teeth (like a diminutive 
Guava fruit). Seeds few or many, angular with one side 
rounded, t. 227. 

In sholas. Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Pykara, flowering 
May. Pulneys : Shembaganur. 

Gen. Dist. Western Peninsula and Central Provinces. 

RANDIA, 

Flowers axillary. Corolla twisted in bud. Fruit a 
globose berry, many-seeded. A large tropical genus. 



Randia dumetorum Lamk. Leaves about 2 by ij 
inches elliptic, entire. Spines axillary, straight to i inch, 
stout. Flowers solitary in the axils, quite small. Fruit 
like a small guava, crowned by the calyx teeth. 

Belongs to the plains but occurs on the plateau of the Sheva- 
roys. 

KNOXIA. F.B.I. 75 LXI. 

Herbs with ovate or lanceolate many-veined leaves, 
bristly stipules, terminal corymbs of blue or purple 
flowers and in each cell of the two-celled ovary a single 
pendent ovule with its stalk swollen and spread out into 
a cap at the top. Calyx teeth four with one larger. 
Corolla lobes four, valvate in bud. Stamens four, longer 
or shorter. Style two-cleft at the stigmas, shorter or 
longer. Fruit of two one-seeded parts, more or less united, 
separating or not. 

Species about 10 in India, Malaya and Australia. 

Leaves about twice as long as broad, ovate-acute . K. mollis. 

Leaves lanceolate-acuminate, three times as long as broad 

(probably occurs only at lower levels) . . K. corymbosa. 

Leaves lanceolate, six times as long as broad . K. Wightiana. 

Knoxia mollis Wight and Arnott ; F.B.L iii 129, 
LXI 2. Stem i to 4 feet, four-angled, very or slightly 
pubescent. Leaf-stalks J to \ inch : blade i to z\ 
inches by \ to ij inches, ovate or elliptic ovate, acute, 
densely pubescent on the upper and nerves of the lower 
side : stipular bristles \ to \ inch. Corymbs 2 to 3 inches, 
pubescent. Calyx tube ^ inch ; teeth triangular, shorter 
one often slightly larger. Corolla tube \ to f inch : lobes 
\ inch. Fruit ellipsoid ; the two halves connate and 
attached to the central columella. t* 228* 



282 RUBIACE/E 

Occurs in two fairly distinct forms 
* by roadsides, i to 2 feet, corymbs open. 
** in damp soil on the sides of sholas, 3 to 4 feet, 
leaves and flowers larger in every way : corymbs close 
down on the top leaves 

Pulneys : on the downs common. Nilgiris. 

Mrs. Evershed tells me that this plant is the food-plant of 
a velvety black Chaerocarpa (Hawk-moth) caterpillar. The 
flowers have long or short stamens ; cf. under OXALIS, p. 72. 

Knoxia Wightiana Wall., Cat. 6184 / ; F.B.I, iii 
129, XXI 4. Rootstock stout and woody. Stems slender, 
four-angled glabrous. Leaves narrow, lanceolate, obtuse 
or oblong, narrowed to the base, 2 to 3 by \ to | inch, 
of.en folded along the midrib and recurved : stipular. 
Bristles often wanting. Flowering corymbs compact, 
i inch ; in fruit open 2 to 4 inches. Fruit ellipsoid 
or globular, inch, t, 229* 

Nilgiris : on the plateau below Ootacamund. Biccapatti. 
Pulneys : at lower levels. 

Gen. DJst. . South Indian hills. 

Knoxia corymbosa Willd. ; F.B.I, iii 128. Similar 
to the last, but stem and leaves hairy, stipular sheaths 
with several hairy bristles. 

Pulneys : Shembaganur and below. Shevaroys : on the 
plateau. 

These two species, 1 cannot help thinking, should be classed as varie- 
ties of one. 

PLECTRONIA (formerly CANTHIUM). F.B.I. LXM. 

Shrubs and trees, sometimes spiny, with entire oppo- 
site leaves, shor^ triangular combined stipules, and small 
flowers in axillary fascicles or corymbose cymes. Corolla 



RUBIACE/E 283 

white with a ring of reflexed hairs inside ; lobes valvate. 
Stamens on the mouth of the corolla. Fruit globose 
or two- lobed, with one stone in each cell ; embryo long, 
with short cotyledon and radicle pointing upwards. 
Species about 70, in the tropics of the Old World. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Flowers in dense peduncled umbels ; fruits inch ; leaves 

thick P. umbellatum. 

Flowers few ; fruit inch ; leaves thin . . P. neilgherrensis. 

Plectronia neilgherrensis Eedd, Canthium neil- 
gherrensis Wt. ; F.B.L iii 133, LXII 4 var. Chartacea 
Gamble. A small tree or shrub, not spiny. Leaves elliptic 
3 to 4 by li to 2 inches, pubescent underneath ; petioles 
short. Fascicles of flowers very shortly peduncled. Fruit 
one or two to a leaf-axil inch obovoid, showing the double 
stone, and crowned by the scarcely perceptible calyx. 
t* 230. Wight Ic. t. 1064. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri in Longwood shola, 6,500 feet. " Droog " 
under moderate shade 5,300 feet. Flowers early in the year. 

Gen. Dist. Nilgiri and Pulney Hills. 

Plectronia didyma Kew. var. umbellatam Gamble ; 
Canthium umbellatum Wight ; F.B.I, iii 132, LXII 3. 
A fair-sized tree. Leaves very coriaceous, 4 by 2 inches, 
on very short stalks, elliptic, shortly acuminate, shining 
on the upper side, perfectly glabrous. Flowers % to 
inch in dense shortly peduncled cymose umbels. Pedicels 
about i inch. Fruits J to ^ inch, obovoid, with two 
stones, but not didymous, indense axillary masses. 

Nilgiris, below Coonoor, Shevaroys : on the plateau. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 



384 RUBIACE^E 

IXORA* F.B.I. 75 LXVI. 

Shrubs or small trees characterized chiefly by the 
very slender corolla tubes ; petals twisted, anthers nearly 
sessile on the corolla mouth, style slender, stigma slender, 
fruit of two pyrenes each with one peltate seed. 

Species about 100, in the tropics of Asia and Africa. One 
species /. coccinea is very common in gardens on the plains 
of South India. 

Ixora Notoniana Wallich ; F.B.L iii 139, LXVI 5. 
A small shola tree distinguished among all our trees by 
its very slender pink or red corolla tubes, i by 2 V inch. 
The flowers are in hemispherical clusters massed into 
broadly rounded panicles, 6 inches across, pink and 
fragrant. 

A small shola tree ; branches roughened by the scars 
of the fallen leaves and stipules ; bark light coloured. 
Stipules forming a complete sheath round the axis just 
above each pair of leaves with -J inch subulate points. 
Leaf-stalks stout | inch ; blade 4 to 6 by 2 to 2 i inches, 
entire, more or less elliptic, firm, quite glabrous and shiny 
dark green above ; midrib stout, veins ten to fifteen 
pairs, curving forwards near the margin. Panicles ter- 
minal ; branches opposite or in threes, well separated, 
often like the main axis, pink ; the branches again branched 
near their ends, forming very regular hemispherical 
cymes i\ inches wide ; the whole panicle 4 to 6 inches 
wide. Calyx tube -^ inch, longer than the ovary ; teeth 
longer. Corolla tube | by ^ inch, petals - inch, spreading 
or at length reflexed close against the tube. Anthers 
linear, T V inch, attached to the mouth. Style exserted 
T \ r inch, bifid. Fruit black nearly round, of two cells, 
i by % by J inch, crowned by the small remains of the 



RUBIACEJE 285 

calyx ; seeds two, hemispherical, attached by the middle ' 
to the axile placenta; endosperm curved round the outer 
margin of the seed, ^- inch thick in the middle where lies 
the embryo ; cotyledons thin and flat, radicle compara- 
tively long, pointing downwards, t, 231. a. anther ; 
b. bud ; c. opened flower ; /. fruit ; s. seed ; e. embryo ; 
/ 2 . two fruits in section. 

In sholas. Nilgiris : not perhaps at the highest levels ; 
abundant at Coonoor ; Pykara, flowers May ; Kotagiri ; Bicca- 
patti earlier. Pulneys : at lower levels. Not elsewhere. 

PAVETTA. F.B.I. 75 LXVII. 

Shrubs and small trees with terminal cymose corymbs 
of flowers. Similar to IXOKA, but distinguished by large 
stipular bracts at the base of the lower branches of the 
inflorescence, stipules more united into a tube, style 
much longer and protruding from the corolla, and ovules 
on large placentas. 

Species about 60 in the tropics of the Old World. The name 
has an Indian origin, one species (P. indica) being common on 
the plains. 

Pavetta breviflora DC. ; F.B.I, iii 151, LXVII 5. 
A shola shrub, distinguished from all others of this order 
by the long, thickened, undivided style projecting I inch 
beyond the corolla, by the rather long buds white with 
green tips, and by the broad stipules at the lower branches 
of the cymose corymbs. 

Branches smooth, shining, light yellowish grey, con- 
spicuously marked at the nodes by the scars of the stipules. 
Leaves elliptic, bluntly acuminate, narrowed to the short 
petiole, 3 to 5 by i J to 1 1 inches, quite glabrous, entire 
shiny above : nerves about six pairs, very distinctly 
raised on the underside dotted with large glands. 



286 RUBIACE;E 

Flowers in corymbs of perfect cymes, terminating 
short branches in the upper axils ; branches stout, the 
lower sheathed by J inch broad, thin stipules : pedicels 
slender J to J inch. Calyx 7>V inch, with minute, 
triangular teeth, dark green, glabrous. Corolla tube J to f 
inch, white : lobes J inch reflexed, in bud green on the 
outside, twisted. Anthers very slender, J inch long, 
attached by short slender filaments to the top of the 
corolla tube. Style twice as long as the corolla tube, 
thickened at the end and greenish, undivided, persistent 
after the fall of the corolla. Ovary two-celled, with one 
ovule in each cell. Fruit black, 2 inch across, contain- 
ing one or t\v6 stones. Wight Ic. t. 1035. t 232* 

Under the shade of shola trees, as an undershrub : on both 
plateaus flowering summer, fruiting winter months, 

STYLOCORYNE. 

Shrubs similar in habit to Webera or Chomelia but 
the petals 5, imbricate, ovules one only in each cell, 
pendulous, i.e., with radicle upwards. Style hairy. 

Stylocoryne luccns Gamble ; Webera lucens ; 
Hook f. in F.B.L iii 106. A busy shrub. Leaves nearly 
sessile, elliptic, acute at both ends, glabrous, shining and 
drying black. Calyx teeth short. Flowers white \ inch. 
Fruit i to f inch ; two -seeded. 

Nilgiris : Kundah sholas, above 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

PSYCHOTRIA. F.B.I. 75 LXXV. 

Shrubs or small trees with white flowers in terminal 
panicles and characterized by the short straight corolla 
tube, hairy at the throat, petals valvate in bud, ovary of 
two cells each with one wedge-shaped ovule erect from 



RUBIACEjE 287 

the base, and fruit a drupe containing two plano-convex 
pyrenes each with one plano-convex thin-coated seed 
with hard endosperm and small basal embryo. Another 
characteristic is the presence of glandular hairs in the 
axils of the stipules. All our species grow under the 
shade of shola trees. 

A large genus of 500 species all tropical or sub-tropical. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Branches of inflorescence whorled ; seeds not grooved, 

a< endosperm ruminate P. congesta. 

L Branches of inflorescence opposite b 

f Inflorescence long, two large bracts at the base ; seeds not 
grooved, endosperm ruminate ... P. elongata. 
Inflorescence short, flowers starry, no bracts at base ; 
seeds grooved on back, endosperm not ruminate . . 
I P. bisulcata. 

Psychotria congesta Wight and Arnott ; F.B.L iii 
162, LXXV 5. All parts glabrous. Bark smooth. 
Leaves 2 to 5 inches by a third as broad obovate or oblan- 
ceolate, broadest well beyond the middle, bluntly cuspidate 
or acute, and narrowing gradually to the \ to i inch stalk : 
nerves eight to ten pairs, very regular and strong. Cymes 
dense with short thick branches. Corolla tube very short. 
Fruit ellipsoid or roundish, black, crowned by the per- 
sistent, -^ ff inch, calyx tube (like the English Black Currant). 
Seeds two or one only, each in its own parchment (like 
Coffee), plano-convex and wedge-shaped, not grooved on 
the inner side : endosperm hard, ruminate : radicle point- 
ing downwards ; wood white, close-grained, t* 233* 

Very common as a shrub in woods ; foliage usually very 
dark. Nilgiris : on the downs. Pulneys : Kodaikanal downs 
and below. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills. 



288 RUBIACE^E 

There appear to be two distinct forms. At high levels, 
e.g., Dodabetta 8,000 to 8,600 feet and on the Pulneys at 
7,500 feet ; the leaves are large and the fruit has only one 
round seed. At lower levels about 7,000 feet, the leaves are 
only 2 to 3 inches long and the fruit invariably has two 
plano-convex seeds. 

* var. astephana with less crowded cymes and scarcely 
raised calyx limb to the fruit. Pulneys. 

Psychotria clongata Wight ; F.B.L iii 163, LXXV 
10. Bark thin, leaves nearly elliptic, opposite, impressed 
on the upper side with 13 or so very regularly placed 
pairs of nerves nearly always with perforations at the axils, 
and small white flowered cymes in erect terminal spikes 
subtended at the base by two very large stipules which 
form a divided tube, i inch long. Whole plant quite 
glabrous, branches smooth and shining. Stipules early 
caducous. Calyx small. Corolla tube inch, lobes 
shorter, spreading ; throat hairy. Stamens erect, fila- 
ments white. Fruit \ to J- inch diameter, black, globose. 
Seeds one round or two flat on the inner face. Endosperm 
ruminate. Wood reddish white, close-grained, t* 234* 
Wight Ic. t. 1036. 

Nilgiris at 5,000 feet in dark sholas on both the eastern and 
the western half. Also near Coonoor, 6,000 feet under light 
shade but appears not to fruit well there. Shevaroys : Green 
Hills. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 4,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Psychotria bisulcata Wight and Arnott ; Herb 
Wight 1351 /; F.B.L iii 171, LXXV 36. A dark-leafed 
shrub with corky bark. Leaves nearly elliptic, acute 
at each end ; veins about nine pairs, quite glabrous. 
Flowers starry the corolla lobes oblong, longer than the 
tube, spreading, white tipped with green. Filaments of 
stamens very short, so that the anthers form a brown 



RUBIACE^E 289 

circle above the white wool of the corolla throat. Stigmas 
opening before the anthers, then closing, and brown. 
Fruit about inch, black. Pyrenes in section with two 
grooves on the back (not inside), endosperm not rumi- 
nate, t, 235. 

The starry flowers make it quite distinct from the other 
species. Nilgiris : Lamb's Rock Road, Coonoor in fairly 
dense shade, e.g., under Hydnocarpus but not in the densest 
part. Kodanad. 

LASfANTHUS. F.B.I. 75 LXXIX. 

Shrubs with small flowers, nearly sessile in the leaf- 
axils and characterized most prominently by the evil 
smell of the leaves or fruit. 

Branches compressed at the nodes. Combined sti- 
pules broad ; veins of leaves starting mostly from 
below the centre of the midrib and curving forward 
to meet or die out in the margin near the apex and joined 
by innumerable and close-set horizontal simple or forked 
secondary veins or veinlets. Flowers small, in axillary 
clusters or cymes peduncled or not. Calyx short with 
four or five teeth. Corolla funnel-shaped, i inch or less ; 
lobes valvate in bud, white, pubescent on the upper and 
inner side (whence the name from the Greek LASIOS soft 
and ANTHOS flower). Stamens on the corolla throat : 
anthers linear or oblong. Ovary of four to nine cells 
with one erect ovule in each. Fruit a small -drupe with 
narrow stones. 

Species about 80, nearly all in the tropics of Asia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

r Cymes distinctly stalked ; sepals slender ; veinlets reti- 

I culate. Well-branched shrubs b 

j Cymes sessile ; veinlets straight, parallel. Usually with 
I single stem and horizontal branches c 

'9 



RUBIACE/E 

f Leaves 2 to 3 inches narrow ovate ; sepals ~| to J inch ; 

7 j flowers yellowish L. venulosus. 

f Leaves 3 to 4 inches by 2 to 2\ inches, broadly oval, with 
L short acumen ; sepals -^ inch . . . L. capitulatus. 
fYoung parts and veins below ciliate ; leaves oblong - 
I lanceolate, 3 to 6 inches ; veins about 6 pairs : secondary 
I veins straight, joined by a reticulation of veinlets. Single 

| stemmed shrub L. coffeoides. 

| Young parts hirsute with purplish hairs ; leaves oblong, 
lanceolate ; veins about 6 pairs; secondary veins \ to -J 
inch apart, straight and branched ; sepals J-inch. Very 

stout shrub. L. ciliatus- 

All parts glabrous : leaves obovate, deltoid, acuminate ; 
veins about 4 pairs only, veinlets very close and fine. 

L. acuminatus- 

Lasianthus venulosus Wight, Herb. Prop. ; F.B.L iii 
100, LXXIX 49. A well-branched shrub, common under 
the shade of trees with yellowish white flowers in nearly 
sessile cymes of three, and black fruits J inch across 
not at all foetid except the last. Branches when as thick 
as the finger still smooth and green, marked by the irre- 
gular warty ring-scars of the stipules ; these only on 
the youngest parts, barely T T - inch. Petioles inch, 
channelled above. Leaves drying black. Blade ovate 
rounded at the base, acute or with a short apex, quite 
glabrous on both sides ; veins about six on each side, 
strong below and above, curving forwards to meet at the 
apex, and joined by more or less horizontal secondary 
veins connected by a fine reticulation of veinlets, areoles 
between these white with minute glands. Petals yellow- 
ish-white recurved, very pubescent on the inner side. 
Young fruit green, four-angled with the calyx teeth 
persistent round a -inch circular scar at the top ; when 
ripe black and shining, with four angular stones, t, 236* 
Wight Ic. 1032. 



RUBIACE/E 291 

In sholas as part of the second grade of woody plants. 

Nilgiris : in and near Ootacamund and all over the downs to 
Pykara. Pulneys : about Kodaikanal. The commonest of 
our species. 

Gen. Dtst. Apparently only on these hills. 

Lasianthus capitulatus Wt. ; F.B.I, iii 191, 
LXXIX 50. Similar in habit to the last species but larger, 
the leaves broadly ovate with short point. Sepals shorter. 

Nilgiris : on the eastern and western slopes. 

My sheet from Kotagiri has rather long sepals. The species should 
perhaps be regarded as a more robust form of L. venulosus. 

Lasianthus coffeoides Fyson ; LXXIX 50. A 
shrub with upright undivided stem, long horizontal 
branches and evil-smelling leaves all facing upwards 
much in the habit of the cultivated coffee. 

Stem single, erect. Branches slender, weak, adpress- 
ed, pubescent. Stipules triangular, \ inch. Leaves 
drying yellowish-brown; stalks \ inch, pubescent; blades 
bifarious, ovate elliptic acute, 4 to 5 by 1 1 inches, glabrous 
and shining above, pubescent on the nerves below ; 
veins six to nine on each side, the last arising on the 
midrib well beyond the middle joined by straightish 
veinlets, hardly distinguishable into secondary and ter- 
tiary ; surface not white between. Flowers three to 
four together, sessile on a very short peduncle ; bracts 
linear -j 1 ^ inch. Calyx tube and teeth each about 
i\ inch or less. Corolla white, tube \ inch ; lobes 
-Q inch, oblong, hairy within. Anthers almost sessile on 
the throat. Style slender ; sitgmas four, spreading, -J- 
inch each, t* 237. 

The coffee-like habit gives this and the next, among 
our plants, a very characteristic appearance, 

I9-A 



RUBIACEJE 

Pulneys : in the sholas near Kodaikanal and on the downs. 
Fyson 1821, 1235, 1088. 

Apparently only on these hills. 

Lasianthus ciliatus Wt. ; F.B.L iii 184, LXXIX 23. 
Similar in habit to the last which is perhaps a higher level 
form of it, but stouter and more hirsute. Young parts 
and flowers tending to purple. 

Nilgiris : on the margins of the pleateau under fairly deep 
shade : below Kodanad ; common on Lamb's Rock Road 
under Hydnocarpus ; Sispara. 

Lasianthus acuminatus Wight pro parte ; F.B.L ii 
85, LXXIX 27. Characterized by the leaves wedge- 
shaped at the base and drawn out into an acumen at the 
tip, with three to four pairs only of strong nerves. 

Branches slender, sparingly pubescent or glabrous. 
Leaves not white beneath, drying a clear brown ; 
petioles ^ inch pubescent or glabrous ; blades 3! to 4 
by ij to i o inches, obovate or oblanceolate, acuminate, 
narrowed to the petiole, glabrous above and below except 
on the nerves. Veins three to four pairs, seldom starting 
from the midrib beyond the broadest part of the leaf, 
strongly raised below when dry ; joined by very close 
nearly straight secondary veins and veinlets. Flowers 
sub-sessile, pedicel T ^ inch. Calyx tube T \ F inch, teeth 
half as long. Corolla woolly within. Stamens inch. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal. 

This is, I believe, what Wight had most in his mind in writing the 
description of the species in the Calcutta Journal of Natural History vi. 
(1846), p. 511. On his type sheet at Kew there are two species, the other 
being my L. coffeoides. 



293 

SPERMACOCE. F.B.I. 75 LXXXVII. 

Herbs with square branches, stipules connate into a 
broad tube with marginal bristles, and small flowers in 
axillary or terminal fascicles ; and characterized further 
by the corolla lobes valvate in bud, and the fruit divid- 
ing into two one-seeded parts. 

Species about 150 tropical and subtropical. 

Spcrmacocc ocymoides Burm. ; F.B.L iii 200, 
LXXXVII 2. Very variable. Branches numerous, weak 
or prostrate, forming in dry places a dense tuft. Leaves 
close or distant according to situation, ] to i| inches by 
^ to | inch, more or less acute at both ends, subsessile or 
petioled. Corolla white, small, hairy at the throat, four 
lobed. Fruit surmounted by the four spreading sepals, 
and splitting into two parts which open along their inner 
faces. Seeds narrow ellipsoid, t, 238* 

Pulncys : slopes of the Shembaganur valley, etc., 5,000 to 
6,000 feet ; Kukal. In grass. 

Kukal, 7,000 feet. Nilgiris : Coonoor. 

GALIUM and RUBIA, 

Slender stemmed herbs, distinguished from all other 
of our plants by the stipules not being united in pairs 
but enlarged like leaves, and in some species even 
divided, so that at each node there are from four to eight 
' leaves.' Corolla lobes valvate in bud. Fruit of two 
small coriaceous or fleshy in-dehiscent lobes. 
Corolla lobes five, leaves heart-shaped stalked . . RUBIA. 
Corolla lobes four, leaves narrow or nearly round . GALIUM. 

RUBIA F.B.I. 75 LXXXIX. 

Madder. 

A genus allied to Galium (Goose-grass, Bed-straw, 
etc.), but with the petals five instead of four. 



2^4 RtJBIACE^ 

Species 5, Europe, Asia, Africa and South America (Fr. 
Garance, Ger. Rote). 

Rubia cordifolia Linn. ; F.B.I. iii 202, LXXXIX i. 
Stems slender, four-angled, rough, weak and straggling 
up shrubs and small trees. Leaves four in a whorl, 
with unequal petioles varying from J to 2 inches : blades 
cordate, usually i to 2 by f to i inch, but sometimes 
quite small and often only one and a half times as long as 
broad, shining above, very scabrid; nerves three to seven, 
curving from base to apex or the margin near it, very strong. 
Cymes in small panicles axillary to leaf-like bracts on short 
axillary branches. Receptacle ovoid entire. No sepals. 
Corolla rotate, five-lobed. Fruit I to T * ff inch, globose 
or two-lobed. t* 239* 

In thickets or climbing up small trees. Common on both 
Nilgiri and Pulney plateaus. Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. In temperate climates of India, tropical Africa and Asia, 
and Japan. 

GALIUM. F.B.I. 75 xc. 

Bed-straw, Goose-grass, etc. 

Distinguished from RUBIA by the petals being always 
four not five. 

Species over 200. In Europe several (Ger. Klebekraut, 
Bettstroh ; Fr. Gratteron, Caille-lait). 

Leaves four, broad. Fruit with hooked spines. G.javanicum. 
Leaves six or eight, narrow. Fruit smooth, G. asperifolium. 

Galium javanicum DC., formerly G. rotundi- 
folium ; F.B.I, iii 204, XC i. Perennial, glabrous or 
pubsecent ; stems weak, trailing. Leaves ^ to ^ inch 
broadly ovate, mucronate, strongly three-veined. Flowers 
yellow in bunches at the ends of short branches. Fruit 
with hooked spines, t. 240. 



VALERIANACE^ 295 

Nilgiris : on the downs near Ootacamund especially on 
ground cleared of Cinchona. Pulneys : below Kodaikanal. 

Galium asperifolium Wallich ; F.B.I, included in 
Galium mollugo Linn., iii 207, XC 12, Indian Bed-straw. 
Stem slender, slightly rough on the four angles. Leaves 
at a node six, obovate apiculate, one-nerved, with a few 
scattered hairs. Flowering branches copiously branched, 
their leaves smaller and at the final divisions J- or J inch 
only and reduced to two or three at the node. Flowers 
minute, petals T V inch, ovate. Fruit nearly glabrous. 
Climbing on bushes and shrubs, t. 241. 

Pulneys : on the downs above Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : on 
the plateau. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India, Himalayas, etc. 

VALERIANACE^. 

VALERIANA. F.B.I. 76 HI. 

Valerian. 

Herbs with simple or sparingly branched stem ; 
opposite, pinnate or occasionally simple, leaves ; and 
numerous small pink or white flowers in much-branched 
terminal, corymbose panicles. Ovary inferior with no 
calyx-teeth ; corolla tube slender, usually swollen on 
one side near the base, five-lobed ; stamens three only ; 
ovary three-celled, ripening into a one-seeded dry fruit 
crowned by a pappus of a few feathery hairs. 

Species about 150, in moist temperate or cool regions ; 
mostly in Europe, America and Asia ; a few in Africa, but 
none in Australia or New Zealand. (Ger. Baldrian). 

C Leaves simple or with one or two leaflets. V. Leschenaultii 
\Leaves pinnate b 



2g6 VALERIANACE^fi 

r Leaflets five, broad V. Arnottiana. 

, J Leaflets seven, end leaflet broad, lateral narrow ; fruit 

| hairy V. Hookeriana- 

I Leaflets many, all narrow ; fruit glabrous. V. Beddomei. 

Valcriana Arnottiana Wt.; formerly V. Hardwickii 
Wall, var. Cat. 433 / ; F.B.L 8ii 213. Ill 9. Five-leaf 

Valerian. Stem ii to 3 feet, pubescent at the nodes, only 
slightly so elsewhere. Radical leaves disappearing before 
flowering time : of stem leaves the leaflets usually five, 
occasionally more, ovate ; the terminal largest and not 
much longer than broad, the lateral slightly narrower but 
not much so. Corymbs in early flower i to 3 inches 
across ; but in fruit much larger and more open, becoming 
a panicle a foot high and wide, the branches repeatedly 
forking. Fruit -| by ^ inch cylindrical ovoid, hairy. 
t, 242. Wight Ic. tt. 1045-6. 

In woods. Nilgiris : Lovedale, Coonoor. Pulneys : on 
the edge of the plateau, not common. Flowers June to Sep- 
tember. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India. 

Formerly considered a variety of V. Hardwickii Wall, a plant of the 
temperate Himalaya, but now separated as a distinct species. In Java 
it becomes V. javanica Dl. 

Valeriana Hookeriana Wight and Arnott ; F.B.L 
iii 214, III ii. Stem pubescent, bearded at the nodes. 
All lower leaves pinnate, lowest long-stalked ; leaflets 
seven or more ; end leaflet ovate or obovate, sinuate or 
coarsely and bluntly toothed, I to 2 inches; lateral leaflets 
lanceolate, J to i inch, of the lowest leaves toothed, 
of the upper entire and narrower (oblong to linear). 
Corymbs in fruit lax, 3 to 4 inches across. Fruit ridged 
and hairy, b. ovary, t. 243. Wight 111. t. 129. 



DIPSACACE;E 

Pulneys : on the downs, flowers March to July, very abund- 
ant. Not elsewhere. 

Very close to V. Moonii Arn. 9 of Ceylon, which however has fewer and 
much larger leaflets. 

Valcriana Leschenaultii DC., var. Brunoniana ; 
F.B.I, iii 214, III 12. Stem glabrous or nearly so. Leaves 
simple or with perhaps one or two degenerate leaflets or 
lobes at the base of the blade or on the 2 to 6 inches 
leaf-stalk ; blade lanceolate, to ovate or cordate, or in 
the upper parts oblanceolate, entire or nearly so. Fruit 
glabrous, t* 244* Wight Ic. 1043. 

Nilgiris : on the downs, Ootacamund to Pykara and 
Coonoor ; flowers June to September only here. I am 
told that in some situations the leaves are large, *' like an Arum " 
and fleshy. 

Valcriana Beddomei C. B. Clarke ; F.B.I, ii 214, 
III 13. Lowest leaves pinnate. Leaflets numerous 
oblong, terminal one not much larger. Fruit glabrous, 
in fairly compact not very loose corymbs. 

Pulneys : on road to Poombari and above. 

On the higher downs glabrous and hairy forms occur side by side. 

DIPSACACE^E. 

Teasel and Scabious. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, and flowers (with inferior 
ovaries) small and usually aggregated into heads with 
bracts below, much as in COMPOSITE ; but the stamens 
free of each other (never united by their anthers) and 
the ovule or seed hanging from the top of the ovary not 
erect and inverted. 

Species about 120, chiefly in the Mediterranean region, 
western Asia, South Africa, Japan and Ceylon. None in 
America, Polynesia or Australia. 



DtPSACACE/E 

In western Europe are two genera DIPSACUS, Teasel, 
Ger. Kardendistel, Fr. Cardere ; and SCABIOSA, Devils Bit, 
etc., Ger. Storbuse, Fr. Scabieuse. 

DIPSACUS* F.B.I. 77 in. 

Teasel. 

Flowers in dense, stalked heads opening along a 
ring half way between centre and circumference (in 
COMPOSITE always from the circumference inwards) : 
bracts between the flowers well developed : calyx- 
limb or top of ovary hairy but not bristly (distinction 
from SCABIOSA) ; ovary four-angled ; corolla four-lobed, 
blue purple white or yellow ; stamens four. All European 
and most Asiatic species with prickly stems and spiny 
involucral bracts, some Indian species (as ours) not so. 

Species 86 in Europe, Asia and Africa, especially round the 
Mediterranean. 

Dipsacus Lcschcnaultii Coult. ; F.B.I, iii 215, III 5. 
A large herb with stout rootstock. Stem annual, 4 feet 
or higher, hollow, white or greenish, leafy from the base 
but not near the flowers. Lowest leaves very large, to 
2 feet long ; upper smaller but otherwise similar, clasping 
the stem and even meeting round it to form cups ; lower 
pinnate or deeply pinnatifid, the terminal leaflet much 
the largest and decurrent as also most of the others ; lateral 
leaflets or segments obliquely obovate or oblong ; all 
coarsely toothed, ciliate, hirsute or almost glabrous. 
Flowerheads 2 by ij inches long, peduncled, in loose 
cymes from the axils of linear bracts. Involucral bracts 
ovate-lanceolate, hairy ; floral strongly mucronate and 
covered with hairs from tubercled bases. Flowers 
white or yellowish ; tube shaggy at the base with reflexed 



COMPOSITE 299 

hairs ; lobes oblong, the two lower larger. Stamens four, 
well exserted ; filaments white, anthers purple. Style short 
at first, then exserted, flattened at the stigma. Fruiting 
head almost spherical, bristling with the long points of the 
stiff floral bracts : the involucral bracts depressed. 
t. 245. Wight 111. ii. t. 130. 

On the open downs above Kodaikanal. Flowers from June 
to September. Nilgiris. Not elsewhere. 

The absence of prickles makes this plant, at first sight, appear much 
more like the English Scabious than Teasel. 

COMPOSITE. 

In this family the flowers are individually small, but 
massed into usually flat heads. The head is surrounded 
and enclosed in bud by an involucre or covering of bracts, 
which when the head is open forms a cylindrical tube, 
or a hemispherical cup, surrounding the flowers at least at 
their base. The shape and character of these involucral 
bracts are of some importance. 

They may be in several rows and overlap each other, or be 
only a few in one circle with perhaps a few shorter outside 
(SENECIO Ragwort, TARAXACUM Dandelion). They may be long 
and narrow, or short and broad, acute or obtuse ; they may 
be altogether green, or have a papery margin at the end (CHRY- 
SANTHEMUM, ARTEMESIA) or be altogether papery and glistening 
(ANAPHALIS, GNAPHALIUM) Everlastings or be spiny (CNICUS 
Thistle). The individual flowers being not quite complete are 
usually termed florets, and the more or less flat expansion of 
the stalk on which they are set, and which is backed and edged 
by the involucre, is termed the receptacle. In Sunflower 
and its allies and in some others there are scales on the recep- 
tacle between the florets. 

The ovary is inferior, the corolla being above it, and there 
are no sepals, though often hairs or scales develop in their 
places (pappus). The corolla is monopetalous and is 



300 COMPOSITE 

either tubular, slightly enlarged above the middle and 
ending in five (or four) small lobes ; or extended to one 
side in the form of a strap or a tongue, and hence called 
ligulate. At the end of this flat tongue-shaped part there 
are usually three or five teeth, and there may be in addition 
a tooth at the bottom end where it joins the basal tubular 
portion. The nature and arrangement of the florets in 
the head are of very great importance. 

In some the florets are all tubular and similar (VERNONIA, 
EUPATORIUM Hemp Agrimony, CNICUS Thistle) ; in some though 
all are tubular, the outer have no stamens (DICHROCEPHALA) ; 
in others most are tubular, but there is a circle at the outside 
of ligulate ones called rays (ASTER, HELIANTHUS Sunflower, 
SENECIO Ragwort) ; in others again all the florets are ligulate 
(TARAXACUM Dandelion, CREPIS Hawksbeard, SONCHUS Sow 
Thistle). 

There are five stamens, with separate filaments attached 
to the corolla tube, and rather long narrow anthers connec- 
ted to each other by the edges and forming a brown cylin- 
drical box round the style. In all cases, except ADENOS- 
TEMMA, each anther has at the top a small triangular flap, 
and these together close the top of the box and so protect 
the pollen which is shed inside out of the anthers ; but in 
some genera the bases of the anther lobes are rounded, 
in others produced downwards in slender tails. This 
last distinction is of considerable importance : it is used 
for instance to distinguish the VERNONIA tribe from the 
EUPATORIUM tribe. The ovary has a single chamber 
with one ovule and a single style divided at the top into 
two stigmatic branches. 

These branches open out only after the style has pushed 
its way upwards between the anthers (pushing up pollen as 
it does so) ; and since all the florets do not come to maturity 
together, but the outermost first and the most central last, one 



COMPOSITE 301 

can usually find styles in all stages in one head. The stig- 
matic branches vary considerably in shape, being long and 
pointed (subulate) or flattened on one side, or thick and cut 
off square (truncate) or they end in a conical thickening. 

The fruit is dry and indehiscent, and termed an 
achene. In some cases it has a tuft or circle of hairs 
(pappus) or scales at the top, but in others it is quite with- 
out them (Chrysanthemum, Sunflower). It contains one 
seed with oily endosperm attached to the base of the 
ovary. 

The family is a very large one of about 10,000 species or 
one-tenth of all the flowering plants of the world, and is 
found in all regions and especially on mountains. The method 
of cross-pollination is very good (see below) ; and where there 
is a pappus to the fruit which allows it to be carried great 
distances by wind, a species is able to spread rapidly on new 
ground. Curiously enough, however, we find as a matter of 
fact that most of the species are very local. 

The tribes or sections of the family represented here are 

A. Florets all tubular and similar. 

(i) Florets blue, mauve or white, never yellow : involucral 
bracts green. 

I. VERNONIEJE, Anthers cleft at the base (cells tailed) : 

stylar arms subulate : leaves usually alternate. 
Pappus short : involucral bracts leaf-like . CENTRATHERUM. 
Pappus long : involucral bracts narrow . . . VERNONIA. 

II. EUPATORIE^* Anther cells not tailed : stylar arms 

obtuse pappillate. Leaves opposite or alternate. 

Pappus of flat scales AGERATUM. 

Pappus of club-shaped scales : sticky herb . ADENOSTEMMA. 

Pappus of slender hairs EUPATORIUM. 

(ii) Florets mostly purple : involucral bracts often spiny. 

IX. CYNAROIDE^E* Anther cells tailed : stylar arms 
short : involucral bracts scarious or spiny : leaves 
alternate, often spiny. 

Achenes with feathery pappus hairs CNICUS. 



3O2 COMPOSITES 

B. Outer florets without stamens ; often but not always 

ligulate. 

(i) Involucral bracts in several rows. 
(a) Receptacle naked. 

III. ASTEROIDEiE. Stylar arms flattened and ending 

in a conical thickening ; anthers not tailed : disc florets 
yellow. Rays usually yellow, but also white or purple. 
* Heads not rayed, outer florets slender. 
Heads spherical, purplish : receptacle tall with flat top : no 

pappUS DICHROCEPHALA. 

Heads cylindrical, golden ; receptacle flat : pappus long . 

CONYZA. 

** Heads rayed. 

No pappus ; achenes viscid MYRIACTIS. 

Pappus copious ERIGERON. 

VI. ANTHEMOIDE^E. Involucral bracts scarious or with 
scarious tips : anther cells not tailed : stylar arms trun- 
cate : receptacle naked (or occasionally with scales). 
Heads small roundish, not rayed. 

Tall plant, heads numerous ARTEMESIA 

Small herb, heads few, green .... COTULA 

IV. INULOIDEjE* Anther cells sagittate (tailed) or not : 

stylar arms linear, or of sterile florets not separating : 
pappus copious. All florets in our genera tubular, outer 
very slender. 

* Bracts green, narrow, mostly strongly scented herbs. 

Anther cells tailed BLUMEA. 

Anther cells not tailed : stem winged .... LAGGERA. 

** Bracts green, outer leafy CARPESIUM. 

*** Bracts scarious. 

Central florets with stamen and undivided style (sterile) : 
bracts white or pink ANAPHALIS. 

Many of disc florets fertile : bracts yellow . GNAPHALIUM 

All or nearly all disc florets fertile : bracts yellow. . . . 

HELICHRYSUM. 
(b) Receptacle with scales between the florets 

V. HELIANTHOIDE^E, Heads usually rayed : anther 

cells not tailed : stylar arms truncate : achenes naked or 
with scales (but no pappus) : receptacle with scales 
between the florets : leaves in our genera opposite. 



COMPOSITE 303 

* Disc florets sterile with undivided styles . . . MOONIA. 
** All florets fertile. 

Five outer involucral bracts long, sticky ; heads globular, rays 

small SEIGESBECKIA. 

Heads flat : rays conspicuous : achenes with two to four 

barbed bristles BIDENS. 

Heads conical, without rays. No pappus. . SPILANTHES. 
(ii) Involucral bracts in one row all same length or a few 
outer shorter. 

VII. SENECIONIDE^ Involucral bracts in one row, 
all the same length or a few shorter outside : pappus of 
fine hairs : anther cells obtuse or with short points, not 
tailed : rays usually yellow : leaves alternate. 

* Heads not rayed. 

Bracts all one length : florets all purple .... EMILIA. 
A row outside of shorter bracts 

Stylar branches long and hairy GYNURA. 

Stylar branches ovate at tips : fleshy herbs . . . NOTONIA. 

** Head rayed or not, stylar branches truncate . . SENECIO. 

C. All florets ligulate. 

XI. CICHORIACE^E, All florets ligulate with five-toothed 
tip : anther bases sagittate but not tailed : stylar 
arms slender : leaves never opposite. Usually milky 
herbs, with yellow flowers. 

* Branched leafy herbs with heads in open corymbs : inner 

bracts of involucre thickened : achenes narrowed at 
each end. 

Pappus hairs simple PICRIS. 

Pappus hairs feathery CREPIS. 

** Branched herbs : involucre dilated at the base : achenes 
narrowed below and above. 

Achenes compressed, beaked LACTUCA. 

Achenes not beaked SONCHUS. 

*** Heads solitary on leafless stems. 

Pappus hairs simple TARAXACUM. 

Pappus hairs feathery HYPOCH^SRIS. 



304 COMPOSITE 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

f Florets all tubular : heads not rayed b 

a J Inner florets tubular ; outer strap-shaped forming rays 

I (Sunflower, etc.) m 

(^All florets strap-shaped (Dandelion, etc.) 5 

Florets all tubular. 
C Florets purple, blue or white, never yellow . . . . c 

1 Florets yellow / 

Florets pale. Small herb with much divided leaves . 

p. 341. COTULA. 

'Outer involucral bracts very broad, almost leafy : underside 
of leaves white between green veins 

p. 306. CENTRATHERUM. 

Involucral bracts narrow, in one or more series . . . d 
Heads almost spherical, outer florets slender : white, 

ta no pappus p. 317. DICHROCEPHALA. 

C Anthers cleft at the base (tailed) : leaves alternate . h 
d < Anthers not cleft : leaves opposite (Eupatorieoe) . . e 

t Do. leaves alternate narrow (Erigerori). 

f Eupatorieoe. 

I Firs, mauve : achenes with five scales, p. 315. AGERATUM. 

Flowers white : achenes with scabrid hairs : young parts 

e ^ sticky ^.316. EUPATORIUM. 

j Sticky herb : anthers without the usual flap at the top : 

j achenes five-ribbed, sticky : pappus of three to five 

t short stiff hairs ..../>. 314. ADENOSTEMMA. 

(Heads globular ^ to J inch ; outer florets slender : 
no pappus p. 317. DICHROCEPHALA. 
Heads cylindrical or flat g 
Heads conical, no pappus . . . p. 338. SPILANTHES. 

r Involucre green i 

g < Involucre glistening, yellow, white or pink 

L pp. 326-3 ANAPHALIS, GNAPHALIUM or HELICHRYSUM. 

f Leaves entire of toothed, bracts in several rows .... 

p. 308. VERNONIA. 

Leaves pinnatfid, lyrate, or stem clasping : heads 
broadest at the base, bracts in one series only .... 

/>. 343. EMILIA. 

Leaves irregularly toothed : woolly or strongly scented 
herbs p. 323. BLUMEA. 



COMPOSITE 305 

"Outer involucral bracts leafy : achenes sticky : heads \ 

inch p. 334. GNAPHALIUM. 

Outer involucral bracts acute and spreading : stem winged 

J but not spiny />. 325. LAGGERA. 

Whole plant spiny, pappus feathery. p. 352. CNICUS. 
I Bracts all narrow, green : achenes with pappus . . k 
L Bracts rounded with scarious margin : no pappus . / 

C Heads | inch, numerous ; involucral bracts narrow, 

green or purple p. 321. CONYZA. 

T J Heads inch, bracts several, woolly, or scented herbs . 

I p. 323. BLUMEA. 

Heads inch ; bracts in one row, glabrous .... 
L PP' 34 2 "344 GYNURA or NOTONIA. 

{Tall herb ; heads small ..../>. 341. ARTEMESIA. 
Low herb of 2 to 4 inches ; leaves much divided . . . 
p. 341. COTULA. 



Heads rayed. 

("Leaves opposite : receptacle with scales between the 

m < florets n 

[.Leaves alternate : no scales on the receptacle . . . q 

f Leaves simple o 

\ Leaves pinnate or bi-pinnate p 

{Tall herb : heads with four or five J-inch narrow sticky 
bracts below p. 338. SIEGESBECKIA. 
Small, herb : achenes with feathery scales 
p. 340. GALINSOGA. 

f Achenes surmounted by two or three barbed spines : rays 

p 1 yellow p. 339. BIDENS. 

i Achenes without spines or pappus 

^ P- 337- MOONIA. 

{Rays yellow : bracts in one row or with a few shorter out- 
side p. 345. SENECIO. 
Rays white, mauve or pink : bracts narrow in several 
rows r 

{Achenes without pappus, viscid . . p. 318. MYRIACTIS. 
Achenes with copious pappus. . . />. 319. ERIGERON. 
20 



306 COMPOSITE 

Florets all Kg ul ate (Cichoriacece). 

{Bracts eight to twelve, scabrid, with a few shorter outside. 
/>. 352. PICRIS. 
Bracts all green, glabrous : herbs with milky juice . . t 
'Achenes flattened : pappus united at the base and falling 

together p. 357. SONCHUS. 

Achenes not flattened, but narrowed below the top . . 

p. 353. CREPIS. 
Outer achenes at least prolonged into a slender beak which 

bears the pappus u 

r Heads in racemes : beak of achene ending in a small disc 
u < bearing the simple pappus hairs. p. 356. LACTUCA. 

L Heads solitary on scapes v 

f Scape thick hollow ; never branched : outer bracts 

v J pendulous p. 356. TARAXACUM. 

[ Scape slender ; inner achenes not beaked 

(^ P-355- HYPOCJUERIS. 

CENTRATHERUJVL F.B.I. 78 i. 

Herbs with alternate stalked toothed leaves, all the 

florets of a head tubular and similar, purple or white : 

ribbed achenes, and short scabrid, quickly falling pappus 

(distinction from VERNONIA). 

Species about 10 mostly India, Malaya and a few also in 
America and Australia. 

Ccntratherum reticulatum Benth. ; Wight Herb. 
Prop. 1391 / ; F.B.L iii 227, II I. Distinguished from all 
our COMPOSITE except CARPESIUM by the broad almost 
leafy involucral bracts, five of which are sufficient to 
surround the base of the head ; and by the leaves which 
have the veins deeply impressed on the upper side, and 
very conspicuous on the lower, which is coated beneath 
with white hairs between them. 

Perennial herb with yellowish rhizome. Stem 
branched or not, terete, usually dark purple in colour and 



COMPOSITE 307 

scabrid with short hard whitish hairs on red bases. Leaves 
sub-sessile ovate 2 by f inch broadest near the rounded 
base, erect with the margin slightly recurved. Heads 
terminal, solitary : involucre hemispheric : bracts many 
seriate, the outer like small leaves, the inner progressively 
narrower with distinct mucro, the innermost scarious 
narrow-oblong. Florets slender, | inch spreading ; lobes 
J inch by -^ inch, spreading. Anthers exserted, dark. 
Style exserted ; arms subulate. Achenes white inch, 
obscurely ten-ribbed : pappus brown or yellowish, ^ inch, 
fugacious, t* 246* 

The spreading florets remind one of the Knapweed. After the fruits 
have dispersed the empty involucres remain some considerable time, the 
outer scales reflexed and chocolate brown in colour, the inner erect. 

In the grass of the open downs, abundant in places. Flowers 
July to October. Pulneys : very common above Kodaikanal, 
Nilgiris and Anamalais. Not elsewhere. 

Centratherum Rangacharii Gamble ; Kew Bull. 
1920, p. 338. An annual differing from the last species by 
its much smaller almost amplexicaul leaves on the underside 
white all over (not between a green net- work of veins) and 
smaller (| inch) flower heads. 

Nilgiris : near Coonoor (P. V. Mayuranathan). 
Previously recorded only from Tinnevelly. 

Centratherum phyllol&numHookf. ; F.B.I, i 228. 
Leaves 3 to 4 inches elliptic acute at both ends, coarsely 
serrate, white below, glabrous and not reticulate above. 
Heads i inch, outer bracts narrow. Pappus reddish (but 
not always). 

Nilgiris : near Coonoor (P. V. Mayuranathan). Belongs 
to low levels to 3,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 
20-A 



308 COMPOSITE 

VERNONIA, F.B.I. 78 v. 

* Herbs, shrubs or even trees with alternate leaves and 
cymose panicles of flower-heads, characterized by the 
many rows of involucral bracts, narrow or broad but not 
leafy ; the purple florets, all tubular and equal ; a persist- 
ent pappus to the achene, which latter has often a circle of 
short scales round the flat top outside the pappus, and 
anthers cleft at the base. 

Species about 400. Mostly in America and chiefly in the 
tropics. Not in Europe. 

Known in America and the colonies as Ironweed ; Fr. Vernonie, Ger. 
Bitterolse. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

'Tree, with purplish heads, i -flowered, and thick leaves 

On Nilgiris, etc i. V. Monosis. 

On Shevaroys 2. V. shevaroyensis. 

Shrubs b 

Herb, heads very numerous, bracts narrow. V. conyzoides. 
Bracts long-pointed ; heads \ inch. 6. V. peninsularis. 
Lower bracts with reflexed point, pappus reddish. 

7. V. saligna. 

All bracts blunt or short pointed 

"Leaves glabrous, sharply toothed, pappus reddish. 

3. V. pectiniformis. 
Leaves pubescent below, distantly serrate pappus white or 

cream d 

Leaves white below, minutely serrate, pappus white, 

achenes 5. V. Fysonii. 

Leaves yellowish below, with arched back, achenes 

mostly. 8. V. Bourneana. 

Ls. tomentose below, oblanceolate, flat. V. Bourdillonii. 
. r Leaves J inch, only broad-heads few. V. Ramaswamii. 
1 Ls. 2 to 3 by i to 2 inches, heads many. 4. V. pulneyensis. 

i. Vcrnonia Monosis Benth.; Herb. Wight Prop. 1376 / ; 
FB./. as var. Wightiana of V. arborea Ham. 3 ; Hi 239, 



COMPOSITE 309 

V. 37.* A tree, conspicuous in the Nilgiri sholas of April 
and May as a huge white cone or ovoid crown of pappus 
and pale purple flowers with the scent of Heliotrope. 

Tree up to 40 feet, with trunk 18 inches thick, but 
often smaller ; youngest parts, underside of leaves and 
inflorescence densely tomentose. Leaf-stalks -J- to f inch, 
broadened at the base : blade elliptic entire, when dry 
with the smell of fresh hay (not cumurin), rounded and 
often oblique at the base, with about nine pairs of main 
veins connected by fairly straight secondary veins which 
enclose a net-work of veinlets. Flower-heads almost 
umbelled, the umbles again compounded into rounded 
masses at the ends of the branches forming leafy panicles 
5 to 6 inches high and 4 to 5 inches wide, terminating the 
year's shoots. Involucre tubular, by T ^ inch, bracts 
many in four or five series ; all but the innermost covered 
except on the margins with white tomentum ; innermost 
thin, glabrous. Flower one only, mauve-coloured, nearly 
as long again as the involucre. Style exserted well above 
the perianth. Achene cylindrical, 7 V by 2 ! inch, with 
glands between the very faint ten-ribs, white ; pappus 
hairs all equal, twice as long, dirty white, t, 247. Wight 
Ic. t. 1085. 

The leaves are the largest of all our trees except those of Meliosma 
Wightii and the leaflets of some Schefflera species. 

In sholas. Nilgiris : up to at least 7,000 feet, especially 
common on the borders of our area ; Pykara and below 
(a very fine specimen 35 to 40 feet high with trunk 18 inches 
near the short cut to Glen Morgan estate on the Waterfall 
road) ; Kotagiri : flowering early in May. 

V. arborea Ham., with which it is included in the F.B.I., is a Nepal 
plant with nearly or quite glabrous leaves and broader heads of six flowers 
The spreading pappus of the six achenes gives to the fruiting involucre 
a very different appearance from the close brush of one-flowered heads 
of our plant. 



310 COMPOSITE 

2. Vernonia shevaroycnsis Gamble ; Kew Bull. 1920, 
p. 341. Small tree. Leaves oblanceolate, glabrous above, 
scabrid pubescent below, 6 to 10 inches long, main veins 
about 10 to 12 pairs, i inch apart on midrib, veinlets 
irregularly reticulate between them. Ribs of achenes not 
prominent. 

Shevaroys and Carnatic [G.F.M.P.]. 

3. Vernonia pcctiniformis Wight; Herb. Prop. 1379 /; 
F.B.I, as of DC., iii 239, V 36. A shrubby plant with 
broad finely serrate leaves and wide corymbs of flower- 
heads, distinguished among our species by the smooth, 
blunt, not narrow, bracts and rather long peduncles. 

Stem terete, striate, pubescent or glabrous. Leaves 
ovate acute, very closely serrate, narrowed abruptly to 
the | -inch stalk : nerves many, inch apart, conspicu- 
ously parallel. Corymbs 3 to 5 inches, by forking of the 
stem and upper branches ; bracts at the forkings very 
small or absent ; ultimate peduncles -3 to \ inch. Heads 
as long. Involucral bracts many-seriate, imbricate f 
lengthening evenly from the lower and outermost to the 
inner. Corolla \ inch, its tube % inch. Achenes ten- 
ribbed, densely glandular but not hairy. Pappus | inch. 
t. 248* Wight Ic. t. 1077 ; Sp. Nilg. t. 103. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, etc., common. Towards 
south-west (beyond Avalanche) is a stouter and more hairy 
form. Flowers from April onwards. Also Ceylon. 

4. Vernonia pulneyensis Gamble ; Kew Bull. 1920, 
p. 341. A shrub not much branched with scattered almost 
cottony hairs which are thicker on the branches of the 
inflorescence and lower bracts. Leaves elliptic, acute at 
both ends, 4 by 2 inches, with bristle teeth to inch 
apart. Heads | to f inch wide, in terminal lower corymbs 



COMPOSITE 311 

Involuqral bracts imbricate, or all spine tipped. Achenes 
i to ^ inch, ten-ribbed, glabrous. Pappus twice as long, 
dirty white, t, 249. 

Pulneys : Shembaganur hill-side and Pambar R. near 
Koclai. Flower March and April. Fyson 4130, 4057. 

Apparently belongs to lower levels. I have collected it also, but 
nearly glabrous, near Jog Fall in north-west Mysore. 

5. Vcrnonia Fysoni C alder ; Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. VI 
343 & t. X. A weak-stemmed straggling or climbing 
shrub. Stem and branches terete whitish, slender. 
Leaf-stalk | inch. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute, dark 
green on the upper surface, densely covered on the under 
with white tomentum, as on the branches and petioles : 
margins finely serrate, the teeth about T ^ inch apart, 
often curled down and liable therefore to be overlooked. 
Panicle terminal, its branches repeatedly forked, not 
spreading but sub-erect. Heads small, twice as long, 

1 inch, as broad, egg-shaped. Bracts with purple tips. 
Flowers pale purple. Achene with ten shallow ribs, 
minutely scabrid ; pappus projecting J- inch beyond the 
involucre, t* 250. 

Pulneys : at 7,000 feet in light sholas near Kodaikanal. 

6. Vcrnonia peninsularis Clarke ; F.B.I. iii 233, V 
15. Distinguished from our other species by the long 
slender points to the involucral bracts. 

Stem simple or branched, ribbed, covered with short 
or long hairs, sometimes almost shaggy, flexible. Leaves 

2 to 4 by i to 2^ inches, shortly stalked, elliptic-ovate, 
acute, crenate-serrate : on the underside gland-dotted and 
more or less woolly especially in the veins. 

Heads few, 3 to i inch across, on stalks of to 2 
inches, in open corymbs. Inner parts by -^ inch 



312 COMPOSITE 

narrow oblong acuminate into a short or long often re- 
curved awn ; outer bracts with shorter broad part, and 
outermost filiform (i.e., awn only). Receptacle inch : 
florets about thirty. Achenes nearly glabrous, strongly 
ribbed. Pappus pale reddish, t* 251. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal Falconer shola, below Glen 
Falls and at lower levels. Also Travancore. 

Closely allied to V. bracteata Wall, of the Himalayas and Khasi 
mountains. 

7, Vcrnonia saligna DC. ; F.B.Liii 235, V 21. A 
herb with woody stem, branched upwards. Young parts 
covered with dense tomentum. Leaves elliptic, acute at 
both ends, iV by f inch, serrate. Heads numerous 
J inch wide or less, in branched rounded corymbs. Bracts 
sacute with strong midrib but hardly aristate, scarious 
with purple tips. Achenes T ] ? inch ; ribs 5, glabrous. 
Pappus three times as long, t* 252* 

Pulneys : downs just below Kodaikanal, towards Vilpatti, 
etc. 

Gen. Dist. Nepal to Burma and the Pulneys. 

8. Vcrnonia Bourncana Smith ; Rec. Bot. Sur. Ind. 
vi 101, V 32.* A well-branched dense shrub, peculiar 
in its arched leaves densely clothed underneath with 
yellowish hairs. 

Shrub 4 to 5 feet high and 5 to 7 feet broad ; branches 
purplish brown and the whole plant up to the involucres 
thickly coated with yellowish hairs : leaf scars prominent 
as blunt crescents with three dark scars of the vascular 
bundles. Leaf-stalks \ inch : blades elliptic, up to 5 by 
2 inches, very occasionally with shallow teeth ; pubescent 
above and roughened by the impressed veins ; lighter 
below and coated with yellowish hairs especially on the 
nerves, but not white ; curving downwards with rounded 



COMPOSITE 313 

backs. Flower-heads in dense terminal corymbose pani- 
cles 6 inches across, the branches of which have the same 
yellowish hairs, and also here and there linear scales 
with bulbous bases : ultimate peduncles J to inch. 
Involucres i by ^ inch : bracts three-seriate, pubescent, 
with a few linear scales at the base ; the outer greenish, 
the inner longer and tipped with purplish brown. Florets 
exserted ^ inch, purple. Stylar arms subulate. Achenes 
^2 inch, five-angled and obscurely ten-ribbed, covered 
with white glistening points : pappus white, - l s inch 
with a ring of much shorter hairs, $ inch, outside. 
t. 253. 

On the open downs. Pulneys : above Kodaikanal by 
road-sides, always in dense clumps. 

Certain differences between this description and Smith's may be put 
down to his being made on a single dried specimen, while the above was 
done in the field. The curved backs of the leaves, not mentioned by 
Smith, are very characteristic. In bud the leaves are erect with incurved 
edges and tip and have a thick coating of hairs. The figure shows this 
well. 

* Wrongly named V. cormonnensis in my. Fl. N. & P. Ht., p. 218. 

Vcrnonia conyzoidcs DC. ; Wight's Herb. Prop. 
1387 ! , not of Wight Ic. t. 829 ; F.B.I., under V. cinerea 
Less., iii 233, V 18.* A sturdy herb distinguished among 
our species by its narrow pointed involucral bracts. 

Stem ribbed, usually unbranched till near the flower- 
ing region, sturdy. Leaves erect : stalk \ to | inch, 
broadened slightly and hairy at the insertion : blade 
very acute, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 3 by | to 
ij inches irregularly serrate glabrous or nearly so on the 
upper side, very pubescent or tomentose with distinct 
veins and reticulations on the under. Corymbs much 
branched, terminal on the main stem and leafy branches 
of the upper axils ; pubescent and with few or no bracts : 



314 COMPOSITE 

ultimate peduncles inch, slender. Heads very nume- 
rous, J by J inch : outer bracts not much shorter than 
the inner, one-nerved, acute or spine-tipped, pubescent. 
Achenes hairy, surmounted by a rim of very short, out- 
wardly directed scales : pappus hardly longer than the 
bracts, white, t* 254* 

By woods. Pulneys : Kodaikanal and below. Nilgiris : 
Ootacamund. 

Gen Dist. South Indian hills at high levels. 

Considered by some a form of V. cinerea Less., but very different from 
that plant as it grows on the Madras plains. Close to V. Candolleana 
W. & A. t but in that species the outer pappus scales are erect and neatly 
half as long as the achene, and the latter are glabrous. 

Vernonia Bourdillonii Gamble ; Kew Bull. 1920, 
P* 339' Small shrub. Leaves 2 inches oblanceolate, 
white tomentose as underside. Heads few, f inch, purple 
bracts, linear tomentose. Achenes four-angled, nearly 
glabrous but glandular. 

Nilgiris : near Coonoor (P. V. Mayuranathan). 
Gen Dist. Travancore in grass lands at over 4,000 feet. 

Vernonia Ramaswamii Hutch. ; Kew Bull. 1916, 
p. 35. Small under-shrub. Leaves 2 by inch, linear 
lanceolate, not white below, only slightly pubescent. 
Heads often in a pair on a forking axillary peduncle, to 
| inch ; bracts narrow pubescent. Achenes slightly 
glandular. 

Nilgiris : near Coonoor (P. V. Mayuranathan). 

Gen Dist. Hills of Tinnevelly and Travancore 4,000 feet in beds of 
rivers. 

ADENOSTEMMA. 

Sticky herbs with opposite leaves and terminal 
corymbs of flower-heads, with florets all tubular and 
similar and anther-bases rounded and distinguished by the 



COMPOSITE 



315 



anthers being cut off square at the top with hardly the flap 
usual to the family, and the achenes having for pappus four 
or five club-shaped scales. 

Species under 10, all but ours American. 

Adenostemma Lavenia O. Kze, formerly A. viscosum 
Forst. ; F.B.I. in 242, VII I. An annual of 2 to 3 feet, 
sticky in all the younger parts. Leaves stalked broadly 
ovate or deltoid, serrate, with broadly triangular base. 
Branches of panicle divergent, weak. Stalks of the flower- 
heads slender, sticky. Involucre hemispheric, \ inch : 
bracts obtuse, sticky. Florets small purplish hardly 
visible, but styles long white, flat-like ligules, making 
whole head white. Achenes sticky, t. 255* a. achene ; 
p. section across , showing shape. 

On the plateaus but commoner at lower levels. 

Gen Dist. Throughout India and all tropical countries. 

AGERATUM. F.B.I. 78 vm. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, florets all equal and 

tubular, blue or white never orange, anther bases rounded, 

stylar arms obtuse, achenes five-angled with five scales for 

a pappus. 

Species about 16 probably all American in origin but now 
distributed throughout the tropics. 

Floss flower, Maudlin ; Fr. Agerate ; Ger. Leberbalsam. 

Agcratum conyzoides Linn. ; F.B.I, iii 243, VIII ; 
Floss Flower. Remarkable for the long protruding purple 
styles. Stem 3 to 5 feet, well branched, terete, sparingly 
hairy. Leaves opposite, stalked, ovate-crenate, about 
2 by ij inches in corymbs, terminal on the stem and 
upper branches, with linear bracts at the forkings ; ulti- 
mate peduncles slender to inch. Involucral bracts 



316 COMPOSITE 

$ to i inch, aristate. Florets purple, stylar branches 
long, purple. Achenes black, -J- inch, with a rim of five 
to ten pointed scales about as long, t, 256. 

Very common in masses by roadsides in Ootacamund and 
Kodaikanal, e.g., just below the bund. Distributed throughout 
India and in all warm countries. 

EUPATORIUM. F.B.I. 78 ix. 

Herbs or shrubs with opposite (or alternate) leaves 
and terminal corymbs of flower-heads characterized by 
the florets all equal and tubular, stylar arms long and 
obtuse, achene five-angled or five-ribbed, and pappus of 
a single circle of long scabrid hairs (distinction from 
AGERATUM). 

Species about 400, chiefly American. 

In England we have E. cannabinum^ Hemp-Agrimony, Ger. Wasser- 
dosten, \\hich is abundant on the temperate Himalayas and occurs also in 
Khasia and Burma. 

Named from one Mithridates Eupator who is said to have brought the 
plant into use. 

Eupatorium glandulosum H .B. & K. ; IX 3. Stem 
3 to 6 feet, shrubby, reddish, branched, very glandular 
on all the young parts and scented with a peculiar acrid 
odour. Leaves opposite : stalks i to 2 inches : blades 
i to 3 by f to ij inches, thin, trapezoid or almost trian- 
gular, with very broadly wedge-shaped and almost 
horizontal base, crenate-dentate except the basal margin. 
Flower-heads white in terminal glandular masses, inch, 
many-flowered : involucral bracts about twenty in two 
rows, lanceolate acute, shorter than the florets, with 
two well-defined nerves and scarious margin. Florets 
white, fragrant : corolla tube J inch, slender. Stylar 
arms long and far exserted, divergent. Achenes black, 



COMPOSITE 317 

glabrous, -^ inch, slender, crowned by a pappus of 
ten to twelve white scabrid hairs, twice as long. Bot. 
Mag. t. 8139. 

A garden plant, native of Mexico, common as an escape by 
roadsides in Ootacamund. 

Unknown in Ootacamund. I am told, before the beginning of this 
century, and introduced as a garden plant. Now abundant and a serious 
pest. By 1920 it was well established on roadsides for a considerable 
distance down the Seegur Ghaut and along the Coonoor-Kotagiri and the 
Kotagiri-Kodanad roads as far as the forking to Mettupalaiyam. It has 
now spread everywhere and quickly covers any abandoned land. It has 
even Eucalyptus plantations. 

Eupatorium odoratum Linn. A herb 12 inches high 
with thin stem and widely diverging branches. Leaves 
triangular-ovate, entire at the apex, coarsely toothed at 
the base, three-nerved. Heads in corymbs terminating 
the branches, cylindrical, florets about 20. Involucral 
bracts, imbricate, obtuse, strongly three-nerved. 

Ootacamund, a garden introduction. 

DICHROCEPHALA. F.B.I. 78 xn. 
Round-head. 

Annual herbs with alternate toothed or cut leaves, 
and distinguished from all our COMPOSITE by the small 
and almost perfectly spherical flower-heads composed 
of perfect bi-sexual florets at the top and narrow female 
flowers round the sides. Anther bases rounded. Stylar 
arms short flattened. Achenes compressed without 
pappus or with two small scales. 

Species 4 or 5 in Asia and Africa. 

Dichroccphala chrysanthemifolia DC. (including 
D. latifolia DC.) ; F.B.I. iii 245, XII i ; round head. 
An untidy weed with small chrysanthemum-like leaves, 
widely divergent branches, and small spherical purplish 
flower-heads. 



318 COMPOSITE 

Stem erect or decumbent ; all green parts covered 
with short hairs : branches diverging widely. Leaved 
flaccid, with dull surface, coarsely lobed and toothed, 
the lowest 2 to 3 inches, pinnatifid or lyrate with broad 
terminal lobe and narrower lateral ones (D. latifolia) ; 
the upper i inch, oblong coarsely toothed or pinnati- 
sect, not stalked, clasping the stem with broad auricles 
(D. chrysanthemifolid) ; or often all leaves one kind or all 
the other kind. Peduncles f to ii inches, the longer 
with a small bract, straight, divaricating. Heads \ to 
\ inch, spherical. Florets all tubular ; outer ones very 
slender, tubular with four small teeth, appearing to the 
naked eye as short thick white rods, with style but no 
stamens ; middle ones (about fifteen) larger, companulate 
with four spreading lobes, bi-sexual. Achenes obovate, 
compressed, without pappus, tt, 257, 258, 259. Wight 
Ic. tt. 1095, 1096 ; Sp. Nilg. t. 108. 

Very variable as regards its leaves, and hitherto regarded as two species. 
My plant No. 2985 (t. 258), collected on the Kodaikanal downs has the 
characters of both type plants, D. latifolia DC. Wi*ht Cat. 1412 (t. 257) 
and D. chrysanthemifolia DC. Wight Cat. 1413 (t. 257). 

On both plateaus, on the open downs. 

Gen Dist. Mountains of India from Kashmir to Ceylon, tropical Asia 
and Africa. 

Though Gamble in G.F.M.P. still separates the two species, I am 
convinced that they are both really forms of one, 

MYRIACTIS. F.B.I. 78 xv. 

A small genus of perhaps only one species, belonging 
to tropical Asia and Africa ; characterized by the broad 
flat and daisy-like heads, naked disc, narrow bracts, 
long strap-shaped, white or blue never yellow, rays, 
anthers without tails and achene with short beak but 
no pappus (distinction from ASTER and ERIGERON). 

Species 3 or perhaps i only in Java, India and Central Asia. 



COMPOSITE 319 

Myriactis Wightii Wight ; Herb. Prop. ! ; F.B.I, as 
of DC., iii 247, XV I. Stem 5 to 20 inches, pilose. Leaves 
mostly from near the ground oblanceolate, more or less 
coarsely toothed or lobed or lyrate, 2 to 3 inches, upper 
ones i\ inches, entire, oblanceolate. Flower-heads f 
to i inch, solitary on long axillary peduncles in the upper 
axils, the uppermost opening first ; then one from a lower 
axil : involucral bracts narrow, all equal. Ray florets 
\ inch, at first white, afterwards turning purple and curling 
back. Disc florets campanulate, four-lobed, yellow. 
Achenes egg-shaped, contracted just below the broad 
summit without pappus. t 260. Wight Ic. 1091 ; Sp. 
Nilg. 107. 

In woods. Nilgiris : near Ootacamund. Pulneys : near 
Kodaikanal and above. Also Ceylon. 

The purple colour of the rays and the diameter of the disc increases 
with the age of the flowers. 

Var. bellioides Hook. /. ; a smaller plant with leaves all 
radical, spathulate and head on a single scape-like stem 5 to 
12 inches high. Nilgiris : Bangitappal Valley in open grass. 

ERIGERON, F.B.I. 78 xxii. 

Fleabane. 

Annual or perennial herbs with alternate or radical 
leaves and rayed flower-heads (of the ASTER kind), often 
long stalked, and characterized by the ray florets white 
or blue never yellow, in two or three circles ; involucral 
bracts many and narrow, and pappus hairs slender and 
in one circle. 

Species perhaps 150, widely distributed in temperate 
regions and the mountains of both hemispheres, some being 
ubiquitous weeds. In Britain three species, Fleabane, Ger 
Beschrei kraut, Fr. Vergerette. 

Very closely allied to ASTER, which however has but one circle of ray 
florets (except of course garden " doubles "). 



320 COMPOSITE 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Erect plants : heads white or purple : leaves mostly basal, 

oblanceolate E. alpinus. 

Trailing plant : heads pinkish : leaves narrow. 

E. mucronatum. 
Heads small, not rayed : leaves narrow. . . E. canadense. 

Erigcron alpinus Linn. ; F.BJ. iii 255, XXII 5. 
Root-stock horizontal, thick. Stem 8 to 12 inches, 
unbranched hairy. Leaves mostly radical, oblanceolate, 
2 to 3 inches, upper smaller to | inch. Flower-heads few, 
terminating the stem or peduncled in the upper axils : 
involucral bracts narrow, in two series, all much alike. 
Ray florets numerous, in two or more circles Disc 
florets narrow-cylindrical, not much broader at the top, 
five-toothed. Anther bases entire, narrowed. Stylar 
branches with thickened stigma. Achenes hairy with a 
single circle of under twenty reddish pappus hairs. 
t. 261. 

Nilgiris : on the open downs and by roadsides in Ootaca- 
mund. 

Gen Dist. Mountains of north temperate zone, very variable and 
widely distributed. 

Erigcron canadense Linn. A robust well-branched 
herb, stem and branches covered with short grey hairs, the 
flowering parts densely so. Leaves narrow linear i to 3 
inches, the lowest up to I inch broad, coarsely and 
distantly toothed. Heads J inch, purplish, mostly in 
terminal racemes on peduncles of | to f inch, outer 
involucral bracts purple-tipped. Pappus reddish. 

A weed of road sides in Ootacamund and Coonoor. 

Erigeron mucronatum DC. ; XXII 8. Stem and 
branches slender, from a woody base ; hairs sparingly 
scattered all over the plant. Leaves mostly narrow 



COMPOSITE 321 

elliptic or oblanceolate, to i^ inches ; some also much 
larger, ovate or spathulate, entire or coarsely three- 
toothed or lobed, narrowed to the stalk. Flower-heads 
solitary, terminal pinkish. Involucre of two or three rows 
of narrow subulate bracts, J to ^ inch long, flat. Ray 
florets white turning pink, oblong-oblanceolate with a 
minute notch disc, florets slender. Achene scabrid : 
pappus of inch, long hairs with a few much shorter 
outside, t* 262. 

A native of Mexico universal in gardens and originally 
cultivated under the name Vittadenia triloba. 

This species has, in South India, been confounded with Vittadenia 
australis A. Rich., an Australian plant which is much robust in every 
way. 

CONYZA. F.B.I. 78 XXIV. 

Herbs with alternate leaves and terminal corymbs of 
flower-heads without rays and the florets apparently all 
similar, but the outer two or three circles slender, two 
or three-toothed, without stamens and pale gold in colour, 
the inner florets five-toothed complete with stamens. 
Anther bases not divided. Stylar arms flattened. Achenes 

small pappus hairs about ten, short, dilated. 

i 
Species about 50 chiefly tropical and sub-tropical, a few in 

temperate regions. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Heads \ inch ; leaves obovate to linear, the broader coarsely 

toothed .... C. stricta. 

Heads J inch ; leaves mostly narrow, the lower deeply cut . . 

C. ambigua. 
Heads J to J inch, few ; leaves serrate, hairy . C. japonica. 

Conyza stricta Willd. ; F.B.L iii 258, XXIV 6 ; 
Kodaikanal Groundsel. A small herb with numerous 

21 



322 COMPOSITE 

small unrayed yellow -inch flower-heads, of very slende: 
florets and pappus, in much-branched terminal corymbs. 

Whole plant pubescent, i to 2 feet, branched upwards. 
Leaves obovate and coarsely serrate to oblanceolate- 
oblong entire, dull-green, erect. Heads very numerous 
in corymbs, terminal and from the upper axils : ultimate 
peduncles slender | to i inch. Involucral bracts inch, 
narrow with scarious edges, densely pubescent. Outer 
florets tubular, very slender, minutely toothed : inner bell- 
shaped ones few, five-lobed. Achenes slender, ^ inch, 
pappus hairs few and fine, t, 263. 

In waste places and dry soil, very common on the plateaus 
and in dry places generally. 

Gen. Dist. South-east Himalayas and the South Indian mountains. 

Conyza ambigua DC, formerly Erigeron linifolius 
Willd. ; F.B.L iii 254. Branched or not, 12 to 24 inches. 
Leaves narrow, linear to oblanceolate, i to 2 inches by T ^ 
to \ inch, the broader ones very coarsely serrated, erect or 
weakly spreading. Heads -| inch, peduncles | to J inch, 
slender in terminal and axillary panicles, glabrous or hairy. 
Involucral bracts ^ to | inch linear, coarsely hairy. 
Florets small, pale. Achenes ./^ inch ; pappus ^ inch, 
pale, yellowish, t* 264. 

A weed, on all three plateaus. 

Conyza japonica Less. ; F.B.L iii 256, XXIV 2. 
Stem 6 to 12 inches, woody or glabrate, not or little branch- 
ed. Leaves sessile, obovate, spathulate, coarsely serrate, 
often but not always with dilated auricular base. Heads 
J inch diameter nearly sessile in terminal rounded corymbs. 
Involucral bracts acute, with hairy middle part and 
scarious margins. Receptacle pitted and fimbriate. 



COMPOSITE 323 

Achenes very small, pinkish purple. Pappus J inch, 
silky, slightly red or pinkish, t* 265. 

On paths and bare places on both plateaus. 
Has the habit of Blumea hieracifolia, cf. p. 334. 

BLUMEA. F.B.I. 78 xxvi. 

Annual or perennial herbs with alternate woolly 
or glandular pubescent leaves, often strongly scented. 
Flower-heads variously arranged ; without rays, and all 
the florets tubular and apparently similar ; but several 
outer circles slender two or three-toothed, without sta- 
mens. Inner few or absent, five-toothed : anther bases 
divided into short slender tails. Stylar arms flattened : 
achenes small with a single circle of slender caducous 
pappus hairs. 

Species about 60 in tropical and sub-tropical parts of Asia, 
Africa and Australia, very common in India. 

A very difficult genus, the species being inconstant in leaves and other 
respects. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves mostly radical ; heads in close clusters terminating the 
stem and lateral branches : florets yellow, exserted from 
involucre B. hieracifolia. 

Stem simple : radical leaves present or not : stem leaves 
truncate or clasping at base, woolly ; clusters terminal, 
close ; florets purple, not exserted . B. macrostachya. 

Stem branched upwards : heads in open panicles, purple ; 
leaves coarsely toothed. B. Wightiana and B. neilgherrensis. 

Blumea neilgherrensis Hook. f. ; F.B.L iii 261, 
XXVI 4. Strongly aromatic and woolly all over. Leaves 
obovate acute, from 3 to 4 by 1} to 2 inches near the 
base to i by inch near the flowering part, sharply 
dentate-serrate with teeth i to ^ inch apart. Heads 
numerous soft : involucral bracts very slender woolly, 

2I-A 



324 COMPOSITE 

Florets purple, lobes and achenes glabrous ; pappus 
copious, t* 266* 

On the open downs, flowers in June. Nilgiris : common, 
Pulneys beyond the Observatory. 

This should probably be regarded as the hill form of B. Wightiana 
DC. and perhaps not really separable from it. It varies much in habit 
being small or large, the stem simple or copiously branched, but always 
hairy at these levels, at lower levels it passes into the next species which is 
less hairy, has thinner leaves, & corolla lobes and achenes glandular. 

Bhumca Wightiana DC.; F.B.I, iii 261, XXVI. 3 : 
as above. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. Also Horsleykonda, etc. 

Blumea hicracifolia DC. ; F.B.I . iii 263, XXVI n. 
Stem usually unbranched, erect, i to 2 feet. Leaves 
mostly near the ground and forming a rosette, obovate 
spathulate, serrate ; undersides woolly, as also the upper 
parts of the stem and especially the involucres. Heads 
close together in one or more compact masses forming 
elongate panicles : bracts narrow, hairy, the inner purple- 
tipped and longer than the outer : receptacle naked. 
Florets yellow. Pappus copious, white. Wight Ic. t. 
1099. t* 267. 

Nilgiri and Pulney downs, chiefly near water. Flowers 
in May. 

Gen. Dist. Hilly parts of India. 

Blumea macro stachya, : stem simple, whole plant 
very cottony. Radicle leaves if present up to 3 by i inch, 
obovate and forming a rosette, but usually absent at 
time of flowering ; stem leaves up to 2 by J- inch, oblong, 
elliptic, acute, witfy truncate stem-clasping base. Heads 
in a compact terminal cluster. Florets purple not 
exserted from involucre, and bracts also often purple. 
Achenes five-angled, scabrid on the angles. Pappus 
white, t* 268* See note in Jour. Ind. Bot. Soc* XI (1932)1. 



COMPOSITE 325 

Pulneys : on the downs in damp hollows, and semi-swampy 
ground. The stem varies from 5 to 15 inches, and the whole 
plant from somewhat to very woolly. 

This is apparently included in G.F.M.P. as variety macrostachya of 
the last species : but the purple florets not exserted, and purple bracts 
(discernible even in dried specimens) as well as the general habit appear 
to me to mark it as a distinct species. 

G.F.M.P. has two other plants B. membranacea Z)C., a low level 
species with var. Gardneri having large heads at Coonoor, and B. jacque- 
montii, also at Coonoor, both with yellow flowers, but I have not seen 
them. 

LAGGERA. F.B.I. 78 xxvn. 

A small genus, distinguished among all our COM- 
POSIT/E by the wings on the four angles of the stem and 
branches. Annual or perennial herbs with alternate 
leaves, decurrent as wings, and loosely panicled unrayed 
flower-heads characterized by the involucral bracts in 
several series, the outer shorter than the inner, rather 
rigid and spreading : receptacle without scales : florets 
all tubular and slender, the outer in several series, female 
only ; the central ones complete : anther bases divided : 
achenes with one circle of hairs. Very similar to 
BLUMEA in most respects, but the anther bases less cordate 
Our species, however, are most easily recognized by the 
winged stems, and may be distinguished especially when 
young by smell. 

Species about 10 in tropical Africa and India. 

Wings entire, stem sturdy L. alata. 

Wings cut up irregularly : stem slender . . L. pterodonta. 

Laggera alata Schultz ; F.B.I. iii 271, XXVII 2. 
Stem as thick as a lead pencil, very rough with hardened 
leaf-bases, in the younger parts densely pubescent, almost 
woolly : wings wavy but even in width. Leaves broadly- 
oblanceolate to ovate or oblong, up to 2 to 4 by f to i 



326 COMPOSITE 

inches at the widest and % inch at the base, sharply 
serrate with triangular teeth T V to inch apart, pubes- 
cent above, tomentose below especially on the nerves. 
Flower-heads peduncled in the axils of the upper leaves 
or on short lateral branches forming a large terminal 
leafy panicle. The heads facing downwards. Heads 
conical, by inch, with flat base ; lower bracts 
recurved, stiff, t, 269, Wight Ic. t. noi. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : on the open downs, also Shevaroys ; 
flowering in the winter months. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India proper, tropical Africa, Java, China 
and Philippines. 

The stems die down or are burnt down every year, and the young 
shoots which come up after the first rains have large soft leaves smelling 
strongly of Black-current. 

Laggera ptcrodonta Benth. ; F.B.L iii 271, XXVII 
3. Stem and branches slender, glabrous : wings very 
irregular, interrupted and deeply toothed. Leaves 
glabrous, thin, ovate lanceolate or oblanceolate, sessile, 
toothed or pinnatified at the base ; on the main stem 5 by 
i to 2 by | inch ; on the branches smaller. Flower- 
heads peduncled in the upper axils, purple. Wight Ic 
t. 1 100. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys at rather lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India, tropical Himalayas, Assam 
and Burma, tropical Africa. 

Smell of young leaves faint, and rather like that of a Strawberry. 

ANAPHALIS, GNAPHALIUM and 

HELICHRYSUM. F.B.I. 78 xxxix & XLIII. 

Cudweed, Everlasting, etc. 

Characterized chiefly by the scarious glistening bracts 
which stand up round the flower-head (Cudweed) 
or spread out as a white border round it (Everlasting) : 



COMPOSITE 327 

also by the arrangement of the heads in close masses, 
and by a cottony covering on all green parts. 

Florets all tubular, slender : outer ones female only 
(without stamens but) fertile : inner with stamen and 
style but infertile, stylar arms short obtuse, closed. 
Achenes small with one circle of mostly simple pappus 
hairs. 

The differences between the genera are minute and difficult 
of determination but our species of HELICHRYSUM have the 
veins very distinctly impressed like grooves on the upper 
side : this is not so in our species of ANAPHALIS ; and those of 
GNAPHALIUM have golden involucral bracts. 

ANAPHALIS 30 species in Asia, in mountain climates of 
the warmer zones ; a few in Europe and North America. 

HELICHRYSUM 300 species, half of them in South Africa, 
others in Australia, tropical Africa, south Europe and the 
Mediterranean region : in India only a few. 

In England four species of GNAPHALIUM and of FILAGO constitute the 
<{ Cudweeds." Ger. Ruhrkraut. Two species of ANTENNARIA are * Ever 
lasting.' 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

C Leaves with distinct midrib only b 

a \ Leaves with 3 to 7 veins i 

C Bracts of involucre spreading white or pink . ANAPHALIS. c 
b-{ Bracts of involucre erect not spreading, golden . . 

L GNAPHALIUM . . . m 

rMost leaves flat, upper only with recurved margin. 
c< 4. A. Lawn\ 

L Leaf- margin strongly recurved d 

f Upper side of leaf green though more or less cottony . e 
\ Both sides of leaf white with wool g 

{Leaves narrow, not broad at base . 6. A. marcescens. 
Leaves with broad, stem-clasping base f 

{Heads -^o i ncn ; leaves strongly scented, tapering to the 
point 7. A. aristata. 
Heads J inch ; leaves oblong, hardly scented . . 
8. A. Wightiana. 



328 COMPOSITE 

C Leaves I inch, narrow : heads \ inch diameter : stems 

J slender, tall 9. A. leptophylla. 

I Leaves under i inch, stem much branched and woody 
L below h 

{Branches slender : heads \ to \ inch (Pulneys) 
I o. A Bournei. 
Branches thick : heads i to \ inch (Nilgiris). 
ii. A. neelgerriana. 

.f Veins impressed on upper side of leaf . HELICHRYSUM o. 
\Veins not impressed : leaves woolly on both sides . j 

{Much branched, rounded shrubs : bracts obtuse . . / 
Not much branched : bracts acute k 

i /Leaves white 3. A. elliptica. 

\Leavestawny 5. A. Notoniana. 

, f Veins of leaf 5 : flower-heads J inch i. A. Beddomei. 
\Veins 3 : heads J inch 2. A. travancorica. 

f GNAPHALIUM. (p. 334). 

ml Heads in a terminal mass n 

L Heads on short leafy branches ... G. indicum. 

f Leaves oblong, spathulate, white ; heads golden . . . 

I G. luteo-album. 

J Leaves linear acuminate : heads pale yellow. 

I G. hypoleucum. 

THELICHRYSUM 

I Upper side of leaf green H. buddleoides. 

1 Upper side of leaf cottony . . . . H. Hookerianum. 

(^Both sides of leaf woolly (see . . . . e. H. Wightii. 

i. Anaphalis Beddomei Hook. /. ; F.B.I, iii 282, 
XXXIX 12. Grows in loose masses, 2 to 2i feet high f 
the stems ending in irregular cymose corymbs of small 
flower-heads. 

Main stem decumbent, i inch thick, with brown scaly 
bark ; stems or branches numerous curving upwards, 
clothed below with dead leaves, above with green more 
or less erect leaves i inch apart. Leaves oblanceolate, 
clothed above and below with close wool, which however 
does not hide the five, or at the base seven, veins promi- 
nently raised in the lower side, but impressed in the 



COMPOSITE 329 

upper and curving forwards to meet at the tip. Flower- 
heads in small corymbs on peduncles, the outer of which 
are much the longer, so that the whole inflorescence is 
depressed in the centre ; bracts oblong, all close set 
against the axis, the lowest i inch ; central corymbs 
opening and fruiting first. Heads small, the involucres 
campanulate, J by ^ inch : bracts glistening white, 
oblong or rounded not spreading. Disc T V inch or more 
across. Corolla 1 \ ) - inch above the minute ovary. Achenes 
sV inch oblong. After the fall of the fruits the recep- 
tacles appear as small discs | inch diameter surrounded 
by a wing J- inch wide, the inner half brown, the outer 
glistening white. 

Easily distinguished from A. travancorica, which it 
much resembles in growth, by the smaller more spread- 
ing leaves, set at longer internodes, and the small flower- 
heads in loose corymbs also by not smelling, like it, of 
curry, t* 270. 

On the Pulney downs, common. 

Named by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker after Colonel Beddome who sent 
the plant to Kew about 1880. 

2. Anaphalis travancorica Smith ; XXXIX 12.* 
Grows in dense whitish tufts, i to 2 feet in height and up to 
six feet across, of numerous stems that end in closely 
packed very cottony oblanceolate leaves and are clothed 
below by the dead ones ; the flower-heads \ inch across 
in bunches of 2 inches diameter, raised a few inches only 
above the general level. 

Main stem woody, an inch thick, decumbent on the 
ground ; upright stems as thick as a lead pencil, clothed 
for the most part with numerous brownish-grey dead 
leaves, above very cottony. Leaves close set except 



330 COMPOSITE 

near the flowering region, J inch only apart, oblanceo- 
late or spathulate, acute, clasping the stem by a broad 
base, concealed by cottony web : midrib prominent, but 
the pair of lateral nerves visible only when the cottony 
covering is removed, and margin reflexed. The lower 
of the still green leaves spread outwards, the younger 
arching over the bud. 

Flower-heads in corymbose panicles of lower bracts 
leaf-like, upper triangular acute, and uppermost very 
cottony except for the scarious tip. Involucral bracts 
many-seriate, the ends of the outer reflexed and forming 
a glistening white fringe ^ inch round the disc ; the 
innermost erect, oblanceolate-oblong and green except 
at the tip. Disc ^ inch, remarkably uniform in size. 
Florets j 1 ^ inch, their upper halves yellow. Achenes 
brown, T J )0 inch, densely papillate. After the dis- 
persion of the fruits the receptacles appear as greenish 
papillate discs surrounded by flat wings - inch wide of 
narrow bracts. The whole plant has strong smell of 
curry, t* 27 L 

Quite common on the Pulney downs above Kodaikanal 
especially where exposed to alternate dry winds and fog. 
Also hill of Travancore. 

3. Anaphalis elliptica DC. ; F.B.I, as variety of the 
next, iii 283, XXXIX 14. Leaves broad, as broad as 
ij by | ; three-ribbed from the base, otherwise much 
as in A* Lawii to which it is clearly very closely allied. 

Nilgiris : above 7,000 feet, slopes of Snowdon : path to 
Marlimund lake, etc. 

4. Anaphalis Lawii Gamble, formerly included in 
A. oblonga DC.; F.B.L iii 283, XXXIX 14. 

Stem cottony, often unbranched below the flowering 
region, i to 2 feet ; base clothed with dead leaves. Leaves 



COMP OSITVE 

sessile, erect, oblong or oblanceolate, acute, usually 
f to ij by to inch, one-nerved, cottony ; margin nearly 
flat ; base broad. Heads in compact terminal masses, 
in fruit in broad depressed terminal corymbs carried 
high by the lengthening of the flowering stem : involucral 
bracts acute, shining white or pink. Very variable as 
regards size of leaf, t* 272* 

Nilgiris, Pulneys, Shevaroys. Common everywhere on the 
plateaus, especially on rather poor soil and then often only 3 
to 4 inches high. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts and Ceylon. 

5. Anaphalis Notoniana DC. ; F.B.I, iii 284, 
XXXIX 17. Distinguished among our species by the 
broad obtuse often notched involucral bracts, and short 
thick soft leaves. Stem branched from the base and leafy 
to the ends of the branches, very woolly. Leaves oblong, 
obtuse, equally softly woolly on both sides, one-nerved. 
Heads crowded at the ends of the branches. Involucral 
bracts obtuse, erect, glistening yellow or pink, scarious 
and wrinkled. 

Nilgiris : Dodabetta, Church Hill, Ootacamund, Ava- 
lanche, on hill above bungalow. Flower May. 

6. Anaphalis marcescens Clarke ; F.B.L iii 286, 
XXXIX 25. Stem slender, twiggy, much branched. 
Leaves linear or tapering f to i^ inch, one-nerved, with 
strongly revolute margins, glabrous on the upper side, 
woolly on the under, like the stem. Heads inch 
diameter in rounded terminal corymbs. Bracts glistening 
white, lanceolate. Wight Ic. t. 1115. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri ; flowers January to June. 

Var. Leaves narrower and shorter ; pappus reddish ; on the 
banks of streams or wet rocks, Bangitappal valley, etc. This 
is by some considered a different species. 



332 COMPOSITES 

7. Anaphalis aristata DC. ; Herb. Wight's Prop. 
1470 / ; F.B.I. iii 285, XXXIX 22. A green plant with 
sticky leaves and small flower-heads, with aromatic or 
curry smell. 

Stem woody at the base with numerous, erect, flower- 
ing branches, glandular-pubescent but not cottony. 
Leaves clasping the stem with acute auricles, oblong, 
acute or tapering from the clasping base to the apex, 
ij to 2 inches by ^ to inch ; margin recurved : lower 
side white with single midrib ; apex mucronate . and 
turned downwards. Heads very numerous, | inch, 
bunched in more or less compact lumpy corymbs ; bracts 
glistening rounded, with minute teeth, rose-coloured 
when young, afterwards bleaching at the tips, t, 273. b. 
fertile pistillate flower ; c. staminate flower. Wight Ic. 
1119. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal downs, etc. Nilgiris : Avalanche, 
etc. (Wight)-, in rather dry places, on the edges of cattle 
tracks, etc. 

8. Anaphalis Wightiana DC. ; F.B.I. iii 286, 
XXXIX 23. Distinguished from A. aristata by its larger 
( inch) flower-heads and its thicker, shorter, blunter and 
more numerous leaves and not so strongly scented. 

Stem 6 to 12 inches woody below andclothed with 
dead leaves ; branching corymbosely above. Leaves white 
underneath, green on the upper side, oblong obtuse, 
one-nerved, with short recurved tip, revolute margin, 
and broad stem-clasping base : upper leaves erect and 
closely appressed to the stem and those near the flower- 
heads cottony. Heads inch rather long, with several 
rows of bracts, cottony : disc -J- inch, margin of acute 
bracts i/i6 inch : peduncles and lower part of involucres 
densely cottony or tomentose. t* 274. Wight Ic. t. 1117. 



COMPOSITE 333 

In damp and cool places, on banks of streams, etc. Nilgiris : 
on the downs common especially south and west towards 
Pykara and Bangitappal. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal, 
Shevaroys. 

9. Anaphalis leptophylla DC. ; F.B.L iii 285 
XXXIX 21 ; White Everlasting. Distinguished from 
A. Lawn by its much narrower leaves and larger flower- 
heads and by growing in dampish soil. 

Stem slender, branched or not, silvery white with 
closely appressed hairs. Leaves linear or linear oblan- 
ceolate, \ to I inch, mucronate, white with thin cotton 
on both sides : midrib strong : margin revolute. Heads 
when fully open f inch, pure white with yellow centre : 
lower half of bracts scarious with green nerves, glistening : 
upper half spreading outward as a fringe round the disc : 
disc J inch yellow : receptacle glabrous. Achenes 
ovoid. Pappus hairs feathery towards the base. 

Pulneys : in damp places, e.g., near a marsh, on the downs 
Nilgiris. Flower September. 

10. Anaphalis Bournei Fyson ; F.B.L included in 
A. brevifolia DC., iii 286 ; XXX 26.* 

Stem shrubby below and much branched, the whole 
plant as a rounded mass with the habit of A. Beddomei 
and A. travancorica : covered with a closely adpressed 
felt of white hairs. Leaves J to 7^- by ^ inch, acute : 
upper erect and appressed to the stem, lower spreading : 
margin revolute ; midrib distinct. Flowering branches 
6 to 10 inches, somewhat less leafy upwards. Heads i 
inch : border of white scales j\> inch, t* 275. 

Pulneys : by roadsides above Kodaikanal lake, common. 
Not elsewhere. 

Closely allied to A. brevifolia DC. ; a Ceylon species, but differing in 
its narrower longer leaves not in general closely appressed to the stem and 
more widely spreading on the scapes. Plants from Kotagiri, Courtallum, 
and the Anamalais seem to be intermediate between these two. 



334 COMPOSITE 

ii. Anaphalis neelgerriana DC. ; F.B.I. iii 287, 
XXXIX 270. A white very small-leafed shrub charac- 
teristic of dry and exposed situations on the Nilgiris. 

At its best 3 or 4 feet high and as broad, with numerous 
ascending, usually opposite branches, clothed below by 
the dead leaves : bark of stem rough and corky. Leaves 
bluey-white, J by -^ inch, coated with soft white cotton 
closely appressed to the surface, with recurved margins 
and one central vein : when young erect, later spreading, 
and finally depressed close against the axis and persistent 
there, very numerous and close set. Heads in open 
corymbose panicles 2 to 3 inches, across terminating 
erect branches 4 to 5 inches high, clothed to the top with 
closely appressed leaves : disc J to ^ inch, surrounded 
by a white rim of involucral bracts 1 r T . inch* t* 276. Wight 
Ic. 478. 

Nilgiris : in dry and exposed places. Not Pulneys. 
On the Pulneys this plant is represented by A. Bournei. 

GNAPHALIUM, 

Differs from ANAPHALIS in that a few of the herma- 
phrodite (disc) flowers are fertile having divided styles. 

About 100 species in all the cooler parts of the world. 

Gnaphalium luteo-album Linn. ; F.B.I, iii 288, 
XLII i. Var. pallidum. An annual weed, stem 6 to 10 
inches, leaves i to 2 inches, linear oblanceolate whitish 
with adpressed hairs. Heads often in sessile terminal 
clusters. Bracts obtuse, glistening a golden colour. 
Achenes papilose : pappus staining yellow. 

A common weed all over the plateaus. The species extends 
on mountains all over India and to Japan. 



COMPOSITE 335 

Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC. ; F.B.L in 288, 
XLIII 2. Stem 12 inches or more. Leaves lanceolate 
clasping the stem with a broad base not unlike the A. arts- 
tatas but not sticky or scented, the involucral tracts more 
shiny and a golden colour and spreading, and the disc 
larger to \ inch, t* 277 (in bud only and radiating 
bracts not shown). 

Nilgiris and Pulney hills above 7,000 feet. 

Gnaphalium indicum Linn. ; F.B.L iii 289, XLII 
3. Stem 6 to 10 inches high, branched. Leaves ob- 
ovate long-stalked or spathulate, i to 2 inches by J to ^ 
inch. Heads few, in sessile bunches with leaves close 
below, terminating the short lateral branches ; lower 
involucral bracts green woolly, upper scarious, not 
spreading. Florets pink-tipped. Pappus white. 

A weed on paths, etc. 

HELICHRYSUM. 

Similar in general character of the flower-head to 
ANAPHALIS, but all or most of the hermaphrodite (disc) 
florets fertile (with divided style) and pappus scabrid 
Our species distinguished from those of ANAPHALIS (ex. 
A. Beddomei) by the leaves having 5 to 7 veins, from the 
base, strongly impressed on the upper surface. 

About 300 species from Madagascar, Australia, tropical and 
North Africa. 

Helichrysum buddleoides DC., F.B.L iii 290, 
XLIII. Stem 2 to 4 feet, white above, ^ inch thick. 
Leaves elliptic lanceolate or oblanceolate, acute, spreading, 
2 to 4 by | to i inch, greenand glabrous above, white, as 



336 COMPOSITE 

are all the other green parts, with thick adpressed tomen- 
tum, underneath ; veins 5 to 7. Corymbs terminal, 
4 to 8 inches across ; clusters of flower-heads globose 
| to i inch. Heads yellow, J inch, outer bracts, woolly, 
inner glistening. Anthers with long slender t^ils. Achenes 
scabrid, with pappus of scabrid hairs, t, 278* c. tubular 
floret; d. filiform floret [E.T.B.]. Wight Sp. Nilg. 
t. Ill ; Ic. t. 1113. 

Nilgiris : on Snowdon ; flowers in January. Coonoor. 
Pulneys : at lower levels Shembaganur. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Mysore, Bababoodons, Anamalais and 
Ceylon. 

Hclichrysum Hookerianum W. and A.; F.B.I, iii 
291, as a variety of H. buddleoides, but leaves cottony on 
upper side with veins not so distinctly impressed ; lower 
side and stem very woolly. 

Nilgiris : Lovedale (P. V. Mayuranathan) formerly recorded 
from Annamalai, Pulney, Travancore and Tinneveliy hills to 
4,500 feet. 

Hclichrysum Wightii C.B. Clarke ; F.B.I. iii 291, 
XLIII 2. Lower parts of stem clothed with dead leaves; 
middle part with leaves densely woolly on both sides, 
but with veins clearly impressed ; upper part under the 
flower heads nearly bare of leaves. Heads in open pani- 
cles. 

Grows in dense masses colouring the hill-side above 
Sisparah silvery white. Flower May. 

A very large flowered species, the heads an inch or 
more across is common about Kodaikanal and Coonoor 
as a garden escape. It appears to be a golden variety 
of H. niveum Graham, a native of the Swan river Australia, 
of H. macrantha. 



COMPOSITE 337 

MOONIA F.B.I. 78 L. 

(previously named CHRYSOGONUM). 

Herbs or undershrubs with opposite toothed or 
pinnately compound leaves and flower-heads of the 
HELIANTHOIDE/E (see p. 302). Ray florets (without stamens) 
alone fertile and their achenes flattened and embraced 
by the floral scales : pappus very small or o : disc florets 
with stamens and undivided styles, unfertile. 

Species 6, in Australia 3, India 2, America i. 

Moonia hcterophylla Am. formerly Chrysogonum 
heterophyllum Benth. ; F.B.L iii 303, L i. Annual, 
glabrous 3 to 4 feet. Leaves pinnate or pinnatifid : 
leaflets or segments ovate-lanceolate acute, sharply serrate 
or gashed, pilose above, pubescent underneath. Flower- 
heads in irregular umbels or corymbs ; ultimate peduncles 
\ to 2 inches. Involucral bracts three or more nerved 
irregular in length ; outer long and green ; inner shorter. 
Ray florets white : inner yellow. Achenes without pappus. 
t, 279. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. no. 

Very common round woods on the Pulney and Nilgiri downs. 
Flowers from March to August. 

Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. 

Moonia Arnottiana Wt. t formerly Chrysogonum 
Arnottianum Benth. ; F.B.I, iii 303, L 2. A perennial 
under shrub. Similar to the above but leaves larger and 
flower-heads larger, up to i or li inches diameter and 
with more ray florets and these yellow. Wt. Ic. t. 1105. 

Nilgiris : margins of sholas between Avalanche and 
Sispara. Mukarate Peak. 

The large leaves and yellow rays alone distinguish this from the preced- 
ing. Perhaps both should be regarded as varieties of one species, 

22 



338 COMPOSITE 

SIEGESBECKIA, F.B.I. 78 LII. 

A small genus of but two species, one cosmopolitan 
in all warm countries, the other in Peru. 

Siegesbeckia orientalis Linn. ; F.B.L iii 304, 
LII i. Remarkable for the four or five, \ inch long, 
narrow sticky bracts below the globular flower-heads. 

Stem i to 3 feet, pubescent, cymosely branched up- 
wards. Leaves opposite, stalked, 2 to 3 by i to il inches, 
ovate, coarsely round-toothed, and base deltoid. Heads 
terminal, peduncled in the cyme forkings : outer bracts 
linear, i inch spreading, thickly covered with glands ; 
inner spathulate J to J inch : floral scales boat-shaped 
pubescent above. Florets yellow : rays broad three- 
lobed. Anther lobes acute. Stylar arms flattened, rather 
broad. Achenes black, smooth, t* 280, Wight Ic. 
t. 1103. 

Shevaroys on the plateau : and at to lower levels, but 
occurs occasionally on the Pulney and Nilgiri downs. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout India and all Nvarm countries. 

SPILANTHES. F.B.I. 78 LVIII. 

Annual herbs with opposite leaves, and long-stalked 
globular or conical, often very tall, flower-heads, of the 
tribe HELIANTHOIDE/E (p. 302). Achenes without pappus 
but sometimes with a few bristles. 

Species 20, chiefly American. 

Spilanthes acmclla Linn. ; F.B.L iii 307, LXIII i. 
Easily distinguished among our COMPOSITE Ly 
the conical, bright yellow flower-heads without rays. 
Stem weak or more or less erect. Leaves triangular 
ovate, with shallow serrations, three-nerved at the base, 



COMPOSITE 339 

pubescent as are all green parts. Peduncles 2 to 4 inches, 
heads A by J inch. Involucral bracts few. Florets all 
tubular, funnel-shaped, yellow with scales between. 
Achenes compressed, 1 inch long, black, contracted below 
the small terminal areola. t* 281* 

Nilgiris : A wayside weed, common, Ootacamund, Kota- 
giri, Coonoor, etc. Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout India and all warm countries. 



BIDENS* F.B.L 78 LX. 

Bur-marigold. 

Herbs with opposite leaves and flower heads of the 
HELIANTHOIDE/E (p. 302) distinguished from all others 
by the achenes having at the top two to four barbed spines. 

Species 50, chiefly in America. 

Bidens pilosa Linn. ; F.B.I, iii 309, LX 3. Stem 
erect four-angled, glabrous or nearly so, leaves opposite 
pinnately three-foliate or three-fid ; terminal leaflet or 
segment sharply serrate except perhaps the acuminate 
apex, 2 to 5 inch ; lateral i to i inch shortly petioled. 
Flowering portion cymosely forked ; ultimate peduncles 
i to 2i inches stout : bracts 4 inch. Involucral bracts 
with broad scarious margins. Ray florets yellow or white* 
Achenes black narrow, angled, exceeding the involucre 
and surmounted by two awns with many downward 
pointing barbs, t* 282* 

A wayside weed. Nilgiris : Ootacamund and lower levels. 
Pulneys : Kodaikanal down to the plains. Shevaroys, 
Horsleykonda. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout India and in all warm countries. Fr BjJeu 
Ger. Zweizahu. 

Z 2- A 



340 COMPOSITE 

Bidens humilis H. B. and K. ; LX 4. Stems weak, 
spreading. Leaves finely pinnately dissected into narrow 
segments. Rays few spreading, J inch, conspicuous. 
Achenes black with two very short barbed awns, t, 283. 

Roadsides in Ootacamund common, conspicuous in 
December. Not collected on Pulneys. 

An introduction from the highlands of tropical America. 

GALINSOGA. F.B.I. 78 LXII.* 

Annual herbs with opposite leaves and small flower- 
heads of the HELIANTHOIDE/E (p. 3o2), with white rays. 
All the florets fertile : floral scales boat-shaped : achenes 
angled or compressed, surmounted by a few scarious 
entire awned or fimbriate scales. 

Species 5, in tropical America. 

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. ; F.B.I, iii 311, LXII * 
i. A small weed with opposite three-nerved leaves and 
rather few flower-heads on slender stalks of unequal 
length. 

Annual 3 to 20 inches, nearly glabrous, except in the 
youngest parts, cymosely branched upwards. Leaves 
shortly stalked, ovate acute or acuminate, sub-serrate, 
three-nerved from the base : uppermost leaves narrow, 
sessile. Peduncles slender i to i inch, often in terminal 
unequal pairs. Heads J- inch : bracts broad, smooth, with 
three or more veins. Achenes black wedge-shaped with 
a ring of about ten white oblanceolate feathery scales. 
t, 284. 

Nilgiris : as a weed at Ootacamund. Recorded for the 
first time in the Fl.N. & P.Ht. (1914), now abundant. 

Gen. Dist, A weed from America now distributed in South Africa, New 
Zealand, Himalayas and in Great Britain. 



COMPOSITE 341 

COTULA, F.B.I. LXIII. 

Small herbs with alternate pinnately cut leaves, and 
small, long-stalked, unrayed flower-heads, characterized 
by the achenes being stalked, and without pappus and 
some flattened. 

Species 40 in temperate and tropical climates. 

Co tula australis Hook. f. ; LXIII 4. Stem and 
branches 2\ to 4 inches. Leaves j inch pinnatisect into 
linear segments. Heads \ inch, on leafless continuation 
of the branches : outer involucral bracts oblong obtuse, 
one-nerved, with broad scarious margin : receptacle 
naked but for the persistent cylindrical scales of the outer 
florets. Outer florets without corolla, of inner the corolla 
four-lobed. Outer achenes obovate, black with green 
border ; those of disc rough, thick winged, notched at 
the top and tubcrcled or glandular. 

Weed. A native of Australia and New Zealand, probably 
introduced with garden seed. On damp paths, etc. 

ARTEMESIA* F.B.I. 78 LXXII. 

Herbs or at times shrubby highly aromatic plants, 
with alternate leaves, usually much divided and often 
white underneath, and small round flower-heads set in 
slender spikes, which form large leafy panicles. Involucral 
bracts round, scarious-margined. Receptacle without 
scales. No ray-florets. Achenes minute and without 
pappus. 

Species about 200 in the cooler climates of almost the whole 
northern hemisphere, a few in South America and the Sandwich 
islands. In Europe several species are cultivated in gardens. 

Leaves white underneath A. vulgaris. 

Leaves green underneath A. parvittora. 



342 COMPOSITE 

Artemesia parviflora Roxb. ; F.B.I. iii 322, LXXII 
5. Stem 2 to 5 feet grooved. Lower leaves wedge-shaped, 
coarsely toothed along the broad further margin : upper 
pinnatifid with narrow segments, sparingly hirsute : all 
with a pair of narrow stipular-like segments at the base. 
Panicle 12 inches high by 4 inches wide. Heads -J- inch. 
Involucral bracts broad, obtuse. Florets few, some with 
large anthers, but only an aborted ovary and undivided 
style. Achenes ellipsoid, smooth. t* 285. 

Nilgiri and Pulney downs, common. Flowers colder 
months. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India (not Ceylon). 

Artemesia vulgaris Linn. ; F.B.I. iii 325, LXXII 14. 
Mugwort. Tall aromatic herb or shrub growing to 5 
or 6 feet. Leaves pinnatisect, white tomentose below, 
aromatic. All florets fertile, 

Nilgiris : on the downs in dense patches, possibly the sites 
of former dwellings. Pulneys : apparently truly wild on 
the downs. Also near villages, e.g., Vilpatti. 

Gen. Dist. Wild on the Bombay Ghauts and mountains of India and 
temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Also cultivated. 

Formerly much used in Europe, as elsewhere, for flavouring 
dishes and drinks, whence the English Mugwort, Mugwood, 
Muggert or Mugger ; Ger. Beifuss, Biboess ; Fr. Armoise. 

GYNURA. F.B.I. LXXVI. 

Succulent herbs with alternate coarsely toothed or 
entire leaves and unrayed flower-heads with involucres of 
the SENECIO type (p. 303) and a few small bracts below, 
but distinguished from SENECIO and also from NOTONIA 
and EMILIA by the stylar arms being hairy, slender, and 
tapering to a fine point. 

Species about 20 in the warm parts of Asia, Africa and 
Australia. 



COMPOSITE 343 

Gynura nitida DC. ; Wight's Herb. Prop. ; F.B.L 
in 333, LXXVI i. Herb, 2 to 5 feet, glabrous except near 
the flower-heads. Leaves mostly towards the base of 
the stem or branches, obovate or oblanceolate, coarsely 
toothed or serrate, acute or obtuse, narrowed at the base, 
or very broad and almost auricled. Heads few or many, 
in terminal simple or compound corymbs, often umbel- 
late : involucral bracts purple, narrow, glabrous. Florets 
yellow, achenes papillose between the five ribs, t* 286. 
Wight Ic. t. 1 1 21. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys. Flowers in August and September. 

Gynura travancorica W. IV. Smith ; Rec. Bot, 
Sur. Ind. VI 29. Hispid all over except involucres. 
Leaves mostly radical, stiffly erect, blade lanceolate acute, 
narrowed to the base, into a petiole which is slightly 
broadened at the base, irregularly serrate, densely pubes- 
cent on lower surface. Bracts of involucre glabrous, with 
smell of mango. Flowers orange, achenes strongly 
ribbed, red or purple with white between the ribs. 

Jn swampy places. Nilgiris at Kodanad. Shevaroys. 

G.F.M.P. iii p. 714 gives flowers of G. nitida as orange or G. travan- 
corica as yellow. My collections showed the colours vice versa : they 
probably vary. 

EMILIA. F.B.I. LXXVII. 

Herbs with alternate leaves and small solitary purple 
flower-heads, with involucral bracts of the SENECIO type 
and similar to GYNURA but without small extra bracts 
below the flower-head, and stylar arms truncate. Pappus 
hairs long, copious. 

Species 4 or 5 in India and tropical Africa. 



344 COMPOSITE 

Emilia scabra Z)C., formerly Emilia sonchifolia 
Wight, Herb. Prop. 1486 ; F.B.L iii 336, as of DC., 
LXXVII i. A herb, when young with leaves mostly 
near the ground and short flowering stems ; when older, 
2 to 3 feet, erect or decumbent, leafy except near the 
flowers. Radical leaves pinnatifid oHyrate with end lobe 
largest : upper leaves oblong, stem-clasping, serrate : all 
more or less scabrid. Heads on long slender stalks, 
purple. Stylar arms truncate, achenes five-ribbed, hairy 
on the ribs and papillose between them, t* 287. Wight 
Ic. t. 1123. 

The hairy high and smooth low land forms were regarded in F.B.I, as 
varieties of one species, but G.F.M.P. restores DeCandol e's species as 
distinct. 

Very common on the downs. Pulneys and Nilgiris after the 
summer rains. Shevaroys. 

Gen Dist. Throughout India, Asia <md Africa. 

Emilia zcylanica C. B. Clarke ; F.B.I, iii 336, 
LXXVII 4. var. paludosa Gamble. Stems or branches to 
2 feet, glabrous, slender. Leaves entire, narrow, oblong or 
oblanceolate ; upper one with auricled base. Flower- 
heads few : bracts ^ by T ^ inch, oblong acute. Stylar 
arms with enlarged tips (cones). Achenes scabrid- 
t. 288. Wight Ic. t. 1123. 

Pulneys : on the downs. 

Previously known only from Ceylon. 

I have been unable to find Clarke's type sheet, but have seen many 
others named by him at Kevv . My achenes are smooth, but perhaps only 
so because young. The stylar arms are definitely as Clarke describes, and 
I have no doubt that my Pulney plant is the same species as his from 
Ceylon. 

NOTONIA. F.B.I. LXXVIII. 

Succulent herbs or undershrubs with long stalked 
unrayed flower-heads having involucral bracts of the 



COMPOSITE 345 

SENECIO type (p. 303), and in general similar to GYNURA 
but the stylar arms oblong. 
Species 4 or 5, all Indian. 

Notonia Walkcri C. B. Clarke; F.B.L iii 337, 
LXXVIII 3. A tall herb or shrub, glabrous. Leaves 
4 to 8 inches, elliptic, acute at both ends, serrate, with 
stalk dilated at the base. Corymbs terminating leafless 
continuations of the stem : the ultimate peduncles with 
several small bracts below the flower-heads : bracts 
linear \ to 4 inch. Florets all tubular. Achenes five- 
ribbed, hairy on the ribs, t* 289. Wight Ic. t. 1122 as 
Gynura. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund on Club hill. Pulneys. Flowers in 
summer months. 

Notonia Shcvaroycnsis Fyson. Leaves mostly radical, 
obovate irregularly toothed to nearly entire, fleshy, quite 
glabrous* Stem leaves few, oblong, the uppermost broad 
at the base, and passing into bracts at the branches of 
the inflorescence. Heads 10 to 20, in a loose irregular 
corymb. Heads \ to i inch long and wide* Bracts in 
one series, with thick green middle part and as broad 
scarious margin, pubescent towards the tip : a few much 
smaller outside. Florets all similar, tubular, five-lobed, 
yellow. Stylar branches ending in enlarged truncate 
stigmas. Anthers rounded at the base* Achenes 
cylindrical pubescent : pappus white* t. 290. 

Shevaroys : in swamps, on " Green Hills " ; flr. June to 
December. Desc. in Journ. Ind. Bot. Soc. XI (1932) i. 

In habit and appearance it resembles a Senecio but without rays. 
The leaves are often violet on the underside. 

SENECIO. F.B.I. LXXIX. 

Herbs or shrubs, erect or climbing, with alternate 

leaves and yellow-rayed flower-heads characterized by 



COMPOSIT/E 

the 'involucral bracts narrow but not attenuate, usually 
all equal in one circle only to with a few outer smaller and 
filiform ; anther bases rounded and stylar arms truncate, 
recurved. Achenes five to ten-ribbed, with copious 
pappus. 

Species about 900 in temperate climates (in the tropics on 
mountains). 

In Europe are several species Groundsel, Ragwort. Ger. Kreuzkraut, 
Kreuzwurz ; Fr. Senecon, Jacobee. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Erect herbs ; leaves linear to ovate entire, toothed or 

a 1 deeply cut b 

(^Climbing plants : leaves cordate or hastate . . . . e 

C Leaves all quite entire c 

Lower or all leaves toothed d 

Leaves deeply pinnatifid : small branched plant . . 

L 8. S. Hokenacheri. 



1 



f Stem simple ; leaves i inch by inch erect close ; the 
I whole a green cylinder, thickest in the middle . . . 
I 3. S. lavendulrc folius. 

" l Stem simple, slender : leaves evenly on stem | inch, lenear. 

5. S. Lawsoni. 
I Stem branched : leaves 3 to 4 by i inch. i. S. zeylanicus. 

Leaves closely serrate, scattered on the stem. In marshes. 

4. S. Wightii. 

Ls. lanceolate, distantly toothed . 2. S. Nilgherrianus. 
Ls. mostly near the base ; serrte . . 6. S. polycephalus. 
Ls. very coarsely and deeply toothed . 7. S. Lesingianus. 

Ls. cordate, nearly glabrous on both sides. 9. S. Walkeri. 
Leaves cordate, but white or buff-to mentose below . . 

10. S. corymbosus. 

Leaves hastate, glabrous or nearly so. n. S. Wightianus. 

Ls. hastate, but with tomentum below . 12. S. candicars. 

.Ls. slightly hairy 13. S. intermedius. 



COMPOSITE 347 

Erect herbs. 

1. Scnccio zcylanicus DC. ; F.B.L iii 340, LXXIX 
8 ; Grassy Ragwort. Distinguished by its very narrow, 
entire, almost grass-like leaves. 

Stem puberous-pubescent, i to 3 feet, slender. Lower 
leaves 4 to 6 by -J- to J inch, one-nerved, occasionally 
toothed ; upper narrower. Corymbs 6 inches broad, with 
slender bracts at the forkings. Heads | inch : bracts 
| inch, pubescent, suddenly ending in long points. 
Achenes black, strongly ribbed, minutely scabrid. Pappus 

white, t* 291. 

Pulneys : on the downs. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of Travancore and Ceylon. 

2. Scnecio nilghcryanus DC. ; Wight Herb. Prop. 
14827 ; F.B.L iii 341 as of DC., LXXIX 9 ; Nilgiri 
Ragw r ort. Distinguished by its oblong or oblanceolate, 
very distantly toothed leaves. 

Stem shrubby below, nearly glabrous or cottony, 
ribbed or angled, leafy. Leaves 3 to 5 inches, oblong 
oblanceolate, from a narrow auricled base, scabrid above, 
hirsute-tomentose below, acute, distantly toothed, one- 
nerved. Heads i inch, not numerous, in open corymbs : 
bracts with broad scabrid nerve. Rays spreading. Pappus 
white. Wight Ic. t. 1132. 

Pulney and Nilgiri downs on the margins of sholas. Flowers 
in summer. Not recorded elsewhere on the Kundahs. The 
leaves are very white, woolly underneath [G.F.M.P.]. 

3. Scnccio lavandulaefolius Wight, Herb. Prop. 
1481 / ; F.B.I, iii 343 as of DC., LXXIX 17. A small 
erect single stemmed herb distinguished by its closely set 
erect narrow leaves, the whole leafy part being of a spindl^ 
shape. 

Stem unbranched, or branched towards the top, 6 to 
1 8 inches erect. Leaves i by | inch, densely imbricate, 
oblong, acute, erect from a broad base, one-ntrved, 



348 COMPOSITE 

villous above, tomentose underneath ; marginally slightly 
recurved : upper and lower leaves shorter. Corymb 
terminal-stalked above the uppermost leaf. Bracts many, 
imbricate, pubescent. Pappus white, t, 292, Wight 
Ic. t. 1133. 

On the open grass downs of both plateaus. Nilgiris : 
flowering December. Pulneys : flowering September. 

In figure 292 : a. central floret with stamens but no style ; b. disc 
floret with stamens and style ; c. ray floret \vith style only ; d. involucre 
after flowering with inner bracts spread showing receptacle pitted ; e. 
ripened achene of hermaphrodite floret b ; /. unfertilized ovary of a or c. 
[E.T.B.]. 

4. Senecio Wighti Benth., formerly S. Saxatilis Wall. ; 
F.B.I, iii 344, LXXIX 20 ; Swamp Ragwort. Stem at 
the base, or perennial root-stock, decumbent, sometimes 
long and creeping, not as a rule branching below the 
flowering part. Leaves oblanceolate, serrate, acute, with 
auricled base ; the lower about ai by i inch, the upper 
smaller. Branches of the corymb slender, with linear 
bracts of i to j inch, not only at the forkings but also 
scattered on the branches and peduncles. Heads 'I inch. 
Involucral bracts about sixteen linear, often purple or 
brown. Rays | by ^ inch, yellow. Achenes slender 
as long as or longer than the scabrid pappus, t. 293. 
Wight Ic. t. 1124 (Doronicum wightii). 

Nilgiris : in swamps. On the downs, Mukarte, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Also Khasi. 

5* Senecio Lawsoni Gamble ; Kew Bull. 1920, p. 342. 
A very slender herb, 12 to 15 inches high. Leaves 
scattered along the stem regularly from base to inflores- 
ence, linear, up to J inch long, villous only on the midrib. 
Corymbs somewhat lax with few heads. Bracts scarious 
on the margin. Ray florets 5 to 7 veined. 

Nilgiris : Kundahs at about 7,500 feet, on grassy downs 
between Avalanche and Sispara ; flowering November 
[G.F.M.P.]. 



COMPOSITE 349 

6. Scnccio polyccphalus Clarke ; F.B.I, in 344 

LXXIX 22. Stem at base creeping or a slender rhizome, 
above branched or not below the flowering part. Whole 
plant covered with scattered hairs. Leaves mostly near the 
base ; these about 2 by i inch, elliptic regularly crenate- 
serrate, with rather thickened margin and hairs from 
bulbous bases : upper leaves oblong, ii by } inch with 
auricled base, diminishing upwards into bracts. Heads 
few, i inch across : branches of corymb, with several 
linear bracts, especially near the heads. Involucral 
bracts ten to fifteen, \ inch long, linear oblong acuminate, 
glabrous or pubescent. Rays eight to ten, very broadly 
oblong, equal to the involucral bracts. Achenes slender, 
-.- inch, nearly as long as to the red pappus, t* 294. 
Wight Ic. t. 1124. 

Nilgiris : on the downs ; slope of Snowdon ; flowering 
September. Shevaroys : (leaves nearly entire). 

7. Scnccio Lcsingianus C. B. Clarke ; F.B.I, in 344, 
LXXIX 23. Leaves all on the stem, the upper smaller, 
the lower close, sessile elliptic or oblong 2 by 4 inch, 
deeply and coarsely toothed. Heads few on long pedun- 
cles. Bracts narrow, hispid. Rays of head broad, 
9 veined, Achenes hispid. 

Nilgiris : hills above 6,000 feet on western border above 
Naduvattum, etc.; flower September. 

8. Senccio Hohenacheri Hook. /; F.B.I, in 345, 
LXXIX 25. A small herb, stem and branches slender, 
sometimes only 3 inches. Leaves deeply pinnatifid into 
narrow segments. Heads \ to I inch diameter, t, 295. 

In dry pastures on lower levels, e.g., Biccapatti and below 
Shevaroys. Horsleykonda. It passes at lower levels into 
S. tennuifolius Benn. and some even of these high-level plants 
are indistinguishable from that species. 



350 COMPOSITE 

* * Climbing plants. 

9. Senccio Walkeri Am., formerly S. aranoseus DC.; 
F.B.I. iii 351, LXXIX 44. A climber ; stem slender, finely 
grooved. Leaves stalked, ovate to circular, acute, cordate 
2 to 3 inches diameter with small distant teeth, glabrous or 
cottony. Flower-heads in axillary or terminal rounded 
panicles : involucral bracts about eight, /V inch long, 
linear with thick middle band and paler margins, Achenes 
-J- to ^ inch : pappus \ to f inch. Wight Ic. t. 1131. 

In sholas on both plateaus, flowering during the early 
months of the year. Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Coonoor. 
Pulneys : near Kodaikanal and down to Shembaganur. 

10. Senccio corymbosus Wall, Cat. 3121 / ; F.B.I. iii 
351, LXXIX 45. A climber similar to the last but leaves 
white-tomentose underneath. Stem zigzag, slender, ribbed 
but not angled, cottony. No stipules. Leaf-stalks 
i inch : blade i to 2 inches ; underside covered with dense 
white tomentum ; upperside glabrous except for an easily 
removed cotton, drying black. Flower-heads numerous, 
in terminal or axillary peduncled rounded panicles with 
very tomentose branches : Wight Ic. t. 1130. 

Nilgiris : on the downs and eastern plateau down to 
Pykara and Kodanad. Flowers from December to March. 
Pulneys : Kodaikanal, etc. 

I have seen glabrous and cottony or tomentose leaves in different parts 
of the same plant and therefore consider these last two really one species. 

ii. Senccio Wightianus DC. ; Herb. Wight Prop. 
1480 ! , including S. intermedius Wight ; F.B.I, under S. 
scandens Don, iii 352 ; LXXIX 47.** A slender weak- 
stemmed plant climbing or growing gregariously in 
clumps or bushes 3 to 4 feet high and more wide, with 
stalked hastate toothed leaves, not white below, and 
terminal corymbs of small flower-heads. 



COMPOSITE 351 

Stem slender, strongly (about ten) ribbed. Stipules 
semi-lunar, -J to J- inch. Leaves simple or of three leaf- 
lets : stalk J- to I inch. Lateral leaflets if present opposite, 
i by I inch, obovate deltoid or oblanceolate * terminal 
leaflet triangular or hastate, i i to 2 by .\ to i inch (at base), 
sharply and irregularly dentate, glabrous on the upper 
side, pubescent on the under. Corymbs on axillary 
branches, ten to twenty-flowered : bracts -J inch linear. 
Heads J inch : involucral bracts slender. Achenes 
T V inch. t. 296. Wight Ic. tt. 1135 and 1136. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : on the downs ; flowering from Sep- 
tember to March. 

Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. Wight Kcw Dist. 1649, 1650, Hohenacker 
1353, Gardner. 

S. scandens Don., with which this is united by Hooker in F.B.I., is a 
Nepal plant with larger stipules and larger flower-heads, and appears to me 
different Clarke, however, in his Composite of India, with MS. revision, 
united S. candieans DC. also under S. scandens Don. Whether these are 
all to be considered one species or two or three must largely be a matter of 
individual opinion, but the name scandens for an Indian SENECIO cannot 
stand since Thunbergh had already given it to a South African species, as 
Cacalia scandens Thunb. in his Plantarum Capensiitnt^ first edition, 1794. 
Don's Prodromus Nepalcnsis was published in 1825. 

12. Scnccio candieans 7)C., Wall. Cat. 3123 / ; 
F.B.I, iii 352, LXXIX 48. A climber : whole plant whitish 
with close or loose tomentum. Stems zigzag, five-angled 
and ribbed. Stipules j- inch, prominent, roundish or ear- 
shaped. Leaf-stalk ] inch: blade i } to 2 by .] to i 
inch, hastate or triangular with cordate base, acuminate, 
serrate. Corymbs terminal. Bracts J inch whitish. 
Ray florets few. Achenes pubescent. Wight Ic. t. 1134. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund and down to lower levels, 
common ; flowering December. Pulneys : Kodaikanal, etc. ; 
flowering July. 

13. Scnccio intcrmcdius Wt. y F.B.L iii 352 as S. 
scandens similar in general habit to the last two, and 



352 COMPOSITE 

intermediate in the hairiness of the leaves ; belongs to lower 
levels than the Shevaroy plateau, e.g., Horsleykonda, but 
occurs on the Kundahs at 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

CNICUS* F.B.I. 78 LXXXVII. 

Thistle. 

Erect herbs with spiny and spine-toothed leaves often 
decurrent down the stem, and spiny involucral bracts 
Florets all tubular and similar. Anther cells with slender 
tails. Achenes with feathery pappus. 

Species about 150, in all north temperate climates. 

Cnicus Wallichii DC. ; F.B.L iii 363, LXXXVII 7 ; 
common Indian Thistle. Stem 3 to 5 feet, ribbed, 
cottony. Leaves sessile, stem-clasping ; lower deeply 
pinnatisect, upper sinuate-pinnatifid : the segments irre- 
gularly lobed and toothed, and margin all round armed with 
numerous long slender spines. Heads terminal on short 
axillary leafy branches, forming a terminal corymbose 
panicle. Outer involucral bracts very spiny, inner dilated 
just below the tip and incurved there. Florets purple. 
Pappus white, feathery, t, 297* Wight Ic. tt. 1137-8. 

On the open downs. Pulneys. Flowers in June. Nilgiris. 
Gen. Dist. Himalayas of Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan. 

PICRIS. F.B.I. 78 cvn. 

Oxtongue. 

Herbs with hispid stem, alternate or radical leaves, 
and few, long stalked, yellow flower-heads of the 
CICHORIACE^ type (p. 303) (all florets ligulate and 
similar), and characterized by the involucre composed of 
a set of narrow scarious inner bracts in one circle, with 
several shorter outer bracts ; achenes with five to ten 
rough ribs ; and pappus hairs, feathery and copious. 

Species about 24, Europe, North Africa, northern Asia ; and 
one cosmopolitan. 



COMPOSITE 353 

Picris hicracioides Linn. ; F.B.I. iii 392, CVII ; 
Hawkweed Oxtongue. Stem rough with stiff hairs. 
Leaves oblong, stem-clasping, 3 to 8 by i to it inches, 
sinuate-toothed, very scabrid on the margin and midrib 
underneath. Heads often in pairs on a long common 
peduncle, with a few linear bracts on the pedicels. 
Bracts all scabrid with a single or double row of stiff 
black hairs down the middle. Florets orange-yellow. 
Achenes J inch, pointed at each end, slightly curved, 
ribbed and cross-ribbed : pappus white, t* 298* Wight 
Ic. t. 1143. 111. to Bentham's Brit. Flora by Fitch and 
Smith No. 581. 

On the open downs. Pulneys and Nilgiris. Flowers from 
May to January. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate climates of the Old World. 

CREPIS. F.B.I. CVIII. 

Hawksbeard. 

Herbs with the leaves mostly from near the ground, 
or if on the stem alternate and clasping the axis with ear- 
like bases. Florets yellow, all strap-shaped," five-toothed. 
Involucres narrow, cylindrical or enlarged at the base, of 
two series of bracts ; the outer short, the inner much 
longer and after the flowering is over with thickened and 
hardened midrib : receptacle naked. Anthers pointed 
at the base. Stylar arms slender. Achenes ten to thirty- 
ribbed (not compressed as in SONCHUS and LACTUCA 
and contracted just below the summit, crowned by a 
pappus of very white, fine hairs. 

As defined in Gen. Plant., species about 130 scattered 
over the northern hemisphere, mostly of the Old World ; in 
America fewer, and very few in the tropics and south of the 
Line. 

23 



354 COMPOSITE 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Stem up to 1 8 inches, much branched below the flowers ; heads 
J inch or less ; achenes with many ribs. . . C, japonica. 

Flowering stem less than a foot high, not branched ; heads 
i inch ; achenes with six thick ribs .... C. acaulis. 

Stem very slender, leaves acuminate . . . . C. fuscipappa. 

Crcpis japonica Benth. ; F.B.I. Ill 395, CVIII 6 ; 
Japanese Hawksbeard. Leaves nearly all near the ground, 
sinuate-pinnatifid or lyratc, with minute spiny teeth. 
Flowering stems several, erect, nearly leafless, i to 2 feet, 
slender, branched upwards so that the heads are in a loose 
panicle. Involucres J inch across : bracts J inch long, 
linear. Achenes ^ inch, ellipsoid, strongly ribbed, 
brown. Wight Ic. t. 1147. t, 299. 

In shady places, e.g., woods. Pulneys : in and near Kodai- 
kanal, flowering June. Nilgiris : commoner at lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. South-east Asia on mountains from Afghanistan to Ceylon, 
eastwards through the Malay Peninsula to China and Japan, and westwards 
to Mauritius. 

Crcpis fuscipappa Benth : F.B.I. iii 395, CVIII 7 ; 
A slender usually unbranchecl herb, with narrow long- 
acuminate leaves. 

Nilgiris : Avalanche and Sispara [G.F.M.P.]. 

Gen. Dist. Sikkim, Himalayas and southwards to Ceylon. 

Crcpis acaulis Hooker /. ; F.B.I, iii 396, CVIII 8 ; 
Little Hawkweed. A small herb common in the grass of 
the open downs, with solitary yellow flower-heads which 
appear after the first showers. 

Rootstock perennial, as thick as a lead pencil. Leaves 
mostly radical, 2 to 4 inches, oblanceolate, with sheathing 
base ; the margin with small close, backward-pointing 
red teeth ; blotched often with purple on both sides, 
quite glabrous. Flowering stem shorter or longer than 
the leaves, sparingly branched. Heads few, i to i 



COMPOSITE 355 

nches, broad. Bracts of the involucre few, with thin 
purplish margins ; the three outer ones about half as long as 
the five or six inner. Florets seven or eight, all strap- 
shaped, five-toothed, the upper side pale yellow. Anthers 
fully exserted above the mouth, sagittate. Branches of the 
style slender, i inch, hairy all along the outer side. Pappus 
very white, achenes contracted just below the top. t, 300^ 
Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 118 ; Ic. t. 1145. 

On the open grass land. Nilgiris : common at Pykara, 
Bikkapatti (6,700 feet) and above. 

The flowers open about 10 a.m., and close before 4 o'clock. I adopt the 
name Hawkweed rather than Hawksbcard for this species, though the true 
Hawkweeds (Hieraciurn) are distinguished by the bracts of the involucre 
remaining unaltered after flowering, the achenes not being contracted 
below the pappus, and in other details, because this species is much more 
like in habit and general appearance the Mouseear and Alpine Hawkweeds 
of England than to any British species of Crepis. 

HYPOCtLERIS. F.B.I. 78 cxi.* 

Catsear. 

Annual (or perennial) herbs with leaves all near the 
ground and heads borne singly on nearly leafless simple 
or branched flower-stems (scapes). Involucral bracts in 
two or three rows, the outer short, the inner longer. 
Florets all ligulate and similar, yellow. Receptacle with 
scales between them. Achenes slender with ten ribs 
and also cross-wrinkles and those of the outer florets 
prolonged into a beak, bearing the pappus. Pappus hairs 
feathery. 

Species about 3 in temperate climates. 

Hypochaeris glabra Linn. ; F.B.I, iii 401, CXI i ; 
Leaves subsessile, obovate or oblanceolate, deeply sinuate- 
toothed. Flower stems a foot or more simple or occasion- 
ally forked, thickened at the top, and with a few small 
bracts. Heads | inch. Outer bracts of involucre short ; 
23-A 



356 COMPOSITE 

inner lengthening in fruit to f by J inch. Florets yellow. 
Achenes dark brown finely ribbed and wrinkled ; those of 
the outer florets J inch, truncate, those of the inner 
narrowed to a short beak bearing the pappus, t, 301* 

A weed on roadsides in Ootacamund, flowering December. 
Native of Europe. 

TARAXACUM, F.B.I. 78 cxn. 

Dandelion. 

Herbs with milky juice, perennial rootstock, and leaves 
all radical, and characterized by the flower-heads on tall 
leafless stalks (scapes) rising straight from the root- 
stock ; the involucres of an inner single circle of erect 
bracts which do not change after flowering with several 
outer often recurved bracts ; and the achenes extended 
upwards in a long beak bearing the pappus hairs which 
spread out horizontally like a flat umbrella. 

Florets all similar and fertile, ligulate, with five teeth 
anther-cells with long tails : stylar arms slender. 

Species about 10, in temperate and cold regions. 

Taraxacum officinalc Linn. ; F.B.L iii 401, CXI I i ; 
common Dandelion. Rootstock strong, vertical, Leaves 
all radical pinnatisect, with backward sloping segments ; 
margins with small spine-teeth. Heads solitary on 
hollow scapes of about 6 inches : inner bracts erect 4 
inch. Florets yellow. Achenes J inch, egg-shaped, the 
upper and broader end armed with teeth and prolonged 
into a beak ^ inch long. Pappus hairs feathery. 
As a weed. Kodaikanal. 

Hooker in F.B.I, observes that it is remarkable that this plant, so 
common in the Himalayas, should not be found on the Khasi and Nilgir 
mountains, even as a garden-escape. I have seen it only as a weed. 

LACTUCA, F.B.I. 78 cxiv. 

Herbs with milky juice and narrow heads of yellow 

blue or white ligulate florets, with thin involucral bracts, 



COMPOSITE 357 

no scales between the florets, and achenes narrowed 
upwards into a beak which ends in a small disc carrying 
the very soft white pappus of simple hairs. 

Species about 60 in the north temperate regions. 

Lactuca hastata DC. ; F.B.I, in 407, CXIV 14 ; 
Stem tall, 2 to 7 feet, glabrous or roughened or sticky. 
Leaves 4 to 12 inches, variable in shape ; usually with 
a narrow-stalk part extended in occasional lobes and 
widened to clasp the stem at its base, and a broad terminal 
heart-shaped part, with small sinuate-teeth. Heads 
several in irregular racemes or branches at the end of 
the stem, in the axils of narrow bracts J inch wide and 
i inch or more long. Involucre of several rows of bracts 
about .1 inch. Florets bluish-purple. Achenes J inch 
including the beak, flat, irregularly ribbed, suddenly 
contracted into a brown cleft tip in which the white beak 
is situated. Pappus \ inch dirty white with an outer ring 
of bristles, t, 302. 

Nilgiris : Forester's hut near Ootacamund. 

Gen. Dist. Also temperate Himalayas and Khasi hills. 

SONCHUS* F.B.I. 78 cxvn. 

Sowthistle. 

Leafy herbs with milky juice and radical, or alternate 
and then stem-clasping leaves, and irregular umbels or 
corymbs of yellow flower-heads, often broadest at the 
base, of the CICHORIACE^: type (p. 303) (all florets 
ligulate and similar), on a flat receptacle, and charac- 
terized by the ribbed obovoid or ellipsoid compressed 
achenes, without beaks, and the long slender pappus 
hairs united at the base and falling off together. 

Species 24 in the north temperate regions and central Asia ; 
a few spread as weeds all over the world. 



358 CAMPANULAC&E 

Sonchus arvensis Linn. ; F.B.L iii 414, CXVII 2 ; 
Corn Sowthistle. Stem ii to 2 feet with perennial 
rootstock. Radical leaves deeply pinnatisect, the ter 
minal and each pair of lateral leaflets forming broad 
triangles with almost horizontal base ; margin finely 
sinuate-spine-toothed : upper leaves lanceolate, broadest 
at the deeply cordate stem-clasping base. Flower-heads 
i inch, in an irregular umbel : involucral bracts glabrous 
| inch. Achenes dark brown, ribbed and cross-striated, 
blunt above, tapering below ; pappus silky. Wight 
Ic. t. 1142. 

Ootacamund as a weed. Flowers in cold months. Pulneys : 
at lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. Wild and a weed of cultivation in all temperate and many 
tropical countries. 

CAMPANULA CEfc. 

Herbs with alternate leaves. Flowers monopetalous 
with an inferior ovary typically of three cells and style with 
three stigmas, rather long persistent sepals, stamens 
attached at the base to the corolla, and very numerous 
small seeds with erect embryo in endosperm. 

Species about 1,000, all over the world. 

Tribe I: LOBELIEJE Corolla irregular, two-lipped, 
and split down the back to the base : anthers united but 
filaments free (as in COMPOSITE). Ovary two-celled. 

Fruit a capsule : tall herbs with dense spike of flowers, or 

small herbs LOBELIA. 

Tribe II : CAMPANULEMCorolh regular : anthers 

not connected, ovary three-celled. 

Capsule opening inside the calyx teeth : stem very slender. 
Flowers bell-shaped WAHLENBERGIA. 

Ditto, but flowers flat, star-like CEPHALOSTIGMA. 

Capsule opening by slits at the side, below and between the 
calyx teeth : stem erect or spreading . . , CAMPANULA. 



C AMP ANUL ACE^E 359 

LOBELIA. F.B.I, n. 

Corolla two-lipped ; upper lip split down the back ; 
lower three-lobed spreading. Herbs tall or quite low, 
with alternate usually toothed leaves. Flowers solitary 
in the axils of leaves or of bracts, and then often in a dense 
terminal spike. Stamens five, anthers connate, the two 
upper (dorsal) tipped with bristles, the three lower naked. 
Ovary inferior, two-celled, surmounted by three long 
sepals : style single, with bifid stigma. Fruit a capsule 
opening in two valves between the calyx teeth. 

Species 200, in temperate and sub-tropical regions. 

Lobelia trigona Roxb. ; F.B.L ^423, II I. A small 
delicate herb similar to the common blue Lobelia of 
gardens. 

Stem 5 to 12 inches. Leaves 1 to 2 inch, broadly 
ovate, crenate-serrate, very shortly stalked. Flowers on 
slender axillary pedicels of i inch. Calyx tube inch ; 
teeth slightly longer, linear. Corolla twice as long, blue, 
with unequal lobes. Anthers all tipped with a minute 
fringe of hairs. Capsule J to \ inch, ellipsoid, t. 303* 

Belongs properly to lower levels, e.g., Courtallam and 
Mysore, but occurs on the Nilgiri plateau near Coonoor and 
Pykara in marshy ground. Pulneys : below Kodaikanal. 
Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. South India from sea level upwards to 6,000 feet and 
over, Assam, Bengal, Ceylon, Burma. 

Lobelia excelsa Lesch. ; F.B.L iii 427, II 15 ; Giant 
Lobelia. Tall coarse herbs, stem usually simple. Leaves 
oblanceolate obovate or elliptic, very large at the base, 
smaller above, soft, finely toothed. Flowers in a dense 
purplish brown spike, 12 inches by i\ to 3 inches. Calyx 
tube campanulate, J- inch, tomentose ; sepals f inch, 
narrow acute. Corolla about twice as long, split down the 



360 CAMPANULACE/E 

back, so that it falls down exposing the stamens. Fila- 
ments twice as long as the sepals : anthers / inch, 
oblong, glabrous. Fruit globular, enclosed in the calyx 
tube. t. 304* Wight Ic. t. 1172. 

At high levels round sholas, etc. Nilgiris : Ootacamund. 
Pulneys : Kodaikanal and above. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India. The Giant Lobelias occur 
on tropical mountains in Asia and Africa. 

Lobelia nicotianaefolia Heyne ; F.B.I, in 427, II 14. 
Very similar to the last, but the leaves thinner and less 
hairy, the spikes looser and the flowers larger and white, 
and anthers with a few long hairs on the backs. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys at rather lower levels than the last, 
e.g., Shembaganur. 

Var. tricantha spike slender, branched, anthers with 
white hairs. In similar situations. 

CEPHALOSTIGMA. F.B.I. 80 in. 

Small herbs with alternate mostly waved leaves and 
small star-shaped flowers on very slender pedicels in 
racemes like cymes or panicles with pointed bracts, style 
three-lobed. Fruit a capsule. 

A very small genus of about 10 species. 

Cephalostigma Schimpcri Hochst. ; V.B.I, iii 428, 
III i. Herb 10 to 15 inches high, all covered thinly with 
spreading hairs. Leaves f inch, narrow. Flowers \ to \ 
inch diameter, bluish. 

Shevaroys : on plateau ; flower January. Horsleykonda 
and at lower levels. 

WAHLENBERGIA* F.B.I, iv. 

Flowers of the CAMPANULA type, i.e., the corolla 

quite regular, bell-shaped with five lobes, style with 

three stigmas and anthers free ; but differing in the 

capsule opening at the top, inside the sepals. 



CAMPANULACE^E 361 

Species 100, mostly in the southern hemisphere, e.g., south 
and tropical Africa, Madagascar, tropical and eastern Asia, 
Australia, New Zealand, western Europe. 

Wahlcnbcrgia gracilis DC. ; F.B.I, in 429, IV i. 
Stems several from a horizontal perennial rootstock, 
flexible, 2 to 12 inches. Leaves \ to i inch, mostly 
narrow, linear or lanceolate to obovate-oblong, distantly 
and minutely toothed, strongly one-nerved. Flower- 
stalks terminal, i to 6 inches, naked or with one or 
more bracts and aborted buds. Calyx tube ^ inch, 
campanulate ; sepals longer, acute, glabrous. Corolla 
bell-shaped, about i inch, mauve-blue, divided nearly 
one-third way down into five broad lobes. Stigma 
three-lobed. Capsule ] inch, egg-shaped, tapering to the 
stalk, opening by three valves inside the sepals. t 305. 
Wight ec. t. 1175, Sp. Nilg. 124. 

In the grass of the open downs, very common ; flowering 
after the first April showers. Pulncys : near and above Kodai- 
kanal. Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Pykara and Coonoor. 
The leaves vary in shape and hairiness. 

CAMPANULA* 

Herbs with perennial rootstock, rarely annuals. 
Corolla bell-shaped, lobed. Ovary usually three-celled, 
and stigma three-lobed. Anthers not united. Capsule 
inferior crowned by the dried sepals and opening at the 
sides by slits between the ribs of the " calyx tube." 

Species about 200, mostly in the temperate regions of the 
northern hemisphere ; also Mediterranean, Arabia and tropical 
Africa and Asia (on mountains). 

Campanula ramulosa Wall. ; formerly included in 
C. colorata Wall. ; F.B.I, iii 440, XIII 5. Stem coarsely 
hairy, T ^ to inch thick, solitary, or several from a 
perennial rootstock, erect or spreading. Leaves well 



362 CAMPANULACEJE 

separated up to i inch, obovate acute, crenate-serrate, 
hispid, especially on the underside. Flowers terminating 
the main stem and on axillary branches, forming a broad 
irregular panicle. Calyx tube | inch ; sepals as long, 
triangular. Corolla I inch, blue, lobed about one-third. 
Anthers long, attached lightly . at their bases. Calyx 
tube in fruit | inch, hemispheric with proportionately 
enlarged sepals, t* 306, 

In the grass of the open downs ; flowering from May to 
August. Pulneys : 7,000 feet and above. Nilgiris : on the 
downs. 

I divide the species C. colorata Wall, of my first edition as it is 
divided in G.F.M P., but I see no real difference between these plants. 
The species C. colorata C.B. Clarke \\as founded on a Himalayan 
plant. When doing the former \\ork at Kew, I could find no difference 
between my Pulney and the Thibetan examples. 

Campanula Wightii Gamble (G.F.M.P., />. 740). 
Similar to the last but branches from the thick rootstock ; 
many slender leaves mostly under 4 inch ; calyx scarcely 
y 1 ^ inch. Flowers purple or often without petals or 
stamens. Wt. Ic. b. 1178 and Sp. Nilg. t. 176. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys on the downs. 

Campanula Alphonsit Wall., Cat. 1296 / ; F.R.L Hi 
440, XIII 6. Stems slender, much tufted, weak and 
spreading. Leaves \ to I inch, obovate, narrowed to the 
nearly sessile base, white below, with a few rounded teeth. 
Rowers mostly terminal, and a few pedicelled in the 
upper axils. Corolla bell-shaped, f to .1 inch, blue or 
purple, t. 307- Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 125, Ic. t. 1177. 

On the downs, Pulneys and Nilgiris. Bourne 283, 1578. 

Leaves similar in some respects to C. colorata, but more closely set 
and all facing upwards on the horizontal stems. The flowering part, too, 
not corymbosely branched. Not reported elsewhere. 

Campanula fulgens Wall., Cat. 1283 / ; F.E.I, iii 442, 
XIII 13. Remarkable for the flowers being in groups at 
irregular intervals along the spike. 



VACCINIACE& 

Stem erect, i to 3 feet, and about -J inch thick, ribbed, 
little, if at all, branched. Leaves crowded near the 
ground, distant higher up, 2 to 3 \ by \ to i inch, elliptic, 
narrowed at both ends, coarsely crenate-serrate, softly 
pubescent on the upper side, roughly hairy on the under. 
Spikes terminal. Flowers solitary or in bunches of two 
or three at intervals of | to 2 inches, subsessile, the top 
flower opening first. Bracts linear f inch. Calyx tube 
conical inch ; sepals linear f inch. Corolla blue 
f inch, very deeply divided into five oblong rounded 
lobes. Anthers narrow, basifixed on slender filaments 
with broad bases. Ovary enclosed in the ten-ribbed 
calyx tube, five-celled : placentas stalked from the inner 
angles and bearing numerous ovules, t. 308. Wight 
Sp. Nilg. t. 127 ; Ic. t. 1179 ; HI- t. 136. 

In the grass of the open downs, flowering frojn May to 
September. Pulneys : about and above Kodaikanal abun- 
dant. Nilgiris : Dodabetta and the downs. Shevaroys : 
flower January. 

Gen. Dist. Nilgiri, Pulney and Coorg mountains up to 8,000 feet, 
Khasia, Nepal Sikkim (7,000 feet), Chembi valley, Burma (4,000 feet). 

The opening of the topmost flower first and of the others later, in order 
from the base, is peculiar. It suggests a condensation in time of \\hat one 
finds with some garden Campanulas, where after the first lot of flowers 
have withered, or perhaps before the top one which naturally opens last, 
a second crop appears in twos and threes at the nodes of the older fallen 
ones. If these latter (i.e., the first set) failed to appear at all, except the top 
one, we should get what we find in C. fulgens. 



VACCINIACE^:. 

Shrubs and trees with alternate, exstipulate, toothed 
leaves and regular monopetalous flowers characterized 
by their great regularity, all parts being in fives five 
sepals, five corolla lobes, ten stamens, five cells to the 
ovary ; by the stamens being quite free of the corolla 



364 VACCINIACE^E 

(unusual in monopetaltv) ; by the anthers opening by pores 
sometimes at the end of tubular extensions ; and by the 
inferior ovary (distinction from ERICACE/E). 
Species 350, in temperate and cold regions. 

VACCINIUM. F.B.I. 81 in. 

Shrubs and trees with alternate ovate or lanceolate 
leaves and small flowers in terminal or axillary racemes 
or bunches. Corolla (in Indian species) egg-shaped 
with five small teeth. Anthers ten, prolonged upwards in 
two slender tubes with terminal slits or spurs. Fruit, a 
globose berry crowned by the calyx teeth, and contain- 
ing five or more seeds with firm smooth coat. 

Species 100, in northern hemisphere and mountains of the 
tropics. 

In Britain 4 species Whortleberry, Bilberry, Cowberry, Cranberry, 
etc. Fr. Airelle. Ger. Blanebeere, Heidclbeere. 

Vaccinium Leschenaultii Wight ; F.B.I, iii 455, III 
17. A fair-sized tree, with thick rough bark. Young 
parts pubescent, and young leaves pinkish. Leaves 2 to 3 
inches by 4 to i inch, alternate, erect and curving out- 
wards, elliptic, acute at both ends, crenate, hard, shining ; 
stalks to \ inch. Flowers in pubescent racemes, terminal 
and in the upper leaf-axils pink and white. Calyx i 
inch, its five teeth triangular, ciliate, / { inch. Anthers as 
long, produced in two long white tubes of inch, filaments 
hairy. Ovary covered by a green, ten-lobed disk : style 
rising from its centre and jointed to it, white with small 
punctuate stigma. Fruit a berry, j to i inch, pink to 
purple when ripe. Seeds light brown - ; * - inch finely 
wrinkled, t. 309. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 128 ; Ic. t. 1188. 
Beddome Fl. Syl. S. Ind. t. CCVII. 

Nilgiris : abundant on the plateau, near and in Ootacamund, 
flowering in winter and spring months, fruiting in summer. 



ERICACEAE 365 

Pulneys : in sholas at and above Kodaikanal, common. The 
young leaves are purple and in April and May are very 
conspicuous over the shola. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian mountains and Ceylon. Some Nilgiri speci- 
mens have nearly round leaves. 

Vaccinium nilghcrrcnsc Wight ; F.B.L iii 454, III 
1 6. A large shrub, with much narrower and longer leaves 
(2 to 4 inches by \ inch), finely crenate, and slightly smaller 
white flowers and red berries. Filaments of stamens 
nearly or quite glabrous tubular, beaks of anthers -^ 
inch. t. 310. 

At lower levels. Nilgiris : Pykara river below the falls 
Pulneys : Shembaganur. Shevaroys : Green Hills, flower 
June. 

ERICACE^. F.B.I. 82. 

Shrubs and trees with alternate or falsely whorled 
leaves, and perfectly regular flowers with five sepals ; 
a five-lobed monopetalous corolla ; ten stamens, with 
anther cells opening at the apex ; a five-celled superior 
ovary, and dry capsular fruit. (Distinguished from the 
VACCINIACH/E in the last two respects.) 

Species about 1,000, in all parts of the world, comprising 
plants of such different habit as Rhododendron and Azalea, 
developed chiefly on the mountains of western Asia, and 
Erica (Heather, Heath, Ling) a genus adapted by the small, 
often narrow and inrolled leaves to dry conditions and occur- 
ring exclusively in Europe and the Cape region of South 
Africa. 

In Europe Menscsia, Andromeda, Arbutus (Stra\\ berry tree) and 
Arctostaphylos (Bearberry), Pyrola (Winter green) and Monotropa (Birds- 
nest) belong to this or a very closely allied family. 

Shrub, flowers ,1 inch, egg-shaped, white, in racemes . . . 

GAULTIIERIA. 

Tree, flower i to 2 inches, bell-shaped, red . . . 

RHODODENDRON. 



366 ERICACEJE 

GAULTHERIA. F.B.I. 82 i. 

Shrubs with persistent alternate serrulate leaves and 
small flowers in racemes or solitary, with bract and 
bracteoles. Calyx egg-shaped, persistent as a fleshy 
coating round the fruit. Corolla long egg-shaped, with 
five small recurved lobes. Stamens ten ; filaments broad, 
hairy ; anther cells produced upwards into tubes and 
horned behind (or in some flowers smaller and without 
these). Ovary of five cells with many ovules in each ; 
capsule loculicidal. 

Species 90, mostly American. 

Gaulthcria fragrantissima Wallich ; F.R.I. Hi 457, 
14. A shrub with stirTy erect twigs and leaves, smelling 
strongly of Oil of Wintergreen when crushed, and 
axillary racemes of small snow-white, heather-shaped 
flowers or dark-blue berries. 

Young shoots smooth, often red, angular or com- 
pressed. Leaves very hard and stiff, erect or spreading ; 
stalks thick, red ; blade ovate, rounded at the base, 
crenate with small points from base to apex, and ending 
in a short blunt point ; midrib stout ; veins impressed 
on the upper side ; upper surface glossy ; under lighs 
coloured, dotted with black or brown glands. Corolla 
egg-shaped, more or less five-angled, }. inch long with 
minute teeth ; fragrant. Anthers ^ inch, brown, 
attached by their backs, flask-shaped and narrowed up- 
wards, ending in four tubes, and opening outwards by 
slits near the top. Ovary ten-lobed ; style straight ; 
stigma minute, terminal. Berry \ inch, blue with red 
stalk, impressed at the top with five radiating marks, 
edible, t. 311. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 130; t. 1195. 



ERICACEAE 367 

Very common round sholas, in thickets and on the open 
downs. Pulneys : abundant near Kodaikanal, flowering 
before the summer. Nilgiris abundant ; Ootacamund and on 
the downs to Pykara and Coonoor flowering early, and fruiting 
in May and June. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas from Nepal westwards ; mountains of Burma, 
South India and Ceylon. 

The fruit is more like 'a minute apple than an ordinary berry, for the 
seeds are not immersed in the flesh but enclosed in the cells of the ovary 
separate from the flesh outside them. 

Honey is secreted round the base of the ovary and held in by the ten 
little pockets between it and the stamens, and prevented from flowing out 
by the enlargements of the filaments. The anthers swing easily on their 
filaments, and their horns touch the inside of the corolla. They open 
outwards and any pollen that may be set free is caught by the hairs on the 
inside of the corolla, which are directed tcwards the base (i.e., upwards as 
the flower hangs) and thereby prevented from falling out. The honey 
can be obtained only by an insect clever enough to hang on the flower 
and probe upwards. The narrow entrance to the flower would cause the 
proboscis to touch the style first and leave on the cup-shaped stigma any 
pollen it might bring. The proboscis would then curve round the ovary 
and against the corolla and so come into contact with the horns of a stamen 
and shake pollen out of the anther on to it. 

RHODODENDRON. 

This genus includes both the Rhododendrons and the 
Azaleas of English gardens ; the former with evergreen 
leaves and flowers in close bunches, the latter with annual 
leaves and more scattered flowers. 

Shrubs and small trees with alternate often leathery 
leaves and large winter buds. Flowers regular or nearly 
so. Corolla five-lobed. Stamens ten, not attached to the 
corolla. Ovary five to twenty-celled with single style and 
capitate stigma, which like the stamens is slightly bent 
upwards. Fruit a woody capsule, opening from the top 
downwards into its component carpels but leaving a 
central axis. Seeds many and small. 

Species about 300, with numerous natural varieties : and 
now, in cultivation, many hybrids and garden varieties. For 
the most part natives of the region between southern China and 



368 PRIMULACEjE 

the south-west Himalayas, but extending also to Japan, the 
islands north of it, and North America, on the one side ; and 
on the other to the Caucasus and southern Europe (4 sp.). 
North Australia has one species and South India one. 

The Rhododendrons of English gardens have nearly all sprung, from 
seed collected by the late Sir Dr. J. H. Hooker in the Sikkim Himalayas 
(1847 51). But others have since been collected, and a whole group of 
very beautiful epiphytic species occur in the forests of north-west Burma. 

Rhododendron nilagiricum Zenk. formerly R. 
arboreum Sm. ; F.B.I, iii 465, VIII 10. A small tree with 
very rough bark stiff elliptical white-backed leaves, 
erect in bud, and masses of blood-red or crimson flowers, 
very conspicuous in January. 

Height 15 to 20 feet ; bark very thick. Leaves 
elliptic or lanceolate, acute at both ends, rusty or silvery- 
white underneath, dark green above, very coriaceous 
and stiff, with strongly recurved margins ; in bud erect 
and showing their silvery backs, later spreading or drooping 
but stiffly ; about two and a half times as long as broad, 
3 to 6 inches long, with stalk of i to 4 inch. Flowers 
subsessile, in dense terminal bunches 4 to 8 inches across. 
Bud of the whole inflorescence, large egg-shaped. 
Corolla i^ inches long and wide, red. Capsule oblong, 
I by | inch, woody, t. 312. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 131. 

Very common on both plateaus. Nilgiris : everywhere, 
quite common in and near Ootacamund. Pulneys : con- 
spicuous on exposed hill-tops, its thick bark enabling it to 
stand the yearly grass fires. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India, Himalayas, Burma. 

PRIMULACEyE. 

Perennial herbs with alternate or opposite, often 
radical, leaves ; and perfectly regular flowers with five- 
lobed calyx, five-lobed monopetalous corolla, five 
stamens attached to the corolla tube opposite its lobes, 



PRIMULACE.ZE 3^9 

superior ovary of one cell with free central placenta 
covered with kidney-shaped ovules, and capsular fruit 
opening by a transverse slit or in valves. 

Species 100, chiefly in temperate and Alpine regions. 

In Europe are Primula (Primrose, Cowslip, Fr. Primevere, Ger. Schlus- 
seldume) ; Hottonia (Water-violet) ; Cyclamen ; Centunculus ; Glaux ; 
Samolus (Brookweed) ; Lysimachia ; Anagallis. 

Capsule opening by valves LYSIMACHIA. 

Capsule opening by transverse slit ANAGALLIS. 

LYSIMACHIA. F.B.I. 87 v. 

Stem herbaceous, erect or creeping. Leaves alternate 
or opposite, simple. Flowers in racemes, or solitary at 
the leaf-axils. Corolla twisted in bud (distinction from 
Primula, etc.). Stamens attached to the base of the 
corolla and opposite its lobes. Ovary globose : style 
slender, persistent on the capsule which opens by valves. 
Seeds many with thick tight seed-coat. 

Species about 60, mostly in the sub-tropical and temperate 
climates of the northern hemisphere but a few also in tropical 
and southern Africa, Australia and South America. 

In Britain 4 species Loosestrife, Yellow Pimpernel, etc. 

Lysimachia Lcschenaultii Duby ; F.B.I, iii 501, V I. 

* (Ordinary form). A small herb perennial by a 
knotted rootstock. Stem round, pubescent, reddish, 
clothed to the base by the green or withered leaves. 
Leaves opposite or nearly so, often tufted beacuse of 
axillary buds, oblanceolate or narrow oblong, entire, finely 
white-dotted below, glabrous above and mottled with 
brown internal glands, herbaceous, erect : veins green, 
scarcely visible. Flowers in a close terminal handsome 
raceme 2 to 4 inches long, pink. Bracts linear, inch : 
pedicel i to i inch, slender. Sepals J inch, lanceolate, 
acuminate, with thin margins. Corolla tube short ; lobes 
24 



37 PRIMULACEJE 

(petals) obovate, \ inch, spreading. Stamens slightly 
longer, spreading and well exserted. Fruit a perfectly 
round capsule, J- to J inch, sitting inside the now recurved 
sepals, and surmounted by the filiform ] inch style ; 
at length opening in five or six oblong valves which 
spread out flat. Seeds about eleven, black, with rounded 
outer (dorsal) side and" ridged inner, and covered all over 
with a fine raised network, t. 313. Wight Ic. t. 1204 ; 
Sp. Nilg. t. 132. 

In wet places, very common on the Pulneys, on the open 
downs and round the shores of the lake at Kodaikanal. Nil- 
gins : near Ootacamund but not common ; on the downs to 
Pykara and Kotagiri. 

Gen. Dist. These mountain tops only. 

** (Large form}. Grows to 4 feet. Leaves 2 by J 
inch, elliptic. Spike short corymbose. Corolla funnel- 
shaped. Stamens not exserted. 

Pulneys : on the margins of Sholas above 7,000 feet. 

Lysimachia dcltoidcs Wight, Cat. 109.'; F.B.I. iii 
505, V 14 ; Creeping Jenny. A trailing herb with, mostly 
opposite, ovate leaves and flat yellow flowers. 

Stem slender, round, pubescent, purple or brownish, 
prostrate ; all except the corolla hairy or pubescent. 
Lower leaves opposite, upper alternate, their stalks J to 
| inch, brownish purple like the stem ; blades broadly 
ovate, of the lowest leaves as little as i inch long, of the 
middle ones | by i inch larger or smaller, usually more 
or less erect. Pedicels solitary in the leaf-axils, slender, 
| to 2 inches. Sepals J inch, lanceolate, acute, covered 
outside and in with small red glands. Petals J by ^ 
inch, ovate, obtuse, with a few red glands, and connected 
only at the base into a tube of ^ inch. Stamens five : 



PRIMULACE^: 371 

filaments connate at the base into a tube J inch, 

seated on the corolla tube and bent abruptly inwards 

above : anthers jV inch opening inwards. Fruit a 
capsule, t. 314. Wight 111. t. 144. 

On cool shady banks and on the open damp hill-side. 
Pulney downs : in and near Kodaikanal : flower May. Nil- 
giris : Ootacamund, Pykara and Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Ceylon, Nilgiris and Pulney mountains only. 

All the sheets from both the Nilgin and Pulney mountains at Kew 
(August 1914) are named in Sir J. D. Hooker's writing " var cordifolia.'* 
Wight's Herb. Prop. No. 109, named by him " L. deltoides R.W. " and 
presumably therefore the type plant, is a Ceylon specimen. I am unable 
to distinguish it from ours. 

Closely allied to the European L. nummulana L., Eng. Creeping 
Jenny or Money-wort, Fr. Chasseborse, Ger. Egelkraut and similar 
to it ; and also to L. nemorum L., Eng. Yellow Pimpernel, Fr. Corneille 
de bois. 

Lysimachia obovata Buck Ham. ; F.B.I. iii 502, V 4. 
A slender herb. Leaves oblanceolate or spathulate acute, 
glabrous, gland-dotted. Flowers white in slender ter- 
minal racemes. Filaments of stamens slender not 
exserted. 

Nilgiris : at 7,000 feet on the downs [G.F.M.P.]. 

F.B.I, gives this species as in Manipur, Burma and Java. I have not 
seen it. 

ANAGALLIS* F.B.I. 87 vn. 

Slender herbs with opposite entire leaves and solitary 
blue or red flowers, stalked without bracteoles in the leaf- 
axils ; and characterized by the flat corolla of five lobes 
twisted in bud, the filaments of the stamens hairy, and 
the globose, capsule opening by a transverse slit. Seeds 
numerous plano-convex, attached by the middle. 

Species in north temperate regions and temperate South 
Ameiica. 

24-A 



372 MYRSINACE/E 

Anagallis arvcnsis Linn. ; F.B.I, iii 506, VII i ; 
common Pimpernel. Stem weak, four-angled. Leaves 
opposite, subsessile, ovate, glabrous, gland-dotted, entire. 
Flowers on long slender pedicels in the leaf-axils. Sepals 
five, linear, \ inch. Corolla i inch, pink or less often 
blue. Capsule globose. Seeds many. Wight Sp. Nilg. 
t. 133 (A. latifolia). 

Nilgiris : Lovedale and Ootacamund. Pulneys : Shem- 
baganur. Shevaroys : abundant above marsh on Green 
Hills. 

A common weed of cultivation in the cooler temperate regions. 

Known also in England as Poor-man's Weatherglass, Fr. Menronne des 
champs, Ger. Roter Gauchheil. 

MYRSINACE^:. 

Shrubs and small trees with alternate simple gland- 
dotted leaves, and regular flowers : a monopetalous corolla 
with short teeth and usually five lobes : stamens as many 
opposite the lobes ; anthers opening by slits (not terminal 
pores) : ovary one-celled with free central placenta : fruit 
small, sub-baccate : and seed one or more, globose, with 
transverse embryo, and endosperm pitted or indented by 
the folding of the inner seed coat. 

Species 500, all tropical or sub-tropical. 

Leaves toothed : flowers in racemes M/ESA. 

Ls. entire with brown glands : petals imbricate . MYRSINE. 

Leaves entire : petals twisted, pink ARDISIA. 

Climber : flrs. small, white, in spikes .... EMBELIA. 

MUESA. F.B.I. 88 i. 

Shrubs and small trees with alternate, entire or 
toothed, leaves and small flowers in terminal or axillary 
simple or branched racemes, with a small bract subtend- 
ing the pedicel, and two bracteoles at the base of the 



MYRSINACEJE 373 

calyx. Sepals, corolla lobes, and stamens five. Fruit 
enclosed, not quite to the top, in the calyx tube. 

Species 35 ; or according to some authors, by splitting of 
species, over 100. 

Maesa Pcrrottetiana DC. ; F.B.I, under M. indica 
WalL y iii 509, I 5.* Shrub, with much-lenticelled 
twiggy branches. Leaf-stalks f inch : blades variable, 
usually broadly ovate, narrowed at the base, acute or shortly 
acuminate with sharp triangular serrations, glabrous : 
nerves about eight to ten on each side nearly straight. 
Racemes slender, 2 to 4 inches, sometimes branched : 
pediqels 1 inch. Sepals not ciliate. Corolla when open 
inch. Fruit a small green berry | inch globose, with 
calyx-teeth showing near the top, and surmounted by the 
small style. Seeds many on a round placenta which pro- 
jects into the hollow of the fruit from one side. Often in 
place of the normal fruit there is an inflated hollow ovary 
enclosed in a white fleshy calyx with aborted seeds giving 
the appearance of a white berry, t. 315* Wight Ic. 
t. 1206 ; Sp. Nilg. t. 134. 

Nilgiris : very common in the shola at Kotagiri. Coonoor : 
not at higher levels. Also Shevaroys at Yercaud. Fyson 1726, 
41. Bourne Coonoor, etc. 

This was included by C. B. Clarke in F.B.L under M. indica Wall, as 
a variety. I have not seen Roxburgh's plant (Walhch's type) but it was 
a native of Chittagong (Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ed. Carey and Wallich ii 230) and 
examples from the same district have sinuate almost entire, not sharply 
serrate leaves, much shorter and more divided axillary panicles of flowers 
and ciliate sepals. 

RAPANEA, 

Shrubs and trees with rather thick branchlets on 
which the flowers are closely set in small fascicles, and 
small one-seeded fruits, with the endosperm more or less 
indented by the seed-coat. 



374 MYRSINACEffi 

Species about 140, natives mostly of the tropics of Asia, 
Africa and America, a few in extra-tropical Africa, the Atlantic 
islands and New Zealand. 

Formerly included in the genus MYRSINE but separated by C. Mez in 
a monograph of the family (Das Pflazenreich iv 236) because of the 
absence of any style between the ovary and the large stigma, and the 
much less ruminate endosperm. 

Rapanea Wightiana Wall, Cat. 2300 ; F.B.I, as 
M. capitellata var lanceolata, iii 512 ; II 3.* A tree with 
erect gland-streaked leaves, mostly at the ends of the 
branchlets, and small flowers thickly set lower down on 
them. 

Tree with ascending branches, occasionally very 
large ; when small pyramidal or sharply pointed in outline. 
Leaves close-set, erect, ij to 3 inches by f to i| inches, 
oblanceolate-obtuse, narrowed to the short stalk ; upper 
side dark dull green, underside with translucent dots or 
narrow streaks (oil cavities). Flowers brown fascicled in 
the axils of the fallen leaves on pedicels of J to J inch. 
Petals ^ inch. Anthers nearly as long. Ovary - 1 
inch, with a thick stigma, equally long, jointed to it. 
Fruit | inch globose, occasionally fleshy on the outside 
and then J inch : stigma long persistent but at length 
falling, t. 316. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 137 ; Ic. t. 1211. 

Nilgiris : very common all over the downs, of both sides 
of the plateau. Pulneys : in some of the sholas on the downs 
above Kodaikanal as very large trees, pedicels of flowers longer. 
Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. These hills, Western Ghauts, Bababoodons. 
Myrsine capitellata Wall. Cat. 2296 ! with which this is united in 
F.B.I, as a variety, is a Nepal plant with much larger leaves and nearly 
sessile flowers. 

The ascending branches and erect leaves, of our plant, are 
very characteristic, as also are the flowers and small fruits 
thickly set on the branchlets just below their leafy tips, much 



MYRSINACE^E 37$ 

as in Eurya japonica (p. 53), from which species however, even 
in fruit, the toothless leaves, their oil-glands, and the single 
seed, at once distinguish our plant. 

The fleshy covering to the fruit I have found very perfect on the 
Ootacamund downs in May. Possibly, as suggested by Wallich this is in 
the nature of a gall. A similar growth of M. africana L. It sometimes 
becomes scaly. Appears (as seen by me on a South African specimen) very 
similar. The " scales " of Clarke's var lepidocarpon (F.B.I. I.e.) 
and the " emergences " of Mez. (I.e. s. 10) appear to be the dried and 
decaying remains of this. 

Rapanea Thwaitcsii Mez ; G.F.M.P. IV 751. A 
small tree. Leaves oblanceolate, covered on the under- 
side with dots black when dried not streaks. Flowers 
and fru'ts with J to I inch, pedicel. 

Shevaroys : Green Hill fruiting June. Pulneys at 6,500 
feet (height). 

EMBELIA. F.B.I. 88 in. 

Usually climbing shrubs with entire leaves. Flowers 
in axillary or terminal racemes, small, white or greenish, 
mostly unisexual and dioecious. Petals nearly free, 
imbricate. Fruit a small one-seeded berry. Embryo 
curved. 

Species about 100 in the tropics. 

Embclia ribcs Burnt ; F.B.I. iii 513, III i. A thin 
stemmed climbing shrub, with drooping branches bearing 
glossy leaves all facing upwards. Leaves elliptic-oblong 
or obovate with blunt cuspidate apex, quite entire usually 
perforated on the underside near the midrib. Panicles 
terminal and axillary pubescent with grey hairs. Flowers 
J 2 inch, white ; pedicels as long or longer. Petals 
imbricate. Fruit globose, -J- inch. t. 317, Wight Ic t. 
1207. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Wellington, etc., common in Sholas, 
Pulneys : Shembaganur, etc. 



376 SAPOTACE^ 

Embelia Basaal A.DC. formerly E. Viridiflora 
Schff. ; F.B.I, iii 516, III 10 ; Altogether a more robust 
plant than the last. Flower bearing branches not droop- 
ing. Leaves 3 by 2 inches elliptic. Berries green, 
orange or red, J inch. t* 318* 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Wellington, Kotagiri. Shevaroys. 

ARDISIA, F.B.I. 88 v. 

Trees or shrubs. Petals twisted to the right in bud, 
red or white. Anthers sagittate on very short stalks. 
Fruit globose with one seed. Albumen ruminate. 

A tropical family of about 200 species. 

Ardisia humilis Vahl ; F.B.L iii 529, V 45 ; A tree. 
Leaves to 6 by 3 inches, entire. Flowers in umbel-like 
panicles on peduncles of about 2 inches, pink, with thick 
waxy petals. Fruit globose, one-seeded. 

Pulneys : possibly at Kodaikanal. Shevaroys : near 
* Lady's seat. ' Common at low levels throughout India. 

Ardisia rhomboidea Wt. ; F.B.I, iii 529, V 44. 
Leaves rhomboid, elliptic or obovate, wedge-shaped at base 
with or without a short acumen. Flowers pinkish-white, 
in small umbels of 3 to 5 ; peduncle I to i inch ; pedicels 
i inch. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor (Mayuranathan). 
Gen. Dist. Travancore and Tinnevelly mountains. 

SAPOTACE^:. 

Trees and shrubs with rust-coloured tomentum on 
the younger parts ; alternate, leathery, entire, leaves ; 
and axillary clusters of perfectly regular monopetalous 
flowers, with four to eight sepals in one or two whorls, a 
four or five-lobed corolla and a superior ovary of as many 



SAPOtACE^E 377 

one-seeded cells : characterized by the seed having a very 
hard shiny coat and long hilum-scar, and in many, but 
not all cases, by there being developed on the backs of 
the corolla-segments other lobes, so that there appear 
to be several concentric circles of petals, and by the 
presence often of two or three circles of stamens and 
an inner circle of staminodes. 

Species 350 in the tropics of the whole world. On the 
plains Bassaiciy Mimusops, and Achras sapota the Sapodilla 
(cultivated). 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Sepals and petals 5. Sts. 5. Staminodes 5. . SIDER OXYLON. 
Sepals and petals 4. Stamens 8, all perfect . ISONANDRA. 

SIDEROXYLON. F.B.I. 89 HI. 

Trees with alternate entire leathery leaves, rusty- 
tomentose on the young parts and flower-stalks. Flowers 
clustered at the leaf-axils, subsessile or shortly pedi- 
celled. Sepals five, imbricate. Corolla tube campanu- 
late ; lobes five. Stamens five attached to the base of 
the corolla ; staminodes five lanceolate. Ovary villous, 
five-celled. Berry egg-shaped, with five or four seeds- 

Species 60, mostly in the tropics. 

Sidcroxylon tomentosum Roxb. ; F.B.I, iii 538, III 
7, var elengoides Gamble. Easily recognized when in 
flower by the downward pointing closed flowers, like sharp 
cones with protruding curved style. 

A small tree often with long axillary spines : young 
shoots, sepals, and veins, and upper side of petioles, rusty 
tomentose. Twigs lenticelled. Leaves alternate. Petiole 
J inch : blade ij to 4^ inches by | to 2 inches, elliptic 
or obovate, entire, glabrous except for a little tomentum 



378 SABOTAGED 

on the impressed veins shiny, hard : veins about 
eight to ten pairs straight with fine reticulation between. 
Flowers two or three together in the upper axils, facing 
downwards. Pedicel } inch, Sepals four to five, trian- 
gular acute, I inch. Corolla tube J inch : lobes acute 
slightly longer than the sepals, with the edges curved 
inwards as they fade. Staminodes five, alternate with 
the petals, and close against the ovary, acuminate, and 
fimbriate, densely hairy on the inside. Stamens between 
and inside the staminodes : anthers acute Ovary very 
hairy ; style slender, long exserted. Fruit sitting on the 
dried calyx, the size of a small Indian hen's egg, one to 
five-celled, with milky flesh. Seeds one in each cell, with 
very hard, brown shiny coat except for a long hilum ; 
endosperm white, oily, embryo straight cotyledons thin. 
t. 319. Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 141. 

In sholas on the Nilgiri and Pulney plateaux, common, 
flushing a blaze of scarlet with young leaves in December. 
Flower and fruit before the rains. Especially common 
between Ootacamund and Pykara. Biccapatti. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts ; Pegu and Martaban (F.B.I, fide Kurz.). 
Ceylon. 

I have found, on an occasional flower, tiny scales on the 
outside of the petals, near the tip. 

The mechanism of pollination appears to be as follows : 
The buds point downwards at about half a right angle, with the 
style protruding and always curled upwards. The stigma 
appears to be receptive at an early stage, though more so later on. 
When the flower opens the petals spread widely, with the 
anthers which have already dehisced, pressed up against them 
by their stiff filaments. The staminodes are curled inwards 
with rounded backs and tips curled up against the style, so 
covering the nectariferous disc. This latter is usually dry, but 
if stimulated by the contact of a bristle becomes wet with a 
copious exudation of honey. An insect visiting the flower for 
honey would have to hang on the flower and in probing for the 



JEBfiNACE.ffi 379 

narrow slits between the staminodes, by which alone access to 
the honey is possible, would shake the corolla and be dusted 
with pollen : the style being curled upwards out of the way 
would not receive this pollen. The flower closes again before 
dropping off, and autogamy would occur as the corolla and 
stamens fell off past the style. 

ISONANDRA. F.B.I. 89 iv. 

Trees with alternate, coriaceous glabrous leaves. 
Flowers small, inaxillary clusters. Sepals and petals 4. 
Stamens 8 ; no staminodes. Ovary four-celled. Fruit 
a one-seeded ellipsoid berry. 

Species few, in South India and Ceylon. 

Isonandra Candolleana Wt. ; F.B.I, iii 539, IV 2 ; 
Leaves obovate oblong, tapering at the base ; quite glab- 
rous ; main veins eight to ten pairs raised on underside 
and very distinct, connecting veinlets also raised nearly 
straight and parallel. Flowers -J inch, anther tips hairy. 
Berry \ by J inch. t. 320. 

Nilgiris and Pulney hills, on the plateau. Bangitappal, 
flower May. 

Honandra Pcrottetiana Wt. ; F.B.L iii 539, IV 3 ; 
Similar to the last species, but anther tips not hairy, 
veinlets less distinct. 

Nilgiris : above 4,000 feet. Wight [G.F.M.P.\. 

EBENACEAi. 

A family of tropical trees. 

DIOSPYROS. F.B.L 90 u. 

Trees with alternate leaves and flowers male or female 

on different trees, in nearly sessile cymes or bunches along 

the branches. Corolla lobes twisted to the right in bud : 



380 SYMPLOCACE^E 

male flowers with four to many stamens, with thin anthers 
and a rudimentary ovary : female with many barren 
stamens and a four to five-celled superior ovary. Fruit a 
berry, under which the calyx lobes are often enlarged, 
containing many rather flat seeds. Seeds in some with 
ruminate endosperm. 

A large genus, in the tropics of the whole world. 

Diospyros montana Roxb ; F.B.I. iii 555, II 6 ; 
Leaves ovate or oblong, 2 to 3 inches, acute or cordate 
at the base, glabrous. Veins and veinlets not raised, 
but distinct. Stamens 16, glabrous. Female flowers 
solitary : fruit about i inch, lobes of calyx below it | to 
$ inch, endosperm of seeds not ruminate. 

Shevaroys : on the lower plateau. 
G.F.M.P. gives this species as on the Eastern Ghauts only. 

SYMPLOCACE^E. 
Included in F.B.I, in STYRACE^;, only genus. 

SYMPLOCOS. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, stalked, 
glossy. Flowers in the leaf-axils, solitary or in fascicles 
or short spikes or racemees, quite regular. Sepals five. 
Corolla of three to eleven petals, more or less united at 
the base. Stamens attached to the corolla, four to many 
in one or more series. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 
of two to five cells, each with two to four ovules. Style 
slender : stigma capitate. Fruit a berry, but usually 
with only one seed. Seed-coat thin : endosperm thick : 
embryo straight or curved, with large radicle and very 
short cotyledons. 






SYMPLOCACE^E 381 

Species 280 (Brand in Das Pflanzenreich IV 242). Natives 
of the tropics of America and Australia. 

The white flowers are at first sight very like those of the Black-thorn, 
and smelling much the same, might easily be mistaken by any one 
acquainted with the English flora for one of the family ROSACE/E, espe- 
cially as the tubular part of the corolla is excessively short, and being 
covered by the stamens does not appear till the corolla is removed. 

Leaves more or less serrate c 

f Flowers pink, } long, pendant .... S. pendula. 
\Flowers white \ to f inch diameter flat . . S. obtosa. 

{Spikes 2 to 4 inches ; many flowered d 
Spikes J or more, flowers 2 to 4 only 

("Leaves thick, serrate to f of margin, drying golden. 

J Fruit inch, conical S. spicata. 

Leaves thin, serrate to base, fruit oblong, 1 inch . . . 

S. foliosa. 

f Leaves i to 2 inches, glabrous, flowers i inch .... 

e \ S. microphylla. 

1 Leaves 4 to 6 inches, with cottony hairs, flower i inch. . 

^ S. pulchra. 

Symplocos spicata Roxb., Wall., Cat. 4416 / ; F.B.I. 
iii 573, I 2. Leaf-stalks stout, 4 by J inch, the older often 
scarred below, obscurely channelled above. Leaves very 
thick, glossy like the common Laurel of English gardens, 
ovate-elliptic, serrate, the teeth extending from the apex 
where they are T l ff inch apart, to about two-thirds of the 
way down, and there ^ inch apart but barely visible : after 
falling time a golden or brass colour. Spikes of flowers 
axillary and often branched. Flowers sessile, with a small 
bract and two equally small bracteoles, flat, white. Petals 
J inch, white, later tinged with yellow, rounded in. Fila- 
ments straight, J to inch, white : anthers minute. Style 
as long, widening at the tip to the small yellow stigma. 
Fruit I inch, nearly globose or conical, ribbed or smooth 
crowned by the minute calyx, t* 321* Wight 111. t. 150, 



3 #2 SYMPLOCACE/E 

Because it has shorter spikes and larger flowers than the type and often 
smaller leaves our plant was formerly considered a variety (laurina). 

Pulneys : on the downs above Kodaikanal, by streams. 
Nilgiris : abundant on eastern plateau. Kotagiri, Coonoor, 
Kodanad and lower levels down to 3,000 feet on the Mysore 
plateau. Shevaroys. 

The carpet of yellow fallen leaves is so characteristic, it 
betrays the tree when perhaps otherwise hidden. 

Gen. Dist. (of the species) from Sikkim through Khasia and Assam 
to Burma and Malacca, China, Japan, Australia and Polynesia (a variety or 
possibly another species.) 

Symplocos foliosa Wight ; F.B.L iii 582, I 39. A tree 
with smooth grey bark, lumpy foliage, large silky leaf- 
buds, flowers 3 or i inch, in short axillary spikes ; and 
peculiar in the toothing of the leaves which extends 
from the apex almost to the stalk. 

Young parts and leaf-stalks hairy, older branchlets 
glabrous with but few lenticels. Leaf-stalks to | 
inch : blades elliptic, 2 to 6 by f to 2 inches, acute or acu- 
minate, serrate almost to the base ; veins about ten pairs 
rather straight leaf-buds A inch, globular, silky. Spikes 
erect, strongly pubescent : flowers subsessile. Calyx-tube 
} inch, pubescent. Corolla i inch flat, white. Fruit erect, 
yellowish green, | by \ inch, oblong, rounded at both ends, 
with a small calyx-scar at the top. t. 322* Wight Ic. 
1234 and 1235. 

In sholas where it may be recognized by its lumpy foliage 
on both plateaus ; flowering winter and spring, fruiting early 
summer. 

In its smooth bark and silky young leaves it reminds one of the English 
Beech. 

Symplocos microphylla Wt. ; F.B.I. iii 581, I 34. 
A shrub of about 6 feet. Leaves elliptic ovate or obovate, 
2 to 3 by i to 2 inches closely serrate, from base to apex, 



SYMPLOCACE^E 383 

coriaceous, veins 5 to 6 pairs ; margin recurved, yellow 
when dry. Spikes short of 3 or 4 flowers only. Fruit 
obovoid oblong with prominent calyx above. Wt. Ic. 
t. 1232. 

Nilgiris : on south-west downs beyond Avalanche 
[G.F.M.P.]. 

Distinguished from S foliosa by being a shrub and by its shorter 
broader leaves v\ith fewer veins, and shorter spikes : but I have specimens 
collected near Ootacamuncl \vhich appear to be intermediate in these 
respects. 

Symplocos pulchra* Wt. ; Sp. Neilg. t. 143. A 
diffuse shrub, branches and leaves covered with long 
brown hairs. Leaves oblong-acuminate, 4 to 5 by ij 
inches base rounded : finely toothed ; veins 7 pairs : 
spikes about 2 inches with i or 2 large flowers, (i inch or 
more diameter only.) 

Nilgiris : Sispara, 4,000 to 5,000 feet by streams. 

Symplocos obtusa Wall. ; F.B.L in 583, I 43. 
All parts glabrous. Branches sub-umbelled, usually 
four at a forking ; youngest tinged with purple ; the 
previous year's with thin almost black bark, marked 
with a few longitudinal lenticels ; older with grey bark. 
Leaf-stalks 4 inch, purple : blades erect, 2 to 3! by i to 
1 1 inches, elliptic or obovate-elliptic, emarginate or 
obtuse, shallowly crenate except near the acute base, 
thickly coriaceous ; margins reflexed. Spikes i to 2 inches. 
Flowers five to eight, white, -1 to f inch across, quite 
glabrous : bracts .] inch soon falling. Calyx-tube sessile, 
% inch : lobes rounded, minute. Petals concave tinged 
on the outside, like the calyx lobes, with pink : tube ^> 
inch. Stigma three-lobed, velvety, dark brown. Scent 
very slight, t. 323* Wight Sp. Nilg. t. 146 ; Ic. t. 1233. 



384 OLEACE^E 

Pulneys : in sholas above Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : about 
Ootacamund flowering spring months. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian mountain tops only. Examples from Ceylon 
though nearly allied appear to be different. 

Symplocos pendula Wight ; F.B.I, iii 587, I 60. 
A tree with erect entire smooth leaves and small pinkish 
pendant flowers and narrow oblong fruits, hanging at the 
leaf-axils. 

Tree up to 20 feet : bark rough. Leaves smooth and 
glossy, quite entire, obovate or elliptic, acute at both 
ends or bluntly acuminate 2 to 3! by i to 2 inches, erect 
on the short pink stalk : midrib strongly impressed^ 
on the upper side. Flowers two or three together at the 
leaf-axils : pedicels % inch, with a small bract at the 
base, and broadening above into the J-inch calyx-tube. 
Corolla i inch, pink. Style longer, with capitate stigma. 
Fruit oblong, rounded at each end, hanging, with the 
dried calyx lobes at the base quite small and contracted 
and enclosing one stone, t* 324* Wight Ic. t. 1237. 

Pulneys : in sholas on the downs 7,000 feet and above. 
Not on the Nilgiris. 
Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. 

OLEACE^E. 

Privet and Jasmine. 

Shrubs, sometimes climbing, and trees, with opposite 
leaves. Regular flowers with small calyx, a monopetalous 
corolla of five or more lobes, but only two stamens, and a 
superior ovary of two cells each with one seed. Fruit 
a capsule drupe or berry. 

Species 300 in tropical and temperate regions. 



OLEACEJE 385 

The family is divided into four tribes represented by (i) Jasmine, (ii) 
Lilac, (iii) Ash and (iv) Olive and Privet. The first and last only of these 
are represented here. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

(Flowers | in. or more : few, at the leaf axils. . JASMINUM. 
Flowers \ in. or less many, in terminal panicles . . b. 
{Endocarp of fruit bony : petals 4 OLEA. 
Endocarp of fruit thin and papery : petals 5 or 6 . . . . 
LIGUSTRUM. 

JASMINUM. F.B.I. 92 i. 

Shrubs or woody climbers with opposite, simple or 
pinnate leaves. Flowers nearly always white with narrow 
corolla tube and spreading lobes, imbricate in bud : the 
calyx with linear or triangular lobes (sepals). Fruit a 
two-lobed berry (unless one carpel fails to develop), each 
lobe with one seed in which the radicle points downwards. 

Species 140 to 160 nearly all in the tropics of Asia and 
Africa ; and of these over 50 in India. 

Many have particularly fragrant flowers and are common as cultivated 
plants, e.g., J. sambac Ait., on the plains and all over the tropics of both 
hemispheres ; and J. officinale //., the common white-flowered climber 
of English and our hill gardens, but a native of Kashmir and Persia. 

r Leaves pinnate, flowers yellow bell-shaped shrub . . 
a< 6. J. bignoniaceum. 

L Leaves simple or with 2 basal leaflets, flowers white . . b 

rLow rigid shrub, quite glabrous . . 4. J. rigidum. 
^Climbing or weak-stemmed plants c . 

f Sepals linear g to \ inch, leaves never compound . . . d. 
c< Sepals triangular \ inch, leaves hairy 

{, 5. J. brevilobum. 

r Sepals and leaves very hairy . . . 2. J. pubescens. 

[^Sepals and leaves glabrous or nearly so e. 

r Leaves acute at base broadly elliptic . i. J. sambac var. 
e< Leaves cordate at base, lanceolate-acute 

I 3. J. cordifolium. 



386 OLEACE/E 

i. Jasminum sambac Ait ; F.B.L iii 591, I i,may 
perhaps be found cultivated. It differs from j. cordifo- 
lium in its scented flowers, pubescent or nearly glabrous 
sepals and leaves acute at the base. 

Widely distributed in India. 

Var. heyneana C. B. Clarke I i. Scandent with thin 
flexible stem. Leaves simple, ovate with rounded or 
cuneate base, acute or obtuse, nearly glabrous, \ to i 
inches. Cymes three-flowered. Calyx teeth T 1 F to J 
inch. Corolla tube \ inch. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal in Bearshola. 

Clarke in F.B.I, suggests that this is a cultivated variety. 

2. Jasminum pubescens Willd. ; F.B.L iii 592 I 3. 
A climbing shrub, very hairy all over. Sepals linear 
inch, hairy. Corolla tube i inch, lobes oblong acute. 
Wt. Ic. tt. 702 and 1248. 

Nilgiris : Lovedale (Coll. Mayuranathan) perhaps culti- 
vated. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts to 5,000 feet. 

3. Jasminum cordifolium Wall ; F.B.L iii 596 I 15. 

Characterized by rather large glabrous leaves and scentless 

flowers. Leaves up to 6 inches long, tapering gradually 

from the wide, slightly cordate base to a long-drawn point ; 

quite glabrous : lateral veins few, but prominent near the 

base. Cymes on short axillary branches, with one or two 

linear bracts. Sepals linear, | inch, glabrous ; corolla 

tube i inch or more, lobes \ inch oblong or obovate 

suddenly acute : scentless. Capsule ellipsoid, black. 

t* 325. On small trees, at the margins of sholas, etc. 

Nilgiris : Eastern plateau. Biccapatti, Kodanad. Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. Tinnevelly. 



OLEACE^E 387 

4. Jasminum rigidum Zenker ; F.B.I, iii 598, 125. 
A dense shrub with often rather small ovate or elliptic 
ovate shining leaves. Sepals linear, inch, glabrous. 
Corolla tube i to i J inches, longer than the rather broad 
lobes very fragrant. On rocky hill sides as dense bushes. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor at 6,000 feet. Kotagiri, Kodanad, 
Biccapatti, Shevaroys : Honey Rock. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan and Carnatic, plains and hills. 

Very similar to Carissa paucenervia which grows in like situations, 
but without thorns or milky juice and flowers larger (p. 392). 

5. Jasminum brevilobum DC. ; F.BJ. iii 600, I 33. 
A shrub with weak scandent softly hairy branches, shortly 
stalked ovate leaves and terminal bunches of white flowers. 
Stems spirally twisted probably of several strands, like a 
thick rope up to i foot diameter. 

Branches terete pubescent. Leaf-stalks J inch : 
variable in size on the same branch, up to blade ij by i inch, 
ovate with very rounded or subcordate base and sma'l 
mucro, entire ; pubescent on the underside like the stalk, 
less so or nearly glabrous on the upper ; sometimes with, 
but often without, a pair of small lobes or leaflet . Flowers 
in terminal capitate cymes very fragrant. Sepals triangular, 
hairy corolla tube i to li inches, lobes | to f inch, ovate 
Carpels in fruit black, | inch. t. 326. 

In thickets and on the outskirts of sholas, common on both 
plateaus. Nilgiris : everywhere about Ootacamund, flowering 
after the monsoon rains, and down at least to Kotagiri, Coonoor 
and Naduvattam. Pulneys : not on the highest levels but 
near Kodaikanai and Poombari, flowering June. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts above 3,000 feet. 

6* Jasminum bignoniaceum Wall, ex DC. ; F.B.I. 
included in Jasminum humile Linn., iii 602 ; I 40. * 



388 OLEACRE: 

An erect shrub with numerous green, very angular 
branches. Leaves alternate, i to 3 inches, pinnate with 
about seven leaflets : main stalk grooved above, green : 
leaflets \ by J inch, elliptic-acute at both ends, or diamond- 
shaped, dull green on both sides. Flowers solitary or in 
dense cymes at the ends of the twigs, full yellow : pedicel 
^ inch, pubescent, expanded below the calyx. Calyx T J ^ 
inch ; teeth, triangular, very small glabrous. Corolla- 
tube i to f inch, T V inch wide at the base and f inch 
just below the spreading J inch limb of five triangular 
lobes. Anthers \ inch, sessile near the top of the tube, 
opening inwards. Style bent, appressed to one side of 
the corolla tube at the base ; stigma large, exserted above 
the corolla. Fruit of two globose berries, J to J inch 
each. Wight Sp. Nilg. 151. t, 327. 

Nilgiris : near sholas, all over the downs flowering April. 
Pulneys : Glen Falls near Kodaikanal, etc., apparently nowhere 
else. 

The style is too long for the bud and is bent up inside it. 
When the flower opens the style straightens and carries the 
apparently ripe stigma outside and well above the anthers. 
The stigma is large and could hardly fail to be touched by an 
insect visiting the flower. 

For a note on J. humile L., the species with which this was united in 
the F.B.I, see the Fl.N. & P. Ht. I, p. 277. 

OLEA* F.B.I. 92 VIII. 

Olive 

Shrubs and trees with opposite leaves and terminal 
or axillary panicles of small flowers with four small 
calyx points, four corolla lobes folded inwards not twisted 
in bud, two stamens, an ovary of two cells each with two 
pendulous ovules, and fruit an ellipsoid or nearly globular 



OLEACRffi 389 

drupe resting in the cup-shaped enlarged top of stalk, 
with one seed only enclosed by a hard bony endocarp 
(distinction from LIGUSTRUM). 

Species about 35, from the north temperate zone south- 
wards to South Africa and New Zealand. 

Name from ELAIA the Greek for the Olive. 

Corolla deeply lobed : leaves glandular at the nerve axils . 

O. glandulifera. 

Corolla campanulate, lobes short : leaves drying reddish 
brown O. polygama. 

Olca glandulifera Wall; F.B.I, iii 612, VIII 2. 
In Fl.N. & P. Ht. as O. Bournei. A tree, standing 
sometimes higher than the rest of the shola, occasionally 
in the open. Branches grey, much lenticelled ; the 
smaller twigs very regularly opposite and decussate, slightly 
or much swollen at the nodes. Leaves spreading or 
laxly drooping : stalk f to i inch, slender, appressed* 
against the stem, puberous : blade lax, broadly ovate or 
elliptic-acuminate, narrowed at the base to the stalk, dark 
green, and shiny on the upper side, paler below, quite 
glabrous : nerves irregular about four pairs, commonly 
with small perforated swellings in the axils. Flowers 
in regular decussately branched panicles, terminating 
the branches and in the upper axils, fragrant : peduncle 
i to i inches : ultimate pedicels ^V inc ^ or l ess - Buds 
globular gV inch. Corolla ^ inch across^ nearly flat ; 
the petals rounded, -fa inch bent back. Calyx half as 
long. Stamens as long as the petals, spreading outwards ; 
anthers round. Style very short, compressed laterally, 
green. Fruit a green drupe, ^ by J inch. Seed with 
a groove on one side, and thick horny endosperm. As 
they fade the petals and stamens turn a pale brown colour 



390 OLEACM: 

and remain, not falling quickly : not so in Ligustrum. 
t 328. 

Nilgiris : in sholas on the Western plateau. Pulneys : Gun- 
dattu shola. 

(X polygama Wt. differing from the above in the 
flowers polygamous (some male only, some female only, 
some both) and broader leaves occurs on the road 
between Avalanche and Sispara [G.F.M.P.]. 

LIGUSTRUM* F.B.I. 92 ix. 

Privet. 

Shrubs and small trees with opposite, simple, uncut 
leaves, and terminal panicles of small white or cream- 
coloured flowers of four united petals. Fruits, drupe- 
like, with one seed only enclosed in a horny endocarp, 
the embryo having its radicle pointing upwards. 

Species 30, mostly in Asia, 14 belonging to China. 

Corolla tube twice a? long as the calyx . . . . L. Perottetii. 
Corolla tube shorter than the calyx L. Roxburghii. 

Name said to be from LIGO = / tie (ligamentete) because of the very 
flexible branches. 

Ligustrum Perottetii DC., including L. neilgher- 
rense Wight ; F.B.I, iii 615, IX 4 & 5 ; Privet on the 
western downs. A small shrub, growing often in dense 
tufts 5 feet high and more wide on the Eastern plateau, a 
tree flowering profusely with panicles of fragrant white 
flowers, the corolla tubes much longer than the very small 
calyx, the petals | inch long, curled back. Branches 
smooth with small lentiqels. Leaf stalk | inch : blade 
i to i J by | to i inch, quite glabrous, but hardly shiny, 
ovate, acute at both ends : nerves about six pairs, joining 



OLEACE^! 391 

each other inside the margin. Young leaves however 
sometimes 5 by i J inches. Panicles 2 to 4 inches by i| to 
2 inches : lower bracts leaf-like, upper J inch : branches 
with three or four pairs of sessile flowers in the axils of 
minute bracts. Corolla tube \-$ inch, or more, longer 
than the calyx, broadening above and in bud club-shaped ; 
lobes -J inch by ^ inch, spreading. Stamens inserted 
at the top of the tube ; filaments distinct though short ; 
anthers opening inwards. Fruit, black, obovate-oblong or 
long egg-shaped, ^ by ^ inch, seated on the dried calyx, 
on a J-inch stalk ; usually in pairs, t* 329* Wight Ic. 
tt. 1243 an( * 1245 ; Sp. Nilg. t. 148. 

In the open as thickets and by sholas. Nilgiris : on the 
downs especially near water. A fine clump by the turning to 
Sholur near Sandy Nullah and abundant at head of Parson's 
valley. 

Wight (Ic. note on tt. 1243 and 1244) distinguishes L. Perottetii, a 
small bush widely diffused, from L. neilgherrense, a large more local 
plant. I am unable to separate his specimens and reduce therefore the 
second species. 

Nor am I aole to separate, except by its size, the eastern and the 
western forms, but those having the south-west monsoon or summer rains 
are decidedly smaller than those having the north-east monsoon or winter 
rain. Most of the Coonoor trees seem to be this species. 

Ligustrum Roxburgh!! C.B. Clarke ; F.B.I. iii 
615, IX 3. A small tree distinguished from the last 
species by its large and acuminate leaves, compound leafy 
panicles, and invisible corolla tube. Leaves elliptic, 
acuminate, narrowed to the base, about 6 to 2 inches. 
Veins 8 to 12 pairs. Panicles axillary and terminal, 
forms large leafy compound panicles, corolla tube short, 
distinct to calyx tube. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor and lower levels. Shevaroys : Green 
Hills. Pulneys. 



392 APOCYNACE^E 

APOCYNACE^E. 

Herbs or trees, with milky juice and opposite leaves, 
without stipules. Flowers in cymes, axillary or terminal, 
often clearly dichotomous. Corolla of 5 lobes, twisted 
in bud. Stamens on the corolla tube with narrow or 
sagittate anthers. Ovary of 2 free or 2 united carpels, 
but one style only, with usually a large drum-shaped 
stigmatic head. Fruit a pair of follicles or a double 
drupe or berry. Seeds in the follicles often with hairs or 
wings. 

Species about 1,000, all over the world but chiefly in the 
tropics. 

Well-known plants of this order are Vinca major L. and Vinca 
minor L., the Periwinkles of England. And in India : V. 
rosea L. with pink or white flowers, common in sandy gardens ; 
Nerium oleander with single or double pink or white flowers, 
and Wrightia tinctoria Br. with white flowers and pairs of long 
slender curved black follicles united at the tip. Several 
others are cultivated in gardens. 

CARISSA* F.B.I. 

Shrubs sometimes armed with pairs of axillary spines. 
Leaves opposite entire glossy. Flowers axillary. Fruit 
fleshy. 

Carissa paucincrvia A. DC. ; F.B.I, in 631, VI 3. 
A small much-branched shrub, glabrous except the petiole 
and cymes, and with large, often forked spines. Leaves 
i to i inches, elliptic oblong to lanceolate, acute at both 
ends, mucronate, coriaceous ; veins obscure. Peduncles 
very short, three to five-flowered ; corolla f to \ inch 
white or tinged with pink, very fragrant, lobes narrow. 
Fruits \ inch ellipsoidal, t* 330* 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Biccapatti, Kotagiri, etc., on the 
Eastern plateau. 



ASCLEPIADACEJE 393 

The spines are the lateral branches of a bud, which has otherwise not 
developed. The leaves of a pair under a pair of spines are often larger 
than the others. In the flowering region, a flower-bearing peduncle 
replaces the spine. 

Except for its spines and its milky juice, this plant much 
resembles Jasminum rigidum (p. 387). 

RAUWOLFIA. F.B.I 94 vn. 

Shrubs with leaves in whorls of 3 or 4. Corolla 
salver-shaped with slender tube and constricted mouth. 
Anthers small, rounded at the base. Carpels distinct. 
Fruit of two distinct or united drupes, each i -seeded. 

Species about 40, chiefly American. 

Rauwolfia densifiora Benth. ; F.B.I, iii 633, VII 3. 
Leaves obovate or oblanceolate, shortly acuminate, about 
4 by 2 inch, with 8 to 16 regularly disposed pairs of lateral 
nerves. Flowers white, in much bifurcating corymbose 
cymes. Corolla tube inflated at the top. t* 331* 

Nilgiris ; in light sholas near Coonoor and Kotagiri ; 
common flowering summer months, the white flowers very 
conspicuous. 

ASCLEPIADACE/E. 

Herbs usually climbing, with milky juice, and opposite 
simple often cordate leaves. Flowers quite regular ; 
of five calyx-points, five corolla lobes, five stamens, 
two separate carpels with short styles connected only by 
the large stylar head, and for fruit two follicles filled with 
flat oval seeds, each with a dense tuft of long white Jiairs. 
The very short styles completely encased by the 
anthers which have very short filaments and join each 
other round it. Anther lobes of a stamen separated by a 
broad connective on the back of which, or on the base of 
the corolla, are developed swellings, collectively termed 



394 ASCLEPIADACEJE 

the corona. Pollen in each anther-cell or pollen-sac 
aggregated into one lump (or occasionally two) called a 
polliniuniy and the polliniums of two adjacent anther- 
lobes (of different anthers) connected, at the top in some 
species at the bottom in others, by an inverted ^-shaped 
piece usually black, termed the translator or gland. 

Species 1,000 chiefly in the tropics. 

Cross-pollination is effected by insects crawling over the flower and 
dragging a leg through the crevice between two adjacent anther-cells and 
removing the two polliniums connected by the A- sna P e d translator which 
fits astride the leg. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Corolla with bulbous base and narrow tube widening to a 
a J hemispheric or conical crown with five openings. 

J p. 400. CEROPEGIA. 

I Corolla open, flat or nearly so b 

C Flowers in axillary umbels d 

b< Flowers in racemes or extended cymes, backs of anther 

L enlarged c 

r Cymes bifurcating, corolla with 5 small scales . . 

' P* 395- BRACHYLEPIS. 

c } Cymes slender, zigzag, no corolla scales. 

I P- 397- TYLOPHORA. 

(Steam leafless, jointed .../>. 396. SARCOSTEMMA. 
Leaves cordate e 
Leaves ovate or oblong, or narrow / 
Corolla J inch yellowish ; corona as a thickening at 
each fold touching the white-domed central column, 
stem and leaves brown-hairy . p. 396. GYMNEMA. 
Corona as a waxy cup outside the stamens, above the 
reflexed corolla lobes . . . p. 395. CYNANCHUM. 
Corona as 5 rounded or obovate lobes, flat topped. 

. Flower green p. 399. MARSDENIA. 

"Corona as a flat five-rayed star, pink : petals white, 

waxy p. 399. HOYA. 

f J Each part of corona wrapping round the base of a curved 
horn-like upward extension . . p. 404. ASCLEPIAS. 
^Corolla pale yellow, J inch . . . p. 396. GYMNEMA. 



ASCLEPIADACEffi 395 

BRACHYLEPIS. 

Climbing hairy shrub characterized by the small 
purplish-brown flower being in dichotomously branching 
cymes. Anthers with broad backs, between which are 
five U-shaped spaces fringed with white, while opposite 
each arm, on the corolla, are five flat scales. Pollen masses 
oval or wedge-shaped on short stalks attached in pairs 
to a white disc in each U-shaped space. Pods widely 
divergent pointed. 

Brachylepis nervosa W. and A. ; F.B.I, iv 7, 
IV i . A fairly, stout climbing shrub with light brown, 
hairy branches. Leaves broadly elliptic or ovate shortly 
acuminate, about 3 by 2 inches, coriaceous, dark green, 
glabrous and glossy on the upper side. Stalk, midrib 
and about 10 pairs of veins often purple. Flowers ^ inch 
diameter, greenish outside, purplish inside with yellow 
centre ; in terminal or axillary very hairy dichotomous 
cymes with closely set triangular bracts. Pods 2% to 
3 inches, black, opening out into one straight line, t* 332* 

Nilgiris : On the Eastern plateau from Wellington to 
Kotagiri and Kodanad and on the slopes below Coonoor in 
sholas. Flowering summer. 

Gen. Dist. Only these hills. 

CYNANCHUM. F.B.I. 95 xxvi. 

Twining plants with rather slender stems, opposite 
leaves and small greenish flowers, in which the corona is 
in the form of a white wavy cup, and the pollen masses 
are solitary in their cells (ten in all) and pendulous (the 
translator being at the top). 

Species about 100. 



ASCLEPIADAC&E 

Cynanchum alatum W. and A. ; F.B.I, iv 23, 
XXVI 5. Leaves nearly oblong, deeply cordate at the 
base, i to 2 by ^ to J inch, acute glabrous. Peduncles of 
umbels inch ; pedicels -| inch. Flowers i inch 
diameter. Pod ij to 2 inches, t, 333* 

Nilgiri and Pulney pleateaus, not uncommon. 

SARCOSTEMMA* F.B.I. 95 xxvii. 

Leafless plants with thin cylindrical green stems. 
Flowers in umbels. Corona a membranous cup. Folli- 
cles smooth, straight. Seeds margined. 

Species few. 

Sarcostemma brevistigma W. and A. ; F.B.I. 
iv 26, XXVII i. Stem as thick as an ordinary wooden 
penholder, with joints 4 to 6 inches apart. Umbels 
terminal sessile, i to r] inches diameter. Pedicels J- inch. 
Flowers J inch, greenish white. Follicles 4 to 5 by % inch. 
Seeds flat, to i inch, t, 334, 

Nilgiris : at about 5,000 feet and below on rocks. Dol- 
phin's Nose near Coonoor, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan and plains in dry places. 

GYMNEMA. F.B.I. 95 xxx. 

Herbaceous or woody slender twining plants with 
opposite leaves and axillary peduncled umbels (or umbel- 
like cymes) of shallow or cup-shaped monopetalous 
flowers with petals overlapping to the right. Corona 
lobes thick and adnate to the corolla as ridges between 
the lobes ; centre of column a white dome. Polliniums 
solitary in each cell (ten in all) erect on minute honey 
carriers. Follicle terete, slender. 

Species 28 in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, 
Asia and Australia. 



ASCLEPIADACE/E 397 

A slit (the separation of the anthers) extends down below each minute 
brown carrier and may give the impression that the pollinia are pendulous. 
But on removal of the carrier by a fine needle they will be found erect* 
A good glass is required. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves cordate at base, rusty tomentose below ; flowers 
J inch ; brownish yellow G. hirsutum. 

Leaves oblong, rounded at base, glabrous coriaceous, flowers 
pale yellow, larger G. montanum. 

Gymnema montanum Hooks; F.B.I, iv 31, 

XXX ii. Glabrous ; leaves oblong or oblong lanceolate 
shortly acuminate, rounded at the base. Corolla about 
^ inch, pale yellow, pubescent on the outside. 

Nilgiris : Naduvattam. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, 4,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Gymnema hirsutum Wight and Arnott ; Wight 
Herb. Prop. ! ; F.B.I, iv 29, XXX 2. A fairly stout 
twiner, all green parts covered with soft brown pubescence, 
specially dense on the stem. Leaf-stalks inch ; blades 
i i to 2 by i to 1 1 inches, ovate acute or cuspidate. Cymes 
subsessile. Sepals 7 / - inch. Corolla J inch, yellowish- 
brown ; lobes spreading, thickened and ciliate. Follicles 
i^ inches, slender, glabrous, t* 335* Wight Ic. tt. 1271 
and 1272. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, both plateaus, Pykara to 
Coonoor and Kodanad common. Not on the upper Pulneys, 
Not recorded with certainty elsewhere. 

TYLOPHORA, F.B .1. 95 xxxvi. 

Herbaceous or woody slender plants, usually twiners, 
with opposite leaves and loose racemes (simple or branched) 
of small flowers with petals overlapping slightly to the 
right and spreading out flat. Coronal processes thick 



398 ASCLEPIADACE/E 

and fleshy, with short free tips, bending inwards and 
broadening outwards, attached to the stamens but free of 
the corolla. Anthers erect on very short filaments with 
membranous inflexed tips : polliniums one in each cell 
(ten in all), erect, minute. Follicle acuminate, smooth. 

Species 40 in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia, 
Africa and Australia, New Caledonia and Norfolk Isles. 

{Stem twining b 
Stem more or less erect : flowers dark purple. T. Iphisia. 

L /All green parts softly hairy T. mollissima. 

\A11 parts glabrous T. tenuis. 

Tylophora mollissima Wight, Herb. Prop. 1540.' 
" 1837 " / ; F.B.I. iv 43, XXXVI 16. Softly hairy in all 
green parts. Leaf-stalks J to inch : blades i } to 2^ by 
to i inch, oblong lanceolate, acute. Racemes 2 to 
4 inches, zigzag, with two or more flowers at the bends 
on very slender inch pedicels. Flower inch. Fruit 
not seen, t, 336* 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri. Pulneys : shola by Pamban stream. 
Possibly not truly on the plateau. 

Gen. Dist. Nowhere else, but closely allied to T. hirsuta of Assam, 
Khasia and Himalayas. 

Tylophora tenuis BL ; F.B.I. iv 42, XXXVI 13. 
Stems slender, quite glabrous. Leaf-stalks inch ; 
blades lanceolate with rounded base, i to 2} by to 
f inch : nerves few, indistinct. Racemes 2 inches with 
two or three bunches of small dark purple flowers on 
stalks of i to J inch. Follicles z-j to 3 inches, slender 
lanceolate, t* 337* 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal and below, but properly belongs to 
lower levels, e.g., Kotagiri, Shembaganur. 

Gen. Dist. On the plains of Bengal near Calcutta to Ceylon. Burma 
and Malacca. 



ASCLEPI ADACE^E 399 

Tylophora Iphisia Den. ; F.B.I, iv 40, XXXVI 5. 
A stout more or less erect plant. Leaves ovate or lanceo- 
late, acuminate. Corolla lobes ovate. Corona adnate 
to the large anthers : pollen carrier long, narrow, with 
very slender stalks to the pollinia. Pod 3 to 4 inches 
lanceolate. 

Nilgiris : 6,000 to 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

MARSDENIA (formerly DREGIA). 

Climbing shrubs with opposite cordate acuminate 
leaves and comparatively large green flowers in axillary 
umbels. Corona in the form of 5 flat ovate masses, 
narrowed at their inner ends, broad and rounder at the 
outer. Polliniums ten in all, erect. Pods hard thick. 

Species few in India, Malaya and tropical Africa. 

Marsdenia volubilis T. Cooke ; formerly Dregia 
volubilis Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 46, XXXIX i. A tall stout 
climber on even large trees. Bark brown, rough. Leaves 
3 to 6 inches, broadly ovate, cordate acuminate. Pedun- 
cles as long. Umbels drooping of numerous green 
flowers. Petals triangular, J inch long. Pods 3 to 4 
inches by i to iL Smooth and black outside, pale 
straw-coloured and glossy inside. Seeds inch, black 
flat. Wood white soft, t, 338* 

Nilgiris : Coonoor on Lamb's Rock Road, Droog, etc. , 
common. Flowers summer months. 

HOYA. F.B.I. 95 XLIV. 

Woody climbers with thick leaves, and umbels stalked 
in one only of a pair of opposite leaf-axils. Flowers 
medium or large sized, not small : corolla lobes valvate 
(not overlapping) in bud and spreading out flat (stellate) i 



400 ASCLEPIADACE^E 

very thick and waxy. Corona of five thick flat lobes. 
Anthers with membranous erect or inflexed tip. Polli- 
niums solitary (ten in all), erect. Pods slender, pointed. 

Species about 60 in the hotter parts of Asia and Australia ; 
most abundant in the Malay Archipelago. Some cultivated in 
gardens for their waxy-looking flowers. 

Hoya Wightii Hook.f. 1522 and 2213 ; F.B.I, iv 59, 
XLIV 32. 

Stem thinner than a lead pencil, glabrous. Leaves 
elliptic but variable, very thick, shortly stalked. Pedun- 
cles i inch stout. Pedicel -} to inch. Flowers f inch. 
Petals white ; coronal lobes obovate obtuse pink or purple. 
Follicles brown, t. 339. 

Pulneys : by the Pamban stream. Nilgiris and Mangalore. 
Wight. 

CEROPEGIA. F.B.I. 95 L. 

Distinguished from all other plants by the corolla a 
tube narrow in the middle, inflated at the base (round the 
ovary and stamens), and enlarged again at the tip and 
there closed in except for five lens-shaped openings. 

Herbs or woody plants with tuberous rootstock and 
opposite ovate lanceolate or linear (not cordate) leaves. 
Flowers in axillary peduncled, umbel-like cymes. Corolla 
tube dilated at the base and apex : lobes five, connate 
by their tips (and thus leaving openings between). Corona 
five or ten-lobed, with five scales or processes inside 
opposite the anthers. Anthers incumbent on the stylar 
head, without membranous tip. Pollen masses one in 
each anther-cell (ten in all), erect, sessile. Follicles 
slender, smooth, terete. 

Species 80 in tropical Asia, Africa, Australia and South 
Africa. 



ASCLEPIADACEJE 40! 

fStem short, erect from a spherical tuber . . C. pusilla. 
a "\Stem slender, twining b 

rDome of corolla hemispheric : ten coronal lobes and five 
, I processes inside, all linear and equal . . . C. elegans. 

I Dome of corolla longer than broad : processes (inner 

L coronal lobes) five, longer than the outer . . . . c 

/Leaves glabrous d 

\Leaves and peduncles hairy e 

("Corolla | to i J inches ; outer coronal lobes very small . . 

, J C. intermedia. 

I Corolla 2 to 2 J inches; outer coronal lobes not much shorter. 

L than the inner processes C. Thwaitesii. 

{Flowers i by ^ inch, peduncles 3 to 6 inches . C. ciliata. 
Flowers i inch by J inch, peduncle \ inch . C. hirsuta. 

Ccropcgia pusilla Wight ; F.B.I, iv 66, L. i. 
Stem erect, 2 to 5 inches, rising from a tuber i inch or 
more broad, and slightly flattened. Leaves crowded, 
i to 3 by j 1 ^ to J inch, with one strong nerve, erect, 
minutely scabrous on the midrib and margins, otherwise 
glabrous ; stem very distinctly swollen at the nodes. 
Peduncle usually displaced to one side of its subtending 
leaf, and with a very small linear bract at the base, i 
inches, erect, slightly pubescent. Flower solitary as 
a rule, erect. Sepals J to J inch, linear. Base of corolla 
J by | inch, ovoid : tube by ^ inch, five-angled : 
dome portion i by ^ inch, the lobes ^ 1 i ncn wide, 
the openings a longish diamond shape, glabrous. Corona 
dark purplish brown, with ten dark purple, white-ciliate, 
teeth T^. inch long, and five linear processes T V inch, 
meeting above the yellow central mass. Stamens thick, 
erect and separate from the stylar head except at the 
base : polliniums erect, attached in pairs at the base. 
Follicles 2 inches, swollen in the middle, t, 340. Wight 
Ic. t. 1261. 
26 



402 ASCLEPIADACEJE 

In the grass of the down, coming up after the first rains. 

Nilgiris : on the downs, Ootacamund to Pykara ; flowering 
May or July. 

Gen. Dist. Also on Anamalais (Beddome). Not seen on Pulneys. 

Ccropegia clegans WalL and Cat. 8138 ! and 
Cat. 8133 (C. elegans) ; Wight's Herb. Prop. 1513 /; 
F.B.L iv 68, L 10. Stem very slender running in 

grass or climbing on shrubs, quite glabrous. Leaves 
i \ by | (\ to |) inch, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or shortly acuminate, glabrous : stalk inch. 
Flowers solitary, or pedicelled two or three together, 
on axillary peduncles of inch. Sepals linear, -| inch* 
green. Corolla i to ij inches : crown hemispheric, 
broader than the base, green blotched with dark purple ; 
its lobes ciliate with dark purple hairs and emerald 
green where they meet in the centre ; junction of the 
tube and basal part inside with white hairs. Coronal 
lobes ten, linear clavate ; inner processes nearly or quite 
as long as them, linear, glabrous (fifteen linear structures 
in all). Follicles .2 to 9 inches, very slender, terete : 
seed usually \ inch, linear, convex on one face, deeply 
grooved on the other. The buds are erect, but the 
mature flower hangs down and opens sideways, t* 341. 
Wight Ic. t. 1265. 

Nilgiris : Eastern plateau, Kotagiri. Kodanad, etc. Pul- 
neys : below Kodaikanal at Shembaganur. 

Gen. Dist. of " C. elegans WalL" in F.B.L : " Malabar and 
Travancore mountains from Nilgiris to Ceylon." 

I find in my specimens the coronal lobes as long as the five inner pro- 
cesses. Wallich in Bot. Mag. t. 3015, where the species C. elegans was 
first described, shows them shorter. His Cat. 8135, the type plant, 
appears to be hardly the same as his Cat. 8138, nor as Wight's Herb 
Prop. 1513, which are the types of C. sphenanantha W. and A., which 
I gave as the name of this plant in the Fl. N. & P. Ht. 



ASCLEPIADACE, 403 

Ceropegia intermedia Wight ; F.B.I, iv 71, L 19. 
Stem slender but stouter than in C. elegans. Leaf- 
stalk \ inch : blade 2 to 2j by | to f inch, lanceolate, 
acute at both ends. Flowers f to ij inches in axillary 
irregular umbels : peduncle i inch : pedicels \ inch, 
very slender. Corolla tube i inch : lobes \ inch or less 
forming a conical crown. Coronal lobes short or absent. 
Inner processes five, long (^ inch), dilated upwards. 

Pulneys : on the slopes above Shembaganur, and in that 
valley, Poombari ; flowering in June. 

Gen. Dist. Ceylon and Courtallam (Wight] ; Anamalais (Beddome)' 

Ceropegia Thwaitesii Hook. ; F.B.I. iv 71, L 20. 
Very similar in habit to C. elegans Wall. Leaves twice 
to four times as long as broad, acuminate about 4 inches 
by i to 2 inches. Flowers like those of C. intermedia 
but twice as large, ij to i\ inches long, and the coronal 
processes (5) not dilated upwards, pale green with purple 
patches: dome of flower taller than broad, lobes glabrous. 
Pods 6 to 8 inches long, with hooked tip and long seeds. 
t, 342. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal. 
Gen. Dist. Ceylon and Tinnevelly hills. 

The relative lengths of the coronal lobes and processes vary as also in 
C. elegans Wall. I take this to be Hooker's plant but if it is the figure in 
Bot. Mag. t. 4758 it is not good. 

Ceropegia ciliata Wt. ; F.B.I, iv 72, L 23. 
A much smaller species than the preceding. Leaves linear- 
lanceolate to lanceolate, iJ r to 2 inches by J to % inch, 
hispidly hairy on both surfaces. Peduncles nearly as 
long, hispid ; as also the ^ inch pedicels and calyx. 
Corolla slender, i J inches by inch, pale purple ; lobes 
J inch forming a narrow dome, glabrous. Coronal 
lobes hairy, processes longer, t. 343. 
26-A 



404 LOGANIACEffi 

Nilgiri and Pulney plateaus in grass. Nilgiris Flowers 
September. 

Ceropegia hirsuta W. & A. ; F.B.I, iv 71. Stem 
leaves and peduncles hairy. Flowers i to ij inches, 
greenish with purple spots and reddish purple crown ; 
base small tube f inch expanding gradually to the } inch 
crown. Leaves variable more or less lanceolate. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. From Ganjam southwards to the Anamalais. 

ASCLEPIAS. F.B.I. 95 xixx. 

The corolla is deeply lobed, often reflexed. The corona 
lobes are concave curculate, or horse-shoe shaped with 
opening inwards, and sometimes have a horn projecting 
from inside. Pod inflated. 

Species about 60 nearly all American. 

Asclepias physocarpa Schlect. With very narrow 
upright leaves and no horn in the corona lobe and inflated. 
Pods 2 by i inch or more ; occurs in and about Kotagiri. 

A. curasavica L. with orange flowers and a horn in 
each corona lobe is grown often in gardens. 

LOGANIACE^;. 

Leaves opposite with stipules or a stipular line. 
Flowers perfectly regular : sepals, corolla lobes, and 
stamens four or five. Ovary superior, two-celled. Fruit 
a berry or dry and septicidal. Trees, shrubs, climbers 
or herbs. Somewhat resembles the APOCYNACE^E but for 
the stipules, the completely united ovary and the absence 
of a milky juice. 
Species about 400. 



LOGAN1AC&E 405 

Two species of Buddleia are cultivated in English gardens. Strych- 
nine was prepared originally from the fruit of Strychnos nux-vomica, 
a native of the. 

Stout shrub with large creasy flowers .... FAGIUEA. 
Climber with yellow flowers GARDNERIA. 



GARDNERIA, F.B.I, 96 vm. 

A genus of two or three species or perhaps one only, 
natives of India and Japan. 

Gardneria ovata Wallich, Cat. 816 / ; F.B.I. iv 93, 
VIII i. A very common woody climber, with yellow 
waxy flowers in the centre of which stands a hard cone of 
anthers ; and brilliant red berries. 

Tall climber, stem round, smooth, rather stiff, about 
inch thick. Leaves opposite connected by a line 
across the axis : stalk f inch : blade 3 by i^ to 4 by z\ 
inches, broadly elliptic or obovate, acute, coriaceous, with 
entire waved margin, and veins impressed on the upper 
side. Flowers in cymes of three, peduncled in the leaf- 
axils : peduncles \ to f inch : pedicels as long, with 
two minute bracteoles half-way up : buds \ by \ inch. 
Calyx small, deeply lobed. Corolla rotate, the tube very 
short : petals five, \ by \ inch, yellow, waxy and thick, 
reflexed ; in bud valvate. Stamens five, attached to the 
corolla tube, but anthers nearly sessile, opening inwards 
and connivent to form a hard cone conspicuous in the 
centre of the flower. Berry \ inch, scar surmounted by the 
j 1 ^ inch style, two-celled, and two-seeded. Seed com- 
pressed parallel to the division wall, t* 344* Wight Ic. 

t. 1313- 

On shrubs and trees in sholas, very common on the Nilgiri 
plateau, flowering in April and May. 

Gen. Dist. Also Nepal and Khasi hills. 



406 GENTIANAC&B 

The species was founded on a Nepal plant and the type sheet, Wallich 
Cat. 8 1 6, from Sylhet, has larger more acuminate leaves and large panicles 
up to 6 inches long, with ten pairs of three-flowered cymes : but it has also 
in some leaf-axils only one such cyme, as seems with rare exceptions 
to be the case with the Nilgiri examples. 



FAGR/EA. F.B.I. 96 iv. 

Trees or shrubs with opposite leaves, with promi- 
nently dilated leaf-bases or stipules. Corolla lobes 
twisted. Fruit a berry. 

Species about 20, from India to Australia. 

Fagraea obovata Wall ; F.B.I. iv 83, IV 5. A low 

tree or shrub. Leaves 6 by 3 inches, obovate quite 
glabrous ; midrib prominent lateral veins obscure bracts 
and bracteoles conspicuous, buds ovoid, green. Corolla 
tube ii by i inch expanding into a broad five-lobed limb, 
is to 2 inches across, creamy white. Berry ? by i inch 
t. 345. 

Nilgiris : On the borders of plateau, Kodanad, Coonoor by 
the river just above the railway station. Lamb's Rock Road. 
Dolphin's Nose, etc., Kodanad, flower May. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan and Ceylon. 

GENTIANACEjE. 

Herbs with opposite entire glabrous leaves and 
perfectly regular flowers of five sepals, corolla lobes, 
and stamens ; but characterized by the petals being in 
bud twisted over each other to the right, and the ovary 
having two parietal placentas (which do not as a rule 
meet to make it two-celled) and ripening to a many- 
seeded capsule opening in two valves. 

Species 550, all over the globe, mostly on mountains. 



GENTIANAC&E 407 

f Petals pale blue, each with a small scale at the base . . . 
I p. 410. SWERTIA. 

I Petals pinkish, spurred behind . . . . p. 411. HALENIA. 

L Flowers bright or deep blue b 

, f Corolla folded and twisted : small herb. />. 409. GENTIANA. 
\Petals twisted, not folded : tall herb . . p. 407. EXACUM. 

EXACUM, F.B.I. 97 n. 

Characters as above for the family, but ovary com- 
pletely divided into two cells and corolla deep blue. 
Mostly very handsome plants, the flowers blue. 

Species 20 mostly in India. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Sepals and petals 5 b 
Sepals and petals 4 c 

fStem winged : flowers many .... E. Wightianum. 
\ Stem hardly winged : flowers few. E. atro-purpureum. 
'Flowers rose or blue : sepals gradually acuminate . . 

E. Perrottetii. 
Flowers white with blue tips : sepals cuspidate . . . 

E. bicolor. 

Exacum Wightianum Arnott ; F.B.L iv 97, II 9 ; 
Giant Field Gentian. A tall well-branched and leafy 
plant ; stem, at base as thick as the middle finger, 
square, with wings -?$ inch broad decurrent from the 
leaf-margins, glabrous i to 3 feet high, branched. 
Leaves 2 to 5 inches, lanceolate acute narrowed at 
the base to a broad } inch stalk : nerves three 
strong with another fainter pair outside near the 
margin. Flowers in the upper axils a deep violet blue, 
facing sideways. Stalks f inch erect in flower, longer and 
curved down in fruit. Calyx divided to the base, the 
sepals $ inch, with a wing down the back to inch wide. 
Corolla lobes i inch, ovate or oblong, contracted to the 
mouth of the short roundish tube. Stamens I to inch, 



408 GENTIANACE^E 

not much narrowed to the top, and " with a minute 
papilla on the connective behind.*' Fruit egg-shaped, | 
inch, t, 346* 

On the open downs. Nilgiris : Coonoor. Pulneys at 7,000 
feet near Kodaikanal and below. Coonoor. 

Exacum atropurpureum Beddome, var. anamal- 
layanum ; F.B.L iv 97, II 7. A handsome bushy 
plant. Stem smooth, terete or four-angled, but not 
winged. Leaves i to 2 inches by f to i inches, broadly 
ovate or oblong-elliptic : base clasping : apex blunt or 
with small cuspidate point : margin thickened : nerves 
three strong from the base and an outer fainter pair. 
Flowering part decussately branched, with flowers 
pedicelled in the uppermost axils on stalks of % inch. 
Calyx | inch, strongly winged : lobes triangular equal 
to the tube. Corolla z\ inches, deep rich blue : lobes 
oblong-obovate cuspidate : tube very short. Anthers 
\ inch, attached firmly at their bases narrowed upwards. 
Fruit globose \ inch, two-celled with many seeds, opening 
by two opposite slits and surrounded by the persistent 
winged calyx, t* 347. 

Pulneys : on the downs on rocks near or in water ; flowering 
June. Not on the Nilgiris. 

Gen. Dist. Also Anamalais and Malabar. The type species has the 
leaves rounder and without margin, and occurs also in Quilon ( Wight). 

Exacum bicolor Roxb. ; F.B.L iv 96, II 4. A herb 
12 to 20 inches. Lobes of corolla half white, half (the 
tips) blue or violet. Buds curved. Anthers % inch 
curved and tapering. Pedicels inch. Peduncles 
usually larger axillary and terminal. Bracts narrow. 
Sepals ovate, abruptly cuspidate. Leaves lanceolate 
five-veined, t, 348. 



GENTIANAC&E 469 

Nilgiris : Naduvattam, flower September. 

Gen. Dist. N. Circars to Coimbatore hills up to 4,000 feet. Roxburgh's 
species was founded on a Ganjam plant. 

E, Pcrrottctii Griesb. ; F.B.I, iv 95, II. Flowers 
rose-coloured or blue, the parts in fours rather larger 
than in the last species. Peduncles and pedicels ^ to i 
inch, terminal and axillary. Bracts narrow lanceolate* 
Sepals ovate lanceolate, keeled, tapering to the point, 
not abruptly cuspidate. Anthers oblong, shorter than in 
the last. Leaves ovate, five-veined. 

Nilgiris : about Coonoor and Kotagiri [G.F.M.P.]. 

Gen Dist. Mahendragiri (Ganjam) to the Nilgiris. 

I have not seen this species. The dark-tipped petals of E. bicolor 
fade to an even mauve colour, and this fact taken with the slight differ- 
ences between these species makes it difficult to be certain of them. 

GENTIANA. F.B.I. 97 ix. 

Herbs, with the characters of the family, often small : 
distinguished by the corolla lobes being in bud folded 
inwards and then twisted, the tube not very short, with 
the stamens attached to it. 

Species about 300, chiefly on the mountains of the Old 
World, a few on the Andes of South America and in New 
Zealand and Australia. Well known in Europe for their 
brilliant blue flowers. Ger. Enziane. 

Gentiana pedicellata Wall. var. Wightii Kurz. 
formerly G. quadrifaria EL, var. zelylanica ; F.B.L 
iv in, IX 12. Tap root strong. Radical leaves in a 
rosette, obovate, i by inch, with numerous stems in 
their axils, bearing J inch ovate or lanceolate leaves, 
and solitary terminal flowers. Bud % inch long. Corolla 
f inch, of 10 lobes, 5 long, 5 shorter, bright blue. 
Fruit a capsule by J to & inch. Seeds globose or 
obovoid, trigonous, smooth (Clarke), t, 349. 



410 GENTIANACM 

Nilgiris : Common in grass all over the downs, perhaps 
especially at the lower limits of our area. 

Gen. Dist. Of G. quadrifaria BL, Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhotan., 
Khasia, Ceylon, Burma, Java, China. 

Kurz separated the Indian form placed in G. quadrifaria Bl. in F.B.I, 
and restored Wallich's name pedicellata. G. quadrifaria var. zeylanica 
is now reserved for the Mysore plant. 

SWERTIA. F.B.I. 97 xn. 

Herbs with the general characteristics of the family 
(p. 406) and characterized by the tube of the corolla 
being very short and lobes (petals) overlapping to the 
right, and each with a small depression at the base, more 
or less covered by a hairy scale (a honey gland). 

Species 50, Europe, Asia, Africa, chiefly on the mountains. 
Nectary at the base of each petal one only . S. corymbosa. 
Nectaries in pairs S. minor. 

Swcrtia corymbosa Wight ; F.B.I. iv 126, XII 17. 
Annual or perennial ; lower leaves more crowded than 
the upper, and often soon falling. Stem 6 to 18 inches, 
roundish, but with four ridges decurrent from the edges 
of the leaves, sparingly branched except in the flowering 
region. Leaves obovate, sessile, acute or not, strongly 
three-nerved ; lower i by J inch, upper narrower and 
shorter. Flowering branches in the upper axils, two 
to five pairs, often branched again more than once so as 
to form a terminal cymose, corymb 3 to 8 inches across ; 
uppermost divisions short so that the flowers are crowded 
in umbel-like manner. Sepals narrow, to J inch. 
Petals longer, white or very pale blue with darker veins : 
pocket at the base of each covered by a scale. Stamens 
with broad bases attached to the very short corolla tube. 
t 350. Wight Ic. tt. 1329 and 1330. 

On the open downs, very common after the first rains. 



GENTIANACE& 

Three varieties are given in F.B.I., but I am unable to distinguish 
them. Difference in the size of the plants and the length of the internodes, 
making the corymbs contracted or open, appear to be due rather to situa- 
tion and growth than to an inherited difference. There may be some 
difference between my Nilgiri and my Pulney specimens, but I am unable 
to define it with any confidence. 

Swcrtia trichotoma Wall. ; F.B.I, v 126. Similar 
to the last but inflorescence elongate, paniculate, corolla 
lobes acuminate, glands (single) surrounded with long 
ciliate edges. Leaves up to 3 by i inch. 

Nilgiris : to 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

Swertia minor Knobe ; F.B.I, iv 120. A small, 
erect herb with white or blue flowers, small ovate sessile 
leaves and flowers in leafy fastigiate panicled cymes, the 
nectaries in pairs, usually with ciliate scales. 

Nilgiris : above 6,000 feet in wet places in grass 
[G.F.M.P.]. 

HALENIA* F.B.I. 97 xm. 

Branched and leafy herbs with the characteristics of 
the family and distinguished from all others by a short 
spur behind and at the base of each petal (really an 
enlarged honey gland cf. SWERTIA), and from SWERTIA 
also by the petals overlapping to the left. Ovary one- 
celled. 

Species 25 to 30 on the mountains of Asia and America. 

Halcnia Pcrrottetii Gr. ; F.B.I, iv 130, XIII ^. 
Stem slender, annual, glabrous, obscurely winged. Leaves 
ovate, about i by \ inch, with three main basal nerves 
and an outer fainter pair. Flowers at the ends, or near 
the ends, of the quite numerous branches. Sepals \ inch, 



412 BORAGINAC&E 

narrowly obovate-obtuse. Petals inch, more or less 
erect and connivent : spurs i to ^ inch, curved 
upwards, obtuse. Ovary inch, narrowed upwards 
into the J inch style. Seeds ^ inch (Clarke), t. 351* 

In shady places, by sholas, etc. Flowers in autumn months. 
Pulneys : at 7,500 feet on the downs. Nilgiris : flowers in 
November. 

I am unable to distinguish this from H. elliptica Don, a Himalayan 
plant, but Clarke in F.B.I, says style longer and seeds much smaller. 



BORAGINACE^E. 

Herbs (shrubs ortrees) hispid or scabrid, with alter- 
nate, mostly entire, simple leaves and small perfectly 
regular flowers arranged in two rows along one side of 
slender forked spikes (scorpioid cymes), peculiar in being 
curled up backwards crozier-wise in bud with the flowers 
facing outwards and upwards as they open and in 
having no bracts, or a bract opposite to, not subtending, 
each short pedicel. Flowers with five-toothed calyx : 
five-lobed monopetalous corolla, imbricate in bud and 
with the throat of the tube more or less closed with 
scales : five stamens attached to the corolla tube and 
alternating with the lobes : and a two-celled ovary with 
two ovules in each cell, and peculiar in being as a rule 
deeply divided into four lobes (so that the style rises 
up in the centre between them), each of which becomes 
in fruit a nutlet containing an erect seed : but in some 
genera the ovary only slightly notched in two lobes (as 
Heliotrope) or entire and the fruit fleshy. 

% Species about 1,200 all over the world. 

In Europe the tribe BORAGES (with the fruit of four nutlets) is well 
represented : e.g., ANCHUSA, MYOSOTIS, LITHOPSERMUM, CYNOGLOSSUM. 



BORAGINACE/E 413 

CYNOGLOSSUM* F.B.I. 100 x. 

Houndstongue. 

Herbs with the characteristics of the BORAGEJE (see 
above) and distinguished by the nutlets being extended 
downwards below the point of attachment (so that the 
scar is near the top) and being covered with short hooked 
spines. 

Species 60, in temperate and sub-tropical climates. 

Cynoglossum furcatum Wall., Cat. 919 / ; F.B.I. 
iv 155, X i ; Houndstongue. Stem i to 2^ feet. Leaves 
2 by ^ inch ; lower larger to 4 inches, upper smaller ; 
hardly stalked, lanceolate or elliptic, acute. Spikes 
several together terminating the stem and branches, 
curled back in bud and in flower short (like a Forget- 
me-not), but in fruit lengthened to 6 or 8 inches ; diver- 
ging from the stem at about half a right angle. Corolla 
rotate, blue or pink ; lobes five, each with a basal emargi- 
nate or two-lobed scale. Fruits at intervals of to i inch, 
facing downwards : sepals | inch very obtuse, ciliate : 
nutlets | inch, covered all over with hooked spines. 
t* 352. 

Pulneys : on the open downs, flowering May and June. 
Nilgiris and Anamalais, down to much lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India. 

Owing to the lengthening of the spikes as the nutlets mature 
the flowering and fruiting appearance of the plant are very 
different. 

I find two forms which may possibly be varieties. 

a leaves elliptic quite entire softly hairy. This is possibly the form 
Clarke in F.B.I, refers to as common on the Nilgiris Wall. 919 (Bababoo- 
dun, Nepal). Fyson 298. 

b leaves obscurely crenulate, scabrid with hairs on tuberculate bases. 
Fyson 1843. Possibly Clarke's var lanceolata, but not Wallich's Cat. 919. 
G.F.M.P. gives two species, neither from our area. 

C. furcatum WalL softly hairy leaves, etc., nutlets with distinct margin. 



414 CONVOLVULACEJE 

C. dentiulatum A.DC. var zeylanicum C.B. Clarke leaves strigose with 
bulbous-based hairs, nutlets not margined covered with glochidiate 
spines, but on the specimens available to me these two pairs of characters 
are not segregated in this way and I am inclined to think that our plants 
shall all be considered one variable species. 



CONVOLVULACE^E. Convolvulace*. 

Twiners, characterised chiefly by the funnel-shaped 
lobeless corolla, which in bud is folded in along five 
lines and then twisted so that when it is open the five 
areas exposed in bud are of a darker colour. Stamens 
five, attached to the base of the corolla with oblong 
anthers dehiscing by slits. Ovary superior of two carpels, 
two or four celled. Style with undivided or divided, 
globular or oblong stigma (important for distinguishing 
the genera). Fruit usually a thin-walled capsule, but 
also a berry. Leaves always alternate. 

Species about 700, mostly in the warmer regions. The 
genera are so much alike in appearence that their distinction 
can often be made only by careful examination of the fruit, 
stigmas, and smaller characteristics. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

{Style with 2 rounded stigmas b 
Style with 2 oblong stigmas .... CONVOLVULUS. 
, f Flowers i inch or more in cymes or dence bunches . . c 
\Flowers \ inch in loose racemes or panicles . . PORANA. 
f Fruit indehiscent, often fleshy ovary 4-celled . ARGYREIA. 
\Fruit a thin walled capsule ovary 2-celled . . IPOM^A- 

ARGYREIA. F.B.I. 101 in. 

Flowers in cymes peduncled in the leaf-axils ; stigma 
globular undivided ; ovary four-celled ; fruit fleshy- 
indehiscent. 

Species about 30, nearly all in India or the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 



CONVOLVULACE/E 415 

Very similar in general appearance to CONVOLVULUS the common Euro- 
pean genus ; but differs from it in the flowers being in cymes not solitary, 
and from both it and IPOM^A, the common genus of the plains, in the 
ovary being four-celled. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

/Erect shrub. Flower dark purple ... A. cuneata. 
\Climbingplants. Flower pink b 

Fruit orange when ripe A. hirsuta. 

Fruit black when ripe A. nellygherrya, 

Argyreia hirsuta Arnott ; F.B.L iv 189, III 18. A 
strong climber, shaggy with silvery hairs on all the green 
parts. Leaf-stalks 2 inches : blades 4 by 3 inches, ovate 
with straight or slightly cordate base. Flowering 
branches (peduncles) stout, 4 to 7 inches, cymosely 
forked at the top with short branches so that the flowers 
are bunched : bracts oblanceolate or oblong, persistent, 
the outer one often stalked and leaf-like. Sepals linear. 
Corolla 2} by 2 inches, pale purple with deep purple 
centre, t* 353. Wight Ic. t. 891 (Rivea). 

Niigiris : Kotagiri, 6,500 feet. Coonoor, etc,, flowering 
May and after. Pulneys : 5,500 feet, etc. Not at high levels. 

Gen. Dirt. These hills only and Ceylon as var. coacta, but very closely 
allied to other species of South India. 

Argyreia nellygherrya Choisy ; F.B.L iv 189, III 16. 
Similar to the last species but fruits black when ripe. 
Niigiris : to 6,000 feet [G.F.M.P.] 

Argyreia cuneata Ker Gawl. ; F.B.L iv 191, III 24, 
An erect shrub with dark purple flowers, about 2 inches 
by i inch and obovate oblanceolate leaves narrow-wedge- 
shaped at the base. t. 354. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 



41 6 SOLANACEJE 

CONVOLVULUS, F.B.I. 101 ix. 

Mostly herbaceous climbers, distinguished from 



and ARGYREIA by the pollen grains smooth not 
spiny, and the two stigmas oblong not rounded. Fruit 
a capsule. 

Convolvulus flavus Willd. ; F.B.L iv 219, IX 9. 
A climbing plant, rusty pubescent on the branches and 
young parts, with triangular-hastate or cordate leaves, 
deeply lobed and toothed, up to 3 by ij inches. Flowers 
\ inch yellowish, funnel shaped. 

West Ghauts : Nilgiris and Pulneys 3,000 to 6,000 feet 
[G.F.M.P.]. 

PORANA, F.B.I. 1 01 xi. 

Large climbing shrubs characterized by the small 
white flowers in long racemes or panicles. Fruit a capsule 
with i seed only, enclosed in the enlarged papery sepals. 

Porana paniculata Roxb., a north Indian species, 
is the " Bridal of Madras gardens" ; P. volubilis, a Malay 
species, is also cultivated. 

Porana malabarica C. B. Clarke ; F.B.I, iv 223, 
XI 7. A much branched climber with ovate cordate 
long pointed leaves. 

West Ghauts from the Bababoodons to the Nilgiris, Anamalai 
Pulney and Travancore hills, up to 6,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

SOLANACE.E. 

Herbs or shrubs with leaves alternate, or in the upper 
parts in unequal pairs, and solitary or cymosely arranged 
perfectly regular monopetalous flowers. Corolla often 
lobeless and plaited in bud. Stamens five attached to it. 
Ovary of two carpels, with numerous ovules on peltate 



SOLANACE/E 417 

placentas. Fruit a many-seeded berry or capsule. Dis- 
tinguished from other similar families by the partition 
wall (united placentas) of the ovary not reaching quite 
to the top, the seeds round and very thin (flat discs) 
and the anthers usually large and opening by terminal 
pores. 

Species about 1,500 in the warmer parts of the whole world, 
but more especially South America. 

The family is divided into four sub-orders, which differ 
chiefly in the fruit and the folding of the corolla. Common 
examples of these arc 

I. Petals folded or valvate, fruit a berry SOLANUM Potato, 
Brinjal ; LYCOPERSICUM Tomato ; CAPSICUM Chili ; PHYSALIS 
Cape Gooseberry. 

II. Petals imbricate, fruit a berry LYCIUM a shrub of 
English gardens ; ATROPA Belladonna. 

III. Petals folded or imbricate, fruit a capsule DATURA 
Thorn-apple. 

IV. Petals folded and valvate, fruit a capsule NICOTIANA 
Tobacco. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

C Fruit a berry enclosed in a large inflated calyx . . . b 
I Fruit a berry, not enclosed ; leaves simple ; corolla flat 

j SOLANUM. 

L Fruit a prickly capsule ; corolla funnel-shaped. DATURA. 

("Flowers blue, calyx five-partite (Wintercherry). NICANDRA. 

b < Flowers white with purple spots, calyx only shortly lobed 

I (Cape Gooseberry) PHYSALIS. 

SOLANUM* F.B.I. 102 i. 

Potato, Brinjal. 

Herbs or climbing plants with the characteristics 
given above for the family, but the fruit a berry, the 
corolla with short tube and nearly flat (rotate) limb, 
folded in bud, anthers large on very short stalks, and 
opening by terminal pores. 
37 



41 8 SOLANACE/E 

Species perhaps 1,000 in tropical and sub-tropical regions 
and especially in America. 

The ordinary (not the " Sweet ") potato is a tuberous enlargement of an 
underground branch, its ' eyes ' being undeveloped buds (from which the 
new shoots arise when a tuber or a portion of it is planted). It was 
introduced into Europe from South America. The Brinjal or Egg-plant is 
the fruit (berry) of S. melongena. 

'Climbing plants with white flowers and pinnate leaves. 

i. S. Seaforthianum. 
Ditto but with simple leaves . . . 2. S. convolvulus. 

Unarmed plants b 

^ Stems and often leaves armed with prickles . . . . d 
f Thin-stemmed shrubs. Flowers fascicled in leaf-axils . . 
j 4. S. denticulatum 

j and 3. S. laeve. 

I Flowers exjra axillary 5. S. nigrum. 

(^Large shrubs or small trees (introduced plants) . . . c 

C Flowers 2 inches blue or white . . 6. S. macrophyllum. 

c < Flowers i inch two ear-like leaves at each leaf axil . . . 

L 7.8. auriculatum. 

C Flowers solitary or few, 2 inches, small shrubs .... 

d 1 8. S. Wightii. 

Flowers in a double row, lateral : low shrubs . . . . e 
L Flowers in terminal corymbs : large shrubs . . . . / 

/Leaves ovate, lobed 9. S. indicum var. 

\Leaves pinnatifid, very low shrub . 10. S. sisymbrifolium. 

/Stem winged by decurrent petioles . n. S. robustum. 

* \Leaves white underneath . . . . 12. S. giganteum. 

* Unarmed climbing plants. 

i. Solanum Seaforthianum Dunal. A climber. 
Leaves occasionally simple, more often deeply pinnately- 
lobed or compound. Glabrous except for a few hairs, and 
minute pubescence on the nerves ; terminal lobe largest, 
ovate or elliptic, acuminate. Flowers in terminal pani- 
cles white. Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 1982. 

Common on trees, in stations of both plateaus. 

Native of South America and introduced to England by 
Lord Seaforth in 1804 ^ rom tne West Indies. 



SOLANACE/E 419 

2. Solanum convolvulus Sendt. A climber like I he 
last, but with simple ovate entire leaves, from ii to 2 
inches by J to inch. 

On trees, cultivated, Coonoor, Yercaud. Native of South 
Brazil. 

** Unarmed erect shrubs and trees. 

3. Solanum laeve DunaL ; F.B.I, iv 231, I 9. A 
small shrub with rather thin zigzag branches. Leaves 
broadly elliptic, acuminate at both ends, entire glabrous. 
Flowers fascicled in axillary pedicels, of 1- to i inch white. 
Sepals 5 linear. Corolla inch. Berry } inch red. t* 355. 

Nilgiris : in light shade. 

4. Solanum denticulatum Blume, var. Gouakai ; 
F.B.I, iv 232, I 10 var. Stem smooth or pubescent, with- 
out prickles, J inch thick. Leaf-stalk i to i inch ; blade 
2 to 4 inches, ovate, acute or acuminate, narrowed to the 
stalk, with a few large coarse teeth in the further half, 
nearly or quite glabrous. Flowers several together in a 
leaf axil ; stalk k to I inch. Sepals 7 or 8. Corolla I inch, 
white. Berry J inch, red, glabrous. Wight Ic. t. 1397. 

In shady places. Pulncys in woods below Kodaikanal at 
6,500 feet and below (Glen Falls), flowering June, Rare at the 
higher levels. Nilgiris : Kotagiri. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 

The species was founded by Blume on the Java plant, which has entire 
leaves, more than twice as long as broad. Our plant was originally 
described as a distinct species S. Gouakai, by Dunal. 

5. Solatium nigrum L. ; F.B.I. iv 229, I i. A 
small shrub with smooth nearly glabrous branches. 
Leaves ovate-deltoid, 2 by J inch often slightly lobed at 
the broadest part. Stem sparingly pubescent. Peduncles 
outside the leaf-axils, about i inch ; pedicles J inch. 
Corolla white. Berry globose I inch, red, black or 
yellow. 



420 SOLANACE/E 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund roadsides, etc. Pulneys : above 
Pallangi and Vilpatti, etc. 

Gen. Dist. India up to 7,000 feet and throughout tropical and temper- 
ate countries (England, etc.). 

6. Solatium macrophyllum Hort. ex Dun. A tree 
with large lobed leaves, covered with stiff simple hairs on 
the upper side, and with stellate hairs on the lower ; and 
bunches of large light and dark blue flowers. Curt. Bot. 
Mag. t. 4138. 

Occurs occasionally in gardens. A native of Brazil. 
This plant was called S. macranthum in my Fl. N. & P, Ht. 

7. Solanum auriculatum Ait. A shrub of 10 to 15 
feet characterized by the almost invariable presence in the 
axils of a pair of ear-shaped small reflexed leaves simulating 
stipules. All green parts covered with a tomentum of 
stellate hairs. Leaves, 8 to 14 inches by 3 to 5 inches> 
ovate, lanceolate, long-acute. Flowers in dense cymose 
corymbs. Corolla, to i inch across, lilac or blue, 
glabrous inside, tomentose outside. Berry | inch diameter, 
pubescent, yellow, t* 356* 

Nilgiris : Coonoor along the stream which flows through 
Brooklands estate, etc., abundant there. Introduced from 
America. 

*** Prickly shrubs and herbs. 

8. Solanum Wightii Nees ; F.B.I, iv 234, I 18. A 
small plant, almost a herb, distinguished at once among 
our species by the very large flowers. Prickles few and 
small. All green parts clothed with rather long hairs, 
and the undersides of the leaves with a very close tomentum 
as well. Leaves ovate, lobed, ij to 3 inches. Flowers 
few or solitary, 2 inches across. Lavender blue, 
t. 357. 



SOLANACE/E 421 

Coonoor : Lamb's Rock Road but not common, Flowers 
June. 

This plant was named S. macranthum Dun. in the F. N. & P. Ht. 

9. Solanum indicum Linn., var. multiflora Wight 
F.B.I, iv 235, 1 20 var. A low bush ; stem much branch- 
ed, stout, and covered with stellate, woolly, tomentum, 
armed, as also the leaves on the veins and inflorescence, 
with stout, flat (compressed), thorns, up to i inch high, 
and | by ^ inch, broad at the base. Leaves 3 inches, 
ovate lobed ; densely tomentose underneath, thinly so 
above. Flowers in raceme-like double rows on short 
stout peduncles. Pedicel ^ inch, thick, spiny ; in fruit 
^ inch. Sepals 1 1 ff inch, tomentose, triangular. Petals 
I inch, ovate acute, tomentose and pilose on the backs 
smooth inside, violet. Anthers not as long. Style 
slightly longer, stellately hairy, except at the end. Fruits 
crowded, the pedicels decurved so that all face downwards, 
changing from a rich orange to dark purple, | inch dia- 
meter. Seeds ^ by J inch flat, covered thickly by very 
small warts, t. 358. Wight Ic. t. 1400 (S. ferox-minus). 

In the open. Nilgiris : on the Ootacamund downs common, 
especially towards Pykara and below. Pulneys : down to 
5,500 feet. 

10. Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamk. A low shrub 
covered rather with glandular hairs and also sharp yellowish 
prickles. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, covered on both 
sides with stellate hairs, shorter and closer on the under. 
Flowers in terminal corymbs white or lilac. Berries 
orange-red i inch diameter glabrous and glossy, not or 
hardly overtopped by the calyx lobes. t 359. Curtis 
Bot. Mag. tt. 2568, 2828. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor abundant, Kotagiri, etc. A native of 
Brazil. 



422 SOLANACE/E 

1 1 . Solatium robustum Wendt. A shrub of 4 to 
6 feet, distinguished among our species of the genus by the 
margins of the leaves being decurrent as wings 2 to 3 inches 
down the branches. Densely tomentose all over, espe- 
cially on the young parts and peduncles with reddish 
brown branched hairs. Prickles on the stem compressed 
glossy and curved, like those of a rose, on the leaves 
narrow and straight. Leaves in general outline ovate, 
with shallow triangular lobes. Peduncle i to 2 inch, out- 
side the axils. Flowers white, * inch, the corolla divided 
nearly to the base into narrow i inch lobes. Berry i inch 
in diameter, globose-acute, tomentose, green. t. 360. 
Nilgiris : Coonoor abundant. A native of South America. 

12. Solatium giganteum Jacq. ; F.B.I, iv 237, I 14- 
A large shrub, almost a tree, with the branches and under- 
surface of leaves, very white and armed with a short 
conical prickles on the branches. Leaves 6 to 8 inches by 
ii to 3^, elliptic ; when young with a few scattered stellate 
hairs on the upper side but soon glabrous, densely white 
tomentose on the lower side. Flowers in terminal or 
lateral very dense flat corymbs ; calyx white, corolla 
lilac, small. Berries \ to ; 1 3 inch, glabrous, red. 

Nilgiris : by sholas on the edges of the plateau, Kotagiri, 
Kodanad, Coonoor, Naduvattam, etc. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon, 3,000 to 7,000 feet. 

CYPHOMANDRA, 

Cyphomandra bctacca Sendt ; Tree Tomato. A 
shrub or small tree with dark velvety leaves, smelling 
strongly of mice. Flowers white. Fruit egg-shaped, 
smooth. Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 7682. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor. 

A native of New Grenada, introduced first into England in 
1803. 



423 

PHYSALIS. F.B.I. 102 II. 

Herbs with solitary axillary flowers of the SOLANUM 
type, but anthers opening by longitudinal slits (not pores) 
and berry enclosed in a thin papery bag (the enlarged 
calyx). 

Species perhaps 30, natives chiefly of America and more 
especially Mexico and North America ; but a few widely 
distributed over the warmer parts of the world. 

Physalis pcruviana Linn. ; F.B.I, iv 238, II 2 ; 
Cape Gooseberry. Leaf-stalk i inch ; blade ovate- 
cordate, 2 1 by 2 inches. Flower-stalk 1 inch. Corolla 
white with purplish spots. Calyx in fruit li inches long. 
t. 361. 

Cultivated and now in places run wild. A native of South 
America, from which it was introduced into England in 1772. 

NICANDRA* F.B.I. 102 iii.* 

Species one only, native of Peru. Named after 
Nicander of Coloption who lived in the second century. 

Nicandra physaloides Gcertn. ; F.B.L iv 240, III * i ; 
Winter-cherry. Weak-stemmed and often climbing. 
Leaves irregularly toothed, glabrous. Flowers small, 
blue. Fruit surrounded by five much enlarged strongly 
veined sepals, free nearly to the base and cordate. 
t* 362. 

Not wild but occasionally found as an escape. 

DATURA. F.B.I. 102 vn. 

Thorn-apple. 

Species about ten in temperate and tropical regions. 

Datura arborca Linn ; VII 4. A shrub growing 

to i o or 15 feet, with elliptical oblong, entire, glabrous 

leaves and large bell-shaped flowers 8 by 6 inches, white 



424 SCROPHULARIACEJE 

with strong sickly odour at night, folded inwards along 
five lines in bud. t. 363. In my FU N. & P. Ht. this 
was named D. Suaveolens. 
A native of South America. 

Datura stramonium Linn ; F.B.L iv 242, VII i . A 
small shrub, branching often cymosely, a flower termi- 
nating the main stem. Leaves lobed. Flowers erect, 
usually white. Fruit very spiny, opening in 4 valves. 

Native of the Himalayas. 



SCROPHULARIACE^:. 

Herbs or shrubs with the lower leaves at least usually 
opposite. Flowers monopetalous, and more or less 
irregular, often two-lipped. Stamens four with sometimes 
a rudimentary fifth, or two only. Ovary superior of two 
cells, fruit a many-seeded capsule. 

Species about 2,000 found all over the world. 
This large family is divided into a number of tribes collected into three 
series 

Series A. Leaves all alternate : corolla with two upper lobes outside 
the others in bud, e.g., VERBASCUM Mullein, CELSIA. 

Series B. Leaves at least the lower opposite : corolla with two 
upper lobes (or lip) outside in bud, e.g., LINARIA Toadflax, ANTIRRHINUM 
Snapdragon, MIMULUS Monkey-flower, ILYSANTHES. 

Series C. Corolla with the lower or a lateral lobe outside in bud, 
e.g., VERONICA Speedwell, SCOPARIA, STRIGA, SOPUBIA, EUPHRASIA Eye- 
bright, BARTSIA, PEDICULARIS Red Rattle, LATHR^EA. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

(Leaves all alternate b 
Lower leaves, or all, opposite c 

"Tall woolly herbs with spike of yellow flat flowers . . . 

p. 425. VERBASCUM. 

Tall herb with pink or white pendant flowers .... 

p. 429. DIGITALIS. 

^ Small herb with two-lipped yellow flowers . p. 431. STRIGA. 



SCROPHULARIACE/E 425 

f Stamens 4 perfect d 

j Stamens 2 and 2 yellow staminodes lying on the lower lip . 

c ^ p. 428. ILYSANTHES. 

(^Stamens 2 only spreading g 

f Corolla distinctly 2-lipped MAZUS and e 

\Corollaflatortubularthelobessub-equal / 

f Upper lip flat, notched . LINDENBERGIA AND VANDELLIA. 

\Upper lip compressed laterally . p. 433. PEDICULARIS. 

r Leaves narrow, anthers with one spine-like sterile half . . 

! p. 432. SOPUBIA. 

/ \ Leaves ovate, calyx winged. Flower blue. ^.427. TORENIA. 

^Leaves ovate, calyx not winged . />. 427, LIMNOPHILA. 

f Flower flat blue. Leaves simple upper alternate . . 

g J p. 430. VERONICA. 

(^Flower 2-lipped yellow. Leaves pinnate^. 425; CALCEOLARIA. 

VERBASCUM* F.B.I. 103 n. 

Usually very woolly tall herbs. Leaves alternate. 
Flowers yellow in simple or branched spikes. Corolla 
flat, upper lobes outside in bud. 

Species about 160, in Europe, Western and Central Asia 
and North Africa. 

Vcrbascum thapsus Linn., Great Moth Mullein, 
F.B.L iv 250, II i. A stout erect herb, 2 104 feet high. 
Leaves oblong narrowed at the base and decurrent as two 
wings down the stem. Flowers yellow, in dense woolly 
spikes. Stamens 5, three yellowish woolly with short one- 
celled anthers, two larger glabrous and with larger anthers. 
Capsule globose. t 364. 

A weed of waste places and gardens, and also in old clearings. 
On both Nilgiri and Pulney plateaus. 

Gen. Dist. From Great Britain across Europe and temperate Asia to 
the Himalaya. Naturalized also in America. 

CALCEOLARIA. 103 in.* 

Garden plants distinguished from all our genera by the 
corolla having a short tube and two bag-shaped lips with 
closed mouth. Stamens 2. Capsule conical septicidal. 



426 SCROPHULARIACE/E 

Species 120 ; natives of western America especially of the 
Andes from Magellan to Columbia and Mexico, but with two in 

New Zealand. 

Calceolaria mexicana Bentham ; III* i ; common 
Slipper Flower. 

Flowers lemon-yellow. t* 365. 

On moist shady banks and by the edges of sholas ; common 
in and near the hill-stations. 

A native of Mexico, Gavatemala and Costa Rica. 

MAZUS, F.B.I. 103 xn. 

Small herbs with lower leaves opposite or in a rosette, 
upper sometimes alternate, and small flowers in terminal 
racemes. Calyx five-fid. Corolla tube short, upper lobe 
erect two-fid, lower mueh larger spreading, three-fid, throat 
with two-lobed plate. Stamens 4, Stigma of two flat 
lobes. Capsule small. Seeds numerous. 

Mazus rugosus Lour. ; F.BJ. iv 259, XII i. An 
annual herb. Rosette leaves obovate-spathulate, i to 3 
inches long, irregularly and coarsely serrate-toothed. 
Flowering stems numerous, 2 to 10 inches. Racemes i to 
6 inches. Corolla -i to inch pale blue or white streaked 
with blue. Lady Bourne's Ootacamund flowers, t, 93 

Nilgiris at Pykara (Bourne). 

LINDENBERGIA. F.B.I. 103 xiv. 

Flowers tubular and two-lipped, the upper two-lobed 
flat anderect ; the lower spreading three lobed with two 
folds across. Stamens 4, the anther lobes separate 
distinctly stalked. Calyx campanulate. Capsule loculicidal 
with many seeds. 

Species few only, in Africa, India and the Malay. 



SCROPrtULARIACE/E 427 

Lindenbergia urticaefolia Link & Otto ; F.B.L 
' iv 262, XIV 8. A very slender glandular herb. Leaves 
thin, ovate, cuneate at the base, coarsely serrate up to ij 
by inch. Flowers about | inch, capsule acute, short. 

Shevaroys on walls and banks (Wight G.F.M.P.). 

LIMNOPHILA F.B.I. 103 xvn. 

Small herbs of marshy places, with aromatic oil in 
transparent dots. Leaves opposite or whorled, the lower 
in some species if in water deeply cut. Calyx of 5 narrow 
sepals. Corolla tube cylindrical, the upper lobes outside 
in bud. Stamens 4 all perfect ; anther cells separate. 
Capsule ovoid or oblong. Seeds numerous. 

Species about 30, in Africa, Asia and Australia. 

Limnophila hypericifolia Benth. ; F.B.L iv 269, 
XVII 14. An erect herb with stout unbranched stem of 
i to 2 feet. Leaves half-stem-clasping all oblong or ovate, 
minutely toothed round the obtuse apex. Flowers sessile 
in the upper axils, to % inch, long, erect, tubular, mauve 
coloured. t 366. 

In marshy places and streams. Nilgiris : on the downs and 
to Coonoor, etc. 

TORENIA. F.B.I. 103 xxm. 

Weak glabrous herbs with four-angled stems, oppo- 
site leaves and terminal or axillary solitary or umbelled 
flowers ; characterized chiefly by the calyx being winged, 
and by the upper stamens being very short, the lower 
longer and with an appendage on each filament. The 
four anthers converge in pairs at the back of the corolla. 
Corolla a wide bell-shape, with four lobes, the upper 



428 SCROPHULRIACE/E 

notched. Capsule linear or oblong, separating septici- 
dally from the seed-bearing axis. Seeds numerous 
rough. 

Species about 30, in the tropics of Asia and Africa. 

Torcnia asiatica Linn. ; F.B.I, iv 277, XXIII 5. 
Leaves shortly petioled, ovate, serrate. Pedicels axillary, 
thicker in fruit. Corolla i inches, blue with dark violet 
lateral lobes, t* 367. Wight Ic. t. 862. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor in damp shady places on Lamb's Rock 
Road, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India and to Japan. Varieties of 
this are commonly grown in Madras gardens. 

VANDELLIA. 103 xxiv. 

Flowers with 5 equal sepals two-lipped corolla (upper 
lip notched, lower of 3 spreading lobes) and 4 perfect 
stamens, with distinct and divergent anther lobes, thetwo 
upper stamens attached to the throat of the corolla, the two 
lower with arched filaments attached to the throat and 
conniving under the upper lip, and with an appendage 
near the base. 

Species about 30 in the warmer parts of the world. 

Vandellia scssiliflora Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 282, XXIV 
ii. An erect glabrous much-branched low herb with 
rounded crenate-serrate leaves to i inch diameter close 
clusters of sessile flowers, often deistogamic, and ellipsoid 
capsule. 

Nilgiris, Pulney Hills and Annamallai Hills, 2,000 to 6,000 
feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

ILYSANTHES. F.B.I. 103 xxv. 
Annual glabrous herbs with opposite leaves, charac- 
terized by the solitary axillary flowers, which are slightly 
two-lipped, and have lying on the lower lip two yellow 



SCROPHULARIACE;E 429 

staminodes, and by the long narrow capsule. Upper 
stamens 2, perfect, stigma of 2 lamellae. Seeds many, 
rough. The genus includes part of the old genus BONNAYA. 
Species few in tropical Asia and Africa. 

Ilysanthes veronicaefolia Urban, formerly Bonnaya 
ver. F.B.L iv 285, XXVI 3. Stem weak often rooting at 
the lower nodes. Leaves oblanceolate-oblong or elliptic, 
J to i i inch by | to J inches entire or with distant serra- 
tions. Flowers in terminal racemes i inch purplish, erect. 
Pods i to I inch by i inch, t, 368. 

On both plateaus at 6,500 feet : Kotagiri, Coonoor, Vilpatti 
and below. 

Ilysanthes hyssopioidcs Benth. ; F.B.L iv 283, 
XXV i. A marsh plant. Stem 6 to 10 inches, weak. 
Leaves I by I inch, one or three nerved, entire. Flower- 
stalks in the upper axils, f to i inch, very slender. Sepals 
J inch. Corolla \ inch, pale blue. Capsule hardly 
longer than the sepals, obovoid. t, 369. 

Nilgiris : Pykara in wet places. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan, Ceylon, lower hills of India, China. 

DIGITALIS. 103 xxxiv. 

Foxglove. 

Species about 18 in Europe and western and middle 
Asia. 

Digitalis purpurea Linn. ; XXXIV * i ; common 
Foxglove. Flowers in a tall handsome spike. Corolla 2 
to 2\ inches tubular, broadening towards the mouth, pink 
with dark purple spots, hanging with mouth downwards. 
Stamens four, anthers cohering under the upper side of the 
corolla. Fruit a capsule, f inch, pubescent with jointed 
glandular hairs, splitting open by an upper and a lower 



430 SCROPHULARIACE^E 

valve. Seeds numerous, reddish brown. Leaves mostly 
at the base; elliptic ovate, narrowed up to 12 by 6 inches 
only. 

In woods near Ootacamund as a garden-escape. Kodai- 
kanal, common. 

A common European plant. Fr. Digitate rougeatre. Ger. Rothe 
Fingerhut. Malformations by which two or three flowers at the summit 
coalesce into one widely open corolla at the top while others lower down 
on the spike are undeveloped, occasionally occur. 

VERONICA* F.B. i. 103 xxxix. 
Herbs, shrubs or rarely trees with opposite or alternate 
leaves and flowers in bracteate racemes (or occasionally 
solitary) ; distinguished by the corolla tube very short 
and lobes flat, a lateral one exterior in bud, the stamens 
two only, and the fruit a two-valved capsule often notched 
at the top. 

Species 200, in temperate and cold regions of the whole 
world, widely dispersed. 

Stems prostrate : leaves alternate : flowers pedicelled in the 
leaf axils . . . Common Speedwell .... V. agrestis. 

Stem erect : leaves opposite : flowers in axillary bracteate 
spikes V. javanica. 

Veronica agrestis Linn. ; F.B.L iv 294, XXXIX 9. 
A tender prostrate plant ; pubescent with jointed 
hairs, some glandular. Leaves | to f inch, shortly 
stalked, ovate, abrupt or cordate at the base, coarsely 
serrate. Pedicels axillary J- to i inch, very slender. 
Sepals ovate-elliptic, % i nc h, fringed with simple and 
a few glandular hairs. Corolla blue. Fruit of two diver- 
gent lobes, one net-veined when ripe and slightly keeled. 
t* 370. 

Roadsides. Ootacamund : Lovedale. There appears to 
me to be no difference between this and the European plant, 
the common or Corn Speedwell, 



SCROPHULARI ACE/E 43 1 

Gen. Dist. Of species and varieties widely, all over Europe and 
northern Asia to Japan, Himalayas, etc. Fr. Velvate sauvage, Ger. 
Ackerohrenpresis. 

Veronica javanica El ; F.B.L iv 296, XXXIX 15 ; 
Java Speedwell. Tender, annual herb. Stems numerous 
erect. Leaves opposite, shortly stalked, J to ij by J 
to J inch, deltoid with abrupt nearly horizontal base, 
coarsely serrate, pubescent. Spikes of flowers axillary, 2 
to 3 inches : bracts J inch, oblanceolate : pedicel inch. 
Corolla |- inch, capsule J to J inch, not longer than the 
sepals. Style r / inch. 

Nilgiris : Lovedale (collected by Miss Edwards in Novem- 
ber). Pulneys : Kodaikanal (Bourne) and below. 

Gen. Dist. Java, Himalayas, Loochoo islands. The first record of 
this species in South India was I think, in my F. N. & P. Ht. 

STRIGA. F.B.I. 103 XLII. 

Small herbs with slender stem and narrow leaves, 
rough with hard short hairs, and drying black. Flowers 
in the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx tubular, more or 
less deeply divided into its five parts. Corolla with a 
slender tube bent about half-way, a large flat lower lip, 
and small upper one. Stamens four, not exserted ; 
anthers one-celled. Capsule opening in two valves which 
separate from the placentas. Seeds very numerous 
with rough coat. 

Species about 20, in the better parts of the world. 

Striga lutca Lour. ; F.BJ. iv 299, XLII 3. A small 
herb common in the grass of open downs with short, 
narrow leaves and sulphur yellow flowers. 

Stem unbranched, 3 to 4 inches. Leaves sub-opposite, 
linear, i to inch, erect and usually curved towards the 
axis. Calyx ten-ribbed with hairs on bulbous bases. 



43 2 SCROPHULARI ACE/E 

Corolla tube exserted J inch above the calyx, contracted 
and abruptly incurved just below the limb : upper lobe 
outside in bud. Capsule sessile, not as long as the calyx, 
brown, opening by two valves. t 371, 

A parasite by its roots on roots of small herbs. Very 
common on the open downs and at lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. All over south and western India, mainland of south-east 
Asia and tropical and South Africa, Madagascar. 

SOPUBIA, F.B.I. 103 XLV. 

Herbs with opposite narrow or deeply divided leaves 
and flowers with one of the lower lobes exterior in bud ; 
stamens 4 ; anther cells unequal, one stipitate and empty ; 
stigma thickened ; seeds with lax skin. 

Species under 10, natives of South Africa, India, Malaya, 
and Australia. 

Corolla longer than broad, pink S. delphinifolia. 

Corolla broader than deep, yellow S. trifida. 

Sopubia delphinifolia G. Don. ; F.B.I. iv 302, XLV 
i. An erect herb up to 3 feet. Upper leaves simple, 
| inch ; lower with rachis of i -J- to 2 inches and two or three 
pairs of hardly broader, filiform, segments. Flowers 
axillary, stalks ^ inch. Calyx tube J to J inch : teeth 
J inch acute. Corolla pink, tubular, narrow below, 
inflated above ; lobes | inch, rounded, imbricate. Stamens 
four, the middle and upper pair longer. Anther lobes 
attached at their summits to the filaments, free below. 
Capsule oblong, seeds oblong rounded at both ends, 
striated, t, 372. 

In the open, among grass, a root parasite. 

Pulneys : on the downs high above Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : 
near Ootacamund, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Mysore, Carnatic, Travancore, Kanara and, generally, 
uplands of South India, Bundelkund Behar, Ceylon, 



SCROPHULARIACEffi 433 

Sopubia trifida Ham. ; F.B.L iv 302, XLV 2. An 
erect herb. Upper leaves 1 to J inch, simple ; lower 
i to 1 1 inches, with one pair of narrow but hardly filiform 
segments. Flowers one or' more in a leaf-axil ; pedicels 
4 inch. Calyx ^ inch ; lobes shorter than the tube, 
fringed with hairs. Corolla cup-shaped f to inch, 
creamy-yellow, as broad or broader than deep and 
bowl-shaped. Capsule egg-shaped or ellipsoid, notched 
at the top. t, 373. 

In the grass of the open hill-side, and in damp places. 
Pulneys : on the downs flowering from May. Nilgiris : 
Ootacamund to Avalanche and Naduvattam flowering from 
August. 

Gen. Dist. Hills of South India, Ceylon, Siam, China, Philippines. 

PEDICULARIS. F.B.I. LII. 

Perennial herbs with lower leaves usually pinnately 
lobcd or divided, and axillary two-lipped monopetalous 
flowers, characterized by the calyx being split down the 
middle of the upper and lower lip, and the upper lip of 
the corolla high and compressed and much narrower 
than the spreading lower, and inside it in bud. Stamens 
four, didynamous, with transverse anthers meeting under 
the upper lip. Capsule compressed ovate or lanceolate, 
often bent, opening loculicidally. Seeds numerous, of 
various shapes, with close or loose, smooth or wrinkled 
skin. 

Species 250, in Europe, Asia, and both Americas. Eng. 
Lousewort, Red Rattle ; Ger. Sumpflansekraut. Allied to 
RHINANTHUS Yellow Rattle ; Fr. Cocote ; Ger. Klapper 
groote, Ratelaar. 

Pedicularis zeylanica Benth. ; F.B.L ^317, LII 37 . 
Pink Rattle. Stem i to 2 feet or branched and diffuse 
28 



434 OROBANCHACE^E 

green pubescent. Leaves 2 by | to J inch, or even 
only i by ^ inch, oblanceolate-oblong, cut about half- 
way to the midrib into narrow rounded lobes, which 
are again lobed, and often also curled downwards. Flowers 
in the upper axils : pedicels | inch, calyx tube J inch, 
villous, cylindrical with oblique mouth. Corolla pink, 
exserted well beyond the calyx. Anther lobes with acute 
bases. Capsule J inch, t* 374* Wight Ic. t. 1419. 

Common in damp places in the open. Pulneys : on the 
downs below and above Kodaikanal ; flowering May to Septem- 
ber. Nilgiris : near Ootacamund to Kotagiri. 

Gen. Dist. Mysore and hills of South India and Ceylon. 

Except for being erect and taller, this is very like P. sylvatica of Europe. 
Eng. Procumbent Lousewort. 

Pedicularis pcrrottctii Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 317, LII 
36. Remarkable for the very large white flowers, between 
3 to 4 inches long : occurs at Avalanche but not, I think, on 
the higher levels, t* 375. Wight Ic. t. 1418. 



OROBANCHACE^. 

Herbs of a brown, purplish, or white colour, never 
green, parasitic on the roots of other plants. Stem 
simple, erect, bearing scales instead of leaves, and a 
terminal spike of flowers each in the axil of a scale. 
Flowers much as in the SCROPHULARIACE/E, but the 
ovary though of two carpels without partition. Seeds 
numerous. 

Twelve genera with about 130 species. 

In England species of OROBANCHE (Broomrape), and LATH- 
(Toothwort) occur. 



OROBANCHACM: 435 

CHRISTISONIA. 

Fleshy herbs, as described above. Calyx tubular. 
Corolla not two-lipped, the lobes equal broad and spread- 
ing. Anthers cells unequal, one-spurred and empty. 

Christisonia Saulierei Dunn. ; G.F.M.P., p. 976 ; 
F.B.I. II i.* Stem tall quite glabrous, 4 to 12 inches. 
Scales J inch oblong. No bracteoles. Calyx tube i to 

I inch. Corolla small to ii inches by f inch at mouth ; 
lobes obtuse erect, t. 376* 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal and above, parasitic on Strobilanthes. 
This plant was included in my F. N. P. Ht. in C. tubulosa Benth. 

Christisonia tubulosa Hook.f. ; F. B. . iv /, 321, 

II i. Similar to C. Saulierei but flowers much larger. 
Corolla tube 2i inches, reddish, ij inches, across the 
lobes. Lobes dark red, spreading, rounded. Basal 
scales red, and plant yellow with heddish streaks. 

Pulneys : about Shembaganur. 
Gen. Dist. : Western Ghauts at lower levels, 

Christisonia bicolor Gardn. ; F.B.I, iv 322, II 6. 
Stem glandular hairy, short, bracteoles 2. Flowers 2 to z\ 
inches long close together in more or less of a corymb, 
pale rose or yellow colour and white. 

Nilgiris : at 5,500 feet and above, Naduvattam, below 
Coonoor, etc. 

CAMBELLIA. 

Similar to Christisonia but anthers one-celled, opening 
by a pore at the apex. Stem short. Flowers in dense 
heads. 

Campbellia cytinoides Wt. y Ic. t. 1425 ; F.B.L 
as Christisonia neilgherica iv. 322. Flowers yellow, t* 377. 

Pulney : downs ; flower June (Bourne). Nilgiris at 
Pykara, Naduvattam, etc*., parasitic on Strobilanthes. 
28-A 



<f 3 6 LENTIBULARI \CEM 

LENTIBULARIACE^:. 
Principal Genus UTRICULARIA, F.B.I. 105 I. 

Bladderwort. 

Small herbs, growing in damp places or in water, and 
many remarkable for having, on the much dissected sub- 
merged leaves, small bladders which trap and ultimately 
digest and absorb small animals. Flower-stem erect, 
slender, leafless. Calyx two-partite. Corolla of two lips, 
upper entire or emarginate, lower larger three to six 
lobed, with a pointed, curved or straight, spur below. 
Stamens two, with broad filaments. Style short, stigma of 
two unequal lobes. Fruit a one-celled globose capsule, 
with many seeds on a basal placenta. 

A genus of some 150 species scattered over the whole 
world and in all climates ; in India from the plains of Madras 
to the top of the Nilgiris, and at least 1,000 feet on the 
Himalayas of Sikkim. 

The species were very difficult to distinguish but have been revised 
and their arrangement much simplified in the '(Flora of the Madras Presi- 
dency)' from which (as elsewhere in this book) the names here given are 
taken. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

rLeaves linear b 

a < Leaves round, ,V inch. Flower white with lilac margin . 

L 7. U. striatula. 

f Bracts attached at the middle d 

\Bracts attached by their bases : flr. blue or purple . . c 

f Flower yellow : stems twining . . 4. U. Wallichiana. 
c < Flower blue or purple : stem erect 

[ i. U. graminifolia and 2. U. uliginosa . d 

rFlower blue or purple : stem twining . 3. U. Smithiana. 

d 4 Spur longer than the lower lip ... 6. U. cserulea. 

\Spur short 5- U. rosa-purpurea. 



LfcNTIfctJLAtUAC&E 437 

i. Utricularia graminifolia Vdhl ; F.B.L v. caerulea, 
iv33i, 105, Ig; Common Blue Bladderwort. Flower- 
ing stem to 6 inches, with a few scales attached by 
the bases, Leaves linear evanescent. Flowers few, 
sub-terminal. Pedicel | inch, pinkish purple. Calyx 
lobes ovate, acuminate. Upper lip of corolla obovate, 
by J inch, finely veined, blue, erect ; lower lip much 
arched in the middle, blue at the sides, lighter but with 
purple veins in the centre : spur } inch, slender, pointing 
nearly vertically downwards. Bladders on the submerged 
leaves -$ inch, dark purple. Seeds reticulate with 
elongate areoles. t* 378-A. Wight Ic. tt. 1573, 1578 (2), 



Nilgiri and Pulney : common in marshy places ; flowering 
May. 

2. Utricularia uliginosa VahL ; F.B.L (U. affinis) 
iv 330, 18. A smaller plant than the last, and the areoles 
on the seeds hexagonal, scrobiculate. Flowers bluish 
purple. Wt. Ic. 1580. Fig. i ; 1578, fig. i. 

Western Ghauts. Nilgiris to 7,000 feet [G.F.M.P.]. 

3. Utricularia Smithiana Wt. Ic. t. 1577 ; F.B.L 
(U. caerulea var.) iv 331, I 900.** Similar to U. gramini- 
folia, but larger, twining. Flowers blue, mauve and 
lilac. Seeds globose, with irregular reticulation. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal [Bourne G.F.M.P.]. 

4. Utricularia Wallichiana Wight ; F.B.L iv 332, 
I 14 ; Yellow Bladderwort. Flowering stem i to i 
inches, very slender, with a few small bracts attached 
by their bases, but no leaves at the flowering time. 
Pedicels -J inch, erect. Calyx lips acute ; upper J inch ; 
lower jV inch Corolla yellow ; upper lip acute inch ; 



43^ CUT1BULARIACE/E 

lower notched at the end, corrugated, with a high arch 
in the middle and decurved sides. Fruit enclosed in the 
two, now nearly circular, calyx lips, f \- inch, flat with 
very thin walls. Seeds small sand-coloured, longi- 
tudinally wrinkled in irregular folds t, 378-B. Wight. 
Ic. t. 1572, fig. i. 

Marshy places in the open. Nilgiris : near Pykara on the 
river bank ; Kaity. Pulneys : Kodaikanal down to Machur. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills and Ceylon. 

5. Utricularea rosa-purpurea Staff., u Spur 
shorter than the lower lip of the corolla, obtuse 
straight : the upper lip obovate, the lower J inch long, 
slightly more broad, the sides reflxed ". Flowers dark 
purple or pinkish, rather large. Leaves rather short 
and spathulate. [G.F.M.P.] t* 378-C 

Pulneys : 7,000 feet. Also Anamalais and Travancore hills. 

I cannot be certain that the figure is of this species as I have not 
seen Staff's plant. 

6. U* caerulea Linn. ; F.B.I. (U. racemosa) iv 333, 1 17. 
Stems tall, sometimes branched. Bracts attached by the 
middle. Flowers nearly sessile, rather crowded, white 
to purple. Spur longer than the lower lip, horizontal. 
Capsule orbicular, on a short deflexed pedicel. Leaves 
spathulate, Wt. Ic. 1583, 1582. 

Western Ghauts. Pulneys, Shevaroys [G.F.M.P.]. 

7. Utricularia striatula Sm.;F.BJ. (U. orbiculata) 
iv. 334, I 19. A very small plant with hair-like stem 
2 to 3 inches high, distinguished among our species by 
the nearly circular leaves -fa inch diameter on long 
stalks at the base. Upper lip of corolla white, the lower 
broad, five-lobed, white with yellow on the throat and 



GESNfiRACE/E 439 

lilac margin. Small bladders may be found below the 
leaves, t* 378-D* Wt. Ic. t. 1581. (U. glochidiata.) 
Nilgiris : Naduvattam, 6,000 feet. Flower September. 

GESNERACE^;. 

Mostly herbs, though some shrubby, with opposite 
or alternate, often radical leaves. Calyx and corolla 
typically five-lobed, but stamens two or four only. Corolla 
mostly two-lipped with the upper lip, or two lobes, inside 
the others in bud. Ovary one-celled, remarkable for the 
two large placentas projecting into the cavity on thinner 
portions, which may divide the ovary incompletely into 
two cells. Seeds numerous. 

Genera about 80, species 800 or 900 in south-east Asia, 
Polynesia, and tropical America. 

In some of the family one only of the two seed-leaves (cotyledons) is 
developed, and it may increase in size continuously and be the only leaf 
the plant ever possesses. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Climbers on trees. Flowers scarlet . . . /ESCHYNANTHUS. 
Ground herbs with radical leaves and leafless flower stalks 

DIDYMOCARPUS. 

Herb with leafy stem and bright blue flowers. . . KLUGIA, 

ESCHYNANTHUS. F.B.I. 106 i. 

Shrubby plants growing on the branches of trees. 
Leaves opposite, succulent or leathery. Flowers in 
small stalked bunches at the ends of the branches, with 
the characters of the family, but distinguished by having 
four perfect stamens projecting out of the flower, the 
seeds borne on the outer, not the ad-axial sides of the 
placentas, and the pod very long and slender. 

Species over 50 in India and Malay region. 



440 GESNEftACE/E 

schynanthus Pcrrottctii A.DC. ; F.B.I, iv 339, 
I 8. Leaves 3 to 4 inches by f to i inch, narrowed to each 
end, rather fleshy, stalk to J inch. Flowers i inches, 
scarlet, nearly erect, with mouth sideways. Pod 5 inches 
by inch. t, 379. 

Pulneys, near the above Kodaikanal in Gundattu and 
Gundan valley sholas. Nilgiris : near Pykara, Avalanche 
(abundant), flower September. 

DIDYMOCARPUS* F.B.I. 106 iv. 
Herbs with no leafy stem above ground, all the leaves 
radical. Flowers on a branched leafless stem. Corolla 
tube cylindrical, not two-lipped. Stamens two perfect, 2 
or 3 imperfect. Capsule linear. Seeds ellipsoid smooth. 
Species 80 from India through Malaya to China, Australia. 

Didymocarpus tomentosa Wt. ; Wall. ; F.BJ. 
iv 353, IV 33. Leaves broadly elliptic, with short or no 
stalks, much wrinkled and with shallow crenations ; upper 
surface covered with short hairs, lower tomentose on 
the fine reticulations. Upper part of flowering stem 
glandular-pubescent. Flowers mauve-pink. Corolla tube 
i inch, curved, limb spreading ; capsule J inch, t. 380. 
Wt. Ic. t. 1349. 

Nilgiris, Kotagiri, Biccapatti, Pulneys at 5,000 feet and 
above. Common on the Kodaikanal Ghaut path near Shem- 
baganur. 

The leaves are very like those of the English Primrose but hairy. 

Didymocarpus Humboldtiana Gardn. ; F.B.L 
iv 353, VI 35. Leaves ovate, obtuse 3 by 2 inches, the older 
petiole up to 2 inches ; when young tomentose. Scape 2 
to 4 inches. Flowers lilac or pale purple, corolla campanu- 
late, | inch, wide at mouth. Pod i inch or more, slender. 
Govt. Bot. Mag. t. 4757. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor. Pulneys : 6,000 feet (Bourne). 



ACANTHACE^ 44! 

KLUGIA. F.B.I. 106 xv. 

Species three in India and Ceylon, one or two in Mexico, 
all very similar in general appearance. 

Klugia Notoniana A.DC. ; F.B.L iv 366, XV i. A 
herbaceous plant of moist situations, with thick smooth 
stems, ear-shaped or begonia-like leaves and flowers 
with a very conspicuous deep blue lip hanging down. 

Stem up to 3 feet, glabrous, translucent, swollen at 
the nodes. Roots fibrous. Leaves 4 to 8 inches by ai 
to 5 inches, alternate, shortly stalked, very obliquely 
ovate, with sinuate or dentate margin, pubescent on both 
sides, soon withering : nerves numerous and very regular. 
Flowers in terminal racemes : pedicels -| to I inch, 
horizontal in fruit. Calyx | inch with five angles and teeth, 
winged at the uppermost, dorsal angle. Corolla tube f 
inch and small upper lip white ; lower 4 to i by f inch, 
deep rich blue, with yellow towards the mouth. Stamens 
four. Calyx in fruit pointing downwards. Capsule 
J inch, spherical. Seeds very numerous on three sides of 
each of two large intruded placentas. Wight Ic. t. 1353. 
t. 381. 

Pulneys : only in cool places near water, common at 5,500 
feet, Silver Cascade, Shembaganur ; but also (rare) on the 
downs above Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 

ACANTHACE^. 

Shrubs and herbs characterized chiefly by the opposite 
leaves and swollen nodes, the flowers in spikes with 
conspicuous bracts and bracteoles, the stamens four only or 
two, and the fruit a capsule, from which when it opens the 
seeds are shot out by the elastic compressed stalks ; but 



442 ACANTHACE& 

there are exceptions to these characteristics. Leaves simple. 
Sepals usually distinct. Corolla two-lipped or nearly 
regular. Ovary superior with honey secreting gland 
round. 

Genera about 140 and species 2,000 mostly in the tropics, 
but also in the Mediterranean region (whence the Acanthus 
motive of sculpture), Australia and U.S.A. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

{Climbing plants. Flowers solitary with 2 large bracteoles 
(but no calyx) p. 442, THUNBERGIA. 
Erect shrubs or weak herbs 

f Corolla lobes nearly equal. Stamens 4 or 2 . . . . c 

\ Corolla strongly two-lipped. Stamens 2 d 

r Petals nearly separate. Sepals 4, 2 outer larger .... 

I p. 453. BARLERIA. 

c ^ Corolla bell or funnel shaped. Spike dense 

p. 443. STROBILANTHES. 

, Corolla bell-shaped. Spike long, one-sided .... 

p. 454. ASYSTASIA. 

rStamens stiff, exserted .../>. 454. ANDROGRAPHIS. 
d < Stamens included. Spike one-sided. . />. 458. RUNGIA. 

I Stamens one-half anther lower and tailed 

p. 456. JUSTICIA. 

THUNBERGIA* F.B.I. 109. I. 

Climbing plants with opposite leaves, and flowers 
pedicelled in the leaf-axils ; distinguished from all 
others by the two large sepal-like bracteoles, the calyx 
reduced to a mere ring or a circle of small teeth, and the 
fruit depressed globose with stout beak (sterile part) 
above. 

Species about 70 in the tropics of the old world. 

T. grandiflora Roxb. with large blue flowers is common 
in Madras gardens. T. mysorensis has a yellow flower 
with brown centre. 



l( 



ACANTHAC&E 443 

Thunbergia tomentosa Wall. ; F.B.L iv 391, I 2. 
Leaves ovate, lobed or not at the base. Bracts i inch. 
Calyx teeth very slender, up to \ inch long. Corolla 
pure white, tube i \ inches narrow, limb 2 inches across 
flat. Capsule with beak i to i i inches, hairy, t* 382. 

On the Ghauts up to 6,500 feet. Avalanche, Coonoor, 
Shevaroys ; common. 

This species differs from T. tragrans of lower levels in its more slender 
sepals. 

STROBILANTHES. F.B.I. 109 xvm. 

Large or small shrubs or herbs with opposite leaves 
and rather large violet or white, seldom yellow, flowers in 
heads or spikes. Corolla lobes in bud overlapping 
each other to the left. Stamens four (or two only fertile), 
of two lengths, filaments close together at the base. Ovary 
with two seeds in each cell (four in all). 

Species 200, nearly all in Asia and especially on the Western 
Ghauts of South India. 

Many of the species are multiennials, i.e., the plant flowers 
once only and then dies down ; and on these hills since nearly 
all the plants of a species flower as a rule in the same season, 
there is a great outburst of flower once in every few years. 
Between these years, it is often very difficult to find a single 
plant in flower. 

The genus is remarkable for the variation in the pollen grains of different 
species and Clarke in Ms. at Kew has proposed dividing the Indian species 
among four genera as follows : 

ENDOPOGON Nccs ; stamens two only, pollen grain ellipsoid with 
twelve to twenty ribs. Species of F.B.I. Nos. 6 and 12 to 20. 

GUT/.LAFFIA Hance \ stamens two only, pollen grains w ith tubercles or 
spines. Species of F.B.I. Nos. 5, 7, y to u. 

ACANTHOPALE Clarke ; stamens four, pollen grains with spines or 
prickles. Species of F.B.I. Nos. 22, 25, 28, 38, 43, 47, 60, 62 to 65, 76. 

STROBILANTHES Blume ; stamens four, pollen grains ellipsoid with 
twelve to twenty longitudinal ribs. Sp. of F.B.I. 23, 24, 26, 27 and the 
remainder. 



444 ACANTHACE^ 

As many of the species flower only at long intervals and usually in the 
autumn months, there are several which I have not seen. Fortunately of 
most there are excellent illustrations published by Wight or Beddone 
and I have made full use of these in my description. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

C Fertile stamens 2 with or without 2 sterile . . . . b 
a \ Fertile stamens 4 c 

Stamens 2. 
fFlrs. in head with 2 or 4 bract-like is. below . . 

b < i. S. foliosus. 

L Flowers in spikes c 

rSpikes bracts ovate, dense, glabrous . 2. S. Kunthianus 
i Spikes very hairy, as also stem and leaves .... 
i 5. S. gossypinus. 

L Spikes slender, bracts linear glandular d 

("Spikes slightly glandular. Leaves long-acuminate . . 

. I 4. S. consanguineus. 

. Spikes in branched very glandular panicles. Leaves 
I cuspidate white below . . . . 3. S. cuspidatus. 

Stamens 4. 

TFlower in heads / 

e < Flower in spike k 

L Flower in axils of bracts, the pairs well separated . . m 

fHeads wedge-shaped, of pink imbricate bracts. Peduncle 
f I straight, often deflexed, covered like the branches with 

, red hairs 7. S. Perrottetianus. 

LHeads flat or ovoid with i or 2 pairs leafy bracts . . . g 

(Narrow basal part of corolla equal to the upper . . . h 
Basal tube much shorter than the upper part . . . j 
f Corolla abruptly bent at junction of basal and upper part 
h < bent heads flat, woody inside . . 6. S. pulneyensis. 
L Corolla not abruptly bent though curved sideways. 
rBracts leafy, crenate in upper part : flower, blue . . . 
i < 8. S. papillosus. 

LBracts narrow, hairy ; flowers white 9. S. neilghernensis 

{Corolla straight, tube brown. Stamens all equal in 
mouth 10. S. Wightianus. 

Stamens unequal. Leaves obovate . . n. S. urceolaris. 



ACANTHACE^E 445 

''Spikes terminal or axillary, bracts ovate acuminate 

hairy / 

Spikes terminal or mostly so ; bracts acute, glabrous . m 
Spikes erect from the old wood, bracts rounded. . . . 

1 6. S. luridus. 

f Ls. sessile or nearly so, ovate very hairy . 12. S. sessilis. 
\Ls. stalked, acuminate : peduncles slender . 13. S. asper. 

(Spikes erect, bracts conspicuous, stamens 4 on lower 
side of curved corolla 14. S. Zenkerianus. 
Spikes deflexed ; bracts long ; stamens exsert . . . 
15. S. micranthus. 

'Leaves oblong lanceolate, sessile or with auricled base 
decurrent on petiole, nodal-bracts ovate acute . . . 

17. S. homotropus. 

Leaves ovate, acute, abruptly rounded or decurrent on the 
long petiole, nodal-bracts oblong . 18. S. violacea. 
Leaves elliptic decurrent not auricled up to 7 by 3 inches 
panicle very large and sticky, nodal-bracts small, 
linear 19. S. amabilis. 

i* Strobilanthcs foliosus T. Anders. ; F.B.I, iv 433, 
XVIII 12 ; ENDOPOGON. Stem and branches glabrous 
or glandular and strongly scented when old (like sandal- 
wood oil) angular. Leaves ovate-acuminate, narrowed 
to the stalk, i| to 3 inches, finely serrate : nerves evenly 
spaced, arching forwards. Racemes very short and 
capitate : four outer bracts leafy. Corolla with a narrower 
portion f inch, and an upper campanulate part i by -J inch, 
with rounded lobes. Stamens two. Pollen grains ellip- 
soid with about twenty longitudinal ribs. Seeds shining, 
drab-coloured like small pebbles, t, 383. Wight Sp. 
Nilg. 171 ; Ic. t. 1501. 

Nilgiris and Pulney hills on the outskirts of woods 5,000 
to 7,000 feet. Flowers frequently. Shembaganur, Coonoor. 

2* Strobilanthcs Kunthianus T. Anders. ; F.B.I, iv 
434, XVIII 13 ; ENDOPOGON. The common Strobilanth of 
the open hill-sides. A gregarious shrub ; stem 2 feet, 



446 ACANTHACE^E 

reddish* Leaves if by f inch, with stalks of inch rather 
hard, glabrous and green above, whitish below : nerves 
about eight pairs, broad. Spikes of flowers dense on short 
simple or branched axillary peduncles the bracts closely 
imbricated in four rows, ovate acuminate. Corolla about 
i by i inch, pale blue or mauve, inflated above, and with 
only a very short narrow part below. Stamens two. 
Pollen grains ellipsoid with ten to twenty longitudinal ribs 
and grooves. Capsule oblong : seeds four, densely 
hairy except on the circular basal areola on each of its 
faces, t. 384. Wight Ic. t. 448. 

On the open hill-sides, covering large areas, on both 
plateaux, common. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India, Shcvaroys, etc. 

In t. 384 : b. ovary on disc ; r. stamen with part of corolla. 

An occasional plant may be found in flower at all times, but at irregular 
intervals from 7 to 12 years the hill-sides are blue with the blossom. One 
such outburst of fkmer occurred in 1898 on the Pulneys. Another in 
1910. On the Nilgiris full flowering occurred in 1887, 1899, 1910, 1916 
On the Shevaroys in 1930. On Shevaroyan this species occurs in parts 
almost to the exclusion of every other plant. 

3* Strobilanthes cuspidatus T. Anders. ; F.B.L iv 
435, XVIII 16 : ENDOPOGON. Distinguished among our 
Strobilanthes by the white underside of the leaves and 
the slender spikes with narrow sticky bracts and sepals. 
Shrub 2 to 5 feet : young parts, and nodes of older, 
sticky. Leaves long-stalked ij to 4 by i to zl inches, 
ovate, acuminate at both ends, glabrous above, white 
below ; nerves eight pairs very regularly spaced, veins 
indistinct ; stalk J to il inches. Spikes li to 24 inches 
by I inch, stalked in the leaf-axils, with often a pair of 
small leaves, } to I inch long, about the middle of the 
stalk ; bracts elliptic long-acuminate \ to f inch : brac- 
teoles linear I to -$ inch. Sepals as long covered with long 
gland-tipped hairs. Narrow basal part of corolla J inch ; 



ACANTHACEffi 447 

broader part f- by J inch ; limb slightly spreading of five 
rounded lobes. Stamens two. Pollen grains ellipsoid 
with about fourteen (twelve to twenty) longitudinal ribs 
and grooves. Capsule \ by inch shorter than the sepals. 
Seeds flat, apparently glabrous, but if wetted showing a 
dense fringe of circular hairs, t* 385* 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, January 1911. March 1914 ; 
Coonoor 1919. 

Earlier flowering dates appear to have been : 1838 (Mwwo), 1849 
1851, 1870, 1884. In the Wynaad 1903. 

In fig. 385 : c bract, inner surface glabrous ; outer with glandular hairs 
d ripe fruit ; e same opened ; / seed dry ; g seed in water showing spread- 
ing hairs. 

4* Strobilanthcs consanguineus C. B. Clarke ; 
F.B.I, iv 435, XVIII 17. A tall shrub straggling over and 
through others, similar to S. cuspidatus (t. 385) but the 
leaves not white underneath, the bracts and bracteoles 
shorter and less hairy, corolla mouth oblique. Flower blue 
or white. 

Shevaroys : on Honey Rock, flower (white) January 
1931. Other flowerings on the lower slopes of the Nilgiris and 
Pulney hills were in 1884, 1897, I 99> the period apparently 
12 years. 

5* Strobilanthcs gossypinus T. Anders. ; F.B.I, iv 
434, XVIII 14. A beautiful plant with all green parts 
covered with yellowish wool, as also the corolla in the dull 
gold woolly spikes. Leaves ovate il by i inch. Flowers 
pale blue. Flowered, 1867 to 1870, 1883, period 6 or 7 
years. 

On the extreme western edge of the plateau on the nearly 
vertical rocks overlooking Malabar and above Sispara. 

Flowered 1867 to 1870, 1883, period 6 to 7 years. 

6* Strobilanthes pulneyensis Clarke ; F.B.I, iv 
438, XVIII 25. Hairy on all green parts. Leaves ovate, 



448 ACANTHACE/E 

acuminate, serrate, about 3 by 2 inches. Flowers in very 
flat densely white hairy heads, the rounded bracts forming 
rosettes. Corolla bluish i^ inches, basal tube as long as 
the ventricose part, bent at the junction to face sideways, 
ovary hairy at tip. Flowering December January. 
t. 386. 

Pulneys : 5,000 feet. Tiger shola, Shembaganur valley 
1897, 1910. Kodai downs. October 1917. Shevaroys, flower 
September 1904. 

7. Strobilanthcs Perrottetianus Nees ; F.B.I. iv 
439, XVIII 27. Distinguished in flower by the wedge- 
shaped, deflexed heads of pink imbricating bracts and 
conspicuous red hairs on all young parts and the leaves. 
Leaves ovate, acute or shortly acuminate, when dry 
lineolate by the minute linear crystals below the surface. 
Corolla i inch pale lilac, the narrow lower part entirely 
enclosed in the bracts. Filaments hairy, ovary glabrous 
t. 387. 

Nilgiris : at Pykara, in flower September 1908. Dodda- 
betta, September 1931. Pulneys on the upper downs, Marian 
shola, in flower June 1918. Earlier flowerings 1852, 1883 
86, 1908. 

8. Strobilanthes papillosus T. And. ; F.B.I. ^445, 
XVIII 46. Heads erect with a pair of leafy involucral 
bracts, floral bracts i inch crenate in upper half. Bracteoles 
and sepals linear. Corolla blue with inch basal tube, 
upper wider part i inch, and rounded crenate lobes. 
Outer stamens much longer than inner, filaments hairy. 
Leaves ovate acute, shortly cuneate at base up to 7 by 4 
inches. Bedd. Ic. PI. Ind. Or. C.C.I. 

Nilgiris: in sholas at 7,000 to 8,000 feet; flower 1883. 
Coonoor 1918. 



ACANTHACEJE 4 49 

9. Strobilanthcs ncilghcrrcnsis Bedd. Ic. In. Ort. 
CXCVI ; F.B.L iv 438, XVIII 26. Flowers white, 
similar to the last, but larger, the broader part of the 
tube | inch, lobes rounded. Bracts and bracteoles 
linear, f inch, hairy. Sepals with scarious margin. A 
large shrub. 

Pulneys and Western Ghauts to 6,000 feet. 

10, Strobilanthcs Wightianus Nees ; F.B.I, iv 438, 
XVIII 24. A coarsely hairy shrub of 2 to 3 feet : young 
parts covered with short deflexed hairs. Leaves in the 
flowering part i to 2 inches, nearly sessile with stalks 
half as long ; ovate acute, thick, roughly hairy, finely 
serrate. Flowers in shortly stalked axillary bunches. 
Bracts f to i inch, elliptic, acuminate, longer than the 
sepals : bracteoles f inch, narrow. Sepals linear. Corolla 
campanulate, J to i inch, with narrow part of tube very 
short, nearly glabrous outside, hairy on lines inside : 
tube brown, limb spreading very pale blue with darker 
veins. Stamens 4, nearly equal ; pollen grains ellipsoid 
with ribs and tubercles. Ovary glabrous. Capsule ^ inch 
oblong, four-seeded. Seeds ^ (} inch, thin, elliptic, 
glabrous, t. 388. Wt. Ic. 1514. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, etc. September 1908 to 
January 1909. Kotagiri, September 1910. 
Frequently in flower. 

ii* Strobilanthes urceolaris Gamble; Kew Bull. 
1923, />. 374. An erect shrub, very low in open places, 
in the forest with long internodes. Flowers in hairy 
heads. Corolla with short basal tube and longer broader 
part (as in the last species). Stamens 4, in unequal pairs ; 
bracts obovate crenate. Sepals linear obtuse. Leaves up 
to 3 by 2 inches with 6 to 7 pairs veins, 
29 



45 ACANTHACEjE 

Nilgiris : about Ootacamund 7,000 to 8,000 feet. Also on 
lower slopes of Pulneys, etc. 

12. Strobilanthes scssilis Nees : F.B.I, iv 450, XVIII 
69. Flowers in close spikes as in S. Kunthianus but 
whole plant hairy and leaves broadly ovate or cordate, not 
white below. 

Rootstock woody : stems numerous, unbranched, 8 to 
18 inches covered with rough hairs. Leaves sessile, i 
by i inch, ovate with cordate or straight base, crenate, 
softly villous. Spikes ii to 2 by i inch : bracts closely 
imbricate, ovate, acuminate, -1- inch, Corolla iJ inches, 
tubular, pale purple. Stamens four. t. 389. Wight 
Ic. t. 1511. 

Nilgiris : on the downs ; flower Naduvattam, September 



Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India. Not collected on Pulneys. 

In full flower summer of 1904. Other flowering periods appear 
to have been 1838, 1847, 1849, 1850, and at Avalanche 1852, so 
flowers almost every year. 

13. Strobilanthes asper Wight. ; F.B.L iv 452, 
XVIII 68. Characterized by the spikes of flowers being 
fascicled at the ends of slender axillary peduncles which 
may have one or two pairs of small bracts below. Leaves 
ovate or elliptic, acuminate, coarsely serrate, scabrid on 
both sides, and very much lineolate on the upper, by the 
sub-epidermal linear crystals. Peduncles i to 3 inches 
Spikes 4 to | inch shortly stalked. Bracts J inch ovate 
acuminate ; bracteoles and sepals about as long narrower 
both glandular with reddish hairs. Corolla f inch, lower 
tube as long as the upper ventricose part which is bent at 
the junction to face outwards (as in S. pulneyensis 
t, 386). Capsule J inch, oblong. Seeds when wetted 
elastically hairy. 

Nilgiris : on the western borders Naduvattam and above. 



ACANTHACEJE 45! 

14. Strobilanthes Zenkerianus /. Anders ; F.B.I, iv 
439, XVIII 28. Flowers in erect spikes which lengthen 
and become cylindrical. Quite glabrous. Leaves often in 
threes, elliptic acuminate ij to z\ by to \\ inches of plants 
in shade much larger than of those in the open, glabrous 
but very lineolate on the upper side when dry. Bracts 
green spreading with purple patch at the base. Corolla 
basal tube \ inch tube, upper broader part f inch distinctly 
exserted beyond the sepals ; which are longer than the 
bracteoles but shorter than the bract ; mouth of corolla 
as long or longer, \ inch wide, pale purplish blue at tips 
of lobes. Bracts, bracteoles and sepals glandular hairy 
in fruit, t* 390. 

On both plateaux, Nilgiris flower Dodabetta, October 
1915, September 1931 ; Coonoor, October 1918. Pulneys, 
Shembaganur, July 1910. P.M. P. gives 1883 ^5> 1916 ; 
and period " perhaps rather long and doubtful/' 

15* Strobilanthes micranthus Wt. Ic. t. 1519.' ; 
F.B.I, iv 444, XVIII 44. A low soft-stemmed or shrubby 
plant with large leaves and deflexed spikes, remarkable 
for their long lanceolate bracts (up to i inch). Leaves 
ovate, acuminate with decurrent base, up to 6 by 3 inches, 
thinly pubescent ; veins 10 to 15 pairs. Heads solitary, 
nodding. Bracts -J- to J wide at base, tapering. Corolla 
* inch basal tube very short, upper part campanulate, 
said to be reddish. Stamens 4 exserted. In sholas 
above 6,000 feet. Flowered 1870, 1885, 1917, 1914 in 
Governor's shola (E.T.B.). 

1 6. Strobilanthes luridus Wight. ; F.B.I, iv 450, 
XVIII 64. A stout straggling shrub remarkable for the 
flowers being in erect spikes lateral on the old wood, 
and having very broad bracts. Leaves 6 by 3^ inches, 

29-A 



452 ACANTHACE/E 

ovate acute, softly hairy on both sides, finely crenulate. 
Spike 6 to 10 inches. Bracts f inch broadly obovate. 
Bracteoles and sepals nearly as long, narrow. Corolla 
i to i J inches, glabrous outside slightly two-lipped, lurid 
purple. Capsule f inch. Seeds I inch across, obovate 
or nearly circular, very thin, t* 391. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor on Lamb's Rock Road at 6,000 feet ; 
flowered 1918. 

var. Bourneae Gamble. Bracts, up to i{ inches wide, 
bractfeoles and calyx very glandular. Pulneys : in Periya shola, 
t, 391* 

17, Strobilanthes homotropus, Nees ; F.B.I. S. 
sexennis iv. 474, XVIII 139. Flowers white (F.M.P.) 
or pale blue (October 1931) in axils of bracts the pairs 
well separated, forming large open panicles. Leaves 
narrow elliptic acute, decurrent on the peteole and sessile 
or with auricled base, serrate, glabrous but lineolate. 
Bracts ovate acute. Corolla-basal tube very short ; swollen 
part campanulate, curved, lobes of limb notched. 
Stamens 4 in unequal pairs. Pollen grain ellipsoid. A 
very large shrub 25 to 30 feet high : old trunk 2 to 2^ in. 
in girth. Young branches 4-angled, glandular pubescent. 
t* 392. Bed. Ic. PI. In. t. CC VI. 

Nilgiris : on Dodabetta, September 1931. Pulneys, 
fairly common. Beddome's figure gives the bracts as narrow 
but he says they are variable. 

1 8* Strobilanthes violaccus Bedd. Ic. t. CC V., 
F.B.L iv 474, XVIII 140. Similar to S. homotropus 
but the leaves ovate, acute, up to 6,} by 4 inches with 
harsh pubescence ; veins 10 to 15 pairs. Inflorescence 
very glandular. Bracts \ inch and bracteoles linear, very 
hairy : sepals obtuse. Corolla bluish purple, 2 inches, 



453 

curved, covered inside with downward pointing hairs. 
Stamens 4 in unequal pairs. A very beautiful species. 

Nilgiris : Heads of Sispara Ghauts and Bangitappal, 
flower 1870, 1883. Flowers rarely. 

19. Strobilanthcs amabilis Clarke, F.B.I, iv. 476, 
XVIII, 146. Similar to the two last, but leaves elliptic 
acute or shortly acuminate at each end (not auricled) 
serrate. Inflorescence very sticky, nodal bracts small. 
Sepals linear. Corolla i| straight without basal tube, 
dark pink or purplish (Wight). Wt. Ic. t. 1507 (Lepta- 
canthus Walkeri). 

BARLERIA. 

Shrubs with opposite leaves and showy flowers. 
Sepals four, two outer larger than the two inner. Corolla 
lobes imbricate in bud. Stamens two perfect, two small 
and rudimentary, sometimes a fifth (also rudimentary) 
present. Ovary with two ovules in each cell only. 

Species 100, mostly in the warm parts of the Old World. 

Some of the species flower only when several years old and 
then die, so flower profusely at long intervals, as with STRO- 

BILANTHES. 

Barleria involucrata Nees. ; F.B.I, iv 483, XXII 10. 
A small shrub or herb. Leaves elliptic, narrowed to the 
base, with scattered hairs and raphides on the upper 
surface, and hairy on the nerves of the lower. No bracts ; 
bracteoles 2, lanceolate acute, much shorter than the two 
large lanceolate acute sepals which are an inch or more 
long and densely covered with yellow hairs. Corolla 
blue, tube i-J inches, lobes as long, t* 393. 

Pulneys : Tiger shola, 5,500 feet. Nilgiris. 



454 ACANTHACE/ 

ASYSTASIA, 

Weak-stemmed shrubs with opposite leaves, and 
terminal one-sided racemes of flowers. Corolla lobes 
imbricate in bud. Stamens four. Capsule with four 
seeds only. 

Species about 20, in the tropics of the Old World. 

Asystasia crispata Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 494, XXV 5. 
Leaves elliptic, ovate or oblong, acute. Corolla i inches 
white with pink or purple marks on the palate. t* 394. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri, Coonoor and below. Pulneys : on 
the ghaut path. Except in colour very similar to the light 
yellow A. gangetica T. And. of Madras hedges. Shevaroys. 

ANDROGRAPHIS. F.B.I. 109 xxvin. 

Distinguished from all our other genera of this order 
by the two stamens with their broad, stiff, white fila- 
ments, and jet black anthers, projecting out from the 
widely open corolla ; the style between or below them. 
Herbs or shrubs, erect or procumbent. Leaves entire. 
Flowers often in one-sided racemes forming large terminal 
panicles. Capsule narrow-oblong, twice as broad as 
thick, the septum across the narrower diameter. 

Species 18 to 20 confined to tropical Asia, and mostly to 
India. 

Andrographis Nccsiana Wt. Ic. I. 1561 A. lineata 
Nees in Wall. Cat. 2486 / Herb. Wight ; F.B.I. iv 5040^ 
XXVIII 13. Stem and branches up to 2 feet, stiff, 
prominently four-angled ; youngest parts covered with 
glandular hairs. Leaves elliptic or ovate-oblong, glabrous, 
but when dry roughened by raphides below the surface. 
Flowers in one-sided racemes in the axils of the upper and 



ACANTHACE^E 45 

smaller bract-like leaves, all green parts very glandular, 
forming dense terminal panicles. Pedicels j\ inch. 
Calyx teeth longer than the tube. Upper and lower lips 
of the corolla widely separated. Stamens and style 
pointing stiffly outwards, and bisecting the angle between 
the lips ; filaments white, thick, ciliate with deflexed 
hairs ; anthers jet black, glabrous except for a tuft of 
white hairs at the base. Capsule glandular, oblong, 
pointed at each end. t. 395* 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund on Dodabetta, Lovedale, etc. 
Pulneys : on the downs. 

A. affinis Nees ; Wall. Cat. 2486 a ex parte, seems to be a small plant 
of this. 

Andrographis stellulata C.B. Clarke ; F.B.I, iv 
504, XXVIII 12. Differs from A. Neesiana in the leaves 
being strigose above, tomentose below, and without 
raphides, and the sepals, setaceous over ] inch and spread- 
ing corolla '* inch. 

Nilgiris : at 6,000 feet. 

Andrographis affinis Nees. Similar to A. Neesiana, 
but racemes longer and stems many. 

Andrographis producta Gamble ; P.M. P., p. 1049. 
Similar to the above but corolla with a ventricose protube- 
rance. 

Andrographis lobelioides Wight, Herb. Prop ! ; 
F.B.I, iv 505, XXVIII 14. Remarkable for its short 
weak stems, small leaves and comparatively large brown 
flowers. 

Rootstock perennial, woody, % inch or so thick, vertical. 
Stems many, 3 to 12 inches, often forking or tricho- 
tomous, spreading outwards on the ground, pubescent. 



456 ACANTHACE& 

Leaves ^ to ^ inch, ovate-acute, nearly sessile, covered 
like the branches with gland-tipped hairs. Racemes 
terminal, often one-sided though the bracts are in oppo- 
site pairs : pedicels i to ^ inch. Sepals as long. Corolla 
| inch ; limb equal to the tube ; upper lip three-fid, 
pinkish ; lower two-lobed, purplish brown. Anthers 
well exserted, white with stiff hairs. Fruit f by ^ inch. 
t, 396* Wight Ic. t. 1557. 

On the open downs. Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Pykara and 
Coonoor. Flowering early summer. Not recorded else- 
where. 

JUSTICIA. F.B.I. 109 xxxviu. 

Herbs with opposite entire leaves, and terminal 
bracteate spikes or panicles of violet, rosy, or white two- 
lipped flowers. Upper lip of corolla inside, the middle 
lobe of the lower lip outermost, in bud. Stamens two, 
one-half anther below the other and with a white tail. 
Fruit a capsule with four seeds. 

Species about 100 in the warmer parts of the world. 

Justicia nilgherrensis Wall.; F.B.L iv 526, 
XXXVIII 3. Remarkable for the short fat greyish green 
spikes, and the comparatively large-mouthed flowers, with 
broadly-spreading three-lobed lower lip. 

Rootstock thick and short with long woody roots. 
Stems often numerous, procumbent. Leaves ij to i^ 
by i to inch, sessile oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, soft, 
greyish green in colour, glabrous, minutely punctate, 
and with finely ciliate margin. Spikes 2 to 4 
inches, bracts f by inch, ovate, very acute, white but 
with large green nerves ; bracteoles nearly as large. 
Sepals five, \ inch, all equal, linear acute, joined only near 



ACANTHAC&E 45? 

the base. Corolla tube slightly longer, broadening sud- 
denly -J inch above the base : upper lip f by f very concave, 
notched : lower lip ^ inch wide, three-fid ; lobes ^ by ^ 
to -J inch, spreading widely ; middle lobe rounded, slightly 
broader than the lateral. Pod f inch, dark purple above, 
velvetty, laterally contracted at the base. Seeds J inch, 
papillate, t, 397* 

In the open grass. Nilgiris : on the downs, common ; 
flowering early summer down to Pykara. 

Also reported from Melpat (2,500 feet) in South Arcot. 

Justicia simplex Don ; F.B.I, iv 539, XXXVIII 49. 
Stem and branches slender villous, procumbent from 
a perennial rootstock. Leaves ovate or elliptic, acute or 
not, entire or minutely waved, | to |- inch, with stalk 
J inch ; covered as are all green parts with white hairs 
J- or so long. Spikes terminal, erect, | to 2 inches by 
| inch : bracts and sepals ^ inch, narrow hairy. Corolla 
4 inch pink. Fruit elliptic ^ by g inch, papery, glabrous. 
t. 398. 

In the open grass. Nilgiris : on the downs, on the banks 
and sides of cattle-tracks, etc., common from Ootacamund to 
Pykara, flowering May to September. Pulneys : in sholas 
on the downs and below. 

Gen. Dist. Widely distributed over India from Kashmir to Travancore. 
Also Abyssinia, Malay States, etc. 

Don's description was based on a Nepal plant of Wallich's. The 
Nilgiri specimens are smaller but otherwise, I think, not in any way 
different. 

Justicia latispica Gamble ; F.M.P. p. 1080 ; F.B.I. 
as J. procumbens var. lastispica iv 539, XXXVIII 50. 
Similar to the above but woody below, bracts linear pecti- 
nately ciliate. Corolla pale lilac, spotted white. Wt. 
Ic. t. 1539. 

Western Ghauts, Nilgiri hills above 5,000 feet [F.M.P.]. 



458 ACANTHACE/E 

RUNGIA* F.B.I. 109 XLVI. 

Herbs often small and creeping with entire leaves 
and one-sided spikes of two rows of bracts of which how- 
ever often one row only has flowers in our species both : 
distinguished by the broad white margin to the bracts. 
Corolla two-lipped ; upper lip inside ; lower outside in 
bud. Stamens two, anthers equal one lower than the 
other. Seeds four to the capsule. 

Species 20 nearly all in India, 2 in Africa. 

Rungia la>ta Clarke ; F.B.L iv 546, XLVI 3. Dis- 
tinguished among all our plants by the broad white mar- 
gins to the bracts. 

Stem terete, bent at the nodes. Leaves acute at both 
ends ovate elliptic, 2 to 4 by ij to 2 inches, narrowed to 
the i to | inch stalk. Racemes axillary, \ to 2 inches, 
with one or a few pairs of empty smaller bracts at the 
base. Flowering bracts ovate-acute, \ to f by \ inch, 
thin with broad pinkish margin. Sterile similar. Corolla 
lips divergent. Anthers \ inch, under the end of the 
upper lip. Fruit \ to ^ inch, obovate, pubescent ; valves 
very elastic. Seeds two in a cell, dark brown, papillose. 
t. 399. 

Pulneys : in the Kodaikanal shola. Not Nilgiris. 

The species was founded by Clarke on a small piece 6 inches long 
without fruit. 

Rungia latior Nees. ; F.B.L iv 546, XLVI 4. Spikes 
shorter, up to i by \ inch ; bracts obovate, rounded, \ by 
\ inch, with broad scarious margin, the sterile slightly 
different. Corolla \ inch, upper lip acute. Wt. Ic. 1548. 

Western Ghauts. Nilgiris, etc., 3,000 to 6,000 feet 
[F.M.P.]. 



VEfcBENACE/ 459 

VERBENACE^:. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves opposite or in threes. 
Flowers nearly regular. Five-lobed or two-lipped. 
Stamens four only. Ovary superior two-carpelled contain- 
ing more than four seeds, whose micropyle (and radicle) 
points downwards. Inflorescence cymose or racemose. 
Fruit fleshy or dry, with two or four hard stones enclosing 
the seeds. 

About 67 genera and 750 species almost all tropical and 
sub-tropical. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

f Flowers in spikes, nearly regular b. 

a < Flowers in cymes disposed in panicles, 2-lipped. 

L />. 461. CLERODENDRON. 

(' Spikes short, stems prickly : fruit fleshy . . LANTANA. 
7 I Spikes 2 to 4 inches ; leaves oblong, serrate . VERBENA. 
I Spikes 6 to 12 inches, leaves ovate, crenate. 

p. 460. STACHYTARPHETA. 

LANTANA. 

Shrubs. Flowers in very short spikes. Fruit a berry. 
Species about 50 in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. 

Lantana aculeata Linn. ; F.B.I. iv 562, I * : L. 
camara L. The Lantana. A strongly scented shrub, 
climbing by recurved prickles on the angles of the branches. 
Flowers orange or red and pink. Fruit a black berry. 

Introduced from tropical America and now in all parts 
from the plains to about 5,000 feet. The red or orange and 
the pink varieties though often growing together appear to be 
distinct. At the beginning of this century the Lantana of the 
plains (e.g., about Madras) was all pink, that of the lower hills 
orange or red. Both sorts now grow together in Madras and 
in Coonoor. 



460 

STACHYTARPHETA* 

Herbs. Flowers in long spikes. Corolla tubular. 
Stamens 2. Fruit dry separating into 2 one-seeded parts 
Species about 45 in the warmer parts of the world. 

Stachytarpheta mutabilis Vahl. Flowers in long 
spikes of i to 2 feet, pink mauve or blue, and varying in 
size. Leaves ovate sharply toothed. 

A garden escape, common on the Shevaroys about Yercaud. 
S. indica, a smaller plant with blue flowers is common on the 
plains. 

VERBENA. F.B.I. in VH. 

Pubescent herbs or undershrubs with the characters 
given above for the family. Flowers in terminal spikes, 
calyx tubular five-toothed and five-nerved. Corolla with 
slender tube and spreading limb or five nearly equal 
oblong-obtuse lobes. Ovary of four cells with one erect 
seed in each. Fruit separating into four stony parts 
each with one seed. 

Species 100 natives mostly of America. V. officinalis, 
Vervein is widely distributed over the whole world. Here we 
have only two garden-escapes. 

Spikes few, i to 2 inches by J to i inch : corolla tube \ 
inch V. venosa. 

Spikes twenty to forty in a large cymose corymb : corolla 
tube \ inch V. bonariensis. 

Verbena venosa Gill and Hooker ; VII 2. Stem 2 to 3 
feet angled, pubescent. Leaves sessile, and clasping the 
stem by their broad, 3 by i inch, elliptic or lanceolate, 
acute, serrate leaves. Spikes usually 3, lengthening in 
fruit to 3 inches, peduncled, terminal on the upper axils. 
Corolla pink, tube inch curved upwards ; limb \ inch. 



VERBENACE^: 461 

Stigmatic lobes small. Fruit egg-shaped, |- by ^ inch, 
enclosed in the calyx from which the persistent style 
still protrudes, t* 400, 

Native of Brazil. Common at Kodaikanal, where Mr. 
Tracey of the American Mission tells me it was introduced by 
him accidentally among grass seed. Nilgiris : Ootacamund, 
Coonoor, etc., no doubt as a garden-escape. 

Verbena bonariehsis Linn. ; F.B.I. iv 565 ; VII. 
Flowering part of stem much branched so as to form a 
large cymosely branched corymb of twenty to forty spikes, 
which are often in well-marked cymes of three of which 
the middle spike is sessile, the lateral ones stalked. Bracts 
% to 1 inch. Corolla tube -J- to inch half as long again as 
the calyx-shaped or broader upwards, with to I inch limb. 
Stigmatic lobes distinct. Fruit enclosed in the calyx 
which is now a little longer than the bract. 

Native of Brazil. Said to occur as an escape on the Nilgiris, 
but I have not myself seen it. 

The figure (214) in my F. N. & P. Ht. Vol. II was, I think, of 
V. venosa in fruit. 

CLERODENDRON. F.B.I, m xiv. 
Shrubs or trees with the characters given above for 
the family but the flowers in cymes. Calyx, campanu- 
late and corolla tube slender, with limb of five spreading 
lobes, more or less two-lipped. Fruit fleshy with four 
stones. 

Species about 70 in warm countries, more especially the 
east. 

Clerodendron serratum Spreng ; F.B.L iv 592, 
XIV ii. A robust shrub with large coarsely serrate 
leaves, and terminal narrow thyrsoid panicles or spikes 



462 LABIATVE 

of cymes, 3 to 6 by 2 inches, of blue flowers, with conspi- 
cuously wide oblique mouth, and long protruding 
stamens and style. t* 40 L 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal on the slopes below the cemetery 
and near the Ghaut road. Nilgiris : Eastern plateau valley 
below Snowdon. Not common, Coonoor. Not at highest 
levels. Shevaroys, near Yercaud, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas to Ceylon, common in Bengal. 

LABIATE. 

Herbs with opposite leaves and cymes of flowers 
usually in very dense whorls at the leaf-axils or condensed 
into dense spikes of such whorls, and like BORAGES 
with fruit consisting always of four separate one-seeded 
nutlets. Corolla monopetalous, sub-equally five-lobed or 
strongly two-lipped. Stamens four, in two pairs, attached 
to the corolla tube differing in position and relative length. 
Ovary superior seated on a conspicuous disc, of two 
carpels, but four-celled. Nutlets varying in the position 
of their attachment to the central axis. 

Species 2,000 or more, native mostly of the north temperate 
regions, especially round the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor 
and Syria. 

This large family is divided into a number of tribes of which the follow- 
ing occur here wild or are common in gardens : 

1. OCIMOIDEJE : perfect stamens four bent down ; anther cells 
confluent (apparently one only to each anther). Basal scar of nutlet small, 
e.g., LAVENDULA Lavender, COLEUS. 

2. SATUREINE^E : perfect stamens four, the upper (middle) 
pair longer, or two only straight and diverging. Corolla two-lipped or 
not, e.g., MENTHA Mint, THYMUS Thyme, CALAMINTHA Catmint. 

3. MONARDEJE : perfect stamens two, anther cells of a stamen 
separated by a short or long filament, and often one sterile or absent, e.g. 

SALVIA. 

4. STACHYDEJE : perfect stamens four, lower (outer) pair 
longest. Upper lip of corolla hooded, lower lip spreading, three-fid, e.g., 
SCUTELLARIA Skullcap, BRUNELLA Self-Heal, STACHYS Botony, etc., LAMIUM 
Dead-Nettle, LEUCAS. 



LABIATE 463 

5. AJUGOIDE1E : nutlets with a particularly large oblique or 
lateral areola by which attached to the central axis, e.g., TEUCRIUM Wood 
Germander, AJUGA Bugle. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

("Stamens 4, bent down, anthers opening by one slit, corolla 
I of 5 equal lobes or the lowest flat or concave . . . b 

a j Stamens 4, straight, the upper pair longest : anthers 

with 2 slits: corolla equally 5, lobecl or 2-lipped . . d 

I Stamens 4, erect, corolla of 2 lips or of one lower . . g 

C Corolla tube long, lower lip flat or nearly so ; calyx bent 

b ^ down in fruit. Flowers few. p. 464. ORTHOSIPHON. 
LLower lip concave or boat-shaped c 

{Firs, very small : spike compact p. 469. ANISOCHILUS. 
Flowers in compound spikes or panicles ....</ 
PLECTRANTHUS and COLEUS. 

C Stamens connected by a she th . . p. 468. COLEUS. 
\ Stamens not connected . . . />. 464. PLECTRANTHUS. 

/"Corolla equally 5-lobed : flowers many e 

\Corolla 2-lipped : calyx 13 -ribbed : flowers few . . f 

{Flower in tight wedge-shaped bunches 
p. 470. POGOSTEMQN. 
Flowers small in a dense slender spike 
p. 473. DYSOPHYLLA. 

rCalyx 2-lipped, the upper closed down in fruit. . . i 
\Calyx tubular, the mouth straight or oblique. . . . h 
Calyx 5-toothed : leaves inch or less 

p. 474. MICROMERIA. 

Calyx 2-lobed : leaves i inch or more 

p. 475. CALAM1NTHA. 

rCalyx with a plate on the back. Flowers few. . . . 

. I P- 475 SCUTELARIA. 

] Flowers in a dense head, with broad bracts between. 

* P- 477- BRUNELLA. 

f Upper lip of corolla arched over the stamens. . . . k 

f - J Upper lip flat : anther unequal . />. 477. ANISOMELES. 

I No upper lip, stamen projecting erect , 

^ /> 484. TEUCRIUM. 

f Corolla orange : calyx 5 spine-toothed . . LEONURUS. 
\Corolla white : calyx lo-toothed. . . p. 478. LEUCAS- 



e 



r 



464 LABIATES 

ORTHOSIPHON. 

Whorls few flowered, well separated as long spikes. 
Flowers of the tribe OCIMOIDE/E (q.v.). Fruiting calyx 
deflexed, upper lip broad. Corolla slender, upper lip 
three to four-fid, lower entire, concave. Stamens 4, 
declinate ; filaments free ; anther cells confluent. Nutlets 
ovoid or round, smooth. 

Species about 20 in the tropics of the Old World. 

Orthosiphon rubicundus Benth. ; F.B.L iv 614, 
VII 6. Stems i to il feet slender, sometimes numerous 
from old burnt down root-stocks, red. Leaves about i 
inch, ovate, coarsely toothed, with cuneate base ; lower 
petioled, upper sessile. Flowers 3 to i inch rose or white. 

Nilgiris : on E and N. slopes. Biccapatti. 

var. Hohenackeri Hook f. A smaller species leaves i inch, 
laxly tomentose. Calyx tube very hispid. Corolla \ inch . 
Nilgiris at 6,000 feet. 

PLECTRANTHUS, F.B.I. 112 vm. 

Herbs or undershrubs with flowers in loose cymes not 
dense whorls, otherwise having the characteristics of the 
family and tribe i. OCIMODE^E (p. 462), and remark- 
able for the small calyx and much larger corolla, with 
upper lip of three or four teeth, and lower very concave 
and boat-shaped, in which lie the stamens. 

Species 150, in south and tropical Africa, tropical and sub- 
tropical Asia, spreading eastwards to Japan, Malacca, Australia 
and the Pacific islands. 

Fr. Germaine, Ger. Hahnensporn. Closely allied to COLEUS, in 
which, however, the filaments of the stamens are united. 



LABIATVE 465 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Corolla inch, cylindrical, lobes spreading. Fruiting 
calyx inch, curved and glabrous, prominently ribbed, 
its teeth obtuse. Seeds spherical. Leaves thick and 

tawny P. nilgherricus 

Corolla campanulate, with lower lobe inch, projecting 
in fruit. Fruiting calyx .V inch, curved, prominently 
ribbed, teeth acute. Seeds oblong. Leaves glab rate. 

P. Wightii. 
Corolla strongly 2-lipped, the lower boat-shaped, the 

upper reflexed 

'Calyx equally 5-lobed, in fruit bent down, the sepals acute. 
Leaves tomentose, white underneath. Panicles large 

of 4 to 5 inches racemes P. Coetsa, 

Upper calyx-lobe ovate, four lower smaller. Racemes 
of the thyrsoid panicles, i to 2 inches. Fleshy under- 

shrubs c 

"Leaves large up to 10 inches, corolla | inch 

P. fruticosa. 
Leaves 2 to 3 inches, thick. Lower lip of corolla obtuse. 

Fruiting calyx J inch P. Bishopianus. 

Leaves i to il inches thick, roundish. Lower lip of corolla 
acute. Fruiting calyx ! inch ... P. Bournese. 

Plcctranthus Wightii Benth., Sir F. Adams coll I 
Herb. Wight 2096 / ; F.B.L iv 619, VIII 12 ; including 
P. pulneyensis Hook. /., Herb. Wight 2096 / ; F.B.I. iv 
617 ; and P. nepetaefolius Benth., Herb. Wight 2507 ! ; 
F.B.I, iv 619. 

Stem i to 3 feet, simple or branched : whole plant 
nearly glabrous, pubescent or softly hairy, and with or 
without red glands. Leaves up to 5 by 3 inches (P.M. P.) 
usually much less petioled, thin or thick, ovate, with acute, 
cordate, or nearly straight base, toothed nearly all round : 
upper small. Panicle large with foliaceous bracts, which 
may or may not fall before the fruits mature. Cymes 
very lax, sometimes i| inches. Calyx small ^ to 
fy inch ; in fruit 4 to ^ inch, slightly curved and teetK 

3 



466 LABIATES 

acute. Nutlets oblong. Corolla white with pink spots, 
lower lip longer than the tube, concave. Stamens longer. 
Wight Ic. t. 1429. t, 402* 

On the downs. Nilgiris and Pulneys, common. 

In my F. N. & P. Ht. I united the three species given above and 
this is confirmed in F.M.P. 

Plcctranthus nilghcrricus Benth., F.B.I, iv 619, 
VIII 13. Similar to the last, but differs in the smaller 
fruiting calyx, with rounded lobes and round nutlets, 
and the whole plant densely covered with tawny hairs. 

Nilgiris : from the Wynaad to 7,000 feet (F.M.P.) near 
Dotacamund. t. 460 in Vol. Ill of my F. N. & P. Ht. is not 
this species. 

Plcctranthus Coctsa Buck. Hans, var. macraei Hk y 
/. ; F.B.I, iv 620, as part of P. menthoides Benth^ but 
not Wall. Cat. 2744 ! ; VIII 18 *. A stout herb with 
thick hairy leaves, conspicuously veined, and narrow 
dense spikes in large terminal panicles 12 to 1 8 by 6 to 8 
inches. Stem 2 to 5 feet, all parts densely villous. Leaves 
very variable in size, but attaining 3 by 2\ inches, stalked, 
ovate-acute with rounded or narrowed base, and tri- 
angular teeth, softly pubescent on both sides ; upper sur- 
face divided into small areas by the impressed veins. 
Bracts numerous like small leaves, sometimes larger 
towards the top. Calyx hardly two-lipped ; in fruit 
villous. Nutlets oblong, t* 403* Wight Ic. t. 1430. 

On the downs of both plateaus, in moist places and on the 
banks of ditches. 

Plectranthus colcoidcs Benth. ; F.B.L iv 622 

VIII 27. Stem i to 2 feet, erect, succulent, green, 
spotted with purple ; pubescent above, as are the leaf- 
stalks, underside of leaves, and the inflorescence. Leaves 
ij to 5 inches, broadly ovate, obtuse, with rounded or 
cordate base, and crenate margin. Inflorescence 4 to 8 



LABIAT7E 

inches (12 x 8 P.M. P.) typically simple, or branched; 
bracts rounded, deciduous peduncles i to ij inches : pur- 
plish. , Corolla J inch, lilac, lower lip ciliate. Nutlets 
black and shining, t* 404* Wight Ic. t. 1433. Bot. 
Mag. t. 5841. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund on Snowdon and Kotagiri 
road, flower July. 

Plcctranthus fruticosus. Hook. /.; F.B.I, iv 623, 
VIII 29 ; Nettle-leafed Giant Cockspur. Stem stout, 
to 4 or 5 feet, spongy below. Lealf-stalks 2 inches : 
blades 3 to 6 inches long and broad, broadly ovate, with 
large rounded teeth J inch deep, themselves crenate ; 
when young densely pubescent or tomentose underneath, 
becoming like the stem nearly or even quite glabrous 
with age ; thin. Cymes, at least the lower, stalked. 
Calyx T 1 2- inch, teeth nearly equal, upper ovate lower 
acuminate. Corolla f inch, with slender tube and inflated 
mouth, very distinctly two-lipped, much decurved. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal, by roadsides in rich cool soil. 
Banks of lakes and streams. Nilgiris. 

Plectranthus Bourneae Gamble. A large succulent 
undershrub, with rather small, roundish, fleshy, whitish 
or tawny-tomentose leaves, and compact thyrsoid panicles 
of flowers, t. 405. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal by streams especially in rocky 
places. Nilgiris : Coonoor. 

Plcctranthus Bishopianus Gamble. A large 
slightly fleshy undershrub. Leaves up to 3 inches by 2 
ovate. Thyrsoid panicles up to 10 inches, the racemes 
very slender. Fruiting calyx scarcely J inch, corolla | 
inch, lower lip subobtuse. 

Pulneys : near Pillar Rocks [F.M.P.]. 
30-A 



468 LABIAT7E 

COLEUS, F.B.I. 112 IX. 

Flame-Nettle. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with the characters of the 
.family and tribe i. OCIMOIDE^E (p. 462), and remark- 
able for the often coloured bracts and the large underlip 
of the corolla in which lie the stamens, and peculiar in the 
filaments of the stamen being connected together at the 
lower end into a sheath split down the upper side and 
wrapping round the style, 

Species about 120 in tropical and sub-tropical regions of 
the Old World especially Africa, the India and Malay Archi- 
pelago, and extending to Australia and the Pacific islands. 

C. bicolor and C. laciniatus are cultivated in gardens. Ger. Buntlippc. 
Ring of white hairs in the root of calyx, upper lip in fruit ovate, 

acuminate C. barbatus. 

No hairs in calyx, its upper lobe in fruit rounded and reflexed. 

C. malabaricus. 

Coleus barbatus Benth. ; F.B.L iv 625, IX 2 
Stems softly hairy, from a thick perennial rootstock. 
Leaves 3 to 5 inches by i^ inches corolla blue. Calyx 
hairy inside. Upper lip of calyx broadly ovate, in fruit 
inch : lower teeth four, as long, slender. Corolla pale 
blue ; upper lip J inch, lower J inch. Nutlets about 
J- - inch, t* 406. Wight Ic. t. 1432, 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, etc., flowers in August. Pulneys : 
only at low levels. 

Gen. Dist. Himalaya mountains and mountains of Central and Southern 
India, Poona and Western Ghauts remaining up to our levels. 

Coleus malabaricus Benth. ; F.B.L iv 626, IX 7. 
Stem and underside of leaves usually purple, glabrous. 
Calyx not hairy inside, upper lip acute, corolla pale 
lilac with dark blue upper lip. 

Nilgiris and Pulney plateaus to 6,000 feet. 



LABIAT7E 4^9 

ANISOCHILUS, F.B.I. 112 x. 

Herbs having the characters of the family and tribe 
i. OCIMOIDE/E (p. 462), with flowers in dense, long or 
short spikes. Calyx with truncate or oblique nearly 
toothless mouth. Corolla small, its slender tube bent 
down : lower lip boat-shaped : upper of three or four 
teeth. Stamens bent down inside the lower lip. 

Species 20 in India and tropical Africa. 

Spikes on short peduncles ... A. dysophylloides. 

Spikes racemed on long peduncles . . A. suffruticosa. 

Anisochilus dysophylloides Bentham, Wall. Cat. 
2756 ; F.B.I, iv 628, X 6. Grows in grey rounded masses a 
foot or so high on exposed summits and hill-sides ; 
flowering in the winter, in summer showing only thin 
dried cylindrical fruiting spikes ; quite common. 

Annual leafy shoots round, silky all over, as also the 
leaves. Leaves broadly obovate or elliptic, i by | inch, 
w r ith shallow crenations in the further half, thick and 
juicy, aromatic if crushed. Flowers minute, crowded, 
with broad bracts, into erect cylindrical (compound) 
spikes i to 3 by ^ to ^ inch, calyx thickly covered with 
small red glands. Corolla -J inch, its lobes /^ inch, the 
lowest slightly larger than the others, purple. t* 407* 
Wight Ic. t. 1434. 

In dry places, tops of the higher hills, etc., very abundant, 
e.g., Elk hill and Snowdon near Ootacamund. Also lower 
down on the Pykara slopes. Flowering December, only old 
fruiting spikes seen in summer. 

The species was founded on a plant of Wight's, and varies slightly. 
At lower levels, e.g., Coonoor, the leaves are smaller, the spikes narrower 
and stalked, and the flowers white this is Wight's plant and he called it 
albidus. The highland form (described above) has thicker leaves and 
thicker nearly sessile spikes with purple flowers. A specimen of this in 
Herb. Wight is marked A. purpurcns. 

Gamble has separated this as a variety (F.M.P., p. 1128]. 



470 LABIATJE 

Anisochilus suffruticosa Wt. Ic. t. 1437 ; F.B.I. 
iv 628, X 8. Similar to the above, but the spikes several ; 
racemed on a long peduncle. Corolla white with pale 
lilac tips to the lips. 

Nilgiris : on rocky places on the margin of the plateau 
Sispara (Wight), Biccapatti (Fyson). 

POGOSTEMON, F.B.I. 112x11. 

Herbs or undershrubs with the characters of the 
family and tribe 2. SATUREINE;E (p. 462), and remark- 
able for the very dense spikes in which the flowers appear 
in tight wedge-shaped bunches (reminding one of the spike- 
lets of wheat) ; and distinguished further by the calyx 
having five equal teeth, the corolla four nearly equal 
lobes, by the four straight often hairy filaments and one- 
celled anthers. 

Species 28 to 30 in India, Malaya and Japan. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Spikes i to 2 inches shortly peduncled in large panicles. 
i. P. pubescens. 
Spikes solitary terminal .......... c 

b f Spikes i to 2 inches dense, shortly peduncled .... 

\ i. P. pubescens. 

"Spikes 2 to 6 inches interrupted, panicle loose .... 

2. P. Heyneanus. 
Spikes \ thick .............. d 

Flowers with long protruding stamens making spike 
i inch thick ......... 8. P. speciosus. 

Flowers more densely hairy, and spikes over i inch thick . 
I 9. P. atropurpureus. 

f Leaves ovate, toothed, very hairy . 3. P. njlagiricus. 
Leaves less so, strongly veined . . . . 4. P. mollis. 

Leaves obovate, wedge-shaped at base . 5. P. rotundatus* 
Leaves ovate, broader than 3, nearly glabrous . . . 
I 6. P. paludosus 

iLeaves but calyx nearly glabrous . . 7. P, Wightii. 



-/ 



LABIATE 471 

1, Pogostemon pubescens Benth. ; F.B.I. iv 632. 
Tall aromatic herb. Spikes | to i|- inches, very dense 
one-sided shortly peduncled in large terminal panicles. 
Leaves serrate, ovate, acute at both ends, nearly glabrous. 
t* 408. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri. Pulneys : Kodaikanal. Shevaroys : 
fairly common. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts 3,000 to 5,000 feet. 

2, Pogostemon Heyncanus Benth. ; F.B.I. iv 633 
as P. potchouli, XII 9. Spikes slender 2 to 6 inches, 
interrupted the whorls often } to -J inch apart, composed 
of few clusters. Calyx tube -J- inch, pubescent ; its teeth 
one-third as long acute. Leaves broadly ovate 2 to 4 
inches, narrowed to the stalk, nearly glabrous, irregularly 
toothed. An aromatic herb, the leaves >used to keep off 
insects. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri. Also at lower levels, often cultivated. 

3. Pogostemon nilagiricus Gamble, Herb. Wight 
2525 ! All green parts densely tomentose. Leaf-stalks 
^ inch, blade i to i by | inch, toothed. Spikes dense 
3 to 6 inches. Calyx \ inch ; teeth slender -}$ inch. 
Corolla white, its tube hardly exserted from the calyx. 
Filaments of stamens bearded. Wight Ic. t. 1441 (but 
lower leaves too large), 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Lovedale, Coonoor, flowering 
October to March. Apparently only on these hills. Fyson 
2025. 

4. Pogostemon mollis Benth. ; F.B.I. iv 633, XII 
17. Leaves smaller and less hairy than in the last. Spikes 
2 to 3 inches by $ inch, the flowers covered with short 
hairs. Calyx tube & inch, hairy, teeth less than half 
as long. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund downs. 



472 LABIATE 

5* Pogostemon rotundatus Benth. ; F.B.I. iv 636. 
Leaves obovate rounded, with wedge-shaped, base cre- 
nate, lightly covered with short hairs. Spikes 2 to 3 
inches by inch hairy. Calyx as in P. mollis. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Dcccan. 

6* Pogostemon paludosus Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 635, 
XII 14. Stem stiff, erect, nearly or quite glabrous. 
Leaves similar to P. Wightii but glabrous or nearly so. 
Spike 3 to 5 inches, solitary and terminal, whorls slightly 
separated. Calyx ^ inch, hispid all over, less inflated 
than in P. Wightii and hardly contracted below the 
mouth : teeth one-third the tube. 

Nilgiris : Sispara (Lawson). 

7, Pogostemon Wightii Benth. ; F.B.I. iv 635, XII 
1 6. Sometimes a stout herb 3 or 4 feet high. Young 
parts hirsute. Leaves 2 inches, ovate, with scattered 
hairs on the upper side. Spikes terminal dense, with 
often a whorl in the axils of a pair of leaves a short dis- 
tance below. Calyx hairy round the mouth, nearly 
glabrous and slightly inflated below. 

In damp places. Nilgiris, Lamb's Rock Road, Coonoor. 
Pulneys : Kodaikanal, etc. 

8. Pogostemon speciosus Benth., Herb. Wight 361 /; 
F.B.I. iv 637, XII 22. Remarkable for the long stamens 
which project J inch, and give a bottle-brush-like appear- 
ance to the spike. 

Stem 2 to 3 feet, woody ; upper parts, leaf-stalks, and 
spikes hirsute. Leaf-stalk i to 2 inches. Blade i| to 3 
inches long and nearly as broad, ovate, with crenate 
margin and cordate or nearly horizontal base ; sparingly 



LABIATE 473 

hairy on the upper side and on the veins of the lower 
side. Spikes terminal, 3 to 6 inches ; flowers nearly 
sessile. Calyx tube ^ inch, with teeth more fringed with 
fine hairs. Corolla | inch ; its tube narrow T V inch, 
broadening above into four nearly equal lobes. Stamens 
twice as long, t* 409* Wight Ic. t. 1443. 

In shady and cool places, on the outskirts of sholas, etc. 
Nilgiris : in and near Ootacamund. Also Anamalais. Fyson 
2227, 3069. 

9. Pogostemon atropurpureus Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 
636, XII 21. All green parts, more densely hairy than the 
last, and the spike thicker, filaments longer. Stem with 
reflexed hairs. Leaves black on drying. Calyx inch, 
densely hairy its teeth \ the tube, slender. 

Nilgiris : Coonoorat 6,500 feet. Sispara Ghaut, 6,000 feet. 

DYSOPHYLLA. 

Flowers small in long very dense spikes. Corolla 
minute, not two-lipped. Stamens exserted, the filament 
very long and bearded. 

Species about 15, in tropical Asia and Australia. 

Dysophylla auricularia BL ; F.B.L IV 628, XIII 4. 
Stem and all green parts villous with long hairs. Leaves 
sessile ; 2 by i inch, ovate-elliptic, serrate. Spikes terminal, 
hairy ; whorls confluent, t* 410. 

Nilgiris : on rocky hills, above Coonoor. Pulneys : 
Machur. Shevaroys : about Yercaud, flowers cold months 
(sometimes nearly glabrous). 

Dysophylla cruciata Benth. ; F.BJ. iv 639, XIII 6. 
Leaves in whorls of four, about i inch, narrow-lanceolate, 
with recurved edges, stem 2 to 3 feet, hairy all over. 



474 LAB1AT7E 

Spikes terminal. Flowers pale purple, with stamens 
densely pink-hairs. Wt. Ic. t. 1444 (D. tetraphylla). 

Shcvaroys : on the plateau. 

P.M. P. records as from the West Coast, perhaps Malabar. F.B.I. 
gives : Gen. Dist. From Kumaon Himalayas to Nilgiris. 

MICROMERIA, F.B.I. 112 xxm. 

Herbs or undershrubs with small leaves and axillary 
whorls or terminal unbranched, not panicled, spikes ; 
having the characters of the family and tribe 2. 
SATUREINE/E (p. 462), but characterized by the calyx 
having 5 teeth and 13 ribs (two between the midribs of 
the three lower teeth, one only between those of the 
upper). Corolla with flat upper lip and 3 spreading 
lobes below. 

Species about 70, in all regions of the world except Australia 
and New Zealand. Europe has 40, but there are none in 
Britain. 

Micromcria biflora Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 650, XXIII 2 ; 
" Lemon-scented Thyme." Distinguished by its smell, 
small leaves, and purplish flowers a pair usually out at 
a time. Rootstock stout, woody. Stems very numerous, 
2 to 6 inches, slender, occasionally branched, glabrous 
pubescent or sparingly hairy. Leaves | inch, ovate 
acute, subsessile, at internodes of \ to i inch. Flowers 
in small cymes at the leaf-axils. Calyx slender, by 
2*5. inch. Corolla J inch, strongly scented, t* 41 L 
Wight Ic. t. 1446, 111. t. 176 bisf. 5. 

On the downs, all over in grass, common. 

Gen. Dist. Higher mountains of South India, Himalayas from Kash- 
mir to Bhotan. Afghanistan, Arabia, Abyssinia, South Africa. 

Micromeria capitcllata Benth. ; F.B.I. iv 650. 
Differs from the above in its taller stem and larger leaves 
(up to i inch) and densely flowered villous whorls. 

Gen. Dist. West Himalayas to West Coast. Nilgiris to 6,000 feet. 



LABIATE 475 

CALAMINTHA. F.B.I, 112 xxiv. 
Catmin. 

Herbs with ovate toothed leaves and loose or dense 
whorls of purplish flowers, with the characters of the 
tribe 2. SATUREINE/E (p. 462), but the calyx two-lipped. 
Ribs of calyx 13. Corolla much as in MICROMERIA. 

Species about 50, in north temperate regions. In Europe 
about 30. Eng. Wild Basil, Basil Thyme, Catmint, etc. 

Calamintha umbrosa Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 650, XXIV 
2 ; Catmint. Stem rising to 3 feet, weak at the base, 
pubescent or sparingly hirsute. Leaves to i| inches, 
ovate, acute, serrate, shortly stalked, pubescent on both 
sides. Whorls lax or dense flowered in the leaf-axils and 
at the ends of short branches : bracts subulate. Calyx 
hairy, to inch, slender, purplish : upper teeth trian- 
gular, lower longer subulate. Wight Ic. t, 1447. 
t. 412. 

In woods, etc., on the downs. 

Very similar to C. clinopodium Bcnth., the Wild Basil of England, 
which extends eastwards to Kashmir, and perhaps only a form of it, 
differing chiefly in the stem being weak at the base and the lower calyx- 
teeth longer than the upper. 

SCUTELLARIA, F.B.I. 112 xxxn. 
Skullcap. 

Herbs or undershrubs with flowers variously arranged 
in leafy spikes, racemes, or few at the leaf-axils, and the 
characters of the family and tribe 4. STACHYDE/E 
(p. 462), but with the calyx distinctly two-lipped and closed 
in fruit, and peculiar in the upper lip, being deciduous 
and having a large deciduous pouch (skull-cap) on the 
upper side, 



47* LABIATE 

Species 180, all over the world except South Africa and rare 
in tropical Africa. India has 14, Europe and northern Asia 
60. Fr. Toque, Ger. Lebenkraut. 

Leaves ovate, cordate, coarsely crenate ... S. violacea. 

Leaves triangular, ditto S. Colebrookiana. 

Leaves oblong, narrow, entire S. rivularis. 

Scutellaria violacea Heyne ; Wall. Cat. 2136.'; 
F.B.I. iv 668, XXXII 4. Stem I to 2 feet. Leaves f to 
ii by i to i J inches, sparingly hairy on both sides. Spikes 
6 to 12 inches. Flowers two only at a leaf-axil ; bracts 
to J inch ; pedicles twice as long. Calyx y^ inch. 
Corolla tube i~ to I inch, white tinged with purple or 
pink. In fruit upper pouched lip of calyx | to J inch ; 
lower inch, t, 41 3. Wight Ic. t. 1449, 111. t. 176 bis. 

/.? 

In woods and moist shady places, common. 
Gen. Dist. Hills of South India and Ceylon. 

Scutellaria rivularis Wall. ; F.B.I, iv 670, XXXII 
13. Stem creeping below, above erect, seldom branched, 
6 to 8 inches. Leaves f to i by to | inch, subsessile, 
lanceolate, obtuse, passing above into the floral bracts. 
Flowers axillary on short stalks. Corolla ] inch, blue. 

Nilgiris : in swampy ground. Near Ootacamund, Pykara. 

Gen. Dist. Nepal, Khasia, Burma, China, South Indian mountains. 

Scutellaria Colebrookiana Benth. ; F.B.I. as 
var. of S. violacea. Leaves with rather straight (though 
crenate) sides and nearly straight base, i by i inch, 
thicker than in S. violacea, softly tomentose. Seeds not 
spiny. 

Pulneys : Poombari valley, etc., at lower levels than S. 
violacea. 



LABIATE 477 

BRUNELLA. F.B.I. 112 xxxin. 

Self-heal 

Small herbs with the characters of the family and 
tribe 4. STACHYDE;E (p. 462), but with a distinctly 
two-lipped calyx closed in fruit (not however deciduous 
and pouched as in SCUTELLARIA), and peculiar in having 
large rounded bracts in the dense spikes or heads of six 
flowered whorls. 

Species 2 or 3 only in temperate regions. 

Brunclla vulgaris Linn. ; F.B.I. iv 670, XXXIII i. 
Rootstock creeping. Stems 4 to 8 inches, erect or 
ascending. Lower leaves stalked, upper sessile : blades 
ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse, entire or toothed, very hairy 
or nearly glabrous. Spikes i to il inches by f inch thick, 
with a pair of leaves close below. Bracts very broad and 
rounded, often with purple margin. Corolla -i- to f inch, 
purple or white : filaments of stamens with a short 
branch behind the one two-lobed anther. Nutlets oblong, 
smooth. " Self-heal." t. 414. Wight Ic. t. 1448. 

On the open downs in grass, common. A variable and 
widely distributed species. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate climates of Europe including England, Asia, 
North America, Andes, North Africa and Australia. 

ANISOMELES* 

Herbs of the tribe STACHYDE/E (p. 462) characterized 
by the upper lip of the corolla narrow erect, not hooded, 
and the anthers of the outer pair of stamens one-celled, 
of the inner pair two-celled. Lower lip of corolla notched. 
Nutlets smooth. 

Species few (under 20) in the warmer parts of Asia and 
Australia. 



478 LABIATES 

Amsomeles indica O. Kze. ; F.B.I. (A. ovata) iv 
672, XXXVI 2. A tall herb. Leaves ovate, acute or 
sometimes acuminate, hairy. Flowers pink or purple 
in dense hairy whorls, sessile at intervals of | to i inch on 
tall spikes, the lower whorls subtended by small leaves. 
Bracteoles linear. Calyx in fruit hispid, the teeth rather 
long acuminate. 

Shevaroys : Flowers cold weather on roadsides. 

Gen. Dist. Over tropical and sub-tropical parts of India. 

LEONURUS. 

Herbs of the tribe STACHYDE;E (p. 462) and similar to 
LEUCAS, but the calyx with five ribs only and its teeth 
spiny ; anthers transverse. 

Species about 10 in Europe, Asia and America. 

Leonurus sibirica Linn. ; F.B.I, iv 678, XL 12. 
Leaves deeply incised or pinnatifid, 2 to 3 inches long. 
Whorls many. Flowers red or orange. Bracts and bracteoles 
setaceous and spiny. A tall herb reaching 3 or 4 feet. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri. 

LEUCAS. F.B.I. 1 2 XLV. 

Woolly or villous herbs and undershrubs with flowers 
in dense, well-separated, whorls, having the characteris- 
tics of the family and tribe 4. STACHYDE/E (p. 462). 
Calyx tubular or campanulate, ten-ribbed and eight to 
ten toothed. Corolla with a hooded upper lip covered 
with stiff hairs and a spreading lower lip with large mid- 
dle lobe, in all except one species entirely white. 
Stamens longer than the corolla tube, conniving at the 
anthers under the upper lip, the outside pair longest. 

Species 50 in Asia and Africa. 



LABIATVE 479 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

/Mouth of calyx straight b 

\Mouth of calyx oblique, the upper side longer . . . h 

{Calyx teeth inch, erect. Long-stemmed straggling 
plants ; flowers few in the whorl c 
Calyx teeth very short and shrubs or undershrubs . , d 
f Leaves triangular, thin (Pulneys) . . 2. L. angularis. 

\Leaves, ovate, thick i . L. marruboides. 

("Leaves entire, narrow. Small silvery golden or greyish 

d < green undershrubs e 

LLeaves toothed. Herbs or shrubs ; whorls globose . g 
C Foliage golden or brownish : whorls on long stalks . 

4. L. suffruticosa. 

e < Foliage greyish green : whorl on short stalks .... 
I 3. L. rosmarinifolia. 

L Foliage silvery, leaves often in threes spreading . . . / 

("Hairs of calyx mouth longer than teeth 

c \ 5. L. helianthemifolia. 

i Leaves in threes, hairs of calyx mouth short or absent 
L 6. L. ternifolia. 

fLeaves lanceolate 7. L. lanceaefolia. 

J Leaves ovate, upper lip of corolla brown . 8. L. vestita. 
i Leaves ovate, flower white . . . . 9. L. larmfolia. 

LLeaves elliptic, crenate 10. L. hirta. 

("Leaves long-elliptic, crenate : calyx-teeth spiny . . . 

h < 12. L. zeylanica. 

^Leaves linear ; calyx teeth short . . . n. L. linifolia. 

i. Leucas marruboides Desf. ; F.B.L iv 683, XLV 
13 . Stem and branches four-angled, long and slender, 
straggling on bushes, etc., and white with a close felt of 
reflexed hairs. Leaves shortly stalked i to 2 by i to 
1 1 inches, ovate cordate, crenate on the upper side 
rough with the impressed veins ; on the lower white 
with a dense tomentum. Whorls many-flowered, dense 
in the axils of the leaves : bracts linear, J inch, woolly. 
Calyx campanulate, J inch ; mouth straight, with ten 



480 LABIATVE 

nearly equal teeth of variable length, not hairy inside. 
Lower lip of corolla thin, 

Nilgiris and less so Pulney, plateaus, flowering in winter 
months. Shevaroys : Green Hills, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of South India and Ceylon. 

2. Leucas angularis Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 684, XLV 14 
as var. pulneyensis of the last species. Remarkable for its 
straggling habit and attaining a height sometimes of 10 
feet or even more. Leaves not so thick as the last, acute, 
sometimes with sides so straight and base horizontal as to 
be triangular. Flowers usually fewer (two or three only). 
Calyx-teeth longer, half the tube. Corolla large, i inch ; 
upper lip I inch : lower f by i inch at the widest, with 
rounded lobes, lateral spreading, falcate ; mid-lobe very 
delicate in texture and translucent between the lace- 
like veins. t 415* 

Pulneys : Straggling over shrubs and up small trees. 
Common. 

3. Leucas rosmarinifolia Benth. ; Wall. Cat. 2521 / ; 
F.B.I. iv 685, XLV 19. A small bush with flat top of dark 
green or greyish erect leaves, in bunches (by development 
of these of the axillary buds). Whorls at first close down 
among the leafy branches, with two narrow leaves appearing 
out of the middle, but in fruit raised a little above the 
bush. Bracts as long as the calyx, oblanceolate, like it 
softly villous or silky. Hairs on margin of calyx-mouth 
white, longer than the teeth, t* 416* 

Nilgiris : Biccapatti east of Ootacamund. North-east of 
Ootacamund by the Connemara Road at Marlimund, etc. ; 
Biccapatti, Kotagiri. 

4. Leucas suffruticosa Bentham ; F.B.I. iv 685, XLV 
1 8. Less of a bush than the last, with thick rootstock 
and numerous stems 4 to 8 inches high, covered like the 



LABIATVE 481 

leaves with yellow, appressed hairs. Leaves i to i^ by 
i to inch, closely covered, white below between the 
strongly recurved margins ; whorls peduncled 2 to 8 
inches above the ordinary leaves, but with two leaves 
immediately below. Bracts ^ inch, half the length of the 
calyx, subulate. Calyx campanulate f inch, evenly 
ten-ribbed and toothed, the teeth small, slightly shorter 
than the bristles. Anthers reddish brown. Nutlets -| inch, 
smooth, oblong, t, 417. Wight Ic. t. 1454. 

In the figure are shown the calyx, also opened showing the nutlets, 
corolla with hood bent back, and underside of leaf. 

Very common in the grass of the downs. Nilgiris : Pykara, 
Biccapatti, Ootacamund. Flowering from May. Not Pul- 
neys. 

This species seems to take near Ootacamund and especially to the 
north-west, in the direction of Pykara, the place of L. helianthemifolia on 
the eastern side round Kotagiri. Inform and in its habit, among grass, 
it is very similar, but the general colour is brownish-yellow on dark green, 
not silvery as the other species, and in fruit especially the long peduncles 
sufficiently distinguish it. 

5. Leucas helianthemifolia Desf. ; F.B.L iv 685, 
XLV 20. Hardly a shrub, but stems and branches usually 
6 to 1 8 inches, from a woody base ; all green parts covered 
with silvery white hairs. Leaves two, or more at a node 
(leaves of the axillary bud), oblong to elliptic, variable in 
length and width from \ by /> to i| by -| inch, strongly 
one-nerved, with recurved margin and densely white tomen- 
tose under surface. Whorls many-flowered, solitary or 
few, with one or two pairs of linear leaves close below, 
and often also a pair in the centre above. Bracts linear, 
half the calyx. Calyx tube \ to } inch, straight shaggy ; 
teeth small, hairs of mouth longer. Nutlets J inch, 
oblong, t* 418. Wight Ic. t. 1453. 

On the open downs. Nilgiris : more common on the 
drier side, between Ootacamund and Kotagiri. Flowers 
summer months. 

21 



482 LABIAT7E 

6. Leucas ternifolia Desf. ; formerly included in 
L. helianthemifolia but differs in the hairs of the branches 
and leaves, which are usually in threes, being shorter 
(more like a velvet) the hairs on the mouth of the calyx 
short or absent. In dried specimens the leaves appear 
broader, more pointed and dark, and the calyx broader. 

Pulneys : on the downs common. 

7. Leucas lanceaefolia Desf. ; F.B.I, iv 685, XLV 
21. Stem 4 to 8 feet coated with reddish yellow tomentum. 
Leaves lanceolate, 2 to 4 by J to i\ inches, pubescent 
and drying black above, white tomentose underneath, 
with distinct nerves and veins ; not quite entire, but 
notched at \ inch intervals : odour strong and disagreeable. 
Whorls many-flowered and very dense, usually three or four 
to a branch, the lower with fair-sized leaves just below. 
Calyx straight ; mouth without hairs. Corolla white, 
or the lower lip cream-coloured : upper lip as in L. 
sufFruticosa. t* 419. Wight Ic. t. 1452. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : by the margins of sholas, quite 
common and often in thick clumps ; flowers summer and 
autumn. On these hills only. 

8. Leucas vestita Benth. ; F.B.I, iv 686, XLV 25. Dis- 
tinguished from all our other species by the brown upper 
lip of the corolla ; whorls large and spherical, and stem 
2 to 4 feet, shaggy with red or brown hairs. Leaves 3 by 
1 1 inches, with J inch stalk, ovate, acute at both ends, 
coarsely serrate, shaggy above and tomentose below. 
Whorls i to i] inches across, in the axils of the ordinary 
leaves. Bracts | to J inch, one-nerved, ciliate. Calyx- 
tube slightly shorter : mouth quite straight with erect hairs 
of inch, and slightly longer linear ciliate teeth. 



LABIATVE 483 

Corolla exserted, upper lip hooded, rich brown, lower 
white, t* 420. 

Pulneys : on the open hill sides above Silver Cascade, etc., 
Kukal, and at lower levels but not seen on the higher downs. 
Not collected on Nilgiris. 

Gen. Dist. Pulney and Travancore hills. 

9. Lcucas lamifolia Desf. ; F.B.I, iv 686, XLV 24. 
A tall shrub, up to 8 feet high, with ovate crenate or serrate 
leaves 3 to 5 inches long, covered with long brown hairs. 
Whorls dense globose. Calyx | inch, its teeth slender 
J inch, and mouth-hairs short or absent. Corolla small. 
Upper lip white. Nutlets J inch, oblong, t. 421. 

Nilgiris : 6,000 to 7,000 feet. " Common in old Forest, 
Coonoor " \F.M.P.]. My specimen is without locality. 

10. Lcucas hirta Spr. ; F.B.I, v 687, XLV 26. 
Stems 2 feet. Leaves i to 2 inches, elliptic, crenate 
except on the cuneate base, rather thick and covered with 
yellow hairs on bulbous bases. Calyx teeth about ^ 
inch, curved back, t* 422. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud. Flower January. 

Gen. Dist. Mysore and the Deccan, Horsleykonda, Western Ghauts, 
Tinnevelly. 

The leaves dry yellow unlike those of L. vestita of which Hooker in 
F.B.I, suggested it might be a dry-country form. 

11. Leucas linifolia Spreng. ; F.B.I. iv 690, XLV 
38. Stem i to 2 feet. A herb up to i \ feet, well branched. 
Leaves linear ii to 2 inches by J to *, inch, entire or slightly 
serrate. Whorls at the ends of the branches. Calyx with 
very oblique mouth, the upper tooth much longer and 
acute pubescent. Corolla with long lower lip. t 423. 

Coonoor, Yercaud. Mostly at lower levels Deccan, the 
Carnatic, etc. 



484 PLANTAGINACEJE 

12. Leucas zeylanica R. Br. ; F.B.I, iv 698, XLV 33. 
A tall herb, calyx hispid, oblique at mouth, the teeth long 
and spiny. Leaves narrow elliptic, 2 to 4 by J to | inch, 
distinctly serrate pubescent. Bracteoles linear. 

Nilgiris : Coonoor, Kotagiri. Shevaroys. 

TEUCRIUM. F.B.I. H2LIII. 

Flower peculiar in having no upper lip, but in its place 
a notch through which are exserted the 4 long curved 
stamens, a large lower lip with minute or obsolete side 
lobes and large midlobe, and minute nutlets with com- 
paratively very large hilum. Calyx with 10 ribs and 5 
nearly equal teeth. Herbs or shrubs of the tribe 5 
AJUGOIDE^E (p. 463). 

Species about 100, mostly in temperate and southern 
Europe. In England 3 species. ' Wood Germander/ etc. 

Teucrium Wightii Hook. f. ; F.B.I. iv 701, LIII 6. 
A stout stemmed herb with soft rather thick leaves and pale 
purple flowers in long spikes terminating the upper 
axillary branches, and so forming large terminal panicles. 
t, 424. a corolla, etc. ; b calyx showing nutlets and hairs 
inside the tube [E.T.B.] ; c nutlet [F.]. 

In rocky places. Nilgiris : on Dodabetta and near Ootaca- 
mund, flowering from March to June. 

P L A N T A G I N A C E ^E . 

A family of practically only one genus, of about 200 
species ; the two other genera having but one species 
each. 

PLANTAGCX F.B.I. 113 i. 

Annual* or perennial herbs with radical leaves, and 

spikes of small flowers on long leafless stalks (scapes), 



PLANTAGINACE/E 485 

peculiar in having a scarious monopetalous corolla with four 
small lobes, and a thin-walled egg-shaped capsule which 
opens by a circular transverse slit. Sepals four, imbricate. 
Stamens four with long filaments and round anthers, 
attached to the middle of the corolla tube. Ovary superior 
two-celled, with one or more ovules. Seeds angular 
subglobose or compressed, plane or concave on the hilum 
side. Embryo straight, radicle pointing downwards. 

Species 200, all over the world, chiefly in temperate 
climates ; but not absent from hot dry countries nor from the 
tops of mountains. In England 5 species, Plantain, Ribwort, 
Waybread ; Ger. Wegerich, Wegetritt. 

Plantago asiatica Linn. ; F.B.L as included in 
P. major L. iv 705, I I. Perennial by a stout rootstock. 
Leaves all radical, stalked, oblong or oblong-ovate, very 
variable in size, from blades of i| by f inch with stalks 
| inch, to blades 4 by 3 inches with stalks 8 inches, 
entire or toothed, three to five-nerved. Spikes i to 8 
inches. Flowers scattered or crowded. Bracts variable 
as long as or shorter or longer than the ^ inch sepals. 
Capsule to ^ inch, egg-shaped. Seeds small black, 
attached to the top half. t. 425* 

In waste places and roadsides as a weed Ootacamund, 
Coonoor, Kodaikanal, Shembaganur, etc., and closely allied 
to P. major L. which occurs wild or introduced in many parts 
of the world. 

In the figure : a flower ; b fruit opened, showing the seeds adhering 
to the top part [E.T.B.]. 

Plantago lanceolata Linn. ; similar to the above 
but with narrow lanceolate leaves, occurs as an introduced 
weed. It is the common English " Ribwort/' 



486 AMARANTACE> 

AMARANTACE^E. 

Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and terminal 
or axillary spikes of flowers, with one whorl only of 
perianth (the sepals) and three scarious bracts and 
bracteoles ; as many stamens opposite the sepals, some- 
times united by a membranous cup at the base, or with 
intervening staminodes, and a dry papery fruit with 
usually one erect black shining seed inside which the 
embryo lies curled round the endosperm. 

Genera about 50, species 500 in the tropical and sub- 
tropical countries. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

{Leaves alternate b 
Leaves opposite c 

{Spikes long. Seeds many CELOSIA. 
Flowers in clusters. Seeds one only, erect . ALLMANIA. 
(Spikes long, fruiting flowers deflexed . ACHYRANTHES. 
Fls. in axillary heads ; anthers i -celled . ALTERNANTHERA. 

CELOSIA, 

Herbs with alternate leaves, flowers solitary or in 
clusters in short or long spikes, silvery or pink, and many 
seeds in the fruit. 

Species 35 in the tropics. 

Celosia pulchella Moq. ; F.B.L iv 715, II 3. 
Spikes 4 to 8 inches, the flower or small clusters by | 
inch apart. Sepals i\ to inch, capsule ovoid narrowed 
upwards. Style two-fid. Leaves lanceolate 2 to 4 by 
\ to 1 1 inches ; petiole J to i inch. 

Pulneys : Shembaganur. Also Horsleykonda and Deccan. 



AMARANTACE^E 487 

ALLMANIA. 

Flowers in a head ; anthers two-celled : ovary with 
one erect seed which has an aril : capsule circumciss. 
Herbs with alternate entire leaves. 

Species about 5 only, in the tropics of Asia, 

Allmania nodiflora R.Br. var. angustifolia ; F.B.L 
iv 717, V i. Stem simple, erect 3 to 8 inches or more. 
Leaves 2 to 3 inches by j inch acute at each end, glabrous. 
Flower head a cluster about ^ inch diameter, white. 

Nilgiris : summit of Ejarbetta near Kotagiri 6,700 feet 
(Sedgwick in Herb. Pres. Coll., Madras). 

Gen. Dist. Carnatic and Deccan. 

ACHYRANTHES. F.B.I. 116 xv. 

Characters as above. Leaves opposite ; spikes very 
slender. Flowers reflexed, with bract and bracteoles. 
Sepals spiny. Stamens connate at the base with many 
staminodes each of which has a toothed scale at the back. 

Species about 15. 

Achyranthcs aspera Linn. ; var. rubro-fusca ; 
F.B.L iv 730, XV 2. Stem i to 3 feet simple reddish 
leaves elliptic, variable, usually thick and tomentose or 
velvetty. Spikes rigid lengthening as flowers open. 
Flowers ^ inch hardening as the seeds set. Bracteoles 
ovate half as long as their spine. Stamens 5, staminodes 
fimbriate. 

Nilgiris : at Coonoor, Ootacamund. 

Gen. Dist. Of species all districts on the plains. 

Achyranthcs bidcntata Bl ; F.B.L IV 730, XV 2. 
Very similar to the preceding, but the two bracteoles of 



488 CHENOPODIACE^ 

each flower reduced to small spines without any blade, 
and staminodes not fimbriate. Flowers J inch. Leaves 
acuminate. t 426* 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Kotagiri in Longwood shola, 
etc. Pulneys : Shembaganur valley in Tiger shola 5,400 
feet. Shevaroys : Yercaud plateau. Flower, cold months ; 
also Horsleykonda. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills about 4,000 feet. 

ALTERNANTHERA. 

Anthers of one cell only ; ovary with one seed suspen- 
ded from the top : flowers in heads or very short spikes. 
Herbs with opposite leaves. 

Species 20, in the warmer parts, especially of Australia 
and America. 

Alternanthera triandra Lamk. ; F.B.L as A. ses- 
siles R.Br. iv 731. A weak-stemmed herb of wet places, 
rooting at the nodes. Leaves i to 2 by \ to \ inch, 
elliptic, obtuse. Flower-spikes ] to $ inch, sessile in 
the axils. Stamens 3, capsule flattened broadly obcordate, 
about T V inch. 

Shevaroys : by the Yercaud lake. 

Gen. Dist. All over plains. 

CHENOPODIACE^E. 

Herbs with simple alternate leaves, usually covered 
as also the flowers with a white mealy powder. Flowers 
with small sepals, no petals. Stamens 5, no staminodes. 
Ovary with i ovule, in fruit usually enclosed in the fleshy 
calyx. Embryo simply or spirally curled round the 
endosperm. 

Genera 75, species 500, most of them in salty places, sea 
marshes, etc. 



PftYTtiLACCACE/E 489 

Well-known plants are BETA, cultivated as a vegetable and 
the source of Beet-sugar ; SPINACIA, spinach ; SALICORNIA 
Glasswort. 

CHENOPODIUM. F.B.I. 1172. 

Erect or prostrate herb, stem angled. Flowers minute. 
Embryo curled round the endosperm. 
Species 60, in temperate climates. 

Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. ; F.B.I, v 4 117. 
A tall well-branched herb, leaves lanceolate but much cut 
or coarsely toothed, scented by oil glands. Flowers in 
small, 1 1 inch, clusters on the short branches of slender 
axillary panicles 6 inches long, forming a large terminal, 
leafy panicle. Leaves elliptic i to 4 inches entire or 
coarsely toothed. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Kotagiri, Coonoor, etc. A weed of 
cultivation. Shevaroys : Yercaud. 

PHYTOLACCACE.E. 

A family of 20 genera and 60 species, in tropical and 
temperate climates. 

PHYTOLACCA. F.B.I. 118 i. 

American Nightshade, Pokeweed. 

Glabrous trees and shrubs with alternate entire leaves, 
and racemes of flowers with bract and bracteoles, four 
or five sepals, no petals, five to twenty-five stamens and 
five to ten carpels, more or less united, and in fruit fleshy, 
each with one seed containing a curved embryo. 

Species 2 in tropical and sub-tropical regions. 

Phytolacca dioica Linn. ; v 21, I 2. ; Pokeweed. 
A coarse shrub with stalked, ovate leaves drooping spikes 
and fruit of five black fleshy carpels. Fl. N. & P. Hts., 
Vol. Ill, t. 581 (reversed), t* 427* 



OLYGONACE/ 

A garden escape about Ootacamund and Kodaikanal, 
native of Paraguay, South America. Also recorded near 
Calcutta. 

POLYGONACE^:. 

Buck-wheat, Rhubarb, Dock, Sorrel, etc. 

Herbs with alternate leaves, peculiar in having a 
thin tubular stipule sheathing the stem (and covering 
the young leaf-bud). Flowers jointed to the pedicels. 
Perianth of three to six parts, which persist till the fruit 
is ripe and may or may not be separable into an outer 
set (sepals) and an inner (petals). Stamens five to eight, 
opposite the perianth segments. Ovary superior, angled, 
with one basal erect ovule, almost peculiar in having 
the micropyle at the opposite end to the point of attach- 
ment. Fruit a nut usually enclosed in the perianth, 
with floury or bony endosperm. 

Genera 30, species 600 chiefly in temperate regions. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

Perianth of female flowers in fruit spiny .... EMEX. 
Perianth of 3 to 5 parts, stigmas capitate. Flowers white 

or pink sessile in axil of a bract .... POLYGONUM. 
Perianth of 6 parts, stigmas fimbriate. Flowers greenish, 

pedicelled RUMEX. 

POLYGONUM. F.B.I. 119 in. 

Knot-grass, Persicaria, etc. 

Herbs or undershrubs of various habit, with alternate 
leaves, swollen nodes, and usually large stipular sheath 
(ochrea) the mouth of which may be straight or oblique. 
Flowers small in clusters at the axils and nodes of the 
inflorescence, in the axils of sheathing or concave bracts. 



491 

Perianth segments five, stamens eight. Stigmas three, 
capitate. Nut bi-convex or three-angled, enclosed in 
the slightly enlarged, occasionally fleshy, perianth. Embryo 
more or less to one side of the nut, with narrow coty- 
ledons. 

Species 200. Almost all over the world. Fr. Renouee. 
Ger. Knoterich. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

'Flowers in long or short racemes. Ochrea and bracts 

tubular and truncate b 

Flowers in heads. Mouth of ochrea oblique : bracts flat d 

Flowers in large loose panicles : stipular tube short . g 

f Leaves glabrous : nut bi-convex : bracts tubular . . c 
M Midrib strigose below : nuts usually three-angled . 

I 3. P. Hydropiper and 4. P. flacidum. 

f Spikes 2 to 4 inches erect : glabrous plant .... 

j i. P. glabrum. 

I Spikes .] to i inch ochrea and bracts ciliate .... 

L 2. P. minus. 

f Heads sessile in leaf axils . . . . 5. P. punctatum. 

j Heads few on slender peduncles ; stem with recurved 
d\ prickles 3 

| Heads in much-branched terminal panicle .... 

(^ 6. P. chinense. 

C Creeping herb : peduncles paired . . 7. P. sphaeroce- 
e \ phalum. 

i Erect herb : leaves deltoid at base . . 8. P. strigosum. 

v. Do. leaves narrowed at base . 9. P. pedunculare. 

f f Stems rough with reflexed hairs . . 10. P. rude. 

\ Stems soft with erect or spreading hairs . 1 1 . P. molle 

i, Polygonum glabrum Wild. ; F.B.I, v 34, III 
24. A tall herb of watery places with long slender racemes 
of pink flowers, narrow acuminate leaves, long truncate 
stipular sheaths and bi-convex nuts. Bracts tubular 



492 POLYGONACEJE 

usually glabrous. Leaves 4 to 6 inches as a rule but may 
be much more : gland-dotted ; glabrous. Stem often 
rooting at the nodes. Wt. Ic. 1797. 

Shevaroys : Yercaud. Also Northern Circars, Carnatic, 
Travancore. 

2* P, minus Huds. ; F.B.L v 36, III 29. A much 
smaller plant in every way than the last, the stems some- 
times creeping, the spikes i to i inch, the leaves about 2 
inches, the truncate stipular sheath under \ inch and 
distinguished from it also by hairs on the mouth of the 
stipular sheath, on the midrib of the leaves, and on the 
bracts. Wt. Ic. 1800 (P. strictum). 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : up to 7,000 feet [P.M. P.]. 

Gen. Dist. Hotter parts of India, Ceylon, Kashmir, temperate Asia 
and Africa. 

3. Polygonum Hydropipcr Linn., F.B.I, v 39, 
III 36. A tall robust herb of watery places, with sub- 
sessile lanceolate leaves up to 3 by % inch, glabrous except 
for hairs on the midrib and ochrea, which may be minutely 
ciliate at the mouth ; and three-angled nuts (styles 3) often 
glandular. Flower pink. 

Western Ghauts up to 6,000 feet [F.M.P.]. 

Gen. Dist. Bengal on the plains and to 5,000 feet northern India to 
7,000 feet. Europe and North Africa, Java and North America, Australia. 

4* Polygonum flacidum Mtissiu. ; F.B.L v 39, III 
37. Racemes very long and slender : bracts fringed or 
ciliate. Ochrea with fringe of cilia half as long as the 
tube. Styles 3 and nut triangular. Leaves lanceolate 
or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate up to 6 by i inch. 

Western Ghauts in wet forests up to 6,000 feet. [F.M.P. 
Not seen from this locality.] 

Gen. Dist. In wet places throughout India, Ceylon, Malacca, Malay. 



POLYGONACEJE 493 

5* Polygonum punctaturn Buck. Ham. ; formerly 
P. alatum ; F.B.I, v 41, III 41. An annual herb. Stems 
and branches sometimes weak near the base and rooting 
at the lower nodes, 6 to 18 inches. Stipule J to -| inch, 
tubular at the base, widening to a very oblique mouth. 
Leaves ovate deltoid, narrowed to the short clasping stalk. 
Peduncles slender. Clusters subtended by a small leaf 
(or large leaf-like bract) : bracts of the flowers acute. 
Nut bi-convex or trigonal, t* 428* 

Roadside and garden weed. Ootacamund, etc. Kodai- 
kanal. Flowering after the rains. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India, Ceylon, Afghanistan, Java, Japan, 
Abyssinia. 

6* Polygonum chinense Linn. ; F.B.I, v 44, III 48 
Almost shrubby. Stem tall stout, branched, glabrous. 
Stipular sheath 4 to i inch, with long wavy point. Leaves 
3 to 5 inches, ovate-oblong, acuminate, finely serrate : stalk 
J to i inch, with two ear-like expansions at the base. 
Ultimate peduncles divaricate, covered with short glan- 
dular hairs. Clusters ] to \ inch. Flowers usually 
white with a little pink, also pink or purplish. Nuts 
variable, in a dry or a fleshy perianth. Wight Ic. t. 
1806. t. 429. 

Very common in the rich cool soil of woods, and as a 
garden weed. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India, Burma, Ceylon, Malay islands, 
China, Japan. 

7* Polygonum sphaerocephalum Wall.; F.B.I, v 
43, III 44. Stem creeping. Heads on paired glandular 
peduncles. Ochrea strigose with naked mouth. Leaves 
about 3 by 2 inches, ovate shortly acuminate with nearly 
horizontal base. 

Nilgiris : Dodabetta. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate Himalaya, Nepal, Kumaon. 



494 POLYGONACE/E 

8* Polygonum strigosum Br. ; F.BJ. v 47, III 53. 
Stem i to 3 feet, prickly (much or little), as also are the 
leaf-stalks, nerves and peduncles, red. Leaves 2 to 4 
inches, oblong acute or lanceolate, horizontal or cordate 
at the base, usually glabrous above, and also below except 
for the prickles : stalk J inch stipular sheath open, 
oblique. Racemes J to 4 inch, on slender peduncles 
of f to 2 inches. Bracts ovate or oblong, fringed with 
hairs. Stamens 6 to 8. Nut black, three-angled, t* 430. 
In water and in wet places. Common on these hills, some- 
times colouring a marsh red. 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India and across to China. 

9* Polygonum pedunculate Wall. ; F.BJ, v 48, 
III 55. Flowers in small heads, on slender bifurcated 
peduncles. Leaves narrow lanceolate, narrowed to the 
base, up to 8 inches by f inch, shortly stalked. Ochrea 
about i inch but mouth oblique. Stem, midrib of leaf 
underneath, and petioles harsh with short recurved 
prickles. 

A very variable species, the stems being sometimes nearly 
smooth (P. pedunculare proper), the leaves very narrow (var. 
angustissimum), the peduncles glandular (var. nilagirianum) 
and altogether a larger plant with large heads (var. robustum). 
These all occur on the Nilgiri and Pulney hill-tops, and one 
or two at least on the Shevaroys also. 

Gen. Dist. India to the Malay Islands, China and Australia. 

10* Polygonum rude Meissu. ; F.BJ. v 49, III 58. 
A large shrubby plant with thick zigzag branches, closely 
covered with downward hairs. Leaves 6 to 9 inches by 
i to 2^, elliptic acuminate ; stalk i inch, ochrea truncate 
but acuminate on one side. Flowers minute in large 
compound panicles ; bracts flat. 

A Himalayan plant, found occasionally in Ootacamund 
gardens. 



POLYGONACE;E 495 

ii* Polygonum mollc Don. ; F.B.I, v 50, III 59. 
Very similar to the last but much softer and hairs erect or 
spreading, not deflexed. 

A Himalayan plant like the last ; run wild on the Nilgiris. 

FAGOPYRUML F.B.I. 119 iv. 

Buck-wheat. 

Similar to POLYGONUM except for the nut being longer 
than the encircling perianth (which is not enlarged in 
fruit), and the cotyledons very broad and folded and 
curled round the radicle. 

Species 2, temperate Europe and Asia, cultivated every- 
where. 

Fagopyrum esculentum Mcench ; F.B.I, v 55, IV i ; 
Common Buck-wheat. Annual. Stem i to 2 feet, 
glabrous, hollow. Stipular tube about J- inch, with 
longer point. Leaf-stalks ii inches, blades broadly 
triangular-cordate ; upper narrower. Flowers nearly 
sessile, along the branches of terminal cymose corymbs, 
pink or white. Nut ] to -J- inch, ovate with acute angles. 
t* 431. 

A roadside weed at Ootacamund. Cultivated on the 
Nilgiris, Himalayas, Khasi Hills, in Thibet and in temperate 
North America. Fr. Ble noir. Ger. Buckweizen. 

RUMEX* F.B.I. 119 vn. 

Dock, Sorrel, etc. 

Perennial, rarely annual, herbs with alternate often 
radical leaves and small flowers in clusters at the axils 
or nodes of the inflorescence branches ; and characterized 
chiefly by the perianth being of six parts, three outer and 
three inner ; the former remaining unchanged, the latter 



496 POLYGONACE^E 

in fruit enlarged, and one or more often much thickened. 
Stamens 9. Nut three-angled ; embryo to one side, bent, 
with narrow linear or oblong cotyledons. 
Species 100 all over the world. 

Rumex nepalensis Spreng. ; F.B.I. v 60, VII 5. 
Rootstock covered with dead and dried roots, leaf-bases, 
etc. Stem erect 2 to 4 feet repeatedly forked. Leaves 
ovate oblong, acute with abrupt base, finely toothed, 
nearly glabrous : upper leaves sessile, lower stalked, 
Flower-clusters in the axils of leaves which become towards 
the top small bracts. Flower J inch. Fruit -J- inch : 
inner perianth segments fringed with long hooked teeth. 
t* 432. 

Roadsides, etc. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : 
Ootacamund. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate hills of India, Asia Minor, South Africa, Java. 

Rumex acetosella Linn. ; F.B.I, v 61, VII 10 ; Sheep- 
sorrel. Stems erect, branched from the base or simple, 
often reddish, slender. Leaves variable, from ^ to 2 
inches, stalked, oblong-elliptic, acute, with or without a 
pair of narrow divergent lobes near the base of the blade : 
stipules small, silvery. Flower-clusters in slender erect 
interrupted spikes of 2 to 5 inches in length. Male 
flower larger than female. Fruiting sepals erect, closely 
appressed to the small three-gonous nut. 

A weed of cultivation, native of the north temperate regions. 
Pulneys : at Kodaikanal. 

EMEX* 

Differs from Rumex in its unisexual flowers and very 
spiny fruit. 

Species probably one only, in the Mediterranean, South 
Africa and Australia. 



PODOSTEMACEJE 497 

Erncx spinosa Campbell. Stem ribbed. Leaves 
petioled, lanceolate with straight or hastate base, about 
i by J inch. Flowers clustered at the forkings of the 
panicle. Perianth of female flower extended in spines 
which in fruit may be \ inch long. 

Nilgiris : at Coonoor. 

PODOSTEMACE^E. 

Submerged plants of rocky streams, in form like a 
ribbon or sea-weed (" Thallus "), with secondary shoots 
bearing small leaves and flowers, or in dry weather small 
stalked capsules. Flowers with 3 perianth parts and 3 
stamens, or without perianth but with 2 stamens and 
sometimes 2 staminodes also. Ovary superior two to three 
celled, in fruit stalked, with many minute seeds. 
An entirely tropical family. 

Thallus attached at the base and freely floating above with 
one-flowered lateral shoots. Capsules \ inch, erect on 

slender pedicels, long DICR/EA. 

Thallus attached flat to the rock with one-flowered shoots 
bearing a few small leaves IIYDROBRYUM. 

DICR1EA. 

Thallus ribbon-like up to 12 inches. Flowering 
shoots with a few small leaves usually very narrow. 
Flowers stalked in the axil of a minute spathe, irregular : 
an ovary with 2 styles and 2 stamens with 2 staminodes 
in the axil of a small bract. Wt. Ic. 1916, fig. 2, 3, 4 
and 5. 

Dicraea dichotoma ThuL ; F.B.L v 64 (as Podo- 
stemon dichotomus), III 3. Thallus narrow, leaves 
filiform, stalk of dry capsule about f inch. 

Nilgiris : in rocky streams up to 8,000 feet, 
12 



498 PIPERACE^E 

HYDROBRYUM, 

Thallus attached flat to the rock. Flowering shoots 
with several small leaves (moss-like). Flowers from the 
axils of a boat-shaped spathe, with 2 or i stamen. Fruit 
eight to twelve ribbed. 

Hydrobryum olivaceum TuL ; F.B.I. v 66 (as 
Podostemon olivaceus) III 8. A very small plant. 
Pedicels of fruits to J inch. 

Nilgiris : Pykara river. 

PIPERACE^;. 

Herbs or shrubs, sometimes climbing, with entire, 
often gland-dotted leaves and catkin-like spikes of minute, 
often unisexual, flowers which have each a bract but no 
petals or sepals, two to six stamens, and an ovary of one 
cell. Ovules one or more, erect (the micropyle at the 
opposite end to the point of attachment). Seed filled 
mostly with the original tissue of the ovule (perisperm), 
the embryo sac (with its enclosed endosperm) remaining 
small. 

Genera 8, species (?) 1,000, chiefly in America. 
Climbing plants with oval leaves, 2 to 4 inches . . . PIPER. 
Epiphytes with small leaves J to i inch. . . . PEPEROMIA. 

PIPER. F.B.I. 124 II. 

Pepper, etc. 

Thin-stemmed plants climbing up trees to which they 
attach themselves by roots. Leaves alternate, stalked : 
those of the climbing stem often of a different size and 
shape from those of the spreading branches (as happens 
with many other root-climbers, e.g., the Ivy) : nodes 
usually much swollen. Spikes (or catkins) i to 3 inches 
long, opposite the leaves : mostly unisexual and in the wild 



PIPERACE^E 499 

species dioecious. Bract -$ to ^ inch across. Stamens 
two or three. Ovary with three small stigmas but no 
style. 

The genus is supposed to consist of 400 or 500 species but 
there has been much confusion in the identification of many of 
them, for the only certain character, the shape of the bract, is 
always difficult, and, often in dried specimens impossible, to 
determine. The leaves vary considerably in shape and hair- 
iness, according to the position on the plant itself and the amount 
of sunlight they are exposed to. Small and constant variations 
are also to be found, Dr. C. A. Barber informs me, between the 
plants of a species in one shola and those of the same species 
in another : but all of a species in the same shola are usually 
alike. 

Spikes erect P. brachystachyum. 

Spikes pendulous : bracts rounded free at the base .... 

P. Schmidtii. 

Spikes pendulous : bracts oblong, attached at the base . . . 

P. Wightii. 

Piper brachystachyum Wall., Cat. 6656 J.D.H. ms. !; 
F.BJ. v 87, II 24. Peculiar in its very short nearly 
globular female spikes, and slender erect male ones. 

Leaves on the climbing stem broadly ovate, cordate, 
cuspidate, about ij inches wide, and as long or slightly 
longer : stalks as long. Leaves of the free branches 
narrower than long, elliptic, with acute base and bluntly 
acuminate or cuspidate apex ; side veins four. Bracts cir- 
cular, attached by the centre with margin free all round. 
Male spikes i to 2 inches, slender erect very numerous. 
Female spikes j inch, erect, in fruit inch, t, 433, 
Wight Ic. t. 1931 (Clavica sphaerostachya). 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Lovedale, Kotagiri (abundant in 
Longwood shola, flowering chiefly in May and June). Pul- 
neys : near Kodaikanal in sholas below the Church Cliff and 
Pambar House. 

3 2-A 



500 PIPERACE^E 

Piper Schmidtii Hook. /. (ms. at Kew /) ; F.B.L v 
89, II 30. Stems as thick as the finger. Leaves alter- 
nate, each opposed by a spike or the scar of one : stalk 
to f inch, curved always to bring the blade horizontal. 
Blade ovate-elliptic, often lop-sided ; upper side dark 
green and glossy ; lower very pale to white ; quite firm or 
coriaceous. Main veins usually 5 with prominent reti- 
culation between. Male spikes i to 3 inches, with stalk 
of i to f inch, pendent : bracts circular with free margin : 
stamens usually two, with thick filaments and anthers 
opening by vertical cross slits. Female spikes 2 to 3 
inches ; in fruit longer, curved more or less and even 
spirally twisted : bracts square or roundish with rais d 
margin, free all round. Berries red or yellow, t, 434* 

Niigiris : near Ootacamund. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal 
the common Pepper of these levels. 

Piper Wightii Miq. ; F.B.L v 94, III 43. Differs 
from P. Schmidtii in the bracts being oblong, slightly 
narrowed to the base and decurrent on the stalk of the 
spike, and more separate, not overlapping. The leaves 
do not show such prominent reticulation when dry. 

Pulneys : Shembaganur woods, etc,, below Kodaikanal. 
Niigiris : 6,000 feet. 

PEPEROMIA* F.B.I. 124 in. 

Pepper-elder. 

Succulent herbs with alternate opposite or whorled 
entire exstipulate gland-dotted leaves, and terminal or 
leaf-opposed spikes of small flowers imbedded in them. 
Stamens two with confluent anther-cells. Ovary with no 
style, but a sessile fringed stigma and containing a single 



LAURACE^E 50! 

erect ovule. Distinguished from Piper by the minute, 
not fleshy fruit, the anthers and the distinct stigmas. 
Species 400, in hot climates of both Old and New World. 

Leaves in fours, \ to f inch succulent .... P. reflexa. 

Leaves opposite, fleshy P. Wigtiana. 

Leaves opposite, thin ; spikes long. ... P. dindigulensis. 

Peperomia reflexa A. Dietr. ; F.B.L v 99, III 10. 
A small glossy herb common on the branches of trees. 
Stem weak, rooting at the nodes. Leaves in fours, 
to 1 inch, ovate, succulent. Spikes terminal, erect, i to 
i inch, t, 435* Wight Ic. t. 1933. 

On trees whenever damp, very common. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas, Khasia, South Indian hills, Burma, China, 
Australia, Africa, America. 

In t. 435, a part of spike showing flowers sunk in the hollows ; b male 
flower ; c female flower ; d fruit. 

Peperomia Wightiana Miq. ; F.B.L v 98, III 5. 

Stem slender, glabrous. Leaves alternate, elliptic-ovate 
sub-acute five-nerved. Flower spikes slender as long as 
the leaves, longer in fruit, up to 3 inches erect. 

Pulneys : Glen Falls, Kodaikanal, 7,000 feet. Kotagiri. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan to Ceylon. 

Peperomia dindigulensis Miq. ; F.B.L v 98, III 6. 
Stems hairy. Leaves opposite, or some alternate, ij to 
2 inches by inch elliptic rather wedge-shaped at each 
end. Spikes 3 to 6 inches slender, t, 436* 

Shevaroys : Green Hills on trees over streams. 

LAURACE^:. 

Aromatic shrubs or trees with nearly always alternate 
and evergreen, scented, exstipulate, simple leaves. Flowers 
small variously arranged in axillary cymes panicles, or 



502 LAURACEJE 

racemes, or often in clusters surrounded and enclosed in 
bud by concave bracts. Perianth a tube with usually six 
lobes, not obviously separable into sepals and petals. 
Stamens typically twelve, in four whorls of three each, 
but the innermost whorl sometimes reduced to staminodes ; 
some or all of the filaments with a pair of large yellow 
excrescences (glands) near the base : anthers oblong, 
opening not by slits or pores but by lateral holes closed 
by flaps (" trap-doors ") opening upwards. Ovary supe- 
rior in the base of the perianth tube, with one anatropous 
ovule suspended from the top, its micropyle upwards. 
Fruit fleshy or dry, seated often in the cup-like enlarged 
perianth. Embryo with plano-convex fleshy cotyledons 
and minute radicle. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

r Flowers in open panicles b 

"^Flowers in clusters enclosed in bracts d 

f Leaves 3-ribbed from the base . . . CINNAMOMUM. 

(^Leaves pcnni-veined .... c 

C Fruiting perianth lobes reiiexetl. Leaves 8 inches 
C \ MACHILUS. 

Fruiting perianth lobes erect. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long. 
I PHCEBE. 

r Leaves 3 -veined NEOLITS/EA. 

d < Leaves penni-nerved alternate LITS^A. 

L Leaves in whorls of 4 ACTINODAPHNE. 

CINNAMOMUM. F.B.I. 128 vn. 

Cinnamon. 

Trees and shrubs with aromatic bark and firm, oppo- 
site or alternate, three-nerved leaves. Flowers in axillary 
or subterminal panicles with short perianth tube and 
six equal lobes, nine perfect stamens, those of the two 
outer whorls without glands and with anthers opening 



LAUKACEA: 503 

inwards, those of the third whorl with a large yellow gland 
on each side and extrorse anthers ; and inside these again 
a fourth whorl of capitate or shortly sagittate staminodes. 
Ovary sessile, narrowed upwards to the style. Stigma 
discoid. Berry seated on the enlarged perianth tube. 

Species about 54, in tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Japan, 
tropical Australia. 

Cinnamon is now obtained from the bark of C. zeylanica Nees, a native 
of Ceylon. Camphor is obtained from C. camphora, mainly in Formosa. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves glabrous, broadly ovate, about 3 inches . C. Wightii. 
Leaves glabrous, elliptic 7 to 9 inches . . C. macrocarpum. 
Leaves hairy, at least below C. Perottetii. 

Cinnamomum Wightii Meissn. ; F.B.I, v 132, VII 
15. In the shola, a large tree, with trunk up to z\ feet 
thick, at 4 feet from the ground. Foliage light green, 
shiny. Branchlets green, four-angled and grooved, nearly 
glabrous ; recognizable from above by its shining leaves. 
Leaves opposite or alternate, strongly three-nerved, very 
fragrant when crushed : stalk ^ inch : blade broadly elliptic, 
ovate or obovate, up to 4 by 3 inches, quite glabrous, 
glacous below. Flowers in open panicles in the upper 
axils. Peduncle of panicle ij inches. Pedicel about 
& inch, thickening gradually to the \ inch bud, which 
is thus club-shaped. Sepals three, and petals three, 
exactly alike, -J- inch, covered outside and in with a fine 
close silky pubescence. Outer sepal-stamens with thick 
anther, opening inwards by four small valves ; facing 
these a set with anthers opening outwards, and at the base 
of the short filament a pair of round yellow bodies. Petal- 
stamens like the outer sepal-stamens ; facing them a set 
of yellow, sagittate staminodes : all more or less pubescent. 



LAURACK& 

Ovary half sunk in the depressed centre, three-angled. 
Fruit globose on the thickened and enlarged perianth. 
t, 437. 

Nilgiris : in sholas common. In Ootacamund, directly 
opposite Rosemount. Flower in the early part of the year, 
fruit December. Pulneys : not seen near Kodaikanal but at 
lower levels. 

In place of the fruit there is often a soft body like a small, brown rough- 
skinned apple, i to i J inches by | inch, flattened on top, on a broadened 
stalk with a black central mark, J inch across, and stylar scar of iV inch ; 
this is a gall. 

Cinnamomum macrocarpum Hook. ; F.B.I, v 133 ; 
VII 1 8. Differs from the above by the longer leaves, 
shorter panicles and large fruit. 

Nilgiris : Sispara, at 6,000 feet. (P.M. P.). F.B.I. ' Canara.' 

Cinnamomum Pcrottctii Meissn. ; F.B.I. v i34> 

VII 21. A shrub or small tree, with alternate leaves 
densely brown tomentose below. Fruit .1 inch. 

Nilgiris : sholas near Bangitappal, etc., above 6,000 feet. 

MACHILUS* F.B.I. 128 vin. 

Evergreen' trees with alternate feather-veined leaves 
and bi-sexual flowers in axillary panicles. Perianth 
segments six. Three whorls of stamens perfect, 9 in all ; 
outer and next whorl without glands and anthers opening 
inwards ; third whorl with a pair of glands each and 
anthers opening outwards ; staminodes (of fourth whorl) 
cordate. Perianth segments in fruit deflexed (difference 
from next genus). 

Species about 15. 

Machilus macrantha Nees. ; F.B.I, v 140, XIII 13. 
A large tree, branches brown when dry. Leaves variable, 
3 to 9 by i i by 2 to 3 1 inches, oblong rounded, or elliptic- 
acute at both ends, glaucous underneath ; veins about 12 



LAURACE^E 505 

pairs raised on both sides ; long-petioled. Panicles sub- 
terminal grouped in an open corymb. Pedicels J inch. 
Flower J inch, anthers pubescent. Fruit black \ to inch 
diameter, black. Wight Ic. t. 1824, 1825. 

Nilgiris : on the slopes below Coonoor. Pulneys to 
7,000 feet. 

Gen. Dist. From the Northern Circars and Vizagapatam to Travan- 
core. 

ACTINODAPHNE, F.B.I. 128 xi. 

Evergreen shrubs and trees with whorled leaves and 
small flowers in axillary or lateral, dense, bracteate umbels 
or clusters. Perianth tube short, segments six. Stamens 
nine ; outer six without glands, inner three with glands : 
all anthers facing outwards. Fruit seated on the much 
enlarged perianth. 

Species 50 in eastern Asia and Malaya. 

Actinodaphne Bourneae Gamble. ; Kew Bull, 1925, 
p. 128. A small tree ; lateral branches often slender, 
erect ; all parts tomentose. Leaves in whorls of four or 
five, densely tomentose on the underside, elliptic lanceolate, 
penni-nerved. Male flowers clustered ; female umbelled 
or subracemose on a short stout peduncle. Fruit ellipsoid 
seated on the much thickened subcampanulate entire 
perianth tube. 

Pulneys : in sholas near Kodaikanal. 

Actinodaphne salicina Meissn. ; F.B.L v 148, 
X 5. Branchlets densely rusty-tomentose. Leaves 
narrow, 4 to 6 by i to inches. 

Nilgiris : about Sispara. 

LITS1EA. F.B.I. 128 xir. 

Trees with alternate leaves and small unisexual flowers 

clustered in a globose involucre of four or five bracts, 



506 LAUftACE/E 

which at length opens. Perianth tubular with usually 
six lobes. Stamens of male flowers nine or twelve, those 
of the two inner whorls with glands on the filaments. 
Fruit a berry seated on, and more or less sunk in, the 
enlarged perianth (like an acorn in its cup). 

Species about 100, in tropical and sub-tropical Asia and 
Australia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

C Clusters of flowers solitary or fascicled ; berry globose . b 

\Clusters racemed : berry ovoid c 

C Leaves pubescent below, with 10 to 15 pairs of veins : 

b < berry 1 inch L. deccanensis. 

I Leaves glabrous, with 6 to 8 pairs of veins : berry ] inch. 
L L. ligustrina. 

f Leaves glabrous, up to 8 inches much longer than broad . . 

c < L. Stocksii. 

I Leaves tomentose on nerve beneath, up to 4 inches 
L by 2 inches. L. Wightiana. 

Litsaea deccanensis* Gamble. ; F.B.L v. 157 as 
L. tomentosa Heyne, XII 5. Clusters solitary i inch across, 
the bracts young parts and underside of leaves yellowish- 
tomentose. Leaves glossy above, obovate or oval : veins 
about 9 pairs. Fruit \ inch, globose, black. 

Shevaroys : lower slopes of Pulneys, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Hills of South India 2,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Litsaea ligustrina Nees. ; F.B.L v 158, XII 7. A 
small tree, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 3 to 4 inches 
elliptic with very fine reticulations between the pinnate 
nerves glabrous. Umbels solitary axillary or lateral on 
peduncles of \ to f inch. Bract glabrous or pubescent. 
Flowers usually 5 ; perianth and filament hairy. Berry 
globose, 1 inch, t, 438. Wight Ic. t. 1835. 



LAURACEJE 507 

On both plateaus Nilgiris : Coonoor, Wellington Road, 
Pulneys : Kodaikanal 7,500 feet, and below to Neutral Saddle, 
5,500 feet. Flower summer months. 

Gen. Dist. On Ghauts from Nilgiris southwards. 

Litsaea Stocksii Hook. f. ; F.B.I, v 176, XII 56. 
Tree. Branchlets pubescent. Leaf-stalks f inch and 
veins underneath pubescent otherwise leaf quite glabrous ; 
blade up to 5 to 8 inches with about 8 pairs of veins. 
Racemes axillary, 2 to 4 inches. Buds and peduncles 
inch, brown-tomentose. Pedicels ^ inch with erect 
silvery hairs. Berry inch ellipsoid. 

Nilgiris : on Eastern plateau. Biccapatti, etc., 6,000 feet. 
Pulneys ; below Kodaikanal. Also Anamalai and Travancore 
hills. 

var. Glabresens Hook. f. leaves white beneath. 
Nilgiris on \\estern side, Naduvattam, Sispara, Bangitappal valley. 

Litsaea Wightiana Wall., Cat. 2557 /; F.B.I. 
V. 177, XII 59. A fair-sized tree. Leaves alternate varying 
from 2 or 3 inches, usually obovate obtuse, and narrowed to 
the stalk, to 3.3 by 2 inches, very firm and coriaceous, 
glossy on the upper surface where the nerves are impressed, 
pubescent and tomentose and, with prominently raised 
nerves on the under, margin entire, revolute : stalk 1 inch. 
Raceme of flower-heads 2 inches, rusty-tomentose. Heads 
peduncled \ to inch, spherical in bud : bracts four, 
very concave and firm. Perianth tube -J inch, narrow egg- 
shaped : lobes six, silky tomentose. Stamens about 
twelve, the six outer longer and without glands. Female 
flowers with similar staminodes. Stigma large and 
bushy. Fruit oblong, pointed at each end, seated like an 
acorn on the enlarged perianth, t, 439* 

In sholas, common on both plateaus. 

Gen. Dist. South India. 



508 

Considerable variation occurs in the size and shape of the leaves. 

var. Tomentosa Meissn. Leaves narrow oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, and with more veins, a larger berry and deeper cup. 
* 439- 

Pulneys : below and about Kodaikanal. 

NEOLITS/EA. 128 xn.* 

Similar to LITS/EA but differing from that genus 
as now defined by the leaves being three-nerved at the 
base, the perianth segments four and stamens six. Fruit 
seated on the flat or slightly saucer-shaped perianth. 

Neolitsaea zeylanica Merrill; F.BJ. v 178 as 
LITS^EA, XII 63 ; Tallow tree. A small tree, glabrous. 
Leaves elliptic or elliptic- lanceolate, acute at both ends, 
prominently three-nerved at the base, but with fainter 
nerves beyond the middle : lower surface impressed 
with very fine white reticulation or rounded pits. Buds 
enclosed in scaly bracts, young leaves silky. Flower- 
clusters, in bud J inch, in dense masses at the leaf- 
axils. Perianth tube J inch, broadening to the lobes, 
silky. Fruit globose, J to \ inch, seated on a shallow 
cup inch across, t, 440* 

Niligiris : on Elk hill near Ootacamund very abundant. 
Kotagiri, Coonoor and in sholas on the downs. Flowering 
December. Pulneys common in sholas. 

Gen. Dist. Western end of the Himalayas, South India from sea level 
at Quilon to 7,000 feet, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Ceylon. 
A form on the Pulneys has oblong fruits. Bourne 399. 

PHOEBE. 

Trees with alternate penni-nerved leaves and small 
flowers in axillary panicles near the ends of the branchlets. 
Sepals and petals 3 each, indistinguishable. Stamens in 
four circles, the innermost heart-shaped staminodes ; 



THYMELEACEJE 509 

the next with large yellow glands on either side, and 
anthers opening outwards, the two outer circles normal 
with anthers opening inwards. Fruit a hard berry seated 
like an acorn on the enlarged often warty peduncle with 
one seed inside. 

Species 30 ; India and Malaya. 

Phoebe Wightii Meissn. ; F.B.L v 142 as part of 
P. paniculata, I 5. Young parts rusty-tomentose. 
Leaves 4 to 6 inches by ii to 2?> inches, shortly acuminate 
and cuneate. Lateral veins conspicuous, also the nume- 
rous almost parallel veinlets. Peduncles of the small 
groups of flowers : to ii inches long, from the upper 
axils or lateral near the ends of the branchlets. Flowers 
I to 4 inch as above. Berry ovoid I inch. 

In Sholas at about 6,000 feet, especially on the eastern end 
of the Nilgiri plateau, Biccapatti, Kodanad ; on the Pulneys 
below Kodaikanal (Shembaganur valley). 

Gen. Dist. Hills of South India generally above 5,000 feet. 

P.M. P. has two other species from these hills at 5,000 feet. 

P, lanceolata Nee s ; branchlets, leaves and inflorescence 
glabrous, peduncles elongating in fruit ; leaves lanceolate 
acuminate. 

P paniculata Nees ; branchlets, leaves beneath and inflor- 
escence minutely grey ; puberous ; peduncles very slender, 
3 to 4 inches : leaves oblanceolate long acuminate. Branchlets 
nearly black. 

T H Y M E L E A C E ^ . 

EU THYMELEJE. Tribe. 

Daphne, Spurge-laurel 

Shrubs or trees with simple entire leaves and clus- 
ters, spikes or racemes of flowers, with simple tubular 
perianth having four or five lobes, and sometimes near the 



510 THYMELEACE^E 

mouth also scales, two or ten stamens attached at varying 
heights inside the tube, a superior one-celled ovary and 
indehiscent fruit. 

Genera about 40. Species 360 in temperate and tropical 
climates. 



LASIOSIPHON, F.B.I. 130 vii. 

Shrubs with slender twigs, opposite or alternate leaves 
and dense terminal heads or clusters of silky- woolly 
flowers, whence the name (lasios soft, siphon tube). 

Species 26, in South Africa, tropical Africa, Madagascar 
and tropical Asia. 

Lasiosiphon criocephalus Decaisne ; F.B.L v 197, 
VII i. Leaves i to 3 by j to 2 inch, elliptic or oblan- 
ceolate acute, nearly sessile, entire, glabrous : midrib 
prominent ; veins very slender, numerous and much 
reticulated. Heads of flowers terminal, nearly globular 
ij inches. All parts hairy. Tube of flower I to | 
inch, yellow, bent ; lobes % by ./, inch, spreading, 
woolly outside, light brown and nearly glabrous within : 
scales between the lobes five, much smaller. Anthers 
T *2 inch, opening inwards. Ovary slender, thickened at 
the middle, t, 441. Wight Ic. tt. 1859-60. 

In sholas : Nilgiris on the borders of our area, e.g., below 
Pykara at 6,800 feet, Naduvattam, Coonoor, etc. ; flowering early 
May, but not near Ootacamund. Pulneys : Poombari, but not 
at highest levels. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 

var. Sisparensis. Leaves broader, obovate heads with 
brown hairs Sispara ; also Palghaut Hills and Mysore 
[F.M.P.]. 



EUEAGNACE/E 511 

E L IE A G N A C E IE . 

A small family of about 1 5 species nearly all belonging 
to one genus. 

EIJEAGNUS. F.B.I. 131 i. 

Trees or shrubs, often straggling, peculiar in being 
covered all over the twigs and backs of the leaves with 
numerous flat silvery or brownish shiny scales, attached 
by their centres. Leaves quite entire, alternate or 
opposite. Flowers shortly stalked, solitary or in clusters 
at the leaf-axils, without bracts. Perianth single enclos- 
ing the ovary and prolonged above it in a short tube 
ending in four small deciduous lobes. Stamens four. 
Ovary one-celled, with one basal erect ovule ; style 
shorter than the perianth tube so that the stigma is 
enclosed in it. Fruit indehiscent. 

Species about 12, in south Europe, temperate and tropical 
Asia, Australia, North America. 

Elaeagnus Kologa Schlecht. ; formerly E. latifolia 
Linn. ; F.B.I. v 202, I 4. Very variable in habit, 
from an undershrub of 2 or 3 feet to a straggler climb- 
ing up and over tall trees to 60 feet, often with 
spiny branchlets at right angles to the main branches. 
Leaves often directed backwards along the branch, 
ovate-oblong, elliptic or roundish, firm, conspicuously 
white and shiny on the lower side. Flowers subsessile 
in clusters of four or five at the leaf-axils. Perianth 
tube J inch : lobes ^ - inch, hairy inside. Anthers 
sessile at the throat. Style half the tube. Fruit linear 
oblong, | to 1 1 inches, with eight ribs, red, fleshy with 
a pleasantly acid taste. t 442* 

Very common in all the sholas of both plateaus ; flowering 
winter months. 



512 LORANTHACEJE 

Gen. Dist. Mountains of India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Islands, China 
In t. 442, a flower split and opened flat to show anthers ; b immature 
fruit with flower still attached. 



LORANTHACE^;. 

Parasitic evergreen shrubs of 13 genera and 520 
species, LORANTHUS and VISCUM being the most important. 

The seed is without proper seed-coat and is surrounded 
by sticky white-milky substance which compels a bird to 
clean its beak on the branch of a tree and sticks the seed 
to it. The young plant sends a sucker through the bark into 
the inner living part of its host. The leaves are usually of a 
much less clear green than on ordinary plants. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

{Flowers showy b 
Flowers small, greenish c 

rA bract but no bracteoles below the calyx . LORANTHUS. 
b< Two minute bracteoles as well as a bract on the calyx 

t , ELYTRANTHE. 

{Leafy plants VISCUM. 
Leafless plants with jointed stems . . KORTHOSELLA. 

LORANTHUS. F.B.I. 132 i. 

Evergreen woody plants, parasitic on the branches of 
trees, with entire, opposite or alternate, thick, yellowish 
or brownish green leaves. Flowers in cymes or racemes, 
with small concave or obliquely cup-shaped bract at the 
base of the calyx, but no bracteoles. Sepals as small 
teeth or absent : ovary inferior. Petals four to six, united 
or free, and forming a short or long tube, the free parts 
(corolla lobes) bent horizontally outwards or recurved. 
Stamens attached to the base of the lobes, filaments 
slender ; anthers slender or short. Ovary before fertili- 
zation solid, or with a slightly looser tissue in the centre, 
but with no clearly marked ovule : style single and stigma 



LORANTHACE/E 513 

undivided. Fruit an egg-shaped berry or drupe crowned 
by the calyx teeth with very sticky pulp, and a single 
seed rather to one side, without seed-coat but with a 
quantity of endosperm and straight embryo, the radicle 
pointing upwards. 

Species above 300, of various habit, in Africa, Asia and 
Australia, nearly all in tropical regions only. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

"Corolla monopetalous, the lobes recurved but tube 

entire : anthers slender c 

Corolla lobes 4, spreading out flat, but free to the base 
though forming a tube in the lower part, leaves oppo- 
site ; flowers in racemes : anthers short . . b 
{Young parts and flowers glabrous, flower pink. . . . 
i* L. intermedius. 
Young parts rusty tomentose ; flowers red and yellow 
2. L. obtusatus. 

r Flowers in racemes, scarlet, orange or pink. 
c J 6. L. longiflorus. 

L Flowers in fascicles or solitary in the leaf-axils . . . d 

r Leaves alternate, cuneate at base. Corolla yellowish 
d\ opening by a slit nearly to the base e 

[.Leaves opposite g 

{Flower rusty-tomentose, inflated below the middle: 
anthers long / 
Flower glabrous slender, reddish : leaves i inch or less. 
5. L. cuneatus. 

("Leaves 3 absurdly veined : calyx tube long. 
f J 4. L. recurvus. 

| Leaves pinnately round ; calyx and teeth short. 
L 3. L. tomentosus. 

{Corolla inflated slightly at the base; opening first a little 
below the tip, lobes curling back . 7. L. neelgherrensis. 
Corolla slender throughout, red at base and tip, green or 
yellow in middle, opening from the tip, but one slit 
extending far down . . . . 8. L. memecylifolius, 

33 



514 LORANTHACE/E 

1. Loranthus intermedius Wight; F.B.I, v 205, 
I 5, characterized by its opposite leaves and dense spikes 
of slender erect flowers. Young parts and bracts and 
flowers rusty, tomentose. Leaves 3 to 4 by 2 to 3 inches, 
ovate obtuse, very firm, quite glabrous ; obscure nerves : 
stalks 7*> to f inch. Spikes on the lower and now leafless 
parts of the branches in the axils of the fallen leaves, 2 
to 4 inches. Pedicel -J- inch frequently deflexed : bract 
^V inch : bracteoles absent. Ovaty -^ inch. Corolla f 
inch, in bud club-shaped, splitting eventually to the 
base into four petals, the lower parts remaining together 
as a tube, the upper spreading out flat, pink ; always 
standing erect even when the racemes hangs down. 
Fruit ^ inch. 

Nilgiris : at the lower limits of our area. Kotagiri, Nadu- 
vattam, Kodanad, Pulneys ; in sholas on the downs. 
Gen. Dist. Deccan hills. 

2. Loranthus obtusatus Wall. ; F.B.I, v 205, I 6. 
Very similar to the last species but young parts and 
inflorescence tomentose leaves and flowers larger. Tube 
of corolla scarlet, bulged slightly in the middle before 
opening, lobes yellow inside and out. Midrib of leaves 
and axis of racemes red. Racemes more or less erect, 
and flowers often open downwards, t, 443* 

Nilgiris : on the western plateau especially on the Kon- 
das, etc. Bangitappal on Rhododendron. 

3. Loranthus tomentosus Heyne. ; F.B.I, v 221, 
I 27. Distinguished by its short very tomentose brown 
flowers, in bunches at the leaf-axils ; and conspicuous 
bract. Leaves alternate obtuse with about three pairs of 
veins, the lower side rusty tomentose as also on all green 
parts. Flowers in axillary sessile short stalked fascicles, 
densely villous. Corolla tube curved, not inflated, split 



LORANTHACEJE 515 

to the middle, lobes recurved. Filaments short, anthers 
oblong. Fruit lanceolate | inch, on an oblique 
receptacle, t* 444* 

Nilgirs : Coonoor and on the eastern plateau at Kodanad, 
Biccapatti, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Wynaad, Coorg and Western Ghauts. 

4. Loranthus recurvus Wall. ; F.B.I. v 213, I 30. 
Somewhat similar to the last species but leaves three- 
veined, flowers larger and calyx long. Young parts 
with grey or buff pubescence. Leaves all alternate, 
obovate cuneate, drying dark green ; glabrous above, 
buff-coloured below ; three-nerved at the base. Flowers 
in numerous axillary tomentose fascicles. Calyx up to 
J- inch longer than the bract, irregularly lobed. Corolla 
inflated curved, yellow ; tube splitting on the dorsal side 
almost to the base, and spreading wide at the mouth; 
lobes 5 strongly rcflexed. Stamens crimson with linear 
anthers bent at right angles to the open corolla : style 
greenish with pink stigma. Fruit i inch flask-shaped. 
t* 445* Wt. Ic. t. 305. 

The flowers open almost exactly as in L. cuneatus. 

5. Loranthus cuneatus Heyne ; F.B.I. v 214. I 31. 
Distinguished by its alternate, small, wedge-shaped, erect, 
often clustered leaves and its slender, curved, yellowish 
green flowers. Branchlets slender. Leaves | to ij 
inches, obovate cuneate, very obtuse, alternate, but fre- 
quently in bunches of three or four by development of 
those of the axillary buds, glabrous, one-nerved, always 
erect. Flowers two or three together, in bunches at the 
leaf-axils, on stalks of inch : bract small : no bracteoles. 
Calyx-tube or ovary, ^ inch. Corolla i inch slender, 
reddish, yellow ; tube splitting to the base and opening 
out flat, the lobes J to i inch, slender, reflexed, the lateral 

33-A 



516 LORANTHACE/E 

curving back and forward again. Stamens erect, red, 
continued down the corolla in purple stripes. Anthers 
linear as long as the lobes, erect. Fruit J inch 
surmounted by small calyx-teeth, t* 446* 

Nilgiris : abundant near Coonoor, Kotagiri and Kodanad 
and the eastern plateau generally on Dodonoea viscosa ; near 
Ootacamund. Pulneys : not collected from the downs but at 
lower levels. 

The flowers are visited by a small bird, the " Flower- 
sucker.'* 

6. Loranthus longiflorus Desr. ; F.B.I, v 214, I 35, 
var* amplexifolia. Distinguished by its sessile almost 
amplexicaul opposite leaves, whitish bark, and racemes 
of long red flowers with green lobes. 

Leaves broadly ovate, cordate at the base, quite glabrous, 
with 2 or 3 pairs of slender veins starting near the base : 
midrib and veins sometimes crimson especially near the 
base. Racemes i to 4 inches axillary or terminal ; scars 
of fallen flowers round. Pedicel \ inch. Calyx teeth 
absent. Corolla tube i inch or more up-curved crimson, 
slightly broader upwards, to the five green lobes which 
bend right back on the tube. Anthers orange, style green. 
Fruit pink, t, 447* 

Nilgiris : on the Eastern plateau at Kodanad on I lex 
Wightiana. 

Gen, Dist. The species which varies very much in leaf occurs from 
the plains to about 6,000 feet. 

7. Loranthus ncelghcrrcnsis Wight and Arnott ; 
Herb. Wight 26 ; F.B.I, v 216, I 40 ; Scarlet L. Easily 
recognized here by the dense bunches of slender crimson- 
scarlet flowers. Stem as thick as the finger : bark 
brown with wide-gaping cracks (extra-large lenticels) : 
nodes swollen : youngest branches round, red. Leaves 
alternate, sub-opposite, or in threes, lanceolate to ovate 



LORANTHACE^E 517 

entire, quite glabrous, leathery and tough : midrib 
slightly raised on both sides : nerves obscure. Flowers 
jn crimson scarlet umbels or short corymbose spikes 
on short peduncles of J inch, bunched in the axils of, 
mostly, fallen leaves. Pedicel r V inch : bract ^ inch : 
ovary \\j inch, top-shaped, contracted below the very 
short entire calyx limb. Corolla i inch, scarlet ; tube 
J inch, inflated at or below the middle ; segments five, 
twice as long, separating first close above the tube, 
later curling back and turning an orange colour inside. 
Style light green with conspicuous red capitate stigmas. 
t. 448. Wight Ic. t. 1020, Sp. Nilg. t. 88. 

In the figure : a withered corolla slipped off and still held 
by the style ; b a full-grown bud ; c opening bud ; d fully 
opened flower ; e bunch of fruits. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund to Naduvattam, flowering March. 

Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. 

8. Loranthus memecylifolius Wight and Arnott ; 
Herb. Wight 23 / ; F.B.L v 217, I 41. Branchlets stout. 
Leaves alternate, thick and firm, oblong or elliptic, obtuse, 
narrowed to the very short stalk. Flowers three or more, 
on peduncles of -J- inch, which are again in clusters of 
one to four at a node. Bract small : bracteoles absent. 
Corolla i to ii inches, scarlet and yellowish ; lobes 
slender. Anthers linear, longer than the filaments. 
t. 449. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund and westwards to Bangitappal 
on Rhododendron, and Daphiniphyllum. Pulneys : Bear- 
shola, Kodaikanal ; but mostly below our level, at 5,500 feet. 

Apparently on these hills only. 

The corolla opens at about the middle, the lobes splitting 
apart later, and the flower turns so as to lie more or less hori- 
zontal with the upper part spread out flat and facing upwards. 
It soon drops off, the anthers rubbing past the stigma as it 
does so. 



5*8 LORANTHACE/E 

ELYTRANTHE, 

Parasitic shrubs similar to LORANTHUS, but with two 
bracteoles to the flower, separate, or combined with the 
bract into a cup. (Formerly included in Loranthus.) 

Elytranthe loniceroides Engler y formerly Loranthus 
Ion. Linn.; F.B.I, v 221, I 54. Distinguished among 
our species by the large flowers with three equal bracts, 
rich red reflexed petals, and long exserted stamens. 
Branches stout with wrinkled corky bark. Leaves 
opposite. Stalk \ inch. Blade ovate or elliptic-oblong, 
usually obtuse. Flowers in cymose groups, on stout 
peduncles of j inch. Corolla i to 2 inches, narrow 
funnel-shaped, curved, red with blue tip : Segments 
J> inch, reflexed, brilliantly red. Anthers slender, t. 450. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, Governor's shola, etc. Flowers 
September December. Pulneys : at lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. Previously recorded as reaching 
6,000 feet only. 

Elytranthe capitellata Engler formerly Loranthus 
cap. W. & A. ; F.B.L v 221, I 55. Very similar to 
L. loniceroides. Leaves all opposite, oblong^ovate. Flowers 
in shortly stalked axillary fascicles. Two bracteoles as 
well as a bract clasping the base of the calyx. Corolla 
I to f inch inflated upwards. Fruit globose ; surmounted 
by the calyx, t, 45 1. 

KORTHOSELLA 

(Formerly included in VTSCUM), 
Leafless parasitic plants, with jointed stems, the joints 
flattened in one plane. Flowers minute unisexual, mixed 
with hairs at the joints ; the parts in threes. Anthers 



LORANTHACE^E 519 

united by their margins, and pollen issuing from a 
central aperture. 

Formerly included in Viscum. 

Korthasella japonica Engler. F.B.I. v 226 (Viscum 
j.). Leafless parasites, with flat jointed branches, the 
segments obovate, flattened in one plane. Flowers small, 
sessile, in a fold (or bract) round the axis at each joint, 
and mixed up with short hairs. Perianth single, of 3 
triangular lobes. In the male flowers anthers 3, attached 
by the margin to the perianth, and opening by a central 
aperture. In the female flower the style and stigma short 
and small ; ovary inferior egg-shaped, smooth, t* 452* 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : fairly common on Rhododendron 
also on other trees. 

The flat jointed branches, and numerous yellow egg-shaped (obovoid) 
young fruits at each joint are very characteristic. 

Gen. Dist. Higher mountains of India, Ceylon and Malaya, Mauritius, 
China, Japan, Australia. 

VISCUM. F.B.I. 132 ii. 

Parasites like LORANTHUS on the trunks and branches 
of trees, but with forked branches, opposite leaves and 
very small unisexual flowers usually in very shortly stalked 
cymes of three, fascicled at the leaf-axils. Perianth 
single, short of three or four lobes. In the male flowers 
anthers adnate to the yellowish perianth lobes and opening, 
not by slits, but by numerous holes. In the female 
flowers the ovary inferior, style short thick with simple 
stigma. Fruit a berry crowned by the calyx teeth, 
with very sticky flesh. 

Species 60, in Europe, tropical and sub-tropical Africa and 
Asia ; some very widely distributed, the common Mistletoe 
of England, V. album, extending from England across Europe 
and Asia to Japan. 



520 tORANTHACE/E 

f Leaves acuminate, obliquely ovate or lanceolate. 

a-t V. monoicum. 

L Leaves obtuse at apex / 

f Branches angular : ovary smooth . . V. orbiculatum. 

i I Branches round : ovary warted ... V. verruculosum. 
| Upper leaves absent, lower only if any present ; berry 
L very small-globose V. ramosissimum. 

Viscum monoicum Roxb. ; F.B.I, v 224, II 2. 
Leaves obliquely ovate or lanceolate, ij to 2 inches by 
^ to 1 1 inches, flowers in threes the outer female. 

Shevaroys : on the plateau, flower December. 

Gen. Dist. Sikkim Himalayas to Tinncvelly. 

Viscum orbiculatum Wt. ; F.B.I, v 224, II 5. 
Branches four-angled, green often bifurcating. Leaves 
all opposite, broadly elliptic or rounded, i inch or less, 
entire, slightly three or five-nerved at the base, waved. 
Flowers in sessile axillary clusters of 3 to 5. Fruit | inch, 
obovate. Wight. Ic. t. 1016. Sp. Nilg. t. 86. 

Nilgiris : on Vaccinum Leschenauttii (Wight). Rare. 

Viscum verruculosum W. & A. ; F.B.L v 224 

II 3. Branchlets of upper internodes grooved, flower 
nearly or quite round, green. Leaves ovate or lanceolate 
hardly acute ; waved or crisped at the margin. Flowers 
yellowish in small cymes of three, in a broad bract, 
usually, but not always, all three of one sex. Ovary 
covered with small warts, lengthening to nearly \ inch. 
t. 453. 

Nilgiris : on the Eastern plateau near Kodanad on Cinna- 
momum Wightii ; Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. From the Deccan to Tinnevelly and Travancore. Habit 
much that of the English mistletoe but leaves broader, berries not white. 

Viscum ramosissimum Wall. ; F.B.I, v 225. II 8. 
Branches many, slender, round. Lower leaves when 



SANTALACE/E 521 

present, i inch three-ribbed. Outer flowers of cymes 
usually male. Berry very small, sub-globose may be 
found at lower levels. It occurs also in Tinnevelly. 



SANTALACE^:. 

Sandalwood, etc. 

Trees, shrubs or lowly herbs, some parasitic on the 
roots of other plants, with entire leaves and small greenish 
inconspicuous flowers, with a bract and two bracteoles. 
Perianth single of three to six parts. Stamens as many. 
Ovary inferior, of one cell with two or three ovules 
attached to a central column. 

Species about 200 in tropical and temperate regions, 
dispersed widely all over the world. 

The Sandahvood, Santalum album is, economically, the most valuable 
species. Several of the smaller plants, e.g., species of Thesium, are 
parasitic on cereal plants, etc., and do some damage. 

Small plant 3 to 6 inches, with linear leaves . . THESIUM. 
Bush with broad leaves OSYRIS. 

THESIUM. F.B.I. 133 i. 

Slender perennial herbs, parasitic on the roots of 
other plants. Leaves alternate, narrow. Flowers small, 
greenish. Ovary inferior : perianth continued above it ; 
lobes five, hairy. Stamens five. Ovules two or three. 
Fruit a small indehiscent nut, with one seed. 

Species about 100, in temperate and tropical regions of the 
Old World. England has i species, the Bastard Toadflax, 
Ger. Vermein kraut. 

Thesium Wightianum Wall., Cat. 4037 / ; F.B.L v 
230, I 2. A small herb with slender short or straggling 
branches springing from a woody rootstock and linear 
yellowish green leaves, | by T V inch, often curved inwards. 



522 BALANOPHORACfc/E 

Flowers axillary or terminal, white. Fruit spherical, 
T V inch, crowned by the perianth. Wight Ic. t. 1852, ex. 
anthers, t* 454* 

On the open downs in grass, common. 

Gen. Dist. Nilgiri and Pulney, and Western Ghauts above 6,000 feet. 

OSYRIS. F.B.I. 133 IV. 

Shrubs with angular branches, alternate leaves and 
small unisexual flowers. Male flowers with three or four 
triangular lobes surrounding a thick disc, and four or five 
stamens. Female flowers with fully inferior ovary, short 
style, and a three or four-fid stigma. Fruit a globose 
drupe with globose seed. 

Species 6, in south Europe, Africa, and India (one only). 

Osyris arborea Wall. ; F.B.L v 232, IV i ; plant 8 
inches in dry poor soil, to 5 or 6 feet. Branchlets green, 
angular. Leaves ovate to elliptic-oblanceolate, mucro- 
nate, narrowed to the short stalk, yellowish green in 
colour. Male flowers J inch, in axillary peduncled 
racemes or clusters. Female J inch, solitary on axillary 
peduncles of ^ inch. Fruit a yellow-orange or scarlet 
coloured berry, J inch, showing the small calyx teeth 
at the top. t. 455* Wight Ic. t. 1853. 

In sholas and on the downs, common. Nilgiri, Pulneys, 
Shevaroys, Horsleykonda. 

Gen. Dist. Higher mountains of India and Ceylon. 

BALANOPHORACE^E. 

A family of fleshy root parasites with scales but not 
leaves, and unisexual flowers, with simple tubular perianth 
or often no perianth at all. 

Genera 14. Species about 50 in tropical and sub-tropical 
regions. 



BUXACE^ 523 

BALANOPHORA. F.B.I. 134 i. 

Glabrous fleshy herbs, yellowish white or brown in 
colour with tuberous rootstock warty with numerous 
lenticels. Flowers massed in dense globular or egg- 
shaped heads or spadixes, on thick stalks, clothed at the 
base with large scales. Perianth of male flowers with 
two to six lobes, and a similar number of stamens. Female 
flowers without perianth : ovary ellipsoid, one-celled 
with one ovule. Fruit a nut with crustaceous pericarp 
adhering to the seed. Seed globular, with copious 
oily endosperm. Embryo very small. 

Species n in the Indo-Malayan archipelago, Australia and 
New Hebrides. 

Balanophora indica Wall., Cat. 7247 / ; F.B.L 
v 237, 1 3. Rootstock massive very warty, brown. Pedun- 
cle 3 to 6 inches by I to i inch, with large scales i| to 2 
by i inch at the base. Male spadix 2 to 3 by i to ii 
inches, red. Perianth tube i inch ; lobes J inch, 
reflexed. Anthers connate into a thick mass ^ by r * 2 
inch, and opening by vertical slits. Female flowers 
minute in a dense round ball. 

On the surface of the ground near large trees. Nilgiri and 
Pulney plateaus, not rare. 

Gen. Dist. These hills and Ceylon. 

BUXACE^E. 

Shrubs or trees with simple evergreen leaves and 
unisexual flowers, in which the perianth is simple, the 
stamens stand opposite its lobes, the ovary is of 2 or 3 
cells, with seeds hung by the back so that the radicle 
points upwards and inwards and the fruit is a berry 
or capsule opening between the partitions. 



524 EUPHO&BIACE/B 

A very small family, at one time considered a tribe of the 
next, the EUPHORBJACEA, but differing in the seeds and fruit, 
in which it is like the SAPINDACETE. 

SARCOCOCCA. F.B.I. 135 ii. 

Glabrous shrubs with alternate, stalked, entire, 
leathery, leaves and short axillary spikes of male and 
female flowers, each with its bract and four sepals, two 
inner and two outer. Stamens of the male, as many, 
opposite the sepals, with thick filaments and oblong 
anthers which are eventually curved over backwards. 
Ovary, in the female, as above for the family. Fruit in- 
dehiscent. Seeds one or two with fleshy endosperm 
and broad cotyledons. 

Species 2 to 5 in India and Malaya. 

Sarcococca trinervia Wt. ; formerly S. pruniformis. 
Lindl. ; F.B.I, v 266, II i. A shrub with smooth green 
branchlets, and dark green three-nerved glossy leaves. 
Male spike when fully open : \ inch : stamens inch. 
Female spikes often on older branches, shorter. Fruit 
J inch egg-shaped, surmounted by two small curved 
stigmas a little to one side of the top. t, 456* Wight Ic. 
t. 1877. 

Nilgiris : very common all over the downs to Pykara, 
and Biccapatti, Pulneys : at slightly lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills from Ganjam southwards. 

E U P H O R B I A C E IE, . 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate leaves and 
inconspicuous unisexual flowers (both sexes on the same 
or on different plants) in which there may or may not 
be a distinction of petals and sepals, and few or many 
stamens, but the ovary nearly always of three carpels 



EUPHORBIACE/E 525 

and in fruit opening into its constituent carpels each 
with one or with two seeds. Radicle always pointing 
upwards and outwards (raphe ventral) and more or less 
surrounded by a fleshy outgrowth (the aril or caruncle). 

Species 4,000 all over the world but practically confined 
to the tropics in 220 genera. 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

This key is purely artificial, as the genera are separated 
into tribes by characters not easily seen in the field. 

("Flowers minute, of an ovary or a single stamen only, and 
a< massed in egg-shaped involucres . p. 526. EUPHORBIA. 

t Flowers distinct, and with perianth b. 

r Erect glabrous shrubs. Flowers solitary or fascicled, their 

parts in threes c. 

H Trees d. 

LClimbing hairy plants Appendix (TRAGIA). 

f" Fruit dry : perianth not much enlarged 

C*( p. 528. PHYLLANTHUS. 

I Fruit fleshy : perianth enlarged . . p. 530. BREYNIA. 
r Flowers fascicled at the leaf axils. Fruit dry, flat, lobed . 

I p. 530. GLOCHIDION. 

"S Flowers in axillary spikes, simple or branched . . e. 

t^ Flowers in open branched panicles f. 

f Spikes 2 inches very slender the bracts closely imbricated . 

P- 536. EXCCECARIA. 

Spike slender : flowers not close, leaves glabrous . . 

p. 534. ANTIDESMA. 

Spikes thick tomentose. Leaves tomentose .... 

p. 534. CROTON. 

C Leaves angular, flowers small ALEURITES. 

J "Y Leaves c.vate, elliptic, or roundish g. 

r Leaves roundish acute, peltate. Capsule inch, green 

p. 536. MACARANGA. 

< Leaves entire, three-nerved at base. Capsule red, J- inch . . 

P- 535- MALLOTUS. 

iLeaves oval entire. Drupe f black . . DAPHNIPHYLLUM. 
h Stinging plants. Calyx much divided in fruit . TRAGIA. 



526 EUPHORBIACEJE 

EUPHORBIA, F.B.I. 135 i. 

Plants with milky juice and of very varied habit : 
from small leafy herbs, erect or creeping on the ground, 
to shrubs with green pencil-like leafless branches, to 
large succulent, ribbed and angular, spiny leafless plants 
of cactus-like habit, but clearly distinguished from that 
family by having simple stout horns, not slender spines 
intermixed with barbed hairs (as in the Prickly-pear). 
The apparent flower really a collection of small much 
reduced unisexual flowers each consisting of one jointed 
stamen only or one stalked ovary only, without petals or 
sepals : the former (male flowers) arranged in four or five 
double zigzag rows radiating from the centre where is the 
female flower. These all enclosed in a cup-shaped (calyx- 
like) involucre with four or five oval or crescent-shaped 
glands, which have often a white petal-like limb : the 
whole structure forming a unit, in outward appearance 
like a single flower, and called a cyathium. These 
cyathiums are variously arranged, solitary or in cymes, 
or bunches. Capsule splitting into three segments each 
opening to let out the solitary seed. 

Species 600 in all except very cold climates. In Europe 
Spurge, Milkweed. The Cactoid species are mainly developed 
in South Africa. 

Leaves obovate : glands on involucre two-horned .... 

E. helioscopia. 
Leaves narrow, oblong ; glands oblong . . E. Rothiana. 

Euphorbia helioscopia Linn. ; F.B.I, v 262, I 44 ; 
Sun-spurge. Stem usually erect, not branched as a rule 
below the flowering region. Leaves sessile, obovate 
cuneate with finely toothed, round end, and very straight 
sides. Flower branches about five, from the axils of a 
whorl of leaves ; each branch again with three leaves and 



EUPHORBIACEJE 527 

axillary rays, and these again forked. Cyathiums T V 
inch across : glands semi-circular or kidney-shaped. 
Capsule J- inch, its segments with rounded back. Seed 
acute, ovoid. 

A weed, native of Europe, temperate Asia, Afghanistan, 
Punjab, Japan. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund and the downs to Lovedale, Coonoor, 
and Pykara. 

Euphorbia Rothiana Spr. ; F.B.I, v 263, I 49. 
Stem erect or weak at the base, becoming woody. Leaves 
narrow, erect, oblanceolate obtuse, narrowed to the base, 
two to four by J inch, one-nerved, erect. All upper part 
of plant sometimes red or crimson. Flowering branches 
three to five, long or short, bifid once or twice : if long 
with four or five pairs of bract-leaves, if short with 
one or two pairs only, and forking at these : these bract- 
leaves broader and shorter than the usual ones, ovate- 
triangular, j by o inch. Cyathiums inch across : glands 
two-horned. Capsule J- to J inch, quite smooth. Very 
variable as regards size and shape of leaves and bracts, 
but remarkable for its numerous narrow erect leaves. 
t. 457. Wight Ic. t. 1864. 

In shady, rich or damp soil, on the margins of sholas, etc. 
Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, Snowdon to Pykara, Deva- 
shola, etc. Flowers in June. Pulneys : at lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. Hills of Central India, southwards to Ceylon. 

BRIDELIA* F.B.I. 135 iv. 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate entire, with strong 
straight venation. Flowers small in simple or spicate 
clusters, monoecious. Sepals 5. Petals as many smaller. 
Stamens 5, their filaments united below into a column 



528 EUPHORBIACE;E 

which bears a pistillode. Ovary two-celled. Drupe small 
with i or 2 stones. 

Species about 30 in tropical Africa, Asia and Australia. 

Bridelia Roxburghiana Gehrm ; formerly B. retusa 
Spreng var. F.BJ. v 268, IV i. A tree or large 
shrub, with elliptic and oblong or ovate leaves, 3 to 5 
inches long, easily recognized by its 15 to 20 pairs of 
strong straight veins pinnately arranged along the midrib. 
Flowers J inch in diameter, | inch, clusters axillary or in 
spikes, pubescent or glabrous. Fruit j inch, purple 
black, t. 458. Bedd Fl. Syl. t. CCLX. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri, Pulneys : at about 5,000 feet and below. 
Shevaroys near Yercaud. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout hotter parts of the Old World. 

PHYLLANTHUS. F.B.I. 135 x. 

Herbs or shrubs with entire usually small thin leaves, 
in two ranks all facing upwards. Flowers of both sexes 
usually on the same plant, with perianth of five or six 
parts separable into three sepals and three white and 
thinner petals. Male flowers with three round glands 
on the disc and three stamens with their filaments free 
or more or less united : anthers vertical, opening by slits. 
Female flowers also with disc glands, and ovary of three 
cells, each with two ovules with ventral raphe : styles 
short, free or lightly connected. Fruit a rounded capsule. 

Species about 500 in all the temperate and hot regions of 
both the Old and the New Worlds. Some have edible fruits, 
e.g., P. emblica (Amla, Fr. Myrobalarn emblic) which is to be 
found wild or cultivated at slightly lower levels on the Nilgiris. 

Phyllanthus Rhccdii Wight, Kew Dist. No. 2588 / ; 
F.BJ. v 293, X 21. An undershrub and annual. Stem 
reddish slender, terete ; branchlets angular. Leaves 



EUPHORBIACEJE 529 

elliptic, apiculate, about f by i inch, thin : stalk T V inch. 
Male flowers J inch, two or three at a node : pedicels 
slender, y 1 ^ to \ inch, pendulous : perianth segments 
with green central streak and white border : anthers 3, at 
the head of a central column (of united filaments), which 
as they mature divides into three branches, dehiscing by a 
vertical slit. Female flowers solitary : pedicel J inch, 
stouter, three-angled. Petals larger than sepals in both 
male and female flowers. Capsule J- inch, globose. 
Seeds with rather distant longitudinal very slender ridges 
and minute cross-lines. t 459* 

Nilgiri and Pulney plateaus, and generally the Western 
Ghauts. 

Phyllanthus Gardncrianus Bail/. ; formerly as var. 
of P. simplex F.B.I, v 295, X 26. Branches long and 
slender. Leaves i to i J by -J to .] inch, elliptic oblong, sub- 
sessile, with slightly cordate base, and revolute margin. 
Pedicels of male flowers i inch : of female 1 to i inch. 
Filaments of stamens separate anthers opening at a slant, 
styles in female flower recurved. Ovary smooth. " Fruit 
smooth or spiny ; seeds minutely tubercled." t. 460 
(right). 

Pulneys : Glen Falls near Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : at 7,000 
feet (Clarke). 

Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. 

Phyllanthus Macraei MuelL ; F.B.I, v 296, X 27. 
Differs from the last in its larger leaves, the thick cushion- 
shaped disc, and erect styles, t. 460 (left hand figure). 

Pulneys : at Kodaikanal. 

The stems come up in early summer erect from the root- 
stock, unbranched : and the oval leaves close upwards at night , 

34 



530 EUPHORBIACE^E 

BREYNIA* F.B.I. 135 xxm. 

Shrubs and trees. No petals. Stamens 3, filaments 
united. Fruit fleshy. 

Species about 12 in tropical Asia, Africa and the Pacific 
Islands. 

Fruit orange, on the lobed saucer-like perianth . . . 

B. patens. 
Fruit white : perianth not conspicuous . . B. rhamnoides. 

Brcynia patens Benth. ; F.B.I, v 329, XIII i. A 
small shrub with spreading branches, and leaves usually 
all facing upwards. Flowers at first drooping, in fruit 
erect. Orange-coloured seated on an enlarged lobed 
perianth, t* 46 1* 

Nilgiris : In light shade or by the road side, Coonoor, 
Kotagiri and below. 

Gen. Dist. Tropical Himalayas to Deccan. 

Brcynia rhamnoides Muell. ; F.B.I, v 330, XIII 4. 
A shrub with thin ovate leaves about i -j by i inch drying 
black above and whitish below, quite glabrous. Calyx 
of female flowers not much enlarged in fruit. Berry white. 

Shevaroys : near Yercaud, sometimes grown in Madras 
gardens. 

Gen. Dist. Throughout tropical India to China and the Phillipines. 

GLOCHIDION, F.B.I. 135 xi. 

Shrubs and trees with alternate quite entire leaves 
and axillary clusters of small unisexual flowers, the 
sexes on the same or different plants, with perianth of 
4 to 6 lobes or sepals. Stamens of the male flower com- 
bined into a central column with erect anthers. Ovary 
in the female flower of three or more cells, each with 
two ovules with ventral raphe : styles short, variously 



EUPHORBIACE^l 53! 

combined. Neither sex with disc glands (distinction from 
PHYLLANTHUS). In both of our species the male flowers. 

Species 120 in tropical Asia, Malay archipelago and Pacific 
islands. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

(Leaves and branchlets hairy G. velutinum. 
Leaves, etc,, glabrous 

f Styles short thick, truncate . . . . G. neilgherense. 
b< Style branched at top, its three parts curving outwards 
L G. fagifolium. 

Glochidion velutinum Wight ; F.B.I, v 322 XI 44. 

A small untidy tree with crooked stem and branches. 
Young parts, leaves and flowers all densely pubescent or 
tomentose : twigs round, light coloured. Leaves shortly 
stalked, oblong or elliptic, obtuse, ii by f to 2| by i 
inch, withering red. Male and female flowers clustered 
together. Pedicel of male J to 1 inch, slender : sepals 
hairy. Pedicel of female stout, very short at first but 
lengthening with the developing fruit and at length 
J inch : sepals oblong ^ inch : style stout slightly longer, 
cylindrical, truncate. Capsule depressed-globose, of five 
to six rounded bilobed segments each with two red seeds. 
t* 462* Wight Ic. t. 1907-2. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund, Lovedale, Biccapatti. Pulneys : 
at lower levels, e.g., Shembaganur 5,500 feet. Shevaroys, 
near Yercaud. 

Gen. Disf. The species was founded by Wight on a Nilgiri specimen. 
Taking a wide view of '* species " it may be said to range from Nepal, 
Sikkim and Khasi hills to Canara and Mysore. But in some of the sheets 
at Kew the leaves are larger, thinner and less hairy. 

Glochidion neilgherense Wight ; F.BJ. v 316, XI 
27. A small tree with flattish-rounded outline, thick 
trunk and angular, glabrous, but lenticelled branchlets, 

34" A 



532 EUPHORBIACE/E 

Leaves 2\ to 4 inches elliptic or ovate-lanceolate or 
oblong, acute or obtusely acuminate, with acute base the 
sides often slightly unequal, and J to \ inch stalk : veins 
9 to 10 pairs. Male and female flowers in the same 
cluster. Male flowers -J- to 4 inch, broadly funnel-shaped, 
on slender pedicels (stout in deceased) J to J inch long : 
sepals oblong, yellow : anthers 3, surmounted by exten- 
sions of the connective half as long. Female flowers 
sessile : sepajs triangular, pinkish, pubescent : style stout, 
hardly longer than the perianth. Fruiting branches 
usually bereft of leaves, so that the fruits are mainly on 
short lateral leafless twigs. Capsule } to * inch by f inch 
deep, pubescent : surmounted by the now very stout 
style showing six stigmatic points. Seeds orange or 
red. t. 463. 

Nilgiris : by roadsides and in sholas, towards Coonoor, 
Kotagiri and Kodanad frequent : flowering in May, usually 
with great abundance and emitting a strong smell of honey 
from the male flowers, but female flowers not scented. The 
leafless fruiting branches are very characteristic. Pulneys : 
below Koclaikanal. 

This is the commonest species on the Ootacamund downs. The male 
flowers are often much enlarged due to a disease and then the anthers 
appear as incumbent on a conical central body (t. 464). 

Glochidion fagifolium Miguel; F.B.I, v 312, XI 

1 6. Distinguished from the last by the longer subsessile 
inch female flowers with stylar arms curving outwards, 
much longer and broader than the perianth. Leaves 
ovate or elliptic acuminate, slightly unequal at the base, 
about 4 by 2 inches larger and broader than in the last 
species : veins about 6 pairs. Male flowers on slender 
pedicels, yellow. Fruit \ inch rather thick. 

Nilgiris : in sholas on the downs, near Krummund, etc. 



EUPHORBIACEJE 533 

DAPHNIPHYLLUML F.B.I. 135 xxn. 

Trees with alternate entire leathery feather-veined 
leaves and lax axillary racemes of flowers with three to 
eight sepals but no petals : the male with large almost 
sessile anthers ; the female with a two-celled ovary with 
two ovules in each cell, pendulous with ventral raphe, and 
ripening to an olive-like drupe with one seed, containing 
much endosperm. Embryo small with narrow coty- 
ledons. 

Species 10 in tropical Asia, and Malay Archipelago, tropical 
Africa. 

Daphniphyllum glaucescens Blume ; F.B.I, v 353, 
XXII 3. Tree with oblong rounded outline, and pecu- 
liarly erect leaves with recurved margins, their back 
showing outwards. Branches striated and rough with 
numerous broadly heart-shaped leaf-scars and circular 
bud-scars. Leaf-stalks .\ to 2 inches, pink : blades 2 to 5 
by f to 2 inches elliptic, obtuse, acute at the base, with 
recurved margins, quite glabrous, usually tufted at the 
ends of the branchlets, erect and showing to the outside 
the bluey-green undersurface with its very clear network 
of veins. Flowers in racemes in the axils of the upper 
leaves. Male pedicel J inch : perianth small, green : 
anthers seven to ten, large and red, with small white 
point, almost sessile on the flat broad disc. Female 
flowers in longer racemes : pedicel J inch lengthening 
to i inch in fruit : ovary green : styles two, ^- - inch long. 
Fruit ellipsoid, like an olive, $ to -| inch by | inch, slightly 
oblique, with very rough skin, and surmounted by the 
two minute sessile stigmas. Seed one only, with small 
embryo at the upper end. t. 465* 

Very common in sholas especially in north-east monsoon 
areas and occasionally in the open. Nilgiris : round and in 



534 fcUPHORBIACE/ 

Ootacamund and down to Pykara, Lovedale, Coonoor, Bicca- 
patti, Kotagiri and Kodanad. Pulneys : on the downs above 
Kodaikanal. Shevaroys : abundant on the " Green Hills." 
Flower in winter months, fruit in summer. 
Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon, Java, Corea. 

ANTIDESMA. F.B.I. 135 xxm. 

Trees and shrubs with entire leaves and unisexual 
flowers in slender, simple or panicled spikes. No petals. 
Stamens 2 to 5, inflexed in bud. Fruit small. 

Species about 70 in tropical Asia, Africa, Australia and 
Pacific Islands. 

Antidesma menasu Miq. ; F.B.I, v 364, XXIII 25. 
A small tree. Leaves elliptic oblong, glabrous, 5 to 8 
inches by li to 2\ inches. Spikes 4 to 6 inches. Male 
flower t V inch in diameter, pedicles j 1 ^ inch. Female 
flowers sessile. Fruit \ inch ellipsoid acute, with short 
terminal stigma, t, 466* 

Nilgiris and Pulneys ; 6,000 feet and below ; Coonoor, 
Shembaganur, etc. Shevaroys. 

CROTON. 

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate with 2 glands at 
the base. Flowers solitary or clustered in a terminal 
raceme with small bracts, monoecious. Male flowers 
with petals, female without. Stamens numerous free, the 
anther inflexed in bud. Fruit a capsule. 

Species many in all hot countries. The common garden 
crotons belong really to a slight different genus CODLEUM. 

Croton lacciferus L. ; formerly C. aromaticus /f., 
F.B.I, v 388, XXXIV 8. An aromatic shrub covered 
with a yellowish tomentum of star-shaped hairs. Leaves 
2 to 4 inches by i to 3 inches scabrid on the upper side, 



EUPHORBIACEJE 535 

tomentose on the lower, finely and irregularly serrate or 
nearly entire. Ovary hispid with stellate hairs. Capsule 
obscurely lobed. t, 467. Wight Ic. t. 1915. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri, etc. 

The plant may be at once recognized in the summer months by drying 
leaves of a peculiar salmon-pink colour. 

MALLOTUS, F.B.I. 135 LIII. 

Trees and shrubs with opposite or alternate leaves. 
Flowers small without petals, in terminal panicles or 
spikes. Stamens in the male 20 to 30, filaments, free, 
anthers globose. Ovary in the female flower of 2 to 4 
cells, each with i ovule. Fruit a capsule. 

Species about 80, in the tropics of the Old World. 

Mallotus albus Muell. var. occidentalis, Hook f. ; 
F.B.L v 429, LIII 5. An evergreen tree with young 
parts densely covered with a rusty or white tomentum. 
Leaves 3. to 6 inches, ovate, acute, very obtuse almost 
horizontal at the base, with stalk inserted | inch inside 
the margin : basal veins 3 to 4 pairs, all connected by 
nearly straight veinlets J- to J inch apart : closely tomen- 
tose on lower side. Panicles terminal. Female flowers 
J inch covered with short soft spines which are thickly 
clothed in dense, white tomentum. 

Pulneys at 6,500 feet on road to Perumal below Kodai- 
kanal. Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma. 

Mallotus philippinensis Muel. ; F.B.L v 442, LIII 
42. Leaves three-nerved at base, ovate acute base wedge- 
shaped. All young parts covered with reddish hairs, 
ovary covered with crimson glands, but not with spines. 
t. 468. 

Nilgiris : below Coonoor on the Ghaut Road at 5,000 feet. 
Gen. Dist. From Kashmir to Singapore, Ceylon, China and Australia. 



$36 EUPHtiRBIACE^E 

MACARANGA, F.B.I. 135 LVI. 

Trees and shrubs. Leaves large, with stalk well 
inserted inside the margin, and glands on the underside. 
Flowers without petals, in axillary racemes. Stamens 
in male one or two only. Capsule small, seeds globose. 

Species about 80, in the Old World tropics. 

Macaranga indica Wt. ; F.B.L v 446, LVI 15. A 
large tree. Leaves 4 to 8 inches, nearly round, but 
pointed : basal veins about 10, two of them and the midrib 
branched : veinlets straight : covered on the underside 
with rather long stellate hairs. Panicles lateral, 2 to 4 
inches. Male flowers in the axils of short branches 
(of the panicle) which end each in a large (- inch) flat 
open gland ; capsule % inch, t* 469* Wight Ic. 1883. 

Nilgiris : in sholas at 6,000 feet. Lamb's Rock Road, 
Coonoor, etc. 

Gen. Dist. From Sikkim southwards. 

EXCCECARIA, F.B.I. LXXIII. 

Glabrous trees with acrid milky juice, and very small 
unisexual flowers, in very slender spikes the bracts closely 
imbricated ; male and female on the same or separate 
spikes. Fruit a three-lobed capsule the cells breaking 
apart as separate cocci. Seeds globose without caruncle. 

Species about 30 in tropical, Asia, Africa and Australia. 

Exccecaria crcnulata Wt. ; F.B.L v 473, LXXIII 5. 
A shrub or small tree. Leaves mostly opposite elliptic 
shallowly crenulate, 3 to 4 by i to i| inches, dark green. 
Veins numerous (16 to 20 pairs). Spikes terminal or 
axillary, i to 2 inches, by ^ inch. Sepals, stamens and 
styles 3 each. Flowers in the axil of minute bracts with 
2 small bracteoles. t, 470, 



ULMACEjE 537 

Nilgiris : on the borders of our area in drier parts, Coonoor, 
on the long road up from station, Devashola, Kotagiri, 
Kodanad. 



Trees with alternate stipulate leaves and small unisexual 
flowers in cymose clusters or small panicles ; perianth of 
4 or 5 parts (theoretically in two whorls but not distin- 
guishable as sepals and petals) ; stamens as many, opposite 
to them in the male flowers, erect in bud ; . ovary in the 
female superior of two carpels (one of which however 
often aborts) with a pendulous ovary in the cell. Fruit 
dry or fleshy, one-seeded. 

Genera 13, species about 140 in the warmer parts of the 
world. The commonest genus in Europe is Ulmus the 
Elm. 

Leaves glabrous, nearly as broad as long : flowers { inch, few 
or solitary CELTIS. 

Leaves white underneath : flowers i inch, crowded at the leaf- 
axils TREMA. 

CELTIS. F.B.I. 136 in 

Nettle-tree. 

Trees and shrubs with deciduous or evergreen leaves, 
often oblique at the base and small male or bisexual 
flowers in axillary racemes or solitary (these latter usually 
fertile), with the characters of the family. Stigmas 
two, hairy. Pistillode in male flower hairy. Fruit globose 
or ovoid. 

Species about 60 in temperate and tropical regions of the 
New and Old World. Fr. Micocoulier. 

Leaves toothed, main veins many C. tetrandra. 

Leaves entire, main veins 3 only C. Wightii. 



538 ULMACE.E 

Ccltis tctrandra Roxb. ; F.B.I. v 482, III 2, 
including C. australis L. y F.B.I., Ill i ; Wall. Cat. 369 !. 
A large tree : branchlets sometimes drooping. Leaves 
and young parts glabrous or pubescent. Leaf-stalks J 
inch ; blades ^\ to 3 by ij to 2 inches, elliptic, shortly 
acuminate, obtuse, with three nerves at the base and 
usually one other strong pair from the midrib ; the outer 
nerves again forked outwards, all rather straight ; margin 
serrate. Flowers in short axillary racemes or tufts. 
Fruit spherical, size of a small pea on a slender stalk 
f inch long. 

Nilgiris : common in Ootacamund (a fine specimen by 
the Havelock readjust below the Toda mund) and on the downs 
to Coonoor and below at Karteri. 

Gen. Dist. Eastern Himalayas, South India, Burma. 

I can see no difference between this and C. australis L., which occurs 
from Nepal to the north-west Himalayas, and the Salt Range and west- 
wards to Spain. 

The venation of the leaf is very characteristic. The leaves 
droop very markedly at night as if withered : the young foliage 
flushes pink and yellow, at Ootacamund in October. 

Ccltis Wightii Planch. ; F.B.I, v 483, III 4. A 
tree, with smooth grey bark : branchlets with yellowish 
brown pubescence. Leaf-stalks | inch, glabrous, blades 
up to 3 or even 6 by i to 3 inches, usually small, elliptic 
or oblong, acute at both ends, quite entire, glabrous, 
shiny, green on the upper side, with three strong 
nerves at the base, the lateral reaching the tip though 
there faint, crossed by numerous nearly straight veins 
^ inch or more apart. Flowers in small pubescent 
panicles on the leafy shoots below the young leaves : 
male and female flowers mixed. Bracts and bracteoles 
soon falling. Sepals ^ inch, pink-tipped. Stamens 



ULMACE^E 539 

slightly longer ; and pressing open the sepals : anthers 
nearly round. Ovary egg-shaped, I inch, with two 
large stout pubescent styles, which diverge from each of 
two sides. t, 471. 

Nilgiris : on the borders of our area about Pykara, Coonoor 
Kodanad, Biccapatti. 

Gen. Dist. Lower slopes of Western Ghauts. 

The tree is deciduous, and the young leaves come out with 
the flowers just before the monsoon rains, at Pykara towards 
the end of June ; they are terracotta or brownish towards the 
tips, not the yellow and red of C. tetrandra. 

TREMA* F.B.I. 136 iv. 

Charcoal-tree. 

Shrubs of trees with alternate, serrate, three or five- 
nerved leaves and long deciduous stipules. Flowers 
in axillary cymes, differing from CELTIS in the male 
sepals being folded and valvate in bud, and the coty- 
ledons of the seed narrow. 

Species about 20 in the warmer regions of the New and 
Old Worlds. 

Trcma orientalis Blume ; F.B.L v 484, IV 3 ; 
Charcoal tree. A small or large tree. Leaves ovate acute 
lop-sided, finely serrate almost all round to the rounded or 
cordate base : nerves joined by numerous cross-veins : 
upper surface scabrid : lower white with silvery pubes- 
cence or tomentum. Drupe inch, t* 472. 

Nilgiris : at Kotagiri and below very common. Not at 
Ootacamund. Pulneys : on slopes below Shembaganur only. 
Shevaroys. 

Gen. Dist. Lower hills of India, south of Nepal, Western Ghauts, 
Ceylon. 



54 MORACE/E 

MO RACEME. 

Consisting of the tribes moreae and artocarpeae formerly 
included in the family URTICACE^E. 

Flowers small, unisexual on the same (monoecious) or 
different plants (dioecious), crowded on or inside a 
receptacle. Perianth of 4 (or 5) parts ; stamens of male 
flowers as many opposite to them, or fewer ; ovary in the 
female superior, one-celled with one pendulous ovule. 
Fruit achenes or drupes. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Juice milky, flowers inside the receptacle (fig) . . . FICUS. 
Juice not milky, ilowers in the fiat surface of a receptacle . . 

DORSTENIA. 

Juice not milky, fruits rieshy on a conical receptacle . MORUS. 

The Mulberry, Morus alba L. and M. mgra //., is frequently planted for 
its fruit, e.g., at Shembai*anur : or in Mysore for feeding silk-worms. 

FICUS. 

The minute flowers are borne on the inner side of a 
hollow receptacle, which has an opening at the end further 
from the stalk, guarded by slender filaments (bracts). 
Female flowers usually consisting of an ovary with style 
attached to one side, and a flat stigma only, the flowers 
often of two kinds one stalked, the others sessile. Male 
flowers of one or two stamens in a small two to six partite 
perianth. Trees or shrubs sometimes climbing, with 
milky juice and alternate leaves with large stipules which 
form a hood over the bud and leave a scar round the 
branch when they fall off. 

A large tropical genus of perhaps 600 species which however 
are often difficult to distinguish. Common examples in the 
plains are the Banyan (F. bengalensis), country Fig. (F. glo- 
merata) and Peepul (F. religiosa). Some species can start 



MORACE^E 541 

life epiphytically on Palms or other trees, and by the coales- 
cence of the roots may envelop completely their early support. 
Pollination is effected by small wasps which entering a young 
receptacle bring pollen to the female flowers, but lay eggs in the 
stalked ones (rendering them sterile) from which the next 
generation emerge and pair, and the females flying out carry 
to another receptacle pollen from the male flowers which are 
now open. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

/Receptacles | inch, solitary in the leaf axils b 

\ Receptacles i to 2 inches, in clusters c 

("Leaves ovate, petiole il to 2 inches F. Tsiela. 

b < Leaves ovate, petiole i inch F. Benjamina. 

L Leaves oblong F. infectoria. 

f Erect trees. Receptacle i inch reddish . F, glomerata. 

\Climbers. Receptacle i J to 2 inches d 

, f Young parts glabrous F. macrocarpa. 

\Young parts hairy F. guttata. 

Ficus glomerata Roxb. ; F.B.L v 535, XVII, no ; 

the country Fig. The fruits borne in clusters, or on short 
leafless branches, from the main stem, about i inch, 
reddish when ripe. Leaves alternate, entire, ovate, oblong, 
elliptic or lanceolate, glabrous, 3 to 6 by ii to 2 i inches, 
three-ribbed at the base, with 4 to 8 pairs of other veins. 

Kotagiri : perhaps planted. 

Gen. Dist. All over India. 

Ficus macrocarpa Wt. ; F.B.I, v 534, XVII 105. 
Receptacles on short branches or knots on the main stem, 
about i i inches yellow, without bracts below. Leaves 
broadly ovate, 4 to 7 inches by 2! to 4^, shortly acuminate, 
entire, glabrous three to five-ribbed at base with 3 to 4 
other pairs of veins. Large climbing plants glabrous in 
the young parts, t* 473. 

Coonoor : on Lamb's Rock Road fruiting June. Pulneys : 
Shola on Church Cliff, Kodaikanal (Bourne). 



542 MORACE7E 

Ficus guttata Kurz ; F.B.I. v 534, XVII 105. A 
climbing tree, similar to F. macrocarpa but the young 
parts hairy, and undersides of leaves tomentose. Recep- 
tacles shortly stalked 2\ inches, speckled red and white. 
Wt. Ic. t. 1966. 

Nilgiris Coonoor. Pulneys : Shembaganur, fruit Septem- 
ber. 

Ficus Tsiela Roxb. ; F.B.I. 7515, XVII, 49. Recep- 
tacles solitary in leaf axils, i inch or less, purple when 
ripe, smooth and with 3 minute basal bracts. Leaves 
ovate, wedge-shaped at base, shortly acuminate, about 
4 by 3 inches, main veins 6 to 10 pairs, petiole \ * 2 
inches. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri. Properly belonging to the Deccan, 
from Kurnool southwards. 

Ficus infectoria Roxb.; F.B.I, v 515, XVII 50. 
Receptacles axillary, basal bracts larger than in the last. 
Leaves elliptic or oblong acuminate, 5 to 6 by 2 inches, 
entire, glabrous ; veins about 6 pairs. A deciduous tree, 
all parts glabrous. 

Nilgiris : Biccapatti on open hill-sides. Shevaroys : on 
Shevaroyan (large tree over Temple). 

Ficus Benjamina Linn. ; F.B.I, v 508, XVII 30. A 
shady tree with alternate, shortly petioled leaves, ovate 
acuminate in shape, about 3 by 2 inches, smooth and glossy, 
and with many veins, is sometimes planted, and occurs 
near Kotagiri. It has berries ~J inch diameter, blood-red 
when ripe, with 3 bracts below. 

DORSTENIA* 

Small herb with minute flowers imbedded in the 
flat angular top of a conical receptacle with bracts round 



URTICACE/E 543 

it. Stamens of male flowers 2. Fruit a minute nut which 
is shot out when ripe by the pressure of the turgid 
receptacle. 

Species about 50, chiefly in tropical America and Africa. 

Dorstcnia indica Wall. ; F.B.L v 494. Leaves 
ovate, sharply or sinuate-serrate, or almost entire, 2 to 4 
inches. Receptacle, I inch diameter with 4 or 5 projecting 
arms. A small succulent herb of cool shady spots. 
t. 474. 

Nilgiris : in sholas on the downs, frequent appearing after 
the rains. Shevaroys. 

URTICACE^. F.B.I. 136, tribe T. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees with watery juice (not milky) 
and unisexual flowers as given for the MORACE/E (p. 540), 
disposed in open cymes, or aggregated in small involucres : 
but characterized specially by the stamens being at first 
bent inwards with reversed anthers, then straightening 
with a jerk which ejects the pollen, and by the ovule 
being erect with its micropyle at the opposite end to the 
hilum. 

LAPORTEA. F.B.I. 136 xxvii. 

Perennial herbs, shrubs or trees with stinging hairs 
and alternate mostly broad, toothed, feather-veined 
leaves, and free or connate deciduous stipules. Flowers 
in small cymose bunches, arranged on the branches 
of axillary or terminal panicles. Stamens inflexed in 
bud. Sepals of female four ; ovary and achene oblique 
flattened. 

Species about 25, in Asia, Australia, Africa and a few in 
North America. 



544 URTICACEJE 

Laportea tcrminalis Wight ; F.B.I, v 549, XXVII i. 

Branches, leaf-stalks and leaves armed with lightly 
stinging hairs. Leaf-stalks 4 to 6 inches ; blades 4 to 8 
inches, by 3^ to 5 inches, broadly-ovate, bluntly acuminate, 
toothed all round to the base. Male panicles axillary, 
female subterminal long peduncled. Achenes slightly 
tubercled, on a winged pedicel, t. 475* Wight Ic. t. 
1972. 

In waste places and by the sides of and in light sholas. 
Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Kotagiri, Kodanad and Avalanche. 
Pulneys : Kodaikanal and on the downs. Flowers from June. 

Gen. Dist. Sub-tropical Himalayas, South India, Ceylon. 

GIRARDINIA. 

Stout herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, covered with 
long stinging hairs. Flowers clustered. Female perianth 
tubular, male perianth of 4 to 5 parts ; stamens as many, 
inflexed in bud. Fruit a broad acheme. 

Species under 10 in tropical Asia and Africa. 

Girardinia hctcrophylla Dene. ; F.B.I, v 550, 
XXIX. Leaves three-ribbed at base, 4 to 8 inches 
across, palmately deeply divided, the lobes again very 
coarsely cut in large triangular teeth. Stinging hairs 
formidable. 

Nilgiris and Pulneys : in sholas on the downs, Coonoor. 

PILEA. F.B.I. 136 xxix 

Annual or perennial herbs without stinging hairs. 
Leaves opposite, three-nerved. Flowers in heads or lax 
cymose panicles. Sepals of the male flower concave, 
fleshy, often with an appendage or horn, on the back. 



URTICACE/E 545 

Stamens 2 to 4. Sepals of the female three, unequal 
the dorsal one longest and often hooded or swollen on 
the back, with scales (staminodes) opposite them. 

Species about 16 in Asia, Africa and tropical America. 
Ger, Kanonierblume. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

(Stipules persistent, i inch by j ... P. stipulosa. 
Stipules caducous or small b 

fLeaf i to 2 inches without acumen, coarsely toothed to the 
apex P. Wightii. 
Leaf 3 to 6 inches : serrations J () deep, \ to i apart to apex. 
P. trinervia. 

| Leaf 2 to 5 inches : teeth J- to \ inch deep and wide, 
^ acumen \ inch narrow P. Kingii. 

Pilca Wightii Wedd. ; F.B.L v 554, XXIX 10. 
Stem about a foot, weak and rooting at the lower nodes, 
quite glabrous. Leaves ij to z\ by i to i inches, ovate 
or rounded, coarsely toothed or serrate, acute or hardly 
acuminate, three-nerved : stipules short or absent. No 
cystoliths. Flowers small, clustered along the loose 
branches of an open cymose panicle. Achenes smooth, 
2 V inch, t, 476. 

Nilgiris : in shady places on the downs, e.g., in plantation 
near Forester's hut, Krurmund road ; Pykara. Pulneys : 
Gundattu shola above Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate Himalayas, Sikkim, South Indian mountains, 
Ceylon, Java. 

Pilca stipulosa Miguel.; F.B.L v 555, XXIX n. 
A tall herb distinguished by its very large oblong stipules. 
Leaves long-stalked, 3 to 5 by i J to 2 inches, elliptic, 
shortly acuminate, serrate, three-nerved at the base : 
stipules i to i \ by \ to inch, Cystolith numerous, small, 
35 



546 URTICACE^E 

Flowers crowded in shortly-stalked, close cymose panicles, 
which are fascicled, two or three in a leaf-axil. Achenes 
minute smooth. 

Pulneys : Gundattu shola, Kukal. 

Gen. Dist. Ceylon (where the species was founded). 

Pilea trincrvia Wight. Herb. Prop. ! ; F.BJ. v 
557, XXIX 1 6. Stem robust, glabrous, succulent inter- 
nodes swollen but contracted when dry. Leaves 3 to 6 
by ii to 3 inches, oblong lanceolate to broadly-elliptic, 
acuminate, shallowly serrate. Outer pair of basal nerves 
connected to the midrib by numerous straight or slightly 
curved veins, and branching also to each tooth. Cysto- 
liths numerous, small. Panicles axillary 4 to 2 inches, 
much branched, t, 477. Wight Ic. t. 1973. 

In cool shady places, woods, etc., common. Shevaroy 
plants have the acumen drawn out over an inch and very 
slender. 

Gen. Dist. South India and Ceylon. 

Pilca Kingii Fischer. ; Kew Bull. 1927, p. 76. 
Leaves lanceolate (to roundish) narrowed to the acuminate 
point, sharply and coarsely serrate ; glabrous above, 
pubescent on the veins below. Cystoliths numerous, 
small. Nuts circular bi-convex, smooth. 

Dodabetta : in cinchona plantations. 

Pilea sp. ? Similar to P. trinervia but stem shrubby, 
not flat on drying. Leaves 3 to 5 by i to ij inches, 
lanceolate, narrowed gradually to the slender apex, 
slightly curved, teeth inch by T 1 ^ inch. Lateral veins 
extending into the tip. No cystoliihs. 

Pulneys : Kodaikanal shola, Fyson 2113, 



URTICACE^E 547 

LECANTHUS. F.B.I. 136 xxx. 

Small delicate herbs with opposite leaves, differing 
in size, and stalked receptacles bearing the minute uni- 
sexual flowers. Sepals of male flowers 4 (or 5) with a 
stamen opposite each, of the female 3. Differs from 
ELATOSTEMA in the receptacles being stalked. 

Lccanthus Wightii Wedd. ; F.B.I, v 5590 XXX i. 
Stem 2 to 6 inches. Leaves \ to i inch, ovate serrate, 
glabrous. Receptacles -jV to I inch diameter on peduncles 
of i to 6 inches. At lower levels it grows much larger. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, Naduvattam and below. Pulneys : 
Poombari valley (Bourne). 

Gen. Dist. Central Himalayas and southwards to Ceylon, Java and 
Tropical Africa. 

ELATOSTEMA. F.B.I. 136 xxxn. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with alternate, very 
unsymmetric, coarsely toothed leaves, and characterized 
further by the flowers being aggregated in dense axillary 
cushions (receptacles), which are at first enclosed in an 
involucre of bracts, and in fruit become flat. Bracteoles 
to each flower two : sepals of the male very thin : sepals 
of the female small and narrow. 

Herbs of damp shady places. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

{Leaves in very unequal pairs . . . . E. surculosum. 
Leaves all of one size 6 

C Leaves with visible, cystoliths c 

\Leaves quite smooth : coarsely crenate . E. acuminatum. 
["Leaf coarsely toothed from apex to base . . E. sessile. 

c -< Leaf with long point, and a few shallow teeth 

L E. lineolatum, 

35-A 



548 URTICACE/E 

Elatostcma sessile Forst ; F.B.I. v 563, XXXII 2. 
Stem slender, flexuous, i to 2 feet. Leaves 4 by 2 to 5 
by 2i inches, coarsely serrate from apex to base, when 
dry, roughened on the upper side by numerous cystoliths. 
Receptacle J to % inch ; in fruit -J- to J inch, with numerous 
achenes imbedded in it : bracts with dorsal spurs ; brac- 
teoles minute. In woods, etc. t. 478* Wight Ic. t. 

1983. 

Nilgiris : In sholas on the downs, Ootacamund to Nadu- 
vattam. Pulneys : above Kodaikanal and down to 5,000 
feet. 

Two varieties occur here. 

* var. cuspidata Wight, Herb. Prop \ Leaves glafirous 
on the upper side. 

** var. pubescens. Leaves hairy. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate and tropical Himalayas from Chamba eastwards, 
Assam, Sylhet, Khasia, Japan, Malay, Pacific islands and tropical Africa. 

In t. 478 : a underside of receptacle sho\\im* bracts with dorsal spur ; 
b female receptacle from above ; c male receptacle ; d female flower with 
bracteole ; e stalked female flowers mixed with the others [E.T.B.]. 

I do not find the female receptacle without bracts as given in F.B.I. 

Elatostema lineolatum Wight ; F.B.L v 565, 
XXXII 6. Stem slender. Leaves narrow with long 
(up to 1 1 inches), acumen and three or four shallow 
teeth in the further half only, the basal half being cuneate 
entire variable in shape and size. Male receptacle J- 
to J inch, embraced by a number of rounded bracts. 
Flower embraced at first by two very boat-shaped semi- 
circular bracteoles. t*479. Wight Ic. tt. 1984, 2091 f. i. 

Nilgiris : at Naduvattam. Not collected near Ootaca- 
mund. Pulneys : in sholas below Kodaikanal and perhaps also 
near Kodaikanal. 

Gen, Dist. Tropical Himalayas, Khasia, South India, Ceylon. 



URTICACE/E 549 

Elatostema surculosum Wight ; F.B.L v 572, 
XXXII 27. Leaves similar to those of E. lineolatum, 
but the apex not at all acuminate, and each with opposite 
it a very small leaf, which is often deflexed. Female 
receptacle small. Male receptacle sessile. Bracts larger, 
long-horned. Flowers when open exserted on \ inch 
pedicels, t, 480. Wight Ic. t. 2091 f. 4. 

Pulneys : in sholas. 

Gen. Dist. Temperate Himalayas from Simla to Sikkim, Khasia 
Naga hills, Nilgiris, Ceylon. 

Elatostema acuminatum Brongn. ; F.B.I, v 566, 
XXXII 9. Leaves without cystoliths, perfectly smooth. 
Stem shrubby with diverging branches, glabrous. Leaves 
2 to 6 inches, obliquely elliptic, acuminate, coarsely 
crenate for one-third of the inner and about two-thirds 
of the outer (more convex) side : acumen an inch or 
more beyond the last tooth : base wedge-shaped : petiole 
^2 inch. Flower clusters small (about | inch). 

Nilgiris : in gorge opposite Bangitappal forest bungalow. 

The P.M. P. reports only from lo\\er levels (4,000 feet) and " rare." 
My specimens collected in the Bangitappal gorge, agrees perfectly with 
that in the Madras Herbarium identified by Mr. Fischer for the P.M. P. 

Gen. Dist. Khasi mountains to Tennasserim, Perak and Ceylon. 

CHAMABAINA* 

Diffuse herbs very similar in appearance to DROGUETIA 
(t. 483) but the male flowers with four stamens, the cluster 
in the axils of two large bracts not in an involucre, and 
ovary with short style. 

Chamabaina cuspidata Wt. ; F.B.I, v 580, XXXVI i. 
Male flowers pedicelled, sepals 4, stamens 4, opposite 
them, a rudimentary pistil in centre. Female flowers 



550 

in dense clusters : bracts J inch cuspidate and two brac- 
teoles : ovary with excessively short style. 

Nilgiris : in moist woods on the western borders of our 
area at 6,000 feet, Naduvattam, flower August. 

POUZOLZIA. F.B.I. 136 XXX vi. 

Herbs or small woody plants characterized by the leaves 
opposite or in threes, with three main nerves of which 
the lateral do not reach the leaf-tip, and flowers pedi- 
celled in axillary bunches. Male sepals four or five, 
rounded or inflexed so that the bud is flat-topped. 
Female perianth small flask-shaped with contracted 
mouth, from which projects the long deciduous stigma. 

Species 35, in the tropics of the Old World. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Leaves with three nerves only b 

a < Basal nerves branched and nerves therefore numerous : 

(^ P. Cymosa. 

f Upper leaves distinctly smaller than the lower : sepals four. 
b 1 P. Wightii. 

Clipper leaves hardly if at all smaller : sepals five . . . 

P. Bennettiana. 

Pouzolzia cymosa Wight ; formerly P. auriculata 
Wt. var. cymosa, F.B.I, v 582, XXXVI 5. A straggling 
long-stemmed plant. Leaves opposite \ to 3 inches, 
on a -I inch stalk, broadly or narrowly ovate or ovate- 
acute or acute : nerves three at the base and two others 
from the midrib, all forking so that there may be eleven 
altogether. Flowers in spreading cymes. Male buds 
rounded. Wight Ic. t. 1979 f. 2. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, flowering May to September, 
Coonoor. Shevaroys : flower January. 

P. auriculata Wt. separated in P.M. P. as a distinct species, has alternate 
leaves and occurs at lower levels. 



URTICACE/E 551 

Pouzolzia Wightii Benn ; F.B.I. v 584, XXXVI 7. 
Stem 2 to 3 feet. Leaves subsessile lanceolate with 
rounded base : lower 3 to 4 inches ; upper slightly smaller 
and becoming smaller upwards gradually, those near the 
top of the flowering region J inch only and in proportion 
broader, t* 48L 

In cool shady places : several varieties occur. 

* var nilghirensis Hook f. ; F.B.L v. 584, Wt. Ic. 2096 f 24, 
2097 f 25 and 26. Leaves tomentose below but smooth above. 
Male sepals hirsute above the bend. 

** var. scabra Fischer ; P. scabra Wt. Ic. 2097 f 29, 2095 
f 1 8, scabrid on upper side of leaves. Lower leaves broader. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal towards Vilpatti : and at lower 
levels. 

*** Lawsoniana. Stem terete, glabrous, male sepals 
glabrous. Nilgiris : Naduvattam. Shevaroys. 

Pouzolzia Bennettiana Wight, Herb. Wight Prop ! ; 
F.B.I. v 585, XXXVI 10. A shrub growing in the open 
on banks with leaves of the flowering part as large as the 
lower, and dense axillary bunches of small red flowers. 
Stem at the base as thick as the little finger, 4 to 5 feet 
high, with long-spreading decussate branches, red or 
brownish in colour, and smooth except for a few large 
lenticels. Leafy branches more or less pubescent, with 
short erect hairs : almost hirsute in some forms. Stipules 
i inch, brown, scarious. Leaves opposite or in threes, 
lanceolate, acuminate, three- nerved, with numerous hori- 
zontal connecting veins. Flowers in bunches at the 
nodes, reddish, campanulate or hemispheric, T l g. inch ; 
in bud flat-topped. Male sepals 5, inflexed. Female 
flowers minute, ripening before the male flowers and 
therefore mostly to be found in the upper axils. Sepals 
5, scarious, tips not inflexed : style J inch, hairy like a 



552 URTICACE/E 

cat's tail. Fruit J inch, nearly circular, flat or flattened 
on one side with low wing in the middle : but inside dark 
green, pointed. Very variable in respect of hairiness. 
t. 482* Wight Ic. t. 1978. 

Pulneys : in sholas on the downs. Flower September. 
Nilgiris : on the Eastern plateau. Biccapatti, flower May. 

*** caudata. Stem slender glabrous. Leaves up to 
6 inches, glabrous. Spikes pubescent, bracts becoming very 
small, cordate. 

DROGUETIA. F.B.I. 136 XLV. 

Slender herbs with opposite or alternate three- 
nerved toothed leaves, without stinging hairs. Flowers 
of the restricted URTICACE^E (p. 543) but much reduced 
and collected into scabrid calyx-like involucres : the male 
flowers with a small three- to five-lobed perianth and a 
single stamen inflexed in bud, and the female flower with 
no perianth but only an ovary and long straight stigma : 
usually arranged with a female flower in the middle of 
the involucre with four or more male flowers round it. 

Species 4 in India and Africa. 

Droguctia diffusa Wedd. ; F.B.I, v 593, XLV i. 
Stem slender diffuse hairy, with long internodes. Leaves 
stalked, f to i| by i to i inch, ovate, coarsely crenate- 
serrate, with a few scattered hairs on the upper side and 
on the nerves of the under. Involucres, one to four at 
a leaf-axil, salver-shaped, with short stalk and lobed 
bowl, silky : bract very silky. Flowers very small, 
one female and one to three males : the perianths of the 
latter closely attached together and coalescing into one 
rather fleshy mass. t. 483. Wight Ic. t. 1982. 

In woods. Pulney downs and below. Nilgiris : flower 
September. 



SALIC ACE^: 553 

The number and arrangement of the involucres varies considerably in 
the same plant and even in adjoining leaf-axils, as also does the number of 
flowers to the involucres of the same axil. I have found six to each of two 
opposite leaf-axils, making twelve at a node, two of these with three males 
and one female flower, four with one female flower only. An involucre of 
three or four male flowers may easily be mistaken for a normal flower with 
three or four stamens unless the flask-shaped perianth to each stamen is 
noted. 

In. t. 483 : a a four-toothed involucre with bract, behind, and in it 
three male and one female flower ; b plan. 



CUPULIFER.E. 

QUERCUS* F.B.I. 140 in. 

Oak. 

Trees with alternate toothed or lobed leaves, and 
small unisexual flowers. Male flowers in erect or pendu- 
lous spikes, with four to seven perianth lobes and many 
stamens. Female flowers enclosed at first by imbricating 
bracts, which enlarge as the fruit grows and become 
a cup with the nut (acorn) seated in it. 

Species about 300, mostly of north temperate regions and 
specially in North America. 

Qucrcus Ilex Linn. ; F.B.L v 602, III 4 ; the Holm-, 
Holly-, or Evergreen Oak. Leaves nearly entire, thick, 
leathery. 

Planted at Kodaikanal. 

SALIC ACE^). 

A family of two genera SALIX Willow, and POPULUS 
Poplar, Aspen. 

SALIX* F.B.I. 141 i. 

Deciduous trees with alternate three-to five-nerved 

stipulate leaves and catkins (pendulous spikees of small 

flowers. Each flower in the axil of a bract, without sepals 



554 SALICACE;E 

or petals, but with glands or a disc, two stamens, and a 
one-celled ovary containing few or many ovules on two 
or four placentas. Fruit an egg-shaped capsule with 
few or many seeds with long silky tuft of hairs. Embryo 
with plano-convex cotyledons and short radicle pointing 
downwards : endosperm. 

Species 200 chiefly in north temperate zone. 

Salix tetrasperma Roxb. ; F.B.I. v 626, I i. A 
large well-branched tree with slender twigs. Leaves 2 
to 3 by i i to 2 inches, ovate-acute, serrate, glabrous but 
bluish underneath, glossy above : stalk I inch. Male 
catkins 2 to 4 inches in leafy branches, bracts broad 
ovate, hairy. P'emale catkins 3 to 5 inches, with smaller 
bracts. Capsule -| to J inch, very variable : seeds four to 
six. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund on the bund at the head of the lake, 
and to Pykara and Kotagiri (Bazaar stream). Pulneys : 
Poombari valley, not near Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Disf. Mountains of tropical and sub-tropical India from the 
Punjab to Travancore and Singapore, not Ceylon. 

GNETUM. 

Gnctum scandens* A strong climber with opposite 
leaves and branches, and prominently swollen nodes. Male 
flowers consisting of a large number of stamens between 
circular cup-like bracts, 6 to 10 such cups forming a cone 
2 to i inch long. Female flowers of about six egg-shaped 
ovules set in similar cup-bracts, but these bracts separated 
by 1 to inch and forming a spike 3 to 5 inches long. 
Fruit 1 1 inches, ellipsoid acute, black with finely wrinkled 
skin, hard, t* 484. 

Nilgiris : Kotagiri, in deep valleys, 



BURMANNIACE/E 555 

This genus belongs to the GYMNOSPERMS, plants in which the seeds 
are born on or between scales, not in a closed ovary. Familiar Gymnos- 
perms are the Pine, Cypress and Fir. 

In the plate the section of the young female flower shows the flask" 
shaped perianth, inside this two integuments (united at the base) the inner 
of which is extended upwards as a very fine tube projecting from the mouth 
of the perianth. This receives the pollen. The central body corresponds 
to the contents of a seed. It is not an ovule for the term ovule includes the 
integuments. 



MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

The families which follow differ from the preceding 
in having but one first leaf (cotyledon) to the germinating 
embryo. They are mostly herbs with bulbs or tubers, and 
fibrous (not tap) roots. Woody plants are the exception. 
The leaves are simple and have numerous veins. There 
is usually no definite separation of leaf-stalk and blade. 
The inflorescence, or the individual flower, is usually 
enclosed when young in a large bract. The floral parts 
are typically in threes, but in some families (e.g., orchids) 
great modifications occur. In the sedges and grasses prac- 
tically all trace of sepals and petals is lost. 

BURMANNIACE/E. 

A small family of about 50 species in the tropics of the 
Old World, China, and North America. 

BURMANNIA. F.B.I. 147 i. 

Small very slender annual herbs with radical sword- 
shaped leaves, or mere scales, and few or solitary flowers 
remarkable for the three broad coloured wings of the calyx 
tube. Sepals and petals minute. Anthers three, sessile 
on the perianth, the two lobes separated by a broad 
connective and opening transversely. Ovary inferior 
three-celled. Fruit a three-celled capsule with many seeds. 



556 ORCHIDACFJg 

Species about 20, in all tropical countries from JNorth 
America to China. Some grow in dry sandy places, others 
only in water. These latter have slender yellowish or brownish 
stems and small scales instead of leaves, obtaining their organic 
nourishment, as saprophytes, from the water. 

Burmannia coelestis Don. formerly B. Candida 
Griffith ; F.B.L v. 665, I 5. Stem slender, colourless, 
4 to 8 inches high. Leaves reduced to scales -J- to l s inch 
long. Flowers white, solitary or in twos. Ovary with its 
wings $ to I inch long, round or obcordate in outline ; 
wings g inch wide spirally twisted. Perianth very small, 
outer lobes j 1 ^ inch, inner half as long and wide. t 485. 

In damp spots, often with Utricularia. Pulneys : below 
Kodaikanal on Church Cliff ; flowering June. Not common. 
Shevaroys : at the foot of wet rocks on Sanyasi Hill, etc. 

Gen. Dist. Mahendragiri, Western Ghauts, Burma, Khasia, Bengal. 



ORCHIDACE^E. 

The Orchid-flower differs profoundly from all others, 
for there are no separate stamens and style, but only one 
central column, on the top or at the side of which lies a 
solitary anther, and on its front face a stigma. 

(In the small group of Slipper-orchids, CYPRIPEDIUM, which do not 
grow here, the structure is a little different, there being two anthers, one on 
either side of the column.) 

The ovary is inferior and long, taking the place of 
the pedicel which is as a rule absent. There are three 
sepals and three petals, as is usual with monocotyledons, 
but one of the petals is very different in shape from the 
others, and generally has a bag-like depression at the 
upper end, called a " sac " if it is shallow (tt. 508, 528), 
or a ' spur ' if it is long (tt. 504, 507, 519). 



ORCHIDACE7E 557 

This petal, known always as the lip or the labellum, is really the upper- 
most or dorsal one and in a few orchids, e.g., SATYRIUM (p. 595) stands 
up at the back of the flower, but in most cases is brought by a twisting of 
the ovary to the lower side and hangs down there. It is not usually 
difficult to make this out by the twisting of the lines in the ovary (t. 511). 

For the explanation of the structure of the column reference must be 
made to Darwin's British and Foreign Orchids' or to any good text-book ; 
it must suffice here to say that, assuming the flower to be derived from the 
usual monocotyledonous type of five whorls of three each, i.e., three sepals, 
three petals, three outer stamens, three inner stamens and a three-celled 
ovary, the column is considered to be made up of one stamen of the outer 
whorl and three styles two of whose stigmas, fused into one, form the sticky 
hollow on its face. The other five stamens are all aborted, unless perhaps 
two of them are part of the column, e.g., when that is winged, and two 
more part of the labellum when it has lateral lobes. The pollen of each 
half anther is always aggregated into one, two or four waxy masses termed 
polliniums. 

The disposition of the two halves of the anther differs in 
different orchids. In HABENARIA and its allies such as the 
large white Elephant's Head or Snowdrop orchid, the Purple- 
ground orchid, the Sweet-Scented Pink Twin-spur, and the 
Butterfly, Pyramid and Marsh orchids of England, the two 
halves, though close together at the top are separated at their 
bases and attached to either side of the column. They open 
separately by longitudinal slits to let out the polliniums. But 
in most orchids, as DERIDES the Pink Rock orchid, and CCELO- 
GYNE the Banana orchid, the two halves of the anther lie to- 
gether on top of the column and open by a cap which comes 
off as a whole exposing the polliniums. On some of these 
orchids, e.g., /ERIDES, the anther-cap simply falls off at the 
lightest touch, in others, e.g., CGELOGYNE, it remains attached 
by a filament (tt. 491, 497). The polliniums have slender 
stalks (caudicles) ending in a swelling or an elastic band which 
is or becomes attached to an easily removed piece of the top 
edge of the column, called the rostellum (t. 513). 

The two stigmas are usually combined as a slightly hol- 
lowed sticky surface on the front of the column below the 
anther: in Habenaria longicalcarata (t. 519) they project on 
either side as curved green processes. 

All these structures are very cleverly and wonderfully 
adapted for causing the transference of pollen from one flower 



558 ORCHIDACE/E 

to another by insects which are attracted as a rule by honey 
secreted in the sac or spur of the lip. The mechanism varies 
very considerably and orchids are so highly specialized in this 
respect that often pollination fails and no seeds are set simply 
because the proper insect for that species has not visited the 
plant. In general the head or proboscis of a bee, probing the 
spur for honey, touches the rostellum which adheres to it, so 
that when the insect flies away the anthers open and the polli- 
niums are dragged out and carried off. A bending of the stalk 
of the pollinium as it dries during the insect's flight may, 
if necessary, bring the pollen-mass into such a position that 
in another flower it touches the stigma. The elasticity of 
the connecting band or of the thread which binds the groups 
of pollen together allows of some being left on the stigma 
while the rest may be carried to another flower. 

The fruit is a capsule containing an enormous number 
of very small seeds which are easily carried by the wind, 
and this perhaps explains why so many orchids grow high 
above the ground on the branches of trees. 

Throughout the family there is a remarkable diversity in the form of 
the flower which may even imitate the appearance of some insect (e.g., 
the Bee and Fly orchids of England). The size, brilliancy and lasting 
qualities of many species have made them favourites with horticulturists 
who are constantly producing hybrids. 

The vegetative parts vary also considerably. There is 
always a perennial root stock ; but this may consist of tubers 
or of a creeping rhizome. In some the shoot grows on year 
after year bearing flowers laterally (a monopodium, t. 505), 
in others it finishes each season's growth with an inflorescence 
(sympodium, t. 491). This character is of considerable im- 
portance in classifying the genera. The genera also differ 
in habit, some growing exclusively on the ground, others 
always on rocks or trees (as epiphytes). 

The family is one of the largest among flowering plants, 
having over 400 genera and 5,000 species. Of these 1,600 
have been found in India, most of them peculiar to the country. 
The south-east Himalayas, Assam and North Burma is the 
richest area : the Deccan is comparatively very poor. 



ORCHIDACE/E 559 

KEY TO THE GENERA. 

{Orchids of trees or rock faces b 
Ground orchids g 

TREE ORCHIDS. 

In all these the polliniums lie on the top of the column 
under a movable cap. 

\ Stem stout, leaves oblong unequal at tip c 

Stem green cylindrical, leaves similar d 

Stem jointed, extended and leafy or of one or two pseudo- 
bulbs p- 566. DENDROBIUM. 

A number of tubers (pseudo-bulbs) side by side . . . e 
Stem slender creeping, with pseudo-bulbs at intervals 

p. 567. CIRRHOPETALUM. 

Stem slender creeping. No pseudo-bulbs 

p. 582. CLEISOSTOMA. 

No stem. Leaves sword-shaped 

p. 561. OBERONIA. 

r Flowers pink ; J- inch or more. Spur oblong .... 

I p. 578. BRIDES. 

< Flowers 1 inch striped yellow and brown 

I />. 580. SACCOLABIUM. 

I Flowers \ inch, spur double, short and pointed . . . 

p. 582. DIPLOCENTRUM. 

("Flowers J inch, with \ inch spur, brown or pink .... 

^ P- 580. SACCOLABIUM. 

I Flowers \ inch, concave. No spur. p. 577. LUISIA. 

{Pseudo-bulbs flat, \ to -J inch. p. 568. ERIA. 

Pseudo-bulbs as long as broad or longer .... 

p. 568. ERIA and/ 

r Flowers purple, | inch triangular (foot very long) . . . 

p. 577. POLYSTACHYA. 

V Flowers i inch white or coloured. Foot long .... 

I p. 566. DENDROBIUM. 

LFlowers i inch white or yellowish. No foot .... 

p. 570. CCELOGYNE. 



560 ORCHIDACRffi 

GROUND ORCHIDS. 

{Polliniums on top of column, covered by a movable 
cap ... f * 
Polliniums at sides of the column removable through, 
usually, vertical slits m 

'Flowers white, small in a dense spiral 

p. 583. SPIRANTHES. 

Flowers white, J inch, the lip of two-fringed parts . . . 

p. 584. CHEIROSTYLIS. 

.Flowers coloured, few or in a loose spike 

f Leaves broad, strongly ribbed and plaited fan-wise , i 

1 \Leaves flat narrow, or absent at flowering time . . j 

r Flowers inch, flat, mauve (or white) : lip spurred . k 

A p. 574. CALANTHE. 

* 1 Flowers | to i inch ; purple : no spur / 

I Flowers i| inches, jug-shaped 

p. 570. ACANTHOPHIPPIUM. 

rColumn not taller than broad. Lip toothed .... 

k\ p. 563. MICROSTYLIS. 

t Column twice or more times as high as thick. Lip. . . 

p. 565. LIPARIS. 

{Stem naked at flowering time : sepals and petals not 
toothed, oblong, equal. />. 575. EULOPHIA. 
Stem reed-like, leafy : flower crimson 

p. 575. ARUNDINA. 

{Ovary not twisted : two slender spurs in front . . . 
P- 595- SATYRIUM. 
Ovary twisted : spur if any behind n 

"Lip entire or notched : pink or purple 

p. 594. PHYLLOMPHAX. 
Lip with narrow midlobe and i inch wide much cut side- 

n\ lobes : white p. 593. PLATANTHERA. 

Lip three-lobed : flower white, greenish or yellow . . o 
Lip curled up over column, its place in front taken by two 
flat or twisted sepals ; pink. . p. 596, DISPERIS. 
Sepals erect with petals, over column: flower greenish. 

p. 591. PERISTYLUS. 
Sepals spreading flower white (or yellow) 

p. 584. HABENARIA 



ORCHIDACE^ZE 561 

OBERONIA. F.B.I. 148 i. 

Epiphytes growing on the branches of trees to which 
they attach themselves by roots. Leaves in two ranks* 
closely fitting at the base, sword-like (i.e., compressed 
sideways as in Iris) thick, equally green on both sides. 
Inflorescence terminal. Flowers very small, in dense 
cylindrical spikes 3 to 4 inches by ^ inch, terminating 
the main axis. Sepals broadly ovate. Petals smaller. 
Lip four or two lobed, concave embracing the short 
column to which there is no foot. Anther caps without 
retaining filament. Polliniums four, waxy, without attach- 
ment. 

Species about 50 in tropical Asia and Africa and islands of 
the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Not as a rule cultivated. 

r Peduncle of spike not flattened as base b 

a \ Peduncle flattened, with a leaf-like bract adnate to it . c 

{Petal as wide as the sepals : lip of 2 crenulate rounded 
lobes O. verticillata. 
Petal narrow : lip with fish-tail mid lobe 

O. Wightiana. 

r Flower orange or brown O. Brunoniana. 

I Flower pale straw colour .... O. platycaulon. 

Obcronia verticillata Wight, Herb. Wight Prop. 
179 ; F.B.I. v 677, I 9. Leaves 2 to 4 inches by J to 
I inch. Spikes up to 10 inches ; flowers in whorls to J 
inch apart. Lip broadly obcordate, of two rounded 
crenulate lobes and two minute lobes behind. Petals 
only slightly narrower than the sepals. Capsule ^ inch. 
Wight Ic. t. 1626. 

Nilgiris : on the lower edge of the plateau, Avalanche, 
Pykara, not near Ootacamund. Pulneys : Levinge stream and 
below Glen Falls near Kodaikanal, but not on the downs. 
Shevaroys : near Yercaud. 



562 ORCHIDACE/E 

Oberonia Brunoniana Wight, Herb. Wight Prop. ! ; 
F.BJ. v 68 1 I 24. Leaves 10 to 14 inches by \ to i inch. 
Spikes as long, its stalk clasped in the bottom quarter by a 
leaf ; above, for i inch flattened and broadened like a leaf. 
Flowers sessile reddish orange, or with dark brown sepals 
and lip, and pale petals. Lip roundish very dense like a 
rat's tail of two broad crenulate basal lobes and a pair of 
much smaller terminal lobes with a still smaller lobe 
between them. Petals narrow. Capsule \ inch, t* 486. 
Wight Ic. t. 1622. 

Nilgiris : near Ootacamund and down to Pykara and Nadu- 
vattam. Pulneys : below Kodaikanal on Church Cliff. 

Oberonia Wightiana Lindl ; F.BJ. v 683, I 32 ; 
common Nilgiri Oberonia. Leaves 2 to 6 by i inch. 
Spikes up to 14 inches, with pale yellowish -green flowers 
to within i inch of the base, very slender : pedicel ^ 
inch. Lip with a terminal pair of acute lobes, diverging 
and curved, like a fish's tail, with their inward margins 
toothed, and a pair of basal lobes as large, each slightly 
two-lobed. Petals narrow. Capsule J inch, t* 487. 
Wight Ic. t. 1628. 

Nilgiris : common in woods on the whole plateau. Pul- 
neys : in sholas beyond the Observatory, Poombari, etc. 
Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. 

Oberonia platycaulon Wt. F.B.I, v 682, I 26. A 
much bigger plant than the foregoing, leaves up to 12 inches 
by i inch. Peduncle flat below, the bract-like leaf short 
but carried up to near the top. Flower ] inch, pale. Lip 
with broad rounded basal or lateral lobes and terminal of 2 
much smaller with a third smaller between (whole lip 
consequently five-lobed). Petals narrow. Capsule inch. 

Nilgiris ; on the western downs, Mukarte. 



ORCHIDACE/E 563 

MICROSTYLIS* F.B.I, u. 

Ground orchids with broad corrugated leaves in two 
ranks and fitting over each other at the base, and terminal 
spikes of brownish or purplish flowers. Lip erect concave, 
embracing the column at the base : upper sepals oblong 
recurved : lower one and the other two petals narrow. 
Column very short, flanked on each side at the top by 
rounded arm : anthers erect, polliniums four. 

Species about 50 to 70, in the northern half of the tropics. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Flower purplish green : lip kidney-shaped, toothed . . b 
a j Flower yellow : lip fan-shaped, deeply toothed . . . 
^ M. Stocksii. 

-Lip not toothed : small or large plant . . M. Wallichii. 
Lip with nearly even triangular teeth. Stem stout. . . 

M. versicolor. 

Lip with several narrow filiform lobes and a broader 
middle tooth, stem slender .... M. densiflora. 
NOTE. Microstylis Rhccdii of Wight of the F.B I. and my Fir. 
N. & P. Ht. is now identified (in P.M. P.) with M. versicolor of 
Lindley, an older name : and M. versicolor of Wight is now named 
M. Densifiora by Fischer. 

Microstylis Wallichii Lindl. ; F.B.I. v 686, II i. 
Leaves 2 to 4 by il to 2 inches, spike rising 6 inches. 
Flowers purple. Lip rounded with crenulate, hardly 
toothed margin : sides produced upwards as two acute 
auricles. 

Nilgiris : Ootacamund, flower September. Pykara. 

Gen. Dist. From Simla southwards on the Himalayas to Travancore. 

Microstylis versicolor LindL; formerly M. Rheedii 
Wt. ; F.B.I, v 690, II M 8. Stem stout, 3 to 6 inches, 
bulbous at the base. Leaves 3 to 5 by ij to 2,\ inches, 
five to seven nerved at the base, acute or acuminate : 
leaf -stalks sheathing at the base. Raceme 2| to 3 inches, 



564 ORCHIDACEflE 

raised by as much above the last leaf. Flowers fragrant, 
variable in colour and size, sepals narrow J- to J inch by 
sV inch. Petals J to ^ inch. Lower lip rounded, 
broadly triangular or kidney-shaped, slightly lobed or 
pectinate. Stylar column inch. Capsules i to J inch. 
Wight Ic. t. 902. 

Pulneys : Bearshola near Kodaikanal, but not common at 
these levels. Much more so below. Shevaroys. 
Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, Deccan, Shevaroys, etc, 

Microstylis densiflora Fischery; formerly M. versicolor 
Wight; Herb. Wight Prop. 178 / ; F.B.I. v 691, II 19. 
Stem slender green leaves usually two only ; but smaller 
scarious ones sheathe the lower part of the stem and the 
small false bulb. Green leaves 2 to 3 by J to i^ inches, 
ovate acute, wrapped round the flowering axis and each 
other at the base, and folded along the five or more nerves. 
Flowering axis 2 to 8 inches naked, bare below, above with 
inch lanceolate, deflexed bracts. Flower-stalks r V to 
\ inch, very slender, spur as long, slender. Lip circular 
or kidney-shaped, deeply toothed. Lateral sepals ovate. 
Petals narrow, t* 489. Wight Ic. t. 901. 

In woods. Nilgiris : Kotagiri and above to Ootacamund. 
Pulneys : on the downs. Shevaroys : flower summer. 

Gen. Dist. South Indian hills and Ceylon. 

Microstylis Stocksii Hook. f. ; F.B.I. v 691, II 21. 
Stem 2 to 4 inches. Leaves i| to 4 inches. Spike 3 to 5 
inches. Flowers yellow large. Flower J inch. Lip 
broadly fan -shaped, deeply cut into narrow segments. 

Pulneys : on the downs above Kodaikanal. 

Microstylis* Species not identified. Like M. Stocksii 
but margin of lip recurved, hardly but freely toothed. 
t 488. 

Pulneys ; Kodakianal, 



565 
LIPARIS, F.B.I. 148 ill. 

Terrestial (or epiphytic) herbs like MICROSTYLIS with 
broad leaves plaited on the veins, and terminal spikes of 
flowers : but differing from MICROSTYLIS in the column 
being about twice (or more times) as long as broad, often 
curved, and with wings but not the horse-shoe shaped 
structure at the top. 

Species about 100 in the temperate and tropical regions. 

Liparis Walkeria* Graham ; F.B.L v 698, III 28. 
A fleshy herb, 2 to 6 inches high, streaked with purple. 
Base thickened. Leaves two or three only, broadly ovate, 
acute or acuminate, distinctly unequal at the base, with 
many ribs and folded along them, very variable in size, 
from 3 by 2 to 5 by 4 inches (when in fruit). Flowering 
spike 2 to 4 inches bract to i inch linear. Ovary 
J inch and pedicel as long. Flowers purplish brown. 
Column } \ to -J- inch slightly curved with an angular 
wing on each side just below the top. Dorsal sepal 
oblong three-veined. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate five- 
veined. Petals narrow one-veined. Lip to * rounded, 
or broadly obtuse ; concave and with margins bent over, 
and 2 prominent swellings at the narrow base. 

Shevaroys : in grass on Shevaroyan, flower September. 

Gen. Dist. Low Hills and the Deccan, to the Central Provinces and to 
Ceylon. 

Liparis atropurpurca LindL ; F.B.L v 698, III 29. 
Very similar to the last but the leaves more unequal at the 
base, the racemes taller, the flower larger (sepal up to f inch 
and the column with large rounded wings. Flowers dark 
purple. 

Nilgiris and Pulney Hills at high elevation. 

Liparis viridiflora LindL ; F.B.L v 704, III 57. 
An epiphytic orchid with pseudo-bulb to i inch variable 
in shape. Leaves two only, elliptic sessile or nearly so, 



566 ORCHIDACE/E 

with midrib and about 6 pairs parallel veins. Scape 
3 to 5 inches with a few membranous bracts below the 
raceme. Pedicels recurved, flower ascending, white or 
yellowish or green. Sepals one-veined. 

Pulneys : Periya Shola below Kodaikanal, Nilgiris, and 
High Way Mountains. 

Gen. Dist. Sikkim, Khasia and to Ceylon and Java. 

DENDROBIUM, 

Epiphytic orchids with jointed (sympodial) stems or 
a series of pseudo-bulbs, leaves folded in bud but not 
plaited and the column in the flower extended forwards at 
the base into a long foot which bears the sepals on its 
sides and the lip hinged to its tip. 

A large genus of about 300 species in tropical Asia, Australia, 
Japan and Polynesia. Many are cultivated. 

KEY TO OUR SPECIES. 

rStem of one or two short pseudo-bulbs only. Flower 
a < i inch, white D. nanum. 

LStem elongate, tufted, leafy 

, /"Leaves 4 by i inch D. macrostachyum. 

\Leaves 2 by J inch D. herbaceum. 

Dendrobium nanum Hook. f. ; F.B.I, v 717, VIII 
25. A small epiphytic orchid. Stem of two or more 
small pseudo-bulbs, bearing apically 2 or 3 narrow leaves 
(2 by inch) and the slender rachis of the flowering 
.racemes. Bracts \ inch. Pedicels J inch. Flower 
inch, sepals and petals \ by T 1 2 inch, white. Lip yellow, 
midlobe roundish crenulate, side lobes small, t* 490* 

Nilgiris : Naduvattam, flower September. Shevaroys : 
on Shevaroyan. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 

Dendrobium herbaceum Lindl. ; F.B.I, v 719, 
VIII 35. Stems many pendulous, polished and shining. 
Leaves il to 2 inches by inch. Racemes terminating 



ORCHIDACE^ 567 

short lateral branches, few-flowered. Flowers J inch, 
sepals and petals linear- oblong, obtuse, three-nerved. 
Lip small, side lobes minute or absent. Capsule f inch 
oblanceolate. 

Nilgiris : Naduvattam, fruit May. Not seen in flower. 

Gen. Dist. At lower levels. P.M. P. gives Western Ghauts, 2,000 to 
4,000 feet. 

Dcndrobium macrostachyum Lindl. ; F.BJ. v 735, 
VIII 101. Stems slender, pendulous, cylindrical i to 2 
feet. Leaves oblong, ovate acute, 3 to 4 by i inch. 
Flowers pale green or yellow or tinged with pink, two 
or three together peduncled laterally on long leafless or 
leafy stems. Pedicels | inch. Sepals and petals oblong 
lanceolate, curved. Lip oblong acute flat, crenulate. 

Western Ghauts 7,000 feet. [P.M. P.] not seen. 

CIRRHOPETALUM* F.B.I. 148 xi. 

Tree orchids with long cylindrical creeping stem, 
often clothed with small scales or their fibrous remains, 
and each section of an inch or so ending in an upright 
tuber or pseudo-bulb bearing at the top a single, thick, 
oblong-oval leaf jointed to it and folded in bud, and on 
one side a slender axis with two or three bracts and 
a terminal whorl of flowers, peculiar in the two side 
sepals being three or four times as long (i inch) as the 
petals (J inch) and projecting in front like a double lip. 

Species 40, chiefly in India and Malaya. 

Cirrhopetalum Thomsoni J. D. Hooker ; F.BJ. 
v 778, XI 27. Stem i inch thick ; tubers i to 2 inches 
apart, to f inch high, conical, green. Leaf elliptic or 
linear-oblong, obtuse, 2 inches by | inch with a fair 
midrib and numerous parallel slender nerves, thick and 
leathery, and falling off by a clean joint from the top of the 
bulb. Flowering axis very slender, with two to three 



568 

small-scale sheaths at the base, and thin, ovate "bracts 
inch. Flowers umbelled, four to five standing hori- 
zontal. Side sepals I inch by |- inch, lanceolate, curved, 
live-nerved, yellowish-green with small reddish purple 
spots near the somewhat broader base, quite free of one 
another : dorsal sepal inch, marked with five reddish 
streaks and a network. Side petals J inch, three-nerved. 
Lip jointed to the projecting foot of the column, itself 
short, curved backwards and upwards. Pollen masses, 
four, more or less connected in pairs. 

Pulneys : in sholas near Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : on the 
western edge, Bangitappal. Naduvattam. 

ERIA. F.B.I. 148 xix. 

Small tree orchids remarkable for the round rather 
flat or cylindrical pseudo-bulbs, jointed together in rows, 
from the youngest of which rise a pair of lanceolate 
leaves, set exactly opposite each other and jointed to their 
bases, and a very slender flower-axis with one or several 
white star-like flowers. 

Species : about 80 in tropical Asia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Pseudo-bulbs flat, i inch enclosed in a network, flower i inch 
across, solitary I.E. braccata. 

Pseudo-bulb flat, \ inch, naked flowers % inch, two to five on 
the stalk 2. E. nana. 

Pseudo-bulb erect, 2 inches, flowers J inch, 7 in a raceme . . 

3. E. polystachya. 

i* Eria braccata Lindley (E. reticosa Wight) ; F.B.I. 
v 787, XIX 6. A small tree orchid distinguished by very- 
distinct netting over the flat round tubers, and the single 
large white flower, Over an inch across on the slender 
stalk. 



ORCHIDACE^E 569 

Tubers J to \ inch, less than -J inch thick, joined 
in rows and each enclosed in a very thin covering with 
a raised network of veins. Leaves from an as yet unformed 
tuber, at the end of the row ; with two or three imbricating 
sheathing scales below ; i \ to ijj inches by j to \ inch, 
elliptic acute. Flowers solitary on slender i inch pedicels. 
Sepals and petals spreading, starlike : dorsal sepal \ inch, 
obscurely five-nerved ; lateral, inch at the widest, curved, 
attached to the long foot of the column. Petals J inch 
wide, narrowed at the base. Lip erect rising from 
between the incurved ends of the sepals ; its middle or 
terminal lobe ], inch wide with finely crenulate margin 
and white triangular tip, the rest orange yellow, with 
two central crested ridges which run back to the base of 
the column ; side lobes erect \ inch high, their upper 
edges purple. Polliniums four, attached altogether. 
Ovary J to J- inch, with six prominent crenulate ridges. 
Pod I inch. t. 49 L Wight Ic. t. 1637 (E. reticosa). 

Nilgiris : in shola, common. Odour distinct though 
faint. The flower is as large as Ccelogyne odoratissima and 
very like it in general appearance. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts and Ceylon. Not collected on the 
Pulneys. 

2. Eria nana A. Rich. ; F.B.I, v 789, XIX 14. 
Tubers smaller J- inch, otherwise similar to the last except 
flowers 7 or 8 in a raceme very thin, pale. Petals -1 inch. 
Polliniums 8 pear-shaped. Pod } by ^ inch, capped 
by the dried perianth, t* 492* Wight Ic. t. 1642 lower 
right hand figure (Dendrobium filiforme). 

On trees, especially horizontal branches, often in damp 
moss ; slopes of " Snowdon." Not common on the Kodai- 
kanal and Ootacamund downs. Not known apparently 
except on those hills. 

In t. 492 : a. flower with a lateral sepal and a lateral petal torn off to 
show the lips sessile on the foot of the column and incumbent, with edges 
crenulate. (E.T.B.) 



576 ORCHIDACE^ 

3* Eria polystachya A. Rich. ; F.B.I, v 792, XIX 
28. Pseudo-bulbs cylindrical erect, i to 3 by i inch 
clothed with leaf-sheaths. Leaves elliptic 3 by inch, 
nine-nerved with numerous white dots (marking stomas) 
on the underside. Racemes 3 to 4 inches. Slender 
pubescent. Flowers ^ inch, pale yellow, pedicels J inch. 
Lip with a two-arched thickened purple or brown ridge 
towards the base and bright yellow tip. t, 493, 

Nilgiris : Naduvattam, flower September. 

ACANTHOPHIPPIUML F.B.I, xxm. 

Ground orchids with broad plaited leaves, and lateral 
racemes of flowers, in which the base of the column is 
long and bent up again, so that the perianth forms with 
it a jug-shaped hollow. 

Species 3 or 4 only in India and Malaya. 

Acanthophippium bicolor Lindl. ; F.B.I, v 815, 
XXIII i. Pseudo-bulbs corrugated, i to 2 inches long. 
Leafy shoots with a few scales and one or two elliptical 
leaves 8 by 2 inches, plaited on the 5 main veins. Flower- 
ing stems lateral. Bracts i inch, thin. Flowers 3 to 7, 
i inch by f inch, with stalk (or any) attached about the 
middle of the back, five-lobed at the top and split in front. 
Lip narrow in the lower (i inch) part, then widening with 
erect hatchet-shaped lateral lobes, and tongue-like yellow 
midlobe with 3 ridges on its palate. t, 494, 

Shevaroys : Green Hills. Flower June. Nilgiris : and 
Pulneys below the plateau. 

CCELOGYNE, F.B.I, xxxiv. 

Epiphytic plants, growing on trees, with short creeping 
rhizome made up of annually renewed, tuberous, erect 
sections, clothed at first by scale leaves but later on 
swollen and bare, and bearing at the top one or two of the 
few foliage leaves. These tubers stand in two rows, 



to right and left of the main line. The year's section 
not swollen, ending in a slender flowering axis (scape) 
bearing a few large flowers. Leaves evergreen, but 
with a joint at the base of the blade, so that the blade 
separates very easily from the top of the tuber or leaf- 
sheath. Sepals and petals nearly equal, spreading out 
reflexed : lip with two side-lobes erect and clasping the 
column, and a middle lobe with raised corrugations, not 
spurred or saccate. Column slightly curved, winged 
towards the top, and often with two staminodal auricles. 
Anthers pendulous with distinct stalk, incumbent on the 
three-lobed rostellum, covered by a hood. Polliniums four, 
cohering in pairs by short granular caudicles. 

The annual tuberous sections, each ending ultimately in a 
flower, are sufficient to distinguish Coelogyne from all our other 
orchids except Spiranthes and Cheirostylis, which are ground 
plants. Though formed every year, the sections and their 
leaves are perennial, and remain green for many years. 

Species 50 to 70. All in India and the Malay Islands. This 
genus has furnished some of our most beautiful cultivated 
orchids. 

C Flowering axis enclosed at the base with short sheaths 

a < only b 

L Flowering axis with two green leaves above the sheaths . c 

f Lip with 2 keels C. mossiae. 

\Lip with 3 keels C. angustifolia. 

Tuber i inch or less : lip with 3 ridges : leaves 2 inches. 

C. odoratissima. 
Tuber i| inches : lip with 3 or 5 ridges : leaves i to 5 

inches C. nervosa. 

Tuber 2 to 4 inches, lip with 4 ridges : leaves 3 to 9 inches. 

C. glandulosa. 

The species are not easily distinguished when not in flower and I am not 
certain of some of the localities given below. 

Coelogyne odoratissima Lindley ; F.BJ. v 834, 
XXXIV 25 ; the sweet-scented Plantain Orchid. Tubers 



ORCHIDACE^) 

variable, from i to i inch by i inch, slightly wrinkled, 
clothed only at the base by the brown remains of the scales. 
Leaves 2 by J inch, less or more, thin, acute at both ends, 
with light midrib and two dark green nerves as well as 
other slenderer ones. Spike longer than the leaves, 
slender with one to three flowers only. Bracts f inch, 
light brown and scarious : pedicel | inch : ovary shorter. 
Sepals i by inch, keeled. Petals as long, but narrower. 
Terminal lobe of lip i by inch, curled down at the tip 
and the sides : lateral lobes J inch high, projecting for- 
wards I inch beyond their attachment to the rest ; space 
between with three raised crenulate ridges, the lateral 
of which run on to the terminal lobe and are there coloured 
like its middle patch, yellow. Column very slender in 
general shape oblanceolate, i inch high, -, ! - inch wide 
at the base, J inch near the top, the winged margin forming 
a hood round and over the anther. Anther sac showing 
as an oval yellow body ; polliniums four, in two pairs. 
The flower with the lip nearly horizontal* obviously as a 
platform for bees to alight on. 

On trees, growing commonly in dense masses, dis- 
tinguished from the other species by the thin and smaller 
leaves and the few flowers, t, 495. Wight Ic. t. 1640. 

Nilgiris : on the dewns in sholas common, Dodabetta to 
Avalanche and Bangitappal. Flowers from May to July. 
Not collected at Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Also Ceylon. 

Coelogyne ncrvosa A. Rich. ; F.B.I, as C. corrugata 
Wight, v 835, XXXIV 26 ; the lesser Plantain Orchid. 
Tubers ovoid, deeply wrinkled or corrugated, i by f 
inch ; the oldest with the remains of the old flowering 
stem ; younger with two leaves and a fruiting stem ; 
youngest, still unformed, * ncn thick, covered with 



ORCHIDACEJE 573 

imbricating scales, the uppermost and innermost of 
which become the two green leaves, and having a flowering 
spike. Leaves elliptic, 4 by ij inches, hard. Spike 4 
inches, bracts i by inch, conspicuous spreading, scarious 
and light brown while the flower is open, and persistent 
till the pod forms. Sepals and petals i inch, white, 
elliptic. Midlobe of lip rounded, J by ^ inch : side-lobes 
^ inch high. Column | inch, slender, curving forwards 
at the top, prominently winged and also projecting T ^ 
inch well above the anther. Anther hinged to the flap. 
Polliniums four, joined at the base. Pod ij by A inch, 
deeply five-angled, t, 496* Wight Ic, t. 1639. (C., 
corrugata, not t. 1638.) 

Pulneys : in sholas round Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : Coonoor 
top of Sispara ghaut. 

Richard's nrrvosa is an earlier name than Wight's corrugata. The 
species therefore stands as C. nervosa A. Rich. 

Coelogyne Mossiae RoJfe ; XXXIV 27. Tubers 
ovoid wrinkled.. Leaves 4 to 6 by i to ii inches about 
nine-nerved. Spikes five- or six flowered, clothed at the 
base in sheaths. Flowers i-J- inches white, sepals and 
petals i by \ to I inch- Lip with two raised ridges. 
Capsule il by f inch. Fruiting peduncle about 6 inches 
with two leaves only at the base. t* 497. 

Nilgiris : on the downs. 

On rocks. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : Biccapatti, Bangi- 
tappal. In my Fl. N. & P. Ht , I suurcested this was rare. I am inclined 
to think however that this is the commonest of the big plantain orchids. 

Coelogyne angustifolia ; F.B.L v 833 in part, as 
C. breviscapa, XXXIV 18. Similar to the last but 
smaller. Tubers about i inch. Leaves 4 to 6 by f inch. 
Bracts f inch. Sepals and petals J inch white. Lip 
tinged with yellow with 3 ridges. 

Nilgiris : at 6,000 feet. Also on North Kanara. 



574 ORCHIDACE^E 

Coelogync glandulosa Lindley ; F.B.L v 835, 
XXXIV 27 ; the Plantain Orchid. Tubers 2 to 4 by i 
inch, contracted at each end, curved. Leaves 4 to 12 by 
ij inches. Stalk of racemes sheathed almost to the 
flowers by enveloping bracts and two large leaves. Floral 
bracts ij by $ to J inch. Flower-stalks i inch. Sepals 
and petals i by J inch, pure white. Centre of lip with 
a pair of high ridges and a pair of lateral shorter ones, 
all smooth. Wight Ic. t. 1638. 

On rocks. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal, Pamban stream, etc. 

CALANTHE. F.B.I. 148 xxxvu. 
Large ground orchids with broad longitudinally 
plaited leaves, wrapping round each other in bud, but 
not in two ranks. Flowering shoot lateral on the stem 
(not terminal). Sepals and petals approximately equal. 
Lip adnate to the short column. Polliniums eight, 
slender. 

Species about 40, mostly in tropical Asia, but also in Japan, 
islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, tropical Africa, 
Central America, Mexico and the West Indies. 

Calanthe veratrifolia Brown ; F.B.I, v 851, XXXVII 
15 ; the big Wood Orchid. A large plant, with the 
habit of a Eucharis Lily but the leaves folded between 
the main veins like a fan, and tall racemes of white flowers, 
with lip bifid and spreading out flat, and long slender spur. 

Stem tuberous, growing in the ground with long 
thick roots. Leaves spirally placed, plaited (like a fan) : 
stalk 6 inches, blade 10 inches by 4 inches, larger or 
smaller, dark green. Flowering axis about 2 feet. Flowers 
rather crowded towards the top : bracts i inches, lanceo- 
late, acute, herbaceous ; upper smaller .] inch : flower- 
stalk (ovary and pedicel) 2 inches. Sepals J inch, elliptic, 



ORCHIDACE 575 

obovate, five-nerved ; petals equal, three or five-nerved : 
all five erect or spreading. Lip hanging prominently out- 
wards, with four oblong lobes, two on each side, spreading 
outwards and attached to the foot of the column and forming 
with it a short canal leading to the hollow of the spur. 
Polliniums eight, slender, t* 498. Wight Ic. t. 1664. 

In woods. Pulneys : close below Kodaikanal and in many 
other sholas. Nilgiris : Kotagiri, in Longwood shola ; 
Kodanad. 

C. masuca Lindlcy with longer, narrower nearly stalkless leaves occurs 
at lower levels. 

Gen. Dist. Deccan 6,000 to 7,000 feet, Kanara, Ceylon and on to 
Malaya and Australia. 

ARUNDINA, F.B.I. 148 xxxix. 

Ground orchids with grass -like leaves and large red 
flowers, very much like that of CCELOGYNE, but without 
any projecting foot at the base of the column, and with 
8 polliniums. No spur. 

Species few in India, Malaya and China. 

Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. ; F.B.L v 857, 
XXXVIII i. Stem reed-like, nearly inch thick, i| 
feet high, unbranched clothed with the papery bases of 
leaves. Leaves 6 to 10 inches by t to J inch sheathing 
at the base folded in bud. Peduncle of raceme 6 inches, 
terminal flowers i or 2 only, 2 inches across, crimson. 
t, 499, Wight Ic. t. 1 66. 

Pulneys : at foot of Perumal 5,300 feet. 

EULOPHIA. F.B.I. 148 xxxix. 

Ground orchids flowering often before the leaves 
appear. Leaves rising from a lateral bud, rather narrow, 
plaited, arranged spirally, and convolute in bud, and 
jointed at their bases. Flowers in tall racemes. Sepals 
and petals similar, narrow, and not spreading much. 



576 ORCHIDACE/E 

Column slender and long, curving forwards at the base. 
Lip with side lobes embracing the column, a middle lobe 
with raised ridges, and a short spur. Anther cap falling 
off completely. Polliniums two or four, attached by 
elastic straps to a thin oblong band fixed to an easily 
removed bit of the rostellum. 

Species about 50, in all warmer parts of the world, especially 
tropical and South Africa, and Asia (one near Madras) ; but, 
also, in Australia two and in Brazil one. A few are cultivated. 

Eulophia pratensis Lindley ; F.E.I, vi 4, XXXIX 
10 ; yellow Ground Orchid. Flowering stem appearing 
before the leaves, i to 2 feet high ; with a few sheathing 
scales, slightly swollen at their attachment to the stem ; 
quite glabrous, green or purplish. Raceme 6 inches, 
the flowers about .] inch, apart. Bracts lanceolate, acute, 
\ inch : ovary plus stalk \ inch. Sepals elliptic, oblong, 
dirty yellow outside, purple inside, five-nerved. Petals 
nearly as long, obovate-oblong, clearer yellow. Lateral 
sepals attached by their -J inch wide bases to the shortly 
projecting base of the column, on to which also run the 
front edges of the two petals. Side lobes of lips embracing 
the column, each as wide as the middle lobe : middle lobe 
with three or four crested ridges running towards the 
opening of the short, triangular, backward pointing spur. 
Column deeply grooved, with the sides meeting across 
the middle at the top ; rostellum sloping downwards. 
Anther cap with a short projecting point, quite free. 
Polliniums two, attached by thin elastic bands to the 
removable part of the rostellum, globose. Capsule 
\\ inches elliptic, turgid. Leaves long petioled, 10 to 
12 inches, t. 500. Wight Ic. t. 1666. 

The flowers appear to vary considerably in size. 

Pulneys : On the ridge above Silver Cascade, below 
Kodaikanaf! 



ORCHIDACEJE 577 

Eulophia nuda Lindl. ; F.B.L vi 5, XXXIX 18. A 
larger plant with leaf blades 12 to 15 inches long and sepals 
and petals i inch by J inch. Pod nearly 2 inches long. 
t. 501. 

Nilgiris : Eastern slope of Catherine Falls valley below 
Bandishola 6,000 feet. Pulneys : below Church Cliff, Kodai- 
kanal. 

Gen. Dist. Tropical Himalayas to the Deccan, and Ceylon. 

POLYSTACHYA. 

Tree orchids of the CCELOGYNE type, i.e., with pseudo- 
bulbs, leaves folded in bud, and racemes of flowers termi- 
nating the year's shoot. Flowers small. Column very 
broad and extended in a long foot. Lateral sepals broad. 
Petals much narrower. Lip jointed to the end of the 
foot. Polliniums 4. Pod ovoid. 

Species about 75 in tropical Asia, Africa and America. 

Polystachya purpurca Wt.; F.B.L v. 21, XLVII 2. 

Pseud6-bulbs not obvious. Leaves few, 2 to 5 by 1 to 
i inch, elliptic. Peduncle of racemes 4 to 6 inches, 
compressed and angular. Bracts \ inch. Flowers purple 
J inch, on a slender \ inch ovary. Column broad, 
winged : foot longer. Sepals a nearly equilateral triangle. 
Petals much smaller. Lip three-lobed the side lobes erect, 
the midlobe much the largest, crenulate rounded or 
notched : a high ridge on the palate. Fruit J by inch ; 
ellipsoid, t. 502. 

Shevaroys : on Green Hills, flower Summer. 

LUISIA. 

Tree orchids with slender cylindrical stems and leaves, 
and short racemes, lateral on the branches, of flowers 
37 



578 ORCHIDACE;E 

of the BRIDES type. Column short, not extended as a 
foot : lip sessile at its base. Polliniums 2. Capsule 
narrow, erect. 

Species about 15, in tropical Asia and Japan. 

Luisia tenuifolia BL; F.BJ. vi 23, XLIX 2. Stems 
as thick as a lead pencil, a foot or more long. Leaves 
thinner 4 or 5 inches, also cylindrical. Racemes i to 2 
inches. Flowers inch, yellowish and purple ; sepals 
\ inch. Petals I by ^ inch. Lip narrow at the base 
and broadening outwards ; with two minute erect lobes 
at the base and a notch in the broad apex. Capsule 
about i inch, t* 503* 

Shevaroys : on Green Hills, flower June. 

DERIDES. 

Rock or Tree Orchids with stout perennial stem 
which continues growing at the end (monopodial growth) 
and thick whitish aerial roots (which absorb water 
through thin spongy covering). Leaves in two ranks 
and jointed to their bases if flat folded in bud. Flowers 
in lateral racemes from the axils of the leaves. Sepals 
and petals spreading. Lip divided distinctly into two 
parts, the forward one broad and jointed to the inner, 
which has erect side lobes and a spur and is itself attached 
to the prolonged base of the column. Pollinia 2. 
Species about 50 in the tropics of Asia. 

Flowers round : racemes spreading : on rocks. . A. crispum. 

Flowers narrow : on trees A. ringens. 

Stem and leaves cylindrical, slender . . A. cylindricum. 

/Brides crispum Lindley ; F.BJ. vi 45, LVIII 8 ; 
Common pink Rock Orchid. Stem thick as the middle 
finger, covered with the bases of the fallen leaves. Leaves 



ORCHIDACE/E 579 

thick and close-set, 3 to 5 by i inch, notched and uneven 
at the end, green but with purplish blotches on the upper 
side. Racemes spreading or pendulous, longer than the 
leaves. Flowers rose-coloured, J to ij inches across. 
Sepals and petals broad, nearly round. Midlobe of 
lip nearly as broad as long, crisped along the margin : 
side lobes J inch long, erect palate : with a slight ridge 
and two swellings. Spur J inch cylindrical blunt. 
Column J inch high ; with longer foot, the side sepals 
attached by their whole width to its underside and the 
lip at the end ; upper part winged, the edges almost 
hiding the deeply sunk stigma, t, 504. Wight 
Ic. t. 1677 bis. 

On exposed rocks. Common on the Pulncy downs, about 
Kodaikanal. Nilgiris : Coonoor. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 

This is the Orchid commonly brought round for sale in Kodaikanal, 
a practice which should not be encouraged, for collectors of this type are 
ruthless in their destruction. In any case a plant, \\hen done with, should 
not be thrown iway, even if only a piece of stem, but carefully planted in a 
crevice on some rock. 

^Brides ringens Fischer ; formerly A. radicosum 
A. Rich ; F.B.I. vi 46, LVIII n ; the larger pink Tree 
Orchid. Stem much as in the last. Leaves 2 inch 
wide, 6 to 10 inches long, thick, strongly grooved, notched 
and unequal at the tip ; often spotted brown. Spike 
erect. Flow r ers less than half as wide as they are long : 
pedicel and ovary i inch, curving back against the axis 
of the spike. Dorsal sepal erect, nearly flat, oval, inch : 
lateral \ inch, forming with the smaller petals very flat 
sides to the flower. Midlobe of lip } 3 inch, broad and 
long, contracted suddenly at both ends : lateral lobes 
T ! rt inch, the palate between with a double swelling. Spur 
J inch, curved forwards, blunt : spur J inch curved. 
Column J inch strongly winged. Capsule on a stalk 
37-A 



580 ORCHIDACEJE 

of | inch, i by f inch, three-angled, t, 505* Wight 
Ic. t. 1673 (Saccolabium rubrum) ; Ic. t. 917 (S. Wighti- 
anum). 

On trees, flowering before the rains. Nilgiris : Ootacamund 
in sholas common all over the downs to Bangitappal and Pykara 
on the west, and Kotagiri on the east. Pulneys : Pillar Rocks. 

Gen Dist. Western Ghauts. 

Easily distinguished from A. crispuni by the narrow flowers, more 
shortly stalked spikes and flat not curved lip, and nearly always a 
tree-orchid, growing always in the shade, \\hile the other grows mostly 
in the open on rocks. 

./Brides cylindricum Lindl.; F.B.I, v 44, LVIII 3. 
Stem cylindrical, as thick as a quill. Leaves also 2 to 4 
inches by -^ inch. Peduncle of raceme short (about 
i inch) stout. Flowers few, I to i| inches, white or 
pinkish with yellowish lip. Sepals narrower than the 
broad petals. Side lobes of lip as large as midlobe, 
erect spur | inch acute, t, 506, 

Shevaroys : on Green Hills, flower summer. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts from Coorg to Travancore. 

SACCOLABIUM. F.B.I. 148 LXI. 

Sac-orchid. 

Similar to the Rock Orchid, /ERIDES, as regards the 
structure of the vegetative parts and the flower, and 
differing chiefly in there being no extended foot to the 
column, so that the lip, here comparatively small, is not 
carried out and is not divisible into two parts. 

Species about 20 in the Indo-Malay region. Some culti- 
vated. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

Leaves slender, cylindrical : spur much longer than the sepals 
or petals S. filiforme. 

Leaves strap-shaped : spur broad shorter than the sepals or 
petals S. pulchellum. 



ORCHIDACE/E 581 

Saccolabium filiformc Lindley ; F.BJ. vi 56, LXI 3 ; 

yellow or pink Sac-orchid. Distinguished from all our 
other orchids by the slender green stems and round, stick- 
like leaves, and by the curved, drooping spikes of small, 
yellow-brown flowers, less than } inch broad but with 
spurs twice as long, which hang down from their axils. 
Roots thick, white. Stem J inch thick, green. Leaves 
more or less in two ranks 2 to 6 inches by -^ inch or less, 
but tapering and sheathing the stem at the base. Spikes 
about 2 inches ; flowers dense ; bracts -,\, inch, acute ; 
stalk and ovary inch. Spur J inch, brown. Capsule 
slender egg-shaped, % inch, its stalk inch, the remains 
of the perianth persistent at the top. t, 507* 

In the sholas frequent. 
Appears to be in two varieties 

var. nilgirica : flowers pink, spur shorter than the ovary. 
Nilgiris : on the downs to Pykara and Naduvattam ; flowers 
May, etc. 

var. pulneycnsis : flowers yellow streaked brown : spur 
longer than the ovary. Pulneys : in sholas about Kodaikanal, 
not rare. Ceylon. 

Gen. Dist. Also Central Provinces. 

Saccolabium pulchellum Fischer ; F.B.L v 60 
(S. nilagiricum), LXI 21. Stem stout, attached to its 
support by a matting of aerial roots. Leaves strap- 
shaped, unequal at the tip, 3 to 8 by -J- inch. Flowers 
about J inch diameter in short corymbs, lateral on the 
stem : stalk about \ inch not twisted, so that the lip of 
all the flowers faces inwards. Sepals and petals J inch 
strongly incurved, oblong rounded striped yellow and 
brown. Lip with broad sac at the base and a broadly 



ORCHIDACE^ 

triangular lobe beyond. Pollinia attached by elastic 
straps to the rather long caudicle. t* 508. 

Nilgiris : near Kotagiri in Catherine Falls valley. Pulneys : 
below Kodaikanal. 

CLEISOSTOMA, 

Tree orchids with creeping stem, and small flowers 
in lateral racemes. Spur short not septate, and its mouth 
almost closed with a callus or lamella. 

Species about 20. 

Cleisostoma tcnerum Ilook.f. ; F.R.I, vi 73, LXVI 7. 
Stem \ inch thick. Leaves sessile 2 by J inch, oblong 
notched, flowers brownish, with darker lines, t, 509* 
Wight Ic. t. 16(83. 

Pulneys : near Kodaikanal in the Pambar ravine, and below. 
Nilgiris : Sispara Ghaut. 

DIPLOCENTRUM. F.B.I. 148 LXX. 

Tree orchids of the /ERIDES type, i.e., stem growing 
continuously at the apex and without pseudo-bulbs : 
leaves in two ranks flat, folded in bud ; flowers in lateral 
loosely branched panicles and column short : but without 
extended foot to the column or hinged lip, and distin- 
guished further by its short bifurcated spur, and a thick 
fleshy disc at the base of the lip. 

Species about 3, in South India, Ceylon, Malaya. 

Diploccntrum recurvum LindL; F.B.I, vi 78, LXX i. 
Stem 2 to 6 inches. Leaves 4 to 9 by J inch. Panicle 
larger, well branched. Flowers \ inch. Spurs narrow, 
conical incurved, t* 510* 

Shevaroys : " Green Hills, " flowering June. 



ORCHIDACE^E 583 

SPIRANTHES* F.B.I. 148 LXXXVII. 
Lady's Tresses. 

Ground orchids with the small white flowers on a 
twisted spike. 

Roots toe k with thick white roots, and ending above in 
the flowering and leafy stem. Leaves spirally arranged, 
not jointed at the base. Middle sepal and petals forming 
a hood over the short column, but not fused together : 
lateral sepals free, with more or less parallel nerves. 
Lip different in shape, hanging down vertically, small, 
oblong, concave, crisped, hairy at the middle, with short 
spur. Anther erect, attached to the equally long, erect 
rostellum, two-celled, with two waxy polliniums pendulous 
from the top. 

Species about 80 in tropical mountains and in temperate 
regions. In England three, the commonest being S. autumnalis 
Lady's Tresses. 

Spiranthes australis Lindley ; F.B.L vi 102, 
LXXXVII i. Stem 6 to 8 inches, rather slender. Leaves 
mostly near the base, 2 to 5 inches, narrow oblanceolate 
acute, hardly i inch wide, sheathing the stem for a short 
way. Stalk of spike slender ; flowering part 3 to 6 inches, 
the flowers close together in a dense spiral, white. Sepals 
i by T V, inch : petals slightly shorter. Lip thrce-lobed, 
with two glands at the base. Capsule J- inch, ribbed. 
t. 51 L 

Pulneys : common on the Kodaikanal downs, flowers 
summer. Nilgiris : in grass all over the downs. 

Gen. Dist. On mountains throughout India, from the Punjab and 
Tibet to Ceylon and Chittagong. Eastwards to China, Japan, Australia, 
New Zealand ; northwards to Afghanistan and northern Asia. 

var. Wightiana. Spike i to 2 inches dense : stem stout. 
Nilgiris : Kotagiri. 



5 84 ORCHIDACE^E 

CHEIROSTYLIS, 

Ground orchids. Flowers with a central column, 
as in the preceding genera, but pollen sacs distinct 
parallel, and pollen granular in two polliniums also the 
median sepal fused with the lateral petals to form a hood 
over the column. Stem erect, unbranched. Leaves 
thin rolled in bud. Flowers small in a spike. Column 
with two erect appendages in front. Lip with short sac 
at the base, and a bi-lobed and deeply cut limb. 

Species 12 in tropical Asia and Africa. 

Cheirostylis flabellata Wight ; F.B.I. vi 105, XC 5. 
Rootstock in appearance like artichoke, pinkish brown, 
lumpy. Stem hairy. Leaves 1 to i inch, ovate-acute, 
sheathing at the base, three or five nerved : upper reduced 
to scales with distinct sheathing portion. Flowers five 
or six, I inch across. Lip bifid, each half deeply fringed. 
Capsule egg-shaped, ^ to } inch, t* 512* Wight Ic. 
t. 1727. 

In shady places. Nilgiris : near Ootacamund on Snowdon 
Pulneys : Bearshola and Church Cliff shola, near Kodaikanal. 
Flowering April. 

Gen. Dist. Higher mountains of India from Bhotan southwards to 
Tenasserim and Ceylon. 

HABENARIA. F.B.I. 148 cvi. 

Ground orchids with slender stem and spirally arranged 
leaves which are not folded along the veins, but are at the 
base wrapped round the stem. Flowers usually white, in 
terminal spikes, with bracts. Lateral sepals spreading 
(distinction from the next species). Petals erect or 
spreading, sometimes divided. Lip with three lobes, the 
side lobes as wide as the midlobe, or much narrower or 
broad and toothed. Capsule ovoid or oblong. 

Species about 400 in temperate and tropical regions. 



OkCHlDACE^E 585 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

f Corolla yellow 12. H. Perrottetiana. 

\ Flowers white b 

/Petals divided, one or both halves hair-like c 

\Petalsnotdivided: lip three-lobed or partite . . . . d 
f Spur \ inch : petal segments curled upwards .... 
| i. H. digit ata. 

Spur i inch : petal segments straight 

2. H. grandiflora. 

Spur 2 inches : petal segments curved up 

3, H. rariflora. 

f Side lobes of lip broader than the middle lobe . . . e 

d -{ Side lobes of lip not broader than the middle lobe . . / 

I Flowers many, under i inch : lateral lobes of lip \ inch 

I or less (Nilgiris) 5. H. cephalotes and 4. H. Richard- 

iana. 
j Flowers many, midlobe of lip 4 inch wide, side lobes 

inch 6. H. longicornu. 

Flowers one or two only : spur 3 to 4 inches 

. . 7. H. longicalcarata and 8. H. decipiens. 
T Flowers all facing one way : bracts embracing the flowers. 
/ X Leaves ovate i to i i inches . . . 10. H. Heyneana. 

L Flowers spirally arranged g 

^Leaves two only, flat on the ground, thick 

i ii. H. crassifolia. 
i Leaves several, on the stem, flowers J- inch greenish 
L white 9. H. elliptica. 

i. Habenaria digitata Lindl. ; F.B.I, vi 135, CVI 7. 
Characterized by having two pairs of filiform segments 
of petals curling upwards like horns. Tuber inch. 

var. foliosa. Stem 6 to 10 inches, clothed at the 
base only with sheaths, above leafy. Leaves i to 2 inches, 
elliptic-ovate, acute, stem clasping ; upper smaller merging 
into the bracts. Flowers dirty white, in a dense spike 
2 to 4 inches long. Bracts f inch, ovate-acute, slightly 
longer than the ovary. Sepals | inch ; lateral pair ovate- 
acute, curved spreading ; dorsal sepal round. Petals 






586 ORCHIDACE;E 

each divided into two filiform segments curved upwards 
like horns. Lips deeply three-fid into narrow hair-like 
segments, the middle one longest. Stigmatic processes 
large straight. Pollen sacs curled upwards and outwards. 
Capsule o inch, t, 513. Wight Ic. t. 1700. 

In the open, on grass downs. Nilgiris : on golf links, etc., 
to Avalanche and Coonoor, flowering August. 
Gen. Disf. Nilgiris ahd northward on the Ghauts. 

var. travancorica Hook.f. ; Herb. Wight Prop. ' H. 
lindleyana ' ! ; formerly H. travancorica II. f. F.B.I, vi 
135, CVI 8. Lateral sepals J inch, ovate-acute, pubescent 
on the inner side ; dorsal one round. Spur .1 inch, shorter 
than the ovary. 

Stem 6 to 15 inches. Leaves i to 2 by J to i inch, 
ovate-acute, uppermost narrower and acuminate. Bracts 
I to i inch, much longer than the ovaries, t. 51 4, Wight 
Ic. t. 922. (H. lindleyana.) 

Pulneys : on the open grass downs, flowering autumn. 
Fyson 2133. Bourne 1199. 

Very similar to vur. fohosa, differing mainly in the sepals being pubes- 
cent. * 

2. Habcnaria grandiflora Lindl. ; F.B.I, vii 136. 
CVI 13. A slender ground orchid with one roundish leaf 
on the ground, and two or three white flowers having 
a long, slender spur and fine filiform white segments 
projecting in front. 

Basal leaf il inches, nearly round deeply cordate 
and clasping the stem. Scape 3 to 6 inches, leafless 
except for a bract below a flower or at a forking (if any). 
Flowers usually 2 sometimes more, about i inch broad. 
Petals divided, the upper segment broad, lower filiform. 
Lip divided into 3, the lateral segments filiform, the 



ORCHIDACE./E 

middle narrow, with recurved margins. Spur slender, 
longer than the ovary, t* 515. 

Shevaroys : on the plateau, flowering June. 

Closely allied to the next species of which it might be called a larger 
edition. 

3. Habenaria rariflora A. Rich. ; F.B.I, vi 136, 
CVI 14. A samll white flowered ground orchid remark- 
able for the long slender curved spur and the four 
hair-like segments projecting from either side of the 
flower. 

Stem 4 to 8 inches, clothed below by the sheathing 
bases of the leaves. Leaves close to the ground, 3 to 4 
inches by \ inch, oblong-lanceolate, acute, folded, clasp- 
ing the lower part of the stem by their sheathing bases. 
Upper part of stem with only a few bract-like sheaths. 
Bracts ? to ij inches, narrow-lanceolate, acute. Pedicel 
I to 'I inch ; ovary as long. Spur 2 inches, incurved. 
Sepals triangular spreading, the posterior inch acute. 
Petals each of two parts ; the upper ovate-acute j inch, 
the lower hair-like and twice as long, curved slightly 
upwards. Lip consisting of a narrow oblong middle 
lobe, J by A inch, from about the middle of which on 
each side a straight hair-like segment projects straight 
outwards (at half right and half left). Ovary usually not 
showing a twist. Pod i by }- inch, t, 516. Wight Ic. 
t. 924. 

In the grass of the open downs on thin soil. Pulneys : 
above Kodaikanal, flower July. Nilgiris : on the lower slopes. 
Gen. Dist. Babuboodons and Western Ghauts. 

4. Habenaria Richardiana Wt. Ic. 1714; F.B.I. 
vi 139, 21. Similar to the next but spur twice as long as 
the ovary, and side lobes of lip not much wider than the 



588 ORCHIDACE^E 

midlobe, finely toothed. Leaves narrower than in H. 
caphalobs. Flower white. 

Nilgiris and Anamalai Hills [F.M.P.]. 

5. Habenaria cephalotcs Lindl. ; F.B.I. vi 139, 
CVI 22. Tuber elongate. Stem 3 to 6 inches, and raceme 
2 to 4 inches : base stout with one or two sheaths. Leaves 
two or three only, 2 to 2.1 by 1} inches, ovate ; succeeded 
by much smaller ones. Spike dense 2 to 4 inches : bracts 
i by J inch, lanceolate acuminate, longer than the ovaiies. 
Lateral sepals 1 7 inch, pubescent, spreading ; dorsal smaller. 
Flowers white. Petals entire erect. Lip divided into three 
lobes : midlobe J inch, narrow : lateral lobes much 
broader. Spur curved forwards shorter than the beaked 
ovary, t* 517. Wight Ic. 5. 1711. 

In open grass land. Nilgiris : on the downs near Ootaca- 
mund and down to Avalanche and Naduvattam. Flower 
after the rains. Not on Pulney downs. 

Distinguished from the next by the broad fringed side lobes of the lip. 

6. Habenaria longicornu Lindl. ; F.BJ. vi 139, 
CVI 24. Stem \ to li- feet. Leaves mostly from near 
the base, narrow, 6 by i inch. Flowers many in an 
oblong head. Bracts narrow acuminate, i inch. Ovary 
a little longer. Spur 2 inches. Sepals ovate, /,- by 
inch. Petals much smaller. Lip three-partite ; middle 
lobe | by 4 inch, side lobes i inch acute straight on 
inside, with side margin finely toothed, t. 518, 

Pulneys : in grass. 

Gen. Dist. Nilgiri, Pulney and Travancore mountains. Flower. 
Ootacamund, September. 

7* Habenaria longicalcarata A. Rich. ; F.BJ. vi 141, 
CVI 30 ; Elephant's Head. Distinguished by the large 
white flowers and very long spur. 



ORCHIDACEJE 589 

Stem 12 to 1 8 inches, from an oblong tuber. Leaves 
few (four or five) close to the ground, oblong, acute, 
or broadly elliptic : stem above clothed with loosely 
sheathing bracts nearly as long as< the internodes. 
Flowers one to three only : pedicels i to i i inches : bracts 
acute, sheathing nearly as long : ovary as long. Petals 
and dorsal sepal erect : dorsal sepal green, three-nerved, 
with recurved margins : lateral oblong curved or 
nearly semi-circular, spreading down and backwards. 
Lip i to ij inches, three-fid ; midlobe oblong, J by 
inch ; lateral lobes cuneate, slightly toothed along the 
sloping end. Spur 4 to 5 inches, hanging vertically down 
but bent forwards at about the middle, and thicker 
below this. Anthers over \ inch, curved forwards and 
upwards. Filaments of polliniums over ] inch : pollen 
in large granular masses. Stigmas on two large shining 
fleshy green J-inch processes, curving horizontally out- 
wards in two semi-circles and nearly meeting in front. 
t, 519. Wight Ic. t. 925. Curtis Bot. Mag. t. 7228. 

In t. 519 : a one caudicle and its gland is sho\\n escaped from the 
anther-sac, and just the gland of the other. 

On the open downs. Pulneys : near Kodaikanal common 
in places. Widely distributed on the uplands of South India, 
Mysore, etc., down to 2,000 feet. 

8. Habenaria decipicns Wt. ; F.B.L vi 197. Similar 
to the last but a smaller plant with much shorter spur 
and more deeply toothed lateral lobes of the lip. 

Shevaroys : Bourne. Also Nilgiris [P.M. P.], 

9. Habenaria elliptica Wight, Herb. Wight. Prop. 
3071 /; F.B.I. vi 147, CVI 49. Tubers ellipsoid, f to 
ij- inches : stem 8 to 24 inches, leafy. Leaves mostly 
near the ground but also on the stem above, lanceolate 
or elliptic, acute, 2 to 3 inches by to inch ; the upper 



590 ORCHIDACEJE 

smaller and merging into the floral bracts, which are 
lanceolate acute, shorter than the ovary. Racemes 
dense, many flowered. Flowers white inch across : 
ovary f inch, curved forwards. Dorsal sepal and petals 
erect, arching over the column : lateral sepals spreading. 
Lip curled down, divided to near the middle into three 
nearly equal lobes : lateral lobes acute, entire or dentate 
on the outer margin. Spur | inch, slender above, below 
much thickened and curved forwards. Stigmatic pro- 
cesses fleshy, deflexed down against the labellum. 
Scent that of the English " Lily of the valley. " t, 520* 
Wight Ic. t. 1706. 

On the open grass downs. Pulneys : above Kodaikanal, 
etc. Not elsewhere. 

io Habenaria Heyneana Lindl. ; F.B.I, vi 148, 
CVI 53. Stem 6 to 10 inches. Leaves li by \ inch, 
ovate, stem-clasping, recurved : upper smaller, acumi- 
nate. Raceme 2 to 3 inches. Bracts broad, acuminate, 
sheathing the flowers. Flowers all facing one way, green- 
ish yellow. Dorsal sepal and petals arching : lateral 
sepals spreading. Lip three-partite curving downwards : 
lobes oblong } inch, sub-equal or the middle one very 
slightly longer and broader. Spur as long or shorter 
than the ovary, which is not stalked. Turns black on 
drying, t, 521* 

Nilgiris : on the downs to Pykara ; flowering summer. 
Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts. 

ii. Habenaria crassifolia A. Rich. ; F.B.L vi 151, 
CVI 63. Distinguished by the two nearly circular fleshy 
leaves spreading out flat at the base. Stem I to 2 feet, 
from an oblong ellipsoid tuber i to ii inches long ; 



ORCHIDACE^E 591 

leafless except at the base, but clothed with sheathing 
bracts which may overlap towards the top. Leaves two 
only, i to 2 inches, circular, fleshy. Flowering part less 
than half the whole : bracts lanceolate acute, i to inch, 
shorter than the ovary. Ovary i inch, sessile. Flowers 
J inch only, white. Dorsal sepal ovate-acute, arching : 
lateral sepals J inch, oblong-obtuse, curved downwards. 
Petals shorter and narrower ovate-acute. Lip three-fid, 
lobes acute, entire or nearly so. Spur nearly as long as 
the ovary, club-shaped. Stigmatic processes short acute. 
t. 522. Wight Ic. t. 1694. 

In clamp places flowering June to September. Nilgiris : 
near Ootacamund, etc. Pulneys : just below Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts northwards to Mahabaleshwar. 
Closely allied to H. platyphylla of the plains near Madras. 

12. Habcnaria Pcrrottetiana A. Rich. ; F.BJ. vi 
164, CVI 103. Remarkable for its yellow flowers and the 
very broad sepals and longitudinally folded lip. Stem 
stout i to 2 feet. Leaves 2 to 3 inches long, passing 
upwards into the bracts. Sepals : ] by ,* inch, obtuse, 
concave. Petals erect, narrow ; lip triplicate in bud. 
t, 523. 

Pulneys : on the downs in grass. 



PERISTYLUS. F.B.I. INCD. IN 148 cvi. 

Ground orchids similar to HABENARIA and formerly 
included as a section of that genus, having the lateral 
sepals erect and forming with the dorsal sepal and the 
petals a hood over the flower. Spur short. Flowers 
greenish* 



592 ORCHIDACE;E 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

/Lateral lobes of lip filiform b 

\Lip of 3 oblong lobes : flowers in a loose spiral. 

P. spiralis. 

, f Stem leafy for half its height . . . P. Richardianus. 
\Leaves clustered at one level .... P. aristata. 

Peristylus Richardianus Wt. ; formerly Habenaria 
bicornuta Hook. ; F.B.I, vi 156, CVI 78. Wight, Herb. 
Wight Prop. I Stem up to 2 feet leafy to about the 
middle. Leaves ij by 12 inches, narrow lanceolate- 
acute, merging above into the bracts. Spike long, many 
flowered, bracts -J- inch, ovary J inch. Flowers J inch, 
yellowish-green. Dorsal sepal J inch, arched like a 
hood. Lateral sepals as long, obtuse. Petals a little 
shorter. Lip three-partite. Lateral segments long and 
linear, curled at first like ram's horns, then erect and 
curved like a buffalo's ; middle segment -J by T \,- 
inch, oblong-obtuse, thick, with three swellings at the 
base, the middle one curving over the entrance to the 
spur. Spur inch, half the ovary. Column about T ! c 
inch. Leaves and flowers dry black, t, 524* Wight Ic. 
t. 1097. 

In grass Pulneys : Pillar rocks and down to Shembaganur ; 
flower September. Nilgiris : about 6,000 feet. 

Peristylus spiralis A. Rich. ; F.B.I, vi 159 (Habe- 
naria torta//0o./.), CVI 87. Slender plants with green- 
ish flower in a loose spiral, distinguished from our others 
of this genus by the equally three-lobed lip and very short 
spur. Stem 6 to 10 inches. Leaves in the lowest third, the 
lowest shortest, the upper pasing into the narrow bracts, 
the middle leaves about 2 by \ inch narrowly ovate, or 
lanceolate. Bracts longer than the \ inch ovary. Sepals 



ORCHIDACEJE 593 

and petals about -| inch, connivent over the^ column. 
Lip longer with 3 oblong equal lobes. Spur one-third 
as long as the sepals. The flower is bent at the top 
of the ovary so that the sepals and petals are nearly 
horizontal, the lip hanging down, t, 525. 

In grass. Nilgiris : Naduvattam, flower September. 

Gen. Dist. Also Travancorc and Bababoodon. 

Pcristylus aristata Lindl. ; formerly Habenaria 
aris Hook. /. ; F.B.I, vi 158, CVI 82. A slender plant 
with leaves clustered a few inches above the ground, and 
loose spike of green flowers distinguished from our others 
of this genus by the long filiform side lobes of the lip. 

Stem 8 to 1 8 inches. Leaves 3 to 6 together, 2 to 3 by 
| to | inch ovate-acute or elliptic, nerved. Stem nearly 
bare for the next third or more. Upper bracts \ inch, 
shorter than the ovary. Sepals and petals J inch. Lip 
three-partite, the side lobes filiform inch, divergent, 
middle lobe J inch. Spur half the ovary, inflated at the 
bottom, t* 526* 

Pulneys : in light shade on damp ground near Kodaikanal. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, 7,000 feet. 

PLATANTHERA. F.B.I. INCL. in 148, cvi. 

Ground orchids similar in general to HABENARIA and 
included formerly with PERISTYLUS in that genus, but 
differing in the stigmas not being stalked but more or 
less confluent. 

Species about 80 in the north temperate regions and on 
tropical mountains. In England the Butterfly orchid belongs 
to this genus. 

Platanthera Susannae Lindl. ; formerly Habenaria 
Susannae Br. ; F.B.L vi 137, CVI 15. A robust plant 
of 2 to 4 feet. Leaves ovate-oblong 2 to 6 inches long, 

38 



594 ORCHIDACE;E 

clasping the stem at the base and erect, covering the 
stem up to the spike. Bracts leafy. Flowers few 2 to 
3 inches across, white, fragrant. Side lobes of lip over 
i inch divided deeply into narrow segments. Spur 5 
to 6 inches, t, 527. Wight Ic. t, 920. 
Pulneys, 4,000 to 5,000 feet. 

Gen. Dist. Western Ghauts, 4,000 feet. Tropical Himalayas to 
Travancore, Malaya Islands and China. 

PHYLLOMPHAX. F.B.I. INCL. IN 148 cvi. 

Ground orchids similar in general to HABENARIA and 
formerly included in that genus, but differing in the stigmas 
not stalked, and from PLATANTHERA in the lip being entire. 

Phyllomphax obcordatc Schltr. ; formerly Habe- 
naria obcordata ; Platanthera obc. Lindl. ; Habenaria 
galendra Benth. and Habenaria jantha Benth. ; F.B.I. 
vi 163 and 164, CVI 100 and 101. Common purple 
ground-orchid. Stem 6 to 10 inches, leafy throughout, 
glabrous, green but purplish at the base. Leaves ovate- 
acute, stem clasping, i to 2 by 4 to i inch, merging 
upwards into bracts. Bracts leaf-like, longer than the 
ovary. Sepals and petals erect, arching over the column. 
Spur short and broad, sac-like. Very variable in size 
and in the size and shape of the lip, which may be from 
to i inch, and from cuspidate to deeply notched, t, 528. 

var. jantha Hooker ms. on Herb. Wight Prop. 1031 / / 
not of Wight. Lip larger, up to i inch across, and longer, 
deeply notched with or without a central point, but not cuspi- 
date. Stem dark purplish-red. Leaves green with red 
nerves, t. 528. (b. fruit.) 

Pulneys: Kodaikanal downs. Travancore (Wight Kew 
Dist. 3025). Grows with the other on the Kodaikanal downs 
with intermediate