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Full text of "Flora of the Yellowstone National Park"

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

PAVXS 








FLOE A 



Yellowstone National Park. 



FRA N K T\Y EEDY 




THE LIBRARY 



WITHDRAWN 

» Cafifcnb to** * T«cta*lf 



FLOEA 



OF THE 



Yellowstone National Park 



BY 

FRA N K TWEEDY. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. : 
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 



1886. 



LIBRARY 

laKYSasrry of :foknja 

DAVTS 



Wm. P. Kildare, Printer, 734 & 736 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



PEEFACE. 



In the following general notes on the flora of the Yellowstone 
National Park but little has been attempted beyond an enumer- 
ation of the Flowering Plants (Phaenogamia) and Yascular 
C^ptogams (Pteridophyta). 

The list of plants has been compiled from the following 
sources, neglecting a few species in the older collections, of 
doubtful synonymy : — 

A collection of 605 species made by the author in the Yellowstone National 
Park during August and September, 1884, and June, July, August 
and September, 1885. 

A collection made by Robert Adams, Jr., in 1871. 

In U. S. Geol. Surv. Montana and adjacent Terr. F. V. Hayden. 
Wash., 1872. 

By Prof. John M. Coulter in 1872, 

In U. S. Geol. Surv. Montana, Idaho, Wyoming and Utah. 
F. V. Hayden. Wash., 1873. 

By Dr. C. C. Parry in 1873. 

In Reconnaissance of Northwestern Wyoming. Capt. W. A. Jones. 
Wash., 1874. 

By Dr. W. H. Forwood in 1881. 

In Report of Lieut. Gen. P. H. Sheridan of his Expedition through 
the Big Horn Mts., Yellowstone Park, etc. Wash., 1882. 

By Dr. W. H. Forwood, in 1882. 

In Report of an Exploration of parts of Wyoming, Idaho and 
Montana, made by Lieut. Gen. P. H. Sheridan. Wash., 1882. 

The thanks of the author are due to Dr. Asa Gray, Sereno 
Watson, Wm. M. Canby, Prof. C. S. Sargent, Dr. Geo. Yasey, 
F. L. Scribner, M. S. Bebb, and Wm. Boott, for the determina- 
tion of nearly all the species of his collection. 

FRANK TWEEDY. 
Washington, D. C, April 4, 18SG. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/floraofyellowstoOOtweerich 



FLOEA 



YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 



TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES. 

♦ The Yellowstone National Park, with the exception of a 
narrow strip two miles wide on the north and northwest in 
Montana, and on the southwest in Idaho, lies in the extreme 
northwest corner of Wyoming. It has a length north and south 
of sixty-two miles, and a breadth of fifty-four miles, containing 
about 3350 square miles. Aside from the wonderful geyser 
basins and hundreds of boiling springs, but few regions can 
compare with it in the variety of its topographic features : — 
Plateaus diversified by deep canons, lakes, and ponds of the 
greatest beauty of outline ; mountain ranges of ever3 r possible 
description, from the rounded massive form to those of the most 
rugged and precipitous character. 

The central and southern portion of the Park is, for the most 
part, with the exception of the isolated Red Mountain Range in 
the extreme south, a high rolling, heavily timbered country, 
mainly plateau from 7500-10,000 feet in altitude, the latter 
height being reached only on the high volcanic plateaus in the 
extreme southeast. 

In the northwest rises the Gallatin Range, culminating in 
Electric Peak, 11,000 feet above sea level. On the eastern 
border lie the rugged volcanic peaks of the Absaroka x or Yel- 
lowstone Range, reaching elevations of 10,800 feet on the north- 

1 Abs.iroka is the Indian name of the Crow Nation, whose reservation is 
on the eastern slope of this range of mountains. 



6 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

east, and over 11,000 feet on the southeast. The continental 
divide crosses the Park in its southwestern part, and is generally 
broad, ill-defined, and heavily timbered throughout. It has an 
elevation of from 8000-9500 feet, at one point but 150 feet above 
Yellowstone Lake. 

On the western slope of the divide are the tributaries of the 
Snake River — the Lewis Fork of the Columbia — and on the 
eastern those of the Missouri ; the latter including the Madison 
and East Gallatin on the west and northwest, the Stinkingwater, 
a tributary of the Big Horn, on the southeast, and the Yellow- 
stone River. The latter, which drains more than half (2000 sq. 
miles) the area of the Park, enters at the southeast corner at an 
elevation of 7900 feet, and flowing about northwest through 
Yellowstone Lake and the Grand Canon, crosses the northern 
boundary at an altitude of 5300 feet. Yellowstone Lake (7T40 
feet), the largest lake at great elevation in North America, has a 
length and breadth of respectively twenty and fifteen miles; a 
depth of 300 feet, and an area of 150 square miles. The shore 
line, indented by several large bays, is over 100 miles. 

The beautiful curves of the sandy beaches and crystal purity 
of its waters, make it an object of unusual interest. With the 
exception of the Yellowstone Range, rising from its eastern 
shore, it is surrounded by a generally low, heavily timbered 
country. A few miles southwest on the opposite slope of the 
continental divide, are the little gems of Heart, Lewis, and 
Shoshone Lakes, varying in length from three to six miles. 

The Yellowstone River, from the southern boundary to the 
lake — fifteen miles — is a sluggish, tortuous stream, bordered by 
meadow and swamp two miles in width. The slopes down to the 
valley are bold and precipitous, the surrounding country being 
a high volcanic plateau of 10,000 feet altitude, and over. The 
spurs of the Yellowstone Range making down to the lake are 
heavily timbered, becoming less so towards the south. Pelican 
Creek, draining the south end of Mirror Lake Plateau, enters 
the lake near the outlet. Meadows from a half to a mile in width 
border the lower portion of its course. At the outlet of Yellow- 
stone Lake on the west abuts the heavily timbered plateau of the 
Elephant Back (8500 feet), which running westward a few miles, 
splits into two parts, one merging into the continental divide on 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 7 

the southwest, and the other turning to the northward forms a 
narrow divide between the Madison and Yellowstone, and 
broadening out, again divides, one branch sweeping around to the 
head of the Grand Canon, and the other, much broken by lateral 
and transverse drainages, continuing northward nearly to the 
Mammoth Hot Springs. The low semicircular depression thus 
formed on the west bank of the Yellowstone, is known as 
Hayden Valley, and has formed a portion of the ancient 
Yellowstone Lake. It is drained mainly by Alum Creek. 

At the head of the Grand Canon are the Upper and Lower or 
Great Falls of the Yellowstone, half a mile apart; they are 108 
and 309 feet in height. East of Alum Creek is the region of 
Sour Creek, broken by low, heavily timbered ridges, extending 
to Mirror Lake Plateau on the east. North of the Grand Canon 
is the crescent-shaped Mt. Washburne Range, the opening towards 
the Yellowstone River, and drained by Tower Creek. The 
interior slopes of this crater-like area and the rhyolite plateau 
along Tower Creek are densely timbered, except about Antelope 
Creek. Broad and Deep Creeks, which have cut deep canons in 
the plateau, enter the Yellowstone east of Mt. Washburne, and 
north of these are the slopes of Amethyst Mountain and Speci- 
men Ridge. The East Fork, the main branch of the Yellowstone, 
joins it from the east about twenty miles above where the Yellow- 
stone crosses the northern boundary of the Park at its junction 
with the Gardiner River. This portion of the main river is 
called the Third Canon. It has little of the well-defined walls 
of the Grand Canon. On the east rise precipitous granite slopes 
several thousand feet. On the west the country is much lower 
and has more of a plateau character, and here about Blacktail 
Deer Creek and on Mt. Evarts, are large grass-covered areas, 
interspersed with groves of timber, and extending, in some cases, 
up the northern slopes of the Mt. Washburne amphitheatre. 
The East Fork from its junction with the Yellowstone to Cache 
Creek — about sixteen miles — runs through an open grass- 
covered valley from l-l^ miles in width. Its main branches — 
Slough, Soda Butte, Cache, Calfee and Miller Creeks, flow from 
the east, draining the Yellowstone Range. On the west it receives 
numerous small drainages from Specimen Ridge and the Mirror 
Lake Plateau. On both sides, as far as Cache Creek and above 



8 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

it for a few miles on the east, the adjacent slopes are only par- 
tially forest-covered. Above Cache Creek the East Fork runs 
in a well-timbered caiion. The short streams from the Mirror 
Lake Plateau head in beautiful little grassy parks often of a 
hundred acres in extent. The valleys of the main stream and 
its principal tributaries, Slough and Soda Butte Creeks, are low 
within the boundaries of the Park, ranging in altitude from 
6800-7500 feet, but the immediate slopes in the northeastern 
portion rise precipitously to ragged and bare peaks and ridges 
10,000-10,800 feet in altitude. North of Slough Creek is an area 
of high, sparsely-timbered plateau. On the Gardiner River, four 
miles south of the northern boundary, is located the terraced 
group of the Mammoth Hot Springs. About here, and nearly 
around Swan Lake and Indian Creek, are large open grass- 
covered areas. The slopes of the Gallatin Range are well clothed 
with forest up to the timber line, which in the Park varies from 
9400-9700 feet. The tops of the long ridges sloping westward 
are in some cases bare. From the Gallatin Range southward 
along the western border of the Park extends the Madison 
Plateau. Its southern limit is the Pitchstone Plateau (8700 ft.), 
at the base of which on the north and east lie Shoshone and Lewis 
Lakes. The very flat top of the plateau is more than half covered 
with grassy parks, but the sides are densely timbered. To the 
westward it slopes down to the low open swamp}' area of the 
Falls River Basin in the extreme southwest corner of the Park. 
On the Madison Plateau, as elsewhere throughout the region, 
are scattered small, open parks and meadows, but taken as a 
whole, it is heavily timbered, and is cut by numerous dry rocky 
canons. It has an average altitude of about 8500 feet, and from 
Shoshone Lake it is traversed in a northwesterly direction by 
the continental divide. At the foot of the abrupt eastern slope 
of this plateau lie the Upper and Lower Geyser Basins in a 
wilderness of forest. The Fire-hole River draining these areas, 
flowing northward, meets the Gibbon River from the northeast, 
the latter draining the Norris Geyser Basin, and heading on the 
plateau northwest of the Washburne Range. These two streams 
uniting form the Madison, which, in its course westward, has 
cut a gorge nearly 2000 feet deep through the Madison Plateau. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 9 

Within the Park the Madison River has a drainage area of about 
700 square miles. 

The region of the Yellowstone Park has been the scene of 
great volcanic activity, the rocks being mainly of igneous 
origin with the exception of the Gallatin Range, which is in a 
great part sedimentary. The plateaus have been formed by 
great lava flows, principally rhyolite. The rugged Yellowstone 
Range is mainly composed of volcanic breccias and conglomer- 
ates. The principal geyser areas are those of the Upper and 
Lower Geyser Basins, Norris Geyser Basin, Shoshone Lake 
Geyser Basin and the Heart Lake Geyser Basin. Hundreds of 
boiling springs are scattered over the whole region and have 
formed extensive deposits, mainly calcareous, while those of the« 
geysers are a form of silica called ge3'serite. The great quanti- 
ties of silicified wood and size of many of the specimens would 
lead us to suppose that the ancient forests were of much greater 
magnificence than at present. The wonders of the Yellowstone 
have been so often described that the above brief sketch will be 
sufficient for a comparison of the flora with the principal topo- 
graphic features. 

The Yellowstone Park, like most mountain regions where 
terrestrial radiation is great, has during the summer months 
great extremes of diurnal temperature, although the day tem- 
perature is low, not generally above 75° Fahr. Frequent 
summer frosts are a characteristic feature. This coolness of 
climate, coupled with a high relative humidity, that is, for the 
Rocky Mountain region, accounts for the fact of its being 
densely timbered. A copious rain-fall is shown in marsh, spring, 
stream and lake. From observations taken at Yellowstone 
Lake (7740 feet) from July 15 to August 15, 1885, we obtain 
the following : Average of readings of minimum thermometer, 
which practically is the temperature at sunrise, 29*7 ; average 
of 2 P. M. readings, 65*6 ; average of readings of maximum 
thermometer from August 1 to August. 15, 68*3. The greatest 
recorded temperature was 78°, and the lowest 22°. The grow- 
ing season over the main area of the Park is from about May 1st 
to Sept. 1st. The lower and dryer portions up to 7000 feet are 
in their greenest garb about July 1st, and the subalpine and 
alpine regions early in August. When in vigorous growth, 



10 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

vegetation does not seem to be affected in the least by a tem- 
perature of 10° below freezing, but a little later in the season 
its effects are apparent, when the plants have lost much of their 
vitality. The change from the luxuriance of August to the 
decay of September is abrupt. Generally by Sept. 15th snow 
has fallen to lie upon the ground for a day or two. 

FORESTS. 

The Yellowstone Park lies in the Rocky Mountain belt of 
coniferous forests, geographically termed the Interior Pacific, 
and which trending northwestward, unites in northern Washing- 
ton Territory with that of the Pacific coast, forming a broad 
belt which still farther north in British America merges into the 
northwest extension of the Atlantic forest. The common and 
most wide-spread tree of the Park is the Black Pine, Pinus 
Murrayana, Balf. (P. contorta, Dough, var. Murrayana, Engelm.). 
It is the only tree forming extensive forests to the exclusion of 
other species. It reaches its greatest development on the dr} r er 
plateaus between 7000 and 8000 feet, here forming 90 per cent, 
of the forest. It is not generally over two feet in diameter, 
with a height of 60-100 feet, and is found from the lowest alti- 
tudes up to 9500 feet. Over the lower and dryer portions it is 
found with the Red Fir (Pseudotsuga Douglasii, Carr), and in 
higher and moist situations with more or less Picea and Abies. 

It is the only tree here that seems to be able to reproduce 
itself to any extent after having been destroyed by fire, doubt- 
less owing to the protection afforded the seeds by the hard and 
indestructible cones. In many burnt districts an almost impen- 
etrable growth of young trees have sprung up. Probably 65 
per cent, of the whole forest area is composed of the Black 
Pine. 

Pinus flexilis, James, generally occupies the dry gravelly 
ridges from 7500 feet upward, especially above 8000 feet. At 
low elevations it grows with the Black Pine and higher with 
Picea and Abies. It is found as low as 6000 feet at the Mam- 
moth Hot Springs^ with Juniperus Virginiana, these two species 
forming exclusively the timbered portion of the formation. 

Pinus albicaulis, Englm. (P. flexilis,x$.Y. albicaulis, Englm.), 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 11 

is found associated with P. flexilis, but ranges higher, being 
found scattered or in bunches on rocky and exposed ridges and 
summits at the upper limit of tree growth. It has been observed 
as low as 7500 feet mingled with Pseudotsuga and Pinus Murray- 
ana, but always in such situations with P. flexilis. Although 
apparently common throughout the Park, it has not before been 
distinguished from the allied P. flexilis. 

At a distance they closely resemble each other in general 
habit, except for a bunched or fox-tail appearance of the leaves 
of the former. Prof. Sargent says, that at Old Marias Pass in 
northwest Montana, heretofore the most eastern station known, 
P. albicaulis is readily distinguished from P. flexilis by the 
milk-white bark ; but this characteristic which the author has 
also observed in Washington Territory, is nearly wanting in the 
Park. The chief points of difference lie in the cones ; those of 
P. albicaulis when young are brown-purple, not green, with much 
thicker scales. We have observed throughout the Park that 
the cones of P. albicaulis, with hardly an exception, fall to pieces 
soon after maturity, probably due, as Prof. Sargent suggests, to 
the work of squirrels, so that a perfect cone is rarely found 
upon the ground, while those of P. flexilis remain intact. The 
leaves of the former are also shorter and stouter. The largest 
specimen seen was 5 feet in diameter and 60 feet in height, on 
Bison Peak, at an elevation of 9200 feet. These two pines form 
nearly 10 per cent, of the forest area. 

Although the Yellow Pine, Pinus ponderosa, Dough, var, 
scopulorum, Engelm. (the Rocky Mountain variety), occurs on 
all sides of the Park, it has not been detected within the. borders, 
although it would naturally be expected about some of the low 
dry open areas. The greater portion of the region has too 
great an altitude and rain-fall. 

The Douglas or Red Fir {Pseudotsuga Douglasii, Carr) is 
found up to 9000 feet, generally scattered over the dryer grassy 
ridges and slopes. Rarely it occupies exclusively small areas. 
The slope immediately west of the Mammoth Hot Springs for 
700 feet upward is covered with this species alone. The largest 
trees observed had a diameter of 5 feet, bft generally were 
stunted and more or less decayed. 

The Balsam {Abies subalpina, Engelm.) ranks next to the 



12 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Black Pine in amount and distribution. It is found throughout 
in cool, moist situations, at low elevations on the northern 
slopes, and especially common on wet subalpine slopes and 
plateaus about the timber line, forming groves in the park-like 
openings. Moist plateaus above 8000 feet and the slopes and 
bottoms of deep canons are forests of this species and Picea 
Engelmanni, these two trees forming at least 25 per cent, of 
the forest area of the Park. The Spruce {Picea Engelmanni, 
Engelm.) is associated with the Balsam. It is not of great 
size, rarely more than 2 or 3 feet in diameter, and does not form 
extensive forests as in the central Rocky Mountain region, and 
still farther northward in the mountain region of Montana 
becomes rare and of small size. 

Picea alba, Link, which occurs in the Black Hills of Dakota 
and in northern Montana, reaching its greatest development in 
the Flathead Region, probably does not occur within the Park, 
although some of the cones of Picea Engelmanni show a transi- 
tion into P. alba. This fact is suggestive, occurring, as it does, 
in a region between that of the greatest development of P. 
Engelmanni on the south, and P. alba on the north ; although 
in northwest Montana, where both species occur, Prof. Sargent 
has observed the same fact, but they are found u at different 
elevations in different soils and never mingle." 

Picea pungens, Engelm., doubtless does not enter into the 
Park forests. Specimens collected under the name of Abies 
Menziesii, Lindl., are probably forms of Picea Engelmanni. 

The Red Cedar (Juniperus Virginiana, L.) grows along the 
Gardiner River, a few miles above the mouth and mingled with 
Finns flexilis over the formation of the Mammoth Hot Springs. 
It is rare elsewhere. 

Juniperus communis, L., var. alpina, Gaud, occurs sparingly 
on rocky slopes at low elevations and more frequently about the 
hot spring areas. On the moist slopes and along the streams 
of the lower grass-covered areas are frequently groves of Popu- 
lus tremuloides, Michx. (Aspen). It was observed sparingly 
above 8000 feet. Populus augustifolia, James, was only seen on 
Cache Creek. • 

Of the shrubs that are common throughout may be mentioned, 
Betula glandulosa, Michx. ; Salix desertorum, Rich., var. Wolfii, 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 13 

Bebb, and a form of Salix glauca, L., and the following rather 
rare and local species : Salix longifolia, Muhl. ; Betula occi- 
dentalism Hook; Alnus viridis, D. C; A. incana, Willd., var. 
virescens, Wats.; Prunus demissa, Walpers. ; Pyrus sambucifolia, 
Cham, and Schlecht ; Amelanchier alnifoh a, Nutt. ; Ceanothus 
velutinus, Dougl. ; Rhamnus alnifolia, L'Her. 

The timber trees of the region, with the exception of the 
widespread Populus tremuloides and Juniperus Virginiana, are 
western species, but several of the shrubs range across the 
continent. 

The Park has suffered at various times from the ravages of 
lire. There is probably 100 square miles of burnt forest. Over 
a large portion of the region will be found masses of fallen 
timber in the green and standing forest, principally in that of 
Abies and Picea. 

There are some areas of considerable extent which are not 
forest covered, and at lower elevations covered with a luxuriant 
growth of grass and more or less sage-brush. The most exten- 
sive of these are in the northeast portion, in the vicinity of the 
Mammoth Hot Springs, about the mouth of the East Fork, and 
along this stream. 

The former, including the greater portion of the region of Mt. 
Evarts, Blacktail Deer Creek, Swan Lake and the upper West 
Gardiner, and generally covered with local drift, has an area of 
forty square miles, and is the southern extension of the dry 
timberless region of the valley of the Yellowstone. This with 
some interruptions extends to the East Fork. The latter 
comprising the valley of the East Fork to Cache Creek and 
the slopes on each side ; the northern portion of Specimen 
Ridge and across the Yellowstone River about Antelope Creek 
has an area of fifty square miles, twenty of this belonging to the 
valley of the East Fork. Besides these are Hayden Valley, 
eighteen square miles ; Upper and Lower Geyser Basins and East 
Fire-hole River, fifteen square miles ; Pitchstone Plateau, Madi- 
son Plateau, and Falls River Basin, forty square miles ; Valley 
of the Upper Yellowstone, thirty square miles, and tops of the 
subalpine and alpine plateaus, the slopes of wfcich are densely 
timbered, along the Upper Yellowstone thirty square miles. 
Add to these about eighty square miles for all minor areas, 



14 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

parks, meadows, regions above timber line, etc., and 180 square 
miles for lakes and ponds, we will have a total of 483 square miles, 
or about 14 per cent, of the area of the Park. We can there- 
fore safely say that 86 per cent, of it is forest covered. 

GENERAL FLORA OF THE REGION. 

The flora of the Yellowstone Park, taken as a whole, is essen- 
tially that of a mountain region, although at some points on its 
borders and along the low-lying dryer valleys of the main 
streams are found a number of species which belong to the flora 
of the plains or more arid regions. The flora of the portion 
from 6000-8000 feet alt., which is mainly that of the larger open 
areas, has pretty much the same character. Clematis Douglasii, 
Hook.; Silene Douglasii, Hook. ; Cerastiam arvense, L. ; Are- 
naria congesta, Nutt., var. subcongesta, Wats. ; Geum triflorum, 
Pursh. ; Carum Gairdneri, Benth and Hook. ; Galium boreale, 
L. ; Balsamorrhiza sagittata, Nutt. ; Helianthella Douglasii, 
T. and G. ; Achillea millefolium, L. ; Cnicus Drummondii, Gray ; 
Troximon glaucum, Nutt. ; Campanula rotundifolia, L. ; Col- 
linsia parviflora, Dougl., and Eriogonum umbellatum, Torr, 
will be met with almost everywhere, and perhaps not so generally 
distributed Lupinus serious, Pursh. ; several species of Astragalus 
(A. alpinus, L. ; A. multiflorus, Gray ; A. campestris, Gray) ; 
Solidago Missouriensis, Nutt., and S. canadensis, L. ; Aster 
integrifolius, Nutt., and Frasera speciosa, Dougl. Two species 
of Phlox, (P. canescens, T. and G.; P. Douglasii, Hook., var. 
longifolia, Gray), and Penstemon (P. confertus, Dougl., var. 
cseruleo-purpureus, Gray; P. glaber, Pursh.). Of the eight 
species of Artemisia found within the Park but three {A. frigida, 
Willd.; A. tridentata, Nutt.; A. cana, Pursh.), are common, the 
two latter being the predominant species of the limited sage- 
brush areas. Above 8000 feet will be found several Asters {A. 
foliaceus, Lindl. ; A. Engelmanni, Gray ; A. elegans, T. and G.), 
and Erigerons (E. salsuginosus, Gray; E. macranthus, Nutt.), 
and along the timber Geranium incisum, Nutt., and G. Bichard- 
sonii, Fisch. and Meyer. Scattered through the open woods will 
be seen Arnica cordifolia, Hook. ; A. latifolia, Bong. ; Hiera- 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 15 

cium gracile, Hook.; H. albiflorum, Hook., and Pedicularis 
racemosa, Dougl. 

In the dense and dry pine woods of much of the plateau region 
there is very little vegetation except the diminutive blueberry, 
Vaccinium myrtillus, L., var. microphyllum, Hook., which often 
occurs in vast quantities. The berries are always light red, and 
not " at first light red," as often described. It bears but little 
fruit in the Park region, and the same fact was observed with 
regard to the strawberry and bearberry, Frageria vesca, L., and 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spreng. 

Early in August the natural flower gardens of the subalpine 
slopes are in all their splendor of coloring. Scarlet and crim- 
son Castilleiae vie with blue and purple lupines, forget-me-nots, 
asters, erigerons and carpet-like masses of snow-white phlox. 
Mingled with these are golden yellow and orange flowers of every 
shade, Sedum, Potentilla, Ivesia, Helianthella and Aplopappus. 

As most of the species which cross the continent do so on 
the north it is not surprising to find so many as we do in the flora 
of the Park. 

The flora of the northern Rocky Mountains has many points 
in common with that of the Cascade Mountains ; in fact above 
latitude 48° it is difficult to determine the limit between what 
belongs to one and what to the other. Southward the two floras 
become very distinct. We find some stragglers from the Pacific 
flora entering the Park, probably all by way of the northwest. 
Pinus albicaulis, Engelm., is a notable instance in the case of a 
forest tree, and besides this are the following: Trautvettaria 
grandis,^ utt. ; Ranunculus ornithorhyncus, Hook. ; Antennaria 
flagellaris, Gray ; Erigeron peucephyllus, Gray ; Hulsea nana, 
Gray, and Oryzopsis exigua, Thurb. 

The local Subularia aquatica, L., whose next eastern stations 
are lakes in Maine and New Hampshire, is common about Yel- 
lowstone Lake. 

Myosurus apetalus, Gay, var. lepturus, Gray ; Mimulus monti- 
oides, Gray, and Nemophila breviflora, Gray, come from the 
southwest, and Cnicus Hookerianus, Gray, from the Rocky 
Mountains further north. The nearest known localities for 
Eriophorum russeolum, Fries, are Hudson's Bay and Alaska. 



16 , FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

We also find Elatine triandra, Schkuhr., and Floerkea proser- 
pinacoides, Willd. 

The genus Arnica is well represented in the Park, all the seven 
species of the Rocky Mountains between New Mexico and the 
British boundary have been found. Of Arabis, six out of eight 
species, half of the dozen or so species of Ribes, and eight of the 
ten species of Epilobium. All the species of the following genera 
have been collected, Lonicera (4), Veronica (6), Eabenaria (4), 
and Luzula (4). The order Composite, which in North America 
comprises an eighth of Phsenogamous Plants, in the limited area 
of the Park has, as far as known, 38 genera and 108 species, or 
about one-sixth of tire whole. The ferns are meagrely repre- 
sented by only six species, and these for the most part are rare 
and local. 

ALPINE FLORA. 

As far as observed the alpine flora of the Park contains about 
the same proportion of arctic species as that of the whole 
Rocky Mountain region within the United States. In the 
latter case out of about 190 species, 55 per cent, belong to the 
arctic flora. In other words, this alpine flora, like that of 
the whole temperate zone in the northern hemisphere, is a 
southern extension of arctic vegetation. The appearance of 
these arctic forms is looked for in the general refrigeration 
which brought on the glacial period. Pushed southward by the 
extreme cold, and then, as the climate moderated, retreating 
northward, following the receding glaciers, they were left 
stranded on the mountain summits, and finding a congenial 
home, have there persisted. In the list of the alpine flora given 
below, those which are arctic are marked thus (*). It will be 
seen that the Rocky Mountain arctic alpine flora is pretty well 
represented, considering the limited area under consideration, 
with the exception of the Gentians, which are entirely wanting 
as far as observed. 

Ranunculus nivalis, L., var. Eschscholtzii, Watson. 
*Draba alpina, L. 
Draba crassifolia, Graham. 
Draba aurea, Vahl. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 17 

*Smelowskia calycina, C. A. Meyer. 

* Thlaspi alpestre, L. 
*Silene acaulis, L. 

*Arenaria verna, L., var. hirta, Wats. 

* Arenaria biflora, var. obtusa, Wats. 
*Arenaria stricta, Wats. 

Sagina Linnasi, Presl. 
Calandrinia pygmaea, Gray. 
Trifolium Parryi, Gray. 

* Astragalus alpinus, L. 
*Dryas octopetala, L. 

Ivesia Gordoni, Torr and Gray. 
*Sibbaldia procumbens, L. 

Saxifraga Jamesii, Torr. 
*Saxifraga oppositifolia, L. 

* Saxifraga caespitosa, Jj. 

* Saxifraga rivularis, L. 

* Saxifraga nivalis, L. 

* Saxifraga punctata, L. 
Sedum rhodanthum, Gray. 

* Epilobium latifolium, L. 

Aplopappus Lyallii, Gray. 
*Erigeron uniflorus, L. 

Erigeron ursinus, Eaton. 

Erigeron radicatus, Hook. 
*Antennaria alpina, Gaertn. 

Artemisia scopulorum, Gray. 

Senecio Fremonti, Torr and Gray. 

Hulsea nana, Gray. 

* Taraxacum officinale, Weber, var. scopulorum, Gray. 
Bryanthus empetriformis, Gray. 

Douglasia montana, Gray. 
Polemonium confertum, Gray. 
* Polemonium humile, Willd., var. pulchellum, Gray. 

* Omphalodes nana, Gray, var. aretioides, Gray. 
Mertensia alpina, Don. 

* Veronica alpina, L. 

* Castilleia pallida , Kunth, var. scptentrionalis, Gray. 
Penstemon Menziesii, Hook. 



18 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Pedicularis Parryi, Gray. 
Pedicularis scopulorum, Gray. 
Pedicularis Grcenlandica, Retz. 
*Oxyria digyna, Campdera. 

* Polygonum viviparum, L. 

*Salix arctica, R. Br., var. petr&a, Anders. 
*Salix reticulata, L. 

Habenaria obtusata, Richardson. 
*Lloydia serotina, Reich. 
*Luzula spicata, Desv. 

Juncus Drummondii, E. Meyer. 

Juncus Parryi, Engelm. 

Gar ex scirpoidea, Michx. 

Car ex concinna, R. Br. 

* Carex rigida, Good. 

* Carex atrata, L. 

* Carex alpina, Swartz. 

*Festuca ovina, L., var. brevifolia, Wats. 
*? Alopecurus occidentalism Scribn. 
*Pleum alpinum, L. 

* Trisetum subspicatum, Beauv. 
*? Poa reflexa, V. and S. 
*Poa alpina, L. 

FLORA OF THE BOGS, PONDS AND STREAMS. 

From the plateau nature of a great portion of the Park, the 
water from the great accumulations of snow drains off slowly, 
and in consequence bogs are scattered over the whole region, 
which in their saturated condition are mostly impassable before 
July 1st. 

The bog and wet meadow flora from about 7500-9000 feet is 
luxuriant and of a generally uniform character. There are 
several species of Stellaria (S. umbellata, Turcz. ; S. longipes, 
Goldie ; S. borealis, Bigelow) ; Saxifraga (S. punctata, L. ; 
S. integrifolia, Hook); Valeriana ( V. edulis, Nutt. ; V. sylvatica, 
Banks) ; Potentilla (P. dissecta, Pursh ; P. gracilis, Dongl. ; P. 
fruticosa, L.) ; Senecio (S. triangularis, Hook ; S. crassulus, 
Gray ; S. lugens, Rich.) ; Polygonum (P. Bistorta, L. ; P. vivi- 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 19 

parum, L.) ; Habenaria (H. hyperborea, R. Br. ; H. dilatata, 
Gray) ; and Allium {A. Schcenoprasum, L. ; A. brevistylum, 
Wats.). Among other characteristic species are Trifolium 
longipes, Nutt. ; Pedicularis Grcenlandica, Retz. ; Rumex pauci- 
folius, Nutt., and Zygadenus elegans, Pursh. Here, as elsewhere, 
especially over the hot spring and geyser areas, the small 
streams are bordered with Parnassia fimbriata, Banks ; Gen- 
tiana serrata, Gunner, and Mimulus luteus, L. 

Among the water plants of the Park we find a few of which 
the Rocky Mountain region is the eastern or western limit, but 
by far the greater portion, at least 70 per cent, of the species, 
extend across the continent. Water plants, from the more 
uniform nature of their surroundings in water, which also is an 
important factor in their distribution, would naturally have a 
more extensive range than land plants, which over a large area 
would be subjected to great differences in soil and climate. 

Of this flora of the ponds and streams we find Ranunculus 
aquatilus, L., var. trichophyllus, Chaix., almost everywhere, and 
R. multifidus, Pursh., more rarely about Yellowstone Lake. 
Nuphar advena, Ait., is rarely absent from muddy ponds and 
sluggish streams, and frequently associated with great quantities 
of Hippuris vulgaris, L., and Geratophyllum demersum, L. ; 
Nuphar polysepalum, Engelm., was collected only in the Gibbon 
Lakes. Sparganium simplex, Huds., var. angustifolium, 
Engelm. ; Sagittaria variabilis, Engelm., and Utricularia vul- 
garis, L., though frequent, are rarely seen in flower or fruit. Of 
the three Lemnas (L. trisulca, L. ; L. minor, L. ; L. gibba, L.), the 
two former are extremely abundant in many localities. Several 
Potamogetons (P. rufescens, Schad. ; P. gramineus, L., var. 
maximus ; P. perfoliatus, L. ; P. pectinatus, L., and var. lati- 
folius, Robbins), are common throughout in the lakes and 
streams. Subularia aquatica, L., and Isoetes Bolanderi, Engelm., 
are found on the bottom of ponds about Yellowstone Lake, the 
latter species being pretty generally distributed over the region. 
What is apparently the rare and local Isoetes pygmaea, Engelm., 
has been found at Yellowstone Lake. Callitriche autumnalis, 
L., is abundant, and less so G. verna, L. Besides these may be 
mentioned Zanichellia palustris, L. ; Ruppia maritima, L. ; 
Marsilia vestita, Hook and Grev. ; Myriophyllum verticillatum, 



20 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. At the outlet of Yellowstone 
Lake is a small pond a few feet in depth and several acres in 
extent, which is remarkable for containing a great number of 
the rare and local species of the region. On the bottom and 
submerged grow Subularia aquatica, L. ; Elatine triandra, 
Schkuhr. ; Iaoetes Bolanderi, Engelm., and Callitriche autum- 
nalis, L. Floating on the surface are Ranunculus multifidus, 
. Pursh. ; Polygonum amphibium, L. ; Sagittaria, Sparganium, 
several Lemnas and Potamogetons. In the mud at the water's 
edge were collected Elatine Americana, Am. ; Tillsea angusti- 
folia, Nutt. ; Krynitzkia Calif ornica, Gray, and Limosella 
aquatica, L. 



FLORA OF THE HOT SPRINGS AND GEYSER AREAS. 

The alkaline nature of the soil and artificial warmth of the 
hot spring and geyser areas have created a flora in many respects 
peculiar to itself. In the list given below those species marked 
(*) have not been observed, with a very few exceptions, on other 
than hot spring soil. It will be seen that there are a number 
normal on our sea coasts, and more or less in saline situations 
in the interior, such as Salicorma herbacea, L.; Rumex maritimus, 
L., and Triglochin maritimum, L., and others which belong to 
the flora of a lower and more arid region. The bleak formations 
proper support but a scanty vegetation, but where overlaid with 
soil on its borders, and around less active rents, and especially 
along the hot streams, there will be found a most luxuriant vege- 
tation. The most characteristic species are Chrysopsis villosa, 
Nutt.; Gnaphalium Sprengelii, Hook and Arm; Triglochin mari- 
timum, L., and a grass Panicum dichotomum, L., var. pubescens. 
The latter frequently covers the ground with a dense velvet 
carpet, glistening with crystal drops of condensed steam. Ruppia 
maritima has been observed in situations where the water had a 
temperature of 90° Fahr. The small streams are filled with 
Potamogeton pectinatus, L., and frequently with vast quantities 
of Lemna. 

Botrychium ternatum, Swartz, var. australe, Eaton, has never 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL TARK. 21 

been observed out of hot spring soil. Spraguea umbellata, 
Torr, finds a congenial home on the bare ge3'serite, and in the 
same case though more local are Aplopappus uniflorus, Torr 
and Gray; Mimulus namus, Hook and Arm; Gastilleia minor, 
Gray ; Orthocarpus luteus, Nutt., and Glyceria airoides, Thurb. 

Spraguea umbellata, Torr. 

* Ghrysopsis villosa, Nutt. 

* Aplopappus uniflorus, Torr and Gray. 
Ghsenactis Douglasii, Hook and Arn. 

*Gnaphalium Sprengelii, Hook and Arn. 
Senecio canus, Hook. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spreng. 

* Mimulus nanus. Hook and Arn. 

* Castilleia minor, Gray. 

* Orthocarpus luteus, Nutt. 

*Lycopus Virginicus, L., var. pauciflorus, Benth. 
*Brunella vulgaris, L. 

Chenopodium glaucum, L. 

Chenopodium capitatum, Wats. 

Monolepis chenopodioides, Moq. 

* Salicornia herbacea, L. 

* Eriogonum flavum, Nutt. 

* Rumex maritimus, L. 
Euphorbia serpyllifolia, Pers. 

*Juncus tenuis, Willd., var. congestus, Englm. 
*Ruppia maritima, L. 
Potamogeton pectinatus, L. 

* Trilochin maritimum, L. 
Eleocharis palustris, R. Br. 
Eleocharis olivacea, Torr. 

*Panicum dichotomum, L., var. pubescens. 
*Spartina gracilis, Trim 

* Glyceria airoides, Thurb. 

Juniperus communis, L., var. alpina, Gaud. 

* Botrychium ternatum, Swartz, var. australe, Eaton. 
Pteris aquilina, L. 



22 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 



THE GRASSES. 

The open areas of the Park, up to 9000 feet alt., are covered 
with a luxuriant growth of the most nutritious grasses, the pre- 
dominant species being mainly those known as " bunch grasses." 
None of the so-called " buffalo " or " grama grasses," Buckloe, 
Bouteloua, etc., are found. In all about seventy species are 
known, but only about half of these enter to any extent into the 
composition of the grass areas. 

Over the dryer portions, up to 7000 feet alt., the following are 
the common forms, and of these the Stipas, Agropyrums and 
Poa tenuifolia form at least 80 per cent. 



Stipa viridula, Trin. 
Stipa comata, Trin. and Rupr. 
Agrostis scabra, Willd. 
Koeleria cristata, Pers. 
Melica spectabile, Scribn. 
Poa tenuifolia, Buckl. 
Bromus breviaristatus, Buckl. 
Agropyrum divergens, Nees. 
Agropyrum caninum, L. 
Elymus Sitanion, Schultz. 



At still higher altitudes, or in more moist situations, will be 
added Deyeuxia Canadensis, Beauv.; D. neglecta, Kunth.; Trise- 
tum subspicatum, Beauv.; var. molle, Gray ^ Poa Nevadensis, 
Vasey ; P. memoralis, L.; Bromus Kalmii, Gray; B. ciliatus, L.; 
Deschampsia caespitosa, Beauv. The characteristic species of 
moist meadows and bogs is Poa Nevadensis in various forms. 

Gradually many of the common species of the lower and 
dryer areas disappearing being replaced by others until at about 
8500 feet alt. we find an abundant, but in many respects, quite 
distinct flora, beyond which point there is a decrease both in 
luxuriance and number of species. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 23 

In the moist meadows between 8000 and 9000 feet alt., the 
following will be found, including several Arctic forms : — 



Hierochloa borealis, R. and S. 

Alopecurus occidentalism Scribn. 

Phleum alpinum, L. 

Agrostis humilis, Vasey. 

Deyeuxia Canadensis, Beauv. 

Deyeuxia Langsdorfii, Kunth. 

Trisetum subspicatum, R. Br., var. molle, Gray. 

Poa reflexa, V. and S. 

Poa nemoralis, L. 

Poa Nevadensis, Yasey. 

Poa alpina, L. 

Poa tenuifolia, Buckl. 

Festuca ovina, L. 

Hordeum nodosum, L. 

As far as observed the only strictly alpine species are Agro- 
pyrum Scribneri, Vasey, and Festuca ovina, L., var. brevifolia, 
Wats., although several of the Poas and others, Poa alpina, P. 
reflexa, and forms of P. tenuifolia are found above the timber 
line on exposed ridges and summits. 

Here, as elsewhere in the northwest, one is struck by the great 
development of the genus Poa, of which at least a dozen species 
grow within the Park. The great variety of forms are puzzling 
in the extreme. 



CATALOGUE. 



PH^ENOGAMIA (Flowering Plants). 

BANUNCULACEJB. 

Clematis Douglasii, Hook. 

Grassy slopes, 6500-8000 ft. alt. Common, especially in the noitheni 
portion of the park. 

Clematis verticillaris, DC. 

Open woods. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. Rare. 

Anemone patens, L., var. Nuttalliana, Gray. 

Mt. Washburne, 9200 ft. alt. ; East Fork of the Yellowstone, 6200 
ft. alt. Rare. 

Anemone multifida, Poir. 

Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 9300 feet ; Cache Creek, 
6900 ft. alt. Common. 

Thalictrum Fendleri, Engelm. 

Antelope Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Red Mountain, 9600 ft. alt. (Coulter). 

Trautvettaria grandis, Nutt. 

Pine woods, Lewis Lake, 7C00 ft. alt. Rare. # 

Myosurus apetalus, Gay, var. lepturus, Gray {M. ariskdus, Benth.), Gray, in 
Torr. Bull., xiii, i, p. 2. 

Dry benches along East Fork of the Yellowstone, 6600 ft. alt. Rare. 

Ranunculus aquatilis, var. trichophyllus, Chaix. 

Common in streams and ponds up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Ranunculus Flammula, L., var. reptans, Gray. 

Indian Creek, 7800 ft. alt. ; Mirror Lake Plateau, 8700 ft. alt. ; Mud 
Springs (Adams). 

(24) 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL TARK. 25 

Kanunculus cymbalaria, Pursh. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6300 ft. alt. ; Lower Geyser Basin, 7100 
ft. alt. 

Ranunculus glaberrimus, Hook. 

Swan Lake, 7600 ft. alt. ; High slopes, Slough Creek, 9100 ft. alt. 

Ranunculus nivalis, L., var. Eschscholtzii, Wats. 

Fawn Creek, 7400 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). 

A Ranunculus (909) and the same as Parry's No. 8, Stinkingwatcr, 
was collected in flower on Baronett Ridge, 9500 ft. alt., about snow 
banks, probably distinct from the above, and which Dr. Gray says may 
prove to be a new species. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, L. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. Infrequent. 

Ranunculus affinis, It. Br. 

Subalpine wet slopes. Mt. Holmes, 9300 ft. alt. (dwarf form, fls. an 
inch in diameter.) Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. (tall form with 
small fls., near var. leiocarpus, Trautv.). 

Ranunculus Nelsoni, Gray. 

Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Ranunculus orthorhyncus, Hook. 

Bogs. Mammoth Hot Springs. Rare. 

Ranunculus repens, L. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone 
(Adams). 

Ranunculus multifidus, Pursh. 

Ponds. Outlet of Yellowstone Lake and Stevenson Island. Rare. 

Caltha leptosepala, DC. 

High bogs. Slough Creek, 9000 ft. alt. ; Pebble Creek, 9200 ft. alt. ; 
Upper Falls of tMfe Yellowstone (Adams). Rather common. 

Trallius laxus, Salisb., var. albiflorus, Gray. 

Wooded bogs. Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. ; Buffalo Creek, with Caltha 
leptosepala, 9000 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Aquilegia ccerulea, James. 

Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Aquilegia flavescens, Watson. 

Mt. Washburne, 8500 ft. alt. ; Blacktail Deer Creek, 7600 ft. alt. ; 
Mud Springs (Adams); Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). Common. 



26 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Delphinium Menziesii, DC. 

Wet meadows. Mirror Lake Plateau, 9000 ft. alt. ; Soda Butte, 6900 
ft. alt. Rather rare. 

Delphinium hicolor, Nutt. 

Dry benches at low elevations. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; 
East Fork of the Yellowstone, 6000 ft. alt. 

Delphinium scopulorum, Gray. 

Bogs and along mountain streams, 8000-9500 ft. alt. Sometimes 6 
feet in height. Common. 

Aoonitum Columbianum, Nutt. (A. nasutum, Hook). 

Rather common in bogs and along mountain streams. Indian Creek, 
8000 feet ; East Pelican Creek, 8800 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake 
(Coulter, Adams). 

Actaea spicata, L., var. arguta, Torr. 

Damp woods. Pebble Creek, 8000 ft. alt ; Yellowstone Lake 
(Adams). Rare. 

BERBERIDACE^J. 

Berberis repens, Lindl. 

Amethyst Creek, 6700 ft. alt. ; Sulphur Hills, 7700 ft. alt. ; Lower 
Geyser Basin (Coulter). Frequent. 

NYMPHJSACE^l. 

Nuphar advena, Ait. 

Abundant in ponds and sluggish streams up to 8500 ft. alt. 

Nuphar polysepalum, Engelm. 

Ponds head of Gibbon River, 8000 ft. alt. Rare. 

FUMARIACEJB. 

Corydalis aurea, Willd., var. occidentalis, Engelm. 

Soda Butte Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). 
Rather rare. 

CRUCIPER^I. 

Draba crassifolia, Graham. 

Mt. Holmes, 9200 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 10,000 ft. alt. 

Draba alpina, L. 

Mt. Washburne, 9800 ft. alt. ; Stinkingwater Pass (Parry). 

Draba alpina, L», var. glacialis, Dickie. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 7000 ft. alt. ; Sepulchre Mt., 8600 ft. alt. ; 
Mt. Doane, 10,000 feet (Adams). 



FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 2*7 

Draba nemorosa, L. 

Mammoth Hot Springs ; Slough Creek, 1800 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Draba nemorosa, L., var. leiocarpa, Lindb. 

Yellowstone Lake and Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Draba nemorosa, L., var. hebecarpa, Lindb. 

Cache Creek, 7900 ft. alt. ; Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. 

Draba aurea, Vahl. 

Soda Butte Creek, 7400 ft. alt. Rare. 

Cardamine cordifolia, Gray. 

Bogs. Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt. 

Cardamine Breweri, Watson. 

Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Cardamine hirsuta, L. 

Yellowstone Lake (Coulter) ; Mirror Lake Plateau, 9000 ft. alt. 
Small forms, 2-4 inches high. 

Arabis perfoliata, Lam. 

Gardiner River, 5500 ft. alt. ; Slough Creek, 0800 ft. alt. Infrequent. 
Arabis hirsuta, Scop. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6300 ft. alt. ; Gardiner River, 5400 ft. alt. 
Frequent. 

Arabis spatbulata, Nutt. 

Grassy hills. Fawn Creek, 8000 ft. alt. Rare. 

Arabis Drummondii, Gray. 

Mt. Washbume, 8400 ft. alt. ; Stinkingwater Pass (Parry) ; Yellow- 
stone Lake (Adams). 

Arabis Lyallii, Watson. 

Mt. Washbume, 9800 ft. alt. ; Rocks, Slough Creek, 7000 ft. alt. ; 
Mt. Doane (Adams). 

Arabis Holboellii, Hornem. 

Gardiner River, 56C0 ft. alt. ; Shoshone Lake (Coulter). Not 
common. 

Thelypodium integrifolium, Endl. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams). 



28 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Thelypodium sagittatum, Endl. 

Meadows. West Pelican Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake 
(Coulter). Rare. 

Erysimum asperum, DC, var. inconspicuum, Wats. 

Dry bench lands. East Fork of the Yellowstone, C500 ft. alt. ; 
Slough Creek, 6800 feet. 

Barbarea vulgaris, It. Br. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6100 ft. alt. ; Blacktail Deer Creek, 7200 
ft. alt. Rare. 

Sisymbrium canescens, Nutt. 

Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Sisymbrium incisum, Engelm. 

Dry bench lands. Common. 

Smelowskia calycina, C. A. Meyer. 

Common on alpine summits. Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. alt.; Mt. Wash- 
burne, 8800 ft. alt.; Saddle Mt., 9800 ft. alt.; Stinkingwater Pass (Parry). 

Nasturtium obtusum, Nutt. 

Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Lower Falls of the Yellowstone (Coulter). 

Nasturtium curvisiliqua, Nutt., var. lyratum, Watson. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6800 ft. alt.; Mirror Lake Plateau, 8900 ft. 
alt., Yellowstone (Parry), 

Subularia aquatica, L. 

Growing submerged in ponds at the foot of Yellowstone Lake. " In 
great abundance at head of Yellowstone Lake" (Parry); Yellowstone 
Lake (Forwood). 

Thlaspi alpestre, L. 

Indian Creek, 8200 ft. alt. 

Lepidium intermedium, Gray. 

Common in the dryer valleys. 

Physaria didymocarpa, Gray. 

Mammoth Hot Springs. Rare. 

VIOLACE^I. 

Viola blanda, Willd. 

Wet meadows, Buffalo Creek, 8600 ft. alt. Rare. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 29 

Viola canina, L., var. rupestris, Kegel. 

Rather common in meadows from 6000-8000 ft. alt.; Slough Creek, 
7700 ft. alt.; Swan Lake, 7500 ft. alt.; Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt. 

Viola Canadensis, L. 

Soda Butte Creek, 8200 ft. alt. Rare. 
Viola Nuttallii, Pursh. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. Rare. 

C ARYOPH YLL A.CE JE. 

Silene Douglasii, Hook. 

Grassy slopes, 7600-9000 ft. alt. Common. 
Silene acaulis, L. 

Rather common on alpine summits. Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. alt.; Mt. 
Chittenden, 9800 ft. alt. "Mountains along Yellowstone Lake'' 
(Adams). 

Lychnis Drummondii, Wats. 

Wooded slopes, Pebble Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone and Heart 
Lakes (Coulter); Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Lychnis Parryi, Wats. 

Grassy slopes with Silene Douglasii. Rather common 
Cerastium arvense, L. 

Very common, from 6000-10,000 ft. alt. 
Stellaria umbellata, Turcz. 

Common in bogs, from 6000-9000 ft. alt. 
Stellaria longipes, Goltlie. 

With the preceding. Rather dry places, Bison Peak, 8800 ft. alt. 
(a very glaucous form). 

Stellaria crassifolia, Ebrhart. 

Mt. Washburne, 9600 ft. alt, Rare. 
Stellaria borealis, Bigelow. 

Open and wooded bogs. Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Upper Falls of 
the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Arenaria congesta, Nutt., var. subcongesta, Watson. 

Very common everywhere, from 6500-9o00 ft. alt. 
Arenaria pungens, Nutt. 

Bare gravelly ridges, Mt. Norris, 9800 ft. alt. 
Arenaria verna, L., var. hirta, Watson. 

Bed of dry creek, Soda Butte, 7500 ft. alt,; Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. 
alt. 



30 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Arenaria biflora, var. obtusa, Watson (A. arctica, Stev. of Hayd. Rep. for 1871-72). 
Common on alpine summits. Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. alt.; Saddle Mt., 
10,200 ft. alt.; "High peaks near Yellowstone Lake" (Coulter); Red 
Mt., 10,000 ft. alt. (Adams). 

Arenaria striata, Watson. 

Mt. Washburne, 9800 ft. alt.; Mt. Norris, 9000 ft. alt. Not common. 

Arenaria lateriflora, L. 

Grassy slopes, Slough and Pebble Creeks, 6500-8000 ft. alt. Rare. 

Sagina Linnaei, Presl. 

Rather common in wet places at middle elevations. Fawn Creek, 
7400 ft. alt.; Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter); Mud Springs (Adams). 

PORTULACACE.51. 

Calandrinia pygmaea, Gray. 

Generally on bare wet subalpine and alpine slopes. Mt. Holmes, 9300 
ft. alt.; Sepulchre Mt., 8200 ft. alt.; Red Mt., 10,000 ft. alt., and Tower 
Falls, 6500 ft. alt. (Coulter). 

Claytonia Chamissonis, Esch. 

Gibbon Lake, 8000 ft. alt. ; East Fork of the Yellowstone, 6500 ft. 
alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Coulter, Adams) ; Lower Falls of the Yellow- 
stone (Coulter). 

Claytonia Caroliniana, Michx., var. sessilifolia, Torr. 
Common in wet places from 7000-9500 ft. alt. 

Spraguea umbellata, Torr. 

Common in dry and rocky places, especially on hot spring and geyser 
formation, from 6500 to 8500 ft. alt. 

Lewisia rediviva, Pursh. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Rare within the Park limits. 

ELATINACEJB. 

Elatine triandra, Schkuhr. 

Bottom of ponds at outlet of Yellowstone Lake with Iso'etes Bolanderi 
and Subularia aquatica. 

Elatine Americana, Am. (Trimerous form). 

Muddy shore of ponds at outlet of Yellowstone Lake, witli Limosella 
aquatica and TilUm arigustifolia. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 31 

MALVACEiE. 

Malvastrum coccineum, Gray. 

Mammoth Hot Springs. Rare within the Park. 

Sphaeralcea rivularis, Torr. 
Gibbon Canon ; Mammoth Hot Springs in open pine woods. Rare. 

LINACE^I. 

Linum perenne, L. 

Very common at low elevations. Petals sometimes wh'.te. 

GERANIACEJE. 

Geranium Carolinianum, L. 

Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams). 

Geranium incisum, Nutt. 

Very common on the border of woods up to 9000 ft. alt. 

Geranium Richardsoni, Fisch. & Mey. 

With the former, but less common. Petals apparently always white. 

Flcerkea proserpinacoides, Willd. 

Around springs near Swan Lake. Rare. 

RHAMNACEiE. 
Rhamnus alnifolia, L'Her. 

Along upper East Fork of the Yellowstone, 7000 ft. alt. Rare. 

Ceanothus velutinus, Dougl. 

Rocky hills, Soda Butte, 8000 ft. alt. Rare. 

SAPINDACE.S1. 

Acer glabrum, Torr. 

Wooded hills, Mammoth Hot Springs, 6500 ft. alt. Rare. 

LEGUMINOS.E. 

Lupinus ceespitosus, Nutt. 

Meadows and subalpine grassy slopes. Blacktail Deer Creek, 7200 
ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 9600 ft. alt. ; Mud Springs and Yellowstone 
Lake (Adams) ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Parry). Rather 
Common. 



32 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Lupinus sericeus, Pursh. 

Common throughout : Mammoth Hot Springs, 6000 ft. alt. ; Black tail 
Deer Creek, 7300 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 9800 ft. alt. ; Mt. Holmes, 
10,000 ft. alt. 

Lupinus argenteus, Pursh., var. decumbens, Wats. 

With the preceding, but more frequent in meadows from 8500-9500 ft. 
alt. ; Mammoth Hot Springs, 5900 ft. alt. ; Mirror Lake Plateau, 8800 
ft. alt. ; Mud Springs and Yellowstone Lake (L. laxiflorus, Dougl., var. 
tenellu8, T. and G.), Adams. 

Lupinus Burkei, Watson. 

Border of woods, Turbid Lake, 8000 ft. alt. Open pine woods, 
Mirror Lake Plateau, 8600 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (L. 
polyphyllu8, Lindl.), Adams. 

Lupinus pusillus, Pursh. 

Mouth of Gardiner River, 5300 ft. alt. Rare within the Park. 

Trifolium longipes, Nutt. 

Very common in bogs and meadows from 6000-8500 ft. alt. 

Trifolium Kingii, Watson ( T. Haydeni, Porter). 

Subalpine wet slopes. Mt. Holmes, 9600 ft. alt. 

Trifolium Parryi, Gray. 
With the preceding. 

Astragalus oaryocarpus, Ker. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 5800 ft. alt. Rare. 

Astragalus Canadensis, L. 

Blacktail Deer Creek, 7200 ft. alt. ; Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. 
alt. Rare. 

Astragalus hypoglottis, L. 

Grassy places, Common in the noithern portion of the Park. 

Astragalus Drummondii, Dougl. 
. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; Sepulchre Mt., 8000 ft. alt. ; 
Cache Creek, 7600 ft. alt. ; Gardiner River, 5700 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Astragalus aboriginum, Rich. 

Mt. Washburne, 10,000 ft. alt. ; hills along Soda Butte Creek, 8000 
ft. alt. Rare. 

Astragalus oroboides, Hornera., var. Americanus, Gray. 

Blacktail Deer Creek, 7300 ft. alt. ; Slough Creek, 6600 ft. alt. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 33 

Astragalus alpinus, L. 

Common throughout grassy places and open woods, from GC00-9500 
ft. alt. 

Astragalus Missouriensis, Nutt. 

Dry rocky hills, mouth of Gardiner River, 5600 ft. alt. 

Astragalus Purshii, Dougl. 
With the preceding. 

Astragalus triphyllus, Pursh. 

With A. Purshii. The last three species not observed elsewhere in 
the Park. 

Astragalus frigidus, Gray, var. Americanus, Watson. 

Grassy borders of streams and open woods. Blacktail Deer Creek, 
7300 ft. alt. ; Soda Butte Creek, 7800 ft. alt. Rather rare. 

Astragalus campestris, Gray. 

Border of pine woods. Very common from 6000-8000 ft. alt. 

Astragalus multiflorus, Gray. 

Dry bench lands. Blacktail Deer Creek and Mt. Evarts, 7200-7800 
ft. alt. ; Soda Butte Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Cache Creek, 6700 ft. alt. 

Astragalus tegetarius, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. 

Astragalus tegetarius, Wats., var. implexus, Canby. 

Bare rocky slopes and summits. Sepulchre Mt., 8600 ft. alt. ; Mt. 
Washburne, 10,000 ft. alt. 

Oxytropis deflexa, D. C. 

Meadows along Blacktail Deer Creek, 7300 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 
10,000 ft. alt. (a dwarf, stemless form, with leaves an inch and leaflets 
2-3 lines long). 

Oxytropis viscida, Nutt. 

Grassy slopes and summits of Specimen Ridge and Amethyst Mt., 
8300-9000 ft. alt. 

Oxytropis lagopus, Nutt. 

Common throughout. Bare rocky hills, Gardiner, 5 00 ft. alt. ; Mt. 
Washburne, 9800 ft. alt. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh. 

Common from 5300 ft. alt. to alpine. Mouth of Gardiner River, 
5400 ft. alt. ; Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. alt. 
3 



34 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Hedysarum Hackenzii, Richard. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 0200 ft. alt. ; Gardiner Falls ; gravelly banks 
junction of Soda Butte Creek and East Fork of the Yellowstone, 
6600 ft. alt. 

Hedysarum boreale, Nutt. 

Rather common in open pine woods, Sepulchre Mt., 8000 ft. alt. ; 
Slough Creek, 6700 ft. alt. ; East Fork of Pelican Creek, 8400 ft. alt. 

ROSACEA. 

Prunus demissa, Walp. 
Tower Falls. Rare. 

Spiraea betulifolia, Pallas. 

Open woods, not common. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; Hot 
Sulphur Springs and Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams) ; yellow- 
stone (Parry). 

Spiraea betulifolia, Pallas, var. rosea, Gray. 
Shoshone Lake (Coulter). 

Rubus Nutkanus, Mocino. 

Rather rare in damp wooded slopes and ravines. Slough Creek, 8000 
ft. alt. ; Cache Creek, 7800 ft. alt. 

Rubus strigosus, Michx. 

Blacktail Deer Creek, 7400 ft. alt. ; Obsidian Canon, 7600 ft. alt, ; 
Heart Lake, 7500 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Rather local. 

Dryas octopetala, L. 

On bare alpine summits. Mt, Holmes, 10,100 ft. alt. ; Summits at 
head of North Fork of Stinkingwater, 10,300 ft. alt. ; Slides, Soda Butte 
Creek, 8200 ft. alt. 

Geum macrophyllum, Willd. 

Common in bogs and meadows at low elevations. Gardiner River, 
5600 ft. alt. ; Tower Falls, 6300 ft. alt. 

Geum triflorum, Pursh. 

With the preceding, but more frequently on dry slopes and banks. 

Fragaria vesoa, L. 

Common in grassy places and open woods from 6000-8000 ft. alt. 
Producing very little fruit. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 35 

Potentilla glandulosa, Lindl. 

Rather common, generally in dry and rocky places. Mirror Lake 
Plateau, 8600 ft. alt. ; Open woods Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. ; 
Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Potentilla Norvegica, L. 

Mud Springs and Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Potentilla rivalis, Nutt., var. millegrana, Watson (P. millegrana, Engelra.). 
Sandy bluffs and shores of Yellowstone Lake, 7740 ft. alt. 

Potentilla palustris, Scop. 

Shoshone Lake (Forwood). 

Potentilla Plattensis, Nutt. 

Grassy summits of Specimen Ridge and Amethyst Mt., 8500-9400 ft. 
alt, ; Mt. Washburne, 9800 ft. alt. ; Stinkingwater Pass (Parry). 

Potentilla dissecta, Pursh (P. diversifolia, Lehra.). 

Meadows and alpine slopes, from 6500-10,000 ft. alt. Common, and 
varying much in size according to elevation. 

Potentilla gracilis, Dougl. 

Meadows from 7000-9000 ft. alt. Antelope Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; 
Yellowstone Lake, 7740 ft. alt. 

Potentilla gracilis, Dougl., var. flabelliformis, T. and G. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. ; Cache Creek, 7800 ft. alt. In 
rather dryer situations than the last. 

Potentilla gracilis, Dougl., var. rigida, Watson (P. Niittallii, Lehm.). 
Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams). 

Potentilla fruticosa, L. 

Common in bogs from 7000-9000 ft. alt. 

Potentilla Anserina, L. 

Wet places. Delusion Lake, 7800 ft. alt. ; Mirror Lake, 8900 ft. alt. ; 
Pelican Creek, 7800 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Sibbaldia procumbens, L. 

Common on subalpine and alpine slopes and summits, but frequently 
at much lower elevations. Rocky hills, Slough Creek, 6800 ft. alt.; 
Rocks, Pelican Creek, 8000 ft. alt. 

Ivesia Gordoni, T. and G. 

Alpine and subalpine. Very common. 



36 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Rosa Sayi, Schwein. 

Wooded and open rocky places. Slough Creek, 6600 ft. alt.; Cache 
Creek, 7900 ft. alt.; Alum and Sour Creeks, 7700 ft. alt.; Yellowstone 
Lake, 7800 ft. alt. Common. 

Rosa Arkansana, Porter. 

Open woods, Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Thickets, Soda 
Butte Creek, 7800 ft. alt. Rather rare. 

Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham and Schlecht. 

Sulphur Hills, Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt.; Gibbon Lakes, 8000 ft. alt.; 
Rare. 

Amelanchier alnifolia, Ntrtt. 

Open rocky places up to 7500 ft. alt. Bison Peak, 6800 ft. alt.; East 
Fork of the Yellowstone, 7400 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). 
Not common. 

SAXIPRAGACE^l. 

Saxifraga oppositifolia, L. 

High alpine. Mt. Holmes, 10,100 ft. alt.; Mt. Washbume, 10,000 ft. 
alt. Mountains along Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Saxifraga caespitosa, L. 

Rocky, wet alpine slopes, near snow, North Fork of Stinkingwater, 
10,200 ft. alt. 

Saxifraga bronchialis. L. 

Rocky knolls along Slouch Creek, 6700 ft. alt; Yellowstone Lake 
(Adams) ; Gallatin Range (W. H. Weed). 

Saxifraga rivularis, L. 
With S. ccespitosa, L. 

Saxifraga punctata, L. 

Bogs and wooded mountain streams. Common. Indian Creek, 8000 
ft. alt.; Slough Creek, 7700 ft. alt.; Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt.; Yellow- 
stone River (Coulter); Hot Sulphur Springs and Yellowstone Falls 
(Adams). 

Saxifraga Jamesii, Torr. 

Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams); National Park (Coulter's Bot. of the 
Rocky Mts.) ; Gallatin Range (W. H. Weed). 

Saxifraga nivalis, L. 

Wet slopes from 7500-9500 ft. alt.; Sepulchre Mt., 8000 ft. alt.; Mt. 
Washbuine, 9300 ft. alt. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 37 

Saxifraga integrifolia, Hook. 

Meadows and bogs at rather lower elevations than the last. Swan 
Lake, 7300 ft. alt. 

Tellima pentandra, Canby, ined. 

Grassy slopes, Soda Butte Creek, 8000 ft. alt. Rare. 

Tellima parviflora, Hook. 

Grassy places, Mammoth Hot Springs, 6300 ft. alt.; Soda Butte Creek, 
7800 ft. alt. Not common. 

Tellima tenella, Watson. 

Rocky places, Cache Creek, 9000 ft. alt. ; Specimen Ridge, 8400 ft. alt. 
Rare. 

Mitella pentandra, Hook. 

Bolder of woods, Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt.; Rocky places, Sour 
Creek, 8400 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Frequent. 

Mitella trifida, Graham. 

Wooded slopes, Soda Butte Creek, 8C00 ft. alt.; Mt. Washbume, 8800 
ft. alt. Not rare. 

Heuchera cylindrica, Dougl. 

Rocky open places, G500-9000 ft. alt.; Soda Butte Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; 
Rocks, Slough Creek, 6700 ft. alt. ; Hot Springs along the Yellowstone, 
6200 ft. alt. ; Grand Canon of the Yellowstone, Lower Fire-hole Basin 
(Coulter). 

Heuchera parvifolia, Nutt. 

Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt.; Cache Creek, 7800 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake 

(Adams). 

Parnassia parviflora, DC. 

Lower Fire-hole Basin (Coulter). 

Parnassia palustris, L. 

Bogs, Soda Butte Creek, 7600 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone 
(Adams). 

Parnassia fimbriata, Banks. 

Open bogs and along streams fiom 6000-9000 ft. alt. Very common. 

Ribes oxyacanthoides, L. 

Frequent in cold bogs and along mountain streams, 7000-8500 ft. alt. 

Eibes lacustre, Poir. 

Rocks, Bison Peak, 8700 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams) ; Yellow- 
stone (Parry). 



38 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Bibes lacustre, Poir, var. parvulum, Gray. 

Slough Creek, 6900 ft. alt.; Obsidian Canon, 7600 ft. alt. 

Ribes prostratum, I/Her. 

Tower Falls, 6200 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Rare. 

Ribes Hudsonianum, Richards. 

Along streams, Antelope Creek. 6400 ft. alt. ; Tower Falls, 6200 ft. 
alt.; Yellowstone Falls (Adams). Not common. 

Ribes cereum, Dougl. 

Dry, open rocky places, Junction Butte, 6200 ft. alt.; Yellowstone 
Lake (Adams). Rare. 

Ribes viscosissimum, Pursh. 

Rocky places and open-wooded slopes from 7000-9000 ft. alt.; Soda 
Butte, 7500 ft. alt.; Elephant Back, 9000 ft. alt.; Yellowstone (Pairy- 
Forwood). 

Ribes floridum, L. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. Not common. 

CRASSULACE.SS. 

Tillaea angustifolia, Nutt. 

Muddy shore of ponds, Yellowstone Lake with Elatine Americana. 

Sedum rhodanthum, Gray. 

Bogs, Cache Creek, 7000 ft. alt.; Gibbon Lakes, 8000 ft. alt ; Tower 
Falls (Coulter) ; Mud Springs, Yellowstone Lake and Upper Falls of the 
Yellowstone (Adams). Rather local. 

Sedum stenopetalum, Pursh. 

Very common throughout, 6000-10,000 ft. alt. 

Sedum Douglasii, Hook. 

" Divide between Snake River and Yellowstone Lake, 8800 ft. alt." 
(Adams), 

HALORAGE^. 

Hippuris vulgaris, L. 

In great quantities in sluggish streams and shallow ponds, 7500-8500 
ft. alt.; Lewis Lake; Delusion Lake; Riddle Lake; head of Bioad 
Creek. 

Myriophyllum verticillatum, L. 

Lakes, head of Broad Creek, 8400 ft. alt. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 39 

ONAGRACE^J. 

Epilobium spicatum, Lam. 

Dry places, principally on the burnt areas. Mammoth Hot Springs, 
6300 ft. alt.; Mirror Lake Plateau, 8800 ft. alt.; Alum Creek (Forwood); 
Mud Springs (Adams). 

Epilobium latifolium, L. 

Dry washes along Soda Butte Creek, 7700 ft. alt. Not common. 

Epilobium suffruticosum, Nutt. 

With the former. Yellowstone Lake and Upper Falls of the Yellow- 
stone (Adams). 

Epilobium alpinum, L. 

Rather common on subalpine mountain slopes. 

Epilobium coloratum, Muhl. 

Alum Creek (Forwood); Mud Springs (Adams). 

Epilobium Drummondii, Hausknecht (E. origanifolium, Lam.). 

"Hausknecht does not allow E. origanifolium, Lam., to be Ameri- 
can" (Watson). Coal bogs and mountain streams, 7500-9500 ft. alt. 

Epilobium Hornemanni, Reich, (a form of E. origanifolium, Lam.). 
With the preceding. 

Epilobium paniculatum, Nutt. 

Dry, open grassy slopes. Soda Butte, 7000 ft. alt. 

Gayophytum ramosissimum, Torr and Gray. 

Very common on dry banks up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Gayophytum raoemosum, Torr and Gray. 
With the preceding. 

Oenothera biennis, L. 

Hot Sulphur Springs and Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

<Enothera albicaulis, Nutt. 
Mud Springs (Adams). 

(Enothera caespitosa, Nutt. 

Dry rocky places. Mammoth Hot Springs, G400 ft. alt. Rare. 

(Enothera triloba, Nutt. 

Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). 

(Enothera brachycarpa, Gray (CE. marginata, var. purpurea). 

Hot Sulphur Springs (Adaihs) ; Hot Springs along the Yellowstone 
(Coulter). 



40 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

(Enothera breviflora, Torr and Gray (CE. Nuttallii, Torr and Gray). 

Wet places. Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone (Parry, Forwood). 

(Enothera heterantha, Nutt. 

Swan Lake with the preceding, 7400 ft. alt. ; Blacktail Deer Creek, 
7200 ft. alt. 

LOASACE^S. 

Mentzelia dispersa, Wats. 

Dry banks up to 7500 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Mentzelia laevicaulis, T. and G. 

Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams) ; Mammoth Hot Springs (W. H. Weed). 

UMBELLIFERiE. 

Carum Gairdneri, Benth. and Hook. 

Common in rather moist places, 6000-8500 ft. alt. 

Berula angustifolia, Koch. 
Alum Creek (Forwood). 

Bupleurum ranunculoides, L. 
Yellowstone (Parry). 

Osmorrhiza nuda, Torr. 

Rich, damp, open woods up to 9000 ft. alt. Common. 

Angelica pinnata, Wats. 

Bogs and banks of streams. Blacktail Deer Creek, 7300 ft. alt. ; 
East Fork of the Yellowstone, 8000 ft. alt. Rather common. 

Angelica Lyallii, Wats. 

With the preceding, but rather less common. Upper Geyser Basin, 
7300 ft. alt. 

Cymopterus alpinus, Gray. 

Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Cymopterus montanus, Torr and Gray. 
Rocky hills. Gardiner, 5G00 ft. alt. 

Peucedanum simplex, Nutt. 

Sepulchre Mt., 8000 ft. alt. 

Peucedanum ambiguum, Nutt. 

Rocky ridges and slides. Slough Creek, 8700 ft. alt. ; Mt. Norris, 
9000 ft. alt. Frequent. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PABK. 41 

Peucedanum macrocarpum, Nutt. 

With the preceding. Gardiner, 5400 ft. alt. 

Peucedanum nudicaule, Nutt. 

Common from 5500-10,000 ft. alt., especially on bare gravelly sub- 
alpine slopes. Gardiner, 5600 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 9500 ft. alt. 

Heracleum lanatum, Michx. 

Bogs and along streams up to 8000 ft. alt. Common. 

Ferula multifida, Gray. 

Open woods. East Pelican Creek, 8400 ft. alt. Lewis Lake, 7800 ft. 
alt. Rather rare. 

CORNACEJE. 

Cornus Canadensis, L. 

East Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt. Rare. 

Cornus stolonifera, Michx. 

Near head of Pebble Creek, 8500 ft. alt. Rare. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^S. 

Sambucus racemosa, L. 

Open wooded slopes. Blacktail Deer Creek, 7600 ft. alt. ; Obsidian 
Canon ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). Rather local. 

Linnaea borealis, Gronov. 

Common in mossy, damp woods up to 9000 ft. alt. 

Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Hook. 

About Mammoth Hot Springs. Yellowstone Lake ( Adams). 

Lonicera Utahensis, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6500 ft alt. Rare. 

Lonicera caerulea, L. 

Bogs. Head of Gibbon River, 8000 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone (Parry). 

Lonicera involucrata, Banks. 

Common on the borders of meadows and in open woods, especially 
from 8000-9000 ft. alt. 

RUBIACE^I. 

Galium Aparine, L. ' 

Gibbon Meadows, 7500 ft. alt. ; Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. ; 
Yellowstone River, 6400 ft. alt. (Coulter). Not common. 

Galium Aparine, L., var. Vaillantii, Koch (G. Aparine, L., var. minor, Hook). 
Mouth of Soda Butte Creek, 6600 ft. alt. 



42 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Galium triflorum, Michx. 

Common in damp places throughout. Mammoth Hot Sprngs, 6400 ft. 
alt ; Mirror Lake, 8800 ft. alt. 

Galium trifidum, L. 

With the preceding, but rather less frequent. 

Galium boreale, L. 

Moist meadows and borders of woods. Very common from 7500- 
9000 ft. alt. 

Galium bifolium, Wats. 

Gravelly slides. Soda Butte Creek, near the eastern boundary of the 
Park, 8500 ft. alt. 

VALERIANACEiE. 

Valeriana edulis, Nutt. 

A characteristic bog plant of the region, 6500-9000 ft. alt. 

Valeriana sylvatioa, Banks. 

With the preceding, but often in dryer situations. 

COMPOSITE. 

Liatris punctata, Hook. 

Dry benches near Gardiner, 5400 ft. alt. ; common along the Yellow- 
stone River beyond the limits of the Park. 

Gutierrezia Euthamiae, Torr and Gray. 
With the preceding. 

Chrysopsis villosa, Nutt. 

A characteristic and common plant of the hot spring and geyser 
areas. 

Chrysopsis villosa, Nutt., var. hispida, Gray. 

Madison Lake (Coulter) ; Yellowstone (Parry). 

Aplopappus uniflorus, Torr and Gray. 

Rather common on hot spring and geyser formations ; not observed 
elsewhere. 

Aplopappus Lyallii, Gray. 

Common on nearly all the alpine slopes and summits from 9500- 
10,500 ft. alt. 



FLORA OF TI1E YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 43 

Aplopappus acaulis, Gray. 

Common over the northern poition. Sepulchre Mt., 9200 ft. alt. ; 
Mt. Holmes, 9800 ft. alt. 

Aplopappus suffruticosus, Gray. 

Sepulchre Mt., 9000 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone (Parry). 

Aplopappus Macronema, Gray. 

Gravelly open places. Elephant Back, 8500 ft. alt. (722 a less 
tomentose form). Sandy beaches along Yellowstone Lake near mouth 
of Pelican Creek (723). 

Bigelovia graveolens, Gray. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6000 ft. alt. (a glabrous form); Lower Geyser 
Basin (Coulter). Not common within the Park. 

Bigelovia Douglasii, Gray. 

A form approaching var. serrulata, Gray ; with the preceding, but not 
common. A dwarf form (near var, pumila, Gray) is found over the 
open dry areas up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Solidago multiradiata, Ait., var. scopulorum, Gray. 

Meadows and slopes, 7500-9500 ft. alt. Common. 

Solidago Missouriensis, Nutt. 

Rather common up to 8000 ft. alt. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. 
alt. ; Yellowstone Lake, 7900 feet. 

Solidago Missouriensis, Nutt., var. montana, Gray. 

Border of woods. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6100 ft. alt. 

Solidago Canadensis, L. 

Found with 8. Missouriensis, but rather more common. 

Solidago nana, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. Not common. 

Townsendia Parryi, Eaton. 

Common in the northwestern portion of the Park. Grassy Slopes, 
Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. Subalpine, Mt. Holmes, 9400 ft. alt. 

i 

Townsendia Parryi, Eaton, var. alpina, Gray. 

Alpine summits between East Fork of the Yellowstone and the 
Stinkingwater, 10,200 ft. alt. ; "High divide between the Yellowstone 
and the Stinkingwater " (Parry). 

Townsendia scapigera, Eaton. 
Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. alt. 



44 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Townsendia sericea, Hook. 

Bare rocky summit of Saddle Mt., upper East Fork, 10,200 ft. alt. 
(697); "The northern form of Hooker, with pappus of ray flowers 
reduced" (Gray). 

Aster Sibiricus, L. 

Open dry woods. Pelican Cone, 8700 ft. alt. ; Mammoth Hot Springs, 
6200 ft. alt. 

Aster conspicuus, Lindl. 

With the preceding, but less frequent. Yellowstone (Parry, 
Forwood). 

Aster integrifolius, Nutt. 

Meadows and border of woods, common from 6500-8500 ft. alt. 

Aster campestris, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. 

Aster commutatus. 

Dry benches, Cache Creek, 7500 ft. alt. ; Mammoth Hot Springs, 
6200 ft. alt. Not common. 

Aster longifolius, Lam. ? 

Border of bogs, Gardiner River, 6200 ft. alt. Rare. 

Aster adscendens, Lindl. 

Rather common, from 6000-8000 ft. alt. ; Stevenson Island, Yellow- 
stone Lake ; Gibbon Meadows, 7500 ft. alt. ; Hot Sulphur Springs 
(Adams). 

Aster Fremonti, Gray. 

Mt. Washburne, 9000 ft. alt. 

Aster foliaceus, Lindl. 

Meadows, and especially grassy slopes, from 8000-9000 ft. alt. Com- 
mon. Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. ; Mt. Holmes, 9000 ft. alt. 

Aster foliaceus, Lindl., var. apricus, Gray. 
Bell Peak, 9000 ft. alt. 

Aster scopulorum, Gray. 

Dry rocky benches. Gardiner, 5600 ft. alt. Rare. 

Aster Engelmanni, Gray. 

Rather common on grassy slopes, from 7500-8500 ft. alt. Rays 
always white. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 45 

Aster elegans, Torr and Gray. 

With the preceding, but less frequent. Antelope Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; 
Mirror Lake Plateau, 8800 ft. alt. ; Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams) ; 
Yellowstone (Parry). 

Aster pulchellus, Eaton. 

Common on wet subalpine slopes, from 9000-10,000 ft. alt. 

Aster canescens, Pursh. 

Sandy shore of Yellowstone Lake near Pelican Creek ; Alum Creek 
(Forwood) ; Yellowstone (Parry). Rather rare. 

Erigeron uniflorus, L. 

Alpine and subalpine. Common throughout. Frequently with 
white rays. 

Erigeron lanatus, Hook. 

With the preceding, but less common. 

Erigeron salsuginosus, Gray. 

Moist meadows and grassy slopes, 8000 ft. alt. to alpine. Mt. Wash- 
burne, 9500 ft. alt., an alpine form with white rays (123). Extremely 
common. 

Erigeron salsuginosus, Gray, var. angustifolius, Gray. 

Mt. Norris, 9500 ft. alt. ; head of East Pelican Creek, 8G00 ft. alt. 

Erigeron macranthus, Nutt. 

Grassy slopes and border of woods, from 6000-9000 ft. alt. Fre- 
quent. Gardiner River, 6000 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 8500 ft. alt. 
Shoshone Lake, 7600 ft. alt. 

Erigeron glabellas, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. Rare. 

Erigeron compositus, Pursh. 

Slough Creek, 7200 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone 
(Adams). Rare. 

Erigeron compositus, Pursh., var. discoideus, Gray. 

Bare ridges and slopes, from 6000 ft. alt. to alpine. The common form. 

Erigeron peucephyllus, Gray. 

Dry volcanic soil, Junction Butte, 6300 ft. alt. Rare. 

Erigeron ursinus, Eaton. 
Yellowstone (Parry). 



46 FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Erigeron radicatus, Hook. 

Alpine slopes, with E. uniflorus. Frequent. 

Erigeron ochroleucus, Nutt. 

Meadows along Slough Creek, 6600 ft. alt. 

Erigeron ceespitosus, Nutt. 

Grassy slopes. Specimen Ridge, 8000 ft. alt.; Mud Springs (Adams). 
Not common. 

Erigeron corymbosus, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. ; Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter) ; 
Mud Springs (Adams). 

Erigeron acris, L. 

Blacktail Deer Creek, 7400 ft. alt. ; Mirror Lake Plateau, 8700 ft. 
alt. Local. 

Erigeron armeriaefolius, Turcz. 

Bogs and wet meadows. Indian Creek, 8200 ft. alt. ; Soda Butte 
Creek, 7000 ft. alt. 

Antennaria flagellaris, Gray. 

Bare rocky ridges, Mt. Norris, 9200 ft. alt. 

4 

Antennaria Carpathica, R. Br., var. pulcherrima, Hook. 

Common in bogs and wet meadows, from 7000-8500 ft. alt. 

Antennaria alpina, Gaertn. 

Rather common on alpine and subalpine summits. 

Antennaria dioica, Gaertn. 

Common on dry benches and ridges at low elevations. 

Antennaria dioica, Gaertn., var. rosea. 
Gardiner, 5300 ft. alt. Rare. 

Anaphalis margaritacea, Benth. and Hook. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Not common. 

Gnaphalium Sprengelii, Hook, and Am. 

A characteristic plant of the hot spring and geyser areas. 

Iva xantbiifolia, Nutt. 

Yellowstone (Forwood). 

Iva axillaris, Pursh. 

"Hot springs along the Yellowstone" (Forwood). 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 4t 

Budbeckia occidentalis, N m r. 

Along streams and wet slopes on border of woods. Panther 
Creek, 8200 ft. alt. ; Obsidian Canon, 7500 ft. alt. Rare. 

Balsamorrhiza sagittata, Nutt. 

Open grassy slopes up to 8500 ft. alt. Common. 

Wyetbia helianthoides, Nutt. 

Wet meadows, Indian Creek, 8200 ft. alt. Rare in the Park, but 
common on its northwest borders, along the Gallatin River. 

Gymnolomia multiflora, Benth. and Hook. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6800 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Rare. 

Helianthus Nuttallii, Torr and Gray. 

In water or wet soil. Gardiner, 6300 ft. alt. ; Mammoth Hot Springs, 
6200 ft. alt. ; Alum Creek (Forwood) ; Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter;. 
Not common. 

Helianthella quinquenervis, Gray. 

Grassy slopes. Soda Butte Creek, near eastern boundary of the Park, 
7800 ft. alt. 

Helianthella Douglasii, Torr and Gray. 

Very common on grassy slopes, from 6000-9000 ft. alt. 

Madia glomerata, Hook. 

Common in dry meadows up to 8500 ft. alt. 

Eriophyllum oaespitosum, Dougl. 

Rocky banks on the borders of timber. Rather common. 

Chaenactis Douglasii, Hook and Arn. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Sand beaches, Yellowstone 
Lake, 7740 ft. ; Fire-hole River (Coulter) ; Upper Geyser Basin 

(Forwood). 

Gaillardia aristata, Pursh. 

Open woods. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. Rare. 

Achillea millefolium, L. 
Common everywhere. 

Artemisia dracunculoides, Pursh. 

Dry banks and sandy lake shores. Indian Creek, 7500 ft. alt. ; Sand 
beaches, Yellowstone Lake, 7740 ft. alt.; Yellowstone River (Coulter). 



48 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Artemisia scopulorum, Gray. 
Common on alpine slopes. 

Artemisia frigida, Willd. 

Common about Blacktail Deer Creek and Mammoth Hot Springs, 
)00-7500ft. alt.; but rati 

Artemisia Ludoviciana, Nutt. 
With A. dracunculoide8. 

Artemisia discolor, Dougl. 



Artemisia discolor, Dougl., var. incompta, Gray. 
Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter). 

Artemisia arbuscula, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Hayden Valley, 8000 ft. alt. 

Artemisia tridentata, Nutt. 

Common on nearly all the dry open areas up to about 8500 ft. alt. 

Artemisia cana, Pursh. 

With the preceding, and perhaps more abundant. 

Tetradymia cane see ns, DC. 

Gardiner, 6300 ft. alt. Rare in the Park. 

Arnica cordifolia, Hook. 

Common in open woods from 6000-9000 ft. alt. 

Arnica latifolia, Bong. 

With the preceding, but less common. 

Arnica Chamissonis, Less. 

Along streams in open woods. Pelican Cone, 8600 ft. alt.; Wet woods, 
Mirror Lake Plateau, 8800 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Falls and Yellowstone 
Lake (Adams). Rather local. 

Arnica longifolia, Eaton. 

Dry washes along Cache Creek, 6800 ft. alt., and Pebble Creek, 8000 
ft. alt. 

Arnica foliosa, Nutt. 

Generally with A. Chamissonis. Meadows, Blacktail Deer Creek, 
7400 ft. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 49 

Arnica Parryi, Gray. 

Pine woods, East Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt.; Yellowstone (Parry). 
Rare. 

Arnica alpina, Olin. 

Common on subalpine and alpine slopes. On rocky ridges and sum- 
mits along East Fork, 8500-900U ft. alt., occurs a 3-cephalous form. 

Senecio Fremonti, Torr. and Gray. 

Slides along Soda Butte Creek, 8200 ft. alt. Rare. 

Senecio triangularis, Hook. 

Common in bogs and wet meadows, from 7000-9000 ft. alt.; Red Mt., 
10,000 ft. alt. (Coulter). 

Senecio serra, Hook., var. integriusculus, Gray. 

Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt.; Shoshone Lake (Coulter). 

Senecio crassulus, Gray. 

Bogs, Pebble Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Senecio hydrophilus, Nutt. 

Brackish marshes and muddy shores. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. 
alt. ; Outlet of Yellowstone Lake ; Alum Creek (Forwood). 
Senecio integerrimus, Nutt. 

Bogs, Pebble Creek, 8200 ft. alt. (a form with solitary heads). Rare. 

Senecio lugens, Richards. 

Very common in bogs from 7500-9000 ft. alt. 

Senecio canus, Hook. 

Common in dry open places up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Senecio aureus, L., var. subnudus, Gray. 

Rather common in grassy bogs. Lakes, head of Gibbon River, 8000 
ft. alt.; Mirror Lake Plateau, 8800 ft. alt.; Lower Geyser Basin 
(Coulter). 

Senecio aureus, L., var. croceus, Gray. 
Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). 

Cnicus Hookerianus, Gray. 

Dry marshes along Soda Butte Creek, 7500 ft. alt. ; Rocky, subalpine 
ridges of Mt. Morris, 9000 ft. alt. Rare. 

Cnicus Drummondii, Gray. 

Very common in open places up to 8500 ft. alt., from a few inches to 
several feet in length. 
4 



50 FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Stephanomeria minor, Nutt. 
Alum Creek (Forwood). 

Stephanomeria exigua, Nutt. 
Mud Springs (Adams). 

Mioroseris nutans, Gray. 

Grassy meadows, Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. 

Hieraoium graoile, Hook. 

Pine woods from 7500-9000 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Hieraoium albiflorum, Hook. 
With the preceding. 

Hieraoium cynoglossoides, Arvet. 

Rich grassy slopes. Bell's Peak, 8500 ft. alt.; Mt. Washburne, 8000 
ft. alt. Frequent. 

Crepis runcinata, Torr. and Gray. 

Wet meadows. Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Cake 
(Adams). 

Crepis aouminata, Nutt. 

Dry banks. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt.; Grassy slopes, 
Swan Lake, 7500 ft. alt. 

Crepis ocoidentalis, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Firehole River (Coulter); Upper 
Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). Rather common. 

Lygodesmia junoea, Don. 

Gardiner, 5300 ft. alt.; Mud Springs (Adams). Rare. 

Lygodesmia spinosa, Nutt. 

Dry benches, Gardiner. Rare. 

Hulsea nana, Gray. 

Slides, Mt. Holmes, 10,000 ft. alt. Frequent in the Gallatin Range. 

Troximon glaucum, Nutt. 

Meadows and slopes, common throughout. 

Troximon aurantiacum, Hook. 

Meadows and open woods up to 9000 ft. alt. Common. 

Taraxacum officinale, Weber, var. lividum, Koch. 

Bogs, Blacktail Deer Creek, 7400 ft. alt.; Pebble Creek, 8000 ft. alt. 
Not common. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 51 

Taraxacum officinale, Weber, var. scopulorum, Gray. 
Slides, Soda Butte Creek, 8600 ft. alt. Rare. 

Lactuca pulchella, DC. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake, 7800 ft. alt.; 
Alum Creek (Forwaid). Frequent. 

LOBELIACEiE. 

Laurentia carnosula, Benth. 

Muddy shore of Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

CAMPANULACE^I. 
Campanula rotundifolia, L. 

Grassy places. Very common from 6000-9000 ft. alt. 

ERICACEAE!. 

Vaccinium myrtilloides, Hook. 

Damp woods. Pelican Creek, 8400 ft. alt. Rare. 

Vaccinium occidentale, Gray. 

Wooded bogs head of the Gibbon River, 8000 ft. alt. (3-3 feet in 
height). Rare. 

Vaccinium caespitosum, Miclix. 
Shoshone Lake (Coulter). 

Vaccinium Myrtillus, L., var. microphyllum, Hook. 

Dense and sparsely wooded slopes and plateaus, from 7500-9000 ft. 
alt. Extremely common. Frequently the only vegetation in dense 
pine woods. Berries always light red. 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spreng. 

Common in dry rocky places, especially over hot spring and geyser 
areas. 

Gaultheria Myrsinites, Hook. 

Mossy, damp woods. Gibbon Lakes, 8000 ft. alt. ; Broad Creek, 
8500 ft. alt. 

Bryanthus empetriformis, Gray. 

Subalpine wet slopes on the borders of timber. Rather common. 

Kalmia glauca, Ait. 

Bogs. Sour Creek, 8600 ft. alt., 2-6 inches high (var. microphylla, 
Hook). "Shoshone Lake on geyserite " (Coulter). Not common. 



52 FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Ledum grandulosum, Nutt. 

Generally in dense damp fir woods from 3000-9500 ft. alt. 

Chimaphila umbellata, Nutt. 

Soda Butte Creek, 8500 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Rare. 

Moneses uniflora, Gray. 

Deep moist woods. Soda Butte Creek, 8500 ft. alt. ; East Pelican 
Creek, 8600 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake and Yellowstone Falls (Adams). 
Not common. 

Pyrola secunda, L. 

Cache Creek, 7600 ft. alt. ; Mirror Lake, 8800 ft. alt. ; Firebole 
River (Coulter); Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Frequent. 

Pyrola chlorantha, Swartz. 

"Woods. Cache Creek, 8500 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Rare. 

Pyrola rotundifolia, L., var. uliginosa, Gray. 

Fir woods. Soda Butte Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the 
Yellowstone (Adams). 

Pyrola picta, Smith. 

Dry timbered slopes. Sulphur Hills, Pelican Creek, 9000 ft. alt. 
Rare. 

Pterospora andromedea, Nutt. 

Under Pinus Murrayana. Yellowstone Lake ; along the Yellowstone 
(Coulter); Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). Rather rare. 

Monotropa Hypopitys, L. 

Rather common in pine woods. 

PRIMULACEiE. 

Dodecatheon Meadia, L. 

Bogs and wet slopes, from 6000-9000 ft. alt. 

Douglasia montana, Gray. 

Alpine summit of Mt. Holmes, 1000 ft. alt. 

Androsace septentrionalis, L. 

In wet open places, from 6000 ft. alt. to alpine. Rather common. 
Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. ; Mt. Washburne, 9800 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone 
Lake (Adams). 



PLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 63 

Androsace filiformis, Retz. 

With the preceding at low elevations. 

Centunculus minimus, L. 

Border of bogs. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. 

. GENTIANACEJE. 

Gentiana serrata, Gunner. 

Wet places, .6000-8500 ft. alt. Common almost everywhere. 

Gentiana Amarella, L., var. acuta, Hook. 

Bogs. Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Blacktail Deer Creek, 7500 ft. alt.; 
Cache Creek, 7600 ft. alt. ; Heart Lake (Coulter). Frequent. 

Gentiana Forwoodii, Gray. 

Rather dry meadows, 6000-8000 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake at outlet, 
7800 ft. alt. ; East Fork, 7500 ft. alt. In lower and dryer situations 
than O. serrata, and much less common. 

Swertia perennis, L. 

Yellowstone Falls (Parry) ; Yellowstone (Forwood). 

Frasera speoiosa, Dougl. 

Common in meadows and on grassy slopes, from 6000-8000 ft. alt. 

POLEMONIACEJE. 

Phlox canescens, Torr. and Gray. 

Grassy slopes about Swan Lake and Indian Creek, 7300 8000 ft. alt. 
June 15, with P. Douglasii, Hook, var. longifolia, Gray, but flowering 
about two weeks earlier. 

Phlox Douglasii, Hook. 

Very common on subalpine and alpine slopes throughout. 

Phlox Douglasii, Hook, var. longifolia, Gray. 

Dry slopes at lower elevations than the type. Very common. 

Phlox longifolia, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. 

Phlox longifolia, Nutt., var. brevifolia, Gray. 
Rocks, Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Gilia linearis, Gray. 

Common throughout at low elevations. 



54 FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Gilia gracilis, Hook. 

With the preceding, but less common. 

Gilia liniflora, Benth., var. pharnaceoides, Gray. 

Dry open places at low elevations. Rather common. 

Gilia nudicaulis, Gray. 

Moist meadows. Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. Rare. 

Gilia pungens, Benth. 

Rocky ridges, Tower Falls, 6400 ft. alt. ; Slides, Mt. Evarts, 7000 
ft. alt. Rare. 

Gilia tenerrima, Gray. 

Dry banks. Soda Butte, 0800 ft. alt. Rare. 

Polemonium confertum, Gray. 

Alpine and subalpine rocky slopes. Common. 

Polemonium humile, Willd., var. pulchellum, Gray. 
Dry slopes from 5500-8000 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Polemonium cseruleum, L. 

Bogs and wet meadows. Indian Creek, 7500 ft. alt. ; Alum Creek 
(Forwood); Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter); Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Polemonium foliosissimum, Gray. 

Stevenson Island, Yellowstone Lake (Adams) ; Yellowstone Lake 
(Coulter). 

HYDROPHYLLACEJE. 

Nemophila breviflora, Gray. 

Dry slopes. Soda Butte, 6700 ft. alt. 

Ellisia Nyotelea, L. 

Mammoth Hot Springs. 

Phacelia circinata, Jacq. F. 

Dry open places up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Phacelia Franklinii, Gray. 

Sepulchre Mt., 7500 ft. alt. ; Tower Falls, 6400 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone 
Lake. Frequent. 

Phacelia sericea, Gray. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 7000 ft. alt. ; Geode Creek, 7500 ft. alt.; Red 
Mt., 9600 ft. alt. (Coulter). 

Phacelia Menziesii, Torr. 
Mud Springs (Adams). 



FLORA OF 'THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 55 

BORRAGINACE./E. 

Echinospermum floribundum, Lehm. 

Common about Mammoth Hot Springs. 

Echinospermum Redowskii, Lehm., var. occidentale, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Rare. 

Omphalodes nana, Gray, var. aretioides, Gray (Eritrichium nanum, Schrad., 
var. aretioides, Herder.) 
On most of the high alpine summits throughout. 

Krynitzkia Californica, Gray. 

Muddy shore of ponds at outlet of Yellowstone Lake. 

Krynitzkia ambigua, Gray (Eritrichium muriculatum, var. ambigm/m, Gray). 
Common on open dry slopes at low elevations. 

Krynitzkia Torreyana, Gray (Eritrichium leiocarpum, Wats., Bot. King Ex., 
in part). 
With the preceding. 

Krynitzkia crassisepala, Gray. 
Mammoth Hot Springs. 

Krynitzkia sericea, Gray (Eritrichium glomeratum, var. humile, Gray). 
Dry benches, Gardiner, 5300 ft. alt. 

Mertensia Sibirica, Don. 

Wet meadows, slopes and along mountain streams. Very common, 
from 8000-9000 ft. alt. Flowering in August 

Mertensia lanceolata, DC. 

At lower elevations and less common. Flowering in June. 

Mertensia alpina, Don. 

Wet subalpine and alpine slopes. Common. 

Myosotis sylvatica, Hoffra., var. alpestris, Koch. 

Common throughout, from 6000-10,000 ft. alt. 

SCROPHULAKIACE^. 

Collinsia parviflora, Dougl. 

Common throughout at low altitudes. 



56 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Penstemon Menziesii, Hook. 

Rocky ridges and slides. Mt. Holmes, 9500 ft. alt.; Mt. Norris, 9700 
ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Not common. Corolla pink- 
purple. 

Penstemon Menziesii, Dougl., var. Douglasii, Gray. 

Rocks along Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt. Leaves from lanceolate to 
linear lanceolate, l-2£ inches long, sparsely serrulate. Corolla violet- 
purple. Rare. 

Penstemon glaber, Pursh. 

Rather common on open dry slopes up to 7500 ft. alt. 

Penstemon glaber, Pursh., var. cyananthus, Gray. 
Mammoth Hot Springs, 6500 ft. alt. 

Penstemon deustus, Dougl. 

Dry rocky soil, Junction Butte, 6200 ft. alt. Rare. 

Penstemon confertus, Dougl., var. caeruleo-purpureus, Gray. 

Common throughout up to 8500 ft. alt.; Upper East Fork, 10,300 ft. 
alt. (alpine forms from 2-4 inches high). 

Penstemon gracilis, Nutt. 

Rocky places about Mammoth Hot Springs and Swan Lake, 5300- 
7500 ft. alt. 

Mimulus nanus, Hook & Am. 

Rather rare about the hot springs and geysers. Upper Geyser Basin, 
7300 ft. alt.; Hot Springs (Parry); Crater Hills (Coulter). 

Mimulus rubellus, Gray. 

Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. ; Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt. Flowers yellow 
or rose color. 

Mimulus montioides, Gray in Suppl. Flor. N. A., 450. 
With the preceding, but less common. 

Mimulus moschatus, Dougl. 

Mossy bogs and about springs. East Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt.; 
Cache Creek, 7700 ft. alt. 

Mimulus Lewisii, Pursh. 

Bogs, mountain streams and wet subalpine slopes. Common above 
8000 ft. alt. 

Mimulus luteus, L. 

Bogs and streams. Common up to 8000 ft. alt. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 57 

Limosella aquatica, L. 

Muddy shore of ponds. Turbid lake, 7900 ft. alt. ; Ponds at outlet of 
Yellowstone Lake. 

Synthyris rubra, Benth. 

Open slopes from 6500-9000 ft. alt. Common. 

Veronica Anagallis, L. 

Heart Lake (Coulter). 

Veronica Americana, Schwein. 

Bogs and wet places, rather common up to 8000 ft. alt. ; Indian Creek, 
8000 It. alt.; Mammoth Hot Springs, 6000 ft. alt. 

Veronica scutellata, L. 

With the preceding. East Fork, 7000 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake 
(Adams). 

Veronica alpina, L. 

Wet meadows and slopes from 7500 ft. alt. to alpine. Common. 

Veronica serpyllifolia, L. 

Wet meadows and muddy shores of ponds up to 8500 ft. alt. 
Frequent. 

Veronica peregrina, L. 

With the preceding, but less common. Yellowstone Lake at outlet. 

Castilleia minor, Gray. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. ; Upper Geyser Basin, 7300 ft. alt.; 
Mud Springs (Adams). Local. 

Castilleia parviflora, Bong. 

Bogs and meadows up to 8000 ft. alt. Frequent. Replaced at higher 
elevations by G. miniata. 

Castilleia miniata, Dougl. 

Bogs, wet meadows and slopes from 7000 to 9500 ft. alt. ; Extremely 
common above 8500 ft. alt. over subalpine meadows and slopes. Flowers 
all shades of red, scarlet, crimson, cream color and white. 

Castilleia pallida, Kunth., var. septentrionalis, Gray. 
Rather common on subalpine slopes. 

Castilleia pallida, Kunth., var. occidentalis, Gray. 

High alpine summits. North Fork of the Stinkingwater, 10,300 ft. 
alt. 



58 FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARR. 

Orthocarpus pallescens, Gray. 

Rather dry meadows, 6000-8000 ft. alt. Common. 

Orthocarpus luteus, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 0200 ft. alt. ; Hot Springs, Yellowstone Lake ; 
Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Orthocarpus pilosus, Wats. 

Wet meadows. Blacktail Deer Creek, 7400 ft. alt. ; Slongh Creek, G600 
ft. alt. 

Pedicularis Groenlandica, Retz. 

Common throughout in bogs from 7000-9000 ft. alt. 

Pedicularis racemosa, Dougl. 

Open pine woods. East Pelican Creek, 8600 ft. alt. ; Saddle Mt., 8600 
ft. alt.; Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Yellowstone and Shoshone Lakes 
(Coulter). 

Pedicularis Parryi, Gray. 

11 Pine woods at foot of Yellowstone Lake " (Parry). 

Pedicularis bracteosa, Benth. 

Border of woods generally with P. racemosa. 

Pedicularis scopulorum, Gray. 

Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. Frequent on subalpine and alpine slopes. 

OROBANCHACEiE. 

Aphyllon fasciculatum, Gray. 

Soda Butte, 6800 ft. alt.; Hayden's Valley, 8000 ft. alt. On Artemisia. 

Aphyllon Ludovicianum, Gray. 

Sulphur Hills, Pelican Creek. Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

LENTIBULARIACE^l. 

Utricularia vulgaris, L. 

Common in lake sloughs and sluggish streams. Lewis Lake, Heart 
Lake, Broad Creek, 8200 ft. alt.; Head of Yellowstone Lake (Parry). 

LABIATE. 

Mentha Canadensis, L. 

Common throughout in wet places at low elevations. 

Mentha Canadensis, L., var. glabrata, Benth. 
With the typical form. 



FLORA OP THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 59 

Lycopus Virginicus, L., var. pauciflorus, Benth. (L.humilis, Vahl.). 

About hot springs. Yellowstone Lake, Upper and Lower Geyser 
basins. Norris Geyser Basin. The filiform runners covered with 
small tubers. 

Brunella vulgaris, L. 

About hot springs with the preceding. 

Dracocephalum parviflorum, Nutt. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6300 ft. alt.; Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams). 
Not common. 

PLANTAGINACEiE. 

Plantago Tweedyi, Gray in Suppl. Flor. N. A. 390. 

Grassy rich meadows north end of Mirror Lake Plateau, 8500-9000 ft. 
alt. 

NYCTAGINACE^. 

Abronia villosa, Wats. 

Sandy beaches of Yellowstone Lake at mouth of Pelican Creek. 

CHENOPODIACE.EJ. 

Chenopodium olidum, Wats. 

Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. ; Stevenson Island, Yellowstone Lake. 

Chenopodium glaucum, L. 

On hot spring formation. Yellowstone Lake and Upper Geyser 
Basin. 

Chenopodium Fremontii, Wats. 

Rather common in dry situations up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Chenopodium leptophyllum, Nutt. 
With the preceding. 

Chenopodium capitatum, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. ; Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. Yel- 
lowstone Lake (Adams). 

Monolepis chenopodioides, Moq. 

Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone Lake. In muddy places. 

Eurotia lanata, Moq. 

Dry benches. Gardner, 5300 ft. alt. 

Salicornia herbacea, L. 

Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter). 



60 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

POLYGONACE.2E. 

Eriogonum umbellatum, Torr. 

Grassy slopes and dry banks. Very common throughout up to 8000 
ft. alt. 

Eriogonum heracleoides, Nutt. 

With the preceding, but less common.- 

Eriogonum flavum, Nutt. 

Common over the hot spring areas throughout. 

Eriogonum csespitosum, Nutt. 

Rocky, bare slopes. Sepulchre Mountain, 8500 ft. alt. 

Eriogonum ovalifolium, Nutt. 

Common throughout, from dry rocky ridges and benches at" low eleva- 
tions, 5400 ft. alt., to subalpine and alpine. 

Oxyria digyna, Campdera. 

Rocky, wet places, subalpine and alpine. Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt. 

Rumex venosus, Pursh. 

Sandy bluffs at outlet and Stevenson Island, Yellowstone Lake. 

Rumex salicifolius, Weinman. 

Sandy shores and wet meadows. Rather common. 

Rumex maritimus, L. 

Frequent in alkaline marshes. 

Rumex paucifolius, Nutt. 

Common in high meadows and bogs, 8000-9500 ft. alt. 

Polygonum aviculare, L. 

Sand beaches, Yellowstone Lake at mouth of Pelican Creek. 

Polygonum Douglasii, Greene {P. tenue, Michx.). 
Common in dry places up to 8500 ft. alt. 

Polygonum Douglasii, var. latifolium, Greene (P. tenue, Michx., var. hit i [folium, 
Engelm.). 

Rocky subalpine ridges, Bison Peak, 9000 ft. alt.; Mt. Norris, 8000 
ft. alt. 

Polygonum imbricatum, Nutt. 

Moist places. Blacktail Deer Creek, 7400 ft. alt. ; Slough Creek, GG00 
ft. alt.; East Pelican Creek, 8400 ft. alt. Frequent. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 61 

Polygonum polygaloides, Meisner. 

Blacktail Deer Creek, 7200 ft. alt. 

Polygonum amphibium, L. 

Common in ponds about Yellowstone Lake. Bioad Creek, 8300 ft. alt. 

Polygonum Muhlenbergii, Wats. 
Red Mountain (Coulter). 

Polygonum Bistorta, L. 

Bogs and meadows, 7500-9500 ft. alt. Extremely common in subal- 
pine meadows. The common form is var. linearifolium, Wats. 

Polygonum viviparum, L. 

With the preceding, but much less common. Indian Creek, 8000 ft. 
alt.; Cache Creek, 7400 ft. alt.; Firehole River (Coulter); Yellowstone 
Falls (Adams). 

ELiEAGNACE^l. 

Elaeagnus argentea, Pursh. 

Mammoth Hot Springs. Rare. 

Shepherdia Canadensis, Nutt. 

Bell Peak, 8400 ft. alt. ; Cache Creek, 7C00 ft. alt. Yellowstone Lake 
(Adams). 

LORANTHACEJE. 

Arceuthobium Americanum, Nutt. 
Common on Pinus Murrayana. 

SANTALACE.SS. 

Comandra pallida, A. DC. 

Dry banks, common up to 8000 ft. alt. 

EUPHORBIACEiE. 

Euphorbia serpyllifolia, Pers. 

Common on the formation of the Geyser Basins. 

Euphorbia glyptosperma, Engelin. 
Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Euphorbia dictyosperma, Fisch. & Meyer. 
Yellowstone (Forwood). 



62 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

CALLITRICHACEiE. 

Callitriche verna, L. 

Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams) . 

Callitriche autumnalis, L. 

Submersed in ponds and sluggish streams up to 8000 ft. alt. Common. 

CERATOPHYLLACE^E. 

Ceratophyllum demersum, L. 

Frequent in sluggish streams and lake sloughs throughout up to 8500 
ft. alt. 

URTICACE^. 

TTrtica gracilis, Ait. 

Borders of woods. Slough Creek, 6600 ft. alt. ; East Pelican Creek, 
8500 ft. alt. Rare. 

CUPULIPER^B. 

Betula occidentalis, Hook. 

Gardiner, 5300ft. alt. ; Cache Creek, 7000 ft. alt. Along streams. Rare. 

Betula glandulosa, Michx. 

Bogs from 7500-9000 ft. alt. Common. 

Alnus viridis, DC. 

Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 
Alnus incana, Willd., var. virescens. 

Wooded slopes, Pebble Creek, 8500 ft. alt. Rare. 

SALICINEJE. 

Salix longifolia, Muhl. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. A fo:m with generally smooth 
capsules and scales. Not common. 

Salix cordata, Muhl., var. Mackenziana, Hook. 

Rescue Creek, Mt. Evarts, 7500 ft. alt. Rare. 

Salix glauca, L. (a form). 

Bogs and along streams, from 6500-8500 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Salix glaucops, Anders. 

Subalpine, Mt. Washburne, 9000 ft. alt. 

Salix desertorum, Richards, var. Wolfli, Bebb. 

Bogs and streams, common throughout, up to 8500 ft. alt 

Salix arctica, It. Br., var. petraea, Anders. 

Alpine slopes and summits. Frequent. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 63 

Salix reticulata, L. 

With the preceding, but more common. 

Populus tremuloides, Michx. 

Along streams and in small groves over moist slopes, up to 8000 ft. alt. 

Populus angustifolia, James. 

Cache Creek, 7000 ft. alt. Rare. 

ORCHIDACEiE. 

Corallorhiza multiflora, Nutt. 
Shoshone Lake (Coulter). 

Corallorhiza innata, R. Br. 

Moist woods, rather common. Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt.; Gibbon 
Meadows, 7400 ft. alt.; Lewis Lake, 7600 ft. alt. 

Habenaria Un alas chen sis, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6500 ft. alt.; Cache Creek, 7200 ft. alt. In 
moist woods, rare. 

Habenaria hyperborea, R. Br. 

Open and wooded bogs, from 7500-8500 ft. alt. Common. 

Habenaria dilatata, Gray. 
With the preceding. 

Habenaria obtusata, Richardson. 

Mossy woods, Soda Butte Creek, 7200 ft. alt., with Lister a. 
Spiranthes Romanzomana, Cham. 

Bogs and moist meadows throughout, up to 8500 ft. alt. 
Listera convallarioides, Nutt. 

Mossy pine woods, Soda Butte Creek, 7200 ft. alt. Rare. 
Listera cordata, R. Br. 

With the preceding and more common. Gibbon Meadows, 7400 ft alt. 

IRIDACEA 

Iris Missouriensis, Nutt. 

Rescue Creek, Mt. Evarts, 7000 ft. alt. Rare. 
Sisyrinchium mucronatum, Michx. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt.; Pelican Creek, 8200 ft. alt.; Up- 
per Yellowstone Falls (Adams). 



64 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

LILIACEJE. 

Allium Schcenoprasum, L. 

Bogs, from 6500 (Slough Creek) to 8500 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Allium brevistylum, Wats. 

With the preceding, but ranging higher, and generally common 
throughout. Often in open moist woods. 

Allium cernuum, Roth. 

Dry open places, up to 8000 ft. alt. Common. 

Allium stellatum, Fraser. 
Mud Springs (Adams). 

Allium Geyeri, Wats. 

Rocky wet benches, East Fork, 6400 ft. alt. 

Allium Tolmiei, Baker. 

Rocky bare subalpine ridges. Bison Peak, 8500 ft. alt.; Mt. Wash- 
burne, 9000 ft. alt. 

Smilacina stellata, Desf. 

Moist copses, up to 8000 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Fritillaria atropurpurea, Nutt. 

Wooded slopes, Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt.; Grassy ridges 
Sepulchre Mountain, 8000 ft. alt. Yellowstone Lake (Adams). Rather 
rare. 

Fritillaria pudica, Spreng. 

Sepulchre Mountain, 8500 ft. alt.; Mt. Washburne, 9000 ft. alt. 

Erythronium grandiflorum, Pursh. 
Swan Lake, 7500 ft. alt. 

Lloydia serotina, Reichenb. 

Volcanic slides, East Fork, 8000 ft. alt. 

Calochortus Nuttallii, Torr. and Gray. 
Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Calochortus eurycarpus, Wats. 

Yellowstone (Parry). Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Streptopus amplexifolius, DC. 

Woods, Pelican Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone 
(Adams). 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 65 

Prosartes trachycarpa, Wats. 

Timbered slopes. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6500 ft. alt. 

Zygadenus elegans, Pursh. 

Bogs, 60C0-8500 ft. alt. Common. 

Zygadenus venenosus, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs. Rare. 

JUNCACE^I. 

Luzula spadicea, DC, var. parviflora, Meyer. 

Bogs and wet meadows, 7000-9000 ft. alt. Common. 

Luzula comosa, Meyer. 

Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Cache Creek, 7500 ft. alt. 

Luzula campestris, DC. 

Grassy slopes, 7500-9500 ft. alt. Common. 

Luzula spicata, Desv. 

On high alpine summits. Common throughout. 

Juncus Balticus, Deth., var. montanus, Engelm. 

Bogs and along streams up to 8000 ft. alt. Common. 

Juncus Drummondii, E. Meyer. 
With the preceding 

Juncus Parryi, Engelm. 

Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Juncus tenuis, Willd., var. congestus, Engelm. 

Muddy sliore of Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. ; Lower Geyser Basin 
(Coulter); Mud Springs (Adams). 

Juncus bufonius, L. 

Turbid Lake and the Geyser Basins. 

Juncus longistylis, Torr. and Cray. 

Wet places. Common from 7000 9000 ft. alt. 

Juncus Canadensis, J. Gay, var. coarctatus, Engelm. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. Mud Springs (Adams). 

Junous Mertensianus, Meyer. 

East Fork, 7500 ft. alt.; Slouch Creek, 6500 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake 
and Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 



66 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Juncus Nevadensis, Wats. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6400 ft. alt. 

Juncus xiphioides, Meyer, var. montanus, Engelm. 
Common throughout up to 8000 ft. alt. 

TYPHACEJE. 

Typha latifolia, L. 

Head of Yellowstone Lake (Parry). 

Sparganium simplex, Hudson, var. angustifolium, Engelm. 
Ponds and streams throughout up to 8000 ft. alt. 

LEMNACEJE. 

Lemna trisulca, L. 

Ponds and streams throughout, up t© 8000 ft. alt. Very common in 
the Geyser Basins. 

Lemna minor, L. 

With the preceding. 

Lemna gibba, L. 

Ponds, head of Broad Creek, 8500 ft. alt. 

ALISMAlCEJE. 

Sagittaria variabilis, Engelm. 

Gibbon Lakes, 8000 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake ; Lewis Lake. Rather 
common, but rarely flowering. 

NAIADACEiE. 

Zanichellia palustris, L. 

Yellowstone Lake (Parry — Adams). 

Ruppia maritima, L. 

Common in the sluggish streams and waterholes of the hot springs 
and geyser areas. 

Potamogeton rufescens, Schrad. 

Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams). 

Potamogeton gramineus, L., var. maximus, L. 

Ponds and streams throughout, up to 8000 ft. alt. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 67 

Potamogeton perfoliatus, L. 
With the preceding. 

Potamogeton pectinatus, L. 

Common, especially in the streams of the hot springs and geyser areas. 

Potamogeton pectinatus, L., var. latifolins, Robbing. 
"With the preceding. 

Triglochin maritimum, L. 

Common in the bogs of the hot springs and geyser areas. 

CYPERACE^J. 

Eriophorum russeolum, Fries. 

Bogs about head of Sour Creek, 8500 ft. alt. "The nearest other 
known localities are Hudson's Bay and Sitka, Alaska" (Watson). 

Eriophorum polystachyum, L. 

Rather rare in bogs, from 7500-8500 ft. alt. 

Eleocharis acicularis, R. Br. 
Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. 

Eleocharis palustris, R. Br. 

Rather common in wet places over the hot spring and geyser areas. 

Eleocharis olivacea, Torr. 

With the preceding, but rather rare. Hot streams, East Fork of the 
Firehole River, 8000 ft. alt.; Mud Springs (Adams). 
Carex scirpoidea, Michx. 

High alpine summits, North Fork of Stinkingwater, 10,700 ft. alt. 

Carex Geyeri, Boott. 

Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt. ; Mirror Lake Flateau, 8500 ft. alt, 

Carex concinna, R. Br. 

Pine woods, Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt. 

Carex aurea, Nutt. 

Gardiner, 5300 ft. alt.; Firehole River (Coulter). 

Carex longirostris, Torr. 

Grassy thickets, Mammoth Hot Springs, 6000 ft. alt. Rare. 

Carex utriculata, Boott, var. minor, Sartwell. 

Common from 7000-8000 ft. alt. Generally in water. 



68 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Carex utriculata, Boott, var. globosa, Olney. 
With the preceding. 

Carex aquatilis, Wahl. 

Yellowstone (Parry); Upper Falls of the Yellowstone (Adams). 

Carex vulgaris, Fries. 

Indian Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Mt. Washburne, 8500 ft. alt. ; Yellowstone 
(Parry). 

Carex rigida, Good. 

Bogs and mountain slopes from 8000-9500 ft. alt. Frequent. 

Carex acuta, L. 

Blacktail Deer Creek, alt. 7400 ft. ; Yellowstone Lake, alt. 7800 ft. 

Carex Raynoldsii, Dew. 

Common in mountain bogs from 7500-9000 ft. alt. 

Carex atrata, L. 

With the preceding. 

Carex alpina, Swartz. 

Wooded bogs. Soda Butte Creek, alt. 7500 ft. Rare. 

Carex muricata, L. 

Common in bogs and meadows from 7000-8500 ft. alt. 

Carex siccata, Dew. 

Mud Springs (Adams). 

Carex vitilis, Fries. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6300 ft. alt.; Obsidian Canon, 7500 ft. alt. 
Yellowstone (Parry). 

Carex Bonplandii, Kunth.? 

Yellowstone (Parry). Coulter's Manual, p. 395. 

Carex festiva, Dew. 

Common in meadows fiom 7000-9000 ft. alt. 

Carex leporina, L. 

Red Mountain (Coulter). 

Carex Liddoui, Boott. 

Meadows. Mirror Lake Plateau, 8500-9000 ft. alt. 

Carex globosa, Boott. 

With the preceding, but less frequent. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL TARK. 69 

GRAMINEiE. 

Note — The numbers appended to the species below are those under 
which the author's specimens have been distributed. Mr. F. L. Scribner 
will shortly publish in the "Botanical Gazette" critical notes on the 
author's collections of 1884 and 1885. 

Panicum dichotomum, L., var. pubescens (P. thermale, Bol.). 

Very common over the hot spring and geyser areas (263,580) . 

Spartina gracilis, Trin. 

"In both Geyser Basins" (Coulter). 

Phalaris arundinacea, L. 

Bogs. Yellowstone Lake (579) ; Upper Canon of the Madison (Coulter). 
Rare. 

Hierochloa borealis, R. and S. 

Rather common in mountain meadows from 8000-9000 ft. alt, (648). 

Alopecurus occidentalis, Scribn. (A. pratensis, var. alpestris, Wahl. ex Gray). 
Frequent in mountain meadows from 7500-9000 ft. alt. Associated 
with the preceding and Pldeum alpinum (591). 

Alopecurus geniculatus, L., var. aristulatus, Torr. (A. aristulatus, Michx.). 
Muddy shores of ponds and banks of streams. Cache Creek, 68-0 ft. 
alt.; Turbid Lake, 7900 ft. alt. (592). 

Aristida fasciculata, Torr. {A. purpurea, Nutt.). 

Hot Sulphur Springs and Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Stipa viridula, Trin. 

Common everywhere over the dry open areas up to 8000 ft. alt. (262., 
609, 613). 

Stipa Richardsonii, Link. 

Soda Butte Creek, 6800 ft. alt. With the preceding, but much less 
common (611). 

Stipa comata, Trin. and Rupr., var. intermedia, Scribn. 

Throughout with 8. viridula ; rather less frequent (610). 

Oryzopsis asperifolia, Michx. 

Pine woods, Soda Butte Creek, alt. 7500. Rare (615). 

Oryzopsis exigua, Thurb. 

On rocky bare knolls along Slough Creek, alt. 6700 ft. Rare (614). 



70 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Oryzopsis cuspidata, Benth. 

Sparingly over the lower and dryer open areas. 

Muhlenbergia comata, Benth. 

Upper Geyser Basin (Coulter). 

Phleum alpinum, L. 

Bogs and meadows, very common from 8000-9000 ft. alt. (649). 

Sporobolus depauperatus, Scribn. ( Vilfa depauperata, Torr.). 
Yellowstone Lake (590); Upper Geyser Basin (Coulter). 

Sporobolus asperifolius, Thurb. 

Frequent in arid situations at low altitudes. 

Agrostis varians, Trin. 

Common in moist places, up to 9000 ft. alt. (605). 

Agrostis scabra, Willd. 

Dry meadows and open slopes. Very common, up to 8000 ft. alt. 
(258, 606, 607, 608). 

Agrostis exarata, Trin., var. 

Pelican Creek, 8000 ft. alt. ; Wooded bogs and along streams. Not 
common (604). 

Agrostis humilis, Vasey. 

Common in cool mossy bogs and mountain meadows, 7000-9030 ft. 
alt. (259, 603). 

Agrostis perennans, Tuck. 

Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter) ; Upper Falls of the Yellowstone 
(Adams). 

Cinna pendula, Trin. (C. arundinacea, L., var. pendula, Gray). 

Wooded bogs and streams. East Fork, 8600 ft. alt.. Rare (581). 

Deyeuxia Langsdorffii, Kunth. 

Common in wooded and open mountain meadows an 1 bogs, 7000-9000 
ft. alt. (248). 

Deyeuxia Canadensis, ITook. 
With the preceding (584). 

Deyeuxia dubia, Scribn., n. sp. 

Meadows, Slough Creek, 6700 ft. alt. (585). 

Deyeuxia sylvatica, DC. 

Upper Yellowstone Falls (Adams). 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 7 I 

Deyeuxia neglecta, Kunth. 

Meadows and slopes, from 7000-9000 ft. a't. Generally in rather dry 
situations (253, 582, 583). 

Ammophila longifolia, Benth. 

Yellowstone Park (Forwood). 

Deschampsia caespitosa, Beauv. 

Dry and moist meadows and slopes, from 7000-9000 ft. alt. Very 
common (616). 

Trisetum subspicatum, Beauv. 

Common in meadows, from 7000-9000 ft. alt. At low eLvations, in 
moist or shaded situations (619). 

Trisetum subspicatum, Beauv., var. molle, Gray. 
With the preceding (618). 

Trisetum Wolfii, Vasey (Graphephorum Wolfii, Vasey). 

Moist meadows, generally in the shade, from 7000-9000 ft. alt. Rather 
frequent and associated with Deyeuxia Canadensis and Bromus ciliatus 
(249, 250, 617). 

Avena striata, Michx. 

Wooded moist meadows and bogs. Slough Creek, 6800 ft. alt. ; Soda 
Butte Creek, 7200 ft. alt. Not common (612). 

Danthonia intermedia, Vasey. 

Rather common in dry and moist meadows, from 7500-9000 ft. alt. 
(269, 597). 

Danthonia Californica, Boland, var. unispicata, Thurb. 

Dry rocky open places, Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt. Rare (596). 

Koeleria cristata, Pers. 

Common everywhere in dry situations, up to 8000 ft. alt (260). 

Catabrosa aquatica, P. B. 

In water, Gardiner River, 5400 ft. alt. Rare (577). 

Melica spectabile, Scribn., Proc. Philad. Acad., 1885, p. 45. 

Common in rich meadows and on slopes near the upper limit of the 
"bunch grass" areas, especially from 7000-9000 ft. alt. (208, 601, 602), 

Melica Californica, Scribn. Loc. cit., p. 46. 
Mud Springs (Adams). 

Poa Andina, Nutt. ? 

Dry open places, Slough Creek, 6700 ft. alt. (631). 



72 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Poa tenuifolia, Buckl. 

Everywhere over the lower dry areas, one of the principal "bunch 
grasses," and frequent on subalpine slopes (632, 637). 

Poa alpina, L. 

From 6500 ft. alt. to alpine. At low elevations in cool, moist situa- 
tions (627, 628). 

Poa Pringlei, Scribn. 

In dense tufts in compact dry soil on exposed rocky lidges from 8000- 
9500 ft. alt. (633). 

Poa cuspidata, Vasey, ined. 

Dry meadows along Slough Creek, 6500 ft. alt. (636). 

Poa Pattersoni, Vasey, ined. 

On slides and in crevices of rocks. Soda Butte Creek, 8500 ft. alt. 
(634). 

Poa reflexa, V. and S. 

Alpine slopes (274 and 638 in part). 

Poa acuminata, Scribn., n. sp. 

Common in cold meadows and bogs, and lets so on alpine and sub- 
alpine slopes from 7000-10,000 ft. alt. (639). 

Poa laevis, Vasey, ined. 

Sandy bluffs at outlet of Yellowstone Lake, 7800 ft. alt. (643). 

Poa Nevadensis, Vasey. 

A characteristic species of moist meadows and bogs from 7500-9000 
ft. alt. The glaucous form more frequent in bogs (276, 642, 645). 

Poa nemoralis, L. 

Rather dry meadows and banks from 7000 9000 ft. alt. (275, 640, 647). 

Poa pratensis, L. 

Meadows and bogs from 5500-8500 ft. alt. Common at low elevations 
(254, 646). 

Poa Vaseyana, Scribn., ined. 

Wet places at low elevations. Not common (C44). 

Glyceria airoides, Thurb. 

Frequent on hot spring and geyser formation (271, 595) . 

Glyceria nervata, Trin. 

Rather rare along shaded watercourses. Miller Creek, 7200 ft. alt. 
(593;; East Pelican Creek, 8500 ft. alt. Shoshone Lake (Coulter). 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 73 

Glyceria nervata, Trin., var. stricta, Scribn. 

Open bogs. Mammoth Hot Springs, 6200 ft. alt. (594). 

Glyceria aquatica, Smith. 

Upper Yellowstone Falls (Adams). 

Glyceria pauciflora, Presl. 

Rather frequent in open and woocled bogs from 7500-9000 ft. alt. 
(267). 

Festuca ovina, L. 

Meadows and slopes from 7000-9000 ft alt. Very common, especially 
above 8000 ft. alt., in a great variety of forms. 

Festuca ovina, L., var. brevifolia, Wats. 

High alpine summits. Upper East Foik, 10,700 ft. alt. (635). 

Festuca confinis, Vasey ( Poa ? Kvngii, Wats.). 

Rocky open hillsides. Soda Butte Creek, 8500 ft. alt. (578). 

Bromus Kalmii, Gray. 

Rather common in rich meadows and open woods from 6-100 8500 ft. 
alt. (266, 265, 538). 

Bromus breviaristatus, Buckl. 

Common over the upper "bunch grass" areas and up to 8500 ft. alt. 

(264). 

Bromus virens, Buckl. [Cercttochloa grandijlora, H. B. K.). 
Open slopes. Soda Butte, 7000 ft. alt, (586). 

Bromus Pumpellianus, Scribn., ined. 

Dry open places on the borders of woods. Slough Creek and Soda 
Butte Creek, 6000-7000 ft. alt. Not common (587). 

Bromus ciliatus, L. ? 

Shaded bogs and meadows from 6500-8.~00 ft. alt. (589). 

Agropyrum caninum, L. 

Common over the " bunch grass" areas (625). 

Agropyrum divergens, Nees. 

Common with the preceding (622, 623). 

Agropyrum tenerum, Vasey. 

Generally in more moist situations and at higher elevations than the 
two preceding species (251). 



74 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Agropyrum repens, Beauv. 

Pelican Creek, 8000 ft. alt. (624); Upper Geyser Basin (Coulter); Yel- 
lowstone Lake (Adams). 

Agropyrum Scribneri, Vasey. 

Rocky alpine and subalpine ridges and summits from 9000-10,500 ft. 
alt. Generally distributed, but nowhere very common (270, 620). 

Hordeum nodosum, L. {H. pratense, Huds.). 

Rather frequent in moist meadows from 7500-9000 ft. alt. (247, 598). 

Hordeum jubatum, L. 

Upper Geyser Basin (Coulter). Yellowstone Park (Forwood). 

Elymus Sibiricus, L. 

Upper Geyser Basin (Coulter). 

Elymus Sitanion, Schult. 

Common over the open dry areas up to 7000 ft. alt. (626). 

CONIFERiE. 

Juniperus communis, L., var. alpina, Gaud. 

Rocky bare slopes, up to 8000 ft. alt., especially over the hot spring 
and geyser areas. Not common. 

Juniperus Virginiana, L. 

Common over the formation of the Mammoth Hot Springs, with 
Pinus flexilis, and along Gardiner River, for a few miles above its mouth. 

Abies subalpina, Engelm. 

Common throughout, from 6500-9500 ft. alt. 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii, Carr. 

Common up to 9000 ft. alt. Forming a scattered growth on the lower 
and dryer ridges. 

Picea Engelmanni, Engelm. 

Associated with Abies subalpina. 

Pinus flexilis, James. 

Common on gravelly ridges, from 7500 ft. alt., to the timber line. 

Pinus albioaulis, Engelm. 

With the preceding, but ranging higher. The timber-line tree. 

Pinus Murrayana, Balf. 

Common everywhere. Forming 65 per cent, of the forest area. 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 75 

PTERIDOPHYTA (Vascular Cryptogams). 

ISOET.EI. 

Isoetes Bolanderi, Etigelm. 

Muddy and gravelly bottom of lakes and ponds throughout, up to 
9000 ft. alt. 

Isoetes pygmaea, Etigelm.? 

Washed up on the shore of Yellowstone Lake, near mouth of Pelican 
Creek. Probably deeply submerged. 

LYCOPODIACE^. 

Lycopodium annotinum, L. 

Dense woods. East Fork, 8500 ft. alt. Upper Falls of the Yellow- 
stone (Adams). Rare. 

RHIZOCARPE^. 

Marsilia vestita, Hook, and Grev. 
Yellowstone Lake (Coulter). 

OPHIOGLOSSACEJE. 

Botrychium simplex, Hitchcock. 

Grassy meadows near mouth of Pelican Creek, 8000 ft. alt.; Yellow- 
stone Park (Parry). Rare. 

Botrychium ternatum, Swartz, var. australe, Eaton. 

Rather common on hot spring and geyser formation throughout. 

FILICES. 

Cryptogramme acrostichoides, B. Br. 

Rocky places. Slough Creek, 6700 ft. alt.; Obsidian Canon, 7700 ft. 
alt.; Shoshone Lake and Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter). Local. 

Pteris aquilina, L. 

Dry open places, chiefly about the hot spring areas. 

Asplenium Filix-fcemina, Bernh. 

Wooded cold springs at head of Broad Creek, 8200 ft. alt. 

Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. 

Rather common in shaded rocky places. ' 



76 FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

Woodsia scopulina, Eaton. 

Rocky places. Rattier common. Obsidian Canon, 7600 ft. alt. ; Mt. 
Wasliburne, 8500 ft. alt.; Saddle Mt., 8500 ft. alt. ; Upper Falls of the 
Yellowstone (Adams). 

Woodsia Oregana, Eaton. 
With the preceding. 

EQUISETACEJE. 

Equisetum arvense, L. 

Swan Lake, 7400 ft. alt.; Yellowstone Lake (Adams). 

Equisetum robustum, Braun. 

Hot Sulphur Springs (Adams). 

Equisetum hiemale, L. 

Swan Lake, 7500 ft. alt. 

Equisetum variegatum, Schleicher. 

Mammoth Hot Springs, 6300 ft. alt.; Lower Geyser Basin (Coulter). 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 



77 



SUMMARY. 







< 


W 




ORDERS. 


m 


5 






o 


p-i 
m 


5 


Banunculaceae , 


12 


27 




Berber idaceae, 












1 


1 




Nymphaeaceae, 












1 


2 




Fumoriaceae, 












1 


1 


7 


Crucijerae, 
Violaceae, 












13 

1 


26 
4 


14 


Garyophyllaceae, . 

Portulacaceas, 

Elatinaceae, 

Malvaceae, . 

Linaceae, 

Geraniaceas, 

Bhamnaceae, 

Sapindacese, 












6 
4 

1 
2 

1 
2 
2 
1 


16 
5 
2 
2 

1 
4 
2 
1 


4 


LeguminosaSj 












5 


28 


9 


Bosaceae, 












12 


23 


8 


Saxifragaceas, 
Crassulaceae, 
Halorageae, . 












6 
2 
2 


25 
4 
2 


12 


Onagraceae, 
Loasaceae, . 












3 

1 


17 

1 


15 


Umbelliferae, 
Cornaceas, . 












9 


14 
2 


24 


Caprifoliaceas, 
Bubiaceae, . 














6 
5 


25 


Valerianaceae, 














2 


1 


Compositas, . 
Lobeliaceae, . 
Campanulaceas, 












38 


108 
1 
1 


11 


Ericaceae, . 












11 


17 


25 


Primulaceae, 














5 


25 


Gentianaceae, 












3 


5 


17 


Polemoniaceas, 












3 


13 


24 


Hydrophyllaceas, 










3 


6 


18 


Borraginaceae, 










5 


12 


3 


Scrophulariaceae, 










9 


32 



78 



FLORA OF THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 



L 




< 


GO 




ORDERS. 










O 


Ph 




Orobanchaceae, 


1 


2 




Lentibulariaceae, 




, 




1 


1 




Labiatae, 








4 


4 




Plantaginaceae, 












1 


1 




Nyctaginaceae, 












1 


1 


21 


Chenopodiaceae , 












4 


8 


10 


Polygonaceae, 

Elaeaginaceae, 

Loranthaceae, 

Santalaceae, 

Euphorbiaceae. 

Gallitrichaceae, 

Ceratophyllaceae, 

Urticaceae, . 

Cupuliferae, 












4 
2 
I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


18 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
4 


20 


Salicineae, . 












2 


8 


19 


Orchidaceae, 
Iridaceae, 












4 
•2 


9 
2 


13 


Liliaceas, 












9 


16 


16 


Juncaceas, . 
Typhaceae, . 
Lemnaceae, . 
Alismaceae, . 












2 
2 

1 
1 


14 
2 
3 

1 


23 


Naiadaceae, . 












4 


7 


6 


Cyperaceae, . 












3 


26 


2 


Gramineae, . 












29 


72 


22 


Conifer ae, . 

Isoetae, 

Lycopodiaceae, 

Rhizocarpeae, 

Orphioglossaceae, 












5 
1 

1 
1 
1 


8 
2 
1 

1 
2 


24 


Filices, 
Equisetaceae, 












5 
1 


6 
4 






273 


657 




Orders, ... 69 








Genera, ... 273 








Species, . . . 657 







Note. — Those orders which form about one per cent, or over of the 
flora, have numbers prefixed, indicating their approximate rank. 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



RENEWED BOOKS ARE SUBJECT TO IMMEDIATE 
RECALL 



LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS 

Book Slip-25m-6,'66(G3855s4)458 



V 



PAMPHLET BINDER 

Syracuse, N. Y. ' 
Stockton, Calif. 



N°- 190998 




Tweedy, F. 
Flora of the 


QK195 
T9 


Yellowstone National 




Park. 




LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

DAVIS 





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