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Full text of "Flora of Yucatan"

THE UNIVERSITY 



OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 



580.5 
FB 




Return this book on o; before the 
Latest Date stamped below. A 
charge is made on all overdue 
books. 



U. of I. 



5 19J2 

OEC 31 1947 
20 



FEB 25 148 



1 2 1953 



1348 




NO VI 2 I 1972 




61 196 
G 3 1961 

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M32 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



PAUL C. STANDLEY 



Soon after the organization of Field Museum of Natural History, 
in 1893, the Curator of the Department of Botany, the late Dr. Charles 
F. Millspaugh, became interested in the botanical exploration of the 
Yucatan Peninsula. It would have been difficult to choose a part 
of tropical America less known botanically or, probably, one which 
would prove more interesting. Practically nothing was known at 
that time of the plants inhabiting the limestone plains and low hills 
of Yucatan. Today we are far from possessing a complete knowl- 
edge of the Yucatan flora, but what information we do have a 
very respectable amount, as the ensuing pages will prove is the 
result almost wholly of the work of two men, Dr. Millspaugh and 
Dr. George F. Gaumer, performed with the support of Field Museum. 

Dr. Millspaugh made two visits to Yucatan in order to collect 
plants. Dr. Gaumer, who died as recently as September 2, 1929, 
forty-five years in the state, and throughout this time he 
maintained an interest in natural history. A list of his earliest 
plant collections, from Cozumel Island, was inserted in the fourth 
and supplemental volume of Hemsley's Botany of Salvin and 
Godman's monumental Biologia Centrali- Americana. For years he 
collected intermittently, but when, through Dr. Millspaugh's 
igency, his work was financed by Field Museum, he devoted an 
increased amount of his time to botanical exploration of Yucatan 
and Quintana Roo. As a result, a huge quantity of specimens was 
assembled. Some of these were gathered personally by Dr. Gaumer, 
and others under his supervision by his sons or by native collectors. 

Dr. Gaumer's botanical activities continued for more than thirty 
years, until his work was made difficult by physical infirmities 
resulting from advancing years, about the time of Dr. Millspaugh's 
death. He collected with some degree of completeness over much 
of Yucatan and the adjacent portions of Quintana Roo. Of the 
flora of the southern part of the latter territory, unfortunately, we 
still know absolutely nothing, except by inference. 

Dr. Gaumer did more than merely assemble a collection of dried 
herbarium specimens. Himself a practising physician, he was keenly 
interested in medicinal properties attributed to the plants by the 
native people. He gathered assiduously all available data upon the 

157 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

subject, and himself employed the local plants in treating his pa- 
tients. His eulogies of the supposed therapeutic properties of certain 
members of the Yucatan flora, especially when further embellished 
by Dr. Millspaugh's own somewhat unorthodox medical views, 
arouse mild amusement. It is scarcely necessary to caution the 
reader that the medicinal properties ascribed to certain plants in 
the present flora are to be taken with liberal reservations. It is 
unfortunate only that it is impossible to determine from the notes 
at the writer's disposal which of the supposed curative properties of 
the plants are ascribed to them by the Yucatecans, and which by 
Dr. Gaumer. The former would have a real interest from a strictly 
ethnological standpoint. 

Dr. Gaumer exerted himself, also, to obtain data regarding gen- 
eral economic applications of the plants, and here he was eminently 
successful. It is to be regretted that he was not a trained ethnolo- 
gist, that he might have searched for possible remnants of ritual 
uses of the plants, or have investigated their place, if any, in folk 
lore. 

As is well known, the majority of the present-day Yucatecans 
speak Maya rather than Spanish, some of them nothing at all of 
the latter language. Dr. Gaumer devoted a great deal of time to 
learning the Maya plant names, and his success is indicated by the 
fact that a Maya name is recorded here for nearly every species. 
Ralph L. Roys, who has engaged in study of Maya botany, 
reports that the names recorded by Dr. Gaumer are usually well 
written, and apparently exact. Some of the notes to which I have 
had access state that his plan in assembling these names was to 
show the plants to several Mayas, record the names they gave, and 
then select the one he considered most apt or appropriate. This 
method is not to be commended. It would have been preferable to 
report all the names communicated by the informants, and let the 
reader make his own selection, perhaps with an indication of the 
preference of the compiler. If such a complete list had been pre- 
served, probably it would now be possible to identify some of the 
perplexing names of the old medical works. 

It would be unjust to leave the subject of the Gaumer plants 
without mentioning their handling after receipt in Chicago. The 
large collections formed by Dr. Gaumer included great numbers of 
duplicates, especially of his later series. At the time of Dr. Mills- 
paugh's death, these remained unorganized, along with many dupli- 
cates of his earlier years. In many or most cases the data for the 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 159 

numbers had to be sought with the original specimens distributed 
into the herbarium of Field Museum. 

Assistant Curator J. Francis Macbride undertook the organiza- 
tion of this imposing mass of duplicates, and to him and to Miss 
Edith M. Vincent, who assisted in the work, are indebted the her- 
baria which have received sets of this important series, containing 
so many endemic or rare species. The immense amount of uninter- 
esting and tedious labor involved in such a task can be appreciated 
only by one who, like the present writer, has himself undertaken 
such a discouraging and thankless task. However, the work finally 
was brought to an end, and the material all labeled and arranged in 
sets, most of which have been distributed to the principal herbaria 
of the United States and Europe. 

A word of explanation might be offered regarding the quality of 
some of the material included in the sets as distributed. They con- 
tained specimens of many common species, because it is of such 
plants that most floras are chiefly composed. In some instances 
material of rare or endemic species that had been somewhat damaged 
by insects was included, since it was believed that most herbaria 
would prefer to have even an inferior specimen of a rare species 
rather than no representation at all. The quality of the material 
of this sort, if it needs any defense or apology, is not the fault of the 
one who prepared it for distribution. The insect damage had been 
done before the collection came to his attention, and in preparing 
the sets for distribution he properly destroyed a vast amount of 
material badly damaged or representing common weedy species. 

PREPARATION AND SCOPE OF THE FLORA 

Dr. Millspaugh's papers upon the flora of Yucatan fill the greater 
portion of the first two volumes of the Botanical Series of Field 
Museum, and constitute the first two parts of the third volume, of 
which the present flora forms the concluding part. In these papers 
he brought together previously published reports of Yucatan plants, 
and added the records based upon the collections of Dr. Gaumer 
and himself, as well as those of the few other collectors who visited 
the region. 

It was his intention to publish a complete flora of Yucatan, and 
a beginning was made in the third volume, with accounts of the 
ferns, grasses, and sedges. A few drawings were prepared to illus- 
trate further parts. 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

At the time of Dr. Millspaugh's death there had accumulated 
a large quantity of the Gaumer collections which never had been 
studied or determined. By the Director of Field Museum the present 
writer, then at the United States National Museum, was requested 
to determine the collections and to prepare an enumeration of them. 
The list here published is the result. The greater part of it was 
written at the National Museum and during six weeks spent at 
Field Museum in September and October, 1927. 

The manuscript has lain almost complete, except for the intro- 
duction and certain final touches of minor importance, ever since 
the writer became a member of the staff of Field Museum, in June, 
1928. Only a certain innate indolence has delayed its final sub- 
mission to the printer until the present time. 

The very large accumulations of Gaumer plants required a long 
time for their determination. They consisted principally of material 
gathered from 1917 to 1921, but included also many earlier numbers, 
fragmentary or otherwise difficult, which never had been identified. 

Dr. Millspaugh himself in his later papers changed many of his 
early determinations, and recent systematic work necessitates many 
other corrections. In the following list an attempt has been made 
to indicate all published Yucatan reports of species incorrectly 
named. In a few instances, especially in the case of Seler plants, of 
which there is only a partial set in the herbarium of Field Museum, 
it has been impossible to verify or correct the records, because the 
specimens on which they were based could not be found. 

In listing the specific names of the Yucatan flora full biblio- 
graphic citations are given only for species described from the re- 
gion. For these it has been the intention to report every generic 
transfer to which they have been subjected. For other species listed 
there have been cited, as a rule, only such synonyms as have been 
employed in reporting Yucatan material, besides erroneous deter- 
minations, when these have been discovered. 

In order to lessen the space required for this tiresome and, like 
all synonymy, useless repetition of discarded names, certain greatly 
abbreviated forms have been used for citation of works to which 
most frequent reference is made. These abbreviations are the fol- 
lowing: FMB., Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series; 
BJE., Engler's Botanische Jahrbiicher; CNH., Contributions from 
the United States National Herbarium. 

In the preparation of this enumeration of the Yucatan flora an 
attempt has been made to examine every specimen from the region 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 161 

in the herbarium of Field Museum and in the United States National 
Herbarium. The former contains by far the largest and most com- 
prehensive representation of the Yucatan flora, and the few other 
collections deposited elsewhere probably would add little or nothing 
to the present list. 

The word "Yucatan" is used here in a broad sense which is far 
from accurate from a political standpoint. This flora has been 
planned to cover all parts of the Yucatan Peninsula lying in Mexico, 
that is, the states of Campeche and Yucatan and the territory of 
Quintana Roo. The term "Yucatan" as used in Dr. Millspaugh's 
papers included Yucatan and Quintana Roo, the latter territory not 
having been created politically at that time. 

As a matter of fact, the use of the word "Yucatan" in the title 
is not at all inappropriate, because most of the Gaumer collections 
were made in that state, with only occasional forays into Quintana 
Roo, a region shunned even at present, for the most part, as it has 
been for the past hundred years, by all except its sturdy Maya in- 
habitants, who are far from hospitable toward strangers. Of the 
flora of Campeche our present knowledge probably could be recorded 
on a single page of not very small print. 

In order to bring within the present paper some species certain 
to occur in the outskirts of the three states which it is aimed to 
cover, there have been included a few records from collections just 
outside the proper limits of the flora. A number of plants found by 
Rovirosa on the border of Tabasco are enumerated, and a small 
number obtained by 0. F. Cook in northern Pete'n, Guatemala. 

The writer could add a substantial number of species which he 
is morally certain grow in southern Quintana Roo, but such a pro- 
cedure would scarcely deserve approbation in a work supposedly 
scientific. If there had been available two years ago the collections 
now at hand from northern British Honduras, only a few miles 
away from Quintana Roo, I should have included that region in 
the flora of Yucatan. 

GEOLOGY AND CLIMATE 

The Yucatan Peninsula consists properly of the states of Yucatan 
and Campeche and the territory of Quintana Roo, in Mexico, the 
colony of British Honduras, and the Department of Pete'n, Guate- 
mala. The present flora purports to deal only with the Mexican 
portion, which is remarkably uniform geologically and geographically. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

The Mexican region consists of a great plain having an area^of 
about 55,000 square miles, approximately the same as that of the 
state of Illinois. It is formed by a vast sheet of Recent limestone 
rock of porous and friable character. The northern part of the 
Peninsula is a uniform, almost level plain, but farther south the 
surface is undulating, with alternating depressions and low hills, 
which in Yucatan and Quintana Roo do not exceed an elevation of 
275 meters, and in Campeche but slightly more. There are no 
mountains and no eruptive rocks. The beds of sedimentary rocks, 
mainly coralline limestone, are horizontal or only slightly tilted. 

Data concerning climate are available only for Mrida, in 
northern Yucatan, where conditions doubtless are typical of those 
existing throughout the northern part of the Peninsula. The re- 
cords which I have seen for this locality cover fifteen years. The 
annual mean temperature is 25.8 C. The highest temperature re- 
corded was 40.8, in March; the lowest 7.2, in December, January, 
and February. The warmest months are March to October, the 
cooler ones November to February. 

The average annual rainfall is 80.7 cm. The wet months are 
June to October, followed by a prolonged dry season, from November 
to May. None of the months are altogether rainless, the lowest 
average rainfall being that of March, with only 14 mm. According 
to all writers upon the region, the southern part of the Peninsula 
has a substantially greater rainfall, and doubtless a higher mean 
temperature. 

Perhaps the most striking physiographic feature of Yucatan is 
the absence of surface streams. No permanent ones exist except in 
the extreme southwest and southeast. There are a few stream beds 
in which there is running water for a short time, but as soon as the 
rains cease the water quickly disappears. The limestone is so porous 
and the surface so level that rain water sinks immediately below the 
surface, where it forms underground reservoirs in the great caves 
which abound here. 

These underground tanks, or cenotes, have always been the chief 
source of drinking water for the inhabitants. Frequently, especially 
in the more hilly regions, there are depressions lined with marl in 
which pools or small lakes are formed during the rains, to remain 
sometimes almost throughout the dry season. There are several 
permanent lakes of small or medium size. The best known is Lake 
Chichankanab, near the center of the Peninsula, whose water is 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 163 

strongly alkaline. Farther south is Lake Bacalar, a salt-water lagoon 
about thirty-seven miles long and only one mile wide. 

VEGETATION 

Notwithstanding the considerable number of plants collected in 
Yucatan, we have scant information regarding the general aspect of 
the vegetation. The nature of the plant covering of the coastal 
dunes, rocks, and beaches it is easy to picture, because it must be 
like that existing elsewhere along the warmer parts of the Gulf 
Coast. In the dry region of the northern plains there are few large 
trees, with only occasional palms. Where not under cultivation, the 
land is covered with shrubs or small scrubby trees, many of them 
spiny, and most of them shedding their leaves during the dry season. 
A few cactuses are plentiful. It is here that henequen is cultivated 
so extensively. 

In the central, undulating part of the Peninsula, where there is 
a substantially heavier rainfall, there are extensive forests, the trees, 
apparently, seldom of great size but often in dense stands. This 
part of the Peninsula, as well as th6 southern portion, is but sparsely 
inhabited, by Maya Indians who have little intercourse with the 
settlements of the north. 

The forests of Quintana Roo and Campeche yield many valuable 
woods and other products. They are the center of the logwood trade, 
formerly, at least, an industry of great commercial importance. The 
region^is also the center of chicle production, and chicle gum is now 
its chief natural article of export. Large amounts of mahogany, 
Spanish cedar, and fustic have been exported, with smaller quanti- 
ties of cacao, sarsaparilla, allspice, and rubber. 

The most important article now exported is henequen fiber. 
Most of it is grown on the plains of Yucatan, and to this state it 
has long been its principal source of wealth. Without henequen the 
farmers of the United States as well as those of many other 
countries would find it difficult to harvest their wheat, for no 
satisfactory substitute ever has been found for it in the manufacture 
of binder twine. 

Among the other agricultural products, maize still holds the 
eminent position which it has always held among the Mayas. There 
are grown, also, rice, beans, sugar cane, cotton, a great variety of 
tropical fruits, and many of the common vegetables of tropical and 
temperate climates. 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE YUCATAN FLORA 

By its geological and physiographic features as well as by its 
human inhabitants the Yucatan Peninsula is sharply differentiated 
from the rest of Mexico. The interests and welfare of the Yucatecans 
have so little in common with central Mexico that on several occa- 
sions it has been proposed seriously that Yucatan should secede and 
form an independent country. Indeed, the state sometimes has 
functioned as a practically independent country, with scant regard 
to the wishes or mandates of the federal government. 

Analytical study of the Yucatan flora confirms one's expecta- 
tions that it should prove radically different from that of other 
portions of Mexico and Central America. The prevailing limestone, 
the absence of surface streams, and the long dry season, something 
quite unusual along the eastern coast, are a sufficient guarantee 
that the Yucatan plants will be different from those of neighboring 
countries. 

There are many matters of plant distribution in Mexico and 
Central America which are hard to explain. In the mountains 
not in the lowlands of Salvador there have been collected several 
Yucatan species whose distribution, so far as known at present, is 
at least curious. Perhaps their ranges will appear natural enough, 
and continuous, when the intervening regions are better known. 

A glance at the map will explain why Yucatan, jutting far out 
beyond the rest of Mexico, and almost reaching Cuba, should possess 
many species in common with the latter country, especially since 
their geological conditions are so similar. The writer has never been 
greatly impressed by any evidence of a close relationship between 
the floras of Mexico and the West Indies. Apparently there is none. 
In the case of Yucatan the conditions are different. Since there is 
no published list of the Cuban flora, it would be necessary to make 
a search throughout the herbarium in order to determine what per- 
centage of the plants here listed is common to Cuba and Yucatan, 
and the time necessary for such a task might be spent more profit- 
ably in other work. It is evident to any one at all familiar with the 
flora of tropical North America that the percentage of such species is 
a very high one, higher, no doubt, than could be found elsewhere 
along the mainland. 

In naming recent collections of British Honduras plants, I have 
been surprised many times, in attempting to determine some species 
evidently new to Central America, to discover that it was a well- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 165 

known Jamaican species, or else closely related to one. British 
Honduras seems to be the only region of Central America whose 
flora has pronounced Antillean affinities. It appears to be almost 
as much out of place in Central America as is that of Yucatan in 
Mexico. 

In the following list there are enumerated not only the native 
and naturalized plants but also those in cultivation. For one visit- 
ing or living in a region, the cultivated plants are almost or quite 
as interesting as the native ones, and usually they include a large 
proportion of the species of economic importance. On this account 
they deserve a place in every flora. 

This list includes 129 families, 667 genera, and 1,263 species. 
Subtracting the introduced elements, the native Yucatan flora, as 
known at present, consists of 557 genera and 1,068 species. The 
number of species certainly is not large, and compares very un- 
favorably with the flora of such a tropical region as the Panama 
Canal Zone, or a temperate area like the District of Columbia, each 
with only a fraction of the area of the Peninsula. The only con- 
spicuously large Yucatan families are the following: 

Genera Species 

Leguminosae 44 119 

Compositae 56 86 

Euphorbiaceae 19 69 

Gramineae 32 68 

Perusal of the systematic list will reveal a surprisingly large 
number of species endemic in Yucatan. The total number of such 
plants is 185, or 17 per cent of the native flora. Particularly note- 
worthy are the Euphorbiaceae, with 39 per cent of the species con- 
fined to the region. I have considered those species which occur in 
northern British Honduras as endemic to the Peninsula. No doubt 
further exploration in neighboring territory will reduce the percent- 
age of endemism, but it will always remain high for a continental 
area. 

Three genera of the Rubiaceae and Compositae Asemnanthe, 
Goldmanella, and Plagiolophus are confined to the Peninsula. 

There deserve mention, also, forty-two species (probably an even 
larger number, since they have not been verified carefully) which, 
in Mexico, are known only from Yucatan. Several of them are 
plants of the coastal dunes or rocks, some of them known only on 
the islands, and most of them are widespread West Indian species. 



166 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION OF THE 
YUCATAN PENINSULA 

Of the various floras prepared by the present writer, this is the 
only one covering a region in which he has not himself collected. 
His personal experience with the Yucatan flora is a remote and in- 
tangible one, consisting as it does of a view of the low green shore 
from the deck of a ship bound southward to Guatemala. 

Yucatan collections available for study are rather extensive, 
those in the herbarium of Field Museum amounting to more than 
7,000 specimens. 

The coast of the Yucatan Peninsula was the first part of Mexico 
discovered by the Spaniards, but it is to be doubted that the earliest 
visitors were much interested in the vegetation, except as the tangled 
mangroves impeded their access to the shore. Many of the trees and 
plant products seen by Hernandez de Cordoba and Juan de Grijalva 
and their men were already familiar to them from their residence 
in Cuba. 

Of the peculiar products of Yucatan, logwood and mahogany 
must have been among the first to reach Europe. Logwood was 
shipped to Spain at a very early date. There are numerous pre-Lin- 
naean references to it, and it is one of the two plants closely asso- 
ciated with Yucatan which are described by Linnaeus in the 1753 
edition of the Species plantarum. 

The first botanist who collected in the Yucatan Peninsula seems 
to have been William Houstoun. Several species which he obtained 
in Campeche are described by Philip Miller in 1768. In the Nova 
genera et species of Humboldt and Bonpland (1815-21) there are 
described several additional species from Campeche. It is not cer- 
tain who collected them, but probably they were obtained by 
Humboldt and Bonpland while their ship lay in port, on the way 
from Veracruz to Cuba. 

In 1835 Jean Jules Linden, en route to Veracruz, gathered about 
twenty-five species in Yucatan. The next collection recorded is that 
of Ezekiel Porter Johnson, who is said to have visited the region in 
1848. His specimens, most of them in the herbarium of the New 
York Botanical Garden (they were sent to Dr. Torrey) and some 
in the Kew herbarium and the herbarium of Field Museum, are 
labeled as coming from "Yucatan and Tabasco." Since most of the 
species represented have not been found by other collectors in 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 167 

Yucatan, it is suspected that most of them, at least, were obtained 
in Tabasco. 

The first large collection of Yucatan plants was made in 1864- 
66 by Arthur Schott, who had been engaged by the Mexican govern- 
ment to make a geological survey of the Peninsula. His specimens, 
amounting to about 850 numbers, were distributed to various her- 
baria of the United States and Europe, but his own herbarium, 
containing the original set of specimens, was acquired some years 
ago by Field Museum. 

The largest series obtained by any one collector in the region is 
that assembled by Dr. G. F. Gaumer, to which reference already has 
been made. Dr. Gaumer's first specimens were gathered in 1885-86 
on Cozumel and other islands off the east coast, while he was engaged 
in collecting birds for Godman and Salvin. In those years he ob- 
tained 224 species of plants, which are listed by Hemsley in the 
fourth volume of the Botany of the Biologia Centrali- Americana. In 
1895, through the influence of Dr. Millspaugh, Dr. Gaumer obtained 
about 600 numbers of plants, which were listed in the first volume 
of the Botanical Series of Field Museum. In later years, especially 
from 1917 to 1921, his collections were greatly increased. In the 
herbarium of Field Museum there are more than 5,400 specimens 
collected by Dr. Gaumer. 

Porfirio Valdez, in 1887, made a small collection of plants, chiefly 
medicinal ones, about Progreso, MeYida, and Tikul, and Field 
Museum has 100 specimens which he collected in 1896. 

In 1890 Witmer Stone, of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, 
while a member of a geological expedition conducted by Angelo 
Heilprin, gathered about 300 plants in northern Yucatan. 

Dr. Charles F. Millspaugh, in January, 1894, collected about 
Chichen Itza and on Cozumel and Mugeres islands. Again, in 
February and March, 1899, while a guest of Allison V. Armour 
on the yacht Utowana, he botanized about Chichen Itza and Pro- 
greso and on Alacran Shoals. His Yucatan collections in the her- 
barium of Field Museum amount to 620 sheets. 

The same herbarium contains forty-six specimens collected in 
Yucatan in 1900 by Efraim Gutierrez Rivas. E. A. Goldman, of 
the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of 
Agriculture, visited Yucatan in 1901 in order to study the fauna. 
Incidentally to this zoological work, he made a small collection 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

of plants, of which there are fifty-three specimens in the Museum 
herbarium. 

One of the larger collections of Yucatan plants is that made by 
Eduard Seler and his wife, Caecilia Seler. He was one of the fore- 
most authorities upon the ethnology of Central America, and was 
interested also in its natural history. He collected in Yucatan in 
1902-3, obtaining 236 numbers; in Yucatan and Campeche in the 
autumn of 1907; and in Yucatan again in the autumn of 1911. There 
are 172 specimens of his collections in Field Museum herbarium. 

Dr. Jesse More Greenman collected in northern Yucatan for 
Field Museum in 1906, obtaining about 180 numbers of plants. Guy 
N. Collins, of the United States Department of Agriculture, visited 
the region in the winter of 1912-13. His original collection is in the 
United States National Museum, and twenty-five duplicates are in 
Field Museum. 

In the summer of 1929 Dr. J. Becquaert collected about 100 
numbers of plants for the Arnold Arboretum in northern Yucatan. 
A nearly complete series has been deposited in Field Museum. 

Of Campeche plants Field Museum possesses only a few, col- 
lected by E. A. Goldman and by Eduard Seler. Probably no other 
herbarium contains many more, and the state is practically a virgin 
field for collectors. 

The statement that this list of the plants of Yucatan is far from 
being a complete enumeration of the flora of the Peninsula may be 
made with all confidence. The chief collections made in the area 
have been gathered by a man who was scarcely a botanist, although 
evidently possessing a good general knowledge of plants. 

Dr. Gaumer devoted little attention to the cryptogams, of which 
there must be several hundred species in the region. Even in the 
phanerogams it is certain that there must be much to be discovered. 
Further exploration should almost or quite double the number of 
species of Gramineae and Cyperaceae. A collection of only 100 
numbers of plants gathered in the most frequented parts of Yucatan 
in 1929 contained three species of rather conspicuous plants not 
reported previously. 

As has been remarked elsewhere, scarcely anything is known of 
the floras of Quintana Roo and Campeche. Having a heavier rain- 
fall, and by all the fragmentary reports a much more luxuriant vege- 
tation, they must have a richer flora than the state of Yucatan. I 
have little doubt, therefore, that the total flora of the whole Penin- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 169 

sula includes fully twice as many species of flowering plants as there 
are listed in the present enumeration. 

It is not probable that the botanical exploration of the region 
will be completed in the near future. Botanists, at least modern 
ones, like other naturalists, choose the pleasant and agreeable regions 
in which to work rather than those of prime botanic interest. It is 
an easy matter to indicate on a map the areas of tropical America 
in which the richest results could be obtained, but try to find a 
botanist who will explore them. Collectors are not to be blamed 
harshly for such an attitude, since a visit to some of the most allur- 
ing localities would involve not only such bodily discomforts as 
mosquito and ant bites, or the occasional absence of fresh meat or 
hot milk, of which I have heard botanists complain, but a somewhat 
more real danger of disease and permanent disability or even death. 

Quintana Roo is still a sparsely inhabited territory because of 
the unfriendliness of its few primitive inhabitants toward strangers. 
Moreover, it is reputed to be infested with malignant malaria. 
Campeche possesses large tracts difficult of access. It may be pre- 
dicted with all confidence that for some time to come most botanists 
who visit the Yucatan Peninsula will continue, as heretofore, to con- 
fine their travels to the usual tourist routes of the state of Yucatan, 
or to the more easily accessible portions of northern British 
Honduras. 

VERNACULAR NAMES 

Under each species in the following list are cited the vernacular 
names recorded from the area under consideration. The names are 
of three languages, Maya, Spanish, and English. The Maya names 
are those used by the Maya-speaking natives of the Yucatan Penin- 
sula, and are the ones first listed under the species. The Spanish 
names, preceded by the abbreviation "Sp.," are those reported as in 
use in Yucatan, Campeche, or Quintana Roo. In some instances 
names current in Tabasco also are listed, since they are likely to be 
employed in Campeche, even if not reported for that state. The 
English names, in most cases readily recognizable as such, are 
those used in British Honduras. 

The majority of the Maya names here listed were collected by 
Dr. G. F. Gaumer and are included in his manuscript Sinonimia 
cientifica y vulgar de las plantas yucatecas, but others have been 
extracted from the works of various authors cited in the bibliog- 
raphy. Ralph L. Roys has been kind enough to examine the 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

lists, and has corrected some of the names, but it is not to be under- 
stood that he approves of all those cited. Some of these are indi- 
cated plainly as taken from the publications of certain writers, and 
these, even when obviously incorrect, have been included, so 
as to make a complete record of the Maya plant names found in 
literature. 

Some of the Maya names are highly descriptive, and in certain 
instances they follow closely the derivation of Aztec names for the 
same or related plants. In only a few cases has the etymology of 
the names been indicated, because in few instances has it been 
explained by other writers, and the present writer's scant knowledge 
of the language is quite unequal to the dangerous task of suggesting 
meanings for the plant names. 

There are recorded in old manuscripts and in various Maya 
dictionaries many plant names which have not been identified. A 
list of these is given, with the hope that future workers in the region 
may interest themselves in discovering their significance. One of 
the most prolific sources of plant names is the manuscript Motul 
Dictionary, mentioned in the bibliography. 

The Maya language is spoken in the Yucatan Peninsula and even 
as far away as Chiapas. In Guatemala there are Indian tribes 
whose languages are closely related. Many plant names from their 
dialects have been cited on the succeeding pages, for comparison 
with the vernacular names of Yucatan. 

In connection with some of the vernacular names abbreviations 
are used to indicate the regions from which these are reported. The 
abbreviations are self-explanatory to one familiar with the local 
geography: Yuc., Yucatan; Camp., Campeche; Q. R., Quintana 
Roo; Tab., Tabasco; and B. H., British Honduras. 

MAYA BOTANICAL TERMS 

The Maya language contains a large number of words relating 
to plants, not so large a number as the Nahuatl tongue, but never- 
theless a surprisingly rich vocabulary, as one may learn by glancing 
over the pages of any Maya dictionary. Such an extensive botanical 
terminology proves that these people were and are on intimate 
terms with the plants growing about them. 

It may be of interest to make reference here to some of the 
general Maya terms relating to plants and their parts. Such words, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



171 



as found in the dictionaries, are insignificant in number in com- 
parison with those of the extensive Nahuatl vocabularies. 



Xiu. Herb or plant. 

Che. Tree or wood. The Motul Dic- 
tionary gives as synonyms cheel, 
cheil, chelel, and chelil. The word 
cheel signifies also "wood" or "trunk." 

Ak, akil. Vine. 

Zic. Firewood. 

Sool. Bark. The Motul Dictionary 
defines coo as "corteza sacada del 
arbol, para sogas," and hool as tough 
bark used for tying. Upach che also 
is defined as "bark." 

Chilib. Branches or stems of trees or 
herbs. 

Chilibche. A leafless tree with many 
branches. 

Kab. A tree branch. 

Ol. A young shoot or branch. 



Kix, kiix. Spine or thorn. 

Motz. Root. 

UL A thick, fleshy root or bulb. 

Le, ual. Leaf. 

AlamiL Sprouts. 

Canil. Sprouts or offshoots from the 

roots of plants. 
Toopp. Flower bud. 
Nicte, nic. Flower. 
Lol. A large flower. 

Bab. A cluster of fruits, such as grapes, 
coconuts, bananas, cotton, or beans. 

Ich. Fruit. 

Pacax. Fresh seed of melons, beans, 
maize, etc. (Motul Dictionary). 

Nek. Seed or stone of a fruit. 



UNIDENTIFIED VERNACULAR NAMES 

In the various publications relating to Yucatan, especially in 
medical literature and manuscripts and in the dictionaries, there 
are listed many Maya plant names, unassociated with their Latin 
designations. These are listed here, in the hope that they may 
attract the interest of some resident or visiting botanist or ethnolo- 
gist, who may exert himself to learn whether they are still current. 
If so, herbarium specimens of them should be procured, so that 
they may be identified. Some of the names are important, and 
their determination would be of great interest both ethnologically 
and botanically. 



Abal-ac. 

Abaxtut. A tree. 

Ac. A tall grass with broad leaves 
which sometimes are used for thatch- 
ing. 

Ac-aban. 
Acal. 

Acam. Gann states that the leaves are 
applied hot to reduce swelling and 
relieve pain in the case of enlarge- 
ment of the spleen and liver. 

Acam-xiu. 

Acan. Also written ak-can. According 
to Perez, an herb with cordate leaves 
and with milky sap which was used 
to cure toothache and snake bites. 
Called also yaax-acan. 

Acanceh. A spreading herb. 



Acche. Certain herbs whose leaves are 
eaten by the Indians in time of 
famine, and from whose flowers the 
bees make honey (Motul Diet.). 

Achaban. An herb with offensive odor, 
but useful for flavoring food (Motul 
Diet.). 

Ahauche. Certain trees without fruit 
from which they make ax handles, 
and their roots if chewed take away 
pains of the stomach (Motul Diet.). 

Ahchacuech. A tree and its fruit, a 
kind of kumche (Motul Diet.). Per- 
haps a species of Crescentia. 

Ah-chicam-kuch. 

Ah-chuch. 

Ahich. A fruit tree (Motul Diet.). 

Ahichilche. A fruit tree (Motul Diet.). 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Ahkiixche, ahkiixilche. A spiny tree 
(Motul Diet.). Perhaps a generic 
term for spiny trees. 

Ahnacchacchu. Large gourds used to 
hold water (Motul Diet.). Perhaps 
a cucurbit. 

Ah-tab. 

Ah-tukub. 

Alegria. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Am-ak. Probably a cactus. 

Amakil. An herb, used medicinally; 
said to resemble sarsaparilla, and per- 
haps a species of Smilax. 

Amcan-ak. 

Amcan-xiu. 

Anal-kak. Possibly Asclepias curassa- 
vica. 

Anal-xiu. Perhaps Asclepias curassa- 
vica. 

Apche. A tree. 

Arbol de corcho. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo, with a trunk 30 cm. or more in 
diameter; used for construction pur- 
poses. 

Arraydn. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo 
with a trunk 30 cm. in diameter; 
wood used for cabinet work and con- 
struction. 

Babtun. A plant with broad leaves, 
bearing certain mazorcas which are 
eaten by pigs; root eaten by the In- 
dians in time of famine (Motul 
Diet.). 

Bacche. A tree. 

Bahain, babain. 

Bataban. A vine with white flowers; 
used as a remedy for fevers and other 
diseases. 

Beescan. A vine, used medicinally. 

Bez-can. 

Bich-coc. 

Bilim-coc. 

Bob. A tree with large leaves (Motul 

Diet.). 
Bob-chich. 
Bobote-ak. 
Bocanche. A tree whose leaves are used 

medicinally. 
Boloconte. Said to be a very common 

tree of Tabasco, with small red fruits; 

reported also from Yucatan. 
Boloncote. A tree, probably the same as 

the preceding. 
Bolon couch. Probably the same as 

bolon-uoh. A remedy for fevers. 



Bolonhobon. Called also yalahobon. A 

vine with yellow flowers. 
Bolon-uoh. 

Boxek. A timber tree. 
Boxhich. A timber tree. 
Boxhocab. A timber tree. 
Boxsachec-che. A timber tree. 
Boxzlnic-che. A timber tree. 
Buhum-kak, buhum-coc. 
Bulceh. An herb growing along sea- 

shores. 
Buluchcaan. "Balsamo o liquiddmbar 

y unas manzanillas de esta tierra" 

(Motul Diet.). 

Butz-coc. A medicinal plant. 
Buul-che. 

Cabacche. The tree which gives the gum 

called chox (Motul Diet.). 
Cabalchi. An emetic herb with flowers 

like those of nancen (Perez). 
Cabalkin. A small, medicinal plant 

with small leaves and flesh-colored 

flowers. 
Cabal-kopte. 
Cabalkuiche. A low, medicinal plant 

with the odor of cedro. 
Cabal-put. 
Cabal-zilil. 
Cabal-ziz. 

Cacalia. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Cacate. "Fire-tree." A giant tree of 

Chiapas and Tabasco. The white, 

bitter kernels of the hard fruits are 

cooked with salt and eaten. 
Cahum. A tree. 
Cal-pakam. Probably a cactus. 
Campel-tsu. A vine with medicinal 

properties. 
Canacin. A timber tree. 



Canal-hulub. 

Canbal-zac. 

Canche, cocche. An herb, a remedy for 

asthma and other affections. 
Canela de cuyo. Sp. A timber tree. 
Can-taa-uii. 
Cante-tsu. 

Cantibte-ak. A vine. 
Caracolillo. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Cataox. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Ceh-che. 
Ceh-chikin. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



173 



Cencerro. Sp. A timber tree. 

Cib-ak. 

Cib-che. A medicinal tree. Perhaps 
Protium, 

Cicim kuch. A medicinal herb. 

Cihom. A tree whose leaves were scat- 
tered in the temple courts when chil- 
dren were baptized (Landa). 

Ciruelillo. Sp. A timber tree. 

Citam-ac. ' 

Coc-aac. 

Coc-ak. 

Cocom. A vine with yellow flowers. 

Copal gomoso. Sp. A tree with medi- 
cinal properties. 

Corales-ak. Sp. and Maya. A pros- 
trate herb; leaves small, pale; flowers 
white; roots red like coral; sap milky. 
An infusion of the root is applied as 
a remedy for erysipelas (Cuevas). 

Co-tzimin. 

Cuchil-uc. A medicinal herb. 

Cum-kanan. 

Cuntan. 

Cup-kak, cup-che. 

Cutsuc. The wood, ground into a paste, 
is applied to the heads of small chil- 
dren suffering from fevers and convul- 
sions (Gann). 

Cuxum-che. 

Cuyum-che. The same as cib-che. 

Choc. A timber tree. 

Chacab. A timber tree. 

Chacd bianco. Maya and Sp. A tree of 
Quintana Roo. 

Chacahuate. A timber tree. 

Choc ak. Same as cacleumak. A medi- 
cinal vine. 

Chacal. A timber tree. 

Chacam-che. 

Chac-biken. 

Chacbohon. A timber tree. 

Chac-cancel-xiu. A medicinal plant 
with milky sap. 

Chac-catzim. Probably one of the 
Leguminosae. 

Chac-chimtok. 

Chac-chixixmo, chicixmo. A shrub with 
milky sap; a remedy for erysipelas 
(Cuevas). 

Chac-chom. Perhaps a bromeliad. 

Chach. An herb used as a yellow dye. 

Chac-hulubtekaak. Called also hulubte, 
anal, xpolcutzil. A medicinal plant 



with milky sap and small, pink and 
yellow flowers. Milk administered 
for affections of the spleen; crushed 
leaves applied as poultices to relieve 
erysipelas and inflammation (Cue- 
vas). According to Cuevas, the plant 
belongs to the Apocynaceae. 

Chac-kuch. 

Chac-kuxub. 

Chac-le-onob. 

Chac-leum-ak. 

Chac-lubte-on. 

Chac-lutz ubteob. 

Chac-mul. 

Chac mulah kak. Called also mapche. 

Chac-nich-max. 

Chac-pichi. Pichi is the guava. 

Chac-sabacche. A timber tree. 

Chactam. A timber tree. 

Chac-tez. 

Chac-xicin-che. 

Chac-ya. 

Chaczaum. A medicinal herb. 

Chac-zubin-che. 

Chaczuk. A low shrub with linear 
leaves and small, pinkish flowers; 
used medicinally (Cuevas). 

Chake. A timber tree. 

Chakni. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Chechen bianco. Maya and Sp. A tree 
of Quintana Roo. Chechen is Meto- 
pium. 

Chem-chac-che-ak. 

Che-tulub. 

Chicbul-can. 

Chich. 

Chicharillo. Sp. A timber tree. 

Chicix-me-ak. 

Chicix-mo. A plant with milky sap. 

Chic-kak. 

Chic kuk. A medicinal herb. 

Chikec. A timber tree. 

Chilim-can. 

Chimtok. Reported as a medicinal herb. 
Also as a tree with strong wood good 
for construction purposes. A decoc- 
tion of the bark with alum is used to 
harden the gums. 

China amarilla. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo, the trunk 20 cm. or less in diam- 
eter. Wood used for cabinet work. 

Chintok. A timber tree. Reported also 
as chintoc. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Chin-uoh. 

Chipororo. A plant with edible fruit; 
root used medicinally. Reported 
from the Bacalar region. The name 
evidently is not Maya. 

Chiuoh-kaak. A small plant of the form 
of a black spider; leaves thick; has no 
flowers or fruit. Root a remedy for 
gangrene (Cuevas). 

Cho. A tree, probably one of the Bom- 
bacaceae. Used as a remedy for 
fevers. 

Choc. A vine. 

Choch. A tree and its fruit (Perez). 

Choche. A timber tree. 

Chochyuc. A timber tree. 

Chokobcaat. A large tree with diuretic 
properties. 

Cholul. A tree. 

Choo. 

Chooc. A timber tree. 

Chotche. A tree. 

Chox. Gum of the tree called cabacche; 
mixed with nin and tahte the Indian 
women used it for removing hair 
from their bodies (Motul Diet.). 

Chuenche. A tree. 

Chulceh. 

Chulche. A medicinal shrub. 

Chulinte. A tree. 

Chunun. A medicinal tree. 

Chutte. A tree of Chiapas (Maler). 

Chuy-che. 

Dzidzilche. A timber tree. 
Dzuyu. A timber tree. 

Ebano. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Wood used for cabinet work. 
Ek-huleb. 
Ek-lum-chac. 
Ek-mayil-ak. 
Ek-muyal-ak. A vine, employed as a 

remedy for blindness. 
Ek-teel. 
Elemuy box. A timber tree. Elemuy is 

Guatteria leiophylla. 
Ep-che. 
Escobetilla. Sp. A tree of Quintana 

Roo. 

Granadillo. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo, the trunk 30 cm. or less in 
diameter. Wood used for cabinet 
work. 



Guayabillo. Sp. A tree of Quintana 

Roo. 

Guayacdn negro. Sp. A timber tree. 
Guayacte. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Guayate. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Guayuncox. A timber tree. 

Ha. "An herb with which the Indians 
wash their heads" (Perez). 

Haa. "An herb whose seeds or fruits 
serve as soap" (Motul Diet.). 

Haaz-can. 

Haaz-maax. 

Haaz-max-che. 

Haban can. A medicinal herb. 

Haban-che. 

Hacay. 

Haiti. Sp.(?) A timber tree. 

Halab-che or ik-che. 

Hasche. A timber tree. 

Haz-ak. 

Haz max. "This shrub is so called be- 
cause the herbalists say that the 
monkeys, when their children anger 
them, beat them with its branches." 
Used medicinally. 

Hiail. 

Hibin-ha. An aquatic plant with large, 
smooth leaves. Used medicinally. 

Hinim. 

Hmuc. A vine. 

Hobnil-haa. 

Homa. A gourd. 

Hom-toloc. 

Ho-iial. 

Huk-chi. 

Hul-im-kak. 

Hulub. A plant whose leaves are used 
in place of cord for stringing fish. 

Humpetskin. A tree of Chiapas with 
showy, yellow flowers (Maler). 

Hunab-tzootz. A "parasite" on trees. 
An infusion of the plant is applied to 
the hair as a tonic (Cuevas). 

Hun-chac. 

Hunpetskin-xiu. 

Huuhub. A tree. 

Huun-can. 

Ic-bach. 

Ic-che. 

Ich-huh. "Iguana eye." So called be- 
cause its flower resembles an iguana's 
eye. Medicinal. Perhaps a Eugenia. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



175 



Ik-ak. 

Ipsac. A timber tree. 

Itz-chac. 

Itzin-can. 

Ix-bacal-ac. 

Ix-bibiz-luumil. 

Ix-cabal-chi. 

Ix-cabal-chun-kak. 

Ix-cabal-kak. 

Ix-canzel-ak. 

Ix-canzel-xiu. 

Ix-chilim, ix-chilim-kak. 

Ixchuch. "A. medicinal herb. If its 
juice is placed in the right ear of a 
scrofulous person the day of the con- 
junction of the moon, and on the 
following conjunction in the other 
ear, the scrofulous swellings disap- 
pear. The plant also reduces swell- 
ings, if it is placed, moistened with 
its juice, upon them" (Motul Diet.). 

Ix chui che. A medicinal vine growing 

over trees. 
Ix-cotz-cab-na. 
Ix-hal-kin. 
Ix-hoch-che. 
Ix hunpetzkin ak. Said to be similar to 

Aloe. 

Ix-hun-uoh. 

Ix-hutul-ek or zac-hutul-ek. 
Iximche. A tree. 
Ix-kakal-cab. 
Ix-kan-haaz. 
Ixkaxi, ixchel. An herb used to cure 

swellings (Perez). 
Ix kaxil chel. A vine, the same as ix 

kaxil ku. 
Ix-kin-uoh. 
Ix-mac-hol-cab. 
Ix-mamac-lumil. 
Ix-mom-nicte. 
Ix-much. 
Ix nech bac che. 
Ix-miche. 
Ix-och-can. 
Ix-tibib-ak. 
Ix-tsoc-chakanil. 
Ix-tsui-can. 
Ix tuab. Sp. Cadanera. A medicinal 

shrub. 
Ix-tu-ak. 
Ix-tulix-hobon. 



Ix-tuu-canil. 

Iztahte. A tree producing very fragrant 

resin (Landa). 
Izte. 

Jabali. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Jahua. Sp. A timber tree. 

Jobillo. Sp. A timber tree. 

Joyillo. Sp. A tree. 

Kabulche. A timber tree. 

Kamaz-can-ak. 

Kambulche. A timber tree. 

Kampac. A tree of Pete'n "on whose 
bark the Indians sleep" (Motul 
Diet.)- 

Kampocolche. A medicinal tree with 
small leaves, yellow flowers, and 
small, yellow fruits (Cuevas). 

Kanab-yuc. 

Kanal-zin. 

Kanasin. A tree with fine yellow wood. 

Kan-chikin-ak. 

Kanchikinche. A medicinal tree. 

Kan-coc. 

Kan-coc-che. 

Kan-mucuy-che. 

Kan-mucuy-coc. Called also chac-ak. 
A medicinal vine. 

Kante. A tree with yellow flowers (in 
Peten, according to Maler). In 
Guatemala the name is given to 
Gliricidia. The Motul Dictionary 
states that the roots of kante are 
used as a yellow dye. 

Kante-ceh. 

Kapab-yuc. 

Katabox. A timber tree. 

Katalox. A timber tree. 

Kax. A tree. 

Kaxab yuc. A vine. Eaten by horses. 

Kaxil. A timber tree. 

Kaxil-ix-chel. A vine. 

Kaxil ku. A medicinal vine. 

Kaxixchel. A medicinal vine. 

Keb. A tree parasite. 

Kik-aban. 

Kik-ni-och. 

Kinim. A tree, probably Spondias. 

Kintal. A small, medicinal plant whose 
leaves are sweet when chewed. 

Kisiyuc. A timber tree. 

Kixche. A timber tree. 



176 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Kix haban. A tree. 

Kokob ok. Called also xtuchi tunich. 

A remedy for headache and other 

pains. 
Kokobche. A shrub with aromatic 

leaves; used medicinally. 
Kom-kuch. 
Kukliz-cab. 
Kun-can, kum-can. 
Kuxub-ak. 
Kuxub-che. A tree with aromatic leaves 

and small, white flowers; a remedy 

for jaundice (Cuevas). 
Kuxub-ic. 

Lakintan. An herb, applied moistened 
as a remedy for swellings. 

Lakintan-mo. 

Lamparones-ak. Sp. and Maya. A vine 
with milky sap. A decoction of the 
plant is used to cleanse ulcers. 

Laurelillo. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Lee. A kind of gourd used for making 
dishes or other kitchen utensils. 

Leche. A tree with large leaves, growing 
in Chiapas and Guatemala (Maler). 

Likintan. Probably the same as lakin- 
tan. 

Lithibzots. "A plant whose seeds re- 
semble bats hanging by their claws" 
(Perez). The name signifies "bat on 
its toes." The plant is perhaps a 
Bidens. 

Loth-coc. 

Luin. A timber tree. 

Lumche. A timber tree. 

Macal-cox. 

Macal-ku. 

Macap-lum. 

Macap-na. 

Machiche. A timber tree. 

Machicho. Sp.(?) A timber tree. 

Mac-much. "Toad-stopper." A shrub 
of wet places, with hairy leaves like 
those of cotton; flowers yellow, in 
racemes. The ancient Mayas made 
clay jars in the form of a toad in 
which they kept seeds of corn and 
other plants for sowing. For covering 
these receptacles they used the wood 
of this plant, which is much like cork. 
The wood was used also to make 
rough furniture in the huts (Cuevas). 
Perhaps Cochlospermum. 



Maco. Sp.(?) A timber tree. 

Mac-oc. 

Malacale. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Mangle amarillo. Sp. A tree of Quin- 
tana Roo. Bark used for tanning, 
wood for construction purposes. 

Mangle negro. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo. Bark used for tanning, wood 
for construction purposes. 

Mante. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Mastote. Name probably not Maya. A 
timber tree. 

Matzab chicbul. An herb with burs 
which stick to clothing. 

Matzab kuch. A medicinal herb. 

Man. Defined by Perez as "pita," a 
word which may mean any one of 
several things. Perhaps only cord 
or twine. 

Max-ak. 

Max cal. An herb, said to be similar to 
Aloe or maguey (Agave). The name 
signifies "monkey throat," and is 
said to refer to the appearance of the 
root. 

Maxcalcots. An herb said to be taken 
to produce abortion; used also as a 
remedy for swellings (Motul Diet.). 

Mehen-xaan. A small palm, perhaps 
Chamaedorea. 

Muc ceh. An herb used in witchcraft. 

Much. A medicinal plant (Cuevas). 

Muc-ta. 

Mucuy-che. "Dove-tree." 

Mukay-che. Perhaps Nopalea, since 
mukay signifies "cochineal." 

Mukay-onob-can. 

Mul och. An herb. 

Musmacoy. A timber tree. 

Na. 

Nach-bacil-che. 

Nantaha. 

Napoche. A timber tree. 

Nazareno. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo, 
with a trunk about 30 cm. in diam- 
eter. Wood used for cabinet work. 

Nech lum, nach lum. A tree. 

Nemax-ak. 

Nemax-xiu. Perhaps the same as nemax, 
Heliotropium. 

Ne-tab. 

Ni-ax. 

Nictac. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



177 



Nitze. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Nohol-aban. 

Nok-ak. 

Ojite. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Ojo-ak, Sp. and Maya. 
Ojoxiu. Sp. and Maya. A medicinal 
herb with purple flowers (Cuevas). 
Olualuc. A tree. 
Opche-hum. A timber tree. 

Pach-max. A timber tree. 

Pahte. 

Pahtub. 

Palo bianco. Sp. A tree of Quintana 

Roo. 

Palobravo. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Polo de sangre. Sp. A tree of Quintana 

Roo. 
Palo sandiego. Sp. A tree of Quintana 

Roo. 
Pats-can. 

Paxalche. A timber tree. 
Pechnox. A timber tree. 
Pek-xiu. The same as tseb-xiu. 
Pocte. A timber tree. 
Polche. A timber tree. 
Pol-kokob. 
Pop. 
Pop-che. 

Popiste. A timber tree. 
Popistle. A timber tree. 
Popte. 

Ppoppox-can. 
Pugasqui. A timber tree. 
Pulul. A kind of fruit (Brasseur de 

Bourbourg). 
Putsub-che. 

Quiebrahacha. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo. 

Quina. Sp. A medicinal tree of Quin- 
tana Roo. 

Ramon bianco. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo. Wood used for construction 
and cabinet work. Perhaps one of 
the Mpraceae, since the common 
ramon is Brosimum Alicaslrum. 

Roble bianco. Sp. A timber tree. 

Sacauah. A tree of the Bacalar region, 
possibly Podocarpus. 



Sacbacelcan, sachacalcan. A large shrub 
with long leaves and small, blue 
flowers; a remedy for snake bites 
(Cuevas). Gaumer uses the first 
name for Cereus Donkelaarii. 

Sachitziche. A timber tree. 

Sac-nabche. A tree. 

Sacna-che. A tree, used medicinally 
(Cuevas). 

Sacsilil. A timber tree. 

Sactaman. A timber tree. 

Sac-tinte. A medium-sized tree whose 
bark yields a fiber. The seeds, pul- 
verized and boiled, are considered an 
excellent remedy for disorders of the 
stomach. 

Sakanche. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Sakiab. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Sandiego. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Sasquiche. A timber tree. 

Sibul. A timber tree. 

Sicil-much. A spiny vine with white 
flowers. Said to have emollient prop- 
erties; leaves and root pulverized, 
mixed with oil, and applied externally 
as a remedy for cutaneous diseases. 

Sisinicche. A timber tree. 

Soscil-chac. A vine; used medicinally 
(Cuevas). 

Sosolokricte. A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Subidtul. A timber tree. 
Sucte. A tree. 

Sufre y calla. Sp. A tree of Quintana 
Roo. 

Taa-ceh. 

Taan-coc. 

Taan-kozen. 

Taastab. A timber tree. 

Taa-tzimimin. 

Tah kee. A spiny vine with white flow- 
ers. Reputed to have antisyphilitic 
properties. 

Tahte. 

Tahua. A timber tree. 

Takin-che. A shrub with rounded leaves 
and bright yellow flowers. Used 
medicinally (Cuevas). 

Talega de pedernal. Sp. A timber tree. 

Taman-can. 

Taman-cooc. A medicinal herb. 

Tan-ceh. 

Tan tsunun. A medicinal herb. Per- 
haps a Euphorbia of the Chamaesyce 
group. 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Tapoch. A timber tree. 

Taray. Sp. A tree. 

Tasche. A timber tree. 

Tastab. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Tatuan. A timber tree. 

Te-ik. 

Tela de cebolla. Sp. A timber tree. 

Tel-ak. 

Tekox. Said to be a shrub with spines 
on the stem and leaves; used medi- 
cinally (Cuevas). 

Tel kuch. Called also sicil pack. An 
herb with fragrant leaves; used to 
clean the teeth. 

Thax-ak. 

Tibib-xiu. 

Tinto verde. Sp. A timber tree. 

Tok. 

Tok-zuuc. 

Too. An herb with broad leaves 
(Perez). 

Toon-can. 

Toon-che. 

Toon-tzimin. 

Topoxte. A shrub with small, hollow 
fruits having a thin rind. When 
stepped upon, they burst with a 
slight detonation (Maler). 

Tovillo. Sp. A timber tree. 

Toztab. 

Tseb-xiu. 

Tsez-cat. 

Tsilam. One of the important towns 
of Yucatan. Its name is derived, it 
is said, from that of a plant so called, 
known in Spanish as pico de polio, 
and very ornamental. 

Tsubac. A vine with small, white flow- 
ers (Cuevas). 

Tsuhum-che. 

Tsula. 

Tsul-xiu. 

Tsumyail. A vine with large leaves and 
yellow flowers (Cuevas). 

Tsuts-mohoch, tsots-mohoch. 

Tuhache. A timber tree. 

Tulcozon, Turco-uzam. 

Tulix-kik. 

Tulum. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Tup. 

Tup-palal. 

Tuz-ik-che. 

Tuz-ik-lum. 



Tzaibacil. A small, medicinal herb. 

Tzay-pach. 

Tzemez-akab. 

Tzic-aban. 

Tziminche. A timber tree. 

Tzotz-ceh. 

Tzotz-kuyuch. A vine with leaves like 
those of the grape; fruit hairy; sap 
milky. Reported to have emollient 
properties (Cuevas). 

Uayate. A timber tree. 

Ucam. A medicinal plant. 

Ucan. A tree of Peten with large, lan- 
ceolate leaves. The ashes with tal- 
low are used in soap-making (Maler). 

Urn-can. A tree parasite. 

Uruyam. A timber tree. 

Unas. A timber tree. 

Uuayuncox. A timber tree. 

Uvero. Sp. A tree of Quintana Roo. 

Xah-ceh. 

Xanab-chich. 

Xay-ak. A vine. 

Xcamuc-olal. A small plant with 

toothed leaves and clustered, purple 

flowers (Cuevas). 
Xchache. A timber tree. 
Xchocte. A timber tree. 
Xco. A medicinal plant of Quintana 

Roo. 
Xcuc-tsub. A shrub with small, round 

leaves and white flowers (Cuevas). 
Xhantumbu. A plant used in decoction 

as a remedy for fevers. 
Xhas-ak. A slender vine with aro- 
matic, oval leaves and purple flowers 

(Cuevas). 

Xhubche. A timber tree. 
Xhulcu. A timber tree. 
Xib-cel. 
Xicin-ceh. 
Xicin che. A fungus resembling ears, 

and growing on the trunks of trees. 
Xicin-coh. A vine. 
Xiuil tsac. A medicinal herb. 
Xlabon-ak. A parasitic vine with thick, 

pale leaves (Cuevas). 
Xloht-che. A small, woody plant 

(Cuevas). 
Xnetab. A shrub of the coast; leaves 

with three or four leaflets like ceiba, 

but thicker (Cuevas). 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



179 



Xopol. A medicinal plant. 
Xponkanbul. A shrub with large, thick 

leaves and white flowers; sap milky 

(Cuevas). 

Xtabyu. A timber tree. 
Xtadzi. A timber tree. 
Xtobyo. A timber tree. 
Xtog. A medicinal plant of Quintana 

Roo. 

Xtokoche. A timber tree. 
Xtuciscan, putcan. A vine with tubers 

and milky sap (Cuevas). 
Xtul-coson, Sp. Malujo. A vine with 

leaves like those of chile; flowers 

yellow, in racemes (Cuevas). 
Xtuyache. A large tree with white 

flowers and round three-seeded fruit 

(Cuevas). 
Xuaranchin. A vine with small, pink 

flowers (Cuevas). 
Xul. "Un arbol de que se sacan ciertas 

varas para las casas palizas" (Motul 

Diet.). 
Xul-ceh. 

Xulinche. A timber tree. 
Xulub-ceh. 
Xuul. A timber tree; wood used for 

carts. 

Yaak-ek. A tree. 

Yakal-xiu. A small, medicinal plant 

(Cuevas). 
Yakba-xiu. 

YasxuL A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Yax-can-ak. 
Yax-chacah. 
Yax-cocay-ak. 
Yax-ppehel-che. 

Yaya. Sp.(?) A tree of Quintana Roo. 
Yerba del sapo. Sp. A plant with thick, 

hairy leaves and yellow flowers 

(Cuevas). 

Zabac nicte. A tree with red flowers, 

used medicinally. 
Zacalbac. A medicinal herb. 
Zac-beeb. Sp. Zarza. Used medicinally, 

especially as a remedy for syphilis. 
Zac-beec. 
Zac-che. 
Zac-chucum. A medicinal tree with 

aromatic compound leaves and small 

flowers. Referred by Cuevas to the 

Leguminosae. 



Zacchuenche. A tree. 
Zac-chuen-che. A medicinal shrub. 
Zac-ek. A timber tree. 

Zac-ha-na. A tree of Cozumel Island, 
"under whose roots there is always a 
spring of pure, clear water" (La 
Plongeon). 

Zache. An herb used to cure swellings 

(Motul Diet.). 
Zac-kanan. 

Zackintal. An herb of which horses are 
fond (Motul Diet.). 

Zac kokob che. Called also canche. A 
shrub or small tree, a remedy for 
asthma. 

Zacla. "A kind of nettle" (Motul 

Diet.). 
Zac-lal. 
Zac-leum-ak. 
Zac-muyal-xiu. 
Zac-ne-ceh. 
Zac-tab-can. 
Zac-tsubto. 
Zac-tsunan. 
Zac-yik-che. 
Zam-chac. 

Zapote murcielago. Sp. A tree of Quin- 
tana Roo. 

Zapotillo, Sp. A timber tree. 
Zicil-tab. 

Zicilte. A small tree from whose seeds 
is extracted an oil with medicinal 
properties. 

Zinan che. A tree which stings like a 
scorpion if it is merely touched. 

Zizal-tsum-ya. 

Zizim-kak. Called also nipcibche and 
zizim-kuch. A medicinal herb. 

Zizim-kuk. 

Zoh-bach. 

Zoh-bach-ak, zah-bach-ak. 

Zol-can. The same as am-ak. 

Zoot-coc. 

Zubin-thul. A tree, its wood used for 
construction purposes. 

Zuluay-xiu. 

Zupte. A tree growing in savannas. 
Wood used for making wheels and 
other articles. 

Zuput. A tree whose wood is used for 
construction purposes. 



180 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The list of works here presented is intended to include all 
publications devoted primarily to the flora of Yucatan. There are 
included, also, papers in which new species are described from 
Yucatan and important monographs in which material from the 
Peninsula is cited. There are added other publications containing 
only incidental but sometimes important references to the vegetation, 
and various ethnological or linguistic papers in which Maya plant 
names are recorded. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Miss Edith M. 
Vincent, Librarian of the Department of Botany, in the preparation 
of the bibliography. 

Anonymous. Resumen sucinto de las caracteres de las principales familias 
botanicas, siguiendo el metodo natural de Jussieu [Review]. Emulation 1: 
71-72. 1873. 

Cuadro demostrativo de la exportaci6n del henequen habida en el puerto 

de Progresso (Yucatan, Mexico) durante el decenio corrido de 1882 a 1891. 
Bol. Agr. Min. Industr. (Mexico) 2: No. 10: 83-120. 1893. 

El Xkan-chim como planta forrajera. El Agricultor 1: 140-141. 1907. 

La clasificacion del zapupe y del henequen de Yucatan. El Agricultor 

1: 167-168. 1907. 

"El pochote," su cultivo e importancia actual. El Agricultor 2: 75. 1908. 

Nuestra antigua moneda. El Cacao. El Agricultor 2: 94. 1908. 

Arboles regionales de provecho. Maderas preciosas y de construcci6n. 

Algunas riquezas inexplotadas. El Agricultor 2: 101-103. 1908. 

A list, by vernacular names, of Yucatan trees. 

Clasificacion del agave "sisalano" o henequen. El Agricultor 2: 118-119. 

1908. 

El zapote. El Agricultor 4: 81-82. 1910. 

An account of Achras Zapota. 

Nombres de algunas maderas enviadas a la Camara Agrfcola para la 



exposici6n regional de agricultura. El Agricultor 4: 151. 1910. 
A list of vernacular names of Yucatan woods. 

Otras maderas presentadas en la exposition regional celebrada por la 

"Camara Agricola National" con motivo de las ultimas fiestas del Centenario. 
El Agricultor 4: 166-167. 1910. 
A list of vernacular names of Yucatan woods. 

Aellen, Paul. Beitrag zur Systematik der Chenopodium-Arten Amerikas. 
vorwiegend auf Grund der Sammlung des United States National Museum 
in Washington, D.C. 1. Repert. Sp. Nov. 26: 31-64. 1929. 
Chenopodium Berlandieri subsp. yucatanum is described. 

Ames, Oakes. Notes on Mexican species of Triphora. Orchidaceae 7: 39-44. 
pi. 109. 1922. 

Contains description of Triphora yucatanensis. 

Baker, Edmund G. See under James Britten. 

Bentham, George. A synopsis of the Dalbergieae, a tribe of the Leguminosae, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: Suppl. 1-134. 1860. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 181 

Includes descriptions of Dalbergia campechiana and Lonchocarpus rugosus 
from Campeche. 

Blake, S. F. Two new Mexican amaranths. Journ. Bot. 53: 103-104. 1915. 
Amaranthus annectans is described from Yucatan. 

New and noteworthy Compositae, chiefly Mexican. Contr. Gray Herb. 

52: 16-59. 1917. 

Vernonia oolepis is described from Yucatan. 

Five new species of Cedrela. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 107-112 

1920. 

C. yucatana is described from Yucatan. 
New trees and shrubs from Yucatan. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34: 



43-46. 1921. 

Six new species are described. 

New American Asteraceae. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22: 587-661 pi 

54.-6S. 1924. 

Otopappus scaber is described from Yucatan. 

Blanco, Cenobio. Notas adicionales a la monografia del chico zapote. Me"x 
Forestal 2: 46-51. figs. 1924. 

Bonpland, Aime". See under Alexander von Humboldt. 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. See under Diego de Landa. 

Briquet, John. Especes nouvelles ou peu connues de 1'Herbier Delessert. Ann 
Cons. Jard. Geneve 4: 213-243. 1900. 
Includes description of Jatropha yucalanensis. 

Britten, James, and Baker, Edmund G. Notes on Ceiba. Journ. Bot 34 
173-176. 1896. 
Ceiba Schottii is described from Yucatan. 

Britton, N. L., and Rose, J. N. The Cactaceae. Vols. 1-4. Washington. 1919- 
23. 

Includes descriptions of several species from Yucatan. 

Mimosaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 23: 1-194. 1928. 
New species are described from Yucatan. 

Calvino, Mario. Posibilidades cientificas de mejoras en el cultivo del heneque"n 
Estado de Yucatan, Depart. Agr. Bol. 7: pp. 1-23. 1916. 

Pro horticultura. Estado de Yucatan, Depart. Agr. Bol. 8: pp 1-15 

1916. 

Gandolle, Casimir de. Piperaceae novae. Linnaea 37: 333-390. 1872. 
Includes description of Piper yucatanense from Yucatan. 

Carillo y Ancona, Crescencio. Historia antigua de Yucatan, pp. 1-670 
Merida, 1883. 

Gasares, David. El nopal sin espinas y las Cactaceas yucatecas. El Agricultor 
1:175-178. 1907. 

Gatalogo de plantas reputadas medicinales en la Republica de Guatemala. 
Fiestas de Minerva de 1913, Exposici6n Nacional, pp. 1-71. Guatemala 
1913. 
The list was prepared by Dr. Rafael Tejada A. 

Ghase, Agnes. Notes on genera of Paniceae. III. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 
21: 175-188. 1908. 

Includes description of Olyra yucatana. 

The North American species of Paspalum. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb 28: 

1-310. /. 1-1 W. 1929. 

Yucatan specimens are listed. 

See also under A. S. Hitchcock and Charles F. Millspaugh. 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Choisy, Jaques Denys. Convolvulaceae. In DC. Prodr. 9: 323-462. 1845. 

Ipomoea ampliata is described from Campeche. 
Cogniaux, Alfred. Cucurbitacees. In DC. Monogr. Phan. 3: 325-951. 1881. 

Cayaponia alata and C. grandiflora are described from Yucatan. 

Crossette, Louis. Sisal production, prices and marketing. U. S. Dept. Com- 
merce Trade Inf. Bull. 200: pp. 1-7. 1924. 

Cruz, M. E. Datos sobre los cultivos, producciones minerales y flora, en el 
departamento de Pichucalco. Bol. Agr. Min. Industr. (Mexico) 3: No. 11: 
3-38. 1893. 

Relates to Tabasco; contains some Maya names. 

Cuevas, Benjamin. Ensayo botanico escrito por el naturalista Benjamin Cuevas 
compuesto de ciento veinticinco plantas medicinales del pais clasificadas por 
familias naturales e indicaciones para su aplicacion en la enfermedades. pp. 
i-vi, 1-51. Merida, 1894. 

El guano, en Maya Xaan. Variedad de clases, su utilidad y produccion. 

El Agricultor 1 : 36. 1907. 

Plantas medicinales de Yucatan y gula medica practica dome'stica. pp. 

1-278. frontispiece. Merida, 1913. 

Ilustraciones de la obra "Plantas medicinales de Yucatan," y manual o 



gula practica domestica. 37 unnumbered colored plates. Merida, 1913. 
Each plate illustrates three plants. 

Cuevas Gonzales, Remigio. Breves consideraciones sobre plantas utiles de 
Yucatan. El Agricultor 10 8 : 19-20. 1923. 
An account of a plant called "yich-caan." 

Breves consideraciones sobre plantas utiles de Yucatan. "Mac-much." 

El Agricultor 10 8 : 16. 1923. 
Account of a plant called "mac-much." 

Breves consideraciones sobre plantas industrializables de Yucatan. "El 



chucum." El Agricultor 10 2 : 9-10. 1923. 
Account of a plant called "chucum." 

Dewey, Lyster H. Fibers used for binder twine. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook 
1911: 193-200. pi. 3-5. 1912. 

Dominguez Ortega, J. Datos sobre produccion agricola en Yucatan. Boletin 
de Agricultura, Mineria e Industrias (Mexico) 2: No. 10: 64-79. 1893. 

Resena historica del cultivo del henequen. Bol. Agr. Min. Industr. 

(Mexico) 2: No. 10: 80-82. 1893. 

Donde, Joaquin, y Donde, Juan. Apuntes sobre las plantas de Yucatan, 
pp. 1-200. Me>ida, 1874. 

Apuntes sobre las plantas de Yucatan, pp. 1-134. Merida, 1907. 

Lecciones de botanica, arregladas segun los principios admitidos por 
Guibourt, Richard, Duchartre, de Candolle y otros. pp. i-xvii, 1-264. 
Merida, 1905. 

Includes (pp. 232-246) a list of vernacular names current in Yucatan, 
prepared by Tomas Aznar Barbachano. 

Donde, Juan. Apuntes sobre las plantas de Yucatan. Emulaci6n 3: (1 un- 
numbered page). 1878. 

Apuntes sobre las plantas de Yucatan. Emulacion 3: 13-20. 1878. 

Calendario botanico de Merida y sus alrededores, para los meses de 

Mayo y Junio. Emulacion 3: 152-155. 1878. 

Calendario botanico de Merida y sus alrededores, formado con algunas 

de las plantas que florecen durante el mes de Octubre. Emulacion 3: 222-223. 
1878. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 183 



Calendario botanico de Merida y sus alrededores formado con algunas 

de las plantas que florecen durante el mes de Noviembre. Emulation 3: 
224-225. 1878. 

Calendario botanico de Merida y sus alrededores, formado con algunas 
de las plantas que florecen en el mes de Diciembre. Emulation 3: 238-239. 

1878. 

Edwards, H. T. Production of henequen fiber in Yucatan and Campeche. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Bull. 1278: pp. 1-20. fig. 1-10. 1924. 

Engelmann, George. Notes on the genus Yucca. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 3: 
17-54. 1873. 
Yucca yucatana is described on p. 37. 

Engler, A. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Araceae. X. Bot. Jahrb. Engl. 37: 110-143. 
1906. 
Xanthosoma yucatanense is described from Yucatan. 

Fernald, M. L. A systematic study of the United States and Mexican species 
of Pectis. Proc. Amer. Acad. 33: 57-86. 1897. 

P. elongata var. Schottii is described from Yucatan. 

Fernandez Envila, Miguel. El estado de Campeche con sus fuentes naturales 
de riqueza sin explotacion ofrece un amplio campo a los hombres emprende- 
dores y de buena voluntad. pp. 1-26. Mexico, 1914. 

Flores, Ramon S. Estudios de botanica. I. Xcoch-lee. II. Chac-sic. El Agri- 
cultor 10 7 : 8-10. ill. 1923. 
Accounts of two plants, Cecropia and Jacquinia. 

Estudios de botanica. II. Peine de "Xtabay." El Agricultor 10": 6-7. 

ill. 1923. 

An account of Pithecoctenium. 

Estudios de botanica. III. El Agricultor 10 16 : 16-18. ill. 1923. 

Gann, Thomas W. F. The Maya Indians of southern Yucatan and northern 
British Honduras. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 64: pp. 1-142. pi. 1-28, fig. 1-81*. 
1918. 
Contains numerous references to plants. 

Ancient cities and modern tribes, pp. 1-256. ill. New York, 1926. 

Gleason, Henry Allan. A revision of the North American Vernonieae. Bull. 
N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 144-243. 1906. 

Vernonia hirsutivena is described from Yucatan. 

Greenman, J. M. New species and varieties of Mexican plants. Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 35: 307-315. 1900. 

Includes Spilanthes filipes from Yucatan. 

Studies in the genus Citharexylum. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 185-190. 1907. 
C. Schottii is described from Yucatan. 

New or noteworthy spermatophytes from Mexico, Central America, and 
the West Indies. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 247-287. 1907. 
Several new species are described from Yucatan. 

, and Thompson, G. H. Diagnoses of flowering plants, chiefly from the 
southwestern United States and Mexico. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1 : 405-418. 
pi. 21>-26. 1915. 

Randia Gaumeri and R. truncata are described from Yucatan. 

See also under B. L. Robinson. 



Griffiths, David. Einige neue Opuntioideen. Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 23: 
130-140. ill. 1913. 

Nopalea inaperta is described from Yucatan. 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Heilprin, Angelo. Observations on the flora of northern Yucatan. Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. 29: 137-144. 1891. 

The botanical names used in this list are mostly incorrect, and they are a 
disgrace to any scientific publication. 

Heller, Carl Bartholomaeus. Reisen in Mexiko in den Jahren 1845-1848. 
pp. I-XXIV, 1-432. fig. A, map. Leipzig, 1853. 

Hemsley, W. Betting. Botany, in Godman and Salvin, Biologia Centrali- 
Americana, vols. 1-5. 1879-1888. 

Lists many species from Yucatan. Pp. 96-110 contain a list of plants 
collected on Cozumel Island by "F. Gaumer." 

Herrera, A. L. Las manchas del heneque"n. El Agricultor 1 : 39-44. 1907. 

Notes on a supposed myxomycete (Plasmodiophora Agaves, sp. nov.) and 
a fungus (Colletotrichum Agaves) which attack the leaves of Agave. 

Hitchcock, A. S. Mexican grasses in the United States National Herbarium. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 181-389. 1913. 

The North American species of Oplismenus. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
22: 123-132. /. 21-2^. 1920. 

The North American species of Echinochloa. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

22: 133-153. /. 25-35. 1920. 
Yucatan material is cited. 

The North American species of Chaetochloa. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
22: 155-208. /. 36-62. 1920. 
Yucatan specimens are cited. 

, and Chase, Agnes. The North American species of Panicum. Contr. 

U. S. Nat. Herb. 15: i-xiv, 1-396. /. 1-370. 1910. 
Yucatan specimens are cited. 

Tropical North American species of Panicum. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 



17: 459-539. /. 11-149. 1915. 
Yucatan specimens are cited. 

Hoffmann, K. See under F. Pax. 

House, Homer Deliver. Studies in the North American Convolvulaceae. I. 
Bull. Torrey Club 33: 313-318. 1906. 
Jacquemontia simulata is described from Yucatan. 

Humboldt, Alexander von, Bpnpland, Aime", and Kunth, C. S. Nova genera 
et species plantarum quas in peregrinatione Orbis Novi collegerunt, descrip- 
serunt, partim adumbraverunt. Vols. 1-7. Paris, 1815-25. 
Includes descriptions of a few species from Campeche. 

Inf orme que rinde al C. Presidente de la Republica el jefe de la comision nombrada 
por el mismo, para hacer el estudio del territorio federal de Quintana Roo, 
integrada por el C. General Amado Aguirre, capitan de fregate Alberto 
Zenteno, ingeniero civil Salvador Toscano, C. Juan de Dios Rodriguez, 
ingeniero agronomo Rafael Lopez Ocampo y Cc. Gregorio M. Avalos y J. 
Guillermo Freymann. Estudio practicado de Enero a Abril de 1925. pp. 
1-56. ill., maps, tables. Tacubaya, Mexico, 1925. 

J. J. de T. La montana de Bacalar (en el departamento de Yucatan). Boletin de 
Agricultura (Mexico), pp. 15-20. 1846. 
Reprinted from Registro Yucateco. 

Koehne, E. Lythraceae novae. Bot. Jahrb. Engl. 29: 154-168. 1900. 
Describes Cuphea Gaumeri from Yucatan. 

Kunth, C. S. See under Alexander von Humboldt. 

Landa, Diego de. Relation des choses de Yucatan. Texte espagnol et tra- 
duction francaise en regard, comprenant les signes du calendrier et de 1'alpha- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 185 

bet hie'roglyphique de la langue Maya, accompagne' de documents divers 
historiques et chronologiques, avec une grammaire et un vocabulaire abr6g6s 
Franc.ais-Maya por l'Abb6 Brasseur de Bourbourg. pp. I-CXII, 1-516. 
Paris, 1864. 

The original was written in or about 1566. 

Lanz Trueba, Joaqufn. El much-cok. El Agricultor 10": 7-9. 1923. 
Account of a plant called "much-cok." 

Las mejores materiales. Vol. 1, nos. 1-12, pp. 1-480. Campeche, 1858-59. 
Edited by Tomas Aznar Barbachano. 

The articles published, written chiefly by the editor, relate mostly to 
agriculture. 

Le Plongeon, Alice D. Here and there in Yucatan, pp. 1-146. ill. New York, 
1889. 

Leonard, Emery C. The North American species of Scutellaria. Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 22: 703-748. 1927. 
Scutellaria Gaumeri described from Yucatan. 

Lindau, G. Monographia generis Coccolobae. Bot. Jahrb. Engl. 13: 106-229. 
pi. 5. 1890. 
C. yucatana is described. 

LinnS, Carl. Hortus Cliffortianus. pp. 1-501. Amsterdam, 1737. 
Contains references to Haematoxylum campechianum. 

Species plantarum. pp. 1-1200. Stockholm, 1753. 

Contains descriptions of Haematoxylum campechianum and Solanum 
campechiense. 

Loesener, Th. Mexikanische und zentralamerikanische Novitaten. III. Repert. 
Sp. Nov. Fedde 9: 355-367. 1911. 

One new species is described from Yucatan and a few other species, collected 
by Seler, are listed. 

Mexikanische und zentralamerikanische Novitaten. IV. Repert. Sp. 

Nov. Fedde 12: 217-244. 1913. 
Includes references to Yucatan plants and descriptions of new species. 

Plantae Selerianae. VIII. Verb. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 55: 151-194. 1913. 
Includes records of Yucatan plants. 

Mexikanische und zentralamerikanische Novitaten. VII. Repert. Sp. 
Nov. Fedde 18: 347-363. 1922. 

Two new varieties are described from Yucatan and a few other plants, 
collected by Seler, are listed. 

tiber Maya-Namen und Nutzanwendung yucatekischer Pflanzen. In 



Walter Lehmann, Festschrift Edward Seler, pp. 321-343. 1922. 

Plantae Selerianae. X. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 65: 84-122. 1923. 
Contains references to new and old Yucatan species. 

Eduard Seler. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 65: 78-83. 1923. 
Includes references to collections of plants made in Yucatan. 

Mackinney, Ernilio. El Nuevo Judio. Apuntes que serviran para la formation 
de "La Flora Yucateca." Entrega I, pp. 1-56. Merida, 1889. 

Maler, Teobert. Researches in the central portion of the Usumatsintla Valley. 
Mem. Peabody Mus. 2: 1-75. pi. 1-83, fig. 1-26. 1901. 

Researches in the central portion of the Usumatsintla Valley. Mem. 
Peabody Mus. 2: 81-216. pi. 3^-80, fig. 27-68. 1903. 

Explorations of the Upper Usumatsintla and adjacent region. Altar de 
Sacrificios; Seibal; Itsimt6-Sacluk; Cankuen. Mem. Peabody Mus. vol. 4, 
no. 1, pp. l-4a. map, pi. 1-13. 1908. 



186 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Explorations in the Department of Peten, Guatemala, and adjacent 

regions. Topoxte; Yaxha; Benque Viejo; Naranjo. Mem. Peabody Mus. vol. 
4, no. 2, pp. 55-127. /. 9-22. 1908. 

Explorations in the Department of Peten, Guatemala, and adjacent 



regions. Motul de San Jose; Peten-Itza. Mem. Peabody Mus. vol. 4, no. 3, 
pp. 131-170. pi. 45-46, f. 23-25. 1910. 

Martinez Hernandez, Juan. La flora de Yucatan. Los trabajos del Dr. 
Charles Frederick Millspaugh. El Agricultor 2: 3-4. 1908. 

Martinez, Maximino. Chicozapote (Achras Zapota L.). Mex. Forestal 2: 
39-40. fig. 1924. 

Mendez, Santiago. The Maya Indians of Yucatan in 1861. Indian Notes and 
Monographs, Mus. Amer. Ind. 9: 143-201. 1921. 

Translated from Bol. Soc. Mex. Geogr. Estad. 2: 374-387. 1861. 

Mercer, Henry C. The hill-caves of Yucatan, pp. 1-183. map, figs. 1-74- 
Philadelphia, 1896. 

Mexico. Institute Medico Nacional. Catalogo de los productos que exhibe el 
Institute Medico Nacional en la Exposition de Coyoacan. pp. 1-89. Mexico, 
1895. 

Includes some Maya names of Tabasco woods. 

Mez, Carl. Theophrastaceae. In Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 236a, pp. 1-48. 1903. 
Jacquinia flammea Millsp. is described from Yucatan. 

Miers, John. On the Apocynaceae of South America, with some preliminary 
remarks on the whole family. London, 1878. 

Stemmadenia insignis is described from Yucatan. 

Miller, Philip. The Gardener's Dictionary, ed. 8, pp. 1-1348. ill. London, 1768. 
Contains descriptions of several species from Yucatan, collected by 
Houstoun. 

Millspaugh, Charles Frederick. Contribution to the flora of Yucatan. Field 
Mus. Bot. 1 : 1-56. pi. 1-4. 1895. 

Second contribution to the coastal and plain flora of Yucatan. Field 
Mus. Bot. 1 : 281-339. pi. 8-21 . 1896. 

Third contribution to the coastal and plain flora of Yucatan. Field 
Mus. Bot. 1: 345-410. 1898. 

Plantae Utowanae. Plants collected in Bermuda, Porto Rico, St. 
Thomas, Culebras, Santo Domingo, Jamaica, Cuba, the Caymans, Cozumel, 
Yucatan and the Alacran Shoals, Dec. 1898 to Mar. 1899. Field Mus. Bot. 
2: 1-110. pi. 25. 1900. 

Plantae Utowanae. Reconsideration of the Cyperaceae. Reconsider- 
ation of Cakile. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 113-135. figs. 1900. 

Plantae Yucatanae. Polypodiaceae, Schizaeaceae. Gramineae and 
Cyperaceae (by Charles F. Millspaugh and Agnes Chase). Field Mus. Bot. 
3: 1-84. map, figs. 1903. 

Primera contribucion a la flora de Yucatan. El Agricultor 2: 5-6. 1908. 
A translation of the introduction to his first paper. 

Segunda contribucion a la flora de la costa y de la llanura de Yucatan. 
El Agricultor 2: 51-53. 1908. 
A translation. 

The genera Pedilanthus and Cubanthus, and other American Euphor- 
biaceae. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 353-377. 1913. 
Yucatan specimens are cited. 

Contributions to North American Euphorbiaceae VI. Field Mus. Bot. 
2:401-420. 1916. 

Several new species are described from Yucatan. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 187 

Vegetation of Alacran Reef. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 421-431. map, figs. 1916. 

, and Chase, Agnes. Plantae Yucatanae. Compositae. Field Mus. 

Bot. 3: 85-151. figs. 1904. 

, and Loesener, Th. Plantae a clariss. Ed. et Caec. Seler in Yucatan 

collectae. Bot. Jahrb. Engl. 36: Beibl. 80: 11-30. 1905. 

Motul Dictionary. 

This manuscript dictionary of the Maya-Spanish languages is preserved in 
the John Carter Brown Library at Providence, Rhode Island. It is the most 
comprehensive dictionary of the Maya language thus far prepared. It is 
believed to have been prepared in the seventeenth or early eighteenth century 
by a Franciscan monk who probably resided in the convent of Motul, eight 
leagues from Merida. The dictionary contains a large number of words 
relating to plants. A photostat copy is in the library of Field Museum. 

Nash, George V. Poaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 17: 77-196. 1909-12. 

Includes description of Schizachyrium Gaumeri from Yucatan. 

Niedenzu, F. De genere Stigmaphyllo. Pars posterior, pp. 1-36. 1900. 
Includes description of StigmaphyllonLindenianum var. yucatanum. 

Ober, Frederick A. Travels in Mexico and life among the Mexicans, pp. 1-672. 
ill. Boston, 1884. 

Pax, F. Euphorbiaceae-Hippomaneae. In Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 147, v, pp. 
1-319. 1912. 
Sebastiania adenophora is described from Yucatan. 

Pax, F., and Hoffmann, K. Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae-Acalypheae-Acaly- 
phinae. In Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 147, xvi, pp. 1-178. 1924. 
Acalypha Gaumeri is described from Yucatan. 

PSrez, Juan Pfo. Diccionario de la lengua maya. pp. 1-437. Me>ida, 1877. 

Piper, C. V. Studies in American Phaseolineae. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 22: 
663-701. pi. 61>. 1926. 

Phaseolus scolecocarpus is described from Yucatan. 

Pittier, Henry. New or noteworthy plants from Colombia and Central America. 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 431-466. pi. 78-96, f. 57-91. 1912. 
Sideroxylon Gaumeri is described from Yucatan. 

The Middle American species of Lonchocarpus. Contr. U. S. Nat. 



Herb. 20: 37-93. pi. 1-6, f. 1-tf. 1917. 

Two new species are described from Yucatan. 

On the species of Dalbergia of Mexico and Central America. Journ. 
Washington Acad. Sci. 12: 54-64. 1922. 
Describes D. cibix from Yucatan. 

Rejon Garcia, Manuel. Los Mayas primitives. Algunos estudios sobre su 
origen, idioma y costumbres. pp. 1-125. Merida, 1905. 

Robinson, B. L. Diagnoses and synonymy of Eupatorieae and certain other 
Compositae which have been classed with them. Proc. Amer. Acad. 42: 
32-48. 1906. 
Eupatorium hemipteropodum is described from Yucatan. 

On the classification of certain Eupatorieae. Proc. Amer. Acad. 47: 
191-202. 1911. 

Ageratum Gaumeri is described from Yucatan, 
and Greenman, J. M. Revision of the genera Montanoa, Perymenium, 



and Zaluzania. Proc. Amer. Acad. 34: 507-534. 1899. 
Montanoa Schottii is described from Yucatan. 



188 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Rose, J. N. Studies of Mexican and Central American plants No. 3. Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 1-55. pi 1-12, fig. 1-11. 1903. 

Studies of Mexican and Central American plants No. 5. Contr. U. S. 

Nat. Herb. 10: 70-132. pi. 16-tf, fig. 1-6. 1906. 

Lotoxalis yucatanensis is described from Yucatan. 

See also under N. L. Britton. 



Rovirosa, Jose" N. Una excursion a las lagunas de Atasta. Hallazgo de plantas 
sudamericanas en Tabasco. Naturaleza II. 1: 289-294. 1889. 

Pteridografia del sur de Mexico, o sea clasificacion y description de los 
helechos de esta region, procedida de un bosquejo de la flora general, pp. 
i-iv, 1-298. frontis., pi. 1-70. Mexico, 1909. 

Safford, William Edwin. Acacia cornigera and its allies. Journ. Washington 
Acad. Sci. 4: 356-368. 1914. 

Acacia globulifera is described from Yucatan. 

Sanchez, Pedro C., and Toscano, Salvador. Breve reseiia de una exploration 
en Quintana Roo, 1916-1917. Mem. Soc. Antonio Alzate 38: 199-247. pi. 
22. 1919. 

Santamaria, F. J. El provincialismo tabasqueno. Ensayo de un vocabulario 
del lenguaje popular, comprobado con citas, comparado con los mexicanismos 
y los de otros palses hispanoamericanos. Tomo 1, A-C. Mexico, 1921. 

Sapper, Carl. Sobre la geografia fisica y la geologia de la peninsula de Yucatan. 
Inst. Geol. Mex. Bol. pp. 1-57. pis., maps. 1896. 

Das nordliche Mittel-Amerika nebst einem Ausflug nach dem Hochland 
von Anahuac, Reisen und Studien aus den Jahren 1888-1895. pp. i-xii, 
1-436. frontis., fig. 1-17, 8 maps. Brunswick, 1897. 

Seler, E. Ein Wintersemester in Mexico und Yucatan. Zeitschr. Gesell. Erdkunde 
Berlin 38: 477-502. 1903. 

Zwei Fruhlingsmonate in Yucatan. In Urban and Graebner, Festschrift 
zu P. Aschersons 70 Geburtstage, pp. 371-382. 1904. 

Sloane, Hans. Catalogus plantarum, quae in insula Jamaica sppnte proveniunt 
vel vulgo coluntur cum earundum synonymis et locis natalibus. pp. 1-232. 
London, 1696. 

Contains references to the occurrence of logwood in Campeche. 

A voyage to the Islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and 
Jamaica, with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four-footed beasts, 
fishes, birds, insects, reptiles, etc., of those islands. 2 vols., pp. 1-264 and 
1-499. 1707-1725. 
Contains references to the occurrence of logwood in Campeche. 

Spinden, Herbert J. Ancient civilizations of Mexico and Central America, 
pp. 1-238. frontis., map, fig. 1-81. New York, 1917. 

Standley, Paul C. The Allionaceae of Mexico and Central America. Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 377-430. 1911. 

Two new species are described from Yucatan. 

The Mexican and Central American species of Ficus. Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 20: 1-35. 1917. 

Includes references to Yucatan material. 

Studies of tropical American phanerogams No. 3. Contr. U. S. Nat. 

Herb. 20: 173-220. 1919. 

Yucatan material of the genus Erythrina is listed. 

Trees and shrubs of Mexico. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 23: i-vii, 1-1721. 



1920-26. 

Contains many references to Yucatan plants. 

Stephens, John L. Incidents of travel in Yucatan. 2 vols. ill New York, 1843. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 189 

Stoll, Otto. Zur Ethnographic der Republik Guatemala, pp. I-IX, 1-175. 
chart, map. Zurich, 1884. 

Die Sprache der Ixil-Indianer. pp. I-X, 1-156. Leipzig, 1887. 

Die Maya-Sprachen der Pokom-Gruppe. Erster Theil. Die Sprache 

der Pokonche-Indianer. pp. 1-202. Wien, 1888. 

Thompson, C. H. See under J. M. Greenman. 

Torres, Jose Joaquin de. El chichibe. El Agricultor 1 : 141. 1907. (Reprinted 
from Registro Yucateco, vol. 3. 1846.) 

Notes upon the uses of a Malvaceous plant (Sida acuta?). 

Toscano, Salvador. See under Pedro C. Sanchez. 

Tozzer, Alfred M. A comparative study of the Mayas and the Lacandones. 
Archaeological Institute of America, Report of the fellow in American archae- 
ology, 1902-1905. pp. i-xxi, 1-195. pi. 1-29, fig. 1-1*9. New York, 1907. 
Contains numerous references to plants. 

A Maya grammar with bibliography and appraisement of the works 
noted. Papers of Peabody Mus., vol. 9, pp. i-xvi, 1-301. 1921. 

Trelease, William. The genus Phoradendron. pp. 1-224. map, pi. 1-21*5. 
Urbana, 1916. 
Includes references to Yucatan specimens. 

Additions to the genus Phoradendron. Bull. Torrey Club 54: 471-477. 



1927. 

P. Millspaughii is described from Yucatan. 

New Piperaceae from Central America and Mexico. Journ. Washington 
Acad. Sci. 19: 327-337. 1929. 

Two new Pipers are described from Yucatan. 

Uline, Edwin B. Studies in the herbarium. I. Field Mus. Bot. 1: 413-422. 
pi 22-21*. 1899. 

Includes descriptions of several new species from Yucatan. 

Urban, Ignatius. Nova genera et species V. Symb. Antill. 7: 151-432. 1912. 
Calyptranthes Millspaughii is described from Yucatan. 

Watt, George. The wild and cultivated cotton plants of the world, pp. i-xiv, 
1-406. ill. London, 1907. 
Includes description of Gossypium Schottii from Yucatan. 

Wernham, Herbert Fuller. A monograph of the genus Sabicea. pp. 1-82. pi. 
1-12. London, 1914. 

S. flagenioides is described from Yucatan. 

William, Prince of Sweden. Between two continents, pp. I-XVII, 1-246. 
ill. London, 1922. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to several 
persons who have aided in the determination of various families: 
Edwin B. Bartram, Mosses; Dr. William R. Maxon, Ferns; Agnes 
Chase, Gramineae; Dr. N. L. Britton, Cyperaceae; Professor Oakes 
Ames, Orchids; Ellsworth P. Killip, Passifloraceae. Special thanks 
are due to Ralph L. Roys, who has been generous in giving 
assistance with the Maya vernacular names. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

FUNGI 

There must be a large number of fungi native in Yucatan, but 
only a specialist in the group can collect them intelligently, and up 
to the present time they have not been studied systematically. 

PERISPORIALES 

Asterdium moniliforme Ellis & Everh.; Millsp. FMB. 2: 16. 
1900. 

San Miguel, on leaves of Tetrapteris mexicana, Millspaugh 1484, 
in part. 

Asterina yucatanensis Ellis & Everh. in Millsp. FMB. 1: 
285. pi. 9. 1896. 

Type from Yucatan, on living leaves of "Pterocarpus sp.," 
Gaumer. 

SPHAEROPSIDALES 

Macrophoma surinamensis (B. & C.) Millsp. FMB. 1: 285. 
1896. 

Yucatan, on leaves oi Epidendrum sp. Determined by J. B. Ellis. 

Pestalozzia Coccolobae Ellis & Everh.; Millsp. FMB. 1: 286. 
pi. 9. 1896. 

Type from Tsilam, on leaves of Coccoloba uvifera. 

HYPHOMYCETALES 
Aspergillus flavus Lk. 

"On various plants that were allowed to remain too long in plant 
press without changing driers." Determined by Ellis. 

Aspergillus fuliginosus Peck? 

On leaves of Epidendrum sp. Determined by Ellis. 

Penicillium glaucum Lk. 

On the interior of the shells of fruits of Jacquinia. Determined 
by Ellis. 

MELANCONIALES 

Gloeosporium affine Sacc. 

On leaves of Epidendrum sp. Determined by Ellis. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 191 

USTILAGINALES 
Mykosyrinx Cissi (DC.) G. Beck. 
A frequent smut in the inflorescences of the various species of 

Cissus. 

Sorosporium Borrichiae Ellis & Everh. in Millsp. FMB. 2: 
16. 1900. 

Type from Cozumel Island, on flower heads ofBorrichia argentea, 
Millspaugh 1586, in part. 

Ustilago Zeae (Beckm.) Unger. 

Tahchaac (Gaumer). Sp. Tizdn de maiz. Reported as frequently 
attacking maize (Zea Mays). 

AGARICALES 

This group includes the common mushrooms or toadstools, and 
the shelf or bracket fungi. Mushrooms are said to be called in 
Yucatan "quitasol del diablo." The Maya name "xicinche" also 
is reported. 

Agaricus yucatanensis Ellis & Everh. in Millsp. FMB. 1: 285. 
pi. 8. 1896. 

Type from Izamal, Gaumer 788. 

Lentinus nicaraguensis B. & C. 
Reported from Cozumel Island and Piste*. 

Lentinus villosus Klotzsch. 

Boxlolluum (Gaumer). Me*rida, E. H. Thompson 947. 

Polyporus similis Berk. 

Caleta, Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1615. 

Polystictus albocervinus Berk. 
Caleta, Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1559. 

Polystictus sanguineus (L.) Fries. 
Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 161 4- 

Poria vincta Berk.? 
Piste*, Millspaugh. 

Trametes venustus Berk. 
Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1613. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

ALGAE 

Microspora amoena (Keutz) Raben. 

Xkomha. Common in water tanks at Izamal, Gaumer 571. 
Determined by Miss Josephine E. Tilden. 

Nostoc verrucosum Vauch. 

Aguada Chulubmay, nine miles east of Izamal, Gaumer 1097. 
Determined by W. G. Farlow. 

CHARACEAE. Stonewort Family 

Chara gymnopus A. Br. 

Common in aguadas east of Izamal, Gaumer 913. "An indeter- 
minable sterile subspecies of this form" (T. F. Allen). 

Chara gymnopus var. inconstans A. Br. 

Abundant in cenotes near Izamal, Gaumer 4$4- Determined by 
Allen. 

LICHENS 

Ramalina calicaris var. farinacea Schaer. 
Mextsul. On shrubs, Progreso, Schott 311. 

Ramalina calicaris var. fraxinea Fr. 
Common at Progreso, Gaumer 1175. 

Ramalina rigida (Pers.) Tuck. 

On trees and shrubs, Progreso, Schott 311. 

The Motul Dictionary reports the names "tzucmax" and 
"zocichac" for plants which are probably lichens. 

MUSCI. Mosses 

Mosses probably are not plentiful in the Yucatan Peninsula, 
but the number must be vastly larger than has been recorded. The 
Maya name "cuxun" has been reported for a plant of this group. 

Tortula agraria Sw. Barbula agraria Brid. 

Reported from Cozumel Island, on dry limestone, Millspaugh 48; 
on dry limestone near Izamal, with Didymodon aeneus, Millspaugh 
80, in part. Determined by Cardot. 

Cryphaea filiformis Brid. 

Common in brush and forest about Izamal, Gaumer 320. Deter- 
mined^by Mrs. E. G. Britton. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 193 

Didymodon aeneus Sch. 

Near Izamal, on dry limestone, Millspaugh 80, in part. Deter- 
mined by Cardot. 

Hypnum sp. 

In brush and forest lands about Izamal, Gaumer 340. Determined 
by Mrs. Britton. 

Leucobryum albidum (Brid.) Lindb. L. incurvifolium C. Muell. 
Type of L. incurvifolium, from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1117. 
Octoblepharum albidum (L.) Hedw. 
Tsilam, Gaumer 665. Determined by Mrs. Britton. 

Stereophyllum leucostegum (Brid.) Mitt. 

Cozumel Island, on limestone, Millspaugh 33, 47. Determined by 
Cardot. 

Stereophyllum perpusillum C. Muell. in Millsp. FMB. 1: 
348. 1898. 

Type from forest near Izamal, Gaumer 340. 

Thuidium involvens (Hedw.) Mitt. 

On rocks at Cenote of Xcholac, Gaumer 560. Determined by 
Mrs. Britton. 

HEPATICAE. Liverworts 

Cheilolejeunea sp. 

On tree trunk, Mascab Pixoy, Millspaugh 151. Determined by 
Underwood. 

Cheilolejeunea sp. 

On trunk of ceiba tree, Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 37. 

Eulejeunea lepida L. & G. 

On bark of ceiba tree, Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 32. Deter- 
mined by Underwood. 

Frullania ericoides Nees? 

On trees, Izamal, Gaumer 339. Determined by Underwood. 
Mastigolejeunea auriculata Wils. 

On tree trunks, Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 106. Determined by 
Underwood. 

SCHIZAEACEAE. Curly-grass Family 

Anemia adiantifolia (L.) Sw. 

Muchcockax (Gaumer). Apparently frequent. Rhizome creep- 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

ing, hairy; sterile fronds ovate-deltoid, 7-30 cm. long, 2-3-pinnate, 
hairy; fruiting fronds with only the basal pinnae fertile. 

Anemia cicutaria Kunze. A. bipinnata Moore; Ornithopteris 
cicutaria Underw.; A. Wrightii Millsp., not Baker; 0. Wrightii 
Millsp. FMB. 3: 14. 1903, excluding synonymy. 

Uiitsilxiu (Gaumer). Collected only on Cozumel Island. Leaves 
dimorphous, the fruiting ones wholly fertile. 

Lygodium polymorphum (Cav.) HBK. L. venustum Sw. 

Reported by Rovirosa from Atasta, Tabasco, and probably oc- 
curring, therefore, within the limits of this flora. A large slender 
hairy vine, often forming dense tangles. One of the common climb- 
ing ferns of the more arid regions of Mexico and Central America. 

GYATHEACEAE. Tree Fern Family 

Alsophila microdonta Desv. A. armata Mart. 

Collected at Atasta, Tabasco, Rovirosa 48. A handsome tree 
fern with a slender trunk 1-5 m. high; leaves few, 2-2.5 m. long, 
ovate-oblong, subtripinnate. 

Hemitelia Hartii Baker has been reported from Cozumel Island, 
but there are no specimens available, and the record is very doubtful. 

POLYPODIACEAE. Polypody Family 

In local publications there has been reported frequently from 
Yucatan a fern under the name Ceterach officinarum or as Ceterach 
aureum. Its identity is altogether obscure, but probably it is one of 
the species listed here. It is reported to be known as "muchcoc" 
and "doradilla," and it is stated that the dried plants are sold 
commonly in the markets. They are used as a remedy for gonorrhea 
and for affections of the liver and bladder, as well as for various 
other ailments. It is possible that the plant may be rather a species 
of Selaginella. 

Acrostichum daneaefolium Langsd. & Fisch. 
Without locality, Gaumer 24348. A large coarse fern with simply 
pinnate leaves, growing usually in open swamps, in shallow water. 

Adiantum petiolatum Desv. A. Kaulfussii Kunze. 
Reported by Rovirosa from Atasta, Tabasco. Leaves once pin- 
nate, 15-25 cm. long, the pinnae glaucous beneath. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 195 

Adiantum tenerum Sw. 

Sp. Culantrillo. Apparently frequent. Leaves decompound, del- 
toid-ovate, the segments trapeziform or rhombic-oblong, glaucous 
green. It is perhaps this species for which the name "teltsiu" is 
reported, the plant being employed in domestic medicine, especially 
as an emmenagogue. 

Adiantum tetraphyllum Willd. 

Reported by Rovirosa from Atasta, Tabasco. Leaves twice 
pinnate; pinnules not glaucous, sessile. 

Adiantum tricholepis Fe*e. 

Sp. Culantrillo. Frequent. Leaves 3-4-pinnate, ovate, the seg- 
ments roundish-rhombic. 

Asplenium dentatum L. 

Cenote de Telchaguillo, Schott 747. Leaves small, pinnate, 6-20 
cm. long, the pinnae 8-12 pairs, mostly opposite. 

Asplenium pumilum Sw. 

Zizalchen (Gaumer). Sp. Culantrillo. Collected in shady places 
at several localities; also on Cozumel Island. Leaves pinnately 
parted, the lower segments petiolate and more or less 3-lobed, 
crenate-dentate. The plant is sometimes used in domestic medicine. 

Cheilanthes horridula Maxon. 

Only a single Yucatan specimen has been seen, collected long 
ago at Me>ida, Schott 3. 

Cheilanthes leucopoda Link has been reported as collected by 
Gaumer on Cozumel Island, but no specimens are at hand to sub- 
stantiate the record. 

Cheilanthes microphylla Sw. Pellaea aspera Millsp. FMB. 
1:287. 1896, not Baker. 

Apparently frequent. Plants low, with wiry glabrous blackish 
stipes; fronds pinnatisect, rusty-pubescent, the segments very small, 
pinnatifid, obtuse. 

Dryopteris augescens (Link) C. Chr. var. puberula (Fe"e) C. 
Chr. D. patens Millsp. FMB. 1: 287. 1896, not Sw. 

Sp. Culantrillo bianco. Frequent. A large coarse plant, the 
leaves pinnate, the pinnae pinnatisect. 

Dryopteris meniscioides (Liebm.) C. Chr. Polypodium menis- 
cioides Liebm. 

Reported by Rovirosa from Atasta, Tabasco. 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Dryopteris reptans (Gmel.) C. Chr. Goniopteris reptans Presl; 
Nephrodium reptans Diels. 

Schott 779. Reported also from Tsitas, Seler 3955. Leaves 
stellate-pubescent, 14-22 cm. long, the pinnules ovate, obtuse. 

Dryopteris subtetragona (Link) Maxon. Phegopteris rudis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 349. 1898, not Fe; Polypodium tetragonum Sw.; 
Goniopteris tetragona Presl. 

Apparently frequent. Fronds 25-30 cm. long, the pinnae lan- 
ceolate, pinnatifid, sparsely pubescent, the segments obtuse, entire. 

Hemionitis palmata L. 

Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1072. Fronds palmately 3-5-lobed, 
deeply cordate at the base, the lobes almost entire. 

Nephrolepis occidentalis Kunze. 

Reported by Rovirosa (as N. cordifolia var. pectinata Baker) 
from Atasta, Tabasco. 

Paltonium lanceolatum (L.) Presl. 

Reported by Rovirosa (as Taenitis lanceolata R. Br.) from the 
vicinity of Atasta, Tabasco. 

Polypodium astrolepis Liebm. Gymnogramme elongata Hook. 
Reported by Rovirosa as growing on trees near Atasta, Tabasco. 

Polypodium decumanum Willd. 
Reported by Rovirosa from Atasta, Tabasco. 

Polypodium Palmeri Maxon. P. lycopodioides Millsp. FMB. 
1:348. 1898, not L. 

Naabtsuts (Gaumer). Frequent. Creeping on tree trunks; leaves 
small, oblong or lanceolate, entire. 

Polypodium Phyllitidis L. Campyloneuron Phyllitidis Presl. 

Occasional as an epiphyte on trees. Leaves 30-70 cm. long, 
stiff, oblong-linear to oblong-lanceolate, long-tapering to the base, 
nearly entire. 

Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt. P. incanum Sw. 

Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1110. Growing on trees, the root- 
stocks long and creeping; fronds 6-10 cm. long, pinnatifid, densely 
grayish-scaly. 

Pteridium caudatum (L.) Maxon. Pteris aquilina var. caudata 
Link. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 197 

Xualcanil (Gaumer). Occasional. The plant is very similar to 
the widely distributed bracken, Pteridium aquilinum. 

Tectaria trifoliata (L.) Cav. Aspidium trifoliatum Sw. 
Chacchauayxiu. Frequent in moist places. A large coarse fern 
with pinnatisect fronds and very large, rounded fruit dots. 

SALVINIACEAE. Salvinia Family 

Salvinia auriculata Aubl. 

Izamal, Gaumer 1007. A small floating aquatic plant. 

SELAGINELLACEAE. Selaginella Family 

Selaginella cuspidata Link. 

Mutscoc. Occasional in dry places. This Selaginella forms 
rosettes similar to those of the resurrection plant of the south- 
western United States. 

Selaginella erythropus Spr. 

Without locality, Gaumer 23171. 

Selaginella longispicata Underw. FMB. 1: 287. pi. 10. 1896. 

Mutscoc (Gaumer). Sp. Doradilla. Type from Izamal, Gaumer 
825. Nohcacab and Me"rida, Schott 669. This species occurs also in 
Haiti. 

GYCADACEAE. Cycad Family 

Dioon spinulosum Dyer. 

Chamal (Gaumer). Reported from Progreso. This is a little- 
known species, and has not been found among recent Yucatan col- 
lections; perhaps only cultivated at Progreso. The trunk is said to 
reach a height of 15 m. 

Zamia furfuracea L. f. 

San Anselmo, Gaumer 21*30; Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1076. 
A forest plant, stemless or with a short trunk; leaves pinnate, the 
numerous leaflets lance-linear, glabrous, serrulate, attenuate, finely 
nerved; fruit a large cone. The roots are poisonous, and are reported 
to have been used in Central America for criminal poisoning. This 
species probably is common in the southern part of the Peninsula. 
The roots of some Zamias were an important article of food among 
the Caribs and other American natives, the poisonous property be- 
ing destroyed by heat. 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

PINACEAE. Pine Family 

Pinus caribaea Morelet. 

Huhub (Tozzer). Cuban pine. No specimens of pines are avail- 
able from Yucatan, but the trees (presumably of this species, which 
is common in near-by regions) are reported as occurring abundantly 
on the pine and cohune ridges near the border of British Honduras. 
The Ixil (Guatemala) name for pine tree is "tza," the Pokonchi 
name "chah." 

TYPHACEAE. Cat-tail Family 

Typha angustifolia L. T. domingensis Pers. 

Puh. Sp. Espadana. Progreso, Millspaugh 1676. Cat-tail. Prob- 
ably common in suitable habitats throughout the region. 

This plant has been reported from Yucatan under the almost 
incredible name of "Pandanus utilis" (see Millsp. FMB. 1: 9. 1895). 
Just how this mistake occurred, it is impossible to determine at the 
present time, but apparently it is based upon an earlier published 
record. 

Cat-tail leaves are sometimes employed for weaving mats. In 
Guatemala the fluff from the fruiting spikes is used for stuffing 
pillows. 

NAIADACEAE. Naias Family 

Naias guadalupensis (Spreng.) Morong. 

Reported as common in quiet water. Aguada Xkaxek, Gaumer 
23230. A slender branched herb with opposite linear leaves, grow- 
ing submerged in water. 

ALISMACEAE. Water-plantain Family 
Echinodorus cordifolius (L.) Griseb. 

Progreso, Millspaugh 1692. An herbaceous plant of marshy 
soil with ovate cordate leaves; flowers white, racemose. 

GRAMINEAE. Grass Family 

Andropogon Gaumeri (Nash) Hitchc. & Chase, CNH. 17: 202. 
1913. A. semiberbis Millsp. FMB. 1: 350. 1898; Millsp. & Chase, 
FMB. 3: 19. 1903, not Kunth. Schizachyrium Gaumeri Nash, N. 
Amer. Fl. 17: 102. 1912. 

Known only from the type, collected at Izamal, Gaumer 1037. 
A tufted annual; leaves 3-4 mm. wide, glabrous; spikelets 1-flowered, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 199 

in pairs at each joint of the slender racemes, these 4-6 cm. long; 
sessile spikelet scabrous, the rachilla joint with a few hairs at the 
summit only. 

Andropogon malacostachyus Presl. A. hirtiflorus Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 350. 1898; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 19. 1903, not Kunth. 

Collected only at Tekax. A slender annual 1 m. high; leaves 
3-4 mm. wide, glabrous; racemes 4-6 cm. long; sessile spikelet and 
rachilla joint pilose. 

Anthephora hermaphrodita (L.) Kuntze. A. elegans Schreb. 

A common weed. An annual, rooting at the lower nodes; leaves 
flat, 4-10 mm. wide, glabrous or hirsute; spikelets 1-flowered, 4.5 
mm. long, in clusters of 3 or 4 in long slender spikes. 

Aristida adscensionis L. A. bromoides HBK.; A. nigrescens 
Presl. 

Frequent. A small much-branched annual; blades scabrous, 2 
mm. wide or narrower; spikelets 1-flowered, 3-awned, in narrow 
panicles 5-10 cm. long. 

Aristida jorullensis Kunth. 

Reported (Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 12. 1905) from 
Chichen Itza, Seler 3999. The specimen, determined by Pilger, has 
not been seen by the present writer. 

Aristida ternipes Cav. A. scabra Kunth; Streptachne tennis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 354. 1898, not HBK. A. tennis Millsp. & Chase, 
FMB. 3: 48. 1903, not Kunth. 

Frequent. An erect perennial; blades 2-3 mm. wide; spikelets 
1-awned, in a large open panicle. 

Arundo Donax L. 

Tekhalal (Gaumer). Cultivated and perhaps naturalized; native 
of the Old World. Giant reed. Plants 3-5 m. high, forming dense 
clumps; leaves flat, 5-8 cm. wide; inflorescence a feathery panicle 
50-80 cm. long. 

Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Guadua latifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 
352. 1898, not HBK. 

Sp. Bambu. Planted for ornament; native of the Old World 
tropics. Bamboo. The plant is cultivated generally in tropical 
America for ornament, and the stems are used extensively for the 
construction of houses as well as for many other purposes. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Bouteloua disticha (HBK.) Benth. 

Collected only at Nohcacab, Schott 741 An erect cespitose per- 
ennial 30 cm. high; spikelets 1-2-flowered, in dense one-sided spikes, 
these about 25, racemose, 1.5 cm. long. 

Bouteloua filiformis (Fourn.) Griffiths. B. americana Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 350. 1898; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 53. 1903, not Scribn. 
B. bromvides Millsp. FMB. 1: 350. 1898, not Lag. 

Sp. Pelillo. Frequent. A cespitose perennial; blades 1.5-2 mm. 
wide; spikes 1.5-2 cm. long; spikelets about 10 in each spike. 

Bouteloua juncea (Desv.) Hitchc. & Chase. B. Triaena Scribn. 

Frequent. A cespitose erect hairy perennial; spikes 20-70, 7-12 
mm. long, racemose. 

Cenchrus echinatus L. C. brevisetus Fourn. 

Muul (Gaumer). Sp. Guisaso. Common. Sandbur. An erect 
or decumbent annual; inflorescence densely spicate; spikelets 
enclosed in a spiny involucre or bur 5.5 mm. long. 

Cenchrus insularis Scribn. in Millsp. FMB. 2: 26. 1900. 

On the islands off the east coast; type from Pajaros Island, 
Millspaugh 1759; also in Colombia and Brazil. Spikes 5-10 cm. 
long, not very dense; burs 6-7 mm. long. 

Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth. C. tribuloides Millsp. FMB. 2: 
27. 1900; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 42. 1903, not L. C. carolinianus 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 430. 1916, not Walt. 

Sp. Rosetilla. Frequent. Plants annual, sometimes forming 
large mats; spikes 3-8 cm. long, rather crowded; burs 3-7 mm. wide. 

Cenchrus pilosus HBK. C. pallidus Fourn. 

Mul (Gaumer); reported also as "mool." Frequent. Spikes 
5-14 cm. long, dense; burs 4-4.5 mm. long. All the species of this 
genus, called "sandbur" in English, are much alike in general appear- 
ance, and probably all have the same Maya name. The very sharp 
spines of the burs adhere to clothing, and even penetrate shoes 
easily. 

Cenchrus viridis Spreng. C. pallidus Millsp. FMB. 1: 351. 
1896, in part, not Fourn. 

Frequent. Spikes 4-10 cm. long, dense; burs 4 mm. long. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 201 

Chloris ciliata Swartz. 

Frequent. A decumbent or erect annual; leaves flat, 7-20 cm. 
long; spikelets 1-flowered, arranged in 2 rows on one side of the 
rachis, the spikes few, 4-7 cm. long. 

Chloris petraea Swartz. 

Occasional in the coastal region. Perennial; leaves 1 cm. wide 
or less, obtuse, smooth; spikelets 2 mm. long, the spikes usually 
4-6, 4-11 cm. long. 

Chloris virgata Swartz. C. elegans HBK.; C. barbata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 351. 1898, not Swartz. 

Sp. Barba de indio. Common. An annual ; leaves narrow, rough ; 
spikelets long-awned; spikes 5-10, 4-6.5 cm. long. 

Coix Lacryma-jobi L. 

Rare; native of the Old World. Job's-tears. A coarse tall grass 
with broad leaves, the inflorescence of 1-5 spikes; pistillate spikelets 
enclosed in hard, ovoid, pearly or grayish, beadlike bodies. The 
"seeds" are often used for making necklaces and bracelets. Tozzer 
gives the Lacandon name of the plant (in Chiapas) as "sukpaen." 

Cymbopogon Nardus (L.) Rendle. Andropogon Nardus L. 

Sp. Zacate de limon. Cultivated; native of tropical Asia. Citron- 
ella grass. A tall perennial, lemon-scented ; leaves glabrous, glaucous, 
1.5-2 cm. wide; spikelets 1-flowered, in pairs, one sessile, the other 
stalked, forming large panicles, the pairs of spikelets subtended by 
red-brown sheathing spathes 1-2 cm. long. A tea made from the 
leaves is given as a remedy for colic. This grass seldom or never 
flowers in Central America. 

Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. 

Canzuuc (Gaumer). Sp. Grama. Common, especially about 
towns; probably introduced. Bermuda grass. A perennial grass, 
creeping and often forming a dense sod; leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, 2-4 
mm. wide, scabrous above; spikelets 1-flowered, in 2 rows along one 
side of slender spikes, these digitate; spikelets 2 mm. long. A decoc- 
tion of the plant is employed in domestic medicine as a diuretic. 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. Eleusine aegyptiaca 
Desf. 

A frequent weed. A decumbent annual, often creeping; leaves 
2-6 mm. wide, smooth or rough, sometimes pubescent; spikelets 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

2-flowered, with 2 rudimentary florets above, 3.5 mm. long, densely 
crowded in 2-4 digitate spikes 1.5-4 cm. long. 

Digitaria filiformis (L.) Muhl. Syntherisma filiformis Nash. 

Frequent. Plants slender, the sheaths, at least the lower, hir- 
sute, the blades 1-4 mm. wide; spikelets 1-flowered, in pairs in 
secund digitate racemes; rachis of the filiform raceme not winged, 
not long-hairy. 

Digitaria horizontalis Willd. Syntherisma setosa Nash. 

Occasional. Plants slender, decumbent, rooting at the lower 
nodes; leaves hirsute, 2-7 mm. wide; racemes filiform, 3-14 cm. long, 
the rachis not winged, long-hairy. 

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Syntherisma sanguinalis 
Dulac; Panicum marginatum Millsp. 

A common weed. Crabgrass. Plants slender, decumbent and 
rooting; leaves glabrous or pubescent, the blades 5-10 mm. wide; 
rachis of the slender raceme winged. 

Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene. 

Frequent on sea beaches and lake shores. Saltgrass. A low 
dioecious perennial; culms very leafy, the leaves narrow, spreading; 
spikelets several-flowered, compressed, in short dense panicles. 

Echinochloa Colonum (L.) Link. Panicum Colonum L. 

Common. An annual, usually much branched, the culms 
spreading or erect, 20-40 cm. long; blades 3-10 mm. wide, scabrous 
on the margins, often with transverse purple bands; spikelets 1- 
flowered, 3 mm. long, crowded in dense panicled spikes. 

Echinochloa Crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. Crus-pavonis 
(HBK.) Hitchc. 

Aguada Kanachen, Schott 832. Barnyard grass. A tall coarse 
grass, the sheaths glabrous; spikelets with long stiff awns. 

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. 

Sp. Grama de caballo. A common weed; native of the Old World. 
Plants annual or perennial, erect or decumbent; leaves 2-6 mm. 
wide, smooth or scabrous; spikes 3-6-flowered, in digitate spikes 2-9 
cm. long. 

Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight. & Arn. E. plumosa Link; E. 
ciliaris Millsp. FMB. 1: 288. 1896, not Link. E. mexicana Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 288. 1896, not Link. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 203 

Zaczuuc (Gaumer). Common. A delicate tufted annual 10-20 
cm. high; blades 2-10 cm. long, 4 mm. wide or less; panicles broad 
and open; spikelets 2 mm. long, 4-8-flowered, in lax panicles. 

Eragrostis ciliaris (L.) Link. 

A common weed. A slender tufted annual 30 cm. high or less; 
leaves 2-5 mm. wide; panicles long, narrow, and dense; spikelets 
3-4 mm. long, 6-16-flowered. 

Eragrostis mexicana (Lag.) Link. 

Bayal (Gaumer). Frequent. A tall slender annual; panicles 
6-13 cm. long, broad and open; spikelets 4-4.5 mm. long, 7-9-flow- 
ered, pale, on slender pedicels. 

Eragrostis secundiflora Presl. E. elongata Millsp. FMB. 1: 
351. 1898, not Jacq. E. amoena Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 62. 1903, 
not Presl. 

On sea and lake shores. Perennial; panicle narrow, stiff, 3-12 
cm. long, 1 cm. wide; spikelets 10-15 mm. long, 16-30-flowered. 

Gouinia latifolia (Griseb.) Vasey. 

Sp. Canote. Occasional. A tall slender perennial with broad 
blades; spikelets 3-4-flowered, 12-15 mm. long, in 2 rows along one 
side of the branches of a large spreading panicle 25 cm. long; awns 
4.5-5.5 mm. long. 

Gouinia virgata (Presl) Scribn. 

Collected at Izamal and Tekax. Plants tall and slender, the 
blades broad and flat; panicles 35-40 cm. long, lax and open, tawny- 
tomentose in the axils; spikelets 15-18 mm. long, on slender pedicels; 
awns 8-10 mm. long. 

Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze. 

Occasional. A branched annual; leaves hirsute, 3-15 mm. wide; 
spikelets 1-flowered, in spikelike racemes, partially imbedded in 
excavations in the jointed rachis; perfect spikelets deeply pitted. 

Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv. Andropogon contortus L. 

Chichen Itza, Seler 3998. An erect perennial 30-80 cm. high; 
leaves smooth, 3-7 mm. wide; spikelets 1-flowered, 8 mm. long, with 
long entangled awns, forming spikelike racemes 4-7 cm. long. 

Ichnanthus lanceolatus Scribn. & Smith, U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Div. Agrost. Bull. 4: 36. pi. 5. 1897. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Xkanchim (Gaumer). Frequent; endemic; type from Izamal, 
Gaumer 854- Plants erect or spreading at base, 40-60 cm. high, 
more or less pubescent; blades petioled, oblong to oval, 1-3 cm. 
wide; spikelets 1-flowered, 4 mm. long, lanceolate, glabrous, in pan- 
icles 5-12 cm. long. The plant is said to be abundant in many 
places, and to be a good forage grass. 

Ichnanthus pallens (Swartz) Munro. 

Atasta, Tabasco, Rovirosa 642. Plants much branched, spread- 
ing, creeping at base, pubescent; leaves sessile, 5-10 cm. long, 1-2 
cm. wide; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long, glabrous or with a few stiff 
hairs, the panicles 5-10 cm. long. 

Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc. Panicum divaricatum L. 

Zit (Gaumer). Frequent in thickets. A slender, somewhat 
woody vine, glabrous or nearly so; leaves narrowly lanceolate, 5-12 
cm. long, 5-15 mm. wide; spikelets 1-flowered, 4 mm. long, the 
panicles open, 5-20 cm. long. 

Lasiacis Rugelii (Griseb.) Hitchc. 

Collected only at Lake Chichankanab. A much-branched vine; 
culms appressed-hispidulous; blades oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
2-5 cm. long, 4-12 mm. wide, hispidulous or puberulent; spikelets 
5 mm. long, the panicles few-flowered, usually not more than 5 
cm. long. 

Lasiacis ruscifolia (HBK.) Hitchc. Panicum compactum Sw.; 
P. divaricatum var. Millsp. FMB. 1: 288. 1896; P. divaricatum var. 
latifolium Millsp. FMB. 1: 353. 1898, not Fourn. 

Mehenzit (Gaumer), Siit (Schott). Frequent. A coarse woody 
vine, pubescent; blades 10-15 cm. long, 3-6 cm. wide, ovate-oblong 
or lance-oblong, acuminate; spikelets 3-4 mm. long. 

Leersia hexandra Sw. Homalocenchrus hexandrus Kuntze. 

Atasta, Tabasco, Rovirosa 648. A plant of wet soil, the culms 
slender, rooting at the lower nodes; blades flat, 3-6 mm. wide, rough; 
spikelets 1-flowered, 4-4.5 mm. long, in panicles 4-8 cm. long. 

Leptochloa domingensis (Jacq.) Trin. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23545. An erect perennial; leaves nar- 
rowly linear; spikelets several-flowered, in 2 rows along one side of 
the slender rachis, the spikes racemose. 

Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) Gray. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1568; without locality, Gaumer 24361. 
An annual, the sheaths smooth or scabrous; blades narrowly linear; 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 205 

spikes numerous, in large panicles; spikelets 8-10 mm. long, 4-10- 
flowered. 

Leptochloa filiformis (Lam.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 71. 1812. 
L. mucronata Kunth. 

Common. An annual, the sheaths pilose; spikes 25-40, filiform, 
6-15 cm. long; spikelets 3 mm. long, 4-5-flowered. 

Monanthochloe littoralis Engelm. 

Tsilam, on beaches. A low perennial with crowded short rigid 
leaves; plants dioecious, the spikelets 2-3-flowered, usually sessile 
in pairs in the axils of the upper leaves. 

Olyra latifolia L. 

Atasta, Tabasco, Rovirosa 1*3. A coarse perennial, often 2 m. 
long or more; leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. wide; 
spikelets 1-flowered, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, in open panicles 10-15 cm. 
long. 

Olyra yucatana Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 21: 178. 
1908. 0. semiovata Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 46. 1903, not Trin. 

Occasional; endemic; type from Pocoboch, Gaumer 2372. A 
large coarse perennial; leaves large, ovate-oblong, acuminate; pistil- 
late spikelets 8 mm. long, scabrous, the awns 4-12 mm. long; pan- 
icles contracted, 8-14 cm. long, 2 cm. wide. 

Oplismenus Burmanni (Retz.) Beauv. 

A frequent weed. Plants annual, ascending or prostrate, 10-40 
cm. long; blades lance-oblong, acuminate, 2-5 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. 
wide, pubescent; spikelets 1-flowered, in dense panicled spikes, with 
long, antrorsely scabrous awns. One of the most abundant weedy 
grasses of southern Mexico and Central America. 

Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24425. Plants perennial, creeping; 
blades lance-oblong, acuminate, 5-10 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, gla- 
brous or pubescent; awns smooth. 

Oplismenus setarius (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. 0. hirtellus 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 26. 1900; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 36. 1903, not 
Roem. & Schult. 

Collected only on Cozumel Island. Plants perennial, ascending 
or nearly prostrate, 10-20 cm. long; blades 1-3 cm. long, 4-10 mm. 
wide, pilose or glabrate; awns smooth. 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Oryza sativa L. 

Sp. Arroz. Grown for food; native of the Old World tropics. 
Rice. Upland rice is cultivated in many localities, and is one of the 
important foods of the region. 

Panicum barbinode Trin. 

Sp. Zacate Para. Grown for forage and also naturalized; native 
of South America. Para grass. A coarse pubescent grass with long 
sterile culms, rooting at the nodes; leaves 6-16 mm. wide; spikelets 
1-flowered, glabrous, 3 mm. long, in open panicles 15-20 cm. long. 
This is one of the best pasture grasses of tropical America, and it is 
planted everywhere in the wet lowlands for forage. 

Panicum Chapmani Vasey. 

Without locality, Gaumer 21^60. Plants cespitose, glabrous, the 
blades 2-5 mm. wide; spikelets 2 mm. long, in panicles 30 cm. long 
or shorter. 

Panicum fasciculatum Swartz. P. fuscum Swartz. 

Common. Plants erect-spreading, copiously hispid; leaves flat, 
6-20 mm. wide; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long, glabrous, in panicles 5-15 
cm. long. 

Panicum geminatum Forsk. Paspalum paspaloides Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 354. 1898. Panicum paspaloides Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 
34. 1903. 

Frequent. Plants glabrous, cespitose; leaves 3-6 mm. wide, 
flat; spikelets 2.2-2.4 mm. long, the panicles narrow, spikelike, 12-30 
cm. long. 

Panicum Ghiesbreghtii Fourn. P. hirticaulum Millsp. & Chase, 
FMB. 3: 32. 1903, not Presl. 

Occasional. Plants in small tufts, erect, 60-80 cm. high, hirsute; 
leaves flat, 12 mm. wide or less; spikelets 3 mm. long, glabrous, the 
panicles 20-30 cm. long, broad and open. 

Panicum hirticaulum Presl. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1501, 2466. Plants erect, branched from 
the base, the blades broad and flat, sparsely hairy; panicles 5-15 
cm. long; spikelets 3.7 mm. long, glabrous, on flexuous pedicels. 

Panicum maximum Jacq. 

Sp. Zacate Guinea. Cultivated commonly for forage, also natural- 
ized; native of South America. Guinea grass. Plants perennial, in 
dense clumps 1-2.5 m. high, more or less hirsute; blades 1-3.5 cm. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 207 

wide; spikelets 3 mm. long, glabrous, the panicles 20-50 cm. long. 
Guinea grass is planted very widely in Mexico and Central America 
for pasture, and seems to be the grass best adapted to the purpose 
in most regions. It forms a rank growth, and it is often almost 
impossible to force one's way through the pastures, so dense and tall 
are the leaves and culms. Such places are all the less attractive 
because they are usually infested with millions of garrapatas, or ticks. 

Panicum molle Swartz. P. carthaginense Millsp. FMB. 1: 353. 
1898; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 35. 1903, not Swartz. 

Occasional. Plants ascending or spreading from a decumbent 
base, 30-70 cm. high, pubescent; blades 4-15 cm. long, 7-15 mm. 
wide; spikelets 3.5 mm. long, pubescent, the panicles 6-15 cm. long. 

Panicum trichoides Swartz. P. bremfolium Millsp. FMB. 1: 
288. 1896; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 32. 1903, not L. 

Cuhuech (Gaumer). Common. Plants spreading, 20-40 cm. 
high, pubescent; blades oblong-lanceolate, 2-6 cm. long, 1-2 cm. 
wide; spikelets 1.2 mm. long, pubescent, the panicles 5-20 cm. long, 
broad and open. 

Paspalum Langei (Fourn.) Nash. P. Schaffneri Millsp. FMB. 
2: 24. 1900, not Scribn. P. oricola Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 28. 1903. 

Cozumel Island. Perennial, 25-70 cm. high; blades 7-20 cm. 
long, 12-15 mm. wide; spikelets 1-flowered, 1.6-2.4 mm. long, in 2 
rows along one side of a flattened rachis, the spikes panicled. The 
type of P. oricola is Millspaugh 1480 from Cozumel Island. 

Paspalum malacophyllum Trin. P. elongatum Millsp. FMB. 
1: 353. 1898; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 27. 1903, not Griseb. 

Collected only at MeYida. Panicle of 12-14 racemes, these 
2-3.5 cm. long; spikelets 2.3 mm. long, glabrous. 

Paspalum yucatanum Chase, CNH. 28: 121. /. 71. 1929. P. 
paniculatum Millsp. FMB. 1: 288. 1896, not L. P. lentiginosum 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 353. 1898; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 28. 1903, not 
Presl. 

Endemic; type from MeVida, Schott 597. An ascending perennial; 
blades flat, 8-15 cm. long, 8-12 mm. wide, finely appressed-pubes- 
cent; spikelets semihemispheric, 1.4 mm. long, forming slender one- 
sided spicate racemes. 

Phragmites communis Trin. P. vulgaris Trin. 
Zachalal (Gaumer), Halal (Aznar). Sp. Canoto. Frequent in low 
swampy places. Reed. Plants 1.5-4 m. tall, forming dense clumps; 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

leaves 1-5 cm. wide, smooth, glabrous; inflorescence a plumelike 
panicle 15-30 cm. long or larger. The plant is probably the "halal" 
of the Motul Dictionary, used by the Indians for arrow shafts. 
This grass extends far northward through most of the United States, 
and occurs also in Europe. 

Saccharum officinarum L. 

Sp. Cana de azucar. Cultivated commonly; probably native of 
southern Asia. Sugar-cane. The plant is extensively grown as a 
source of sugar, especially in Campeche. Aznar reports from that 
state the following varieties: "cana blanca," "cana morada"; "cana 
criolla" or "nehuech," a variety now rarely seen. Its Maya name 
means "armadillo tail," and the variety is so called because the 
joints are short and the nodes so close together that the canes 
resemble an armadillo's tail. The Quich name of sugar-cane is 
"ahitz"; the Pokonchi name "ahih"; the Ixil name "utzal." 

Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv. S. flava Kunth; Chaetochloa 
geniculata Millsp. & Chase. 

Sp. Zacate cerdoso. A common weed. An erect or spreading 
perennial; blades 8 mm. wide or narrower, glabrous, scabrous, or 
villous; spikelets 1-flowered, 2-2.5 mm. long, in dense bristly spike- 
like panicles. This is one of the most common weedy grasses of 
Mexico and Central America. 

Setaria Grisebachii Fourn. Chaetochloa polystachya Millsp. & 
Chase, FMB. 3: 38. 1903, not Scribn. & Merr. S. yucatana Herrm. 
Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen. 10: 51. 1910. 

Izamal, Gaumer 2478 (type collection of Setaria yucatana). An 
erect or spreading annual; blades usually less than 1 cm. wide, 
puberulent and scabrous; spikelets 2 mm. long, the panicles narrow 
and interrupted. 

Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24292. A perennial, sometimes 2 m. 
tall; blades 3 cm. wide or less; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long, the panicles 
as much as 30 cm. long and 4-5 cm. wide. 

Setariopsis auriculata (Fourn.) Scribn.; Millsp. FMB. 1: 289. 
1896. Setaria auriculata Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 43. 1886. 

Frequent; type collected in Campeche by Linden; widely dis- 
tributed in Mexico. An erect annual with narrow flat pubescent 
blades; spikelets 1-flowered, 3 mm. long, ovoid, acute, subspicate 
and panicled, the panicles 5-15 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 209 

Sorghum Drummondii Nees. 

Sometimes cultivated and escaping; native of the Old World. 
Chicken corn. A tall coarse annual with broad leaves and a very 
dense panicle; awns 8-10 mm. long. 

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Andropogon halepensis Brot. 

Akilzuuc (Gaumer). Sp. Zacate Parana. Cultivated for pasture, 
also escaped; native of the Old World. Johnson grass. A tall 
perennial with long rootstocks; leaves 1-3 cm. wide, flat; spikelets 
1-flowered, in decompound panicles up to 60 cm. long. 

Sorghum vulgare Pers. 

Sp. Millo. Sometimes cultivated for fodder and for the seeds; 
native of the Old World. Sorghum. A tall coarse annual with 
leaves 2-5 cm. wide, the panicles very dense; awns 5 mm. long. 

Spartina Spartinae (Trin.) Merr. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24356; a plant of brackish swamps. 
A stout stiff perennial; spikelets 1-flowered, 7 mm. long, crowded in 
rows along a one-sided spike, the spikes forming a long slender dense 
spike. 

Sporobolus argutus (Nees) Kunth. S. domingensis Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 27. 1900; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 50. 1903, not Kunth. 

Occasional in saline soil. An erect perennial 30 cm. high or less; 
leaves 2.5-5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide; spikelets 1-flowered, 1.5 mm. 
long, in narrow or broad panicles 4-7 cm. long. 

Sporobolus atrovirens (HBK.) Kunth. 

Izamal, Gaumer 313 in part. Panicles pyramidal; leaves short 
and flat, mostly basal; spikelets 1 mm. long. 

Sporobolus minutiflorus (Trin.) Link. 

Collected at Izamal and Chichankanab. Panicles short-exserted, 
12-30 cm. long, 2.5-7 cm. wide; spikelets 1.3 mm. long, glabrous, on 
short slender pedicels. 

Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth. 

Common on seashores. An erect, fastigiately branched peren- 
nial 15-50 cm. high, with creeping rootstocks; leaves 3-20 cm. long, 
4 mm. wide or less, distichous; panicles 3-7 cm. long, dense and 
spikelike; spikelets 2-2.5 mm. long. 

Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze. S. americanum 
Schrank. 



210 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Occasional. Plants perennial, creeping or ascending, glabrous; 
leaves 4-10 mm. wide, blunt; spikelets 6 mm. long, mostly 2-flowered, 
in narrow dense spikes 4-13 cm. long. 

Trichachne insularis (L.) Nees. Panicum lanatum Rottb.; P. 
insulare Meyer; Syntherisma insulare Millsp. & Chase; Valota 
insularis Chase. 

Common. An erect perennial, growing in clumps; leaves 1-2 
cm. wide, glabrous or with pubescent sheaths; spikelets 1-flowered, 
usually in pairs, forming numerous silky racemes, long-hairy. 
The feathery inflorescences are often used in Central America for 
decorations. 

Tridens eragrostoides (Vasey & Scribn.) Nash. Triodia eragro- 
stoides Vasey & Scribn. 

Tsilam, Gaumer 1239. A slender tall perennial with narrow 
leaves; panicles loose and open, 15-25 cm. long; spikelets 5 mm. 
long, 7-10-flowered. 

Zea Mays L. 

Ixim (sometimes written "ixin" and "xiim"). Sp. Maiz. Maize, 
Indian corn. Maize is undoubtedly the most important plant of the 
whole Maya region, for it is today, as it has been for at least 2,000 
years, the chief food of the Mayas. Upon the maize plant is based 
the whole Maya civilization. Exhaustion of the soil consequent upon 
the growing of the plant is believed to have caused the successive 
migrations of the Mayas. 

The usual system of agriculture in this region, as well as in most 
parts of Central America, is to clear a piece of land toward the end 
of the dry season, felling the trees and cutting the brush and coarse 
herbs. When dry, this litter is burned, the ashes serving as fertilizer. 
When the rains begin, corn (or other crops) is planted in holes made 
with a sharp stick. During the growing season the plants are not 
cultivated, but the larger weeds are usually cut, to prevent their 
smothering the corn. Sometimes the same plot of ground is planted 
a second year, but more often a new field is cleared. It is obvious 
that this is an exceedingly wasteful system of crop growing. 

Maize is believed to be a native of central Mexico, but there is 
still much doubt as to its origin. It is not known in the wild state. 

The maize grown in Yucatan is of the flint variety, with hard 
plump kernels. The ears are usually small, and vary greatly in 
color. Tozzer mentions the following local varieties: "sakxim" or 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 211 

"xnuknal," a large white corn; "chakchoch" or "chakxnuknal," a 
large red corn; "kanxim," a yellow kind; and "chikintsonot," a blue 
variety. The Motul Dictionary defines "peeu" as "a kind of small 
red maize, which makes in 40 days, and is very early"; "xacin" as 
a kind with white and black kernels intermixed. 

There is a large Maya vocabulary relating to maize. A cornfield 
or "milpa" is called "col" (in Ixil "avual" or "com"); "yaxcal" is a 
field planted without having been burned. "Puch" is defined by the 
Motul Dictionary as "maize when it is hardening in the field, but is 
not quite dry." Cornstalks are called "zakab"; the green plant 
"nal." The name "ixim" refers to the dry kernels removed from the 
cob. The Motul Dictionary gives the same definition of "co." 
"Pach'cab" indicates ears which are blown down by the wind. 
"Zacnal" is defined as "el mismo maiz cuando esta en las caiias." 
"H'ec" is an ear of corn while it is attached to the stalk. Corn silk 
is called "tzucnal"; corn husks are "h'oloch" or "coloch" ("baa" 
in Mame; "achben," Jacalteca; "auc," Chuje). Green tender ears 
suitable for roasting ("elote" inNahuatl) are called "aknal," "axnal," 
or "heek" (in Ixil, "ma'tzin hal"; "xeba," Aguateca; "ih" or "iih," 
Mame; "ahan," Tzental; "aham," Chuje; "ho'ch," Quiche"). A 
corncob is "bacal." This word is used commonly by the Spanish- 
speaking people of Tabasco in place of the usual Nahuatl "olote" 
current in Mexico. In Quiche" the corncob is "hal"; Pokonchi, 
"bahlak"; Tzental, "nal." "Cootoloc" is corn with small kernels. 
"Zucuchacal" is an ear which does not develop kernels. "Choinak" 
are the ears kept hanging in the houses for seed. 

The chief food of the Mayas consists of tortillas, thin cakes of 
ground maize which are baked or toasted upon hot stoves or a 
griddle. Tortillas are prepared today exactly as they were a thou- 
sand years ago, except that now the soaked corn is sometimes ground 
in a small mill. The shelled corn is soaked with lime or lye until the 
outer coating can be removed. It is then ground upon a stone 
metate or "piedra" with a heavy stone somewhat like a rolling-pin, 
until it becomes a fine sticky mass, or "masa." The quality of the 
tortillas depends upon how thoroughly the corn has been ground. 
The native women spend a large part of their lives at this hard 
daily task. Tortillas are usually eaten hot and crisp, for when cold 
they are not very good, and a sadly heavy food. 

The corn ready for grinding is called "kuum" (in Nahuatl and 
Mexican, "nistamal"). The ground corn, or "masa," is called 
"zacan." The tortilla is called "pacach" or "pecuah"; in Ixil, "le"; 



212 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Pokonchi, "mukun," "vua," "vuec," or "vuic." "Chepa," accord- 
ing to the Motul Dictionary, is a kind of bread made from new 
tender corn. "Canlahuntaz" is defined as large loaves of maize 
bread made of numerous tortillas filled with beans or frijoles, and 
eaten at the feast accompanying the "misa milpera." 

Men traveling, or working in a field, where tortillas can not be 
toasted, use "totoposte" or "pozol," which consists of the "masa" 
prepared for tortillas, shaped into small cakes, which are eaten or 
mixed in water. These are called "maats" or "zacpet" (in Pokonchi, 
"chac'o'c" ; Ixil, "vuh" or "vuah" ; Mame, "chovue" ; Chuje, "vuail"). 

Visitors to Mexico and Central America soon learn that there is 
a prejudice among the native people against drinking cold water. 
This must be of Indian origin, and Landa states that the Mayas 
did not drink water alone. Coffee is now taken in its stead, and in 
Yucatan various beverages made from corn are drunk habitually. 
"Pinol" (Nahuatl) or "kah" (Maya) consists of ground roasted 
maize mixed in water with sugar or sirup; and often with chile, 
cacao, or spices. It is taken either hot or cold. In the Ixil dialect 
this is called "c'a." "Chocosaka" or "chocosacan" consists of "masa" 
mixed with hot water and a little salt. "Atol" or "atole" (Nahuatl) 
is much like "chocosacan," but it is boiled until it becomes a thick 
glutinous liquid. In Maya this is called "za," "akza," or "izul," 
according to the manner of its preparation. In Mame atole is called 
"bo'ch"; Jacalteca, "culul"; Ixil, "tzatzal" or "uc'a"; Pokonchi, 
"picab," "picob." "Zaca" or "sacha" is a cold drink of raw corn 
meal and water, sometimes flavored with cacao. It was a customary 
offering to the gods. "Keyem" is defined as a similar beverage. 
"Ul" is defined by the Motul Dictionary as sweet atol made from 
new corn, and "akalix" or "aklix" as another beverage made from 
tender corn. "Copen" is described as a hot drink made from corn 
and sweet potatoes. 

An infusion of corn silk is administered as a diuretic. Corn had 
an important place in the religious beliefs and ceremonies of the 
Mayas. Me"ndez describes a curious custom, namely, that gourds 
of "saca" were hung about beehives, in order that the bees might 
not abandon the hives, and might bring home ample stores of honey, 
and also that their owners might be free from sickness. 



The Maya word "zuuc" is equivalent to "zacate" (Nahuatl), 
and signifies grass in general. The name "ac" is said to refer to a 
tall grass with wide blades, growing in savannas, which is used for 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 213 

thatching houses. It has not been identified. "Koxol-ac" ("mos- 
quito-grass") is a seashore grass, according to Pe"rez. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg reports "ochux" as a kind of reed or cane, and "colomche" 
as a kind of bamboo. The name "xcuzuuc" is applied to a grass 
which furnishes forage for horses. 

CYPERACEAE. Sedge Family 

Cyperus brunneus Sw. C. Ottonis Millsp. FMB. 1: 11. 1895; 
2: 29. 1900, not Boeckl. C. brizaeus Millsp. FMB. 2: 121. 1900, 
not Vahl. 

Frequent. Inflorescence a dense umbel consisting of 2-6 spikes; 
spikelets dark red, about 20, usually 6 mm. long and 2 mm. wide. 

Cyperus canus Presl. 

Frequent, growing in water or wet soil. Plants coarse, some- 
times 2.5 m. high; inflorescence an open many-rayed umbel, the 
spikes digitate at the ends of the rays; spikelets dioecious, com- 
pressed, 10-15 mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, 20-30-flowered, oblong, 
grayish chestnut. The plants are sometimes eaten by stock. Jn 
some parts of Central America the stems of this species are utilized 
extensively for weaving mats, especially those used as mattresses. 

Cyperus compressus L. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1291. Inflorescence a 2-5-rayed umbel, 
the spikes flabellate, green, somewhat mottled with chestnut; spike- 
lets compressed, oblong, 8-20 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, 6-30-flowered. 

Cyperus elegans L. C. viscosus Sw. 

Common. Inflorescence a 6-10-rayed umbel, the spikes pale 
green and brown, subglobose, composed of 8-20 spikelets spreading 
from the short rachis; spikelets compressed, oblong, 8-10 mm. long, 
3 mm. wide, about 10-flowered. 

Cyperus esculentus L. 

Occasional. Inflorescence a 4-10-rayed umbel, the spikes golden 
brown, oblong, of 5-25 spreading spikelets; spikelets compressed, 
oblong, 10-15 mm. long, 2-2.5 mm. wide, 8-14-flowered. 

Cyperus ferax L. Rich. C. densiflorus Millsp. FMB. 2: 28. 1900, 
not Mey. 

Common. Inflorescence a large broad compound umbel with 
3-6 primary rays, the spikes composed of numerous spreading spike- 
lets; spikelets ferruginous, subterete, very slender, linear, often zig- 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

zag, 15-30 mm. long and about 1 mm. thick, 5-12-flowered. One 
of the most common weedy plants of Central America. Reported 
by Millspaugh and Chase (FMB. 3: 74. 1903) as C. Michauxianus 
Schult. 

Cyperus globulosus Aubl. C. echinatus Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 
3: 71. 1903, not Wood. 

Sisal, Schott in 1865. Inflorescence a 1-8-rayed umbel, the spikes 
russet-colored, subglobose, the 10-25 spikelets congested; spikelets 
little compressed, oblong, about 6 mm. long and 2 mm. wide, 
3-4-fruited. 

Cyperus lentiginosus Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 74. 1903. 

Frequent; type from Chichankanab, Gaumer 1290; reported from 
Costa Rica. Plants tall, the leaves 5-10 mm. wide; inflorescence an 
umbel with 10-16 rays, the spikes russet-brown or green, oblong, 
composed of many pectinate spikelets; spikelets scarcely compressed, 
slender, 10-13 mm. long, 1.3-2 mm. wide, 4-6-fruited. 

Cyperus ligularis L. 

Occasional. Inflorescence a compound umbel with 8-12 rays, 
the spikes rufous, sessile or nearly so, the terminal one very dense 
and cylindrical; spikelets reddish brown, ellipsoid, 3-5 mm. long and 
1.5 mm. wide, 2-4-fruited. One of the common weedy species of 
tropical America. 

Cyperus ochraceus Vahl. 

Mazcabzuuc (Gaumer). Occasional. Inflorescence a decom- 
pound umbel with 6-10 rays, the spikes pale yellowish, subglobose, 
1 cm. wide; spikelets strongly compressed, ovate-oblong, 5-10 mm. 
long, 2 mm. wide, 18-20-flowered. 

Cyperus rotundus L. 

Occasional. A perennial with long tuber-bearing rootstocks; in- 
florescence a 3-7-rayed umbel, the spikes wine-colored, the 2-7 
spikelets spreading, compressed, oblong, 5-20 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. 
wide, 6-24-flowered. 

Cyperus uncinatus Poir. C. aristatus Millsp. FMB. 1: 10. 1895, 
not Rottb. C. squarrosus Millsp. FMB. 1: 354. 1898, not L. 

Chabxan, Chabxaan, Cabaxan (Schott). Common. Inflorescence 
a 2-5-rayed umbel, the spikes russet or chestnut, densely flabellate, 
composed of 6-25 spikelets divergent from the very short rachis; 
spikelets compressed, oblong, 6-12 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 215 

Dichromena colorata (L.) Hitchc. 

Sisal, Schott 176. Bracts leaflike, white near the base; inflores- 
cence consisting of a white head composed of 8-16 ovoid spikelets 
5-8 mm. long. The plant is a showy one because of the conspicuous 
white bracts subtending the inflorescence. 

Dichromena radicans Schlecht. & Cham. 

Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1562. Bracts sometimes white within 
near the base; heads composed of 1-3 pale brownish spikelets 9 
mm. long. 

Eleocharis caribaea (Rottb.) Blake. Eleocharis capitata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 290. 1896, not R. Br. 

Common. Stems terete, the single spike light brown, ovoid, 
obtuse, 3.5 mm. long; achene 1 mm. long, black, shining, the tubercle 
white. 

Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. 

Occasional. Spike pale brown, 2-4.5 cm. long, obtuse; achene 
2.8 mm. long, brown, the tubercle stramineous, tipped with black. 

Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl. F. laxa Vahl; Iria poly- 
morpha Kuntze. 

Pocoboch, Gaumer 2376; Holbox Island, Gaumer in 1886. Inflo- 
rescence a corymbose umbel of 3-6 rays; spikelets reddish brown, 
ovoid, obtuse, 5-7 mm. long; achene pale stramineous, 1.2 mm. 
long, longitudinally ridged. 

Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl. F. spadicea Millsp. FMB. 2: 
29. 1900, not Vahl. 

Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1594- Inflorescence umbellate, 
several-rayed, the rays 2-3 cm. long; spikelets ferruginous, ovoid, 
obtuse, 8-10 mm. long; achene pale brown, 1.4 mm. long, faintly 
marked by longitudinal rows of hexagonal reticulations. 

Fimbristylis spadicea (L.) Vahl. 

Sp. Esparto (Gaumer). Common. Inflorescence a compound 
umbel, the rays 1-6 cm. long; spikelets chestnut-colored, ellipsoid, 
acutish, 10 mm. long, the scales indurate; achene blackish, 1 mm. 
long. 

Fuirena simplex Vahl. 

Common. A coarse plant of wet soil; spikelets many-flowered, 
in terminal or axillary clusters, subtended by a hairy leaflike bract, 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

1-2 cm. long; scales obovate, obtuse, pubescent, bearing a scabrous 
awn; achene stipitate and beaked. 

Mariscus jamaicensis (Crantz) Britton. Cladium jamaicense 
Crantz; C. germanicum Millsp. FMB. 1: 290. 1896, not Schrad. 
C. Mariscus Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 83. 1903, not R. Br. 

Holche. Reported also as "holsacbe." Frequent in salt water 
swamps. Sawgrass. A tall coarse sedge, sometimes 3.5 m. high, 
with thick, very rough-edged leaves; inflorescence a large panicle 
composed of dense many-flowered corymbs; spikelets fascicled, chest- 
nut, 2-flowered; achene ovoid, acute, 3 mm. long. The leaves are 
very tough, and in Florida they are sometimes employed for weav- 
ing baskets and other articles. The rough-edged leaves may cut 
one's hands and arms if the plants are handled carelessly. 

Rynchospora micrantha Vahl. 

Occasional. A low annual with narrow leaves; inflorescence a 
slender panicle of several lax corymbs; spikelets in clusters of 2-3, 
1-fruited, 1.5-2 mm. long; achene 1 mm. long, light brown, trans- 
versely rugose, with a depressed tubercle. 

Scirpus validus Vahl. S. lacustris Millsp. FMB. 1: 290. 1896, 
not L. 

Halal. Frequent in wet or swampy places. Bulrush. A coarse 
sedge, sometimes 2.5 m. high, with terete green spongy stems; 
inflorescence a compound, lax, usually drooping umbel; spikelets 
clustered, ovoid, obtuse, 6-9 mm. long; achene grayish black, 1.5-2 
mm. long. The stems are used for making mats, which are employed 
as rugs and mattresses. It is probably this plant for which the Motul 
Dictionary gives the name "cheel poop," defining the term as "the 
leaves and branches of the rush from which they make mattresses 
and mats." There is listed also the word "zay," "el corazon de 
junco de que se hacen petates o esteras." 

Scleria lithosperma (L.) Sw. 

Collected at San Felipe and Pocoboch.- Plants very slender, 
low; inflorescence a few-flowered panicle; spikelets clustered, of 2 
sexes; achene shining white, marble-like, 2.5 mm. long, with a tri- 
angular base. 

PALMACEAE. Palm Family 

The palms of Mexico are still imperfectly known, and it is prob- 
able that others besides those listed may occur in the Peninsula. It 
is to be presumed, also, that some exotic palms are in cultivation. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 217 

Acanthorrhiza Mocinni (HBK.) Benth. & Hook. 

Sp. Palma de escoba. Campeche, and perhaps elsewhere in the 
Peninsula. This species is widely distributed in southern Mexico, 
and occurs in Guatemala. The vernacular name indicates that the 
fan-shaped leaves are used for making brooms. The trunk, of medium 
height, is covered with long spines, and the fruit is about 12 mm. in 
diameter. 

Acrocomia mexicana Karw. 

Tuk. Sp. Coyol, Cocoyol. MeYida, Schott 805. Apparently com- 
mon. Mexican wine palm. A tall plant with pinnate leaves, the 
trunk armed with long black spines; fruit about 4 cm. in diameter, 
borne in dense heavy panicles. Cuevas reports that there is a variety 
called "istuk," and PeYez states that the "nut" is called "cheech." 
The name "coyol" is Nahuatl. The flesh of the fruit is described 
as sweet and edible. Charcoal made from the roots and taken in 
water is a local remedy for diabetes. Rosaries are made from the 
seeds. In Mexico and Central America a mild fermented wine is 
made from the sap of the trunk of this and other species. 

Attalea cohune Mart. 

Tutz (Pete"n, according to Stoll). Sp. Corozo. Manaca (B. H.). 
Cohune palm (B. H.). Hacienda Oxcom, Schott 726. This is the 
finest and largest of Mexican and Central American palms, some- 
times attaining a height of 60 m. The enormous but graceful, 
feathery, pinnate leaves are sometimes as much as 15 m. long. The 
corozo is reported as abundant in the southern part of the Peninsula, 
where it grows on the low hills known as cohune ridges, associated 
with pines. It grows also on low ground, often forming dense stands. 
The fruits, resembling a small coconut, and about 7 cm. in diameter, 
are borne in very large, dense, and heavy, pendent panicles. They 
are rich in oil, but their hardness makes its extraction difficult, else 
the tree would be an important source of revenue. Gann reports 
that the Indians break the nuts and boil them in water; the oil rises 
to the surface and is skimmed off. They burn it in lamps and use it 
for cooking, and the oil has been used locally as a substitute for 
linseed oil. It is said that palm wine is obtained from the trunks of 
the trees. Rejon gives the Maya name of this palm as "mop." 

Chamaedorea graminifolia Wendl. C. gracilis Millsp. FMB. 
1:355. 1898, not Willd. 

Xiat, Chiat. Collected at Nohpat, Xcholao, Buena Vista Xbac, 
Izamal, Libre Union. A handsome and graceful, slender, dwarf 



218 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

palm 4.5 m. high or less, the green unarmed reedlike stems 2.5 cm. 
thick; leaves pinnate, with linear segments; spadices once branched; 
fruit a small black berry. It grows in clumps, and is sometimes 
planted for ornament. The Maya name signifies "near the edge of 
the water," in allusion to the habitat. Chamaedorea is the largest 
and the only large genus of Central American palms. The unopened 
inflorescences, which resemble small ears of corn with the husk, 
called "pacayas," are much used as a vegetable in many parts of 
Mexico and Central America. They are delicious when properly 
cooked. The Pokonchi name of the Chamaedoreas is reported as 
"k'ip." 

Coccothrinax argentea (Lodd.) Sarg. Thrinax argentea Lodd. 

Nakaz. Progreso, Gaumer 23350. A palm of the coastal region, 
the trunk usually not over 6 m. high, sometimes very short; leaves 
fan-shaped, silvery-white beneath; fruit black, 8-12 mm. in diameter. 
This palm does not have pads of fiber like those surrounding the 
trunks of Thrinax Wendlandiana, which it somewhat resembles. It 
has a network of fiber but not the dense "fuzz." The silver palm 
has a wide distribution in the West Indies and occurs in southern 
Florida. 

Cocos nucifera L. 

Coco, Cocotero. Common, especially on seashores. The coconut 
is one of the most characteristic plants of tropical America, and one 
of the most useful. Small commercial plantations of it are reported 
from Yucatan, especially from Cozumel Island. Gann states that 
the Indians extract and utilize coconut oil like that of the corozo. 
The meat of the nut is used locally for making dulces, and the sweet 
clear liquid of the young nuts is a refreshing beverage, always cool, 
no matter how hot the air. The "milk" has diuretic properties, and 
the fruit is reputed efficacious in expelling intestinal parasites. The 
ancient Mayas made cups and other utensils from the shell of the 
fruit. The midrib of the leaf of this and other palms is called 
"chilib." 

It is significant that no Maya name is recorded for the coconut. 
I believe that it lacks, likewise, an Aztec name, and it may well be, 
therefore, that the palm was introduced into the region even after 
the appearance of the Spaniards, although this is difficult to believe 
when one views the present abundance of this graceful tree along 
the coasts of Mexico and Central America. No other tree is quite 
so important in giving to tropical shores their distinctive appearance. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 219 

Inodes japa (Wright) Standl. 

Sabal japa Wright. S. mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 11. 1895, 1: 
355. 1898, not Mart. 

Xaan, Xan. Sp. Guano, Huano, Palma de guano. Very common 
in dry forests, flowering throughout the year. In Mexico this pal- 
metto is known only from the Yucatan Peninsula, but it occurs also 
in Cuba. The trunk is reported to attain a height of 24 m.; the 
leaves are green and fan-shaped; the spadices are large and much 
branched; the fruit is a black berry 8-10 mm. in diameter. This 
palm is one of the most useful local plants, and is said always to 
be left standing when ground is cleared. The fruits are eaten by 
children. The leaves are used commonly for thatch and for making 
hats, mats, brooms, and other articles. The hats were formerly an 
important article of export to the United States. Rope is said to be 
made from the leaf fiber. The names "bayal," "bayal-xaan," and 
"bom" are reported for this species. Cuevas reports as varieties of 
guano "bon," "tulhoc," "xanilkax," and "cabalxaan," but some of 
these names may relate to other palms. The name guano seems to be 
of Carib origin. This species is probably the "bonxaan" of Tabasco. 

The plant finds some use in local medicine, and is reported to 
have "tonic, nutritive and vitalizing" properties. The extract is 
said to calm irritation of the nervous system, and to stimulate diges- 
tion, increase appetite, and augment assimilation. Gaumer states 
that it is a powerful remedy in the treatment of diseases of the air 
passages, and that it is specific in various affections of the sexual 
system. 

Phoenix dactylifera L. 

Sp. Datil, Datilero. The date palm, native of the Old World 
tropics, is planted infrequently. 

Oreodoxa regia HBK. 

Sp. Palma real. The royal palm, native in Cuba, Hispaniola, 
and Florida, is reported as planted for ornament. It is one of the 
handsomest of American palms, and is grown generally in tropical 
America. 

Thrinax Wendlandiana Becc. ?T. parviflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 
11. 1895, not Swartz. T. argentea Millsp. FMB. 1: 355. 1898, 2: 30. 
1900, not Lodd. 

Chit. Common, especially in the coastal plain. Occurring also 
in Cuba, and reported from Honduras. A low palm, usually about 



220 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

3 m. high, unarmed, with fan-shaped leaves; fruits globose, about 
1 cm. in diameter. The fruits have a pleasant taste and are edible. 
The soft fiber produced on the trunk is said to be called "mirahuano," 
and is used for stuffing pillows and mattresses. Gaumer states that 
the plant is "tonic, corroborant, and vigorative. The extract pos- 
sesses sedative properties, and is nutritive and diuretic. It is useful 
in the treatment of phthisis, bronchitis, and other affections of the 
air passages, and has a vitalizing effect upon the sexual system. In 
cases of debilitated sexual and digestive functions, with faulty as- 
similation and malnutrition, it produces very satisfactory results. 
It also develops the mammary glands." "Chit" is said to be the 
preferred spelling of the Maya name, although several other forms 
are reported, and to signify "burst into flower." This palm is said 
to flower twice, in March and May. 

Thrinax parviflora has been reported from Cozumel Island, and 
it may be that two species of the genus occur in this region. 

The names "tasiste" and "palmito" are reported for two palms 
of the Bacalar region which have not been identified. 

BROMELIACEAE. Pineapple Family 

Aechmea bracteata (Swartz) Mez. A. laxiflora Millsp. FMB. 
1: 12. 1895, not Benth. 

Xkeu, Xkeo, Chaccanahzihii (Gaumer). Izamal, Progreso, Chi- 
chankanab. A large coarse epiphyte with spine-margined leaves; 
flowers very numerous, forming a large panicle. The leaves are 
enlarged at the base, and contain a substantial quantity of water, 
which often is drunk by travelers in the forests. 

Ananas magdalenae (Andre*) Standl. 

This important fiber plant is not represented by Yucatan speci- 
mens, but it occurs in Pete"n, Guatemala, and northward as far as 
Tampico, Mexico, and is pretty certainly to be found in southern 
Yucatan. In British Honduras it is called "silk-grass," and usually 
in Central America "pita floja." In Petn it is known as "pinuela." 
The plant is terrestrial, the leaves armed with prickles, which toward 
the apex of the leaf are small and closely set. The inflorescence is 
a large, dense, hard, bracted, red head. The leaves give a superior 
quality of fiber, notable for its strength and fineness. 

Ananas sativus Schult. f. 

Sp. Pina. The pineapple is grown commonly in Yucatan, as in 
most other parts of tropical America. The plant is said to be a 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 221 

native of Brazil. The Quich4 name of Guatemala is reported as 
"mazati." The Pokonchi name is "ch'op" ; the Mame name "chuba." 

Bromelia Karatas L. Karatas Plumieri Morr. 

Cham,Chom. Sp. Pinuela. Wild pinguin (B. H.). Common. A 
terrestrial plant, the leaves long, spine-margined; flowers borne in 
a dense head nearly sessile among the leaves. A sirup made from 
the fruit is used as a diuretic and as a remedy for intestinal parasites 
in children. Recent writers give the Maya name as "chom," but in 
the old dictionaries it is given as "cham." 

Bromelia Pinguin L. B. sylvestris Willd. 

Tsalbay. Sp. Pinuela, Pinuelilla. Common. A terrestrial plant, 
similar to B. Karatas, but with a long-stalked paniculate inflores- 
cence. The yellow, very acid fruit is edible. The names "cham," 
"chom," and "hman" are reported for this species. 

B. sylvestris is considered a distinct species by Mez, but it is 
certainly very close to B. Pinguin. 

Hechtia Schottii Baker; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3:318. 
1884. 

Endemic; type from Cerro de Maxcanu, Schott 645. Collected 
only at Xcholac and Maxcanu. A coarse acaulescent terrestrial 
plant with long spine-armed leaves, small flowers in a large panicle, 
and capsular fruit. 

Tillandsia Balbisiana Schult. T. setacea Millsp. FMB. 1: 356. 
1898, not Sw. 

MeYida, Schott 842, 842a in part; Izamal, Greenman 403. Leaves 
numerous, with long narrow recurved blades, thin and inflated at 
base; scapes about 30 cm. high, bearing few compressed flower 
spikes. All the plants of this genus are epiphytes. In Yucatan 
they are called "gallitos." 

Tillandsia brachycaulos Schlecht. 

Miz, Chu, Mexnuxib. Sp. Gallitos. Izamal, Me"rida. Pe>ez 
states that the "chu" is sometimes called "canazihil." 

Tillandsia bulbosa Hook. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23722. The Maya name is reported from 
Pete"n, Guatemala, as "holunzial." 

Tillandsia circinata Schlecht. T. yucatana Baker, Journ. Bot. 
Brit. & For. 25: 280. 1887. 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

MeYida, Schott 250. Plants cespitose, 20 cm. high, stout, finely 
lepidote; leaves recurved, with broad bases. 

Tillandsia dasyliriifolia Baker. 
Me"rida, Schott 288. 

Tillandsia f asciculata Swartz. T. fasciculata var. latispica Mez 
in DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 683. 1896. 

Chuc, Xolohbenal (Schott), Canazihil (Gaumer). Izamal, Me*rida. 
Plants coarse and stout, 30 cm. high or larger; leaves numerous, 
erect, very narrow, with thick hard bases; scapes stout, bearing few 
or numerous broad thick spikes, the bracts indurate, closely imbricate. 

Tillandsia recurvata L. 

Common on trees. Plants small, usually 15 cm. high or less, 
forming dense clumps; leaves narrowly linear, loosely scurfy; scapes 
slender, bearing a single few-flowered spike. 

Tillandsia streptophylla Scheidw. 

X-holom-x-al, Xoloblenal (Gaumer), Xholobenal, Hkolomxal, 
Muliix. Frequent. Plants stout, about 30 cm. high, densely and 
loosely gray-lepidote; leaves numerous, spreading, often twisted; 
scape bearing one or several broad spikes. Specimens collected by 
Schott were distributed as T. anceps Lodd. 

Tillandsia usneoides L. 

Mexnuxib, Meexnuxib, Soscilchac (Maler). Sp. Barba espanola. 
Probably common. Spanish moss is a common epiphyte in many 
parts of Mexico and Central America. 

Tillandsia utriculata L. 

Frequent. Plants often a meter high; leaves broad, finely 
lepidote, with long slender tips; inflorescence much branched. 

Tillandsia vestita Schlecht. & Cham. 

Xeen. Common. Plants 20 cm. high or less, with short stems, 
clustered; leaves linear, coarsely lepidote; scapes stout, bearing one 
or more short dense terete spikes. 

Tillandsia filifolia Schlecht. & Cham, has been reported from 
Yucatan (Millsp. FMB. 1: 12. 1895), but the specimens on which 
the record was based are said to have been collected in Tabasco. 
T. polystachya L. also has been recorded (Millsp. FMB. 1: 12. 1895), 
but the record is probably an error. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 223 

A plant reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 52. 1913) under the name 
"humpets-kin" may belong to the genus Tillandsia. The crushed 
leaves are applied as poultices to relieve neuralgia and headache. 

Vriesia psittacina var. decolor Wawra, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 
30: 183. 1880; Mez in DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 581. 1896. 
Reported from Yucatan by Mez, Schott 75 being cited. 



Two plants reported under the names "xceeb" and "pooxnuc" 
are said to belong to the Bromeliaceae, but their identity is doubtful. 

LEMNACEAE. Duckweed Family 
Lemna minor L. 

Iximha. Without locality, Gaumer 1437, 2393, 23234. Duck- 
weed. A minute plant, floating on the surface of quiet water; thallus 
oblong or elliptic, green, each with a single root. The specific 
determination of these collections is somewhat doubtful. 

Wolffia brasiliensis Wedd. 

Iximha. Izamal, Gaumer 570; Hacienda San Rafael Xteppen 
and Hacienda de Chable", Schott 541- An aquatic plant, consisting 
of a minute green thallus, without roots. 

ARACEAE. Arum Family 

Anthurium tetragonum Hook. var. yucatanense Engl.; 
Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80. 12. 1905. 

Ukutzhbox (Gaumer). Sp. Tabaco de negro. Type from Chichen 
Itza, Seler 3997; Maxcanu, Gaumer 23840; Uxmal, Schott 638; Izamal, 
Gaumer 741, Greenman 450. 

Caladium bicolor (Ait.) Vent. 

Sp. Papagayo, Manto de la reina. Cultivated for its beautifully 
colored leaves. Native of tropical South America. A terrestrial 
acaulescent plant; leaves broadly ovate, hastate, peltate, thin, hand- 
somely blotched with red, pink, cream, or silver. It is probably 
this plant which has been listed in local publications as C. sagittae- 
folium, a name referable to the genus Xanthosoma. 

Monstera deliciosa Liebm. 

Izamal, Gaumer 1413, 23200, Greenman 453; wild and cultivated. 
A large glabrous epiphytic vine with huge, deeply pinnatifid 
leaves. Often grown for the edible fruiting spadices, which are 
sweet and very juicy. The usual name in Mexico is "pinanona." 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Philodendron oxycardium Schott. P. trifoliatum Millsp. FMB. 
1: 355. 1898. Arum italicum Millsp. FMB. 1: 355. 1898, not Mill. 

Akalkumche (Gaumer). Izamal, Gaumer 1422, 23174, 23823, 
Greenman 376; Mayapan, Schott 836; M4rida, Schott 489; Camino de 
Sacalamino, Schott 630. A large glabrous epiphytic vine with broad, 
entire, deeply cordate leaves. 

Philodendron lacerum (Jacq.) Schott. 

Ochil (Gaumer). Chichen Itza, Schott. A large glabrous epiphy- 
tic vine with broad leaves pinnatifid into numerous narrow seg- 
ments. The specimens are sterile, and the determination therefore 
somewhat doubtful. 

Pistia Stratiotes L. 

Ibinha (Gaumer). Sp. Lechuguilla. Maxcanu, in water tanks, 
Gaumer 23275. Water-lettuce. A floating aquatic plant, with a 
rosette of broad spongy leaves; very different in appearance from 
all other Araceae. It is perhaps this plant which is listed in the 
Pe"rez dictionary under the name "xicinchah." 

Syngonium podophyllum Schott. Arisaema sp. Millsp. 
FMB. 1:355. 1898. 

Ochil (Gaumer). Izamal, Gaumer 1091, Greenman 375. A large 
glabrous epiphytic vine; leaves pedately parted into 5 or more oblong 
or oblanceolate segments. 

Xanthosoma yucatanense Engl. BJE. 37: 138. 1906. 

Xmacal (Schott). Endemic; type from Camino de Sacalum, 
Yucatan, Schott 630; Izamal, Gaumer 23831. A terrestrial acaules- 
cent plant; leaves long-petioled, the blades broadly hastate-cordate. 

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott is listed by Gaumer in his Sino- 
nimia, with the Maya name "cucutmacal." It is probable that this 
plant is grown in Yucatan for its edible roots, but the Maya name 
may relate to Xanthosoma. Gaumer lists two other names, "y aax ~ 
tzotzmacal" and "chactzotzmacal," for plants presumably of this 
relationship. Calvino states that the "macal" is grown upon a small 
scale. It is the "malanga" of Cuba. 

COMMELINACEAE. Dayflower Family 

Callisia repens L. 

A frequent weed. A small fleshy creeping herb, glabrous except 
on the leaf sheaths; leaves ovate to lance-oblong, acute or acumi- 
nate; flowers small, white, in dense spicate clusters. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 225 

Commelina elegans HBK. C. erecta Millsp. FMB. 1: 13. 1895, 
not L. C. virginica Millsp. FMB. 1 : 13. 1895, not L. C. pallida 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 356. 1898, not Willd. 

Xhubulha, Pahtsa, Cabalzit (Gaumer), Yaaxhaxiu (Gaumer). Sp. 
Colevil (Gaumer), Hierba de polio. A common weed. A fleshy per- 
ennial herb, glabrous or nearly so, ascending; leaves ovate-oblong or 
lance-oblong, acute; flowers blue, subtended by a cuplike com- 
pressed spathe, with united margins. Some specimens of this species 
(Gaumer 876} have been distributed as Callisia repens, but this num- 
ber seems to have been a mixture. This is perhaps the plant which 
has been reported as C. communis, with the Maya name "cabalsit." 

Commelina longicaulis Jacq. C. nudiflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 
356. 1898, not L. 

Bachaxiu (Gaumer). Sp. Pajilla (Gaumer). Probably common, 
but only two collections are known, Schott 32 from Me"rida, and 
Gaumer 1231, without locality. A slender fleshy herb, glabrous or 
nearly so, ascending or prostrate; leaves petioled, ovate to oblong, 
acute or obtuse; flowers small, blue, the subtending spathe with free 
margins. 

Rhoeo discolor (L'He"r.) Hance. 

Chactsam, Chactsan, Yaxtsam, Yaxtsan, Yaxtsana, Yaxtsanah. 
Frequent, growing on walls of ruins and cenotes. A low stout erect 
perennial herb with short stem; leaves numerous, strap-shaped, 
15-40 cm. long, sessile; flowers white, in dense clusters subtended by 
a large foliaceous cup-shaped spathe. The plant is grown commonly 
for ornament in tropical America. The leaves are usually dark red 
or purplish beneath, but sometimes green. Dr. Gaumer reports that 
the red form of the plant yields a bright red decoction, which is used 
as a cosmetic. When applied to the face or other parts of the skin it 
imparts a red color, and also irritates the cuticle, thus increasing the 
effect. 

The name "chactsam" is derived from "chac," red, and "tsam," 
to soak in water. "Tsan" or "tsanah" signifies to bulge or ruin a 
wall, in allusion to the fact that the plant often grows upon walls. 

Spironema fragrans Lindl. 

Xcholac, Gaumer ^21; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23512; without 
locality, Gaumer 23968. On rocks about cenotes. A large perennial 
herb with fleshy oblong attenuate leaves, glabrous or nearly so; 
flowers small, white, in dense spicate-paniculate clusters. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Tradescantia cordifolia Swartz. Callisia umbellulata Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 31. 1900, not Lam. T. floridana Greenm. FMB. 2: 249. 
1907, not Wats. 

Frequent in moist soil. A small creeping fleshy perennial herb, 
nearly glabrous; leaves ovate to oblong, acute, sessile or nearly so; 
flowers small, white, in peduncled clusters. 

Zebrina pendula Schnizl. 

Sp. Cucarachita (Gaumer). Cultivated at Izamal and San An- 
selmo, Gaumer 1+12, 1756. A fleshy perennial herb, more or less 
pilose; leaves lance-oblong, acute or acuminate, dark purple beneath, 
the upper surface striped with green and silver. A native of the 
mountains of Central America and the West Indies, and probably 
also of southern Mexico, this is the Wandering Jew with striped 
leaves which is a common house plant in the United States. It is 
grown for ornament generally in tropical America. 

PONTEDERIACEAE. Pickerelweed Family 

Heteranthera limosa (Swartz) Willd. 

Hacolel. Izamal, Gaumer 840; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1992. 
A small glabrous aquatic plant with blue flowers; leaves long- 
petioled, oblong-ovate or broadly ovate. 

Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth, the water hyacinth, is listed 
in Gaumer's Sinonimia, with the name "jacinto de agua." It is 
probable that this and E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms, even if not native 
in Yucatan, are found there in cultivation. 

LILIAGEAE. Lily Family 

Allium Cepa L. 

Cucut (Gaumer). Sp. Cebolla. The onion is grown commonly, 
as it is throughout tropical America. 

Allium Porrum L. 

Sp. Puerro. The leek, reported in Gaumer's Sinonimia; it is 
little grown in tropical America. 

Allium sativum L. 

Cucut (Gaumer). Sp. Ajo. Garlic is cultivated abundantly in 
Mexico and Central America, and is all too generally employed in 
seasoning food. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 227 

Allium Schoenoprasum L. 

Sp. Cebollina. Chives, whose leaves are used for seasoning food, 
is listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia. The plant is seldom grown in 
tropical America. 

Aloe vera L. 

Hunpetskinci (Gaumer). Sp. Zabila. Cultivated, and perhaps 
naturalized; native of the Mediterranean region. Aloe. A large 
coarse stemless perennial ; leaves strap-shaped, tapering to the apex, 
fleshy, the margins armed with short prickles; flowers borne in a 
dense bracted raceme, on a long scape. Cuevas states that the 
crushed leaves are applied as poultices to reduce inflammation, and 
that the viscid sap is applied to boils to bring them to a head. The 
plant is employed also as a cathartic, and in the treatment of 
chlorosis, scrofula, indigestion, and anemia. Women wean children 
by rubbing on their breasts the bitter juice of the plant. 

Asparagus officinalis L. 

Sp. Esp&rrago. Reported as cultivated occasionally in Yucatan. 
Native of Europe and Asia. Asparagus is rarely seen in tropical 
gardens. 

Asparagus plumosus Baker. 

Reported in Gaumer's Sinonimia. A native of South Africa, 
grown commonly for ornament in tropical America. 

Asparagus Sprengeri Regel. 

Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia. An African plant, grown com- 
monly for ornament in tropical America. 

Beaucarnea pliabilis (Baker) Rose, CNH. 10: 89. 1906. Dasy- 
lirion pliabile Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 240. 1880; Millsp. 
FMB. 1:12. 1895. 

Tsipil (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Sisal, Schott; Kancab- 
tsonot, Gaumer 23520; without locality, Gaumer 24327. A large 
treelike plant sometimes 10 m. high; leaves linear, very long, smooth; 
flowers small, whitish, in large scarious-bracted panicles; trunk much 
thickened at base. 

This plant has been reported (Millsp. FMB. 1: 9. 1895) from 
Yucatan under the fantastic name of "Pandanus candelabrum 
Beauv." The error seems to have resulted from an earlier published 
record. 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Echeandia paniculata Rose. E. terniflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 292. 
1896, not Ort. 

Izamal, Gaumer 843; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1995. A bulbous 
plant with widely branched panicles of small yellow flowers; leaves 
lance-linear, glabrous. According to Weatherby, the determination 
of the Yucatan material is uncertain because of incompleteness of 
the specimens. 

Liliuni candidum L. 

Sp. Azucena. Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia. A European 
species, grown commonly in Mexico and South America. 

Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton. 

Without locality, Gaumer 1455. A small bulbous plant with 
umbels of white flowers; in general appearance much like an Allium, 
but without alliaceous odor. 

Yucca aloifolia L. var. yucatana (Engelm.) Trel. Rep. Mo. 
Bot. Gard. 13: 93. 1902. Y. yucatana Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. 
Louis 3: 37. 1873. 

Tuc. Endemic; type from Nohpat, Schott 706. A tree, the 
trunk sometimes 7 m. high; inflorescence tomentose; leaves linear, 
stiff; flowers large, white, campanulate. 

Yucca elephant ipes Re^el. 

Tuc. Pocoboch, Izamal; doubtless cultivated. A tree about 
6 m. high with few thick branches, and with large panicles of creamy 
white flowers; leaves linear, thick and stiff, sharp-pointed. Flowers 
in June. Probably native in Veracruz, but naturalized in many 
parts of Mexico and Central America. In some regions the flowers 
are used as a vegetable, usually prepared by dipping them in eggs 
and frying. 

The Kekchi name of Yucca guatemalensis Baker is reported as 
"kukilh," and some of the Guatemalan names listed for Y. elephan- 
tipes are "pasquiy" and "pasqui." 

Dracaena americana Donn. Smith, a handsome tree resembling 
a Yucca, but with very small flowers arranged in large panicles, 
probably grows in Quintana Roo, because it is known from adja- 
cent parts of British Honduras, where it is given the Spanish name 
of "cerbatana." In Guatemala it is called "cana de arco," and the 
Kekchi name is reported as "kukil." 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 229 

SMILACACEAE. Sarsaparilla Family 

Smilax mexicana Griseb. S. Gaumerii Millsp. FMB. 1: 357. 
1898. 

Xcoche (probably an error), Xcoceh (Gaumer), Xcocehak, 
Coceeh, Coceh. Sp. Zarza, Zarzaparrilla. Apparently common. A 
large glabrous woody vine, armed with stout prickles; leaves short- 
petioled, lance-oblong to broadly ovate, leathery, glabrous; flowers 
small, brown-purple, in axillary umbels; fruit a black berry. The 
type of S. Gaumerii was collected at Izamal, Gaumer 687. The plant 
is called "bejuco de chiquihuite" in Tabasco. 

The Middle-American species of Smilax, especially those yield- 
ing sarsaparilla, are imperfectly known. Probably neither of the 
species here listed is a source of sarsaparilla, but that drug is said to 
be exported from Yucatan and Quintana Roo. Perhaps the source 
is S. ornata Lem., which is plentiful in adjacent Guatemala. The 
names "amakil," "zazaccoceh," and "ixtamal-tzuc" are reported for 
Yucatan plants of this genus. 

Sarsaparilla is much used in medicine in the Peninsula. It has 
tonic, stimulant, and depurative properties, and is employed 
especially in the treatment of syphilitic affections, fevers, and 
rheumatism. 

Smilax mollis Willd. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24276, 24401 . A small unarmed vine, 
copiously pilose; leaves lance-oblong to oblong-ovate, cordate at the 
base; umbels long-stalked. Called "bejuco de chiquihuite" in 
Tabasco. 

DIOSCOREACEAE. Yam Family 
Dioscorea alata L. 

Macal, Maxcal, Maaxcal, Akilmacal. Sp. Name. Cultivated 
for its edible root, the white yam or water yam. Native, probably, 
of southern Asia. A large glabrous herbaceous vine; leaves ovate, 
long-acuminate, cordate at base; stems narrowly winged. The 
yams are important food plants in tropical America, filling, to a 
large extent, the place occupied in the North by potatoes. Most of 
those grown in tropical America are believed to have been intro- 
duced by the early slaves. The Maya name is said to signify "mon- 
key neck," given because of the form of the stem. Gann gives the 
name of the yam as "xaci macal," a term referring, perhaps, to some 
special variety. Prez reports a plant called "maxcaltzotz," which 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

"is of the same genus" as the common yam, "but poisonous." It 
may be one of the native species. In local Yucatan literature the 
yam has been listed as Caladium esculentum. One of the cultivated 
yams is said to be called "macal box." 

Dioscorea bulbifera L. D. sativa Millsp. FMB. 1: 357. 1898, 
not L. 

Bauiak. Sp. Volador. Cultivated occasionally; native of tropical 
Asia. A large glabrous herbaceous vine; stems not winged; leaves 
broadly cordate, abruptly acuminate; flowers in very long, slender, 
fascicled spikes. The roots are eaten, also the large bulblets borne 
in the axils of the leaves. 

Dioscorea convolvulacea Schlecht. & Cham. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1582; without locality, Gaumer 927. A 
slender vine; leaves ovate-cordate, puberulent, acute; flowers minute, 
green, in long slender interrupted spikes. 

Dioscorea densiflora Hemsl. 

Reported from Cozumel Island, Gaumer in 1886. Not seen by 
the writer, and the record doubtful. 

Dioscorea matagalpensis Uline. 

Without locality, Gaumer 1391, 21*331. A slender glabrous vine; 
leaves small, deltoid-cordate, acuminate; flowers minute, in small 
spicate clusters. 

Dioscorea pilosiuscula Bert. 

Izamal, Gaumer 2041. A slender vine, sparsely pilose; leaves 
triangular, subcordate, acute; flowers pubescent, in loose, spicate or 
racemose clusters. 

Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. 

Common; Izamal, Gaumer 928; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1579; 
Suitun, Gaumer 23432, 23433, 23434, 23435; Me"rida, Schott 929. A 
large coarse glabrous vine; leaves broadly cordate, acuminate; flow- 
ers minute, green, in long slender interrupted spikes; fruit an oval, 
deeply 3-lobed capsule 2 cm. long. The plant is said to have medi- 
cinal properties. 

Dioscorea spiculiflora Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 361. 
pi 92. 1884. D. floribunda Millsp. FMB. 1: 357. 1898, not Mart. & 
Gal. D. macrostachya Millsp. FMB. 1: 357 in part. 1898, not Benth. 

Akilmacalkuch (Gaumer). Type collected in Yucatan by Linden; 
without locality, Gaumer 794 in part, 898, 925, 926, 1578; Izamal, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 231 

Gaumer in 1904; Buena Vista, Gaumer in 1899. A large glabrous 
vine; leaves broadly cordate, acute; flowers in long lax panicled 
spikes. Called "corrimiento" in Tabasco. 

Dioscorea synandra (Uline) Standl., comb. nov. Higginboth- 
amia synandra Uline, FMB. 1: 415. pi. 22. 1899. 

Endemic; type from Yucatan, Gaumer 794 in part; without 
locality, Gaumer 928, 1580. A slender glabrous vine; leaves broadly 
cordate, acuminate; flowers in long racemes. 

Dioscorea yucatanensis Uline, FMB. 1: 416. 1899. 

Type from Izamal, Gaumer 927 in part; without locality, Gaumer 
1120 in part; endemic. A slender glabrous vine; leaves small, 
ovate-cordate, acute; flowers minute, green, glabrous, in short spikes. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family 

Agave americana L. is listed by Gaumer as cultivated for orna- 
ment, with the name "maguey." The determination is doubtful. 

Agave angustifolia Haw. 

Babci (Gaumer). Reported from Yucatan and Campeche; origi- 
nally described from plants grown in Europe. Plants subacaules- 
cent; leaves gray-green, 40-65 cm. long, 8 cm. wide, with a stout 
red-brown terminal spine 2.5-4 cm. long, the margins with slender 
teeth 3-5 mm. long and 2-2.5 cm. apart. 

Agave decipiens Baker, Kew Bull. 1892: 183. 1892. A. laxifolia 
Baker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 122: pi. 7477. 1896. 

This species was described from plants cultivated in Europe, and 
grown in southern Florida, to which they are believed to have been 
imported from Yucatan. Gaumer 23164, from Izamal, has been 
referred here. Plants with a trunk 2-3 m. tall; leaves green, rather 
fleshy and concave, 70-125 cm. long, 4-10 cm. wide, the dark chest- 
nut terminal spine 1-2.5 cm. long, the marginal teeth slender, flexu- 
ous, 2 mm. long, 1-2.5 cm. apart. 

Agave fourcroydes Lem. 111. Hort. 11: Misc. 65. 1864. A. 
rigida var. elongata Baker, Kew Bull. 1892: 33. 1892. 

Sacci. Sp. Henequen, Henequen bianco. Planted upon a large 
scale; the species was described from plants cultivated in Europe. 
Trunk 1.5 m. high or less; leaves bluish gray, 1.3-2.5 m. long, 8-10 
cm. wide, rather flat, with a black-brown terminal spine 2-3 cm. 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

long, the marginal teeth blackish, upcurved, 1-4 mm. long, 1-2 cm. 
apart. 

This is the Agave most extensively planted in Yucatan as the 
source of henequen fiber, the most important export of the country. 
The fiber is employed for the manufacture of binder twine, and is 
the principal fiber used for that purpose. In 1923 about 280,000,000 
pounds of henequen were exported from Yucatan. There are very 
large plantations of this and related species in the eastern part of 
the Peninsula. The most recent and accurate information concern- 
ing the industry is contained in Bulletin 1278 of the United States 
Department of Agriculture (1924), "Production of Henequen Fiber 
in Yucatan and Campeche," by H. T. Edwards. 

The taxonomy of the Yucatan Agaves is still in a confused con- 
dition because the plants have not been studied carefully by any 
botanist. There is said to be much confusion locally, also, as to the 
vernacular names applied to the plants, probably because the forms 
are so much alike. It is stated by Edwards that eight varieties are 
recognized locally, but some writers indicate an even larger number. 

Agave ixtli Karw. in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 8: 304. 1834. A. 
silvestris D'Utra, Bol. Agr. S. Paulo 1909: 169. 1909. A. minima 
D'Utra, Bol. Agr. S. Paulo 1909: 169. 1909. A. prolifera Schott in 
sched. 

Babci, Chelem, Chelemci, Chucum, Chucumci, Citamci (reported 
also as "cintanci"), Pitaci (Sp. and Maya), Xixci, Xtucci. Culti- 
vated extensively, the type grown in Europe from Yucatan. Plants 
acaulescent or with a short trunk; leaves grayish but greener than 
in A. fourcroydes, often marked with small brownish spots, some- 
what concave, short, the spine and prickles much as in A. fourcroydes. 

The name A. ixtli, in its narrowest sense, applies to the "xixci," 
which is said to be a form with small leaves and inferior fiber. A. 
silvestris is the "babci" and "chelemci," which is said to be a wild 
form with small leaves. A. minima is the "chucumci" (reported 
also as "chucunci") and "citamci," which is planted commonly. 

These plants were doubtless important to the early Mayas as a 
source of cordage. Hammocks were, and still are, made from the 
fiber, which served also for bowstrings. "Ci" is the generic name 
for the Agave plant. The extracted fiber is called "zozci" or "zozcil" 
("zuccil," the ancient form, according to the Motul Dictionary). 
"Bob" is the name given to the flower stalk. "Kan" is cord made 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 233 

from henequen fiber, and this word is also the name of one of the 
twenty days of the Maya calendar. 

The Maya manuscripts are said to be written on paper made from 
Agave leaves, which was rubbed with finely powdered lime to give 
it a smooth surface. Books were written also upon deerskin. 

Agave sisalana Perrine, U. S. Sen. 25th Congr. Sess. 2. Doc. 300. 
pi. 1, 2, 4- 1838. A. rigida var. sisalana Baker, Kew Bull. 1889: 254. 
1889. A. sisalana f. armata Trel. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 11: 49. 1913. 
A. siciliana Donde", Apuntes 124. 1907. 

Yaxci. Sp. Henequen verde. Cultivated on a small scale; origi- 
nally described from plants grown in Florida. Plants acaulescent; 
leaves bright glossy green, nearly flat, 150 cm. long, 10 cm. 
wide, with a chestnut terminal spine 2-2.5 cm. long, the margin 
unarmed or with a few rudimentary teeth, rarely very prickly (f. 
armata} .In Yucatan the fiber of this species is said to be used only 
for making hammocks. The plant, however, is grown in other 
regions, such as Java, East Africa, and the Bahamas, for its fiber, 
sisal or sisal hemp. The name sisal is given because of the fact that 
the fiber was first exported from Yucatan through the old port of 
Sisal. 

Furcraea cahum Trel. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II. Suppl. 3: 
908. pi. 39. 1910. 

Cahum, Cahumci. Endemic; type from Sisal, Schott 809. Plants 
subacaulescent; leaves narrow, green, flat, 5-6 cm. wide, the margins 
with short blackish teeth, the apex sharp-pointed; inflorescence a 
tall panicle, producing bulblets. This plant probably is not grown 
for fiber, although fiber may have been extracted from the young 
leaves in earlier times. It is reported that one or more forms of 
Agave are called "cahumci" or "cahunci." 

The Quiche" name of Furcraea quichensis Trel. is "chich." 

Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Urban. Amaryllis equestris 
Ait. 

Sp. Adonis, Azucena roja. Cultivated for ornament. Native of 
tropical America, but probably not known in a wild state in Mexico 
or Central America. Amaryllis. A handsome bulbous plant with 
large red flowers. 

Hymenocallis americana (Jacq.) Salisb. H. lacera Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 292. 1896, not Salisb. 

Sp. Lirio. Collected at Chiceh and Izamal. Spider lily. A 
bulbous plant of wet soil, with long broad strap-shaped leaves and 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

with umbels of handsome long-tubed white sweet-scented flowers. 
Frequently cultivated in gardens of Mexico and Central America. 
The plant often grows along seashores, or in brackish marshes near 
the beach. Maler reports from Chiapas and Guatemala the name 
"anaite" for a plant which is probably of this species. 

Polianthes tuberosa L. 

Sp. Nardo, Azucena. Cultivated for ornament. Tuberose. A 
native of the mountains of Mexico, grown commonly in American 
gardens for its white, exceedingly fragrant flowers. 

Zephyranthes citrina Baker. Z. Lindleyana Millsp. FMB. 1: 
357. 1898, not Herb. 

Cucutchom. Sp. Mayito. Chichankanab, Gaumer 1363; Izamal, 
Gaumer 836; Pocoboch, Gaumer 2361 . A small bulbous plant with 
bright yellow flowers 3-4 cm. long. Z. citrina was based on a culti- 
vated plant reported to have come from Demerara, but the locality 
may well have been an erroneous one, as is so frequently the case 
with cultivated plants. The Yucatan plants agree with the original 
plate and description (Curtis's Bot. Mag. 108: pi. 6605. 1882), ex- 
cept for their slightly shorter perianth. The form of the stigma is 
certainly the same, and very few species of Zephyranthes have a 
short subcapitate stigma of this type. It may be, of course, that 
the Yucatan plant represents an undescribed species, but I should 
hesitate to describe it without comparison with authentic material 
of Z. citrina. 

Zephyranthes Lindleyana Herb. 

Sp. Mayito. Chichankanab, Gaumer 1484- Leaves long, linear, 
somewhat fleshy; flowers deep rose, 3-3.5 cm. long. Here probably 
belongs a plant from Buena Vista Xbac, which has been determined 
as Z. rosea Lindl., a Cuban species. Z. Lindleyana is a favorite 
garden plant of Central America. 

IRIDACEAE. Iris Family 

Cipura paludosa Aubl. 

Izamal, Gaumer 734, Gaumer in 1904; without locality, Gaumer 
24092. A small bulbous herb with grass-like leaves and delicate 
white flowers. 

Tigridia violacea Schiede. 

Reported from Yucatan, Linden 227. The report is based upon 
Hemsley's record of the species. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 235 

Nemastylis Becquaertii Standl. Journ. Arb. 11: 47. 1930. 

Type from Chichen Itza, Becquaert 109; also in British Honduras. 
A slender herb about 30 cm. high from a bulblike corm; scapes 
branched, bearing several spathes, these about 6-flowered, the bracts 
2-3 cm. long, leaves linear, the basal ones 13 mm. wide, 5-nerved; 
flowers blue, the perianth nearly 1 cm. long. 

MUSACEAE. Banana Family 

Musa paradisiaca L 

Haaz. Sp. Platano. Commonly cultivated. Plantain. A native 
of Asia, now grown throughout the tropics. The plantain is 
one of the most important food plants of tropical America, taking 
the place, to a large extent, that is filled by the potato in the North. 
It is unfortunate that the fruit is so little known in the United 
States, for a plantain properly cooked is one of the best of foods, and 
the fruit could be imported even more easily than bananas. 

Musa sapientum L. 

Haaz, Sachaaz, Boxhaaz. Sp. Guinea. Grown commonly for its 
fruit. Banana. The banana was doubtless introduced into the 
Peninsula soon after the arrival of the Spaniards, having been 
brought first to the West Indies from the Canaries. Several varieties 
besides the common banana (guineo) are grown in Yucatan. Gaumer 
mentions the "platano rojo" or red plantain, and the "chachaaz" or 
"platano morado." Cuevas states that the young leaves of the 
"boxhaaz" are crushed and applied as a poultice to relieve pain in 
the chest. The Pokonchi name of the banana is given as "ts'ahlec" 
and "tulul." 

Heliconia latispatha Benth. is called "suk" in the Kekchi dialect. 
For a species of the genus Maler reports the name "chancala" from 
the Mayas of Chiapas. He states that the black spherical seeds are 
used for necklaces. Therefore the plant is probably rather a Canna 
than a Heliconia. 

CANNACEAE. Canna Family 

Canna edulis Ker. C. speciosa Cuevas, PI. Med. 32, Ilustr. pi. 7, 
f. 1. 1913, not Rose. 

Chankala. Sp. Platanillo, Lengua de dragdn. Izamal, Gaumer 
963; Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 1636; San Anselmo, Gaumer 2102. 
Frequent in wet soil. A coarse glabrous herb 1 m. high or larger, 
with thick rootstocks and large broad leaves; fruit a tuberculate 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

capsule containing several large rounded hard black smooth seeds. 
The determinations of both the species here listed are somewhat 
uncertain. Both plants have showy, red or yellow flowers. No 
doubt some of the large-flowered cannas of hybrid origin are grown 
for ornament in the Peninsula. 

Cuevas states that the crushed leaves and roots are applied as 
poultices to relieve nervous pains and the pain caused by spider 
bites. In some regions of the tropics canna roots are cooked and 
eaten. 

Canna indica L. 

Reported (Millsp. FMB. 1: 13. 1895) as collected on Cozumel 
Island by Gaumer. 

ZINGIBERACEAE. Ginger Family 

Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw. 

Pahtsab. Sp. Tirabuzdn. Izamal, Gaumer 23315, growing about 
aguadas; without locality, Gaumer 23194- A tall herb with densely 
leafy stems, the leaves broad, glabrous; flowers collected in a dense 
headlike terminal spike, the broad bracts closely overlapping. 
The Kekchi names for plants of this genus are given as "ku" and 
"pakuite." 

Curcuma longa L. 

Sp. Curcuma. Listed by Gaumer as in cultivation. Turmeric. 
A native of the East Indies. Often grown in tropical America for 
its rootstocks, which yield a yellow dye. 

Renealmia aromatica (Aubl.) Griseb. R. occidentalis Sweet. 

Nabay (Pete'n). No specimens seen from Yucatan, but the 
species has been collected in Pete'n, Guatemala, and doubtless occurs 
farther northward. A tall coarse herb, 2-2.5 m. high, with thick 
roots and broad leaves; panicles arising from the base of the plant, 
20-30 cm. long, the corollas yellow; fruit a red globose capsule 
7 mm. in diameter. 

Zingiber officinale Rose. 

Sp. Jengibre. Cultivated in Yucatan. Ginger. A native of the 
Old World, grown in tropical America for its aromatic rootstocks, 
which are used as a condiment and in medicine. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 237 

MARANTACEAE. Arrowroot Family 

Maranta arundinacea L. 

Chaac. Sp. Sagu, Sagu del monte. Apparently common; some- 
times cultivated. Arrowroot. A large slender glabrous branched 
herb with tuberous rootstocks and large white flowers; leaves long- 
petioled, or the upper nearly sessile, ovate, acuminate. Sometimes 
cultivated for the starch obtained from the roots. Maranta starch 
was exported formerly from Cozumel Island, and probably from 
other localities. Gann reports that the roots, eaten raw, are regarded 
by the Indians of the eastern part of the Peninsula as a good remedy 
in all bladder and urethral complaints. 

Thalia geniculata L. 

No specimens seen from the area of this flora, but the plant 
occurs in Pete*n, Guatemala, and in Tabasco, and doubtless is found 
within Campeche or Yucatan. It is a tall herb of marshes, with pur- 
ple flowers. Known in Tabasco as "quento." 

ORCHIDAGEAE. Orchid Family 

The determinations of the orchids in the following list have been 
verified by Professor Oakes Ames. The number of species known 
from the Peninsula is surprisingly small, probably because the plants 
have not been collected exhaustively. The climate of northern 
Yucatan is presumably too dry for most orchids, but in the south 
there must be many more species. 

Brassavola cucullata (L.) R. Br. 

Tsilam and Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 798; Sitilcum, Gaumer 
23372, G. J. Gaumer 1. Epiphytic, growing in large masses on trees; 
leaves narrowly linear; flowers large and showy, the sepals and petals 
linear-attenuate . 

Brassavola Digbyana Lindl. Laelia Digbyana Benth. 

Tsilam, Gaumer 667; Izamal, Gaumer 23147; Libre Union, Gaumer 
23357; Chichankanab, Gaumer 23752 (?; sterile); without locality, 
Gaumer 24078. Epiphytic; leaves oblong, obtuse, thick; flowers 
large, the petals and sepals oblong, the lip with a dense long fringe. 
The plant is reported to have medicinal properties. 

Catasetum maculatum Kunth. 

Chitcuuc. Izamal, Gaumer 847, 23178, 23815. Epiphytic on 
trees, blooming from August to October; leaves large, oblanceolate, 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

thin, conspicuously nerved; flowers large and showy, in a few-flow- 
ered long-stalked raceme. The viscous sap of the pseudobulbs is 
used like glue for mending the wood of violins. 

Cyrtopodium punctatum Lindl. 

Chitcuuc. Nohcacab, Schott 806; Kabah, Schott 705; Chichan- 
kanab, Gaumer 1357; Labna, Stone 281. Epiphytic; leaves lance- 
linear, long-acuminate, thin, 3-nerved. This is apparently the 
orchid which has been reported by local botanists as "Cypripedium 
Calceolus L.," although the reports may relate rather to Catasetum. 

Epidendrum alatum Batem. 

Tsilam, Gaumer 988; Izamal, cultivated, Greenman 451 ; without 
locality, Gaumer 23812; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23916 (a small form). 
Epiphytic in dry forests; pseudobulbs narrow, the leaves linear, 
thick; flowers numerous, in an open panicle. 

Epidendrum imatophyllum Lindl. 

Without locality, Ames 106. Plants without pseudobulbs; 
peduncle elongate, the flowers rose-purple or rose-pink. 

Epidendrum Stamfordianum Batem. 

Izamal, Gaumer 23175, 23196; Gaumer in 1888; Kancabtsonot, 
Gaumer 23511. Forming large masses on trees; leaves oblong or 
elliptic, obtuse, thick; flowers in large panicles. 

Epidendrum xipheres Reichenb. f. E. yucatanense Schlechter 
ex Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 12. 1905, nomen nudum. 

Izamal, Gaumer 588, Greenman 445; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1860; 
Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 1640; Xcholac, Stone 249; Piste", Seler 
3989. Epiphytic in dry forest; plants small, in dense masses, the 
pseudobulbs ovoid; leaves linear; flowers in few-flowered narrow 
panicles. 

Harrisella porrecta (Reichenb. f.) Fawc. & Rendle. 

Tsilam, Gaumer 660; Suitun, Gaumer 23359. A small plant, 5-10 
cm. high, epiphytic on tall shrubs; leaves deciduous; flowers in short 
panicles. 

lonopsis utricularioides Lindl. 

Labcah, Schott 529; Tsilam, Gaumer 672; Suitun, Gaumer 23305. 
Flowering in May. A beautiful small epiphyte with bright lilac 
flowers; leaves broadly linear. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 239 

Schott 798 from Nohpat, without flowers, is perhaps Laelia 
rubescens Lindl. 

Two collections by Gaumer, No. 660 bis from Tsilam, and No. 
23358 from Suitun, perhaps represent the genus Leochilus. Both 
specimens lack flowers. 

Notylia multiflora Lindl. 

Yaxcabi, Gaumer 1095. An epiphyte with small pseudobulbs; 
leaves oblong; flowers small, in a long many-flowered raceme, the 
pedicels recurved. 

Oncidium adscendens Lindl. 0. cebolleta Sw. 

Putsche, Ahoche (Gaumer). Izamal, Gaumer 401, 4-29; Piste", 
Millspaugh 1617; Xcholac, Stone 250; Piste", Seler 3990; Chichan- 
kanab, Gaumer 23688; Izamal, Gaumer in 1888; between Dzita and 
Chichen Itza, Ames 104- Epiphytic; leaves subterete, slender, 
fleshy; flowers panicled, brown and yellow. 

Oncidium carthaginense (Jacq.) Sw. 

Izamal, Gaumer 401; Nohpat, Schott; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
1536; Libre Union, Gaumer 23202; Hotos, Gaumer 23813, 23814. A 
common epiphyte with small showy yellow flowers in large broad 
panicles, blooming from October to May; leaves large, oblong. 

Oncidium pusillum (L.) Reichenb. f. 

Izamal, Gaumer in 1895. Epiphytic on shrubs; plants small, the 
leaves linear, equitant; scapes 1-few-flowered. 

Oncidium sphacelatum Lindl. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23664- Growing in dense clumps on the 
trunks of large trees; flowering in April; leaves long, linear; flowers 
in large broad panicles. 

Schomburgkia tibicinis Batem. 

Tsilam and Xcholac, Gaumer 431; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1768; 
Progreso, Schott 270; Tsilam, Gaumer 23256; Telchac, Gaumer 23333. 
An epiphyte with large, bright purple flowers, the racemes often 
2 m. long; leaves oblong, thick, obtuse. 

Spiranthes acaulis (Smith) Cogn. S. orchioides Millsp. FMB. 2: 
32. 1900, not L. Rich. 

Piste", Millspaugh 1616. Terrestrial in deep forest, the scape 
tall, glabrous, bracted, the large flowers in a long raceme; leaves 
absent at time of flowering. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Spiranthes polyantha Reichenb. f. 

Cutziz (Gaumer) . Xcholac, Gaumer 442; Sayil, Ames 102. Plants 
30-60 cm. high, growing in crevices of rocks; flowers small, dull red; 
leaves present at flowering time. 

Stenorrhynchus orchioides (Sw.) L. Rich. Spiranthes orchi- 
oides A. Rich. 

Sp. Terciopelo ("velvet"). MeYida, Schott 396; Izamal, Gaumer 
874; Suitun, Gaumer 23298; without locality, Gaumer 24082; Piste", 
Millspaugh 1616. A terrestrial plant, 60-90 cm. high, with a cluster 
of fleshy roots; flowers red, showy, in a dense long-stalked raceme; 
leaves basal, absent at time of flowering. 

Triphora yucatanensis Ames, Orchid. 7: 39. pi. 109. 1922. 

Known only from the type, collected near Izamal, Gaumer 1008 
Terrestrial, 10 cm. high; leaves ovate to lanceolate, 10-17 mm. long; 
flowers white, tinged with purple. 

Vanilla fragrans (Salisb.) Ames. V. planifolia Andr. 

Zizbic, Zizbickax. Sp. Vainilla, Canela de cuya. Common in for- 
ests and scrublands. Vanilla. A large vine, forming dense masses 
over low shrubs, or climbing to the tops of the highest trees. The 
dried seedpods are the "vanilla beans" of commerce. The pods are 
used in Yucatan for flavoring chocolate, and in local medicine for 
their supposed excitant and aphrodisiac properties. Vanilla was 
formerly an article of commerce in the region, but it is now of little 
importance. Most of the world's supply of this native American 
plant is derived from plantations in the tropics oi the Old World. 

Gann states that the "leaves of a species of vanilla called chichle 
are used to flavor tobacco, giving it a distinctive flavor and fra- 
grance." The plant so utilized is probably not a Vanilla. In the 
Kekchi dialect vanilla is called "chesivik." 

CASUARINACEAE. Beefwood Family 

Casuarina equisetifolia L. 

Sp. Pino, Cipres. A native of tropical Asia and Africa; a com- 
mon shade tree of the Peninsula. Beefwood. In general appear- 
ance the tree resembles a conifer; its branches are whorled, and their 
leaves reduced to small scales. It grows rapidly. The wood is used 
locally for cart axles, and for various other purposes. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 241 

PIPERACEAE. Pepper Family 

Peperomia crassiuscula Millsp. FMB. 2: 33. 1900. 

Endemic; known only from the type, collected at Chichen Itza, 
Millspaugh 1628. An epiphytic herb, glabrous, fleshy; leaves verti- 
cillate, petiolate, elliptic, obtuse, entire; flowers minute, green, in 
dense long stout terminal spikes. 

Peperomia glutinosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 293. pi. 12. 1896. 

Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer J$5; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
23697; San Anselmo, Gaumer 1769. An epiphytic herb with fleshy, 
simple or branched stems; leaves opposite or the upper verticillate, 
petioled, broadly elliptic, acute or obtuse, fleshy; flowers in very 
long and slender spikes. A Peperomia very similar in general 
appearance has been collected in Pete"n, Guatemala, with the Maya 
name "mahauchuuncaac." 

The plant listed by Cuevas (PI. Med. 62, Ilustr. pi. 11, f. 2. 
1913) as "mahanchunkak" belongs to some other family, if the 
illustration is correct. 

Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK. 

Apparently a common weed. A small fleshy terrestrial annual, 
glabrous, branched; leaves slender-petioled, broadly ovate, obtuse or 
acutish; flowers in short slender spikes. 

Piper auritum HBK. 

Xmakulam. Maculan (Motul Diet.). Sp. Momo (Gaumer). 
Common in moist places. Plants suffrutescent or herbaceous, 1-2 
m. high, very fragrant when crushed, with an odor resembling that 
of sarsaparilla; leaves large and deeply cordate; flowers in long, 
stalked, very dense spikes. The fruit has an agreeable flavor, and 
the leaves are used for flavoring various dishes. Gaumer states that 
the plant has diaphoretic, diuretic, and stimulant properties, and 
that it has been utilized in the treatment of fevers, erysipelas, gout, 
and angina. Cuevas reports (PI. Med. 62, Ilustr. pi. 9. f. 2} that the 
leaves are applied as poultices to relieve pain. According to the 
Motul Dictionary, the leaves were heated and applied to wounds. 
The Kekchi name is "xaklipur." 

Piper cordoncillo Trel. var. apazoteanum Trel. Journ. 
Washington Acad. Sci. 19: 331. 1929. 

Type from Apazote, Campeche, Goldman 475 in 1900. The type 
of the species is from Tabasco, where the plant is called "cordon- 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

cillo." This is the name usually applied to species of Piper in most 
parts of Central America and Mexico. 

Piper Gaumeri Trel. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 19: 332. 
1929. P. medium Millsp. FMB. 1: 293. 1896, not Jacq. 

Yaxtehc-che, Yaxtec-che, Yaaxpehelche (Gaumer). Endemic; type 
from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 783; Chichankanab, Gaumer 23678; 
without locality, Gaumer 23973, 24383. A shrub 2.5 m. high; leaves 
short-petioled, broadly elliptic-ovate, abruptly acuminate, glabrous 
or nearly so. A plant similar in general appearance has been col- 
lected in Pete*n, Guatemala, with the Maya name "kuksub." 

Piper yucatanense C. DC. Linnaea 37: 334. 1873. 

Endemic; type collected in Yucatan by Linden (No. 184)', Tizi- 
min, Schott 775; Izamal, Gaumer in 1888. A slender shrub; leaves 
slender-petioled, broadly ovate, acuminate, subcordate at the base, 
glabrous or nearly so; spikes short, stalked. 

In southern Yucatan there must be numerous species of Piper 
besides those listed here. 

MYRICACEAE. Bayberry Family 

Myrica cerifera L. M. mexicana Standl. CNH. 23: 164. 1920, 
in part, not Willd. 

Tea bark, Tea box (B. H.). Puerto Morelos, in mangrove swamps, 
Goldman 623. A shrub or small tree, the small narrow leaves dotted 
beneath with waxy glands. In some parts of its wide range wax is 
obtained from the small hard spherical nutlike fruits by boiling 
them in water. The wax is used frequently for making candles, 
which have a characteristic greenish color, and burn with a peculiar 
agreeable fragrance. 



The Pokonchi name for a species of Salix or willow is reported 
as "c'os." The names "pitan" and "zinuh" are reported for species 
of oaks or Quercus in the same dialect. No oaks have been reported 
from Quintana Roo or Yucatan, but they grow in near-by British 
Honduras. 

ULMACEAE. Elm Family 

Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. Mertensia laevigata HBK. 
Zitsmuc, Muc. Common in scrublands. A spiny shrub or small 
tree, often subscandent, flowering in March, the small yellow fleshy 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 243 

fruit ripening in May and June; leaves alternate, oblong to elliptic 
or oval, short-petioled, 3-nerved, serrate or nearly entire, glabrate; 
flowers small, greenish yellow. The fruits are eaten by children and 
birds. 

Trema micrantha (L.) Blume. 

Apparently common, although not reported previously from the 
region; Gaumer 1112, 1414, 23530, 24009, 24068, 24386. A small 
tree with rough pubescence; leaves short-petioled, oblong-ovate, 
acuminate, obliquely cordate at base, finely crenate, pale beneath; 
flowers small, green, in dense axillary clusters; fruits very small, 
fleshy, clustered, red. The bark contains a strong tough fiber. The 
wood is light, soft, and close-grained. The Kekchi name is reported 
as "Mb." 

MORACEAE. Mulberry Family 

Artocarpus communis Forst. A. incisa L. f. 

Sp. Arbol de pan. A native of the Pacific islands, cultivated as a 
shade tree in the Peninsula. Breadfruit. This tree makes one of 
the handsomest shade trees because of its dense foliage and sym- 
metrical crown. The large leaves are usually pinnate-lobed. The fruit 
is globose or oval, rough, green, and about 30 cm. long. The 
young fruits are often cooked and eaten, especially by the negro 
inhabitants of Central America, with whom it is a favorite vegetable. 

Brosimum Alicastrum Sw. Alicastrum Brownei Kuntze. 

Ox. Sp. Ramdn (Yuc., B. H.), Capomo, Masico (B. H.). Breadnut, 
Wild Cherry (B. H.). One of the most common trees of the Penin- 
sula. Breadnut. A large or medium-sized tree with milky sap, 
sometimes 18 m. high, with a trunk 1 m. in diameter; leaves small, 
elliptic or oval, acute or acuminate, entire, glabrous; fruit sub- 
globose, yellow or orange, containing a single large seed about 12 
mm. in diameter. This is one of the most important trees of Yucatan 
because of its great value as a forage plant. The leaves and young 
branches are cut and fed to horses and mules, often, especially 
during the dry season, being the chief or only food given them. The 
wood is useful for many purposes, especially for the curved parts of 
farming machinery. The pulp of the fruit is edible, and the seeds, 
when boiled, are nutritious, somewhat resembling potatoes in flavor. 
They are eaten alone or with plantains, maize, or honey; when 
roasted, also, they are good to eat. When dried they are ground 
into a meal, from which a kind of bread is made, and they are also 






244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

boiled and made into a sweetmeat. The milky latex, which flows 
freely from a cut in the trunk, resembles cream, and when diluted 
with water is reported to afford a satisfactory substitute for milk. 
Diviners' rattles or sonajas were made by placing ramon seeds in a 
hollow calabash. 

The tree is much used locally in domestic medicine. The milk 
in water is administered as a remedy for asthma and bronchitis. 
The seeds are eaten by nursing women to promote the secretion of 
milk. 

Castilla elastica Cerv. C. gummifera Pittier. 

Yaxha, Kiikche; reported as "kiche." Sp. Rule, Vie, Caucho. 
Frequent in the southern part of the Peninsula, and often planted 
elsewhere. Mexican rubber tree. A large tree, often 15 m. high, 
with deciduous branchlets and large drooping leaves; leaf blades 
oblong, abruptly short-acuminate, cordate at the base, entire, 
densely velvety-pubescent; flowers borne on flat many-flowered 
receptacles, these red at maturity. From incisions in the bark 
there flows a white latex which, on coagulation, yields a good quality 
of rubber. The tree grows rapidly from seed, and is said to be ready 
for tapping at the age of 8-10 years. The rubber was well known to 
the ancient inhabitants of Mexico, who made from it balls which 
they used in certain games. Courts in which these popular games 
were played are found in some of the ruined Maya cities. The 
Mayas probably employed the rubber also for waterproofing gar- 
ments. The best raincoats now procurable for use in tropical rains 
are those made in Central America and Mexico by coating heavy 
cotton cloth with this crude rubber. Gaumer states that the pulp 
surrounding the seeds of Castilla is edible. 

The name "y axna " is perhaps derived from yax, green, and hal, 
skirt, in allusion to the drooping leaves; "kiikche" from kiik, blood, 
and che, tree. The Pokonchi name of the rubber tree is reported as 
"cheel k'i'c." 

Gecropia obtusa Tre"cul. C. peltata Flores, Agricultor 10 7 : 8. 
1923, not L. 

Koochle (Cuevas). Common. A tree 6-18 m. high, with whitish 
bark, hollow stems, and few branches; leaves peltate, deeply lobed, 
densely white-tomentose beneath; flowers in dense thick terete 
spikes, these clustered at the end of a long peduncle. The Cecropias 
are among the most conspicuous and characteristic trees of the 
Central American lowlands, in appearance quite unlike any other 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 245 

plants of the region. The hollow branches nearly always are in- 
habited by savage ants. In Tabasco this tree is called "guarumo," 
a name of Carib origin used throughout Central America. Cuevas 
states that the tree has sudorific, tonic, and emmenagogue proper- 
ties, and is employed as a remedy for fevers, and to ease parturition. 
The name "xobin" is reported for one of the Guatemalan species of 
Cecropia. 

Chlorophora tinctoria (L.) Gaud. Morus celtidifolia Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 293. 1896, 1: 359. 1898, not HBK. 

Sp. Mora, Palo Moral. Common. Fustic. A tree 15 m. high or 
less, often armed with long spines; leaves elliptic-ovate, acuminate, 
glabrate, often deeply lobed; pistillate flowers in globose heads, the 
staminate in slender catkins. Flowering in May; fruit ripe in June 
or July. Called "moral liso" in Tabasco. Sometimes planted as a 
shade tree because it remains green during the dry season. The 
strong tough wood is used for hubs of cart wheels and for many 
other articles. It is the fustic wood of commerce, which gives yellow, 
brown, and green dyes, and is employed particularly for making 
khaki dye. The fruit is said to be edible. 

Dorstenia Contra jerva L. D. Houstoni L.; "D. Contrajerva var. 
Houstoniana" Millsp. FMB. 1: 293. 1896. 

Xcambalhan, Cabalhau. Sp. Contrayerba. Common in forests. 
An acaulescent perennial herb with long-petioled, angled or deeply 
lobed leaves; flowers borne on a flat green quadrangular receptacle. 
The rootstocks are much used in domestic medicine, and the plant 
is considered an antidote for all poisons. It is employed as a stimu- 
lant tonic and diaphoretic in fevers, dysentery, diarrhea, and indi- 
gestion. In Central America the rootstocks are sometimes employed 
for flavoring tobacco. 

The typical form of the species has deeply lobed leaves. In var. 
Houstoni the leaves are merely angulate, but this form is scarcely 
worthy of nomenclatorial recognition. 

Ficus Carica L. 

Sp. Higo, Higuero. Sometimes grown for its fruit. Native of the 
Old World. Fig. 

Ficus cotinif olia HBK. F. longipes Miq. ; F. rubiginosa Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 14. 1895, not Desf.;F. subrotundifolia Greenm. 

Copo. Sp. Alamo. Common. One of the largest trees of the 
region; reported to flower in May and to ripen its fruit in June. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

The leaves are said to furnish excellent fodder for horses and mules. 
The milky sap contains rubber, and is reported to be employed for 
adulterating chicle, and it is also combined with chicle sap to form 
a very adhesive bird-lime. It is stated that the sweetish fruits are 
eaten raw, dried like the cultivated fig, or preserved with sugar. 
The leaves of this fig, according to Landa, were scattered in the 
courts of the temples during certain ceremonies. 

Maler reports "chimon" as a Maya name for one of the Ficus 
species of Chiapas. 

The wild figs of the genus Ficus are among the most common 
tropical American trees, and in general the least useful. They are 
often epiphytic, at least in early stages of growth, germinating upon 
the trunk of some tree, especially of palms, and sending down long 
roots or branches which finally envelop, strangle, and kill the host 
plant. The sap is milky and contains rubber. The wood is soft, 
weak, and useless. From the bark some of the ancient Mexicans, 
probably also the Mayas, prepared a kind of paper for writing pur- 
poses. The fruits are usually small and insipid, and of little use for 
human food, although they are sought eagerly by parrots and other 
birds. The strangling figs are perhaps the principal plants respon- 
sible for the destruction of the old Maya buildings. 

Ficus involuta (Liebm.) Miq. F. Bonplandiana Miq. 

Progreso, cultivated as a shade tree; Izamal and Cozumel Is- 
land. A large tree with leathery cuneate-oblovate leaves, rounded 
at the apex. 

The report by Millspaugh (FMB. 1: 388. 1898) of F. Bonplan- 
diana, based on Schott 352 from Celestun, relates to a different species. 
The specimen is incomplete, and its identification uncertain. The 
tree is said to be known as "alamo" and "golondrino." The former 
name, applied in Yucatan to the wild figs, is given in Spain to species 
of Populus. 

Ficus laevigata Vahl. F. lentiginosa Vahl; F. tecolutensis Standl. 
CNH. 20: 12. 1917, in part, not Miq. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23850, 23867; without locality, Gaumer 
24059; Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer in 1899. A large tree of dry 
forests. 

Ficus lapathifolia (Liebm.) Miq. F. Bonplandiana Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 388. 1898, not Miq. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 247 

Sp. Alamo, Golondrino. Celestun, Schott 352. A large tree; 
leaves oblong to oval, abruptly acute, pubescent beneath; receptacles 
stalked, globose. 

Ficus mexicana Miq. 

Saccabah. Aguada Colotyax, Schott 783. A large tree with rough 
leaves; bark smooth and pale. 

Ficus nitida Thunb. F. laurifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 14. 1895, 
not Lam. F. populnea Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 13. 1905, 
not Willd. F. indica Donde*, Apuntes 93. 1907, not L. 

Sp. Laurel, Laurel de la India, Alamo extranjero. Planted com- 
monly as a shade tree; native of Asia. One of the handsomest of 
the fig trees, when well grown of great size; often assuming the 
banyan form, with many aerial roots, some of which enter the 
ground and form new trunks remote from the central one. Donde" 
states that this species was imported into Yucatan about 1860 from 
Cuba. The leaves are sometimes eaten by cattle. 

Ficus padifolia HBK. 

Champoton, Campeche, Collins 42; without locality, Gaumer 
24346, 24427. A large tree with small leaves. Known in Tabasco 
as "amatillo" or "capulin." 

Ficus radula Willd. 

Collected at Chichen Itza, Chichankanab, and Puerto Morelos. 
A large tree with slightly roughened leaves. 

Ficus religiosa L. 

Sp. Alamo cubano. Cultivated at MeYida, and probably else- 
where, as a shade tree. Native of the East Indies. Easily recog- 
nized by the ovate-deltoid leaves with long linear acumination. 

Ficus yucatanensis Standl. CNH. 20: 33. 1917. 

Endemic. Type from Chichen Itza, Goldman 554; Cozumel Is- 
land, Goldman 657. 

The identity of the plant listed from Chichen Itza by Millspaugh 
(FMB. 1: 14. 1895) as "Ficus grandifolia?" is doubtful. The Maya 
name is given as "akum." The same tree, probably, is mentioned 
elsewhere (Agricultor 2: 101) as a wood producing a resin which 
resembles that of "mile" (Castillo). 



Gaumer lists in his Sinonimia three species of Morus: M. alba 
L., M. nigra L., and M. rubra L. It may be that some of these mul- 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

berries ("moras") are cultivated in the region for their fruit, or as 
shade trees. 

URTICACEAE. Nettle Family 

Pilea herniarioides (Swartz) Lindl. 

Frequent in moist soil. A small succulent annual with much- 
branched brittle stems; leaves slender-petioled, rounded, entire; 
flowers minute, green . This is easily confused with P. microphylla, 
and probably bears the same vernacular names. 

Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. P. muscosa Lindl. Adicea 
microphylla Kuntze. 

Yomha. Sp. Frescura, Hierba de la viruela. A common weed, 
especially in moist places. A small much-branched fleshy annual; 
leaves petioled, elliptic or obovate, glabrous. The name "hierba de 
la viruela" would indicate that the plant is employed as a remedy 
for smallpox, but I have found no reference to its use. 

Rousselia humilis (Swartz) Urban. Parietaria pennsylvanica 
var. floridana Millsp. FMB. 1: 293. 1896, not Wedd. 

Frequent in moist places, especially on stone walls. A small 
slender inconspicuous annual, sparsely pubescent; leaves alternate, 
long-petioled, broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, entire; flowers minute, 
green, axillary. Unknown elsewhere in Mexico or Central America. 

Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud. Urtica urens Cuevas, PI. Med. 59. 
1913, in part, not L. 

Laal,Laal tzimin,La (Motul Diet.). Sp. Ortiga, Ortiga de caballo. 
Reported as common; Izamal, Gaumer 936. A shrub or small tree 
2-5 m. high, armed with broad-based stinging prickles and with 
coarse stinging hairs; fruit white, juicy. The plant is said to be 
used for hedges in Yucatan, as it is in many parts of Central America. 
The hairs on slightest contact with the flesh cause excruciating pain, 
which may last for as much as 24 hours. 

Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb. Urera microcarpa Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 14. 1895, 1: 359. 1898, not Wedd. 

Laal,Lal,Laltsimin(Schott'). Sp. Ortiga, Ortiga de caballo. Fre- 
quent. A shrub or small tree 2-6 m. high, furnished with stinging 
hairs; leaves large, broadly ovate, acute or acuminate, crenate, 
pubescent; flowers small, green, in dichotomous cymes; fruit small, 
red and fleshy at maturity. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 249 

PROTEACEAE. Protea Family 

Grevillea robusta Cunn. 

Reported in Gaumer's Sinonimia, and doubtless grown as a shade 
tree in various parts of the Peninsula. It is one of the common orna- 
mental trees of Mexico and Central America. Native of Australia. 
Silk-oak. 

LORANTHACEAE. Mistletoe Family 

Phoradendron Gaumeri Trel. Gen. Phorad. 114. pi. 167. 1916. 
P. flavescens Millsp. FMB. 1: 294. 1896, in part, not Nutt. 

Endemic in Yucatan and Campeche; type from Izamal, Gaumer 
561 in part; Izamal, Gaumer 23829; Suitun, Gaumer 23824, 23825, 
23828. A small parasitic shrub, glabrous; leaves oblong to oval- 
oblong, rounded at apex, thick; flowers minute, greenish, in short 
spikes; fruit a translucent berry. Reported as parasitic on Pithe- 
colobium tortum, P. Unguis-cati, Cassia emarginata, etc. 

Phoradendron Millspaughii Trel. Bull. Torrey Club 54: 475. 
1927. 

Endemic; type from Suitun, Gaumer 23827. Leaves oblanceo- 
late-oblong, 4-6 cm. long, obtuse, narrowed at the base, glabrous. 

Phoradendron vernicosum Greenm. FMB. 2: 250. 1907. P. 
flavescens Millsp. FMB. 1: 294. 1896, in part, not Nutt. 

Xkeu, Yaax-xkeu. Sp. Caballero. Endemic in Yucatan. Type 
from Izamal, Greenman 440; Tsilam, Gaumer 876; Chichankanab, 
Gaumer 1850, 2011, 23657; Yaxactun, Gaumer 23211 ; Tecoh, Gaumer 
23775; San Pedro, Gaumer 23774. A glabrous parasite; leaves op- 
posite, petioled, lance-oblong to elliptic, obtuse or rounded at the 
apex, thick; flower spikes axillary, short and dense. Reported as 
growing in large masses on Bumelia buxifolia. Gaumer states that 
the plant is employed as an aid to parturition, also in the treatment 
of nervous diseases such as epilepsy, dementia, and paralysis. 

The name "xkeu" is said to be applied generally to plants of 
this family. Other names reported for "Phoradendron flavescens" 
are "xmuyche," "y ax -zcm," and "xac-xciu." 

Phoradendron yucatanum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 118. pi. 173. 
1916. P. flavescens Millsp. FMB. 1: 294. 1896, in part, not Nutt. 
P. mucronatum Greenm. FMB. 2: 250. 1907, not Krug & Urb. 

Endemic in Yucatan; type from Izamal, Gaumer 561 in part; 
Pixila,Gcmmer 23214; without locality, Gaumer 24384. Stems angled, 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

puberulent; leaves nearly sessile, rounded-obovate or orbicular; 
flower spikes short and dense. 

Psittacanthus americanus (Jacq.) Mart. Loranihus ameri- 
canus Jacq. ; P. calyculatus Don. 

Xkeu, Chacxeu. Sp. Muerdago. Apparently common in Yucatan. 
A large glabrous parasite, growing upon Spondias and other trees; 
leaves oblong-lanceolate, narrowed to the obtuse apex; fruit a large 
black berry; flowers red and handsome, 3-5 cm. long. The leaves 
are employed as emollient poultices, and a decoction of them is 
administered as a diuretic. Gaumer reports that the plant has reso- 
lutive, vulnerary, emmenagogue, and abortivant properties, and 
is employed in the treatment of chorea, asthma, hysteria, and all 
spasmodic affections. It is used also as a depurative in chronic 
syphilitic affections. 

Psittacanthus calyculatus usually is regarded as a distinct species, 
but it is difficult if not impossible to separate it definitely from P. 
americanus. At any rate, it seems preferable to refer the Yucatan 
material to P. americanus. 

Struthanthus cassythoides Millsp. ex Standl. FMB. 8: 7. 1930. 

Type from Progreso, Gaumer 1174; Progreso, Gaumer 2220, 2458; 
without locality, Gaumer 23997. A glabrous epiphytic shrub; leaves 
subsessile, obovate or oblong-obovate, 2.5-3.5 cm. long, broadly 
rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base; cymes solitary or fascicu- 
late at the nodes, 3-10-flowered; petals 4, linear, 3 mm. long. 

BALANOPHORACEAE. Balanophora Family 

Helosis mexicana Liebm. 

Tikal, Guatemala, Cook & Martin 167. A root parasite, resem- 
bling in general appearance some mushrooms, the stout fleshy naked 
stalk bearing an ovoid or ellipsoid, very dense head of minute 
flowers. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Birthwort Family 

Aristolochia grandiflora Sw. 

Uahko, Uahkoh. Sp. Flor de pato, Hierba del indio, Guaco. Cul- 
tivated at Izamal, the plants said to have been brought from Ruatan 
Island, Honduras. A large herbaceous vine, glabrous or nearly so; 
leaves long-petiolate, broadly cordate, acute or acuminate. This 
vine is one of the most remarkable of tropical American plants 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 251 

because of its giant brown-purple flowers, perhaps the largest pro- 
duced by any American plant. In form they suggest the body and 
head of a duck, and when well developed they are of about the same 
size. A linear appendage which hangs from the calyx is sometimes 
a meter long. The plant is grown frequently in northern greenhouses 
under the names "swan flower," "duck flower," and "pelican flower." 
The roots are employed in some regions as a remedy for snake bites 
and scorpion stings. Cuevas, writing probably of this species, states 
that a tincture of guaco is used as a lotion for rheumatism, malaria, 
and syphilitic affections, and that the infusion is taken internally 
for colera. Maler states that in Pete"n and Chiapas the plant is 
known as "bonete del fraile" and "bonete del diablo." 

The name "uahko" is evidently an attempt to write in Maya 
the Spanish name "guaco." That term is applied generally in 
tropical America to numerous species representing several unrelated 
families, all of them being plants which are supposed to be remedies 
for snake bites. 

Aristolochia maxima L. 

Sp. Guaco del sur. Frequent. A large woody vine; leaves ob- 
long, rounded or obtuse at the base and apex; flowers dark brown- 
purple, racemose; capsules about 10 cm. long, pendent. Known in 
Tabasco as "canastilla" and "farolito," both names relating to the 
large capsules. 

Aristolochia odoratissima L. A. elegans Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 
36: Beibl. 80: 13. 1905. 

Reported from Me*rida; without definite locality, Gaumer 24457, 
24364- A large herbaceous vine; leaves broadly deltoid-cordate, 
acute to rounded at the apex, glabrous; flowers about 10 cm. long, 
dull green spotted with purple-brown. Known in Tabasco as "co- 
coba." The plant listed from Yucatan as "kokobak" is probably 
this vine. I have not seen Seler 3847 from Me"rida, on which the 
report of A. elegans Mast, is based, but that species is probably not 
distinct from A. odoratissima, and the report doubtless relates to the 
latter species. 

Aristolochia pentandra Jacq. A. brevipes Millsp. FMB. 1: 
294. 1896, 1: 359. 1898, not Benth. 

Chanuahko, Mehenuahkoh (Gaumer). Sp.Gwaco. Izamal, Gaumer 
441; Me"rida, Schott 426a, 426, 426b; Tsitas, Schott 839. A small 



252 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

slender pubescent herbaceous vine; leaves hastately 3-lobed, the 
lobes obtuse to acuminate. Used locally, according to Donde", as a 
tonic and febrifuge. The plant is employed also as an emmenagogue 
and in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. 

OPILIACEAE. Opilia Family 

Agonandra obtusifolia Standl. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23870, 23609; Tsilam, Gaumer 64.5; 
Izamal, Gaumer in 1907. A glabrous shrub or small tree; leaves 
alternate, lanceolate to broadly elliptic, obtuse, entire; flowers small, 
green, in short racemes on old wood; fruit a small drupe. 

OLACACEAE. Olax Family 

Schoepfia Schreberi Gmel. 

Frequent. A glabrous shrub or small tree with crooked whitish 
branches; leaves alternate, short-petioled, ovate or elliptic, acumi- 
nate, entire; flowers small, in short few-flowered axillary cymes. 

Ximenia americana L. 

Xkukche. Occasional in thickets. A spiny shrub or small tree 
with a yellow plumlike edible fruit; leaves alternate, oblong to ovate, 
obtuse, entire, glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, whitish, in dense 
axillary racemes, the perianth densely hairy within. 

POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family 

Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. A. cordatum Mart. & Gal. 

Chaclomacal (Gaumer). Sp. Flor de San Diego. Frequent. A 
large vine, herbaceous or suffrutescent, the racemes furnished with 
tendrils, the bright pink flowers very showy; leaves broadly deltoid- 
hastate, obtuse or acute, entire or undulate, glabrous. Called "Con- 
federate vine" in Florida. Cultivated generally for ornament in 
tropical America. Donde* states that the roots bear tubercles which 
are used medicinally. The plant is reported as a local remedy for 
enlarged spleen. 

Goccoloba cardiophylla Standl. FMB. 8: 8. 1930. 

Type, Gaumer 24013, without definite locality; Kancabtsonot, 
Gaumer 23865, 23905; also in British Honduras. A glabrous tree; 
leaves ovate-rounded, 5-7 cm. long, obtuse or acutish at the apex, 
at the base rounded and emarginate or deeply cordate. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 253 

Coccoloba cozumelensis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 
108. 1887. C. yucatana Lindau, BJE. 13: 190. 1890. 

Endemic. Type collected on Cozumel Island by Gaumer in 
1885. The type of C. yucatana is Gaumer 18 from Yucatan. A tree 
9-15 m. high, glabrous throughout; leaves thin, ovate-oblong, 2.5-10 
cm. long, obtuse or subacute; flowers pale green, the slender racemes 
sometimes 15 cm. long. 

Coccoloba Schiedeana Lindau. C. coronata Millsp. FMB. 1: 
294. 1896, not Jacq. 

Bobche. Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23894; without locality, Gaumer 
23976; Izamal, Gaumer 819. A shrub or small tree; leaves thick, 
oval, obtuse to cordate at the base, glabrous; flowers white, the 
rachis of the raceme pubescent. 

Coccoloba uvifera (L.) Jacq. 

Niiche. Sp. Uva del mar, Uva. Common along seashores. Sea- 
grape. A shrub or small tree, the handsome thick rounded leaves 
often red when young. The wood, when of sufficient dimensions, is 
useful for cabinetwork. The calyx is accrescent and at maturity 
large, fleshy, juicy, and edible. The plant is astringent, and tonic 
properties are ascribed to it. It is employed locally as a remedy for 
chronic diarrhea and dysentery, and for venereal diseases. 

Gymnopodium antigonoides (Robinson) Blake, Bull. Torrey 
Club 48: 84. 1921. Millspaughia antigonoides Robinson in Millsp. 
& Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 14. 1905. 

Tzitzilche, Zactsitsilche. Sp. Cruceto (B. H.). Type from Progreso, 
Millspaugh 1657. Common and widely distributed in dry brush- 
lands and on rocky plains; also in Chiapas. Usually a shrub about 
5 m. high, sometimes a tree of 12 m.; leaves alternate, nearly sessile, 
obovate to oval-elliptic, obtuse or rounded at the base and apex, 
densely pubescent beneath; flowers in panicled racemes; sepals cor- 
date at the base. Gaumer remarks of this plant: "Like the flowers 
of Podopterus mexicanus, those of this species yield a large amount 
of clear transparent honey of fine flavor and exquisite taste. The 
wood makes a charcoal of the highest grade, noted for its intense 
heat and lasting qualities." 

Gymnopodium ovatifolium (Robinson) Blake, Bull. Torrey 
Club 48: 84. 1921. Millspaughia ovatifolia Robinson in Millsp. & 
Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 14. 1905. 



254 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Known only from the type, collected at Progreso, Millspaugh 
1672. Leaves rhombic-ovate to elliptic-oblong, entire, acutish or 
obtuse, pubescent beneath; sepals rounded at base. 

Neomillspaughia emarginata (Gross) Blake, Bull. Torrey 
Club 48: 85. 1921. Podopterus emarginatus Gross, Repert. Sp. Nov. 
12: 218. 1913. Podopterus mexicanus Millsp. FMB. 1: 294. 1897, 1: 
359. 1898, not Humb. & Bonpl. 

Zacitsa (Gaumer), Tsaitsa (Schott); reported also as "xtzacitza." 
Frequent; endemic; type from Kabah, Seler 5600; Izamal, Gaumer 
750; Suitun, Gaumer 23407; without locality, Gaumer 24217, 24385, 
24017; Me"rida, Schott 487. Endemic. A tree sometimes 15 m. high, 
common in low forests and brushlands; flowering in June and July. 

Podopterus mexicanus Humb. & Bonpl. 

Putsmucuy. Common. A deciduous shrub or small tree some- 
times 6 m. high, with spinose branchlets. The Maya name signifies 
"dove's needle," in allusion to the sharp spine prolonged beyond the 
apex of the flower clusters. The flowers yield a large amount of 
clear transparent honey of excellent flavor. 

Polygonum sp. Sterile specimens of a Polygonum, with foliage 
similar to that of P. lapathifolium L., were collected by Gaumer at 
Chichankanab, No. 1503. The Maya name is given as "xkaxek." 

AMARANTHACEAE. Amaranth Family 

Achyranthes aspera L. 

Zacpayche. Sp. Zorrillo bianco. A common weed. An erect or 
ascending, pubescent herb, usually less than 1 m. high; leaves mostly 
elliptic, acuminate; flowers green, reflexed, in long slender spikes. 
The calyces are armed with hooked spines which penetrate the skin 
readily and are difficult to remove. The Maya name has been 
reported as "sacpiche" and "xacpiche." 

Alternanthera Bettzickiana (Regel) Standl.,comb.nov. Telan- 
thera Bettzickiana Regel. 

Izamal, doubtless in cultivation, Gaumer in 1888. Native, per- 
haps, of Brazil, but often grown for ornament. A low erect annual, 
glabrous or nearly so; leaves long-petioled, mostly rhombic-ovate, 
often red or purple; flowers white, in small sessile axillary heads. 

Alternanthera halimifolia (Lam.) Standl., comb. nov. Achy- 
ranthes halimifolia Lam.; Alternanthera asterotricha Uline, FMB. 1: 
419. pi. 23. 1899. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 255 

Frequent on seashores. A coarse procumbent herb stellate- 
pubescent; leaves oblong to oval, rounded at the apex; flowers in 
dense sessile axillary heads. The type of Alternanthera asterotricha 
was collected at Tsilam, Gaumer 1303. 

Alternanthera obovata (Mart. & Gal.) Millsp. 

Izamal, Gaumer 905, in part. A perennial herb, prostrate or 
decumbent; leaves obovate to oblong, glabrate, rounded at the apex; 
flowers white, in large globose sessile heads. The only specimen 
seen is associated with specimens of Gomphrena dispersa. The species 
has not been collected in Yucatan at any other time, and I suspect 
that the Alternanthera specimen may have become associated by 
accident with the Gomphrena, and perhaps was not collected in 
Yucatan. 

Alternanthera polygonoides (L.) R. Br. 

A frequent weed. A prostrate herb, rooting at the nodes, villous 
or glabrate; leaves elliptic or obovate, obtuse; flowers white, in sessile 
axillary heads. 

Alternanthera ramosissima (Mart.) Chod. A. brasiliana 
Uline & Bray, not Gomphrena brasiliana L.; A. straminea Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 16. 1895, 1: 360. 1898, not Mogiphanes straminea Mart. 
Gomphrena capituliflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 16. 1895. 

ZacmuuL Sp. Amor seco del monte. Common. A large herb, 
often subscandent, glabrate; leaves chiefly lanceolate, acuminate; 
flowers in globose or oblong, long-stalked heads. A decoction of the 
plant is reported to be used as a remedy for coughs. 

Alternanthera repens (L.) Kuntze. 

Cabalxtez (Gaumer). A common weed. A prostrate annual, 
copiously villous or glabrate; leaves mostly elliptic, petiolate, obtuse; 
flowers in dense villous sessile axillary heads. This plant, as I have 
seen it in tropical America, is almost wholly confined to streets, 
where it grows between the paving stones. 

Amaranthus annectens Blake, Journ. Bot. 53: 103. 1915. 

Xtez. Endemic. Type from Celestun, Schott 360; Tsilam, Gaumer 
1243; Progreso, Gaumer 23149. A seashore plant, apparently pro- 
cumbent, dioecious; leaves oblong-spatulate, obtuse or rounded at 
the apex; flowers in small clusters, forming long branched spikes. 

Amaranthus cruentus L. A. hybridus Millsp. FMB. 1: 360, in 
part. 1898, not L. 



256 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Me>ida, Schott 817. A tall, nearly glabrous annual; leaves lanceo- 
late or ovate; flowers often purple-red, forming long slender pan- 
icled spikes. 

Amaranthus dubius Mart. A. hybridus Millsp. FMB. 1: 15. 
1895, 1: 360, in part. 1898, not L. 

Xtez, Chactez (Gaumer). A common weed. An erect or ascend- 
ing annual, glabrous or nearly so; leaves chiefly ovate, obtuse; flow- 
ers in dense panicled spikes. Some of the specimens have been 
distributed as A. tortuosus Hornem. 

Amaranthus hybridus L. 

Xtez. Sp. Bledo, Quelite. A common weed. Pigweed. A tall 
coarse annual, nearly glabrous; leaves chiefly ovate; flowers in dense 
clusters, these forming large thick panicled spikes. It may be this 
plant which is said to be known as "tezmucuy." 

Amaranthus polygonoides L. 

Zactez, Zacxtez, Sacxtez, Xacxtez. Frequent. A slender annual, 
nearly glabrous, erect or spreading, usually 30 cm. high or less; 
leaves chiefly ovate or rhombic-ovate, obtuse, often emarginate; 
flowers in small sessile axillary clusters. 

Amaranthus spinosus L. 

Xtez, Kixxtez. Sp. Bledo. A common weed. Spiny pigweed. A 
somewhat succulent annual, armed with sharp axillary spines; leaves 
chiefly ovate, long-petioled; flowers forming elongate spikes. The 
decoction of the plant is used as a remedy for rheumatic pains and 
inflammation of the bladder, and as an emmenagogue. The Quiche" 
name for this or some other Amaranthus is reported from Guatemala 
as "tzetz" and "labtzetz." This species is a common weed in many 
parts of the United States. 

Celosia argentea L. C. cristata L. 

Sp. Abanico, Cresta de gallo. The cristate form of the species, 
the garden cockscomb, is grown for ornament. 

Celosia nitida Vahl. C. paniculata Millsp. FMB. 1: 15. 1895, 1: 
295. 1896; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 15. 1905, not L. 

Zabacpox. Frequent. Plants erect, glabrous, herbaceous or 
suffrutescent; leaves oblong-lanceolate; flowers borne in dense few- 
flowered spikes. 

Celosia virgata Jacq. 

Hatanal, Xhalalnal (Valdez), Xhatalnal. Apparently common. 
An erect branched glabrous herb about a meter high; leaves ovate 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 257 

to lanceolate, acuminate, long-decurrent upon the petiole; flowers 
green, in dense spikes, these forming large panicles. Valdez states 
that the plant has astringent properties, and is employed as a remedy 
for diarrhea. 

Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) HBK. Kokera paniculata Kuntze. 

Common in thickets. A large, often scandent, weedy plant, her- 
baceous or suffrutescent, dioecious; leaves large, lanceolate or ovate, 
acuminate, glabrous; flowers green, in small dense clusters arranged 
in panicled spikes. A common weed in many parts of tropical 
America. 

Gomphrena dispersa Standl. G. decumbens Millsp. FMB. 1: 
295. 1896, 1: 360. 1898, not Jacq. Alternanthera obovata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 360, in part. 1898, notBucholzia obovata Mart. & Gal. 

Chacmol Sp. Amor seco, Siempreviva, Inmortal. A common 
weed. A low annual or perennial, appressed-pilose, erect or decum- 
bent; leaves oblong-oblanceolate, obtuse; flowers white, in dense 
globose bracted heads. The same medicinal properties are attrib- 
uted to this as to G. globosa. This species is perhaps only a form 
of G. decumbens Jacq. 

Gomphrena globosa L. 

Chacmol, Tmuul. Sp. Amor seco. Cultivated for ornament and 
perhaps escaped from cultivation. Bachelor's-button, immortelle. 
The plant is of American origin, but its native habitat is unknown, 
although no doubt it has been grown in Mexico for many centuries. 
Cuevas reports that the plant (it is possible that he refers rather to 
G. dispersa) has sudorific and emollient properties, an infusion of the 
leaves and flowers being administered for fevers, and a decoction for 
dysentery. The dried flowers often are used as decorations in houses. 

Gomphrena nana (Stuchl.) Standl. 

Tekax, Gaumer 1428; without locality Gaumer 24452; M4rida, 
Schott 30; Izamal, Gaumer in 1888; Chichankanab, Gaumer 23726, in 
part. A stout erect annual, appressed-pilose; leaves chiefly oblong; 
heads large, white, sessile, clustered, subtended by several large 
leaflike bracts. 

Iresine Herbstii Hook. 

Cultivated for ornament, Gaumer 1078. Probably only a form 
of I. paniculata developed in cultivation; leaves mostly retuse at 
the apex, colored with red, yellow, or white. 



258 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Iresine paniculata (L.) Kuntze. /. celosioides L.; /. lanceolata 
Moq.; I. luzuliflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 16. 1895, not Griseb. 

Zactezxiu (Gaumer). A common weed. A slender herb, some- 
times scandent, usually 1 m. high or less, dioecious, pubescent or 
glabrate; leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, acuminate; flowers 
minute, white, spicate, the spikes forming large lax panicles. This 
is one of the most abundant weedy plants of tropical America, and 
is widely distributed. 

Philoxerus vermicularis (L.) R. Br. Gomphrena vermicularis L. ; 
Lithophila vermiculata Uline. 

Xukuk (Gaumer). Common on seacoasts and lake shores. A 
low much-branched perennial herb, ascending or prostrate, fleshy; 
leaves linear; flowers white, in dense, globose or oblong, sessile or 
stalked heads. 

GHENOPODIACEAE. Goosefoot Family 

Atriplex pentandra (Jacq.) Standl. Atriplex cristata H. & B. 
Putbacxtez (Gaumer). Common on seashores. A depressed 
much-branched pale herb. 

Beta vulgaris L. 

Sp. Remolacha. The beet, native of the Mediterranean region, 
is cultivated here, as it is in many places in the tropics. 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L. 

Lucumxiu (Gaumer). Sp. Apazote. An occasional weed. Worm- 
seed. A very ill-scented, glandular, perennial herb. The plant is 
abundant in many parts of tropical America. In Mexico, as else- 
where, it is administered to expel intestinal parasites, for which it is 
very efficient. Locally it is employed also as a remedy for nervous 
diseases, especially chorea, and for catarrh and asthma. The name 
"apazote" is of Nahuatl origin. Among the names reported from 
Guatemala are "sicah," "siquih," and "achih." 

Chenopodium Berlandieri Moq. subsp. yucatanum Aellen, 
Repert. Sp. Nov. 26: 59. 1929. C. album Millsp. FMB. 1: 359. 
1898, not L. 

Sp. Quelite. Type collected in Yucatan, without definite locality, 
Gaumer 1065; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2159, 24^7. Reported also 
from New Mexico. A tall, nearly glabrous, much-branched annual; 
leaves alternate, petioled, ovate-rhombic, coarsely dentate, some- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 259 

what fleshy; flowers small, green, panicled. This is probably the 
plant cited by Aznar as "Quenopodium vulgaris." The word "que- 
lite," of Nahuatl origin, is applied in Mexico to almost any plant 
used as a pot herb, being comparable to our English word "greens." 

Salicornia Bigelovii Torr. 

Tsilam, Gaumer 633; Celestun, Schott 297. A fleshy annual sea- 
shore plant, unknown in Mexico except from Yucatan. It occurs in 
Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Bahamas, and on both coasts of the 
United States. The Kekchi name is reported as "kaxlan ixkih." 

Salicornia perennis Mill. 

Progreso, Seler 4934 (distributed as S. fruticosa L.). A perennial 
fleshy seashore plant, unknown elsewhere in Mexico. 

Spinacia oleracea L. 

Sp. Espinaca. Spinach is listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia, but pre- 
sumably it is not grown commonly in Yucatan. It is rarely culti- 
vated in Mexico and Central America. 

Suaeda mexicana Standl., comb. nov. Dondia mexicana Standl. ; 
D. linearis Millsp. FMB. 2: 35. 1900, not Heller. 

Common on sea and lake shores. A fleshy annual with linear 
leaves, growing along seashores or about lakes. The name "tsaycan" 
is reported in the Motul Dictionary for a "soap plant of the coast 
whose ashes are used for making soap." I suspect this plant may be 
Suaeda, although the Maya name is said to refer to Sesuvium Portula- 
castrum, which perhaps may be used for the same purpose. 

NYCTAGINACEAE. Four-o'clock Family 

Boerhaavia caribaea Jacq. B. hirsuta Willd.; B. viscosa Lag. & 
Rodr.; B. repens Millsp. FMB. 2: 40. 1900, not L. 

Uxiuam (Gaumer), Chacilxiu (Gaumer). Sp. Mata de pavo 
(Gaumer). A common weed. A procumbent herb with small 
flowers and viscid pubescence; leaves opposite, petioled, oval to 
broadly ovate, obtuse, undulate; flowers red, in small heads. The 
dry viscid fruits adhere to clothing and to the feathers and feet of 
birds. 

Boerhaavia erecta L. 

Xaacil, Zacxiu, Zacxiuthul, Xacilsacxiu, Xacilxacxiu. Sp. Hierba 
blanca. A common weed, generally distributed in tropical America. 
An erect annual with minute, white or pinkish, corymbose- 



260 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

paniculate flowers; leaves long-petiolate, oblong to broadly rhombic- 
ovate, sinuate. The plant is reputed to have antispasmodic 
properties, and is employed locally in the treatment of epilepsy, 
chorea, and other nervous diseases. 

Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. 

Sp. Carolina (Gaumer). A native of Brazil, grown for ornament 
nearly everywhere in tropical America. Bougainvillea. Valdez 
reports that the fresh leaves are used to keep wounds clean. 

Commicarpus scandens (L.) Standl. Boerhaavia scandens L.; 
B. erecta Millsp. FMB. 1: 295. 1896, in part, not L. 

Frequent. Plants large, slender, glabrous, herbaceous or suf- 
frutescent, clambering over shrubs and large herbs; leaves opposite, 
petioled, deltoid or ovate-deltoid, usually obtuse, entire; flowers 
small, greenish yellow, in umbels; fruit dry, with numerous viscid 
glands. 

Mirabilis Jalapa L. 

Tutsuixiu (Gaumer). Sp. Maravilla. The four-o'clock, grown 
here, as elsewhere throughout the tropics, for ornament. A nearly 
glabrous, perennial herb, with broadly ovate or deltoid, usually acute 
or acuminate, petioled leaves. The handsome sweet-scented flowers 
open in the evening and close in the forenoon. They are purple-red, 
white, or yellow, and often exhibit striking variegations. The native 
habitat of this plant is not known, but doubtless it has been in cul- 
tivation in Mexico and Central America for many centuries. The 
root is employed in domestic medicine as a drastic purgative. 

Neea choriophylla Standl. CNH. 13: 384. 1911. 

Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 761; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 
23875; without locality, Gaumer 23964, 24049. A shrub 2 m. high; 
leaves opposite, slender-petioled, oblong-elliptic, acuminate, glabrous; 
flowers small, pink, in slender-stalked cymes; fruit oval, with fleshy 
pericarp, 1-seeded. 

Neea sphaerantha Standl. CNH. 13: 384. 1911. 

Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 697. A slender shrub 3 m. 
high with green flowers, produced in May, in long-stalked cymes; 
leaves oblong to elliptic, obtuse, glabrous. 

Okenia hypogaea Schlecht. & Cham. 

Progreso, Gaumer 23152; without locality, Gaumer 24328. A 
plant of coastal sand dunes. A prostrate viscid-villous annual with 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 261 

long-petioled, oval or rounded leaves; flowers purple-red. The 
pedicels lengthen after anthesis, and the fruits are developed under 
ground, like those of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea). 

Oxybaphus violaceus (L.) Choisy. Allionia violacea L.; "Mira- 
bilis longifolia L.;" Millsp. FMB. 1: 16. 1895. 

Xpakumpak. Sp. Hierba del golpe (Gaumer). Common. An 
inconspicuous perennial herb with red-purple flowers; leaves long- 
petioled, ovate or deltoid, acute or acuminate, often cordate at the 
base, nearly glabrous. 

Pisonia aculeata L. 

Beeb. Sp. Una de gato. Common in thickets. A shrub or small 
tree, armed with stout recurved spines, the branches long and usually 
pendent or subscandent; leaves ovate to broadly elliptic, acute or 
obtuse, pubescent or glabrate. The fruits of this plant are distinc- 
tive, being club-shaped, and furnished on the 5 angles with stalked 
glands. These exude a very sticky substance which, even in herba- 
rium specimens, conserves its viscidity for 50 years and more. The 
fruits are reported to entangle small birds, which are unable to 
extricate themselves. A decoction of the leaves taken internally or 
applied externally is considered in Yucatan an excellent remedy for 
articular pains, especially those of syphilitic origin. 

The Motul Dictionary gives the definition of "beeb" as "matas 
espinosas de que huyen los murcie'lagos," a phrase whose significance 
is not altogether clear. 

Torrubia linearibracteata (Heimerl) Standl. CNH. 18: 100. 
1916. Pisonia linearibracteata Heimerl, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 221. 
1913. 

Endemic; type from Chichen Itza, Seler 5575; without locality, 
Gaumer 23999, 24343; Suitun, Gaumer 23834; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
23720. A large shrub or small tree; leaves slender-petioled, oblong 
to oblong-elliptic, acute or obtuse, glabrous, blackening when dried; 
flowers small, dioecious, in long-stalked puberulent cymes; fruit oval, 
fleshy, 1-seeded. 

BATIDAGEAE. Batis Family 

Batis maritima L. 

Common on seashores, growing about mangrove swamps. A 
low, perennial, herbaceous or suffrutescent, glabrous plant, 1 m. 
high or less; leaves short, linear, fleshy; flowers minute, green, in 



262 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

short sessile conelike axillary spikes. Gaumer 611, which belongs 
here, was distributed as "Atriplex sp." The plant is said to be 
employed, both externally and internally, in the treatment of cutane- 
ous diseases. 

PHYTOLACGACEAE. Pokeberry Family 

Agdestis clematidea Moc. & Sesse*. 

Izamal, Gaumer 871. A large herbaceous vine, climbing over 
trees to a height of 12 m.; flowers white; root large and turnip- 
shaped. 

Petiveria alliacea L. 

Payche. Sp. Zorrillo, Hierba de las gallinitas. A common weed. 
Plants erect, herbaceous or suffrutescent; leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, oblanceolate-oblong, acute or obtuse, nearly glabrous; 
flowers small, whitish, in long slender spikes. The plant, when 
crushed, has a strong odor of garlic, which is said to be communi- 
cated to the milk of cows that browse upon it. The Maya name 
signifies "skunk plant," and the term "zorrillo" has the same mean- 
ing. The fruits are armed with slender spines which penetrate 
the skin readily if one brushes carelessly against the plant, and they 
are difficult of removal. The plant is said to be used commonly by 
the Mayas in domestic medicine, the crushed leaves being applied 
as poultices to relieve rheumatism, and to bring boils to a head. A 
decoction of the plant is said to be used in fomentations to promote 
motion in paralyzed limbs. It is reported that the Mayas crush the 
seeds, place them upon a leaf of the plant, and apply them as a 
poultice to reveal bewitchery in the sick. Gaumer states that the 
extract of the plant is useful as an antispasmodic in hysteria and 
other nervous affections, and as a diaphoretic in fevers. 

Phytolacca icosandra L. P. mexicana Gaertn.; P. octandra 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 295. 1896, not L. P. nova-hispana Millsp. FMB. 2: 
41. 1900. P. novohispanica Millsp. ex H. Walt, in Engl. Pflanzen- 
reich IV. 83: 60. 1909, as syn. 

Telcox, Telcocox. Apparently common. Pokeweed. A large suc- 
culent herb with thick root and juicy black berries; leaves petioled, 
elliptic, acute, glabrous; flowers small, pinkish, in long racemes. 
Closely related to the common pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) of 
the United States. The plant is used locally as an alterant in 
chronic and mercurial rheumatism and in syphilis, especially for the 
reduction of swollen glands. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 263 

Rivina humilis L. R. humilis var. glabra L.; R. laevis L.; R. 
humilis var. laevis Millsp. 

Kuxubcan (Gaumer). Sp. Coral. A common weed. Plants her- 
baceous or suffrutescent, erect, branched, the flowers racemose, the 
fruit a small, bright red, one-seeded berry; leaves slender-petioled, 
mostly ovate and acute, glabrous or nearly so. 

BASELLACEAE. Basella Family 

Boussingaultia leptostachys Moq. Dioscorea calyculata Donn. 
Smith. 

Xayillol (Gaumer). Chichankanab, Gaumer 2063; without local- 
ity, Gaumer 931, 24231. A large fleshy glabrous herbaceous vine; 
leaves alternate, petiolate, chiefly ovate, acute or acuminate; 
flowers very small, whitish, in long slender naked racemes. 

AIZOACEAE. Carpetweed Family 

Sesuvium Portulacastrum L. 

Tsaycan. Sp. Verdolaga de la playa. Frequent on seashores. A 
trailing, very fleshy plant with opposite linear leaves and small 
axillary flowers. 

PORTULACACEAE. Purslane Family 

Portulaca halimoides L. 

Tsayoch (Gaumer), Tsay-och-can. Izamal, Gaumer 603, 1001. 
A small hairy annual with large fleshy terete leaves and yellow 
flowers. 

Portulaca oleracea L. 

Xucul. Sp. Verdolaga. A frequent weed. Pusley. A fleshy 
glabrous annual with cuneate-obovate leaves and small yellow 
flowers. Cuevas states that the plant is used in local medicine as 
an emollient and purgative. In many parts of Mexico and Central 
America the plant is cooked and eaten as a vegetable. The Quiche* 
name of Guatemala is reported as "paxlac." 

The name 'Verdolaga" is given to the plant everywhere in Central 
America and Mexico. In the Motul Dictionary the word "cabal- 
chun" is translated as "verdolagas," and Pe*rez gives the same equi- 
valent for "ixtsacalbac," but it may be that neither of these names 
relates to plants of this family. 



264 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Portulaca pilosa L. 

Tsayoch, Tsotsiltsaioch (Gaumer). Frequent. A low hairy an- 
nual with fleshy terete leaves and small purple flowers. 

Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. 

Saioch (Gaumer). Frequent. A tall erect fleshy branched herb 
with elliptic leaves and small, yellow or pink, panicled flowers. 

Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. 

Occasional. A succulent erect branched herb with obovate 
leaves and small, yellow, pink, or white flowers in few-flowered 
cymes. The leaves of this and the preceding species make an ex- 
cellent substitute for spinach, and the plants are well worthy of 
cultivation for the purpose. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Pink Family 
Dianthus barbatus L. 

Sp. Clavel de poeta. A native of Europe, listed by Gaumer as 
cultivated for its showy flowers. Sweet William. 

Dianthus Caryophyllus L. 

Sp. Clavel. The carnation, of Old World origin, is grown for 
ornament in Yucatan, as it is generally in tropical America. 

Dianthus chinensis L. 

Sp. Clavellina. A native of China and Japan, listed by Gaumer 
as in cultivation in Yucatan. Pink. 

Silene latifolia (Mill.) Britt. & Rendle. S. Cucubalus Wibel. 
Collected at Izamal as an escape, Gaumer 545. Native of the Old 
World. 

NYMPHAEACEAE. Waterlily Family 

Nymphaea ampla (Salisb.) DC. Castalia ampla Salisb. 

Naab, Sacnab (Maler). Sp. Sol de agua, Ninfa. Common in lakes 
and pools. Waterlily. A large plant with floating leaves and hand- 
some showy white flowers; leaves orbicular, deeply cordate at the 
base, coarsely dentate. The Maya name has been reported incor- 
rectly as "lab." Stephens gives the name "xicinchah" for an aquatic 
plant which is apparently this. 

Cabomba aquatica Aubl. has been reported from Yucatan, but 
the record is doubtful. It is probable that the plant does occur in 
the region. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 265 

RANUNCULAGEAE. Buttercup Family 

Clematis dioica L. C. caripensis HBK.; C. flammulastrum 
Griseb. 

Mexnuxib. Sp. Barbas de viejo, Barba espanola. Common. A 
woody vine with ternate leaves and panicled white flowers; leaflets 
ovate, acute or obtuse, entire, glabrous or nearly so; fruit a cluster 
of long-tailed achenes. Cuevas states that the fluffy seed heads are 
used for stuffing pillows and cushions, and that a decoction of the 
root is applied to the gums and to cavities in the teeth to relieve 
pain in those organs. The shrub is a rather handsome one when in 
full blossom. 

Delphinium Ajacis L. 

Sp. Espuela, Espuela de caballero, Miramelinda. A native of 
Europe, grown for ornament in Yucatan, as it is in other parts 
of tropical America. Rocket larkspur. The flowers are blue, white, 
or pink. 

MENISPERMACEAE. Moonseed Family 

Cissampelos Pareira L. 

Tsutsuc, Tsutsuuc, Peteltun. Common. Velvet-leaf. A woody 
vine with rounded velvety peltate leaves, small greenish dioecious 
flowers, and small red drupes. The plant is employed locally as a 
diuretic and as a remedy for snake bites. Gaumer states that it 
has tonic and diuretic properties, and may be employed in treating 
chronic distention of the bladder and other disorders of the urinary 
organs, leucorrhea, dropsy, rheumatism, and jaundice. 

The names "butua" and "pareira brava" are reported from 
Yucatan for the plant, but I assume that they are "book" names, 
rather than current vernacular terms. The Kekchi name is "kuxso- 
gui." The plant reported from Yucatan with the name "ix-petel- 
tunak" is probably Cissampelos. The plant described by Cuevas 
(PI. Med. 76, Ilustr. pi. 30, /. 1. 1913) as "petetunich" may belong 
here, for the illustration and description agree, except that Cis- 
sampelos does not have the milky sap which is mentioned by Cuevas. 
The name "ixcatucan" is reported for Cissampelos Pareira from 
Guatemala. 

Hyperbaena nectandrifolia Standl. FMB. 8: 11. 1930. 
Type from Izamal, Gaumer in 1888. Probably a shrub; leaves 
petiolate, coriaceous, oblong, 11-24 cm. long, acute or acuminate, 



266 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

at the base acute or acutish, glabrous, entire; flowers very small, in 
slender panicles slightly longer than the petioles. 

Hyperbaena Winzerlingii Standl. 

Sisal, Schott 415. Also in British Honduras. A shrub or small 
tree, glabrous or nearly so; leaves short-petioled, mostly obovate or 
cuneate, most of them more or less 3-lobed near the apex, leathery, 
long-tapering to the base; flowers very small, in lax axillary panicles. 
The determination of the two specimens available is not altogether 
certain, for both are sterile. They are referable either to this species 
or to a closely related one which is not described. The plant seems 
to have been overlooked by Dr. Millspaugh. The specimens were 
discovered in the herbarium labeled with the quaint name of "Quer- 
cus aquatica Catesb.," and it must be admitted that the foliage 
does suggest strikingly that of some forms of Quercus nigra. 



Virola merendonis Pittier (Myristicaceae) is called "banak" and 
"palo de sangre" in British Honduras. 

The Kekchi name of Siparuna riparia (Monimiaceae) is recorded 
as "chuche." 

ANNONACEAE. Annona Family 

Annona Cherimola Mill. 

Pox, Poox. Sp. Chirimoya. Cultivated for its fruit. A small 
tree with obtuse pubescent leaves; fruit globose or ovoid, the sur- 
face with rounded protuberances or marked with U-shaped areoles, 
sometimes nearly smooth. The white pulp of the fruit is sweet and 
of pleasant flavor. The tree is believed to be a native of the Peruvian 
Andes, but it was introduced into Mexico at a very early date. The 
name "chirimoya" is of Peruvian origin. In the Kekchi dialect of 
Guatemala this species is called "tsumuy." 

This is probably the Annona described by Cuevas (PI. Med. 71, 
Ilustr. pi. 26, f. 1. 1913) under the name "Anona glabra." He gives 
the vernacular names as "op" and "anona," and states that the seeds 
are believed harmful to the eyes, and that the bark and root are 
poisonous. A decoction of the leaves is used as a lotion for burns, 
to reduce the pain. The pulverized seeds of this and other species 
are utilized as an insecticide. 

Annona glabra L. A. palustris L. 

Xmaak, Xmak. Sp. Corcho, Palo de corcho. Bobwood, Corkwood 
(B. H.). Frequent. Pond-apple, alligator-apple. A small tree with 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 267 

glabrous, usually acute leaves; fruit small, ovoid, smooth, yellow at 
maturity. The tree grows usually at the edge of water. Its fruit 
is insipid and of little use for food. Gaumer reports that the plant 
has pectoral properties, and is used as a remedy in early stages of 
tuberculosis, and it is employed also for jaundice. 

The Maya name for this species has been reported as "mac," 
"mak," and "xmacoop," and, incorrectly, as "mag." 

Annona muricata L. 

Takob. Sp. Guanabano, Guanabana. Cultivated for its fruit. 
Native region not definitely known, but the tree is planted through- 
out tropical America. Soursop. A small tree with glabrous ill- 
scented leaves; fruit very large, covered with recurved fleshy spines, 
the flesh white, acidulous. The fruit is used chiefly for making 
cool beverages and ices, to which it gives a distinctive and delicious 
flavor. It is also made into preserves, or eaten fresh. The juice is 
considered a remedy for dysentery. 

The Motul Dictionary defines the word "poox" as "fruta grande 
y espinosa, especie de anonas," a description which applies only to 
Annona muricata. There is much confusion with regard to the 
Maya names of the Annona species, especially as to the application 
of the term "op" or "oop," but this is probably a generic term. 
The "zaop" is described as a "good-flavored anona with much flesh 
and few seeds." The name "xolop" is reported for a species of this 
genus, also the names "kanoop," "yaxoop," and "zacoop." The 
name "guanabana" is of Haitian origin. 

Annona purpurea Moc. & Sesse". 

Polbox ("black head"), Chacoop. Sp. Anona morada. Of frequent 
occurrence in the forests of the eastern part of the Peninsula. A 
medium-sized tree with large broad leaves; flowers large, pendent, 
brown-purple; fruit ripening in August, ovoid or subglobose, about 
15 cm. long, covered with large hard spinelike protuberances, and 
with a brownish felt; flesh orange-colored, fragrant, fibrous. The 
fruit is of little value for eating, and in some regions is regarded as 
a source of chills and fevers. This species is widely distributed, 
ranging from southern Mexico to Venezuela. 

Annona reticulata L. 

Tsulipox, Zulipox, Pox. Sp. Anona colorada. Cultivated for its 
fruit. Native in Mexico and Central America, but perhaps not in 
this region. Custard-apple. A small tree with narrow, nearly gla- 



268 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

brous leaves; fruit large, its surface divided into angled areoles, the 
flesh sweetish and insipid. This is a favorite fruit in Mexico and 
Central America, and is planted commonly. Its Maya name signi- 
fies stranger or exotic chirimoya. The Pokonchi name of Guatemala 
for this species is "pac." The name "cahuex" also is reported from 
Guatemala. 

Annona squamosa L. 

Tsalmuy. Sp. Saramuya, Saramuyo. Cultivated for its fruit. A 
native of tropical America but the native habitat uncertain. Sweet- 
sop, sugar-apple. A small tree with narrow, acute, nearly glabrous 
leaves; fruit globose or heart-shaped, as large as an orange, com- 
posed of loosely adherent carpels, these rounded at the apex and 
forming a tuberculate surface; flesh yellowish white, sweet, of agree- 
able flavor. In Yucatan the leaves are placed in hens' nests to 
keep away vermin. 

Guatteria leiophylla (Donn. Smith) Safford. G. Gaumeri 
Greenm. FMB. 2: 251. 1907. 

Elemuy, Elemuy box. Apparently of frequent occurrence, growing 
in forests. A large shrub or small tree 6-10 m. high, with narrow 
acute glabrous leaves; fruit a dense cluster of stalked berries. The 
fluid extract, according to Gaumer, is efficient in expelling calculi of 
the kidneys and bladder, and it has been used also in the treatment 
of leucorrhea and gonorrhea. Cuevas states that "birds and Indians" 
eat the fruit. The type of G. Gaumeri was collected at Izamal by 
Gaumer. 

The Maya name signifies burned or roasted rabbit. The name 
has been published also as "eklemuy," and it is recorded from 
Nakum, Pete"n, as "eklemoy." 

Sapranthus campechianus (HBK.) Standl. CNH. 23: 279. 
1922. Asimia campechiana HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 61. 1821. 
Asimina insularis Hemsl. in Hook. Icon. PI. 16: pi. 1514- 1886. 
Annona insularis Millsp. FMB. 1: 17. 1895. 

Chacmax (Schott). Nitxmaxche (Petn). Type collected near 
Campeche. Apparently frequent. A tree about 10 m. high with 
soft-pubescent leaves and large flowers. Known only from Yucatan, 
Pete"n, and Campeche. The type of Asimina insularis was collected 
on Cozumel Island by Gaumer in 1885. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 269 

,.,- LAURACEAE. Laurel Family 

Cassytha filiformis L. 

Occasional. Love-vine. A yellow parasite resembling dodder 
(Cuscuta), the leaves reduced to scales; flowers minute, white; fruit 
small, globose, white, berrylike. 

Nectandra sanguinea Rottb. 

Apparently frequent in Yucatan and Campeche. A tree with 
lanceolate to elliptic, glabrous leaves, and small white flowers. 
This has been reported from Yucatan as N. coriacea (Sw.) Griseb. 
Specimens collected by Gaumer on Cozumel Island, and listed as N. 
Willdenowiana Nees (Millsp. FMB. 1: 18. 1895) probably belong to 
this species. 

Nectandra globosa Mez is called "koyokiche" in the Kekchi dia- 
lect, and Ocotea veraguensis Mez "pububuk." 

Persea americana Mill. P. gratissima Gaertn. 

On. Sp. Aguacate. Planted commonly as a fruit tree. Native in 
Central America and northern South America. Avocado, alligator 
pear. One of the most common and highly esteemed fruit trees of 
tropical America. The fruit varies greatly in size, shape, and color. 
The large thick-skinned avocados called "pahuas" are grown in 
Campeche. The "peeuon" is mentioned in the Motul Dictionary as 
a small early avocado of good flavor. In various Mayan dialects of 
Central America the avocado is called "o," "oj," and "un." The 
name "aguacate" is of Nahuatl origin. 

In Yucatan the tree finds various applications in domestic medi- 
cine, astringent, expectorant, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, and 
emmenagogue properties being ascribed to it. An infusion of the 
leaves and seeds is administered for diarrhea and chronic catarrh. 
A belief that the fruit has aphrodisiac properties is general in Mexico 
and Central America, a belief perhaps based on the derivation of 
the Nahuatl name. 

HERNANDIACEAE. Hernandia Family 

Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. 

Ciis (reported also as "xkis"). Sp. Volador, Palo hediondo. 
Frequent. A medium-sized deciduous tree with alternate, long- 
stalked, entire or palmately lobed leaves, and small unisexual flow- 
ers in cymes. The nutlike fruit is surrounded by the enlarged calyx, 
which has 3 narrow lobes 10-12 cm. long. When the fruit falls from 



270 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

the tree, it whirls about and floats gently to the ground like a para- 
chute, hence the name "volador." The wood is white, very soft, 
and light in weight. 

PAPAVERACEAE. Poppy Family 

Argemone mexicana L. A. mexicana var. ochroleuca Lindl. 

Kixzaclol, Kixkanlol, Kanlal (Motul Diet.), Ixkanlol (Pe>ez). 
Sp. Cardosanto. A common weed. A large, very prickly herb with 
yellow sap; leaves alternate, deeply lobed. The flowers are either 
yellow or (var. ochroleuca) whitish, the latter being, apparently, the 
common form in Yucatan. 

The decoction of the plant is employed locally for affections of 
the liver and spleen, and for jaundice, biliousness, and lack of appe- 
tite. The powdered seeds are administered as an emetic and pur- 
gative, and pectoral and soporific properties are attributed to them. 
The sap is employed as a remedy for skin diseases and inflammation 
of the eyes. 

Among the Guatemalan names reported for the plant are "cah- 
huoc" and "kixatucan." 

CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family 

Capparis cynophallophora L. C. amygdalifolia Millsp. FMB. 
1:297. 1896, not Jacq. 

Frequent in thickets. A shrub or small tree 2-5 m. high; leaves 
elliptic, acute, glabrous above, lepidote beneath; flowers white or 
purplish, fragrant. Known in Mexico only from Yucatan. 

Capparis flexuosa L. C. "cynocephallophora" Millsp. FMB. 1: 
362. 1898, not C. cynophallophora L. 

Xbayunak (Gaumer); reported also as "xpayumac" and "xpa- 
yunak." Collected at MeYida, Progreso, and Izamal. A glabrous 
shrub; leaves oblong to obovate, rounded or retuse at the apex; 
flowers white, fragrant; fruit long and slender, the seeds imbedded 
in'fscarlet pulp. This species has been known generally as C. 
cynophallophora. 

Capparis incana HBK. 

Xcoche. Frequent in thickets. A shrub or small tree 2-6 m. 
high, the pubescence of grayish or rusty stellate hairs; leaves small, 
lanceolate to elliptic, acuminate to obtuse; flowers white; fruit 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 271 

globose or oblong. Some of the Yucatan specimens have been 
distributed as C. asperifolia Presl. 

Capparis indica (L.) Fawc. & Rendle. C. amygdalina Lam.; C. 
Grisebachii Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 16. 1905, perhaps not 
Eichl. 

Infrequent. A shrub or small tree with linear to obovate, acute 
or obtuse, lepidote leaves; fruit slender, torulose, 6-25 cm. long. 

Capparis oxysepala C. Wright. 

Chochcitam. Tsilam, Gaumer 661. A tree 9 m. high; leaves 
oblong-obovate, glabrous, obtuse or rounded at the apex; flowers 
large, white. Called "zapote prieto" in Oaxaca. 

Capparis verrucosa Jacq. 

Sp. Naranjilla. Nakum, Pete"n, Cook & Martin 85. A shrub or 
small tree, nearly glabrous; leaves subsessile, oblong, acute; flowers 
large, white; fruit oblong, 2.5-6 cm. long, tuberculate. 

Cleome aculeata L. C. polygama Millsp. FMB. 1: 297. 1896, 
not L. 

Sp. Flor de cabalkro. San Anselmo, Gaumer 2060; Tsilam, 
Gaumer 617. A small annual, armed with axillary spines; leaflets 3; 
flowers small, white. 

Cleome spinosa Jacq. 

Collected at Izamal and Me*rida. An erect herb, armed with 
axillary spines; leaflets 5 or 7; flowers purple or whitish. 

Crataeva Tapia L. C. gynandra Millsp. FMB. 1: 297. 1896, 1: 
362. 1898; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 16. 1905, perhaps not 
L. Morisonia americana Cuevas, PI. Med. 56. 1913, not L. 

Kolokmax (Gaumer), Yuy (B. H.). Sp. Cascorrdn, Tres Marias. 
Waika bead (B. H.). Common. A glabrous tree 6-9 m. high; leaves 
deciduous, with 3 entire ovate acute leaflets; flowers green or pur- 
plish, racemose or corymbose; fruit globose, 3-5 cm. in diameter, 
green or yellow. The roots are acrid, and their juice, applied to the 
skin, produces blisters. The plant is used locally as a remedy for 
rheumatism, the tincture of the leaves and fruit being applied as a 
lotion. The name "yuy" is reported by Blanco as the name of a 
tree of Quintana Roo. 

Forchammeria trifoliata Radlk. FMB. 1: 399. 1898. Ptelea 
pentandra Millsp. FMB. 1: 25. 1895, not DC. 



272 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Sp. Tres Marias (Yuc., B. H.). Common; type, Gaumer 417; 
occurring in the Yucatan Peninsula and in Salvador. A glabrous 
tree sometimes 18 m. high; leaves long-stalked, with 3 coriaceous 
obovate-oblong leaflets; flowers small, green, panicled. It is stated 
that in British Honduras the leaves are applied by the Indians to 
the soles of the feet to cure fevers. 

Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. G. pentaphylla DC. 

San Ignacio, Seler 3812; Me"rida, Seler 3851. A glandular-pubes- 
cent annual; leaflets 3 or 5; bracts of the inflorescence 3-foliolate; 
flowers small, white or pink. 

Gynandropsis speciosa (HBK.) DC. 

Yot Tsonot, Gaumer 1329; Calotmul, Gaumer 2309. A large, 
glabrous or pubescent herb; leaflets 5 or 7; bracts entire; flowers 
large, pink or rarely white. A showy plant with handsome flowers, 
often cultivated for ornament. 

CRUCIFERAE. Mustard Family 
Brassica campestris var. Rapa (L.) Hartm. 
Sp. Nabo. Turnip. A plant of Old World origin, cultivated as 
a vegetable. 

Brassica integrifolia (West) 0. E. Schulz. 

Sp. Mostaza. Collected at Calotmul and Chichankanab, Gaumer 
1782, 1781; Izamal, Gaumer in 1888; without locality, Gaumer 1668. 
An Old World plant, found as an escape in various parts of tropical 
America. The Yucatan specimens have been determined previously 
as B. Rapa L. 

Brassica oleracea L. 

Sp. Repollo, Col. Cabbage. A plant of Old World origin, grown 
commonly as a vegetable in Yucatan as well as elsewhere in tropical 
America. 

Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. C. aequalis Millsp. FMB. 1: 18. 
1895, 1: 297. 1896, 2: 128. 1900, not L'He"r. C. maritima Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 362. 1898, 2: 43. 1900, not Scop. C. cubensis Millsp. FMB. 
2: 131. 1900, not HBK. C. alacranensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 130. 
1900. C. edentula var. americana 0. E. Schulz; C. edentula var. 
alacranensis 0. E. Schulz in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 105 (Heft 84): 
27. 1923. 

A common plant of seashores. A stout fleshy glabrous herb; 
leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate to oblong or obovate, entire or 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 273 

sinuate-dentate, petioled; flowers in long racemes; fruit a hard 
jointed beaked pod. C. alacranensis was based on Millspaugh 1744, 
1 764, and 1 767 from PeYez and Pajaros Islands. Schulz, in his mono- 
graph of the genus, recognized two varieties from this region: C. 
edentula var. americana, in which the upper joint of the fruit is 
slender, 0.5 mm. broad at apex, and acute; and C. edentula var. 
alacranensis, in which the upper joint is short-ovoid or subglobose, 
up to 1 cm. in diameter, and very shortly attenuate. 

Lepidium virginicum L. L. apetalum Millsp. FMB. 1: 297. 
1896, 2: 43. 1900; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 16. 1905, not 
Willd. L. virginicum subsp. centrali-americanum Thell. 

Putxiu, Putcan (Gaumer). Sp. Mastuerzo. A common weed; 
probably introduced, perhaps from the United States. Peppergrass. 
A low annual with pinnatifid leaves and small white flowers in long 
racemes; pods small, orbicular, obcompressed, notched at apex. 
The plant has a pungent flavor. Cuevas (PI. Med. 81. 1913) states 
that it is used as an emmenagogue and as a remedy for stomach 
affections. Diuretic properties also are attributed to it, and it is 
employed in the treatment of kidney diseases. 

The Prez dictionary lists the name "cabaput," with the defini- 
tion "mastuerzo yerba," which would seem to indicate this plant. 

Roripa Nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Rusby. Nasturtium offici- 
nale R. Br. 

Sp. Berros. Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia. Watercress. This is 
a popular salad plant in Mexico and Central America, and is grown 
wherever conditions are suitable. It is a native of Europe. 

Raphanus sativus L. R. Raphanistrum Millsp. FMB. 1: 362. 
1898, not L. 

Sp. Rabano. Cultivated as a vegetable; sometimes found as an 
escape from cultivation; native of Asia. Radish. 

RESEDACEAE. Mignonette Family 
Reseda odorata L. 

Sp. Reseddn. Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia, and doubtless culti- 
vated in the Peninsula for its fragrant flowers. Native of northern 
Africa. Mignonette. 

MORINGACEAE. Horseradish-tree Family 

Moringa oleifera Lam. M. pterygosperma Gaertn.; M. aptera 
Gaertn. 



274 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Sp. Paraiso bianco, Paraiso de Espana, Acacia (Gaumer). Planted 
as a shade tree. Native of the East Indies. Horseradish-tree. A 
small tree with 2 or 3 times pinnate leaves, white flowers, and long 
3-angled pods containing winged seeds. The roots have the odor 
and flavor of horseradish. From the seeds is extracted ben oil, used 
for lubricating delicate machinery. 

CRASSULACEAE. Orpine Family 
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz. 

Sisalxiu, Tzitzalxiu, Tzitzilxiu. Sp. Siempreviva, Admirable, 
Sinverguenza (Maler). Grown in gardens and also naturalized. 
Probably native of Asia. A succulent herb with simple or pinnate 
leaves. The plant is remarkably tenacious of life. If a leaf is 
separated from the plant and laid upon the ground, or even upon a 
stone, buds and new plants form at the marginal serrations. 

ROSACEAE. Rose Family 
Chrysobalanus Icaco L. 

Sp. Icaco. Coco-plum (B. H.). Probably common along the 
coast. Coco-plum or pigeon-plum. A shrub with small thick leaves; 
flowers small, white; fruit a drupe 2-4 cm. long, white or purple. 
The edible but insipid fruit is eaten fresh or made into dulces. The 
seeds are said to have an agreeable flavor and to be rich in oil. 

Couepia dodecandra (DC.) Hemsl. 

Uspib (Gaumer). Cultivated, and probably wild in the southern 
part of the Peninsula. A tree about 10 m. high with oblong, obtuse 
or acute, entire leaves which are white-tomentose beneath; flowers 
in thyrselike panicles; fruit ellipsoid, 5-6.5 cm. long, 1-2-seeded. 
The fruit is edible. Known in Tabasco as "pio" or "uspio"; in 
British Honduras as "baboon-cap." This is probably the plant 
listed from Yucatan as "uzbib." 

Many varieties of roses ("rosas") of the genus Rosa are grown 
for ornament in the gardens of the Peninsula. 

Hirtella americana L. is known in British Honduras as "uayam- 
che," "wild coco-plum," "pigeon-plum," and "granada." 

Licania hypoleuca Benth. is called "pigeon-plum" and "chozo" 
in British Honduras. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 275 

LEGUMINOSAE. Bean Family 

Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze. A. filicina Millsp. FMB. 
1: 298. 1896, not Willd. 

Xaax (Gaumer). Kantemo (Gaumer; Yuc., Tab.). Uaxim (Gau- 
mer; Nahuatl). Common in thickets. A shrub or small tree, 
unarmed, pubescent or glabrate; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets num- 
erous, oblong, 3-5 mm. long; flowers white, pedicellate, in globose 
heads; pods flat, thin. The Maya name is reported also as "kan- 
tebo." Cuevas states that a tree he lists as "kantemo" is employed 
as a remedy for enlarged spleen. 

Acacia Collinsii Safford. A. cornigera Millsp. FMB. 1: 19. 
1895, in part, not Willd. A. spadicigera Millsp. FMB. 1: 19. 1895, 
1: 298. 1896, 1: 363. 1898, not Schlecht. & Cham. ?A. campecheana 
Schenck, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 361. 1913. A. yucatanensis Schenck, 
Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 361. 1913. 

Zubin (Gaumer; "spur"). Sp. Cornezuelo. Common. Bullhorn 
acacia. A shrub or small tree, armed with pairs of large hollow 
brown spines 3-5 cm. long; leaflets numerous, oblong, 1 cm. long or 
smaller; flowers yellow, in short, very dense, thick spikes; fruit te- 
rete, short, dehiscent by 2 sutures. This species and A. globulifera 
belong to the interesting American group of bullhorn acacias, which 
have large inflated spines resembling the horns of a bull. These 
spines are practically always inhabited, each by a separate colony of 
ants, which enter at a small hole punctured near the apex of the 
spine. They feed upon nectar bodies borne upon the young leaves. 
When the plant is molested in any way, the ants sally forth imme- 
diately and attack the offending object, inflicting very painful bites. 

The type of A. campechiana was collected in Campeche by 
Chrismar. The type of A. yucatanensis is Seler 5549 from Yucatan. 

Acacia dolichostachya Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34: 
43. 1921. A. acatlensis Standl. CNH. 23: 378. 1922, in part, not 
Benth. Senegalia dolichostachya Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 
112. 1928. 

Endemic; type from Bocas de Tsilam, Gaumer 23329; Tsilam, 
Gaumer 679; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1853, 1358. An unarmed tree 
sometimes 10 m. high, nearly glabrous; pinnae about 5 pairs, the 
leaflets about 25 pairs, linear-oblong, 3.5 mm. long; flowers pale yel- 
low, in dense spikes 3-4 mm. long. 



276 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Acacia Farnesiana (L.) Willd. 

Kankilizche (Gaumer; reported also as "kankirische" and "kan- 
tiriz"), Subin (Seler), Subinche (Seler). Sp. Aroma (Yuc.), Huizache 
(Camp., a Nahuatl name). Common.- Opoponax. A shrub or 
small tree armed with long whitish spines; leaflets numerous, 2-6 
mm. long; flowers bright yellow, very fragrant, in dense globose 
heads; pods terete, 5-7.5 cm. long, glabrous. The wood is hard, 
close-grained, brownish red to yellow, and heavy. The shrub is 
grown in southern Europe for its flowers ("cassie flowers" of com- 
merce), from which perfume is made. In the Peninsula ink is some- 
times made from the pods. This species may be the tree reported by 
the Motul Dictionary under the name "kantix." The flowers are 
used locally as a remedy for nervous diseases. 

Acacia Gaumeri Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34: 44. 
1921. Senegalia Gaumeri Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 110. 1928. 

Catzim (Gaumer), Yaxcatzim (Gaumer), Catzin. Common; 
endemic; type from Tsilam, Gaumer 23332; south of Chobenche, 
Gaumer; without locality, Gaumer 24-253, 23954; Izamal, Gaumer 701 ; 
Buena Vista, Gaumer in 1899; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1494, 1924- 
A tree 8 m. high armed with numerous short dark recurved prickles; 
pinnae 4 pairs, the leaflets 9-16 pairs, oblong, 8-11 mm. long, 
pubescent beneath or glabrate; flowers in panicled spikes 1-1.5 cm. 
long; pods broad, flat, thin, glabrous. 

Acacia globulifera Safford, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 4: 
360. 1914. A. cornigera Millsp. FMB. 1: 19. 1895, in part, not 
Willd. A. sphaerocephala Millsp. FMB. 1: 298. 1896, not Schlecht. 
& Cham. Myrmecodendron globuliferum Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. 
Fl. 23:93. 1928. 

Zubin (Gaumer), Zubinche, Zaczubinche (Gaumer). Sp. Corne- 
zuelo, Cornezuelo bianco. Occasional; endemic; type from Tsilam, 
Gaumer 655. Bullhorn acacia. A shrub armed with large hollow 
whitish spines; leaflets numerous, oblong, 3-4 mm. long; flowers 
yellow, in dense globose heads. 

Acacia Milleriana Standl. Journ. Arn. Arb. 11: 29. 1930, 
Mimosa campechiana Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Mimosa No. 20. 1768. 
not A. campechiana Schenck, 1913. A. Farnesiana Millsp. FMB. 
1: 298. 1896, not Willd. Poponax campechiana Britt. & Rose, N. 
Amer. Fl. 23: 90. 1928. 

Chimay (Gaumer). Common in thickets; type from Campe- 
che. A shrub or small tree armed with stout compressed spines 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 277 

2.5-5 cm. long; leaflets very numerous, linear, 2 mm. long; flowers 
yellow, in globose heads; pods 10-12 cm. long, somewhat com- 
pressed, scarcely dehiscent. This has been reported from Yucatan 
as A. macracantha H. & B. 

Acacia riparioides (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. Sene- 
galia riparioides Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 117. 1928. 

Yaxcatzim (Yuc., Gaumer), Chukem (B. H.), Chukum (B. H.). 
Frequent. A large shrub, usually scandent, armed with very short, 
recurved prickles; leaflets numerous, linear-oblong, 5-7 mm. long; 
flowers creamy white, in panicled globose heads; pods flat, about 9 
cm. long and 2 cm. wide. A plant reported from Yucatan under 
the name "chukun" probably belongs here. 

Acacia sesquijuga (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. Acaci- 
opsis sesquijuga Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 95. 1928. 

Cabico (Gaumer). Endemic; Tsilam, Gaumer 1307, type; Pro- 
greso, Gaumer 2297. A shrub or small tree; pinnae 1 pair, the leaf- 
lets 3 or 4 to each pinna, obovate, rounded at the apex, 1.5-3 cm. 
long, glabrous; flowers in dense elongate spikes. 

Albizzia tomentosa (Micheli) Standl. Pithecolobium tomen- 
tosum Micheli. 

Xiahtsimin (Gaumer). Frequent. A tree 6-15 m. high; leaves 
bipinnate, the leaflets numerous, oblong, rounded at the apex, 
puberulent, 1-1.8 cm. long; flowers white, in globose panicled heads; 
pods thin, flat, broad. 

Calliandra Cookii (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. Anneslia 
Cookii Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 68. 1928. 

Type collected between Yaxmuxan and Yaxha, Pete*n, Guate- 
mala, Cook & Martin 209. Glabrous; pinnae 1 or 2 pairs, the 
leaflets 3 pairs, broadly obovate, membranous, 2-3.5 cm. long, 
rounded at the apex; pods 10 cm. long and 1 cm. wide. 

Calliandra Grisebachii (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. C. 
gracilis Griseb. Mem. Amer. Acad. II. 8: 180. 1860, not Klotzsch. 
Anneslia Grisebachii Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 67. 1928. 

Uaylahaltsac (Gaumer); reported also as "cabalpich" and "yala- 
hatsac." Common. A slender shrub 1-2.5 m. high, nearly glabrous; 
leaves bipinnate, the pinnae 2 pairs; leaflets 5-7 pairs, oval or oblong, 
5-25 mm. long; flowers white, in long-stalked panicled heads; pods 
flat, elastically dehiscent, 6-7 cm. long, about 4 mm. wide. This 
has been reported from Yucatan as C. formosa Benth. 



278 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Calliandra portoricensis (Jacq.) Benth. 

Rare. A slender shrub, nearly glabrous; pinnae 3 or more pairs; 
leaflets 8-15 pairs or more, 1.8 cm. long or shorter; flowers white; 
pods 8 mm. wide. 

Calliandra yucatanensis (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. 
Anneslia yucatanensis Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 53. 1928. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24240, type. A shrub; pinnae 1 pair; 
leaflets usually 3 to each pinna, oblong-obovate, rounded at the 
apex, glabrous; flowers purple, in few-flowered peduncled heads. 

Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. Acuan virgatum Medic.; D. 
depressus Millsp. FMB. 1: 20. 1895, 1: 367. 1898, not Humb. & 
Bonpl. 

Cabalpich (Gaumer); reported as "cambapich." Frequent. 
Plants usually a meter high or less, herbaceous or suffrutescent, 
unarmed; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets numerous, oblong, 2-4 mm. 
long, ciliate; flowers white, in globose slender-stalked heads; pods 
flat, 4.5-10 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, acute, glabrous. 

Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. Calliandra porto- 
ricensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 298. 1896, 1: 364. 1898, not Benth. 

Pick. Sp. Guanacaste (B. H.; of Nahuatl derivation). Tubroos 
(B. H.). Common. Ear-tree. A giant deciduous tree with broad 
spreading crown; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets very numerous, 
linear-oblong, 10-12 mm. long; flowers small, white, in long-stalked 
globose heads; fruit a broad, flat, dark brown, coiled pod. The 
wood, which is grayish tinged with yellow, hard, resistant, and 
elastic, is used for furniture and for general construction. In Tabasco 
the tree is called "piche." It has been listed from Yucatan as "Inga 
xylocarpa DC." 

The genus Inga probably is represented in the southern part of 
the Peninsula. Maler reports from Chiapas the Maya name "huitz" 
for a tree of this genus. Among the names used in Tabasco for the 
species are "guatope," "chelele," and "bitze." 

Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. 

Uaxim (Gaumer); reported as "xaxim." Sp. Guaje (of Nahuatl 
derivation, as is probably also the Maya name). Frequent. A 
shrub or tree, rarely 10 m. high; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets numer- 
ous, narrowly oblong, acute, 7-15 mm. long, nearly glabrous; flowers 
whitish, in dense globose peduncled axillary heads; pods flat, 10-15 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 279 

cm. long, 1.5 cm. wide. The wood is hard, close-grained, and light 
brown. 

Lysiloma bahamense Benth. L. latisiliqua Millsp. FMB. 1: 
300. 1896, not Benth. 

Tzalam (Gaumer) ; reported also as "zalam." Frequent. A tree 
sometimes 16 m. high; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets numerous, ob- 
long, obtuse, 1 cm. long, pale beneath, nearly glabrous; flowers 
white, in globose peduncled heads; pods flat, thin, 8-15 cm. long, 
2.5 cm. wide. The wood is hard, tough, close-grained, and dark 
reddish brown. In Mexico the species is known only from this region. 

Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. 

Frequent. A shrub 1-3 m. high, armed with short recurved 
prickles; pinnae 1 pair, the leaflets 1 or 2 pairs, 3-8 cm. long, obtuse, 
pubescent; flowers pink, in racemose globose heads; pods 2-3 cm. 
long, 5 mm. wide, hispid. 

Mimosa Ervendbergii Gray. 

Sp. Sierrilla. Atasta, Campeche, Rovirosa 655. A scandent 
shrub armed with very short, recurved prickles; leaflets numerous, 
1-3 cm. long, rhombic-oblong; flowers in panicled heads. 

Mimosa hemiendyta Rose & Robins. CNH. 8: 32. 1903. 
Pteromimosa hemiendyta Britt. & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 23: 172. 1928. 

Zaccatzim (Gaumer); reported also as "sascatzim." Catsem log- 
wood, Logwood brush, Bastard logwood (B. H.). Common; endemic; 
type from Apazote, Campeche, Goldman 513. A shrub or small 
tree 2-6 m. high, armed with short prickles; leaflets numerous, oval 
or oblong, 4-5 mm. long, glabrate; flowers pink, in dense panicled 
heads; pods flat, the margins with a thin lacerate wing. There is 
reported from Yucatan a "boxcatzim," which is probably of this 
genus or family, but it has not been identified. 

Mimosa pigra L. M. asperata L. 

PeteX and doubtless elsewhere in the region. A shrub 1-2 m. 
high, armed with stout pale prickles, usually growing in water; leaves 
prickly, the numerous leaflets linear, 5 mm. long; flowers pink, in 
globose heads; pods 1 cm. wide, hispid. 

Mimosa pudica L. 

Xmuts (Gaumer), Xmumuts (Pe"rez). Sp. Dormilona, Sensitiva. 
A frequent weed. Sensitive-plant. A slender annual; leaflets numer- 
ous, linear-oblong, 1 cm. long, setose-ciliate; flowers pink, in 



280 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

globose slender-peduncled heads; pods prickly.- The leaves are 
sensitive, the leaflets folding together if touched, and also at 
night or in cloudy weather. The Kekchi name is "kak-kix." 

Mimosa somnians Humb. & Bonpl. 

Sp. Zarza (Camp.). Campeche and perhaps elsewhere. A small 
shrub armed with stout prickles, glandular-pubescent; leaflets numer- 
ous, oblong, 4-5 mm. long; flowers pink, in heads; pods 3-4 mm. 
wide. 

The plant collected by Johnson and listed (Millsp. FMB. 1: 20. 
1895) as M. trijuga Benth. is doubtful, but it may be M. somnians. 

Pithecolobium albicans (Kunth) Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 30: 592. 1875. Acacia albicans Kunth, Mimos. PI. Le"gum. 87. 
pi 27. 1819-24. P. brevifolium Millsp. FMB. 1: 300. 1896, not 
Benth. 

Chucum (Gaumer), Chimay (Gaumer). Sp. Huisache (Camp.; a 
Nahuatl word). Common; endemic; type from Campeche. A tree 
sometimes 20 m. high, armed with short spines; leaves bipinnate, 
the leaflets numerous, oblong, 3-6 mm. long; flowers in panicled 
heads; fruit flat, thin, 10 cm. long, finely pubescent. The wood is 
used for rafters and other construction purposes. The bark is re- 
ported to be rich in tannin, and to be used for tanning skins. An 
infusion of the bark is employed as a remedy for diarrhea. 

There are reported also "chac-chucum," which has red wood, 
and "sac-chucum," with white wood. The former is probably Pithe- 
colobium albicans. The wood is said to be used for railroad ties and 
other purposes. Formerly, in order to make the calicanto floors 
harder and more durable, the bark of this tree was soaked in water, 
coloring it red, and the infusion was then poured over the floor at 
intervals of several days, treading the floor thoroughly each time. 
The "sacchucum," which is probably some other species, is used 
for tanning, also as an astringent and a remedy for dyspepsia. 

Pithecolobium calostachys Standl. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23703. A spiny tree 10 m. high or less; 
leaflets 4, oval or obovate, obtuse or acute, glabrate; flowers spicate; 
pods terete, constricted, dehiscent, the seeds with a large fleshy 
aril. This is perhaps the tree which has been reported (Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 19. 1895) from the region as P. ligustrinum Klotzsch, and 
for which Gaumer reports the name "tuncuy." 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 281 

Pithecolobium flexicaule (Benth.) Coulter. 

Frequent. A spiny shrub or small tree; pinnae 2 or 3 pairs, the 
leaflets 3-5 pairs, oblong or obovate, 5-12 mm. long, glabrous; 
flowers in short spikes; pods very hard and woody, somewhat com- 
pressed, 10-15 cm. long, 2.5 cm. wide. The wood is hard, close- 
grained, dark red or purplish brown, with yellow sapwood, and 
heavy. 

Pithecolobium keyense Britton. P. guadalupense Standl. 
CNH. 23: 395, in part. 1922. 

Collected at Tsilam, Progreso, and on Cozumel Island. An un- 
armed shrub or small tree; leaflets 4, obovate, 4-7 cm. long, rounded 
at the apex, coriaceous, glabrous; flowers pink, in slender-stalked 
heads; pods compressed, 10-15 cm. long, twisted, dehiscent; seeds 
with a red fleshy aril. The species is known in Mexico only from 
this region. 

Pithecolobium Saman (Willd.) Benth. 

Sp. Algarroba. Occasional. A large tree; leaflets oblong, rhom- 
bic, or obovate, 2-4 cm. long, pubescent; flowers pink, in dense 
long-stalked globose umbels; pods compressed, thick, 10-20 cm. 
long, 1-2 cm. wide, pulpy within. 

Pithecolobium platylobum (Spreng.) Urban. P. sericiflorum 
Benth. 

Occasional. A small spiny tree; leaflets numerous, large, 
rounded-obovate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers in few-flowered 
slender-stalked heads. 

Pithecolobium leucospermum Brandeg. Lysiloma Sabicu 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 300. 1896, not Benth. P. tortum Millsp. & Loes. 
BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 17. 1905, not Mart. Chloroleucon leucospermum 
Britt. & Rose. 

Yaaxek (Gaumer); reported as "xiaxek." Common. A spiny 
shrub or small tree; leaflets numerous, oblong or obovate, 7-15 
mm. long, pubescent or glabrous, rounded at the apex; flowers in 
slender-stalked, mostly solitary heads; pods compressed, glabrous, 
often 20 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide. The strong wood is used for 
construction purposes. The outer bark peels off and hangs on the 
trunk in long shreds. 

Pithecolobium Unguis-cati (L.) Mart. P. oblongum Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 19. 1895, 2: 45. 1900, not Benth. 



282 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Tsuiche (Gaumer); reported also as "tsiuche." Common. A 
spiny shrub or small tree; leaflets 4, obovate, 2-4 cm. long, rounded 
at the apex, glabrous or nearly so; flowers greenish yellow, fragrant, 
in racemose slender-stalked globose heads; pods 8-12 cm. long, 6-12 
mm. wide, twisted. The white or reddish aril surrounding the seeds 
is sweet and edible. The plant is reported to have astringent prop- 
erties, and is employed as a remedy for chronic diarrhea, hemor- 
rhages, and bronchial affections. The hard wood is much used in 
the construction of houses. 

The tree reported from Yucatan as Inga dulcis Willd. (a synonym 
of Pithecolobium dulce Benth.) may be P. Unguis-cati. It is said to 
bear the name "tsitsilche." 

Pithecolobium latifolium (L.) Benth. is known in British Honduras 
by the names "chilillo" and "chec-che." P. albicaule Britt. & Rose 
is called "chickem" in the same country, and an undetermined species 
of Pithecolobium is reported to bear the name "y axe k." 

Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stuntz. P. juliflora DC. 

Catzimek (Gaumer). Sp. Mezquite. Common. Mesquite. A 
large spiny shrub or tree sometimes 12 m. high; leaves bipinnate, 
the leaflets linear-oblong, 5-10 mm. long, glabrous; flowers small, 
greenish yellow, fragrant, in slender spikes; pods 10-20 cm. long, 
1 cm. wide, compressed, hard, with sweet pulp. The wood is hard, 
close-grained, and dark red or brown, with yellow sapwood. The 
flowers are much visited by bees. The pulp of the pods is edible, 
and the pods are eaten by cattle. 

Bauhinia divaricata L. B. pes-vaccae Donde", Emulation 3: 15. 
1878. B. Lamarckiana Millsp. FMB. 1: 20. 1895, not DC. 

Tsulubtok (Gaumer), Utsomeltok (Cuevas). Sp. Pata de vaca 
(Yuc., B. H.), Calzoncillo. Common. A shrub or small tree; leaves 
3-9 cm. wide, subcordate, deeply bilobate, the lobes obtuse or acute; 
flowers white, racemose, 2 cm. long; only 1 or 2 of the stamens fer- 
tile. The inner bark is sometimes used for making rope and twine. 
The infusion of the flowers is said to have expectorant properties, 
and is a domestic remedy for bronchitis. The infusion of the leaves 
is used as a lotion for sore feet, and to relieve lameness. 

Bauhinia glabra Jacq. 

Frequent. A scandent unarmed shrub; leaves 5-7.5 cm. long, 
bilobate, the lobes obtuse, brown-sericeous beneath; flowers in long 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 283 

racemes, the calyx densely brown-pubescent; stamens 10; pods flat, 
2-3-seeded, densely pubescent. 

Bauhinia Jenningsii P. Wilson. 

Puerto Morelos, Goldman 624; known otherwise only from the 
Isle of Pines, Cuba. An unarmed shrub; leaves ovate-oblong, 4.5-10 
cm. long, entire, acute or obtuse, pale beneath; flowers 1.5 cm. long. 

Bauhinia spathacea DC. B. divaricata Millsp. FMB. 1: 20. 
1895, in part, not L. B. latifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 20. 1895, not Cav. 
B. porrecta Millsp. FMB. 1: 364. 1898, not Swartz. 

Tsulubtok, Zactsulubtok. Sp. Pata de vaca, Mano de vaca. Com- 
mon. A shrub or small tree; leaves 2-2.5 cm. wide, shallowly bilo- 
bate, the lobes short, rounded; flowers white, in short dense racemes; 
stamens all except 1 or 2 sterile. The specimens referred here are 
very close to B. divaricata, and perhaps not specifically distinct. The 
plant is said to be used as a remedy for asthma. 

Bauhinia ungulata L. B. Cavanillei Millsp. FMB. 1: 364. 1898. 

Chactsulubtok (Gaumer). Sp. Pie de venado. Common. An un- 
armed shrub or small tree; leaves 3-10 cm. wide, bilobate, the lobes 
narrow, acute, glabrous above, brown-pubescent and gland-dotted 
beneath; flowers 4-5 cm. long, in long racemes, the 10 stamens 
white. The extract of the plant is reported to have purgative and 
vermicidal properties, and is administered to expel intestinal para- 
sites. Schott states that the plant has sudorific properties. The 
flexible poles cut from the tree are much used for constructing huts. 

The plant collected by Johnson and reported as B. splendens 
HBK. (Millsp. FMB. 1: 364. 1898) is doubtful. 

Caesalpinia Crista L. C. bonducella Fleming. 

Sp. Taray, Cojdn de gato. Common on seashores. Nickernut. A 
low shrub armed with numerous prickles, the branches long and 
straggling; leaves bipinnate, prickly, the leaflets 1.5-4 cm. long; 
flowers small, greenish yellow, racemose; pods 6-8 cm. long and 
nearly as broad, densely covered with long prickles; seeds globose, 
gray, 2 cm. in diameter. The seeds are one of the "sea beans" 
found commonly on tropical shores. The shrub is confined to the 
narrow belt of thicket edging sea beaches. In places much exposed 
to wind it forms low and very compact thickets, but if somewhat 
protected the branches are frequently long and straggling. 



284 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Caesalpinia Gaumeri Greenm. FMB. 2: 330. 1912. 

Citinche (Gaumer). Frequent; endemic; type from Progreso, 
Millspaugh 1675. A tree, said to reach a height of 20 m., unarmed; 
leaflets numerous, rhombic, 2-3 cm. long, glabrate; flowers large, 
yellow, in long racemes; pods flat, elastically dehiscent. The wood 
is reported to be used for telegraph poles. 

Caesalpinia platyloba Wats. 

Chacte (Gaumer; "red tree"). Sp. Brasil, Brasilete. Braziletto 
(B. H.). Common. A tree, reported to attain a height of 18 m., 
unarmed; leaflets ovate or oblong, acute to rounded at the apex, 
2-5.5 cm. long, pubescent; flowers yellow, in long racemes, the larg- 
est sepal pectinate-lobed; pods broad, flat, thin, pubescent, indehis- 
cent, 6-13 cm. long. The wood is hard, heavy, and close-grained. 
It yields a red dye, which is said to be the pigment used in imprint- 
ing the "red hand" found on the walls of many of the Maya build- 
ings. Some of the Yucatan specimens have been referred to 
C. cubensis Greenm. 

One writer (Agricultor 2: 102) states that there are three kinds 
of chacte, the best being "sac-chacte," which is used for rafters of 
houses. "Chactecoc" is a dyewood, perhaps the species here con- 
sidered. "Luumchacte" or "chactechuhum" is an inferior wood. 
The wood of all three is employed for cart axles and railroad ties. 
It is probable that these names relate to distinct species, and per- 
haps even to trees of other genera or families. 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. 

Chaczinkin (red-flowered form), Kanzinkin (yellow-flowered 
form); also listed as "sikin." Sp. Flor de camardn, Guacamayo. 
Cultivated commonly and naturalized; perhaps native. A glabrous 
shrub or small tree, unarmed or prickly; leaflets oblong to oval or 
obovate, rounded at the apex, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, pale beneath; 
flowers large and showy, in large racemes, long-pedicellate, usually 
red variegated with yellow, sometimes wholly red; pods flat, broad, 
elastically dehiscent. An infusion of the flowers is employed as a 
remedy for amenorrhea. The Kekchi name is "utsuh." Robinia 
pyramidata Mill. (Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Robinia No. 7. 1768), described 
from Campeche, is apparently a synonym of this species. 

Caesalpinia vesicaria L. C. bijuga Sw. 

Toxob, Yaxkixkanab (Schott). Frequent. A small, nearly gla- 
brous tree, armed with spines; leaflets few, broadly obovate, obcor- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 285 

ifjk 

date, or rounded, 1.5-3.5 cm. long; flowers yellow, in long racemes; 
pods somewhat swollen, succulent, 3.5-5 cm. long. This is probably 
the "toxobek" reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 100. 1913). He states 
that an infusion of the pods with iron sulphate gives a permanent 
black dye, and that the plant has astringent properties. The pow- 
dered charcoal of the bark is a common remedy for diarrhea in 
children. Gaumer, in his notes accompanying one of the specimens, 
gives the Maya name as "ek," doubtless as a result of confusion 
with the logwood. 

Caesalpinia yucatanensis Greenm. FMB. 2: 252. 1907. C. 
exostemma Millsp. FMB. 1: 21. 1895, not DC. C. mexicana Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 49. 1900, not Gray. 

Kanpocolcum (Gaumer). Sp. Sen del pais. Common; type from 
Izamal, Gaumer 371; also in Veracruz. A shrub or small tree; leaf- 
lets oblong to oval, 1.5-3.5 cm. long, obtuse or rounded at the apex, 
glabrate; flowers large, yellow, long-pedicellate, in short or long 
racemes; pods broad, flat, velvety-pubescent, elastically dehiscent, 
covered with small elevated dark glands. 

Cassia alata L. 

Sp. Flor del secreto. Occasional. A shrub 2-4 m. high; leaves 
pinnate, the leaflets numerous, oval to oblong, 6-17 cm. long, 
rounded at the apex, glabrate; flowers large, racemose, pale yellow; 
pods 15 cm. long, with 2 broad longitudinal wings. Called "tara- 
tana" in Tabasco. An ointment made from the flowers is a current 
remedy for ringworm. 

Cassia anisopetala Donn. Smith. 

Kanchinaik (Pete'n). Ixpop, PeteX Cook & Martin 193. A 
shrub or tree, armed with short recurved spines; leaflets 3-9 cm. 
long, obtuse or acute; flowers in long dense racemes. 

Cassia bicapsularis L. 

Sp. Alcaparrillo. Occasional. A shrub or herb 1-3 m. high, 
glabrous or pubescent; leaflets 3-5 pairs, oval or obovate, obtuse or 
rounded at the apex; flowers pale yellow, racemose, large and showy; 
pods terete, 11 cm. long. Called "cachimbo" in Tabasco. 

Cassia biflora L. 

Common. A slender shrub 1-2.5 m. high; leaflets few, oval, 
1-3.5 cm. long, rounded at the apex, glabrous or pubescent; flowers 



286 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

large, yellow, in few-flowered racemes; pods flat, 5-11 cm. long, 4-5 
mm. wide. Specimens listed from Yucatan (Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 
1898) as C. polyphylla Jacq. are doubtfully distinct. 

Cassia emarginata L. C. arborescens Mill. 

Xtuab (Gaumer), Xtuhabin (Gaumer). Sp. Barba de jolote (B. 
H.). Common. A shrub or tree 3-7 m. high with thick branches; 
leaflets few, oblong to rounded-oval, rounded at the apex, 2-13 cm. 
long, densely pubescent beneath; flowers yellow or orange, racemose; 
pods flat, thick, 14-40 cm. long, 1-1.5 cm. wide, indehiscent. 

Cassia Fistula L. 

Sp. Canafistula (Yuc., B. H.). Sometimes planted; native of 
tropical Asia. A medium-sized tree; leaflets 4-8 pairs, acutish, 
7-20 cm. long, glabrous; flowers large, yellow, in lax drooping 
racemes 30-50 cm. long; pods woody, terete, 60 cm. long or less, 2 
cm. thick. The pulp of the fruit has purgative properties. 

Cassia flavicoma HBK. C. Chamaecrista Millsp. FMB. 1: 298. 
1896, not L. C. tristicula Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 1898, not HBK. 

Common. Subgenus Chamaecrista. An erect pubescent annual, 
simple or branched; leaflets numerous, oblong, rounded or obtuse at 
the apex; flowers large, yellow, axillary; pods small, flat, elastically 
dehiscent. 

Cassia flexuosa L. C. procumbens Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 1898, 
not L. 

Buulchich (Gaumer). Progreso, Schott 290; Gaumer 23153. 
Subgenus Chamaecrista. A somewhat woody perennial, usually 30 
cm. high or less; leaflets numerous, small, linear-oblong, pubescent 
or glabrate; stipules large and conspicuous; flowers large, yellow, 
axillary; pods small, flat, elastically dehiscent. 

Cassia hirsuta L. C. leptocarpa var. hirsuta Benth. 

Zalche (Gaumer). Frequent. A coarse hirsute herb 1.5 m. high 
or less; leaflets 3-5 pairs, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, acute or acumi- 
nate, 4-7 cm. long; flowers yellow, in short axillary racemes; pods 
linear, hirsute, compressed, 12-20 cm. long, 5 mm. wide. 

Cassia leiophylla Vog. C. sericea Millsp. FMB. 1: 299. 1896, in 
part, not Sw. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 287 

Sp. Hormiguera (Camp.). Izamal, Millspaugh 225. A shrub or 
herb 1 m. high or less, pubescent; leaflets 2-3 pairs, broadly obovate, 
rounded at the apex, 3-5 cm. long; flowers large, yellow; pods com- 
pressed, 10 cm. long, 5 mm. wide. 

Cassia occidentalis L. 

Sp. Bricho, Frijolillo. A frequent weed. Plants usually herba- 
ceous and 1.5 m. high or less; leaflets 4-7 pairs, ovate, 2-8 cm. long, 
acute or acuminate, usually glabrous; flowers chiefly axillary, yellow, 
large and showy; fruit flat, 8-12 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide. 

Cassia Peralteana HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 356. 1823. C. 
Liebmannii Millsp. FMB. 1: 365. 1898, not Benth. C. racemosa 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 1898, not Mill. 

Habinpek (Gaumer), Kdnhabin (Gaumer), Xcantoplatston 
(Schott), Yaxhabin (Gaumer). Common; endemic; type from 
Campeche. A tree, reported to attain a height of 10 m.; leaflets 
numerous, oblong to oval, 3-6 cm. long, acute to rounded at the 
apex, pubescent, at least beneath; flowers large, bright yellow, in 
short dense racemes; fruit flat, glabrous, 1 cm. wide. 

Cassia reticulata Willd. 

Yaaxhabin (Gaumer). Reported from the region, and probably 
occurring there. A large shrub or small tree; leaflets numerous, 
oblong to obovate, rounded at the apex, 5-12 cm. long; flowers large, 
yellow, in long racemes; pods flat, 12-18 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide, 
thin. 

Cassia Tagera L. 

Atasta, Campeche, Rovirosa 45. A small prostrate perennial, 
nearly glabrous; leaflets 4, cuneate-obovate, 1 cm. long or shorter; 
flowers small, axillary; pods short, flat. 

Cassia Tora L. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1474- An erect annual, glabrous or 
nearly so; leaflets usually 3 pairs, obovate or rounded-obovate, 
rounded at the apex; flowers large, yellow, axillary; pods linear, 
15-20 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide. 

Cassia undulata Benth. 

Frequent. An erect or clambering shrub; leaflets 4, oblique, 
lance-oblong or ovate-oblong, acuminate, 4.5-9 cm. long, nearly 
glabrous; flowers large, greenish yellow; pods terete. 



288 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Specimens reported as C. bacillaris L. f. (Millsp. FMB. 1: 20. 
1895) may belong here. 

Cassia uniflora Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. Cassia No. 5. 1768. C. 
ornithopoides Lam. ; C. sericea Sw. 

Tulubayen (Gaumer), Xtuab (Aznar). A frequent weed; type 
from Campeche. An erect herb, sericeous with fulvous or reddish 
hairs; leaflets few, oval or obovate, obtuse or rounded at the apex; 
flowers small, yellow, in short axillary racemes; pods small, short, 
4-angled, constricted between the seeds. 

Cassia villosa Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. Cassia No. 4. 1768. C. Ur- 
sula Millsp. FMB. 1: 365. 1898, not L. Ormocarpum sp. Millsp. & 
Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 17. 1905. 

Zalche (Gaumer). Frequent; described from Campeche. Plants 
usually herbaceous and about 1 m. high, sometimes shrubby and 
2 m. high, densely stellate-pubescent; leaflets 6-8, acute or acuminate; 
flowers yellow, in short racemes; pods turgid, 4-5 mm. wide, deeply 
constricted between the seeds. Easy of recognition because of the 
stellate pubescence. 

Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf. Poinciana regia Boj. 

Sp. Flamboyan. Planted as a shade tree; native of Madagascar. 
Poinciana, flame-tree. A medium-sized tree with large deciduous 
bipinnate leaves; flowers large, orange-red and scarlet. 

Haematoxylum campechianum L. 

Ek (Gaumer). Sp. Palo de tinta, Palo de Campeche, Tinta. Log- 
wood (B. H.). Abundant in the eastern and southern part of the 
Peninsula, and extending into Tabasco; also in the West Indies; 
originally described from Campeche. A small tree with compressed 
and fluted trunk, the bark grayish, the branches irregular, armed 
with stout spines; leaves glabrous, pinnate, the few leaflets broadly 
cuneate, 1-3 cm. long, with numerous parallel veins; flowers yellow, 
5-6 mm. long, racemose; pods flat, thin, dehiscent. The wood is 
hard and heavy, with a characteristic odor, the sapwood yellowish, 
the heartwood reddish brown, becoming deep red on exposure. The 
heartwood is the logwood of commerce, which has been exported in 
vast quantities. Its export was formerly the chief industry of the 
region, and it and mahogany were the prime cause of the British 
settlements along the coast, and of many years of hostility between 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 289 

the British and Spanish settlements. It is stated that when Grand- 
mont captured Campeche, he burned more than a million logs stored 
there. The wood was shipped to Spain early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Its export is still an important industry. 

The wood contains a peculiar principle, haematoxylin or hematin, 
used for dyeing. It is an official drug of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 
being employed as an astringent, especially for treating dysentery 
and diarrhea. In Yucatan it is employed for the same purpose. The 
seeds are sometimes used for flavoring food. 

Another species of this genus is common along the west coast of 
Mexico and Central America, and on the north coast of South 
America. 

Hymenaea Courbaril L., a handsome timber tree, is called "guapi- 
nol" and "locust" in British Honduras. The Kekchi name is "pak." 

Tamarindus indica L. 

Pahxuhuc (Tozzer). Sp. Tamarindo. Planted frequently, and 
perhaps naturalized; native of the Old World tropics. Tamarind. 
A large or medium-sized, unarmed tree; leaves pinnate, the leaflets 
numerous, oblong, 1-2 cm. long; flowers yellow, striped with red, 
racemose; pods brown, indehiscent, the 4-7 seeds surrounded by 
acidulous juicy pulp. The flowers are produced in May and June, 
and the pods are ripe in March and April. The agreeably flavored 
pulp is used for preparing cooling beverages and conserves, and it 
is employed also as a laxative. The strong wood is utilized for 
construction purposes. 

Abrus precatorius L. 

Xocoak. Sp. Peonia. Frequent in thickets. Beadvine. A slen- 
der woody vine; leaves even-pinnate, the numerous leaflets oblong, 
1-1.5 cm. long, rounded at the apex, sparsely strigose; flowers pur- 
plish, racemose; pods containing 4-6 scarlet and black seeds. The 
leaves and root have the flavor of licorice. The seeds are poisonous. 
They are very handsome and durable, and are strung to make neck- 
laces and bracelets. The plant is rather uncommon in Mexico and 
Central America. 

Aeschynomene americana L. A. americana var. depila 
Millsp. FMB. 1:363.1898. 

Common. A weedy annual with pinnate leaves; leaflets numer- 
ous, linear-oblong, acute; flowers small, yellow and brown-red; pods 



290 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

jointed, deeply notched along the lower margin. Var. depila was 
based on Gaumer 955 from Izamal. It is a common form with gla- 
brous, rather than pubescent, pods. 

Aeschynomene fascicularis Schlecht. & Cham. 

Cabalpich. Sp. Pegapega. Common. A slender shrub about a 
meter high or sometimes herbaceous; leaflets numerous, glabrate, 
obtuse; flowers small, yellow. According to Cuevas (PL Med. 20, 
Ilustr. pL12,f.l),a decoction of the plant is employed as a remedy 
for tumors. The plant is much eaten by cattle. 

Aeschynomene hispida Willd. 

Apazote, Campeche, Goldman 497. A large herb of wet soil with 
dull red and greenish flowers. 

Andira inermis (Swartz) HBK. (A. excelsa HBK.) has been 
reported from Yucatan, and probably occurs in Campeche and Quin- 
tana Roo, but there is no authentic record of its existence in the 
region. The names reported for the tree are "yakba" (Gaumer), 
"yabo," and "yaba." i n British Honduras it is called "iximche," 
"chaperno," "cabbagebark," and "cornwood." 

Apoplanesia paniculata Presl. 

Chulul. Common. A tree up to 24 m. high, flowering in July 
and August; leaves pinnate, the leaflets numerous, oblong or oval, 
black-dotted, petiolulate, rounded or emarginate at the apex; flow- 
ers small, in panicled racemes, the calyx accrescent. The Maya 
name signifies "bow," indicating the use of the wood for making 
bows, as stated in the Motul Dictionary. In Guerrero and Oaxaca 
this tree is called "palo de arco," a name having the same meaning. 
The wood is used in Yucatan for rafters. 

Arachis hypogaea L. 

Sp. Cacahuate. Cultivated commonly, and reported as escaped. 
Native probably of Brazil. Peanut. Called "mani" in many parts 
of Central America. The name "cacahuate" is of Nahuatl origin, 
being formed directly from the name of the cacao tree. 

Benthamantha Greenmanii (Millsp.) Britten & Baker f. 
FMB. 2: 50. 1900. Cracca Greenmanii Millsp. FMB. 1: 299. pi. 13. 
1896, 1: 366. 1898. "Cracca aff. glabrescens Benth.," Loes. Verb. 
Bot. Ver. Brand. 65: 90. 1923. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 291 

Chicamthul, Xholac (Valdez). Sp. Jicama de conejo. Common; 
endemic in Yucatan and Campeche; type collected at Chichen Itza, 
Millspaugh 127. A small herb, the roots bearing fusiform tubers; 
leaves pinnate, with 3 or 5 leaflets, the leaflets ovate or oval, obtuse 
or rounded at the apex, thinly strigose; flowers creamy white, in 
lax racemes; pods linear, constricted between the seeds. Valdez 
states that the plant is used to expel intestinal parasites. 

Benthamantha mollis (HBK.) Alef. Cracca caribaea Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 22. 1895, not Benth. C. bicolor Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 1898, 
not Micheli. C. villosa var. cinerea Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 1898, not 
Kuntze. Tephrosia cinerea Millsp. FMB. 1: 299. 1896, in part, not 
Pers. 

Common. A slender shrub 1.5 m. high or less, densely silky- 
villous; leaflets 7-13, oval or oblong, obtuse or rounded at the apex; 
flowers greenish yellow, in few-flowered peduncled racemes. 

Cajanus bicolor DC. 

Cultivated and naturalized; probably native of tropical Asia. 
Pigeon-pea. A shrub 1-3 m. high with 3-foliolate leaves and large 
yellow flowers, which are frequently tinged with red. The plant is 
often grown for its edible seeds. 

Calopogonium coeruleum Benth. 

Collected by Johnson, without locality. A large vine with 
3-foliolate leaves and purple flowers. The plant is common in 
tropical America, and probably occurs in the southern part of the 
Peninsula, if not elsewhere. In Gaumer's Sinonimia the names 
"cup" and "jicama cimarrona" are given for this species. 

Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou. C. obtusifolia Millsp. FMB. 
2: 52. 1900, not DC. 

Frequent on sea beaches. A coarse herb, usually prostrate but 
sometimes scandent; leaves 3-foliolate, the leaflets broadly rounded 
or emarginate at the apex; flowers pink. A characteristic strand 
plant. 

Canavalia mexicana Piper. C. ensiformis Millsp. FMB. 1: 365. 
1898, not DC. 

Sp. Haba. Occasional. A large herbaceous vine, glabrate; leaf- 
lets oval or ovate, obtuse; flowers pink or purplish, in long-peduncled 
interrupted racemes; pods broad, thick. 



292 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Centrosema Plumierii Turp. Bradburya Plumierii Kuntze. 

Sp. Mariposa. Frequent. A small vine with large, showy, pur- 
plish or whitish flowers; leaves, as in the other species, 3-foliolate, 
the leaflets broadly rhombic-ovate, obtuse or acute, glabrate. 
Called "frijolillo" and "patito" in Tabasco. 

Centrosema Schottii (Millsp.) Schum. in Just's Bot. Jahresb. 
26 1 : 353. 1900. Bradburya Schottii Millsp. FMB. 1: 364. 1898. 

Buulbech (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Nohpat, Schott 718; 
Chichankanab, Gaumer 2062; Izamal, Gaumer 930; San Anselmo, 
Gaumer 2061; Suitun, Gaumer 23457; without locality, Gaumer 1662, 
24162, 24121. A slender herbaceous vine; leaflets shallowly hastate- 
lobed at the base, glabrous or nearly so; flowers often 5 cm. broad, 
purple; pods long, linear. 

Centrosema virginiana (L.) Benth. Bradburya virginiana 
Kuntze; Clitoria mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 366. 1898, not Link. 

Kantsin (Gaumer). Common. A slender herbaceous vine with 
purple flowers; leaflets oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, acute or 
obtuse, glabrate; pods linear. 

The name "zapatito de la reina" is reported for this species in 
local publications, but I suspect that the plant to which this name 
is applied is rather Clitoria Ternatea L., an introduced plant, culti- 
vated in tropical America for its showy blue flowers, and usually 
known by this vernacular name. 

Bradburya pubescens (Benth.) Kuntze is reported by Millspaugh 
(FMB. 1: 23. 1895) on the basis of a Johnson specimen. The record 
is doubtful, and may relate to Centrosema virginiana. 

Chaetocalyx vestita Standl. FMB. 8: 14. 1930. 

Type from Xnocac, Gaumer 23509; Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 
1077; San Anselmo, Gaumer 2165; without locality, Gaumer 24117. 
A slender herbaceous vine; leaves 5-foliolate, the leaflets oval, 1.2-3 
cm. long, rounded at each end, apiculate; flowers 12-15 mm. long; 
fruit linear, 7.5-11 cm. long, composed of about 10 flat joints. 

Cicer arietinum L. 

Sp. Garbanzo. Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia, and probably culti- 
vated. Native, perhaps, of the Mediterranean region. Chick-pea. 
Grown extensively in some parts of Mexico for its edible seeds; an 
important food staple in Spain. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 293 

Crotalaria incana L. 

Sacpet, Zacpet. A common weed. Rattlebox. An erect branched 
annual, copiously pilose; leaves long-petiolate, 3-foliolate (as in the 
other species listed here), the leaflets rounded or broadly obovate; 
flowers greenish yellow, in long racemes; pods inflated, densely hairy. 

Crotalaria pumila Ort. C. pumila var. obcordata Griseb. 

Sp. Tronadora. A frequent weed. A small branched annual, 
thinly appressed-pubescent; leaflets small, obovate or obovate- 
oblong, rounded at the apex; flowers yellow, in few-flowered racemes; 
pods appressed-pubescent. 

Crotalaria vitellina Ker. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23641, 23518 in part, 23661 .Plants 
large and sometimes suflrutescent, appressed-pubescent or glabrate; 
leaflets large, often acutish; flowers 2 cm. long, yellow; pods ap- 
pressed-pubescent. In some parts of Central America the young 
shoots of the Crotalarias are cooked and eaten. 

Dalbergia glabra (Mill.) Standl., comb. nov. Robinia glabra 
Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Robinia No. 5. 1768. D. campeachiana Benth. 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 4: Suppl. 37. 1860. Amerimnon campeachianum 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 159. 1891. D. cibix Pittier, Journ. Washington 
Acad. Sci. 12: 59. 1922. A. glabrum Standl. CNH. 23: 507. 1922. 
A. cibix Standl. CNH. 23: 1666. 1926. 

Cibix, Muc. Common; type from Campeche. A scandent shrub 
sometimes 9 m. long; leaves pinnate, the leaflets oval or obovate, 
rounded or retuse at the apex, appressed-pubescent; flowers small, 
white, in short axillary panicles, opening in May. The tough inner 
bark is used as cordage. The type of D. campeachiana was collected 
in Campeche by Linden; that of D. cibix at Yaxcaba, Gaumer 721. 

Desmodium adscendens (Swartz) DC. 

Reported from Cozumel Island, Gaumer in 1885. Leaflets oval 
to orbicular, rounded at the apex, appressed-pilose beneath; flowers 
purple, in loose racemes; pods straight on the upper margin, deeply 
notched on the lower. All the species of Desmodium listed here are 
herbs with 3-foliolate leaves, purple to whitish flowers, and jointed 
pods. 

Desmodium frutescens (Jacq.) Schindl. D. supinum DC.; 
Meibomia supina Britton. 



294 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1550; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1396; 
without locality, Johnston. A slender perennial; leaflets ovate to 
elliptic, acute or obtuse, pale beneath, pilose; pods with numerous 
broad joints. One of the common weeds of tropical America. 

Desmodium molle (Vahl) DC. 

San Anselmo, Gaumer 2425; Me"rida, Schott 885. A tall stout 
herb, densely pubescent; stipules narrow, green, persistent; pods of 
2 joints, the terminal joint much larger, notched on one margin. 

Desmodium procumbens (Mill.) Hitchc. Meibomia tortuosa 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 299. 1896, not Kuntze. M. neomexicana Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 367. 1898, in part, not Kuntze. 

Kintah. A common weed. A slender herb, the stems pubescent 
with hooked hairs; leaflets lanceolate to broadly rhombic-ovate, 
acutish to rounded at the apex, glabrate; pods twisted, with several 
joints. 

Desmodium purpureum (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle. Meibomia 
neomexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 367. 1898, in part, not Kuntze. 

Kintah. A common weed. A tall coarse herb, densely pubescent; 
stipules large, green, persistent; leaflets rhombic-ovate, obtuse or 
acute, thick; flowers in very long racemes; pods spirally twisted. 

Desmodium scorpiurus (Swartz) Desv. 

Maunakle (Gaumer). Doubtless a common weed, but only two 
collections reported: Gaumer 263 and 929, from Izamal. A low, 
often prostrate herb; leaflets oblong to elliptic or ovate, obtuse, 
appressed-pubescent; pods with several joints, these narrowly 
oblong, about 3 times as long as broad. This is one of the most 
frequent weeds of the American tropics. 

Meibomia albiflora (Salzm.) Kuntze, as reported by Millspaugh 
(FMB. 1: 367. 1898), is doubtful. The report is based on Johnson 
36b. Equally dubious is the report of M. affinis (Schlecht.) Kuntze 
(FMB. 1: 22. 1895), also based on a Johnson specimen. 

Diphysa carthagenensis Jacq. D. robinioides Millsp. FMB. 
1: 367. 1898; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 37: Beibl. 80. 17. 1905, not Benth. 
D. minutifolia Standl. CNH. 23: 479. 1922, in part, not Rose. D. 
spinosa Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 24: 213. 1924, at least in part. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 295 

Tsutsuc (Gaumer), Xbabalche (Valdez). Common. A large 
shrub or small tree with pinnate leaves and showy yellow flowers; 
leaflets oblong to oval, pale beneath, glabrous or nearly so; pods 
narrow, inflated and bladderlike. Valdez reports that the plant has 
sudorific properties. The Maya name is recorded as "sucuc," and 
from British Honduras the name is reported as "stutztzuk." 

It may be that more than one species is represented in the Penin- 
sula, but all the specimens examined seem to me to be conspecific. 

Erythrina americana Mill. E. carnea Ait.; E. coralloides 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 299. 1896, perhaps also of Moc. & Sesse*. E. Coral- 
lodendron Millsp. FMB. 1: 367. 1898, not L. 

Chacmolche, Xkolokmax, Xoyo. Sp. Colorin, Pinon espinoso. 
Frequent. A small spiny tree with 3-foliolate leaves, red flowers, 
and scarlet seeds. The seeds contain a dangerous poison whose 
properties are well known to the Mayas. 

Erythrina rubrinervia HBK. is known in British Honduras as 
"sumpankle," "pito," "colorin," "chacmolche," and "tiger- wood." 

Galactia striata (Jacq.) Urban. G. multiflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 
367. 1898, not Rob. Teramnus sp. Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 
80: 17. 1905. 

Xichilax (Gaumer). Common. An herbaceous or suffrutescent 
vine with 3-foliolate leaves and small purplish flowers. 

Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. Robinia rosea Mill. Gard. 
Diet. ed. 8. Robinia No. 4. 1768. R. maculata HBK. Nov. Gen. & 
Sp. 6: 392. 1823. Lonchocarpus maculatus DC. Prodr. 2: 260. 1825. 
G. maculata Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 1: 688. 1841. G. sepium f. 
maculata Urban, Symb. Antill. 2: 289. 1900. 

Zacyab, Sacyab. Sp. Madrecacao (Quintana Roo, B. H.). Com- 
mon. A tree 4-10 m. high or larger, with pinnate leaves, the leaflets 
usually spotted beneath with purple; flowers white or pinkish, very- 
showy. In many regions the tree is called "madre de cacao." 
This name alludes to the fact that the aborigines of Mexico and 
Central America planted the tree for shade in cacao plantations, 
having found that cacao would thrive best in association with it. 
The plant is used in some localities for poisoning rats and mice. The 
wood is very durable, and is used for many purposes. The Kekchi 
names are "kante" and "kansim." The name "yaite" also is 
reported from Guatemala. 



296 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

The type of Robinia maculata was collected in Campeche; that 
of R. rosea in Campeche by Houstoun. 

Harpalyce formosa DC. 

Balche-ceh. Between Ticul and Tabi, Seler 3902; Piste", Seler 
3988. A shrub with pinnate leaves and large rose-colored flowers; 
leaflets elliptic, obtuse, puberulent and glandular beneath; calyx 
2-lipped. 

Indigofera mucronata Spreng. Cracca cinerea Millsp. FMB. 
1: 299. 1896, in part, not Kuntze. 

Sp. Anilillo. A frequent weed. A decumbent herb with pinnate 
leaves and small, dull red, racemose flowers; leaflets few, elliptic, 
rounded at the apex, grayish-strigose; pods short, slender, 4-angled, 
reflexed. 

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. /. Anil L. 

Choh. Sp. Anil. A common weed. Indigo. A stiff grayish shrub 
1-2.5 m. high with small greenish flowers; leaflets oblong-elliptic, 
obtuse, densely grayish-strigose; pods short, obtusely 4-angled, 
curved. Indigo formerly was cultivated extensively in Yucatan, 
and was exported as late as 1885, but it is no longer grown. Its use 
as a dye plant was known to the early inhabitants of Mexico. In 
Yucatan the plant is reported in use in domestic medicine as a tonic 
and as a remedy for fevers, abscesses, and epilepsy. The Maya name 
is applied to both the plant and its product. 

Lens esculenta Moench. 

Sp. Lenteja. Listed in Gaumer' s Sinonimia, and perhaps grown 
for its edible seeds. Native of southeastern Europe. Lentil. 

Lonchocarpus hondurensis Benth. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaunter 23887, 23851; without locality, Gaumer 
24387; Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1042. A tree &-8 m. high; 
leaflets about 9, elliptic, obtuse, nearly glabrous; flowers purplish, 
in short panicled racemes; pods flat, 1-seeded, winged on the mar- 
gins. Called "gusavo" in Tabasco, and "dogwood" in British 
Honduras. 

Lonchocarpus longistylus Pittier, CNH. 20: 62. /. 10. 1917. 
L. violaceus Millsp. FMB. 1: 22. 1895, not HBK. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 297 

Balche, Zaayab (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 
904; Mucuyche*, Schott 691; Chichen Itza, Thompson 1; Izamal, 
Gaumer 23180, 23441; without locality, Gaumer 24108, 24429. A 
tree 18 m. high; leaflets about 15, elliptic or ovate, acute, glabrous; 
flowers blue-purple, in lax racemes, borne in September and October. 
This is one of the most important and interesting trees of the 
Peninsula. By the ancient Mayas the bark was soaked in water 
with honey and fermented to produce an intoxicating drink called 
"balche." With this the Mayas were accustomed to intoxicate 
themselves at religious and other celebrations, and it was also one 
of the offerings made to the gods. The beverage is still made and 
used, but sirup is usually employed in place of honey. The Spanish 
name for the drink is "pitarrilla." 

Balche is made in Chiapas and other regions where this species 
is not known to grow, hence it is probable that various species of 
Lonchocarpus are used for preparing the beverage. 

It is probable that the oldest name for this tree is Robinia lati- 
folia Mill. (Card. Diet. ed. 8. Robinia No. 9. 1768). The type was 
collected in Campeche by Houstoun. The pods of L. longistylus 
have not been collected, but if they are found to agree with Miller's 
description, there will be little doubt as to the application of his name. 

Lonchocarpus rugosus Benth. Journ. Linn. Soc. 4: Suppl. 92. 
1860. 

Kantzin. Black cabbagebark (B. H.). Type collected in Campeche 
by Houstoun. Izamal, Gaumer 996; without locality, Gaumer 24195, 
24266. Widely distributed in Mexico and Central America. A tree 
18 m. high with dull red flowers; leaflets about 13, oblong-elliptic, 
obtuse, pubescent or glabrate, reticulate-veined; pods flat, thin, 
brown-sericeous. 

Lonchocarpus yucatanensis Pittier, CNH. 20: 74. /. 24. 1917. 
Amerimnon Brownei Millsp. FMB. 1: 363. 1898, not Jacq. 

Balchechi (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Progreso, Gaumer 
1146; Izamal, Gaumer 728; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2202; without 
locality, Gaumer 24044- A tree 18 m. high with red-purple flowers. 

Medicago sativa L., alfalfa, is listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia, and 
may have been planted at some time in Yucatan. 

Mucuna Andreana Micheli. 

Me"rida, Schott 155 in part (fruit only). A large vine; pods about 
2-seeded, thick and broad, densely pubescent. Since the specimen 
consists of a single pod, the determination is not altogether certain. 



298 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. 

Chilean. Sp. Picapica. Common. Cow-itch, cowhage. A large 
herbaceous vine with 3-foliolate leaves; flowers racemose, large, dull 
dark purplish; pods covered with long stiff brownish hairs. The 
plant is a close relative of the velvet-bean grown in some regions as 
a fodder or manure plant. The hairs of the pods are detached easily 
and are often blown about by the wind. They cause intense irrita- 
tion and itching when they penetrate the skin, as they do readily. 
Gann reports that the southern Mayas administer these hairs in 
atol or other beverages as a remedy for intestinal parasites in 
children. Similar use is made of the plant in many other regions. 

Myroxylon Pereirae Klotzsch. M. peruiferum Millsp. FMB. 1: 
368. 1898, not L. 

Naba, Nabal. Sp. Balsamo. Balsam (B. H.). Apparently of fre- 
quent occurrence. Balsam of Peru. A large tree with smooth pale 
bark; leaves pinnate, with 7-11 translucent-dotted leaflets; flowers 
whitish. The wood is close-grained and nearly of the color of 
mahogany, but redder. It takes a good polish, and is suitable for 
fine cabinetwork. The balsam of Peru, obtained from incisions in 
the trunk and from the fruit, is used in medicine and in the prepara- 
tion of the chrism used in services of the church. It is produced 
almost wholly in Salvador, from which country it is an important 
article of export. The balsam is an official drug of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia, having stomachic and expectorant properties. According 
to Cuevas (PI. Med. 15, Ilustr. pi. 5, f. 1. 1913), it is employed in 
Yucatan in the treatment of wounds, and as a remedy for dysmenor- 
rhea and amenorrhea. The Motul Dictionary gives "yitz naba" as 
the name of the balsam. 

Nissolia fruticosa Jacq. 

Kanduul, Kanauul. Common. A woody vine with pinnate 
leaves and small greenish flowers, reported to climb to a height of 9 
m.; leaflets broadly elliptic, obtuse, puberulent; flowers in long dense 
racemes; pods jointed, the terminal joint with a broad thick spatu- 
late terminal wing. Some of the Yucatan specimens have been 
determined as N. Nelsoni Rose, a name probably to be reduced to 
synonymy under this species. 

Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban. "Dolichos tuberosum" Cuevas, 
PI. Med. 34, Ilustr. pi. 22, f. 3. 1913. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 299 

Chicam, Mehenchicam (Gaumer) . Sp. Jicama, Jicama dulce. Culti- 
vated and perhaps wild. A large coarse vine; leaves 3-foliolate, the 
large broad leaflets angulate or shallowly lobed; flowers bluish pur- 
ple, in long racemes. The plant is grown commonly in Mexico and 
Central America for its roots, which resemble turnips and are of 
about the same size. They are eaten raw, and are crisp and watery, 
rather sweet, and of agreeable flavor. 

The Maya name chicam is evidently cognate with the Mexican 
jicama, which is derived from the Nahuatl. It has been suggested, 
therefore, that the plant was introduced into Yucatan from Anahuac, 
which is quite probable. 

Pachyrhizus tuber osus (Lam.) Spreng. is probably only a form of 
P. erosus. The former name is given to the cultivated plant, which 
differs slightly from the usual wild form. 

Pachyrhizus palmatilobus (Moc. & Sesse") B. & H. Cacara 
erosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 300. 1896, not Kuntze. 

Xnucchicam (Gaumer), Chicam. Sp. Jicama grande, Jicama. 
Apparently common. Similar to P. erosus, but the leaflets deeply 
lobed. This seems to be a wild plant, but its large tubers are eaten 
like those of P. erosus. 

Parosela Gaumeri Standl. FMB. 8: 14. 1930. 

Type from Chichankanab, Gaumer 1457; San Anselmo, Gaumer 
1727; Pocoboch, Gaumer 2408. A slender shrub, glabrous or nearly 
so; leaflets about 7, oblong or cuneate-oblong, 4-7 mm. long, broadly 
rounded at the apex; flowers sessile, the spikes 1-1.5 cm. long; calyx 
glabrous; petals ochroleucous. 

Parosela humilis (Mill.) Rydb. P. domingensis Millsp. FMB. 
1: 21. 1895, 1: 299. 1896, 1: 368. 1898, as to specimens cited, not 
Dalea domingensis DC. 

Frequent. A stiff shrub about 1 m. high with gland-dotted pin- 
nate leaves and small, ochroleucous or purplish flowers; leaflets few, 
oblong to obovate, pubescent; racemes short, dense; calyx teeth long 
and filiform. 

Parosela nutans (Cav.) Rose. Dalea diffusa Millsp. FMB. 1: 
366. 1898, not Moric. 

Sp. Escoba color ada. Common; growing in old fields and in waste 
ground. A slender glabrous bushy annual with small purple flow- 



300 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

ers; leaflets numerous, oblong, glabrous, dotted with large glands; 
flowers in long slender racemes. 

Phaseolus elegans Piper. 

Kantzin. Collected at Izamal, Chichankanab, Kancabtsonot, 
San Anselmo, Sisal, Sayi. A slender vine with 3-foliolate leaves; 
leaflets lance-oblong to rhombic-ovate, glabrous or nearly so, obtuse 
or acute; flowers large, purple, in few-flowered racemes; pods long, 
linear. 

Phaseolus lunatus L. 

Sp. FrijoL Common wild; also cultivated. Lima bean. A large 
herbaceous vine; leaflets deltoid or rhombic, obtuse to acuminate, 
glabrate; flowers greenish white or purplish, in long racemes; pods 
broad, the seeds compressed. The wild form, with small pods and 
seeds, is a common plant of tropical America. It may be one of the 
forms of the lima bean which is known in Yucatan under the name 
"ib" or "ip." This is described as flat, broader than the common 
"frijoles," and either white or red. 

Phaseolus scolecocarpus Piper, CNH. 22: 681. 1926. P. dyso- 
phyllus Millsp. FMB. 1: 368. 1898, not Benth. 

Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 924; Buena Vista Xbac, 
Gaumer in 1899; without locality, Gaumer 1670; Izamal, Gaumer 
923. An herbaceous vine with pilose stems; leaflets broadly rhom- 
bic to ovate-oblong, sometimes with short rounded basal lobes, 
densely pilose; flowers in long interrupted racemes; pods narrowly 
linear. 

Phaseolus speciosus HBK. 

Near Champoton, Campeche, Collins 40. An herbaceous vine 
with large showy pink flowers. 

Phaseolus vulgaris L. 

Buul, Bui. Sp. FrijoL Cultivated. Native of America, but 
scarcely known in a wild state. Bean. Beans or "frijoles" are, next 
to maize, the most important food staple of Yucatan, as in most 
parts of Mexico and Central America, among all classes of society. 
They are grown in large quantities in the Peninsula, and sometimes 
are exported. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 301 

Beans have been in cultivation in this region for many centuries, 
and numerous horticultural varieties have developed. The scandent 
varieties are little grown in tropical America. The word "buul" ap- 
plies to both the plant and its seeds, especially to the common "frijol 
amarillo," a pink or brown-seeded form. Gaumer lists also the 
"xcholibuul" or "frijol negro," a small black bean, which is common 
throughout Central America. The "xpelon," hispanicized as 
"espelon," is the same or a similar variety. There are many local 
ways of preparing "frijoles" but the current method is by boiling, 
then frying and mashing them. There is reported from Yucatan 
"buliuah," a kind of tortilla of maize and "frijoles." Dominguez 
reports the names "tzama" and "xcolibul" for varieties of Phaseolus 
vulgaris. 

The following names are reported for this species in the Guate- 
malan dialects: "Chicun," Ixil; "Chicong," Ixil; "Ubal" and "Kuy- 
enk," Mame; "Pilin," Pokonchi, a small variety; "Kin'ak," Quiche"; 
"Tut," Chuje; "Chenek," Tzental; "Ch'ux," Pokonchi, a small red 
variety. 

Phaseolus adenanthus Mey. (as P. truxillensis HBK.) is reported 
by Millspaugh (FMB. 1: 23. 1895), the record based on a Johnson 
specimen. The report needs verification, but the species may well 
occur in the Peninsula. 

Piscidia communis (Blake) Harms. Ichthyomethia piscipula 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 22. 1895, not Hitchc. P.Erythrina Millsp. FMB. 
1 : 368. 1898, not L. /. communis Blake. 

Habin, Habim (Yuc., B. H.), Habi, Haabi. Dogwood (B. H.). 
Common in dry forests. A tree, often 18 m. high, with a trunk 
40 cm. in diameter; leaves pinnate, the leaflets petiolulate, oblong to 
oval, acute to rounded at the apex, thick, minutely appressed- 
pubescent beneath; flowers large, pink; pods with 4 broad longi- 
tudinal wings. Flowering in March, when leafless. The hard and 
heavy wood, which is very durable under ground or in water, is 
much used locally for purposes in which strength and durability are 
important, and in cabinetwork. An extract of the root bark is used 
commonly in the Peninsula in medicine. Gaumer gives the follow- 
ing notes regarding it: "Local anesthetic, analgesic, antispasmodic, 
anti-inebriate, and sudorific. The extract, in doses of 20 drops per 
hour, diminishes sensibility, produces profound perspiration, and 
augments salivation and transpiration. In doses of 5-10 drops per 
hour it acts as a sedative, tranquilizing the nerves; alleviating pain; 



302 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

and inducing an inclination toward quiet sleep, without the resultant 
dryness of the mouth so common to other soporifics. It mitigates 
the cough and hectic fever of phthisis. Piscidia extract is very 
effective in the treatment of abdominal pains during gestation, and 
in dysmenorrhea. It promptly relieves the pain accompanying 
fractures and operations, also toothache and headache." 

The Piscidias are employed in some regions for catching fish. 
The crushed bark is thrown into pools or quiet streams. Soon after- 
ward the fish, in a stupefied state, float upon the surface, and may 
be secured easily. 

The Motul Dictionary defines "tuncuy" as the wood of the 
"habim." The Kakchiquel name of the tree is reported as "anipak" ; 
the Kekchi name as "tiaxab." 

Pisum sativum L. 

Sp. Chicharo. Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia, and perhaps 
planted occasionally. Native of the Old World. Pea. 

Platymiscium yucatanum Standl. CNH. 23: 510. 1922. 
Pterocarpus Draco Millsp. FMB. 1: 368. 1898, not L. 

Subinche,Zubinche. Sp. Granadillo. Endemic; type from Izamal, 
Gaumer 377; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23566; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
23643; without locality, Gaumer 24131, 24323. A deciduous tree 
about 25 m. high with yellow flowers; leaves pinnate, the leaflets 
long-petiolulate, glabrous, lance-oblong to ovate, obtuse-acuminate; 
racemes fascicled on old wood. The dark gray or nearly black wood 
is very hard and takes a high polish. It is much used for the axles 
of carts. 

It is probable that Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. occurs in the 
southern part of the Peninsula, but no conclusive evidence of its 
occurrence has been found. 

Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. 

Mehenibbech (Gaumer), Ibcho (Gaumer). Common. A slender 
herbaceous vine with 3-foliolate leaves and small yellow flowers; 
leaflets broadly rhombic or rounded, obtuse or acute, gland-dotted 
and puberulent; racemes slender, few-flowered; pods small, short, 
compressed. 

Rhynchosia pyramidalis (Lam.) Urban. R. phaseoloides DC. 

Without locality, Johnson, Gaumer 24332; Izamal, Gaumer 498a. 

A large herbaceous pubescent vine; leaflets rhombic or deltoid, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 303 

acuminate to obtuse, gland-dotted; flowers greenish yellow, in long 
racemes; pods compressed. The handsome, scarlet and black seeds 
in some regions are strung to form necklaces. 

Rhynchosia reticulata (Swartz) DC. Dolicholus reticulatus 
Millsp. FMB. 2:53. 1900. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23605; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1397; 
without locality, Gaumer 21+122. A stout herbaceous vine with 
densely pubescent, sharply angled stems; leaflets oblong to broadly 
ovate, acute or acuminate, densely pubescent; racemes long, inter- 
rupted; calyx lobes large and broad, equaling the corolla. 

Sesbania Emerus (Aubl.) Urban. ?S. macrocarpa Muhl. 

Sp. Bequilla. Izamal, Gaumer 907; Sacnicte, Gaumer 23425. A 
tall slender herb 1-4 m. high, growing in wet soil or in water; leaflets 
numerous, oblong, rounded at the apex, glabrous, dark purplish 
beneath; flowers pale yellow, in few-flowered racemes; pods long and 
slender, linear, terete. 

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. Agati grandiflora Desv. 

Sp. Pico de flamenco. Cultivated and said to be naturalized; 
native of the Old World tropics. A small tree with showy, usually 
white but sometimes pink or red flowers 6-8 cm. long. 

Sophora tomentosa L. 

Reported from Mugeres Island, Gaumer in 1886; probably to be 
found elsewhere along the coast. A shrub of seashores with sericeous 
pinnate leaves and yellowish white flowers. The Maya name 
"salche" is listed for the plant, but upon whose authority, I do not 
know. 

Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub. S. biflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 
369. 1898, not BSP. 

Chichibe. Apparently common. A small herb with 3-foliolate 
leaves and small yellow flowers; leaflets lance-linear to lanceolate, 
acuminate, glabrate; calyx hispid. This species is not represented 
by specimens from other parts of Mexico. Some of the Yucatan 
material has been determined as S. guyanensis (Aubl.) Sw. 

Tephrosia cinerea (L.) Pers. CraccacinereaMorong;C. decum- 
bens Kuntze; C. littoralis Rydb. 



304 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Zulche, Sulche. Occasional along the coast. A low weedy herb 
with tough stems, pinnate leaves, and small purplish flowers; leaflets 
cuneate-oblanceolate; pods flat, broadly linear. 

Tephrosia cathartica (Sesse* & Moc.) Urban (Cracca cathartica 
Rydb.) is reported from Yucatan by Rydberg (N. Amer. Fl. 24: 
180. 1923). The plant was collected by Gaumer on Ruatan Island, 
Honduras, but I have seen no Yucatan specimens. 

Vicia Faba L. 

Sp. Haba. Listed in Gaumer's Sinonimia, and probably culti- 
vated occasionally. Perhaps native of northern Africa and south- 
western Asia. An annual plant, grown extensively in the Old World 
for its edible seeds, but seldom planted in Central America. 

OXALIDACEAE. Wood-sorrel Family 

Oxalis latifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 237. 1822. lonoxalis 
latifolia Rose, CNH. 10: 113. 1906. 

Yala-elel (Cuevas), Yalelel (Cuevas), Elel (Pe'rez), Zutskeymil 
(Gaumer), Zutskeyem (Cuevas). Sp. Acederilla. Apparently fre- 
quent. Type from Campeche. An acaulescent plant with rose- 
purple flowers. The leaves have an acid flavor. The plant is said 
to have astringent properties, and is used locally in treating inflam- 
mation of the mouth. 

In the Motul Dictionary there is listed the word "ixtamancan," 
with the definition, "yerva acedera, o casi ella," which would indi- 
cate a plant with leaves like those of Oxalis. 

Oxalis yucatanensis (Rose) Standl. CNH. 23: 518. 1923. 
Lotoxalis occidentalis Rose, CNH. 10: 115. 1906, not 0. occidentalis 
Knuth, 1915. L. yucatanensis Rose, CNH. 10: 116. 1906. 0. Ber- 
landieri Millsp. FMB. 1: 300. 1896, 1: 369. 1898, 2: 54. 1900; Millsp. 
& Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 18. 1905, not Torr. 

Yala-elel (Gaumer). Sp. Agritos. Frequent. An erect branching 
herb with 3-foliolate leaves and small yellow flowers. The type of 
Lotoxalis yucatanensis is Gaumer 715 from Yucatan. 

ERYTHROXYLACEAE. Coca Family 
Erythroxylon brevipes DC. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24220, 24338, 23972, 24288; Chichan- 
kanab, Gaumer 2287; Tsilam, Gaumer 1249; Izamal, Gaumer 754- A 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 305 

stiff shrub or small tree about 3 m. high; leaves obovate, glabrous, 
2.5 cm. long or less, rounded at the apex; flowers small, white, fas- 
cicled in the leaf axils; fruit a small red drupe. In Mexico this 
species is known only from Yucatan. 

To the genus belongs the coca plant, E. coca Lam., from which 
the drug cocaine is obtained. 

TROPAEOLACEAE. Nasturtium Family 
Tropaeolum ma jus L. 

Sp. Mastuerzo, Capuchina. Cultivated for ornament; native of 
South America. Nasturtium. 

GERANIACEAE. Cranesbill Family 
Pelargonium graveolens L/He"r. 

Sp. Geranio de olor. Cultivated for ornament; native of South 
Africa. Rose geranium. 

Pelargonium zonale (L.) Ait. 

Sp. Geranio. Cultivated for ornament; native of South Africa. 
Geranium. Probably other species than the two here listed are 
grown in the region. 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Lignum-vitae Family 
Guaiacum sanctum L. 

Zoon (Gaumer), Zon. Sp. Guayacan, Palo santo. Frequent. 
Lignum-vitae. A small tree; leaves pinnate, with 4-10 glabrous entire 
leaflets; flowers blue or purple; fruit an angled capsule. The wood 
is very hard and dense, light yellow, becoming green on exposure. 
It is employed for railroad ties and for general construction purposes. 
By the ancient Mayas dishes, cups, and other vessels were made 
from the wood, and because of its strength and flexibility it was 
one of their favorite woods, and perhaps the principal one, for 
fashioning bows. 

The extract of the wood has stimulant and diaphoretic proper- 
ties, and is official in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. Introduced into 
Europe about 1508 by the Spaniards, the wood soon gained great 
fame as a remedy for syphilis, for which it had been used by the 
American natives. The wood is still employed in medicine in Yuca- 
tan. It was long esteemed highly by American and European physi- 



306 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

cians for treating syphilitic affections, gout, rheumatism, scrofula, 
and cutaneous affections, but it is now believed to have no distinct 
influence upon such diseases. 

Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Torr. & Gray. Tribulus maximus L. 

Xichilak (Gaumer). A common weed. A prostrate annual, the 
leaves with 3 or 4 pairs of narrow pubescent leaflets; flowers axillary, 
small, yellow; fruit composed of 10 bony unarmed nutlets. 

Tribulus cistoides L. T. terrestris var. cistoides Oliver. T. 
alacranensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 54. 1900. T. terrestris Donde", Apuntes 
41. 1907, not L. T. trijugatus Dond<, Apuntes 42. 1907, not Nutt. 

Chanxnuuc (Gaumer), Chanixnuc (Motul Diet.), Chanxnuc 
(Aznar). Sp. Abrojo. A common weed, often growing on seashores. 
A prostrate herb; leaves with 4-8 pairs of narrow silky leaflets; 
flowers large, axillary, long-pediceled, yellow; fruit of 5 bony carpels, 
these armed with stout spines. The plant is said to be eaten by 
stock. The stiff hard spines can penetrate shoes almost as readily 
as tacks. A decoction of the plant is employed in fomentations for 
relieving rheumatism, and the plant is reputed to have tonic, stimu- 
lant, and aperient properties. 

The type of T. alacranensis is Millspaugh 1766 from Allison 
Island, Alacran Shoals. It is a form with petals only 1-1.5 cm. long, 
those of the typical form being 1.5-2.5 cm. long. Since every grada- 
tion in size is found between the two extremes, it seems inadvisable 
to consider T. alacranensis more than, at most, a variety of 
T. cistoides. 

The name "chamtoloc" the Motul Dictionary defines as "especie 
de abrojos; danse en las hojas y tienen espinas." The name may 
relate to Tribulus, or perhaps to some plant of another family. 

RUTACEAE. Rue Family 

Amyris sylvatica Jacq. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1379. A shrub or small tree with alter- 
nate persistent glabrous 3-foliolate leaves; leaflets ovate, acute, nearly 
entire; flowers small, green, in terminal panicles; fruit a black or 
reddish drupe. 

Casimiroa tetrameria Millsp. FMB. 1: 401. 1898. 

Hyuy, Yuy (Gaumer). Common; type from Xcholac, Gaumer 
1006; widely distributed in Mexico and Central America. A tree 
9-18 m. high; leaves alternate, with usually 5, entire, densely pubes- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 307 

cent, acute leaflets; flowers small, greenish, in lateral panicles. The 
fruit is edible, but no information is available regarding its use in 
Yucatan. It is green or yellow, and resembles a small apple. The 
tree is called "matasano" in Central America. 

Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex. has been reported from Campeche, 
with the name "zapote bianco." This species may occur in the 
Yucatan Peninsula. The Pokonchi (Guatemala) name for Casimiroa 
is reported as "ahache." 

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle. C. Limetta Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 25. 1895, 1: 301. 1896, not Risso. C. Limonum Cuevas, PL 
Med. 60, Ilustr. pi. 33, f. 1. 1913, not L. 

Sp. Lima agria (Gaumer), Limoncillo (Millspaugh), Limdn 
(Cuevas) . Cultivated for its fruit, and probably naturalized. Native, 
like the other Citrus species, of the Old World tropics. Lime. The 
lime is much used in Middle America for seasoning food and for pre- 
paring cooling beverages. It is usually called "limon," a name more 
properly applied to the lemon. Cuevas reports that a decoction of 
the root is administered as a remedy for gonorrhea. 

Citrus Aurantium L. C. vulgaris Risso. 

Zutspakal. Sp. Naranja agria, Cajera. Planted and probably 
escaped from cultivation. Sour or Seville orange. The fruit is too 
sour and bitter for eating, but the juice is sometimes used for 
flavoring food, like that of the lime. The decoction of the leaves 
and flowers is used in local medicine, especially as a tonic for loss 
of appetite, and antispasmodic properties are attributed to it. The 
Maya name "sutup" has been reported for the sour orange. 

Citrus limetta Risso. 

Sp. Limdn duke. Sometimes planted. Sweet lime. This is a 
favorite fruit in Central America, although not likely to be esteemed 
very highly by the foreigner. It resembles a lime, but is as large as 
a lemon, and full of juice which suggests sweetened water. 

Citrus Limonia Osbeck. C. Limonum Risso. 

Sp. Limdn real, Limdn agria. Planted. Lemon. The lemon is 
seldom grown in Central America, its place being filled by the lime. 

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. C. grandis Osbeck; C. decu- 
mana L. 



308 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Sp. Toronja agria. Reported by Gaumer as cultivated. Grape- 
fruit, pomelo. This fruit is little grown in Central America, being 
too sour for the tropical palate, which esteems fruits according to 
their degree of sweetness. 

Citrus medica L. 

Sp. Cidra. Citron. Grown generally in tropical America for its 
large fruits, used in the preparation of delicious dulces. The current 
name in Central America is "toronja." 

Citrus nobilis Lour. var. deliciosa (Ten.) Swingle. 

Sp. Mandarina. Reported by Gaumer as planted in Yucatan. 
Mandarin orange. Seldom grown in Central America. 

Citrus sinensis Osbeck. C. Aurantium Millsp. FMB. 1: 25. 
1895, 1: 301. 1896, not L. 

Pakal, Chuhucpakal (Gaumer), Pakaal. Sp. Naranja, Naranja 
dulce, Naranja de China. Grown commonly. Orange, sweet orange. 
The orange is one of the favorite fruits of tropical America, to which 
it was introduced immediately after the discovery. Gaumer reports 
the navel orange ("naranja de ombligo") as grown in Yucatan. 
Gann states that an infusion of orange leaves is administered by 
the southern Mayas as a sudorific. 

Citrus sinensis is probably only a variety of C. Aurantium, but 
the specific name is maintained here as a matter of convenience. 

Esenbeckia pentaphylla (Macfad.) Griseb. 

Yaaxhokob (Gaumer). Izamal and Cozumel Island. A tree, 
sometimes 15 m. high; leaves alternate, long-petioled, digitately 
3-5-foliolate; leaflets oblong to elliptic, obtuse or rounded at the 
apex, entire, glabrous; flowers small, green, in large terminal pan- 
icles; fruit a large tuberculate capsule. Known in Mexico only from 
Yucatan. 

Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle. 

Sp. Naranjito, Kumkat. Reported by Gaumer as planted in 
Yucatan. Native of Asia. Kumquat. 

Murraea exotica L. Chalcas exotica Millsp. 

Sp. Limonaria. Planted for ornament; native of Asia. A shrub 
or small tree; leaves pinnate, with 3-9 entire obovate glabrous obtuse 
leaflets; flowers white, fragrant; fruit a red berry. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 309 

Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. P. longipes Rose. 

Without locality, Gaumer 21$ 99. A glabrous shrub or small tree 
5 m. high or less; leaves pinnate, with 1-5 oblong to elliptic, obtuse 
or acute, entire, glabrous leaflets; flowers in long racemes; fruit of 
usually 1 or 2 rugose carpels. 

Ruta chalapensis L. R. graveolens Millsp. FMB. 1: 301. 1896, 
not L. 

Sp. Ruda. Cultivated for its medicinal properties. Native of 
the Old World. Rue. A glabrous glaucous aromatic perennial herb; 
leaves bipinnate, the leaflets numerous, narrowly oblong, obtuse; 
flowers yellow. This plant is common in tropical American gardens. 
It is reported that it does not flower in Yucatan, and the same is 
true in some other regions of Middle America. An infusion of rue 
is administered as an emmenagogue and to accelerate parturition. 
Gann reports that the leaves are applied externally to remedy con- 
vulsions in children, or for the relief of almost any nervous com- 
plaint in adults. 

Triphasia trifolia (Burm.) P. Wils. 

Planted for ornament; native of the Old World. A spiny shrub; 
leaves mostly 3-foliolate, the leaflets crenate, obtuse; flowers white; 
fruit a globose red berry. 

Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam. 

Sinanche (Schott). Progreso, Gaumer 2300; Calotmul, Gaumer 
1310; Me'rida, Schott 825; also in Pete*n. A prickly tree 5-20 m. high 
with bitter bark; leaves pinnate, the leaflets 7-13, crenate, acute; 
fruit of small woody follicles. Cuevas (PI. Med. 89, Ilustr. pi. 29, /. 
3. 1913) reports a tree under the name "sinanche," and although 
his illustration does not suggest a plant of this genus, his description 
answers well enough. He states that a decoction of the ill-scented 
leaves is used in fomentations to relieve the pain of rheumatism. 
The Maya name signifies "scorpion-tree," perhaps an allusion to the 
odor, or to the fact that when the leaves are chewed there is felt in 
the mouth a prickly sensation, like the biting of many ants. 

Zanthoxylum Fagara (L.) Sarg. Z. Pterota HBK. 

Tancazche (Gaumer), Tamcazche (Motul Diet.), Xic-che (Mills- 
paugh). Sp. Palo mulato (Gaumer). Probably common. A prickly 
shrub or small tree; leaflets 5-13, small, crenate, obtuse, the rachis 



310 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

winged; flowers green, in short lateral spikes; wood yellow. The 
Motul Dictionary states that the tree cures any disease. The same 
work gives "vole" as one of the names of the tree. Gann states that 
crosses of "tancasche" bark are worn by nearly all the Indian 
children in the southern part of the Peninsula as a charm, and as a 
sovereign remedy for flatulence. 

Zanthoxylum trichilioides Standl. FMB. 8: 16. 1930. 

Type, Gaumer 24014, without definite locality; without locality, 
Gaumer 24339, 24005. Branchlets unarmed; leaflets 9-13, oblong 
or lance-oblong, 3.5-8 cm. long, acuminate, subentire, finely stellate- 
pubescent at first but soon glabrate; petals 5, 2 mm. long; follicle 1, 
stellate-pubescent, 3 mm. long. 

MELIAGEAE. Chinaberry Family 

Cedrela mexicana M. Roem. C. Glaziovii C. DC.; C. odorata 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 26. 1895, not L. C. yucatana Blake, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington 33: 110. 1920. 

Kulche (Gaumer; variously reported as "kuche," "cuche," and 
"kuiche"). Sp. Cedro, Cedro Colorado. Cedar (B. H.). One of the 
common trees of the Peninsula. Spanish cedar. A large deciduous 
tree with pinnate leaves, the leaflets 6-8 pairs, entire, long-acumi- 
nate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, greenish, in large panicles; 
fruit a 5-valved woody capsule. The wood is light, coarse, and soft, 
with a distinctive odor. Spanish cedar is well known in the United 
States, because it is the wood from which cigar boxes are made. The 
wood is valued locally for furniture, doors, rafters, sugar casks, and 
general construction purposes. It is especially valuable because of 
the fact that it is little bothered by the insects which in the tropics 
are so destructive to woodwork. In the southern part of the Penin- 
sula large canoes are made from cedar trunks, and paddles also are 
fashioned from the same wood. Some Spanish cedar wood is ex- 
ported from Quintana Roo, and doubtless from other parts of the 
Peninsula. 

The bitter bark is employed locally as a febrifuge. The gum 
obtained from the trunk is used in treating bronchitis, and an infu- 
sion of the leaves is used as a mouth wash, to relieve toothache. 

The type of C. yucatana was collected at MeYida, Schott 199. 

Melia Azedarach L. M. sempervirens Sw. 

Sp. Paraiso, Paraiso morado. Planted commonly for ornament; 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 311 

native of the Old World. Chinaberry. A small tree with bipinnate 
leaves; flowers pink or lilac, panicled, sweet-scented. 

Swietenia macrophylla King. S. Mahagoni Donde", Apuntes 
80. 1907, not Jacq. 

Punab (Pe"rez). Sp. Caoba, Caobo (name of Haitian origin). 
Mahogany (B. H.). Common in the eastern part of the Peninsula 
and probably in Campeche. Honduras mahogany. A large tree 
with pinnate leaves; leaflets 3-5 pairs, 6-18 cm. long, elliptic to 
oblong; flowers small, whitish, panicled; fruit an ovoid woody cap- 
sule 15 cm. long, containing numerous winged seeds. Mahogany 
is exported from Quintana Roo, but little information is available 
concerning its abundance and distribution. Canoes are sometimes 
made from the logs. This well-known wood is highly esteemed 
locally as well as in foreign countries, and the mahogany of the region 
is considered to be of superior quality. Swietenia macrophylla ranges 
from Chiapas and Tabasco southward to Panama. 

One other species is known from Mexico and Central America, 
growing along the Pacific slope; another grows in Venezuela, one in 
Peru, and S. Mahagoni occurs in the West Indies. 

Trichilia arborea C. DC. T. terminalis Millsp. FMB. 1: 26. 
1895, not Jacq. 

Chobenche. Common. A tree 18 m. high; leaves pinnate, the 
9-11 leaflets ovate, acuminate to obtuse, pubescent or finally gla- 
brate; inflorescence sub terminal, dense, many-flowered. The bark 
is utilized as an emetic. The juice of the leaves is rubbed on the 
limbs to relieve convulsions. 

Trichilia hirta L. T. spondioides Jacq. 

Kulimziz (Gaumer; reported also as "xkulinsis")- Sp. Cabo de 
hacha (Gaumer). Common in dry forests; flowering in May and 
June. A deciduous tree 8-12 m. high; leaflets 9-21, lanceolate to 
ovate, pubescent; flowers greenish, in small axillary panicles; fruit a 
capsule, the seeds with a red aril. The wood is compact and yellow- 
ish or brownish. 

Trichilia minutiflora Standl. 

Xpukusikil (B. H.). Uaxactun, Pete"n, Cook & Martin 95. Also 
in British Honduras. A tree with lance-oblong hairy leaves; flow- 
ers minute, in small axillary panicles. 



312 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Trichilia cuneata Radlk. is called "ich-bahach" in British Hon- 
duras, and for an undetermined species the name "sisim" is recorded. 

SIMARUBACEAE. Simaruba Family 
Alvaradoa amorphoides Liebm. 

Belzinic-che (Gaumer), Beezinic-che (Cuevas), Suetsinic-che 
(Schott), Besinic-che (Pete"n). Sp. Palo de hormigas. Common. A 
tree 4-10 m. high; leaves alternate, pinnate, the numerous small 
entire leaflets elliptic-oblong, rounded at the apex, pale beneath; 
flowers small, greenish, in long racemes; fruit a lanceolate hairy 
samara 1-1.5 cm. long. A decoction of the bitter bark is used as a 
remedy for various diseases, especially for itch, and as a tonic for 
the digestive system. The Maya name signifies "ant-path tree." 
The name has been reported incorrectly as "bel-ciniche"," "xbesinic- 
che," and "xbexinic-cheY' 

Picramnia antidesma Sw. 

Reported from Cozumel Island, Gaumer. A shrub or small tree; 
leaves pinnate, the leaflets 7-13, oblong-ovate, acuminate, entire; 
flowers minute, green, in long spikelike panicles; fruit a small red 
berry. The leaves and bark are bitter. Called "chilillo" in Chiapas. 

Simaruba glauca DC. 

Xpazakil (Gaumer), Pasa-ak (Pete*n). Sp. Negrito (B. H.). 
Frequent. A large tree sometimes 30 m. high; leaves pinnate, the 
leaflets 11-21, large, oblong, glabrate, entire, pale beneath; flowers 
small, greenish, in large panicles; fruit oval, 1.5-2 cm. long, dark 
purple, 1-seeded, resembling an olive. The white flesh of the fruit 
is edible, but very insipid. It is often sold in Central American 
markets, where it is called "aceituno" or "jucumico." The Maya 
name has been reported incorrectly as "xpaxakil." 

Suriana maritima L. 

Pantsil (Gaumer). Common on seashores. Bay-cedar. A stout 
dense shrub with small entire pubescent linear-spatulate leaves; 
flowers small, yellow; wood very hard and heavy, reddish brown. 
In Mexico known only from Yucatan. This is probably the "paut- 
zil" listed by the Motul Dictionary. A decoction of the leaves and 
bark, it states, is used to cleanse old sores, and the powdered leaves, 
taken in atol, cure bloody flux. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 313 

BURSERACEAE. Torchwood Family 

Bursera graveolens (HBK.) Triana & Planch. Elaphrium 
graveolens HBK.;E". pubescens Schlecht. Linnaea 16: 527. 1842. 

Nabanche (Gaumer). Izamal, Gaumer 690. A tree 15 m. high or 
less; leaves pinnate, the leaflets about 7, crenate, acuminate. 
Cuevas describes (PI. Med. 68. 1913) under the Maya name a tree 
which he calls also "zazafras." He states that a decoction of the 
aromatic bark is given as a sudorific. It is curious that the name 
sassafras, of North American Indian origin, belonging properly to 
the genus Sassafras of the family Lauraceae, is applied in Mexico 
and Central America to trees of other families, in Salvador, for 
instance, to a species of Croton. 

Elaphrium pubescens was described from Campeche. 

Bursera Simaruba (L.) Sarg. B. gummifera L. ; Elaphrium Sima- 
ruba Rose. 

Chacah (Gaumer; also B. H.), Sac-chacah (Cuevas), Hukup (B. 
H.). Sp. Palo mulato (Yuc.), Palo chino (B. H.), Palo jiote (B. H.), 
Indio desnudo (B. H.). Birchwood (B. H.), Gumbolimbo (B. H.). 
Common. A tree, usually of small or medium size; leaves pinnate, 
the 5 or 7 leaflets entire; flowers small, greenish or whitish; fruit a 
small 3-angled drupe. This is one of the most common trees of 
Mexico and Central America, often planted for living fence posts. 
The smooth bark peels off in paper-like sheets, leaving a green sur- 
face. The sap is aromatic, and yields a sweet-scented gum, which 
probably was used like that of Protium. The wood is light brown, 
soft, and weak, and of light weight. 

The Motul Dictionary gives the following account of the plant: 
"Mastic of this region, a tree whose branches are easily broken. With 
its wood the Indians light fire. Its resin is mastic. The young leaves 
are good for sores, applying them as a poultice and changing them 
three or four times a day; and the fruit and young shoots, ground 
and dissolved in water, give an efficacious remedy for snake bites. 
The juice of the leaves is good for swellings, and the water in which 
the leaves have been placed cures rash." The plant is said to be 
used as a remedy for fevers, and an infusion of the leaves is adminis- 
tered for hemorrhage of the stomach. The Kekchi name of Bursera 
Simaruba is "kakah." 

It is not certain that the "sac-chacah" is the same tree as "cha- 
cah," although the descriptions indicate that it is. 



314 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Bursera Schlechtendalii Engler. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24002. A shrub or small tree; leaves 
simple, obovate, 1-3.5 cm. long. 

Protium copal (Schlecht. & Cham.) Engl. Idea copal Schlecht. 
& Cham. 

Pom. Sp. Copal (Yuc., B. H.; of Nahuatl derivation), Copal 
macho (B. H.). Although no specimens are at hand from Yucatan or 
Quintano Roo, this tree undoubtedly is found at least in the latter, 
and it occurs in British Honduras. A large glabrous tree with pin- 
nate leaves; leaflets 5 or 7, oblong, obtuse, entire; flowers small, 
whitish, in axillary panicles. The resin obtained from cuts in the 
trunk was an important article among the ancient Mayas, being 
used generally as incense in their religious rites, as varnish, and in 
medicine. Incense played a leading part in their religious obser- 
vances, hence the tree was indispensable. It is probable that the 
similar copal of Bursera Simaruba was employed in the same way. 

In the Kekchi dialect of Guatemala the tree is called "pom-te." 
Brasseur de Bourbourg lists the word "cib," with the definition 
"copal." This species has been reported from Yucatan as Idea 
heptaphylla Aubl., a South American species. 

MALPIGHIACEAE. Malpighia Family 
Bunchosia glandulosa (Cav.) DC. 

Zipche (Gaumer). Sp. Cojdn de fraile (B. H.). Frequent in dry 
scrublands; flowering from February to June; fruit ripening in May 
or later. A shrub about 1 m. high; leaves oblong to ovate, acute, 
glabrous; flowers yellow, racemose; fruit a red drupe. The Maya 
name is derived from "zip," loaded (with fruit), and "che," tree. The 
species is known in Mexico only from Yucatan. Valdez states that 
the plant is used in baths to relieve rheumatism. To this species is 
perhaps referable the report of B. media DC., a West Indian species 
(Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 19. 1905), based on Seler 3942 
and 3986, from Itzimna and Piste". 

Byrsonima bucidaefolia Standl. FMB. 8: 16. 1930. 

Type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23869; without locality, 
Gaumer 24012, 24391, 23966. A shrub or small tree; leaves short- 
petiolate, obovate or cuneate-obovate, 5-8 cm. long, broadly rounded 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 315 

at the apex and often emarginate, cuneate at the base, paler beneath 
and thinly tomentose with whitish hairs or glabrate; fruit sub- 
globose, 8 mm. in diameter, glabrous. 

Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) DC. B. Karwinskiana Juss. 

Chi (Gaumer), Zacpah (Gaumer; Yuc., B. H.). Sp. Nancen agria, 
Nanche. Craboo,Crapoo, Wild craboo (B. H.). Apparently frequent; 
sometimes cultivated. A large shrub or small tree; leaves oblong 
to elliptic, thick, acute, tomentose, at least when young; flowers 
yellow, turning red, in raceme-like panicles. The fruit is a yellow 
drupe about 1 cm. in diameter, juicy and edible, with a flavor sug- 
gesting that of apples. It is reported that ink is made from the 
green fruit. The ripe fruit is sometimes made into dulces. The 
tree is common in many parts of Mexico and Central America, 
where it is known usually as "nance" or "nanche." The Pokonchi 
name of Guatemala is reported as "tapal." 

Gaudichaudia mucronata (Moc. & Sesse") Juss. G. filipendula 
Juss. 

Chilillo-ak (Gaumer). Frequent in scrublands. A small slender 
woody vine with yellow flowers; leaves lance-oblong, obtuse or acute, 
mucronate, sericeous beneath; fruit of 3 samaras. The vernacular 
name is a combination of Spanish and Maya, "ak" signifying 
"vine." The term "chilillo" has no obvious application to the plant. 

Heteropteris Beecheyana Juss. Banisteria Beecheyana C. B. 
Rob. 

Common. A large woody vine; leaves oblong to oval, rounded 
to acute at the apex, pubescent beneath; flowers pink, panicled; 
fruit of 2-3 samaras. 

Heteropteris laurifolia (L.) Juss. Banisteria laurifolia L.; H. 
longifolia HBK. ; H. floribunda HBK. 

Without locality, Johnson. A large woody vine with thick, 
lanceolate to ovate leaves; flowers yellow; inflorescence ferruginous- 
tomentose. Called "escobillo" in Tabasco. 

The type of Heteropteris Lindeniana Juss. was collected by 
Linden, perhaps in Yucatan, but the locality is doubtful. 

Hiraea borealis Niedenzu. H. Barclayana Millsp. FMB. 1: 23. 
1895, not Benth. 



316 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Apparently frequent. A shrub or small tree; leaves glabrate, 
obovate, rounded at the apex, obtuse to subcordate at the base; 
flowers yellow, fascicled on old branches; fruit of 3 samaras. 

Malpighia glabra L. M. glabra var. acuminata Juss.; M. glabra 
var. typica Niedenzu; Tetrapteris inaequalis Millsp. FMB. 1: 370. 
1898, not Cav. 

Chi, Kanibinche (Gaumer). Sp. Nancen, Nance. Common in 
dry forests. A shrub or small tree 6 m. high or less; leaves ovate, 
glabrate, acute or acuminate; flowers pink; fruit a small red drupe. 
The acid fruit is edible, being eaten raw or made into preserves and 
dulces, or used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages. A decoc- 
tion of the bark is employed as a remedy for diarrhea. The bark 
was used, formerly at least, for tanning skins. 

Malpighia incana Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Malpighia No. 3. 
1768. M. campechiensis Lam. 

Type from Campeche. Reported from Yucatan. Leaves acute 
or acuminate, pubescent, at least beneath. I have seen no speci- 
mens from this region, but the species occurs in Cuba. 

Malpighia punicif olia L. M. punicifolia var. vulgaris Niedenzu. 

Uzte (Gaumer), Xbec-che (Gaumer). Common in dry forests. 
A shrub or small tree 3-6 m. high; leaves oblong to oval, glabrous 
or nearly so, obtuse or rounded at the apex; flowers pink; fruit a red 
drupe. The fruits bear a few needle-like hairs, which are easily 
detached, and cause intense itching and burning if they penetrate 
the skin. The fruit is edible. This species is much like M . glabra, 
and has the same properties. It is likely that the two are confused 
by the native people, and that the same vernacular names are given 
to both. 

Stigmaphyllon Lindenianum Juss. S. lupulus Wats.; S. 
Lindenianum var. yucatanum Niedenzu, Stigmaph. 2: 18. 1900. 

Common. A large woody vine with broad cordate leaves, these 
entire or lobed, thinly sericeous beneath; flowers large, yellow, in 
dense clusters; fruit of 2-3 samaras. 

Stigmaphyllon mucronatum (DC.) Juss. S. mucronatum var. 
typicum Niedenzu. 

Izamal and Sayi. A small slender woody vine; leaves glabrous 
or nearly so, oval or elliptic, rounded at the base, rounded at the 
apex and mucronate; flowers yellow, umbellate. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 317 

Tetrapteris Schiedeana Schlecht. & Cham. Heteropteris yuca- 
tanensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 369. 1898. T. mexicana Millsp. FMB. 2: 
56. 1900, not H. & A. ?T. Seleriana Niedenzu in Millsp. & Loes. 
BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 18. 1905. 

Frequent. A large, nearly glabrous, woody vine; leaves lanceo- 
late to broadly elliptic, acute or obtuse; flowers yellow; fruit of 
winged samaras. The type of Heteropteris yucatanensis was col- 
lected at Izamal, Gaumer 816; that of Tetrapteris Seleriana in forests 
between Tsitas and Piste", Seler 3982. 



Vochysia guatemalensis Donn. Smith (family Vochysiaceae) is 
reported to have the Kekchi name "ruanchap." 

POLYGALACEAE. Polygala Family 

Securidaca sylvestris Schlecht. 

Izamal, Gaumer in 1888; Yaxcach, Gaumer 554- A large woody 
vine, densely pubescent; leaves alternate, ovate to elliptic, entire; 
flowers pink, in long racemes. 

Polygala bryzoides St. Hil. 

In cornfield, Hacienda Chable", Schott 544-- A slender low annual, 
30 cm. high or less, the stems simple or branched, pubescent; leaves 
alternate, linear or lanceolate, 1.5-4.5 cm. long; flowers purple-pink 
or greenish, small, in short slender racemes. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. Spurge Family 

Acalypha alopecuroides Jacq. 

Xmizbil (Gaumer), Xnixhax (Millspaugh). Frequent. A low 
pubescent herb with broadly ovate, acuminate, serrate leaves; flow- 
ers in short thick catkin-like spikes. 

Acalypha flagellata Millsp. FMB. 2: 417. 1916. 

Frequent; endemic; type from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1107. 
A glabrate shrub 2-5 m. high; leaves long-petioled, broadly ovate, 
long-acuminate, crenate; flowers in very long, slender, lax spikes or 
racemes; capsules long-pedicellate. 

Acalypha Gaumeri Pax & Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
147 17 : 173. 1924. 



318 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 318; without locality, 
Gaumer 23943, 24287. A stiff shrub; leaves oblong or obovate- 
oblong, 8-11 mm. long, serrate, sparsely pilose. 

Acalypha hispida Burm. 

Nemiz (Gaumer). Sp. Cola de gato. Listed by Gaumer as in 
cultivation. Chenille plant. An Old World shrub, often planted for 
ornament. Very showy because of the large pendent purple-red 
flower spikes. Grown commonly in tropical America. 

Acalypha leptopoda Muell. Arg. 

Frequent. A stout shrub 2 m. high; leaves broadly ovate, on 
long or short petioles, acuminate, crenate, copiously pubescent; 
flowers in dense catkin-like spikes. 

Acalypha macrostachya Jacq. A. macrostachya var. macro- 
phylla Muell. Arg. 

Sayi, Seler 3890. A stout shrub; leaves large, broadly ovate, 
pubescent or glabrate, serrate. The Kekchi name is reported as 
"sesik." 

Acalypha Seleriana Greenm. FMB. 2: 254. 1907. A. mollis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 302. 1896; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 
19. 1905, not HBK. 

Chilibtux. Common; type from Xkombec, Seler 4028; also in 
Veracruz. A stout shrub 2-3 m. high; leaves ovate or lance-ovate, 
glabrate, dentate, acuminate; flowers in long slender dense spikes. 
The tough flexible branches are used for making baskets. 

Acalypha setosa A. Rich. 

A frequent weed. A glabrate annual with long-petioled, broadly 
ovate, short-acuminate, serrulate leaves; flowers in stout, dense, 
terminal and axillary spikes. 

Acalypha simplicissima Millsp. FMB. 2: 417. 1916. 

Endemic; apparently rare; type from Progreso, Gaumer 1182; 
Chichankanab, Gaumer 2225. A slender glabrate annual, usually 
simple; leaves long-petioled, oval-ovate, acute, crenate-dentate. 

Acalypha unibracteata Muell. Arg. 

Chilibtux (Gaumer). Frequent. A slender shrub 1-3 m. high; 
leaves short-petioled, small, ovate or lanceolate, acuminate, serrate- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 319 

dentate, pubescent or glabrate; staminate spikes short, slender; 
pistillate spikes on long filiform peduncles, with one or few bracts. 
The slender branches are used for making baskets and bird cages. 

Acalypha yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 371. 1898. 

Mixcax (Gaumer). Known only from the type, collected at 
Progreso, Gaumer 1176. A small erect branched annual with broadly 
ovate, acute or obtuse, crenate leaves; flowers in short thick sessile 
axillary spikes. 

Adelia barbinervis Schlecht. & Cham. 

Tsilam, Gaumer 640, 23339; Mina de Oro, Gaumer 23326. A 
stout shrub 2-4 m. high with stiff spinose branchlets; leaves obovate, 
obtuse to acuminate, usually glabrate but barbate beneath in the 
axils of the nerves; flowers small, green, in dense clusters; capsule 1 
cm. wide. The Yucatan specimens are in poor condition, and their 
determination is somewhat uncertain. 

Adelia oaxacana (Muell. Arg.) Hemsl. 

Xtompac. Xcholac, Gaumer 446. A shrub or small tree 6 m. 
high or less; leaves obovate, entire, obtuse, velvety-pilose; fruit a 
small capsule. 

Astrocasia phyllanthoides Robins. & Millsp. BJE. 36: Beibl. 
80: 20. 1905. Phyllanthus nutans Millsp. FMB. 1: 306. 1896, not Sw. 

Pixtonkax (Gaumer), Kahyuc, Caba-pixtolon. Common in dry 
forests; endemic in the Peninsula; type from Itzimna, Seler 3943. 
A deciduous shrub 1-2.5 m. high, glabrous; leaves long-petiolate, 
ovate, obtuse, entire, pale beneath; flowers dioecious, long-pedicel- 
late, fascicled; fruit a small capsule. 

Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume. 

Grown for ornament; native of the Old World tropics. A gla- 
brous shrub with variously lobed leaves, variegated with red, pink, 
or yellow. The plants, of which there are many varieties, usually 
are called crotons. They are planted abundantly in most parts of 
tropical America. 

Croton Cortesianus HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 83. 1817. 

Common; type collected near Campeche. A shrub; leaves 
oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, densely stellate-pubescent 
beneath, green and glabrous above. This species is widely distrib- 
uted in Mexico, but I have seen no specimens from Yucatan. 



320 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Croton flavens L. C. zalapensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 26. 1895, not 
C. xalapensis HBK. C. Cortesianus Millsp. FMB. 1: 303. 1896, 1: 
371. 1898, not HBK. C. rhamnifolius var. salviaefolius Millsp. FMB. 
1: 303. 1896, not C. rhamnifolius HBK. C. rhamnifolius Standl. 
CNH. 23: 619. 1923, not HBK. 

Xabalam (Gaumer), Ekbalam (Gaumer), Icaban (Schott). Com- 
mon. A low aromatic shrub, densely stellate- tomentose; leaves 
oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, rounded or subcordate at the 
base; flowers in dense stout racemes. A decoction of the bark is 
employed as a remedy for syphilis, and also for toothache. 

The "ekbalam" described by Cuevas (PL Med. 45, Ilustr. pi. 
15, /. 2) is a different plant, if the description is accurate, since it is 
said to have milky sap, but it is used in local medicine for the same 
purposes. 

Croton fragilis HBK. 

Tanche (Gaumer; reported also as "taanche"). Frequent. A 
slender shrub; leaves lanceolate to ovate, obtuse or acute, green 
above, densely covered beneath with silvery stellate scales; flowers 
in long slender interrupted racemes. 

Croton Gaumeri Millsp. FMB. 2: 418. 1916. 

Known only from Izamal, the type collected by Gaumer in 
1904. A small shrub with long-petioled lanceolate acuminate leaves, 
sparsely stellate-pubescent and green on both surfaces; flowers in 
slender interrupted racemes. This plant is close to C. humilis L., 
and doubtfully distinct. 

X 

Croton glabellus L. 

Chuts (Schott), Perescuch (Pete"n, Cook). Wild cinnamon (B. 
H.). Frequent. A shrub or small tree, the pubescence of minute 
brown scales; leaves lance-oblong to oblong-ovate, obtuse to acumi- 
nate; flowers in short racemes. Known in Tabasco as "copalchi." 
The tree reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 86. 1913) as "sac pocche" 
and "pereskuz" is probably of this species. He states that a decoc- 
tion of the leaves is used in baths for biliousness, and that the resin 
is utilized for cauterizing wounds. The Maya name is reported also 
as "pelexcuch" and "perexcuch." The Kekchi name is given as 
"canoh." 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 321 

Croton glandulosepalus Millsp. FMB. 2: 419. 1916. 

Frequent; endemic; type collected between Progreso and Me*rida, 
Gaumer 1154- Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23544; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
2204; without locality, Gaumer 1046, 23953, 24330. A shrub 1-2 m. 
high; leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, the sparse pubescence of 
appressed stelliform hairs; flowers in elongate terminal spikes; sepals 
glandular-ciliate. 

Croton humilis L. C. albidus Millsp. FMB. 1: 303. 1896; 
Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 19. 1905, not Muell. Arg. 

Icaban (Gaumer). Common. A low slender stellate-pubescent 
aromatic shrub; leaves ovate or lanceolate, entire, usually acute; 
flowers in short interrupted racemes. The bark of this and related 
species is employed locally as a remedy for malaria, and it is reputed 
to have stimulant, diaphoretic, and expectorant properties. The 
plant is applied to wounds to cauterize them. Many of the Yucatan 
Crotons are much alike, and it is probable that the various ver- 
nacular names here listed for them are often applied indiscriminately. 

Croton lobatus L. 

An occasional weed. A coarse pilose branched annual; leaves 
deeply 3-5-lobed, the lobes acuminate, serrate; flowers in long 
interrupted spikes. 

Croton malvaviscifolius Millsp. FMB. 2: 419. 1916. 

Endemic; type from Yot Tsonot, Gaumer 1319; Chankon, Bec- 
quaert 58. A stout shrub 2.5-3 m. high; leaves broadly ovate, 
cordate at the base, stellate-tomentose, whitish beneath, acute, 
coarsely serrate; flowers white. 

Croton Millspaughii Standl. FMB. 8: 18. 1930. C. ciliato- 
glandulosus Millsp. FMB. 2: 57. 1900, not Ort. 

Sp. Picosa. Known only from the type, collected on Cozumel 
Island, Millspaugh 1593. A shrub; leaves slender-petiolate, small, 
ovate or oblong-ovate, acuminate, obtuse or rounded at the base, 
glabrous or nearly so, ciliate with long gland-tipped hairs; flowers in 
short dense racemes. The plant is closely related to the widespread 
C. ciliato-glandulosus, which is called "picosa" and "ciega-vista" in 
Mexico and Central America. It is stated that the gland-tipped 
hairs adhere to the hands, and injure and inflame the eyes if intro- 
duced into them. 



322 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Croton niveus Jacq. C. arboreus Millsp. FMB. 1: 303. 1896. 

Chul (Gaumer), Chulche. Common in thickets. A large shrub or 
a tree, said to attain a height of 18 m., the pubescence of minute 
silvery scales; leaves ovate or broadly ovate, entire, acute, cordate 
at the base; capsule smooth. Known in various parts of Mexico 
and Central America as "quina" and "copalchi." Most of the 
Yucatan specimens lack capsules, and some may be referable rather 
to C. reflexifolius. 

This is probably the "copalche," "palo santo," and "quina" of 
Cuevas (PI. Med. 43. 1913). He reports that it has astringent and 
febrifuge properties, and is employed as a remedy for hemorrhoids 
and malaria. 

Croton punctatus Jacq. C. maritimus Walt. 

Zac-chunum (Gaumer). Sp. Yerba deljabali (Gaumer). Common 
on seashores. A low herb, the dense pubescence of silvery scales; 
leaves oblong to oval or rounded, entire, rounded at apex; flowers in 
short racemes. 

Croton reflexifolius HBK. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24077. A shrub or small tree, the 
pubescence of minute scales; leaves broadly ovate-cordate, acute, 
entire; capsules tuberculate. 

Dalechampia scandens L. 

Moolcoh (Gaumer; reported also as "xmool-coh" and "xmolcoh"). 
Frequent. A woody or herbaceous vine; leaves 3-lobate, densely 
velvety-pubescent, the lobes acute or obtuse, serrulate; flowers in 
small clusters, each cluster subtended by 2 large cream-colored 
bracts; fruit a capsule. The flowers bear numerous bristly hairs 
which penetrate the skin easily, causing great irritation. The plant 
is a conspicuous one when in flower because of the showy bracts. 
The Maya name signifies "puma-foot." 

Dalechampia Schottii Greenm. FMB. 2: 255. 1907. D. denti- 
culata Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 20. 1905, not Griseb. 

Moolcoh. Common; endemic; type from MeYida, Schott 53 If. 
Leaves ovate, simple, obtuse or acute, obscurely serrulate, pubescent 
or glabrate; bracts green. 

D. Schottii var. trifoliolata Greenm. (FMB. 2: 255. 1907; type 
from Chichankanab, Gaumer 1512} is a form with 3-foliolate leaves, 
the segments linear-oblong or lance-oblong. 



- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 323 

Ditaxis tinctoria (Millsp.) Pax & Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 147 6 : 59. 1918. Argithamnia tinctoria Millsp. FMB. 1:302. pi. 
14. 1896. 

Sp. Tinta roja (Gaumer). Frequent; type from Xcholac, Gaunter 
426; also occurring in Central America. A shrub or herb 1 m. high, 
or often herbaceous; leaves ovate-lanceolate, short-petiolate, entire 
or nearly so, acuminate, densely sericeous beneath; fruit a small 
capsule. The plant yields a rose-pink dye. 

Drypetes lateriflora (Swartz) Krug & Urb. D. crocea Poit. 

Frequent in dry forest and thickets. A small tree with coria- 
ceous lanceolate glabrate leaves; flowers small and green; fruit a 
velvety red drupe. 

Euphorbia Armourii Millsp. FMB. 1 : 28. pi. 2. 1895. Eumecan- 
thus Armourii Millsp. FMB. 2: 413. 1916. Euphorbia arenaria 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 371. 1898, not HBK. 

Common; endemic; type from Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 108. 
An erect branched annual; leaves alternate, long-petiolate, broadly 
ovate, rounded to acute at the apex, entire, pubescent; flowers in 
small leafy-bracted cymes, green. 

Euphorbia astroites Fisch. & Mey. E. astroites var. heterap- 
pendiculata Millsp. FMB. 1: 28. 1895. Eumecanthus astroites Millsp. 

Frequent in dry soil. A slender erect pubescent much-branched 
herb; leaves small, mostly alternate, long-petiolate, rounded-ovate 
or rounded, entire. 

Euphorbia barbicarina (Millsp.) Standl., comb. nov. Cham- 
aesyce barbicarina Millsp. FMB. 2: 401. 1916. E. adenoptera Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 371. 1898, in part, not Bertol. 

Frequent; endemic; type from Sitilpech Road, Gaumer 939a. A 
prostrate pubescent annual; leaves small, opposite, rounded at the 
apex, serrulate; involucres axillary, pubescent. 

Euphorbia Blodgettii Engelm. E. ovalifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 
27. 1895, not Engelm. 

Mugeres Island, Millspaugh 19. In the West Indies and Florida, 
but not known elsewhere in Mexico. A glabrous prostrate annual; 
stems often pale; leaves oblong to oval, small, opposite, rounded at 
the apex, rather thick, entire; involucres axillary, glabrous. 



324 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Euphorbia buxifolia Lam. E. buxifolia L reclinata Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 60. 1900. E. buxifolia f. seminuda Millsp. FMB. 2: 60. 
1900. E. buxifolia f. florida Millsp. FMB. 2: 60. 1900. Chamaesyce 
buxifolia Small. 

Common on seashores. An erect glabrous shrub 50 cm. high or 
less; stems usually very densely leafy; leaves opposite, fleshy, ovate 
or oblong, obtuse or acute, entire; involucres and capsules glabrous. 
The forms enumerated above, representing minor variations, were 
described from Yucatan. 

Euphorbia cozumelensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 61. 1900. E. macu- 
lata Millsp. FMB. 1: 27. 1895, not L. E. thymifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 
304. 1896, not Burm. E. cozumelensis var. pilosulca Millsp. FMB. 
2: 62. 1900. Chamaesyce cozumelensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 402. 1916. 

Sac-xanabmucuy (Gaumer). Common, chiefly on seashores; 
endemic; type from Cozumel Island, Millspaugh. A prostrate 
pubescent annual or perennial; leaves opposite, oval, serrulate; 
involucres and capsules pubescent. The type of the variety also is 
from Cozumel, Millspaugh. 

Euphorbia dioica HBK. E. adenoptera Millsp. FMB. 1: 28. 
1895, 1: 304. 1896, 1: 371, in part. 1898; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: 
Beibl. 80: 20. 1905, not Bertol. Chamaesyce dioica Millsp. 

Mehenxanabmucuy (Gaumer). Common. A prostrate pubes- 
cent herb; leaves opposite, oblong, serrulate, obtuse or acute; 
involucres axillary, with conspicuous, red or pink appendages. 
The name "xanabmucuy" probably is applied to all the small 
prostrate Euphorbias of the subgenus Chamaesyce. Cuevas reports 
(PL Med. 105. 1913) under this name a plant of this group whose 
milky juice is applied to pimples, especially those on the eyelids. 
His illustration (Ilustr. pi. 24, f- 2) is Tribulus cistoides, but his 
description relates to a Euphorbia. The species of this group are 
usually called "golondrina" ("swallow") in Mexico, and the "mucuy" 
of the Maya name signifies "dove." Aznar reports a "xanabmucuy 
de hojas grandes," which might well be such a plant as Euphorbia 
hirta. 

The "xpakumpak" listed by Cuevas (PI. Med. 115. 1913) seems, 
from the description, to be probably a Euphorbia of this type. The 
crushed plant is applied to reduce inflammation, and the decoction 
is administered as a remedy for dysentery. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 325 

f/ Euphorbia Gaumerii Millsp. FMB. 1: 372. 1898. Aklema 
Gaumeri Millsp. FMB. 2: 416. 1916. 

Zacitz (Gaumer), Box-chacah (Gaumer). Frequent; endemic; 
type from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1073. A shrub, reported as 
subscandent and 3 m. long; leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, obtuse or 
acute, entire, pubescent or glabrate; involucres pubescent, in 
panicled cymes. 

Euphorbia graminea Jacq. E. graminea var. virgata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 372. 1898. E. graminea var. lancifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 
372. 1898. Eumecanthus gramineus Millsp. 

Onobkax (Gaumer). Common. A low herb, glabrous or pubes- 
cent; leaves rounded-ovate to linear, entire. The type of var. 
virgata is from Tekax, Gaumer 1128; the type of var. lancifolia from 
Izamal, Gaumer 969. The latter is a form with narrow leaves. The 
species has been collected in Pete"n with the name "escorpion-xiu," 
a combination of Spanish and Maya. 

Euphorbia heterophylla L. E. heterophylla var. cyathophora 
Griseb.;#. dentata Millsp. FMB. 1: 372. 1898, not Michx. 

Hobonkax (Gaumer; reported as "hobonkak"). A common 
weed. An erect annual, pubescent or nearly glabrous; lower leaves 
opposite, the upper alternate, very variable, linear to fiddle-shaped, 
entire or dentate; upper leaves often colored red, white, or pink. 

This plant may be the "hobonte-kaak" reported by Cuevas (PL 
Med. 51. 1913), for the description applies fairly well. The milky 
sap is said to be applied as a remedy for erysipelas. 

Euphorbia hirta L. E. pilulifera L. ; E. pilulifera var. procum- 
bens Boiss.; E. adenoptera Millsp. FMB. 1: 371. 1898, in part, not 
Bertol. 

Xauay (Gaumer), Xanabmucuy. Sp. Golondrina, Tianguis 
(Valdez; a Nahuatl name). A common weed. An erect or procum- 
bent, pubescent annual; leaves ovate, acute, serrate, often blotched 
with red; involucres in dense peduncled clusters; capsules pubes- 
cent. The milky sap is used to cauterize granulated eyelids, and 
the plant is employed also as a remedy for gonorrhea, itch and other 
skin diseases, fevers, asthma, and bronchitis. The species is of 
special interest because it and its relatives have been found to be 
the hosts of the organisms which cause the tropical ulcers so preva- 
lent, especially on the legs of children, in Central America. 



326 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Euphorbia hypericifolia L. 

Toplanxiu (Gaumer). A common weed. An erect annual, 
glabrous or nearly so; leaves oblong, serrulate, opposite, nearly 
sessile; involucres glabrous, in small cymes; capsules glabrous. 
The plant is eaten by horses. It is reported to have diaphoretic, 
expectorant, laxative, and alterative properties, and is employed in 
the treatment of cholera infantum, diarrhea, dysentery, indigestion, 
and fevers. 

Euphorbia lancifolia Schlecht. is called "ixbul" in Pete"n, accord- 
ing to Pittier. 

Euphorbia lasiocarpa Klotzsch. E. hypericifolia Millsp. FMB. 
1: 27. 1895, in part, not L. E. Preslii Millsp. FMB. 1: 304. 1896, 
not Guss. 

Common. An erect pubescent annual; leaves opposite, oblong 
or oval, obtuse, denticulate; involucres pubescent, in small cymes; 
capsules pubescent. 

Euphorbia prostrata Ait. E. rhytisperma Millsp. FMB. 1: 304. 
1896, 1: 374. 1898, not Engelm. E. serpyllifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 
304. 1896, 1: 374. 1898, not Pers. Chamaesyce prostrata Small. 

Xanabmucuy. A common weed. A prostrate, pubescent or 
glabrate annual; leaves opposite, oblong to ovate, obtuse, serrulate; 
involucres axillary; capsules pubescent on the angles. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. 

Sp. Flor de pascua. Commonly cultivated. Poinsettia. A shrub 
or small tree; leaves broadly ovate or panduriform, glabrous or 
pubescent; upper leaves, surrounding the inflorescence, bright red, 
rarely creamy white or yellow. The poinsettia is grown for orna- 
ment generally in tropical America. Although of American origin, 
its native habitat is doubtful. It is called "flor de pascua" ("Christ- 
mas-flower") because it is at its best about Christmas time. No 
Maya name is reported for it, an indication that it has been intro- 
duced into the Peninsula. 

Euphorbia rutilis Millsp. E. adenoptera Millsp. FMB. 1: 371. 
1898, not Bertol. 

Frequent. A prostrate pubescent annual; leaves opposite, 
oblong, obtuse or acute, serrulate; involucres in dense axillary 
clusters, the appendages petal-like, red or pink. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 327 

t ,,, Euphorbia Schlechtendalii Boiss. E. mayana Millsp. FMB. 
1: 304. pi. 16. 1896. Aklema mayana Millsp. FMB. 2: 416. 1916. 

Zacchacah (Gaumer), Boxchacah. Frequent. A shrub 1-2 m. 
high, glabrous or nearly so; leaves long-petioled, verticillate, ovate 
to rounded, entire, obtuse or rounded at the apex; involucres in 
small dense cymes. The plant is employed as a purgative, also for 
affections of the lungs and hemorrhage of the stomach. The type 
of E. mayana was collected at Izamal, Gaumer 302. 

Euphorbia splendens Boj. 

Sp. Corona de Cristo. Listed by Gaumer as cultivated. Native 
of Madagascar. This Euphorbia, with very spiny stems and showy 
red involucres, is grown commonly as an ornamental plant in tropical 
America. 

Euphorbia trichotoma HBK. E. trichotoma var. macilenta 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 67. 1900. 

Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1598, 1600; Gaumer in 1885. A 
low, fastigiately branched, perennial, glabrous herb; stems densely 
leafy, the leaves alternate, oblong-spatulate, rounded at the apex, 
minutely serrulate, sessile. 

Euphorbia villifera Scheele. E. pilosula Millsp. FMB. 1: 373. 
1898, not Engelm. Chamaesyce villifera Small. 

Occasional. A prostrate or ascending, pubescent annual; leaves 
opposite, oblong or ovate, serrulate or subentire; capsules glabrous. 

Euphorbia xbacensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 374. 1898. Eumecanthus 
xbacensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 413. 1916. 

Endemic; known only from the type, collected at Buena Vista 
Xbac, Gaumer 1108. A nearly glabrous, erect, perennial herb; 
leaves opposite, petiolate, small, ovate-lanceolate, entire, obtuse; 
involucres solitary, pubescent. 

Euphorbia yucatanensis (Millsp.) Standl., comb. nov. E. 
Karwinskyi Millsp. FMB. 2: 65. 1900, not Boiss. Chamaesyce 
yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 407. 1916. 

Endemic; known only from the type, collected at Progreso, 
Millspaugh 1696. A small pubescent annual; leaves opposite, 
oblong-ovate, obtuse or acute, serrulate; involucres and capsules 
densely pubescent. 



328 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Gymnanthes lucida Sw. 

Lignum-vitae (B. H.). Occasional. A glabrous shrub or small 
tree sometimes 10 m. high; leaves obovate-oblong, 5-10 cm. long, 
obtuse, serrulate or entire; flowers small, green, spicate; fruit a cap- 
sule.- The wood is hard, heavy, close-grained, and dark brown. 
The milky sap is said to be very poisonous if in contact with the skin. 
This plant, of course, is altogether different from the true lignum- 
vitae (Guaiacum). 

Hippomane Mancinella L. 

Common on seashores. Manchineel. A glabrous tree with 
smooth bark; leaves oblong-ovate or oval, persistent, acute, serru- 
late; flowers small, green, spicate; fruit resembling a small green 
apple. This is one of the most characteristic trees of tropical 
American seashores. The milky latex causes intense irritation upon 
the flesh, with blistering and swelling, and the fruit, also, is very 
poisonous. The wood is dark brown, soft, and close-grained. The 
usual name for the tree in Mexico and Central America is "man- 
zanillo" ("little apple," in allusion to the fruit), of which man- 
chineel is a derivative. The Maya name of this important tree, 
strangely enough, has not been reported. 

Hura polyandra Baill. H. crepitans Donde", Apuntes 114. 1907, 
not L. 

Solimanche. Sp. Habilla, Jabilla, Haba de San Ignacio (Gaumer) . 
Frequent. Sandbox. A large tree, the trunk covered with fine hard 
prickles; leaves long-petioled, broadly cordate-ovate, glabrous, cre- 
nate or serrate; fruit resembling a small pumpkin, 8-10 cm. broad, 
separating at maturity into about 15 cells shaped like the sections 
of an orange. The tree is common throughout the lowlands of 
most parts of tropical Mexico and Central America. The wood is 
light and soft, whitish with brown stripes. The milky latex of the 
tree is poisonous if in contact with the skin, causing inflammation 
and swelling. It is used in some parts of Mexico for poisoning fish. 
The fruits are a favorite food of macaws. When ripe, the fruits 
explode with great violence, scattering the seeds to a long distance. 
The seeds are employed in Yucatan as a purgative, but their use is 
dangerous. The Kekchi name is given as "kakibach." 

Jatropha aconitifolia Mill. J. urens Millsp. FMB. 1: 305. 
1896, 1: 374. 1898, not L. J. urens var. stimulosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 
305. 1896, 1: 374. 1898, 2: 59. 1900, not J. stimulosa Michx. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 329 

r , Chay (Gaumer), Tsimtsimchay (Gaumer), Tsintsin-chay (Gaumer), 
Xtsats (Schott), Xtsah, Tzah (Pe"rez). Sp. Chaya. Common in 
stony waste lands. A shrub or small tree with milky sap, usually 
armed with long stinging hairs; leaves deeply lobed; flowers white. 
The plant varies greatly in the cutting of the leaves and in the 
pubescence. Some plants are densely covered with long hairs like 
those of a nettle, which sting the flesh and cause excruciating pain, 
but other plants are nearly or quite devoid of such hairs. The 
young leaves are cooked and eaten as a pot herb in Yucatan, as well 
as in some parts of Central America. It is probable that the different 
vernacular names are applied to more or less distinct forms of the 
plant, depending upon the relative abundance of stinging hairs. 
PeYez states that the "tzah" is a very spiny kind of "chaya." The 
names "lal" and "xalal" have been reported for the plant. 

Jatropha Curcas L. 

Xkakalche (Gaumer; reported also as "xcacalche"). Sicilte 
(Cuevas), Siclite (Cuevas). Common. Physic-nut. A shrub or small 
tree with thick branches and milky sap; leaves glabrate, long- 
petiolate, angled or shallowly 3-5-1 obate; flowers greenish yellow, in 
small stalked cymes; fruit a fleshy capsule, containing 1 to 3 large 
oily seeds. This is one of the most common plants of Mexico and 
Central America. It is often planted for living fence-posts. The 
large chestnut-like seeds, usually called "pinones," are poisonous, 
and have violently purgative properties, but when thoroughly 
roasted they are well-flavored and edible. They are rich in oil, 
which is said to be used in Yucatan in the manufacture of soap and 
as an adulterant of almond oil and cod-liver oil. The oil is applied 
to burns to relieve the pain and to assist in healing them. The 
Kekchi name is "sakilte." 

The Motul Dictionary lists "ppih," with the definition, "avel- 
lanas desta tierra, fruta purgativa," a description which must indi- 
cate the seeds of Jatropha Curcas. 

Jatropha Gaumeri Greenm. FMB. 2: 256. 1907. Jacaratia 
mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 35. 1895, as to specimen cited, not DC. 
Ficus jaliscana Millsp. FMB. 1: 293. 1896, not Wats. 

Pomolche, Xpomolche (Cuevas), Chip-che (B. H.). Sp. Pindn 
(B. H.). Wild physic-nut (B. H.). Common in dry forests; endemic; 
type from Izamal, Gaumer 365. A shrub or tree 3-5 m. high, the 
trunk sometimes 50 cm. in diameter; leaves broadly cordate, entire, 



330 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

glabrous or nearly so; flowers in small, mostly sessile cymes. The 
branches are used for making whistles. A solution of the milky sap 
in water is used as a wash to cure sores in the mouth. The name 
"chul-che" has been reported for this species. 

Jatropha yucatanensis Briq. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 4: 230. 
1900. 

Type from Campeche, collected by Linden; also in Chiapas. 
A tree; leaves broadly cordate, glabrate. 

Manihot aesculifolia (HBK.) Pohl, PL Bras. 1: 55. 1827. 
Janipha aesculifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 107. pi 109. 1817. 
M. rhomboidea Millsp. FMB. 1: 375. 1898, not Muell. Arg. 

Chac-che (Gaumer; listed also as "xchache"). Sp. Yuca cima- 
rrona. Type from Bay of Campeche; collected also at Me"rida. A 
large glabrous herb; leaves 5-7-parted, the lobes broad, entire, 
glaucous beneath. No information is available concerning this 
species in the Peninsula, but it is apparently a wild plant, probably 
of no economic value. 

Manihot carthaginensis (Jacq.) Muell. Arg. 

Batul (Gaumer), Chac-che (Schott). Collected at Merida, Orchi- 
dia, and Izamal. Similar to the preceding, but the divisions of the 
leaves lobed. A wild plant, probably of no economic importance. 
The vernacular name has been listed as "xcache," and "xhac-che." 

Manihot dulcis (Gmel.) Pax. M. palmata var. aipi Muell. Arg. 

Cicitsin (Gaumer). Sp. Yuca dulce. Cultivated commonly. A 
large glabrous herb; leaves 3-13-parted, the divisions entire, glau- 
cous beneath. The sweet cassava is grown for its large starchy 
roots, which are cooked and eaten as vegetable. In the fresh state 
they are not poisonous like those of M. esculenta. In Yucatan starch 
is extracted from the roots. The plant, which is said not to flower in 
Yucatan, is propagated from cuttings. 

Manihot esculenta Crantz. M. utilissima Pohl; M. Manihot 
Karst. 

Tsin, Tsiim (PeYez). Sp. Yuca, Yuca brava, Yuca amarga. Culti- 
vated extensively. Cassava. A glabrous herb 3 m. high or less; 
leaves 3-7-parted, the divisions narrow, entire, glaucous beneath; 
capsule winged. This is an important food plant in most parts of 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 331 

tropical America, being in many regions of South America the chief 
starchy food, or a substitute for bread. In Mexico and Central 
America the large tuberous roots, which suggest black-skinned sweet 
potatoes, are boiled and eaten as a vegetable. Before cooking they 
are poisonous, in most varieties at least. Tapioca and starch are 
obtained from the roots, and the starch was formerly an important 
article of commerce in Yucatan. The plant is a native of Brazil, but 
is believed to have been introduced into Mexico before the Conquest. 
The words cassava and yuca are apparently of Antillean origin. 

Pedilanthus itzaeus Millsp. FMB. 1: 305. 1896. 

Yaxhalalche. Frequent; type from Tsilam, Gaumer 452; also in 
Cuba and Hispaniola. A shrub 1.5 m. high with milky sap, the 
stems fleshy and green; leaves soon deciduous, broadly ovate, obtuse 
or acute, fleshy; involucres slipper-shaped, pink. The latex has 
violent purgative properties, a few drops in water being taken as a 
purge. The Indians also have a belief that a single drop placed upon 
the navel will act as a purgative. The stems and leaves are reputed 
to have emmenagogue and antisyphilitic properties. Donde" states 
that pieces of the plant are placed among clothes to bleach them. 
This, as well as other species, is sometimes cultivated, especially as a 
hedge plant. The Maya name signifies "green-stem shrub." 

Pedilanthus nodiflorus Millsp. FMB. 1: 305. 1896. 

Yaxhalalche. Common in the coastal region; type from Tsilam, 
Gaumer 649; endemic. A shrub 1-1.5 m. high, usually leafless; 
involucres red. Both the Yucatan species are alike in general 
appearance, and they probably are not distinguished locally. 

Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels. Ribes rubrum Cuevas, PI. 
Med. 49, Ilustr. pi. 36, f. 1. 1913, not L. 

Sp. Grosella. Wild plum (B. H.). Sometimes planted; native of 
the East Indies. Otaheite gooseberry, star gooseberry. A glabrous 
tree with small, entire, orbicular to ovate, distichous leaves; flowers 
small, green or pink, panicled on old branches; fruit a large green 
drupe. The very acid fruit is used for preparing dulces. A sirup 
made from it is administered for stomach affections. 

Phyllanthus conami Sw. P. acuminatus Vahl. 
Kahyuc (Gaumer), Xpayhul. Sp. Ciruelillo (B. H., Tabasco). 
Common. A slender glabrous shrub or small tree; leaves distichous, 



332 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

ovate, acuminate, 3-4 cm. long; fruit a small capsule. Cuevas 
states that the crushed leaves are applied to reduce inflammation, 
especially of the breasts. 

Phyllanthus glaucescens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 115. 1817. 

Xpbixtdon (Gaumer), Pixton (B. H.). Monkey-rattle (B. H.). 
Common; type from Campeche. A glabrous shrub or small tree; 
leaves large, oval to orbicular, abruptly short-acuminate, glaucous 
beneath; flowers in slender narrow panicles; capsule 2 cm. or more 
in diameter. 

Phyllanthus carolinensis Walt. 

Cababesinixte (Becquaert). Common. A small erect glabrous 
herb, the leaves elliptic to obovate or rounded, 7-20 mm. long; fruit 
a small capsule. 

Phyllanthus Niruri L. 

Occasional. A small slender glabrous annual; leaves obovate- 
oblong, 6-15 mm. long, nearly sessile, rounded at the apex. 

Phyllanthus nobilis (L. f.) Muell. Arg. 

Xnabalche. Clawberry (B. H.). Frequent in dry scrublands. A 
glabrous shrub or small tree; leaves elliptic to oblong, 5-12 cm. 
long, acute; flowers greenish white, on slender pedicels, fasciculate. 

With the vernacular name "panatela" Gaumer lists in his 
Sinonimia Phyllanthus angustifolius, and Aznar "Xylophilla mon- 
tana Sw." These names perhaps relate to one of the leafless Antillean 
species of the group Xylophylla of the genus Phyllanthus, which may 
be in cultivation in Yucatan as an ornamental plant. 

Ricinus communis L. 

Xkoch, Koch. Sp. Higuerilla. Common. Castor-bean. A large 
glabrous herb or shrub with large, palmately lobate leaves. The 
plant is probably native in tropical Africa, but was brought to 
America at an early date. It has been cultivated in the Peninsula 
for its seeds, the source of the well-known castor-oil ("aceite de 
castor," "aceite de ricino," "aceite de palma-christi")- The oil is 
best known as a purgative, but it is used in Yucatan for lighting and 
as a lubricant, and it has been exported from the region. Five or 
six of the seeds are sometimes eaten as a purgative. The leaves are 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 333 

employed locally as poultices to relieve pain in the abdomen, and 
they are used also as poultices and in decoction to cleanse and heal 
sores. The Maya name has been reported also as "xox," "xcooch," 
and "xoch." 

Sebastiania adenophora Pax & Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
IV. 147 6 : 145. 1912. Excoecaria glandulosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 305. 
1896, not Sw. 

Kanchunup, Canchunup. Occasional in dry thickets and forests; 
type from Tsilam, Gaumer 615; endemic; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
1870; Suitun, Gaumer 23293. A glabrous shrub or small tree 3-6 
m. high; leaves ovate, 3-5 cm. long, short-petiolate, acute, serrulate; 
flowers small, green, in slender spikes; fruit a capsule. 

Tragia nepetaef olia Cav. 

Popox (Gaumer), Hoobox (Valdez). Sp. Ortiguilla. Common. 
A slender perennial herb, armed with stinging hairs; leaves small, 
ovate or lanceolate, serrate; fruit a small capsule. The hairs sting 
the flesh painfully, sometimes causing swelling. The plant is 
reported as a remedy for rheumatism. 

The Motul Dictionary gives the Maya name as "ppoppox." It 
reports also the "sacppoppox," "chacppoppox," and "y ax PPPP x /' 
which may be stinging plants of other families. 

Tragia yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 420. 1916. 

Popox. Type from Chichankanab, Gaumer 1505, 21 5^; San 
Anselmo, Gaumer 1931; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23623; endemic. 
Plants herbaceous or suflrutescent, erect or scandent, hirsute; leaves 
large, lance-oblong or ovate-oblong, serrate. 

ANACARDIAGEAE. Cashew Family 
Anacardium occidentale L. 

Sp. Marandn. Cultivated in Yucatan, and probably wild in 
Campeche. Cashew. A small tree; leaves obovate, rounded at the 
apex, glabrous; flowers small, in terminal panicles. The cashew is 
one of the common trees of the drier parts of Mexico and Central 
America, and is planted for its fruit. It is stated that the tree is 
not native in Yucatan, and no Maya name is reported for it. The 
fruit is a curious one, consisting of a fleshy, red or yellow, pear- 
shaped receptacle, at whose apex is borne the kidney-shaped nutlike 



334 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

drupe, containing a large seed. The receptacle, which suggests a 
bullnose pepper, is sweet and very juicy, and spongy, with a peculiar 
agreeable flavor. It is eaten raw, or made into dulces and refrescos. 
The seeds contain cardol, a caustic acrid oil which blisters the skin. 
When the seeds are roasted, the oil is driven off, and they are then 
very good to eat, resembling almonds, to which they are perhaps 
superior in flavor. They are much used for flavoring candy. The 
wood is close-grained, strong, and durable. 

Astronium graveolens Jacq. 

Kulimche (Gaumer) ; reported also as "kulinche" and "culinche." 
Sp. Palo mulato (B. H.). Apparently frequent. A tree 30 m. high 
or less; leaves pinnate, the leaflets oblong, serrate or almost entire, 
glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, greenish, panicled. The wood 
is of good quality, and is valued for cabinetwork. 

Mangifera indica L. 

Sp. Mango. Planted commonly; native of Asia. A medium- 
sized glabrous tree; leaves persistent, narrowly oblong-lanceolate; 
flowers greenish, in large panicles. The mango is perhaps the 
favorite fruit tree of tropical America, to which it was introduced 
long ago. The fruit ripens in spring and during the summer months. 
It varies greatly in quality, that of some trees being full of fiber and 
having a strong turpentine taste, but the best varieties have a 
delicious flavor. 

Metopium Brownei (Jacq.) Urban. Rhus Metopium L.; Persea 
gratissima Millsp. FMB. 1: 297. 1896, as to specimens cited, not 
Gaertn. 

Chechem (Gaumer; "boat- wood"), Cabalchechem (Gaumer), 
Chechen (B. H.). Sp. Palo de rosa (Gaumer). Black poison-wood, 
Honduras walnut (B. H.). Common. Reported as varying from 
only a shrub to a tree 25 m. high, with a trunk sometimes 1.2 m. in 
diameter; leaves pinnate, the 3-7 leaflets obovate or rounded, entire, 
glabrous; flowers whitish, in large axillary panicles; fruit a com- 
pressed purple drupe, about 8 mm. long. This tree is best known 
for its poisonous properties. In contact with the skin it causes 
intense itching, followed by blistering and swelling, and it is stated 
that merely passing beneath the trees, if there is dew or rain, is 
dangerous. The dark brown wood makes handsome furniture, but 
it is somewhat dangerous to work. The fruit is reported to be eaten 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 335 

by deer and peccaries. Gaumer states that the tree has diaphoretic 
and sedative properties, and that it may be used in treating erysi- 
pelas, measles, small-pox, inflammatory rheumatism, and various 
other diseases. This tree has been reported from Yucatan under the 
name Rhus Toxicodendron. 

There is reported from Yucatan a "zac-chechem" which has not 
been identified. 

Spondias Mombin L. S. lutea L. 

Kanabal (Gaumer), Abal, Kinin-hobo (Millspaugh). Sp. Ciruela 
amarilla (Yucatan), Jobo (B. H.). Hogplum (B. H.). Common. 
A tree, often 10-15 m. high; leaves pinnate, deciduous, the leaflets 
abruptly acuminate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers in large panicles, 
fragrant, white; fruit ovoid, yellow, 3-4 cm. long. The hogplum is 
a well-known fruit of tropical America, but inferior in quality to the 
best forms of S. purpurea. The wood is soft but strong and grayish 
yellow. The name "jobo," most generally applied to this species, is 
of Carib origin. 

The Motul Dictionary lists the "zuliabal," "the yellow ciruela 
de Honduras, which ripens in September and October." This is 
probably S. Mombin. The Kekchi name is "pok." 

Spondias purpurea L. S. Mombin Standl. CNH. 23: 656. 1923, 
not L. 

Chiabal (Gaumer), Abal. Sp. Ciruela. Common. Spanish 
plum. A small deciduous tree with few thick branches; leaflets 
small, rounded to acute at the apex, pubescent or glabrate; flowers 
red or purple, in small panicles or clusters along the branches; fruit 
small, usually red or purple. This is one of the most common trees 
of Mexico and Central America, usually abundant in the dry regions. 
It is often planted for living fence-posts. The wood is soft and light 
and useless. The fruit is much like a small plum in appearance and 
flavor, hence it was natural that the early Spaniards should call it 
"ciruela" ("plum"). The fruits vary greatly in quality, and the 
best are very good. They are eaten raw, and often long before they 
are ripe. The young leaves and flowers have an agreeable acid 
flavor. The rains which come in Yucatan in February and March, 
when ciruelas are ripe, are called "aguas de ciruelas." A decoction 
of the leaves and bark is used in domestic medicine as a remedy for 
fevers and diarrhea. 



336 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Cuevas enumerates the following varieties of ciruelas: "tus- 
pana," "huntura," "xho-uel," "cusmin," "ek-abal," "sabac-abal," 
"aac-abal," "Campech-abal," "keken-abal." Some of these may 
be forms of S. Mombin. From Campeche are reported as superior 
forms the "chavales" and "ciruelas tuxpanas." The name "jocote," 
of Nahuatl origin, is used widely in Mexico and Central America. 
Pe"rez reports the "zabac-abal" or "ciruela morada"; the "ixnuc- 
abal," "ciruela grande"; the "kiz" or "kiiz," "una especie de ciruela 
ordinaria"; the "kinin" or "kinim," "una especie de ciruela del 
pais"; and the "ixpoen," "una especie de ciruela." Some of these 
may be plants of other families. "Kinim" is reported by another 
author as one of the woods of Yucatan. The Motul Dictionary 
lists the "apalac," "ciruelo silvestre y su fruta, la cual es pequena y 
dulce como ciruela y la comen los pajaros." This may belong to 
some other family. In the Pokonchi dialect of Guatemala Spondias 
purpurea is called "rom," "rum," and "cak-rum," and in the Ixil 
dialect "kinum." 

HIPPOCRATEACEAE. Hippocratea Family 

Hippocratea celastroides HBK. H. tenella Millsp. FMB. 1: 
33. 1895, not Miers. H. Grisebachii Millsp. FMB. 1: 402. 1898; 
Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 20. 1905, probably not Loes. 

Tulubalam (Gaumer), Tatsi (Gaumer). Common. A large 
woody vine; leaves opposite, persistent, elliptic, acute, crenate- 
serrulate, glabrous; flowers small, greenish yellow, in slender cymes; 
stamens 3; fruit a depressed, flat, deeply 3-lobed capsule, the seeds 
broadly winged. The Maya name is said to be derived from 
"tulul," ransom, and "balam," the state following too liberal indul- 
gence in intoxicants. The plant is employed as a calmant for 
nervous excitation. 

Hippocratea yucatanensis Standl. FMB. 8:19. 1930. 

Salbeets. Type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23859; Izamal, 
Gaumer 718; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1371; without locality, Gaumer 
2366, 23994. A large woody vine; leaves short-petiolate, elliptic- 
oval to oblong-elliptic, 5-9.5 cm. long, obtuse, shallowly and re- 
motely crenate-serrate, sometimes sparsely puberulent beneath on 
the costa, elsewhere glabrous; cymes few-flowered, about half as 
long as the leaves; petals oval, 4 mm. long. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 337 

CELASTRACEAE. Bittersweet Family 
Elaeodendron xylocarpum (Vent.) DC. 

Zacchechem (Gaumer). Occasional. A glabrous shrub or small 
tree; leaves alternate, coriaceous, obovate to elliptic-oblong, acute 
to rounded at the apex; flowers small, greenish, cymose; fruit 
drupaceous, yellow, 1-3 cm. long. 

Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. 

Frequent along the coast. A glabrous shrub or small tree 6 m. 
high or less; leaves alternate, persistent, thick and fleshy, obovate, 
usually entire; fruit a 3-valved capsule, the 1 or 2 seeds with a fleshy 
red aril. 

Myginda Gaumeri Loes.; Millsp. FMB. 1: 401. 1898. 

Cambaochlob (Gaumer). Frequent; endemic; type from Buena 
Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1049. A shrub 5 m. high, nearly glabrous; 
leaves opposite, oblong to elliptic, serrulate, leathery; flowers small, 
cymose, dark red; fruit an obovoid drupe. 

Wimmeria obtusifolia Standl. FMB. 8: 20. 1930. 

Type, Gaumer 24259, without definite locality. A shrub or small 
tree; leaves short-petiolate, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 3.5-4 cm. 
long, narrowed to the obtuse apex, acute at the base, nearly entire, 
minutely and sparsely puberulent or nearly glabrous; cymes axillary, 
much shorter than the leaves; petals 3 mm. long. 

SAPINDACEAE. Soapberry Family 

Allophylus Cominia (L.) Sw. Schmidelia Cominia Sw. 

Sp. Palo de caja. Frequent. A shrub or small tree about 6 m. 
high; leaves 3-foliolate, alternate, the leaflets elliptic or obovate, 
acute, serrulate, densely pubescent beneath; flowers small, whitish, 
in long panicled racemes; fruit a red drupe 4 mm. long. 

Cardiospermum Corindum L. C. molle HBK. 

Huayunak; reported also as "uayunak." Sp. Munditos. Occa- 
sional. Balloon-vine. A slender, usually herbaceous vine; leaves 
alternate, biternate, the segments dentate or lobate, densely pubes- 
cent beneath; flowers small, white, in corymbs, these bearing tendrils; 
capsule inflated and bladder-like, 2-3 cm. long. 



338 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. This tree is listed by Gaumer with the 
names "uayum" and "guayo," and it has been reported from the 
region by others. These names are given also to Talisia olivaeformis. 
It is rather probable that Melicoccus is grown somewhere in the 
Peninsula for its edible fruit, but no specimens are available, and it 
is possible that the report is an error resulting from an erroneous 
naming of Talisia. 

Paullinia Cururu L. 

Occasional in forests. A woody vine; leaflets 3, elliptic or 
elliptic-lanceolate, glabrate, obtuse to acuminate, serrate; flowers 
small, white, in axillary racemes; capsule glabrous, not winged. 
The vines of this and related genera are used widely in tropical 
America as barbascos, or fish poisons. 

Paullinia fuscescens HBK. P. curassavica Millsp. FMB. 1: 
33. 1895, not L. P. fuscescens L glabrescens Radlk. 

Kexak (Gaumer). Common. A large woody vine; leaves biter- 
nate, the leaflets obtusely dentate, usually tomentose or pubescent; 
flowers greenish white, in long-stalked racemes; capsule winged, the 
seeds black, with a large white aril. The tough pliable stems of 
this and related genera are doubtless used locally as a substitute for 
rope and twine. 

Paullinia pinnata L. 

Salatxiu (Pete"n). Collected in northeastern Pete*n. A large 
vine, glabrous or nearly so; leaves pinnate, the rachis winged, the 
5 leaflets ovate to oblong, remotely serrate; fruit not winged. 
Called "barbasco" in Tabasco. 

Sapindus Saponaria L. S. Saponaria var. inaequalis Radlk. 

Zubul (Gaumer), Jabdnche (B. H.). Sp. Jaboncillo. Soapseed tree 
(B. H.). Common. Soapberry. A tree of small or medium size; 
leaves pinnate, the leaflets 5-17, linear-lanceolate to oblong, usually 
acuminate, entire, glabrate; flowers whitish, in large terminal pani- 
cles; fruit a 1-seeded translucent berry. The wood is dense, light 
brown, and heavy. The pulp of the fruits, when rubbed in water, 
gives a lather, like soap, and the fruits are sometimes employed as a 
substitute for soap. 

One of Gaumer's specimens is accompanied by the name "xoken- 
cab," which has not been confirmed elsewhere. The Motul Diction- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 339 

ary lists the name "zihom" or "zihum," with the definition, "a 
certain tree bearing a small fruit which serves as soap." This is 
very probably Sapindus. 

Serjania adiantoides Radlk.; Millsp. FMB. 1: 403. 1898. 

Bui (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 
1114; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23542. A slender woody vine, the 
stems hirsute; leaves bipinnate, the leaflets small, obtuse, crenate, 
hirtellous or glabrate; flowers whitish, in short tendril-bearing 
racemes. 

Serjania atrolineata Sauv. & Wright. S. scatens Millsp. FMB. 
1: 33. 1895, not Radlk. 

Buiche (Gaumer). Reported from the region (collected by 
Johnson), but the occurrence in the Peninsula is uncertain. 

Serjania goniocarpa Radlk. S. polyphylla Millsp. FMB. 1: 
376. 1896, not Radlk. 

Buyak (Gaumer), Kexak (Schott). Occasional. A large woody 
vine; leaves biternate, the leaflets large, ovate, acute, crenate- 
dentate, nearly glabrous; fruit (as in the other species) of 3 large 
samaras. 

Serjania mexicana (L.) Willd. has been reported from the region 
(Millsp. FMB. 1: 33. 1895; specimen collected by Johnson), but the 
record is doubtful. 

Serjania plicata Radlk. Monogr. Serjan. 167. 1875. 

Known only from the type, collected by Johnson in Yucatan or 
Tabasco. Leaflets large, ovate, crenate-dentate, softly pubescent 
beneath. 

Serjania scatens Radlk. 

Reported by Radlkofer from Yucatan or Tabasco; occurrence of 
the plant in our region uncertain. Leaflets oblong, remotely crenate, 
glabrous. 

Serjania trachygona Radlk. 

Campeche. Leaves 2 or 3 times pinnate, the leaflets numerous, 
small, lobed or crenate, pilose on the nerves. 



340 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Serjania yucatanensis Standl. FMB. 8: 21. 1930. 

Type from Chichankanab, Gaumer 23676; apparently frequent; 
endemic. A large woody vine; leaflets 3, 5-14 cm. long, obtuse or 
acutish, crenate-serrate; fruits glabrous, the partition walls broad, 
the wings 13 mm. long and 10 mm. wide. 

Talisia diphylla Standl. FMB. 8: 21. 1930. 

Type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23573. A tree 12 m. high; 
leaves bifoliolate, or the lowest sometimes simple, the leaflets oblong 
or oblanceolate-oblong, 5-8 cm. long, obtuse, entire, glabrous; pani- 
cles terminal, equaling or slightly exceeding the leaves; fruit at first 
sparsely appressed-pilose but soon glabrate. 

Talisia olivaeformis (HBK.) Radlk. 

Uayum (Gaumer; reported by Pe"rez as "uayam"). Sp. Guayo. 
Common. A tree sometimes 18 m. high; leaves pinnate, persistent, 
the 4 leaflets elliptic, obtuse or acute, entire, glabrous; flowers 
yellowish white, in small dense panicles; fruit an elliptic drupe 2 
cm. long. The fruit is edible. 

Thouinia paucidentata Radlk.; Millsp. FMB. 1: 403. 1898. 

Kanchunup (Gaumer). Common; endemic in the Peninsula; 
type from Yucatan, Gaumer 865. A tree 9 m. high; leaflets 3, 
lanceolate or lance-elliptic, acute or acuminate, remotely serrate, 
barbate beneath along the costa; flowers in raceme-like lateral pani- 
cles, whitish; fruit of 2 or 3 samaras 10-12 mm. long. 

Urvillea ulmacea HBK. 

Puluxtakoc (Gaumer), Apaac (Millspaugh). Common. A woody 
pubescent vine; leaflets 3, ovate, acute, crenate-serrate, pubescent 
or glabrate; flowers small, white, racemose; fruit elliptic, 3-winged, 
2-3 cm. long. Locally the plant is reputed to have refrigerant 
properties. 

Cupania guatemalensis is known in British Honduras as "sacpom," 
"Grande Betty," and "red copal." 

RHAMNAGEAE. Buckthorn Family 

Colubrina ferruginosa Brongn. Colubrina Colubrina Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 69. 1900. 

Pimienta-che (a combination of Maya and Spanish). Frequent. 
A tree 20 m. high or less; leaves alternate, oblong to ovate, acute, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 341 

glabrate; flowers in axillary clusters, the branches densely rusty- 
tomentose; petals small, yellow; fruit black, subglobose, 7-8 mm. 
long. The tree is known in Mexico only from Yucatan. 

Colubrina Greggii Wats. C. ferruginosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 376. 
1896, not Brongn. 

Tsulubmai (Millspaugh), Yaxpucim (Gaumer), Pukim, Puciim, 
Pukin. Pimienta-che (Seler). Common. A shrub or small tree 9 
m. high or less; leaves alternate, ovate, acute, finely serrate, densely 
hairy beneath; flowers white. Cuevas states that the infusion of 
the leaves is employed as a remedy for dysentery. 

Colubrina reclinata (L'He>.) Brongn. 

Without locality, Gaumer 2373. A tree; leaves elliptic to ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, glabrate, entire; flowers in small axillary clusters, 
brown-pubescent; fruit globose, red or brownish, 7-9 mm. in 
diameter. 

Gouania lupuloides (L.) Urb. G. domingensis L. 

Xomak (Gaumer). Common. A woody vine with tendrils in 
the inflorescences; leaves alternate, lance-oblong to elliptic, acute, 
remotely serrate, nearly glabrous; flowers small, whitish, in terminal 
panicles; fruit dry, 3- winged. A decoction of the root is used as a 
gargle for sores in the mouth and throat. The dry stems are, or at 
least have been, used in Europe and the United States for making 
dentifrices. 

Gouania stipularis DC. has been reported (Millsp. FMB. 1: 33. 
1895) upon the basis of a Linden specimen, but the locality is 
doubtful. 

Karwinskia Humboldtiana (Roem. & Schult.) Zucc. 

Sp. Cacachila. Occasional in dry forests. A tree sometimes 9 m. 
high; leaves subopposite, oblong to oval, obtuse or rounded at the 
apex, glabrous; flowers small, greenish, axillary, umbellate; fruit a 
blackish drupe 6-9 mm. long. The tree, which is widely distributed 
in Mexico, is well known for its poisonous properties, the seeds, if 
eaten, causing paralysis, especially of the lower limbs, and even 
death. 

Krugiodendron ferreum (Vahl) Urban. 
Chimtoc (Schott). Sp.Quiebrahacha (B. H.). Axe-master (B. H.). 
Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23842; without locality, Gaumer 24091. 



342 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

British Honduras. A tree 10 m. high; leaves subopposite, persistent, 
petiolate, ovate or oval, 2-7 cm. long, obtuse or emarginate, nearly 
glabrous; flowers in small axillary clusters; fruit a black drupe 5-8 
mm. long. In Mexico this species is known only from the region 
of Yucatan. 

VITAGEAE. Grape Family 

Ampelocissus acapulcensis (HBK.) Planch. Vitis acapulcensis 
HBK. 

Without locality, Gaumer 23942, 23985, 24034; Buena Vista, 
Gaumer in 1899. A very large, woody vine; leaves broadly cordate, 
deciduous, dentate, often shallowly 3-lobate, rusty-tomentose be- 
neath; flowers dioecious, red, the staminate in large, often very 
dense cymes; fruit wine-colored, 12-25 mm. in diameter. The fruit 
is very acid, and scarcely edible. 

Cissus formosa Standl. FMB. 8: 23. 1930. 

Type from Suitun, Gaumer 23389; Chichankanab, Gaumer 23713; 
without locality, Gaumer 24312. A large woody vine; leaves varia- 
ble, the upper ones deltoid-rounded, remotely serrate, the lower ones 
shallowly or deeply 3-5-lobed; flowers deep red; berries purplish red. 

Cissus rhombifolia Vahl. 

Xtabcanil. Collected at Izamal and Suitun. A large woody 
vine; leaves 3-foliolate, the leaflets ovate, rhombic, or elliptic, acute, 
serrate, pubescent; flowers green or red, in cymes; fruit a small black 
berry. 

Cissus sicyoides L. Vitis sicyoides var. monstrosa Baker; 
Ampelopsis cordata Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 21. 1905, 
not Michx. 

Sp. Sanalotodo (Pete"n). Common. A large woody vine, often 
with numerous long cordlike aerial roots; leaves simple, oblong-ovate 
to rounded, obtuse or acute, serrate, pubescent or glabrous; flowers 
green ; fruit black. This is one of the most common plants of tropi- 
cal America. The inflorescences are often much distorted by a 
smut (Mycosyrinx Cissi), so that they suggest a parasite rather than 
a part of the plant itself. The same smut occurs on C. trifoliata. The 
description of Cuevas' "xtac-canil" agrees well with C. sicyoides. He 
states that the plant is employed, together with "chach u lubte-ak" 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 343 

and "xich-hulil" as a remedy for hemorrhoids. A "Cissus compres- 
sicaulis" reported by Aznar, with the name "tabkanil," and the 
"tabcan," "uvas del monte," listed by Pe>ez, are probably this or 
some other species of Cissus. C. sicyoides is called "bejuco loco" in 
Tabasco. 

Cissus trifoliata L. Vitis arborea Millsp. FMB. 1: 307. 1896, 
not L. Cissus acida L. 

Bolontibi. Common. A woody vine; leaflets 3, thick and fleshy, 
broadly cuneate or rhombic, obtuse, coarsely dentate or lobate, gla- 
brous or nearly so; flowers green; fruit a purple or black berry 5-8 
mm. long. The mucilaginous leaves are crushed and applied as 
poultices to reduce inflammation, as a remedy for itch and other 
skin diseases, and for headache, and to mature boils. An infusion of 
the leaves is given for bronchial affections. 

Vitis tiliaefolia Humb. & Bonpl. 

Sp. Uvilla (Gaumer). Reported from Cozumel Island. Wild 
grape. A large woody vine; leaves broadly cordate, dentate, usually 
densely tomentose beneath; flowers small, greenish, in small panicles, 
fragrant; fruit purple, 6-8 mm. in diameter. The fruit is small and 
sour and not very palatable. From sections of the stem a substantial 
quantity of clear sap may be obtained, to serve as a substitute for 
water. 

This may be the plant reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 74. 1913) 
as "pasas-ak" and "solocchom," although that is said to have large 
white flowers. The crushed plant is applied as a poultice for 
erysipelas. 

Vitis vinifera L. 

Sp. Uva. Listed by Gaumer as planted. The European grape 
does not thrive in Central America, and I presume it is grown in 
Yucatan but rarely. 

TILIACEAE. Linden Family 

Corchorus orinocensis HBK. C. pilolobus Millsp. FMB. 1: 
307. 1896, not Link. 

Putschichibe (Gaumer). Collected only at Izamal. A branched 
annual; leaves alternate, lanceolate to ovate, obtuse or acute, ser- 
rate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, yellow; fruit a linear cap- 
sule 3.5-5 cm. long, not 2-horned at the apex. 



344 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Corchorus siliquosus L. 

Putschichibe (Gaumer). Common.- A slender shrub 1 m. high 
or less; leaves petioled, mostly ovate; capsule linear, compressed, 
4-5 cm. long, 2-horned at the apex. The stems contain a tough 
fiber. 

This may be the "puschichibe" reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 
79. 1913), the infusion of whose leaves is a remedy for venereal 
diseases. 

Heliocarpus glanduliferus Robinson. 

Chaktolol (Gaumer), Tolol (Gaumer). Common. A shrub or 
small tree 2-6 m. high; leaves long-petioled, broadly ovate, long- 
acuminate, dentate, finely stellate-pubescent or glabrate; fruit a 
small woody capsule 6-7 mm. long, the margin fringed with plumose 
bristles. 

Luehea speciosa Willd. ?L. endopogon Loes. Repert. Sp. Nov. 
12: 226. 1913, not Turcz. 

Kazcat (Yucatan, B. H.), Chacats (Schott). Sp. Pepe cacao 
(Camp.). Common. A tree 3-10 m. high; leaves short-petiolate, 
elliptic or oval, abruptly acuminate, green above, whitish-tomentose 
beneath with fine stellate hairs; flowers large, white, in axillary 
cymes; fruit a woody capsule 3-4 cm. long, obtusely 5-angled. 
Millspaugh gives the Maya name as "chacah," probably in error. 

Muntingia Calabura L. 

Sp. Capolin, Capulin. Common. A tree 5-10 m. high; leaves 
alternate, lance-oblong, acuminate, oblique at the base, dentate, 
tomentose beneath; flowers white, axillary; fruit a red glabrous berry 
1 cm. in diameter, containing very numerous small seeds. The 
bark contains a tough fiber. The intensely sweet fruit is edible. 

Triumfetta dumetorum Schlecht. T. semitriloba Millsp. FMB. 
1:380. 1898, not Jacq. 

Ochmul (Gaumer). Sp. Caditto. Common. A shrub 1-3 m. 
high; leaves long-petioled, ovate to rounded, acuminate, often lobate, 
long-pilose with chiefly simple hairs on the upper surface, stellate- 
hirsute beneath; flowers small, yellow; fruit a small globose hard 
capsule, covered with stiff barbed spines. The burlike fruits adhere 
tenaciously to clothing and to the hair of animals. 

Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq. T. althaeoides Lam.; ?T. anti- 
haemorrioidica Donde", Emulacion 3: 18. 1878. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 345 

OchmuL Sp. Cadillo. Common. A shrub, similar to T. dume- 
torum, the leaves stellate-pubescent on the upper surface. The two 
species are so much alike that it is certain they are not distinguished 
locally. 

The "muloch" described by Cuevas (PI. Med. 67, Ilustr. pi. 17, 
f. 2. 1913) probably belongs to this species, although he states that 
the flowers are white. The plant is stated to have emollient proper- 
ties, and to be employed as a remedy for "flujo bianco" and for 
hemorrhoids. 

MALVACEAE. Mallow Family 

Abutilon Gaumeri Standl. FMB. 8: 24. 1930. 

Yaxholche. Endemic; type collected by Gaumer, No. 24072. A 
shrub; leaves petiolate, broadly cordate-ovate, 3-7 cm. long, acute 
or acuminate, entire, stellate-tomentose; flowers axillary, solitary or 
fasciculate, the calyx 7 mm. long. 

Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet. 

Me*rida, Schott 121. A coarse herb, the stems terete, hirsute; 
leaves long-petioled, rounded-cordate, dentate, velvety stellate- 
tomentose; petals 1.5 cm. long. 

Abutilon lignosum (Cav.) Don. A. indicum Millsp. FMB. 1: 
29. 1895, not Don. ?Sida Abutilon Donde", Apuntes 60. 1907, not L. 

Zacxiu, Mizbil, Yaxholche. Common. A shrub 1-2 m. high; 
leaves ovate-cordate, crenate or dentate, densely stellate-tomentose 
beneath; flowers yellow, 1-1.5 cm. long. The strong fiber of the 
stems is used for making twine. The plant has emollient properties, 
and is used in domestic medicine. 

Abutilon trisulcatum (Jacq.) Urban. Sida triquetra L.; A. 
incanum Millsp. FMB. 1: 377. 1898, not Sweet. 

Sacxiu, Sacmizbil. Common. A shrub 1-2.5 m. high, densely 
and finely stellate-tomentose, the stems obtusely 3-angled; leaves 
broadly cordate, long-acuminate, crenate, whitish; flowers small, 
yellow, in broad panicles. This species is used for the same purposes 
as A. lignosum, which it much resembles. 

Abutilon umbellatum (L.) Sweet. 

Sacxiu (Valdez). Frequent. A shrub about 1 m. high, the 
branches terete; leaves broadly cordate, abruptly short-acute, ere- 



346 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

nate or dentate, green, finely stellate-pubescent; flowers yellow, 1 
cm. long. This may perhaps be the "vara de San Joaquin," reported 
by Donde* (Apuntes 61. 1907) and by others as "Sida" and "Sida 
peduncularis," although the description does not apply in all details. 

Abutilon yucatanum Standl. CNH. 23: 751. 1923. 

Known only from the type, collected at La Vega, Yucatan, 
Goldman 634. Leaves broadly cordate, finely stellate-pubescent 
beneath, entire; petals 4-4.5 cm. long. 

Althaea rosea Cav. 

Sp. Vara de San Jose. Reported as grown for ornament in Yuca- 
tan. Hollyhock. 

Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. A. hastata Cav.; A. acerifolia 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 29. 1895, perhaps not DC. A. triangularis Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 377. 1898, perhaps not DC. 

Tzalyaltzai (Gaumer). Sp. Amapolita, Amapolita morada. A 
common weed. An erect branched annual, nearly glabrous; leaves 
ovate-triangular, entire, toothed, or lobed; flowers long-peduncled, 
blue or lilac, 1-1.5 cm. long. The plant is mucilaginous, and is 
employed as a remedy for affections of the lungs. 

Cienfugosia yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 2: 74. 1900. 

Type collected 6 km. south of Progreso, Millspaugh 1693; 
Chichankanab, Gaumer 1269. A low, erect, sparsely branched, per- 
ennial herb; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, entire, glabrous; flow- 
ers axillary, long-pedicellate; petals yellow, 2 cm. long. Very close 
to the Cuban C. heterophylla (Vent.) Garcke, and perhaps not 
distinct. 

Gayoides crispum (L.) Small. Abutilon crispum Medic. 

Common. A procumbent herb; leaves cordate-ovate, acute, 
crenate; flowers small, white, axillary on slender pedicels; fruit of 
numerous membranous inflated carpels rounded at the apex. 

Gossypium barbadense L. 

Tsiin (Gaumer), Taman. Sp. Algoddn, Algodonero. Cultivated 
and also found escaped. This species includes most of the sea-island 
and long-staple cottons, with long, white, easily detachable fiber. 
Cotton has been grown for export in Yucatan, especially during the 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 347 

Civil War in the United States, but at present it is grown only upon 
a reduced scale for home consumption. The use of cotton was well 
known to the early Mayas, who wove from it their clothing, and used 
it for cordage. In domestic medicine the cotton plants are employed 
as emollients and expectorants in the treatment of chest affections 
and dysentery. 

Gossypium hirsutum L. G. herbaceum Millsp. FMB. 1: 377. 
1898, not L. 

Taman. Sp. Algoddn. Cultivated, and escaped. Fiber white, 
not easily detached from the seed. The short-staple cottons. 

Gossypium religiosum L. 

Zooh. Sp. Algoddn. Common. A wild shrubby plant, the cotton 
brown or yellowish. Donde* (Apuntes 56. 1907) states that this is 
called also "cancachu." 

Gossypium Schottii Watt, Wild & Cult. Cotton 206. pi. 35. 
1907. G. religiosum Millsp. FMB. 1: 377. 1898, not L. 

Chub (Gaumer), Xchup (Schott). Sp. Algoddn amarillo. Type 
from Me*rida, Schott 602. Perhaps only a form of G. religiosum; 
leaves deeply 3-5-lobed, the lobes narrow, long-attenuate; fiber 
brown. 

The species of Gossypium are not well understood, and there is 
doubt concerning the nomenclature of those occurring in Yucatan. 

The following Maya words are reported as relating to the various 
forms of cotton: "aktetanam," "algodon bueno y bianco de que se 
hila hilo muy delgado" (Motul Dictionary); "kantux," a kind of 
cotton (PeYez); "oxil," a cotton ball open or ready to open; "peuil 
tanam," early cotton; "ppolan," "algodon hueco y fofo" (Motul 
Dictionary); "tux," cotton seed; "yaaxtux," a kind of cotton 
(PeYez). It is curious to note that the Maya word for "sheep," 
formed, of course, after these animals had been introduced by the 
Spaniards, is "htaman," the word for cotton plus the masculine sign. 
In the various Mayan dialects of Guatemala the following words are 
reported as signifying "cotton": "mix," Pokonchi; "nooc," Mame; 
"teno," Jacalteca; "piitz," Chuje. 

Hibiscus brasiliensis L. H. phoeniceus Jacq. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1439. A shrub 1-2 m. high; leaves 
deltoid-lanceolate or deltoid-ovate, crenate-dentate, glabrate; petals 
1-2 cm. long, purple. 



348 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Hibiscus clypeatus L. H. Berlandieranus Moric. ; H. tubiflorus 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 30. 1895, not DC. 

Hoi (Gaumer). Frequent. A stout shrub or small tree 6 m. high 
or less, densely stellate- tomentose; leaves long-petiolate, rounded- 
cordate, usually angulate, obscurely dentate; petals over 4 cm. long. 

Hibiscus esculentus L. Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. 

Sp. Quimbombd. Cultivated as a vegetable, and sometimes found 
as escaped in old fields; native of the Old World tropics. Okra. 
The plant is grown commonly in Mexico and Central America for 
the seed-pods, which, when young and tender, are cooked and eaten 
as a vegetable, especially in soups and stews. Cuevas (PI. Med. 82. 
1913) states that the plant has sudorific properties, and that an 
infusion of the roasted seeds is given to produce perspiration in 
fevers. Gann reports that the "wild okra" or "quimbombo" is 
esteemed by the Indians as an external application in cases of snake 
bite. 

Hibiscus mutabilis L. 

Sp. Cortejo. Cultivated for ornament; native of tropical Asia. 
A large shrub with 5-angled or 5-lobed leaves; leaves sparsely and 
finely stellate-pubescent, paler beneath; flowers large, axillary, long- 
stalked, at first white or pink, changing to deep red. 

Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis L. 

Sp. Tulip&n. Grown for ornament; probably native of China. 
Chinese hibiscus. One of the favorite ornamental shrubs of tropical 
America, exhibiting many varieties in color and form of the flowers. 
Valdez states that the plant has sudorific properties. It is probable 
that the closely related H. schizopetalus (Mart.) Hook., with 
pendent flowers and lobed petals, also is grown in the region. 

Hibiscus tiliaceus L. H. elatus Sw. 

Xholol (Gaumer; reported also as "xholo"). Blue moho (B. H.). 
Common in coastal swamps. A large shrub or small tree; leaves 
rounded-cordate, abruptly short-acuminate, entire, finely stellate- 
tomentose beneath; flowers yellow, 5-6 cm. long. The bark yields 
a strong fiber employed by many of the American aborigines for 
making rope. This is perhaps the Yucatan tree for which the name 
"majagua" is reported. The name "pox" is applied to this species 
in Tabasco. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 349 

Hibiscus tubiflorus DC. 

Chinchimpol (Gaumer), Xtupkinil (Millspaugh). Sip. Campanula. 
Common. A slender shrub; leaves deltoid-lanceolate or deltoid- 
ovate, crenate, often lobed, stellate-hispid; flowers axillary, slender- 
pediceled, red, 2.5-3.5 cm. long. 

Malachra alceifolia Jacq. 

Sp. Malva. An occasional weed. A coarse hispid annual; leaves 
long-petioled, ovate to orbicular, mostly angled or lobed, dentate; 
flowers small, yellow, in heads surrounded by broad bracts. 

Malachra capitata L. M. palmata Moench. 
Sp. Malva. Frequent. A finely stellate-pubescent herb; leaves 
coarsely dentate or 3-5-lobate; flowers yellow, 1 cm. long. 

Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke. M. tricuspida- 
tum Gray; Malveopsis spicata Millsp. FMB. 1: 29. 1895, not Kuntze. 
Malva americana Donde", Apuntes 56. 1907, PI. Med. 63, Ilustr. pi. 
28, f. 2. 1913. 

Chikichbe (Gaumer; "path of the garrapata"), Totopzots (Gaumer) ; 
reported also as "chechebe" and "chichibe." Sp. Malva. A common 
weed. A strigose, erect, branched, annual or perennial herb; leaves 
broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or obtuse, serrate, strigose 
with 4-rayed hairs; flowers small, yellow, in axillary and terminal 
clusters. The plant has emollient properties. Its decoction is 
employed to cleanse sores and as a remedy for dysentery. 

Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. 

Bizil (Gaumer), Tamanchich (Pete"n). Sp. Manzanita, Tulipan 
(B. H.). Occasional. A shrub; leaves ovate to broadly cordate, 
crenate, often shallowly lobed, dentate, densely stellate- tomentose; 
corolla red, 2.5-3 cm. long; fruit fleshy, red. The mucilaginous 
fruit is edible, as in all the species. 

Malvaviscus grandiflorus HBK. M. sepium Schlecht.; M. 
concinnus Millsp. FMB. 1: 30. 1895, not HBK. M. Malvaviscus 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 73. 1900, not Hibiscus Malvaviscus L. 

Bizil, Tamanche. Sp. Manzanita. Common. A shrub, much like 
the preceding, the leaves usually narrower and glabrate. Some of 
the Yucatan material is close to M. Drummondii Torr. & Gray, to 
which it has been referred. The species of the genus are highly 
variable and poorly understood. 



350 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

The "tamanche" reported by Cuevas (PL Med. 94. 1913) is 
apparently of this genus. He states that the sweet fruit is eaten by 
the Indians, and that a decoction of the leaves and bark is employed 
as a remedy for scurvy. 

Sida acuta Burm. S.carpinifolia~L.f.; S. acuta var. carpinifolia 
Schum. 

Chichibe. A common weed. An erect herb, stellate-pubescent 
or nearly glabrous; leaves distichous, short-petioled, lanceolate or 
ovate, acute, serrate, obtuse at the base; flowers small, white or 
pale yellow, open in the morning, closing in the afternoon. One of 
the common weeds of tropical America. The stems give a strong 
fiber, which was used formerly in Yucatan for making twine and 
hammocks. The stems were soaked in water in order to separate 
the fiber. Like other plants of the family, this species has emollient 
properties, and has been used locally as a remedy for leucorrhea, 
nosebleed, and other affections. 

Sida ciliaris L. S. anomala Millsp. FMB. 1: 378. 1898, not 
St. Hil. 

Occasional. A small perennial herb, stellate-strigose; leaves 
oblong, obtuse, serrate; flowers copper-colored. 

Sida cordifolia L. Abutilon sidoides Millsp. FMB. 1: 377. 1898, 
not Hemsl. S. acuta var. carpinifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 378. 1898, in 
part, not Schum. 

Zacmizbil (Gaumer; reported incorrectly as "xacmixbil")- Com- 
mon. A tall stellate- velvety perennial herb or shrub; leaves long- 
petioled, ovate-cordate, acute or obtuse, dentate; flowers yellow, 
clustered in the leaf axils and at the ends of the branches. 

Sida glabra Mill. Wissadula tricarpellata Millsp. FMB. 1: 378. 
1898, not Rob. & Greenm. 

Kanzacxiu (Gaumer). A slender, erect or decumbent herb; 
leaves long-petioled, ovate-cordate, acuminate, serrate, sparsely 
pubescent; flowers axillary, long-pedicellate, yellow. 

Sida procumbens Sw. S. pilosa Cav.; S. diffusa HBK.; S. 
supina var. pilosa Millsp. 

Xauayxiu (Gaumer; listed also as "hauyxiu"). Common. A 
small, annual or perennial herb, prostrate; stems hirsute; leaves 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 351 

small, ovate-cordate, stellate-pubescent, obtuse, crenate; flowers 
white or yellowish, axillary on filiform pedicels. 

Sida rhombifolia L. 

Probably a common weed, but only two Yucatan collections 
reported. An herb or shrub, usually 1 m. high or less; leaves short- 
petiolate, oblong to ovate, obtuse or acute, serrate, minutely stellate- 
tomentose beneath; flowers small, yellow. Perhaps the most com- 
mon weed of Mexico and Central America; usually called "escobilla." 
It is especially plentiful in pastures, and where it is abundant 
garrapatas, or ticks, are usually found in profusion. The Kekchi 
name is "mesbe." 

Sida spinosa L. S. angustifolia Lam. 

Chikichbe-kax (Gaumer), Chichibe. Common. An erect annual, 
finely stellate-pubescent; leaves short-petioled, linear-oblong to 
oblong-ovate, crenate; flowers axillary, yellow. Much like S. rhom- 
bifolia, with which it probably is confused locally. The Maya name 
is derived from "chikich," garrapata, "be," path, and "kax," monte 
or woodland, evidently an appropriate name for Sidas of this type. 

Sida urens L. 

Occasional. A slender erect hirsute herb; leaves long-petioled, 
ovate-cordate, long-acuminate, serrate; flowers yellow, in dense 
clusters. 

Wissadula amplissima (L.) R. E. Fries. W. mucronulata Gray. 

Tsunikax (Gaumer), Tzimikax, Sacxiu. Common. An herb or 
shrub 1-2 m. high; leaves long-petioled, cordate, acuminate, densely 
and finely stellate- tomentose beneath, entire; flowers axillary or 
panicled, on long pedicels, yellow or orange. 

BOMBAGACEAE. Cotton-tree Family 

Bombax ellipticum HBK. Carolinea fastuosa DC.; Carolinea 
alba Millsp. FMB. 1: 30. 1895, 1: 309. 1896, not Lodd. Pachira 
fastuosa Decaisne. P. alba Donde", Apuntes 82. 1907, not Walp. 

Zackuyche (Gaumer), Chackuyche (Gaumer), Kuyche (reported 
also as "xcunche"). Sp. Amapola, Amapola blanca, Amapola colo- 
rada, Mapola (Pete"n). Common. A large unarmed deciduous tree 
with smooth, gray or greenish bark; leaves pedately 5-foliolate, the 
leaflets elliptic to obovate, entire, glabrous or nearly so, usually 



352 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

rounded at the apex; petals 7-13 cm. long; stamens very numerous, 
purple-red or white; fruit a woody capsule 10-15 cm. long or larger, 
the seeds covered with dirty-white silk or "cotton." The tree 
flowers in January or February, when leafless. The flowers, whose 
dense masses of stamens suggest powder puffs, are gathered for 
decorating houses and churches. A decoction of the bark and flow- 
ers is employed as a remedy for coughs and catarrh. The wood is 
soft and of little value. The nectar found in the flowers is placed in 
the eyes to relieve inflammation. 

Ceiba aesculifolia (HBK.) Britt. & Baker, Journ. Bot. 34: 175. 
1896. Bombax aesculifolium HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 298. 1821. 
Eriodendron aesculifolium DC. Prodr. 1: 479. 1824. C. pentandra 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 30. 1895, not Gaertn. 

Piim (Gaumer). Sp. Pochote. Common; type from Campeche. 
A large tree, sometimes 30 m. high, the trunk armed with short 
conic spines; leaflets 5-7, elliptic or obovate, acuminate, usually 
serrate, glabrous; petals 10-12 cm. long, brown-tomentose outside; 
calyx about 2 cm. long, campanulate; stamens purple-red or white, 
in 5 fascicles; capsule ellipsoid, 12-18 cm. long, the small seeds 
imbedded in brownish "cotton." The tree flowers in winter or 
spring, when leafless. The soft wood is of little use. One writer 
reports that in Campeche there are two varieties of this tree (perhaps 
two distinct species): one whose trunk is thick and very spiny, 
called "pochote macho"; the other more slender and less spiny, and 
called "pochote hembra." The abundant silk or cotton surrounding 
the seeds is used for stuffing cushions, pillows, and mattresses, and 
a tree is said to yield 15 to 20 pounds. In southern Yucatan large 
numbers of mantas formerly were made from the silk, which was 
used also as tinder. It is stated that the fiber of C. pentandra is 
useless for this purpose, since it will not catch fire easily. Donde" 
states that the young tender fruits of C. aesculifolia are boiled and 
eaten as a vegetable, and the seeds also are roasted and eaten. The 
flowers which fall on the ground are eaten by deer. 

Pe"rez lists the word "cho" as a synonym of "pochote," and the 
Motul Dictionary gives the same definition for the word "ppupp." 

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. C. casearia Medic.; Eriodendron 
anfractuosum DC.; Bombax Ceiba Millsp. FMB. 1: 30. 1895, not L. 

Yaaxche (Gaumer), Yaxche. Sp. Ceiba, Ceibo. Cotton-tree (B. H.). 
Common. A large tree, frequently 30 m. high, with broad spreading 
crown; trunk spiny, greenish; leaflets 5-7, oblong or oblanceolate, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 353 

acuminate, entire, glabrous; flowers white or pink, 3-3.5 cm. long; 
capsule elliptic-oblong, 10-12 cm. long, the small seeds imbedded in 
silky "cotton." This is one of the largest and most widely known 
trees of tropical America. The white wood is too soft and light to 
be very serviceable, but in the southern part of the Peninsula canoes 
are sometimes fashioned from the trunks. The trunks often develop 
large buttresses at the base. The tree is excellent for shade, because 
of the huge crowns, and it is commonly planted or left to grow about 
houses or in pastures. The cotton is used locally for stuffing pillows, 
although that of C. aesculifolia is preferred. The cotton of C. 
pentandra, known to the trade as "kapok," is exported in large 
amounts from the East Indies and West Africa, to be used for stuff- 
ing mattresses, life preservers, and other articles, and for insulating 
purposes. The Pokonchi name of the tree is reported from Guate- 
mala as "nup," and the Kekchi name as "inup." The ceiba tree 
plays an important part in Maya mythology. An interesting account 
of its place in Yucatan life was published by Donde" (Apuntes, p. 85). 

Ceiba Schottii Britt. & Baker, Journ. Bot. 34: 173. 1896. 

Piim (Gaumer), Kinim (Gaumer), Cho (Gaumer), Kinin 
(Gaumer). Sp. Pochote. Endemic; type from Me"rida, Schott 205; 
San Pedro, Gaumer 23368. A large tree, often 16-30 m. high, the 
trunk 40-80 cm. in diameter, prickly; leaflets usually 5, oblanceolate- 
oblong, entire, mucronate, glabrous; flowers 15-23 cm. long; petals 
yellow- tomentose outside, white within; calyx 3.5 cm. long, tubular. 

Hampea trilobata Standl. CNH. 23: 787. 1923. 

Toob-hoob (Gaumer), Zacitza (Gaumer). Sp. Majahau (Gaumer). 
Moho (B. H.). Endemic in the Peninsula; frequent; type from 
Apazote, Campeche. A large shrub or small tree about 6 m. high; 
leaves long-petioled, shallowly lobed or entire, minutely stellate- 
pubescent beneath; flowers small, white, clustered in the leaf axils, 
on long pedicels; fruit a globose capsule 1.5 cm. long. The name 
given by Gaumer is evidently a variant of "majagua," applied to 
various plants of this order whose bark contains strong fiber. 
Gaumer reports that the bark is much used for tying. 

Pachira macrocarpa (Schlecht. & Cham.) Walp. Carolinea 
macrocarpa Schlecht. & Cham. 

Kuyche (Gaumer). Sp. Amapola (Gaumer), Zapote reventdn 
(Maler), Santo Domingo (B. H.), Zapotdn (B. H.). Provision-tree 
(B. H.). No Yucatan specimens seen, but the species is reported 



354 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

from Quintana Roo and occurs in British Honduras. A large or 
small tree, the trunk unarmed; leaflets 6-8, oblong to obovate, 
obtuse or acutish, entire, glabrous; flowers about 20 cm. long, the 
stamens purplish; fruit as large as a coconut, hard, the large seeds 
(1.5 cm. or more in diameter) imbedded in solid flesh. The tree 
grows usually in swamps. The large seeds are edible. 

Quararibea Fieldii Millsp. FMB. 1: 309. pi 19. 1896. 

Sp. Maha (Gaumer). Occasional; type from Hacienda de Cha- 
benche", Gaumer 879; ranging to Honduras. A shrub or small tree; 
leaves oblong-obovate, 15-30 cm. long, acute, entire, glabrous; 
flowers nearly sessile, solitary, opposite the leaves, white, 5 cm. long; 
fruit ovoid, indehiscent, 3 cm. long. The flowers are used for 
flavoring chocolate. The dried plant has the odor of slippery elm 
( Ulmus fulvd). 

The Kekchi name of "Ochroma lagopus" is reported by Pittier 
as "puh." 

STERCULIACEAE. Cacao Family 
Ayenia fasciculata Millsp. ex Standl. FMB. 8: 25. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 2184; repre- 
sented also by Gaumer 2184 and 666 and Seler 3980. A slender shrub 
2 m. high; leaves oblong, 1-3 cm. long, acute, biserrate, glabrate; 
flowers in axillary 1-3-flowered cymes; sepals 2-3 mm. long; 
capsule muricate. 

Ayenia magna L. 

Pixtonak (Gaumer). Common in dry thickets. A shrub 1-2 m. 
high; leaves alternate, long-petioled, cordate, acuminate, dentate, 
pale beneath and finely stellate-pubescent; flowers small, red-brown, 
axillary, slender-pediceled; fruit a sessile capsule, densely muricate. 

Ayenia pusilla L. 

Pixtonchich (Gaumer). Common. Plants low, slender, essen- 
tially annual but often becoming somewhat woody; leaves lanceolate 
to elliptic, 1-5 cm. long, dentate, pubescent or glabrous; capsule 
stipitate, muricate. 

Ayenia yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 379. 1898. 
Type from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1052. An herb 1 m. high; 
leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, dentate; capsule stipitate. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 355 

'"' Byttneria aculeata Jacq. B. carthagenensis Jacq. 

Tezak (Gaumer; reported as "xtexak"). Common in thickets. 
A shrub, the branches often long and scandent, hollow, armed with 
stout recurved prickles; leaves lanceolate or ovate, usually crenate 
or serrate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, often blotched with silver; 
flowers small, black-purple, in axillary cymes; fruit a capsule, covered 
with long spines. Called "zarza" in Tabasco. 

Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. G. polybotrya Cav.; G. tomentosa 
HBK.; G. ulmifolia var. tomentosa Schum.; G. Guazuma Cockerell. 

Pixoy (Yucatan, B. H.), Cabalpixoy (Gaumer). Sp. Guacima 
(Yucatan), Caulote (B. H.). Bay-cedar (B. H.). Common. A tree 
20 m. high or less; leaves short-petiolate, oblong or ovate, acute, 
oblique at the base, serrulate, stellate-tomentose beneath; flowers 
small, whitish or yellowish green, fragrant, in axillary cymes; fruit a 
globose or oval, woody capsule 2-4 cm. long, densely tuberculate, 
containing many hard seeds. One of the most common trees of 
Central America. The light, fibrous and coarse-grained wood, gray- 
ish and slightly tinged with red or pink, is used for many purposes. 
The bark contains a strong fiber, and is used also in Yucatan for 
clarifying sirup. The fruit contains a sweet mucilaginous pulp, and 
is eaten by deer and other animals, and often by people, although 
the many large seeds are unpleasant. The flowers are reported to 
yield honey of good quality. 

Gaumer gives the name "cabalpixoy" for Guazuma polybotrya. 
Gann states that the fruit and bark of "cabalpixoy" are employed 
as a remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. "Cabalpixoy" signifies 
"low pixoy," and the plant may be only one of the low shrubby 
forms of Guazuma ulmifolia. The "cabalpixoy" described and 
figured by Cuevas (PI. Med. 20, Ilustr. pi. 37, f. 1} may belong to 
some other group, especially since it is said to have diuretic properties. 

Helicteres baruensis Jacq. 

Tsutup (Gaumer). Common. A shrub about 2 m. high; leaves 
petioled, oval-ovate, obtuse or acute, cordate at the base, denticulate, 
densely pale-tomentose beneath; flowers axillary, red; fruit hard and 
woody, cylindric, 4-5 cm. long, spirally twisted, densely tomentose, 
borne on a gynophore 8-12 cm. long. 

Helicteres guazumaefolia HBK. is called "tsubil" in the Kekchi 
dialect of Guatemala. 



356 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Melochia nodiflora Sw. 

Frequent. A slender erect herb, or sometimes shrubby; leaves 
petioled, ovate, acute, serrate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers pink 
or purple, in dense axillary clusters; capsule depressed-globose. 

Melochia pyramidata L. 

Chichibe. A common weed. An herb or shrub, usually 1 m. 
high or less; leaves oblong to ovate, acute or obtuse, serrate; flowers 
axillary, purple, 7 mm. long; capsule pyramidal, glabrous or nearly 
so. In general appearance the plant suggests certain species of Sida 
and Malvastrum, hence it is natural that it should bear the same 
Maya name, although belonging to a different family. 

Melochia tomentosa L. 

Zac-chichibe (Gaumer). A common weed. An herb or shrub, 
said to be sometimes 3 m. high; leaves lanceolate or ovate, densely 
stellate-tomentose; flowers pink to violet, 8-15 mm. long; capsule 
pyramidal, densely pubescent. 

Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. S. carthaginensis Cav. 

Sp. Bellota (Gaumer). Collected only at Uman. A large tree; 
leaves large, long-petioled, 5-lobed, deeply cordate at the base, 
thick, stellate-tomentose beneath or glabrate; flowers panicled, the 
calyx corolla-like, 2.5-3 cm. wide, yellow spotted with purple; fruit 
of several large dehiscent carpels, hispid within; seeds about 2 cm. 
long. The seeds (called "castanas" in Tabasco) somewhat resemble 
chestnuts, and are edible. It is from the Indian name of this tree 
that the Republic of Panama derives its name. 

Theobroma bicolor Humb. & Bonpl. 

Pataxte, Balamte. No specimens seen, but the tree grows in 
Tabasco, and is doubtless in cultivation in our region, if not wild. 
A tree; leaves oblong, 15-25 cm. long, abruptly acuminate, obtuse 
and somewhat oblique at the base, whitish-tomentulose beneath; 
fruit smaller than in T. Cacao. Pataxte is grown extensively in 
some parts of Central America as a source of cacao. The Kekchi 
name is "balam" or "balamte"; the Pokonchi name, "pec." 

Theobroma Cacao L. 

Xau (Tozzer), Cacau (Pe"rez). Sp. Cacao. Cultivated commonly; 
perhaps native in the more humid parts of the Peninsula. Cacao. 
The use of cacao as a beverage was well known to the ancient Mayas, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 357 

and the plant played an important part in their lives. A special 
god, Ekchuah, had charge of the cacao plantations. The beverage 
as used in Yucatan in former times, and even at present, was pre- 
pared differently from that made in the United States. It was 
flavored with various substances, often with chile, and was whipped 
into a froth with an ingenious wooden beater. Cacao was employed 
also for flavoring beverages made from maize. 

One of the most important applications of cacao was the use of 
the seeds as money, a widely diffused practice, continued in remote 
regions until comparatively recent years. The following account of 
its use in Yucatan is given by a writer in "El Agricultor" (2 : 94. 1908) : 

"Cacao was the money employed by the aboriginal Yucatecans 
in minor transactions, and its use was continued until something 
over 60 years ago, when there were introduced lead tokens. The 
smallest fraction consisted of five grains of cacao, and, above that, 
ten, fifteen, or twenty. Twenty was the monetary unit, so that an 
object was worth 'two twenties and five, three twenties and ten/ 
etc. ; and, as the value of cacao was and is highly variable, they in- 
creased the number of 'twenties' that were the equivalent of the 
'medio real' of silver of the old Spanish money. 

"When the price of cacao rose unusually high, three grains formed 
the 'five' and twelve the 'twenty,' which caused the governor, Don 
Benito PeYez Valdelomar, to say that only in this land did it ever 
happen that 'three' were 'five.' 

"Any one will recognize the inconvenience of this kind of money, 
not only because of the difficulty and time required for counting it, 
but also because of its fragile and perishable nature." 

The word "chucua" signifies cacao ready for use, and the Motul 
Dictionary defines "taacha cauhaa" as cakes of cacao ready for pre- 
paring the beverage. "Cocox" is defined as "cacao muy sazonado 
en el arbol." Some of the Mayan names applied to cacao in Guate- 
mala are the following: "caco," Pokonchi; "cucuh," Maya of 
Mopan; "kicou," "kicob," Pokonchi. 

Waltheria americana L. W. indica L. 

Zacmizib (Gaumer), Zacxiu. Sp. Malva del monte. A common 
weed. An herb or shrub, usually less than 1 m. high, densely stel- 
late-tomentose; leaves petioled, oblong to ovate, obtuse or rounded 
at the apex, crenate-dentate; flowers yellow, in dense clusters; fruit 
a 1-seeded capsule. The plant is variable in foliage characters. It 
is used locally as a remedy for rheumatism. 



358 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

The family Dilleniaceae probably is represented in Quintana 
Roo. Curatella americana L. is called "yaha" and "chaparro" in 
British Honduras. A "bejuco grueso" reported from Bacalar is per- 
haps Tetracera. The following note is given concerning it: "From 
sections of the stems good water may be obtained. If a person has 
been so unfortunate as to lose his way, it is necessary only to notice 
the first twist that the plant makes, for this is always to the north." 

Ouratea nitida, of the family Ochnaceae, is called "tcanlol" in 
British Honduras. Sauvagesia erecta L., of the same family, is 
represented by Johnson 71 from "Yucatan and Tabasco." It is 
reasonable to expect the plant in Yucatan. 

The genus Vismia, of the family Hypericaceae, probably occurs 
in Quintana Roo, for it is common in northern British Honduras. 

CLUSIACEAE. Clusia Family 
Clusia flava Jacq. 

Chunup (Gaumer), Kanchunup (Gaumer). Frequent; sometimes 
planted as shade for cattle; flowering in May. A large glabrous tree 
with yellow latex; leaves cuneate-obovate, thick, rounded at the 
apex; flowers yellow, 2-2.5 cm. wide; fruit globose, fleshy. The 
bark is said to be used for making pails to hold liquids. The sticky 
latex, which solidifies upon exposure to the air, is reported as em- 
ployed to adulterate chicle. The sap is applied to wounds, and the 
leaves as poultices to relieve headache. The tree is reported, also, 
as a remedy for syphilitic affections. 

Mammea americana L. 

Chacalhaaz (Gaumer). Sp. Mamey, Mamey de Santo Domingo. 
Planted as a fruit tree; native of tropical America, but not of Mexico 
and Central America. A large glabrous tree with broad, very dense 
crown, and milky sap; leaves oval or elliptic, rounded at the apex, 
thick and leathery, with very numerous lateral nerves; flowers axil- 
lary, white, the petals 2 cm. long; fruit subglobose, 8-15 cm. in 
diameter, brownish, the flesh yellow or reddish. The fruit is of good 
flavor, somewhat resembling a peach. It is eaten raw or made into 
preserves and dulces. The wood is hard, durable, and handsomely 
grained. The Quich6 name is "muk." 

Rheedia edulis (Seem.) Triana & Planch. 
Waika plum (B. H.). Without locality, Gaumer 21$ 50. A small 
or medium-sized, glabrous tree; leaves lance-oblong, 6-13 cm. long, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 359 

obtuse or acute, leathery; flowers clustered in the leaf axils, small, 
white; fruit oval, yellow, 2.5 cm. long, 1- or 2-seeded. The fruit is 
sweet and edible. 

TURNERACEAE. Turnera Family 

Turnera diffusa Willd. T. aphrodisiaca Ward; T. diffusa var. 
aphrodisiaca Urban. 

Mm'6coc(Gaumer). Sp.Dcwmcma. Common. An aromatic much- 
branched shrub 1 m. high or less; leaves alternate, oblong to ovate, 
1-2 cm. long, obtuse or acute, serrate, usually tomentose beneath; 
flowers yellow, 8-12 mm. long; fruit a small capsule. A decoction 
of the leaves and flowers is a local remedy for asthma and bronchitis. 
In some parts of Mexico the plant enjoys a high reputation because 
of its supposed aphrodisiac properties. 

Turnera ulmifolia L. 

Sp. Clavel de oro (Gaumer), Calendula (Donde"), Amaranto 
(Donde"). Occasional. A low herb, simple or sparsely branched; 
leaves usually ovate, acute or acuminate, serrate, pilose; flowers 
yellow, 2-3 cm. long. 

Erblichia odorata Seem., which grows in British Honduras, is said 
to bear in Guatemala the Kekchi name "konop." 

BIXACEAE. Anatto Family 
Bixa Orellana L. 

Kuxub. Sp. Achiote (of Nahuatl derivation). Common; some- 
times cultivated. Anatto. A shrub or small tree, usually 6 m. high 
or less; leaves alternate, broadly ovate, acuminate, entire, minutely 
lepidote beneath; flowers pink, in terminal panicles; fruit a globose 
or ovoid capsule 2-3.5 cm. long, usually covered with soft slender 
spines; seeds numerous, with a fleshy, bright orange covering. From 
the fruit is obtained an orange-red dye used locally for coloring rice 
and other articles of food. The dye is used in America and Europe 
for coloring cheese and butter, fabrics, and varnishes. By some of 
the American aborigines it was employed for painting the body, and 
the Mayas used it for painting pottery. The plant is employed 
locally as a remedy for dysentery, and the seeds as an antidote for 
poisoning by seeds of Jatropha Curcas or by Manihot. "Ciui" is the 



360 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

dye in the form of small cakes, as it is prepared for use. The Kekchi 
name for the plant is "xayau"; the Chuje name "oox"; the Jacalte- 
can name "ox." 

COCHLOSPERMACEAE. Cochlospermum Family 
Amoreuxia palmatifida Moc. & Sesse". 

Zacyab (Gaumer). Progreso, Gaumer 1155; Izamal, Gaumer in 
1904. An herb about 40 cm. high, nearly glabrous, sparsely branched ; 
leaves alternate, long-petiolate, palmately 5-lobed nearly to the base, 
the lobes obovate, dentate, rounded at the apex; flowers large, yellow, 
in terminal racemes; fruit a large pendulous smooth capsule contain- 
ing numerous seeds. The occurrence of this plant in Yucatan is of 
special interest, because the nearest other locality at which it is 
known to occur is far northward. 

Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng. C. hibiscoides 
Kunth; Maximilianea vitifolia Krug & Urb. 

Chum (Gaumer; reported also as "chuun"), Chimu (Seler). Sp. 
Madera de pasta (Yucatan), Pochote (B. H.). Common. A small 
tree with red-brown branches; leaves alternate, long-petiolate, cor- 
date at the base, palmately 5-7-lobate, the lobes acuminate, serrate, 
glabrate; flowers bright yellow, 10 cm. broad, in terminal clusters; 
fruit a 5-valved obovoid capsule 7-8 cm. long; seeds numerous, cov- 
ered with cotton-like white hairs. The wood is soft and brittle. 
The bark contains a tough fiber. The tree is a very showy one in 
flower, when it is usually leafless. The Kekchi name is "tsuyuy." 

VIOLACEAE. Violet Family 
Corynostylis arborea (L.) Blake. Calyptrion Hybanthus Millsp. 

Reported as collected in Yucatan by Johnson, but the locality is 
doubtful. A scandent shrub; leaves alternate, oval to elliptic-ovate, 
crenulate, glabrous; flowers whitish, racemose, spurred; fruit a woody 
capsule. 

Hybanthus longipes (Dowell) Standl. lonidium brevicaule 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 311. 1896, not Mart. 

Without locality, Gaumer 855; Buena Vista, in 1899, Gaumer. 
A low perennial herb, the stems mostly simple, sometimes somewhat 
woody at the base, densely leafy; leaves slender-petioled, ovate or 
elliptic, obtuse or acute, sparsely pubescent; flowers axillary, long- 
pediceled. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 361 

*f Hybanthus riparius (HBK.) Standl. lonidium oppositifolium 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 311. 1896, not R. & S. 

Occasional. A simple or branched, erect annual, sparsely pubes- 
cent or nearly glabrous; leaves opposite and alternate, short- 
petioled, lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate, serrulate; flowers 
small, green. 

Hybanthus yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 404. 1898. Bumelia 
microphylla Millsp. FMB. 1: 376. 1898, in part, not Griseb. 

Sacbacelcan (Gaumer; "white snake bone"), Ta (Seler). Endemic 
in the Peninsula; known from Campeche, Yucatan, and Quintana 
Roo; type from Izamal, Gaumer 469. A shrub 2.5 m. high with 
angled branches, the branchlets spinose; leaves alternate or fascicled, 
rhombic-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, crenate-serrulate, glabrous; 
flowers small, whitish, fascicled in the leaf axils. 

Viola odorata L. 

Sp. Violeta. Sometimes cultivated; native of Europe. Sweet 
violet. 

Viola tricolor L. 

Sp. Violeta. Cultivated for ornament; native of Europe. Pansy. 
Usually called "pensamiento" in Central America, where it is one 
of the most popular of ornamental plants, at least at middle and 
higher elevations. 



FLACOURTIACEAE. Flacourtia Family 

Casearia nitida (L.) Jacq. 

Iximche (B. H.). Common. A shrub or small tree 1-5 m. high; 
leaves short-petiolate, elliptic to oblong, pellucid-punctate, acute, 
nearly glabrous; flowers small, white, in axillary corymbs; fruit an 
obovoid berry about 8 mm. long. Called "cafetillo" in Tabasco. 

Laetia americana L. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24084, 24313, 24335. A glabrous tree; 
leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, entire or nearly so, pellucid- 
punctate, acute; flowers small, white, in axillary corymbs; fruit a 
globose berry 2-4 cm. in diameter. In Mexico this tree is known 
only from our region. 



362 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

* 

Prockia crucis L. 

Izamal, Gaumer in 1888. A shrub or small tree; stipules large and 
foliaceous; leaves alternate, petioled, ovate or elliptic, acute or 
acuminate, serrulate, pilose; flowers in short terminal racemes; fruit 
a globose berry. 

Samyda yucatanensis Standl. CNH. 23: 842. 1923. S. serru- 
lata Millsp. FMB. 1: 380. 1898, not L. S. rosea Millsp. & Loes. 
BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 21. 1905, not Sims. 

Putsmucuy (Gaumer), Habalkax (Seler). Sp. Aguja de tdrtola. 
Common; endemic; type collected in Yucatan, Schott 603; Izamal, 
Gaumer 1063, 858, 699; Ebula, Gaumer 23279; Xkombec, Seler 4033; 
Itzimna, Seler 3945; Xcanchakan, Seler 3877; MeYida, Schott 603b, 
603a, 603; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2001; without locality, Gaumer 
24015. A shrub or tree 10 m. high or less; leaves obovate or oval, 
rounded or obtuse at the apex, entire or obscurely serrulate, densely 
tomentose or velutinous beneath; flowers small, axillary, cream- 
colored, sessile; fruit globose, 12 mm. in diameter, fleshy, opening 
at the apex. 

Xylosma flexuosa (HBK.) Hemsl. 

"Yucatan," without definite locality, Johnson; perhaps not from 
Yucatan. A shrub or small tree armed with long, slender, often 
branched spines; leaves short-petiolate, obovate to elliptic-ovate, 
obtuse to acuminate, serrate or subentire; flowers small, fasciculate, 
the slender pedicels glabrous. This is, presumably, the plant listed 
by Millspaugh (FMB. 1: 32. 1895) as Myroxylon nitidum (Schlecht.) 
Millsp. 

Xylosma Hemsleyana Standl. X. elliptica Hemsl. 

Nuum-tsu-tsui (Pet4n). Yaxmuxan, Pete"n, Cook & Martin 195. 
A shrub or small tree armed with long spines, those of the trunk 
usually branched; leaves elliptic to obovate, rounded to acute at the 
apex, crenate-serrate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, greenish 
white, axillary, the pedicels pubescent; fruit a small globose berry. 
The specimen is sterile and the specific determination uncertain. 
This is probably the plant listed by Perez as "num" and "num- 
tzutzuy." He states that the Indians use the spines as pins. 

Zuelania Roussoviae Pittier. 

Tamay (Gaumer). Sp. Volador. Frequent. A tree 10-20 m. 
high; leaves deciduous, oblong to oblong-oval, acute or obtuse, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 363 

tdmentose beneath; flowers small, greenish white, in dense lateral 
fascicles; fruit a fleshy subglobose capsule 3.5 cm. in diameter. A 
decoction of the bark is employed as a remedy for amenorrhea. The 
wood is said to be of little value. 

CARICACEAE. Papaya Family 
Carica Papaya L. Papaya vulgaris DC. 

Put, Chich-put (a wild form). Sp. Papaya (fruit), Papayo (plant). 
Planted and also wild. Papaya. The papaya is one of the best and 
most esteemed of tropical fruits, and is planted everywhere in Mid- 
dle America. The fruits are eaten raw or made into dulces. They 
vary greatly in shape, size, and flavor, those of wild plants being 
small and scarcely fit for food. The plants are pistillate and stami- 
nate, hence many of them are sterile. They are grown from seeds, 
and fruit in a remarkably short time. The roots are said to be used 
in Yucatan for the preparation of dulces, and the leaves are employed 
by laundresses to whiten clothes. The milky sap, which contains an 
enzyme, papain, resembling animal pepsin in its digestive action, is 
administered as a remedy for dyspepsia, and also to expel intestinal 
parasites. 

Pileus mexicanus (A. DC.) Standl., comb. nov. Jacaratia 
mexicana DC.; Pileus heptaphyllus Ramirez ; Leucopremna mexicana 
Standl. 

Kunche (Gaumer); reported as "kumche" and "cuumche." Sp. 
Bonete. Frequent in Yucatan and Campeche. A tree 12 m. high or 
less with few thick branches; leaves deciduous, clustered at the ends 
Df the branches, with 5-7 obovate acuminate leaflets; flowers dioe- 
cious; fruit 15 cm. long or more, 5-angled, pendent, green or yellow. 
The fruit varies greatly in shape. It is usually eaten cooked or as a 
salad, and also is made into dulces. 

LOASACEAE. Loasa Family 
Gronovia scandens L. 

Lalmuch. Common. A small herbaceous vine, covered with 
stinging hairs; leaves alternate, long-petioled, cordate at the base, 
deeply palmate-lobed, the lobes acuminate; flowers small, yellow- 
green, in bifurcate cymes. The hairs sting the flesh quite as pain- 
fully as any nettle. 



364 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Mentzelia aspera L. Anoda parviflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 377. 
1898, not Cav. 

Tzayuntzay (Gaumer), Tsootscab (Schott). Sp. Pegarropa. Fre- 
quent. A pubescent weedy branched herb, the hairs hooked at the 
tip; leaves alternate, hastate or lanceolate, acuminate, serrate; 
flowers solitary, small, pale yellow; fruit a cylindric capsule. The 
leaves adhere to clothing by the hooked hairs, hence the name 
"pegarropa." 



Various exotic species of Begonia doubtless are grown for orna- 
ment, but no information is available concerning them. Many 
species of the genus are native in tropical America. 

PASSIFLORACEAE. Passionflower Family 

Passiflora ciliata Dryand. 

Pochkak (Gaumer). Sp. Pasionaria, Flor de la pasion, Flor de 
claw. Frequent. An herbaceous vine with tendrils; leaves deeply 
3-lobed, glandular-ciliate, nearly glabrous; flowers axillary, greenish, 
subtended by 3 large bracts, these much divided into filiform gland- 
tipped segments. The plant is said to have narcotic and sedative 
properties, producing deep and restful sleep. It is employed as a 
remedy for insomnia, convulsions in children, and hysteria. 

Passiflora coriacea Juss. 

Xicozotz (Pete'n). Collected at Puerto Morelos and Chichan- 
kanab, and in Pete'n. A glabrous vine; leaves peltate, transversely 
oblong, the ends acute, coriaceous, the petiole with 2 glands near 
the apex; flowers small, not bracted. 

Passiflora foetida L. 

Tuuboc (Gaumer). Common. An herbaceous vine, ill-scented; 
leaves broadly ovate, shallowly 3-lobed, densely soft-pubescent; 
flowers white or purplish, subtended by an involucre of finely dis- 
sected bracts; fruit ovoid, 2-4 cm. long. Called "jujito peludo" 
in Tabasco. 

Passiflora gossypiifolia Desv. 

Pochil (Gaumer). Frequent. A large herbaceous vine; leaves 
3-lobed, the lobes broad, obtuse or acute, densely soft-pubescent; 
involucral bracts dissected into glandular segments. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 365 

t Passiflora Palmeri Rose. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23671. A woody vine; leaves ovate, 
shallowly 3-lobate, very densely velvety-pilose; flowers scarlet, sub- 
tended by 3 finely dissected bracts. 

Passiflora pulchella HBK. 

Occasional. A small glabrous vine; leaves as broad as long, 
rounded at the base, shallowly bilobate, with a broad rounded sinus, 
the lobes obtuse or rounded; flowers bluish, subtended by 3 entire 
bracts. This plant, like the other species, is employed in domestic 
medicine. 

Passiflora serratifolia L. 

Sp. Jujito amarillo (Campeche). Near Atasta, Campeche, Rovi- 
rosa 129. An herbaceous vine; leaves elliptic-oblong, acuminate, 
serrulate, puberulent; flowers long-stalked, subtended by 3 entire 
long-acuminate bracts. The Kekchi name is "karanilicho." 

Passiflora suberosa L. 

Coceh (Gaumer). Frequent. A slender vine, herbaceous or with 
corky woody stems; leaves oblong to ovate, entire or 3-lobate, pubes- 
cent or glabrous; petiole with 2 glands near the apex; flowers small, 
greenish, not bracted. The Maya name "coceh" belongs properly 
to Smilax. The leaves of some forms of this Passiflora suggest closely 
those of Smilax mexicana. It may be that the same vernacular name 
is employed, on this account, for both plants, but it is more probable 
that the name "coceh" has been given in error to the Passiflora. 

Passiflora yucatanensis Killip in Standl. FMB. 8: 26. 1930. 

Type from Cozumel Island, Gaumer 101. A large vine; petioles 
glandless; leaf blades 4-5 cm. long, 2-lobed or obscurely 3-lobed at 
the apex, rounded or truncate at the base, glabrous above, puberu- 
lent beneath; flowers 3-3.5 cm. wide. This has been reported 
(FMB. 1: 134. 1895) as P. Andersonii DC. 

CACTACEAE. Cactus Family 

Cereus Donkelaarii Salm-Dyck. C. grandiflorus Millsp. FMB. 
1: 35. 1895, not L. Selenicereus Donkelaarii Britt. & Rose. 

Chacuob (Gaumer), Zacbacelcan (Gaumer). Sp. Pitajaya, Pitaya. 
Common; apparently endemic. A large vine, the stems slender, 



366 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

terete, 9-10-ribbed, the spines 1-4 mm. long, in clusters of 10-15; 
flowers white, 18 cm. long; fruit large, edible. The handsome 
flowers open at night and close in the forenoon. They are employed 
in local medicine as a heart stimulant. 

Here belongs the "tzakam-ak," "zacamak," or "tsacam" reported 
from Yucatan; at least the description agrees well with this species. 
The fruit is described as large and red, with white pulp. 

It is probable that Cereus grandiflorus L. is grown for ornament. 
Its spines are very slender, while those of C. Donkelaarii are short 
and stout. 

Cereus flagelliformis (L.) Mill. Aporocactus flagelliformis Lem. 

Canchoh (Gaumer). Sp. Flor de latigo. Common in cultivation, 
and also reported as wild or naturalized. Stems slender, weak, 
usually prostrate or climbing, terete, with 10-12 low ribs, the spines 
short and slender; flowers red, 7-8 cm. long; fruit globose, red, 
spiny, 1 cm. in diameter. 

Cereus Gaumeri (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. Cephalo- 
cereus Gaumeri Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 2: 47. 1920. 

Endemic in the Peninsula; type from Yucatan, Gaumer 23934- 
Plants 6 m. high, with few columnar branches; ribs 8 or 9, the spines 

5 cm. long or less, the upper areoles bearing clusters of long white 
wool; flowers light green, 5-7 cm. long; fruit 4.5 cm. long. This is 
probably the "xne-mis" ("cat's tail") reported by Casares, who 
describes the fruit as purple and edible. 

Cereus griseus Haw. Lemaireocereus griseus Britt. & Rose. 

Progreso, Gaumer 23259. Plants 8 m. high or less, branched, the 
stems columnar, with 8-10 ribs, the spines 4 cm. long or less; flowers 
pinkish, 7 cm. long; fruit globose, spiny, 5 cm. in diameter, edible, 
with red pulp. Here probably belongs the "xne-bob," described by 
Casares. 

Cereus pentagonus (L.) Haw. Acanthocereus pentagonus Britt. 

6 Rose. 

Numtzutzuy (Gaumer); reported also as "nuntzutzuy." Sp. Tuna 
silvestre. Common. Stems climbing, 3-5-angled, rarely 6-8-angled, 
the spines 4 cm. long or less; flowers 14-20 cm. long, white; fruit large, 
red. The fruit is edible. The spines are sometimes used as a sub- 
stitute for pins. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 367 

Cereus undatus Haw. Cereus trigonus Donde", Apuntes 48. 1907. 
Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose. 

Chacuob (Gaumer), Zacwob (Gaumer), Uob, Uoo, Uo. Sp. Pitaya, 
Pitahaya, Pitajaya, Pitahaya roja, Pitahaya blanca. Common, grow- 
ing over walls and trees. A large vine, the stems usually 3-angled, 
the spines 2-4 mm. long; flowers 30 cm. long, white; fruit 10-12 cm. 
in diameter, red, covered with large scales, with white pulp and many 
small black seeds. The flowers open at night. The fruit is very 
good to eat. It is reported that some forms have yellow fruit. A 
sirup made from the red fruit is employed for coloring candy and 
pastry. 

Cereus yucatanensis Standl., nom. nov. Pachycereus Gaumeri 
Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 2: 71. 1920. C. pecten-aboriginum Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 311. 1896, not Engelm. 

Culul, Sac-culul, Chac-culul. Frequent; endemic; type from Cenote 
Hodo, Gaumer 23778. Plants 2-7 m. high, the branches columnar, 
4-7-angled, the spines 1-3 cm. long; flowers yellowish green, 5 cm. 
long. The fruit is said to be white or red, and good to eat. 

There is reported by Gaumer a Cereus known as "kanzacam." 
This has not been identified. 

Epiphyllum strictum (Lem.) Britt. & Rose. Phyllocactus 
str ictus Lem. 

Sp. Santa Rita. Grown for ornament, and apparently also 
native. Plants normally epiphytic, the stems flat, 5-8 cm. wide, 
coarsely serrate, unarmed; flowers 15 cm. long, white; fruit globose, 
4-5 cm. in diameter. 

Mammillaria Gaumeri (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. 
Neomammillaria Gaumeri Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 72. 1923. 

Poltzacam (Gaumer). Endemic; type from sand dunes at Pro- 
greso, Gaumer 2331+9. Plants cespitose, the stems globose, coarsely 
tuberculate, the spines 5-7 mm. long; flowers creamy white, 10-14 
mm. long; fruit clavate, red, 2 cm. long. This is probably the plant 
reported by Casares with the name "pol-mis." 

Mammillaria yucatanensis (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. 
Neomammillaria yucatanensis Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 114. 1923. 

Type from Progreso, Gaumer 21*367. Stems globose, 8-10 cm. in 
diameter, tuberculate, the spines 5-14 mm. long; flowers small, rose; 
fruit oblong, red. 



368 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck. 

Pacam. Said to be cultivated occasionally. Plants tall, branched, 
often 2-3 m. high; joints oblong, sometimes 50 cm. long; spines none 
or minute; flowers red, 5.5 cm. long; fruit red, 5 cm. long. This 
species formerly was grown extensively in many parts of Mexico and 
Central America as a food plant for the cochineal insect, from which 
was obtained a handsome red dye. This coloring substance must 
have been well known to the ancient Mayas. "Mukay" is the Maya 
equivalent of cochineal. "Yiihpakam" is defined (Motul Dictionary) 
as the cochineal plant "y a de sazon para que salgan y nazcan en el 
los gusanillos de la grana." The Pokonchi word for Nopalea is 
"chuh." 

Nopalea Gaumeri Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 1: 216. 1919. 

Zacam. Endemic; type from Sisal, Gaumer 23250; collected also 
at Tsilam. Plants 3 m. high; joints linear-oblong or oblanceolate, 
6-12 cm. long; spines very numerous, 5-20 mm. long; flowers red, 4 
cm. long, the petals erect, not spreading as in Opuntia; fruit red, 3 
cm. long. It is rather doubtful whether this is distinct from N. 
inaperta. 

Nopalea inaperta Schott ex Griffiths, Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 
23: 139. 1913. 

Zacamtsotz (Gaumer). Endemic in Yucatan. Plants said to 
reach a height of 5-7 m.; joints flat, obovate or oblong, 6-17 cm. 
long, the spines numerous, 2 cm. long or less; flowers red, 4 cm. long; 
fruit red, 1.5 cm. long. 

Gaumer lists "mehenzacamtsotz" as a species of Nopalea. 

Opuntia Dillenii (Gawler) Haw. 0. Tuna Millsp. FMB. 1: 35. 
1895, 2: 78. 1900. 

Pakan, Yaaxpakan (Gaumer). Sp. Nopal (the plant; Nahuatl), 
Tuna (the fruit). Common. Prickly pear. A low or tall plant with 
large, oblong to obovate joints covered with long spines; flowers 
yellow; fruit purplish. There are doubtless several other Opuntias 
in the region, but they have not been collected or studied. The 
fruits of some of the plants are good to eat, and the young joints are 
cooked and eaten. The joints are heated and applied as poultices to 
relieve pleurisy. 

Casares reports a "xiknal-tzacam" which is either Opuntia or 
Nopalea. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 369 

, . Pereskia aculeata Mill. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24374; probably cultivated. A shrub, 
srect or clambering, armed with slender spines; leaves lanceolate to 
ovate, acute, fleshy; flowers pale yellow or pinkish, 2.5-4.5 cm. broad; 
fruit yellow, obconic. Because of their normal leaves, the Pereskias 
are very different in aspect from other cactuses. 

The Maya name "tsunya" has been reported as applied to a 
plant of this genus. 

Pereskia scandens (Britt. & Rose) Standl., comb. nov. Peres- 
kiopsis scandens Britt. & Rose, Cactaceae 4: 252. 1923. 

Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer. A slender vine, the spines 
5 mm. long; leaves ovate, acute; flowers yellow; fruit 5-7 cm. long. 

LYTHRACEAE. Loosestrife Family 

Ammannia coccinea Rottb. 

Izamal, Gaumer 592. A small erect glabrous branched herb of 
wet soil; leaves opposite, linear, clasping by an auricled base, entire; 
flowers small, purple, clustered in the leaf axils; fruit a small capsule. 

Cuphea balsamona C. & S. 

Occasional. A low weedy pubescent annual; leaves small, 
oblong to ovate-oblong, acute, entire, opposite; flowers small, axil- 
lary, purple. One of the common weeds of tropical American low- 
lands. 

Cuphea Gaumeri Koehne, BJE. 29: 154. 1900. C. trinitatis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 311. 1896, not DC. Parsonsia Gaumeri Standl. 
CNH. 23: 1017. 1924. 

Frequent; endemic; type from Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 785. 
An erect annual, glandular-pubescent; leaves sessile, oblong to ellip- 
tic, obtuse or acute, ciliolate; flowers axillary and in terminal 
racemes, purple. 

Lagerstroemia indica L. 

Sp. Astrondmica, Jupiter. Commonly planted for ornament; 
native of the Old World. Crape myrtle. A shrub with alternate, 
entire, nearly glabrous leaves; flowers white, pink, or purple. 

Lawsonia inermis L. L. alba Lam. 

Sp. Reseda francesa. Grown for ornament; native of Asia and 
Africa. Henna. A glabrous shrub with opposite oblong entire 



370 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

leaves; flowers small, yellow, sweet-scented, in terminal panicles. 
The plant furnishes a red dye which is much used, especially in the 
Orient, for coloring the hair and nails red, yellow or black. 

PUNICACEAE. Pomegranate Family 
Punica Granatum L. 

Yanuco (Gaumer; probably not Maya). Sp. Granada (fruit), 
Granado (plant). Grown commonly for its fruit; native of the Medi- 
terranean region. Pomegranate. A shrub or small tree with op- 
posite entire leaves and showy red flowers. Both sweet and sour 
varieties are grown in Yucatan, but the pomegranate is little planted 
in most parts of tropical America. In Yucatan the root is employed 
as an agent for expelling tapeworms. 

COMBRETAGEAE. Combretum Family 
Bucida Buceras L. 

Pucte. Bullet-tree, Bully-tree (B. H.). Common in the southern 
part of the Peninsula. A large tree with gray bark, often armed 
with spines; leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, obovate, 
rounded or retuse at the apex, glabrate; flowers small, green, in 
spikes; fruit a drupe 5 mm. long. The wood is hard, close-grained, 
yellowish brown, and heavy. The leaves are often colored bronze or 
red. 

Combretum erianthum Benth. 

Campeche. A large woody vine; leaves opposite, oblong to 
elliptic, obtuse or acute, entire, brown-lepidote beneath; flowers 
small, spicate; fruit coriaceous, 2 cm. long, broadly winged. 

Conocarpus erecta L. C. sericea Forst.; C. erecta var. arborea 
Griseb.; C. erecta var. sericea Griseb.; C. erecta var. argentea Millsp.; 
C. erecta var. procumbens Jacq. 

Kanche ("snake-tree;" Gaumer), Taabche (Gaumer; also written 
"tabche"). Sp. Botoncillo, Mangle, Mangle prieto. Buttonwood (B. 
H.). Common along the coast, in and near mangrove swamps, and 
about Lake Chichankanab. Button mangrove. A shrub or small 
tree, occasionally prostrate, sometimes 20 m. high; leaves alternate, 
obovate to elliptic, obtuse or acute, entire, leathery, glabrous or 
sericeous; flowers very small, in panicled conelike heads. The wood 
is hard, close-grained, grayish or yellowish brown, and heavy. The 
tree is very variable as to size and pubescence. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 371 

fif Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. 

Zacolcom (Gaumer). Sp. Mangle bobo (Yuc.), Mangle bianco 
(B. H.). White mangrove (B. H.). Common along the coast in and 
near mangrove swamps. A glabrous tree 20 m. high or less; leaves 
opposite, oblong to oval, rounded at the apex, entire, very thick and 
fleshy; flowers small, in clustered spikes; fruit a leathery 10-ribbed 
reddish drupe 1.5 cm. long. The wood is hard, strong, dense, and 
yellowish brown. 

Terminalia Catappa L. Buceras Catappa Hitchc. 

Sp. Almendro. Planted as a shade tree; native of the East 
Indies. Indian almond. A large tree with radiate whorled branches ; 
leaves large, obovate, rounded and abruptly pointed at the apex, 
nearly glabrous, often tinged with red; flowers small, green, in 
spikes; fruit an obovoid drupe 4-7 cm. long. The wood is hard, 
close-grained, and red-brown. The kernels of the seeds are good to 
eat. 

Terminalia Hayesii Pittier is called "guayabo" and "nargusta" 
in British Honduras. The Mayan name of Guatemala is "canxun." 

RHIZOPHORAGEAE. Mangrove Family 
Rhizophora Mangle L. 

Tapche (Gaumer; reported also as "tabche")- Sp. Mangle, 
Mangle Colorado. Red mangrove (B. H.). Common in coastal 
swamps. Mangrove. A glabrous tree; leaves oppdsite, elliptic or 
obovate, leathery, entire. The wood is hard, close-grained, strong, 
and dark red-brown. The tree is notable for its stiltlike prop-roots. 
The bark is rich in tannin, and is used locally, especially by the 
Indians, for tanning skins. It is employed also as a remedy for lepra, 
diarrhea, and dysentery. 

MYRTAGEAE. Myrtle Family 

Calyptranthes Millspaughii Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 294. 1912. 
Chytraculia Chytraculia Millsp. FMB. 2: 80. 1900, not Myrtus 
Chytraculia L. 

Type collected on Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1537; also in 
British Honduras. A small tree; leaves opposite, short-petiolate, 
oval-elliptic to elliptic-oblong, acuminate, coriaceous, glabrous; 
flowers small, white, in terminal many-flowered ferruginous-pubes- 
cent corymbs. 



372 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Eugenia axillaris (Sw.) Willd. 

Sp. Granada cimarrona (B. H.), Vaina de espada (B. H.). Occa- 
sional. A shrub or small tree with pale branches; leaves opposite 
and pellucid-punctate (as in other plants of the family), elliptic, 
obtuse or acutish, glabrous; flowers small, white, clustered in the 
leaf axils; fruit a globose red aromatic berry 1 cm. in diameter. 

If the description is correct, the "xich-huhil" of Cuevas (PI. 
Med. 108. 1913) must be closely related to Eugenia axillaris. Cuevas 
states that it is employed, together with three other plants, as a 
remedy for hemorrhoids. 

Eugenia Gaumeri Standl. FMB. 8: 28. 1930. 

Type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23843; without locality, 
Gaumer 23984, 24073. Leaves short-petiolate, oblong or elliptic- 
oblong, 4-5.5 cm. long, narrowed to the obtuse apex, acute at the 
base, strigose when young but soon glabrate; flowers fasciculate in 
the leaf axils or short-racemose, the slender pedicels 6-15 mm. long; 
ovary densely whitish-strigose. 

Eugenia Jambos L. 

Sp. Pomarrosa. Reported as planted in Yucatan; native of 
Asia. Rose-apple. A large tree with dense crown; leaves narrowly 
lanceolate, 12-20 cm. long, leathery; flowers greenish white, 1.5 cm. 
wide; fruit globose, 3-4 cm. in diameter, yellowish, tinged with 
pink. This is one of the handsomest of tropical shade trees. The 
flesh of the fruit is firm and sweet, with a flavor like that of rose- 
water. 

Eugenia mayana Standl. CNH. 23: 1042. 1924. 

Sacloob (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 714; 
Chankon, Becquaert 64; without locality, Gaumer 24123, 24215. A 
shrub or small tree with pale bark; leaves small, obovate or oblong- 
obovate, rounded or obtuse at the apex, puberulent; flowers white, 
in axillary clusters. 

Eugenia rhombea (Berg) Krug & Urb. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24044- A shrub or small tree with pale 
branches; leaves ovate or elliptic, 3-6 cm. long, acuminate, leathery, 
glabrous; fruit globose, 1.5 cm. in diameter. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 373 

Eugenia yucatanensis Standl. FMB. 8: 28. 1930. 

Type from Izamal, Gaumer in 1888. Leaves short-petiolate, 
elliptic, 5.5-8 cm. long, abruptly obtuse-acuminate, rounded or very 
obtuse at the base, nearly glabrous; flowers in short racemes, short- 
pedicellate; ovary densely whitish-strigose. 

Pimenta officinalis Lindl. P. vulgaris Lindl. 

Sp. Pimienta, Pimiento de Tabasco. Allspice, Pimento (B. H.). 
Cultivated in Yucatan and doubtless native in the southern part 
of the Peninsula. A small or medium-sized, very aromatic, nearly 
glabrous tree; bark pale, smooth; leaves petioled, oblong to oval- 
oblong, 9-20 cm. long, obtuse or rounded at the apex; flowers small, 
white, in axillary cymes; fruit globose, 5-8 mm. in diameter. The 
dried green fruit is the allspice of commerce. The tree is a delightful 
one because of the highly agreeable fragrance exhaled by all parts. 
The odor is retained indefinitely in herbarium specimens, a very 
unusual condition. 

Psidium Guajava L. P. pomiferum L. 

Pichi, Coloc (Campeche). Sp.Guayaba (fruit), Guayabo (tree); 
word of Antillean origin. Common. Guava. A shrub or small 
tree with scaly, pale brown bark. The guava is one of the common 
fruit trees of tropical America, its abundant seeds germinating 
everywhere. The fruit, which varies greatly in size, shape, and color, 
is esteemed most highly for making the marmalade known as guava 
paste, a common dessert. A decoction of the leaves is a local remedy 
for diarrhea, and the crushed leaves are applied to ulcers. The 
Motul Dictionary gives the Maya name of the tree and fruit as 
"pachi." In the Ixil dialect of Guatemala it is called "ch'amxuy"; 
in Pokonchi "cak"; and in Kekchi "pata." 

Psidium Sartorianum (Berg) Niedenzu. Calycorectes mexicana 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 312. 1896, not Berg. 

Pichiche (Gaumer). Frequent in brushlands. A tree 15 m. high 
with smooth gray bark; leaves ovate, short-petioled, ovate, acumi- 
nate, 2-4 cm. long, glabrous; flowers small, axillary, white; fruit 
globose, 2 cm. in diameter, greenish yellow or red, containing few 
seeds. The fruit is juicy and has a spicy subacid flavor. Cuevas 
states that the crushed leaves are applied to wounds to stop the 
flow of blood, and to heal them. 



374 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

MELASTOMACEAE. Melastome Family 

Tibouchina longifolia (Vahl) Baill., Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) 
Don, and Clidemia petiolaris (Schlecht. & Cham.) Triana (a synonym 
of C. Deppeana Steud.) have been reported by Millspaugh (FMB. 1: 
36. 1895), but the records need verification. Gaumer reports the 
name of Conostegia xalapensis as "capulincillo." The family is 
abundantly represented in northern British Honduras, and several 
species must be found in Quintana Roo. 

ONAGRAGEAE. Evening-primrose Family 
Jussiaea suffruticosa L. 

Mazcabche (Gaumer). Sp. Cornezuelo cimarrdn. Only one col- 
lection seen, from Xcholac, but the plant is probably not rare in 
the region, since it is one of the most common weeds of Mexico 
and Central America. An erect herb 1 m. high or less, pubescent; 
leaves alternate, lanceolate to ovate, entire, petioled; flowers solitary, 
axillary, bright yellow; fruit a cylindric capsule. In Tabasco the 
plant is called "flor de camaron." 

Some of the South American Fuchsias probably are grown for 
ornament in Yucatan. 

UMBELLIFERAE. Parsley Family 
Anethum graveolens L. 

Sp. Eneldo. Cultivated; native of Europe. Fennel. A glabrous 
annual, the leaves dissected into filiform segments; flowers yellow. 
The seeds are used for flavoring food. 

Apium graveolens L. 

Sp. Apio. Grown as a vegetable. Celery. 

Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. 

Sp. Apio. Listed by Gaumer as in cultivation; native of northern 
South America. A tall coarse herb with large bipinnate leaves. 
The tuberous roots are cooked and eaten. 

Coriandrum sativum L. 

Sp. Culantro. Cultivated; native of the Old World. Coriander. 
The seeds are used to flavor food. The name "saquil" is reported 
from Guatemala for the plant. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 375 

if Daucus Carota L. 

Sp. Zanahorria. Grown commonly as a vegetable; native of 
Europe and Asia. Carrot. 

Foeniculum vulgare Hill. 

Sp. Hinojo. Cultivated and rarely escaping; native of Europe. 
Dill. A large glabrous perennial, the leaves divided into long capil- 
lary segments; flowers yellow. The seeds are employed for seasoning 
food. 

Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. H. yucatanensis Millsp. FMB. 
2: 81. 1900. 

Occasional in Yucatan and Campeche. A glabrous creeping 
perennial herb of wet soil; leaves long-petiolate, peltate, orbicular, 
crenate; flowers small, green, pediceled, in branched umbels. The 
type of H. yucatanensis was collected at Progreso, Millspaugh 1677. 
This is perhaps the plant reported by Aznar as Hydrocotyle umbellata 
L., with the vernacular name "coronilla de San Antonio." 

Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. H. prolifera Millsp. FMB. 1: 
381. 1898, not Kell. 

Pacanle (Gaumer). Xcholac, Gaumer 445. Similar, the flowers 
sessile or nearly so, the whorls forming an interrupted spike. 

Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. Apium Petroselinum L. 

Sp. Perejil. Cultivated; native of southern Europe. Parsley. 
The plant is employed generally for flavoring food. It is used locally 
as an emmenagogue, and for nephritis and dropsy. 

Pimpinella Anisum L. 

Sp. Anis. Cultivated; native of the Mediterranean region. 
Anise. Used commonly for flavoring food. 

LENNOACEAE. Lennoa Family 

Lennoa madreporoides Llave & Lex. L. caerulea Millsp. FMB. 
1: 382. 1898, perhaps not Fourn. 

Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1116. A low fleshy herb, parasitic 
upon the roots of other plants, without chlorophyll; leaves reduced 
to scales; inflorescence branched, the flowers densely clustered at 
the ends of the branchlets; calyx deeply 8-cleft; corolla small, 
tubular-funnelform, violaceous. 



376 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

THEOPHRASTACEAE. Theophrasta Family 

Jacquinia aurantiaca Ait. J. armillaris Millsp. FMB. 1: 392. 
1898, not Jacq. J. ruscifolia Flores, Agricultor 10 7 : 9. 1923. 

Muyche (Gaumer), Chacsic (Flores), Tcan-sik (B. H.). Common. 
A shrub or small tree; leaves oblong to elliptic, obtuse or acute, 
tipped with a sharp stiff spine; flowers orange, 8 mm. long, in corymb- 
like racemes; fruit globose, hard, 2 cm. in diameter. This is perhaps 
the Jacquinia reported from Pete*n by Maler, with the name "chac- 
sinkin." In Tabasco it is called "siche" and "flor de San Antonio." 
The plant is reported to be employed as a remedy for whooping 
cough. The stiff corollas are strung on cords and used for decorations, 
and they are described as having been employed in ancient times for 
decorating the Maya temples. 

Jacquinia axillaris Oerst. 

Chacsik (Pete"n). Quintana Roo and Pete"n. A shrub or small 
tree; leaves lance-oblong, stiff, acute, spine- tipped; flowers orange, 
7-10 mm. long, in racemes. 

Jacquinia flammea Millsp. ex Mez in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 
236a: 40. 1903. J. aristata Millsp. FMB. 1: 36. 1895, not Jacq. J. 
armillaris Millsp. FMB. 1: 312. 1896, not Jacq. 

Zinkinkax (Gaumer*), Chaczinkinkax (Gaumer) ; reported as "chac- 
tsicikax." Common; endemic; type from Tsilam, Gaumer 531. A 
shrub or small tree; leaves obovate, rounded at the apex, sometimes 
pungent-tipped; racemes corymb-like, the flowers orange, 8-10 mm. 
long. This species is employed like J. aurantiaca. In some regions 
the Jacquinias are used commonly as fish poisons. 

MYRSINACEAE. Myrsine Family 

Ardisia escallonioides Schlecht. & Cham. Icacorea paniculata 
Sudw. 

Zachoclub (Gaumer), Xooknum (Seler). Frequent. A shrub or 
tree, 6 m. high or less; leaves alternate, obovate or elliptic, obtuse 
or acute, entire, glabrous; flowers small, pink, in panicled racemes; 
fruit globose, 4-8 mm. in diameter, black, 1-seeded, juicy. The 
wood is hard and brown. The fruit in this genus is sweet and edible. 

Ardisia revoluta HBK. Icacorea revoluta Standl. 

Frequent. A glabrous shrub or small tree; leaves elliptic or 
obovate, 9-19 cm. long, obtuse or acute; flowers pink, in panicled 
racemes; fruit 4-5 mm. in diameter. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 377 

' Parathesis crenulata Hook, f . (collected by Johnson) and P. 
corymbosa Hemsl. (collected by Linden) have been reported from 
Yucatan, but the localities are doubtful. 

EBENAGEAE. Ebony Family 

Diospyros anisandra Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34: 
44. 1921. 

Xnobche (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Suitun, Gaumer 23308; 
Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23863; without locality, Gaumer 24030; 
Suitun, Gaumer 23307; Xanaba, Gaumer 688. A shrub 3 m. high, 
flowering in May; leaves alternate, obovate, 2.5-4.5 cm. long, retuse, 
glabrate; flowers small, axillary, yellow; calyx (as in other species) 
4-5-lobed. 

Diospyros cuneata Standl. FMB. 8: 33. 1930. 

Endemic; type, Gaumer 24098; Izamal, Gaumer 700; without 
locality, Gaumer 24211, 23955. Leaves short-petiolate, cuneate- 
obovate, 4-8.5 cm. long, obtuse or rounded at the apex, cuneately 
narrowed to the base, beneath strigillose when young but soon 
glabrate; flowers in 3-4-flowered axillary cymes; calyx 4-lobed, 3.5 
mm. long; corolla 6-7 mm. long, densely sericeous; fruit glabrous. 

Diospyros Ebenaster Retz. D. ebeneum Millsp. FMB. 1: 382. 
1898, not Koen. 

Tauch (Gaumer). Sp. Zapote negro, Ebano. Planted as a fruit 
tree, and perhaps native. A medium-sized tree, flowering in April; 
leaves oblong to elliptic, sometimes 30 cm. long, leathery, obtuse or 
acutish, glabrous; fruit subglobose, green, 7.5 cm. or less in diameter, 
the pulp soft, black; seeds 4-10, large, compressed. The fruit is 
eaten; but it is not very good, and it is certainly most unattractive 
in appearance. A decoction of the leaves is used as an astringent 
and as a remedy for malaria. This species has been listed from Yuca- 
tan as "Diospyros obtusifolia." The wood is an ebony, being black 
and very hard. 

Maba albens (Presl) Hiern. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23862; without locality, Gaumer 24089. 
A large shrub or small tree; leaves oblong to obovate, 3-7 cm. long, 
obtuse or rounded at the apex, or sometimes acute, densely pubes- 
cent; flowers small, axillary, pedicellate or nearly sessile; calyx 3- 
lobate. 



378 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

SAPOTACEAE. Sapodilla Family 
Achras Zapota L. Sapota Achras Mill. 

Ya. Sp. Zapote, Chicozapote. Abundant in the southern part of 
the Peninsula; often planted as a shade and fruit tree. Sapodilla. 
A large tree, sometimes 30 m. high, with dense crown; leaves clustered 
at the ends of the branches, petioled, oblong to elliptic, obtuse, en- 
tire, glabrous when mature; flowers small, white, solitary in the leaf 
axils, brown-tomentose; fruit ovoid or globose, 6 cm. or more in 
diameter, containing 1-5 seeds. The wood is fine-grained, hard, 
reddish, easy to work and polish, and little molested by insects. It 
is used for posts, rafters, railroad ties, and cabinetwork, and it was 
the chief wood utilized in the ancient Maya temples. Bows, also, 
were fashioned from it. The fruit is highly esteemed by many 
persons. Its flesh is yellowish brown, translucent, and sweet. 

The most important product of the tree is the gum or chicle 
obtained from the milky latex, and used as the basis of chewing gum. 
The latex is collected from slashes made in the trunk during the 
rainy season, and it must be boiled and beaten until it thickens. 
Chicle bianco or chicle virgen is obtained from the fruits. Chicle is 
the chief article of export from the southern part of the Peninsula. 
Mexico is reported to produce an average of 2,812,320 kilograms 
per year, and Quintana Roo alone has exported from 169,000 to 
1,028,000 kilograms a year. 

Chicle or "tsicte" (from the Nahuatl, "tsictli") was well known 
to the ancient Mayas, being chewed to quench thirst, and also as an 
accompaniment of meals. It was prepared in "barras" about 10 cm. 
long and 1 cm. thick, wrapped in banana leaves, a form in which it 
is still offered for sale locally. The export of chicle is an industry of 
recent development. 

The gum is employed also for filling cavities in teeth. The 
pulverized seeds are applied to the bites and stings of poisonous 
animals. 

The Motul Dictionary defines "zaya" as "chicozapote," and also 
as atole made from the fruits in times of famine. The latex is called 
"itz"; when boiled and ready to chew, "cha." The Nahuatl name 
of the tree is "chictzapotl" (hence "chicozapote") or "xicontzapotl" ; 
the Quich^ name is "tzaput." 

Bumelia retusa Sw. B. buxifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 376. 1898, 
not Willd. B. glomerata Millsp. FMB. 1: 376. 1898, not Griseb. B. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 379 

microphylla Millsp. FMB. 1: 376. 1898, in part, not Griseb. B. 
obtusifolia var. buxifolia Miq. & Eichl. 

Putsmucuy (Gaumer), Xpetcitam (Gaumer), Zactsitsilche 
(Gaumer), Mulche (Gaumer). Common. A shrub or small tree, 
armed with stout spines; leaves short-petiolate, broadly obovate or 
rounded, rounded or emarginate at the apex, leathery, brown- 
sericeous or glabrate beneath; flowers small, pediceled, clustered in 
the leaf axils; fruit subglobose, fleshy, 8-10 mm. long. 

Bumelia spiniflora A. DC. 

Calotmul, Gaumer 1313. A very spiny shrub or small tree; 
leaves cuneate-oblanceolate to rounded-obovate, rounded at the 
apex, glabrous; flowers small, pediceled, fascicled in the leaf axils; 
fruit black, 1-2 cm. long, the flesh sweet and edible; wood hard, 
weak, light brown. 

Calocarpum mammosum (L.) Pierre. Lucuma mammosa 
Gaertn. 

Chacalhaas. Sp. Mamey, Mamey Colorado. Planted as a fruit 
tree; perhaps native in the region. Sapote. A large tree; leaves 
deciduous, obovate, 10-30 cm. long, short-petioled, rounded to 
acute at the apex, thin, glabrate; flowers white, subsessile on leafless 
twigs; fruit globose or ovoid, 8-20 cm. long, brown, the flesh pink 
or reddish; seed 1, about 8 cm. long, smooth, polished. This is 
one of the common fruit trees of tropical America. The sweet fruit 
is eaten raw or made into preserves. The wood is fine-grained, hard, 
and compact. The seeds are pulverized, mixed with oil, and applied 
to the scalp to promote growth of the hair. The Quich name of 
this species is "zaltulul." The usual name for the fruit in Mexico 
and Central America is "zapote." 

Chrysophyllum Cainito L. 

Sp. Caimito (of Antillean derivation), Cayumito. Planted com- 
monly, and perhaps native in the southern part of the Peninsula. 
Star-apple. A large or medium-sized tree with dense crown; leaves 
short-petioled, oval to oblong, abruptly acute or short-acuminate, 
densely covered beneath with shining brown hairs; flowers small, 
pediceled, clustered in the leaf axils; fruit globose, yellow, green, or 
purple, with sweet milky flesh, containing several large seeds. The 
tree is grown generally in tropical America for its sweet fruit. 
The rather coarse-grained, purplish gray or nearly black, and heavy 



380 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

wood is sometimes used for construction purposes. The name star- 
apple is derived from the fact that when the fruit is cut transversely 
the narrow seeds are seen radiating like the points of a star. 

Chrysophyllum mexicanum Brandeg. C. Cainito Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 382. 1898, not L. C. monopyrenum Millsp. FMB. 2: 82. 
1900, not Sw. 

Chiceh (Gaumer; Yuc., B. H.). Sp. Cayumito silvestre. Wild 
star-apple (B. H.). Frequent. A large tree; leaves pale-silky 
beneath; flowers smaller than in C. Cainito, the corolla glabrous; 
fruit 1-seeded. 

Dipholis salicifolia (L.) A. DC. 

Txitxya (Gaumer), Tsiisyab (Gaumer), Sac-chum (Gaumer) ; listed 
erroneously as "xac-chum." Frequent. A tree 12 m. high, un- 
armed; leaves slender-petioled, oblong or lanceolate, 6-12 cm. long, 
acute or acuminate, glabrate; flowers small, whitish, densely clustered 
in the leaf axils; fruit subglobose, black, 8 mm. in diameter. The 
hard, strong, fine-grained, dark brown or blackish wood is used for 
construction purposes. 

Lucuma campechiana HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 240. 1819. 
L. multiflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 313. 1896, not A. DC. 

Kanizte. Sp. Mamey de Campeche. Cultivated and perhaps 
native; type from Campeche. A tree 15 m. high; leaves slender- 
petioled, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, large, acute or obtuse, 
glabrous or nearly so; flowers clustered in the leaf axils, brown- 
hairy. The fruit is edible, but no information is available as to its 
quality. 

Lucuma hypoglauca Standl. 

Chock (Gaumer). Sp. Zapote bianco. Cultivated as a fruit tree, 
and perhaps native. A medium-sized tree; leaves large, petioled, 
oblanceolate-oblong, obtuse or rounded at the apex, thinly grayish- 
sericeous beneath; flowers small, clustered in the leaf axils; fruit 
subglobose, 10 cm. in diameter, with a thick hard brownish-green 
shell, the pulp acidulous, of agreeable flavor. This species is known 
also from Salvador. 

Sideroxylon Gaumeri Pittier, CNH. 13: 460. /. 86. 1912. S. 
Mastichodendron Millsp. FMB. 1 : 313. 1896, not Jacq. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 381 



Subul (Schott). Sp. Ebano amarillo. Endemic; type collected at 
Izamal, Gaumer 763; Calotmul, Schott in 1866; Izamal, Gaumer 
23228. A large glabrous tree; leaves long-petioled, oblong, obtuse; 
flowers small, clustered on old branches; fruit ellipsoid, 1-seeded, 2 
cm. long. The fruit is edible. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE. Plumbago Family 

Plumbago capensis Thunb. 

Sp. Embeleso, Jazmin azul. Cultivated for ornament; native of 
South Africa. Plumbago. A shrub, often scandent, with showy, 
pale blue flowers. This has been listed from Yucatan as P. caerulea. 

Plumbago scandens L. 

Chabak (Gaumer), Chapak (Seler); reported incorrectly as "xca- 
baac," "chakhak," and "tsaimentsai." Sp. Hierba de alacran. A 
common weed. Plants suffrutescent, erect or subscandent; leaves 
alternate, oblong to ovate, narrowed at the base, acuminate, entire; 
flowers white, spicate, the calyx glandular. The juice of the leaves 
blisters the skin quickly. It is employed as a remedy for itch and 
other skin diseases, and is reported to be administered as an emetic or 
purgative. 

OLEACEAE. Olive Family 
Jasminum grandiflorum L. 

Sp. Jazmin, Jazmin de olor. Listed by Gaumer as cultivated for 
ornament; native of southern Asia. Royal jasmine. A nearly gla- 
brous vine with pinnate leaves and fragrant white flowers. 

Jasminum Sambac (L.) Soland. 

Listed by Gaumer as in cultivation; native of the East Indies. 
Arabian jasmine. An erect pubescent shrub with ovate leaves and 
white flowers. This species is planted for ornament generally in 
Central America. 

LOGANIACEAE. Logania Family 
Spigelia Anthelmia L. 

Occasional. An erect annual, glabrous or nearly so, simple or 
branched ; leaves mostly clustered at the top of the stem, lanceolate, 
entire, acuminate; flowers small, purplish white, in one-sided spikes; 
fruit a small tuberculate capsule. 



382 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

GENTIANACEAE. Gentian Family 

Eustoma exaltatum (L.) Griseb. 

Occasional in sandy places near the coast or on lake shores. An 
erect glabrous glaucous herb; leaves opposite, sessile, oblong, obtuse 
or acute, entire; flowers few, blue or nearly white, 2-4 cm. long. 

Leiphaimos mexicana (Griseb.) Miq. Voyria mexicana Griseb. 

Yaxcabah, Gaumer 2^.54; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2177; Buena 
Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1105. A slender white saprophyte 10-20 cm. 
high, the stems simple, the leaves reduced to scales; flowers few, 
small, white, in a terminal cyme. 

APOGYNACEAE. Dogbane Family 
Cerbera Manghas L. C. Odollam Gaertn. 
Izamal, cultivated, Gaumer 231 79. Native of tropical Asia. 

Echites microcalyx A. DC. E. subsagittata Millsp. FMB. 1: 382. 
1898, not R. & P. 

Common. A slender woody vine with milky sap; leaves opposite, 
oblong to elliptic, entire, often cuspidate at the apex, cordate or 
hastate at the base, usually pubescent beneath; flowers yellow, 
2.5-3.5 cm. long, in axillary racemes; fruit of 2 slender pods 8-20 
cm. long. 

A sterile specimen collected in Peten, apparently an Echites close 
toE. Rosana Donn. Smith, bears the name "corrimiento-ak," which 
would indicate that it is one of the innumerable remedies for vene- 
real diseases. 

Echites pinguifolia Standl. FMB. 8; 35. 1930. 

Type, Gaumer 815, without locality. A slender woody vine; 
leaves ovate to elliptic, long-acuminate, usually rounded at the base, 
densely and minutely soft-pubescent beneath; calyx lobes lance- 
attenuate; corolla tube very slender, 18 mm. long, the throat funnel- 
form, 1.5 cm. long, the broad lobes about 1 cm. long. 

Echites torosa Jacq. E. microcalyx Millsp. FMB. 1: 312, in 
part. 1896, not A. DC. E. torulosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 383. 1898, not L. 

Occasional. A slender glabrous woody vine; leaves lance-oblong, 
obtuse or acutish, obtuse or rounded at the base; flowers yellow, the 
corolla tube 6 mm. long. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 383 

9i> 

Echites umbellata Jjacq. 

Frequent. A glabrous vine; leaves thick and fleshy, ovate or 
oval, rounded at the base; corolla white or pale yellow, the tube 
5 cm. long; follicles 15-20 cm. long, thick and stout. 

Echites yucatanensis Millsp. ex Standl. FMB. 8: 35. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Chichankanab, Gaumer 1979; Tical, Gaumer 
23816; without locality, Gaumer 1979, 24039. A slender glabrous 
woody vine; leaves broadly ovate to elliptic-oblong, 6-10 cm. long, 
acuminate, usually pandurate and shallowly or deeply constricted 
below the middle, or even shallowly trilobate; calyx lobes lanceolate, 
long-attenuate; corolla 5-5.5 cm. long; follicles 19-21 cm. long. 

Forsteronia spicata (Jacq.) Meyer. 

Reported as collected at Campeche by Houstoun. A woody 
vine; leaves oblong or oval, abruptly short-acuminate, entire, 
pubescent or glabrate; flowers small, white, in dense spikelike cymes. 

Lochnera rosea (L.) Reichenb. Vinca rosea L.; Catharanthus 
roseus Don. 

Sp. Vicaria. A frequent weed; often planted for ornament; 
probably not native. A glabrate erect herb; leaves oblong to 
elliptic, obtuse; flowers axillary, 2.5-3 cm. long, white or pink. 

Macrosiphonia macrosiphon (Torr.) Heller was reported from 
Yucatan by Millspaugh (FMB. 1: 383. 1898, as M. Berlandieri 
Gray), but the specimen, collected by Schott, doubtless was obtained 
in northern Mexico. There are no locality data on Schott's original 
label. 

Nerium Oleander L. 

Sp. Narciso, Laurel rosa. Planted commonly for ornament; native 
of the Mediterranean region. Oleander. A shrub or small tree with 
white or pink, often double flowers. 

Plumeria alba L. 

Zacnicte (Gaumer). Sp. Flor de Mayo. Planted and perhaps 
native. A small or medium-sized tree with thick branches and 
copious milky sap; leaves alternate, oblong-linear, 16-30 cm. long, 
obtuse or acute, finely tomentose beneath; flowers white, in large 
terminal cymes; fruit of 2 thick follicles 20 cm. long. The frangipani 
trees are very showy when in flower. The corollas are strung in 



384 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

chains which are used as decorations in houses and churches, a 
custom which doubtless dates from ancient times. The latex is 
employed as a drastic purgative. 

"Nicte" is a generic term for the Plumerias. The name "flor de 
Mayo" is applied because the plants flower about the month of May. 

The Plumeria bicolor, with white flowers, reported by Donde* 
(Apuntes 33. 1907) may be P. alba. The plant reported by Cuevas 
(PI. Med. 69, Ilustr. pi. 11 J.I) as "nictechom" and "flor de zopilote" 
seems to be a white-flowered Plumeria, possibly P. alba, or perhaps 
P. acutifolia Poir., which, however, is not represented by specimens 
from this region. The latex is used as a remedy for toothache and 
pains in the gums. 

Plumeria multiflora Standl. FMB. 8: 33. 1929. 

Type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23880; also in northern 
British Honduras. A shrub or small tree with thick branchlets; 
leaves narrowly oblong-cuneate, 6-9.5 cm. long, broadly rounded 
and apiculate at the apex, glabrous above, densely and minutely 
tomentose beneath; calyx 1.5 mm. long, the lobes rounded; corolla 
4 cm. long, the lobes equaling the tube. 

Plumeria pudica Jacq. 

Xtuhuy (Gaumer). Sp. Flor de Mayo. Planted for ornament. 
Flowers yellow, the corolla remaining closed, and never opening as 
in the other species. 

Plumeria rubra L. P. purpurea Donde", Apuntes 33. 1907. 

Zabacnicte (Gaumer), Chacnicte, Nicte. Sp. Flor de Mayo. Com- 
monly planted for ornament; probably not native. A shrub or 
small tree; leaves elliptic-oblong to narrowly obovate, 15-40 cm. 
long, acute or obtuse, glabrous or nearly so; corolla red or purple, 
3.5-5.5 cm. long. An extract of the plant is reported to have laxa- 
tive properties and is employed in the treatment of venereal diseases, 
and to expel intestinal parasites. Externally the extract is applied to 
cure cutaneous diseases, such as itch, and syphilitic sores. The 
name "cumpap" is reported for this species from Guatemala. 

Dond reports (Apuntes 33. 1907) P. tricolor R. & P. as in 
cultivation, and called "flor de Mayo" and "ensalada." In this 
species the corolla is red and white outside and yellow within. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 385 

Rauwolfia heterophylla R. & S. 

Cabamuc (Gaumer), Cabatmuc, Chacmuc (Cuevas), Chacmuc-ak 
(Cuevas). Common. A shrub with milky sap, usually less than 1 
m. high; leaves in whorls of 3-5, elliptic-oblong to obovate, acute, 
glabrous or nearly so; flowers small, greenish white, in few-flowered 
cymes; fruit a drupe 6-8 mm. in diameter, red, changing to purple- 
black at maturity. The latex is applied to granulated eyelids, and 
it is reported to have emetic, cathartic, expectorant, and diuretic 
properties. It is employed for treating dropsy and various other 
diseases. 

Rhabdadenia cordata (Mill.) Miers. 

Frequent. A large vine, somewhat pubescent or glabrate; leaves 
opposite, elliptic to oval, acute or obtuse and cuspidate-acuminate; 
rounded or subcordate at the base; flowers yellow, 6-7 cm. long, 
calyx lobes acuminate. 

Rhabdadenia paludosa (Vahl) Miers. Echites biflora Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 382. 1898, not Jacq. 

Frequent in coastal swamps. A glabrous woody vine; leaves 
oblong, obtuse or rounded at the apex, petiolate, acutish at the base, 
thick and fleshy; flowers pinkish white, 6-7 cm. long; calyx lobes 
obtuse; fruit of 2 long slender follicles. 

Stemmadenia insignis Miers. 

Xlaul (Gaumer). Sp.LemreZ. Occasional; cultivated and perhaps 
native; type from MeYida, Schott 430. A small glabrous tree about 
6 m. high; leaves opposite, elliptic or obovate, 8-18 cm. long, petio- 
late; flowers pure white, the corolla tube 5 cm. long; fruit of 2 fleshy 
follicles 5 cm. long. Schott states that the seeds are eaten greedily 
by birds. 

Tabernaemontana alba Mill. 

Reported from Campeche. A shrub with milky sap; leaves 
opposite, ovate-oblong, short-acuminate; flowers in cymes; corolla 
tube 6 mm. long, the anther tips exserted. This is probably not 
distinct from T. amygdalifolia. 

Tabernaemontana amygdalifolia Jacq. T. acapulcensis 
Miers; T. citrifolia Millsp. FMB. 2: 83. 1900, not L. 

Utsubpek (Gaumer); reported also as "utsupek," "utsuppek," 
and "chusumpek." Sp. Jazmin de perro, Olfato de perro. Common. 
A glabrous shrub 3 m. high or less; leaves elliptic to lance-oblong, 



386 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

acute; flowers fragrant, the corolla white, the tube 8-15 mm. long; 
anther tips exserted; fruit of 2 thick fleshy follicles 4-6 cm. long. 
An infusion of the leaves is administered as a laxative in the treat- 
ment of biliousness. 

Tabernaemontana citrifolia L. 

In forest, Esperanza, Campeche, Seler 4007. A glabrous shrub 
or small tree; leaves petiolate, oblanceolate-oblong to elliptic, 6-20 
cm. long, acute or abruptly short-acuminate; flowers white, in dense 
or lax cymes, the tube 6-8 mm. long; anther tips included. 

Tabernaemontana litoralis HBK. 

Type from Campeche. A glabrous shrub; leaves elliptic-oblong, 
acute; flowers 5 cm. long; stamen tips included. 

Thevetia Gaumeri Hemsl. in Hook. Icon. PI. 16: pi. 1517. 1886. 
T. spathulata Millsp. FMB. 1: 383. 1898. 

Acitz (Gaumer; "raw-milk"). Frequent; endemic; type from 
Cozumel Island, Gaumer 7 in 1885. A tree 6-12 m. high, the trunk 
sometimes 20 cm. in diameter, glabrous throughout; leaves oblanceo- 
late, obtuse, leathery, shining; corolla yellow, 3.5-5 cm. long; fruit 
drupaceous, 3 cm. broad, 2 cm. long. The type of T. spathulata is 
from Merida, Schott 321. 

Thevetia nitida (HBK.) A. DC. has been reported from Yucatan, 
but the record is doubtful. 

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum. T. neriifolia Juss. 

Acitz (Gaumer). Sp. Campanula, Cabalonga (Gaumer). Planted 
and perhaps naturalized; probably not native. A glabrous shrub or 
small tree with milky sap; leaves linear, 7-15 cm. long; flowers 
bright yellow, 7 cm. long; fruit 3-4 cm. broad, 2 cm. long, fleshy. 
The latex is applied to decayed teeth to relieve toothache, and is 
reported sometimes to resolve them into fragments. It is applied 
also to chronic sores or ulcers. The sap is reputed poisonous, and 
doubtless is so. The extract of the plant has been employed locally 
in the treatment of malarial and other fevers, and of yellow fever. 
The sweet-scented flowers are very showy. The name "chohop" 
is reported for this species from Guatemala. 

Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link. 

Reported from Mugeres Island, Gaumer in 1886. A shrub or 
small tree, glabrous or nearly so; leaves alternate, lanceolate, fleshy; 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 387 

'flowers small, white, in cymes; fruit an oblong white drupe 1 cm. 
long. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE. Milkweed Family 

Asclepias curassavica L. 

Chilillo-xiu (Sp. and Maya), Analkak, Chontalpa, Xpolkuchil, 
Cabal-kumche, Kuchilxiu, Cuchillo-xiu (Aznar), Sac-canzelxiu (Cue- 
vas). Sp. Cancerillo, Plato y taza, Revienta muelas, Ponchixuis, 
Cochinita (Camp.~),Quema-casas (seeds; Camp.). A common weed. 
Red milkweed. An erect perennial herb with milky sap, glabrous or 
nearly so; leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate; flowers red and yellow, 
in umbels. The plant is employed for treating cutaneous and 
venereal diseases and for fevers. The leaves are applied, either fresh 
or dried and pulverized, to cancers and sores, and the fresh leaves 
are bound upon the head as a remedy for headache. The latex is 
used as a hemostatic, placed in cavities in the teeth to relieve tooth- 
ache, or taken as an emetic and purgative. The plant, a showy and 
handsome one when in flower, is one of the most frequent weeds of 
tropical America. The name "cantil" is reported for the plant from 
Guatemala. 

Asclepias longicornu Benth. A. pratensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 38. 
1895, not Benth. 

Cabalkunche (Gaumer). Frequent. A low simple erect perennial 
pubescent herb; leaves oblong to ovate, obtuse; flowers greenish, in 
lax or dense umbels. The milky latex is placed in cavities in the 
teeth to relieve toothache. 

Dictyanthus yucatanensis Standl. FMB. 8: 37. 1930. 

Boochin, Xbockin. Endemic; type, Gaumer 933; Progreso, 
Gaumer 1173; Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1173; Chichankanab, 
Gaumer 1544- A slender vine with hirsute stems; leaves long- 
petiolate, ovate-cordate, acuminate, pubescent on both surfaces; 
corolla 22 mm. broad, broadly campanulate, finely reticulate-veined 
within, the lobes broadly triangular, acuminate; appendages of the 
corona narrowly oblong, dilated and rounded at the apex, extending 
well out along the corolla. The species has been referred incorrectly 
to D. ceratopetalus Bonn. Smith, a Central American Dictyanthus. 

Funastrum elegans (Decaisne) Schlechter. PhilibertiaErvend- 
bergii Gray. 



388 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Izamal, Gaumer 880. An herbaceous vine; leaves ovate-cordate, 
rounded at the apex, pubescent; flowers umbellate, greenish white, 
1 cm. broad. 

Funastrum Lindenianum (Decaisne) Schlechter, Repert. Sp. 
Nov. 13: 286. 1914. Sarcostemma Lindenianum Decaisne in DC. 
Prodr. 8: 541. 1844. Philibertia Lindeniana Hemsl. Biol. Centr. 
Amer. Bot. 2: 318. 1881. 

Type reported as collected in Yucatan by Linden, the locality 
doubtful. Leaves cordate, rounded at the apex, pubescent; flowers 
in sessile umbels. 

The plant reported from Yucatan as Philibertia odorata Hemsl. 
(Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 23. 1904) has not been seen by 
the writer, but it is probably Funastrum elegans. 

Hoy a carnosa R. Br. is reported by Gaumer as in cultivation, and 
called "flor de cera." This is the wax-plant, which is sometimes 
grown as a house plant in the United States. 

Macroscepis obovata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 201. pi 133. 
1819. 

Emtzul (Gaumer). Occasional; type from Campeche. A large, 
hirsute, chiefly herbaceous vine; leaves broadly obovate, 6-17 cm. 
long, abruptly short-acuminate, cordate at the base; flowers 2-2.5 
cm. broad, in sessile or subsessile cymes. 

Macroscepis rotata Decaisne in DC. Prodr. 8: 599. 1844. 

Emtzul (Gaumer). Known only from the type, said to have been 
collected in Yucatan by Linden. Leaves obovate, short-acuminate, 
cordate at the base; peduncles 2-3-flowered. 

Marsdenia Coulteri Hemsl. M. mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1 : 314. 
1896, not Decaisne. 

Xemtzul (Gaumer). Frequent in dry forests. A large, pubescent, 
somewhat woody vine; leaves ovate-oblong to broadly ovate, obtuse 
or acute, rounded at the base; flowers small, whitish, in dense, nearly 
sessile cymes; fruit 6-13 cm. long, smooth, glabrous. 

Marsdenia macrophylla (Humb. & Bonpl.) Fourn. M. macu- 
lata Hook. 

Xemtzul. Frequent. A large woody vine, nearly glabrous; leaves 
ovate to oval, 7-14 cm. long, thick, acute or obtuse, often sub- 
cordate at the base; flowers yellowish, in many-flowered short- 
stalked cymes. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 389 

9>f 

Metastelma Schlechtendalii Decaisne. M. parviflorum Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 38. 1895, not R. Br. 

Frequent. A slender vine, chiefly herbaceous, pubescent or 
glabrate, often forming dense tangles over shrubs; leaves oblong- 
ovate to oval, 1-3 cm. long, obtuse or acute; flowers whitish, 3 mm. 
long, in umbel-like cymes. 

Roulinia foetida (Cav.) Standl., comb. nov. Asclepias foetida 
Cav. Rouliniella foetida Vail. 

Occasional. A large herbaceous vine, puberulent or glabrous; 
leaves broadly ovate-cordate, acuminate; flowers small, white, in 
raceme-like cymes. 

Vincetoxicum barbatum (HBK.) Standl. Gonolobus barbatus 
HBK. 

Xtuchcahoy (Gaumer), Bubsaak (Pete"n). Occasional. An herba- 
ceous vine; leaves deltoid-cordate, acuminate, glabrous or nearly so; 
corolla 1 cm. long, greenish, densely yellow-hirsute within. The 
plant is employed as a remedy for sores in the mouth, and for 
chronic ulcers. 

Vincetoxicum crassifolium Standl. FMB. 8: 36. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Chichankanab, Gaumer 23704; Kancab- 
tsonot, Gaumer 23884- A coarse vine, the stems densely pilose; 
leaves short-petiolate, coriaceous, ovate-oval, 4-6.5 cm. long, acutish 
or abruptly acute, rounded at the base and shallowly cordate, 
densely velvety-pilose beneath; corolla greenish, 1 cm. long and 1.5 
cm. broad, puberulent outside, glabrous within. 

Vincetoxicum velutinum (Schlecht.) Standl. Gonolobus velu- 
tinus Schlecht. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23704; without locality, Gaumer 23975. 
A large hirsute vine; leaves rounded-cordate, velvety-pubescent; 
corolla 3 cm. broad; fruit covered with long spinelike tubercles. 

A sterile plant, perhaps a Vincetoxicum, from Pete*n is said to be 
called "purgacion-xiu." The "purgacion-xiu" listed by Cuevas (PL 
Med. 79. 1913) is perhaps of this family. It is a local remedy for 
gonorrhea. Gann reports that a plant of the same name is employed 
as a remedy for bladder and urethral affections. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. Morning-glory Family 
Calonyction aculeatum (L.) House. Ipomoea Bona-nox L. 
Zutub (Gaumer; reported as "xutu")- Sp. Nicua, Oracidn. Fre- 
quent. Moonflower. A large herbaceous vine, often armed with 



390 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

fleshy prickles; leaves cordate, entire or lobed, glabrous; corolla 
white, the slender tube 8-12 cm. long; sepals with long subulate tips. 

Calonyction clavatum Don. 

Infrequent; Izamal, Gaumer 23450; Chichankanab, Gaumer 
1274. A large vine, the stems hirsute; leaves broadly cordate, entire 
or angled, glabrous; corolla purple and lilac, 15 cm. broad or smaller. 

Calonyction muricatum (L.) Don. Ipomoea Bona-nox Millsp. 
FMB. 1:384. 1898, not L. 

Occasional; Izamal, Gaumer 23808; Nohacab, Schott 684- A large 
vine, glabrous or nearly so, armed with short recurved fleshy prickles; 
leaves broadly cordate, entire; corolla purple, the tube 3-5 cm. long. 

Evolvulus alsinoides L. 

Xiaxiu (Millspaugh). Common. A small slender herb, erect or 
decumbent, pubescent; leaves oblong to linear, acute or obtuse; 
flowers axillary, 5-6 mm. broad, blue or white, slender-pediceled. 
The plant is said to be employed as a remedy for gonorrhea. 

Evolvulus nummularius L. 

Occasional. A small slender creeping perennial; leaves oval or 
orbicular, short-petioled, 5-20 mm. long, rounded or retuse at the 
apex, pubescent or glabrate; corolla 5-8 mm. broad, white or pale 
blue. 

Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lam. 

Iz. Sp. Camote. Cultivated commonly; also naturalized, but 
not native; original habitat unknown. Sweet potato. The Motul 
Dictionary defines "ahzinaz" as "long red batatas." Names given to 
the sweet potato in the Guatemalan dialects are: "om," Pokonchi; 
"cajix," Ixil; "iis," Mame; "on," Jacaltec, Chuje. 

Ipomoea carnea Jacq. /. Jalapa Millsp. FMB. 1: 39. 1895, 
not Pursh. 

Chocobcat (Gaumer). Frequent. A large woody vine; leaves 
rounded-cordate, densely pubescent beneath; flowers 8 cm. long, 
red-purple or pink, in stalked, few- or many-flowered cymes; sepals 
rounded at the apex. In Mexico this species is known only from the 
Yucatan region. 

Ipomoea cathartica Poir. Pharbitis cathartica Choisy. 

Collected on Cozumel Island and in Pete"n. An herbaceous vine, 
pubescent or glabrate; leaves cordate, acuminate, entire or 3-lobed; 
corolla red-purple, 5-7 cm. long. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 391 

Ipomoea cissoides (Lam.) Griseb. 

Kixolok (Gaumer) . Frequent. A hirsute herbaceous vine ; leaves 
digitately 5-foliolate, the leaflets petiolulate, elliptic, dentate, 2-5 cm. 
long, acute or acuminate; corolla white, 2-3 cm. long. 

Ipomoea dasysperma Jacq. 

Frequent. A slender herbaceous glabrous vine; leaves pinnately 
divided into narrow entire segments; corolla pink, 3.5-4 cm. long; 
sepals rounded at the apex. 

Ipomoea Meyeri (Spreng.) Don. 

Tsusuc, Xhail. Frequent. A small herbaceous vine, glabrous or 
pilose; leaves deeply cordate, cuspidate-acuminate, entire or angled; 
corolla blue or purple, 2.5-3 cm. long; sepals green, linear, hirsute; 
flowers in dense, usually many-flowered cymes. Some of the Yuca- 
tan specimens have been determined as I. iostemma House. 

Ipomoea Morelii Duchass. & Walp. "Convolvulus Grayi Rose" 
ex Millsp. FMB. 1: 314. 1896. 

Yaaxkal (Gaumer). Without locality, Millspaugh 147, 137b; 
Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1101. A glabrous herbaceous vine; 
leaves broadly ovate, deeply cordate at the base, acute or acuminate, 
entire or nearly so; flower clusters long-stalked, the pedicels elongate; 
sepals glabrous, about 1 cm. long, rounded at the apex; corolla prob- 
ably purple, about 6 cm. long. 

Ipomoea Nil (L.) Roth. /. hederacea Millsp. FMB. 1: 384, in 
part, 1898, not Jacq. 

Common. A slender herbaceous pilose vine; leaves deeply cor- 
date, usually 3-lobed; flowers blue, pink, or purple, 3-4 cm. long, in 
long-stalked few-flowered cymes; sepals hirsute, with long linear 
green tips. 

Ipomoea Pes-caprae (L.) Roth. I. biloba Forsk. 

Common on seashores. Goatfoot morning-glory. A large glabrous 
succulent prostrate herb; leaves thick and fleshy, rounded, often 
notched at the apex; flowers purple, 4-5 cm. long. This is one of 
the characteristic strand plants of tropical America. Gaumer states 
that the stems are sometimes 18 m. long. 

Ipomoea sagittata Lam. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1271, 23694. A slender glabrous vine; 
leaves narrowly sagittate, the basal lobes long, often linear; flowers 
purple-pink, 6.5 cm. long; sepals unequal, rounded at the apex. 



392 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Ipomoea Seleri Millsp. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 23. 1905. 

Tuuxicin (Gaumer); reported erroneously as "chai." Common 
in thickets; endemic; type from Ticul, Seler 3862. An herbaceous 
vine, glabrous or nearly so; leaves long-petioled, broadly cordate, 
acuminate, entire; flowers about 8 cm. long, purple, in few-flowered 
pedunculate umbel-like cymes; calyx covered with long fleshy 
spinelike tubercles. 

Ipomoea tiliacea (Willd.) Choisy. /. fastigiata Sweet. 

Hebil (Gaumer). Common. A large herbaceous vine, glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves deeply cordate, acuminate, entire; corolla purple 
or pink, 5-6 cm. long; sepals acuminate; flowers in dense long- 
stalked cymes. 

Ipomoea triloba L. Quamoclit coccinea Millsp. FMB. 2: 84, in 
part. 1900, not Moench. 

Frequent. An herbaceous vine, glabrous or pubescent; leaves 
usually 3-5-lobed ; flowers red-purple. 

Ipomoea tuxtlensis House. /. hederacea Millsp. FMB. 1: 384, 
in part. 1898, not Jacq. 

Frequent. A densely pubescent vine; leaves cordate, entire or 
deeply 3-lobed, sericeous beneath; flowers in dense peduncled cymes; 
corolla dark purplish red, 3.5-5 cm. long. 

Ipomoea violacea L. /. puncticulata Benth. /. jamaicensis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 39. 1895, 1: 314. 1896, not Don. 

Common. A stout glabrous herbaceous vine; leaves broadly 
cordate, cuspidate-acuminate; flowers blue or purple, 5-6 cm. long, 
in few-flowered cymes; sepals narrow, pale-margined. 

Gann reports that a decoction of Ipomoea leaves, with those of 
other plants, is administered as a remedy for asthma and bronchitis. 
Ipomoea purga Hayne is called "nakta" in Kekchi. 

Jacquemontia azurea (Desr.) Choisy. 

Occasional. A small herbaceous vine, glandular-pilose; leaves 
ovate, long-acuminate, slender-petiolate; flowers in mostly 3-flowered 
cymes; corolla blue, 1 cm. long; sepals acuminate. 

Jacquemontia havanensis (Jacq.) Urban. Convolvulus jamai- 
censis Millsp. FMB. 1: 40. 1895, 2: 88. 1900, not Jacq. 

Progreso, Millspaugh 208, 1 726, Schott 722. A slender herbaceous 
vine, puberulent or glabrate; leaves short-petiolate, oblong or elliptic, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 393 

founded or emarginate at the apex; flowers mostly solitary; corolla 
1 cm. long, white; sepals rounded at the apex, unequal. The species 
is known only from Cuba and Yucatan. 

Jacquemontia obcordata (Millsp.) House, N. Y. State Mus. 
Bull. 233-234: 63. 1921. Convolvulus obcordatus Millsp. FMB. 2: 
88. 1900. 

Type from Progreso, Millspaugh 1707. A fleshy, nearly gla- 
brous, prostrate herb; leaves slender-petiolate, obcordate or obovate, 
small, 1-2 cm. long, acute at the base; flowers solitary, slender- 
pediceled, the corolla about 8 mm. long. 

Jacquemontia pentantha (Jacq.) Don. 

Akilziu (Gaumer; listed as "akixiu"), Sacmix (Valdez), Yaxha 
(Schott); reported also as "yaax-hebil" an( j "yaxhal." Sp. Som- 
brerito azul. Common. A small herbaceous vine, glabrate; leaves 
ovate or cordate, acute or acuminate; flowers in dense axillary 
stalked cymes; corolla blue, 12-20 mm. long; sepals acute or acu- 
minate. The plant is reputed to have refrigerant properties. 

Jacquemontia simulata House, Bull. Torrey Club 33: 314. 
1906. J. abutiloides Millsp. FMB. 1: 314. 1896, 1: 385. 1898, not 
Benth. 

Frequent; endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 574- A slender 
vine, somewhat woody, tomentose or glabrate; leaves broadly ovate- 
cordate, obtuse, mucronate; cymes dense, many-flowered; corolla 
white, 12 mm. long; sepals rounded at the apex. 

Jacquemontia tamnifolia (L.) Griseb. 

Yaazebil (Gaumer). Occasional. A small hairy vine; leaves 
ovate or cordate, acuminate; flowers in dense hairy heads, subtended 
by leaflike bracts; corolla blue, 12 mm. long. 

Operculina aegyptia (L.) House. Ipomoea pentaphylla Jacq. 

Tzootzak (Gaumer), Soosac (Schott). Sp. Enredadera peluda. 
Frequent. A large herbaceous vine, copiously long-hirsute; leaves 
digitately 5-foliolate, the leaflets elliptic or obovate, acuminate, 
entire; corolla white, 2.5 cm. long; peduncles equaling the leaves, 
few-flowered. 

Operculina ampliata (Choisy) House, Bull. Torrey Club 33: 
503. 1906. Ipomoea ampliata Choisy in DC. Prodr. 9: 361. 1845. 

Described from Campeche; unknown to the present writer. 
Stem glabrous; leaves cordate, 3-lobate, glabrous; corolla yellow. 



394 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Operculina dissecta (Jacq.) House. Ipomoea sinuata Ortega. 

Izamal, Gaumer 1093;Gaumer in 1888. A large herbaceous vine; 

leaves 5-lobed, the lobes deeply lobate; corolla 3.5-4 cm. long, white. 

Operculina ornithopoda (Robinson) House. Ipomoea orni- 
thopoda Robinson. 

Common in brushlands. A slender herbaceous glabrous vine; 
leaves deeply 5-lobed, the lobes entire or lobate, linear or broader; 
corolla white, 4-5 cm. long; sepals large, rounded at the apex. 

Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meisn. 

Occasional. A large glabrous vine; leaves mostly 7-lobed nearly 
to the base, the lobes acuminate, entire; corolla yellow, 4-5.5 cm. 
long; sepals large, obtuse, enlarged in fruit. 

Porana paniculata Roxb. 

Cultivated for ornament; native of the East Indies. Christmas- 
vine. A large woody vine, whitish-pubescent; leaves broadly ovate- 
cordate, acuminate; flowers 4 mm. long, white, in large panicles. 

Quamoclit coccinea (L.) Moench. Ipomoea coccinea L. 

Sp. Hiedra colorada. Common. A glabrous annual vine; leaves 
entire or lobed, cordate at the base; flowers scarlet, the slender 
corolla tube 2-4 cm. long, abruptly expanded into a broad limb. 

Quamoclit pennata (Desr.) Bojer. Ipomoea Quamoclit L. 

Sp. Cambustera. Cultivated for ornament; native of the Old 
World. Cypress-vine. A glabrous annual vine; leaves pinnately 
parted into linear segments; corolla scarlet, 2.5-4 cm. long. 

Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf. Ipomoea sidaefolia Choisy. 

Xtabentun (Schott). Frequent in thickets. A woody vine; 
leaves ovate-cordate, abruptly acuminate, entire, glabrous or pubes- 
cent; flowers in dense cymes; corolla white, 2-3 cm. long. Called 
"Pascua" and "flor de Pascua" in Tabasco. 

CUSCUTACEAE. Dodder Family 

Guscuta americana L. C. americana var. spectabilis Prog. ; C. 
corymbosa Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 24. 1905, not Ruiz 
&Pav. 

Kanlecay (Gaumer). Frequent. Dodder. A small parasitic 
twining glabrous yellow herb, the leaves reduced to minute scales; 
flowers 3-4 mm. long, white, in small lax cymes. Cuevas (PI. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 395 

Med. 110. 1913) states that the infusion of the plant is a remedy 
for dyspepsia and biliousness. 

Cuscuta ceratophora Yuncker. 

Hacienda San Antonio, Schott 902. A slender glabrous yellow 
parasite; flowers 3 mm. long, in very dense, compact clusters. 

POLEMONIACEAE. Polemonium Family 

Phlox Drummondii Hook. 

Sp. Flox. Listed by Gaumer as in cultivation; native of Texas. 
Phlox. The plant is often planted for ornament in tropical America. 

HYDROPHYLLACEAE. Waterleaf Family 

Hydrolea spinosa L. H. glabra Choisy; H. spinosa var. 
glabra Loes. 

Uxmal, Seler 3885. A viscid-pubescent herb of wet soil, armed 
with long slender spines; leaves alternate, elliptic or oblong, 3-10 
cm. long, entire; flowers blue, 1 cm. broad. Called "abrojo" in 
Tabasco. 

Nama jamaicense L. N. jamaicense var. gracile Brand in 
Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 251: 156. 1913. 

Xpacumpac (Gaumer). Common. A prostrate or procumbent, 
pubescent annual; leaves alternate, spatulate or obovate, 1-5 cm. 
long, rounded at the apex, entire; flowers solitary in the leaf axils, 
white or purplish, 6-8 mm. long, slender-pedicellate. According to 
Valdez, the plant is employed as a remedy for inflammation and 
blood vomit. 

N. jamaicense var. gracile is a form with long-petiolate, scarcely 
decurrent leaves and long pedicels. The type was collected on 
Cozumel Island by Gaumer. 

Pe"rez lists "xpakunpak," which he describes as "the creeping 
plant called 'yerba. de la golondrina.' ' This is probably a Euphorbia 
of the subgenus Chamaesyce. 

BORAGINACEAE. Borage Family 

Bourreria pulchra Millsp.; Greenm. FMB. 2: 338. 1912. Cordia 
pulchra Millsp. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 24. 1905. 

Bacalche (Gaumer), Kakalche (Gaumer). Common; endemic; 
type from Itzimna, Seler 3946. A shrub or tree, sometimes 9 m. 



396 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

high; leaves alternate, oblong to oval, obtuse, tomentulose beneath, 
entire; flowers white, 18 mm. long, in terminal cymes; fruit a drupe. 
The flowers have a heavy and unpleasant odor. 

This is probably the "bacalche" described by Cuevas (PI. Med. 
15, Ilustr. pi. 19, f. 3. 1913), although the illustration is rather 
deceptive. He states that the plant is employed as a remedy for 
cutaneous diseases. Here may belong, also, the "kakalche" listed 
by Pe"rez, "a plant whose wood resembles ebony." 

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham. C. gerascanthoides 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 40. 1895, not HBK. 

Bohun (B. H.). Sp. Laurel bianco (B. H.). Salmwood (B. H.). 
Mugeres Island; common in the southern part of the Peninsula. 
A large tree; leaves elliptic-oblong, 10-20 cm. long, entire, finely 
stellate-pubescent; flowers white, fragrant, 1 cm. long, in large 
panicles. The close-grained and light or dark brown wood is 
employed for construction purposes and cabinet work. The nodes 
of the branchlets are nearly always swollen and inhabited by small 
ants which bite severely. In Tabasco this species is called "bojon," 
"bojon bianco," "bojon prieto," and "bari." The Kekchi name is 
"suchah." The Maya name has been reported from Yucatan 
incorrectly as "habeem." 

Cordia cylindrostachya (Ruiz & Pav.) R. & S. 

Kopche (Gaumer); Koxolxek (Becquaert). Frequent. A shrub 
1-3 m. high; leaves mostly lanceolate or oblong, serrate, scabrous 
above, pubescent beneath; flowers small, greenish white, in dense 
spikes; fruit a small red drupe. Called "azota-caballo" in Tabasco. 

Cordia dodecandra DC. C. heccaidecandra Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 
20: 25. 1905. 

Chackopte (Gaumer), Kopte (listed also as "copte," and by the 
Motul Dictionary as "koopte"). Sp. Siricote (Yuc., B. H.). Common 
in the forests; sometimes planted as a shade and fruit tree. A large 
tree, sometimes 30 m. high; leaves oblong to rounded, entire or 
nearly so, scabrous; flowers orange-red, 5 cm. long, in small cymes; 
fruit ovoid, 5 cm. long, yellowish, slightly acid. The tree flowers in 
April and May, the fruit ripening in July and August. The hard 
heavy handsome dark wood, which takes a fine polish, is used for 
general construction and cabinetwork. The rough leaves are utilized 
for cleaning kitchen pots, and by carpenters as a substitute for sand- 
paper. The mucilaginous fruit is eaten raw, and made into dulces. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 397 

9ff 

A sirup made from the wood and bark is a popular remedy for 
coughs. The type of C. heccaidecandra was collected at Chiche'n 
Itza, Seler3991. 

Cordia Gerascanthus L. C. gerascanthoides HBK. 

Bohom (Gaumer; sometimes written "bojon"), Bohonche (B. H.). 
Sp. Baria, Barillo, Varillo. Common. A large tree 15-25 m. high; 
leaves lanceolate to oblong, 5-12 cm. long, acute, entire, glabrous or 
nearly so; flowers pure white, fragrant, 1.5-2 cm. long, in dense 
cymes. The flowers open in March, covering the trees so densely 
that their crowns look like mounds of snow. As they fade, the 
flowers turn reddish brown. They are much visited by humming- 
birds, and by many insects, especially bees, which obtain from them 
a good quality of honey. The hard and elastic wood is valued for 
the construction of carts and carriages and many other articles. The 
Maya name has been reported erroneously as "habeem." 

Cordia globosa (Jacq.) HBK. 

Hauche (Gaumer). Occasional in dry thickets. A shrub 3.5 m. 
high or less; leaves lanceolate to ovate, coarsely serrate; flowers 
white, in dense stalked globose heads; fruit red. 

Cordia Sebestena L. 

Zackopte (Gaumer) ; reported also as "kopte" and "coopte," but 
perhaps incorrectly. Sp. Anachuite, Anacuite, Anacahuita (of Nahuatl 
derivation), Siricote (Camp.), Siricote bianco (Schott). Common. 
A shrub or small tree; leaves ovate to rounded, entire or dentate, 
scabrous; flowers large, orange-red, in dense cymes; fruit ovoid, 
white, 2.5-4 cm. long. The tree is reported to flower through most 
of the year. Its fruit is sweet and edible. The hard, close-grained, 
dark-brown, and heavy wood is used for cabinetwork and con- 
struction. A sirup prepared from the bark, flowers, and fruit is a 
local remedy for affections of the chest. 

Cordia serratifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 76. 1819. 

Type from Campeche, the species otherwise unknown. Leaves 
oblong, acuminate, serrate, scabrous above, pubescent beneath; 
flowers in small globose heads. 

Ehretia tinifolia L. 

Bee (Gaumer; written also as "beec"). Sp. Roble; reported as 
"sauco." Common. A tree 18-25 m. high, glabrous or nearly so; 
leaves oblong to ovate, rounded to acutish at the apex, entire; flow- 



398 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

ers white, 4 mm. long, in panicles; fruit a red drupe 6 mm. long. 
The leaves are used in baths for crippled persons in the hope of 
bettering their condition. The flowers somewhat suggest those of 
Sambueus, and are employed locally in the same manner. A decoc- 
tion of the leaves is given to stop the vomit of blood. 

Heliotropium angiospermum Murr. H. parviflorum L. ; Helio- 
phytum parmflorum DC. 

Nemaax (Gaumer; "monkey- tail"), Cotsnemax (Cuevas). Sp. 
Rabo de mico. A common weed. An erect pubescent herb 1 m. high 
or less; leaves lanceolate to ovate, obtuse or acute; flowers white, in 
long recurved spikes. The plant is much used in domestic medicine, 
tonic and stimulant properties being ascribed to it. It is given as a 
remedy for dysentery, nosebleed, and diseased gums, and is applied 
to sores and swellings. 

Seler 3853 is a curious abnormal form of this species, in which the 
flowers are replaced by foliaceous bracts. 

Heliotropium curassavicum L. 

Common on the shores of lagoons and lakes. A procumbent, 
pale green, very fleshy, glabrous herb; leaves linear or nearly so, 
obtuse; flowers small, white, in one-sided spikes. 

Heliotropium fruticosum L. H. inundatum Millsp. FMB. 1. 
41. 1895, 1: 386. 1898, not Sw. H. campechianum HBK. Nov. Gen. 
&Sp. 3:86. 1818. 

Nemaax (Gaumer). Common. Plants erect, usually 60 cm. 
high or less, herbaceous or usually woody, gray-strigose; leaves 
linear to oblong-lanceolate; flowers small, white, in one-sided 
spikes. The type of H. campechianum is from Campeche. 

Heliotropium indicum L. 

Nemaax (Gaumer). Sp. Alacrancillo. A common weed. A 
coarse erect hirsute herb; leaves ovate or oval, obtuse, repand or 
crenate; flowers small, blue, in recurved spikes. The name "ohesi- 
mah" is reported from Guatemala for this species. 

Heliotropium phyllostachyum Torr. 

Occasional. A small strigose herb; leaves oblong or lanceolate, 
obtuse or acute; flowers white, in the axils of leaflike bracts. 

Myosotis scorpioides L. 

Sp. No-me-olvides. Reported by Gaumer as in cultivation; 
native of Europe. Forget-me-not. A low herb with small blue 
flowers. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 399 

Tournefortia gnaphalodes (L.) R. Br. 

Sicimay (Gaumer). Common on seashores. A shrub 1 m. high 
or less, densely silvery-sericeous; leaves linear or linear-spatulate, 
obtuse or rounded at the apex; flowers small, white, in short one- 
sided spikes; fruit ovoid, black, 5 mm. long. In Mexico the species 
is known only from this region. 

Tournefortia umbellata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 79. pi. 202. 
1819. Heliotropium inundatum Millsp. FMB. 1 : 315. 1896, not Sw. 

Common; endemic; type from Campeche. A woody vine, nearly 
glabrous; leaves lanceolate to ovate-oblong, acuminate; flowers small, 
whitish, in long clustered one-sided spikes; fruit a small drupe. 

Tournefortia volubilis L. 

Xulkin (Gaumer), Chacnichmax (Gaumer). Common in thickets. 
A woody vine; leaves lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 4-10 cm. long, 
acuminate, usually densely grayish-sericeous, at least beneath, rarely 
glabrate; flowers small, whitish, in slender panicled spikes; fruit a 
small white drupe. 

VERBENACEAE. Verbena Family 

Avicennia nitida Jacq. A. officinalis Millsp. FMB. 1: 42. 
1895, 1: 316. 1896, 1: 386. 1898, not L. 

Sp. Mangle bianco, Mangle prieto, Mangle negro. Black mangrove 
(B. H.). Abundant in mangrove swamps. A shrub or tree, usually 
less than 20 m. high; leaves opposite, petioled, oblong, obtuse, entire, 
thick, whitish and puberulent beneath; flowers white, in small head- 
like cymes. The wood is hard, close-grained, and dark brown. The 
flowers are much visited by bees. A decoction of the bark is em- 
ployed both externally and internally for hemorrhoids, sores, and 
diarrhea. 

Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze. Valerianoides jamaicense 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 392. 1898, not Vahl. 

Occasional. An erect annual, simple or branched, finely pubes- 
cent; leaves opposite, slender-petioled, ovate, obtuse or acute, ser- 
rate; flowers small, purplish, in long slender spikes. 

Callicarpa acuminata HBK. 

Zacpukim (Gaumer); Pukin (Becquaert). Common in thickets. 
A stout shrub; leaves short-petiolate, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, entire or serrate, densely stellate- tomentose beneath; 



400 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

flowers white, 3 mm. long, in dense axillary cymes; fruit a small 
black drupe 5 mm. long. Some of the Yucatan specimens have 
been determined wrongly as C. Pringlei Briq. 

Citharexylum Schottii Greenm. FMB. 2: 190. 1907. C. quad- 
rangulare Millsp. FMB. 1: 386. 1898, not Jacq. 

Tatakche (Gaumer), Iximche (Gaumer). Sp. Palo de violin. Fre- 
quent; endemic; type from MeYida, Schott 575. A small glabrous 
tree; leaves slender-petioled, lanceolate, acuminate, entire; flowers 
small, in long slender racemes; fruit a drupe 5-7 mm. long. 

The "ixtatakche" listed by Pe*rez is probably a different plant. 
It is described as a "yerba," and is said to be applied to old sores 
to heal them. 

Citharexylum trinerve Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 34: 
45. 1921. 

Type from Xnocac, Gaumer 23502; without locality, Gaumer 
23503, 24096, 24388, 24431; also in Salvador and Costa Rica. A 
small tree, nearly glabrous; leaves petioled, broadly elliptic or obo- 
vate, obtuse or rounded at the apex, entire, 3-nerved; racemes short 
and few-flowered. 

Clerodendron fallax Lindl. C. Colebrookianum Millsp. FMB. 
1:386. 1898, not Walp. 

Planted for ornament; native of the East Indies. A large herb 
or small shrub; leaves large, long-petioled, cordate-ovate, pilose; 
flowers scarlet, in large terminal panicles. 

Clerodendron fragrans Vent. var. pleniflora Schauer. 

Sp. Jazmin de Italia. Planted for ornament; native of south- 
eastern Asia. A coarse herb, simple or sparsely branched; leaves 
large, rounded-ovate, sinuate-dentate; flowers white, double, in 
small dense terminal cymes. A common ornamental plant of tropi- 
cal America, often escaping and establishing itself. 

Clerodendron ligustrinum (Jacq.) R. Br. C. aculeatum Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 316. 1896, 1: 386. 1898, not Schlecht. 

Itzimte (Gaumer). Frequent in thickets. A shrub 1.5-3 m. 
high; petiole bases persistent, spinose; leaves ovate to elliptic- 
oblong, acute, entire, 4-10 cm. long; flowers white, in small axillary 
cymes; fruit a drupe 1 cm. in diameter. Called "muste" in Tabasco. 

Cornutia pyramidata L. 

Latche (Pete"n). Collected only at Izamal and in Pete"n. A large 
shrub or small tree with 4-angled branches; leaves broadly ovate, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 401 

f 9-30 cm. long, acuminate, densely pubescent; flowers small, violet, 
in large terminal panicles; fruit a small drupe. 

Duranta repens L. D. Plumieri Jacq. 

Kanppocoche (Gaumer; "yellow hat tree"), Hombocoche (Schott). 
Common in dry thickets; sometimes planted for ornament. A 
slender shrub with recurved or pendent branches; leaves opposite or 
verticillate, ovate or obovate, 2-5 cm. long, obtuse, entire or serrate, 
glabrous or pubescent; flowers small, lilac or white, in long racemes; 
fruit a globose yellow drupe 7-11 mm. long. The Maya name has 
been reported incorrectly as "xcambocoche." The fruits are eaten 
by birds. 

Lantana Camara L. L. horrida HBK.; L. involucrata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 316. 1896, not L. L. aculeata Millsp. FMB. 2: 90. 1900, in 
part, perhaps not L. 

Petekin (Gaumer), Ikilhaxiu (Gaumer). Sp. Palabra de caballero, 
Corona de sol, Alfombrillo hediondo. Common. Lantana. A pubes- 
cent shrub, usually armed with short stout recurved prickles; 
leaves petioled, ovate, acute or obtuse, crenate, scabrous; flowers in 
dense stalked heads, yellow or orange, changing to red or purple; 
fruit a small black drupe. The plant is a somewhat variable one, 
some of whose forms are grown for ornament in temperate regions. 
The juicy fruit is edible, but not very agreeable. The plant is 
aromatic and is reputed to have stimulant and tonic properties, and 
is employed for treating intestinal and throat affections. The names 
"xoltexnuc," "xohexnuc," and "ore*gano silvestre," reported for the 
species from Yucatan, are said to be erronous. 

Lantana canescens HBK. Lippia geminata Millsp. FMB. 1: 
317. 1896, 2: 91. 1900, not HBK. 

Common. A slender unarmed shrub; leaves lanceolate to broadly 
ovate, acute, crenate or nearly entire, rough-pubescent; flowers 
white, in stalked, globose or oblong heads. The plant contains an 
aromatic oil which is reported to have medicinal properties. 

Lantana involucrata L. L. odorata L. 

Zicilhaxiu (Gaumer). Common. A dense shrub 1-3 m. high; 
leaves ovate to oblong, obtuse or rounded at the apex, crenate, 
puberulent or tomentose beneath; flowers lilac or white, in stalked 
headlike spikes; fruit blue, 3-4 mm. long. 



402 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Lippia dulcis Trevir. 

Xtuhuexiu (Gaumer). Sp. Orozuz, Orozuz del pais. Common. 
A small perennial herb, strong-scented; leaves petioled, rhombic- 
ovate, crenate, acute or obtuse, strigose; flowers small, whitish, in 
long-stalked short-cylindric heads. When chewed, the plant has 
the flavor of licorice. Its decoction is employed as a remedy for 
coughs, catarrh, bronchitis, and asthma. 

Lippia graveolens HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 266. 1817. L. 
Berlandieri Millsp. FMB. 1: 316. 1896, not Schauer. L. geminata 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 91. 1900; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 25. 
1905, not HBK. 

Xakilche (Gaumer). Sp. Oregano, Te del pais. Frequent; type 
from Campeche. A small aromatic shrub; leaves oblong or ovate- 
oblong, obtuse or acute, crenate, puberulent and glandular; flower 
spikes small, 4-6 at each node, the bracts 4-ranked. The names 
"tabay" and "tarbay" have been reported for this species, but their 
application is doubtful. The plant is used in domestic medicine as 
a stimulant, tonic, and expectorant, especially in the treatment of 
cholera morbus, fevers, bronchitis, and catarrh. It is employed also 
for flavoring food. 

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. 

Common along seacoasts and about lakes. A creeping perennial 
herb, minutely pubescent; leaves spatulate or narrowly oblanceolate, 
obtuse, serrate; flowers white or purplish, in long-stalked axillary 
cylindric heads. 

Lippia reptans HBK. L. nodiflora Millsp. FMB. 1: 317. 1896, 
not Michx. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23670. Similar to L. nodiflora; leaves 
rhombic-ovate, obtuse, decurrent at the base, coarsely serrate, prom- 
inently veined, strigose; flowers white, in oblong long-stalked spikes. 

Lippia stoechadifolia (L.) HBK. 

Cabalyaxnic (Valdez). Sp. Te de Yucatan, Te del pais, Te cimarrdn 
(Pete"n). Frequent. Plants somewhat woody, ascending or nearly 
erect, strigose; leaves linear-oblong, serrate; flower heads oblong, 
long-stalked. Although the name "cabalyaxnic" is reported for 
this plant by Valdez, it is applied more commonly, apparently, to 
Ruellia tuberosa. 

Lippia umbellata Cav. ?L. yucatana Loes. Repert. Sp. Nov. 9: 
364. 1911. L. albicaulis Greenm. FMB. 2: 340. 1912. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 403 

ttt 

Xoltenuuc (Gaumer). Sp. Salvia poblana. Occasional. A shrub 
1.5-3 m. high with whitish branches; leaves ovate or oval-ovate, 
6-20 cm. long, acute or obtuse, crenate, pubescent; flowers small, 
yellowish white, in long-stalked bracted heads. I have not seen the 
type of L. yucatana, collected at Chichen Itza by Seler (No. 4918), 
and it may be referable rather to L. myriocephala Schlecht. & Cham. 
The type of L. albicaulis was collected at Izamal, Gaumer 971 . 

The identity of the plant collected by Johnson and listed as 
Lippia origanoides HBK. (Millsp. FMB. 1: 42. 1895) is doubtful. 

Petrea arborea HBK. P. volubilis Millsp. FMB. 1: 42. 1895; 
Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 26. 1905, not L. 

Yochopptzimin (Gaumer), Opptzimin (Seler). Sp.Bejucodecaballo. 
Frequent in dry thickets. Purple-wreath. A large woody vine; 
leaves short-petioled, oblong or obovate, obtuse or acute, entire, 
stiff, scaberulous; flowers in long pendent racemes; calyx lobes blue, 
2 cm. long, long-persistent. The vine is a strikingly beautiful one 
when in flower. 

Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. P. echinata Juss. 

Tzayentzay (Gaumer), Zayuntzay (Cuevas), Tsayuntsay (Schott). 
A common weed. A low pubescent annual; leaves ovate, acute, 
serrate; flowers small, blue, in slender racemes; fruit of 2 prickly 
nutlets. The calyces are covered with small hooked hairs by which 
they adhere to clothing. The name "xpakunpak" has been reported 
for this plant, but perhaps incorrectly. Cuevas states that a decoc- 
tion of the leaves is a remedy for leucorrhea. 

Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill.) Vahl. Valerianoides ja- 
maicense Millsp. FMB. 1: 317. 1896, in part, not Kuntze. 

Yaxcaba, Gaumer 744; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1477, 2269; Tekax, 
Gaumer 1226. A stout, erect, simple or branched herb; leaves 
linear, serrate, glabrate; spikes elongate, thick. The plant grows 
also in Cuba. 

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L. Rich.) Vahl. 

Sp. San Diego (Pete*n), Verbena (Pet6n). Pete"n, and perhaps 
elsewhere. Plants herbaceous or shrubby, 1 m. high or less; leaves 
ovate or elliptic, obtuse, serrate, pubescent or glabrate; flowers 
small, blue, in very slender spikes. 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. Valerianoides jamai- 
cense Medic.; S. cayennensis Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 25. 



404 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

1905, not Vahl. Verbena officinalis Cuevas, PL Med. 104, Ilustr. pi. 
13, f. 2. 1913, not L. 

Ibinxiu (Gaumer), Talche (Schott). Sp. Verbena. A common 
weed. A stout erect herb, glabrous or nearly so; leaves petioled, 
oblong to broadly ovate, obtuse or acute, serrate, glabrate; flowers 
blue, in stout spikes. The juice of the leaves is placed in the ears 
to relieve earache. The plant is reputed to have tonic, emetic, 
expectorant, and sudorific properties, and has been utilized locally 
in treating malaria, yellow fever, amenorrhea, syphilis, and gonor- 
rhea. A tincture of the plant in rum is employed as a lotion to 
relieve nervous pains. The Kekchi name of this species is "mes." 

Stachytarpheta mutabilis (Jacq.) Vahl. Valerianoides muta- 
bile Kuntze. 

Occasional. A stout erect herb, copiously pubescent; leaves 
ovate, rounded to acuminate at the apex; flowers purple, in long 
slender spikes. 

Tamonea curassavica (L.) Pers. T. scabra Schlecht. & Cham.; 
Ghinia curassavica Millsp. 

Chanxnuk (Becquaert). Occasional. A stiff erect herb, 60 cm. 
high or less, nearly glabrous; leaves petioled, ovate, 1^1 cm. long, 
obtuse or acute, serrate; flowers small, in long racemes; fruit dry, 
nutlike, with 4 stout spines at the apex. 

One or more exotic species of Verbena, called "verbena" and 
"alfombrillo," are grown for ornament. 

Vitex Gaumeri Greenm. FMB. 2: 260. 1907. V. pyramidata 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 317. 1896, not Robinson. 

Yaxnic (Gaumer; Yuc., B. H.; "blue flower"). Frequent in dry 
forests; type from Izamal, Gaumer 607. A tree 15 m. high or less; 
leaves pedately 5-7-foliolate, the leaflets stalked, ovate to oblong, 
5-11 cm. long, acute or obtuse, entire, pale-tomentulose beneath; 
flowers small, purple, panicled; fruit fleshy, 1.5 cm. in diameter. 
The tough wood is used for the construction of carts, boats, and 
agricultural implements. 

LABIATAE. Mint Family 

Hyptis capitata Jacq. 

Reported from Yucatan, and probably occurring in the southern 
part of the Peninsula. A coarse herb, sparsely pubescent; leaves 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 405 

ovate or elliptic, serrate; flowers white, in dense globose axillary 
heads. 

Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. Mesosphaerum pectinatum Kuntze. 

Xoltexnuc. Common. A tall puberulent herb; leaves ovate, 
long-petioled, obtuse or acute, serrate; flowers small, whitish, in 
small dense headlike cymes, these arranged in long panicled spikes. 

This is perhaps the "xoltexnuc" described by Cuevas (PL Med. 
113, Ilustr. pi. 15, f. 3. 1913). He states that the decoction is used 
in fomentations for rheumatic and other pains. 

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. 

Xoltexnuuc (Gaumer). Sp. Confitura. Common. A coarse 
pilose herb; leaves ovate, acute or obtuse, serrate, long-petioled; 
flowers bluish, in axillary clusters or in terminal leafy panicles. 

Leonotis nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br. 

Occasional in Campeche and Yucatan; native of the Old World. 
A coarse tall annual, soft-pubescent; leaves ovate, long-petioled, 
obtuse, crenate; flowers 2-2.5 cm. long, scarlet or orange-yellow, in 
dense globose axillary clusters; calyx lobes with stiff sharp spinose 
tips. 

Leonurus sibiricus L. L. glaucescens Millsp. FMB. 1: 387. 
1898, not Bunge. 

An infrequent weed; native of the Old World. A coarse herb 
with 4-sided stems, puberulent or glabrate; leaves 3-parted, the lobes 
incised; flowers purple, 1 cm. long, in dense axillary clusters, the 
corolla densely pilose. 

Mentha citrata Ehrh. Ocimum Selloi Millsp. FMB. 1: 318. 
1896, not Benth. Cedronella mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 387. 1898, 
not Benth. 

Xakilxiu (Gaumer). Sp. Yerbabuena, Toronjil. Sometimes 
planted; native of Europe. A highly aromatic herb with ovate, 
obtuse or acute, serrate, glabrate leaves. In Central America the 
plant is rarely seen in flower. An infusion of the leaves is employed 
in Yucatan to expel intestinal parasites, and for pains in the 
stomach. 

Micromeria Brownei (Sw.) Benth. Clinopodium Brownei 
Kuntze; Satureia Brownei Briq. 

Sp. Poleo. Frequent. A slender, prostrate or creeping herb, 
glabrous or nearly so, strong-scented; leaves long-petiolate, rounded- 



406 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

ovate, obtuse, remotely crenate; flowers small, axillary, the calyx 
tubular. The plant is employed as a remedy for stomach affections. 

Ocimum Basilicum L. 

Sp. Albahaca. Cultivated and perhaps escaped. Basil. An erect 
aromatic herb, sparsely pubescent; leaves ovate to oblong, slender- 
petiolate, dentate or entire; flowers small, white, nearly sessile, in 
axillary clusters. The plant is employed as a sudorific in treating 
fevers. 

Ocimum micranthum Willd. 0. campechianum Mill. Card. 
Diet. ed. 8. Ocimum No. 5. 1768. Teucrium inflatum Millsp. FMB. 
1: 43. 1895, not Sw. 0. canum Millsp. FMB. 1: 318. 1896, not Sims. 

Cacaltun (Gaumer). Sp. Albahaca, Albahaca de claw, Albahaca 
del monte, Albahaca silvestre. A common weed. An annual branched 
pubescent herb 50 cm. high or less, aromatic; leaves ovate, acute, 
serrate; flowers small, whitish, pedicellate, in axillary clusters; calyces 
reflexed in fruit. The plant is a local remedy for stomach affections. 
A tincture of the leaves in rum is employed as a lotion to relieve 
rheumatism. The vernacular name "apazote" has been reported 
incorrectly for the plant. 

Rosmarinus officinalis L. 

Sp. Romero. Planted occasionally; native of Europe. Rose- 
mary. An aromatic shrub; leaves linear, entire, white- tomentose 
beneath; flowers blue or white, in axillary racemes. 

Salvia coccinea Juss. S. coccinea var. pseudococcinea Gray. 

Chactzitz (Gaumer); reported as "tsabtsits" and "tsci-xiu." A 
common weed. An erect hirsute herb; leaves ovate or deltoid, 
petiolate, obtuse, crenate; flowers 2.5 cm. long, bright red, racemose. 

Salvia Fernaldii Standl. FMB. 8: 41. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 1634; a frequent 
weed. A low herb, the leaves slender-petioled, deltoid or ovate- 
deltoid, 1-2 cm. long, crenate, glabrate; flowers in elongate racemes; 
calyx puberulent or scabrous, without gland-tipped hairs; corolla 
about 8 mm. long. The specimens have been referred heretofore to 
S. micrantha Vahl and S. serotina Sw. 

Salvia micrantha Vahl. S. occidentalis Millsp. FMB. 1: 43. 
1895, in part, not Sw. S. serotina Millsp. FMB. 1: 43. 1895, 2: 94. 
1900, not L. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 407 

t/f 

Sp. Te de Cozumel, Verbena (Valdez). Common. A finely pubes- 
cent, erect herb, much branched; leaves broadly ovate, 1-4 cm. long, 
obtuse, serrate, slender-petiolate; flowers 6-10 mm. long, white or 
blue, in short or elongate racemes; calyx glandular-pubescent. The 
plant is used in domestic medicine. Valdez reports that it is em- 
ployed as a remedy for earache. The name "kaknep" or "kaknipp" 
is said to be given to it and related species in some parts of Yucatan, 
this being a corruption of the English "catnip" (Nepeta cataria L.). 

Salvia obscura Benth. S. occidentalis Millsp. FMB. 1: 43. 1895, 
in part, not Sw. 

Sp. Hierbabuena montes. A frequent weed. An erect pubescent 
herb, much branched; leaves ovate, serrate; corolla 3-5 mm. long; 
calyx glandular-pilose, the lobes subulate-mucronate. 

Salvia occidentalis Sw. 

A frequent weed. A procumbent, pubescent and viscid herb; 
leaves ovate or broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, serrate; flowers blue, 
5 mm. long, in elongate racemes; calyx densely glandular-pubescent, 
the lobes obtuse. 

Scutellaria Gaumeri Leonard, CNH. 22: 742. 1927. 

Endemic; type from Pocoboch,Gcmraer 2392. A pubescent peren- 
nial herb; leaves broadly ovate, petiolate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, obtuse, 
crenate; flowers blue, 8 mm. long, in axillary racemes. 

Sp. Agrimonia silvestre (Valdez), Claudiosa de monte, Claudiosa 
amarga. Occasional. An erect branched herb, nearly glabrous; 
leaves coarsely crenate or the upper deeply lobed; flowers axillary, 
fasciculate, pedicellate. Employed as a remedy for pains in the 
back, and as a tonic. 

This is perhaps the plant listed by Cuevas (PI. Med. 99, Ilustr. 
pi. 12, /. 3. 1913) as Melissa officinalis. 

A plant listed by Mercer with the name "sitz," and said to be 
used for flavoring posole, may well be a member of this family. 

SOLANACEAE. Potato Family 

Capsicum annuutn L. 

Ic. Sp. Chile, Aji. Extensively cultivated. Pepper. An Ameri- 
can plant, but scarcely known in the wild state. Chile is much used 
in Yucatan, as well as in other parts of Mexico, for flavoring food, 
and it was employed also by the early inhabitants. Many varieties 



408 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

are grown, differing in the size and flavor of the fruit. The following 
are named by various writers: "xubala," a large, very hot form 
(Motul Diet.) ; "bolol," "chile grande" (Motul Diet.) ; "a'h'maxic," a 
small, very hot variety, possibly C. baccatum; "yaaxic," "chile verde" ; 
"chacic," "chile Colorado"; "chuhucic," "chile dulce"; also "chile 
mulato," "chile ancho," and "chile morado." "Icil" is a sauce 
made of chile. The root is reputed poisonous. An infusion of the 
leaves is used in fomentations to heal skin eruptions on young 
children, and the fruit is applied as a poultice to produce rube- 
faction or blistering. 

Capsicum frutescens L. C. baccatum L.; C. chlorocladum Loes. 
Repert. Sp. Nov. 18: 355. 1922, perhaps not Dunal. 

Maaxic (Gaumer), Max (Seler). Sp. Chile del monte, Chilillo. 
Common. A small shrub; leaves ovate, acute, entire; fruit globose 
or ellipsoid, 5-10 mm. long. This is a wild plant with very acrid 
fruits. 

Cestrum diurnum L. 

Sp. Juan de noche, Dama de noche. Frequent. A shrub, glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves short-petioled, oblong, acute or obtuse, entire; 
flowers white, 8-12 mm. long, in short-stalked axillary cymes; fruit 
a black berry 6 mm. long. 

Cestrum nocturnum L. 

Akabyom (Yuc., Pete"n). Sp. Galan de noche. Frequent. A shrub 
1-4 m. high, glabrous or nearly so; leaves short-petioled, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate; flowers greenish white, 2-2.5 cm. long, in 
axillary cymes; fruit white, 8-10 mm. long. The flowers are very 
fragrant at night. 

Datura innoxia Mill. D. Stramonium Millsp. FMB. 1: 44. 
1895, in part, not L. D. Metel Millsp. FMB. 1: 318. 1896, not L. 

Xtohku (Gaumer). Sp. Chamico. Izamal and Chichankanab, 
cultivated and perhaps wild; native of tropical America. A large 
coarse herb, finely grayish-pubescent; leaves petioled, broadly ovate, 
acute, coarsely sinuate-dentate; flowers axillary, white, fragrant, 
15-18 cm. long; capsule spiny, pubescent. This plant, like others 
of the genus, has narcotic properties, and it is used in local medicine. 

Datura Stramonium L. D. Tatula L. 

Tohku (Gaumer), Mehenxtohku (Gaumer). Sp. Chamico. An 
occasional weed about settlements. Jimson-weed. A coarse ill- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 409 

scented herb, glabrous or nearly so; leaves ovate, sinuate-lobate; 
flowers white or violet, 10 cm. long; capsule spiny, glabrous. The 
seeds contain a narcotic poison. Their tincture or the crushed 
leaves are applied externally for rheumatism, neuralgia, and headache. 
The tincture is sometimes administered internally, but its use is 
dangerous. For this species the names "lap" and "machul" are 
reported from Guatemala. 

Datura suaveolens Humb. & Bonpl. 

Sometimes cultivated for ornament; native of tropical America. 
A large shrub; leaves mostly entire, villosulous or glabrate; flowers 
white, pendent, 25-30 cm. long, sweet-scented, opening in the 
evening. 

The closely related D. Candida (Pers.) Pasq. is called "koxas" in 
Quiche", and "kereba-punt" in Kekchi. 

Lycianthes sideroxyloides (Schlecht.) Bitter. Solanum sidero- 
xyloides Schlecht. 

Without locality, Gaumer 24212. A woody vine, stellate-pubes- 
cent; leaves ovate or elliptic, obtuse or acute, entire; flowers small, 
white, fascicled in the leaf axils; calyx with 10 short narrow teeth; 
fruit a berry. 

Lycium carolinianum Walt. 

Frequent on sea and lake shores. A glabrous spiny shrub with 
trailing or recurved branches; leaves narrowly spatulate, 3 cm. long 
or less, fleshy; flowers purplish, fasciculate, 12 mm. broad; fruit a 
small red berry. 

Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Solanum Humboldtii Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 44. 1895, perhaps not Willd. Solanum Lycopersicum L. 

Ppac (Gaumer; written also "pac" and "paak"), Tsulubppac 
(Gaumer; small-fruited wild form; name recorded erroneously as 
"zunumbak"). Sp. Tomate, Jitomate (wild form). Cultivated com- 
monly, also wild. Tomato. The tomato is one of the common 
vegetables of tropical America, and is native in the region. The 
wild plants have small fruits as large as cherries. Cuevas reports 
that the ripe fruits are applied to burns to relieve the pain. In 
the various Guatemalan dialects the following names are applied to 
the tomato: "pix," Quiche"; "pixb," "pixp," Quiche", Pokonchi; 
"ixpix," Chuje, Jacalteca; "xcoya," Mame; "pai'c," Ixil; "ch'ut," 
Ixil, the wild form. 



410 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Nicotiana rustica L. 

Noholcikutz (Gaumer). Me*rida, Schott 486. A viscid-tomentose 
annual; leaves petioled, ovate to oblong, cordate to rounded at the 
base, obtuse or rounded at the apex; flowers small, about 2.5 cm. 
long, yellowish or greenish, the narrow corolla with very short 
lobes. There is some uncertainty regarding the determination of 
the specimen, which has been referred to N. glutinosa L. Schott's 
label gives no indication as to whether the plant was found wild 
or in cultivation. 

Nicotiana Tabacum L. N. pilosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 388. 1898, 
not Dunal. 

Kutz (Gaumer; written also "kuutz" and "cuutz"). Sp. Tabaco. 
Cultivated commonly, and occasionally found as an escape; native of 
tropical America. Tobacco. Tobacco of good quality is grown for 
local consumption, and the manufacture of cigars for export has been 
an industry of some importance in Yucatan. Tobacco has been used 
for many centuries by the Mayas. The chewed leaves are applied 
to insect bites, and their tincture is employed as a lotion to remove 
garrapatas (ticks). The powdered leaves are applied to sores upon 
animals to destroy insect larvae. In the Pokonchi dialect tobacco 
is called "si'c"; in Aguacateca "si'ch"; in Mame and Chuje "sii'c." 

Gaumer gives the name of N. pilosa as "kutzikax" and "tabaco 
cimarron." 

One or more species of Petunia probably are grown for ornament 
in Yucatan. 

Physalis Lagascae R. & S. 

Pacunilek (Gaumer). Frequent. An erect branched annual, 
sparsely pubescent; leaves long-petioled, broaqUy ovate, entire or 
nearly so, acuminate; flowers axillary; corolla greenish yellow; fruit 
a globose berry, enclosed in an inflated bladdery calyx 16-18 mm. 
long. 

Physalis mayana Standl. FMB. 8: 42. 1930. 

Endemic; type, Gaumer 21*381 ; Chichankanab, Gaumer 1504; San 
Felipe, Gaumer 1421; without locality, Gaumer 1000. Plants suf- 
frutescent, the branches densely stellate- tomentose; leaves broadly 
ovate or rhombic-ovate, 6-15 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate, 
narrowed at the base and long-decurrent; fruiting calyx broadly 
ovoid, 3 cm. long, finely pubescent with chiefly branched hairs. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 411 

Physalis nicandroides Schlecht. P. barbadensis var. obscura 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 318. 1896, not Rydb. 

Frequent in moist soil. A coarse branched viscid-pubescent 
annual; leaves large, broadly ovate, coarsely sinuate-dentate; calyx 
in fruit 3-5 cm. long. 

Physalis pubescens L. P. foetens Millsp. FMB. 1: 388. 1898, 
not Poir. 

Paccanil (Gaumer), Pacnul (Gaumer); reported also as "pac- 
canul." Sp. Farolito. A common weed. A viscid-pubescent 
annual; leaves broadly ovate, repand-dentate or nearly entire; 
corolla yellow, with a brown-purple center; fruiting calyx 2.5-3 cm. 
long. The juice of the leaves is placed in the ears to relieve earache. 

Physalis viscosa L. P. mollis var. cinerascens Millsp. FMB. 1: 
318. 1896, not Gray. 

Pahabcan (Gaumer), Pacnul. Occasional in moist soil. Ground- 
cherry. A perennial, stellate-pubescent; leaves obtuse, entire or un- 
dulate; corolla greenish yellow, with dark center; fruiting calyx 2-3 
cm. long. 

Schwenkia americana L. 

Xayulolxiu (Gaumer). Frequent. A slender, erect, simple or 
branched annual, pubescent; leaves alternate, petioled, lanceolate to 
ovate, entire, usually acute; flowers small, purplish green, in panicled 
racemes; fruit a small capsule. 

Solatium amazonium Ker. S. fuscatum Millsp. FMB. 1: 388. 
1898, not L. 

Xkomyaxnic (Gaumer; reported as "xkon-yaxik"), Pacanul 
(Schott). Common. A small shrub, densely stellate-pubescent, 
prickly; leaves oval or ovate, shallowly sinuate-lobate, often prickly; 
cymes few-flowered, the corolla violet, 4-5 cm. broad; fruit 1.5 cm. 
in diameter, glabrous, partly enclosed in the large accrescent calyx. 

Solatium bicolor Willd. S. callicarpaefolium Kunth & Bouche". 
S. verbascifolium Millsp. FMB. 1: 44. 1895, in part, not L. 

Frequent in thickets. A shrub 1-2 m. high, unarmed, densely 
stellate-pubescent; leaves elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, 10-30 cm. 
long, acute or obtuse, entire; flowers white, 7 mm. long, in dense 
pedunculate cymes; ovary glabrous; fruit yellow, 6-8 mm. in 
diameter. 



412 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Solarium campechiense L. Sp. PL 267. 1753. 

Described from Campeche, Houstoun. A very prickly herb; 
leaves deeply lobed, the lobes sinuate-dentate, stellate-pilose, prickly; 
cymes few-flowered, the flowers small, violaceous. 

Solarium cornutum Lam. S. rostratum Millsp. FMB. 1: 389. 
1898, not Dunal. 

Ixpahalcan (Gaumer). Occasional. A branched annual herb, 
densely prickly, sparsely stellate-pubescent; leaves deeply lobed, 
the lobes often again lobed, prickly; flowers large, yellow, in few- 
flowered cymes; fruit enclosed in the prickly calyx. 

Solanum diversifolium Schlecht. 

Izamal, Gaumer in 1888. A prickly shrub 1-2 m. high, densely 
stellate- tomentose; leaves large and broad, sinuate-lobate; flowers 
white, in stalked cymes; fruit 1-1.5 cm. in diameter. 

Solanum hirtum Vahl. S. jamaicense Millsp. FMB. 1: 389. 
1898, not Mill. 

Putbalam (Gaumer; "tiger papaya"). Frequent. A large, very 
prickly herb or shrub; leaves large, densely stellate-tomentose, cor- 
date at the base, sinuate-lobate, usually prickly beneath; cymes few- 
flowered, the corolla white, 1.5 cm. long; fruit 2 cm. in diameter, 
covered with long soft hairs. An infusion of the fruit is considered 
an excellent remedy for sore throat, used as a gargle. The crushed 
fruit is applied also as a poultice. 

Solanum lanceifolium Jacq. 

Frequent in thickets. A large woody vine, stellate-pubescent, 
the stems and leaves armed with numerous short recurved prickles; 
leaves ovate to oblong, acute or obtuse, entire or nearly so; cymes 
lateral, few-flowered; corolla white, 9-12 mm. long; fruit orange-red, 
1 cm. in diameter. 

Solanum mammosum L. 

Sp. Chuchito. Frequent. A large branched herb, densely pilose 
with long soft hairs, armed with long yellow prickles; leaves large, 
shallowly lobed, the lobes acute; cymes few-flowered, the corolla 
violaceous, 2 cm. long; fruit orange-yellow, ovoid, mammillate, 3-5 
cm. in diameter. A decoction of the leaves is used for cleansing 
wounds. The dried and powdered leaves are used for the same 
purpose, and especially as an application to wounds caused by the 
bites of dogs. The Kekchi name is "kantu," "yellow breast," in 
allusion to the form of the fruit. The fruit is reputed very poisonous. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 413 

#/; 

Solatium Melongena L. 

Sp. Berengena. Commonly cultivated; of Asiatic origin. Egg- 
plant. 

Solanum nigrum L. S. havanense Millsp. FMB. 1: 44. 1895, 
not Jacq. S. nigrum var. nodiflorum Gray; Physalis angulata Millsp. 
FMB. 1:388. 1898, not L. 

Pahalcan (Gaumer); reported as "bahabcan" and "bahalcan." 
Sp. Yerbamora. A common weed. An annual herb, puberulent or 
nearly glabrous, unarmed; leaves ovate, sinuate-dentate or entire; 
flowers small, white, in umbels; fruit a small black berry. The 
crushed leaves are applied as poultices to reduce inflammation and 
to bring boils to a head. Cuevas states that the plant is considered 
poisonous, but in some parts of Central America it is eaten as a pot 
herb. The Motul Dictionary gives the name as "pahalcan," "pakal- 
can," and "pakcan." The Quiche" name is "imut," the Kekchi name 
"mah kui." Other Guatemalan names are listed as "challuc," 
"yemoch," "mup," and "amoche." 

Solanum Seaforthianum Andrews. 

Sp. Piocha. Planted for ornament; native of tropical America. 
A large scandent shrub, unarmed, sparsely pubescent; leaves pin- 
nately divided, the 3 or 5 leaflets entire; flowers violet, 1 cm. long, 
in dense cymes; fruit red. 

Solanum torvum Sw. 

Chelic (Gaumer), Tompaap. Sp. Prendedora. Frequent. A 
shrub 1-3 m. high, armed with short prickles, stellate-pubescent; 
leaves broadly ovate, sinuate-lobate; flowers white, 10-12 mm. long, 
in small short-stalked cymes; fruit yellow, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter. 
The plant is reputed to have narcotic, diuretic, diaphoretic, and 
resolutive properties. It has been employed locally in treating con- 
vulsions, coughs, asthma, gout, rheumatism, syphilis, and cutaneous 
diseases. 

Solanum tuberosum L. 

Sp. Papa. The potato, native of the Andes, has been grown in 
Campeche and Yucatan, but it does not thrive in so hot a region. 
The Pokonchi name of the potato is "caxlan is," "white sweet 
potato." 

Solanum verbascifolium L. 

Tonpaap (Gaumer), Tukux (Valdez); reported as "tompaap" 
and "xaxox." Frequent. A shrub 2-3 m. high, densely stellate- 



414 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

pubescent, unarmed; leaves ovate to lanceolate, acute, entire; flowers 
white, 7-9 mm. long, in long-stalked cymes; ovary stellate-pubescent; 
fruit yellowish, 1 cm. in diameter, stellate-pubescent. The plant is 
utilized like S. torvum in local medicine. 

Solanum yucatanum Standl. FMB. 8: 43. 1930. S. juripeba 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 389. 1898, not Rich. 

Heehbech (Gaumer). Endemic; type from Bocas de Tsilam, 
Gaumer 24352; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2000. A shrub, the branches 
rather densely covered with stipitate few-branched hairs, armed with 
short broad compressed prickles, oblojig or elliptic-oblong, 3-6.5 cm. 
long, obtuse or acutish at the apex, rounded or obtuse and very un- 
equal at the base, entire, stellate-tomentose beneath, the costa often 
armed beneath with 1-2 short prickles; corolla 7 mm. long; fruit 
globose, glabrous, 8 mm. in diameter. 

The plant reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 98. 1913) as "telesku" 
and "berenjena" is apparently a Solanum, but the species is doubtful. 
He states that the plant has the properties of belladonna, and that 
the crushed leaves, with oil, are applied as poultices to reduce 
inflammation. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE. Figwort Family 

Angelonia angustifolia Benth. 

Sp. Boca de la vieja. Cultivated and perhaps native. An erect, 
simple or branched, glabrous herb; leaves opposite, linear to lanceo- 
late, sessile or petiolate, serrate; flowers blue, 1.5-2 cm. broad, race- 
mose. Often planted in Central America because of its showy 
flowers. Valdez reports that the plant is employed as a tonic in 
the case of nervous affections. 

Bacopa Monnieri (L.) Wettst. Monniera Monniera Britton. 

Yaaxcach (Gaumer); reported as "xaxcach." Occasional in wet 
soil. A glabrous fleshy creeping perennial herb; leaves spatulate, 
sessile, entire or denticulate, 6-20 mm. long, rounded at the apex; 
flowers axillary, pediceled, pale blue, about 1 cm. broad. 

Bacopa procumbens (Mill.) Greenm. Monniera procumbens 
Millsp.; B. procumbens var. Schottii Greenm. FMB. 2: 262. 1907. 

Xacanlum (Gaumer), Xnokak (Gaumer). Frequent in moist 
soil. A glabrous branched perennial herb, usually decumbent; leaves 
ovate or oval, 1-2 cm. long, petioled, obtuse or acute, serrate; 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 415 

irf 

flowers axillary, yellow, 1 cm. long. The type of var. Schottii was 
collected at MeYida, Schott 616. 

Buchnera pusilla HBK. B. mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 45. 

1895, 1: 389. 1898; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 26. 1905, 
perhaps not Hemsl. 

Cabalchichibe (Gaumer). Frequent in dry soil. A rough-pubes- 
cent, erect, simple or branched herb; leaves mostly opposite, linear; 
flowers small, pink or white, in elongate spikes. 

Capraria biflora L. C. biflora var. pilosa Griseb. 

Chocuilxiu (Gaumer), Pasmoxiu (Pete"n; a mixture of Spanish 
and Maya). Sp. Claudiosa. A common weed. An erect herb, 
pubescent or glabrate; leaves alternate, oblanceolate or oblong, ser- 
rate, acute; flowers axillary, long-pedicellate, 1 cm. long, white. 
The plant is much used in domestic medicine. An infusion is em- 
ployed as a bath or lotion in all uterine and ovarian complaints. A 
decoction of the leaves is administered as a remedy for diabetes, 
leucorrhea, and gonorrhea. 

Capraria saxifragaefolia Schlecht. & Cham. C. biflora var. 
pilosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 45, in part, 1895, not Griseb. C. biflora 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 319, in part. 1896, 1: 389, in part. 1898, 2: 98, in 
part. 1900, not L. 

Sp. Claudiosa. Frequent. An erect herb, glandular-pubescent; 
leaves ovate, obtuse, crenate-serrate; flowers nearly sessile. 

Castilleja communis Benth. C. arvensis Millsp. FMB. 1 : 319. 

1896, not Schlecht. & Cham. 

Sp. Hierba del cancer. Occasional. A perennial herb, erect, 
pilose; leaves lanceolate or linear, entire; flowers small, in terminal 
spikes, subtended by red bracts. 

Conobea pusilla (Benth.) Benth. & Hook. 

Occasional in wet soil. A small slender branched annual, nearly 
glabrous; leaves dissected into linear lobes; flowers small, yellowish, 
axillary; capsule linear. 

Gerardia maritima var. grandiflora Benth. G. cereifera Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 98. 1900. Agalinis maritima var. grandiflora Pennell. 

Known in Yucatan only from Millspaugh 1702, from Progreso, 
the type of G. cereifera. A slender herb; leaves linear; flowers 
purple, in terminal racemes, long-pediceled; corolla 1.5-2 cm. long. 



416 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Russelia campechiana Standl. CNH. 23: 1309. 1924. 

Type collected at Apazote, Campeche, Goldman 1+67; also in 
British Honduras. An herb, nearly glabrous, the stems 4-angled; 
leaves ovate, acuminate, entire; flowers red, tubular, 13 mm. long. 

Russelia equisetiformis Schlecht. & Cham. R. juncea Zucc. 

Sp. Coralillo. Cultivated for ornament. A glabrous herb, the 
leaves small and caducous; peduncles long and filiform, 1-3-flowered; 
corolla red, 2 cm. long. A handsome plant, perhaps native of 
Mexico, but probably not known in the wild state. 

Russelia sarmentosa Jacq. 

Occasional. Plants nearly glabrous, the stems 4-angled; leaves 
broadly ovate, subsessile, acute to rounded at the apex, serrate; 
flowers red, 1 cm. long. 

Stemodia durantifolia (L.) Sw. 

Occasional in moist soil. An erect, branched, pubescent and 
glandular herb; leaves opposite, sessile, oblong or narrowly lanceo- 
late, serrate; flowers small, purple, in leafy racemes, the corolla 
glandular-pubescent. 

Stemodia maritima L. Capraria biflora Millsp. FMB. 2: 98. 
1900, in part, not L. 

Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1535. An erect, pubescent and 
viscid, branched herb; leaves oblong, sessile, serrate; flowers pur- 
plish, nearly sessile in the leaf axils; corolla glabrous. 

LENTIBULARIACEAE. Bladderwort Family 

Utricularia obtusa Sw. 

Without locality, Gaumer 913; Xcholac, Gaumer 430. A small 
aquatic herb; leaves divided into capillary segments, these bearing 
few minute bladders; flowers small, yellow, racemose on a slender 
scape. 

PEDALIACEAE. Sesame Family 

Sesamum orientale L. S. indicum L. 

Zicilpuuz (Gaumer); listed also as "sicilpus" and "mehensial." 
Sp. Ajonjoli. Cultivated and also escaped; native of the East 
Indies. Sesame. An erect pubescent annual; leaves opposite and 
alternate, the lower lobed or parted, the upper lanceolate; flowers 
white or pink, 2-3 cm. long, axillary; capsule oblong, 2-3 cm. long, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 417 

t>? 

2-celled. The seeds are used for flavoring food. The plant has been 
grown extensively in Yucatan for the oil which is extracted from the 
seeds. A decoction of the seeds is given to children as a laxative, 
and it is applied externally for skin eruptions. 

MARTYNIACEAE. Unicorn-plant Family 

Martynia annua L. M. diandra Glox. 

Chucchikil (Gaumer). Sp. Una del diablo. An occasional weed. 
A large coarse viscid-pubescent herb; leaves opposite, ovate-orbicu- 
lar, 8-15 cm. long, sinuate-dentate; flowers pink or whitish, 3-5 
cm. long, blotched with purple; fruit a woody capsule 2-2.5 cm. 
long, obliquely ovoid, with a short hooked beak. 

BIGNONIACEAE. Bignonia Family 

Adenocalymna fissutn Loes. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brand. 65: 102. 
1923. Bignonia aequinoctialis Millsp. FMB. 1: 390. 1898, in part, 
not L. 

Endemic; type from Xkombec, Seler 4034; Buena Vista Xbac, 
Gaumer 1068; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2440, 1098. A large woody 
vine; leaves 2-foliolate, often with a terminal tendril, the leaflets 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, puberulent on the nerves; calyx 8 mm. 
long, villosulous, conspicuously nerved and dentate; corolla 4.5-5 
cm. long, puberulent outside, pink or purple. 

Adenocalymna heterophyllum Standl. FMB. 8: 49. 1930. 
Bignonia aequinoctialis Millsp. FMB. 1: 390. 1898, in part, not L. 

Endemic; type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23889; without 
locality, Gaumer 1098. A large woody vine; leaflets 3, elliptic, acute, 
rounded, or deeply emarginate at the apex, minutely lepidote or 
nearly glabrous; calyx truncate, 6-7 mm. long; corolla 6-7.5 cm. 
long, the tube elongate, dilated upward, densely villous-tomentose 
outside, the rounded lobes about 1.5 cm. long. 

Adenocalymna punctifolium Blake. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 23715. A woody vine; leaflets 2, oblong- 
ovate, acuminate, subcordate, pilosulous, dotted beneath with large 
glands; corolla creamy white, 4 cm. long, puberulent; calyx dentate, 
densely puberulent. 

Adenocalymna Seleri Loes. Verh. Bot. Ver. Brand. 65: 101. 
1923. Bignonia aequinoctialis Millsp. FMB. 1: 390. 1898, in part, 
not L. 



418 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Oppolche (Seler). Type collected between Ticul and Tabi, Seler 
3901 ; Chichankanab, Gaumer 2162; Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1068; 
Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23844- A woody vine; leaflets ovate-lanceo- 
late to broadly ovate, villosulous and glandular-punctate beneath 
or nearly glabrous; calyx 6-8 mm. long, sparsely villosulous, con- 
spicuously nerved, dentate; corolla puberulent, 3-3.5 cm. long. 

Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) HBK. 

Near Satscaba, Schott 886. A small woody vine; leaflets 2 or 3, 
rounded-ovate, short-acuminate, often cordate at the base, minutely 
lepidote beneath; flowers pinkish white, 3-4 cm. long; calyx bearing 
2 or 3 lobelike appendages within; capsule oblong-elliptic, 8-10 cm. 
long, 4 cm. wide. 

Arrabidaea floribunda (HBK.) Loes. Repert. Sp. Nov. 16: 209. 
1919. Bignonia floribunda HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 134. 1818. B. 
aequinoctialis Millsp. FMB. 1: 390. 1898, in part, not L. B. mollis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 390. 1898, not Vahl. 

Zacak (Gaumer), Anicab (Schott). Frequent in thickets; type 
from Campeche. A large woody vine; leaflets 2 or 3, elliptic to 
broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, glabrous, purplish when dried; 
flowers purple, 1.3-1.8 cm. long, puberulent, in large panicles. 
Other closely related species are used in some regions as dye plants, 
and this one may have been so utilized by the Mayas. Schott 
states that the vine is much used for binding in the construction of 
thatched roofs. 

Bignonia unguis-cati L. 

Xkanlolak (Gaumer), Ek-kixilak (Gaumer). Frequent. A woody 
vine, climbing by means of sharp-pointed hooked tendrils, often 
with aerial roots; leaflets 2, lance-oblong to broadly ovate, acute; 
flowers yellow, 4.5-7 cm. long; capsule linear, 30-40 cm. long, 1-1.5 
cm. wide. The name "chacanicab" has been reported, but probably 
in error. This is apparently the plant reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 
109. 1913) as "xkanak." He states that it is employed as a remedy 
for diseases of the spleen. The plant listed by him (PI. Med. 46. 
1913) as "ek kixil" also may belong here. 

Crescentia Gujete L. C. cuneifolia Gardn. 

LnjLch (Gaumer), Huaz (Gaumer). Sp. Jicara, Guiro. Calabash, 
Wild calabash (B. H.). Common. A small tree; leaves clustered, 
oblanceolate or spatulate, entire, glabrous or puberulent; flowers 
green and brown-purple, 5-8 cm. long, borne on the trunk and 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 419 

' larger branches. The fruits, which resemble gourds, vary greatly 
in size and shape. They are sometimes oval and 15 cm. long, but 
frequently globose and 30 cm. in diameter. They are very important 
because of their use as kitchen utensils, being employed generally 
as receptacles for water and many other substances. The soft close- 
grained flexible wood is sometimes utilized for construction purposes. 
A sirup prepared from the pulp of the fruit is a popular remedy for 
affections of the chest. An infusion of the leaves is administered as 
an astringent for diarrhea, and is applied to the hair to promote 
growth, and stop its falling. In Kekchi the tree is called "horn." 

Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers. Bignonia aequinoctialis L. 

Chacanicab (Gaumer). Common in thickets. A large woody 
vine; leaflets 2, oblong to ovate, acute, glabrous or pubescent; 
corolla pink or pale purple, lepidote outside, 5-8 cm. long; capsule 
linear, 25-40 cm. long, the seeds winged. Called "bejuco tres- 
lomos" in Tabasco. The tough flexible stems of this and other vines 
of the family are used like twine. 

Cydista diversifolia (HBK.) Miers, Proc. Hort. Soc. Lond. 3: 
192. 1863. Bignonia diversifolia HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 133. 1818. 

Chacnetoloc (Gaumer), Anicab (Schott) ; Zolak (Schott); reported 
also as "tsolak" and "xcolak." Frequent in thickets; type from 
Campeche. A woody vine; leaflets broadly ovate to oblong-elliptic, 
acuminate, glabrous or pubescent, often cordate; corolla purple, 
finely puberulent or lepidote, 3-4 cm. long. 

Lundia Schumanniana Kranzlein, Repert. Sp. Nov. 17: 120. 1921. 
Described from Campeche, but, according to the author, the locality 
is doubtful. 

Parmentiera aculeata (HBK.) Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 183. 
1854. Crescentia aculeata HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 158. 1818. P. 
baculis Donde", Emulation 3: Apend. 13. 1878. P. cereifera Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 390. 1898, not Seem. 

Cacuuc (Gaumer) ; listed also as "catcuuc," "katzuz," "katcuuc," 
"catcuuk" (Donde"). Sp. Pepino de ardilla. Cultivated and wild; 
type from Campeche. A shrub or small tree, armed with short 
stout spines; leaves 3-foliolate, the leaflets rounded to obovate, 1-3 
cm. long, rounded at the apex, often toothed, glabrous or puberulent; 
flowers large, greenish, borne on young branches; fruit terete, fleshy, 
15-25 cm. long, 1 cm. thick, yellow, ripening in October. The fruit 
is edible when cooked. 



420 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Parmentiera edulis DC. 

Cat (Gaumer); reported also as "kaat." Sp. Pepino de arbol, 
Cuajilote (Camp.; of Nahuatl derivation). Cow okra (B. H.). Culti- 
vated and perhaps native, at least in the southern part of the 
Peninsula. A small tree, armed with short spines; leaflets elliptic 
or obovate, 3-8.5 cm. long, usually acute, entire; flowers greenish 
white, 7 cm. long; fruit fleshy, 10-16 cm. long, 2 cm. thick or more. 
The fruit is eaten raw or cooked, and is sometimes pickled or 
preserved. It is also reputed to have diuretic properties, and is eaten 
to relieve pain in the kidneys. An infusion of the root is admin- 
istered as a remedy for diabetes. 

Pithecoctenium echinatum (Jacq.) Schum. P. hexagonum 
DC. P. Aubletii Millsp. FMB. 2: 99. 1900, perhaps not Splitg. 

Xachextabay (Gaumer), Netoloc (Gaumer, "iguana-tail"), Xtabay 
(Flores). Sp. Peine de mico ("monkey comb"). Common in thickets. 
A large or small, woody vine; leaflets 2 or 3, ovate or rounded- 
ovate, often cordate at the base, finely lepidote and often pubescent; 
flowers dirty white, 4.5-5 cm. long; fruit a woody compressed cap- 
sule, oblong or elliptic, 15-20 cm. long, 4.5-6.5 cm. wide, covered 
with hard sharp tubercles. The stems are used for tying fences and 
roofs, and the pods to make toys for children. The name "xachex- 
tabay" is derived from "xach" or "xachah," to comb, and "xtabay," 
an apparition in the form of a woman, dressed as a mestiza, who 
appears, combing her beautiful hair with a pod of this vine, in 
isolated spots in the villages. 

Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nicholson. 

Hahauche (Gaumer). Frequent. A small deciduous tree; leaves 
digitately 5-foliolate, the leaflets obovate, acuminate, stellate- 
pubescent or glabrate, entire or serrate; flowers bright yellow, 
clustered at the ends of the branchlets; capsules linear, 20-30 cm. 
long, often tuberculate. The wood is dark and very hard. 

Tabebuia pentaphylla (L.) Hemsl. 

Hokab (Maler). Sp. Roble (B. H.), Maculis, Maquiliz (B. H.; of 
Nahuatl derivation), Macuilixuatl (Maler; Nahuatl). Mayflower 
(B. H.). Common in the southern part of the Peninsula. A medium- 
sized deciduous tree; leaflets 5, oblong to oblong-ovate, acute, finely 
lepidote, entire; flowers pink or purple, 7-10 cm. long, in corymbs; 
capsule 20-35 cm. long, 12 mm. thick. The wood is of good quality, 
and useful for cabinetwork and general construction. When loaded 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 421 

with its beautifully colored flowers, in spring, this is one of the most 
beautiful of Central American trees. 

Tecoma stans (L.) HBK. T. sambucifolia Donde", Apuntes 70. 
1907, perhaps not HBK. 

Kanlol (Gaumer). Sp. Tronador, Sauco amarillo, Flor amarilla. 
Common, at least in cultivation; planted for ornament. A shrub or 
small tree; leaves pinnate, the leaflets 5-13, serrate, pubescent or 
glabrous; flowers bright yellow, panicled, 3.5-5 cm. long; capsule 
linear, 10-20 cm. long. The leaves and flowers are used as a tonic, 
and the bark as a diuretic. Valdez states that the decoction of the 
leaves and flowers is employed as a bath in the treatment of dropsy. 
The Kekchi name is reported as "chakte." The name "candox" is 
recorded as in use in Chiapas. 

OROBANCHACEAE. Broom-rape Family 

Orobanche sp.? Cytinus hypocistis Lanz, Agricultor 10 11 : 9. 
1923. Caetera hydnorea Flores, Agricultor 10 16 : 18. 1923. 

Muchcok, Acam. This plant, well described by Lanz, probably 
belongs to this genus, but no material is available for study. It is 
parasitic upon roots of Prosopis, and is described as a tomentose 
fleshy purplish plant with bracted stems and crowded bilabiate 
flowers having 4 stamens. 

ACANTHACEAE. Acanthus Family 

Aphelandra Deppeana Schlecht. & Cham. A. pectinata Willd.; 
A. Haenkeana Nees. 

Chaccankilxiu (Gaumer). Common in thickets. A shrub 1-3 m. 
high; leaves ovate-elliptic to lance-oblong, entire, acuminate, usually 
pubescent beneath; flowers bright red, 4 cm. long, in dense bracted 
spikes; bracts serrate, appressed. Called "anilillo" and "anil 
cimarron" in Tabasco. The name "chakanal" is reported from 
British Honduras. 

Blechum pedunculatum Donn. Smith. Ruellia Tweediana 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 320. 1896, in part, not Griseb. R. geminiflora 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 391. 1898, in part, not HBK. 

Yamcotil (Gaumer). Occasional. A small perennial herb, gray- 
ish-strigillose; leaves ovate, acute; flowers clustered at the ends of 
the stems, purple, 2.5 cm. long. 



422 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urban. Blechum Brownei 
Juss.; Blechum blechoides Millsp. FMB. 1: 320. 1896, perhaps not 
Hitchc. Blechum Blechum Millsp. 

Akabxiu (Gaumer). A common weed. A small puberulent herb, 
erect or decumbent; leaves ovate, acute; flowers in dense bracted 
4-sided spikes, the bracts ovate, ciliate; corolla purplish, slightly 
longer than the bracts. This is one of the most abundant weeds of 
Central America. Valdez states that the plant has refrigerant 
properties. 

Bravaisia tubiflora Hemsl. in Hook. Icon. PL 16: pi. 1576. 
1886. 

Hooloop (B. H.; "hulub?"). Common along the coast and on 
lake shores; endemic; type from Cozumel Island, Gaumer 52. A 
shrub 1-2 m. high, or reported as a tree of 7.5 m.; leaves elliptic or 
oblong-elliptic, 4-7 cm. long, glabrate, obtuse; flowers purplish, 
2-2.5 cm. long, in leafy-bracted cymes. 

Dicliptera assurgens (L.) Juss. Diapedium assurgens Kuntze. 

Nimiz (Gaumer). Sp. Pensamiento. Common. An erect herb, 
1-1.5 m. high, glabrous or nearly so, the branches angled; leaves 
ovate or lanceolate, often deciduous, acute or obtuse; flowers in 
small bracted clusters arranged in long spikes; corolla red, 2-2.5 
cm. long. Some of the Yucatan material has been referred to D. 
mollis Nees, but it is doubtful whether that is distinct from D. 
assurgens. The plant is reported by Valdez to be employed as a 
remedy for asthma. 

Drejerella longipes Standl. FMB. 8: 47. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 1621; Buena 
Vista, Gaumer in 1899. A low erect herb, densely soft-pubescent; 
leaves rounded-ovate, 7-17 mm. long, acute, the petioles slender, 
longer than the blades; flowers in dense bracted spikes, the bracts 
contracted into short petioles, broadly ovate, obtuse; corolla white, 
glabrous, 11 mm. long. 

Elytraria bromoides Oerst. Tubiflora squamosa Millsp. FMB. 
1: 320. 1896, in part, 2: 99. 1900, not Kuntze. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1833; Me*rida, Schott; Kancabtsonot, 
Gaumer 23783, in part; Chichen Itza, Millspaugh 1622. A small 
perennial herb; leaves basal, oblong-oblanceolate, obtuse; flowers 
small, white, in very dense, bracted spikes; bracts lanceolate, entire, 
closely appressed and imbricate. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 423 

Elytraria squamosa (Jacq.) Lindau. Tubiflora squamosa Kuntze. 

Cabalxaan. A common weed. A small herb with short leafy 
stems; leaves usually clustered at the base of the inflorescence, 
oblanceolate, often dentate, acute; flowers small, purple, in slender 
spikes; bracts hard, imbricate, 3-dentate at the apex, with a thin 
appendage on each side. An infusion of the plant is a local remedy 
for bronchitis and coughs. 

Jacobinia leucothamna Standl. FMB. 8: 44. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Silam, Gaumer 1242; B\soGaumer 2280, from 
the same locality. A shrub 2 m. high with whitish branches; leaves 
broadly elliptic, 2-4.5 cm. long, rounded and apiculate at the apex, 
velvety-pubescent beneath; flowers in very short spikes, the bracts 
subulate; sepals lance-subulate, 2.5 mm. long; corolla white, 8-9 
mm. long, pilose. 

Jacobinia spicigera (Schlecht.) L. H. Bailey. Jacobinia mohintli 
Hemsl. 

Yichcaan (Cuevas), Siitz (B. H.). Wild and also planted about 
houses. A shrub 1-2 m. high; leaves oblong to ovate, acute, gla- 
brate; flowers in small, axillary or terminal cymes; corolla red, 
3-3.5 cm. long. The leaves in hot water give a dark blue infusion, 
which is used like indigo, for whitening linen. Cuevas states that 
the plant probably was employed by the ancient Mayas for painting. 
This is perhaps the plant listed by Pe"rez under the name "tzitz." 
The Quich^ name is "kaxabal"; the Kekchi name, "kakixuxul." 

Justicia carthaginensis Jacq. Beloperone violacea Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 320. 1896; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 28. 1905, 
not Planch. & Lind. 

Zulub (Gaumer). Frequent. An erect herb 1 m. high or less, 
glabrous or nearly so; leaves ovate, acute; flowers purple, in dense 
bracted spikes; bracts oblong, ciliate; corolla 2.5-3 cm. long. Some 
of the Yucatan specimens have been referred to J. caudata Gray. 

Justicia comata (L.) Lam. (Dianthera comata L.; Millsp. FMB. 1: 
47. 1895) is reported from Yucatan, collected by Johnson. The 
species probably occurs in the southern part of the Peninsula. 

Justicia myriantha Standl. FMB. 8: 45. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23557; Buena Vista 
Xbac, Gaumer 1102; Lake Chichankanab, Gaumer 23718, 23742. 
An erect or decumbent herb; leaves petioled, rounded-ovate, 1.5-4 
cm. long, obtuse or acutish, nearly glabrous; flowers in long slender 



424 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

spikes, these often panicled, many-flowered; bracts subulate, glan- 
dular-puberulent; sepals 2.5-3 mm. long; corolla 5 mm. long, 
glabrous. 

Justicia sessilis Jacq. Siphonoglossa sessilis Oerst.; Dianthera 
sessilis Griseb. 

Frequent. A low branching herb, sometimes suffrutescent at 
the base; leaves small, short-petiolate, ovate or elliptic, acute or 
obtuse, rather copiously pubescent on both surfaces; flowers in very 
short spikes with subulate bracts; corolla glabrous, apparently white, 
the very slender tube about 15 mm. long, the obovate lobes less than 
half as long as the tube. 

Louteridium Donnell-Smithii Wats. 

Pete"n. A large herb or shrub 1-3 m. high; leaves very large, 
broadly ovate, acute, crenate-dentate, soft-pubescent; flowers dark 
red, 7 cm. long, in terminal racemes. 

Pseuderanthemum nanum Standl. FMB. 8: 46. 1930. 

Endemic; type from Silam, Gaumer 1305; Progreso, Gaumer 
2295. A low perennial with whitish, minutely puberulent, mostly 
simple stems; leaves leathery, short-petiolate, broadly ovate, obtuse, 
glabrous, the veins nearly obsolete; flowers in short, very dense 
spikes, the bracts subulate; sepals subulate-attenuate, 9 mm. long; 
corolla tube 9 mm. long, slender, the lobes of about the same length, 
spreading. 

Ruellia albicaulis Bert. R. paniculata Millsp. FMB. 1: 46. 
1895,2:100. 1900, not L. 

Tsacalbac (Gaumer); reported as "kabauche." Common. A 
brittle shrub 1-2 m. high, with a strong disagreeable goatlike odor, 
glandular-pubescent, the branches whitish; leaves ovate to oblong, 
acute, usually denticulate; flowers purple, 2-2.5 cm. long, in loose 
cymes. The Motul Dictionary lists an "ixtsacalbac," whose roots 
"are good to cure broken bones." 

Ruellia geminiflora HBK. R. Tweediana Millsp. FMB. 1: 320. 
1896, in part, not Griseb. 

Yamcotil (Valdez). Occasional; MeYida, Seler 3948, Valdez 24; 
Izamal, Greenman 484- A low perennial herb, pubescent or glabrate; 
leaves oblong-ovate to oval, obtuse or acute; flowers pale purple, 
2 cm. long. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 425 

Ruellia malacosperma Greenm. 

Occasional. A low erect herb, pubescent; leaves oblong or 
lanceolate, acuminate; flowers purple, 5-6 cm. long, in few-flowered 
axillary cymes. 

Ruellia tuberosa L. 

Cabalyaaxnic (Gaumer). Sp. Hierba de la calentura, Maravilla 
del monte. Common. A perennial herb with fusiform roots, pubes- 
cent; leaves ovate or oblong; flowers in stalked cymes; corolla 
purple, 4-6 cm. long. A decoction of the plant is used for cleansing 
sores and wounds, and as a remedy for chest affections. 

Tetramerium hispidum Nees. 

Zacchilib (Gaumer), Xhuayumhak (Valdez). Common in thickets. 
A brittle erect herb with pale branches; leaves lanceolate or ovate, 
acute, pubescent or glabrate; flowers cream-colored, in dense short 
bracted spikes; bracts broadly ovate, 4-ranked, imbricate, pilose. 
The plant is employed by the Indians to remedy suppression of the 
lochia after parturition. 

Tetramerium scorpioides (L.) Hemsl. Henrya costata Gray; 
T. costatum Millsp. 

Kanzahilxiu (Gaumer), Xibkuub (xib-kiik?). Common. An 
erect glandular-pubescent branching herb with 4-angled stems; 
leaves ovate, acuminate; flowers small, cream-colored, in long 
bracted spikes, the bracts mostly oblong. 

PLANTAGINACEAE. Plantain Family 

Plantago major L. 

Sp. Llanten. An occasional weed; introduced from Europe. A 
perennial herb, glabrous or pubescent; leaves basal, long-petiolate, 
broadly ovate, entire or dentate; flowers small, green, in long dense 
spikes. The plant is employed locally as a remedy to prevent 
abortion. 

Plantago hirtella HBK. is called "kok-pim" in the Kekchi dialect. 

RUBIACEAE. Madder Family 

Alseis yucatanensis Standl. FMB. 8: 50. 1930. 

Cacao-che (Sp. and Maya). Endemic; type, Gaumer 24247, with- 
out locality. A tree; stipules caducous; leaves petiolate, deciduous, 
obovate, 8-30 cm. long, acuminate at the apex or rounded and short- 



426 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

acuminate, long-attenuate to the base, sparsely pilose beneath along 
the nerves or glabrate; flowers in dense racemes; calyx lobes ovate, 
obtuse; corolla broadly campanulate, 2.5 mm. long; capsules clavate, 
14 mm. long, the seeds appendaged at each end. 

Asemnanthe pubescens Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 
2: 107. 1873. 

Occasional; endemic; type collected by Linden. A slender shrub 
or small tree; leaves opposite, lanceolate or ovate, acute, entire, 
pilose beneath; flowers small, yellow, in axillary fascicles; fruit 
drupaceous, compressed, orbicular. 

Borreria laevis (Lam.) Griseb. Spermacoce laevis Lam.; S. 
echioides HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 344. 1819. S. verticillata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 393. 1898, in part, not L. S. tenuior Millsp. FMB. 2: 103. 
1900, in part, not L. 

Izamal, Gaumer in 1888; Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1531; 
Nohacab, Schott 972a. An annual or perennial herb, sparsely pubes- 
cent; leaves oblong to elliptic, 2-4 cm. long, acute or obtuse; flowers 
white, crowded in the leaf axils; calyx lobes 4. Type of S. echioides 
from Campeche. 

Borreria ocimoides (Burm. f.) DC. 

San Pedro, Gaumer 23872. A small glabrous annual; leaves 
linear to oblong-elliptic, 1-2.5 cm. long; flowers minute, white, 
clustered in the leaf axils. 

Borreria suaveolens Mey. B. thymifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 49. 
1895, not Griseb. 

Occasional. An erect perennial herb, scaberulous; leaves linear 
or lanceolate; flowers small, white, in dense, terminal and axillary 
heads; calyx lobes 4. 

Borreria verticillata (L.) Mey. Spermacoce verticillata L. S. 
Haenkeana Millsp. FMB. 1: 49. 1895, not Hemsl. 

Nizots (Gaumer; reported incorrectly as "nitsox")- Sp. Man- 
zanilla de campo. Common. A low erect perennial herb, glabrous 
or nearly so; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 2-5 cm. long; flowers 
white, in dense, terminal and axillary heads; calyx lobes 2. The 
plant is employed in the treatment of sores. 

Calycophyllum candidissimum (Vahl) DC. 

Campeche. A large tree; leaves oval to ovate, acuminate, gla- 
brous or nearly so; flowers in small corymbs, white; calyx lobes un- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 427 

equal, one of them expanded into a large leaflike creamy- white limb; 
fruit a small capsule. The wood is hard, heavy, strong, fine-grained, 
and durable. The tree is a very showy and handsome one when in 
flower. From Guatemala the names "uca" and "chulub" are 
reported. 

Ghiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. C. racemosa L. C. racemosa var. 
yucatana Loes. Repert. Sp. Nov. 18: 361. 1922. 

Canchacche (Gaumer). Sp. Cainca. Common in thickets. A 
slender shrub, often subscandent, usually glabrous; leaves short- 
petioled, lanceolate to oval, 3-8 cm. long, acute, thick; flowers small, 
white, in simple or panicled racemes; fruit fleshy, white, compressed, 
orbicular, 4-8 mm. long. The plant is used as a tonic, diuretic, and 
purgative, especially in the treatment of dropsy and rheumatism. It 
is considered also a remedy for snake bites. The type of var. yucatana 
is Seler 5591, from Hacienda Yaxche, Distrito de Ticul. 

Coffea arabica L. 

Sp. Cafe. Native of tropical Africa. Coffee is grown on a small 
scale in the region, but the plant does not flourish at such low ele- 
vations. It is reported that abandoned plantations of 5 to 10 
hectares are still growing and fruiting about Bacalar. These were 
planted prior to 1858, when the Spanish population was forced to 
abandon that region. 

Cosmocalyx spectabilis Standl. FMB. 8: 56. 1930. 

Type, Gaumer 24270, without locality; Gaumer 24219; also in 
Michoacan or Guerrero. A tree 5-8 m. high; stipules narrowly 
triangular, caducous; leaves slender-petioled, rhombic-obovate or 
elliptic-obovate, 6-17 cm. long, acuminate, barbate beneath along 
the costa; flowers in large dense terminal panicles; calyx lobes un- 
equal, one of them expanding into a large, red or purplish, petioled 
limb 2-3.5 cm. long; corolla 7 mm. long; capsule cylindric, 6-8 mm. 
long, 2-coccous, the cells 1-seeded. 

Coutarea octomera Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 101. 
1886. C. acamptoclada Robins. & Millsp. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 28. 
1905. 

Pailuch (Gaumer); reported also as "cabalkax." Frequent; en- 
demic; type from Cozumel Island, Gaumer in 1885; type of C. 
acamptoclada from Uman, Seler 4044- A stout shrub; leaves oval 
to rhombic-ovate, obtuse, glabrous or nearly so; flowers greenish 



428 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

yellow, 2.5-5 cm. long, clustered at the ends of the branches, the 
corolla 8-lobed; fruit a capsule 1.5 cm. long. 

Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) Schum. (C. speciosa Aubl.; Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 48. 1895) has been reported on the basis of a Linden col- 
lection, and may occur in the region. 

Crusea calocephala DC. 

Common. An erect hirsute annual; leaves lanceolate to ovate, 
acuminate, slender-petioled ; flowers bright pink, in terminal leafy- 
bracted heads. 

Erithalis fruticosa L. 

Collected only on Mugeres and Holbox islands. A glabrous 
shrub or small tree; leaves short-petioled, orbicular to oblong- 
obovate, 2-10 cm. long, rounded at the apex, thick; flowers small, 
white, in axillary cymes; fruit a globose black drupe 2.5-4 mm. in 
diameter. The plant is unknown elsewhere in Mexico. 

Ernodea littoralis Sw. 

Common on seashores; also about Lake Chichankanab. A shrub, 
erect or with long prostrate branches; leaves lanceolate or lance- 
oblong, acute, sessile or nearly so, leathery, glabrous; flowers small, 
yellow, axillary; fruit yellow, drupaceous. The fruits are eaten by 
birds. The plant is unknown elsewhere in Mexico. 

Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. 

Zabacche (Gaumer), Chactsiis (Schott). Frequent. A shrub or 
small tree; leaves ovate to oblong, acuminate, barbate beneath along 
the costa; flowers solitary in the leaf axils, white, 6-10 cm. long, the 
corolla lobes linear; fruit a capsule 1-1.5 cm. long. The wood is 
hard, strong, close-grained, and brown. 

Exostema mexicanum Gray. 

Zabacche (B. H.). Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23589; without locality, 
Gaumer 24011, 24-278; also in British Honduras. A shrub or small 
tree; leaves oblong-ovate to oval, long-acuminate, barbate beneath; 
flowers 1.5-2 cm. long, in dense terminal cymes. The bark is very 
bitter. 

Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. 

Sp. Gardenia. Cultivated for ornament; native of China. Cape 
jasmine. A shrub with waxy, white, very fragrant flowers. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 429 

frf 

Guettarda elliptica Sw. 

Kiichche (B. H.). Pricklewood (B. H.). Frequent in dry 
thickets. A shrub or small tree; leaves petioled, oval to rounded or 
obovate, obtuse or rounded at the apex, appressed-pilose or glabrate, 
1-7 cm. long; flowers white, 9-12 mm. long, in few-flowered axillary 
cymes; fruit a subglobose, nearly dry drupe 4-8 mm. in diameter. 

Guettarda Gaumeri Standl. FMB. 8: 58. 1930. 

Type, Gaumer 24239, without locality; also in British Honduras. 
Leaves short-petioled, oblong or oblong-elliptic, 2.5-4.5 cm. long, 
acute or obtuse and apiculate, at the base broadly rounded to obtuse, 
very densely pilose beneath with spreading interlaced hairs; cymes 
mostly 3-flowered; corolla densely pilose with ascending hairs. 

Guettarda Seleriana (Loes.) Standl. CNH. 23: 1384. 1926. G. 
scabra Millsp. FMB. 1: 48. 1895, not Lam. G. scabra var. Seleriana 
Loes. Repert. Sp. Nov. 18: 361. 1922. 

Endemic; frequent; type from Chichen Itza, Seler 5574- A shrub 
or small tree; leaves long-petioled, rounded or broadly ovate, 12-16 
cm. long, obtuse or rounded at the apex, cordate or subcordate at 
the base, puberulent and pale beneath; flowers 2 cm. long, in many- 
flowered bifurcate cymes. Some of the Yucatan specimens have 
been distributed as G. Combsii Urban. 

Hamelia patens Jacq. H. erecta Jacq.; H. lanuginosa Mart. 
&Gal. 

Kanan (Gaumer; Yucatan, B. H.), Chactoc (B. H.). Common. 
A shrub or small tree; leaves mostly ternate, lance-oblong to ovate, 
acute or acuminate, pubescent beneath; flowers tubular, red, 14-20 
mm. long, puberulent, in cymes, secund upon the branches; fruit a 
red or black berry 6-10 mm. long. The fruit is edible, but not very 
good. The Kekchi names of the plant are reported by Pittier as 
"chahmah" and "sikunkhen." 

Machaonia Lindeniana Baill. Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 204. 
1879. 

Kuchel (Gaumer), Kampocolche (Gaumer). Frequent; endemic 
in Yucatan, Campeche, and British Honduras; type collected in 
Yucatan by Linden. A tree 7.5 m. high or less with medium-hard 
white wood; leaves opposite or verticillate, ovate or elliptic, obtuse 
or acute, barbate beneath; flowers 3 mm. long, white or cream- 
colored, fragrant, in dense terminal cymes; fruit small, dry, com- 
posed of 2 nutlets. 



430 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. 

Occasional. A small branched pubescent annual; leaves oblong 
to elliptic, sessile or nearly so, obtuse; flowers minute, white, in 
terminal and axillary heads. 

Morinda yucatanensis Greenm. FMB. 2: 262. 1907. M. Royoc 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 49. 1895, 1: 321. 1896, 1: 392. 1898; Millsp. & Loes. 
BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 28. 1905, not L. 

Xhoyoc (Gaumer), Hooyoc (Pe"rez), Hoyoc (Cuevas), Xoyencab 
(Gaumer). Sp. Pinuela (Pete"n). Common; endemic; type from 
Izamal, Gaumer 362. A slender subscandent shrub; leaves lance- 
oblong to oblong-obovate or elliptic, acute or acuminate, pubescent, 
attenuate at the base to a short petiole; flowers small, in sessile or 
short-stalked, globose heads 1 cm. in diameter; fruit a small fleshy 
yellow syncarp. Cuevas states that the fruit rubbed upon warts 
infallibly removes them. The plant is reputed to have corrobora- 
tive, diuretic, laxative, and astringent properties, and is employed 
as a tonic for the digestive system, also as a remedy for jaundice 
and various other affections. According to Pe>ez, the plant was 
used by the Mayas for dyeing. 

Oldenlandia callitrichoides Griseb. 

Frequent in moist places. A slender delicate creeping perennial 
herb, forming dense mats, nearly glabrous; leaves rounded, 1.5-3.5 
mm. long; flowers minute, white, axillary; fruit capsular. 

Psychotria microdon (DC.) Urban. P. pinularis Sess & Moc. 

Sp. Hueso definado (B. H.). Dead man's bones (B. H.). Kanan, 
Gaumer 23398; without locality, Gaumer 838, 24213. A stout shrub 
1-2 m. high, nearly glabrous; leaves petioled, mostly obovate, 4-7 
cm. long, obtuse or acute; flowers 15 mm. long, greenish white, in 
small terminal cymes. 

Psychotria pubescens Sw. 

Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23541- A shrub 1-3 m. high; leaves 
oblanceolate to elliptic, 6-14 cm. long, acuminate, puberulent be- 
neath; flowers in loose corymbs, white; corolla 4 mm. long; fruit a 
small red drupe. 

Psychotria sessilifolia Mart. & Gal. P. undata Millsp. FMB. 
1: 392. 1898, not Jacq. P. papantlensis Standl. CNH. 23: 1391. 
1926, in part, not Hemsl. 

Sp. Cancerillo. MeYida, Schott 524- A shrub; leaves lanceolate 
to oblong-elliptic, acuminate, minutely puberulent or glabrate be- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 431 



i 



neath; flowers small, white, in sessile cymes; fruit red. The leaves 
are applied to sores to cleanse and heal them. 

Psychotria undata Jacq. Myrstiphyllum horizontal Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 102. 1900, not P. horizontalis Sw. 

Izamal, Gaumer 974; without locality, Gaumer 24019; Cozumel 
Island, Millspaugh 1556a. A shrub 1-2 m. high, the branches 
pubescent; leaves elliptic-oblong or elliptic, acuminate, pubescent 
or glabrate; flowers small, white, in sessile terminal cymes; fruit red. 

Rachicallis americana (Jacq.) Hitchc. 

Collected only on coastal rocks of Cozumel Island. An erect or 
procumbent shrub, densely leafy; leaves linear-oblong to obovate, 
2-8 mm. long, coriaceous; flowers small, yellow, sessile in the leaf 
axils; corolla sericeous; fruit a small capsule. The plant is unknown 
elsewhere in Mexico. 

Randia Gaumeri Greenm. & Thomps. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1: 
410. 1915. 

Type from Izamal, Gaumer 589. A spiny shrub; leaves obovate, 
5-15 mm. long, broadly rounded at the apex, glabrous or nearly so; 
flowers axillary, sessile; calyx 4-lobate; corolla 5 mm. long. The 
species is known also from Colombia and Venezuela. 

Randia longiloba Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 101. 1886. 

X-kax (Gaumer), Canalkax (Gaumer), Caax (Schott). Frequent 
in thickets; endemic; type from Cozumel Island, Gaumer in 1885. 
A spiny shrub or small tree with whitish branches; leaves ovate or 
elliptic, 2-4.5 cm. long, acute; flowers terminal, subsessile, clustered; 
corolla white, the tube 2 cm. long. This may possibly be the plant 
reported as "akankax," whose root is a remedy for erysipelas. 

Randia Millspaughiana Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 
34: 45. 1921. 

Endemic; type from Maxcanu, Gaumer 23260; Mina de Oro, 
Gaumer 23327. A stout spiny shrub ; leaves ovate or elliptic, small, 
acute, glabrous; corolla white, the tube 12 mm. long. 

Randia aculeata L. R. mitis L.; R. latifolia Lam. 

Pechcitam (B. H.). Cozumel Island, Gaumer 140; British Hon- 
duras. A spiny shrub 1-3 m. high; leaves 1-10 cm. long, glabrous 
or nearly so; flowers white, 6-8 mm. long; fruit globose, baccate, 6-13 
mm. in diameter. 



432 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Randia truncata Greenm. & Thomps. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1: 
411. 1915. R. xalapensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 321. 1896, not Mart. & 
Gal. R. aculeata Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 28. 1905, not 
L. R. tetramera Loes. Verb. Bot. Ver. Brand. 65: 109. 1923. 

Cabalkax (Gaumer), Mehenkax (Gaumer),Kax, Pechcitam (Seler). 
Frequent; endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer; type of R. tetramera 
from Xkombec, Seler 4035. A shrub 2-3 m. high, armed with stout 
spines; leaves obovate or rounded, 1-3 cm. long, obtuse or rounded 
at the apex, glabrous; calyx truncate; corolla tube 1-1.5 cm. long. 

Rondeletia stenosiphon Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 26. 1879. 

Type collected by Johnson in Yucatan or Tabasco; not collected 
recently. A shrub; leaves obovate to elliptic-oval, 7-14 cm. long, 
acuminate, strigillose or glabrate; flowers cymose-corymbose; corolla 
strigose, the tube 8-11 mm. long; fruit capsular. 

Sabicea flagenioides Wernham, Monogr. Sabicea 57. 1914. 

Known only from the type, collected at Chichankanab, Gaumer 
1423. A scandent herb or shrub; leaves lanceolate, 5 cm. long, 
acuminate, puberulent or glabrate; flowers in small dense axillary 
cymes. 

Spermacoce tenuior L. 

Taulmil (Gaumer). A frequent weed. An erect or spreading, 
branched annual 20-60 cm. high, glabrous or nearly so; leaves linear 
to elliptic, obtuse to acuminate; flowers minute, white, in small 
dense axillary clusters. This may be the "taumil" of Cuevas (PL 
Med. 96. 1913), although that is described as having blue flowers. 
It is said to be a remedy for skin eruptions. 

Spermacoce tetraquetra A. Rich. Diodia teres Millsp. FMB. 
1:321. 1896, not Walt. 

Chichankanab, Gaumer 1975; without locality, Gaumer 807, 965. 
An erect, simple or branched annual, copiously hispidulous or 
short-hirsute; leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-6 cm. long; 
corolla white, about twice as long as the sepals. In Mexico this 
species is known only from Yucatan. It has been reported from 
this region as Spermacoce tenuior. 

Strumpfia maritima Jacq. 

Sp. Romero falso. Collected only on Cozumel and Mugeres 
islands. A dense shrub 2 m. high or less; leaves ternate, linear, 1-3 
cm. long, rigid, whitish beneath, the margins revolute; flowers small, 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 433 

pink, in axillary racemes; fruit a white drupe 4 mm. long. Unknown 
elsewhere in Mexico. 

Triodon angulatum Benth. has been reported from the region 
(Millsp. FMB. 1: 49. 1895), but the record is doubtful. 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Honeysuckle Family 

Some of the Old World species of Lonicera or honeysuckle, called 
"madreselva," are in cultivation as ornamental plants. 

Sambucus mexicana Presl. S. canadensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 
321. 1896, 1: 393. 1898, not L. S. niger Cuevas, PI. Med. 87, Ilustr. 
pi 27, f. 3. 1913. 

Sp. Sauco. Cultivated commonly, but probably not native in 
the Peninsula. Elder. A shrub or small tree; leaves pinnate or 
bipinnate, the leaflets ovate or lanceolate, serrate, pubescent; flowers 
small, creamy white, fragrant, in large flat- topped cymes; fruit a 
small, nearly black drupe. The infusion of the flowers has sudorific, 
diuretic, and expectorant properties, and is used in treating colds, 
fevers, syphilis, and rheumatism. The Kekchi name of the plant is 
"sakatsun"; the Quiche" name, "tzolotzche." Other Guatemalan 
names are recorded as "tzoloh," "tzolohquen," and "bahman." 

Lonicera japonica Thunb. L. macrantha Millsp. FMB. 1: 393. 
1898, not DC. 

Cultivated for ornament. Japanese honeysuckle. A slender 
woody vine with opposite, petioled, oblong or ovate-oblong, entire 
leaves; flowers tubular, 2-lipped, white or yellowish, on 2-flowered 
axillary peduncles, sweet-scented. Millspaugh reports Gaumer 1105 
with the note, "uncommon in the forests of Tekax," doubtless an 
error in locality data. 

CUCURBITACEAE. Gourd Family 

Cayaponia alata Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 3: 746. 1881. 
Akilkax (Gaumer). Frequent; type from Hacienda Saragoza, 
Schott 901. A large coarse herbaceous vine with tendrils; leaves 
deeply 5-7-lobed, the lobes narrow, scabrous beneath; staminate 
flowers solitary, 2 cm. long. 

Cayaponia racemosa (Swartz) Cogn. 

Occasional. A large herbaceous vine; leaves lobed or the upper 
entire, scabrous; flowers in racemes or panicles, about 1 cm. broad; 
fruit oblong, red, 1-2 cm. long. 



434 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 

Sp. Sandia. Cultivated ; native of Africa. Watermelon. 

Corallocarpus emetocatharticus (Grosourdy) Cogn. 

Cizcan (Gaumer). Occasional. A large vine with fleshy stems; 
leaves ovate or rounded, entire or lobed, tomentose beneath; flowers 
pale yellow, small, in dense clusters, sessile; fruit fleshy, ovoid, 1 
cm. long. 

Corallocarpus Millspaughii Cogn. FMB. 1: 322. pi 20. 1896. 

Xtucizcan (Gaumer). Frequent; type from Chichen Itza, Mill- 
spaugh 215; also in Oaxaca. A large coarse vine; leaves broadly 
triangular-ovate, entire or angulate, glabrous, petiolate; flowers small, 
in short racemes; fruit oval, 4 cm. long, at first whitish, becoming 
yellow and finally crimson. The plant has a large tuberous root, 
weighing 6 pounds or more, which has a bitter flavor and emetic- 
cathartic properties. 

Cucumis Anguria L. 

Habaplat (Gaumer), Sandia chom (Gaumer). Sp. Sandia de 
zopilote. Frequent. A prostrate vine, hispid; leaves deeply 3-5- 
lobed, scabrous; flowers clustered or solitary, yellow; corolla 1 cm. 
broad; fruit ellipsoid, fleshy, prickly, yellow, 4-7 cm. long. 

Cucumis Melo L. 

Sp. Melon. Cultivated commonly; native of the Old World. 
Muskmelon. An infusion of the pulverized seeds is given as a remedy 
for venereal diseases. A decoction of the root is administered as a 
vomitive. 

Cucumis sativus L. 

Sp. Pepino. Cultivated commonly; native of Asia. Cucumber. 

Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche". 

Sp. Cidracayote, Chilacayote (names of Nahuatl origin). Culti- 
vated occasionally; native of Asia. A perennial vine with broad, 
shallowly lobed leaves; fruit large, somewhat resembling a water- 
melon; seeds black. The young fruit is cooked and eaten. The ripe 
fruit is used for preparing dulces. 

Cucurbita moschata Duch. 

Kum (written also "kuum" and "cum"). Sp. Calabaza. Culti- 
vated commonly; native of America, but probably unknown in a 
truly wild state. Squash. There is some doubt as to the proper 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 435 

'specific name of the "calabazas" grown in Central America, but they 
seem to be squashes rather than pumpkins, and are therefore refer- 
able to Cucurbita moschata, rather than to C. Pepo L., if there is any 
essential difference between the two. The name "ca" is given in 
Yucatan to a kind of squash, described as white and striped. The 
Motul Dictionary defines "tsol" as a kind of green flat "calabaza." 
PeYez defines "chu" as "calabazo." Squash seeds are called "zicil." 
Gaumer lists also the "calabaza masilla" and "calabaza bonetera." 
Squash seeds are ground and taken in water or milk to expel intestinal 
parasites. 

In Tabasco the names "compate" and "cumpate" are applied 
to a kind of "calabaza" with thin smooth skin, which is much esteemed 
for making dulces. 

Cyclanthera ribiflora (Schlecht.) Cogn. 

MeYida and Izamal. A slender vine; leaves usually 3-lobed, 
scaberulous; flowers small, greenish, racemose; fruit fleshy, curved, 
2-2.5 cm. long, spiny. 

Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., comb. nov. Cucurbita 
siceraria Molina, Sagg. Chil. 133. 1782. L. vulgaris Ser. 

Cultivated and probably escaped; native of Africa. Gourd. A 
large vine with showy white flowers. The dry hard fruits, globose 
and with a long narrow "handle," are used as dippers. This is 
apparently the plant reported by PeYez as "tuch." He reports also 
the name "lee," "a kind of 'calabaza' which serves the Indians for 
Vasijas.' ' In Tabasco the name "leque" is given to the fruit, espe- 
cially when it is made into cups and similar containers. In the 
same state the fruit is called "bux." 

Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. L. aegyptiaca Mill.; L. fricatoria 
Donde", Emulation 3: Apend. 20. 1878. 

Sp. Estropajo. Planted and escaped: native of the Old World.- 
Sponge gourd. A large vine with showy yellow flowers; leaves deeply 
cordate at the base, shallowly or deeply lobed, the lobes acute. 
The spongelike interior of the fruit is used like animal sponges. 

Calvino reports Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. as introduced to 
MeYida by the Chinese gardeners and called "papangaya." In this 
species the fruit is sharply 10-ribbed; in L. cylindrica it is smooth. 
The young tender fruits of both species are sometimes cooked and 
eaten. 



436 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Maximowiczia tripartita (Naud.) Cogn. M. Lindheimeri 
Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 29. 1905, not Cogn. 

Akilkan (Gaumer). Occasional. A glabrous fleshy vine; leaves 
small, 3-lobed or 3-parted, the lobes coarsely dentate; flowers small, 
axillary; fruit oval, red, smooth, 2.5 cm. long. 

Melothria guadalupensis (Spreng.) Cogn. M. fluminensis 
Gardn. 

Sp. Meloncito. Common. A small slender vine; leaves broadly 
ovate-cordate, 5-angled or shallowly lobed, usually scabrous; flowers 
small, racemose, yellow; fruit oval, 1-1.5 cm. long, fleshy. 

Melothria pendula L. 

Xtulub (Gaumer). Sp. Sandia silvestre. Occasional. A small 
vine; leaves small, 3-5-lobed, scabrous; flowers small, racemose; fruit 
ellipsoid, about 1 cm. long. This is probably the plant for which 
the names "kumixtulub" (Motul Dictionary) and "kumxtulub" are 
reported. It is a local remedy for gonorrhea and for swellings or 
inflammation. 

Momordica Charantia L. 

Yacunahax (Gaumer). Sp.Cundeamor,B&lsamo,Catagera. Com- 
mon. A slender herbaceous vine; leaves reniform, 5-7-lobed, pubes- 
cent or glabrate; flowers small, yellow; fruit fleshy, yellow, ovoid, 
2-12 cm. long, tuberculate, the seeds surrounded by red pulp. The 
fruit is sometimes eaten. The leaves are employed in native medicine 
as an aphrodisiac. The fruit is applied as a poultice to cure itch, 
sores, burns, etc., and it is reputed to have vermifuge and purgative 
properties. 

Pittiera grandiflora Cogn.; Bonn. Smith, Enum. PI. Guat. 3: 
35. 1893. Cayaponia grandiflora Cogn. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 3: 
779. 1881. 

Xtabentun (Schott). Type from Ticul, Schott 680; collected also 
at Izamal. A large herbaceous vine; leaves broad, cordate at the 
base, entire or lobed, scabrous; flowers solitary, axillary. 

Pittiera longipedunculata Cogn. 

Pomponzit (Gaumer). Occasional. A large vine; leaves broadly 
cordate, angled or shallowly lobed, tomentose beneath; flowers 4-5 
cm. long; fruit oval, 4-5 cm. long. 

Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. 

Sp. Chayote (of Nahuatl derivation). Cultivated occasionally. 
A large perennial herbaceous vine; leaves rounded-ovate, angled or 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 437 

lobed, rough; flowers small, white, the staminate in racemes. This 
plant is notable from the fact that almost all its parts are edible. 
The obovoid, smooth or spiny, 1-seeded fruits are cooked and eaten; 
the young shoots and flowers are used as a pot herb; the large 
tuberous roots, which may be removed without injuring the plants, 
are boiled and eaten as a vegetable, and are also made into delicious 
dulces. The roots are called in Mexico "chinchayote," "chayotextle" 
and "camochayote." Palma gives the Maya name as "kuum," and 
states that the spiny-fruited form is called "kiix-pach-kuum." The 
Kekchi name is "chima," and the Pokonchi name is reported as 
"ch'uma." 

Sicana odorifera (Veil.) Naud. 

Sp. Melocotdn, Calabaza melona. Sometimes planted; native of 
South America. A large vine; leaves rounded, lobed, smooth; 
flowers large, yellow, solitary; fruit reddish yellow, oblong, 30-40 
cm. long, fragrant. The ripe fruit is employed in making 
dulces. 

Sicydium tamnifolium (HBK.) Cogn. Triceratia bryonioides 
A. Rich. 

Chacmots (Pete"n). Common in thickets. A slender herbaceous 
vine; leaves ovate-cordate, entire, densely pubescent; flowers very 
small, panicled; fruit black, fleshy, 5-6 mm. long, 1-seeded. 

LOBELIACEAE. Lobelia Family 

Isotoma longiflora (L.) Presl. 

Lukzahtahan (Gaumer). Sp. L&grimas de San Diego. Frequent. 
A perennial pubescent herb, usually 60 cm. high or less, with 
milky sap; leaves alternate, lanceolate or oblong, coarsely sinuate- 
dentate; flowers axillary, white, the very slender corolla tube 8-11 
cm. long; fruit a large capsule. The plant is applied to wounds as 
a cauterizing and healing agent. It is employed also in the treat- 
ment of venereal diseases, asthma, bronchitis, and rheumatism, and 
even of epilepsy and hydrophobia. 

Lobelia Berlandieri A. DC. 

Occasional. A small slender herb; leaves mostly basal, lanceo- 
late to spatulate, sinuate-dentate or entire; flowers small, blue, in 
terminal racemes. 



438 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

GOODENIACEAE. Goodenia Family 
Scaevola Plumierii (L.) Vahl. Scaevola Lobelia Murr. 
Common on seashores. A coarse succulent perennial, often 

shrubby, glabrous; leaves alternate, obovate, entire, very thick; 

flowers white or bluish, in axillary cymes; corolla 2.5 cm. long; 

fruit a black berry 1 cm. long. 

GOMPOSITAE. Sunflower Family 
Achillea Millefolium L. 

Sp. Alcanfor, Mil en rama. Collected only at Me*rida; introduced, 
probably from the United States. Yarrow. A perennial pubescent 
herb; leaves alternate, finely pinnatifid-dissected and plumelike; 
heads small, white, in flat-topped corymbs. 

Ageratum Gaumeri Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 47: 191. 
1911. A. corymbosum Millsp. FMB. 1: 51. 1895, 1: 323. 1896, not 
Zucc. A. conyzoides Millsp. FMB. 1: 323. 1896, 1: 394. 1898, not L. 
A. intermedium Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 90. 1904, not Hemsl. 

Taulum (Gaumer), Zacmizib (Gaumer), Tsitsilche. Sp. Mota, 
Mota morada, Sereno, Flor de San Juan. Frequent; endemic; type 
from Izamal, Gaumer 395. An annual, sparsely pilose; leaves op- 
posite, ovate or deltoid-ovate, acute, crenate, long-petioled; heads 5 
mm. high, purple, few, laxly corymbose; achenes 5-angled, the pappus 
of 5 aristate scales. The name "bakelus" is reported for the plant 
by Valdez. The leaves are bound upon the temples to check nose- 
bleed. 

Ageratum littorale Gray, var. hondurense Robinson. Alo- 
mia ageratoides Millsp. FMB. 1: 51. 1895, 1: 394. 1898, 2: 106. 
1900; Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 90. 1904, not HBK. A. littorale f. 
setigerum Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 468. 1913. 

Hauayche (Gaumer). Frequent on the islands off the east coast, 
also on the mainland; the typical form of the species occurs in Florida. 
An erect or ascending annual, sparsely pubescent; leaves ovate, 
acute, crenate; flowers purple, the heads 6-7 mm. high, in small 
dense corymbs; achene 5-angled, the pappus none or of 5 lanceolate 
scales. The type of f . setigerum was collected on Mugeres Island by 
Gaumer. 

Ageratum maritimum HBK. var. intermedium (Hemsl.) 
Robinson. A. intermedium Hemsl.; A. maritimum f. calvum Robin- 
son, Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 467. 1913. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 439 

*,? 

Tsitsilche (Gaumer). Occasional; typical form of the species 
occurring in Cuba. An erect or decumbent annual, sparsely pilose; 
leaves ovate-oblong or deltoid, crenate, acute; flowers purple, the 
heads 7 mm. long, in lax corymbs; pappus of 5 ovate scales, or some- 
times wanting. 

Ambrosia hispida Pursh. 

Sp. Margarita del mar. Frequent on seashores. A perennial 
herb, prostrate, hispid; leaves opposite, 2 or 3 times pinnatifid, 
strong-scented; flowers small, greenish yellow, the 2 sexes in separate 
involucres; fruit ovoid, beaked, tuberculate. The plant has been 
employed locally as a remedy for fevers. 

Artemisia vulgaris L. A. mexicana Millsp. FMB. 1: 323. 1896; 
Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 145. 1904, not Willd. 

Zizim (Gaumer) ; reported as "tzitzim" and "sisin." Sp. Ajenjo. 
Planted for medicinal use or as an ornamental plant; native of 
Europe. A perennial herb, densely white- tomentose or glabrate; 
leaves alternate, deeply pinnate-lobed; heads small, greenish, pani- 
cled, without rays. The plant is employed in the region as a bitter 
tonic, emmenagogue, and anthelmintic. It is administered for pains 
in the stomach and for malaria, and used in a lotion to relieve 
rheumatism. The single specimen at hand from Yucatan is imper- 
fect, and there is doubt concerning its determination, but it is not 
A. mexicana. 

Aster laevis L. A. novi-belgii Millsp. FMB. 1: 323. 1896, not L. 

Sp. Ramillete. Planted for ornament at Izamal; native of the 
United States. A glabrous perennial herb; leaves oblong or lanceo- 
late, entire; heads radiate, the rays violet. 

Baccharis heterophylla HBK. B. halimifolia Millsp. & Chase, 
FMB. 3: 100. 1904, not L. 

Sp. Hierba del pasmo. Frequent on sea and lake shores. A 
glutinous shrub 1-2.5 m. high, densely leafy, nearly glabrous; leaves 
alternate, oblanceolate, 2-5.5 cm. long, obtuse, mostly entire; flowers 
whitish, the heads 3-4 mm. high, in small dense corymbs; pappus of 
slender bristles. 

Baccharis trinervis (Lam.) Pers. 

Holnuxib (Gaumer). Occasional. A shrub 1-2 m. high, the 
branches long, recurved or clambering, angled; leaves lanceolate to 
elliptic, 3-nerved, acuminate, glabrous or nearly so; flowers whitish, 
the heads 4 mm. long. 



440 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Baltimora recta L. 

Zalackat (Gaumer). A frequent weed. An erect annual 1 m. 
high or less, hirsute; leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate, acuminate, 
serrate; flowers yellow, the heads 5-6 mm. high, radiate, panicled; 
achenes cuneate, black, 3-angled; pappus a cuplike crown. 

Bidens cynapiifolia HBK. B. bipinnata Millsp. & Chase, 
FMB. 3: 131. 1904, in part, not L. 

Chacxul (Gaumer). Izamal, Gaumer in 1888; Gaumer 2498, 2504 
in part. An erect annual; leaves opposite, 1-3 times pinnatifid, the 
segments ovate or oblong; heads long-stalked, yellow, the involucre 
2-seriate; achenes linear, the pappus of 4-6 downwardly barbed 
awns. 

Bidens pilosa L. var. leucantha (L.) Hoffm. B. leucantha 
Willd.; B. pilosa Millsp. FMB. 1: 54. 1895, not L. B. alausensis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 54. 1895, not HBK. 

Kanmul (Gaumer). Sp. Mulito, Te de milpa. A common weed. 
An erect annual, glabrous or pubescent; leaves with 3 or 5 ovate 
or lanceolate, serrate segments; heads with short white rays; achenes 
columnar-fusiform, the pappus of 2-4 downwardly barbed awns. 
The Kekchi name of this species is "xubai." 

Bidens refracta Brandeg. B. bipinnata Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 
3: 131. 1904, in part, not L. 

Chacxul (Gaumer). Izamal, Gaumer 2499, 2504 in part. Similar 
toB. pilosa var. leucantha, but the heads not radiate; achenes pilose. 

Bidens reptans (L.) Don. B. tereticaulis Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 
3: 132. 1904, in part, not DC. 

San Anselmo, Gaumer 2083. A glabrous vine, herbaceous or 
slightly woody; leaves pinnately parted into 3-5 lanceolate or ob- 
long-ovate, serrate segments; heads 9 mm. high, panicled, with showy 
yellow rays. 

Bidens squarrosa HBK. B. tereticaulis DC. 

Frequent. A large vine, somewhat woody; leaves pinnately 
parted into 3-5 ovate or lanceolate, serrate segments; heads panicled, 
with showy yellow rays; achenes linear, the pappus of 2 spreading or 
recurved awns. 

Bidens Urbanii Greenm. 

Apazote, Campeche, Goldman 468; also in Porto Rico. A slender 
vine, nearly glabrous; leaves 2 or 3 times parted into small segments; 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 441 

*t 

heads cymose-paniculate, 8-10 mm. high, with yellow rays; achenes 
linear, the pappus of 2-4 downwardly barbed awns. 

Borrichia arborescens (L.) DC. B. argentea DC. 

Sp. Verdolaga del mar. Cozumel, Mugeres, and Holbox islands, on 
seashores. A small shrub, canescent-pubescent or glabrate; leaves 
opposite, fleshy, oblanceolate; heads solitary, 12-15 mm. high, 
yellow, radiate; phyllaries oblong, appressed; pales acute, thin; 
achenes oblong, angled, the pappus a 4-toothed crown. 

Borrichia frutescens (L.) DC. Borrichia argentea Millsp. & 
Chase, FMB. 3: 116. 1904; Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 29. 
1905, not DC. 

Sp. Verdolaga del mar. Common on seashores. A low shrub, 
densely canescent-strigillose; heads 8-9 mm. high, the phyllaries 
ovate, somewhat spreading; pales indurate, spine- tipped. 

Brickellia diffusa (Vahl) Gray. Coleosanthus diffusus Kuntze. 

Common. An erect branched annual 1 m. high or less, puberu- 
lent or glabrate; leaves opposite, broadly rhombic-ovate, acute, 
dentate; flowers greenish white, the heads 7-12-flowered, 7 mm. 
high, in large panicles; achenes pubescent, 10-ribbed, the pappus 
of capillary bristles. 

Calea urticifolia (Mill.) DC. C. axillaris var. urticifolia Robins. 
& Greenm. 

Xicin (Gaumer). Sp. Hierba de la paloma. Frequent. A shrub 
1-3 m. high; leaves opposite, ovate, 5-12 cm. long, serrate, rough; 
heads yellow, 1 cm. high, with short rays, in umbelliform panicles; 
achenes pubescent, the pappus of about 20 linear scales. The flowers 
are said to yield a good grade of honey. 

The "xicinT reported by Cuevas (PI. Med. 109. 1913) is said to 
have milky sap, and is, therefore, probably a member of another 
family. 

Calea zacatechichi Schlecht. 

Tzicin (Gaumer) ; reported also as "xicin." Occasional. A shrub, 
puberulous or pubescent; leaves ovate, coarsely dentate, gland- 
dotted; heads 1 cm. high, in dense panicles; rays none; pappus of 
12-15 oblong scales. 

Chaptalia dentata (L.) Cass. C. albicans Northrop. 
Sp. Motitas. Cultivated at Izamal and Yot Tsonot. A perennial 
scapose herb; leaves in a basal rosette, oblanceolate, entire or nearly 



442 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

so, white-tomentose beneath; heads 1.5 cm. high, purplish; achenes 
slender-beaked, the pappus of tawny bristles. 

Cirsium mexicanum DC. Carduus mexicanus Moric. 

Omil. Sp. Cardo. Occasional. Thistle. A large biennial herb, 
white-tomentose; leaves alternate, decurrent, pinnate-lobed, with 
spiny margins; heads purplish, 4 cm. high, without rays; pappus of 
plumose bristles. 

Gonyza lyrata HBK. 

Sp. Hierba del histerico. A frequent weed. A coarse viscid- 
pubescent herb 1 m. high or less with very unpleasant odor; leaves 
alternate, sessile, obovate, sinuate-lyrate, dentate; flowers greenish 
white or yellowish, the heads 6-7 mm. high, with inconspicuous rays; 
achenes villous, the pappus of slender tawny bristles. 

Cosmos caudatus HBK. 

Chactsul (Gaumer; reported as "chacxul"). Sp.Estrella del mar. 
Occasional. A tall branched annual, nearly glabrous; leaves twice 
pinnatifid, opposite; heads long-stalked, 1 cm. high, the involucre 
biseriate; rays rose-purple; achenes fusiform, the pappus of 2 slender 
deflexed awns. 

Dahlia variabilis Desf. 

Sp. Dalia. Grown for ornament; native of the mountains of 
Mexico. Dahlia. The Kekchi name of the plant is "tsoloh." 

Dyssodia cancellata (Cass.) Gray. Chrysopsis sp. Millsp. FMB. 
1: 52. 1895. 

Sp. Cardosanto del monte. Frequent. An erect glabrous annual; 
leaves alternate, sessile, pinnate-lobed, gland-dotted; heads yellow, 
long-stalked, 1.5 cm. high, with short rays; achenes linear-clavate, 
the pappus of short scales and of numerous bristles. 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. E. erecta L. 

A common weed. An erect or procumbent, strigose annual; 
leaves opposite, oblong, sinuate-dentate; heads greenish white, 
axillary, 5 mm. high, with minute rays; phyllaries broadly ovate, 
acuminate; achenes cuneate, corky- tuberculate, the pappus of 2 
short teeth. 

Egletes viscosa (L.) Less. Erechtites sp. Millsp. FMB. 1: 323. 
1896. Lactuca sp. Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 151. 1904. 

Sp. Llanten silvestre. Me"rida, Valdez. A viscid-pubescent much- 
branched herb; leaves alternate, deeply lobed or bipinnatifid, repand- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 443 

t>f 

dentate; heads small, yellowish. Locally the plant is reputed to 
have refrigerant properties. 

Elvira biflora (L.) DC. E. Martyni Cass. 

Bulumekxiu (Gaumer; bolonekxiu?). A common weed. An erect 
strigose annual, usually 50 cm. high or less; leaves opposite, petiolate, 
lance-ovate, acuminate, serrate, 3-nerved; heads clustered, 2-flowered, 
the phyllaries rounded-cordate; ray flowers none; achene obovate, 
flat, without pappus. 

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. 

Buubxiu (Gaumer). Frequent. A coarse erect annual about 1 
m. high, sparsely villous or glabrate; leaves alternate, pinnate-lobed 
or incised-dentate; heads 1.5 cm. high, yellowish white, without rays; 
pappus of soft white bristles. 

Erigeron pusillus Nutt. E. canadensis Millsp. FMB. 1: 52. 
1895, 1: 323. 1896, 1: 395. 1898, not L. Leptilon canadense Millsp. 
& Chase, FMB. 3: 99. 1904, not Britt. & Brown. 

Tzitzilxiu (Gaumer). A common weed. An erect pubescent 
annual; leaves alternate, linear, usually entire; flowers greenish white, 
the heads 3-4 mm. high, with minute rays; achenes pubescent, the 
pappus of tawny bristles. The plant is reputed to have astringent, 
diuretic, and tonic properties, and is employed in treating dysentery, 
uterine hemorrhages, diabetes, and bronchial affections. 

Eupatorium albicaule Schultz Bip. E. drepanophyllum Klatt, 
Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien 9: 356. 1894. 

Zactokaban (Gaumer). Common. A shrub 3-5 m. high (reported 
as a tree of 9 m.) with brittle whitish branches; leaves opposite, 
oblong or ovate, 5-12 cm. long, serrate or nearly entire, glabrous; 
flowers white, the heads 6-7 mm. high, in dense rounded corymbs; 
pappus (as in other species) of slender bristles. The type of E. 
drepanophyllum is Gaumer 122 from Cozumel Island. 

Eupatorium campechiense Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 43: 
30. 1907. 

Known only from the type, from Apazote, Campeche, Goldman 
504- A shrub, nearly glabrous; leaves lanceolate, 8-10 cm. long, 
serrate; heads about 5-flowered, in flattish corymbs. 

Eupatorium daleoides (DC.) Hemsl. E. hebebotryum Millsp. 
FMB. 2: 105. 1900, not Hemsl. 



444 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Xtokabal Cozumel Island, Millspaugh 1510. A large shrub or 
small tree, nearly glabrous; leaves elliptic-oblong, 10-20 cm. long, 
acute, serrate; flowers white, the heads 6 mm. high, 4-5-flowered, in 
rounded panicles. A decoction of the bark, leaves, and flowers is a 
local remedy for gonorrhea. 

The related E. hebebotryum (DC.) Hemsl. is known in British 
Honduras as "soscha," "xoltexnuc," and "old-woman's walking- 
stick." 

Eupatorium hemipteropodum Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 
42: 39. 1906. E. populifolium Millsp. FMB. 1: 324. 1896, not HBK. 
E. quadrangulare Millsp. FMB. 1: 324. 1896, not DC. E. aromatisans 
Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 92. 1904; Cuevas, PI. Med. 36, Ilustr. pi. 
30, f. 2. 1913, not DC. 

Sp. (?) Chiople. Frequent; sometimes cultivated; endemic; type 
from Izamal, Gaunter 552. A shrub or herb 3 m. high, glabrous or 
nearly so; leaves ovate, serrate; flowers white, the heads 7 mm. high, 
about 10-flowered, in ovoid thyrses. The aromatic leaves are used 
for flavoring tobacco. An alcoholic tincture of the plant is applied 
externally to relieve rheumatic pains, and taken internally for dys- 
pepsia and other digestive disorders. 

Eupatorium macrophyllum L. 

Arepaxiu (Pete*n). Pete'n. A coarse herb 1-2 m. high; leaves 
broadly ovate, acute, crenate, finely pubescent; flowers greenish 
white, the large heads in rounded corymbs. 

Eupatorium microstemon Cass. E. paniculatum Schrad.; E. 
guadalupense DC. 

Xultoxiu (Gaumer). Frequent. A slender annual, nearly gla- 
brous, 1 m. high or less; leaves rhombic-ovate, acute, crenate; 
flowers purple, the heads 5 mm. high, about 15-flowered. 

Eupatorium odoratum L. E. conyzoides Mill.; E. ivaefolium 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 105. 1900, not L. 

Tokaban (Gaumer), Tokabal (Gaumer). Common. A shrub, 
erect or with long recurved branches; leaves triangular-ovate or 
rhombic-ovate, acuminate, serrate or crenate, glabrous to tomentose; 
flowers pale blue or white, the heads cylindric, 1 cm. high, in flattish 
corymbs. 

Eupatorium pycnocephalum Less. 

Frequent. An erect herb 1 m. high or less, pubescent or glabrate; 
leaves deltoid-ovate, acuminate, crenate-serrate; flowers purple, the 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 445 

/; 

heads 4-6 mm. high, about 25-flowered, in small dense corymbs. 
The Kekchi name of the plant is "lokab." 

Flaveria linearis Lag. F. longifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 54. 1895, 
not Gray. 

Kanlolxiu (Gaumer). Common along the coast. An erect herb 
about 50 cm. high, forming dense clumps, glabrous; leaves opposite, 
sessile, linear-lanceolate, fleshy, entire; heads yellow, 6 mm. high, 
5-6-flowered, in dense corymbs, with a single ray flower; achenes 
oblong, glabrous, without pappus. 

Flaveria trinervia (Spreng.) Mohr. F. repanda Lag.; Broteroa 
trinervata DC.; F. trinervata Baill. 

Frequent. A glabrous erect annual 1 m. high or less; leaves 
oblong or oblanceolate, 3-nerved, serrate; heads 4-5 mm. high, 
yellow, 1-flowered, in dense clusters. 

Goldmanella sarmentosa Greenm. Bot. Gaz. 45: 198. 1908. 
Goldmania sarmentosa Greenm. FMB. 2: 271. 1907. Caleopsis sar- 
mentosa Fedde, Repert. Sp. Nov. 8: 326. 1910. 

Type collected at Cansayal, Campeche, Goldman 448; also in 
British Honduras. A prostrate or ascending perennial herb, nearly 
glabrous; leaves alternate, ovate, entire; heads 6-8 mm. high, in 
cymes, the rays white or pale yellow; achenes oblong, glabrous, the 
pappus of 2-4 short awns. The genus consists of a single species. 

Grindelia nana Nutt. 

Me"rida, Millspaugh 33; introduced from the United States. An 
erect annual; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate or spatulate, serrate 
or entire; heads yellow, radiate, 1.5 cm. high, the phyllaries very 
viscid. 

Helenium quadridentatum Labill. H. autumnale Cuevas, PI. 
Med. 64, Ilustr. pi. 1J.2. 1913, not L. 

Hetzimxiu (Gaumer). Sp. Manzanilla. Frequent. An erect 
annual, nearly glabrous, with winged stems; leaves alternate, long- 
decurrent, lanceolate and entire, or the lower pinnatifid, punctate; 
heads 1 cm. high, yellow, with showy 3-lobed rays; achenes villous, 
the pappus of 4-6 oval erose-dentate scales. A decoction of the plant 
is administered for fevers and colic pains, and as a diuretic. The 
powdered leaves are used as snuff to relieve catarrh, causing sneez- 
ing if sniffed into the nose. 



446 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Helenium tenuifolium Nutt. 

Collected only at Uman; probably introduced from the United 
States. An erect, nearly glabrous annual; leaves linear; heads 8-10 
mm. high, yellow; pappus of 6 or 7 long-aristate scales. 

Helianthus animus L. 

Sp. Girasol, Mirasol. Collected only at Uman, as an escape from 
cultivation; sometimes planted for ornament; native of the western 
United States. Sunflower. A large hispid annual; leaves mostly 
alternate, broadly ovate; heads large, with showy yellow rays. 

Isocarpha oppositifolia (L.) R. Br. Ageratum paleaceum 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 106. 1900, not Hemsl. 

Chahancan (Gaumer, Seler), Kutzaban (Gaumer). Common. 
An erect branched pubescent herb; leaves opposite, lanceolate to 
linear, entire or nearly so; heads whitish, long-stalked, 8-10 mm. 
high, without rays; achenes cuneate, glabrous, without pappus. 

Lactuca intybacea Jacq. Stephanomeria runcinata Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 325. 1896, not Nutt. 

A frequent weed in cultivated ground; perhaps not native. An 
erect glabrous herb with milky sap; leaves alternate, chiefly basal, 
runcinate-pinnatifid, clasping; heads 1.5 cm. high, yellow, panicled; 
achenes fusiform, tuberculate, short-beaked, the pappus of soft 
bristles. 

Lactuca sativa L. 

Sp. Lechuga. Cultivated for food; native of the Old World. 
Lettuce. 

Melampodium divaricatum (L. Rich.) DC. M. paludosum 
HBK. Eleuthemnthera divaricata Millsp. FMB. 1: 53. 1895. 

Xoy (Gaumer), Copalxiu (Gaumer; a combination of Nahuatl 
and Maya). A common weed. An erect branched annual 1 m. 
high or less, pubescent; leaves opposite, lanceolate or ovate, short- 
petiolate, sinuate-dentate; heads yellow, 8-9 mm. high, long-stalked, 
radiate; outer phyllaries 5, rounded; achenes black, obovoid, 3- 
angled, glabrous, without pappus. The name "xoy" signifies stye, 
probably in allusion to the application of the sap to boils upon the 
eyelids. The name "xkantumbub" has been reported for this plant, 
probably in error. 

Melampodium gracile Less. M. hispidum Millsp. FMB. 1: 
324. 1896, not HBK. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 447 

iff 

Occasional. An erect hispid annual; leaves sessile and clasping, 
oblong, sinuate-dentate; heads yellow, 8 mm. high, long-stalked, the 
rays very short; outer phyllaries 3, ovate; achenes black, obovoid, 
glabrous. 

Melanthera nivea (L.) Small. Amellus niveus Kuntze; A. 
asper Millsp. FMB. 1: 52. 1895, 1: 323. 1896, perhaps not Kuntze. 
M. hastata Millsp. FMB. 1: 395. 1898, perhaps not Michx. 

Toplanxiu (Gaumer). Common. A coarse erect scabrous herb, 
often a meter high or taller; leaves opposite, usually hastate-lobed; 
heads white, 7-10 mm. high, without rays, long-stalked; anthers 
black; achenes cuneate, pubescent, the pappus of 2-4 deciduous 
awns. Some of the Yucatan specimens have been determined as 
M. deltoidea Rich., a name which is perhaps synonymous with M. 
nivea. 

Mikania cordifolia (L. f.) Willd. Willughbaeya cordifolia 
Kuntze. 

Occasional. An herbaceous vine; leaves opposite, cordate, den- 
tate, densely pubescent; flowers dirty white, the heads 1 cm. long, 
in dense corymbs; phyllaries 4; achenes 5-angled, the pappus of 
rusty bristles. 

Mikania micrantha HBK. M. scandens Millsp. FMB. 1: 324. 
1896, not Willd. Willughbaeya scandens Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 
96. 1904, not Kuntze. 

Uahkoxiu (Gaumer). Occasional. An herbaceous vine, nearly 
glabrous; leaves hastate-cordate, repand-dentate; flowers white, the 
heads 5-7 mm. high. The vernacular name is evidently a variant 
of "guaco," the name applied generally in Central America to the 
species of Mikania, which are considered an efficacious remedy for 
snake bites. In Yucatan the plant is employed as a remedy 
for wounds, bruises, and tumors, colic and other affections of the 
alimentary canal, and for syphilitic sores. 

M. Houstoniana (L.) Robinson has been reported from the re- 
gion (Willughbaeya Houstonis Millsp. FMB. 1: 51. 1895), on the 
basis of a Johnson specimen, but the record lacks confirmation. 

Milleria quinqueflora L. 

Xentoloc (Gaumer) ; reported as "xiutoloc." A frequent weed. 
A branched erect annual, glandular-pubescent; leaves opposite, 
rounded-ovate, nearly entire, rough above, soft-pubescent beneath; 



448 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

flowers yellow, the heads 5-6 mm. high, composed of 1 ray flower 
and 4 disk flowers; achene obovoid, black, striate, without pappus. 

Montanoa Schottii Robins. & Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 34: 
518. 1899. M. hibiscifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 324. 1896, not Schultz 
Bip. 

Homahak (Gaumer; "trumpet vine"). Sp. Cerbatana. Frequent; 
endemic; type collected between MeYida and Sisal, Schott 913. A 
scandent shrub, sometimes 15 m. long, with a stem 5 cm. thick; 
leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate, often 3-lobed, serrate, tomentulose 
beneath; heads large, in cymes, with long white rays; achenes 
cuneate, glabrous, without pappus; pales papery and enlarged in fruit. 

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. 

Yaxta (Pete"n). Campeche and Pete"n. A coarse erect herb 1-2 
m. high, rough-pubescent; leaves alternate, lobed; heads 6-8 mm. 
high, greenish yellow, without rays, corymbose; achenes pubescent, 
the pappus of tawny bristles. 

Lagascea mollis Cav. Nocca mollis Jacq.; Tithonia tubaeformis 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 325. 1896, not Cass. 

Acuate (Gaumer; an Aztec name). Frequent. A branched 
pubescent annual, usually 50 cm. high or less; leaves opposite, ovate, 
crenate-dentate; flowers white, the heads 7 mm. high, in dense 
clusters subtended by 4-6 ovate leaflike bracts; achenes pubescent, 
the pappus a crown of white hairs. 

Notoptera Gaumeri Greenm. FMB. 2: 269. 1907. Salmea 
Gaumeri Greenm. in Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 124. pi. 1904. 

Pucak (Gaumer). Frequent; endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 
977. A large shrub; leaves opposite, oval-ovate, 5-7 cm. long, ob- 
tuse or rounded at the apex, tomentose beneath, entire; heads 7 
mm. high, yellow, without rays, in terminal panicles; achenes cune- 
ate, compressed, glabrous, the pappus of 2 unequal awns. 

Notoptera leptocephala Blake, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 
34: 46. 1921. 

Pucak (Schott). Endemic; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23620; Chi- 
chankanab, Gaumer 23709; without locality, Gaumer 24416, 24436. 
Type from Xnocac, Gaumer 23473. A shrub 2-3 m. high; leaves 
ovate, denticulate, densely pubescent beneath, rough above; heads 
subcylindric, 7.5-10 mm. high; achene wings ciliolate. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 449 

r 

Notoptera scabridula Blake. 

Campeche. A scandent shrub; leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, 
5-12 cm. long, acuminate, rough above, densely pubescent beneath; 
heads 4-7 mm. high; achene wings not ciliolate. 

Oliganthes oxylepis Benth. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PL 2: 
233. 1873. 

Known only from the type, collected in Yucatan or Tabasco by 
Johnson. Leaves rhombic, 8-11 cm. long, acute, crenate-dentate, 
tomentose beneath; heads 8-9-flowered, sessile in small clusters at 
the tips of the branches, 1 cm. high; pappus a low entire crown. 

Otopappus scaber Blake, CNH. 22: 636. 1924. 0. verbesinoides 
Millsp. FMB. 2: 270. 1907, not Benth. 

Known only from the type, collected at Apazote, Campeche, 
Goldman 482. A scandent shrub; leaves opposite, oblong-ovate, 
5-9 cm. long, serrulate, rough; heads yellow, radiate, 3 cm. wide; 
pappus of 2 awns and a lacerate crown. 

Parthenium Hysterophorus L. Artemiza vulgaris Cuevas, PL 
Med. 14, Ilustr. pi. 10, f. 3. 1913. 

Hauay (Gaumer). Sp. Altamisa, Artamisa. A common weed. 
An erect grayish-pubescent annual; leaves alternate, bipinnatifid; 
heads white, 3-4 mm. high, with minute rays, in cymose panicles; 
achenes black, obovate, 3-angled, the pappus of 2 broad membranous 
scales. An infusion of the leaves and flowers is used as an emmen- 
agogue. 

This is probably the plant listed in the Motul Dictionary as 
"hauaicne." The decoction of the leaves was employed as a remedy 
for itch, ringworm, and lepra. 

Parthenium Schottii Greenm. in Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 
109. pi 1904. P. fruticosum Millsp. FMB. 2: 106. 1900; Millsp. & 
Chase, FMB. 3: 110. 1904, not Less. 

Chalha (Gaumer), Chalcha (Schott), Sactoy (Gaumer). Sp. Santa 
Maria. Frequent in moist soil; endemic; type from Labcah, Schott 
264. A shrub; leaves triangular-ovate, repand, 5-9 cm. long, acute 
or obtuse, pubescent beneath; heads white, 4 mm. high, panicled; 
pappus of 2 or 3 short awns. 

Pectis linifolia L. P. punctata Jacq. 

Mazcabmiz (Gaumer). Collected only at Izamal. A slender 
erect strong-scented annual, nearly glabrous; leaves linear-lanceo- 



450 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

late, opposite, sessile, entire, gland-dotted; heads 7-8 mm. high, 
panicled, yellow, with small rays; pappus of 2 stiff divergent awns. 
It is probably a species of Pectis, or possibly of Tagetes, which 
is reported from Petn by Maler, with the names "itsimte," "maxtic," 
and "pericon." He states that the plant has the odor of anise, and 
is used for flavoring beverages. Pe"rez lists "itzinte," a plant used 
to flavor posole, stews, and other dishes. 

Pectis prostrata Cav. 

Occasional. A prostrate annual; leaves oblong or oblanceolate, 
1-3 cm. long, bristly-ciliate near the base; heads 7 mm. high, in 
sessile clusters; pappus of 5 thin laciniate scales. 

Pectis Schottii (Fernald) Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 143. pi. 
1904. P. elongata var. Schottii Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 33: 78. 
1897. 

Known only from the type, collected at Maxcanu, Schott 666. 
An erect annual, nearly glabrous, much branched; leaves linear- 
oblong, gland-dotted; heads 4 mm. high, solitary, slender-stalked; 
pappus of about 15 slender bristles. 

Perymenium Goldmanii Greenm. FMB. 2: 269. 1907. 

Known only from the type, collected at Apazote, Campeche, 
Goldman 502. A shrub; leaves opposite, ovate or lance-ovate, acu- 
minate, crenate-serrate or nearly entire, rough above, hirsute be- 
neath; heads small, yellow, radiate; pappus of several deciduous 
awns. 

Plagiolophus M illspaughii Greenm. in Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 
3: 126. pi. 1904. Tithonia tubaeformis Millsp. FMB. 1: 325. 1896, at 
least in part, not Cass. Tridax procumbens var. canescens Millsp. 
FMB. 1: 325. 1896, not DC. 

Occasional; endemic; type from Izamal, Gaumer 792. A branched 
pubescent erect annual; leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate, crenate- 
dentate or nearly entire; heads 6-7 mm. high, yellow, without rays; 
outer phyllaries oblong, leaflike; achenes very variable, some of 
them winged; pappus of 2 awns. The genus consists of a single 
species. 

Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. P. purpurascens Millsp. FMB. 
1: 52. 1895, 1: 396. 1898, not DC. 

Bobche (Gaumer). Frequent on lake shores and in moist fields. 
A coarse aromatic herb with angled stems; leaves alternate, oblong- 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 451 

.' 

lanceolate, acute, dentate, glandular-puberulent; flowers rose-purple, 

the heads 6-7 mm. high, in corymbs; pappus of slender bristles. 

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. Eupatorium Cuevas, PI. Med. 31, 
Ilustr. pi. 35, f. 1. 1913. 

Chalche (Gaumer). Sp. Santa Maria. Common. A shrub 1-2.5 
m. high, grayish-tomentose; leaves elliptic to oblong-ovate, entire or 
nearly so; flowers pink, the heads 6-7 mm. high. The plant is 
employed as a remedy for fevers and amenorrhea. The hot sap is 
applied as a styptic. Gann reports that the leaves are applied to 
relieve neuralgic pains, and that an infusion of the leaves is given 
for rheumatism. The Motul Dictionary states that the "chalche" 
or "sal via" is a remedy for hoarseness and headache. 

Porophyllum macrocephalum DC. 

Sp. Hierba del venado. Occasional. An erect glabrous annual; 
leaves opposite, elliptic, remotely crenate, with large glands along 
the margin; heads greenish, 2.5 cm. high, without rays; achenes 
linear, the pappus of slender bristles. 

Porophyllum punctatum (Mill.) Blake. P. nummularium 
DC.; P. Ervendbergii Millsp. FMB. 1: 396. 1898. P. Millspaughii 
Robinson, FMB. 2: 109. 1900. 

Xpechukil (Gaumer), Ukche (Cuevas). Common. A glabrous 
perennial herb, or somewhat shrubby; leaves oblong or elliptic, 
obtuse, 1-3.5 cm. long, crenate, glandular on the margin and usually 
also on the surface; heads 1.5 cm. high, greenish. The infusion of 
the plant is employed as a remedy for gonorrhea. The type of P. 
Millspaughii was collected at Progreso, Millspaugh 1648. 

Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss.) Rohr. Distreptus spicatus 
Less. 

Occasional. A coarse erect herb 60 cm. high or less; leaves 
alternate, sessile, elliptic to oblong, dentate or entire, sparsely 
pilose; flowers purplish, the heads 4-flowered, spicate; pappus of 
rigid unequal awns, the 2 lateral ones twice recurved. 

Sanvitalia procumbens Lam. 

Xkantumbub (Gaumer). Sp.Sanguinaria,Ojodegallo. Common. 
A procumbent pubescent annual; leaves opposite, lance-ovate; 
heads 7-8 mm. high, terminal, the disk dark purple, the rays yellow, 
persistent; achenes obovate to oblong, tuberculate, those of the ray 
flowers awned, those of the disk flowers winged. The plant is a 



452 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

favorite local remedy for spitting of blood, for dysentery, and gener- 
ally for diseases of the respiratory system. It is abundant in many 
places, often forming dense carpets over the ground during the rainy 
season. The Maya name is reported also as "kantunbub" and 
"kantumbu." 

Sclerocarpus divaricatus (Benth.) Benth. & Hook. 

Hulub (Gaumer), Xiuhulub (Millspaugh). Frequent. An erect 
pubescent branched herb; leaves opposite, petiolate, deltoid to 
lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely dentate; heads yellow, long-stalked, 
1.5-2 cm. high; phyllaries green, oblong-ovate; achenes obovoid, 
pubescent, with corky tubercles; pappus none. 

Senecio confusus Britten. S. Berlandieri Hemsl. 

Occasional. A woody vine, glabrous or nearly so; leaves alter- 
nate, ovate, acuminate, entire or dentate; heads 1.5-2 cm. high, in 
leafy panicled cymes, the rays orange; pappus of soft white bristles. 

Senecio salignus DC. 

Sp. Jaral amarillo (Gaumer). Ticul, Millspaugh 28. An erect 
glabrous shrub; leaves narrowly lanceolate, 5-15 mm. wide, entire 
or nearly so; heads 8-10 mm. high, the rays bright yellow. 

Simsia Chaseae (Millsp.) Blake, Proc. Amer. Acad. 49: 385. 
1913. Encelia Chaseae Millsp. FMB. 3: 125. pi 1904. 

Occasional; endemic; type from Kobah, Schott 911. A coarse 
branched herb, glandular-hispid; leaves alternate and opposite, 
ovate-deltoid, acute, dentate; heads 1 cm. high, with showy yellow 
rays; achenes obovate, pubescent, the pappus of 2 short awns. 

Sonchus oleraceus L. Leontodon Taraxacum Donde", Apuntes 
10. 1907. 

Nabukak (Gaumer). Sp. Achicoria, Chicoria, Lechuga silvestre. 
A common weed, especially about dwellings; native of the Old 
World. Sow-thistle. An annual herb with milky sap; leaves alter- 
nate, lyrate-pinnatifid, spiny-dentate; heads yellow, 1.5 cm. high; 
achenes compressed, the pappus of soft white bristles. A decoction 
of the plant is given as a laxative, depurative, and mild tonic, and 
for liver affections. The leaves are said to be cooked and eaten. 
The name "susacque" is reported for the plant from Guatemala. 

Spilanthes filipes Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 35: 314. 1900. 
S. repens Millsp. FMB. 1: 53. 1895, not Michx. S. Beccabunga 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 53. 1895, 2: 108. 1900, not DC. 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 453 

*,? 

Sp. Boton de oro. Frequent; endemic; type from Buena Vista 
Xbac, Gaumer 1122. A small erect annual, sparsely pubescent, 
branched; leaves opposite, petiolate, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
dentate; heads 4-5 mm. high, slender-stalked, yellowish, with very 
short rays; achenes ciliate, the pappus of 2 minute awns. 

Spilanthes uliginosa Sw. 

Between Zitas and Piste", Seler 3976. A slender pubescent herb; 
leaves oval-oblong, scabrous; heads 4 mm. high, slender-stalked, 
the disk flowers orange, the rays orange-yellow, 2 mm. long. 

Spiracantha cornifolia HBK. 

Campeche and Yucatan; infrequent. A low branched herb; 
leaves alternate, ovate, acute, entire or denticulate, white-tomentose 
beneath; flowers purple, the heads 1-flowered, in dense clusters; 
bracts subtending the heads tipped with a short spreading spine; 
pappus of barbed bristles. 

Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. Ucacou nodiflora Hitchc. 

A common weed. A pubescent annual 1 m. high or less; leaves 
opposite, ovate or lanceolate, serrate; heads yellow, with small rays, 
clustered, 9-12 mm. high, the outer phyllaries foliaceous; ray achenes 
winged, the disk achenes tuberculate, not winged, their pappus of 2 
or 3 stiff awns. 

Tagetes patula L. T. tenuifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 54. 1895, not 
Cav. 

Xpuhuk (Gaumer); reported as "macenal puhuk." Sp. Pastora. 
Frequent. A strong-scented erect glabrous annual; leaves pinnately 
divided, gland-dotted; heads long-stalked, 2.5 cm. high, with orange- 
yellow rays; achenes linear, the pappus of 5 scales. In some of the 
plants all the flowers of the head have well-developed rays, the heads 
thus being "double." The plant is employed as a remedy for fevers 
and stomach, liver, and spleen affections, and as a vermifuge. Some 
of the Yucatan specimens have been referred to Tagetes remotiflora 
Kunze, which is doubtfully distinct from T. patula. 

Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray. 

Chaczuum (Gaumer). Sp. Arnica. Frequent. An herb or 
shrub, sometimes 4.5 m. high; leaves alternate, 3-5-lobed, scabrous; 
heads long-stalked, 1.5 cm. high, with large yellow rays; achenes 
cuneate, the pappus of chaffy scales. 



454 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.) Blake. T. tagetiflora Desf.; T. 
diversifolia Millsp. FMB. 1: 325. 1896, not Gray. 

Zuum (Gaumer) ; reported also as "tzum." Sp. Arnica. Common. 
A large annual, sometimes 3 m. high; leaves 3-lobed, rough- 
puberulent; heads 1.5 cm. high, with long yellow rays; achenes with- 
out pappus. The flowers are reported to yield a fine grade of 
honey. The name "chiople"" has been reported erroneously for this 
plant. 

Tridax procumbens L. 

Sp. Hierba de San Juan, San Juan del monte. A common weed. 
A small procumbent herb, hirsute; leaves opposite, lanceolate to 
ovate, serrate; heads long-stalked, 1 cm. high, the rays pale yellow; 
pappus of plumose awns. The plant is used in domestic medicine 
as a refrigerant. 

Trixis radialis (L.) Kuntze. T. frutescens P. Br. 

Tokabal, Tabi; reported as "tokaban" (Valdez). Common in 
thickets. A shrub; leaves alternate, ovate or elliptic, entire or 
nearly so, glabrous or sparsely pubescent; heads yellow, 1.8 cm. 
high, radiate; achenes linear-oblong, pubescent, the pappus of yel- 
lowish bristles. The plant is reputed to have astringent properties, 
and is employed in the treatment of gonorrhea, and of intestinal 
affections in children. 

Verbesina myriocephala Schultz Bip. Montanoa grandiflora 
Millsp. FMB. 1: 395. 1898, not Schultz Bip. V. gigantea Millsp. 
& Chase, FMB. 3: 129. 1904, not Jacq. 

Frequent. A large herb or shrub 2.5 m. high; leaves alternate, 
pinnate-lobed, tomentose beneath; heads 9 mm. high, white, with 
small rays, in broad dense corymbs; achenes cuneate, compressed, 
winged, the pappus of 2 slender awns. 

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook, is represented by a 
specimen collected by Gaumer at Izamal in 1888. The plant is not 
known otherwise from the region. It may have been a waif, or 
perhaps the label is incorrect. 

Vernonia hirsutivena Gleason, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4: 175. 
1906. V. arborescens Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 89. 1904, not Sw. 

Sp. Flor de borla. Endemic; type from Yot Tsonot, Gaumer 1325; 
without locality, Gaumer 24120, 23986; Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23540; 
Buena Vista, Gaumer in 1899. A shrub or herb 1-1.5 m. high; 
leaves ovate to oblong, acute, densely pubescent beneath; flowers 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 455 

*/ 

pink, the heads 5 mm. high, sessile, in naked one-sided spikes, the 
lower heads of the spike sometimes bracted; pappus of capillary 
bristles. Some of the Yucatan specimens have been determined 
incorrectly as V. canescens HBK. and V. argyrolepis Buek. 

Vernonia oolepis Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. 52: 20. 1917. 

Tamanbub. Endemic; without locality, Gaumer 24134, 24169; 
Kancabtsonot, Gaumer 23629; Chichankanab, Gaumer 23648; type 
from Izamal, Gaumer in 1886. A shrub; leaves oblong-lanceolate 
to obovate, acuminate, pubescent beneath; heads 4-flowered, clus- 
tered in small dense cymes. 

Vernonia lanceolaris DC. and V. Schiedeana Less, have been 
reported (Millsp. FMB. 1: 50. 1895) from the region on the basis 
of Johnson specimens, but the determinations and localities are 
doubtful. 

Viguiera dentata (Cav.) Spreng. var. helianthoides (HBK.) 
Blake. V. helianthoides HBK.; Helianthella sp. Millsp. FMB. 1: 
53. 1895. 

Tah (Gaumer; reported also as "toh"). Sp. Romerillo de la costa. 
A common weed. A tall branched herb; leaves opposite and alter- 
nate, petiolate, lance-ovate, acute, entire, appressed-pilose beneath; 
heads long-stalked, 7-8 mm. high, with long yellow rays; achenes 
cuneate, sericeous, the pappus of 2 awns. The plant is a local 
remedy for coughs. It is reported to furnish good forage for horses, 
and the flowers yield honey of excellent quality. The stems are 
sometimes tied in bundles and used as torches. 

Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. 

Reported from Cozumel Island, Gaumer in 1886. A procumbent 
herb; leaves opposite, dentate or lobate; heads 8-12 mm. high, with 
showy yellow rays; achenes oblong, tuberculate. 

Xanthium chinense Mill. X. canadense Millsp. FMB. 1 : 397. 
1898, not Mill. X. strumarium Millsp. & Chase, FMB. 3: 87. 1904, 
not L. 

Me"rida, and Progreso; introduced. Cocklebur. A coarse pubes- 
cent annual; leaves alternate, triangular-orbicular, 3-5-lobed, 
scabrous; fruit ovoid or fusiform, 1-1.5 cm. long, covered with 
stout hooked spines. 

Zexmenia frutescens (Mill.) Blake. Z. costaricensis Benth. 
Zactah (Gaumer). Frequent. A shrub, sometimes scandent; 
leaves opposite, ovate, acuminate, serrate, rough above, strigose or 



456 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 

glabrate beneath; heads 7-12 mm. high, with yellow rays; achenes 
3-angled, the pappus of 2 or 3 awns. 

Zexmenia hispida Gray var. ramosissima Greenm. in Millsp. 
& Chase, FMB. 3: 127. pi. 1904. Z. hispida Millsp. FMB. 1: 326. 
1896, not Gray. Aspilia sp. Millsp. FMB. 1: 53. 1895. Wedelia 
hispida Millsp. FMB. 1: 326. 1896, perhaps not HBK. Baltimora 
recta Millsp. & Loes. BJE. 36: Beibl. 80: 29. 1905, not L. 

Zahum (Gaumer). Common; type from Izamal, Gaumer 410b. 
An erect hispid herb; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, dentate; heads 
8 mm. high, yellow; achenes of 2 kinds, those of the rays obcordate, 
winged, the innermost wingless, tuberculate; pappus none. 

Z. trachylepis Hemsl., a synonym of Z. scandens Hemsl., was 
based upon a specimen collected by Johnson in Yucatan or Tabasco. 

Zinnia elegans Jacq. 

Sp. Virginia. Cultivated for ornament; native of Mexico, but 
probably not of Yucatan. A coarse annual with opposite entire 
sessile leaves, and large showy heads of variously colored flowers. 



INDEX 



Synonyms in italics. 

Aac-abal 336 

Abal 173, 335 

Abal-ac 171 

Abanico 256 

Abaxtut 171 

Abelmoschus 348 

Abrojo 306, 395 

Abrus 289 

Abutilon 345, 346, 350 

Ac 171, 212 

Ac-aban 171 

Acacia 274, 275, 276, 277, 280 

Acadopsis 277 

Acal 171 

Acalypha 317 

Acam 171, 421 

Acam-xiu 171 

Acan 171 

Acanceh 171 

Acanthaceae 421 

Acanthocereus 366 

Acanthorrhiza 217 

Acanthus family 421 

Acche 171 

Acederilla 304 

Aceite de castor 332 

de palma-christi 332 

de ricino 332 
Aceituno 312 
Achaban 171 
Achben 211 
Achicoria 150, 452 
Achih 258 

Achillea 144, 145, 438 
Achiote 359 
Achras 378 
Achyranthes 254 
Acitz 386 
Acrocomia 217 
Acrostichum 10, 194 
Acuan 278 
Acuate 448 
Adelia 319 
Adenocalymna 417 
Adiantum 6, 1, 8, 194 
Adicea 248 
Admirable 274 
Adonis 233 
Aechmea 220 
Aeschynomene 289 
Agalinis 415 
Agaricales 191 
Agaricus 191 
Agati 303 
Agave 231 
Agenjo del pais 146 



Ageratum 90, 91, 116, 438, 

Agdestis 262 

Agonandra 252 

Agrostis 49 

Agrimonia silvestre 407 

Agritos 304 

Aguacate 269 

Aguas de ciruelas 335 

Aguja de tortola 362 

Ahache 307 

Aham 211 

Ahan 211 

Ahauche 171 

Ahchacuech 171 

Ah-chicam-kuch 171 

Ah-chuch 171 

Ahich 171 

Ahichilche 171 

Ahih 208 

Ahitz 208 

Ahkiixche 171 

Ahkiixilche 171 

A'h'maxic 408 

Ahnacchacchu 172 

Ahoche 239 

Ah-tab 172 

Ahtukub 172 

Ahzinaz 390 

Aizoaceae 263 

Ajenjo 439 

Aji 407 

Ajo 226 

Ajonjoli 416 

Ak 171, 315 

Akabxiu 422 

Akabyom 408 

Akalix 212 

Akalkumche 224 

Akankax 431 

Ak-can 171 

Aketetanam 347 

Akil 171 

Akilkan 436 

Akilkax 433 

Akilmacal 229 

Akilmacalkuch 230 

Akilziu 393 

Akilzuuc 209 

Akixiu 393 

Aklema 325, 327 

Aklix 212 

Aknal 211 

Akum 247 

Akza 212 

Alacrancillo 398 

Alamil 171 



457 



458 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Alamo 245, 246, 247 

cubano 247 

extrangero 247 
Albahaca 406 

de clavo 406 

del monte 406 

silvestre 406 
Albizzia 277 
Alcanfor 145, 438 
Alcaparrillo 285 
Alegria 172 
Alfombrillo 404 

hediondo 401 
Algae 192 
Algarroba 281 
Algodon 346, 347 

amarillo 347 
Algodonero 346 
Alicastrum 243 
Alismaceae 198 
Alligator-apple 266 
Alligator pear 269 
Allionia 261 
Allium 226 
Allophyllus 337 
Allspice 373 
Almendro 371 
Aloe 227 
Alomia 90, 438 
Alseis 425 
Alsophila 11, 194 
Altamisia 449 
Altaniza 109 
Alternanthera 254, 257 
Althaea 346 
Alvaradoa 312 
Am-ak 172, 179 
Amakil 172, 229 
Amapola 351, 353 

blanca 351 

colorada 351 
Amapolita 346 

morada 346 
Amaranth family 254 
Amaranthaceae 254 
Amaranthus 255, 256 
Amaranto 359 
Amaryllidaceae 231 
Amaryllis 233 

family 231 
Amatillo 247 
Ambrosia 87, 439 
Amcan-ak 172 
Amcan-xiu 172 
Amellus 121, 122, 447 
Amerimnon 293, 297 
Ammannia 369 
Amoche 413 
Amor seco 257 

del monte 255 
Amoreuxia 360 
Ampelocissus 342 



Ampelopsis 342 
Amphilophium 418 
Amyris 306 
Anacahuita 397 
Anacardiaceae 333 
Anacardium 333 
Anachuite 397 
Anacuite 397 
Anaite 234 
Anal-kak 172, 387 
Anal-xiu 172 
Ananas 220 
Anatto 359 

family 359 
Andira 290 
Andropogon 19, 21, 23, 198, 201, 203, 

209 

Anemia 13, 14, 193 
Anethum 374 
Angelonia 414 
Anicab 418, 419 
Anil 296 

cimarron 421 
Anilillo 296, 421 
Anipak 302 
Anis 375 
Anise 375 
Anneslia 277, 278 
Annona 266 

family 266 
Annonaceae 266 
Anoda 346, 364 
Anona 266 

colorada 267 

morada 267 
Anthephora 23, 199 
Anthurium 223 
Antigonon 252 
Apaac 340 
Apalac 336 
Apazote 258, 406 
Apche 172 
Aphelandra 421 
Apio 374 
Apium 374, 375 
Apocynaceae 382 
Apoplanesia 290 
Aporocactus 366 
Arabian jasmine 381 
Araceae 223 
Arachis 261, 290 
Arbol de corcho 172 

de pan 243 
Ardisia 376 
Arepaxiu 444 
Argemone 270 
Argithamnia 323 
Arisaema 224 
Aristida 46, 4.7, 199 
Aristolochia 250 
Aristolochiaceae 250 
Arnica 453, 454 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



459 



Aroma 276 
Arracacia 374 
Arrayan 172 
Arrowroot 237 

family 237 
Arroz 206 
Artamisa 449 
Artamiza 449 
Artemisia 145 
Artocarpus 243 
Arum 224 

family 223 
Arundo 59, 199 
Asclepiadaceae 387 
Asclepias 387, 389 
Asemnanthe 165, 426 
Asimia 268 
Asimina 268 
Asparagus 227 
Aspergillus 190 
Aspidieae 2 
Aspidium 2, 3, 10, 197 
Aspilia 456 
Asplenium 3, 4 
Aster 98, 99, 439 
Asterdium 190 
Asterina 190 
Astrocasia 319 
Astronium 334 
Astronomica 369 
Atheropogon 54 
Atol 212 
Atole 212 
Atriplex 258, 262 
Attalea 217 
Auc 211 
Avicennia 399 
Avocado 269 
Avual 211 
Axe-master 341 
Axnal 211 
Ayenia 354 
Azota-caballo 396 
Azucena 228, 234 

roja 233 

Baa 211 
Bab 171 
Babain 172 
Babci 231, 232 
Baboon-cap 274 
Babtun 172 
Bacal 211 
Bacalche 395, 396 
Baccharis 100, 439 
Bacche 172 
Bachaxiu 225 
Bachelor's-button 257 
Bacopa 414 
Bahabcan 413 
Bahain 172 
Bahalcan 413 



Bahlak 211 
Bahman 433 
Bakelus 91, 438 
Balam 336, 356 
Balamte 356 
Balanophora family 250 
Balanophoraceae 250 
Balche 297 
Balche-ceh 296 
Balchechi 297 
Balloon-vine 337 
Balsam 298 

of Peru 298 
Balsamo 298, 436 
Baltimora 106, 440, 456 
Bamboo 199 
Bambu 199 
Bambusa 199 
Banak 266 
Banana 235 

family 235 
Banisteria 315 
Barba de indio 201 

de jolote 286 

espanola 222, 265 
Barbas de viejo 265 
Barbasco 338 
Barbula 192 
Bari 396 
Baria 397 
Barillo 397 
Barnyard grass 202 
Basella family 263 
Basellaceae 263 
Basil 406 

Bastard logwood 279 
Bataban 172 
Batidaceae 261 
Batis 261 

family 261 
Batul 330 
Bauhinia 282, 283 
Bauiak 230 
Bayal 203, 219 
Bayal-xaan 219 
Bayberry family 242 
Bay-cedar 312, 355 
Be 351 
Beadvine 289 
Bean 300 

family 275 
Beaucarnea 227 
Bee 397 

Becquaert, J. 168 
Beeb 261 
Beec 397 
Beefwood 240 

family 240 
Beescan 172 
Beezinic-che 312 
Begonia 364 



460 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Bejuco de caballo 403 

de chiquihuite 229 

grueso 358 

loco 343 

tres-lomos 419 
Bel-ciniche" 312 
Bellota 356 
Beloperone 423 
Belzinic 312 
Benthamantha 290 
Bequilla 303 
Berengena 413 
Berenjena 414 
Bermuda grass 201 
Berros 273 
Besinic-che 312 
Beta 258 
Bez-can 172 
Bich-coc 172 
Bidensl^Z, 130,440 
Bignonia^7,418, ^19 

family 417 
Bignoniaceae 417 
Bilim-coc 172 
Birchwood 313 
Birthwort family 250 
Bittersweet family 337 
Bitze 278 
Bixa 359 
Bixaceae 359 
Bizil 349 
Black cabbagebark 297 

mangrove 399 

poison-wood 334 
Bladderwort family 416 
Blechum 421, 1*22 
Bledo 256 
Blue moho 348 
Bob 172, 232 
Bobche 253, 450 
Bob-chich 172 
Bobote-ak 172 
Bobwood 266 
Boca de la vieja 414 
Bocanche 172 
Bo'ch 212 

Boerhaavia 259, 260 
Bohom 397 
Bohonche 397 
Bohun 396 
Boj6n 396, 397 

bianco 396 

prieto 396 
Boloconte 172 
Bolol 408 
Bolon couch 172 
Boloncote 172 
Bolonekxiue 443 
Bolonhobon 172 
Bolontibi 343 
Bolon-uoh 172 
Bom 219 



Bombacaceae 351 
Bombax 351, 852 
Bon 219 
Bonete 363 

del diablo 251 

del fraile 251 
Bonpland 166 
Bonxaan 219 
Boochin 387 
Borage family 395 
Boraginaceae 395 
Borreria 426 
Borrichia 116, 117, 441 
Boton de oro 453 
Botoncillo 370 
Bouchea 399 
Bougainvillea 260 
Bourreria 395 
Boussingaultia 263 
Bouteloua 52, 53, 54, 200 
Boxcatzim 279 
Boxchacah 325, 327 
Boxek 172 
Boxhaaz 235 
Boxhich 172 
Boxhocab 172 
Boxlolluum 191 
Boxsacheck-che 172 
Boxzinic-che 172 
Bradburya 292 
Brasil 284 
Brasilete 284 
Brassavola 237 
Brassica 272 
Bravaisia 422 
Braziletto 284 
Breadfruit 243 
Breadnut 243 
Bricho 287 
Brickellia 97, 441 
Bromelia 221 
Bromeliaceae 220 
Bromus 57 

Broom-rape family 421 
Brosimum 243 
Broteroa 137, 445 
Bryophyllum 274 
Bubsaak 389 
Buceras 371 
Buchnera 415 
Bucholzia 257 
Bucida 370 
Buckthorn family 340 
Buckwheat family 252 
Buhum-coc 172 
Buhum-kak 172 
Bui 339 
Buiche 339 
Bui 300 
Bulceh 172 
Buliuah 301 
Bullet-tree 370 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



461 



Bullhorn acacia 275, 276 
Bully-tree 370 
Bulrush 216 
Buluchcaan 172 
Bulumekxiu 443 
Bumelia249, 361, 378 
Bunchosia 314 
Bupkthalmum 117 
Bursera 313 
Burseraceae 313 
Buttercup family 265 
Button mangrove 370 
Buttonwood 370 
Butua 265 
Butz-coc 172 
Buubxiu 443 
Buul 300, 301 
Buulbech 292 
Buul-che 172 
Buulchich 286 
Bux 435 
Buyak 339 
Byrsonima 314 
Byttneria 355 

Ca 212, 485 
Caax 431 
Cababesinixte 332 
Cabacche 172, 174 
Cabalchechem 334 
Cabalchi 172 
Cabalchichibe 415 
Cabalchun 263 
Cabalhau 245 
Cabalkax 427, 432 
Cabalkin 172 
Cabal-kopte 172 
Cabalkuiche 172 
Cabal-kumche 387 
Cabalkunche 387 
Caballero 249 
Cabalonga 386 
Cabalpich 277, 278, 290 
Cabalpixoy 355 
Cabal-put 172 
Cabalsit 225 
Cabalxaan 219, 423 
Cabalxtez 255 
Cabalyaaxnic 425 
Cabalyaxnic 402 
Cabal-zilil 172 
Cabalzit 225 
Cabal-ziz 172 
Cabamuc 385 
Caba-pixtolon 319 
Cabaput 273 
Cabatmuc 385 
Cabaxan 214 
Cabbage 272 
Cabbagebark 290 
Cabico 277 
Cabo de hacha 311 



Cabomba 264 
Cacachila 341 
Cacahuate 290 
Cacalia 96, 172 
Cacaltun 406 
Cacao 356 

family 354 
Cacao-che 425 
Cacara 299 
Cacat6 172 
Cacau 356 
Cachimbo 285 
Cacleumak 173 
Caco 357 
Cactaceae 365 
Cactus family 365 
Cacuuc 419 
Cadanera 175 
Cadillo 344, 345 
Caesalpinia 284, 285 
Caetera 421 
Caf6 427 
Cafetillo 361 
Cah-huoc 270 
Cahuex 268 
Cahum 172, 233 
Cahumci 233 
Cahunci 233 
Caimito 379 
Cainca 427 
Cajanus 291 
Cajera 307 
Cajix 390 
Cak 373 
Cakile 272 
Cak-rum 336 
Calabash 418 
Calabaza 434, 435 

bonetera 435 

masilla 435 

melona 437 
Calabazo 435 
Caladium 223, 230 
Calea 115, 134, 441 
Calendula 359 
Caleopsis 445 
Calicanto 280 
Calliandra 277, 278 
Callicarpa 399 
Callisia 224, 226 
Calocarpum 379 
Calonyction 389 
Calopogonium 291 
Cal-pakam 172 
Calycophyllum 426 
Calyptranthes 371 
Calyptrion 360 
Calzoncillo 282 
Cambaochlob 337 
Cambapich 278 
Cambustera 394 
Camochayote 437 



462 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Canpanffla 349, 386 Carnati<264 

Campech-abal 336 Carolina 260 

172 CmitM 351, 353 

11, 19f Cup** *v. :.ir.-...y :>;; 

On* III 



<feaico228 Gnooir6a2Tl 

-.-:> Cashew 3 

S family 333 

CasunirtMi 306 



Cax-kl72 :>.- 

GteaHiuhib lit CSSK floweis 276 

CanalkaxiSl 
Cwiastflla 251 



1. Stt Castilla 244, 247 

172 Castilleja 415 

Cstot4wui 332 
, 430 Casuarina3> 



CHM!N 172 Cat 420 

CMK**3*I Catagera436 

CaBdnmup333 Cataox 172 

Cutdoix421 Catasetom 237 

Canela de cuyo 172, 240 Catorac 419 

CanH 171 Catnrak 419 



Caaika23d Catnip 407 

famfly235 Catsem kwood 279 

GhMMMM M Cat-tail 19S 
Cam* S20 family 198 

CMMteMI Catxim276 

GUI rt 1 1 ~ riliiaiil 282 

Can-taasm 172 Cattm 276 

f^fclM 172 Cancho 244 

CantiUe^k 172 Cankte 355 

. - Cailanis413 

CanrumSTl Cayaponia 433, J*f 

Camaoc201 Cayumito 379 
CaobaSll dhMtMSBI 

GMtoU CboBa226 

Cape jasBiM 428 Cecilia 244 

Caper family 270 Cdar 310 

Capottn 344 Cedi^a 310 

Cdrol72,310 
cotonao 310 



Capnria 415, 41 f OA Ac 172 

CaprifoBae 4S3 Ceh-chikm 172 

Capsknm 407. 40S Oriba ITS, 352 

- ; Ceibo352 

CapuKn247,344 ^ 

374 Odny374 

172 CHI mil 256 

(MA -4: 
OaMjatu 172 
Ceoehras 1ft, 39, 209 




. 

Cerbatana228,448 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



Cerbera 382 
Cereua 365, 867 
Centrum 408 
Ceterach 194 
Cha 378 
Chaac 237 
Chabak 381 
Chabankan 116 
Chabxaan 214 
Chabxan 214 
Chac 173, 225 
Chaca bianco 173 
Chacab 173 
Chacah 313, 344 
Chacahuate 173 
Chac-ak 173, 175 
Chacal 173 
Chacalhaas 379 
Chacalhaaz 358 
Chacam-che 173 
Chacanicab 418, 419 
Chacats344 
Chac-biken 173 
Chacbohon 173 
Chaccanahzihii 220 
Chac-cancel-xiu 173 
Chaccankilxiu 421 
Chac-catzim 173 
Chacchauayxiu 197 
Chac-che 330 
Chac-chimtok 173 
Chac-chixixmo 173 
Cbac-chom 173 
Chac-chucum 280 
Chac-culul 367 
Chach 173 

Chach u lubte-ak 342 
Chachaaz 235 
Chachnichmax 399 
Chac-hulubtekaak 173 
Chacic 408 
ChacUxiu 259 
Chac-kuch 173 
Chac-kuxub 173 
Chackuyche 351 
Chac-le-onob 173 
Chac-leum-ak 173 
Chaclomacal 252 
Chac-lubte-on 173 
Chac-lutz ubteob 173 
Chacmax268 
Chacmol 257 
Chacmolche 295 
Chacmots437 
Chacmuc 385 
Chacmuk-ak 385 
Chac-mul 173 
Chac mulah kak 173 
Chacnetoloc 419 
Chac-nich-max 173 
Chacnicte 384 
Chac'o'c 212 



Chacoop267 



Chacppoppox 333 

Chac-sabacche 173 
Chaotic 376 
Cha-ik '41 r, 
Chaorinkin 376 
Chactam 173, 225 
Chacte284 
Chactechuhum 284 



Chactez 173, 256 
Chactoc429 
Chactsam225 
Chactsan225 
Chactoicikax 376 
Chacteiia428 
Chactoul442 
Ctectsulubtok 288 
Chactzotzmacal 224 
Chacuob 365, 367 
Chacieu250 
Chac-xicin-che 173 
Chacxul 440, 442 
Chac-ya 173 
Chaczaum 173 
Chaczinkin 284 
Chaczinkinkax 376 
Chac-zubin-che 173 
Chaczukl73 
Chaczuum 453 
Chaetocalyx 292 
Chaetochloa 37, 208 
Chahl98 
Chahancan 446 
Ctehmah429 
Chai392 
Chakanal 421 
Chakchoch 211 
Chakel73 
ChakhakSSl 
Chakni 173 



Chakte421 
Chaktolol344 
Chakxnuknal 211 



Chalcha 110, 449 
Chalchay 103 
Chalche451 
Chalha449 
ChaUuc413 
Cham 221 
Chamaedorea 217 
Ckamaayee 323-327, 395 
Chamal 197 
Chamico408 
Chamissoa257 
Chamtoloc 306 
Ch'amxuy 373 
Chancala 235 
Chanixnuc 306 



464 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Chankala 235 
Chanuahko 251 
Chanxnuc 306 
Chanxnuk 404 
Chanxnuuc 306 
Chapak 381 
Chaparro 358 
Chaperno 290 
Chaptalia 148, 441 
Chara 192 
Characeae 192 
Chavales 336 
Chaxcul 133 
Chay 329 
Chaya 329 
Chayote 436 
Chayotextle 437 
Che 171, 244, 314 
Chec-che 282 
Chechebe 349 
Chechem 334 
Chechen 334 
bianco 173 
Cheech 217 
Cheel k'i'c 244 
Cheel poop 216 
Cheilanthes 6, 195 
Cheilolejeunia 193 
Chelele 278 
Chelem 232 
Chelemci 232 
Chelic 413 

Chem-chac-che-ak 173 
Chenek 301 
Chenille plant 318 
Chenopodiaceae 258 
Chenopodium 258 
Chepa 212 
Chesivik 240 
Che-tulub 173 
Chi 315, 316 
Chiabal 335 
Chiat 217 
Chicam 299 
Chicamthul 291 
Chicbul-can 173 
Chiceh 380 
Chich 173, 233 
Chicharillo 173 
Chicharo 302 

Chichibe 303, 349, 350, 351, 356 
Chichle 240 
Chich-put 363 
Chicix-me-ak 173 
Chicixmo 173 
Chicix-mo 173 
Chic-kak 173 
Chickem 282 
Chicken corn 209 
Chick-pea 292 
Chic kuk 173 
Chicle bianco 378 



Chicle virgen 378 
Chicong 301 
Chicoria 150, 452 
Chicozapote 378 
Chictzapotl 378 
Chicun 301 
Chiican 298 
Chikec 173 
Chikich 351 
Chikichbe 349 
Chikichbe-kax 351 
Chikintsonot 211 
Chilacayote 434 
Chile 407 

ancho 408 

Colorado 408 

del monte 408 

dulce 408 

grande 408 

morado 408 

mulato 408 

verde 408 
Chilib 171, 218 
Chilibche 171 
Chilibtux 318 
Chilillo 282, 312, 315, 408 
Chilillo-ak 315 
Chilillo-xiu 387 
Chilim-can 173 
Chima 437 
Chimay 276, 280 
Chimon 246 
Chimtoc 341 
Chimtok 173 
Chimu 360 
China amarilla 173 
Chinaberry 311 

family 310 
Chinchayote 437 
Chinchimpol 349 
Chinese hibiscus 348 
Chintoc 173 
Chintok 173 
Chin-uoh 174 
Chiococca 427 
Chiopk 93 

Chiopte 93, 119, 444, 454 
Chipororo 174 
Chirimoya 266 
Chit 219, 220 
Chitcuuc 237, 238 
Chiuoh-kaak 174 
Chloris 50, 201 
Chloroleucon 281 
Chlorophora 245 
Cho 174, 352, 353 
Chobenche 311 
Choc 174 
Choch 174, 380 
Chochcitam 271 
Choche 174 
Chochyuc 174 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



465 



Chocobcat 390 
Chocosacan 212 
Chocosaka 212 
Chocuilxiu 415 
Choh 296 
Chohop 386 
Choinak 211 
Chokobcaat 174 
Cholul 174 
Chom 221 
Chontalpa 387 
Choo 174 
Chooc 174 
Ch'op 221 
Chotche 174 
Chovue 212 
Chox 172, 174 
Chozo 274 
Christmas-vine 394 
Chrysobalanus 274 
Chrysophyllum 379, 380 
Chrysopsis 442 
Chu 221, 435 
Chub 347 
Chuba 221 
Chuc 222 
Chucchikil 417 
Chuche 266 
Chuchito 412 
Chucua 357 
Chucum 232, 280 
Chucumci 232 
Chucunci 232 
Chuenche 174 
Chuh 368 
Chuhucic 408 
Chuhucpakal 308 
Chukem 277 
Chukum 277 
Chukun 277 
Chul 322 
Chulceh 174 
Chulche 322, 330 
Chulinte 174 
Chulub 427 
Chulul 290 
Chum 360 
Ch'uma 437 
Chunun 174 
Chunup 358 
Chusumpek 385 
Ch'ut 409 
Chuts 320 
Chutte 174 
Chuun 360 
Ch'ux 301 
Chuy-che 174 
Chytraculia 371 
Ci232 
Cib 314 
Cib-ak 173 
Cib-che 173 



Cibix 293 
Cicer 292 
Cicim kuch 173 
Cicitsin 330 
Cidra 308 
Cidracayote 434 
Ciega- vista 321 
Cienfugosia 346 
Cihom 173 
Ciis 269 
Cintanci 232 
Cipres 240 
Cipura 234 
Cirsium 11+7, 442 
Ciruela amarilla 335 

grande 336 

morada 336 
Ciruelas tuxpanas 336 
Ciruelillo 173, 331 
Cissampelos 265 
Cissus 342 
Citam-ac 173 
Citamci 232 
Citharexylum 400 
Citinche 284 
Citron 308 
Citronella grass 201 
Citrullus 434 
Citrus 307 
Ciui 359 
Cizcan 434 
Cladium 83, 216 
Claudiosa 415 

amarga 407 

de monte 407 
Clavel 264 

de oro 359 

de poeta 264 
Clavellina 264 
Clawberry 332 
Claw-grass 40 
Clematis 265 
Cleome 271 
Clerodendron 400 
Clidemia 374 
Clinopodium 405 
Clitoria 292 
Clusia 358 

family 358 
Clusiaceae 358 
Cnicus 148 
Co 211 

Coca family 304 
Coc-aac 173 
Coc-ak 173 
Cocche 172 
Coccoloba 252, 253 
Coccothrinax 218 
Coceeh 229 
Coceh 229, 365 
Cochinita 387 
Cochlospermaceae 360 



466 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Cochlospermum 360 

family 360 
Cocklebur 455 
Cockscomb 256 
Coco 218 
Cocoba 251 
Cocom 173 
Coco-plum 274 
Cocos 218 
Cocotero 218 
Cocox 357 
Cocoyol 217 
Codiaeum 319 
Coffea 427 
Cohune palm 217 
Coix 17, 201 
Cojon de fraile 314 
Col 211, 272 
Cola de gato 318 
Coleosanthus 97, 441 
Colevil 225 
Collins, Guy N. 168 
Coloc 373 
Colocasia 224 
Coloch 211 
Colomche 213 
Colorin 295 
Colubrina 340, 341 
Com 211 

Combretaceae 370 
Combretum 370 

family 370 
Commelina 225 
Commelinaceae 224 
Commicarpus 260 
Compate 435 
Compositae 85, 438 
Confederate vine 252 
Confitura 405 
Conobea 415 
Conocarpus 370 
Conostegia 374 
Contrayerba 245 
Convolvulaceae 389 
Convolvulus 391, 392, 393 
Conyza 89, 100, 102, 442 
Coo 171 
Coopte 397 
Cootoloc 211 
Copal 314 

gomoso 173 

macho 314 
Copalche 322 
Copalchi 320, 322 
Copalxiu 446 
Copen 212 
Cop6 245 
Copte 396 
Corales-ak 173 
Coralillo 416 
Corallocarpus 434 
Corcho 266 



Corchorus 343 
Cordia 395, 396 
Cordoba, Hernandez de 166 
Cordoncillo 241 
Coreopsis 130, 131 
Coriander 374 
Coriandrum 374 
Corkwood 266 
Cornezuelo 275, 276 

bianco 276 

cimarron 374 
Cornutia 400 
Cornwood 290 
Corona de Cristo 327 

de sol 401 

Coronilla de San Antonio 375 
Corozo 217 
Corrimiento 231 
Corrimiento-ak 382 
Cortejo 348 
Corynostylis 360 
C'os 242 
Cosmocalyx 427 
Cosmos 133, 442 
Costus 236 
Cotsnemax 398 
Cotton-tree 352 

family 351 
Co-tzimin 173 
Couepia 274 
Coutarea 427, 428 
Cow okra 420 
Cowhage 298 
Cow-itch 298 
Coyol 217 
Crabgrass 202 
Craboo 315 

Cracca 290, 291, 296, 303, 304 
Cranesbill family 305 
Crape myrtle 369 
Crapoo 315 
Crassulaceae 274 
Crataeva 271 
Crescentia 418, 419 
Cresta de gallo 256 
Critonia 91 
Crotalaria 293 
Croton 313, 319 
Cruceto 253 
Cruciferae 272 
Crusea 428 
Cryphaea 192 
Cuajilote 420 
Cuban pine 198 
Cucarachita 226 
Cuche 310 
Cuchillo-xiu 387 
Cuchil-uc 173 
Cucuh 357 
Cucumis 434 
Cucurbita 434 
Cucurbitaceae 433 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



467 



Cucut 226 
Cucutchom 234 
Cucutmacal 224 
Cuhuech 207 
Culantrillo 7, 195 

bianco 2, 195 
Culantro 374 
Culinche 334 
Culul 212, 367 
Cum 434 
Cum-kanan 173 
Cumpap 384 
Cumpate 435 
Cundeamor 436 
Cuntan 173 
Cup 291 
Cupania 340 
Cup-che 173 
Cuphea 369 
Cup-kak 173 
Curatella 358 
Curcuma 236 
Curly-grass family 193 
Cuscuta 269, 394 
Cuscutaceae 394 
Cusmin 336 
Custard apple 267 
Cutsuc 173 
Cutziz 240 
Cuumche 363 
Cuutz 410 
Cuxum-che 173 
Cuxun 192 
Cuyum-che 173 
Cyatheaceae 2, 194 
Cycad family 197 
Cycadaceae 197 
Cyclanthera 435 
Cydista 419 
Cymbopogon 201 
Cynodon 50, 201 
Cynosurus 55 
Cyperaceae 67, 213 
Cyperus 67, 213 
Cypress-vine 394 
Cypripedium 238 
Cyrtopodium 238 
Cytinus 421 

Dactyloctenium 55, 201 
Dahlia 442 
Dalbergia 293 
Daka 299 
Dalechampia 322 
Dalia 442 

Dama de noche 408 
Damiana 359 
Dasylirion 227 
Date palm 219 
Datil 219 
Datilero 219 
Datura 408 



Daucus 375 
Dayflower family 224 
Dead man's bones 430 
Delonix 288 
Delphinium 265 
Desmanthus 278 
Desmodium 293 
Dianthera 423, 424 
Dianthus 264 
Diapedium 422 
Dichromena 78, 215 
Dicliptera 422 
Dictyanthus 387 
Didymodon 192 
Digitaria 23, 202 
Dill 375 

Dilleniaceae 358 
Diodia 432 
Diomedea 116 
Dioscorea 229, 263 
Dioscoreaceae 229 
Diospyros 377 
Dipholis 380 
Diphysa 294 
Distichlis 63, 202 
Distreptus 88, 4.51 
Ditaxis 323 
Dodder 394 

family 394 
Dogbane family 382 
Dogwood 296, 301 
Dolicholus 303 
Dolichos 298 
Dondia 259 
Doradilla 194, 197 
Dormilona 279 
Dorstenia 245 
Dracaena 228 
Drejerella 422 
Dryopteris 2, 195 
Drypetes 323 
Duck flower 251 
Duckweed 223 

family 223 
Duranta 401 
Dysodium 107 
Dyssodia 140, 442 
Dzidzilche 174 
Dzuyu 174 

Ear-tree 278 
Ebano 174, 377 
amarillo 381 
Ebenaceae 377 
Ebony family 377 
Echeandia 228 
Echinochloa 202 
Echinodorus 198 
Echites 382, 385 
Eclipta 112, 442 
Egletes 442 
Eichhornia 226 



468 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Ek 285, 288 
Ek kixil 418 
Ek-abal 336 
Ekbalam 320 
Ek-huleb 174 
Ek-kixilak 418 
Eklemoy 268 
Eklemuy 268 
Ek-lum-chac 174 
Ek-mayil-ak 174 
Ek-muyul-ak 174 
Ek-teel 174 
Elaeodendron 337 
Elaphrium 313 
Elder 433 
Elel 304 
Elemuy 268 
Elemuy box 174, 268 
Eleocharis 215 
ElephantopiAS 88 
Eleusine 55, 56, 201, 202 
Eleuther anther a 107, 446 
Elm family 242 
Elote 211 

Elvira 104, 105, 443 
Elytraria 422 
Embeleso 381 
Emtzul 388 
Encelia 124, &52 
Eneldo 374 

Enredadera peluda 393 
Ensalada 384 
Enterolobium 278 
Ep-che 174 
Epidendrum 238 
Epiphyllum 367 
Eragrostis 61, 202 
Erblichia 359 
Erechtites 146, M2, 443 
Erigeron 99, 101, 443 
Eriodendron 352 
Erithalis 428 
Ernodea 428 
Erythrina 295 
Erythroxylaceae 304 
Erythroxylon 304 
Escoba colorada 299 
Escobetilla 174 
Escobilla 351 
Escobillo 315 
Escorpi6n-xiu 325 
Esenbeckia 308 
Espadana 198 
Esparrago 227 
Esparto 215 
Espelon 301 
Espinaca 259 
Espuela 265 

de caballero 265 
Estrella del mar 133, 442 
Estropajo 435 
Eucyperus 68 



Eugenia 372 
Eulejeunia 193 
Eumecanthus 323, 325, 327 
Eupatorium 91, 443, 444, 451 
Euphorbia 323, 395 
Euphorbiaceae 317 
Eustachys 51 
Eustoma 382 

Evening-primrose family 374 
Evolvulus 390 
Excoecaria 333 
Exostema 428 

Farolito 251, 411 
Fennel 374 
Festuca 57 
Ficus 245, 329 
Fig 245 

Figwort family 414 
Filicineae 1 
Fimbristylis 80, 215 
Flacourtia family 361 
Flacourtiaceae 361 
Flamboyan 288 
Flame-tree 288 
Flaveria 136, 445 
Flor amarilla 421 

de borla 454 

de caballero 271 

de camar6n 284, 374 

de cera 388 

de clavo 364 

de la pasion 364 

de latigo 366 

de Mayo 383, 384 

de pascua 326, 394 

de pato 250 

de San Antonio 376 

de San Diego 252 

de San Juan 91, 438 

de sol 121 

de zopilote 384 

del secreto 285 
Flox 395 
Foeniculum 375 
Forchammeria 271 
Forget-me-not 398 
Forsteronia 383 
Fortunella 308 
Four-o'clock 260 

family 259 
Frescura 248 
Frijol 300 

amarillo 301 

negro 301 
Frijolillo 287, 292 
Frullania 193 
Fuchsia 374 
Funastrum 387 
Fungi 190 
Fuirena 82, 215 



' Furcraea 233 
Fustic 245 

Galactia 295 

Galan de noche 408 

Gallitos 221 

Garbanzo 292 

Gardenia 428 

Garlic 226 

Gaudichaudia 315 

Gaumer, George F 167 

Gayoides 346 

Gentian family 382 
Gentianaceae 382 
Geraniaceae 305 
Geranio 305 
de olor 305 
Geranium 305 
Gerardia 415 
Ghinia 404 
Giant reed 199 
Ginger 236 

family 236 
Girasol 121, 446 
Orhricidia 295 
Gloeosporium 190 
' 



r nM rmn g-gory 391 

Goldman, E. A. 167 
Goldmanella 165, 445 
(soldmania 445 

Golondrina 246, 247, 324, 325 
Gomphrena 255, 257,258 
Gomopteris 9, 196 
Gonolobus 389 
Goodenia family 438 
Goodeniaceae 438 
Goosefoot family 258 
Gossypium 346 
Gouania 341 
Gouinia 57, 203 
Gourd 435 

family 433 
Grama 201 

de caballo 202 
Gramineae 15, 198 
Granada 370 

cimarrona 372 
Granadillo 174, 302 
Granado 370 
Grande Betty 340 
Grape family 342 
Grapefruit 308 
Grass family 198 

More 16S 



Gnjalva, Juan de 166 
Grindelia 97, 445 
Gronovia 363 
Grosella 331 
Ground-cherry 411 
Guacamayo 284 
Guacima 355 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 

Guaco 250, 251, 447 

del sur 251 
Guadua 64, 199 
Guaiacum 305 
Guaje 278 
Guanabana 267 
Guanabano 267 
Guanacaste 278 
Guano 219 
Guapinol 289 
Guarumo 245 
Guatope 278 
Guatteria 268 
Guava 373 
Guayaba 373 
Guayabillo 174 
Guayabo 371, 373 
Guayacan 305 

negro 174 
Guayacte 174 
Guayate 174 
Guayo 338, 340 
Guayuncox 174 
Guazuma 355 
Guettarda 429 
Guinea grass 33, 206 
Guineo 235 
Gtiiro 418 
Guisaso 200 
Gumbolimbo 313 
Gusavo 296 
Gymnanthes 328 
Gymnogramme 5, 196 
Gymnopodium 253 
Gymnopsis 113 
Gynandropsis 272 
Gynoxis 147 
Gyrocarpus 269 

Ha 174 
Haa 174 
Haabi 301 
Haaz 235 
Haaz-can 174 
Haaz-maax 174 
Haaz-max-che 174 
Haba 291, 304 

de San Ignacio 328 
Habalkax 362 
Haban can 174 
Haban-che 174 
Habaplat 434 
Habeem 396, 397 
Habi 301 
Habilla 328 
Habim 301, 302 
Habin 301 
Habinpek 287 
Hacay 174 
Hackelochloa 18, 203 
Hacolel 226 
Haematoxylum 288 



469 



470 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Hahauche 420 

Haiti 174 

Hal 211, 244 

Halab-che 174 

Halal 80, 207, 208, 216 

Hamelia 429 

Hampea 353 

Harpalyce 296 

Harrisella 238 

Hasche 174 

Hatanal 256 

Hauaicne 449 

Hauay 449 

Hauayche 438 

Hauche 397 

Hauyxiu 350 

Haz max 174 

Haz-ak 174 

Hebil 392 

H'ec 211 

Hechtia 221 

Heehbech 414 

Heek 211 

Helecho 6 

Helenium 137, 445 

Heleocharis 77 

Helianthus 120, 446 

Helianto 121 

Heliconia 235 

Helicteres 355 

Heliocarpus 344 

Heliophytum 398 

Heliotropium 398, 399 

Helosis 250 

Hemionitis 5, 196 

Hemitelia 2, 194 

Henequ&i 231 
bianco 231 
verde 233 

Henna 369 

Henry a 425 

Hepaticae 193 

Hernandia family 269 

Hernandiaceae 269 

Heteranthera 226 

Heteropogon 203 

Heteropteris 31 5,317 

Hetzimxiu 445 

Hiail 174 

Hibin-ha 174 

Hibiscus 347 

Hiedra colorada 394 

Hierba blanca 259 
de alacran 381 
de la calentura 425 
de la paloma 441 
de la viruela 248 
de las gallinitas 262 
de polio 225 
de San Juan 454 
del cancer 415 
del golpe 261 



Hierba del histe'rico 442 

del indio 250 

del pasmo 439 

del venado 451 
Hierbabuena montes 407 
Higginbothamia 231 
Higo 245 
Higuerilla 332 
Higuero 245 
Hinim 174 
Hinojo 375 
Hippeastrum 233 
Hippocratea 336 

family 336 
Hippocrateaceae 336 
Hippomane 328 
Hiraea 315 
Hirtella 274 
Hkolomxal 222 
Hman 221 
Hmuc 174 
Hobnil-haa 174 
Hobonkak 325 
Hobonkax 325 
Hobonte-kaak 325 
Ho'ch 211 
Hogplum 335 
Hokab 420 
Hoi 348 
HolchS 83, 216 
Holcus 21 
Hollyhock 346 
Holnuxib 439 
H'oloch 211 
Holsache 216 
Holunzial 221 
Horn 419 
Homa 174 
Homahak 115, 448 
Homalocenchrus 204 
Hombocoche 401 
Hom-toloc 174 
Honduras mahogany 311 

walnut 334 
Honeysuckle 433 
Hoobox 333 
Hool 171 
Hooloop 422 
Hooyoc 430 
Hormiguera 287 
Horseradish-tree 274 

family 273 
Ho-ual 174 

Houstoun, William 166 
Hoya 388 
Hoyoc 430 
Htaman 347 
Huano 219 
Huayunak 337 
Hueso de finado 430 
Huhub 198 
Huisache 280 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



471 



Huitz 278 
Huizache 276 
Huk-chi 174 
Hukup 313 
Hule 244, 247 
Hul-im-kak 174 
Hulub 174, 422, 452 
Hulubte 173 
Humboldt 166 
Humpetskin 174, 223 
Hunab-tzootz 174 
Hun-chac 174 
Hunpetskinci 227 
Hunpetskin-xiu 174 
Huntura 336 
Hura 328 
Huuhub 174 
Huun-can 174 
Hybanthus 360 
Hydrocotyle 375 
Hydrolea 395 
Hydrophyllaceae 395 
Hylocereus 367 
Hymenaea 289 
Hymenocallis 233 
Hyperbaena 265, 266 
Hypericaceae 358 
Hyphomycetales 190 
Hypnum 193 
Hyptis 404 
Hyuy 306 

Ib300 

Ibcho 302 

Ibinha 224 

Ibinxiu 404 

Ic407 

Icaban 320, 321 

Icaco 274 

Icacorea 376 

Ic-bach 174 

Ic-che 174 

Ich 171 

Ich-bahach 312 

Ich-huh 174 

Ichnanthus 35, 203 

Ichthyomethia 301 

Idea 314 

Icil 408 

Ih211 

lib 211 

lis 390 

Ik-ak 175 

Ik-che 174 

Ikilhaxiu 401 

Immortelle 257 

Imut 413 

Indian almond 371 

corn 210 
Indigo 296 
Indigofera 296 
Indio desnudo 313 



Inga 278, 282 

Inmortal 257 

Inodes 219 

Inup 353 

lonidium 360, 361 

lonopsis 238 

lonoxalis 304 

Ip 300 

Ipomoea 389, 390, 393, 394 

Ipsac 175 

Iresine 257, 258 

Iria 215 

Iridaceae 234 

Iris family 234 

Ischaemum 45 

Isocarpha 115, 446 

Isotoma 437 

Istuk 217 

Itsimte 450 

Itz 378 

Itzchac 175 

Itzimte 400 

Itzin-can 175 

Itzinte 450 

Ix-bacal-ac 175 

Ix-bibiz-luumil 175 

Ixbul 326 

Ix-cabal-chi 175 

Ix-cabal-chun-kak 175 

Ix-cabal-kak 175 

Ix-canzel-ak 175 

Ix-canzel-xiu 175 

Ixcatucan 265 

Ixchel 175 

Ix-chilim 175 

Ix-chilim-kak 175 

Ixchuch 175 

Ix chui che 175 

Ix-cotz-cab-na 175 

Ix-hal-kin 175 

Ix-hoch-che 175 

Ix hunpetzkin ak 175 

Ix-hun-uoh 175 

Ix-hutul-ek 175 

Ixil 390 

Ixim 210, 211 

Iximche 175, 290, 361, 400 

Iximha 223 

Ixin 210 

Ix-kakal-cab 175 

Ix-kan-haaz 175 

Ixkanlol 270 

Ixkaxi 175 

Ix kaxil chel 175 

Ix kaxil ku 175 

Ix-kin-uoh 175 

Ix-mac-hol-cab 175 

Ix-mamac-lumil 175 

Ix-mom-nicte 175 

Ix-much 175 

Ix nech bac che 175 

Ixnuc-abal 336 



472 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Ix-nuche 175 
Ix-och-can 175 
Ixpahalcan 412 
Ix-petel-tunak 265 
Ixpix 409 
Ixpoen 336 
Ixtamal-tzuc 229 
Ixtamancan 304 
Ixtatakche 400 
Ix-tibib-ak 175 
Ixtsacalbac 263, 424 
Ix-tsoc-chakanil 175 
Ix-tsui-can 175 
Ix tuab 175 
Ix-tu-ak 175 
Ix-tulix-hobon 175 
Ix-tuu-canil 175 
Iz390 
Iztahte 175 
Izte 175 
Izul 212 

Jabalf 175 
Jabilla 328 
Jabonche 338 
Jaboncillo 338 
Jacaratia 329, 363 
Jacinto de agua 226 
Jacobinia 423 
Jacquemontia 392 
Jacquinia 376 
Jahua 175 
Janipha 330 

Japanese honeysuckle 433 
Jaral amarillo 452 ^ 
Jasminum 381 
Jatropha 328, 359 
Jazmin 381 
azul 381 
de Italia 400 
de olor 381 
de perro 385 
Jenjibre 236 
Jicama 299 
cimarrona 291 
de conejo 291 
dulce 299 
grande 299 
Jicara 418 
Jimson-weed 408 
Jobillo 175 
Jobo 335 
Job's-tears 201 
Jocote 336 

Johnson, Ezekiel Porter 166 
Johnson grass 209 
Joyillo 175 
Juan de noche 408 
Jucumico 312 
Jujito amarillo 365 

peludo 364 
Jupiter 369 



Jussiaea 374 
Justicia 423 

Kaat 420 
Kab 171 
Kabauche 424 
Kabulche 175 
Kah 212 

Kahyuc 319, 331 
Kakah 313 
Kakalche 395, 396 
Kakibach 328 
Kakixuxul 423 
Kaknep 407 
Kaknipp 407 
Kallstroemia 306 
Kamaz-can-ak 175 
Kambulche 175 
Kampac 175 
Kampocolche 175, 429 
Kan 232 
Kanabal 335 
Kanab-yuc 175 
Kanal-zin 175 
Kanan 429 
Kanasin 175 
Kanauul 298 
Kanche 370 
Kan-chichin-ak 175 
Kanchikinche 175 
Kanchinaik 285 
Kanchunup 333, 340, 358 
Kan-coc 175 
Kan-coc-che 175 
Kanduul 298 
Kanhabin 287 
Kanibinche 316 
Kanizte 380 
Kankilizche 276 
Kankirische 276 
Kanlal 270 
Kanlecay 394 
Kanlolxiu 445 
Kan-mucuy-che 175 
Kan-mucuy-coc 175 
Kanmul 440 
Kanoop 267 
Kanpocolcum 285 
Kanppocoche 401 
Kansim 295 
Kante 175, 295 
Kantebo 275 
Kante-ceh 175 
Kantemo 275 
Kantiriz 276 
Kantix 276 
Kantol 421 
Kantsin 292 
Kantu 412 
Kantumbu 452 
Kantunbub 452 
Kantux 347 
Kantzin 297, 300 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



473 



Kanxim 211 
Kanzacam 367 
Kanzacxiu 350 
Kanzahilxiu 425 
Kanzinkin 284 
Kapab-yuc 175 
Kapok 353 
Karanilicho 365 
Karatas 221 
Karwinskia 341 
Katabox 175 
Katalox 175 
Katcuuc 419 
Katzuz 419 
Kax 175, 351, 432 
Kaxabal 423 
Kaxab yuc 175 
Kaxil 175 
Kaxil-ix-chel 175 
Kaxil ku 175 
Kaxixchel 175 
Kaxlan ixkih 259 
Kazcat 344 
Keb 175 
Keken-abal 336 
Kereba-punt 409 
Kexak 338, 339 
Keyem 212 
Kib 243 
Kiche 244 
Kicob 357 
Kicou 357 
Kiik 244 
Kiikche 244 
Kiix 171 

Kiix-pach-kuum 437 
Kiiz 336 
Kik-aban 175 
Kik-ni-och 175 
Kin'ak 301 
Kinim 175, 336, 353 
Kinin 336, 353 
Kinin-hobo 335 
Kintah 294 
Kintal 175 
Kinum 336 
K'ip 218 
Kisiyuc 175 
Kix 171 
Kixatucan 270 
Kixche 176 
Kix haban 176 
Kixkanlol 270 
Kixolok 391 
Kixxtez 256 
Kixzaclol 270 
Kiz 336 
Koch 332 
Kokera 257 
Kokobak 176, 251 
Kokobche 176 
Kok-pim 425 



Kolokmax 271 
Kom-kuch 176 
Konop 359 
Koochle 244 
Koopte 396 
Kopche 396 
Kopte 396, 397 
Koxas 409 
Koxol-ac 213 
Koxolxek 396 
Koyokiche 269 
Krugiodendron 341 
Ku236 
Kuche 310 
Kuchel 429 
Kuchilxiu 387 
Kuiche 310 
Kukil 228 
Kukilh 228 
Kukliz-cab 176 
Kuksub 242 
Kuiche 310 
Kulimche 334 
Kulimziz 311 
Kulinche 334 
Kum 434 
Kum-can 176 
Kumche 171, 363 
Kumixtulub 436 
Kumkat 308 
Kumquat 308 
Kumxtulub 436 
Kun-can 176 
Kunche 363 
Kutz 410 
Kutzaban 446 
Kutzikax 410 
Kuum 211, 434, 437 
Kuutz 410 
Kuxsogui 265 
Kuxub 359 
Kuxub-ak 176 
Kuxubcan 263 
Kuxub-che 176 
Kuxub-ic 176 
Kuyche 351, 353 
Kuyenk 301 

La 248 

Laal 248 

Laal tzimin 248 

Lab 264 

Labiatae 404 

Lactuca 151, Ml, 446 

Laelia 237, 239 

Laetia 361 

Lagascea 104, 448 

Lagenaria 435 

Lagerstroemia 369 

Lagrimas de San Diego 437 

Laguncularia 371 



474 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Lakintan 176 
Lakintan-mo 176 
Lai 248, 329 
Lalmuch 363 
Laltsimin 248 
Lamparones-ak 176 
Lantana 401 
Lap 409 
Lasiacis 204 
Latche 400 
Lauraceae 269 
Laurel 247, 385 
bianco 396 
de la India 247 
family 269 
rosa 383 
Laurelillo 176 
Lawsonia 369 
Le 171, 211 
Lebetina 140 
Lee 176, 435 
Leche 176 
Lechuga 446 

silvestre 150, 452 
Lechuguilla 224 
Leek 226 
Leersia 204 
Leguminosae 275 
Leiphaimos 382 
Lemaireocereiis 366 
Lemna 223 
Lemnaceae 223 
Lemon 307 

Lengua de dragon 235 
Lennoa 375 

family 375 
Lennoaceae 375 
Lens 296 
Lenteja 296 
Lentibulariaceae 416 
Lentil 296 

Lentinus 191 

Leochilus 239 

Leonotis 405 

Leontodon 452 

Leonurus 405 

Lepicystis 10 

Lepidium 273 

Leptilon 99, U3 

Leptochloa 56, 204 

Leque 435 

Lettuce 446 

Leucaena 278 

Leucobryum 193 

Leucopremna 363 

Licania 274 

Lichens 192 

Lignum-vitae 305, 328 
family 305 

Likintan 176 

Liliaceae 226 

Lilium 228 



Lily family 226 
Lima agria 307 
Lima bean 300 
Lime 307 
Limon 307 

agria 307 

dulce 307 

real 307 
Limonaria 308 
Limoncillo 307 
Linden family 343 
Linden, Jean Jules 166 
Linnaeus, Carl von 166 
Lippia 401,402 
Lirio 233 
Lithibzots 176 
Lithophila 258 
Liverworts 193 
Llanten 425 

silvestre 442 
Loasa family 363 
Loasaceae 363 
Lobelia 437 

family 437 
Lobeliaceae 437 
Lochnera 383 
Locust 289 
Logania family 381 
Loganiaceae 381 
Logwood 166, 288 

brush 279 
Lokab 445 
Lol 171 

Lonchocarpus 295, 296 
Lonicera 433 
Loosestrife family 369 
Loranthaceae 249 
Loranthus 250 
Loth-coc 176 
Lotoxalis 304 
Louteridium 424 
Love- vine 269 
Luch 418 
Lucuma 379, 380 
Lucumxiu 258 
Luehea 344 
Luffa 435 
Luin 176 
Lukzahtahan 437 
Lumche 176 
Lundia 419 
Luumchacte 284 
Lycianthes 409 
Lycium 409 
Lycopersicum 409 
Lygodium 194 
Lysiloma 279, 281 
Lythraceae 369 

Maats 212 
Maaxcal 229 
Maaxic 408 



FLORA OP YUCATAN 



475 



Maba 377 

Mac 267 

Macal 224, 229 

Macal box 230 

Macal-cox 176 

Macal-ku 176 

Macap-lum 176 

Macap-na 176 

Macenal puhuk 453 

Macenal pujuc 140 

Machaonia 429 

Machiche 176 

Machicho 176 

Machul 409 

Mac-much 176 

Maco 176 

Mac-oc 176 

Macrophoma 190 

Macroscepis 388 

Macrosiphonia 383 

Macuilixuatl 420 

Maculan 241 

Maculis 420 

Madder family 425 

Madera de pasta 360 

Madre de cacao 295 

Madrecacao 295 

Madreselva 433 

Mag 267 

Maguey 231 

Mah kui 413 

Maha 354 

Mahanchunkak 241 

Mahogany 166, 311 

Mafz 210 

Maize 210 

Majagua 348, 353 

Majahau 353 

Mak 267 

Malacate 176 

Malachra 349 

Malanga 224 

Mallow family 345 

Malpighia 316 
family 314 

Malpighiaceae 314 

Malujo 179 

Malva 349 
del monte 357 

Malvaceae 345 

Malvastrum 349 

Malvaviscus 349 

Malveopsis 349 

Mamey 358, 379 
Colorado 379 
de Campeche 380 
de Santo Domingo 358 

Mammea 358 

Mammillaria 367 

Manaca 217 

Manchineel 328 

Mandarin orange 308 



Mandarina 308 
Mangifera 334 
Mangle 370, 371 

amarillo 176 

bianco 371, 399 

bobo 371 

Colorado 371 

negro 176, 399 

prieto 370, 399 
Mango 334 
Mangrove 371 

family 371 
Mani 290 
Manihot 330, 359 
Mano de vaca 283 
Mante 176 

Manto de la reina 223 
Manzanilla 139, 445 

de campo 426 
Manzanillo 328 
Manzanita 349 
Mapche 173 
Mapola 351 
Maquiliz 420 
Maranon 333 
Maranta 237 
Marantaceae 237 
Maravilla 260 

del monte 425 
Margarita del mar 439 
Marginaria 10 
Mariposa 292 
Mariscus67, 71, 72, 216 
Marsdenia 388 
Martyniaceae 417 
Masa 211 
Masico 243 
Mastichodendron 380 
Mastigolejeunia 193 
Mastote 176 
Mastuerzo 273, 305 
Mata de pano 259 
Matasano 307 
Matzab chicbul 176 
Matzab kuch 176 
Ma'tzin hal 211 
Mau 176 
Maunakle 294 
Max 408 
Max-ak 176 
Maxcal 176, 229 
Maxcalcots 176 
Maxcaltzotz 229 
Maximilianea 360 
Maximowiczia 436 
Maxtic 450 
Mayflower 420 
Mayito 234 
Maytenus 337 
Mazati 221 
Mazcabche 374 
Mazcabmiz 449 



476 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Mazcabzuuc 214 

Medicago 297 

Meexnuxib 222 

Mehenchicam 299 

Mehenibbech 302 

Mehenkax 432 

Mehensial 416 

Mehenuahkoh 251 

Mehen-xaan 176 

Mehenxanabmucuy 324 

Mehenxtohku 408 

Mehenzacamtsotz 368 

Mehenzit 204 

Meibomia 293, 294 

Melampodium 106, 107, 108, 446 

Melanconiales 190 

Melanthera 122, 447 

Melastomaceae 374 

Melastome family 374 

Melia 310 

Meliaceae 310 

Melicoccus 338 

Melissa 407 

Melochia 356 

Melocoton 437 

Melon 434 

Meloncito 436 

Melqthria 436 

Menispermaceae 265 

Mentha 405 

Mentzelia 364 

Mertensia 242 

Mes 404 

Mesbe 351 

Mesosphaerum 405 

Mesquite 282 

Metastelma 389 

Metopium 334 

Mexican rubber tree 244 

wine palm 217 
Mexnuxib 221, 222, 265 
Mextsul 192 
Mezquite 282 
Micromeria 405 
Microspora 192 
Mignonette 273 

family 273 
Mikania 97, 447 
Mil en rama 438 
Milkweed family 387 
Miller, Philip 166 
Milleria 104, 105, 447 
Millo 209 

Millspaugh, Charles F. 167 
Millspaughia 253 
Milpa 211 
Mimosa 276, 279 
Mint family 404 
Mirabilis 260, 261 
Mirahuano 220 
Miramelinda 265 
Mirasol 121, 446 



Mirasolia 118 

Misa milpera 212 

Misibcoc 359 

Mistletoe family 249 

Mitracarpus 430 

Mix 347 

Mixcax 319 

Miz221 

Mizbil 345 

Mogiphanes 255 

Moho 353 

Momo 241 

Momordica 436 

Monanthochloe 60, 205 

Monimiaceae 266 

Monkey-rattle 332 

Monniera 414 

Monstera 223 

Montanoa 114, 115, 129, 448 

Monte 351 

Mool 40, 200 

Moolcoh 322 

Moonflower 389 

Moonseed family 265 

Mop 217 

Mora 245 

Moraceae 243 

Moral liso 245 

Moras 248 

Morinda 430 

Moringa 273 

Moringaceae 273 

Morisonia 271 

Morning-glory family 389 

Morus 21t5, 247 

Mosquito-grass 213 

Mosses 192 

Mostaza 272 

Mcta 438 

mprada 438 
Motitas 441 
Motz 171 
Muc 242, 293 
Muc ceh 176 
Much 176 
Muchcoc 194 
Muchcockax 193 
Muchcok 421 
Muc-ta 176 
Mucuna 297 
Mucuy 324 
Mucuy-che 176 
Muerdago 250 
Muk 358 
Mukay-che 176 
Mukay-onob-can 176 
Mukun 212 
Mukuy 368 
Mul 200 

Mulberry family 243 
Mulche 379 
Muliix 222 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



477 



Mulito 440 
Muloch 176, 345 
Munditos 337 
Muntingia 344 
Mup 413 
Murraea 308 
Musa 235 
Musaceae 235 
Musci 192 
Muskmelon 434 
Musmacoy 176 
Mustard family 272 
Mutscoc 197 
Muul 200 
Muyche 376 
Mycosyrinx 342 
Myginda 337 
Mykosyrinx 191 
Myosotis 398 
Myrica 242 
Myricaceae 242 
Myristicaceae 266 
Myrmecodendron 276 
Myroxylon 298, 362 
Myrsinaceae 376 
Myrsine family 376 
Myrstiphyllum 431 
Myrtaceae 371 
Myrtle family 371 
Myrtus 371 

Na 176 
Naab 264 
Naabtsuts 196 
Naba 298 
Nabal 298 
Nabanche 313 
Nabay 236 
Nabo 272 
Nabukak 452 
Nach-bacil-che 176 
Nach lum 176 
Naiadaceae 198 
Naias 198 

family 198 
Nakaz 218 
Nakta 392 
Nal 211 
Nama 395 
Name 229 
Nance 315, 316 
Nanc&i 172, 316 

agria 315 
Nanche 315 
Nantaha 176 
Napoche 176 
Naranja 308 

agria 307 

de China 308 

de ombligo 308 

dulce 308 
Naranjilla 271 
Naranjito 308 



Narciso 383 
Nardo 234 
Nargusta 371 
Nasturtium 273, 305 

family 305 
Nayum 338 
Nazareno 176 
Nech lum 176 
Nectandra 269 
Neea 260 
Negrito 312 
Nehuech 208 
Nek 171 
Nemaax 398 
Nemastylis 235 
Nemax 176 
Nemax-ak 176 
Nemax-xiu 176 
Nemiz 318 
Neomammillaria 367 
Neomillspaughia 254 
Nepeta 407 
Nephrodium 2, 196 
Nephrolepis 196 
Nerium 383 
Ne-tab 176 
Netoloc 420 
Nettle family 248 
Neurolaena 448 
Ni-ax 176 
Nic 171 
Nickernut 283 
Nicotiana 410 
Nictac 176 
Nicte 171, 384 
Nictechom 384 
Nicua 389 
Niiche 253 
Nimiz 422 
Nin 174 
Ninfa 264 
Nipcibche 179 
Nissolia 298 
Nistamal 211 
Nitsox 426 
Nitxmaxche 268 
Nitze 177 
Nizots 426 
Nocca 103, 448 
Nohol-aban 177 
Noholcikutz 410 
Nok-ak 177 
No-me-olvides 398 
Nooc 347 
Nopal 368 
Nopalea 368 
Nostoc 192 
Nothoscordum 228 
Notoptera 448, 449 
Notylia 239 
Num 362 
Numtzutzuy 362, 366 



478 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Nuntzutzuy 366 
Nup 353 

Nuum-tsu-tsui 362 
Nyctaginaceae 259 
Nymphaea 264 
Nymphaeaceae 264 

O269 

Oak 242 

Ochil 224 

Ochmul 344, 345 

Ochnaceae 358 

Ochroma 354 

Ochux 213 

Ocimum 1+05, 406 

Ocotea 269 

Octoblepharum 193 

Oedera 137 

Ohesimah 398 

Oj 269 

Ojite 177 

Ojo-ak 177 

Ojo de gallo 451 

Ojoxiu 177 

Okenia 260 

Okra 348 

O1171 

Olacaceae 252 

Olax family 252 

Oldenlandia 430 

Old-woman's walking-stick 444 

Oleaceae 381 

Oleander 383 

Olfato de perro 385 

Oliganthes 449 

Olive family 381 

Olote 211 

Olualuc 177 

Olyra 46, 205 

Om390 

Omil 442 

On 269, 390 

Onagraceae 374 

Oncidium 239 

Onion 226 

Onobkax 325 

Oop 267 

Oox 360 

Op 266, 267 

Opche-hum 177 

Operculina 393 

Opilia family 252 

Opiliaceae 252 

Oplismenus 36, 205 

Opoponax 276 

Oppolche 418 

Opptzimin 403 

Opuntia 368 

Oraci6n 389 

Orange 308 

Orchid family 237 

Orchidaceae 237 



Oreodoxa 219 
OrSgano 402 

silvestre 401 
Ormocarpum 288 
Ornithopteris 12, 194 
Orobanchaceae 421 
Orobanche 421 
Orozuz 402 

del pais 402 
Orpine family 274 
Ortiga 248 

de caballo 248 
Ortiguilla 333 
Oryza 206 
Osmunda 13 
Otahaite gooseberry 331 
Otopappus 12 It, 449 
Ouratea 358 
Ox 243, 360 
Oxalidaceae 304 
Oxalis 304 
Oxil 347 
Oxybaphus 261 

Paak 409 

Pac 268, 409 

Pacach 211 

Pacam 368 

Pacanle 375 

Pacanul 411 

Pacax 171 

Pacayas 218 

Paccanil 411 

Paccanul 411 

Pach'cab 211 

Pachi 373 

PachiraS5i, 353 

Pach-max 177 

Pachycereus 367 

Pachyrhizus 298 

Pacnul 411 

Pacunilek 410 

Pahabcan 411 

Pahalcan 413 

Pahte 177 

Pahtsa 225 

Pahtsab 236 

Pahtub 177 

Pahuas 269 

Pahxuhuc 289 

Pai'c 409 

Pailuch 427 

Pajilla 225 

Pak 289 

Pakaal 308 

Pakal 308 

Pakalcan 413 

Pakam 368 

Pakcan 413 

Pakuite 236 

Palabra de caballero 401 

Palm family 216 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



479 



Talma de escoba 217 

de guano 219 

real 219 
Palmaceae 216 
Palmito 220 
Palo bianco 177 

chino 313 

de arco 290 

de caja 337 

de Campeche 288 

de corchp 266 

de hormigas 312 

de rosa 334 

de sangre 177, 266 

de tinta 288 

de violin 400 

hediondo 269 

jiote 313 

moral 245 

mulato 309, 313, 334 

sandiego 177 

santo 305, 322 
Palobravo 177 
Paltonium 196 
Panatela 332 
Pandanus 198, 227 
Panicum 23-26, 31, S3, 34, 36, 37, 50, 

202, 204, 206, 210 
Pansy 361 
Pantsil 312 
Papa 413 
Papagayo 223 
Papangaya 435 
Papaveraceae 270 
Papaya 363 

family 363 
Papayo 363 
Para grass 206 
Paraiso 310 

bianco 274 

de Espana 274 

morado 310 
Parathesis 377 
Pareira brava 265 
Parietaria 248 
Parmentiera 419 
Parosela 299 
Parsley 375 

family 374 
Parsonsia 369 
Parthenium 108, 449 
Pasa-ak 312 
Pasas-ak 343 
Pascua 394 
Pasionaria 364 
Pasmoxiu 415 
Paspalum 27, 34, 206, 207 
Pasqui 228 
Pasquiy 228 
Passiflora 364, 365 
Passifloraceae 364 
Passionflower family 364 



Pastora 453 
Pata 373 

Pata de vaca 282, 283 
Pataxte 356 
Patito 292 
Pats-can 177 
Paullinia 338 
Pautzil 312 
Paxalche 177 
Paxlac 263 
Payche 262 
Pea 302 
Peanut 290 
Pec 356 

Pechcitam 431, 432 
Pechnox 177 
Pectis 142, 449 
Pecuah 211 
Pedaliaceae 416 
Pedilanthus 331 
Peeu 211 
Peeuon 269 
Pegapega 290 
Pegarropa 364 
Peine de mico 420 
Pek-xiu 177 
Pelargonium 305 
Pelexcuch 320 
Pelican flower 251 
Pelillo 200 
Pellaea 5, 195 
Penicillium 190 
Pensamiento 361, 422 
Peonia 289 
Pepe cacao 344 
Peperomia 241 
Pepino 434 

de arbol 420 

de ardilla 419 
Pepper 407 

family 241 
Peppergrass 273 
Perejil 375 
Perescuch 320 
Pereskia 369 
Pereskiopsis 369 
Pereskuz 320 
Perexcuch 320 
Peric6n 450 
Perisporiales 190 
Persea 269, 334 
Perymenium 450 
Pestalozzia 190 
Petekin 401 
Peteltun 265 
Petetunich 265 
Petiveria 262 
Petrea 403 
Petroselinum 375 
Petunia 410 
Peuil tanam 347 
Pharbitis 390 



480 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Phaseolus 300 
Phegopteris 11, 196 
Philibertia 387, 388 
Philodendron 224 
Philoxerus 258 
Phlox 395 
Phoenix 219 
Phoradendron 249 
Phragmites 59, 207 
PhyllanthusSiS, 331 
Phyllocactus 367 
Phymatodes 12 
Physalis 410, J^IS 
Physic-nut 329 
Phytolacca 262 
Phytolaccaceae 262 
Picab 212 
Picapica 298 
Pich 278 
Piche 278 
Pichi 373 
Pichiche 373 
Pickerelweed family 226 
Pico de flamenco 303 

de polio 178 
Picob 212 
Picosa 321 
Picramnia 312 
Pie de venado 283 
Pigeon-pea 291 
Pigeon-plum 274 
Pigweed 256 
Piim 352, 353 
Piitz 347 
Pilea 248 
Pileus 363 
Pilin 301 
Pilocarpus 309 
Pimenta 373 
Pimento 373 
Pimienta 373 
Pimienta-che 340, 341 
Pimiento de Tabasco 373 
Pimpinella 375 
Pina 220 
Pinaceae 198 
Pinanona 223 
Pine family 198 
Pineapple 220 

family 220 
Pink 264 

family 264 
Pino 240 
Pinol 212 
Pinon 329 

espinoso 295 
Pinones 329 
Pinuela 220, 221, 430 
Pinuelilla 221 
Pinus 198 
Pio 274 
Piocha 413 



Piper 241 
Piperaceae 241 
Piscidia 301 
Pisonia 261 
Pistia 224 
Pisum 302 
Pita floja 220 
Pitaci 232 
Pitahaya 367 

blanca 367 

roja 367 

Pitajaya 365, 367 
Pitan 242 
Pitarrilla 297 
Pitaya 365, 367 
Pithecoctenium 420 
Pithecolobium 277, 280 
Pito 295 
Pittiera 436 
Pix 409 
Pixb 409 
Pixoy 355 
Pixp 409 
Pixton 332 
Pixtonak 354 
Pixtonchich 354 
Pixtonkax 319 
Plagiolophus 125, 165, 450 
Plantaginaceae 425 
Plantago 425 
Plantain 235 

family 425 
Platanillo 235 
Platano 235 

morado 235 

rojo 235 

Plato y taza 387 
Platymiscium 302 
Pluchea 101, 450 
Plumbaginaceae 381 
Plumbago 381 

family 381 
Plumeria 383 
Poa 62 
Pochil 364 
Pochkak 364 
Pochote 352, 353, 360 

hembra 352 

macho 352 
Pocte 177 
P adopter us 254 
Poinciana 288 
Poinsettia 326 
Pok 335 

Pokeberry family 262 
Pokeweed 262 
Polbox 267 
Polche 177 
Polemoniaceae 395 
Polemonium family 395 
Poleo 405 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



481 



Polianthes 234 
Pol-kokob 177 
Pol-mis 367 
Poltzacam 367 
Poly gala 317 

family 317 
Polygalaceae 317 
Polygonaceae 252 
Polygonum 254 
Polyodon 53 
Polypodiaceae 2, 194 
Polypodieae 9 
Polypodium 3, 9, 195 
Polypody family 194 
Polyporus 191 
Polystictus 191 
Pom 314 
Pomarrosa 372 
Pomegranate 370 

family 370 
Pomelo 308 
Pomolche 329 
Pomponzit 436 
Pom-te 314 
Ponchixuis 387 
Pond-apple 266 
Pontederiaceae 226 
Poox 266, 267 
Pooxnuc 223 
Pop 177 
Pop-che 177 
Popiste 177 
Popistle 177 
Poponax 276 
Popox 333 
Poppy family 270 
Popte 177 
Porana 394 
Poria 191 

Porophyllum 141, 451 
Portulaca 263 
Portulacaceae 263 
Potato family 407 
Pox 266, 348 
Pozol 212 
Ppac 409 
Ppih 329 
Ppolan 347 
Ppoppox 333 
Ppoppox-can 177 
Ppupp 352 
Prendedora 413 
Prickly pear 368 
Priva 403 
Prockia 362 
Prosopis 282, 421 
Protea family 249 
Proteaceae 249 
Protium 313 
Provision-tree 353 
Pseudelephantopus 451 



Pseuderanthemum 424 
Psidium 373 
Psittacanthus 250 
Psychotria 430 
Ptelea 271 
Pteridium 8, 196 
Pteridophyta 1 
Pteris 8, 196 
Pterocarpus 302 
Pteromimosa 279 
Pububuk 269 
Pucak 448 
Puch 211 
Puciim 341 
Pucte 370 
Puerro 226 
Pugasqui 177 
Puh 198, 354 
Pukim 341 
Pukin 341, 399 
Pulul 177 
Puluxtakoc 340 
Punab 311 
Punica 370 
Punicaceae 370 
Purgacion-xiu 389 
Purple-wreath 403 
Puschichibe 344 
Pusley 263 
Put 363 
Putbacxtez 258 
Putbalam 412 
Putcan 179, 273 
Putsche 239 
Putschichibe 344 
Putsmucuy 254, 362, 379 
Putsub-che 177 
Putxiu 273 

Quamoclit 392, 394 
Quararibea 354 
Quelite 256, 258 
Quema-casas 387 
Quent6 237 
Quercus 242, 266 
Quiebrahacha 177, 341 
Quimbomb6 348 
Quina 177, 322 
Quitasol del diablo 191 

Rabano 273 
Rabo de mico 398 
Rachicallis 431 
Radish 273 
Ramalina 192 
Ramillete 439 
Ram6n 243 
Ram6n bianco 177 
Randia 431, 432 
Ranunculaceae 265 
Raphanus 273 



482 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Rattlebox 293 
Rauwolfia 385 
Red copal 340 

mangrove 371 

milkweed 387 
Reed 207 
Remolacha 258 
Renealmia 236 
Repollo 272 
Reseda 273 

francesca 369 
Resedaceae 273 
Resedan 273 
Revienta muelas 387 
Rhabdadenia 385 
Rhamnaceae 340 
Rheedia 358 
Rhizophora 371 
Rhizophoraceae 371 
Rhoeo 225 
Rhus 33b, 335 
Rhynchosia 302 
Rhynchospora 82 
Ribes 331 
Rice 206 
Ricinus 332 

Rivas, Efralm Gutierrez 167 
Rivina 263 

Robinia 28b, 293, 295, 296, 297 
Roble 397, 420 

bianco 177 
Rocket larkspur 265 
Rom 336 

Romerillo de la costa 455 
Romero 406 

falso 432 
Rondeletia 432 
Roripa 273 
Rosa 274 
Rosaceae 274 
Rose family 274 

geranium 305 
Rose-apple 372 
Rosemary 406 
Rosetilla 200 
Rosmarinus 406 
Roulinia 389 
Rouliniella 389 
Rousselia 248 
Royal jasmine 381 

palm 219 
Rubiaceae 425 
Ruda 309 
Rue 309 

family 306 
Ruellia 402, 421,424 
Rum 336 
Russelia 416 
Ruta 309 
Rutaceae 306 
Rynchospora 216 



Sabac-abal 336 
Sabal 219 
Sabicea 432 
Sacate Guinea 33 

Parana 21 
Sacauah 177 
Sacbacelcan 177, 361 
Saccabah 247 
Sac-canzelxiu 387 
Sac-chacah 313 
Sac-chacte 284 
Saccharum 17, 208 
Sacchucum 280 
Sac-chum 380 
Sacci 231 
Sac-culul 367 
Sacha 212 
Sachaaz 235 
Sachacalcan 177 
Sachitziche 177 
Sacloob 372 
Sacmix 393 
Sacmizbil 345 
Sacnab 264 
Sac-nabche 177 
Sacna-che 177 
Sacpet 293 
Sacpiche 254 
Sacpom 340 
Sacppoppox 333 
Sacsilil 177 
Sactaman 177 
Sac-tinte 177 
Sactoy 449 
Sac-xanabmucuy 324 
Sacxiu 345, 351 
Sacxtez 256 
Sacyab 295 
Sagu 237 

del monte 237 
Saioch 264 
Sakanche 177 
Sakatsun 433 
Sakiab 177 
Sakilte 329 
Sakxim 210 
Salatxiu 338 
Salbeets 336 
Salche 303 
Salicornia 259 
Salix 242 
Salmea 124, US 
Salmwood 396 
Saltgrass 202 
Salvia 406, 451 

poblana 403 
Salvinia 197 

family 197 
Salviniaceae 197 
Sambucus 398, 433 
Samyda 362 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



483 



San Diego 403 

Juan del monte 454 
Sanalotodo 342 
Sandbox 328 
Sandbur 200 
Sandia 434 

chom 434 

de zopilote 434 

silyestre 436 
Sandiego 177 
Sanguinaria 451 

de flores negros 112 
Santa Maria 103, 110, 449, 451 

Rita 367 

Santo Domingo 353 
Sanyitalia 107, 111, 451 
Sapindaceae 337 
Sapindus 338 
Sapodilla 378 

family 378 
Sapota 378 
Sapotaceae 378 
Sapote 379 
Sapranthus 268 
Saquil 374 
Saramuya 268 
Sarcostemma 388 
Sarsaparilla family 229 
Sascatzim 279 
Sasquiche 177 
Sassafras 313 
Satureia 405 
Sauco 397, 433 

amarillo 421 
Sauvagesia 358 
Sawgrass 216 
Scaevola 438 
Schizachyrium 19, 198 
Schizaeaceae 12, 193 
Schmidelia 337 
Schoenus 78, 83 
Schoepfia 252 
Schomburgkia 239 
Schott, Arthur 167 
Schwenkia 411 

Scirpus 77, 79, 80, 81, &t, 216 
Scleria 84, 216 
Sclerocarpus 113, 452 
Scrophulariaceae 414 
Scutellaria 407 
Sea beans 283 
Sea-grape 253 
Sebastiania 333 
Sechium 436 
Securidaca 317 
Sedge family 213 
Selaginella 194, 197 

family 197 
Selaginellaceae 197 
Selenicereus 365 
Seler, Caecilia 168 
Seler, Eduard 168 



Sen del pais 285 
Senecio 14.6, 147, 452 
Senegalia 276, 277 
Sensitiva 279 
Sensitive plant 279 
Sereno 438 
Serjania 339 
Sesame 416 

family 416 
Sesamum 416 
Sesbania 303 
Sesik 318 

Sesuvium 259, 263 
Setaria 38, 39, 208 
Setariopsis 38, 208 
Seville orange 307 
Sibul 177 
Si'c 410 
Sicah 258 
Sicana 437 
Si'ch 410 
Siche 376 
Sicil-much 177 
Sicil pach 178 
Sicilpus 416 
Sicilte 329 
Sicimay 399 
Siclite 329 
Sicydium 437 
Sida 345, 346, 350 
Sideroxylon 380 
Siempreviva 257, 274 
Sierilla 279 
Sii'c 410 
Siit 204 
Siitz 423 
Sikin 284 
Sikunhen 429 
Silene 264 
Silk-grass 220 
Silk-oak 249 
Simaruba 312 

family 312 
Simarubaceae 312 
Simsia 452 
Sinanche 309 
Sinvergtienza 274 
Siparuna 266 
Siquih 258 
Siricote 396, 397 

bianco 397 
Sisal 233 

hemp 233 
Sisalxiu 274 
Sisim 312 
Sisin 439 
Sisinicche 177 
Sitz 407 

Smilacaceae 229 
Smilax 229, 365 
Soapberry 338 

family 337 



484 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Soapseed tree 338 
Sol de agua 264 
Solanaceae 407 
Solanum W9, 411 
Solidago 134 
Solimanche 328 
Solocchom 343 
Sombrerito azul 398 
Sonchus 150, 452 
Sool 171 
Sophora 303 
Sorghum 20, 209 
Sorosporium 191 
Soscha 444 
Soscilchac 177, 222 
Sosolokricte 177 
Sour orange 307 
Soursop 267 
Sow-thistle 452 
Spanish cedar 310 

moss 222 

plum 335 
Spartina 209 
Spermacoce ^26, 432 
Spermatophyta 15 
Sphaeropsidales 190 
Spider lily 233 
Spigelia 381 
Spilanthes 122, 452 
Spinach 259 
Spinacia 259 
Spiny pigweed 256 
Spiracantha 103, 453 
Spiranthes 239 
Spironema 225 
Spondias 250, 335 
Sponge gourd 435 
Sporobolus 49, 209 
Spur 275 

Spurge family 317 
Squash 434 
Stachytarpheta 403 
Star gooseberry 331 
Star-apple 379 
Stemmadenia 385 
Stemodia 416 
Stenorrhynchus 240 
Stenotaphrum 45, 209 
Stephanomeria 151, 446 
Sterculia 356 
Sterculiaceae 354 
Stereophyllum 193 
Stigmaphyllon 316 
Stone, Witmer 167 
Stonewort family 192 
Streptachne 48, 199 
Strumpfia 432 
Struthanthus 250 
Stutztzuk 295 
Stylosanthes 303 
Suaeda 259 



Subidtul 177 
Subin 276 
Subinche 276, 302 
Subul 381 
Suchah 396 
Sucte 177 
Sucuc 295 
Suetsinic-che 312 
Sufre y calla 177 
Sugar-apple 268 
Sugar-cane 208 
Suk 235 
Sukpaen 201 
Sulche 304 
Sumpankle 295 
Sunflower 446 

family 438 
Suriana 312 
Susacque 452 
Sutup 307 
Swan flower 251 
Sweet lime 307 

orange 308 

potato 390 

violet 361 

William 264 
Sweetsop 268 
Swietenia 311 
Synedrella 130, 453 
Syngonium 224 
Syntherisma 23, 202, 210 

Ta361 
Taabche 370 
Taa-ceh 177 
Taacha cauhaa 357 
Taanche 320 
Taan-coc 177 
Taan-kozen 177 
Taastab 177 
Taa-tzimimin 177 
Tabaco 410 

cimarron 410 

de negro 223 
Tabay 402 
Tabche 370, 371 
Tabean 343 
Tabebuia 420 

Tabernaemontana 385, 386 
Tabi 454 
Tabkanil 343 
Taenitis 196 
Tagetes 139, 450, 453 
Tah 120, 455 
Tahchaac 191 
Tah-kee 177 
Tahte 174, 177 
Tahua 177 
Takin-che 177 
Takob 267 
Talche 404 
Talega de pedernal 177 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



485 



' Talinum 264 
Talisia 338, 340 
Taman 346, 347 
Tamanbub 455 
Taman-can 177 
Tamanche 349, 350 
Tamanchich 349 
Taman-cooc 177 
Tamarind 289 
Tamarindo 289 
Tamarindus 289 
Tamay 362 
Tamcazche 309 
Tancasche 310 
Tancazche 309 
Tan-ceh 177 
Tanche 320 
Tan tsunun 177 
Tapach 178 
Tapal 315 
Tapche 371 
Taratana 285 
Taray 178, 283 
Tarbay 402 
Tasche 178 
Tasiste 220 
Tastab 178 
Tatakche 400 
Tatsi 336 
Tatuan 178 
Tauch 377 
Taulmil 432 
Taulum 438 
Taumil 432 
Tcanlol 358 
Tcan-sik 376 
T6 cimarr6n 402 
de Cozumel 407 
de milpa 440 
de Yucatan 402 
del pals 402 
Tea bark 242 

box 242 
Tecoma 421 
Tectaria 3, 197 
Te-ik 178 
Tekhalal 199 
Tel kuch 178 
Tela de cebolla 178 
Tel-ak 178 
Telanthera 254 
Telcocox 262 
Telcox 178, 262 
Telesku 414 
Teltsiu 195 
Teno 347 

Tephrosia2Si, 303 
Teramnus 295 
Terciopelp 240 
Terminalia 371 
Tetracera 358 
Tetramerium 425 



Tetrapteris 316, 317 
Teucrium 406 
Tezak 355 
Tezmucuy 256 
Thalia 237 
Thax-ak 178 
Theobroma 356 
Theophrasta family 376 
Theophrastaceae 376 
Thevetia 386 
Thistle 442 
Thouinia 340 
Thrinax 218, 219 
Thuidium 193 
Tianguis 325 
Tiaxab 302 
Tibib-xiu 178 
Tibouchina 374 
Tiger-wood 295 
Tigridia 234 
Tiliaceae 343 
Tillandsia 221 
Tinta 288 

roja 323 
Tinto verde 178 
Tirabuzon 236 

Tithonia 101*, 117, M8, tfO, 453 
Tizon de maiz 191 
Tmuul 257 
Tobacco 410 
Toh 455 
Tohku 408 
Tok 178 

Tokabal 94, 149, 444, 454 
Tokaban 444, 454 
Tok-zuuc 178 
Toloc 105 
Tolol 344 
Tomate 409 
Tomato 409 
Tompaap 413 
Tonpaap 413 
Too 178 
Toob-hoob 353 
Toon-can 178 
Toon-che 178 
Toon-tzimin 178 
Toopp 171 
Toplanxiu 326, 447 
Topoxte 178 
Torchwood family 313 
Toronja 308 

agria 308 
Toronjil 405 
Torrubia 261 
Tortula 192 
Torulinium 67, 73, 74 
Totoposte 212 
Totopzots 349 
Tournefortia 399 
Tovillo 178 
Toxob 284 



486 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Toxobek 285 

Toztab 178 

Tradescantia 226 

Tragia 333 

Trametes 191 

Tree fern family 194 

Trema 243 

Tres Marias 271, 272 

Triaena 54 

Tribulus 306, 324 

Triceratia 437 

Trichachne 23, 210 

Trichilia 311 

Trictispis 58 

Tridax 127, 135, 450, 454 

Tridens 210 

Triodia 60, 210 

Triodon 433 

Triphasia 309 

Triphora 240 

Triumfetta 344 

Trixis 149, 454 

Tronador 293, 421 

Tropaeolaceae 305 

Tropaeolum 305 

Tsabsits 406 

Tsacalbac 424 

Tsacam 366 

Ts'ahlec 235 

Tsaimentsai 381 

Tsalbay 221 

Tsalmuy 268 

Tsam 225 

Tsan 225 

Tsanah 225 

Tsaycan 259, 263 

Tsayoch 263, 264 

Tsay-och-can 263 

Tsayuntsay 403 

Tsci-xiu 406 

Tseb-xiu 178 

Tsez-cat 178 

Tsicilchay 91 

Tsicte 378 

Tsictli 378 

Tsiim 330 

Tsiin 346 

Tsiisyab 380 

Tsilam 178 

Tsimtsimchay 329 

Tsin 330 

Tsintsin-chay 329 

Tsipil 227 

Tsitsilche 282, 438, 439 

Tsiuche 282 

Tsol 435 

Tsolak 419 

Tsoloh 442 

Tsootscab 364 

Tsotsiltsaioch 264 

Tsots-mohoch 178 

Tsubac 178 



Tsubil 355 
Tsuhum-che 178 
Tsuiche 282 
Tsula 178 
Tsulibppac 409 
Tsulipox 267 
Tsulubmai 341 
Tsulubtok 282, 283 
Tsul-xiu 178 
Tsumuy 266 
Tsumyail 178 
Tsunikax 351 
Tsunya 369 
Tsusuc 391 
Tsuts-mohoch 178 
Tsutsuc 265, 295 
Tsutup 355 
Tsuyuy 360 
Tuberose 234 
Tubiflora 422 
Tubroos 278 
Tuc 228 
Tuch 435 
Tuhache 178 
Tuk 217 
Tukux 413 
Tulcozon 178 
Tulhoc 219 
Tulipan 348, 349 
Tulix-kik 178 
Tulubalam 336 
Tulubayen 288 
Tulul 235, 336 
Tulum 178 
Tuna 366, 368 
Tuncay 302 
Tuncuy 280 
Tup 178 
Tup-palal 178 
Turbina 394 
Turco-uzam 178 
Turmeric 236 
Turnera 359 
family 359 
Turneraceae 359 
Turnip 272 
Tuspana 336 
Tut 301 
Tutsuixiu 260 
Tutz 217 
Tuuboc 364 
Tuuxicin 392 
Tux 347 
Tuz-ik-che 178 
Tuz-ik-lum 178 
Txitxya 380 
Typha 198 
Typhaceae 198 
Tza 198 
Tzah 329 
Tzaibacil 178 
Tzakam-ak 366 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



487 



9ft 

Tzalam 279 
Tzalyaltzai 346 
Tzama 301 
Tzaput 378 
Tzatzal 212 
Tzayentzay 403 
Tzay-pach 178 
Tzayuntzay 364 
Tzemez-akab 178 
Tzic-aban 178 
Tzicin 134, 441 
Tzilzilche 253 
Tzimikax 351 
Tziminche 178 
Tzitz 423 
Tzitzalxiu 274 
Tzitzilxiu 274, 443 
Tzitzim 146, 439 
Tzoloh 433 
Tzolohquen 433 
Tzolotzche 433 
Tzootzak 393 
Tzotz-ceh 178 
Tzotz-kuyuch 178 
Tzucmax 192 
Tzucnal 211 
Tzum 119, 454 

Uahko 250, 251 
Uahkoh 250 
Uahkoxiu 447 
Ual 171 

Uaxim 275, 278 
Uayam 340 
Uayamche 274 
Uayate 178 
Uaylahaltsac 277 
Uayum 340 
Uayunak 337 
Ubal 301 
Uca 427 
Uc'a 212 
Ucacou 129 
Ucam 178 
Ucan 178 
U1171 

Uiitsilxiu 194 
Ukche 451 
Ukutzhbox 223 
U1212 
Ule244 
Ulmaceae 242 
Ulmus 354 
Umbelliferae 374 
Um-can 178 
Un269 

Una de gato 261 
del diablo 417 
Unicorn-plant family"417 
Uniola 64 
Uo367 



Uob 367 
Uoo 367 
Upach che 171 
Urera 248 
Urtica 248 
Urticaceae 248 
Uruyam 178 
Urvillea 340 
Uspib 274 
Uspio 274 
Ustilaginales 191 
Ustilago 191 
Utricularia 416 
Utsomeltok 282 
Utsubpek 385 
Utsupek 385 
Utsuppek 385 
Utsuh 284 
Utzal 208 
Uuas 178 
Uuayuncox 178 
Uva 253, 343 
del mar 253 
Uvas del monte 343 
Uvero 178 
Uvilla 343 
Uxiuam 259 
Uzbib 274 
Uzte 316 

Vaina de espada 372 

Vainilla 240 

Valdez, Porfirio 167 

Valerianoides 399, 403, 404 

Vallesia 386 

Valota 210 

Vanilla 240 

Vara de San Joaquin 346 

de San Jose 346 
Varillo 397 
Velvet-leaf 265 
Verbena 403, 404, 407 

family 399 
Verbenaceae 399 
Verbesina 112, 128, 454 
Verdolaga 263 

de la playa 263 

del mar 441 
Vernonia 89, 454 
Vicaria 383 
Vicia 304 
Viguiera 119, 455 
Vilfa 49, 50 
Vinca 383 
Vincetoxicum 389 
Viola 361 
Violaceae 360 
Violet 360 

family 360 
Violeta 361 
Virginia 456 
Virola 266 



488 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Vismia 358 

Vitaceae 342 

Vitex 404 

Vitis 31t2, 343 

Vochysia 317 

Volador 230, 269, 362 

Vole 310 

Voyria 382 

Vriesia 223 

Vua 212 

Vuah 212 

Vuail 212 

Vuec 212 

Vuh 212 

Vuic 212 

Waika bead 271 

plum 358 
Waltheria 357 
Wandering Jew 226 
Water yam 229 
Watercress 273 
Waterleaf family 395 
Water-lettuce 224 
Waterlily 264 

family 264 
Watermelon 434 
Water-plantain family 198 
Wedelia 128, 455, ^56 
White mangrove 371 

yam 229 
Wild calabash 418 

cherry 243 

cinnamon 320 

coco-plum 274 

craboo 315 

grape 343 

physic-nut 329 

pinguin 221 

plum 331 

star-apple 380 
Willow 242 
Willughbaea 95, W 
Wimmeria 337 
Wissadula 350, 351 
Wolffia 223 

Wood-sorrel family 304 
Wormseed 258 
Wormwood 146 

Xaacil 259 
Xaan 219 
Xaax 275 
Xabalam 320 
Xacanlum 414 
Xac-chum 380 
Xach 420 
Xachah 420 
Xachextabay 420 
Xaci macal 229 
Xacilsacxiu 259 
Xacilxacxiu 259 



Xacin 211 

Xacmixbil 350 

Xacpiche 254 

Xac-xciu 249 

Xacxtez 256 

Xah-ceh 178 

Xakilche 402 

Xakilxiu 405 

Xaklipur 241 

Xalal 329 

Xan 219 

Xanab-chich 178 

Xanabmucuy 324, 325, 326 

Xanilkax 219 

Xanthium 87, 455 

Xanthosoma 224 

Xau 356 

Xauay 325 

Xauayxiu 350 

Xaxcach 414 

Xaxim 278 

Xaxox 413 

Xay-ak 178 

Xayau 360 

Xayillol 263 

Xayulolxiu 411 

Xbayunak 270 

Xbec-che 316 

Xbesinic-che" 312 

Xbexinic-che 312 

Xbockin 387 

Xcabaac 381 

Xcacalche 329 

Xcache 330 

Xcambalhan 245 

Xcambocoche 401 

Xcamuc-olal 178 

Xcantoplatston 287 

Xceeb 223 

X-chab-xan 68 

Xchache 178, 330 

Xchocte 178 

Xcholibuul 301 

Xchup 347 

Xco 178 

Xcoceh 229 

Xcocehac 229 

Xcoche 229, 270 

Xcolak 419 

Xcolibul 301 

Xcooch 333 

Xcoya 409 

Xcuc-tsub 178 

Xcunche 351 

Xcuzuuc 213 

Xeba 211 

Xeen 222 

Xemtzul 388 

Xentoloc 447 

Xhac-che 330 

Xhail 391 

Xhantumbu 178 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



489 



Xhas-ak 178 

Xhatalnal 256 

Xholac 291 

Xholo 348 

Xholobenal 222 

Xholol 348 

X-holom-x-al 222 

Xho-uel 336 

Xhoyoc 430 

Xhuayumhak 425 

Xhubche 178 

Xhubulha 225 

Xhulcu 178 

Xiahtsimin 277 

Xiat 217 

Xiaxek 281 

Xiaxiu 390 

Xib-cel 178 

Xib-kiik 425 

Xibkuub 425 

Xic-che 309 

Xich-huhil 372 

Xich-hulil 343 

Xichilak 306 

Xichilax 295 

Xicim 441 

Xicin 441 

Xicinchah 224, 264 

Xicinche 178, 191 

Xicin-coh 178 

Xicontzapotl 378 

Xicozotz 364 

Xiim 210 

Xiknal-tzacam 368 

Ximenia 252 

Xiu 171 

Xiuhulub 114, 452 

Xiuil tsac 178 

Xiutoloc 105, 447 

Xixci 232 

Xkakalche 329 

Xkanak 418 

Xkanchim 204 

X-kan-chim 36 

Xkanlolak 418 

Xkantumbub 107, 112, 446, 451 

X-kax 431 

Xkaxek 254 

Xkeo 220 

Xkeu 220, 249, 250 

Xkis 269 

Xkoch 332 

Xkolokmax 295 

Xkomha 192 

Xkomyaxnic 411 

Xkon-yaxik 411 

Xkukche 252 

Xkulinsis 311 

Xlabon-ak 178 

Xlaul 385 

Xloht-che 178 

Xmaak 266 



Xmacal 224 
Xmacoop 267 
Xmak 266 
Xmakulam 241 
Xmizbil 317 
Xmolcoh 322 
Xmool-coh 322 
Xmumuts 279 
Xmuts 279 
Xmuyche 249 
X-naab-tsuts 12 
Xnabalche 332 
Xne-bob 366 
Xne-mis 366 
Xnetab 178 
Xnixhax 317 
Xnobche 377 
Xnokak 414 
Xnucchicam 299 
Xnuknal 211 
Xobin 245 
Xoch 333 
Xocoak 289 
Xohecnux 401 
Xoken-cab 338 
Xoloblenal 222 
Xolohbenal 222 
Xolop 267 
Xoltenuuc 403 
Xoltexnuc 401, 405, 444 
Xomak 341 
Xooknum 376 
Xopol 179 
Xox 333 
Xoy 107, 446 
Xoyencab 430 
Xoyo 295 
Xpacumpac 395 
Xpakumpak 261, 324 
Xpakunpak 395, 403 
Xpaxakil 312 
Xpayhul 331 
Xpayumac 270 
Xpayunak 270 
Xpbixtdon 332 
Xpechukil 451 
Xpelon 301 
Xpetcitam 379 
Xpexhuekil 142 
Xpolcutzil 173 
Xpolkuchil 387 
Xpomolche 329 
Xponkanbul 179 
Xpuhuc 140 

de monte 140 
Xpukusikil 311 
Xpuluk 453 
Xtabay 420 
Xtabcanil 342 
Xtabentun 394, 436 
Xtabyu 179 
Xtac-canil 342 



490 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Xtadzi 178 
Xtexak 355 
Xtez 255, 256 
Xtobyo 179 
Xtog 179 
Xtohku 408 
Xtokabal 92, 94, 444 
Xtokoche 179 
Xtompac 319 
Xtsah 329 
Xtsats 329 
Xtuab 286, 288 
Xtucci 232 
Xtuchcahoy 389 
Xtuchi tunich 176 
Xtuciscan 179 
Xtucizcan 434 
Xtuhabin 286 
Xtuhuexiu 402 
Xtuhuy 384 
Xtul-coson 179 
Xtulub 436 
Xtupkinil 349 
Xtuyache 179 
Xtzacitza 254 
Xualcanil 197 
X-ual-kanil 9 
Xuaranchin 179 
Xubai 440 
Xubala 408 
Xucul 263 
Xukuk 258 
Xul 179 
Xul-ceh 179 
Xulinche 179 
Xulkin 399 
Xultoxiu 95, 444 
Xulub-ceh 179 
Xutu 389 
Xuul 179 
Xylophylla 332 
Xylosma 362 

Ya378 
Yaak-ek 179 
Yaax-acan 171 
Yaaxcach 414 
Yaaxche 352 
Yaaxek 281 
Yaaxhabin 287 
Yaaxhaxiu 225 
Yaax-hebil 393 
Yaaxhokob 308 
Yaaxic 408 
Yaaxkal 391 
Yaaxpakan 368 
Yaaxpehelche 242 
Yaaxtux 347 
Yaaxtzotzmacal 224 
Yaax-xkeu 249 
Yaazebil 393 
Yaba 290 
Yabo 290 



Yacunahax 436 
Yaha 179, 358 
Yaite 295 
Yakal-xiu 179 
Yakba 290 
Yakba-xiu 179 
Yala-elel 304 
Yalahatsac 277 
Yalahobon 172 
Yalelel 304 
Yam family 229 
Yamcotil 421, 424 
Yanuco 370 
Yarrow 438 
Yasxul 179 
Yax 244 
Yaxcal 211 
Yax-can-ak 179 
Yaxcatzim 276, 277 
Yax-chacah 179 
Yaxche 352 
Yaxci 233 
Yax-cocay-ak 179 
Yaxek 282 
Yaxha 244, 393 
Yaxhabin 287 
Yaxhal 393 
Yaxhalalche 331 
Yaxholche 345 
Yaxkixkanab 284 
Yaxnic 404 
Yaxoop 267 
Yax-ppehel-che 179 
Yaxppoppox 333 
Yaxpucim 341 
Yaxta 448 
Yaxtec-che 242 
Yaxtehc-che 242 
Yaxtsam 225 
Yaxtsan 225 
Yaxtsana 225 
Yaxtsanah 225 
Yax-zcin 249 
Yemoch 413 
Yerba buena 405 

de la golondrina 395 

del jabali 322 

del sapo 179 

San Juan del monte 136 
Yerbamora 413 
Yichcaan 423 
Yiihpakam 368 
Yitz naba 298 
Yochopptzimin 403 
Yomha 248 
Yuca 330 

amarga 330 

brava 330 

cimarrona 330 

dulce 330 
Yucca 228 
Yuy 271, 306 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



491 



'Za 212 
Zaayab 297 
Zabac-abal 336 
Zabacche 428 
Zabacnicte 179, 384 
Zabacpox 256 
Zabila 227 
Zaca 212 
Zacak 418 
Zacalbac 179 
Zacam 368 
Zacamak 366 
Zacamtsotz 368 
Zacan 211 
Zacate 212 

cerdoso 208 

de limon 201 

Guinea 206 

Para 206 

Parana 209 
Zacayab 360 
Zacbacelan 365 
Zac-beeb 179 
Zac-beec 179 
Zaccatzim 279 
Zacchacah 327 
Zac-che 179 
Zacchechem 337 
Zac-chichibe 356 
Zacchilib 425 
Zac-chucum 179 
Zacchuenche 179 
Zac-chunum 322 
Zac-ek 179 
Zachalal 207 
Zac-ha-na 179 
Zache 179 
Zachoclub 376 
Zac-hutul-ek 175 
Zacitsa 254 
Zacitz 325 
Zacitza 353 
Zac-kanan 179 
Zackintal 179 
Zac kokob che 179 
Zackopte 397 
Zackuyche 351 
Zacla 179 
Zac-lal 179 
Zac-leum-ak 179 
Zacmizbil 350 
Zacmizib 357, 438 
Zacmuul 255 
Zac-muyal-xiu 179 
Zacnal 211 
Zac-ne-ceh 179 
Zacnicte 383 
Zacolcom 371 
Zacoop 267 
Zacpah 315 
Zacpayche 254 
Zacpet 212, 293 



Zacpukim 399 
Zac-tab-can 179 
Zactah 128, 455 
Zactez 256 
Zactezxiu 258 
Zactokaban 443 
Zactsitsilche 379 
Zac-tsubto 179 
Zactsulubtok 283 
Zac-tsunan 179 
Zactxitxilche 253 
Zacuob 367 
Zacxiu 259, 345, 357 
Zacxiuthul 259 
Zacxtez 256 
Zacyab 295 
Zac-yik-che 179 
Zaczubinche 276 
Zaczuuc 203 
Zah-bach-ak 179 
Zahum 128, 456 
Zakab 211 
Zalac-kaat 106 
Zalackat 440 
Zalam 279 
Zalche 286, 288 
Zaltulul 379 
Zam-chac 179 
Zamia 197 
Zanthoxylum 309 
Zaop 267 

Zapatito de la reina 292 
Zapote 378, 379 **| 

bianco 307, 380 

murcielago 179 

negro 377 

prieto 271 

reventon 353 
Zapotillo 179 
Zapoton 353 
Zarza 179, 229, 280, 355 
Zarzaparrilla 229 
Zay 216 
Zaya 378 
Zayuntzay 403 
Zazaccoceh 229 
Zazafras 313 
Zea 210 
Zebrina 226 
Zephyranth.es 234 
Zexmenia 127, 455 
Zic 171 
Zicil 435 
Zicilhaxiu 401 
Zicilpuuz 416 
Zicil-tab 179 
Zicilte 179 
Zihom 339 
Zihum 339 
Zinanche 179 
Zingiber 236 
Zingiberaceae 236 



492 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOTANY, VOL. Ill 



Zinkinkax 376 
Zinnia 456 
Zinuh 242 
Zip 314 
Zipche 314 
Zit 34, 204 
Zitsmuc 242 
Zizalchen 195 
Zizal-tsum-ya 179 
Zizbic 240 
Zizbickax 240 
Zizim 439 
Zizim-kak 179 
Zizim-kuch 179 
Zizim-kuk 179 
Ziztalchen 4 
Zocichac 192 
Zoh-bach 179 
Zoh-bach-ak 179 
Zolak 419 
Zol-can 179 
Zon 305 
Zooh 347 
Zoon 305 
Zoot-coc 179 
Zorrillo 262 



Zorrillo bianco 254 
Zozci 232 
Zozcil 232 
Zubin 275, 276 
Zubinche 276, 302 
Zubin-thul 179 
Zubul 338 
Zuccil 232 
Zucuchacal 211 
Zuelania 362 
Zulche 304 
Zuliabal 335 
Zulipox 267 
Zuluay-xiu 179 
Zulub 423 
Zunumbak 409 
Zupte 179 
Zuput 179 
Zutskeyem 304 
Zutskeymil 304 
Zutspakal 307 
Zutub 389 
Zuuc 212 
Zuum 454 
Zygophyllaceae 305 






PUBLICATION 279 
BOTANICAL SERIES VOL. Ill, No. 3 



FLORA OF YUCATAN 



BY 

PAUL C. STANDLEY 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR OF THE HERBARIUM, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 



B. E. DAHLGREN * ^ ' 3 1< 

ACTING CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 



OF /U , 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 
SEPTEMBER 11, 1930 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA