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Full text of "The flora sylvatica for southern India: containing quarto plates of all the principal timber trees in southern India and Ceylon, accompanied by a botanical manual, with descriptions of every known tree and shrub, and analysis of every genus not figured in the plates"

> J1 



ttookscllers & IJuWtsIjera. 
28 Essex Street, Strand, 



Beddome, R. H., The flora sylvatica for Southern 
India. . . . accompanied by a botanical manual, etc. 
The complete work forms two volumes; un- 
fortunately neither has a dated title-page or partic- 
ulars of issue. The main work consists of plates 
each illustrating a single species and accompanied 
by a page of descriptive text (with arabic pagina- 
tion) but there is also an independently paged 
'Forester's Manual of Botany for Southern India' 
(with Roman pagination) giving a survey of families 
and keys to genera and plates, illustrating the 
'Analysis of Genera', each plate with floral details 
of two to eight genera. The following particulars 
have been taken from a copy at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, which has the original wrappers 
preserved and their contents noted. No contempo- 
rary reviews have been noticed (W. T. Stearn in 








F.M. i-xvii 
(326, 327?), 

(326, 327?) 
F.M. cxxxvi 
(of Add.) 



An.Gen. 1-2 


An.Gen. 3-11 

An.Gen. 12-22 

(326, 327?), 
An.Gen. 23-27 bis 









or 1874 









to) Ji 














Vol. I. 

HR a i\ i[ a s : 





(The Italics are Synonyms.) 


1. Dillenia speciosa. 
,, bracteata 
„ pentagyna 

3, Wormia bracteata 

4. Michelia Nilagirica. 














. CXV. 

. cxv. 


Bocagea Dalzellii, Anal. PI. I. fig. 4, 
Sagercea Dahe Hi, Anal. PL I. fig. 4. 
Popowia Beddomeana, Anal. PI. I. fig. 2. 
Popowia ramosissima, Anal. PI. I. fig. 2. 
Goniothalamus Wightii, Anal. PI. I. fig. 3. 
Mitrephora grandiflora. 
Xylopia parviflora. 

„ Championii, Anal. PI. I. fig. 5. 
Cyathocalyx Zeylanicus, Anal. PI. I. fig. 6, 
Unona Lawii, Anal. PI. I. fig, 1. 
Polyalthia cerasoides. . . 

,, longi folia. 

,, coffeoides. 

„ fragrans. 

Guatteria. See Polyalthia 
Phaeanthus Malabaricus, Anal. PI. I. fig. 7. 
Saccopetalum tomentosum. 
Miliusa velutina 
Alphonsea Madrasapatana 
Orophea erythrocarpa, Anal. PI. I. fig. 8. 







22. Coccnlus cordifolius, Anal. PI. II. fig. 1. 


23. Berberis Nepalensia, Anal. PI. II. fig. 2. 
Berberis Zeschenaultii, Ana). PI. II. fig. 2. 
Mahonia. See Berberis. 


24. Capparis stylosa, Anal. PI. II. fig. 3. 
25; Cratseva religiosa. 


26. Moringa pterygosperma. 



27. Alsodeia Zeylanica. 




28. Cochlospermum gossypium. 

29. Bixa Orellana. 

30. Scolopia crenata. 
Phoberos. See Scolopia. 

31. Erythrospermum phytolaccoides, Anal. PI. II. fig. 6. 

32. Placourtia inermis, Anal. PI. II. fig. 4. 

33. „ sapida, Anal. PI. II. fig. 4. 

34. „ sepiaria, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 4. £ only 

35. Aberia Gardneri, Anal. PI. II. fig. 5. 
Roumeu hebecarpa, Anal. PI. II. fig. 5. 

36. Trichadenia Zeylanica, Anal. PI. II. fig. 7. 

37. Hydnocarpus alpina. 
37a. Asteriastigma rnacrocarpa. 


38. Pittosporum tetraspermum, Anal. PI. II. fig. 8. 


39. Xanthophyllum angustifolium, Anal. PI. III. fig. 2. 

40. „ virens, Anal. PI. III. fig. 2. 

41. „ Arnottianum, Anal. PI. III. fig. 2. 




42. Tamarix ericoides, Anal. PI. III. 
Trichaurus. See Tamarix. 

ig. 1. 


43. Garcinia Cambogia 

44. „ Morella. 

45. „ pictoria. 

46. „ Travancorica. 










Garcinia papilla 
Xanthoeliymus pictorius. 
Stalagmites. See Xanthocliymus. 
Ochrocarpus longifolius. 
Calysaccion longifolium. 
Mammcea. See Ochrocarpus. 
Calophylluari elatum 

,, "Wightianum. 

Calophyllum decipiens. 
Calophyllmn spurium, 
Kayea stylosa, 
Mesua Coromandelina. 
Eebradendron Cambogioides, 


Ternstraemia gymnanthera 
Cleyera gymnanthera, 
Adinandra lasiopetala, Anal, PI, III. fij 
Cleyera lasiopetala, Anal. PI. Ill, fig. 3, 
Sarosanthera lasiopetala, Anal. PI, III. 
Eurya Japonica, 
Eurya Wightiana 
Gordonia obtusa, 
Gordonia parvifolia, 
Pseeiloneuron Indicum 
„ pauciflorum 

fig. 3, 


















59. Dipterocarpus Indicus 

60. Yatica Roxburghiana. 





Vatica Tamhagaia 
Vatica laccifera 

61. Shores robust a. 

62. ,, Tambagaia 

63. „ laccifera 
61. Hopea parviflora 

65. „ Wightiana 

66. Doona Zeylanica 

67. „ Gardneri 

68. Vateria Malabarica 

69. Vateria Indica 

70. Stemonoporus Gardneri 

71. „ acuminatus 

72. Monoporandra cordifolia 
72a. Balanocarpus utilig. 
726. „ erosa 






Kydia calycina, Anal. PI. III. fig. 5. 
Kydia fraterna, Anal. PI. III. fig. 5. 
Kydia axillaris, Anal. PI. III. fig. 6. 
Julostyles angustifolia, Anal. PI. III. fig. 4. 
Dicellostyles axillaris, Anal. PI. III. fig. 6. 
Hibiscus liliaceous, Anal. PI. IV. fig. I. 
Thespesia populnea 
Bombax Malabaricum 
JSahnalia Malabarica 
Bombax heptaphylla. 

Eriodendron anfractuosum, Anal. PI. IV. fig. 2. 
Cullenia excelsa, Anal. PI. IV. fig, 3. 















81. Sterculia guttata ... 

82. „ Haynii 

83. Heritiera littoralis, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 6. 

84. „ Papilio 

S5. Kleinhovia hospita, Anal. PI. IV. fig. 4. 

86. Helicteres Isora, Anal. PI. V. fig. 1. 

87. Pterospermum rubiginosiim 

88. Eriolcena Hookeriana, Anal. PI. V. fig 2. 

89. „ quinquelocularis, Anal. PI. V. fig. 2. 
Microclcena quinquelocularis, Anal. PI. V. fig. 2. 

90. Melochia velutina, Anal. PI. V. fig. 3. 
Visenia umbellata, Anal. PI. V. fig. 3. 

91. Abroma angusta, Aaal. PI. V- fig. 4. 

92. Guazuma tomentosa 








Pityranthe verrucosa 
Uerrya Ammonilla 
Grewia tiliasfolia 
Leptonycnia moaccuroides 
Erinocarpus Nimmonii 
Elieocarpus amsenus 
,, ferrugineus 

„ tubereulatus 

,, venustus 

Monocera luberculata 
Monocera ferruginea 

102. Erythroxylon Indicum 
Sethia Indica. 

103, Averrhoa Eilimbi 

























Melicope Indica, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 1. 
Evodia tripbylla, Anal. PI. "VI. fig. 2. 
Fagara triphylla, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 2. 
Xanthoxylum triphyllum, Anal. PI. VI, fig, 2. 
Xantboxylum Rhetsa, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 3. 

„ ovalifolium, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 3. 

Acronycbia pedunculata, Anal. PI. VI . fig. 4, 
Cyminosma pieduncuiata, Anal. PI. VI. fig. i. 
Toddalia aculeata, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 5. 
Glycosmis pentapbylla. Anal. PI. VI. fig. 6. 
Micromelum pnbescens, Anal. PI. VII. fig. 1. 
Murraya exotica, Anal. PI. VII. fig. 2. 
Clausena "Willdenovii, Anal. PI. VII. fig. 3 
Limonia alata, Anal. PI. VII. fig. 4. 
Atalantia rnonophylla, Anal. PI. VII. fig. 5. 
Schrostylis, See Atalantia. 
Citrus sp., Anal. PI. VII. fig. 6. 
Feronia elepbantum 
jEgle marmelos 



119. Ailantlius Malabarica 

120. Samadera Indica, Anal. PI. VIII. fig. 1. 

121. Balanites ^Egyptiaca, Anal. PI. VIII. fig. 2. 


122. Ochna squarrosa, Anal. PI. VIII. fig. 3. 

123. Gomphia angustifolia, Anal. PI. VIII. fig. 4, 


124. Boswellia glabra 

125. Garuga pinnata 

126. Balsamodendron Berryi 

127. Protium caudatum 
Protium Gileadense 

128. Canarium brunneum 

129. „ strictum 

130. Filiciuni decipiens 
Rhus decipiens 

Pteridophyllum. See Filicium. 
Amyris Gileadensis 







cxxyiii & Anal. PI. XVIII. fig. 1. 









Melia eomposita ... 
Melia Azadirachta 

,, Azedarack 
Azadirachta. See Melia. 
Mallea Rothii, Anal. PI. VIII. fig. 5. 
JSkebergia. See Mallea. 
Dysoxylon macrocarpum . 

Sandoricum Indicum 
A glaia Roxburghiana 
Amoora Rohituka • 

,, Lawii 
Milnea. See Aglaia. 
Nemedra. See Aglaia. 
Nimmonia. See Amoora. 
Lansium A namallayanum 
V/alsura piscidia, Anal. PI. VIII. fig. 6. 
Heynea affinis 

ffeynea trijuga , 

Beddomea simplicifolia 
Carapa Moluccensis 
Xylocarpus granatitm 













lio. Soymida febrifuga ;,; ... ... viii. 

146. Chickrassia tabularis . . ... ... xi. 

147. Cedrela toona ... ... ... x . 

148. Chloroxylon Swietenia .. ... ,, x j. 


149. Chailletia gelonioides, Anal. PI. IX. fig. 1. 
Moacurra gelonioides, Anal. PI. IX, fig. 1. 


150. Olax Wightiana, Anal. PI. IX. fig. 2. 

151. Strombosia Ceylanica ... ... ... cxxxvii. 

152. Anacolosa densifiora ... . . ... cxxxyiii. 

153. Opilia amentacea, Anal. PI. IX. fig. 3. 

Sphcerocarya leprosa .. ... ... cxxxvii. 

154. Lasianthera apicaulis ... ., ... cxxxix. 
Urandra. See Lasianthera. 

155. Gomphaudra coriaeea, Anal. PI. IX. fig. 4. 
Platea. See Gompbandra; 

156. Apodytes Benthamiana .. '..'. ... xl. 

157. Mappia foetida ... ... ,. xli. 

Slemonurus fcetidv.s ... „. , . cxli. 


158. Hex dentieulata ... , , ... cxlii. 

159. „ Malabarica ... .. ... cxliii. 

160. „ "Wightiana ... ,„ ... exlii. 


161. Euonymus crennlatns .. ... ,. cxliv. 

162. Glyptopetalum zeylanicum, Anal, PI. IX. fig. 5, 

163. Mierotropis ramiflora, Anal. PI. IX. fig. 6. 

164. Lophopetalum Wightianum .. ,. ... cxlv. 

165. Kokoona zeylanica ... ... ,, cxhi. 

166. Pleurostylia "Wightii, Anal. PI. X. fig. 1. 

167. Celastrus Senegalensis, Anal. PI. X. fig. 2. 
Celastrus montana, Anal. PI. X. fig. 2. 

168. Kurrimia Ceylanica ... ,. ... cxlvii. 

169. „ Indica ... ... .. cxx. 

Trochisandra Indica . . ... ... cxx. 

170. Elseodendron Roxburghii ... ... .. cxlviii. 

Neerija. See Elseodendron. 

171. Hippocratea A m °tti ana > Anal. PI. X. fig. 3. 

172. Salacia oblonga, Anal. PI. X. fig, 4. 


173. Zizyphusjujuba ... ;.; ... cxlix. 

174. Colubrina Asiatica, Anal. PI. X. fig. 5. 
.175. Bbamnus hirsutus, Anal. PI. X. fig. 6. 

176. Scutia Indica, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 1. 


177. Hemigyrosa canescens ... ... ... cli. 

„ deficiens ... ... .. ccxxxi 

178. Schmidelia hispida ... .. .. clii. 

179. Schleichera trijuga ... ... ... cxix. 

180. Glenniea zeylanica .. .-• •• cliii. 

181. Sapindus emarginatus ... •■ ■•• clir. 
Sapindus unijugus ... ... ■•■ c l"i- 

Ornitrophe. See Sehmidelfa 

Allophyllus. See Schmidelia 

Cupania canescens .. ... ■■■ cli. 

182. Nephelium stipulacenm ... •• ••• °1 T# 

183. Pometia eximea v . .... ■•• clvii. 

184. Euphoria Longana ... — •■• clvi - 
Scytale Longana . . ••• ••• clv *- 


Dimocarpus Longana 
Nephelium Longana 

185. Harpullia imbrioata 

186. Dodonoea viscosa, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 2. 
Dodonoia Burmaniana, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 2. 

187. Turpinia Nepalensis 
Streptostigma. See Harpullia. 
Otonychium. See Harpullia. 
Eccemanthus. See Pometia. 

188. Meliosma Arnottiana 

189. „ pungens 
Millingtonia Arnottiana 






Rhus Mysorensis, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 3. 
Mangifera Indica 
Anacardium occidentale 
Gluta Travancorica 
Nothopegia Colebrookiana 
Glycicarpus. See Nothopegia. 
Buchanania latifolia 
Solenoearpus Indioa 
Odina "Wodier ... 
Semeearpus Anacardium 
,, Travancorica 

Holigarna longifolia 
Campnosperma Zeylanica 
Spondias mangifera 


203. Rourea santaloides, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 4. 
20*. Connarus pinnatus, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 5. 
205. Ellipanthus unif oliatua . . 























Indigofera pulchella, Anal. PI. XII. fig 
Mundulea suberosa, Anal. PI. XII 
JRobinia suberosa, Anal. PI. XII- fig. 2 
Tephrosia suberosa, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 
Sesbania jEgyptiaea, Anal. PL XII. fig 
Ougeinia dalbergioides 
Desmodium cephalotes, Anal, PI. XII. : 
Erythrina stricta , 

,, Indica 
Butea frondosa ... 
Dalbcrgia latifolia 

,, Sissoo . 

Dalbergia Mooniana 
Pterocarpus inarsupium 

,, santalinus . 

,, Indicus 

Pongamia glabra 

Calpurnia aurea, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 5. 
Virgilia aurea, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 5. 
Sophora interrupta, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 
Ormosia Travancorica 
Pericopsis Mooniana » 

Cajsalpinia Sapan, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 1 
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius . 

Poinciana elata 

Parkinsonia aculeata, Anal, PL XIII. 
Cassia florida .,, 
Cassia Roxburghii 

fig. 2. 


fig- 2. 







. . xlv. 

.. clxxxvii. 

,.. xiiv. 

,.. clxxviii. 

,. tlxxix. 

... clxxs. 







Dialium ovoideuin 
Bauhinia racemosa 
Humboldtia unijuga 
Tamarindus Indica 
Saraca Indica 
Jonesia Asoca ... 
Crudia Zeylanica 
Hardwickia binata 
„ pinnata 

Cynometra ramiflora 
„ cauliflora 

„ Travancorica 

Adenanthera pavonina 
Prosopis spicigera 
Dichrostachys cinerea 
Xylia dolabriformis 
Inga xylocarpa 
Acacia Arabica 

,, leucophlosa 

„ Catechu 

„ Sundra 

, , ferruginea 

,, farnesiana 
Acacia speciosa 
Acacia odoraliesimcl 
Acacia stipulata 
Acacia amara 
Albizzia Lebbeck 

„ odoratissima 
Albizzia stipulata.. 

,, amara ... 
Albizzia speciosa ... 
Pithecolobium dulce 

,, Anamalayanum 

Calliandra cynometroides 




Parinarium Indicum 

Pygeum Ceylanieum 

Pygeum acuminatum . . 

Polyodontia, See Pygeum. 

Cotoneaster buxifolia, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 

Photinia Notoniana 


262. Rhizophora mucronata, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 4. 
Rhizophora candelaria, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 4. 

263. Ceriops Candolleana, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 5. 

264. Kandelia Rheedii, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 6. 

265. Bruguiera Rheedii, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 1. 

266. Carallia integerrima 

267. Weihea Zeylanica... 
Anstrutheria. See Weihea. 

268. Blepharistemma corymbosa, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 2. 

269. Anisophyllea Zeylanica . . , 
Tetracrypta. See Anisophyllea. 











els XXV. 






. . cxci. 
.. lix. 
i . lix. 




270. Terminalia tomentosa 

271. ,, paniculata 

272. „ Arjuna 

273. „ Belerica 

274. „ catappa 

275. „ chebula 
Terminalia glabra 
Terminalia coriacea 


xxv iii. 





276. Anogeissus latifolius 

277. „ acuminatus 
Conocarpus latifolius 
Conocarpus acuminatus 

278. Lumnitzera racemosa, Anal. PI. XXI. fig. 2, 

279. Gyrocarpus Jaequiui 


280. Rhodornyrtus tomentosus, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 3. 
2S1. Eugenia jambolana 

282. „ Malabarica 

283. „ alternifolia 

284. ,, Zeylanica 

285. „ cylindrica 

286. ., hemispkserica ... 

287. „ floceosa 

Syzygium jambolanum ... 

Syzygium alternifolium ... 

Acmene zeylanica 

Jambosa cylindrica, . . 

Stroiigylocalyx hemisphcerica 

288. Barringtonia acutangula . . 

289. Careya artorea 

290. Memeoylon umbellatum 

291. ,, capitellatum 







TVoodfordia tomentosa, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 4. 
Orislea tomentosa, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 4. 
Pemphis acidula, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 5. 
Maclellandia Griffithiana, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 5. 
Lawsonia alba, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 6. 
Lagerstrcemia Reginse 

,, nricrocarpa 

;, parviflora 

„ lanceolata . . 

Sonneratia acida, Anal. PI. XV. fig. 1. 
Axinandra Zeylanica .. 


Casearia varians 
Osmelia Gardneri 
Homalium Ceylanicuin 
Homalium Travancoricuni 
Blaclcwellid tetrandra 
Cordylanthus. See Homalium 

Tetrameles nudiflora 
Tetrameles Grahamiana 



306. Aralia Malabarica, Anal. PI. XV. fig. 2. 

307. Pentapanax Leschenaultii, Anal. PI. XV. fig. 3. 

308. Polyscias acuminata ... 

309. Heptapleurum racemosum 

310. Medera acuminata 
Bedera racemosa 








ccv and Anal. PI. XVIII. 




311. Alangium Lamarckii 
Alangium decapetalum 
Alangium hexapetalum 












312. Mastixia arborea 

Bursinopetalum arboreum 
Bursinopetav.m tetrandrum 


3X3. Lonieera ligustrina, Anal. PI. XV. fi 
314. Viburnum punctatuni 
Viburnum acuminatum 


K. 5. 







Sarcocephalus cordatus ,. 

Nauclea cadamba. See Anthocephalus. 
Adina cordifolia 
Naucla cordifolia. See Adina, 
Stephegyne parvif olia 
Naitclea panifolia. See Stephegyne. 
Anthocephalus cadambus 
Nauclea elliptica, Anal. PI, XXIX. fig, 3. 
Nauclea coadunata ,, 

Hymenodyction obovatum 

„ utile 

"Wendlandia Notoniana 
Byrsophyllum tetrandrum . . 

Gardenia lucida, Anal. XV. fig. 6. 

„ turgida, Anal. PI. XV, fig. 6. 
Eandia dumetoruni, Anal, PI. XVI. fig. 1. 
„ uliginosa, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 1. 
327a. Nargedia niacrocarpa 
328. TVebera Asiatica, Anal, PI. XVI. fig, 2. 
Stylocoryne Webera, Anal. PI. XVI. fig 2- 
Diplospora apiocarpa 
Discospermum apiocarpum 
Mussed da frondosa, Anal. PI. XVI. fig, 3. 
Urophyllum Zeylanicum, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 5. 
Axanthes zeylanica, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 5. 
Ixora parviflora 

Pavetta involucrata, Anal. PI. XXIX. fig. 6. 
Coffea Arabica, Anal. PI. XYIII. fig. 1. 
Scyphiphora Malayana, Anal. PI. XXIX, fig. 5. 
Timonius jambosella, Anal. PI. XVI, fig. 4. 
Dichilantho Zeylanica, Anal. PI. XV. fig. 4. 
Guettarda speciosa, Anal. PI. XVII. fig. 2, 
Scyphostachys coffeoides, Anal, PI. XVI, fig, 6. 
Plectronia didynia 
Canthium. See Plectronia. 
Canthium umbellaiicm 
Morinda citrifolia 

Prismatomeris albidiflora. Anal. PI. XXIX. fig. 4. 
Lasianthus venulosus, Anal. PI, XVII- fig. 5. 
Mephitidea. See Lasianthus. 
Hamiltonia suaveolens, Anal. PI. XVII. fig, 3. 
Psychotria elongata, Anal. PI. XVII. fig. 6. 
Saprosma Wightii, Anal. PI. XVII. fig. 4. 
346«. Octotropis Travancorica 

GvumiUa. See Psychotria. 

Dysodidendron. See Saprosma. 

Epithinia. See Scyphiphora. 

Serissa. See Saprosma. 

Nelilris jambosella, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 4. 

Eupyrena glabra, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 4. 

Griffiihia. See Iiandia. 











Xxxiii. and Anal. PI, XXIX. fig. 2. 

xxxiv. and Anal, PI, XXIX, fig. 1. 












J47. Ven.onia Tolkamericofolia 
348, Vern nia Wightiana 

31>n>sis. See Yeruoaia, 




349. Vaocinium Leschenaultii . . 

35U. Gualtheria fragrantissima, Anal. PI, XIX. fig. 1. 
Gualtheria Leschenaultii, Anal, PI. XIX. fig. 1. 

351. Rhododendron arboreum 


352. MiESa Indica, Anal. PI. XVIII. fig. 4. 

353. Embelia robusta, Anal. PI. XIX. fig. 2. 

354. Myrsine capitellata 

355. Ardisia amplexicaulis, Anal. PI. XVIII. fig. 3: 

356. J^gioeras majus, Anal. PI. XIX. fig. 3, 



Bassia latifolia 


,, longifolia 


„ elliptica 


,, nerii folia 


,, petiolaris 


,, grandis 

Isonandra acuminata 

Dasyaulus. See Bassia. 

Dichopsis. See Bassia. 


Mimusops elengi 


Achras elengioides 

Sapota elengioides 


Chrysophyllum Roxburghii 


Diospyios ebenum 


„ Tupru 


„ exsculpta 
36S. ,, melanoxylon 

„ Wiglitiana 

369. „ foliolosa 

„ calycina 

370- „ embryopteris 
Embryopteris ghitinosa 

371- Maba oblongifolia, Anal. PI. XXI. fig. 1, 
Macreigktia oblongifolia, Anal. PL XXI. fig. 1. 

372. Maba buxifolia, Anal- PI. XIX. fig. 4- 

ccliv . 















373. Symplocos Gardneriana 

374. „ oligandra, Anal- PI- XX. fig 


375. Nyctanthes arbor- tristis 

376. Olea glandulifera 

377. Ligustrum Perottetti, Anal. PL XIX. fig. 5. 

378. Cbiunantbus intermedia 

379. „ Malabarica 





380. Willughbeia Ceylanica, Anal, PI. XX. fig. 4. 

381. Ophioxylon densiflorum, Anal. PI. 2.X. fig. 2. 
Ophioxylon Neilgherriense, Anal. PI. XX, fig. 2, 

3S2. Carissa earandas, Anal. PI. XIX. fig. 6. 

383. Hunteria Zeylanica 

384. Alyxia Ceylanica, Anal. PI. XX. fig. 5. 

3S5. Taberuarnontana verticellata, Anal. PI. XX. fig. 3. 

386. "Wrigbtia tinctoria 

3S7. Alstonia scbolaris 

385. Holarrbena antidysenterica, Anal. PI. XX. fig. 6. 






StryehDOs nux-vomica 

Buddleia Asiatica, Anal. PI. XXI. 

Fagraa Coromandelina 

Gsertnera Kcenigii, Anal. PI. XXI. 

fig. 3. 

393. Cordia Wallichii 

394. ,, myxa 

395. Ehretia Isevis 

396. Salvadora "W'ightiana 




397. Bignonia xylocarpa 

398. Millingtonia hortensis 

399. Spathodea falcata 

400. Stereospennum clielonoides ... ,, 

401. PajaneliaRbeedii,Anal. PI. XXI. fig. 5. 

402. Schrebera swietenioides ... . , 


403. Vitex altissima . . . , 

404. Gmelina arborea 

405. Premna tomentosa . . , , 

406. Callicarpa lanata, Anal. PI. XXL fig. 6. 

407. Clerodendron infortunatum, Anal. PL XXII. fig, 1. 
40S. Tectona grandis 

409. Avicennia officinalis, Anal. PI. XXII. fig. 2. 


410. Pisonia aculeata, Anal, PI. XXII. fig. 3. 


411. Myristica laurifolia 

412. „ magniiica 

413. „ Malabarica 

414. „ Farquhariana 

415. ,, corticosa 
Knema. See Myristica. 
Pyrrhosia. See Myristica. 
HorsficUia. See Myristica. 


116. Hortonia floribunda, Anal. PL XXV. fig. 3. 


■ ■ ccxliii. 
.. ccxliv. 

ccxlvi . 



ccxl ii. 





417. Helicia robusta 



418. Wikstrajniia virgata, Anal. PI. XXV. fig. 4. 

419. Lasiosipbon eriocephalus, Anal. PI. XXV, fig. 2, 
Gnidia eriocephalus, Anal. PI. XXV. fig. 2. 

420. Cansjera Rbeedii, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 6. 

421. Gyrin ops "Walla 

422. Pbaleria eauliflora, Anal. PI. XXV. fig- 5 - 
Drymispermwn. See Pbaleria. 


423, Eloeagnus latifolia, Anal, PI. XXV. fig. 1. 



424. Pyrularia 'Wallichiana 

425. Sautalum album 

426. Osyris arborea, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 6-A. 




427. Salix tetrasperma 



42S. Cinnamomum Zeylanicuni 

429. Apollonias Arnotii 

430. Phoebe Wightii 

431. Haasia Wightii 

432. Machilus macrantha 

433. Alseodaphne semicarpifolia 

434. Beilschmiedia fagifolia 

435. Cryptocarya "Wightiana 

436. Tetranthera "Wightiana 

437. Cylieodaphne. See Tetranthera. 

438. Zepidadenia. See Tetranthera. 

439. Actin aphne saliciua 

440. „ Hookeri 

441. „ angustifolia 

442. Litsosa zeylaniea 

443. Hernandia peltata 








ccx BIX. 





















Actephila exeelsa, Anal. PI. XXIII. 
Ammopsermum. See Actephila. 
Phyllanthus embliea 

„ Indicus, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 6. 

Embliea officinalis 

Prosorus India, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 6. 
Glochidion Neilgherriense 
Ereynia rhamnoides, Anal- PI- XXIV. fig- 2. 
Melanthesa. See Breynia. 
Putranjiva Roxburghii 

„ Zeylaniea 

Palenga. See Putranjiva. 

Secnrinega leucopyrus, Anal. PI. XXIV- fig- 4 $ on 'y 
Flueggia. See Securinega. 
Misehodon Zeylanicus . . 

Baecaurea sapida 
Pierardia. See Baecaurea. 
Bisehoffia Javanica 
Andrachne. See Bisehoffia. 
Stylodiscus. See Bisehoffia. 
Mieroelus. See Bisehoffia. 
Hernicyclia elata 
Cyclostemon macrophyllus 
Sphragidia. See Cyclostemon, 
Aporosa Lindleyana 
Scepa Lindleyana. See Aporosa. 
Antidesma Buuius, Anal. PL XXIV. fig- 3- 
Briedelia retusa 
Briedelia spinosa 

Cleistanthus patulus, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 4. 
pallidus, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 4. 
Amanoa. See Cleistanthus. 
Lebidierr.psis orbicularis, Anal. Pi. XXIV' fig- 5. 
Cluytia collina. See Lebidieropsis. 
Croton scabiosuni , . 

,, aromaticum 










465. Aleuritea Moluccana ., 
Aleurites triloba 

466. Agrostistachys Indica, Anal. PL XXIV. fig. 2. 

467. Sarcoclinium longifolium, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 1. 
46S. Coelodepas calycina 

469. Cephalocroton Indicum 
Adenochlcena. See Cephalocroton. 

470. Podadenia Thwaitesii 

471. Trewia midiflora 

472. Mallotus Philippinensis 
Sottlera urandra. See Cleidion. 
Sottlera tinctoria. See Mallotus. 
Rottlera Thwaitesii. See Podadenia. 

473. Cleidion JaTanicum ... 
Tetraglotsa. See Cleidion. 

474. Macaranga Indica 

475. „ tomentosa 

476. Homonoya riparia, Anal, PI. XXIV. fig. 1. 
Adelia. See Homonoya, 
Spathiostemon. See Homonoya. 
ffcematospermum. See Homonoya. 

477. Givotia rottleriformis . . 
478 Trigonostemon Lawianus 

Dimorphoealy .<:. See Trigonostemon. 
479. Ostodes Zeylanica .. 

Desmostemon. See Ostodes. 
4 80. Codiffium umbellatum, Anal. PI. XXIII. fig. 6. 

Blachia. See Codiceum. 

481. Choetocarpus castanocarpus 

482. „ coriaceus 

483. Gelonium lanceolatum, Anal. PI. XXII. fig. 6. 

484. Excoecaria Cochinchinensis, Anal. PI. XXII. fig. 5. 

485. „ insignis, Anal. PI. XXII. fig. 5. 
Falconeria- See Exccecaria. 

486. Euphorbia antiquorum, Anal. PI. XXII. fig. 4. 
437. Daphniphylluni glaucescens 

Daphn'phyllum Boxburgkii 
Gov.ghia. See Daphniphyllum. 
488. Sarcococca saligna, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 5. 
Sarcococca trinervia, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 5. 



eelxxxix . 





c clxxxiv. 










Ulmus integrifolia 
Sponia Wightii 
Celtis RoxQurghii 
Celtis trinervia 
Gironniera reticulata 

„ subcequalis 
Helminthospermum. See Girouuiera. 
Boloptelcea. See Ulmus. 
Artocarpus hirsuta 
„ nobilis 
Lepurandra. See Antiaris. 
Antiaris innoxia 

Antiaris saccidora •• 

Ficus religiosa 

,, Tsiala • • 

Urostif/ma. See Ficus. 
Allreanthus Zeylanicus • • 

Streblus aspera, Anal. PI. XXVI- fig. 1. 
Trophis aspera. See Streblus. 
Epicarpurus. See Streblus and Taxotrophis. 
Cudranus Bumphii, Anal. PI- XXVII. fig. I. 
Trophis spinosa- See Cudranus and Taxotrophis. 
JUao'ura. See Cudranus. 










692. Plecospermum spinosum, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 2. 

Batis spinosa. See Plecospermum. 
503. Taxotrophis Roxburghii, Anal. PL XXVI. fig. 3. 
501. „ Zeylanica, Anal. PI, XXVI. fig. 3. 

505. Bohmeria Travancorica, Anal. PI, XXVII. fig. 2, 

506. Laportea crenulata 

TJrtica crenulata. See Laportea. 

507. Morocarpus longifolius, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 5. 
Debregeasia velutina. See Morocarpus. 

508. Oreocnide sylvatica, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 4, 
Villebrunea sylvatica. See Oreocnide. 
Conocephalus niveus. See Morocarpus. 


509. Podocarpua latifolia 




510. Arundinaria "Wightiana, Anal, PI. XXVIII. fig 1 , 

511. Bambusa arundinacea 

512. Oxytenantliera Thwaiteaii 

513. Teinostachyum Wightii 

514. Beesha Travancorica 

515. Dendrocalamus strictus 






516. Balanooarpua erosa, Bedd. 

517. ,, utilis, Bedd, 





518. Octotropis Travancorica, Bedd. 

519. Nargedia macrocarpa, Thw. 






The Italics are synonyms. 

Aberia Gardner!, Anal. PI. II. fig. 5. 
Abromaangusta, Anal. PI. V. fig. 4. 
Acacia amara 
Acacia Arabica 

„ Catechu 

„ Farnesiana 

„ ferrugiDea 

„ leucophloea 
Acacia edoratissima ,,, 

Acacia speciosa 
Acacia stipulate 
Acacia sundra 
Achras elengioides 
Acmene zeylanica 
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius 

AcronycMa pedunculata, Anal. PI. VI. fig, 4. 
Actephila excelsa, Anal. PI. XXIII. fig, 3. 
Actinodapbne aDgustifolia 
„ Hookeri 

„ salicina 

Adelia. See Homonoya 
Adenanthera pavonina 
Adenochlcena. See Cephalocroton. 
Adina cordifolia 

Adinandra lasiopetala, Anal. PI. III. fig. 3, 
iEgiceras majus, Anal. PI. XIX. fig. 3. 
iEgle marmelos 
Aglaia Koxburgbiana 

Agrostistacbys Indica, Anal, PI. XXIV. fig. 2, 
Ailantbus Malabarica 
Alangium decapelalam 
Alangium hexapetalum 
Alangium Lamarckii 
Albizzia amara 
„ Lebbeck 
„ odoratissima 
Albizzia speciosa 
Albizzia stipulate 
Aleurites Moluccana 
Alenrites triloba 
Allceanthus Zeylanicus 
AUophyllus. See Scbmidelia. 

• •* 

• it 


















... xlvi. 
xssiii. & Anal, PI, XXIX. fig. 2. 















Alphonsea Madrasapatana 

Alaeodaphne semioarpifolia 

Alsodeia zeylanica 

Alstooia scliolaris 

Alyxia Ceylanica, Anal. PL XX. fig. 5. 

Amanoa. See Cleiatanthus. 

Amoora Lawii 

„ Eohituka 
Amyris Gileadensis 
Auacardium occidentals ... 

Auacolosa densiflora 
Andraohne. See Bischoffia. 
Aniaophyllea Zeylanica 
Anogeiaaua acuminatua 

,, latifolius 
Anomospermicm. See Actephila. 
Anstrutheria. See Weihea. 
Anthocepbalua Cadambus 
Antiaris innoxia 
Antiaris saccidora 

Antideama Bunius, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 3. 
Apodytea Benthamiana 
Apollonias Arnottii 
Aporoaa Lindleyana 
Aralia Malabarica, Anal. PL XV. fig. 2. 
Ardiaia amplexicaulis, Anal. PL XVIII. fig. 3. 
Artocarpua hirautua 

„ nobilis 

Arundinaria Wightiana, Anal. PI. XXV11I. fig. 1, 
Atalantia monophylla, Anal. PL VII. fig. 5. 
Averrhoa Bilimbi 

Avicennia officinalia, Anal. PL XXII. fig. 2. 
Axanthes Zeylanica, Anal. PL XVI. fig. 5. 
Axinandra Zeylanica 
Azadirackta. See Melia. 

















Baccaurea sapida 

Balanitea .fflgyptiaca, Anal. PL VIII. fig. 2. 
Balanocarpua erosa 
,, utilis 

Balsamodendron Berryi 
Bambuaa arundinacea 
Barringtonia acutangula 
Bassia elliptica 

„ grandia 

„ lati folia 

„ longifolia 

„ neriifolia 

„ petiolaria 
Balis spinosa. See Plecoapermuto. 
Bauhinia racemosa 
Beddomea aimplicifolia 
Beesha Travancorica .,. 

Beilachmiedia fagifolia ... 

Berberis Leschenaultii, Anal. PL II. fig. 2. 
Berberia Nepalensis, Anal. PL II. fig. 2. 


x ccliv. 



\4^<~ r 4tft<0- 

Berrya Ammonilla 

Bigaonia xylocarpa 

Bkchoffia Javanica 

Bixa Orellana ... 

Blachia. See Codiseum. 

Blackioellia tetrandra 

Blepharistemma corynibosa, Anal. PJ. XIV. fig.'S; 

Bocagea Dalzellii, Anal. PJ. I. fig. 4, 

Bohmeiia Travaneoria, Ana). PI. XXVII. fig. 2. 

Bomba.v heptaphylla 

Bombax Malabaricum 

Boswellia glabra 

Breynia rham.no ides, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 2 

Briedelia retusa 

Briedelia spinosa 

Bruguiera Rheedii, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 1. 

Buchanania latifolia 

Buddleia Asiatica, Anal. PI. XXI. fig. 4. 

Bursinopetalv.m arboreum ... ' 

Bursinopetaluni tetrandrum .. 

Butea frondosa ... 

Byrsopbyllum tetrandrum 

Caelodepas calycina 
. Caesalpinia Sapan, Anal. PJ. XII. fig. 1. 
Calliandra cynometroides 
Callicarpa lanata, Anal. PI. XXI. fig. 6. 
Calophyllum decipiens 
Calopbyllum elatum 
Calophyllum spurium 
Calophyllum Wightianum 
Calpuinia aurea, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 5. 
Calysaccion longifolium 
Campnosperma Zeylanica 
Canarium brimneum 

„ strictum 
Canthium. See Plectronia 
Canthium umbellatum 
Cansjera Kheedii, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 6. 
Capparis stylosa, Anal. PI. II. fig. 3. 
Carallia integerrima 
Carapa Moluccensis 
Careya arborea 

Carissa earandas, Anal, PI. XIX, fig. 6, 
Casearia varians 
Cassia florida 

„ Roxburghii 
Cedrela Toona 

Celastrus 'Montana, Anal. PI. X. fig. 2. 
Celastrus Senej-alenais, Anal. PI. X. fig. 2. 
Celtia Eoxburgbii 
Celtis trinervia 
Oephalocroton lndicum 
Ceriops Candolleana, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 5. 
Chsetocarpus castanocarpua 

,, coriaceous ,,. 





... Ixxxii. 

... liiSU. 

... cxxiv. 

... cclx. 

... cclx. 

... clxv. 

... ccxvi. 

... ccxvi. 

... clxxvi. 

... cccxxvi, 

... cccxx. 

... cccxviu 

... xc 

... ii. 

... xc. 

... xc. 

... Ixxxii'. 

... clxviii. / 

... cxxvii. 
cxxviii. and Anal. PI. XVIII. fig. 1, 

. . ccxxi. 

... cxcni. 

... cxxxvi, 
ccv. and Anal. PI. XVIII. fig. 2. 

... ccviii. 

... clxxix. 

... clxxx. 

... x. 

... cccxn. 

.,. cccxii, 

... cclxi. 

... cclxxxiv. 

,,. cclxxxiv. 


Chailletia gelonioides, Anal, PI. IX, fig, 1, 
Chickrassia tabularis 
Chionanthus intermedia 

„ Malabarioa 

Cliloroxylon swietenia 
Chrysophylluni Roxburghii 
Cinnamomum zeylanicum 
Citrus sp., Anal, PI. VII. fig. 6 
Clausena Willdenovii,- AnaL PI. VII. fig. 3. 
Cleidion Javanicum 
Cleistanthus pallidus, Aual. PI. XXIV. fig. 

„ patulus, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig. 

Clerodendron infortunatuni, Anal. PI. XXII, fig. 1. 

Cleyera gymnanthera 

Cleyera lasiopetala, Anal. PI. III. fig. 3. 

Cluytia collina. See Lebidieropsis. 

Cocculus cordifoliu?, Anal. PL II. fig. 1. 

Cochlospemium gossypium 

Codiajum umbellatine Anal. PI. XXIII. fig. 6, 

Cofifea Arabioa, Anal. PI. XVIII. fig. 1. 

Colubrina Asiatics, Aual. PI. X. fig. 5. 

Connarus pinnatu.«, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 5. 

Co n ocarpus acnminaius . , . 

Conocarpus latifolius 

Conocephalus nivexis. See Morocarpus, 

Cordia myxa 

„ Wallichii 
Cordylanthus, See Homalium 
Cotoneaster buxifolia, Anal. PL XIII. fig. 3, 
Cratoeva religiosa 
Croton arornaticum 

,, scabiosum 
Crudia zeylanioa 
Crytocarya Wightiana 
Cudranus Rumpliii, Anal. PL XXVII. fig. 1. 
Cullenia excelsa, Anal. PL IV. fig. 3. 
Cupania canescens 

Cyathocalyx Zeylanicus, Anal. PL I. fig. 6. 
Cyclostemon macrophyllus 
Cylicodaphne. See Tetranthera. 
Cyminosma pedunculala, Ajial. PL VI. fig. 4, 
Cynometra cauliflora 

„ ramiflora 

,, Travancorica 



















Dalbergia latifolia 

Dalbergia Mooniana 

Dalbergia sissoo 

Daphniphyllum glaucescena 

Daphniphyllum Roxburghii 

Dasyaidus. See Bassia, 

Debregreasia velutina. See Morocarpus. 

Dendrocalamus strictus 

Desmodiurn sephalotes, Anal. PL XII, fig. 4. 

Desmostemon. See Oatodes. 

Dialium ovoideum ... 

Dicsllostyles axillaris, AnaL PI, III. fig. 6, 







Dichilanthe Zeylanica, Anal. PI. XV fig. 4. 
DichopsU. See Bassia. 
Dichrostacbys cinerea 
Dilienia pentagyna 

,, speciosa ... 

Dimocarpus longa na 
Dimorphocalyx. See Trigonostemon, 
Diospyros calycina 

„ ebenura 

,, embryopteris 

„ exseuipta 

„ foliolosa 

„ melanoxylon ,.. 

„ Tupru 

„ Wightiana ... 

Diplospora apiooarpa 
Dipterocarpus Indicu8 
Discospermum apiocarpum, 
Dodonosa Burmannniana, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 2, 
Dodonsea viscosa, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 2. 
Doona Garcloeri 
„ Zeylanica 
Drymispermum. See Pbaleria. 
Dysodidendron. See Saprosma. 
Dysoxylon macrocarpum ... 




... xcvm. 
... xcvii, 

... cl. 


JEccremantJius. See Pometia. 

Ehretia Isevis « , 

Ekebergia. See Mallea. 

Elreagnus latifolia, Anal. PI. XXV. fig. 1. 

Elceocarpus amtenus 

„ ferrugineus ... 

., tubereuhtus 

„ venustua 

Eloeodendron Roxburgbii 
Ellipanthus unifoliatus 
Embelia robusta, Anal. PI. XIX. fig. 2. 
Emblica officinalis ... 

Embryopteris glutinosa ,,. 

Epicarpurus. See Streblus and Taxotrophis, 
Epithinia. See Scyphiphora. 
Erinocarpus Nimmonii 

Eriodendron anfractuosum, Anal. PI. IV. fig. 2. 
Eriolsena Hookeriana, Anal. PI. V. fig. 2. 
Eriolcena quinqiaelocularis, Anal. PI. V. fig. 2. 
Erythrina Indica 
„ stricta 
Erythrospermum phytolaccoides, Anal. PI. II. fig. 
Erythroxylon Indicum 
Eugenia altercifolia 

„ cylindrica 

„ floccosa 

„ hemisphserica 

„ jambolana ,., 

„ Malabarica 

,, Zeylanica ... 

EuoDymus crenulatus ... 

.,. ccxlvi 



















Euphorbia antiquorum, Anal. PI. XXU. fig. 4. 
Euphoria Loneana 

Eupyrena glabra, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 4. 
Eurya japonica 
Eurya Wig/ttinna 

Evoclia triphylla, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 2. 
Excoacaria Cocbinchinenais, Anal. PI. XXII. fig. 
,, iusiguis, Anal. PL XXII. fig. 5. 





Fagara. triphylla, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 2. 
Eagrcea Coromandelina 
'■ Falconeria. See Exccecaria. 
' Eeronia Elepbantuni 

„ Tsiala 
Filicium decipieus 

Flacourtia inermis, Anal. PI. II. fig. 4. 
„ sapida, Ana). PL II. fig. 4. 

sepiaria, Anal. PL XXIV. fig. 4 £ only. 


Fiueggia. See Securinega. 


Gaertneia Kcenigii, Anal, PI, XXL fig. 3. 
Garcinia Cambogia 

„ Morella 
Garcinia papilla 
Garcinia pictoria 

„ TYavancorica- 
Gardenia lucida, Anal. PL XV. fig. 6. 
Gardenia turgida, Anal. PI. XV. fig. 6. 
Garnga pinnata 

Gelonium lanceolatum, Anal. PL XXII. fig 6. 
Gironniera reticulata 

„ suboequalia 
Givotia rottlerifoirnia 
Glenniea Zeylanica 
Glochidion Neilgherriense 
Gluta TYavancorica 

Glycosuria pentaphylla, Aual. PL VI. fig- 6; 
Glyptopetalum Zeylauicutn, Aual. PL IX. fig. 5. 
Glycicarpus. See Notaopegia. 
Gmelina arborea 

Gnidia eriocephalns, Anal. PL XXV. fig. 2. 
Gomphandra coriicea, Anal. PL XI. fig. 4. 
Gompbia angust.ifolia, Anal. PL VIII. fig. 4, 
Goniothalamua Wigbtii, Aual. PL I. fig. 3.. 
Goidonia obtusa 
Gordonia parvifolia. 
Gougkia. See Daphnipbyllum. 
Grewia tiliocfolia 
Griffithia. See Randia. 
Grislea tomenlosa, Anal. PL XIV. fig. 4. 
Grumilea. See Psychotria. 
Gualtheria fragrantissima, Anal. PL XIX. fig. 1. 
Gualtheria Leschenaidtii, Anal. PL XIX. fig. 1. 



















Gtialteria. See Polyilth5a. 

Guazuma fcomentosa 

Guettarda speciosa, Anal. PI. XVII. fig. 2. 

Gyrinops Walla 

Gjrocarpus Jacquini 




Haasia 'Wightii 

Hamiltonia suaveolens, Anal. PI. XVII. fig. 3. 
Hardwickia binata 
,. pinnata 

Harpullia imbricata 
Rebradendron Cambogioides : 
Tlederu acuminata, 
Jledera racemosn 
Helicia robu^ta 

Helioteres Isora, Anal. PI. V. fig. 1. 
Belminthospermum. See Gironuiera. 
Heroicyclia elata 
Hernigyrosa canescena 

„ deftciena 

Heptapleurum raeemosum 
Heritiera littoralis, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 6, 

,, Papilio 
Hernandia peltata 
Heynea affinia 
Heynea trijuga 

Hibiscus tiliaceu?, Anal. PI. IV. fig. 1. 
Hippociatea Amottiana,. Ana'.. PI. X. fig. 3.. 
Hcemalospermum. See flomonoya, 
Holarrhena antidysenterioa, Anal. PI, XX. fig. 6;. 
Holigarna longifolia ,... 

Holoptelcea. See Ulmus, 
Homalium Ceylanicum 

„ Travancoricum 
Homouoya riparia,. Aual. PI. XXIV. fig. 1. 
Hopea parviflora 

„ Wightiana 
Hvrsfieldia,, See Myristica. 
Bortouia floribunda, Anal. PI. XXV. fig. 3. 
Humboldtia unijuga 
Hunteria Zeylauica 
Hydnocarpus alpina 
Hymeuodyction obovatum 

„ utile 

Hyptianthera macrocarpa 










... clxvii. 











Ilex r'enticulata 

„ Malabarica ,... 

„ Wightiana 
Indigofera pulchella, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 1. 
lnga xylocarpu 
Isonandra acuminata 
Ixora parviflora ... 






Jamlosa eylindriea ... 

Jonesia Asoca 

Julostyles angustifolia, Anal. PL III. fig, 4. 

Kandelia Rheedii, Anal. PL XITI. fig. 6. 
Kayea stylosa 

Kleinhovia hospita, Anal. PL IV. fig. 4. 
Knema. See Myristica. 
Kokooua Zeylanica 
Kydia axillaris, Anal. PL III. fig. 6. 
Kydia calycina, Anal. FL III. fig. 5. 
Kydia fralerna, Anal. PI. III. fig. 5, 
Kunima Ceylanioa 
„ Indica 








Lagerstraemia lanceolata 

„ microcarpa ... 

,, parviflora 

„ Reginse 

Lansiuni Anamallayanum 
Lapovtea crenulata 
Lasianthera apicaulis 

Lasianthus venulosus, Anal. PL XVII. fig. 5. 
Lasiosiphon eriocephalns, Anal. PL XXV. fig. 2. 
Lawsonia alba, Anal. PL XIV. fig. 6. 
Lebidieropsis orbicularis, Anal. PL XXIV. fig. 5. 
Lepidadenia. See Tetranthera. 
Leptonyebia moaccuroides 
Lepurandra. See Antiaris 
Ligustrum Perottetti, Anal. PL XIX. fig. 5. 
Limonia alata, Anal. PL VII. fig. 4. 
Litseea Zevlanica 

Lonicera ligustrina, Anal. PL XV. fig. 5. 
Lophopetalum Wightianum 
Lumnitzera racemosa, Anal. PL XXI. fig. 2. 











Maba buxifolia, Anal. PL XIX. fig. 4. 

„ oblongifolia, Anal. PL XXI. fig. 1. 
Macaranga Indica 

,, tomentosa 

Maobilus raacrantba 

Machllandia Qriffithiana, Anal. PL XIV. fig. 5. 
Madura. See Cudranus. 

llacreightia oblongifolia, Anal. PL XXI, fig. 1. 
Mcesa Indica, Anal. PL XVIII. fig. 4. 
Mahonia. See Berberis. 
Mallea Kotbii, Anal. PL VIII. fig. 5. 
Mallotus Pbilippinensis 
Mammea. . See Ochrocarpus. 
Mangifera Indica .,. 

Mappia fcotida 






ilastixia arborea 
Melanthesa. See Breyniab 
Melia Azadiraohta 
>( Azedarach 
„ composita 
Melioope Indica, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 1. 
Meliosma Arnottiana 

„ pungena . ... 

Melochia velutina s Anal. PI. V. fig. 3. 
Memecylon capitellatum 
,, umbellatine 
Mepkitidm. See Lasiantbus. 
Mesua Coromandelina ... 

Micbelia Nilagirica ... 

Microcloena quinqycelocularis, AnaL PI. V. fig 2; 
Miaroelus. See Biscbofiia. 
Micromelum pubescens, Ana], PI. VII. fig. 1, 
llicrotropis raiuflora, AnaL P], IX. fig. 6. 
Mdiusa velufcina 

Millingtonia Arnottiana ... 

Millingtonia bortensia 
Millingtonia pungens .,i 

Milnea. See Aglaia, 
Hirausops eleng ,„ 

Miscbodon feylanicua ... 

Mitrepbora arandiflora ,,. 

Moaw.tr a gelonioides, Anal. PI. IXi fig. 1. 
Monocera ferruginea .,. 

Monocera tuberculata ... 

Monoporandra cordifolia ... 

Monosii. See Vernonia. 
Moriada citrifolia 
Moringa ptcrygosperma 

Morocarpus longifolius, Anal. PI; XXVI. fig, 5, 
Mundulea suberosa, Anal. PL XII. fig. 2. 
Murraya exotica, Anal. PL VJL fig. 2. 
Musscetida frondosa, AnaL PL XVI. fig. 3. 
Myristica cortieosa 

j, Farquhariana ,,. 

„ laurifolia ... 

j, Malabarica 

„ magnified 
Myrsine capitellata 


Nargedia macrocarpa 

Nauclea Cadamba. See Antbocephalua. 

Nauclea coadunata 

Nauclea cordifolia: See Adina. 

Kauclea elliptica; Anal; PL XXIX. fig. 3. 

Nauclea parvifolia. See Stepbegyne. 

Nelitris jambosella, Anal. PL XVI.fig. 4. 

Nemedra. See Aglaia. 

Nephelium longana ,,, 

Nepbeliuin Htipulaeeum ... 

Neerija. See Elseodeudron, 

Nimmonia. Se^ Amoora. 

Nothopegia Colebrookiana .,, 

Nyctantbea arbor-tristia ,,, 























... clvi. 
... civ. 

... clxiv. 
... ccxl. 


Ochna squarosa, Anal. PI. VIII, fig. 3. 

Ochrocarpus longifolius 

Octotropis Travaucorica 

Odina Wodier 

Olax Wightiana, Aual. PI. IX. fig. 2. 

Olea glandulifera 

Opilia amentaoea, Anal. PI. IX. fig. 3. 

Ophioxylon densiflorum, Anal. PL XX. fig. 2. 

Ophioxylon Neilgherriense, Anal. PI. XX. fig. 2. 

Greocnide sylvatica, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 4. 

Ormosia Travaucorica 

Omitroph". See Scbmidelia. 

Orophea eryfchrooarpa, Aual. PL I. fig. 8. 

Osmelia Gardueri 

Ostcdes Zeylanica 

Osyris arborea, Anal. PL XX 71. fig. C-A. 

Oionychium. See Harpullia. 

Oligemia dalbergioides 

Oxytenanthera Thwaitesii 











Paj'anelia Rheedii, Aual. PL XXI. fig. 5. 

Palenga. See Putraujiva 

Farkinsonia ocnleata, Anal. PL XIII. fig. 2. 

Pariuariurn Indicurn 

Pavetta invuluerata, Anal. PL XXIX. fig C. 

Pemphis acidula, Anal. PL XIV. fig. 5. 

Pcutapanax Lesohenaultii, Aual. PL XV. fig. 3. 

Pericopsis Mooniana 

Pboeanthus Malabaricus, Anal. PL I. fig. 7. 

Phoebe Wigbtii 

Phaleria cauliflora, Anal. PL XXV. fig. 5. 

Phoberos. See Soolopia. 

Photinia Kotoniana 

Phyllanthus emblica. 

„ Indicus, Anal. PL XXIV. fig. 6. 

Pierardia. See Baceaurea. 

Pithecolobium Anamallayanuru 

,, dulce 

Pisonia aculeata, Anal. PL XXII. fig. 3. 
Pittosporum tetrasperrnum, Anal. PL II. fig. 8. 
Pityranthe verrucosa 
Platea. See Gomphandra. 
Pleotronia didyma 

Plecospermum spiuosum, Anal. PL XXV J. fig. 2. 
Pleurostylia Wigbtii, Anal. PL X. fig. 1. 
Podadenia Thwaitesii 
Podooarpus latifolia 
Peeciloneuron Indicum. 
Pceoiloneurou paucifloium 
Poiuciana elata 
Polyallhia cerasoides 
,, coffeoides 
„ fragrans 
„ longifolia 
Polyodonlia. See Pygeum. 
Polyscias acuminata 


















Pometia eximea 

Fongamia glabra 

Popowia Beddomeana, Anal. PI. I. fig. 2. 

Pnpowia ramosissima, Anal. PI. I. fig. 2. 

Preinna tomeutosa 

Prifcmatomeris albidiflova, Anal. PI. XXIX. fig 4. 

Prosopis spioigera 

Prosoms Iadica, Anal PI. XXIV. fig. 6, 

Protiurn caudatum 

Protium Qihadense 

Psychotria elongata, Anal PI. XVII. fig. 6. 

PteridophyUum. See Filicium. 

Pterocarpus Indicus 

„ marsupiuna 

,, santalinus 

Pterospermum rubiginosuni 
Putranjiva Eoxburgbii 

,, Zeylauica 

Pygeum acuminatum 
Pygeum Ceyianicurn 
Pytrhosia. See Myristica. 
Pvrularia Wallichiana 













Kandia dumetoium, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 1. 

,, uliginosa, Anal. PL XVI. fig. 1. 
Kaninus birsntus, Anal Pi. X. fig. 6. 
Rhizopkora Candelaria, Anal. PI. XIII. fig. 4. 
Ilbiz"phora niucronata, Anal, PI. XIII. fig. 4. 
Ebododendron arboreum 

Ebodomyrtus tomentosus, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 3. 
Rims decipiens 

Khus Mysoreusis, Anal. PI. XL fig. 3. 
Robinia suberosa, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 2. 
Rottlera Thwaitesii. See Podadenia. 
Rotthra tinctoria. See JIallotus." 
Rottlera urandra. See Cleidion. 
Roumea hebecarpa, Anal. PI. II. fig. 5. 
llourea santaloides, Anal. PI. XI. fig. 4. 




Saccopetalum tomentosum 

Sagerxa DalzelUi, Anal PI. I. fig. 4. 

Sa'acia obl^nga, Anal. PI. X. fig. 4. 

Salix tetrasperma 

Sulmalia Malabarica 

Salvad'>ra Wightiaua 

Samadera Indica, Anal. PI. VIII- fig. 1. 

Sandoiicum Indicuni 

Santalum alburn 

Sapindus eniarginatus 

Sapindus unijugus 

Sapola ehngioides 

Saprosma Wightii, Anal. PI. XVII. fig. 4. 

Saraca Indica 

.Sarcocephalus coi'datus 

Sarcococica saligua, Aual. PI. XXIV. fig. 5, 








Sarcococca Mnervia, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig, 5. 
Sarcoclinium longifolium, Ana). PI. XXIV. fig. 1. 
Sarosanlkera lasiopetala, Anal. PI. III. fig. 3. 
Sepa Lindleyana. See Aporosa. 
Schleicbera tiijuga 
Schmidelia hispida 
Sohrebera swietenioidea 
ficlerostylis. See Atalautia 
Scolopia crenata 

Scutia Indica, Anal. PI. XL fig. 1. 
Scyphipbora Malayana, Anal. PI, XXIX. fig. 5. 
Scypbostacbys coffeoides, Aual. PI. XVI. fig. 6. 
Scylale longana 

Securinega leucopyrus, Anal. PI. XXIV. fig 4 $ only. 
Semecarpus Auacardiuin 
„ Travancorica 

Serissa. See Saprosma. 
Seabania ^gyptiacaj Anal. PL XII. fig. 3. 
Selhia Indica 
Shorea lacoifera 

,, robusta ... 

,, Tambagaia .., 

Solenooarpus Iadica 
Sonneratia acida, Anal. PI. XV. fig. 1. 
Sophora intenupta, Anal. PL XII. fig. 6* 
Soymida febrifuga ... 

Spathiostemon. See Homonoya. 
Spatbod' j a faloata 

Sphcerocarya leprosa ... 

Sphragidia. See Cyolostemon. 
Spondiss mangifera 
Sponia Wightii 

Stalagmites. See Xantbochymus. 
Stemonoporus aoumiuatus 

s) Gardner! 

Stemonurus fostidus 
Stephegyne parvifolia 
Steixuba guttata 
Sterculia Haynii 
Stereospermum cbeloDoidea 
Streblus aspera, AnaL PL XXVI. fig. 1. 
Streptostigma. See Harpullia. 
Strombosia Ceylauica 
Slrongylocalyx hemisphcerica 
Stryohnos nux-voniica 
Stylocoryne Webera, AnaL PL XVI. fig. 2, 
Styltdiscus. Ste Biscboffia. 
Symploooa Gardneriaua 

„ oligandra, Anal. PL XX. fig. 1, 
fiyzygium altemifolium 
Syzygium jombolanum 












... vm. 

... Ixxi. 
... cxxxvii. 

... clxix. 
... cccxi. 

... c. 

... xcix. 

... cxlL 
xxxiv. and Anal. PI. XXIX. fig 1» 

... cv. 

... ccxxx 

... lxxii. 







Tabernamontaua verticellata, AnaL PI. XX. fig. 3. 
Tamarindu.s Indica 

Tamarix ericoides, Anal. PL III. fig. 1. 
Taxotrophis Roxburgbii, Anal. PL XXVI. fig. 3. 
,j Zsylanica, Anal. PI. XXVI. fig. 3. 

, . tlxxxiv. 


Tectona grandis 

Teinostachyum Wigktii 

Tephrosia suberosa, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 2. 

Terminalia Arjuna 

,, belerica 

,, Catappa 

„ cbebula 

Terminalia coriacea 
Terminalia glabra 
Terminalia paniculata 

„ tomentosa 
Tei'nstrccmia gyrnuantkera 
Tetracrypta. See Auisopbyllea. 
Tetraglossa, See Cleidion. 
Tetrameles Grahamiaiia 
Tetramelea nudiflora 
Tetranthera Wigbtiana 
Thespesia populnea 

Timonius Jambosella, Aual. PI. XVI. fig. 4. 
Toddp.lia aeuleata, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 5. 
Trewia nudiflora 

Trichadeuia Zeylanica, Anal. PI. 11. fig. 7. 
Trichaurus. See Tamarix. 
Trigonostemon Lawiaous 
Trochisanclra Inclica ,„ 

Tropliis aspera. See Streblus. 
Tropins spinosa. See Cudranus and Taxotropbis. 
Turpinia Nepalensis ... 


Unona Lawii, Anal. PI. I. fig. 1. 

Ulmus integrifulia ., 

Urandra. See Lasianthera. 

Ui'ophylluDi Zeylauicum, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 5. 

Urostigma. See Ficus. 

Urtiaa crenulata. See Laportea, 












Vaecinium Lescbenaultii ... 

Vateria Indica • >■ 

„ Malabarica 
Vatica laeeifera ... 

Vatica Roxburgbiana 
Vatica Tainbagaia 
Vernonia volkamericefolia .,, 

„ Wigktiana 
Viburnum acuminatum ... 

Viburnum punctatum 
Villebranea sylvatica. See Oreoonide. 
Virgi'ia aurea, Anal. PI. XII. fig. 5. 
Visenia umbellata, Anal. PI. V. fig. 3. 
Vitex altissima 












Walsura piscidia, Anal, PI. VIII. fig. 6. 
Webera Asiatica, Anal. PI. XVI. fig. 2. 
Weihea Zeylanica 
Wendlaudia Notouiana 





Wikstrccrnia virgata, Anal. PI. XXV. fig. 4. 
Willughbeia Ceylanica, Anal. PI. XX. fig. 4. 

Wormia bracteata ... ,," ,,, cxv. 

Woodfordia tomentosa, Anal. PI. XIV. fig. 4, 
Wrightia tinctoria ... .,. .,. ccxli. 

Xanthochymus pictorius ... ... ... Ixxxviii, 

Xanthophyllum anguscifolium, Anal. PI III. fig. 2. 

„ Arnottianum, Anal. PL III. fig. 2. 

„ virens, Anal. PI. III. fig. 2. 

Xanthoxylum ovalifolium, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 3. 

„ Ehetsa, Anal. PI. VI. fig. 3. 

Xanthoxylum tripkyllum, AnaL PI. VI. fig. 2. 
Xylia dolabriformia ... ... ... clxxxvi. 

Xyloearpu3 granatum ,.. ... ,,, cxxxvi. 

Xylopia Championii, Anal, PL I. fig. 5,' 

„ parviflora ... ... ... clxxii. 

Zizyphus jujuba .., ... ,,. cxlis 

.r~""1- ■ f 


^ 1 i x^ jC 4 

The letter press of the Flora Sylvatica as now issued is only initiatory, and it is hoped that Forest Officers 
throughout India will furnish the author with all information procurable about the different trees of their districts. 

The following are the main heads under which the history of each tree might be treated. 

1. Geographical distribution, influence of soil, aspect, elevation, associates (other trees and bamboos, &c.) Its 
worth as an avenue tree, or as a tree for ornament or shade. 

2. Mode of growth, size, age. 

3. Eate of growth. 

4. Bark. 

5. Time of flowering, ripening and shedding of seed. 

6. Germination. 

7. Reproduction from seed. 

8. ,, „ shoots. 

9. Diseases, insects and other enemies, death. 

10. The wood and full particulars of its character and uses. 

11. All the uses of the tree and its different parts. 

12. Vernacular names in different provinces. 

The plates and descriptions will make the identification of each tree an easy matter and will supply a want 
long felt by many in the Forest Department. The letter press only will be reprinted when the plates are finished and 
further information has been elicited. 

Dried flowering and fruiting specimens of rare or little known forest trees will be thankfully received 
by the author. 

POLYALTEIA CEEASOIDES. (Nat. ord. Anonacese.) 

POLYALTHIA. (Bl.) Gen. PI. page 25. — GEN. CHAB. Sepals 3, free or connate below, valvate or slightly imbricate in aestivation ; petals 6 
equal or sub-equal, valvate in 2 series in aestivation, ovate or linear; stamens numerous linear or cuneate, connective dilated, and thickened beyond the 
cells, carpels numerous. Stigma oblong or capitate, ovules one or two usually erect ; fruit-carpels stipitate or oblong 1 seeded — trees or shrubs, 

iOLYALTHIA CEEASOIDES. (Dun.) Leaves oblong or lanceolate acute, pubescent beneath : flower bearing shoots almost 
abortive lateral leafless ; peduncles solitary, terminal, with one or two bracteas at their base ; calycine lobes nearly as long as the corol : 
petals equal oval oblong thick ; carpels globose dark red, size of a cherry, on stalks nearly twice their length. — D. C. prod. i. p. 93. 
Guatteria cerasoides.— W. A. prod. p. 10. Uvaria cerasoides. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 666. 

A straight handsome tree of moderate size, timber whitish and close-grained and of considerable value, much used in the Central Pro- 
vinces and in the Bombay Presidency— it is used in carpentry and for naval purposes, such as boat masts and small span, but apparently little 
known in Madras. It is common in dry forests near the foot of all the mountains on the western side of the Madras Presidency, in the Salem 
jorests, the Nullay Midlays, Mysore, Orissa and the Godavery forests— it flowers in the hot months, and the flowers are fragrant and of a greenish 
color. Ii has never yet been cultivated or planted. In the Godavery forests it is known by the names of Dudugu and Chilka Dudugu, (Teligoo) 
and in the Bombay Presidency it is called Uoom, (Mahr.) 

r^ia^ata&i '. ( Jl^w.O 


CALOPHYLLUM ELATUM. (Nat. ord. Guttiferce.) 

CALOPHYLLUM. (Linn.) Gen. PI. p. 175.— GEN. CHAE. Flowers often polygamous, perianth composed of 4-12, sepals and petals imbricat- 
ed in 2-3 series, stamens numerous free or scarcely connate at the base ; filaments short filiform, anthers erect ovate or oblong 2 celled dehiscing longitudi- 
nally; ovary 1 celled, style longish stigma peltate, ovule 1 erect, drupe indehiscent. Trees with leaves furnished with numerous trausverse parallel nerves. 

^ALOPHYLLUM ELATUM. (Bedd.) Young shoots, panicles and outer sepals ferruginous, leaves elliptic acuminate 
attenuated at the base, very shining, petioles about 1 inch long, panicles terminal and from the upper axils large many flowered ; 
sepals 4, two outer ones sub-rotund small, two inner petaloid ; petals 4 ; fruit ovoid pointed about the size of a thrush's egg. 

A very large straight tree with numerous longitudinal cracks down the hark, grows abundantly in most of the moist ghat forests or sholas, 
in our Western coast from Canara down to Cape Cornorin, and in similar forests on the lower Pulneys, Anamallays, Coorg, Mysore and the 
Sirumallays— it is never found in dry deciduous forests — it yields the poonspar of commerce and is known by the name of Poonor Poonein 
Malabar, Siri Poone in South Canara, and Pongoo in the Anamallays — thousands of these trees have lately been destroyed by the axe of Coffee 
planters in Malabar, Coorg and Travancore ; large quantities still remain but chiefly in very inaccessible places. In the ghat forests of South 
Canara they are felled by the Forest Department and floated doion rivers to the coast depdts, but the demand for the article does not se<m great, 
though many years ago a single fine spar has fetched as much as 1,000 Rs. The wood is scarcely Tcnoxon, except as a spar, though it is occasionally 
used for building and bridge-work by planters — it is reddish, coarse grained but ornamental. The tree has never been planted and would not succeed 
except in the moist forests on the mountains at an elevation of 1,000 to 4,000 feet ; it flowers in January and February, and the seed falls early 
in the rains and germinates freely in the dense shade of the shola forests. 

( This tree was for some years supposed to be the Calophylhm anguslifolium of Roxburgh, which is from the Prince of Wales' Island. 

PL. II. 

wa/#/tAM///t/m/ / gum/s??7/. {/Dtdc£»n<L<. 


POECILONEUEON INDICUM. (Nat. ord. Ternstemiaceffi.) 

PcECILONETJRON, (Bedd.) Gen. PI- -p. 981.— GEN. CHAR. Sepals 5 equal imbricate, petals 5 contorted, stamens numerous (about 20) on a 
tube surrounding the ovary 'which is either inconspicuous and entire or more or less prominent and 5 cleft, so that the stamens are sub-pentadelphous : 
anthers linear erect affixed by their base, ovary 2 celled, styles 2 subulate, ovules 2 in each cell, erect. Fruit? trees with opposite coriaceous shining leaves 
with close parallel venation and minutely reticulated. 

" CECILONEURON INDICUM. (Bedd.) Leaves ovate-oblong with a long acumination glabrous, panicles terminal, many 
flowered, flowers yellowish white, calyx peduncles and pedicles slightly puberulous. Bedd. in Journl. Linn. oc. VIII. 267 to 17. 

A good sized tree, common in the ghat forests of South Canara and Malabar up to an elevation of 4,000 feel — it is never found except in 
the thola forests ; in South Canara it is well known to the natives under the name of Kirbally (Can.), but though I have seen the tree on the Sis- 
parah ghat and elsewhere in Malabar, it seems unknown to the natives. The timber appears to be of considerable value, but is almost unknown at 
present— it is very hard and is used for Rice-pounders in South Canara— it flowers in March and April. 


iJa&ilonauMt <Jw/uaf/J7? ( -JSuU- : J 



SHOREA ROBUSTA. (Nat, ord. Dipterocarpese.) 

SHOREA. (Roxb.) Gen. PI. p. 1S3. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube very short adnate to the torus, not increasing in fruit, divisions ovafce or 
lanceolate imbricate wing-like and all or 3 only enlarged in fruit, connivent over the fruit at the base. Stamens numerous or 15, anthers ovate or oblong, 
rarely linear, connectivum subulato-cuspidate, cells obtuse or rarely cuspidate, valves equal or the exterior valve a little larger — ovary 3 celled, cell 2 ovuled, 
style subulate, entire or 3 toothed at the apex, fruit coriaceous indehiscent; 1 seeded— seed ovoid, cotyledons thick fleshy unequal. Trees bearing resin, 
glabrous or tomentose stipules persistent or deciduous, leaves entire or repand panicles axillary or terminal. 

CHOREA ROBUSTA. (Roxb.) Leaves short petioled cordato-oblong, 6-10 inches long by 4-6 inches broad, stipules falcate, 
panicles terminal and axillary, stamens numerous, stigma 3 toothed. Roxb. Fl. Ind. p. ii. 615. 

An immense timber tree, abundant in the Godavery forests, the Gumsoor and Russelcondah forests, and in Bengal (the Tera.i, Parasnath 
and Assam) and in Burmah ? but not known in the South of the Madras Presidency. In some of the Sal tracts in Gumsoor it grows almost to 
the e-xclusion of every other tree and the natural forests often have the appearance of plantations — it flowers in March and April, and the seeds often 
commence germinating before they leave the parent tree early in the rains and eventually come up very thickly in the forests. The tree grows very 
straight and tall and sometimes reaches 10 or 12 feet in girth. The seed has a vitality of such short duration that all attempts to groro it in the 
South have failed, though it was attempted several successive seasons — it is also rapidly bored by insects. The timber is one of the most valuable 
in India for Engineering purposes and is largely used in Gun Carriage Manufactories and for many other purposes, such as house-building and 
ship-building , but warps in plank — it lasts an immense time under ground or under water and is almost unequalled for sleepers, and seems quite 
proof against white ants ; it is close grained, heavy and hard, of a light brown color — the bark is employed by tanners and yields an abundancy 
of resin or dammer which is used as a substitute for pitch, and burnt by the natives as incense, and an aromatic oil is procured from the resin by 
dry distillation. It is called Sal and Salwa in Gumsoor and Googul in the Godavery forests. I am not sure that the Birmese tree called Eingg-yin 
is the same species. 



CZ/wtea/ AwaJws. {-/fax/-. 


SHOREA TUMBAGAIA. (Nat. ord. Dipterocarpese.) 

lor Gen. Char, see under " Shorea Robusta." 

SHOREA TuMBAGAIA. (Eoxb.) Leaves long petioled, ovato cordate, 2§ to 4 inches long by 2-3 inches broad, petioles 
1 to 2 inches long, panicles terminal, stamens about 100 with bearded anthers. Eoxb. Fl, Ind. ii. 617 — Wight's Ic. t. 27. 

1 have only met with this tree in the hill forests of Cuddapah and North Arcot ; it is a large tree yielding a valuable timber, and is well 
knovni in those districts under the name of Thambd: it is largely used in house building and for rafters, doorframes and posts, and is exported to 
Madras — a dammer exudes from the trunk. The Kong of Tinnevelly is not this tree, but belongs to the allied genus Hopea. 





SHOREA LACCIFERA: (Nat. ord. Dipterooarpese.) 

•For Gen. Char, see under " Shorea Eobusta." 

SHOEEA LACCIFERA. (W. A.) Glabrous, leaves coriaceous oblong obtuse or emarginate and often emarginate at the base, 
3J-5 inches long by 2 to 2| inches broad : panicles numerous from the axils of the fallen leaves, branches and pedicels glabrous, calyx 
in flower glabrous ; stamens 15, anther-bristle very long. W. A. prod. p. 84. under Vatica — Wight's Ic. t. 164. 

A large tree, very abundant in the hill forests of Cuddapah and North Arcot, and also found in the Mudumullay forests, Anamallays, 
Wynaad, Mysore, &c. In the Cuddapah and North Arcot districts it is well known under the name of Jallari (Tel.), but the tree does not appear 
to be generally knovm in the other localities ; its timber is very useful for house building, pannels of doors and various other purposes, and has a 
ready sale in the Cuddapah district, and is largely imported into Madras. A species of Lac is procured from the tree. 


i.oo. at/ 

/ •/ 

S/wUa /acaJ&tas, uki 

Gbu-mh W 2»tm - 

HOPEA PARVIFLORA. (Nat. ord. Dipteroearpese.) 

HoPEA. (Roxb.) Gen. PI p. 193.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube very short aduate to the torus not increasing in fruit, divisions short obtuse 
often membranceous on the margiu imbricate, 2 enlarging in fruit large and wing-like erect, the rest Email, all connivent over the fruit at the base. 
Stamens 15 rarely 10, anthers ovate, conneetivum subulato-cuspidate, cells obtuse equal valved. Ovary 3 celled, cell 2 ovuled, style short terete or 
subulate. Fruit indehiscent, 1 seeded, seed ovoid, cotyledons thick fleshy unequal. Trees yielding resin, glabrous or tomentose, stipules small 
deciduous, or inconspicuous, leaves entire coriaceous — a genus nearly allied to Shorea. 

-H-OPEA. PARVIFLORA. (Bedd.) Petioles panicles and calyx hairy, leaves short petioled glabrous ovate to oblong furnished 
■with glands in the axils of the veins beneath, 2 to 1\ inches long by ] to \\ broad, flowers secund subsessile numerous very minute, 
sweet scented, stamens 15 alternately single and in pairs, stigma 3 cleft. 

A large handsome tree, common in loth the moist and dry forests in Malabar and South Canara, up to an elevation of 3,500 feet. The 
■wood is hardly known commercially as yet, but it is much valued by the Natives in South Canara, and 1 believe it will be of great value for gun 
carriage purposes, and I have forwarded specimens to Madras and Bombay — it will also answer well for sleepers. In Malabar it is called Irubogam 
and in South Canara Kiral Boghi on the ghats and Tirpu in the plains ; in the latter district it is much valued for temple building purposes. 



ifptfoa/ /&a> 



SOYMIDA FEBEIFUGA. (Nat. ord. Meliaceje.) 

SOYMIDA. (A. Juss.) Gen. PI. p. 33S. — GEN. CHAR. Sepals 5 short imbricate, petals 5 spreading uaquioulate contorted, stamen tube short, 
cupuliform 10 lobed, lobes 2 toothed, anthers sessile between the teeth, disk ring-like, ovary ovoid 5 celled, style short attenuated, stigma dilated 5 sided, 
ovules numerous in the cells in 2 series pendulous, capsule woody 5 celled 5 valved, dehiscing at the apex septifragal, the thin woody sarcocarp on each 
valve becoming detached from the endocarp and both from the persistent axis that is 5 angled by the dissipiments, seeds pendulous from the top of the 
axis imbricated in each cell, flat expanding on all sides but particularly upwards (with the hilum at the extremity) and downwards into a wing ; embryo 
nearly straight, cotyledons 2 auricled at the apex, radicle conical pointing upwards, concealed between the auricles of the cotyledons, leaves abruptly 
pinnate, leaflets opposite 3-6 pair, oval-oblong obtuse, panicles large terminal or in the axils of the uppermost leaves. 

SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA. (Juss.) Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 398— prod. p. 122. 

A tree of considerable size, not uncommon in the forests of Palghat, Cuddapah, Oumsoor, Mysore and elsewhere in the Madras Presi- 
dency and in the Central Provinces, Bombay and Bengal. It yields a valuable dull red colored wood that is highly prized by the natives for build- 
ing purposes and is very durable and strong, but though well adapted for all indoor work, it is apt to split on exposure to the sun. The bark is used 
as a febrifuge — it is known by the names of Sohn or Rohn in Bengal, Soomi in Teligoo and Shem in Tamil, and is the red cedar of Europeans. 
Mr. Broughton says that the substance to which the bark owes its bitter taste has the properties of a resin and is of a yellowish while color when 
pure — it is sparingly soluble in water, but is unsolubleif the water contains acids ; it is soluble in alcohol, ether and benzol, but these liquids do not 
completely separate it from foreign substances — it contains no nitrogen. 



CHICKRASSIA TABT7LARIS. (Nat. ord. Meliace'*.) 

CHICKRASSIA. (Ad, de Juss.) Gen. PI. p. 339.— GEN. CHAE. Calyx short cupular 4-5 toothed, petals 4-5 erect contorted. Stamen tube 
cylindrical 10 crenated the crenatures each bearing 1 anther, anthers ovate exserted erect, disk none, ovary oblong shortly stipulate 3 celled attenuated into 
a style, stigma capitate, ovules numerous in 2 series, capsule ovoid woody 3 celled septicidally 3 valved at the apex, valves 2 lamellate and separating 
from the 3 winged axis, seeds numerous imbricated in a double series horizontally across each cell, flat expanding downwards (at the opposite extremity of 
the hilum) into a wing, cotyledons orbicular not auricled, radicle superior cylindrical oblong oblique exserted applied to the edge of the cotyledons at their 
top — leaves abruptly pinnated, leaflets opposite and alternate acuminate, panicles terminal. 

CHICKRASSIA TABULAPJS. (Juss.) Leaves alternate, abruptly pinnate 6-18 inches long, leaflets 5-10 pair subopposite or 
alternate shortly petioled, obliquely ovato-oblong, unequal sided obtusely acuminated quite entire and increasing in size towards the apes 
of the leaf, hairy in the axils of the nerves beneath, stipules none, panicles terminal erect, flowers numerous rather large of a dirty white 
or cream color. W. A. prod. 123. — Swietenia Chiekrassia. Roxb. Fl. prod. ii. 398 — Wight 111. 

A tree of large size, often 8 to 10 feet in girth with a thick straight trunk 60 or 80 feet to 1st bough and rust colored deeply cracked 
bark ; found though sparingly in most of the hill forests of the Madras Presidency both in shola and deciduous forests, and in Mysore, Bombay and 
the Eastern parts of Bengal : it is the true Chittagong of commerce and is called Aglay or Agal in some parts of our Presidency, Madagari Yembu 
in others, Ganti Made in Salem, and in Bengal Chickrasee. The wood is of alight color and prettily veined and' close in the grain, and is much used 
for furniture ; it has a cedar-like smell and is one of the woods known as bastard cedars to Europeans. No attempt at cultivating this tree on any 
large scale has yet been made, but specimens are met with in Botanical Gardens; in Ceylon it is known under the name of Hoolanghik-gass, and its 
timber used in theinterior of the palace of one of the Kandyan kings is known to have lasted some hundreds of years. 

PL. IX. 



CEDRELA TOONA. (Nat. ord. Meliacese.) 

CeDRELA. (Linn.) Gen. PI. p. 339. — GEN". CHAR. Calyx short 5 partite, petals 5 erect keeled inside on the middle, imbricate or contorted 
or valvate at the base, disk adnate with the stalk glandular 5 ribbed concrete between the ribs with the interposed plaits of the petals, 4-6 lobed at the apex. 
Stamens 4-6 inserted on the apex of the disk sometimes alternate with aa many staminodes, filaments subulate, anthers oblong or cordate attached by their 
bark a little above the base, at first introrse at length versatile ; ovary on the top of the disk, ovoid 5 celled attenuated into a style, stigma dilated, ovaries 
8-12 in each cell in 2 series, pendulous, capsule coriaceous or membranaceous 5 celled, 5 valved dehiscing from the apex, septifragal, valves 2 lamellate 
separating from the axis which is 5 angled, seeds pendulous compressed imbricate produced downwards into a wing, albumen sparse fleshy, cotyledons sub- 
foliaceous, radicle short superior exserted. Tall treeB, leaves unequally pinnated, leaflets opposite or nearly so, many paired, unequal sided, panicles terminal 
flowers small. 

v^EDRELA TOONA. (Roxb.) Leaves abruptly pinnate, leaflets from 6 to 12 pair, ovato-laneeolate, acuminate, 2J- to 5 inches 
long 1 \ to If broad, slightly undulated on the margin, quite entire or slightly and distinctly toothed glabrous, panicles drooping, petals 
ciliated, staminodes none ; ovary with a very short stalk and 8 ovules in each cell, capsule oblong. Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 635. — W.A. prod. 
p. 124.— If. Ic. t. 161. 

A large tree with an erect trunk and light grey smooth bark found in almost all the forests of the Madras Presidency, Bombay, Mysore, 
Bengal and Birmah—it ascends the mountains to an elevation of about 4000 feet, confines itself generally to the dry deciduous tracts of forest, but is 
sometimes met with in sholas. It is the white cedar of Europeans, and is often but erroneously called the Chittagongwood ; it is known by the name 
of Toon in Bengal, Suli and Mali in the Salem district, Kal Kilingi on the slopes of the Nilgiris, and Sandani Vembu in Tinnevelly. It is often 
employed as an avenue tree and is much planted for this purpose in some parts of the Salem district. It grows very readily from seed, and the 
Forest Department have noio a considerable plantation of it on the Shevaroys near Salem. The timber is well known, it is of a light rose color, strong, 
tolerably light and close-grained, and is much used for furniture and cabinet purposes and also for building. In Assam admirable boats are made 
from it. The tree flowers in April and May — its flowers are very fragrant and are used in Mysore for dying a red color called Gulinari : the seeds 
ripen towards the end of the rains : the bark is a powerful astringent and is useful in cases of fever, diarrhoea and dysentery, and the natives apply it 
when powdered externally in the treatment of ulcers. Nees, von Esenbeck has published an account of the analysis of the bark which indicated the 
existence of a resinous astringent matter, a brown astringent gum and a gummy brown extractive matter resembling ulmine. The tree is called Thit- 
ka-do in Birmah — it is curiously quite absent from Ceylon. 



Tpeaslsuzs g/ooiia/ 

/uevvndto, su.i' 

CHLOEOXTLON SWIETENIA. (Nat. ord. Meliacese.) 

CHLOROXYLON. (D.C.) Gen. PI. p. 340.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx short5 parted, petals 5 patent unquiculate imbricate, disk thick 10 lobed 
pubescent, stamens 10 inserted into the sinuses of the disk, "filaments subulate alternately longer, anthers cordate apiculate versatile, ovary pubescent half 
immersed in the disk depressed 3 lobed 3 celled style short, stigma obscurely 3 lobed, ovules 8 in each cell fixed to the axis ascending, capsule oblong 
coriaceous 3 celled, 3 valved dehiscing from the apex septifragal, seeds 4-6 in each cell ascending, extending upwards (in an opposite direction from the 
hilum) into a wing ; embryo exalbuminous, cotyledons plano-convex, radicle short. A tree with abruptly pinnate leaves. 


CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA. (D.C.) Leaflets alternate or nearly opposite pale colored small from 10 to 20 pair, semi- 
cordate oblong unequal sided furnished with minute pellucid dots, flowers in terminal or axillary panicles. W. A. prod. p. 123. Swietenia 
chloroxylon. Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 400. W. III. 

This is the well knovm Satinwood tree. It is common throughout the Madras Presidency, Mysore and in Ceylon, and is sparingly found in 
Bombay — it is generally found about the foot of hills and rarely ascends the slopes above a thousand feet or so. The wood is close grained and 
yellow, very hard and durable and excellent for turning, and is much used for furniture and pietu,re frames as it takes a beautiful polish ; it is 
however very liable to warp and split if not well seasoned in the shade. It stands well under water and is used for various purposes in the Gun 
Carriage Manufactory. It is much cut away in the Madras Presidency, as it is highly prized by the natives for ploughs, axil trees, oil presses, &c. 
but especially the former , so that fine trees are rarely met with except in out-of-the-way places (such as the Collegal forests.) I have met with it 8 
feet in girth, but it is found much larger in Ceylon. A cubic foot weighs about 5626s. It is called Billu in Teligoo, Burns or Purush in Tamil, 
Bheyroo (Oorea), in Gumsoor, Dhoura in Hindustani, Vdee mara in Tinnevelly, Billu and Hulda in Bombay, Buruta gass in Ceylon. It 
flowers in the hot season and ripens its seeds in the rains. I do not know of any attempts to plant it. — The tree yields a, wood oil. The natives 
apply the leaves to wounds. " Flower Satin" is obtained from the root in Ceylon. 





tc&wum/ tSfavd&ma/ (J0.$ 


MELIA COMPOSITA. (Willd.— Nat. order Meliacese.) 

MELIA. (Linn.) Qen. PI. p. 332. — GEN CHAR. Calyx 5-6, partite, lobes imbricate, petals as many as calyx lobes, spreading contorted in 
Eesti ration. Stamens 10-12 monadelphous anthers included within the slightly dilated 10-12 fid-mouth of the cylindrical tube, ovary 3-6 celled, style 
slender, stigma capitate, ovules 2 iu each cell superposed, fruit drupaceous with a 1-5 celled bony putamen — trees, leaves alternate 2-3 pinnate (or simply 
pinnate), panicles ample axillary usually collected towards the ends of the branches. 

M.ELIA COMPOSIT. (Willd.) Young shoots petioles and panicles very mealy, leaves bi-tripinuate alternate 12 to 18 inches 
long, pinna about 3 pair, leaflets 3-7 pair to each pinna?, ovate acuminate crenulated glabrous 2 to 3 inches long, panicles axillary 
scarcely half the length of the leaves, flowers numerous small whitish inodorous, calyx and petals mealy, stigma large with a 5 pointed 
apex, drupe ovate the size of a large olive, smooth and yellowish green when ripe. — W. A. prod: p. 117. — Melia robusta. Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. p. 397.— M. superba. Roxb. 1. c. p. 396. 

A very large and most handsome tree with a smooth dark brown bark. Common in Malabar, Wynaad, Coorg, Mysore, and South Canara 
and other parts of our Presidency. It is known to natives by the name of MallayVemboo which is applied also to Melia Azadarach, and its timber 
is often used by planters for building purposes ; it may however be said to be scarcely known in our Presidency, and as a quick growing tree of great 
ornament it is very desirable it should be introduced to Madras and elsewhere for avenues and ornamental planting —it seeds well and grows readily 
from seeds. Seeds sent by Dr. Berry many years ago from Malabar to the Calcutta Botanical Gardens produced in 7 years trees of a height of 
46 feet and a circumference of 44 inches 4 feet from the ground. It is common in Ceylon and is known by the native name of Lunu Midelld, and 
Mr. Ferguson of that Island says the limber is very light and cedar-like and in use for outriggers of boats and for ceilings, and that it is said 
v)hite-ants will not attack it. 



MELIA AZADIRACHTA. (Nat. ord. Meliaeese.) 

J: or Gen. Char, see under " M, eomposita." 

jNxELIA AZADIRACHTA. (L.) Leaves simply pinnate, leaflets ovate lanceolate, unequal sided, acuminated serrated, 
panicles axillary, flowers small white, fruit purple size of au olive, 1-celled 1 -seeded. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 394 ; — Aria bepou. Bheede 
Mai. 4 to 52. Azadiraclita Indica, Ad. de Juss.; — IP. A. Prod. p. 118. 

This has been separated from the genus Melia under the name of Azadirachta by Ad,, de Juss. on account of its 1-celled, 1-seeded nut. 
Hook and Bentham, however, unite the 2 genera. 

Called in Eindoostani the Nim, by which name the tree is well known throughout India. It is an ornamental tree, and is very much 
planted in avenues and topes ; it is common throughout India, Birmah, and Ceylon, generally in a planted state, though occasionally in t he forests ; 
it qroxus well in almost any soil in the plains, and occasionally attains a very large girth. It is called Veypam in Tamil, Y&pd or Yepa in Telugoo, 
Eohomba in Ceylon, and is the Margosa tree of Europeans. The wood is very like mahogany, beautifully mottled, hard and heavy ; it is much 
used for cart wheels and ordinary building purposes, and old trees yield a first-rate furniture wood which is well adapted for ship-building ; it is 
much used in Bengal in the manufacture of idols, as it is so bitter that no instct will attack it. The bark is very bitter and is used as a substitute 
for Quinine, the leaves beaten into a pulp are externally applied with great efficacy in case of pustular eruptions in rheumatism, and for bruises, 
and .'prains, and the leaves are said to be useful in keeping away the boring worm from books : the dried leaves are often added to common poultices 
by the natives, and are said to act in preventing glandrdar tumours from coining to maturity. The fruit yields an acrid bitter oil, which is 
exported from the Madras Presidency ; it is said to have valuable antispasmodic properties, and is anthelmintic and stimulant. It is used by the 
natives as a remedy in leprosy and as a liniment for rheumatic affections ; it is obtained by boiling or expression, is oj a deep yellow color, and is 
used for burning in lamps. The bark yields a gum which is said to be a stimulant. A toddy, called Veypam Khalloo, is obtained from young trees. 



&&vin<6x>- deZ. 

//^iz / / a^ai^^acm//J!^m2Aj 

VitmnJig, 'Liai/: 


MELIA AZEDAKACH. (Nat. ord. Meliaoeah) 

For Gen. Char, see under "M. composita." 

MELIA AZEDARACH. (L.) Leaves deciduous 1-2 feet long, bipinnate glabrous, leaflets about 5 obliquely lanceolate, 
or ovate-lanceolate to elliptical acute or acuminate, serrate inciso-serrate or entire, petals nearly glabrous, fruit with a 5-celled putamen 
or by abortion with fewer cells. W. A. Prod. p. 117 ;—D. C. i. 621 ;— Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 3&5. 

A handsome tree, attaining a height of about 40 feet and a quick groioer ; it produces its sweet-scented lilac-like ftoioers in the hot 
season. It is found sparingly as a planted tree throughout the Madras Presidency, Bengal, Mysore, Bombay, <&c, b\tt rarely if ever met with in 
the jungles ; it is a very ornamental tree and deserving of more attention. It is wild in China and in Africa, and has been naturalised in the 
South of Europe ; the wood of older trees is handsomely marked, rather durable and in use for furniture ; it is often called Bastard Cedar, and is 
apt to warp and split ; the tree is called Mallay VembuinTamil, Taraku vepa in Telugoo, and in English is known as the Persian Lilac ;—tht 
seeds are often strung as beads, and a valuable oil is prodzieed from them ; the root is nauseous and bitter, and in use as an anthelmintic. 



GcKMadev, deO: 

Dujnnfuf, ZLth/: 

ANOGEISSUS LA.TIFOLIUS. (Nat. ord. CombretacesB.) 

AN06EISSUS. (Wall.) Gen. PI. p. 687.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers densely aggregated on a common receptacle, calyx tube compressed 2 
winged at the base, attenuated and much produced beyond the ovary and resembling a pedicel to the limb, limb campanulate or urceolate 5 fid deciduous, 
lobes valvate, petals 0. stamens 10 in 2 series, filaments filiform subulate exserted, anthers small cordate ; ovary 1 -celled, style filiform, thickened at the 
base villous, stigma simple, ovules 2 pendulous from the apex of the cell. Fruit small, broadly trapezoid, 2-winged terminating in a long beak (the per- 
sistent calyx tube) 1-seeded. Seed ovoid, cotyledons convolute, trees or shrubs glabrous or sericeous, leaves alternate petiolate entire without glands or 
obscurely glandular at the base, flowers small yellowish, capituli axillary. 

AiVOGEISSUS LATIFOLIUS. (Roxb.) A lofty tree, 30 to 40 feet to the first branch, and up to 8 or 9 feet in circum- 
ference, bark smooth of a whitish color, branches numerous, spreading, forming a large high head, leaves alternate without glands 
elliptical or obovate obtuse or emarginate glabrous from 1 to 4 inches long and from 1 to 2 broad, peduncles axillary bearing several 
ramifications each supporting a little globular head of small yellow flowers. Wall. L. n. 4015 ; — Conocarpus latifolius, Roxb. FL 
Lid. ii. 442. 

This is a very valuable timber tree, common throughout the Madras Presidency, Mysore, Bombay, Bengal and Ceylon, and attaint a 
large size on many of our mountains ; it is common in the plains, and ascends the mountains to an elevation of about 3,000 feet ; it is known by the 
names of Chiriman and Sheriman a'icl Yella Maddi in Teligoo, Vellay nagcb and Veckalie in Tamil, Dhobu in Oorea, Dhowra and Dhaori in 
Hindustani and Alahratta, and Dawn in Ceylon. Its wood is light colored with a purple heart ; it is close-grained and very durable when properly 
seasoned; it is much used in house building and in ship building, and is one of the best woods for poles and axle-trees of carts, and is much utedj 
by the "natives for agricultural implements. If left in the. forests exposed to weather the wood rapidly deteriorates and is soon attacked by insects 
and white ants, — the wood from small trees wants the dark colored heart and is anything but durable. Except a few specimens in Botanical 
Gardens, there have been no attempts at planting this tree. The leaves are used by tanners, A gum exudes from the bark which is collected (as 
Dkaori ha gond) in Central India, and sold in the ba^aai's. 

15 s 

PL. XV. 

(rOi-Vl<£<H> JtT. 




ANOGEISSUS ACUMINATUS. (Nat. ord. Combretacea.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " A. latifolius." 

ANOGEISSUS ACUMINATUS. {Roxb.) A lofty tree, but trunk seldom straight, up to 8 feet in girth, bark ash- 
colored, branches very numerous, spreading with their extremities pendulous (like the Weeping Willow) the whole forming a most beauti- 
ful lar^e regular top, leaves short petioled alternate without glands oval or oblong-lanceolate pointed entire, when young downy when 
old smooth, about 2 to 3 J inches long and 1 to 1|- inch broad, peduncles axillary single simple with one head of flowers or occasionally 
with a second branch. Wall L. n. 4014; — Conocarpus acuminatus, Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 443. 

A valuable and very ornamental tree, abundant in the Northern Circars, particularly in the Gumsur country (in the plains) ; but I 
have never observed it wild elsewhere in our Presidency. It is known by the Telugoo name of Parlchman. Dr. Brandts has found it in Birm'.ih, 
inhere it is called Yoong. Its timber much resembles the preceding species, and has a purple heartwood ; it is much used for building purposes, 
but will not stand exposure to water. The tree grows very ivell at Madras (there is a splendid specimen in the compound of the house known as 
the Collector's at Sydapett), and I have lately given some attention to raising it from seed, but all the plants at present are very young. It is cer- 
tainly one of the most ornamental trees in our Presidency, and I hope ere long it will be largely planted ; it is growing in the Calcutta Botanical 




^%i^a£-cMcct) '/x. 

DuAmfvhu, XiUfi*': 

TERMINALIA TOMENTOSA. (Nat. ord. Combretacese.) 

J-ERMINALIA. (L.) Oen. PL p. 685.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite or polygamo-dioccious, calyx tube ovoid orcylindrical, 
constricted above the ovary, limb deciduous urceolate or campanulate 5 dentate or 5 fid, lobes valvate, petals 0. stamens 10 in 2 series alternately larger 
filaments subulate or filiform exserted, anthers small didymous. Ovary 1-celled style subulate, often thickened and villous at the base, stigma simple ovules 
2, rarely 3, pendulous from the apex of the cell, fruit ovoid, angled, compressed or 2-5 winged 1-seeded, sarcocarp generally thin or 0. rarely fleshy, putamen 
coriaceous or bony seed almond-like, testa membranaceous, cotyledons convolute, Trees or erect shrubs, leaves alternate or rarely opposite or sub-opposite, 
often crowded towards the apex of the branches, with glands on both sides at the base or on the midrib, or glandless, flowers spiked sessile small, green or 
white, rarely colored, bisexual in the lower part of the spike, male in the upper. 

TERMINALIA TOMENTOSA. (Roxb.) A very large timber tree, often 70 or 80 feet to the first bough, and up to 12 
feet in girth ; bark deeply cracked (or in one variety without any cracks), branches spreading, leav.es sub-opposite short petioled oval, 
with a cordate (often unequal) base, to oblong or narrow-oblong obtuse or emarginate or slightly acute at the apex, entire or crenulated 
glabrous on both sides or more or less downy especially when young, up to 6 inches long by 4 broad, glands several on the midrib 
below generally near the base sessile or rarely stalked, panicles terminal or from the upper axils composed of a few simple long cylin- 
dric spikes, flowers sessile crowded of a dull yellow color generally hermathrodite below and male above, sometimes all hermathrodite, 
calyx glabrous or hoary, sometimes with 5 or 6 glands in the hair round the base of the syle, fruit enlarged into 5-7 equal longitudinal 
wings glabrous or rarely hoary. W. A. Prod. p. 314 ;^Roxb.Fl. Ind. ii. pp. 438, 439 and 440 ; — Terminaliacrenulata, glabra, tomeutosa, 
and coriacea, W. A.; Terminalia alata, Ainslie ; Pentaptera glabra and tomentosa, Roxb. ; Peutaptera coriacea, Roxb.; Pentaptera 
crenulata, Roxb. 

This is one of our most useful timber trees ; it is common throughout the Madras Presidency up to an elevation of 3,000 or Z,bQ0feel, 
and grows to a very large size and very straight on the Anamallays, and very fine on the JYullaymallays (Kumool), where the timber is highly 
prized, and more in use than any other ; it is also common in Mysore, Bengal, Bombay, and Ceylon. It is called Saj in Hindustani, Sdhajo in - 
Oorea, Earra Mardd in Tamil, Maddee and Nalla Maddee in Telugoo, Matti in Canarese, and Koombook in Ceylon. The Terminalia glabra of . 
Roxb. only differs in being more glabrous and having the bark nearly smooth, but the pubescence varies much,and I cannot look upon the two trees 
as distinct species. It is distinguished by the Telingees as Telia Maddee. The Banipu of the South Canara forests (probably Pentaptera crenulata, 
Roxb.,) is also, I believe, only a variety of the same species, or at least closely allied ; it differs in having very long stalked glands, h an inch long t 
on the midrib below, often up as far as the centre of the leaf ; the tree does not, however, differ otherwise. 

Wood, dark-colored very hard, heavy, and strong, much used in house building, and for boats and canoes, solid wheels of carts, furni- 
I ture, and many other purposes. The 'ashes from its burnt bark produce a kind of ' chunam which is eaten by the natives with betel leaf; the bark is 
astringent, and used for dying black and for tanning. This tree has been introduced into several of our plantations. 

GtHHn{ibi> cut 


TERMINALIA PANICULATA. (Nat. ord. Combretaeese.) 

For Gen. Char. 3ee under " Terminalia tomentosa." 


J-ERMINALIA PANICULATA. (Roxb.) A fine large timber tree, branches diverging, leaves nearly opposite oblong to 
linear oblong with a more or less cordate base, acute or obtuse at the apex, entire, coriaceous, rugose above glabrous or rarely 
pubescent, with 2 sessile umbilicate glands beneath near the base, or glandless, spikes terminal forming a compound panicle, fruit with 
one large and two small wings. W. A. Prod. p. 315 ; — Pentaptera paniculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 442. 

A valuable timber tree common in most of the forests on the western side of the Madras Presidency, up to an elevation of 2,000 or 
3,000/ee£, and also found in Bombay and Bengal, caVed Marwa in South Canara, Poo Mardd and Pillah Murdd, in the Anamallays and Malabar. 
Dr. Roxburgh gives Pe Karkai as the Tamil name, and Neemeeri as Teligoo, but I never met with any one who fame either of these names, It is 
often called simply Matti or Mardah, the same name given to Terminalia tomentosa/ it is known by the name of Keerijul in the South Concan, 
where it is common along the foot of the Ghats. The timber is very good, but not equal to that of Terminalia tomentosa ; it is said to be 
improved by being kept under water. The bark contains tannin. The tree As not found in Ceylon, nor is it recorded from Birmah ; the tree 
grows in the Botanical Gardens in Calcutta, where seedlings attained a height of 20 feet with a circumference of 18 inches in eight years ; it has 
been introduced into our plantations at Nellumbur, and grows well from seed. 


PL. XX. 

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V^tmt^&lt^' Atwtt-cu, 

J)ttmnJuf f 7jUn4 

TERMINALIA BELERICA. (Nat. ord. Combretacese.) 

-Cor Gen. Char, see under " Terminalia tomentosa." 

1 ERMINALIA BeLERIC A. (Roxb.) A very large tree, with an erect trunk and large spreading head, flowering in the 
hot season, leaves crowded about the extremities of the branches, long petioled, oval to obovate obtuse or shortly acuminated, quite 
entire glabrous above and generally also beneath, 6 to 7 inches long by 2£ broad, with 2 opposite glands on the upper side of the apex 
of the petiole and sometimes near the base, spikes axillary solitary simple erect almost the length of the leaves, flowers small dirty-grey 
fetid, the male towards the apex of the spike and shortly pedicellate with a glandular disk at the bottom of the calyx, hermathrodite 
below and sessile, drupe obovate obscurely 5-angled, the size of a nutmeg, fleshy, covered with grey silky down. Roxh. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 
341 ;— W. A. Prod. p. 313. 

This fine large tree is common throughout the Madras Presidency, Bengal, Bombay, Birmah and Ceylon; it is universally known in 
this' Presidency by the name Thani, which is both Tamil and Telugu. in South Canara it is called Santl, in Bengal Bahera, in Bombay Bherda, 
in Birmah Titseim, and in Ceylon Bidu. The wood is whUe ani rather soft, but much used in some parts of the Presidency, and said to be tolerably 
durable; it answers well for packing-cases and coffee boxes, and catamarans and grain measures are made from it, and in Malabar and South 
Canara the tree is sometimes hollowed out for canoes ; the kernels of the fruit are eaten by the natives, and a.lso used medicinaUy ; the fruit it used 
in dying and tanning, and the leaves also for the latter purpose ; the dried fruit is said to be astringent and laxative (as the dZgle fruit) ; an oil 
is expressed from the seed, which is_ used for strengthening the hair, and a gum issues from wounds in the baric. The tree has been introduced into 
the Calcutta Botanical Gardens. 



J)lt<n[ltl(f , IM/: 

TERMINALIA CATAPPA. (Nat. ord. Combretacese.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " T. tomentosa." 

J-EKMINALIA OATAPPA. (Willd.) A large tree, branches horizontal verticelled, bark smooth, of a dull olive color 
whilst young, leaves about the extremities of the branches glabrous subsessile obovate crenate and attenuated, but at the same time 
slightly cordate at the base ; a little repand with a large depressed gland beneath on each side of the midrib near the base, from 6 to 12 
inches long, racemes axillary solitary simple shorter than the leaves, flowers numerous, small dull whitish, male most numerous above the 
hermathrodite, bracts minute deciduous, drupe oval compressed smooth with elevated navicular margins, convex on both sides, yellowish 
when ripe, nut oblong with a rough surface. Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 430 ; — W. A. Prod. p. 3,13 ; — Adamaram, Rheede Mai. iv. t. 3, 4. 

A highly ornamento.1 tree much planted throughout the Presidency, and met with in some of our forests, but doubtfully indigenous • it is 
in flower and jruii throughout the year ; it is called the Indian Almond tree by Europeans, in Hindustani, Badam or Junglibadam, and in 
Malabar Nat vadom . "It makes a good avenue tree, and is well worthy of extended cultivation. The wood is light but tolerably durable,and is 'used 
for vavious purposes, and the levers of Pakottahs are often made of it; the, kernels of the nuts are eaten and are very palatable; the oil expressed 
from the seeds is very like Almond oil, and the oil cake is used to feed pigs ; the bark and leaves yield a black pigment vjith which the natives* 
color their teeth and make into Indian ink ; the juice oj the leaves and milk of the nut are used medicinally; the tussa silk-worms feed on the 




3>/unsihu ; lUju': 

PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM". (Nat. ord. Leguminosee ; Sub-order Papilionaoea ; Tribe Dalbergiese.) 

1 TEKOCARPUS. (Linn.) Gen. PI. p. 5i7. — Calyx turbinato-campanulate, acute at the base, often incurved 5-toothed sub-bilabiate. Corol 
papilionaceous vexillum orbicular or broadly ovate ; wings obliquely obovate or oblong, keel petals distinct or slightly cohering, stamens 10 all connate into 
one sheath or equally diadelphous 5-5 or unequally diadelphous 9-1, anthers versatile, ovary stalked or sessile 2-6 ovuled, style filiform slightly incurved, 
stigma small terminal, legume compressed indehiscent orbicular or ovate more or less oblique or falcate, style lateral or rarely terminal, surrounded by a 
wing, woody and often rugose in the middle where the seed is lodged, seeds 1-2 separated by hard partitions oblong or subreniform radicle short incurved ; 
unarmed trees, leaves alternate unequally pinnated, leaflets alternate or irregularly opposite exstipulate, flowers 3'ellow in axillary or terminal racemes or 

PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM. (Roxb.) A large tree, trunk erect very high, but not often straight ■ bark outer-coat 
brown, spongy, falling off in flakes, inwardly red, fibrous, and astringent, branches spreading horizontal, numerous, leaves alternate 
unequally pinnate 8-9 inches long, leaflets 5-7 alternate elliptic to oblong or obovate emarginate firm, above shining and deep-green 
3-5 inches long by 2-3 broad, racemes simple or pauicled axillary or terminal, flowers yellow, stamens 10 monadelphous or at length 
splitting into equal divisions of 5-5 each (isadelphous) legume stipitate obliquely orbicular, surrounded by a waved veined membranace- 
ous wing, style lateral. Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 234 ;— W. A. Prod. 266. 

Next to teak and blackwood, our most valuable timber tree, abundant throughout the Madras Presidency and in Mysore, Bengal, 
.Bombay and Ceylon. Its size and 'manner of growth differ very much under different circumstances : it is often very poor and scraggy, but attains 
a fine size in our western, forests and in favorable ravines, and subalpine jungles elsewhere ; it is seldom found " of any size" above 4,000 feet eleva- 
tion, and is generally in flower in July, but 1 have seen it in flower at other seasons. It is most generally known by its Tamil name Vengay, and is 
called Yeggi in Telugoo , Bengha in South Canara, Hone in Mysore and Coorg, Beejdsa, PeeaSal or Peet Sal in Bengal, Bibla in Bombay, and. 
Gammalu in Ceylon. The timber is dark colored and strong, and much prized for building purposes, and in some parts of our Presidency fetches as 
high a price as teak. Mr. Rohde says it is the best timber he knows for exposed Venetians o.nd weather boards ; it gives out a yellovi stain when 
damp ; it is attacked by the Teredo navalis token used for the bottoms of ships, and is apt to warp if sawn green. A reddish gum resin exudes from 
wounds in the bark, which is known as Kino or Dragon's blood, and is largely exported from Malabar. 





J)i^mnA^ l XUn/: 

PTEEOCAEPUS SANTALINUS. (Nat. ord. Leguminosse.) 

-For Gen. Char, see under "Pterocarpus marsupium." 

PTEEOCARPUS SANTALINUS. A small tree, leaves alternate, unequally pinnate 6-8 inches long, leaflets always 3, 
lower pair alternate or sub-opposite, all broadly ovate to orbicular deeply emarginate or retuse at the apex, sub-cordate or rounded at 
the base, about 3 inches long by 2| broad, young parts and under surface of the leaves slightly sericeous, panicles terminal or axillary, 
calyx slightly puberulous, stamens isadelphous (5-5) legume surrounded by a wing (as in the genus) uniform, style lateral. Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 234. 

This is the famous red sanders tree of commerce ; it differs from the ( Vengay) Pterocarpus marsupium (which it much resembles in 
flower and fruit) by alvmys having 3 instead of 5-7 leaflets. It was thus described correctly by Dr. Roxburgh, but subsequent authorities have 
described it erroneously as haviny 5-7 leaflets. It is abundant on the low hills about the Cuddapah and North Arcot forests, and the southern 
part of the Kurnool district, and I have seen a few trees in the Godavery forests. I have never met with it elsewhere in our Presidency, and it is not 
I believe found anytohere else in India ; it is known by the native names of Shandum and Chandam. The vjood is of a fine red color and beautifully 
streaked, very hard and heavy, and takes a fine polish ; it is much used and highly prized by the natives for building purposes and for turnery in 
Madras and the districts fn which it grows ; it is also largely exported from Madras as a dye wood, and used as ballast ;it is a very small tree, not 
often found over 3| or 4 feet in girth and about 20 to 25 feet in height, the largest trees reach 4^ feet in yirth, but are then much heart shaken or 
hollovj. The largest fi ee in our plantations is five years old, and is 18 feet 5 inches high, and 9 inches in girth : — a bandy-load of selected logs will 
sellfor as much as 200 Rupees, i. e,, twenty logs at 10 Rupees each; the roots and stumps vised Jor dying purposes, sell at 6 to 9 Rupees the 1,000 
lbs. The cattle during the dry season are much Jed upon the leaves of this tree, and young saplings are often bodily cut down by thousands by 
the cowherds. 



G/H<Uli&K>; del. 

J}pu»uvfuf l ZiM/: 

PTEROCARPUS INDICUS. (Nat. ord. Leguminosse.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " Pterocarpus marsupium." 

PXEROOARPUS INDICUS. (Willd.) A tree of considerable size, trunk straight, bark tolerably smooth ash-colored, 
leaves alternate unequally pinnate 6-15 inches long, leaflets 7-9 (rarely nnre) ovate acuminate firm and polished on both sides, alternate 
short petiole J from 2 to i inches long by 1^ to 2 broad, rasemss axillary at the apes of the branchlets and forming a terminal panicle 
flowers numerous yellow fragrant, stamens 10 monadelphous at length isadelphous (5-5) (the vexillum-stamen rarely free) legume stipitate 
obliquely suborbicular style lateral, seeds 1-2. Boxb. FL Lid. iii. 233 ;— WMd. El. Sp'. iii. 904 ;— Pfcerocarpus dalbergioides, Boxb. 
Fl. Ini. iii. 236 ;— Poerosarpus Wallichii and P. dalbergioides, Wight and Arnt. Prod- p. 267.— (Pterocarpus flavus, Lour, and P. 
obtusatus, Mig. Fl. Fed. Ind. i. p. 136, both probably belong to this species.) 

A very hzndso netree, said to be indigenous to Southern India, butlhxve never met with it wild; it is cultivated in gardens and is well 
disi'-vinj of entente i eiiltiv ttion ; it is crmnm in Birmah, where it is called PeAowk, and in the Andxmans, where it is known as redwood; it is 
alsojouni in ililaeaz, Penxnj, Sitmxtra, Java, Philippine Islanis, and South China,. It yields a valuable red-colored beautiful timber, which is 
mush used in thi ffiin-cxrri ige Mxnuf actor ies in Ma Iras and Bengal. Dr. Brandis says that the wood is prized above all others in Birmah for 
can wheels ; thi trees are felled green and split up into short planks Zfeet 6 inches long by 2 feet viide and 9 inches thick; three of these pieces 
make one wheel, and a pair are sold in the forests from 12 to 25 Es. 

The wood is used for furniture, and by the Birmssefov musical instruments ; it weighs about 60 lbs, the cubic foot. 

i 'j-p/6-f ■ I 






l/'m#ai'l</uid Cs/tuu-cud 


X>umA/ut, LM/: 

DALBERGIA LATIFOLIA. (Nat. ord. Leguminosse ; Sub-ord. Papilionacese ; Tribe Dalbergieee.) 

DALBERGIA. (L. f. Suppl. 52.) Gen. PI. 544.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx campanulate 5-toothed, the 2 superior teeth broader, vexillum ovate 
or orbicular, wings oblong free, keel petals free or connate above, stamens 9-10 all connate into one sheath or the vexillum stamen free 9 and 1 or ieadelpkous 
5-5, anthers small erect didymous, the cells opening at the top or rarely longitudinally, ovary stalked, few ovuled, style incurved small, stigma small 
terminal, legume oblong or linear thin flat and indehiscent, often wrinkled and thickened about the seed ; seeds 1 or rarely 2-4, large thin and flat in the 
centre of the pod. Trees or woody climbers, leaves alternate pinnate, the leaflets alternate with a terminal odd one (very rarely 1 foliate), flowers small in 
dichotomous cymes or irregular panicles. 

JL'ALBERGIA LATIFOLIA, (Eoxb,) A very large timber tree, trunk erect though rarely straight, rising to a great height 
and of veryjarge girth, brauches spreading, very numerous, forming a large shady head, leaves alternate pinnate with an odd one 6-9 
inches long, leaflets 3-7 generally 5 alternate, the exterior ones largest and roundish, emarginate, a little waved above, smooth, covered 
with a little whitish down beneath, at length glabrous, about 2 inches long and the same broad, petioles round smooth ^ to |- an inch 
long, panicles axillary terminal glabrous or minutely hoary, flowers small white on short slender pedicels, calyx segments oblong more 
or less obtuse, petals unquiculate, stamens 9 monadelphous, style subulate, stigma small, nearly as long as the ovary, ovary stalked, 3-7 
ovuled, legume stalked, oblong lanceolate usually 1-seeded. lioxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 221, and Dalbergia emarginata, I. c. p. 224 ; — W. A^ 
Prod. p. 264. 

This is the well-known blackwood or rosewood tree. Ii is found throughout Ike Madras Presidency, Mysore, Coorg, Bombay, Central 
India, and parts of Bengal, SiMim, and in the Andaman Islands; it grows to a very large size on the mountains, particularly on the western side 
of our Presidency ; and 1 have measured trees considerably over 20 feet in girth; it is generally known in our western forests ly the Tamil name 
Eetee, and on the eastern side by the Ttlugoo names Jitegee and Yerugudu, and in Mysore and South Canara by the Canarese names Biti and 
Thoddgatti, and in Bengal it is called Sit Sal. It is not found in Ceylon, nor I believe in Birmah. It ascends the mountains to nearly 4,000 
feet, and grows equally well in the dry deciduous forests with teak, and in the moist evergreen sholas,and is open associated with bamboo. The 
timber is one of the most valuable in India, and generally fetches a higher price than teak; it is very heavy, strong, fibrous, close-grained and 
durable; it differs much in color but is generally purple-black ; it admits of a very fine polish, and is our best furniture wood, and extensively used for 
Gun-carriage purposes. It grows readily from seed but is of very slow growth, particularly when young. The Forest Department have had plantations 
of it for some years in South Canara and Malabar, but the plants are still very small : self-sown seedlings are generally to be met with about Coffee 
Estates in our western forests; the tree flowers in March and April. 

The Dalbergia sissoides (Graham), common about the forests of the Coimbalore district, Palghat, the Anamallays, Madura and 
Tinnevelly, is a smaller tree than that of D. latifolia. The wood is generally of a redder color, and the tree flowers in the rainy season (July), 
instead of the hot weather ; it is always distinguished by the Palghat axmen as the Eeruputu, the D. latifolia being called Eetee (Dr. Wight- 
transposes these native names). 1 cannot however distinguish the two trees botanically; the flowers of the sissoides are said to be rather larger and 
the leaves narrower, but these differences are not constant, and the same drawing might answer jor either tree : 1 cahnoi therefore look upon 
sissoides as more than a variety of latifolia. 




( >/) / f / 


Dusn/lrUf, %i£n/f 

DALBERGU SISSOO. (Nat. ord. Leguminosce .) 

Eor Gen. Char, see under " Daluergia latifolia.'' 

I)ALBERGIA SlSSOO. (liosb.) Trunk generally more or less crooked, high and of great thickness, branches numerous 
spreading, bark on young trees ash-colored and pretty smooth; when old deeply cracked and very thick ; young shoots downy, leaves 
tdternate pinnate, leallets alternate 3-5 orbicular or obcordate with a short sudden accuaiination, slightly waved on the margin ; when 
young pubescent, when old glabrous and shining 1 to 3 inches each way, the inferior ones smaller ; petioles round waved, stipules 
lanceolate caducous ; panicles axillary composed of several short subsecund spikes, flowers subsessile small yellowish white, bracts 
small caducous, calyx pubescent campanulate, segments oblong, two upper ones obtuse, three lower acute with the centre one longest, corol 
as in the genus ; stamens nine, all united into a sheath open on the upper side ; style long included in the sheath with the pubescent 
ovary at the apex on a level with the anthers, stigma large glandular, legume stalked 2-2| inches long linear-lauceolate membranaceous, 
1-3 seeded, seeds compressed reniform. Roxb. Fl. Ind, iii, 223 ; — W. A. Prod. p. 264. 

A very handsome tree of considerable size, with a trunk up to four feet in diameter ; it is abundant in the plains of Central India, and 
at the foot of the Himalayas where it is common in river-beds, but ascends to an elevation of 4,500 feet ; it is cultivated and planted as an avenue 
tree in the Madras Piesidency, and as it grows rapidly in almost any soil, its extended cidtivotion is desirable. The wood is tolerably light and 
remarkably strong, in color a light greyish brown with darker colored veins, it yields ship builders in Bengal their crooked timber and knees, and is 
used for gun carriages and mail carts and furniture ; it is called Sissoo, Tali and Shisham inHindooslani, and is universally known by thejormer 
name. It grows readily fiom seed, flowers at the beginning of the hot weather, and ripens its seed towards the end of the year, and is said to 
attain maturity in about 30 years. It has a specific gravity of 724, a 6 feet bar 2 inches square, only broke with 1,101 lbs. (in Bakers experiments). 
White ants seldom if ever attack it : a cubic foot weighs 68 lbs. green, and 48 lbs, dry ; the raspings of the wood are officinal, being considered 



Jem/uiPC; j&el. 

HARDWICKIA BINATA. (Nat. ord. Leguminosae ; Sub-order Ctesalpiniese ; Tribe Cynometrcae.) 

■H.ARDWICKIA. (Roxb.) Gen. PI. p. 586. — GEN. CHAR. Calycine segments 3-5 petaloid, orbicular or ovate subequal, very much 
imbricated, scarcely cohering at the base or forming any tube ; corol none, stamens 6-10 distinct inserted iuto the bottom of the calyx, alternately 
shorter, anthers small, cells dehiscing longitudinally, ovary sessile free, ovules 2 on the ventral suture close to the apex, style filiform with a large peltate 
stigma, or slightly winged with a small stigma, legume (in H. binata) lanceolate cuneate, compressed, 2-valved opening at the apex, 1-seeded, seed pendulous 
in the apex of the legume obovate thin and somewhat membranaceous on the one edge, albumen none, cotyledons thinly carnose, radicle short erect. Trees 
unarmed, leaves abruptly pinnate 1-3 pair coriaceous, flowers small, racemes axillary panicled, bracts minute. 

HARDWICKIA BINATA. (Roxb.) An elegant tree, trunk tolerably straight, bark deeply cracked, branches spreading, 
leaves alternate petioled, petioles \ to 1 inch long, leaflets 1 pair opposite sessile with a bristle between them, between senii- 
cordate and reniform, obtuse, entire very smooth on both sides, 3-6 veined at the base, 1 to 2| inches long, by about half that in 
breadth, when young tinged with red, stipules small cordate caducous : pauicles terminal and from the exterior axils, flowers pedicelled 
scattered small, bracts minute caducous, calyx somewhat hoary on the outside often dotted, yellowish within, filaments generally 10, 
rarely 6-8, anthers with or without an acute point between the lobes, style filiform, stigma large peltate, legume lauceolate 2 to 3 inches 
long, 2-valved striated lengthways, opening at the apex, seed solitary in the apex of the legume. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. p. 423. 

The head-quarters of this valuable tree are the forests on both banks of the Cauvery north of Cauverypoorum, both in the Salem 
and Coimbaiore districts, where it often grows almost to the exclusion of all other trees ; it is also abundant on the slopes of the Balarangams, near 
Collegal and at Hassanoor and Guzzlehutty, on the Cnddapah and Arcot hills, and the southern parts of the Natty Mallays, and it is also found 
in the Mysore District on the Circar Mountains, in the Godavery forests and in the Bombay Presidency. It is naturally of straight growth, but cattle 
being -very fond of its leaves, it is pollarded to a frightful extent wherever it grows. It is heart-rending to see the damage done in the Cauvery 
forests'. It is very generally known by its Tamil name " Acha," but is often called Karachi in the Salem district, and Rat udagti in some parts ; 
its Teligoo name is Nar Tepi, and it is called Ka~>mra in Canarese; its timber is of a reddish color, very hard, stony, and heavy, and of excellent 
quality ; it is a first rate building and engineering timber, but is not utilized nearly as much as it might be; its bark yields a strong fibre much 
used by the natives in some parts. It grows from the level of the plains up to about 3,500 feet elevation ; it is easily raised from seed, and is 
cultivated in the Botanical Gardens at Calcutta. 

A second supposed species of this genus ( IJardwickia pinnata) was discovered many years ago on the Travancore hills, but I have nut 
as yet been fortunate enough to find it ; it has quite similar flowers, but 3 pair of leaflets, and the legume being unknown, it is not certain whether 
it belongs to this genus. 



'DmuMUI. Zm': 

TERMINALIA CHEBULA. (Nat. ord. Combretacere.) 

-Cor Gen. Char, see under " Terminalia tomenbosa." 

TERMINALIA CHEBULA. (Retz.) A large tree, trunk rarely straight, bark ash-colored and cracked ; branches numerous 
spreading, their extremities drooping and downy when young, leaves sub-opposite, shortly petioled ovate or oblong, acute or obtuse at 
the apex, obtuse or cordate at the base, entire when young clothed especially above with silky hairs, at length glabrous and furnished 
with one gland on each side of the base of the leaves and occasionally on the apex of the petiole ; stipules none, spikes terminal or 
axillary, often panicled ; flowers numerous small dull white, fetid, all hermathrodite, bracts solitary downy subulate 1 -flowered, calyx 
bowl-shaped 5 toothed hairy, particularly on the inside, with five very hairy glands at the bottom surrounding the base of the style ; 
filaments ten alternately a.little shorter or equal in length, twice the length of the calyx, anthers small oval ; ovary hairy 1 -celled, with 
two ovules attached to the top of the cell, style rather shorter than the stamens, stigma acute, drupe oval about 1| inches long and about 
1 inch in diameter, smooth of a pale greenish yellow very obscurely 5-angled, 1-celled, pulp hard and yellowish, nut oblong thick 
and very hard with a rough surface and obscurely 5-furrowed, seed solitary lanceolate. Roxb. Fl. Ind. \wp. 433 ; — Retz. obs. v. p. 31. 
Myrobalanus chebula, Gcertn. ; — Melanoxylon cadika-maram, Koen. 

This large tree is found all over the forests of the Madras Presidency, and is sometimes planted; it is also found in Mysore, Bengal 
Bombay, Birmah and Ceylon ; it is called Kadakai in Tamil, Karaka andKarakd Maddi in Teligoo, Sara and Halda in Hindustani Heerda 
in Canarese, and Araloo f/ass in Ceylon. The wood is of good quality, andmuch used for building purposes ; the heart wood is yellowish brown or 
dark brown, hard and heavy, and makes good furniture, but is cross-grained and difficult to work. In Birmah yokes and canoes are made of it. The 
tender leaves when scarce unfolded are punctured by aninsect, and its eggs deposited therein, which by the extravasation of the sap, become enlarged 
into hollow glands of various shapes and sizes up co 1 inch in diameter ; they are powerfully astringent, and make as good ink as oak galls : they 
also yield mixed with alum a good durable yellow dye. The fruit is an article of commerce for the large quantity of tannin which it contains. The 
fruit and gall nuts are both used medicinally by the natives. 




TEEMINALIA ARJUNA. (Nat. ord, Combretawa.) 

lor Gen, Char, see under " Terminalia tomentosa." 

TERMINALIA ArJUNA. (Roxb.) A very large tree, bark smo oth whitish or green, leaves sub-opposite linear-oblong, 
with au unequal obtuse or cordate base smooth on both sides, crenulate on the margin, acute or retuse at the apex ; 6-9 inches long by 
1J to 2 broad, furnished with two sessile glands at the base of the leaf just above the petiole, generally only visible when looking at the 
underside, but sometimes visible above ; petioles up to half an inch long, spikes terminal panicled, calyx very hairy inside round the ovary 
and furnished with some sessile glands, stamens ten, the five opposite the sinuses inserted on the calyx above the base, the five opposite 
the teeth inserted at the base, style subulate stigma small, drupe ovate thick with five very hard thick rigid longitudinal wings and 
with the apex produced into a furrowed truucated point. — Peutaptera Arjuna and P. angustifolia, Roxb. FL lad. ii. p. 437 and 435 ; — 
Terminalia Berryi, W. A. Prod. 314. 

I cannot distinguish between Terminalia Arjuna and Berryi: the description and figure here given are taken from specimens 
collected in Tinnevelly. 

A gigantic tree common throughout the Madras Presidency, growing near the banks of rivers,, up to. an elevation of 3,500 or 4,000 
feel; it is largely plante}, as an avenue tree,pxrliiularly in the Tin ieve 7 ly district, where it attuns an immense girth and is often fu> nished with 
very large buttresses. It is.als) fjuid in Bmjal, Bmbay an I Birmih ;it U cdlel Kohxaid Janla in Hindoostanl, and Yelld Mar da and 
Yelld matti in Tamil, ani Arjoon in Bombay, and is generally called tht White M Utiby Eii'opeats. The wool is used for building and various 
purposes, and boats are often miiefroni it ; it is inferior to the Terminalia tomentos i, but a valuable timber ; it flowers in Apvil a id May, and 

the seeds ripen toioards the close of the r> 



Gmiadve- rfel'. 


YMm^Mua/ Jytyema//. 

T>umfiAtf l TOM/: 


LAGERSTR^EMIA REGIN.&. (Nat. ord. Lythrariea.) 

LaGERSTPwEMIA. (Liun.) Gen. PL p. 783.— GEN'. CHAR. Calyx tube turbinato-companulate, lobes six ovate acute, petals six inserted 
into the jaws of the calyx unguiculate wavy and curled ; stamens indefinite inserted into the bottom of the calyx, filaments filiform much exserted 
equal or eix exterior longer, anthers versatile didymous or oblong recurved, ovary sessile included in the tube of the calyx 3-6 celled, style filiform flexuose, 
«tigma capitellate, ovules very numerous, capsule surrounded below by the persistent calyx oblong thickly coriaceous smooth 3-6 celled loculicidally 
3-6 valved ; seed oblong compressed imbricated expanded into a membranaceous wing, ascending or horizontal, trees or shrubs, branches quadrangular 
opposite or verticelled, leaves quite entire opposite or the upper ones alternate, panicles axillary or terminal. 

LiAGERSTR/EMIA REGIKE. (Roxb.) A good sized tree, leaves oblong glabrous 5-6 inches long by 2\ broad, panicles 
large terminal calyx tomentose, longitudinally furrowed and plaited, flowers very large rose-purple, petals orbicular waved shortly 
unguiculate, stamens all about equal, capsules about \\ inches long 6-celled. Roxb. Fl. lnd. ii. p. 505. 

This very ornamental tree is common in the western forests of the Madras Presidency, most abundant about the foot of the Sisparak 
ghat and of the Wynad and South Canara ghats ; it does not of ten ascend above an elevation of 2, 000 feet. It is alsofoundin Bengal, Bombay, 
Birmah and Ceylon ; it is called Kadali in Tamil, Jarool in Hindoostani, Challd in Canarese, Adambce in Malayalwn, Tainan in Mahratia 
( Concan ),Pyimma in Birmah, and Mooroota in Ceylon. It is largely planted as an ornamental tree on the western coast, and in Madras Gardens 
and elsevihere. The timber is reddish or sometimes nearly white, tough and very durable wider water, though it soon decays under ground ; it is 
much used by the natives for building purposes and in boat making ; inthe Madras Gun Carriage Manufactory it is usedfor light and heavy field 
cheeks, felloes and cart naves, framing and boards of wagons, limbers, and platform carts, and ammunition box boards. In Birmah Dr. Brandis 
says it is more in use than any other timber except Teak, and is prized for fittings of boats, hidls of canoes, house posts, planking beams, scantling 
for roofs, carts, and other purposes. In Ceylon it is used for casks and various other purposes. Its root, bark, leaves, and flowers are used 
medicinally by the natives. 




LAGERSTR^MIA MICROOARPA. (Nat. ord. Lythrarieas.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " L. Eeginse." 

LAGERSTR-iEMIA MICROCARPA. (Wight.) A large tree, bark smooth and white with the old bark often hanging in 
thin flakes, leaves elliptic to ovate, often attenuated or acute at the base, and obtusely pointed at the apex, glabrous above, pale 
beneath, and often very finely downy, 3£ to 4 inches long by 2 inches broad, petioles § to £ an inch long, panicles axillary and 
terminal, glabrous or hoary with minute pubescence, flowers very numerous white, calyx white outside with minute hoary pubescence, 
or subglabrous, six outer stamens longer than the others, capsule scarcely | an inch long. Wight Icones. pi. 109. 

This tree has often been confounded with L. parviftora Roxb., from which it differs in its numerous panicled flowers and minute 
capsule, which is not much larger than a pea ; the minute downy pubescence on the under surface of the leaves, which has been given as a mark of 
distinction in L, parviftora, is however often present in this species. 

A very handsome tree, abundant in all the western forests of the Madras Presidency, but not met with on the eastern side ; it is 
universally known by its Tamil name of Ventek, and is called Bolandur and Billi ndndiin Canarese, and Veveyla in Tamil ; itflov:ers in the lot 
weather, and its seed ripens in the rains. Young saplings have their branches very much winged. : the 'wood is light-colored, straight, fibred, and 
tlastic j it is very much used for building purposes flooring rafters, dc, and also in dockyards ; if left in the forests exposed it very soon rets, and 
is rapidly attacked by white ants. It makes capital coffee cases. 





Dutnfbtu/, Eim'.- 

LAGERSTRjEMIA PARYIFLORA. (Nat, ord. Lyfchraiiea.) 

F»r Gen. Char, see under " L. RegkiEe." 

LiAGERSTR^EMPA PARVIFLORA. (Roxb.) A large tree, bark whitish, leaves oblong oval or ovate acute or obtuse, 
pale beneath and sometimes minutely downy, glabrous above, 1-2 inches long by f to 1 inch broad, peduncles glabrous axillary as 
long or longer than the leaves, ,3-6 flowered towards the apex, flowers white small, calyx subglabrous not furrowed ; petals shortly 
unguiculate, six outer stamens longer than the others, capsule oblong a little more than an inch long, very like an acorn, 3-4 celled. 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 505. 

A handsome tree, very common in the Northern Circars and on the Nullay Mallays (Kurnool District), but also met with (though 
rarely) on the western side of the Presidency, at I have seen trees in the Seegoor forests, found also in Bengal, Bombay, and Birmah, called Chinangi 
in Teligoo, Naneh and Bondareh in Bombay, and Bdkti, Dhaura or Dhau in the Bijnoor forests, Tsambela.y in Birmah.. The wood is whitish or 
light brown, close-grained, straight, fibred and elastic ; it is much used for buildinj purposes, beams and rafters, and for boa,t timber, ploughs, 
axe-handles, <Bc.,- and in Meerut it is in great request for buggy shafts. 



<: <.<c.-V .:.-.' 

^JatfMJ^mmks '^aUmMas 

0/ } 

JI / umfMI/ l ZiM': 

LAGERSTRiEMIA LANQEOLATA, (Nat. ord. Lythrariete.) 

For Gen, Ohar. ewe under " L- Reginae." 

-UAGERSTR^EMIA LANCEOLATA. A small tree, leaves oblongo-lanceolate, or elliptic to ovate with a cordate base, 

smooth on both sides but pale and glaucous beneath, 2\ to 5 inches long by If to 2 broad, peduncles axillary two in each axil 

glabrous, as long or longer than the leaves, few flowered at the apex; flowers small white rather larger than iu L. microcarpa and 

parviflora, six outer stamens much longer than the others, capsule as large as in E. Regiute, \\ inches long, very hard, 4-celled. 

Wall. List. 2120. 

A small ornamental tree, common in Ike Bombay Presidency, and found in Mysore and at Courtallum, and cultivated in the Lai 
Bagh ga^deis at Banjalore. I do not know the timber, but it is probably liki its congeners. In the northern part of the Bombay Presidency, 
it is called Sokutia, in the south Bondara. 




NAUCLEA CORDIFOLIA. (Nat o'rd. RubiacesB.) 

■MaUCLEA. (Linn.)— GEN. CHAR. Flowers capitate sessile upon a globose receptacle, calyx tube oblong, limb eitlier short or truncated or 5 
partita with linear lobes, corol infundibuliform, tube slender with the throat naked, lobes five vallate in estivation patent oval oblong, anthers either included 
or protruded shorter than the lobes of corol, style filiform protruded, stigma oblong or ovate terminal undivided, ovary cells two, placenta fixed near the 
apex of the cells pendulous, capsules 2-celled seBaile upon a receptacle not tapering gradually at the base, seeds several imbricated, winged, or with a gland at 
the hilum, attached to an oblong placenta that is adnate to the dissepiment, embryo inverted in fleshy albumen, unarmed trees, leaves opposite or verticel* 
late, stipules deciduous. 

NaUCLEA COltDIFOLIA. fRosb.) A very large tree, trunk often with buttresses, tolerably straight, bark brownish 
gray and cracked, branches very numerous, horizontal, forming a very large sliady head, leaves opposite petioled, broad cordate pointed 
entire, above pretty smooth, downy underneath particularly when youug, beautifully reticulated with small veins 4-12 inches each 
way, petioles round a little downy 2-3 inches long, stipules oval caducous, peduncles 1-4 together, axillary round downy 1 to 3 inches 
long, jointed about two-thirds of the way up and there bearing two small scariose roundish deciduous bracts, calyx segments clavate 
pubescent, corol pubescent, lobes spreading, anthers slightly protruded, style long, stigma shortly clavate. lloxb. Fl. lad. i. 514. 

An immense Ire.-, tolerably common in most of the forests in the Madras P 'residency ; also in Mysore, Bengal, Bombay, Birmah 
and Ceylon, called Dudagu and taspu kadambe in Telugoo, Ilaldee in Einduslanee, Manja Kadambc in Tamil, Ahnow in South Canara, 
Jluau in Birmah, and Kolong in Ceylon. The xoood is close grained, smooth, fibred, light yellow in color, and is mv.ch used for building purposes, 
planking, <Lc, furniture chests, gun stocks, combs, &e. It will not stand wet. Dr. R .cburgh says it answers exceedingly well for furniture ; it 
flowers in June, and the seed ripens at the end of the rains, 



Gwmcke Ultl; 

NAUOLEA PARVIFOLIA. (Nat. ord. Eubiace^.) 

lor Geu. Char, sea uuder " N. cordifolia-" 

xN AUCLEA PARVIFOLIA. (Roxb.) A large tree, trunk straight, bark brownish gray and crooked, peeling off in irregular 
patches, branches opposite numerous spreading, forming a large oval shady head; leaves opposite petioled ovate or oval or obovate, 
obtuse or with a short blunt point, entire, glabrous, except iu the axils of the nerves beneath, 2-3 inches long by 1 to l^ 
broad, stipules large oval or oblong glutinous caducous, peduncles ternate, the opposite pair often passing into Auriferous shoots 
bearing a pair of small deciduous leaves and jointed near the apex, intermediate or terminal peduncle short usually not jointed, limb 
of the calyx very short arid almost truncated, corol light yellow, tube widening upwards, lobes pointed spreading, anthers pointed 
shortly protruding, style long, stigma narrow oblong calyptriform, capsules containing two cocci splitting at the inner angle. Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. i. 513 ; — Nauclea parviflora, Pers. Syn. i. p. 750 ; — Nauclea Orieutalis, Linn, (partim). 

This useful tree is common in almost every forest tract throughout the Madras Presidency, and is found in Mysore, Bengal, Bombay, 
Birmah and Ceylon ; it is called Bnta Kadambe in Tamil, Nir Kadambe in Teligoo, Congoo and Hedu in Canarese, Keim and Kangei in 
Bindustanee, Kadam in Bombay, and Hteim in Birinah. Its tcoodis light chesnut colored, Jinn, close-grained, and much in use for building, gun 
stocks, and various other purposes ; it requires to be kept dry as it soon rots if exposed to xoet. The leaves are used as fodder. 




NAUCLEA OADAMBA. (Nat. ord. Eubiacese.) 

E r Gen. Char, see under " N. cordifolia." 

NAUCLEA CaDAMBA. (Roxb.) A large tree, trunk erect, perfectly straight, bark smooth dark grey, branches numer- 
ous horizontal, leaves petioled ovate to oval, smooth entire 5 to 10 inches long, 2-3 inches broad, petioles smooth about 1 £ inch 
long, stipules triangular with a long gradual acumination, peduncles solitary terminal, jointed about half way up, and there furnished 
with caducous bracts, flowers fragrant in a large orange colored head, with the white clubbed stigmas projecting, calyx with the division 
spathulate, sometimes two of them shorter than the others, lobes of the corol not recurved, style much elongated, stigma oblong, capsules 
4-sided tapering from the apex to the base, near the top it is composed of four distinct hard cells, the lower two-thirds being only 
2-celled, seeds numerous very small angular brown colored. Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. p. 512 ; — Nauclea Orientalis, Linn, (partirn). 

This handsome t^ee is common in Bengal, Birmah and Ceylon, and if I am not mistaken in the species, also in the Wynad and 
Malabar on river banks. The drawing and description are taken entirely from Bengal specimens, as the Malabar tree may be N. po.rpv.rea 
Roxb., if that it distinct from Cadamhe ; it is called Kadam in Bengal (an universal name for different species of this genus), Hulambe in Ceylon, 
and Maookadoon in Birmah ; the vjood is yellow, and is used for building and various other purposes. Dr. Brandis says it is loose grained, bui 
recommended for furniture. 

Nauclea elliptica Dalz., from N. and S. Canara, is an allied species, dnd there are several other species in Bengal and Birmah, tome of 
which it is hoped may be figured in future numbers of this work. 




OUGEINIA DALBERGIOIDES. (Nat. ord. Leguminosee ; Sub-order Papilionacese ; Tribe Hedysarese.) 

OuGEINIA. (Benth.) Gen. Pl.p. 518.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx sub-bilabiate, the upper division oblong bidentate, the under one three-parted ; 
disk fleshy at the bottom of the tube ; vexillum suborbicular, shortly uuguiculate exappendiculate, wings obliquely oblong, keel slightly incurved obtuse 
about equal to the wings, stamens 10 monadelphous 9 and 1 authers uniform, ovary sessile many ovuled, style incurved subulate, stigma capitate terminal, 
legume elongate plaue, articulations 1-2 or more oblong, slightly reticulate, scarcely dehiscing, seed compressed reuiform. A tree leaves pinnately trifoliate, 
leaflets large, stipulate, stipules free deciduous, flowers white or rose, in short racemes, bracts small squamEeform, bracteoles below the calyx minute 

OUGEINIA DALBERGIOIDES. (Benth.) A good sized tree, trunk tolerably straight, crowned with numerous spreading 
branches and branchlets, bark dark brown deeply cracked, leaves alternate petioled trifoliate, up to 12 inches long, leaflets the exteri- 
or one nearly round with an obtuse point about 7 inches long and 6 broad, the lower pair obliquely ovato-cordate obtuse pointed, 4 ; 
inches long, 3 broad, margins of all scolloped and much waved, firm in texture smooth above, a little villous beneath, racemes axillary 
and terminal, rarely compound ; pedicels slender, colored villous, 1 -flowered, bracts subreniform small villous caducous, bracteoles small, 
one at the base of the calyx persistent, flowers numerous rather small white or pale rose fragrant, calyx villous sub-bilabiate as in the 
genus, corol as in the genus, anthers oblong, affixed ' by the middle of their back, all uniform ; legume linear oblong, obtuse veined 
articulated, slightly villous, seeds 1-3. — Dalbergia oojeinensis, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 221. 

A very valuable timber tree, found in the Godavery forests, Jubbulpore, Nagpore, and in different parts of the Bengal (up to 4,000 
feet) and Bombay Presidencies, but not observed anywhere to the south. It is cultivated in the Calcutta Botanical Gardens, and in 1 4 years 
attained a height of 35 feet. The wood is hard, strong, and very tough, heavy, and close-grained, and not unlike Sissoo, but handsome. It is much 
valued and is used for building, ploughs, wheels, carriage poles, and various other purposes, and it makes very handsome furniture. 

In the North Concan forests a kind of Gum kino is evtractci from the bark, which is used by the natives in bowel complaints. It is 
erfled Telia Motku in the Godavery forests, Tewas at Jubbulpore and Oude, Sandan and Sdnan in Bignou forests , and Tumiusin Bombay. 




MILIUSA VELUTINA. (Nat. ord. Anonacese.) 

MlLIUSA. (Leech.) Gen. PI. p. 147.— GEN. CHA.lt. Flowers diseeious or hermathrodite ; sepals 3, minute; petals 6, exterior 3 minute, 
equalling the sepals, interior 3 much larger slightly coriaceous, sestivation valvate ; stamens indefinite, loosely imbricated and inserted on a cylindrical 
torus surrounding the ovaries ; anthers extrorse oval subdidyrnous 2-celled, connectivum scarcely apiculate ; ovaries numerous linear-oblong, style oblong ; 
ovules 1-2 rarely more, inserted on to the ventral suture. Trees or shrubs — (Hyalostemma, Wall). 

IMlLIUSA VELUTINA. (Dunal.) A tree, branches densely tomentose, leaves ovate or oblong cordate at the base acute 
or obtuse at the apex, velvetty-tomentoae on both sides, 3-6 inches long, If to 4 broad, petiole 2-3 lines long ; peduncles short, pedicels 
3-6 elongate, slender, densely tomentose ebracteate 2-4 inches long, flowers hermathrodite densely tomentose, interior petals broadly 
ovate, \ to \ inch long, densely tomentose outside, within subglabrous and blackish, ovaries downy 2 ovuled, carpels purplish-black 
puberulous about |- an inch long on very short pedicels ; seeds 1-2, — H.f. el T. FL Incl. p. 151 ; — Uvaria velutina. Dunal Anon. 91 ; — 
U. villosa. Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii, p. 664. 

I have only met with this tree in the Godavery forests and on the Circar mountains ; it is also found in Bengal and Bahar, at the foot 
of the Himalayas, and in Birmah ; it yields a strung, yellow wood, luhich is said not to warp ; unseasoned it weighs 62 to 65 lbs. the cubic foot, and 
50 lbs. when seasoned, and its specific gravity is '800. In the Oodavery Districts the natives use it for house building and make caioars of it, 
and in Birmah it is used for poles of carts, harrows, yokes, spear-shajls and oars ; it is called Pedda Chilka dudagu in Teligoo, and Thabookyee 
in Birmese ; it is cultivated in the Botanical Gardens in Calcutta. 



fiwuuiiw de/ . 


POLYALTHIA LONGIFOLIA. (Nat. ord. Anonacese.) 

POLYALTHIA. (Blume.) Gen. Pl..p. 25.— GEN. CHAR. Sepals 3, free or connate below, valvate or slightly imbricate in cessation ; 
petals 6, equal or sub-equal, valvate in 2 series in Eestlvation ovate or linear ; stamens indefinite linear or cuneate, connective dilated and thickened beyond 
the cells ; carpels indefinite, stigma oblong or capitate, ovules 1-2 usually erect, fruit carpels stipitate globose or oblong, 1 seeded ; trees or shrubs, flowers 
solitary or fascicled axillary or extra-axillary. 

POLYALTHIA LONGIFOLIA. (Wall.) A good sized tree, up to 50 feet in height and 6 feet in girth, leaves linear 
lanceolate acuminate waved on the margin glabrous shining 4 to 6 inches long by 1 to 1-J broad on petioles about \ inch long ; pedun- 
cles long and slender, fascicled along the short lateral leafless shoots ; flowers greenish yellow ; petals equal, narrow lanceolate 
acuminate undulated ; fruit oblong or ovoid, 1 seeded, purple when ripe. Guatteria longifolia. W. A. Prod. p. 10 ; — Wall. L. n. 
6,442, Uvaria longifolia. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii, p. 664 ; — Unona longifolia. Dunal. Be. Prod. 1, p. 90. 

This is a very handsome tree of erect growth and yielding a good shade. It is extensively planted at Madras and elsewhere in the 
Presidency as an avenue tree and for ornamental purposes. I have never met with it wild, but it is said by Br. Wight to be indigenous in Tanfore, 
and it is also wild in the northern pari of Ceylon. The timber is seldom used; it is whitish yellow in color, light and very flexible, tolerably close 
and even grained, and weighs 44 to 48 lbs. the cubic foot lohen unseasoned, and 37 lbs. when seasoned; audits specific gravity is- 592 ; it is used 
for making drum cylinders. The tree flowers in February, and the seeds ripen in the rains, and the fruit is eaten by birds ; ii is called Deoddree 
in Hindustani^ and Assothee in Tamil. 



"''■■< aki 

■■//,..:<■;' ■.■ , r/i/tit'a /. 

Y*u > 

SACCOPETALUM TOMENTOSUM. (Nat. ord. Anonaceae.) 

SaCCOPETALUM. (Bennett.) Gen. PI. 1, p. 151.— GEN. CHAR. Sepals 3, small ; petals 6, the 3 exterior about the size of the sepals, 
the 3 interior much larger, cohering together at the margins at length free, saccate at the base ; torus subglobose ; stamens indefinite in many series ; 
anthers laxly imbricate, subsessile 2-eelIed ; ovaries numerous, ovules in 2 series, 6 or more. Deciduous trees with the flowers appearing before the foliage 
or with the young leaves. 

SaCCOPETALUM TOMENTOSUM. (H. f. et T.) A good sized tree, branches rugulose, young ones fulvo-tomentose, 
leaves oval or ovato-oblong acute pubescent on both sides, rotundate or cordate at the base, thinly coriaceous opaque pale beneath 4-6 
inches long 2-|-3 broad, petioles \ inch long ; peduncles 1-2 lines long leaf-opposed 1-2 flowered, pedicels 2-3 inches long slender ; 
sepals linear-oblong 2 lines long ; exterior petals longer than the sepals linear, interior petals oblong obtuse puberulous on the out- 
side tomentose within, |-1 inch long, torus densely villous ; ovaries 4-7 ovuled ; carpels 5-15 subglobose 1 inch long, fulvo-tomentose 
on pedicels about |- inch long, seeds 3-4 nestling in pulp. H. f. et T. Fl. Ind. 1, p. 152 ; — TJvaria tomentosa. Roxb. ii, p. 667 ; — 
W. A. Prod. I, page 8. 

A tall, handsome tree of very straight growth, not uncommon about the foot of the Ghats on the western side of the Madras Presidency, 
and also found in the Concan, Bahar, Orissa and Nepal. Nothing is known of the timber. 



Gtviiutoe. olel 

MIMUSOPS ELENGI. (Nat. ord. Sapotaceje.) 

MlMUSOPS. (Linn.) End. Gen. PI. p. HI. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx 6-8 parted, divisions in two series ; corol hypogynous subrotate, divi- 
sions many in two series, 6-16 in the outer, entire or divided spreading, and 6-10 in the inner entire, erect ; stamenB inserted on to the bottom of the tube 
of the coro), 6 or 8 fertile alternate with as many sterile ones, anthers sagittate extrorse 2 celled dehiscing longitudinally ; ovary 8 celled, ovules solitary 
in the cells attached to the middle or the lower end of the axis, style subulate, stigma acute ; berry by abortion 1-2 seeded, embryo erect, cotyledons large 
radicle cylindrical inferior. 

JMlMUSOPS ELENGI. (Willd.) A good sized tree, trunk erect, bark pretty smooth, branches numerous spreading, 
forming a thick head ; leaves alternate short petioled oblong pointed waved smooth and shining and of a deep green color, 3-4 inches 
long by 1-1 J broad, stipules small lanceolate concave rusty caducous, peduncles axillary 1-8 short clubbed undivided 1 flowered, flowers 
white fragrant, calyx 8 leaved in a double series, divisions lanceolate, the 4 exterior leathery larger and permanent ; corol tube very 
short, the 16 exterior segments spreading, the 8 interior generally contorted and converging, all are lanceolate and often jagged at the 
apex, stamens 8 fertile alternate with as many sterile hairy filaments which are sharp pointed or jagged at the apex, fruit oval smooth 
yellowish and edible. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, p. 236. 

This is a very ornamental tree much planted in gardens by Europeans and Natives. It is indigenous in the jungles of the Western 
Coast, and also in the Circar mountains, Ceylon and Birmah. It grows to about 40 feet high, with a trunk of about 1 2 feet to the first branches, 
und a girth of 5-7 feet. The timber when unseasoned weighs from 72 to 82 lbs. per cubic foot, and 61 lbs. when seasoned ; its specific gravity is 
•976, it is close and even grained, pinkish to reddish brown in color, and takes a good polish. It is used in house building, cart shafts and for 
cabinet purposes. The tree is called Mulsari in Eindustanee, Magadam, in Tamil, Poghada in Teligoo, Mugali in Canarese, Bukul in 
Bengali, Elengi in Malayalim, Moonemdl in Ceylon, and Eya-ya in Birmah. The flowers are very fragrant and dromatic, and the Native, 
distil an odoriferous water from them and use them for garlands, <&c. The seeds yield an abundance of oil, which is used by painters ; the barhs,. 
root and fruit are used medicinally by the natives. 



ttmcMtMLi S/m^c/ 


BASSIA LATIFOLIA. (Nat. ord. Sapotacea.) 

JjASSIA (Linn.) End. Gen. PI. p. 741. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx 4-6 parted divisions in 2 series, corol bypogynous cainpanulate, limb 5-14 parted 
erect, stamens inserted on to tbe inside of the tube twice or thrice as many as the divisions of the corol in 1-3 series, filaments very short, anthers extrorse 
or introrse, erect subsagittate 2-celled dehiscing longitudinally ; ovary 5-8 celled, ovules solitary in the cells erect or pendulous, style simple exserted, 
stigma acute undivided, berry 4-5 celled, seeds solitary in the cells, embryo exalbuminous, cotyledons fleshy. Trees, leaves alternate entire, peduncles 
axillary one flowered. 

BASSIA LATIFOLIA. (Willd.) A good sized tree, trunk straight but short, covered with smooth ash-colored bark, 
branches numerous, the lower ones spreading horizontally, leaves alternate petioled crowded about the extremities of the branches 
oblong rigid smooth above, somewhat whitish below, 4-8 inches long, 2-4 broad, petioles round, about an inch long, stipules subulate 
downy ; flowers numerous crowded from the extremities of the branchlets on peduncles about one inch long, at all times bent down- 
wards, calyx 4 leaved, corol limb 7-14 parted, ovary hairy 6-8 celled with one seed in each cell attached to the upper part of the axis, 
berry the size of a small apple ; seeds 1-4, very rarely more. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 526. 

This tree is found all over the Presidency, and in Bengal, Bombay, and Mysore, but more often in a cultivated state than wdd ; it attains 
a height of 50 feet and a girth of 12 feet, it does not ascend to any great elevation; the timber is hard, strong and durable, not easily vjorked, close, 
even grained and of a reddish browi color. A cvMc foot unseasoned weighs 77 to 80 lbs., and 66 lbs. when seasoned; its specific gravity is 1'056. It 
is used for the naves of wheels, framivg and pannelling of doors, luindotos and furniture, and for country vessels ; it is soon attacked by white 
ants. The tree is called Mohioa in Hinduslanee, Edt lllipi in, Tamil, and Ippi in Teligoo ; it flowers in the hot season, and the flowers are sweet 
tasted and are eaten raw by the natives, and deer and jackals are very fond of them. An ardent spirit, not unlike whisky, is distilled from them in 
many parts of the country. The seeds yield by expression a large quantity oj oil, which concretes immediately it is expressed,, and retains its con- 
sistency at a temperature 0/95°, It is coarse but used by the poorer classes in lamps, for the adulteration of ghee, and for frying cakes, and is used 
for making soap. 


PL . XL!. 

GovtMOM, dtJ 


BASSIA LONGIPOLIA. (Nat. ord. Sapotaceje.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " Bassia latifolia." 

JDASSIA LONGIFOLIA. (Linn.) A good sized tree, trunk pretty straight but short, branches numerous, dividing much 
and spreading, forming a shady head, young shoots downy ; leaves crowded, about the ends of the branchlets lanceolate entire smooth 
4-7 inches long by 1-1 J broad, petioles 1-2 inches long round slightly villous, stipules ensiform downy very early caducous, peduncles 
crowded round the base of the young shoots 2-3 inches long drooping 1 flowered ; calyx divisions 4 acute, corol tube length of the 
calyx gibbous thick and fleshy, limb 8-10 cleft segments sublanceolate, anthers 16-20 in 2 rows, one above the other attached to the 
inside of the tube, filaments scarcely any, ovary 6-8 celled with one ovule in each cell attached to nearly the top of the axis ; style 
twice as long as the corol, stigma minute, contracted 3 berry oblong, size of a plum, villous pulpy when ripe yellowish. Eoxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. p. 523. ffi&$?Q %'V/Zt A )>■ . 

This is a common tree throughout the Madras Presidency, Mysore, Bombay, Bengal and Ceylon, but not found at any great elevation ; it 
is very much cultivated in topes and elsewhere on account of its oil. It attains to 50 feet in height and a maximum girth of about 6 feet, the timber 
is heavy close and straight-grained, very flexible and durable, scarcely inferior to Teak in strength, and of a yellowish brown color. A cubic foot 
unseasoned weighs 70 to 75 lbs. and when seasoned 60 lbs. Its specific gravity is '960; it is valued for heels of ships and for planking below the water 
line and makes good trenails, it is also used in the construction of carts when great strength is required, and for furniture, and in Ceylon for 
bridges. The oil pressed from the ripe fruit is used by the poorer natives as lamp-oil, and for cooking purposes, and cakes are made of it, and it is 
also used medicinally. The gummy juice which abounds in the bark and young fruit is also used medicinaUy as are Ike leaves and lark, and the 
oil is used in making soap in India, and in the manufacture of candles in England. Its price is about 3| Rs. per maund. The tree flowers in the 
hot weather, and the flowers are dried in the sun and roasted and eaten by the poorer classes, they are also eaten by animals and birds. I have 
an allied species from South Canara (banks of rivers), luhich is called Nanil, in character it is intermediate between this species and elliptiea, 




BASSIA ELLIPTICA. (Nat. ord. Sapotacese.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " Baasia latifolia. " 


JjASSIA ELLIPTICA. (Dalzell.) A very large tree, bark rusty, leaves fascicled at the ends of the branches, somewhat 
coriaceous dark green above, paler beneath, entire long petioled oblong obovate tapering at the base, terminated in a sudden and blunt 
acumination, venation indistinct above but marked beneath, peduncles axillary 1-3, 3-4 times longer than the petiole, in fruit erect ; 
calyx 6-parted, in 2 series, 3 outer divisions broader and larger than the 3 inner and more leathery ; corol 5-6 cleft contorted in aestiva- 
tion deciduous, hairy on the inside of the tube. at the insertion of the stamens; stamens 12-18, inserted on the inside of the tube 
shorter than the corol sessile extvorse 2 celled, alternate in 2 rows but the apex of all the anthers reach the same level ; ovary tomen- 
tose 6 celled, cells 1 ovuled, ovules attached to a basal placenta, style nearly three times as long as the ovary, stigma simple, fruit oblong, 
size of a large almond 1 seeded by abortion, seed erect, exalbuminous cotyledons fleshy. Dak. in Hook. Journ. of Bot. iii. p. 36 ; — 
Isonandra acuminata. Cleghorn in Memorandum on the Pauckotee or Indian gutla tree. 

A gigantic tree, 100 feet high and up to 12 feet in girth, common in all the moist sholas of the Western Ghats of the Mairas Presidency, 
up to 3,500 or 4.000 feet, and in similar localities on the Bombay Ghats ; the timber is hard and not unlike Hal in its grain, and lakes a good, polish. 
It is much employed by planters for building purposes,and might be used for furniture. A sort of gutta exudes from the trunk, vjhich is known 
as p&la gum or Indian gutta percha. It is not oj any value compared with the true gutta percha, but might be used as a birdlime or a cement, and 
perhaps for encasing telegraph wires. The tree is known by the native names of Paid and Paucholee. 


Gwui-doo iff! 

■/y&i<Ua/ / mmMca' 


ACROCARPUS FRAXINIFOLIUS. (Nat. ord. Leguminosse ;.Sub-ord. CsesalpinieEe ; Tribe Eucsesalpiniese.) 

ACROCARPUS. (Wight.) Gen. PL 1, p. 568.— Calyx tube campanulate, lobes 5 short lanceolate, petals 5 narrow subequal subcoriaceous, 
subirnbricate, inserted on to the mouth of the calyx and alternate with its shorter lobes ; stamens 5 free alternate with the petals, filaments broad at the 
base subulate elongate, authers oblong linear veisatile, cells dehiscing longitudinally ; ovary stipitate, stipe free, many ovuled, style short inftexed, stigma 
small terminal, legume unknown. An unarmed tree, leaves very large bipinnate, leaflets ovate acuminate herbaceous, racemes axillary solitary or 2-3 at 
the apex of the branches- — Wight's Icones PI. 254. 

ACROCARPUS FRAXINIFOLIUS. (Wight.) An immense deciduous tree, often with very large buttresses, bark light 
grey colored, young parts aureo-pubescent, leaves glabrous bipinnate, pinnae 3 pairs with a terminal pinnae, leaflets equally pinnate 4-6 
opposite pair ovate acuminate herbaceous 3-3-J- inches long by ] | broad, racemes many flowered, flowers dull greenish red, calyx and 
corol minutely aureo-pubescent on the outside. 

One of the largest and loftiest trees in our Presidency, generally of very straight growth, with large buttresses at the base. It is very 
general about the western forests, as I have observed it on the Tinnevelly and Travancore Sills, on the Anamallays, Kilgiris, Wynad, and in Coorg 
and South Canara. It ascends from the plains up to nearly 4,000 feet, lhave measured a tree 27 feet in girth above the buttresses : the flowers appear 
in December or January with the young leaves, or when the tree is quite destitute of foliage, but 1 have never yet been able to procure the legume or 
seed. The timber is flesh colored and shrinki in reasoning ; it is light and much resemV.es that of the Cedrela toona, and has a cede^aceous smell ;it is 
much used by the planters at Coonoor and in the Wynad for building purposes, furniture, &c, and in Coorg it is largely used for shingles. It is 
known to planters by the names of shingle tree, pink cedar, and red cedar, and is called MaV.ay kone in Tinnevelly, and Kilingi by the Burghers 
on the Nilgiris ; it is of rapid growth, and well worthy of cultivation by the Forest Department. 



Giwuidw dc 

ORMOSIA TBAVANCORICA. (Nat. ord. Leguminosee ; Sub-ord, Papilionacese ; Tribe Sophorese.) 

URMOSIA, (Jacks.) Gen. PI. 1, p. 556.— Calyx campanulate 5 cleft, or the 2 upper lobes often united into one, standard broad, keel petals 
not longer free, stamens free, often very unequal, and one sometimes without any anther, [ovary sessile or nearly so, with two or few ovules, style rolled 
inwards at the top with a lateral stigma, pod flattened 2-4 seeded, opening in two thickly coriaceous or woody valves, seeds shining scarlet or scarlet and black, 
rarely brown-red, the radicle very short ; trees, leaves pinnate, the leaflets usually opposite with a terminal odd one, flowers in terminal panicles, or rarely 
in simple racemes in the upper axils. 

ORMOSIA TRAVANCOMC A . (Bedd.) A tree, young parts fulvo-tomentose, leaves glabrous, 8-14 inches long by 
4-7 broad, leaflets about 5-6 pairs with, a terminal one oblong to elliptic with, acute or obtuse point at the apex 2-6 inches long by 
f to 2 inches broad, petioles \ to \ an inch long, panicles in the upper axils shorter than the leaves, fulvo-tomentose as is the calyx and 
bracteoles, many flowered, flowers very shortly peduncled in pairs along their branches, legume very hard woody, 2-2 \ inches long by 
1J broad, 1-2 seeded, seed bright scarlet. 

A middling sized tree. — Travancore and South Tinnevelly Hills (up to 3,500 feet), S. Canara ghats, and probably elsewhere on ths 
Western Ghats of our Presidency. The timber appears to be remarkably good, but at present is almost unknown. 



uiwindM; deL. 

mmetUa/ ufmrfwcefoca/^Sj^jJ 

ADENANTHERA PAVONINA. Linn. (Nat. ord. Leguminosse ; Sub-ord. Mimosae ; Tribe Adenanthereee.) 

ADENANTHERA. (Linn.) Gen. PI 1, p. 589.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers pentamerous shortly pedieelled, calyx campanulate shortly 
toothed, petals cohering below the middle, or at length free, valvate, stamens 10 free scarcely exserted, anthers of the fertile flowers bearing a shortly stalked 
deciduous gland, 07ary sessile mauy ovuled, style filiform, stigma small terminal legume linear often incurved or falcate compressed or swollen at the seeds 
2 valved, valves entire, generally incurved at length contorted, seeds thick and hard, testa scarlet or two colored. Trees unarmed, leaves bipinnate, leaflets 
small in many pairs, racemes elongate slender axillary or panicled at the apex of the branches, flowers white or yellowish, hermathrodite or polygamous. 

ADENANTHERA PAVONINA. (Linn.) A large tree, trunk erect, bark dark colored, scabrous when old, smooth wheu 
young, leaves alternate abruptly bipinnate 1-3 feet long, pinnee opposite 4-6 pair, 4-12 inches long, leaflets alternate short petioled 
4-12 pairs, oval with the margins waved smooth on both sides 1-2 inches long, petioles round smooth, colored, racemes terminal and 
from the upper axils solitary cylindrical about a span long, flowers numerous, small yellowish fragrant, bracts minute caducous. 

This large timber tree is said to be wild in the forests of the Northern drears and elsewhere, but I have myself never met with it wild. It is 
very common in a cultivated state, particularly in gardens at Madras, and is abundant in Birmah. The timber, when fresh cut, much resembles the 
red sanders, and has a pleasant smell ; it is strong,bul not stiff, hard, durable, tolerably close and eoen grained, and takes a good polish. When fresh 
it is of a beautiful red color with streaks of a darker chade, but afterwards turns purple and resembles rosewood. A cubic foot unseasoned weighs 
62 lbs., and when seasoned 56 lbs. ; its specific gravity is -896, it is used for house building and cabinet making purposes ; it is known to Europeans 
as the red wood tree, and is called dni kunddmani in Tamil, Bandi guriienda in Teligoo ; Manjaii in Malay alim, Thorla goonj in the Bombay 
Presidency, Madateya in Ceylon, and y-wai gyi in Birmah. The woodyields a red dye itsed by Brahmins in marking their foreheads. The seeds 
weigh 4 grains each, and are used as weights by jewellers. A cement is made by beating them up with borax and voter, and the pulp is used me* 
clicinally. The tree is easily raised from seed, and is of rapid growth, and has been largely planted in some of our plantations. 






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ACACIA AEABICA. Willd. (Nat. ord. Leguminosse ; Sub-ord. Miraosse ; Tribe Acaeiese.) 

ACACIA. (Willd.) Oen. PL 1 p. 594. — Corol regular, sepals 5-4 or 3 free or united ; petals as many, small valvate in the bud free or 
united ; stamens indefinite usually very numerous, free or slightly connected at the very base, pod linear or oblong flat or nearly cylindrical, opening iu 2 
valves or indehiscent ; leaves twice pinnate or in some species (Australian) reduced to a simple dilated petiole, (phylloid.) Flowers usually yellow or 
white in globular heads or cylindrical spikes often polygamous. 

AOACIA AEABICA. (Willd.) Subarboreous, armed, branches terete glabrous, thorns stipulary sometimes long some- 
times short or almost wanting, leaves bipinnate, pinnae about 5 pairs with a gland between the first and last pairs, leaflets 15-20 pairs 
glabrous; peduncles aggregated axillary or forming a terminal raceme by the abortion of the leaves, heads of flowers globose yellow, 
corol 5 cleft, stamens numerous distinct ; legumes stalked compressed thickuh contracted on both sutures between the seeds. 
Willd. Sp. i, p. 1085 ;— W. A. Prod. p. 277 ;— Mimosa Arabica. Lam. 

This is the well known Babul tree. It is common all over India, and also inhabits Ceylon ; but I have never seen it truly wild in the forests of 
the peninsula. Br. Stewart however mentions that it is truly indigenous in Sind. The wood is close grained, and tough, of a pale brownish red color. 
It is used for building purposes, axles and the naves, spokes and felloes of wheels, plough shares, sugar-cane rollers, kneed timbers for ship building, 
and many other purposes, but should be seasoned in water to exempt it from the attack of insects. It makes excellent charcoal, and is one of our best 
trees for locomotive fuel. When seasoned it iveighs 54 lbs. the cubic foot, and its specific gravity is - S64 ; it is called. Babul and Keekar in Eindustanee, 
Nalld toomd in Teligoo, and Kurroo vaylwn in Tamil. Tlie tree delights in black cotton soil, in which it grows very rapidly if irrigated, but it stands 
drought better than most trees, and will grow, though of course not so rapidly, without water, and in almost any soil. It is easily raised from seed, but rats 
often destroy the roots of the seedlings. The tree is sometimes raised from cuttings ; it will not answer well at any elevation over 3,000 or 3,500 feet. It is 
not often seen of any great size, but trees of 9 and 10 feet girth are sometimes met with. It is being extensively raised in all our fuel plantations in the 
plains. -- A transparent gum is procured from incisions in thebark, which is used as a substitute for the trueCrum\Arabic ; the bark is used medicinally, 
and also as a brown dye, and to a great extent for tanning purposes, and a decoction of it makes a good substitute for soap. Thej xid and leaves are good 
\ fodder for sheep, goats and cattle. 

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ACACIA LEUCOPHL^IA. Willd. (Nat. ord. Leguminosae ; Sub-ord. Mimosas ; Tribe Aeacieae.) 

For QeD. Char, see under Acaeia Arabica. 

ACACIA LEUCOPHLiEA. (Willd.) A good aized tree , armed with stipulary thorns, leaves bipinnate, pinnse 7-12 pairs 
with a gland below the first and between some of the last pairs, leaflets 16-30 pairs oblong linear pubescent or nearly glabrous, panicles 
large terminal, or from the upper axils, branches and peduncles shortly tomentose, heads of flowers globose shortly peduncled, corol 5 
cleft, stamens numerous distinct, legume narrow linear long curved shortly tomentose. Willd. Sp. 4, p. 1083 ; — W. A. Prod. 277 ; — 
Mimosa leucophkea. Roxb. Fl. Lid. ii. p. 558. 

This white barked Acacia is readily distinguished by its pam'cled globular inflorescence, and stipulary thorns; it is a common tree throughout 
the three Presidencies and in Ceylon. The timber is hard and strong, much like Babul, but closer grained and of a deeper color ; it is used for the same 
purposes. A cubic foot unseasoned weighs 62 lbs., and 55 lbs. when seasoned ■ its specific gravity is - 8S0. It makes excellent fuel for locomotive pur '- 
poses. It is called Sufaed Keekar in Hindustanee, Velvaylum in Tamil; 'Telia tumd in Teligoo, Hewar in Bombay, and Katua ndara iiiCeijkm,. 

The bark is largely used in the distillation of arrack from Jagiri ; it also yields a fibre which is tough and strong, and used for fishing nets awl 





(mitulo^, ddj. 

ACACIA CATECHU. (Nat. ord. Leguniinos;s, Sub-ord. Mimosefe.) 

For Gen. Char.^ee under "Acacia Arabica." 

ACACIA CATECHU. (Willd.) Arboreous, branches armed with stipulary thorns or sometimes unarmed, young shoots 
petioles and peduncles more or less pubescent, leaves bipinnated, pinnae 10-30 pair, leaflets 30-50 pair puberulous, petiole sometimes 
armed on the under side with a row of prickles, with one large gland below the lowest pair of pinnae and between the 1-7 extreme pairs, 
spikes axillary 1-4 shorter than the leaves ; flowers numerous, petals united, stamens distinct, numerous, legume flat thin straight linear 
glabrous 4-8 seeded. Willd. Sp. iv. p. 1079 ;—W. A. Prod. p. 2J72. A, polyacantha, Willd. I. c. A. Wallichiana, D. C. Prod. ii. 458. 
Mimosa catechuoides. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 562. Mimosa Catechu, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 563. 

A middling sized tree, -with a dark brown bark, common all over India, Birmah and Ceylon, ascending to an elevation of 3,000 or 
rarely 4,000 feet, it is very closely allied to A. Sandra, but difers in being softly puberulous and in its 'more numerous pinna, and leaflets, 
and it generally has a gland between the 6-7 extreme pair of piivice, whereas in Sandra only the IS ripper pair have a gland between them. 
Acacia Suma of Roxburgh is also closely allied, ij not identical with this species. It is called in Sindoostanee Khaira'; and Wothala.y in 
Tamil. The substance of Catechu (formerly called terra japonica) is obtained from the wood of this tree and of the Acacia Sandra, chips of 
the heartwood are boiled in earthen pots, the clear liquor is strained of; and when of sufficient consistence, it is poured into clay moulds ; the 
extract is used in dyeing and also medicinally as an astringent, and externally as an ointment for itch, syphilis and burns. Very good catechu 
is obtained from Birmah, and a considerable quantiUj is made in South Canara, chiefly from A. Sandra, and large quantities are exported from 
Bengal. One pound of Catechu has been found to be equal to 1 or 8 lbs. oj Oak bark for tanning purposes. The timber is dark colored ; hard 
and heavy; unseasoned it weighs 85 to 90 lbs. the cubic foot, and nearly 80 lbs. when seasoned, and has a specific gravity of T232 ; it is close 
grained and durable, works smoothly and Hands a good polish, and though somewhat brittle is much valued where strength is required, it is used 
for ploughs, pestles, &c, and in house building and the construction of carts; it is not attacked by white ants. The tree flowers in July, and the 

^ seeds ripen in the cold weather. In Ceylon it is called Rat-kihiri, and an infusion of the wood is much esteemed by the natives as a purifier of 
the blood, and drinking cups are made of it- 

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Govifidoo, 3d-. 

ACACIA SANDBA. (Nat. ord, Legumiuosee, Sub-order Mimosese.) 

lor Gen. Char, see uuder " Acaeia Arabica." 

-A-CACIA SANDRA. (Roxb.) A tree 20-30 feet high, bark dark brown, everywhere glabrous, branches armed with coin- 
pressed decurrent recurved stipulary prickles, sometimes entirely unarmed, leaves bipinnate, pinnse 1 5-20 pairs with a gland on the pe- 
tiole below the lowest pair and between the extreme 1-3 pairs, leaflets 20-40 pair small linear obtuse spikes 1-3 together axillary pe- 
duncled shorter than the leaves, cylindrical, many flowered, corol 5 cleft, stamens very numerous distinct, legumes flat thin lanceolate 
few seeded; suture straight or occasionally emarginate between the seeds. W. A. Prod. 273. Mimosa sandra. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 562. 

A middling sized tree common throughout the Madras Presidency, Bombay and Mysore, it is very nearly allied to A. catechu, and yields 
exactly the same extract fr_om its wood, it is called Sandra andNalla Sandra in Teligoo, Karangalli andbdga in Tamil. The wood is tolerably close 
grained and durable; of a dark red color, veined with a darker shade of streaks, it is very heavy, weighing about 96 or 98 lbs. unseasoned, and 80 
lbs. when seasoned; its specific gravity is 1296, it is used for building purposes (beams and posls), ploughs, mortars and pestles, die., and is a good 
wood for piles and sleepers, 

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ACACIA FERRUGINEA (Nat. ord. Leguminos®, Sub -order Mimose».) 

lor Geu. Char, see under "A. Arabica." 

ACACIA FERRUGINEA. (Roxb.) A middling sized tree, 20-30 feet high, bark deeply cracked, dark rusty colored ; 
armed with stipulary conical thorns, occasionally unarmed, branches diffuse, leaves glabrous bipinnate, pimiee 3-6 pair with one gland on 
the petiole and one between each of the 1-2 estreine pairs, leaflets 10-20 pair oblong linear obtuse, spikes axillary, usually in pairs 
cylindrical many flowered, corol 5 cleft, stamens numerous free or slightly united at the very base, legumes flat lanceolate obtuse hard 
2-6 seeded. D. C. prod. ii. p. 468. W. A. Trod. p. 273. Mimosa ferruginea. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 561, 

This tree much resembles Acacia Catechu and Sandra and differs chiefly in the smaller number of pinnae ; it is common in the jungles 
throughout the Madras Presidency ,in Mysoreand Birrnah, it is called Ansandra and Woonee inTeligoo, Vel Veylum in Tamil,andSitnetin Birmah ; 
it flowers in April and May, the barh is very astringent, and is used by the natives in the distillation of arrack from jaggery in the same xoay as 
the baric of A. leucophlcea. The wood is of a reddish brown, streaked with a darker hue, heavy and durable, and does not warp or crack, the grain 
rather coarse and even, vjorks well and gives a smooth surface; it. is used in building and in the construction of carts, ploughs, <&c; it weighs 60 lbs. 
per cubic foot when seasoned and 65-70 lbs. unseasoned, and has a specific gravity of -960. 


PL. LI. 



7>MJtifmy, MM/: 

ACACIA FARNESIANA. (Nat, ord. Leguminosae. Sub-order Mimosese.) 

•Cor Gen. Char, see uudei' "Acacia Arabica.'' 

■ACACIA x ARNESIANA. (Willd.) A small tree much branched glabrous or slightly pubescent on the petioles and pe- 
duncles; leaves bipinnate, pinuse 4-8 pair with a gland between the lower and often between the uppermost pair, leaflets 10-20 pair 
linear about 2 liues long, stipules converted into slender straight thorns very variable in length, the tree otherwise unarmed, peduncles 
usually 2 or 3 together in the older axils, each bearing a single globular head of yellow sweet scented flowers, polygamous bisexual and 
male, calyx 5-toothed, corol tubular gamosepalous 5 (rarely 6) toothed, stamens very numerous distinct, legume thick, irregularly cylin- 
drical or fusiform turgid, indehiscent filled with a pithy substance in the midst of which lie a double row of seed. — Willd. Sp. iv. p. 1083, 
Mimosa Farnesiana. Roxb. F\. Ind. ii. p. 557. Vachellia Farnesiana, W. A. Prod. p. 272. 

Apparently indigenous all over the Madras Presidency, Mysore, Bombay, Bengal, but supposed to be of American origin, and to have 
been naturalized and run wild, it is also found in Africa and aV. Australia, it is called Kusturi and Odd sale in Teligoo, Ytdda, va'la in Tamil, 
Jalli in Canarese and Iri babul in Bombay. The wood is very hard and tough, and is used for ship knees, tent pegs, ploughs, &c. &c. A 
considerable quantity of gum exudes from the trunk, and a delicious perfume is made from the sweet scented yellow flowers; it makes a good 
lenceif properly pruned, and the tree will grow up to an elevation of 5000 feet. 



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ALBIZZIA LEBBEK. (Nat. ord. LeguminosEe, Sub-order Mimosese, Tribe Ingese.) 

ALBIZZIA. (Durazzini.) Gen- PI. 1. p. 596. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers pentamerous hermathrodite or rarely polgamous, calyx catnpanulate 
or tubular toothed or shortly lobate, eorol infundibuliform, petals connate to beyond the middle, valvate stamens indefinite, usually numerous and long, 
united in a tube at the base, anthers small, legume broadly linear or oblong flat, thin indehiscent or opening in 2 valves, continuous within, valve3 not 
elastic or contorted, seed ovate or orbicular compressed, fuuicle filiform. Uuarmed trees or shrubs, leaves bipiunate with a gland on the petiole below the 
pinna; and others between some or all the pinna; and leaflets, flowers in globular heads or rarely cylindrical spikes usually hermathrodite, the stamens 
usually white or pink, rarely yellow, much longer than in Acacia. This genus differs from Acacia chiefly in the stamens being united into a tube instead of 
being free or nearly free at the base, and also in its much longer stamens. 

ALBIZZIA IjEBBEK. (Benth.) A large tree, trunk generally short, bark ash-colored, young branches flexuose glabrous, 
leaves about the ends of the branchlets, bipinnate, about a span long, pinna; 1-4 pair (sometimes the lower pairs are somewhat alternate) 
■with a large gland a little below the base of the petiole, leaflets opposite, 4-9 pair oval obtuse or retuse unequal glabrous, about an inch 
and a half long and three-fourths broad, with often 1-2 small glands near the base of the partial petioles, and small ones between the 
leaflets, but their presence and number is always uucertain, except those near the base; peduncles axillary 1-4 together, each bearing a 
globular head of shortly pedicelled, white fragraut flowers, calyx long tubular, petals 5 united to beyond the calyx, stamens very 
long numerous monadelphous, legume leafy, thin fiat broadly linear from 6 to 12 inches long by 1 to 2 broad, remotely 8-10 seeded 
indehiscent. Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iii. 87. Acacia Lebbek, Willd, D. C. Prod. ii. 466. Acacia epeciosa, Willi, D. C. Prod, 
ii. 467. Mimosa serissa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 544. Albizzia latifolia, Boivin. Encyc. 

This tree is common in every part of India, and in Birmah and Ceylon ; it is better known wider the name of Acacia or Albizzia 
speciosa, and was long supposed to be distract as a species from Lebbek, it grows to about 50 feet high, with a trunk up to 8 and rarely 12 feel in 
girth ; it flowers in the hot weather, and the seeds ripen in the rains. It. is generally nearly destitute of leaves in the cold season, and it has an 
extensive but thin head, it grows in almost all soils and situations. It is called Siris in Einduslanee (and is generally known by this name to 
Europeans), Dirasan and Pedda duchirram in Teligoo, Vdghe and Kai Vaghe in Tamil, and Sit in Birmah. When s asoned the timber weighs 50 
lbs. thecubicfoot and has a specific gravity of "800, it is hard and durable, of a light reddish brown color, with darker veins, and it is not liable 
to uiarp or crack. It is used for agreat variety of purposes, naves of whee's, pestles and mortars, picture frames, furniture, parts of boats^ 
&c, and the heartwood makes good charcoal. A gum very similar to Gum Arabic exudes from the trunk, and the leaves and twigs are gqod_ 
foddei , the seed is officinal, it is easily raised from seed, and is of very rapid growth, and grows well from cuttings, poles stuck in the ground 
rooting readily, its branches are brittle and suffer in localities exposed to the wind. 


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ALBIZZIA ODORATISSIMA. (Nat. ord. LeguminosEe, Sub-order Mimosese, Tribe Ingeae.) 

For Gen Char, see under " Albizzia Lebbek," 

-A.LBIZZIA ODORATISSIMA. (Willd.) A large tree, unarmed, branches glabrous,, leaves bipinnate, pinnas 3-4 pair with a 
gland on the petiole and between the uppermost pair : leaflets 10-14 pair, narrow oval obtuse oblique glabrous pale on the under side : 
panicle terminal and axillary, the ultimate divisions cymose or somewhat umbellate, flowers in small globose heads, corol tubular 4 cleft 
to the middle, stamens monadelphous, legume flat broadly linear, thin, thick- margined, about 10 seeded. Willd, Sp. iv- p. 1063. 
Mimosa odoratissima, Roxb. Fl. Ind, ii. 546. Acacia odoratissima, w . A. Prod, p. 275. A- lomatocarpa, D. C. Prod. ii. 467. Mimosa 
marginata, Lam. 

This is one of our most valuable jungle timbers ; it is abundant throughout the Madras Presidency, in Mysore, Bombay, Bengal, 
Birmah, and Ceylon, its Tamil name is Kar Vdghe ; and in Teligoo it is called Shindagu, and Telsu, and in Ceylon Hoore mara ; it does not 
ascend the mountains much above 3000 feet. The wood is hard, coarse grained, equal to Teak in strength, of a dark reddish brown or brown 
color, and takes a good polish ; it is much used for building and cabinet purposes, naves and felloes of wheels, die., its specific gravity is -736 and 
when seasoned it weighs 46 lb. the cubic foot. The tree flowers in the hot season ; the juice of the bark is used medicinally by the natives. 



ALBIZZIA STIPULATA, (Nat. ord. LeguminosEe, Sub-ord. Mimosese, Tribe Ingese.) 

■tor Gen. Char, see under "Albizzia Lebbek,' 1 

-A.LBIZZIA STIFULATA. (D. C.) A very large tree, unarmed, young shoots irregularly angled, and the petioles tomentose, 
leaves bipinnate, pinnae 6-20 pair with a gland on the petiole and between each of most of the upper pairs ; leaflets 20-30 pair on each, 
pinna, oblongo-linear falcate acute 3-5 lines long, the midrib close to the inner edge, stipules membranous semicordate acuminate, 
sometimes nearly an inch long, very conspicuous on the young branches, but soon deciduous, peduncles usually about \ inch long, clustered 
along the branches of a terminal panicle, bracteas large, heads consisting of J to 20 flowers about 3 lines long, corol tubular pubescent 
5 cleft, stamens about 20, above 1 inch long monadelphous at the base, calyx much shorter than the corol pubescent, legume 3-5 inches 
long, 9-10 lines broad, flat thin linear lanceolate glabrous 6-12 seeded. D. G. Prod. ii. 469. Acacia stipulata. W. At Prod, 274. Mimosa 
stipulata. Eoxb. Hort. Bengh. Mimosa stipulacea. Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. page. 549. 

This very handsome tree is not uncommon throughout the Madras Presidency, Mysore, Bombay, Bengal, Birmah and Ceylon ; it 
ascends the mountains to nearly 6,000 feet, but is also common in the plains, particularly in S. Canara, where its timber is much in use. It is 
called Konda chiragu in Teligoo, and sometimes Chiadagu ; Kal b&ge in S. Canara, Seet and Boomayza in Birmah, and Cubal mara in Ceylon. 
The timber is strong, compact, stiff, coarse grained and fibrous, of a light reddish brown color, and is used for building purposes, naves ofvjheels, 
&c, its specific gravity is "880, and it weighs 55 lbs. the cubic foot when seasoned, and 63 to 65 unseasoned ; it attains a very large size, and must 
be a very rapid grower, as Dr. Roxburgh mentions one that he planted which measured 48£ inches in circumference at 4 feet from the ground, when 
7 years old, and Br. Stewart mentions one that measured 7 feet in girth when 17 years of age in the Saharunpore garden. 



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PROSOPIS SPICIGrERA (Nat. ord. Leguminosee, Sub-ord. Mimosefe, Tribe Adananthereje.) 

PrOSOPIS. (Linn.) Gen, PI. 1, 591.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous bisexual and male, 5-merous, sessile, calyx campanulate shortly 
toothed petals connate below the middle or at length free valvate, stamens 10, free shortly exserted, anthers gland-tipped or rarely without glands, ovary 
seasile or stipitate many ovuled, style filiform, stigma terminal small, legume continuous filled with pulp linear cylindrical falcate or contorted slightly com- 
pressed torulose indehiscent at length falling to pieces ; seed ovate compressed. Tree3 or shrubs armed or unarmed, leaves bipionate or occasionally simply 
pinnate, flowers spiked, rarely in globular heads. 

PROSOPIS SPICIGERA. (Linn.) A tree armed with scattered prickles, or occasionally unarmed, trunk tolerably erect, 
bark deeply cracked, of a dirty ash eolor.branches irregular, very numerous, forming a shady head; leaves 2-4 inches long, alternate gener- 
ally bipinnate, with 1-2 rarely 4 opposite pair of pinna? and a gland between each pair, rarely simply pinnate, leaflets 7-10 pair opposite 
oblong linear obtuse entire glabrous, about | an inch long and £ broad, stipules none, spikes axillary several together elongated filiform 
nearly erect, anthers tipped with a deciduous gland, bracts minute one flowered caducous, flowers small yellow, legume cylindric filled 
with mealy pulp. W. A. Prod.p. 271. Linn. Mant. p. 68. Adenanthera aculeata, Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. p. 371. 

This tree is to'erably common throughout the Madras Presidency ; and in Mysore, Bombay, and bengal, but does not occur in Ceylon or 
in Birmah ; it is frequently found of large size in the denser forests, and rarely attains to a girth of about 9 feet. It is called Perumbe and 
Vunne in Tamil, Shumee in Bengal, Sounder in the Bombay Presidency, and Sumree in Guzerat ; its timber weighs about 100 lbs. unseasoned and 
72 lbs., seasoned, and has a specific gravity of 1152. It is dark red in color, straight and close grained, hard and durable, and superior to Teak in 
strength, and is much used for building purposes and cart wheels, and occasionally foi furniture, and makes excellent fuel. It is of very slow 
growth ; it floviers in the hot weather ; the mealy sweet substance in the pod is eaten by the natives, and a gum exudes from the tree. 




SARACA INDICA. (Nat. ovd. Leguminosse, Sub-ord. Csesalpiniesa, Tribe Amberstese.) 

OARACA. (Liun.) Gen. PL 1. 583.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx furnished at the base with 2 opposite bracteoles, tube lined with a disk elongate, 
segments 4-5 petaloid, ovate subequal imbricate, petals none, stamens 3-9 rising from the crenulated ring-like apex of the disk, free, filaments elongate 
authers oblong, cells dehiscing longitudinally : ovary stipitate, the stalk below cohering to one side of the calyx tube free above, style filiform, stigma ter- 
minal obiuse, ovules 8-12, legume oblong or elongate compressed or a little turgid 2 valved 4-8 seeded, seed exarillate, albumen none. Trees unarmed 
leaves abruptly pinnate, leaflets few paired, stipules intra-foliaceous caducous, racemes pauicled. (Jonesia. Roxb.) 

feARACA INDICA. (Lirm ) A middling sized ramous tree, trunk erect though, not very straight, bark dark brown, pretty 
smooth, branches numerous, spreading in every direction and forming au elegant and shady head, leaves alternate abruptly pinnate, 
sessile 10-15 inches long, when young pendulous and colored, Leaflets opposite 4-6 pair, lanceolate 4-6 inches long by 1-1| broad, smooth 
shining and firm in texture with the margins often a little waved, stipules intra-foliaceous, caducous, panicles short axillary and terminal nearly 
globular, large and crowded with flowers, bracts small cordate, flowers pretty large, when first expanding of a bright orange color, chang- 
ing to red, fragrant at night, calyx funnel shaped, furnished at the base with 2 nearly opposite colored cordate bracts, tube of the calyx slightly 
incurved firm and fleshy, lined with a disk, divisions of the calyx 4 rarely 5, spreading petaloid ovate subequal, imbricate, one third the 
length of the tube, corol none, stamens 7, rarely 8-9 rising from the creuulated ring-like apex of the disk, filaments equal free, 3 or 4 
times longer than the divisions of the calyx, ovary stipitate, the stalk below cohering to one side of the calyx tube, style nearly as long as 
the stamens, stigma single, legume scimitar shaped turgid on the outside, reticulated 6 to 10 inches long and about 2 broad, seed 4-8 
smooth. Linn. Mant. p. 98. Rheed. Mai. v. p. 59. Jonesia Asoca, Roxb. Fl. Ind.'xi. p. 218. Saraca arborescens, Burm. Ind, p. 85. 
4.25./. 2. Saraca pinnata, WilU- Sp. ii.p. 287. 

This exceedingly handsome tree is indigenous up to an elevtiion of 3,000 feit in the forests of .?. Canara, the Concan, Mysore, Gumsur, 
Cuttack, Eastern Bengal and Ceylon, and is cultivated in gardens at Madras and aH over India ; its bright orange flowers and pendulous colored 
young leaves make it very showy when in flower. It is exiled Asok or Asoka in Bengal, Ashunkar in S. Canara, Jassoondie in the Concan, and 
Deya-ratmal in Ceylon ; it flowers daring the hot season, and its seel ripens in the rains. I know nothing i>f its timber, and am. not aware that it 
has ever been tried ; as a shade yielding ornamental tree it scarcely has an equal ; it is mucli better known under Roxburgh's name of Jonesia than 
under the old Linnean name of Saraca, but the latter has priority and is now adopted. 




D / umfJi<f / Timy. 

BERRYA AMMONILLA. (Nat. ord. Tiliacese.) 

•BERRY A. (Roxb.) Gen. PI. 1. p. 232.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx campanulate irregularly 3-5 cleft, petals 5, naked at the base, stamens nu- 
merous free inserted on to the torus, which is not elevated, stamiuodia noue, anthers subglobose, cells at length confluent, ovary 3 lobed, 3 celled cells 4 
ovuled, style subulate, stigma 3 lobed, capsule subglobose 6 winged, 3 celled 3 valved loculicidal, each valve furnished with 2 large oblong membranaceous 
reticulated horizontal villous wiugs, seeds 1-4 in each cell densely covered with short rigid hairs, albumen fleshy, radicle superior, cotyledons foliaceous. A 
tree, leaves alternate entire 5-7 nerved, panicles terminal and axillary, flowers numerous, white. (Espera, Willi. Hexagouotheca, Turcz.) 

BERRYA AMMONILLA. (Roxb.) Trunk tolerably straight, with smooth light brown bark and an extensive dense shady 
head, leaves alternate petioled, cordate sometimes slightly scoloped 5-7 nerved acute smooth on both sides, 4-8 inches long, petioles 
rather shorter than the leaves, slender round smooth aud often colored, stipules ensiform, panicles terminal and axillary large ramose bear- 
ing numerous elegant middle-sized white flowers ; calyx 1 leafed downy outside, splitting irregularly into 3-4-5 segments permanent, 
petals 5 spreading linear oblong double the length of the calyx or more, filaments numerous half the length of the petals, authers incum- 
bent 2 lobed, ovary superior hairy ovate 3 lobed 3 celled, with 6-8 ovules in each, attached in 2 vertical rows to the axis, style short stig- 
ma 3 -cleft capsule 6-winged, &c, as in the genus. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 639. 

This is the tree which yields the toell known Trincomalee wood ; it is indigenous in Ceylon, where it is called Halmililla( hence Roxburgh's 
specific name Ammonilla ), and is not uncommon in the Madras Presidency in a cultivated state, though lhave never met with it wild; its timber is 
strong, tolerably light, flexible and straight grained easily worked, of a pale red coloi fading to light brown, and very superior jor direct cohesive 
strength; it is used for shafts, spokes of wheels and framing of carriages, handles and helves, and answers all the purposes of Ash in England ; its 
specific gravity is '800, unseasoned it weighs 58 to 60 lbs. the cubic foot and 50 lbs. seasoned, it is largely imported into Madras from Ceylon in 
logs from 18 to 25 feet long and 2| to 5 feet in girth. 




PYGEUM CEYLANICUM. (Nat. ord. Rosacea, Tribe PrunesB.) 

PYQEUM. (Gsertn.) Gen. PI. I. p. 610. — GEN CHAR. Flowers sometimes polygamo-dioecious, calyx deciduous, tube broadly campanulata 
or spreading, teeth 5-6 (rarely more or none) small, petals as many, usually resembling the calyx-teeth inserted into the j a ws of the tube of the calyx, 
stamens 12-20 inserted with the petals, filaments filiform, anthers didymous, ovary superior sessile of a single carpel attenuated into a terminal style, stigma 
peltate, ovaries 2, pendulous, fruit dry coriaceous or drupaceous usually as broad as or broader than long with a smooth kernel, containing a single seed, 
cotyledons very thick, radicle superior. Trees, leaves alternate simple entire coriaceous, stipules small very deciduous, racemes axillary or lateral solitary 
or fascicled, flowers small. (Polydontia, Blume Bijd. 1.104. Polystorthia, Bl. Fl. Jav. Prwf. VIII.) 

-t YGEUM OEYLANICUM. (Gaartn.) A gigantic tree, leaves from elliptic, very obtuse at both ends, to sub-orbicular gla- 
brous, when dry of a rusty brown beneath, 4-7 inches long by 2-3 broad, petioles £ inch long, racemes shorter than the leaves, axillary 
solitary, covered with short adpressed haira, flowers small, petals 5 reflexed, externally hairy round the margin, drupe shortly tomentose 
at length subglabrous. — Gcert. Frut. i. 218. t. 46. Polyodontia? Walkerii. Wight III. i. 203. Pygeum acuminatum, Coleb. Linn, 
Tram. XII. 360. t. 18. 

This tree is common on the Anamallays, and I have also met with it on the Shevaroys and on the Pulneys and Tinnevelly ranges- in the 
Anamallay sholas at an elevation of 4,000 feet it grows to an immense size and occasionally has very large buttresses, 1 have seen trees much' over 20 
feel in girth with an enormous spreading head. Nothing is known of its timber in this Presidency, it is reddish colored and apparently adapted for 
cabinet purposes, and the tree has no native name ; it is also found in Ceylon, where it is called Galmora; the seed when bruised has a strong smell 
of prwsic acid. 



Gwttu/ee, dec. 

GLTJTA TRAVANCORICA (Nat. ord. Anaoardiaceas.) 

GrLUTA (Linn.) Qen. PI. 1. 421.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite, calyx spathaoeous, splitting irregularly, caducous, petals 5 rare- 
ly 4-6 attached to the base of the torus spreading imbricate, torus stipitiform, stamens 4-6 equal inserted on to the torus above the petals, filaments free, 
ovary stipitate, depressed globose oblique 1 celled, style lateral or terminal filiform stigma simple, ovule pendulous from the fuuicle which rises from the 
base of the cell, fruit baccate pedicellate, with a rough brownish rind, seed shaped to the cell, cotyledons very large connate fleshy, radicle very Bmall 
obtuse incurved. Trees, with caustic juice, leaves alternate towards the apex of the branches shortle petiolate simple oblong coriaceous, panicles axillary or 
terminal. (Syndesmis, Wall, in Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. p. 314. Stagmaria, Jack, Mai. Misc. Ex- Hook, Comp. Bot. Mag. 1. 267.) 

VALUTA i-KAVANCOKICA (Bedd.) A very large tree, leaves crowded about the apex of the branches alternate entire elliptic 
attenuated at both ends to obovato-elliptic, 4-6 inch long by 1| : — If broad, glabrous ou both sides, petioles very short dilated, pauiclea 
terminal and from the upper axils crowded canescent with very short adpressed pubescence, calyx sub-entire or irregularly and slightly 
5-toothed, splitting irregularly and early caducous, bracts ovate cymbiform, petals 5 imbricate, fruit depressed transversely oblong 
•with a rough brownish rind, about 1 inch long and 1^ to 1| broad. 

Mr. Athol MacQregor, now the Collector oj Malabar, first brought this tree to my notice as a valuable timber tree growing on the South 
Tinnevelty mountains and known as the Shen kurani. It is the first species of the genus found on the continent, though about 6 species inhabit 
the Archipelago, its timber is reddishin color, weighs 40 lbs. the cubic joot when seasoned, has a fine grain, takes agood polish and is well suited 
for furniture. The tree is most abundant in the dense moist forests on the Tinnevelty and Travancore chain of ghats above Paupanassum and 
grows to a very large size, trees having beenobseroed up to \5feet in girth and of immense heigh! ivith a very straight stem. 



iTi-ifitltw de{<. 


Xjjunfdw, JJlU), . 

ALBIZZIA AMARA. (Nat. order Leguminosce ; Sub-order Mimosese.) 

For Gen, Char, see under " A. LeVbek." 

ALBIZZIA AMARA. (Willcl.) A tree, unarmed ; branches terete, young shoots petioles peduncles and under side of the 
leaflets clothed with yellowish tomentum ; leaves bipinnate, pinnae 8-10 pair with a gland on the petiole and between the last pair, 
leaflets 20-30 pair, when old somewhat glabrous, stipules lanceolate, peduncles solitary or aggregated loDg and filiform in the axils 
of the upper leaves and racemose from the abortion of the leaves; flowers small in globular heads, corol 5 cleft, stamens long numerous 
monodelphous ; legumes flat thin broadly linear 3-6 seeded. Acacia amara, Willd. Sp. 4, p. 1074; — W. A. Prod. p. 274., Mimosa 
amara, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 548. 

A tolerably large tree tut of low stature, very abundant throughout the Madras Presidency, Mysore and Bombay, and also inhabits the 
north of Ceylon. It is called Nalla renga or Nallaregoo and Narlingee in Teligu, and Woonja in Tamil; it has a maximum height of about 30 
feet, with a girth seldom exceeding 5 or 6 feet. The ivood is dark-brown, mottled, and very handsome, strong, fibrous, and stiff, close-grained, hard and 
durable, superior to Sal and Teak in transverse strength and direct cohesive power, it is much used by the natives for building purposes, beams, &c, 
and in the construction of carts and ploughs, and makes excellent fuel, being most extensively cut for the Locomotives in the Salem district and along 
the Bangalore line ; the natives use the leaves for washing their hair ; the tree grows most rapidly as coppice. 

61 ^ 


? % 

(mnr&Hr.lfl . 

MICHELIA NILAGIBICA. (Nat. order Maguoliaceee.) 

MlCHELIA. Linn. Qcii.Pl. 1. 19. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers herniathrodite, sepals and petals all similar and colored, 9-raany, in 3-ra.any 
series imbricate, anthers linear adnate introrse bursting longitudinally, gynophore stipitate, ovaries many, spicate one celled 2-8-many ovuled, carpels ar- 
ranged in a loose spike of a consistence between leathery and fleshy opening from the apex downwards, seeds several externally fleshy. Trees, with entire 
leaves like the Magnolia, flowers large axillary fragrant white or yellow. 

MICHELIA .WlLAGIRICA. (Zenker.) A handsome tree of considerable size with the young parts sericeo-villous 
leaves elliptic acute, or oval obtusely acuminate or broadly obovate, glabrous on both sides or pubescent on the costa beneath, very 
variable in size 3-5 in. long, by l|-2 broad, petioles frdin. long, flowers white, sepals and petals 9-12 exterior obovate, interior oblongo- 
lanceolate acute, spathes silky, stamens numerous shorter than the column of fructification, ovaries numerous, ovules 2-4, carpels warty 
arranged along a spike 2-3 inches in length. Zenker PL Ind. t. 20 ; — Wight III. i, 14 ; Icon. t. 938. M. Pulneyeusis, Wight III. 
i. 14, t. 5. M. ovalifolia glauca et Walkeri, Wight I. c. 13. 

This is a very ornamental Magnolia-like tree common on the higher ranges of the Nilgiris, Pidneys, &c, and on the elevated mountains in 
Ceylon, and occasionllay met with at lower elevations in our western forests. It differs considerably in the size and shape of the leaves, and size of its 
perianth-leaves, and Br. Wight made several species of the S. Indin and Ceylon forms, but they all run one into another and cannot be properly dis- 
tinguished, at least more than varieties. It is called Shemboogha in Tamil ; the wood is strong, dose and, fine grained, but very hygrom etrical : it is 
used for building purposes, beams and rafters. 


Cwuidoo, del. 




THESPESIA POPULNEA. (Nat. order Malvaceee.) 

TflESPESIA. Corr. Gen. PI. 1. 208.— G-EN. CHAR. Bractlets 3-8 small or deciduous, calyx minutely 5 dentate, rarely 5 cleft, column 
toothed at the apex ; ovary 5-celled, each cell with a few ovules, styles club-shaped with 5 grooves, capsule woody coriaceous opening loculicidally or al- 
most indehiscent, seeds obovoid glabrous or tomentose, cotyledons much folded enclosing the radicle often marked with small Mack dots. Trees or shrubs, 
leaves entire or lobed, flowers yellow ; this genus is distinguished from Hibiscus by its confluent stigmas, more woody capsule and obovoid compressed seeds. 

IHESPESIA POPULNEA. (Cav.) A tree, young branches as well as the petioles, pedicels and calyx covered with small 
peltate scales, leaves long petioled cordate ovate acuminate, 7 nerved, smooth leathery entire or sinuous, stipules falcate, flowers solitary, 
axillary stalked, peduncles shorter than the petiole, epicalyx of 5 oblongo-lanceolate deciduous segments as long as or longer than the 
cup-shaped entire or slightly 5 lobed calyx, corol nearly 2 inches in length 4 times exceeding the calyx, fruit roundish depressed slightly 
beaked 5 celled indehiscent or opening to a slight extent at the top, seeds 2 in each cell of the fruit large compressed laterally near 
the hilum, roundish above, testa pubescent nervoso-striate. Be, 1, 456. Hibiscus populneus, Linn. Sp. 976. 

A handsome tree when in flower and of very rapid growth ; it rarely exceeds 1 5 or 20 feet in height, or a circumference of 6 feet ; it is 
abundant throughout India and in Ceylon as an avenue or cultivated tree, particular near the coast, but I have never seen it in forests ; it is very 
generally known by its Hindustani name of Pdras pipal, and is ailed Pursa and Poorsung in Tamil, and the Portia tree by Europeans, and in 
Ceylon its native name is Sooreya. The tree grows very readily from cuttings ; any large boughs stuck into the ground rooting readily, but these trees 
have always the heart wood tery unsound, and are only fit for fuel, and besides have a gnarled and ugly appearance ; handsome trees are grown from 
seedlings, and their timber is highly prized, it is strong, straight, even grained and durable, of a pale reddish color fading to reddish brown, and is 
easily worked. A cubic foot unseasoned weighs 59 to 62 lbs., and seasoned 49 lbs., and the specific gravity is "784; it is much used for gun stocks and 
also for furniture, boat timbers, naves, felloes, pannels of carriages and cart framing, &c. ; the capsules yield a yellow dye which is used as a wash 
for cutaneous diseases, as is also the bark boiled in water, and the latter is given internally as am, alterative. 



owituHw del. 


MESTJA COROMANDELINA. (Nat. order Guttiferse ; Tribe CalophylleiB.) 

MeSUA. Linn. Gen. PL 1. 176.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite, sepals i, petals 4, stamens numerous free or connate at the very base, 
filaments filiform, anthers erect oblong 2 celled dehiscing longitudinally, ovary 2 celled, style elongate, stigma peltate, ovules 2 in each cell erect, fruit from 
fleshy to nearly woody one celled from the obliteration of the dissipiment, 2 valved 1-4 seeded, seed exarillate, cotyledons thick fleshy, radicle very small. 
Trees, leaves simple oblong lanceolate very shining above, glaucous beneath, flowers large white axillary or terminal solitary. 

MeSUA COEOMANDELINA. (Wight.) Leaves narrow lanceolate ending in a long tapering blunt point, shining 
above pale or more or less glaucous beneath, 2|-3| inches long by 1-1£ broad, petioles | of an inch long, flowers axillary and terminal 
about 1|- inch across when fully expanded, peduncles shorter than the petioles. Wight I cones PL 117. Mesua ferrea, W. A. Prod. p. 
102 (Excl. syn.) Mesua pulchella, Planch, et Triaw, a Ceylou tree, is very closely allied. 

This is a very handsome tree common in most of the mountain, forests on the western side of our Presidency, growing with its congenerM. 
speciosa, from which it is readily known by Us much smaller leaves and flowers ; it is generally known by the name of JVaghd, or Ndghd Champa, 
and is called Nangal and H allay Ndngal in Tamil,' and on the Tinnevelly ghats, where it is very abundant and its timber much in use ; it is called 
Nir Nang to distinguish it from Mesua speciosa which is called Nang. All the Mesuas have a very hard heavy reddish colored timber known as Pton 
wood and perhaps the hardest and heaviest timber in India, axemen dislike very much to fell them, as they turn the edge of their axes, the vjood is 
most valuable for engineering purposes and is largely used in Ceylon, and this species is much in use with the natives in Tinnevelly, and is looked 
upon as one of their best timbers, but in the Wynad and other parts, where it is also abundant, it is not utilised and seems hardly to be known. 



i 'i * sS 


DIOSPYROS EBENUM. (Nat. order Ebenaeese.) 

iJlOSPYEOS. Dalech, Dc. Prod, viii, p. 222.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers dieecious, calyx 4-6 lobed or very rarely splitting irregularly, 
corol tubular campanulate or hypoerateriform aestivation convolute 4.6 lobed, stamens in the male flowers 8-50 generally about 16 inserted at the base of 
the corol or on the disk or partly on both, filaments of equal length or very unequal and each bearing 1-7 anthers, anthers linear lanceolate, ovary abortive, 
stamens in the female flowers 0-4-S or more sterile, ovary 4-8 or rarely 12 celled usually covered at the base with the somewhat enlarged calyx. Trees or 
large shrubs armed or unarmed, leaves alternate rarely subopposite, flowers axillary, the female solitary, the male usually in little clusters. 

-UIOSPYEOS EBENUM. (Eetz.) A large tree, leaves glabrous shining membranaceous or slightly coriaceous, oblong 
obtuse or shortly and bluntly acuminated, 2-7 inches long by |- to 2| broad, petioles 2-4 lines long, male peduncles short pilose bracte- 
ated about 3 flowered, calyx funnel-shaped slightly pilose, 4 cleft at the apes, corol long hypoerateriform shortly 4 cleft at the apex, 
stamens 8-10 inserted on to the base of the corol, generally 2 cleft, each division bearing an anther, one of which is much longer than the 
other, sometimes 3-4 cleft with as many anthers, no rudiment of an ovary, female flowers solitary, calyx 2 bracteated much larger than 
in the male, deeply 4 cleft with a callous elevated, 4 lobed marginal ring round its mouth, stamens 8 with double anthers (sterile) in- 
serted on to the base of the corol, stigmas 4, ovary 8 celled, albumen not ruminate, Dc. Prod, viii, p. 234 ; — Wight's Icones, I. 188. 

This valuable tree is not uncommon in our mountain forests on both sides of the Presidency and in Ceylon ; it yields the best kind of 
Ebony, generally jet -blade but sometimes slightly streaked v;ith yellow or brown, it is very heavy, close and even grained, and, stands a high polish, 
unseasoned it weighs 90 to 100 lbs. the cubic foot and 81 lbs. when seasoned, and has a specific gravity of 1'296 ; it is used for inlaying and, ornamental 
turnery and sometimes for furniture, but there is not much demand for it in this Presidency. The sap wood is white, hard, close-grained and strong 
but not durable, but is used by the natives for various purposes ; it is called Jfalluti in the Cuddapah and Eurnool hill forests, where the tree is very 
common and well Tcnotun. The tree figured by me in my Annual Report for 1866-67 as Diospyros assimilis is very nearly allied if distinct as a 
species, it differs hoivever in each of the stamens in the male bearing 4-6 anthers instead of generally only 2 and the stamens in the female flower being 
single instead of double, its leaves turn very blade in drying ; it is called Kard mdrd in the Smdh Canara forests, inhere it is very common both in 
the heavy forests in the plains and on the ghats. 

The plate represents a fruiting branch of the female tree, a floivcring twig of the male, and dissections of the flowers of both sexes. ■> 






DIOSPYBOS EXSOULPTA. (Nat. order Ebenace;©.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " Diospyros Ebenum." 

DlOSPYROS EXSCULPTA. (Ham.) A good sized tree, all the young parts covered with rusty down, leaves alternate 
and opposite, oval to elliptic attenuated at both ends softly downy, 3-5 inches long by 1 £-2 broad, petioles \ to £ inch long, male pe- 
duncles a little shorter than or the length of the petioles, 3 flowered, calyx campanulate, 4-6 lobed at the apex, lobes acute erect, corol 
gibbous 4-6 parted, divisions of the corol very downy rounded at the apex, stamensl()-15 seated on the hairy receptacle, no rudiment of an 
ovary, female flowers solitary short pedicelled, calyx deeply 4-6 parted with the lobes reflexed at the margin outwards, corol 4-6 parted, 
divisions rounded at the apex, stamens none, ovary round hairy 4-5 celled, styles 2 each 2 cleft, fruit size of a pigeon's egg edible. 
Do. Prod, viii, p. 223. Diospyros tomentosa, Boxb. F. hid. ii, p. 532. 

This valuable tree is not uncommon in the Cuddapah, Salem and Kurnool forests, and probably elsewhere in our Presidency, and is found 
in Bengal and Bombay, it grows to a considerable size and yields a valuable jet-black ebony very similar to that of ebenum, in fad I doubt 
if the 2 woods could be easily distinguished ; it is called Tunki in the Cuddapah district and Tuniboornee in the Bombay Presidency. The tree 
theds all its leaves in the cold season, and they appear again with the flowers in the beginning of the hot weather. 

The plate gives a branch of the male tree in flower and a branch of the female in fruit, and dissections of both male and female flowers. 




DIOSPYROS WIGHTIANA. (Nat. order Ebenaoe^.) 

For Geu. Char, see under " D. Ebenum." 

DlOSPYROS WlGHTIANA. (Wall.) Arboreous, young parts and inflorescence densely velvetty with golden or rust 
colored down, leaves alternate and opposite oblong or oval acute or obtuse or sometimes cordate at the base densely velvetty beneath, 
less so or glabrescent above 3-7 inches long by l\ to 3 broad, petioles^ to 1 inch long velvetty, male flowers on small cymose peduncles 
which are the length of or longer than the petioles and densely velvetty bearing 6-9 flowers on 2-3 pedicels, calyx tubular slightly 4-5, 
cleft at the apes, teeth sharp erect, corol tubular 4-5 lobed at the very apes, lobes acute, stamens about 13 seated on the disk, no rudi- 
ment of an ovary, female flowers solitary on thick peduncles which are bracteated at the apex and much shorter than the petioles, calyx 
deeply 4-5 lobed with the lobes acute and reflexed at the margin outwards, corol about twice as long as the calyx, tubular 4-5 lobed 
at the apex glabrous within and outside at the base, lobes acute, stamens 8-10 sterile seated on the disk, ovary 4 celled, styles 2 each 2 
cleft, fruit large edible. DG. Vol. viii, p. 223. 

This tree is common in most of our dry forests, and until 1 examined it critically I always considered it the D. melanoxylon, which 
species I have not met with if distinct from this, hut this has always a 4 celled ovary, and quite answers to the description of D. Wighliana as 
given in Be Candolle's Prodromu-s ; its heart wood yields a jet black ebony Vice the two former, but the trees are alioays small and stunted 
in the trunk, as far as I have observed, and all ebony in log I believe comes from the two former species. It is called Tendu in Hindustani, and 
TunH Tumi and Tumbi in Tamil and Telugu ; it sheds its leaves in the cold season, and they appear again with the flowers yearly in the hot 

The plate gives a flowering branch of the female tree, and a flowering twig of the male, and dissections of both male and female flower ■«. 



Gmncuxi, del 

DIOSPYEOS CALYCINA. (Nat, order Ebenaeese.) 

DlOSPYROS CALYCINA. (Bedd.) A good sized tree, every where glabrous, leaves dark shining green narrow lan- 
ceolate attenuated at the base, tapering at the apex into a very blunt point about 3-3J inches long by a little less than 1 inch 
broad, petioles about J inch long, male cymes about half the length of the leaves 3-9 flowered, calyx small 4 toothed, corol urceolate 
very gibbous at the base 4 lobed at the apex, bright yellow in color, stamens 6 or 8 each with 2 anthers of equal length placed on 
the disk surrounding the large rudimentary ovary, apex of the anthers inflexed and meeting over the sterile ovary which latter is 5 
lobed and terminates in a long acumination, filaments slightly hairy ; female flowers solitary on long peduncles nearly half the length 
of the leaves, calyx of 4 rarely only 3, large cordate imbricate nerved segments which enlarge with the fruit, corol urceolate gibbous 
tube nearly globose, 4 rarely only 3 cleft at the apex, divisions reflexed, staminodia none.^ovary 4-celled, stigmas 4 or 3 sessile, fruit 
globose, covered with hairlike scales. Bedd. Annual Report of the Conservator of Forests, Madras Presidency, for 1867-68, t. 1 and 2. 

This very curious species of Diospyros has only been observed in the Tinnevelly district and southern portions of Madura, where, how- 
ever, it is very abundant in the ghat forests from, the foot up to 3000 feet elevation; it is called Vellay Toveray, and yields a valuable light colored 
wood, which is much invse in the Tinnevelly district. 

The plate gives a flowering branch of both male and female trees, and dissections of She flowers of both sexes and young fruit. 




VtkttMti^ /Mvif.CMUZ y $fy& 

DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS. (Nat. order Ebenace^e.) 

For Gen. Char, see under "D. Ebenum." 

DlOSPYKOS EMBRYOPTERIS. (Pers.) A middling sized tree, trunk erect straight, bark blackish rust colored, bran- 
ches spreading smooth, leaf buds silky, leaves alternate lanceolate or elliptic coriaceous, quite glabrous and shining, about 6 inches long 
by 2 broad, petioles about \ an inch, male peduncles axillary, the length of the petioles 3-5 flowered pedicels reflexed minutely pubescent 
furnished with 1 small deciduous bract, calyx spreading shortly 4 lobed hairy outside, corol campanulate nearly 3 times as long 
as the calyx, 4 cleft about half way down lobes ovate ciliate, filaments about 20 double bearing 40 erect linear anthers ; female flowers 
axillary solitary much larger than the male, peduncles and calyx pubescent, filaments 1-4 sterile situated on the corol near the 
base, ovary globular 8-12 celled with one pendulous ovule in each cell, styles 4-6 1 spreading, stigmas branched 2-3 cleft, berry globular 
size of a small apple, yellow and covered with rust colored farina, seeds usually 5-8 immersed in pulp. DC- Vol. viii, 235. Diosp. 
glutinosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 533. 

This is a common tree on the western coast, particularly near backwaters, and is also found in many of our forests in Bengal, Mysore, 
Bombay and Ceylon; it is called Gaub in Hindustani, Tumilin Teloogoo, and Timberee in Ceylon; the timber is only of average quality, 
and is used for building purposes, and the very viscid juice of the young fruit is used for paving\ihe seams of fishing boats, and fishing 
nets, and lines are steeped in it for durability, and the unripe fruit contains a very large portion of tannin. Masts and yards of country 
vessels are made from this tree in Ceylon. 



Oovutdto-rfd '. 

^J^m-ifM ' jomA^^Mce) ', 


BIGNONIA XYLOCARPA. (Nat. order Bignoniacea3.) 

BlGNONIA. Linn. DO. is., 143. — GEN. CHAE. Calyx 5-toothcd at the margin rarely entire or 3-parted or 2-3 lobed, corol 2 lipped or 
nearly equal 5 cleft, stamens 4 fertile didynamous a 5th sterile ; anthers with glabrous cells very often distinct, stigma bilamellate ; capsule with the valves 
scarcely convex or flat, partition flat parallel to the valves ; seeds in a single row at each side of the partition, winged on both sides, wing pellucid. Trees or 
shrubs, leaves almost always opposite but very various. 

BlQNONIA XYLOCARPA. (Roxb.) A large tree, trunk straight, bark ash-colored rather spongy and considerably 
cracked, branches sparse, leaves opposite bi-tripinnate 1-4 feet long, leaflets short petioled from semi-cordate to obliquely-oblong entire 
acuminate glabrous but hard 2-5 inches long by 1-1 J broad, petioles common and partial channelled and sharply angular scabrous with 
elevated gray specks, panicles terminal corymbose branches several times dichotomous with a single flower in the forks slightly pube- 
scent, bractes ovate-oblong, flowers large white with a tinge of yellow very fragrant, calyx campanulate unequally 5-toothed colored 
corol campanulate shortly tubular with 5 rounded much curled lobes, stamens as in the genus with a fifth sterile one, ovary oblong 
with an annular disk round its base 2-celled with numerous ovules attached to 2 thick equi-distant receptacles on each side of the 
partition, style the length of the stamens, stigma of 2 oblong lobes, capsule linear variously bent about 2 feet long by 1-1^ inches in 
diameter, of a very hard woody texture and extremely rough with numerous hard tubercles, 1 celled 2 valved partition contrary sub- 
cylindric spongy, seeds numerous winged, cotyledons thin nearly round emarginate, radicle short. Eoxb. Fl, Lid. iii. 108. 

A common tree in almost all the Madras forests and in Mysore, Bengal and Bombay ; the leaves are deciduous in the cold weather 
and appear again with or a little after the flovjers in March or April; it is a handsome tree and a rapid grovjer, and worthy of culti- 
vation for ornamental purposes; it is called Vadencarni i?i Tamil; wood brownish yellow, rather close-grained, takes a good polish, and is 
used for cabinet purposes. 

The plate represents only a portion of a flowering panicle and a very young fruit. 



'wtndixr, del. 

SPATHODEA FALCATA. (Nat. order Bignoniacefe.) 

S'PATHODEA. Beauv. DO. Prod, ix, 203.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx spathaceous closed when young at length longitudinally split, then tootLec! 
or entire, corol somewhat infundibuliform, limb 5 cleft slightly unequal, stamens 4 didynamous with a fifth sterile, anthers with the cells separate, stigma 
bilamellate, capsule 2-celled loculicidally dehiscing, partition contrary corky or coriaceous, seeds corky membranaceously winged, attached to the partition 
not immersed ie gits. Trees, leaves opposite rarely alternate, simple, conjugate digitate or unequally pinnate. 

SPATHODEA FALCATA. (Wall.) A small tree, truuk very irregular in size and shape, bark light ash-colored, young 
shoots covered with whitish-down, leaves opposite and alternate unequally pinnate, 3-6 inches long by l|-2 broad, leaflets opposite 
2-3 pairs with a terminal odd one nearly orbicular often very refuse at the apes entire slightly downy short petioled from 1 to 3 inches 
both, ways, racemes about as long as the leaves few flowered, flowers white pretty large, calyx a spathe about grds open on the convex 
side, corol tube longer than the calys, cylindric border about \ inch across, 5 parted divisions flat equal oblong, stamens as in the genus 
with a fifth, sterile one sometimes present, stigma 2-lobed and capsule linear about 8-12 inches long pendulous twisted in various forms, 
Wall. List iVo. 6517. Bignonia spathacea, Boxb. FL Ind. iii, p. 103. 

A small or middling sized tree common in most of the forests in the Madras Presidency, in Mysore and Bombay, but not found 
s?i Ceylon or Birma; it is called Wodi in Teligoo. The tm&er is light colored, strong and serviceable, and much used by the natives jor 
agricultural purposes, building, &c. 



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STEREOSPERMUM GHELONOIDES. (Nat. order Bignoniacess.) 

oTEREOSPERMUM. Cham. DC. Prod, is, 210, — GEN. CHAR. Calyx coriaceous cup-shaped cylindrie subtruncafce obtusely 5 toothed, 
aos-ol tube straight eompanulate limb bilabiate, 5 lobed, stamens 4 fertile, and a fifth small sterile, anthers 2 lobed naked, disk fleshy 5 lobed, ovary cylindrie 
Btignia bilamellate, capsule tetragonous or cylindrie elongated membranaceous, partition contrary to the valves very cellular and corky thick, seeds bony 
thinly winged laterally immersed, except the wings, in notches in the partition. 

STEREOSPERMUM CHELONOIDES. (Willd.) A. large tree, trunk very straight and of great height and thickness, 
bark thick scabrous brown, branches very numerous, the inferior horizontal, above gradually becoming more and more erect, leaves oppo- 
site unequally pinnate about 1 foot long, leaflets opposite with an odd one short petioled generally 4 pair, the inferior smallest obliquely 
oval ovate or oblong entire pointed sometimes slightly notched about the margin, glabrescent, about i inches long by 2 broad, 
panicles terminal the larger ramifications decussate, the smaller or terminal 2 forked with" a sessile flower in the fork, peduncles and 
pedieels round covered with oblong gray seabroue specks, bracts small caducous, flowers pretty large yellowish very fragrant, calyx 
4 ( — o ?) toothed at the apes, with the two upper teeth bidentate, disk a yellow fleshy ring round the base of the ovary, filaments as 
in the geuus with a fifth sterile Gne, aethers double, stigma 2 eleft, capsule nearly 2 feet long slender twisted sharply tetragonous, 
receptacle of the seeds spongy white with alternate notches along the sides in which the seeds lodge. Rozb. Fl. Ind- iii. 106 ; — 
Wight leones, t. U41. 

This handsome tree is very common in almost all the forests of the Madras Presidency, up to an elevation of about 3000 feet, and 
\in Mysore, Bombay, Bengal, Birmah and Ceylon, it is generally Imown by the,2amil name of Pdclri and is called Edld gorv, and Mohd 
I F&pa in Telugu, P&del in Bombay, Loo&oo madala in Ceylon,, and in Birma Thakoojrpo, The wood is of a beautiful orange yellow color, 
f ehee and even grained, elastic and durable, easily worked, and gives a smooth glossy surface; a cubic foot weighs 57 to 60 lbs. unseasoned 
\ and 48 lbs, when, seasoned, and its specific gravity is *768 ; the sapwood is rather coarse-grained, of a brownish white color, and not durable. 
The wood is much used in housebuilding and for a variety of purposes by the natives ; the rats, leaves, and flowers arc u/ed medicinally. 




POLYALTHIA COFFEOIDES. (Nat. order Anonaeeee.) 

For Gen. Char, see under " P. cerasoides." 

POLYALTHIA COFFEOIDES. (Thw.) A good sized tree, young parts minutely puberulous, leaves lanceolate- or 
oblonco-lauceolate glabrous on both sides shining above, (veins very prominent beneath) acute or rounded at the base, gradually- 
attenuated into an obtuse point at the apex, margins slightly undulate, 4-10 inches long 1J-3 broad, petiole | inch long, pedicels 
several together from woody tubercles about the trunk and larger branches or solitary or twin in the axils of the fallen leaves on the 
young branches, 1-1 J inches long, minutely adpresso-puberulous, articulated at the base, and furnished with 2-3 deciduous squamae- 
form bracts, sepals nearly round, petals coriaceous, glabrous or slightly hairy, lanceolate, acute or obtuse at the apex, about an inch 
long, inner ones rather larger, carpels puberulous about 1 inch long ovoid attenuated at both ends on pedicels about 1 inch long, 
seed oblong, 7 lines long 5 lines broad, flowers cream-colored. Guatteria coffeoides. Hook, and Thorn. Fl. Ind. p. 141. 

A common tree in all the moist forests on the western side of the Madras Presidency, from 1,000 to about 3,500 feet elevation, and, in 
Ceylon. It is very abundant in the Wynad, where the Kuramhars make ropes from the lark, which when fresh has a strong smell of ammonia. The 
tree is found in floioer at all seasons but most plentifully so in March and April. I know nothing of its timber, the young leaves come out a most 
brilliant red, color, and the tree is highly ornamental. 



POLYALTHIA FRAGRANS. (Nat. order Anonacea>.) 

For Gen. Char, see under "P. cerasoides." 

J?OLYALTHIA FRAGRANS. (Dalz.) A large tree, leaves ovate, oblong or oblongo-lanceolate, rounded at the base 
generally oblique ; very prominently veined, especially beneath, glabrous above, slightly pubescent on the costa and veins beneath, 
4-9 inches long 2-5 inches broad, petioles about \ inch long, peduncles about an inch long, from the axils of the fallen leaves, pedicels 
filiform, 1 inch long, and (as are the calyx and petals) hoary-puberulous, furnished with a half cup-shaped bract about the middle, 
sepals small rotuudate; petals 1-1§ inches long narrow linear attenuated at the apex, sub-equal ; torus dilated depresso-globose, car- 
pels 10-20 oblique ovoid 1-lj inch long, hoary puberulous, long pedicelled. Dak. in Hook Kew. Misc. iii. 206 ; — Hook and Thorn. 
Fl. Ind. p. 142. 

A large tree common in the moist forests of the Anamallays, 2-3,000 feet, in Malabar, on the South Canara ghats and Bombay Presidency „ 
and probably throughout the western ghats of Madras. I am unacquainted with its timber. 


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MITREPHORA GRANDIFLORA. (Nat. order Anonace^e.) 

MlTEEPHORA. (Blume.) Benth. and HooTc. Gen. PI. p. 26.— GEN. CHAR. Sepals 3 small, petals 6, valvate in 2 series, exterior large open 
furnished with veins, sometimes persistent (after the interior have fallen) and increasing in size, interior unguioulate eonnivent into a mitreform cap over the 
genitalia, stamens numerous densely packed oblong cuueate, ovaries numerous oblong, style oblong or truncate, ovules 4-many in one or 2 series on the 
ventral suture. Trees often of large size, leaves coriaceous. 

JVllTREPHORA GRANDIFLORA. (Bedd,) A large tree, young parts minutely aureo-pubescent, leaves ovate lanceolate, 
or elliptic with a short blunt acumination, thinly coriaceous glabrous and shining above, glabrescent beneath, with hairy glands in the 
axils of the veins, 4 5 inches long by 1 J-2| broad, petioles about § au inch long, peduncles leaf-opposed furnished with a bract below 
each flower, 2-3 flowered shorter than the petioles, flowers subsessile, bud globose densely aureo-pubescent, exterior petals 1 to 1 J inches 
long, by £- to f- of an inch broad densely adpressedly velutinous on the outside, sub-glabrous within, pure white turning to yellow 
interior petals | to f of an inch long triangular at the apex, with a long broad claw, very hairy at the apex, glabrous below, white 
beautifully streaked with carmine, forming a mitreform cap over the geuitalia, early deciduous, stamens and ovaries indefinite as in the 
genus, ovules 4-6 in 2 series, young carpels densely velvetty, mature about the size of a hazel-nut globose aud 1 seeded, or oblong and 
2 seeded fuscous with dense short tomentum, aud furnished with a raised furrow down the whole length. 

South Canara ghat forests, elevxtion about 2,000 feet. A large very handsome tree ; when in full flower it is very beautiful, its large flowers 
giving it at the distance more the appearance of a Magnoliaceous than an Anonaceous tree, the three inner petals or mitreform cap are early deciduous, 
but the three outer ones subsequently increase in size and turn from pure white to yellow ; the timber is very tough. The specimen figured was gathered on 
the Coloor ghat- 



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ALPHONSEA MADRASAPATANA. (Nat. order Anonacea?.) 

ALPHONSEA. (Hook. f. et. T.) Gen. PI. p. 29.— GEN. CHAR, Sepals 3 small, petals 6, valvate in 2 series, subequal ovate open or spreading 
stamens 6 many, laxly imbricated, connective apiculate and slightly produced beyond the conspicuous dorsal anther cells ; torus hemispherical, ovaries 4, 
many (rarely solitary) style oblong or depressed, ovules 4-8 in 2 series on the ventral suture (or rarely 1 erect), fruit pedicellate. Trees 'with very shining 
coriaceous leaves, flowers small fascicled. 

•A.LPHONSEA JMaDRASAPATANA. (Bedd.) A tree, leaves glabrous, very shining on the upper surface, lanceolate 
or elliptico-lanceolate or occasionally oblong or ovate, coriaceous, prominently reticulated beneath, obtuse at the apex, about 3| inches 
long by 1 J broad, petioles about \ inch long, rugulose glabrous or slightly puberulous, peduncles leaf-opposed or above the axils, very 
short, pedicels 1-6, \ to \ an inch long, puberulous furnished with a bract below the middle, flowers bright yellow, sepals ovate 
small, petals about § of an inch long, puberulous on the outside, stamens 12 in 2 series, ovaries 3-4, style subglobose, slightly curved, 
ovules about 8 in 2 rows, carpels ovoid fulvo-tomentose. 

A very handsome evergreen shade yielding tree, common on "banks of streams on the Cuddapah and North Arcot hills, from no great 
elevation up to 3,000 feet. I am not acquainted with its timber ; it is ivell worthy of cultivation. 


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HYDNOCARPUS ALP1NUS. (Nat. order BixineEe.) 

HyDNOCARPUS. (Gasrtn.) Senth. and Book Gen. PI. p. 129.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers dioecious, sepals 5 distinct much imbricated, petals 5, 
scales 5 opposite the petals. Male flower, stamens 5-8, anthers oblong uniform fixed on to the filaments at their base, no rudiment of an ovary. Female 
flower, staminodia 5 many, stigmas 3-6 as many as the placentas in the ovary, sessile dilated, or on very short styles, fruit large globose, pericarp woody, 
seeds numerous with a crustaceous striated testa, albumen fleshy, cotyledons ovate foliaceous plane or subplicate. Trees, leaves shortly petiolate serrate or 
entire, racemes axillary few flowered. Geert. Fruct. 1. 288. t. 60. 

IlYDNOCARPUS ALPINUS. (Wight.) Avery large ramous tree, 70-100 feet high, leaves alternate ovate acuminate 
entire glabrous 4 6 inches long by 1-2 inches broad, when young red, afterwards deep green, sepals all equal reflexed. petals ovate 
lanceolate glabrous, scales narrow lanceolate as long as (he petals ciliated towards the apex ; male, stamens 5, filaments much shorter 
than the petals glabrous, anthers obtuse ; female, calyx, corol and stamens as in the male, but the latter sterile, stigmas 5 sessile obcor- 
date spreading, fruit size of an apple clothed with short brown tomentura, seeds many, enclosed in white fleshy pulp, radicle elongate 
pointing to the hilum. Wight. Ic. tab. 942. 

A very handsome tree with a beautiful foliage, common on the Nilgiris, up to nearly 6,000 feet, and on the Calead hills Tinnevelly, at an 
elevation of 1,500 feel, and probably throughout the western ghats of Madras ; also in Ceylon, elevation 1, 500 feet, called Maratatti on the Nilgiris, 
where the wood is much used for beams and rafters for native houses ; it answers as deal for general purposes, packing cases, &c. ; it splits readily, and 
is a good firewood. The tree flowers in July and August. 



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SCOLOPIA CRENATA. (Nat. order BixineEe.) 

ScOLOPIA. Schreb. Gen. PI p. 127. — QEN. CHAE.' Flowers heirnathrodite, sepals 4-6 slightly imbricate when very young but opeu long be- 
fore flowering, petals as many and nearly similar, stamens indefinite inserted on to the thickened torus with or without glands. Connective of the anthers 
terminating in a thick process ; ovary with 3-4 placentas and few ovules. Style filiform, with an entire or lobed stigma ; fruit a berry, seed 2-4 with a hard 
testa, cotyledons leafy. Trees, often armed with axillary spines, leaves simple with pinnate veins entire or toothed. Flowers small in axillary racemes. 
Schreb. Gen. 335. Phoberos, Lour. Fl. Cock. 317. Ebinanthera, Bl. Bijdr. 1121. Dasyanthera, Presl. Bel. Bank. ii. 90. t. 66. 

OCOLOPIA CRENATA. (Wight.) A good sized tree, unarmed, leaves glabrous elliptic slightly attenuated at the base and 
gradually narrowed into an obtuse point at the apex, obtusely crenated, without glands at the base, 3-4 inches long by 1-1| broad, 
racemes pubescent as long or a little longer than the leaves from the superior axils, flowers nearly -£ an inch in diameter on longish 
peduncles which are furnished with 2-3 small bracts at the base, calyx and corol scarcely distinguishable pubescent and ciliated, 
placentas of the ovary 4, fruit 5 lines in diameter apiculate. Phoberos crenatus, WA. Prod. p. 29. Flacourtia crenata, Wall I. n. 
6679. Phoberos lanceolatus, (Wight). WA. Prod. p. 30. 

This trei is very common on the Shevaroys, Nilgiris, &c. ; it is called Hitterloo by Me Burghers on the Nilgiris ; it is a first-rate -wood, 
| and although while, is very hard and dense ; it resists the saw and injures tools ; planks are said to hoist. The Phoberos lanceolatus of Wight has 
the leaves narrower and more shining but does not differ otherwise. 



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BIXA OEELLANA. (Nat. order Bixinefe.) 

BlXA. Linn. Benth. & Hook. Otn. PI. 1. 125. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite, sepals 5 much imbricated deciduous, petals 5 large 
imbricate, stamens indeBnite with short oblong somewhat tetragouous anthers dehiscirjg by 2 pore-like transverse slits at the top (really linear anthers 
folded back upon themselves dehisciug only in the middle of each lobe), ovary 1-celled with 2 or rarely 3 multiovulate placentas, style slender, stigma 
miuutely 2 lobed, capsule coriaceous compressed ovoid or subcordate, rarely 3 gonous rough with long stiff bristles, separating into 2 or 3 valves, bearing 
the .seeds covered with a red pulp. 

-DIXA OKELLANA. (Linn.) A small tree or shrub 10-15 feet, the young shoots and inflorescence rusty -puberulous, 
leaves alternate ovate or subcordate-ovate, acuminate or entire rarely with 1 or 2 unequal lateral lobes, palminerved at the base usually 
4-6 inches long by 2|-3| inches broad, glabrous or glabrescent ; flowers white or rose colored 1| -2 inches in diameter in terminal 
panicles orpanicled racemes, fruit l|-2 inches long 1J inches broad, rather pointed. DG. Prod. 1. 259 ; — Wight. III. tab. 17. 

This small tree, though of American origin, is quite naturalised in the Madras Presidency, particularly on the vjestem coast. The 
red pulpy covering of the seed is used as a dye under the name of Arnotlo ; it is prepared by macerating the pod in boiling water, extracting the 
seeds, and leaving thepidp to subside, the fluid being subsequently thrown off, the residuum with which oil is often mixed is placed in shallow 
vessels and driel in the sh ide ; it is of a bright ydloio color and imparts an orange or pale rosecolor, to silk and cotton; thesubslance is worth 
Is. the lb. in the London Market fit has medicinal qualities, being astringent and esteemed an antidote to dysentery. Cordage is made from the 
bark of the trei, and the wood is a gjod one for pro tuaing fire by friction. 


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MORINGA PTERYGOSPERMA. (Nat. order Moringacese.) 

MoRINGA. Juss.— GEN. CHAR. Same a3 that of the order, for which see Manual. 

MoKINGA PTERYGOSPERMA. (Geertn.) A small or middling sized tree, leaves twice or thrice pinnate, leaflets small 
oval, a stalked gland present on the petioles at the insertion of the pinna? and the same at the insertion of the secondary pinna?, and of 
the leaflets, flowers white or rarely reddish, 5 fertile stamens and 5-7 staminodia, capsules triquetrous seeds 3 angled, the angles 
expanding into wings. Gcertn. fr. 2 p. 314 t. 147-; — Rheed. Mai. 6 t. 11 ; — Wight III. tab. 77. 

This is the horse radish tree of India. It is very common about villages throughout India, and is quite wild in some jungles ; the root 
furnishes the horse radish andthejruit is eaten in curries ; the seeds yield a very pure sweet oil which is used as salad oil in the West Indies, and 
is also employed by viatchmakers, as it does not freeze at a very low temperature. The tree is very easily raised from seed ; its timber is very 
soft and useless, and not even fit for juel ; its twigs and leaves are good fodder. An oil exudes font incisions in the trunk, which is used in 

Hr. Dalzeli describes, in his Bombay Flora, a second species under the name of M. Coucanensis, which he states is vjild on the 
ghats in the Concan, and which only differs from this in having larger and rounder leaflets, and in the flowers being yellowish streaked with pink ; 
it is probably only a variety of the tree here figured. A wild variety very abundant on the hills in Nortk Arcoi, particularly so in the Thelle 
jungles about 16 miles from Vellore, has also mueh larger and rounder leaflets than the ordinary cultivated form, and is probably Mi: DahelVs 
tree, though 1 hare not seen it in flower; the natives informed me that the fruit of this xoild variety is never eaten ; there were no traces of flower or 
fruit on any of these trees in the month of December, though all the cultivated ones at the same period were in flower. 




ERYTHROXYLON INDICUM. (Nat. order Linese.) 

ERYTHROXYLON, Linn. Benth and Hoolc. Gen. PI. p. 283. — Sepals 5, rarely 6, united into a lobed calyx or free, petals as many with a 
2 lobed appendage iuside below the lamina. Stamens 10, rarely 12, the basal tube short without glands, or more or less thickened into 10 glands, the fila- 
ments attached inside just below the crenulate top, ovary 3 rarely 4 celled with 1 or rarely 2 ovules in each cell, drupe usually 1 seeded, albumen copious 
or thin or none, styles 3 rarely i free, or more or less connate. Trees or shrubs, leaves entire, stipules united into 1 with the petiole deciduous or persis- 
tent, especially on the leafless base of the young shoots ; flowers small whitish, solitary or clustered in the axils of the leaves or of leafless stipules. 
L. Gen. n. 575. Steudelia, Spreng. Sethia, Kunfh. 

ERYTHROXYLON InDICUM. (DC) A small tree, leaves alternate obovate or oblong obtuse cuneate at the base, 
feather nerved reticulated with veins, under side pale, 1-1J inches long, by about £ an inch broad, pedicels axillary 1-3 about twice as 
long as the petiole, 1 flowered, calyx 5 lobed, styles 3 combiued nearly to the apex longer than the stamens, stigmas clavate, drupe oblong 
triangular 3 celled, 2 of the cells small abortive. Sethia Indica> DG. Prod. 1 p. 576. Erythroxylon, monogynum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
2 p. 449. 

This small tree is common throughout the Madras Presidency ; the timber is flesh colored and excellent, but of small size; the tree is 
known as the bastard Sandal, and is called Devadaru in Tamil ; the wood is used as a substitute for Sandal-wood, and an empyreumatic oil or 
wood-tar, of a reddish brown color, is procured from it, which is used for preserving the wood employed in the construction of native boats. 



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BOMB AX MALABARICUM. (Nat. order Malvaceae.) 

BoMBAS. Linn. Benth and Hook. Gen. PI. p. 210. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx cup-9haped truncate or splitting into 3-4 lobes, staminal column 
divNed into numerous filaments of which the inner ones or nearly all are more or less connected in pairs and united at the base into 5 or more bundles, 
ovary 5 celled with several ovules in each cell, style club- shaped or shortly 5 lobed at the top. Capsule woody or coriaceous, opening loculicidally in 5 
valves, the cells densely woolly inside, seeds obovoid or globular enveloped in the wool of the pericarp, albumen thin, cotyledons much folded round the 
radicle. Trees, leaves digitate with leaflets usually entire, peduncles 1 flowered axillary or terminal, flowers white or red. Salmalia, Schott. 

BOMBAX MALABARICUM. (DC.) A gigantic tree, the trunk at least when young covered with short conical 
prickles, leaves on long petioles deciduous, leaflets 5-7 petiolulate, elliptical-oblong acuminate 4-6 inches long coriaceous entire glabrouSj 
flowers large red or white on short peduncles clustered towards the end of the branches, which are then destitute of leaves, calyx 1 inch 
long and more, thick coriaceous glabrous outside, silky-hairy inside dividing into short broad obtuse lobes, petals 3 inches long, 
oblong tomentose outside, subglabrous within, staminal column short, filaments much longer, but shorter than the petals, 5 innermost 
forked at the top each branch bearing an anther, about 10 intermediate ones simple, and the numerous outer ones shortly united in 5 
clusters, capsule large oblong and woody. DC, Prod. 1. 479. Salmalia Malabarica, Schott Meletem 35. Bonibax heptaphylla, Cav. 
Wight III t. 29;— Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. p. 167. Moul elavao, Rheede Mai. iii. p. 61. t. 52. 

This gigantic tree is a very conspicuous and beautiful object in all our forests ; its trunk is beautifully straight and often SO or 100 
feet to the first bough, of great girth, and generally furnished with very large buttresses. The flowers arevery large and handsome, but appear when 
the tree is destitute of leaves; it is called the cotton tree by Europeans, Simal in Hindustani, Boorgha in Teligu, and lllavam in Tamil ; the timber 
is generally considered quite worthless in thU Presidency, but in some parts of the western coast, trunks are hollowed out to make river canoes, the 
wood is whitish, coarse grained, weak and brittle, soon decays, and is very subject to the attack of white ants; in some parts the timber is used for 
boxes, planks, &c, and it is said to be rendered more dxtrable by the aetion of water, and is consequently used for water conduits, well- curbs, &c, and 
sword scabbards are occasionally made of it. The cotton is used to stuff pillows, &c, but is useless for textile purposes; the gum from the bark and 
the root are in use medicinally amongst the natives. It is found throughout India, and in Birrnah and Ceylon ; in the latter place it is called 
Katu-imbal, and is in use for toys, models, floats, Sc. ; it makes a very poor fuel The white flowering variety u much rarer than the red. 



. ■'■^Ucl^^/i,\ 



GORDON I A OBTUSA (Nat. order Ternstrsemiacere.) 

GrORDONTA, Linn. Btnth. and Hook. Gen. PI. 1 p. 1S6. — GEN\ CHAR. Sepals about 5, much imbricated very unequal passing from the bract 
(-9 the petals, petals about as many, the innermost, the largest, all usually cohering at the base, stamens numerous, anthers 6hort, versatile, ovary 3-5 celled 
(rarely 6,) with several (4-S) pendulous ovules in each cell, capsule woody oblong opening loculicidally, the valves bearing the dissepiments, but usually 
leaving a free central axis ; seeds flattish oblique, expanded at the top into an oblong wing, albumen embryo nearly straight with flat cotyledons. Trees, 
leaves coriaceous, peduncles 1 flowered erect or recurved, flowers showy. 

vtQRDONIA. OBTUSA.. (Wall.) A middling sized tr.ee, glabrous, leaves cuneate-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate or narrow 
lanceolate, obtuse or with a blunt acuminatioa with shallow serratures glabrous 2|-5 inches long, by 1-1£ broad, petioles 
about 2 lines long, peduncles a little shorter than the petioles, petals obcordate, slightly united at the base, silky on the outside as are 
the bracts and calyx, stamens somewhat pentadelphous. Wall. L. n. 1459 ;—WA. Prod. p. 87. Gordonia parviflora, Wight. Ill, 

This very beautiful tree is very common on the Mlgiris, the Wynad, and throughout the western ghats of the Madras Presidency, from 
2,500 feet to 7,500. On the Mlgiris it is called Nagetta ; its timber is white, with a straw tint, even grained and pleasant to work, and not unlike 
Beech ; it is very generally in use for planks, doors, rafters, and beams, but warps if not well seasoned. 





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VATEEIA MALABARIOA. (Nat. order Diplerocarpese.) 

VATERIA. Linn. Benlh. and Hook. Gen. PI. p- 193.— GEN. CHAE. Calyx with a very ahort tube adnate to the torus, divisions sub-equal 
imbricate, when in fruit reflexed and scarcely increasing in size, stamens numerous, in many series, anthers linear or oblong, ending in a long single or 
double beak, ovary 3 celled, cells 2 ovuled, style subulate, stigma small, capsule ovoid or globose, thick coriaceous or fleshy, seated on the reflexed calyx 
1 seeded indehiscent or 3 valved ; seed thick, cotyledons thick unequal, radicle superior. 

Trees, yielding resin, glabrous or furfuraceous, stipules small deciduous or inconspicuous, leaves entire coriaceous, flowers white in terminal 
panicles. Eentham and Hooker unite Mr. Thwaites' Ceylon genus Stemonoporus with Vateria ; it has 15 anthers in 2 series, and if united with Vateria, 
Mouoporandra, with 5 anthers in 1 series, should also be included. De Candolle includes Stemonoporus under Vatica, which has an enlarged calyx when 

VATERIA MaLABARICA. (Bl.) A very large tree, bark whitish, young shoots and all tender parts except the 
leaves covered with fine stellate pubescence, leaves alternate petioled oblong entire, slightly cordate at the base, shortly pointed or obtuse 
at the apex, coriaceous and smooth 4-8 inches long, by 2-4 broad, petioles 1 inch long, stipules Oblong, flowers rather remote on large 
terminal panicles, bractes ovate pointed, filaments .40-50 very short, anthers not auricled at the base, terminating in a single long 
bristle at the apex, style a little longer than the stamens, stigma acute, capsule oblong obtuse coriaceous fleshy, 2-2 J inches long by 1| 
broad, seed solitary. Bl. Mus. Bot. ii. p. 29. Vateria Tndica, Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 602. (not Linn.) Chloroxylon Dupada, Buchanan 
Journal in Mysore, &c, ii. 476. Paenoe, liheed. Hort. Mai. iv. 33. 15. 

This tree has often been confov.-nded with the Ceylon Vateria Indica, though it tuas well described by Roxburgh ; it differs in its leav-es 
and fruit being very much smaller, a.nd in the former being obtuse or scarcely acute, never acuminate, and in its anthers terminating in a single 
instead of in a double bristle and in not being auricled at the base. 

This is one of the handsomest trees in the Madras Presidency ; it is common in all the western forests from the plains up to 
3000 — 4000 feet elevation, and is extensively planted as an avenue tree, particularly near the coast in South Canara, Malabar and 
Travancore; the avenue of it at Ka.rkul, in S. Canara, is a beautiful sigrht. It is called in English the Piney Varnish tree, the copal 
tree, and the white dammer tree, in Telugn Dupada, in Tamil Vellay Kungilium, and in Canarese Paini. It yields the piney gum resin 
which exudes copiously from wounds in the trunk, and is an excellent varnish resembling copal, and of a pale green color, and is used 
for carriages and furniture ; the wood is not much esteemed, but is used for coffins and masts of native vessels, and trunks of the tree 
are hollowed out to make canoes for ths western coast rivers ; the bark is used to keep toddy from, fermenting. The tree flowers in 
January. Mr. Broughton the Government Quinologist has furniskedjne with the following report on the resin. 

Resin or Vateria. Indica, White dammer or piney resin. — This beautiful substance has long been known, and its properties and local 
uses have been repeatedly described. It is also not unknown in England, and I apprehenl that its cost (arid perhaps also ignorance of its peculiar 
properties) has prevented it becoming an article of more extended commerce. It should be reimried that the " Eist Indian dammer" which is 
well known among varnish makers, though frequently confounied with this, is the p'cduct of a very different tree, and is not produced in this 
Presidency. The finest specimens of piney resin are obtained by making incisions in the tree, and are in pale green translucent pieces of consider- 
able size. The resin that exudes naturally, usually contains much impurity. In most of its properties it resembles copal, but it possesses quali- 
ties which give it some advantages over the latter. Like copal it is but slightly soluble in alcohol, but as Benelius pointed out in the case of copals, 
it can be brought into sohition by the addition of camphor to the spirit. It is easily soluble in chloroform, and thus might find a small application 
as a substitute for amber in photographer s varnish ; it differs most advantageously from copal by being at once soluble in turpentine, and drying also 
'without the necessity of the preliminary destructive fusion required by that resin, a process which tends greatly to impair the color of the varnish. 
The solution of the piney resin in turpentine is turbid and milky, but by the addition of powdered charcoal, and subsequently filtering, it yields a 
solution transparent and colorless as water, and yields a varnish which dyes with a purity and whiteness not to be surpassed. The solution in 
turpentine readily mixes vjiih the drying oils. It is on these properties of the resin that its chance of becoming an article of trade loill depend. In 
price it cannot compete viith copal when supply to the European marlcet is regular and abundant. The present price of the best copal in the English 
market is but £2-10-0 per cent ; piney resin yields en destructive distillation S2per cent, of an oil of agreeable odour, but not differing essentially 
from that obtained from much cheaper resins. 




GARCINIA CAMBOGIA. (Nat. order Guttiferse.) 

GARCINIA. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers dioecious or polygamous, sepals 4 in opposite pairs, petals 4; male flower, stamens indefinite 
free monadelphous or tetradelphous, anthers erect or peltate dehiscing longitudinally or circumscissile, female or hermathrodite flowers, staminodia 
various free or united, ovary 2 many celled, stigma sessile lobed, smooth or tuberculate, ovules solitary, fruit baccate, embryo an undivided thick radicle 
(tigella) — Glabrous trees, usually with a yellow juice, leaves coriaceous or submembrauaceous, opposite or ternately vertieellate, flowers solitary, fascicled 
or subpaniculate axillary or terminal. 

vxARCINIA OaMBQGIA. (Desrous.) A good sized tree, leaves lanceolate of a deep lucid green, 4-6 inches long by 
about 2 broad, flowers terminal or axillary, sessile sub-sessile or pedicelled solitary or several together ; male, anthers numerous on a 
short thick androphore oblong 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally introrse ; female, staminodia surrounding the base of the ovary in 
several phalanges each containing 2-3 sterile spathulate stamens (or free and as many or twice as many as the cells of the ovary ?) 
stigmas 5-10 lobed papillose with glands, ovary 6-10 celled, fruit 2|-3 inches in diameter yellow or reddish, 6-10 sulcated, 6-10 seeded, 
nearly globular or ovate or somewhat elongated, furrows broad with angular edges, and intervening flattened or only slightly rounded 
ridges, the furrows not being continued to the apex which is smooth and depressed and often nipple-shaped. — DC. Prod. 1. 561 ; — WA. 
Prod. p. 100. Garcinia Kydia, WA. Prod. p. 101. Cambogia gutta, Linn, in part. Garcinia Roxburghii, Wight 111. p. 125? Gar- 
einia papilla, Wight Icones tab. 960. 

Common in all the western coast forests of the Madras Presidency, and in Ceylon ; the pigment which exudes from the trunk is 
semitransparent, very adhesive and quite unsuitable as a paint ; the acid rinds of the ripe fruit are eaten, and in Ceylon they are dried and 
eaten as a condiment with curries. ^-. . ( c 

The tree is called Heela by the Burghers on the Nilglris, and it yields an excellent straight grained lemon colored slightly elastic 
wood, which is easi'y worked, and would answer for common furniture. 



A. bh* 0u4 







"So A 



^eM r—A 1 - ^ ^y^yt^i.. 

GARCINIA MOKELLA. (Nat. order Guttiferae.) 

For Geu. Char, see under " G. Cambogia," PI. lxxxv. 

"CrAECINIA MORELLA. (Desrous.) A middling sized tree, everywhere glabrous, leaves elliptic with a very obtuse 
blunt point and gradually attenuated at the base, about 4 inches long by 1 -| to 2 broad, petioles about \ inch long, flowers sessile 
several together in the axils oE the fallen leaves, calyx of 4 unequal sepals the 2 inner being much larger than the 2 outer ; male, 
stamens about 26 closely packed on a raised receptacle in the centre of the flower without any rudiment of an ovary, anthers on 
very short thick filaments depressed peltate circumscissile ; female flower, stamens 18-20 in one series round the base of the ovary, 
anthers sterile subquadrate emarginate at the apex, ovary glabrous 4 celled crowned with a large sessile 4 lobed stigma the lobes being 
2-3 toothed at the margins, fruit size of a cherry globose 4 seeded. Cambogia Gutta, Linn. Fl. Zeyl. p. 87 in part. Hebradendron 
Cambogioides, Graham in Hook. Comp. to Bot, Mag. Vol. ii. p. 199, t. 27. Garcinia gutta, Wight III. 1. 126 and tab. 44. G-. 
elliptica, Wall. 

South -'Canara, moist forests of the plains and ghats, <up to 2,000/eei elevation. Ceylon, up to 2,000 feet elevation ; called Gohatoo or 
Kana-goraha in Ceylon, and Aradal and Punar puli in S. Canara; it is the true Gamboge of commerce, and the pigment which exudes from 
wounds in the trunk is largely collected and exported from Ceylon and Siam ; hit little or no attention seems to be paid to it in this country. 
In this Presidency I have only met vjiih the tree in S- Canara, though it probably occurs elseiohere ; it is closely allied to G. pictoria, which is our 
common species, and scarcely distinguishable except by the female flower. The drawing is from specimens collected in S. Canara, and the analysis 
from fresh flowers. 



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GARCINIA PICTOEIA. (Nat. ord. Guttiferae.) 

For Gen. Char, see under "G. Cambogia." 

GrAECINIA PICTOMA. (Roxb.) A good sized tree, everywhere glabrous, leaves elliptic with a blunt rather sudden 
point at the apex, and gradually attenuated at the base, about 4 inches long by 1| broad, flowers sessile aggregated in the axils of the 
fallen leaves; male, stamens numerous closely packed on a fleshy more or less 4 sided receptacle in the centre of the flower, filaments short, 
anthers depressed peltate circumscissile, no rudiment of an ovary; female, staminodia in a ring round the base of the ovary, filaments in 
3-4 rarely 5 phalanges each bearing 2-7 sterile clavate anthers, ovary oblong 4 celled, stigma sessile of 4 verrucose lobes which are 
3-4 toothed at the margins, berry size of a large cherry oval oblong smooth crowned with the permanent stigma. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 
627. (Desc. of fem. flower incorrect.) 

This is a very common tree in all our western forests up to about 3,500 feet elevation ; it is closley allied to G. Morella, but differs in 
the female flower. 

Mr. Broughton has analyzed some of the pigment, and informs me that it is excellent and quite equal to that of G. Morella. The 
timber is used by the natives for various purposes. The drawing is taken from fresh specimens collected about the foot of the Nilgiris belovj 



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XANTHOCHYMUS PIOTOKIUS. (Nat. order Guttifene.) 

XaNTHOCHTMUS. Roxb.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous or dioecious, sepals 5 imbricate, petals 5 ; male flowers, stamens in 5 narrow 
oligandrous phalanges inserted into or between the lobes of a fleshy disk ; female or hermathrodite flower, staminodia or stamens in 5 phalanges 
alternating with as many glands and seated round the base of the ovary, ovary 3-6 celled with a subsessile discoid entire or radiately 3-6 lobed stigma, 
ovules solitary, fruit baccate, embryo thick fleshy with inconspicuous cotyledons. Trees, resembling Garcinia and scarcely differing except in their 
pentamerous instead of tetramerous flowers. 

XaNTHOCHYMUS PICTORIUS. (Roxb.) A very beautiful middling sized tree, with a most dense foliage of dark green 
shining leaves, everywhere glabrous, young branches square, sharply angled and often dilated just below the axils of the leaves, 
leaves oblong, generally more or less attenuated at the base with a short acute point at the apex, 8-14 inches long by 2-3J broad, very 
hard and coriaceous dark shining green with the veins obscure, (when fresh) petioles J-l inch long dilated near their insertion on to the 
stem ; male flowers numerous sessile or subsessile aggregated into dense short fascicles in the axils of the fallen leaves, stamens about 7 
on each phalange, no vestige of an ovary ; female or hermathrodite flowers solitary in the axils of the fallen leaves, each phalange 
furnished with 2-3 anthers at the apex (apparently fertile), ovary 5-6 celled crowned with a large dilated 5-6 lobed stigma, fruit size of 
an apple. Roxb. Fl, hid. ii. ^. 633. Stalagmites pictorius, G. Don- 

This very beautiful tree is very abundant in the woods in Coorg, but 1 have also met with it in Wynad, S. Canara, the western slopes of 
Nilgiris, and other localities in the western side of the Madras Presidency, and on the Bombay ghats ; and it is cultivated in gardens. The 
specimens figured were gathered below Sisparah on the Nilgiris. The tree yields a gamboge, but I do not hxoio of what quality, lam not 
acquainted with the timber. 




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^U>U€>??VfZ/Z& '«>*■; 

OCHROCARPUS LONGIFOLIUS. (Nat. ord. Guttfferre.) 

OCHROCARPUS. Thouars. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx closed before floweriDg, at length opening in 2 valves or sepals, petals 
4, stamens indefinite shortly connate below or free, filaments filiform, anthers erect oblong or linear dehiscing longitudinally, ovary 2 celled, style short 
thick, stigma large peltate slightly 2 lobed, ovules 2 in each cell, fruit baccate 1-4 seeded, seeds large, embryo of a large fleshy radicle (tigella) with the 
cotyledons reduced to a mammiliform projection or none. Trees, with opposite or ternately verticellate coriaceous leaves, and axillary fascicles of flowers. 
Benth. and Booh. Gen. PI. 1. 980. Calysaccion, Wight 111. 1. 130. 

OCHKOCARPUS LONGIFOLIUS. (Benth. 8s Hook.) A large tree, everywhere glabrous, young shoots terete or 
slightly 4 sided, leaves opposite or ternately verticellate oblong with a short blunt point, rounded or slightly attenuated at the base, 
hard thick and coriaceous, venation inconspicuous (but beautifully reticulated when dry), 6-10 inches long by 2-3£ broad, petioles -£ 
inch long, flowers numerous in short fascicles congested on lateral tubercles springing from the axils of fallen leaves, peduncles short 
1 flowered, fruit oblong falcate about one inch long by 5 lines in diameter. Benth. and Hook. Gen. PI. i. p. 980. Maminea lonwifolia, 
I. c. p. 176. Calysaccion longifolium, Wight III, p. 130 ; et I cones tab. 1999. Calophyllum longifolium, Wall* Cat. 

This tree is indigenous on the Malabar, Conean and Bombay ghats, and is cultivated in the Banglore gardens, Northern Circars and 
elsewhere ; the tree is dioecious, or at least monoecious in a loild stale, but becomes often hermathrodite when in cultivation. The tree /lowers in 
March and April, and the flowers aie white streaked with red ; the globular flower buds are used/or dyeing silk, and are dried and exported from 
the Bombay Presidency, where the male tree is called Woondy and the female Poone, both being also known under the name of Suringel or 
Oardoondy. I am not acquainted viith the timber, but it is said to be used in house building,- 


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CALOPHYLLUM WIGHTIANUM. (Nat. ord. Guttiferse.) 

J or Gen. Char, see letter press to PI. ii. 

CaLOPHYLLDM AVlGHTIANUM. (Wall.) A middling sized tree, young shoots square glabrous, leaves oval obovate 
or rhomboid very obtuse at the apex, very firm coriaceous and shining 3-4 inches long by 1|-1J broad, petioles about 3 lines long, 
racemes few flowered shorter than the leaves, glabrous or when young slightly puberulous towards the base, peduncles about \ an inch 
long, rather slender furnished with a small boat shaped caducous puberulous bract at their insertions on the raceme, sepals 4, petals 0, 
stigma peltate entire. Wall. Cat. 4847. C. spurium, Choisy in DC. Prod. vol. 1. P62. C. caloboides, &. Don. C. apetalum, Willd 
Spr. Sys. ii. 571- C. calaba, L. in part. C. decipiens, Wight. III. p. 128. 

This tree is common near the banks of rivers on the western side of the Madras Presidency, and is called Kalpoon in S. Canara, vihere 
it is very common, and its timber is much esteemed; the -specimens figured are from S.Canara, and unfortunately have no fruit, which is described 
by Dr. Wight as " small, oval, somewhat attenuated at both ends"; it was formerly described as having only 4 floral envelopes, viz. 4 sepals and no 
petals, but Dr. Wight says that he discovered 8. I have dissected a large quantity of buds and have never found more than 4; it is possible that 
the tree here figured differs from Dr. Wight's, but 1 believe it to be the apetalum of Willdenow. The timber is of a red color, very hard and 
heavy, and valuable for engineering purposes. 





TERNSTEiEMIA GYMNANTHERA. (Nat. ord. TernstrsBtaiacesB.) 

XERNSTRiEMIA. Linn. — QEK. CHAR. Flowere usually hermathrodite, sepals 5 much imbricate, petals 5 imbricate united at the base, 
stamens numerous adnate to the base of the corol, anthers glabrous basifixed, cells aduate, ovary 2-3 celled with 1-4 ovules suspended from near the apex 
of each cell, style simple with a broadly 2- 3 lobed stigma, fruit thick and indehiscent, but rather dry, seeds 2-few large, horseshoe-shaped inside, albumen 
fleshy often thin or scarcely any, embryo much curved or folded longitudinally. Trees or shrubs, leaves coriaceous, peduncles 1-flowered axillary or lateral 
curved downwards with 2 bracteoles close to the calyx. 

TeRNSTJLEMIA GYMNANTHERA. (WA.) A middling sized tree, glabrous, leaves cuneate-obovate, obtuse or shortly 
aud obtusely pointed coriaceous entire, peduncles twice as long as the petioles, bracteoles persistent, anthers dotted with little points 
on the connective without bristles. Cleyera gymnanthera, WA. Prod. p. 87. Ternstraemia, Benth. and Book. 

A common tree on the Nilgiris and other elevated mountains on the west side of the Presidency, from an elevation of about 4,000 feet 
upwards, also in Ceylon; called Kaymone on the Nilgilis. The wood is pinkish in color and much esteemed; it, viorks well, but requires to be 
well seasoned ; it is used for doors, rafters, and a variety of purposes. 



L?/fz&jtf, c/^ty 


,ss+:>-'^-- ■'>...-. ' '-a a / • .. - ■ a-//, Wjpy 

ETJRYA JAPONICA. (Nat. ord. TernstrfeniiaceEe.) 

EURYA. Thunb. — GEN. CHAR. : Flowers mostly unisexual, sepals 5 much imbricate, petals 5 imbricate united at the base, stamens 
usually indefinite seldom above 15, anthers glabrous basifixed, cells adnate, ovary 3 (rarely 2-4-5) celled with several ovules in each, styles as many either 
almost free or united to near the top ; fruit a berry, embryo much carved in a somewhat granular albumen. Trees or shrubs, flowers very small axillary, 
fascicled on short pedicels, or sessile. 

liURYA. JAPONICA. (Thunb.) A small tree, branches glabrous or pilose, leaves glabrous obovate or oblong l|-2 inches 
long, slightly crenulate narrowed at the base, pedicels axillary usually 2-3 together 1-1 J lines long, flowers about 2 lines in diameter 
■white, styles 3 distinct or united to near the apex. Thunb. Fl. Jap. 191, t, 25. Eurya Wightiana, Wall. ; — WA . Prod. p. 86. E. 
fasciculata, Wall. E. tristyla, WA. Prod. p. 86. E. Ceylanica, Wight III. 1. 98. E. elliptica, membranacea et parviflora, Gardner. 

Common on the western side of the Madras Presidency, principally on the mov.ntains at the higher elevations, out also at low elevations, 
also in Ceylon and Northern India ; called Hoolooni on the Nilgiris, and Neyadasse in Ceylon. Timber of a light chocolate brown; in leaf and 
general appearance it much resembles the tea plant, and I have aeen it reared as such in tea plantations ; there is only one species inJhis Presi- 
dency, but it is a very variable plant. 

■ W- 

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PJECILONEURON PAUCIPLORUM. (Nat. ord. Ternstrffimiaeese.) 

For Gen. Char, see letter press to plate of P. Iudicum, PL iii., and under the head o£ this genus in the Manual. 

P^ECILONEUEON PAUCIFLORUM. (Bedd.) A good sized tree, glabrous, leaves narrow lanceolate with a longish 
blunt acuminatum and attenuated at the base, 5-6 inches long by 1-1| broad, petioles 4-5 inch long, peduncles solitary or 2 together 
axillary or in the axils of the fallen leaves A-f inch long, minutely puberulous, sepals 4 unequal puberulous on the outside, the 2 outer 
small, petals 6 imbricate, stamens 16-22 in two series inserted on to an evident disk below the ovary, styles 2, ovary 2 celled with 2 
erect ovules in each cell, fruit globose pointed size of a large cherry dehiscent into 2 coriaceous valves, 1 celled, 1 seeded, seed hard 
round, testa loose membranaceous striated easily separable from the seed, cotyledons very large fleshy, albumen none. 

Abundant on banks of rivers on the South Tinnevelly and Travancore mountains up to nearly 4.000 fee'. ; called Pudangalli. It yields 
a valuable hard reddish timber, which is used for building and other purposes, and for walking sticks. In the plate a drawing is also given of 
a young seedling just after germination, showing the cotyledons and the loose testa attached. 


/ ., , ■//.'' 

DIPTEROCARPUS INDICUS. (Nat, ord. Dipterooarpere.) 

i-'IPTEROCARPUS. Gcertn. — GEN. CHAE. Tube of the calyx, when in flower free, divisions unequal slightly imbricate when very young, 
"but soon open or subvalvate, tube of the calyx when in fruit enlarging and enclosing the fruit, 2 of the divisions expanding into long erect wings, the other 
3 small, stamens numerous, anthers linear entire, valves equal, connective acuminate or produced into a long beak, ovary 3 celled, cells 2 ovuled, styla 
filiform entire or obsoletely 3 toothed, capsule woody indehiscent 1 rarely 2 seeded enclosed on the enlarged calyx, cotyledons very large fleshy unequal 
corrugately lobed or contortuplicate, radicle superior. Lofty trees, bearing resin, stipules large enclosing the bud at the apex of the branches early 
caducous, leaves coriaceous entire or sinuato-dentale, parallely penniveined and transversely venulose between the veins, flowers large in axillary few 
flowered racemes (Pterygium, Corr in Ann. Mus. Par. viii. 397.) 

DlPTEROCARPUS INDICUS. (Bedd.) A lofty tree, everywhere glabrous except the stipules petals andovary, leavag 
ovato-oblong with a short acumination, about 5 inches long by 2^ broad, petioles l§-2 inches long, racemes axillary solitary a little 
shorter than the leaves 5-8 flowered, petals puberulous on the outside, anthers terminated with a long slender bristle, fruit about 
1 inch in diameter not ribbed, wings about 5 inches long. Bedd. in Conservator of Forests Report (Madras) for 1864-65. 

Common, in all the ghat forests from Canara down to Cape Comorin, very abundant in S. Canara, where it is called Guga ; its timber 
is very open in the grain and not durable, but is occasionally used for various purposes ; the tree yields a wood oil, but it is, I believe, never- 
extracted ; the liquid balsam, like Copaiba sold in Trevandrum, and the produce of a tree from those ghats is extracted from the Hardwichia 



fewW'^ t/fj, 

S^U'swJi/iW, . 

VATICA ROXBTJRGHIANA. (Nat. ord. Dipterocarpeas.) 

V ATICA. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Tube of the calyx very Email adnate to the torus or base of the ovary, not or scarcely enlarging when j & 
Iruit ; divisions rather acute, when very young imbricate but soon open or pseudo-valvate, enlarging with the fruit, equal or unequal and patent. Stamem 
35, anthers oblong Or linear rarely ovate, connective generally with a short apiculation, ovary 3 celled, cells 2 ovuled, style short with a clavate apex, or Ion" 
subulate, Btigma entire or 3 toothed, capsule thick woody indehiscent, or 3 valved 1-2 seeded. Trees, bearing resin, stipules small fugacious or inconspicu- 
ous, leaves entire coriaceous penniveined and retieulato-venose, flowers in axillary or terminal panicles. 

See. I. Isauxis. — Enlarged divisions of the calyx equal, patent below the fruit. 

See. II. Euvatica. — Enlarged divisions of the calyx very unequal wing like, patent below the fruit. 

The 2 Southern Indian species both belong to Isauxis. 

V ATICA xvOXBURGHIANA. (Wight.) A large tree, young branches petioles and inflorescence minutely furfuraceous 9 
leaves glabrous above except the costa, which with the costa and veins beneath is slightly scaly, ovate to oblong with an~obtuse point 
rounded or obtuse at the base, furnished with 10-14 primary veins on each side, 4-8 inches long by 2-3J broad, petiole \\-2 inches 
long, panicles axillary shorter thau the leaves, branchlets few flowered, calyx and outside of petals furfuraceous, divisions of the former 
acute enlarging in fruit and then 5 nerved and glabrescent, petals & times as long as the calyx, stamens 15 in 2 rows, anthers oblong 
with a short apiculation, style nearly double the length of the anthers, stigma clavate obscurely 3 or 6 lobed. fruit ^lobose not 
sulcated crowned with a small nipple-like point at the apex, rough with minute raised reticulations aud furfuraceous, hard woody and 
indehiscent. Wight III. p. S%. !/%&£&'-', JUm-jasQlLj iS? ^Cu^-.d^-, s{/^~ J, £<£, fy$ ^ [£ g fo~ 

Common in some of our western coast forests, 'particularly in the South Canara jungles, and planted in avenues, etc. in Travancore. 
also indigenous in Ceylon, whirt it is called Mtndora ; its limber is much valued in Ceylon, but I have not seen it in use in India ■ the trst 
produces a gum-resin. 

/ V 




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HOPEA WIGHTIA.NA, (Nat. ord- Dipterocarpese.) 

i or Gen. Char, see under " H. jiarviflora," PI. vi. 

H.OPEA W^IGHTIANA. (Wall.) A large tree, youug branches and petioles furnished with a dense short pubescence, leaves 
ovato-obloug, rounded at the base and attenuated towards the apex into a very obtuse point, glabrous on both, sides except the costa 
above, primary veins distant 7-10 on each side of the costa, 6-9 inches long by 2-3 broad, petioles \-\ inch long, panicles glabrous axillary 
generally 3 together, shorter than or about the length of the leaves, flowers pink about | an inch in length secund bracteolate at the 
base of their very short pedicels, calyx glabrous, corol hairy on the outside, stamens 15 alternately single and double, anthers 
terminated with a long bristle, fruit and calyx wings glabrous bright crimson colored, wings 2-2£ inches long by | an inch broad, 7-9 
nerved. — Wall. L. N. 6295 ; — WA.\Prod. p. 85, and III. tab. 37 — (wrong as to the 10 stamens.) 

Vary. f3. glabra, young branches and petioles glabrous or sub-glabrous. Hopea glabra, WA. Prod. p. 85. 

This tree is very common in many of our western forests, an echinate excrescence, much like the young fruit of a Spanish chestnut, is 
often produced, in the axils of the leaves ; it is probably the formation of some insect in the bud of the panicle, it is represented in the figure, 
a somewhat similar formation occurs in Hopea parviftora, as I have gathered specimens of the longer leaved variety in Tinnevelly with regular 
abortive panicles, several of -the branehlets of each terminating with hard, round, warty, fruit-like excrescences 4 lines in diameter. 

The timber is very valuable and very similar to that of Hopea parviftora. Variety /3 is the Kong of Tinnevelly, and is par excellence 
the timber of that district. I have not seen this more glabrous variety in fruit, but the flowirs in no way differ from the ordinary form ; the latter 
is most abundant in the S. Canara district, where it is called Kalbow and Hiral bogi ; it is a first-rale coppice firewood, and large tracts in thit 
state are met with in the plains of that district never apparency flowering, but abundantly covered with the abortive fruit-like excrescence. 



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tMVXtfe&P, Ja 

DOONA ZEYLANICA. (Nat. ord. Dipterocarpese.) 

DOONA. Thw.— GEN. CHAR. Tube of the calyx in flower very short actuate to the torus, divisions imbricate, in fruit the tube not enlarg- 
ing, 3 of the divisions enlarging into large erect wings ; 3 small, all connivent at the base round the fruit, stamens 15, anthers oblong with the cells equal, . 
connective produced into a terminal process, ovary 3 celled, cells 2 ovuled, style subulate, stigma small, fruit indehiscent generally 1 seeded, seed ovoid, 
cotyledons extremely contortuplicate, radicle superior. 

Glabrous trees, resiniferous, stipules small deciduous or inconspicuous, leaves entire ooriaoeous penninerved, panicles axillary or terminal, 
flowers rather small. — Thw. Hoolc. Kew. Journ. iv. p. 7 ; — Benth. and Booh. Qen. PI. p. 193. 

DOONA ZEYLANICA. (Thw.) A lofty tree, trunk straight, much branched towards the upper part, bark rough and 
cracked, branches terete and smooth, leaves penniveined with numerous intermediate reticulations lanceolate dark-green above, paler 
beneath, rounded at the base, tapering towards the apex into a rather long acumination with an abrupt point, 2-2J inches long by f 
of an inch wide, petioles \ inch long grooved along the upper surface, panicles furnished with small brown deciduous bractes, calyx 
pale-green tinged with red, the 3 enlarged leaves becoming a deeper red, petals pale rose darker at the tips, filaments united about \ 
way up. Thw. I. c. 

This is the famous Boon tree of Ceylon, called also shingle tree by the planters ; it is very abundant in the Central Provinces of that 
island up to 4,000 feet elevation, and the timber is highly prized J or building purposes and for shingles; the tree yields a large quantity of 
colorless gum-resin from its trunk and branches, which when dissolved in spirits of wine or turpentine makes an excellent varnish. 



■■' . ■ i ■ : 

2?amj?Az/. Zu/v: 

DOONA GARDNER! (Nat. ord. Dipterocarpefe.) 

For Gen. Char, see letter press to PI. xcvii. 

DOONA GrARDNERI. (Thw.) A lofty tree, leaves ovate or ovato -lanceolate, rounded at the base tapering into a longish 
point at the apex, 2-31 inches long by l|-2 inches broad, petioles about f-1 inch long, flowers drooping about | an inch across, bractes 
small early caducous, calyx minutely puberulous or at length glabrous, corol densely pubescent on the outside. Thw. En. PI. 
Zey, p. 35. 

This beautiful tree is found in the Central Provinces of Ceylon at 3,000 to 5,000 feet elevation. 



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( r oi>zsi4&{7, ■ deZ. 

frm/ iftzmzzt % . ■'*&>:■ 

STEMONOPORUS GARDNER! (Nat. ord. Dipterocarpese.) 

STEMONOPORUS. Thiv.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx 5 parted, divisions equal riot enlarging in fruit, petals 5 equal, activation convolute, sta- 
mens 15 in 2 series, 5 interior and 10 exterior, monadelphous on a short ring round the base of the ovary, anthers oblong introrse dehiscing by a pore at 
the apex, connective not produced beyond the anther, ovary 3 celled, cells 2 ovuled, ovules pendulous from the apex] of the axis anatropal, style 81iform, 
stigma simple, fruit spherical f-1 inch in diameter with the calyx reflexed beneath it, 1 celled by abortion, irregularly dehiscing, testa membranaceous, 
embryo exalbuminous, cotyledons thick plicato-convolute. Trees like Vateria, but differing in their fewer anthers arranged only in 2 series. Thio. Boo?;. 
Journ. of Bot. Vol. vi. p. 3. Vateria (in part) Benth. and Bool: Oen, PI. p. 194. Vatica (in part) DO. Prod. xvi. p. 620. 

STEMONOPORDS GtARDNERI. (Thw.) A large forest tree, leaves oblong-lanceolate or ovate acuminate, rounded at the 
base or subcordate, prominently veined beneath, 3J-6 inches long by 1 J-2£ broad, petioles about 1 inch long, panicles slightly hoary 
numerous at the apex of the branchlets, more or less elongate 4-12 flowered, pedicels 34 lines long, flowers about f inch across in 
expansion. Thw. I. c. and En. PI. Zey. p. 38. 

Ceylon, in the Central Provinces at about 5,000 feet elevation. 



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( 7/Ln7/?&s?&/?2*0 -ut^iafMU/A 

J?*em/j/uf; Zt&* 

STEMONOPORUS ACUMINATUS. (Nat. ord. Dipterooarpese.) 

For Geu, Char, seo letter press to PI. xoix. 

STEMONOPORUS ACUMINATUS. (Thw.) A large tree, branches moderately rugose, leaves narrow lanceolate to oblong 
lanceolate gradually attenuated into a long blunt point, rounded at the base, prominently veined and retioulato-venose, 4-7 inches long- 
by f-2 inches broad, petioles f-lj inches long, stipules falcato-lanceolate 3 lines long \ line broad, early caducous, panicles puberulous 
about \ the length of the leaves, racemiform or moderately ramous, bractes minute deciduous, calyx lobes ovato-lanceolate puberulous, 
Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 403. 

Ceylon, in the Ambagamwa, Badulla and Mahamahanewera districts at no great elevation. 



^W dz&0W#Mdi%/%&'s 

tfeirtZfy/ty, 2/6^: 

MONOPORANDRA CORDIFOLIA. (Nat. order Dipterooarpese.) 

MONOPORANDRA. Thw. — GEST. CHAR. Calyx 5 parted divisions equal not enlarging in fruit, petals 5 equal aestivation convolute, 
stamens 5 monadelphous in one series in a short ring round the base of the ovary, the rest as iu Sternonoporus. Thw. Hook. Jour, of Bot. vol. vi. p. 5 ; — 
Benth. and HooTc. Gen. PI. p. 194 ;-DC. Prod. xvi. p. 637. 

MONOPORANDRA CORDIFOLIA. (Thw.) A middling sized, much branched tree, leaves shining rigid very 
coriaceous ovate or oblong with a very sudden long blunt acuminatum, rounded but scarcely cordate at the base, costa and primary 
veins very prominent beneath depressed above, 2|-4| inches long by 1J-2J inches broad, petioles -J to nearly 1 inch long, panicles 
much shorter than the leaves, slightly puberulous, flowers very small, calyx segments very acute, fruit small size of a large pea, 
Thw. En. PI. Zey.p. 39. 

Ceylon, in the Ambagamwa and Saftragram districts, at an elevation of about 3,000 feet. 



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i~^k77z^a?&zmway a^t€U/&^zyAj^^y 


KAYEA STTLOSA. (Nat. order GutttfersB.) 

KaVEA. Wall. —GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite (or polygamous ?), sepals 4 petals 4, stamens numerous free or scarcely united at the 
base, filaments long filiform, anthers small subglobose 2 celled dehiscing longitudinally, ovary 1 celled, style elongate shortly and acutely 4 cleft at the 
apex, ovules 4 erect, capsule roundish coriaceous indehiscent included in the much enlarged coriaceous calyx 1-4 seeded, te3ta membranaceous colored, 
cotyledons fleshly. Trees, leaves oblong penniuerved, flowers numerous small in terminal panicles or solitary and large. 

KAYEA. STYLOSA. (Tliw.) A large tree, branches terete glabrous reddish, leaves ovato-lanceolate acuminate, 2-3 inches 
Ion" by 7-10 lines broad, petiole 2-3 lines long, flowers very fragrant small in terminal panicles or from the upper axils, style much 
longer than the numerous stamens. Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 50. 

This elegant tree has only been found in Ceylon, in the south of the island at no great elevation ; it is called Soovanda by the 
Singhalese. The timber is valued for building purposes. 


PL: Cll. 

lyza&ea/ s/fa&J&s, 

DILLENIA SPECIOSA. (Nat. order Dilleniacese.) 

DlLLENIA. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Sepal 5 patent, petals 5 large, stamens free or nearly so, anthers adnate linear dehiscing by two fissures, 
interior erect introrse, exterior recurved extrorse, carpels 5-20 many ovuled and crowned by as many radiating styles united round a central conical axis 
into a spurious berry enclosed in the calyx, seeds immersed in pulp or without pulp. Trees, leaves very large prominently parallely nerved, flowers large 
solitary or fascicled white or yellow. 

JJlLLENIA SPECIOSA. (Thunb.) A good sized tree, trunk straight but of no height, branches numerous spreading 
then ascending, forming a dense head, leaves about the extremities of the brancblets approximated short petioled oblong or lanceolate 
acute, most regularly serrate, very coriaceous with the veins very prominent excurrent at the points of the serratures, 9-12 inches long 
by about 4 inches broad, petioles 1-2 inches long, channelled, embracing half the circumference of the branchlet and leaving a permanent 
scar after falling off, peduncles generally one towards the extremity of each branchlet clavate round smooth about 3 inches long, 1 
flowered, flowers very large white fragrant, anthers opening by 2 fissures forming a large yellow globe in the centre of the flower, 
which is crowned by the white lanceolate spreading stigma, carpels about 20, styles scarcely any, stigmas linear-lanceolate recurved, 
fruit 3-4 inches in diameter, seeds in pulp, numerous reniform or obliquely oval very hairy. Thunb. Linn. Trans. 1. 200 ;— Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 650. Dillenia elliptica, Thunb. Trans. 1. 200. Syalita, Eheed. Mai. iii. t. 38, 39. 

One of the handsomest trees in India, it is found in dense forests at no great elevation in Malabar, the Northern drears, Orissa, the Go- 
davery forests, in various parts of Northern India; Bombay, Ceylon, Birmah, and in the Malay Peninsula ; it is called Chaltd in Hlndustanee, 
and Uva and Pedda Kalingd in Telugu ; it is much cultivated, particularly by natives about temples; the wood is hard and tough, and used to 
make gun stocks and for boats, and is said to be very durable undo water. The ripe fruit is eaten by natives in curries, and makes a tolerable 
jelly, and added to syrup is used as a cough mixture; it has rather a disagreeable odour. The tree is called Mota Kurmal in the JUahratta country, 
Hondapara in Ceylon, and Kaloonoot in Birmah; the timber weighs 44 lbs. the cubic foot when seasoned, and 55 — 60 when unseasoned, and its 
specific gravity is '704. 

The v.nexpanded bud in the plate is from a drawing made in the Ceylon Herbarium, and the full flower and analysis from Dr. Wight's 


PL: cm. 

DILLENIA PENTAGYNA. (Nat. order Dilleniacese.) 

For Geu. Char, see letter press to PI. ciii. 

DlLLENIA PENTAGYNA. (Roxb.) A very large tree, leaves quite sessile and amplexieaul at the base or with petioles 
1-4 inches long, oblong to oblongo-lanceolate or obovate acute or obtuse at the apex, 1-2 feet long (or iu saplings up to 5 feet long) 
paler beneath, when adult very coriaceous glabrous or puberulous beneath, when young membranaceous and more or less pilose or seri- 
ceous according to age and ciliate at the margin, very prominently veined with raised parallel veins which are simple and excurrent at 
the margin into a sharp serrature or once or twice forked (generally only towards the apex) each veinlet ending iu a serrature, flowers 
J-f inch in expansion appearing before the leaves in small clusters along the older branches, pedicels 5-8, one-two inches long arising 
from several small concave thick silky bractes, sepals unequal the 3 outer ovate the 2 inner longer and narrower, petals oblong to 
obovate yellow very caducous, stamens numerous the interior row longer than the other and reflexed like the styles, ovaries 5, styles re- 
flexed, stigmas simple apiculate, seeds by abortion 1-2. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 652. Dillenia augusta et pilosa, Roxb. I. c. Colbertia 
Coromandelina, DC. Prod. 175. 

This tree is most abundant throughout South India and in Northern India and Birmah, but does not occur in Ceylon ; it is to be met 
with in almost every forest in this Presidency. It flowers towards the end of January, or as late as March or April, when the tree is destitute of 
leaves. It is called Rai, Pine 3.nd Nai-tek in Tamil in different districts, Chinna Ealing a in Telugu, Kanagalee and Machilin Canarese, and in 
Birmah Yeengd and Bjooben. The wood is dote grainei, strong, tough, fibrous and durable even under ground, of a reddish brown colour and a 
pretty wavy surface on one side, not easily worked and subject to warp and crack ; a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 85 — 90 lbs., and 70 lbs . when 
seasoned ; its specific gravity is 1'120 ; it is used in house and ship building, and is adapted for cabinet purposes. 


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STERCULIA. Linn. (Nat. order Sterculiacese.) 

GEN. CHAR.: Flowers unisexual or polygamous. Calyx more or less deeply 5 cleft, rarely 4 cleft, usually colored. Petals none. Staminal 
oolunin adnate to the gynophore, bearing at the summit 15 or rarely 10 stamens, irregularly clustered in a head. Carpels of the ovary 5, distinct or nearly 
bo, with two or more ovules in each. Styles united under the peltate orlohate stigmi. Fruit carpels distinct, spreading, either firm or woody, and scarcely 
opening along the inner edge, or thinuer, and opening as follicles, even long before they are ripe. Seeds 1 or more in each carpel, rarely winged ; albumen 
adhering to the cotyledons, often splitting in two, assuming the aspect of fleshy cotyledons ; real cotyledons flat or nearly so, and thin, the radicle next the 
hilnm or at the opposite end, or intermediate. Trees, leaves undivided or lobed, or digitately compound. Flowers in panicles or rarely racemes, mostly- 
axillary, sometimes very short ; terminal flowers usually female, in these the staminal column is shorter and the anthers less perfect than in the males> 
surrounding the base of the ovary ; in the males the ovary is often entirely abortive. — Brachychiton, Trichosiphon, and Pcecilodermis, Schott; Delabechea, 
Zindl.; Cavallium, Schott. ; Southwellia, Salisb. ; Firmiana, Mars. ; Pterygota, Schott. ; Hildegardia, Schott. ; Carpophyllum, Mig. ; Scaphiam, Schott. ; 
Pterocymbium, Br. ; Tripbaca, Lour. 

feTERCULIA GUTTATA. A large tree, with a tolerably straight trunk, bark cracked, leaves oblong to very broad ovate 
slightly cordate at the base entire with a longish sudden acuinination, upper side smooth and shining, beneath very softly villous, about 
7-9 inches long by 4-5 broad, petioles round downy 2-5 inches long, stipules ensiform early caducous, racemes terminal and from the 
divisions of the branchlets simple densely villous, flowers in threes, very shortly pedicelled about f inch across, chiefly hermathrodite, 
bractes lanceolate, a larger one below the middle flower and a very minute one below each of the others, calyx densely villous on the 
outside, hairy within and beautifully freckled with purple, ovary long pedicelled globose 3-5 lobed downy 3-5 celled, fruit carpels 
generally 5 coming to maturity serai-ovate, about 3 inches long by 2 broad, villous of a brilliant red color ; seeds oblong jet black. 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 149. 

A very common tree in almost every forest in Southern India and in Ceylon ; it is a beautiful object when covered with its bright red cap- 
sules ; the timber is not used thai I am aware of, but the bark yields a valuable cordage, and is also made into a kind of clothing in some parts of 
the western coast : for this purpose it is taken off in strips, beaten, washed, and dried in the sun ; the tree j's called Eawillee by the Kaders on the 
Anamallays, and KuJcar and Qoldar on the Bombay ghats. 


PL CI/. 

\/tnszstu6?0 t^ec/ 


PTEROSPERMITM.. Schreb. (Nat. order Sterculiacese.) 

GEN. CHAR. : Calyx tubular 5 lobed, petals 5, stamens united into a column at the base with 5 long barren filaments, and 15 shorter ones 
(in 5 phalauges of 3 each) each bearing a linear erect 2-celled anther, ovary shortly stalked 5 celled with several ovules in each cell, style entire, capsule 
woody with a loculicidal dehiscence, seeds winged at the upper end, albumen scarcely any. Trees, with a stellate or Bcaly pubescence, leaves coriaceous, 
flowers usually large solitary or few together on axillary peduncles. 

P TEROSPERMUM RUBIGINOSUM. (Heyne). A very large tree, young branches covered with brownish rusty toinen- 
tum, leaves very obliquely ovate very unequal sided, quite entire acuminate, upper side covered with fugacious rusty down at length 
quite glabrous, under side softly dowuy, with close set brown tomentum, 2-2 J inches long by about 1 inch broad, petioles about 2 
lines long, stipules downy with a broad concave base and 1-2 filiform teeth, peduncles axillary 1 flowered 2-3 times longer than the 
petioles furnished at the base with a few bractes resembling the stipules, flower bud angled stellately downy on the outside, bracteoles 
of the calyx none, flowers about 2 inches long, white, sepals and petals narrow linear, connective of the anthers produced into a ter- 
minal point, stigma obscurely 5 lobed, capsule ovate pointed o angled covered with stellate down, 2 inches long by about f inch in 
diameter. — WA. Prod, p. 68. 

Ihis very fine tree is very common in the TinneveUy districts, the Wynad, Anamallays, and generally throughout our western forests up 
to about 3,000 feet ; the timber is excellent, and the tree is called Kara toveray in TinneveUy, where the %oood is much in use for building ana other 



tmfag. ate 


^Ui^c^f^zA^/, c*^i>t%~- 

GUAZUMA TOMENTOSA. (Nat order Sterculiacese.) 

GEN. CHAR. : Calyx 2-3 parted, petals 5 subunguiculateat the base cucullato-concave produced at the apex iuto a linear ligulate bifid append- 
age, staminal tube or urceolus with 5 sterile acute lobes alternate with the petals, in the Binuses of which are the fertile filaments (each opposite to a petal) 
connate at the base and trifid above each bearing 3 antbers, ovary sessile 5 lobed 5 celled, cells many ovuled, styles 5 more or less connate, stigmas simple, 
capsule subglobose woody tuberculoso-muvicate or echinate with long hairs, imperfectly loculicidally 5 valved at the apex, seed albuminous, embryo slightly 
curved, cotyledons plaited, radicle near the hilum. Trees stellately pubescent or glabrescent, leaves unequally toothed often oblique, cymes axillary shortly 
pedunculate, flowers small. Diuroglossum, Turcz. 

GrUAZUMA TOMENTOSA. (DC.) A middling sized tree, leaves ovate oblong acuminate cordate and unequal at the base 
toothed, upper side stellately pubescent, under with a stellate white tomentum, about 3-4 inches long by 1\ broad, petioles 3-4 lines 
long. DC. 1. 485, Boubroma tomentosa, Spr. Quazuma ulmifolia, Wall. 

This tree has been naturalised in India, being of American origin; it is now very common throughout the Presidency, being largely 
planted in avenues and topes, <Stc. The wood, which is known, as Bastard Cedar, is light and loose grained, and of a light brown color, and is 
used for furniture, and by coach makers for pannels, and for packing cases, pannelling, &c. It weighs about 40-45 lbs. per cubic foot unseasoned, 
and 32 lbs. when seasoned, and its specific gravity is - 512 ; the leaves are an excellent fodder for cattle. 



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6vm?zifr7a/ / &i£. / 

GREWIA. Linn. (Nat. order Tiliaceae.) 

GEN. CHAR. : Flowers regular herinath rodite pentamerous, sepals distinct, petals uuguiculate, claw thickened glandular ciliate, rarely 
wanting, stamens indefinite all fertile free springing from a raised glandular torus, ovary 2-4 celled, cells 2-many ovuled, style subulate, Btigma shortly 
2-4 lobed, drupe 1-4 stoned entire or lobed, stones 1-2 or more seeded and divided by spurious dissepiments between the seeds, seeds ascending or 
horizontal, albumen fleshy or horny, cotyledons flat leafy. Trees or shrubs, frequently covered with stelliform hairs, leaves entire or lobed 3-7 nerved, 
flowers yellow or pink in axillary or terminal cymes. Mallococca et Chadara, Forslc. Microcos, Linn. Omphacarpus, Korth. 

GREWIA. TILLEFOLIA. (Vahl ) A large tree, the younger parts covered with a short dense coating of felted Lairs, at 
length sub-glabrous, leaves obliquely cordate roundish, acuminate or rounded at the apex irregularly toothed sometimes with a 
tendency to be lobate at the apex, 4-6 inches long by 2-4 broad, 5 nerved at the base, petioles about 1 inch long, stipules transverse 
falcate lanceolate caducous, peduncles axillary or emerging a little on one side of the petiole, 2-3 together equal to or a little 
exceeding the petioles, 3-5 flowered, pedicels furnished with bracts, sepals linear oblong, petals oblong £ the length of the sepals, torus 
scarcely exceeding the glands, style about twice as long as the stamens, stigma 4 lobed, drupes globose or 2-rarely 4 lobed, lobes globose 
with two hemispherical 3 celled nuts or one spherical 6 celled nut in each lobe. Vahl. Symb. 1. p- 35 ; — Eoscb. Fl, Ind. ii. p. 587. 
G- arborea, Roxb- G. elastica, Eoyle ? \jbC , •jyAspC ^/| < 

A very common tree throughout the Madras Presidency and all over India and Ceylon ; it ascends the mountains to about 4.000 feet, 
and is often found of large size in fatorahle localities; the berries are eaten, having o,n agreeable acid flavour ; the timber is highly prized for" strength 
and elasticity, and is used for building purposes, boms, buggy shafts, walking sticks, and a variety of other uses; it is much in use at Jubbulpore, 
where the tree is known by the nume of Dhdman, it is light and rather soft, flexible and fibrous, coarse grained and durable, of a light pinkisJi 
color turning to light brown, and easily worked ; unseasoned it weighs 45 to 50 lbs the cubic foot, and 34 lbs xohtn seasoned, its specific gravity is 
•544. The tree is called Tharrd or Thadd in Tamil, Chardchi in Teligu, Thadsal or Butale in Canarese; the leaves make a good fodder, and the 
lark (like that of all the GrewiasJ is used as cordage. 


PL: Cv'lll. 


PITYRANTHE VERRUCOSA. (Nat. order Tiliaceffi.) 

PlTYRANTHE. Thw. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx urceolate campanulate, 3-41obed, petals 5 rather broad naked inserted round the base of the 
torus, fertile stamens about 15 inserted on to the torus free or obscurely 5 adelphous, Btaminodia 5 shorter than the stamens and inserted with them 
spathulate upwards, anthers adnate, cells divaricate, ovary 5 celled, cells 2 ovuled, styles 5 in the young bud afterwards closely united into one and 
filiform, capsule inQato-turbinate 5 angled loculicidally 5 valved, 1 seeded by abortion. A tree, leaves ovate or ohovate crenate, flowerB small in terminal 
panicles. Thw. En. PI. Zeyl. p. 29. 

-P ITYRANTHE VERRUCOSA. (Thw.) A tree, leaves ovate toobovate, inconspicuously crenate penninerved or sub 3 nerved, 
above sparingly furnished with tufts of stellate hairs at length glabrous, beneath whitish with dense close pressed tomentum, 2-6 
inches long by 1-3 broad, petiole ^-f inch long, panicles terminal lepidote, flowers numerous 1| line long, capsule furfuraceous verru- 
cose, seed black oblong 2 lines long very miuutely reticulated covered with pale deciduous stellate pubescence. Thw. En. PI. Zey. p- 29. 
Kleinhovia verrucosa, Gardn. MS. 

A tree found only in Ceylon, abundant in the Batcaloa district, and at Jaffna and Trineomalee. 



*-S?lev£Jc c&Z: 


ERINOCARPUS NIMMONII. (Nat. order Tiliaoese.) 

ERINOCARPUS. Nimmo. — GEN. CHAR. Sepala 5 distinct, petals 5 with pit like gland.3 at the base on the inside, inserted round the 
base of the torus, stamens numerous inserted on the elevated torus free or the exterior very Bhortly connate in a ring, ovary 3 celled, cells 2 ovuled, style 
filiform, fruit large rather woody indehiscent triquetrous, and slightly winged, echinate, seed pendulous oblong, testa coriaceous, albumen fleshy, coty- 
ledons ovate plane. A tree, leaves broad palminerved lobate aud toothed, flowers yellow large laxly arranged on large panicles, bractes cordate. 
Nimmo in Hort. Bomhuy ; — Benlh, and JJooh. Gen. PI, 1. 234. 

JiRINOCARPUS -NlMMONII. (Grab.) A small tree, leaves roundish cordate, irregularly serrate 5-7 lobed, lobes acute, 
prominently palmately 9 nerved, glabrous above pubescent beneath, or iu age subglabrous except the veins, about 8 inches each way, 
petioles 3-5 inches long, flowers nearly 2 inches across, yellow in terminal panicles, calyx stellately pubescent on the outside, ovary 
pubescent, fruit pubescent and echinate, about 2 inches long. Grah- in Oat. Bombay PL p, 21. 

This tree is common on the Concern ghats, and probably occurs in Canara; it flowers in September ar>d October, and is called Chowra 
or Jungli Bendi. The bark is used for making ropes. 


^cvrn^oc; c&l: 


EL^EOOARPUS AMvENUS. (Nat. order Tiliaceee.) . 

ELiEOCARPUS. Linn.— GEN\ CHAR. Sepals 4 or 5, usually valvate. Petals as many, friuged, lobed or rarely entire, inserted round the 
base of the torus, induplieate-valvate, and embracing some of the outer stamens in the bud. Stamens indefinite, inserted on the torus within a glandu- 
lar ring ; anthers oblong or linear, opening at the top in 2 valves (that is, the cells placed back to back and opening in short, terminal, eoufluent slits.) 
Ovary 2 to 5 celled, with 2 or more ovules in each cell ; style subulate. Fruit a drupe, with a hard often bony putamen, 2 to 5 celled or 1 celled by 
abortion. Seeds solitary in each cell, pendulous (or rarely erect ?), testa hard, albumen fleshy, cotyledons broad, flat or undulate. Trees, leaves alternate 
or rarely opposite, entire or serrate. Flowers in axillary racemes, sometimes polygamous. (Monocera, Jack.) 

JbjLiEO CARPUS AMiENUS. (Thw.) A middling sized tree, glabrous except the youug leaf buds, leaves ovate or ovato- 
lanceolate with a short blunt or retuse point, crenate-serrate. furnished with glands in the axils of the leaves beneath, 2-4J inches long 
by f-2 broad, petioles 4 lines to 1 inch long, racemes puberulous very numerous towards the end of the branches, axillary and from the 
axils of fallen leaves, anthers quite naked, deeply cleft at the apex, each petal cut down at the apex about |- of its length into about 8 
segments each with 2-4 fringed points, ovary 3 celled, ovules 2 in each cell attached about the centre of the axis, drupe spherical. 
Thw. En. PL Zey. p. 32. 

This very beautiful tree is common in the central provinces of Ceylon up to 4000 feet, and is also cultivated in gardens. 




sr^ca /■'/.<; ■ /;-;ia-?u/4 /,;%»■: 

2?z*snp7iz> 4 Luh,: 



EKffiOCARPUS FERRUGINETTS. (Nat. order Tiliaoeje.) 

-Cor 6eu. Char, see letter press to PI. uxi. 

ELiEOCAKPUS FERRUGINEUS. (Wight.) A good sized tree, young shoots densely villous, leaves cucullate very 
coriaceous ovate to elliptic serrulate, with a bluntish rather sudden point at the apes, at first villous above with fugacious tonientum, 
at length glabrous, densely and closely tomentose beneath, stipules linear acute glabrous viscid and shining above, downy at the base 
on the back, early caducous, racemes axillary or from the old axils just below the leaves, a little shorter than the leaves, tomentose as 
are the calyx, petals and ovary, flowers less than £ an inch long, pedicels about the same length drooping slightly elongating in fruit, 
petals involute at the margins furnished with a prominent ridge up the inner face about 9 fringed but not otherwise, divided, anthers 
puberulous along the cells furnished with a long awn from the exterior valve, ovary 3 celled, ovaries 6-8 in 2 rows in each cell, drupe 
oval smooth a little more than £ an inch long. Monocera ferruginea, Wight Icones tab. 225. 

A very common tree on the NilgirU, Anamallays and Pulneys, at the higher elevations. Thernargins of the leaves are always connivent, 
rendering the leaves quite boat-shaped. The timber is used for building purposes. Wight figures the ovary as 4 celled, but in several flowers that 
I have dissected it is 3 celled. 



6&?ca>-mt6i ' /eMtf-at'kgtei/M 

EL2E0CARPUS TUBERCULATUS. (Nat. ord, Tiliacere,) 

For Gen. Char, see under " Elfeocarpus amxnua," PI. cxi. 

El^EOCARPUS TUBERCULATUS. (Roxb.) A gigantic tree, leaves crowded about the apex of thebranchlets, obovato- 
oblong remotely and inconspicuously serrulate, gradually narrowed into a retuse base very broad towards the apex and obtusely pointed, 
glabrous above villous beneath particularly along the veins, 8-12 inches long by 4-5 broad, petioles 1-2 inches long round and villous s 
stipules conical villous deciduous, racemes numerous just below the leaves (from the axils of fallen leaves) 3-4 inches long villous as 
are the bractes, pedicels and calyx, pedicels short drooping 1 flowered, bractes lanceolate caducous 1 to each flower, flowers pure white 
1 inch long, petals villous on the back glabrous inside except at the 2 oblong glands at the base, each one bifid for nearly half its length 
the divisions overlapping, many fringed, anthers very numerous 70-80, each with a long terminal beak from the exterior valve, ovary 2 
celled, ovaries numerous in 2 rows, drupe size of a small apple, nut woody oval slightly compressed much tubercled on its flat sides 
•with a thickened margin, 1-2 celled. Roxb. Fl. hid. iii. p. 594. Monocera tuberculata, Wight. Ic- tab. 62. E. serrulatus, Boxb Soft. 
Btngh. p. 42. E. bilocularis, Roxb. in E. I. C. Mus. tab. 1. 985. 

This truly magnificent tree is very common in Coorg, the Annamallays, Malabar and Travancore, up to an elevation of about 4.000 feet, 
andp)obably throughout our western forests. Very large trees of it may be seen in the dense forests about the foot of the Nilgiris below ilakurty 
Peak and Banghy tapped ; it is called Roodrack, aud the beads are worn asorpaments, and by fakeers. J am not acquainted with the timber, but 
it is worth attention. 



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LEPTONTOHIA MOACURKOIDES. (Nat. order Tiliacese.) 

LePTONYCHIA. Tares. —GEN. CHAR. Sepals 5 distinct valvate in l>ud, petals 5 glandular at the base very small inserted round the base 
of the torus alternate with the sepals, imbricate in bud, staminal tube short embracing the base of the ovary, fertile stamens 10 in pairs in the sinuses of 
5 small tooth like staminodia, each fertile filament being also furnished with a long sterile filament attached at its back about Jrd from the base, anther 
cells parallel at length divaricate, ovary 4 celled, ovules numerous in 2 rows attached to the axis, style simple, stigma obscurely 2 fid, fruit verrucose and 
densely downy dehiscent, by abortion 3 celled, cells 1 seeded, seed covered with a red spongy aril, albumen horny, embryo straight, radicle pointing to- 
the hilum. Trees or shrubs, leaves entire glabrous, flowers small in short axillary cymes. 

LEPTONYCHIA MOACURROIDES. (Bedd.) A small tree with much the appearance of a Grewia, leaves glabrous 
on both sides penninerved or sub 3 nerved at the base, oblong with a long gradually fine acumination, about 4 inches long by If broad, 
petioles 3- A lines long, stipules small lanceolate early caducous, flowers in axillary cymes about the length of the petioles, calyoine 
segments linear lanceolate pubescent, petals nearly orbicular not more than £th the length of the sepals densely villous except at the 
base inside, ovary and style pubescent, fruit about f of an inch each way slightly 2 lobed verrucose and covered with down (and much 
like that of Moacurra gelonioides*). 

An elegant small tree inhabiting the western coast forests of the Madras Presidency, 1,000 to 3,000 feet elevation. I have met with it 
on the Carcoor ghat in the Wynad, on the Coimbatore hills, and on the Tinnevelly ghats. 












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WORMIA BRACTEATA. (Nat. ord. Dilleniaoese.) 

WOEMIA. Rotll. — GEN. CHAR. Sepals 5 spreading. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, with erect linear anthers opening at the summit in 
two pores, the inner ones often longer and recurved. Carpels 5 to 10, scarcely cohering, with several ovules in each, dehiscent when ripe. Seeds with an 
arillus. Trees, often very lofty, leaves large, with raised parallel veins diverging from the midrib, the petioles often bordered with narrow deciduous 
wings, flowers large, in loose terminal panicles. 

"WOKMIA BRACTEATA. (Wight.) A large tree, young parts sericeous, leaves obovate gradually attenuated towards the 
base, rounded at the apex creuate or serrate, glabrous on both sides in age, 3-8 inches long by 3-3 J broad, petioles 1-1^ inches long, 
racemes few flowered, leaf opposed, pubescent, shorter than the leaves, flowers white 2|-3| inches in diameter, sepals sericeous on the 
outside, petals obovate, ovaries 5, styles minutely 2 cleft at the apex. Dillenia bracteata, Wight Icones tab. 358. Wormia, H.f. et T. 
Flora Ind. p. 68. 

This very handsome tree I have only observed on the Coimbalore hills and the Anamallays, bat it is also found in Mysore and on the 
North Arcot and Cuddapah hills. It is well deserving of cultivation for ornamental planting, £c. The specimen figured was collected in the 
Bolampuity valley on hills near Coimbatore, and I believe I am correct hi referring it to Dr. Wight' 's species ; his figure hoxoever is not as good 
as his description. 

WORMIA TRIQUETRA. (Roitl). A Ceylon tree very Wee this species, differs in its much broader leaves rounded at the base, and in 
its more numerously flowered glabrous peduncles; the young petioles are curiously sheathed in the stipules, which latter are however soon 
deciduous. It is a highly ornamental tree and very common about Colombo, and might receive attention for ornamental planting. 



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CRAT2EVA RELIGIOSA. (Nat. ord. Capparidaoere.) 

CfiATiEVA. Linn.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx 4-partite ; lobes distinct from the base and open in asstivatioD. Petals 4, elliptical or ovate, pen- 
niveined, with a long claw. Stamens usually 16-20, inserted on the more or less dilated torus ; filaments free filiform. Ovary ovoid or globose on a long 
gynophore, 1-oelled with 2 multiovulate placentas or 2-eelled owing to the cohesion more or less of the placentas. Stigma sessile. Fruit globose or ovoid 
with a coriaceous rind. Seeds indefinite, reniform ; testa coriaceous ; radicle conical, incumbent. Trees or shrubs, leaves 3-foliolate, flowers corymbose, 

CRATjEVA RELIGIOSA. (Forst. ; DO. Prod. I, 243.) A tree attaining about 30 feet. Branches glabrous, smooth, or 
slightly verrucose. Leaves 3-foliolate. Leaflets membranous, acuminate, entire, glabrous, petiolulate, articulated to the petiole, 3-6 
inches long ; central leaflet elliptical elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate, narrowed into the petiolule ; lateral leaflets usually obliquely 
ovate-elliptical or rhomboidal. Flowers polygamous, f-1^ inches across, in terminal and lateral many-flowered corymbs. Pedicels |-2 
inches ; upper bracts linear or subulate, caducous. Calyx-lobes oblong or ovate-oblong, distinct, rather acute. Petals enlarging after 
expansion ; lamina elliptical or ovate, obtuse, claw equalling the sepals. Ovary ellipsoidal to globose, on a gynophore of 1-2 inches> 
1 -celled or 2-locular at least partially, owing to the cohesion of the placentas. Fruit about the size of an apple, with a coriaceous 
pericarp on a strong stipes. Oliver Fl. Afr. p. 99. C. Roxburghii, B. Br. C. Adansonii, et lasta, Dc. Prod. I. 243. 

A small tree very handsome when in flower, common throughout the Madras Presidency, Bombay, Bengal, and in Ceylon, and also found 
in Africa ; it occasionally flowers before the leaves are developed, but not generally ; it is very common on thebanks of rivers, and is much planted by 
natives. The wood is soft but tolerably serviceable and is used for various purposes. The tree is called Uskia man (TeliguJ in the Northern Divi- 
sion and in the Oodavery forests, and Lunuwarana in Ceylon ; the fruit is hard, globose and woody, and something like that of the Wood-apple 
(Feronia.) ~ ~ 



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AVERRHOA BILIMBI. (Nat. ord. Geraniaceee.) 

AVERRHOA. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers regular, sepals 5 imbricate, petals 5 hypogynous contorted, glands o£ the disk none, stamens 10 
very shortly connate at the base all bearing anthers or 5 sterile, ovary slightly 5-6 lobed, 5-6 celled, styles distinct, stigmas capitate ; ovules numerous :a 
the cells, berry oblong indehiscent, Beed naked or arillate, albumen fleshy sparse, embryo straight, Trees, leaves alternate unequally pinnate exstipulate, 
Sowers racemosely panicled. 

AvERRHOA -DILIMBI. (Linn.) A small tree, 15-20 feefc, leaflets sub-opposite 5-10 pairs (rachis very villous) softly 
villous on both sides especially underneath, entire ovate to oblong-lanceolate acuminate, l|-2 inches long by f inch broad, petioles 1-2 
lines long, panicles villous, flowers reddish, calyx villous or pubescent, limb of the petals ovate-oblong, anthers 10 alternately long and 
short, ovary 5-6 celled, style 5-6, fruit oblong obtusely angled, seed exarillate. DC. Prod. I, p. 689. Bilimbi, Rheede Mai. 3. t. 45, 46. 

This pretty little tree is common in a cultivated and semi-ioild state, and easily establishes itself ; it is supposed to be a native of India, 
but 1 have never seen it in any of our jungles ; the fruit is a pleasant acid, and syrup is made of it, and it is preserved and pickled. lt$ 
native name is bilimbi. 




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GARUGA PINNATA. (Nat. ord. Burseraceje.) 

GaRUGA. JRoxb.— GEN. CHAR, Flowers polygamous. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, valvate. Petals 5, inserted above tLe middle of the 
calyx-tube, induplicate-vatvate. Disk thin, lining the calyx-tube. Stamens 10, inserted with the petals. Ovary i or 5-celled ; styles elongated ; ovules 
2 in each cell. Drupe iudehiscent, with 5 or fewer bony nuts, rugose outside. Seeds solitary in each nut ; cotyledons folded. Trees, leaves pinnate. 
Flowers rather large for the order, in terminal panicles. 

Gj-ARUGA PINNATA. (Eoxb.) A large tree, leaves unequally pinnate, 8 inches to 3 feet long, leaflets very shortly petiol- 
ed, generally about 7-9 pairs with an odd oue, elliptic-oblong very unequal at the base with an acumination at the apes, crenate-ser- 
rate, 2-4 inches long by l-l-£ broad, more or less villous on both sides or nearly glabrous, panicles terminal many flowered puberulous 
or mealy, flowers 2-3 lines in diameter yellowish white, disk lining the calyx tube for more than half its length and closely adhering 
to it, crowned with 10 gland-like rounded teeth at its apex each alternate with one of the stamens, filaments hairy, anthers versatile, 
ovary sessile hairy, styles hairy combined into one elongate about as long as the petals, stigmas 5, drupe globose fleshy about the size 
of a gooseberry with 1-5 bony nuts. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 400. 

A very common tree in almost every dry jungle and forest in the Madras Presidency, also in Bombay and Bengal, but absent from 
Ceylon ; the leaves are deaiduov,s in the cold weather and appear With the flowers early in the hot season ; the fruit is eaten by the natives both raw 
and pickled. The tree is called Koorak in the Bombay Presidency, and Khar-pat in Bengal ; the timber is I believe, inferior, but is in use with the 
natives, and rather prized in some parts. The bark is collected by tanners, and the leaves are used as fodder. The Teligu -name is Garugu, and 
the Tamil Karre Vembu. 



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SOHLEICHERA. TRIJUGA. (Nat, order Sapindacese.) 

SCHLEICHEIJA. Wittd. — GEM. CIIA.1t. Flowers polygarno dioecious, calyx small 4-6 cleft valvate or obscurely imbricate, petals 0, disk 
repand or lobed, stamens 8-10 (rarely 4-5) inserted ou to the disk, filaments elongate puberulous, anthers basifixed, ovary 3-4 celled, attenuated into a rigid 
style, stigma capitate 3-4 lobed, revnlute, ovules solitary in the cells erect, fruit dry subcrustaceous ovoid apiculated with the base of the style unarmed 
or armed with a few prickle?, 1-3 celled, seed erect included in a pulpy aril compressed, testa black, embryo conduplieate, cotyledons unequal connate. Trees, 
leaves alternate exstipulate abruptly or unequally pinnate, leaflets subopposite few paired entire or undulately repand, racemes simple or paniculate, 
flowers 3mall fasciculate. — Cassumbium, Rumph. Koon, Gozrt. Melicocea, Juss. 

ScHLEICHERATBIJUGA. (Willd.) A large tree, young parts sericeous, leaves about the extremities of the branches 
abruptly pinnate, 8-16 inches long, leaflets 2 4 pairs, subopposite sessile lanceolate to oblong, entire very unequal at the base, pretty 
smooth on both sides, the lowest pair the smallest, 3 to 8 inches long by 1-1^ broad, panicles axillary or from the old axils, slightly 
puberulous ; male flowers and hermathrodtte generally ou different trees, male flowers much crowded, stamens 6-10, generally 8, a small 
rudiment of an ovary in the middle of the disk. Hennatht'odite, flowers more laxly arranged, ovary ovoid gradually attenuated into a 
short style 3 celled, cells 1 ovuled, ovules erect, stigma 3 lobed, fruit dry size of a small nut smooth and unarmed, or furnished with a 
few prickles, aril succulent and edible. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 277. •//&-• 

This handsome tree is very abundant throughout the Madras Presidency, Bombay, Bengal and Ceylon, ascending the mountains 
up to about 3,000 feet, but a'ways confined, to the dry forests. It flowers early in the hot season, it is one of our most valuable unreserved timbers, 
and the wood is much prised, in some districts ; it is reddish in color, very hard and heavy, and makes excellent crushers for sugar and od mills, 
and is in use for building and a variety of purposes. The common Tamil name is Puva, and the Teligu Pv.ska, on the Anamallays it is called 
Puvatti by the Kaders, and in Ganarese it is called Chalola and K Akota, in Ceylon Cong, and in Bengal Gosa?n. The fruit ripens in May, and 
ike pulpy aril is a very agreeable acid ; an oil is expressed from the seed and used for burning, and a quantity of lac is produced on the young 
branches. The fruit is sometimes quite smooth though often armed with prickles, which is evidently caused by some insect. 

The figure represents a flowering branch of a male tree: — lis a young male flower, stamens not fully developed; 2, the disk and stamen^ 
of male flower, calyx removed ; 3, a branch ofhermat'^odite ftowers; 4, an hermalhrodite flower. 



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TROCHISANDRA INDICA. (Nat. order Celastrinefe.) 

TfiOCHISANDRA. Bedd.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx 5 cleft, petals 5 patent, stamens 5 alternating with the petals and monadelphous in. a com- 
plete ring rouud the base of the ovary, filaments subulate, anthers didymoua, ovary globose free 2 celled, cells 2 ovuled, ovules erect, raphe ventral, 
micropyle inferior, styles 2 filiform, capsule coriaceous deeply 2 lobed 2 celled dehiscent, seed generally solitary by abortion erect furnished with a very 
large thick fleshy aril, albumen sparse fleshy, embryo erect, cotyledons small ovate unequal, radicle elongate. A lofty tree, stipules very large at the apex 
of the branches including the leaf bud, early deciduous and leaving a large scar, leaves alternate entire very coriaceous and shining penniveined, panicles 
axillary, flowers 3inall on short pedicels. 

My only flowering specimen of this new genus has been forwxrded to Ken; and thi generic character is taken from a drawing of the 
flower made some three years ago, and a specimen in fruit. 

XROCHISANDRA J-NDICA. (Bedd.) A lofty tree, everywhere glabrous, leaves oblong to oblongo ovate very coriaceous and 
shining, veins very prominent on the underside scarcely acute or rounded at the apex 6-8 inches long by 2-3 broad, petioles 1-1 ^ inches 
long, panicles axillary towards the apex of the branches about the length of the leaves many flowered, flowers small 2-3 lines in diameter, 
capsule deeply 2 lobed, lobes oblong 1-1£ inches long, one generally abortive and smaller than the fertile one, dehiscing at maturity. 

d very liandsome tree with o, beautiful foliage, much resembling the Indian rubber tree (licus elastica) when only in foliage ; it is very 
abundant in the dense moist forests of the Anamallays at an elevation of 3,000-4,500 feet, in which localities it is a very large tree, and 1 have 
also observed it on the banks of the Toracadu (on the same mountains J at an elevation of nearly 6, 000 feet, but it is of smaller growth at this eleva- 
tion; it is saidby the wttioes to yield a valuable timber ; it flowers in December and January, and ripens Us fruit in April and May. The 
genus is nearly allied to Kurrimia (Wall). 



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FERONIA ELEPHANTUM. (Nat. order Butaces.) 

FERONIA. Correct. — GEN\ CHAR. Flowers polygamous by abortion, calyx small 5 toothed, teeth deciduous, petals 5 rarely 4-6 patent 
c-blongo-lanceolate imbricate with incurved tips, stameu3 10-12 (sometimes a few imperfect ?) filaments dilated at the base, apieulate at the apex, inserted 
below the torus, anthers linear-oblong, torus a short soft woolly bed, style none, stigma large oblong 5 lobed, ovary oblong 1 celled, placentas 5-6 parietal, 
ovules numerous crowded in many series, berry globose woody 1 celled, many seeded, filled with pulp, seed oblong compressed, cotyledons thick fleshy. A 
thorny tree, leaves unequally pinnate, flowers racemose or panicled ; fruit large woody, pulp edible. 

FeRONIA ELEPHANTUM. (Corr.) A large tree, leaves unequally pinnate 2-4 inches long quite glabrous, leaflets 5-7 
almost sessile lanceolate to obovate quite entire or slightly erenulate towards the apex, furnished with glandular dots, petioles slightly 
winged, panicles short axillary or terminal or from nodes in the old axils, puberulous, flowers small dull reddish colored, petals ciliate 
at the apex, in the male flower there is a small abortive ovary and 5 lobed stigma and generally 11-12 fertile stamens, in the herma- 
throdite the stamens are fertile generally 10, the filaments in the male are rather shorter and less apieulate than in the hermathrodite, 
(I have never observed imperfect stamens in either sex.) Fruit as large as a billiard ball, hard and woody with a greyish rind, seeds 
immersed in fleshy edible pulp. DC. Prod. Vol. i. 538. 

This tree is common throughout India and in Ceylon, it is universally known as the Wood-apple, in Teligu it is called Velagd and 
Eldkd ; Kaweet in Hindustanee ; Veld in Tamil ; Bilwdr in Canarese ; and Diwool in Ceylon : the loood is hard, strong, heavy and durable, 
and is used for various purposes. A gum exudes from the trunk, which is much like the gum Arabic, the pulp of the fruit makes a pleasant 
jelly, and the leaves are used medicinally by the natives. The tree flowers in February and March, it is much cultivated throughout India, it is 
the only species of this genus. 

Fig. i. fertile flowers. 
Fig. ii. male flowers. 



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AILANTHUS MALABARICA. (Nat. order Simarubese.) 

AlLANTHUS. Deaf. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx small 5 lobed, lobes equal imbricate, petals 5 patent valvate or slightly 
imbricate at the sides with the tips incurved, disk 10 lobed, stamens 10 in the male flowers, (10 or fewer or none in the female or hermathrodite) inserted 
at the base of the disk, filaments very short or filiform without scales, ovary of 2-5 carpels more or less conuate (rudimentary in the male flowers) carpels 
compressed 1 celled, styles as many as the carpels consolidated into 1 with plumose stigmas, often more or less distinct towards the base, ovules solitary 
in each cell attached to the ventral suture below the apex, fruit of 1 to 5 oblong membranous samarje thickened in the centre round the single seed, seed 
flattened, suspended, testa membranaceous, albumen scanty, cotyledons leafy nearly orbicular, radicle short superior. Large trees, leaves alternate pinnate, 
leaflets many pair, flowers small in terminal panicles. 

AlLANTHUS MaLABARICA. (DC.) A lofty tree, bark rough and often studded with bright reddish grains of resin 
leaves equally pinnate, quite glabrous 15-20 inches long, leaflets 6-10 subopjiosite or opposite pair commencing a little above the base 
of the petiole, semiovate from a very unequal base gradually attenuated into a long acumination, glabrous on both sides, shining above, 
very pale beneath, (veins pinnate forked and looped near the margin) 3-7 inches long by 1-1 J broad, petiolules 2-4 lines long ; panicles 
axillary much branched nearly as long as the leaves and occasionally leafy at the base of the lowest ramification, slightly puberulous or 
glabrous, calyx slightly puberulous and ciliate, petals slightly imbricate at the edges and with incurved tips, male flowers smaller than 
the female, disk 10 lobed with a minute 3 lobed rudiment of an ovary in its centre, stamens much exserted, much longer than the corol, 
anthers oblong attached by the centre of the back ; female flowers with 10 sterile stameus alternately shorter, all much shorter than 
the corol, anthers sterile saggitate basifixed, disk large irregularly lobed or warted. Samara 3-3| inches long by 10-13 lines broad. 
DC. Prod. ii. p. 89. Pongelion, Eheed. Mai. 6. t. 25. 

A very lofty tree, common in the dense moist forests of the Western ghats of the Madras Presidency (up to 3,000 feet ) from $>. Canara 
down to Cape Comorvn, also in Ceylon ; in S. Canara it is called Doop or Baga Doop, matti pal on the Annamnllays, andKumbalu or Wal biling 
in Ceylon, in Travancore the tree is commonly planted, and is very ornamental, a fragrant resinous balsam (known as mutti pal) exudes from 
the trunk, reduced to powder mixed with milk and strained it is given by native doctors in dysentery and said to be a first rate remedy, the 
bark has a pleasant slightly bitter taste and is used medicinally by the natives as a febrifuge and tonic. Mr. Broughton has favored me with, 
the following report on some of the resin submitted to him for analysis. 

" This resin as commonly met with is dark brown or grey in color, is plastic, opaque and has an agreeable smell. It contains much 
impurity. The pure resin is very, soft, having the consistence of thick treacle, and this is doubtless the reason xchy it is always mixed with frag- 
ments of earth which makes it more easy to handle- The sample which I examined contained but TJ per cent, of resin, the remainder being 
adulterations. Alcohol readily dissolves the resin, and on evaporation leaves it as a very viscous, transparent light brown semi-liquid, which does 
not solidify by many days exposure to a steam, heal. When burnt it gives out a fragrance, and hence it is sometimes used /or incense. Its 
perfume is however inferior to that produced by many other renin* employed in the concoction of the incense employed in Christian and Heathen 
worship. The peculiar consistency of the resin would enable it to substitute Venice turpentine for many purposes. A substitute for Venice 
turpentine in India is mentioned as a desideratum in (he reports of the Juries of the Madras Exhibition of 1855, class IV." 



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ODINA WODIER. (Nat. ord. Anacardiacese.) 

OD1NA. Boxb.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous. Calyx 4-5 fid or partite ; segments ovate or roundish. Petals as many, imbricate. 
Disk small, aunular or saucer-shaped. Male flowers, stamens 8 or 10, inserted under the margin of the disk; anthers versatile or subversatile. Rudiment of 
ovary usually 4 fid. Fertile flowers, anthers smaller often effete. Ovary sessile, free, glabrous or hairy, 1 celled. Styles 4 or 3, short, distinct, rather stout ; 
stigmas terminal. Ovule solitary, pendulous. Drupe oblong or ellipsoidal, compressed. Embryo with flat fleshy cotyledons. Trees or shrubs. Leaves 
alternate, deciduous, unequally pinnate, usually collected at the extremities or in lateral tufts from nodes of a previous year ; leaflets opposite, entire. 
Flowers racemose, often fasciculate, shortly pedicellate or subsessile. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 293. Lannea, Quill, and Pen: Fl. Seneg. 1. 153, 

ODINA WODIER. (Roxb.) A large tree, trunk of no great height to the branches, but thick and tolerably straight, bark 
pretty smooth ash colored, branches numerous, the lower spreading the upper ones disposed in every direction generally leafless at the 
time of flowering, leaves alternate about the ends of the branchlets unequally pinnate 10 to 18 inches long, leaflets about 5 opposite pair 
(with an odd one) on the upper half of the common petiole ; sessile or subsessile ovate to oblong often oblique at the base entire with 
a longish blunt acumination, when young more or less covered with white stellate wool at length quite glabrous, 2-5 inches long by 
1-2 inches broad ; inflorescence terminal the male on long filiform panicled spikes, the fertile on short racemes both covered with 
stellate rather scaly pubescence, flowers tetramerous very small, male and fertile on the same tree or on different trees, calyx slightly 
hairy, in the male there are 8 fertile stamens on long filameuts inserted under the 8-9 lobed disk, in the centre of which is the rudiment 
of an ovary terminating in a style with a star-like 4 cleft apex, in the female there are 8 sterile anthers on short filaments a large 
ovary crowned with 4 short stout distinct styles, stigmas more or less 2 cleft, drupe kidney-form smooth, red when ripe, the size of a 
small olive. 

This tree is common in most of our jungles aad is found in Bengal, Bombay and Ceylon, and is also abundant everywhere in this 
Presidency in a planted stale, particularly as an avenue tree, but the cultivated trees are generally grown from cuttings and are gnarled ugly 
specimens ; it is the worst possible avenue tree as it is bare of leaves for several months in the driest and hottest time of the year ; it is called 
Gumpini and Dumpini in Teligu, Wodier and Wv.de in Tamil, Shimtee and Poonil in Canare*e, and Hig or Hok in Ceylon, it seldom ascends the 
mountains to any elevation, but is found all over the Mysore plateau at 3,000 feet; the outer wood is white and worthless, bvt the heart wood of good 
seedling trees which is of a deep reddish mahogany, is useful for many purposes and would be excellent for cabinet purposes and furniture, the tree 
is lopped for fodder and a gum exudes from the trunk which is used medicinally by the natives, being given in asthma and as a cordial and 
used as a plaster and also in cloth printing, the tree inhabits Birmah, where it is called Nabhay and the timber is in use for sheaths of swords, 
spear handles, oil presses and rice pounders, and a closely allied species is found in tropical Africa. 



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BOSWELLIA GLABRA. (Nat. order Burseracese.) 

BoSWELLIA. Roxb.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers reuglar hermathrodite. Calyx small 5-7 toothed persistent, petals 5-7 spreading imbricate, 
stamens 10-13 alternately shorter inserted under the fleshy annular undulate or crenate disk, ovary sessile narrowed into a short style 3 rarely 4 celled, 
stigma 3-4 lobed or entire, ovules 2 in each cell collateral attached to the axis above the middle, fruit 3 rarely 4 angled coriaceous, the epicarp separating 
in 3-4 valves from as many bony 1 seeded pyrenes which are persistent to the central axis, 6eed compressed pendulous with a membranaceous margin, testa 
membranaceous, cotyledons multifid contortuplicate or quite flat, radicle superior. Trees abounding with resin, bark deciduous in papery or membranous 
laminae, leaves deciduous crowded at the apex of the branches, alternate, unequally pinnate, exstipulate, leaflets opposite serrate, racemes or panicles 
axillary or collected at the ends of the branches, appearing before the leaves, flowers white. Roxb. PI. Corom. iii. 4. t. 207. Libanus, Cokb. in As. Res. 
9. 377 I. 5./. 1. Plsesslia, End. Nov. Stirp. Dec. 39. 

JjOSWELLIA GLABRA. (Roxb.) A good sized tree with a greenish smooth bark, leaves alternate towards the apex of the 
branches unequally pinnate, about 1 foot long, the petiole very slightly puberulous or glabrous, leaflets 6-10 opposite or subopposite 
pair, with a terminal odd one, sessile or subsessile, glabrous on both sides, from quite entire to distantly serrated often only towards the 
apex, lanceolate obtuse about 2| inches long, by 10-12 lines broad, racemes terminal, or from the upper axils rather crowded, slightly 
puberulous, calyx puberulous or subglabrous 5-6 or occasionally 7 cleft, petals 5-6 occasionally 7 slightly puberulous on the back, 
anthers hairy 10-12 occasionally 13, ovules 2 in each cell collateral attached to the axis above the middle, stigma 4 lobed, pyrenes (not 
quite mature) heart shaped with a long beak at the apex (at length winged?), cotyledons fiat or contortuplicate tiifid, lobes again 
variously cut or entire, radicle superior long. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 384. 

This fragrant resin-bearing tteeisvery common in many nf our dry subalpine jungles, particularly on the eastern tide of the Pre- 
sidency, on the Vellore, Cuddapah, North Arcot and Kumool hills, Mysore, Guzdehatty pass, &c. &c. ; it does not occur in Ceylon, it flowers in 
January and February generally when quite destitute of leaves, the gum-resin is the olibanum of commerce and is known to the natives os 
Koondricum, it is much used as a fragrant incense and (when boiled with oil) as pitch, and is also said to possess stimulant astringent and 
diaphoretic properties, it is largely used in some parts of India as an application to indolent sores and is supposed to form the chief ingredient 
in " Wroughton's ointment," it is well deserving of careful attention and can be procured in almost any quantity, the substance is bitter and 
pungent and is soluble in aetht and spirits of wine ; in Tamil the tree is called Kungli and Googoolu and Telugu Anduga. lam not acquainted 
with its timber, but it is said by the natives to be of Utile or no value. 


The drawing is from fresh specimens collected on the Nilgiri slopes, the analysis is from 5 merous flowers {which are most 
common) but the sepals and petals are sometimes 6-7 and the stamens 12-13. 

Fig. i. is a fruit opened, showing the heart-shaped pyrene or nut. 

Fig. ii. A nut cut vertically, showing the embryo with unfolded trifid cotyledons (they are sometimes folded.) 

Fig. iii. An embryo opened out showing more cut cotyledons than in fig. ii. 



CtmiLodpo, clet; 

PROTIUM CAUDATUM. (Nat. ord. Burseracefe.) 

PEOTIUiM, Wight and Arnot. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx small tubular 4 cleft or dentate, lobes valvate ; petals 4 erect, with the 
apex recurved and the tips incurved, linear oblong slightly imbricate at the sides with the tips incurved in sestivation ; disk urceolate 4 lobed lining the bot- 
tom of the calyx, margin free, stamens 8-10 inserted below the margin of the disk on the outside alternately shorter, erect free shorter than the calyx in the 
fertile flower, much longer than the calyx in the sterile flower, the longer ones rising from the back of the lobes of the disk and the Bhorter ones from or be- 
hind the sinuses ; ovary sessile 2-4 celled, style very short or obsolete, stigma 3-4 lobed, ovules 2 in each cell collateral pendulous from the apex of the axis, 
drupe fleshy globose, sarcocarp at length 4 valved with 1-4 bony 1 seeded pyrenes which are connate at first but at length separating, seed oblong, testa 
membranaceous, cotyledons membranaceous contortuplicate, radicle superior. Small trees without thorns, bearing resin ; leaves alternate towards the apex 
of the branches, 3 foliate or unequally pinnate, panicles long peduncled crowded towards the apex of the branches, flowers small. WA. Prod. p. 176. 
Protionopsis, Bl. Mus. Bot. I. 229. 

irEOTIUM CAUDATUM. (WA.) A middling sized tree, bark very smooth and of a bright green color, leaves alternate 
about the extremities of the branches 3-foliate or unequally pinnate, 3-6 inches long, leaflets 1 to 5 pair with an odd one, quite 
glabrous on both sides, from broadly ovate to lanceolate with a long terminal sharp acumination, about 2 inches long by |-1 inch 
broad, petiolules 2-4 lines long, panicles fascicled supra axillary from the young shoots ; about equal in length to the young leaves but 
shorter than the adults, 2-3 times dichotomous, lax, furnished with filiform apiculate bracteoles (2-3 lines long) at the base of the ramifi- 
cations ; petals reflexed but with an incurved tip at the apex, stamens 8 alternately shorter inserted below the margin of the disk on 
the outside, shorter than the calyx in the fertile flowers, much longer than the calyx in the sterile, the anthers of the shorter filaments 
apiculate the others rounded, ovary oblong 2 celled, ovules 2 in each cell collateral pendulous from the apex of the axis, stigma subses. 
sile 3-4 lobed, in the male flowers there is a small abortive ovary with a 3 lobed sessile stigma, drupe the size of a small sloe. WA. 
Prod, p. 176. Sfr, fl^4". JL-^i - A J*A 

This green barked tree is common in most of our dry subalpme jungles on both sides of the Madras Presidency, and is found in Ceylon 
all over this Presidency ; it is very common as an avenue tree, and a very bad one it makes, as it is bare of leaves for some months towards the end 
of the cold season and beginning of the hot, the young leaves appearing with the flowers in March. It is curious that it is not mentioned by Roxburgh 
as it is so abundant in some parts of the Northern Circars ; it is called Kondd Udmidi in Teligu and Kilevay in Tamil ; the whole tree is very 
odoriferous, the leaves and bark having a strong grateful fragrance something like mangoes. The tree grows most readily from large cuttings, which 
is the reason it is so often employed for avenue purposes ; the ivood is said to be worthless. 

The figure is from a drawing executed in the Ceylon Herbarium, and represents fertile flowers. My S. Indian specimens quite tally, except 
that the leaflets are broader and fewer in number, the stigma generally (always?) 3 lobed, and the ovules pendulous instead of ascending ; the latter 
difference is an error of the Ceylon artist. I have added (figure A.) dissections of the male flower taken from fresh specimens collected in this Presidency. 

The South Indian species of Protium and the S. Indian Balsamodendron, must be placed under the same genus ; the flowers only differ 
in the former having a 4 lobed disk and the latter a 6 S-crenated disk, and there is no difference in the fruit ; the 2 species of Protium are unarmed 
with long peduncled panicles- Balsamodendron is armed, and has almost sessile inflorescence, but this would not constitute a generic distinction, and 
the genus Protium of WA. must lapse. 


pl. cm 

C-oirtxchii. del: 

Jmfe^ / <«iM4^»/^' / 

Dtim-pfiy, T^iffz.: 

BALSAMODENDRON BERRYI. (Nat. ord. BureeracesB.) 

BaLSAMODENDRON, Kwnth.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous. Calyx tubular 4 toothed persistent, petals 3-4 erect recurved towards 
the apex with incurved tips, linear-oblong, the sides slightly imbricate and tips incurved in aestivation, stamens 6-8 inserted outside the margin of the 
very short 6-8 erenated disk, free, alternately shorter, ovary surrounded by the disk sessile 2-3 celled, narrowed into alongish style, stigma obtuse 4 lobed. 
ovules 2 in each cell, collateral pendulous, in the male flowers the ovaries are abortive very small or sometimes wanting. Drupe ovoid or subglobose, 
epicarp 2-4 valved, with 1-3 bony 1 seeded pyrenes, seeds exalbuminous, testa membranaceous, cotyledons contortuplicate sheathing the terete pointed 
superior radicle. Trees or shrubs yielding resin, generally spinose, leaves alternate 1-3 foliate or unequally-pinnate, flowers small fascicled on thickened 
nodes or short lateral ramuli or on 1-4 flowered axillary jointed peduncles. Kunth. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ii. 348. Heudelotia, A.Rich. Fl. Seneg. 150. I. 39. 
Commiphora, Jacq. Hort. Schcenb. t. 294. Balsam ophleos, 0. Berg, in Bol. Zeit. 

BaLSAMODENDRON BeRRYI. (Amt.) A small or middling sized very thorny tree up to 3-4 feet in girth with nu- 
merous lateral spinose ramuli nearly at right angles with the branches, leaves more or less fascicled at the extremities or from nodes 
on the branches or thorn-like ramuli, trifoliate 1-1^ inches long, common petiole J an inch long channelled slightly puberulous, leaflets 
sessile or subsessile at the apex of the petiole cuneate obovate, the terminal one twice as large as the lateral ones, glabrous on both 
sides from entire or slightly undulate to more or less crenate particularly towards the apex, flowers very small (about 3 lines long) 
fascicled on nodes on the branches and thorn-like ramuli sessile or subsessile, calyx tubular 3-4 cleft at the apex, corol twice or nearly 
twice as long as the calyx 3-4 petaled, petals slightly imbricate at the sides with inflexed tips during aestivation, erect in expansion 
with a recurved apex which terminates in an incurved tip, disk very small (generally rather larger in the male flowers than in the 
fertile) 6-8 erenated, the crenatures resembling glands, stamens 6-8 alternately shorter, in the male all are very much longer than the 
calyx and the 3-4 longer ones equal the corol, the anthers of the longer are rounded or subapiculate, and prominently apiculate on the 
shorter, in the fertile flowers the 3-4 longer ones equal the teeth of the calyx and the others the sinuses only, the anthers are smaller, 
(and effete ?) ovary large in the fertile flowers attenuated into a rather long style with a 4 lobed stigma, very small (or wanting) in the 
male flowers, stigma 4 lobed, fruit as in the genus oblong sometimes obtusely angled 6-8 lines long apiculate. Arnot Ann. of Nat.. 
Hist. vol. iii. p. 85, 86 ;— Wight, 111. p. 185. Protium Gileadense, WA. Prod. 176. (exc. syn.) Amyris Qileadensis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. p. 246 (exc. syn.) ^U . A-wt~. <&*_/ . J , ^'' C j 

This is a good sited tree in the dry jungles to the east of the Ndgiris (Guzzlehatiy pass, &c.) covered with flower and fruit in Febru- 
ary and March, all over the Presidency ii is very common as a hedge plant but seldom flowering in that state, as the inflorescence is either at- 
tacked when young by some insect Or rendered abortive from a successive propagation from cuttings. The whole tree has a grateful fragrance and 
a gum-resin exudes from it, the plant makes an admirable hedge. 

I have taken the generic character entirely from the Indian plant, the drawing is from fresh specimens collected in the Coimbatore 



GovzjieZao, ate?. 


J?scm???Z24, .£> iff? -■ 

CANARIUM BRUNNEUM. (Nat. ord. Buraeracese.) 

OaNARIUM, Linn.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite or polygamous, calyx uroeolate or cupulate 3-5 cleft (rarely only 2) valvate per- 
sistent, petals 3-5 as long or longer than the calyx, valvate or imbricate, stamens 8-10 short erect or incurved (6 in some extra-Indian species) inserted 
on to a long staminal tube, disk obsolete or none, or on the margin or outer side of a fleshy entire or undulate disk, filaments cohering more or less together 
at the base and with the disk; ovary ovoid 2-3-4 celled, ovules 2 in each cell collateral fixed to the axis, stigma sessile or subsessile, capitate 3-4 lobed, 
drupe ovoid or ellipsoid often 3 sided with a bony 1 seeded putamen, testa membranaceous, cotyledons contortuplicate, radicle short straight superior. 
Large tree3 yielding resin, leaves alternate piunUe with or without stipules, the lowest pair of leaflets occasionally resembling stipules, leaflets opposite 
entire or crenulate, pauicles axillary, flowers small. — Scutinauthe, Thm. Colophonia, Comm. Pimela, Lour Fl. Cochin. Cauariopsis, Blurne Mus. Bot. 1. 222. 

CANARIUM BRUNN'EUM. (Thw.) A tree 50 or 60 feet high, branchlets and young leaves rufo-tomentose, leaves 
unequally pinnate 10-20 inches long, leaflets 5-11, oblong slightly oblique acuminate, entire, 4-8 inches long 2-3 broad reddish, peti- 
olules 4 lines long aulcate above, tumid at the base, striated, panicles axillary many flowered tomentose, flowers 3 lines long, sepals 5 
erect, petals 5 valvate fleshy coriaceous persistent, the length of the calyx, stamens 10 cohering in the lower part in a ring and con- 
solidated with the base of the calyx and corol, anthers oblong introse, fixed by their back, ovary 2 celled, drupe oblong rufo-tomentose 
attenuated at both ends about 1 inch long, cotyledons undivided. Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 410. Scutinanthe brunnea, Thw. Hook. Journ. 
of Bot. viii./?. 2G6. t. 8 & En. Pl.Ze.yL p. 78. 

Ceylon, in the Central provinces, at aneleoxtion of 2,003 -3,000 feet, called Mahaoulumora- 


lee. d/Z 

<zfoam>'&rti. ;??y/J%#y.-/ 

Vurnp'A -•. ■' rff? 

CANAEIUM STEICTUM. (Nat. ord. Burseraoese.) 

OANARIUM STRICTUM. (Roxb.) A very large tree, polygamous, trunk tall and straight ; young branches, petioles, pani- 
cles, and costa beneath, densely rufo-tomentose, leaves equally or unequally pinnate 1-4 feet long, by 10-20 inches broad, leaflets brilliant- 
red -when young and densely tomentose on both sides, at length glabrous and shining above, soft and densely tornentose beneath, (the 
tomentum being reddish on the costa and veins but otherwise whitish) ovate to oblong, acuminate, often very unequal at the base, about. 
4-7 opposite or subopposite pair with or without a long petioluled odd one, more or less crenulate or serrate particularly when young or 
subentire, 5-12 inches long by 3-6 broad, petiolules about 3 lines long ; panicles axillary densely rufo-tomentose (as is the calyx) a 
little shorter than the leaves, flowers white crowded towards the apex of the pedicels, calyx cupular 3-4 fid valvate persistent, petals 3-4 
more than twice as long as the calyx much imbricate, slightly hairy on the outside towards the apex ; male flowers, disk none, staminal 
tube submembranaceous as long or a little longer than the calyx terminating in 6-8 filaments which are Jrd the length of the calyx 
slightly dilated at the base and attenuated upwards, anthers oblong slightly acute dehiscing longitudinally attached at the back slightly 
above the base, rudiment of the ovary small 6 lobed glabrous below densely hairy towards the apex ; female flower unknown, drupe oval 
tapering at both ends, putamen hard woody 3 celled. 

This very beautiful tree is most abundant in all the moist ghat forests on the western side of the Madras and Bombay Presidencies 
up to 4,000-4,500 feet, but it does not occur in Ceylon or elsewhere, and it is never seen in dry forests, its brilliant crimson foliage makes it 
a most beautiful sight when in young leaf, the leaves of sap>lirigs and young trees are very much larger than those of adults, the tree is known 
as the " black dammer" to Europeans and is called Karapu Kungiliam in Tamil; but also receives the names of Googal and Dhup, and 
in S. Canara Mandd Bhoop, a brilliant black dammer exudes from incisions in the trunk which is a considerable article of trade with some of. 
our hill tribes, this dammer is used medicinally and for various purposes ; it is insoluble in cold, but partially soluble in boiling alcohol with 
the addition of camphor; when powdered it is readily soluble in oil of turpentine, it emits a more resinous smell and bums with more smoke 
than the Vateria resin, a small piece makes an excellent "fire reviver," the tree flowers early in the year, generally in January or February, but 
sometimes as late as April, 1 am not acquainted with the timber. 

The following is Mr. Broughton's report upon some of the resin submitted to him for chemical analysis. 

This well known substance offers little chance of usefulness in Europe, at least when the many resins are considered that are found in the 
market at a fai less price. It is used in this count' y for manyismall purposes, as in the manufacture of bottling toax, varnishes, &c. Its colour 
when in solution is pale compared with its dark tint when in -mass. Though, insoluble in spirit, its solution in turpentine forms a tolerable var- 
nish. When submitted to destructive distillation it yields about IS per cent of oil resembling that obtained from common colophony. Bull 
fear in the majority of its possible applications it possesses few advantages over ordinary resin at Is. 6d. p.er cwt. The number of substances 
suitable for coach varnishes have lately become very numerous in Europe, common resin is now purified by a patent process consisting of distil, 
lation with superheated steam, by which it is obtained nearly as transparent and colorless as glass, in such amount that a single firm turns 
Out 60 tons per week. 

The figure represents a branch in bud, and nearly the whole of a panicle from a male tree. Fig i. is the stamen tube from a 3 merous mule flower . 
fig. ii. the same from a 4 merous flower; Hi. abortive 6 lobed ovary opened out. In the plate are also analysis of the flowers of Cauarium commune and C. 
Zeylanicum (communicated by Dr. Thwaites.) 



(jevznd00; cHeZ, 

Jtusn/i&z/ JMh- 


FILICIUM DECIPIENS. (Nat. ord. Burseraceee.) 

FlLICIUM. Thw. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx 5 parted, lobes imbricate, petals 5 small without scales imbricate, disk tomen. 
tose 5 lobed, stameus 5 inserted on tlie diak, filaments filiform, anthers ovate-sagittate, ovary sessile globose 2 celled (sterile in the male flowers), style 
short uncinate, stigma simple or slightly 2 lobed, ovules solitary in the cells pendulous from the apex, drupe fleshy with a membranaceous putamen 
] -2 celled 1-2 seeded, seed oblong, testa, membranaceous, embryo exalbuminous curved, cotyledons foliaceous plicate, radicle dorsal directed towards 
the hilum and nearly reaching it. A tree, leaves alternate coriaceous unequally pinnate, rachis winged, flowers small white panicled. Thw. En, PI. 
Zeyl. p. 40S. Pteridophyllum, Thw. in Hook. Kew. Joum. vi. 65. t. 1. 

FlLICIUM DECIPIENS. (WA.) Ainiddling sized tree all the young parts clothed with scurf like scales, leaves when young 
slightly puberulous in the costa beneath, more or less scaly on both sides and slightly glutinous at length glabrous, unequally pinnate 
10-15 inches long by 3|-7 wide, rachis interruptedly winged, the portion between each leaflet tapering at the base and truncated at the 
apex, leaflets 6-12 alternate or subopposite pair, linear to narrow oblong tapering at the base quite entire or slightly repandulate 
towards the apex, panicles axillary large shorter than the leaves angled ; flowers, &c. as in the generic character — Ehus decipiens, WA. 
Prod. p. 172. 

This very elegant fern-leaved tree is found more or less throughout the Western ghat forests of the Madras Presidency and in Ceylon, 
and has been introduced into gardens ; it is very abundant in the moist forests of the Anamallays at about 4000-4500 feet elevation and also at 
much lower altitudes, the timber is strong and valuable for building purposes, it floioers in December and January and ripens its fruit in March, 
in Ceylon it is called Pehimbia. 

The drawing of the branch in fruit if from a specimen collected on the Annamallays. The analysis is from a drawing by Dr. Thvmites. 
i. o male/lower ; ii. the same petals removed ; iii. a fertile flower ovary removed ; iv. a section of a fertile flower showing the ovides and the 
position of the stamens. 



L'Vta^u£av / r2*> 

JZ7&J77/?Zt/, Zztfz: 

AGLAIA ROXBURGHIANA. (Nat. ord. Meliaceae.) 

For Gen. Cbar. see under " Meliaceae" in the Manual. 

-A-GLAIA JuvOXBURGHIANA. (WA.) A large tree polygamous, all the young parts more or less scurfy with reddish scales, 
leaves unequally pinnate 6 inches to 1 foot long, leaflets opposite or alternate 2-4 pair with an odd one, always more or less lanceolate 
but sometimes obovato-lanceolate to obovate spathulate, quite entire, paler beneath, 2-5 inches long by 1-1 J- broad, petiolules 2-6 lines 
long, panicles axillary all more or less scurfy from much shorter to longer than the leaves, generally longer and more compound in the 
male, and shortened in the fertile, flowers very small geuerally a little larger in the fertile, pedicels 1-3 lines long, calyx 5 fid scaly or 
glabrous and often ciliate, petals 5 often scaly on the outside when young, staminal tube subglobose from nearly entire to 5 toothed 
or lobed, anthers 5 sessile (but the tube immediately below each anther is often more or less thickened and gives the appearance of 
there being a regular filament) quite included or their apices slightly protruded above the tube, fruit from nearly globose to pear- 
shaped. — Milnea Eoxburghiana, WA. Prod- p. 119. M-Hneaapiocarpaj Tlvw?En. PL'J&y.p. 60. 

Very common throughout the ghat forests on the western side of Madras Presidency up to 4,000 feet, and in parts of Mysore, <&c, and in 
Ceylon ; it is very variable in the shape of the leaves and fruit and amount of pubescence, the timber is strong and useful for building, the tree 

generally flowers in March and April, but I have also seen it in flower at other seasons. Fig A represents a common form fa branch of the fertile 
tree with dissection of flowers ofthemale tree). B is a variety fiom the Tinnevelly hills (Atlraymallay ghat) a male tree with dissections of the 

flowers, this variety has the leaves obovate-spathulate, the dissections are o.U from male flowers, but the female flower only differs in having a 

fertile ovary. 

One variety or species in my Herbarium, a large tiee from South Canara which 1 refer doubtfully to this species, has the leaves about 
2 feet long and the leaflets ovate-lanceolate from a broad base 7 inches long, male panicles nearly as long as the leaves and very compound, flowers 
in no way differing from those of Roxbwghiana ( fig. A J, fertile flowers and fruit not seen. 

Fig A is a branch of a fertile tree in young bud and young fruit, and dissections of male flowers fall from the Annamallays), Figure 
B is a male tree and dissections of the flowers (from South Tinnevelly. J 


frox/vncico, A-'- 

LANSIUM ANA M ALLAY ANUM. (Nat. ord: Meliaceje.) 

LAKSIUM. Rumph. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers dioecious, sepals 5 rounded imbricate, petals 5 rounded connivent imbricate, staminal tube 
globose creuulate at the mouth, anthers 10 alternately shorter, the apices of the 5 longer ones just exserted, disk inconspicuous, ovary globose 3-5 celled, 
style very short thick, stigma truncate 3-5 lobed or radiate, ovules 1-2 in each cell fixed to the axis, berry with a rind 5-celled or by abortion 1-4 celled 
indehiscent, cells 1-2 seeded. Seed solitary or twin collateral oblong, hilum ventral, aril pulpy covering the whole seed, testa coriaceous, cotyledons 
transverse, radicle superior. Trees, leaves unequally pinnate, flowers small in axillary racemes or panicles or branched spikes, berry yellow or red, aril 
sometimes edible. — Sphserosacme, Wall, in part. 

LANSIUM AnAMALLAYANUM. (Bedd.) A good sized tree, leaves 6-9 inches long unequally pinnate, glabrous, 
leaflets 3-5 elliptic obtusely acuminate, attenuated at the base, eutire, 3-4 J inches long by l|-2 broad, furnished with hairy glands 
in the axils of the veins beneath, petiolules about ^ an inch long, flowers in axillary panicled spikes, peduncle very short 1-2 lines 
long, brauchlets 2-3 inches long, flowers pentamerous hermathrodite (always 1) yellow, about 2 lines in diameter, sepals imbricate 
rounded ciliate, with 1-2 minute bracts at the base, petals about twice as large, imbricate, rounded at the apex, stamen-tube obsoletely 
5 cleft, anthers 10 alternately shorter, the 5 longer ones just appearing above the apex of the tube, filaments adglutinate to the tube 
and not separable with the anther, ovary densely strigose sessile on a very small disk, 3 lobed 3 celled, ovules 1 in each cell attached 
to the axis near the base (or 2 ovules in each cell ?) style very short or obsolete, stigma large obtusely 3 lobed, fruit oblong with 
a dry greyish rind size of a grape, 2 celled, 2 seeded, seed completely covered with a very succulent aril. Bedd in Linn. 
Trans, vol. xiv., and Icones Plant. Indice tab. civ. 

/ formerly described the ovaiy cells as 2 ovuled, though I only figured them as 1 ovuled ; in dissecting several flowers 1 

now find only 1 ovule in each cell, but it probably varies. 


A handsome tree, common in the dense moist forest of the Anamallays (particularly in the Anagoondy shola) at an elevation of about 
2000 feet, also in Malabar (foot of the Nilgiris) ; it flowers early in April, and the fruit ripens in July, the succulent aril in the latter is greedily 
eaten by ironkeys and birds ; it is the only species of the genus found in the Peninsula, one species occurs in the Himalayas and a third in Jav.x. 



Offi/h^SLoo ekk 

= ^^^^^?^<^^^^^^^^^^^^^^«^/ 

J?u?n/p7zz/. Zttfi: 

AMOOEA ROHITUKA. (Nat. ord. Meliaceee.) 

-P or Gen. Char, see under this genus in the Manual. 

AMOORA ROHITUKA. (Roxb.) A small or middling sized tree, polygamous, trunk pretty straight, bark smooth 
ash colored, leaves alternate unequally pinnate 1-2 feet long, leaflets 4-8 pair opposite obliquely oblong glabrous shortly pointed at 
the apex 3-6 inches long by 2-2f broad, petiole less than \ an inch long slightly pubescent when young at length glabrous 
inflorescence axillary, panicled on the male tree, and spiked on the fertile. Male panicles axillary or a little above the axils somewhat 
drooping very large and much branched, but shorter than the leaves, flowers numerous, pedicels 2-3 lines long, calyx 5 parted 
imbricate, petals 3 oval to orbicular concave imbricate, stamen-tube globular bluntly 3 lobed at the apex, anthers 6 sessile included, 
or with the apices just appearing at the mouth of the tube attached by the centre of their back to the tube, a small rudiment of 
an ovary hairy at the base and 3 lobed at the apex, fertile spikes \ or a little more than half the length of the leaves, flowers as 
in the male except that they contain a fertile ovary which is 3 celled with 2 ovules in each cell superposed and attached to the 
middle of the axis, stigma subsessile 3 lobed, lobes emarginate, capsule round reddish 1 \ inches in diameter a little attenuated at the 
base, 3 celled 3 valved opening from the apex, seed oblong with a brown testa enclosed completely in a fleshy scarlet aril. — Andersonia 
Rohituka, Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 213. 

This tree is met with sparingly throughout the Western ghat forests of the Madras Presidency up to 3500 feel elevation in Bengal 
and in Ceylon ( where it is called Hingoot), it is rather common in the Anamallays, an oil is extracted from the seed in Bengal. The specimen 
figured and the dissections are all from a male tree gathered in the Anamallay kills. 


PL : cm 

• Viv ■zcUn> l ckL 

AMOQRA LA.WII. (Nat. ord. Meliacese.) 
For. Qeu, Char, see letter press to PI. cxxxii. 

AmOORA LaWII. (Wight.) A middling sized tree, all the young parts and the inflorescence scaly with yellowish browa 
leprous scales, leaves unequally pinnate generally about 8 incb.es each, way, leaflets 2-3 opposite or alternate pair with a terminal odd one, 
leaflets lanceolate acuminate about 4 inches long by 1| broad, petioles 2-3 lines long, panicles axillary much branched, calyx scaly more 
or less 4-toothed, petals 4, one of which is rnuch narrower thau the others, stamen tube orbicular subentire or crenated at the apex, 
anthers 8 rarely only 7, attached by the back near the base to an evident filameut which is adglutinate to the calyx tube and rises from 
nearly its base, ovary scaly, 3 -celled, cells 1 ovuled, ovules attached to the axis a little above the base, stigmas 3 sessile, fruit (immature) 
pear-shaped size of a plum iudehisceut? abounding in white resinous juice. — Nimmonia Lawii, Wight. Gal Journ- of Nat. His. vii. 13. 
Nemedra Nimmonii, Dab, in Bomb. Flora, p. 37. 

A middling sized tree, Bombay and Canara ghat forests, and probub'y elsewhere on our western chain of ghats ; called Boorumb in 
the Bombay Presidency. 


PL: CM. 

O-crvaiifco, cfcc. 

, ■rw&t?la<~£a0V£// M^^/ 

HEYNEA AFF1NIS. (Nat. ord. Meliaceae.) 

•O.EYNEA. Eoxb. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx short, 4-5 cleft imbricate, petals 4-5 oblong erect imbricate, staminal-tube deeply 8-10 cleft, divisions 
linear sharply 2-toothed at the apex and each bearing an anther between the teeth, anthers slightly exserted, disk fleshy annular, ovary immersed in the 
disk depressed, 2-3 celled, style short thickened upwards and clubbed at the apex, stigma 2-3 toothed, cells of the ovary 2 ovnled, ovules pendulous 
from near the apex of the axis, collateral. Capsule fleshy 1 celled 2 valved, 1 seeded, seed arillate, radicle superior. Trees or shrubs, glabrous or pubes- 
cent, leaves unequally pinnate, leaflets opposite, panicles axillary long peduncled, corymbose, flowers small. 

HliYNEA. AFFINIS. (Juss.) A middling sized tree, glabrous, leaves unequally pinnate 12-20 inches long by 10-16 
broad, leaflets 3-4 opposite pair with, a terminal long peduncled odd leaflet, glabrous above, beneath white and glaucous, but also 
glabrous except a few distant white hairs on the costa and over the surface (only visible with a lens), obliquely ovate to oblong very 
unequal at the base and ending in a long terminal very sudden acumination, 4-8 inches long by 2|-3J broad, the parallel primary veins 
very prominent beneath, petioles from less than | to f inch long (terminal one ] | inches,) panicles axillary about §rds the length of 
the leaves, corymbosely branched at the apex of the long glabrous peduncle, branches minutely pubescent and furnished with minute 
hairy bracteoles at the branchlets, flowers white about 2 lines long, calyx corol and staminal-tube pubescent, anthers yellow obtusely 
apiculate. fruit oblong or roundish about 6 lines long by 5 broad bursting when ripe into 2 valves disclosing the solitary seed surround- 
ed by its aril. Ad.de Juss. in Mem. Mus. 19. Heynea trijuga, lloxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 390 1 

A very ornamental tree, common in many localities on the western mountains of the Madras Presidency, from 2000 feet upwards 
(Cenoor 6000 feet, abundant, Bolampaity valley 3000 feet, very abundant.) 


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BEDDOMEA SIMPLICIFOLIA. (Nat. order Meliacese.) 

BEDDOMEA. Hook, fit— GEN. CHAR. Calyx 5-6 partite, lobes broadly ovate imbricate, petals as many orbicular, equal in size, or the in= 
terior smaller, much imbricate : stamen-tube short or globose, crenulate at the apex, anthers 5-6 sessile at the apex of the tube partially or almost wholly 
exserted connective very thick, cells narrow marginal at length confluent at the apex ; ovary short hirsute more or less immersed in an inconspicuous disk 
3-celled. cells 2 ovuled ovules collateral attached to the axis at or a little above the middle, style short thick, stigma 3 lobed pyramidal, fruit coriaceous 
oblong or ovate or subglobose often acute at the apex, more or less ribbed and densely covered with close-set scurfy and stellate tomentum, tardily dehiscent 
2-3 celled but the partitions very thin and often obsolete, seeds 3-5 large more or leas angled exarillate, cotyledons superposed, radicle centripetal. Trees or 
shrubs with more or less scurfy pubescence, leaves simple trifoliate or pinnate, leaflets entire, opposite or alternate, flowers in axillary panicles or racemes 
or solitary in the axils. 

BEDDOMEA. SIMPLICIFOLIA. (Bedd.) A tree up to 3 feet in girth and 25 in height, young parts furnished with 
scurfy scales, leaves from lanceolate to broadly elliptic more or less acute slightly scurfy when young, at length quite glabrous 3-6 
inches Ion" by li-3J broad, veins parallel and prominent beneath, petioles |-f inch long much thickened at the apex (but not apparently 
iointed ) flowers very variable in size from 1-|- to nearly 5 lines in diameter, panicles or racemes from much shorter than the leaves to 
filiform and much longer or the flowers are occasionally solitary in the axils, pedicels 1-3 lines long, pubescence of the panicle and 
calyx from densely rufo-tomentose to scurfy, flowers 5-6 merous, petals equal or subequal orbicular slightly scaly in the centre of the 
back stamen-tube in the paniculate and racemed flowers large globose crenated at the apex the inside sometimes furnished with pro- 
minent corrugations, anthers with a very large thickened connective, attached by their back near the apex of the tube, and 
partly exserted ■ in the solitary flowers the staminal tube is smaller plane inside and the anthers cover the whole length of the tube the 
apices bein°- slightly exserted, ovaries of both flowers as in the genus and furnished with ovules, fruit oblong size of a pigeon's egg 
more or less acute, densely rusty-tomentose, 

Var^ a. racemes much shorter than the leaves, flowers large 4-5 lines in diameter, rufo-tomentose. 

Wynad, Tinnevelly hills and Travancore, 2-4000 feet. 
Vary- p. parviflora, panicles very small not much longer than the petioles, flowers 1-2 lines in diameter, rufo-tomentose. 

Annamallay hills and Pulney Hills, 3-4000 feet. 
Vary- y. racemosa, racemes filiform longer than the leaves, pubescence scurfy. 

Wynad, Coorg and South Canara. 
It was only after a long acquaintance with all these forms in a growing state that I made up my mind to unite all the simple 
leaved forms of Beddomea under one species. All the varieties occasionally have solitary axillary flowers which differ a little in their 
anthers, but as the fruit is always solitary in the axils, it is probable that these are the only truly fertile flowers, though all the flowers 
have ovules in the ovaries. Vary. y. resembles B. Indica in its racemes, but its staminal tube and anthers are the same as the other 
varieties of this species. The species figured is vary. a. (from Travancore). Fig. 1 gives the front and back view of the petals. Fig. 2 
front and side view of the anthers. Fig, 3 the staminal tube and anthers of the panicled and racemed flowers. Fig. 4 the stamen 
tube of the solitary axillary flowers- At the top of the plate I have given dissections of the flowers of B. Indica (Hook, fil.) vide 
Manual. A. B. and C are front, back and side view of one of the anthers. 

The different varieties are all small trees and very common throughout the Western ghat forests from Canara doivn to Cape Comorin. 



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OARAPA MOLUCCENSIS. (Nat. ord. Meliacese.) 

CARAPA. Aubl.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx small, 4 or 5 lobed. Petals 4 or 5 free, imbricate in the bud. Staminal tube ureeolate, crenate or lobed, 
authors 8 or 10, within the summit. Disk thick surrounding the ovary. Ovary 4 to 5-celled, with 2 to 6 ovules in each cell, style short, with a large 
disk-like stigma. Capsule globular or ovoid, fleshy or woody, the dissepiments often disappearing. Seeds several in a compact maBs round the remains 
of the central axis, large, thick, with a ventral hilum ; testa spongry ; cotyledons superposed often united ; radicle dorsal. Maritime [trees. Leaves pin- 
nate with eutire leaflets. Pauicles axillary. — Xylocarpus, Kan. ; — Benth. Fl. Aust. 1. p. 386. Persoonia, Willd. Sp. Pi. ii. 331. Touloucouna and Racapa, 
Ram Synops. 123. 

CARA.PA MoLUCCENSIS. (Lam.) A tree glabrous in all its parts. Leaflets 4, rarely 2 or 6, opposite, ovate, obtuse, 
shortly acuminate or rarely acute, 2 to 3 or rarely 4 inches long, somewhat coriaceous, reticulate. Panicles short, loose, and few 
flowered, sometimes reduced to simple racemes or with few divaricate branches. Ca]y x small, irregularly lobed. Petals 4 or rarely 5, 
21 to 3 lines long. Staminal tube crenate or splitting into short lobes. Ovary very small, in the centre of a large thick depressed 
disk, Ovules 2, 3, or 4 iu each cell, excessively minute. Fruit often 3 or 4 inches diameter, irregularly globular. Seeds'usually 4 to 
6, large irregularly shaped, closely packed ; testa very thick, of a hard spongy consistence. — Xylocarpus granatum, Keen ; — Willd. 
Spec. PL ii. 328 ;— Benth. Fl. Aust. 1. p. 387. 

This tree is a native of the coast in Malabar, Ceylon and in theSunderbvnds, and is also found in Africa, Australia, Madagascar and 
the Malay Archipelago ; in Tamil it is called Kandalanga, and in Ceylon Kadul. The drawing and dissections are communcialed ly Br. Thwaites. 


STROMBOSIA CEYLANICA. (Nat. order OlacineEe.) 

STKOMBOSIA. Illume.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx limb small, 5 lobed ; lobes broadly ovate or deltoid rotundate, in fruit enlarged, adnate. Petals 
o, perigynous, valvate. Stamens as many as and opposite and adnate to the petals, filaments shortly free above, ovary broad, inserted upon a disk or 
semi-immevsed or altogether immersed, 3-5 celled nearly to the apex ; style short ; stigma obtuse, slightly thickened, obscurely lobulate ; ovule3 pendu- 
lous, 1 in each compartment. Fruit drupaceous. Seed pendulous with a minute embryo within the apex of a fleshy albumen. Glabrous trees. Leaves 
alternate, coriaceous. Flowers small, in axillary cymes or fascicles, pedunculate or sessile. — Sphcerocarya, Dak. A. DC. Prod. xiv. 629. Lavallea, Baill. 

STROMBOSIA CEYLANICA. (Gardn.) A large tree, leaves ovate oblong glabrous acute at the apex paler beneath, about 5 
inches long by 2 broad, petioles about h an inch long, flowers subsessile glomerate on very short scaly nodes which are axillary or on 
the branches between the leaves, flowers 1-li lines long, calyx lobes rounded very small about -J- the length of the petals, stigma 4 lobed 
ovary 4 celled, fruit (immature) pyriform scaly. Gard. in Gale. Jouru. of Nat. Hist. vol. vi. p. 350. Sphcerocarya leprosa, Dalz. 
Rook. Jour, of Bot. iii. 34 and Bombay Flora, p- 223. S. Javanica, Thw. En. PI. Zeyl. (not Blume.) 

Ceylon, Canara ghats, a large timber tree, the wood is while and durable, the drawing and dissections are taken from a Ceylon 
specimen. Fig. 1. and 2 of the ripe fruit a;e copied from Blume's figure of S. Javanica, a closely allied species, which differs in its pedunculate 
inflorescence. I have only a poor specimen of the Ganara tree, it appears to be the same, but the style is longer and the stigma entire or 2 lobed. 



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ANACOLOSA DENSIFLORA. (Nat. order Olacineae.) 

ANACOLOSA. Bl. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx small cyathiform truncate denticulate free, unchanged in fruit, disk hypogynous adnate to the 
ovary increasing in fruit, petals 6 inserted into the margin of the disk, valvate, concave at the base where they embrace the anthers, hairy above, stamens 
6 inserted at the base of the petals and opposite to them, anthers ovate, ovary immersed in the disk 1-3 celled generally imperfectly partitioned, style 
entire or 3 toothed, ovules 2-3 pendulous from nearly the apex of the axis, drupe baccate 1 seeded with a ringed margin near the apex of the adnate disk, 
putamen crustaceous, embryo small in the apex of fleshy albumen, radicle superior, leaves alternate entire coriaceous, flowers congested in the axils 

ANACOLOSA DENSIFLORA. (Bedd.) A lofty tree, branches terete, leaves glabrous shining oblong, obtusely acuminate, 
rounded at the base, 4-5 inches long by 1 J-2 broad, petiole J inch long, flowers 7-20 fascicled in the axils, pedicels about 3 lines long, 
flowers 3 lines long, pale yellowish very fragrant, calyx with 4-6 minute teeth, petals very hairy within, filaments glabrous, ovpry 
2-3 celled, style 3 fid. Bedd. Linn. Trans, vol. xxv. p. 211. 

This is a very lofty timber tree which I have only met within the Anamallays, moist forests at 2000 feel elevation ( Anagoondi shola,) 
it flowers in November and December, when the boughs are a perfect mass of ve>'y fragrant flowers. 



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LASIANTHERA APIOAULIS. (Nat. order Olacineae.) 

LASIANTHERA. P. cle Beauvois.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermaphrodite (or polygamous.) Calyx shortly and broadly 5 lobed. Petals 5 
liypogyuous, valvate in aestivation. Disk fleshy, unilateral or inompicuous. Stameus 5, alternate with the petals, free or adnate at the base to the 
petals ; anthers tufted behind with a pencil of soft hairs. Orary free, 1 celled, narrowed above ; stigma minute. Ovules geminate, pendulous. Fruit 
coriaceous, oblong. Seed pendulous, with a small embryo within the apex of a fleshy album ^u. Glabrous trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate entire. Flowers 
«mali, capitate; peduncles umbellate, leaf opposed. — Stemnnurus, Blame Bijdr. ex parte. Urandra, Thw. in Hook. Kew Jour, of Bot- vol. vii. p. 211. 

LASIANTHERA APICAULIS. (Tdw.) A very large tree, branches terete glabrous, leaves entire very coriaceous, oblong 
or obovato-oblong abruptly shortly-acuminate ; narrowed at the base paler beneath 4-6 inches long by 2-3 inches broad, petioles 5-8 
lines long, peduncles axillary solitary or twice shorter thau or about the length of the petiole, capitula 7-12 flowered, flowers herma- 
throdite, petals greenish, purple towards the base about 2 lines long, drupe oblong sub acute I J inches long more than J an inch 
broad »teenish purple, putamen woody with several longitudinal cavities filled with soft cellular matter externally fasciculate fibrous, 
testa consolidated with the pericarp. Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 43 and 405. 

Ceylon in damp forests 1000 to 3000 feet elevation, called Urukanu ; the dissections are communicated by Dr. Thwaites. 






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APODYTES BENTHAMIANA. (Nat. order OlacineEe.) 

APODYTES. E. Meyer. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx small 5 toothed or partite, petals 5 bypogynous free valvate glabrous or subglabrous, stamens 
as many as and alternate with the petals free or very shortly adherent to their base, anthers linear to lanceolate oblong or sagittate, ovary 1-celled, style 
filiform more or less oblique, stigma small, ovules 2 pendulous sub-superposed, drupe baccate obliquely ellipsoidal or rounded sometimes bearing on one 
side a fleshy appendage, nut crustaceous or woody, seed 1 pendulous, with a small embryo near the apex of the fleshy albumen. Trees or Bhrubs, leaves 
entire alternate penniveined, flowers in terminal panicles or axillary fascicles. — Raphiostyles, Planch? Notbapodytes, Blame. Mus. Bot. 1. 248. 

APODYTES BENTHAMIANA. (Wight.) A middling sized tree young parts minutely aureo-pubescent, branches terete 
glabrous, leaves alternate coriaceous glabrous (turning quite blaok in drying) oblong elliptic obtuse at both euds 3^-4 inches long by 
liV broad, petiole f-l£ inches long, panicles terminal contracted rigid shorter than the leaves slightly pubescent, bractes minute or 
wanting, flowers white 3 lines long, calyx minute 5 toothed slightly pubescent as is the pedicel, petals elliptic inflexed at the point, 
stamens the length of the petals, anthers pubescent on the front face and sides, basifixed linear obtuse, deeply sagittate at the base, 
ovary glabrous ovate, style lateral straight, stigma inconspicuous truncated, drupe semi-ovate reniform crowned with the persistent 
base of the style and famished with a lateral scutellifonn appendage. Wight Icov.es tab. 1153. A. Gardneriann. Miers. Ann. and Mag. 
of Nat. Hist, series %, vol. ix. p. 389. 

Vary- o. Leaves coriaceous obtuse at the apex, panicles short rigid. 

Var^ /3. Leaves membranaceous, broader than in var. a. with a long narrow aeumination at the apex terminating in a sharp 
or obtuse point, panicles lax and much larger than in variety a. 

Variety a. — Nilgiris, Anamallays, Travancore, Tinnevelly hills and Ceylon, elevation 5000-7500 feet. Vary /2. northern 
slopes of the Nilgiris, Travancore (Myhendra coffee estates,) elevation 3,000 feet. The 2 varieties have a very different appearance, and 
I long thought them distinct, but a careful analysis of the flowers shows no difference, aud variety /3. may I think be safely considered 
only a lower level more membranaceous form, it is a much handsomer tree than the variety found at higher elevations. The figure is 
taken from living specimens of var. a gathered on the Nilgiris. 


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MAP PI A FOETID A. (Nat ord. Olacineae.) 

MAPPLA, Jacq.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx small 5 toothed, petals 5 hypogynous valvate villous, stamens 5 hypogynous 
alternate with the petals, authers oblong affixed by the back connective often mucronate, disk cnpulate surrounding the ovary or sometimes inconspicuous, 
ovary 1 celled, style short, stigma thick, ovules 2 pendulous, drupe slightly fleshy with a 1 seeded crustaceous or woody nut, seed pendulous, embryo in the 
apes of the albumen, radicle superior, cotyledons broad foliaceom. Trees pubesceut orglabrjus, leaves alternate entire or sinuate, cymes lax terminal corym- 
bose.— Leretia, Veil Stemonurus, Wight (not Blume). 

MaPPIA FCETIDA. (Wight.) A good sized tree polygamous, leaves elliptic oblong acuminate, pubescent beneath. 4-7 
inches lon» by about 2-3 broad, petioles §•§ inch long, flowers 3-4 lines in expansion yellowish very fetid, in corymbose terminal pani- 
cles, everywhere villous with short hairs, stamens glabrous, style about as long as the ovary, drupe succulent olive-like purple, nut thin. 
Wight Icones, 955. Mappia fcetkla, ovata, Gardneriana. et Championiana, Miers. Ann. & Mag. of Nat. Hist. Ser. 2 Vol. Ix. 395-7. 

A very common tree in the moist forests of the western side of the Madras Presidency and in Ceylon from no great elevation up to 
7-8000- feet, it is very abundant on the Nilgiris. In Ceylon it is called Oandapaana, the figure is taken from living specimens gathered at 
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ILEX DENTICULATA. (Nat. ord. Ilioinea.) 

ILEX. Linn. — GEN. CHA.R. Flowers unisexual or hermathrodite, calyx small persistent 4 6 cleft, petals 4-6 connate at the base into a 
rotate corol hypogynous imbricate, stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them and inserted on the corol, anthers oblong, ovary sessile sub globose 
4-6 (rarely 7-8) celled, style none or short thick, rarely elongate, stigmas as many as the ovary cells, distinct or combined, ovules 1-2 in each cell collateral, 
drupe globose, putamen 4-5 celled, or with 4-8 long or crustaceous pyrenes. Trees or shrubs, leaves alternate generally shining entire or toothed or spinose, 
inflorescence axillary. — Pseudehretia, Tuxes. 

ILEX DENTICULA.TA. (Wall.) A. very large tree glabrous or the young parts minutely puberulous, leaves very 
coriaceous glabrous and rather shining above, paler beneath ovate to oblong, acute- acuminate or obtuse at the apex serrated, 2£ to 
3| inohes long by 1-lf broad, petioles £ to | an inch long channelled above, peduncles axillary very short, pedicels numerous minutely 
puberulous 3-4 lines long simple or again bearing 3 pedicels, flowers tetramerous, petals only connate at their very base at least in the 
male flowers (I have no fertile flowers for dissection), stamens inserted at the very base of the oorol on to the connate portion between 
the petals. Wight III. lab. 1 42* 

This large timber tree is nat uncommon oil the higher ranges of the Nilgiris and Anamallays at 6000 8000/««tf, and at similar eleva- 
tions in Ceylon, its timber is much valued and is said not to warp or crack, it is at once distinguiihed from the other species by its serrated- 
leaves and 4 merous flowers. 



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ILEX MA.LABARICA. (Nat. order Ilioinesu.) 

For G-ea. Char, see PI. oxlii, 

ILEX MaLABARICA. (Bedd.) A large tree glabrous or the young parts miuutely puberulous (under the lens) leaves 
narrow oblongo elliptic slightly attenuated at both ends acute or acuminata at the apex quite entire dark shining green above very pale 
beneath, 4-5 1 inches long by 1-1 § broad, petioles 3-4 lines long channelled above, peduncles axillary very short or almost obsolete, 
pedicels 3-8 rarely only 1 simple 3-4 Hues long slightly pubescent, flowers hexamerous, calyx slightly pubescent, petals connate to near- 
ly \ their length, ovary minutely puberulous with a large obsoletely 6 lobed stigma, 6 celled, cells 1 ovuled, ovules pendulous from 
nearly the apex, drupe size of a pea. 

This species is at once distinguished from the others by its 6 inerous fiowws, the letves and inflorescence are also different. I have only 
observed this tree in the Wynad, elevation 3,000 feet (but it probably occurs elsewhere in our western forests) ; it is abundant at Benni between 
Mudumallay and Sultan's Buttery, it flowers in January and February and probably more or less all the year as the other species do. 



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EUONYMUS CRENULATUS. (Nat. ord. CelaBtrineso.) 

ElJONYMUS. Linn. — GEN. CHAK. Calyx 4-6-fid, divisions patent or recurved, petals as many inserted below the disk patent entire tooth- 
sd or fimbriate, stamens the same number inserted on the disk, filaments generally very short, anthers broad didymous, disk fleshy ample 4-5-lobed, ovary 
immersed in the disk and confluent with it, 3-5 celled, styles short, stigma 3-51obed, ovules 2 (rarely 4 or many) in each cell, capsule 3-5 celled with the 
same number of lobes or angles and opening loculicidally in as many valves, cells 1-2 seeded, seeds nearly enclosed in a colored usually scarlet arillus, testa 
chartaceous, albumen fleshy, embryo orthotropal, cotyledons foliaceous, radicle inferior. Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves, flowers dull reddish or 
greenish in axillary dichotomous or trichotomous cymes. — Melanocorya, Turcz. Vyenomus, Presl. Walp. Anv. ]. 188. 

-CjUONYMUS CKENULATUS. (Wall.) A small tree, leaves elliptic obtuse crenulate-serrate towards the apex, coriace- 
ous deep sliiuing green above, 2-2| inches long by \-\\ broad, petioles about 3 lines long, peduncles solitary shorter than the leaves 
once or twice dichotomous few flowered, flowers 5 or occasionally 6-merous, petals orbicular, stamens very short, authers opening trans- 
versely, margin of the torus free, style very short, stigma blunt somewhat umbilicated, capsule turbinate 5 celled, lobed at the apex, 
seed with a small aril. WA. Prod. p. 161. 

A small tree common on the Nilgiris, Pidneys and higher parts of Western ghats of the Madras P residency , the wood is white, very 
hard and close grained, and answers for wood engraving, and is about the best substitute for Boxwood in this Presidency ; the wood of the other 
species is very similar. 


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LOPHOPETALUM WIGHTIANUM. (Nat. order Celastrinese.) 

LOPHOPETALUM. Wight. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx scutelliform with a very broad fiat spreading base, lobes 5 very short rounded soon 
obsolete petals 5 (rarely 4) orbicular, continuous with the disk, either furnished at the base with a membranaceous corrugated crest and covered near the 
base with the projecting lobes of the disk, or rarely naked, and alternate with the lobes of the disk, disk 5-lobed thick fleshy covering the whole cavity of 
the calyx, the lobes adnate to the base of the petals, stamens 5 (rarely 4) inserted on to the disk, filaments subulate short, anthers versatile oblong ; ovary 
small continuous with the disk and sometimes immersed in it, 3 (rarely 4) celled contracted into a short style, stigma capitate, ovules numerous in a double 
row in each cell, capsule coriaceous 3 (rarely 4) angled, 3 (rarely 4) celled dehiscing loculicidally, seed few or many, often winged, arillate, albumen fleshy. 
Trees or shrubs glabrous, leaves opposite or alternate, exstipulate coriaceous entire or serrulate, cymes axillary and terminal, flowers often large. 

LOPHOPETALUM WlGHTIANUM. (Arnt.) A large tree, leaves elliptic oblong obtuse or slightly acute rounded 
or subcordate at the base, entire coriaceous glabrous on both sides, 5-9 inches long by 2-4 broad, petioles about \ inch long, 
cymes axillary and terminal shorter or nearly as long as the leaves, flowers 5-merous dull-reddish, 7-9 lines in diameter, calyx lobes very 
short and broad in bud, nearly or quite obsolete in expansion, petals with a membranaceous corrugated crest, ovary continuous with 
the disk but not immersed, fruit sharply triangular 3-celled, 3-4 inches long, seeds numerous imbricate compressed winged. Wight 
Icones tab. 162. 

This tree inhabits the Western ghats of the Madras Presidency from Canara down to Cape Comorin, and is also found on the Bombay 
ghats ; it grows to a very large size and is a very handsome tree. The drawing is taken from specimens collected in the moist forests in the plains of 
South Canara (at Parapa), but it also ascends the ghats to cm elevation of 3000 feet ; it is called Balpdle in S. Canara, and its timber is mUch 
esteemed by the natives. +» 


1. A young bud. 

2. The same, more advanced. 

3. A flower, front view. 

4. The same, back view. 

5. Anthers, frout and back view. 

6. Ovary cut vertically. 

7. The same cut horizontally, 

8. A very young fruit cut open, petals and stamens still persistent. 

9. A winged seed (very immature,) 



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KOKOONA ZETLANIOA. (Nat. order Celastrinea.) 

K.OKOONA. Thw. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx small 5 lobed, petals 5 coriaceous, contorted in cestivation, glanduloso-punctate, stamens 5 inserted near 
the margin of the disk, filaments thick, subulate, anthers oblong, disk thick, glandular obscurely angled, ovary semi-immersed in the disk 3-celled, styles Bhort 
thick, stigma 3-lobed, ovary-cells 4-12 ovuled, ovules in 2 series adnate to the axis, ascending, capsule rather woody oblong trigonal, 3-celled 3-valved dehiscing 
loculicidally, seeds imbricate furnished with a long wing, cotyledons plane, embryo exalbuminous. Large ramous glabrous trees, leaves opposite petioled 
coriaeeous, cymes axillary paniculate, flowers small. Thw. in Booh. Kew Journ. v. p. 379. Trigonocarpus, Wall, Cat. 6250, 

KoKOONA ZeYLANICA. (Thw.) A large tree, leaves obovate or retuse narrowed towards tlie petiole obscurely and 
remotely crenulate, glabrous, minutely punctate beneatb, 2-4 inches long by 1|-1| broad, capsule about 4 inches long, seeds 3£ inches 
long of which the wing is 2J. Thw. I. c. and En. PI. Zey. p. 52. 

A large tree peculiar to Ceylon, not uncommon on banks of streams in the Stiff 'ragram and Ambagamowa districts at an elevation of 
20OO-4OOO/ee«, called by the Singhalese Kokoon ; the inner yellow bark is employed medicinally and an oil is expressed from the seeds, which is 
used in lamps. A second species of this genus inhabits Borneo. The analysis in the drawing is from the pencil of Dr, Thwaites. 

1. Ovules. 2. Young seeds. 3. Full grown seed, life-size. /. /» ty ^£> 



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KURMMIA CEYLA.NIOA. (Nat. order Celastrinese.) 

KuRRlMIA. Wall,— GEN. CHAR. Calyx 5-fid, petals 5 inserted uuder the margin of the disk patent aud recurved. Stamens 5 inserted 
with the petals, filaments short subulate, anthers didymous, disk fleshy 5-lobed, ovary globose free glabrous except at the apex where it is very hairy, 2-ceUed, 
cells 2-ovuled, styles 2 filiform, stigmas small capitate, ovules erect from the base of the cells, capsule 1-2 celled coriaceous indehiscent, or at length 2-valved, 
1-2 seeded, partition membranaceous, seed linear-oblong erect nearly quite enclosed in a fleshy aril, testa coriaceous shining smooth, albumen copious fleshy, 
embryo axil much compressed, cotyledons linear-oblong, radicle elongate inferior. Trees glabrous, the apices of the branchlets enclosed in stipules which 
are soon deciduous, leaves alternate towards the apex of the branches, petioled coriaceous entire shining penuiveined with transverse striated veinlets, 
racemes axillary simple or panicled, flowers small yellowish, aril white or reddish. Wall, Cat. 4334 ; — Bentli. and Hook. Gen. PI. 1 p. 365. Bhesa, Ham. 
in Ed. Phil. Journ. xvi. 315, ex •parte. Pyrospermum, Miq. 

This genus differs from Trochisandra in its free stamens and in the shape of its capsules. 

KlJRRIMIA CEYLANICA. (Arnt.) A large tree, branches terete glabrous their apices acute and encircled with the 
large stipules which are soon deciduous, leaves ovate acute glabrous aud shining 3-6 inches long by ^-3 inches broad, petiole i-H 
inches long, panicles elongate longer than the leaves or contracted and shorter than thern, flowers small pale -greenish, capsule oblong on 
rotundate, fleshy coriaceous f inch long reddish, seed oblong, aril white, testa membranaceous brown. Arnt, Pug. X. 328 / — 
Thw. En. PL Zey. p. 72. 

A large tree, peculiar lo Ceylon, from the plains up to 5000 feet elevation ; the higher level form has shorter panicles and larger flowers^ 
The tree is known by the names Palang, Hoorakandu and Alareya. The plant figured is from no elevation ; the dissections of the fruit, figs, 1 to 4, 
are from the pencil of Dr. Thwaites. 



6 - ■ ■ 

2 ' 



, z rt&maz • '.y,:/r : ; :: . vmts 

ELiEODENDRON KOXBURGHII. (Nat. order Celastrineje.) 

ELJ30DENDRON. Jacq. fil.~ GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous or hermathrodite, calyx 4 or 5 (rarely 3) cleft, petals as many as the calyx 
segments spreading, disk thick fleshy angled, stamens as many as the petals inserted under the edge of the disk, filaments subulate, anthers nearly globular 
dehiscing longitudiually, ovary more or less deeply immersed or confluent with the disk 2-3 (rarely 4-5) celled, style very short, ovules 2 in each cell, drupe 
dry or succulent, the putamen 1-3 celled, cells 1-2-seeded, arillus none, te3ta membranaceous or spongy, albumen scanty or copious, cotjledons flat. Trees 
or shrubs, usually quite glabrous, leaves coriaceous opposite or alternate entire or crenate, flowers small yellowish greenish or white in axillary cymes or 
umbels. — Neerija, Roxb, Schrebera, Retx. Rubentia, Commers. Portenschlagia, Trattinick, Crocoxylon and Mystroxylon, Echl, 

El^EODENDRON ROXBUKGHII. (WA.) A tree often of great size, leaves opposite and alternate elliptical to 
ovate or even subrotundate, generally bluntly crenated sometimes sharply serrated, very coriaceous, glabrous and shining above, 3-4J 
inches long by 1|--2| broad, petioles \ to 1 inch long, cymos axillary often lax with or without a solitary caducous flower in the forks ; 
f rom £rd as long to nearly as long as the leaves, flowera yellowish or green 4-5-merous, ovary 2-celled, drupe obovoid with a 1-celled 
putamen. WA. Prod. p. 157. Neerija dichotoma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1. p. 647. Eheodendron paniculatum, WA. Prod. p. 157. 

This tree is found throughout this Presidency and in Bombay and Bengal, it is most variable as to size, and in the size, shape and 
margin of the leaves. In the dry Seegoor forests about the foot of the Nilgiris it is Jound of immense girth, and in the moist forests of the 
Anamallays at 2000 feet elevation it is a very large tree, again in the Coimbatore plains it is met with as only a shrub iciih sharply serrated 
leaves (but differing in no other way) ; the tree is called Karkavd and Irkuli in Tamil, Nirija and Neradi in Teligu, and Tamrooj on the Bombay 
ghats ; the wood is not very strong or stiff, but is tough, close and even grained, and the surface beautifully curled and flowered and of a reddish 
brown color, and suited for cabinet work ; it is used by the natives for the manufacture of combs, &c, and is suited for picture frames, <&c. ; a 
cubic foot unseasoned weighs 60-65 lbs., and 46 lbs. when seasoned, and its specific gravity is -736 ; the root and bark are used medicinally by the 



A bud. 


Pentamerous flowers, front and back view. 




Ovary cut vertically. 


A 4-merous flower. 


Ovary cut horizontally. 


A fruit. 


The same cut vertically. 


The same cut horizontally. 

K — - 



CvT/inc&i?, del-. 

ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA. (Nat. order Rhamneas.) 

ZlZYPHUS. Juss. — GEN\ CHAR. Calyx 5-lobed, spreading, Petals hood-shaped or rarely none. Stamens 5 included in the petals or scarcely 
exceeding them when present, disk flit, filliug the short calyx-tube, ovary immersed in the disk, 2, rarely 3 or 4 celled, style shortly branched or styles 
distinct, stigmas small, drupe ovoid or globular, putamen woody or bony, 1 to 4 celled, 1 to 4 seeded, seeds with a smooth fragile testa, albumen none 
or scanty, cotyledons thick. Trees or shrubs, usually armed with stipular prickles, leaves alternate, 3 or 5 nerved, often distichous and very oblique, flowers 
small, greeuish, in axillary cymes, fruit often edible. 

ZlZYPHUS JuJUBA.. (Lam.) Generally a middling sized tree with, short stipulary solitary or twin prickles wliich 
are sometimes wanting leaves ovate or nearly orbicular acute or obtuse entire or toothed 3-nerved glabrous or subglabrous above, 
covered beneath (as well as the petioles and branchlets) with a close white or rusty tomentum, 1-3 inches long. Cymes small compact 
and very short, ovary 2-celIed tapering into a short 2-lobed style, drupe globular usually about h to £ inch in diameter, 2 (or by 
abortion) 1-celled. Lam. Enc. Meth. 3 jj. 318. 

This is the well known Ber tree, very common, both wild and cultivated throughout this Presidency, and extending all over tropical Asia, 
Africa and Australia ; it is called Ber in Eindostanee, Rengha in Telugu, and Yellande in Tamil, and Hyee bin in Birmah ; thexoood, is strong 
and much in list for many purposes, particularly for saddle-trees and sandals, and is adapted for cabinet and ornamental work, and makes good 
charcoal ; it is close and even grained, hard and durable, when fresh cut of a yellowish-red colcr, turning to reddish-brown ; a cubic foot unseason- 
ed weighs 72-75 lbs, and seasoned 58 lbs., and it has a specific gravity of - 928. Thedrawinjis taken from a toild specimen ; the extreme forms of the 
wild and cultivxtei tree differ considerably, but they run one into another and could not be separated even as varieties; the fruit of the cultivated ' 
tree is much larger than the wild, and is often eaten, being sweet and mealy, and some varieties are said to be delicious ; the bark is employed by 
tanners, and a kind of kino is produced fron it, which, together with the bark, root, seeds and leaves, is in use medicinally with the natives. The 
tree is most abundant in the plains, but in rare casis ascends to an elevation of about 4000 feet ; cultivated trees have been known to reach a girth 
of about 10 feet ; a lac used for dyeing is found in the rains on a variety in the Punjab. 



DTSOXYLTTM MACROCARUPM. (Nat. order Meliaoese.) 

This tree has been fully described in the Manual at page lvl. 

The drawing has been received from Dr. Thwaites and is from a Ceylon specimen. 


! J L GL 

-Z!ztnYj7l2/ '. Sztfv: 

HEMIGYROSA CANESOENS. (Nat. order Sapindace;©.) 

HeMIGYROSA. Blume.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamo-mon^ecious irregular, sepals 5 unequal erect concave, 2 exterior smaller, broadly 
imbricate, petals 4-5, tbe fifth sometimes wanting or small each furnished with a scale above the long villous claw ; disk unilateral, stamens 8 in the male, 
6-8 in the hermathrodite unequal unilateral (at least in the male), filaments pilose, anthers scarcely exserted, ovary excentric 3-angled or sub-entire 3- 
celled, style short or elongate, stigma 3-angled or subeatire obtuse, ovules solitary in the cells fixed to the axis about the middle, fruit indehiscent 
coriaceous fleshy or woody 3-angled or spherical, velvetty or tomentose 3-celled, cells hirsute within, seed oblong exarillate, testa coriaceous, cotyledons 
fleshy equal. Trees, leaves alternate exstipulate abruptly or unequally-pinnate, flowers in canesceut racemes. 

HeMIGYROSA CANESCENS. (Roxb.) A good sized tree, trunk of considerable girth but not straight, bark ash 
colored, slightly scabrous, branches numerous spreading, leaves alternate abruptly and unequally pinnate 6-10 inches long, leaflets 
occasionally only 1 pair or ternate, generally 2 pairs with or without a terminal odd one, the terminal pair opposite, the lower pair 
opposite, subopposite or alternate, lanceolate to oblong entire glabrous slightly coriaceous, 3-6 inches long by 1J-2J broad, petiolules 
2-3 lines long slightly fuscous, racemes numerous axillary or scattered over the branchlets, simple or branched at the base, minutely 
tomentose, bracteoles minute triangular shorter than the pedicels, flowers small white fascicled, in the male the stamens are always 8 and 
all unilateral and the petals only 4, the adnate scales being larger than in the fertile flowers, in the fertile flower the disk is unilateral? 
the stamens 6-8 arranged irregularly all round the ovary, petals 5 all equal in size and each furnished with a bifid scale, or the 5th 
scaleless, or entirely absent or small, fruit subspherical or 3-angled tomentose often 1-seeded by abortion. — Molinaea canescens, Koxb> 
Fl. Ind, ii. 243. Cupania canescens, WA. Prod, p. 113. Sapindus tetraphyllus, DG. Prod. 1. 608. 

A common tree in jangles on the eastern side of the Madras Presidency, Salem, Cuddapah, Mysore, &c, also found* in Bombay and 
Ceylon ; it does not ascend ihe mountains much above .JOOO/eg* ; the woo i is whitish and is occasionally used by the native s for building purposes ; 
it is called Korioi in Teligoo, Nekota in Tamil, and Kurpa in the Bombay Presidency ; in most of the fertile flowers (from fresh specimens) that 
I dissected, 1 found 5 equal petals, one of the 5 often being scaleless, and the stamens as often 6 as 8, I could not find more than 4 petals in ar>y 
of the male flowers ; the flowers are probably subject to great variation (as is often the case with polygamous flowers), some being intermediate be- 
tvieen the male and hermathrodite, &c , and an analysis from other individuals might shoiv considerable difference. (Vide remarks in the Manual 
under Hemigyrosa trichocarpa.) 


Covai ■ ■' . 

' . ■ - , -. . ..".■ -'.■.: 


SCHMIDELIA HISPIDA. (Nat. order SapindaceEe.) 

SCHMIDELIA. Linn.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamo-diascious, sepals 4 in two opposite pairs membranous, cucullate, broadly imbricated, 
the two outer ones smaller than the others, petals 4, small or absent, glabrous or villose internally. Disk unilateral, entire or lobed or with a gland opposite 
each petal, stamens excentric or subcentrio, included or shortly exserted, ovary excentric, single and 1-celled or didymous and 2-oelled, rarely 3-lobed and 
3-celled, style robust, divided sometimes to the base into 2 or 3 lobes, ovules solitary in the cells, ascending from the base, cocci of the fruit one or 
two, turbinate or subglobose, dry and coriaceous or fleshy, seeds erect, with a short fleshy arillus, embryo curved, the cotyledons conduplicate. Trees 
or shrubs. — Ornitrophe, Juss. AUophyllus, Linn. Aporetica, Font, 

SCHMIDELIA HISPIDA. (Thw.) A small tree branches hispid, leaves simple 5-14 inches long by 2-5 inches broad, 
lanceolate acuminate rounded at the base or slightly narrowed, glabrous but hispid at the margin and on the costa and primary veins 
on both sides, petiole f -2 inches long, racemes very short, flowers crowded, petals unguiculate, scales furnished with long villous hairs. 
Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 55. 

A small tree, moist forests in Ceylon, at an elevation of 1000-2000 feet. The drawing and analysis are from Dr. Thwaites, 



Otrvitiofoo. ab£ 

J'xmp/ifyr •JZiffi,; 



GLENNIEA ZEYLANICA. (Nat. order Sapindaeen. ) 

GLENNIEA. Hooh.fil — GEN. CHAR, Flowers regular polygamous, calyx 5-lobed, lobes acute valvate, petals very minute broader than 
long shortly unguiculate concave villous, disk complete expanded fleshy glabrous lobed, stamens 8-10 inserted regularly round the ovary, filameutH 
short subulate, anthers short didyraous, ovary ovoid, puberulous 3 celled, attenuated iuto a very short conical style, stigmas 3 shortly 2-lobed, ovulta 
solitary in the cells, fruit obscurely lobed, 3-celled 3 seeded (or by abortion 1-2-celled 1-2-seeded), seed subglobose, aril 0. A large tree, leaves alternate, 
pinnate, leaflets 1-2 pair, racemes simple or branched, leaf opposed, flowers small pubescent. 

GLENNIEA ^EYLANICA. (Hook, fil.) A large tree, leaves (turning black in drying) alternate pinnate, petioles terete 

tumid at the base, leaflets 1-2 pair with or without a terminal odd one, glabrous lanceolate reticulate obtusely acuminate, 3-5 inches 

long by l-J-2 inches broad, petiolules tumid 2-3 lines long, racemes simple or branched subterminal, leaf-opposed, minutely pilose, 

. fruit 1-1 \ inches in diameter, subglobose and obscurely lobed. Hook. fil. Gen. PI. 1 p. 404. Sapindus unijugus, Thw. En. PI. 

£/ Zey. p- 56, and Nephelium fuscatum, p. 5J. Gleuniea, p. 408. 

A large tree,, Ceylon, Trineomalee, and on the mountains up to 4000 feel elevation ; the drawing of Ike branch is from Dr. Thwaites j 
the analysis is taken from dried floivers. 


OtruirixZoo cTeZ. 

W0a> w<m/M7UL~a>/<<tft 

JJumphtf, /Utfp: 

SAPINDUS EMARGINATUS. (Nat. order Sapindacese.) 

SaPINDUS, linn. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, regular, sepals 4-5, bieeriate, broadly imbricated, petals 4-5, scaleless or furnished 
with 1 or 2 scales above the claw, disk complete, annular, stamens usually 8-10, centrical, the filaments usually pilose, anthers versatile, ovary entire 
or 2-4 lobed 2-4 celled, style terminal, stigma 2-4 lobed, ovules solitary in the cells, ascending from the interior angle at the base, fruit fleshy or 
coriaceous, usually with 1-2 cocci, which are oblong or globose, and indehiscent. Seeds usually globose, exarillate, with a crustaceous or membranous 
testa. Embryo straight or curved, the cotyledons thick, the radicle incurved. Trees. — Aphania, Blume. Dydimococcus, Bhime. 

SAPINDUS EMARGINATUS. (Vahl.) A middling sized tree with a short trunk and a very large dense spreading 
head and a deep green foliage, leaves alternate abruptly pinnate 6-8 inches long, petiole terete pubescent on the upper side, leaflets 
2-3 opposite or subopposite pair, oblong entire with a rounded emarginate apex, prominently reticulated particularly beneath, shining 
above and glabrous on both sides or downy beneath, 4-5 inches long by 1J-2 broad, petiolules 2-3 lines long slightly pubescent, 
panicles terminal much branched, flowers small whitish inodorous, bractes small caducous, sepals and petals 5 the latter hairy on the 
outside and furnished with 2 inflected woolly scales about the middle, or the scales are absent and the hairs only present, filaments 8, 
alternately a little shorter in the male flowers, fruit with 3 rarely 4 cocci, smooth at firs- but wrinkled in age, seeds dark colored size 
of a large pea and very hard- Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 279; — Vahl. Symb. 3. 54; — Wight III. t. 51. 

The specimen figured is from the Anamallay forests, and having only male flowers, I have taken the drawing of the fertile 
flower and fruit from Dr. Wight's plate in his Illustrations. 

A handsome tree common in many forests in the plains and subalpine regions of this Presidency and in Mysore, Bombay, Bengal 
Birrnah and Ceylon, it is called Retha in Hindustani, Eonhudu in Teligoo, Puvandi and Ponnanga in Tamil, Puvella in Singhalese and Haik- 
hhyae in Birmese ; the berries are saponaceous end are used'jirith the other species as i oap by the natives, and all the species are called soop nut trees 
by Europeans ; the root, bark and fruit are used medicinally by the natives and are said to have virtue in epilepsy, and an oil is extracted from the 
nut ; the wood is occasionally used by the natives for ordinary purposes, such as posts, door frames, and the construction of carts ; it is pals 
yellowish, close ai, d prettily grained, hard, but not durable, ind cracks if exposed, and is said not to work easily ; unseasoned it weighs 75 to 80 lbs, 
the cubic foot, and 64 lbs. when seasoned ; its specific gravity is - 928. Sapindus detergens, Roxb, a Bengal tree, is probably not specifically distinct 
from this species. 



CexnneZoo. d£ 

NEPHEL1UM STIPULACEUM. (Nat. order Sapindaceffi.) 

Nephelium, Linn. — For Gen. Char, see Manual. 

NePHELIUM STIPULACEUM (Bedd.) A middling sized tree, leaves glabrous abruptly pinnate, 6-14 inches long, 
leaflets 2-3 pair, the lowest pair opposite, quite at the base of the common petiole, very small obliquely curved and stipuliform, the 
others alternate opposite or subopposite oblong obtusely or rather sharply pointed slightly attenuated and oblique at the base, glabrous 
on both sides, pale or glaucous beneath and there furnished with small round pit-like glands in the axils of the primary veins, 3-6 
inches long by 2-3 broad, panicles axillary and terminal slightly pilose, a little shorter than the leaves, flowers polygamo-dieacious 
apetalous, calyx 5-6 partite in a single series, lobes distinct or nearly distinct subvalvate, stamens 5-9, only slightly exserted, ovary 2-3 
lobed 2-3 celled, style 2-3 parted, lobes recurved, fruit oval (only 1 carpel coming to maturity) the size of a large gooseberry densely 
covered with weak prickles, seed oblong half covered with the succulent aril, testa brown, cotyledons very large fleshy. Bedd. in Linn. 
Trans, vol. xxv. and looms VI. Ind. Orient. Part VI. tab cm. page 21. 

A handsome tree, rather rare in the moist forests in Malabar and on the Anamallays ; the wood is strong and serviceable. 


I. A small portion of the leaf, underneath view to show the glandular pits in the axis of the primary veins, 
2, 3, 4. & 5. Magnified views of the apetalous flower, showing 5, 6, and 9 stamens and 2 lobed ovaries. 

6. A flower with a 3-lobed ovary. 

7. Ovary cut vertically. 

8. The same cut horizontally. 

9. The fruit, natural size. 

10. Magnified view of the muricated rind of the fruit. 

II. Fruit opened. 



&<7i/z?zcZbo. cfel' 

JPurnpyzjf, 27i£?i> 

EUPHORIA LONGANA. (Nat. order Sapindacese.) 

EUPHORIA. Juss. — GEN. CHAE. Flowers regular, polygamous, sepals 5, distinct, imbricate or valvate in the bud, petals none or as 
many as sepals, with or without a scale inside, disk annular, stamens 6 to 10, inserted within the disk, ovary 2 or 3-eelled, usually lobed, with 
1 ovule in each cell, style deeply 2 or 3-lobed, or divided to the base into distinct styles, fruit deeply 2 or 3-lobed, or reduced to a Bingle carpel, 
the lobe3 usually indehiscent, often tuberculate, seeds enclosed in a pulpy arillus ; testa coriaceous, cotyledons thick. Trees, with the young shoots 
usually pubescent, leaves pinnate, leaflets as in Neplielium, but in 1 species toothed ; flowers small in terminal panicles. — See Manual under the genus 

EUPHORIA LONGANA. (Roxb.) A rather large tree with a short straight trunk and a dense globular head 
polyganio-nionaecious, leaves alternate abruptly pinnate 6-10 inches long, leaflets 2-4 pair glabrous above, more or less hoary and 
glaucous beneath, (as are the young shoots and panicles) coriaceous entire, from ovate-lanceolate to oblongo-lanceolate, often very oblique 
at the base obtuse or acute at the apex and sometimes mucronate, 2|-9 inches long by f-2^ broad, veins pinnate prominent, petiolules 2-5 
lines long, panicles terminal and from the upper axils, flowers small pale yellowish-white, male and hermathrodite mixed in the same 
panicle, calyx deeply 5-parted hoary or downy on both sides, petals 5 inserted between the calyx-lobes and the disk, scaleless, narrow 
linear-lanceolate, hairy, much longer in the male than in the hermathrodite, stamens hairy generally 10 in the male and 8 in the herma- 
throdite (sometimes only 8 and 6), in the former longer than the petals, in the latter with very short filaments, ovary hairy 2-3 lobed, 
stigmas the same number, fruit of 1-3 (generally only 1) cocci about the size of a cherry, from nearly smooth or more or less hoary or 
scabrous to grossly tuberculate and warted, aril edible. — Scytale longana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 270. Euphoria longana, Lam. BO. 
Prod. 1 p. 611. Dimocarpus longana, Lour, Nephelium longanum, Comb, 

A handsome tree, common in all the jungles (up to 3,000 feet) on the west side of the Madras Presidency, in Mysore Bombay, 
Eastern Bengal, Ceylon and in China; the description is drawn up from copious specimens collected in South Canara, the Anamallays, the 
Sivagherry hills, Courtallum and Ceylon / in S, Canara the tree is called Mai Ahcotd, at Courtallum Poond, in the Bombay Presidency Wumb, 
in Ceylon Mora ; the Chinese name is Zongan (hence Roxburgh's specific name, he having first received the tree from China) ; the wood is said to 
be hard, close grained and white and worth attention, but I have not seen it in use ; the succulent aril of the seed is an agreeable acid and something 
like the Litchi. As a genus it should not 1 think be kept distinct from Nephelium. The drawing is from a specimen gathered on the Tinnevelly 
mountains at 2500 feet elevation, and the leaves are more acuminated than in most of the for nw- Analysis is given of male and hermathrodite 
flowers, the former with 10 stamens, the latter with 8 only. 


1. A male flower showing 10 stamens, petals and stamens, much larger than the calyx. 

2. A petal. 

3. Abortive ovary. 

4. Anthers. 

5. Female flower, stamens removed, showing the ovary, disk and short petals. 

6. The same, showing the short stamens, 8 in number. 

7. Anthers. 

8. A 3-lobed ovary. 

9. A 2-lobed ovary. 

10. Ovary cut vertically. 

11. A 3-celled ovary cut horizontally. 

12. A 2-celled ovary cut horizontally. 



<£?*■£»«&*- «ai*£ 




~2?UJTip77&, -L {-&&■: 

POMETIA EXIMIA. (Nat. order Sapindacese.) 

1 OMETIA, Forst.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers rfgular polygaino-diascious, calyx small eupular 4-5 fid, teeth erect valvate, petals 4-5 without 
scales, disk complete, stamens 4-8 centrical very long and exserted, anthers small, ovary deeply 2-3 lobed, 2-3 celled, style short or elongate, stigma small, 
ovules solitary in the cells ascendiDg from the base of the axis, fruit of 1-2 globose or ovoid indehiscent cocci, seed nearly covered with an aril, embryo 
conduplicate ; lofty trees glabrous or tomentose, leaves alternate pinnate, leaflets subsessile serrate, the lowest pair small and stipuliform, racemes 
simple or paniculate slender elongate, flowers small. Forst. Prod, v. 74 (partly). Irina, Blume Bijdr. 230. Eccremanthus, Thw. in Hoole. K&a. 
Joum. vii. 272 I. 9. 

See Manual under the Genus Nephelium. 

x OMETIA EXIMIA. (Thw.) A large tree 40-60 feet, young branches rufo-liirsute, leaves large abruptly pinnate sub- 
sessile, leaflets 5-13 pair oblongo-lanceolate serrate subsessile, hirsute beneath, the lowest pair very small and stipule-like, oblique, 
curved and often deciduous, panicles tomentose, branches elongate pendulous many flowered cylindrical, flowers minute 5-merous, 
calyx-segments short subacute, petals small not clawed, transversely obloug not furnished with scales but with a transverse hairy line 
near the apex on the inside, disk fleshy reddish, stamens 5 inserted on to the centre of the disk, in the male flowers very long and 
exserted, short and only slightly exserted in the hermathrodite flowers, ovary 2 lobed hirsute, style linear, stigma minute 2 lobed, 
fruit fleshy subglabrous, generally 1 lobed, seed oblong nearly covered with the aril, hiluni large oblique, testa red. Thw. En. PI. Zey, 
p. 57, and in HooJc. Joum. of Bot. vii. p. 272. t. 9. 

This tree has only been found in Ceylon (elevation 1 000-2000 feet J ; it flowers in May and fruits in July. ^ 

1, 2. Male flower, front and back view (much magnified.) 

3. A petal showing the line of hairs near its apex on the inner face. 

4. Anther, back view. 

5. Anther, front view. 

6. Hermathrodite flower. 

7. The same petals and stamens removed to show the ovary. 

8. Ovary cut vertically. 
9, 10, 11, 12. Fruit, seed, &c. (Figures 9 to 12 from a drawing by Dr. Thwaites). 



(hrzr&ricfec, cici 

J?zt?77p7ry J*Lfflu. 

HARPULLIA IMBRICATA. (Nat. order Sapindaceffi.) 

HARPULLIA, Roxb. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers regular, polygamous. Sepals 4 or 5. Petals as many, without any scale, but sometimes 
with inflected auricles at the base of the lamina. Disk inconspicuous. Stamens 5 to 8. Ovary 2-celled, with 1-2 ovules in each cell ; style short, or elongated 
and spirally twisted. Capsule coriaceous, somewhat compressed, with 2 turgid lobes opening loculicidally in 2 valves. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, with or 
without an arillus ; cotyledons thick. Trees, leaves pinnate; leaflets usually large, the primary veins prominent underneath. Flowers in loose terminal 
little-branched panicles, sometimes reduced to simple racemes. Capsule usually large, red or orange-colored. — Streptostigma, Thw. Otosychium, Blume, 
? Blancoa, Blume. Tina, Blume. Danatophorus, Zippel. 

Harpullia eupanioides, Roxb. Fl. lnd. ii. p. 645, is a nearly allied species found in North India ; it differs chiefly in the ovary being only 
1-celled, in its large entire aril, and bifid stigma ; it is called Harpulli in Chittagong. 

HARPULLIA IMBRICATA. (Blume.) A large tree, uiuch branched, young parts petioles and panicles slightly velvetty 
pubescent, leaves alternate abruptly pinnate 10-16 inch long, leaflets 3-5 pair generally alternate sometimes opposite or sub-opposite 
membranaceous, penuiveined (primary veins inconspicuous above, prominent beneath) entire ovate from generally an oblique base, to 
oblongo ovate acute or acuminate, generally glabrous on both sides except the costa beneath, but sometimes the costa above and primary 
veins beneath are pubescent, 2-7 inches long by 1-2^ broad, petiolules 2-3 lines long, panicles lax, flowers green, in the hermatbrodite 
ovary hairy, cells 2-ovuled, stigma generally twisted, sometimes entire or sub-entire, stamens included ; in the male, stamens much 
exserted. Capsule glabrous 2,-2\ inches broad |- or less than \ that in length, bright orange in color, 2 lobed depressed between the lobes 
and apiculate with the remains of the style, lobes much inflated, generally 2 (sometimes 1) seeded, seed black furnished with a small aril, 
seldom more than 1 in each capsule coming to maturity. — Otonychium imbricatum, Bl. Rumpkia. iii. 180. Streptostigma viridiflorum, 
Thw. in Hoolc. Journ. of Bot. vol. vi. p>. 298. t. 9A- 

This very beautiful tree is common in the western moist forests of this Presidency from Canara down to Cape Comorin, and it ascends the 
mountains to about 350,0 feet elevation ; token covered with its brilliant orange fruit it is a beautiful sight on the ghats in Malabar and Canara ; 
it is also found in Ceylon.' 1 have never seen the stigma so much twisted in the Indian plant as it is in the Ceylon one ffg. A is a drawing 
of a flower by Dr. Thwaites from a Ceylon specimen J, and it is sometimes not at all twisted ; the tree flowers in the cold season and ripens its 
fruit in March aiid April. I knoio nothing of the timber. 

A nalysis. 

1. A male flower showing tbe exserted starneus. 

2. Hertnathrodite flower. 

3. Same, petals removed and calyx opened out to show disk, stamens, ovary and twisted style. 

4. Hermatbrodite flower, petals removed, showing a style not twisted. 

5. A petal. 

6. Anthers, front and back view. 

7. Ovary cut vertically, showing the 2 superposed ovules in each cell. 
S. . The same cut horizontally. 

9. A fruit. 

10. One of the valves of the capsule showing 2 seeds with their small arils (the other 2 seeds adhering to the other valve.) The 
three lower leaflets on the left side of the branch represent the upper surface, the other leaflets with more prominent 
primary veins the lower surface ; the flowering branch is from a hermatbrodite tree. 



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TURPINIA NEPALENSIS. (Nat. order Sapindaoese.) 

TURPINIA. Vent. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers regular hermathrodite, calyx 5-lid imbricate persistent, petals 5 sessile imbricate, disk raised 
erenate or lobed, stamens 5 inserted under margin of the disk and between its lobes, ovary sessile 3-lobed 3-ceUed, styles 3 combined or free, stigmas sub- 
capitate, ovules 2 in each cell or many iu 2 series ascending anatropal. Fruit subglobose fleshy or coriaceous crowned with the scars of the styles, 3 celled or 
fewer by abortion, seed pendulous or fixed horizontally to the axis angled compressed, testa crustaceous or bony, bilum large, albumen fleshy, embryo 
straight, cotyledons plano-convex. Trees or shrubs glabrous, leaves opposite unequally-pinnate (or very rarely simple), stipules interpetiolar early deciduous, 
leaflets opposite serrate, flowers small in axillary or terminal panicles.— Dalrymplea, Jioxb. Lapecedea, E.B.K. Oehrantha, Lindl. Eyrea, Champ. 
Triceraria, Willd. 

TURPINIA NEPALENSIS. (Wall.) A good sized spreading evergreen tree, young parts generally very minutely 
puberulous (under tbe lens), leaves trifoliate or unequally pinnate 4-7 inches long furnished with interpetiolar stipules which are early 
deciduous, leaflets 1-2 opposite pair with an odd one, ovate to elliptic, acuminate rather coriaceous toothed or rarely entire quite 
glabrous on both sides 2-3 inches long § to 1| broad, petiolules 2-3 lines long, stipels small acute, pauicles in the axils of the upper 
leaves, from shorter to a little longer than the leaves trichotomous, minutely bracteoled, flowers numerous small greenish yellow, calyx 
very minutely ciliate and slightly puberulous on both sides, tinted with red on the outside, petals ciliate and hairy on the inside glabrous 
or very minutely puberulous outside, glands of the disk yellow, filaments glabrous, ovary 3 lobed with 3 styles, lobes and styles com- 
bined but easily separable when young, ovules 2-3 in each cell, fruit globular or subglobular, the 3 lobes of the ovary quite consolidated 
into one, more or less 3-poiuted with the remains of the styles, very variable in size, generally not larger than a pea, sometimes up to 
1 inch in diameter. Wall. L. n. 4277 ; — Wight hones 972. 

A common tree on the mountains all over India and Ceylon, also found in Hongkong ; it is occasionally found in very loiu elevations 
not much above sea level ; it is particularly common about Ootacamund at 7000 feet ; it is called Neela, by the Burghers on the Nilgiris, and 
Kankoombala and AllakiriUa in Ceylon. 

A nalysis. 

1. Apex of a very young branch showing one of the interpetiolar stipules, the scar of another, and the minute stipels. 

2. A young bud 1 , 
& A flower. 

4. The same open, showing the ciliate calyx and hairy petals. 

5. Aflower, petals aud 3 stamens removed, showing the lobed disk, insertion of the stamens, and the 3 ovaries (closely attached.) 

6. A petal. 

7- Anthers, front aud back view. 

8. Vertical section of the ovary showing the insertion of the ovules. 

9. Transvere section showing the cells 2 ovuled. 
10. A small portion of a fruit-branch. 


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MELIOSMA ARNOTTIANA. (Nat. ord. Sabiaceae.) 

MELIOSMA, Blume. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers hermathrodite or polygamo-disecious, sepals 4-5 unequal or sub-equal imbricate, petals 4-5 
opposite the sepals, very unequal, 3 exterior orbicular concave, 2 interior small flat sometimes bifid, disk cupular 3-8 toothed, teeth sometimes bifid, stamens 
5 inserted outside the base of the disk opposite the petals, very unequal free or cohering with the base of the petals, the 2 larger perfect, the 3 sterile 
opposite the large petals, filaments flat, anthers large globose didymous, cells dehiscing by a large opening, connective much dilated saucer- shaped, ovary ses- 
sile 2-3 celled, style simple sulcate short and thick, stigma simple or 2-3 fid, ovules 2 in each cell superposed horizontal or pendulous, micropyle inferior, 
drupe obliquely subglobose, endocarp bony or crustaceous 1 -celled 1 -seeded (rarely 2-celled), seed with a small cavity on one side near the base, teita mem- 
branaceous, cotyledons conduplieate, radicle incurved. Trees or shrubs generally pilose or pubescent, leaves alternate simple or pinnate, leaflets entire or 
serrate, racemes compound thyrsiforui many flowered generally bracteated, fruit small pea like. — Millingtonia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 1. 102. Oligostemon, Turcz. 
Lorenzeana, Liebrn. Kingsboroughia, Liebm. 

A genus of very curious structure, Roxburgh and some other botanists have described it as with 2 stamens and 3 petals, the bifid petals 
and sterile stamens being considered nectaries. Besides the 3 species described in this flora, which are all most abundant in this Presidency, 2 
inhabit bengal, M. pinnata, Roxb. ; and dilleniifolia, Wall. 

MELIOSMA ARNOTTIANA. (Wight.) A large tree with a very spreading head, leaves unequally pinnate 8-16 
inches long, leaflets 5-7 opposite or sub-opposite pair, ovate-oblong with a long acuminatum, coriaceous quite entire glabrous above 
or the costa pubescent, densely pubescent or glabrous except the costa beneath, 2-|-5| inches long by f-^ broad, petiolules 3-6 lines 
long, panicles axillary large covered with much rusty pubescence, often furnished with large leaf-like bractes below the lower or 2 
lower ramifications, flowers very small and as in the generic character, calyx-segments more or less unequal generally 4 equal or sub- 
equal and the 5th very much smaller, style persistent and spinuliform nearly at the base of the fruit. — Millingtonia Amottiana, Wight 
III. p. 144 and lab. 53. Sapindus ? microcarpus, WA. Prod. p. 112. 

A very common tree in Southern India and Ceylon at 4000 feet and upwards ; it is very abundant at Conoor on the Nilgiris, and is a 
most beautiful sight in June when in full blossom, its whitish panicles forming a perfect sheet of flowers over the top of the tree ; it is alsoavery 
conspicuous tree when in flower in the mountain sholas on the Annamallays. It is called by the Burghers on the Nilgiris Euli makay (tiqer-like), 
the heari-vjood of very old trees being striped reddish and white ; the timber is worthless, being spongy and light, but is occasionally used for 
rafters and as firewood. 




Jump/a/. Zitfi: 

iEGLE MARMELOS. (Nat. ord. Eutacese.) 

-^EGLE, Coma. — GEN. CHAE. Flowers hermathrodite, calyx small 4-5 toothed deciduous, petals 4-5 oblongo-lanceolate patent imbricate. 
Stamens numerous, filaments short subulate, anthers elongate erect, disk inconspicuous, ovary oyoid 3-15 celled attenuated into a short style, stigma oblong 
deciduous, ovules many in each cell in 2 rows, berry globose, rind woody, 8-15 celled, cells many seeded replete with mucous juice, seed oblong compressed, 
testa woolly and covered with slime. Trees, spinose, leaves 3-foliate, leaflets slightly crenulate, pellucidly punctate, panicles axillary few-flowered, flowers 
rather large white, fruit large, pulp edible. 

-^EgLE MaKMELOS. (Corr.) A good sized tree, trunk pretty erect, bark ash-colored, branches few and irregular, 
spines axillary single or in pairs, or wanting, very sharp and strong, leaves trifoliate (rarely pinnate with 5 leaflets 1 ), leaflets glabrous 
or pubescent oblong or broad lanceolate attenuated to a blunt point, inconspicuously crenulate, the exterior one always the largest, panicle 
small terminal and axillary, flowers, &c. as in the generic character, fruit about the size of a cricket ball round and very hard. Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. p, 579. 

This is the well known Bel tree, it is common in a cultivated state throughout India, and is met with wild in many of our subalpine 
forests, but the wild variety has afar inferior fruit (one variety on the Denhinacottah hills, Salem, has densely pubescent foliage J ; it is called 

■Bel in Hindustani, Vilva in Tamil, and Maredu in Teligu ; it aseendsthe mountains to about 4000 feet. The wood is light colored and variegated, 
compact and hard, but it is seldom cut for timber. In the Godavery forests ihenative drum is often made from it, and in some parts it is used 

■ for the naves of wheels and sugar crushers ; the juice of the fruit makes a delicious sherbat, and is much drunk in Bengal as a hot weather- 
beverage, it has aperient and detersive properties, and is considered a most useful drink in diarrhaza and dysentery, as it also acts as an astringent ; 
the bark and root also are in use medicinally with the natives. 


PL: CL.X! 


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MANGIFERA INDICA. (Nat. ord. Anacardiacese.) 

MANGIFERA, Linn.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous or diajcious, calyx 4-5 partite imbricate deciduous, petals 4-5 imbricate inserted, 
below the disk furnished on the inside with a lobed glandular scale or crest, stamens arising from the disk 1 (or rarely 2) fertile with a subulate fleshy 
filament about as long as the style, 3-4 (or rarely more) sterile slender minute tipped with a gland, disk thick fleshy 4-5 lobed, ovary free or its base 
immersed in the disk, sessile fleshy oblique, 1-celled 1-ovuled, ovule ascending from the side a little above the base, style lateral, stigma simple, drupe 
generally subreniform ovoid or globose but very variable in shape and size fleshy, putamen woody fibrous indehiscent or 2 valved, seed compressed, 
cotyledons plano-convex, thick fleshy often lobed, radicle inferior ascending. Trees, leaves alternate petioled simple entire coriaceous, panicles terminal 
branched bracteated, flowers small. 

MaNGIFEKA INDICA. (Linn.) A large tree up to 15 feet in girth, with an erect trunk covered with dark colored 
scabrous cracked bark, branches very numerous, leaves generally about the extremities of the branches lanceolate, often more or less 
waved at the margin, acute or acuminate, coriaceous glabrous and shining, 6-12 inches long by 1-2|- inches broad, petioles |-2 inches 
long, panicles terminal always much branched often very compound puberulous or glabrous, flowers small yellowish with stripes of red 
near the base of the petals, male and hermathrodite mixed in the same panicle, calyx segments 5 oblong concave, petals 5 lanceolate 
twice as long as the calyx, disk of 5 large yellow fleshy lobes surrounding the base of the ovary, each lobe as large as the ovary, fertile 
anther purple, sterile filaments 2-3-4 or more. Linn; — Willd. Sp. 1. 1150. 

This is the well known Mango tree; it grows to an immense size in all our mountain forests up to 4000 feet elevation, generally in ravines 
and on the banks of streams ; the tree is most variable in the length and breadth of Us leaves and form of its panicles, and the cultivated varie- 
ties differ wonderfully in the shape and size of the fruit, the tree generally flowers during the first 3 months of the year, and the fruit ripens during 
the next three ; the wood is coarse and open grained, of a dull grey color, not durable, and soon attached by insects ; a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 
52-58 lbs, and when seasoned 42 lbs, and the specific gravity is -672 ; it is much in use for coffee cases, &c. and for planks ; and the natives use it 
for building purposes; a gum exudes from the trunk. 'The tree is cultivated throughout tropical Asia, but really good Jruit is seldom found except 
on grafted trees. It is called *A>n in Hindustani, Mad in Tamil, Mmnadi in Teligu, and Atlamba and Amba in Ceylon. 




ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE. (Nat. ord. Anacardiacese.) 

ANACARDIUM, Roxb. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx 5-partite, segments imbricate erect deciduous, petals 5 narrow imbricate, 
disk filling up nearly the whole of the tube of the calyx and combining the base of the stamens and petah, stamen3 8-10 unequal all or 1-4 only fertile 
filaments joined together at the base, ovary free sessile obovate or obcordate, style oblique filiform, stigma punctiform, ovule pendulous from the f unicle 
which ascends from the side of the cell near the base, nut reniform oblique, supported on a fleshy pear-shaped enlargement of the torus and pedicel, 
indebiscent, pericarp thick, containing in its substance cells full of an acrid oil, seed reniform ascending, testa membranaceous adhering, cotyledons 
semilunate, fleshy, plano-convex, radicle short uncinate. Trees or shrubs, leaves alternate, petlolate simple coriaceous entire, panicles terminal, corym- 
bosely-branched bracteated, flowers small. — Acajuba, Qcertn. Fruct. t. 40. Cassuvium, Lam. Diet. 1. 22. Ehinocarpus, Bert. Monodynamus, Pohl. 

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE. (Linu.) A middling sized or small tree, trunk short thick and crooked, bark rough 
and cracked, branches numerous spreading in every direction, leaves oval to obovate rounded or rather emavginate at the apex often 
narrowed towards the base glabrous on both sides, rather coriaceous, 4-8 inches long. 2-4 broad, petiole 2-12 lines long, panicles 
terminal bearing often both male and hermathrodite flowers, bractes gibbous lanceolate, calyx slightly hairy, petals linear lauceolate 
revolute slightly hairy on the outside, pale yellow iu color streaked with pink, filaments generally 9 sterile and 1 fertile, the latter very 
much longer or sometimes only slightly longer than the others, in the male flower there is hardly any rudiment of an ovary but a style 
various in length sometimes as large as in the fertile flower with a 2 cleft apex. Ovary in the fertile flowers obcordate, stigma punctiform. 
Linn ;—DG. Prod. ii. 62. 

This is the well knovm Cashew nut tree, indigenous to tropical America, but long since thoroughly established all over India near the sea 
coast, the timber isojno value, but is occasionally used for packing cases, &c, and makes excellent charcoal ; the pericarp of the nut contains an 
acrid, oil vjhich is used medicinally, it is very caustic, and will raise blisters on. the shin ; a transparent gum exudes from the trunk, not inferior 
to gum, Arabic, vjhich is in use as a varnish, omd is said to keep off insects ; and in S. America book binders wash their books ■with a solution of 
it; — the kernels are very nice vjhen roasted and are well known as a dessert dish in India, and they yield an oil; the enlarged crimson colored 
pedicel to the fruit is also eaten and has an agreeable acidulous subastringenl flavor ; the tree is called Kdju in Hindustani. 



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NOTHOPEGIA COLEBBOOKIANA. (Nat. order Anaoturdiaoese.) 

For Gen. Char, sec Manual under head of this genus. 

NOTHOPEGIA COLEBROOKIANA. (Wight.) A small tree, leaves coriaceous oblong to obovate entire acute or 
ending in a short abrupt acumen parallelly veined glabrous, racemes axillary or from the axils of fallen leaves much shorter than the 
leaves many flowered, flowers small white, petals linear oblong, drupe size of a cherry transversely oblong- filled with sweet eatable 
pulp. — Pegia ? Colebrookiana, Wight Icones tab. 236. Glycycarpus racemosus, Dak. in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. p. 39. Nothopegia, 
BlnmeMus. Bot. i. 203. 

Common in all the Western ghat forests of this Presidency and Bombay, and also in Ceylon ; called in Bombay Amberee, and in Ceylon 
Bald. The drawing is from the pencil of Dr. TJnvaites, and ivas taken from a Ceylon specimen. jL^ 


1. Flowering branch female tree. 

2. The same of the male tree. 

3. A male flower. 

4. Hermathrodite flower. 

5. The same petals removed. 

6. The same cut vertically. 

7. A fruit branch. 

8. Fruit cut vertically. 



OoT/crtcfoo, cfel: 



BUCHANANIA LATIFOLIA. (Nat. order Anacardiacefe.) 

BUCHANANIA, Roxb.— GEN. CHAE. Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx short, obtusely 3 to 5-toothed. Petals 5, imbricate in the bud. 
Disk orbicular, crenate. Stamens 10, inserted round the disk. Gynscium of 5 or 6 distinct carpels, of which oue only perfect, the others rudimentary 
and style-like ; style of the perfect one short, with a truncate stigma ; ovule suspended from an erect filiform funicle. Drupe small, the putamen crusta- 
ceous or bony, 2-valved. Seed with thick cotyledons and a superior radicle. Trees, leaves alternate, simple, entire coriaceous. Flowers small, white, 
in terminal or axillary panicles. — Coniogeton, Blume Bijdr. 1156. Cambes3edea, Kunth. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ii. 366. 

BUCHANANIA LATIFOLIA. (Roxb.) A good sized tree, trunk straight and often of considerable height, branches 
numerous spreading in every direction, leaves broadly oval to obovate very obtuse or emarginate, glabrous or subglabrous above, hirsute 
•with rather matted hairs beneath, 6-7 inches long by 3-4 broad, petioles 6-10 lines loDg, panicles tenaiual and from the upper axils 
hirsute erect much branched, bractes small caducous, flowers numerous small whitish green, structure as in the genus ; drupe size of 
a cherry a, little compressed smooth and black when ripe. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 385. 

A very comynon tree in most subalpine jungles in this Presidency both on the eastern and vjestem side, and ascending the mountains to 
nearly 4000 feet eleoation ; it is also found in Bengal and Birmah, it flowers in December and January, and ripens its fruit in May. The latter is 
eaten by the natives, and the kernels are also eaten and used in confectionary and they abound in oil. It is called Chironji in Hindustan, Kit mad 
and Aimd in Tamil, Chara and Chinnamoral in Teligu,Nuskulin Canarese, Pyal and Char 61% in the Bombay Presidency, anol Charu at Cuttack ; 
the wood is rather tough and used by the natives for bullock yokes and other purposes and for charcoal, a cubic foot seasoned weighs 36 lbs ; the bark 
is used by tanners. 


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SEMECARPUS ANACARDIXJM. (Nat. order Anacardiacese.) 

SeMECARPUS, Linn, fil,— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous. Calyx small, 5 lobed. Petals 5, imbricate in the bud. Disk orbicular, 
slightly lobed or creriate. Stamens 5, inserted round the disk. Ovary 1 celled, with 3 styles, and somewhat club-shaped stigmas ; ovules suspended from 
the top of the cavity. Drupe or nut reniform, seated on the much- enlarged, thick, succulent, fleshy, cupular or turbinate base of the calyx, (hypocarp) 
pericarp thick, hard, filled with resinous cells. Seed pendulous, the testa coriaceous, somewhat fleshy inside, embryo thick, with plaDO-convex cotyledons 
and a very short superior radicle: Trees, leaves alternate ; flowers small, in terminal or lateral panicles. 

SeMECAKPUS ANACARDIUM. (Linn.) A large tree bearing male and hermathrodite flowers on different individuals, 
trunk pretty straight, bark scabrous, branches numerous spreading, leaves about the apex of the branches oblong to obovate rounded at 
the apes entire, pretty smooth but harsh, whitish underneath 6-18 inches long by 4-8 broad, pinnate veins and veinlets conspicuous 
on both sides, petioles \ to 2 inches long, panicles terminal very large composed of many simple spikes, those of the male tree more 
slender but as large or larger, flowers numerous small dull yellow, as in the generic character, the males smaller with a small rudiment 
of an ovary, bypocarp about the size of the drupe yellow when ripe. Roxb- Fl. Ind. ii. p. 83. 

This is the marking-nut tree, called in Hindustani Bhildma, in Teligu Jiri, and Bibu in Bombay ; it is common in subalpine jungles 
throughout this Presidency and in Bengal and Bombay ; its wood is soft and of no value ; the fruit contains the black corrosive resinous juice generally 
used in this country for marking linen and also in use medicinally with the natives ; the green fruit well pounded makes good bird-lime, the fleshy 
receptacle beloiv the nut is sometimes roasted and eaten, and the kernels are also occasionally eaten ; the marking ink is improved in color and prevented 
from running by the mixture of a little quicklime water. A brown colored tasteless gum exudes from the bark. 



Y<?<^ / ^&m^s 

HOLKMRNA. LONGIFOLTA.. (Nat. order Anacardiace».) 

HoLtGAPNA, Bam.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygaino-diaicious. Calyx cup-shaped 5- toothed, teeth distant, petals 5 Valvate with incurved 
tips villous, at length patent, disk broad annular, stamens 5 inserted round the edge of the disk, ovary inferior 1 celled, styles 3-4 (sometimes a 5th small 
one) terminal, stigmas reflexed cresceut-shaped, ovule pendulous from one side of the cell very uear the apex, drupe inferior subcompressed oblong or ovate, 
pericarp thick, somewhat fleshy containing between its lamina cells full of thick acrid juice, putameu coriaceous. "Seed conformed to the cell testa 
membranaceous, embryo thick, cotyledons plano-convex, radicle minute. Trees, leaves alternate simple pctiolate entire coriaceous, petiole furnished 
about the middle with 2 setiform stipels, or glands, racemes or panicles axillary and terminal, flowers small, drupe acrid. Ham. in Boxb. Fl. 2nd. ii. 
p. 80. 

HOLIGARNA LONGIFOLTA. (Roxb.) A large tree, trunk straight, bark pretty smooth ash-colored, young shoots rufo- 
pubescent, leaves crowded about the apex of the branches, always more or less spathulate or cuneiform, broad a little below the base 
and thence gradually narrowed down to the petiole, retuse, rounded, or acute at the apex, glabrous on both sides, or often more or 
less pubescent beneath or even villous about the costa near the base, generally about 7-9 inches long and 2-3 broad below the apex, but 
occasionally up to nearly 2 feet in length, petioles glabrous or rufo-pubescent £-1 inch long furnished about the middle or a little below 
it with 2 subulate recurved generally villous stipels, panicles (rarely racemes') terminal and from the upper axils, male and fertile on 
different trees, always more or less pubescent sometimes densely rufo-tomentose, petals valvate closely cohering at their sides at len»tk 
patent, tips incurved, male flowers smaller than the fertile, the 5 stamens seated round the margin of the evident disk exserted, with 
large versatile anthers, rudiment of an ovary 0, or very small ; fertile flowers with the stamens very small seated round the margin of the 
disk, anthers small and effete, ovary quite sunk except its hairy apex in the disk and calyx tube, styles 3-4 (rarely a 5th small one in the 
centre), stigmas broad flat recurved jagged at the edge and acute at tho apex sometimes slightly hairy, fruit ovate to oblong, size of an 
olive, as in the generic character. Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 80. 

This tree is very common about the Western ghats of this Presidency fom Canara down to Cape Com.orin, and is also found in the 
plains and, close to the sea. I have copious specimens from all parts ; it also occurs in Bombay and Bengal, but is absent from Ceylon ; in South 
Canara it is called Kagira, and in the Bombay Presidency Hoolgeree ; a very acrid black juice is extracted from the trunk and from the fruit 
rind, which is used by painters and as a black varnish, and the fruit and bark are used medicinally. 1 have never known the timber w be used 
but in some parts it is said to be in use for house building, and boats are made of it. The specimen figured is from S. Canara ; tho analysis from ' 
fresh flower s. 


1. Petiole showing the stipel-like bodies. 

2. A male bud showing the cup-shaped calyx with 5 distant teeth. 

3. A male flower showing the exserted stamens. 

4. Male flower open. 

5. The same petals removed, showing the 5 stamens inserted round the margin of the annular disk, 

6. Anther, front and back view. 

7. Fertile flower-bud showing calyx and valvate petals. 

8. A full fertile flower. 

9. Petals removed. 

10. Fertile flower (calyx-teeth and 2 petals removed) showing the small effete stamens inserted round the margin of the torus, 

the apex of the ovary (the hairy coating removed) and the styles. 

11. Vertical section of the same showing the solitary ovule pendulous from nearly the apex of the cell, 

12. Apex of an ovary showing 4 styles and stigmas. 

13. The same showing 3 styles and stigmas. 

14. The same showing a small 5th style present, 

15. The effete anthers of the fertile flower. 
10. Young fruit. 



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OAMPNOSPEliMA ZEYLANICUM. (Nat. order Aiiacardiacese.) 

CaMPNOSPERMA, Thw.— GEN. CHAR. Flowers hennathrodite, calyx 3 partite persistent, divisions erect imbricate, petals 3' sub- 
orbicular erect imbricate, disk urceolate. Stamens 6 inserted at the base of the disk, ovary free sessile ovate, 1 celled, style very short and thick, stigma 
broad peltate and lobed, ovule pendulous from the apex of the cell; drape fleshy ovate, putamen bony, the cavity semi 2.celled in the upper half from a 
pendant bony process, seed pendulous arcuate, cotyledons plane oblong arcuate, radicle short superior terete. A tree, leaves alternate simple entire, 
panicles simple; flowers minute. Thw. in HoohKew Journ. vi. 65. fig. i. 

CAMPNOSPEKMA ZEYLANICUM. (Thw.) A tree 30-40 feet, ramous, branches terete young parts and young leaves 
ferruginous, leaves lanceolate to obovate -lanceolate, gradually attenuated at the base penniveiued and reticulated, below minutely rufo- 
punctate, 3-4 inches long by |-1| broad, flowers 2 lines long 1 bracteolate. Thw. I. c. 

Ceylon, not uncommon on the banks of streams at Ratnapoora and the lower part of the Safl "rag am district tip to about 1,0C0 feet 

The dissections are from a drawing by Dr. Thvmites. 



Cavzndoo, t2eZ. 



a^a&azMtaz&Z) '-//w/ 

SPONDIAS MANGIFERA. (Nat. order Anacardiacefe.) 

SPONDIAS. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Flowers polygamous. Calyx small, 4or5-lobed or divided to the base. Petals 4 or 5, spreading, 
almost valvate in the bud. Disk orbicular, crenate, stamens twice as many as petals, inserted round the disk. Ovary 3 to 6-celled, with as many short 
conical eonnivent styles ; ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous. Drupe with a fleshy epicarp, the putamen hard and bony, the cells erect or vertically 
curved and diverging at the top, the putamen pierced with a foramen corresponding to the apex of each cell. Seeds solitary in each cell pendulous ; testa 
membranous ; embryo straight or slightly curved with the seed ; cotyledons oblong, radicle superior. Trees, leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, 
pinnate ; flowers small, iu terminal or axillary panicles. — Evia, Gomni. Cytherea, WA. Poupartia, Comm. 

SPONDIAS MANGIFEEA. (Pers.) A large tree, trunk straight, bark smooth ash-colored astringent, leaves alternate 
about the ends of the branches, pinnate with an odd one 12-20 inches long, petiole terete, leaflets 4>5 pair opposite or subopposite 
ovate to elliptic-oblong rather abruptly acuminate oblique at the base quite entire glabrous prominently veined, 3-6 inches long by 
2-2| broad, panicles terminal large diffuse, flowers numerous small white often barren, disk large fleshy crenate, anthers alternately 
shorter incurved about h as long as the petals, styles 5-6, ovary 5-6 celled, drupe oval or nearly round yellow when ripe about 1£ inch 
across, Jioxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 451. Evia amara, Commers. Ambalam, Rlieede Mai. 1. p. S9. t. 50. 

This is a common tree in jungles throughout this Presidency, and in Ceylon it ascends the mountains to about 3500 feet ; it is known to 
Europeans as the Hog plum, and is called dmrd in Hindustani, Eat mda in Tamil, and Aravi mdmadi in Teligoo (names signifying wild 
mango) ; its fruit is eaten raw when rife, and unripe it is pickled and preserved, and eaten in curries ; the wood is soft and of little or no value, 
and a gum much like Gum Arabic exudes from the trunk ; the leaves are agreeably acid. In the Ana?nallays it is called Puli ille by the Eaders. 



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ELL1PANTHUS TJNIFOLIATUS. (Nat. order Connaraceaj.) 

ELLIPAXTIIUS. Bool fiL—GRy. CHAR. Flowers polygamous, calyx 5 parted not increasing in size after flowering subereefc valvate, 
petals 5 longer than the calyx oblongs-lanceolate pubescent imbricate, stamens 5 fertile alternate with as many shorter sterile ones, filaments short subulate 
connate at the base into a hirsute tube, carpel 1 ovoid strigose attenuated into a short style, stigma lobulate; capsule stipitate volutinous, glabrous 
within, seed arillate at the base, exalburuinous. Trees or shrubs, leaves short petioled 1 foliate, oblong or lanceolate glabrous or slightly tomentose 
beneath, racemes short axillary tomentose, flowers small. 

ELLIPANTHUS UNIFOLIATUS. (Thtv.) A middling sized tree 20-30 feet high, branches and petioles blackish, 
young parts fusco-pilose, leaves 1 -foliate glabrous elliptic or ovate abruptly acuminate reticulate, l|-3-| inches long by 1-lf inches 
broad, petiolule tumid 1 line long rugulose articulate with the petiole which is 3 lines long, panicles small axillary 1-2 or 3 together 
racemiforni 4-7 flowered, fusco-hirsute, bracteoles linear deciduous, flowers pale green about 3 lines in expansion, short pedicelled calyx 
divisions acute, petals externally pilose twice as long as the calyx, stamens 5 joined into a tube alternate with 5 minute teeth-like 
staminodes, ovary strigose attenuated into a short style, stigma dilated, fruit fulvo-tomentose arcuato-falcate acute attenuated at the 
base into a stipe. — Connarus unifoliatus, Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 80. EUipanthus, Benth. and Hook. Gen. PL 1. p. 434. 

Ceylon in the central provinces, 3-4000 feet, rather a rare tree. 


A flower bud. 


A flower. 


A fertile flower, petals removed. 


Stamen tube showing the 6 fertile stamens alternate with 5 minute staminodia. 


Anthers, front and back view. 




The same cut vertically. 


The same cut transversely. 


A sterile flower. 

10 to 14. 

Fruit and seed. 

(Figures 9—14 communicated by Dr. Thwaites.) 



COCHLOSPERMUM GOSSYPIUM. (Nat. order Ternstraaniacese.) 
This tree is fully described in the Manual, vide page xiv. 


Croirmde. r/c. 

XYLOPIA PARVIFOLIA. (Nat. order Anonacese.) 

For Gen. Char, see Manual, p. ix. 

XYLOPIA PARVIFOLIA (Hook. fil. et T.) A very lofty straight tree, 60—80 or even 100 feet to the first bough, and 
then forming a small dense head, trunk of no graat thickness, 4-6 feet in girth, always famished with considerable buttresses at the 
base, which extend up the trank 6-10 feet from the ground, young branches slightly puberulous, leaves elliptic oblong with a short 
acuminatiou, slightly coriaceous shining and glabrous above except the costa, slightly glaucous and glabrous beneath except the costa, 
about 3 inches long by 1-1 ^ broad, petioles puberulou3 3.-4 lines long, inflorescence axillary pubescent, peduncle very short 3-flowered, 
pedicels scarcely more than 1 line long bibracteolate at the apex below the calyx, calyx small cup-shaped 3-toothed, exterior petals 
thick about 9 lines long, interior a little shorter triquetrous except at the hollow base, torus conical, ovaries 3-4 (5-6 Ceylon speci- 
mens) densely strigose hid in the torus, style long glabrous, stigma very large slightly hairy, connective of the anthers truncate capitate, 
ovules 4. 

Thislofty straight tree is abundan'. in the moist Jorests about the foot of the Truvancore ghdis in, the vicinity of Colaloorpalay, when 
1 discovered it in flower this August ; it is the first lime the genu's has been observed on the continent ; it also inhabits the south of Ceylon, and 
is mentioned in the Manual atpige ix. as a Ceylon trei. I havt carefully cympared the Tsavamcore specimens tiith dried specimens of the Ceylon 
plant, and 1 can detect no difference, though the latter is described as a small tree or shrub. Dr. Thwaites says that the flowers and bark are used 
by the Cinghalese for chewing with their betel. 

frU .-£#>. <A 



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GARCINIA TRAYANCORICA. (Nat. order Guttiferee.) 

lor Gen, Char, aee letter press to PI. Ixxxv. 

(jrARCINIA J.RAVANCORICA. (Bedd.) A middling sized tree, leaves very coriaceous narrow oblong to sub- 
spathulate very obtuse, dark green and shining above paler beneath, 3-4 inches long by about 1 inch broad, primary veins straight and 
at nearly right angles with the costa, veinlets forming a beautiful net work and very conspicuous on the under side, petioles about 
^ to 1 inch long, 2 outer calyx segments much smaller than the 2 inner, petals rounded ; male flowers on very short terminal panicles or 
racemes which are 1-2 inches long and 5-15 flowered and furnished with small bractes at the ramifications, pedicels very short 
thickened, stamens in 4 many-fid polyandrous phalanges, anthers about 100 in each phalanx, 2-celled dehiscing longitudinally, no 
rudiment of an ovary, style thick 2 lines long, stigma very large peltate convex above, exactly like a mushroom, glutinous ; female 
flowers solitary or twin in the terminal axils, ovary with a very large convex glutinous stigma, 4 celled, effete stamens in 6-8 phalanges 
each with 2-4 thin filaments, fruit oblong to subglobose, 1^ to If inches long, crowned with the eularged peltate stigma, seeds 15 lines 
by 7 lines broad, long, flat on the inner face, 1-2 come to maturity, testa bright brown. 

This very beautiful species is the No. 1 referred to in Manual, page xxi. I only procured it last month (August J in flower, and in 
ripe fruit at the same time ; the tree is confined to the southern portions of the Travancore and Tinnevelly ghat forests f 3000-4500 feet eleva- 
tion), hut is most abundant in localities where it grows ( Muli-kuli vayal Travancore, Calcad hills Tinnevelly J ; every portion of the tree yields 
abundance of a bright yellow gamboge, which has not been examined yet ; it is a highly ornamental tree, and seed has been transmitted to the 
Ceylon and Bangalore Botanical Gardens, it is called Malam pongu in Tinnevelly. 


PL: CLXX.'l 

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Dtt?nfj7?jf. . Lltfts-. 


EL^OCARPUS VENUSTUS. (Nat. order Tiliace».) 

For Geo. Ukar. see letter press to PI. cxi. 

EUEOCARPUS VENUSTUS. (Bedd.) A large tree, glabrous in all its parts except the flowers, leaves elliptic to 
oblong or sometimes obovate, slightly acute or quite rounded at the apex attenuated at the base, serratures shallow distant and incon- 
spicuous, coriaceous, 3-4£ inches long by l£-2 broad, furnished with very large glands in the axils of the primary veins beneath, which 
often terminate in a pointed or bifid process raised above the lamina of the leaf, the glands form prominent convex marks on the upper 
side of the leaf, petioles 6-8 lines long, racemes axillary lax 4-8 flowered as long or a little longer than the leaves, pedicels distant 
12-16 lines lon<* with a minute deciduous bracteole at the base of each, flowers 12-16 lines in expansion pure white and very fragrant, 
calyx glabrous on the outside, pubescent within, divisions thick and coriaceous, petals a little longer than the calyx 3 cleft with each 
division 5-6 fingered, rather densely silky on the outside, nearly glabrous within except the hairy raised process at the base, the linear 
anthers and filaments hairy, the upper valve with a short point, ovary glabrous 2 celled, cells with 6 ovules in 2 rows, style subulate 
very slightly hairy, drupe not seen. 

A fine large tree only observed in the Muti-kuli vayal, South Travancore, 4500 feet elevation, in flower in August ; it is truly beauti- 
ful when covered with its snow white large flowers, which it produces in great abundance; it has only jvst been discovered, and should be added, 
to the Manual at page xxxviii. 


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ERYTHR1NA STRICTA. (Nat. order Leguminosee.) 

EUYTHRINA. Linn.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx campanulate or cylindrical, obliquely truncate or slit on the upper side, entire or toothed. 
Standard broad or long, erect or recurved, narrowed at the base, without appendages ; wings short, often minute or none ; keel short, the petals united or 
free. Stamens all united at the base, the upper one often free from the middle, anthers reniform. Ovary stipitate, with several ovules, style subulate, 
oblique at the end, with a small stigma. Pod stipitate, linear-falcate, acuminate, narrowed at the base, more or less contracted between the seeds, 2 
valved, usually pithy between the seeds. Seeds distant, ovoid or oblong, with a lateral oblong hilum, not strophiolate. Erect trees or shrubs, rarely 
tall herbs, the trunk, branches, and often the petioles armed with conical prickles- Leaflets S, usually broad, entire or 3-lobed, the stipellse usually 
gland-lik. Stipules small. Racemes axillary, or, if terminal, leafy at the base. Flowers large, usually Ired, in clusters of 2 or 3 on lateral nodes along 
the peduncle. Bracts small or none. — Micropteryx, Duchassaingia and Macrocyuibium, Walps- Stenotropis and] Hypaphorus, Hassk. Chirocalyx: 

JuRYTHRINA STRICTA. (Roxb.) A large tree armed with numerous white prickles, stipules falcate, petioles sometimes 
prickly, leaves unarmed, leaflets glabrous entire, the terminal one reniform-cordate pointed ; racemes terminal horizontal, calyx spa- 
thaceous entire acute short, vexillum about 10 times as long as the calyx and twice the length of the keel, keel 4-5 times longer 
than the alse, its petals united. Stamens monadelphous with the sheath entire at the base, diadelphous upwards, ovary 4-8 ovuled, 
legume usually 2-3 seeded. Roxb. Fl. Lid. iii. p. 251 ;—WA. Prod. p. 260. 

This tree is very common on the western side of the Madras Presidency ; the v)ood is soft, light and spongy (as in all the other 
Erythrinas) ; it is employed as a substitute for deal, and is much in use in the manufacture of toys, trunks, dc. and is afterwards varnished, its 
large pores admitting and retaining/ the varnish better than almost any other viood, the wood is not liable to warp, contract, or split. 



. : ~ iruio ,:•,- 

Duviphy. Zctfc 

BUTEA FEONDOSA. (Nat. order Leguminosa}.) 

-BUTEA. Roxb.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx campanulate bilabiate, upper lip almost entire, lower 3-fid, vexillum ovate acute recurved inap- 
pendiculate, alas falcate adhering to the keel, keel much incurved acute equalling the vexillum. Stamens diadelphous 9 and 1, the vexillum-one free, 
anthera uniform, ovary sessile or shortly stipitate 2 ovuled, style elongate incurved, stigma small glaudular, legume subsessile or stalked oblong or broadly 
linear 2 valved and 1 seeded at the apex only, below flat compressed rather thin, indehiscent. Trees or lofty climbers, leaves pinnately 3 foliate, stipules 
small caducous, flowers large orange or flame colored, fascicled in racemes or panicles. 

-DUTEA FRONDOSA. (Roxb.) A middling sized tree, trunk generally crooked covered with ash-colored spongy thick 
scabrous bark, the middle stratum of which contains a red juice, young shoots downy, leaves alternate pinnately 3-foliate 8-16 inches 
long, leaflets emarginate or rouuded at the apex, coriaceous above shining and pretty smooth below slightly hoary, the 2 lateral ones 
obliquely oval, 4-6 inches long 3-4£ broad, the terminal one obovate and much larger than the others. Stipules small recurved down}-, 
stipels subulate, racemes simple lax terminal axillary and from nodes over the naked branchlets, pedicels about twice as long as the 
calyx, calyx segments short slightly acute several times shorter than the tube, bractes lanceolate caducous, 1 below each pedicel and 
2 below the calyx, curol densely pubescent 4-5 times larger than the calyx, of an orange red mixed with silvery down, vexillum ovate 
acute, legume as in the generic character about 6 inches long downy. Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. p. 244. 

This tree is common throughout the dry jungles in this Presidency and in Bengal, Bombay and Ceylon : it is a very beautiful sight 
when in full flower in March and April; it is called Palds in Hindoslanee, and gave its name to the field of Plassey as it was covered with this 
tree, in Teligu it is called Modagu, Thoras in Canarese, and in Ceylon Gass-kaala. The wood somewhat resembles Teak in appearance, and 
is used for gun-powder charcoal, also for building purposes and well curbs; a red colored astringent gum exudes from wounds made in the 
bark and is officinal, and the floweis yield a dye ; ropes are made from the fresh fibre of the roots. 




PONGAMIA GLABRA. (Nat. order Leguminosie.) 

PONGAMIA. Vent. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx truncate. Standard orbicular, with inflexed auricles at the base ; keel slightly incurred, 
olitNse. Upper stamen free at the base, connate with the others iu a tube in the middle ; anthers uniform. Ovary nearly sessile, witb 2 ovules ; style 
incurved, stigma small, terminal. Pod broadly and obliquely oblong or slightly falcate, thick but flat, 1-seeded, indehiscent, the sutures obtuse, without 
wings. Seed reniform. Tree, leaves pinnate, without stipella:. Flowers in axillary racemes. Bracts very deciduous ; bracteoles minute or none. — 
Galedupa, Lam. 

-PONGAMIA GLABRA. (Vent.) A middling sized tree, glabrous except a very slight pubescence on the inflorescence. 
Leaflets 5 or 7, ovate, shortly and obtusely acuminate, usually broad, about 3 inches long, on a rather long petiole, but variable in 
size. Racemes sometimes panicled, about 3-5 inches long. Flowers in pairs, the pedicels 2 to 4 lines long. Standard about £ inch 
diameter, lower petals shorter. Pod usually 1| to 2 inches long, and about 1 inch broad, sessile or nearly so, often somewhat falcate 
or with a very short incurved point. Benth. Syn. Dalb. 117. 

This tree is most abundant throughout South India in the plains, also in Bengal, Bombay and Ceylon, generally on the banks of 
streams or near water ; it is called Tonga in Tamil ; Kanigd in Teligu, Karunj in Bombay, Magool Karanda in Ceylon ; the wood is light, tough 
and fibrous, coarse and even grained, of light yellowish brown color, not easily worked nor giving a smooth surface ; it is improvd in strength and 
color by being seasoned in water ; a, cubic foot unseasoned weighs 48 to 55 lbs., and 40 lbs. when seasoned, and its specific gravity is - 640 j it is 
used for a variety of purposes, and the solid Wheels of the wodar carts are of ten made of it. An oil is expressed from the seed, which is used by 
the natives for lamps, and it is an excellent cure for itch and mange ; the tree generally sheds its leaves at the end of the cold season ; its /lowers 
which are a mixture qfvjhite and purple are produced in the hot season, and its seed ripens towards the end of the year. Cattle are very fond of 
the leaves, boughs stuck into the ground root readily, and grass and almost everything else grow well under its shade. 





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Siut/pAy, XiA: 

POINGIANA ELATA. (Nat. order LeguminosEe.) 

iOINCIANA. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Sepals 5 equal or subequal united below into a very short cup-shaped somewhat persistent base> 
petals 5 orbicular imbricate subequal or the upper one shaped differently from the others, stamens 10 free much longer than the petals, slightly villous at 
the base, anthers, uniform, cells dehiscing longitudinally, ovary sessile free many-ovuled, style filiform or abbreviated, apex slightly clavate, stigma 
truncate, legume elongate flatly compressed wingless 2 valved several seeded intercepted internally between the seeds, seed transverse oblong albuminous, 
hilum small, testa hard. Cotyledons rather thick, radicle short straight exserted. Unarmed trees, leaves bipinnate, leaflets numerous small, stipules 
inconspicuous, stipels none, flowers showy corymbosely racemed at the apex of the branches. 

POINCIANA ELATA. (L.) A middling sized very showy tree, 20-30 feet, bark pretty smooth ash-colored, branches 
numerous spreading much, leaves alternate bipinnate about 6 inches long, pinnae 2-8 pair opposite, leaflets 10-20 pair sessile opposite 
linear glabrous about 4^ lines long by 1 broad, petiole grooved on the upper side, racemes terminal corymbiform few flowered, flowers 
large showy inodorous yellowish, bracts small 1 flowered caducous, calyx villous on the outside, petals 5 of which the upper one is a 
little smaller and deeper colored, all nearly round and much curled at the margin, filaments ascending afterwards recurved, twice as 
long as the petals, thick and villous at the base, anthers versatile. Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. p. 355. 

A very beautiful tree, rather rare in our jungles, though met with in the forests of both the eastern and western coasts ; most abundant 
in a planted state in avenues, topes, gardens, native cemeteries, &c, the wood is yellow, tolerably close and even grained, easily worked and gives 
a smooth surface, warps slightly but never crocks ; a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 54-58 lbs., and when seasoned 45 lbs. , the specific gravity 
is - 720, it is well suited for cabinet work. > 

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JZ7u7/zf7?zu, Zi^fe, 1 

CASSIA FLORIDA. (Nat. order Legurmnosse.) 

CASSIA. JWk».— GEN CHAR. Sepals 5, somewhat unequal, much imbricate, the outer ones the smallest, scarcely connected at the base. 
^Petals 5, spreading, nearly equal or the lower outer ones rather larger. Stamens usually 10, free, either all nearly equal and perfect or 2 or 3 lower ones 
larger or on lunger filaments, and 3 or 4 upper ones reduced to small staminodia ; anthers when perfect opening at the end in pores or in shurt lateral 
slits. Ovary with several ovules, incurved, tapering into a short style. Pod cylindrical or flat, indehiscent or 2 valved. Seeds oblong or obovate, trans- 
verse, with fleshy albumen, cotyledons flat or rarely folded, usually cordate ; radicle short, straight. Trees, shrubs or herbs, leaves abruptly pinnate, the 
leaflets opposite. Flowers yellow or very rarely reddish-purple or white, iu axillary or terminal racemes or solitary. Bracts usually deciduous. Bracteoles 
none. — Cathartocarpus, Don. Senna, Qcert. Cham»fiatula, Cham;esenna, Charnaacrista and Fistula, DC. Absus, Prosoaperma and Psilorhegma, Vog. 

CASSIA FLORIDA. (Vabl) A middling sized tree, trunk pretty straight and covered with smooth olive colored bark, 
branches few spreading, leaves alternate pinnate 6-12 inches long, leaflets 4-14 pair short petioled opposite oblong entire somewhat 
emarginate with a bristle point, smooth shining, the exterior pairs largest, 1-3 inches long by J-l inch broad, petioles smooth 
channelled without glands, stipules minute subulate caducous, panicles terminal very large erect ovate composed of many alternate 
corymbiform racemes, peduncles pubescent, flowers numerous large bright yellow, pedicels subtended by an oblong-lanceolate concave 
long pointed bracteole, calyx segments unequal pale yellow roundish concave reflexed about ^-rd the length of the corol corol with the 
upper petal small long clawed and oboordate, the other 4 nearly equal and almost round, stamens 7 fertile differing much in size and 3 
barren and small, legumes linear thin, swelled a little at the seeds smooth, both margins rounded 6-8 inches lon» seeds many thin 
oval of a dark brown color. W A. Prod. p. 288. Senna Sumatrana, Roxb. Fl. Ind ii. p. 347. 

This tree is common in a wild state in ihe jungles quite at, the south of this Presidency and in Ceylon, and it is common everywhere 
as a planted tree in avenues, topes, gardens, &c, it is of rapid growth and ornamental, the wood is of a yellowish brown color sometimes beautifully 
marked with irregular black streaks, close grained, hard and durable, but not stiff, works kindly with a smooth surface and stands a aood volish 
a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 68-70 lbs., and when seasoned 58 lbs., and its specific gravity is '928, it is well adapted for furniture but seems to 
be little known or used in this Presidency, in Birmah it is used for mallets, helves and walking sticks, i?i Ceylon it is ihe principal fuel used for 
the Locomotives, and it is said to have as good caloric powers as any wood known in the island, hi Ceylon it is called W'aa and in Tamil 
Manje konne. ' 



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CASSIA ROXBURGHIL (Nat. order Legumiuosse.) 

For Geii. Cbar. sec letter press to PI. clxxix. 

CASSIA RrOXBURGHII. (DC.) A small or middling sized tree, tolerably straight, covered with deeply cracked brown 
colored bark, branches uuuierous beautifully drooping, youug shoots with the petioles and peduncles pubescent, leaves alternate 
pinnate 6-10 inches long, leaflets 10-20 pairs oblong uuequal sided obtuse or emarginate and mucronate, pubescent beneath, about 1 
inch long by | inch broad, the margins colored and slightly thickened, petioles channelled, stipules semi-saggitate, racemes axillary 
solitary much shorter than the leaves, bractes 3 lanceolate the 2 inner (in the base of the pedicel and much smaller than the other, 
flowers middling sized pink, petals nearly equal, stamens all fertile, the 3 lower much the largest with a double curve below the 
middle and the anthers with 2 clefts, the 7 upper ones short incu nbent with the anthers opaning by 2 pores, legumes pendulous 
indehiscent cylindric 8-12 inches long 6-8 lines in diameter, dark brawn fco.'osa and somewhat ligneous, divided by transverse parti- 
tions into many cells, seeds lodged in a soft white spongy substance. WA. Prod. p. 2S6. Cassia emarginata, Roicb. Fl. hid. ii. 338. 

This tree is very common in a wild slate in the South Arcot, Trichinopo^y, Tanjore, and Tinnevelly districts ; it is extensively 
planted in gardens for omamentul purposes, and is to be seen in most compounds at Madras ; when in flower it is exceedingly beautiful, it is also 
wild in Ceylon, and is there calld Ratu-ioda, the wood is clone grained, hard and durable, worki smoothly and stands a good polish, when fresh it 
is deep rose colored but eventually turns reddish brown. A cubic foot unseasonzd weig'm 75-80 lbs., and when seasoned 63 lbs., and its specific 
gravity is 1'008 ; it is well adapted for articles of turnery, such as nives of wheels and handles of instruments. 



J?£CTn/3fc,tf. 2.£&fy: 


DIALIUM OVOIDEUM. (Nat. ord. Leguminosee.) 

DlALIUM. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube very short, segments 5 much imbricate herbaceous or petaloid, petals or 1-2 small, 
staineus 2 rarely 3 free, filaments short, anthers oblong erect affixed at the base, cells dehiscing longitudinally, ovary sessile at the bottom of the calyx, or 
un a stipe adnate to the calyx tube, 2-ovuled, style short subulate, stigma terminal small, legume ovato-orbicular, slightly compressed or ovoid-globose 
indehiscent, exocarp hard or fragile, endocarp generally pulpy. Seed 1, more or less compressed albuminous, cotyledons fiat foliaceous or slightly fleshy, 
radicle short straight subincluded. Trees unarmed, leaves unequally pinnate, leaflets few generally alternate coriaceous, or submembranaceous, stipules 
small or inconspicuous, flowers small in axillary or terminal cymose panicles, bractes and bracteoles deciduous. — Codarium, Soland. Arouna, Aubl. 

DlALIUM OVOIDEUM. (Thw.) A very large tree, leaflets 5 lanceolate, retuse at the apex, glabrous above, sparingly and 
very minutely puberulous beneath, 2-3 inches loug |-1| broad., petiolule tumid 2 lines long, panicles terminal adpressedly incano-pilose 
longer than the leaves, bracteoles lanceolate soon deciduous, flowers white about 3 lines long a little longer than the pedicels, sepals 
ovate-lanceolate, petals none, anthers extrorse, ovary sessile on an inconspicuous ring-like disk, stigma obtuse, legume ovoid dark 
brown velutinous sparingly compressed subsessile, 7-8 lines long by 5-6 lines broad, seeds 1-2 roundish compressed striated shining 
yellowish or reddish-brown, 4 lines long. Thw. En. PL Zeyl. p, 97. 

A valuable timber tree, only found in Ceylon (districts north o/Kandy, at no great elevation), called Oal-Seyembala ; the zuood is strong 
and handsome, and well adapted for ornamental furniture ; the fruit has an agreeable acid flavour, and is sold in the bazaars. 


1. A very young flower-bud, showing the 2 bracteoles which are early deciduous. 

2. A flower. 

3. The same open, showing the 5 sepals, 2 stamens, and the ovary. 
4 & 5. The same, sepals removed. 

6. Anthers. 

7. Ovary cut vertically. 
S. A fruit branch. 

9. Fruit cut vertically, 
10. A seed. 






'a<zz7? r.'c'. 

BATJHINIA RACEMOSA. (Nat. order Leguminosse.) 

BaUHINIA. Linn. — GEN. CHAE. Sepals united at the base in a short or long disk-beariDg tube, the free part spathaceous and Bubentire 
or separating into 5 or fewer valvate or.iuduplieate lobes, petals 5 inserted at the summit of the tube usually clawed often more or less unequal, stamens 
10 free or more or less mouadelphous, either all perfect or some leduced to stauiiuodia or altogether wanting, sometimes there is an inner verticil (prolouc- 
ation of the torus) nearly entire or cut into short bristle-like threads, ovary stipitate the stipe free or aduate to one side of the calyx-tube, ovules several ; 
style filiform or rarely wanting, stigma capitate or dilated, legume linear or oblong compressed, 2 valved, seeds compressed, albumen usually thin, radicle 
short and straight. Trees, woody climbers or shrubs, leaflets 2, generally united into a 2-lobed or nearly entire leaf with 5-11 digitate nerves or rarely 
distinct from the base, racemes terminal.— Piliostigtna, Eochstett. Phanera, Lour. Symphyopoda, DC. Pauletia, Cuv. Amaria, Mutism DC. Casparia, 
DO. Lasiobeuia, Miff. Fl. Ind. Bat. i. part i. 71. Adenolobus, Harvey. Schuella, Maihli. Caulotretus, DC. Lacara, Sprang. Tylotia, Vog. Lysiphyllum, 
Benth. Perlebia, Mart. 

BATJHINIA RACEMOSA. (Lam.) A small tree, bark dark scabrous, leaves cordate at the base, upper side glabrous, under 
shortly -villous or glabrous, leaflets roundish or broadly obova.te, united to or beyond the middle 3-uerved, racemes solitary terminal or 
leaf opposed, leafless much longer than the leaves ; flowers scattered small whitish, calyx spathaceous at length reflexed 5 toothed at the 
apex pubescent, petals linear lauceulate ascending, slightly hairy on the outside, rather unequal, stamens 10 all fertile, mouadelphous, 
unequal, filaments and anthers bearded withlongish hairs, ovary glabrous long stalked, stalk free, style none, stigma flat sessile, legume 
linear straightish or curved woody thick scarcely dehiscing, many seeded. Lam. Encycl. Aleth. i. p. 390; — WA. Prod- p. 295. 
B. parviflora, Vahl. ; — lloxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 323. Piliostigma racemosa, Hock. 

This is generally a crooked very ramous tree; it is very common throughout this Presidency, and in Bombay, Bengal, Burmah and 
Ceylon, and ascends the mountains to about 'iilW feet ; it is called Aree in Teligu, Archee in Tamil, Aup'.a in Bombay, Ban raj in Bengal, and 
Myld in Ceylon; the wood is small, but the heart-wood is very hard and fine, a cubic foot weighs ivhen seasoned 44 lbs. Matchlock-men almost 
always make their slow matches from its bark, which is boiled, dried, and beaten, and then burns well and slowly, without any substance being 
mixed with it ; ropes are also made from the bark ; the tree is said to be worshipped by the Hindoos during the Dussera in the Bombay presidency, 
and is sometimes called Wuwd rajah (King of the jungle). Elephants are very fond of the leaves and they are sometimes used for making native 


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HUMBOLDTIA UNIJUGA. (Nat. order LeguminosEe.) 

HrjMBOLDTIA. Vahl. — GEN". CHAR. The disk-bearing tube of the calyx turbinate or narrow, segments 4 subequal colored imbricate, 
petals eitber 5 subequal sessile oblong imbricate, or 3 subequal, and 2 rudimentary or wanting, stamenB 5 perfect with or without as many alternate teeth- 
like staminodes, or 10 purfect, filaments free iuserted either at the base of the calyx tubs or at the apex of the disk, exserted, anthers ovate or oblong 
versatile, cells dehiscing longitudinally, ovary stipitate, stipe actuate to the calyx tube, few ovuled, style filiform, stigma terminal clavato-capitate. Legumes 
oblong oblique or falcate compressed coriaceous 2-valved, seed transverse ovate compressed exarillate, albumen of cotyledons flat, radicle short straight, 
included. Large or middling sized trees unarmed, leaves abruptly pinnate, stipules foliaceous obliquely reniform or semisagittate, flowers racemose, 
braetes ovate or oblong, braeteoles colored enclosing the flower bud. — Batschia, Vahl. (not Linn.) 

HUMBOLDTIA UNIJUGA. (Bedd.) A tree, young parts minutely strigose otherwise glabrous, leaves alternate abruptly 
pinnate, common petioles about 2 lines long, leaflets only one pair with a flat depressed gland at their insertion on the apes of the 
petioles, sub-sessile narrow-lanceolate very unequal at the base, and with a long acumiuation at the apex, 5-7 inches long 1 J to 2 
broad, stipule semi-ovate acuminate very unequal sided about | inch long, flowers crimson on very short racemes from the trunk and 
older boughs and more rarely from the younger branchlets, peduncles -| to 1 inch long, pedicels slender J to 1 inch long furnished 
with 2 oblong minutely pubescent braeteoles at the apes just below the calyx, calyx with a short tube 5 parted, segments oblong more 
than twice as' long as the braeteoles minutely pubescent, corol 5 parted, one half longer than the calyx lobes, broad oblong, stamens 5 
all fertile inserted alternate with the petals on to the hairy apex of the calyx tube, filaments glabrous except at their base, staminodia 
none, ovary stipitate hairy 2-3 ovuled, stipe adnate to the wall of the calyx tube, legume unknown. Bedd. Icones tab. 107. 

This very handsome middling sized tree I have only found on. the Travancore ghats in the dense forests a little below the Attraymallay, 
3000-4000 feet elevation, but most abundant in that locality ; it was in flower in January and is said to yield a very hard durable timber. 

Fig. A in the plate is the legume of H. Brunonis. 



fa* Jslffts; 

TAMARINDUS INDICUS. (Nat. order Leguminosse.) 

TaMARINDUS. Linn. — GEN. CHAR. Sepals 4, united at the base iu to a turbinate tube, the free portion or segments much imbricate. 
Petals 3, tbe lateral ones ovate, the upper inner one narrower, concave. Stamens incurved, united in a sheath to the middle, 3 or rarely 2 only perfect, 
with ovate anthers, 4 or 5 others reduced to short teeth. Ovary stipitate, with several ovules ; style infiexed, rather thick, with a truncate stigma. Pod 
linear or oblong-linear, curved thick, but slightly compressed, the epicarp crustaceous and fragile, the mesocarp pulpy, the endoearp thick and fleshy, 

forming complete partitions between the seeds. Seeds broadly ovate, flattened ; testa rather thick ; albumen none, embryo straight, with a short radicle. 

Trees. Leaves abruptly pinnate. Flowers in terminal racemes. 

TAMARINDUS INDICUS. (Linn. J A very large tree, with a beautiful spreading Lead, leaves about 4-5 inches long 
by 1-1 j inches broad glabrous but pale or glaucous, leaflets 10-20 pairs oblong-linear obtuse unequal-sided at the base \-\ inch long by 
about 3 lines broad, petiolules generally hairy, stipules small deciduous, racemes short and loose, really terminal but usually in very 
short branchlets so as to appear lateral and shorter than the leaves, flowers cream colored or yellowish, blotched with crimson, about 1 
inch in diameter, bracts very deciduous, calyx segments about 4 lines long, petals rather longer, pod about 1 inch broad varying in 
length according to the number of seeds ripened, usually 2 or 3. DC. ii. 488 ; — Benlh. Fl. Aust. ii. p. 294. T. occidentalis, Gartn. 
T. officinalis, Hook. 

This tree, the only species of the genus, is common both wild and cultivated throughout Tropical Asia and also in Africa and Australia, 
and cultivated in the West Indie:', it is perhaps our finest tree for avenue and topepurposes, but its slow growth is somewhat against it ; Us fruit 
yields a considerable revenue in some districts, the heart wood is generally of small diameter, very hard close grained and sometimes beautifully 
veined of a dark-reddish color and hard to be worked, unseasoned it weighs 92-9S lbs. the cubic foot, and when seasoned 79 lbs. and its specific 
gravity is 1-264, it is much used for turnery purposes and for pestles, oil presses, sugar crushers, carpenter's mallets and planes, croquet mallet 
heads and balls, and many other purposes, and is one of the best fuels for brick kilns as it burns whilst green; and is esteemed as excellent for 
gunpowder charcoal, the heart ivood is only procurable from very old trees ; the sap wood is of a dirty white color not durable and if not seasoned 
in water gets worm eaten. The leaves, fruit and seed are used medicinally by the natives, and a dye is prepared, from the leaves, a paste made of 
the seeds reduced to fine powder and boiled with thin glue forms one of the strongest wood cements. The tree is called Amli in Eindustanee, 
Chinta in Telugu. Fooli in Tamil, Seyembalu in Ceylon, and Md-gyi in Birmah, it attains a girth of 25 feet but has never any great length of 




DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA. (Nat. order Leguminosae.) 

DlCHKOSTACHYS. DO.-— GEN. CHAR. Calyx 5-fcoothed. Petals 5, valvate, usually cohering. Stamens in the perfect flowera 10, free; 
anthers ovate, tipped with a deciduous gland. Ovary nearly sessile, with several ovules; style short or filiform, with a small terminal stigma. Lower 
flowera of the spike neuter, with loug, liuear white or colored staminodia, and a small rudimentary ovary, pod liuear compressed, variously twisted, inde- 
hiscent or the valves irregularly separating from the persistent sutur e3. —Small trees or rigid shrubs, the branchlets occasionally spinescent. Leaves ab- 
ruptly bipiuaate, with a stipitate glaud between the pinnae of the lowest or of all the pairs, leaflets small. Stipules subulate or acuminate, often imbricate 
ou the short flowerin» branches. Flowers sessile, in dense cylindrical spikes, either terminal or apparently axillary by the shortness of the branchlet, the 
upper flowers of the spike hermaphrodite and yellow, the lower oues neuter and white pink or purple. Benth. Ft . Aust. vol, ii. p. 299. Cailliea, Gv,ill. et 

DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA.. (WA.) A small tree or large shrub, spinescent, leaves 1-3 inches long -with the petiole 
generally pubescent, pinuas 8-12 pair \ to I inch long, leaflets 12-20 pairs crowded oblong-linear slightly falcate 1 to 2 lines long ciliat- 
ed and often hairy, spikes solitary or 2-3 together pedunculate 1-3 inches long, peduncle pubescent and generally with a bracteole about 
the middle, liermathrodite, flowers about 1 line long without the stamens which are twice or thrice as long, neuter flowers with very long 
gtaminodia, le»ume 2-3 inches long 3-4 lines wide, irregularly twisted viscid-pubescent or glabrous. WA. Prod. p. 271 ; — Wight Icones 
tab, 357. Mimosa ciaerea, Roxb. FL hid. ii. 561. Desman thus cinereus, Willd. Acacia cinerea, Spreng. 

A vert/ common tree or shrub in dry aridsoils in the plains and, lower hills throughout the presidency, also in Bengal, Bombay, Ceylon, 
the Archipelago and N. Australia ; it is called Vadatalla in Tamil, Velturu in Telugu, and Andara in Ceylon. The flowers are very showy, the 
upper half of the spike being yellow, the lower rose colored ; tin wood U very hard, tough and strong, but too small to be of much vse, it makes good 
tent pegs. 


1. A neuter flower shewing the long stamiaodia. 

2. A fertile flower. 

3. The same, calyx opened, stamens removed. 

4. A corol opened. 

5. Corol and the 10 free stamens. 

6. Ovary and style. 

7. Ovary cut transversely . 

8. The same cut vertically. 

9. Anthers shewing the glandular tips (which are deciduous) all much magnified, 
10. Legumes. 



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XYLIA DOLABRIFORMIS. (Nat. order Leguminosfe.) 

XyLIA. Senth.—GiES. CHAE. Flowers 5-merous sessile generally hermathrodite, calyx tubuloso-campanulate dentate, petals quite free to 
the base, slightly imbricate at the side in the centre. Stamens 10 alternately a little shorter, free, exserted, anthers oblongo-orbicular, gland-tipped at the 
apex (from the connective at the back) glands deciduous, pollen-grains numerous, ovary sessile many-ovuled, style filiform, stigma terminal small, legume 
sessile broadly falcate, flatly compressed thick woody 2-valved, partitioned between the seeds inside ; seed transverse obovate compressed, funicle short 
fleshy. A large tree unarmed, leaves bipinnate, pinnae 1-occasionally 2-pair, leaflets large few paired, glands between the pinnse and leaflets, and on the 
petiole below the pinnee, stipules small linear deciduous, capitula globose, peduncles axillary sub-fasciculate, or racemose at the apex of the branches 
flowers small yellowish or cream colored. Benth. in Booh Journ. Bot. iv. 417. 

A genus consisting of a single species, the long stalked glands to the anthers are always present in the bud, they are soon deciduous but 

can be detected on some of the anthers in the full flower. 

XYLIA DOLABRIFORMIS. (Benth.) A large tree, unarmed, leaves bipinnate, pinnte generally only 1 -rarely 2-pair, a 
gland on the petiole near the base and 1 between each pair of pinnae, leaflets 2-6 (generally 3-4) pair with, or without an odd one on the 
outside below the pairs, ovate-oblong acute with a gland on the petiole between each, pair, the leaflets are gradually larger upw ards, the 
terminal pair being sometimes 9-10 inches long, peduncles 3-4 inches long, capitula about 1 inch in diameter, legumes 4-6 inches long 
l|-lf broad, valves very thick and woody — Inga xylocarpa, DO- Prod. ii. p, 439, Mimosa xylocarpa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 543, Acacia 
xylocarpa, Willd. 

This tree is widely distributed in the forests of the Madras Presidency, it is abundant and of large size in some parts of the Godavery 
forests, and on the lover western slopes of the mountains in South Canara, Malabar and Travancore ; and in the forests at the foot of the South 
Canara and Malabar ghats ii is oftenrery gregarious forming forests of itself to the exclusion of almost all other trees, but it is seldom of fine 
growth when foy.nd in this state ; it is generally known by its Tamil name of Irool, and is called Konda tangedu in Teligu (the drears), Boja in 
the Godavery forests, and Tirwa in Canarese (S. Canara); it flowers in March and April when destitute of leaves, and ripens its seed in August 
and September, the wood is of a very dark red color fading to dark brown, heavy, hard, close grained, and not easily worked, when planed up the 
surface has an unctuous feel and not very agreeable smell. A cubic foot unseasoned weighs 68-74 lbs. and 58 lbs. when seasoned a nd its specific gra- 
vity is - 928, it is excellent for posts, railway sleepers, naves of wheels, and all purposes demanding great strength, and is in we for building pur- 
poses. This tree is found in Birmah where it is called Pynkado and is known as the ironivood of Pegu and is said to last as long as teak, it is 
used therefor knees in ship building, house and bridge posts, ploughs, boat anchors, the construction of carts, and other purposes. 


1. Apex of a young branch shewing a leaf with 2 pair of pinnaj. 

2. A flower. 

3. The same calyx cut open, shewing the free petals slightly imbricate at the sides. 

4. Corol opened out. 

5. Anthers, front and back view, shewing the stalked gland arising from the connective at the back. 

6. Anthers from a bud. 

7. The petals. 

8. Ovary and style. 

9. Ovary cut vertically. 

10. The same cut transversely. 



PERICOPSIS MOONIANA. (Nat. order Leguminosse.) 

•t ERICOPSIS. Thw. — GEN. CHAR. Lobes of the calyx subequal or the 2 superior a little smaller and subconnate, vexilluni broadly 
orbicular reflexed, alas falcato-obovate, keel incurved obtuse, petals free, stamens 1 free, anthers versatile, ovary stipitate many -ovuled, style subulate 
involute at the apex, stigma small, legume stipitate, broadly linear flatly compressed coriaceous indehiseent with the sutures with a thickened margin, 
seed much compressed broadly ovate or orbicular, cotyledons obliquely cordate at the base. 

A tree with the habit o£ Ormosia, leaves unequally pinuate, leaflets alternate, flowers blackish-purple, panicles terminal, 

P ERICOPSIS MOONIANA. (Thw.) A very large tree, branches white-dotted, gemmce pilose, leaves 8-14 inches long, the 
petiole and petiolules pilose when young, leaflets 5-8 glabrous ovate or oblong acuminate paler beneath minutely reticulate, 2J-7 inches 
long 1 J -3 broad, stipules lanceolate pilose deciduous 2 lines long, panicles terminal, calyx 7 lines long, flowers 1 inch long, legumes 1-6 
seeded smooth, obscurely reticulated, 1 inch broad thickened, margins 1 line broad, Thw. En. PI. Zey. p. 413. Dalbergia Mooniana, 
Thw. 1. c. p. 93. 

This is a very valuable timber tree common about Colombo and the southern and central parts of Ceylon at no great elevation, the timber is 
used for building purposes and for furniture, and the tree is called Nadoong. 


PL: cm VII, 

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PITHEOOLOBIUM DULOE. (Nat. order Leguminosfe.) 

PlTHECOLOBIUM. Mart.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx campamilate or tubular. Corolla 5-lobed, with a cylindrical tube. Stamens indefinite, 
usually numerous and long, united at the base in a tube enclosing the ovary. Pod flattened, usually rather thick and much curved, annular or spirally 
twisted, either opening entirely or on the outer edge in 2 valves, or quite indehiscent, very smooth and often coloured inside or with a thin pulp. Seeds 
ovate or orbicular ; funicle filiform. Trees or rarely shrubs, unarmed or armed with short straight stipulary thorns. Leaves twice pinnate, usually with 
a gland on the petiole below the pinnae, and others between or below some or all of the pinnae and leaflets ; leaflets few. Flowers in globular or oblong 
heads or umbels, or rarely in cylindrical spikes, usually hermaphrodite and white, the stamens rarely red. Cathormium, Hassle. 

This genus only differs from Albizzia in its legume, from Acacia it is at once distinguished by the stamens being united in a tube. The Ameri- 
can genus Inga differs from Pithecolobium only in its leaves being always simply pinnate. 

PlTHECOLOBIUM DULCE. (Willd.) A good sized tree up to 40 feet high and 6 feet in girth, extreme branches 
pendulous armed with short straight stipulary thorns, leaves bipinnate, pinnae and leaflets each one pair, leaflets oblong very unequal 
sided obtuse with a gland between the pinnae and between the pairs of leaflets, petiole shorter than the leaflets ; flowers capitate, heads 
shortly pedunculate, racemose, the racemes panicled, legumes turgid twisted, seeds glabrous and smooth imbedded in a firm pulp. — 
Inga dulcis, Willd; — WA. Prod. p. 269. Mimosa dulcis, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 556. 

This tree is supposed to have been introduced from the Philippine Islands, but it is now most common throughout this Presidency ; it 
is one of our best coppice fuels and is largely grown for that purpose and is also much used as a hedge plant. A cubic foot of unseasoned 
wood weighs 50-53 lbs. and when seasoned 40 lbs., and its specif c gravity is - 640, it is hard, coarse grained and brittle, of a reddish brown color, 
and when sawn emits an unpleasant odour ; it is v.sedjor country carts, packing boxes, and the pannelling of doors. The tree is caVed Kdrkd- 
pilly in Tamil and is often called the Manilla tamarind by Europeans. 





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PITHECOLOBIUM ANAMALLAYANUM. (Nat. order. Leguminosse.) 

-C or Gen. Char, see letter-press to PL clxxxviii. 

PITHECOLOBIUM AnAMALLAYANUM. (Bedd.) A large spreading tree, branches panicles and petioles fuseo-pubes- 
ceut, young branches angled, leaves 4-9 inches long with 4-12 pair of pinuse which are 3 to 4 inches in length, a large raised deeply 
concare gland is present on the petiole near its base on the upper side, and one smaller one in the centre of several of the interspaces 
between the insertion of the pairs of pinnae (these latter generally occupy alternate interspaces), leaflets 10-22 pair subcoriaceous linear- 
oblong very oblique at the base and apex, glabrous above except on the margin, costa beneath furnished with longish hairs otherwise 
glabrous, panicles subcorynibiform terminal and several together in the upper axils, capitula many flowered, calyx and corol aureo- 
pubescent on the outside, the latter 3-4 times as long as the former, ovary on a long stipe pubescent. 

This very beautiful tree wilh its large spreading head is very conspicuous in the moist woods on the higher ranges oj the Anamallays 
(5000-8000/fiei,) and other hills to the smith of them, but I never observed it on the Nilgiris or anywhere north of the Palghat gap ; except in its 
much more numerous pinna, it is closely allied to P. subcoriaceum ( Thw.), and I luas inclined to refer it to that species, b ut Dr. Thwaites {to whom 
I have forwarded specimens) thinks ii very distinct. 



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CRUDIA ZEYLANICA. (Nat. order Leguminosse.) 

CrUDIA, Schreb. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube short, segments 4 membranaceous imbricate refiexed when in flower, petals none, stamens 
10 or rarely fewer free, filaments filiform, anthers ovate or oblong, cells dehiscing longitudinally, ovary shortly stipitate, stipe free at the bottom of the 
calyx or obliquely affixed to one side of the tube, few ovuled, style filiform short or elongate, stigma terminal small, legume obliquely orbicular, ovate or 
broadly oblong, flatly compressed, rigidly coriaceous 2-valved, margins often thickened, seed 1-2 large orbicular or subreniform, flatly compressed emargi- 
nate at the side near the hilum, albumen none, cotyledons flat, radicle short straight included, Unarmed trees, leaves unequally pinnate, leaflets alternate 
coriaceous or membranaceous, stipules small and very caducous, or foliaceous and persistent, flowers small racemose. — Crudia, DC. Pryonia, Mig. Fl. 
Ind. Boi. i. part 1. Apalatoa, Aubl—t Tonchiroa, A^ubl. 

CRUDIA ZEYLANICA. (Tb.w.) A large tree, glabrous, leaflets 2-6 ovate or oblong obtusely acuminate, slightly 
oblique at the base rounded, paler beneath, very minutely reticulated 2-6 inches long, racemes terminal many flowered spar- 
ingly pilose, from shorter to nearly as long as the leaves, pedicels 2 lines long, minutely bibracteolate at the middle, flowers crowded, 
sepals 2 lines long rounded persistent, filaments alternately shorter ; anthers rotundate, ovary stipitate, palely fusco-tomentose, 3-4 
ovuled, style filiform glabrous, stigma small, legume (immature) oblong slightly falcate. — Detarium Zeylanicum, Thw. En. PI. Zeyl. 
p. 414. 

This large tree has only been found in Ceylon (Galpaata near Caltura) ;my specimens are only in bud, and 1 have not been ablt to 
procure full grown flowers for analysis. 



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PARINARIUM INDICUM. (Nat. order Rosacese.) 

JTARINARIUM. Juss, — GEN". CHAE. Calyx-lobes 5, imbricate. Petals 5, rarely 4. Stamens numerous or rarely few, all perfect or thoBe 
on one side reduced to small stamiaodia, filaments filiform ; anthers small. Ovary of a single carpel, adnate on one side to the mouth of the calyx-tube 
and protruding from it, more or less completely 2-celled, with 1 erect ovule in each cell ; style from the base of the ovary. Drupe ovoid or spherical, the 
endocarp bony. Seeds 1 or 2, erect. — Trees. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, entire. Stipules deciduous, usually small. Flowers white or pink, in cymes 
forming terminal raceme-like or corymbose panicles. Benth. Ft. Aust, ii. p. 426. Petrocarya, Jack. Grymania, Presl. Maranthes, Blume. Exitelia, 
Blume. Lepidocarya, Korth. Balantium, Dcsv. Entosiphon, Bedd. 

Jr ARINARIUM iNDICUM. (Bedd.) A middling sized tree, glabrous except the inflorescence, leaves alternate elliptic to 
lanceolate entire glabrous, slightly undulate, 8-9 inches long by 3 broad, with 2 glands at the base on the under side close above 
the petiole, petiole \ to £ inch, racemes slightly rjubescent, shorter than the leaves, leaf opposed or terminal, flowers white 
subsessile 3 bracteated, outer bract large ovato-lanceolate 2 inner ones linear-lanceolate, calyx tube infundibuliform, divisions 5 
imbricate lanceolate acuminate subequal pilose, petals 5 inserted into the jaws of the calyx, between its divisions and the stamen tube, 
and alternate with the former, ovate pointed imbricate equal, a little shorter than the calycine lobes, stamen-tube lining the inside of 
the calyx and connate with it to its base densely hairy inside, stamens 12-15 all together on one side of the tube near the ovary, 
filaments glabrous, twice the length of the calyx induplicate in aestivation, anthers 2-celled bursting longitudinally, the rest of the 
stamen tube is furnished with teeth-like staminodia along its margin, ovary connate with the tube uear the summit, very hairy 2-celled, 
cells 1-ovuled, ovules erect, style lateral or almost basal, glabrous except at the base, longer than the stamens. Bedd- Ic. p. 22, and 
tab. cix. Entosiphon, Bedd. in Mad. Lit. J own. 

lhave only found this tree on the Wynad slopes (Malabar), Carcoor ghat and its vicinity 2000-3000 feet elevation, nothing is known 
of its timber or uses. 



PHOTINIA NOTONIANA. (Nat. order Rosacea.) 

PHOTINIA . LindUy.— GEN. [ CHAE. Calyx-tube campanulate or turbinate, adhering to the ovary, the limb short persistent 5-toothed, petals 
5 spreading, stamens about 20 inserted into the jaws of the calyx, filaments subulate, ovary inferior or the apex free, 2-5 (rarely 1) celled with 2 erect 
ovules in each cell, styles 2-5 (rarely 1) free or more or less connate at the base their apices dilated truncate and stigmatic, fruit succulent crowned with 
the remains of the calyx teeth, endocarps thin usually 1 celled with 2 rather small oblong seeds, seeds erect, testa membranaceous or coriaceous, cotyledons 
plano-convex. Trees or shrubs unarmed glabrous or pubescent, leaves simple coriaceous evergreen, serrated or entire, stipules sometimes subfoliaceous 
flowers small white or terminal corymbs or panicles, fruit sometimes edible.— Eriobotrya, Lindl. 

PHOTINIA NOTONIANA. (Wall.) A large tree, leaves glabrous from cuneate-lanceolate to oblong acute, quite entire or 
with a few scattered inconspicuous teeth, 4-6 inches long by 2-2f broad, petioles about \\ inches long, panicles corymbose large very 
compound, puberulous, pedicels shorter than the calyx, cells of the ovary spuriously semi-bilocular, fruit glabrous 2 seeded. WA. 
Prod. p. 302 ;— Wight Icones tab. 991 -—Wight III. tab. 85. 

A very handsome tree, very common at the higher elevations on the NUgiris, Anamallays, Puhiies and on the Ceylon mountains, it 
flowers in March and April and its fruit ripens in June and July, the latter in taste and flavor resembles that of the mountain ash. The tree 
is called Kaddi bihhi by the Burghers on the NUgiris, the timber is adapted for cabinet purposes, it is closely allied to, if distinct from, P. intt- 
grifolia, Lindley. 




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CARALLIA INTEGERRIMA. (Nat. order Rhizophoracese.) 

UARALLIA, Roxb. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx minutely bracteolate at the base, tube semi-adnate to the ovary, dampanulate above with 5-8 
short valvate lobea, petals as many as the lobes of the ealyx clawed orbicular, jagged, 2-6d, slightly toothed, or entire, inserted at the margin of the thia 
stamen tube which lines the calyx tube nearly up to its lobes, disk epigynous 10-16 lobed, stamens twice as many as the petals and inserted with them on 
the stamen tube at the base of the calyx-lobes, the lower portion of the filaments adherent down to base of the free portion of the tube, anthers small 
oblong, ovary semi-inferior 3-5 celled, with 2 ovules in each cell, pendulous from the axis above the middle, style subulate or filiform, stigma 3-5 lobed. 
Fruit small globose coriaceous, generally 1-celled, 1-seeded, seed globosely reniform, testa fibrous, albumen fleshy, embryo curved not growing before the 
seed falls. Trees or shrubs very glabrous, branchlets 4-angIed or terete, leaves opposite petiolate, ovate or elliptic, very glabrous shining entire or serrulate 
stipules interpetiolar (as in RubiaceEe) caducous, flowers small in axillary pedunculate usually trichotomous cymes. — Petalotoma, DC, Prod, iii. p. 291. 
Diafcoma, Lour Fl. Coch. 296. Symmetria, Bl. Bijd. 1130. Barraldeia, Thouars, Qen. Nov. Madag. 24. 

CARALLIA INTEGERRIMA. (DC.) A tree, glabrous in all its parts, leaves petiolate entire obovate-oblong or elliptic obtuse 
or more or less acuminate, coriaceous, deep green and shining above, paler beneath, 3-5 inches long by about 2 broad, petioles 2-3 lines 
long, cymes axillary or from the old leafless nodes often furnished with much gummy substance, on short peduncles, each short branch- 
let bearing 3-5 sessile flowers, calyx short broad campanulate not 3 lines in diameter, 8-toothed, petals white clawed orbicular 
much lobed and jagged, stamens 16 as in the generic character on filaments nearly equal in length, but the 8 opposite the sinuses are 
less recurved and appear much longer from being more exserted, ovary 3-4 rarely 5-celled, styles 3-4 rarely 5, fruit globular about 
3 lines in diameter crowned by the calyx-teeth. — BO. Prod, iii, 33. C. Ceylanica, Arnt. Wight III. tab. 90. C. corymbosa and 
Sinensis, Arnt. in Tayl. Ann. Nat. Hist. Vol. i. p. 371. C. Timorensis, Bl. Mus. Bot. Vol, i. p. 128. C. octopetala, F. Mutter. 
Pootia cereopsifolia, Uig. PI. Hochst- 

A very common tree in our Western ghat forests up to 4000 feet from Bombay down to Cape Comorin, also on the Cuddapah hills, 
most abundant in S. Canara (where it is called in Canarese ' Audi punar ) and in Coorg ; in Bombay it is called Punschi, and in Ceylon, where 
it is met with up to 3000 feet, it is called Dawata, it is a highly ornamental tree on account of its beautiful foliage ; it is also indigenous in 
Bengal, Birmah, Hongkong and tropical Australia. The timber is ornamental and of a reddish color, and is used in S. Canara for furniture 
and cabinet purposes, and in Ceylon for furniture and fittings, it is tough and not easily worked, brittle and not durable, and has a pretty wavy 
appearance, and is peculiar in structure, having a great deal of cellular tissue; a cubic foot unseasoned weighs about 56-60 lbs. and iilbs. 
ivhen seasoned, and its specific gravity is '684; in Birmah where the tree is known by the name of Manioga, it is used for planks and rice 
pounders. Pn Calcuta it is in use for house building under the name of Eierpa (Bengalee.) 

A nalysis. 

1. A flower, the petals fallen off, showing the valvate calyx. 

2. The same open, showing the stamen tube lining the calyx to the base of its lobes, the 16 stamens inserted on it, and 1 of 

the petals (the other 7 removed). 

3. A petal. 

4. A flower (5 lobes of the calyx and the petals removed), showing that the calyx-tube ia adnata to the ovary in nearly iU 

whole length. 

5. Anthers, front and back view. 

6. Ovary with its 16 lobed epigynous disk, style, and a 4-cleft stigma. 

7. Ovary cut vertically, showiug the pendulous ovules and a 3-lobed stigma. 

8- A 4-celled ovary (it is sometimes 3 or 5 celled) cut transversely, showing the cells 2-ovuled. 
9. Fruit. 



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WEIHEA ZEYLANIOA. (Nat. order Rhizophoracese.) 

WBIHEA, Spreng. — GEKT. CHAR. 2 bracteoles connate into a cup, enclosing the flower bud, more distant when the flower expands. Calyx 
tube very shortly turbinate adnate to the base of the ovary, limb 4-5 parted, the segments valvate at length spreading or reflexed, petals 4-6 inserted 
under the margin of the obscure disk, unguiculate spathulate fimbriately lacerated ; stamens 10-30 inserted on the disk, filaments filiform, anthers 
oblong, ovary superior adnate to the base of the calyx ovoid-glotose 3-5 sulcate or lobed 2-4-celIed, style filiform, stigma 2-4-lobed, ovules 2 in each cell 
collateral pendulous, fruit globose fleshy 3-4 celled, tardily septicidally 3-4-valvate, valves thick, cells 1-2 seeded. Seed arillate ovoid compressed and 
subtrigonal, testa coriaceous, albumen fleshy, embryo straight, cotyledons plane elliptic venose, radicle terete. Trees or shrubs, leaves glabrous opposite, 
petiolate, entire or obtusely serrate penniveined, stipules interpetiolar (as in Eubiaceaj) deciduous, peduncles axillary solitary or fascicled 1-flowered, 
— Anstrutheria, Qard. in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist, vi. 344, t. 4. Eichiaja, Thouars Qtn. Nov. Maiag. 25. 

\V EIHAE ZeYLANICA, (Gardn.) A small tree, leaves olong to elliptic more or less rounded at the base or gradually 
attenuated, gradually or rather suddenly produced into an acute or. obtuse point at the apex, veins penniveined and looped, glabrous, 
submembranceous 2-5 inches long, by f -2 inches broad, petioles glabrous or slightly hairy 2-3 lines long, stipules oblong hairy 
caducous, peduncles solitary or 2 in the axils, about as long as the petioles, bracteoles ciliate, flowers about f inch long, 5-merous, 
calyx segments reflexed hairy on the outside and ciliate, glabrous within, stamens about 25, anthers subbasifixed, petals a little longer 
than the calyx, lobes lacerated into about 10 fimbriations, ovary and the 3 -lobed style hairy. — Anstrutheria Zeylanica, Gardn- in 
Gale- Journ. of Nat His. vol- vi. p. 344. t. 4. 

A small tree not uncommon on the South Tinnevdly and Travancore mountains at no great elevation, also in Ceylon (Galle and 
Trincomalee), in/lower in September. 



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ANISOPHYLLEA ZEYLANICA. (Nat. order Rhizophoracese.) 

ANISOPHYLLEA. Brown — GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube ovoid or oblong, aduate to the 07ary, terete or costate, limb 4-parted, lobes erect, 
petals 4, involute, entire 2-lobed or lacerate; stamens 8 inserted with the petals, filaments short subulate, anthers small didymous ovary inferior 4 celled, 
styles 4, subula;e erect or recurved, apex acute orsubeapitate stigmatuse, ovules solitary in the cells, pendulous. Fruit coriaceous, oblong costate 1-seeded, 
seed pendulous, testa coriaceous, embryo exalbuminous clavate axial, cotyledons very minute or obsolete. Trees or shrubs, glabrous, or the young parts 
sericeous, leaves distiehously alternate, petiolate, the alternate ones smaller or minute and stipuliform, obliquely ovoid or lanceolate 3-5-nerved entire 
exstipulate, flowers in simple axillary spikes, small or minute ebracteolate or minutely bractoolate. — Tetracrypta, Qar&n. 

ANISOPHYLLEA ZEYLANIC A (Bentk.) A tree, young parts minutely puberulous, leaves obliquely ovoid to lanceolate 
rounded or attenuate at the base tapering into a long aoumiuation at the apes, very hird and coriaceous, glabrous except the primary 
veins which are minutely puberulous beneath aud occasionally slightly so above, 4-5 inches long by 1J-2 broad, 3-5 nerved 3-4 of which 
are very prominent and raised beneath ; the alternate stipuliform leaves very minute, petioles 3 lines long, minutely puberulous ra- 
cemes about f inch long puberulous bracteolate, calyx about 2 lines long puberulous on the outside, lobes persistent, fruit oblong attenua- 
ted at the apex, costate, indehiscent. Benth. in Flora. Niger. Tetracrypta cinnammoides, Gard. and Champ- in Hook. Journ. of 
Bot. 1. p. 314 and v. p. 378. t. 5. 

A tree, found in the southern and central parts of Ceylon up to an elevation of 1500 feet, called Wellapeyenna ; the structure and germi- 
nation of the seed are the same as in Barringtonia and Gareya, the minute stipuliform leaves represented in the figure are absent in my dried speai~ 
mens, so I presume they are deciduous. The wood is used for building purposes. I am indebted to Br. Thwaites for the drawing. 


1-2. Apex of growing branch. 

3. A full flower. 

4. A petal. 

5. Anthers. 

6. A flower cut vertically, showing the solitary pendulous ovules. 

7. Ovary cut transversely, showing the 4 cells. 



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GYEOCARPUS JACQUINI. (Nat. order CombretaceBe.) 

wYKOCARPUS. Jaca. — GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube adnate to the ovary, or none in male flowers, limb 4 to 7 cleft. Petals none. Stamens 
4 to 6, alternating with as many club shaped staminodia, or fewer or none in the female flowers. Ovary inferior, with 1 pendulous ovule and a sessile 
stigma, abortive in the male flowers. Drupe dry, crowned by 2 much elongated, erect, spathulate, wing like calyx lobes. Seed obloug, pendulous, with- 
out albumen, cotyledons petiolate, convolute round the radicle. A tree. Leaves alternate, broad, entire or lobed. Flowers polygamous, very small, crowded 
in dense corymbose cymes. 

A genus consisting of a single species, a tree widely distributed in the tropical regions of Asia, Central America and Australia, it is of anomalous 
structure and has been associated by many botanists with Laurinese chiefly ou account of its anthers opening by 2 valves. Prof. Lindley first placed it in 
this order, with which its fruit and seed quite agree. , X /'vjS'vV/ > (l*. <Pt*fc~\f> SL 

CxYKOCAlirUS JaCQUINI. (Roxb.) A tree often of large size. Leaves deciduous, crowded at the ends of the thick 
branchletS; broadly ovate or orbicular, on young trees often 8 to 10 inches long and broad and deeply 3 lobed, on older trees usually 
smaller and entire or broadly and shortly lobed, usually more or less acuminate, truncate or cordate at the base, glabrous or tomentose 
underneath or ou both sides, the petioles varying from 1 to 4 inches. Peduncles in the upper axils or close above the last leaves 
rarely exceeding the petioles, bearing each a repeatedly branched cyme with densely crowded exceedingly small flowers forming little 
globular heads before expanding, sometimes entirely males, sometimes with a few hermaphrodite or female flowers scattered in the 
cyme or chiefly in the forks. Drupes ovoid, usually about f inch long, the wings er^jt, oblanceolate, rounded at the end, much nar- 
rowed below the middle, from under 2 inches long and about | inch broad to 2| incfces long and about 5 lines broad. Pas. Syn. i. 
143. G. Americauus, Jacq. Meissn. in DC. Prod. xv. 247. G. Asiaticus, Willd. ;■ — Meissn. I. c. 248. G. acumiuatus, Meissn. I. c. 
G. spheuopterus, R. B>; Endl. Iconogr, t. 43 ; — Meissn. I- c, G. rugosus, R. Br. Meissn. 1. c. ; — Benth. Fl. Aust. 11, p. 505. 

This tree is common throughout the plains in India and Ceylon, and is loidely distributed in tropical regions throughout the toorld ; it 
is called Tanaku and Kumar pulki in TeHgu, and Zaitan in Hindusianii, the loood is very light, soft, and white, and is much used at Condapilly 
in thi Northern Circars for making light cavaclie boxes and toys, and it takes paint and varnish wel', it is also preferred before all other woods 
for making catamarans ; necklaces and rosaries are made from the seed. The plate only represents male flowers and a fruit, as I unfortunately 
have no fertile flowers at hand. 

A male (lower, showing the imbricate calyx and the 6 exseited stamens. 

Analysis. , 

r, showing the imbricate calyx and the < 
en, showing the 6 stamens alternate wit 

3. A staminode. 

4. An anther, front and side view, showing that it opens by a valve (as in Lauraceao.) 

5. A fruit, showing its 2 loug wings (enlarged lobes of the calyx.) 


The same open, showing the 6 stamens alternate with 6 spathulate staminodes. 




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EUGENIA JAMBOLANA. (Nat. order Myrtacete.) 

For Gen. Char, see the Order in the Manual. 

EUGENIA JAMBOLANA. (Lam.) A very larga tree, quite glabrous, leaves oval oblong obtuse or shortly acuminate, 
usually 4-6 inches long by 2-3 inches broad but sometimes larger, very firm shining with numerous fine pinnate veins, and reticulated 
between them, the principal ones confluent into a faint or more or less prominent marginal vein, panicles large broad, trichotomous 
numerous, lateral on the old wood below the leaves, the ultimate cymes loose, flowers rather small very sweet scented, calyx sessile 
turbinate campanulate, lobes short and inconspicuous often obsolete, petals cohering in a transparent cup-shaped calyptra and falling 
off in that state as the anthers unroll, fruit oblong to roundish deep-purple, from the size of a pea to that of a pigeon's egg usually 
with a single seed. Lam. Diet. iii. 198 ; — Roxb. Fl. Ind, ii. p. 484 ; — Wight's Icones tab. 535, and E. fruticosa, tab. 624. Syzygium 
jambolanum, DC. iii. 259. E. Moorei, F. Aluell. Fragm. v. 33. E. caryophyllifolia, Lam, ; — Wight Icones 553. 

This large and beautiful tree is the commonest of the Syzygium section of Eugenia, it is found almost everywhere throughout the plains 
of India, whereas most of the other species affect the mountains ; it is much planted in topes and avenues in this Presidency, and it ascends the 
mountains to 4000 or rarely 5000 feet elevation ; it is also indigenous in the Archipelago and in Australia ; the bark is strongly astringent and dyes 
excellent durable browns, and it yields an extract like the gum kino. The fruit is universally eaten, and that from some of the larger fruiting 
varieties {when it is as large as a cherry or much larger) is very agreeable, the fruit oj the very small fruiting variety ( E. caryophyllifolia, Lam.) 
is not eaten, and is not larger than a pea. 

This tree is called Jaman in Hindoostanee, Nawal and Nawar in Tamil, Narala in Canarese, Nareyr in Teligu, Jambool in the 
Bombay Presidency, and Madang in Ceylon ; the panicles of flowers are always produced from the old wood just below the shoots of new wood, 
and if this is borne in mind it cmnol be confounded with any of the other species except E. nervosa, which has much more prominent venation ; 
it generally flowers in March and April and the flowers have a strong smell of honey ; the wood is much used in native house building, for cart 
framing, agricultural implements and a variety of purposes, it resists the action of water very well, and is used for well work, it is tolerably close 
and even grained, not very strong or durable except in waler, and in color dirty brown (reddish when fresh), a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 
60-62 lbs. and when seasoned 48 lbs. and its specific gravity is -768. 

A nalysis. 

1. A flower bud. 

2. The same more advanced, the petals lifted up like a calyptra by the 1st expanding anther. 

3. Full flower, the calyptra (petals) still adhering (though generally deciduous before this stage). 

4. Anthers, front and back view. 

5. Flower cut through vertically, showing the insertion of the stamens at the apex of the calyx tube, and the longitudinal section of the ovary. 

6. Cross section of the ovary, showing 2 cells. 

7. A fruit. (All drawn from fresh specimens). This species well illustrates the Syzygium section of this genus (allied species of which are so 
characteristic of our higher mountain woods) : the petals generally fall off in a lid though they occasionally in some specie3 expand more or less ; the 
flowers are always small and insignificant, and the trees are always perfectly glabrous. 



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EUGENIA ALTERNIFOLIA. (Nat. ord. Myrtacese.) 

For Gen. Char, see this Order in the Manual. 

-EjUGENIA ALTERNIFOLIA. (Wight.) A large tree, glabrous in all its parts, leaves alternate or occasionally sub-opposite 
never oppoaite, very minutely and inconspicuously dotted, very thickly coriaceous, from ovate to almost orbicular, quite rounded at 
the apex or with a rather sudden blunt acumination, 3-9 inches long of which the petiole is 1 inch or a little more, dark green and 
shining above much paler beneath, primary veins very numerous obliquely parallel prominent and joined into a very regular con- 
tinuous vein close to the margin, cymes panicled rising from the old axils of the fallen leaves or congested near the base of the new 
wood, divisions with 3-10 umbellate flowers at the apex and there furnished with numerous triangular apiculate bracteoles, flowers 
small yellowish white very sweet scented, calyx viscid and shining truncated and entire or with 4 very minute teeth, petals combined 
In a transparent calyptra which is thrust off by the anthers as they begin to swell before expansion, fruit sub-spherical size of a cherry. 
Wight Icones tab. 537. 

It would require a very large plate to do justice to this beautiful species, the tree is common on the Nallay Mallay mountains in the 
Kurnool district, (where it is called Manchi 3/oyadi, Teligoo) and is also found but less abundantly in the dry hill forests of the Cuddapah and 
North Arcot districts ; it does not occur on the western side of the Presidency. Its regularly alternate leaves are anomalous, but there is a tendency 
to this in some of the other species (montana and hemisphcerica, &c), its flowers are quite those of the other species of Syzygium (and are incorrectly 
figured in Wight's Icones as like the Jambosa section.) The dissections are drawn from fresh specimens, and the fruit is only half grown; the timber 
is used by the natives for building and other purposes. 



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EUGENIA MALABARICA. (Nat. order Myrtacese.) 

For Gen. Char, see under this Order iu the Manual. 

EUGENIA. ]VLa.LA.BARICA. (Bedd.) A middling sized tree, quite glabrous in all its parts, young branches terete, 
leaves opposite, (rarely only subopposite) furnished with numerous very minute dots on the under surface, obovate spathulate or quite 
obcordate, rarely oblong, penniveined with the marginal looping inconspicuous, 2-5 inches long by 1-2| inches broad, petioles 4-6 lines 
long, cymes from the old wood below the leaves or rarely in the lower axils very short about \ an inch long, flowers numerous very 
small and inconspicuous bracteolate, calyx-tube when young with 4 rather distinct triangular lobes, iu age more or less truncate about 
1 line in diameter, petals orbicular with a slight claw and pointed at the apex opening separately and very soon deciduous, fruit 
spherical about 3 lines in diameter. 

This tree is very common in ike Wynad(in Malabar), elevation 2000 4500 feit, qe lerally in sv) i-npy places, ani I have also specimens 
from the Anamallays : it is a very distinct species. I have introduced it here as illustrating the section of Sysygium with free petals insteccd of 
the usual calyptra-like conjunction of the 4 petals, this difference however could not be mxde even a subjection of Sysygium, as some of the 
species present both forms in one and the same cyme, the dissections are drawn from fresh specimens. 



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EUGENIA FLOCCOSA. (Nat. Ord. Myrtacea.) 

For Gen. Char, see under this Order in the Manual. 

EUGENIA FLOCCOSA. (Bedd.) A good sized tree, young branches nearly terete densely floccose, leaves opposite, oval 
or sub-orbicular or sometimes lanceolate obtuse at the apex, densely floccose on both sides when young, at length glabrous above and 
ultimately so beneath except the costa, very thick and coriaceous, minutely dotted beneath, 3-5 inches long by 2-3| broad, veins quite 
inconspicuous except in dried specimens, penniveined with the usual marginal looping or occasionally sub 3 nerved at the base, the 
2 lateral nerves not prominent and forming the waved marginal vein, petioles densely floccose 6-8 lines long, flowers terminal in very 
short few flowered cymes or sometimes solitary large about 1 inch in expansion, calyx very coriaceous and densely aureo-or rufo-lanate 
furnished at the base with 2 very large bracteoles of the same texture as the 4 rounded lobes, petals much larger than the calyx lobes 
white very hairy on the outside subglabrous within, soon deciduous, disk large sub-globose lanate, fruit size of a pigeon's egg densely 
lanate crowned with the 4 large orbicular calyx lobes. 

This is a most beautiful tree very common in the dense moist woods on the South Tinneveily ghats (above CaleadJ 3000-4000 feet 
elevation, flowering in August and September ; this illustrates- the restricted genus Eugenia of authors who uphold the genera Syzygium, Jambosa. 
&c, or the section Eueugenia of the gemis as given in this Manual, the dissections ai e from flowers in spirit. 



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EUGENIA CYLINDRICA. (Nat. order Myrtacese.) 

ior Gen. Char- see under this Order in the Manual. 

EUGENIA CYLINDRICA. (Wight) A middling sized tree, glabrous in all its parts, leaves opposite coriaceous, very 
minutely dotted, ovate tolauceolate witli a long terminal acumination, 4-6 inches long by 1|-1| broad, veins very conspicuous beneath, 
and forming double loops the inner of which is very prominent and only a little more than \ way between the costa and margin, 
petioles 3-4 lines long, cymes terminal or from the upper axils shorter than the leaves, 3-8 flowered, flowers large \ to nearly I inch in 
diameter in full expansion white turning purple, calyx tube cylindrical slender £ to nearly 1 inch long slightly contracted at the apex 
and tapering at the base, petals orbicular dotted, fruit subsphsrical urceolate \ to £ inch in diameter. Wight Icones tab, 527- Jam- 
bosa cylindiica, Thw. En. PI. Zey.p. 115. 

A very beautiful tree when in flower, Ceylon Ambaganiw% district 3000 feet elevation, it has not been detected in the peninsula but pre 
bably occurs on our Tinnevelly mountains. Eugenia Wightii {described in the Manual) so common in our forests, is an allied species, but differs in 
its flowers being always solitary and much larger though with a shorter tube, and in its leaves being much more membranceous with a different 
venation, Thii illustrates the section Jambosa. 



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EUGENIA ZEYLANICA. (Nat. order Myrtaceue.) 
For Gen. Char, see under this Order in the Manual. 

EUGENIA ZEYLANICA- (Wight,) A small or middling sized tree, glabrous in all its parts, leaves opposite rarely 
alternate or subalternate, densely glanduloso-punctate, very variable in shape from narrow linear to ovato-lancenlate ; 1-4 inches long 
by 1£ to 10 lines broad, veins penni veined very inconspicuous, petioles 1-4 lines long, cymes axillary and terminal dense many flowered, 
shorter than the leaveSj flowers white conspicuous about \ an inch long, calyx-tube glandular and sometimes pruinose, elongato-turbi- 
nate, lobes 4-5, rather conspicuous triangular, petals crenated very early deciduous, opening separately or falling off in a calyptra. 
Wight's III. ii. p. 15. Acmena Zeylanica, Thw. En. PL Zey. p. 118. 

Var. B. laxiflora flowers in lax few-flowered cymes, panicles longer than the leaves. 

This tree is common on the' South Tinnevelly mountains up to 3500 feet where it generally affects beds of rivers, and in Ceylon where 
it is called Morang ; it is very beautiful when in full flower. This illustrates the Acmena section of Eugenia, which only differs from Syzygium 
in its long calyx-lube. 

Variety B. has exactly the foliage aud flowers of the ordinary form, and. only differs in its longer lax cymes. 

Fig. A. is a flower branch of the ordinary narrow leaved variety. 

Fig. B. leaves of the broader leaved variety. 

Fig. C. a leaf and cyme of variety B. 


1. A bud. 

2. A flower, the petals falling off in a crenated calyptra a3 the anthers swell before expansion. 

3. A calyx showing the insertion of the anthers at the apex of the tube, and a single petal, the petals haviug opened and fallen 

off separately. 

4. A flower after the anthers have opened out. 

5. Anther, front view. 

6. Anther, back view. 

7. Flower cut vertically, showing the calyx tube produced above the ovary, and section of the ovary. 

8. Ovary cut transversely. 


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EUGENIA HEMISPHiERICA. (Nat. order Myrtacese.) 

For Gen. Char, see Manual under tbis Order. 

EUGENIA. HEMISPHiERICA. (Wight.) A large tree, glabrous in all its parts, leaves opposite, rarely subalternate 
minutely dotted lanceolate attenuated at the base, acuminate at the apex, veins inconspicuous above slightly promiuent beneath, looped 
near the margin and there forming a more or less irregular continuous vein, 2-6 inches long by \-2 iuches broad, petioles 6-7 lines long, 
cymes axillary and terminal shorter than the leaves many flowered, flowers large white variable iu size up 1 \ inches in diameter, calyx- 
tube subglobose, disk tetragonal 4-5 lines in diameter, petals orbicular dotted, fruit spherical about 1 inch in diameter. Wight Icones 
tab. 525. Strongylocalyx hemisphsericus, Bl. Mus. Bot. p. 90. 

This very handsome tree attains a large size and is common in our mountain forests from South Canara down to Cape Comorin at 
about 3000 feet elevation, it is abundant in Goorg, the A namallags, and Tinnevellg ghats, and it is also found in Ceylon up to 4000 feel; the timber 
is used for a variety of purposes. The drawing is taken from Coorg specimens. Blume separates this as a distinct genus under the name of Strongy- 
localyx on account of its rounded {instead of cylindrical) calyx tube audits tetragonal disk, it has certainly no claims to generic distinction nor 
need it be even kept sectionally distinct from Jambosa. Eugenia lanceolaria is closely allied if indeed a distinct species. 



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BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA. (Nat. order Myrtaoew.) 

BARRINGTONIA. Forst.— GEN. CHAR. Calyx tube ovoid or turbinate, not at all or scarcely produced above the ovary, the limb either 
closed in the bud and splitting into 2 to 4 valvate segments or rarely with 3 or 4 lobes, imbricate in the bud. Petals 4 or 5, adhering at the base to the 
Btaminal cup. Stamens numerous, in several series, shortly united at the base into a ring or cup ; anthers small, with parallel cells opening longitudinally. 
Ovary inferior with an annular disk on the top within the stamens, 2 to 4 celled, with 2 to 8 ovules in each cell, horizontal or pendulous, in 2 rows ■ style 
filiform with a small stigma. Fruit pyramidal ovoid or oblong, hard and fibrous, indehiscent. Seed usually solitary, with a thick testa ; exalbuminoua 
embryo undivided, consisting of a thick woody stratum, and a more or less distinct pith in the centre, no cotyledons. Trees. Leaves alternate, usually 

crowded at the ends of the branches, penniveined and not dotted, Flowers in terminal or lateral spikes or racemes. Bracts small and deciduous. Benth. 

Fl. Aust. iii. p. 287. Stravadium, Juss. Butonica, Mig. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1. pars. 1. 485. Botryoropis, Presl. Epimel- Bot. 220. Meteorus, Lout. 

JjAKRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA. (Gsertn.) A large handsome tree. Leaves from obovate or oblong-cuneate to 
almost elliptical, obtuse or shortly acuminate, rarely much above 4 inches long, serrulate or entire, narrowed into a short petiole, 
Flowers red, rather small in very long slender pendulous racemes. Bracts oblong, very deciduous. Pedicels 2 to 4 lines lone, calyx 
tube ovoid gl.bose, about 1 line long ; lobes 4, rather longer than the tube, orbicular. Petals about twice as long as the calyx-tube. 
Stamens not much longer than the petals. Ovary 4 celled or spuriously 4 celled, with 2 pendulous ovules in each cell. Fruit 

oblong, 4 angled, 1 inch long or rather more. Wight and Am. Prod. 333. Stravadium rubrum, BO. Prod. iii. 289/ Benth. Fl. Aust. 

iii. p. 288. Botryoropis, Presl. Epimel. Bot, 220. Tsjeria samstravadi, Rheede Mai. 4 t. 7. 

This beautiful tree is common throughout this' Presidency, as well as in most parts of hidia, Birmah and Ceylon, on the banks of 
rivers, and it in also found in the Archipelago and in Australia ; it is colled Kurpcb in Teligu, Piwar in Bombay, and Kyaitha in Birmah ; the 
wood is of a beautiful red color, tough and, strong and stands a good polish, a cubic foot unseasoned weighs 65-70 lbs. and 56 lbs. when seasoned, 
and its specific gravity is '896, it is greutly in request by cabinet makers, and the native workmen in Madras call it Munneelahancha from its 
susceptibility of turning black when buried in mud. The bark, the juice of the leaves, and the kernels of the fruit, are in use medicinally with 
the natives ; the tree flowers at the end of the hot season or at the beginning of the rains, and is a beautiful object on the banks of some of our 
western coast backwaters. 


1. A flower bud showing the bracteole at the base — la. Petals removed from the bud, showing the much bent filaments all fertile. 

2. A full flower. 

3. The 4 petals removed, showing that they are slightly joined at the base. 

4. Petals and stamen tube'removed and opened out, the former are adnate to the back of the tube aud the stamens are in 3 rows, ths 

filaments are often broken and appear like staminodes, but all bear fertile anthers in the bud. 

5. A portion of the stamina! tube more highly magnified. 

6. An anther, showing that it is basifixed. 

7. A flower, petals and stamens removed, showing the ring-like disk at the apex of the ovary. 

8. Ovary cut vertically, showing the pendulous ovules. 

9. Ovary cut transversely, showing 4 cells with 2 ovules in each cell. 

10. Magnified portion of a young leaf underside showing the venation, the small serratures, and elight pubescence. The dissections all 
taken from fresh flowers. (This species is generally described as having a 2 celled ovary ; in all the ovaries that I have examined 
there were 4 cells.) F. a. is a drawing showing a germinating seed of Barringtonia racemosa after Dr. Roxburgh's drawing. 





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