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[Reprinted from Torreya, Vol. 7, No. 9, September, 1907.] 


By John Hendley Barnhart 

As far as I am aware, no question has ever been raised con- 
cerning the rehability of the dates given on the title-pages of any 
of the works of Rafinesque. His Autikon Botanikon, to be sure, 
is dated 18 15-1840, while no portion of the text was published 
until 1840; but this text was intended to illustrate an herbarium 
which the author had accumulated during the years 181 5-1840, 
so that the meaning of the date he gives is manifest. 

About a year ago I noticed in the Flora Telluriana (4 : 27) a 
brief criticism of Gray's monograph of the Melanthaceae of 
North America, which was not published until November, 
1837 ; * and this, of course, showed that Ratinesque's criticism 
could not have been published earlier than that date. A hurried 
examination revealed further internal evidence of the erroneous 
dating of the Flora Telluriana and its companion-work, the New 
Flora of North America, but the investigation of the subject was 
not carried very far at that time. 

When the last number of the North American Flora was in 
press, it became necessary for Dr. Small to decide upon the 
relative priority of Mesynuini Raf. (" 1836") and Catliartolinuni 
Reichenb. (1837), and this led to the study of which the results 
are here reported. 

The New Flora of North America was undertaken by Rafin- 
esque as a supplement to the works previously published by 
others upon the same topic ; and as a result of his labors upon 

' * Gray, A. Melanthacearum Americae Septentrionalis Revisio. Ann. Lye. Nat. 
_ Hist. N. Y. 4 : 105-140. N 1837. 
? 177 



it. he was lc<l to undertake the preparation of its " sequel," the 
Flora Telluriana, deaiin*; with the plants of the rest of the world. 
The pages of these two works contain many descriptions of " new 
genera" of plants, so that the dates of their appearance are of 
considerable importance. As the books themselves are quite 
scarce, a brief preliminary account of them may not be out of 

Each was planned to consist of six " parts " or volumes, but 
was completed in four. Each of the eight parts is separately 
paged, and has a separate title-page and subtitle of its own ; and 
each is dated " 1836." 

New Flora and Botany of North America 
First part. Introduction^ Lexicon, Monographs. 100 pages. 

Second part. Neophyton. 96 pages. 1836. 
Third part. New Sylva. 96 pages. 1836. 
Fourth part. Neobotanon. 112 pages. 1836. (This contained 

also a general title-page for the entire work, dated 1836.) 

Flora Telluriana 
First part. Introduction and Classification. 103 pages. 1836. 
Second part. Ccnturia I, II, III, IV. 112 pages. 1836. 
Third part. Centuries V, VI, VII, VIII. 100 pages. 1836. 
Fourth part. Centuries IX, X, XI, XII. 135 pages. 1836. 

(This contained also a general title-page for the entire work 

dated 1836.) 

Of these eight parts, the first part of the New Flora was the 
first to appear. It contained a dedication dated at Philadelphia, 
September, 1836; and pages 73-80 are occupied by a mono- 
graph of the genus Kiihitia, dated October, 1836. These facts 
alone are sufficient to make one suspect that perhaps the eight 
parts were not all issued before the end of that year ! There is 
not lacking other internal evidence on this subject, in addition to 
the citation of Gray's monograph (Fl. Tell. 4 : 27 ; also New Fl. 
4 : 103, where the date of " Grey's " paper is distinctly stated as 
" 1837"). Flora Telluriana, part 3 (which in turn is cited by 


New Fl. 3 : 41, 51), on page 57 refers to Bot. Reg. //. igo6 (i 
N 1836 !); and on page 37 to Bot. Mag. //. 3540 (i D 1836 !), 
which could not well have reached Philadelphia before the end 
of the year 1836. Flora Telluriana, part 4 (which in turn is 
cited by New Fl. 4 : 56, 57, 63, 98), on page 124 cites Bot. Reg. 
//. igs^ (i ^^y 1S37). But, in spite of these references, I know 
of no internal evidence that the two works were not completed 
before the end of the year 1837. 

From internal evidence, too, it is possible to arrange the parts 
serially, in the order in which they were printed. This may be 
done by means of the exact citations, by page, of one work by 
the other; chiefly of the Flora Telluriana by the New Flora. 
The result is as follows : New Fl. I ; Fl. Tell. I ; Fl. Tell. II ; 
New Fl. II ; Fl. Tell. Ill ; New Fl. Ill ; Fl. Tell. IV ; New 
Fl. IV. 

In order to approximate more closely than might otherwise be 
possible the exact dates of issue of each of these parts, the series 
of letters written to Torrey by Rafinesque during the years 
1836 to 1839, and preserved in the Torrey correspondence at 
the New York Botanical Garden, was searched, and the search 
was well rewarded, as is shown by the following quotations : 

September 5, 1836. — "I having leisure have resolved to be- 
gin to print my New flora of North Amer. by alphabetical 
order. . . . When this Work is printed, my botanical labors 
from 1802 to 1836, in America, will be better known." 

December 21, 1836. — "My flora proceeds very slowly & 
was even suspended awhile for lack of a compositor that could 
print Botanical terms ! . . . I have concluded to close the Lexi- 
con of monographs very abruptly, and give instead selected 
monographs & my N. Genera & species." 

This shows that only ten days before the close of the year 
1836 even the printing of the first part of the New Flora was 
not C9mpleted. 

April 18, 1837. — "I wanted to surprise you with a great 
Botanical Work — my Flora telluriana ... to which I was led 
by my New flora of N. Amer., but I could only print 2 parts or 
volumes. I. Classes & Orders.. 2d. 400 N. Gen. my other 
engagts have compelled me to suspend for a while." 


By tlic middle of April, 1837, then, had been printed one part 
of the New Flora and two of the Flora Telluriana. 

October 24, 1837. — "I am still going on slowly with my 
New flora of N. America and Flora telluriana at once. ... I 
have circulated but few copies of the numbers published, wishing 
to surprise you and all Botanists when the whole shall be out; 
but if you wish to see them earlier I may send you 5 numbers 
of 100 pages 8vo each very soon, and more next March." 

From this it appears likely that a second number of the New 
Flora had appeared when this letter was written, and that a third 
number of the Flora Telluriana was nearly ready; or else that 
the two parts were nearly ready to be issued together. 

January lO, 1838. — "My New flora or Mantissa begun to 
print in 1836 is still going on & altho' interrupted by my flora 
Telluriana & 2 works published this Spring (i. The Universe. — 
2. Safe Banking) is proceeding as fast as correct exam, can allow. 
I wished to issue the whole work together ; but I shall be com- 
pelled to issue when half is ready 3 numbers of 100 pages as in 
Flora tellur. My 3d N. on the Trees and Shrubs or a New 
sylva is not quite ready." 

At the end of 1837, then, three numbers of the Flora Telluri- 
ana had been issued, and two of the New Flora, but on January 
10, 1838, the third part of the New Flora was " not quite ready." 

March 20, 1838. — "I have long ago concluded 60Q pages of 
my Supplemental Flora & Flora Telluriana or 6 parts. If I had 
not undertaken these 2 works together, the first would have been 
completed ere now, but will be ere 1840." 

The third part of the New Flora had evidently been published 
since the date of the January letter. It appears that Rafinesque 
still intended each work to consist of six parts, and for this reason 
allowed himself until 1840 to complete them. 

February I, 1 839. — " My 4th part or Volume of New flora 
was completed so as to give you time to go on with your flora. 
I also completed my Flora telluriana in 4 Vol. or 1225 articles. 
But immed'' after begun & have concluded last Dec'' my 
Synopsis of N. G. & Sp. of Trees & Shrubs of N. Amer." 

From this it appears that prior to December, 1838, both the 


Flora Telluriana and the New Flora had been completed. The 
last sentence refers to Rafinesque's Alsographia Americana, 
which was dated 1838, and from his own statement above was 
probably issued in December of that year. 

The extracts from Rafinesque's letters show that few, if indeed 
any, copies of either the Flora Telluriana or the New Flora had 
been actually distributed until three parts of each had been 
printed (in the spring of 1838); but, as he says in the letter of 
October 24, 1837, " I have circulated but few copies of the num- 
bers published," we must give him the benefit of the doubt, and 
assume that he had distributed a few copies. 

Rafinesque's Bulletin of the Historical and Natural Sciences 
was an advertising sheet issued by him at irregular intervals from 
1834 to 1839. No. 7, dated "Spring of 1838," is devoted 
chiefly to the two works here under discussion. He says in part : 
" I had long contemplated to give a New Flora of North America. 
... I resolved ... to add the improvements on Natural class- 
ification. These last, however, increased so much under my re- 
vision, as to become a work by itself, and a companion rather 
than addition to our Flora. Both works were begun in 1836, 
and our plants would all have been published by this time, if I 
had not thus been compelled to double these botanical labors. I 
once proposed to issue the whole at once when completed, but 
this delay and others arising from different pursuits and labors, 
have induced me to publish the parts as soon as printed, and now 
that 3 parts of each (being half a volume,) are published, I issue 
this Bulletin to acquaint the Botanists of Europe and America 
with " them. " Each work is to consist of 6 parts of 1 00 to 120 
pages, thus forming a volume large octavo of 600 to 700 pages, 
which shall be completed in 1840 or sooner. . . . The 6 parts 
now printed, 3 of each work, will be sold together for ^5." 

The dates of the two works under discussion, as nearly as they 
can be determined from the evidence here submitted, may be 
summarized as follows : 

New Flora Part I. 1836 (December). 

n. 1837 (second half). 
HI. 1838 (first quarter). 
IV. 1838 (late in year). 


Flora Tei.i.ikiana. Part I. 1837 (first quarter). 

II. 1837 (first quarter). 

III. 1837 (November or December). 

IV. 1838 (near middle of year). 
Ni~\v York Botanical Garden, 


















Deterni. coll. inv. ohs. et descr. ad 
C. S. RAFINESaUE, Bot. Prof. &c. 
. Ann. 1796 ad 1836. 





With new Natural Classes, Orders and fami- 
lies: preamble of the 2000 New or revised Gen- 
era and Species of Trees, Palms, Shrubs, Vines, 
Plants, Lilies, Grasses, Ferns, Aigas, Fungi ifec. 
from North and South America, Polynesia, 
Australia, Asia, Europe and Africa, omitted or 
mistaken by the authors, that were observed or 
ascertained, described or revised, collected or 
figured, between 1796 and 1830, 


Prof, of Botany, historical and natural scien- 
ces — member of many learned Societies in 
Paris, Vienna, Bruxelles, Bonn, Bordeaux, 
Zurich, Naples Slc. Philadelphia, New York, 
Cincinnati, Lexington, &c. 

To observe and compare, to correct or approve 

By good names and new facts that convince and improve. 




Les nomsfont Us choses. 

Names realize Entities. 

Plus nos noms sont generaux, plus non id^es 
sont incompletes — Plus nous avons de noms, 
plus elles se completent. Lamark, Leach &c. 


To Decandolle and Agardh worthy Im- 
provers, and esteemed fellow laborers — and to 
all the Botanists aiming to improve the lovely 
Science of Botany by accuracy and discrimina- 
tion, or who may wish to discard the Errors, 
Misnomers and Absurdities of former times or 
our own — These synoptical labors of accurate 
observations, proper distinctions, good denomi- 
nations and correct analysis, the result of forty 
years of botanical researches and travels — 



This whole work will comprize 6 similar 
parts, including 2000 new Genera and Species, 
with many new natural orders and families. 
This first part containing the Introduction and 

Price of the whole work $ 5, each part one 

This work is a sequel to the New Flora of 
North America, and is the complement of the 
author's Botanical Works — The Genera of fos- 
sil plants and primitive types of our actual vege- 
tation may be a subsequent sequel to this. 

My Fauna Telluriana or Synopsis of the 
new animals, living and fossil. Quadrupeds, 
Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, Crustacea, Shells, Polyps 
&c. which I have observed or ascertained be- 
tween 1796 and 1836 will form the complement 
of my discoveries and researches on organized 


It is the duty of all the observers of natural 
productions to communicate their discoveries 
and researches. When a botanist has spent a 
long life in travelling over both hemispheres, 
collecting 100,000 botanical specimens, draw- 
ing 2000 plants, and discovering a multitude of 
new objects, as I have done : this duty becomes 
still more imperative. When to these exertions 
he may have added deep researches in the criti- 
cal examination of many thousands specimens 
of plants from all parts of the Earth; and in 
consulting Books and Libraries, former authors 
and figures. Gardens and Herbals ... as I have 
also done, this duty assumes the aspect of ne- 
cessity ; particularly if what he has ventured to 
publish heretofore in unconnected works, has 
not been widely spread nor duly appreciated or 
quoted, owing to the difficulty of times, circum- 
stances, shipwrecks, or scattered tracts in re- 
mote places. 

Such having been my case ; I felt the need of 
revising and combining all my botanical labors, 
both published and unpublished, while I was 
engaged in printing my New Flora of North 
America, a kind of Mantissa or Supplement to 
all the previous Floras of that continent by Lin- 
neus, Clayton, Michaux, Muhlenberg, Pursh, 
Robin, Nuttal, Torrey, Beck, Bosc, Lamark, 
Hooker, Elliot, Eaton, Riddell, Bigelow, &c. 
Besides the numerous plants unnoticed by them, 
I found so many Species and Genera blended 
or in disorder, that it required a very extensive 
critical survey of those connected thereto else- 
where, to compare and ascertain the truth. 

o i.\'n:oDi cTioN. 

I'hus 1 was induced to begin a complete re- 
visal and critical examination of all doubtful or 
involved (icnera chiefly ; of which the number 
is incredible, owing to the absurd usual mode of 
forming Genera by a single sp. or a few only, to 
which others are referred at random^ by mere 
habit, external appearance, or in spite of pecu- 
liar generic features or characters. 

In fact when Linneus began a Century ago 
to reform Botany, he was compelled to go on 
by gradual steps ; any other mode would have 
been too abrupt. He had the merit to fix Gen- 
eric names, and to invent Specific names, ad- 
ding to these a short diagnosis in imitation of 
the former phaseologic names. 

It has been very well observed that the speci- 
fic diagnosis or essential character of plants can 
only become fixed, when all the Species of a 
Genus are known ; which will never happen un- 
til the whole Earth is explored thoroughly. 
Thus the epitomic characters applied to Sp. by 
Linneus, have been found totally inadequate 
and inacurate, always involving many distinct 
species. Botanists were compelled to change 
and swell them gradually to a kind of epitomi- 
cal description, until they have lately run into 
the opposite extreme, and Hooker has even 
some of 75 words ! or as long as a common min- 
ute description. It is our duty to seek the most 
conspicuous, constant or discriminating, and to 
reduce them to the most essential terms in the 
least compass. 

Generic diagnosis were also too much con- 
densed by Linneus and his school; they have 
been improved by making them essential in 
their respective tribes, and adding some import- 
ant features of the habit, inflorescence A-c. The 


generic descriptions of Linneus in his Genera 
plantarum are totaly useless, since they were 
made upon one or a few sp. alone, which are 
not even mentioned . . . ! and almost never apply 
to the whole Genus, when it has many species. 

As to the sexual system, once so much insisted 
upon, I have lived to see it exploded, as such 
unnatural and indelicate system deserved. The 
beautiful natural method, the same pursued by 
Linneus for animals, has taken its place, in spite 
of sturdy opposition or delayed assent. But un- 
fortunately often falling into reluctant hands 
the substitute has not yet reached its due per- 
fection like Zoology. If my suggestions in 1814 
in Principles of Somiology, and in 1815 in Ana- 
lysis of Nature had been attended to, it might 
have been otherwise ; but the best Botanists per- 
sist to this day in making classes, orders, fami- 
lies or tribes without available and distinguish- 
ing essential characters, common to all the refer- 
ed Genera. 

While Sir James Smith the friend of Lin- 
neus, and possessor of his Herbarium, corrected 
so many of his glaring mistakes in Rees Cyclo- 
pedia: he expressed his deep regret at the im- 
pending fall of his beautiful botanical fabric: 
which implied a wish to retain his erroneous'sys- 
tem, Genera and Species. Such as the shame- 
ful and patched up Genera Sophora, Geran- 
ium^ Cactus^ Mimosa^ Lichen, Conferva, Ac- 
rostichum, and 300 like them, that have been 
split and reformed even by the Linneists. 

A number of less enlightened pupils or tena- 
cious worshipers of the Linnean System, have 
insisted on preserving all its inconsistencies and 
blunders, had Genera and Species. Others like 
Thunberg, Wildenow, Persoon, Smith, have 



more or less corrected them : which was called 
a mutilation by some worshipers of his Errors. 
Most of them have still insisted on the pervert- 
ed axiom that the Genus gives the character ! 
which for them meant that the Linnean bundle 
of plants, called a Genus, was to afford a com- 
mon loose generic definition, whatever might 
be the essential features peculiar to each Sp. 
wrongly put in the bundle. I was compelled to 
transpose this axiom, by maintaining that tJw 
character makes the Genus, or that no proper 
Genus can exist without a character applying to 
all the species it contains. This principle fully 
applies also to Tribes or families, Orders and 
Classes ; altho' quite neglected by the actual 
Botanists, who do for them what Linneus did 
for genera. 

- My own improvements in finding discrimina- 
ting characters for all generic and other groups 
extend chiefly to frame none but positive and 
exclusive characters of a permanent nature in 
contrast — and besides to shorten long descrip- 
tions by avoiding repetitions, or merely stating 
how a Genus may differ from another, which 
always implies that they agree in every thing 

Every Genus ought to find a place in the 
natural method, when properly known : none but 
those partialy described can be doubtful. Hence 
Jussieu was wrong in having so many Genera 
inserta sedis, which no one could find by his 
method, with so many G. improperly added to 
families ; while both were often types of new 
families since estabhshed. But Linneus, Adan- 
son, Necker . . . did worse in forming many 
families of plants loosely connected by habit 
rather than the fructification. 


Since Gaertner anatomy of seeds, too much 
stress has been laid upon this internal structure; 
which is unavailable for practical purposes, and 
only useful in botanical physiology. If every 
one was compelled to dissect a seed or an egg, 
before he could ascertain the Genus or family 
of a Plant or Bird, the sciences of Botany and 
Zoology would become unattainable. 

The axiom of Lamark that prolific Genera 
ought to be divided, holds true for most of them, 
as much for Carex, Euphorbia, Vaccinium, 
Solarium 6^c. as for Sclrpus, Geranium, Ama- 
ryllis, Lichen, and all the polymorphous G. 
For instance, in Grasses and Lilies, the num- 
ber of Stamens and Stigmas is generic ; so im- 
portant as to divide Families: Jussieu has 
based thereon many of his families, and the 
sections of grasses. 

A great advantage results from multiplying 
good Genera: since by it we lessen the con- 
stant repetitions of many common characters. 
But when Lamark said that small Genera might 
be conveniently united, he overlooked that Na- 
ture does not limit them in that way ; but ad- 
mits of many distinct Genera of one or few spe- 
cies, either as late deviated types, or remains 
of nearly extinct types of generic forms. Be- 
sides, most of the Linnean Genera of one Sp. 
have been found to have several, when the 
earth has been better explored ; this was the 
case with Kuhnia, Parnassia, Hydrastis, 
Fragaria, Dionea, Hippuris, Gaura, Samo- 
lus, Oryza, &c. The type of a family may also 
be single at first, but soon becomes multiple, 
when we explore the Earth. 

Meantime since the Linnean period, his own 
attempt at the enunciation of Natural Orders, 


without characters ! perhaps based on his own 
views of the transmutation of characters, has 
been much modified, ampHfied and improved ; 
and even the transmutation of Species and Ge- 
nera insisted on by some : yet the more rational 
opinion of Necker that Species alone could (at 
least in the actual state of our Globe) be multi- 
plied as breeds of their peculiar Genera, has 
been little attended to, probably owing to his 
deviation of terms, since he insisted on con- 
sidering the natural Orders as Genera, these as 
mere Species, and our Species as Proles or 
Breeds. The subject of specific varieties was 
much neglected by Linneus, and left to the 
Horticulturists, and yet he admitted of Pelorian 
Genera, Hybrid Species and permanent va- 

If 40 years of botanical observations, with 
many herborizations in similar spots of North 
America at a distance of 32 years, may entitle 
me to state my impressions on this abstruse sub- 
ject, and add my testimony thereto, I must de- 
clare my conviction that 1. Vegetation produces 
only individuals! whose permanence is limited 
by their life. Our Species, Genera, Families, 
and Orders are well known to be mere abstract 
terms of successive groups, formed by a Syn- 
thetic operation of our mind, in order to study 
more conveniently such collective groups of In- 
dividuals. Their permanence in continual suc- 
cession of forms can only be temporary : since 
their permutation of forms takes place sponta- 
neously in their natal soils, as well as our gar- 
dens where it is increased by art; while new 
varieties and species were often met by me at 
long intervals in wild places well explored be- 


fore, grown from seeds of akin species. See my 
remarks and facts collected in my new Flora. 

2. Plants vary gradualy, in features, aspect, 
size, color <fec. by a natural spontaneous devia- 
tion from seedlings. This may happen quicker 
in annuals, less quick in perennials, slower still 
in trees, except when the tendency has already 
become active. These deviations may grad- 
ualy form distinct varieties, next Breeds, at 
last becoming separate Species, when they as- 
sume a striking difference, and peculiar specific 
characters of a more permanent nature. The 
disparities in the descriptions and figures of old 
and modern botanists amply verify this. 

3. Even perennials may vary slightly in an- 
nual shoots from the same root, and trees in 
different branches or annual growth. When 
a tendency to deviation by monstruosity, hy- 
bridity or variety is taken by an individual, the 
seeds produced will unfold them when growing, 
particularly if removed from the native place 
into gardens and new soils. 

4. Pelorian Genera, or Generic Deviations 
in flowers and seeds, happen slower or more 
seldom ; being often unnoticed, or the produced 
seed is not always fertile. When it is, the off- 
spring may become the type of a New or dis- 
tinct Genus. Many such perish before they 
reproduce the deviation by fertile seeds; but a 
few survive and are the types of akin Genera. 

5. The periods of these deviations are doubt- 
ful, much fluctuating and various in length or 
existence. But we may assume as an average 
30 to 100 years for the deviating or spliting 
range of specific deviation, and 500 to 1000 
years for the Generic deviation; altho' their 


real permanence is much longer. Specific and 
generic Lives have not yet been calculated. 

6. Therefore many of our actual or newly 
described Genera and Species, may be of re- 
cent origine, and all may have once sprung at 
the last rinovation or cataclysm of this Globe, 
from a lesser number of original types, perhaps 
found in the fossil plants of our Earth, which are 
far from being all known as yet, and whose 
seeds were preserved in mountains, earth, mud 
or water tiil the catastrophe was over, 

7. It is even possible to ascertain the relative 
ages and affinities of actual species and Genera, 
sometimes their very parents or connections in 
the Genus or the tribe. Those we call hybrids 
are not always such, they may arise from other 
deviations; but artificial hybrids are evidently 
such. All these deviations are still less perma- 

8. As a general rule the real Genera (not the 
false ones of blending Botanists) of single or 
few species are the newest in order of time, and 
the most prolific the oldest in the Series. The 
same for tribes perhaps. False Genera like Eri- 
ca^ Carex, Aster, Allium, Lichen, Euphorbia, 
Mimosa, Geranium ^c. comprizing a crowd 
of generic distinctions, are as many collections 
of related Genera, springing from very early 
sources or types of forms. Extensive natural 
Genera prolific in Sp. like Rosa, Iris, Quercus, 
Salix, Oxalis. Malva, Vitis, Lactuca &.c. had 
also a very old or primitive source. Species 
prolific in individuals and varieties are always 
the oldest, and rare Species probably the newest 
of all, unless they are fragments of extinct 

Such exposition of my principles, and expla- 


nation of motives were perhaps needful, when I 
am going to increase the generic groups, per- 
haps beyond any thing ever done of the kind. 
Linneus had only 1444 Genera, in his last edi- 
tion towards 1778 ; Persoon in 1807 had already 
2300 phanegamous Genera. Jussieu in 1789 
had nearly 2000 ; but Necker in 1790 only 1842. 
The 48 Cryptogamic Genera of Linneus have 
swollen to 400. Every year and every writer 
adds to the number. Ever since 1815 I had as- 
certained and classified nearly 3000, whereof 
500 were my own. It is this labor, indicated in 
my analysis of Nature, that I now propose to 
enlarge, rectify and publish : whereby as many 
as Linneus ever had will be added or revised, 
and about 1000 will be totaly new, even now, as 
late as 1836, or not yet generally adopted. 

Altho' this attempt may astonish or perplex 
some timid Botanists, my labors will be duly 
appreciated ere long, and my unceasing efforts 
to improve the science meet with a kind recep- 
tion from the new improving school. The ax- 
iom that a multiplication of names enlarges our 
ideas, holds true in all cases and sciences, since 
they are based on facts or mental entities. 
Some Linneists have vainly tried to to throw 
discredit on generic reform, and called us Gen- 
era-mongers. We may in return call them 
Genera-Shufflers^ who want to squeeze plants 
into improper Genera, and delay improvements 
by opposing the corrections of botanical blunders. 
It is to them that we owe the superfluity of sy- 
nonyms: they often shuffle plants into 3 or 4 
Genera, as Linneus did for Heliopsis, until it 
must at last form a Genus of itself. It is a fact 
that almost all plants of doubtful Genera, are 


types of peculiar ones; the chances of it increase, 
as they are shifted. 

As to names, some botanists are very care- 
less, and deem them of little consequence, for- 
getting the very rules of their Linneus, whose 
philosophia botanica they never read. I can 
boast at least of some accuracy and taste in my 
Nomenclature ; I frame none but good or mean- 
ing Names, none of mine are bad, unless pre- 
ocupied unknown to me, as my Calistachya, 
Darwinian Diplogon . . . All previous names, 
anterior in dates, ought to prevail, and dates 
must be given in doubtful cases. If I have made 
use sometimes of native names, I have only fol- 
lowed Linneus, who in spite of his strict injunc- 
tion had adopted Cojfea, Jasminum, Yucea, 
Pandamus, Piper, Tamarindus, Cocos, Cari- 
na, Cassia &/C. from Arabic, Celtic and for- 
eign names. My Genera Zaga, Lolanara, 
Ramotha, Jupica, are as geod as these, and 
my Tilcusta, Kozola equal to Vanilla or as 

I have often dedicated new Genera to Bot- 
anists, or to worthy men, philosophers and nat- 
uralists, eminent Horticulturists or promoters of 
knowledge &c. My Genera Fenelonia, Empe- 
doclia, Platonia, Thalesia, Adlumia . . . are 
as good as Aristotelia, Enpaforium, Euphor- 
bia Slc. — If I have lost my G. PytJiagorea, 
Bivonia, Savia, Torreya Slc. by preocupation ; 
Lindley has lost his Clintonia, mine being the 
first dating of 1817, 1819, 1825! So many Bot- 
anists, establish Genera at remote places that 
these clashing names must often occur : to pre- 
vent the loss of my names, I may sometimes 
give a double substitute in case of need, as I 
did for Darwinia or Monoplectra. I am never 


at a loss for names, as Linneus was when he 
framed Quisqualis ; I could readily supply 20- 
000, all good: and Adanson table of Synonyms 
is an unfailing mine of old Classical names. As 
I have not yet heard of a Genus dedicated to 
me, I shall perhaps have to imitate Roxburg, and 
choose one for myself, as a Rafinesquia ! 

Altho' Linneus gave strict rules of nomencla- 
ture, he has broken them himself in 100 in- 
stances. He would have no generic names de- 
rived from each other, nor made up by adding 
or substracting a letter or a syllable : and yet he 
has Ambrosia, Amhroslnia — Pijrus, Pyrola 
— ^ea, Zeus — Thea, Itea, Althea — Aster, As- 
terias — Apis, Apium, Sinapis — Capra, Ca- 
praria — Liniim, Talimim, Selintim — Pinus, 
Carpinus, Lupinus — Delphinus, Delphinium 
— Canna, Cannabis, Canarina, Canariumt 
Melia, Bumelia, Bromelia. ^c. — The natural 
Botanists disregarding still more his tasteful 
principles, have added a crowd of similar bad 
names, Portulaca-ria, Oryz-opsis, Aquila-ria, 
Actinella &c. HeliantJiemum identic with He' 
lianthus, which is my Anthelis — Qalamag- 
rostis ! my Amagris, which have encumbered 
nomenclature. It appears that by the increase 
of names, Botanists begin to bo at a loss for 
them, or cannot seek for good derivations. 

Linneus objected also to names either too 
short or too long, under 2 or above 4 syllables ; 
yet he has Bos, Mas, Sus, Boa, Poa, Thea, 
Zea, &.C. which I changed for him into Taurus, 
Musculus, Aper, Theaphyla, Mayzea — He 
had also Sectiridaca, Aeschynomene, Indigofe' 
ra &/C. of 5, which may be tolerated; but T«- 
bernamontana of 6 is intolerable, and must be- 
come Tabrrnaria — Boa and Poa are both too 

18' IM'RODl ( TION, 

alike and too short, why not say Ophishoa and 
Poagris? I have constantly insisted for the 
purity of tasteful nomenclature ; but regret to 
see it oft neglected by the very best Botan- 
ists. Good names ought to be either classical 
or full of meaning; the best even to describe the 
main essential character. 

Another source of mistakes arises from blun- 
ders in Orthography, or errors of the press, co- 
pied inadvertently. Thus it is now well ascer- 
tained that these gave rise to the Prunella read 
Brunella, Befaria read Bejaria, Amsonia 
read Ansonia^ Galardia read Gaillardia, Gu- 
alterla read Gaultiera, Pentstemon read Pen- 
tostemotif Sarracen'a read Sarazinia^ Scilla 
read Skllla, Diclytra read Dielytra, Marsilea 
read Marsiglia, &c. 

A new general Pinax of Names, like that of 
Bauhin of old, is very much wanted ; but who 
shall undertake the herculeun task? It might 
be done however for Genera at least, and the 
admirable table of old generic names collected 
by Adanson, might serve for model. The gen- 
eric synonymy of Decandole and Sprengel are 
but incomplete attempts. This surabondance 
of names arises from the timid or unskilful Bot- 
anists, who are not able to refer Plants to their 
proper Genus, nor able to make New Genera 
of those that disagree. It will never cease till 
skilful Botanists alone meddle with Names. 

The compilers, translators, editors and com- 
mentators of the Linnean School have for 60 
years past, often tried to keep Botany nearly at 
a stand, or impeded its progress. They have 
often neglected to avail themselves of the works, 
researches and discoNcries of those who were 
not strict Linneists. They neglected for a long 


while Adanson, Necker, Richard, Laniark, and 
even Jussieu the fathers of natural Botany, 
whose labors are now superseding theirs. No^ 
wonder then they have also neglected mine of 
the same tendency. 

Among the best Linnean writers must be 
reckoned Schrebcr, Richard, Murray, Smith, 
Salisbury, Vitnian, Vahl, Wildenow, Persoon, 
Omelin, Alton, Romer, Shulze, Sprengel, Pal- 
las, Fontenille, Lehman <^c. whose works I 
have duly studied and used. 

But I value above all the improving Botanists, 
such as Mench, Gaertner, Swartz, Desfontaines, 
Lamark, R. Brown, Decandole, Kunth, Esen- 
beck, Lindley, Agardh, Desvaux, &c. that have 
enlarged or continue to improve the Science. 
It is among them that I have aimed to deserve 
a place. 

Some applying themselves to a single Class, 
Order or even Genus of plants have introduced 
admirable monographs, that become the bases of 
future stability. I may mention as models Per- 
soon and Fries on Fungi, Acharius on Lichens, 
Agardh on Algas, Smith Si. Swartz on Ferns, 
Palissot on Grasses, Cassini and Lessing on 
Composite, Richard and Lindley on Orchidea, 
Bentham on Labiate . . Besides the many fami- 
lies already illustrated by Decandole. To him 
we chiefly owe the practice of dividing large 
and incongruous Genera, into Sub-Genera, which 
will surely become gradualy as many Generic 
groups, unless not based on the fructification. 

The greatest botanical discoveries have been 
made since Linneus, by travellers to distant re- 
gions, and authors of local Floras. Australia, 
Polynesia and both Americas have doubled the 
number of recorded plants. Linneus only had 



about 8000 sp. and only knew 3000 well, now 
we know about 5000 Genera and 100,000 spe- 
cies; yet we yearly increase their number. 
Those who have mainly enlarged our knowledge 
of Genera, were chiefly in North America, Mi- 
chaux, Pursh, Nuttal, Elliot, Bosc, Hooker, 
Torrey, Beck, Kunth, Llave and Legarza. — In 
South America, Aublet, Mutis, Dombey, Ruiz, 
Humboldt and Bonpland, Poiteau, Swartz, Spix 
and Martens, Molina — In Oceania or Polynesia 
and Australia, Forster, Labillardiere, R.Brown, 
Commerson, Thouars, Cunningham, Thunberg 
— In Asia, Pallas, Clarke, Fischer, Ledebour, 
Hamilton, Walich, Roxburg, Forskahl, Lourei- 
ro — In Africa Desfontaines. Delille, Caillaud, 
Bruce, Schousboe, Palissot, Thunberg, Afzelius 
— and in Europe Waldstein, Jaquin, Sibthorp, 
Allioni, Viviani, Tenore, Brotero, Gilibert, Bi- 
vona, Gussone, «>k.c. — These worthy laborers de- 
serve our thankful gratitude: and it has been 
properly deemed that every word they have set 
down in their icritings is of real value ; such 
actual observers alone mainly increase the range 
of Science; Researches in Gardens, Herbals 
and Libraries only come next: I am at least one 
of them, if no more, and I belong to both hem- 

Another Class of Botanists by publishing col- 
lections of splendid botanical figures, have af- 
forded many materials; but their costly works, 
whose figures and descriptions do not always 
agree, are often beyond common reach. Such 
are Jacquin, Ventenat, Delille, Labillardiere, 
Oeder, Sibthorp, Lheritier, Catesby, Redoute, 
Ruiz and Pavon, Curtis, Sims, Ker, Andrew, 
Lindley, Hooker, Cavanilles, Tenore, Humboldt, 
Delessert, Roxburg, &c. 


Others have issued annals or journals of Bot- 
any, else vast compilations or Encyclopedias of 
Botany, where are found many useful accumu- 
lated materials ; such were Lamark and Poiret, 
the dictionaries of Nat. history, Dumont-Cour- 
set, Miller and Martyn, Smith in Rees, Loudon 
&.C. I have read and consulted them all : with 
many more here omitted, and even some au- 
thors of rare works seldom quoted; such as 
Petagni, Vitman, Scopoli, Gouan, Bartram, 
Llave, Legarza, Dumont, Fontenille, Cupani, 
Chabreus, Gilbert, Thouars, Loureiro, Lunan, 
Russel, Clarke, Robin ... In all there was 
something to glean. 

Yet the result of all my researches upon these 
former writers, has been merely with the view 
to rectify their mistakes and generic blunders, 
or add to their knowledge. This work is not 
to be a compilation of their labors; but rather 
a supplement to all theirs, and the complement 
to my own. The fields wherein I was led to 
seek for original knowledge, were Italy and the 
South of France from 179G to 1802. North 
America 1802 to 1804. Italy and Sicily from 
1805 to 1815. Spain and the Azores in 1815. 
North America again from Canada and Boston, 
to the Mississipi and Apalachian mts. during 
1616 to 1836. My travels and researches may 
be seen in my TJfe of Travels published this 
year 1836. 

I have chiefly studied and collected plants in 
their native wilds, from the Summit of Etna to 
the falls of Niagara: but I have also visited 
many botanical and private Gardens in Mar- 
seilles, Genoa, Pisa, Leghorn, Palermo, Messi- 
na, Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Albany, 
Cincinnati, I^exington, Washington, &c. where 


I examined many exotic or rare Genera. My 
own library and Herbals of botanical specimens, 
with the public or private collections of books, 
figures and plants, have afforded me many ma- 
terials. Every Genus which I venture to es- 
tablish has usualy been examined alive or dried, 
or I have had a good figure or good description 
to depend upon, sometimes both, or even all 
those means combined. 

A complete Catalogue of all my botanical 
works and tracts will be found in chronological 
order in my Herharium Rajinesquianum 1833. 
Most of them are now collected in my Ameni- 
ties of Nature. In 1808 by publishing my N. G. 
with 69 N. Sp. of North America — In 1810 my 
N. animals and plants of Sicily, 21 N. G. 80 N. 
Sp. of plants — my career of discoveries was be- 

In 1814 my chief works were Compendium 
of Discoveries, with 14 N. G. 78 N. Sp. of 
plants — 22 N. G. and 30 N. Sp. of plants in my 
Cyclopedical Journal — besides the principles of 
Somiology wherein I gave the rules of natural 
classification for animals and plants : with prin- 
ciples of nomenclature. In 1815 my main work 
Analysis of Nature wherein I indicated 310 
families of plants properly distributed into 66 
Orders and 10 Classes. As Decandole had 
then only 150 families, 160 of mine were then 
new, altho' many have since been adopted with- 
out due credit for my previous sagacity and 
good names. Also my Chloris Etnensis publish- 
ed in Recupero history of Etna, classed natur- 

My florula Ludoviciana of 1817 had 30 N. 
G. and over 160 N. Sp. admitted from Robin ; 
I was blamed for having done for him what 


Gronovius did for Clayton, and Wildenow for 
Loureiro ! 

My florula Mandanensis and Missurica based 
upon the plants and specimens of Bradbury, 
Lewis, Miller and Beck, written between 1817 
and 18*20, but never published, and a copy sent 
to England was lost. Other similar mpts. of 
mine, yet unpublished, I deem useless to enu- 

Between 1816 and 1818 I rectified many er- 
rors of Pursh, Nuttal, Barton, Bigelow, Elliot 
&c. in reviews, and published 40 new plants 
In 1819 my 50 N. G. of American plants were 
published in Journal de physique of Paris. 

In 1820 my annals of nature had 25 N. G. 
and 124 N. Sp, of animals and plants, and my 
monographs of Rubiacea, Rosa, Houstonia, 
Lysimachia, Convolvulus &c. were published in 
the A finales des Sciences physiques of Bruxels. 

In 1825 I proposed 66 American N. G. in 
my Neogenyton. In my Medical flora of the 
United States 1828 to 1830 I gave many N. Sp. 
and figures, with monographs of Vitis, Genti- 
ana, Heuchera, Trillium, Unisema, <^c. 

In 1830 and 1831 I sent to Decandole at his 
request several mpts on 16 New families, and 
175 New Genera of Plants chiefly North Amer- 
ican, among which 60 N. G. of Composite be- 
sides 90 New Species of the same Order, and 
45 N. Sp. of other orders, with 188 Specimens 
of rare, new or doubtful plants. 

In my Atlantic Journal 1832 to 1833, I gave 
150 N. G. or Sp. of Plants. In 1833 was be- 
gun my Herhar. Raf. with many new plants, 
Genera, and Catalogues of my discoveries, bo- 
tanical collections «fcc. 

Altho' I am a drafl;sman, and can draw niy 



New plants, I liave seldom been able to publish 
my figures. My edition of Cupani, and the 
Amer. plants engraved before 1815, were lost 
plates and all in my Shipwreck of 1815 with my 
herbarium, only few copies have survived. I 
only gave 100 wooden cuts in my medical flora, 
and about 80 in my School of flora; 36 in Amer- 
ican Florist, cheap popular works. Thus I re- 
solved to publish my 500 Icones rariorum in 
mpt. and also my Autikon Botanikon or Self 
figures by Specimens of 2500 new or rare plants^ 
to be sold at the same rate as the actual usual 
printed figures. 

At last in 1836 I began to print my New 
Flora of North America, Supplemental to all 
the others, with 1000 N. Sp. at least; which has 
led to the actual Synopsis or Mantissa, as a re- 
capitulation of all my scattered works and ob- 
servations, or their principal facts. 

As to classical arrangement I have aimed at 
none at first, because my own natural improved 
families, now amounting to 375 would have still 
more staggered the reluctant Botanists. I di- 
vide this work in Centuries with numbers, keep- 
ing often together akin Genera. — This is the 
actual plan of many books of botanical novelties. 
Hooker, Lindley &.c. The alphabetical order 
would have been useless where so many new 
Names occur, but Indexes shall be given, tables 
of Natural Orders at the outset, and a general 
classification at the end of the whole work. 
Those ajithors who admit only what they see, or 
upon trust of particular friends, would not proba- 
bly pay more attention to my researches, if 
given under any other garb. Those who seek 
for truth and new materials, will easily find both 
here, and mould them into their own shape or 


method. Whoever may wish for further proof 
in costly figures and specimens will find them 
in my Icones and Autikon (and possess them 
by buying them), else in the N. Amer. plants of 
my Flora : meantime this work is perhaps the 
first ever published in America on General 
Classical Botany; and it will be a mine of bota- 
nical knowledge, to those willing to avail them- 
selves of such help any where. 

Such have been my labors and exertions in 
my favourite Science, the most amiable of all, 
and the earliest as it shall be the latest of my pur- 
suits thro' life. Reader, kind or unkind . . ! do 
not disdain these results of long experience and 
criticism ; dismiss bad names and groups ; adopt 
or further improve my generic and tribal clus- 
ters. They are the natural evolution of spon- 
taneous vegetable life exerted in wisdom thro' 
ages. Imitate my zeal, and be happy in the 
lovely study of flowers. 

To seek the truth in floral gifts concealing, 
Is pleasing task; to lofty minds remaling 
Their secret beauties clad in bright array, 
T7iSit wisdom teach and to the mind convey. 



The fathers and improvers of the Natural 
method have not settled, which are to be the 
first and last Genera in the serial arrangement. 
Adanson in 17G3 began with Tremella, ending 
with the Mosses, thus going in a circle. He was 
followed by Scopo'i who began with Incompletes 
ending with Fungi, but Linneus from the Palms 
to Fungi. Jussieu in 1789 began with Mucor 
ending with Abii'S, from the most simple plant 
to the loftiest trees. Decandole in his flora 
gallica 1806 began with Nostoch ending with 
Jictea. In his synopsis plantarum he has re- 
versed this order in imitation of Zoology, be- 
ginning with Clematis. Necker in 1790 began 
with Itnda in the Radiate, ending with the 

Therefore I thought in 1815 that I could im- 
prove thereon by beginning with Rosa., the 
queen of flowers, as Homo is the king of ani- 
mals! ending witlt Mucor., but now I end with 
Spunges. 'I'he most perfect flower ought to 
open the descending Series of organization, and 
not the Umbellifera of Lindley series. Agardh 
has again taken the ascending series and be- 
gun with Fungi in 1822. 

Thus they all differ in this, and do not agree 
better in their clusters of Classes, Orders and 
families. From Cesalpini who in 1583 made 
the first attempt at a natural method to our 
days, all the methods are variable ; but begin to 
improve since Adanson or rather Jussieu, and 
have increased from his 58 families to nearly 
400; which have been called Sub-Orders, Sub- 


families, Sections, and even Cohorts and I^e- 
gions by some drillers. 

I have contended with Linneus and Jussieu, 
that we ought to have only natural Classes and 
Orders, but admit families as main Sections of 
Orders, and many other Sections, in all to help 
the analysis. The natural method may become 
strictly analytical, as much so as in Zoology; 
whence I perceived that Botany could be ana- 
lyzed in a paralel number of Classes, if not of 
Orders with Animals ; each as distinct of each 
other as are Birds, Fishes, Worms, &c. 

Having read and studied whatever has been 
added or stated on natural Botany since 1815, 
I have not found needfid to change materialy 
my proposed improvements matured between 
1800 and 1815 ; as to Orders, but some new 
Classes and families must be added, or find a 
place in my method, which has the advantages 
of facility, universality and exclusiveness, or 
general application, and easy analysis by ex- 
clusive characters of all the groups, like the 
analytical tables of Lamark. 

Having published nearly 200 such new fami- 
lies in my analysis of Nature 1815, fixing them 
by mentioning their generic types, I deem pro- 
per to lay claim to the following, dating as ear- 
ly. They are all exclusive and different from 
the 100 of Jussieu. 


And their tvpes in 1815. 

I. Class, Eltrogines, Rosa the first Genus, 

type of real Rosaceous plants. 

1. Senticosia, types (xenera Ruhiis, Fra~ 

garla, ^c. 

2. PoTERiDTA, types Poterhint, Af^rimoina. 











GoNOLiGiA, type Alchemilla, Sibbaldid. 
Spireadia, type Spirea. 
TiiYLAxiA, type Zanthoxylum. 
AcHENOPsiA, types Coriaria^ Aylanthus. 
TiiALicTRiA,types, Thalk'trnm., Tetracera 
Peonidia, types, Peonia, Caltha. 
Hetralonia, types Aconitum, Nigella. 
Axarcodia, types Moi'us, Artocarpus, 















Fictis, Dorstenia. 


Llmiis, Celtis. 



Phylica, Ceanothus. 

Peplis^ Ammania. 

Dionea^ Monotropa? 






Sinapis. These 5 from 20 

form the Order of Cruciferous. 
Acteasia, type Actea. 

















Ricmus, Acalypha. 

Drosera, Parnassia. 


Arenaria, Cerastiiim. 









39. Malopidia, type Malope, Palaria. 

40. Zeibania, type Zeiba. 

41. Celosidia, '" Celosia. 

42. Loasinia, " Loasa. 

43. Andirania, " Andira. 

44. Arthrocytia, " Hedifsarum. 

45. Diadelphia, " Lathyrus^ TrifoUum. 

46. Anthylidia, " Ononis, Anthijlis. 

47. Amorphinia, " Amorphns. 

48. Bauhinidia, " Bauhinla. 

49. Cassinia, " Cassia, Mimosa. 

50. Prosopia, " Moringa. 

51. Dalidia, " DaJea. The above from 

43 to 51 are families or sections of the 
great Natural Order CvTEANrriiA or 
5*2. Rhodoracea, type Rhodora. 
II. Class. Mesogines. 

53. Sarcoditia, type Cotijlaria. 

54. Contortia, " Siapelia, Echites. 

55. Nolanidia, " Nolana. 

56. Echidia. •' Echium. 

57. Monieridia, " Monniera. 

58. Dichondrania, " Dichondra, 

59. Staticidia, " Statice. 

60. Cuscutaria, " Cuscuta, Evolvidus, 

61. Cressaria, " Cressa. 

62. Ilexia, " Hex, Cordia. 

63. Chironidia, " Spigelia, Exacum. 

64. Gratiolidia, " Gratiola. 

65. Clythrelia, " Utricidaria. [^tnus, 

66. Verbascidia, " Verbascum, Hyoscia- 

67. Hallerinia, types Halleria, Gyrtandra. 

68. Sesamidia, " Sesatnum. 

69. Psychanthia, " Polygala. 

70. Veronicia, " Veronica. 

71. .Tiisticidia, " Jnsticia, 





Petridia, typo, Fetrea, Lippia. 
Pyrenaria, " Callicarpa. 
Phrymaria, " Vhryma. 
Synarthia, " Glohularia. 
Stilbaria, ^' Stilbe. 


Aegiphilia, " 




Strychnidia, " 
Epacridia, " 
Azalidia, " 

Strychnos, Capsicum 
Fhlox, Epacris. 
Azalea., Kalmia. 



Styraxia, " 
Symplocia, " 
Micranthia, " 

Sty rax. 


Olaxia, " 

Olax, Bassia, 


Hilospermia, " Achras. 
Inocarpia, " Ardisia. 

III. Class. Endogynes. 


Loranthia, type Visciim. 



" llhizophora. 
" Samolus. 



" Cinchona. 



" Gardenia. 
" Hamellia. 



" Linnea. 



" DiermUa. 



" Sambucus. 



" Viburnum. 



" Valeriana. 



" Triosteum. 



" Cofea. 
" Mathiola. 



" Morinda. 



" Echinops. 
" Gundelia. 



" Crupina. 



" Cynara, Carlina. 



" Conyza. 
" Gran^ea, 



108. Absynthia, type Cotula. 

109. Ivaria, 

110. Parthenidia, 

111. Anthemidia, 
11*2. Helianthia, 

113. Inulidia, 

114. Lactucaria, 

115. Hieracidia, 

116. Cichorinia, 

117. Scolyniia, 

Achillea, Belli s. 
Solidago, Arnica. 
Lactiica, Seriola. 
Prena n thes, Hicraciu m . 
Cichorium, Hyoseris. 

Scohjmus, Lapsana. 
All the above were blended in Rubiacea and 
Composite Orders. The tribes of Cassini in 
the latter were not known to me then. 
IV. Class. Sympiiogijnes 

118. Jasionidia, " 

119. Lobelidia, " 

120. Scevolidia, " 

121. Vaccinidia, " 

122. Sicidia, " 

123. Scleranthia, " 

124. Homalidia, " 

125. Ribesidia, " 

126. Gastonidia, " 

127. Saniculea, " 

128. Scadianthia, " 

129. Periactia, " 





iSicyos, Gronocia. 



Ribes, Cercodia. 


Sanicula, Cussonia. ^ 

Anethum. \ 

Seseli. \ 

Daiictis, Tordiilium. J 


130. Diplactia, 
The 4 above were families of 


131. Eryngidia, type Eryngium. 

132. Begonidia, 

133. Quercidia, 

134. Lecythidia, 

135. Melaleucia, 

136. Eugenidia, 

137. Stravadia, 

138. Nyssidia, type Nyssa 

Quercus, Fagus. 
Lee y this. 









type Osijrls, Santaluw. 
" Thesiuni. 
" Trapa^ Hlppuris. 
Hedcra, Cornus. 

Trapacea. " 
Hederacea, " 
Ophiracea, " 
Melastomea, " 

V. Class. Angians. 
Stratides, type Strat lodes, 
Pistides, " Plstia. 
Valisneridia, " Vallsnerla. 
Phyllacnia. " 
Diplantheria, " 
Ananidia, " 


Ctfprlpc.dium . 


Gethylls, Tamus. 

Hydnora s. Aphyteia. 


Bur mania. 

Rajania. >. 
VI. Class. Gymnians or Lilies. 
Aloidea, type Aletris, Crinum. 
Commelinea, " Tradescantia. 







Alls ma. 

VII. Class. Phanerians. 
Coryphinia, type Corypha, Lontariis. 
Arecaria, " Areca. 
Phenixia, " Phenl.r, Cocos. 

Ca lamia. " Calamus, Sagus. 

Cycadia, " Cycas, Zamia. 

Gethylidia, " 
Hydnoridia, " 
Galaxidia, " 
Aplimia, " 
Amaryllides, " 
Aechmidia, ^' 
Ubidia, " 

Aphylanthes, " 

Xuridia, " 

Helonidia, " 

Smilaxia, " 

Uniseniia, " 

Alismaria, " 

Potaiiiidia, " 



These last 5 form the Palm tribe. 

173. Julacia, type Saururus. 

174. Dracontidia, type Draco ntium. 

175. Orontidia, " Orontium^ Acorns. 

176. Carexidia, " Carex^ Sciiria^ Raf. 

177. Pharidia, " Pharus^ Nastus. 

178. Olyracea, " Objra, Nardus. 
170. Agrostaria, " Agrostls, Phleum. 

180. Frumentaria, " Triticum, Arundo, 

181. Tripleia, " Ortjza, Luziola. 

182. Trimeia, " Anthoxanthum, Cinna 

VIII. Class. Cryptians. 

183. Tmesipteria, type Pilularia. 

184. Stachyopteria, " Ophioglossum, 

185. Poropteria, " Marattia, 

186. Schizopteria, " ScJitzca. 

187. Rhizospermia, " Isoetes.'t 
These are akin to Filixia, the Ferns. 

188. Diplostomia, type Hypniim. 

189. Aplostomia, " Dicranum. 

190. Apogonia, " Phascum. 

191. Carpodia, " Marchantia. 
19*2. Phylomalia, " Riccla^ Blasia. 

And these form the Mosses. 

IX. Class. Algians. 

Of this Class and the next, I give all my 
families to show the whole connection, altho' 
some were not new. 

19.*>- Hypoxilia, type Xi/lonm, Spheria.t 
191. Opegraphia, " Ilijsterlum. 

195. Lepraridia, " Variolaria. 

196. Beomydia, " Bromifces. 

197. Squamarinia, '• Psoroma. 

198. Lobarinia, " Loharia. 

199. Cladonaria, " Cladonta. 

200. Usnearia, " Z7s/«^^«. End of Lichens 

201. Fucaria, " Pucus, Virsoidcs. 

1 1 



20*2. Deloxia, tvpe 

203. Ulvaria, ' " 

204. Rivulinia, " 

205. Physudria, " 

206. Corallinia, " 

207. Spongidia, " 

208. Ectospermia, " 

209. Ceramia, " 

210. Arthrinia, " 

211. Endonemia, " 


212. Byssidia, types Byssiis, Hymantia. 

Dictyota^ Phytelis. 

Ulca, Caulerpa. 








Mesas perma » 

213. Conoplidia, 

214. Monilidia, 

215. Clavaridia, ' 

216. Treinellaria, ' 

217. Pezizaria, ' 

218. Lithecia, ' 

219. ^garicia, " 

220. Boletidia, " 

221. Hydnidia, 

222. Cyathidia, 

223. Tuberidia, " 

224. Trichidia, 

225. Dermosporia, ' 

226. Gymnosporia, ' 





Peziza, Teleobolus. 

Clathriis, Phallus. 

Amanita, Merulius. 

Boletus, Phorima Raf. 

Hydnum, Merisma.. 

Stictis, Nidularia. 
Sclerotium, Granularia 
Geastrum, Batarea. 

Uredo, Mucor. 

t These few were adopted from Decandole 
flora gallica 1806. Some others were pu Wished 
by Brown in 1810, but I did not know his labor 
in 1815. 

Many of these have been admitted and pub- 
lished by other Botanists between 1815 and 
1835, without quoting my labors. As usage and 
equity requires in Botany that all previous la- 
bors and names should prevail or be acknow- 
ledged, I hope that future Botanists of a liberal 
inind or correct principles, will in future duly 


refer to them in their works, as they do to other 
improvers in their synonymy. 

They never can be at a loss to know what 
familes or groups I meant: as far as Hetralonia 
I gave the proper exclusive cliaracters, with 
Sub-famihes and all the Genera of each, as a 
general method. For the others I quoted from 
"2 to 10 Genera of each family: altho' I now 
still reduce the quotations to one or two genera 
as main primitive types, any sagacious Botanist 
may know at once my original families of 1815 
by these types. When the quoted Genus be- 
longs to any newer famihj, that family teas 
established by me in 1815. 

Why should I then admit or follow later la- 
bors and arrangements not so perfect nor com- 
plete as mine of 1815? Decandole's method is 
not yet complete, and is still obscure. Agardh's 
is rather better ; but follows the ascending series: 
while we all know now, that the real Serial 
Order of organization is neither ascending nor 
descending, not even circular, but Reticulate, 
or Geographical, as in a Net, or rather a Map: 
where Classes represent Islands, Orders and 
Families, their regions and districts; while Ge- 
nera and Species are the hills and mountains of 
this botanical geography. 

The most proper Natural Series must then 
follow a geographical plan, wherein the mutual 
affinities are expressed by vicinity and drawn 
lines of Seas, Rivers <^c. expressing or defining 
common characters: which can only be accu- 
ratly expressed in tables and maps ; while in 
Serial books we must attempt to follow the plan 
as nearly as possible, as it is done in books of 

My own peculiar improvements in natural 


Classification, consist, tlierefore, 1. in finding the 
first Genus of the most perfect organization, 
ROSA, to begin the Serial Order, and Spunges 
to end it. 2d. Fixing the natural Classes and 
Orders on nearly a paralel plan with those of 
Animals. 3d. Giving them proper good names 
singular and plural so as to express as in Geo- 
graphy, Europe, Europeans. 4th. In increasing 
largely or triplicating the families of Jussieu, 
giving them similar good names. 5th. Fixing 
the characters of all these groups by good and 
essential characters, whereof some must al- 
ways be exclusive. 6th. Applying the process of 
analysis in their formation, sub-divisions, and to 
acquire their knowledge. 7th. Improving the 
botanical maps by grouping according to mu- 
tual affinities, and separating my mutual dis- 

To evince how preferable and improved was 
my method in 1815 even above the clever gen- 
eral method of Agardh in 1822. I shall give 
here his famihes called Orders of his 2d Class 
called Series, while he called Classes our real 
Orders, thus transposing all the terms. 
III. Series. Cryptocotyles. 
I. Class. Macropodes. 

27. Order, Nayades, Juss. 

28. " Podostomea, Rich. 

29. " Alismacea, DC. 

30. " Hydrocharides, Rich. 

31. " Nymphacea, Juss. 
II. Class. Spadicinae. 

32. Order, Pistiacea, Raf 1815, 

33. " Aroides, Jus. 

34. " Acoroides, my Orontidesl815. 

35. " Pandanea. Ag. 

36. " Cycadea, Raf. 1815. 


37. Order, Palnia, J. 

III. Class. Glumiflorae. 

38. Order, Typhina, J. 

39. " Cyperacea, J. 

40. " Graminea, J. 

41. " Juncacea, J. 

42. '• Xyridia, Raf. 1815. 

IV. Class. Liliflora. 

43. Order, Asparagoides, J. 

44. " Asphodela, J. 

45. " Coronaria, J. 

46. " Veratrea, my Helonides 1815. 

47. " Commelinea, Raf. 1815. 

48. " Pontederea, Ag. 

49. " Dioscorides. Ag. 
50* " Hemodorea, Ag. 

51. " Iridea, J. 

52. " Narcissea, J. 

53. " Bromelinea,my Ananidial815 
V. Class. Gynandres. 

54. Order, Musacea, J. 

55. " Cannacea, Ag. 

56. " Scitaminea, J. 

57. " Orchidea, J. 

These 31 families answer to my V, VI, VIII, 
Classes, wherein I had 48 new families, 7 years 
before Agardh ; whereof he has several under 
same or akin names, without quoting me; as he 
had not seen my analysis of Nature. He had 
however the sagacity to perceive some of them, 
and the good sense to find exclusive characters 
for all, which Lindley could not do, nor imitate 
much later, prefering to return to the obscurity 
ofAdanson: whereby he has impeded the gen- 
eral adoption of the natural System, as a gener- 
al method. 

It may be regretted that Botanists do not 


even quite agree as yet on the terms to be given 
to Natural groups, and mix or transpose the 
terms of Series, Classes, Orders, Tribes, Fami- 
nes, Legions, Cohorts <Slc. as Necker did Ge- 
nera, Species and Proles. I gave the rules for 
this in 1814 and I now give a table of the proper 
terms in Latin and English. 

The vegetable or botanical World or Em- 
pire or Kingdom, may be gradualy divided by 
complete analytical process into 6 main or es- 
sential successive Sections of the whole, or into 
12 lesser Sections, as follow. 

First Series or Primary Classes, or Clusters 
of Classes — Series vel Classes Primordiales. 

I. 2. Classes, the regular common Natural 
Classes — Classes Natur. 

II. 3. Primary Orders or Sub-Classes — Or- 

dines primaris vel Sub-Classis. 
II. 4. Natural Orders — Ordines Naturalis. 
5 Tribes or Sub-Orders; Tribu vel Sub-Ord. 

III. 6. Natural Families — Familia Naturalis. 
7. Sub-families — Sub-familia s. Genera pri- 


IV. 8. Genera, or Generic groups and types. 
9. Sub-Genera, their Sections not based on 

V, 10. Species, Specific types of Individuals. 

II. Breeds or Proles, Specific deviations. 
VI. 12. Varieties of Individuals. 

Individuals alone have a separate physical 
existence, all the other clusters are useful bo- 
tanical groups of ideal abstractions based on 
physical characters, by successive proportions 
of affinities; as political institutions collect men 
in successive clusters of families, clans, ranks 
or castes, communities, tribes and States. 

Therefore, Individuals are the main object 



and first aim of Botanical knowledge ; tlie study 
of" tlieir clusters becomes the aim of systematic 
Botany : nomenclature and classification, which 
may be compared to a kind of Statistical Sci- 
ence, under a philosophical method, based on 
accurate principles. 

Species are the collections of individuals per- 
fectly alike in all their parts. Varuties are 
slight casual deviations. Breeds or Proles are 
permanent Varieties. Therefore Species are 
natural altho' variable. 

Genera are the collective groups of Species, 
that agree in the characters of the fructifica- 
tion. No Species belongs to a Genus unless it 
agrees with all the others therein included. 
Sub-Genera are lesser groups or sections with 
some slight deviations chiefly in the habit, sel- 
dom in the floral organs. Therefore proper 
Genera are also natural. 

Natural Families are groups of Genera 
having some striking characters in common, 
chiefly floral and organic. 

Natural Orders are groups of families 
united by one or several important characters, 
chiefly floral and organic. 

Natural Classes are groups of Orders, pos- 
sessing some very peculiar floral characters, 
and common organization. 

By attending to these successive groups, and 
never forcing into them any stranger by organic 
characters, we may hope to rectify them, im- 
prove and fix invariably. 

If the natural Classes of Plants were as stri- 
king as those of Animals, and known at first 
sight like Birds, Snakes, Insects &lc. we should 
not have had so many difiiculties in seeking 
them. But even Reptiles, Insects &c. oflfer 


many forms and difficulties, whence Lizards, 
Frogs, Snakes, Crabs, Spiders Slc. are now 
becoming peculiar distinct Classes. This hap- 
pens likewise in Botany, and the two organized 
series of Beings may be deemed almost parallel. 

In the valuable but oft neglected work of 
Adanson on natural families, we find almost a 
Cyclopedia of botanical knowledge, history, 
classification, authors, names and genera until 
his time 1763. It begins now to be appreciated, 
and I refer to it for all ancient Botany, botanists, 
Classes and names. It may be often consulted 
with advantage by improvers. 

We learn from him that botanical classifica- 
tions are numberless, and have been based on 
all kinds of consideration of forms, organs and 
uses. To show the absurdity of contriving such 
artificial systems, he had himself contrived 65, 
and calculated their value ; till at last the result 
was the combination of all into the Natural 

Whatever has been done by Botanists since 
Zoroaster and Moses (deemed the first by 
Adanson) till Linneus, is now of little account, 
and belongs to historical Botany: wherefore I 
have began my researches at Linneus and Ad- 
anson. Yet many eminent Botanists flourished 
since the revival of letters, among which Cesal- 
pini who in 1583 first contrived 15 natural Class- 
es, and Zaluzianski in 1592 had 22 such, but 
only few very really natural — Magnol who was 
the first in 1689 to attempt 68 natural Orders. 
Tournefort who in 1694 was the first to fix de- 
finite Genera, and reduced 698 of them to 22 
artificial Classes. 

These Genera were increased to 1174 before 
Linneus and by him: Adanson increased them 


to 1615, all deserving attention : this number 
was swelled to 18i2 by Necker in 1790, and 
has been swelling ever since; until Genera are 
now nearly as numerous as known Species were 
a. Century ago. 

Adanson ventured to prophesy that botanists 
would at last be compelled to attend to Genera 
only, and neglect the Species, both for their 
number and natural spliting. He was like Lin- 
neus, Necker and myself (in fact like all acute 
observers) a strenuous supporter of the doctrine 
that Species were unlimited, and increasing by 
the natural process of semination, deviation, 
variation, hybridation &.c. Whence he conclu- 
ded that we could hardly ascertain the primi- 
tive types of species, that many known to an- 
cient Botanists were lost or no longer found, 
while new ones were evolved in mountains, 
groves, fields and gardens. 

The practice of uniting incongruous and un- 
like plants in the same Genus, has long prevailed 
and is yet followed by Hooker, Torrey and 
many eminent botanists, who do not perceive 
the fallacy of this plan: whereby their species 
are in fact often real types of overlooked Genera, 
and their Genera are artificial like the first 
made by Tournefort and Linneus. 

Botany will never reach perfection till this 
arbitrary mode of naming and rcfering plants is 
discarded: and until all the species of a Genus 
offer similar characters ; as in fact they natur- 
ally ought to do. The many polymorphous Ge- 
nera are mere artificial and heterogenous com- 
binations of unskilfid or wavering Botanists, 
and not real genera ! 

In some instances these cautious botanistf; 
appear to be positiv(^lv blind in di<parilit?>, aiid 



unite in the same Genus, species with a cap- 
sule, a berry or one seed ! — else with equal or 
unequal calix, petals, pistils, stamens Slc.I — 
else with Ovary inferior and superior ! — They 
might as well unite a Grass with a Rose, Men 
with Monkeys, and Bats with Birds. — They de- 
plore the increase of Synonyms and overwhelm 
us with useless names ; since all theirs must 
be changed, and will be. 

The only plea ever given for artificial sys- 
tems was their utility in the facility of finding 
plants by analysis; but this use utterly fails 
when the admitted aberrations are numberless. 
In the sexual system they abound, and I have 
often amused myself by defying a botanical 
Student to find out some plants by it; Cleome 
dodecandra for instance, my Polanisia gramo- 
lens. But by the natural method uniting the 
analytical process as I do, there is no difficulty 
to find out Genera: while for Species, all being 
reduced to their proper Genera, there is the 
same facility. Not so by the distorted Genera 
of many Botanists, one third of their Species 
not possessing the generic characters ascribed, 
can never be found out by beginners, while ex- 
perienced botanists are directed by mere habit, 
aspect, affinities, or something which cannot be 
expressed, and is neither definite nor real nor 
natural nor true. 

Nature in the spontaneous evolution of vege- 
tation, baffles all our petty incongruities by ma- 
king new Species out of varieties, and new Ge- 
nera out of floral deviations! the process is not 
always so quick as to be perceived in a few 
years; but "^is very obvious to botanical obser- 
vers who happen to study plants during 40 or 50 
years. This fact Is then a truth, whoever 


doubts it is a mere tyro or beginner in the study. 
On this truth must be based our Genera and 
Species, instead of admiting improper clusters 
of individuals. We shall then be better able to 
ascertain the formations, deviations and filia- 
tions of plants, with all their connections, rela- 
tions and affinities to each other. 

Some botanists deem that in nomenclature 
and classification, the majority must rule: this 
may be true for artificial systems; but not in 
the natural method. There Nature alone must 
rule, and her close observers who notice the 
botanical laws, phenomena, exceptions and 
forms. All other Botanists may be wrong, and 
are often so, when they wish to make these 
bend to their own petty views and absurd class- 
es or Genera. 

Names are also quite essential, because they 
fix and convey the knowledge thus acquired. 
Bad names can only be tolerated for awhile. 
Those of Aublet were changed by Necker and 
Schreber and we had 3 for one of his. Rosa., 
Quercus and Labiates for instance are good 
invariable names. If the philological absurdi- 
ties of vulgar languages as to Grasses, Lilies 
Slc. are admitted into the Scientific language 
of Botany, we should fall into confusion of ideas 
and applications. Names are not arbitrary i 
they impart ideas, and ought to be proper, clear 
and distinct, in order to suggest or convey such 
ideas to the mind, fix them in the memory, and 
be generaly applicable and practical. 

Botanists have like other men their whims, 
preferences, systems, theories and hypotheses ; 
but all must give way before observations, facts 
and realities : and thus by truth shall the Sci- 
ence progress. 


In result 1. It is better to distinguish and in- 
sulate by good names, than to blend and con- 
ceal by wrong references and bad names. 2. All 
bad Genera must be reformed, revised and cor- 
rected, till they become unobjectionable and in- 
variable. 3. All bad names must be changed 
for good Names. 4 The same for Natural Class- 
es, Orders and famihes. 5 And also for Species 
or the Generic types. 

It is this I propose partly to do in this work, 
as far as my observations avail and my research- 
es extend. To my fellow Botanists I say — Do 
likewise or better still; but never neglect a 
botanical reform, based on nature, and proper 


Of C. S. Rafnesquc, 1815. 

The study of mutual affinities and disparaties, 
is the base and true path of methodical and 
natural Botany. Cesalpini in 1583 began mod- 
ern Classification on a natural plan by 15 nat- 
ural groups; most of the Botanists prefered 
since artificial systems, until Magnol in 1689 
and Linneus who in 1751 produced 58 sup- 
posed natural Orders along with his artificial 
sexual Classes. 

Adanson had also 58 families in 1763, and 45 
were Natural, they were reduced to 36 by 
Scopoli in 1783, and to 54 by Necker in 1790. 
But Jussieu improving thereon had in 1789 as 
many as 100 natural families in 15 artificial 
Classes, which have l)een gradualy increased 
or improved by Lamark, Ventenat, Decandole, 


Richard, Mirbel, Agardli, R. Brown, Lindley 
and others. 

Meantime as early as 1802 I began to per- 
ceive the necessity of rectifying the presumed 
Orders of Jussieu, and after many observations 
in both hemispheres, I pubhshed my Natural 
Classes in 1814, and my 06 Natural Orders in 
1815. Twenty years of additional researches 
have convinced me that they need but little ad- 
ditions, unless we change their Sections into Or- 
ders ; but that altho' I had increased their farni- 
lies to 310, they may now become about 400. 

I have only published my Chloris Etnensis 
1815, Florula Ludoviciana supl. 1817, Annals 
of Nature 1820, according to this arrangement. 
But it is susceptible of general application any 
where : and every Genus finds its place in it, 
because it is both natural and analytical. Every 
one of the 2000 New genera or plants of this 
work, will easily be refered to my Orders, if 
not to my families, by any one acquainted with 
analytical Botany 

Therefore I shall proceed to give tabular 
views of my Classes and Orders, with their es- 
sential analytical Characters, comparative and 
distinctive of each ; the examples and types are 
both in my New families, and some quotations 
of Jussieu's. 

Table of Nahiral Classes. 

I. Primary Class. Endogenia or Dicotylia 
or Mesotylia. The Endogenes or Dicotyles 
or Mesotyles — Trees, Shrubs, Vines or Plants; 
stems and roots vascular jfibrose, vessels and 
fibres in concentric layers, around a central 
pith or cellalar hollow. Outward bark or epi- 
<lermis, often woody beneath it. Leaves often 
articulated or opposite, nerves commonly reti- 


culate, flowers conspicuous with perigone sta- 
mens and pistils. Germination commonly dico- 
tyle or polycotyle, and central, growth by out- 
ward increment. They correspond with the 
Vertebrate or Bony Animals^ and the binary 
or quinary numbers prevail, 2, 4, 8, or 5, 10, 20. 
1st Section. jE/^r«w//wa,theEltranthes. Flow- 
ers with one or more Pistils, quite free not coa- 
lescent with the perigone (superior Lin.) Flow- 
ers commonly free and separate from each oth- 
er, 1^ ruits free 

I. Class ELTROGIA, The Eltrogins. 
(meaning free pistils) Stamens free or only con- 
nected together, not coalescent with a corolla 
or inner perigone into a tube, unless the fruit 
may be a pod. Equivalent of the Mammalia. 

II. Class MESOGIA, the Mesogins (mg, 
middle pistils). Stamens connected with a cor- 
olla or inner perigone, or inserted on it, and 
forming together a tube around the pistil. Fruit 
never a pod. Equivalent of the Birds. 

2d. Section. Synanthia, the Synanthes. Flow- 
ers often united into a compound flower with 
only one pistil, united or coalescent with the 
base of the perigone (inferior L). Fruit always 
connected with it and often crowned by it. 

III. Class GYNENDIA, the Gynendes (mg. 
inside pistils) Stamens always as in the 2d Class, 
more or less connected with a Corolla, or often 
connected together also, and both inserted on 
the pistil. Equivalent of Reptiles, 

IV. Class SYNOGIA, the Synogins (mg. 
united pistils) Stamens free unconected with 
the corolla when it exists, and commonly insert- 
ed on the perigone. Equivalent of Fishes. 

lid. Primary Class. Exogenia or Pleuuo- 
TYLiA. The Exogenes or Pleurotyles — Palms, 


Lilies, Grasses, Ferns and Mosses with stems 
and roots vascular fibrose, vessels and fibres 
fasciculated and intermixt, without a central 
pith, the pith scattered or lacking. No proper 
bark, nor wood, the epidermis only of closer 
texture. Leaves seldom articulated or opposite 
or whorled, nerves commonly parallel ; flowers 
more or less conspicuous or anomalous, with or 
without perigone and stamens, but always a pis- 
til or the equivalent. Germination lateral, com- 
monly monocotyle or heterocotyle or cryptoco- 
tyle ; growth by inward increment. They cor- 
respond to the Anostians or unbony Animals, 
and the ternary numbers prevail, 1, 3, 6, 9. 12. 
1st Section. Isanthia, the Isanthes. Flowers 
always regular and conspicuous with a perigone, 
stamens and pistils, never glumaceous, nor 

V. Class ANGINIA or STEGINIA, the 
Angines or Steginians. (Mg covered pistil) 
Pistil single inferior, coalescent with the base of 
a perigone, Stamens on either, fruit covered or 
crowned. Equivalent of the Crustacea. 

Gymnoses or Lirides, (mg uncovered or Lily- 
like) Pistils one or many free and central, with 
a perigone and stamens around. Equivalent of 
the Insects. 

2d. Section. Heteranthia, the Heteranthes 
Flowers anomalous or inconspicuous, seldom 
with a perigone, commonly glumaceous, Spadi- 
ceous or without Stamens. 

VII. Class PHANERIA, the Phaneres (mg 
conspicuous) Flowers conspicuous with spatha 
spadix or glumaceous bracts, or a perigone 
epispadix, stamens and pistils conspicuous. 
Equivalent of the Worms or Annelides. 


VIII. Class CRYPTOSIA, the Cryptoses 
(mg hidden) Flowers anomalous without peri- 
gone, inconspicuous or concealed, connnonly 
no stamens and hardly apistil, assuming various 
uncommon forms. Equivalent the MoUusca. 

Hid. Primary Class. Larnagenia or Acoty- 
LiA, the Cellulars or Acotyles — Lichens, Algas 
and Fungi, or plants without stem nor roots nor 
leaves, nor flowers ; neither vessels nor fibres ; 
formed of cellular tissue variously expanded. 
Fructification concealed and granular or gem- 
mular, germination acotyle growth by mere ex- 
pansion. They correspond to the Zopsians, 
or Animals without blood, nor nervous sys- 
tem, and there is no prevailing numbers. 

IX. Class ALGOSIA, the Algas. Commonly 
a frond or tallus, imitating leaves or threads or 
stems, fructification often evident producing 
gongyles or gemmliles. Color often greenish 
and station aquatic. Equivalent of the Polyps 
or Zoophytes. 

X. Class. MYCOSIA, the Fungi— Neithe? 
frond nor thalus, expansion variable often glo 
bular, fructification in spores or a powder ofter; 
invisible. Color seldom green, station never 
aquatic, either terrestrial or parasite. Answer- 
ing to the lowest animal class of Porostomes 
or Animalcula. 

Table of the Natural Orders. 


1st Section, Polygynia. Pistils multiple, or 
petals anomalous, fruit not a pod. 
1. Order, RHODANTHiA,the Rhodanthes. (Rose- 
flower) stamens peristomic, anthers not 
adnate. — Types Rosa^ Spirea. 


2, Order, Perimesia, the Perimeses (around 

middle) stamens hypogyne or perigyne ba- 
silar, anthers not adnate — Type Sedum. 

3, Order, Adnantiieria, the Adnanthers, sta- 

mens hypogyne, connnonly many, anthers 
adnate. — Types Anemone, Magnolia. 
2d, Section, Eltrandria, Pistil single, Sta- 
mens commonly free, petals never ano- 
malous, nor united in a peripetalic form, 
fruit never a pod. 

4, Axantiiia, the Axanthes (fl. on axis) 

Flowers symphoric axanthic or amenta- 
ceous, apetalous, diclinous, often a lepigone 
instead of perigone, fruit often monosperm 
— Types Pinus, Popidus, Ficus. 

5, Monosperuia, the Monospermous — Flowers 

neither symphoric nor axanthic often apeta- 
lous, fruit monosperm, stamens isarine not 
opposite — Types, Urtica, Kumex, Ulmus, 
Lauras, Protea. 
0. Plyrontia, the Plyrontes (opposite) sta- 
mens opposed to petals or alternate to ca- 
lix, isarine often several stigmas— Types, 
Rhamnus, Berberis, Vitis. 

7, IsANDRiA, the Isandrous (eq. st.) Stamens 

alternate to petals or opposed to calix, 
stigma simple, fruit often polysperm — Types 
Lythrum, Ruta, Viola. 

8, STYRiDiA,the Cruciferous — Stamens heterines 

commonly tetradynamic, fruit siliquose. — 
Types, Iberis, Sinapis. 

9, MoNosTiiviiA, the Monostimes (single stig,) 

Stamens many or not 4 dynamic, fruit sel- 
dom Siliquose, one stigma. — Types Fa- 
paver, Cistus, Citrus. 

10, PoLYMESiA, the Polymeses (many middle) 

Stamens heterines or many, couiinonly 



opimcsial, several stigmas, and seeds — 
Types Sapindus. Portulaca, Hypericum, 

11, IsosTiMiA, the Isostimes (eq. stig.) Sta- 
mens isarine or regular, never epimesial, 
many stigmas and seeds — Types Drosera, 
Saxlfraga, Dianthus. 

3d. Section, Symphandria, stamens commonly 
united, or fruit a pod. or a peripetal co- 
rolla (monopet.) 

12, Adelpiiidia, the Adelphides, Stamens is 

arine, regular, united, corolla regular, many 
stigmas and seeds, fruit not a pod — Linum, 
Tamarix, Geranium, Passiflora. 

13, Omoplitia, the Omoplites (reg. union) Sta- 

mens heterine or many, well united, many 
stigmas and seeds, fruit not a pod — Types 
Adansonia, Hibiscus, Maha. 

14, Perimonia, the Perimones (around single) 

Stamens isarine united, petals not papilio- 
naceous nor united, one stigma, fruit not a 
pod — Types Melia, Celosia, Fumaria. 

15, Cyteantiiia, the Leguminose — Petals pa- 
pilionaceous or various, stigma single, fruit 
a pod. — Types Amorpha, Colutea, Bau- 

16, Peritalia, the Peritales (around petal) co- 

rolla peripetalic, hut not staminiferous, fruit 
never a pod. — Types Ledum, Clethra, 

II. Class, the MESOGINES. 
1. Section, Volydia, several pistils or a lobed 
ovary, one or several styles and stigmas, 
several fruits or seeds. 

17, PoLYGiA, the Polyges. Several pistils and 

fruits — Types Echites, Asclepias. 

18, LoBOGYNiA, the Lobogynes — Ovary lobed, 


one style, several seeds — Types Nolnna, 
Borrago, Echiiim, Salvia^ Monlera. 

19, PoLYMiA, the Polymes. One ovary, sev- 

eral styles, fruit simple — Types Statice, 
Cuscuta, Cressa, Cordla, Carica. 

20, Epiclia, the Epicles (on valv) fl. regular 
one ovary, one or several styles, fruit sim- 
ple, valves seminiferous — Types Gentiana, 

2d. Section Heterolta. One Ovary and 
style, fruit simple, valves not seminif. 
Corolla irregular. 

21, Chasmantiiia, the Personate. Fruit a cap- 
sule unilocular or bilocular with paralel sep- 
tum, or multilocular partitions alternate 
to valves — Types Gratiola., Gerardia. 

22, Plasyrgia, the Plasyrges. Fruit a capsule 
polysperm, with 2 or many cells, partitions 
opposed to valves — Types Polygala, Vero- 
nica^ Justicia, Sesatnum, Mimidus. 

23, Olispermia, the Olispermes. Fruit monos- 

perm, or with monosperm cells, often a 
drupe or berry — Types Vitex, Fhryma, 
3d. Section Isorolia. One ovary and style,fruit 
simple, valves not seminif. Corolla regular. 

24, Arcythia, the Arcythes. Stamens alter- 
nate, fruit monosperm or drupe or berry — 
Types Ehretia^ Solanum, Jasminum. 

25, Darynia, the Darynes, Stamens alternate, 

fruit a polysperm capsule — Types Con- 
volvulus, Phlox, Kalmia. 

26, Stemisia, the Stemises. Stamens opposed 

to the sepals of the corolla — Types Pri- 
mula, Plantago, Olax, Achras, Ardisia. 
III. Class, the GYNENDIANS. 
1. Section, Eltranthia, Flowers separate, or 


without a common pGriauthe, anthers freej 

27, Nantiandria, the Nantiandres, Stamens op^ 

posed to the sepals of the corolla, or to sta- 
miniferous petals — Types Viscum, Rhizo- 
jyhora^ Samolus. 

28, PoLYSPiA, the Polyspes. Stamens alternate, 
fruit bilocular or multilocular polysperm 
— Types Cinchona^ Gardenia, Hamel- 
lia, Linnea, Diervilla. 

29, Sphaniclia, the Sphanicles. Stamens al- 
ternate, fruit monosperm or monolocular, or 
with monosperm cells. — Types Satnbucus, 
Viburnum, Valeriana, Rubia, Coffea^ 

2d. Section Sijmphanthia, Flowers agregate 
on a common phoranthe. surrounded by a 
perianthe,fruit monosperme, anthers united. 

30, FLOscuLiA,theFloscular. Corollas uniform 

tubular or irregular, but none ligular-— 
Types Ecldnops, Centaurea, Carduus, 

31, AcTiNANTiiiA, the Radiate. Corollas of the 

radiusligular and radiating — Types Bellis, 
Helianthus, Arnica. 

32, Glossanthia, the Glossanthes, all the co-' 

rollas ligular — Types Taraxacum, C/- 

IV. Class the SYNOGIANS, 
1. Section, Sigollia, Internal perigone or pen- 
pital corolla not stamindfewus. 

33, Codanthia, the Codanthes (bell flow.) 
Fruit commonly capsular, never a berry, 
flowers sometimes agregated and irregular 
- — Types Jasione, Lobelia, Scaevola, Cam- 

34, Idiogynia, the Idiogynes (separ. fem) 

Fruit a berrv, flowers neither agregated 


nor irregular — Types Vacinium^ Ciicmrds. 

2d. ^eci'ion. FoJtjstiilia. Corolla not peripe- 

tal or wanting, styles and stigmas multiple. 

35, AscADiA, the Ascadia (not umbel) 
Stamens isarine, fruit never 2 seeds 
— Types Scleranthus, Adoxa, Ribes, 

36, Ombellifera, the Ombelliferous. Stamens 
isarine, fruit 2 seeds or capsule 2 seeded 
flowers commonly umbellate. — Types Sa- 
nicula, Hupleirrum^ Eryngium S^c. 

37, PoLYANDRiA, the Polyandrians. Stamens 
heterine or many. — ^Types Fagus, Jug" 
laiis, Begonia, Pyriis. 

3d. Section, Monostylia, Corolla not peripe- 
tal nor wanting, a single style. 

38, Dapsilitia, the Dapsilitians, stamens inde- 

finite — Types Myrtus, Eugenia, Cactus. 

39, Acascotia, the Acascotians. Stamens de- 

terminate, fruit monosperm — Types Nyssa, 
Santahim, Thesium, Trapa^ 

40, Coryphitia, the Coriphians. Stamens de- 
terminate, fruit polysperm — Types Cor- 
nus, Escallonia? Melastoma, Ludtcigia^ 

V. Class the STEGINIANS. 
1 Section. Gynandria. Stamens epigyne 
inserted on the Ovary or style. 

41, Cratodia, the Cratodians. Frnit multilo- 
cular — Types Musa, Hydrocharis, A- 

42, Orchidia, the Orchides. Fruit unilocular. 
— 'Types Pistia, Vallisneria, Phyllacne^ 
Cypripedium, Arethusa. 

2d. Section, Gynosynia. Stamens perigynes 
inserted upon the perigone. 

43, AciNiTiA, the Acinitians. Fruit a berry, 


stamens free — Types Ananas, Gethylis, 

44. Synemia, stamens monadelplious or united 
Types Hijdnora, Sisyrlnchium. 

45. IiiiDisiA, stamens free, less than 6, a cap- 

sule — Types Crocus, Gladiolus, Bur- 

46. YuNODiA, six free stamens, a capsule — 
Types Amaryllis, Narcissus, Fitcairnia. 

VI. Class the LIRIDIANS. 

1. Section, Carpiclia fruit simple, capsular 
and commonly polysperm. 

47. LiRiANTHiA,capsule trilocular, partitions op- 

posed to valves — Types Lilium, Asphode- 
lus, Crinum. 

48. GoNOTiDiA, capsule unilocular, or trilocular 

with partitions formed by valves — Types 
Tradescantia, Eriocaulon, Juncus, He- 
2d. Section, Achenacia, fruit simple or mul- 
tiple, berry or achena often monosperm. 

49. AcANOPSiA, Fruit simple, commonly a ber- 
ry — Types Smilax, Trillium, Asparagus, 

50. PoLACHENA, fruit multiple, commonly of 
several monosperm achenas — Types Ali- 
ona, Potamogeton. 


1. Section, Spadicea, lowers on Sispadix and 
often a spatha, without glumes. 

51. PociLMiA, the Palms. Spadix often ra- 
mose with spatha and peri^one, stem cauli- 
form, leaves polytome — Types Fhoeuix, 
Calamus, Zamia, Pandanus. 

52. Emprotia, the Aroides. Spadix simple, 
often no spatha nor perigone, stem com- 
monly annual and leaves entire — Types 


Equisetiim, Saururiis, Zoster a,, Pothos, 
Acorns, Tijpha. 
2(1. Section Glumacea. No spadix, nor spa- 
tha flowers glumaceous, fruit achena. 

53. CoRTODiA, the Culmiferous. Style single, 

stem commonly without articulations — 
Types Carex, Cyperus, Fharifs, Olyra, 

54. AcHiRosiA, the Grasses, Styles 2 or 3, stem 
articulated ; Types Agrostis, Avena, Ory- 
za, Cinna. 

VIII. Class, the CRYPTIANS. 
1st. Section. Pteridia, fructification sessile 
capsuliform, not calyptrate. 

55. DicLiPTERiA, the Diclipters. fructification 
bivalve or multivalve, commonly in spike 
or axillary — 'Types Plananthus, Pilularia, 

59. DoRsiFERiA, vel Filices, The Ferns or 
Dorsifers. fructification globular opening 
by pores or splits, commonly behind a frond 
or on a root — Types Marattia, Schizea, 
Asphnium, Salvinia. 
2d Section. Phryganisia, Fructif. peduncu- 
late calyptrate, uniform or tubuliform. 

57. iETHEOGAMiA, the Mosses, Fructif. calyp- 
trate, stem leafy — Types Hypnum, Dicra- 
num, Phascum. 

58. Hepatidia, the Hepatides. Fructif. uncov- 
ered not calyptrate, stem or expansion fron- 
dose — Types Marchantia. Riccia. 

IX. Class, the ALGIDIANS. 
1st. Section, Lichenia, the terrestrial algas 
or Lichens. 

59. Tremaria, the Tremians. Fructif. opening 
by a pore or slit — Types Hypoxylon, Xylo- 
ma, Verrucacia. 


(K). PirvMARiA, the Phymians. Fructif. solid, 
tubercular, not opening; Ty{)es Lepraria, 
Squamaria, Lolmria, Cladonla, Usnea. 
2d. Section, llydrophytia^ the aquatic Al- 
CI. FuciDiA, the Fucidians. Form variable, but 
never filamentosc — Types Fucus, Ulva^ 
Riinilaria, Physidriim, Spongia. 

62. Hydronemia, the Confer vians. Form fila- 

mentose, commonly tubular and with par- 
titions ; Types Yaucherla, Ceramium, Cha- 
racias (chara L.) Oscillaria, Stereonema. 
X. Class, the FUNGIDIANS. 
1st. Section, Exosporia, fructification exter- 
nal, m spores or sporanges, form seldom 

63. Adelisteb, the Adelistians. Hysterium or 

receptacle hardly conspicuous; Types ^i/s- 
sus, Co7ioplea, Monilia^ Clavaria, HeU 
vella, Feziza, Fhallus. 

64. Phaneristia, the Phaneristians. Hyster- 

ium very conspicuous, in rays, veins, pores, 

tubes or tubercles — Types Agaricus, Bo^ 

letus, Hydnum. 

2d. Section, Endosporia, fructif. internal in 

spores or sporanges, form never filamen- 

.,v tose. 

65. Sarcosporia, the Sarcosporians, fructif. 

fleshy or gelatinose, not pulverulent ; Types 
Cyathella,, Stlctis, Granularia. 

66. CoNiospoRiA,the Coniosporians,fructif. pul- 
verulent — Types Diderma, hycoperdon, 
Fidigo, Mucor. 

In these Orders every family and Genus ad- 
mitted was to possess the essential character 
applied to all, except in very few instances ; 


when by natural anomalies (to be added and 
expressed) they might somewhat deviate : as 
happens in some Genera, Trifolium and Sapo- 
naria &c. But the great anomalies allowed by 
Jussieu in the Arnentacea, Saxifragea, Rham- 
noides, Bicornes (fcc. are by no means deem- 
ed to be such ; since they arise from blending 
together different families, united by trivial 
characters of lesser importance. Such orders 
must therefore be divided by all means. 

But besides such regular Orders based on the 
fructification, an essential but temporary part 
of organization, the vegetable world offers 
another series of permanent forms, which have 
been deemed essential and very easily distin- 
guished at first sight. In fact they are the only 
ones available iu the study of fossil Botany, 
since few fossil flowers and fruits are found ; and 
the three great Series of plants have been based 

1. Exogenes or Concentric Vascular, types 

*i. Endogenes or fascicular Vascular, types 

3. Larnagenes or Cellular, types Lichens. 

Altho' these Series are subdivided by the 
organs of reproduction, their permanent organs 
of support and nutrition offer xQvy important 
bodily forms susceptible of indicating natural 
Orders ; and in fact we now always add them 
to the description of tribes and even Genera, 
since Adanson and Jussieu gave the example. 
See my new views on that score at the end o^ 
my rectified Classes. 



Rectified 1835. 

During 20 years from 1815 to 1835, I have 
continiiecl to rectify my Natural Classes. The 
later improvers differ yet widely on their num- 
ber and serial Order. Many appear prone to 
acknowledge only 3, Exogenes, Endogenes and 
Acotyles. This is as preposterous as if we 
made only 3 classes of animals, Bony, Unbony 
and Anemates, uniting MammaHa, Birds, Rep- 
tiles and Fishes into the first ; altho' others in- 
cline to separate even the Mammalia into 3, 
Primates, Quadrupeds and Cetacians, and also 
the Reptiles into 3, Saurians or Lizards and 
Turtles, Ophidians or Snakes, and Batracians 
or Frogs and Salamanders, 

However Agardh in his later works wishes to 
amplify too much the Natural Classes of Plants, 
having made 25 of them, and increased the Or- 
ders or rather the families to about 200. 

The rapid increase of botanical knowledge, 
and the immense materials yearly added, ap- 
pear to require an addition of Classes which 
altho' necessarily taken off from others, become 
better distinguished by insulation or separation. 
My first Natural CJass was so numerous in Or- 
ders, and with so many natural anomalies that 
it may very conveniently be divided. It answer- 
ed nearly to the Thalamifiores of Lamark and 
Decandole, a bad name being mongrel half 
Greek and half Latin. The Leguminose are 
so anomalous and numerous as to deserve prob- 
ably to become a peculiar Class, instead of an 
Order, or be united to Symphandria. The first 
Orders distinguished by a plurality of pistils 
would be a natural Class if the Genera Consoi. 


ida^ and others with sino^le pistils are removed, 
as I have ah'eady \cUa and Botrophis^ or this 
anomaly introduced as exceptions. 

As early as 1820 I proposed to form a Nat- 
ural Class, Nantiandria (in Bory's annals) from 
all the scattered Orders that have, Stamens 
opposed to petals, or to sepals of a corolla, or 
alternate to a callx. This I conceive will be 
a very natural and definite Class ; this reversed 
insertion and position being very essential and 
constant, as the lihamnides with a different in- 
terposition form quite separate families. Most 
of the Gentianides belong to it. 

The plants with a peripetalic corolla (mono- 
pet) surrounding the stamens, but not bearing 
them, as Erica, \acclnium. Campanula ap- 
pear to demand also the formation of a peculiar 
class, this mutual freedom of essential Organs, 
being quite striking. Thus 4 Classes might be 
taken from my Eltrogines chiefly. 

In the next, Heterolia or all the Orders 
with irregular corolla or stamens, including the 
Labiate and Echides, might form a very natural 
Class. The same is true of the Synanthes or 
Compound flowers. Thus we have 6 additional 
Classes of Exogenes. 

Among the Endogenes, the Gynandrous or 
Orchidea and akin Orders, are a very natural 
group, deserving now to become a Class by the 
vast number of new Genera lately ascertained. 
The Grasses and Ferns are both so distinct 
and peculiar as todeserve also that name. This 
gives 3 other natural Classes ; another or tenth 
in the whole may be found in the Lichens or 
terrestrial Algas: whereby a linnean Genus 
became gradualy a family, next an Order, and 
now may be a Class ! The labors of Acharius 



and Agardh on the two divisions of Algas hav^ 
led to this. Agardh irt his excellent Systema 
Algaruin 1821 has in fact divided the aquatic 
Algas into G orders and 101 Genera, altho' he 
has omitted iny P/iysldria family, besides the 
Spunges that are real plants. 

Thus we may double my 10 Classes into 20 
equaly Natural, and this is the extent of Classi- 
fication we may venture to admit. If we were 
to have more, or 40 and 50, they would be in 
fact mere Orders by a different name. If the 
Cactoides were more numerous they might 
perhaps form a Class also ; but they are very 
akin to Myrtus and Rihes. Having thus re- 
vised and rectified my own Classes, I shall pre- 
sent their tabular analytical View in Latin. 
Series I. EXOGENIA. Rosa prim. G. 

Classis, 1. POLYGIA, Pistilis plurimis lib- 
eris, vel petalis staminisque anomalis, Stam 
plurima S. paucis alternantis, &. libera. Ord. 1, 
2, 3 ut supra. Rosacea, Sedoides, Ranuncula- 
cea, &.C. auctoris. 

2. ELTROGIA, Pistil, liberum unicum, pe- 
talis regularis vel nullis, perigono vel lepigono, 
stam. plurima s. paucis alternantis liberis, fructo 
vario non legumen &.c. — Ord. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
11, Crucifera, Caryophylea and alia Ord. auc- 

3. SYNANDRIA, Pistil, plurimis s. unic. 
liberum. Stamina plerumque coalitis, vel fructo 
legumen. Corolla varia regularis s. papilionacea 
— Ord. 12, 13, 14 15, ut supra. Leguminosa di- 
videnda inter Ord. Papilionaria,Lomentaria,Mi- 
mosaria ? Genera Fiimaria., Melia, Malva^ 
Geranium &c. ad fructo solo distinguenda. 

4. HETEROLIA, Stam. paucis ad corolla 
peripetala insertae adnatis, alternantis s. hete- 



rolis. vel incqualis. Corolla inequalis s. labiata. 
Pistilum liber iinicum vel lobatiim plerumque 
stylo iinico — Ord. 18, 21, 22, 23. Labiata,Per- 
sonata, Verbenacea, Polygalca <Slc. auctoris. 
An Orohanche addenda ? ut Convolvulacea et 

5. MESOGIA, diff. Heterolia, Corolla et 
stamina eqiialis, plerumque isarinis, alternans — 
Ord. 17, 19, 20, 24, 25. Borragines Asclepides 
Cuscutea, Solanea, Jasniinea «fcc. auctoris. 

6. ELTRANTHIA, Pistil, unic. coalitum 
vel infero. Stam. ad corolla peripetala adnata 
inserta, alternantia, panels, antheris liberis, 
fructo vario, flores non agregata in periantho-- 
Ord. 28, 29. Rubiacea, Valerianea &c. auctoris. 

7. SYNANTHIA,vel Composita,diff. Eltran- 
thia, antheris plerumque coalitis, fructo achen- 
aceo monosp. ftores agregata in periantho^ — 
Ord. 30, 31, 32, Corymbifera, Cichoracea &.c. 

8. ENDOGIA, Pistil, unic. coal, interno. 
Stam. libera, plerumque periginis, plurima vel 
definita alternantia. Corolla polypetala vel nul^ 
la— Ord. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, mcludens Om- 
bellif. Cactoides, Myrtides, Epilobia Ǥlc. auct. 

9. NANTIANDRIA, Stam. determinata, is- 
arina apposita, ad petalis s. lobis corolla oppo* 
sita, vel ad calix sepalis alternantia (in omnia 
alia opp.) pistillum plerumque unicum — Ord. 6, 
26, 27, Rhamnoides. Berberides, Sarmentosa, 
Menisperma, Primulacea, Plantaginea, Hilos- 
permia, Loranthea, Samolides <^c. auctoris, et 
plurima Gentianea, an omnis ? 

10. ANEPERIA (not upon around) Perigo- 
no duplex, interno corolla peripetala non stam- 
inifera (in omnis alia cor. peripest staminif.) 
Stam. centralis s. periginis. Pistil, unic. libero s. 


coalito — Ord. 16, 33, 34 sed Bi comes, Nycta- 
gynea, Jasionidin,Campanulca, Lobclides, Vac- 
cinides, Cucurbitea &/C. auctoris. 


11. GYNANDRIA, Pistil, unicum coalitum, 
Stam epiginis s. epistylis — Ord. 41, 42. Scita- 
minea, Orchidea &c. auctoris, 

12. STEGINIA, Pistil, iinic. coal. Stam. pe- 
riginis supra perigono inserta — Ord. 43, 44, 45, 
46, Irides, Narcissides &.c. auctoris. 

13. LIRIDIA, Pistil, liber, unic. plurimis, 
st am. periginis vel. hypoginis, spadix et glumis 
nullis, perigono sepe corollato — Ord. 47, 48,49, 
50, Liliacea, Asphodelides, Juncides, Smilacina, 
Alismides &.c Auctoris. 

14. SPADIXIA, Diff. Liridia, spadix flor. 
ferens, minime corollatis seu apetalis non glu- 
mosis — Ord. 51, 52. Palmae, Cycades, Aroides, 
Acorides, Equisetides, Saururides, Typhides 
&c Auctoris. 

15. GLUMOSIA. vel. Graminea, flores ape- 
talis, bracteis glumosis vel. squamosis vestitis, 
stam. hypoginis, fruct. achenaceo — Ord. 53, 54, 
Carexides, Cyperides, Agrostides, Graminea, 
&/C. auctoris. 

16. PTERIDIA, flores anomalis, apetalis, 
stam. pistilisque cryptis vel. nullis, fructibus cap- 
suliformis dorsiferis vel spicatis vel acalyptris 
— Ord. 55, 56, Lycopodia, Stachiopteris, Po- 
ropteria, Filices, Rhizosperma ^c auctoris. 

17. PHRYGANISIA, difll Pteridia, fructib. 
urniformis calyptratis vel tubulatis vel explan- 
atis, non capsuliformis. — Ord. 57, 58, Musci, 
Hepatica ^^c auctoris. 

Series III. LARNAGENIA, Cellular. 

18 LICHENIA, Terrestris vel parasitis 
sepe viridis, Frons vel thalus, squamosis, crus- 


taceis vel varians, fructif. evidens, scutellis, tii- 
berculis vel. gemmulis dehiscens — Ord. 59, 00, 
Hypoxilia, Lichenes, Thaliferis ^c auctoris. 

19, MYCOSIA, Terrestris vel parayitis, co- 
loratis vix virides. Eti'usis, carnosis stuposis, 
fungosis, lignosis, gelatinosis. Forma varians. 
Fructif. sepe crypta vel inclusa, hysterium sporis 
ferens — Ord. 03, 04, 05, 00, omnia Fungi 

20, ALGOSIA, Aquatiles sepe virides inte- 
dum terrestris vel parasitis. Etilisis, frondosis, 
thalosis, filamentosis, herbaceis, vesiculosis. 
Fructif. crypta, gelatinosa, vel gongyles — Ord. 
61, 02, Chara,Conferva, Ulvacea,Fucides, Spon- 
gides &LC auctoris. 

I admit in this Chara and Nostoc with Agar- 
dle, but with doubt. Perhaps all terrestrial algas 
are to be removed to the preceding classes, but 
all the Spunges belong here ; since they are yet 
deemed animals by some Naturalists, they 
properly form the last link of vegetation, as 
Roses the first link. 

The needful increase of natural families is 
evident as we proceed in discoveries ; but the in- 
crease of orders much less needed. To change 
families into orders is not requisite to better 
their knowledge. My 375 families may yet be 
increased to about 400 ; but my 06 Natural 
Orders require very little improvement, and 
only admit of Sub-Orders. If such are to be 
deemed peculiar distinct Orders I venture to 
indicate those I ascertained and established 
since 1815. 


1. Senticosia, differing from Rhodanthia by 
pistils definite, types Agrimonia, Sibbaldia, 
Spirea, &c. 


2. IsoTORiA, diif. from Perimesia, by Stam. 
indefinite, types Annona, Magnolia, Aconitum. 

3. Gynopolia, ditf. from Adnantheria by pis- 
tils and fruits indefinite on a gynophore, types 
Clematis, Anemone, Magnolia. 

4. AxEPiA, diff. from Axanthia by flowers on 
a phoranthe or flat or hollow receptacle, types 
Ficus, Gnetum, Ambrosia. 

5. Sarcodia, diflf. from Monospermia by a 
fleshy fruit, berry or drupe, types Amyris, 
Rivinia, Laurus, Daphne. 

6. Calycanthia, diff*. from Isandria by 
stam. perigine summigere, types Lythrum, 

7. Polarxia, diff*. from Monostimia by fruit 
multilocular, types Cistus, Citrus. 

8. Epimesia, diff". from Polymesia by flowers 
dicline stamens inserted in the middle, fruit co- 
cular, types Euphorbia, Ricinus, Begonia. 

9. LoMENTARiA, diff. Cytcanthia by corolla 
not papilionaceous, and stamens often free; all 
the regular leguminose plants. — All these are 
from my first class. 

10. Carythia, the true Labiate plants with 
2 or 4 unequal stamens. 

11. MoNORiMiA, diff. Chasmanthia by cap- 
sule unilocular, types Gratiola, Utricularia. 

12. Pliopsanthia, diff. Plasyrgia by stam. 
not didynamic, types Polygala, Veronica, 

13. DiSTEMiA, the regular monopetalous with 
2 stamens, types Olea, Lilas, Nyctanthes. 

14. Anisandria, the regular monopetalous 
with 5 or 10 unequal stamens, types Convolvulus, 
Vesbascum, Celsia. 

15. Plaxarpia, diff. Stemisia by a capsule, 
types Primula, Plantago. 


16. OsARiTiA, diff. Sphanidia or Rubiacea 
by fruit unilocular or monosperm, types Sambu- 
cus. Viburnum, Valeriana. 

17. Cynaridia, diff. Flosculia by style arti- 
culated, flowers often irregular, types Cynara, 
Echinops, Gundelia. 

1.8. Synodia, diff. Codanthia by flowers ag- 
gregated with a phoranthe and perianthe, types 
Jasione, Opercularia. 

19. Cactidia, The Cactus family and akin 
genera Mesembryanthus, Tetragonia, hardly 
distinguished except by fleshy substance, many 
petals, ovary adherent, fruit polysperm. But 
Ribesides and Myrtides, Begonia and Escalo- 
nla, are very near with a different habit. 

20. Vaccinidia, this small family of mine may 
become an order also, being very distinct from 
the next orders Campanulea and Cucurbitacea : 
by far more akin to Ribesides and Cactides 
only differing by the single style and corolla 
peripetal not staminiferous. 


21. Calicinia, diff. from Emprotia by a true 
perigone, types Dracontium, Orontium, Typha, 


22. Thalaria, diff. from Lichenia, by having 
a real stem called thallus, types Cladonia, 
Stereocaulon, Usnea. 

23. Byssidia, the filamentose Fungides, types 
Byssus, Conoplea, Monilia. 

24. Geramidia, diff. from Confervides, fruc- 
tification external, types Ceramium, Ectosper- 
tnia, Char a. 

25. Stereopsia, diff. from Fucidia and the 
Ulvinia division by havinaf nothing like stem 
nor frond, types Rivularia, Physidrum, Spongia. 

These 2.1 new orders added to my 66 of 1815 



would make about 90, and perhaps the whole 
may be stretched again to 100 very soon by in- 
sulating as orders rather, than families,the 8pun- 
ges. Oaks, Laurines, Menispermes, Proteides, 
Hypericines, Coniferes, Gentianea, ^c. which 
will render the Natural Orders equal to those 
of Jussieu, but by far better disposed in a series, 
well distinguished and fixed by comparative 

I conclude by a complete tabular view of my 
serial Classes and Natural Orders. 

1. PoLYGiA, ^ 1. Rhodanthia, type Rosa. 

( 2. Senticosia, Spirea. 

^ 3. Perimesia, Sedum. 

I 4. Isoteria, Annona. 

!5. Adnantheria, Peonia. 
6. Gynopolia, Ranunculus. 
S7. Axanthia, Populus, 
( 8. Axepia, Ficus. 
\ 9. Monospermia, Rumex, 

i 10 ^^rcodim^Amyrisi^Laurus. 
< 11. Isandria, Ruta. 
(12. Calicandria, Ly thrum. 

13. Styridia, Draba. 
(14. Monostimia, Papaver. 
(15. Polarxia, Citrus, 

SI 6. Polymesia, Portulaca, 
Reseda, Hypericum? 
(17. Epimesia, Euphorbia, Be^ 
\ gonia. 
18. Isostimia, Dianthus. 
2. Synandria, 19. Adelphidia, Geranium. 

20. Omoplitia, Maha. 

21. Perimonia, Melia, 


^ 22. Cyteanthia, Pisum. 
^ 23. Loinentaria, Cassia. 
3Heterollia, < 24. Chasmanthia, Gcrardia. 
I 25. Monorimia, Gratiola. 

S2G. Plasyrgia, Rhinaidhus. 
27. Pliopsanthia, Veronica, 

28. Olisperiiiia, Verbena. 

29. Carythia, Metitha. 

30. Anisandria, Convolpuhis. 

31. Asclepidia, Asckqnas. 
5. Mesogia, 32. Lobogynia, Borrago. 

33. Poly mi a, Cuscuta, 
Carica ? 

34. Darynia, Polemonium. 

S35. Arcythia, Sol ami m. 
36. Distemia, 0/6«. 
6 Eltranthia ( 37. Osaritia, Yaleriana. 
I 38. Sphanidia, Rubia. 
39. Polyspia, Cinchona. 

7. Synanthia, ^ 40. Cynaridia, Cynara. 

( 41. Flosculia, Cacalia. 

42. Actinanthia, Hclianthus, 

43. Glossanthia, Lactuca. 

8. Endogia, 44. Ascadia, Aralia. 

45. Ombellifera, Daucus. 

46. Polyandria, Pyrus, 

47. Dapsilitia, Myrtus. 

48. Cactides, Cactus. 

49. Acascotia, Nyssa. 

50. Coryphitia, Asarum. 

9. Nantiandria, 51 . Plyrontia, Fi7/5, Berber is ? 

Cocculus ? 
52. Viscoidia, Viscum. 
C 53. Plaxarpia, Frimula, 
< (Gentiana? 
f 54. Stemisia, Achras. 



10. Aneperia, 55. Peritalia, Erica. 

56. Vaccinium, Vaccinium* 
( 57. Synodia, Jasione. 
I 58. Codanthia, Campanula, 
59. Idiogynia, Cucurbita. 
II.Gynandria, 60. Cratodia, Musa, 

61. Orchidia^ Orchis, {Pistia 1 

62. Acinitia, Gethylis, 

63. Synemia, Sisyrinchium. 

64. Iridisia, Iridis. 

65. Ymnodia, Narcissus. 

66. Liriantha, Lilium. 
57. Gonotidia, Helonias. 

68. Acinopsia, Trillium. 

69. Polachenia, Alisma. 

70. Pocilmia, Vhamix {Pan-- 
danus ? 

I 71. Calicinia, ^corw*. 
> 72. Emprotia, Caladium. 

73. Cortodia, Scirpus (Carex ? 

74. Achirosia, Panicum. 

75. Diclipteria, Ophioglossum* 

76. Dorsiferia^ Adianthum 
17 Phryganisia, 77. Aethogamia, Hypnum. 

78. Hepatidia, Riccia. 

79. Tremaria, Xyloma. 

80. Phymaria, Leprarioi 

81. Thallaria, Usnea. 

82. Byssidia, Byssus. 

83. Adelistia, Clavaria. 

84. Phaneristia, Boletus, 

85. Sarcosporia, Stictis. 

86. Coniosporia, Mucor. 
20. Algosia, 87. Hydronemia, Conferva, 

12. SteginiA^ 

l3. Liridia, 

14. Spadixia. 

15. Glumosia. 

16. Pteridia, 


18. LiCHENIA, 

19. Mycosia, 

Natural classes. 69 

88. Ceraniidia. Ceramium, 
Char a. 

89. Fucidia, Ulva. 

90. Stereopsia, Spongia. 
Such then are now the Natural Orders to the 

best of our actual knowledge ; but each includes 
from I to 10 families or secondary groups quite 
as natural ; each family from 1 to 50 genera ; 
each Genus from 1 to 50 species, seldom more : 
those of 100 or 200 species are small natural 
families. Such are Carex, Erica, Euphorbia^ 
Vaccinium, Salix, Aster, Polygonum ^c. long 
ago properly divided by myself or others: like 
Conferva, Lichen, Agaricus, Cactus ^c. now 
become families, orders or even classes ! 

But this Serial Order interrupts or conceals 
many mutual affinities, since they are not akin 
to the two Orders only, before and after in the 
series ; but also to many removed in the series* 
Thus the following are closely allied altho' far 
removed, as Nations may have colonies or be 
allied altho' distant on the Earth. 

The Gynopolia and Polachenia 70. 
Cactides 48 with Idiogyna 59. 
Gynaridia 40 with Synodia 57. 
Dapsilitia 47 with Vaccinidia 56. 
Darinia 34 with Peritalia or Bicornes 55. 
Isandria 11 with Adelphidia 19. 
Axanthia 7 with Emprotia 72 &.c. — And 
whenever a natural table or map or the whole 
will be given, they must be approximated or 
connected by some means. 

Various modes may be devised to elucidate 
these affinities. 

1. A botanical map on a graphical plan would 
best represent them by contiguity ; a second 
mode would be by a kind of net work, 3d by a 


kind of genealogical tree, 4th by a triple con- 
centric cercle, divided in rays, the inner circle 
being the cellular plants, the outer or largest 
the Exogenous plants and trees, 5th by a triple 
series or 3 columns one for each great series, 
with lines accross to connect affinities. 

Few of these excellent modes of elucidation 
have been employed as yet, the best in use are 
the Analytical and Synthetical tables ; but all 
the serial modes whether circular or linear or 
triple, are all inadequate and imperfect. This 
explanation was needful as an apology for having 
used this vulgar mode even here ; but I had 
made a complete Botanical map as early as 
181 5. Such botanical illustrations may exercise 
the ingenuity of Botanists well skilled in botan- 
ical affinities ; which are the highest results of 
phytographical knowledge, as stated by Jussieu 
— Their relative value, importance and per- 
manency, must equaly be ascertained, and there- 
by we invariably fix the botanical groups, what- 
ever be the names we may apply to them, or 
place we may allow them. 

The general aspect and organs of plants must 
also be studied and attended to, more than 
usual at least; and experienced botanists can 
often detect or conjecture the natural Classes 
and Orders of many plants without flowers by 
such means, called the habit or general form. 
But as this indication is liable to many excep- 
tions and anomalies, it must always give way 
to the floral certitude. 

Meantime I venture to propose the following 
arrangement, which I have devised, and found 
very useful in practice ; as it will be indispensa- 
ble in the study of fossil Botany, or the primi- 
tive forms of vegetable organization. 


I. Series— EXOGENE8. 

I. Class. Driopses or Trees. Woody con- 
centric leafy and branched, roots similar. Wood 
hard. Shrubs are only small trees, and branches 
of trees are shrubs. 3 Vines are climbing trees 
or shrubs. 4 Bushes are the smallest or weak 
shrubs commonly cespitose or with many stems 
The orders may be. 

1. PoLOMES, (many frame) Branches, leaves 
and often flowers assuming a compound form 
either vertical or horizontal, — tSi/nophyles^ 
leaves compound with articulated Iblioles. 
Polytomes leaves united with folioles not articu- 
lated. These are again divided in bipinnate, 
pinnate, decompound &c. 

2. Trochomes, (wheeled) Branches, leaves 
and often flowers verticillate around an axis, 
or terminal — Rotules around stem or axis. 
TJmhellites terminal wheel or umbel. 

3. DiPLOMES, (doubled) Br. leaves and fl. op- 
posite to each other often jointed — Disticates, 
in two rows. Decussates in four rows cross- 

4. Spiromes, (Spiraly) Br. leaves and fl. in a 
spiral position around the stem or axis — Disti- 
cales, spiral by 3. Alternates^ spiral by 4, Pen- 
tales spiral by 5. Densales spiral by more than 
5 and usually crowded imbricate. These are 
seldom jointed. 

II. Class. Malaxyles or Anomalous Trees, 
Wood hardly concentric, with few branches, 
often articulate or no leaves : wood soft and 
cellular ; roots similar — Very singular arboreal 
form hardly noticed as yet off*ered by Carica, 
Ephedra, Ficus, Viper, and other tropical trees, 

5. SicoMEs, Trees, with leaves and branches, 


sometimes simple stem, wood often spnngy, 
I^'icus^ Carica, Adansonia / Varia 'f 

C. PiPEROMEs, Leafy vines, or jointed stem, 
leaves alternate, Piper. 

7. Viscoses, Stem articulated, opposite 
leaves, Viscum. 

8. Ephedromes, Stem articulate, no leaves, 
Ephedra^ Casuarina. 

III. Class. Sarcomes. Perennial fleshy 
plants not woody, but thick or juicy, seldom 
hardened to soft wood (like Opuntia) but per- 
manent anomalous forms, seldom a stem and 
leaves, vessels hardly concentric. Roots fleshy, 
dissimilar scanty. 

9. Phorbomes, Massive unbranched not ar- 
ticulated. Euphorbia. 

10. Stapelomes. Massive branched articulate 
Stapelia, Salicornia. 

11. Cactomes, Jointed, branching or with 
fleshy leaves, Cactoides. 

IV. Cass. Perennials or true plants. Root 
and Stem dissimilar. Root perennial woody or 
tuberose or fleshy concentric. Stems annual, 
concentric or hollow, with leaves or scales. In 
fact here the roots are subterranean small trees 
or sarcomes, and the stems mere annual shoots 
or branches ; thus they may be subdivided like 
Trees into 

12 Volomes with compound foliage, Lathy- 

13 Trochomes with verticiflate foliage, often 
joints, Rubia, Frasera. 

14 Diplomes with opposite foliage, often 
joints, Silene, Salvia. 

15 Spiromes with spiral foliage, Borrago, 

V. Class. Scapigeres or Scapose perennials. 


They differ from true stemy or caulescent plants 
by the roots being crowned by radical leaves 
and sending forth a leafless stem called scape, 
which is merely a peduncle bearing the flow- 
ers. They blend often with them, and with 

IG. Cladomes, with branched or umbellate 
Scape, Frimula, Statice. 

17. Scapomes, with a simple scape, Planta- 
go^ Dionea. 

VI. Class, BoTANES or Herbs, Annuals. 
Root dissimilar, but slender, fibrose, annual or 
biennial; sending forth only once a stem, bear- 
ing flowers, with or without leaves — In i'act 
Plants and Herbs are hardly distinguished by 
usage, yet easily known by their small roots : 
they blend by biennial roots, and have some- 
times scapose stems. Hence the Orders must 
be different, since here ends the woody or hard 
stems or roots. 

18. Dlnomes, commonly biennial root, rad- 
ical leaves, and stem leaves diilerent, Verbas- 

19. Stemilomes, Stem leafy, Vapaver. 

20. Rhizilomes, Root leafy or crowned, scape 
leafless, Erophila. 

21. Aphilomes, No leaves, Ciiscuta, &.c. 

2d Series, ENDOGENES. 

VII. Stelmians or crowned Trees. Stem cy- 
lindrical seldom branched, with spungy wood, 
crowned with leaves on the top ; roots dissimilar. 

22. Palms, Leaves flabellate or pinnate, 
flowers central. 

23. Aplo stelmians, Crown of simple leaves, 
flowers central, Yuca, Dracena. The Lily trees. 

24. PterostelmlanSs the Fern trees. Crown 
of leaves bearing the fructification. 



25. Spafhdmians, Crown of leaves, and 
corols or spathas bearing the fructification, 
Aroid-trees, I'andaims. 

VIII. Class RiiizoMiANS, Stem concealed un- 
der ground, assuming the shape of a root often 
horizontal, sending forth annual shoots, leaves 
and flowers ; roots fibrose dissimilar. 

20. Aloldians, Roots crowned with leaves, 
stem often leafless. Aloes, — Indians with few 
lateral leaves. 

27. Paridians. Roots not crowned, a leafy 
stein crowned or wheeled with leaves. Varis. 

IX. Class, BuLBosiANs, the Bui hose plants 
and Lilies, with a thick perennial bulbose stem 
under ground, formed of concentric scales or 
coats, increasing from within, sending annual 
shoots, leaves and flowers from the centre. 
Roots fibrose dissimilar. 

28. Lirians, a leafy stem. Lilium. 

29. Crinians, radical crown, scape leafless, 
Crinum, Skilla. 

X. Class Orchidians, Fleshy roots or stems 
under ground or above ground, simple or divided, 
perennial ; sending yearly lateral shoots, stems 
or scapes sometimes articulated. 

30. Satyrians, roots double or tuberose, un- 
der ground. 

31. Vladorians, roots branched thick under 

32. Georhizians, roots simple or agregate 
above ground. 

XI. Class, CiJLMiDiANs, roots or stems joint- 
ed hollow, either perennial or annual, with 
leaves or scales, roots slender. 

33. Equisetians, stems jointed, with verti- 
cillate leaves or scales. Equisetum. 

34. Graminiams, stems jointed with alter- 


nate sheathing, leaves or scales. The true 

35. Alismians, stems jointed, leafless, or 
leaves radical. Alls ma. 

XII. Class, PiAROMiANs, stcms not jointed, 
solid or thick, but of various forms, roots per- 
ennial dissimilar. 

36. Smllaclans, stems hard perennial, leafy 
by expansions, often bearing flowers, Ruscus, 

37. Helonlans, stems soft annual, roots per- 
ennial, thick or tuberose ; leaves expansive, 
Dioscorea, Heloiiias, Asphodelus. 

38. Hydnorkins, Leafless, stemless oply 
roots and flowers. Aphyteia, Raffles la. 

XIII. Class, FiLixiANS, stem rhizomian, un- 
der or above ground, leaves crowning this 
radical stem bearing fruits. The Ferns. 

39. Dorsiferlans, true Ferns, leaves bearing 
fruits on the back. 

40. Radiciferians, roots bearing fruits be- 
tween the leaves, or on pedundes. 

XIV. Class, MusciDiANS, the Mosses, roots 
small creeping, stem bearing leaves or scales 
persistent, or membranose frondose. 

41. Phylosians, leaves or scales, Mosses, 

42. Frondulians, no real leaves, a winged 
or expanded membranose stem. Hepaticans. 


XV. Class, Lichens. Expanded crust with 
scutelas or tubercles. 

43. ScuteUites — Scutellas. 

44. Fhymltes — Tubercles. 

XVI. Class, Nemites, Filamentose bodies. 

45. Usnites, Scutellas, no joints, solid. 


40. Ceramites, joints, and grains outside, as 
in Chara. 

47. Confervites, joints, and grains inside, 

48. Byssifes, no joints, nor scutellas, solid. 

XVII. Class, FuNGiTES, form variable, fungi- 
form, fleshy or fungose or suberose, colored, 
with or without a stipes or support. 

49. Monilites, strings of grains, or granular 

50. Endosporites, grains inside or in the 

51. i^lavites, no grains nor extraneous ap- 

52. Hydnites, with points, bristles or warts. 

53. Boletides, with pores or tubes. 

54. Agarites, with gills, rays or veins. 

XVIII. Class, Algites. Green bodies, fron- 
dose or tubular, simple or ramose, with or with- 
out a stem. 

55. Pilites, with a stem and head or bulb. 

56. Stemites, with a stem and leaves. 

57. Fucites, Leafless, various, solid or tubular. 

58. Vlvites, membranose or frondose, com- 

59. Vhysidrites^ Vesicles full of water, closed. 

60. SpungiteSy spungy celular, or open ves- 

These Orders might be divided into Genera 
by the inflorescence, and be greatly increased 
if more minute forms are taken into account. 
They coincide very nearly with the Natural Or- 
ders in the lower series, and aflbrd in the up- 
per series a very striking additional mean of 
knowing Orders and Genera ; by far more use- 
ful in practice than the hidden modes of ger- 
mination, and embryonic forms. 


But I am fully aware that any methodical 
division of the Habit of Plants is liable at pres- 
ent to many objections. Some Botanists may 
perhaps deem foliage more important than 
stems or roots. Inflorescence is no doubt more 
important than either ; but belongs to floral 
Classification, or may afford the generic groups 
in fossil botany. The study of Roots is just be- 
ginning, they had long been overlooked, and 
have not yet found a Gaertner ; but it is now ad- 
mitted that many presumed roots are real stems. 

Some of my views and suggestions on the 
subject are nearly new ; my Classes of Sar- 
comes, Rhizomians and Nemites are quite so, 
with many of my Orders. My Malaxyles and 
Piaromians deserve attention and to be better 
studied. The soft texture of many trees, and 
the expansive floriferous leaves ofRuscus, Vhyl- 
lanthus &lq,. appear to connect with the Cac- 
toides, and to indicate another great organic 
Series of Vegetation, different from the 3 ad- 
mitted ; to be called perhaps SARCOGENES, 
wherein vessels and fibres are drownded in a 
Heshy tissue. These are susceptible of becom- 
ing lignose by induration or dessication, as it 
happens in Opuntia and thus to form trees. 

The joints and knots of stems indicate also a 
peculiar organization or process of evolution ; 
all the opposite leaves appear to indicate it even 
when not conspicuous. Many leaves and flow- 
ers are evidently articulated to their support, 
as are all the buds of our northern trees. It is 
so in the Coniferes, Polygenes, Caryophyles, 
Ombelliferes, Leguminoses, Sedoides, for stems 
or leaves, and all the florets of composite flowers. 
While all the spiral leaves, or drying on the 
stem, appear to be mere continuous appendages 


of it, grown by expansion and not super-addi- 

This view of physiological Botany might sug- 
gest again another arrangement based thereon ; 
and is perhaps susceptible of being improved 
and made available. At present I merely throw 
these hints, and invite the attention of Botanists 
to the study of these forms of growth. To fix^ 
them still better, I will give a short table of 
such supposed modifications of growth, in 4 
Organic Series. 

EXOGENES— 1. Trees or plants with joints 
or articulations, growing by addition of parts. 
ToMOGENES, foliose, aphyle. 

2, Trees or plants of a simple continuous 
form, growing by expansion of parts. Aplogenes 
foliose, aphyle. 

SARCOGENES— Fleshy trees or plants. 3 
Tomogenes, foliose, aphyle. 

4. Aplogenes. foliose, aphyle. 

ENDOGENES— 5 Tomogenes, Equisetians 
Orchidians, Culmidians. 

6. STELMOGENES,Stelmians,Rhizomians, Bul- 
bosians, Filixians. All Aplogenes, growth foliose, 
terminal crowning. 

7. Synogene«i, Very simple aplogenes, growth 
by shoots with false leaves or frondose expan- 
sions quite persistent. Muscidians, Frondu- 

LARNAGENES. — Siphogenes, growth by 
tubular partitions, or agregated grains, vesicles 
&.C. Confervites, Ceramites, Monilites, Physi- 

9. CoNDROGENES, with frondo or membrane 
or crust expanded and lobed. Lichens, Ulvites, 
Fucites, Usnites, Podospermes ? 

10. Mycogenes, with pileus or head distinct 


often with rays or pores or papillas. Pilites, 
Agarites, Boletides, Hydnites. 

11. Unigenes, simple solid bodies, Byssites, 

1*2. CoiLOGENEs, simple hollow bodies, with 
cavities, Endosporites, Spungites. 

The difficulties or exceptions to this general 
arrangement are very few, chiefly arising from 
some plants not yet well observed or quite ano- 
malous: Cariea, for instance which has the 
wood and habit of Palms, with the floral organs 
nearly like Solarium ! and which is probably a 
Scarcogene tree. Stated by Hooker to bear 
fertile seeds without fecundation, as does Morus, 
and Vitis sometimes, and to afford Fihrine like 
Animal Flesh, and some Mushrooms. Also 
Vodostemon with the structure and habit of 
Fucus, but floral organs like Hippuris and 
Ruppia, is it also a Scarcogene plant ? These 
and the Cactides, Euphorbias, Stapelias &lc. 
evidently indicate one or even two New Series 
of vegetable evolutions, distinct from those ad- 
mitted since the discovery of Desfontaine. I 
claim therefore the merit of having first noticed 
and indicated those new vegetable forms which 
I beheve had been overlooked by all Botanists 
as an organic Series, altho' long noticed as 

I invite Botanists to watch their germination 
and evolution, so as to ascertain their mode of 
increment. My own observations lead me to 
believe that it is expansive in Podostemon, 
Carica, &.c. but partly peripheric in Euphor- 
bia aud some Cactides, while in Opuntia and 
Stapelia it is evidently articulated and gemmular 
as in Ephedra and budding trees. But their 
wood is totally unlike that of Oaks or concen- 


trie trees, nearer to the fascicular wood of Palms, 
and yet different. In Carica it has been called 
fungose by Jussieu ; it is rather suberose like 
cork, and cellular like a spunge, without rings. 
In Opuntia the fleshy articulations change 
gradualy in a woody mass of fasciculate fibres 
as in Palms, but softer still, more cellular and 
never hard nor concentric. 

All the trees with soft wood, often as light as 
cork, and unfit to burn ! deserve also to be ex- 
amined again, such as Ficus, Aesculus, Favia, 
Adansonia, Rhizophora, &c. in order to trace 
their analogies of evolution and increment in a 
soft state. Their anatomical structure requires 
a new examination. They are deemed Dicotyle, 
as well as Carica and Cactus; but this seminal 
character is fallacious, and not so important as 
stated by Jussieu ; since Cycas and Juncus are 
said to be dicotyle also, and the Coniferes are 
polycotyle : while Nelumbium is anisocotyle or 
nearly monocotyle, altho' united with Nymphea- 
cea or Ranunculacea. Perhaps it is, as well as 
Nymphea, of the Rhizomian Class ; since their 
roots are evidently rhizomes, and the structure 
is hardly concentric. The aquatic ferns and 
some other aquatic Genera appear to have for 
seeds mere Embryos or radicles called Somo- 
rhizes by Nuttal in Ruppia. They are evidently 
acotyle therefore. Some plants deemed Vascu- 
lar, hardly show any vessels but cells, Mono- 
tropa and Orobanche have such annual fleshy 
stems. These and other anomalous plants will 
offer a fine scope for observations, dissections, 
and careful investigations. 




By Linneus and Rafinesque, 1814. 

These rules were chiefly established by Lin- 
neus in his philosophia botanica. In 1814 1 gave 
their principles with additions and remarks, ap- 
plying them also to Animals, and to Classes, 
Orders and Species. I shall now add here their 
main features and applications, recomending 
them to the attention of the accurate botanists : 
the Linneists ought at least to deem them per- 
emptory, yet they often violate them. 

1. All the species united by some essential 
definite characters must form a Genus. Lin. 
phil. bot. 210. 

2. Each Genus must have a name, Lin. 218. 
Anonymous Genera like those of Walter are 
deficient and inadmissible. 

3. None but skilful Botanists ought to form 
and name Genera. 

4. All the plants possessing similar charac- 
ters must form a Genus, and bear the same 
name. Lin. 215, 216. 

5. All the Species with generic disparities 
must form different Genera and bear different 
names. Lin. 214. 

6. Therefore when one or several species 
differ essentialy from their typical Genus, they 
must be separated and bear other names. This 
applies to the Genera Valeriana^ Justicia, Con- 
volvulus^ Polijgala, i^^c. and similar anoma- 
lous groups. 

7. If a Genus has been made upon erroneous 
characters, it must be annulled, and united to 
the Genus that bears the real character. Ex- 



amples SheffiehJa which is a Samolus, Hecato- 
nia is Adonis, ^»c. 

8. As soon as a good name is given to a Ge- 
nus, it must never be changed. Lin. 219. 

9. Not even for a better one, or another more 
convenient. Lin. 245. 

10. Names must not betransfered from a Ge- 
nus to another on any account of convenience, 
becoming a double change. Lin. 245. 

11. If similar names are given to two or 
several Genera; this name must be left to the 
first in date, and the later must be changed. 
Lin. 217. Apply this to Auhletia, Persoonia^ 
Heritiera, &c. 

12. If several good names are given to a Ge- 
nus, the first in date must prevail, and the oth- 
ers be dismissed. Example. Artocarpus of 
Forster which has prevailed over Sitodium^ 
Polyphema and Kademachera. 

13. But when of two names, the first is im- 
proper, the second in date if good must prevail. 
Example Pyrularia Mx. dismissed for Hamil- 
tonia W. 

14. If two names are given the same year, 
the best must prevail, even if later by some 
months. Ex. Polypogon Desf. prefered to San- 
tia of Savi. 

15. Generic names must have a meaning or 
derivation, even if obscure. L. 220. But names 
must not be changed on that mere score, and 
thus Linneus kept Bryonia, Acalypha, <Slc. 

16. Generic names contrasting or at variance 
with some Species of the Genus, must be avoid- 
ed. Lin. 232. Ex. Gratiola, Cyanella. 

17. Synonymic names in greek and latin 
must be avoided, but not changed. Ex. Stellaria 
and Asterias ; but Xster is worse. 


18. If a new Genus to be established has a 
convenient specific Synonynie, it must be adopt- 
ed for the Genus. 

19. If a Genus is to be divided, the old name 
must be left to the majority or best known spe- 

20. Generic names must always be substan- 
tive and never adjective. Lin. 221. Thus Glori- 
osa and Mirahilis were changed by Jussieu to 
Methonica and Nyctago. 

21. Generic names must always be simple, 
never double nor triple. Lin. 222. 

22. They must be singular, never plural, but 
may be masculine, feminine or neutral. 

23. A specific name changed to generic name 
becomes substantive. Ex. Agrimonia eupatori- 
um and Eupatorium. 

24. The name of a Class, Order or family 
must never become Generic, unless properly 
modified. Lin. 212, 233. Fteris which means 
Fern must be changed to Peripteris or Yterllis. 

25. The generic names of animals must not 
be applied to Plants, nor viceversa. Lin. 230. 
Taxus animal must be Melesius. Leucosia 
plant Leucipus, being posterior to Leucosia 

26. Names of minerals must be avoided in 
Botany, but a few adopted may be tolerated. 
Ex. Hyacinthus, Fhimbago, Heliotropium. 

27. Names derived from arts and sciences, 
or religious ideas, can only be admitted when 
properly modified. Ex. Jacobea, Angelica., Vnl- 
neraria, Ternatea., Slc. are tolerable names ; 
but Cotyledon^ Baca, Baltimora, ought to be 
changed in Cotylaria, Cletertis, JBaltimorea. 

28. The best names are derived from the 
greek and from striking habit and characters or 



generic peculiarities. Lin. 222. Ex. Ccphalan- 
thus, Rhizophora. Eriophorum, ^c. 

29. Tho-e derived from the latin in the same 
way are next; but the mongrel names derived 
from the two mixt languages are inadmissable. 
Lin. 223. Cormicopia, Cimicifuga, Baccaurea 
are wholy latin ; but Vincetoxicum, Scyphofi- 
lix are mongrel, and must be changed to Gono- 
lobus, Scyphopteris. 

30. Generic names may be made by abrevi- 
ations, contractions, elongations or blending 
one, two or three words ; but never from a 
single word without alteration. Therefore Che- 
lone L meaning turtle must be changed in 
Chlonanthus, and Chelone Latr. in Chelonias. 
Chlorah in Chlorita, and Chloris W. in Chlor- 
ostis &.C. but Crassula, Salsola, Clypeola are 

3L Blended names must not be formed from 
two other Genera united L. 224. 3Ialvaviscus 
and Qalamagrostis are absurd, and must be 
changed to Achania and Amagris. 

32. Doubtful or equivocal names must be ex- 
cluded, particularly when made by adding one 
or two syllables before or behind another name. 
Lin. 225. Homalo-cenchrus, Hippo-erepis, 
Qalam-agrostis, «^c. are bad, Leersia, Hippo- 
cris, Amagris have been substituted. 

33. The same for names made from others 
by substracting one or more syllables before or 
behind. Linneus fell in this error sometimes, 
Ex. Bromelia, Bumelia, Melia, Bromus — 
Sinapis, Apis. Of these the shortest are the 

34. But names casualy with one or more ad- 
ded letters in the middle, may be tolerated. 

35. And also when the termination changes as 



well as the first letters, Ex. QJiimaris, Marica, 
Narica, 3Iai'iscus. 

3G. Generic names made by a mere modifi- 
cation of terminations, are inadmissible, and all 
those made by adding oides, ella, ola, ilus, ia^ 
ium, aria, ea, ata, ita, astrum, ago, formis, 
opsis, emum, &lc. must be changed. Lin. 226, 

227. This useful linnean rule has been often 
neglected, producing a crowd of equivocal 
names to be rejected : such as Polifgonella, 
Qentaurella, Cicutaria, Portiilacaria, Lina- 
ria, Helianthemum, Oryzopsis, Slc. 

37. Equivocal names pronounced nearly alike 
must be avoided ; but need not be changed, un- 
less the difference is only in termination. Lin. 

228. Ex. Mitella, Mitchella, Michelia, are bad 
names on that account, but the following still 
worse. 1 Apis L, 2 Apus Cuvier, 3 Apios, 
Pursh, 4 Apium 5 Apion, Herbst, might be 
changed to 1 Apicula, 2 Apodlum, 3 Gonan- 
cylis, 4 Apium, 5 Apionus. — ^ea same as J^eus 
I make Mayzea. — Scolopendra,Scolopendriu7n 
this last must become Glossopteris or PhyUitis 
— Delphinus and Delphinium or rather Flo- 
thirium ^c. 

38. We must avoid to give barbarous names 
to Genera, Lin. 229, but we may sometimes ad- 
mit Arabic,Celtic, Indian, African or American 
names, when not too harsh, and easily latinized. 
Linneus did so for Yucca, Datura, Kibes Slc. 
— Pacurina, Valovea are much better than 
Messerschmidia, Schwenkfelda. 

39. Foreign names must be latinized, soften- 
ed or receive a proper termination. Lin. 248. 
Thus we must write Calesia, Areca, Cupuya, 
instead of Calesjam, Arec, Coupoui &lc. 

40. Names too long must be abreviated, and 


when too short, must be lengthened, even when 
personal. Lin. 249. The best names ought to 
have 2 to 5 syllables, those of one or six are 
objectionable. Thus Krascheninikofia and 
Mesemhryanthemum^ must be changed to 
Kranikoma and MesenbryantliMS. — While 
Lea^ Neea, Zea must become Leania., Neeania, 
Mayzea. Linneus changed Anapodophyllum 
into Podophylum. 

41. Harsh and uncouth names must be soft- 
ened and modified, upon the same plan. 
Tournefort changed Gundelsheimera into 
Gundelicis Tabernamontana and Lightfootia 
must become Tabernaria and Lifatia. 

42. Some of the best botanical names are pa- 
tronymic, or dedicated to botanists. But in- 
stead of being the reward of merit, this practice 
has been too much extended, by dedicating 
them to mere Amateurs and Catalogue makers. 

43. These patronymic names must not be 
formed of two names ; Gomortega and Carlu^ 
dovica are become Adenostemum, Ltidovia. 

44. We may dedicate Genera also to emi- 
nent Naturalists or Philosophers, great Travel- 
lers, Horticultural ists and Protectors of Botany; 
but never to mere friends or by flattery. Ex. 
Fiircroya, Virgilia, Comptonia, Solomonia, 
Clijfortia <^c. 

45. Names may also be borrowed from my 
thology or ancient poetry, dedicated to Nymphs 
or Legislators, Heros <Slc. Ex. Arethusa^ 
Chironia^ Artemisia, Euphorbia,Calypso &.c. 

46. Ancient names of plants may be applied 
to New Genera, nearly alike or related. Ex. 
Datisca, Adike, Selepsion, Yerbena ^c. 

47. Genera must not bear the names of their 
organs ; but flowers and fruits may bear the 


same name. Bacca, Cotyledon were bad ; 
Rosa, Tullpa, Prunus are good, Necker erred 
in changing them to Rhodophora, Frunophora, 

48. The pronunciation of Genera must be as 
in hitin, the Greek or Foreign names must be 
pronounced as in latin or italian. This apphes 
to the vowels A, E, I, O, U, which are distorted 
by english botanists. Ph is meant for F, and 
CH commonly for K. Acacia which is pro- 
nounced Acasia like Cassia must be spelt 
Acakia as in Greek. 

49. Names must be changed if they disagree 
with one of these rules, unless it be of little Con- 
sequence ; but when they disagree with several 
they must be altered by all means. 

50. As soon as a Generic name is changed or 
modified according to these essential rules, so 
as to be correct ; this correction must be adopt- 
ed, and no longer liable to changes. 

Such are the correct principles and rules of 
generic nomenclature, not yet generaly known 
nor attended to by all the Botanists. Those 
who neglect them evince a deficiency of taste, 
learning and acuracy. They will be the test 
of correct and accurate Botanists. Those who 
follow them will thereby evince that they know 
12nd admit the necessity of fixed principles in 
Names as well as Genera. 

It is to be regreted that Decandole himself, 
in the hurry of his great labors on Species, has 
given sanction to admit some very improper 
names ; but no doubt either he or his future 
continuators will see the propriety to dismiss 

At present the greatest source of generic per- 
plexity arises from the greatnumber of improvers, 
laboring and writing unknown to each other, 


and in remote places ; Avhere they happen occa- 
sionally to clash by applying similar names to 
distinct Genera, either discovered or reformed : 
While they may also give different names to a 
single Genus. 

Else Me may have double and triple names for 
similar Genera, as was the case with those of 
Aublet, changed by Necker and Schreber. It 
is not yet perfectly settled which are to prevail, 
many of Aublet were barbarous ; but others 
quite good and easily latinized. This difficulty 
will always occur, unless we stand by the rule 
of always admiting the previous name, if good 
or even tolerable. 

The names of some Botanists happen some- 
times to be given to several Genera, because 
many wish to reward their labors: while others 
are left unrequitted for years. I was very prone 
to dedicate such Genera ; but now always add 
a second name as a substitute in case of pre- 
vious application. 

There have been for instance, 4 Genera call- 
ed Scopolia, the first in time of Jaquin was found 
to be a Hyosciamus. The second of Linneus 
jun. has since been united to Daphne, altho' it 
has capitate flowers with a perianthe or invo- 
lucre, and must at least form a subgenus. 
Forster made the .3d, but deeming since the 2d 
good, he changed his to Griselinia. The 4th 
was made by Smith, by changing the good name 
Todalia of Jussieu ; a very improper change, 
yet imitated by Schreber who made it Cranizia, 
but there was a previous Qrantzia of Swartz! 
Todalia is better than Coffea of Linneus and 
must be preserved as previous. Thus Scopolia 
has been multiplied and made doubtful, unless 
we restore it to the 2d as a genus or subgenus. 


This is an instance of the difficulties occur- 
ring in generic nomenclature : similar cases 
abound, and become comphcated by the diti'er- 
ent views taken of tiie matter by the various 
botanists. Thus CentmtrcUa a bad name of 
Michaux, made worse still by Persoon Qcntaii- 
riutn, both derived from Vcntaiirea, was chang- 
ed to Bartonia by Wildonow ; but some bot- 
anists dissented and made another ISartonia, 
while Andrcwsla was proposed for the first 
bartonia-, but there was another Andrewslal 
then Nuitalia was soon after proposed ; which 
is not deemed a genus, but a mere subgenus of 
Sida^ yet it has been called Calirhoe also, 
which is a name already applied to a genus of 
animals, and the 2d Bartonia was made a 
Torrcya! while there are two other Torreyas ! 
What a heap of ambiguities ! yet they could be 
avoided by attending to the generic rules confirm- 
ing the first Bartonia of Wild, and my Nuttal- 
lia of 1817 for the second Bartonia. 

Therefore it is obvious that correct Nomen- 
clature is an art based in scientific principles, 
and that all dubious or deffective names arise 
from neglect of such rules of this branch of 
Botany. Thence we may distinguish 3 series 
of generic names — 

1. Good Names, including excellent names, 
Defining Names, Appropriate — Dedicated — Ac- 
curate — Early greek — Ancient — Compounded— 
Easy Names »Slc. 

2. Indifferent Names including unmeaning 
Names, Anomalous — Contradictory — Transfer- 
ed — Equivocal — Latinized- — Synonymic — Mi- 
neralogical — Anagramic — Religious — Geogra- 
phical — Mythological Names &/C. 

3. Bap Names including Erroneous Names, 



Anonymous — Barbarous — Harsh — Sesquipedaf 
Syllabic — Double — Multiple — Adjective — Zoo. 
lo T^ical — Organic — Blended — Doubtful — preoc • 
cupied — Modified — Relative names &c. 

If the 2nd series may be tolerated, these bad 
Names cannot ; they must be abolished and 

Many of these erroneous Genera and Names, 
are not only deflective, but absurd ; yet to these 
some incorrect Botanists appear to cling with 

They will form a test of accuracy : whoever 
admits them, declares himself a friend of Erro- 
neous Botany and Nomenclature. 

As to names neither good nor bad of the 
second Series, some latitude and disparity of 
opinions may exist. Most of them when once 
established may be tolerated; but ought never 
to be imitated. 


The object of these preliminary remarks was 
not to enter any further into generic, anatomical 
or physiological researches. My main object 
is to reform and improve Genera : in the course 
of my hints and elucidations of all the natural 
clusters, I have been led to convey the result of 
my observations, both on their floral find or- 
ganic structure. To enter into explanations 
and details would swell these remarks be} ond my 
proposed limits; but I hope to have thrown the 
seeds of some future discoveries, and further 

I chiefly insist upon the practical rectification 
of Genera. I blush for the science and my fel- 
low botanists, when I see yet a crowd of arbi- 
trary and perplexing Genera, quite as loose and 


incorrect as those of Tournefort or Lichen of 
Linneus, not only in use, but insisted upon as 
correct, by Botanists neither bhnd nor unskilful; 
but who shut their eyes and ears, so as to dis- 
card the use of their senses— For instance in 
Euphorbia, Veronica, Saxifraga, Yaccinium, 
Andromeda, and 200 snch linnean Genera, 
which are strange medleys of blunders, ambi- 
guities, and absurdities. 

If they admit the mistaken and absurd rule 
that a wrong Genus must give the character, 
they ought at least to take it from all the 
strange plants they mix together, and the char- 
acter of Saxifraga should be Calix inferior 
or Superior, equal or unequal, with ^ to \0 
parts, Petals 5 equal or unequal, with glands 
vr no glands, with claws and nerves or none. 
Stamens 5 or 10 or 20, equal or unequal, flat 
or filiform, fertile or sterile. Ovary inferior or 
superior with glands or no glands, 2 Styles 
or 3 to 6 or no Styles, Capsule bifid or bi- 
come or 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Capsules, naked or 
crowned or covered . . . ! At which rate and 
with many . . OR . . OR - we can make a single 
Genus of Roses and Cabbages ! and without 
any OR, a single Genus of all the Cruciferes. 

The fact is they are ashamed to give the real 
characters of such Genera, and discarding the 
linnean rule, give us instead a paltry unmeaning 
character that does not apply to all the Sp. 

Linneus did the same, and that is their apolo- 
gy. And so did the old Botanists before Lin- 
neus. He himself has broken occasionaly every 
one of his own rules, either by oversight or by 
the difficulty of discarding all errors at once. 
Even his golden rule of two names only for each 
plant ; since he had some with three — Aspleni- 


um ruta myraria and Fedlcularis Sceptrum 
carolinum, for instance! — All kinds of barbar- 
ous names Coffen^ Fiper, Faretla, Yucca <Slc — 
Many derived names as Fasserina from Fasser 
— Galium and Allium — Arum, Asarum and 
Comarum &c. altho' he had abolished all such. 

1 do not mean by this to imply that Coffca 
and Yucca are bad names. They are quite as 
good as some harsh greek names. And many 
greek and latin names came from the Celtic 
and Oriental Languages. Kraschenikofia^ 
Lightfoatia, Mesemhryanthenum are certainly 
much worse, and must be softened or latinized 
into Krasnikovia, Lifutia, Mi sembrianthus. 

But I mean to say that his oversights are not 
to mislead us, and that mistaken Genera, 
, whether in fact or names, either of Linneus, 
Jussieu or even Decandole, (since he has some 
also) or of Hooker, Lindley <^c are not to be 
adopted ; but must be corrected ; even now, if 
so long overlooked by neglect. 

All such arbitrary and absurd Genera must 
then be revised and reformed — Such is my aim 
— Any one who may disapprove of this plan, 
must be blinded by prejudice or inveterate love 
of errors. 

Decandole has done much, but only reached 
one fourth of Vegetation, and overlooked many 
forms, or slightly noticed them, owing to the 
immense labor he undertook on all the speci^ .. 

A fair example of blunders by a Linneist, 
•may be seen in Loureiro flora Cochinchinensis, 
where he has referred a crowd of new plants 
and new gcn3ra, to linnean oVject?, quite dif- 
ferent; yet he wrs commended and reprinted by 
Wildenow, and has been quoted by Smith, JLa- 
mark ij»c, without detecting his blunders. 

C'ONGLrsiON. 03 

Another instance, more recent still, is met in 
the labors of Hooker, a clever botanist, once a 
Linneist, but now tryini? to adopt the natural 
method ; wlierein he brinirs the detects and ab- 
surdities of Linneus. I have detected a crowd 
of generic and specific mistakes in his Flora 
Boreali Americana, and in the new series of the 
Botanical Magazine written by him, he falls 
into the most palpable errors as to genera and 
Species. In his 8th volume alone there are 30 
plants out of 00 reduced to wrong genera. 

If such is yet the actual course of eminent 
Botanists, the copists and compilers follow the 
same tract ; even my old friend Torrey in Ame- 
rica, deems that to follow or creep on their 
steps is quite needful, whatever be the glaring 
blunders they may commit; the fear of innova- 
tion, and of improving the Science too quickly 
is the prevailing feeling. 

For my part I entertain no such fear, and 
should wish to see Botany reaching a greater 
perfection in my days ; but if it is a hopeless 
wish, I will at least do something towards it. 

Whoever will imitate my zeal, must attend 
with care to the intrinsic value of organic char- 
acters, and their relative importance, in Orders, 
Genera and Species. This is the test of a real 
follower of natural affinities, bases of the Natur- 
al system of Botany. Their neglect is the sure 
evidence of arbitrary Botany. 

This knowledge teaches us that the import- 
ance of floral organs stands in the following or- 
der, in Phenogamous plants. 

1. Pistil and fruit — whether free or coales- 
cent, simple or multiple, definite or indefinite, 
with one or several stigmas, with or without 
style, &c. 


2. Stamens — where inserted, if free or coal- 
€scent with a corolla, a calyx, alterne or oppo- 
site to them, or united together, with filaments 
or none, with anthers with 1, 2, 3 or 4 cells — 
as to numher, if definite or indefinite, isarineor 
equal to perigone, heterine with less or more, 
equal or unequal hetween themselves, &.c. 

3. Perigone or floral covering — If simple or 
double or multij)le, free or coalescent with the 
pistil, if equal or unequal, with or without cor- 
olla or inner perigone, whether simple and lat- 
eral, or with many pericentric petals in one or 
two rows; or if with a peripetalic corolla, its 
shape, lobes, persistence, &.c. 

4. The fruits and seeds — Their nature, form, 
number and structure, cells, partitions, placen- 
tas, seeds, arillas, embryos. 

5. Accessory parts—Glands, nectaries, scales, 
appendages, crowns, spurs, and other auxiliary 
additions to the flowers; lastly bracts, in all 
their forms and names of Involucre, spatha, per- 
ianthe, pericline, glume, palea, lepigone, antho- 
phyle, &.C. besides the various receptacles or 
supports, phoranthe, gynophore, spadix, col- 
umn, &.C. 

It is very important neither to invert this Or- 
der of values, nor to ascribe more power to any 
than realy can be ascertained. If Botanists 
would attend to this, they should never join to- 
gether in the same Genus or family, the plants 
that offer a difference in the most essential 
characters. Such as Pistils single or many, 
free or coalescent, superior and inferior of Lin- 
neus — Stamens free or united, equal or unequal, 
few or many, &c. 

They should know that Bracts stand at the 
very end of the floral series, and altho' useful to 


distinguish Genera when assuming the shapes 
of Perianthe or common calix, phoranthe or 
common receptacle, invokicres of Omhellifera, 
Ghimes of Grasses, &.c. they never ought to be 
employed alone to fix families and Orders. 

They ought to know that when there are no 
other essential Organs than Pistils and Stamens 
as in Grasses, except the mere bracts called 
Glumes, these must give way to the first ; and 
their number becomes then of paramount im- 
portance, in defect of additional organs. There- 
fore Jussieu was very right to divide the grasses 
in first instance by the numbers of Styles and 
Stamens : while the modern Botanists who unite 
in the same Genus Grasses, with 1, 2, 3 or 
many stamens, are utterly in the wrong. They 
even sin against Linneus who divided Cinna^ 
Anthoxanthum, Oryza, ^c. To unite in the 
single Genus, Carex, plants with 2 or 3 stigmas 
or styles is still worse ; and not to perceive that 
such a Genus of 300 Species is a fine Nat. fami- 
ly with many Genera distinguished by this and 
the seminal covering, proves that the absurd 
Hnnean principles evinced in the Genus Lichen 
now a Class ! prevail as yet among us. Who- 
ever preserves Carex entire ought to keep Li- 
chen and A;^ar'icns entire, and make a single 
Genus of Ombellifera. 

I conclude by asserting that GENERA ARE 
NATURAL, and that every actual Genus that 
is unnatural, arbitrary or polymorphous, IS 
NOT A GENUS, but an incorrect and artificial 
aggregation of aliens ! Wherefore all Genera 
must be reformed till we reach these natural 
clusters of species quite alike in floral organs. 

When in the course of time this truth shall 
be acknowledged, and it shall be wondered how 



we could h.ave put together in a single Genus 
all the Lichens, all the Bats, all the Monkeys, 
all the Heaths, &c. let it be remembered that 
I had duly rectified 500 such preposterous or 
artificial Genera between 1800 and 1815, and 
now write this synopsis to evince the fact, and 
propose or complete the needful reform of all 
such perplexLig and obsolete Genera. They 

are for instni.ce 

















































Spirea, etc. 

With 200 more, equally bad and artificial. 

If examples of rea'j natural Genera are ask- 

ed, I might offer the foilowing 

Linnean Genera 

as modciS. 





















Quercus, etc. 

In all such and the like, the genei^ic charao 


ters are ample, conclusive, essential, exclusive 
and general, applying to all the species : this 
makes them natural and proper. Therefore all 
Natural tienera ought to he like them, and all 
artificial Genera divided or rectified till they 
reach this perfection or rather correct form, by 
revising and amplifying their single or confined 
generic character : while anomalous and poly- 
morphous Genera must of course be reduced to 
their natural limits. 

The rectification of Genera is important above 
all in Botany, as in Zoology ; since they afford 
the generic names, and a wrong Genus multi- 
plies the wrong names of Species, overloading 
them with useless artificial synonymy. Improper 
names will therefore be never exploded until 
bad Genera are forgotten, as were gradualy 
the unmeaning and indefinite Genera of old. 

Names and Genera are thus intimately con- 
nected ; they stand and fall together. The ne- 
cessity of both being proper and definite, nat- 
ural and perspicuous, is therefore quite evident. 
A bad name given to a good Genus annuls it 
in the eyes of many, until rectified or changed. 

In this sense Natural Genera shall really af- 
ford the natural character and name : while 
actual Genera have often a false character and 
improper name, or else they appear nearly as 
bad as the vulgar names in modern languages : 
quite loose and incorrect in import or applica- 

Species altho' less important since they are 
variable, must however be attended to in the 
same way; they ought to bear a good name 
that applies, if not exclusively, at least properly. 
We ought to be guided for them by a due know- 
ledge of their fixed forms, and those that may 



vary to produce breeds or proles, until these 
assume the specific rank by important features, 
united to permanency, multipHcity of individuals 
or insulation in distinct chmes. 

Many of our admitted Species are in fact 
such new breeds or productions of a genus, that 
had perhaps once a single type on the Earth — 
as it has happened to our knowledge with MAN- 
KIND or the Genus HOMO, once a smgle 
TYPE, that has produced during many ages, 
so many natural varieties and breeds, gradualy 
become permanent, divided and multiplied, that 
they now form 3 or 4 great Races or Breeds, 
deemed Species by some philosophers: and 
even others admit 10 or 15 Species of MEN. 
Thus the natural spliting of MANKIND has 
realy produced many divisions of the type. If 
however we acknowledge that they all come 
from a SINGLE GENERIC TYPE, it is imma- 
terial whether we call them Species or Races, 
Breeds, or Proles, Varieties . . , But if deemed 
real natural new Species as in Plants, Oaks, 
Vines, Roses &.c. they obtain a name and bet- 
ter Entity. 

MEN form both a Genus, a family the HU- 
MAN tribe, and an Order the BIMANES: 
which are both very striking and obvious 
groups . . . Roses do the same, and the botan- 
ists do not agree on their species and varieties; 
altho' so numerous now, they probably came 
Hke MEN from a single generic Type ? Let us 
then study species in that point of view ; both as 
distinct, and connected by the common Generic 

GENERA therefore are mainly essential; 
they give form, existence, characters and names 
to Species. The generic types are either in- 


variable or slightly and slowly transforming ; 
but specific types may and do eventualy vary 
in all their frame and parts, except the essential 
floral organs of the Genus ... as MEN have 
varied in color, size, features, hair, <fec. but 
preserved the great generic characters of limbs 
and teeth, and are -BIMANES or with two 
hands, forming an Order distinct from the Q,uad- 
rumanes or four handed Monkeys. 

Rosa and Ruhus were once united in the 
same Order and family, but they are as unlike 
as Men and Monkeys, Rosa has a calix berry 
like enclosing the germs or pistils, while Ruhus 
bears them on a central gynophore or fructal 
receptacle. These are characters perfectly es- 
sential and exclusive, like 2 hands or 4 hands. 
All good characters ought to be such; when 
they vary they lose their importance ; but when 
we merely suppose they do, because we unite 
alien plants, the mistake is ours, not a natural 
consequence nor real fact. 

This view of natural Botany opens a wide 
field to us : the aggregation or segregation of 
individuals in various successive real Clusters, 
ruled and led by several physical laws of oppo- 
site tendencies, may gradualy unrol before us 
the mysteries of Vegetable organization and 
frames, with their mutual contending aims. 

These great laws that rule living bodies and 
vegetation, are, SYMETRY that gives the 
bodily forms to Genera, casting the moulds of 
typical frames— PERPETUITY that by re- 
production, perpetuates these original primitive 
forms — DIVERSITY that bids and compels all 
living bodies to assume gradualy a variety of 
slight changes when reproduced, and never 
evolves individuals perfectly alike, xvor two leaves 


quite similar in all points on the very same 

Lastly INSTABILITY that does not allow 
any forms nor frames to be perpetual nor ever 
the same, giving to plants as to animals hirthy 
groivth, decay and death ! in succession, within 
a term of a few hours, a day, a month, a year, 
or 1000 years. 

By these contending laws, always balancing 
each other, Vegetation is regulated like the 
Worlds and Skies by Gravitation and Repul- 

Symetry and Diversity are ever moulding or 
changing the Vegetable forms : while Perpetu- 
ity and Instability are ever controling their ex- 
istence by successive reproductions, or vital 

Let us study these laws, let us ascertain their 
effects, let us contemplate and admire the in- 
numerable forms they evolve, sustain and im- 
prove upon our EARTH — This is the study of 
natural Botany, of floral beauties, and of GOD 
working wonders there as elsewhere. 

HE rules the skies and in his hands upholds 
The solar Worlds; while from his breath di- 

Spring living souls, that men and beings move. 
By him alone the trees and shrubs are set, 
And with the lesser plants, the spark of life 
Receive, imbibing solar heat and light. 
Then to the Sun their leafy limbs eqpand, 
And nuptial buds with dazzling beauties bloom 
Of thousand shapes and hues, or sweet per- 

[fumes ; 
The Earth adorning with a verdant dress, 
Sprinkled with floral gems like lucid stars, 


Sparkling throughout the skies, adorned all 
By gilding light, with colors of the prism : 
Thus they delight the human senses, showing 
The deeds of GOD in floral wonders growing. 


Introduction, - - - page 7 

Natural Classification, - - - 26 

New Natural families, - - - 27 

Natural Classes and Orders, - - 44 

Nat. Classes, 1814, - - - - 45 

Nat. Orders, 1815, . - - 48 

Rectified floral Classes, - - - 58 

Additional Orders, - - - 63 

Classes by Habit, - - - - 71 

Rules of generic nomenclature, - - 81 

Conclusion and natural genera, - 90 


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N. Ord.— N. Gen.— N. Sp.' 



Determ. coll. inv . obs. et. descr. 
Ann. 1796—1836. 

Auctore C. S. RAFINESaUE, Bot. Prof " 



JLes noms font les choses. 
Names realize Entities. 

Plus nos noms sont generaux, plus non idees 
sont incompletes. — Plus nous avons de noms, 
plus elles se completent. Lamark, Leach, &c. 



ij#wiEi?2is ^^w> w^^mm w^mis 



With new Natural Classes, Orders and Fam- 
ilies : containing the 2000 new or revised Gen- 
era and Species of Trees, Palms, Shrubs, Vines, 
Plants, Lilies, Grasses, Ferns, Algas, Fungi, 
&c, from North and South America, Polynesia, 
Australia, Asia, Europe and Africa, omitted or 
mistaken by the Authors, that were observed or 
ascertained, described or revised, collected or 
figured, between 1796 and 1836. 


Prof, of Botany, historical and natural sci- 
ences — member of many learned Societies in 
Paris, Vienna, Bruxelles, Bonn, Bordeaux, 
Zurich, Naples, ^c. Philadelphia, New York 
Cincinnati, Lexington, &c. 

To observe and compare, to correct or approve 

By good names and new facts that convince and improve. 



By H. Probasco, No, 119, N. Fourth St. 
1 83C. 


This fourth part of the Flora Telluriana will 
conclude the work. It had been intended to 
divide it into 6 parts ; but even these could not 
contain all what I have to add or correct on the 
Orders, Genera and Species of the whole world 
and all the classes of Vegetation : therefore it 
is better to limit this Work to Plants and 
Lilies chiefly ; while I mean to publish sepa- 
rate Works additional to this on the Trees and 
Shrubs or a Sylva Telluriana, on the Ferns 
and Grasses, Fungi and Algas, with perhaps 
Monographs of some peculiar Families of great 
interest, and probably a complete account of 
my New Class of the Nantiandres, having 
stamens alternate to calix or opposite to corol- 
las, contrary to the usual order. 

The price of this work will still be .$5 or $40 
for 10 copies, only 160 copies were printed, 
which makes it high, as but few copies can be 
sold in America, where Botanists cannot duly 
appreciate it, and they must be sent to Europe, 
to be often exchanged instead of sold. 



In the process of this work I have met with 
many interruptions and disappointments. It is 
neither easy nor agreeable to stem the current 
of botanical errors and blunders, and whoever 
swims against the streams of scientific prejudice 
may reckon on difficulties. I have met such in 
all my attempts to increase and correct know- 
ledge ; but I persevere nevertheless, and write 
for posterity rather than the actual Schools. I 
feel that my weary labors are not now appre- 
ciated except by a few, but am confident that 
in 50 years hence they will be more valued. 
Of this I have received already some assuran- 
ces, when young and skilful Botanists have 
partly approved and adopted my views. 

Meantime I must again repeat that whatever 
I now state or correct, had been mostly done by 
me between 1806 and 1815 chiefly, when I had 
matured my botanical reforms as stated in my 
Analysis of nature 1815. I then possessed the 
ample materials of all the works of Wildenow, 
the great dictionary and illustrations of La- 
mark and Poiret, Martyn's large edition of Mil- 
lers in 4 volumes Folio, and the New Diction- 
ary of Natural History in 24 vol. 8vo . . . be- 
sides many rare and valuable works . . . which 
were lost with my Mpts. in my Shipwreck of 
1815. Having thereby been thrown back upon 
the world and entered new paths of life, I 
could only gradualy collect again my materials, 
and restore my labors imperfectly. Yet I have 
since then consulted and studied many other 


modern labors similar to mine, without finding 
the same accuracy and perspicuity of Generic 
reform. While it is with the utmost difliculty I 
can obtain even for money some late works of 
similar tendency, although 1 try to correspond 
direct with the Authors. 

Therefore I distinctly state here again, that 
my feehngs being of the most liberal and friend- 
ly kind for all Botanists and Naturalists, all over 
the Earth, if my labors ever interfere with 
theirs it must be accidentaly and unknowingly, 
either because my Genera were those establish- 
ed by me between 1806 and 1815, or because I 
have not obtained yet their works, although 
willing to buy them or exchange them with 
mine, unless they be too costly like Audubon or 
Jacquin — I hereby call publicly upon all synop- 
tical and improving Botanists (and even Zoolo- 
gists and Oryctologists) such as Agardh, De- 
candole, Endlicker, Schreber, Sprengel, Fries, 
R. Brown, Lindley, Hooker, Don, Sweet, Ar- 
nott, Bentham, Nees, Fischer, Link, Tenore, 
Ledebour, Blume, Martius, St. Hilaire, Bory, 
&c . . , with others unknowu to me by name as 
yet, to send me their works in exchange of mine 
and also to exchange specimens. I have been 
permanently established in Philadelphia again 
since 1826, and shall probably ever continue 
here, although I may become connected with 
various literary institutions, particularly the 
Central University of Illinois of which I am 
one of the founders. Books sent me for the 
University will be free of duties, and equaly re- 
ceived in exchange. 

When I have accumulated all the latest Ma- 
terials or Genera, and the great work of De- 
candole is completed, I may then revise the 


whole, connect naturaly the scattered Genera, 
and add the needful corrections. I have been 
called already a Veteran in Natural Sciences 
even by my foes, I hope to become the Nestor 
of Botany like Adanson was, and if my zeal 
does not abate, to publish in 1850, a real Man- 
tissa of all Botanical Genera till thefi. 

Meantime I proceed with my New Flora and 
New Sylva of North America, and am now 
preparing a peculiar work on the Ferns of 
North America and other parts. I am going 
to reprint all my early essays on Botany and 
Zoology, as my Amenities of Nature. I have 
begun my Mantissa of Zoology, or new or 
revised Genera of all classes, many also framed 
previous to 1815. 

My Historical and Philosophical Works are 
also proceeding, I shall publish my Celestial 
Philosophy, and my Genius or Spirit of the 
Hebrew Bible, preparing afterwards my good 
Book of Knoicledge and Wisdom to be pro- 
bably issued periodicaly, and including the re- 
storation or increase of much knowledge on all 
Sciences whatever. These vast labors, besides 
those of private life, in order to obtain the 
means to produce my works, at my own expense 
chiefly (since they are too good and too learn- 
ed for the vitiated scale of our publishers) have 
partly induced me to curtail the actual work, 
and conclude it here ; but to continue it in 
another form or reproduce the additions as a 
Sylva Telluriana and otherwise. 

Althongh the articles are now only 1200, yet 
they include with the species and subgenera, 
orders &c, 2000 or more added or revised 
objects and groups. 




Number 801. Otosma Raf. (ear scented), 
diff. from 679, spatha lato cuculata basis con- 
voluta, spadix clavato, apice nudo, pistillis inf. 
subrot. stylosis, antheris truncatis sup, baccis 1 
loc. 6-12 sp. sem- teret. oculatis. Scaposa, fol 
indw. spathis amplis alhis odoratis. — I con- 
tinue here the Aroides, Lihes, and other mo- 
nocotyles. This Genus blended with Colla of 
L, is totaly unhke, see my Provenzalia 679, 
and New Flora N. A. 481 to 485.— Type O. 
ethiopica R. Calla do. L.. auct. fol. cord, sagit. 
cuspidatis, lobis obt. well known plant of Africa, 
often cult, seen alive since 1806. 

802. Spirospatha R. Spatha spiralis clausa, 
spadix obi. pistillis mixtis trilobis, stigma sessile 
concavo trifido, antheris ad bas, mixt. ad ap. 
solit. baccis 31obis 31ocul-polysp. — Still more 
unlike Calla with flat spatha, no style, berries 
yellow uniloc. Type Sp, occulta R, Calla do 
Loar. Sm. fol. ovat. cord, petiolis canaliculatis. 
— From Anam. Perhaps the Arum Spirale of 
Retz Vitm. Sm. is a 2d sp. with lanceol leaves 
and sessile flowers. 

803. Pleurospa R. diff". fjom Caladium and 
Colocasia by the flowers unilateral on one side 
of the spadix, and stem frutescent. — The sin- 
gular structure of spadix requires attention, per- 
haps several Genera and Species blended as 
Arum, arborescens lu. Types 1. PL reticulata 
R. fol. sagittatis, spadix reticul. the linnean sp. 
of South America, stem 6pedal, leaves pedal, 
flowers white inside green outside, base dark 
















With new Natural Classes, Orders and fami- 
lies : preamble of the 2000 New or revised Ge- 
nera and Species of Trees, Palms, Shrubs, Vines, 
Plants, Lilies, Grasses, Ferns, Algas, Fungi, Slc. 
from North and South America, Polynesia, 
Australia, Asia, Europe and Africa, omitted or 
mistaken by the authors, that were observed or 
ascertained, described or revised, collected or 
figured, between 1796 and 1836. 


Prof of Botany, historical and natural sci- 
ences — member of many learned Societies in 
Paris, Vienna, Bruxelles, Bonn, Bordeaux, 
Zurich, Naples, &c. Philadelphia, New York, 
Cincinnati, Lexington, &.c. 

To observe and compare, to correct or approve 

By good names and new fads that convince and improve. 




Les nomsfont les choses. 
Names realize Entities. 

Plus nos noms sont generaux, plus non idees 
sont incompletes. — Plus nous avons de noms, 
plus elles se completent. Lamark, Leach, il^c. 



We are indebted to Linneus for a beautiful 
glossology or language, whereby we are able to 
express by words every form of vegetable orga- 
nization, and to })aint by words as it were, every 
plant, fixing in the mind the Genera and Species. 

These botanical terms ought to be well known 
to Botanists. The language of Botany is to be 
learned at the outset by every student, and there 
are many grammars of it. Several gradual ad- 
ditions and improvements have been made since 
Linneus . . . chiefly by Richard, Necker. Jussieu, 
Mirbel, Agardh, Persoon, Decandole, «fcc. — I 
have ventured to add but few, following or adop- 
ting mainly those of Richard and Decandole. 

It is unfortunate tliat all the Botanists do not 
quite agree even on this: and use sometimes va- 
rious terms for the same organs. — For instance, 
the Common Calix of Linneus, an improper 
double word, had been very properly changed to 
Periantiie by Richard, a good single word de- 
rived from around the floicers. But other Bo- 
tanists have proposed the synonyms of Antho- 
dlum, Periclinmm, Involucre, Perlg^i/nande, 
&c., which are both later and worse. It is true 
that Periantiie had been applied by Linneus to 
the floral coverings, but the name was wrong, 
since these coverings, the calix and corolla, form 
the flowers and are not around it; they have 
since been collectively named Perigone (around 
the sexes) by Jussieu. and this name has been 
adopted by all the Natural Botanists. 

I therefore adopt and use the terms Perian- 
tiie and Perigone; also, Phoranthe (bearing 
flowers) of Richard, instead of common recepta- 
cle of Linneus, or Clinanthe of later Botanists. 


It would be useless to discuss in this way the 

merits of the different terms: it will be sufficient 

to designate those which I will employ through- 
out this Work, wherein I shall venture upon 

very few innovations. 

Sepalis — Sepals, the folioles of the Calix or 

fetalis, Petals, those of the Corolla. 

Receptacle. — Only the centre of a flower bean. 

Placenta, — The receptacles of the seeds in a fruit. 

Gynophoro. — The receptacle of the pistils or 
seeds, commonly swelled or protruded. 

Androphoro. — The disk or pillar bearing the 

Columna. — The Androphore of the Orchideous 
flowers united to the pistil. 

PhorantJio. — The receptacle of compound flow- 

Diclinis. — Dicline, Separated beds or Stamens 
and pistils. 

VistiUis. — Pistils, the whole female organs. Ova- 
ry, style and stigma. 

Oiiarium. — Ovary, the germen of Linneus, this 
name is now restricted to the real ger- 
men of the seeds. 

Ovarium adherens vel liberum. — Ovary adhe- 
rent to the perigone or free, as called by 
Jussieu, &c., answering to Germ inferior 
and superior of Linneus. 

Perislomic, around the mouth of the perigone, 

Peripetalic. — Corolla monopetal of Linneus, 
which is not of one petal, but a circular 
petal around the stamens or pistils. 

LepifTono, — Lepigone or bract bearing the sexes. 

Jsarinis, — Isarine, stamens of equal number to 
the perigonal parts, or Diplarine when 


Heterinis. — Heterine or in unequal number com- 
pared to perigone. 
Epimesis. — Epimesical, stamens standing in the 

centre of the flowers, where the pistils 

generally are. 
Sporulis. — Sporules, the minute seeds of Fungi 

and Lichens. 
Sporangis. — Their Capsules. 
Gongyles. — The seeds of Algas and Aquatic 

acotyle plants. 
HeteroUs. — Heterolic Corollas, irregular, and 

not equal in number of parts with stamens. 
Achena. — Achene, a dry fruit that does not 

open, commonly with only one seed. 
Glumis. — The scaly valves or bracts of Grasses 

and Cyperacea, wrongly called calix and 

corolla by the Linneists. 
Corolla. — The inner colored floral covering, 

when there are two, when only one co- 
lored, it is called perigone. 
Involucris. — The bracts surrounding umbels. 

The minor ones or secondary called In- 

Galea, — Helmet like appendages or parts of 

I have given the descriptions or essential cha- 
racters of the Genera and Species in the usual 
Botanical Latin Language ; but the roots of 
every word are similar to the proper English 
Botanical Glossology, and may be understood by 
any English Botanist, who knows the usual terms 
of the Science ; besides being available to all 
other Botanists, The remarks, explanations, re- 
searches, &c., will be given in English: this 
double mode of expression is now often employ- 
ed, and has many advantages; while the use of 
abbreviations is well understood. 






Sp. . . . 






Cor. . 


Stam. . 






Perig. , 




Sep. . 


Phor. . 



Columna Sexualis 





Fil. . 





. Stylis. 





Ov. Ovar. 


Caps. . 




Recept. . 


Sq. . . 

Squamis, osis. 

Bract. . 


Fl. flor. 

. Floribus. 

Spic. . . 

Spicis, atis. 

Panic. . 

Paniculis, atis. 


Corymbis, osis. 

Umb, . 

Umbellis, atis. 

Sess. , 




Ped. . 


Lob. . 


Segm. . 




Foliis, leaf. 


Lab.. . 

for Labio, labelum, lip 

Int. . . 

. Internis. 

Ext. . , 

. Externis. 

Nerv. , . 

. Nervis, osis. 

Lin. . . 

. Linearis. 

Rad. . . 

. Radiis, atis. 

Flos. . . 

. Flosculis. 

Eq. , . 
Ineq. . . 
Adn. . , 

. Equalis. 
. Inequalis. 
. Adnatus, 

41oc. . . 
4valv. . . 
Obt. . . 

. quadrilocularis. 
. quadrivalvis. 
. Obtusus. 

Ac. . . 

. . Acutus. 

Obi. . . 

. Oblongus. 

Ov. ovat. . 

. Ovatus. 

acum, . . 

. acuminatis. 

Ic. . . 

. , Icones. 

filif. . 

. . filiformis. 

multil. . 

. . polysperma. 
. . multilocularis. 

tubul. . . 

. tubulatis. 


♦ infundibuliformis. 

unifl. . 

. hypocrateriformis. 
. uniflora. 


. . valvis. 

cord. . 

. . cordatis. 

dent. . 

. dentatus. 

diad. . 
didyn. . 
diff. . 

. . monadelphis. 
. . diadelphis. 
. . didynamis. 
. . different. 

fid. . . 

. . fidus, cleft. 

opp. . 
alt. . , 

. . oppositis. 
. . alternis. 

vertic. . 

. . verticilatis. 

char. . 

. . characteris. 


obov. . . for obovatis. 

ellipt. . . . 


lane. . . . 


renif. . . 


deh. . . 


coal. . . 


compr. . . 


ang. . . . 


canal. . . 



L. Lin. — for 
J. Jus. 
Dec. DC. 
W. Wild, 
R. Raf. 


P. Pers. 
R. P. 
b. m. 

b. reg. 







Sir James Smith. 
Ruiz and Pavon. 
Robert Brown, 
botanical maga- 
botanical register. 

N. Nek. 

for Necker. 














Legarza and Lave 




T • ° 











Sprengel, <fec 



Synopsis pl vntarum select — This Synopsis 
will contain nearly 2000 new or revised Genera, 
with some new or corrected Families and spe- 
cies of Plants, from North and South America, 
Oceania, Asia, Africa and Europe ; which hav- 
ing been neglected or mistaken hy the Botani- 
cal writers, were by myself ascertained, and 
even several published, between 1805 and 1835. 
It forms the complement to my New Flora of 
North America, Autikon Botanikon (of 2500 
New or rare Gen. and Sp.) and all my Botani- 
cal w^orks since 1805. 

Number 1. Nvctosma Raf {stccrt sineUing 
Inj tn*iht)G. Orchid, ad. Epidmdrum distincto. 
Sepalis 5 eq. angust. olongatis, labellum colum- 
na adn. ineq. 3partito, 2 auriculif. 1 calcari- 
fore basi biglar.dul. cclumna 3 appendices den- 
tatis, anthera 4loc. 41ol)a, alata, intus clausa, 
N. nocturna. Epid. do. L. &^ omnis auctoris, 
Lind. Hooker bot. m 3298, fol distichis ellipt. re- 
tusis. caule compresso unif! — flos magno citrino, 
Antillis, an Florida? 

2. Kadakia i\..{Nomenindicum) 1815. Cal- 
carunia R. 1830. Ponfedrrki Sp. Sepalis 6 
sessilib. carinatis ineq. 3 ext. lane. ac. patens, 3 
int- obov. obt. supero erecto. Stam. Gineq. subul. 
sep. insertis, 5 fertiles adscendens antheris lin. 
bisulc. apice dehiscens, 1 stam. major erccta ap- 
pend icul. Ovar. 3gonum superum, stylo, filif in- 
curvus, stigma oht. Clips, ov- acum. lloc. 3 valvis, 
trcta basi sepalis marcoscen.^ contortiF. Semina 


plurima, rccept. ccntrale iiffixa. llahitus Pontedr 
spatha 7nono2jhifla multijf. fol. oppos — Pluri- 
ma Sp. Pouted. G. mafxirn. mal. ordin. Typus 
C. acuminata Raf. P. dilatata Buch. Sym. 
Ava, Ic . . Andr. rep. 490, Sm. Caiile unifolio fol. 
cord, acumin. petiolata 11. corymbosis ceruleis ad 
petiolo erumpens — Ava. certainly as distinct a 
G. as my Unisema. the capsule is uniloc. by 
Buchanan figure, but triloc. in his descr. to 
make it agree with P. as our Botanists do with 
Unisema (P. cordata) that has only one seed. P. 
hastata and P. vaginalis perhaps belong here 
as Sub Gen. The G. is in utter confusion and 
shall be partly revised here. 

3. Carigola R. (nom. ind) hastata. Pouted, 
hastata L. Auct. Cor. regularis sepalis 6 eq. ce- 
teris ut preced ? fol. hastatis, florib. umbellatis. 

4. GoMPHiMA R. (club stigma) vaginalis, 
Ponted. do. L. auct. Stigma clavatOj^^florib. 
facemosis, fol. cordatis. 

5. PoNTEDERiA vcrc ch. Cor. 6 fida bilabiata, 
stam. 6 ineq. caps, carnosa 3 locul. fl. spathaceis 
spadiceis cdpit. s. spicatis — Typis P. rotundi- 

folia, P. oi%'!ta (S. G. Narukila florib. cap.) P, 
azurea? Sl-c. 

6. Unise"7IA {one seed) Raf. 1808, med. fl. 
1830. Cor. GSkla bilabiata, Stam, 6 ineq. ovar. 
obi. stylo fiilf. stigma simplex. Fructus Semen 
nudum ut in Qramineis! unicum, corolla mar- 
cescens Cco-tata obsito. Perisperm. farinos. 
Embryo centrali tereto. Spadix spicato, erum- 
pens, caulih. unifoliatis — This fine N. G. of 
mine has been doubted by many, yet Nuttall 
and Torrey have verified the singular fruit, but 
deemed it the proper one of Pontederia! and 
our Botanists continue to admit the blunder. 
We have 9 Sp. or more in N. Amer. well indi- 

CENT. I. 11 

catcd by mc in my Med. flora, and U. ddtifoUa 
figured lab. 03, yet all blended in "Z or 3 Sp. by 
them. How slow are Botanists to admit im- 
provements and ecen accurate obserratiotis! 
This G. is the type of a new family UNISE- 
MEA, nearer to Aroides, Piperacea, «fcc. than 
Pontederacea, indicated in my Analysis Nat. 
1815, but put then near Asparagiues in order 


7. Ltnania R. 1830 m. fl. {Liinan bot.) cor. 
tubul. Gfida ineq. Stam. 3 intubo, stylo 1, stig- 
ma 3-6. Caps. 3 loc. 3 valv- polysp — L. uniflora^ 
fol. ovat. cordatis, scapis unifloris; Antillis, Mex- 
ico. Pontederia limosa Sw. Sl plur. auct. Anoth- 
er distinct Genus forming with SchoIIcra, Lep- 
tanthus, Heterandra ... a subfamily of Pon- 
tederacea, with 3 Stamens instead of 6. Mna- 
slum, Pollia and others of same family have G. 
The inequality of Corolla or Stamens or both, 
forms the essential character of the whole nat- 
ural family, with the regular fruit. 

8. Apemon R {Solan. Diosk) Datura auct. 
Cal. tubul. terete apice fisso integro ut spatha 
latere dehiscens. cor. tubo angulato, limbo pia- 
no plicato 10 dent. 5 alt. minor. Stam. exserta 
subeq. anth. 4gon. 41oc. stigma obt. Caps. 41o- 
cul. levis — A. crassicaule. Caule crasso dich- 
otomo, foliis oblongis sinuato-repandis, subtus 
glaucis tomentosis, fructo globoso pendulo — Cu- 
ba Antillis, fl. magnis albo-ceruleis, estivatio 
spiralis — D. ceratocaula Ortega &. omnia auc- 
toris ! D. macrocaidis Roth, plurima ic. bot. reg. 
1031. bot. mag. 3352. How could Hooker and 
Lindley leave this in Datura? which has cal. 
ang. 5 dent. cor. 5 dent .... It is nearer Sol- 
andra by calix, but has not a berry, v. v. 

9. AsKoi^xyiKK {Asphodel. a nfiq.)Milla auct. 

1 - I'LOIl. TEUXK. 

nomen incluRuin in CamomiJa! ch. ref. Cor. in- 
fiind. Gfida. sep. alt. inujor. anth. G eq. ad fauces 
sop. Ovar ped. stylo iil. t^.tigm. 3 Caps. 3 loc. polysp. 
A. hijlora li. scapo bifloro, fjl. lin. laxa, fi. 
albisinar^nis — Mexico. 7ll7//rt bijIoraCay.t. 196 
and omn. auct. 

10. lpnEioisIl(^Asphodel.antiq.) MiUauni" 
flora Ilookci- bot. m. 33*27. cor. infund. C fida, 

sepalis eq. Stam. G in tubo, stam alt. brevior, 
ovar. sessile, stylo fil. stigma 1 capit. caps, cla- 
vata 3 loc. polysp — I. uniflorum R. Scapo unifl. 
compr. medio vaginato spatha bifida, apice unifl. 
sepalis ovatis acum. fol. lin. obt. scapo eq — B. 
Ayres, fl. albis. Milla sp. aactorisG. duplex, ad 
stam. ovar. stigma conspic. diversis: ambi ad 
Asphodelides pertinent, v. v. 

11. Utomadena R. (^glandular mouth) Ipo* 
mea aitoni Lindl. b. reg. 1791. AfT. Convoh. 
cal. ineq. cor. tubo brevi crasso, camp, intus ad 
insertio stam. multiglandul. Stam. ad fauce 5 
ineq. 2 major, stigma bilobo, caps 21oc. 4sp. — 
tSt. viola cea voliib. villos. fol. cord. 31ob. acutis 
brevis, pedic, multift. bract, lane- acum — Flori- 
da, fl. viol. med. v. v. The Convolvulacea are 
yet in utter confusion, Choisy has made the 
matter worse by conversion of characters, the 
real Ipomea has caps. 31oc. but 20 fine N. G. 
are blended in these 2, and the ineq. of calix 
and stam- is not attended to, as the next evinces. 

12. CoiLADEiNA R QioUoiD gland) Ipomea 
horsfalia Hook. G. m. 3315. Cal. sepalis 5 eq. 
imbric. Cor infiind 5!oba, lobis emarg. Stam 5 
equalis?i\?iV[\. basi glandulis. 5 cavis inscrtis, ad 
disco hypogyno ferens. stigma bilobo. capsula 
21ocul — C. iiYE'\iALis volub. glabra, fol. quinatis 
lane. acum. undul. pedunc. rnultifl. cymosis, cal. 
sepalis obt — Africa? fl. purpur. hyemalis. This 


G. is not even a Conrolrtdacnt, hut l>y the 
equal stani, rather a Polemon'tacca, I have 
shown smce 18*20 tliat this is tlie true essential 
distinction ; hut hy the insertion of stamens on 
disk instead of corolhi, it may he akin to Nyc- 
tagifiua. Perhaps other phints helong to this 
N. (J. compare Ipowca r^pln/lla .l<xq. with liai- 
ry leaves; hut Jp. ^phijUa Cav. is a difl'erent 
sp. Ip.pamcuJata Br. or Convolv. do L- is akin, 
hut has pahiiate leaves, and forms my G. Mo~ 
dec a. 

13. Skilla L. mispelt Scllla. diar vere. Fe- 
talis 6 sessilis planis, patulis caducis, Htam. G 
oppos. filifornns. stylo fiiif. stigma simplex, 
caps. .3 loc. polysp — Type Slk. maritima and all 
the sp. with filiform filaments as stated hy L. 
but many sp. united that lack this good char- 

11. Oncostema R. {swelled stamens) Seilla 
auct. Diff. Pet. G apice villosis, 8tam. basi 
petalis adnatis, medio inflatis cum fovea necta- 
rifera, stylo conico G sulcato, stigma oht. villoso. 
caps 31oc. polysp. extus Osulcata intus dissep. 
duplex, receptac. centrale — Typ. O. villosa, 
fol. cuneatis villosis acutis, vscapo glahro, fl. 
corymb, bract, lanceol. petalis ovatohl. oht. al- 
hoceruleis— Barharia, Sicilia, v. v. — Seilla vil- 
Josa Def. t. 85. hot. mag. 3211, omn. auct. 
Probably other sp. belong here. 

15. IIexonix R (6 claws) Seilla L diff. Pe- 
talis unguiculatis et alia char, aliena — If. ja- 
ponica Raf. Seilla do Thunb, L. floras umbell. 
ut in Allium cum spatha. 

16. Epimenidion R {nam. antiq) Seilla li. 
diff. Petalis G campanulatis basi coalitis. fl. 
racemosis ut in Skilla. 1 E, Jiijaeinthoides 

14 rM>»:. TELM u. 

Raf. Scilln. do Jaq. Sr. {nmpamtl 1a — 2 E. un- 
dulahim Raf. Scilid do Desf. Persoon Slc. 

17. XURIDIA Raf. A.N. 1815. TheXiiRi- 
DEs. Stamina tenia libera. Ovarium liberum. 
capsula polysp. Perigonum 3-6 part. This tribe 
of monocotyle plants is certainly distinct from 
the Restidia, type G. Restio, which has sin- 
gle seeds, nuts or fruit, like Unisemia. It differs 
from Irides chiefly by free Pistil, from Galax- 
iDEs (the monadelphous Irides) besides by free 
stamens. Xuris is the typical G. Eriocaulon,, 
Xiphidium, Mayaca^ Wachendorfia,, Slc. be- 
long to it, as well as the following: 19 to 21- 

18. Xuris mispelt Xyris by L. too near Iris. 
vere char. cal. persistens squamis 3 ineq. 2 mi- 
nor carinatis internis. cor. evanescens petalis 3 
nnguicul. Stam 3 anth. subsess. ad ung. adn. 
anther obt. ovarium obov. 3 lobo. stylo 3fido, 
3 stigma, caps. 3 valvis uniloc. seu ad basis sub 
Slocul. valvis septiferis set placentiferis polysp — 
Scaposis^ fol. gracilis^ fl. capitatis, bract, 
squamosis imhricatis — Linneus had only one 
sp. X. indica, R. Brown alone added 15, and 
now we know 35 species ! but some have peculiar 
characters, and form the 3 next Genera. The 
following 25 sp. belong here ; but several are yet 
united by mere habit, the fructif . not being prop- 
erly known. A', pubescens Desf. platycaulis 
Poiret, capensis Thunb. rnacrocephala Vahl, 
anceps Lam. t. V3%pusina, denticidata, palu- 
flosa, scabra., levis, bractcosa,, juneea, gracilis, 
filifolia,flexifolia, brevifolia, lacera, vivipara, 

lanata, &c. of Brown and others; besides 6 N. 
Amer. sp. brevifoUa Mx, earolinianaW. fim- 
briata Elliot, fistidosa Raf. (juncea Baldw, 
not Br.) obovaia Raf rctusa Raf. see my mon- 
om*. in New flora N. Amer. 

CENT. 1. 


19. Synoliga R (united few) Diff. l8,Capsu- 
la unilocul. valvis iion placeiitiferis, receptac, 
centrale. Important characters perhaps united 
to others omitted, habit also difterent, a stem 
with distichal leaves, head with 2 or 3 flowers 
only: the A^. subnlata of Ruiz, X. jmuciflora 
W. and perhaps others. 

20. RAi»ioTiiA;R (nomind) Diff 18. Nectaris 
seu appendices 3 fimbriatis- interjectis inter peta- 
lis. Stylo simplex, stigma capitatis plumosus. 
This includes several sp. blended as X. indica 
by authors, thus the original G. of Lin. also X. 
operculata and others. The following sp. were 
all X. indica oy\q,q\ 1. R. vera. Scapo sulcato 
spiralis, fol. latis, capit. ovatis, squamis subrot. 
glabris. Asia — 2 R. Africaria. Scapo sulcato 
basi spiralis, fol. angustis striatis, capit, globos, 
squamis subrot. fuscis ad medio pilosis. Africa — 
3 R. ptihescens^ Scapo tereto, vagina foliosa 
pubescens, fol. latis, basi dilatatis, capit. squam- 
isque ovatis. obtusis; Antillis. X?/r/s^w6^.<?cDesf. 
anct — 4 R. fforidana. Scapo contorto compres- 
so, apice 4gono, fol. tenuis, striatis contortis, 
capit. globosis, sq. subrot. emarginatis, Florida. 
X indica Pursh, an Xuris? aff. X retusa Raf. 

21. JupiCA R (nom. amer.) Diff. 18. Stam. 
filamentis villosis, antheris 4 gonis, stylo trifido, 
stigma 9 — The type or perhaps only sp. is J. 
cerulea Raf. Xyris americana Aubl. auct. with 
blue flowers, all others are yellow. 

22. Tradescantia L. vere ch. Cal. 3part 
eq. pers. Cor. 3 petala plana, tenuiss. evanescens 
equalis. Stam 6 subeq. filam. hirsutis. stylus 
filif. stig. simplex caps. 3 loc. oligosp. fl. umJr 2 
spathis. To this G. belong virginica, ros^a, 
siibasptra, Mrsuta, discolor, malabarica / «•#- 

nlrulata, crassfj'olui^ tindatn., and inaiiy more, 
with my 8 N. sp. from N. America. 

23. Sarcoperis li. Zannonia Cramer, Per- 
soon. non aliis Ditf. Corolla crassa persistans 
baccata. S. hibracteata Raf. Cornmelina and 
Tradesc. Zanonia auct. is very different. 

21. ToNNiNGiA Necker. Diff. 22 Cor. 3par- 
tita, Sfidisqiie, basi tubulosa, coalita, ovar. lanat. 
ft. axill — T. axillaris, T. speciosa &. aliae. 
Tradesc auct. 

25. SiPiiosTiMA R {tiihidar stigtna) Diif. 
22. Stylus clavatus, stigma tubulosum crenatmii. 
6\ crista t a Raf. Tradesc. do Jaq. auct. 

28. GiBAsis R (glbbose base) Diff. 22. Cal. 
triang. basi trigibbosiis, stigma bilobo, caps. 
21oc. 2 sp.Sem obi — G. jndcludla Raf Caule 
procmiibens, fol. ovat. acut. glabr. serrulatis — 
Trad, do Kunth mexico, compare CalJisia L. 

27. Etiieosanthes R. 1825 {^Evanescent 
flowers) Diff. 22. Cal. ineq. cor. 3 pet. ineq. 

1 pet. major concavo, Stam 6 ineq. 3 major ia- 
curvis. Fl. racemosis — j^. ciliata R. Neog 42. 
Caule erecto dichot. ol. ovat. acum- undul- cilia- 
tis, racemis secundis — Louisianna, Texas 3pe- 
dal, fl. blue, lasting only one hour. Is Eoihin- 
anthes better ? 

28. Tripogandra R ( 3 bearded st) Diff. 22. 
Stam 0, 3 brevis glabris, 3 longis apice barba- 
tis, ft. cymosis — Tr. mnUiflora R. procum- 
bens, fol. ovatis basi ciliatis, cymis pedunculatis; 
Caracas. Tradesc. rnuWfl. Jaq. ic 'S55. procuni' 
bens Wild. Auct. 

29. Phyodina R. {grouring btj twin) Diff. 
22. Stam 3, fil. antheris binis divaricatis gerens, 
stylo basi barbato ; Ph- gracilis Sm. Auct. Trad, 
do. near to CalUsia h. Ilapalanthus Jaq. which 
has same Stamens, but capsule bilocular. 

Cent. I. 1"/ 

30. Leiandra R. {smooth st.) Difl'. 22. Stam. 
levis non barbatis ped. nmltifl. 1 L. cordifolia, 
repens, filif. fol. cord. ped. term, multifl. Trad, 
do Swartz. 2 L. dwaricata. Dichotoma, fol ov- 
lanc. glabris, vag. vill. pedunculis paniculatis. 
Commelina hexandra Aublet. Tradesc. auct. 
amb. amer. sp. 

31. HeminemaR {lialffilam) Diff. 22 Stam. 
3 glabris, ut in Commelina sed Cor. ut in 22 — ■ 
H. multlflora Raf. Tradesc. do Sw. and auc- 
toris, fol. cord, ciliat. ped. axill. multifl— An- 

32. Afloleia R {single smooth) Diff*. 22. 
Stam. unica levis, — A, diffusa,, fol. ov. cord, 
glabr. ped. axill. multifl. — Hayti. Trad, mo- 
nandra Sw. auct. — These 3 last Genera lack 
the very essential character of bearded Stam. 
that once was the only distinction of Trades- 
cantia from Commelina,^ but these 2 Genera 
are in utter confusion, as the above proves. 
Compare also my genera of Commelina. It is 
deplorable to see Botanists forcing sp. into ge- 
nera, in spite of characters. There is no^ a 
single generic cliaracter common to ah the 
above G. 22 to 32 ! my reform and revision 
were indispensable, and begun in 1815. The 
TV. rnalabarica is probably also a peculiar ge- 
nus, to be called Talifulia, petalis cuspidatis, 
ped. longis unifloris. But the Tcad^scantia ! 
nervosa Lin. is an Orchideous N. G. called 
Thehfpogon angustifol. by Kunth, what a 
blunder ! this whole Genus is a mass of linnean 

33. Aglitiieis R. \^-. nom. anticus, ^////^m 
L. et auct. pessimum aff". Galium,, liomali- 
um, Allionia &.c. Sir James Smith says of this 
Cm . the whole requires to be reformed as to names, 


characters and species alike. Allimn has no 
meaning and clashes with many genera. Several 
ancient Genera, Onion, Leek and Garlick, 
were blended by L. without just cause; they 
must be kept apart, having all good essential 
characters. The sp, are in utter confusion, 
altho' very easy to distinguish; I shall here 
chiefly attempt a generic reform — The real G. 
ALLIUM or rather aglitheis has. Fetalis 6 sub- 
equalis dorso carinatis s. nervosis, sessilis pa- 
tulis. Stam. 6 sub equalis ad basis, filamentis 
planis subulatis simpl. Ovar. sessile, Styl. sim- 
plex, stigma acutum. Caps, Sloe. 3valvis oligos 
perma, sem. angulata. Flores umbell. spatha 
l-2calvis gerens — To this G. belong all those 
not enumerated in the following, but not the A. 
sativum ! There are yet 40 sp. in it ; the types 
being A tafarica, carinata., iirslna, Slc. I 
have added many N. Sp. from N. Amer. tri- 
flora, 5Jlo7'a, stenia, geminata, petiolata, 
latifolia, triphyla &lc. see Monograph, Herb. 
Raf. and New flora. 

^4. Gynodon R (pistil toothed) Diff*- 33. Fe- 
talis connivens, Ovar. 3dent- coronans, stigma 
obtus. Caps- globosa dentata 3 sperma — many 3 
seeded sp- belong here, A. tricocum ? mutabile, 
cernuum, Ellioti, rupestre Raf The types are 
these 3 last sp- 1. G. cernuum- (A- Roth, Curtis 
1824. Sm. W.) Caule 2ang. fol. lin. canal, umb. 
cermia, petal is ovatis, stam- inclusis, caps- tri- 
cornis. Mts. Caucasus. 2. G- Ellioti (A- cernuum 
mg. E.) scapo compresso 2ang. fol. lin. planis 
striatis, umb. nutans petalis lane. Stam- exertis, 
caps, glob- 3dentata- mts- Alleghany- 3- G. ru- 
pestre Raf. Scapo tercto 2ang. fol. lin. brevis 
obtusis, levis, umb. nutans, laxa pancifl. petalis 

lane. Stam. eq. Caps. obtuse 3dentati:;. ad rapes 
Kentucky, v. v. 

35. Stelmesus R (Crown middle) Dilf. 33. 
Fetalis ineq. 3 ext. minor carinatis, Ovar. 3gono 
apice Gdent. Caps, turbinata 3gona, Gdentata, 
6sp- loculis 2spermis — Type St. stcllatiis Raf. 
Allium do Sims b. mag, 1579. Scapo3gon. fol. 
canal- carin. umbella nmltifl. N. America. 

3G. Geboscon R(nom. grec) Dili". 33. Fetalis 
erectis concavis, alterni latiora. Filamentis /?//- 
formislongissimis.Cups. globosa (isp — G. ohlU 
qutim. Allium Gm. Sib-t-9. Lin. et Auctoris. 

37. Kalabotis R {Cepa gr.) Diff. 33. Cor. 
campanulata, petalis erectis concavis obov. 
3 ext. major, stylo conico, brevis Caps, polysper- 
ma? many sp. Allium pallens, clt4sianwm,Jla- 
vum, nigrum^ molly^ canadensis^ panicula- 
tum auctons, et alsa sp. 

' 38. Maligia R (nom. lat.) Diff. 33. Cor. cam- 
panul. basi tubulosa Ofida, petalis hasi unguic. 
connivens, cum. Stam 6 basi monadelpha- Ovar- 
ium depressum 3gonum. Caps Gsp. — 3 sp. blend- 
ed as A. angulosum &lc. 1 M. laxa Raf. Caule 
anceps 2angul apice recurvo, fol. lin- carinatis, 
umbella laxa. North America. A. angtd, Fursh 
2 var. fl. incarnatis, fl. albis — M. fastlgiata, 
Scapo 2. 4angul. compresso striato recto, fol. 
lin- canalic. vix carinatis, umbella fastigiata glo- 
bosa. Europ- Sibiria, fl. purpureis — 3 M- graci- 
lis. Scapo tereto, fol. lin. canal. Jamaica. Al. 
gracile Ait. auct. striatum Redoute, Curtis. 
All these are fragrant, and form a very natur- 
al genus. The A- striatum Jaq. is a true Agli- 
theis not Maligia., from Africa, but A .striatum 
of Fursh and N. Amarica is A. Ornithogaloides 
of Walter that has received 7 names. 

39. Kepa Tourn. Ad. Necker «S:.c. Diff. .33. 


Fetalis crassis persistens, filam. crassis conicis 
planis basi dilatatis — The true G. Onion, Kepa 
escidenta (al. cepa L.) and K. fistulosa are 
the types; but other sp. may yet be blended with 

40. PoRRUM Tournef 1700, Adans. 1763. op- 
tim. G. Diff. 33. C Stam. alt. 3cuspidatis, filam. 
dilatatis, petaliformis ad apice 31idis, anthera ad 
dente medio — 500 Genera are based on less im- 
portant characters. This includes all our Leeks, 
the Garlick itself. Allium sativum, porrum,, 
ampeloprasiim, lineare., rotundum, Scorodo- 
prastim., arcnariiim, spheroceplialon, nutans^ 
escalonicutn &.c. 

41. Getuojvis R (nom. gv.) DifF. 33. Stam. 
3. alternis subulatis, 3 alt. bifurcatis cuneatis pe- 
taloideis, antheris medialis. — Perhaps only a 
Sub. G. of the last. This includes Al. vineale, 
and perhaps others. •» 

42. Plexistena R (segment narroic) DifF. 33, 
Petalis nervosis, obovatis concavis, Stam. 3 alt, 
linearis planis angustis trifidis, segm. lat.divaric, 
medialis brevior antherifero. Ovar. turbin. Caps. 
Cgona, Gsperma, umbella cum Involucro poly- 
philo — PI. margaritea (A. do Sm. fl. greca) 
Caule tereto, fol. canalicul. Grecia, pulchra sp. 
fl. albopurp. nervis viridis. 

43. Stemodoxis R (Stam. dent, apex) DifF. 33. 
Stam. 3 alt. subul. 3 alt. cuneatis antheris me- 
dialis. Ovar. ,3sulc. Caps, oblonga 3sulcata, 
3sperma — >S'/. juncea Raf. (A. do Sm. fi. gr.) 
Scapo tereto, fol. 2. fistulosis, umb. globosa, spa- 
this 2 ovatis, petalis ellipticis acutis purpureis. 

43. Panstenu^i R (all narrow) DiiF. 33. Pe- 
talis linearib, angustis, planis enervis reflexis, 
Stam. filiformis ercctis. eqnalis, Caps. 3sp ?— 

( ENT. 1. "21 

P. rnonspefiSnlniium.Al. do (jJoiian t. 16, Vitni. 
Scapo tereto, fol. lanceolatis, uinbella ^lohosa. 

45. Endotis R (/w.s/V/^^Y/r.v)Diff. 33. Fetalis 
internis basi biauriculatis, alia char, examinan- 
da — E. jif/fcfffiif'tf^ Caulescens, fol. ang. lin, 
suhcariii. A. ajypevdicidatum Ram. Pcrs. 

40. Kkomon R (nam «t.) Dilf. 33. Fetalis 
ineq. planis, 3 ext. latior brevior, 3 internis lane, 
diiplo longior, Stam. Styloque longissimis fili- 
formis, — Kr. parviflorutn. Al. do L. an aff. 

47. LoNCOSTE3iON R (lance stom) Diff. 33. 
Fetalis eq. scariosis vix patulis, Stam. eq. ex- 
serta, filam. lanceolatis s. medio latior, apice fi- 
lif. Caps. 3cocca, 3sperma ? — type L. victoriale, 
Allium do. auct, and akin sp. — Thus the single 
G. Allium of authors, offers 15 generic groups; 
altho' some may be deemed mere sub. genera, 
it will be hard to refer them properly. By bet- 
ter and closer researches in the view of correct 
distinctions, some of these will surely be further 
improved. At present the Linnean G. is only 
kept together by pure mistake, and mere habit 
of fiowers in umbels, yet some sp. have only 2, 
3, 4, or 5 flowers. 

48. MELOMniis R. 1815, (black knavel) Mel- 
enomphale Ronealm. Ornithogalum arahiciim 
L. et. auctoris. Fetalis 6 equalis concavis deci- 
duis. Stam. 6 equalis hypogynis, basi vix coali- 
tis, late subulatis planis. Disco hypogyno 3gono, 
Ovar. globos. Gsulc. stylo 3gono, stigma 31obo. 
Caps, globosa 31oc. 3valv. polysperma, semina 
obi. induplice series Scapis feretis,fl. coryrn- 
basis y siiaveclenSy alb^ hract. amplecienSy 
Disco, Ovar. et Caps, nigris vcrnicatis — A 
very natural and beautiful Genus, merely indi- 


cated long ago by Renoalm, overlooked by Lin- 
iieus, and containing 3 sp. blended in one ! 

49. Melomphis arabica Raf. Scapo multi- 
floro, fol. canalic. corol. camp, petalis externis 
obsolete 3dentatis — Arabia, Egypt, Madeira, 
Cape, often figured and the usual sp. of nearly 
all authors. 

50. Melomphis sicula Raf. Scapo paucifloro 
3-6, fol. subcarin. pedicellis abreviatis bracteis 
subequante cor. subglobosis, petalis obovatis 
retusis integris. — Sicily near Segesta, where 1 
found it in 1807, in Corsica says DC. never 
figured, it is O. arabicum of DC. fl. gallica: 15 
inches high, flowers large, shaped like those of 
Yuca. Estival. 

51. Melomphis peruviana Raf. Scapo multi- 
floro, fol. planis marg. involutis, peduncuUs 
elonglatis ad bract, longior, corollis subpatentib. 
petalis ellipt. obt. subintegris, stigma pubescens. 
In Chili, Peru. Scape 2 or 3 feet with 11-15 
flowers. Vernal. It is the O. corymhosufn R. 
P. fl. per. t. 300, Lindley hot. reg. 806. Hooker 
bot. mag. 3179. who calls it also O. umbellatnml 
and is at a loss to distinguish it from O. arabi- 
cum- ! 

52. Syncodium R {union hell) Petalis 6 pa- 
tulis ad basi coalitis cum Stam. 6 monadelphis 
campanul. (ut in Narcissus) 6fidis, 3 fil. longior 
emarg. bicornis antheris erectis. Stylo, stig. 
simpl. Caps. 31oc. — Very distinct Genus, over- 
looked by all ; Ornithogalum nutans of L. and 
all authors! Type S. nutans. Scaposo fol. lin. 
carin. obt. fl. 5-20 racemosis secundis pendulls, 
bracteis fucis — In Europe, flowers greenish 
white, often figured. 

53. Ornititogalon Diosk. L. omn. auct. Ver. 
Char. Perig. 6part. corolliformis persistens, ba- 

tiiiPfT. 1. 23 

si connivens, superne patens, ccjualis. Stam. 
3 lib. filani. subeq. subul. 3 alt. vix dilatatis. pe- 
talis ext. insertis. styl. stig. simpl. Caps. 31oc. 
3valv. sem. plurima. Scapis; J1,. racern. sen. 
corymb, hractcatis. — All the botanists bad been 
puzzled to tlistinguish this G. from Skilla, with 
filiform Stamens, because the sp. had been 
blended, and thrown into such a medley, that 
at last the blue color of some Sklllas became 
their only distinction! The type of this ancient 
G. is O. umbellatum, and contains many co- 
rymbose sp. with laeteum, nanum, Sm. revolu^ 
turn, conicum, and all those with equal subu- 
late stamens. Besides many Scilla of authors, 
unifolia L. anthericoides Desf. <Slc. and my 
next N. sp. 

54. Ornithogalon ceruleum Raf. Car. 201. 
Fol. lanceol. scapo fistuloso, fi. corymbosis, bract* 
lin. lane, pedicellis elongatis — Discovered in 
Sicily in 1808, published 1810, not a SMlla., fila- 
ments subulate equal. Fig. Cup. t. 201. 

55. Gagea Salisb. Diff. 53. Fetalis 6 deciduis, 
filam. equalis angust. subul. ad basi petal, adn. 
liberis. Styl. clavatus, sem. parva subrot. Plan- 
tae graminea fades Hypoxis, fl. paucis s. 
corymb, bractcatis, luteis extus viridis. — Sal- 
isbury mentions 7 sp. in his monogr. once all 
deemed Ornithog. 1 fascicidanis S. luteum sm. 
2 bracteolaris S. luteum L. 3 stellaris S. mini- 
um L. 4 spathacea, 5 pygmea, 6 bidbifera, 
7 reticularis S. circinnat. L. 

56. Fenelonia R {Fenelon. phil) DifT. 53. 
Fetalis ext. 3 trinervis latior, Stam. 6 eq. filam. 
lin. subul. angustis. Ovar. obi. sub. 3gon. stylo, 
clavato 3gono, stigm. capitato 3lobo. Scapis 
bracteatis iinijloris. — F. bractcata Raf. atl. 

*Zi ri.oR. T;:LLiiii. 

Joiirn. pag. 145. Ornithog. do. Torrey, Oregon 
mts. see my Flora. This G. is nearer Gagca. 

57. LoNcoMELos li (lane, membr) diti'. 53f, 
Fetalis uiiinervis, 3 internis brevior latior. Stam. 
subeq. membranaceis lanceolatis liberi Stylus. 
hrevis. ft. racemosls. Nearly all the racemose sp. 
of Ornithog. belong here, pyrcnaicum, nar- 
bonense^ japonicum, latifolium, secundum, 
pyramidale, suciveolens, (fee; but many of the 
African sp. require to be revised. I can already 
detect the 3 next Genera. 

58. Eliokarmos R (Norn, grec.) DifF. 52, 53, 
57. Stam. ineq. 3 fil. alt. major cuneatis emarg. 
s. furcatis, liberis. fl. corymb s. racemosis 
chiefly different from Syncodium by free Sta- 
mens, 4 sp. all Ornithog of authors. E. thyr- 
soifles, aureum,^ coarctatum, caudatum, and 
probably other blended sp. 

59. Trimelopter R (3.memb. wings) DiflT. 
53. Stam. ineq. 3 filam. alt. major lanceolatis, 
3 minor subulatis, Ovar. Capsul. trigona, tria- 
lata. Fl. racemosis — Ty p. Tr.Juscatum. Orn. 
do. Jaq. W. 

60. LoNcoDiLis R (lane, bell) Diff. 57. Cor- 
oIIb campanulata, pet. basi connivens, filam, G 
lanceolatis in tubo adnata. Fl. racemosis— 
Typ. L. scapigera Raf. Ornithog. paradoxum 
Jaq. W. P. 

Gl. Eriospermum Wild. Diff*. 53. Fetalis 6 
persistensin corolla campanul. connivens. Filam. 
6 basi dilatatis (monadelphis in cylindro L.) 
Semina lana involuta— Wildenow has 3 sp. 
latifolium, lanclfolium^ parvifolium. The first 
was Ornithog. capense of Lin. who assert it to 
be monadelphous as Syncodium. 

62. Lagocodes R (Hare bell) Cor. camp, 
petalis 6 basi connivens (ut Hyavinthus) Staiu. 

CE?IT. 1. 25 

6 equalis jUiformis glabra ad petalis adnatis. 
Styl. simpl. Caps 3ioc. 3valv. sem. pliira rotunda. 
Fl. racemosis — Scilla and Hijacinthus L. but 
a striking peculiar G.- the English Harebell. 
Several sp. the type was put by Lin. in both 
Genera! and made 3 sp! It is 1 Lainr. nutans 
Raf. <S\ do Sm. DC. S. cernua L. Hijacinthus 
vernuus et H. nonscriptus L. 2. L. cernua^ 
S. do Sm. 3 L. hyacinthoides. S. do Jaq. G5. 
4. L. patida, S. do DC. fl. gal. &-c. 

63. KozoLA Raf. (nom. Jap.) Petalis 6 un- 
guiculatis patulis. Stam. 6. filiform ? Stylo 3gono, 
Stigma capitat. 31obo, fructus ut Skllla / — Scilla 
japonica Th. L. auct. my Kozola japonicaj 

flor. umbellat. fastigiatis. Petals as in Melantld- 
urn purple white. 

64. iiuAMAsiA 1827 (nom. am.) Petalis 6 ses- 
silis persistens equalis, Stam. 6 libera, glabra, 
filiformis equalis. Ov. 3gon. Stylo filif. trifidus, 
stigma 3 remotis acutis. Capsula 31oc. Svalv. 
Sem. panca. Scapo,Jl. racemosis, cei'uL s. albir. 
I shall conclude this long series of revised cor- 
rect Genera akin to Skilla and Ornithog. by 
the <S. esculenta of N. America and two akin 
sp. each the type of another Genus. Since the 
best Botanists have admitted such a mass of 
blunders on those 2 G. which they could not dis- 
tinguish and reform, our Amer. botanists are 
partly excusable for similar mistakes on my 4 
N. Amer. G. Fenelonia, Quamasia, Oxytria. 
and Amhlostima. The type of Quamasia is 
Phalangium quamashPursh, P. esculent um of 
others, Scilla escid. bot. mag. 1596, spread 
from Kentucky to Oregon, perfectly distinguish- 
ed from Skilla and Phalangium by the trifid 
style. If any Phal. have that character tlsfv 
they belong here. If Quamasia is deemed a 



name too barbarous, I offer two substitutes, l^- 
molris and Bulbedulis ! I call it Q. esculenta, 

65. OxYTRiA R (sharp 3) Diff. 64. Stam. sub- 
ulatis, stylo conicus trtfid. stigma 3 connivens. 
//. racemose yellow — O crocea Raf. Ph. alan- 
gium croceum Nut. (not Mx.) fol. gramineis, 
racemd paucifl. bract, obtusis, petalis ovatob- 
longis. N. amer. fl. croceis. 

66. Amblostima R (obtuse stig) Diff. 64. 
Stam. subulatis planis, Stylo conico simplex, 
stigma obtuso unico. Sem. globosis nigris. fl, 
racem. alhis s. luteis — 1 A. alhiflora Raf. (Or- 
nithogalum croceum Elliot) foL planis nervosis, 
scapo tereto, racemo laxo, bract, ovatis, brevis, 
petalis ovatis obtusis. In Georgia, florida, fl. 
white — 2. A. crocea (Phalangium croceum. 
Mx. P.) fol. gramineis, scapo brevis, racemo 
pyramidal, bract, obtus. brevis. In Georgia, fl. 
safron color. Elliot has best described the flow- 
ers, Michaux the seeds. All the above Genera 
akin to Allium^ Scilla, Slc. belong to the natural 
tribe of Aspiiodelia. 

67. Antiiericum L. another absurd linnean 
G. whose essential character was merely Cor. 
Qpetala potens Caps, ovata ! which might in- 
clude Allium, Scilla and 20 other genera. 
Some botanists ashamed of this blunder, confined 
it to the Sp. with bearded stamens, taking out of 
it Phalangium, Narthecium, Tqfielda, Aba- 
ma, &,c. But even all these require correction, 
including many distinct Genera. The true An- 
thericum has Petalis 6 sessilis patens deciduis, 
filam. 6 lanatis filiformis equalis, anther, versa- 
tiles, stylus filif. rectus, stig. integr. papillosus. 
Caps. glob. 31oc. 3val. Sp. having different char- 
acters iare to be separated. Types A.frutescens 
and akin African sp. 

CENT. I. 27 

08. Nemopogon R (fil. barb) Diff. 07. Stam. 
declinatis ineq. filam. tilif. ad medio barbatis. 
Ovar. 31obo. Stylo declinato flexuoso, stigma 
aciitum, Rad. fibrosis — Type N. glaucum Raf. 
glauc. fol. canalic. scapo teretis, fl. racemosis, 
pedic. adpressis, petalis ovat. obtusis. Tasmania 
Anthericuni semibarbatum R. Br. Lod. bot. 
cab. 330, Hooker bot. mag. 3129. 

69. FiisiriLUM R. (spindle fil) Diff. 67. Stam. 
glabris fusiformis ad medio dilatatis. 3 sp. Pha- 
la?igium physodes, pusillum Jaq. W. co- 
arctatum RP. Pers, See. 

70. Obsitila R (drest fil) Diff. 67. Stam. 
non barbatis sed vestitis muricatis, s. pubescens. 
Perhaps several G. or at least Sub. G. — 1. Pub- 
iLARiA bicolor, filam. pubesc. Phalan*yium bi- 
color DC. 2. Trachinema vespertina., filam. 
muricatis. Phal. do and. 3. Tr. hispida Raf. 
ditto. Antheric. hisp. L. W. auct. 

71. Lepicaulon R. (sq. caule) Diff. 67. Co- 
rolla infundibul. campanulata 6partita. Stam. 
glabris — L. Squameum. Anther, do W. &-c. 

72. Hesperoscordum Lindley. Petalis 6 cari- 
natis Stam. 6 filam. dilat. subcoronatis membr. 
Ovar. ad apice 3glanduloso (ut Hyacinthus) 
stig. simplex, valvis septif, sem. angulatis ; Genus 
akin to Syncodiuni, Hyacinthns Slc. according 
to mere habit, it ought to be Allium ! H. lact- 
cum bot. reg. 1639. Scapo teres, fol. canalic. 
umbella multifiora, bracteis linearib. sepalis 
ovatis acutis, 3 int. emarg. ad California. 

73. Hemierium R {half wooly) Diff. 67. 
Filamentis ad basis lanatis, apice glabris, Rad. 
crassa, caule ramoso^ fl,. purp. albisq. — Typ. 
H.. planifolium Raf. 2. grecutn, et alia. sp. 
Antheric auct. 

74. Endogona R (inside angular) Vere 

ti8 FLOR. TEM.tiK. 

Phalangium T. Juss. P. nomen G. arachnides 
similis ! Dili'. Stain, glabris filiformis. This G. 
hardly diflers from SldUa^ except by the angular 
seeds: the type is End. ramosa—Antheric. Pha- 
lange of authors, and the akin sp. E. adenan- 
thera (Forster) witli the anthers on a gland 
must form a Sub. Genus at least. 

75. BuLBiNE L. Shult. LiLiAGO Lob. T. Diff. 
67. Stam. glabris filiformis ineq. Stylo declinato, 

jl» racem. albis — Type B. of Antheric. liliago 
L. Phal. do W. DC. 

76. Pleisolirion R (near Lilly) Liliastrum 
T. Diif. 67. Stam. glabris filiformis declinatis, 
Stylo recto, Cor. campanul. petalis connivens. 
tScapo fl,. racem. secimd. albis, liliformis — 
Typ. P. liliastrum. auct. A. Ph. do. 

77. CoiLONox R (hollow tip) Diff. 67. Pe- 
talis vix patulis apice fornicatis, dorso carinatis ; 
Type C. albucoides Raf. Phal. do Pers. Albuca 

78. Cronyxium R(colored claw) Diff. 67* 
Petalis unguiculatis, stam. glabris, Stibcaules-^ 
cens, unijl. jlos magn. albo variegato — Cr. 
serotinum Raf. auct. sub. A. Phal. enum. 

79. ToFiELDA Hudson. Ahama Ad. Rydbec^ 
kia Neck. Hcritiera Sternb. Iridrogalma RP. 
Antheric. calycid. L . . . Diff'. 67. Calix trifid. 
subt. corolla, stam. glabris. Stylis 3^ — what a lin-' 
nean blunder ! just like those daily made by his 
worshipers, many akin sp. now united require a 
further division, see my New fl. N. amer. True 
Tojielda. Petalis equalis, filam. subul. caps 
3cocca, intus dehiscens, sem. paucis angulatis^ 
4 Species. 

80. Abama Raf. Diff*. 79. Petalis alt. longior, 
Stam. filif. Caps. 3 gonis, loculis apice bivalvis 
2sperm — Type A. scabra R. Tofielda pubens E. 

(KNT. I. 29 

!) Other sj). each witli some pecuHar cliaracters, 
the Nartheriiini of Mx. his N. jmbrns, 8vih. G. 
Trianfha, has petalis angiKst. cups, globosis, lo- 
cuHs pol} sp. seni. teretis caiulatis. 

81. Nartiiecium Sm. Atti/ieric. ostifragnm 
\i. Dilf. 07. PetaHs pcrsistons, filam. hirsutis, 
Caps 3gona, sem. appeiidicuhitis. Tims no 
cal. Hke many of the above Cienera. Botanists 
must be bhnd to blend such disparities. When 
all these G. will be properly noticed and studied, 
the stigma and seeds will offer other additional 
features. From G7 to 81 the Genera belong to 


82. Melanthiitm Gron. L. auct. another G. 
requiring a radical reform. The very name 
meaning black flower does not apply, and the 
authors have united thereto many plants quite 
unlike, Helonias^ Tulijja, Wiirmbea! The fol- 
lowing G. 83 to 100, are chiefly reformed out of 
this heterogenous mass, all belonging to HEL- 

83. EvoNvxis R (well clawed) Melanthium 
Gron. Petalis 6 equalis persistens, rotatis, basis 
unguic. elongatis staminiferis, s. pustulatis, 2 
glandulosis. stam. eq. filif. antheris. globosis sty- 
lis 3. caps. 3 basi coalit. intus deh. Sem. plura 
alata. Caiilescens, ramosis, Jl. albescens pani- 
cul — -Fine natural G. many Sp. in N. Amer. not 
yet well distinguished. E. virginica^ glauca, 
monoica^ hybrida, all Melanthium of authors, 
with several N. Sp. see my New Flora. I add 

84. Evonyxis {Melanthiurri) undulata Raf. 
Caule elatior, fol. glabris striatis, panicula mul- 
tifl. puberula, pedic. elong. petalis reniformib. 
undulatis — Alabama, fl. large, white w ith 2 red 
spots above the claws. 

.*{0 FU>R. TKLLUU. 

85. ^iGADENDs Mx. Dift'. 83. petalis sossilis 
erectis glandiilis binis ferens. Ov. 3gon. 8tylis 
3 obt. contiguis (in fig. Mx. Stylus trifido acuto) 
Caps 3gona 3Ioc. Seni. angulatis — I give this G. 
to contrast it with the next. Several sp. in my 
new Flora. 

80. GoMPHOSTYLis R. n. fl. (club styles) peta- 
lis 6 patulis persistens, sessilib, subcoalitis, big- 
landulis. Stam. G basi dilatatis ovar. adpressis, 
apice deflexa filif. Styli 3 clavatis, Caps, ut in 
85. CaulescenSy fl. subsplcatis, bracteis ohsitis. 

87. GoMPH. bracteata Raf. Caule flexuoso, 
fol. lin. lane. acum. brevis, spicis oblongis, fl. 
subsessilis, bracteis petalisque ovatis acum. in- 
volutis. Virginia. Helonias bracteata Brereton 
mpt. Is the Veratrum Virginicum Ait. bot. 
mag. 865 a second sp. of this Genus ? or a Zig- 
adenus? 2. Gomphostylis? paniculata R. ra- 
cemis paniculatis, pedicelis bracteis longior, pe- 
talis bigland. ut. in Genus, and another sp. is 
perhaps the Veratrum Virginiciini of Sm. who 
says it is the real Melanth. Virgin, of Lin ! and 
also Helonias VirginicaCnY\\^ hot. mag. 983! 
3 Gomph? or Z. fuscatus Raf. fol. nervosis 
plicatis, fl. panicul. petalis eUipticis sessilib. ex- 
tus pubescens, intus viridis, basi pustulis 2 fus- 

88. Veratrum L. this differs from the last 
by having no glands, on the sessile petals. Petalis 
6 sessilis egland. Stam. subhypogynis. Caps. 
3 polyspermis. Caulescens, fol. latis^ fl. panic. 
V. nigrum., V. album, V. viride of N. amer. 
V. luieum is Abalon albiflorum Raf. fl. white. 
V. sabadilla is probably a peculiar G. as the 
habit is different; Sahad. offic, fol. hn. lane, ner- 
vosis, fl. racem. secundis, pet. ovatis atropurp. 
Mexico, akin to next Genus. 



89. Anepsa R i\eratr.grec) Cor. campanul. 
6 part, eglandula, sepalis eq. angustis. Stam. 
C breviss. ad bas. scpalis. insert, filani filif. an- 
theris subrot. Ov. 31id. stylis 3, caps. 3 coalitis 
oligosp. Caulescens^fol. angtistis, Jl. panicul. 
sepe dicVwls. 4 Sp. at least, v. v. 

90. Anepsa spicata Raf. fol. longiss. filif. 
canalic. spica basi ramosa, fl. subsess. bract, 
subul. brevissim. sepalis lane, acutis. mts. Apalach 
pedal, fl. purplish dioical. 

91. Anepsa graminifolia Raf. Caule angu- 
lato, fol. gramineis planis, striatis, panicula ra- 
cemosa, bract, setaceisfl. longior, pedic. 1-3 floris, 
sepalis lane, acum — West Kentucky, pedal, fl. 

92. Anepsa carinata R (V. angustif. Mx. 
auct) fol. longis lin. carinatis panic racemosa, 
sepalis linearib — mts. Apalach. fl. dioicis virido- 

93. Anepsa latifoUa R (V. parvifl. Mx. auct) 
fol. ov. lane, planis, panic, racem. gracilis, pe- 
dic. brevis, sepalis lane, acutis — mts. Apalach. fl. 
polyg. viridis. 

94. Epionix R. (on claws) Fetalis 6 ungui- 
cul. eglandulis, lanceol. Stam 6. adnatis ad ung. 
apex. Ovar. tereto 3sulcato, Stylis 3 recurvis. 
Caps. 31ocul. Caulescens, paueifl.. grandifl — 
Fine African Genus made 2 G. by Linneus! 
Tkilipa breyjiiana, Melanthiurn ethiopicum ! 
Sir J. Smitli who corrected this, calls it M.jla- 
vum, but there are 2 sp. M. unifl. Jaq. W. is 
the 2d. others copy these blunders as usual — 
1. Epionix rubra R. Caule 3-4 floro, fol. lin. 
lane. fl. rubris. 2. E. flava, Caule, unifl. fol. lin. 
lane. fl. flavo. 

95. Aphoma R (no pustule) Fetalis 6 sessi- 
is. pustulis nullis. Ovar. ad basis Oclandul. 

'J*2 ri.OR. TELLl'll. 

Caps. 3gona 3Iociil. Cetera ut Zi^adenus. Rod. 
bulb. Caulesc. paucijl — Typ. Melatithhim in- 
dicum L. aiict. plurima sp. confusa. 1. A. an- 
gusiijlora R. fol. lin. petalis linearih. acutis. 
2. cuneata, fol. lin. lane, petalis cuneatis obtu- 
sis. Both in India. 

9G. Ox\ixoTis R (claic eared) Diff. 83. un- 
guiculis pet. sepe canalic. basi vel apice biden- 
tatis s. biauriculatis, eglandulosis. Caps. 31oc.' 
Jl. spic, s. racem — Several sp. from Africa, call- 
ed Melanthiiim by authors. 1. O, ciliata^ O. 
seeundn, Slc. have auricles at base of claw. 2 
a Sub. Genus Zigotila,, auric, ad apice ung. ft. 
racemosis. viridis Raf. fol. ovatobl. scapo 2-3fl. 
fl. viridis. Mel. racemoides Jaq. 450. Curtis 641. 
Sm. &.C. 

97. Ornithogloson Salisb. Diff. 83. Petalis 
sessilis reflexis basi nectariferis, Stam. 6 hypo- 
gynes. Type O. s. Melanth. viride L. 

98. Skizima R {split stig.) Diff. 83. Petalis 
6 sessilis cuculatis egland. stylis nullis, stigma 
3 bifidis. Caps- 3loc. 6 Sp. Scapls paucijl — S. 
pumila R. Scapo brevis 3-4fl. fol. cespit. lane, 
rigid, canal, basi barbatis — Fuegoland, fl. albis. 
Melanth. pum, Forst. W. P. 

99. Plexinium R (segm. union) Diff. 83, Cor- 
olla Gpartita, s. Gfida, sepalis basi coalitis, sessi- 
lib. ad basis poriferis staminiferis. Stam. glabris? 
Type PLpiinctatum\\\\\ch is Melardh.capense 
L. and M. motiopetahrm ! L. 2 sp. are only one. 
Mel. sibiricum probably belongs here also, 
having united sepals. 

100. Crosperma Raf. 1825 neog. (colored 
seed) Melanthiitm., Helonias, auct. Corolla 
persistens, rotata, 6part. sepalis sessil. glandulis 
o. Stam. 6 filif. Stylis 3. Capsulis 3 vix coalitis 
monosp. sem. arillatis, arillis coloratis^ Caules- 

CENT. II. 3^ 

cens fol. ang.jl. racemosls — This G. includes 
several sp. that have heen united to 5 or G Ge- 
nera! now commonly blended in Helonlas but 
with different fruit. Chiefly from N. Amer. and 
in great confusion. See my New flora. The fol- 
lowing are the types, 1. C rasper ma loeta Raf. 
M.loetum^eriithrosp.Htlonlas do auct. 2. Cr. 
phalangioides R. Mel. do W. P.antheric. sub- 
trigynum Jaq. Slc 3. Cr. angustif. R. not M, 
do Mx. and several new species. 



101. Zaga R (nom. ind.) Cal. persistens 5part. 
eq. Fetalis 5 subeq. Stam. 10 libera. Stylo cur- 
vo. Legum. ovato compr. crasso duro apex unci- 
nato, intus monoloc. 2-8 sperm. Sem. angul. 
rubris. Arbor, fol. imp. pinnatis,Jl. panicul — 
1. 2^. latifolia. Foliolis 7 oppos. petiol. ovato 
lane. leg. rectis uncinatis dispermis — 2 Z. par- 
vifolia foliolis alt. sessilib. ellipt. leg. falcatis 
7-8spermis. Both trees called Zaga by Rum- 
phius, grow in Molucas. The G. is near Ces- 
alpina, and also Xylocarpa by the fruit. 

102. Alagopiiyla R. diff*. Gesneria, Cor. 
tubulosa, limbo 5lobo equalis, glandulis 2 hy- 
pog. posticis ad ovar — A. dasyanthes Raf. 
Gesn. alagopiiyla^ Martens, Lindley hot. reg. 
1767. Villosa, fol. obi. obt. crenatis, fl. spicatis 
luteis, villosis, limbo flavo. In Brazil. The true 
Gesneria has the Cor. camp, bilabiate ! another 
Gesneria with unilabiate! corolla, is my Meg- 
apleilis bnlbosa 201. 

103. Calacinum R (Cal. bacca) Diff. Poly- 
gonum., Fagopyriniu Hdxinr^ Cnl. 5part. eq. 



cone, persistens baccans Stam 8. Ovar ovat, 
Stylis 3 dilatatis foliaceis, stig. acutis. Sem. 
ovato incluso in bacca globosa calycina. Frutex 
voUihil. Ji. raceinosis pohjgamis G. intermed. 
b.etw. Polygon, and Cocolaba, another added 
to the 10 good Genera blended with the first 
by authors — 1. C. adpressum Raf. (Pol. do 
Lab. 127. Hook. hot. m. 3145) ramis teretis, fol. 
cord. sag. marg. scabris. Australia edulis. 2. C- 
australis R (Cocol. do Forst) fol. cord, ovatis. 
N. Zeland. 

101. CocoLOBA L. differs from last by, CaL 
basi carnoso, ovar. immerso. Stam. basi coalitis 
in annulo. stylis 3 simpl. stig. obt. — Typ. C. 
iwifera L. fol. cord, baccis nutans pyriformis, 
spicatis. Tree, Florida Antilles &.c. often fig- 
ured, many Sp. miited thereto must be exam- 
ined again. 

105. Naucorepiies R (nut covered) Cocol- 
oba auct. diff. styli dilatatis cuneatis dentatis, 
Ovar. lobat. Nux. 3-61oba, l-6sperma in cal. 
baccans inclusa — Typ. 1. C puhescens L. 2, 
punctata auct. et alia sp. 

106. LoLANARA R (nom ind) Cal. bisqua- 
mosus, Fetalis 6, duplice series, 3 int. major. 
Stam. plurima hypogyna. Drupo ovato, nucleo 
bivalvis intus pulposo polysp? — L. odorata, fol. 
ovatis sparsis scabris. Oceanic tree, Lolanwara 
of Rumphius. Family Hesperidia. 

107. TuLiPA L. Cor. camp, petalis 6 decid. 
glabris subeq. nectaris nullis, Stam. 6. subeq. 
filam. glabris, antheris erectis. Stigma sessile 
magno 3 lobo trigono. Florih. erectis — Genus; 
very near Fritillaria^ Erythronium &lc. many 
sp. not well described. T. gesneriana, clusiana^ 
suaveolens, oculus-soHs, and several N. Sp. 
all seen alive. Type of tribe Tulipires. 

xtifT. li. ^^ 

108. Tiilipa unguiculata li. unifl. fol. ov. 
tanc. corolla ovata, petalis flavis apice unguicu- 
lutis. Caucasus. 

109. Ttdipa laclniata R. unifl. fol. ov. 
lane- undulatis, corolla dilatata camp, petalis 
obovatis undulatis laciniatis versicolor. In Hor- 

110. Tulipa bicolorKiiL atl. J. 1833. Caule 
flex, unifl. fol. ov. lane, planis acum. petalis 
acutninalis, 3 int. obov. albis, 3 ext. ovat. incar- 
natis. Arkanzas. 

111. Tulipa aurea Raf. A. J. 1833. unifl. 
fol, ang. eanal. apice falcatis, petalis acuni. 
luteis, 3 ext. lane. 3 int. ovatis. In Gardens 
from Texas. 

112. Tulipa montana R. A. J. 1833, Caule 
unifol. unifl. fol. rad. angustis planis, petalis Ian- 
cieol. acutis eroeeis. Alleghany mountains. 

113. LiRioPOGON Raf. (Lily bearded) Tulipa 
auct. Difl*. Petalis apice barbatis, Stam. barba- 
tis ad basis vel. apice — ^Types L. celsianumy 
sifltestre, biflornm &e. all Tulipa of authors ; 
but the first was made Melanthium nniflorum 
by Curtis b.m. 717! 

114. Amblirion Raf. 1817. Diff*. 107. Fila- 
mentis toto hirsutis, Stylo clavato piloso, stigma 
Sgono.floribus nutans ut in FritlUaria — Typ. 
A. grecum Raf. Tulipa sihthorpiana Sm. unifl. 
fol. 2 ovatis, petalis obtusis — The doubtful Lili- 
um pudicum of Pursh, since united to Fritilla- 
ria, Tulipa, appears to belong here by habit, 
and a elavate style ; but it is perhaps smooth. 
AmhL pndicum Raf. 1816 unifl. fol. lin. lane, 
petalis obovatis retusis flavis. Oregon. 

115. Varronia L. Cal. tubul. persist. 5dent. 
Cor. tubul. limbo parvo patulo Sfido, equalis. 
Stam. 5 eq. in tubo. Stylo 4 fida, Stigma 4. 

3^ rLOR. TELLUa. 

Drupa mix 4locul. sepe 4sperma. — Typ. V. liri' 
eata^ bullata, ^lohosa., alba^ genicidata^ alia 
sp. Older ARCYTHIA, tribe AGIPHILIA 
Raf, 1815. 

110. Catonia Raf. (Cato agr.) Diff. Cor. 
campan. siibintegra crenata. stylo dichot. Dru- 
pa monosp — Typ. C. lantanoides Raf. Varro- 
nia monosperma auct. spicis globosis, fol, ov. 
lane. Carracas. 

117. Habenaria W. Br. auct. Whoever 
deems the numbers of Stamina unimportant in 
Grasses, Lilies &.€. must regret that this G. 
and many other Orciiides are based on their 
double number, altho' a most essential charac- 
ter : 1 and 2, 3 and G, 5 and 10 stamina, al- 
ways distinguish very distinct Genera, and who- 
ever unites Azalea to Rhododendron sins 
against Linneus and Nature! meantime not- 
withstanding the learned labors of Swartz, 
Brown, Richard, Lindley ... on Orchides, 
they have left HaLenaria, Orchis, Epidendron 
and other G. in utter perplexity. The last char, 
of Habenaria is merely a Cor. ringens, label- 
lum calcaratum, antheris nudis binis — while 
other Genera have elaborate definite charac- 
ters of 50 or GO words. Habenaria thus in- 
cludes many blended G. and requires complete 
reform. I shall now begin it, and give a new 
essential character of Habenaria Raf. Cor. 
ringens, lab. ad basi calcarato, glandulis nullis, 
col. simplex, antheris 2 divisis nudis anticis ver- 
tical. Caulescens. ft. racemosis — Types the 
Amer. Sp. having those char. H. Jimbriatay 
O. habenaria, and akin Sp. 

118. Platantiiera Richard. Diff*. Cor. pa- 
tula, columna dilatata, antheris 2 terminalis 
lateralis nudis. remotis. Scaposis, fol. binis 

CENT. II. 37 

rail. ampVis. — Type tlio various sp. hlonded as 
Orchis or llahen. hifolia, now 7 or 8 Sp. many 
new in the Alleghany nits. I do not know the 
sub-genus Jltcoaa of Lindley, is it my next 
Genus ? 

119. TvLOTis R. (wart ear) Diff. 117. Label, 
ad basis supra uniglanduloso, ad latere *2 auri- 
cul. s. bidentato. Col. brevis dilatata biloba, an- 
theris ut Plata nthcra^ habitus ut JIabettaria, 

jioribus fra^rans. Types 4 Sp. described 1832 
in my Herb. Raf. //. herbiola, fiiscesceiis <fcc. 
of authors. See my Flora N. Amer. 

120. DiGOMPiioTis R. (2 club ears) Diff. 117. 
Sepalis connivens subeq. Label, cuculato, basi 
calcar saccato. colum. ad latere appendiculata, 
auriculis clavatis, (an antheris ster?) — Types 
the 2 following sp. and others. 

121. Digornphotis cordata Raf. Foliis binis 
alt. cordatis acum. Snervis, fl. viridis bracteis 
equante, lab. trilobo, calcar breviss. obt. — Por- 
tugal, Madera. Habenaria cordata Br. Hook, 
misc. t. 55. b. mag. 31G4.' Sat ifriutn diphyhim 

122. Digornphotis undulata Raf. Fol. pluris 
ellipticis obtusis undulatis, spica densa, bract, 
fl. longior, sepalis 3 ovat. obt. ext. viridis, peta- 
lis int. albis. obov. lab. integro ovato, calcar 
globoso — India, Nepal. Hahen. goodyeroides 
(n. barb) Don. Spreng. Hook. b. m. 3397, 

123. Pecteilis R.^comb. lip) Diff. 117. Cor- 
olla patula ineq. sepalis 2 int. minimis, label, 
amplissimo 3part. med. minor integro, lobis later, 
amplis flabellatis. pectinatis. Col. elongata, an- 
tice bidentata. antheris lateralis, apice annexis. 
basi auriculatis. Florib. amjyJis^ pauciSy frag- 
rans. a beautiful G. near Bartholinia of Lindley 


Types 3 Sp. which roots are tuberose, Ovary 
terete, Spur long, and tVagrant flowers. 

124. PecteiUs *ri<fantea R. fol. ovatis, florib. 
4-5, bract, lane. ovar. tereto subeq. petalis al- 
bis, 3 ext. obov. obt. 2 int. lin. falcatis — India, 
Nepal. Stem 4 feet, flowers 5 inches. Hahena- 
ria gigantea Sm. Ex. bot. 100. Hook. b. m. 

125. PecteiUs susanna R. Fol. ensif. cana- 
lic. florib. sub 3 petalis albis, 3 ext. subrot. lab. 
lobis ciliatis — Amboyna, Stem pedal, fl. 2 inches. 
Orchis Susanna L. &. auctoris. 

120. PecteiUs radiata Raf. Diff*. 125. Peta- 
lis 2 ext. ovatis acuminatis. — Japan. Orchis ra- 
diata Pers. O. Susanna. Thunberg. 

127. Blepiiariglotis Raf. (ciliate glotis) 
Ovar. desinens in appendice tereto subtus fl. 
Petalis 3 ext. in galea connivens, label, ligulato 
fimbriato; Col. dilatata, utrinque latere glandula 
magna, antheris lateralis remotis clausis inter 
cella bialata bivalvis — striking G. of North 
Amer. Types the 5 next Sp. Similar habit, stem- 
leafy angular spike short, fl. handsome inodor- 
ous, leaves few carinate lane, pollen caudate, 
only one in each cell or anther. All seen alive. 

128. Blephar. alhiflora Raf. Elatior, fol. 
acutis spica oblonga, petalis albis, 2internisobl. 
apice laceris, calcar elongato, label, convexo 
margine reflexo, apice acuto paulo ciliato — N. 
Amer. paludis. Orchis et Hahen. blephariglotis 
auctoris, O. ciUaris alba Mx. ofl;. figured. 

129. Blephar. longicornis Raf. Elatior, fol. 
obtusiusc nervosis, spica oblonga, petalis albis, 
2 iuternis apice ciliatis, calcar longissimo diva- 
ricato, labello lineari, basi ciliis brevis, apice 
lacero fimbriato — Alabama, Louisiana, fig. au- 
tikon bot. as all the sp. 

CEirr. II. 39 

130. Blephar. bicolor Raf. Caule biped, fol. 
venosis obtusiusculis, spica ovata, petalis ful- 
vescens 2 int. subintcgris calcar elongate albo, 
label, albo piano pinnato finibriato, apice trun- 
cate lacero — Nova Cesarea, in aquosis: ap- 
parently a hybrid of 128 and 131, yet Orchides 
cannot produce hybrids, the fecundation being 
so intimate : it is rather a deviated N, Sp. beau- 
tiful, the yellow is pale, nearly buff' color. 

131. Blephar. Jtacijlora R. Caule l-2ped, 
fol. subnervosis obtusiusc. Spica ovato, petalis 
flavis croceis, 2 int. subintegris, calcar elonga- 
to label, piano pinnato. fimbriato, apice truncate 
longe fimbriato — N. Amer. ad pratis. The most 
common sp. in mts. and plains. Orchis s. Hahen. 
ciliaris auct. fl. smaller than in the others. 

132. Blephar. cristata Raf. Humilior, fol. 
acutis subnervosis, spica oblonga, petalis cro- 
ceis, 2 internis subrotundis cristatis, calcar bre- 
vis ad evar. dimidio, labelle obi. pennatim la- 
cero — Virg. ad Florida. Flowers smaller still. 
Orchis cristata Mx. et auctoris. 

133. Mesicera R. neog. 1825 (middle horns) 
Diff'. Orchis. Petalis internis bipart. Lab. tri- 
part, lobis lateralis setaceis. anthera unica 2pel- 
len, ad basis bicornuta. capsula trigona — Types 
2 Sp. 1 Mes. Michauxi R. O. 5seta Mx. and 
2 Mes. repens R. Habenaria do Nut. El. see 
Herb. Raf and new flora. 

134. Galeaihs.R. h. 1833 (helmet like) Diff: 
Orchis. Petalis 3 supernis coalitis in unico ga- 
leaformis concave fornicate, labelle indiviso an- 
thera bipollen. Radix ramosa^ scapo pauci- 
folio paucijloro — Striking pecidiar habit, types 

2 sp. 6r. spectabilis and 6r. hiflora Raf. herb. 
Raf both blended as Orchis spectabilis by au- 
thors, fig. autikon bet. 

40 FLOR. TELLl^K. 

1:35. Plectiiuius Raf. 1810, neog. 18*25 
(spur tail) Tipularia discolor Nut. noni. absurd, 
ad Tipula-ria, et nonnulis auct. Orcliis et Li- 
tnodorum alia auct. — Dili". Orchis Petalis pa- 
tulis spatulatis, lab. integ. Col. aptera porrecta 
libera, anthera opercul. articul. bivalvis 4 pol- 
len. Rad. monilif. fol. rad. luiica, seapis, JI. 
racem, mitans ehract — Habit quite different 
from Orchis, the cpur and anther only akin, 
nearest to O. abortica, another N. G. Epipac- 

13G. Orchis L. Br. auct. Corolla ringens, 
hib. basi calcaratum, diviso, sine glandulis, 
anthera unica l-2glandulosa, cuculata. Caules- 
cens folio sis ^ fl. spicatis — Such are the charac- 
ters of the true Orchis. But many Sp. offer yet 
disparities that deserve~to form sub. genera at 
least. 1. Tephrosanthos R. petalis connivens, 
calcar incurve. 2. Pomoplis-l^. petalis conni- 
vens, calcar recto. 3. Khizarina R. petalis pa- 
tulis s. reflexis: which may offer other subdi- 

1.37. Larnandha R. neog. 1825 (cell st) Diff. 
Epidendron ovar. filif. Lab. lobato adnato 
supra biglanduloso. Col. elongata cuculata for- 
nicata anthera unica ; inclusa operculata 41ocul. 
globosa. Rad. vermicidaris, Caidib. paucifol, 
paucijicris — Type L. conopsea Raf. Ejnd. do 
Br. et auct. Hook. hot. m. 3457. This and the 
next G. are no more real Epidendr. than my 
Nyctosma. Many G. are yet blended under the 
absurd characters of, lab. libero vel adnat. cal- 
loso, costato, vel tuberculato nunc, calcarato! 
The only common char, being petalis patens, 
col. erecta, anthera carnosa 2-41oc! 

138. Caularthron R (Stem jointed) Diff. 
Epidendron. Label, libero, ad basi alato s. 

CENT. II. 41 

glanduloso. Col. libera bialata deiitata, anthera 
terininalis 4 pollen. Caul, articulator vaginato^ 
bifolio,pauciJloro — Habit very singular. Types 

2 Sp. 1. Caul, hicornutum. Epid. do. Hook. b. 
m. 3332. Bulbo cauliformis, fol. rad. ligul. re- 
tusis, scapo paucifl. label, trilobo, medio lane, 
ac. basi bicorne, petalis ellipt. acutis albis. Tri- 
nidad — 2 Caul, umbellatum R. Epid. stenope- 
talum Hook. b. m. 3110. Bulbo ramoso, caule 
scaposo, fol. terminalis lin. obi. obt. fl. umbella- 
tis purpureis, labello integro obovato obt. basi 
glandula magna quadrata, petalis ovatis acurn, 

3 ext. angustior, col. alis dentatis. Jamaica. 
139 Telesia R (Telesio phil) Periantho 

oligophylo imbric. ext. major. Phorantho paleis 
carinatis, fl. radiatis, radiis paucis fem. 3 dent, 
achenis trigonis tridentatis, in disco triaristatis. 
Fol. oppos. habitus Helianth. — Telesia aurea 
Raf. Wedelia? aurea Don, Hook. b. m. 3384. 
Scabra ramosa, fol opp. sess. ov. lane, serratis 
acutis, ramis trifloris, per. sepalis ovatis acutis. 
Mexico, very near llelianthuSj merely diff'. by 
few leaved perianthe, and trigone seeds. Wede- 
lia with rays or no rays! seeds urceolate or uni- 
aristate, is far more remote, and a confused 

140. SoLiDAGo L. auct. This G. with Eri- 
geron^ Inula and Aster were in utter confusion, 
the determination of Sp. hardly attainable, altho' 
oflering many excellent permanent charar- 
ters for N. Genera. I began in 1807 to reform 
them ; since then my labor has been partly an- 
ticipated by Cassini, Esenbeck, Nuttal and Les- 
sing, but they have lefl the others nearly un- 
touched. I now mean to revise them, leaving 
most of the Asters for further enquiries. For 
the N. 8p. see my Flora. 



141. Soli DAGO Raf. (^ar. ref. — Perianthus^^ 
obi. inibricat. clausiis. liadiis 3-10 ineq. integris^ 
llosculis paiicis, phoranthus nudus, Semina obi. 
piibesc. pappus caliculatis, levis pilosus. Caul, 
erectis^fol. sparslsji. racemosis parmsbract- 
eolatis, plerumque flams — many sub-genera. 
1 . Triactis. Rad. 3-4 brevis cuneatis, flosculis 
3-5. Typ. 1. *S\ retrorsa Mx. 2 tortifolia E — 
2 Brachyactis, Rad. 5 cuneatis brevissimis 
in periantho inclusis. Typ. 3. S. juncea L. 4 
canadensis L. 5 procera Ait. G aspera Ait. et. 
alia. sp. — 3. Albigula, Rad. 5-10 albis elongatis 
cuneatis deinde reflexis. Typ. 7. S, hicolor L. 
et. Sp. affinis — Pleiactila, Rad. 5-10 lanceo- 
latis brevissimis, plurima Sp. S.flexlcaiilis, ril- 
losa, ulmifolia, cincrascens, Sic. — 5. Stenac- 
TiLA, rad. 5-10 linearib. elongatis, plur. sp. S. 
sempermrens, augustifolia, pubescens^ ellipti- 
ca, Virgaurea / &c. Doria Adanson, Virgau- 
rea Tourn. are the same Genus as Solidago. 

142. LeioligoR (smooth few) Diff. 141. Ra- 
diis 5-10, Semina glabra, pappus non caliculatus, 
fiorih. nonnuUs corynibosis—3 sub. G. — 1. 

Brevigula, Had. 5. brevissimis cuneatis. Type. 
L. cesia L. 2 pyramidata P — 2 Lininque, 
Rad. 5 linearib mediocris. 4 L. speciosa Nut. 
5 saliclna E. &.c. — 3. Doria, Rad. 6-10 elon- 
gatis lin.|lanceol. plurima sp. L. petiolaris Ait. 
erecta P. corymhosa E. pidverulenta. N. rigi- 
da L. elata. P. lithospermlf. &c. all Solidago 
of authors : and several N. Sp. 

143. Aplactis R (simple ray) Diff. 141, Ra- 
dio unico, fiosculis 5, Sem. glabra,^, panicula- 
lis — Type Aplactis paniculata Raf. Solid, 
pauciflosctdosa Mx. et auct. near to Sub. G» 

CENT. II. 43 

144. Lepiactis R (scaly rays) Diff. 141, Pe- 
rianth, ovato, rati. 5-7 inecj. squama ad tubis 
radiis, flosculis 7-8, Sem. striatis villosis, pappus 
calicul. piloso, scabio. Racemis virgatis — Type 
Lepiactis virgata R. Solid do Mx. et auct. 

145. Dasiorima R (hairy pits) Difl'. 141, Pe- 
rianth, glohoso, phorantho alveolato, marg. cih- 
atis. Rad. 7-10 elongatis, disco multitloro, Sem. 
pubescens. Racemis panicidatis — Types sever- 
al sp. blended as Solid, mexicana auct. 1. D. 
mexicana Raf. Caule corymboso, fol. lane, ses- 
silis, pedunculis nudis uniflorus. Probably the 
original Sol. mexicana L. Dod. t. 219. Loud. 
12099—2 D. limonifolia {Sol. do Pers) Gla- 
bra paniculata, fol. lanceol. infimis ellipt. pedi- 
cellis l-3fl. squamosis. N. Am. — 3. 1). ellioti 
Raf. Sol. lim. E) Glabra panicul. fol. angusto 
lanceol. marg. scabro, imis amplex. pedicellis 
sq. l-3floris. Carolina. 

146. EuTiiAMiA Nuttal diff. 141, Periantho 
tereto, phorantho setoso, rad. brevissimis, jl. 
corymbosis — Chrysocoma of Anier. authors. 

147. AcTiPSis Raf. (Rays false) Diff. 141, 
Periantho turgido campanul — sepalis laxis s. 
reflexis, Rad. 10 brevissim. obov. disco multifl. 
Sem. glabris, pappus scabro. — Types A.glom- 
erata Raf (Solid, do Mx.) fl. glom. per. lax. 
2. A. squamosa auct. fl. racemosis periantho 
reflexo. This quite akin to Asters. 

148. Dectis R. (nom. antic) Diff. 141, Pe- 
riantho sepalis carinatis, ext. laxis internis con- 
nivens. Rad. 7-10 ovatis. Sem. glabra. Frutico- 
sis, /?. corymb, s. thyrsoideis — Types Dectis 
(Solid, auct.) arborescens, leucad^rugosa {spu- 
ria) — decurrens Lour. Rad, 7-8, fi. thyrsoideis. 
These are Asiatic or African shrubs. 


149. Oligactis Raf. 1804! (few rays) Aster 
auct. Conyza asteroldes L. et Sp. affinis. Peri- 
anth, tercto imbricato, sepalis scariosis coloratis, 
phorantho punctato, Rad. sub 5 ineq. bidenta- 
tis. Sein. angulata pubescens pappus pilosus 
scaber. Fl. corymb, alhis — G. as near the Sol- 
idago group as to Asters, Types O. linifolia, 
conyzoides, torfifoHa, and several N. Sp. in my 

150. Mesoligus R (middle few) Diff. 149. 
Per. sepalis adpressis subul. nonscariosis, rad. 
25-30 brevissimis, ineq. 3dent. disco paucifloro 
6-lOfl. Sem. glabris teretis striatis^. panic, rad^ 
purpureis — Type 31. subidatus Raf. Aster do 
Mx. auct. et alia sp G. near Erigeron, Ceno- 

tUS, &/C. 

151. Galatella Cassini auct. Diff. 149. Rad. 
integris abortivis, phorantho alveolaris, marg. 
\3.cero,Jl.purp. I^y pes Aster acris^ hyssopifoL 
punctata <fcc. auct. mod. 

152. Anactis R (no rays) Aster discoideus 
Elliot. Periantho hemisph. imbricat. sepalis 
subul. squarros. laxis, Phorantho parvo nudo. 
Rad. nullis, flosculis 12-15, omnis herm. Sem. 
oblongis glabris, pappus simplex scabro^. pani- 
cid. purpureis. — 1. A. pilosa, Caule erecto vil- 
loso, fol. spathul. ovatis pilosis. Carolina — 2. A. 
glabra. Glabra, fol. lanceol, spatulatis. Alaba- 
ma. Near Enpatoriimi and discoidal Eriger- 

153. Aglotoma R (uncut lig) Diff. 149. Per. 
sepalis squarrosis ciliatis non scariosis, Rad. 
paucis 3-8 integris oblongis.^. panic, ceruleis; 
Type. Aster midtiflorus M. alia sp. 

154. AsTERisciis Tourn. Aster L. auct. Pi- 
nardia Necker Aplopapus Cassini. This vast 
G. is now greatly reduced and confined to the 

CENT. I!. ^i> 

sp. with Per. homispher. ineq. oxt. laxus imbri- 
catus, Radiis 10-20 sinipl. series ang. vix. clcn- 
tatis, seiii. aiig. pubescens, pappus scabro pilis 
caliculatis — The name Aster root of Asterias 
and otliers must be lengthened as did T. I re- 
fer to Esenbeck &.c. for Sub. G. and akin Gen- 
era; but some of Iiis are fahicious, Sj/mphotri- 
chum for instance says Hooker, in fact many 
Asters have annular pappus at base. Meantime 
I add the indication of my own Genera settled 
between 1815 and 1825. 

155. Leiaciienis Raf. (smooth ach) DifT. 
154, Sem. levis, pappus simplex non caliculato; 
Several Sub. G. 1. Psukelis. Per. foliaceus, 
radiis 15-25. A. paludosus L. — 2. Merisis. 
Per. laxis, Rad. paucis 10-12. A. cordifolius, 
paniculatus Slc. — 3. Dodecalis Per. sep. ad- 
pressis, rad. 10-12. A. corymbosus, dumosus 
&.C. — 4. FiMBRAMis. Per. sep. adpr. iimbriatis, 
rad. 15-25, A. foliolosus, sparslflorus «Slc. 
auctoris. The shrubby Asters are akin to this 
Genus. A. sericeus of America has 10 rays, 
lane, acute, entire, A, argophylus of Australia 
has only 3 rays, A. angustif. of Africa has 
many oblong rays nearly biserial. They proba- 
bly form as many Sub-Genera. My Venatris is 
another perhaps, see 163. 

156. DiPLACTis R (double rays.) The Asters 
with crowded long rays in double or triple se- 
ries, narrow linear subentire, pappus simplex. 
Such are A. alphms, caucasicus, novanglia, 
cyaneus, hl^ndus <Slc. Akin to Leiachenis, 
seeds commonly smooth. 

157. Stenactis Cass. auct. Differs from Di- 
plactis by Per. subequal. phoranth verrucose, 
pappus duplex, ex. brevis paleaceis — Aster chi- 
nensis type and many Sp. to be distinguished 



from the last. The name means narrow rays^ 
and not to ^Igh as stated hy Lindley. 

158. Kalimakes R. (nom. diosk) Diff. 155. 
Periantho sep. ext. reflexis, internis erectis 
scariosis coloratis. Rad. dupHce series — Type 
jL, amellus L. Genus Amellus T. Ad. but Lin- 
neus has given that name to another Genus. 

159. Tripolion R (nom. diosk) Diff. 155. 
Per. sep. subequalis duphce series adpressis 
membranaceis. Radiis unica series — Types Tri- 
polion maritimum Raf. Aster tripolium L. 
auct. obs. V. 1801 — 2. A. tenellus L. 3 A. ta- 
taricus L. 

IGO. FiMBRisTiMA R Diff. 154. Per. laxis. 
Rad. 16-20 Hn. lane, apice Sdentatis, stigmata 
fimbriatis, Sem. et pap. ut 154 — Aster sqiia- 
mosusth. sparsijL P. Jlexuosus N. maritimus 
Raf. et alia. 

161. DiPLOPAPUs Cassini. DiplostepJiion 
Kunth. Chrysopsis Nut. Diplogon Raf. 1817 
not R. Brown, name preocupied. How many 
names ! this shows that many did perceive the 
striking characters of the double pappus. Mean- 
time this G. must now be restricted to those 
nearest Asteriscus 154. differing by, Ovarium 
tereto hirsuto, pappus, biserialis conformis sca- 
bris, ext. minor, — It may be divided in many 
Sub. genera and has some blended G. yet — 1. 
Chrysopsis fl. yellow terminal. 2. Leucalis fl. 
white corymbose. 3. CeraUnis ft. blue terminal. 
Aster aurantius and pinnatns of Mexico with 
pinnate leaves and yellow flowers are probably 
a peculiar G. Diplostephion? 

162. ViRGULus R (small rod) Diff. 161. Pe- 
riantho sep. adpressis. Rad. paucis integris, 
Sem. obovata villosis, pappus duplex, ext. bre- 
vissimo villoso ut caliculo, interne aristis color- 

CEKT. 11. 47 

atis ineq. \e\is,Jlorib. racemosis purp. — Type 
Aster concolor L. and akin sp. habit of Tjiatris. 

1G3. Venatiics R (3 veins) Per. canipan. 
sepalis laxis iiubric. subeq. Phorantho punctato. 
Rad. 10-12 linear, integris trivenis. Sem. teretis 
tenuis glabris. Pappus simplex brevis coloratis 
equalis levis — Types A. paucijlorus N. linifo- 
lius, teniiifoUus, saUcifoliiis / Slc. and the next 
N. Sp. best type of the G. 

164. Venatrls falcata Raf. glabra, caule 
subangul. 3-5floro, fol. erectis sessilib. falcatis 
lin. lanceol. acutis uninervis, subintegris, pe- 
dunc. pubescens squainosis, sepalis oblongis, fi. 
purpureis — East Kentucky, falls of Cumber- 
land, pedal. 

105. Croptilon R (col. feather) Diff. 154. 
et. 01. Pet. Rad. paucis integris, Sem. obi. tere- 
tis hispidis, pappus coloratus scabr. simplex ad 
pilis CR\icu\u^tis, fl. paniciihit is flams. — This G. 
would be near Inula of L. but now this is re- 
stricted to /. helenium and the bisetose sp. 
The G. Pulicaria, Lioydia Necker, Limbarda 
Ad. are badly distinguished ; but having the 
perianthe variable are different from this — 
Type Crept, dwaricatum R. Chrysopsis do 
N. E. fol. lin. lane, hispidis serratis ciliat. pani- 
cula divaricata. Florida, anthers mutic. 

106. Stelmanis R (cor, diff.) Perianth, tere- 
to lOOphylus imbricatus phorantho favoso, Rad. 
20 lane, nervosis. anther muticis Sem. hispidis 
ad radi cupula integra membr. coronans, sem. 
disci pappo duplex, externo membr. polyph. in- 
terno piloso scabro. R. panic, fl avis — a very dis- 
tinct G. Chrysopsis scahra Elliot, who sugest- 
ed Calycium for a name, but it is bad. Stelm. 
scahra fol. scabris punct. rad. petiol. ovatis, 
caulinis cord, sessilibus. Carolina — I add the 

is FlA)il. TELLVR. 

various Genera of Inula 107 to 17*2 to sliow the 

1(37. Inula L. auct. Per. squamosus foliosus 
glcbosus, rad. plnrimis, antheris bisetosis, pap- 
pus simj)lex scabro ifcc. Type /. hderdum^ I, 
sqiiarrosa, hirta^ salicina, hirsuta/ Slc. fl. 
yellow in all. 

1G8. LioYDiA Necker, diff. 1G7, Per. subeq. 
sepalis 10-15. Types doubtful. 

169. PuLicARiA Raf. diff. 1G7, Per. imbric. 
adpresso, rad. paucis brevissimis 3dent. pappus 
caliculatis &.c. Types P. vulgaris (Imila pu- 
lic) 2. I. indica. 3.1. dysenterica, 4 fetUIa etc. 

170. LiMBARDA Ad. diff. 167. Per. tereto s. 
ovato adpresso &c. Types Inula crltkmlfolia^ 
arabica, japonica, pinifoUa <^'C. 

171. AsTROPTERus Vaill. Ad. diff. 167. Pho- 
rantho reticulat. foveolaris. Pappus duplex, ex- 
tern, membrana ciliata. Frutic. fl. ceruleis — 
Typ. Inula cerulea L. 

172. Orestion li. (n. gr. Inula) Olearia 
Mench, nom. mal. ad Olea! — Difi'. ad omnis 
Aster, Inula, Pappus plumosus, basi connatus. 
Frutex — Type O. dentata of Australia. Aster 
do Andr. t. 61. tomentosus W. 6. 

173. Pappociiroma R« Periantho tereto im- 
bricato. Rad. 20 cuneatis 5dentatis, stigmata 2 
clavata, Sem. ang. Pappus simplex coloratus — 
P. unijlora Raf. Erigeron pappochroma Lab. 
nearer Asters. 

174. Erigeron L. auct. Panios Ad. In Lin- 
neus only differs from Aster by having many 
narrow rays as Stenactis and Dlplactis ! and 
containing a crowd of Generas or deviations: 
I restrict the G. as follow and separate the 
Genera 175 to 182 — Erigeron Raf. Per. hem- 
ispher. imbric. sepalis lin. subeq. deinde reilexis. 

CEIVT. II. 49 

Rad. multiplis sepe duplice series, linearis inte- 
gris elongatis. Phorantho nud. punct. antheris 
muticis. Sem. obi. hispidis, pappus duplex, ext. 
brevi, interno 15-25 aristis. fl. sepe corymb, al- 
bis — Types £. philadelpkicum^ asperum, pu- 
milum, strigosum^ gramineum^ &c. 

175. Paniopsis Raf. (Erig. grec) diff. 174, 
Per. obi. laxis seu squarrosis ineq. Rad. brevis 
unica series sepe 2-3dent. antheris bisetosis ut 
in Inula Pappus subsimplex. fl. sepe panicul. 
rad. luteis — Near to Inula, only difference short 
rays, per. hemisph. 2. Sub. G. — 1. Graveolaria 
types E. graceolens, gliitiuosum fetidum, &c. 
2. Squareolaria, E. viscosum^ Slc. 

176. Deinosmos R (Conyza diosk) diff. 174. 
Per. obi. sepalis ext. laxis elongatis, Radiis nul- 
lis, flosculis. ad rad. femineis, antheris bisetosis 
pappus simplex, fl. axill. luteis — Type D. sicu- 
lus Raf. Erigeron do L. W. Inula, Solidago 
Chrysocoma! of other authors, thus shuffled 
iuto 4 genera, till it will rest in its own ! fol. lin. 
lanc.'scabris marg. revol. subintegro. Sicilia. v. v. 

177. Edemias R (Conyza gr.) diff. 174. Per. 
globosis. Radiis minutis inclusis brevi ssimis 
vagineformis, flosculis paucis, pappus simplex, 
fl. corymbos. albis — Types Conyza egyptiaca 
and gouani L. 

178. Brephocton R (Conyza gr.) Diff. 174. 
Per.lenticularis,florib.discoideis, rad. nullis flos- 
culis ad ambitu plurimis femineis apetalis, styhs 
nudis. flosc. centralis paucis. axill — 
Typ. Br. cuneatum Raf Erig. do. L. fol. cu- 
neatis trilobis. Mexico. Near to Baccharis, 
Gynmostylis and Leptogyna Elliot. The 3 
Genera 176 to 178 are nearer Conyza than 
Erigeron ; but the female floscules are outside 

50 FLOll. TlLLlfll. 

and unmixed. The Erig. camphoratum is a: 

179. Fragmosa R (Conyza gr.) Diff. 174. 
Rad. simpl. series 20-30. Sem. glabris. Pappus 
duplex, ambi subeq. aristis brevis 10-12, vel. 
simplex duplice series definita. fl. unicus s. 
paucis term, albls — Types Erigeron alpinum, 
uniflorum, puniihim^ asperum. nudicaulc, gla- 
bellum? &.C. 

180. MusTERON R (Conyza gr.) Diff. 174. 
Per, vere hemisph. equalis, sepalis dupl. series, 
Rad. longis unica series lin. bident. Phorantho 
convexo punct. Stigm. ciavat. integ. Sem. gla- 
bra, compr. marg. 2alato. Pappus simplex aris- 
tis unica series 25-40 scabris. fl, paiccis term, 
ceruleis — Type Mustero7i bellidifoUum Raf. 
Erig. do auct. v. v. nearer Asters, habit of Dai- 
sies and 170. Several blended Sp. M. pidche- 
lum, unifl.oj'um, glahrmn Raf. see Flora. 

181. Caenotus Nut. c5'C. diff. 174. Per. tere- 
te obi. s. ovato, radiis brevissimis minutis vix 
exsertis, flosculis sepe 4fidis, stigma clavato 
integ, Sem. obi. compr. biangul. levis. Pappus 
simplex, aristis paucis 10-15. fl. sepe panicu- 
latis ffavuUs—Tyi[^es Erig. canadense., pusil- 
lum &c. lo'}i^'ffolium auct. with my N. Sp. C. 
altisslmtis, 'maritimus, unijlorus, diffusus ^c. 
see my Flora. 

182. DiPLEMiTTM R (double half) diff. 174. 
Phorantho convexo. Rad. dupl. series multiplex 
100-200 apice 2-3dent. Pappus radii simplex, 
pappus disci duplex. Jl. corymbosis albidis — 
Types E. Erig. carolinimmm L. and qiterci- 
foUum Lam. — 2d Sub-G. Leptilium, diff. pap- 
pus radii brevis squamatus, pappus disci ext. ut 
radiis. fl. panic — Types 3 Erig. nervosum P. 
not W. 4. Erig. strigosiun E. not W- Diplem. 

CBNT. II. a-l 

s. Lept. paniculat. Raf. Does Erlg. hahamense 
Scop. t. 7. Vitin. belong liere? a Shrub with per. 
round, many rays 3(lent. Perhaps a pecuHar G. 
Tanaxion tomentosum Raf. fol. pet. lane, to- 
ment. fl. corymb. 

183. Olgasis R (nympha) Orchidea diff. 
Oncidium et Cymbldiiim, Sepalis 5 ut Cypri- 
pedium, "2 ext. calicinis oppos. inferum bidenta- 
tum, subtus lab. planum. Columna basi cum 
glandula et labello contluens apice latere biala- 
ta, anthera unica antica in fovea, pollen bilobo 
pedicellate. Scaposa,Jl. splcatis — Olgasis tri- 
quetra Raf. fol. triquetris. scapo subnudo, spica 
multifl. laxa, petalis ovatis, labello subtrilobo. 
Jamaica, pretty flowers variegated white and 
red. It was Cymhldlum do Sw. Oncidium, do 
Br. Hook. b. m. 3393: but very distinct from 
both Genera, nearer Pterostylis Br. 

184. Deppia R (bot) MaxiUaria deppi Lod. 
b. c. 1012 Hook. b. m. 3395. difi'. Maxil. Sepalis 
6. ext. 3. calicinis nervosis patens, binis subcal- 
caratis ad basi coalescens. Labello cucul. basi 
glanduloso. Col. pet. adnata, anthera term, su- 
brot. pollen bilobo. Bulhis terrestris, fol. et 
Scapis iinijl. f evens — Deppia mexicana Ral". 
fol. ellipt. undul. Scapis brevis squamosis, sepa- 
lis 3 ellipt. viridis, petalis albis obovatis, labello 
bigulato undulato. Mexico large flowers. Totaly 
different from MaxiUaria. 

185. EltroplectrisR (free spur) (W&.Neottia. 
et Stenorynchus, petalis 3 sup. ringens, 2 pa- 
tulis acum. lab. basi cucul. calcar elongato lib- 
ero basi coalit. cum ovar. Columna bilabiata, 
anthera lane, ad lab. sup. Scap. vagiti. jjancijl. 
fol. inferis — E. acuminata Raf. fol. petiol. 
ellipt. acum. undul. Spica 5-Gfl. calcar incurvo 
ovar eq. petalis lane, acimi. lab. conforme den- 

5*2 TLOR. TELLirR. 

ticiilato. Antillis. fl. viridescens. Neottia calcar- 
nta Sw. Hooker b. m. 3403. Sten. ealcaratum 
Rich. Sprengel. &c. 

186. Endeisa R. (Nympha) diff. Dendro- 
bium. Fetalis patulis, 2 inf. basi connatis sac- 
catis, lab. lobato basi cucul. apice refiexo, Col. 
quadrata decurrens, anth. term 21oc. 4poll. glo- 
bosa. Caule artic. jl. spicatis — Type Endeisa 
flava Raf. Caule sulcato, fol. term, lanceol. 
spica lateralis laxa multifl. petalis ovatis acutis 
flavis, labello croceo, trilobo serrulato, lobis sub- 
rotundis. Nepal. Dendroh. densiflorum! Wal- 
lich, Lindley, Hooker b. m. 3418, totaly unlike 
the Amer. sp. of G. Dendrohium which is yet 
a very loose incorrect Genus. 

187. ViNDicTA R (Epim. lat.) Cal. 4 ph. eq. 
color. Petalis 4 planis oppositis. Stam 4 oppositis 
subsess. anth. linearis biloc. Ovar obi. Stylo la- 
teralis, tereto, stigma truncat. Caps, uniloc. 
polysp. sem. unica series dorso insertis. Caules- 
cens^fol.paucis obliquis, fl. racemosis — Vin- 
flicta hegonifolia Raf filiformis foliis 2-4 folio- 
lis petiol. ellipt. obtus. integris, basi oblique 
cordatis, racemis secundis paucifl. fl. cernuis 
albis, petalis obovatis cal. obi. superans. Japan. 
Epimedium diphylum Lod. 1858. Hooker b. 
m. 3448. Quite a distinct Genus like the next. 

188. ScuLERiA R (Scooler bot) Cal. sepalis 
8 ineq. reflexis. Petalis 6 cuculatis reflexis. 
Stam 6 opposita. Stigma capit. Caps, polysp. 
Scaposis, fol. comp. ft. racemosis — Sculeria 
geminata, Raf. foliis. bi-triternatis, foliolis 
petiol. cord. 3-51obis. fl. racemes, luteis, gemi- 
natis. Ad. Oregon — Epimedium hexandrum 
Hook. fl. bor. Am. I add the real G. Epimedium 
to show the striking contrast. 



189. Epimediuim L. auct. Cal. sepalis 8 ineq. 
4 opp. internis. Fetalis 4. cyathiformis. Stam 
4. Capsula acum. monoloc. bivalv. polysp. Cau- 
lesc. fol. tritern. fl. panicul — Ep. alpimim. 
foliolis cordatis dentatis, fl. panic, purpure-fla- 
vis, sepalis emarg. Alpis. Thus these 3 G. altho' 
all belonging to Berberides, agree in nothing 
but the fruit; the opposite stamens with rolling 
valves of the anthers are common to the whole 

190. Gypsophila L. auct. Lanaria Ad. Cal. 
camp. 5dent. 5ang. nudum, petalis 5 obovatis 
subsessilis non unguicul. Stam. 10 subeq. hypo- 
gynis. Ovar. sessile ovato, Styli 2. Caps, mono- 
loc. semi 4 valvis, polysperma, Sem. centralis 
non alatis — This is the strict essential character, 
which applies to many Sp. in 3 sub-G. Vacca- 
RiA petalis emarg. G. vaccaria, repens, cretica 
graminea Slc. 2. Gypsaria petaHs crenatis re- 
ticul. G. muralis &/C. — 3 Aploma petalis inte- 
gris. G. stTTuthium, fastigiata^ perfoliata (fee. 
Auctoris. Sir J. Smith has united to this G. 
Saponaria vaccaria., cretica^ illyrica^ wonder- 
ing how L. could put them elsewhere, their ca- 
lix is Sangular, but they must be examined 
again as to stamens, capsule, seeds, &c. 

191. Arrostia (Arrostobot) Raf car. G. 53 
in 1810. DifT. Cal. camp. prof. Sfidus, non an- 
gulatus. Stam. 10 eq. Caps, globosa bivalvis 
oligosp. Sem. obi. alatis — I justly separated this 
G. long ago: the Gypsoph paniculata and al- 
tissima may belong to it ; but the type was my 
next N. Sp. 

192. Arrostia dichotoma Raf. car. 189. 
Caule erecto dichot panic, fol. lanceol. glabris 
univervis acutis crassiusculis, fl. pedic. ad di- 
chot — Mts. of Sicily, Nebrodes, 3 to 4 feet, 


much branched, fl. white not dioical petals obo- 
vate entire. To show how the 2 akin Sp. diOer;, I 
add thein here. 

193. Arrostia? paniculata. Caule humifuso 
panicul. basi villoso, fol. hn. lanceol. uninervis 
margine scabris, fl. panic, dioicis, petahs revo- 
lutis — Austria, Sibiria. Gyps, panicul. L. Jaq. 
Aust. t. 1. et auctorib. 

194. Arrostia? altissima. Caule giganteo 
panicul. erectis, fol. caul. obi. obtusis glabris 
trinervis subtus glaucis, ad ramulis longo lan- 
ceol. acutis. fl.; corymbosis exiguis — Sibiria. 
Gyps, altiss. L. auct. Gin. 4. t. GO. The fig- 
ure of Bocconi t. 5. f. 3 refered here belongs 
rather to 192; but no doubt these 3 plants have 
oft;en been mistaken for each other by authors. 

195. TujvicA Raf. (old name) Diff". 190. Cal. 
basi caliculatis ut Dianthus, petalis subunguic. 
Stam. ineq. 5 alternis ad unguis ut Dianthus. 
Caps, subsessilis obi. teretis 4den^ata — Types 
Gypsoph. rigida. 2. G. saxifraga once his 
Dianthus do, both have notched petals : 3. G. 
dianthoides Sm. fl. gr, Fl. capit. bract, pet. in- 
tegris, fol. lin. has the habit of" Dianthus arme- 
ria. This G. is nearer Dianthus than Gypso- 
phila. Is the calix angular in all? It is the old 
G. Tunica of Dalechamp, but that of Dillen 
and Adanson was the real Dianthus of L. The 

, G. Asophila of Necker, dicline with 5 sterile 
stamens, is unknown to me : did he mean Gyps, 
paniculata/ or saxifraga stated to have 8 or 
less stamens sometimes.'' 

196. Endopogon R (inside beard) Cal. super. 
4 dent. Cor. tubulosa campanul. 4fida, intus bar- 
bata, antheris 4 sessilis, capsula 4 dentata 2sper- 
ma. Fol. opp. imbric.jl. axill — G. of Rubiacea, 
near to Hcdyotis, Sjjermacoce, Diodia, Hous- 

CENT. II. 55 

tonia, diftering from all by the bearded corolla 
inside, concealing the anthers and stigma — 
Type E. jnitnilum. Caule pumilo erecto basi 
nudo, fol. imis imbricatis, linearib. acutis marg. 
revolutis, capsulis obov. pubescens — Mts. Apal- 
aches, in Wasioto hills of East Kentucky, an- 
nual, biuncial, 11. axill. solitary, sessile, rather 
large, whitish, capsule large. 1 can find no syn- 
onym to this plant, and it is probably quite new, 
discovered in 1823. Autik. bot. and Ic. rar 

197. CoiviARUM L. PancGvia Heist. Ad. Some 
late botanists have rejected this linnean G. and 
made it a mere section of Potenfilla ; yet it is 
as distinct as Tormentilla and Fragaria; it 
comes nearest this last; but has a larger folia- 
ceous colored cadix 10-14 parted, petals shorter. 
5 to 7 and red; receptacle and fruit ovate simi- 
lar thick, but fungose instead of fleshy, besides 
the pinnate leaves. I can increase it to 3 Spe- 
cies; all in my Autikon. Only one was known. 
If Arum is retained Com-arum is a bad com- 
pound name, Pancovia is better. 

198. Comaruni (or Pancovia or Potentilla) 
palustre L. fol. pinnatis, petiolis vaginatis nudis, 
foliolis 5-7 ellipt. grosse serratis subtus pallidis, 
fl. corymbosis petalis ovatis acuminatis — In Eu- 
rope and Sibiria ; it has even 2 varieties or devi- 
ations. I stipulatum stipulis parvis lanceol. pe- 
talis ovatis ligulatis obtusis — 2 villosum, foliis 
villosis. Pluk. t.. 212. Pers. Probably several Sp. 
blended yet, as the two next were. 

199. Comarum (Pane. Pot.) digitatum Raf. 
Caule hirsuto, fol. glabris, digitatis 3-5nis, sti- 
pulis ovatis, foliolis 3-5 ellipt. basi integris, apice 
argute serratis, subtus glaucis ; fl. corymbosis, 
petalis ovato lanceol. acuminatis — North Ame- 
rica, Canada &.c.: this is C. palustre of all the 


American botanists ! flowers much larger than 
in last, purpHsh as in all the Sp. Folioles from 
nearly the same point not properly pinnate. 

200. Comarum (Pane. Pot.) angustifolium 
Raf. Caule glabro, fol. pinnatis, petiolis vagina- 
lis nudis, foliolis 5 cuneatis angustis, pectinato 
serratis, subtus pallidis; florib. term. 2-3 par- 
vis, petalis ovatis acuminatis — Oregon or N. W, 
Amer. Semipedal, flowers half size — The above 
3 species now distinct, appear to have a com- 
mon origine as deviations of a type ; by calling 
them varieties we should overlook their charac- 
ters and this formation of Species. They are a 
fair example of this phenomenon : or of local 
deviations in remote clines. 

Whenever plants have long been removed in 
different continents or botanical regions widely 
apart, they assume in general a different shape 
and virtually becomes new species. Therefore 
Decandole has properly stated that all plants 
deemed alike in remote regions must be exam- 
ined again. None of the North American trees 
and plants are exactly alike to their Asiatic or 
European types, except among Grasses and 
Cryptogams, a fact as yet unexplained for these. 
The boreal plants of both continents have how- 
ever mostly identic Genera, and many identic 
species, but South of Canada, the Species and 
Genera gradually become different or unlike. 




201. EusynetraR (well unit, 4) Cal. 5fid. 
folios, dent, subeq. Cor. tubul. recta bilabiata, 
lab. sup. trifido, med, major bif. lab. inf. integro. 
Stam. 4 didyn. antheris coalitis in singula qua- 
drata. Glandula biloba supra basi Ovar. stylo 
declinato, stig. obt. Capsula baccata yniloc. bj- 
yalv. polysp placenta '2. Frutex fol, opp. fl. 
axill — Very distinct G. totaly unlike Columnea 
and Achimenes by lips, &.C., not Family Ges- 
nerides but Gratiolides by fruit onecelled. 

202. Eusynetra hicolor Raf Columnea hir- 
suta Sw. Auct. Hooker b. m. 3081. Achimenes 
major Br. t. 30 — Scandens fol. pet. ovatis acutis 
vix serratis, superne hirtis, fl. solit. s. geminatis, 
Cal. lane. Cor. villosis coccineis intus flavis— ' 
Jamaica, on rocks and mts. 

203. CupuLissA Raf (cup split) Diff. from 
Bignonia, cal. cupularis integro latere fisso, Cor. 
tubulosa campanul. limbo undulato subeq. 5 
lobo, lob. inf. fisso. filam. basi glandul. hirsutis, 
didyn. quinto ster. ovar. supra disco glanduloso, 
stigma bilamel. Scandens, fol. conjiig. Jl. race- 
tnosls — Type C grandlfolia, foliolis 2 ovatis 
undul. cirrhosis verrucosis, racemis mul- 
tifl, pedic. bibract. flexuosis. — Carracas, large 
yellow flowers. Bignonia grandif. Jaq. hort. 
287, Bot. reg. 418, Bot. mag. 3011, auctoris. 
Probably several Bignonias belong here, the 
real have cal. dent. cor. bilabiate &.c. 

204. Megapleilis, R. (big single lip) Cal. 
5 fidus ineq. Cor. tubulosa, unilali. basi 5gib- 
bosa, apex dilat. labio superne amplo emarg. 
lab. inf. subnullus. Stam. exse'rta, antheris 



didyn. coalitis. Stylus clavat. Caps. 2Ioc* 
!2valv. placentis parietalis. Tuberos. fol. opp. 
fl. term, racem. — M. tuhcrosa. Raf. fol. cord, 
ovatis serratis villosis, siibpetiol. bract, sessil. 
cord, integris, raceme paucifl. fl, oppositis 
coccineis. In Brazil, large singular flowers, 
base yellow with 5 inflate lobes. Gesneria but- 
bosa. Ker. bot. reg. 343. Hook. bot. m. 3041. 
How could they unite to Gesneria, such con'- 
spicuous N. Genus .^ not even of same flimily. 

205. Endocoma R. (ins. hairy) Perig. 6 partit* 
ineq. patens pers. 3 internis minor fimbriate 
comosis. Stam. G eq. subul. glabris ad basi 
sepalis, Ovav. 3gon. stylo brevi, stig. 3, Caps. 
3loc. 3v. polysp. sem. subr. Rad. tub. fascic. 
Caulesc^fol. iing.fl. term.pmicis. — Fine N. G. 
near Quamasia and no Anthericum ! two sp. 
both called Antheric. plumosum, the first by 
Ruiz t. 309, the second by Hooker bot. m. 3084. 

206. Endocoma peruviana Raf. (Ruiz) fol. 
linear. Caule subnudo 3-5fl. albis. — Peru, large 
white flowers. 

207. Endocoma parviflora Raf. (Hooker) 
fol. linear canal. Caule bifolio bifloro. — Chili, 
small green flowers, margin white, larger plant. 
Is not this a deviated species ? 

208. Calliprora Lindl. Cor. subcamp. Opart 
eq. stam. fertilia, 3 breviora, filam, petaloideis 
bifidis, antheris sessilis intra lobis. Ovar, stipit. 
stig. 31obo, Caps, triptera. Scap. fl. umb. bi- 
pathis^ luteis. — G. of tribe Asphodelidia like 
the last, near to P or rum, Getuonis and Bro- 
diea. — Type. C. lutea bot. reg. 1590. Scapo 
teres, fol. canalic. longissimis, umbella multifl. 
From California. 

209. Tractema R. (spindle fil.) Cor. patula 
rotata eq. 6 partita, sepalis subunguic, uninervis. 

CENT. III. 59 

Stam. C eq. filam. <rlabris basi dilatatis sub 
fusiformis. Ovar. trilobuiii, stylo sulcato, stigm. 
obtuso. J3uIbosa, unifoUa, scapo racemoso, 
Altbo' I bad nearly exhausted the reform of 
S/iilla, and akin Genera, this \^liicb was a 
Skilla, proves tliat many distinct G. are yet 
blended. It is as near Fusijilum G9 ; but the 
habit is peculiar. It is at least a distinct Sub- 

210. Tractema pumila Raf. Skilla pumila 
Broterofl. lusit. Hook bot.m. 3023. Folia lanceo- 
lata undulata involuta,acum.carin. Scapo subeq, 
paucifloro, fl. cernuis, bracteis breviss. sepalis 
eUipt. obt. — In Portugal, 3 to 4 inches, fl. blue 
or lilac or white about 5, the fig. and descr. of 
Hooker do not agree. 

211. Blepiianthera R. (cil. anth) Cor. pa- 
tula equal. Gpartita, Stam. vel stylo declinatis, 
Stam. subeq. filam. subulatis ciliatis villosis, 
antheris ciliatis. Ovar. globos. glabrum, stylo 
flexuoso declinato filif. stigma acut. Bulbosa, 

fol.fasclcid. canal, scapo racemoso. — Another 
tine G. blended with Antherlcum african G. 
nearer Nemopogon G8, australian like it, but the 
bulb and stamens separate them : the English 
authors have even blended two species of it into 
one as Antliericum hulhosum. 

212. Blepiianthera depressa Raf. Antheric. 
bulb. Brown, Bulbine Australis Sprengel. Bulbo 
depresso, filamentis declinatis. Australia, not a 
Bidhine having smooth unequal filaments. 

213. Blepiianthera hookeri Raf. Bulbo ova- 
to, filam. non declinatis, Antheric. bulb. Hooker 
bot. m. 3017, who himself suspected it was a 
new sp. Yet gave no new name to it. Austra- 
lia. Leaves long narrow thick semiterete canal. 
Raceme long multifl, yellow. 


214. DotiiiLis Raf. (papilar lip) Orchiclea. 
Sepalis ringens ineq. 3 internis undulatis papil- 
losis, labello subeq, basi cuculato, lamellis 6 
longit. obsito. Ovar. clavat. Columna semiteres, 
erecta basi dilat. bident. stigma bilabiate, an- 
thcra dorsalis ad apex, ovata biloc. 4 pollen. 
Terreslris. caule folioso, fl. term, amplis. — 
Beautiful N. G. quite peculiar, not a Neottia, 
as Hooker even presumed, and has since called 
it Ulanthia; but our generic characters are 

215. Dothilis grandiflora Raf. Neottia f 
grand, fl. Hook. hot. m. 2956. not 2730! another 
plant of same name ! Fol. imbric. glaucis 
oblongis acutis planis nervosis, florib. paucis, 
magnis undulatis, albo viridis, striatis, labello 
obovato crispo. — -Large flowers 3 inches. Na-^ 
tive place not stated, probably S. America. 

216. Anisanthera Raf. (uneq. anth.) Legu- 
minosa. Calix 5part ineq. Vexillum reflexo 
cuculato, alis obov. Carina eq. Stam. monadel- 
■phis, vagina tota fissa, apice filam. pectinatis 
reflexis. Antheris ineq. alternis 5 linearis, 5 
alt. subrot. Ovar. sessile, obi, villosum. Stylo cla- 
vato glabro. reflexo, stigma obt. Legumen turgi- 
dum villos. \)o\y9>^^ Annua, fol. simplices stipu- 
latis, fl. race mosis.— Very distinct Gr. blended 
with Crotalaria by all : yet nearer Liiphius, 
anthers quite peculiar. 

217. Anisanthera Versicolor Raf. Caule 
fiexuoso 4gono. fol. glabris ovatis obovatisque, 
obtusis, stipulis lunulatis, racemis terminalis. — 
Beautiful flowers variegated of white, blue and 
purple. Said to grow in the tropics of both 
hemispheres. Often figured. It is the Crota- 
laria verrucosa of W. and D. C. but there is no- 
thing warty about it. Andr rep. 308, hot. reg. 



1137, bot. mag. 3031. Crot. cerulea Jaq. Ic rai'. 
144 an Sp. di versa ? Crot. angidosa Lam. Cav. 
321. Probably several sp. blended, the Asiatic 
and Antillian plants must be again compared, 
and perhaps other Crotal. belong here, like the 

218. Anisanthera hastata Raf. diff. fol. has- 
tato lanceol. acutiss, deemed a Var. of last by 
Lam. Persoon. &c, Certainly distinct. From 
Mauritius and Bourbon Ids. 

219. IsoRiuM R. (Equal lobes) diff. from 
Echium. — Cor. longo tubulosa, limbo 51obo 
equalis, Cal. 5part. ineq. Stam. 5 ineq. stigma 
capit. Nucibus 4 stylo adnatis. — Very distinct 
G. of nat. family Echidia, that differs from 
Borraginea by unequal cal. cor. or stam. Type 
Isoriumformosum Raf. Ech. do Persoon. Ech. 
grandiflorum Andr. t. 20. African shrub, leaves 
lanceol. hispid, fine large red flowers. 

220. Nemuranthes R. (fil. caud. fl.) Orchi- 
dea. Ad Habenaria et Blephariglotis diff. Cor. 
bilabiata, pet. ext. supero concavo trinervo cucu- 
lato, 2 ext. reflexis, petalis 2 internis bipartitis, 
labello tripartite segm. linearis, medio brevier, 
Calcar longissimo filiformis (pedalis.) Ovar. 
pedic. clavato sulcato, columna trifida brevis, 
antice glandulis 2 appendiculatis. Anthera 
Unica ! terminalis 2 loc. antice cornuta. Caule 
folioso racemoso non spicato ! — Wonderful 

Genus, no //rt&^/i/?r?*rt since unic anther! floral 
structure quite peculiar, really racemose. Types 
the real Orchis habenaria L, or Hahenaria 
macroeera. of W. and the following fine species. 

221. Nemuranthes lori<jricaiida Raf. fol. lan- 
ceol. acutis striatis, bract, lane ad ovar. brevior, 
fl. racemosis pedic. laxis, petalis ext. ovatis 
acum. pet. int. et label, segmentis linearibus. — 


In Dcmerora, fl. greenish white very large, 
ovary and pedicel 5 or 6 inches, spur 10 to 12 
inches ! lonsf. Hahevaria lonfficanda Hook, 
hot. mag. 2957. — The Hab. tnacrocera Hook. 1, 
2947 belongs here also and merely differs by 
leaves obt. bracts longer, spur shorter, fl. sub- 
spicate, it is my N. Habenaria. 

222. Uloma R. (crisp border) diff. Bignonia, 
cal. camp. 5dent nervosus persistens, cor. cam- 
panul. lobis 5 subeq. margine plicatis sulcatis 
crenatis, filam. incurvis. Bacca teres carnosa 
edulis uniloc. bipartibilis, dissep. spongioso, sem. 
circumalatis. Arbor, fol. opp. imp. pinnatis, 
panic trichototna. — How different from 203! 
yet both made Bignonias ! altho' both types of 
New Genera. This has a true berry and not a 
dry siliqua. 

223. Vloma telfairia Raf. foholis 13-19 
ovatobl. integris. oppos. petiol. panicula laxa. — 
Elegant and useful tree of Madagascar, beau- 
tiful large pink flowers, fruit excellent flavor, 
called Vuakidzi, cultivated. — Bignonia tel- 
fairia Bojer in hot. mag. 2976, dedicated to a 

lady botanist. 

224. Xeilyathum (lip fiddle) diff. from Onci- 
dium. Fetalis 5 rotatis eq. undulatis liberis, 
labello piano pandurato emarginato basi papil- 
loso cristato, columna brevis antice biloba, apice 
bident, anthera supera bipollen. Parasita^ 
bulbo terrestris costato basi involucrato^ apice 
unifolio, Scapo lateral, ramoso panicidato. — 
One of the finest new Orchidean G. shuffled 
into 3 Genera, habit striking, nearer Renan- 
thera which 1 add for contrast. 

225. Xeilyathum Altissimum Raf Folia et 
invol. carnosis carinatis elong. acutis. panic, 
flexuosa divaric. petalis obi. undulatis — Antillis, 

CENT. III. 68 

leaf 2 or 3 feet, Scape 4 to feet, li. rather 
large, lip bicolor base fulvous and yellow. Onci- 
diutn Altlss. Sw. W. auct. Hook. b. ni. 2990, 
Epidendriim Altiss. Jaq. am. t. 141. Swartz put 
it in 3 Genera by turns those 2 and Qymhidium 
besides ! 

220. Renanthera coccinea Lour. bot. reg. 
1131, bot. mag. 2997. This only diff. from 
Xeilyathum by — Fetalis 2 inf. major, magis 
undul, labello integro basi saccato, col. abov. 
anthera operculata. Caide folioso, Panicida 
lateralis extra axill. — fol. ligulatis obt. disti- 
chis, petalis cuneatis coccineis, labello ovato a- 

227. ExoPHVA R. (outer growth) Orchidea, 
cor. rotata pet 5 subeq labello 3 lobo, col. semi- 
teres bident. Anth. term, semispher. 3 loc. 4 
pollen, Bulhoterrestris sulcata , caide later ^ ad 
basis bifolia^ fl racemosis. — Very near also to 
1224. chief difference the anther ; yet Hooker 
would force it into his new G. Encyclia by 
spoiling its character, bot. mag. 2831 of petals 
connivent &c. 

228. Exophyafuscata Kcif. Encyclia patens 
Hook. b. m. 3013. Bulbo ovato, fol. lin. lanceol. 
planis acutis, racemo paucifl. petalis obi. 2 int. 
spatul. acutis, labello lobo medio ovato acuto — 
From Brazil, small, but jfl. large dusky and 

229. KuRiTis R. (Verbena gr.) diff. Selago, 
Cal. ineq. tripartitus,Cor.tubulosa, limbo ineq. 
5fidus. Stam. 4 didyn. fil. clavatis, antheris 
unilocul. Stylo filif. Stigma acut. Caps, biloc. 
bipartibilisdispermis, Arbusc. fol. sparsis. inte- 
gris^ fl. bracteatis term. — The G. Selago in- 
cludes many Genera, with cor. 4 or 5 lobed/^ 
cal. camp. 5dent.. The family Selaginea of 


Choisy, hardly differs from Verbenacea. This 
G. is peculiar by calix, and includes 2 Sp. 

230. Kuritis gilii Raf. Selago do 11. b. m. 
3028. Caulc teres pub. fol sparsis lin. obi. glabris 
fl. glomeratis — South Africa, small shrub, flow- 
ers lilac, lobes of corolla obi. obtuse. 

231. Kuritis clliata ^af. Selago do Choisy. 
Fol. ovatis ciliatis imbricatis, fl. spicatis elon- 
gatis, bracteis ciliatis — South Africa, The Sela- 
go ciliata of Thunberg with ovate spikes, is a 
real Selago, and different from this. 

232. Saxifraga, L. auct. This pretty group 
of plants has, been made a single Genus by 
nearly all the Linneists, being however united 
by no common character, as I have shown in 
the first part of this work. They had nothing 
in common, not even habit ! It was a shameful 
artificial Genus ; since the united plants be- 
long even to 3 different Natural Orders and 
Families, of two different Natural Classes. 

Order ASCADIA, nat. fam. Diceracea, all 
those with coalescent calix and ovary. 

Order ISOSTIMIA nat. fam. Saxifragea, 
all those with free calix and ovary, only one 

Order PERIMESIA nat. fam. Sarcophyl- 
LiA, near Sedum, all those with free pistils and 
several capsules, now the Genera Eriogyna 
and lieptarhena 2G1, 2G3. 

Many Botanists have published monographs 
of this Genus, but overlooking this capital blun- 
der. Smith has only illustrated 50 Sp. Hooker 
has 42 from North Amer. alone, others have 80 
Sp. divided in Subgenera, Tausch monograph 
I never saw, but has no generic reform. 1 shall 
propose 12 new Genera rpiite as good as Erlo- 
gijna and Leptarhena of Hooker, and present 

CENT. III. 65 

here a complete reform of the whole Genus, 
from 233 to 203. 

233. Saxifraga Raf. Calix libero camp. 5 
ficlo persistens, staminif. petalis 5 sessilis, equa- 
lis, Stam. 10 eq. Ovar. liber, in Stylis 2 tlesi- 
nens. Caps, libera, monoloc. bifida, inter fissura 
dehiscens, polyspernia, bivalvis, valvis seniinife- 
ris. Habitus Varuis, fol. sepe crassis. — The 
free pistil Sp. arc the types of the G. and family 
Saxifragea, along with Mitdla,, Tiarella &.c. 
the Sub-Gen. Hirculus. Hijdatica, Arabidia, 
Micranthes Tausch, chiefly belong here, and 
only apply to the habit. Necker called Hi/daticn 
all these true Saxifragas ; but I shall confine it 
to the next Genus. The Sp. belonging here are 
Sax. aspera, bryoides, media, cernua, sibirica 
rotundifolia, spicata. arguta, nelsoniana, 
nudicaulis, nivalis, vernalis, virginiensis, in- 
tegrif, dahurica, flagellaris ^'C. but many 
must be examined again. Sax. orientalis Jaq. 
Vitm. or Sax mollis b. aiu only differs by petals 
trinerve, perhaps type of a subgenus Blalagea 
Raf. it is ih^Geam orientale Tourn it. 2 ic 148. 
Caule procumb, stolonif. fol. lobatis, pet. obov. 

234. Hydatica Raf. dilf. 233, Cal. 5 partito 
reflexo, petalis unguiculatis, biglandulosis, glan- 
dulis pustuliformis. — Types Saxifr. umhrosa, 
hirsuta, cuneifolia, Stellaris, foliolosa, Gcum, 

235. Aphomonix Raf. diflT. 233, Cal. semi 
adherens,concavo,quinquefido, petalis unguicul. 
subrot. enervis glandulis vel pustulis nullis — 
Type Saxifraga, hederacea, but others may 
perhaps belong here also. This G. must go into 
nat. fam. Diceracea, with the next. 

236. PoNisTA Raf. (ad Pona) Cal. adherens 
Sfidus, Petalis 5 trinervis e(j. Stam. 10 alt. 5 


brevior, fil. siibiil. antheris bilobis. Ovar. adh. 
i^lobos. supra planiusc. Stylis 2 brevis, Stigma 
obt. Cattle ranioso, fol. dwisis^fl. term. — An- 
nuals ; several of the Saxifragas with trincrve 
petals belong here probably, such as Sax. hyp- 
noides, moscliata^ platlpetala, cotyledon, tri- 
daettjlls, aquatlca, elongela, &lc. but the real 
Types are — 

237. Ponista petrea Raf. Saxifr. do L. Jaq. 
181. auct. fol. pet. pahnatis tripartitis, lac. trifi- 
dis, caule decumb. raniosisimo, pedunc longiss. 
unifl. petalis emarg. — Alps of Europe, Sax. ru~ 
pestris, adscendens and pona said to be the 
same must be compared again. 

238. Ponista oregonensis Raf. Saxifr. petrea 
Hooker fl. and hot. mag. 3026. Glanduloso 
pilosa, caule erecto, fol. trilobis, lobis integris 
trifidisque, radic. petiol, caulinis sessil. cuneatis 
pedic. brevis cal. obi. obt. petalis cuneatis retusis 
— Mts. Oregon of North America, certainly a 
widely deviated species, not a mere variety, 
sometimes abortive flowers. 

239. Hexapiioma Raf. (6 pustules) Cal. 
libero Spartit. reflexo, petalis 5 ineq. 3 unguic. 
major bipustulatis,2 minor sessilis nonpustulatis. 
Stam. 10. alterna 5 brevissima, filam. filif. Ovar. 
liberum bifidum. Siihacaiilis scapo panicidato 
— How can a sensible botanist deem this of same 
Genus as Ponista for instance ? The types are 
the Saxlfraga leucanthe mi folia of North 
America, 2 Sp. blended in one, and a third is 
the pyrenaic Sp. even hardly of this Genus ! this 
is an instance of utter confusion of ideas, prin- 
ciples, characters and species, by not attending 
to the original descriptions. 

240. Hexaphoma ferruginea, Raf. Saxifr. 
do. Graham. Sax. leucanth. Hooker flora, bot. 

CENT. Ill, 


mag. 2959 ! fol. sessil. obov. grossc serratis acutis 
glabris.scapis forms;. 2;landiil. panic, laxa dichot. 
petalis3 ovatis, 2 ol)lon<;;is minor. — Mts. Ores^on 
of North Amer. fl. Avhit(>,witli yellow pustules, 
Hooker Synonymy is (piite wroni; since he 
blends the 3 Sp.^intoone! This has several 
scapes uncial. 

*241. Hexaphoma pvtlolaris Raf. Saxifr. 
leucanth. Mx. Elliot Pers. and all the Amer. 
bot. not Hooker nor Europ. botanists ! fol pe- 
tiolatis spatulatis elonsfatis ovatis grosse serratis 
scapo hirsuto, panic diffusa, — Apalachian Mts. 
a single bipedal scape, leaves 3 or 4 inches long, 
fl. small variegated with yellow and pink, proba- 
bly by the pustules and red pistils. 

242. Hexaphoma ? jjifrenaica Raf. Sax. 
leucanth. Lap. t. 25. et europ. auct. Sax. clusi ? 
Gouan non Clusius, J3auhin ic 708 monente 
Smith — Fol. cuneatis petiolo brevi alato hirsu- 
tis lato dentatis, scapo bracteisq levis. vestito 
panicul. petalis pustulatis ? — Mts. Pyrenees and 
Alps of Europe, flowers large white stated 
without spots by some, perhaps 2 Sp. blended 
as in America. Smith distinguished this plant 
from that of Michaux, refering that to llupl- 
fraga^ did he mean that in this the petals are 

equal ? then this would be a real Tlifdatica like 
Saxlfr. Stellarts. The S. clasi of Gouan and 
Vitman has a foliose viscid Stem, leaves spatu- 
late cuneate viscid, racemes axillary dichotome, 
petals white. It must be a peculiar Sp. Hexa- 
phoma Tiscida Raf. 

243. RupiFRAGA L. Mpt. Adenogyna Raf. 
Cal. basi coalito, 5fidus subineq. Petalis 5 ine- 
qualis, 3 supcris brevis, 2 elongatis, stam. 
10 subcq. Ovario sub liberum, glandula magna 
carnosa ad dorso supera, stylis 2,capsula bivalvis. 



Sfoloifffn-a, fol. rfuTw. jjetiol. /?. panicuhitis, 
— Certainly ;i boautiiiil distinct Genus, with liabit 
of HexapliotiKi^ which Smith tells us Linneus 
meant to establish : 1 did the same before 
knowing of this. The type is Riipifraga Sar- 
mentosa L. herb, of China and Japan, well 
known in our gardens with round lobate leaves. 
It is i^axlfraga ^arnnentosa L. et Auct. Curtis 
b. m. 92. S. stolonifera Jaq. Meers t. 23. &.c. 
It is as different from Saxifraga as Iberis is 
from Alyssum. 

244. PiAROPiiYLA, R. (thick leaf) diff. ^axi- 
fraga^ Cal. campanul. 5-8fidus. petalis obov- 
atis 5-8 campanularis, Stam. 10-16 ineq. alternis 
latior, ovario libero, stylis 2-3, Caps. 2-3 valvis. 
Fol. rad. hints, crassis amplis^ scapo nudo, 
florib. cijmosis. — Habit quite peculiar indicat- 
ing a Genus, 3 types blended as Saxifraga 
crassifoUa of authors. 

245. Piarophyla sihirica Raf. Fol. petiol. 
ovato subrotundis retusis serratis, fl. densis pur- 
pureis — Mts. of Sibiria. Gmel. t. 06. Curtis hot. 
mag. t. 196. Sm. W. DC. 

246. Piarophyla cordifolia^ Raf. Fol. pe- 
tiol. cordatis ovatis serratis, fi. glomeratis. Si- 
biria. ^axifr. cordifolia, Haworth, Alton. Var. 
of crassifolia Smith. 

247. Piarophyln elliptic a Raf. Fol. subses- 
silib. ellipticis obtusis subintegris vel vix serratis, 
cyma glomcrata pedata, florib. nutans — In Si- 
biria and N. W. America. This is the real 
Sr/x. crassifolia of Lin. dec. t. 14. Buchoz dec. 
t. I and my American specimen hardly differs. 

248. Steiranisia, R. (sterile uneq.) Cal. 5 
partitus, petalis 5 equalis, sessiles, Stam. 10 
planis subeq. nonnulis sterilis ineq. petaloideis 
vel clavatis — Very distinct anomalous Genus 

CENT. III. 69 

\vitli Stamens mostly sterile. Types ^axifr, 
punctata^ rcJUwa^ helcnintha t^*c. 

249. i:^t('iranisiapu?wtata,liaf.(J^iix. do L.) 
Fol. subrotimdis dentatis longc petiolatis, scapo 
nudo, petalis pimctatis. Sibiria. 

250. Sff'franisia refjexa Raf. (Sax. do. Hook, 
fl. bor. t,85) Cano pubescens, fi. corymbosis, pe- 
talis bimaculatis, staminibus lanceolatis. In 

258, Steiranisia hetcrantha Raf. (Sax, do. 
Hook, fi. bor. t. 78) Staminib. sterilis plurimis 
varians clavatis et petaloideis, fertilis filiformis, 
Boreal America. Is it another G. Heterisia / 
having more than 10 Stam, 

252. Telesonix, R. (perfect claws) Cal. 5 
partitus petalis 5 equalis orbiculatis longe un- 
guiculatis, Stam. 10 eq. filam, brevis. Ovar, 
liberis stylis 2, caps, lit Saxifraga. Caulescens 
pauciflora. Type. Telesonix jarnesi ! Raf, 
(Sax. do Torrey, Hooker, Eaton) Fol. renif, 
crenato dentatis, papillosis, caule brevi paucifi. 
petalis integris purpureis — Mts, Oregon, near 
to G. Aphomonix. 

253. TuLORiMA, R. (wart pits) diff. Saxifr. 
and Hydatica by Cal- reflexo Spartito, petalis 
unguicul. ad ung. fossulis binis ferens verriicis 
centralis annulatis,— Type Tal. cymhalaria Raf, 
Sax. do Auct. Caule procumb. fol. cordatis tri- 
lobis vel integris, petalis ovatis flavis. Oriental 

254. HiRcuLUs, Raf Cal. 5part. reflexo, pe- 
talis scssilib, nervosis ad basis bituberculatis 
vel verrucis 2 sine fossula, ovario ovato libero, 
Caulescens 1-2 fl. fol. shnpL — Type Wlr cuius 
punctatus Raf, (/S^axifr, hirculus L. ) Fol. lan- 
ceol. petalis ellipt, flavis, nigro punctatis, — Alps, 


Sibiiia, and boreal Amer, Perhaps several 
blended species. 

255. Hemieva, Raf. (half well) Cal. adhe- 
rens patens Sfido, petalis 5 eq. Stam. 5 petalis 
alternis, Ovar. coalito infero, snpradisco annu- 
laris cincto petalis et stam. ferens. Capsula cal. 
coronata, apice bivalvis. Caulescens^fol. loha- 
tis, jl. Splcis corymhosis. — Fine G. mixt with 
Saxifraga by Hooker. 5 Stamens and the disk 
are very essential characters^ nearer to Tellima 
and Heiichera. 2 types. 

256. Hemieva ranancidifolia Rdf. (Sax. do 
Hook. fl. t. 83) Pubera, fol. rcnif. 3part. infimis 
longe petiol. segmentis latocuneatis inciso lo- 
batis, fl. corymbosis, petalis obovatis ad cal. 
duplex. — Falls of the R. Oregon or Columbia. 

257. Hemieva richardsoni Raf. (Sax. do. 
Hooker fl.) Fol. orbic. cordatis crenato lobatis, 
spicis corymbosis, bract, lanceol — Arctic Sea 
of boreal America. 

258. EvAiEzoA, R. (well everlasting) Aizoon 
et Aizoum of old botanists, Saxifraga Tourn 
L. auct — Diff*. Saxifraga 233. Cal. adherens 
5fido, pet. 5 eq. sessilis, Stam. 10 eq. Ovar. 
adherens infero vel semi inf. Stylis 2, Capsula 
coronata, semi-bivalvis. — This comprizes all 
the Saxifragas with coalescent Ovary and calix, 
that do not belong to Poiiista, Aphomonix, 
Rupifraga, Hemieca &c. They are numer- 
ous and of dissimilar habit indicating several 
Subgenera, such as Antiphyla Haworth with 
opposite leaves, Aizonia, Porphyrion, Dacty- 
loides ^"C of authors. Here belong the Saxi- 
fraga oppositifolia, retusa, biflora, aizoides, 
punctata, granidaia, btdbifera, cuneata, pal- 
mata, cespitosa, hirla, cesia, ajugifolia, lada- 
7iifera, trifurcata, pedatijida, geranoides, ri- 

CENT. HI. 71 

Tularis, callosa, mutata^ jjensyh, erosa, an- 
drosacea^ hicracifoUa, diapensoidcs^ hnrseri- 
ana^ esholtzi, scrpyJlfoUa^ vtmosa, exarotcf, 
silenijl. laiirenfiana, exilis, nutans^ &lc. ; but 
they are yet in great confusion of synonymy, 
and many Sp. are blended, of which I give two 

259. Enaiezoa trichodes Raf. Cespitosa, 
caulescens fol. lanceol. acutis glaucis, pedunc. 
unifl, petaHs cal. brevior. — In the Alps. Sax. 
trichodes Scopoli fl. earn. t. 15. Vitm. S. alpina 
Seof. ver. t. 9. S. muscoides Allioni t. 61 ? 

260. Ecaiezoa piingcns Raf. Caule viscido 
paucifloro, fol. crassis pungens subul. imbricatis 
ciliatis, fl. 5-7 fastig. petalis undulatis. — In the 
Alps and Pyrenees. Sax.burserianaiuap. t. 17. 
Sm. Var. Spinosa Pers. — Both these are diffe- 
rent from Sax. hurseriana with which they 
have often been blended. 

261. Eriogyna Hooker, diff*. Saxifraga 233 
by, Stam. 20 basi coalitis, cal. turbinate Sfido, 
pistilis et capsulis 4-6 liberis lanatis bivalvis, 
stylis 5, Caulescens., fol. dimsis, JJ. racemosis. 
It is a wonder Hooker ventured in this innova- 
tion, while he left llemieva. Steiratiisia, <Slc. 
in Saxifraga; but the blunder of Pursh, copied 
by Nuttal, Eaton and all our blunderers on Ge- 
nera, was too glaring : even Smith had declared 
it was no Saxifraga ; I had done the same in 
1817. It does not belong even to the same na- 
tural order where Hooker leaves it; but near 
Sedum, Setnpervlvum and Penthorum in PE- 
RIMESIA, and natural family Sarcophylia. 

262. Eriogifna pecthiata Hook. fl. t. 88. 
Saxifraga do. Pursh, Nut. Eat., ^'C. Cespitosa, 
fol. trifidis pectinatis linearibus. — Oregon Mts. 

263. Leptarhena Br. Hook, diflf. Saxifraga. 

7*2 YLOn. TELLUK. 

Cal. camp. 5ficl. petalis 5 linearib. Stam. 10, 
pistilis 2 liberis, capsulis 2 intus dehiscens. — 
Acaulls, Scapo paniculato. — Another distinct 
genus separated by Brown, but of same family 
as Sedu7n, altho' near Spirea by the dehiscence 
of Capsules, the definite Stamens unite it to 
t^edum. Several Sp. called Saxifragas by Don, 
pyrolif. amplexif. fnicrantha^ tS^c. Type Zr, 
pyrolifolia Hooker il. t. 89. Fol. ellipt. serra- 
tis, racemis paniculatis. Boreal America. 

264. Pectiantia R. (comb oppos) Dru-- 
mondia D. C. Cal. coalito turbinato, Segm, 5 
refl. Petalis 5 pectinatis subepigynis stamini- 
feris persistens. — Stam. 5 ad pet. oppos. et basi 
insertis, antheris bilobis subsessilis. Ovario 
coalito, apice piano, stigma 2 sessilis bilobis. 
Capsula cal. et pet. connata, uniloc. apex fissus 
subbivalv. polysp. placenta 2 parietalis. Acaidis^ 

jl. spicatis. — Another striking new Genus over- 
looked by Hooker, and mixt with Mitella; all 
the akin Genera Tiarella, Heuchera, are in 
equal confusion. This is not even of the same 
Natural Class, since the opposite stamens re- 
move it to N ANTIANDRIA and near Phylica, 
Ceanothus, <Slc. ; but forming even a new fa- 
mily as will be seen below — Meantime the type 
is — 

265. Pectiantia miteUoides Raf. Drumondia 
do. Dec. Mitella pentandra Hook. b. mag. 2933. 
fl. bor. there was a previous G. of Mosses Dru- 
mondia. — Pubera scabra, fol. petiol. cord. lobat. 
crenatis, fl. parvis spicatis, petalis rigidis lute- 
scens. — Oregon Mts. 

266. EVANTEPIA Raf. New Natural Or- 
der of Class Nantiandria. The Evantepia?is, 
meaning well opposite over. — Differing from 
PLYRONTIA by Cal. and ovary coalescent. 

CENT. III. 73 

Petals various, one or several stigmas. — This 
will contain like Plyrontia several Natural fa- 
milies, such as — 

207. PECTANTIDIA, the Pectantides Raf. 
Petals persistent, several stigmas, capsule uniloc. 
seeds parietal. Type Pectantia^ above. 

208. GUANIDIA, theGouanides Raf. Petals 
squamiform, one style, several stigmas, capsule 
multiloc, cells monosperm,. Type Gouania. 

209. LORANTHIA, the Loranthians Raf. 
1815, types Loranthus, Viscum, <Slc. Berry 
monosperm. one stigma. 

270. MANGIDIA,the Mangidians Raf, 1815, 
types Rhizophora, Bniguiera, Mangium Raf, 
Aegiceras. Capsule monosperm, several stig- 

271. OzoMELis Raf. Cal. campanul. basi coa- 
lescens 5fido, petalis 5 trifidis, vel nullis, Stam. 
5 ad petalis alternis. Ovario semi infero stigma 
capitatis (cetera ut Mitelld) Acaulis,fl. spicatis 
polygamis. Very distinct G. also blended with 
jWtella by Hooker. Type Ozom. rarians Raf. 
Mitella trifida Hooker fl. bor. t. 82. Fol. cord, 
obtusis lobatis crenatis, fl. spicatis, nonnulis ape- 
talis vel masculis. — From Oregon. It belongs 
to Diceracea, but Mitella to Saxifragca. 

272. Pleurendotria R. (side inside 3) Li- 
thofragma Nuttal. (bad mongrel name) Cal. 
cyathiformis Sdentatus liberus. Petalis 5 un- 
guicul. trifidis. Stam. 10. antheris sessilis, Ova- 
rio libero, basi vix coalito, Stylis 3, caps, unilocul. 
placentas 3, valvis 3. Caulescens fol. divisis^ 
fl. racemosis. — Another distinct Genus, which 
Nuttal would lately unite with the last, 2 types. 

273. Pleurendotria par ci flora Raf. (Tellima 
do Hook. fl. t. 77) Hirsuta Scabra, fol. ternis 
inciso pinnatif. racemo brevis. — Oregon. 



274. Pleurendotria reniformis Raf. Litho- 
fragma do Nuttall. excl. Syn. Hooker. Annua, 
pubescens, fol. renif. trilobis incisis, racemo cy- 
moso — Oregon Mts. flowers pale rosate, Nuttal 
blends it with tlie last, but says it has sometimes 
8 stamens only, and 2 styles. Both very diffe- 
rent from Mitella grandiflora type of G. Tel- 
lima^ which has 5 Stamens. 

275. Petalosteira R. (pet. sterile) diff. 
Tiarella by no petals, but 12 to 20 stamens 
whereof 3 to 10 are sterile and petaloid, all in 
a row. — Types 1. P. nnifolia Raf. Tiarella do 
Retz, Vitm. Hooker fl. bor. t. 81. — 2 P. laci- 
niata Raf.Tiar. do Hook. t. 76. both from boreal 

276. Tiarella L. auct. This G. properly 
differs from Mitella by Capsule of two unequal 
valves and petals entire, it is therefore less na- 
tural than many of the above. The type is 
Tiarella cordifoUa^ with calix Sparted ; all the 
other sp. are doubtful, each appearing the type 
of a subgenus at least, while T. Bracteata and 
hiternata lack the 10 Stamens or unequal valves, 
and must form the two next Genera. 

277. Oreotrys (Mt. cluster.) Raf atl. journ. 
p. 145. in 1832. Diff. Tiarella^ calix campanul. 
5fido, petalis 5 linearis parvis, Stam. 5, petalis, 
alt. subul.Stylis 2,capsula semi-infera birostrata, 
valvis equalis staminiferis. Acaulisfl. racemosis 
hracteatis. — Nearer Heuchera to which Dec. 
unites it than to Tiarella. One type. 

278. Oreotrys bracteata Raf. Fol. rad. ces- 
pitosis subrot. cordatis, inciso serratis glabris 
petiolis pubescens: racemo simplex, bracteis 
lanceolatis. — Mts. Oregon. Tiarella bracteata, 
Torrey, Eaton, Heuchera do Dec. Perennial, 
calix obovate segments. 

CENT. III. 75 

279. Blondia (Necker) d'lff.Tktrella, Cal. cone, 
camp an. ofido, Fetalis 5 linearis elongatis, Stam. 
10 elongatis, ovario birostro, Stylis 2. Stig. ob- 
tusis. Capsula uniloc. birostra equalis, inter 
stylis dehiscens. Catdescciis^ J'ol. cowpositis 
alt. fl. paniculatis. — The description is from 
Elliot, who properly says it is nearer i^axlfraga 
than TiareUa ; but habit quite peculiar, similar 
to Aruncus^ where Michaux once united it. 

280. Blondia hltrrnata Raf. Tiarella do 
Vent. Pursh. Nat. Elliot, Eaton, ^pirea arun- 
cus Var. Mx. Fol. bitern. foliolis ovato cord, 
obliquis, inciso lobatis dentatis," panicula racemi 
flora divaricata pubescens bracteis linearibus. — 
Saluda Mts. of Carolina, perennial, styles in- 
flexed, segments of calix deep and ovate. 

281. Blondia trifoUata Raf Tiarella do L. 
et auct. Fol. trifoliatis, foliolis rhombeis angu- 
latis serratis pilosis, panicula corymbis race- 
mosis stylis rectis. — In E. Sibiria and Oregon. 
Cal. realy campan. This was the type of Necker's 
Blondia^ who ascribes to it a double capsule, as 
Leptarhena., which conies still nearer to Arun- 
cus. In Bl. hiternata the 2 capsules are coales- 
cent and the calix deeper more open : is it a 
Subgenus Saluda Raf i the definite Stamens 
remove them however from Hpirea and Arun- 
cus, while the habit is also near AlchemiUa. — 
Yet the G. probably belongs to Saxifragea. 

282. Yamala R. (nom. Amer.) diff". Heuchera, 
cal. turbinato ineq. Slobo, petalis nulhs, Stam. 
5 inclusis. Acaulis,jl. racenio Simplex. — 1'yP^» 
Yamala cylindrica Raf Heuchera do Dec. 
Hook. fl. fol. cordatis truncatis lobato crenatis, 
racemo tereto spicato. In Oregon. 

283. Leptaxis Raf diif. Heuchera et Tia- 
rella, Cal. infundib. 5fido, pela.lis 5 linear. Stam, 


5 ineq. 3 exsertis longior, stylis 2, capsula oiii-' 
niiio libera, Acaulis, racemo simplex. — Type 
Leptaxis meuziesi Raf. Heuchera do Hook. 11. 
t. 80. Tiarella do of some authors ; but not of 
Pursh, his being a real Tiarella with 10 stamens, 
caulescent and spicate. 

284. DiAMONON R. (Solanum diosk) diff. So- 
lanum. Cal. ineq. bilabiato, 4partito, lab. inf. 
emarginato. Corolla rotata, subineq 5 loba,Stam. 
5 eq. libera, filam. brevis, anth. magnis ellipt. 
apice biporosis. Frutex fl. term, solit. — Type. 
Diamonon coriaceum Raf. Solanum do. Hook, 
b. m. 2708. Glabrum, inerme, fol. petiol. oblon- 
gis coriaceis nitidis integris subvenosis, pedun- 
culis subunifl. corollis plicatis undulatis mu- 
cronatis cerulescens. — A pretty Sp. from Mexico 
with large bluish flowers. 

285. EvoTRocHis R, (well wheeled) diflf. Pri- 
mula, Cal. campan. 5fido, lac. serratis, Cor. hy- 
pocrat. tubo angulato, limbo 51obo ; antheris 
5 sessilis. Stylo filif. stigma concavo, Caps, glo- 
bosa uniloc. polysp. sem. ad placenta glob, 
magno centrale inserta. Caulescens fol. etjl. 
verticillatis. — It is astonishing how the bota- 
nists could unite this fine distinct Genus with 
Primula : probably several Sp. blended as Pr. 

286. Evotroehis involucrata Raf fol. radio, 
spatulatis inciso serratis, acutis nervosis bullatis, 
subtus farinosis flavo maculatis, fol. cauhnis 
sess. ovatis trinervis 5-7rotatis, fl. axill. rotatis 
5-12. corollis crenatis. — In Egypt, fl. pale yellow 
hardly odorous. This is Pr. vertic. of some 
authors Grab. Hook. b. m. 2842, not of For- 

287. Evotroehis odorata Raf fol. ovato-lanc. 
serratis subtus farinosis, radicalis. petiolatis, pe- 

CENT. m. ii 

tiolis alatis basi dilatatis, florib. verticillatis, co- 
rollis lobis integris. — In Arabia, Mts. of Kuman, 
flowers sweet scented like a primrose. — This is 
the real Prim, vertic. of Forsk, Vahl t. 5. and 
all tlie authors. 

288. CoDiPHUs R. (bell tubular) Ovario in- 
fero adherens elongato 4gono, cal. 5partito, 
corolla tubulosa 51ida, Stam. 5, antheris coalitis 
Stylo filif. Stigma bifidum, Caps, 4ang. 4valvis 
siliquosa, 21ocuI. sem. pluriniis biserialis ad dis- 
sepimento libero inserta, Frutex^ fol. sess. fj, 
axill sess. — Blended with Camjianula and 
Prismatocarpa, different by Corolla, anthers, 
capsule ; same natural family, yet near Lobelia 
by the anthers connected. 

289. CodipJius nitidiis Raf. Prismatoc. ni- 
tidus L'her. t. 3. Campanula prismatoc. Ait. 
W. auct. Hook. b. m. 2733. Glaber assurgens, 
fol. lanceol. rigidis laxe serratis spinulosis, brac- 
tea unica linearis. — South Africa, small white 
flowers. The Campan. plicata 'i and tomen- 
tosa ? probably belong here also ; but the Genera 
Prism,ocarpus, Apenula or Legoiizia^ Slc. of 
which Polemonium, ruelloides and Campan. 
Speculum are the types, appear quite distinct. 
Camp, biflora and amplexic, are also types of 
peculiar Genera, see my Flora. 

290. Benaiirea, Raf. (w^ell gilt) ditf. Cam- 
panula, Cal. campan. 5fido Sangulato. Cor. 
camp, stellata 5fida, ad basi cal. adnata, Stam. 
5 ad basi corolla adnatis vel insertis, stylo 1, 
stigma 5 linearis undul. Caps. 5gona Slocularis. 
Frutex carnosus, fol. alt fl. paniculatis. — 
This G. and the 3 next differ from the real 
Campanula, Prismocarpus, Legouzia having 
a tribocular capsule, by capsules with 5 cells 
and often angular : but this G . deviates besides 


from the essential cliaracter of free stamens not 
inserted on corolla, and probably belongs rather 
to the family of Diervillaria; but it has leaves 
alternating ? 

291. Benaurea sempermrens Raf. Campa- 
nula aurea L. auct. Dumont. Foliis ovato 
lanceol, glabris serratis, fl. panic, cal. coloratis. 
— Madera, flowers golden, shrub with fleshy 
stem — Dumont has well described the flowers. 

292. Concilium, R. (Campanula lat.) diff*. 
from Campanula, by — Capsula cylindrica, 5lo- 
cularis, stigmas 3, corolla subrotata. Frutex 
ericoideus. — This G. like the 2 last has a 
shrubby habit, the type is. Concilium peduncu- 
laris Raf the Camp, fruticosa L. auct. of South 
Africa. — Fol. lineari subulatis, fl. longissime 

293. Decaprisma, R. (10 ang.) diff*. Cam- 
panula. Stigma 5. Caps, decagona Slocularis, 
valvis angularis.— Type Decaprisma cespitosa 
Raf. Camp. do. Scop. fl. earn. t. 4 et auct. 
Caulib. cespit. angulat. fol. sess. imbricatis lan- 
ceol. ovatisque, serratis glabris, subtus puncta- 
tis, bracteis lin. integris, fl. nutantes — Alps of 
Carniolia, flowers blue. 

294. MiNDiuM Ad. non Jus, diff*. Campanula. 
Cal. 10-12 partitus alt. reflexis Cor. camp. 
5-6fida, Stam. 5-6, basi valvatis distans, apex 
patens, antheris pendulis. Stylo clavato, stigma 
5-6fido, Capsula 5-6gona, 5-6 locularis. Rad, 
tuherosa,) caide nodosa^ rames et fol. terms, 

j1. ad dichotomia. — Habit totaly unlike Cam- 
panula, similar to Rubiacea, perhaps of family 
Diervillaria like 290 if stamens inserted on 
corolla. The G. Forgesia and Ceratostema of 
Jussieu appear to be akin, and of same family ; 

CENT. 111. 79 

but Qhupalon is nearer Vaccinium and 

295. 3Iindlum canariense? Raf. Fol. petiolatis 
hastatis dentatis, levis, caulinis ternis, raineis 
oppositis, fl. solit. cernuis. — Fine plant of the 
Canaries, root fusiform, stem erect tripedal, 
flowers large rufous, branches dichotome. Of 
this plant Linneus made 2 Sp. and '2 Genera ! 
Campanula eanariensis and Canarina cam- 
panula ! And was imitated by his disciples : 
the generic name Canarina is inadmissible be- 
ing formed from Canna and Canarium ! The 
Mindium of Jussieu was a different G. now cal- 
led Michauxia. 

296. Petalostima, Raf. diff'. Campanula, 
Corolla infundib. tubo brevis intus villoso, limbo 
5fido. Stigma 5 petaloideis obovatis subtus his- 
pidis, capsula Slocul. Svalvis, sub lOgonus. 
Fol. oppositis^ pedunc, axill. ramosis. — Ano- 
ther out of the 20 Genera blended in Campa- 
nula. Habit peculiar, and strange form of 

297. Fetalostima capensis Raf. Camp, do L. 
auct. Commel. t. 35, Curtis, b. m. 785. Caule- 
scens, fol. lane. dent, hispidis mucronatis, pe- 
dunc, longissimis, cal. et caps, hirsutis. — South 
Africa, flowers blue. 

298. Hecale, R. (Nympha) diff". Campanula, 
Cal. 3-5fidus, Cor. infundib, 3-5fida, Stam, 3-5, 
Stigma bilobo, Capsula oblonga bilocul. Cau- 
lescens, fol. alt. jl. panicid. secundis^ — This 
G. is nearer Codiphus by capsule, but it is not 
angular, nor corolla tubular. Type, Hecale 
lobelioides Raf Campan. do. L. auct. Glabra, 
ramosiss, fol. lane, serrat. sessilibus — In Ma- 
dera, many small flowers, whitish purple in ter- 
minal secund panicles. 

80 iu«i;. 

299. PiLOREA Raf. (head hill) dift'. Campa- 
nula, Stigma bifidum, Capsula bilocul. flares 
capifntis,^ — Near the last, but Corolla campa- 
nulate 5fid, perhaps a sub genus of it. Type 
Vilorea gramin'tf. Raf. Campan. do L. auct. 
Cespitosa, fol. lin. subul. basi ciliatis, caulinis 
subamplex, bract, ovatis acuminatis. — Mts. of 
Italy and Sicily, ffowers violet blue in terminal 
heads on short stems. Seen alive. 

300. Pentropis Raf. (5 keels) diff. Campa- 
nula, Calix lOfidus, 5 alt. reflexis, Corolla Sfida 
campan. stigma 5fidum, Capsula globosa, Slocul. 
Scarinata. — Fol. alt. fl., alt. — Another G. of this 
fine tribe with 5 cells. Type Pentropis Saxatilis 
Raf. Camp, do L. auct. Barr. 813. Boc. 64. Fol. 
obov. crenatis, fl. nutantibus. — In Creta, large 
blue flowers. 

I shall resume the New Genera of Campa- 
nula with those of Vaccinium. Enough has 
been stated to show that the G. Campanula was 
absurd and unnatural, since it had Cal. with 3 
to 15 parts, Corollas of all shapes with 3 to 6 
parts, 3 to 6 Stamens, free or united, on calix 
or corolla, 3 to 6 styles or stigmas. 5 to 6 cells 
to Capsule, opening by valves or pores, ^c. 
The true Campanulas will be confined to those 
with Cal. 5fid, Cor. camp. 5fid, 5 Stamens; 
3 stigmas, 3 cells and no angles to the capsule 
opening by pores. Those with angles and valves 
from the G. Prismocarpa, Apemila, Legouzia, 
Stephalea, Blepheuria., Pleurima, Palaeno^ 




301. PiAROPus R. (thick feet) Pontederia 
azurea et crassipes auct. When I refered 
these plants with doubt to my reformed Ponte- 
deria 5, I had not before me Hooker's figure, 
which proves that they hardly belong there, and 
confirms my opinion that the whole wants re- 
form, and to be examined again. These form 
the type of a beautiful N. G., probably with 
many overlooked, sp in S. America. — Corolla 
tubo incurvo, limbo amplo ineq. nonbilabiato, 
6partito. segm. obovatis, uno supero major. Stam. 
6 ineq. 3 intubo, 3 longior exsertis, omnis curvis. 
Ovar. ovato, Stylo longo flexuoso, Stigm. capit. 
papilloso. Capsula Slocular poly sperm, sem. 
central. Plant, natans, radic.fibris finibriatis^ 

fol. radic. petiolis infatisfusiformis celidosis^ 
ft. amplis spicatis, racJiis triangularis non 
spadix. What a striking G. by habit and cha- 
racters ! 3 Types at least. 

302. Piaropus tricolor Raf Fol. cordatis 
ovatisque, acutis, corollis purpurascens, petalo 
major tricolor, stam. piloso. glandulosis, pistilis 
viridis. From Guyana to Guayaquil, probably 
several sp. that of Swartz and Antilles has 
azure flowers, this has them pale purple, the 
upper petal blue in the middle with a yellow 
spot, fl. 3 inches. — Pont, azurea Hook, b. m. 
2932 Synon. dub. ad Kunth, Hoenk, confer. 

303. Piaropus mesomelas Raf. Ponted. cras- 
sipes 3Iart. braz. ic. Fol. rhombeis, corollis 



azureis, stam. glabris, pistillis nigris. — Brazil 
and B, Ayres. 

204. Piaropus azureus Raf. Ponted. Azu- 
rea Sw. Wild Pers. fol. subrot. ellipticis, corol- 
lis azureis. — Antillis. Hooker in order to obscure 
the subject has blended these 3 into one — it is 
thus that Botany is made to retrograde, and dis- 
tinctions are overlooked. These plants are as dif- 
ferent from my Vnisemas G. 6, as may be 
Roses and Geraniums. 

305. KuNDA R. (nom. Sanscr) Aroid. Spatha 
coriacea campanulata dimidiata dilatata undu- 
lata plicata, Spadix fungiformis basi columnaris 
tereto florifero, apex capitato dilatato undulato. 
Pistilis inferis, globosis stylosis, stigma trilobo. 
(bacca 3sp.) Stam. superis 41ocul. poris 4 apice 
dehiscens. Acaule, rad. tuberosafibris comata 
ftos subsess.^foL radic. dimsa. — Most extra- 
ordinary Indian Genus, near Arum by habit; 
but quite distinct by spatha, spadix, styles and 
anthers. The iiower and leaf appear at diffe- 
rent times. The huge root is esculent and cul- 
tivated for food. I have given to it the old 
Sanscrit name. Perhaps several blended spe- 
cies, but the type is 

306. Kunda verrucosa Raf. Tuber depresso 
zonato gemmulato fibrillato: folia decomp. tri- 
fida, deinde bifida pinnatifida aspera foliolis obi. 
acutis ; flos. verrucosus intus leve luteo, margins 
rubro, spadix capitulo equante magno atropur- 
pureo mesenterico. — India, Ceylon, Molucas. 
Root brown 4 to 8 lb. weight crowned by white 
fibres, flower 1 or 2 feet wide, on a short thick 
warty peduncle with some uneq. spreading 
sheaths. It is Arum campanulatum. Roxb. 
cor. t. 272, Hook. b. m. 2812, Arum zeylanicum 

CENT IV. )83 

Com. t. 53. Taeoa. phalifera Riinipli t. 11*2. 
Schena Rheed lit. 19. Not in Linneus. 

307. Spatulima Raf. Legum, diff. Orobus, 
Cal. urceolatus, Snervis 5dent. eq. Vexillum 
elong. emarg. Stylo reflexo Spatulato margi- 
nato piano subtus pubescens, stigma margine 
obtuso. FolioUs binis ternatisque sessilib, 
pedicellis elongatis multijloris. The style or 
stigma of this G. is quite peculiar. Probably 
several sp. blended as Orobtis sessilifolhis^ 
ensifolius, digitatus, pyrenaicus, &.c,, — all re- 
fered here by Hooker. — Type. 

308. Spatulima angustifolia Raf. Caule flex, 
striato, foliolis 2-3 mucronatis lin. angustis 
acutis, stipulis subul. semisagitt. pedic. .3-4floris, 
fl. pendulis. Crimea, Greece, Sicily, fl. purplish, 
vexillum darker. Orobiis sessilif. Sm. DC. 
Hook. b. m. 2796, Or.digitatus? Bieb. Spreng. 

309. Petaloxis Raf. (pet. sharp) Commeli- 
nea, Cal. 3phyl. Cor. petalis 3 acutis persistens, 
eq. Stam. 6. subsess. subeq. glabris 3 ext. 3 int. 
Antheris lin. 21oc. apice 2porosis, Stylo filif. 
stigma obt. Caps, globosa corolla baccata, 
31ocul. polysp. Fol. vaginans^fl, racemosis. — 
Wrongly united to Dichorisandra of Mikan 
by Hooker, which has 5 Stamens only, in 2 une- 
qual phalanges, anthers not porose, petals not 
acute. — It is near my G. Eothinanthes, having 
same habit. 

310. Petaloxis purpurea Raf. Dichorisan- 
dra oxypetala Hook. b. m. 272 L Caule tereto 
striato basi squamoso apice folioso, fol. ellipt. 
acum. striatis, undul. racemo flexuoso, pedicellis 
biftoris, petalis ovatis acutis purpureis. — South 
America, stem simple or forked, raceme termi- 
nal, pretty purple flowers. 

311. Dimanisa, (Twin uneq.) Raf. Cal. 

84 flor.'tklluh. 

5part. bibract. Cor. tubul. bilab. lab. sup. erecto 
emarg. lab. inf. eq. 3ficlo. Stam. didyn. Antheris 
biloc. loculis ineq. Capsula ut Jtisticia. ¥rutex 
artic. nodosis,fol. opp. fi. axill. — How could 
Hooker unite to Justicia a plant with 4 Sta- 
mens ! 2 types if Link has made same blunder 
for another. 

312. Dimanisa latifolia, Raf. Justicia no- 
dosa Hook. b. m. 2914. Fol. ovatis acutis sub- 
integris, bracteis linearib. cal. longior — Beau- 
tiful shrub with scarlet flow^ers, locality un- 

313. Dimanisa ? oblongata^ Raf. Justicia 
do Link H. ber. t. 9. fol. oblongis lanceolatis, 
bracteis foliosis lanceol. cal. duplo longior. If 
this is a brazilian plant, the former may be 
such also, has this really 4 stamens like the 
last ? 

314. Faulia, R. (Olea. gr.) Cal. 4fidus, cali- 
culatus bracteis 4. Cor. rotata plana 4fida, 
Stam. 2 opp. divaric. longis. Ovar. ovat. stig. 
globoso subsess. Bacca 21oc. 4sp. FoL opp. 
fl, Spicatis panic. Very distinct from Ligus- 

trum by cal. cor. &-c. nearer Olea. The Lig. 
japonicum, Sinense, lucidum of Asia may be- 
long to it ; but the types are the two next Sp. 

315. Faulia verrucosa^ Raf. Ramis teretis 
verrucosis, fol. petiol. lato oblongis acum. gla- 
bris undul. panicula trichotoma glabra, cal. 
scabris. In Nepal, fl. white inodorous ? Ligus- 
trum nepalense var. glahrum Wallich, Hook, 
b. m. 2921. 

316. Faulia Odorata, Raf. fol. ovatobl. 
acum. subtus villosis, panicula villosa densa, ra- 
cemulis spicatis, cal. villosis — In Nepal, flowers 
white sweet smelling, berries oval blue. Li- 
gustrum Spicatum Don. fl. nep. or Nepalense 

CENT. IV. 85 

Wallich. — The authors appear to have blended 
2 species, and thus not well marked the mutual 

317. Egena, R. (nympha) Cal. glob. 5dent. 
Cor. tubulosa incurva, limbo 51obo eq. Stam. 4 
didyn. exserta, stylo filif. stig. acuto. Bacca in 
calice 4 sperma. Frutex fol. opp. jl. corym- 
bosis — Pretty G. blended with Clerodendron 
with Cal. 5fid. drupo 4pyreno. Type E. er- 
minensis fol. opp. ternisque ovatis petiol. inte- 
gris vel apice serratis, corymbis term. Clero- 
dendron do. Hook. b. m. 2925. fl. yellowish or 
incarnate white Madagascar. 

318. CoLAx, Sprengel. Orchideous G. prop- 
erly distinguished from Maxillaria altho' blen- 
ded by Hooker and Lindley. Fetalis non resup. 
basi coalitis, 2 infimis in cuculo calcariforme 
adnatis. labello basi cucul. Col. apice glandula 
bifida ferens, Pollen 4 supra glandula ineq. 
2 minor. Scapo artic, 1-2 fl. hulbis terrestris 
unifol. — Colax harisoni Spr. Dendrohium do 
Hook. ex. fl. 120. Maxillaria do Lindl. b. reg. 
897. Hook. b. m. 2927. Grandiflora would have 
been a better name ; large yellow fl. 4 inches 
broad odorous, lip red, petals oval, leaf lanceol. 

319. Tritelandra, R. (3 perf. St.) Orchidea 
with 3 perfect stamens, quite distinct from 
Epidendrum with one ! instead of an anomaly 
it is deemed now the real type of the tribe ! and 
yet was lefl: in Epidendrum! Petalis 5 patulis 
subeq. label, major basi adnato ad columna, 
tereta, apice antice antheris ternis subeq. liberis 
in triangulo positis, supera major 4 pollen, 2 in- 
fimis latere valvatis 2pollen. Rad. vermicul. 

fol. distichis^ fl. eapitatis — Distinct by habit, 
lip and anthers, as near Octomeris as Epidefi- 

SG rum. tellur. 

drnm. Probably several sp. mixt. compare 
Epid, fuscatum^ anceps, secundum Slc. the 
main type is 

320. Tritelandra fuscata^ Raf. Fol. obi. 
acutis, caule basi et apice subnudo, petalis obo- 
vatis, label, fiabellato lobulato — Antilles, flow- 
ers small greenish brown. His Epid, fuscatum 
Sw. W. often figured by Sm. Andr. Lod. 472. 
Bot. reg. 67, Bot. mag. 2844. Is the E, anceps 
Jaq. Lod. 887, the same ? and E. secundum 
Sw ? as Hooker says ; but he is so much in the 
habit of confusing Sp. that these must be veri- 
fied again. 

321. Sacoila, R. (bag hollow) Orchidea 
diff. Neottia, Petalis connivens teretis, 3 infer- 
nis basi coalitis saccatis unicalcaratis, labello 
indiviso, columna teres truncata aptera, stylo 
conico, anthera liaearis 2pollen postice posita. 
Caide squamosa^ vaginato Jl. spicatis — Very 
distinct by habit, united petals and style. Type 
Sacoila lurida Raf. {Neottia aphyla Hook. b. 
m. 2797) Tota rubescens fuscata, squamis 
acutis vaginatis, spica paucifl. fl. nutans, labello 
ligulato obtuso integro. Antilles, whole color 
lurid redish brown, flowers 5-8 large shaped as 
in Spiranthes, but calcarate not spiral : habit 
of Orobanche. 

322. Neottia, of authors. They have mixt 
in this Genus a crowd of heterogenous plants, 
and so many have been removed that now we 
hardly know the real types of it. The charac- 
ters of all the authors are quite different. Many 
Sp. of Ophrys, Orchis, Serapias, Satyrium, 
Limodorum, S^c. have been united thereto, and 
the Aristotelia of Loureiro. While the Genera 
Spiranthes and Goodyera have lately been 
distinguished. All the Sp. must be examined 



again, I have removed several of them: see my 
G. 214 Dothilis^ and iV, calcarata or my El- 
troplectris 185. As many as 12 Genera may 
be made out of this ; and the real reformed 
Neottia will merely comprize N. Speciosa, elata 
Orchioides^ plantaginea of Hooker, not mine 
of 1817 which is a Spiranthes, 

323. Neottia, Raf. Corolla ringens, petalis 
connivens, labello concreto subeq. basi saccato 
Col. tereta, stylosa, anthera stylo paralela. 
Fol. radicfi. spicatis. — Even this requires revi- 
sion; it appears in this the lip is saccate while in 
Sacoila it is the external lower base of petals. 

324. Adnula, Raf. diff. label, et 2 sepalis tri- 
calcaratis decurrens calcarib. ad ovario adnatis. 
Type Adnula petiolaris Raf. (N. adnaria auct.) 
fol. longe petiol, oblongis, spica simplex, labello 
deflexo bilobo. Antilles. 

325. Narica, R. (Nympha) diff. Neottia, la- 
bello concavo bilobo, petalis liberis, fol. rad. 

Jlorih. radic. sessilibus—Type Narica moschata 
Raf fol. sessilib. ovatis undulatis, labello oblongo 
obtuso pubero dilatato undulato — Id Trinidad, 
fine large flowers smelling like musk, mixt of 
white and green. It is the Neottia acaulis of 

326. MoNusTES Raf. (Nympha) diff. Neottia, 
labello non saccato basi appendicis binis ligula- 
tis columna alata, lobis elongatis. Fol. radic. fl. 
Spicatis Spiralis. — This G. is near Pterostylis 
with the habit of ^piranthes. Type Monustes 
australis, Raf. fol. lanceol. labello oblongo un- 
dulato. Neottia anstralis Brown, Smith. 

327. GooDYERA, Br. 1812? Tiissaca Raf 
1814. for this G. see my new flora of N. Amer- 
ica. Habit peculiar by dense spikes. 

328. vSpiRAiVTHEs, Richard. Girostachis Per- 


soon 1807 proposed earlier but not established, 
and objectionable formed from Stachys. Genus 
now generally adopted aud easily known by the 
habit of spiral flowers. The lip is unguic. bi- 
callose paralel, anther peduncled 4'C. It is very 
prolific in species, not yet well distinguished and 
often blended. Many new species of N. Amer. 
are described in my Herbar. New flora, Autikon 
&/C. but I add here some exotic species. 

329. Spiranthes tortilis et Satyrium spirale 
Sw. Fol. longissimis linearibus, Spica tortilis, fl. 
secundis laxis, labello trilobo crenulato. In 
Jamaica, the plants of N. Amer. and China, re- 
fered to this are all diflferent. 

330. Spiranthes laxiflora Raf, Fol. linearib. 
spica laxa, floribus glabris nutans, labello reflexo 
trilobo. — In China, fl. white large. It is Neot- 
tia tortilis Smith &c. but not the N. sinensis of 

331. Spiranthes jlexuosa Raf Caule basi 
folioso, fol. oblongis patulis, florib. villosis, label, 
ovat. undul. — In Nepal, fl. whitish very spiral. 
Neottia flexuosa. Smith. Roots vermicular. 

332. Spiranthes Sibirica, Raf. fol. lin. lan- 
ceol. erectis, spica gracilis, labello obovato cre- 
nato. In Sibiria, blended with our Sp. estivalis 
and many other peculiar Sp. 

233. Spiranthes glanca, Raf. Foliis ovatis 
petiolatis glaucis, fl, albis adoratis, labello ovato 
crispo. — In South Europe, blended with Sp. au- 
tumnalis^ or Neottia spiralis by many authors, 
which has oblong green leaves subsessile. 
There are two other odorous Sp. in North Amer. 
and others in Sibiria. 

334. Spiranthes pamiflora, Raf. (Neottia 
do Sm.) same characters as Sp. flexuosa ex- 
cept flowers hardly spiral unilateral, lip red 

CENT. IV. 89 

crenulate. — In Nepal also, Sp. bicolor perhaps 
a better name. 

335. Spiranthes dluretica, Raf. (Neottia do 
Auct)/oI. radic. lin. ff. uniiat. vix spiralis, labello 
obi. obtuso crenato reflexo. — In Chili, Nil 
Feuil. t. 17. 

336. Spiranthes quadridentaia, tiaf. (Neot- 
tia do Auct) Caule basi folioso, fol. obi. obt. 
spica secunda vix spiralis, labello obovato 4den- 
tato — Guyana &. Antilles. 

337. Nerissa, R, (Nympha) diff. Neottia, 
petalis sub patulis obovatis Campanul. labello 
cordato concavo. Floribus racemosis, pediin- 
culatis — Type Nerissa glandulosa Raf. Neot- 
tia do Sims. bot. mag. 842, Smith &.c. I^^ol. radic, 
ellipt. obt. recurvis, II. racemosis, labello acuto 
— Antilles, fl. white with green stripfes. Com- 
pare with G. Corallorhiza. 

338. ToMOTRis R. (cut cluster) diff. Neottia, 
labello basi inflate, apice piano, calcarib. nuUis, 
petalis vix concretis. Ctiule ramoso articul. 
geniculato^foliosoy raceinis compositis. — -Very 
near Neottia and Sacoila, but habit quite pecu- 
liar indicating a different Genus. Types To- 
motris pohjstachia and JIava, Neottia do of 
authors. Once Serapias Jtara. 

339. Strateuima Raf. Stenorynchusi Auct. 
Diff. Neottia culcar elongato ut in. Eltroplec- 
tris, angusto libero, labello bilobo. Rad.fascicul. 
caule folioso, spica foliosa. — Type Strateuma 
zeylanica Raf. Orchis strateumatica ! Lin. Fol. 
lineari lanceol. infimis brevioribus, calcar ad 
ovario equante. Id Ceylon. 

340. Synoplectris R. (united spur) Petalis 
connivens, bilabiatis 3 supernis coalitis galea- 
tis — labio inf bifido petalis 2 basi coalitis et de- 
currens in tubo calcarif ad ovar. toto concreto 



adnato, labello elongate spatulato iiitcgro basi 
gibboso, decurrens in tubo. Columna erecta, 
tereta, basi mellifera. apex glandula, anthera 
infera ad glandula dependens, loculis 2 lanceol. 
pollen 2 utrinque. Fol. magnis radicalism sca- 
po bracteafo, JI. spicatis jiams. — This G. is 
very peculiar and distinct from Admda by the 
position of the bilabiate petals, anther and ha- 
bit, 2 types. 

341. Sijnoplectris viridlsl^af Neottia viridis 
and grandiflora. Hook. G. m. 2730. (not the 
same as 2956) Spiranthes grandiflora, Lindl. b. 
reg. 1043, not at all like a Spiranthes! — Fol. 
sessilib. carnosis ovato lanceol. undulatis nervo- 
sis, scapo sulcato bract, ov. lane. fl. bract, lin. 
lane, puberis, petalis connivens, labello basi in- 
voluto, apice undulato. — Brazil, large leaves 
and flowers occupying most of the scape and 
greenish yellow. 

342. Synoplectris picla. Raf Neottia vel Spi- 
ranthes do Auct.Fol. petiolatisovato-lanc.macu- 
latis pictis, petalis subpatulis labello revoluto. — 
South America, flowers whitish yellow smaller. 

343. DiPLECTRADEN (douhle spur gland) Raf. 
Orchidea. Petalis 3 ext. concavis, superior ga- 
leato, lateralis obliquis, petalis 2 internis semi 
sagittatis, labello lin. basi trifido, calcarato. 
Anthera unica ovata sulcata, biloc. bipollen 
pedic. basi bicalcarata, biglandulosa. Caules- 
cens, spicata. — Neither Neottia nor Habenaria 
as supposed : Anther peculiar, like Orchis. 

344. Diplectraden leptoceras Raf. Neottia 
orchioides. Auct. Habenaria leptoceras Hook, 
b. m. 2726. Caule angul. fol. lanceol. carinatis, 
spica laxa, bract, ovato lane, calcar filif com- 
press© ovario duplo longior. — South America, 
flowers green many, lip yellow acute, ovary 
striated twisted. 

CENT. IV. 91 

345. Endorima Raf. (in pits) diff. Conyza, 
Periantho imbric. tereto scarioso, phorantho fa- 
vosum, alveolis magnis ineq. laciniatis, flosculis 
omnis fertilis tubulosis 5dent. antheris bisetosis. 
Sem. obi. verrucosis in alveolis immersis, pap- 
pus filis clavatis pluniosis basi coalitis interdum 
furcatis. Habitus Conyza, ff. pedunc, — Very 
striking distinct Genus by phoranthe, seeds and 
pappus, nearer Conyza than Astelma and Gna- 

346. Endorima modest a Raf. Astelma do 
Sieber, Gnaplial. do. Hook. b. m. 2710. Fruti- 
cosum ramosum, fol. lin. fil. canalic. cano tomen- 
tosis, pedunc. term, unifl. elong.atis, periantho sq. 
cuspidatis roseis tomentosis, flosculis flavis. — 
South Africa, pretty plant, discovered by Sie- 
ber; but the G. Astelma of Brown has a smooth 
mutic phoranthe. 

347. Trilomisa Raf (3 edges eq.) diff*. Be- 
gonia by, fl. masc. pet. 4 ineq. 2 patulis, 2 inter- 
nis minor erectis, fl. fem. petalis 5 subequalis, 
stigni. 3 bilobis convolutis angulatis, Capsula 
alis 3 equalis, loculis 3 equalis. Frutex artic.fl. 
subsess.fl. panic. — Type Trilomisa undidata 
Raf Begonia do Auct. H. b. m. 2723. Caule 
albo macul. fol. brevi pet. obliquis undulatis 
ellipticis glabris, panic, axill. dichot. ft. fem. 
pendulis. — Brazilian shrub with white flowers. 

348. Strepsipiius Raf (twisted tube) Cal. 
5phyl. subeq. Cor. tubo elongato tortilis, limbo 
bifido bilab. lab. sup. obi. 3dent. inf. integro s. 
bif. minor. Stam. 2 Antheris loculis 2 superpo- 
sitis obliquis. Stylo filif stig. emarg. Caps, ut 
Justicia. — Frutex, fol. opp. pedunc. axil, in- 
volucr. Sfloris. — Very distinct G. near Dian- 
thera, corolla and stamens quite peculiar. 

349. Strepsiphus .speciosus Raf Justicia 


speciosa Roxb, Hook. hot. m. 272*2. Fol. opp. 
petiol. ovatis acutis creniilatis glabris, infimis 
siibcord. pcdunc. axil, et term, involucris dupli- 
cis, utrinque 4phylis ineq. spatulatis trifloris 
cilialis. — Bengal, fine shrub with many large 
violaceous flowers. 

350. Delonix R. (evident claw) Legum. dif]^. 
Poinciana, ( al. eq. non fornic. Pet. 5. subeq. 
unguis longissimis, limbo, crenatis flabellatis. 
Stam. 10 ineq. glabris, declinatis. — D. regia 
Raf. Poinciana regia Hook. b. m. 2884, inermis, 
fol. bipin. ovatobl. muticis. A beautiful tree of 
Madagascar, with large scarlet flowers. The 
G. Poinciana DC. separated from Caesalpinia 
is American with uneq. cal. hooded, petals une- 
qual, stamens hairy. &c. 

351. Omonoia R. (Papaver diosk) Esch- 
scholzia Auct. barbarous russian corrupt name, 
similar besides to the prior Elshozia of Wild. 
Auct. being dedicated to the same family of bo- 
tanists ! wrongly united to Loasacea by DC. and 
by Hooker to Papaveracea; I have ascertained 
on the living plant, that it belongs to my nat. fa- 
mily Glinidia of 1815 near to Glinus and Por- 
tulaca, all the Papaveracea with several styles 
belong there also ; but it is the type of a sub 
family Omonoidea by calix and capsule. Such 
diversity happens in Hypericea and Portulacea, 
both very near families of same order PQLY- 
MESIA. My family Resedacea differs by une- 
qual calix, petals and stamens. — Cal. calyptra- 
tus, pet. 4. Stam. plura hypog. epipetalis. Ovar. 
conico, Styh 4 ineq. lin. siliqua bivalvis angul. 
uniloc, polysp, valvis seminif. fol. decomp. fl. 
term, solit. amplis,Jl.aviis. — Omonoia cnlifor- 
mcrt Raf. foholis Unear. apice multifidis. Esch- 
scholzia do. Chamis, DC. bot. reg. 1168, bot. 
mag. 2887. Sweet t. 265, &c. 

CENT. IV. J)*' 

352. Streptima R. (twisted st.) Cal. tubul. 
5ang. 5 dent. Pet. 5. unguic. eq. Stam. 6. ineq. 
3 major hypogynis. Stylo filif. apice trifido con- 
torto flexuoso. Caps, uniloc. 3valvis, valvis se- 
miniferis polysp. — Frntex fot. ojrp. vertic. vel 

fascic.fl.axllL sess, veL ad dlchot. — Str. pauci- 
flora Raf. Frankenia paucijl, DC. Hook. b. 
m. *289(j. fol. lin. obt. marg. revol. canescens, 
petalis cuneatis apice crenatis roseis. — Another 
plant evidently united to Franketiia by mere 
habit, altho' akin ; both belong to POLYME- 
Sl A also, and are akin to Omonoia, Reseda and 
Portulaca, differing by Stam. definite ; but they 
are neither equal nor isarine as in Alsinides and 
Phorandres, the Caryophyles of authors : they 
belong therefore to Hypericea near Sarotkra 
and Triadenum with Men^tho, Nothria and 
some others, having few stamens. The Frank, 
revoluta of Forskal with ovate revolute leaves, 
dichotome stem, belongs here perhaps, it is an 
Egyptian shrub. Str. paucijfora altho' sup- 
posed to be Australian is perhaps African also. 
Hooker doubts if his own plant is really that of 
Decandole, because scabrous. All the shrubby 
Sp. of Frankenia are also African, such as 
corymbosa and thyrnifolia Desf. except F. 
fnicrophyla of Patagonia. But all the sp. must 
be examined again, since Adanson gives a dif- 
ferent character to some species, and the next 
real Australian Genus is very distinct from both. 

353. Menetiio R. (nom mythol) Cal. 4fidus, 
petalis 4 unguic. integr. Stam, 6 ineq. stigma 
2, Caps, uniloc. bivalv. — Type M, sedifolhis 
Raf. frutex prostratus, fol. subul. crassis calcar- 
atis, fl. term, sessilib. In Australia, the Fran^^ 
keria quadri/petala of Labil. t. 114. 

354. Frankenia, L. Franca Mich. Cal. teres 


odentatus lOgonus persistens, Fetalis 5 integris 
ung. squama ad unguis, stig. 3 vel. 6 (Lin.) ; 
Caps, uniloc. 3valv. sem. centralis? This in- 
cludes many herbaceous Sp, of the mediterra- 
nean region, Fr. levis, hirsuta^ &c. which I 
have seen alive, and found with 3 stigmas and 
central seeds. 

355. NoTHRiA, Berg. Franca Ad. I take the 
name from the first, but characters from Ad. 
Cal. tubul. 5dent. Pet. 5 crenatis, Stam. 5-10 
(an 6-9 ?) stylo, stig. 3 caps 3valv. unil. Jussieu 
says Adanson meant 31ocular. The type of this 
is the Frankenia piilveruletita of several au- 
thors, found from Sibiria to Senegal ; but per- 
haps several Sp. have been blended. The real 
Nothria repens of Berg and South Africa has 
acute petals, and must be examined again. In 
fact the authors have neglected to notice the in- 
equality of stamens and their proportions, which 
are quite essential ; altho' heterines for the Co- 
rolla, they are isogyne or proportionate to stig- 
mas in all. 

356. Lacanthis, R. (much spinos.) Euphor- 
bia splendens Hook. b. mag. 2902. of all the 
beautiful and strange plants blended in Euphor- 
bia, this is one of the most singular and distinct 
Genus. — Periantho cupularis lOlobo, lobis alt. 
minor glanduliformis, Phorantho villoso. Andro- 
phoris bifidis, stam. 2 ferens, antheris subrot. 
uniloc. Gynophoro nuUo, ovar. sessile obi. stylo 
3fido, stig. 3dent. Frutex toto aculeis vestito^ 
foL paucis sparsls^ umhella dichot. hracteis 
binis coalitis coloratis unifl. — How can a bo- 
tanist of sense unite this with even the other 
fruticose Euphorbias ? 

357. Lacanthis splendens^ Raf. Aculeis basi 
dilat. confluens, fol.cuneatis cuspidatis. bracteis 

CEXT IV. 95 

orbic. miicron. coccineis. — Disc, in Madagas- 
car by Bojer, the bracts are scarlet as in Pleii- 
radena, while the fl. are of a dull yellow. The 
bifid stamens and lOlobed fl. are quite striking: 
deemed generic in Sahia ! why not here? I 
would have dedicated this fine C to Bojer, if I 
had been sure there is no other Bojeria. 

358. Tropilis,R. (keel lip) difi'. Dendrobium, 
Fetalis 5 linearib. vix patulis basicoalitis, labello 
parvo cucul. basi cum appendicis ad columna 
adn. apice reflexo, dorso 3carinato. Rad. fibro- 
sis^ hulbis terrestris costatis paucifol. Scapo 
laterali paiicijl. — Type Tr, emulum Raf. Den- 
drob. do. Br. Hook. b. m. 2906. fol. ovatobl. 
scapo brevi 3-5fl. labello tricarinato, apice acum. 
latere unidentato — Australia. 

359. EusTERALi^, R, (mentha diosk) difi'. 
Mentha. Cal. ovato inftato 4fido, eq. Cor. tubul. 
4dentata subequalis, Stam. 4 subeq. filam. ad 
media barbatis, antheris uniloc. transv. dehis- 
cens. Annua., fol. i^ertic. fl. spicatis — Fine 
Genus habit and characters quite peculiar. 
Type Eusteralis piimila Raf. caule vesiculoso, 
adscendens, fol. 4-5nis lin. lane, sub serratis, 
spica term, densa, bract, ovatis lane, ciliatis — 
In Nepal, corolla rosate. It is Mentha pumila 
Grab. Mentha verticillata Roxb. Don. Hook, 
b. m. 2907. 

360. Styrosinia, Raf. (cross union) Cal. 5 
part. ineq. libero, Cor. tubulosa clavata basi su- 
pra bigibbosa staminifera, limbo 51obo. Stam. 4 
didyn. antheris 4 coalitis planis cruciatis 41obis. 
Ovario libero ovato, basi gland. 4 ineq. supera 
major, stylo filif. stig. obt. Fol. petiol. oppos. 
axillis multifJ. — Wrongly united to Gesneria, 
not same family since ovary free and stamens on 



corolla, rather near Scrophularia ; but do not 
the united anthers indicate a peculiar tribe ? 

301. Stifrosinia coccinea Raf. Gesneria agre- 
gata Bot. reg. 3'29. Hook* b. m. 2725, G. pen- 
dulina B. reg. 1032 ! Villosa, fol. ovatobl. rugosis 
crenatis acutis, axillis 2-4 fl. pedunc. ineq — Bra- 
zil, pretty flowers scarlet, one inch long. 

202. Rafinesquia vel Flundula, Raf. Le- 
guminosa, Cal. tubul. basi carnoso, apex 4dent. 
dent. sup. bifido. Fetalis longe unguic. undulatis, 
subeq. Vexillum major reflexo ciiculato. Stam. 
9 monadelphis^ filam. apex liber, parvo, 4 alter- 
nantis fil. et antheris minor, filam. decimo toto 
libero sterilo. Ovar. lineare, stylo filif. incurvo, 
stigma capit. glabro. legum. lin. acum. compr. 
subarticul. polysp. sem. ellipticis. ¥oL imp, 
pinnatis, fl. umbellatis — Another G, wrongly 
refered by Hooker to LotuSy by mere inflores- 
cence t lacking even the trifoliate habit. It is 
a beautiful distinct Genus by habit, calix, co- 
rolla, stamens, stigma and fruit ... It is one of 
those I propose to dedicate to myself, as Lin- 
neus did for the Linnea, but I propose a second 
substitute, in case there is another previous 
Rajinesqtiia. This is so distinct that I rather 
fear it may have already a third name unknown 
to me. 

303. Rafinesquia (vel Flundula) comosa 
Raf. Lotus pinnatus ! Hook. b. m. 2913. Glabra, 
ramis teretis striatis ftexuosis, stipulis ovatis, 
foliolis 7-9 obovatis (vel oblongis) pedunc. elon- 
gatis, 5-7floris umb. sessilibus — In Oregon, on 
Columbia R. &,c. Hooker says the wild spe- 
cimen had obovate leaves ; but in the gardens 
they changed to oblong ! as in his figure. Per- 
haps two Sp. collected by Douglas, R, comosa^ 

CENT. IV. 97 

R. ohoKcita,, or else tlie species has undergone 
tin evident transmutation by seeds in Scotland. 

3G4. Tricoilendus, R. (3 inside hollows) 
Legum. ad Lotus toto celo diversus. Cal. camp, 
ineq. Sfidus pers. Vexillum dilatatus alae obli- 
quis equante, Carina non rostrata latere tuber- 
cul. Stam diadelph. basi submonadelphis, ineq. 
Ov. lin. pub. Stylo glabro persitens, stigma 
capitato glanduloso. Leg. bivalv. tereto oblongo, 
trilocular. 3 sp. loculis serialis, sem. glob, punc- 
tatis. Fades ut Lotus. — Very distinct N. G. 
by the pod, stigma, petals, calix, refered to Lo- 
tus by Hooker by the mere habit or aspect of 
the type. 

365. Tricoilenflus microphylus,^a.f, Lotus 
do H. b. m. 2808. Decumbens filif. puberus, fol. 
petiol. foliolis 3 parvis obi. acutis carinatis, 
stipulis subul. pedic axill. elongatis, fl. 5-G capi- 
tatis roseis. — South Africa. Delicate annual with 
minute leaves and flowers. 

3G6. LiKiACTis, Raf. (lily star) Fetalis 6 
equalis patulis stellatis, 3 ext. apex subbident. 
Stam. 6 brevis eq. filam, subul. glabris, antheris 
linearis, ovar. sess. trigono, stigma sessile trigo- 
no supra piano. Caulescens, 1-2^ — Fine new C 
united to Tulipa by Hooker; but really distinct 
by petals, stigma ^'C. 

367. Liriactis albljlora, Raf. Tulipa stellata 
Hook. b. m. 2762. Fol. gramineis convolutis, in- 
fimis falcatis, superis tortilis, fl. amplis, albis, 
petalis ellipticisobtusis. — From Kumana in East 
Indies, two feet high, brown bulb, large white 
flowers 4 inches broad spreading in the day as 
Ornithogalum, closing at night. 

368. Pleurostima, Raf. (lateral Stigma) 
Corolla infund. basi adh. tubo angulis 6 verru- 
cosis, limbo 6fido, lac. lanccol. 3 ext. angustior. 



Stani. G petaloideis bifidis, antheris lincarib. ad 
basis intiis adnatis. Ovar. adherens obi. scabro 
Ggono tiiberc. stylo conico trigono aciito, stigm. 
3 glandulos. adnatis ad medio stylo, caps. 31oc. 
polysp. Caudex foliosls^ sccqns lateralis r a d- 
icalls ni.'lflcris. — Fine G. of family Narcissides, 
near Pancratiifm, not Hemodorea as stated by 
Hooker. The fruit is very peculiar with 3 
large stellate partitions, bearing in their angles 
3 placentas and many seeds. Barbacenia dif- 
fers by anthers in the fork of stamens and differ- 
ent style. 

369. Pleurostlma purpurea,, Raf. Barba- 
cenia do Hook, b. m. 2777. Fol. lin. acum. car- 
inatis spinuloso serratis. scapo fol. longiore, 
scapo trigono scabro imiiloro, capsulis scabris 
angulis 6 tiiberculatis. — In Brazil, flower large 
violet purple, base green. 

370. TiiLisMA, Raf. (warty cleft) diffl Ges- 
neria by Cal. adher. 5dent. Cor. tubulosa, basi 
5gibbosa, apice 51oba, subeq. verrucis ad sinu- 
bus, stam. didyn. epicorollis, antheris coalitis, 
ovario apice libero, dorso bigland. stylo filif. 
stig, obt. Ilerha fol. verticil, fl. term. — Real- 
ly distinct from Gesneria, and not of same fam- 
ily, unless it has staminiferous corollas as this. 

371. Tidisma veriicillata, Raf. Gesneria do 
Hook. b. m. 277G. Pubescens, fol. quaternis 
petiolatis ovatis subcord. serratis, pedunc. 2-4 
term, unifl. recurvis, florib. pendulis. — Brazil, 
fine plant one foot high, stem terete, petiols co- 
lored, flowers large, 3 inches long, red with 
darker spots. 

372. Menadena, Raf. (moon gland) Orchidea 
difl*. Maxillaria. Fetalis connivens non resupi- 
natis, labello basi cuculato cum basi Col- adnato, 
ad medio costato. Col. semiteres, stigma 4ang. 

':' ' €HM\ IV. 1)9 

Anthera opcrculata term, pollon diiKMi. *2minor 
ad glandula lunulata inscita. Balbo rngoso 
terrestris nnlfollo, scapis laieralls aqiiamatis 
uniJL — Ver}' distinct C by habit, flower and 

//,373. 3Ienadenci y^^rr/iYr/, Raf. Maxil. do 
Hook. hot. m. 2729. I3ulbo elhpt. rugoso, folia 
lanceolata pedahs, scapis brevis, squamis im- 
bric. ovatis coloratis, petahs 3 ext. elhpt. 2 int. 
lin. lane, labello ligulato trilobo, undulato, — De- 
merara, flowers fulvous, 2 inner petals white 
with purj)le spots, lip yellow with purple border. 
374. Maturna, Raf. (Nynipha) Orchidea. 
Fetalis patens 5 sub-equalis, 2inf. coalitis, la- 
bello simplex basi 2tuberc. 2alato. Col. semi- 
teres, anthera operc. pedicello pollen 2 ferens, 
Ovario clavato, I^ulhls terrestris basi ei api- 
cem foUosis, scapis I'a diva lis, jJ. spi talis, 
bra<;teis persistens. — Beautiful G. totally un- 
like PleurothaUs inhabit, flowers, anthers, &c. 

' 375. Maturiia suaiieoleus, Raf. Pleurothalis 
foliosa Hook. bot. m. 2746. Bulbo oblongo, vix 
striate, fol. inferis vaginans, fol. sup. binis lan- 
ceol. carin. scapis niultifl. bract, lanceol. fl. lu- 
teis odoratis, petalis linearibus. labello ovato 
acuto. — Brazd, fine spike of yellow flowers very 
fragrant, like Primrose. 

376. Meliclis, Raf. (honey lip) Orchidea, 
Petalis ineq. difformis, distortis 3 ext. involutis 
obli(juis, 2 int. erectis undul. Labello hetero- 
morpho, pedunculate saccato mellifluo, oper- 
culo magno galeato ferens. Columna elongata 
tereta, basi bidentata apice incrassata biloba, 
anthera pollen 2 sess. ceracea. Bulbis terres- 
tris striatis bifoliatis, Scapis basiUaris bijlo 
ris. — A most extraordinary N. G. which Hook- 
er is at a loss to describe and wrongly refers Iq 


Gongora. T\\o I^ip distils honey that fills the* 
hollow hag. 

\M1. Melk LIS speciosa, Raf. Gongora do 
Hook. b. m. 2755. Bulbis oblongis, fol. lin. lan- 
ceol. longissimis, scapo conipresso artic. bifl* 
galea tridentata. — Brazil, very large yellow 
flowers 4 inches broad, with a strong smell. 

378. Petalanthera, Raf. Cal. 5part ineq. 
Cor, tubul incurva bilab.lab. nervosis,sup.integro 
sulcato, infero apice 31obato. Stam. 2, Anthe- 
ris obhquis petaloideis ineq. bilobis, uno subrot, 
alio acum. ambi loculo ferens. Ovario supra 
glandula magna, stylo filif. stig. acut. Frutesc, 
fol. oppos.Jt. capit. bractfatis. — Another fine 
G. distinct from Justicia and Dianthera by the 
singular peculiar Anthers with unequal lobes, — 
Near G. Echolium and Dianthera. 

379. Petalanthera punctata^ Raf. Frutic. fol. 
petiol. ovatis obovatisque integris glabris. Capi- 
tulis obi. term, bracteis imbric. subrot. fl. sub- 
ternis sessilib. punctatis. — China, fine sp. fl. white 
with purple dots. It is Justicia Ventricosa 
Wallich and Hooker hot. m. 2766, but there is 
nothing ventricose about it. 

380. CRuciuNDULA,Raf. Cruciferadifl*. Hutch- 
insia. Cal. eq. concav. margine scariosis. Fetalis 
4 eq. oblongis obt. iindulatis, stylo longo per- 
sistens. Siliqua oblonga cuneata emarg. Valvis 
carinatis basi dehiscens, loculis 5 spermis. Pret- 
ty G. wrongly united to Hutchinsia, Iberis and 
Thlaspi ! 

381. Cruciundula minima^ Raf. Thlaspi do 
Ard. t. 15. Iberis Stylosa Tenore fl. nap. 37. 
Hutchinsia Stylosa. Dec. 8pr. Hook. b. m. 2772. 
Minima, multicaulis, fol. radic. cespitosis obova- 
tis petiolatis subcarnosis, subintegris, caulinis 
obi. sessilib. stylo siliqua subeq. — Mts. of South 


Italy, pretty little sp. with rose flowers, (Hooker) 
white (Dec.) quite pecuhar hy undulate petals. 
Biennial 2 or 3 inches. 

382. ToLUMNiA, Raf. (Nyinpha) Orchidea, 
Fetalis 4 patens, suheq. 3 sup. 1 intero bidentato, 
labello magno 4 lobum, ad basi 3cristato, Co- 
lumna semiteres bialata, anthero ovata acuta, 
pollen 2 supra pedicello clavato. Parasitica, 
Rad. vermiciil. ramosis, fol. radic, carnosis 
scapo ?nido, Jl. racemosis. — Another beautiful 
N. G. of Orchidea refer ed to Oncidium, altho* 
it has only 4 petals or 5 with the lip, and difie- 
rent anther, habit, &lc. 

383. Tolnmnia pidchella, Raf. Oncidium do 
Hook. hot. m. 2773. fol. carinatis triquetris acu- 
tis basi striatis, florib. racemosis secundis, peta- 
lis obovatis, labello subquadratum 41obo, lobis 
equalibus. — Demerara, lovely sp. with large 
white flowers in a cluster, with pink and yellow 

384. Adipe, Raf. (Nympha) Orchidea, diflf. 
Maxillaria, petalis connivens subeq. 2 externis 
coalitis in calcar conico, labello unguicul. ad. 
col. adnato, ad medio tuberculato, sub cuculato. 
Columna porrecta inter calcar, anthera opercul. 
pollen 2, Bulhis terrestris 4goms, unifoliatis, 
scapis lateralis, fl, racemosis. — Very distinct 
G. by habit, conic spur, 2 pollens instead of 
4, <Slc. 

385. Adipe racemosa, (s. fulva) Raf. Maxil. 
do Hook. bot. mag. 2789. Bulbo compresso 
4gono squamis ad basis, folia lanceol. trinervia 
undulata, racemo laxo multifl. petalis ovatis 
acum. labello obovato, margine involuto, obtuso 
integro. — Brazil, flowers fulvous. Hooker says 
the Dendrobium or Xylohium Sqiialens may 
be akin. Is it of same Genus ? Why not attend 


to the generic distinctions ! Hooker can hardly 
make out the genera ot" his new Orchidea, and 
Lindley bases his genera on inconspicuous 
characters, instead of plain, striking distinc- 

38G. Zelonops, Raf. {Zelon^ Datepahn) Pal- 
ma, diff. Phenix Stam, G, Stylis 3, Ovar. 3sperm. 
Drupa monosp. — The Date palm to which it 
has been wrongly united has 3 Stamens and 
1 style ! — Type Zelonops pusilla, Raf, Foi. 
pinnatis inermis, foliolis linearib. Caule pusillo 
pedale vel bipedale. — Small dwarf palm of In- 
dia and Anam. It is Phenix pusilla Lour. 
Gaertn. t. 24. Ph. farinifera Roxb. Cor. t. 74. 
Smith et Auctoris. 

387. PiARiMULA, Raf. (thick stigma) Cal. 
bipart. Cor. tubulosa ineq. 41oba, Stam. 4 ineq. 
Stigma incrassato. Semen unicum. Fol. oppos. 
fl. capitulis pediinc. cum periantho. — Type the 
Phyla chinensis of Loureiro, which has the 
habit of Verbena nodiffora : the name Phyla 
is objectionable meaning leafy like Phyllis of 
Lin. — Piarimula chinensis^ Raf. Fol. ovato 
lanceol. glabris, apex serratis, fl. violaceis longe 
pedunculatis, perianthis spatulatis. — In China. 

388. PiLOPus, Raf vel Bertolonia, 1812.— 
Types all the several blended species miscalled 
Verbena and Zapania or Lippia and Blaeria 
nodijlora, and akin, which are in utter confu- 
sion. I wrote in 1812 their monograph and sent 
it to Sir James Smith, calling tlie G. Bertolo- 
nia, which name has since been employed for 
another Genus ; I therefore substitute now Pi- 
lopus^ xne;2inmg peduncled head^ \{ need^nX. See 
my monograph of N. American Sp. in my new 
flora. The Genus differs from all those blended 
in Verbena by creeping habit and calix bilabiate 

C«NT. IV. 


not 5dentato, and only 2 seeds as in Zapania. 

1 add these for illustration of diversities. 

389. Zapania, Aiict. Cal. Sdent. Cor. ineq. 
51oba, Stani 4, Stiijnia. capit. fructus utricu- 
laris *2spern). Frutcx Fol. opp. fl. capltatis. — 
The type is Zap, odorata Persoon. Z. lanta- 
noides Lam. Verbena glohifera Lher. W. &c. 
Fol. lanceol. crenat. scabris rugosis. — A South 
American Shrub. 

390. Panope. Raf (Nympha) diff. Zapania 
Stam. 2. Type F. stcchadifoUa Raf. Verbena 
and Zapania do Auct. Fol. lanceol. serratis pli- 
catis, spicis ovatis. — A shrub from Florida and 
Jamaica, probably 2 blended Species. 

391. Tarpiieta, Raf. Stachytarpheta Vahl. 
Pers. (fee. Cal. tubul. 4dent. Stam. 2 fertilis, 

2 sterilis, Ovar. 21ob. stigma peltatum. Sem. 2. 
This chiefly differs from Zapania by the calix, 
and has many Sp. formerly called Verbena. The 
G. Llppia differs chiefly Ijy Corolla 41obed and 
a drupe. The G. Lantana is also very near 

392. Cy3ibitrus, Salisb. Diff. Tarpheta by, 

Corolla ringens, bilabiata, lab. sup. cmarg. inf. 

31ob. Frutex.fol. aIi.--T\pe,C. sqaamosus Raf. 

Stach. do Vahl- &.c. Caule fruticoso, fol. alter- 

nis ellipt. lanceol. serrulatis, pedunc. squamis 

ciliatis obtectis, apice subramosis. — Verbena, 

Squamosa Jaq. ic. South American Shrub 

vith very different habit. Cymbnrus was ap- 

ihed by Salisbury to all the Tarphetas, I re- 

trict it to this type and akin if any. The Lip- 

na umheUata and cymosa may be akin, and 

^mith asks to compare Ehjivaria. 

393. Verbena, L. Auct." To this G. are left 
ill the species with 4 stamens and 4 seeds ; Cal. 
5dent. Cor limbo 51obo ineq. &c. But many 

104 FLOIl. TELLUll. 

require revision as yet, some have Calix and 
Cor. subeqiial, others only 2 fertile stamens, or 
a peculiar style or fruit like the next G. 

394. Stvleiiiiodon, Raf. Cal. tubul. Sdent. 
ineq. Cor. tubulosa, limbo subbilab. lab. sup. lato 
emarg. inf. 31obo. Antheris 4 sessilis. Stylo la- 
tere unidentato, stigma capitatum. Nux inde- 
hiscens dura, 41oc. 4sp. — Blended with Verbena 
and Phryma by all our authors, habit similar, 
but fruit peculiar, the name means lateral tooth- 
ed style. 

395. Styleurodon carolinianam, Raf. Ver- 
bena do L. Phryma do Walt. Scabro erecto, 
fol. cuneatis oblongis ineq, serratis, spicis filifor- 
mis. — From Carolina to Florida and Alabama, 
seen alive. Very near Verb, ringens in habit. 
See my New flora. 

396. Plexipus, Raf. (Norn, mythol.) Cal. 
tubul. 5angul. 5dent. Cor. tubul. limbo 51obo 
equalis. Stam. 4 didyn. Ovar. oblong. Stylo bre- 
vis,!stig. simplex, Nux 4gona 2loc. 2sperma, sem. 
clavatis dehiscens. Hubitus ut Verbena et 
Buchnera, nearer the last Genus. 

397. Plexipus cuneifolius, Raf. Buchnera 
cuneifolia Thnnb. L. W. P. auct. Phryma de- 
hiscens Lin. supl. Wild. Fol. cuneatis glabris 
apice dentatis. — South Africa, put in two Ge- 
nera by Linneus, W. &c. very near Buchnera 
and above all B. Cernua ; but the true Sp- of 
Buchneras have a real Capsule, with emarginate 
lobes to the Corolla. By this G. Verbena is 
linked to them, as it is to Lippia by ^a- 

398. MicALiA, Raf (Nympha) diff. Buch- 
nera by, Cal. infundibulif 5dent. Cor. tvdio lon- 
gissimo, limbo piano 51obo, lobis rotundatis. — 
FoU opp.Jl. a. till, pedunc. bibract. — Habit pe- 

CENT. IV. 105 

culiar, very distinct G. many other Buchneras 
must be examined again. 

399. Micalia grandiflora, Raf. Buchnera do 
L. <Slc. Scabra, fol. obi. integris, pedunc. unifl. 
bibracteatis. — A beautiful plant of South Ame- 
rica, with large flowers 4 inches long. 

400. Aloysia, Ortega, Vitm. Pers. Beautiful 
Genus which the Linneists have persisted to 
unite to Verbena, altho' perfectly distinct by 
shrubby habit, whorled odorous leaves, whorled 
spikes and flowers, &c. It has besides Cal. 
41obus, Cor. 41oba, stigma emarg. Stam. 4, Sem. 
2. Whoever unites it to Verbena must be blind. 
There are 2 Sp. of this fragrant G. — 1. Al. 
citriodora, fol. ternis lin. lanceol. 2. Al. virgata, 
fol, ternis ovatis crenatis. Both are from Peru, 
Chili, &.C., and now common in our gardens. 
Seen alive. 

There are other new Genera connected with 
these, blended in Priva, Buchnera, Verbena, 
Ldppia, Lantana, SfC., that deserve to be studi- 
ed, and I shall perhaps resume the Verbenacea 





CENTURIES 1, 2, 3, 4. 

I^ew families are in Capitals, Syiioiiyius 
in italic. 

Abama, 80. 
Abalon, 88, 
Achimenes, 201. 
Actipsis, 147. 
Adipe, 384, 5. 
Adnula, 324. 
Aizoon, 258. 
Albigula, 141. 
Aloysia, 400, 
Aglitheis, 33, 
Aglotoma, 153. 
Alagophyla, 102. 
Allium, 33 to 47. 
Anthericum, 67 to 81, 

Amblostima, 66. 
Anactis, 152. 
Anepsa, 89 to 93. 
Apemon, 8. 
Aploleia, 32. 
Aplopapus, 154. 
Aploma, 190. 

Anisanthera, 216 to 

Aphoma, 95. 
Aphomonix, 235. 
Aplactis, 143. 
Askolame, 9. 
AscADiA, 232. 
Astelma, 346. 
Amblirion, 114. 
Amellus, 158. 
Arrostia, 191 to 194. 
Arum, 306. 
Asteriscus, 154. 
Asophila, 195. 

JBarbacenia, 388. 
Begonia, 347. 
Benaurea, 290,91. 
Bertolonia, 388. 
Bignonia, 203, 222. 
Blephanthera, 211 to 



Blephariglotis, 1'27 to 

Brachyactis, 112. 
Brepliocton, 178. 
Brevigiila, 142. 
Buclinera, 390 to 399. 
Biilbedulis, (Jl. 
Bui bine, 75. 

Caenotus, 181. 
Calacinum. 103. 
Calycium, 106. 
Calliprora, 208. 
Canarina, 295. 
Carigola, 3. 
Campanula, 288 to 300 
Catonia, 116. 
Caularthron, 138. 
Clerodendron, 317. 
Chrysopsis,161, 165,166. 
Cocolaba, 104, 105. 
Codiphus, 288, 9, 
Coiladena, 12. 
Coliminea, 201. 
Coilonox, 77. 
Comarum, 197 to 200. 
Commelina, 30, 31. 
Concilium, 292. 
Cymburus, 392. 
Conyza, 176 to 177. 
Colax, 318. 
Crotalaria, 216, 218. 
Cronyxium, 78. 
Crosperma. 100. 
Cruciundula, 380. 
Croptilon, 165. 
Cupulissa, 203. 

Dasiorima, 145. 
Datura, 8. 
Dectis, 148. 
Dcinosmos, 176. 
Delonix, 350. 
Dendrohium, 186, 318, 

Deppia, 184. 
Diauthus, 195. 
Diamonon, 284. 
Dichorisandra, 309,10. 
Digomphotis, 120 to 

Dimanisa, 311, to 313. 
Diplectraden, 342, 4, 
Diplemium, 282. 
Diplactis, l56. 
i Diplopapus, 161. 
< Diplogon, 161. 
( Diplostephion, 161. 
Dodecalis, 155. 
Doria, 142. 
Dothilis, 214, 215. 

Eliokarmos, 58. 
Endocoma. 205. 
Endogona, 74. 
Endotis, 45. 
Endopogon, 196. 
Edemias, 177. 
Epidendrum, 1, 137, 
138, 225, 318, to 320. 
Epimenidion, 16, 
Epionix, 94. 
Erigeron, 174 to 182. 
Eriospermum, 61. 



Echium, 219. 
Egena, 317. 
Etheosanthes vel. 
Eothinanthes, 27. 
Eltroplectris, 185. 
Endorima, 346, 7. 
Eriogyna, 261, 2. 
Evonyxis, 83. 
Evotrochis, 285, 7. 
Euthamia, 146. 
Eusteralis, 359. 
Endeisa, 186. 
Epimedium, 187 to 189. 
Eusynetra, 201. 
Euphorbia^ 356. 
Exophya, 227. 

EvANTEPIA, 266. 

Fenelonia, 56. 
Faulia, 314to3l6. 
Flundula, 362. 
Fimbramis, 155. 
Fimbristima, 160. 
Frankenia, 352 to 355. 
Fragmosa, 179. 
Fusifilum, 69. 

Gagea, 55. 
Galearis, 134. 
Geboscon, 36. 
Gesneria. 102, 204 

361, 371. 
Getuonis, 41. 
Gibasis, 26. 
Glinidia, 351. 
Goodyera, 327. 

Gomphima, 4. 
Gorigora, 377. 
Gomphostylis, 86. 87. 
Gynodon, 34. 
Gypsaria, 190. 
Gypsophila, 190, 

Habenaria, 117 to l35, 

220, 221, 344. 
Hecale, 298. 
Helonias, 100. 
Helonidia, 82. 
Heritiera, 79. 
Hemierium, 73. 
Hemieva, 255, 7. 
Heminema, 31. 
Hesperocordum, 72. 
Hexonix, 15. 
Hexophoma,239 to 242. 
Heterisia. 251. 
Hirculus, 254. 
Hyacinthus, 62. 
Hydatica, 234. 

Inula, 167. 
Inula, 165 to l7l, 
Iridrogalvia, 79. 
Isorium, 219. 
Ipheion, 10. 
Ipomea, 11, 12. 

Jupica, 21. 

Justicia, 311 to 3 13, 



Kadakia, 2. 
Kalabotis, 37. 
Kaliniares, 158. 
Kepa, (Cepa) 39. 
Kozola, G3. 
Kunda, 305, 6. 
Kromon. 46. 
Kuritis, 229 to 231. 

Lagocodes, 62. 
Lanaria, 190. 
Larnandra, 137. 
Lacanthis, 356. 
Leiandra, 30. 
Leiacherus, 156. 
Lemotris, 64. 
Leucalis, l6l. 
Lepicaulon, 71. 
Lepiactis, 144. 
Lillago^ 75. 
Liliastrum, 76. 
Loncodilis, 60. 
Leptilium, 182. 
Loncomelos, 57. 
Loncostemon, 47. 
Lolanara, 106. 
Lotus, 263. 364. 
Liriopogon, 113. 
Liriactis, 366, 7. 
Lininque, 142. 
Limbarda, 170. 
Lunania, 7. 
Lithofragma, 274. 
Lioydia, 168. 
Lcptarhcna, 263, 
LoRANTniA, 269. 
Leptaxis, 283. 

Ligustrum, 3l4to 316, 

Malagea, 233. 
Maligia, 38. 
Mangiuia, 270. 
Maturna, 374. 
Maxillaria, 184, 372, 

Megapleilis, 204. 
Melanthium, 82 to 100, 

Meliclis, 376. 
Melomphis, 48 to 51. 
Merisis, 155. 
Mesicera, 133. 
Mesoligus, 150. 
Menadena, 372. 
Milla, 9, 10. 
Mindiuin, 294, 5. 
Mitella, 264, 271. 
Menetho, 353. 
Mentha, 359. 
Micalia, 398, 99. 
Modeca, 12. 
Moniistes, 326. 
Musteron, 180. 

Narthecium, 81. 
Narica, 325. 
Naucorephes, 105. 
Nemopogon, 68. 
Neottia, 185, 215, 321 

to 344. 
Ncmuranthes, 220, 221. 
Nerissa, 337. 
Nothria, 355. 
Nyctosma, 1. 




Obsitila. 70. 
Oinonoia, 351. 
Olgasis, 183. 
Oligactis, 149. 
Oreotrys, 277, 8. 
Oncidium, 225, 382. 
Onixotis, 96. 
Orobus, 307, 8. 
Orchis, 136. 
OrcM^, 117 to 136, 339. 

Orestion, 172. 
Oncostema, 14. 
Ozomelis, 271. 
Omithogalum, 48 to 61. 
Oxytria, 65. 
Ornithoglosson, 97. 

Pancoma, 197. 
Pantos, 174. 
Paniopsis, 175, 
Panstenum, 44. 
Pappochroma, 173. 
Pectantidia, 267. 
Pectianthia, 264, 5. 
Pecteilis, 123 to 126. 
Perimesia, 232. 
Petalosteira, 275. 
Pinardia, 154, 
Piarimula, 387. 
Piarophyla, 244 to 247 
Phalangmm, 64 to 69 

Piaropus, 301 to 304. 
Petalanthera, 378, 9, 
Phyodina, 29. 
Phryma, 394 to 397. 
Phcenix, 386. 

Plexistena, 42. '■ 

Phyhi, 387. 
Plexinium, 99. 
Pilopiis, 388. 
Plexipiis, 396, 7. 
Pleisolirion, 76. 
Pontederia, 2 to 7, 301 

to 304. 
Polygonum, 103. 
Platanthera, 118. 
Plectruriis, 135. 
Peurothalis, 375. 
Pleiactila, 141. 
Pleurostima, 368. 
Pleurendotria, 272, 4. 
Porrum, 40. 
Ponista, 236, 238. 
Potentilla, 197. 
Pomoplis, 136. 
Petalostima, 296, 7. 
Pentropis, 300. 
Pilorea, 299. 
Petaloxis, 308, 9. 
Poinciana, 350. 
Psukelis, 155. 
POLYMESIA, 351, 352. 
Pulicaria, 169. 

Quamasia, 64. 

Raiinesquia, 362, 3. 
Ramotha, 20. 
Renanthera, 226. 
Resedacea, 351. 
Rhizarina, 136. 
Rupifraga, 243. 
Rydbeckia, 79. 



Sacoila, 321. 

Saluda, 281. 

Sarcoperis, 23. 

Sat If ri urn, 121, 329. 

Saxifraga, 233. 

Saxifraga, 232 to 263. 

Sculeria, 188. 

Selago, 229. 

Skilla, (^6-«7/^) 13tolG 

62 to 64, 209. 
Skizima, 98. 
Siphostima, 25. 
Solanum, 284. 
Soliflago, 140 to 148. 
Solidago, 141. 
Stelmanis, 166. 
Stelmesus, 35. 
Stenactis, 157. 
Stemodoxis, 43, 
Stenactila, 141. 
Stomadena, 11. 
Steiranisia, 248 to 251. 
Spirea, 280. 
Spiranthes, 328 to 3.36, 

Strateuma, 339. 
Strepsiphus, 348, 9. 
Syncodium, 52, 
Synoliga, 19. 
Synopiectris, 340 to 342 
Streptima, 352. 
Styrosinia, 360, 61. 
Styleurodon, 394, 5. 

Talipulia, 32. 
Tanaxion, 182. 
Tarpheta, 391. 

|Telesia, 139. 
Telesonix, 252. 
Tipularia, 35. 
Telluna, 273. 
Tofielda, 79. 
Tolumnia, 382, 3. 
Tonningia, 24. 
Tomotris, 338. 
Tephrosanthos, 136. 
Tractema, 209. 
Tradescantia, 22 to 32. 
Tricoilendus, 364, 5. 
Trimelopter, 59. 
Tripogandra, 28. 
Triactis. 141. 
Tritelandra, 319, 320. 
Trilomisa, 347. 
Tropilis, 358. 
TuUpa,9i, 11.3,114. 
Tulipa, 107 to 112. 
Tulisma, 370. 
Tulotis, 119. 
Tulorima, 253. 
Tunica, 195. 

Uloma, 222. 
Unisema, 6. 
Unisemea, 6. 

Vaccaria, 190. 
Varronia, 115, 116. 
Venatris, 163, 164. 
Veratrum. 88. 
Verbena,388 to 395,400. 
Vindicta, 187. 
Virgulus, 162. 



Wedelia, 139. 
Xeilyathum, 224. 


Xuris, (Xyris) IS to 21. 
Yamala, 282. 

Zaga, 101. 
Zannorda, 23. 
^apania, 389. 
Zelonops, 386. 
Zigadenus, 85. 
Zigotila, 96. 


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Unique Copy of Autikon Botanikon c 
Self figures of new and rare plants, folio 

Icones plant, rariorum N. Amer. fol 




») 9it( « - 




♦ ♦ » 







With new Natural Classes, Orders and fami- 
lies : containing the 2000 New or revised Ge- 
nera and Species of Trees, Palms, Shrubs,Vines, 
Plants, Lilies,Grasses, Ferns, Algas, Fungi, &c. 
from North and South America, Polynesia, 
Australia, Asia, Europe and Africa, omitted or 
mistaken by the authors, that were observed or 
ascertained, described or revised, collected or 
figured, between 1796 and 1836. 


Prof, of Botany, historical and natural sci- 
ences — member of many learned Societies in 
Paris, Vienna, Bruxelles, Bonn, Bordeaux, 
Zurich, Naples, &c. Philadelphia, New York, 
Cincinnati, Lexington, Slq. 

To observe and compare, to correct or approve 

By good names and new fads that convince and improve. 



hes tioms font les chases. 
Names realize Entities. 

Plus nos noms sont generaux, plus non idees 
sont incompletes. — Plus nous avons de noms, 
plus elles se completent. Lamark, Leach, &c. 



This part has been somewhat delayed by 
some occupations foreign to my favorite scien- 
ces of Botany ; but every delay is attended with 
ultimate good results and greater accuracy. 

I have been much anmsed lately by looking 
over all the singular contradictions of Lindley 
in the botanical Register, and particularly his 
remarks in the 22d volume on the labors of 
Spach on CEnothera 4* Fuchsia. — Lindley is 
one of the best English Botanists, having fully 
adopted the natural method, and trying to im- 
prove it ; yet he has his own blemishes, and ap- 
pears to be jealous of Spach, because he has 
rectified these Genera by divisions, endeavour- 
ing to ridicule the minute characters he has em- 
ployed for it This must appear singular 

from him, who has ventured to establish the 
Genus Lowea for the Rosa berberifolia, mere- 
ly upon having single leaves and no stipules ! 
contending that mere habit may form good 
Genera ! in which case all the species of G. 
Oxalis, Lupinus, Jasminum, Fraxinus^ &c. 
with single leaves ought to be Genera also! 
compound leaves and various inflorescence will 
also become generic accordingly, and we should 
return to the absurdities of old genera before 
Linneus, as indeed Lindley advises in his over- 
zeal to explode the Linnean sexual system, 
Necker was more rational when he made 
Genera of all stemless species ! 

Lindley is a great Genera monger as we are 
called, or framer of New Genera, and thus a 
real improver ; but all his Genera are not good, 
and he shows too much propensity to seek for 


inconspicuous microscopical characters into the 
seeds and pollen ; which belong to Anatomical 
Botany, rather than descriptive Botany, being 
quite useless in practice. This absurdity is too 
prevailing at present, it is as wrong as if we 
were to make the Genera of Birds upon their 
Eggs! instead of their bills and feet. Some 
modern Ornithologists led astray by the same 
anxious wish to find distinguishing marks, have 
made Generic distinctions upon the tails and 
feathers of birds, which answer exactly to the 
blunder of Lindley about his Lowea, 

They appear to have forgotten that the dif- 
ferent habit, leaves and infloresccKce of plants, 
when they are outward indications of Genera, 
have corresponding essential characters in the 
flowers to be sought for and on which the Genus 
is to be based, as Jussieu did explain long ago. 
Thus in Lowea there are some partial charac- 
ters in the flowers somewhat different from 
Rosa ! which Lindley neglected to seek, and 
I shall describe ; but they merely indicate a Sub 
Genus, not a Genus; else all the Sub Genera 
of Decandole are Genera. 

Meantime I shall probably adopt all the 
Genera of Spach, or any other, when properly 
known to me, as based on permanent characters 
of the fructification. Lindley will only admit 
of Godetia because it has fringed seeds (always 
the seeds for him ;) but I know already that 
most of the other Genera out of Oenothera are 
good, Boisduvalia is very distinct by unequal 
stamens, even Brebissonia is good. The 
Oenotheras with capitate or 4partite stigma, 
w^inged capsules, bifid calix, must certainly form 
peculiar Genera, and my 3 Genera Onosuris, 
Pleurandria and Chamerium established in 


1817 in my florula Liidoviciana, on such distinc- 
tions wore adopted by Dccandole. 

I^indlcy seldom quotes me, and only by rico- 
chet as the French say, not knowing or not car- 
ing for my works or labors, I shall show his 
blunder about the Skilla Ciipaniafia, to which 
he adds two of my plants, both distinct, with 
blue and white flowers, while his has purple 
flowers. — When he shall receive this Work 
and be astonished by my 2000 rectified Genera, 
he may if he likes probably treat me even worse 
than ISpach ; but although he may deny my 
New Genera, he cannot say that I make them • 
on leaves, nor stipules, nor sperm-pollen, nor 
inside of the seeds or eggs of plants. Thus 
they cannot involve any one in perplexity, and 
are all conspicuous. Nor shall he find me adopt- 
ing any barbarous or compound exploded name, 
such as Cotone-Aster (my Cotonea^ nor 
Amelanchier (my Amelancus) ; nor Mus Cart 
the Cari Mouse, else Musca Ri the Ri fly ; 
for my Genus Kubotrys t^c. 

I hope he may deem my Genera of the Lin- 
nean G. Allium, as good as his own Hespero- 
scordam and Nectaroscordurn, rather long 
uncouth names, which however need not be 
changed. 1 hope he may admit that my pre- 
vious Genera Clintonia (1817) Oxyurus 
(1810) &c, ought to prevail over his of same 
names, changed by me into Gynampsis and 

Whatever he or others may think or say of 
my labors, they cannot find me inconsistent, nor 
in contradiction. Within 40 years of botanical 
investigations I have always been consistent in 
deeming that Genera and Species ought to 
he reformed till they become perfect, and tin- 

() r HE AMBLE. 

exceplloruihle. Nor can I be accused of form- 
ing Genera on minute or invisible characters, 
or to give any bad names to my new or re- 
formed Genera. As to my own errors and 
oversights (to which all Botanists are liable) 
I have always corrected them myself, as soon 
as perceived, tliose that may occur in this work 
will be corrected at the end. I wish all my 
fellow Botanists would do the same ; but some 
are very tenacious of their conceits and mim- 

I must now for instance mention that I was 
right when I said that the Genus Flundula or 
Rafinesqiiia 362 of this Flora had perhaps a 
third name since it is the Hosackia hicolor of 
Bentham and Lindley. I wrote that article 
upon the egregious blunder of Hooker who 
called it Lotus pinnatus, but he has since rec- 
tified it himself in his flora Americana. Yet 
as the 5 Species reduced to Hosackia may 
probably form two Sub Genera, the name of 
Flundula may yet be applied : as to a Rafities- 
quia, I have provided half a dozen, out of 
which I hope some one will suit the fancy of 
botanists and be adopted — although T may be 
blamed for this conceit, I blame instead for it 
those makers of New Genera that dedicate them 
to obscure individuals that have not added one 
page to the Science, and have not thought of 
me for 40 years, although I have added 1000 
pages to it, and 3000 New Genera or Species. 
Now by the absurd contending whims of Bota- 
nists it is become often needful to provide two 
names for a New Genus, for fear one should be 
already employed — or if you wish to secure a 
good name, it must be repeated till adopted, for 
fear that some jealous exploding Botanists may 


annul it by not deeming the first application 
given to a proper Generic group. When cor- 
rect principles shall always guide Botanists, 
this will be avoided and rectified. I find that 
my G. Eusteralis 359 is a Dysophyla of 
Blume, but yet a Sub Genus at least, differing 
as Eiihemus does from Lycopus. 

While Lindley was so severe on Spatih, he 
lias admitted the whole labors of Bentham on 
the Labiate, an admirable rectification of 
108 Genera to be sure; but exactly similar to 
that of Spach : The Genera of Bentham are 
often based on very minute characters likewise, 
and yet he has left many Genera, Salvia, 
Teucrium, Phlomis, Sideritis, Marrubium, 
&c, hardly rectified, as I will easily prove in 
this Work. He has omitted my Empedoclia 
of 1810, also Cephaloma and JBonamia of 
Neeker : my G. Vleckia of 1808 unknown to 
Bentham or Lindley, although republished by 
Desvaux, is exactly their Lophanthus, a name 
of Linneus and Adanson, different from that of 
Forster. (Thus the Microstylis of Nuttal 1818 
is my Acroanthes of 1808, published by Mit- 
chell and since by Desvaux in their works) — 
while the divisions of the family are actually ab- 
surd, being based on the direction of the Sta- 
mens ! and many Genera of Adanson, Mench, 
&c. are omited- 

When Lindley shall take the trouble to con- 
sult my Works, as does Decandole, he will I 
hope rectify all such oversights. 

I might proceed to state how loose and inac- 
cusate are the characters of many natural fam- 
ilies of Lindley. I have already stated that 
they are often like those of Adanson & Neeker 
without definite evident common characters 


not SO witli mine. I will give a single in- 
stance now, Lindley so intermixes the Convol- 
vulides and Polemonides, that it is impossible 
to know what he means by them. But I have 
long ago shown that they are perfectly distin- 
guished by the Stamens unequal in Convolvu- 
lides; but equal in the Polemonides — This is 
the plain evident character that any one can 
see, and by which many of the Genera of 
Lindley must be removed, and properly placed 
in each family : the position of valves is less evi- 

As to Species Lindley often blends many into 
one, and mistakes others ; but these errors will 
be rectified hereafter I suppose, or at least are 
of lesser importance, if all species are variable. 
Of all variable characters, the colors of flowers 
are well known to be the least permanent ; yet 
I was much surprised to see Lindley confess 
(in article SIdlla plutnbea bot, reg. 1355) that 
the Genera Skilla and Ornithogalum were 
merely distinguished hy the colors of their 
flowers since Linneus . . . ! what a confession, 
and what a blunder ! for a correct botanist . . ! 
blue or purple flowers make a SIdlla ! white or 
yellow an Ornithogalum ! what a mistake ! 
since the Skilla niaritima type of Skilla has 
white flowers ! I have proved 30 years ago 
that the filiform stamens form the real Skilla. 
I hope my reform of akin Genera, will be deem- 
ed by him equal to that of the Amaryllis by 

If I have chiefly noticed Lindley in this in- 
troduction, it is because 1 value him as a col- 
league in improving Botany ; but 1 might have 
made similar remarks on many other European 
Botanists, that fall into the same mistakes, or 


appear to neglect my improvements in Genera 
and families. They may apply to themselves 
every one of the deflects and contradictions 
that I have thus exposed, and then endeavour 
to avoid them. 

I shall conclude by the remarks of Lindley 
on the Genus Aslfr, which he states in the 
18th vol. of I3;)t. Reg. to have been the dis- 
grace of Bo/ajilsts by imperfect descriptions, 
unscientific arrangement, false species, confus- 
ed synonymy, and multiplied names, till the se- 
cond rectified monograph of Nees. Those re- 
marks apply equally well to 100 other Linnean 
Genera, and this work is a perpetual comment 
on such disgraceful general blunders of many 
Botanists to this very day. 

Centuria V. 

Number 40l. Polygonum L. auct. Nearly all 
the botanists acknowledge that this Linnean 
Genus is absurd ; even Lindley says it ought to 
be divided : Adanson and Necker partly did 
so, but their useful labors were neglected. I 
now mean to revise the whole, and rectify or 
estabhsh 20 Genera out of it ; all perfectly plain 
and distinct : the linneists may vince and evade, 
but this must be done at last. My labor dates 
of 1815, my true Polygonum Raf will have, 
Calix 5partito equal, Stam. 8, internis 3 fertiles, 
Ovar. li gonum, l^tylis 3. Semina trigona, cal. 
vestita. — This includes P. avicularis^ tnariti- 
mum, setosnni, bellardi, ^lauctim, erectum, 
serratuni, teniie, and all similar sp. with axilla- 


10 FLOR. TELt.. 

ry flowers chiefly, of which many new ones ii* 
N. Anier. see my flora. I have not yet seen the 
late monograph of this fienus, by Meisncr, bui 
it appears ho has kept it entire as yet, only 
using sub genera as Persoon and Jussieu. 

The Species with colored flowers in panicled 
racemes, like arttcii(cihim,Jimbriaii{m, divar- 
icatum, alpimtm^ undidedumy sericfum, &c, 
must probably be united to Stopinaca but 
ofier but few essential characters in the flowers. 
The frutescent P. grandrfIori(m with large 
axillary flowers is perhaps another G. or sub G. 

402. Fagopvron Tourn diff". 401. Cal. colo- 
ratus, Stam 8, externis 5 antheris bilobis re- 
motis, internis 3 brevis sepe sterihs, alterni* 
cum glandula 3 hypogyna. Sem. ut P. fiores 
sepe corymhosis vel glomeratis. — This G. cal- 
led Buckiiiheat in English, is perfectly distinct, 
and known at first sight, the leaves are com- 
monly broad and cordate; the types are Fag. 
cereale (P. fagop.) taUiricum^ chhiense, per- 
foliatum^ creissif'olium, Slc. If any one may 
object to the name being rather mongrel, beech 
(lat) wheat (gr) they may use instead Tracho- 
jpi/r^/* of Gerard. 

403. Helxine L. first ed. since wrongly re- 
jected, may be applied to all the species with 
unequal calix, Difl 401. Cal. colorat ineq. lac. 
3 major sepe carinatis s. alatis. Sem. in Cal. 
3alato sepe. Caale sepe scandcns^ fl. racemo- 
sis — Types, H. tScajtde^is, dametortim, con- 
volvulus^ niuliljiorum, ciiinode, sagitiahim, 
4*A and akin with unequal calix. Those with 
carinated ratiier than winged fiuit, form the G. 
Fallopia of Adanson, who ascribe to it 9 Sta- 
mens, if so it is a good Genus; but I only saw 
8 stamens in H. ^aiHlcns^ as in the others. 

CENT. V. 11 

•P. Saglttatuin forms another Sub G. Belotra- 
,chis by fl. polygamous glomerate Cal. colored 
^ parted with a calicule of 2 small green seg- 
ments, style trifid &^c. 

404. Tepiiis Raf. (no-a Ad) Asicaria Nevk. 
Pedalium Ad. non L. Atrapfiaxoides Sub G. 
auct. Ditf. 493. Cal, ineq. lac. 2 ext. reflexis 
parvis, 3 internis erectis planis pcrsistens re- 
ticulatis Frutex^ Jl. racemosis. This differs 
from 403 chiefly by calix, perhaps only a sub- 
gemis. Type Trphis fnitrscetis and parin- 

Jolia Raf. Tephis was Adanson name for 

405. Stopinaca Raf. (nom. lat.) PohigoneU 
la Mx. diir. 401. Cal. subineq. coloratus, Stam. 
7-8, stigma 3 clavatis. sem. 3gona, sepalis 3 
ampliatis v-estita. Fruticul.jL racemosis dioicis 
S. polygamis. Type St. parvlfolla Raf. P. 
do. Mx. P. polygamuni auct. This appears 
entitled also to be a Genus, with P. gracile of 

406. Karkinetron Raf. (nom gr) Cal. 5fido, 
basi turbinato subcarnoso, limbo lac. eq. Stam. 
8 monadelphis inunicaserie coalitis in disco, 
ovar. subrot. stylis 2-3. sem. globosa in Cal. 
basi baccato immersa. Prut. Jf. racemosis — 
Genus quite peculiar near to Coccoloba like 
Calacinum 103. Types 2 Sp. 

407. Karkinetron undulatiirn Raf. Poly- 
gonum injucundum Lindley b. reg. 1250. Fru- 
tic, fol. petiol. ovatis deltoideis acutis undulatis, 
o^hreis truncatis, racemis axill. paucifl. foliosis, 
stylis 2. Andes of chili, fl. green. 

408. Karkinetron hastatum Raf, Coccolo- 
ba sagittefolia Ortega, Dec. 60. Polyg. acetose 
fol. Persoon. Scandens fol. hastatis lanceol.cra- 
ssiusculis, stylis 3. Brazil, an S. G. ad stylis, 
vere bacca .' 


409. KrNOKALE Raf. (iicm. dio.^k) near Fa- 
gopyro?i dift*. Stam. 10 ineq. 5 interna brevior, 
glandulis 10 hypogynis, Sem. truncato emarg. 
3alatc — Type A', larneiim Raf. Folyg. emarg. 
W. Don, Lindley b. reg. 10C5. fol. cord, sagi- 
tatis, superis sessilib. raceniis corymbosis. Cult, 
in Nipal and China as Buckwheat, perfectly 
distinct by 10 Stani. flowers incarnate : the 
Polyg. chinense with ovate leaves is perhaps a 
second species. The Genus is nearer to 
JBrunnichia than Pohigonum ! 

410. BisTORTA Tciirn, Ad. diflT. 401 Cal. 
Gpartitus, Stam. 9 (ex Ad) Radix tuberos. 
jlorib. coloratis spicatis. — Types B. officin- 
alis R. 2. JE». americana R. 3. B. vivi- 
para, &c. 

411. Antenoron Raf. fl. lud. 1817. Calix 
4fidus, Stam. 4, stylis 2, persistens, sem. ovata 
striata stylis coronata fl. racemosis. — Type 
A, racemosum Raf hirsutum, fol. petiol. obi. 
acutis, racemo longissimo. fl. remotis albis, 
bracteis scariosis vaginatis. Louisiana. 

412. TovARA Ad. cal. 4fidus. clausus ineq. 
2 minor, alt. Stam. 4 ineq. Stylis 2. Sem. len- 
ticularis levis. fl. spicatis. — Type Tovara vir- 
giniana, the Polyg. do. L. totaly unlike the 
other species, a Genus as distinct as any, but 
near the last. Adanson and others ascribed 
5 Stam. to it by mistake, I never saw but 4. 

413. Pletjrostena Raf. (narrow side) cal. 
rhombeus Sfidus ineq. Stam. 5, Stig. 3 sessilib. 
Sem. conicus cal. longior, ineq. triqueter, lato 
uno angusto. fl. axill. polygamis. — Type my 
St. serotinus Raf. Polyg. do Raf an. nat. 1820. 
Suffruticosus, ramis plurimis virgatis prgul, 
fol ovatobl. acutis ochreis fissis laceris, fl. axill, 

fascicul, pedunc. In Kentucky, it flowers in 


CKNl. V. 13 

414. Cnopos Raf. (iioui. «r.) Cal. 5part. eq. 
Stam 3, sty lis 3, Sein. tri^ona. //. suhccrticUaUs 
— Tvpc Cnopos ratsiosissiinuin Raf. Polvg. 
do Mx. Hoic the Stamens arc reduced to the 
minimum numb( r and are isostyle. Thus we 
see in the FoiifgDmim of liiiineus, blended 
Genera with 3, 'l, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 Stamens! 
thus belonging to eight sexual classes, what a 
delightfid absurdity to s'vallow ! 

415. TiiAc All LOIN Raf. (i ongh stem) Cal. co- 
lorato 4partito, lac. 2 ext. n.inoribus, *2 int. 
major sepe emarg. Stcim. 4 fcrtilia, 4 sterilia 
brevis alternis. ovar. compr. stylis 2, stig. capi- 
tatis. sem. ovato biangulato. Habitus Helxine 
scd jl. glomeratls — The type will be TV. ari- 

folium, a well marked Sp. very distinct from 
Helxine sagittata, although the stem is equal- 
ly rough. Flowers more like Torara, but 
habit quite unlike. Michaux saw 6 stamens, 
but the mistake arose from the sterile filaments 
first noticed by Elliot. The 3 Genera J^ovara 
Tracaidon and Antenoron will form a group 
by the Calix and stamens. Tracmdon is also 
near Kunokale, the stamens being diplarine 
instead of isarinc (equal to perigone) but here 
4 are sterile. 

416. Spermaulaxkn Raf. (seed caiialicii- 
late) monoical. fl. masc, campan. 4-5fidi3. lac. 
subeq. obtusis coloratis, Stam. 4-5 brevi.-simis. 
Flor. fem. similis ma jof magis ineq. lac. erectis 
obovatis, stigma 2-3«ubsess. Semen conicum 
cal. duplo longior, basi accretum, triqueter, 
uno latere excavato sulcato. Fridtx^ jl. spica- 
tis. — Another very distinct Genus, near to 
Pleurostena, but different habit; it has also 
some affinities with VGhjg. granJiJlorum, 


which perhaps belong to it, as well as Vohjg^ 
Ochreatum; in this hist are blended 2 species, 
the Siberian of Gmelin, and the Jamaican of 
Sloane ; but t!ic type of my genus is the follow- 
ing N. sp. of Florida. 

417. Spennaulaxfn dichotomusTlaf. caule 
fruticoso dichot. sulcato, fol. petiolatis oblongis 
lanceol. acutis levis margine scabris, cchreis 
subnullis, spicis filif, fl. remotis nonnulis pediin- 
culatis. — In Florida, fl. small greenish }>iirple, 
male and female on the same spike. I can find 
no synonym for this : it differs from the usual 
character by lacking the tubular stipules, a 
small subulate deciduous stipule appears in- 
stead in some leaves and flowers; described on 
a dry specimen. 

418. Chulusiu:*! Raf. (nom. anticus) Cal. 
Sfidus inequalis, lac. 2 major, Stam. 5, ovario 
compresso, stylis 2, Sem. lenticularis. fl. spi- 
catis coloratis, — Types Polyg. omphibkim, 
natans, filiforme, and several North Amer, 
Sp. blended in piinctatum, such as the follow- 
ing, also P. fluitans of Eaton. 

419. Ghuliiskim acuminatum Raf. Pol. 
ptinctatum Raf. annals nat. 9^. I'^ol. lato 
lanceol. acum. peticlatis, subtus punctatis, 
ochreis nervosis muticis, spicis densis, fl. gemi- 
natis, bracteis ovatis — In West Kentucky, fl. 

420. Peutalis Raf. (nom. gr.) Fersicaria 
Tourn. Ad. Necker,ad Versica and Carya ma- 
lum. Cal. 5part. subeq. Stam 6, una interjecta 
ad latere ovar. compr. stylo 1 bifido, Sem. len- 
ticularis. flores spicatis coloratis. — Types P. 
persicaria, nodosa^ hydropiper, minus, in- 
cfma, and several N. Sp. from North America, 
see my flora, also P. inearnata Elliot. 

CUNT. V. 15 

421. DiscoLENTA Raf. dili*. 420. stylis 2, 
Sem. discoformis iitrinqiie latere concavo. — 
Type, D. lapathifolia and my scabra. 

422. Heptarina Raf. (7 iiiasc) diff. 420. CaL 
coroUato equalis, Stam 7, bina interna latere 
ovario, stylis 2. Jlores racemosis. — Type 11. 

423. DiocTis Raf. 1817 (2 and 8) diff. 420. 
Stam. 8, internis 3 minor, stylis 2. — I'yP^^ ^^' 
pensylvanica, and 3 Sp. of my fl. Ludov. bi- 
corne^ maculatiim, vernum, besides equiseii- 
folia of Egypt. 

424. MiTESiA Raf. (mildness) diff. 420, stylo 
1 bifido, ineq. Sem. ovato subtrigono, Stam 8. 
— Types M. albi flora, hirsuta, punctata El- 
liot and my 31. dlvergens, M. jnontana SfC. 

425. PoGALis Raf. (beard diff.) diff. 420, 
stam 6, Stylis 3, Sem. vix. lenticularis — Types 
P. harhata, tinctoria, tomentosa, &lc. This 
concludes tEe reform of Polt/gonuni^ with my 
Calaciniim 103, in all 22 Genera. If all those 
with lenticular seeds and Slid calix have been 
commonly deemed Fersicaria, the difference 
that 1 have shown, prove that at least Sub 
Genera are required. I am not yet sure to 
have exhausted this Genus, and may return to 
it if needful. I have in my herbal many new 
species of it as yet, some of vthich I add. 

420. Polygonum fasfigiatum Raf. caule 
erecto ramoso fastigiato fuscato, fol. lin. lan- 
ceol. adpressis, ochreis laceris, axillis unifloris 
— annual, Alleghany mts. 

427. Polygonum crasslcaule Raf. caule 
crasso striato diffuso ramoso, ramulis brevis di- 
varicatis, fol. parvis subpotiolatis oblongis, ob- 
tusis, axillis l-3Horis — Perennial, Alleghany 
mts. stem pedal rigid, near P. erect urn. 



428. Pohjf^onnm imhricatum, Raf. mul- 
ticaule, caulib. l)revis flexuosis vix ra- 
mosis, fol. imhricatis linearibus. ochreis la- 
ceris scariosis, axillis unifloris — annual, Ken- 
tucky, dwarf only 3 to 4 inches. 

429. Polygonum angustifolium Raf. caule 
erecto flexuoso ramoso, fol. longis. linear! b. 
angustis, ochreis integris, axillis unifloris — On 
the Sea shore and islands of Jersey and Vir- 
ginia, pedal different from P. tenue. 

430. Discolenta sccibra Raf. Polyg. lapa- 
thifol. of Amer. hot, non alis. Caule erecto 
subramoso, fol. longe lanceolatis acuminatis 
scabris, infimis petiolatis, ochreis laceris, spiels 
paniculatis gracilis carneis — North America, 
2 or 3 feet, large leaves, 6 to 8 inches long. 

431. Mitesia dlrergens Raf. caule nodoso 
dichotomo ramis divergens vel retroflexis debi- 
lis, fol- sessilis longis lineari lanceol. glabris, 
ochreis ciliatis, spicis filiformis carneis — annual 
in Kentucky, singular sp. with widely spread 

432. Peidalis linearis Raf. caule simplex 
.nodoso, foli is linearib. elongatis, margine gla- 
bris, ochreis ciliatis, spicis plurimis filiformis 
rubiis — Carol, and Florida, one or two feet, 
flowers very small sessile and pedicellate. 

433. GoNOiXcrs Raf. (k' lees swelled) I have 
to add here a very lingular Genus, that unites 
many anomalies on the same spikes. Polygam. 
cal vix coloratus, \\\Qi\. 4-5fidus 2-3ext. major, 
stam. 6-8, ovar. et Sem. trigonis vel lenticula- 
ris, stylis brevis 2-3, stig. capitatis. Flores Spi- 
catis, mascuUs el su perms sepe ^jidis. There- 
fore this appears to unite the characters of 
Ibrara, i^eiiialts and Mitesia, yet differs 
from all by the calix less divided, hardly color- 

CENT. V. It 

fed, except in the male flowers. Is not this a 
hybrid Genus? and hybrid new Species? 

434. Gononcus iindulatus Raf. Glabrum, 
diffusum, ramosum, fol. lanceol. undulatis acu- 
minatis obtusiuscuHs, geniculis inflatis oblongis, 
ochreis tubulosis ciHatis; spicis terminaHs nu- 
tans gracilis imbricatis, basi interrupte foHosis. 
— In the swamps of Delaware, New Jersey and 
near Philadelphia, but rare : leaves acrid pun- 
gent, unspotted, nervose beneath ; flowers 
green somewhat incarnate inside, male oft;en 
white, the lower ones commonly with trigone 
seeds, the upper ones with lenticular seeds. Has 
it sprung from Mitesia albiflora ? but this has 
narrow flat leaves, slender naked white spikes. 

435. Gentiana. One of the finest and yet 
most obsure linnean Genus, Jussieu said of it, 
an G. dimdendum? Sir James Smith said that 
Linneus knew not this Genus ! many of his Sp. 
were doubtful, awd he has put in it even Sp. be- 
longing to other families. G. aphyla, filifor- 
mis and heterocllta, have since been united to 
Exaciim, but the last is a peculiar Genus of 
Acanthacea ! The whole G. was often divided, 
but the blundering linneists would not admit the 
propriety. Tournefort had 140 years ogo 2 
Genera, Gentiana with campanulate flowers, 
and Centaurium infundibuliform. Renealm, 
Morison, Adanson, Necker, i^ichard &c, have 
tried to improve it, but the Erythrea of Neck- 
er adopted by Richard has only been generally 
admitted. The whole requires a radical re- 
form ; this G. and its family has always been a 

peculiar favourite of mine, and I will he able to 
rectify the whole, adding many new Sp. also. It 
is as bad as Saxlfraga was, having 4 to 9 Sta- 
mens, free or united, calix and corollas of all 



shapes &-c, thus belonging to 7 Unnean classes, 
and being merely united by the fruit, as if the 
fruit alone was to form Genera, whereby all the 
Cruciferes should be one Genus ! all the Gen- 
tians have a bivalve unilocular capsule, and so 
have 100 other Genera. Meantime I have de- 
tected in the whole group 4 important charac- 
ters overlooked by all the botanists. 1st. All 
the Stamens are opposed to the segments of the 
Corolla as in the Primulacea ! this will remove 
the Gentianides in the serial order : any one 
with alternate stamens must be removed from 
the family. 2d. The segments of the calix are 
more or less unequal in length or breadth in 
nearly all, this is a generic character. 3d. 
The stamens are equal, when they are unequal 
as in Lisianthus &.c, those Genera belong to 
Lisuinthides,^s\\h^^.vci\\y of Convolvulides, 4th. 
All the leaves are entire sessile, opposite or ver- 
ticilate with reticulated veins besides the 
nerves, which are easily perceived in all their 
leaves. I shall now proceed with this fine 
group, dividing it into many good Genera with 
the akin Chironia, and adding some new spe- 
cies; but many more are in my flora of North 

436. Gentiana Ad. non Necker, cal. camp, 
anomalo spathaceo seu truncato, l-61obato. Cor. 
camp. 6-91oba equalis, stam. 6-91iberis. Rad, 
crassis amara, Fol. etfl. opj?os. seu vertic. — 
This must remain as the typical Genus, and 
the typical Sp. is G. lutea or officinalis, to 
which that name was given by the greeks. But 
the Genus is thus reduced to but few species, 
and even requires to form three subgenera. 1. 
Picriza (bitter root) Cal. 3-61obato, Cor. camp, 
rotata. This includes G. lutea., pannonica. 

CENT. V. 19 

campanulata ^'C. — 2. Vleuroglossa (lateral 
tongue) Cal. truncatus, latere sepalo unico lin- 
gua similis, cor. camp, subtubulosa. Types G. 
punctata^ G. purpurea, Slc. — 3. Tulhela, 
Cal. camp. 5-7fid. ineq. Cor. camp. 10-14fid. 
lac. alternis minor ciliatis, stam. 5-7. Type G. 
rossica Riif. (7 fida Pallas, Frol. Persoon.) 
These subgenera might even become Genera 
if more Species are found belonging thereto. 

437. Dasistepiia Renealm. Ad. Cal. tubal, 
Sdentato, Cor. tubulosa, campan.. plicata 5den- 
tata. Stam. 5, antheris coalitis — Types D. ar- 
clepiadea, and D. cespitosa R. Gentiana auct. 

438. Diploma Raf. Cal. camp. Sfidus, Cor. 
infundib. inequalis lOfida, Stam. 5, antheris 
coalitis. Stylo et Stigma bilamel. — Types D. 
altaica, ungiistifoUa, pyrenaica Raf. &.c. see 
484, 485. 

439. CiMiNALis Morison, Mench, Thylacitis 
Renealm. Cal. camp. 5fido, sinubus obt. Cor. 
camp. Sdentata, sinubus plicatis integris, Stam. 
5 liberis? stigma capitato 41obo undukto. — 
Type C grandiflora, angustif, alpina SfC 
which were Gent, apliyla and 2 var. of Au- 
thors, Genus very distinct from Vneutnonan- 
the by the stigma ; the Ciminalis of Adanson 
was the Xolemia blended with Pieriza. 

440. Pneumonanthe Tournef. Neck. Cal. 
tub. camp, subtrunc. 5fidus ineq. Cor. tubul. 
camp. 51ida, sinubus integris. Antheris 5 coa- 
litis vel connivens, stylo elongato, stig. 2lam. — 
This is a very extensive Genus, containing 
many of the European and American Sp. of 
Gentians, the types being the various Sp. blend- 
ed by L. under G. Pneumonanthe and the 
akin Sp. such as the following and 487, 488, 

441. IPneumonanthe media Raf. Gent. 


pneum. N. Am. botanists, G. pseudopneum, 
Romer Sch. Caule erecto l-3floro, glabro fus- 
cato tereto latere siilcato, fol, lin. lanceol. ob-^ 
tusis, internodis eq. flor. pedunc. Cal. trunc. 
sepalis ineq. linear, obt. Cor. tubul. subventric. 
cal. duplo longior, apice obt. 5fida, sinubns uni- 
dentatis. — In New England and Canada, flow^ 
ers blue, stem about pedal. This is even hard- 
ly a Pneiimotianthe, the sinusses not being en-- 
tire, and rather a Xolemia S. G. Cutlera. 

442. Amarella Raf. Hippion Schmidt, cal. 
camp, sepalis 5 ineq. Cor. tubulosa, apice camp. 
4-5fida eq. squamis 4-5barbatis alternis intus 
cor. Stam. 4-5iilif. antheris liberis. Ovar. 
linear, stigma bilamel. Vlant. annua, caule an- 
guL glabra. 2 Sob Genera, 1. Amarella the 
Gent, do L. and akin Sp. with 5 divisions. 2 
Hippion, with 4 divisions, type the Exacum 
viscosum or Gent, viscosa of Authors, per-* 
haps distinct Genus if cal. 4phyle, in Amarella 
it has a campan. tube. The Gent, germanica 
with 4 or 5 Stamens connects them. I add 
here the blended Sp. that I possess in my Her-^ 

443. Amarella vulgaris Raf. Gent, amar, 
auct. Glabra, caule 4gono multifloro, fol, 3-5 
nervis internodis subeq. inferis obovatis obtusis, 
medis ovatis acutis, summis ovatobl. acutis. fl, 
pedunc. ax. et term. Cal. sep. lanceol. tubo 
longior, Corolla ad cal. duplo longior. — Europe 
fl. blue, many varieties that are perhaps form- 
ing Sp. 1. A. Simplex, caule simplex semipe- 
dale, fol. omnibus obi. internodis brevior, cor. 
lac. latis acutis. — 2. A. brevifolia, caule pu- 
milo simplex sub 3floro, fol. omnib. deltoideis 
brevis, cor. gracilis, lac. angustis acuminatis — 
3. A. ramosa, caule fuscato ramosis, fol. in- 

CENT. V. 21 

feris amplis obovatis, cal. sepc ueltoideis re- 
volutis, corollis aciitis— 4. A. fastigiala. cru]e 
rubello ranioso fastigiato. 

446. Amarella bremcauUs Raf. Glabra, 
caule 4gono multifl. brevis ad fl. eq. fol. imbri- 
catis ovatobl. acutis 3iiervis,fl. pedunc. magnis. 
cal. sepalis linearib. revolutis, cor. ad. cal. trip- 
le longior — Oregon, only 3 inches high includ- 
ing the flowers nearly half of tliat length, blue, 
peduncle and sepals equal to tube of calix, si- 
muses of cal. and cor. obtuse. 

447. Amarella gracilis Raf. caule gracile 
4gono multifl. fol. rcmotis lanceol. acutis 5ner- 
vis, fl. axill. pedunc. ad medio bracteis binis 
linearib. cor. gracilis parvis cal. duplo longior. 
capsulis cor, superans — Sibiria semipedal, 
leaves and fl. uncial, upper leaves nearly linear, 
fl. very slender, teeth acute narrow erect. 

448. Amarella acuta R. Gent, do Mx. EI, 
Caule 4gono, fol. ampl. ovatobl. acutissimis, fl. 
fascic. cor. lac. lin. lane. — Mts of Carolina and 
Canada, fl. small greenish yellow? 

449. Amarella rugosa Raf. caule 4gono, 
pumilo simplex, fol. amplectens oblong lane. ob-« 
tusis rugosis undulatis vix trinervis, fl. subsess. 
ax. et term. cal. lac. lin. obt. rugosis revolutis, 
corollis brevis calix vix superans.— Oregon, 

450. Aloitis Raf. differ ad Amarella. Cor. 
tubulosa clavata, 5dent. dentib. mucronatis, 
squamis nullis, Stam. 5 liberis, Ovar. stipitatum 
obi. stylo brevis, stig. 21amel. Annuls, fl.fas- 
ciculatis. — Type Gent. 5flora Li. and akin spe- 
cies, such as 

451. Aloitis parviflora Raf. Gent, amarella 
Elliot non Auct. Caule ramoso brachiato 4alato 
flavescens, fol, remotis ovatobl. acutis 5-7nej> 


vis, fl. term, fascic. 3-lOfloris, ped. brevis, fl. 
ineq. Cal. sep. linearib. Cor. brevis cal. duplo 
longior, lac. acum. — In the Mts of Carolina, 
Tennessee and East Kentucky, 2-3feet, flowers 
bluish half size of A. 5flora. 

452. Aloitis quinqueflora R. Gent. do. 
auct. Differs from the last chiefly by stem pe- 
dal, simple or branches erect, fl. in fascicles of 
3 to 5, large uncial slender, 4 times the length 
of calix, leaves broader deltoid. Fig. bot. mag. 

453. Aloitis anceps Raf. Gent, amarelloi- 
des Mx. caule simplex tereto biangulato, fol. 
intern, eq. ovatobl. 5nervis, pedunculis 1 floris 
4gonis, ad apice subumbellatis, Cal. sepalis 
obi. acum. Cor. cal. duplo longior, lac. acumina- 
tis. — Kentucky, fl. large above one inch, blue 
but becoming yellowish in drying. 

454. XoLEMiA Raf. (shut half) Cutlera 
Raf. 1807. Cal. tubul. camp. 5fido, sepalis foli- 
aceis, ineq. Cor. ventricosa sen fusiformis apice 
coarctata multident. 5 major dilatatis, alternis 
in sinubus dentatis. Stam. 5. filam. subulatis, 
antheris subcoalitis. Verennis^ fl. fascic, seu 
capitatis hracteatis. — Types the various Sp. 
blended or akin to Gent, saponaria and ochro- 
leuca, such as my X. clausa, acuminata, lati- 

folia, palustris, trachiloma, cateshei, striata^ 
rotundifolia, heterophyla, serpentaria, s/ior- 
tiana, Elliotea, axillaris, Collinsiana, obo- 
vata, enervis, fistulosa, longiflora, albiflora, 
ternifolia, rubella 8lc, described in my Mo- 
nographs med. flora 1828, and New Flora 1836. 
Every American botanist has blundered about 
these plants, since Linneus whose G. Sapona- 
ria was the catesbei and ochroleuca blended 
. . . The G. Xolemia chiefly diflfers from 

CENT. V. 23 

Pneiimonantlie by the superadded alternate 
segments of Corolla. The true Xolemias 
Iiave the corolla ventricose nearly shut, the S. 
G. Cutlera has it more open and tubular, but 
the change is very gradual. 

455. RicoiLA Renealm. cal. tubul. 5fido, 
cor. hypocraterif. lofida, lOlac. interjectis mi- 
nimis binis in sinubus. Stam. libera, stylo elong. 
stigma capitato orbic. scutellato concave. — 
Types R. or G. vertia, pumila, bavarica ^c. 
Here as in CiminaUs the Stigma is very differ- 
ent from the usual kind. 

456. CmoPHiLA Raf (snow friend) differ, ad 
Ricoila, cor. tubo longo, limbo dentib. 5patu- 
lis eq. in sinubus nullis. stigma . . ? — Type Ch, 

457. GoNipiA Raf. (angles under) Chirvnia 
et Gentiana L. Centauriofi Ad. Erythrea, 
Neck. Rich. Pers. Cal. 5gonus^^ 5dent, tubulo- 
sus, cor. infund. basi tubul. apex 5fida, stam. li- 
bera, stylo unico, stigma capitato bilobo — Ge- 
nus easily known by the pentagonal calix : the 
names already given are objectionable being 
similar to Qentaurea and Erythrina ! the type 
is G. centaurium and akin sp. Persoon had 11 
sp. to which 1 can add 8 other sp. of my herba- 
rium, 4 of each continent, all are annual. 

458. Gonipia paucifoUa Raf. Caule humile 
4gono, l-3floro, fol. paucis remotis parvis su- 
brot. obtusis, imis obi. cal, elongato, cor. eq. — 
Sicily, 3 to 4 inches, 3 or 4 pairs of minute 
leaves, limb of corolla small, one fourth of 

459. Gonipia sicula Raf. caule 4gono pe- 
dale gracile, apice alterne ramoso, fol. cunea- 
tis et lanceol. trinervis acutiusc. adpressis in- 
ternodis dimidio brevier, fl. laxis subternis, me- 

''24 i'LOR. TELL. 

dia sessilis, bract, lin. cal. elongato cor. eq.-r-^- 
In Sicily over a foot high, leaves uncial, fl. rose 
as in nearly all. 

460. Gonipia linearis Raf. caule humile ra- 
moso vix Igono, fol. linearib. uninervis, fl. fas- 
cicul. bract, lanceol. cal. 5fido dentib. elongatis 
lin. cor. eq. — North of Europe, blended with 
G. centaiiriuni by many botanists, 3 to 6 in- 

461. Gonipia rotundifolia R. Pumila, caule 
subtereto, fol, plerumque orbiculatis obtusis, fl. 
agregatis parvis, cal. elongato 5dent. cor. su- 
beq — North of Europe, also blended like the 
last : the real G. centaiirium has stem 4gone^ 
leaves ovate obi. acute, calix very short. 

462. Gonipia pulcJiella Raf. Chironia do L. 
caule ramoso subtereto, sulcato, ramis l-2floris, 
fol. oblong, obtusis internodislongior, cal. Sfidis 
linear, tubo cor. equante — Florida, 3 to 6 in- 
ches, corollas large acute. Not the Exacum 
pulcJielum of Pursh which is a Sabatia, 

463. Gonipia pumila Raf. caule pumild 
4gono paucifl. ramis unifl. fol. paucis ovatis vel 
oblongis acutis internodis eq. cal. profundi 5fidis 
sepalis subulatis, subeq. ad tubo cor, gracilis, 
lac. lane, acutis — Florida, minute plant of 1 or 
2 inches. 

464. Gonipia hicolor Raf. caule sub dicho- 
tomo. sub 4gono multifl. fol. remotis ellipticis 
obtusis trinervis, fl. fascic. term, pedunc. 2-3fl, 
cal. 5dent. ad cor. tubo dimidio brevior, con 
obtusis, bract, lanceol. — On Lake Ontario, a 
beautiful sp, stem semipedal, fl. with yellow 
tube and rosate limb, leaves uncial, style exer- 
ted, stigma capitate as in most. 

465. Gonipia tenuiflora Raf. caule dichot. 
4gono gracile, fol. interned, eq. linearib. obt. fl. 

CENT. V. 25 

Goryinbosis, raiiiulis 1 fl. pcdunc fl. eq. cal. 
tenuis siibul. tubo cor. brcvior, cor. filif. lac. su- 
biilatis, stam. et stylo oxscrtis — Louisiana and 
Texas, stem 4 to G inches. 

406. PsALiNA Raf. diff. Gonlpia Cal. inflatus 
utriculosus, angulatus 5dent. cor. hypocraterif, 
5fida. — Types Gent, iitrlculosa, exacoides. 

467. TiiYLAciTis (nom. gr.) diff. Gonipia 
calix sub. 5part. subang. tubo camp, stylis 2, 
stigma 2. — Type Gentiana or Erythrea ma- 
ritima of Authors, blending 3 species. 

468. Tkylacitis marltima R. caule dichot. 
tereto corymboso, fol. obi. lane. fl. pedunc. lu- 
teis — Sea shores of Europe. 

469. Thylacltls comprcssa R. (var, Sch. 
Pers) caule dich. compresso, fol. lanceol. triner- 
vis — In Marocco. 

470. Tkylacitis lepthia R. Gent, do Raf. 
precis 126. cauie pumilo uncialis tereto sub 
unifl. fol. ovato lane, acutis, cal. subul. — Sea 
shore of Tuscany and Sicily, disc. 1800 descr. 
1814, fl. white, tube yellow. 

471. Anthopogon Necker 1790. Eiihlephis 
Raf. 1814, Crossopetalon Beck 1833. cal 4 
partit. ineq. cor. camp. 4fida vel 41oba, lobis ci- 
iiatis, stam 4 libera, stig. bilobo — The finest 
Genus of Gentians, perfectly distinct, types 
Gent, ciliafa, crlnita., barbata, detonsa^ and 
the following N. Sp. 

472. Anthopogon virgatnm Raf. caule 
gracile sub 4gono, virgato apice nudo unifl. fol. 
remotis adpressis longo linearib. infimis cunea- 
tis obtusis, cal. sepalis lane. cor. fimbriata — 
Canada and Alleghany mts. very rare, stem 1 
or 2 feet, flower blue very large two inches 

473. Tretorhiza Renealm. cal. 4fid. ineq. 



2 alt. minor, cor. hypocr. tiibo longo, limbo 
piano 4fido, dentib. 4 alt. ad lacinis in sinubus. 
Stam. 4 liberis. — Type Geiit. criiciata and 
akin sp. 

474. CicENDTA Ad. Cal. tubules. 4fidus, cor, 
4fida hypocrat. barbata Stam. 4 libera, stigma 
bilamelatis. — Type Gerit. campestris and akin 
sp. tenella, glacialis, iSfC. 

475. PoGOBLEPiiis Raf. Cal. 4part. sep. 2 alt. 
duplo longior, cor. tubulosa camp. 4fida, faux 
barbata ad squamis 5setis, stam. 4 libera — Ge- 
nus near the two last. Type the following sp. 

476. PogohhpMs fmssKrica Raf. Gent, 
acuta Nuttal non alis, caule 4gono ramoso, fol. 
ampl. ovatis acutis trinervis, fl. axill. solit. longe 
ped. cor. lobis ovatis acutis — Upper Missouri, 
pedal, fl. greenish purple. 

477. Narketis R. (nom. gr.) Gentiana \ 
Necker, non alis. cal. 5part. cor. rotata 5part. 
stam Sbrevis subul. liberis, faux squamosis — 
Types the Gent, or Swertia rotata of Authors 
G. carintJiiaca, sulcata ^c, besides the next sp. 

478. Narketis rotata R. caule pumilo 4gono 
fol. remotis ovatis obt. cor. albis oblongis— Altaic 
mts of Sibiria, in my herb, blended with the 
next by Frolich, and the Swertia rotata of 
Thunberg is also a peculiar sp. Narketis ja- 

479. Narketis hyperhorea R. caule gracile 
ramoso 4gono, fol. remotis obi. obt. fl. pedunc. 
cor. ceruleis ovatobl. acutis — N. W. America, 
at Kotzebue Sound, seen dry, stem 6 inches. 

480. Lepinema R. (scaly thread) cal. et cor. 
ut Gonipia 457. difl. stam. squama nectarif. ad 
basis filam. stylus, stig. capit. capsula semibiloc. 
fl.verticilatis — Types the Gent, verticillata and 

CENr. V. 27 

exaltata L. both of Antilles, with octoflora of 
India I 

481. Lepinerna verticilata li. Gent, do L. 
Exacum do Vahl, Wild Pers. caule simpl. fol. 
lane, fl. sess. vertic. acutis luteis — Antillis et 
Florida. Many sp. of Exacum are yet obscure 
although the G. Mierocale has been removed 
from it. Ex. jiUforme is a Mierocale rather 
than dcendUu 

482. Hetekoclita Raf. cal. incurvus 4dent. 
subul. cor. hypocrat. liinbo *2part. lac. bifidis, 
lobis 2 erectis, 2 deflexis, stam. 4 inequalis ! 
minor inclusa, stigma bilabiat. — A very dis- 
tinct G. wrongly united to Gentiana and Ex- 
acum, not even of same family, nearer to Cm- 
tuhea and probably both of family Acanthides, 
or Orobanchides, unless types of a new family. 

483. HeterocUta dichotoma R. Gent, heter. 
L. Exacum heter. W. P. caule dichot. 4gono, 
fol. ovatis, summis linearib. fl. purp. solit. ad 
dichotomia — Malabar. Before concluding the 
Linnean Gentians, and beginning his Chiro- 
nias, I shall give some interesting sp. of the 
above Genera. 

484. Diploma liudsonica Raf. Gent, pneu- 
rnonantiie Mx. non alis. fol. lin. lane. fl. majusc. 
term, et axil. lacinis 5 rotundatis, 5 alt. plicatis 
unidentatis — Hudson bay and mts of Canada, 
very different from the others, not even a Pneu- 
monanthe, having 10 teeth or parts to corolla. 

485. Diploma tenuifolia Raf. caule. fllif. 
flexuoso unifl. fol. remotis angusto linear : flos 
magnus albus, cal. sinub. truncat. sepalis linear, 
cor. lac. alt. laceris. — Florida, beautiful sp. 
seen in the herh, of Torrey, very distinct from 
D. angustifolia, with many blue flowers. Only 


486. Dasistepha cespitosa Raf. Gent, glau- 
ca ? Pallas. Parvula glabra, fol. radic. cespito- 
sis, caulinis binis, ovato subrot. obtusis, fl. fas- 
cicul. cal. iirceolaris 5dent. obt. sinub. obt. — 
N. W. America, Kotzebuc sound, plant only 3 
inches, and fiovvers one inch, tubular, blue. 

487. Vneumonanthe vulgaris Raf. Gent. 
Pneum, of L. and many European bot. not of 
Am. bot — caule tereto paucifl. fol. internodis 
longior cuneatis seu obi. lingulatis obt. summis 
sublanceol, fl. subped. cor. cal. triplice longior, 
cal. sepalis lin. obt. — Europe, stem, pedal, fl. 

488. Pneumonanthe minor Raf. caule su- 
bangul- l-2fl. fol. lin. obi. obt. rugosis revolutis, 
internodis eq. fl. ped. cal. sep. obi. obt. cor. tri- 
ple longior — Europe, deemed a var. probably 
of last; but very distinct, stem 4 to 6 inches, 
usualy one flower over one inch long, a var. is 
biflore — None of these two are found in N. 
America unless perhaps north of Canada, all 
the American sp. akin are different, such as P. 
media 441, P. rigida, gracilis, torreyana of 
my monograph of 1828. 

489. Xolemia tracJiiloma Raf, caule sea- 
briusc. rubescens, fol obt. et sublanc. subt. 
glaucis, margine et nervo scabris, fl. term. 2-5, 
cal. sepalis ovatobl. cor. subclausa ad cal. duplo 
longior, sinubus ineq. trifidis — New Jersey, near 
waters, autumnal like most of the American sp, 
of this G. fl. pretty blue. Some varieties, 1. 
biflora, minor 2fl. fol. obi. lin. cal. sepalis subo- 
vatis. 2 major, fl. 2-3 purpuro cerul. cal. sepa- 
lis lanceol, N. Carolina, called Gent, loomesi 
in Herbal of Torrey. 

490. CiiiRONiA L. This Linnean G. was 
nearly as loosely framed as Genfiana, and chi e- 

CFNT. V. 29 

fly differed from it by tlie declinutc atyle, and 
twisted anthers, all the other characters being 
often common to Gentlana ; but it had from 4 
to 1*2 stamens and parts to the corolla : when 
above 5, this character blended with Chlora. 
Adanson ascribed 4 stigmas to Qhlora and 
only one to his Sahbatia formed by the CliL 
dodecandra of L, wliich is not true. Piirsh 
transfered the Sabbatia to the American Chi- 
ronias, without giving any definite peculiar 
character to it, and Sir J. Smith would not ad- 
mit therefore of this Genus. The whole is yet 
in utter confusion, there is a crowd of fine N. 
sp. from N. America, forming two distinct 
Genera at least. The African Chironias offer 
also several anomalies and may form various 
Genera: even Chlora must be divided, and I 
shall try to fix their true essential characters. 
The fruit is as in Gentlana except in Roesli- 

491. Chironia Raf. cal. camp. 5part. equa- 
lis? cor. hypocrat. limbo Sfido, stam. 5, anthe- 
ris spiralis, stylo declinato, stig. capitato bilobo. 
caps, uniloc. bivalvis.— Type the South African 
sp. but they all require to be verified, as the 4 
next Genera prove. 

492. Chondropis Raf. (membr. keel.) diff. 
491 cal. ineq. sepalis membranaceis carinatis, 
stylo erecto &-c. — Type Ch. trinervis R. Chi- 
ronia do L, Pers. JExacum do alis auct. Fol. 
lane. acum. 3nerv. fl. ped. opp. coruleis. — In 
Ceylon and South Arica, perhaps 2 sp. blended. 
Ch. 4go?ia is another sp. of this Genus, 

493. EupoDiA Raf (well pedunc) diff. 491. 
cal. tubulosus Sfidus Snervis, stylo apex flexo — 
Type E. purpurea Raf. Ch. peduncularis bot. 


reg. 1803. frutic. fol. ovato lane. acum. 3-5ve- 
nis, ped. 1 fl. longissimis, cal. tubo cor. brevior. 
— S, Africa ? large purple flowers, corolla stel- 
late, segments ovate acuminate. 

494. Onefera Raf. (Rapunt. nem. antic) 
Rapuntium Breyn. diff*. 491. cal. camp, subin- 
tegro semi-bilobus—Type O. coccinea Raf. 
Ckironia linoldes L. fol, lin. crassis, fl. ped. 
coccineis — S. Africa. 

495. RoESLiNiA Mench. diff*. 491. corolla 
subrotata, stigma peltatum, bacca unilocul, vel 
caps, carnosa — very good Genus 2 types 1 . R. 
Agona M. Q)liironia hocclfera L. 2 R. frutes- 

496. Sabbatia Raf. cal. ineq. 5part, tubo 
camp, corolla 5fida rotata, antheris involutis, 
style declin. stigma 2 linearis contortis, caps. 2 
vulv. uniloc. — Types the American sp. which 
are very numerous, see Elliot and my N. Sp. in 
my monograph, S. ohtusif, lanceol. cymosa., 
llntrulata, petiolata, amena, umbellata, pumi- 
la, nivea, stricta, tenui/olia, diffusa, hetero- 
phyla, anceps, &c. 

497. Pleienta Raf. (more added) Sabbatia 
Ad. non. alis. difl*. 496, cal. 7-12part. stam. 7-12 
stylo sepe recto «fec. — Although this Gr. chiefly 
depends on extra numbers, it is a very natural 
one, prolific also of Amer. sp. It chiefly diflers 
from Chlora by the unequal calix. Type the 
Chi. dodecandra L. which included 12 blend- 
ed sp. see my monograph and N. Sp. PI. leu- 
cantha, rigida, fiexuosa, fasciculala, capi- 
tata, &LC I add here this last. 

498. Pleienta capitata Raf. caule rigido te- 
reto bisulcato, fol. remotis obi. lanceol. acutis 
uninervis, inferis ellipt. fl. term, capit. involucr. 
sub 8 andris, cal. lanceol. cor. brevior, lac. cor. 

CENT. V. 31 

spatul. obt. — Unaka and Cherokis mts. very dis- 
tinct sp, next to PL gentianoides, leaves un- 
cial, fl. white or incarnate in sessile heads of 
3 to 5, involucre of 4 leaves. 

499. Pluri3Iaria Raf. CJilora L. auct. cal. 
equalis rotatus 8-lOpart. cor. rotata 8-lOpart. 
stam. 8-10 non spiralis, stylo unico, stigrn. 2 
bifidis. — Types the Chi. perfoliata, mascari' 
ensis and qtiadrifoUa ? but Cld, sessilis W. 
or Gent, do L. is a sp. of my G. JSarketis hav- 
ing a rotate 4fid corolla, or a N. G. if it has 8 
stamens at the same time. All have yellow 

500. DisiNSTYLis Raf. (2 un. st.) diff. 499, 
cal. camp. Gfidis, cor. rotata Gfida, stam. 6. 
stylis 2 coalitis, stigma 2 obtusis — Type D. 
italica Raf. Chlora imperfol. L. fol. sess. ova- 
is oppositis. Very distinct Genus. Thus all 
theChloras were of different Genera! I chang- 
ed the name because too similar to CJdoris 
and Chloranthus. 

After such an evidence of indispensable re- 
form in 3 Genera of old in this Centuria alone, 
it will appear that those Genera Polygonum, 
Gentiana and Chironia were without any real 
peculiar characters, the species merely held to- 
gether by no one knows what, except a kind 
of fascies or appearance. The Gentians now 
very numerous, amounting perhaps to 150 spe- 
cies, may be all reduced to the reformed genera, 
by a little care, and I may even do it hereafter. 
But there are several anomalous species types 
of subgenera. The G. pratensis probably a 
Narketis has a very unequal calix. The G. au- 
riculata has also a similar calix with 2 sepals 
cordate ; it has 4 or 5 parts to the campanulate 
corolla, and 4 or 5 stamens. Is it a Genus? 
Dicardlotis Raf near Pogohlephis. 




501. LINIDIA Raf, 1815. Cal. persistent 
3 5partitus,Petalis 3-5isarinis, stam. hypog. de- 
finita basi sepe coalitis. stylis 1-5, stigma 3-5, ' 
capsula multicoca multiloc. multiv. loculis val- 
vatis monospermis — These characters of my 
new nat. family of 1815 ought to have been the 
characters of the G. Linum of L, instead of 
the false ones usually given. This family is in- 
termediate between Alsinidia and Tainarixia, 
It contains the G. Litium, Rndiola, Schejlera, 
Cometes, Gloc7iidio?i, and my Numisaureum, 
Meiapinon, Mesynium. 

502. NuMisAUREUM (gold coin) cal. Spart. 
petalis 5, stam. 5. stylis 3-41ongis, stig. capit. 
capsula depressa 6-81oc. nonpartibilis evalvis^ 
Frutic. foL alt* fl. auratis — Indian Genus, 3 
types N. repens, petiolatum, acuminatum^ 

503. Numisaureum petiolatum Raf. Li- 
num trigynum Sm. ex, hot. t. 17 Lod, 1193, 
Curtis 1100, Ramis teretis erectis, fol, petiol, 
ellipt. acutis serratis- fl. corymb, petalis flabell- 
atis, stylis 3. — A fine shrub of the mts of Ceylon 
and India, called Gul asliafi or the flower of 
golden coin, whence my generic name. 

504. Nutnisaureum aciim,inatum, Raf. Lin 
um 4gynum Colebrook, Fol. ellipt. obi. acum. 
serrat. brevi petiol. fl. capit. corymb, sepalis 
ovat. acum. stylis 4 — Shrub of Nipal. 

505. Meiapinon (least flax) Raf. Cal. 3part# 

CENT. VI. 33 

petalis 3, stam. 3 liberis, stylis 3, caps. 31oc. 
3sp. 3valv. Herha. fol. opp. — Very near to 
Mollugo, but really a Liiiidia by monosperm 
cells, and nearer Radiola. 

50G. Meiaphion saginoidcs Raf. Glabra, 
erecta, ramosa, fol. lin. obi. acutis, fl. axill. ped. 
— In Florida, small plant one or two inches 
high, flowers white. 

507. Mesynium R. (middle un.) diff. ad 
Linum, stylo unico, stigma 5 capitatis, vel sty- 
lis 5 plus minusve coalitis, in stylo 5fido, 
caps, mucronatis 5valvis Slocularis Ssperma. — 
Types M. africanum or Luium monogynum^ 
M. mexlcantim, texense and chilense (L. ma- 
crei Lindl.) Lindley indicated this G. although 
he says that in some sp. with yellow fl. the sty- 
les are slightly united at the base, such are L. 
ethiopicutn, virghiicutn, rigidum, mysorense : 
but they have capsule lOloc as Linum, 

508. Mesynium texense Raf. Linum heren- 
deri Hook. b. mag. 3486. Herbac. multicaule 
angul. fol. alt. lin. rigidis glabris mucronatis, fl. 
racem. flavis, sepalis lane. acum. serrul. petalis 
basi villosis — Texas, quite monostyle, caps, glo- 
bose acute. 

509. 3Iesynium tnexicanum Raf. Linum do. 
Kunth, DC. bot. reg. 182G. Herb, paniculat. 
glabr. fol. inferis oppos. ovatis, sepalis ovatis. — 
Mexico, style 5iid at top. capsule mucronate. 

510. MOLLUGIDIA a new small family of 
mine, only differing from Linidia by cells or 
capsule polysperm, valves septifer, seeds cen- 
tral, and petals often lacking. Types Rotcda, 
Clierleria, Bergia, Moltugo, Nemallosis, 
Lampetia, Hermannia, MaJiernia, Pharnace- 
um they had been referred by me formerly to Al- 
sinidia, but this branch of the old Caryophyles 


have all unilocular capsules. Sagina belongs to 
Alsinidia as Sjnitli proved that the caps, is uni- 
loc. and not 41ocular. Leaves opposite or ver- 
ticillate as in Linidia and Alsinidia. Herman- 
nia belongs here, but has united stamens, like 
Linum. Mahernia also and united styles like 
Mesynium, are they a N. Fani ? 

511. Nemallosis Raf. (fil. variable) cal. 5 
part, pctalis 5 linearis emarg. stam. 10, fertilia 
5, sterilia 5 alt. stylis 3, caps. 31oc. polysperma. 
Caule artic. Jl. vertic. J?, nonnulis 3 anclris 
apetalis. — Types the two following plants with 
habit of Molhigo verticHlata. 

512. Nemallosis prostrata ^af. Pharnace- 
um molhigo L. auct. Burm. t. 5. caule depresso 
tereto, fol. 4-5ineq. ellipt. fl. vertic. pedunc. — 
India, fl. whitish. 

513. Nemallosis erectaHai'. Pharn. mollugo 
L. Alsine Burm. zeyl. t. 7. &c, Caule erecto, 
fol. 5 lanceol. fl. vertic — Ceylon, larger white 
flowers. See Sir J, Smith for remarks on these 
plants, which he states had been called Mollu- 
go spergula once by L. when showing only 3 

514. Lampetia Raf. (Nympha) cal. 4fidus, 
petalis nullis, stam. 4, stylis 4, caps 41oc. polysp. 
acatilis, fl. panic — Very near to Vharnaccum, 
habit peculiar, but many sp. of that Genus have 
various forms and must be examined again. 
Habit of Dionea and Drosera. 

515. Lampetia nudicaulis R. Mollugo do 
Smith, Burm. t. 8. fol. radic. obovatis. scapis 
dichotomis paniculatis — Ceylon and Africa, 
perhaps two sp. blended also. 

516. ALSINIDIA. This family of Adanson 
was Caryophyles of Jussieu, who united there- 
to the Spergulides Ad. and many heterogenous 

CENT. VI. 35 

plants, without common characters. They can 
be distinguished easily thus. — Alsinides, cap- 
sule unilocular polysperm, seeds central, calix 
parted. Such as Alsine, Stellaria, Arenaria, 
Vagina, 3lienc7iia, Biiffonia, Holosteutn, 
Polycarpon, Cerastliim., Spergnla, Ireslne, 
Velezia, FranJcenia, Telcplilum, Cosmia 

517. DIANTHIDIA or Phorandria 1815 
Raf. The Dianthides or Caryophyles (bad name 
meaning clove Q cal. tubulos. petals 5 unguic. 
10 stam. 5 ad ung. pet. inserta, caps. l-51oc. 
sem. centrahs. fol. oj^p. jl. pad. — These are 
the real akin to Dlaiithus, Sllene, Lychnis^ 
Agrostema, Cucuhaliis Slc which all require 
generic reforms as yet. 

518. DIONIDIA Raf. 1815. This new 
family differs chiefly from Alsinidia by a single 
style and stigma: the habit is often peculiar. — 
Types Dtonea,Ortegia, Loeflingia, Adoketon 
Hagea, Lahayea. &c. 

519. AMARANTHIDIA. This family must 
be confined to the G. with free stamens, seve- 
ral stigmas, and yet with capsule monosperm, 
as Amaranthus, Difneianthus, Queria, Any- 
chia, Digera, Xeraiidra, Paronychia, Her- 
niaria, T>rypis,Corigiola ^c, these 3 last have 
petals and form sub families. 

520. ACHYRANTHIDIA. This small 
group differs by a single stigma and seed, sta- 
mens united. Types Acliyranthes, llleeebrum 
Gymnocarpon, Lophauthus Forst. All these 
nat. families are gradually connected in flowers 
and habit. All the Genera with monadelphous 
stamens, ought to be of same order : yet we see 
this tendency in Linidia likewise and Mollu- 
gidia. See 534. 


521. SCLERANTHIDIA Raf. another 
small family near to Ltnidia but diff. by sta- 
mens free and double diplarine, rather perigyne, 
fruit commonly dicocus — Types Scleratithus, 
Galenia, Floerkca, Cabomba or Neetris which 
is not monocotyle, as stated by a mistake of 
Jussieu, since the leaves are opposite as in Ga- 
leuia, but JFloerJciahas alt, divided leaves. Ga- 
lenia has affinities with Hamamelis, Florkea 
with Limnantlies, 

522. DROSERIDl— 1815. Fine family 
near Alsinidia, only (W&^erence valves seminife- 
rous^ Habit peculiar but variable, often like 
Dionea, scapigerous. — Type Drosera and the 
divided Genemofit^Aldrovanda, Parnassia, 
&c. — Roridula differs from it as Dionea from 
Alsinides by a single style and stigma: it is 
probably the type of another family RORIDIA. 
Turnera differs only by the perigyne petals 
and stamens. 

523. RoRELLA Raf 1815 ad Drosera diff. 
stam. 10, stylis 5. — Type R. Insitanica Raf. 
Drosera do L. Arenaria do nonnulis auct. Fol. 
radic. subul. scapo flor. umbellatis. 

524. DisMOPHYLA Raf (binate leaf) ad Dro- 
sera diff. cal. 4-5part. pet. 4-5. stam. 4-5, ovar 
glab. 4-51obo, stylis 4-5multifidis fol. rad. di- 
visis, jl. corymb. — Type the next sp. but pro- 
bably Dr. pedata and others of Australia be- 
long here. 

525. Dismophyla binata Raf. Drosera do 
DC. Br. Labil. 105 hot. mag. 3082. fol. longe 
petioL bipartitis linearib, glandulosis, scapo 
glabro, fl. paucis ochroleucis. Australia. 

326. Drosera L. auct. This G. requires to- 
tal revision offering many forms, which I now 
indicate as mere Sub Genera ; but are perhap3 

CENT. VI. 37 

Genera 1. RossoUs cal. 5p. cq. pet. 5. cq. stain. 
5 eq. sty lis 5. caps. 5valv, Type Dr. aeaulis, 
rotundifolla, ^c. 

527. Adenopa Raf. (pcd. gland.) cal. 5p. 
ineq. pctalisS subeq. niarccscens,staiH. 5. iiieq. 
filam. planis subul. niembianaceis, antheris obi. 
biloc. stylis 3-4bili(lis, caps, oblongis, valvis 3-4 
— Types Dr. angUca and nearly all tbe N. 
Amcr. species, see new flora. 

528. Filicirna Raf. (tbread rolled) cal. 5p. 
ineq. 1. obov. major, petalis 5 eq. venosis, stam. 
5 eq. fil. filif. antli. bilobis, stylis 3-4basi coalitis 
bipartitis caps. obi. 3valvis, fol. sine lami?ia, 

Jl. racem. bract, seeiindis, 7'oseis. Three 
types disc, by myself in New Jersey in 1802, 
leaves reduced to mere petiols circinated or 
rolled when young, with stipules, cotyledons 2 
elliptic obtuse. AH annual vernal. 

529. Filicirna, s. J}rosera filiformis Peti- 
olis filif. supra piliferis, stipulis laceris, bracteis 
subul. pedic. longior, petalis obov. stylis 3. — 
This is my original sp. Pine barrens of N. Jer- 
sey, scapes 8-15 inches. 

530. Yilicirna s. T>roscra lemiifolia. W. 
Rom. Big. bot. mag. 35 10 as filifoi-mis. Petio- 
lis filif. supra conaliculutis piliferis, basi lanatis, 
stipulis subul. deltoideis glaliris integris. bract, 
brevis, petalis obov. concavis, stylis 4 — N. Jers. 
Long Id. and N. England. 

531. Filicirna s. Drosera leionema Raf. 
Petiolis filif undique glabris, apico vix piliferis 
stipulis laceris, racemis pauciHoris, bract, su- 
bul. ped. eq. Petalis cuneatis stylis 3 — South 
New Jersey, fl. rose white, scape 6-0inches. 
Probably all sprung from each other. 

532. TAMARIXIA 1815, This small fam- 
ily chiefly differs from Droseridia by stamens 


more or less united at the base, and rather pe- 
rigyne — Peculiar habit Hke Cistus — Type Ta- 
marix, Eiudlph'x^ Rokejeka and perhaps 

533. EuDiPLEX Raf. ad Tainarix diff. cal. 
pet. 4-5, stasn, 8-10 — Type Tarn, germanica, 
casptca, songarensis, the real Tamarix is is- 
arine with 5 stamens and petals. 

534. GOMPHRENIDIA. Another small 
family that differs from Amaranthides by sta- 
mens monadelphoos — Types Gomphrena, Bra- 
gantia, Alternanthera, Belutta, Aerua, Wal- 
tlieria &c, with many new G. The whole tribe 
of Amaranthides and akin are known to be in 
utter confusion, the sp. having been refered by 
mere habit, the whole requires revision. The 
Bragantia of Vandelli was the GompJir. ar- 
horescens. The Caraxeron of Vaillantis pro- 
bably a good G. it was both Gomphrena and 
niecehrum Vermicular is L. — The Alternan- 
thera Forsk. was the Gomphr, or lllec^ sessile 
L. the Coluppa of Adanson. The family A- 
chyranthidia 520 is only a subfamily of this, 
the united stamens being more important than 
the stigmas, when there is only one seed. 

535. Caraxeron Vaillant. Philoxerus R. 
Br. Sm. Cal. 5part. cone, stam. 5 basi coalitis, 
stig. 2. capsula evalve — Type C. vermicidaris 
and hrasiliense (Gomphrena and Illeccebrum, 
L conicus, diffusus (Philoxerus R. Br.) these 
two australian sp. form perhaps a subgenus. 
The real Gomphrena have only one capitate 
stigma says Smith ; but the 6renus appears to 
have been formed on the capitate flowers and 
mere habit ! all those with a single style are 
lllecehruni of L. but the /. nerticillatum forms 
the Genus Paronychia T. Juss. Ad. with free 

CENT. VI. 30 

Stamens and a bifid style, of fam. Amarantlii- 

53G. Bklutta. R. (nom. ind) cal. 5part. cal- 
icul. sq. 1-3. stam. 5 ad basi tubo monadelpho, 
stylo 1, stig, 2. caps, circumsc. monosperma, 
sem. lenticularis. Fol. alt. capitul'is axillaris. 
Two types united in Cclosla nodijlora by L. 
and Authors, but of a diflcrent family by one 
seed only, therefore of Go}Nphrenldes. 

537. lielutfa sessllls Raf. Celosia nodifl. L. 
auct. Fol. subrot. obov. mucronatis, capitulis 
sessilibus. — Malabar and Ceylon, Burm. zeyl. t. 
5. f. 2. 

538. Belutta peduncularis Raf. Cel. nodi- r^J'Tu-^r^ c^ 
fl. var. auct. Fol. oblongis vel cuneatis undula- ^ 

tis acutiusculis, capitulis peduncularis — In Su- /^^^i-^^wTv. 
matra Slc. 

539. Cadelaria Ad. Achyranthes L. cal. 5 
part, reflexis, caliculus 2, stam. 5 liberis ciliatis 
stylo 1, stigma bilobo, utriculus monosp. Frut, 

fol. opj)osttiSj fl. spicatis. The types are the 
3 following sp all blended as Achyranthes as- 
pera by L. all the other Achyranthes require 
revision; of family Amaranthides. 

540. Cadelaria indica Raf. Fol. cuneatis 
acum. subt. toment. argenteis — In India, often 
figured by Burman, Rumphius &c, perhaps two 
sp. blended as yet. 

541. Cadelaria sicula Raf. Fol. lanceol. - 
acutis scabris subtus sericeis,.spicis adpressis — 
In Sicily and Barbary, figured by Bocc. Sic. t. 
9, but the Sp. from Jamaica appears different. 

542. Cadelaria punctata Raf, Fol. obovatis 
acuminatis glabris subtus punctatis glabris — 
Arabia. The Achyr. panicidata of Forskal 
with free stamens broad at base, is probably 
also of this Genus. It will be hard to say 


which are the true types of the real Achyran- 
thes ! see tlie next Genera, A. dicfiotoma and 
corijiiibosa are Anijclda. Ac. altissima with 
scandcnt stem must be a peculiar 6sfenus. 

543. CoDivALiA Raf. Pupal Ad. cal. 5part. 
2ciliatis hamatis seu echinatis, caliculus 2, stam. 
5 basi coalitis, stylo, stig. sem. unicum Fruct, 
Fol. ojipos. jl. spicatis^ glomeratis — Types 
AcliJjr. lajjpcicea, patiila., L. &.c. 

544. Uretia Raf. Ouret Ad. cal. 5fidus, 
caliculus 1, stam. 10 basi coal. 5 sterilis, 1 styl. 
2 stigma, sem. 1. Merba, fol. alt. fl. capitatis. 
— Type Acliyranthes alter uif alia L. and pro- 
bably several others. ' ' 

545. KoKERA Ad. cal. Gpart. concavis, stam. 
5 liberis styl. 1. stig. 2, caps, circums. 1 sper- 
ma. Fol. alt. glomeridis panic. — I am unable 
to indicate the type of this G. of Adanson, as 
he quotes no figure, it is probably found among 
the Achyranthes, although the fruit is like A- 
marantliiis. Family Amaranthides. 

546. EcLOTORiPA Raf. (Nom. Egypt. Amar- 
anth) cal. squarrosus, 5part. ineq. 3 internis pe- 
taloideis major patens, stam. coalita in corpus 
calloso 3dent. antheris 3 internis, stigma . . . 
sem. unicum. Fol. alt. jl. spicatis — another 
peculiar Genus blended in Achyranthes muri- 
cata of Egypt, at least 2 species. 

547. Eclotoripa fruticosa Raf. caule fru- 
tic. fol. petiol. ovatis, spicis pedunc. axill. elon- 
gatis, ped. 5gonis. — Egypt ^^c. 

548. Eclotoripa annua Raf. caule annuo 
ramoso patulo, fol. petiol. ciliatis, subcordatis, 
ped. ut supra — Arabia and Mollucas. 

549. Steiremis Raf. (sterile half) Cal. du- 
plex, ext. 3part. internus 5part. ineq. stam. 10 

CENT. VI. 41 

monadelphis 5 alt. sterilis, stylo brevis, stig. 1. 
obtus. glanduloso, utriculo monosp. sem. lentic. 
Fol. opp. fl. capit — New American Genus 
near Uretia and l>/«-c/*«, of real subfam. Achy- 
ranthidia by unic stigma. Three types, 

550. Stcb'cmis repcns Raf. Achyr, do Elliot. 
Gomphrena et lUccebr. polygonoides L. auct. 
Achyr. Lam. non Retz ncc Vitm. quid et Di- 
gera araensls Forsk. Repens hirta, fol. pet. 
lane. cai)itulis sessilibus ovatis — Carolina, Geor- 
gia and Antilles, the Antillian plant is perhaps 
different by stem dichotome, broader leaves and 
globular heads, St. glohosa Raf. 

551. Steire mis Jico Idea Raf. Achyr. do El- 
liot, Illecebrum do L. auct. Repens, glabra, 
fol. petiol. lato lanceol. capit. globosis sessilis 
pubescens — Carol. Florida, Antillis ^c. 

552. Steiremis sessilifoUa Raf Repens ra- 
dicans glabra, fol, sessilib. obov. et subrot. acu- 
tis, capit. glabosis sessilis — In Spain and Africa, 
blended with the last by all Authors, probably 
several other sp. near these in both continents. 

553. Phyllepidu3i Raf. 1814 sp. sc. cum. ic. 
cal. duplex, utrinque 5part. internis emarg. 
stam. 5 liberis filif stylis 2. filif. utriculus mo- 
nosp. Fol. alt. sess. fl. spic. bract — Of family 
Amaranthidla New G. of mine disc. 1804, the 
habit is peculiar, leaves scaly like, the internal 
calix has emarginate divisions, both are persis- 
tent as usual in the whole tube. 

554. Phifllepidum squamosum^af. ut supra, 
Desvaux J^c, caule erecto ramoso, fol squamul. 
semiamplex. ovatis acuminatis, spica densa o- 
blonga, bract, subul — In Maryland, sandy Pine 
woods, rare, flowers uncolored, stem G to 8 

555. DiMEiANTHUs Raf, (2 less in fl ) BUton 


^'i FLOR. TELL. 

A(l. Differ, ad Amaranthus cal. 3part. stam. 3 
— Types all. the triandrou5 Amaranthus that 
ought never to have been united with the pen- 
tandrous, half the Genus belongs here. It is 
said that A. oleraceus appears to unite both,, 
having 3 or 5 stamens, if so it is XWieQononcus 
a dimorphous sp. that ought to be a peculiar 
Genus, Pentrius Raf. 

556. EuxoLus Raf. (well shut) diff. ad Di- 
meianthus, fructus utriculus ovatus indehiscens 
sem. ovata non lenticulata cal. longior — Type 
E. deflexus, or Amar. do L. 

557. Amblogyna Raf. (obt. fern, fl.) diff, ad 
Dimeianthns fl femineis infundibulif. Sfidis, 
lac. obi. — Type Ambl. or Amar. polygonoi- 
des L. 

558. Amaranthus L. Bajan Ad. as A. san- 
guineus appears the type of this Genus, it must 
with the pentandrous sp. retain this name. 
Adanson's Amaranthus was Qelosia L. 

559. CELOSIDIA Raf. 1814. This family 
differs from Alsinidia just like the Gomphreni- 
des from the Amaranthides by having united 
stamens. It differs from Gomphrenides by sev- 
eral central seeds in the capsule. The habit 
is nearer Amaranthides, leaves commonly al- 
ternate^ — Types Qelosia^ Lophoxera, Snkana^ 
Hyparete, but Cedrela does not belong to it, 
nor Coilosperma^ nor Belutta, 

560. LopHOXERA Raf. (crest dry) ad Celo- 
sia diff. stam. vix. coalitis, stylo trifido stig. 3, 
caps. 3sperma et 6sp. — Types Loph. comosa, 
paniculata, caudata, polygonoides, and race- 
mosa (Cel. 3gyna L.) all Celosias. The true 
Celosias have one style, 2 stigmas, 2 ar 4 seeds. 
1'he Cel. lanata is now Aerua tomentosa. 

561. SuKANA Ad. Diff. Celosia, stam, 5 sine 

CENT. VI. 43 

filain. sterilis interjectis, cal. vix caliculatis — 
Type the Amarantlius of Barr. t. 193 says 
Adanson, Celosia has properly 10 stain. 5 alt, 
steriU^, and cal. with 2 or 3 calicules. 

562. Xekandra Raf. neog. 1825, ad Iresine 
diff. cal. duplex ext. 3part. int. 5 part. stam. 5 
gland ulis globosis, alternis. fl. fern, extus corno- 
sa, stylis 2, sem. glabrum unicum inutriculo. — 
Type X celosioides, and elatior, both Iresine 
do auct. but this G. belongs to Amaranthides 
while Iresine belongs to Alsinides by polysperm 

563. Iresine L. auct. Dioica cal. 5part. bi- 
calicul. stam. 5, squamulis alt. stig. 2 sess. utri- 
culo polysp. sem. tomentosa — the stamens are 
slightly united at the base, this G. might be re- 
duced to Celosides. 

564. CoiLosPERMA Raf. (hollow seed) cal. du 
plex, ext. 2part. int. 5part. concav. stam. 5 li- 
beris basi dilatatis, stylis 3, bacca 3sperma, 
sem. concavis, lucidis — A very distinct Genus 
from Celosia by free stamens, berry and seeds, 
whereby it belongs even to a different family 
Empetridia, see 633, but the habit is some- 
what like Celosides. The type is C. cordata 
Raf. the Celosia baccatal Retz. W. P. fol. 
cord. acum. racemis laxis. India. 

565. Deeringia Br. cal. duplex ext. 3part. 
int, 5part. stam. 5 basi coalitis, stylus trifidus, 
bacca triloba polysperma uniloc. sem. centralis 
— This G. was wrongly deemed the Celosia 
baccata by Brown; it is not even of same fami- 
ly, being a real Celosidia. Type D. celosioi- 
des Hooker b. m. 2717. fol. petiol. ovatis acum, 
spicis gracilis, fl. remotis viridlis — Australia. 

566. Hyparete Raf. (Nympha) cal. urceo- 
latus 5dentatus stam. 5 basi coal, stylis 3, caps. 


3valvis monoloc. polysperma. Fol. alt. — A very 
distinct G. blended with Cf?/osia, that has acir- 
cums. caps, or pyxidium, yet of same family. 
Type H. glauca Raf. Celosia do. Wendland, 
Persoon, fol. lin. lanceol. carnosis canis — South 

567. LiTiiopiiiLA Svv. Sm, cal. duplex, ext. 3 
part. int. 5part. ineq. 3 petaloideis, 2 squamosis, 
stamj 2 lib. stylo 1, stig. capit. emarg. capsula 
21ocul ? 2sperma ? Fol. oppositis — Of family 
Scleranthidia ? altho' near Ortegia and Loe- 

flingia fruit not well known, on which will de- 
pend the main affinities. 

568. Lithophila muscoides Sw. Sm. pumila, 
fol. lin. obt. canaliculatis, fl. congestis. minute 
plant of I. Navaza in Antilles. 

569. ATRIPLEXTA. This natural family 
will be much reduced by separating the ano- 
malous G. with berries or more than one seed : 
being thus reduced to those with a single seed 
akene or utricule, altho' with several stigmas, 
the Genera therein placed hardly differ from 
Polygonides, and might as well be united, the 
habit in those last of articulate stem and vagi- 
nate leaves being the chief difference! while 
Urticides differs by single stigma or hypogyne 
stamens. Uniting therefore Atriplexia and 
Polygonidia we may divide them into 6 more 
evident subfamilies, distinguished by the fruit 
and proportions of stamens. Salisbury detected 
the mistake of Jussieu who deemed them pe- 
rigyne, while they are properly hypogyne. 

570. PoLYCNEMiDES. utriculus monospermus, 
— G. Polycnemum, Camphorosma, Petiveria, 
Chenolea, Kochia. 

571. Basellides. Calixbaccatus — G. Basella 

CENT. VI. 45 

Anabasis,Coccoloba, Calacinum, Naucorephes? 
see 105. Calostima '( 589. 

572. Salsolides. Akena, cal. isarine — G. 
Salsola, Chenopodium, Spinacia, Beta, Atri- 
plex, Crucita,Acenicla, Dondia,Isgaruni,Axyris, 
Sovara, Tracaulon, Rumex, Oxyria, Triplaris, 
Koenigia, and all the pentandrous G. of Poly- 

573. PoLYGONiDES. Akcna, cal. meiarino ; 
more stamens than parts— G. Polygonum and 
reformed Genera, Atraphaxis, Rheum, Calli- 
gonum, Pallasia, Anredera, Vibones, Meno- 
phyla, &/C, 

574. Blitides. Akena, cal. pleiarino ; less 
stamens than parts — Blitum, Ceratocarpus, Sa- 
licornia, Cnopos, Sclerosperma, Ofaiston &c. 

575. CoRisPERMiDES. Akcua nuda, not co- 
vered by the calix as in 572, 573, 574. — Coris- 
permum and akin. 

576. Menopiiyla Raf. (moon, leaf) monoi- 
ca, cal. duplex, ext. Sfidus, int. minor petaloid. 
stam. 12 antheris bifidis. fem. stylis 3 reflexis 
stig. plumosis, cal. in fructo ampliato, JFrutex, 
fl. panic — Types M, lunarla. Rumex do L. 
auct. 2. R. pobjgamus Cav. t. 22. has granular 
calix and 6 sterile stamens, 

577. Vibones Raf. (Rumex hit.) diff. Ru- 
mex, Dioicus, fl. masc. 3part. stam. 9-12 anthe- 
ris bifidis — Type V. auratus Raf. caule angul. 
fol. ovato lanceol. subcrcnatis, nervis pilosis, 
cal. lin. canaliculatis. Alps of Switzerland. 

578. NiBO Mench diff. Rumex, Dioicus, fl. 
masc cal. Opart, equalis, 3 internis, fl. fem. cal. 
cupularis 3fidus spinosus reflexus punciatus — 
Type Rumex spinosus L. 

579. Rhodoptera Raf. (rosate wing) diff*. 
Rumex, cal. ineq. internus valvis membrana- 


cois, una major alefoimis. — T; pe R, roseus L. 

580. Emi:x Nccker, diff. Rumex, stam. 12, 
fructiis uncinaturn. — Type ^umex acutus L. 

581. Analiton Raf. difT. Rumex, Dioicus, 
cal. 3part. eq. subrot. internis nullis. fl. fern, 
cal. 3part. cordatis sine granulis. fol. hlpinn- 
atis — Type II. bipinnatus of Marocco, habit 
very different from Rumex. stam. 6, not 9 as 
in Vibones. 

582. Rumex L. auct. This G. was hke Po- 
lygonum in great disorder, with many anoma- 
Hes. The old G. Lapathum and Acetosa of 
Tourn. deserve to be subg. at least. R, digy- 
fius is become Oxyria reniformis quite lately. 
I think the 6 foregoing Genera are quite dis- 
tinct, and the following subgenera ought to be 
admitted besides. 1. Patientia hermaphr. 
cal. granulato — 2. Rumex herm, cal. non gra- 
nul. — 3. Tomaris herm. cal. laciniato — 4 
Atecosa dioicis, cal. granul. — 5 AcetoseUa di- 
oicis, cal. non granul. 6 Eutralia Raf. dioic. 
cal. very unequal, ext. subulato, int. large orbi- 
cular, type R. luxurians, this might even be a 
Genus perhaps. 

583. IsGARUM Raf. (Salsola) cal. 5part. stam. 
5 stylo bifido, stig. 2 capsula biloba uniloc. dis- 
perma. Fol. oppositis — Type /. didymum Sal- 
sola do liOur. Sm. caule decumb. fol. obi. eras- 
sis, fl. axill. sessiles. East Africa. By the two 
seeded capsule and habit, this G. is not of A- 
triplicides but rather of Alsinides family, some 
Kochias belong here. 

584. Ofaiston Raf. (Salsola) diff. Salsola, 
stam. 1 , while all salsolas have 5 . . . ! Type O. 
paucifolium Raf. Salsola monandra Auct. fol. 
paucis alt. teretib. carnosis. Caspian region, 
ne^r Corispermum, 

CN T. VI. 


585. Salsola L. this G. ouglit to l)e distin- 
ffiiishcd by the spiral seed, and 2 stigmas : there- 
fore S. trlsyna with '^ styhs is probably a pe- 
culiar G. (Raf.) iriJJora. The G. 
KocJiia, Qlienolca, Sueda, Dondia are all 
good. Even in Kochia those with two saeds 
are probably sp. of Jsgnrum, Dondia of A- 
danson has one style with 3 to 5 stigmas and 
lenticular seed, 

586. Salicornia L. One stam. 2 stig. — S. 
herbacea, fruticosa, polystachia, cruciata, ar- 
buscula &c. — stem, artic. as in Polygonides. 

587. Sarcaturia Raf. (fleshy artic) two 
Stamens, 2 stigmas — Here belong. S. procum- 
bens, radicans, strobilacca, virginica, indica, 
ambigua &c, all Salicornias of L. and Authors, 
This G. was chiefly made by habit of artic. 
stems; it may offer yet other anomalies by ca- 
lix entire or 4dentate <^'C. 

588. Urtica L. Another G. full of anoma- 
lies, many of the 100 sp. united thereto were 
merely held by habit or aspect, Linneus had 
only 28. The Genera Boehmeria has been 
properly separated, I also separated Ad'ike and 
Selepsion long ago ; but must now add two 
others which are not even of same family ! four 
parts to the male calix, but fem. cal. 2parted : 
the seed is thus as Atriplex, therefore very 
near that G. and its family, altho' Urtica is 
made the type of another, the main difference 
is in the single stigma, with hypogyne stamens, 
Parietaria differs from Urtica., by same means 
as ChetiopodiuTn from Atriplex. 

589. Calostima Raf (fine stig) diff, Urtica, 
Dioica, stigma radiato pilis stellatis, cal. fructif. 
inflato pulposo cordate. — This certainly a pe- 
culiar G» having a beautiful tuft of radiated 


hairs for stigma, thus many stigmas! and the 
fruit as in BaseHdes, therefore it belongs to 
.that subfamily of Atriplexia. 

590. Qalostima acideata Raf. Uctica bac- 
cata L. plum, ic, *2G0 Andr. rep. 454 &/C. Ar- 
boresc. acul. fol, alt. cord. dent. acum. race- 
mis axill. retroflexis — South America, habit of 
Nettles, but a tree, perhaps several blended 

591. LiTHocNiDE" Raf. (stone nettle) diff. 
Urtica fl. fem. 3part. stigma 3, semina Sgona — 
This also belongs to Atriplexia by the stig- 
mas multiple, type L. lappulacea Raf Urtica, 
do Sw. W. P. caule repens, fol. alt. ovatis cili- 
atis, fl. axill. Antilles on stones, leaves not 

592. Pentocnide R. (5 nettle) diff. Urtica, 
cal. 5part. stam. 5 — Perhaps only a subgenus, 
near to Chenopodium, Type P. glomerata. 
suffrut. fol. alt. ovatis, fl. axil, sessilis. Antilles, 
any other pentandrous sp. must be added. 

o93. Adike Raf. 180S. difl". Urtica, fl. tri- 
partitis, triandris, fl. fem. similis. caule carno- 
so, fol. glabris — Many American Sp. blended 
in Urtica pumlla, see my New flora, and I add 
here another from Antilles. 

594. Adike alloplujla Raf. Urtica trianthe- 
moides Sw. W. P. Sm. caule erecto ramose 
carnoso, fol. oppos. ineq. oblongis et obovat. obt. 
integris — Hayti, near streams. 

595. Selepsion Raf. 1814. diff*. Urtica, fl. 
fem. 4part. ineq. 2alt. minor, stylo, fl. dioicis — 
This G. was indicated by Leers long ago for 
JJ. dioica and urens, it is a subgenus at least. 
Many Sp. belong thereto, see my New flora for 
S. vernum and montanum. Selepsion was an 
Egyptian name for nettles, and Adike a Greek 
name according to Adanson. 

CENT. \I. 4d 

596. Oblixilis liaf. 1818. diff. Urtica, Cal. 
Inasc. 5part. 5andris, fl, fern. 2phyl. ineq. per* 
sistens, stylo lateralis reflexo, stig. acuto, sem. 
orbic. obliqua plana acum. — Types. JJ. divari^ 
cata, canadensis and my new species, see my 
new Flora. These plants have a singular struc- 
ture of seed, with a very evident style and un- 
equal small valves to it. Sir James Smith ho- 
ped that some American botanists would illus- 
trate tiiem. It is probable other sp. belong here, 
compare U. membranacea. 

597. MoNosTERiA Raf. (one ster) cal. 4part. 
corolla 4fida infund. stam. 2, una sterilia, stig. 
capit. caps uniloc. bivalvis, polysperma. — This 
must be added to the 6fentiana i but is very 
near Heteroclita 482, and Pladera. It is the 
Hopea, of Vahl. W. Sm. but now L. which has 
wrongly been united to Symplocos. 

598. Monosteria lUchotoma Raf. Hopea do 
V. W. Sm. Exacum pusillum Roxb. caule di- 
chot. 4gono pumilo, fol. ovatis et lanceol. supe- 
ris subul. fl. ad dichot. ramis 3fl — Coromanclel, 
fl. yellow. 

599. Pladera Roxb. Canscora Lam. cal. tu- 
bulosus 4alatus 4dentatus, cor. infundib. irregu- 
laris 41oba, lobis 2 major, stam. 5 ineq. ui?a 
minor, stigma stylosus bilobus. Capsula ut 
Gentianea. — another G. blended with Exacum 
by L. yet evidently not even of same family, 
but of Orobanchides with Monosteria and 
Heteroclita^ that family differing from Genti- 
anides by irregular corolla or stamens not is- 
arine nor opposite. Hooker says it has 5 sp. 
all annuals, and that Crt?^5cora badly described 
by Lamark belongs here ; but the type will be. 

600. Pladera decussata Roxb. b. mag. 3066. 
oaule 4alato, fol. ovato lane, trinervis, florib. 



paniculalis trichotomis albis. — East Indies. 
The G. Exaciim is thus nearly as loose as Gen- 
tiana, I shall return to it with Sebaea of So- 

In this Centuria I have chiefly attended to 
settle or reform the natural families of which 
Linum, Amaranthus, Atriplex, Polygonum, Ur- 
tica, Drosera &c were the main types, with 
several akin Genera and families. By this la- 
bor it will be seen how utterly inconsistent was 
even Jussieu in framing his families or refering 
Genera to them, whereby it was almost impos- 
sible to separate them by any definite character. 
The later writers had done no better ; but now 
I hope that it will be easy to know each family 
and refer genera to them by something definite 
and tangible. It is in this manner that all na- 
tural families ought to be revised, ascertained 
and ultimately settled. 


1 shall here resume again the beautiful tribe 
of Asphodelides and akin, begun in the first 
Centuria, and shall quote the very words of 
Lindley on that score — " In tribes of plants so 
simple in structure as Asphodelea, like Umbel- 
lifera and Crucifera, it is indispensable that 
Genera should be confined within most exact 
limits, and it is far better that this should be ef- 
fected by the creation of many new Genera, 
than that it should not be done at all. Lindley 
hot. reg. 1486. 

601. Lemotrys Raf. (meadow raceme) this 

CKNT. VII. 51 

name is to be substituted for my Quamasia 64. 
It now appears that this G. is based on the 
Skilla esculenta found from Kentucky to Mis- 
souri, my Lem. hijacinthina ; while the same 
plant found in Oregon is even another Genus 
to which Lindley appUed also the name of Ca- 
rnassia in 1832, as follows — 

602. Quamasia Raf 1827, Camassia Lindl, 
1832. Fetalis 6 inequalis, 5 adscendens, 1 infe- 
ru declinato unguicul. stam. 6 filif. hypog. equa- 
lis omnis adscendens, stylo declinato, stigma 
tridentatum — Habit of Lemotrys very distinct 
by irregular petals, stamens and style. 

603. Quamasia esculeiita Raf. Lindl. b. 
reg. 1486 excl. Skilla syn. Plialangium qua- 
■masJi Pursh. fol. longissimis carinatis non glau- 
cis, petalis lanceolatis purp. ceruleis — In Ore- 
gon, flowers double the size of Lemotrys hya- 
cinthina that has glaucous leaves and pale blue 
or white flowers, but this has also a white va- 
riety or perhaps sp. figured by Hooker b. m. 
2774. Sprengel united all these plants to An- 
thericum, but totally different by stigma and 
smooth stamens. 

604. Barnardia Lind. diff". ad Skilla, stam 
basi dilatatis in squamis valvatis ut Asphode- 
lus, caps, 31oc. 3sperma — Type B. scilloides 
b. reg. 1029. Bulbus ovatus, fol. rad. lin. canal, 
elongatis acutis, scapo racemose, fl. carneis, 
bract, subnulis. China. This is a G. taken 
from Skilla on characters like my own Genera. 
The Skilla plumbea of Lind. b. reg. 1355 is a 
real Skilla by filiform stamens. 

605. Uropetalon Echv. Zuccagnia Bodin 
non alis, Dipcadis Uster diff*. ad Skilla et La- 
chenalia, cor. tubulosa 6fida, lac. 3 externis, 
stam. adnatis, stigma 3 — another G. near Le- 


motrys, by the 3 stigmas, Types 4 species. 1 
Lachenalia viridis, 2 Scilla serotina Curtis 859, 
1185 ! and 2 N. Sp. 3. U. crispum,4 U. glaucum, 
bot. reg. 156. 

606. BoRBOYA Raf. (greek name) corolla 
campan. semi 6fida, stam. 6, membranaceis 3 
dentatis, dente medio antherifero, filam. dilata- 
tis coalitis ad cor. adnatis, stig. trilobo, caps, 
subrot. 31oc. polysp. sem. centralis. JFol. radic. 
fl. spicalis — A striking N. G. blended with 
Hyacinth, near to Lagocodes 62, but stamens 
not filiform ! the real G. Hyacinthus is now 
confined to M. orientalis and amethystinus. 

607. Borhoya spicata Raf. Hyacinthus spi- 
catus Sm. fl. gr. Lind. b, reg. 1869. Fol. lin. 
canal, elongatis, scapo brevis, fl. spicatis confer- 
tis 8-9, bracteis adnatis appendiculatis, sepalis 
obi. obtusis — Id. Zante. flowers cerulescent, 
modern greek name Borboya, 

608. Nemaulax Raf. (fil. can.) diff". ad Al- 
buca. petalis 6, internis 3 apex fornicatis, stam. 
6 ineq. 3 brevier alt. filam. canaliculatis, stylo 
3gono, stig. trilobo — The G. Albuca is very 
near Skilla, in the hexandrous sp. but the real 
Albuca has 3 sterile stamens : all the other sp. 
united thereto are aliens like this. Type. 

609. Nemaidax fastigiata Raf. Albuca do. 
Th. W. P. bot. reg. 277. Fol. lane, et lin. 
planis, scapo multifl. corymbose fastig. — South 
Africa, fl. white green. 

610. Albuca L. auct. diff*. ad Skilla et Orni- 
thog, cor. 6pet. 3 ext. patens, 3 int. alt. erectis, « 
stam. 6, alt. 3 sterilis, stylo 3gono, sem. plana 
— Types A. altisima, major, minor, flaccida, 
viridifl. coarctata, &.c. all those with 6 fertile 
stamens are Nemaulax or of other Genera. 

611. Tenicroa Raf. (colored ribbon) cor. 

CENT. VII. 53 

petalis 6 rotatis, carinatis fornicatis, stam. G 
equalis subdeclinatis glabris, stylo declinato in- 
curve 3gono, stigma concavo trifldo — Very dis- 
tinct G. wrongly united to Anthericum and Al- 
buca, akin to Q,uamasia, but stamens not fili- 

61*2. Tenicroa fragrans Raf. Anthericum 
do, Jaq. W. Albuca fugax Edw. b. reg. 311. 
Fol. trigonis, filiformis. scapo racemoso mul- 
tifl. elongato — South Africa, fi, white red. 

613. PiLASiA Rad (head villose) very near 
Tenicroa and Quamasia diff'. Fetalis nervosis 
non fornicatis, stam. filif. eq. glabris ovario 3 
gono, stylo adscendens, stigma capitato villoso 
— Several sp. of Anthericum belong here or to 
the Genera Tenicroa, Bulbiue, Quamasia^^c. 
by declinate style or stamens, such as A. exu- 
viata hot. mag. 871, A. vittata. 1046, A. phy- 
sodes 1329, but their real Genus and place de- 
pends on their stigmas, and not having now the 
figures before me I cannot ascertain the fact, 
but will do it hereafter. Meantime the type of 
this G. is 

614. Pilasia jilifolia Raf Anthericum do 
Jaq. W. Albuca do Edw. hot. reg. 557. Fol. 
filif flexuosis longis, scapo brevis, racemo pau- 
cifl. albo carneo. South Africa. 

615. Laothoe R. (Nymph) diff*. 613. stigma 
bidentatum, caps. 21ocularis, caulescens, pani- 
culato — Habit and fruit very peculiar. Type 
L. pomeridlana, Raf Skilla do DC. pi. gr. An- 
thericum do Edw. b. reg. 564. Caule ramoso 
panic, fol. lanceol. carinatis glaucis scabris — 
Africa, fl. white. 

616. OziROE R. (Nymph) diff Ornithog. cor. 
6pet. eq. integris, stam. 6 eq. filam. ovato lane, 
acum. stigma trifidum. caps, polysp. sem. alatis 
— Very distinct G. near Lemotrys and Asko- 
lame by stigma. Type 


617. Oziroe leuchlora Raf. Ornithogalum 
chloroleucum Lind, b. reg. 1853. Fol. lanceol. 
canal, strictis, scapo equante raccmoso, pedic. 
elongatis, bract, brevis lanceol. petalis obi. ob- 
tusis — Chili, fl. greenish white. 

018. ToMoxis Raf. (cut end) diff. Eliokar- 
nios, 58. Pet. 6 eq. stam. ineq. 3 alt. dilatatis 
apex, emarg. vel. bidentatis, antheris inter den- 
tis, 3 alt. subul. ad pet ext. opposita, ovar. 3go- 
num, stylo, trigono, stig. simplex — The stamens 
are here nearly as in G^h«o?225 41,but the hab- 
it is like the racemose Loncomelos 57. Three 
types, for real ElioJcarmos see 643. 

619. Tomoxis odorata Raf. Ornithogal do. 
Jaq. ic 432. Andr. t, 260. W. P. Fol. lin. lan- 
ceol. brevis prostratis, racemo elongato, bract, 
ad ped. brevior. — S, Africa, ft. large greenish, 

620. Tomoxis virens Raf Ornithog. do 
Edw. b. reg. 814. Fol. lin. lane, elongatis apex 
teres acum. bracteis sphacelatis fl. longior — S. 
Africa, flowers smaller, hardly odorous vires- 

621. Tomoxis coarctata Raf. Ornith, do 
Jaq. ic. 436. W. P. ^^c, Fol. linearib. canalicul. 
racemo coarctato, stam. alt. emarg. — South 

622. NiciPE R. (Nymph) diff". ad Ornithog. 
Petalis 6 lanceol. 3 ext. carinatis, stam. ineq. 
3 alt. lanceol. major, 3 alt. subul. ovar. 3gon. 
stylo 3gono, stig. 3gono, fl. racemosis. 

623. JSicipe nivea Raf Ornithog. niveum. 
Ait. W. P. Edw. hot. reg. 235. Bulbo globoso, 
fol. filif. canal, racemo brevi paucifl. — S. Africa, 
flowers perfectly white. I shall resume the akin 
Genera at 640. 

624. Raxamaris Raf (berry bitter) cal. 2 

CENT. VII. o;> 

part, petalis 5 concavis, stam. 5 subulatis, ovar. 
obov. bifidum, stig. 2 sessilib. Bacca biloc. 2 
sperma, obcordata coriacca, scm, obi. plana — 
Very peculiar G. of my family Sarcocidia, and 
also akin to Sclcranthidcs, blended with Ophi- 
oxilon by Sni. not L. Habit of Phytolaca. 

625. llaxamaris parmflora Raf. Rex. 
amaroris Rumph 2. t. 41- Frutic. fol. alt. cllipt. 
pctiol. racemis axillaris — A shrub of the Mo- 
luca Ids. intensely bitter, valuable specific for 
cholera, pleurisy and fevers. 

G2G. SARCOCIDIA, A small family of mine 
very near to Linidia, ditlering by berry instead 
of capsule, and stamens perigyne : the berry is 
multilocular or polycoca, cells monosperm, 
leaves alternate, rt. racemose — The types are 
I*hijtolaca, Sarcoca, Schefferia, Raxamaris, 
<Slc, see 624. I had reduced them to Empe- 
tridia in 1814, but there the berry is unilocular, 
polysperm. Very distinct from Rivinidia. 

627. PiiYTOLACA L. cal. 5part. stam. isosty- 
lis, liberis, 6-10, stylis 6-10, bacca 6-lOloc. 6-10 
sp- — Types Ph. decandra, octandra, striata, 

628. Sarcoca Raf. (fleshy cells) diff". 561. 
stam. diplostylis 10-20, stylis 5-10, bacca 5-10- 
loc 5-lOsp.— Types Vlnjt. ahyssinica^icosandra 
dioica, Slc. 

629. SCHINIDIA, another small family 
very near the last, perhaps a subfam. of it, dif- 
ference, petals present, 1 style several stigmas, 
leaves compound. Types ScJiinus, Spatlielia, 

630. RIVINIDIA 1815 Raf. diflf. from Sar- 
cocides, Empetridia, Atriplices ^c, by a mo- 

. nosperm hcrry^ although several styles, or stig- 
mas — Types Ririna, Piercea, Mancoa, Sal- 
vador a^ Rhagodia, Einadia, Bo sea, Tropliis, 
ijc. The G. Dohera is akin but has united 



stamens, Rhus or Sumacus is also very near, 
but has petals, and rather a drupe than berry. 
The PiPERiDES differ chiefly by calix lepigone, 
stamens hypogyne. 

631. PiEiicEA Miller, ad Rivina diff'. stam. 
4, all the tetrandrous Rivinas belong here, the 
type of Rivina is jR, americana (octandra L. 
12andra Jaq. with 8 to 12 stamens* 

632. Mancoa Raf. diff". Rivina stam. 4, cal. 
4part ineq. bilabiatus. — Type M. secunda (Ri- 
vina do fl. per. t. 100) glabra, fol. ovat. acum. 
subdentic Pern. 

633. EMPETRIDIA 1815 Raf This fam- 
ily will be reduced to Empetrum, Etileucum„ 
Grubbia, Ceratiola, Batis, Coilosperma^ &lc<, 
with berry unilocular polysperm, stamens free, 
several styles or stigmas. The habit is often 
heath-like, dicline and no petals. The G. 
Skimmia, Nandina, Melicytus are akin, but 
have petals and only one stigma, they probably 
form another family Nandinidia. 

634. EuLELcuM Raf (well white) ad Empe- 
trum diff. Dioicus, stig. 3, bacca 3sp — Type E* 
album. The others have 9 stigmas and seeds. 
But the whole akin Genera and sp. require re- 

635. Terogia Raf (ad Ortegia) diff. Orte- 
gia, stigmas 3. type T. dichotoma — The true 
Orte<ria has a single capit. stigma, which makes 
it of a different family ! Terogia is a true Al- 
sinidia, and not Dionidia. 

636. Endoplectrjs R. (inside spurs) another 
Epltnedium, differing from my 3 G. 187, 188, 
189 — cal. duplex, ext. 4sepalis lin. int. sepalis 
4 ovatis. petalis 4 calcaratis, stylo, stigma con- 
cave, caps. obi. sessile. Fol. triternaiis fl. ra- 
ccm. — Type the following sp. but it is said there 


are z other sp. in Japan, Ep. vlolaceum and 
innschianum. This G. quite pccuHar by the 
long spurs of petals. 

637. Endoplcctris tricolor Raf. Epiniedi- 
um macranthum of Mercn, Lind. hot. reg. 1906. 
Fol. Stern. foHoHs ovatis obhq. serratis, fl. ra* 
ccmosis — Japan, a beautiful sp. with large 
flowers of 3 colors, ext calix red, int. calix lilac, 
petals white. 

638. VaxVessa Raf (Nymph) cal. 4part. den^ 
tes 4 alt. internis, brevis, cor. tubulosa clavata 
4dent. stani. 4, stylo filif. longissimo, stig. 21a- 
mel. caps. 21oc. 4valvis Scandens, JI. axill — 
Rubiacea near Manettia^ that has cal. 4-5dent. 
thus differing as Bouvardia from Houstonia. 

639. Vanessa cordifolia R. Manetta do 
Dec. Hook. b. m. 3202, fol. ovatis cordatis acu- 
tis petiol. fl. ax. longissime pedunculatis. Vine 
of Uraguay with scarlet flowers. 

640. Ledebourea Roth. cor. 6pet. patens 
persistens, stam. 6, erectis ad basis pet. ovari 
stipitatum 3part. stylo simplex, stig. acum. 
utriculis 3 connexis Isp — A very distinct G. of 
Asphodelides, altho' near Veratrides by fruit — 
Type L. hyacinthina b. m. 3226. Anthericum 
do W. Erythroniuin indicum Rottler, Melan- 
thiuni do Ileyne! fol. lane, macul. scapo race- 
moso, fl. cernuis viridis. India. 

641. LiciNiA Raf (Nymph) cor. 6part. extus 
hispidis medio nervosis, stam. 6 eq. filif. acutis 
glabriusculis, stylo recto, stigma simplex — * 
Chiefly different from Anthericum and Endo- 
gona by the smooth stamens and having pe- 
tals. Type L. canalicidata R. Antheric. do Ait. 
W. (Phalangium do Pers.) hot. reg. 877. Var* 
rufa. Pilosa, fol. ensiformis, canalic. triquetris, 
scapo tereto racemoso — S. Africa, several var. 



with whitish, greenish and rufous flowers. 
Habit of Aloes, The G. Trichopetalon of 
Lindley dilfers from this by the petals plumose 
or hairy inside not outside. It has 2 types Tr. 
gracile and stellatum, once Anthericum plumo- 

642. LoNcoxis Raf. (lance sharp) diff". ad 
Fusifilum 69, filamentis basi dilat. lanceolatis 
planis acum. caps, trigona oligosperma. — A- 
nother G. or subg. distinguished by the flat sta- 
mens, very near to Loncomelos 57 but petals 
equal. Type L. sulfur ea Raf. Anthericum sulf. 
Waldst. W. P. Spr. h. mag. 2623. fol. lin. ca- 
nal, obtusis, scapo tereto, racemo teres, petalis 
obi. obtusis pallide sulfureis. In Hungary. All 
the sp. of Anthericum or Phalangium, my En- 
dogona, must be revised ; as stated they would 
all be Skillas without bulbs! A. graminif. with 
3 undulate petals must be a subgenus at least. 

643. Eliokarmos Raf. see 58, my charac- 
ters then were rather those of Tomoxis 618 : 
as I meant Orn. thyrsoides and akin to be the 
type of this Genus I must rectify it — Petalis 6 
patens ovatis subeq. stam. 6 ineq. lanceol. 3 alt. 
magis dilat. ad basis, apex bifurcatis. Ovar. 
glob, coloratum, stylo brevissimo crasso tereto, 
stigma capitate trilobo ; jl. racemosis vel tliyr- 
soideis — Therefore this G. is distinct, very near 
to MelompJiis chiefly distinct by stigma nearly 
sessile and split unequal stamens. The types 
are the various sp. blended as Orn. thyrsoides, 
aureum, 4'C, which are in utter confusion, and 
I can only indicate some of them here. 

644. ElioJcarmos thyrsoides Raf. Ornith. 
do. Ait. Jaq. W.Curtis 1164, Edw. b. reg. 305. 
Red. lil. 333 — Fol. lanceol. racemo thyrsoides 
pallide luteis, bract, ovatis acum. petalis obtusis. 

CENT. VIT. 59 

In S. Africa, the ovary and capsule are ash 
blue, different thus from petals as in Melom- 

645. Ellokarmos maculatus Raf. Ornithog* 
arabicuin Red. lil. 63 non L. thyrsoides var. 
alba hot. reg, 316. Jaq. hort. 28. Miller ic. 129 
— fol. longis lanceol. planis, racemo pyramida- 
lis, bract, elongatis, petaHs ovatis acutis albis 
basi macula fuscata. S. Africa, certainly a pe- 
culiar sp. not variety. 

616. Ellokarmos aureus Raf. Ornith. do 
Wild Pers. fol. lane, subdenticulatis, racemo 
coarctato corymbose. South Africa, several va- 
rieties of colors, perhaps blended sp. Ornith. 
miniattim, Jlavescens and flavissimum of 

647. LoMARESis Raf (edge turned) Fetalis 
G ineq. patentissimiss ovatis, margine revolutis, 
3 alt. latior, stam. G ineq. subulatis, 3 alt. basi 
dilatatis. ovar. 3sulcat. stylo brevi crasso, stig- 
ma capit. globoso vix 31ol30 — Near the last Gr. 
but simple stamens and stigma. Type L. alba 
Raf Ornithog. revolutum Jacq. sch. t. 89. Cur- 
tis b. m. 658. Edvv. b. reg. 315. fol. brevi lan- 
ceol. scapo racemoso flexuoso, bract, lane, 
acum.petalis obtusis albis. South Africa. 

648. Melomphis patens Raf Ornithog. co- 
rymbosum Lind. hot. reg. 906. Fol. lato Tinea- 
rib, canalic, acutis, scapo tereto, corymbo pau- 
cifloro, bracteis scariosis albis ovatis amplex. 
petalis patens, 3 alt. retusis subtridentatis — A 
fourth sp. of this G. from Chili, wrongly blended 
with my M. peruviana^!, the syn, of Lindley 
must be erased, O. Narhonense has also 3 pe- 
tals tridentate, but the stamens are equal, fl. 
racemose, is it a .subg. of honcomelos ? to be 
called Tritriela Raf 


649. Ethesia Raf. (Nymph) diff. ad Lon- 
comelos, filameiitis ecjualis basi ovatis dilatatis, 
stylo elongato striato, stigiria capitat. pubescens. 
— Type E. prasina Raf. Ornithog. prasinum 
Edw. b. reg. 158. fol. glaucis canaliciil. apice 
tortilis, scapo racemoso, fl. viridesccns. South 

950. Strepsipiiyla Raf. (twisted leaf) co- 
rolla campan. 6fida, limbo obliquo, lac. ineq. 
reflexis. stam. connivons in cono, 6 ineq. 3 bre- 
vior alt. antheris lanceol. stylo conico, stigma 
3gono. caps. 31oc. polysp. duplice series in locu- 
lo. — Very distinct G. near Drimia, Lachenalia, 
Hyacinthus &c. but separated by the unequal 
segments. Type 

651. Strepsiphyla villosa Raf. Drimia do 
Lind. b. reg. 1346. fol. lanceol. undul. tortilis 
acum. villosis erectis, scapo racemoso, bracteis 
brevis ovatis — South Africa, flowers greenish, 
but stamens incarnate, the Drimia iindulata 
is probably a second sp. with smooth narrower 
leaves, Str. iindulata Raf. 

652. Triallosia Raf. (3 uneq.) cor. tubulosa 
camp. 6fida ineq. lac. 3 ext, lobis brevis ineq. 
lac. 3 internis longior ineq. stam. 6 ineq. cetera 
ut Lachenalia — Near the last G. such Genera 
with unequal corolla ought to form a family. 

653. Triallosia pallida Raf Lachenalia do 
Ait. Th. W. bot. reg. 1350. fol. lanceol. carina- 
tis acum. fl. racemosis nutans. South Africa,, 
fl. pale blue or incarnate. 

654. Cummingia Don. This G. differs from 
Conanthera, as Hyacinthus from Skilla, by cor. 
campanulate, the 6 stamens are connivent in 
cone also, and the ovary half inferior : therefore 
belonging to my order Ymnodia probably fanw 


ily of Hypoxidcs — Type C. andica Raf. Co- 
nanthera bifolia Sims b. m. 2 190. C. campanula 
b. reg. 1193. fol. 3-4 liii. acutis, scapo ramoso, 
fl. panic, cernuis ceruleis. Ancles of Chili ! 

ij^o. AuROTA Raf. (Nymph) cor. supera 6 ^ ^^ '^^ 
part, patens, stam. in disco epigyno insertis G A->' '-^ 
eq. stigma capit. caps, basi 31ocul. apice nio- 
noloc. polysp. sem. globosis. jl. radieatis sess- 
ilis. — Very different from Curculigo except by 
habit. Type A. latifolia Raf. Curculigo do ^ 

Ait. b. m. 2031, b. reg. 751. fol. petiol. lato lan- 
ceol. plicatis. Polynesia, fl. yellow sessile on 
the thick root, akin to Hypoxis and Hypoxides. 

956. Curculigo Roxb. W. P. this G. of 
which C. orchioides was the type, is now in- 
creased to many sp. but all those that have not 
3 stigmas and a monoloc. capsule with few 
seeds like this type, ought to be excluded. Is 
the Ovary realy free or inferior in all ? 

657. Leucoryne Lindl. difi'. ad Brodiea, 
cor. hypocraterif. stam. 3 sess. intubo,3infauce 
sterilis — Plants of Chili, 3 sp. L. odorata, irio- 
ides, aUiacea. Near family Xuridia. 

658. Triteleia Hooker near last, cor. 6fida 
basi tubulosa, stam. 6 fertilis, ovar. stipit. stig- 
ma 3partito — Two sp. from Chili, T. ttniflora, 
bivalvis, and perhaps a third from California 
Tr. peduncularis ; but two others form my G. 
Tulophos 700. 

659. Skilla jistidosa Raf. precis 1814. Fol. 
erectis linearib. obtusis glabris canalicul. sea- 
pus fistulosus tereto, racemo elongato, bracteis 
brevis, petalis ovatis obtusis albis — On Mount 
Etna on rocks, estival. This is a real Skilla 
with filiform stamens and white flowers, which 
Lindley has blundered so far as to unite with 
my Ornitliogahim ceruleum 54, with l)lue flow- 

(i'i FLOR. TELL 

ers with flat subulate stamens, and also with the 
next plant of Gussone, which is not a Skilla 
neither, and another plant by purple flowers. 

GOO. Loncomelos purpurcus Raf. Skilla 
cupaniana (Gussone ? R. S.) Lind. b. reg. 
1878. fol. lanceol. denticul. acutis, fl. racemosis. 
racemo oblongo multifl. 20-30fl. bract, linearib. 
ped, dimidio, petalis ovatobl. obt, purpureis — 
Sicily : this description is h'om Lindley figure, 
where the petals are purple, ovary blue, stigma 
31obe, filaments equal lanceolate, seeds central 
few : the descr. of Gussone appears to recede 
and apply to my Orn. ceruleum 54, by pauci- 
flore corymb of blue flowers, but differ yet by 
ciliate leaves and rostrate capsule. There 
must be several akin sp. in Sicily, of different 
Genera ; meantime I will state the great main 
distinctions of 3 species of 3 Genera ! Lonco- 
melos purpureus, raceme of purplish fl. sta- 
mens lanceolate. Ornithogalum ceruleum, 
corymb of blue fl. stamens subul. flat. Skilla 
fistulosa, raceme of white flowers, stamens 

661. Arisarum Tourn, Ad. Arum L. auct. 
(name included in Asarum, Comarum &c.) 
This Genus is the type of the Aroides family, 
a fine singular tribe : in utter confusion as yet, 
because the Genus was based on the mere spa- 
tha, instead of the stamens. I mean to revise 
it partly, but all the species must be examined 
again, as well as those of Colocasia and Cala- 
dium. — My real Arisarum has, spatha cucu- 
lata uniloba, spadix brevier ad basis pistilifero, 
in medio staminifero, filam, sterilis medialis 
apice nudo clavato,antheris rhomboideis,sessiles 
stigma sessile, baccis monolocul. oligospermis. 
Rad tuber osa, scaposis s. acaules, fol. simpli- 

CENT. VII. 63 

ces, sepe basl dimsis — This will include A ma- 
culatum^ italicum^ pictum, serpenlimtin (A. 
arisarum L.) ocatum ? ^c with akin species. 
The 3 Genera .of Necker were chiefly distin- 
guished by habit, and thus improper^ they were 
Colocasia caulescent, Xlocasia stemless with 
compound leaves, Aruin stemless, simple leaves 
Many other essential distinctions are offered by 
the spatha, spadix, pistils and anthers. The 
singular G. Kunda 305 deviates greatly, also 
Segiiinum 977. 

662. HoMAiDA Ad. dift'. 661. spatha angusta, 
spadix longior apex nudo tereto vermiculato, 
ad basis squamosus, et antheris mixtis cum 
squamis, baccis monospermis, Acaides, fol. 
angustis integris — Types the several sp. blen- 
ded as A. tenuifoUum L. and gramineinn 
Lam. The A. gramineuni of Russel with lan- 
ceolate spathe and clavate spadix is difiUfent 
and perhaps a true Arisarum not Homaidci ; 
but A. proboscideurn is a Homaida. 

663. Desmesia Raf. (separ. middle) diff". 661. 
spatha basi tubulosa sen globosa integra, pis- 
tilis et antheris divisis ab annulo nudo, filam. 
sterilis superis plumosis. Acatdes, fol. dimsis, 
— Several sp. probably, types the two following. 

664. Desmesia orixensis Raf. Arum do 
Andr. rep. 356. Edw. rcg. 450. fol. hastato tri- 
partitis, scapo brevissimo basi globosa, labio 
ovato, spadix clavato — Orixa in India, inside of 
spatha and club red. 

665. Desmesia venosa Raf. Arum venosuni 
Ait. W. P. Edw. reg. 1017. Fol. pedatis, foliolis 
5 ovatis acum. basi confluens, scapo brevi, spa- 
tha basi tubulosa, apex lanceol. longissima spa- 
dix tereto. — Brazil, spatha green, veined and 
marbled with purple inside, 2 large scales spa- 


thiforni at base of spatha, by this character^ 
lack of plumose sterile filaments, terete spadix 
and tubular base, it may be a snbgenus, or real 
type of G. while D. orixensis might form 
subg-. Steiroptilus. 

GOG. Megotigea Raf. (big ear of ground) 
diff. G61. spatha basi tubulosa inflata recurva, 
apex coarctato, labio amplissimo auriculato cu- 
cuUato emarg. intus crinito. spadix tuberc. cri- 
nito. ad basi squamis involucrato, pistilis cune- 
atis apex Ggonis, antheris confluens carnosis 
2loc. biporosis, baccis 4-Gspermis. fl. suhra- 
dlc. fol. dimsis radic — Very peculiar Genus. 

6G7. 3IegotlffeacrlniiaIlixi\ Arum. do. Ait, 
W. Edw. reg. 851. A. muscivorum L. fol. pe- 
datis furcatis glaucis, foliolis lanceolatis, scapo 
brev issimo — Minorca and Spain, spatha green 
spoted of brown, inside dark red, spadix green- 
ish black, this flower is like a huge ear or a flow- 
er of Aristolochia, and is fetid like many others 
of the tribe. 

GG8. Alocasia Raf. name of Necker but 
only part of his Genus. Diff. ad 6G1, spathis 
triclinis, masc. fern, et herm. basi tubulosa, spa- 
dix clavato, basi et apice oudo, stigma sessile 
punctiforme, antheris subpedicellatis 2-41ocul. 
In fl. herm. confluens, baccis oligospermis. sub- 
caulescens^ fol. 3-5natls — Distinct G. by the 
division of sexes either monoical, dioical or tri- 
oical. Types the several sp. blended in^. tri- 
phyhim, ternatum, ringens^ atroruhens and 
pentaphyluni^ see my new flora for these spe- 
cies. The 5 leaved sp. most form the subge- 
nus Rhomphalis name of Zanoni. — A. tri- 
phyla includes 3 sp. A. lohatci^ pedata, Vir- 
ginica Raf. 

669. DRAcuNCULusTourn. Ad. diff*, 661,spa- 

CENT. VII. 65 

tha involuta angusta, spadix tenuis non clavato, 
antheris et pistillis confluens et nonnulis mixtis, 
Acaides, fol. sepe dicisis — Several sp. belong 
here, 1 Dr. polyphylus (Arum dracunculus L) 
2 spadiceus llaf. (A dracontium,) with spa- 
dix elongate. 3 dhartcatus, 4 trilohatus: 5 can- 
nefoUus c^'C, all Arums of L. with several others 
probably and N. Sp. Dr. tenellus, and crassi- 
caulis. This G. is very near Homaida, but 
has no scales and several seeds. The sp. with 
entire leaves form the subgenus Neienshe/na, 

670. Peltandra Raf. 1819. Lecontea Tor- 
rey 1824. Renselaria Beck 1833. spatha an- 
gusta involuta tubulosa, apice fissa, spadix in- 
cluso toto genifero, pistillis inferis, stigma sess. 
capitato, antheris confluens (ad apice sterilis) 
peltatis crenatis multilocul. Baccis l-5spermis 
ineq. Acaules, fol. simpl. The types are the 
various sp. blended under Arum Virginicum 
Li. descr. in my monograph of new flora P. un- 
dulata, liastata. Walteri, angustifolia^ sagit- 
tatn, latifolta, Jieterophyln, these 3 last have 
only one seed in ripe berries, and form subg. 
Renselaria. I noticed'this G. since 1804, 1 
published it 1819 in my 50 N. G. Journ. phys. 
yet two other names were given to it since. 

671. CoLocAsiA Neckcr, difl*. 661, antheris 
divisis cirrhis sterilis mixtis, baccis multilocul. 
polysp. Acaides, fol. sepe peltatis. — Types C. 
mdgarls (arum colocasia), C. esculenta, C. 
macrorhiza, peregrina^cucidata 4^^c, and sim- 
ilar useful sp. called Edoes in English. 

672. Caladium Vent. W. P. diff. 661. spa- 
tha cucul. apice dilatata, spadix medio glandu 
lifero, apice antherifero, antheris peltatis mul- 
tiloc. stig. umbilic. bacca monol. polysp. — Chie- 
fly different from Peltandra by the glands or 



sterile stamens medial, and tlie spatha as in 
Arisarum, Persoon had 16 sp, some of which 
frutescent or twining: they must all he exam- 
ined again, and compared with Pellandra, 
Arosma, Seguinum &c. The C. glaticum of 
Elliot appears of this genus. C. bicolor has tho 
anthers unequal rhomboidal, 

673. Arosma Raf. (Ar. odor) diiT. 661, spa- 
tha cuculata basi inflata, spadix toto genifero, 
antheris 6gonis 6loc. planis, inferis sterilis, pis- 
tillis 6costatis, stigma 6lobo, baccis 6spermis, 
Caulescens radicans — Two types from South 
America, both very fragrant, perhaps the fra- 
grant Arum cordatum belongs here also. 

674. Arosma obtusifolia Raf. Caladium 
fragrans Hooker b. m. 3314. fol. cordatis oblon- 
gis obtusis, petioiis semiteretis marginatis, spa- 
dix tereto — Guyana, spatha white, base red, 

675. Arosma aciiti folia Raf Calad. grandi- 
fol. Sims b. m. 2643 non Jaq. Caladium simsi, 
Hooker, fol. cordato sagittatis lucidis acutis, 
petioiis teretib. spadix clavato obtuso — Also 
from Guyana, less fragrant than the last. 

676. Telipodus Raf (spotted feet) near Ca- 
ladium 672, diff. spadix ad spatha coalito de- 
currens, antheris turbinatis angulatis l21ocul. 
supra planis, pistillis lateralis obovatis, stigma 
piano umbilic, integro, baccis monosp ? Cau- 
lescens^ radicans — Type T. grandifolius R. 
Calad. do Jaq. h. sch. 189. W. P. Hooker b. m. 
3345. fol. cord, sagitt. acutis opacis, petioiis, 
teretibus maculatis, spadix clavato obtuso — 
Guyana, large leaves two feet long, flower ino- 
dore greenish white. 

677. Seguinum Raf spadix cuculato lanceol. 
brevis, spadix tereto longior unilatere toto gen- 

CENT. VII. 67 

ifero sed ad medio nudo verrucoso, antheris 
rhomboidalis umbilic. squamiformis. Pistillis 
caliculatis ! calix 3-4part. clavatis, stigma cap- 
itatis 3-41obis, baccis 3-4spermis. Qaulescens, 
fol. integris — Very peculiar Genus by a calix 
to fem. fl. thus approximating to the family of 


678. Segiiinum tnaculatum Raf. Arum se- 
guinum L. Calad. do. W. P. fol. ovatis lanceol. 
acum. albo maculatis. Jamaica, called Dumb 
Cane, spatha green, anthers brown. 

679. Provenzalia Ad. Calla L. auct. bad 
name too near Galea, Caladium, Calamus! very 
near Caladium difference only male and fem. 
fl. mixt, a style and acute stigma. There are 
3sp. of this G. in N. America, see my new 
flora. One from Oregon P. hispatlia Raf. is 
very peculiar by double spathas and obtuse 

680. SiDERASis Raf. (rusty fur), cal. Spart. 
ineq. ferrug. petalis S ineq. basi connatis, stam. 
4-6 ineq. antheris oblongis et difformis, stigma 
simplex, caps. 2-31oc, 2-3valvis, 4-6sperma. 
Acaulis, fl, radicalis. — I begin to add now 
same other new genera blended with Trades- 
cantia and Commelina, see my former G. 22 
to 32 : they all belong to the family of Com- 
melinides. This is akin to Etheosanthes, Cal- 
lisia ^c, yet was united to Tradescantia. Type 
S. acaules Raf, Tradesc. fuscata Lod. Edw. b. 
m. 582. acaulis ferrug. hirsuta, fol. ellipt. acu- 
tis, pedunc. radic. l-3fl. — Brazil, flowers pale 

681. PoGOMEsiA Raf. (beard middle) diff. ad 
Tradesc. Petalis basi barbatis, stam. 3 superis 
brevior, 3 inferis longior. declinatis, stylo de- 
clinato incurvo — Type P. undata Raf. Tra- 


desc. do W. Kunth, Lind. b. reg. 1403. fol. am- 
plex. ovatis undul. umbella term. 5fida ramosa 
corymb, bracteis ovatis, cal. pilosis. Cumana 
and Mexico, petals purple, bracts ivolucrating 
and on peduncles. 

682. Tropitria Raf. (3 keels) a subgenus 
only of Tradescantia ? difl'erence, cal. carinatis, 
filam. basi villosis, stylo glabro, seminis biseri- 
alis in loculis — Type Tr. crassula Link. Grab. 
Hook. b. m. 2935. glabra ramosa, fol. obi. lan- 
ceol. ciliatis nervosis, umbella termin. petalis 
cal. brevior albis. South America. 

683. OviDM. Raf Spat ha ut Commelina, cal. 
2phylo ineq. infero major bilobo. cor. petalis 3 
ineq. 2 subunguic. rotundatis. stam. 5 glabris 2 
sterilis, stylo declinato, stig. 31obo, caps. 31ocul. 
3gona — Very distinct from Commelina by 5 
stamens &c. perhaps several sp. but the type 

684. Ovidia gracilis Raf Commelina do fl. 
per. t. 72, Hooker b. m. 3047. C. formosa Grab, 
caule assurgens articulato retropiloso, fol. lan- 
ceol. glabris acutis 7nervis, spatha plicata 
compr. cordata multifiora. Peru. 

685. EuDiPETALA Raf diff. Commelina, poly- 
gama, cal, 3fol. eq. pellucidis membr. petalis 
2 superis eq. infero minimo seu nullo, stam. 3 
fertilis, antheris ineq. 2ovatis, 1 lobata major, 
stam 3 sterilis lobatis — Type Eud, deficiens 
Raf. Commelina do Hook. b. m. 2644. erecta, 
ramosa, fol. ovatis lanceol. undulatis basi cilia- 
tis, spatha cordata acum. nonnulis ft. femineis 
— Brazil, perennial, petals blue, the third when 
present is white. 

686. Commelina L. auct. a crowd of heter- 
ogenous sp. was blended here ; it is difficult to 
say which ought to remain the real type. I 

CENT. VII. (>9 

venture the following characters — Cal. 3part. 
equalis coloratis, cor. petalis 3 eq. stam. 3 fer- 
tilia, 3 stcrilia. nectarit'orme, stylo 4, stig. sim- 
plex, caps. 31oc. Svalvis 3sperma, valvis oppo- 
sitis. Spatha plicata muliijlora. Types the 
tropical species C. cuculata, fasciculata, ner- 
vosa, bracteolata, spirata Slc, but all must be 
examined again. 

687. Stick3iannia Necker. diff. G86. cal. 
3part. eq. cor, petalis 3 ineq. uno minor, stam. 
Gineq. omnis fertilia, caps. 31oc. oligosperma — 
Types C. ?nollls, longicollis, ajricana ? guya- 
nensis or C. communis of guyana,^'C. 

G88. DiTELEsiA Raf. ( 2 perfect) diff. 686, 
stam. 2 fertilia, 4 sterilia nectarif. spatha nul- 
la — Type D. nudiflora Raf. 

689. DiRTEA Raf. (Nymph) diff. 686. Poly- 
gama, cal. et petalis ineq. stam. 2 fertilia, 4 ste- 
rilia, stig. capitate, capsula loculis ineq. poly- 
spermis — Types D. japonica R. and several 
sp. of N. America blended as Com. erecta, 
communis, hirtella &c, see mv new flora, 

690. Anantiiopus Raf fl.lud. 1817 diff. 686. 
cal. 3sepalis scariosis, petalis ineq. 2 major, 
stam 6 ineq. difformis, una lanceol. stylo coahta, 
stylo reflexo declinato. Spatha gelatinosa, 
multifl. pedunc. uno obortivo — For an ample 
account see my fl. ludov. page 21, 22. Several 
types, but chiefly A. clandestinus. 

691. Ananthopus clandestinus R. fl. lud. 
58. fol. lanceol. retrorsum scabris subtus glau- 
cis, spatha saccata mucron. demum plana reni- 
forme. — Louisiana, petals blue, the spatha 
changes in form. 

692. Ananthopus cordatus R. fl. lud. 59. 
caulib- virgatis, fol. lanceol. supra basi scabris, 
spatha cordata — Louisiana, an Dirtea ? 


693, Ananthopus undulaius Raf. caule ra- 
moso, fol. amplisovatis acimi. glaucis scabrius- 
culis, margine a^^pcro iindulato, vaginis amplis 
tubuloso campanulatis, spatha cordata plicata 
acuminata — Alabama, in my herbal, stem 1 or 
2 feet, leaves 5 to 8 inches long. 

G94. Allotria Raf. diff. 686, cal. Ssepalis 
ineq. Fetalis 3 subeq. ungiiic. stam 3 fertilia 
antheris sagittatis, 3 sterilia amorphis lobatis 
cum glandulis pedunc, — Type A. scabra Raf. 
Commel. virginica L, Elliot ^c. caule erecto, 
fol. lane, subpetiol. serrulatis supra cabris, spa- 
tho renif. scabra uniflora cum ped. anantho — 
Virginia and Carolina, 3 feet high, not C. virg. 
of all botanists- 

695. Nephralles Raf. (kidney diff) cal. 3 
part, ineq, concavis, supero minor. Fetalis 3 
ineq. infero minor sessile reniforme, 2 major 
unguiculis canalicul. lamina renif. obliqua. 
stam. 6 ineq. omnis fertilis glabris, filam. filif. 
erectis, antheris ovatis. Ovar. obi. stylo filif. 
erecto, stig. obtuso. caps, membranacea 31oc. 
3sp. sem. obi. spatha plicata ^nultijl, — A very 
distinct Genus akin to Stickmania, which I 
have described at length on the living plant in 
full bloom ; the flowers of all this tribe are so e- 
vanescent that unless they are caught at their 
blooming hour, no correct idea can be had of 

696. Nephralles parvijlora Raf. glabra, 
decumbens ramosa, ramis geniculatis divarica- 
tis, vaginis tubulosis membran. fol. ovatis acutis 
spatha cordata paucijlora. — Kentucky and 
Tennessee, fl. small pale blue, estival, in bloom 
at noon. 

697. Larnalles Raf. (cells uneq.) cal 3 se- 
palis ineq. color, supero minor, petalis 2 subrot. 

CENT. VII. 71 

emarg. ungiiic. uno infero sessile vel carens ut 
in Eudipetala. Stam. 6 ineq. fertilis, 3 siiperis. 
brevior antheris cruciatis. 3 inf. longior, anthe- 
ris ovatis, stylus filif. stig. simplex caps. 3loc. 
loculis ineq. polyspermis ut Dlrtea. — Several 
North American Species seen alive, 

698. Larnalles dichotoma Raf. caule di- 
chot. geniculate, fol. la.nceol glabris, vaginis 
fissis, fl. panicul. spathis cordatis brevis plicatis 
pedunculatis — Apalachian mts. stem slender 1 
or 2 feet high, petals blue. 

699. Larnalles glauca Raf. caule simplex, 
fol. glaucis lanceol. basi vaginatis, spatha term, 
subsess. cordata plicata — Kentucky, Illinois, pe- 
dal, flowers large pale blue. 

700. TuLOPHOS Raf, (wart crest) near to 
Triteleia 658, diff. cor. tubulosa eq. 6fida, stam. 
Ginduplice series ad tubo inserta, filam. 3 de- 
currens ad basis callosis vel. cristatis, Ovar. 
brevi stipit, stigma trilobo. Scaposa, fl. um- 
hellatis ceruleis — Habit of the Hyacinth and 
mistaken for such by some or united to Trite- 
leia. Two types 1. T. ^r«w<///7o?'rt Raf. Trite- 
leia do Lindl. b. reg. 1293. fol. lin. glaucis, sca- 
po brevior, spatha triphyla, umbella paucifl. 
bract, ped. eq. filam. callosis. Oregon. — 2 T. 
laxa Raf. Trit. do. b. reg. 1685. fol. lin. glau- 
cis scapo longior, umbella 6flora, ped. laxis 
bract, longior, filamentis cristatis. California. 



701. RESEDINIA, this little family of mine 
belongs to the Order Polymesia and is very 
near the Glinidia see 351, differing by unequal 
calix, petals and stamens ; the capsule is uni- 
locular end polysperm, seeds parietal, as in 
some Hypericines, but the habit is very differ- 
ent, and also from Droseridia ; altho' the flow- 
ers are akin, but stamens not isarine. It is also 
akin the Euphorbides ; how Jussieu and others 
put them near the Capparides with a single 
style, is rather strange. The G. Reseda of L. 
is the type of it, and as it had a crowd of ano- 
malies may be easily divided into several good 
genera, only united by the fruit, which even 
differs in Astrocarpos. 

702. Reseda Raf cal. 6part. ineq. petalis 
6-8ineq. nonnulis intei^. et nonnulis divisis, stam. 
12-14 hypog. ineq. disco glanduloso, stylis 3-4 
caps, angul. verrucosa, apice 3-4 dent, dehis- 
cens, uniloc. polysp. placentis 3-4par'\etR\'is.fol. 
alt, sepe dissectis, fl. racemosis — Reseda o- 
dorata must be the type of this old Genus,with 
jR. sttffrutlcosa, lutea, gallica, mediterranean 
tetragyna ? iSfC. 

703. Tereianthes Raf (cut fJ.) difi. 702, 
cal. 5part. petalis 5 subeq. omnis 3 seu Sfidis, 
stam. 11-15 ineq. stylis 3-5, — Types T.undata 
Raf. Reseda do L. 2 T. fruticosa, 3 T. glau- 
ca, 4 71 alba: all Resedas. 

704. Pectanisia Raf (comb uneq) diff, 702. 
cal. 6part. reflexo magno, petalis 4 ineq. pecti- 



natis, stylis 3, caps, angulata Sdentata — TyP^* 
P. phyteuma Raf. 

705. Arkopoda Raf. (nom. gr.) diff. 702, cal. 
4fido, petalis 3, 2 integris vel trifidis, uno ma- 
jor supero multifido, stam. 12-15, stylis 3, foL 
integris — Type A, luteola Raf. Reseda do. L. 

706. Hexastylis Raf. diff. 703. Ovario sti- 
pitato, stylis 6, caps. Gdentata, fol. integris — 
In this G. the number of petals is anisostyle. 
Types H. canescens, 2 H. arabica Raf. Rese- 
da hexastyhs Forsk. 

707. DiPETALiA Raf. diff. 702, cal. parvo 
marg. membr. petaHs 2 integris cimeatis, stylis 
4. fol. integris — Type D. capensis Raf. Re- 
seda do Burm. R. dipetala Ait. W. P. fol. lin- 
earib. integris. 

708. AsTRocARPus Necker, Sesamoides T. 
diff. Tereianthus 703, petalis 5 multifidis. stylis 
4-5, capsula 4-51oba, demum 4-5valvis stellata. 

foL integris — Type A. puiyurascens, and 
Sesamoides, Resedas of Authors. 

709. NicoTiANA L, the plants akin to the 
real Tobacco form several Genera, and more 
must be added. They all properly belong to 
the family of Vcrbascides by the unequal sta- 
mens, the capsule bilocular with many central 
seeds, separates them chiefly from Solanides 
and Convolvulides. I will give the main dis- 
tinctions of the old Genera, so as to contrast 
them with my new Genera. 

NicoTiANA cal. tubulosus tereto 5dent. eq. 
cor. infund. plicata, 5dent. stam. 5 ineq. filif. 
stigma capit. bilobo &c. 

Petunia Jus. diff. cal. profunde 5fidis, cor. 
hypocr. 51oba. 

Lamarkea Rich, diff, cal. tub. 5gonus Sfidus, 
cor. hypocr. 51oba. 



NiKUEMBERGiA R. P. diff. cal. tubiil. 5fido, 
cor. hypocr. tiibo longissiaio, limbo subineq. 
stam. 5 exertis, fiiam basi connatis. Many sp. 
now known ; but some are anomalous and must 
form New Genera. 

710. SipiiAULAX Raf. cal. tubul. 5dent. cor. 
tubo clavato curvo basi 5gonus, apex Ssulcato, 
limbo parvo cupularis 5dent. stam. 5ineq. Ova- 
rio immerso in disco carnoso. stylo filif. stig. 
bifido. caps. 21oc. recept. centrale magno car- 
noso. Frut. jl. panic — This ample diagnosis 
evince its distinctions from Nicotiana, the type 
is S. glabra Raf. Nicot. do Gr. b. mag. 2837. 
Suffrutic. glabra, fol. ineq. ovatis repandis acu- 
tis longe petiolatis, panic term. Buenos Ayres. 

711. Langsdorfia Raf. vcIPerieteris Raf. 
cal. camp. ineq. Sfidus cor. hypocr. tubo clava- 
to, limbo eq. sepe integro rotato, stam. ineq. 1 
minor — Thus nearer Petunia, main diff. the 
unequal calix. Types L. P. viridiflora Raf. 
Nicot. langsdorfi R. S. b. mag 2555. fol. sess, 
obi. acutis villosis, superis decurrens, fl. panic, 
parvis viridis. Brazil — 2 P. tristis R. Nicot. do 
Com. Sm. fol. undul. rad. obov. caulinis lanceol. 
fl. racemosis. B. Ayres, fl. purple. 

712. EucAPNiA Raf. (good smoke) cal. obi. 
Sgonus Sdentis ineq. cor. hypocr. tubo gracilis 
limbo stellato 5partito — Thus between Lamar- 
kia and Nicotiana, diff. unequal teeth of calix. 
Type E. repanda Raf Nicot. do Lehm. Hook, 
b. m. 2484. fol. amplis cordatis repandis undul. 
fl. axill. et subspic. sessilis, lac. limbo ovatis acu- 
tis uninervis. — This is the mild tobacco of Cu- 
ba, flowers small incarnate. 

713. Capnorea Raf. (smoke of mts.) cal. 
camp. 5fidus ineq. cor. hypocr. tubo clavato, 
limbo piano 5fido, stam. 5 subeq. pilosis, disco 

c>;nt. vih. 75 

annularis, AcaiiJes, JoL et fl. radic — Very 
near 711, but ditierent habit, limb divided and 
pilose stamens. Type C. nana Raf. Nicot. do 
Edvv. b. reg. 833. ibl. pilosis lanceol. et cunea- 
tis, fl. subsess. brevis. lobis limbo obtusis. Ore- 
gon mts. cult, by Indian tribes as a mild tobac- 
co, leaves 2 or 3 inches only, flowers small 

714. Amphipleis Raf. (all more) cal. ovatus 
costatus G-8fidus, cor. hypocr. tubo basi infl. 
limbo piano G-8Hdo, stam. G-8ineq. caps 4-81oc. 
4-8valvi^. stigm. capit. integrum, jl. axil. — 
This G. deviates widely from the tobacco tribe, 
and is still nearer the Convolvulides. Two 
types, A. 4v>alvis R. Nicot. do. 2. A. fetida R. 
Nicot. multivalvis Lindl. b. reg, 1057. Viscido 
pilosa, fol. lanceol. inf. petiolatis, fl. axill. sub- 
sess. cal. acuto, cor. obt. cult, on the Columbia 
R. hircose smell. 

715. CoHiBA Raf. (Haytian) diff. Nicotiana 
cal. hirtus camp. cor. campanulata 5dent. cap- 
sulis bicornis. Frutic. Jl. raccmosis — Type 
C. urens Raf. Nicot. do L. auct. Arboreus his^ 
pidus, fol. cord, crenatis, racemis compositis 
secundis. South Amer. fl. white. 

716. Blenocoes Raf. (Renealm) diff. Nico- 
tiana et Petunia cal. magis ineq. lacinia una 
foliosa duplo major, cor. obliqua subringens, 

jl. racern, — Type Bl. glulinosa R. Nicot. do 
L. auct. fol. petiol. cordatis, glutinosis, racemis 
secundis — Peru, fl. rosate. 

717. SiPHONEMA Raf. (tube fil) cal. camp, 
limbo amplo 5part. ineq. foliaceis. cor. hypocr. 
tubo filiformis, limbo 51obo subeq, stam. 5 ineq. 
inclusis, filam. et antheris connivens vel coalitis. 
stig. oblongo transverso integro — Very peculiar 
G. near Cohiba and Nierembergia, two types^ 

76 * FLOR. TELL. 

718. SipJionema longijlora Raf. Nierern- 
bergia calicina Hooker b. mag. 3371. glandu- 
losa, fol. opp. et alt. petiol. obovatis, pedic. ex- 
traxill. cal. obovatis — Paraguay. 

719. Slphonema fiUcaulis R. Nieremb. do 
Lind. b. reg. 1649, Hook. b. m. 3370. Glabra 
erecta, ramis filif. fol. alt. linear, cal. linearib — 
Buenos Ayres. 

720. Sti.iiomphis Raf. (stig. umbil) cal. cam- 
pan. Sfidus ineq. foliosus,cor. campanulata 5loba 
subequalis, stam. 5 ineq. 2 major, stylo filif. stig. 
turbinate umbilicato, FL axillaris — Another 
striking G. blended with Nierembergia and 
Salpiglossis; this last is very distinct by only 4 
fertile didyn. stamens, and is of therefore ano- 
ther family. Type St, linearis Raf. Salpiglos- 
sis do Hook. b. m. 3256. Nieremb. intermedia 
Grab. fol. sess. lin. obi. caule ramoso, fl. ax. 
pedic. Buenos Ayres, fine purple and yellow 

721. Stimoryne Raf. (stig. club) cal. 5par- 
tito ineq. cor. campan. 51oba subeq. stam. 5fer- 
tilis ineq. stigma clavato. fl. axill. — Very near 
the last, chief diff. calix and stigma. Type. 
St. purpurea Raf. Nieremb. phenicea Gr. Sal- 
pigl. integrif. Hook. b. m. 3113. fol. spatulatis 
obi. integris, fi. solit, pedic, Uraguay, fl. purple, 
' 722. Stimenes Raf. (stig. lunul) cal. camp. 
Sfidus equalis, cor. hypocr. limbo piano ineq. 5 
lobo, stam. liberis subeq. 2 longior, antheris re- 
nif. stigma lunulato magno transverse, fl. ter- 
minalis — Near to 720 diff. equal cal. and stig- 
ma. Type. St. gracilis Raf. Nierembergia do 
Hook. b. m. 3108 caule erecto gracile, fol. 
sparsis linearib. fl. term, Uraguay, flowers 
white streaked of blue. 

723. NiNANGA Raf, (nom ind) cal. duplex 

< i:nt. Mil. 77 

utrinque 3part. persist, crectis coloratis, inter- 
nis bifidis, tubo corolliforniis iirceolatus Sdent. 
antheris 5 intus fcrcns. stylis 2. utriculus Isper- 
iiHis. jvl. oppos. Jh rerticil — This G. must be 
added to the Gomplirenides, but is very dis- 
tinct from Gomphrena., the type of which must 
be the G. globosa and akin sp. that have cal. 
ext. 3p. int. 5part. one style, '2 stiii;mas, as I 
have verified : it is Oplotheca that has only 
one capitate stigma. The types of Ninanga 
are A. bicolor Raf. Gomphrena perennis L. 
auct. b. m. 26l4. and perhaps 2 N. interrnpta 
Raf. Gomphr. do L. Celosia procumbens Jaq. 
— Gomphr. arborescens is probably type of a- 
nother G. Wadapus Raf. but I lack the dis- 

724. Megasea Haworth. aff, Telesonix 252. 
Fetalis unguicul stam. 10 ineq. 5 alt. brevior. 
scaposa Ji. cymosis — Another G. to be added 
to the Saxifragides, Ovary free and capsule 
as in them, but unequal stamens. Type 
M. ciliata Haw, Saxifraga ligulata Wallich. 
Hook. ex. fl. 49, b. mag. 340G. fol. radic. pe- 
tiol. obov. erosis retusis ciliatis, scapo panic, 
cymoso — Nepal. 

725. EvALTiiE Raf. (Nymph) cal. tubul. 5 
gonus 5fidus eq. cor. hypocr. limbo ofido rota- 
te, stam. Sequalis, antheris linearib. 4gonis 4 
dentatis, stylo sulcato erecto, stig. capit. obtuso 
— Another fine G. of Gentianides near Chiro- 
nia 491. It shows well the family character of 
opposited stamens. Type E. jasrnmoides 
Raf. Chironia do L. auct. b. reg. 197. Caule 
4gono, fol. cuneatis lane, acutis, ramis unifloris. 
South Africa, fl. rosate. 

726. ExACUM L. auct. cal. 4fido eq. cor. 4 
fida basi globosa, stam. 4, antheris poro dehis- 


ccns, stylo declinato, stig. iinicuni, caps. 21oc. 2 
valvis — Tliis is a corrected account of this G. 
and includes chiefly E, sessile., j}edun€td., piinc- 
tatiim ^'C, many G. have or must be taken 
from the old Liimean genus, like the next. 

727. Sebaea Solander, Br. Sm. cal. 5part. 
carinatis, cor. infund. 4fida, tubo inflato, stam. 
4, antheris elongatis stylo erecto, stig. 2, caps, 
compr. 21oc. 2valvis — This includes the Ex, 
albens, aiirea. ovata, &c, but not the cordata 
see next. The G. Cutubea Aublet chiefly differs 
by the 4 scales, caliq 4fid and capsule nearly 

728. Paurasia Raf. (Nymph) diff*. 727, co- 
rolla Sfida, stam. 5 calix dilatatus 5part. mem- 
br. — Type P. cordata Raf. Exacum do L. and 
Gentiana exacoides L. thus put into double 
Genera by him, caule dichot. angul. fol. cord, 
amplex. fl. luteis. S. Africa. 

729. Episiphis Raf. (upon tube) cal. 5part. 
eq. extus bracteis 2 magnis involvens, cor. 
campanul. petalis 5 connivens in tubo, basi intus 
squama lanceol. posita ut in Ranunculus, stam. 
indef, pauca in 3 phalangis basi tubulosis, glan- 
dulis 3 hypogynis ad basi ovar. stigma 3 sub- 
sessilis. caps. 31oba, 31oc. polysp. Yrutex fol. 
opp. parvis, ramis \jl. — A very distinct G. 
blended with Hypericum and Elodea by all Au- 
thors. Type E. parvifolia Raf. Hypericum 
egyptium L. auct. hot. reg. 196. caule suffi'ut. 
compresso, fol. ovatis acutis glaucis squamifor- 
mis, ramulis unifl. petalis spatulatis. Egypt, 
small yellow flowers. 

730. Triadenum Raf. 1808 (3 glands) cal. 
5part. equalis, Petalis 5 eq. stam. 9 in 3 pha- 
langes planis trifidis triantheris, glandulis 3 
magnis carnosis, alt. cum phalanges. Ovario 


3gono. stylis 3, caps 3valvis subuniloc. axil, et 
term — I established this fine G. long ago for 
the Hyper. Virginicum, to which must be ad- 
ded several blended or new species of North 
America, improperly united to Elodea of A- 
danson. 8ee in my new flora Tr. virginicum. 

731. Elodes Ad. Raf. diff. 730 Fetalis 5 
basi squamulis ut 729, stam. 9-12-15 basi coa- 
litis, apice in .3-5phalangesdivisis, glandnlis in- 
terpositis nulli — This G. is thus between the 
two last, the types are E. iiihulosa., ijetiolata. 
Sec ; the Elodea of the actual botanists, in- 
cludes all these 3 genera. 

732. Sarotiira Raf, 1808 non L. ad Hype- 
ricum vel Tridesma diff. stam. paucis 5-12 li- 
beris vel vix coalitis, stylis 3, capsula 3valvis 
unilocularis, valvis seminiferis — The Linnean 
Sarothra was united to Hypericum ; but many 
sp, having few stamens, uniloc. capsules, and 
commonly small flowers and leaves, required to 
form a G. including many sp. S. fastigiata, 
pauciflora, trinervia, canadensis, parviflora, 
&c, Choisy in his Monograph of this family in 
1821, as well as Decandole] since, have yet 
united this to Hypericum. 

733. Hypericum Raf. I confine this G. to 
the first section of L. et Dec. with 5 styles, 5 
phalanges, caps. 5locular. many sp. I shall re- 
turn on the fine family of Hypericines, but will 
now give the main distinctions of my Genera of 
1815 before Choisy, to which I shall add 4 
others hereafter. 

731. KoMANA Ad. diff. stylis 5 coalitis seu 
stylo unico, stig. 5. caps. Hoc. 5valvis. Centena 
subgenus with 1 style 5fid. 

735. Tridesma Dec. subg. cal. ineq. pet. 


eq. phalanges 3, stylis 3, caps. 3Ioc. Svalvis. — • 
Most of the species. 

73G. Streptalon Raf. cal. 5p. ineq. petaHs 
5 obliquis contortis, stam. pluris liberis, stylis 3, 
capsula uniioc. 3valvis — Type Sir. dolabri- 
forme^ ^c. 

737. Petalanisia Raf. cal. ineq. pet. ineq. 
stylis 3, caps. 31ocularis. 

738. Pleurenodon Raf. cal. campanul. 5fi- 
dus, pet. 5eq. latere unidentatis, stylis 3, caps. 
31oc ? 

739. Kniffa Ad. cal. eq. 5fido camp. pet. 
eq. stylis 2, caps. 21oc. H. brevistylis Choisy 
tab. 7 appears to belong here. 

These G. are all distinct from the others of 
same family, such as Ascyrum, Androsemum, 
Arungana Jus. Palava R. P. Vismia W. or 
Caspia Necker, Eucryphia Cav. Carpodontes, 
Brathys Mutis &c, but Triplaris with one seed 
is of Amaranthidia. 

740. Anisantiiera Raf. Borrago,cor. 
hypocraterif. non rotata, tubo cal. longior, an- 
theris magnis longis inequalibus — Type A. cili- 
ata Raf. Borrago macranthera Russel fl. alep. 
fol. lanceolatis ciliatis, calicib. ciliatis. Syria. 

741. EuDESMisRaf. (well fasc) diff. ad Hy- 
poxis, cor. tubo longo filif limbo Gpart eq. stam. 
Gineq. 3 brevior alt. stylo filif stig.obtuso,(Sprt- 
tha rad. fol, et fl. involvens latere fissa — Very 
distinct G. by habit, tube and stamens. Type, 
E. fascicidaris Raf Hypoxis do. L. Russel, 
fl. alep. fig. 9. Allium Rus. 1. ed. fig. 2. Bulbo 
subrot. fol. linearib. canalic. cum florib. fasci- 
culatis. Syria, fl. white. 

742. Chetropis Raf (bristle keel) dift'. ad 
Alsine, cal. carinatis aristatis, petalis 5 integris 
brevissimis— Type C!i> setacea Raf. Alsine 


mucronata Gouan ill. 22. A. aristata Rus. alep. 
p 249 fol- setaceis, cal. glabris mucronatis aris- 
tatis, petalis linearibus. Syria and Italy. Alsine 
differs from Stellaria by 5 stamens, but has bi- 
fid petals like it. This is perhaps a subg. of 
the next. 

743. Melargyra Raf. (membr. silvery) cal. 
Spart ineq. margine membr. Petalis 5 integris 
cal. eq. (rubris) stam. 5-8, sty lis 3, caps uniloc. 
3valvis, fol. fascic. cum. stipulis membr. ar- 
genteis — Very near to the last G. chief diff. 
calix and stipules. This G, includes all the 
pentandrous Arenarias like A. rubra, media, 
purpurea, canadensis SfO. with the next N. 

744. Melargyra rosea Raf. Caulib. prostra- 
tis, apice pubescens, fol. subul. internodis eq. 
fl. axill. racemosis, cal. obt. pubesc. petalis ova- 
tis roseis cal. vix brevior, caps, ovatis cal. eq. 
— dry hills of Pennsylvania, pretty flowers au- 

745. DisYNOMA Raf. (2 un. law) Crucifera, 
sepalis et petalis subineq. obov. obi. obt. stam. 
4 minora 2 libera, 2 major binis coalitis, filam. 
2 obi. planis bifurcatis 2antheriferis. Ovar. or- 
bic. compr. stylo filif. stig. acuto. siliculis orbic. 
obcord — Singular G. near Thlaspi, but belong- 
ing to the tribe of Anomandria or cruciferous 
anomalous in the stamens. Type D. carnea 
Raf. Thlaspi carneum Russ. fl. alep. tab. 11. 
f. 2. caule superne ramoso, fol. cord, amplex. 
glabris integris, petalis cal. eq. carneis. Syria 
and Natolia, found by Tournefort and Russel. 
Not in Wildenow nor Persoon,who both appear 
to have overlooked all the 77 new plants of 
Russel in his floras of Aleppo and Libanus, 
although published in 1794! 



746. Andaca Raf. (nom. gr.) Legum. cal. 
camp, bilab. lab. 2-3fidis, vexil. unguic. subrot. 
emarg. carina brevis. stam- 9 monadelphis, 4 
alt. brevis, antheris subrot. sterilis, Salt, longior 
fertilis, antheris oblongis, apice poro dehiscens, 
stam. decima libera sterilis, anth. subrot. Ovar. 
genicul. lineare. stylo brevissimo, stig. capitato, 
Leg. tereto polysp. fol. ternatis, pedunc. axil. 
l-Sfl. — A fine G. that has escaped all the bo- 
tanists altho well described by Russel, and quite 
distinct from Lotus by the singular stamens. 

747. Andaca arahica Raf. Lotus arabicus 
L. et omnis auct. Russel fl. alep. tab. 14. Jaq. 
h. t, 155. Prostrata, fol. pet. foliolis .3 petiol 
obov. obt. subincanis glabriusc. stipulis fol. sim- 
ilis, pedunc. erectis l-3fl. unibract. fl. nutans — 
Arabia and Syria, flowers fulvous with red 

748. LoREiA Raf. Campanulacea, cal. 5part. 
ineq. serratis, cor. rotata 5part. ovar. villoso 
sulcato, stam. et stylis ut Camp, caps. 31oc. 3 
poris dehiscens. — A pretty G. to add to this 
family, it is near the true G. Campanula, but 
differs by the calix, rotate corolla and ovary. 

749. Loreia baldensis Raf Camp. do. Bal- 
bi, C, lorei R. S. b. mag. 2581. caule diffuse 
5gono, fol. pet. ellipt. obi. lanceol. serratis, pe- 
dunc. elongatis unifl, cal. ad cor. eq. — Mt Bal- 
do and Alps, flowers dark blue. 

750. Rafinesqijia vel Diodeilis R. Labi- 
ata. cal. tubulatus rectus striatus subbilab. lab. 
sup. bident. inf. 3dent. faux intus villosa clausa 
cor. recta bilab. lab. sup. concavo emarg. lab. 
inf. subeq. 31obo, stam 4 remotis, antheris cor- 
datisbilobis sem. levis, Frutic, fl. axill — Here 


is another Rafinesquia for a fine shrub mis- 
taken by all the Authors, and forcetl into 3 
Genera! Cunila, Melissa, Gardoquia! if not ap- 
proved, I add a 5th name ! abridged from Dio- 
dontocheilis ! I add next the Gardoquia to 
compare them. The type of this is in my her- 
barium with several other shrubby Labiate of 

751. Rafinesquia (vel. Dlodeilis) coccinea 
Raf. Cunila ! do Hooker, Melissa! do Spr. Gar- 
doquia! hookeri; Benth, Don. Lind. bot. reg. 
1747 . . . Fruticosa, glaberrima, fol. obov. sess. 
acutis integr. pedunc. axil. l-3fl. pretty Shrub 
from Florida, flowers scarlet or miniate, seen 
dry. Bentham doubted the G. of this plant, 
he says it has stamens nearly like Origanum. 
I have another N. G. from Florida different by 
campan. calix &c. see Dlseldia. 

752. Gardoquia R. P. fl. per. cal. tubul. in- 
curvus Sdentib. subeq. faux nuda s. barbata, 
cor. tubulosa incurva. lab. sup. piano emarg. lab. 
inf. Slobo, lobo medio latior. Antheris renif. 
sem. levis. Frut. fl. axil — Thus every thing is 
in contrast with the last except the habit. Type 
G. chilensis bot. reg. 1812 fol. linearib. cunea- 
tis obtusis, Chili — I shall begin to add some 
good new Genera to those of Bentham on the 
Labiate : I have already stated that his valua- 
ble labors are incomplete in many genera, and 
that his tribes of Labiate are artificial. The 
old division of Unilabiate, Diandres,and Didy- 
names by Jussieu was more natural, the stig- 
ma lateral or terminal, the stamens bilocular 
or unilocular ,with or without appendages, would 
form much better natural tribes. Therefore I 
offer the following tribes or families to be here- 
after rectified and enlarged. 


753. Order LOBOGYNIA, suborder AR- 
CYTHIA Family LABIATA— 1 subfamily or 
tribe DIANDRIDI A, the Diandrides with two 
fertile stamens, filaments simple. Types Mo- 
narda, Lycopus, Cunila, &c. 

754. SALVIDIA, the Salvides or Sages, 
stam. 2 fert. filam. append, antheris uniloc. 
types Salvia, Sclarea, and Hemistegia, Calos- 
phace Slc. 

755. UNILABIATA, the Unilabiates, stam 
4,corollis unilab — Teucrium, Ajuga, Scorodonia, 
Monipsis, Chamedrys, Melosmon. &:c. 

756. BILABIATA, the true Bilabiate and 
Galeate, stam. 4. cor. bilab. divided into several 
smaller tribes. 

1. Prasides, with baccate seeds. Prasium L. 
or Levina Ad. 

2. Heterostimes, with terminal or unusual 
stigma, Sideritis, Lavandula, Cleonia, Perilla. 

3. Pleiodontes, calix with more than 5 teeth 
Leonotis. Hemisodon, Marrubium, &c. 

4. Synandrines, stamens united or connivent 
Synandra, Coleus ^c. 

5. Thymides, stamens divergent far apart. 
Types Thymus, Satureja, Hyssopus, Origa- 
num, 4^C, 

6. OciMiDES, stamens declinate, 7th order of 
Bentham, very unnatural. 

7. Brunellides with furcate stamens, Bru- 
nella, ^c. 

8. Nepetides. All the Genera excluded by 
the aboue characters ; and they are yet very nu- 
merous. I shall increase the 108 Genera of Ben- 
tham to about 160 ; but most of the N. G. be- 

ong to Unilabiates or Salvides or Phlomis ^c^ 

757. Teucrium Raf. non L, et auct. I con- 
fine this G. to the Species with cal. urceolatus, 


5dent. eq. cor. lab. sup- vix nullo, infero lobato 
concavo, fl. racemosis. Types T. flavum, 
fruticosum, canadense, virginicum, and sga e- 
ral sp. blended with these, see my new flora. 

758. ScoRODONiA Ad. diff, 757. cal. tubul. in- 
curvus ineq. sub labiato, dentis Sineq. — Types 
Sc. trivialis, massiliense, sicula, arduini 4«c, 
and other blended sp. 

759. Chamedrys Tourn. diff. 757,cal. tubul. 
lanato subintegro, cor. lab. supero brevis sed 
evidens dilatato, /?. axill. et glomeratis. Types 
Ch. marum^ polium, capitatum, creticum, 
quadrulum, hetonicif. nissolianum, latif. 
montanum, pumilum &c. 3. subg. 1. Polium 
fl. cap. 3 Marum fl. racem. 3 Chamedrys fl. 
vertic axill. 

760. Trixago Raf. (n. antic.) Iva Dillen 
non L. diff. 757. cal. gibboso, inflato tubul. 5 
dent, connivens, fl, axill. Types T. botrys 
scordium^ «fcc. 

761. Melosmon Raf. (n. diosk) difl: 757. cal. 
amplo campanulato 5fido eq. lOstriato, dentis 
carinatis, fl. axill. Types M. bicolor, rotundi- 
fol. campanul. orientale, «^c. 

762. ScoRBioN Raf. (n. diosk) diff. 757. cal. 
curvus striatus, apex camp. Sdent. ineq. 1 sup. 
major, 4 inf. spiuosis, cor. basi globosa.^. axill 
— Type Scr. spinosum; but several sp. are 
blended under Teucrium Spinosum. 

763. MoNiPsis Raf (single form) diff. 757. 
cal. camp. 5fido subeq. ut in 761, cor. tota uni- 
labiata, lab, sup, nullo, lab. inf labelliforme 51o- 
bo, lob. ultimo major, stam. et stylis superisad- 
scendens, fl^ axill— Type M. orchidea Raf. 
Teucr. do Lind. b, reg. 1255. frutex, fol, obi, 
obtus. sessil. glaucis subint, fl, axill. solit. sess. 
carneis. Chili, 


Thus I have tried to revise Teucrium into 7 
Genera ; but all the sp. must be examined 
again, Linneus had 35 sp. Schreber in mono- 
gr. unilab, and Vitman 26 more, Persoon 69 in 
all : we have nearly 100, of which but few are 
completely described. According to Smith 
several belong to Ajuga, such as T, iva, lax- 
mani, chamepytis, and salicifolium, but this last 
has 4fid calix ! if so it is a Subgenus, Vimener- 
ha Raf. 

764. Origanum Raf. non L. one of the ab- 
surd linnean Genera formed upon mere habit 
and the strobilaceous inflorescence, and there- 
fore including many distinct G, I confine the 
name to the sp, with calix tubulose equal 5 
dentate, such as O. vulgare, humile, glandulo- 
sufti, americanum, &c, and akin. The Au- 
thors having neglected to describe the Corol- 
las of the sp. many genera are yet hidden there- 
in perhaps, such as 

Zatarendia R. type O. egyptiacum L. 
Oroga Lobel. type O. hereaelontica. 

765. Amaracus Mench. cal. tubul. Sdentes 
ineq. supera major labiatiformis, cor. basi sac- 
cata, faux compressa — Type Am. dictamnus 
and sipyleus. 

766. Majorana Raf. cal. urceolatus bilabi- 
ato, lab. sup. magno integro, lab. inf. parva 
dentata — Type M, fragrans Orig. majorana 
L. 2 M, suffruticosa. Orig. majoranoides W. 
3. M. tenuifolia, 4 Syriaca ? &c. 

767. Onites Raf. cal. bilabiato,labissubeq. 
subintegris — Type Onites tomentosa Rah 
Orig. onites L. &c. 

768. Beltokon Raf. (n. gr.) differs from 764 
by Corolla ealearata ut in Plectranthus ! — 
Type jB, Tourneforti Raf. Origanum do auet. 

CENT. Till. 


—Many other genera will probably be requir- 
ed, the Audibertia of Bentham would have 
been an Origanum for the linneists, although 
diandrous ! 

769. Phlomis Raf, non L. of all the absurd 
linnean G. of Labiate this was the worst (ex- 
cept Salvia) including a crowd of Genera unit- 
ed by nothing except verticillate flowers. It 
was . o bad that Brown took away Leucas and 
Leonotis, I confine my Phlomis by cal. tubulo- 
sus Sgonus Sdent. equalis, cor. galea compressa 
emarginata, such as Phi. fruticosa, italica, nis- 
soli, lychnitis, purpurea, crinita, samia, pungens, 
lunarifolia &lg. and I establish the following 1 6 
genera for the others till 785. 

770. Trambis Raf. (n. gr.) cal. tubul. Sgono 
extus glabro intus hirsuto, 5fido lac. patulis. 
Galea ovata dentata intus lanata — Types Tr. 
tuherosa and alpina, both Phlomis of L. and 
perhaps my Phlomis grandifolia, which is a 
subgenus Blephiloma see am. flor. and ap- 

771. Clueria Raf. (n. lat) cal. Sdentato eq. 
lanato, galea ovata plana fimbriata fol. pinna- 
tis — Type CI. laciniata Raf. 

772. Anemitis Raf. (wind plant) cal. den- 
tib. 5 aristatis pungens subeq. Galea bifida — 
Type A. rigida Raf. Phlomis herbaventi L. 

773. Beloakon Raf. (n. gr.) diff. 772 Galea 
non bifida, villosa, apice crenata, Ijibio infero 
latere dentato, lobo lato emarginato — Types 
B. luteum Raf. Phi. herbaventi Russel fl. alep. 
t. 16, non L. fol. subsess, ovato lane, acutis 
serratis, bracteis lanceol. ciliatis. mts of Syria, 
fl. yellow ; while white and purple in Anemitis 
rigida, 2. B. tomentosum Raf. Phi. lunarif. 
Hook. b. mag. 2542. Phi. russeliana Lagasc. not 



Russel plantjfol. ovatis serratis ruogosis, subtus 
tomentosis, bract, lin. lanceol. Spain. 

774. Hersilia Raf. (nymph) cal. camp, pro- 
funde 5fido, galea profundc bipartita. — Type 
H. hiloha Raf. Phi. do Desf. alt. t. 127. 

775. Leonotis Pers. Br. cal. tub. angulato 
ineq. Sdentato spinoso,dens supero major,Galea 
elongata concava villosa integra, lab. inf. parvo 
deflexo trilobo subeq. — Types L. nepetif. 2 L. 
capensis. (Phi. leonitis L.) 3 caribea '/ cal. in- 
ciirvus, subg. Eupalus. 

776. Hemisodon Raf. (half. eq. teeth) difF. 
775. cal. tubulosus regularis lOdent. 5 dent. alt. 
minor — Type H. leonurus Raf. Phi. do L. Le- 
onotis do. Br. b. mag. 478. 

777. Blandina Raf. (Nymph) cal. campan. 
subinfuncjib. lOdent. 5 alt. minor, cor. an idem 
775 ? — Types Bl. bijlora and chinensis. Phlo- 
mis do W. Stachys Forst. Leucas of Brown. 

778. IsoDECA Raf. cal. obi. lOstriatus, 10 
dentatus equalis. galea integra — Near to He- 
misodon and Marrubium, but this last has bifid 
Galea. Type /. flaccida Raf. Leucas do Br, 
fol. ovatis membranaceis, verticillis multifloris. 

779. Leucasia Raf. diff. 778. cal. obliquo 10 
dentis subineq. — Type L. zeylanica Brown, 
Leonurus indicus L. Leucas was too short a 
name, root of Leucadendron and Leucanthes. 

780. Hetrepta Raf. diff. 778, cal. obi. stri- 
ato 7dentes inequalis — JEZ. lavandulifolia Raf. 
Leucas do Br. Sm. 

781. Eneodon Raf difF. 778 cal. membran- 
aceo truncato obliquo. striato, 9 dentes ineq. — 
Type E, urticif. Phlomis do W. P. 

782. Elbunis Raf (n. gr.) diff. 778. cal. 
campanul, faux obliqua Sdent: subeq. cor. lobo 


medio ad lab. inf. obcordato major — Type E. 
alba Raf. Plilomis do W. &.c Leucas Br. 

783. DoRicLEA Raf. (nymph) diff. 778. cal. 
obliquato unilabiato 3dcntato — D. indica Raf. 
Phlomis do L. &c. 

784. Heptrilis Raf. (7-3lip) cal. campan, 
bilabiato, lab. sup. 7dentato, lab. inf. 3dent. 
aristatis, cor. lobo medio ad lab. inf majus ob- 
cordato — H. glahrata Raf, Phi. do W. Leucas 

785. DicTiLis Raf. (net lip) cal. campan, 
bilabiato, labis integris, supero ovato acuto, in- 
Zero dilatato membranaceo reticulato undulate 
Hon dentato — D. molucoides Raf. Phi. do 
Vahl. W. P. Leucas Br, Cliiwpodium frutico- 
sum Forsk. fol. ovatis, vertic. multifl, bracteis 
setaceis. Arabia, 

786. Vleckia Raf. 1808 (hot. Van Vleck) 
Lophanthus Benth. 1828' non Lophanthus 
Forst. 1780, This G. was ascertained by me 
in 1802, Bentham long after not knowing of my 
name, gave it that of Lophanthus already em- 
ployed by Forster, whose genus had wrongly 
been united to Waltheria by Wild. Many 
types, Vlechia chinensis, inultijlora (Nepeta.) 
nepetoides, scrofularif. anisata, urticifolia^ 
all Loph. of B. besides my N. sp. VI. cordata, 
alba, parmfolia see my new flora: united to Ne- 
peta and Hyssopus by L. distinct by lab. in- 
fero dilat. crenato, stam. divergens, antheris lo- 
culis paralelis. 

787. Hemistegia R. (half over) Labiate, 
Salvian — cal. urceol bilab. sup. integro. infero 
bifido. Cor. tubul bilab. galea recta integra, 
labello. patulo apice pandurato 41obo, lobis 
subeq. stam. 2 elongata, appendice piano, stylo 
apice barbat. stig. lateralis acuto. Ovarium su- 



pra seniitecto lobo ovato intus septifero ad me- 
dio, sem. 4 semitectis — Type H. mexicana 
Raf. Salvia do L. auct, on which I have ascer- 
tained this singular structure of Ovary upon 
the living plant. Many other sp. probable pos- 
sess the same new Organ, which is similar to a 
septiferous valve of half a capsule, being a pas- 
sage to the capsular structure. Something sim- 
ilar was found by Bentham in his N. G. Phy- 
sostegia but reduced to a clavate gland. All 
the sp, of Salvia must be now examined to as- 
certain if thoy possess it, or what kind of disk. 

788. Salvia Raf. non L. The >S^. officinalis 
and sp. agreeing with it must form this reduced 
G. 200 sp. of Sages have been united to it, that 
ha^fe nothing in common except the appenda- 
ges to the stamens, which form a good charac- 
ter for a family, not for a Genus, which must 
agree in all parts of fructification ! The G. 
Sclarea, Jungia,Glutinaria,Schraderia of Heis- 
ter must all be restored and properly fixed. I 
had formed 17 Genera out of Salvia, as early 
as 1810, 1 shall now give some striking types 
out of them like my Hemistegia and the next 
G. till 800. 

789. CoDANTHERA Raf. cal. tubul. bilab. 3 
fido. cor. longe tubulosa galea integra, labello 
brevis 31obo. stam. 2 elong. appendices clava- 
tis, antberis campanulatis \ frutic, fl. term. — 
striking G. by the singular anthers. Types 1. 
C glabra Raf. Salvia strictiflora Hook. b. m. 
3135. suffrut glabra, fol. ovatis cordatis obt. 
serratis, vertic. paucifl. Tucuman. 2 C. hijlo^ 
ra Raf. Salvia do R. P. tubiflora Sm. frutic. 
villosa, fol. villosis cord. obt. serratis, vertic. bi- 
floris. Peru. 

T90. Belospis Raf. (arrow ap.) cal. colorato 


tubul. bilab. sup. major integro, inf. vix bident. 
cor. fiisiformis, galea concava Integra, label, 
subeq. Slobo. filam. dilatatis planis, appendices 
sagittatis, stylo piibescens. jl. racemosis brae- 
teatis — Type B. lemgata Raf. Salvia do Kunth 
t. 147. spr. Salvia involucrata Cav. W. b. m. 
2872, b. reg. 1203 fol. ovat. acum. serr. bracteis 
coloratis deciduis,vertic. 6fl. Mexico, scarlet fl. 
and bracts. 

791. PiARADENA Raf, (thick gland) diff. 787. 
cor. ventricosa, labello trilobo, appendicis spa- 
tulatis, disco antice glandula magna munito^ 
stylo villoso — Here we have a glandular disk 
instead of the valved one of Hemistegia. Type 
P. fulgens Cav. W. b. reg. 135. s. Cardinalis 
Kunth 1. 152 seen alive. 

792. Lasemia Raf. (hairy half) cal. tubul, 2 
lab. 1 et 2 dent. cor. brevis, tubo inflato, basi 
intus bidentatus, galea fornicata, integra, lab. 
31obo, lobo medio magno flabellato emarg. ap- 
pendices parvis, stylus subtus villosus, glandulis 
nuUis — Type L. coccinea Raf. Salvia grahami, 
Benth. bot. reg. 1370. frutex, fol. pet. ovat, obt. 
crenatis, racemis verticil. Mexico, fl. scarlet. 
This G. is well marked by style, lip and tube : 
seen alive. 

793. AiTOPsis Raf (n. gr.) cal. camp, bilab. 
1 et 2 lobo. cor. brevis. galea erecta integra, la- 
bello 41obo pandurato obcordato ut 787. stam. 
erectis flexuosis, appendices clavatis, stylo gla- 
bro, sem. triquetris levis — near 787 by Corolla, 
but calix, tube, app. style and seeds different. 
Type A. foliosa Raf Salvia do Benth b. reg, 
1429. fol. petiol. ovato serrat. pubesc. racemo 
vertic. Mexico, fl. azure. 

794. Calospiiace Raf (subg. Benth) near 
last diff. cal. tubul. striatus, galea concava. 


This includes the many narrow leaved sp. 
blended and confused as S, angustif. virgata, 
reptans^ azurea^ acuminata &:c, of which I 
possess many, see my new flora. 

795. KiosMiNA Raf. (n. gr.) cal. tubul. 3 
dent. eq. cor. brevissima, galea acuta villosa, la- 
bello vix 31obo — Type Salv, hispanica and 
akin sp. 

796. Melligo Raf. (n. lat) cal. tubul. 3fido 
vix bilab. galea emarg. labio trilobo. filam. basi 
connatis ! appendices glanduliformis — Type 
Salvia amena and akin sp. 

797. Larnastyra Raf. (cells cross) cal, 
camp, angul. bilab. sup. Sdentato. inf. 2fido ; 
cor. tubulosa, galea ovata emarg. labio trilobo^ 
medio emarg. filam. cruciferis, antheris loculis 
% valde separatis, uno interdum sterile, appen- 
diculis nullis, sem. uniangulata — Types JL. ly- 
rata, claytoni, verbenacea, urticifolia^ndica ? 
and other akin species of Salvia. 

798. Flipanta Raf [nymph] cal. tubul. ID 
gonus, brevi 5dent. subeq. spinulosis : cor. ga- 
lea compressa villosa, labio trilobo, medio con- 
cavo emarg. sem. 2-4 — Type Fl. ovata Raf. 
Salvia spielmani Scop. del. t. 15. Vitm. caule 
rigido ramoso piloso^ fol. ovatis crenatis rugo- 
sis, ft. vertie. nudis. Africa, flowers violet. 

799. Enipea Raf [nymph] cal. urceol. trilo- 
bo subeq. cor. galea recta compressa barbata, 
labio dependens villoso trilobo, medio vix ma- 
jor emarg. — Type E. formosa R. Salvia do 
Lher. t.21. Wild. Curtis b. m. 376. Salv. nodo- 
sa fl. peruv. &c, suffiutic. fol. subcord. fl. axilL 
et vertie. Peru, fragrant shrub. 

800. Elelis Raf. [Salv. grec] cal. bilab. 5 
dent. 3fido et 2fido, galea compressa integra^ 
labio cuculato subrot, emarg. lobis lat. fajcatisj 


stam. 2 exerta divaricata, appendices calcari- 
formis marginatis, disco carnoso — Type E, 
austriaca Raf. Salvia do L. auct. often iigured 
with akin sp. that may offer the same striking 
characters in corolla and stamens : the thick 
disk approximates to the glandular disk of 


These axamples are sufficient to evince how 
many fine Genera are involved in Salvia, nearly 
as many as in all the other diandrous Lahiate. 
To regulate the whole tribe will be a task for 
Bentham or Decandole, since the flowers of 
nearly all must be examined alive to detect the 
disk and forms of appendages. Although I 
have 70 sp. in my Herbarium, 1 find that it is 
not easy to determine the Genera in the dry 
state : yet I will indicate for further study some 
of the main essential distinctions of other new 
Genera, or subgenera of mine, 

1. Oboskon cal. bipartitis, stylis 2! Salvia 

2. Hematodes. Galea compressa falcata, la- 
bio lobo medio saccato emarg. Salvia hema- 
todes, indica &c. 

3. Glutinaria. cal. trilobus, galea falcata, 
labio lobo medio crenato. Salvia glutinosa et 
alia sp. 

4. Crolocos cal. camp, membranaceo 31obo. 
Salvia aurea, colorata, pomifera, calicina, 

5. Megyathus cal. camp, patens 5dent. ineq. 
galea bifida, labio trilobo. S. acetabulum Slc. 

6. Ormiastis cal. ovato inflate subintegro, 
cor. brevis, fol. pinnatis, S. pinnata, 

7. Rhodormis cal. ©amp. ringens, cor, la- 


bio undulato, fol. pinnatis. S, roscfolia. 

8. SoBiso cal. bilab. Sclent, cor. ringens, fol» 
pinnatis. Salvia japonica Tli. 

9. ScLAiiEA. cal. camp. 5dent. ineq. spinosis, 
galea brevis compressa emarg. labio lobis lat, 
deflexis, medio bilobo crenato Salvia spinosa^ 
sclarea, tingitana, triloba i^c, 

10. Terepis. Galea falcata bifida, labio 4 
lobo pandurato, subscaposu. Type S, fors- 
Jealei, ^c. 

11. Ormilis. cal. reflecto in fructo! , , , S. 
Jiorminum, viridis, 

12. Pleudia, Galea brevissima emarg. la- 
bio concavo ut Nepeta, stam. plerumque 4 fer- 
tilis ! S. egyptiaca &c. 

13. Euriples. cal. camp, stam. appendices 
foliosis. Type E. rugosa Raf. Salvia sibthor- 
pi fi. gr. t. 22. caule ramoso subaphylo, fol. ra-* 
die. cord, lobatis crenatis rugosis. Zante. 

14. Epiadena. cal. camp, bilab, 3dent. et 
bifido, galea falcata compressa, labio trilobo 
saccato emarg. reflexis, filam. arcuatis supra 
glandulis insertis, et basi appendices malleatis, 
disco glanduloso et semitecto. Type. E. bi- 
color Raf. Salvia do Desf. t. 2. Parad. lond. t. 
93. fol. cord. obi. repandis dentatis hirsutis ru- 
gosis, fl. racemosis vertic. 6fl. Atlas, beautiful 
flowers blue and white. 

1 5. Addition to 415 — Polygonum arifolium 
of Japan is totaly different from the N. Amer. 
being a subgenus of Helxine, only difference 
stam. 7. I call it Tasoba from the Japanese 
name, and the P. sagittatum of Thunberg, not 
Linneus, belong to the same — 1 Helxine (Tas- 
oba) arifolia Raf. Ramis heterogonis aculea- 
tis. fol. hastatis acum. villosis strigosis, stipulis 
ciliatis truncatis, fl. glomeratis alternis. 2 Hel- 

CENT. Tin. 95 

^itie (Tasoba) sagittata Raf. ramis 4gonis 
scabris, fol. sagittatis subtus pallidis, stipulis bi- 
fidis inflatis, fl. capitatis globosis, bracteis ova- 
tis acutis. Both in Japan, see Thunberg fl. 

16. Addition to 418 — Polygonum filiforme 
of Japan is not a Chulusium ; but another N. 
G. according to Thunberg's description. I will 
call it SuNANiA FiLiFORMis, dedicated to Su- 
nan a Japanese Botanist, cal. 4part. ineq (ut in 
Tovara) stam. 5 ineq. stylis 2, sem. compressa 
subtriquetra. Habit of Tovara,stam. and seeds 
different. Fol. ovatis, stipulis ciliatis inflatis, 
spicis filiformis. 

17. Addition to 770 — Blephiloma Raf. (oil. 
edge) cal. tubulosus membran. glaber, non an- 
gul. subinfl. subincurvus, apex obliquatus 5 
dent. ineq. subul. margine et dentis ciliatis. cor. 
incurva, galea concava emarg. villosa, margine 
dense fimbriato, labello brevis 31obo medio 
emarg. stam. glabris, Herbaceus, fol. cord.fl. 
vertic. — This may well be a Genus of itself 
likewise rather than subg. The type is a new 
N. Amer. plant, while no other Phlomis has 
been found in this continent. Bl. amplifolia 
Raf. fol, inf. amplis petiolatis cordatis deltoi- 
deis crenatis obtusis glabris, fol. floralis sessilib. 
parvis ovatis dentatis acutis, verticillis multifl. 
bracteis cal. eq. linear, ciliatis. In Texas and 
Arkanzas, 3 to 4 feet high,lower leaves 8 to 13 
inches long, 6 to 10 broad, corolla white incar- 
nate : seen alive in gardens. 



flff^Ol^ ©IF rUE Qi[Mi[^Z^p Sac. 
IN CENTURIES 5, 6, 7, 8, 

Families are in Capitals, Synonyms in Italics. 


Acliyranthes 539, 552. 
Adenopa 527. 
Adike 593. 
Aitopsis 793. 
Albuca 608-14. 
Alocasia 668. 
Aloitis 450, 3. 
Alsine 742. 
Alsinidia 516. 
Allotria 694. 
Amaraca 765. 
Amaranthus 555, 58. 
Amaranthidia 519. 
Amblogyna 557. 
Amarella 440, 49. 
Amphipleis 714. 
Analiton 561. 
Ananthopus 690. 
Andaca 746. 
Aneraitis 772. 
Anisanthera 740. 
AntJiericum 613, 615, 

640, 642. 
Anthopogon 471, 2. 
Arenaria 743. 
Arkopoda 705. 
Arisarum 661. 
Arum 661 to 678. 
Arosma 673, 5. 
Asicaria 404. 

Astrocarpus 708. 


Aurota 655. 

Barnard ia 604. 
Basellides 571. 
Beloakon 773. 
Belospis 790. 
Beltokon 768. 
Belutta 536, 8. 


Bistorta 411. 
Blandina 777. 
Blenocoes 7l6. 
Blephiloma 770, ap. 17. 
Blitides 574. 
Blondia 279 (omited) 
Borboya 606. 
Borrago 740. 
Brunellides 756. 

Cadelaria 539 to 542, 
Caladium 672. 
Calla 679. 
Calosphace 704. 
Calostima 590. 
Campanula 748. 
Catiscora ,599. 
Capnorea 513 
Caraxeron 53,5. 
Celosia 536, 560, 66, 
Celosidia 559. 



Ohanicdrys 75i). 
Chctropis 742. 
Cliiophila 45G, 
Ohironia 490-08,725. 
Chlora 499, 5((0. 
Cliondropsis 492. 
Chulusium 418. 
Cicendia 474. 
Ciminalis 439. 
Glinopodiuni 785. 
Clueria 751. 
Cnopos 414. 
Coccolaba 408. 
Codanthera 789. 
Codivalia 543. 
Cohiba 715. 
Coilosperma 564. 
Colocasia 671. 
Commelina 683 to 699. 


Crolocos, ap. 4, 
Cummingia 654, 
Cu7iilci 750. 
Ciirculigo 655, 6. 
Outlera 441, 454, 
Cutubea 727. 

Dasistepha 437, 486. 
Decringia 565. 
Dcsmesia 662, 4. 


Dictilis 785. 
Dioctis 423. 
Diodcilis 650. 

DlONIDIA 518. 

Dimcianthus 555. 


Dipetalia 707. 
Diploma 438, 484, 5. 
Dirtca 589. 
Discolcnta 421, 430, 
Dismophyla 524. 
Disynoina 745. 
Disyiistylis 500. 
Ditclesia 688. 
Doriclea 783. 
Dracunculus 669, 
Drimla 650. 
Drosera 523 to 531. 
Droseridia 522. 

Eclotoripa 546-8. 
Elbunis 782. 
Elclis 800. 
Eliokarmos 643-6. 
Elodes 730-1. 
Emcx 580. 
Empetridia 633. 
Endoplectris 636. 
Eneodon 781. 
Enipea 799. 
Epiadena ap. 14, 
Epimedium 636. 
Episiphis 729. 
Erythrea 457. 
Eudesmis 741. 
Eudiplcx 533. 
Eiicapnia 712. 
Eudipetala 685. 
Eulcucum 634. 
Eupalus 775. 
Eupodia 493. 
Euriplcs, ap. 13. 
Eutralia 582. 



Euxolus 550. 
Evfilthc 725. 
Exaciim 483, 492, 726- 

to 728. 

Fagopyron 402. 
Filicirna 528-31. 
Flipanta 798, 

Gardoquia 750 to 52. 
Gentiana 435 to 489, 
Glutinaria, ap. 3. 
Gomphrena 723. 


Gonipia 457 to 465, 
Gononcus 433, 

Helxine 403. 
Hematodes, ap. 2. 
Hemisodon 776. 
Hemistegia 787, 
Heptarina 422. 
Heptrilis 484. 
Hersilia 774. 
Heteroclita 483. 
Heterostima 756. 
Hetrepa 780. 
Hexastylis 706. 
Hipion 440. 
Homaida 662. 
Hopea 598, 
Hyacinthus 606, 700. 
Hyparete 566. 
Hypericum 729 to 739, 
Hypoxis 741. 

Iresine 563. 

Isgarum 583. 
Isodcca 778. 

Karkinetron 406-8. 
Kiosmina 795. 
Kokira 545. 
Komana 734. 
Kniffa 739. 
Kunokale 409. 

Labiata 753. 
LacJienalia 653, 
Lamarkia 709. 
Lampetia 514. 
Larigsdoriia 711. 
Laothoe 615. 
Larnalles 597-9. 
Larnastyra 797. 
Lasemia 792. 
Ledebourca 640. 
Lemotrys 601. 
Leonotis 775. 
Leonurus 779. 
Lepinema 480. 
Leucas 775 to 785. 
Leucasia 779. 
Leucoryne 657, 
Licinia 641. 
Linum 502 to 509. 

LiNIDIA 501. 

Lithocnide 591. 
Lithophila 567. 


Lomaresis 647. 
Loncomelos 660. 
Loncoxis 642. 
Lopkanthus 786. 
Lophoxera 560. 



Lorcia 748. 
Lotus 746. 

Mancoa 631 . 
Manetta 638. 
Mcgasea 724. 
Mcgotigea 726. 
Mcgyathus, ap. 5. 
Meiapinon 505. 
Mclargyra 743. 
Melanthium 640. 
Melissa 750. 
Melligo 796, 
Melomphis 648, 
Melosma 761. 
Mcnophyla 576, 
Mesyniiim 507-9. 
Mitesia 424, 431. 
Mollugo 515. 


Monipsis 763. 
Monosteria 597, 

Narketis 477-9. 
Nemallosis 511-13. 
Nepetides 752. 
Nephralles 695. 
Nibo 578, 
Nicipe 622. 
Nicotiana 709 to 722. 
Nierembergia 709. 
Ninanga 723. 
Numisaurum 502-4, 

Oblixilis 596. 
Oboskon, ap. 1. 

Ofaiston 584. 
Onefera 494. 
Onites 767. 
Oplothcca 723. 
Origanum 760-64. 
Ormiastis, ap, 6. 
Orniilis, ap. 11. 
Ornithogalum 616 
623, 643 to ()49. 
Oroga 764, 
Ovidia 683. 
Oziroe 616. 

Parrasia 725, 
Patientia 582, 
Pectanisia 704. 
Pedalium 404, 
Peltandra 670. 
Pentocnide 592. 
Pentrius 555. 
Perieteris 711. 
Versicaria 420. 
Petalanisia 737. 
Petunia 709. 
Peutalis 420. 
Parnaceum 512. 
Vhiloxerus 535. 
Phlomis 769 to 785. 
Phylepida 553, 
Phytolaca 627. 
Piaradena 791. 
Pioriza 436. 
Piercea 631. 
Pilasia 613. 
Pladera 599. 
Pleienta 497. 



Plciodonfcs 736. 
Plcutlia, ap. 12. 
Pleurcnodon 738. 
Plcuroglossa 436. 
Pleurostcna 41 S. 
Plurimaoia 499. 
Pneumondnthc 440, 487- 
Pogalis 425. 
Pngoblephis 476. 
Pogomesia 681. 
Polygonum 401 to 434. 
Polygonella 405. 

PllASIDES 756. 

Provcnzalia 679. 
Psalina 466. 

Quamasia 602. 

Rafinesquia 750. 
Kaxamaris 634. 
Reseda 702 to 70S. 
Resedinia 701. 
Rhodoptera 579. 
Rhomphalis 668. 
Rhodormis ap. 7. 
Ricoila 455. 
Rivina 631-2. 

Rocslinia 495. 
Rorella 523. 
Rossolis 526. 
Riimcx 576 to 582. 

Sabbatia 496. 
Salicornia 586. 
Salsola 5S4 to 587. 
Salsoltues 572. 
Salvia 787 to 800, app. 
Sarothra 732. 
Sarcathi'ia 587. 
Sarcoca 628. 
Saticocidia 626. 
Saxifraga 724. 


Sclarea, ap. 9. 


Scorbioa 762. 
Scorodouia 758. 
Sebaca 727. 
Scgumum 677- 
Selepsion 595. 


8, ap. 

Sidt^rasis 680. 
Siphaulax 710. 
Siplioncma 717. 
Skilla 639. 
Sobiso, ap. 8. 
Spcrmaulaxcn 416. 
Stcircmis 549 to 552. 
Stciroptilus 665. 
Stimenes 6 22. 
Stimomphis 720 
Stimoryiie 721. 
Stopinaca 405. 
Strepsiphyla 650. 
Streptalon 736. 
Sunania, app. 16. 
Synanduihes 756- 

Tamarixia 532. 
Tasoba, ap. 15. 
Tclipodus 676. 
Tenicroa 611- 
Tepliis 494. 
Tereianthus 703. 
Terepes, ap. 10. 
Terojjia 635. 
Teucrium 757 to 7^, 
Thlaspi 745. 
Thtmides 756. 
Thylacitis 439, 467 to 470, 
Tomaris 782. 
Tomoa;i3 618-21. 
Tovara 412. 
Tracaulon 415. 
Tradescantia 680-2. 
Trambis 770. 
Tretorhiza 475. 
Triadenum 730. 
Triallosia 652. 
Trichopetalon 641. 
Tridesma 735. 
Trikalls 587. 
Triteleia 658, 700. 
Trixago 760. 
Tropitria 682. 
Tulbella 436. 
Tulophos 700. 

Uniiabiata 752. 
Uropetalon 605. 
Urtica 588 to 596. 

Vanessa 638 (Vanasta) 
Vibones 577. 
Vimcnei'ba 763. 
Vleckia 786. 
Wadupuo 723. 

Xerandra 562. 
Xolecnia 454, 489. 

Zatarendia 764. 





N. Ord.— N. Gen.— N. Sp. 


Detcrni. coll. inv . ohs. et. descr. 
Ann. 1796—1836. 

Auctore C. S. RAFINESQUE, Bot. Prof, 


Les noms font les choses. 
Names realize Entities. 

Plus nos noms sont generaux, plus non idees 
sont incompletes. — Plus nous avons de noms, 
plus elles se completent. Lamark, Leach, &.c. 



a^^W^I^S ^^a]> ^^-^1^ ^^^^ 




With new Natural Classes, Orders and Fam- 
ilies : containing the 2000 new or revised Gen- 
era and Species of Trees, Palms, Shrubs, Vines, 
Plants, Lilies, Grasses, Ferns, Algas, Fungi, 
&c, from North and South America, Polynesia, 
Australia, Asia, Europe and Africa, omitted or 
mistaken by the Authors, that were observed or 
ascertained, described or revised, collected or 
figured, between 1796 and 1836. 


Prof, of Botany, historical and natural sci- 
ences — member of many learned Societies in 
Paris, Vienna, Bruxelles, Bonn, Bordeaux 
Zurich, Naples, ^c. Philadelphia, New Yoik 
Cincinnati, Lexington, &,c. 

To observe and compare, to correct or approve 

By good names and new facts that convince and improve. 



Bif H. Prohasco, No. 119, N. Fourth St. 
1 8:S6. 


This fourth part of the Flora Telluriana will 
conclude the work. It had been intended to 
divide it into 6 parts ; but even these could not 
contain all what I have to add or correct on the 
Orders, Genera and Species of the whole world 
and all the classes of Vegetation : therefore it 
is better to limit this Work to Plants and 
Lilies chiefly ; while I mean to publish sepa- 
rate Works additional to this on the Trees and 
Shrubs or a Sylva Telluriana, on the Ferns 
and Grasses, Fungi and Algas, with perhaps 
Monographs of some peculiar Families of great 
interest, and probably a complete account of 
my ISew Class of the Nantiandres, having 
stamens alternate to calix or opposite to corol- 
las, contrary to the usual order. 

The price of this work will still be $ 5 or $40 
for 10 copies, only IGO copies were printed, 
which makes it high, as but few copies can be 
sold in America, where Botanists cannot duly 
appreciate it, and they must l)e sent to Europe, 
to be often exchanged instead of sokL 



' In the process of this work I have met with 
many interruptions and disappointments. It is 
neither easy nor agreeable to stem the current 
of botanical errors and blunders, and whoever 
swims against the streams of scientific prejudice 
may reckon on difficulties. I have met such in 
all my attempts to increase and correct know- 
ledge ; but I persevere nevertheless, and write 
for posterity rather than the actual Schools. I 
feel that my weary labors are not now appre- 
ciated except by a few, but am confident that 
in 50 years hence they vnW be more valued. 
Of this I have received already some assuran- 
ces, when young and skilful Botanists have 
partly approved and adopted my views, v 

Meantime I must again repeat that whatever 
I now state or correct, had been mostly done by 
me between 1808 and 1815 chiefly, when I had 
matured my botanical reforms as stated in my 
Analysis of nature 1815. I then possessed the 
ample materials of all the works of Wildenow, 
the great dictionary and illustrations of La- 
mark and Poiret, Martyn's large edition of Mil- 
lers in 4 volumes Folio, and the New Diction- 
ary of Natural History in 24 vol. 8vo . . . be- 
sides many rare and valuable works . , . which 
were lost with my Mpts. in my Shipwreck of 
1815. Having thereby been thrown back upon 
the world and entered new paths of life, I 
could only gradualy collect again my materials, 
and restore my labors imperfectly. Yet I have 
>ince then consulted and studied manv other 


modern labors similar to mine, without finding 
the same accuracy and perspicuity of Generic 
reform. Wiiile it is with tlie utmost difficulty I 
can obtain even for rnoneij some late works of 
similar tendency, although 1 try to correspond 
direct with the Authors. 

Therefore I distinctly state here again, that 
my feelings being of the most liberal and friend- 
ly kind for all Botanists and Naturalists, all over 
the Earth, if my labors ever interfere with 
theirs it must be accidentaly and unknowingly, 
either because my CJenera were those establish- 
ed by me between 1806 and 1815, or because I 
have not obtained yet their works, although 
willing to buy them or exchange them with 
mine, unless they be too costly like Audubon or 
Jacquin — I hereby call publicly upon all synop- 
tical and improving Botanists (and even Zoolo- 
gists and Oryctologists) such as Agardh, De- 
candole, Endlicker, Schreber, Sprengel, Fries, 
R. Brown, Lindley, Hooker, Don, Sweet, Ar- 
nott, Bentham, Nees, Fischer, Link, Tenore, 
Ledebour, Blume, Martins, St. Hilaire, Bory, 
&c . . , with others unknowu to me by name as 
yet, to send me their works in exchange of mine 
and also to exchange specimens. I have been 
permanently established in Philadelphia again 
since 1826, and shall' probably ever continue 
here, although I may become connected v^^ith 
various literary institutions, particularly the 
Central University of Illinois of which I am 
one of the founders. Books sent me for the 
University will be free of duties, and equaly re- 
ceived in exchange. 

When I have accumulated all the latest Ma- 
terials or Genera, and the great work of De- 
candole is completed, I may then revise the 


whole, connect naturaly the scattered Genera, 
and add the needful corrections. I have been 
called already a Veteran in Natural Sciences 
even by my foes, I hope to become the Nestor 
of Botany like Adanson Was, and if my zeal 
does not abate, to publish in 1850, a real Man- 
tissa of all Botanical Genera till then. 

Meantime I proceed with my Neic Flora and 
New Sylca of North America^ and am now 
preparing a peculiar work on the Ferns of 
North America and other parts. I am going 
to reprint all my early essays on Botany and 
Zoology, as my Amenities of Nature. I have 
begun my Mantissa of Zoology.^ or new or 
revised Genera of all classes, many also framed 
previous to 1815. 

My Historical and Philosophical Works are 
also proceeding, I shall publish my Celestial 
Philosophy^ and my Genius or Sj?irit of the 
Hebrew Bible, preparing afterwards my good 
Book of Knowledge and Wisdom to be pro- 
bably issued periodicaly, and including the re- 
storation or increase of much knowledge on all 
Sciences whatever. These vast labors, besides 
those of private life, in order to obtain the 
means to produce my works, at my own expense 
chiefly (since they are too good and too learn- 
ed for the vitiated scale of our publishers) have 
partly induced me to curtail the actual work, 
and conclude it here ; but to continue it in 
another form or reproduce the additions as a 
Sylva Telluriana and otherwise. 

Althongh the articles are now only 1200, yet 
they include with the species and subgenera, 
orders &c, 2000 or more added or revised 
objects and groups. 




Number 801. Otosma Raf. (ear scented) 
diff. from 679, spatha lata cuculata basis con- 
voluta, spadix clavato, apice nudo, pistillis inf. 
subrot. stylosis, antheris truncatis sup. baccis 1 
loc. 6-12 sp. sem. teret. oculatis. Scaposa^ fol 
indiv. spathis amplis albis odoratis. — I con- 
tinue here the Aroides, LiHes, and other mo- 
nocotyles. This Genus blended with Colla of 
It. is totaly unlike, see my Provenzalia 679, 
and New Flora N. A. 481 to 485.— Type O. 
ethiopica R. Calla do. L. auct. fol. cord, sagit. 
cuspidatis, lobis obt. well known plant of Africa, 
often cult, seen alive since 1806. 

802. Spirospatha R. Spatha spiralis clausa,. 
spadix obi. pistillis mixtis trilobis, stigma sessile 
concavo trifido, antheris ad has, mixt. ad ap. 
solit. baccis Slobis 31ocul-polysp. — Still more 
unlike Calla with flat spatha, no style, berries 
yellow uniloc, Type Sp. occulta R. Calla do 
Loar. Sm. fol. ovat. cord, petiolis canaliculatis. 
— From Anam. Perhaps the Artim Spirale of 
Retz Vitm. Sm. is a 2d sp. with lanceol leaves 
and sessile flowers. 

803. Fleurospa R. difl*. fiom Caladium and 
Colocasia by the flowers unilateral on one side 
of the spadix, and stem friitesccnt. — The sin- 
gular structure of spadix requires attention, per- 
haps several Genera and Species blended as 
Arum arborcscens L. Types 1. PL reticulata 
R. fol. sagittatis, spadix reticul- the linnean sp. 
of South America, stem Gpedal, leaves pedal, 
flowers white inside green outside, base dark 


purple. — 2 PL cordlfolia Raf. fol. cordatis, 
spadix non reticuK Madagascar, flowers fra- 

804. DoxosMA R. (glorious smell) diff*. Epi- 
dendrum^ anthera 4 loc. pollinis 4 unident. co- 
lumna teres margine auricul. stigma trilobo. 
Terrestris, Acaulls JL racem. fragrantissi- 
mis. — Probably several sp. Type D. gracilis R. 
Ep. do bot. reg. 1765. fol. lane, et ensif. racemo 
longissimo, sepalis cuneatis, labello trilobo, lobo 
medio obov. dentate costato — Beautiful plant 
of Antilles, scape 3 feet higb, fl. yellow. Lind- 
ley translated gracilc graceful instead of slen- 
der ! Ep. odoratissinmm is probably a 2d sp. 

80.5. Synadena R. (united gland) diff". Epi~ 
detidriim, sepalis ineq. 2 later, orbicul. 3 ova- 
tis minor, label, tripart. medio hastate bifido, 
basi liber, unguic. glandula magna bifida gerens 
ad apice columna connexa. Acaidis scapo ra- 
nioso. — Type ;S*. amahills (Ep. do. L. auct.) 
fol. lato lanceol. carnosis. Molucas, figin-ed by 
Rumph. G. t. 43. large white fragrant flowers. 

806. Xaritoma R. (nympha) difl*. Epiden- 
drum, sepalis 4 ineq. patens, labello bifido in- 
cluso. Parasitica acaidis raceniosa — Type 
X. elegans Raf. Epid. 4petalum Jaq. am. 142, 
pict. 216. Yitm . . . fol. subul. carinatis, scabro- 
punct. racemo sub-IOfl — Jamaica &-c. fl. fra- 
grant variegated of purple and yellow. The 
whole G. Epidendrum requires revision as it 
was quite artificial: this Gr. deviates even from 
the usual Orchidea having only 5 sepals besides 
the lip. See other G. below. 

807. Taiimastos R. (Iris gr.) Cal. Ssepalis 
carinatis. Cor. petalis 3 unguicul. cord, retusis. 
stam. 3 basi monadelphis, stig. 3 simpl. cetera 



ut Iris et Sysir. — Quite a peculiar Genus near 
to my Olsijnium new fl. Type T. compressus 
Raf. Libertia iridea Grab, in bot. mag. 3294. 
Caule compr. folioso, fol. gladiatis uninervis 
acutissimis. From Magellania, fl. white. Of 
nat. family Galaxidia while Libertia belongs to 
Irides by free stamens and Corolla Gparted. 

808. AuLicA Raf. diff. Amaryllis. Cor. se- 
palis 6 ineq. ringens, ineq. stam. ineq,. declin. 
glandulis angul. ad basi stam et stylo, stig. 3 
acutis,caps 3gona. Scapo tereto 2Jl. — Although 
the G. Amaryllis has been so much reformed 
by the English botanists, it includes yet many 
anomalous sp. since Hooker in 1834 gives it 6 
variable characters Cor. subeq. vel. ringens ! 

fauce nuda vel sguaml stam. declin vel recta ! 
what absurdity ! The Am. aulica and akin sp. 
must form a peculiar group, of which I will 
give 2 types. 1. A. laiifolia R. fol. latis ligula- 
tis obt. Brazil, large scarlet flowers. The 
Amar. aulica of Hook. b. m. 3311 — 2. A. stri- 
ata Raf fol. angustis glaucis viridi — striatis. 
fig. bot. mag. 2983 — A. platypetala fig. by 
Lindl. 1038 is a 3d sp. 

809. Plectronema R. (spur fil.) cor. basi 
tubul. limbo Opart, subeq. stam. 6 subeq. fil. 
curvis basi intus calcaratis, antheris lanceol. 
stylo declinato, stigma trilobo. Scapis Ifl — The 
G. Zephyranthes taken from Amaryllis must 
itself form 5 Genera, the real Zephyranthes 
with smooth stamens. 2. Atamasco Ad. with 
short tube, equal fl. and stam, 3d. Pogonema 
with bearded filaments, type Z. or P. carina- 
ta, and 4th this with spured filaments. Type 
P. Candida (Z. do sims b. m. 2607. Amar- 
do bot. reg. 724) fol. lin. canal, crassis. Buenos 
Ayres. The 5th G» is the next. 


810. Mesochloa J?, diff. Zephiranthes, cor. 
campanul. 6partita sine tubo, basi connivens, 
stani. 3 longior subeq. 3 minor, antheris renif. 
stig. 3 clavata — Type M. canaliculata R. 
(Zeph. mesochloa Herb, in bot. reg. 1361.) fol. 
•canalic, acutis, spatha lane, ad artic. scapo, 
ovario turbin . . . Buenos Ayres, fl. white, bulb 
black. — The G. Haylockia of Herbert differs 
by 3 stamens only on sepals, fl. tubular at base : 
it thus belong to Irides instead of Amaryllides, 
type H. pusilla of B. Ayres, fol. lin. filif. fl. ra- 
dicalis ochroleucis. 

811. Trisacarpis Raf. diff. Amaryllis, cor. 
6part. ineq. tubo breviss. ad basis intus corona 
calyptrata supera, stam. declin. ineq. filif. stig. 
3 capsula magna triloba ad basis triscata, sem. 
<}upl. series plana alata, scapo 2floro. — Very 
singular and distinct G. so much blended with 
Amaryllis that a sp. of it was called A. aulical 
3 types at least. 1. Tr. Falcata Raf. (A. cal- 
yptrata, bot. reg. 164 &c) fol. falcatis lanceol. 
calyptra triangularis. Cape, fl. green. — 2 Tr. 
rubra R. (A. aulica ker. bot. reg. 444 !) fol. 
Jane, rectis, calyptra cuculata, sepalis rubris 
lane. 2 ovatis acum. infero involuto, Brazil — 3 
TV. psittacina (A. do. auct.) 

812. EusARCOPS Raf. diff. Amaryllis, cor. 
campanul. ineq. basi tubul. stam. adscendens 
ineq. stigma clavato. caps, baccata 31oc. sem. 
baccata paucis globosa nigra in arillis rubris 
involutis. Scapo multifi. umbell — Type E. 
reticulata R. (Am. do L'her red, 424. Andr. 
179. b. m. 657. b. reg. 352) fol. cuneatis basi 
canalic. medio albo vittatis, umb. multifl. bract, 
obi. fl. nutans roseis reticulatis. Brazil, a strik- 
ing G. by the fruit, yet often figured as an 

12 FLOfe. TELLUR. 

813. Laticoma R. diff. Amaryllis, cor. 6 
part, unilateralis, stam. declin. remotis filif. 
stig. 31oba poly sperm a. Scapojl. umbellatis — 
Type L. compressa Raf. (Am. laticoma E. b. 
reg. 497.) fol. loricatis, scapo compresso scabro, 
umb. multifl. S. Africa fine sp. with habit of 
Brunsvigia, fl. incarnate, sepals with a red 
nerve. This G. is akin to the Lycoris of Her- 
bert, the L. or Am. radlata has also unilateral 
petals (only 5 ! imdul. in the fig. b. mag. 596.) 
but the stamens are cuneate &/C, is it also a N. 
G ? Pleurastis Raf. 

814. Heuoion R. diff. Aspkodelus, stam. 
declin. ineq. filif. incurvis, 3 superis brevior, 
stylo incurvo declin. — II. fiUformis Raf. ( Asph. 
tenuior bot. mag. 2626) caule folioso, fol. fihfor- 
mis, fl. luteis. Akin to A. Z««^ei5, but with quite 
different stamens. Mt. Caucasus. 

815. Ifuon R. diff. Asphodelus, Cor, tubu- 
lar 6fid,not 6parted nor spreading. Type /. nu- 
tans R. Asph. liburnicus Scop. t. 12. Yitm. W. 
P. &-C. Caule basi folioso, fol. setaceis sub- 
trig, f]. pendulis laxis flavis — In Istria, singular 
G. akin to Borhoya 606. Both Ifuon and 
Heroion were old grecian names of Asphodelus. 

816. EuTEREiA R. (well divided) diff. Dra- 
€ontium, spatha cucul. spadix tereto undique 
florifero, cal. campanul. 8-9partitus, stam. 8-9, 
anth. biloc. biporosis, bacca 31oc. 3sp .Rad, tu- 
ber, scaposa^fol. divisis. — Type E. nigricans 
R. Drac. polyphylum L. auct. Scapo breviss. 
genie, tuberc. fol. laceris, foliolis 3 part, pinna- 
tif. — South America, with blackish spathas ofl. 
figured. It is strange that Linneus and all au- 
thors should have joined this and the next G. to 
Oracontiura, differing by habit and calix, ber- 


ries &c. The scandent sp. apj3ear the type of 
Drncontium, which Adanson changed to Mon- 
stera perhaps a better name. 

817. Spathyema Raf. 1803 des ribed 1808. 
Ictodes Bigelovv 1818, Amer. Authors Dra- 
contium L. c^c. Pothos of others, Symplocar- 
pus Sal. 1815, Beck 1833. Spatha ventricosa, 
spadix pedunc. ovato florifero, cal. 4part. per- 
sistens, lobis cucul. crass, spongiosis, stam 4. 
stylo 4gono pyram. baccis uniloc. oligosp. in 
spadix immersis. Radix crassa,acaulis,fol. 
simpl. spnthis radicaUs — Very distinct G. 
shuffled into many, I restore the best and first 
name given to it in 1803 as soon as observed, 
meaning winter spatha. There are 3 types at 
least see my monogr.. N. fl. 1. Sp. latifolla R. 
Drac. fetidum L. oft. fig. fol. subrotundis sub- 
cordatis, spatha ovata acum. macul. North 
America — "Z. Sp. angiista R. fol. ovatis lanceol. 
spatha angustata. N. Amer. — 3. Sp. lanceo- 
lata Raf Drac. camchatense L. fol. lanceol. 
spatha lanceol. apice plana. In Sibiria. 

818. Strepsanthera Raf (turned anth.) Raf. 
diff. Pothos, spatha reflexa plana, spadix tereto 
elongato, apice masculifero, cal. 4part. crasso 
truncato ineq. persistens,stam 4 ineq. antheris 
bilobis reversis (dorso ad pist. opp.) pist. obov. 
4gono trunc. stig, sess. punctis. bacca 2loc. 2 sp. 
sem. tuberc. Parasilica, acaidis, fol. simpl. 
— Type Str. macrophyla Raf fol. cord. obt. 
undul. lobis divaric. spatha lanceol. undulata 
South America, often figured and shuffled in 3 
genera. Pothos macrophyla Sw. W. hot. m. 
2801. P. grandifol. Jaq. ic. 610. Arum acaule 
Burm. 36. Dracont. cordatum Aubl. Plum. t. 
51, 63 &c. 

819. Pothos li, non Ad . . This Linnean G. 


includes many sp. of different habit, the flowers 
of which have not been well described, and 
must be examined again, I have taken 3 Gr. out 
of it already and more may be blended. Po- 
thos derived from Potha ceylonese name of 
SGme,the sp. with cal. 4part. 4equal stam. and 2 
seeds will belong here ; but Pothos of Adan- 
son meaning desire in Greek, was the G. 

820. Tapanava Ad. Raf. diff. Pothos, spa- 
this ovatis carinatis, spadix globoso florifero, 
cal. 3-4squamoso, stam. squamis 3-4obovatis 
intus 2polliniferis, stigma sess. umbilic. Bacca 
Hoc. Isp, scandens, foL simpL disticha, spa- 
this axillaris. — Several Asiatic sp. blended in 
Pothos scandens belong here, of which I will 
give 2 types. 1. T. indica Raf. fol. lane, striat, 
petiolis elongatis alatis, spathis pedunc. reflexa. 
Ceylon and Malabar — 2. T. chinensis Raf. 
(Pothos scandens hot. mag. 1337) fol. lanceol. 
acum. falcatis, petiolis, brevis obovatis, spathis 
subsess. acutis brevis. In China, the spadix is 
yellow and fragrant. 

821. PoDOSPADix R. diff. Pothos, spatha re- 
flexa ovata midulata, spadix peduncul. tereto 
florifero, cal. truncato 4fido, lac. ineq. coales- 
cens, stam. 2-4eq.. antheris exertis peltatis, 
bacca 1 sp. ? Acaidis, fol. simpl. nervosis — 
Type P. reticidata Raf. Pothos crassinervia 
Jaq. ic. 610. W. P. fol. oblongis cuneatis acum. 
subtus reticulatis, nervo medio angul, striato, 
scapo sulcato — South America, Caracas, singu- 
lar smooth plant, seen dry, in my specimen 
leaf semipedal on short petiol, scape slender, 
spatha small undate like a bract, flowers ius- 
cate, on a spadix quite removed and raised on 
a peduncJe. 


822. AmidenaAcI. diff. Orontium, cal. 6part. 
3 alt. latior, stig. sess. drupa oliveforniis sp. nu- 
cleo cordato. Scaposa spica term. jl. dislinc- 
tis bracteatis. — Type A. japonica 11. Oront. 
do. L. auct. fol. convol. venosis scapo brevior, 
bracteis membr. subrot. Quite distinct from 
our O. aquaticum cal. spong. eq. baca spoiii2;iosa 
Isp. sem. cornea in spadix immersa. 

823. TiLcusTA Raf. cal. Opart, stam. 6, stig, 
sess. bacca Slocul, 3-6sp. Habit of Amidena — 
Type T. nepalensis R. fol. convol. bract, elon- 
gatis fl. multo longior. Mts. of Nipal : indica- 
ted by Buchanan and Smith under the native 
name of Tilcusta, akin to next G. Tupistra. 

824. Tupistra Wal. spadix nudus multifl. 
cal. Gfidus, antheris 6 sessiles cal. inrierta. stylo 
sulcato, stigma peltato umbil. 31obo, bacca 31oc. 
3sp. Rhizomafol. et scapis f evens ^ fl. distinc- 
tis bracteatis. — Two types T. nutans b. reg. 
1223, b. mag. 3054, fol. ovatolanc. acum. spa- 
dix obi. nutans, cal. camp. Sylhet in India, fl. 
fulvous with brown dots. — 2. T. squalida b.reg. 
704. b. rn. 1655. fol. lanceol. acutis, scapo brevi 
spadix recto, cal. urceolato. Amboyna and 
Molucas, fl. cineroaus. The G. Aspidistra and 
Macrogyne very akin in habit, differ from this 
by lack of spadix, and solitary radical fl. but 
the pistil being free cannot belong to Asarides, 
they are Monocotyle linking the Acorides and 

825. EMPROTIA, the Aroides, This 
order of Monocotyles as reformed by me in 
1815 contained 2 sub orders and 6 families, 
which I now will enumerate here with their 
Genera. The presence of a spadix is the main 
character of all. 

1. Gymnadia flowers without perigone. 


First family, EQUISETIA, type Equisetam. 

2d Fam. SAURURIDIA, no spatha, types 
Saururiis, Aponogeton tSfC. 

3d Fam. ARISARIA, a spatha, G. Arisa- 
rum 661, Honiaida, 662, Desmesia 663, Mego- 
tigea 666, Alocasia 668, Dracunculus 669, Pel- 
tandra 670, Colocasia 671, Caladiuin 672, A- 
rosma 673, Telipodus 676, Kunda 305, Proven- 
zalia 679, Otosma 801, Spirospatha 802, Pleu- 
rospa 803 . . . Zostera, Ambrosinia <^c. 

II S. O. Calicinia flowers with a perigone 
or calix. 

4th Fam. POTHIDIA, the Pothides a spa- 
tha, G. Seguinum 677, Dracontium, Eutereia 
816, Spathyema 81 7, Strepsanthera 818, Po- 
thos 8 1 9, Tapanava 820, Podospadix 821, 
Houttuyna &c. 

5th Fam. ACORIDIA, the Acorides, no 
spatha, G. Acorus, Orontium, Amidena 821, 
Tilcusta 822, Tupistra 823. 

6th Fam. TYPHACEA, types Typha and 

To which I may add my new family of Uni- 
SEMiDES as a 7th which I united doubtfully to 
Asparagoides in 1815, and is another link of 
those orders, see 6. 

826. Nemampsis R. (fil. curvis) diff. Dracena 
perig. basi inflate, tubo filif. 6fido, lac. filif. cur- 
vis ad faux lac. eq. stylo filif. curvo, stig. capit. 
Type N. ternifolia R. Drac. surculosa L. auct. 
b. reg. 1 169, surculis teretis annulatis subaph. 
fol. ternis ovatobl. acum, racemis term, corym- 
bosis, bract, subulatis brevis. In West Africa, 
fl. white. Quite distinct from Dracena. 

827. EuPHYLEiA R (well leafy) diff. Drace- 
na, Perig. coroUato persistens urceol. 6part. 
stam. 6 subulata, stylo, stig. 3, bacca 3loc, 


polysp. Arbor, fol. imbrlcatis, fl. panicid. — 
Type E. odorata Raf. Drac. aiistralis Forst, 
W. P. bot. m. 2835. Dr. obtccta Grab. fol. con- 
fertis imbric. lane, acutis planis basi dilat. panic, 
compos, spicata. In Australia, lino simple tree, 
quite leafy witb babit of Yucca, fl. wbite fra- 
grant, berries wbite. — How unlike Nemampsis 
and my Clintonia, both united to Dracena once! 
Dracena ought to be spelt Drakaina and the 
type is Dr. draco. The Dr. marginata form- 
ing the G. Fhylloina of Ker. bot. mag. 1585 
chiefly differ from Euphyleiu by habit and sta- 
mens filiform. 

^28. Clintonia Raf. 1817 not Clintonia of 
Lindley 1829 which is my Gynampsis 1833. 
Beautiful G. of mine shuffled into Dracena,Con- 
vallaria, Smilacina ... by the Genera shufflers! 
see my monograph of it in New Flora 42G to 
448, including 20 sp. and var. under 2 subgen- 
era Cuscumia and Onyxida. Q,uite tiistinct 
from all akin by berry 21oc. and stigma bilobe, 
from Stijrandra by 6 sepals and habit. The 
G. Conmdlaria was one of the worst, having 
no characters at all, and I have reformed it 
into 8 Genera, in 1817 and 1830, see med. fl. 
and below till 831. 

829. SiPiiYALis R. (tube bottle) diff*. Con- 
vallaria, perig. ovato. basi vcntricoso, phiali- 
formis Gdent. stam. G. anthcris sagitt. inclusis, 
stylo, stig. ofido villoso. fol. opposUis, umbel- 
lis axillaris. — I'ype, Siph. nitida Raf caule 
tereto, fol. opp. brevi pet. obi. acum. nitidis, 
umbellis pedunc. nutans 3-lOfloris. Mts. of 
India. Conval. oppositifolia, Walich, Lod. 010, 
Hook. ex. fl. 125, b, mag. 3529. 

830, Frx'tiEA Richard, Ophiopogon Gawlcr 
and engl. bot, Perig. corolif. Gpart, pcrsistens- 


stam. 6, anth. lin. snbsess. stig. obt. bacca lloCr 
Isp. Habit of Convalaria — 2 types blended as 
Conval. japonica by Th. L. auct. — 1 Fl. angu- 
lata Raf. fol. rad. plura linearis Sgonis bipeda- 
lis apice planis striatis recurvis, scapo apice 4 
gono, ft. racemosis secundis 2-6fasciculatis. — 2 
Fl. anceps Raf. fol. rad. membr. involutis line- 
aris acutis palmaris incurvis, scapo anceps— 
both in Japan with white flowers and blu« 

831. Globeris Raf. med. fl. 1830, diff*. Con- 
vallaria, perig. corol. globoso 6fido, stam. bre- 
vis disco insertis, antheris ovatis, pistil. 6striat. 
capsula 31oc. Gsperma. — Type Gl. autumnalis 
Raf. Conval. spicata Thunb. auct. fol. rad, lin, 
striatis, scapo brevior striato, fl. racemosis sub- 
spic. agregatis ebracteatis. In Japan, flowers 
violaceous. If this plant has realy a capsule as 
stated by Thunberg it is not even of Aspara- 
goides family, but of Asphodelides. 

The other genera blended in Convallaria are 
the real Convallaria of which C. majalis is 
the type — 2. Sigillaria or Axillaria Raf. 
1837, Polygonatum of Tourn. and Desf Eval- 
laria of Necker : we may choose either except 
Polygon-atum same as Polygon-um, Sigillaria 
from Solomon Seal the vulgar name would be 
the best, if the fossil Sigillaria is modified into 
Sigillites. — 3 Mayanthemuwi Pers. Smilacina 
Desf (same as Smilax !) Tovaria Necker not of 
Adanson — 4 Styrandra Raf 1817, types the 
Conv. hifolia and others with 4 stamens, 4 se- 
pals, 2 cells. 

832. Daiswa Raf. diff*. Varis and Trillium,, 
cal. 5sepalis, petalis 5, Stam. 10, stylo tereto 
trifido stig. 3, baca 3Ioc. Fol. verticilL comIc 
Ifl. — Type D.polyphyla R. Paris do Sm. &€► 


fol. 8-lOlanceol. trinervis petiolatis. Nipal, the 
flowers vary with ternary and quaternary parts, 
but the style is permanent. It is therefore a 
Hnk between TrilUum and Medeola. If not 
admitted as a G. Varis cannot neither, that has 
quaternary parts, but 4 reflexed styles and 4loc 
berry, leaves 4 ovate sessile trinerve acute. All 
belong to my family Trillidia differing from 
Asparagides by several styles or stigmas, and 
habit often whorled. 

833. Abapus Ad. Papiria Th. not Lam. difT. 
Gethylis, perig. limbo 8-18part. stam. 8-18, stig. 
Slobo, bacca 31ocul. — Types A. spiralis Raf. 
Pap. do. Th. Gethylis afra auct, b. reg. 1016. 
fol. iin. spiral, glabr. S. Africa. The real Ge- 
thylis has only 6 stamens, and berry uniloc. 
both have habit of Colchicum, and the ovary 
partly adherent forming with Hemanthus &c, 
the family of Gethylides differing from Narcis- 
sides as do the Asparagoides from Asphodeli- 
des, by having berries. 

834. Leucodesmis Raf. difT. Haemanthus, 
perig. cor. infund. limbo 6part. erecto stam. 6 
exertis ineq. filif. stig. 3fido, bacca 31oc. 3sp. — 
Type L. puhescens R. Haem. do Ait. L. b. reg. 
382. albiflos Jaq. W. b. mag, 1239. fol, obov. 
ciliatis puberis, invol. 5phyl. ineq. ovatis viridis, 
fl. albis congestis, S. Africa. — The African G, 
Haemanthus contains several anomalous sp. 
merely united by the habit : the real has stam. 
equal erect, cor. tubular. 

835. ScADOxus R. (umb. glor.) diff. Hae- 
manthus^ cor. limbo patulo, stam. ineq. adscen- 
dentibus. Umhellis multijl. pedunc. articu- 
latis — Type Sc, multijlorus R. Hacm. do L. 
auct. often figured, fol. ellipt. acutis concavis, 
invol. fl. brevior. West Africa. 


836- Periiiema R. (around bloody) ditil 
Haemanthns, cor. infnnd. basi (igibbosa inflata, 
stam G. filif. cqiialis cxcrtis, stig. obtiiso, Cap- 
sula 31oc. 3sp. fol. blnis, invol. urceoU Spart. 
ineq. colorato, ft, inclusis^ — Type P. coarc- 
tata R. Ilaem. do Jaq. W. b. reg. 181. fol. 
ellipt. obt. scapo crasso pimctato, invol. rubro 
amplo, lac. iit foliis. S. Africa, fl. incarnate, an- 
thers yellow ovate. This G. and the next hav- 
ing capsules instead of berries do not even be- 
long to the same family of Gethylides, but to 

837. Serena R. (Nymph) diff. Ferihema^ 
cor. turbinata 6fida, stam. 6 eq. stig. 31obo,c«p- 
Sidci 31oc. 3s]).foL binis, invol. spathaceo, urn- 
bella brevior. — Types 1. S. carnea R. Haeman- 
thus do Ed. b. reg. 509. fol. subrot. hirsutis, 
spatha sphacelata reflexa, stam. inclusis, cor, 
carneis, obi. obt. R. — 2 8. lancifolia R. Haem. 
do. Jaq. sch. 80. W. auct. fol. lanceol, glabris 
ciliatis, spatha brevis, stam. exertis, corolla 
patens. Perhaps a sub G, both of S. Africa. 

838. Narcissus Raf, non auct. This beau- 
tiful G. included a crowd of sp. with very va- 
riable cup or inner corolla, that must form at 
least G G. I restrict the real Narcissus to those 
with — cup campanuL 6fid. including N. odorus, 
pseudo, minor t5'C, — Several monographs of 
the linnean Narcissus have been given by Bel- 
lendeu, Salisbury, Ker, Smith, Lamark &c, 
which see for sp. 

839. AuTOGENES R, diff. Narcissus, cup ro- 
tate membranose, entire or crenate — such as 
A, poeticus, angustif, biflorus, tenuior Slc. 

810. JoNQuiLLA R. diff. Narcissus, cup cam- 
panulate plicate crisp or crenulate — sueh as J, 

CENTURIA qc. 21 

odora (Narc. jonquilla,) tazetla^ bieolor^ ma- 
jor, incomparahilis, trilobus^ mridijlora cfe. 

841. Calathinus R. diff. JSarcissus, cup 
campanul. crenate stam. 6 ineq. 3 brevior — such 
as 1 C. cernuus (Narc. do Sal. pyronaicus 
Pers. triandrus L.) 2 Serotinus, 3 multtjlorus^ 
N. calathinus auct.. 

8 13. MosKERioN R. difF. Narcissus, cup. cy- 
lindrical sulcate crenate — Type 1. 31. mosclia- 
tum Raf. Narc. do auct. 2 hispanicum Narc. 
do Gouan. Vitm. Erion, Calathinus, Autogenes 
were Greek names of Narcissus. 

844. CoDiAMiNUM R (Plinius name) diff. N. 
cup large funnel form, petals linear, stamens 
and style declinata. — Very distinct G. types 3 
sp. blended in Narc. hulbocodium by Authors. 
C. montanus, C. minimus ^^c, see Salisbury. — 
The G. Barhacenia and my Pleuroslima 3(58 
are very near to Narcissides, connecting with 
the section of Pancratides that have stamens 
monadelphous or united to the cup. 

845. Pancratium Raf. non auct. This 
Linnean G. was equaly inconsistent as Narcissus 
and 3 Genera have already been removed from 
it Abapus, Ismenc, Eurycles. I shall divide it 
into 9, and my real Pancratium has the cup or 
Nectary or inner corolla campanulate with 18 
equal teeth, 6 stamens alt. with 2 teeth rising 
from those opposite to petals. — Such are P. 
maritimum, carolinianurn, zeylanicum, 4 li- 
riosme Raf. fl. lud. 5, amenum Sal. And. rep. 
556 which is P. declinatum Jaq. &c. The lin- 
nean Pancratium only differed from Narcissus 
by the cup bearing the stamens, both form the 
real family of Narcissides with a double co- 
rolla, the akin G, with a single corolla form the 


family of Crimdes, and those with unequal or 
irregular stamens the Amarylides, all of the 
Natural Order YMNODIA. 

846. Nemepiodon R. cup. campanul. 12den- 
tate, 6 alt. teeth bearing the stamens — such as 
N. 7nexica7ius, cariheum, speciosum Sal. Red. 
156 (N. carib. b. m. 826.) 

874. Ismene Herbert, diff. Pancratium, cor. 
with a long tube, cup campanulate 121obed, 
crenulate, stamens declinate inserted inside. — 
Type /. amancaes, Narcissus do R. P. 283. 
Pers. Pancrat. do hot. reg. 600. fine G. of S. 
Amer. quite distinct. 

848. Eurycles Sal. 1812. Proiphis Herb. 
1821, Stemonix Raf. 1833. diff. "Pancratium 
cup 6parted, dentate, stam. inserted inside — 
several sp. of Polynesia and Australia blended 
as P. amboinense L. Crinum nervosum Lher. 
Amaryllis rotundif Lam . . . Hooker reckons 3 
sp. E. australis, sylvatica and Cunninghami 
figured in b. mag. 3399. 

849. ZoucHiA Raf. diff*. Vancratium. cup. 
with 6 bifid segments, stamens in the sines 
— Type Z. illyrica Raf. Pancr. do auct. often 
figured. Zouchi is the illyrian name. 

850. To3ioDON R. (cut teeth) diff". Pancra- 
tium, cup rotate or camp. 6lobed multifid, teeth 
unequal irregular,style declinate. — Types 1. T. 
rotatum Raf, Pancr. do b. mag. 827 Sm. &c 
2. T. floridanum R. rotatum Lee. 3 J\ ripa- 
rium Raf P. mexic. Lee. 4 coronarium Raf. 
Pancr. do Lee. 5 pratense Raf P. occid. Lee. 
see my monograph of this G. in New Flora. 

851. SiPHOTOMA R. (tube cut) diff*. Pancra- 
tium, cup cylindrical multifid, stamens unequal, 
3 alt. shorter. — Type S. calathina Raf Pancr. 
do. b. mag'. 1561. Sm. &/C, 


852. Braxireon R. (short Ireon) cliff. Fanc- 
ratium^ cup quite cuplike short Gfid as in 
Narcissus, but bearing the stamens. — Type Br, 
humile R. Pancr. do Cav. 207. Pers. ^'C. 

853. Troxistemon R. diff. Pancratium, cup 
rotate 6dentate, teeth bearing the stamens, sin- 
usses emarginate or undulate, petals narrow re- 
curved. — Types TV. littorale and fragrans. 

854. LiRiAMUs R. (sand lily) diff. Crinum, 
sepalis unguic, Ovario infero, filam. stam. basi 
gibbosis, fl, umbel. — Type L. 5florus Raf. 
Crinum arenarium Hook. b. mag. 2531. fol. stri- 
atis, scapo Sfloro. Australia. The G. Crinum 
had also been widely mistaken, since Agapan- 
thus with free ovary had been united to it, be- 
sides this G. and the next. 

855. ScADiANus R. atl. J. 1833 (blue umbel) 
diff. Agapanthus, cor. tubo fusif. limbo camp. 
6fid. lacinis canalicul. 3 latior obt. 3 angustior 
acutis. stam. G ineq. incurvis filif. tubo inserta. 
ov. libero obi. stylo filif. recto, stig. obt. — Type 
Sc. multiflorus Raf. fol. ligulatis planis acum. 
scapo tereto, umbella multifl. — Fine plant seen 
alive in our gardens, native of Florida and 
Louisiana, it is the blue Crinum of Bartram, 
Cr. americ. Pursh ^-c not L. the Agapantfms 
of our Gardeners, quite different from this Afri- 
can genus. . Leaves pedal, one inch broad, fl. 
inodorous uncial azure blue. The G. Abumon 
of Ad. differs only by long tube, he quotes the 
Crinum 4 L. and figures of Commelin, Breyn, 
Plukenet which must be verified. Is it the 
Agapanthus? Of family Aloides (not Crinides) 
with all the Narcissides that have a free pistil. 

856. ScADFAKiNTos R. (umb. hyac) cor. 
campanul. 6partita, stam. G. filam. alt. mem- 



branosis inscrtis apex segm. cor. ovar. stipitat. 
stigma . . . caps. 31oc. polysp. Fades Mliacea^ 
scaposus umbella nmltifi. cerulea. — Type Sc 
umbellaris li. Brodiea grandiflora Pursh, Nut- 
tal Eat. &c, which has been proved by Hooker 
to be quite diflerent from the Br. grandifl. of 
Smith, not even of same Genus ! but it is not a 
Blilla as surmised by him. Of Family Aloides 
called the Missouri Hyacinth. 

857. Brodiea Sm. &c. Hookeria Sal. Cor. 
tubulosa 6fida, stam. 3, squamis 3 alt. ad tub. 
inserta. Ovar. stipit. style filif. stigm. 3 caps. 
31oc. sem. centralis, scaposa, bulbosa, fl. um- 
bellatis. — Type Br. grandiflora Sm. b. reg. 
1183. b. mag. 2877. fol. lin. elong. canalic. 
acum. umbella 5-8flora. In Origon, fine large 
blue flowers. Type of a new family with Sow- 
erbea, Xiphidium and Leucoryne 657 &c akin 
to Xyrides and Commelines,which may be cal- 
led XYPHIDIA, it differs from them by Co- 
rolla equal, from Aloides by 3 stamens, from 
Irides by ovary free. Does Wachendorjia be- 
long to it? 

858. CoNANTHEs R, (conc fl.) diff*. Fitcai- 
rma,flowers conical, cal. 3part. Fetalis 3 undul. 
longis nudis stam. 6 ineq, 3 longior, stylo elon- 
gato, stig. 3fldo. Parasita, scaposa, racemosa. 
— Type C. albiflos 11. Pitc. do Hook. b. m. 
2641. fol. lin. lane, integris acum. scapo race- 
moque simplex. Brazil, fl. white. 

859. Hexalepis R. (6 scales) diff". Tilland- 
sia, cal. 3part. scariosis colorat. convolutis, cor. 
tereta 3part. convol. squamis 2 ad bas. petalis 
alt. ad stam. 6, sed ovario circondans, stigma 
31obo fimbriate. foL imbric. fl. spicatis — Type 
H. psittacina R. Till, do Hook. b. m. 2841. 
fol. ligulatis acutis basi iniiat, spica rachi flex. 


bract, color, fl. eq. In Brazil, fl. bicolor red 
end yellow. Nearer Pilcairnia than Tillandsia 
by the scales. All these G. belong to my fam- 
ily Alchmidia 1835 with Giizrnaiiia, Aechmea, 
Lachenalia, Kucallis below 80'2 Slc. 

800. DcMntoroGorv R. (tree beard) Neog. 
1825. (liif. Tillandsia^ stam. 3 (non 6) stylo, 
stig. 2-3lobo, caps. '2-31oc. Parasitica, ramosttj 
Jf. axill. — T} pc the D. iisneoidcs and proba- 
bly other sp. In fact the G. Tillandsia is in 
utter disorder, it includes several Genera; 
those with unilocular capsule must form the G. 
Karaoifata of Adanson. 

861. EmosTAX R. (wooly spike) diff. Sro- 
melia, ovar. 3alato, cal. globoso 31obo, petalis 3 
rigidis linearis, stam. 6 ineq. 3 brevior epipe- 
tala, stigma dilat. 31obo. I'ol. imhric. spica 
clavata, lanata, jlorib. in lana immersis. — 
Type E. ^laiica Raf Bromelia melanantha E^ 
b. reg. 766. fol. imbric. lanceol. marg. spinosis, 
spica albo lanata, cal. lutesceus, petalis atro- 
purp. Antilles. Is the fruit a capsule as in the 
next G ? 

86'2. EucAiLiAs R. diif. Bromelia, ovar. 3 
gibboso, cal. opart, undulato, basi tubulosoglan- 
duloso. cor. 3part. apice spiralis, squamis *2 ad 
medio petalis, stam. 6 filif. 3 inter sq. insertis 
antheris filif stylo 3gono, stigma Sfido. caps. 3 
loc. poly sperm a. Parasitica stolonif. ft. spi- 
calis bracteatis — Type Kiic. versicolor Raf. 
Bromelia zebrina Hook. b. mag. 2686. fol. lan- 
ceol. canalic. obt. dent, spinosis, subtus glaucis, 
albo transverse zonatis, caule albo nutans, brac- 
teis longis lanceol. roseis. Beautiful plant of 
Brazil, flowers versicolor, calix white, petals 
and stamens yellow. Quite distinct from Bro- 


nielia by capsule and scales on petals as it Pit- 
cairnia and Hexalepis. T he sp. of Uromelia 
with unilocular beny form the G. Psedomelia 
of Neckrr. 

8G3. RiiizEMYs R. (root turtle) Ttsludina- 
ria Burchell b. reg. 921. diff. Dioscorca stylis 
3 coalitis, Radix cimplissima epigea. Hardly 
different from Dioscora, generic names derived 
by aria cannot stand. Very singular huge roots 
edible like yams called Hottentot Bread. 2. 
types. 1. Rh. elephantipes R. Tamns do W. P. 
fol. renif. planis, raceniis axill — 2. Rh. monta- 
na R. fol. cord. subt. glaucis nervosis. Both 
from S. Africa. 

864. Ruscus L. auct. this Gr. must be care- 
fully revised, as it has many anomalies, the C 
Danae of McEnch and Persoon for the R. race- 
mosus must be adopted, differing by habit, co- 
rolla and fruit. The real Ruscus bears the 
flowers on the leaves that are perhaps enlarged 
expansions or peduncles. The R. androgynus 
is not a Danae, but includes 2 distinct sp. 1. R. 
latifoUus Raf. androg, W. Dili, t. 250. Hook. 
b. m. 3029. fol. subcord. ovatis ocum. fl. sub- 
sess, in capitulis multifl. congestis. Madeira, 
f). yellow white in a notch of the leaf. — 2. R. 
anthopus Raf. androgynus^ Sims b. mag 1898. 
fol, ovatobl. acum. fl. solit- pedicelis fl. eq. Ca- 
nary Ids. — Both must form the S. G. Gurenias 
(Diosk) by fl. marginal, corolla 6parted rotate, 
anthers sessile in a central tube or nectary. The 
G. Peliosanthes of R. Brown differs by cor. tu- 
bulose, nectary globose slaminiferous. 

8G5. SiRAiTos R. (n. jap.) diff. Ahalon^ fl. 
hermaphr. petalis G obi. obt. stani. G filam. su- 
bul. brevis, antheris 4gonis, ovar. ovat. stylis 3 
revol. caps, unica 3Iocul. — A Genus blended 


with the American Ahalon by Tliunherg and 
others although quite distinct, but habit siFTiiiar. 
— Type *S7r. nquaticus\X<iL Mehmtliiuin lutcuni 
Th. fl. jap. who quotes Vcratruui kitcum of liin, 
caule teres flex, striatus, fol. lanceol. integris, fl. 
spicatis luteis. In Japan in waters. 

8GG. Abalon Ad. 1763. 11 af. N. fl. 1830. 
Chamaliriuni Wild. 180!) / Gray Sub G. Ophios- 
tachysKed. 1808? Diclinotrys'llaf. neog. 1825 
— A very distinct G shuflled into 7 G. by the 
linneists &c, well described as the first G. of 
my New Flora N. Am. and again by Gray as 
Hvlonias dioica. Adanson's name is the first 
and best meaning not in a ball, Ophio-stachys 
and (>hama-lirium are bad compound names of 
Starkifs and Chama. 

Having just received the Monograph of 
Gray on tlie Melanthacea or rather my Helo- 
NiDiA, of North America, I will revise them in 
my New Flora. I merely state here that his 
G. Leiico-crinum must be changed into Leu- 
crinis llaf. that his Yteimantlimm of Wild, is 
my Evonyxis 83 — that his Stenantliium S. G. 
of Veratrum is my G. Anepsa 89 — that his A- 
miant/iiim tnuscoloxicuni was my Crosperma 
laeta of 1825 a plant shuffled into 3 Genera till 
made one of by myself since 1801 see G. 100 — 
that his Schoino-caidon will be my Skoirwlon 
Raf. — For his Tofieldas, with 3 other names 
Triantha, Hebelia, Isidrogalvia, Leptilix, ^'C^ 
see Ahama of Adanson 1763 in my New Flora 
with 4 sp. and 2 akin Genera of which I shall 
write a monograph. 

867. Baimo R. (n. jap.) diff. Uvularia, peta- 
lis 6 obl. stam. Ohypogyna, stylus 1, stig. 3 re- 
flexa. caide artic, fol. cirrkosh — Type B. 
cirrhosa Raf. Uvularia do Th, aurt. caule te- 


res artic. fol. sessilib. geminatis linearis cirrho- 
sis, pedic. axill. Ifl. reflexis. In Japan, fl. yel- 
low, stamens white. Baimo is as good as 

868. SiMiRA R. (n. jap.) diff. OrnithogaJum 
petalis 6 lanceol. eq. stani. 6 subul. 3 latiora 
alt. stig. obt. capsiila ovata viliosa 3gona Gstri- 
ata — TyP^ S. japonica Raf. Orn. do Th. auct. 
Rcapo striato longo racemose, fol. linearis planis. 
Japan, fl. purplish, perhaps only a subgenus. 
Simira is a pretty Japanese name. 

869. Stypandra R. Br. another Gr. akin to 
Skilla with filiform stamens diff. by filaments 
retrocurved and anthers with glands, stem fo- 
Uose, fl. pnnicnlate : thus more different by 
habit than characters. Several sp. from aus- 
tralia. 1 St. glnuca fol. glauc. tortilis, 2 St. 
propinqua Cun. b. mag. 3417. fol. gramineis &c. 

870. Ari HROPODiioi R. Br. diff. Skilla and 
Anthericum by petals reflexed, stamens villose, 
style declinate, roots fasciculate — several sp. 
from Australia. A. panicnl. A. minus &c. 

871. Chlokophytum R. Br. diff. Skilla^ 
stam. connivens, capsula 3Ioba polysp. 4 sp. 
from Australia. G. admitted although less dis- 
tinct than some of mine. 

872. PoDONix R. (bearded claw) diff Tuli- 
pa, petalis ineq. Salt. lane, minor, 3 ovatis ma- 
jor unguiculis barbatis, stam. ineq. basi barba- 
tis, stigma 3poroso, caps, globosa 31oba. Acaiiles 
— Type P. albijfora Raf Tulipa biflora L. 
auct. often figured, b. reg. 535. fol. 2 linearib. 
scapo l-2floro. Near Caspian Sea, flowers 
tinial! and white. Near to G. Liriopogon 113 
to which I once referred it, but distinct. 

873. PiiARiuM Herb. cor. 6part. subeq. stam. 


6 inonadelphis ad basis luenibrana coalitis. sty- 
lo fistul. recto, stig. perforatum en pit. lacirs 
alliacea. — N. G. near the Kepa &c, hut sta- 
mens united. Type Ph. fistnlositm W l>. re<2^. 
1540. foh listuh teretis, scapo umhellato, umh. 
paucill. invoh 3 subrot. fl. cernuis, stain exertis 

87i. Praskoinon R. diff. Vhnrium, petalis 
sulcatis, stam. subulatis basi coahtis, styh) fihf. 
stig. acuto, caj)s. Gsp. — Type Pr. lonoij'oliffm 
Raf. Album do Spreni;el, b. reg. 1034. Sche- 
noprasum do Kunth, Ibl. lin. canalic. longissi- 
mis, scapo striato subancej)s basi Iblioso, um- 
bella sub 811. congesta. Mexico, fl. purple. 
Forming a snbf. Piiarides with tlie last and 
Spiranthera 885, by united stamens. 

875. Ei'CKOsiA Edw. diff'. AniaryUis^ stam. 
basi monadelphis. Type E. bicolor b. reg. 207. 
fol. ellipt. glaucis, umb. 4fl. 4bracteata. S. 
America, fl. greenish purple, bracts white. — 
These Genera with united stamens appear to 
indicate new families. This will be type of subf. 
Eucrosidos in Narcissides. 

876. PiiAioiMiLEPS R. (brown veins) diff. 
Sisyrinehiiini, cor. infundib. Gfida eq. staiii. 3 
filam. monad, in tubo elongato. Scaposa. — 
Family Galaxidia near G. Galaxta — Types 1. 
Ph. odoratissima R. Sisyr. do Lind. b. reg. 
1283. fol. angustiss. glaucis equante ad sca[)o 
teres, spatha univ. c )nvol. 4-6fl. pedic. nutans. 
Patagonia, fl. white with brown veins. — Sisyr. 
flexuosum is a 2d sp. 

877. PoGAUELPHA R. (beard brother) diff', 
Sisifrlnchlum, stain 3 basi monadelphis pilosis, 
stylis 3 basi coalitis, ovario piloso — Types 1. 
P. maculata Raf. caule flex, tereto, fol. amplex. 
brevis lin. obt. spathis 2 lane, subeq. acutis 2ff. 

petalis ovati-! o!)t. flavis bnsi macula atropurp. 
i'hili, on!)' (leeiiu'd a var. of the next in h. reg. 
1915. var. j)u:i!iluin. — '2. P. graminilblia Kaf. 
Sisyr do. \>. reg. lOOT. diff. fol. caule longior 
sesailih. acutis, spathis ineq. lanceol. petalis 
obovatis lutois, macula fusca ad medio. Chili. 

878. Olsynium Raf.newfl. 1 p. 72. diff. Fo- 
gadefpha, cor. petalis G campanul. non patulis, 
stam. 3 e'ongatis liberis, basi coalitiscoarctatis 
glabris, stylo elongato, stig. 3 acutis. — Type 
(). grntulijlorum R. Sisyr. do b. reg. 1034, b. 
mag. 3509. Caule compresso, fol. brevis acutis, 
sp.itha ineq. fl. binis nutans purpureis- Origon 
at fills Oakanagan, large purple flowers — 2d 
sp. O. laleum Raf. Marica californica Ker. 
b. m. 1)S3, caule alato, fol. lin. petalis obov. lu- 
teis. California, many G, have lately b6en 
blended in Sisyrinchiuni, eventhe next with free 
stamens ! 

879. Ortiirosantiies Sweet, diff. Sisyr. pe- 
talis G ineq. 3 e.xt. angustior, stam. 3 llberls. — 
3 sp. of Australia, nearer to Marica than Sisy- 
rinchiuni. One of them is the ^isifr. ixioides 
Forst. or Ferraria do W. or Morea do Th. 
thus put in 3 Genera. 

880. EvEi/naA R. (well free) diff. Sisyr. pe- 
talis 6 equalis, obovatis, stam. 3 liberis — Type 
midfifiora Raf. Orthrosanthes do Sweet, Sisy- 
rinchiuni cyaneum Lind b. reg. 1090 ! fol. ces- 
pitosis linearib. longiss. spathis 2 ovatis subeq. 
petalis ceruleis obov. ol.tusis. Australia — The 
G. Marica chiefly differs from this by petals un- 
equal and stamens alt. to stigmas, the G. Ci- 
pura besides by stigma petaliformis. Bobar- 
tla is also an akin Genus. 

8S1. PuAiANTiiKs Kaf. (brown fl.) diff. Mo- 
rea^ petalis ineq. 3 alt. quadruplo major basi 

( LiNJlIUA IX. 31 

cone, apex plaiiis, 3 pet. minor plunis, stain. 3 
subcoiinatis, stig. 31iii. planis bidcntatis. — This 
nas nearer to t^isyr. by stani. but referred by 
habit to Morea ! I'ype Fh. lur'ula Uaf. Morea 
do Edw. b. reg. 31*2. Uniflora papiilosa, fol. 
*2-3 hnearib. caule e<]. petahs aciun. fucis. 
South Africa. — Howdilicrent Irom Vardanthes 
chinensis of Ker or Belanienda lied, which 
was the type of Morea ! same as Morus ! 

882. Haemodoka l^ab Sm. ovar. inf. petalis 
6, stam. 3 antheris sessilis petalis insertis, 
stylo, stig. capit. caps. 3 loc. Gsp. — This G. has 
been made the type cf family HaeinocJoracta ^ 
very near to Irides ; but the next G. is not of 
same family : nor is the G. Anigozanthes dif- 
fering by cor. tubular unilabiate 6dentate and 
Gstamens,nor my Pleurostinui 3C8. 

883. Phlebocarya R. Br. Ovar. inf. petalis 
6, stam. 6 epipetalis antheris sess. stylo, stigma 
capit. caps. Hoc. 3sp. ad abortu Nux monosp. 
coronata — I'ype Phi. ciliata Br. Sm. fol. disti- 
chis fimbriatis, fl. panicul- Australia. Altho' 
the insertion of stamens is similar to the last, 
their double nujnber and fruit makes this type 
cf a subfamily in the fan)ily of Dioscoridls. 

884. ErsTKEPiii s R. Br, Petalis 6, internis 
3 fimbriatis, stam. G liberis, ov. lib. stigma tri- 
gono, caps, pulposa 3ioc. Svalv. valvis septiferis 
polysp. Fnitescnts, fol. alt — Type E. angtis- 
tifolius Br. Sm fol. lin. lane. fl. fascicul. nu- 
tans. This G. has the habit of Smilaa\ and 
forms a link between Smii acta and Aspiiode- 


885. Spiranthera Raf. diiT. Eitstrrplni^^ 
stam. basi monadelphis, antljeris a pice spiralis 
— Sp. ozata Raf. Eustr. latifolius Br. ^ni. {hi. 
ovatis fl. fascic. pedic. nutans. Australia. The 


union of the stamens is akin to G. Rnscus, yet 
this must be referred to the subf. o[ F harides in 
family Asfmiodpimdi s. See 874. 

886. Elegia L. auct. based on the Restio 
elegia since made E. juncea by Linneus ; now 
having several sp. requiring reform, and becom- 
ing type of the family Elegides ditfering from 
JuNciDEs by 3 stamens instead of 0. — The real 
G. Elegia has cal. 6glumis ineq. stam. 3, stylis 3, 
Gaertner says caps. 6loc. 6sp. Smith says Sloe, 
polysp. it is so at least in E. racemosa if not in 
E. thijrsifera once E. juncea. 

887. Tristemon Raf. 1817. diff. Juncus^c?i\. 
Gglumis ineq. 3 ext. aristatis, stam. 3, stylo 1, 
stig. 3, caps. 31oc. polysp. — This includes all the 
Juncus with 3 stamens, nearer Elegia and same 
family, such as Tr. marginatus, odoratus, 
pohjcephalus, conglomeratus &c see my mo- 
nograph in New Flora. — The family of Junci- 
DES with 6 stamens includes only Juncns^ Lu- 
zula, Aphyla utiles, Rapatea, Follia and a few 

888. Baloskion Raf. (Ball rush) diff. Restio 
capitulis globosis, fl. fem. 4 valvis, stylis 2, cap- 
sula 2loc. 2sp, — Type B. dichotomum Raf. R. 
4phylus Lab. P. Sm. Br. dichotome, foliose. 
spicis panicul. Australia. This as well as Ca- 
lorophus Lab. also belong to Elegides instead 
of Restides. 

889. Abbotia Raf. diff. Triglocliin, cal. 3-4 
glumis deciduis, stam. 3 sessilis. interdum 1-2. 
pistillis 3-4coalitis, stigmas sess. glandulosis 
lissis. capsulis 3-4coalitis monosp. Acaulis, fl. 
racem. — This G. containing 3 sp. Ab. filifor- 
mis, palustris, piimila is described in the mo- 
nograph of my New Flora I p. 36. It belongs 
to Elegides, and is the link with the G, Triglo- 


chin. — Thus the ELEGIDES include Elrgia^ 
Trisfeinoti, Calorophus, Jialoskion, Abhotia 
and perhaps other Genera; they are very near 
to XuiiiDEs 17, differing by no real internal co- 

890. CiioNDuoPETALON Rotb. diff. ^^5/io cal. 
ineq. 3 internis major cartilagineis — Type. C7i. 
tectorum. Restio do L. aiict. 

8.)1. Leilna Raf. (one less) diff. Restio 
stam. 2. stylis "2. all the sp. with "l instead of 3 
stamens and styles belong here. The Resti- 
DLs or Restiacea family differ from Juncidesby 
fruit monosperm, and besides these 3 Genera 
include others from the Southern Hemisphere. 

89*2. PiJYi.iDRU3i Gaertn. Sm. Garciana Lour. 
Perigono 2phyIo corolliforme, stam. 3 ad uno 
petalo inserta. Ovar. libero, stylo filif. stig. ca- 
pit. caps. 31oc. 3valv. polysp. rad. fibrosis^ foL 
ensatls, fl. spicatis.—^'i sp. Pli. lanuginosum 
and pij!^NU'um. Of family Xlridia, but type 
of a subf. Phylidrines. 

893. Nemitis R. (fil. pi.) Apteria Nut. 1834. 
Ov. inf cor. tubul. camp. Odentatis alt. minor, 
stam 3 in tubo, stylo filif. stig. 3 cuneatis, caps, 
coronata mcnoloc, polysp. placentas 3. Kad. 
fibr.caule squamo so.— Type Nemitis setncea 
Raf. Apteria do Nut. ic. cnule filif l-4fl. squa- 
mis remotis brevis sphacelatis. Florida, Ala- 
bama and Missouri ! minute annual plant, fl. 
white. — Nuttol makes a new family of this with 
Tripterella, it differs from it as Luzula from 
Juiicus; hwi Biirniannia w'wh G stamens can- 
not belong to it. All the monocotyle with 3 
stamens are essentialy different from those with 
6. In fact the staminate numbers are of 
greater importance in Monocotyles than in 


Dicotyles, which some Botanists are not aware 
of. 1 had to chan<re the name of Apteria 
which is a class of insects ! 

8i)4. SowEUBEA Sm. potalis G. stam, 3 ferti- 
lis, antheiis bilohis clisjunctis, stam. 3 sterilia 
castratis, caps. 3ioc. 3-(isp. I'dcics AUiacta — 
'l\pe S. JKitcea ^m. ic. b. mag. 1104, andr. rep. 
81. fol. canahc. linearib. scapo umhelia multitl. 
pedic. aiticul. Austraha, ii. rosate. family of 
Xiphidia see Brcdica 857. 

895. Spakaxis Ker. ditf. Iris, cor. tubuiosa 
Giida rcgiilaris eq. stam. 3 patidis, stig 3 oblon- 
gis, spiitiia 2d/iIdIs lacr,ra.—i!*>Qven\\ spsciej 
^p. anrmonijlora, fragrans, tricolor, gran- 
dijf. bulbifera, fimbrlala &c ; but those with 
irregular corolla must form the next Genus. 

890. Anactorion R. (glad, diosk) diff. Spa- 
raxls, cor irregularis, segmentis connivens, vel 
uno patulo, stam. erectis — Type 2 Sp. An. hl- 
color 11. Sp. do Ker. — *2 An. oaleohim K. ^p. 
do Ker. Gladiolus do Jaq. W. P. perhaps a 
subg. by bilabiate corolla, Fasgano?i Raf. Of 
family Glai>iolina differing from Irides as A- 
maryllides from Crinides by the irregular co- 
rolla or stamens. 

<f97. Paneguia R. diflT. Marica and Slsjjr. 
petalis basi coahtis campanul. stylo trifido. — 
Types 1. P. strlala. R. Sisyr. do Sm. ic. 9, 
Rod. G3. S, spicataCav. 3Iar lea stvmtn Ker. b. 
m, 701. fl. fascic. 1 spatliis bract, membr. ad 
pedic coroHis mucronatis. — 2 P. palmifoUa R. 
Sisyr. do L. Morea do Th. fl. panicul. corymbo>- 
sis. Perhaps *2 subg.. 

89S. Priopeialon R. (saw pet) diff. Al- 
stroemeria, ovar. globoso 6costato, potalis G 
patulis serrulatis, ?<- (>xt. oq. dilatatis, 3 int. an- 


gustior 2 sup. minor. Stam. 6 declin. 2 sup, 
antheris brevior. — Type Fr.paUidnm R. A. do 
Grab. b. uiag. 3010. tbi. sparsis lin. lane, den- 
ticul. subaniplex. fl. unihelhit. 2-5petabs acum. 
ext. obov. int. eliipt — Chib, fl. incurnate, tbe fi- 
gure rcprcsenti- the style clavate entire wbile 
the description tells it is 3 gone witb 3 stigmas! 
— While the G, Arnarylis has undergone such 
a revision and division the akin G. Alstroeme- 
ria has been left untouched, although present- 
ing striking anomalies, I therefore present this 
and the 2 next reformed Genera out of it, but 
there are probably more. 

899. LiLAViA li. (bird lily) diff. Alstroeme- 
ria, cor. campan. subeq. petalis 3 internis an- 
gustior brevior, stam. 6 subeq. rectis, antheris 3 
alt. major eliipt, stigma 3, caps. 3gona. — Type 
L. psiftacina R. Alstr. do. Lehm. Sweet t, 15. 
b. mag. 3033. Caule flexuoso, fol. cuneat. obo- 
vatisque obt. tortis, umb. 4-5fl. involucrata, pe- 
talis cuneat. acum. Mexico, fine red flowers 
with purple spots, and greenish tips. 

900. DoDECASPERMA R. diff. Alstr. cor. camp, 
petalis connivens subeq. 3 int. unguicul. stam, 
inclusis subeq. ovar. semisupero, stylo basi in- 
erassato recto, stigma 3. caps, plana apice tri- 
valvis, valvis septif, septis ad utrinque latere 
23p. sem. 12 globosis cnccineis. — Type D, ncU' 
tifolta R. Alstr. do Link t. 29. b. ma:;. 3059. 
Vohibile, fol. petiol, lanceol. acum. subtus pu- 
bescens, fl. umbel, bracteis lanceol. Detalis ext. 
obi. croceis, internis spatulatis flavis. Mexico 
disc, by Deppe. Certainly quite unlike the two 
above in habit and characters. 


ORCHIDES or Synaumia. This fine Nat. 
Order of plants shall be continued here ; hav- 
ing already given many Genera of it, see I, 1 17 
to 138, 183 to 18G, 201, '211, 2'2(), to 224, 3J8 
to 344, 372 to 377, 382 to 385, 804 to 806. It 
is now become one of the most interesting and 
prolific orders, evincing the vast progress of 
modern Botany. Linneus had only 9 (Genera 
of it, Adanson only 7 although he had Vanilla 
omitted by Linneus, Necker in 1790 had 17 
Genera, Jussieu, Svvartz, Richard, Thouars had 
vastly increased them,(Persoon had 30) and now 
Lindley has over 200 Genera; but 100 have 
been or will be added by myself. The single 
Genus Epiclendriun which was a confuse med- 
ley has furnished 30 Genera, and even as re- 
formed lately it contains 10 or 15 more as I 
have shown. Necker had 3 which I could not 
ascertain as he gave no typical sp. biit I give 
here their characters that they may be ascer- 
tained and restored. 

901. PiiADuosANTfius Ncck. 1474. Fetalis 
4-5patulis ineqT undul. label, basi tubul. quad- 
rato dilatato ad apex, anther. *2. stig. infundib. 
Scaposa — This must include several Den.dro- 
biums, and Necker intimated that like Epiden- 
drum, it had many anomalies. 

902. Eydis ANTHEM A JXcck. 1475 petalis 5 
linear, subeq. Label, basi tubul. columna am- 
plectens, anthera cuculata 4luc. pollinis 8. stylo 
tubo adnato, stigma infundib. caps, ventricosa 
contorta. Caulescens. — Is it the Octomeria? 
of late xluthors. 

903. Abuochis Neck. 1470. difl^. Orchis, pe- 
talis 5 ineq. label, resupinato Ld basi galei- 


forme calcarato, antheris 2 cuculatis. Ovar. 
contortnm. Scaposn. Nccker only says this 
includes 10 of the linncan Orchis, diticreiit 
from his Dactijlorkiza with fasciciihued roots, 
a suhg. of Orcliis. It must include some Ha- 

901, CoiLosTYLis R. (hollow St.) did; Epi- 
dendrum. Fetalis 5 eq. patulis, label, ad col. 
inserto, 3 part, lateralis ciliatis latis, medialis 
nuda linearis, columna vel stylo clavato, apex 
infundib. labiato bialato, stig. antherisque inter 
cavitas inclusis. Terrestrial, subcaidescens,fL 
racem. amplis.—'Y wo types blended as Lp. 
linearis L. 1. Coil, ohtusifolia Raf. fol. 2. 
biiiulatis obt. connatis, petalis linearib, cuspida- 
tis, columna campanul. dentata, lab. lac. media, 
elongata. In Antilles, root clavate, flowers tri- 
imcial petals greenish, lip and column white. — 
2 Coil, emarginata R. Ep. ciliare b. m. 463 
non L- Ep. cuspidatum Led. 10. b. reg. 7S3. 
fol. ternis bigulatis emarg. petalis lanceol. An- 
tilles, fl. large yellow, the column white. 

905. Okxera R. diff. Aerides, label, infundi 
bulif. calcar conico incurvo, col. rostrata, an- 
thera rostrata basi 2loc. pollen 2 Parasit. 
caidesc. fl. spicatis. — Type (). cormita R. 
Aerides do Roxb. b. reg. 1485. fol. lii^uiatis 
apice obliq. emarg. spicis pendulis racemosis — 
India, fl. white incarnate, smell of tuberose. 
The Aerides or air flowers differ from Kpid. by 
a spur. 

906. SuLPiTi\ R. (Nymph) difl*. Epid. La- 
hello libero 3lobo, disco callo magno obi. sulca- 
to, col. auric, stigm. cavo cordato, anthera nu- 
da terminalis. Parasit. bulbisterresiris hifolia- 
iis, spicatis — Type S. odorata R. Epid. do. b. 
reg. 1415, Encyclia patens Hock. b. m. 3013. 


Macradenia tio Ludj bu{l)is ovatis sulcatis, fol. 
. 2, lis^ulatis casiijati?, sp. racem. paiJciH. bract, 
breviss. sepalis obov. snbeq. iabello brevis. Bra- 
zil, £jreen iVai,'rant flowers. This like the next 
has; been shuliled in various alien Genera. 

907. OiuiosrEi^iA R. (neclvlace stem) diff. 
Ep'id. petalis subeq. ovatis, 3 ext. basi gibbosis 
coalitis, Iabello conformi cuculato ovato acute 
basi scrobiculato. Caidib. c/nvalis, arficulis 
trimldls monUlf. fol. (Usiiclns extr-axiUaris 
— Types 1. O. purpnrfa R. (Epid. monilif. L. 
Dendrobium do Sw. W. b. reg. 1314.) fol. cbl. 
obliq. einarg. obt. petiolis dilat. amplex. China, 
fl. purple — 2. O. albijhtra R. Epid. monile 
Thunb I diff. fol. acutis, fl. albis. Japan. 

998. Jp:nsoa R. (Jap. bot.) diff. Epid. peta- 
lis obi. 2 internis, label, obi. basi cucul. apice 
deflexo obt. col. curva antice concava, stigm. 
obt. antheris '2 anticis, caps, teres tortilis. Sca- 
piisa, genlc. fol. ensalis. — Type /. ensata R. 
(Epid. do L. Limodornm do Th) fol. glndiatis, 
scapo tcreti genicul. bract, vagin. lanceol. Ja- 
pai!, B. yellow, spicate ? 

909. JiMENsiA R. (Jap. bot.) Petalis ovatis 
concavis, *2 internis, label, trifido emarg. basi 
callis 2 obi. medio concavo, col. filif. incurva, 
stig. bifid, concavo, antheris 2 dorsalis, capsula 
clavata. 8caposa,foh gladiaiis^fl. spicatis — 
Type /, fieri'osa R. Limodorum striatum Th. 
fl. jap. scapo angulato, fol. rad. glad, nervosis, 
fl. cernuis, bracteatis. Japan, fl. yellow. The 
G. Limodorum contained many anomalies also, 
sp. with or without spurs, beards or no beards, 
many kinds of pillars or styles or clinandresifec. 
The shapes of capsules will afford good charac- 
ters in Orchides too much neglected heretofore. 
The Japanese, Chinese, Hindu and Arabic bo- 

CENTtrUIA X. 39 

tanists deserve comernoration like ours. 

910. DinoTiiiGN 11. {"2 warts) tlili*. Fjnd. La- 
hello tripartito bai^i bioalloso, lac. p.jcdia iinguic. 
oviita acuta, col. clavata, cap-ula filiformis. 
caiile (U'lic. clarato, bifollatiK sea pis stjuam. 
imhric. JJ. splcalis — Type JJ. clavatum \\. 
Kpid, do L. &.C. bot. reg. 1870. fol. term. lan- 
ceolatis binis.petalis lin, ciineatis aculis. Cuma- 
na, fl. green, lij) wliite. 

1)11. l)iciiorir\LA II. (bici>l. ibl.) petr:\lis 3 
superis galeatis coalitis basi gibbosis, 'Z inferis 
patens, labello oblougo basi buliato didyrno ad- 
natoque, longe nnguic. canalic. Antliera oper- 
culata 21oc. 2pollen. IScaposa, rhizomata^ fl. 
splcalis — Type D. rJrga US R. Gocdyera dis- 
color E. bot. reg. 271. ibl. ovatis ellipt. cuspid, 
subtus margineque rubris, scajm spathaceo. 
Brazil, fine sp. rhizoma violet, fl. white, very 
long claw to the lip. 

912. Ii:niNE R. (Jap. name) petalis resupi- 
natis unguicul. ovatis, 3 externis, label io supero 
ovato basi bicalloso apice galeato, col. seinite- 
res, antheris 2 sess. caps, filif. tortilis. Scapo- 
sa fl. splcalis — 'I'ype /. h('rrosa-]X^. Oplirys do 
'1 h. fl. jap. fol. rad. ovatobi. nervosis suicatis, 
scapo nudo angulato. Japan, spike of purplish 
incarnate flowers. Unlike any of tlie G. remo- 
ved from Ophrys, habit of Spiranthes and 

913. DoTiiiLOPnis R. (wait created) diffl 
Epid. sepalis 3 lane, petalis 2 ovatis, labello 
er»nforme ovato acum. integro concavo, basi 
cailo sulcato cristato, ad col. adherens, caules- 
cens fl. spicatis amplis bract ea lis — Type X>. 
purpurea R. Epid. Skinneri Lindl. b. reg. 188 L. 
fol. amplex. lato lanceol. acutis bract, obi. bre- 
vis. Guatemala, fine large purple flowers^ 


another blended G. the warts or glands of the 
lip afford excellent i^eneric characters. 

911. PsYcniLis R. (butterfly lip) diff. Epid. 
petalis eq. labello unguicul. libero, latere biala- 
to, disco incrassato lobato, apex obcord. Bul- 
bis terrestris trlfo/tatls, scopo raghiato fl. 
thifrsoldeis — Type P^. amena Jiaf. (Epid. bifi- 
diim Alibi. Svv, VV. Red. 64, b. reg. 1879) Bul- 
bisobl. artic. striatis, fol. term. 3el!ipt. obt. tri- 
nervis fl. laxis, petalisobl. acutis. South Amer, 
beautiful and strange flowers, petals green dot- 
ted purple, the lip tricolor wliite red and 

915. Psvcnopsis R (butterfly form) diff. On- 
ctdlum, petalis bilabiatis, 3 ext. eq. lin. erec- 
tis, 2 internis recurvis falcatis undul. labello 3 
lobo, disco crista triloba, Col. bialata fimbria- 
ta glandul, anthera term 21oc. goleata 4poIlin, 
Balbls terreslrisunifol. scapo arllc. paurifl, 
— Type P. picta R. Oncidium papilio Lind. b. 
r. 910, H. b. m. 2795. liulbis violaceis, folia 
ovata fusca, viride picta, scapo anceps. Trini- 
dad, quite distinct G. near the last, large flow- 
ers 3 or 4 inches wide, variegated of yellow and 

916. Gynizodon R diff. Onclrlium, petalis 
eq. labello truncate mucron.Einuato,disco lamel- 
lis sinuato dentatis truncatis. Col. bialata, gyni- 
zus bident. Balbis tcr. foL subtus ft supra bul- 
bf.s, scapis pnucijl — Type G. russrllanum R. 
One. do Lind. b. reg. 1830. Bulbis ovat. angul. 
fol. lanceol. petalis ovatis acu;n. label, obovato. 
Brazil, large flowers fuscate, lip with purple 
spots. What different G. from the last! 

917. LopHiARis. R (thick crest) Petalis 
carnosisconformis, labello pandurato, disco cris- 
ta triloba carnosa, Col. alis carnosis, anthera 


cristata. Acaulis^scapo ramoso — Type L.fra- 
grans Raf. (Epidcndrum ! lanceanum Lind. b. 
reg. 1887) Ibl. lato obi. uervosis carnosis, fl. 
confertis, petal is ovatis undulatis. Guyana, fl- 
yellovv with purple spots, lip purple, fine smell 
like Aerides and Pink. Genus nearer to On- 
cidium and the last than to E})idendrum ! 

918. DiTLiLiMA li. (2 warts stig) diff. Den- 
flrobltim, pet. ext. ovat. connatis, 2int. minor, 
lab. unguicul. cuiieato emarg, sine callo, stigma 
bicalloso inter cavitas, anthera pedicel, pollen 4 
didyma libera. Canle nriicul. foL dlstichis^fl. 
axil. — Type D. anceps R. (Dendr. do Sw. W. 
b. reg. 1*239.) cauiecompresso, articulis cuneat. 
truncat. fol. lanceol. ensatis fl. nutans, lab. cre- 
nulato. Bengal, Pegu, fl. greenish. 

919. PiERAKDiA R. diff. Dendrobium, pet. 
3 ext. lane. 2 int. latior, lab. spatuiato, unguic. 
lato invol. basi saccato calcarato. caule para- 
sit. artic.fol. alt.Jl. spiralis — Type P. blcolor 
R. (Dendrob. pierardi Lod.^750, Hook. b. m. 
2584) fol. lanceol. patulis,labcllo obovato acute. 
Bengal, petals wliitc, lip yellowish base pur- 
plish. How diftcrent from last genus! 

920. Paxstrepis R. (quite twisted) petalis 
omnis difformis angul. tortilis, 2int. minor, lab. 
stipit. basi ct a pice saccato, medio plicato, col. 
bicornib. 2 tubul. mclliiluis, BidMs ier. unifol, 
scapo nnljl. — Type P. paradoxa Raf. bulbis 
costatis, folia lanceol. Snerva, scapo pendulo, 
bract, tortilis, ovario sulc. non tortilis. Carac- 
cas, flower yellow with purple dots, lip orange, 
a most singular flower which Hooker could 
hardly describe and has wrongly united to 2 
Genera, being hisGongora and Coryanthes ma- 
crantha, b. misc. 80, b. mag. 3102. Lind. b. reg. 


921. Plectrelmintiius R. (spur vvorrn)dift., 
Angrecum, pet. cq. lane. acum. lab. obov. ro- 
strato serrato, calcar longissime vcnniformis 
flexuoso apicc bilobo, col. basi angul. rostellata, 
pollinis 2 caudatis. Rad. fasc. teret. fol. im- 
brie, scapis dhnsis. — Type PI. bicolor R. 
Angr. caiidatum Lind. b. reg. 1844. fol. canal, 
emarg. scapis pendulis flexuosis 4fl. West Africa 
fl. green, lip white, spur 9 or 10 inches long — 
Angr. sesquipedale of Thouars is perhaps a se- 
cond species. 

922. Onkeripus R. (swelled beneath) diff. 
Maxillarla, cor. basi saccata, petalis subeq. 
connivens, lab, integro undulato, basi bituber- 
cul. pollinis 4 ineq. binis anticis brevior. para- 
sit, bulb. ter. scapis radic. — Type O. pallidus 
R. (Maxill. pallidifl. Hook. b. mag. 2806.) bul- 
bis teretis, fol. lato lanceol. 'trinervis, scapo 
breve, bract, linearib. St. Vincent Antilles, fl. 
pale yellow. Maxillaria is another heteroge- 
nous G. of 40 sp. requiring revision, Lindley 
unites Colax and Xylobium to it wrongly, no 
constant characters even in pollen ! compare 
Dendrobium and Xylobium squalens with this 

923. Pentulops R. (5 warts like) diff. Max- 
illaria, sepalis 3 ext. longior liberis, petalis 2 
minor basi coalitis, labello cuculato, integro, 
basi callis 5 paralelis cristeformis. Bvlh. ter. 
unifol. scapo squamosa paucijl. — Type P. 
discolor R. (Maxil. do Hook. b. m. 1549. Xy- 
lobium Lindl.) Bulbis ovatis levis, folia ovata 
ellipt. acum. niultinervis, Jamaica &c flowers 
ochroleucos few on short radical scaly scapes. 
Quite unlike the last G. except in habit. 

924. TuLEXis K. (warts outside) petalis pa- 
tulis tuberrulatis, lab. imdul, carinato truncato, 


col. erecta antice bident. postice .'Ment. ciliata, 
afitliera Slocul. capsula tereta tuberculata. 
Terreslris, ratL fil^r. cam. scapis artic. uni- 
fol. unijl. — Type T. hicolor Raf. (Brassavola 
tuberculata Hook. b. ni. 2878) folia crassa gra- 
niinea acum, supra sulcata, pet. lin. lanceol. 
Brazil, fl yellow with red spots, lip white. — 
The type of the G. Brassavola was Epidendrum 
cuculatum b. ni. 513 or Cymbidiuin do Sw. W. 
witii undivided ciliated lip with flat claw and 
smooth petals, capsule ^-c. Cymbidiuin inclu- 
ded many G. the C. echinocarpon and muri- 
catuni must be compared with this. 

9*25. Lysimnia R. (Nymph) diff. Brassavola 
and Tulexis, petalis eq. linearib. levis, lab. cor- 
data acum. integro unque longior, col. integra 
postice calcarata, capsula clava levis. Epi- 
phyta j^ad. vermlc et bulb, unifoliata scapo 
sqaamoso paucijloro, — Type L. hicolor R. 
(Brassav. cordata Lindl. b. reg. 1914. folia ang. 
lanceol. carinata, scapo sq. remotis paucifl. 
Brazil fl. green, lip white, small round bulbs 
niixt with the worm like roots. Thus quite dif- 
ferent from last G, 

920. DiLOMiLis R. (2 brim lipj diff*. Octome- 
ria, petalis eq. patulis lin. labello libero ligulato 
vix trilobo, disco bialato vel cristatis 2 longitud. 
crassis, anthera opercuK Sloe. Spol. caulescens, 
fol. dlstichis, fl. s\ylcatis — Type D. serrata R. 
(Octom. do Hook. b. mag. 2823) fol, lin. lanceol. 
apice dentic, serratis, spica laxa paucifl. Bra- 
zil, 11. whitish. Quite distinct in habit and 
characters from the real Octomeria with ad- 
nate lip, type Dendrob. angustif. W. 

927. Enotiirea R. (nymph) diff'. Octomeria, 
petalis subeq. connivens ovatis acum, lab. con- 
forme basi bilobo tuberculis 2 oblongis, col. se- 


miteres, anthera ovata, 21oc. poll. 8 in fascicu- 
lis 2 coalitis. Rhizoma repens squam, scapis 
tinifol.jl. axil. — Type E. graminifolia R. sca- 
pis setosis, folia lanceol. pe^lunculis axillaris ge- 
minata. Antilles. Wrongly put into 3 G. Epi- 
dendrum graminif. L. Dendrobium do W. Oc- 
tomeria do Hook. b. m. 2764. All these G. 
with 8 stamens or pollen form the group Octo- 
merides with many Genera. 

928. FrosculaR. (Nymph) petalisS lanceol. 
supero fornicato, 2 lat. cum columna adnatis, 
desinens cum labello in calcar conico, lab. cu- 
cul. infundib. dentic. Col. brevis cava biloba, 
anthera 21oc, opercul. pollen sulcato bipartibi- 
lis caps, (lexuosa. Caulcscens pauclfl. — Type 
Fr. hispida R. caulib. erectis hispidisflexuosis, 
fol. lauceol. obt. apice, oblique emarg. fl. 1-3 
term. sess. bracteis ovatis brevis calcar rigido 
obt. Mts. of Nipal, fl, white, lip with yellow 
streaks, Q,uite a peculiar G. although it is 
Dendrobium longicornu Lindl. b. reg. 1315. 
More akin to G. Pedilomim of Elume, but the 
type of it is Dendr. secundum of Sumatra, with 
petals equal secund like fingers, all coalescent 
with lip entire into a spur, stem articulate ^c. 

929. Hecabe R. (nymph) diff. Bletia, peta- 
lis 5 patulis, lab. calcarato 31obo, lobis invol. 
crenato undul. col. libera semiteres, anthera ad 
apice immersa, pollen 4 bilobis, Bidhis ter. 

poliosis, scapis later, artic. spicatis. — Type 
n. lutea R. (Bl. wood ford i Hook. b. m. 2719) 
bulbis striatis, caule folioso sterilis, fol. lane, 
acutis plicatis macul. scapis radicalis floriferis. 
Trinidad, fl. yellow. Very distinct G. the Gen- 
era VacJiyne Sal. or P/iaius Lour. Spathoglo- 
tis Blume, — Gyas Sal. or my Anthogyas, have 


all been blended in Bletia by Hooker den. — 
Also my Hexalectris, see 940- 

930. CociiLEANTiiEs R. (sliell fl.) petalis con- 
nivens ovat. undid, lab. cochleato bilobo, basi 
crista cochleata (ut pecton plicata.) calcar col. 
clavata, anth. 21oc. 2labiata, pollinia 4eq. cau- 
lescens, fl. axillaris — Type C. fragrans 11. 
fol. lanceol. Snervis, pedic. Ifl. axillaris. Trini- 
dad, fl. ample fragrant white, lip purple. It is 
Zygopetalurn cochleare Lindl. b. reg. 1857, but 
quite a different G. from ^. maJcai H. b. ni. 
2748, with petals secund, lip flabellate with a 
spur, anther calciform, 4 uneq. pollen. The Z. 
rostratum b. m. 2819 is probably another G. 
Menadenium Raf. no spur, pillar winged, lunu- 
lar gland &!.c. The Epid. fragrans and emii- 
luni appear to form a subg. near these, Bulbo- 
DicTis Raf. by petals free equal, lip cocheate 
entire bulbs reticulate <Slc. 

931. Cyfkifedium L. auct. This fine Genus 
has lately been increased by many sp. and some 
appear the types of peculiar Genera or subg. 
at least. One of them forms my G. Criosanlhes 
established since 1817. I propose the following 
subgenera or rather Genera: for the N. Amer. 
sp. see my new flora. 

932. Sacodon R. (bag toothed) difl. petalo 
infero bident. lab. saccato orifice dentato, col. 
obi. incurva, 2 anth. calcaratis ad basis, ap- 
pendice ovali obt. sulcato Caulescens. — Types 
1 C. ventricosum W. Sweet 1. 1. pet, 2 int. an- 
gustis longis, orif. emarg. dentis parvis — 2 C. 
macranthon W. Sw. Hook. b. m. 2938, pet. 2 
int. subeq. ovat. basi villosis, lab. reticul. orif. 
parvo. — Both from Sibiria with red fl. smooth 
unifl. leaves ovate undulate nervose. 

933. Stimegas R. (stig. large) diff. petalis 


jiicq. sup. reuit'. cuculato, 2 int. cilialis ciineatis 
obt, lal)ello paiulurato l)asi ciiciil apex calci- 
fonno, col. apex dihitata in stigma trilobo,anth. 
2 ad basis lateralis. Scapo utiifl. fol. rad. 
(Ustichis — Type St. venusiiimYl. Cypr. do 11. 
b. ni. 2129. Lindl. b. reg. 78S. fol. lanceol. obi. 
acum. canalic. enervis macul. scapo villoso. — • 
Fine sp. of Nepal, leaves with purple dots be- 
neath, fl. varied of purple and green. 

934. CoRDULA R. (nymph) diff. pet. sup. for- 
nicato emarg. 2 lat. ellipt. unduL lab. brevisac- 
cato integro non fisso, col. obcord. sine app. 
dorsalis, filaui. 2 pendulis antheriferis ineq. bi- 
lobis. Scapo unijl. — Type C. insignis R. 
Hook. ex. fl. 34. b. mag. 34l2, Lod. 1321 fol. 
hgulatis, scapo piloso, bractea obi. obt. fl. eq. 
Also from Nipal, large green fl. with purple 
spots and veins. 

935. Menephora R. (moon bearing) diff*. lab. 
basi canalic. apex auricul. saccata, append, 
lunato. Scapo unlji. — Type M. hicolor Raf. 
fol. obi. acut. macul. scapo pubescens, pet, sup. 
ciliato margine revohito, ceteris obi. undulatis. 
Borneo and Java, seen alive in gardens, fl. dull 
purple, but upper petal white broader ovate. 

936. Criosanthes Raf. 1817. Arietinum 
Beck 1833. ditf. petalis 5 (non 4,) 4 Hnearis, 1 
supero latior, labello parvo obconico inflato 
acuto, caiilescens — Type Cr. parviflora R. 
1817. Arietinum Americanum Beck 1833. 
Cyprip. arietinum. Pursh and Amer. bot — 
fol. lanceol. pet. sup. ovatobl. acuto pet. 2 inf. 
deflexis, lab. reticulato. Canada and Mts. of 
Vermont Slc. fl. small, greenish brown, having 
the aspect of a Ram's head whence my name. 
This G. even lack the character of 4 petals, I 

CKNTt'KIA X. 47 

have it in my herbal. Cordifin lacks the ap- 
pendix, yet these 2 cliaracters were the main of 
the Genus, that must therefi)re he reformed. 
They are the types of my family of Ditlan iiil- 
UEs established 1815 in order of Ouciiides. 

937. TiiicuANiA Raf. (Birm. name) difl". E- 
pidendruni, petalis 3 ext. ianceol. obt. hinis in- 
feris gibbis coalitis, 2 internis ovatis major, lab. 
cuculato basi carinato, apice bicorne, col. adna- 
ta inter cornib. enata, antheris 2. stig. fovea 
melliflua desinens intuboovario penetrans, cap- 
sula longissima teres. Frutlcosa scandens^ 
nrtlculata, fol. alt. distichis. — Type Th. mos- 
chala Raf. Epid. do, Buchanan ic. in Symes 
travel^. Ramosa sulcata, fol. bifaria Ianceol. 
obt. spicis laxis oppositifol. In the Birm an em- 
pire, fl. yellow very fragrant, purple spots on 
lip, bracts striated. I thus add another beau- 
tiful G. near Vanilla, same habit, but also akin 
to Dendrobium, diifercrit from all l)y lip and 

938. IsoTRiA Raf 1808. pet. ineq. 3 ext. eq. 
longis linearib. canalicul. 2 int. ovatolanceol. 
dimidio brevior, lab. triiobo, lobo medio undul. 
emarg. disco glandula magna tubercul, cristata. 
subtus sulcata, col. subquadrata, stigma fossula 
scabro, anthera term, mobilis opcrc. pedicelata 
quadrata, caps, filif. clavata. Rnd. fnscic. foL 
term, vertic. caale unJfl. — Types 1. Is. rcrii- 
Hllata Raf. Arcthusa and Pogonia do auct. fol. 
5 obi. Ianceol. acum. petalis internis ovatis ob- 
tusis. Swamps from New York to Georgia 
says Beck, ll. fuscate outside, pale inside, 2. 
/. medeoloidcs. Arethusa do auct. fol. 5 obov. 
acum. petalis internis acutis, Woods of New 
Jersey &c, podal, fl. fuscate purplish outside 
inner petals yellow, lip dull yellow, ^land yellow. 


Uiulcr the names of Arethusa medeoloides and 
vGitic. the American Authors have hlended 2 
or 3 plants, of same hahit, very unhkc the other 
Orchides, but hardly of same Genus, which I 
noticed since 1804, see my new flora for other 
particulars. All quite distinct from Pogonia 
ophioglossoides in habit and flowers. ManyG. 
were blended in Arethusa, the A. ciliaris L. 
else Orchis pectinata W. is the Bartholinia do 
of Brown akin to Blephariglotis but habit un- 
like unifoliate. 

939. Odonectis Raf. 1808. Pet. ineq. 3 ext. 
lanceol. acut. 2 int. cuneatis emarg. lab. cuneat. 
Sdentato, capsula clavata. Cetera et fades 
ut Isotrla — Type O. verticillata JX,. fol. 5-6 ro- 
tatis obi. lanceol. fl. l-3termin. sessilib. Mts. 
Alleghany, disc. 1804, pedal, perhaps a subg. 
of last. 

940. Hexalectris Raf. 1825 ncog. diff. 
JUetia^ lab, ecalcarat. Gcristato, col. clavata, 
antheris 2 fissura dehiscens. Bidhosa, aphyla, 
sca.po squainoso ji. racemosls — Type H. 
squamosa Raf Arethusa spicata Walt. Ble- 
tia aphylla Nuttal &c. Scapo tereto, squamis 
ovatis imbricatis, labello divaric. trifido venoso. 
Florida &c, pedal, fl. brownish purple. Quite 
distinct by habit from all the Bletias, also by 
lack of spur and not 4 anthers. 

' 941. Anistylis Raf 1825 neog. Liparis sp. 
Lindl. diff*, petalis patentib. 3 ext. lincarib. 2 int. 
filiformis, lab. obovato integro, basi melliflua, 
apice bialata involvcns anthera oporcul. bilocul, 
capsula tortilis, halhosa, Oifoliafa, fl. spicalis. 
— Types the American sp. of Malaxis, blended 
even with M. lilifolia and loeseli of Europe, al- 
though not even of same Genus. 1 . A> conval- 
laria. 2. A, hitea ^r. My subg. Dlphryllum 


1808 ditt'ers by internal petals bifid. The real 
G. Liparis or rather iny Mesoptcra (since there 
is a G. of fish Liparis) differs by 2 lateral wings 
to the middle of the pillar and bilobed lip. The 
G. Listera of Brown dilfers by wingless column. 
All have the same habit, see my monograph in 
New Flora, 

942. DiTuiLis R. (2 wart lip) diff. from Lis- 
tera and Liparis by 2 warts on the lip, parasite 
plants. Type D, nepalensis Raf. Liparis bi- 
tuberculata Lindley. 

943. AcROANTHEs R. 1808 (uncolored f1.) 
Microstylis Nut. 1818. This G. was once a 
Malaxis, 1 published it ten years before Nuttal 
in my remarks on Am. Gen. See my Mono- 
graph in New Flora, but Lindley has added 
many sp. to Microstylis some of which require 
revision. — I could still increase my N. G. of 
Orchides by other types, but these surely evince 
how much remained to be done in revising them. 
The lips, spurs, crests, pillars (also called cli- 
nandre, androphore &.c) glands, capsules &c, 
offer good characters often neglected for the 
anthers and pollens. The uniflore Disa like 
/>. grandiflora are the type of the Genus, D. 
cornula and other spiked sp. must form my G, 
Gamaria — Eria and Stenia of Lindley worst 
of his names are my Exeria and Stenopolen 
— His Sophronia or Sophronitis, name preocu- 
pied is my Lopfioglotis ^'C. His Georchis is 
inadmissible unless Orchis be abolished, it is my 
Geohina. His Mon- Acanthus is my Cucu- 
lina SfC. I nov» conclude the Orchides and 
shall end the Monocotyles by a few G. of Dri- 


944. Endocodon R. (in bell) dilf. Maravta,, 



cor. triplex, ext. 3parf, eq. media 3part. ineq. 
interna 3part. ineq. 2 segm. latior. 1 labellif. 
cucul. anthera unica Hoc. ferens, stylus filif. 
basi coalito, stigma infundib. capsula 31oc. 3sp. 
Scaposa, Jl. congestis panicul. in spatha cam' 
panulata. — Type E. zebrinum Raf. Maranta 
do bot. mag. 1926, bot. reg. 385. fol. longe pe- 
tiol. ellipt. obt. raaculatis, scapis fol. brevior, 
spathis erosis 2-3j9. Brazil, singular habit akia 
to Calathea. 

945. Zelmira R. (nymph) diff. Calathea,ca.\. 
Ssepalus, cor. duplex, infundib. limbi 3part. la- 
cinia 1 major difformis cuculata cornuta, filam. 
bilob. lobo unico antherifero, stigma fistulosuin- 
rostratum, caps. 3loc. 3sp. caulescens, fl- capi- 
talist spathis concentricis. — Type Z. violacea 
Raf. cal. doLindl. b. reg. 961. fol. ovatis petiol. 
capitulo ovali multiioro. Brazil. The real G. 
Calathea has corolla regular, 3 petaloid sta-^ 
mens, 2 sterile, style curved, stigma concave, 
type C. grandifl. C. longibraeteata, unless the 
G. Calla and Thea. become Provenzalia and my 
Theaphyla 1830, this will be an erroneous com- 

946. SiPiTOTRiA R. (tubes 3) diff. Alpinia^ 
cal, duplex utrinque tubulatis bilabiatis vel. 
ineq. 31obo, labio l-2dent. cor. tubulosa labio in- 
cluso, stam. sessilis. Caule folioso diviso ad 
scapo squamosa. — Type S. squamosa Raf. 
Alp. tubulata Edw. b. reg. 777. fol. lanceol. 
undul. acutis, scapo radic. brevis squamoso. 
Guyana, fl. redish. Quite distinct from Alpinra 
by tubular perigones. 

947. BcJERiA R. (bot.) diff. Alpinia, cal. 3 
fid- ineq. stylo filif. pubesc. basi glarda biloba, 
stig. capit. lissm'a transv. caps. 31oc. sem. pyrif. 
in pulpa. — Type B. magnijica R. Alp. do. Ros- 


coe, Hook. b. mag. 3192 who says it ought to 
be a Genus. Mauritius Id- If Bojer had a 
G. already, we may substitute Doxantiies 
meaning glorious flowers. Brown has wrongly 
united Reneahnia of L. to Alpinia, and framed 
a N. G. Renealmia my Ezcria near my Olsy- 
nium differing by unequal petals, but his R. pul- 
chella with 3 inner petals subeq. unguic. and 
free stamens is probably an Orthrosantes, 

948. Ilythuria R. (nymph) diff. Thalia, cal. 
3part. eq. acum. cor. tubo trigono, limbus du- 
plex, ext. 3fid. eq. undul. intern. 3fid. ineq. uno 
segm. cuculato, filam. petaloid. bipart. anthera 
unica clavata adnata, stylo teres incurvo, stig. 
concavo, drupa uniloc. — Type 11. cannaformis 
Raf. Thalia do, Forst, Pers. Buch. ic. in Symes ~y 

travels, dichot. fol. ovat. ellipt. acum. petiolis 
spathaceis, pedic. artic. furcatis multifl. fl. alt. 
spathis lane, from Pegu to Polynesia. — The 
Thalia geniculata of America agrees in nothing 
but the fruit a drupe stated to be bilocular by 
L. the corolla has 5 petals only, the 2 internal 
urceolate, the filament is lanceolate &-c. It is 
the type of Thalia. 

949. Spirostylis R. diff. Thalia, cal. 3sepa- 
lis subeq. ovatis acutis, cor. duplex. 6petala, pet. 
3 ext. obov. eq. 3 int. ineq. filam. petaliform 
apice concavo, basi ferens anthera Hoc. longe 
pedunc. filif. stylo spiralis, stig. magno labiato 
concavo; fructus obov. levis nux flexilis Hoc. 1 
sperma. Acaulis, fl, panic, spathis Realms 
2/1 — Type Sp. hiflora Raf. Thalia dealbata 
Rose. Pursh. El. .&.c fol. petiol. ovatis, fl. panic, 
spathis 2fl. subeq. convol. Florida and Caro- 
lina, seen alive, fl. purplish binate small sessile. 
Nearer to Ilythuria by fruit and corolla, but 



distinct by petals, style, anther. I had called it 
Malacarya in 1817. 

950. Xypuostylis R. diff. Canna, cor. basi 
tubulosa, segm. 3 int. ineq. undul. filam. ineq. 
bipart. anthera adnata, stylo ensiformis, stig. 
lin. involute — Types 1. X. lutea Raf. Canna flac- 
cida Rose, and Amer. Authors, fol. ovatobl. fl. 
luteis — 2. X. angustif. R. Canna do W. auct, 
fol. lanceol. fl. rubris, cor. segm. int. rectis 
emarg. Both from Florida to Louisiana. The 
real G. Canna (root of Canna-bis) or rather 
Katubala of Adanson has style clavate, stigma 
obtuse and other differences, 

D51. CRATODIA Raf. 1815. This order 
of mine distinguished from Orchides by a calix 
and fruit commonly multilocular, was the Nat. 
fam.ily Scitaminea of Linneus ; but this name 
has been restricted to the Gr. Musa, Heliconia 
and akin with berries <Slc by Ventenat, The 
Gini^embres of Adanson or Cratophytorum of 
Necker included also the Bromehdes properly 
separated by Jussieu. But many Nat. fami- 
lies are included in the Cratodes, besides Sci- 
tamines, such as 

Drymiriiizes of Ventenat, Types Amomum, 
Maranta, Alpinia, ^c Curcumides a subfamily 
with several stamens. 

Stratides Raf. 1815, types Stratiotes, Hy- 
drocharis &c, and perhaps Aspidistra with Ma- 

The Valisnerides and Pistides with unilo- 
cular fruit, may with the Cratodes that have 
such a fruit, be formed into a link with Orchi- 
des, as a Sub Order of either, or perhaps a pe- 
culiar order Synarmes Raf. 1815. To revise 
all the akin Genera would be a task, at present 
I shall merely indicate two old Genera of Adan- 


son and Necker that appear to have been for- 
gotten. It has been properly stated that not- 
withstanding the labors of Roscoe and others 
these families require as much correction as 
the Orchides. 

952. PsYDARANTA Ncckcr 1488, diff. Ma- 
ra?ita, cal. 3sepala caduca, cor. tubulosa 5part. 
1 lac. bifida, anth. obi. tubo insidens pedic. 
stylo clavato basi adnato, capsula ovata 31oc, 
polysp. Scaposa, spnthis bifar. Type Ps. co- 
mosa Raf. Maranta do L. auct. which L. inti- 
mated was a peculiar Genus, the caulescent 
types of Maranta have a drupe 31oc. 3sp. stig. 
trigone, cal. 3part. cor. ringent &;C. 

953. Zingiber Ad. diff. AmomuTn, cal. tubul. 
3fid. cor. duplex, ineq. bilab. lab. sup, integro, 
inf. bipart. cor. interna 3loba 4'C. This G. 
Ginger must be restored, it includes several sp. 
and the Am. zerumbet ; but A. zedoaria is per- 
haps a Genus Zedoaria Raf. The G. Paco- 
seroca of Adanson was Amomuin L. with equal 
corolla. The Costus echinatus W. P. must 
form a G. Acinax Raf. diff. from Costus by 
capsule baccate echinate. The G. Hellenia 
same as Helenium L. must be changed into 
Alla^as Raf. 

954. Melorima R. (honey pit5>) diff. Fritil- 
laria, petalis 6 campanul. 3 int. obov. latior, 
omnis basi ext. gibbosis, intus fossula melea, 
stam. 6 glabris filif. anth. lin. stig. 3. Pol. opp. 
et vertic. cirrhosis, Jl. axill, — Type K. cirr- 
hosa R. Frit, do Grab. Imperialis leucantha 
Fischer. Fol. inf. oppos. ovatis, sup. vertic. lin. 
lanceol. carinatis cirrhosis, f^. paucis axill. pen- 
dulis. Altaic Mts. fl. white. Add this G. to 
the Lilies near my G. Baimo 867, with same 
habit, and my Hexorima of 1808 sp. of Strep- 



955. Veronica L. I begin the revision of this 
fine series of plants by a Genus that I had divi- 
ded into ten groups before 1815: few Botanists 
have seen the necessity of this, and except 
Hebe hardly any have been attempted ever 
since, except Leptandra of Nuttal which was 
my Calistachjfa of 1808. Yet this G. contains 
over 100 sp. offering the greatest anomahes of 
good characters. 1 shall now reform it into 14 
Genera and 8 subgenera quite distinct, that 
form quite a peculiar family my VERONICIA 
of 1815, with Pederota, Solomonia and all the 
diandrous G. wrongly united to Pediculares by 
Jussieu or Scrophularides by others. They are 
easily known by corolla subregular, 2 stamens, 
one stigma, capsule bilocular, partition contrary 
to valves «J'C. The real G. Veronica will be 
yet very prolific and known by calix 4partito 
ineq. 2minor. corolla subrotata, Aloha subeq. 
1 minor, stam. "2 glabris filif. slylo filif. cap- 
sula compressa. 2 locuL sub 4valv. oligosper^ 
ma. — It contains 7 subg. at least. 

1 . Becabunga 11, caps, obcord. compressa, 
cal. ineq. — Types almost all the sp. Ver. beca- 
bunga, anagallls, arvensis, digitata, precox, 
reniformis, pectinata, and many other sp. but 
the Authors seldom notice the differential char- 

2. Isonica Raf. capsula obcord. vel. biscu- 
lata, compr. cal. 4part. equalis. — Types V. c/ia-^ 
medrifs, peduncularis, urticifolia, biloba, ver^ 
na, pinnata, scutellata, complicata &c. 

3. Fimhrida R. caps, biscutata, cal. ineq. 



ampla finibriato. — Types V. agrestis, calycina, 
and akin species. 

4. Orboiiica R. caps, orbicul. compressa,cal. 
obov. amplo — Type V. arguta &c, 

5. Dodecula R. cal. 4part. subeq. cuneatis 
trifidis — Type V. glauca Sm. fl. gr. 17. procera, 
fol. cord, serrat. ped. Ifloris. 

6. Alponica R. cal. bracteato cil. caps. obov. 
emarg. stylo persistens, stig. capitato. — Types 
V. alpina, WormsJdoldi, &.c. 

7. Endasia R. cal. 4part. corolla 4part. un- 
dulata, crenata faux villosa. caps, ovata semi 4 
valv. — Types V. maritima, splcata, spuria, 
cre?iulata, elliptica <^c. 

8. Meionica R. cal, 4fidus subeq. caps, or- 
biculata vel truncata — Types V. montana, tau- 
rica, pedunculata &c. 

956. Odicardis R. (2 teeth heart) diff. Ve- 
ronica, cal, diphyllo. sepalis magnis cordatis 
serratis bidentatis. Capsula biscutellata 2 loc. 
2sp. marg. dehiscens, sem. concavis pendulis 
rugosis (in V. plerumque planis levis) — Type 
Od. cristagalli R. Ver. do Stev. Sm. fol. ovatis 
serratis sess. fl. solit. axill. Mts. Caucasus. 

957. Panoxis R. 1830 m. fl. diff". Veronica, 
cal. 4part. eq. cor. tubulosa 4fida eq. caps. obi. 
acuta. — Types V. salicifoUa, cataracta, ma- 
crocarpa ^c, compare with 9C0. 

957. Derwentia R. diflf. Veronica, cal. 4 
part. eq. cor. vix rotata bilabiata, lab. sup. inte- 
gro erecto lane. acut. lab. inl. trilobo, stylo de- 
clinato — Types I D. suaveolens R. (Ver. der- 
wentia Andr. rep. t. 531. V. labiata Br. Sm. H. 
b. m. 3461.) fol. lato lanceol. acum. serratis, ra- 
cemis axill. elong. Australia fl. white fragrant 
2 D. perfoliata R. (V. do Br. b. mag. 1936) 


fol. ovatis connatis 5nervis acutis, racemis gra- 
cilis. Australia fl. blue. Probably many other 
sp. of Oceania. 

959. PoNARiA R. 1330 m. fl.— calix 5part. 
subeq. cor. 41oba subeq. — Types Ver. pona, la- 
tifolia., laciniata &c. The G. Ampbianthus 
Torrey differs by cor, tubular infund. stam. in- 
cluded, stig. bifid. 

960. EusTAXiA .R. 1817, Calistachia R. 
1808 not of Vent. Leptandra Nut. 1818, diff. 
Yeronica, cal. 5part. subeq. cor. tubulosa, apex 
41ob. ineq. filam. exertisfilif. stylo similis. caps, 
ovata acum. 21oc. polysp. apex bivalvis, valvis 
inflexis, placenta contrario, jPoZ. vertic. oppos. 

fl. spicatis. — Fine G. first distinguished by my- 
self in 1802, published 1808, hardly of family 
Veronicia like the two next. Several American 
and Asiatic Sp. see my monographs of 1820 of 
Med. fl. 1830, and of New Flora: E. alba,pur- 
purea, villosa, oppositijblia, sibirica, jnpo- 
nica &c. It belongs to family Lilacines? with 
Lilac, Nyctanthes, Hebe &c, the capsular Jas- 


961. Hebe Com. Jus. diff. Verow2Crt, cal. 4 
part. cor. hypocraterif limbus 41obus, caps, 
ovalis biloc. valvis 2 invol. placenta centralis^ 
stipitato. Frutex, fol. opp. racemis, panic. — 
Removed by Jussieu to the Jasminea, akin to 
Lilac — Type //, magellanica Juss. fol. peren- 
nantib. ellipt. integris, racemis axill. called Ve- 
ronica decussata by W, P. and nearly all the 

962. Allopleia R. 18.30, diff. Yeronica, cal. 
campan. 4-5fid, cor. rotata 4-5fida ineq. stam, 
3-4incurvis, stig. truncato, caps, obcordata. 
Caule artic. fl. axill. — Type A. rotundifolia 
Raf. Ver. do RP. fol. E>ubrot. 1-3 ad articulis. 


Peru. Although the capsule is quite like Ve- 
ronica, the extra number of stamens render it a 
doubtful Gr. of the family. 

AH the Genera of capsular peripetal flowers 
with 2 stamens ought perhaps to form a pecu- 
liar order ARINEMIA, and then the families 


should belong to it, as well as GRATioLiDESwith 
unilocular capsules — Clytiirelia Raf. 1815 
with spurs, types Finguicula and Utricularia — 
Calceolides, types Calceolaria, Baeola, Jove- 
lana, Pederota, Wulfenia &c. This would be 
a very distinct natural order, although some 
may contend that as in Labiates, 2 or 4 sta- 
mens are not essential, why not as much as 
valves and placentas ? 

963. Ygramela R. 1833 atl. J, diff. Limo- 
sella, cal. camp. 4fid. ineq. cor. camp, subeq. 5 
loba, 2 erectis, 3 patulis inf. stam. 2, stylo bre- 
vis, stig. bilobo, caps, globosa uniloc. bivalv. 
polysp. sem, centralis, fol. radic, scapis iinifl, 
— Type Y. marUlma, R. fol. filif. obt. glabris, 
scapis fol brevior. Sea Shores of N. Amer. in 
New Jersey, cespitose, uncial, fl. bluish white. 
— Limosella silesiaca and capensis having two 
stamens are probably 2 other sp. but if they 
have the calix 5fid as in Limosella, they must 
form a subg. or G. Mtitafmia Raf This with 
the next G. is of family Gratiolides. Limo- 
sella with 4 stamens and cal. 5fid, was wrongly 
put among Lysimachides by Jussieu, it must 
belong with IJesleria, Maturea and many G, 
akin to Gratiohi byuniloc. capsule, to the family 
of Mesofiiores, that have 4 unequal stamens. 

964. Peltoiela R. 1833 (small pelt, stig.) 
diff. Limosella, calix 3 dent. cor. 4partita, stylo 
incurve, stigma peltato, stam. 2. — Type P. cim- 



fAita R. Limos. diandra L. &c. fol. lin. ciinea- 
tis, scapis equante — India, Quite distinct G. 
although habit similar, belonging to Gratioli- 
NEs as well as Hemianthus, Micrantheinum &c. 
OG^s Ilysantiies R. 1820 annals. This in- 
cludes the American sp. of Lindernia, with cor. 
tubul. bilab. 2fertile stam. and 2sterile, stigma 
bilam. caps, uniloc. myriosperma, placenta free 
central. Many sp. see their monograph and 
that of our Gratiolas in my new flora. Gra- 
tiola includes also several Genera, and the 
subg. Psidiola, without calicule. 

966. Ambulia Ad. diff". GraieoZa, cor. tubul. 
vel urceol. limbo 4lobo subbilab. inf. Slobo, 
stam. 4 fertiles in tubo. stigma bilobo, — Type 
A. (data R. 4gona Hook. b. m. 3134. glabra, 
caule 4gono 4alato, fol. lanceol. serrat. subau- 
ricul. fl. subspic. sess, cor. lobis retusis. cal. 2 
bract. B. Ayres, fl. blue — 2. A. rigida R. (Gr, 
do flc tex, 5. Gr. acuminata Walt. El. &c) gla- 
bra rigida, caule 2-4gono, fol. rhomboideis, basi 
cuneatis, apice serratis obtusis, fl. axill. ped. caL 
ebract. cor. lobis subdent. Florida to Texas. 
Subg. Aotilix by no calicule. Some asiatic sp, 
belong here. This G. by 4 stamens belongs to 
my family Antiiostomia 1815 which has many 
subfamilies Celsides, Digitalides, Antirhini- 
des besides Herpestides to which it belongs 
with 4 G. blended in Herpestrs, Monnieray 
Habershamia, Macuillamia, see my Neogeny- 
ton 1825 and new flora, where all akin G. are 
rectified. The G. Bramia of Ad. only differs 
by upperlip bifid forming a Slobed corolla. 

967. Isoloba R. diff'. Pinguicula, cal. camp, 
subeq. 51obo, cor. camp, equalis 51oba, lobi& 
emarg. calcarsubul. stam. 2 connexa, antheris 
peltatis adnatis, stig. sess. petaloideus bilak 


caps, globose Hoc. 4vahis? — Types 1. /. lutea 
R. (Ping, do Walt. Vahl, Mx. E. &c. campa- 
nulata Lam. Pers. &c.) pubescens, viscidula, 
fol. ovat. obt. fl. luteis, calcar brevis recto. Ca- 
rol. Florida ^c — 2 /. pumila R. (Ping, do Mx. 
P. E. (fee,) pumila, pilis capitatis, fol. ovat obt. 
fl. pallide cerul. cal. et caps, villosa, calcar tu- 
bo eq. Carol. Florida — 3. 1. recurva R. (Ping, 
cedentula Hook.) pubescens, fl. nutans luteis, 
•calcar recurvo cor. brevior, fol. sess.ovatis acu- 
tis.— 4. /. elatior R. (P. do Mx. P. E.) fol. 
spat, ovatis obt. viscidis, scapo basi villoso, ft. 
purpuro striatis, corolla tubo ventric. calcar 
compr. obt. Is the P, acutifolia Mx. a real 
Pinguicula or same as Is. recurva ? Ping. lu~ 
sitanica appears another sp. of Isoloba, the cor. 
having 5 lobes eq. emarg. stig. cone, bilab. but 
the spur is only saccate — The real European G. 
Pinguicula differs by cor. bilabiate, capsule 
oblong or obcordal. P. cristallina fl. gr. t. 1 1. has 
spur saccate, capsule globose. 

968. JusTicA Necker, Justicia ! L. auct. 
Adatoda Tourn. Ad. &c. The tropical regions 
swarm with plants referable to this group, rath- 
er than Genus. Linneus had 37 sp. with Dian- 
thera, Persoon had 100 in 8 sections, each real 
Genera. Vahl and Vitman had 117 and now 
we know nearly 200. Dianthera was improper- 
ly united by some botanists ; but Necker had 2 
detached G. Geunsia and Roslinia; he properly 
stated that Justicia like Yeritas or Prudentia 
could not be generic names without modifica- 
tions. Few Genera offered so many distinct 
characters for good Genera, as stated by R. 
Brown, 40 such will be afforded when all the 
sp. will be well revised: meantime Crossandra, 
Apelandra, and Elytraria have been separated. 


I will now offer 28 typical Genera, two of which 
were in first part 311, 378. The real Justicoi- 
DEs have all 2 stamens, and are a group very 
near to Veronicoides, while those with 4 sta- 
mens are nearer to Ruellia in the family of 
AcANTiiiDES. — The real G. Justica will still 
contain all the sp. with calix simplex^ 5part. 
ineq. cor. tubul. hilab. sup. emarg. vel hident. 
inf. trilobo, vcl 3Ji,do antheris monoloc. sp. 19 
to 42 of Persoon ; but even this affords subgen- 
era, such as. 

1. Echolia Raf. cor. tubo filif. incurvo, lab. 
sup. lin. bifido reflex inf. ineq. trifido — Types J. 
ciliata or Echolium L. with most of the Justi- 
cia 19 to 32 of Persoon. 

2. Gandarusa Rumph. cor. tubo recto, Jl. 
verticillatis^ Types J. gandarusa^ vertic. and 
others akin. 

3. Pidcolia Raf (n. ind.) cal. parvus, tubo 
cor. filif. lab. sup. linearis angusto integro? re- 
flexo, inf eq. Sfido. stam. exerta. Type J. na- 
suta L. and akin sp. a link with next Genus. 

4. Hirselina Raf. cor. pubescens, filam. hir- 
sutis, capsula compr. marginata. Type J.pan- 
iculata L. and akin, 

5. Loncotoma Raf. (cut lance) cal. foliaceus 
ineq. lab. sup. recto lanceol. bifido. — Type /. 
carthaginensis L. ^'C — See till 990 for the re- 
vised Genera. The G. Elytraria chiefly differs, 
by habit scapose, cal. 4parted, cor. subeq, 5lobo 
The G. Nelsonia of R. Brown, very akin to this 
differs by no sterile stamens, Australian G. of2 
sp. N. rotundif, campestris. Aphelandra oilR,. 
Br. chie y difl'ers by habit, 4gone bracteate 
spikes, lower lip subentire. 

969. Adatoda Raf diflr. ./?/5hm, cor. ringens, 
lab. sup. recto concavo integro. — Types A. 


arborca R. (J. adatoda L.) A. betonica, re- 
pens ? <Slc. 

970. Steiiioma R. (pectoral) diff. Justica, 
cal. camp. eq. 5part. cor. campanul. lab. sup. 
brevis integro fornicato, lab. inf. dilatato equa- 
lis 31obo — Type '^f- pf'^'toralis R. (Just, do 
Vahl. Sw. Jaq. 3 t. 3, Vitm. W. P. b. reg. 79G.) 
fol. ov. lane, brevipet. spicis gracilis panicul. 
Antilles, fl. small red, balsamic: perhaps other 
sp. akin. Put among the Diantheras by L. and 
some botanists, but others say anthers uniloc, 

971. Gkunsia Necker, Hypoestes R. Brown, 
diff. Justica, cr\. duplex ext. 4part. interno tu- 
bul. 4fido. Cor. resupinata tubul. lab. sup. tri- 
dent, infero integro, nectario ad disco campa- 
nul. postice fissum, bisetoso, caps. loc. 2spermis 
— Type G. fastuosa Raf. (Just, do L. auct. 
panicul. Forsk) fVutic. ramis teretib. fol. petiol. 
ellipt. fl. panic, thyrsoideis. Arabia, India. 
Certainly a very peculiar G. perhaps the sp. 2 
to 8 of first Section in Persoon belong to it,but the 
flowers must be verified. Hypoestes a posterior 
name maybe applied to J. Forskalei and flori- 
bunda as a subgenus. 

972. Adeloda R. (n. ind.) diff. Justica, cal. 
duplex vel. calicul. sep. 2. cor. tubul, bilab. 
utrinque integris, antheris 2loc. divisis ut Di- 
anthera. — Types 1, A. serrata R. fol. ovat. 
serratis. Malabar fl. white, figured by Rheed. 
9. t. 43 — 2 A. Integra R. fol. ovatolanceol. in- 
tegris. Meganesia 11. red, fig. Rumph 6. t. 22. 
Both blended in Just, bivalvis L. &c, habit sim- 
ilar fl. ped. axil. Gfl. bracts ovate. 

973. KiiNiiiiA R. (n. ind.) diff. Kdeloda, ca- 
lic, 2 ineq. cor, lab. sup. falcato (emarg ?) lab. 
inf, 31obo. — Types K. falcata., malabarica, &lc 
Just, do auct. 



974. Gariivia R. (n. ind.) diff. Adeloda^ cal. 
duplex utrinque 4part. cor. villosa, labiis .... 
il. spic. vertic. — Type C sulcata R. Just, et 
Dianth. do auct. 

975. Marama R. .(n. ind.) diff. Justica, cal. 
parvus camp, urceolat. eq. 5dent. cor. ringens, 
lab. sup. incurv. emarg. inf. patens 3fid eq. 
faux cor. inflata. — Type 31. picta R. Just, do 
L. beautiful asiatic sp. often figured, bot. reg. 
1227. Shrub with red fl. and leaves yellow in 
the middle, ovatoblong acum. 

976. LusTRiNiA Raf. diff. Justica, cal. 5part. 
eq. cor. tubulosa tereta recta, labis parvis an- 
gustis, sup. integro, inf. 3crenato — Type L.^cw- 
iculata R, Just, do b. m. 2487. fol. ov. lanceol. 
acum. paniculis laxis cernuis, bract, subul. An- 
tilles, fl. scarlet. Is it a subg. of Adatoda ? are 
the anthers uniloc ? 

977. DiANTHERA L. diff. Justica, stam. an- 
theris 21ocul. loculis remotis sepe ineq. — This 
contains the sp. 43 to 54 Pers. but has several 
anomalies yet, affording subg. and G. 

1. Eupodanthes R. cal. 5part. subeq. cor. 
tubo ventric. lab. sup. reflexo emarg. inf. trifido. 
stigma bilobo, capsulis substipitatis. — The va- 
rious N. Amer. sp. blended in D. and J, ameri- 
cana, pedunculosa, ensiformis, humilis Slc, see 
their monograph in New Flora. 

2. Oximula R. cal. 5part. subeg, cor. incur- 
va, lab. sup. bident. inf. trident, stig. acut. fl, 
involucr. — Type 17. eustachiana L. 

3. Osmularia R. capsula 4gona. Type D, 
odora Forsk, &c compare with Sarcanthera 

4. Uranthera R, antheris caudatis.— Types 
D. secundifl. ciliata, appendiculata of R. P. 
and Peru. 


5. Uothicroa R, cal. 5part. ineq, cor. lab. 
sup. bifido, inf, 3ficlo subeq. antheris ineq. Type 
D, guttata R. Just, do Wal. b. reg. 1334. fol. 
obi, subcren. fl. spic, ochroleucis rubro guttatis. 

978. Emulauia Raf, difl'. Adatoda by an- 
thers as in Dianthera. Types sp. G9 to 79 of 
Persoon, J. secunda Vahl. has galea linear. 

979. Flavicoma R, difl', Dianthera, cal. 5 
part, subeq. setaceus cor. tubulosa, ringens, ga- 
lea emarg. lab. 3part. anth. loculis 2 paralelis, 
stigma clavato bilobo caps, substip. Herb, Jl, 
capit. bract. — Types 1. Fl, capitata R. Just, 
flavicoma Lind. b. reg. 1027. fol. petiol. lane, 
acum. undul. bract, imbricatis subul. Brazil, fl. 
yellowish. — 2 Fl, panicidata R. CJust. calytri- 
cha Link. Hook. ex. fl. 212, b. mag. 2816) fol. 
longe pet. obl-lanc. basi subcord. repandis acu- 
tis, paniculis congestis. Brazil, fl. yellow, very 
large 3 inches long, 

980. Janasia R. (nymph) difl^. Dianthera, 
cal. 5part. calic 3scp. cor. tubo brevi compresso 
gibboso, limbo ventricoso camp. Slido subeq. 
stam, incurvis. Antheris loculis eq, paralelis, 
stig. clavato. — Dlchotorna, Jl. spic. bract. — 
Types 1. J. Rosea Raf. (Just. 4angularis Sims, 
b. mag. 1440, b. reg. 1340.) dich. 4ang. fol. 
ovato lanceol. acum. subdent. bract, subul. Syl- 
het Mts. fl. rosate. — 2 J. rubra Raf. (Just. 4 
angul. Hook. b. m, 2845 non Sims) caule artic. 
4ang. fol. petiol. ovatolanc. acutis serratis, brac- 
teis ternis. Madagascar, fl. red. 2 sp. in bot, 
mag. under same name ! 

981. Ethesia R. (nymph) difl*. Dianthera, 
cal. tubulosus 5fidus, cor. tubul. galea elongata 
emarg. lab. inf 31obo medio brevior. Stani. 


apice uncinatis, antheris reniformis 21oc. equa- 
lis — Type Etii. carnea. Raf. (Just, do Lindl. 
b. reg. 1397) fol. pet. ov. lane. acum. subcren. 
spicis obi. densis, bract, lanceol. Brazil, fl. in- 

982. Sarcantiiera R. (thick anth) diff, Di- 
anthera, cal. parvus camp. eq. 5dent. cor. tu- 
bul. ad medio angustior, limbo camp, bilab. la- 
bis subeq. bifido et trifido. Antheris carnosis 
ad basis gerens loculis 2 linearib. eq. capsula 4 
gona. — Type S. venusta Raf. (Just, do Wal- 
lich, Lind. b. reg. 1380) frut. fol. ovat. acum. 
pubesc. fl. panic, laxis. Pandua Mts. of Bengal, 
fl. small dark purple. 

983. MeiospermaR. diff". T>ia7it/iera, capsula 
monosperma ! thus not even of this family, are 
the cells monosperm ? the cor. is bilabiate but 
undescribed. Type D. dehilis Forsk. Vitm. 

984. Panemata R. (all bloody) diff". Dmw- 
thera, cor. tubulosa, subtrifida, lac. 2ineq. lan- 
ceol. Type P. zeylonica R. Just, sanguino- 
Jenta Vahl, Vitm. «Slc repens fol. obi. obt. petiol. 
pedunc. axil. Ifloris. Ceylon, whole plant 
bloody color. Compare Adatoda repens. 

985. Calasias R. (cal. hairy) diff. Dianthe- 
ra^ cal. duplex, ext. 2sep. internus camp. 5fido 
villoso. cor. tubul. longissima. lab. sup. latior. — 
C hracteata R. (D. trisulca Forsk, J. biflora 
Lam 4*0) frutex brachiato, fol. obi. integris co- 
riaceis, pedunc. axill. 2-3fl. bract, lane, flavis 
Arabia, fl. orange color, 

986. Crateola R. diff. Jiistica, cor. hypo- 
craterif. tubo brevis basi iirflato, limbo piano 5 
lobo vel 5partito equalis. Types the J. vincoi- 
des, J. parviflora Ortega non Retz, &c, pubesc. 
lanceol. fl. subvertic. bract, subul. Mexico. 

987. Oplonia R. (weapons) diff.' Jw5f/c«,cor. 


hypocraterif. tubo tereto. limbus 5lobo, bilabia- 
te, lab. sup. bilobo piano. Type Opl. spinosa 
R. Justicia do L. auct. Prickly sbrub, and pro- 
bably all the prickly American sp. J, microphy- 
la, armata, acicularis t^'C. 

988. Cros^sandra Sal. Harrackia Jaq. diff. 
Justica, cor. infundib. tubo filif. linjbo amplo, 
lobis 5, infiiuo major. Stam. 4. — Type Cr. 
undulata Sal. b, vg^. 69. fine plant shuffled mto 
4 Genera, Just, intbndib. L. &c. Ruellia do 
Andr. rep. 542. Harrackia speciosa Jaq. eel. 
33. — J. sinuata is probably a 2nd sp. Not even 
of Justicides group, but akin to Ruellia in Acan- 


989. Amathea Raf. Roslinia Neck, not 
Mench (see 495) cal. 5part. cor. rinc^ens, tubo, 
compr. faux ampliata, galea erecta bifida, lab. 
3fid. media major lane, deflexa. Stam. 4 suhcq. 

frutic. fl. spic. bract, — Type Am. pulchra 
Raf. Justicia do Jaq. pict. 259. Lin. &c, fol. 
ovat. pet. acum. subt. torn, spicis 4gonis, bract, 
cordatis. South Amer. fl. rod lar^e. Quite a 
distinct G. akin to my Dlnianlsa 310, that dif- 
fers by double calix and unequal stamens, be- 
sides habit. These 2 G. belong to the Acan- 

990. Rukllia L. auct. This G. chiefly dif- 
ferent from Justica by 4 stanjens subequal, but 
had fewer anomalies, the corolla was commonly 
subequal camp. 51obed. Pcrsoon had GO sp. 
Smith refers here the Justicia gangetica L. 
which I suspect to be a Crossandra, or a pecu- 
liar subg. Canirama Raf. — ^IIc says that R. 
depressa is not even of same family: while R. 
hlechum and anisophyla with equal calix form 
the G. Blexum Br. Jus. j^. harhata has beard- 



ed stamens and anthers aristate, perhaps not of 
this G. R. strepens has the filaments connected 
bj membranes, thus a subg. Hemelosia Raf, 
The Gerardia tuherosa real type of Gerardia 
has been united to Ruelha by Swartz but 
wrongly. Gaissomeria differs by cor. tubulose 
and curved, Lepidagathis besides by regular 

991. Ijvtrusaria Raf. diff. Ruellla, cor. lac. 
infima intrusa fornicata, caps, loculis dispermis. 
— Type Intr. bicolor Raf. R. intrusa Forsk. 
Vahl. Vitm. W. P* &c. Arabia, and perhaps 
R, macrophila Vahl, is a 2d sp. with unequal 
lobes and same fruit. 

992. Antheilema diif. Raellia, cal. ineq. 
lac. supera major, cor. tubulosa filif. bilabiata, 
lab. sup. 2fido, infer 3fido eq. — Type Anth. pan- 
iculata R. Ruellia do L. auct. and Browalia 
alienata L. put in two Genera ! Akin to the G. 
Phaylopsis, is it the same ? R. imhricata Forsk 
is a 2d sp. 

993. Hygrophila R. Br. Sm. difT. Buelliaj 
cal. basi tubul. 5fido ineq. caliculatus, cor. tu- 
bul. camp, limbo rlngens ineq. 5lobo — Types 1 
H. malaharica Raf. (R. ringens L. auct.) 2 
halsamica L. 3 angustif. Br. 4 ocymoides Cav. 
t. 416.— 5 H. oUongifolia Raf. R. do Mx. It 
is of this plant that Leconte (the opponent of bo- 
tanical improvement) has said it was a wonder 
that the Genera manufacturers had not sepa- 
rated it from Ruellia ! The G. to which it realy 
belongs had been noticed long ago ! and since 
fixed by Robert Brown,no contemptible impro- 
ver and Genera maker ! 

994. UruDALiA Raf. (n. ind.) diff. Ruellia, 
stam. 2 fertiles, 2 steriles. — Type Up. pulcheUa 
Raf Ruellia varians Vent. eels. t. 48. P, Eran- 


themum pulchellum Andr. t. 88, Tlius another 
link with Justica. 

995. Gerardia Plumier non Ij. nee auct. 
diff, Ruellia oaL 5lid, oor. tubul. bilab. galea 
erecta eniarg. labio inf. 31obo refl. lat. ernarg. 
medio biddo. Caps 21oc. valvis non septiferis 
(tf'C. Not of family Acantiiides, but the real 
Personates of my family ANTHOSTOMIA 
having partitions paralcl to valves. I have 
proved (following Smith) in my new flora that 
this is the real original U. Gerardia, and I have 
given the monograph of 40 N. Amer. sp. blend- 
ed with it, but belonging to the G. Aureolaria, 
Panctenis, Agalinis, Tomanthera, Dasistema, 
Seymeria, Dasanthera, Pagesia, Ovostima,Rus- 
selia, Macranthera <Slc, see 360 to 408. The 
African Gerardias are the G. Melasma, the 
Asiatic the Genus Lophanthera with crested an- 
thers and camp, corols. Meantime the types of 
Gerardia are G. tuberosa, G. rupestris (Ruel- 
lia do Sw. P.) G. scabrosa (Ruellia do Sw. P.) 
and probably other blended tuberose sp. of 
Ruellia &.c. 

996. Pleuremidis R. (side half 2) diff. Thun- 
bergia, cal. simplex spathaceo fisso univalvis 
bifido, cor. ineq. 5fida — Type PI. grandiflora 
R. Thunb. do Roxb. b. reg. 492. fol. opp. pet. 
cordat. angul. pedic. axill. Ifl. India, large blue 

997. Endomklas R. (inside black) diff*. 
Thunbergia, cal. simplex, bipart. lac. cordat. 
trinervis carinatis, cor. tubo curvo, 51obis rota- 
tis subeq. flabellatis — Type E. alata R. Thunb. 
do Sims b. mag. 2591. Scandens, fol. cord, 
deltoideis sinuato dentatis, Snervis, petiolis ala- 
tis, subtus tomentosis, ped. axil. Ifloris- — Zan- 
zibar in East Africa, fl. yellowish, tube inside 


blackish. — Tlie real G. Tliunbergia lias a dou- 
ble calix, the inner camp, multident. cor. camp. 
The Th. repens or Srptas repens of Loureiro is 
probably a peculiar Genus Septilia Raf. 

998. DisTEiuA Raf. (2 ster.)cal. 5fidijs ineq. 
ext. bibract. coloratus, cor. ventricosa bians 4 
loba, lobo inf. latissimo, stam, 2 fertilia, 2 ste- 
rilia, stig. 2 clavatis. Fades Tliunhergia, — 
Type D. angulosa Raf. Martynia do Lam. 
Mart, diandra W. P. often figured, fol. opp. 
cord, angul. ped. axil, multifl. Mexico. — Of 
family SESAMIDES Raf. 1815 with capsule 
4locular, several G. Seramum, Martynia, Cra- 
niolaria, Basonca, Dysosmon &c. Craniolaria 
of L. wrongly united to Martynia differs by a 
double calix, the inner tubular spathaceous. 
Gran, annua L; but his Cran. fruticosa has 
been united to Gesneria ! while it forms a G. of 
Gesnerides Petramnia Raf. Basonca Raf. has 
tubular cor. base of tube gibbose around, type 
B. longiflora, Martynia do Ait. — M. perennis 
has become the G. Gloxinia, and thus every sp. 
of Martynia was the type of a Oenus ! my Dy- 
sosmon fl. ludov. differs from them and Sesa- 
mum, by corolla unilabiate. 

999. Aemana Raf (nymph) cal. tubul. Sfidus, 
cor. infund. limbo camp. ineq. 51obo. Stam. 4. 
didyn. Ovario immerso glandulis 5, stig. capit. 
umbilic. caps, uniloc. 2placeatas later. Scaposa 
— Typo Aim. hirsuta Raf Gloxinia do Lindl. 
b. reg. 1004, fol. ovat. rugosis hirsutis crenatis, 
scapis agreg. Ifl. Brazil, fl. blue. Of family 
Pedalides differing from Gratiolides by seeds 
not central. Totaly unlike Gloxinia of family 
Gesneridis, that has calix superior Sparted, 
nearer to Cyrtandra that has 2 sterile stamens: 
while habit and capsule like Ramonda 1068, 


1000. RoTHECA R. (ii, ind.) cal. Sdent. cor. 
subbilab. vel 5 lobis ineq. 5 deflexis, infero par- 
vo, cetera ut Clerodendron. — Types 1 R. bi- 
color Raf. Clerod. macrophyl. Sims b. m.2536. 
fol. oppos. latis ovatis acuiii. sess. serrat. subt. 
toment. fl. panic. IMauritiiis fl. yellow, lower lip. 
blue. — *2 R. ternifoJUi Raf. Volkameria serrata 
L. aiict. Rheed. 4 t. 29. fol. ternatis ovat. serrat. 
fl. concolor Malabar. See Egena 317. 



1001. Convolvulus. This G. and Ipomea 
have been so blended and perplexed by botan- 
ists that they are still in utter confusion ; nearly 
250 sp. belong thereto, (166 sp. are in the mo- 
nograph of Convolv. by Desrousseaux and Smith 
which are constantly shuffled from one to another 
there being no distinction between them ! al- 
thouiijh they offer 50 good characters to distin- 
guish 50 Genera out of them. — Calix single or 
double^ equal or unequal, corolla rotate or 
campanul. or infund. or hypocr. or tubular, 
entire or dentate or lobate, stamens quite un- 
equal or subequal, stigmas 1 or 2, capitate or 
lobed, capsule l-2-3-4iloc2dar. cells 1 to 4 seeds 
&/C. — Necker began a reform by proposing the 
G. Milhania, Apomea, Stevogtia . . . others 
have added Calystegia, Pharbitis, Murucoa &c. 
I proposed between 1808 and 1820 Stylisma, 
Diatrema, Ornithosperma, Rhodoxylon and see 
my Stomadena 1 1, Coiladena 12 in this flora. I 
will now still increase them to 48 Genera with 
30 subgenera and thus reform this fine group of 
Genera, refering 175 typical sp. to them. — The 
real G. Convolvuhs Raf. has cah'x simplex 


5part. inetp cor. campnn. suhintegra, stam. 5 
ineq. filani. filif. antlieris linearib. stigm. 2 
liiiearih. vel. 2lamellaris caps. 2locul. 2 valvis 
Asperma — It has many subgenera yet. 

1. Talanelis R. (n. ind.) cal. lac. 3ext. sagit- 
tatis. Type C. medium^ Slc, 

2. Ballela R. (n. ind.) cor. sub lOcrenata. 
Type C. repens Slc. 

3. Lacara R. (many heads) fl. capitate in- 
volucrate or bracteate. Types C. capitaliis Vahl. 
2 subtrilohus, 3 villosus, 4 scahra Raf. (capita- 
tus Raf. fl. lud.) 5 saxatilis, 4'C. 

4. ScADiARA R. j^' umbellate involucrate. 
Types C. ruber, C. cneorum, <^c. 

5. Pentanthus R. cor. camp, subrotate, edge 
5angular, stamens subequal, base bearded, stig- 
mas reflexed. Type C. pentanthus Jaq. W. 
&.C. Also C. violaceus with reflexed stigmas. 

6. LizERON R. the true Convolv. lacking the 
above distinctions, as C. arvensis, persicus,ver- 
ticillatus, chinensis, tricolor «^'C with many 
other species perhaps. The deeply biparted 
stigma almost 2 and linear ought to be found in 
all however. 

1002. S TEVOGTIA Neck. 642 diff. Convolv. cal. 
5fidus, caps. 21oc. 2sperma, folia composita — 
Types not mentioned, but C, platicarpos Cav. 
with racemose fl. and capsule compressed may 
be one, and also C. tomentosus ? 

1003. Sanilum Raf. (n. egypt) diff*. Convolv. 
corolla 5fida, stigma capitate? — Types 1 S. cop- 
ticum, 2 S. humile Jaq. 5pentaloides Lin. 3 
hracteatum, 4 bicolor &c, as Convolv. and 
probably others. But C. parviflorus L. has 2 
re volute stigmas, and forms subg. Exostreps 


1004. MiLHANiA Neck. 645. Calistegia RB. 
diff. Convolv. cal. duplex, pcrsistens, ext. bipart. 
major, internus 5part. subeq. stigm. 1 capit. obi. 
s. glob. — Types C. sepium, 2 riparia Raf. 3 
involucrata, 4 bracteata, 5 pentaphyla (stig. 
bilobo, cor. 5 loba.,) 8 spithamea, 0, 10 villosa 
and nititabUis J\.ai\ fl. ludov. 11 Catesbiajiaf 
with many others. 

1005. TirtaliaR. (n. ind.) diff. Convolv. cal. 
equalis, vel. subeq. stig. capit. bilobo — Types 
y. striata 2. angastif. 3 cmarginat, 4 max- 
ima, 5 Sibirlca &c all Convolv. of Authors. 
C. fiUcaidis with stigma simpl. obtuse is pro- 
bably a subgenus ApUmia Raf. — A 3d subg. 
PiiAESTis has cal. unequal, such as C. domin- 
gensis, gemellus, triflorits, hispidus, anceps. 
triqueter, tnacrorliiza, Vitifolms, dissectus, 5 
lobus, umhellatus with villose seeds &,c, mala- 
baricus with villose corolla &c, panduratus 
with costate calix and stigma &c. 

1006. TuKPETiiuM Raf. diff. Convolv. cal. sub- 
triplex, ext. caducus bracteis 2 magnis, internus 
persist. 5part. ineq. 2 major ext. involvens, 3 
int. minor eq. corolla infundib. 5loba emarg. 
plicis oppositis, stam. 5 subeq. antheris spiralis, 
stig. capit. caps, didyma 21oc. 2-'Jsp, — Types 1. 
T. indicum Raf. Ipomea et Convolv. do Auct. 
Herm. t. 178. hot. reg. 279. Villosa, fol. obi. vel 
deltoideis repandis cuspid, ped. 2fl. Ceylon, Ma- 
labar 4*c. fl. white. — 2 T. australe Raf. Ip. ^ 
turp. R. Br. fol. cord, acutis integris, ped. mul- 

tifl. caule angulato. Australia and Tahiti. 
Probably other sp. 

1007. PiiARmTis Choisy, diff. Convolv. stig. 
capit. granulato 3-41obo stellato, caps. 3-4loc. 
3-4valv, 6-8sp. — All the Convolv. with bell flow- 
ers, capitate stigma and more than 2 cells be- 


long here and they are numerous. Chederacea, 
aristolocliif.. Miller Sm. Ip. punctata dAso ^ndi 
many others. 

Scamonia is a subg. of it by capsule 3-4loc. 
calix dilatate emarg. Ph. scamonia. 

1008. DiATiiEMA Raf. 1808, diff. Convolv. cor. 
Sloba, stigma capit, subintegro, capsula uniloc. 
basi biloc. 4sperma — Types the Qonv. purpu- 
reus, and blended sp. with others akin thereto, 
not C. nil as once stated. 2 types at least, D. 
purpurea, fol. subrot. fl. purp. 2 D. alba, fol. 
cordatis fl. albis, both American figured by Dil- 
len. D. muricatus probably a 3d sp. 

1009. Ornithosperma Raf. 1817 diff. Convolv. 
cor. subinfundib. stigma elliptico integro, cap- 
sula monoloc. Ssperma. — Type O. atitumiialis 
Raf. Ipomea avicularis fl. lud, 145. Volub. fol. 
cord. Slobis, acutis, ped. Ifl — Louisiana banks 
of rivers, fl. white small. This and the last G. 
deviate by the monolocular capsules, quite a 
striking character, type of a new family Aplar- 
NiA R. with Ramondia 1053. 

1010. Apopleumon Raf. (n. grec) diff". Con- 
volv. cal. campanul. 5fido ineq cor. tubulosa 
infund. limbo 51obo crispato, stigma bilobo. — 
Type Ap. hlgnonioides Raf. Ipom. do hot. 
mag. 2015. tuberosa scandens, fol. cord, trilo- 
bis, lobis imbric. angul. repandis subt. pallidis, 
ped. nutans multifl. South Amer. fl. violaceous 
white 2 inches long. 

1011. Samudra Raf. (n. ind.) difl*. Convolv. 
cal. imbric. subeq. cor. tubo apex ventricoso, 
limbo piano 5plicato, disco gland uloso Slobo, 
stylo flexuoso, stig. 2lobo. — Type iS*. speciosa 
Raf. Conv. do W. Ipomea do Pers. C. nervosus 
Lam. Burm. t. 20. Rheed 11 t. 61, bot. mag. 
2446. fol. cord, acutis subt. argenteis, ped. mul- 


tifl. bract, cordatis. India. — (Jottv. cuneatus 
W. is probably a 2d sp. with swelled tube, leaves 
cuneate, axillary corymbs. 

1012. IsYPis liaf. feq. under) diff'. Convolv. 
cal. camp. Slid equalis cor. Sloba, lobis crenatis 
apiculatis, stam. iiicq. stig. capit. — Type 1. 
ochraccus Rat'. Conv. do Lind. b. reg. 105G. 
volub. piloso, fol. cord. acum. integris, ped. Ifl. 
West Africa, fl. yellow. Akin to Stevogtia 
1001 by 5tid calix yet equal, but stamens un- 

1013. KoLOFoNiA Raf. (n. grec) ditF. Convolv. 
cor. iniundib. limbo piano 51obo, lobis obcord. 
Stella plicata ad siinH3. oppos (in Conv. altern) 
stig. capit. — Type R. albitierma Raf. Conv. do 
Lind. b. reg. IIIG. fruticosa, scandens tuberc. 
fol. cord, repandis rugosis subtus retic. fl. term, 
solit. bract, binis lanceol. — S. Africa Algoabay, 
fl. large white, tube and star strawcolor. 

1014. MuRUcoA Aublet, diff. Convolv. cal. 
turb. 5part. eq. cor. infund. limbo patens 5lobo, 
stam, 5 eq. lobis oppositis, disco ovar. cin- 
gens, stig. 21amel. caps.2-31oc. 2-3sp — Type M. 
violacea Aubl. t. 54. Conv. macrospermus W, 
&C, frutex scandens, fol. ovat. acut. rigidis, fl. 
axill. corymbosis. Guyana, fl. blue. — This is 
perhaps not even of family Convolvulides which 
ought to have alternate stamens^ 2iX\<\ will be- 
long to Gentianides ! all the Conv. with equal 
and oppos. stamens must be removed in the 
natural orders. 

1015. Adamboe R. (n. ind.) diff. Convolv. cal. 
duplex, ext. 2phyl. orbic. cor. camp. 41oba, lobis 
ineq. uno emarg. — Type A. hlcolor Raf. Ipo- 
mea campanulata L. Rheed 11. t. 50. repens 
piloso, fol. cord. ped. multifl. Malabar, fl. red 



and white. By the irregular corolla hardly of 
this family, the stamens stigmas and frUit must 
be examined. 

1016. IroMEA Raf, diff. Convolv, cor. infundib. 
tubo longo, limbo camp, stigma capit. caps. 
31ocul. 6sp. — Types all the sp. having these 
characters, several subgenera yet — ip. puncta- 
ta has a Slobe stigma. 

1. PuLLis R. tubo cor. 5angul. Type Ip, 
hepaticifolia L. 

2. LoMALix R. cal. patulus marginatus, type 
Conv. iBnotkeroides L. 

3. Kemopsis R. (ivy form) cor, indivisa, 
stam. exsertis longissimis. Type Ip. hederifo- 
lia L. 

4. Hemilasis R. cal. inequaliss. cor. limbo 
Splicato 5dent. filam. basi barbatis. Type Ip, 
heterophyla Ortega, perhaps a Genus. 

5. Sericosperma Raf. cor. tubo longo tereto 
caps. vel. sem. sericeis, types Conv. sericeus 
and eriospermus of authors. 

1017. QuAMOcLiTA Raf (n. Amer. diff. Conv. 
cor. hypocraterif tubo longo, limbo -piano stella- 
to 5dent. stigma capit.. caps. 2loc. 4valvis, 4sp. 
— Types hipinnata^ cordata, hybrida, laciino- 
sa, rubra, coccinea, solanifolia, denticulata^ 
R. Br. &-C chiefly Ipomeas of Authors, with 
many akin in 5 subgenera. 

1. Apomea Necker, leaves pinnate. 

2. TuLOTROPis Raf. calix carinate, keel war- 
ty. Type Ip, verrucosa Ortega. 

3. Troxula R. tubo camp, limbo rotato 51o- 
bo, caps. sericea,type Conv. literalis. 

4. Melasis Raf. capsule membranose sub 
4gone, 4seeded. Type Ip. tuberosa L. 

5. Lo:>TiPTiA R. (edge reversed) cor. limbo 


Integrorevoluto, Stigma ovatum integrum. Type 
Ip. hracteata Cav. perhaps a Genus. 

1018. Gynoisia Raf. (fern, hairy) diff. Con- 
volv, stam. basi vill. ovar. villoso, stigma globo- 
so indiviso, capsula vill. 41oc. 4sp. — Type G. 
Carolina liaf. Conv. and Ip. do or trichocarpa 
L. et auct. see my nevv flora. Different from 
Pharbitis by cells monosperm. Conv, quinque 

folius li. is probably a '2d sp. with corolla 

1019. EuRYL03iA R. (broad edge) diff*. Conv. 
cal. 3segm. internis major, cor. infundib. limbo 
profunde 51obo, lobis latis rotundis, stam. exser- 
tis subineq. stigma bilobo — Types 1 E. grandi- 
flora Raf. Conv. do L. — 2 E. latiflora R. 
Conv. do Poiret, Ip. do RS. bot. reg. 889. Ip. 
grandifl. Andr. b. rep. 403. fol. cord. acum. 
glabris, ped. 3fl. Antilles, large white flowers — 
3 E. leucantha ? Conv. do D. Sm. Ipomea do 
Jaq. Scop. t. 4. Vitm. fol. cord, subangul. acum. 
glabris subtus rubris, ped. 2fl. America,fl. white 
small, capsule brown. 

1020. DoxEMA R. (glory bloody) diff*. Convolv. 
calix urceolatus, lac. 5ineq. filif. basi membr. 
<;oalitis, cor. infund. tubo curvo clavato, limbo 
inflato 5dent. stam. exserta ineq. arcuata, stylo 
arcuato, stylo arcuato, stig. capitato — Type X>. 
sanguinea R. Ipomea do W. P. bot. reg. 9. 
Quite unlike the other Genera by curved tube, 
stamens calix &c. 

1021. Mo D EST A R. (nymph.) diff*. Convolv. ca- 
lix imbric marginato, cor. hypocrat. tubo crasso 
limbo piano 5fido, lobis dilat. emarg. stam. basi 
barbatis, stig. didymo, caps. 2loc. 4valvis, se- 
mina lanata — Types M. paniculata R. fConv. 
do L. Ipom. do b. reg. G2. Ip. mauritiana Jaq.) 
fol. palm. 3-5fidis, lobis ovatis acut. undul. inte- 


gris, pediinc. paniculatis. East Indies &c — 2. 
M. insignis Raf, Ipomea do Andr. rep. 636. 
bot. reg. 75. fol. cord, rcpando lobatis acum. fl. 
cymosis. E. Indies, fl. rosate. — 3 M. macro- 
rhiza, R. Ip. do Mx. &c. — This G. has 3 sub- 
genera somewhat different Dccaloha, Qaulo- 
tulis and Gomph/pus. 

1022. Decaloba Raf. diff*, cal. subeq. cor. 
lOloba vel lOemarg. stig. capit. emarg. granu- 
ulato. Types 1 Mod. mutahilis Raf. Ipomea 
do bot. reg. 39. frutic pub. fol. cord, integris 
Slobisve acum. supra villosis scabris, subt. to- 
ment. ped. cymosis. South America. — 2. M. 
congesta R. Ip. do bot. reg. 333. caule tuberc. 
fol. palmatis lac. cuneatis acutis, ped. l-4fl. 
Buenos Ayres, fl. incarnate. — 4 M. coriacea R. 
Conv. hypocraterif. Desr. Lam. Rees 55, frut. 
fol. cord, coriaceis, ped Ifl, sepe geminis. E. 

1023. Caulotulis Raf. diff. cal. segm. 3 ext, 
cordata major, cor. infund. 5fidis, lobis dilat. 
cuspid atis plicis oppositis. — Types iff. tuhercu- 
lata R. (Ip. do bot. reg. 86. Convolv. digit. 
Roxb.) frutic. ramis tuberc. fol. pedatis 5-9fidis, 
lac. obi. ped. 3-4fl. East Indies — Ip. dasycar- 
pa Jaq. is perhaps a 2d sp. Both perhaps akin 
to Ipomea, but calix,stamens, stigma, capsule as 
in Modesta. 

1024. GoMPHipus R. (club under) diff*. exactly 
like jypxaloha except corolla semi 5fid, not 
lOlobed. Type 31, setosa R. Ipom. do bot. 
reg. 335. setosa hispida, fol. cord, trilob. dent, 
acum. pedunc, multifl. pedic. clavatis. Brazil, 
said to be akin to Ip. batatas and platanifolia, 
are they of same group? I never could meetlp. 
batatas in bloom. 

1025. Idalia R. (nymph) difl^ Convolv. calix 


infundib. Sfido ineq. ciliato, cor. rotata camp. 
5fida, stam. 5 subeq. in tubo, stylo brevi, stig. 2 
linearis, caps globosa 21oc. 2sperma. — Type 
Id. alhiflora Raf. (Convolv. elongatus W. P. 
hot. reg. 498) fol. subsess. cord, aciit. pilosis pe- 
dunc, elongatis l-'2fl. bracteis subulatis vestitis. 
Canary Ids. Near to G. Stevogtia and Turpe- 
thum by 2sccded capsules. 

1026. BoNANox R. diiF. Convolv. cal. conni- 
vens margine membranaceo, cor. hypocrat. tubo 
longo clavato, limbo rotato integro vel Sfido, 
stam. ineq. ad apex tubo, stigma capit. 41obo, 
capsula 21oc. 4sperma — Types 1 B. riparia 
Raf. Ip. bonanox L. auct. bot. mag. 752. Caule 
scabro, prostr. fol. cord, angul. acum. cal. aris- 
tatis. Antilles and Florida, fl, large and white, 
forming with the 2 next the subg. Mundavai,is 
Raf. by corolla entire. — 2 B. orhiculata Raf. 
Ip. do Elliot, caule scabro prostrato, fol. orbic. 
emarg. venosis glabris, ped. subtrifl. cal. ovat. 
mucron. Florida, fl. purple — 3 B. indica Raf. 
Ip. bonanox L. Rheed lit. 50. caule scandens 
aculeato. fol. cord. acut. integris, ped. tortuosis 
2-3fl. India, large violet flowers — 2d subg. Gom- 
PHULA Raf, corolla 5fid. 4 B. muricata R, 
Convolv. do L. auct. I p. bonanox bot. reg. 290. 
caule muricato, fol. cord. acum. pedunc unifl. 
clavatis, cal. acum. East Indies, fl. blue. 

1027. Cleiemera R. (morning glory) diflf. 
Convolv. cal. subeq. connivens subul, hisp. cor. 
infund. limbo 5angulis, vel Sdentatis, plicis ad 
dentis opp. stam. vix ineq. stig. capit. 2-3lobo, 
caps. 2-31oc. loculis 2sp. — Types the various sp. 
blended as Conv. and Ip. nil, at least 6 — 1. CI. 
hederacea R. (Ip. do Jaq. col. t. 124, bot. reg. 
85. Ip. barbata Roth, Ip. nil Fursh, Conv. nil 
Mx.) fol. subtrilobis hirsutis, ped. brevis trifl. 



North Anier. fl, blue — 2 CI. hirsuta R. Ip. nil 
Elliot. Dillen f. 9'2. Hirsuta, fol. cord. acum. 
nonulis 3Iobis, ped. brovis l-3fl. cal. liirsutissi- 
mis muricatis longe acum. Carolina, Kentuky 
<fcc — 3 C/. cuspidata R. Dillen f. 9G, — 4 CI. 
peruviana R. Ip. do RP. Il9 — 5 CI. guinen- 
sis R. Dillen f. 93 — 6 CI. indica R. Ip. nil L. 
bot. mag. 188. Dillen f. 9l. 

1028. Plksiagopus Raf. (near goat foot) diff. 
Convolv. cor. infundib. vix 51oba, stam. omnib. 
ineq. filam, subul. villosis, stig. capit. emarg. 
caps 21oc. 4valv. 4sperma. — Near to G. Modesta 
including all the sp. akin to Conv. pescapra, 
Types 1 PL sovana Raf. C. pescapra L. <fcc, 
Rheed 11 t. 57. Rumph 5. l59 &c, fol. bilobis 
carnosis lucidis, ped. ifl. India fl, bicolor, ro- 
sate, bottom dark purple — 2 PI. niaritima R. 
Ip. do bot. reg. 319. fol. obcord. bilobis basi 
truncatis. Tropical sea shores. — 3 PL rotun- 
difolia, R. Ip. marit. R. Br. fol. ovato subrot. 
emarg. sepe obliquis ped. ifl. Australia fl. ro- 
sate — 4 Pr^ hrasiliensis R. Conv. do L. plum, 
t. I04. fol. subrot emarg. nitidis, basi bigland. 
ped. 3fl. Brazil, fl. purple, this is stated to have 
caps. 31oc. 3sp. and would thus be a Latrienda. 
5 PL cuneifolia R. Ip. do Lam. fol. cuneat. 
emarg. ped. Ifl. 

1029. Kethosia R, (nymph) diff*. Convolv. cal 
triplex, ext. bipart. medio bipart. major, eq. in- 
ternum 3part, ineq. cor. hypocrat. tubo brevis, 
limbo rotato 5angul. faux coronata intus lOden- 
tatus, stam. subeq. filam. planisalatis membran. 
antheris inter dentes corona, stig. 2 divaric. 
capsula uniloc. basi semibiloc. 4sperma. — Type 
K. involucrata R. Convolv, do W. P. b. reg. 
318 4*^, fol. cord hast. pub. ped. elongatis sub 
3fl. Mam-itius and Africa, fl. yellow white, 


mouth red. A very singular and distinct G. 
capsule as in Diatrema, calix near Milhania, 
stamens and crown quite peculiar, of family 
Aplarnia, see Ramonda 1053. 

1030. PoDALETRA R. (foot mcaly) diff. Conv. 
cal. teres erectus, cor. infundib. tubo 5gono, lim- 
bo 5fido, filam. ad tubo toto adnatis, disco glan- 
duloso, stig. 2oblongis, caps. 41oc. 4sp. — A very 
distinct G. fruit as in Gynoisia, but 'istigmas and 
thus nearer to Stylisma, but corolla quite dif- 
ferent, yet same family. Type P. farinosa R. 
Conv. do L. auct. fol. cord. acum. repandis ru- 
gosis, caule forinoso volub. ped. farin. Sfloris. 

1031. Ampiiione R. (nymph) diff. Convolv. 
cor. tubulosa 5dent. stig. bilobo didymo — Types 
1 A. lohata R, Ip. 31oba L. Conv. sub trilob. 
Sm. — 2 A. chenopodia R. Conv. do D. Sm. fol. 
ov. dent. — 3 A. asarifolia R. Conv. do D. 
Lam. Sm. fol. renif. ped. l-2fl. Senegal — 4 A, 
liliefolia R. Conv. do Com. Sm. frut. fol. cord, 
ped- 111. S. Africa, fl. triuncial, forming a subg. 
by calix rotate, cor. with a short tube and long 
tubular limb — 5 A, cymosa, Conv. do D. L. fol. 
cord. obi. acum ped. cymosis E. Indies — G A, 
venosa. Conv. do D. Vahl. 4'C 

1032. Breweria R. Br. diff. Convolv. cor. in- 
fund. Splicata, stylus bifidus, stig. 2capit. caps. 
21oc. 4sp- — 3 types each with deviations, 1 Br. 
linearis fol. lin. cal. eq. stylo bipart — 2 Br. me- 
dia cal. eq. stylo bifido ineq. — 3 Br. pannosa 
toment. cal. ineq. stylo bipart. ineq. all from 
Australia, near to Evolvulus chief ditf. the co- 
rolla only. 

1033. Rhodoxyi.on Raf. 1815, dilT. Convolv. 
cal. subeq. cor. plicata stigma capit ? capsula 
uniloc. monosp. basi dehiscens 1 Oval vis ! Fru- 


tescens, fol. angttstis, fl. racemosis vel thyr" 
soidcls — A fine (t. indicated by Ventenat, long 
ago proposed by me, it is the Rosewood as the 
name implies, capsule quite peculiar,type of the 
family APLARNIA with Ornithosperma, Me- 
lascus, Turbina, Diatrema, Kethosia, Ramon- 
da, &c all with uniloc. capsules — 2 sp. Rhod. flo- 
ridum and scoparium Raf. Conv. do L. auct. 

1034. Cleiostoma R. (shut mouth) diff. Conv. 
cal. ineq. cor. tubulosatereta, apex 5fida clausa, 
antheris sagittatis, stig. capit. caps. 21oc. 2sp. 

jl. capit. invoL periantho campanul. VZpart. 
ineq. 10-12^. — I'jP® ^^- '^iHoso, Raf. Conv. 
agregatus Lour. Mart. Rees. caule scandens 
villoso, foL palmat. 71obis ovatis. Anam, large 
white flowers, quite distinct G. by habit and co- 
rolla, near Araphione 1031. 

1035. Nemanthera Raf. (filif. anth.) diff. 
Convolv. antheris filiformis spiralis, capsula 
21oc. 2sp. — N. hufalina Raf. Conv. do Lour. 
Mant. Rees, frutic. fol. cord, sagitt. pedunc. 
multifl, Anam. 

103G. Melascus R. (membr, box.) diff. Conv. 
cal. ineq. 2 internis major, cor. hypocraterif. 
limbo piano sinuato, stig. 3-4lobo, capsula mem- 
branacea unilocul. 3-4sperma turbinata — Type 
M. latifoliiis Raf. Conv. do Desr. Lam. Rees, 
fol. cord, glabris, ped. 3fl. South Amer. fl. white 
ample, 5 inches in diameter : family Aplaunia. 

1037. ExocROA R. (out col.) diff. Convolv. cal, 
eq. 5phyl. scariosus coloratus, cor. infundib. an- 
theris sagitt. stig. cap. striato — Type E, egyp- 
tiaca R. Conv. cairicus and egypt. L. auct, Ip. 
palmata Forsk. fol. pinn. palm, serrat. ped. fi- 
lif. panic. Perhaps C. arenarius is a 2d sp. 
having a membranose calix, 


1038. LoBAKE Raf. diff. Convolv. cal. eq. cor. 
Sloba, lobis rtcuminatis, stig. 2 reflexis, capsula 
villosa — Type L, gmjanensis R. Conv. do 
Aubl. t. 52 auct. ciner. toment. fol. ovatobl. fl. 
capitatis. Akin to Ex otreps swhg. of Sanilum 
1003, differs by cal. equal &c. 

1039. EiHULiNA U. diff. Convolv. cor. 5fida, 
capsula 4locul. 4sp. — Type jG. pnrvijlora R. 
Conv. do D. Lam. not L. solanitbl. Rees, fol. 
cord. obi. ped. nniltifl. Antilles. Akin to Gy- 
noisia 1018, but different corolla, stamens and 
probably stigma ! L. 

1040. Latrienda R. diff. Conv. or rather 
Pharbitis by stigma capit. capsula 31ocular. sepe 
tri2:ona, 3sperma — Perhaps only a subg. of 
Pharbitis but the cells are monosperm and con- 
stantly 3. Types 1. L. soldaneMa R. Conv. do L. 
auct. cal. double, a subg. with the next 2 L. im- 
perati R. Conv. do auct. 3 L. multiflora R. 
Conv. do Miller, Martens, Rees. — 4 L. palma- 
tus R. Conv. do of same authors. — 5 L, hrasi- 
iiensis R. Conv. do L. auct. see 1028. — The 
C. 5folhts Miller not L. is stated to have 2 
seeds in each 3 cells, and thus would be a 
Pharbitis 5folia Raf, fruticosa, fol. 5part. 
Mexico, large purple fl. and fruit like an apple! 

1041. TuRBiNA R. diff. Convolv. capsula tur- 
binata, uniloc. membranosa, 2-3sp. — Type T. 
corymhosa R. Conv. do L. auct. Genus near 
Melascus and Ornithosperma, but cor. regular 
campanul. how is the stigma? family Aplarma. 

1042. Camonea R. (nymph) diff. Convolv. cal. 
equalis, cor. infundib. limbo 5lobis acutis, stig. 
capit. bilobo. — Type C bifida Raf Conv. do 
Vahl. auct. fol. cord, obi, acuni. mollis, ped bi- 
fidis multifl. Java &c. 



1043. Nemostima R. (fil. stig.) difl', Convolv* 
cal. equalis, cor, subrotata plana, stig. 2 filifor- 
mis, vel stylo bifido. stig. acutis— Types 1 N. 
canariensis R. Conv. do L. auct. frutic. villosa 
fol. cord, ped, multifl — 2 N. camtabtnca R. 
Conv. do L. auct. Erectus, fol. linearib, ped, 
multifl. Spain and Maroco — Besides two subg. 
Trichima R. cor. rather campanulate fl. not 
involucrate Types Conv. hystrix, lineatus, spi- 
cafollus, of authors — Periexa R. cor. camp, fl- 
involucrate, Gphyl, 3 alt. major, cal. linearib. 
2bract. stylo bifido. stig. acutis — ^Type Conv. 
lanatiis L. (cneorum Forsk.) 

1044. Palixnos Raf. (slender cal.) diff*, Conv. 
cal- subeq. setaceus. cor. subinfund. stig. capit. 
bilobo, fol. oppositis ! — Habit quite peculiar,no 
other Convolv. has opposite leaves. Type C. 
trinervius Raf Conv, do L, auct. glabra volub. 
fol, pet. cord. obi. acum. trinervis, fl. axil, sub- 
sess. sepe binis. Japan fl. purple : they must 
ofler additional characters, fruit unknown ! 

1045. DisTiMAKE R. (2 ac. stig.) diff*. Convolv. 
cor. infundibul. limbo 51obo, stigm. 2 longis 
acutis. — This has the corolla of Ipomiea and 
stigmas of Nemostima, type D. giaher Raf. 
Conv. do Aubl. t. 53 and authors. Volub, gla- 
bra, fol. digit, fl. axil, racemosis. — Guyana,large 
white fl. thick root, a milky plant. 

1046. EvoLvuLus L, This G. has also been 
blended with Convolvulus, and forms many dis- 
tinct G. the main differences are the rotate co- 
rolla and split style, yet 20 sp. with those char- 
acters are put in Convolvulus even quite lately. 
I shall describe 7 Genera of them some of 
which by the equal or opposi-e stamens do not 
even belong to Convolvulides. I have dry in 
fruit a doubtful sp. of this G. E. cnneifoliiis 


Raf. with cal. eq. caps, moiioloc l-2sp. 2 styles, 
st'ig. obt- — fol. sess. lin. cuneatis, pediinc. Ifl. pi- 
losis bibract. caps. cal. loiigior pilosa. New 
Jersey, probably a N. G. Plesilia Raf. 

1047. FRAxi^iARaf. (separ. stig)diff. Convolv. 
cal. siibeq. cor. camp, infundib. limbo integro, 
filam. ineq. basi barbatis, stigm. 2 globosis di- 
visis, et stylus intcrdiim. caps. 21oc. 2valv. 4sp. 
— Types 1 Tr. sagittifolia, 2 umhellata^ 3 
guinquefoHa, 4 trldentata, 5 mindanensis Raf. 
Conv. spherostigma Cav. P. G Sherardi Raf. 
Calystegia paradoxa Pursh, 7 ebracteata, C. do 
Lam, tfec all ranged in Convolvulus, the generic 
character is chiefly from the first, all must be 
fully described : this is the first link with Evol- 

1048. ExALLosis R. (out different) dift'. from 
Traxima by calix very unequal, sepals all differ^ 
ent, 3 cordate, cor. 5fid. ]51obed. E. bijlora 
Raf. Ip. and Conv. do aact, fol. obi. cord, pu- 
besc. ped, geminis. China. 

1049. Symetiius Raf. (flum. sic)diff'. Convolv. 
calix duplex, ext. 2partito amplo, interno 5fido 
ineq. 3 ext. major, corolla rotata Sfida, stam 5 
ineq. stylo bifido, stig. 2 linearis, caps. glob. 2loc, 
4sp. — Types Sym. slcidus Raf. Convolv. do L. 
auct. b. reg. 445. prostratus flexuosus, fol. ovatis 
delt. pedic. Ifl. bract, lanceol. Sicily, fl. bluish 
small, seen alive 1809. 

1050. Styltsma Raf. 1817. diff. Conv. and Sy- 
methus, cal. subeq. simplex, cor. campanul. su- 
bintegra sub lOdent. filam. 5 cqualis villosis ad 
basis cor. antheris sagitt. disco glanduloso an- 
nularis, stylo bipart. stig. 2 globosis. caps. 41oc. 
4sperma — Types 1 St. tenella Raf Conv. do 
Lam. W. P. trichosanthes Mx, P, &c— 2 St, 
aquaticii Raf Conv. do Walt, El. — 3 ;S^/. sher- 


ardi Raf. Conv. do P. E. and some other sp. 
see my new flora, all North American. Cer- 
tainly as near Evolvulus as Convolvulus ! cap- 
sule like Gynoisia 1018. 

1051. Thyella R. (nymph) diff. Convolv. and 

Symcthus. cal. simple subeq. cor, campan. 5 

dcntata, filam 5 ineq, stylo bifido, stig. 2 globo- 

sis, caps 4gona 21oc. 4sp. — Types 1 Th. tamni- 

folia R. ipom. do L. Conv. do El. forming a 

subg. Microla Raf. by cor. 5dent. eq. to calix, 
fl. capitate involucrate. — 2 Tk. ohtusiloha Raf. 
Conv. do Mx. P. E. another subg. Ocripha 
Raf. by cor. large with a tube, filaments tomen- 
tose at base, pocH ifl. 2stipulate — C. lanugino- 
sus and incanus probably belong to this 

1052. DiTEREiA R. (twice cut) diff*. Conv. and 
Evolvulus, calix campanul. 5fido subeq. cor. ro- 
tata 5loba, stam. 5 eq. lohis oppositis ! stylis 2 
bipart. stig. 4 capit. — Type D. parvijlora R. 
Evolv. latif. Edw. b. reg. 401, suffrut. villos. fol. 
sess. obi, cord. acum. axillis Sfloris. Brazils, 
small white flowers. Not of this family, but 
probably of Gentianides, are other akin Genera 
with similar stamens ? compare Dichondra, 
Cu scuta 4'^. 

1053. BuciiAREA Raf. (bot. Arab) diff*. Conv. 
and Evolv. cal. 5part. subeq. imbric. cor. rota- 
ta Integra, vix 5emarg. plicis ad emarg. opp. 
stam. 5 subeq. basi pilosis, stylo brevis bifidus, 
stig, 2 clavatis, caps. 21oc. — Type B. rndderen- 
sis Raf. Convolv. sufl'ruticosus Dryander, bot. 
reg. 133 (non Desf nee P.) caule levi, fol. 
subcord. acutis, ped. l-3fl. Madeira — 2B? at- 
lantica Raf Conv. suffi'ut. Desf t. 48. P. caule 
villoso, fol. lanceol. ped. Ifl. elongatis Mts. At- 


las, fl. rosate and white. These 2 shrubs ap- 
pear to form a very natural Genus, near Evol- 
vulus and next. Dedicated to Buchar a great 
botanist and traveller of Malaga in the 10th 

1054. Peripiias Raf. (around cup) difT. Conv. 
and Evolv. cal. basi camp, limbo 5fido rotato. 
cor. rotata Sangulata, plicis opp. anguHs. stam. 
5 equahs ! lilam. subul. pilosis, antheris incurvis 
extrorse dehiscens , nectarium cupularis in dis- 
co carnoso ovario cingens stylo bifido, stig. 2 
clavatis — Type P. pamtifoUus Raf. Convolv. 
do Salisb. par 20, bot. reg. 222. Volub. pilos. 
fol, cord. obi. ped. 3-5fl. bract. lane, remotis. 
Canary Ids. fl. pale violaceous. Quite a dis- 
tinct G. by calix and nectary, probably not of 
this family. Near to Phacelia, EUisia 4*c or 
rather of Cuscutaria family with Evolvulus, 
Hydrolea &.c. 

1055. ECHIDIA Raf. 1815, pronounce FM- 
dia. This family of mine is perfectly distinct 
from the Labiates by 5 stamens, and from Bor- 
ragines or Trachytes by irregular or labiate co- 
rolla with 5 unequal stamens, the G. Lycopsis 
appears by its curved tube to form a link be- 
tween them and also the Verbenacea. They 
all belong to the natural order Lobogynia with 
lobed ovary and one central style. The G. be- 
longing to EcHiDES are 1 EcniuM with oblique 
campanul. corolla, stigma bifid, calix 5parted 
unequal. 2 Exioxylon Desf. P. Raf with cal. 
4parted and cor. bilabiate, 3 Isorium Raf. see 
219 with equal cor. but unequal stamens, be- 
sides the 6 next Genera till 1061. 

105G. Traxara R. (rough head) diff. Echium 
cor. infundibulif. limbo campanul. 5 lobo eq. 
stam. longissimis filif ineq. stylo declinato, stig- 


ma bifido. F'rut'ic, fl. caplt. corymhosis — Type 
Tr. capitata Raf. E. do L. auct. Hispida, ca- 
pitulis term. S. Africa. 

1057. IsoplesionR. (nearly eq.) diff. Echiutn 
cor. infundib.fere regularis stam. ineq. declinata 
2 longior — Types, Is. itnlicum, giganteum, py- 
renaicum^ ruhriun^ &c all Echium of Authors. 

1058. Oplexion R. (armed E.) diff. Echium, 
cor. hypocraterif tubo brevi, limbo patulo 51obo 
subregularis — Type Op. ferox R. Ech. do 
Andr. t. 39. P. fruticoso aculeato, fl. spicatis. 
S. Africa. 

1059. Larephes R. (much covered) diff. 
Echium, cor. campanulata subregul. non obli- 
quata, calice inclusa, stam. brevis ineq. inclusis, 
stylo bifido — Type L. pariiflorum R. Ech. do 
Roth, Mench. P. Poir. &c. Dichotom. fol. ovali- 
obl. Africa. 

1060. Argyrexias R. (silvery E) diff. Echi- 
um, cal. equaUs 5part. cor. subbilab. lab. 2-31o- 
bis eq. stam. exertis declinatis ineq. stig. obtu- 
sp. — Type A. candleans Raf. Ech. do L. auct. 
bot. reg. 44. fruticoso, fol. lane, racemis panicul. 
secundis. Madera. ' 

1061. Pentiiysa R. (5 fimbr.) diff. Echium, 
cal. subbilab. 2-3part. cor. camp. 51oba ineq. 
basi appendices 5 fimbriatis villosis 51obis clausa, 
stam. declin. omnis ineq. stig. bifido. — P. Types 
1 P, strigosa R. Ech. fruticos. L. auct. oft. fi- 
gured, bot. reg. 36. frut. fol, lane, strigosis ave- 
nis, — 2 P. glauca R. Ech. do Jaq, Andr. 325 
&c, frutic. fol. lane, glabris glaucis avenis — 3 P. 
lemgata R. Ech. do Ti. auct. suffrut. levis, fol. 
lane. marg. scabris, fl. spicatis, sem. muricatis. 
All from Africa, the E. glahrum Thunb, is pro- 
bably a 4th sp. This G. is very distinct by the 
nectary. All the Echiums forming thus 9 Gen- 


era had been united together and to Borragines 
by mere rough aspect ! 

1062. NOLANIDIA Raf. 1815. another nat. 
family of mine of same order Lobogynia, differ- 
ing from Borragines by the Slobed ovary and 5 
nuts or capsules. Nolana has the calix so dif- 
ferent in all the sp. as to indicate several Gen- 
era ; I had united Siphonanthus to it, but it ap- 
pears the type of another family. Nolana pros- 
trata has calix sagittate, N. coronata calix 
cordate, N. spathidata calix spath. N. hijlala 
and recoluta have calix ventricose, they will 
form the subg. loliypa, Periesta, Spatidina, 

1063. Periloba R. diff. Nolana, cal. carina- 
tis 3 vel 5angul. non sagitt. cor. camp. 51oba, 
lobis trilobatis, disco 51obo, caps. 5 monosp. — 
Type P. paradoxa 11. Nol. do Lind. b. reg. 895, 
b. mas^, 2603. prostrata fol. pet. ovatis obt. Chili, 
fl. blue, 

1064. SIPHONANTHIA Raf. this nat. fam. 
differs from Nolanides and Borragines by cor. 
4fid, stam. 4, berries 4 as in Prasiuni : it is thus 
nearer Labiates, but the corollas are quite 
equal. The habit of Siphonanthus with ternate 
leaves and racemose fl. is also like Labiate. Is 
it a subfamily of them ? do any other akin types 
exist ? Falkia and Coldenia diflier by several 
styles. But Jussieu mentions a Coldenia of 
Peru with 1 style, corolla 5fid, 5 stamens which 
is either a Nolana or a N. G. of Siphonanthia, 
Monomesia Raf — Jiut Per ama lursuta Aubl. 
(or Mattnschkea W. P. Slc) is another G. of 
this family, having same habit, although it has 
4 seeds instead of berries, and the flowers agre- 
gate as in Globularia. The G. Monniera, Ra- 


putia, &c form another akin family MoNiERiDEsiy 
differing by irregular corolla and stam. from 

10G5. POLIMIA Raf l8l5. This nat. order, 
of mine next to the Lobogynia is easily known 
by one ovary, several styles or stigmas, fruit 
without seminiferous valves, I shall give here 
the 5 families of it as established then, although 
there may be one or two others, to mention all 
the G. belonging thereto, would be a task, but 
several of my N, G. out of Convolvulus belong 

1. DicoNDRANiA R. l8l5. Ovary lobed, lobes 
Iseeded. Types Dicondra, Coldenia, Falkia. 

2. Staticia R. Statice, Armeria &c, fruit 

3. CuscuTARiA R. fruit capsule multilocular. 
Types Cuscuta, Kadula R. Kadaras R. Evol- 
vulus, (and all my revised Genera of it) Hydro- 
lea, Eucodon Raf. fCodon Jus.) Sagonea, Ophi- 
oxylon, Nama, Sterisia R. &-c. 

4. Cressaria R. capsule monolocular Cressa, 
Aldea R. P. Porana <^c. 

5. Ilexia R. fruit berry or drupe. Types 
Cordia, Ehretia, Menais, Varronia, Schrebera, 
Ilex, Nemopanthes R. and akin Genera. 

The next order Ei'iciiA with seminiferous 
valves included the Gentianides and Chironides, 
with Orobanchides that have irregular corolla; 
but these last must be removed to the next order 
Chasmanthia or Personate, while Epiclia will 
belong to the class NANTIANDRIA by sta- 
mens opposite as in Lysimachides. While the 
real Convolvulides were removed to order 
Darynia near to Epacrides by having a regu- 
lar corolla, although their unequal stamens con- 


nect them with many other families, and they 
ought now to form with Vehbascoiues a pecu* 
liar order or suborder Pentanisia with 5 une* 
qual stamens. 

106G. Verbascum, this G. is the type of a large 
family well distinguished from Soi.anides by a 
capsule and unequal stamens, corolla irregular ; 
from ScROPHULARiDES by 5 stamens ; as from 
CoNvoLvuLiDEs, by corolla irregular. Hyoscia- 
mus, Blenocoes 716 till Stimenes 722 belong 
thereto; but Nicotiana and Datura with their 
reformed Genera with regular corolla, belong to 
CoNvoLvuLiDES. — Vcrbascum must also be re- 
formed and includes 4 Genera : the real Ver- 
BASCU3I has cal. 5part. cor. rotata patens 5loba 
ineq. stam, 5ineq. Jilam. inclinatis lanatis an- 
theris conformist stylo, stigk 1. caps, 2loc. 
2valv. polysp. sem. centralis. 

1. TnAPSus, li. fil. basi lanatis. V. thapsus, 
thapsoides, montanum, nigrum, jnilvertilen- 
tum, mucrotiatum, lychnitis, hlattaria, sinu^ 
atum, floccostnn, pheniceuni &lc, 

2. Lasiake R. ill. apice villosis, V. plicatum 
sm. fl. gr. 226. — F. lyratum. has calix 5phy- 
lous serrate. Subg ? Vrionula R. — 3. 1. Flo- 
isiosiA R. (Diosk) diflf. \erbasciim, antheris dif- 
formis ineq. 3 renif. 2obl — Types //. piilomoi- 
des, condensata, netnorosa &lc. Verbasc. of 
Authors, probably a Genus. 

1067. Leiosandra R. (smooth st) di(f. Ver- 
hascum, stam. glabris, antheris ineq, difformis 
2 oblongis — Types L. crassifolia and cuspidata 
Verbasc. do Authors, 

1068. Ra>ionda Richard (not of Mirbel which 
is Lygodium) diff. Verbnscum, cor. 5partita 
regularis, stam. approx. antheris apice perfora- 



tis, capsiila llocul. polysp. placentas 2 parietal is^ 
Scaposn — Type 11. pijreanica Rich. Pers. 
Verbascum myconi L. auct. fol. rad. ovalib. cre- 
natis tonientosis. Mts. pyrenees, fl. blue. Hardlj 
of this family, probably type of a new family 
with those Solanides and Convolvulides that 
have a capsule unilocular, such as Diatrema&c, 
APLARNIA see 1001); but akin to Gratioli- 
DES differing by 5 stamens. 

1069. CuscuTA L. auct. This G. was based 
upon mere habit with capsule ; Cassytha ought 
to have been united to it by these principles ! it 
includes at least 8 Genera! my real G. Cuscuta 
has cal. 4-5fidus, cor. camp. 4-5fida persistens, 
appendices nullis, stam. 4-5alt. stylis 2, stig. 
acutis, caps, pyxidium, 21oc. 2sp. Aphylla, fi- 
lamentosa, volubilis, fl. subsess. — Type only 
C. vulgaris or europea of L. 

1070. Kadula R. (Diosk) diff. Cuscuta, cor., 
ovatis 4fidis, stam. 4, stigm. 2 capitatis. fl. pe-- 
dune corymbosis — Type R. corymbosa R* 
Cusc. do RP. t. 115. P. Peru. 

1071. Antiianema R. (fl. sine fil.) difF. Cuscu- 
ta, cal. membr. 5part. cor. urceolata 4-5fida, 
stam. 4-5, stylis 2 longissimis, stigm. capit. A- 
caulis, parasitica, caulib. evanescens, fl. fflo- 
meratis densis — Types 1 A. paradoxa Raf^ 
(5. verticillata) Cusc. do Raf. annals 97, glome- 
rulis amplectens, verticillatis, cor. subtub. 4fidis.. 
Kentuky — 2 A. capitata Raf. aeaulis98 annals, 
fl. glomer. capitatis. cor. subcamp. Sfidis. Kent.^ 

1072. Pentake R. (5 points) difl*. Cuscuta, 
cal. angulato magno cor. eq, 5fido, cor. conica 
Sdentis corniculatis, stig. 2 capit. fl. panictda- 
tis— P. chinense R, Cusc. do Lam. W. P. 


1073. Kadurias R. (Diosk) diti. C«5cw/a, cor. 
5part. reftexa, //. racemosis — K. rejlexa R. 
Cusc. do Roxb. cor. t. 101. P. India. 

1074. Nemepis R. (on filaments) diff. Cuscuta 
cal. 5part. cor. camp. vel. urceol. 5fida, stam. 5, 
appendices squamis 5 opp. stam. fimbriatis, stig. 
capit. Caulib. ramosis, jl. raris disp. — Types 
1 N. odorata R. Cusc. do RP. t. 105. P. fl. 
congestis sessilib. cor. camp. Peru, fl. with 
purple dots — 2 N. americana R. Cusc. do L. 
auct. fl. congestis pedunc. cor. urceol. filis cro- 
ceis, fl. albis. North America — 3 N. prolifera 
R. Cusc. Anier. nonnulis, surinamensis Schill. 
Vitm. fl. fascicul. proliferis, cor. tubul. lac. patu- 
lis, filis flavis, fl. viridescens. Antilles and S. 
Amer. — 4 S. africana R. Cusc. do W. P. &c. 
americana. Thunb. pedunculis unifl. bracteatis. 

1075. Lepimenes R. (scale lunular) dilT. Ctis- 
cuta, cal. 4part. cor. infundib. 4fida, stam. 4, 
squamis 4 opp. lunulata crenata, stigm. 2 acu- 
tis — Type JL. epithymum R. Cusc. do Sm. W. 
P. europea Lam. fl. sessilib. rubellis. North of 

1076. Aplostylis Raf. diff*. Cuscuta,cn.\. 4fidis 
cor. ovata 4dent. stam. 4, append, nullis, stylo 
unico capit. /f. racemosis — Type A. iupulifor- 
tnis R. Cusc. do Krok. Sil. t. 36,monogyna W. 
P. Sm. — This G- by the single style is not even 
of the same family and nearer Convolvulides ; 
but should the stam. be opposed to corolla as in 
Cassytha, it will be a lir k with that G. and of 
same family. 

1077. Cassytha L. a genus widely mistaken 
by all botanists, with habit of Cuscuta and Vis- 
cum ! of doubtful aflf. in Jussieu, deemed by him 
and Necker akin to Laurus ! which might be if 
it is dicotyle, but it is rather monocotyle and 


akin to Olax, Bassia — cal 3part. cor, globosa 
6fida, stam. 6 fert- segm. opp. 6 interna sterilia, 
stylus 1, stig. sub 3fid. caps. glob. Isp. ad corolla 
subbacata tecta. — Types C. filiformis L, filif. 
verrucosa, fl. spicat. India — 2 other subg. or Gen. 
not yet well descr. belong here, all the sp. of 
Viscutn L. without leaves belong here accord- 
ing to Smith and probably form a peculiar akin 
Genus. Most of the Botanists have given dif- 
ferent characters to this Genus! hardly 2 or 3 
agree which indicates several sp. or G. most of 
them unite Volutella to it or ascribe its charac- 
ter to Cassytha. The Cassutha cornea of 
Rumph, or C. corniculata L. has never been 
well described, having spines, leaves linear lan- 
ceolate and horned flowers, it must probably 
form a G. perhaps the Collodion of Loureiro ? — 
While the Cuscuta 5. t. 184 of Rumph. which 
is the Cassyta zeylanica Gaertn. t 27, &c ought 
to form another G. Rdmputris Raf diff. by 
stam, 6 ineq. 3 shorter alt. 3 longer biglandulose 
at base, 1 style, 3 stigmas, nut longer than bac- 
cate corolla. Type R. fasciculata Raf. fol. 
paucis fascicul. tenuis. 

1078. OzARTiiuis Raf diff. Cassytha fl . .stylo 
tereto persistens, caulih. artic. aphylis flowers 
to be described . . . types 1 O. opuntioides R. 
artic. compr. 2 O. triquetra R. artic. Squetris 
(V. artic. Burm) — 3 O. capense R. artic. tere- 
tis baccis opp. — 4 O. paradoxa Raf (Vise, ver- 
tic. L. sine fol.) ramis teretis, baccis confertis: 
all those united to Viscum by L. &c O. opun- 
tioides is besides Cactus pendidus ! Ait and 
Cassytha baccifera Sal. thus put in 3 Genera! 

1079. Spironema R, Volutella Forsk. Vitm. 
(n. mal. ad Voluta) diff'. Cassytha, cal. 6phyl. 
deciduus, cor. ineq. 6part. 3 ext. basi intus cor- 


niculatis, anth. 9 sessiles, 3 int. steriles glandu- 
lif, stig. capit. — Sp. apliyla R. V. do F. V. filif. 
striata, villosa, fl. spicatis. Arabia — If these G. 
do not belong to Olaxia and are inonocotyle 
they may form a peculiar family CASYTIDES 
by the corolla persistent and baccate, but they 
agree with Olax and akin G. by the fruit and 
corolla anomalous, some sterile stamens &.c. I 
add the 3 Genera blended in Olax. 

1080. Olax L. J. &:c. cal. integro, cor. infund. 
.31oba, stam. 3 fert. lobis opp. 4 steriles, sty). 1, 

stig. 1, fruct. Isp. frut. volub. ramis jlagelif. 
fol. alt. avenis — O. scandens Roxb. zeylanica 
L. fol. pet. ovata, ped. axil, ramosis. JE. Ind. 
and Ceylon, put in Sapotilles by Jussieu, while 
he puts the next G. in Aurantia ! while Smith 
deems them of same Genus ! 

1081. Fissilia Com. Jus. diff. Olax. cor. 3part. 
stam. 3 fertiles gerens, 3 sterilis furcatis, sti<^. 
3lobo, drupa Isp. arbor, fol. alt, — F.psittacina 
Jus. Olax fissilis Sm. fol. integris laurinis sem- 
perv. racemis. axil, African Ids. 

1082. Spermoxyron Lab. diff. Olax, cor. 
Spart. l-21iberis petalif. 3 coalitis cnm stam. 3 
opp. stam. 2 sterilia, capsula Isp. Aphyla cassij- 
thif, — Sp. australis L. Olax do Sm. flagellis 
strictis aphylis, probably alt. 3 G. monocotvle. 

1083. SYNARTHIA Raf. 1815. This fam- 
ily of mine includes the Dipsacea of Jussieu, 
which Decandole has ascertained to have a free 
ovary, together with Globularia, Alypum and 
akin Genera. They are distinguished by co- 
rollas irregular^ single seeds ^ stamens com- 
tnonly 2 or 4, flowers capitate^ often with a 
periant/te. It is a family of nat. order. Olis- 
PERMiA, where belong also Pyrenaria, Verbeni- 
des, Vitexides ^c. I'he G. Opercularia, Cryp- 


tospennum and Evea must be added to Dipsa- 
cea; but the Valerianides of Dec. are quite a 
peculiar family, 'i'he G. Scahiosa L. the most 
numerous in species offered a crowd of anoma- 
lies and yet has been left nearly untouched ex- 
cept by Vaillant and Necker ; the linneists 
blending to this day 16 fine Genera into Scabi- 
osa, which I have distinguished since 1815, and 
shall now enumerate, having verified most of 
them alive or dry. 

1084. ScABiosA Necker, Raf. non L. nee auct.. 
Periantho multipartito, patens ineq. phorantho 
piloso, corollis 5fidis ineq. radiatis. stam. 4, 
akena angulata denticulis coronata — Types 
Sc. columbaria, eburnea, argentea, atropur- 
purea, prolifera, alba, grandiflora, ucranica, 
cretlca, graminif, pumilci ? indurata, mariti- 
tna Slc\ 

1085. AsTROcEPHALus Vail. Ad. Chetastrum 
Neck, diffl Scabiosa, Phorantho paleaceo, cor. 
camp. 4fidis, ineq. akena globosa, coronatis setis 
Slongis patulis — Types Sc, sylvatica, ciliata^ 
rigida, tatarica, uralensis, integrifolia 6^c. 

1086. Pterocephalus Vail. Ad. Pteropogon 
Neck. diff*. Scabiosa, Phorantho nudo, cor. camp. 
5fidis ineq. akena globosa, corona duplici ext. 
marginata, int. papposa, pappus plumosus — 
Types 1 Pt. incanus Raf. Sc, pteroceph L. 
auct. 2 Pt. plumosus R. Sc. plumosa Sm. 
Knantia do L. this forms a subg. Trichopteris 
Necker by Per, aphyl. pappus 1*2 pilose. 

1087. SiJccisA Neck. diff. Scabiosa, Per. im- 
bricato, phorantho paleaceo, corollis 4fidis 
subeq. akena ventricosa obi. 4dentata — Types 
1 S. vidgaris R. Scab, succisa L. 2 S, ambro- 
sioides, 3 dichotoma, 4 arvensis, 5 ciliata, 6 
scabra kc. 


1088. Cephalaria Schr. diff. Scabiosa, Per. 
globoso imbric. cor. 4fi(Iis subeq. akenis 8aris- 
tatis — Types C. S. Sc. alplna, syriaca, attenu- 
ata, tfcc. 

1089. EuPTiLiA Raf. (well feathered) diff. 
Scabiosa, per. glob, imbric. cor. 5fidis ineq. 
akenis aristatis et papposis — Type Iii. cretica 
Raf. Sc. papposa involiicrata Sm. 

1090. Plesiopsora Raf diff. Scabiosa, per. 
patens 8-lOpart. cor. 5Hdis subeq, akenis denti- 
culatis — Types P/. sictila, a/ricana, rnonspe- 
liaca, ^c. 

109!. Tereipiias R. (cut cup) diff. f^cabiosa, 
Perianthis urceolatis multifidis.—Type T. urceo- 
lata R. Sc. do Desf — A. subg. Pentexis Raf, 
has per. turbin. 5fido, type Sc. riitefoUa Vahl. 

1092. Xetola R, (aristulate) diff. Scabiosa, 
Periantho Sphyllo, fol. longe aristatis, coroUis 
4fidis subeq. phorantho paleaceo aristato. — 
Types 1 X. transylvanica R. Sc, do L. — 2 X. 
trenta R. Sc. doHaquest.Vitm. Sc. haqueti Lam. 
wrongly united to Sc. leucantha by Persoon. 

1093. Lomelosia R. (edge membr) diff. Sccr- 
biosa, Phorantho globoso, akenis corona mem- 
branacea plana rotata orbiculata, integra vel. 
emarg. nervosa vel scabra. — Types L. stellata 
and CoronopifoliaW.a.f. Scab, do auct. L. p«- 
lestina will be a 3d sp. perhaps a subg. by seg- 
ments of corolla trifid. L. simplex a 4th and a 
subg. by Crown campanulate Codostelma Raf 

1094. Leucopsora R. (white Sc) diff. Scabi- 
osa, per. globoso imbric. cor. 4fidis subeq. fee. 
inf. deflexa, akenis trigonis 3dentatis — Type 
S. leucantha Raf Scab, do L. Sc. itstulata is 
perhaps a 2d sp.. 

1095. SixALix R. (carrot cal.j diff. Scabiosa^ 


per. pinnatifido villoso — Type S. daucoides R. 
Scab, do Desf. 4'^* 

109G. GoNOKERos R. (angle horned) diff. Sca- 
blosn, per. irnbricato, cor. 4fidis subeq. akena 
angiilis in cornibus desinentib-— Type G. hun- 
garicus R. Scab, corniculata Waldst. Pers. 

1097. Pentena R. (5 or 1 ) diff. ^cabiosa, per; 
patens multif. phorantho ovato, akenis aristis 1 
vel 5 instructis — Types P. ochroleuca Scab, do 
L. aristis 5 — 2 P. uniseta R. Scab, do Savi t^ 
2, Vitm. arista unica. 

1098. Tremastelma 11. (perf crown) diff. Sca- 
hiosa, pet. Gphylus, akenis corona ext. dilatata 
lOperforata, lOnervosa, corona int. papposa. — - 
Types 1. TV. hrnchiata Raf. Scab, do Sm. 
Knautia palestina L. auct. fol. integris — 2 TV. 
sihlhorpi R. Scab, do Sm. fol. pinna tif. Cyprus. 

1099. Thlasidia R. (compr. 2) diff. Scabiosa 
cor. 4fid. ineq. radiatis, akenis compressis bi- 
dentatis, — Type Thl. bidens R. Scab, do Sm. 

1100. DioTOTHECA Raf. fl. lud. not of Vaillant 
which is Morina T, L. diff. f^cahiosa, per im- 
bric. scariosus, phorantho glob, paleaceo, paleis 
scariosis, corollis Ifidis irreg. lac. sup. brevis 
emarg. inf. longior, stam. 2 brevis in tubo cor. 
akenis ovatis, faux bifida — G. akin to the last, 
differing by the 2 stamens as in Morina. Type 
D. repens Raf repens pubescens 4gona, fol, 
opp. petiolatis ovat. dent, scabris, fl. axill. Lou- 

In all these G. the fruit is a single seed free 
within a hollow calix perforated at the end, 
somewhat as in the Carexides, and all have a 
single style with simple stigma : such fruit ought 
to be called an utricule rather than akena which 
is a kind of nut. 



1101. A'asTOLociiiA, no botanist Imd thoiii^ht 
t( revise this Genus, till I partly did in in) med. 
fl. 18'2S: yet it offers perii(oue unUabinte, or 
hilnhiate or regular, 5 or G or 12 sfaniftis, I 
to 6 stigotns and tnatnj kinds of capsules \ 
theretbie Ibrins a group of plants including l2 
Genera — my Aristoloc mia Raf. lias perigono 
adherens, tubulato, sepe incnrvo, unilabiato hasi 
ventricoso, apex lingulato intcgro, atitheris G 
sess. epigynis stigma stellato Gpart, capsula G 
gona, Glocular, polysperma — 4 subgenera. 

1. Clematops, labio oblongo vel ovato. Types 
A. anguiclda^ maurorum, betica, indica, cle- 
matitls, rotunda, longa, plstolochia, semperci- 
rensi] kempjeri, punctala, barbata, pallida, 
hirta &6'. 

2. Erto«lossa. labio dilatato spatulato retu- 
so vel cordato. Types A. surinamensis, reni- 

Jormis, odoratissima, glauca, altissima &-c. 

3. Glossura, labio caudato velappendiculato 
Types A. caudata, A. peltafa, A. maxima, &.c. 

4. Mkstknipiius, tubo curvo coarctato apice 
angulato, labio dentato. Types A. grandijlora, 
A, fetens ifec. 

1102, Hkxaplectris R. (6spurs)diff. Aristol. 
Perig incurvo Ocostato, basi 6 calcaratis, labio 
dilatato vel cuculato longe caudato, capsula cla- 
vata — Types 1 H. bicolor R. xVrist. do L. b, 
reg. 1391>, fol. cord. Slobis, longe pet. stip. acu- 
ta fl. axill. sess. S. Am. fl. yellow, lip fuscate 
cuculate, tail pedal — 2 JL fuscata R. Arist- 
caudata Buoth, b. reg, 1453 (non Jaq. I ) fol. 
renif. 31obis brevi pet. nigro macul. stipula obi. 
labio renif. Brazil, fl. brown, tail pedal. — Per- 



haps some sp. of Glossura belong here, if they 
have spurs. 

1103. Plagistra R. (obliqual) dift'. Aristol. 
Perig. tubuloso incurvo, non labiato, apex inte- 
gro oblique truncato — Types FL cretica Raf. 
Arist. do Lam. P. — the hirta of L. included 
this sp. 

1104. Tropexa R. (G keels) diff. Aristol. pe- 
rig. infundibuHf. tubo curvo Ggono, labio spatu- 
lato, capsula globosa Gcarinata — Type Tr. hi' 
loba R. Arist- do L. caule scand. fol bilobis. 

1105. Einomeia R. (1 less) ditf. Aristol. stam, 
5 caps. Siocul. — Type E. hracteata Raf. Arist. 
pentandra L. &c. 

1108. Ambhya R. (n. Arab) diff. Aristol. peri- 
gono sacato inflato, unilab. lab. producto con- 
torto dilatato bilobo. — Type Anib. labiosa R. 
Arist. do b. reg. G8l),b. mag. 2545. ringens Link, 
t. 13 non Yahl. Volub. angul. fol. subrenif, 

1107. PisTOLOCHiA R. diff. Aristol. perig. bi- 
labiato, incurvo, subtrifido, stigma sess. unico 
magno capit. lobato — Typ^s the various sp. 
blended in Arist. serpentaria see my med. fl. 
and new fl. 1. P. serpentaria med. fl. t. 10 — 2 
latifolia — 3 angustifolia ^c 

1108. DiGLossKLis R. diff. Aristol. perig. bila- 
biato, labis ineq, tuhp bilobo, caps. obi. striata, 
stigma caps. 41ocul — Types 1 1). trinervis R. 
Arist. bilabiata L. auct. fol. ovatobl. obt. 3ner- 
vis. — 2 D. latifolia R. Arist. ringens Vahl. <fec 
fol. subrot. cord. lab. sup. spatul. inf. lanceol — 
3 />. cymhifera Raf. Arist. do Mart. t. 49. b. 
reg. 1543. fol. renif. lab. sup. ovato acuto, inf. 
pandulato emarg. Brazil : the A. cordifl. gi- 
ganiea &c perhaps belong to this G. 

1109. Endodeca R. 1828 (12 inside) diflf. 


Aristolocllia, stam, 12, labioplerumque ovato — 
Types JE. sempfrtlrens II. Ar. do auct. — *2 E. 
hastata R. Arist. do Nut. &c. 

1110. PsoiMiizv R. (false snake root) diff. 
Arist. perig. bilabiato, stam. 1*2. stigma unico 
sess. lohato convohito. — Type Ps. tmdulata 
Raf. Arist. serpent. Big. med. fl. ic. fol. obi. sub- 
cord, actitis undulat. trinervis, Klorida &c. fl. 
red. one of the sp. blended among our snake- 

1111. PteripiiisR. (winged tube) diff. Aristol. 
perig. tubulosis tripteris trilobis, stam. 6-8, stig. 
subsessile trilobo, caps 3loc i — Type Pt. tripte- 
ris R. Arist. do Raf. fl. lud. G5 sarmentosus,fol. 
cord. fl. spic. bracteatis. Louisiana, fl. small 
white, see my remarks in new fl. on possible 
mistake of Robin. 

1112. SiPiiisiA R. 1828. diff'. Aristol. perig, tu- 
buloso, apex trilobo subeq. non alato, stam. epis- 
tylis, stylo crasso, stig. 3-6 — Types 1. Siph. 
glabra Raf. Arist. sipho Lher &c- — 2 iS. to- 
mentosa R. Ar. do Sims &c both seen alive. • 

1113. Hexastyms R. 182.5 neog. 24. diff*. 
Aristol. and Asarum, cal. tubular trifjd, stam. 
12. ovar. semilib. tereto, apex concavo, stylis 6 
lateralis erectis, stig. 6 obliquis truncatis bicor- 
nis. caps. 61oc. olii^osp — Type H. arirolia R. 
Asarum do Mx. El. &c. fol. cord, sagitt. Ken- 
tucky to Carolina. Seen alive nearer to Siphi- 
sia than Asarum ! 

1114. Bragantia Lour, non Vand. perig- tu- 
bul. ineq. 3fido, patens, corona brcvi cyathif. 
stam. G. caps, siliquef. 4gona 41oc. 4valv. — Types 
1 Br. racemosa Lour. fol. lanceol — 2 Br. lati- 

folia Wal. fol. obi. subcord. caulib. l-2phylis. 
Birman. — The Genera Munnickia and Cera- 
mium (bad name employed for a Fucus) tomen- 


tosum of Blume. Bi\ hlumi Lind. must be ve- 
rined, near Sipliisia. 

1115. Trimeiuza Lind. perig. 5part. stam. 9 
in 3 phalanges radiatis, stig. Gdent. caps, ut IJra- 
gantia — Type Tr. piprrila, caule flex, genie, 
fol, ovatolanc. costatis, snbt. reticul- pubesc. ra- 
cemis paucifl. axil. Ceylon. 

1116. Steikkxa R. (6 step.) Trichopus Gaertn. 
fil. Lind. (non Trichopus Muller («m.) Perig. 
tubul. 6fido, stam. Ofertilis, Osterilis in foveis 
stylus 1, stig. 3 bipart. caps. 3quetra Slocul. 
o,.t.i, a, loculis l-*2sp. indehiscens — 3 types from 
Cev on. 1 St. cordata U. fol. cord, triang. obt. 
retusis — 2 St. media, fol, ovatolanc. acum. — 3 
St. anorii^l'if. R. fol. lin. lane. acum. caps. 1 
spermis, an Genus 1 — Lindly asserts that all these 
G. and Aristolochia, have a peculiar anatomical 
structure of stems different from the Dicotyle 
plants and shrubs. Perhaps like Cuscuta,Cassy- 
tha, Cactus &c. 

1117. Meborea Aubl. Jus. Vit, Tephranthus 

Necker. Rhopium Schr. VV. P. Perig, 6part. 

foveis 6. stam. 3 stylis adnatis. ovar. libero. 

stylis 3, caps 3gona Cbc, Ovalv. 6sp. Friitex, 

fol. alt. stl[ndalis. fl. corymb — Type M. guja- 

nensis vel. Rh. citrifolium. fol. suhsess- ovat. 
acut. lucida Integra — Very singular G. of doubt- 
ful affinities, introduced here to show that it 
links with Hexastylis 1113, and Steirexa. If all 
these G. are to be removed by anatomical struc- 
ture, the ovary free, half free or adherent will 
be less essential, forming however 3 families 
AsARiDEs, Meborides, I'ytinides with a berry, 
that stand in the nat. method at the very end of 
the Dicotyles, as a transition to the first order 
of Monocotyles including the Epigyne families, 
Hydrocharides, Valisnerides, Orchides &c. 


Perhaps they are even Monocotyles and Endo- 
genous, as the t(!rnary numbers of organs ap- 
pear to indicate — The G. Salucia and Strnmfia 
Ibrni another akin family lSAL\tii)i:s having pe- 
tals besides a divided cahx and epigyne sta- 
mens — Necker puts this G. Meborea near to 
Passi flora, and perhaps the stamens are mona- 
delphous as in Passiflora and Sisyrinchijm once 
deemed gynandrous by Linneus. 

1118. Nepenthes L. auct. Bandura Burm. 
Ad. a wonderful G. of doubtful affinities, which 
Lindley reduces to Aristolochia ! an egregious 
absurdity since it is dioical. with a free pistil . . . 
It is the type of my family Nepenthides, near 
to SA.RAZINIDES dift'cring by dioical monadel- 
phous stamens, akin also to the order Epidiesia 
or Euphorbides, and the families of it wi/h uni- 
ted stamens like Ricinides Slc chief ditierence 
a single large stigma. The G. Aspidistra and 
Macrogyne are so near to Nepenthes that all 
must be monocotylc (nay perhaps ail the Asari- 
des?) if so they form a peculiar series an! link 
with Sarazinia on one side and Paris on the 
other by the quaternary niunber of parts. Many 
sp. have been blended in N. distilatoria, Jussieu 
noticed 3, Wildenow had 3 others, there are 7 
at least 1 N. distilatoria L. oft. fig. bot. mag. 
26*29. 2798, Lod. 1017 &c caule ramoso, fol. 
sparsis avenis, ft. racemosis geminatis. India — 
2 N. maf/agascarif'nsis, W. P. — 3 N.pliyUim- 
phora W. P. Genus in Lour simplex fol. app. 
fl. spicatis — 4 N. zcylanica Raf. Bandura 
Burm. zeyl, t. 17 — 5 A^. indica Lam. fol. reticu- 
latis — 6 N. cantliarifera Jus. Rumph. Aubl. 5. 
t. 59 — 7 TV, scifplius Jus. Malaca — Perhaps 
several subg. or Gen. are blended here. 


nil). NEPENTHIDES Kaf. (monoc? en- 
dog Q Peri^one and anthers vvitli 4nary parts, a 
very large peltate stigma, capsule 4}oc. habit of 
Aroiclcs and Methonica. 3 (i. at least. 

I ISepenthes Dioic. cal. 4part. pers. stam. 12- 
18 connatis, caps, po!ysp. caulescens, J'ol. ap- 

2. Asplilistra Herm. cal. tubul Sfido, anthe- 
ris 4-Oiiberis, caps, 4sp. type A. jninctata E. b. 
reg. 977. 

3. Macrogifne Link. Herm. cal. camp. 8fidb. 
antheris 8 liberis, stigma 8gona, caps. 4sp — type 
M. convalarifolia L. Asp. lurida E. b. reg. 628, 
b. mag. 2499. 

H20. PASSIFLOREA Raf. 1815. This 
family of mine was established long ago, and I 
had reduced 12 G. to it, mostly blended in Pas- 
sifiora by the Linneists, Necker and Jussieu had 
already 4 or 5. I'hey are but slightly akin to 
Cucurbitacea as deemed by Jussieu, by the 
fruit and habit. They are nearer the Strigili- 
dis and Malpighinia by the perigone and united 
stamens, several styles 8<^c, thus put in my na- 
tural order Adelphidia along with them. See 
till 1134. 

1121. Passiflora Raf. non L. This G. was 
badly understood by the Linneists, but reformed 
by Jussieu. Mine has Perlgono colorato hasi 
urceol. Umho \Qpartito colorato^ 5 alt. petali- 
formls. Corona niidtlparUia. f?itenia nee- 
ta.rif. ham urceol. gynophoro .stam. 5 gerens 
hasi coniiatis, stylis 3, fruct. hacca vel. pepo 
(cysto Neck) iiniloc. pohj.sp. placentas 3, sem. 
arillatis — Many sp. in 3 subgenera — 1 Grana- 
dilla Ad. no involucre — 2 Maracoa, Raf fl. in- 


1122. Trtpsimna Raf. ditl. Passiflora, fl. invo- 
liicratis biijinnatif. petaliscal. eq. nect. filif. bre- 
vis, capsula inllata, placentas 3 internis sernini- 
feris — Type Tr. fctida li. Pas. do L. b. in. 
2019, seen alive. All the cap-ular sp. must be 
divided of course from tbe baccate kinds. 

1123. Raf. diff. Passill. petalis bre- 
vior, corona brevi, nect. int. duplice cupula. 
Of^ona plac. 3 int. seniinif, — Type X biloba Raf. 
Pas. capsularis L. aiict. Dec. b. maaf. 2808. 3 
var. fol. bilobis, fol, bifidis, fol. inaculatis. 

112 4. MoDECA Rheed. Jaq. diff. Passifl. dioi- 
ca, cal. tubul. 5fido. petalis 5, nect. sq. 5-10, 
stam. 5 liberis,ov. vix stipit. capsula 3valvis poly- 
sperma — Several Sp. m Jaq. deviating by the 
free stamens and valvular capsule. Blended in 
India with the Convolv. called also Modeca, 
compare with the li'uphorbides. 

1125. Macrophora llaf. diff. Passifl. cal. tube 
brevi, gynophoro longissimo, nect. dupl. sefies, 
stam. dilat. planis basi coalitis, antheris magnis 
— Type M. sanguirita Raf. Pass, do Sm. &c 
fol. 31obis serratis acutis egland. cal. et ovar. 
toment. Antilles. 

1120. Meiopiris Raf. diff. Passifl. cal. 5part. 
petalis nullis, corona duplex, nect- sep<^ simplex 
planutn — Types yf/. pdtatas subf^rosn^ minima 
pallida^ mulflflora^ aitgusttf. pannosa^ heder- 
ac^r/- 4*c, all Passifloras. 

1127. Mu.JiicuiA T. Jus. Pers. Erndelia 
Necker, diff. Passifl. cal. basi urceolatus, nect. 
tubuloso truncato — Type 31. ocellala Pers. Pas. 
murucuia L. auct. — Persoon had 3 sp. in this G, 
each being types of Genera. 

1128. Blkpiiistelm \ R. (cil. crown) diff. Pas- 
sifl. cal. tubuloso, petalis brevis, nect. tubul. lo- 
bato ciiiato — Type Bh mtrantia Raf. Muru- 


cuia do P. passifl. do Forst. W. Sm. Andr. rep. 
t. *2i)5. fol. glabris .S-5lobis obt. i\ew Caledon. 

1129. Per K\i IS R:ii'. (around half ) di.f. Passifl. 
no petals, cali.x glol)ular — Type I*, orbiculata 
R. Miirucuia P. Passifl. Cav. 

J 130. Synactii A Raf. (un. rays) diff. Passi . 
no petals, rays ol" nectary united at the base in a 
cyl. crown inserted on the tubular 5parted ca- 
lix. — Type S. viridlflora R. Pass do Cav, W. 

1131. i'AcsoNiA Jus. diff. Passifl. cal. tubul. 
lOfidus, coioratus, corona glandulis, gynophoro 
elons;iito — Many sp. in 4 su.bgenera. 1 Ferim- 
na Raf. invol. nuliis — 2 Tristegia Raf. invol, 
Sphylo — 3. Siphostegia Raf- invol. tubuloso — 
4 Balostis R. Cal. globoso, type P. giauca auct, 
is it a Genus? how is the crown '( 

1132. Odostelma Raf. (toothed crown) diff. 
Tacsonia, corona dentata nonglandulosa, stam* 
filarn. planis — Types O. pedunculata and adul- 
terina Raf. Tacsonia do auct. 

1133. Erndelia Raf. non Necker, ditf. Tac- 
sonia cal. et cor, apex reflexa, corona duplice 
concentrica — Type E. rrjlfxtflora Raf. Pas. do 
Cav. Tacs. do Pers. 

1134. Pericodia R. diff. Pass'fl. cal. crrnpa- 
nul. lac. subul. petalis dilat, nect. plicato — Type 
P. perfoUata Raf Passifl. do L. 

1135. Sanami'nda CIus. Ad. Passerina L. ad 
Passer ! This G. includes 6 blended : the real 
hardly differs from Daphne except by fruit a 
nut instead of berry. All the sp. with 2 stamens 
only are the G. Pimelea. Necker applied Sa- 
namunda to the Daphnes with tubular flowers, 
not funnel shaped. All have 8 fertile stamens 
in 2 rows on the tube of coroliform calix. 

1136. Belvala Ad, difi^. cal. longe tubiiL 
4fido, extus caliculo diphylo, intus 8dent. vel 


stam, steriles 8, fertiles 4 eq. capsula membran. 
Isp. utriculus. y^/. oppos. Jl. axil, spicatis. — 
Type 1 B. spicata Raf, Passerina dodecandra L. 
omitted by many botanists. 

1137. Trimeiandra Raf. diflT. Sanam. cal. 5 
fidus, stam. 5 eq. unica series — Type Tr. spi- 
cata Raf. Pass, pentandra Th. W. P. auct. fol. 
ovat. hirsutis, spicis ovatis terminalis. S. 

1138. Steiroctis R. (8 ster.) diff. Sanam. 
Stam. 16, 8 steriles glanduliformis superis, 8 
fertiles inferis in tubo — Types S^. capitata and 
unijjora Raf. Passerina do auct. 

1139. Pausia R. (olea lat.) difi. S. cal. tubo 
campanul. ut olea, utriculo baccato — nearer to 
Daphne by fruit, type P. orientalis Raf, Pass. 
do L. auct. fol. lanceol. obt. fl. axil. 

1140. Balendasia R. (ball inside hairy) diff, 
S. cal. globoso 4dent. intus hirsute, utriculo bac- 
cato — Type B, ericoides Raf. Pass, do L. auct. 
fol. lin. imbric, glabris. S. Africa. 

1141. Gastrilia R. diff'. Daphne, dioica, cal. 
basi ventricoso limbo 4tido — Types 1 G. gemi- 
nata Raf. Daphne dioica L. Vitm. Gouan 1. 17. 
fol. imbric. lin. lanceol. fl. axil, geminis. S. 
Europe, fl. ochroleucos, blended with Passerina 
hirsuta by some botanists — 2 G. umbellata Raf, 
Daphne occid. Sw. P. fol. alt. lanceol. glabris, 
fl. term, subumbelatis. Artilles. 

1142. TiiMELAiA R. (n. grec.) Sanamunda 
Necker non Ad. diff'. Daphne, cal. tubuloso, 
apex 4fido erecto non infundib. — All the sp. of 
Daphnes with tubular flowers. 

1143. OcTOPLis R. diff'. Daphne, cal. hirsuto, 
intus nect. 8 vel petalis 8 minimis, fol. sparsis 
fl capit. bracteatis — Type O. polistachya Raf, 



Gnidia do Berg, Vitm. Slc. fol. linear, capitulis 
panicul. bract, ovatis, obtusis. S. Africa, near 
to G. Steiroctis 1138, but petaliform nectaries. 

1144. Nemoctis R. (8fil.) diflf. Daphne cal. 
villoso, limbo 4part. stain. 8 exertis, filam. ca- 
pillaris, petalis 4 ut in Gnidia, foL sparsis Jl, 
capit. invjolucr, — Types 1 N. buxifolia Raf, 
Gnidia filamentosa L. auct. Lachnea buxif. 
Lam. P. fol. scssil. ovalibus — 2 N. angustifolia 
Raf. var. prec. auct. fol. sess. lanceol. both S. 
Africa. Lachnea differs by unequal cal. stam. 
and drupaceous nut. 

1145. Dessenia Raf. diff. Gnidia, cal. filif, 
limbo 5part. petalis 5, stam. 10, 5 exerta, fol, 
sparsis, fl. capit. involucr. — Genus medial be- 
tween Gnidia and Dais. Dessenia was Adan- 
son's name for Gnidia. Types 1 DAanceolata 
Raf. Gn, capit. L. auct. fol. lane. fl. term, invol. 
8phylo. S. Africa. — 2 I), daphnefolia R. Gn. 
do L. 4'C fol. obi. cuneatis glabris, capit. ped. 
invol. 5ph. Madagascar — 3 D, hirsuta Raf. var 
L. fol. obi. spatul. hirsutis canis, invol. 5ph. Ma- 
dagascar — Subg. Xaiasme Raf. diff. by no pe- 
tals, seeds rostrate not baccate j^. umbel — Type 
X. hicolor R. Stellera chamajasme L. auct. fol. 
lane. fl. albo purpureis. Sibiria. Stellera is oc- 

1146. ScopoLiA L. supl. not Forster (^Grise- 
linia) nor Smith (Todalia) diff. Daphne, anthe- 
ris connatis in duplice columna alteram posita, 
fol. alt. fl. axil, capitatis, involucris diphylis. 
— Type Sc. pendula Kaf. composita L. Vitm. 
Daphne pendula Sm. W. P. Arborea, fol. pet, 
obi. acum. pedunc. pendulis axil, Ifloris. Java 
— Wrongly put in Gynandria octandria by L. 

1147. Nestroma R. new fl. 503, Dioica, cal. 
" camp. 4fldo, stam. 4 fil. brevis lin. drupo Ispei"- 


mo. fol. oppos. pedunc^ muUifl. — See my long 
account of this new G. in my new flora. Types 
1 N. umhelluta R. 504. fol. ovat. rhombeis inte- 
gris planis glabris, ped. axil, umbellatis 3-5fl. — 
^ IS I undalata R. 505. fol. lato lanceol. undu- 
latis, drupis ped. solit — Both frem Florida and 
Georgia, small shrubs. Of family Dapiinidia 
like all the preceding since 1135. 

1148. CLYTHRELIA Raf 1815. Lenti- 
BULARiA Rich. Lind. This family based on 
Utricularia and Pinguicula, will now contain 20 
genera. It is a very distinct group, which was 
very improperly annexed to Primulacea by 
Jussieu because the fruit is somewhat alike, but 
there is not a single affinity besides. I put it 
next to Gratiolides ; but have now my doubts 
about it, and have been led to consider this fam- 
ily as rather belonging to Monocotyles and En- 
dogenous, when it would widely change place 
and come near the Commelines with irregular 
corollas. Nay these aquatic plants like many 
others partake somewhat of the Cellular struc- 
ture, very evident in the vesicular organization 
of Utricularia. We have no positive evidence of 
the seeds being dicotyle and even if they are, 
they may like Juncus be exogenous notwith- 
standing. Yet here the calix alone is persis- 
tent, while the corolla is very deciduous, not at 
all marcescent. 

1149. Utricularia L. Lentibularia Ad. This 
aquatic G. of only 9sp. in Linneus has been in- 
creased to nearly 80 lately, the tropical climates 
abound with unnoticed sp. Brown found 24 
new ones in Australia, in North America nearly 
20 have been detected, see my monograph, Le- 
conte had already 13, Vahl and Poiret descri- 
bed 36sp. the fine monograph of Smith in Rees 


contains 62 sp. — But out of so many, disparities 
occur and several Genera are indicated there- 
by, whicli I have endeavored to distinguish. 
The real original genus has cnlix bivalms eq, 
perslstens, cor. ringens calcarata, bilabiata, 
labis clausis integris, jaiix gibbosa, stam, 2 
inclusls in tiibo, St. stig. 1, caps, globosa vix 
valvata uniloc. pohjsp. sem. centralis. Facies 
aphyla, vel. fol. squam. scaposis, radicib. sepe 
fluitans utriculatis. — The types are V. alpina^ 
vulgaris, obtusa, fiircata, cerulea ? and 40 
more; but the flowers of each must be examin- 
ed again. 

1150. Lentibularia Raf. (or Xananthes,Ojpcw 
j^. if prefered) diflf. Utric. corollu hians pervia, 
faux non gibbosa, calcar obsoleto carinato de- 
curens — Type L, minor Raf. Utr. do L. auct. 
Lentibularia of Gesner was applied to the whole 
G. by Adanson and wsince to the whole family by 
Richard, whence my 2 names. 

1151. Trixapias Raf diff, Utric. calcar glo- 
boso, capsula subulata — Type TV. capillacea R. 
Utric. do V. Sm. 

1152. AsKOFAKE R. (box lent) diff*. Utric. cap- 
sula lenticularis bivalvis non globosa — Type A. 
recurva R. Utr. do Lour. Sm. This and the 
last deviate so much in the capsular shape quite 
globular in all others, that this indicates other 
characters to be sought for. 

1153. Stomoisia R. (hairy mouth) diff*. Utric. 
cal. ineq. ovat. lab. inf. dilat. deflexo trilobo, 
palato villoso — Type St. cornuta R. Utric. do 
Mx. &c, seen alive see my flora. 

1154. Meionula R. (minute) diff*. Utric. cab 
inequalissimo, fol. inf. magna concava carinata» 
infructo inflata — Type M. parviflora Raf Utric. 


minutissima V. Sm. scapo capillaris l-4fl. squa- 
mis acutis, calcar subiil. Malaca,ft. minute blue. 

1155. Hamulia R. (n. Arab.) ditf. Utric. cor. 
lab. sup. concavo emarg. infero orbicul. integro 
calcar obt. curvo, capsula stylosa niembranacea 
subplurivalvis, ad l)asi cal. inflato coalita. — 
Types 1. H. alba Raf. Ulr. infiexa Forsk. Sm. 
fl. albis — 2 H. Jiava Raf. Utr. stellans Sm. fl, 
flavis — very dift'. from that of L. of next G. 

1156. Lepiactis R. (sq. stel.) diff. Utric. co- 
rolla sine calcar, lab. inf. saccato, caule squa- 
mis vertic- racL sine utricidis — Type Lep, stel- 
laris R. Utric. do L. W. P. caule filif apice ra- 
moso, squamis 4-Onis ovatis ciliatis. India, 
very distinct if realy without spur. 

1157. Meloneura Raf (membr. nervose) diff. 
Utric. cal. membr. ineq. fol. sup. magna orbicu- 
lata nervosa emarg. cor. lab. inf. bifido, caps, 
membr. — Type M. purpurea Raf Utric. stria- 
tula Sm. fol. petiol. cone, scapo 3^4fl. West 
Africa, fl. purple. 

1158. Nelipus R. (n. ind.) diff. Utric. cor. lab. 
inf. bifido vel bilobo, ad 1157 cal. equalis — 
Types N. bifida^ Itmosa, spiralis, biloba Raf. 
all Utric of Sm. in monograph. 

1159. Vesictjlina Raf diff. Utric. cor. labio 
inf trilobo, lobo medio sepe emarg. — Types V. 
saccata, setacea, purpurea, gibba, albijlora, 
compressa, graminifol. tenella, pygmea &c. 
all Utricul. of authors see Sm. and Lee. 

1160. Enskide R. (one split) diff. Utric. cor. 
lab. sup. bifido, lab. inf. 3-51obo. palato sepe bar- 
bato. — Types 1 E. barbata R. scapo paucifl. 
calc. siibul — 2 E. flana R. fl. sparsis congestis 
3 E. chrysantha R. fl. 3bracteatis, lab. inf, 
41obo, all from Australia and Utricul. of R. 
Brown, Sm. 

110 floha tkllur. 

1161. CosMizA R, (fine split) diff. Utric. cor. 
lab. sup. trifido lac. subul, labio inf. 31obo, lobis 
omnis emarg. — TyP^ ^« coccinea Raf. Utric. 
multifida Sm. fol. spatulat. scapo bifloro, calcar 
obt. compr. Australia, scarlet flowers. 

1IG2. Megozipa R. (large branched under) 
diff. Utric. cor. lab. sup. trilobo, inf. integro. — 
Types M, macrorhiza, fornicata, longiros- 
tris, Integra Raf. &.c all Utric. Lee. &c. 

11G3. Trilobulina Raf. diff. Utric. cor. lab. 
sup et infero subeq. et ambi trilobatis vel cre- 
natis. — Types Tr. fibrosa, striata, crenata 
Raf. all Utric. of Walter, Lee. Sm. 

11G4. Personula Raf diff, Utric. cor. lab. sup, 
emarg. inf. integro, palato magno eminens bilo- 
bo. fl. racemosis — Type P. grandiflora Raf. 
Utr. personata Lee. E. 

1165. Plesisa R. (near eq.) diff. Utric. caL 
ineq. sub 3part. vel lobo inf. bipart. cor. lab. 
subeq. subintegris — Type PL hipartita Raf. 
Utric. do Elliot. 

1166. Plectoma R. (cut spur.) diff. Utricul. 
cal, subeq. cone. nerv. inf. emarg. cor. lab. inf. 
trilobata ineq, calcar bifido, stam. 2 submona- 
delphis, stigma bilab. ineq. capsula ovata bival- 
vis. fluitans fol. vertic. artic, rarnosis infla- 
tis fl, racemosis flams — Types PZ. inflata Raf. 
2 P/, stellata Raf. — both blended as Utric. in- 
flata or ceratophyla by authors, a very distinct 
Genus, see my new flora. 

Thus it appears that Utricularia as it stood, 
included sp. with calix equal or unequal, cor. 
with lips, entire or with 2, 3 or more lobes, dif- 
ferent stigmas and spurs, capsule with one, or 2 
or more valves, glob^«e or lenticular or ovate or 
subulate! . . such is :;ongruity of botanical 


genera! The sp. are yet in utter confusion by their 
simphcity and will never be properly known till 
refered to my Genera ; the stamens and stigmas 
must also be noticed, and the color of the flow- 
ers is very essential in this series of plants. 

1167. EUPHORBIDES Raf. is a family of 
the order EPlMElSIA or the Tricoca (Eu- 
phorbia of some) based chiefly on the G. Eu- 
phorbia of L. or Tithymalus Ad. which was a 
jumble of nearly 30 good Genera ! easily known 
by having a perianthe with many male flowers 
around a female and commonly without calix, 
which L. had mistaken for dodecandria ! The 
other families of this extensive order are easily 
distinguished — Cyrtosides by lack of perian- 
the, fruit dicocus, type Mercurialis — Tragides 
by flow ers separate, type Tragia — Phalarsides 
by stamens monadelphous and determinate,type 
Sapium — Ricinides by stamens united and 
many, type Ricinus &c. I mean here chiefly 
to revise in part the G. Euphorbia, left uncor- 
rected by all except Necker who made 5 G. out 
of it, and Persoon who divided his 156 sp. in two 
subg. Tithymalus and Esula. A few akin G. 
have lately been admitted, but the 200 sp. now 
known aflbrd a crowd of good characters, while 
the old greek names of these plants aflbrd many 
good names for them. 

1168. Euphorbia Necker, periantho duplex, 
ambi globosis truncatis integris, fl. masc. paucis 
sepe 5, monandris, gynophoro pistilo ferens, sty- 
lis 3, stig. 6 caps, tricoca, trisperma. Caulib, 
perennis carnosis, aphylis, spinosis, fl, spar^ 
sis — Type E, antiquorum, mamillaris, offici- 
varum &c and akin sp. but the flowers of all 
must be verified. The smooth sp. will form the 


subg. Alskebra arable name, the spinose the 
subg. Sadida. 

1169. Athymalus Neck. diff. Euph. periantho 
ext. turbinate cavo lobato, interior 5sepalis, cu- 
culatis furcatis alternans. fl. masc^plura 15-20. 
— I do not know whicli of the leafless Euphor- 
bias belong here as Necker omits the types ; but 
observers will easily ascertian. 

1170. ToRFASADis R. (n. afric.) diff. Euph. pe- 
riantho clauso dentib. 5, externe 5sepalis car- 
nosis obtusis — Type T. canariensis Raf,, E. do 
L. and probably several other sp. 

1171. Dactylanthes Haworthdiff. Euph. per, 
simplex 4-5sepalis tubulatis bilabiatis, lab. sup. 
brevi trilobo, inf. longior palmato tridactylo — 
Types D. anacantlia, tuberculata, medusa and 
akin sp. many blended in E. medusa, also D. 
glohosa H. Euph. do hot. mag. 2624. Perhaps- 
2 subg. Anacantha and Medusita^ this with se- 
pals oft. 4parted not tubular. 

1172. TiRUCALiA R. (n. ind) diff. Euph. per. 
simplex ventricoso, 4-51obo lobis planis rotatis 
integris coloratis f^. masc. pluris . . . caulescens, 

fruticosa^ foliosa, fl. non umbel — This an- 
swers to the Tithymaloides of Tournefort and 
includes the T. indica. Enph. tirucali L. with 
many akin sp. but the flowers must be well des- 
cribed in all, as several form peculiar genera. 

1173. Adenorima Raf. (gland, pit) diff. Euph. 
periantho tubuloso, apex 4dent. glandulis 4 mag- 
nis umbilicatis alt. fl. masc. msertis ad per. latere, 
bract, subul. antheris ineq. bilobis, stylo trifido, 
stig. acutis. frutic. foiiosa, fl, umbel, bractea- 
tis. — Type Ad. punicea Raf. E. do Sw. W, P. 
bot. reg. 190. fol. lane, cuneat. subt. glaueis, 
umbellis 5fidis, invol. laneeol. pedic Ifl. bracteis 


2 obov. coccineis ad floribus. Antilles. 

1174. PLKUKAnKNA Raf. 1833 atl. journ. Poin- 
setia Grab. 1830. diti". Euph. periaiitho urceol. 
carnoso apice sub 81obo, ad latere glandula 
magna transversa unica concava melliflua, pho- 
rantho villoso alveolate, fl. niasc. paucis inclusis, 
antheris planis 21oc. stylis3 b'\fidisi. frutic, fo- 
liosa, fl. umb. involiicratis — Type /-*/. cocci- 
nea Kaf. atl. j. p. 182. Euph. poinsetiana et piil- 
cherima Hortis. Poinsetia piilcherima Gr, b. 
mag. 3493. fol. ovat. siibang. acutis, umbellade- 
pressa coryinbosa, invol. bracteif. obi. coccineis. 
Mexico, akin to the last G. described and nam- 
ed by me 3 years before Graham. Poinset was 
no botanist, he merely sent the seeds to our gar- 
dens where seen alive. 

1175. Desmonema R. 1833 (fasc. fil.) diff. 
Euph. periantho duplex, ext. tubul. 5dent. vel 
5part. connivens, per. int. 5 petaloideis membra- 
nosis cuneatis emarg. stani. vel fl. masc. fascicu- 
latis ad gynophoro insertis, plurimis filif. vix ar- 
tic. interdum castratis. Gynophoro trigone elon- 
gate, ovar. 3lobo, stylis 3 simplices. Herbacea 

foliosa, fl. umbel, invol. — Type D. hirta Raf. 
atl. j. 178. fl. tex. 19. caule simpl. striate scabro, 
apice hirto, fol. opp. petiol. ovat. obt. hirtisden- 
tatis, imis alt. ovatolanc. acum. invol. triphylo 
lanceol. sess. From Texas to West Kentucky 
very rare, pedal, fl. green, petals white not glued 
to the perianth as in the others, G. akin to Tra- 
gia, a link with the Tragides. 

1176. Lepaijena R. (scaly gland) diff*. Euph. 
periantho simplex urceol. limbus Sfidus, 4 alt. 
brevis barbatis, 4 alt. major subrot. coloratis, ad 
basis ferens squamis magnis carnosis glanduli- 
formis concavis dilatatis, pherantho aristato vel 
fl. masc. castratis mixtis, gynophoro tereto, stylis 



3 trifidis, stig. 9. herhacea^ foliosa umbel, invoh 
— Type L. leucoloma Raf. Euph. do Raf. fl, 
tex. 11. atl. j. fol, sparsis obov. integris acutis, 
umb. Irifida, invol. fol. similis albo marginatis, 
Arkanzas and Missouri, seen alive in our gar- 
dens, where it has some varieties, simplex^ da- 
tior, cuneifolia &lc. When much handled it 
produces a kind of numbness. 

1177. Kanopikon R. (n. grec.) difT. Euph. pen 
duplex, ext. bilobo piano, iriterno urceol. ad mar- 
gine 4 gland uloso, fl. niasc. 4 omnis bifidis dian- 
dris, gynophoro brevis, stylis 3 bifidis, caps, glo- 
bosa. Frutic. inermis umbel, invol. — 1 ype R, 
atropurpiireiim Raf. Euph. do W. b. mag. 
3321. fol. imbric. reflex, glaucis cuneatis, um- 
bellis sessilis 4fidis, invol. 4 obov. Flowers 
dark purple, glands yellow. 

1178. Aklema R. (n. grec.) difT. Euph. per. 
simplex, lobis subrot. crenatis, stylis connatis, 
stig. 3. Frutic. inermis., jl. cymosis nudis. — 
— Type A, nudijlora R. Euph. do Jaq. rar. t, 
499. P. &c. Subtrichot. fol. ovat. integris un- 

1179. TuMALis R. (n. grec.) difT. Euphorbia 
or rather my G. Lacanthis 356 by — Per. cupu- 
laris, 5 dent, glandul. 5 alt. fimbriatis, fl. et 
fruct. pedunc. cum gynophoro. — Type T. bojeri 
Raf. Euph. do Hook. b. mag. 3527. fol. cuneat. 
coriaceis retusis, ped. axil, cymosis dichotomis, 
bract. 2. semiorb. coccin. basi coalitis. Mada- 
gascar. Habit of Lacanthis, less spinose, the 
bracts almost an outer perianth. These with 
Kanopikon, are remarkable by the androphores 
realy diandrous. 

1 180. Vallaris R. (noni. lat.) difl". Euph. per. 
lobis 10, 5 alt. major scutellatis crassis planis. 
phorantiio setoso, androphoris vel fl. masc. in 5 


phalangis 4-6andris. Herbncea, fol. oppos.fl, 
t>aris, sfpe divhotomis. — Types all the Kiiphor- 
bias, with liinbriate calix not already inentioned, 
and they are numerous, such as V. ipecacuana, 
porfalacoides, unlflora, missurica, Jimhriata 
^c, and many others. 

1181. Xamesike R. (n. grec.) diff. Euphorbia 
per. simplex campanulatus4lobo, lobis parvisin- 
t€:;ris vel crenatis. llerbacftt dichotoma sepe 
diffusa^ foL oppos. jl. axil. fasc. vel dicliot. — 
A very extensive G. easily known by habit, fl, 
not very dilVerent from other genera, but several 
must be separated and better distinguished ; for 
many new Sp. of N. Amer. see my new flora. 
Probably several subg. must be established. 
Xamesike vulgaris (Euph. chamesyce L.) has 
crenate lobes, X scordifolia serrate lobes, Xa- 
mohala has entire lobes. 

-1182. TiTHYMALis Ad. Necker, Raf, diff. 
Euph. periantho simplex, ventricoso, sepe 5lobo 
lobis scutellatis equalis planis crassis subrot. in- 
tegris, dentib. interjectis alt. obsoletis, fl. masc. 
sepe 12 ineq. frutic. et herb. fol. sparsis, 
umbellis compositis, involucratis, — The most 
numerous in sp. divided into 5 subgenera. 

1. Paralias R, capsulis glabris. Such as T. 
or E. maritima (paralias L.) gerardi^ dendro- 
ides, linearis, rosea, helioscopia, panicidata, 
and many more. 

2. TuLocARPA R. capsulis verrucosis, such as 
T. or E. spinosa, carniolica, palustris, plati- 
phylos, hiberna, inicrantha, literata, angu- 
lata, &LC. 

3. TuLOisTA R. caps, verrucosis pilosisque. 
T. or E. verrucosa, pilosa Slc. 

4. Xarakias R. caps, villosis vel lanatis. T 
or E. characias vel serotina Raf. granulata. 
coralloides caps, lanatis. 


5. Pythiusa R. caps, echinatis vel setosis, 
T or E. fluids, piitliiusa vel fuscata, epithy' 
moides, obtusata &;c. 

1183. Allodia R. (diff. lobes) diff. Tithyma- 
lis, perianthis monoicis, masculis lobis integris, 
femineis lobis lunatis, capsulis angulis rnuricatis 
— Type A. portlandica Rat'. Eaph. do L. auct. 

1184. Kekasklma Necker. diff. Tithym. peri- 
anthis lobis lunatis vel bicornis, capsulis sepe 
glabris. — Many sp. in 3 subgenera. 

1. Esula R. lobis sepe 5 emarg. vel bicornis: 
such as L. or Yi.fcdcata, esula, iucida, diver si- 
folia, sylvatica, retiisa, 6lc. 

2. Lathyris R. lobis 5 lunatis. K. or E. la- 
thyris, peplus vel oleracen, gemsto'ideSj pro- 
vincialis, segetalis, cyparisias. squamosa, pal" 
lida, leplophyla, corifolia ^-c. 

8. Karuitks R. lobis 4 lunatis. K. or E. 
ex'igua, rubra, seguieri &c. 

1185. MiiRTEKiAS R. (n. grec.) diff. Tithym. 
periantho tubuloso ore serrato multifido, lobis 
scutellis 4 lunulatis — Type M. myrsimtes Raf. 
Euph. do L. auct. 

1186. NisoMENEs R. (uneq. lun) diff. Tithym. 
per. lobis 4 lunatis ineq. 2 oppositis duplo major 
capsula glabra — Type N. diffusa Raf. Euph. 
do L. auct. 

1187. LoPHOBios R. (crest cobios) diff. Ti- 
thym. pet. lobis cristatis vel lobatis crenatis, caps 
glabra. — Types L. cristata, terraeina R. Euph. 
do auct, Kobios was a grecian Tithymalus. 

1 188. Agaloma R. (pretty border) diff. Ti- 
thym. perianthis sepe dioicis, cupularis vel cam- 
panul. lobis 5 eq. membranaceis rotatis integris 
dilatatis corollatis, ad basis glandulis 5 oppositis 
planis, fl. masc. filam. fascicul. clavatis, antheris 
21ocul. capsulis glabris,^. umbeUatis vel dichot. 


— A very pretty genus based on the E, corolla- 
ta and blended or akin sp. such as E. angastif. 
granthiif. 6lc. See my monograph. 

1189. Pedilantiius Necker 179<J, Kunth, Ed- 
wards, Crepidaria Haworth, difl". ad Euphorbia, 
Periantho cahculato vel hracteis binis ad basis, 
irregularis calceiformis angul. gibbosis hians, lo- 
bis 4 fornicatis ineq. stam 12-lG exsertis. Fru- 
tic. J1. corytnbosis &,c. — Very striking G. lately 
adopted by many ; types the E. rnyrtifolia, ti- 
thyrmdoides &c of Authors, also iV</. cavali- 
ctdata Raf. Crep. do Haw. Euph. do Lod. 727. 
E. carinata Don b. mag. 2514. fol. ellipt. subt. 
carinatis, fl. term, corymb, fascic. nutans cocci- 
neis. Trinidad. 

1190. Cyathophora R. diff. Euphorbia, pe- 
riantho tubul. tereto apex multifido vel laciniato 
dentato, dentis 5 major linearibus. phorantho 
papilloso, tl. masc. sepe 10. Herbacea, JoL 
sparsis, fl. termin, J'ascicul. — Types 1. C, 
picta Raf. E. cyathophora Scop. del. t. 3 Vitm. 
Auct. fol, lyratis et panduratis oblongis integris, 
apice coccinea et alba picta, sepe lanceol. ped. 
fascic. sepe 3floris. Florida ^^c, seen alive in 
gardens — 2. C. cUiata Raf. E. heterophyla Jaq. 
W. E. cyathoph. hot. reg. 735. petiolis cihatis, 
bl. ovatis serratis acum. fl. subcorymb. bract, 
basi coccineis — 3 C. heterophyla Raf. E. do L, 
auct. fol. petiol.difformis, ovatis lanceol. pandu- 
ratis serratis glaucis, ii. pedunc. term. S. Amer. 

1191. Synexemia Raf. neog. 1825, Mascalan- 
thus Nut. 1835. Monoica, cal. 6partiio eq. cor. 
o, stam. 6 basi coalitis, fl. fem. styhs 3 bifidis, 
stig, 6 capsula Oval vis Csperma. Herba, foL 
alt. distichis, fl. axiU sepe geminatis. — The 
Phylanthus carolinianus of North America and 
sp. blended therein, are the types of this G. 


which Nuttal has published 10 years after my- 
self, under another name. It contains 4 or 5 
s\). see my monograph. Tlie G, Phylanthus, 
Croton, Tragia &.C, and others akin to Euphor- 
bias contain many neglected G. partly given in 
my Neogenyton and New Flora, i 

1192. Staeheliw Raf. this Hnnean G. was 
merely distinguished from Serratula by the bi- 
setose anthers as in Inula : while Serratula has 
long ago been reformed, and Vernonia, Liatris 
<Slc separated, this had been left untouched, ex- 
cept by Necker, although offering many more 
irregularities: which I will endeavor to correct. 
My Staehelina has i'eriantho imbricato, iner- 
tnis sepe ovnto multijioro, Jlosculis eq. pho- 
rantho palels rmdtifidis, antheris basi appen- 
diculatis, sem. giahris obov. pappus plumosus 
— Ynitic. fol. spnrsis, fl, term, — Even 3 subg. 
must be distinguished that might be as many 
genera : I have them dry. 

1. Chamepeuce R. (pr. Xamepeuke) diff. sq. 
phoranth. multi-aristatis, antheris biaristatis, 
pappus non digitatus. — Typ^ St.chamfpeiicelj, 
auct. or Ch. imbricata Raf. fol. imbric. longiss. 
lin. revol. fi. term. 2-3. Creta, Grecia. 

2. Anaxeton Raf. (gnaph. diosk.) diff. sq. per. 
apice scariosis refiexis, sq. phor. multif. stylo bi- 
fidus, pappus basi connato palmato vel polyadel- 
pho, antheris basi biplumosis. — Type St. sqvar- 
rosa R. Leysera do Th. P. Steh. gnaphaloides 
L. auct. (non i.cyseria do) fol. filif. toment. obt. 
basi subampl. fl. paucis tonient. S. Africa. — 
Leyseria has radiate flowers ! 

3. Staehelina (veris) diff. flosc. nonnulis 
neutris, sq. phor. multif pappus ramoso plumose 
(Lin.) scabro palmato (Sm.) — Type St. arho^ 
rescens L. auct. fol. pet. oval. subt. arg. fl. 

CENTURIA ill. 119 

cdfytrih. puhi6eis. Ci'ctii, Grecia. St. fruti- 
cosa and spi/tosa probably belong here, altho' 
fldtvers not well described, spinosa has hairy 

1193. RoccARDiA Necker, diff'. Staehelina, 
Periantho tereto scarioso,- 8-lOflosculosts. ari- 
theris bibarbatis ad basis, sein. 4gona,2)^//?/?w5 
simplex basi connatus paiiuatus. — Type R. 
purpurea Raf. Staehel. dubia L. auct. Ibl. lin. 
dentic. fl. 2-3gloiner. sq. per. lanceol. Italy, 
k?»pain. Linneus deemed it medial between 3 
G. Staehcl- Serratula and Gnaphalium ! the 
down not plumose is the main generic feature, 
how is the phoranthe / 

1194. Apli.xa R. (nymph and simplicity) diff. 
Staehel. Periantho tereto scarioso, flosculo 
unico gerens ! antheris basi biplumosis barbatjs, 
sq. phor. simpl. pappo digitato plumoso. — Type 
Apl. fuscata Raf. Staehel. unifloscula Sm. fl. 
greca 846. fol. ovat. acut. dent. subt. canis, per. 
fuscato. Mt. Parnassus. G. akin to the last, 
very singular by the florets reduced to unity ! 

1195. Alkibias R. (n. arab.j diff. Staehel. per. 
tereto turbin. sq. carinatis, phorantho subnudo, 
sem, vijlosus, pappus siibsiinpl. apice dentato. — 
Type A. Iiastata R. Staeh. do Vahl, Pers Sm. 
Chrysocoma spatulata Forsk. Vitm. probably the 
other Arabic fruticose chrysocoma belong here, 
Chr. mucrouatn, omta of Korsk. The real 
Chrysoc. have the per. hemisph. phoranthe na- 
ked, down quite simple. 

1190. TuLocLiNiA R. (warty bed) diff. Staehel. 
per. turbin. phorantho nudo verrucoso, pappo 
subpliimosus. — Type T. imhricata R. Staeh. 
do L. auct. fol. subul. subt. toment. fl. binatis S, 
Africa. How are the appendages ? 

1167. Plectreca R. (10 spurs.) diff. Staehel. 


per. hemisph. paucifl. phorantho nudo celluloso, 
antheris basi bicalcar. pappus paucisetis scabro 
non pluinoso — Type l^l. corymbosa R. Staeh. 
do L. auct. fol. cuneat. dent, toment. fl. corymb, 
panicul. S. Africa. 

1198. OcNERON R. (n. grec.) diff. Staehel. per, 
hemisph. lanato, sq. phor, rigidis 2-3dent. an- 
theris biaristatis, pappo scabro non plumoso. 

fratic. fol. petiol opp, et. sp. fl. panicid. luteis 
Types "2 sp. blended in St. ihcifoHa L. disting, by 
Smith 1. Ocn. cordatum R. fol. oppos. cord, 
dent. obt. supra lucidis subt. toment. S. Amer. — 
2 Ocn. aquifoliam R. St. do Sm, plum. ic. 123. 
fol. sparsis subrot. dent, spinosis, subt. lanatis.. 
Antilles. Thus quite an American Genus. Oc- 
neron was a Greek name for Ilex or Ruscus. 

1199. Lachnospermum Wild. diff. Staehel. pe- 
riantho tereto, phorantho villoso, sem. villis in- 
volutis. — Type L. ertnfolium Wild. Staehel. 
fasciculata Th. Pers. &c, fol. fascic. ter. subul, 
tomentosis, ramisdivaricatis rigidis. — It thus ap- 
pears that L. and others threw into this G. all 
the shrubs akin to Serratula ! even that G. re- 
quires further revision, and I shall conclude here 
by another G. out of it. 

1200. TuLAKENiA R. (warty seed) diff. Serra- 
tula &c, periantho squarroso arachnoides, sq. 
setaceis planis, phorantho aristato, sem. 4gona 
obverse pyramid, tubercul. pappo rigido ineq. 
scabro. Vnifloris — Types 1. T, mollis Raf. 
Carduus do Jaq. W. Cirsium do Scop. Serratula 
simplex Poir. Dec. Sims b. mag. 2482. — 2 71 
hlanda R. Serrat. do auct. — 3 71 cyanoides R» 
Serrat. do auct. &-c. 




1201. My O.MONoiA 351 has since been called 
CiiRYSEis by Lindley, who has thus acknowledg- 
ed that Esch-scholtzia was a wrong name ! but 
my name is previous and better, Chryseis being 
nearly the same as Chrysis a genus of flies. 

1202. For Hexastylis 70G substitute Sty- 
LEXiA Raf. having had another G. Hexastylis 
since 1825, see 1113. 

1203. Rupifraga cuscuteformis Raf. Saxi- 
fraga do Lod. Cab. 180, bot. mag, 2631, a se- 
cond sp. of this G. see 243, differing from R. 
sarmentosa by small size, leaves smaller, flow- 
ers larger less unequal, shoots filiform, scapes 
biflore. China. 

1204. Piaropus andulatus Raf. Pontederia 
azurea Lunan. hort. Jam. non alis. Another 
fine sp. of this G. see 301, proving my assertion 
that many sp. exist — fol. subrot. acum. undula- 
tis. Lmian describes the flowers with upper 
lobe of corolla larger ovate, anthers hastate, 
ovary trigone, style filiform, stigma clavate. Ja- 
maica (Slc. 

1205. EiNADiA R. (1 or 2) diflf. Chenopodium, 
cal. 5fido baccate, stam 1 vel 2, stylis 2. — Type 
E. iinifolia Raf Rhagodia do R. Br. Sm. fru- 
tescens decumbens, fol. lin. lane, integris. Aus- 
tralia. — The Chenop,haccatum of Labillardiere 
was the type of the G. Rhagodia of R. Brown, 
who has added many sp. to this G. billardieri, 
crassifol. Iiastata, nutans, spinescens &c, 
which have all 5 stamens, instead of 1 or 2. 
Both G. belong to my family Basellides 571. 

1206. For my Lunania 7 substitute Triexas- 
TiMA (3-6 stig.) Raf, since I perceive a. previous 
G. Lunania in Dccandole, although mine was 



established since 1830, what is the date of the 
other ? 

1207. Streptylis Raf. (twisted style) diff. 
Commelina. cal, et cor. eq. stam. 3 villosis ad 
basis, sterilis 3 nectarif. ciliat. antheris glandula, 
stylo et stig. spiralis persistens — Type Str. brac- 
teolata Raf. Com. do Lam. Com. spirata L. are 
2 sp. blended here ? This is another G. to be re- 
moved from Commelina and is very distinct. 

1208. Add to Sarcoperis 23, Ijacca triloba 
carnosa ad cor. baccans, intus capsula 31oc, 
apice 3valvis, sem, 5, uno locolo monospermo. 

1209. Add to Heminema 31, stylus brevis cras- 
s6, stig. 3 villosis, capsula 31o •. 3sp. — It is also 
the Tradescantia multifl. of Lunan, quite differ- 
ent from that of Jaquin my Tripogandra 28. 

1210. Allosperma R. (different seeds) diff. 
Commelina, capsula 31ocul. hivalms ! valva sup. 
2loc. 4sp. sem. rotundis rugosis, loc. et valva inf. 
monosp, semen elliptic© lenticularis. — A very 
strange structure of fruit ! Type A, tuherosa R. 
Com. do L. auct. fol. ovatolanc, ciliatis subtus 
villosis, pedunc. multifl. Mexico, pedal fl. blue. 

1211. Add to DiRTEA 689. Commelina poly- 
gama probably belongs here, and all the sp. 
blended in C. communis said to grow in Asia, 
Africa and America, but 5 or 6 sp. are blended 
probably ! the African sp. is quite distinct X>. 
africana R, fol. nervosis basi ciliatis fl. 2-3 axiL 
caps. 21oc. 2valv. 4sperma. Probably a subg. 
Diclisa Raf. very different from Cotn. africana 
of Persoon. The Com. erecta includes also 
several blended sp. having commonly the cap- 
sule trigone trilocular 3sperme : thus another 
subg. or G. perhaps same as my G. Ananthopus 

1212. DiLAsiA R. (2 villose) diff. Dirtea, cal. 3 


lane. pet. 3 eq. ovatis, stain. 2 fertilis villosis, 4 
sterilis nectarif. glabris, stylo recurvo— Type D, 
vaginata Rat". Commcl. do auct. fol. linearib. fl, 
term, involucro convoluto vaginato. India. 

1213. QuELTiA Salisb. diff. Narcissus, cor. tu- 
bulosa, limbo patulo, corona tubul. urceolata 
erosa, stam. 6 eq. inclusis connivens, stigma tri- 
lobo. — Thus very near to my Moskerion 843, 
Type Q, rnontana Raf, poculigera Salisb. Narc. 
montanus Pyr. Edw. b. reg. 123. fol. planis obt. 
fl. 1-2 cernuis albis, &c. 

1214. Add to Troxistemon 853, the Pancra- 
tium littorale and its varieties driandri, disti- 
clium, mexicaiium, which are as many sp. were 
framed into the G. Hymenocalis by Sims ; but 
his characters of nect. erosum s. dent, filam. 
liber is Jlaccidis, was very loose and inacurate. 
It may be a subgenus. 

1215. Nesynstylis Raf. (not un. St.) diff. Stru- 
maria, stam. liberis non monadelphis erectis stylis 
adnatis. — The G. Strumaria was put in 3 linnean 
classes Monad el phi a, Gynandria and Hexandria ! 
the monadelphous sp. belong to Narcissides, the 
free sp. to Hypoxides, they are iV. jilifolia and 
undulata R. Strum, do auct. the first was put 
in Crinum and Leucojum by L. and others, thus 
in 3 Genera ! figured in hot. reg. 440, habit Alli- 
aceous, fol, rad. filif. scapo teres, umbejla 10-l2ff. 
bract. 2ineq. lin. petalis albis obi. acutis, 

1216. Agapanthus umhellatus Lher. W. P, 
hot. mag. 500, hot. reg. 699. Crinum africanum 
L. Mauhlia Th. Tulbaghia Heist, fol. vittatis an- 
gustis bifaris acutis, fl. umbel, nudis ceruleis, cor. 
infund. 6fidis, 3 alt, apex incrass. uncinatis,stam. 
declin. stigma trifido. — I have added this to 
shew its contrast with my G. Scadianus 855. 

1217. Vagnera of Adanson is the G. ont r.c 


Convallaria, since named Smilacina, Mayanthe- 
mum, Tovara &:c : being among the additions of 
Adanson it had escaped my notice ; but being 
the first and best must be restored, see 831. 

1218. Add to PoDosPADix 821, many sp. have 
been blended in Pothos crassinervia, that proba- 
bly all belong to this G. I will add 5 other types 
— 2 Pod. teres R. Pothos do auct. P. crassiner- 
via hot. mag. 2987, fol. petiol. cuneat. obtusiusc. 
nervosis, scapo teres, spatha lanceol. spadix tri- 
uncialisobl. tereto. Demerara, the sp. of Ham- 
boldt is different by a pedal spadix. ¥od. Iium- 
holdi R — 3 Pod. angustif. R. fol, lanceol. 
acum. scapo angulato, spadix gracile : this is 
probably the sp. of Jaquin. — 4 Pod. jnicro- 
phyla R. Pothos do Hook, b, mag. 2953, fol, 
ovat. acutis costatis, petiolis apex incrassatis, 
spatha lanceol. revoluta, spadix obi. brevis. Bra- 
zil. — S. Pod. harisi R. Pothos do Hook. ex. fl. 
211 fol. lane, magnis, spadix tereto, cetera ut 4. 

1219. The G, Ludovia Pers. and Philoden- 
DRON Lindl. just published in bot. reg. 1958 must 
be added to the Aroides, this last has the habit 
of Tapanava 820 but is quite distinct by multi- 
locular berries ^c : this proves how many fine 
G. of Aroides were yet concealed in Pothos and 

1220. Tremasperma R. (perf. seeds) diff. Bo- 
nanox 1026. cor. integra, capsula globosa hac- 
cata uniloc. cortex coriacea, pulpa fungosa alba 
3-4sperma, sem. umbilic. perforatis. — TyP^ ^''• 
honanox Raf. Ipomea do Lunan. fol. cord, 
acum ped. l-2fl. Jamaica, quite peculiar fruit 
and of family Aplarnia. 

1221. Teretetra Raf. (cut in 4) diff. Ornitho- 
sperma 1009 cor. campan. integra, capsula uni- 


loc. 4valvis 4.sperma — Type T. violacca R. 
Ipomea do Liuian, Jamaica. 

1222. Neortiiosis R. (not strait) near Doxenia 
1020, cal. Sfidus, cor. tuho curvo, limbo plicato 
stam. exerta, stig. 4 sulcat. caps. 4loc. 4sp. sem. 
angul. — Types N. coccinea and tigrma Raf. 
Ipomea do of Lunan Jam. perhaps not of others. 
G. quite peculiar by curved corolla like Doxema 
perhaps a subg. of it. 

1223. Dactylepis Raf. another G. near Gus- 
cuta and Nemepis. — Type N. hrownei Raf. 
Cuscuta do Lunan, ramosissima, fl. aggregatis, 
cal. 5dent. cor. Sfidis, stam. 5 sq. nect. 5 palma-y 
tis 5fidis. caps. 4spermis. Jamaica. 

1224. Eronema R- (love threads) diff. Cuscu- 
ta and Nemepis, cal. colorato 5part. lane, co- 
rolla cup-'-laris, 5dent. stam. 5 antheris didymis, 
sq. nect. fiirbriatis, caps. 41oc. 4sp, — Type E. 
robir.soni R. Cuscuta do Lunan, fl. peduncula- 
tis. Jamaica, called love bush, medical, diuretic, 

1225. For Bragantia 1114 adopt Munnickia, 
since there was a genus Bragantia of Vandelli 
see 534 previous (?) to that of Loureiro. 

N. B. Add to Lepadena 1176, it is the Eu- 
phorbia marginata of Pursh and North America, 
not of Kunth and Mexico, which is perhaps a 
2d sp. of the Genus. 

END OF this flora. 



IN CENTURIES 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Natural Orders and Families are in Capitals, 
Synonyms in Italics. 

Abalon 865, 6 
Abama 866 
Abapus 833 
Abbotia 889 
Abrochis 903 
Abumon 855 
Acinax 953 
AcoRiDiA 825 
Acroanthes 943 
Adamboe 1015. 
Adatoda 969. 
Adeloda 972 
Adenorima 1173 
Aechmidia 859 
Agaloma 1188 
Agapanthus 1216 
Aklema 1178 
Alkibias 1195 
Allagas 953 
Allium 874 
Allobia 1183 
Allopleia 972 
AUosperma 1210 
Almana 999 
Aloides 855 
Alpinia 946, 7 
Alponica 955 
Alskebra 1168 
Alstromeria 898 to 900 
Amaryllis 805 to 813 
Amathea 989 
Ambulia 966 

Am buy a 1106 
Amianthum 866. 
Amidena 822 
Amomum 953 
Amphianthus 959 
Amphione 1031 
Anacantha 1171 
Anactorion 896 
Anaxeton 1192 
Anigozanthes 882 
Anistylis 941 
Anthanema 1071 
Antheilema 992 
Anthostomia 966.995, 
Aplarnia 1033, 68 
Aplina 1194 
Aplostylis 1076 
Apomea 1014 
Apopleumon lOlO 
Apteria 893 
A-rethusa 938 to 40 
Argyrexias 1060 
Arietinum 936 
Arinemia 962 
Aristolochia 1101 to 

Arthropodium 870 
Aroides and Arisa- 

RiA 825 
Arum 802, 3, 818 
Asarum 1113 
Askofake 1152 



_otinodelus 814, 15 
Aspidistra 821, 1119 
Astrocephalus 1085 
Atamasco 809 
Athymalus 1169 
Aulica 808 
Autogenes 839 
Axillaria 831 

Baimo 867 
Balendasia 1140 
Ballela 1001 
Baloskion 888 
Balostis 1131 
Bartholinia 938 
Basonca 998 
Becabunga 955 
Belvala 1136 
Blephistelma 1128 
Bletia 929, 940 
Blexum 990 
Bonanox 1026 
Bojeria 947 
Bragantia 1114, 1225 
Bramia 966 
Brassavola 924, 5 
Braxireon 852 
Brewera 1032 
Brodiea 856, 7 
Bromelia 861,2 
Bulbodictis 960 

Calathea 945 
Calathinus 841 
Calasias 985 
Calla 801, 2 
Calistachia 960 
Calistegia 1004 
Calixnos 1044 

Canionea 1042 
Cariirama 990 
Canna 950 ^ 

Cariina 974 
Cassytha 1077 
Caulotulis 1023 
Cephalaria 1088 
CliamaUriuni 866 
Chamepeuce 1192 
Chondropetalon 890 
Chlorophytum 871 
Chryseis 1201 
Cipura 880 
Cleiemera 1027 
Cleiostoma 1034 
Clematops 1100 
Clerodendron 1000 
Clintonia 828 
Clytiirelia 1148 
Cochleanthes 930 
Codiaminum 844 
Coilostylis 904 
Commelina 1207 to 1** 
Conanthcs 858 

Convolvulus 1001 to 

1054, 1221 to 23 
Cordula 934 
Coryanthes 920 
Cosmiza 1161 
Costus 953 
Craniolaria 998 
Crateola 986 
Cratodia 951' 
Crepidaria 1189 
Chessaria 1065 
Crinides 845 



Crinum 854, 5, 1-216 
Criosanthes 93G 
Crossandra 988 
CucLilina 943 
Cuscuta 10G9 to 76, 
1223, 4 


Cyathophora 1190 
Cytnbidium 924 
Cypripedium 931 to 36 
Cyrtosites 1167 

Dactylanthes 1171 
Dactylepis 1223 
Dactylorhiza 903 
Daiswa 832 
Daphne 1141 to 44 
Decaloba 1022 
Dendrobium 918,9,926 

to 928 
Dendropogon 860 
Derwentia 958 
Desmonema 1175 
Dessenia 1145 
Dianthera 977 
Diatrema 1008 
Diclinotris 866 


Diglosselis 1108 
Dilasia 1212 
Dilomelis 926 
Diototheca 1100 
Diplanthera 936 
Diphrylum 941 
Dirtea 1211 
Disa 943 
Distimake 1045 

Disteira 998 
Ditereia 1052 
Dituilis 942 
Ditulima 918 
Dodecasperma 900 
Dodecula 955 
Doxanthes 945 
Doxema 1020 
Doxosma 804 
Dothicroa 977 
Dothilophis 913 
Dracena 826 to 28 
DracontiumSlGto 818 
Drymirhizes 951 

Ecbolia 968 
Echium 1055 to 1061 
Einadia 1205 
Einomeia 1105 
Elegia 886 
Elegides 886 to 889 
Emprotia 825 
Emularia 978 
Emulina 1039 
Encyclia 906 
Endasia 955 
Endocodon 944 
Endodeca 1109 
Enothrsa 927 
Enskido IIGO 
Epiclia 1065 
Epidendrum 804-6,907- 

Epimesia 1167 
Equisetia 825 
Erantheinum 994 



Eronema 1224 
Eryostax 861 
Esula 1184 
Ethesia 981 
Eucallias 862 
Eucrosia 875 > 


Euphorbia 1168 to 1190 


Euphylleia 827 
Eupodanthes 977 
Euptilia 1089 
Eurycles 848 
Euryloma 1019 
Eusarcops 812 
Eustaxia 960 
Eustrephus 884 
Eutereia 816 
Evallaria 831 
Evolvulus 1046 to 1054 
Exallosis 1048 
Exeria {Eria) 943 
Exioxylon 1055 
Exocroa 1037 
Eydisantheraa 902 

Ferraria 879 
Fimbrula 955 
Fissilia 1081 
Flavicoma 979 
Flugea 830 
Fraxima 1047 
Fritilaria 954 
Froscula 928 


Gamaria 943 
Gandarusa 968 
Gastrilia 1141 
Geobina (georchis)94^ 
Gerardia 995 
Gethylis 833 
Geunsia 971 
Globeris 831 
Gloxinia 998, 9 
Gong or a 920 
Gonokeros 1096 
Gomphipus 1024 
Goody era 911 
Granadilla 1121 
Gratiola 905, 6 
Gurenias 864 
Gynampsis 828 
Gynizodon 916 
Gynoisia 1018 

Haemanthus 834 to 37 
Haemodora 882 
Hamulia 1155 
Harrackia 988 
Haylockia 810 
Hebe 961 
Hecabe 929 
Hellenia 953 
Hemelosia 960 
Hemilasis 1016 
Heminema 1209 
Heroion 814 
Hexalepis 859 
Hexalectris 940 
Hexaplectris 1102 



Hexastylis 1113,1202 
Hirselina 908 
Hookeria 857 
Hygrophila 993 
Hypoestes 971* 

Ictodes 817 
Idalia 1025 
lebine 912 
Ifuon 815 
Ilkxia 1065 
llysanthes 965 
Ilytliuria 948 
Ipomea 1016 &c 
Ismene 847 
Isoloba 967 
Isonica 955 
Isoplesion 1057 
Isotria 938 
Isypus 1012 

Janasia 980 
Jensoa 908 
Jimensia 909 
Jonquilla 840 
Juncus ^^.7 
Justica 968 to 689 


Kadula 1070 
Kadurias 1073 
Kanopikon 1177 
Karaguata 860 
Kariiites 1184 
Katubala 950 
Kemopsis 1016 
Keraselma 1184 

Kethosia 1029 
Kolofonia 1013 
Kuniria 973 

Lacara 1001 
Lachnospermum 1199 
Larephes 1059 
Lasiake 1066 
Lathyris 1184 
Laticoma 813 
Latrienda 1040 
Leiena 891 
Leiosandra 1067 
Lentibularia 1150 
Lepadena 1176 
Lepiactis 1056 
Lepimenes 1075 
Leptandra 960 
Leucrinis 866 
Leucodermis 834 
Leucopsora 1094 
Libertia 807 
Lilavia 899 
Limodorum 908, 9 
Limosella 963, 4 
Liparis 941 
Liriamus 854 
Lizeron 1001 
Lobake 1038 
Lomalix 1016 
Lomelosia 1093 
Lomiptia 1014 
Loncotoma 968 
Lophiaris 917 
Lophobios 1187 
Lophoglotis 943 
Lunania 1208 



Lustrinia 976 

Macradenia 906 
Macrogyne 1119 
Macropliora 1125 
Malaxis941 to 43 
Maracoa 11*21 
Marama 975 
Maranta 9 14, 952 
Martynia 998 
Mascalanthiis 1191 
Mattuskkea 10G4 
Maxillaria 923, 3 
Mayanthemum 831, 

Meborea 1117 
Medusita 1171 
Megozipa 1162 
Meionica 955 
Meionula 1154 
Meioperis 1126 
Meiosperma 984 
Melanthium 865, 6 
Melascus 1036 
Melasis 1014 
Meloneura 1117 
Melorima 954 
Menephora 936 
Mesodoa 810 
Mesophores 963 
Mesteniphus 1101 
Microla 1051 
Microstylis 943 
Milhania 1004 
Modeca 1124 
Modesta 1021 


Monomesia 1064 
Monstera 831 
Morea 879,8^1 
Moskerion 843 
MunnicLia 12 >5 
Murtekias 1185 
Murucoa 1014 
Murucuia 1127 
Mutafinia 963 

Naucissides 838 to 853 
Narcissus 838 to 844, 

Nemampsis 826 
Nemanthera 1035 
Nemapiodon 846 
Nemepisia 1074,1223 
Nemitis 893 
Nemoctis 1044 
Nemostima 1043 
Neorthosis 1222 
Nepenthes > 1118 
Nepentiiides ^1119 
Nesipus 1158 
Nestronia 1145 
Nesynstylis 1215 
Nisomenes 1186 
Nolana J 1032 


Ocneron 1198 
Ocripha 1051 
Octomeria 926, 7 
Odicardis 956 
Odonectis 939 
Odostelma 1134 



Olax 1080 
Olsynium 878 
Omonoia 1201 
Oiicidiiim 915, 16 
Onkeripus 922 
Ophiopogon 830 
Ophiostachifs 866 
Ophrys 912 
Oplonia 987 
Orboiiica 955 
Orchides 901 to 943 
Ormostema 907 
ffrnithogalum 868 
Ornithospermum 1009 
Orontium 822, 3 
Orthosanthes 879 
Orxera 905 
OsmiiJaria 977 
Otosma 801 
Oximula 977 
Ozarthris 1078 

Pancratium 845 to 853 
Parieguia 897 
Panemata 984 
Panoxis 957 
Panstrepis 920 
Paplria 833 
Paralias 1182 
Paris 832 
Pasganon 896 
Passerina 1135 to 1140 
Passiflorea, Passi- 
floia 1120 to 1134 
Paussia 1139 
Pedilanthus 1189 
Pedilonum 928 

Peliosanthes 864 
Peltimela 964 
Pentake 1072 
Pentanthus 1001 
PeiNtanisia 1065 
Pentena 1097 
Penthysa 1061 
Pentulops 923 
Perama 1064 
Peremis 1129 
Perihcma 836 
Periexa 1043 
Pericodia 1134 
Periloba 1063 
Periphas 1054 
Personula 1164 
Phaianthus 881 
Phaiobleps 876 
Phadrosanthus 901 
Phalarsides 1167 
Pharides, Pharium 

Pharbitis 1007 
Philodendron 1219 
Phlebocarya 883 
Phylidrum 892 
Phylloma 827 
Piaropus 1204 
Pierardia 919 
Pinguicula 967 
Pistides 961 
Pistolochia 1107 
Pitcairnia 868 
Plagistra 1103 
Plectoma 1166 
Plectreca 1197 
Plectronema 809 



Plectrelminthus 921 
Plesiagopus 1028 
Pleuradena 1174 
Pleurastis 813 
Pleurospa 803 
Plexisa 1165 
Podaletra 1030 
Podonix 872 
Podospadix 821, 1218 
Pogadelpha 877 
Pogonema 809 
Fogonia 938 
Poinsctia 1174 
PorniiA 10G5 
Vontederia 1204 


Pothos817 to821, 

Praskoinon 874 
Priopetalon 898 
Pseudomelia 862 
Psophiza 1110 
Psydarantha 952 
Psychilis 914 
Psychopsis 915 
Pteriphis 1111 
Pterocephalus 1086 
Pulcolia 968 
Pullis 1016 
Pythiusa 1182 

Quamoclita 1014 
Queltia 1213 

Ramonda 1068 
Restio 886 to 891 

Rhagodia 1205 
Rhizemis 863 
Rhodoxylon 1033 
\Rhopiurn 1117 


Roslinia 989 
Rotheca lOOO 
Ruellia 990 to 95 
Rumputris 1077 
Rupifraga 1203 
Ruscus 864 

Sacodon 932 
Salacides 1117 
Samudra 1011 
Sanamunda 1135 
Sanilum 1003 
Sarcanthera 982 
Sarcoperis 1208 
Saurukidia 825 
Scabiosa 1084 to 1099 
Scadianus 855 
Scadiara 1001 
Scadoxus 835 
Scaduakintos 853 
Scanionea 1007 
Schenoprasutn 874 
Scopolia 1146 
Septilia 997 
Serena 837 
Sericosperma 1016 
SerratuJa 1200 
Sesamides 998 
Simira 868 
Siphisia 1112 
Siphonanthus 1064 



Siphotoma 851 
Siphostegia 1131 
Siphyalis 829 
Siraitos 865 
Sisvrinchiiim 876 to 

880, 897 
Sixalis 1095 
Skoinolon 866 
Smilacina 831 A217 
Sowerbea 894 
Sparaxis 895 
Spathyema 817 
Spermoxyron 1082 
Spiranthera 885 
Spironenrja 1079 
Spirospatha 802 
Spirostylis 949 
Staehelina 1192 to 99 
Static IDES 1065 
Steirexa 1116 
Steiroctis 1138 
Stenatithtim 866 
Stenopolen (Stenia) 

Stethoma 970 
Stevogtia 1002 
Stimegas 933 
Stonioisia 1153 
Stratidks 951 
Strepsanthera 818 
Streptylis 1207 
Strumaria 1215 
Stylexia 1202 
Stypandra 869 
Styrandra 831 
Stylisma 1050 
Succisa 1087 

Sulpitia 906 
Symethus 1049 
Sy mplocarpus 817 
Synactila 1130 
Synadena 805 
Synarmia 901, 951 
Synarthia 1083 
Synexemia 1191 

Tacsonia 1131 
Talanelis 1001 
Tamus 863 
Tapanava 820 
Taumastos 807 
Tephranthus 1117 
Tereietra 1221 
Tereiphas 1091 
Testuditiaria 863 
Thalia 948, 9 
Thapsus 1066 
Thicuania 937 
Thlasidia 1099 
Thunber-ia 996, 7 
Thyella 1051 
Tilcusta 823 
Tillandsia 859, 60 
Tirucalia 1172 
Tirtalia 1005 
Tomodon 850 
Torfasadis 1170 
Tragides 1167 
Traxara 1056 
Tremasperma 1220 
Tremastelma 1098 
Trichima 1043 
Trichopus 1116 
Triexastima 1206 



Triglochin 889 
Thillidia 832 
Trilobulina 1163 
Trimeiandra 1137 
Trimeriza 1115 
Trisacarpis 811 
Tristemon 887 
Trixapias 1161 
Troxistemon 853, 1214 
Troxula 1014 
Tulakenia 1200 
Tulexis 924 
Tulipa 872 
Tulocarpa 1182 
Tuloclinia 1196 
Tuloisia 1182 
Tulotropis 1014 
Tumelaia 1142 
Tumalis 1179 
Tupistra 824 
Turbina 1041 
Turpethum 1006 
Typhacea 825 

Upudalia 994 
Ur anther a 977 
Utricularia 1149 to 

Uvularia 867 

Vagnera 1217 
Vallaris 1180 
Vallisnerides 951 
Verbascum 1066, 68 
Veronicides 955 
Veronica 955 to 62 
Vesiculina 1159 
Viscum 1078 
Volkameria 1000 
Volutella 1079 

Xaiasme 1145 
Xamesike J 1181 
Xainobala ( 1181 
Xarakias 1182. 
Xaritonia 806 
Xerogona 1123 
Xetola 1092 
Xylobium 923 
Xyphidia 855, 894 
Xyphostylis 950 

Ygramela 963 
Ymnodia 845 

Zelmira 945 
Zephyranthes 809, 10 
Zingiber 953 
Zygopetalon 930 



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